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ANDBEW JACK$ON, 

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ornsijalTOVTm 

I . OP.THP 

DIVISION OF THE SOUTH. 



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BY sT PUTNAM W^LDO, Esq. 
pompikr of ^R9hkhuf Jbuf^" and Aotiior of tide 
'*Prendeiif9 Tour.** 



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DISTRICT OF C^llNECTICOTy SSL 

^' ^' Be rr remembered, That on the twenty-mnth day cf 
September, m the fort^-third year of the Independence <^ the 
United States of Amenca, John Russell, jun. ot the said dis^t, 
hath deposited in this office the titl^ of a Booli« the i^t whereoil 
he claims as proprietcnr, in ttemrords fi>Ilowin|^, to wit,— Memoirs 
of Andrew Jackson, Major-General in the .Ajrmy of the Umted 
States, and CommaBder in Chief of Ihe Divinon of the South* hf 
S. Putnam Waldo, Esq. Compiler of ** Robbins' Journal,'' and 
Author of the <<Preadent's Tour.** In confenntr to the act of 
Congress of the United States, entitled, ** An Act tor the encour- 
agetncnt of leamiiig', by securing the ccnpies of Mi^ Charts and 
Books, to the authors and propnetors of such copies, during the 
times therein mentioned.*' 

R. I. INGERSOLL^ 
Clerk of the JHekict of ComeetUm, 
A tiue copy of Recovd, examined and sesled by me^ 

R I. INGEl&OUU 
-Clerk of the IK^rictjfCotmecticta^ 






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'TO THE (XTFICERS AND SOLDIERS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN REPUBUC. 

GALLANT COUNTRYMEN >- 

WITH that frankness, which in your 
pn^BssioQ is a distingaishing characterestio, I offer 
this Volume to you, without apology. The fame 
of the exalted Chief, who is the subject of it, how- 
ever imperfectly his civil and milUary character 
may be pourtrayed, will, I am conEdent, entitle it 
to a favourable reception from you. 
With admiration/on 

yoitr gallant achievements^ 

T am your ObH. ServH. 

S. PUTNAM WALDO. 



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TO THE BEABEB. 

THE high estimation in which Maj. Gen. AndkevT 
Jack8on» is justly holden by his eoontrymen, was the in- 
ducemeist to present ^em wHlf Ihe feHov^ng Memoln of 
his Life. Ever since his naoie became identified with 
the glory of bis country, the author lias assiduously sought 
for the most autheutic information relative to his origin, 
and his progress from humble life to his present eleration. 

The fictfi relative to his parentage, his birth, education, 
^nd early pursuits, were derived from a Southern Corres- 
>pondent, v^Kiee tiieaos Of knowledge, entitles iiis oommu- 
QioatioaEi to the oharActer of absolute verity. 

Fromihe early entrapce of Gen. Jackson into public 
life, and from the laudable propensity of Americans to 
preserve, in the various periodical journals, detached Inci- 
dents of the lives of American Worthies, it needs only in- 
dustry and research to collate them. The nuamer in 
which they are arranged, and the style in which they are 
detailed, depends wholly upon the author. 

To give Additional interest to the volume, a oomborof 
Oen. Jackson-'s Official R<tports, and some selections 
from his pumerous Letters, and Addresses are inoorpora-* 
ted into the work. They not only give the most satis- 
factory account of the battles in which he fought, and the 
measures he pursued )tbut they show that he wields the 
pen of a Scholar, as well as the sword of a Soldier. 

Apologies for the defects of the work, cannot remove 
them, and will not be attempted. It is therefore submit- 
ted to the indulgence of the reader by, 

THE AUTHOR. 

Hartfoed, (Conn.) Oct. 1818. 



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CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Adoption of American Constitution-^-Pursaits of American»--Dim- 
inution of Military ardour— Declaration of War— MUiti*— Vol- 
uiiteei*— Regular Troops — ^Andrew Jackson. p. 9 

CHAP. I. 

Hia fionSyy bir(h» and early pursuits— Enters into the army of the 
Revolution — is captured by the British— resists an illegad ordef 
of a British officer-^receives-a wound, and is committeid to gaol 
—loses bis surviving brother — his mother dies of grief— he 
completes his literary studies. ^. 19 

CHAP. n. 

Incidents of early life— of Andrew Jackson's— He commences and 
competes the study of law— Patriotism of American Lawyers 
—He cmnmences the practice of law, and emigrates to the 
Sputh-West Territory — is appointed Attorney-general — mem- 
ber of the Tennessee Convention— a Representative in Con- 
gress—a Senator in Congress— a Judge of the Supreme Court 

. in Tennessee — and retires to private life. p. 31 

• CHAP. m. 
Mr. Jackson's career in civil life-'^<ommencement of his Military 
career — ^Major-general of Tennessee Militia — ^Militia forces — 
American savages— reason for their hatred and vengeance 
against Aq^o-Americans. Religious fimaticism among them — 
"nie Prophet Francis and his broUier Tecumseh— Efibct of their 
assumed divinity--Tender of Gen. Jackson, and his Volunteers 
to the government of the U. States. p. 40 

CHAP. tV. 
Gen. Jtekson and Tennenee VolunteerB— Importance of the river 
Ifissiuppi— Mr. Monroe's solicitude for the security of it, and 
the Western States — ^Volunteers rendezvouaat Nashville, Tenn. 
descend tiie Ohio and Ifissinppi — encamp at Natche>— Order 
for tb T discharge, from Mr. Armstrong-^-disobeyed by Gen. 
Jackson — ^Volunteers return to Tennessee^ and are discharged 
— Approbation of the government p. 51 

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Vi QONTElrtS. 

CHAP. V. 

^probation and censure of Cren. Jackson — ^impkeable hostiHty of 
savages increased by |lritish snd Sptuiii^ enussaries, and British 
ravages — ^Indian massacre of gamson, women and children, at 
Fort Mimms— Expedition from Tennessee against Creeks pre- 
pared-— Gen. Jackson assuincstlie command! — Colonel Coffee — 
difference between Militia, Yolnnteers, and Regular troops- 
Gen. Jackson proceeds to the frontiers— prepares for active 
service — Deficiency of proviaons— Coli Dyer destroys ZtMa- 
fviche9 — ^First victoiy over Creeks at TaUuBhaichet — Gen. Cof- 
fbe's report of it to Gen. Jackson. p. 59 

CHAP. VI. , 

Tennessee forces— Collisions in anqies— Establishment at Fort 
Strother — Perilous situation of friendly Creeks — Dispatch to 
Gfen. White— his conduct— Battle of TaSadega^Gen. Jackson^s 
account of it. p. 76 

CHAP. VHr 

Coidequences of Brig. Gen. White's conduct — MBabees sue for 
peace to Gen. Jackson— Gen. White destroys their towns — 
Measures of the Georgia Legislature— -Victoiy at Ataousee — 
Brig. Gen. floyd's aceount of ft'-Xacn. Jackson's situation in 
December, 181S—Mutiny among^ his troops^^dso in Gen. Cof- 
fee's Brigade— Disnrissal of bol£. p. 85 

CHAP. vm. 

Gen. Jackson's atuation at tiie commencement of 1814 — ^his hopes 
revive — ^Victory at Eccanacfmcoj or Holy Ground — ^Witherfor^, 
the Indian Prophet — CoL Carroll joins Gen. Jackson — ^Victories 
At Emuch/aw, Jan. 22d — ^at Enotachopco, the 24th — Gen. Jack- 
son's ofiicial repoii; c^tiiem — ^Applause bestowed upon sdidiers. 

p. 97 
CHAP. K. 

Gen, Jackson prepares for a new expedition— receives an account 
of the victory at Chatt^umchee-^SLdoptR a new mode to obtain 
supplies— Army Contractors— Energetic measures — Great vic- 
tory at'7VAo^Aso— Savage warfare— British and Spanish emis- 
saries. j, . ■ - p. 118 

CHAP. X. 

Conclusion of Creek War— Return of Gen. Jackson and Volunteers 
— tbeir reception, and separation— Gen. Jackson is appointed 
Brig. Gen in U. S. aiTny— also a Commissioner to treat with 
Creek Indians— concludes a treaty— Foreign emissaries — ^Indian 
Eloquence— Speech of Witherford— of Big Warrior— of Tecum- 
seh, and his death. p. 131 



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C03RT£NT%» VII 

CHAP. XL 

Spasufth ag g re sa wms and peifidy'.43en. Jackson^ laeaiurea to de- 
ted Biumquec, the Cky^eitioi^ of FknicbiP-his letter to lum— 
Danger i^ the ftfet lfilitafX4dirtrict^--6en. Jwkmtk's appeal to 
the ^o^^Ttmten^^ybt^ Momi>e% weasiRea of dcieiice^-Attack 
upon 'Foit Bowye^— gallatrt defence of Major Lawrence^his 
tyflldal ret'^irt of it. p. 148 

CHAP. xn. 

Gen. Jackson ia appointed Maj. Gen. » V. S. ariny-Fort Bowyef*- 
its importMice, s^ its danger^Qen. Jackson detenmnes to re- 
duce Fensaoolaw..ArriTal of Gen. Coffee with Tennesaee Volun- 
teers and, Miaainppi Dragoons— Capture of Penaacola— Gen. 
Jackson's account of it— Deatruction c« tfaeBuancas— He returns 
to Mobile— Col. Nicoll's proclamation— Remark. p. 166 

CHAP. XIU. 
Gen. Jackson's arrival at New Orleans— perilous situation of that 
place-^HPeUance upon distant forces — ^his address to the people 
of Ltmisianar-tiinif^'of the legislature^-evidenee of disttfieotiony 
and tndfterouB eonduct— DeohuatioA of Martial LaW'*^lfea8ures 
©f defence— Aniyal of renalfercements— Landing of the enemy 
— Battie ef the 23d. Deoe«rf>er^-Offidal report of it. p. 180 ' 

CHAP. XIV. 

Benevolent exei*tions of the Ladies of ^ New Qrlean&-*^en. Jack- 
son selects the final position of his army— Loss of the naval force 
— Capt. Patterson^-^eut. Jones— Harmony between land and 
navalfbrces' — ^Defence at the month of the MisKiippi— >ABieri. 
, can lines on the east and west nde of the river described— Bat- 
tle cf the 28th December— of tiie Ist Januaty— Attempts up- 
ontlie left wing of the American army. p. 199 

CHAP. XV. 

Gen Jackson's and Sir Edward Pakenham's armies from the 1st, 
to 8th January — Gen. Mox^^'s lines-^BatUe o£ the 8th Janua- 
ry — Gen. Jackson's report of it — Gen. Morgan's retreat — ^Geh, 
Jackson's address to-^ armies— he regains die right Wk of 
the ^ssisippi— Bombardment, and attack upon JRort St. PMlips 
— Maj. Overton's report to Gen. Jackson. .- ' p. 213 

CHAP. XVL 

Situatio%of the armies after the battle of the Sth Januaiy — Mel- 
ancholy and distressing scene — Operations at the mouth of the 
Missi^ppi — Departure of the enemy — Gen. Jackson's address 
to the American troops— Disparity in the loss of the two armies. 

p. 235 



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VUl /CONTENTS. 

CHAP. XVU. 
Gen. Jackson appoints a d^ of Thaiiksgpivix^ and Pnise, for the 
Victories gbtuned, and ror tlie preservation of the dty, upon 
the 23d January-— Doct Dubourg's address— the genml's an- 
swer— -continues his exertions to render the. country more se- 
cure-— Surrender of Fort Bowver-^Peace' proclaimed— Dis- 
charge of troops — Gen. Jackson's address to them-— Remark. 

p. 245 
CHAP. xvin. 

Recapitulation of &cts relative to the proclamation of Martial 
Law» writ of habecu corptu^ LmmlUer, and Judge Hall — ^Arrest 
of Gen. Jackson— liis defence, conviction, and fine—* Trial by 
jury — ^Popular feeling— Moderation of Gen- Jack8on-4ie advises 
to a sacred regard for civil power. p. 257 

CHAP. XIX. 

Gen. Jackson retires from New Orleans— arrives at Nashville, his 
place of reffidence — Reflection — He receives a messsu^'e to re- 
pair to the seat di government, to asast in arrai^(ing the Peace 
Establislunent of the U. S. army — Difficulty of that <£ity — ^Votes 
of thanks, &c. to Gen. Jackson— He repairs to tiie seat of gov- 
ernment— Civihties received upon his pas%upe, and on his arri- 
val— Returns to his head-quarters at NashviSe, and in 1816, re- 
pairs to New Orieans, and arranges the army. • p* 271 

CHAP, xx; 

GenC Jackson negx>ciates a treatr for extinguishment of Indi«i 
titles to land — Issues an order relative to this subject — ^Receives 
a silver vase from the Laclies of South Carolina, &c.— 'Betums 
to Nashville— Issues an important general ordeiv-Prepares to 
defend his Divisiois-^ommencement of Seminole War — Gen. 
Gaines attacks the Seminoks— Gen. Jackson addresaea the 
«* Tennessee Volunteers" — repairs to Georgia— and enters with 
his army into Florida— Justification of that measure— he cap- 
tures St Marks. p. 283 

CHAP. XXI. 

General Jackson at Fort St. Marks, Florid*— capttues and exe- 
cutes Francis the Prophet, and an Indian Chief— at tlie same 
place, takes Arbuthnot and Ambristie— details a general Court- 
martial for their trial— s^proves of the sentence and orders 
them to be executed — Remark— Gen. Jackson marches for Pen- 
sacok— captures it— appoints Col. King to the command <^ it, 
and retires to Nashville, Teifn. « p." 301 

CONCLUSION, 

Incidents of Gen. Jackson's life— his charscter; p. 307 



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INTRODUCTION. 

4ulo|itian ci Ateenean CaiistiUitioa-.-fiiniiitBi of AmtBnicam^ 
Xliniinatum of MQitaiy sgrdour— Dec&mitiQii of War-f Ififitit-* 
Voluiiteen^-Regalar Troop«---A]i(irew Jackson. 

FROM the eoaclusioh of the War for Ameri- 
can Independence, to the commencemept of that 
war which secured it, the Americans were almost 
wholly diverted from the study of military tactics, 
and »o op|pcH*tt!tnity had occurred to call into ope- 
imlion the military science acquired in the revolu- 
tioqary struggle. The mild arts of peace were sub- 
stituted for the ruthlees carnage of war ; and a 
rising people, who had severed tiie ligament that 
hoand them to an European monarch, commenced 
the enjoyment of self-government. 

To organize a Republic, consisting of a confed- 
eracy of a number of distinct governments, having 
different, and in some respects contending interests, 
was a tasl^ which required, and calied forth the 
aeienee and the energies of the first statesmen which 
the world h^ produced. 

' Upcm the conclusion of that war, the people of 
the American Republic, as it regarded a form of 
gov^nment, were ♦* in a stmte of nature.^* Des- 
titute of a government of their own making, 
they had before them tlie lights of antiquity, and 



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10 INTRODUCTION. 

the practical knowledge of modern ages. WHfa 
the scrutinizing research of statesmen, and the 
calm deliberation of philosophers, they proceeded 
to establish a constitution of Civil Government, as 
the supreme law of the land. The establishment 
*of this constitution is, perhaps, without a parallel 
in the history of the civilized world. It was not 
the unresisted loaudate of a successful usurper, nor 
was it a government imposed upon the people by 
a victorious army. It was digested by profound 
statesmen, who aimed to secure all the rights of 
the people who had acquired them, by their toil, 
their courage, and their patriotism. They aimed 
also to give to the government, sufEcient energy to 
command respect. 

To thepecple of the American Republic, a Con- 
stitution was presented for fWr deliberation, and 
for their adoption. It was adopted, not with en- 
tire unanimity, but by a majority of the people, 
sufficiently respectable to give its^ operation a 
promisiog commencement. The people, having 
emancipated themselves from the power of. a 
British monarch— having successfully resisted his 
lords and his commons, looked with jealousy upon 
those who were called to the exercise of the pow- 
er which they had themselves delegated to their 
own countrymen. The excelleucy of the consti- 
tution was tested' by the practical application 
of its principles; and the patriotism and integrity 



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UITRODUCTION* 11 

of . all the early officers who derived their power 
fiom it, were acknowledged by their admiring 
coantrymen. 

The people, having witnessed the establishment 
of a republican government, of their own choice, 
relapsed from the energetic character of republican 
soMiers, to the more gentle ones of agriculturalists, 
merchants, and mechanics. 

Jgricuttur€Uists found a capacious field for the 
exercise of their pursuits in the widely extended 
and fertile regions of the Republic. Land specu- 
lation became the business of the few, who had 
adequate funds, and the conversion of the wilder- 
ness into fertile fields, the pursuits of those who 
had inddstry and enterprise. 

The Merchants found a world before them as the 
theatre upon which their energies were to be ex- 
erted. Enjoying peace with all nations, while 
other nations were contending with each other for 
dominion or wealth, the merchants of the Repub- 
lic became the carriers for the commercial world.^ 
Into their employ they drew thousands of their 
countrymen, and soon rendered the American 
States the second nation in the world, in poiif^ of 
commercial consequence. 

Manufacturers began to struggle for the rank 
which they hold in many of the countries in the 
old world. It was long an ineffectual struggle-— 
But as the ^ restrict m system^* was deemed ncpes- 



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13 urTftODircriov. 

Mrjr ft-oin the unoeairDg enoroadlaiflits of Euirope- 
tn govetniseats upon the ooalnereial rights of 
America, they rapidly advanced in wealtfcf and gare 
impioy t6 a numerous claen of Vixens. 

These three gtwX olsgects of paraalf , emfafaced 
the whole American peoj^ if we except those of 
the learned professions* These empbynents were 
all calculated to divert attention froib military tac* 
tics, and to confine it rather to the aetuvnllation of 
wealth, thati to the ndvincenent of oatidoal glory, 
by military achievements. In addition to this, tiie 
very ntture 6f the American Ckxistitation, was 
calcutated to repress military ardour, being more 
ealcQiated to make happy cUisSem^ than renowned 
soldiers. The surviving patriots of the revolution 
were following ewA other in rapid succession to the 
tomb^ and the risihg youth of America were sel- 
dom aroused to patridtism by the tales of the |«to- 
lutionary contest. 

Sodden wealth w4s the reilult of the exertions of 
thediffcreat classes of Americans* The voluptok 
ousness and effeminacy, usually attendants upon 
the possession of it, were rapidly dtminishiBg that 
ej^l||d sense of national glory, for which the Sax^ 
onsy the ancient stock from which Americans 
and Englishmen trace their origin, were always 
celebrated* . ^ :. . • 

As the collisions between the American Repnb- 
Hc, and the British empirci bii^an to assume ais 



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INTRODUCTION. 13 

hostile aspect, Irequent negociatims were comHien- 
ced, and as often terminated in widening the breach 
between the two governments. 

The murder of Fierce^ by ordfr of a British naval 
officer, although, from the tranquilized, and almost 
paralized state of public feeling, it did not excite 
the same indignation as the massacre of Boston 
citizens, by British troops, l^efore the revolutionary 
war, yet it was no less an outrage upon humanity 
and national dignity, than that barbarous deed. 

The constant impressment of American seamen, 
although in its character a less sanguinary violation 
of national and individual rights, was a more wide* 
ly extended injury. «' The social body is oppressed, 
when one of its members is oppressed." That 
nation can hardly be said to be independent, who 
will acquiesce in an. injury committed upon one of 
its citizens by anothern^tion. It was an aphorism 
of the great Hollander, De Witt — " That no inde- 
pendent nation ought tatnely to mbmit. to a breach 
of equity and justice^ from another^ however vne- 
gnal the povaersJ*'^ Although an injury to indi- 
vidualSi is an injury to the nation; yet, in the attack 
upon the Chesapeake, 2in&Xion^l vessel, the riatiopal 
dignity was directly insulted. To impr^s seamen 
from an U. S. frigate, belonging to an ]nfant4iav^, 
whose gallantry in the Mediterranean, had excited 
the admiration, and even the jealousy of Njelson, 
• History of Holland. ' , 



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14 ' INTRODUCTION. 

produced a ferment in the American Republic 
which could never subside nntil ample reparation 
was obtained* 

The orders in Council— -new and unauthorised 
principles of blockade^ and an invasion of the rights 
of neutraUi added to the other injuries mentioned, 
and to which might be added many more, compel- 
led the great council of the Republic to resort to 
measures more efficient than non-intercourse^ embar- 
goe%j and ntgodations. 

Facts will justify the assertion, that upon the 
momentous question whether War or Submission 
should be resorted to by America, the American 
people were divided in opinion ; and this division 
of opinion was asisertainedby a knowledge of the 
two great political parties in the Republic. The 
Republican party exclaimed, with an aucient Ro- 
man, " Our imce is still for War.** The Federal 
party, with another Roman, exclaimed, » Our 
thoughts^ we must confess^ are turned to Peace.** 

The justice, necessity, or expediency of the se- 
cond, war between the American Republic and the 
Kingdom of Great Britain, cannot be discussed in 
thi^ place ; and it might be deemed arrogance 
to atteffi)pl^it at all, at this period of time. The 
.4(bthorities who alone had power «< to declare War^** 
made the declaration ; and to the American people 
were they responsible for the great and important 
measure. 



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INTRODVCTION* 11^ 

It may not be inapposite to remark ia this place, 
that a systematic opposition . to govenunent is un- 
known in every part of the civilized world, except- 
ing in America and in England. This does not 
arise from any deficiency of national feeling ; for 
no two nations on earth are more devoted to na- 
tional glory than Americans and Englishmen ; but 
it arises from that jealousy which intelligence and 
an exalted sense of liberty always produce in the 
governed towards their gooemours. Having one 
common origin, but no longer any common Inter- 
est, let the citizens of the American Republic, and 
the subjects of the British j^oparch, judge for 
themselves which government most consults the 
happiness of the people, and upon which side of 
the Atlantic the greatest freedom is enjoyed. 

Until the declaration of the last war, the energy 
of the American constitution had never been test- 
ed. Under its benign influence the people had 
suddenly arisen, from infancy to manhood-— from 
vassalage to freedom — from national penury to 
national wealth. Its provisions were found abun- 
dantly .adequate for the government of a great 
and growing people in a state of peace. The 
jealousy or thejfearsof the framers of this "inim- 
itable compact, had restricted the military pow- 
er. It permitted the Captain-general of the 
militia of the United States, after proper advice 
to*caIl them into action, to ^^ execute the laios of 



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16 INTRODUCTION. 

the wdonr^suppress insurrections^^aiid repel inbar 
sions;^^ audeven this limited power became the sub- 
ject of animated discussion. 

At the commencement of the war, we had no- 
thing that gave any idea of a Standing Army. 
Six thousand troops dispersed over a country, 
half that number of miles in length and in width, 
presented nothing but a fractured skeleton of an arr 
ray. The American militia^ although perhaps the 
best in the world, were organized by the different 
states ; from the difierent state governments deri- 
ved their authority, and had different attachments 
and different interests. An hundred thousand of 
them were drafted by the national authority to hold 
themselves, in readiness to take the field at a mo- 
ment's warning. But the history of modern tactics 
shows that the trade of war is not learned in a mo- 
ment. Fifty thousand Volunteers were invited to 
enrol themselves for the public defence ; but the 
amount and efficiency of this species of force de^ 
pe*^ded uj)on the opinion of the people in regard ta 
the justice of the war, and of the rectitude of the 
administration. Enlistments^ from which alone an 
efficient army, for any considerable length of time 
can be produced, were authorised. In some sec- 
tions of the country, the best blood In them was 
aroused to patriotism, and the most distinguished 
citizens flew to the standard of the Republic. lu 
others, it was considered a disgrace to aid, either 



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INTRODUCTION. 17 

by men or money ^ what was openly pronounced to 
be an " unjust y unnatural^ xdckedy and cruel war*'* 

From such discordant metertals, was the Ameri- 
can army of 1813, and 1813, composed. Although 
the melancholy catalogue of disasters in the cam- 
paigns of those years, was occasionally gilded by 
achievements of resplendent glory s yet, until the 
commencement of the campaign of 1814, the Ame- 
rican armies had added but few laurels to those 
acquired in the war of the revoluticm. A new iera 
in the military history of America then commenced. 
As the gathering storm, w4ich had, for two years, 
hung over what was deemed in Europe the devoted 
Republic of America, increased in darkness and 
horror, the character of the rising generation* of 
Americans developed itself. A constellation of 
heroes suddenly arose and illuminated the hemis- 
phere of the western world. They conquered gen- 
erals who had become familiar with victory in the 
old world — secured for their country the indepen- 
dence acquired in the revolution, and for them- 
selves, fame, as lasting as immoytality. 

Major General ANDREW /AbKSON, the sub- 
ject of the following Memoirs, deservedly holds a 
distinguished rank amongst the veteran officers of 
the American Republic, in the last war. But while 
almost every American is anxious to join his indi- 
vidual note, to the harmonious concord of applause 
bestowed upon this distinguished chieftain, few 
2<> 



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18 INTRODUCTION. 

know the arduous toils, the severe privations, and 
the excessive fatigues, by which he acquired his 
iajne. The writer will endeavour, in a manner as 
perspicuous as he is able, to do it ; and from mate* 
rials of unquestionable authenticity, to present the 
reader, in the following volume, a brief Biography 
of this American Hero* If the delineations will 
not be so minute as they might be in a more volu- 
minous work, it is hoped the prominent features of 
this great man's life and character, in his civil and 
military career, will be jiresented in their proper 
light and shade. ^ 



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MEMOIRS 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



Bis family, birdie and early pursuits-^Enters into the army of the 
BevQhi^n^ia captured by th^ritiah — breasts an iUegtd order 
of a British officer— receives^wound, and is committed to 
goal — Closes his surviving brother-^his mother dies of grief— he 
completes his Uteraiy studies. 

THE birth places of statesmen, heroes, and 
poets, have often been subjects of historical investb' 
gation, and not unfrequently of warm dispute. 
Seven cities of Greece claimed the honor of giving 
birth to Homer. The birth of illustrious men certain- 
ly imparts a consequence to the places of their na- 
tivity; and oftentimes the only consequence they 
possess. An English civilian will visit the birth- 
place of Alfreb— the soldier tha^f M arlaoi(iou6h- 
thejf>o^ those of Shakespeare and Milton. Amer- 
icans, although comparatively a new people, can 
scarcely travel in any section of their extensive Re^ 
public, but they can point to the place where some 
of its great benefactors were born. The catalogue 
. would swell the volume. Among the first Statesmen 
in the world, might be mentioned the members of the^ 



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ZQ MEMOIRS OF 

Old Congress— Among Heroes^ the officers of the 
Army of the Revolution. — Among PoetSy a oon- 
stellatioa of geniuses, to whom posterity will award 
the meed of praise. 

No sooner had ANDREW JACKSON began to 
achieve those deeds of valour which furnished a 
sure presage of future eminence, than Englishmen^ 
and Scotsmen^ claimed him as a native-born siibject. 
They once claimed Gen. Washington. Irishmen 
omitted to assert their claim to his nativity ; but he 
was of Irish extraction although born in America. 
His grandfather was ,(fne of the victims at the 
siege of CarrickfergttSi in Ireland ; and all his an- 
cestors, being among the humbler classes of Irish- 
men, endured the sufferings which that ill-fated and 
oppressed people have long endured from some of 
the Irish nobility^ born in the hosoni of that coun- 
try ; and from English noblemen sent there to gov- 
ern them. 

His father, Andrew Jackson, emigrated to Amer- 
ica with his wife and two sons in the year 1765* 
Desirous that I^ rising family should escape 
from tne oppression of fhe English government in 
Europe, he came to this country as an asylum from 
the rod of abused power. He landed at Charleston 
in the state of South-Carolina, and soon after estab- 
lished, himself at a settlement formerly called Wax- 
saifff now the district of Marion. 

His youngest son, and the subject of these Me- 
moirs, was born at that place upon the 15th March^ 



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ANDREW JACKSON. Si 

1767. He began to anticipate a happy close to the 
evening of his days, in hiis own domestic circle, 
in a land of freedom. But before the British gov- 
ernment commenced the same system:atic oppres- 
sion of their subjects in their American colonies, 
as they long had exercised over its subjects in 
Irelandy death removed him from the storm, which 
soon after began to hang over them. He left an 
unprotected wife and three young children to en- 
dure the buffetings of it. He died at near the close 
of the year 1767. 

His surviving children, Ihtgh^ Robert^ and An- 
dreiOi became the objects of the tender solicitude 
of their mother. Having a small patrimony left 
them, their mother with unceasing assiduity, en- 
deavoured to procure for them the rudiments of 
an English education. Situated in a country 
where she could claim connection with no human 
being but her three sons ; the eldest but little ad- 
vanced from infancy, and the youngest an infant, 
her situation required the highest e;i[ercise of fe- 
male fortitude and vigilance. But having recent- 
ly emigrated from a country where the feio roll in 
splendour through life, and the mant/ begin and end 
it amidst suffer ings, she felt animated at the idea 
that she was in a country where the rod of the great, 
or what is worse, the rod of the petty tyrant could 
not reach her or her offspring. 

For a number of years, no event happened to 
disturb the tranquility of this venerable matron or 



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82 MEMOIRS Oi* 

ber children. By the judicious management of a 
small estate, she was enabled to aid her sons in the 
furosecution of their studieai. She omitted no oppor- 
tunity to detail to them the tragical scenes through 
which their early ancestors had passed in Ireland, 
in the stubborn resistance they always maintained 
against oppression. The youthful reader of AtstO' 
ry, may be made to glow with indignation at the 
tales of oppression. But the most pathetic des- 
cription of the historian is tameness itself when 
compared with the relations of tfadse who have 
themselves passed through the scenes of sufferings 
inflicted by dying man upon dying men. The nar^ 
rations of Mrs. Jackson« must have aroused the 
feelings of her suns to the highest pitch of enthu^ 
siasm against the tyrants *who had blasted the 
hopes, and destroyed the lives of their ancestors. 
She Utile thought, perhaps, while she was infusing 
into the tender bosoms of her sons the ardour of 
patriotism, that she would live to see two of theut 
fall vic^tims in its holy cause. 

Hugh and Robert^ not being designed Tor either 
of the learned professions, obtained no other edu- 
cation than what the common schools at that pe- 
riod afforded. Andrew, the youngest son, was, by 
his excellent motlier, designed £c>r the ministry. In 
the Waxsau) settlement, about forty miles from 
Camden, was established an ac^demica^ institution, 
in which the learned language^i, aud^he higher 
branches of education were tayght. "^ As the in- 



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ANDR&W JACKSON. 3S 

«rtructof of Andrew Jackson, if he be at tliis time 
in life, will rejoice in the celebrity of his pupil, it 
is but justice to remark that this academy, at the 
time he commenced his literary pursuits, afforded 
the best means of instruction in the section of the 
country in which he was born. The preceptor of 
it was a Mr. J?2/m/»AnV^, whose christian name is 
nnknown to the Writer. Under his tuition, the 
subject of these memoirs, having before enjoyed 
no other advantagies than what the ordinary schools 
imparted^ began the study of classics. Be here 
continued assiduously to pursue his studies, until 
the Vandal progress of the British armies, in the 
revolutionary war, brought them to that part of 
South Carolina in which the family of Jackson 
were situated. 

Mrs. Jackson once more beheld the arm of Brit- 
ish power uplifted in wrath over her adopted coun- 
try, as she had before beheld it raised oj^t the land 
of h^ nativity. The American forc^ were com- 
pelled, in that section of the country, to retreat be- 
fore a power which they could not then resist. Her 
eldest son had before enrolled himself in the armies 
of the Republic, and lost his life in its cause at the 
battle of Stono. Andbew had arrived to the age of 
fourteen years ; and,, with his surviving brother 
Robert, was impelled, by the exalted sentiments of 
liberty and independence which he had learned 
from his mother, t^ fly to the American standard. 



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34 MEMOIRS OF 

The scanty details which are yet received of the 
revolutionary contest, deprives me of the pleasure 
of mentioning the regiment and the commander of 
it, in which Andrew Jackson commenced his mili- 
tary career at the early age of fourteen. Suffice it 
to say, that at that age, with his only brother, Rob- 
ert, he entered into the American service ; prepar- 
ed, if such were the decrees of fate, to follow their 
elder brother into eternity in resisting tyrannical 
power. Effectual resistance, at that period, was 
impossible ; and the slender forces of America, in 
S. Carolina, were compelled to retire . before the 
formidable power of lord Comrnallis into the inte- 
rior of N* Carolina. This confident representative 
of British power, finding no force at ^Aa^ ^em^ to 
resist him, left the country — leaving behind him 
the wide- spread tracks of desolation in every part 
of it. The once tranquil and happy settlers of 
Waxsaw returned to a place which was once a 
home. The deep marks of British rapacily-isrere 
visiole in every part of the settlement; and the 
effects of Vandal warfare were every where to be 
seen. 

Lord Rowden was in possession of Camden^ and 
no sooner learned that the dispersed inhabitants of 
IVaxsaw wtve again returned^ than he availed him- 
self of the assistance of American tories to complete 
their extermination. A British major, by the name 
of Coffin, was the commander of this expeditipn. 
The inhabitants, who might all be said to belong to 



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ANDaSW JACKSON. 95 

tbfi forlorn hope^ determined to niate at least a 
abew of leslstaiiGC. They assianbled at the Wax* 
^aw meetiog-lioasey to which was attached the aca^ 
demy %{ Mr* Hamphries, in which Aadrew Jack- 
aoa bad devoted himself to Uteniture. Here they 
awaited the augmeiitatioti of their force by the ar- 
rival of their friends^ und the expeeted approach of 
the eoemy* The hojp^ of ihis resolute and patriot" 
ic band of Ami^icaa heroes were elated atrtl^ dis* 
tant approach of a body of citizens* At this pe* 
i^iod» tt)te AmerieStn tro<^a could hardly be said to 
have had an uniform ; but the well known insignia 
of the British troops enabled the people to designate 
them at sight. While the little phalanx of Wttx- 
^Wf expected to be joined by their {jrieatts» what 
was their astonishment when they found themselves 
surrounded by a ferocious clan of American tories, 
WYered at a little distance by British dragoons ? 
The conquest was an easy one-r*-resistance would 

have been desperation. — Eleven of the Americans 
were captured^ and the rest, among whom were An* 
drew Jackson and his brother, escaped, and conceal- 
ed themselves in the adjoining forests. 

. Although this is no place for reflections, yet no 

opportunity should Ije unimproved to express the 

ineffable contempt and utter detestation in which 

the tories, in the revolutionary strugglCj ought for 

ever to be holden. Had they raisfely joined the 

Biritis|^ standard through fear of its power, they 

might at least have been entitled to contemptuous 
3 



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26 MEMOIRS OF 

pity ; but when it is remeffibered that they imbru* 
ed their hands in the blood of their brethren, it 
would be a prostitution of charity to extend it to 
them. 

The next day after this affair at the IVaxsaw 
church, many of the wandering heroes who escap* 
ed Irdm it, were captured by the British dragoons ; 
and^amcmg them were Andrew Jackson, and his 
brother Robert. Immediately after they were 
taken prisoners, an event took place which devel- 
oped the future character of Jackson ; and shewed, 
that though a boy, he gave the world << assurance 
of the man." A British officer, having in pursuit 
of prisoners soiled his boots, ordered him to clean 
them Flushed with indignation at the command, 
he decidedly refused to obey, and demanded the 
treat meut due to a prisoner of war. Enraged at 
what would have excited the admiration of a 
generous bosom, the officer, with a drawn sword, 
made a violent pass at Jackson's head. Desti- 
tute of any weapon of defence, he parried the 
stroke with his hand, in which he received a se- 
vere wound. Thus early in life did Jackson be- 
come a soldier af the Republic and an unalterable 
enemy of Britain. It will be seen in the sequel 
how essentially he has served the one, and how 
completely he has avenged the injuries he receiv- 
ed from the other. 

The gallant Jackson forgot the wound he receiv- 
ed himself in his solicitude for his brother, who re- 



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andhew JACKSON* 2t 

ceived at the same time a much severer one in the 
head after he was taken prisoner. They were 
both committed to'gaol with their wounds undres- 
sed ; and, what would sufFusc the cheek of a barba- 
rian with a blush, they were deprived of the only 
consolation that remained — that of sympathising 
with, and consoling each in their calamities — they 
were confined in different apartments ! They were 
here incarcerated until exchanged for British pris- 
oners, a few of whom were taken near Camden. 
The exchange of these gallant youths was a pre- 
sage to one of them to exchange worlds. The 
wound of Robert proved mortal ; not so much from 
its original severity, as from the barbardus neglect 
of it while in prison. It occasioned an inflamma- 
tion in the brain ; and very soon after he obtained 
his freedom, death relieved him from one of the 
greatest calamities incident to man* The venera- 
ble mother, having laboured incessantly for the re- 
lief of the American prisoners — having seen her 
prospects of temporal happiness totally blighted — 
disconsolate and broken hearted, she soon followed 
her second son into eternity. She died near Char- 
leston, & C. 

Andrew Jackson, now a: youth of fifteen, found 
himself alone in the world. With no being in the 
country in which he was borni could he claim affin- 
ity or relationship. His constitution was impaired 
by recent toil, and cruel imprisonment. The an- 
guish he felt at the fete of his whole family, must 



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38 MEMOIRS OF. 

bav€ been excruciating in tfae extreme. Tom ake 
the full cup of human calamity overflow, he wai vio- 
lently seized with the small pox, which brought 
him to the rery jaws of death, and he narrowly 
escaped the grave to which all his family had been 
consigned. 

The estate of his father was now in his sole pos* 
session. Although not large, it was suflGicient, with 
that careful attention, and prudent calculation 
which a man of mere mqnied business always un- 
derstands, to have enabled him to complete his 
education, and to have had a competency remain- 
ing. But Andreio Jackson was not born lor the coun- 
ting TQ64k ; and never thought of those day-book 
and ledger calculations which are within the reach 
of the most moderate capacity ; but which often, 
and almost invariably divert the mind from the no- 
bler pursuits of literary reputation and military 
fame. These had now become his objects. If he 
had had a discreet steward to manage his estate, it 
would have been a pecuniary advantage unquestion- 
ably ; but in Ms hands^ it was a sort of incumlK'ance 
upon his mind : and until it was removed, operated 
as a check upon itis excursions* At this period of 
his iife,^ he thought little of that independence, in 
regard to money, which the younger Ly ttleton em- 
phatically pronounces " the rock of life." With a 
profusion at which prudence would frown, and at 
which genius would smile, he reduced himself to ^ 
a situation which compelled him to become*— 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 29 

** ^visque^sttxBfortxmodfaber^^ — (in every situation, 
the builder of his own fortune.) 

At about sixteen years of age, he returned to his 
literary pursuits ; making them however, as it 
would seem from his subsequent course, secondary 
to his paramount desire for a military life. His 
second instructor was a Mr. M'Cullock. With 
him he renewed the study of the languages^ and 
other studies preparatory to his entrance at an uni- 
versity. His attention was by no means confined 
to the mere prescribed duty enjoined by his pre- 
ceptor. He was not one of those unambitious 
pupils who concluded that enough was done when 
his lesson was committed to memory ; and that he 
wasa linguist and a mathematician, because he could 
distinguish between a dactyl and a spondee — be- 
tween a single and ^double equation. . His studies 
were as diversified as the suggestions of his inclina- 
tion ; and he ventured to explore those regions of 
literature to which his native genius pointed out 
the avenues. Such a course of study would never 
have made him a popular tutor iu an university ; 
but it was calculated to make him a general^ if not 
dL particular scholar. He continued his literary 
pursuits* until he arrived to the age of eighteen. 
Finding his patrimony diminished, from expendi- 
tures of it, he relinquished his intentions of. enter- 
ing an university. At the same tiaie he relinquished 
his intentions, if he ever had any, of entering into 
« holy orders.'* It was the wish of his deceased 

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30 MEMOIRS or 

motker that he ni^ght become at minister of the 
gospel ; but he was fiiUy aware that if he had been 
consecrated to that sacred professioii, it would have 
rendered it inooinpatible with his duties, to avenge, 
with his swordi the injuries he and his faniily had 
sustained from it. Andrew Jackson was brought 
into existence to discharge other duties than those 
which belong to the sacred profession ; and al« 
though the church may regret that he had not 
brought Ills splendid talents into its divine seryice • 
the state and the army may both acknowledge the 
5)ervices he has rendered them, not only with grati* 
tude^ but with admiration. 



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ANDREW JACK90N. 31 



CBAPTER n. 

fincadents of eaitf Bfe—«f Andrew Jackfon'^^He c(»m»eiiees and 

• cmpletesthe 8ta(fy of kw-*Patriotl8ra of American laii^ 

He commences the practice of Jaw, and enugrates to the South- 
West Territory«*-is «pp<nnted Attorney-general— >member of 
the Tennessee Gonyention-*^ Bepreaentative in Congress— « 
SenatorinCongress— -a Judge ofthe Supreme Court in Ten* 

• nessee—'and retires to private life. 

IN the preceding chapter, thre eader has beea 
made acquainted with the origin of Andrew Jack- 
son—his early pursuits, and the most interesting 
incidents of his juvenile years* It has been fre- 
quently remarked^ and always with trulh, that those 
who have distinguished tfacaDlselves iii the science of 
war, have discovered the. Bias of ^ the mind to the 
profession of arms in the early stages of life. The 
biographies of the great military and navM charac- 
ters of £urope furnish numerous instances of the 
truth of this remark. At seventeen, Bonaparte^ a 
cadet in the military academy, in Resentment of an 
affront, thrust his sword into a balloon, ready lo as- 
cend for the gratification of Louis XVL whose 
throne Ae afterwards occupied. JYir/ion, at a stili 
earlier period of life, encountered a bear upon the 
frozen ocean. So unhappily deficient are the bio- 
graphical sketches of American worthies, that the 
present generation know little of the gigantic states- 
men and heroes who lived in the last/ The truth 



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32 MEMOIRS OF 

of the remark is established as it relates to Wash- 
jKGTON.and Putnam. The first in early life, dis- 
covered the cool and regulated courage of a great 
commander ; and the last, at twelve, when visiting 
Boston for the first time, encountered and conquer- 
ed an enemy double his age and size. He also in 
youth " carried the ring''^ tit gymnastic ezercises, 
and destroyed a wolf, in his den, at the hazard of 
his own life. The incident mentioned of Jackson, 
is evincive of his whole character — he resisted the 
exercise of unauthorised power in a British officer, 
and demanded justice for himself and his fellow 
prisoners. When it is considered that the power 
of the British army was at that time irresistible— 
that the tories were numerous — that they violated 
all the rules of civilized warfare, and that Jackson 
was less than fourteen years of age, and subject to 
all their cruelty and ferocity, his firmness excites 
admiration. 

In 1784, he commenced the study of law, under 
the instruction and direction of Spruce M^Cay^ Es- 
quire, at Salisbury, North Carolina. It is but jus- 
tice to the profession of law, to remark, that among 
its members in America and England, have always 
been found the most energetic advocates of the 
rights of the people. As a corrupt ministry have 
encroached upon the constitutional rights of the 
people, English and Irish advocates have thrown a 
shield before the designated victims of ministerial 
vengeance, and persuaded juries to save their fellow 



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iMn from Bdtany-Bay and the gibbet. The lUinies 
otErskine and G^bs are dear to EngKfthuien«-.Cf/r' 
ran and Graitan to IrishjBen. 

At the commeneefiient of the revolution, the 
members of the American bar, almost without ex* 
eeption, arranged themselves npon the side of their 
oountry ; and by tbek examples, as well as their 
eloquence, aroused the sacred flame of patriotism 
in the bosoms of their oppressed countrymen. 
Their conduct drew from the eloquent Burke, one 
of his finest encomiums, in the British house of . 
commons* To their honor let it be said, that at 
the commencement of the last war, which secured 
thein dependence acquired .by the army of the 
revolution, they again espoused the cause of the 
Kepublic. They not only thundered defiance to 
Qur inveterate enemy in the Senate, but many pla- 
ced themselves in the embattled ranks of their 
countrymen. A number of them fell victims to their 
courage, whose memories will forever be cherish- 
ed — a number of them still survive, and still grace 
the army of the Republic. A Jackson, a Macomb, 
a Gaines, a Scott, and a Riflct, will not sufller by 
a comparison with the first soldiers in the universe, 
and it is believed they were all members of the bar 
when they entered the army. Mr. Jackson com- 
pleted the study of law with JbAn Stokes^ Esquire, 
^nd was licensed as a practitioner, in 1786. He 
presented himself at the bar at an age when most 
students commence the study of law. The part of 



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34 . MEMOIRS OF 

thecoaatry in which he' was situated, afforded but 
a slender prospect of success ; but while it prevemt- 
ed him from enjoying the profits of the practice^ it 
enabled him to become more familiar with the 
theory of the law. 

In irSSy the course of emigration was from 
the Atlantic states to the waters of the Missisippi. 
The present state of Tennessee was then a territo- 
rial government of the United States, called the 
South West Territory, having been recently organ- 
ized I)y Congress. The climate was salubrious, the 
soil was fertile, and it was rapidly emerging from a 
wilderness state, to a state of civilization. Mr. 
Jackson, with that spirit of adventure which is in 
him a striking characteristic, resolved to leave a 
country which o&ered but few inducements to detain 
him in it. 

The honourable Judge MNairy was appointed 
judge of this territory in 1788, and was accompa- 
nied by Mr. Jackson tg Nashville, at which place 
they arrived in October of that year, when the first 
supreme court was holden. He here found himself 
among a people entirely different in manners, cus- 
toms, and habits, from those he had recently left. In 
the older states, where one generation of inhabitants 
have followed another in regular succession, there 
are always some distinguishing characteristics in 
the whole population* But in the new states, the 
traveller of observation can hardly discover any es- 
tablished character in the people, but that of energy 



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▲KD&Eir JACKSON. 35 

and p^soifal independence. In those jfiixtn of tte 
Republic which have been settkd lor two centu- 
ries, a family^ a monied, or a landed aristocracy, 
can always be discovered; The many become 
subservient to the Tew, and subjugate their, minds 
to those, who by wealth 'or power, have obtained 
the ascendency over them. In such a state of so- 
ciety, an insulated being, like Andrew Jackson^ 
without the infiueiK;e of friends to aid him, or with- 
out funds to procure them, can hardly hope, with 
the most gigantic powers, to place himself in eligi- 
bk circumstances. Far otherwise is the case in the 
new states. Drawn together from different sections 
of our extensive country, from motives of interest, 
of power, or of fame, each individual may almost be 
said to make a province by himself. In such a sit- 
uation, the most energetic character becomes the 
object of the greatest popular fevour. In this 
sphere was Jackson exactly calculated to move. 
Without any extrinsic advantages to j^omote his 
advancement, he had to rely solely upon intrinsic 
worth and decision of character, to enable him to 
rise rapidly with a . rapidly rising people. 

The place of his nativity could not be recollected 
without the most distressing association of ideas. 
His whole family, excepting his father, who may be 
said to have died a natural death, there fell vic- 
tims to the ruthless barbarity of British soldiery, 
who carried on an unmatural war against their own 
countrymen, in their own colonies. The attach- 



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$• . MBHQIRII or 

Hwnt to Aom^y whieli iu%y be saM to coMtituto a 
a part of our nature, must have beoo alienated Ikoiii 
the bosom of Jack^n. In the iFa»5(»w aetUemeat^ 
S. C he bad his birth-r-there he wae a sad ajiretaftQf 
of the jiztioctioa of his whole £aniiiy ; and tbero 
he all but lost his own life. To him, the plain of 
Wao(^sap>i with all iti charms, wuat have beeo as 
che^lesa. aa that of Golgeiha to the ancients* 

He eoiiunenced the practice of law in the South 
Weat Terfitoiyt af the a«a of little iBore than t wen* 
ty-one years ; and atthough the dfetriet eoBtaioMl 
mBjay aapiring youag meuwho had alrsai^eoi^ 
igrated there to share the hpnoucs of the new gov* 
ernment, and the profits of boetness, Mr. JaokeoUf 
soon rendered himself diatingttisfaed among thoee 
who were ^^ themselves compicmus ihere.** 

The unyielding integrity of bi9chAraeter,'and hie 
uticeashig attention to business, soon introduced 
hiaa to the notiee of the government *, and be was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General of the territory. This 
office he continued to sustain with gc^u reputation 
to himself, and with essential advantage to the dig^ 
nified and impartial administration of justice fof 
many years. 

lu 1796, the South West Territory was admitted 
as a sovereign and independent state into the Amer- 
ican Union, by the name of the Stc^e ef Tennessee ; 
being the sixteenth star that was added to the Amer* 
ican Constellation. The cit j^ns were called upon 
to exercise the first great act of self government — 



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ANDILEW JACKSON. 37 

thttt b£ forming a constitution as the supreme law of 
tfae state. Mr. Jackson was chosen a member t^ 
the convention called to discharge this important 
duty. Although he had become known to the most 
dtstiDgnished citizens of the country, his exertions 
in thi» convention, brought him into more univer- 
sal no1[ice, by the laborious part he took in the in- 
t^esting discussions upon this momentous subject. 
The cotir^e of his studies had previously led him to 
investigate minutely the subject of government, 
§Pom the earKest ages down to the close of the eigh- 
teenth century. With the rise, progress and ter- 
ntifiat^on of the ancient Republics, he had made 
hUnself familiarly acquainted. He had witnessed 
the operation of the American Constitution, and 
those of the different states for a number of years. 
With a mind thus prepared to meet the important 
disci]»sbn, he took the lead in the debates upon 
the different articles pf the proposed constitution. 
To those who are acquainted with the constitution 
0( the state . of Tennessee, it will be seen with 
what precision the Legislative, the Executive, and 
ludiciary powers are designa ted — with what care 
the civil rights of the people are secured — and with 
what unlimited freedom the rights of conscience 
may be enjoyed* 

The people of Tennessee, as a iuark of the con* 
fidence they placed in Mr. Jackson# elected him 
their first representative in the Congress of the 

United States. He was a new member of the na- 

4 



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38 MEMOIRS 01^ 

tional legislatort, and was surronnded by a Body 
of statesmen who have scarcely been eiquafle^, and 
oertainly never have been excelled, since the adop- 
tion of (he American Constitution. If, owing to 
tl^at modesty which is always a concomitant with 
reai, greatness, he did not immediately shine, fafs 
constituents, the next year, (1797,) raised Mm to 
the high and responsible station of a Senator of 
Congress. It was during his congressional life, &at ^ 
the two great political parties of the Republic, were 
in array against each other. He was a Republican ; 
and of course in the minority. Although no mail 
ever more cheerfully submitted to authority when 
properly exercised, yet he never couM be brought to 
be a minor actor in the plots of political intrigae*^^ 
and to be a leader in political machinations, his 
habits and principles rendered him totaljy unqual- 
ified. He resigned his seat in the senate in 1799, 
and returned to Tennessee, with the government of 
which he had now become identified. 

He was now called upon to discharge the duties 
of au important ofiice under the constitution and 
laws of the state, in (he establishmentof which, he 
had taken so important a part. In 1799, he was 
appointed a judge of the supreme court. This ap- 
pointment was bestowed upon him without hia 
knowledge, contrary to his wishes, and very miich 
opposed to his inclination. After discharging the 
duties of it for a short period, he resigned it, and 
retired to his delightful real estate upon the banks 



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of the Cumberland river, where for a number of 
years he enjoyed, in the bosom of his family, that 
domestic felicity which is alwsiys produced by at- 
tachment for private worth, mingled with respect 
for dignity of character. From the citizens with 
whom he wgs kx^iited, he invar iabie received every 
demonstration of respectful attachment, and grate- 
fol acknowledgment, which a people^ in the enjoy- 
ment of temporal felicity, usually bestow upon the 
beoe&etor who had secured it for them. In Mr. 
Jaekson, although he had scarcely reached the mid- 
die age of life, the people recognized a political 
fxtber, who bad ever discovered more solicitude for 
their political rights, and individual happiness, than 
for hiflowoeiSQluiBent or aggrandizement. 



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40 BiEHorRS or 



CHAPTER m. 

Ifr. Jaokioii'8 career in civil life— cmnmencement of hifl mffitarji 
career— Major-general of Tennessee l^tia—Uifitia forces- 
American savages — ^Reason for their hatred and vengeance 
against Anglo-Americans— Beligious fiinaticism among tibem — 
'fhe Prophet Francis, and his brother Tecumseh— Effect of 
their assumed divinity — Tender of Gen. Jackson, an4 his Vol- 
unteers to the government of the United States. . 

AT the close of the last chapter, the reader found 
the subject of these memoirs in a situation, above 
all others the best calculated for the enjoyment 
of temporal felicity — with an estate abundantly 
competent, without being so- overgrown as to excite 
solicitude — in a fomily circle, where every affection- 
ate sentiment was cordially reciprocated, and sur- 
rounded by. extensive acquaintances who loved him., 
for his affability, respected him for his dignity, and 
venerated him for his exalted patriotism. 

Hitherto the attention of Mr. Jackson had been 
aliiiost exclusively confined to the pursuits of civil 
life. Although the duties of it are oftentimes ar- 
duous, and the difficulties sometimes inextricable, 
yet he bad moved through it with incalculable ben- 
efit to hifi country, and with undivided approbation 
to himself. The history of our country scarcely 
affords an instance of an individual, who has, so 
early in life, been called to fill so ma% important 
offices in such rapid succession. At twenty-two. At- 
torney-general of a district — at twenty- nine, mem- 



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ANDREW JACKSON* 41 

ber of convention to form a oonstitution— ^t 
the same age» a representative in Congress — at thir- 
ty, a Senator in Congress, and at thirty-two a Judge 
of the Supreme Court of an indepemfent State. 

Thus &r in life, Mr. Jackson had reaped a rich 
reward for his devotion to his country, in the ap« 
j^ause bestowed upon him by his countrymen. 
Had he been disposed to have lived in his delight- 
ful retirement, aud to have been a spectator of the 
sufferings his fellow-citizens were called to en- 
dure from a christian and a savage foe, he would 
indeed have ended his days without the splendid 
glory which is now attached to his name ; yet he 
would have alsp escaped from the acrimonious 
censure, and illiberal abuse of those who envy him 
his reputation, and vainly endeavour to rob him of 
his hard earned fame. 

However brilliant has been the career of Mr. 
Jackson in civil life, it is almost forgotten by the 
renown he has acquired by military achievements. 
To the great mass of his countrymen, he is known 
only as a distinguished military character. It will 
be the object of the remaining part of this work 
to present the reader with a view of his military 
career. 

The same year that the state of Tennessse was 
admitted into^^the union, (U96,) Mr. Jackson was 
appointed Major-general of the militia of that State. 
As the whole of its militia was then embraced in ' 

one division, Gen. Jackson was the actual com« 

."4* 



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4& MBHOTRS OP 

maader ia cUef of the whole military force of 
the stdie ; as it is umisual for the gowmoers of 
the states, who are <r:r q^/o, Ca^tatn geoeralst to 
commatid in person. Bat for many year^ before 
the commenceiiifiit of the last war, the commaBd 
•I a Major-general was rather ntmiMAl than i^eah^ 
a whote division being seldom called out together. 
But upon Gen. Jaekson, the people decoded for 
an efficient organization of their military force. 

Without derogating at all from the high reputar 
fion of the militia of the American Republic, pro-* 
babiy the most efficient in the world, the history of 
our country will justify the rematk, that it is a spe- 
cies of force that cannot be reUid upon, excepting 
in sudden emergencies. In the rctohitkuiary war,^ 
notwithstanding the imperfections of their organdi- 
zation, they certainly aided essentially in establish- 
ing our independence. But how often, during that 
portentous period, was the Commander in Chief, 
apd other commanders, left with an bandiui of 
<< Continental Trooper,'' to wander tlnrough a coun- 
try where a regiment of militia could scarcely be 
raised, to take the field for any lei^h of time ? 
They might be brought, from the principles of 
self-preservation, to defend their home, and to re- 
pel an enemy from their immediate neighbourhood, 
but could with difficulty be brought to follow the 
apparently desperate fortuifte of the Chief to a dis- 
tant portion of the country. Had not the ^ Con- 
tinentar Antiy'' been organized, and been brought. 



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AHDBBW JACKSON. 43 

to consider themaelvvs aa soldiers of the whole 
American Republic^Cofmodttu migkt have uUi- 
i&ately sunrendered— -but it is doubtful whether 
Wasbii^oa would have conquered him in 1781. 

At the commeacemect of the last war, the mili* 
tia of the United States had enjoyed a period of 
peace iac tbhrty jears. The acts of Congress/and 
of the individoal states^ made every possible salu- 
tary provision to give to that force respectability 
and efficiency. This body then -consisted of eight 
hundred thousand men ; an hundred thousand of 
whom were drafted for the service of the United 
States. The collisions between the state govern- 
ments and that of the Union*-- the jealousies between 
the offioers of the army and those of the militia, are 
within the reeollection of every reader ; but the de- 
tail belongs more properly to The History of the Se- 
etmd War between the American Republic and the 
Kingdom of Great Britain, than to The Memoirs of 
Major Oenerai Jackson. 

In 1812, Gen. Jackson, being still major-gene- 
ral fii the Tennessee militia, was called by the 
dilates of patriotism, and his ardent love of his 
country, to espouse its cause in thejSeU, as he had 
spent much ol his life in advocating its interests in 
llie cabinet* With the sagacity of a statesman^ 
aod with the feelings of a patriot, he had Icmg seen 
a storm gathering over his beloved country. He 
had seen one Kepnblic after another fall in Euroj^, 
before the tremendous power of the ^ Allied Sove-, 



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44 MEMOIRS OF 

reigns." He had" seea the best and the last hopes 
of man blasted and almost annihilated in Europe, 
by the uplifted arm of despotic power. He had 
seen the British government, from the commence- 
ment of the Pitt administration, to that period, the 
head of this <' holy alliance" offensive and defen- 
sive ugainst the rights of man. He had seen that 
power, from year to year, encroaching upon the in- 
dependence which the American Republic compel- 
led them to acknowledge in 1783. He had seen the 
pacific policy of the American government, resort- 
ing to negociation after negociation, met by the 
increasing insolence of the arrogant Court of St 
James. He had not only seen, but he and the 
people of Tennessee had for many years, felt, the 
effect of British and Spanish influence over the 
Creek, the most ferocious and warlike tribe of In- 
dians upon the continent. For many years this 
tribe carried on a predatory warfare against the 
settlements of Tennessee, especially upon the Cum- 
berland river, upon which general Jacksen resided. 
He and the people, without any aid from the gen- 
eral government, had defended themselves from 
the frequent incursions of this insidious and barba- 
rous foe. In this way the people of Tennessee 
bad learned the horrors of Indian wtu^fare from 
their own sufferings. 

The history of the world scarcely furnishes a 
psirallel with the sufferings of the Europeans upon 
the continent of America. Nor does it furnish 



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ANDRSW JACHSON. 4# 

a parallel with the injuries vfhich the sattve Amer' 
icons have sustained from Ewopeam. The can* 
quest of South America, by the Spaniards, was 
marked with more sanguinary violations of the 
rights of humanity, than any conquest from that of* 
Canaan to the nineteenth century of the christian- 
era. As little as we know of its blood-stained histo- 
ry, we have, from infancy, wept over the cjilamities 
of the Incas of Peru, and of ^he countless legions 
of their unhappy subjects. Through the eye of 
history, we see the powerful agents of his most 
Catholic majesty arrive among these happy natives. 
With an exterminating sword in one hand, and with 
the word of God in the other, these early missiorh 
aries demanded the immediate conversion of a 
whole people to Christianity. The artless sons of 
nature^ who supposed the most splepdid object 
was the fittest one to be adored, offered their ado- 
ration to the Sun. They could not adore an in- 
visible being, who made no impression upon their 
semes* An army with the weapons of destruction 
and death, was ready to aid the priesthood in the 
work'of conversion. One Inca, fell with his nation 
after another, with their inexhaustible treasures, 
into the hands of christian Spaniards, and at this 
time the aborigines of S. America scarcely have an 
existence. 

In North America, the acquisitions of Europeans 
were attended with circumstances less bloody ; 
but the natives were compelled by arms, or by 



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bf t)M«m^ to vtliient tim^F ¥!^ 
Yuuttd ia 8etlle«iata» Tlie UMahawk and the 
«Riow» were lDtble» opoiparad with Sn ams and 
h^ooeta. Akhough Ihej ware coaipellwl to but* 
m»der their terrilory, their niAivi pride a&d heroio 
oourage was never 9ttbjugaled« They retired be- 
fore their conquerors ; and as their territory was 
wrested from them by fraud, or by force, and u 
their nambers were dimicjalied by disease, and by 
war, their vengeaiice against their spoilers iocreae-^ 
ed. But one sentiment prevailed among then 
Irom the Isthmus of Darim to the North- West eosat 
•—from the Atlantic to the Weston oeean« Thm 
broken remnants of some few tribes have indeed 
been brought to bury the hatchet ; but tiiey never 
have been, and probably never will be, cx>rdialiy 
reconciled to the white population. The hostile 
savages by privations the most severe, by tortures 
the most cruel, and by deaths the most horrible, 
still wreak their vengeance upon the descendanta 
of those who first invaded their native soil. 

In about the year 1810, a blind religious fanata- 
cism was added to the natural ferocity of the Amer- 
lean savages. A Prephet arose among them, moid 
claimed Heine potoert derived directly from the 
Gh£^x Spibit* This immense aocession to human 
powcr^ was no less calculated to fascinate saoag^g^ 
than it ever has been to excite the veneration of that 
part of mankind who claim to be cwiUzed, The 



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Amerlesii Savage, fhmdt, had as muf daiiBs to 
^ cli«rael«r and tiff itrnpiraticwiof PfoplMtyas tte 
A^tic ctTillan MahmMi ; and had he posaesMd 
equal power to mafce eonqMets and eonfeitt, andcr 
the bacnors of dhrittity, he might hereafter have 
had as many -followefs. But Gen. HAamisoir die* 
robed Jitni of hh dhrinity at Tt»MAW9m, in ISll« 
and his brother Teeumsehj fled to the southern 
tribes upon the AlabaoMt, early Id- the year 181% 
to in^e the savages th«e to act in concert with 
their red brethren in the nortiti* Bat nothing in^ 
spired the Greek, Alabanut, and Seminole Indians so 
much as BrkiA and Spanish gold, British mnskets, 
and British promises* With their hereditary hatred 
against Americans, (or the citizens of the United 
States,) added to the enthnsiasm excited by Teconi- 
seh, and the liberal aid of the British jtnd Spanish 
governments, these powerful tribes, at the com- 
mencement of the last war, were prepared to spread 
havock, devastation, tOTtare, and death, among the 
Americans who bordered upon their territory. 

The states of Tennessee and Georgia, from their 
vicinity to the immense country inhabited by the 
Creeks, were more immediately exposed to the 
horrid ravages of lodian warfare. Familiarised to 
their unrelenting barbarity, the citiaens of Georgia 
and Tennessee were fully aware, that nothiug biit a 
war of extermination against the Creeks, wou|d 
prefect their own settlements on the frontiers, iSrom 
destruction, and their fiimilies from wanton barbari- 



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4B utMpiw ov . 

ly. TecuiiMehfe»d, by lUftjurtfhiseloqiieaceyaiid 
Us assume diviQity« infused iato tbe Creek. QAtioa, 
the most implacable baired agaiaat the Americaas. 
Head dressed himself to their imide, by remiadiBg 
them of the aacieat pow^ of the savages, aod the 
boandless extent of tteir territory* He amused 
their vengeance against Americansi as the people 
who had reduced their numbers, and diminished 
their greatness. He censured them for auy coa- 
formity, in any respect, to th^ Americans, and. ex* 
borted them upon the dreadful penalty of the dis- 
pleasure of the Great Spirit, to return wholly to the 
savage state. The pre&hing of S^fU Bernard and 
'Feter the Monk^ had not a greater effect upon the 
Christians of £iirope, when they exhorted them to 
raise a crusade against the infidels, than did that of 
<recumseh upon the Creek, the Alabama, and Se- 
minole Indians. A complete concert was estab- 
lished between all the southern tribes, and a general 
^concert between them and the northern ones. 
War clubs were every where distributed— but the 
most profound secrecy was enjoined. Tecumseh 
had warranted the interposition of the Great Spirit^ 
and, what he had much better authority fordoing, 
that of Great Britain^ in favour of the savages* 

The confidence of the savages, in the success 
that would attend them ^nd their christian allies, 
the British, was effectually confirmed. It was an 
established principle with them to give no quarters 
nor to ask any. Pursuant to this systiem, they had, 



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ANi>ftBW JACKl^ON. 49 

before tl» commeiiCMBnieift <»f the last war, marda^ 
M fbany famUies upon tke frontiers of Georgia, 
and Tennessee, and seenied res<!dved to extripate 
the Americans, or be ezterminated themselves. 

This brief ski^h may be deemed a digression ; 
but I considered it necessary to prepare the mind 
of the reader for the succinct ak:oount which xAU 
follow, of tine part taken by Gen. Jackson in the 
sanguinary war carried on by him and the gallant 
army under his command against the Creeks. 

The act of Congress, of 1813, kutliorizing the 
raising of a Vohtnteer Ccrps^ of fifty thousand men, 
to serve one year within ttw years after they were 
organized, induced Gen. Jackson to address the 
gallant sons of Tennessee belongingto his division. 
Perhaps no man in the American Republic could 
address his fellow-citizens, with more confidence of 
success, than Gen. Jackson*— certain it is that no 
one addressed them so successfully. In a inery 
short time, he found his standard, at Nashtdllcy sur- 
rounded by twenty-five hundred men, among whom 
were many of the first families and of the greatest 
fortunes. It was not that wordy and paper patri- 
otism which filled many of the journals of the day 
with inflated resolutions^ pledging to the Republic 
the " lioes^ fortime^ and honoW^'* of those who pas- 
sed them. These men came-in person to serve their 
country, rather than in a town meeting, to resolve 
that they would do it. Gen. Jackson vohmtarily 

ofi^ered his service to his couatrv, instead of solicit- 
5 



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£0 HEMOItlS OF 

ing an office from its government The General and 
his army of Yoluntee^s^ made a tender of theur aer* 
▼ices to government, and in November, 1813, were 
accepted, and became a part of the nfntkmal force. 
When this corps of Volunteers was organized, 
they little thought, perhaps, what arduous duty 
would be allotted to them ; and ha^ they anticipa- 
ted it, the glory they afterwards acquired, would 
hardly have been thought a sufficient reward for 
the excessive fatigues and hazards they endured 
in acquiring it. Their achievements shall be re- 
corded with scrupulous regard to accuracy^ and 
their aberrations from duty shall be mentioned with 
all the delicacy that is consistent with truth. 



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^NDEEW JACHCSON* 51 



CHAPTER IV. 

Gen. Jackson and Tennessee Volunteers—Importance of the river 
Missisippi — ^Mr. Mcnroe*s solicitude for the security of it, and 
the Western States-'Volunteers rendezvous at Nashville, Tenn. 
'--niescend the C^o and Missi^ppi— encamp at Natchez— -Order, 
for their discharge from Mr. Armstrongs— disobeyed by Gen. • 
Jackson—Volunteers return to Tennessee, and are discharged 
—Approbation of the government 

THE avidity and promptitude with which the 
large and respectable Corps op Tbnkessee Volun- 
TEERs resorted to the standard of their beloved 
and respected commander, Andrew Jackson, was a 
sure presage of the gallantry with which they would 
support the independence, rights, and honour of 
the Republic against a savage and implacable foe 
ujion the borders of their native state, and against 
the most powerful and veteran nation in Europe, 
now in alliance with them. 

At the commencement of the last war, it was 
impossible for the goverument to determine upon 
wliat part of our extended sea-board the naval 
forces of Britain would first attempt to make a 
demonstration ; or upon what part of our frontier, 
its armies would attempt to invade our territory. 
The immense importance of the command of the 
Missisippi, and its tributary streams, could not es- 
cape the attention of either the American or British 
governments. Every exertion therefore of the one 



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$3 MEMOIRS OT 

to retain, and of the otber to acquire it, might well 
be expected. The lower states and* territories si- 
tuated upon this important river, attracted the ear- 
ly attention of goTernment, and induced the most 
efficient measures for their defence. 

Mr. MoKRoz, for some time previous, and during 
the whole war, was a member of the American 
Cabinet. As ambassador of the American Repub- 
lic, at the court of France, he had negociated the 
treaty for the accession of Louisiana to the United 
States ; and must have felt a deep solicitude in the 
rising importance of the Western States. He was 
aware, that without the command of the M issisippi, 
they would lose their future importance, and be 
at present subjected to the rapacity of British sol- 
diery, and the horrors of savage warfare. Although 
the war department, until the campaign of 181^, 
was not under his immediate control^ and although 
he was not directly implicated in the disasters of 
those of 1812, and 1813; he nevertheless, as one 
of the first officer^ in the Cabinet, felt a high de- 
gree of responsibility. In regard to the Missisippi 
river, as he may almost be said to have jacquired it 
for his country, he must have felt a deep interest in 
securing the incalculable benefits arising to the Re- 
public, especially to the Western States, from the 
exclusive command of it. 

The Tennessee Volunteers, under the command 
of Gen. Jackson, at the close of the year 1812, 
were ordered to proceed down the Ohio and Missi- 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 53 

sippi, for the defence of the lower states agfiinst an 
expected attack of the British forces. The deep 
laid plot of the Indians already mentioned, was not 
yet ready for execution ; nor were the American 
settlers exposed to their immediate ravages, excited 
to make any but the ordinary preparations of de- 
fence against these insidious, cruel, and infernal 
enemies. The Creeks were apparently indifferent 
spectators to the contest which had now commen- 
ced between the American Republic, and the king- 
dom of Great Britain. 

At the beginning of the year 1813, Gen. Jackson 
and his fine corps of Tennessee Volunteers, having 
previously Rendezvoused at Nashville, in Tennes- 
see, situated upon~ the south bank of Cumberland 
river, prepared to execute the orders received to 
descend the Ohio and Missisippi. Although situat- 
ed in a mild and salubrious climate, enduring but 
little severity in comparison with the more frigid 
regions of the northern states, the country at this 
time was covered with snow, and the navigation of 
the Ohio and Missisippi was obstructed and render- 
ed difficult and hazardous by ice. 

The Volunteers had thus far enjoyed the anima- 
ting splendour of military life, but were yet unac- 
quainted with its toils, fatigues, and privations. 
Upon the 7th January, 1813, headed in person by a 
leader whom they esteemed as an accomplished 
commander, and an affectionate guardian, they com- 
menced an expedition, in which they hoped to ren^- 
5 * 



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64 MEMOIRS OF 

der essential service to their country, whic^ they 
loved better than they did their Jives, and to acquire 
ibr themselves the reputation of patriotic sotdfers. 
Animated by tiie example of Gen. Jackson, they 
endured the hardships of a longand tedious passage^ 
without a murmur, and submitted to the discipline 
indispensably necessary in an army, without the 
least appearance of insubordination. They arriv- 
ed at Natchez^ about three hundred miles above 
New-Orleans, where they were ordered to rendez- 
vous until further orders. 

Gen. Jackson having selected the most judicious 
situation for the encampment of his. army, here 
commenced the arduous and difficult duty of cliang^ 
ing citizens to soldiers. The Tennessee Yolulile^s 
had seen nothing of military life, except the easy 
and pleasurable duty usually performed by militia 
in time of peace, and occasional excursions against 
small parties of savages. Had they enlisted into 
the army of the Republic, received a liberal bounty 
from its treasury, and been certain of regular pay- 
ment of wages while in service, and a valuable tract 
of land when discharged ; a cheerful submission to 
military discipline might have been expected, and 
a necessary one enforced. These patriotic Volun- 
teers thought little of a pecuniary reward ; but 
were inspired, by the impulse of patriotism, to be- 
come disciplined soldiers out of principle. 

But no sooner had they began to learn the duties 
of the camp^ and to acquire the science of war, 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 55 

than an order from the war department was re- 
ceived by Gen. Jackson, commaRding him << to dis- 
miss his Volunteers f and delioer all pMic property 
in Ms possession to Major-general Wilkinsony^ then 
commanding the military district in which they 
were stationed. Mr. Armstrong was then Secretary 
at War. It is not for the historian or the bio- 
gtapber to inquire Into motives^ or to impeach them ; 
hut when ih^ fact is stated that this order tore date 
the 5th of January, 1813, two days before Gen, 
Jackson moved with his forces from NashmUe^ and 
was not received until sometime after he estab- 
lished his cantonment at Natchez^ almost five hun- 
dred miles below, the reader may well exclaim, in 
the language of the Prince of the Drama, — ^Hhere 
is a spirit in the affairs of state, which nor tongue, 
nt^pen, can give expressure toJ^ 

A compliance with this order would have been 
an abandonment of his corps. Although among 
them were many men, possessed ofample funds and 
adequate means, to travel half a thousand miles to 
their hornet, yet they little thought, when they enter- 
ed the service of their country, that they should be 
so soon compelled to expend their wealth, as well 
as expose their lives and health in its defence. A 
very great number wete wholly destitute of the means 
of subsistence, and depended wholly upon the public 
stores in their possession for the support of life while 
in camp, and upon their return march through a 
country, either very thinly inhabited or a wilderness^. 



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56 MEMOIRS OF 

A third class wer^ in a situation still more deplora- 
ble ; indeed^ in a state of absolute destitution — 
dastitute of health, destitute of resources, and, as 
a general consequence, destitute of hope. The 
sick list numbered between one hundred and fifty, 
and two hundred ; many of whom were languish- 
ing under extreme debility. 

It is difficult to conceive of a situation more dis- 
tressing and responsible than that in which Ge6. 
Jackson was placed by this order from Mr. Arm- 
strong. Obedience to it would have been casting 
most of his patriotic followers upon a pityless world 
in an inclement season and destitute of resources-^ 
disobedience of the order would subject him to mil- 
itary punishment, unless the peculiar circumstan- 
ces of the case should be deemed sufficient to 
excuse him from the operation of military law. Af- 
ter consultation with his officers, who, at first, ac- 
corded with him in opinion, he assured the Secre- 
tary at War, that the order would be disregarded ; 
and that a sufficient quantity of the public stores 
would be retained^ to aid his Volunteers in return- 
ing to their homes. 

General Wilkinson was advised of the order of 
the war department, and of the determination of 
Gen. Jackson in regard to it. Glot^hed with the 
authority of the government.— commanding one of 
the most extensive military districts in the Republic 
—anxious to augment his stores, and increase the 
number of his own troops, he endeavoured to inti- 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 57 

midate Gen. Jackson into obedience of the order, 
by fore- warning him of the alarming consequences 
to himself^ of disobedience. Some of his own offi- 
c(Brs retracted their first decision, and advised a 
compliance with the order* Even the quarter- 
master endeavoured to compel him to the measure, 
by omitting to take the necessary steps preparatory 
to the commencement of the return march. Cool, 
collected, and unembarrassed. Gen. Jackson now 
took counsel from his own judgment, and the respon- 
sibility of his conduct upon his own head ; knowing, 
that if called to do it, he could justify himself be- 
fore any forum, excepting one that had prejudged 
bis case. He gave orders for breaking up the en- 
campment, and for commencing the movement 
which was to conduct his Yotunteers to the place 
of original rendezvous ; and gave it in. such a man- 
ner, and accompanied it with such acts, as to con- 
vince all, that from this decision there was no appeal. 
The gloom and dejection which pervaded this 
corps, when the order from the war department was 
received, was converted to the exhilaration of joy 
when the determination of their general was made 
knownl The ^waggons were used for the trans- 
portation of the sick ; and even the horses of the 
general and his stafi*, were cheerfully surrendered 
for that purpose when necessary. During a march 
of nearly five hundred miles. Gen. Jackson evinced, 
by his uniform conduct, that although his situa- 
tion compelled him to act as a soldier, <( he feU 



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58 - MEMOIRS Ol* 

like a man.** To the high respect \^hich was at all 
times felt by the Tennessee Yolnnteers for Gen. 
Jackson, was now added the most ardent attach- 
ment. They almost forgot the dignity of the gen- 
eral, in the more amiable and endearing qualities of 
the patron and the friend. This corps, having en- 
dured the privations of the camp, and the fatigues 
of marching and counter-marching, without having 
yet acquired any of the laurels which are reaped 
in the field of battle, were discharged about the 1st 
of May, 1813. But the ardent patriotism, regula- , 
ted by a spirit of subordination, which they shewed 
in this first scene of military life, justified the high 
expectation which was entertained of thetn, and 
which was afterwards so amply gratified by their 
splendid military achievements* 

The course pursued by Gen. Jackson in regard 
to Mr. Armstrong's order, and the Volunteers, may 
meet with the animadversion of the mere officm*, I 
who acquired his knowledge of tactics from doote, | 
and his ideas of subordination from reading the ar- 
ticles of war 5 but his conduct was approbated by the j 
administration, and the whole expenses of the expe- I 
dition paid out of the puUic treasury. The tlailitary | 
ardour of Gen- Jackson was not damped by t}ie crit- 
• ical, and even dangerous circumstances in wft^ich he 
had recently been placed-^angerous, more\from 
the machinations of official intrigue, than fron^ the 
open enemies of the country. The first he had^o 
much magnanimity even to suspect^— the last he hoA 
courage enough to face in every possible situation.^. I 

N 

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▲NAf^EW JACR901K. 59 






Approbation and censitfe of general Jackson— Implacable hostility 
of savageB incceased by British and Spanish emissaries, and 
British ravage&«-Indian nuissacie of giarrisoti^ women and chil- 
dren, at Fort SGnrnis — ^Expedition from Tennessee against 
Creeks prepared — 'i^eneralJackson, assumes the commands- 
Colon^ Cofiee—^Difference between Alifitiay Volunteers^ and 
Regular Troops — General Jackson proceeds to the frontiers- 
prepares for active service-— Deficiency of provisions m his 
camp— Colonel Dyer destroya l4ttafutcfieB-^¥irst victory over 
Creeks at Tallushatches'^GQn, Coffee's report of it to Gen. 
Jackson. 



THE superficial reader of biography^ feels im- 
patiesit to arrive at the developement of the dn- 
tingaished character who is the subject of it* The 
-more critical examiner, traces the progress of the 
Statesman, the Soldier^ and the Scholar, from the 
first dawn of his greatness, to the meridian of his 
glory. The untutored imagination will utter vo- 
ciferous hosannas to the memories of the great ^ but 
they are as destitute of meaning, -as were the enthu- 
siastic praises bestowed by the Ephesians, upon the 
■ geddess Diana. That applause which is offered 
by intelligence to merit, is the only commendation 
which a great and a good man wishes to receive 
^hen in life, and it is the only sentence which will 
embalm his memory after his death. The same 
remarks may be applied to the censure which the 
wc»rld generally bestows with more liberality than 



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60 MSMoiRs or 

it does its praifie. It has been shewn that Gtn. 
Jackson had scarcely entered the threshold of his 
military life, before the cheering voice of approba- 
tion, as well as the dissonant notes of censure, met 
his ear. But he was then, and is now, a man whom 
merited praise cannot enervate, and whom unjnst 
censure cannot intimidate. 

In the third chapt^ of this work, the reasons 
were briefly stated why the Aborigines of America, 
are so implacably hostile to the Anglo-Americans, 
especially to the citizens of the American Republic. 
They have been taught to believe that their Great 
Fathers, beyond the great waters, occupying the 
thrones of Britain and Spain, ^ire their friends and 
protectors ; while the Americans are their enemies 
and destroyers. The emissaries of these great ^^ 
entates themselves, will always disseminate and en- 
courage this sentiment, as long as they have colo- 
nies bordering upon the United States.; and as long 
as they need savages, as allies^ to aid them in their 
Quixotic views of recoUmizing them. 

Lest this fact may, by some be thought to be 
too confidently stated, I quote the following from 
the Report of the CammUtee an Foreign Eelationsj 
to whom was referred the Manifesta of President 
Madison, of the 1st June, i8l2,— >«' It is known that 
symptoms of British hostility towards the United 
States, have never failed to produce corresponding 
symptoms among those tribes. [^« Savage jtribes m 
our /rontiers.^^] It is also well knoWa^ that on aU 



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AND&SW JACBiDK. 61 

sttch oceai^imt abiiiidant supplies of the ordinary 
niunitions of war, have been afforded by the agents 
of British commercial companies, and even from 
British ganrisons, wherewith they were enabled to 
ooflBiineoce that system of savage warfare on our 
frontiers, which has been, at all times, indiscrimi- 
nate in its eflect, on all ages, sexes, and conditions, 
and so revolting to humanity." This is confined to* 
British emissaries.. Before the reader reaches the 
close of these brief Memoirs, he will be famished 
with evidence ^* stcong as proof of holy writ" of the 
most aggra||g.ted injuries of the emissaries of Fer- 
(finand Yll. of Spain. 

It was not until the British fleets had commen- 
ced their ravages upon our then defenceless sea- 
ports ; and the British armies bad b^an the work 
ofdevastation upon our then unprotected frontiers;,! 
that the Creek Indians, as a tribe, advanced for a 
similar purpose, to the borders of the states of 
Georgia, Tennessee, and Missisippi. The last men- 
tioned state, then a territorial government, felt the 
£rst disastrous shock from a concealed storm that) 
had long hung in awful silence upon its borders. 

The Spanish government, the consummate du- 
jplicity of which is equalled only, by the horrors 
of its despotism, had long ^rnished the Creeks 
with arms and ammunition, the better to eoaUe them - 
to destroy the rapidly increasing settlenienis dfthe^ 
stiUes bordering upon Florida. As before tnm-> 
6. 



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69 IMWOIM ot 

lo AAgiMl 1813, a fwiisoii of m ImofftROdftnA 

j«wf, itt tilt stttto of Miarisipi^ Tbqr ooai|iwd m 
iOGMipliU fortros^callcd FiM Mmms^ m Tlotfaiov 
to wliteh maogr feoMdes a»d childsta Ikad fesortad 
fiir f^rDtedioii against the enkindled wratfc lof the 
Gfieck Indtans, vfao had bebre, in tmaU pailica, 
iVft&toB^ mordtred a nunber cif fimiUiis. The 
iffktele anuMinted to mady 400 at tha foit. But 
tte garrison and the inhabitanta were uiMa^pickxia 
of a gmeral moTement of these ferocioua sans of 
the ibnist. 

l^on die S6I& of Angusi, the f iirlous storm of 
i^rage urarfiue burst upon theu with all its ajq^ 
iog lionrora. ^ Fnraci ttz hundred to a thoasaodsa* 
«gea eommiiieed an assault. The most veteran 
conmge vas imbeeiKty itself against sach an ovtst- 
wiMimteg snperioriifcy of force. The tvtgicsl scene 
that foUowed the possession of Fort Mimms, by the 
Oredcs, no mkid can coneeiTe^-^^io tongue can ex- 
pressr-^Qo piBL can describe I The savages, havkig 
long be&iee resohred to ask no quarters^ nor to grant 
any^ began and compkted the dreaifiti work of 
bttnao camag^ The demand of the «>klter for 
quaitetSy was as ineffootuai as the heart-piercing 
entreaties of the npliier, to spaxe her life and that 
of her childt A general slaughter was made ; and 
out of about three hundred and seventy persons, 



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fiikM«r% womm ma drihkw, i«i Md abom tiie 
fen, but aevei^«m eflcaptd; 

ThfelsdyyEiiifr tutored 4»ne ol ibe gaXm of tbe foff, 
and let fire t<^ao did b«ril<i^ within it^ Major 
Memrip eottiiiiladed ; md frltbaband^ tiiUff«»aiiiA 
tike veader of the Sfiairtaii baiid# of Leottldas at 
Thmae^oto, mamfaSneda 6c»Skt whh Ibdm thoai 
foar times their force, until they slew more thaa 
' tiidff own mmbats. While this ftelotn hope weee 
telMng their M^ee iB the t&tt^ the i^ed meo, A^ 
helpless wonAen^ aild sbriehiiig ohtUrsii, were per- 
iAing In the flenes in tU upper stoi'y of tte burtii- 
ifigbuildhig. To use the imprtaire hngtiage of 
oM who was near this seena of carnage^<« Under 
the double iaBuenee af BrMsb gold^ and fticiottji fa- 
natioisa^ the saira|^ fiiagfat in a^ natmer searoely 
to be credited^ Tlie fight was so obetinately main- 
tained for a langtime^tbat the opponents, overeome 
by fatigue and exertion, loaded their pieeeft delibe^ 
rately, and shot each other dowti^ or were lautuatly, 
dispatched by tbe bayn^mt and tooiiUtawk.'' 

The soHoitndd whidi this diiteful catastrophe prO'* 
doeed, iaali tfaeaxpoaBdsettlelaeata upofttheMo^ 
bUe, Tombtgbee^ and in matiy oth«r j^aces^ can 
better be htnigiDad tbao eoij^esscd* Akfaoagh th# 
etate of Tennesaee was net immediaitety ia danger^ 

• I find in many of the oi&cial reports during the last war, a 
bmve body of MiricWiif ^ called " a Sfpitrtan Sartd,*^ t eannot 
see how an Jmrncanlpmi ahwild baaband of <S|^«r^(9nii howtiver 
ISftive they may be. 



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64 MBiloms or 

yet* the inost energetic andefficknt neatufcs wore 
taken to protect the frontiers, and avenge the mas- 
sacre at Fort Mijnms. The legislature of that 
stute donvened toward the close of Septemb^f^-^ 
authoffised Governour Blount to call into immedi- 
ate service, three thousand five hnndred of the mH- 
ttia)— -and votfsd thtre hundred thomand dollars^ for 
their support. 

The legislature, and indeed, the whole popular* 
tioD of Tennessee, fixed their hopes upon General 
JEackson. The confidence of all in him* was vLv^ 
bounded. It had long been his opinion !tiiat the 
only eflTectoaloiode of warilire against savages, was 
to carry war iuto the heart of their country* Gen. 
^oyiie, many years since, and Gen. Harrison moi« 
recently, had evinced the correctness of this opin- 
ion. The legislature accorded with him in senti- 
ment, and the command of jinintended^zpedition 
devolved upon him. 

Gen, Jkckson, bad recently received a fracture 
in his a^m, and a wound in his body, in the settle- 
ment of an afifair of honour, in an honourable man- 
ner. Under any other circumstances,- the severity 
of the wounds, and the consequent debility, woiild 
have detained him in his domestic circle. But he 
was born for his country — his country demanded 
his services ; and the^rdent patriotism of his soul, 
made him forget the debility of his body. 

He was ordered by governour Blount. to call out 
two thousand militia, and to rendezvous.at Fayette- 



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tiOe. A pm ol this detadtineitt ooflsisted of {he" 
Tiiuiessee VoltfMeers, wko had the pttcMng 
spnmg rMWned trom Matches. Vptfn iht 4A of 
• Oofobtft t8iS>th6 da^ppoinied, the ^ro<^ prompt^ 
ly repatied I0 the phee of rendestou^. GoioneU 
sooo after gtfueraK ^tkffee^ is the mean time, had 
riiised five hundred nunrnted Toinnteers, and wasr 
aothorized to augment his foree, by addmg to it 
th« tolnni^r DK^nted riflemen who might offer 
their s^7iee8. It wodld-be a taak highly gratefai 
to the atfthor, would the prescrR^ed limits of this^ 
vfofik i^rmit, to give a brief sketch of this accom» 
{dlefaied and patt4otie officer^ It i» enongh to My, 
diaft he . oommentied his ac^iv^ military life^ widk 
Ai90K;£W Jackson ; and that ia the most disastroiia 
periods of the Greek war, when> by the jealoi^y of 
some, the treachery of others, the intrigues of many, 
and the apprehensions of all^ bis- general was left 
almost alone in a Wilderness of biood^seeklng bar- 
b«tf ians, be remained ^^ faith/id nmmg thefaithiess** 
tin the last conetuering stroke was given. He fol- 
lowed the no iess^ desperate fortune of Gen^ Jaeksoa 
to NmhOrkiy^, where lie, with Ins getteral, and his 
galfant army, acquired laurels which will never fade, 
until men cease to appreeiffte exalted patriotism. 

Upon the 7th October, Gen. Jackson repaired 
to the rendezvons at FayetteviJIe ; arid although in 
a state of indisposition which required the repose 
of the hospital, rather tfaa»i m that vigorowf health 
which is necessary to endure the ktigoes of the 
6^ 



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66 MEHOxas QF 

camp» and a march through the v|ldeff9«sa» he a^ 
sujoed the command of the army designed to 
avenge the blood of tlieir coMOtryn^D, and to asm- 
quer the most nrarlike tribe of barbartaaa in the 
universe. It might be deemed presumptuous to 
sfty, that G^n. Jac)&90Q was the on/^ maoia: Teii* 
uessee, who could siiccesafui^ycommaud an amy 
destined to accomplish this arduous and perilous 
duty ; but it may, without hesitation be said, that 
no man at that time, Iiad so completely secured the 
confideqcC} and raised the hopes of the civil and 
military power of that state, as he. 

He found the troops assembled, deficient in num- 
bers* and was aware that few of them had << seen 
service." The difference between drafted militiaf 
volunteer troops, and enlisted soldiers has been 
slightly alluded to. It will be readily acknowledg- 
ed by every officer and every soldier in tbe^ late 
war. It does not arise from a difference of patri- 
otism or courage, for both are iuherent with all 
true Americans. It may probably be imputed^ to 
the difference in their organization. The MiiiiOi 
in times of peace, consider the performance of 
military service rather as a j^stime, than a duty ; 
and cannot be brought, suddenly, -to submit to the 
rigid discipline of the camp. Th^ Volunteers^ 
are impelled by love^ of country, and a thirst for 
fame, to fly, unasked to the standard of the Repub- 
lic ; but when the impulse that led them there has 
subsided, and they find that glory is to be acquired 



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ANDRSW JACKSON. 07 

by a long. course of severe daty, apathy often suc- 
oeeds to anituatioiv ; aud mauy are ready to exclaim 
with ByroHy^^ 1 want' no other Paradise but rest.^* 
The soidierSi enter the army to make a trade of 
war. They study discipline as a business ; aii(l 
coura^ with them is not only a principle, but it is 
^ system. To conquer, to be captured, or to die, 
is a matter of course and of necessity ; and if disas- . 
ters are remediless, « when they happen, they en- 
dure them without a murmur. 

Gen. Jackson, at the time he commenced his 
second expedition, and his first against the Creeks, 
had no United States' troops under his command ; 
indeed he had no authority himself under the gen- 
eral government, being senior major general of 
Tennessee militia. He commenced the arduous 
duty of converting citizens to soldiers, and resorted 
to every possible expedient which a prudent at 
well as an intrepid commander could devise to en- 
sure success. The previous character — The pres- 
ence and example of the general, inspired the sol- 
diers with confidence, and gave them victory in 
anticipation. 

Ck)lonel Coffee had penetrated with his cavalry 
and mounted volunteers towards the frontiers, and 
was stationed near Huntsville. In the Creek na- 
tion were many natives in amity with the United 
States. From them, important information was 
obtained, and by them, essential service was ren- 
dered. Upon the 8th, colonel Coffee informed 



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6B' M«K»SR» (K» ir - 

Gen. JseksM, by ^oq^es^ tlM hqm iafbrimltloft 
derived from In^afO rawdcfri^ tlM hostile Graak* 
¥^ere ia g«esil iontt^y and' tmondad, Minifltaiiiottity 
to attack th« fr«flitter^ of Geoi^ a«d Te&MSfleer 
U(ion the lOtb, Gen. Jackson^ in aa fifiprepaMd- 
state, took up the liae of mafdk ^ afad what is iwr- 
haps without a paraHel for the first day's niarcfa> 
reached Huatitville the same mmAagi a dislaBeeoC 
from thirty to forty mHes. Coknel Coffee had 
reached the Tennessee riv^r^ and Gea. Jackso&t 
the next day, overtook him, and aoited with his re- 
giment upon the bank of that rirer* Awara that 
<« pracrastrnatkm is the thtef of tlose,^' a^d that 
the ardour of raw and andiseif Unedtroops was soon 
cootsd, he dispatched coioiiel' CkiAe with hli 
mounted corps, to expfore the river Big Wafrior^ 
and Etomhigaby, coramouly called Toidbigbee. 
^ He encamped his own division upio& the Tennes* 
see, and was indefatigable in preparing them for 
active scrttcc. He remained here btft a week ; 
and what will eicite the astonrishment of those who 
have witnessed the slow progress of raw troops to 
the character of veteran soldiers, he made his ar- 
my such in that time. The mystery is explained 
when it is said, in this corps, at this timCy they found 
pleasure in the performance of duty, and the per- 
formance. of duty, was the enjoyment of pleasure. 
In the camp of Gen. Jackson, there could hardly 
be said to be a commissary department at this time ; 
and he depended upon various contractors for ca- 



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AIM>ft«W JACKSON. 66 

8»al imfltef tluin itgiilar sopplies of prothioiis. An 
aianaing deScieney was fcnnd to exist, and an 
uncertainty of snpplies was made known. Nothing 
conld be so mocb calcolated to repress military 
^dour as this discovery. Men who would face 
death in its most horrible forms, will turn to ehil- 
dren at the approach of femine. Gen. Jackson, by 
measures thenk>8t efficfent, and by entreaties the 
most urgent, endeavoured to secure a supply. Uh- 
disiaayed himself, he set an example of cheerful- 
ness before his followers, that for a time dispelled 
their apprehensions. 

At this critical period, information was received 
that the Creeks were embodied near the Ten Islands 
on the Coosa. Collecting what provisions could be 
obtained, but a few days' supply, he commenced 
his macch upon the 18th for Thompson's Creek. 
His route led through a mountainous country, which 
would seem to have defied the passage of an army 
and the appendages of it« Upon the 2Sd he ar- 
rived there, where he remained until certain infor- 
mation was received that the Crebks would soon 
commence active operations upon the Coosa. The 
warriors, to an amount wholly unknown, but who 
were supposed to be very numerous, had assembledi 
in warlike array at Tallushatches. 

Col. Dyer had before been dispatched to attack, 
and if possible, destroy the Indian town otLittafut- . 
ches. He destroyed the place ; and upon the 28tb, 
returned to camp with twenty-nine prisoners of the 



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n Mmoiiui'ar 

proUbiled thm fiom ejHradtag to AmntkMm. 

TlM iMiB faiKly WM enouBpeci about ttirtMD 
«uietf Iron TyiuihMehet s and ttpcNi tte Isff of 
NoTenbar, a small suj^^iy of piDiriakHi waa br<iusfea 
iota cam^ Goh GoSka bad bacaa fmm^tid to a 
brigadier-gCMral ; aad was dispatelied eadf upos 
the 2d, mtk 90& eavalrjr* and nloiinlBd riaeBim* 
to attack the Cpeeks in thoir a&canifttieat. i3mt* 
Jach8on» alftho«g)i convatewent^ waii at tbit tiaciet 
extremely debilitated from long i^taqpsitioir, «^ 
eesfi^ve fiMdgue, and ejoremf soiifiitiide^ and. ImS no 
use of oneardk; but id Gen* Ckifte, he had am &Bk* 
ear to whom he might safely eniriist an eatpediliian 
of any importance) and of any danger* 

The r^idt of this first itq^ortant cngagemaati I 
j^resant to the Tsadnr is the language df ^ QfieM 
MepoHs.^^ Deeming dits alto^her the noit peo» 
ferabk modeof furnishing the reader with the de* 
tails of battles, I shall adopt it ths?oagh the worir, 
when they can be obtahied. 
« 
Gb». JACKSON^ to Got. M^UNT. 

Gamp iU Ten Idands^ Nwk 4ik,iMi. 

GOVBRKOUR BzOUKt, 

Sir.^W:eha?e retaliated tea the desfr^Citfen of 
Fort Mimms. On the 2d, I detactied Geo. Cbffise 
with a part of his brigade of davalry and aiounted 
riflemen, to destroy Tallnsbatcbes^ where a^ cimsid< 



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AKDKMT JJifiBMN. fl 



Q0ible tomm of At h^tih Creeks imcevodfioeii*^ 
fmfenL Th»Gmmi (QMiiteA diis in style: Aa 
luindied and eighQr-six of tbeeDemy were tonxui 
^md<m lahii fieki> UHlabaat HO tekm piiboner8,40 
of Bdiom hsve'beeii li«>iiglit kete. In tte ninirber 
httf there is a soflkrieney but 8ligli% wottoded to 
take e»re of l^ae who aie badly. 

I buve to regiet that A of my hrave feliows 
have been kiBed, and afaeut 30 wounded ; some 
badly, but none I hope mostly. 

iBotii oficef s and bmq behaved with ihb ulinost 
heaven^ and 4eUbemtion. 

Captains SMltfa, Bradfayt and Winsteo a«« wonnd. 
ed, aU 8li|^]d4y« No offienr is killed. 

So soon an C^. Coflte makes lus report, I shall 
enclose it. ^ 

If we had a sufieieol supply of pmvislons, we 
flAoold in a vtxj short tiine aoeomplish the object 
of the expedition* 

I have 3ie honour to be, with great respect 
yiears,&G. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

F. S. Se?«nlee9 Cherokees, under the ccNftmand 
of Col. Brown, acted with great bravery in the 
action. Tw^ of Chennbhy's soa», and Jim Fife, 
of the N^tdiez tribe, alsbdistingnished themselves. 
One oS tfaoOreek prophets is killed. 

A.J. 

It will be nolked that €^. Jackson, merely 
idhides to the subject of provisions ; bit' frd«i 



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7$ imoi&s oy V 

naflMTOBs sottrces i^ comet infbrmAtioD, it m tetf 
tain at that time> fliat a very sGaoty supply waa qq. 
band* 

The foUpwing is general Coffee's report ol flie 
Battus^oC TAZAirsHAXCHESi alluded to.in the letto* 
to Gov. BioiiDt* . ^ ,. 

Baio. Gbk. coffee, to Mu. Gbh. JAGKS0N<» 

Camp at Ten Ulandiy Nov. 4^A, ]8i3« 
Maj. Gek. Jacksost, , . 

Sir — I had the honour yesterday, of tranaioittiog- 
you a short account of aaeugageiiient that toofc^ 
place between a detachment of about 900 men 
from my brigade, with the enemy at Taliusbatdies. 
town ; the particulars whereof I beg leave herein to 
recite you. Pursuant to your order of the 3d, I. 
detailed from ray brigade of cavalry and mounted 
riflemen, 900 men and oflicers, and proceed! »g di- 
rectly to the Tallushatches 4owns, crossed Coosa 
river at the Fish Dam ford, 3 or 4 miles, above this 
place. I arrived within one and a half miles of the 
town, (distant from this place southeast 8 miles,) on 
the morning of the 3d, at which place I divided my 
detachment into two columns, the jight compo- 
sed of the cavalry commanded by Col. Allcorn, to 
cross over a large creek that lay between us and 
the towns : the left column was of the mounted 
riflemen under the command of Col. Cannon,* with 
whom I marched myself. Col. Allcorn was order- 
ed to march up on the right, and encircle one half 



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dtCbe toirtii and ftt the sMie time tte left. would 
Jbnft a fiftlf. circle <;m the left, and unite the ihesd 
of tfaecolamtisio front of the town: all of Which was 
imrformed as I conid wish* Wh^ I ardiied within: 
half a miieof the town, the drums of the emmy 
began to beat^ mingled with their savage yells, 
pr^araig finr action. . It was after sunrise an hour 
when the action was brought on by Capt. Ham- 
stond and Lient. Patterson's companies, who had 

.. gone on within the circle of alignment for the pur- 
pose of drawing out the enemy from their build* 
iiigs, which had the most happy effect. As soon 

> as C^t. Hammond exhibited his front in view of 
ibt town, (which stood in an open woodland) and 
gave a few scattering shot, the enemy fbrmed> and* 
made a violent charge on him ; he gave way as.they 
advanced, until they m\st our right column, which 
gave them a general fire,^ and then charged ; this 
changed the direction of ^charge completely; the 
enemy retreated firing, until they got ardundi and. 
in their buildings, where they made all the resist- 
ance that an overpowered soldier could do ; they 
fought as long as one existed, but their destruction 
was very soon completed ; our men rushed up to the 
doors of the houses, and in a ftw minutes killed 
the last warrior of them ; the enemy fought with 
savage fury, and met delBtth with all its horrors, 
without shrinking or complaining : not one asked 
to be spared, but fought as long aa they could stand 
or sit. In consequence of their fly ing^to tiieir hou* 



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34 MWons.Ar 

w.aBiliiibciitgmlh tte faadlie% <liiriiiiii« iaIA* 
liagihe mnkM^ v&tbo^t mtftociiai, kiUbd u«li hmmIk 
€dt:a few. of tbfi aqpniws and c^idioiH adiMi- iia*> 
ii^glftted l»y. e^nery. officer aad siMlfmxd Ihe^te^ 
lacliiBeiily bat i^idi could- not baavQided. 

ISie aumbttr oil theeomBsr MHedi «a».l86, tJhmt 
wen counted^ aad a aimiber of olhcisi tfaai{ ih^dq 
kilkd io the weeds not found* I xtlaak theM^alptt^ 
ttHiDDi a reaoooabte ouei to aajr aOdof - tliMiiwwna 
iSk^ and Mpctspners of woawn and: ^Mdwifi 
ware taken ; not one of the wanriorft e^a^pad<^Qfe 
carry Ike news* a cireumstanoe unknown heitlo!^ 
inre. 

We last Smen kilkdy aad 41 wounded, nonc^mor^. 
tltUy, the greiBiter part slightly, a number with ar* 
raws; this appears to form a yery principal part of* 
the enemy/s arms for warft^ every man. having 
a bbw: with a bundle of arrows, whicli is used alt» 
the first fire with the gug, uutir a leisme tiiQe for* 
loading offers. 

It is with {deasure I say Aat our men acted witfa 
deliberation and' firmnes8-.4inotwitfastandlng our 
numbers were superior to that of the enemy, it was 
acircufl^staaceto us uuknowo, and from the parada 
d the wemy we had cTcry reason'^io suppose 
them our equals in number : but there ajyeaied 
no yisibie ^traces of alarm in any, hv^ ontheoDn* 
trary all appeared cool and determined, and ao: 
doubt when they bet a foeof their own, or supciri- 



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or immh^, they will show the same courage as on 
tiUs occasion. 

I have the honour to be^ very riespectfullj, sir, 
your obedient servant, 

Jdtisf cbFFBK. 

nig. Oto. bf €ienlry 4ftd«ffieiiftn. 
Ma7. Gsir. AirDREW Jackson. 
^ KHUd^ 6 .]^VKtes. 

: Wimnded, 4 eaptaind, 2 li^dfenmts, 2 cof iiet^ 
3aii^Seant8, ^ corporals, i Bortifioery 34 -ptivatea;. 
Totttl Icilied and wounded, 40. 

In this report, the reader will readily see, that 
whjUe general Coffee is gratified at oomaunicating 
9D, accouBt of victory, he is ^ieved at some oC 
the circumstances attending it. *< Not one,'' he 
aays, ** asked to be spared"— ^nd without asking 
quarter, and continuing to fight, they could not be 
sypared. The regret expressed at killing and 
wounding some of the women and children, min- 
gled with the warriors, and which could not be 
^voidedy shewathat brave men are always humane^ 



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TS MEMOIRS OP 



CHAPTER VI. 

T fimnfl flf ft f rnrr m i i fi nHwinun in anmef-^EstabliahmAiit ef ForC 
Strother-— Perilous situation of friendly Creeks— Bif^atch to 
Gen. White— his condad— Battle of 7)iAai%a— Gen. Jadc- 
Sisn'sacoonntof it. / 

AT the commencement of the campaign, in' the 
Creek naltion> in 1813, the Tennessee forcest Mifi- 
tia and Volunteers, that were called into serrict^, 
consisted of two di?isions — one of West Tenii6s* 
see, commanded by Maj. Gen. Jackson, the oth- 
er of East Tennessee, commanded by Maj. Gen. 
Cocke. The diVision of the Tennessee forces 
seemed to be governM by the division which na- 
ture has made of this state by the range of the 
Cumberland mountains, running from north to 
south. Maj. Gen. Thomas Pinckney, of the Uni- 
ted States' army, was commander in chief of the 
military district in which these troops were raised 
and organized. 

Whether it was designed by, the executive of 
Tennessee that the two divisions of its forces should 
Itct in concert, or remain two distinct corps, acting 
independently of each other, cannot positively be 
determined by the writer. The first is altogether 
the most probable ; indeed it is rendered almost 
certain from the course pursued by Gen. Jack- 
son. It cannot for a moment be supposed, that a 
n^n who had so long been in public life— filling 



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ANPRSW JACXSON. 77 

atdted and lagldy ratpcmsible staUom in tb« civil 
and militaiy departmentfl, would arrogate to hint- 
aelf an authority which was not expressly^ or by 
the fairest implication, bestowed upon him. He »• 
wasd orders to the division under Gen. Cocke. 
The unfortunate collisions^ misunderstandings, and 
jealousies which for a time obstructed, and nearly 
thwarted the important and hazardous expedition 
into the country of the Greeks, though reluctantly, 
must necessarily, be alluded to, to show the cpmrse 
pursu^ by Gen. Jaclcson* 

Although the patriot will lament the existence 
of lends in a pa^triotic army, let it be remembered 
they were not confined to the militia in the last war, 
nor to those between the n\ilitia of the states, and 
the national forces ; but. that they existed in some 
departments of the United States' army itself. The 
northern campaign of 1813, is not forgotten, nor 
the * Failure of oxir arms an the Northern frontief 
erased from recollection. Gen. Wilkinson decl^reft 
in a General Order— -<« The Commander in Chief 
is compelled to retire, [from the Canadian shore,] 
by the extraordinary, unexampled, and it appears, 
unwarrantable conduct of Maj. Gen.. Hampton^ 
in refusing to- join this army with a division of 
4000 men under his command, agreeable to posi* 
tive orders from the Commander in Ghief.'^ 

The brilliant victory at Tallushatches, and the 
total defeat of the savages, fjflom which, to use the 

fan^fuage of Gen. CoJTee, ^* not one of the warriors 

7 # 



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76 aoMURs of 

esci^AtateltA^imn*^ iadiimdOea. JmkiMr io 
^ke the mmt ttBclmt ottasofts to Jbnelry|il|lit 
^naamTm'mg wvciSesi th^'aroiy had met wilb, by 
Biore iiBpoitant operations To acoi^BifiJfeih tMs^ 
he sent an eicpress iipon Nov; 4tlit (the date of hit 
Arst official account,) to Brig. Gen* WMteot Gen* 
Codecs divi^ofi, who was oaly tweoty^ftve ai&lea 
distant, ordering him with thetpoops in Iriseotti- 
SQand, to form a junction with biiu at F&rt Stn^sktir, 
which he had estabKsbed as a depot. His object 
in forming this junclion» was to augment hisforcea 
Io such an amount, as to enable him to go forward 
with confidence in attacking the enemy, and ieave 
a Ibrce i n the rear sufficient to protect thesick, Md 
guard the baggage. Although he had twice be&ie 
sent similar orders, not a word of inteil^fence was 
received from him. Upon the 7th, he dispatched 
another express. Upon tliis ^ay information was 
received by Gen. Jackson, that a fortr&s of friioidif 
Indians at Talladega^ thirty miles distant from Fort 
Strother, was in imminent danger of total destruc- 
tion, and the natives to indiscriminate massacre, by 
the hostile Creeks. They had espoused the cause 
of the Americans ; and of course had incurred ail 
the vengeful malice which natural ferocity, increas- 
ed by religious fanaticism, could feeL towards them. 
They were surrounded by a numerous body of infu* 
riated Creeks. Their runners beseeched Gen. Jack- 
son to relieve themlrom^ their peri tons situation* 
The same sentiment that induced the general to 
hazard his reputation in protecting his countrymen 



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ANDREW JACWON. 7$ 

at Ibteliezy iodoeedliini, without hedlatiGn, to ex- 
lad protecttoo to those faithful natives, whose fate 
sms idrttified wteh the success or defeat ol the 
Ainerican arms* He oomoieoced his march^ conk- 
mandiBg ill peisoQ, at 12 o'clock io the eveiiing«; 
Hedis^tchdd another expttas to Gen. White, t6 
repair that xi%ht to Fort Strother and protect it in 
his absoice. To his inexpressible surprise, in a 
afaoit time he recdred a message from him that he 
hacl, agreeable to Us order, commenced a march to 
fkMTt Strotlser, bat tliat he had received coudter or* 
derafrom Maj. Gen. Cocke, to join hftn at C/iatuga 
creek f— and that he sliould obey Mm ! 
* A situation more embarrassing can hardiy be 
Imagfoed* His sick and baggage in his rear, liable 
every moment to destruction-^the friendly Creeks 
in his front in momentary danger of annihilation. 
The hour of decision had come. Kclying upon the 
gallantry of his troops'— knowing the justice of his 
csanse, and hoping for the protectien of heaven, he 
rapidly advanced upon the enemy, ignorant of their 
Ibrce. The result I give in the general's own lan- 
guage. 

Majt, Gen. JACKSON to Gov. BLOUNT. 

Camp Slrbther^ near Ten Islands of Coosai 

Nov. iltk, 181S. 
Sir — ^I am just returned from an excursion which 
I took a few days ago, and hasten to acquaint ym 
with the result. 



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80 . uj^uoit^ Of 

Late, on the eventog of the 7tli last a ramusir 
arriTed Irom the friendly {Nurty ia La$bley's^ Fort» 
(Tallad^;a) distant about, thirty miles below «s 
with the information that the hostile Creekst ia 
great fincce, had encamped near the place, and were 
preparing to destroy it; and earnestly entreated 
that I would lose no time in affording themrelieEi 
IJrged by their situation, as well as by a wish to 
meet the euemy so soon as an opportunity would 
offer, I determined upon commenGing my march 
thither with all my disposable force, in the course 
of the night ; and immediately dispatched an ex- 
press to Gen. White, advising him of my intended 
movement, and urged him to hasten to this encamp- 
ment by a forced march, in order to protect it in my 
absence. I had repeatedly written to the general, 
to form a junction with me as speedily as practica* 
ble, and a few days before had rec;eived hia^assurance, 
that on the 7th he would join me. I coQimenced 
crossing the river at the Ten Islands, leaving ber 
hind memy baggage waggons and whatever might 
retard my progress ; and encamped that night with<- 
in six miles of the fort I had set out to relieve. At 
midnight I had received by an Indian runner, a 
letter from Gen. White, informing me that he had 
received my order, but that he had altered his 
coursei and was on his march backwards to join 
Major Gen. Cocke, near the mouth of the Cbatuga. 
I will not now remark upon the strangeness of this 
manoeuvre : but it was now too late to change my 



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ANl^REW JACftiON* 8l 

iplan, or make any new arrangefnents ; and b(B- 
tween 3 and 4 o'clock, I recommenced my marcli 
to meet the enemy, who 'were encamped within a 
quarter of a mile of the fort. ' At sunirise we came 
within half a mile of them, and having formled my 
men, I moved on in battle order» The infiintry 
were in three lines— the militia on the- left, and the 
vohinteei^ on the rights The cavalry formed the 
two extreme -wings, and were ordered to advance in 
d^'curvei keeping their reair connected with the ad- 
vance of their in&ntry lines, and enclose the enemy 
in a circle. The advanced guard whom I sent for- 
ward to bring on the engagement, met the attack of 
the enemy with great intrepidity ; and having pour- 
ed upon them four or five very galling rounds, fell 
back as they had been previously ordered, to the 
main army. The enemy pursued, and the front line 
was now ordered to advance and meet him ; but 
owing to some misunderstanding, a few companies 
of militia, who composed a part of it, commenced a 
retreat. At this moment a corps of cavalry, com- 
manded by Lieut. CoL Dyer, which I had kept as 
a reserve was ordered to dismount, and fill up 'the 
vacancy occasioned by the retreat. This order was 
executed with a great deal of promptitude and ef- 
fect. The militia seeing this, speedily rallied: 
and the fire became general along the front line, 
and on that part of the wings which was contiguous. 
The enemy, unable to stand it, began to retreat ; 
but were met at every turn, and repulsed in every 



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08 MfiHOUMB W . 

4Ureelian. llie figl« wiag dtoied 1kM% wltli^ 
jDost 4estntGti^ fire,to thf mMftl9ti|s,;adisitaQ08<ef 
about three mUeSf-^aiid hadrl not been ^oinpeHedl 
^f the /mtx pasQ! the. diiUlia in 4be oulset of -^ 
battle, to ilisBiQiint mj r^senw, I Mtev^ luftittiMK 
4^1 them would Jiav€ etfoaped^ Tbe victory^, heir- 
ever, was very dedsive-^-iSO of tlie eo^iijr iwtc 
left dead — aod there caH be bo doubt but wmxff 
more were killed who were not IbiimL Wherever 
Ihey ran, they left behind tcaoesof blood ; and it is 
believed that very few will retnrn to their viHagOB 
in as sound a condition as they left them. I wat 
<K>aipeUed to return to this place to protect the aiok 
and wounded, and get my baggage o^. 

In the engagement, we lost 15 killed, and 8ft 
wounded-^-S of tbem have silK« died. All the offi- 
cers acted with the utmost bravery, and so did all 
t the privates, except that part of tbe olitiitia who re^- 

^ treated at the comoaenoement of the battie^and 
they hastened to atone for their error. Takilig' 
the whole tt^ther they have realisaed the high tj^ 
pectations I had formed of them, and hkve fkirly en^ 
titled themselves to the s^titode ol their country^ : 

ANDREW JACKSON. 
Bis £xcelleiicy WiLti» BtovufTrNasMlle. 

The following additional dispatch completes the 
account of the Battle of Taixadega. 
Camp Strother^ near Ten Islands^ l&th Nov, 1813. 

Yoii will perceive from a draft which I shall send 
you, that had there been no departure from the ori- 



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gkWjd^mi^i^ fcfttttfe, net aa Indian, coald Itatre es* 
«pedr$ aa* «t»t as the battle dM terminate^. E 
hetityetittfe oo impartttl'maia oati say that a more 
iphotdid SMilt^ hu^ m s^y instaaoe attended om 
arfluoin iaodv siiM^e tbe eommimceiiieiit of tlie war.' 
The force of the emmy^ is represented by theoi^ 
aelFes to have been lOM ; and it does not> appear 
from their fire afidthespaeeof ground which they 
occupied, that their number can have been less. 
Two hundred and ninety-nine were left dead on the 
ground'; and no doubt many more were killed who 
were not found. It is believed that very few esca- 
ped without a wound. In a very few weeks, if I 
had a sufficiency of supplies, I am thoroughly con- / 
vinced I should be able to put an end to Creek 
hostilities. 

Too much praise cannot he bestowed upon the 
advance, led on by Ck>l. Carrol, for the spirited man- ^ 

mtat in which they commenced and sustained the; 
attack ; nor upon the reserve, commanded by 
Lieut. CoL Dyer, and composed of Capt's. Smith's 
Morton's, Axum's, Edwards', and Hammond's com- 
panies, for the gallantry with which they met and 
repulsed the enemy. In a word, officers of every 
grade, as wett as the privates, realized the high 
expectations I had formed of them, and merit the 
gratitude of their country. 

I should be doing injustice to my staff, composed 
of Majors Reid and Searcy, my aids. Col. Sitter and 
Major Anthony, Adjutant, and assistant Adjutant- 



«.. 



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Si XBIIOIRS W 

General ; Col. Glrr6l| laspectoiMGeteral ; Mqor 
Strothtf , topographer ; Mr. Cttnoinghioiy my; 8e^^ 
retary; aud Coh Stokey D. Hayiies» . QuarteiyMas^*' 
^ter-Genaral ; not to say that they wereev«ry trhcKe. 
in the midst of danger, circulating my orders. They 
deserve aod receive my thanks. . . . 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

In reading this account of the second victory ob- 
tained over the Creeks, it cannot have escaped the 
notice of the reader, with what delicacy the gene- 
ral mentions the retreat of a part of his force, and 
with what readiness he endeavours to exculpate 
them from censure, by saying — ^< they hastened to 
atone'/or their error!'* This retreat, however, had a 
most pernicious effect* It tended to excuse subse- 
quent retreats, and to encourage the desponding 
hopes of the Indian warriors. When they ome saw 
an assailing enemy shrink from a sanguinary com- 
bat, they expected to see it again. 



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4N0REW JACEtfOir. 85 



CHAPTER TIL 

^ peace to Gen. Jackflon— Gen. "White destrays their toivna— 
Measures of ^he Georgia Legislature— Victoiy at •^i^ot»«e^— 
Brig. Gen. Fleyd's account of it— -Gen. Jackson's atuation in 
December, 1813 — ^Mutiny among his troops— also in Gen. Cof- 
fee's brig^e— dismissal of both. 

IN oonseguence of the refusal of Brig. Gen. 
White to form a junction ^vith Gen. Jackson, or to 
repair to Fort Strother in his absence, he was com- 
pelled to relinquish his intentions of carrying the 
war forward into the Indian territories, atnd to re- 
turn back with his wounded to that fortress. This 
conduct of Gen. White, acting under Maj. Gen. 
Cocke, was productive of a double disadvantage, 
and a double injury — it prolonged the war with 
the Creeks, and compelled those of them who wish- 
ed for peace, to continue to fight. 

The JTUlabee tribes, after the signal victory^ at 
Taliadegaj were solicitous to make j^ce with 
Geo. Jackson and the ITnited States. He was as 
ready to negociate as to conquer ; but before any 
terms could be made, Gen.' White attacked them 
"—and, while they were preparing to bury the tom- 
ahawk, they were compelled to wield it. Suppos- 
ing that the forces under Gen. White, were a part 
of Gen. Jackson's army, and that while they were 

sueiug for peace, to be assailed by a superior force, 
8 



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m acufotss Of 

was fugustiiable duplicity, they bimtnn mart cbt 
raged thao eTer. Desjperatioi' look the place o^ 
timidity, and, daring the rei9aiiid^ of the wv, tbe 
Hillabees oeve^ asked quarter, nor granted it. 
Tfa«y fbi^kt with tbr ngiog £aiy 4>f omiums ; and 
eaoii one seemed to have become a ^ San qfAttno- 
mockt wh» sc&med t9 camplam^^^^h^y asited no 
fim>iifs, and^ztcflded no merey. 

Geo. White destroyed the Hillabee towns as be 
enterd them by conflagration. The first town 
was Unk Oaijuskie^ of thiity houses ; the ttcood 
Genalgaf of ninety-thcee houses. NiUg Choftoa^ 
to use his own language, he *' consideeed it most 
prudent not to destroy, as it might poiisibly be of 
use at some future period." Upon thie 18th No- 
vember, he entered an Hillabee town, «< consisting" 
as he says, <« o£abmit Sifi, (hostile Creelcs,) of 
which number, about 60 warriors w^e killed on the 
spot, and the rest made prisoners." This town he 
also destroyed. In his report he say&— ^* We loet 
not one drop of blood in accomplishing this enter- 
prize." It is without a parallel, in Indian warfare, 
that so many warriors should be slain and caftii- 
red, and «< not one drop of blood'' shouM be lost by 
the force j^ssailing them ; and can be accounted #ar, 
perhaps iq^n no other principle, ftan that the JETiU- 
^aiees scorned to abed the blood of those to ii^om 
they were, at the very tim^ supplicating for peace f 
The facts are before the reader-^hennttt make his 
own inferences. It will surely be recollected tbat 



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€teQ. Jaekson, Koiv«V6r sangutnaiy necesskyecm^ 
pelted liUii to rnnke the war after this period, had 
hitherto exercised a lenity towards the Creeks, al- 
most inconsistent with energy. He had acted like 
'an huflsane conqueror, who chose rather to conciH- 
ate a ruthless foe by mercy, than to exterminate 
them by the sword* 

It has previously been stated, that the Creeks, 
liad determined to attack the frontiers of Georgia 
and Tennessee, simultaneously. Measures equally 
efficient with those adopted by the executive and 
legislature of Tennessee were adopted by the ex- 
ecutive and legislature of Georgia. His Excel- 
lency iVf^r Earfy^ govwoour of that state, upon 
the Bth November, 1813, communicated to the 
Sienateand House of Representatives, the informa- 
tion he had received of savage depredations and 
murders upon tlie frontiers. The l^islature im- 
mediately authorized the gov^nonr, to cause the 
frontiers to be put in a state of defence, and to 
send a sufficient force into the heart of the Creek 
country. As the executive and mirlitary powers of 
Georgia acted in concert with Gen. Jackson, the 
measores pursued by them must necessarily be al- 
luded to. 

Brig. Gen. J^kn FloyA^ commanded the Georgia 
militia. The victory obtained by him at Aaiaussee 
opon the Tak^oosa river, was a signal advantage 
to the American arms. It tended to increase the 
fears of the Creeks, and to hasten the conquest of 



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9$ jiffsiioiM oi* 

thdr ccHiQlry. Seosible that no deaoriplioa of tUs 
battle will be so graiifjruig to the leMert as ttmt 
given, to the iccomiilished canimaiider of the gab 
laot troops who achieved the viotory» I present it 
in the language of the general to Gov. Early. 

" Having received iaformation that immbers of 
the hostile Indians were assembled aX Avtovasee^ a 
town on tbe southern bank of the Tsdapoosa, 
about 18 miles from the Hickory Ground, and 30 
above the junction of that river with the Coosa, I 
proceeded to its atUck, with 950 of the Georgia 
militia, accompanied by between 3 and 400 friend- 
ly Indians. Having encamped within i»ne or ten 
miles of the point of dettinalipn the precediog 
evening, we resumed the march, a few miottles 
before one on the morning of tiie 29th, and at hall 
past six were formed for action in front of the 
town. 

Booth's battalion composed the right column, 
and marched from its centre. Watson's battalion 
compqsed the left, and marched from its right-^ 
Adams' rifle company, and Merriwether'^ under 
Lieut. Hendon, were on theflanks--€apt. Thomas' 
artillery marched in front of tbe righ^ column in 
the road. 

It was my intention to have completely surrcmn'' 
ded the enemy, by appayiag the right wing of mf 
force, on Canleebee Creek, at the mouth of ^vhieh' 
I was informed the town stood, and resting the 
left on the river bank below the town, but to 



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ANPEfiW JACKSOSr. 89 

oitf surprise, as the day dawned, we perceived a 
second town about 500 yards below that which we 
had first viewed, and were preparing to attack. 
The plan was immediately changed-i->three com- 
panies of inhntry on the left were wheeled into 
echelon^ and advanced to the low town, accompa- 
nied by Merriwether's rifle company, and two 
troops of light dragoons under the command of 
Captains Irwin and Steele. 

The residue of the force apfnroached the upper 
town, and the battle soon became general. The 
Indians presented themselves at every point, and 
fought with the desperate bravery of real fanatics. 
The well directed fire, however of the artillery, 
added to the charge of the bayonet, soon forced 
them to take refuge in the out-houses, thickets, and 
copses, in rear of the town; many, it is believed, 
concealed themselves in caves, previously formed 
for the purpose of secure retreat, in the high bluff 
of the river, which was thickly covered with reed 
and brush wood. The Indians of the friendly par- 
ty who accompanied us on the expedition, were di- 
vided into four companies, and placed under the 
command of leaders of their selection. They were, 
by engagement entered into the day previous, to have 
crossed the river above the town, and been post- 
ed (Ml the opposite shore during the action, for 
the purpose of firing on such of the enemy as might 
attempt to escape, or keep in check any reinforce- 
ment whidi might probably be thrown in from the 
8 * 



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90 MEMOIRS or ' 

neighbouring town ; but owing to the difficulty of 
the fordy mid coiduess of the weather* and the 
lateness of the hour, this anrauganent iailedi and 
their leaders were directed to cross Caaleebee 
creek, aod occupy that flank, to prevent escapes 
from the Tallasaee town. Some time after the a(> 
tioa coinmeoced, our red friends thronged in disor- 
et ia ihe rear of our lines* The Cowetaws under 
Mcintosh, and Tookaubatchi^s under the Jilad 
Dog's Son, fell in on our flanks, and fought wttli^ 
an intrepidity worthy of any troops. 

At 9 o'clock, the enemy was completely drivm 
from the plain, and the houses of both towps wiap- 
ped in flames. As we were then 60 miles from any 
depot of provisions, and our five days' rations pretty 
much reduced, in the heart pf an enemy's country, 
which, in a few moments, dQuid^have |)oured from 
its numerous towns, hosts of the fiercest warriors-— 
as soon as the dead and wounded were properly 
disposed of, I ordered the place to be abandonedy 
and the troops to commence their march to Chata* 
houchie* 

It is difficult to determine the strength of the en* 
emy, but &t>m the information of some of the ohiefo, 
which it is said can he relied upon, there were wh 
sembled at Autoussee* warriors from eight towns, 
for its defence, it being their beloved ground oa 
which they proclaimed no white man coukl appvoac^ 
without inevitable destruction. It b difficult to 
give a precise account of the loss ofthe enemy ; 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 9l 

but finom the number idiieb were lying spatteFed 
over the field, together wUh those destroyed in 
the towns, and the many slain on the bank of the 
river, whieh respectable efficers ajBirm they saw 
laying in heaps at the waters' edge, where they had 
been pirecipltated by their surviving friends, their 
loss in killed, independent of their wounded, must 
have been at least 300 [among whom were the 
Autoyssee and Tallassee kings] and from the cir* 
cumstaiice of their making no efforts to molest our 
return, probably greater.' The number of buildings 
burnt^ some of a superiour order for the dwellings 
of savages, and filled with valuable articles, is su 
posed to be 400. 

Adjt. Gen. Newman rendered important services 
during the action, by his oool and deliberate cour- 
^;e. My aid, Major Crawford, discharged with 
promptitude the duties of a brave and meritorous 
officer. Maj. Face, who acted as field aid, also 
distinguished himself ; both these gentlemen had 
their horses shot under them, and the latter lost 
bis. Dr. Williamson, hospital surgeon, and Dr. 
Glopton, were prompt and attentive in the dis« 
charge of their duty towards the wounded, during 
the action. 

Msyor Freeman, at the head of Irwin's troop of 
cavalry, and p^xt of Steele's, made a furious and 
aucoessful charge upon a body of Indians, sabred se- 
veral, and completely defeated them ; Capt. Thom- 
aaaad his company, Capt. Adams and Lieut. Hen- 



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90 . MXMOIRS OF 

don's rifle companies, killed a great nuuay Indiaaa, 
and deserve i^articular praise : Capt. Barloa's eosi^ 
pany was in the hottest of the battle^ and fought 
like soldiers. Capt. Myric, Capt. Little, Gapt* 
King, Ca^pt. Broaduax, Capt Cleaveland, Capt. Jo- 
seph T. CuiiQingham, and Capt. Lee, with their 
companies, distinguished thein^elves. Brig* Geo* 
Shackleford was of great service in Mnging the 
troops into action ; and Adjt. Broadnax, and Major 
Montgomery, who acted as assistant Adjutant,show^ 
ed great activity and courage. Major Booth used 
his best endeavours in bringing his battalion to ac- 
tion, and Maj. Watson's battalion acted with con- 
siderable spirit. Irwin's Patterson's, and Stale's 
troops of cavalry, whenever an opportunity present^ 
ed, charged with success. Lieut. Strong had hU 
horse shot, and narrowly escsq^ed, and Quarter 
Master Tennell displayed the greatest heroism, and 
miraculously escaped, though badly wounded, after 
having his horse shot from under him. The topo- 
graphical engineer was vigilant in his endeavours 
to render service. 

The troops deserve the highest praise for their 
fortitude in enduring hunger, cold, and &tigue, 
without a murmur^ having marched 120 miles in 
seven days. 
The friendly Indians lost ifi/Bveral killed and wound- 
ed, the number not exactly known. Capt. Barton, 
an active and intelligent officer, (the bearer of these 
dispatches) can more particularly explain to your 



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ANDREW JACKSON. * 9S 

»€eUency the conduct, iiioveiii€hts> and operations 
of the army.'* 

The importance of this victory may be duly ap- 
preciated, when it is considered, th^t besides the 
death of two kings, and two hundred warriors-* . 
double Aat number wounded— and four hundred 
superiour Indian residences destroyjed ; the reU- 
gious charm that had led them on to desperation, 
was dissolved. Upon « thdr beloved ground on 
whkk they proclaimed no white man could approach^ 
ixkhtmt inetitable destruction^*^ they saw their chiefs 
and warriors fall— their houses consume, and the 
uMies lose but eleven men. 

Ir ib a litths singular that Gen* Floyd should 
mention every officer that was wounded, and even 
every officer's horse that was killed, and omit to 
mention, that he was very badly yfrounded himself 
A brave man is always modest in regard to his own 
merits; but the general seemed to have that modes- 
ty, which may be denominated, false, in omitting 
this in his official report. ^ 

While these interesting events were taking place 
in one part of the Creek country. Gen. Jsckson 
was placed in a most unpleasant, not to say peril- 
ous, situation, at Fort Strother. His volunteers, 
who had become familiar with service, by descend- 
ing the Missisippi the preceding campaign, and 
who, with the Tennessee militia, had become famil- 
iar with victory bver the Creeks, began to look 
toward home, for the ease and tranquillity of private 



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M KS«OJilS.OF 

life, and to tbe ordinary pmsuits of privitte businasa, 
as the means of advancing private interest No 
man te the service had more reasons to wish and 
pant §0T retirement, than Gen. Jackson. His so» 
Ucitnde as commaQder«ii«his extremely debilitated 
Itate of heahh-«ihe disaffectitm of his men— the 
deiieiency of supplies for his armv'*— the conduct of 
the East Tennessee militia, niider Oen. Cocke, 
and the open mutiny of some part of his army, 
presented a tissue of discouraging^ considerations, 
which would have disheartened a man of more than 
ordinary fortitude. Had he retired from tiie ser- 
vice of his country at this time, he would have re^ 
tired with honour ami wirh appTotnetidn.' But he 
believed, and Ire acted upon the principle^ that 
until ** all was done^ nothing was done.^* He knew^ 
that the hopes of the frontier settlers of Tennessee 
and Georgia were fixed upon him ; he knew that 
they had derived encouragement from his successes, 
and that from his exertions they hofied to be placed 
in a state of permanent security* Having encoun- 
tered and overcome difficulties before, be resolved 
to encounter them again, for he was now in the 
m idst of them. 

The ** Tennessee Volunteers,*' claio^ to be 
discharged on the ground of having served one 
year out of faw, from the time they were organized. 
Many of the officers, who belonged to this corps, 
deserted the ground they ought to have maintained 
as soldiers^ and resorted to arguments which would 



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ANBIWW jTACSSON. W 

hKvp disgrapdd peuifogsers. Althongb they had 
not served a yis^Xf they had for that period beea 
organized, and tfaqrvcee very much disposed t» 
give treigbt to.MgimieDto which coincided with 
their incilinatioitt. They resolved to leave a mU 
demess where they were simroanded by inplacable 
enemies ; exposed to severe privations, and in ex* 
pectaution ol enduring the dreadful horrors of fa* 
mine. Gen* Jackson exerted every iisculty lo 
arouse their desponding spirits. He appealed to 
the pride of the vdiunteers, by reminding them of 
thqeacpedition toNatchez»andof thevicCories which 
they, and the militia, had gained over the Creduu 
Ife ai4»ealed to the sensibility 4>f them all, by rep- 
resenting the daagor of their fsitbers and mothers, 
their wives and children. He alluded to the mas^ 
sacre at Fort Mimms, in Missisippi, and endeavour* 
cd to arouse their revenge* He endeavoured to 
excite their vanity, by speaking of the fame thi^ 
«« Tennessee Volunteers'' had acquired at Taliiti- 
hatches and TaUadega. But every avenue to per- 
suasion was closed. The cogent jstddresses of the 
general, were lost upon the apathy of &e soldiers, 
and the volunteers became mutineers. The gene* 
xal laid aside the language of entreaty and assumed 
that of conunand. He prevented, at the hazard of 
bis life^ the departure of the troops ; but soon 
found that an army which required one half of it 
to guard the other, had no efficiency. He ordered 
them to be marched home, and to be disposed of 
by the Presidentp or the Govemour of TcDtnessee. 



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96 nftifoiiis Of 

It was now about the middle of December* 
Geo. Cocke, had for the first time joined Gen. 
Jackson ; -but upon finding the time for which Ai« 
men were enlisted, had nearty esEfiml, and that he 
could not hope ifom patriotism, wliaf: he could not 
enfiMTce by power, he cnrdered Gen. Cocte to modi 
his troops home. But few troops now remained 
with Gen. Jackson* Soon after the battle of Tal- 
ladega, Brig. Gen. Ck>&*ee*s mounted volunteers 
and cavalry, were permitted to retire into the set- 
tlements, to recruit their honies. They were to 
rendezvous at Huntsviile, in Missisippi, upon die. 
8th December, where Gen. Coffee was dangerously^ 
sick. Upon thie excellent officer and his gallant 
9ien, Gen. Jackson placed the most confident reli- 
ance. They rendezvoused up6n the 8th ; but ttey 
had caught the infection that pervaded the infantry 
— the fever of private life. They however pro- 
ceeded toward headquarters; but they were no 
longer << the men they were,^^ It must always be 
admitted, that they had already rendered essential 
service to their country, and it* was the reputation 
they had acquired, that rendered it desirable U> 
have them continue in the service. Gen. Jackson,- 
seconded in all his views by the gallant Coffee, and 
by many patriots of the first water, exerted again 
his great powers ; but exerted them in vain. Gov. 
Blount ordered the vobmteers to be dismissedt and 
they returned home. 



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ANOttSW JACUON* tf 



Oeoml &dGMii'9 altui&ttftt tiw eoBiiii«mne«t ef ]A14-Tla9 
hopes revive— Victoiy at Eccanacfuicth or Holy Ground— With- 
etioftd, the Indian 'Pr<^het«*->^oL Cantin joiiid Gen. JadDwn— 
TktOfies at Mmuc^fiMf Jaa. 33dfc-4Kt £M«iacAB^ Iiie34tb^ 
Gen. Jackfon'a official report of than— ApplauM bestowed 
upon solfUers. 

GEN. JACKSON "was cow in a sUuatioa which 
reqpiired all the ibrtitiitle of the man—all the nerw 
of the seltlieri and all the sagacity of Ae slatesnao* 
Hehehl frequent ooannunications with Got. Blomit 
of Tranessee* Gov. Early of Georgia, and Maj» 
Gen. Pinckney ; and his opinion seined to be a 
guide for theif^s. Certain it is, that Gov^ Bloniit, 
toward the close of 1813, owing to the disaffeetion 
of the Tennessee troops, and the reluctance with 
which V(rfunteers appeared, recommended an aban- 
donment of the expedition into the Creek country* 
^Tfae urgent and cogent expostulations of Gen* 
Jackson, induced hf m to change his ofHBion, and to 
resort to the most energetic meanires to prosecute 
Ae war whidi had been so succedsfiiUy commenced 
byhinu 

Perhaps the situation of Gen. Jackson, at this 
time,' cannot be better described than it is in the 
folk>wing letter, written by a gentleman, known by 
the author to be of the first respectability. 



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98 VEUOTRS OF 

Huntsville, M. T. Dec. 2S, IBH. 
<* Since tlie battle of Tallushatches and Tallade- 
ga, the army of Gen. Jackson has crumbled to pie* 
ces. The whole of bis volunteer in&ntrf are 
returning home — insisting that their time of seryioe 
expired on the 10th of this month, being the anniver- 
sary of their rendezvous at Nashville. ' The general, 
however, did not discharge them ; the decision is 
left with the governour of Tennessee. What he will 
do, id not yet known. The universal impression^ 
however, is, that they will be discharged. Yet 
nothing is more clear than that they have not ser- 
ved 12 months-— and they were, by law, to serve 
13 months in a period of 2 years, unless sooner 
discharged. The general's force now at fort Stro- 
ther, Ten Islands of Toosa, may amount to about 
1500 men, chiefly drafted militia. Of these, nearly 
the whole will be entitled to discharge about the 
4th of the ensuing month. It is supposed that not 
more than 150, or 200 (who are attached to the 
general personally, and will remain through motives 
of affection,) will be left with him after that day. 
Doubtless you know that the brigade of cavalry 
volunteers and mounted riflemen under the com- 
mand of Gen. Coffee, were some time since ordered 
into the settlements to recruit their horses for a few 
days, and procure new ones. About half, perhaps 
800, appeared at the day and*^ place of rendezvoift ; 
but of these not inore than 600 would consent to 
go on after the IQth. About half of this last Hum- 



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AHORSW JACKSOH* 99 

be^ w«re of ihe M voUanteer cavalry, the rest 
flXNiaied men newly raised. The first will oer- 
tMnly retuin with the volunteer infantry, their terin . 
conuneneiiig and ezpiriog together* The last claim 
a discharge at the expiration of three mouths from 
the day they were mustered into seivice ; which 
must be nearly out. We may say, then, that all ' 
these are gone too. Yet Gen. Jackson has very 
recently received an order from Gen. Pinckney, to 
l^rrison and maintain every inch of ground he gains. 
And although all active exertions of the campaign 
seem to be paralised, I still hope this may, and will 
be done* Gen* Ckicke is now in East Tennessee, en* 
deavouring to collect a new levy ; as to his success 
we know nothing. But Gen. Roberts^ from West 
Tennessee, passed through our country three days 
ago, and has just crossed the river with about 350 
men* Col. Carrol, iospector-genmnl of this army, 
arrived to day with a force of 5 or 600^ and 4 comi 
panics are proposed to be sent from this county. 
How long these men ^re to serve, I know not— not 
longer I lancy than three months. I trust, howevert 
that this system of short service, wretched as it is in- 
efficient, and expensive above all others, will yet 
enable Jackson to occupy till spring the ground he 
has won. Perhaps the return of moderate weather, 
and great efforts meanwhile, may collect around his 
banner, an army sufficient to effect the complete dis- 
comfiture and prostration of the Creek power. This, 
bowevipr, will be every day a work of greater diffi- 



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100 MBMoiJis aw ^ 

ciiHjr. Tilt Etagltsh hmn alretdy ajpcwtdip 
l^ee «l BiiMMDlav 7 aail having troopt ob boaidt 
besidea two bomb vessels. Orieans will be «mmu* 
eed. Mobile is cmisMJkr^ in gteet 4||0§e«» Tly 
fefoe on the Teoibigbee waiers, end tbe Sd iq;iflBeiDit 
ascending the Alabama, will be oaUed to its defence. 
This gives the Greeks breathing time, and lesseu 
the force destined to crash them. Augustine, too^ 
will doubtless be occupied by British troops ; and 
from these points, arms, amoiunitioB, and pnbape 
men and leaders^ will be pushed tmib^^oAaf ^m 
Upper and Middle Greihs. The Sewnolee said 
the ronaway negroes among thes^ may be immA 
looee upon the sea coast of Georgia.*' 

To esqp^rieaced officers and sol4ierB, wholni#w 
the importance (rf eftoienl authority in a eom- 
mander, and the neoeesity of striot obedienee ia 
an army, the cirenmstanees in whioh Gen. laokaeii 
was idaced, would be considered as calculated to 
excite apiHTeheBsions, If not disooutigement^ Hm 
army was un anomaly in military tactics. It wimld 
remind a spectator of a board of aotim al a theMae^ 
who individually entered the stages-performed tbm 
part of a comedian or a taragadlan, and m«de 
«ach one his exit, as whim or fieiney dictaled. * and 
returned at call of the manager, w disappeaoMl 
f(urever. 

"niie firmness, the constancy, imd the oourme <xf 
Gen. Jackson, inoreased as the prospects oi suc- 
cess diminished. As to his- enemies, the Creeks^ 



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-fie w^ im&y to meet tbem with almost any dispar* 
itf of feroe. To meet them was to conquer them. 
Bat'to see his friends disheartened, and his secret 
jNiemies plotting his dtseomfitnre, was ^ the unkind* 
est ctdofcdly** and would have justified him tn ez- 
elaittiog*, with a most pathetic bard— 

' ** The shaft that deepest in my bosom went, 
* Flew from the bow pretended friends&ip bent." 

* ^ <3rfpenl Jadcson loimd every appeal be made to 
the patrioti^Bof the troops, when the day of dit* 
.charge arrived, wholly fruitless, and he no longer 
atten^tod to detain theni* It was lo bima^somrce 
o£ real consolation, however, that a number of per- 
soiial friends, ai^l aa^oiiqpjished oiEbeers, remained 
true to him, to their country, and to their God.« 
JSrom them, he kn^w he should derive trtacy mUt- 
sme in preparing the new recruits, who were as- 
seiiri>iiag at Hontsville, in Missis^i, and who 
had not becoaie inflected with mutiny* ^ ' ^ 

As tlie most imp^vious darkness, is said tmif^ 
vade the horizxin immediatdy before the dtLrmkM 
day, so whea the darkest clouds of adversit||i «a- 
velcfked Gen. Jacksw, and his &w patriotic fsso- 
cMtes, the most cheering reveria^ of fortune was it 
hand. . '_. •,;,: 

Although there was no imm^iate connecticmjie- 
tween the volunteers upon the Alabama river, uiKlib 
the command of Brig. Gen. Claibmrne, yctrJtbe for- 
ces under each, as well as those under the gal* 
9* 



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103 MSiioiRS or 

hint 6efi« Floyd, i^l acted in cooctrt* G«n« Jftck- 
sotiiwas coo8taI)t^f tdvisea of tbeir monmentti, 
and cotiatantly exerting himself to fdiete them; 
Be had no wish to monopolize th€ glory of eofti. 
qoeritig'the aiost warlike tribe of barbarians in the 
universe. He wished t&t no hwrris, but Ae gratis 
fude of his countrymen, for the protection which 
he and other gallant officers and soMiera migh se* 
cure for them. 

About the 1st of January, 1814, he receive* the 
afiimating intelligence that Gen. Chiiborm had 
achieved an important victory upon the Alabama^ 
more^ian one hundred mites above Fort Stoddart, 
his head qumrtera. The town where the battle wat 
feughti was tilled Ecamachaca^ ot Holy Grmmd. 
ItwaS' tte res^^nce of WUktrf^d^ Frimrif, and 
Sinfttistetj principal prophets. It was built since 
th^ commencement of bostiHties as a place of secu^ 
rityfor the natives, and as a depot for provisioBS. 
Like Autoussee^ it was deemed the grave of white 
nm0 Upon the S8d De^mb^, it was attacked; 
between thirty and forty warriors were slatii ; tbe 
whol»town, of 30O houses, destroyed, and an im« 
mense quantity of provisions taken. TheKrw» 
being surrounded by swamps and deep ravines^ 
facilitated the escape of the savages fipom the pot* 
,q( the Americans. The next <lay, a town of 
houses, about eight miles above the hdfy 
gitmnd, was destroyed ; together with three <tts* 
ninguished Indians, and all the Indians' boats. 



si^o 

si!Ry 



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AN0RSW JAOftdON. 103 

\vad the eMiiiiftii^r of tiw Iti^MS^ te tbtir ftiriou0 
and murderous attack upon Fort Mimt&s, at Ten- 
5(Ko settlementy in Missisippi. He narrowly escaped 
. Cloture* and contioued to fight with the rage of ft 
fonatte, the luryofa damion^ and the diabolical 
ferocity of a devil mcamate, until, saturated with 
the blood of Americans} and witaessing the almost 
. total extinction of his own tribe, he voluntariiy and 
dauntlessly, flung^himsdf into the hands of Gen. 
Jtoksi^, and demanded his protection. Be will 
agaie be meatioBed. 

While these intisresting events were transpiring 
upon the Alabama, a newly organized omps were 
rating iit Tennessee and Missisippi, to reseat to 
the standard 6f Gen. Jacltson) who were designed, 
with those who should follow them» to put an end 
to the most sanguinary war which savage ven^ 
geanoOi aided by British gcdd, and Spanish perfidy^ 
everpioseeutBdL 

A gallant officer now oonimenced his miliinry 
caMur, which was eo&sumniated at New-Orleans, 
by a orown of unfadiiig laurels-^JCoL CLiaaox. 
He proceeded to Fort Strother upon the 9d Jan^ 
nary, 1814^ to concert measures with Gen* Jack- 
son* They were concerted and executed with a 
cderily which may well a^tcmidi the veteran amr- 
dials of Europe* 

It wottid be unpardonable in the author to at- 
tempt to detail titem in his own language, since he 



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tM iifeiioiiw or 

hfts iriQ his pow«r^ |x> pra»ttt Ikereate* with thit 
deeply interestf og oficial report 'whidi fioAlows* 

M^j. Qn^. JACKSON, of Tetm€S9ce FolufUeers^ to 
Maj. Gkk. PINCKNEY, of the U. S. Army. 

Head Quarters, Fort Strothcr, Ian. 29, 1814. 
Maj. Gen. Thomas P!nckncr/y 

Sir-— I had the honour of informing you in a lef- 
icr of the 3Ist ult. [express] of an excursion I 
contemplated makibg still further in the enemy's 
country, with the new raised volunteers from Ten- 
nessee. I had ordered those troops to form a 
junction with me on tlie 10th inst. but they did 
not arrive until the 14th. Their number, including 
officers, was about 80(>> and on the 15th, I marched 
them across the river to graze their horses. Oil 
the next day I followed with the remainder of idy 
forc6, consisting of the artillery company, with one 
' six pounder, one company of infantiy of 48 men, 
two companies of spies commanded by Capfs. 
Goklon and Russell, of about 30 men each, and a 
company of volunteer officers, headed by Cren. 
Coffee, who had been abandoned by his men, and 
who still remained in the field awaiting the oiders 
of the government ; making my force, exclusive of 
Indians, nine hundred and thirty. 

The motives which influenced me to penetrate 
still farther into the enemy's country, with this 
force, were many and urgent. The terms of ser* 
vice of the new raised volunteers was short, and a 



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ANBftKV MCliSOir. 'MB 



feo^m ti^ Ike gewDBWit ; and wpmftiU elaidow 
to flwel tbe tMoi^. Tbe ill tttt^i of fcaqptng 
MMim of this dlMfiptieD long statioaarj and idb, 
i kad liecp sade to leel but too scmiUy uitmitfmm. 
oter GauaeB-aoDdUMd lo audce mch a moTMmit 
Bot ooly jostiEablei %ut absohi^; BCeissary. I 
kad Mccival a Ittt^ fMBi G^t* M^AIpiii, of the 
Stb ifi$t. wlK>MiniBaBdfid at Fort Arantroeg in the 
abaencA of Ck>L Soodpus, ioicMriiikig oia that i^i 
pf lA towna of the ancmy, aitu^cd ou th^ watom 
gf the Tadlapoosa, wia about 4»iitiiig their fcrees, 
wd attacUog that i^aee, jriuoh had ben left ina 
imy ledde state of deJisaoe* Yoa had la yom let* 
ier of the Mth ult informed me that Gen Floyd 
vas ^baut to make a movement to the Tallapoosa, 
near its ^soietkiii with the Coosa i and in the same 
letter^ had leeommendcd teflipwary excaraions 
neimst such of tbe enem^^s townsi or settlements, 
as m^ht be nithin striking distance* as well to 
prevent my mim from beeoming discontented* as 
ta. harass the enemy. Your ideas corresponded 
exactly with my own, and I \i»s. happy in the op* 
portonity of keeping my men engaged, distressing 
iht enemy, and at the same tiaie making a diver- 
sion to fiKalitate the opwttions of Gen. Floyd. 

Determined by these and other considerationSj^ I 
took np the line of march on the i7th inst. mid on 
the iStb, encamped at Talbd^;a Fort, where I was 
j<nned by between 2 and SQO firiendly Indians : 65 



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^ niwD were Cliero|Bees» tlie balaoot Omk^ 
Heiel recaeived your letterof Uud 9th inat* stiiliiv 
that Gen. floyd was expeeled lanake a movciwit 
from Gowetau tlM nexi day, aad that in 10 daya 
thereafter he would estahlish a im posilioo at 
Tttckbatchee ; and abo a letter from CoL Snodk- 
grass, who had nfttirned to Fori Armatrong, infiii^ 
ttingme that an attaokwas intended to b^ seoft 
macte on that Fort, by 900 of the raeuy. If I 
could have hesitated before, I could now hcsilaie 
no longer. I resolved to lose no time in meeting 
this force, which was understood to have beenool* 
lectedfrom NewYorcao, Oakfoskie, aad U&ulef 
towns, and were concentrated in. a bend of the 
Tallapoosa, near the mouth of a oreek, called 
£amck&u> aod oh an island below New Yorcau. 

On the morning of the 20th your letter of the 
lOth inst. forwarded by M'Candles, reached me at 
the Hillabee Creek ; and that night I encamped at 
Enotachopco, a small Hillabee village, about twelve 
miles from Einuck&u. Here I began to perceive 
very plainly how little knowledge my spies had of 
the country, of the situation of the enemy, or of 
the distance I was from tbem. The insubordina- 
tion of the new troops, and the want of skill iu 
most of their officers, also became more and more 
apparent. But their ardour to meet the enemy 
was not diminished ; and 1 had sure reliance upon 
the guards, and upon thecompany of old volunteer 
officers, and upon the spies, in all about 125. My 



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ANOmiW JACKISON. 107 

wishes and my duty remained united, audi' was 
^termined to effect, if possible, the objects for 
#liieh the excursion had been principally under- 
taken. 

^ On the morning of the 21st, I marched from Eno- 
fachopco, as direct as I could for the bend of the 
Tallapoosa, and about 2 o'clock, P. M. my spies 
Iiaving discovered twoof the enemy, endeavoured 
to overtake them, but failed. In the evening I fell 
in upon a large trail, which led to a new road, much 
beaten, atod lately travelled. Knowing that I must 
have arrived within the neighbourhood of a strong 
Corce, and it being late in the day, I determined to 
encamp, add reconnoitre the country in the night. 
I dstose the best scite the country would admit, en- 
camped in a hollow square, sent out my spies and 
pickets, doubled my sentinels, and made the neces- 
sary arrangements before dark, for a night attack. 
About 10 o'clock at night, one of the pickets fired 
at three of the enemy, and killed one, but he was 
not found until the next day. At eleven o'clock 
the spies whom I had sent out, returned wi|h the 
information, that there was a large encampment of 
Indians at the distance of about three miles, who 
from their whooping and dancing, seemed to be ap- 
prised of our approach. One of these spies, an 
Indian in whom I had great confidenbe, assured me 
that they were carrying off their women and chil- 
dren, and that the warriors would &ther make their 
escape, or attack me before day. Being prepared 



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U all piMsi MlhtaB itiMiMdicr he dwiMi iNit to 
await iMr «ppvoiwb> if ttey«wUtatfidM««iacfab 
ortobttiaraMUaeMfiftlMgrdidiiAli top^rnieaai 
aiUbck tbeni atday light. White we wik ia tUi 
8lal« of iwdiMMi the^WMiy abmU rix o'islook ia 
ibf wKmmg oommMMii a Tigoiwif attack 4ni a»f 
lift fla«k» whieh was vifMnaiialy aiat ; the aolMHi 
teatUmid to ngeoa ay kit flank, and oft the kk 
of loy leaT) tor ahout hatf au hour. The brana 
Gen. Cofta, with Col. Sitkr^ the Adit Geo. and 
CoL Carrolk the InspaetorrGeoeiali thenuMowt 
the firimg coauBencedt loounted their horsoft aad 
repaired to the line» eocouragins aod imimatiQg 
the meo to the performaaoe of their du^. So soon 
as it became light enoi^h to pursue, the left winy 
having sustained the heat of the actioni and being 
somewhat weakened, was reinforced by Capt. Fer- 
riirs company of infantry, and was ordered and led 
on to the charge by Gen. Coffee, who was well 
supported by Col. Higgins and the Inspector-Gene- 
ra), and by all the officers and privates who com- 
posed that line. The enemy was completely rout- 
ed at every point, and the friendly Indians joining 
in the pursuit, they were chased about two miles 
with considerable slaughter. 

The chase being over, I immediately detached 
Gen. Coffee with 400 men, and all the Indian fon^ 
to bum their encampment ; but it was said by some 
to be fortified. I ordered him in that erent, not 
to attack it until the 9nHhrj cotdd be sent forwaid 



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lomhieeit. On viewin|^'tlieieiiGaaipiiimf aDd ilii 

atvengtby ^egeiKval tkinigiit it most ppudeat tavoi^ 

twnk.to: my dMampment, and gourd. the aitiHerir 

tilitbir. The wiadc^m of fcbis step 'vms aocm ^sgov-* 

OQed~in half as how after his 4«tulr& to im&p, a 

eoQsicierabk force of the eneni]^ madls >fc^ ap^r- 

<afifle on nsy right fiank, and commenced a i)rUk foe 

ejt a parly of men^ wfao;had bem on j^ket guai9 

ttie flight befc^e, and wen ihten m search of the tn^ 

dians they had &ed upon, some of whom they be* 

lieved had been killed. Gen. Cofite immediately 

lequested me to let him take 200 mra, and tnm 

iheir kft fiank, which I accoidingly ordered ; but, 

<l)rough some mistake, which I did not then observe, 

not more than 54 followed biin, among whom were 

Ac old volunteer officers. With these, however, be 

immediately commenced an attack on the left jQank 

of the enemy ; at which time I ordered 90&of the 

frieiKlIy Indians, to fail in upon the right flank of 

the enemy, and co-operate with the general. This 

order was promptly obeyed, and on the moment of 

its execution, what I expected was realized. The 

ejiemy bad intended the attack on the right as a 

feint, and expecting to direct all. my attention 

tjuther, meant to attack me again, and with their 

main force on the left flank, which they had hoped. 

to find weakened and ia dis(Nrder-««ipthey were dis^ 

a^^pointed. I had ocdered the left flank to cemaiir 

firm in its place, and the moment the alam gua 

was heard in Uiat quarter, I repaired thither, and 
10 



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f 10^ jMBVoiBB or 

ordered Capt. Ferrill» part of my reaenre, to sup« 
port it* The whole line met the approach of the 
memy with astonishing intrepidity, and having 
given a few fires, they forthwith charged with great 
vigoor«-*the effect was immediate and inevitable. 
The enemy fled with precipitation, and were pur* 
sued to a considerable distance, by the left flank 
Ad the friendly Indians, with a galling and des- 
tructive fire. Col Carroll, who ordered the charge, 
led on the pursuit, and Col. Higgins and his regi- 
ment again distinguished themselves. 

In the mean time. Gen. Gofilee was contending 
with a superiour force of the enemy. The Indiana 
who I had ordered to his support, and who had s^t 
out for this purpose, bearing the firing on the left, 
had returned to that quarter, and when the enemy 
were routed there, entered into the chase. That 
being now over, I forthwith ordered Jim Fife, who 
tra^ one of the principal commanders of the friend- 
ly Greeks, with 100 of his warriors, to execute my 
first order. So soon as be reached Gen. Coffee, the 
charge was made, and the enemy routed ; they 
were pursued about three miles, and 45 of them- 
slain, who were found. Gen. Coffee was wounded 
in the body, and his aidde-camp, A. Donaldson* 
killedrtogether with three others. Havi ng brought 
in and buried the dead, and dressed the wounded, 
I ordered my camp to be fortified, to be the bette 
prepared to repel any attack which mi^t be made 
in the night, determined to make a return mardi 



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loFort Strother the foUowmg day. Many causes 
cooeurred to make sucli a measure necessary^ as I 
liad not set out ^pared> or with a view to make 
a permanent establishment. I considered it worse 
than useless to advance, and destroy an empty en- 
campment. I had, indeed, hoped to have n^t the 
enemy there, but having met and beaten them ti 
little sooner, I did not think it necessary or prude&t 
to proceed any furtl^r^-^not necessary, because I 
had accomplished all I could expect to effect by 
marching to their en^mpment ; and because if it 
was proper to contaoid with and weaken their forces 
still farther, thk object would be m<Mre certainly 
attsdned, by commencing a return, which having to 
them the appearance, of a retteat, would iuspirit 
tkem to pursue me. Not prudent-^because of the 
number of my wounded ; oi the renifofcements 
from below, which the enemy might be expected 
to receive ; of the starving condition of my horses, 
they having bad neither com nor cane for two days 
and nights ; of the scarcity of supplies for my men, 
the Indians who joined me at Talladega having 
drawn none, and being wholly destitute ; and be- 
cause if the enemy pursued me, as it was likely 
^Ihey would, the diversion in favour of Gen. Floyd 
would be the more complete and effectual. In&u- 
tBOced by these considerations, I commenced my 
teturn march, at half after ten on the JS3d, an<^ was 
fortxmate enough to reach Enotachopeo before night;, 
having passed without intcarruption, a dangerous 



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11^ ^VSHOJBS QW 

defile oGCBstoned by a htmricane. I again ibrtOttl 
my camp, aiid having another defile to pass in the 
mornii^, accDss a deep creek, and between two 
hills, wMch I had viewed with attentioo as I passed 
ei^, and where I^expected I ni%ht be attacked, I de^ 
lermioed to pass it at another point, and ^ave dtP^ 
rections to ray guide and fatigue men accordingly* 
My exp^tation of an attack in the OKHaiu^. was 
4:ncreasedb^^he signs of. the night, and with it, my 
caution. Before I moved the woultded from the 
interior of my camp^ I had my front and r^ar gnardfi 
formed, as well as my right and left columns, and 
moved off my centre in regular older, leading down 
a handsome ridge to JSnotachopco creek, at a point 
where it was clear of reed, except immediately on 
its margin. 1 had previously issued a general order, 
pointing out the manner in which the men should 
be formed in the event of an attack on the front 
or rear, or on the flanks, and had particularly cau- 
tioned the officers to halt and form accordingly, the 
instant the word should be given* 

The front guard had crossed with part of the 
flank columns, the wounded were over, and the ar- 
tillery in the act of entering the creek, when an 
alarm gun was heard in the rear. I heard it with- 
out surprise and even with pl^isure, calculating 
with the utmost confidence on the firmness of my. 
troop§5 from the manner in which I had seen them 
act on^the 22d. I had placed Col. Carroll at the 
head of the centre column of the rear guard ; its 



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AKDAfitr SACKMti^ llS 

rigfat coluiun was commanded hy Col. Perkins, and 
its left by Col. Stnmp. Having chosen the ground, 
I expected there to have entirely cut off the enemy, 
by Irheeltng the right and left colnmns on their pi- 
vot, recrossing the creek above and below, and fait* 
ing in opon their flanks and rear. But to my aston- 
ishment and mortification, when the word was given 
by Col. Carroll to halt and form, and a few guns 
had been fired, I beheld the right and leftcolumns 
of the rear guard precipitately gi^e way. This 
shameful retreat was disastrous in the extreme ; 
it drew along with it ttie greater part of the ceu* 
ti^ colum, leaving not more than S5 men, who be- 
iiig formed by Col. Carroll, maintained their ground 
as long as it was possible to maintain it, and it 
brought consternation and confusioii into the cen- 
tre of the army, a consternation which was not ea- 
sily removed, and a confusion which could not be 
soon restored to order. There was then left to re* 
pulse the enemy, the lew who remained of the rear 
guard, the artillery company, and Capt. Russell's 
company of spies. They however, realized, and 
exceeded my highest expectations. Lieut. Arm- 
strong, who commanded tfie artillery company in 
the absence of Capt. Deaderick, (confined by sick- 
ness,) ordered them to form and advance to the top 
of the hill, whilst he and a few others dragged up 
the six pounder. Never was more bravery displayed 
than on this occasion. Amidst the most galling fire 

from the enemy, more than ten times their num- 
10* 



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. ber, they aacended the hill, aod maintaioed thck 
position until their piece was hauled up* when hi^ir- 
ing levelled iti they poofed upon the enemy a fire 
of grape, reloaded and fired agaio, charged aod 
repulsed them. 

The most deliberate bravery was dt8{rfayed by 
Constantine Perkins and Craven Jackson, of the 
artillery, acting as gunners. In.the hurry of the 
moment, in separating the gun from the limbers, 
the rammer and picker of the cannon was left tied 
to the limber. No sooner was this discovered, 
than Jackson, amidst the galling fire of the enemy, 
pulled out the ramrod of his musket and used it 
as a picker ; primed with a cartridge and fired the 
cannon. Perkins having pulled off his bayonet| 
used his musket as a rammer,s drove down the car- 
tridge ; and Jackson using his former plan, again 
discharged her. The brave Lieut. Armstrong, just 
after the first fire of the cannon, with Ca|>t. Ham- 
ilton of £. Tennessee, Bradford and M'Gavock, 
all fell, the Lieut, exclaiming as he lay, «^. my brave 
felhwSf seme of you mayfall^ but you must moe the 
cannon^ About this time, a number crossed the 
creek and entered into the chase. The brave 
Capt. Gordon of the spies, who rushed from the 
front, endeavoured to turn the flank of the enemy, 
in which he partially succeeded, and Cot. Carroll, 
Col. Higgins, and Capt. Elliot and Pipkins, pursu- 
ed the enemy for more than two miles, who fled in 
consternation, throwing away their packs, and leav- 



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AK0REW JACKSON* 115 

ing S6 of their warriors dead on the field. This 
last defeat was decisive, and wc were no more 
disturbed by their yells. I should do injastice to 
my feelings if I omitted to^mention that the venera- 
ble Judge Cocke, at the age of 65, entered into 
engagement, continued the pursuit of the enemy 
with youthful ardour, and saved the life of a fellow 
soldier by killiog his savage entagonist. 

Our loss in this affair was— killed and wounded, 
among the former was the brave Capt. Hamilton 
from £« Tennessee, who had with his aged father 
and two others of his company, after the period of 
his engagement had expired, volunteered his servi- 
ces for this excursion, and attached himself to the 
artillery company. No man ever fought more 
bravely, or fell more gloriously ; and by his side 
fell with equal bravery and glory, Bird Evans of 
the same company. Gapt. Quarles, who command- 
ed the centre column of the rear guard, preferring 
death to the abandonment of his post, having ta- 
ken a firm stand in which he was followed by S5 of 
his men, received a wound in his head of which, he 
Has since died. 

In these several engagements, our loss was 30 
killed aad 75 wounded, 4 of whom have since died. 
The loss of the enemy cannot be accurately ascer- 
tained ; 189 of their warriors were found dead ; 
but this must fall considerably short of the number 
really killed. Their wounded can only be guessed 
at. 



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116 MfeMOmSOF 

Had it not been for the Hitfortunate retreat of the 
rear guard in the aitair of the 2irth imt. I think t 
could safely have said, that no araijrof militia eVer 
acted with more coot and deliberate braverjr : un- 
diaciplined and inejcperienced as they were» their ' 
conduct in the scTtral engagements of the 2Mi 
could not have been surpassed by regulars. Kd^ 
meu ever met the approach of an enemy with more 
intrepidity, or repulsed them with more energy* 
On the 21th, after the retreat of the rear guards 
they seemed to have lost all their collecttodn^ss,aud 
were more difficult to be restored to order, than 
any troops I had ever seen. But this was nodoobti 
owing in a great measure, or altogether, to that 
very retreat, and ought rather to be ascribed to the 
want of conduct in many of their officer^ than any 
cowardice in the men, who on every occasion, have 
manifested a willingness to perform their duty, so 
br as they knew it. 

All the effects which were designed to be proda* 
ced by this excursion, it is believed have been pro- 
duced. If an attack was meditated against Fort 
Armstrong, that has been prevented* If Gen. 
Floyd is operating on the east side of the Tallapoo- 
sa, as I suppose him to be, a most fortunate di- 
version has been made in his favour. The number 
of the enemy has been diminished, and the confix 
dence they may have derived from the delays E 
have been made to experience, has been destroyed* 
Discontent has been kept out of my army, while 



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▲nMunr 7AC»0M. 117 

the troops who would have been exposed to it, have 
been beneficially employed. The enemy's coon- 
try hat been explored, and a road cot to the point 
wheee tiieir feroe wiH probably be oonceutrated, 
when they shall be driven from the country below. 
Btit itt a nsport «f this hind, and-io y^ who will 
immediately perceive them, it is not necessary to 
state the happy obnseqoences which may be ex- 
peeted to resnlt from this acursion. Unless I am 
greatly mistaken, it will be found to have hastened 
the termination of the Creek war, more efltoctualiy 
thaia any measure I could have taken with the troops 
under my command. I am, Sir» with sentiments of 
high respect. Your Obedient servant, 

ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. 

When it is consift^red what troops Gen. Jackson 
had to command, and what enemies he had to fight, 
the two victories at Emuckfaw^ on the 23d, and (he 
signal one of J^ekichcpcoi on the 24<th, will bear 
a comparison with any in modern warfare. The 
liiieral applause the general bestows upon the brave, 
and the excuse he finds for those whose ** retreat 
aught rather to be ascribed to the xoant of conduct in 
vumg of thfiir officers^ than to any cowardice in the 
tn€»,*' must endear him forever to the soldier. 
The « venerable Jvdge Cocke^^^ (who survived,) and 
^ He braoeUeui. Armstroiig,"* and Capts. Hamilton 
and Qoarles, (who all fell,) are placed^ by the gen- 
eral's rqport, upon the rolls of fame. 



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118 MXtfOIBS OV 



CHAPTER EL 

GeiL Jaelaoii pri^NOM ibr a new e]pedidoiH«feeeiv«8 an a^^ 
of the victmy at CAotaAoucAfle— adopts a new mode to obtain 
sappfies — Army ()ontnu:toTs~EneTgetic measures — Great vic- 
;i^ at 7VAopdk»-«avage wu&«--British and Spanish enas- 

Varies. 

THE solicitade evineed by Gen. Jackson, in his 
report iucorpordted in the last chapter^ for the 
safety, security, and success of Gen. Floyd, couid 
not have escaped the attention of the reader. It 
must have been greatly duniaished by the signal 
victories he therein so perspicuousij describes ; 
but this did not induce him to remit any of his cus- 
tomary vigilance, or to omit any measure necessary 
to secure the advantage he had gained. He had 
<< scotched the snake^-^^noi killed hinu^* 

Gen. Jackson had now with him, his beIov«d 
associates, Brig. Gen. Coffee, CoL Dyer, GoL 
Carroll, Maj. Reid, (his aid,) and many other ac- 
complishad and patriotic officers. The disaflteted 
officers had eith^ retired to that obscurity whidi 
was their only safety, or remained envious spec(a« 
loi's of that excellence which they could not reach, 
and detractors of those great men, whpse gallant 
exploits they had not the courage to achieve. He 
had a band of new volunteers, who had sndd^ily 
beeome veterans, and familiarized witb!ii.«i€Ltpry; 
But still his force was inadequate to the complete 
accomplishment of his primary object-^the effcettt- 



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ANDftEW JACK80H* 119 

al sabjeotioa of the Creeks. He knew that the 
government of the American JR^publlc had invio- 
lably regarded all treaties made, and performed 
every stipulation entered into with them. He 
knew, and he lamented, the in&tuation under 
which they acted, and regretted that a race of be* 
ings, possessing the most exalted courage, should 
become victims in subserving the cause of the 
British and Spanish monarchs. But his duty to 
his country wa§^ with him, paramount to every 
other consideration ; and he was resolved, as long 
as the last glimmer of hoperemained unextinguish- 
ed, not to despair of the commonwealth* 

After the victories ^f the 23d and 24;th, he and 
his officers, were incessantfy* engaged in disciplin- 
ing the forces with them, and incorporating into 
the little army, such recruits as arrived. These 
duties were entirely different, from those belonging 
to officers in the regular army, at a well appointee! 
cantonment. Ther^ the commanding and subor- 
dinate officers have specific duties to perform ; and 
the soldiers, so far from thinking of disobedience, 
or plotting mutinies, scarcely utter a complaint. 
Qen. Jackson had^ never yet commanded such a 
body of men, in auch a situation. His subordinate 
officers had been his companions, and his volun- 
teers had been his fellow citizens. He had de- 
pended more upon the weight of his character, and 
his devotion to the service^ than qpon military 
authority, to accomplish what be had done. He 



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190 ii«ifOi»s or 

liad, ia ma^y instances, Ibuad that Ibe most atgenl 
eotreatiesy and the moat eoergetio rettonstraqces, 
were ineffectual, and was now reiolirod to exercise 
tbe authority which was vested in him* 

While he was exerting «very fiwmlty which na- 
tive energy and military authority, enabled him to 
call into^operation, to prepare for more important 
measures, he wa^s highly gratified at receiving the 
most favourable intelligence from the Georgia for* 
ces under Brig. Gen. Floyd. 

That officer was statioiied, with hia troops^ at 
Camp Defiance, fifty miles west of Chatahoucheem 
Upou the 27th January, he was assailed very early, 
by a numerous horde of savages. The sentinels 
were suddenly driven in, and a most desperate 
attack was commenced upon the lines. Gen. Floyd 
thus describes the engagement. 

^« The steady firmness and incessant fire of Capt. 
Thomas'^ artillery, and Capt. Adams' riflemen, pre* 
served our front line : both of these sufi*ered greatly. 
The enemy rushed within 30 yards of tha^ artillery, 
and Capt. Broadnax, who commanded one of the 
picket guards, maintained his post with great brave- 
ry, until the enemy gained his rear, and then cut his 
way through them to the army. On this occasion, 
Timpoachie Bamncl^ a half breed, at the head of the 
I/cAi>5,distinguished himself,and contributed to the 
retreat of the picket guard : the other friendly In- 
dians took refuge within our tines and remained in- 
active, with the excepticMR of a few wJbo joined our 



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ANDAEW JACKSON. , tXl 

i«iik»»^ So aojem as it became light enough to disk 
tipguish objects, I ordered Majors Watson's and 
Freeman's battalions, to wheel up at right angles, 
with Majoiis Booth> and Cleveland's battalions, 
(who formed the right wing^ to prepare for the 
charge. Capt. Duke Hamilton's cavalry, (who 
had reached me but the day before,) was ordered 
to fcHrm in the rear of the right wing, to act as cir- 
cufnstances shou Iddictate. The order for the charge 
was promptly obeyed, and the enemy fled In every 
direction before the bayonet. The signal was 
given for the charge of the cavalry, who pursued, 
and sabred 15 of the enemy ; who left 37 dead on 
the field. From the effusion of blood, and the num* 
ber of head-dresses and war clitbs found in various 
directions, their loss must have been considerable, 
independent of the wounded. 

I directed the friendly Indians, with Merriweth- 
er'sand Ford's rifle companies, accompanied by 
Capt. Hamilton's troop, to pursue them through 
Callibee Swamp, where they were trailed by their 
blood, but succeeded in overtaking but one of their 
wounded. 

Col. Newnan received three balls in the com- 
mencement of the action^ which deprived me of the 
services of that gallant and useful officer. The as*> 
sistant Adjt. Gen. Narden, was indefatigable in the 
discharge of his duty, and rendered important ser- 
vices : his horse was wounded under him* The 
whole of the staff was prompt, and discharged their 
II • . 



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'I2a 'ii£MOiRS Sr 

(luty' With courage and fidelity : their vrgllatioe/tlfe 
intrepidity of th^ officers,' and the firmness of tlie 
* raen/ meet my approbatib», and deserve the' (Mile 
' of their country. I have to regret the Wth '4f 
many of my bi^ve fellows/ who have Toundliondiilr- 
able graves in the voluntary support of their coun- 
try; * , . , 

My aid-<le- camp, in executing my ordm,' had his 
horse killed under him. Gen. Lee and Maj. P&ce» 
who acted as additional aids/ rendered ine essential 
services, with honour to themselves, and usefulness 
' to the cause in ' which they have embarked^ Fotur 
waggon, aiid several other horses were killed,* and 
two of the artillery horses wounded. While I de- 
plore the losses sustained on this occasion, I have 
the consolation to know, that the men who I have 
the honour to command, have done their duty." 

The loss of the Americans in this battle, was 
17 killed^ and 1^2 woynded. Gen. Jackson found 
that one great object of his last brilliant expedition, 
was effected-- the relief of the Georgia militia. 

It was now the JSrst of Fiebruary, J8J4. Gen. 
Jackson's forces were at Fort Strotber, where, al- 
though in no immediate danger of famine, there 
was by no means a supply ^r any length of time. 
Gen. Jackson, ever since he had commanded the 
army in the Creek country, had had his attention 
diverted from the great object of a general — the 
. organization of his army— the introduction of j|br« 
rect discipline, and preparation for active service. 



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AN0llEW JACKSON. 123 

Ip^ifi^h^^hM/^ to per%in tj^ djiity of Commis- 
t9^« Qi|ayrter-iii|ij!;ter, apd, Coiqii^ndeir. Wztsli- 
i^gtfta Mfl^.often in his situation in the war of the 
* Aevolation. He could find an excu^ for his, coun^ 
trjunen, if) thfi^^^.destitqte sj(s^^pf the (puntjry ; 
hMtfor.tb(;, c,(ml(rq<;.tor$ for. th^ southern army, in 
1814, ther^ ^jas, ng e^ cuse^ in a country abqund- 
iqg inJieKvefli, m}n(^ a^dJl)re^d;at,u^» auaroty had 
Q&^nl^ecui dcivjep to.n^utiny and.df^se^tipn. through 
tiu) appr^epsio^ of, \i;ant. Tlfejce is, prphably , npt 
an officer in the American service, but who will con- 
d^ipi| the mod^ o| s^pplyipgan army, byc^r^c*- 
toTi. ^}^y: ma^ci the best terms they can with 
the goyefcnment^ lor, theins(|lye$ ; the. hardest pos* 
sijUe, tprm^^ t^ sf;Uer o{ provisions, and often 
fornish^ t]^(^ wajr-wo^n veterai^i with rj^tions deficient 
in qua^tiy,. ami ipisieirable in^uaUtj/v They tl\tnk 
of nothing but ^^ii^ini^a &rtMnjs, ^bile the gallant 
j^ldters ^ho ac^ ^£bring by. thi^ir frauds, and fam- 
ishing by their a,varice, ar^ S^i^g: Y^^^^i^? ^^^ 
their cpti^try. 

Gtp^ Jack^pp^^ ^^o may epiphat^k^liy be called 
. thf Sol^lec'^ Patcon, had suffered too much, with 
1^ h^ay^ 9o^iec9, |3r lop^r endurance. He sup- 
j^e4 his ai;my by h\% qwi^ agents, leaving the con- 
tractors to pay th? «pense. When no longer any 
caMise existed for complaints in his camp, he silen- 
ced them. He caused a mutineer to be tried by a 
co^rt n^artial ; and when condemned to die, he 
approved of the sentence, and he suffered death. 
He ordered every officer to be arrested within his 



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191 itEMOiRs or 

command, who slioald be foiind exciting motfaiyor' 
disobedience. He knew that a crisis had urived 
when a great blow must be struck^ or the expedi- 
tion abandoned. 

The Creeks had assembled in very great force 
at the bend of the Tallapoosa, at a place called hy 
the savages, Tokopekii^^hy the Americans, TAe 
Horse Shoe. At this place, the most desperate re- 
sistance was expected ; and every measure, within 
the limited means of Gen. Jackson, wasresortM 
to, to meet it. ' ^ 

The 89th Regiment U, S. infantry, under the 
command of << the intrepid and skilful CoL WiiUamSf^ 
had been ordered to join the army undar Gen* 
Jackson. It did not exceed 600 men. By the 
middle of March, his whole force amounted to be- 
tween 3, and 4000. He then commenced his match. 
Upon the 21st, he established a fort at the mouth 
of Cedar Creek, and named it Fort Williams. Leav- 
ing a sufficient foree to protect it, he renewed his 
march upon the S^h. Upon the 27 th, a day which 
will be remembered in the traditional annals of the 
brave, tbe infatuated, the blood-thirsty Creeks, un- 
til they become extinct. Gen. Jackson and his ar- 
my reached Tohopeka. The events of that day, are 
thus briefly detailed by the commander* 

Battle Ground, bend qfTallapoosa^ZSth Marchf 1814. 

Maj. Gen. Pinckney :— 

Sir— I feel particularly happy in being aUe to 

communicate to you, the fortunate eventuation of 



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mj expedition to tb^ TalUpoosi^. I readied thy 
beady near the Emackfau, called by the whites thf 
Horse Shoe, about ten o'clock, op the forenoon ^ 
yesterday, where I found the strength of the neigl^- 
bouring towns collected. Expecting our approach^ 
they had gathered. in from Oakfuskie, Oakeboga, 
New Yorcau, Hiliabees, the Fish Pond, and Eu&u- 
ke towns, to the number, it is said, of 1000. It ip 
difficult to conceive a ^iti^ation more eligible fqf < 
deftnce than the one they had chosen, or on/e rear 
dered more secure by the skill with which they 
l^ad erected their bre^t work. It was from 5 tp f 
Ibet high, and extended across the point in ^uch a 
direction, as that a force approachipi^ it ^oijild Ijf 
«2|^Q8ed to a double Are, whjile they lay in fextpcf 
security behind. A cannon planted fit pne £xt^* 
aity could have raked it to no advantfige. 

Determining to exterminfite thc^n, I detached 
.Geo. Coffee with the mount^ men, and nearly th^ 
^holeof the Indian force, early on the morning of 
yesterday, to cro3;3 the river abput two miles belo^f 
their encampment, and to surround the bend in sucl^ 
la manner, as that none of them shoi^Id escape by 
attempting tp cross the river. With th^ infantry, 
I proceeded s^wly ftnd in order, abng t[he point cjf 
land which led to the front of rtheir bceafit work ; 
J^aving planted my cannon, one 6 and one 3 poup- 
der, on an eminence at the distance of 150 .to S60 
yards frogi it, 1 opened a very brisk Arc, playing 
upon tbe^nemy with the musketji and riQes whene- 



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126 MEMOIRS OF 

ver they shewed themselves beyond it; This was 
kept up with short interruptions for about 2 hours, 
when a part of the Indian force, and Capt. Russell's 
and Lieut. Bean's companies of spies, who had ac- 
companied Gen, Coflec, crossed over in canoes to 
the extremity of the bend, and set fire to a few ot 
the buildings which were there situated ; they thea 
advanced with great gallantry towards the breast- 
'work, and commenced a spirited fire upon the en- 
emy behind it. 

Finding th^t this force, notwithstanding the 
bravery they displayed, was wholly insufficient to 
dislodge them, and that Gen. Coffee had entirely 
secured the opposite bank of the river, I now deter- 
mined to take it by storm. The men by whom thi» 
Avas to be effected, had been waiting with impatience 
to receive the order, and hailed it with acclamatioh. 

The spirit which animated them, was a sure 
augury of the success which was to follow. The 
history of warfare, I think furnishes few instances 
of a more brilliant attack. The regulars led on by 
their intrepid and skilful commander, Ck>I. Williams, 
and by the gallant Maj. Montgomery, soon gained 
possession of the works, in the midst of a most tre- 
mendous fire from behind them ; and the militia 
of the venerable Gen. Doherty's brigade, accompa- 
nied them in the charge with a vivacity and firm- 
ness which would have done honour to regulars. 
The enemy were completely routed. Five hundred 
and fifty-seven were left dead onnhe peninsula, 



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ANDREW JACKSON* 127 

und a great number were killed by the horsemen in 
attempting to cross the river : it is believed that 
not more than SO have escaped. 

Hie fighting continued with some severity about 
5 hours, but we continued to destroy many of them 
ivho had concealed themselves under the banks of 
the river, until we were prevented by the night. 
This morning we killed 16 who had been concealed. 
We took about 260 prisoners, all women and chil- 
dren, except two or three. Our loss is 160 woun- 
ded, and 25 killed ; Maj. Mcintosh, (the Cowetau,) 
who joined my army with a part of his tribe, great- 
ly distinguished himself. When I get an hour's 
•leisure, I will send you a more detailed account. 

According to my original purpose, I commenced 
my return march to Fort Williams today, and 
shall, if I find sufficient supplies there, hasten to the 
Hickory Ground; The power of the Creeks is, 
I think, forever broken. 

I send you a hasty sketch, taken by the eye, of 

the situation on which the enemy were encamped, 

and of the manner in which I approached them. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ANDREW JACKSON, Maj. Gen. 
Maj. Gen* Pinckney* 

The loss of the Americans, added to the whole 
loss of the friendly Indians, was 54 killed, and 156 
wounded. 

lu communicating the result of this victory, with- 
out a paraUel, to the War Department, Gen. Pluck- 



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129 MisMoiRs or 

ntj elegantly aqd imprefisively obsenresy-^^^ While 
^ the sigh of humfinity will escape, for this profuse 
effusioD of human blood, which result* from th^ 
savage priaoiple of our enemy, peither to give nor 
accept quarter ; and while every American wi^ 
deeply lamcDt the loss of our meritorious felloir 
soldiers who have fallen in thi^ contest, we have 
tmple caqse of gratitude to the giver of all victory. 
Sot thus continuing his protecfioD to our woomi 
and children, who would otherwise be exposed to 
the indiscriminate havock of the tpmidiawk, and a^ 
the horrors of savage warfare." 

The aged soldier who has been famBiarlasid 
through life with civilised warfare, <^n fori;n huA 
an Imperfect idea of war, as carried on by eavages. 
Those wlio h^ve pfi9^ed their lives in the tran^ufi 
scenes of civil life, are still more incompetent to 
form a conception of its horrors. We can read 
its history and weep ; but -were we to witness its 
tragical scenes, even tears would be stopped, by 
the ghastly and apaViog forms, in which death u 
f resQhted to the view of itjB victims. Tbe writer hap 
seen nothing of savage warfare^ and 4>ut Utile of 
savagjK Hfe in a state of peace ; 'but he can yet al- 
most realize its horrors from impressions, n^ver to 
be erfulicated, made upon his mind in the earliest 
stages of life. His venerated grandfather, IsaASi:. 
FfTTKAM, ** seamed with many a scar^^^ by the knives 
and tomahawks pf sarvages, as he was treading the 
last^teps that carried ^im to his toml^) related to 



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ANDftHW JACH90N. ^ 129 

kk li^teniiig grand-childreD, the tortures he bad 
liorne from savages, and his ^ hair-breadth ^capes'** 
from savage death. His aecomplished Aid-de- ' 
eamp, Gen. Humphreys, has left them upon the 
page of Biography.* 

The severity of Gen. Jackson with the Creeks, 
iias be^i a subject of severe animadversion with 
■lany who sympathize with savages, but who can 
readily forget the indiscrimiaate slaughter at Ten- 
UM. Let Sttcih remember that at Fort Mimmsy in 
that settlement, the unoffending citizen was con- 
sumed by fire — his beseeching wife and helpless 
chiM:eii were, by the same tomahawk, in the same 
soment, inhumanly murdered. And to make them 
withdraw their ill-placed sympathy, let them re- 
9Mmber that the &te which there swallowed up 
the whole of the citizens, and the whole of their 
ilsfeniders, was declared to be the destiny of every 
American, within the reach of savage vengeance. 

Whatever injustiee the Aborigines of America 
may have endured from Europeans in the early set- 
tlemcBts of Ncnrth America, they have no cause of 
:oomplaint against the present generation of Anglo- 
Americans, who are citizens of the United States, 
jior against the government of the Americjin Re- 
public Mildness has marked the policy of indi- 
vidQals in their intercourse with the natives^ and 
lenity and justice has characterized every measure 
of the American administrations in regard to them, 

* Vide Hamphreys' Life of Putnam, pages 67, §8| 59, 92. 



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180 MISMOIRS O^; 

horn the oopHQeaettQ^nj^ of) iht gQyeiiii9^t uffd^^ 
the sainted Wasriiiotoii, to il>U pj^ioji W^^ 
the aate had protect^ tb^m iOithf^ ^ni^yp^^^.t a£ 
their temporal rights, the chaneh Im* . wijtli.uiujeafr', 
ing exertions, eDdearoured to co^yprt tlteia t^ 
Chrlstiaaity. 

But every measore to iAlrq4uce amqng Dwn ih^ 
arts of civilized life and- the beniga influenc«<oi 
Christianity, << tf> soothe tM sating bre^rti^^ has beeat 
thwartedvby^tbi) poisonous. Inftuence of British aod 
Spaoish eoiiesmea. ¥pon. them,. let a^ double por^ 
tion of: indignation be poured, ad the guilty tansoa 
of the raideries infiicted by savages upon Amert* 
^ns, aad of the almost total ezjti]iolio& of the bit 
dianff by the arm of power. Indubitable teslimoay 
wilt support: the assertion, that every IndiAo wui 
itt North America, from the Tieaty of Peace ui 
1783, to this period) haa been ooeaAioned by fiar** 
eigo eiuBsaries. Although the Britasb govern^ 
ment was compelled to acknowledge the buftepeti* 
dence of the American Republic, it has always 
endeavoured to check its rising greatness. They 
still hope to aubjugate it to their dominion, by the 
power of their navy upon the seaboard^ and of 
their savage allies upon the firontieffs. It would 
be ai handsome aeces»on to tiie power of the <* le- 
gitimate sovereigoa'' of Europe, to behold Geor^ 
III. or(iy.) wielding the sceptre of power over 
North, and Ferdinand VII. over South Aaaertea. 



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AKDKEW lACKSON. ^ .131 



CBAPTi&B X. 

Condufiioh of the Creek Wn^Betdm of Gen. Jaclabn snd Vol- 
iinteer»— their r^eeptioiiy and 8epKndoii^*'^Qeii. Jaokson is ap- 
pointed Brig. Gen. in U. S. «nny— also a Conumsffloner to treat 
"with Creek Indians— concludes a treaty— Foreign enussaries*-^ 
Indian eloquenCe—Speech of Wi&eribitl-Hif Big HVlamor^^ 
t^umseht and his dea^, 

HATING accomplished the object of the expe- 
dition to iiit'Tallapootay by the victory at Tohch 
* pekUi Gen. Jackson returned with his army to Fort 
' Williams, about the 1st of April. Incessant fa- 
tigue and arduous duty, had retarded the recovary 
of bis health, and reduced him almost to a skele- 
ton ; bat the animation he felt at having effected, 
in a few months, what, from every Ibrmer prospect, 
would have been supposed to need the exertion of 
years, made him forget his debility ; and his mind 
arose in majesty^ as bis body was emaciated by toil. 
Proud of the title, ** Cohmmnder of Tennessee Vol- 
unteersC^ he rejoiced that they had retrieved the 
reputation they had recently tarnished, by mutiny 
and disaffection. 

His object now was to form a junction with the 
forces of the state of Georgia, and either complete 
the'^eittermination of the Creeks, or compel them to 
bury the tomahawk, and sue for peace. The HiU 
labeeSi a clan of them, for reasons before mentioned, 
were the last to supplicate for mercy. The attack 



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13S ^ MEMOIRS OP 

made upon them on the 18th NoYOateri 1813, by 
Gen. White, when they were urgent to make peace 
with Gen* Jack«on, rendered them desperate.— 
The remnants of ail the tribes had assembled at 
HathlewaleCf in the Hickory Grounds Gen. Jackson, 
with his forces, went in pursuit of them*. But 
despair had now succeeded to fury, and thesaVages 
dispersed. The general prosecuted his march to 
the Hickory Ground, and, on or about the 15th 
April, established a fort upon the Coosa^. near its 
confluence with the TaJlapoosa, which was named 
Fort Jackson. Th]|^ completed a line of posts 
through. Tennessee, Georgia, and the Alabama 
Territory. 

The Georgia forces had formed a junction with 
the conquering general ; and, upon the 20th April, 
Maj. Gen. Pinckney, commander in chief of Alili- 
tary Districts No. 6 and 7, arrived at Fort Jackson, 
aud assumed the command of the whole forces in 
the Creek country. Gen. Pinckney invited Gen. 
Jackson to his head quarters, where a splendid en- 
tertainment had been prepared. This emaciated 
and war-worn veteran, with some of his principal 
officers, partook of it with the Commander in Chief. 
To reciprocate the civility, the Conqueror of the 
Creeks, invited the Commander to dine with him 
at his marquee the nezt day. The simple diet 
that had sustained him and his gallant associates for 
months, was the bill of fare. It called to mind gloo* 
my and ptoud recollections— *the dish of rice, and 



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' To-morrow I detail &00 of the militia under tfaa 
teiBmaod of Brig. Gea. Johnsdn, to the Cakawba, 
ivith iBstraetions to unx^ with me at Fort Deposit^ 
aft^ having dispo'sed any bodies of the enemy 
they may iad there assembled. 

The commissioners who have been appoiiited to 
make a trbaty with the Greeks^ need have nothing 
to do but assign them their pvoptc limits. Those 
of the friendly party, who have associated with me, 
uriil be easily satisfied ; and those of the hostile 
party, they consider it a favour that their lives 
have been spared them, and will look upon any 
spaee that may be allowed them Sot their future 
settlement, as a bounteous donation. I have taken 
the liberty to point out what I think ought to be 
the future lii^ of separation, with which I will 
hereaftet make you acquainted. Iftheyshbuld be 
established, none of the Creeks will be left on the 
west of the Coosa* 

Accompanying this, I send you a report made by 
the Adjutant General, of the killed and wounded, 
at the battle of Tohopeka, which was omitted to be 
sent by the former express. 

I have the honour to be, &c, 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

His Excellency Gov. W. Blount. 

At the expiration of a few days he commenced 
a return march to his home, after an absence of 
eight motitfas. If the sense of obligation bears 



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136 ^sKbxms of 

any proportion to the benefits .received, it may weU 
be concluded that the people. of Ijenncj^aee and 
Missisippi) must have been deeply impressed with 
the obligations of gratitude to Gen. Jaclcson and 
his gallant Volunteers.. For twenty years, the fron* 
tier settlers had Jived in a state of insecurity ; and 
since the commencement 6t the second war be- 
tween the American Republic and the kingdom of 
Great Britain, in the most alarming apprehensions. 

Their danger was now' removed, and their safety 
was secured. The spontaneous bursts of admira- 
tion and applause that were every where uttered, 
was more grateful tg the feelings of Gen. Jackson, 
than all the studied- encomiums that could be be- 
stowed. 

Upon reaching Camp Blount, at Fayetteville, 
(Tenn.) the bond of union, which had been ce- 
mented by common dagger, and common toils, be» 
tween the general and the volunteers, was dissolved. 
Having learned and discharged the duty of vete- 
ran soldiers, they now reverted back to industrious 
citizens ; ready, at no distant period, to follow 
their beloved chief, to conquer a civilized, as they 
already had done, a barbarous foe. While tears of 
pungent grief were shed at the recollection of their 
brave associates, who were left to moulder in the 
graves of the wilderness^ those of exquisite joy 
flowed at the safety of their fathers, and the securi- 
ty of their homes^ 

Gen. Jackson, having very much exceeded the 



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ANDREW lACKSOV. J 37 

time for which he volunteered liis service^ and hav« 
acoooiplishecl vastly more than the most sanguine 
expectations could have anticipated, was about to 
retire to the repose of private life, which his debil* 
itated state of health imperiously demanded. But 
tbe portentous clouds of war w^ich were constant- 
ly augmenting upon the southern borders of the 
Republic, rendered his services, if possible, more 
necessary than they had already been. About the 
1st June, 1814, he was appointed Brigadier Gene- 
ral in the army of the United States. 

Before he was called upon to commence his inii« 
itary career in his new capacity, he was appointed 
a commissioner, to secure by negociation what he 
had already acquired by arms. 

To make a treaty, bowever, with Indians, can 
hardly be called negociation^ as it is considered, 
among civilized powers. The law of nations, 
which requires " good faith'* between the contrac- 
ting parties, is a code not recognized by American 
savages. It is rather a contract of bargain and 
sale, with a penalty annexed for a breach of cove- 
nant. Col. Hawkins, who was appointed Indian 
Agent by Gen. Washingtoi(t, and who has been in 
the agency ever since, was associated with Gen. 
Jackson in this mission. 

By the American forces, a complete conquest 

had been made of the whole Greek country ; and 

this conquest had been occasioned by ilagraiit 

breaches of treaty, and outrageoas violations of 

12* 

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138 MEMOIRS or 

humanity by the Creeks. Had the American gov- 
ernment felt the cupidity, or exercised the .power 
which the iarger kingdom3 of Europe manifest 
towards the smaller ones, the Creeks must either 
have fled from their country, or been reduced to 
vassalage, and their country itself would have 
been annexed to the Republic* But its existence 
commenced upon the broad principles of national 
and individual justice, and in the progress of its 
government, it has never deviated from them. 

The object of Gen. Jackson and the other, com* 
missioners, was not so.much to obtain new territo* 
ry, as to secure the acknowledged territory of the 
Republic, from the future depredations of Indian 
hostility. Upon the 10th August, 1814, a Treaty 
was executed, which is before the public. It cut 
oiT the savages from all communication with the 
perpetual disturbers of our tranquillity, and secu- 
red to the government such privileges in fheir coun- 
try, as. will hereafter place the frontiers out of dan- 
ger from the Creeks. 

It will be seen in the sequel what measures were 
adopted by the government and Gen« Jackson, ta 
secure our country agdfinst other powerful tribea^ 
who were Incited by our arch and implacable ene» 
mies, to raise the tomahawk against our country- 
men, as they had already induced the unfortunate 
Creeks to do. 

Having often been obliged, from the nature of 
the subject, to aUude to the unjustifiable and 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 139 

l-6[^hensible conduct, of British and Spanish 
CTAissaries, I am confident the reader will be 
gratified, in seeing the evidence furnished by the 
savages themselves. In presenting this evidence, 
I furnish at the same time specimens of Indian 
Eloquence, which have never been equalled, unless 
by the speech of Logan^ as found in Jeffeeson's 
Notes on Viiginia. The first I ofiTer, is the speech 
<>f the ferocious Witherfordj previously mentioned^ 
His surrender to Gen. Jackson, reminds the histo* 
rian of Coriolamis and Aufdius — of Themistocles 
and a Persian king. Magnanimity in each over- 
came ven^ance. 

W ITHEilPOED's SPEECH TO GENERAL JACKSON. 

<^ I am in your power--^o with me as you please. 
I am a soldier. I have done the white people all 
the harm I could ; f have fought them, and fought 
them bravely : If I bad an army, I would yet fight, 
and contend to the last: but I have none ; my peo- 
ple arc all gone. I can now do no more than weep 
over the^pisfortunes of my nation. Once I t^ould 
animate my warriors to battle; but I cannot ani- 
mate the dead. My warriors can no longer hear 
ray voice : their bones are at Talladega^ Tailus- 
hatches^ Emuckfauy and Tohopeka. I havejiot sur- 
rendered myself thoughtlessly. Whilst t%re were 
chances of success, I never left my post, nor sup- 
plicated peace. But my people are gone^>aind I 
now <isk It for my nation, and for myself. Ojoirtte 



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140 MEMOIRS OP 

miseries and misfortunes brought upon my country, 
I look back with deepest sorrow, and wish to avert 
still greater calamities. If I had been left to con- 
tend with the Georgia army, I would have raised 
my com on one bank of the river, and fought them 
on the other ; but your people have destroyed my 
nation. You are a brave mau-^I rely upon your 
generosity. You will exact no terms of a conquer^ 
ed people, but such as they should accede to : 
whatever they may he, it would now be madness 
and folly to oppose. If they are opposed, you 
shall find me amongst the sternest, enforcers of 
obedience. Those who would still hold out, can 
be influenced only by a mean spirit of revenge ; 
and to this they must not, and shall not sacrifice 
the last remnant of their country. You have told 
Us where we might go, and be safe. This is a good 
talk, and my nation ought to listen to it. They 
shall listen to it.'* 

The second evidence, is the speech of" TAe Big 
Warriori^ before Gen. Jackson, Col. Hawkins, &c. 
It is with all the pleasure of delight, that I incor- 
pol^e this eldquent appeal to the magnanimity of 
our government, into this work. While it eulogi, 
zes the memory of our immortal political saviour 
Georok Washington, it also places Mr. -Madison, 
in the most exalted station-«the protector of the 
weak. It also repels the many insinuations which 
have been made against the long tried ai;^d faithful 
Indian agent, CoL Hawkins. It is but an ill requit 



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ANB&SW JACKSON. 141 

al for the long seclusion in which the Agent has 
lived ; and the pacific and salutary policy which he 
had pursued in the Greek agency^ to have it hinted, 
*• that his agency had lasted too long to hope that he 
vfould steadily pursue that course which the safety 
and interest of the country required.^* Biit such 
is the &te of public functionaries in our Republic. 
James M onkoE) and Akdeew Jacjkson, than whom^ 
more devoted patriots were never enrolled upon 
the records of worth, have shared in public oblo* 
quy, as well as in public applause. Even this is 
not withodt its benefits. Jealousy is the shield of 
freedom, and results from the solicitude Amejricans 
leel for their sacred rights and liberties. These 
censures serve the same purpose in our Republic, 
as the dust that was, by order, cast by lictors upon 
the heads of the returning conquerors of the Ro- 
man Republic, when they were passing under tri- 
hmphal arches. 

BIG WARRIOR'S SPEECH 

TO TEE AMBBICAN COMKISSIONS&S. 

" THp President, our father, advises us to hon- 
esty and fairness, and promises that justice shall be 
done ; I hope and trust it will be f I made this 
war, which has proved so fatal to my country, that 
the treaty entered into, a long time ago, with father 
Washington, might not be broken. To his friend- 
ly arm I hold fast. I will never break thai chain 
of friendship we made together, and which bound 

^o stand t€the United States. He was a father 



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143 VSMOf R» (^ 

to the Mj]io0ga people; and not oaljr to thtai, hmt 
to all the people bemath^tfae stui. His talk I bow 
hold in my hand. There sits the agebl"^ he sent 
among us. Nev^ has he bUolien the treatjr. Ht 
has lived with us a long time. He has seen our 
dbiidreu born, who now have childten^ Bjr his 
direction^ cloth was wove, and clothes were niad^ 
and spread through our country ; but the &ed 
Sticks came, and destroyed all — we have notie now. 
Hard is our sttuation» and you ought to consider it. 
I $tate what al^he nation knowlt ; ndthing will I 
keep secret. 

There is die Little Warrior, whcxn Col. ff^ai^ 
kins^ knows. While we were giting satis&ction for 
the murders that bad been committed^ he proved a 
mischief- maker ; be went to the British on the lakes | 
he came back, and brought a package to ^ fron- 
tliers, which increased the murders here. This 
conduct has already made the war party ta^uiTer 
greatly : but, although almost destroyed, they will 
not yet open their eyes, but are still led away by 
the British at tetisacola* Not so with- us ; we- 
were rational, and had our senses — we yet are so. 
In the war of the revolution, our ftither beybnd the 
waters, i^couraged us to join him, and we did so. 
We had no sense then. The promises he niade^ 
were never kept. We were young and foolish, and 
fought with him. The British can no more per- 
suade us to do wrong. : they have deceived us ohcev 
and can deceive us no more. You are two great 

• Col. Hawkms. ' 



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-^"^. '-'^^ 
fy uronM^et its oitr iuA b«d^ wMck^^thl Anfr*- 

v««loiir liiitiiics'fl» this pIaM»» tmd ire did ae; 

<t]wy^skofild'iittatfi>raifi(tliin9» wJUte Hub man ^otild 

owneLYesafabi;^ tJhe'CiNlaiy's gairri9M64 Uiat we 
IcnoHT aotiiii^ sbflfOt tbma$ aod tUt 4>nnfiKfter 
wmM «ltnel to thtut . ptrt «C tke buaBOso;^ You 
abo toU your tea dlUdiea, ibi^ jnmi ii^Diddlate 
jgotti cw» otftmt gaarkott >heffQ, irbicli inadetMyr 
hearts glad. 
. JigtnlmJKhm. weweielaiKiix^ therapidft^ it is 
iansfrtfe-gare |ri>a little iKtittanoe* Itjb hBsd to 
ifight 9eQ|dd wibp \ym Me^gtootid hogfi.*^ 

Xi^Mi i^far f^^ur flaat.has gone Qati^vie 
loumr tbey have ' ioaght-^ive have hiftsuad the .gneat 
gaiiSt hot teow nothhig of irhathaehanBetiBA to 
our htter with tene arin.t Our ehi{)s hav^ gone 
ose my, and ire are Tery ttadk astonisiked, to see 
our lather tying up ev«ry thing and fmspanog to 
fmh amy flie other, without letting' his red chii- 
dtetiifBoir what his hiteiil?k>ot ore. YOQabrayBtoiiti 
«$ to reniam here aod to.taiteoare of our ]ands««*it 
ina^e our hearts gfad' to haar that waa yotir wMu 

^Puniig the tiegi&of ToztHleigB, w troeps 6<Mrei«d tbeia- 
selves from t^e enem^r's fire» by thiW&ig up traverses and ditch- 
e*i of esrtii. 

13 



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146 MVMOf fts or 

Omr^reatftiliwr^tbeKifig, i»tkihmA^ mad jcun- 
present Um. You ftlways toid m, you would aewmr 
draw your foot off British ground ; buliRMrt telttr, 
we see yea ars drawing bank, and we are sorry, to 
see our father don« so, without smog the eiMii^. 
We arast coin|Mire our fiitfaer's oondiict to a &t aa- 
imal that curies its uil upon its baefc, Imt whan 
affrighted, ft drops it between its 1^, and rum «ff« 

Listen JitMtfr /— Hie Anerteans hafe Mi yet 
defeated us by land ; ndther are we sues that tin^ 
have done so by watier : we therefore trisk <o ifgwwHi 
kere aed fight ou^ enem^^ skoM theg malm ikeit 
appearance. If thqr ddeat us, wa ynAtkem raiaai^ 
with our father. - 

At tlie battle of the Rapids, last war, the Ameri- 
cans certainly defeated us ; and wlien we riiissiiid 
to our &therV fort at that plade, thiega^^ were 
shut against us. We were afraid that it would now 
be the case, but instead of that, vft see our British 
fother preparing to maroh out of his garrison. 

Father t^^Yo^ have got the arms and ammuni- 
tioQ which the great father sent for his nd chifdtoan. 
If you have any idea of going av^y, give tliem to 
us, and you may go, and wekome, for us. Our 
lives are in the hands of the Great ^irit««-we ate 
determined to defend our lands, and if it is his wiU, 
we wish to leave our bones upon tl^m. 

AmhersAurght 18th Sept^ 1813. 

* Fort IGsuBil^ near Wayne's batde ground. 



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ANDEsw jACftacm. 147 

I praeat tlie reader with Maj. Thomas R(M»land^s 
(of the 27ih U. S. ia&ntry,) account of the death 
of this great chief-—'* Tkcitmseh is certainly kil- 
led«-J[ saw him with my own eyes — ^it was the first, 
tine I tmd seen tUn celelHuted chief. Th«^ was 
something so majestic, so dignified, and yet so mild 
imhiaeonBl^aiice, aa he lay stretched on lus back, 
OB the ground whare a few minutes be&re he had 
ralUed his men to the fight, that while gazing on 
him with adttiration and pity, I forgjot he was a 
aavage. He hadreceived a wound in the arm,aad 
liad it bound up before he received the mortal 
leoBttd. He had such a coujatenanoe as I shall 
never &^;et.'' 

Maj^ Rowland might have exclaimed, over the 

eorpse of Teeomseh, as ffenrg V. did ovor that of 

gi — 1 

^ Lie there great heart— the earth that bears the^ dead, 
" Bears not afiYC»o«Umt.» •••••'» 



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MS IHMOIKS 0» 



CHAPTER XI. 

f 

„t«ct MHirequeatf &e Gmnnpoar of ]FtoDa«*4ii» Ifttef t# Wp 
Danger of the 7th Ifilkaiy district— Geii. Jackson's appeal to 
the government—- Mr. Monroe's measures of dcfenee^-Attaift 
npatk Fu* Bow9«i«-«isidknf Mmce cf Ifi^ ljr«i«ncftH^ri0 
official repost of it. 



THE wriiir bas aftte tnfiled to «beir Ae i 
Att promioem itature9 0l€€Q^ HAsetl^B Ufii^ ftmn 
his birtb t» tko eo&ctusioft of tke (Sietfc war. 'jt im 
hot Si mii^tuve, aiuf if tbeigiire i$ not findjrtottdir 
cd, tht clelimafion^ are cM^fidemly fn>&oiiii€«l» 
correct. To crowd a bipgaphical sktieh wil±i mb 
Tmte details of eveii{»y in whkb flt0s«bjic|^ of it 
bas acted a couspiciioad pari, may swell a v^kfrn^ 
with a wilderness of *^ tc^ords^ tvords^ iiH>rd9^^* sad 
hide the hero of it, in the rubbiah that entangles 
him. I certainly have a wish,, (it ma; be an «na* 
vailing one,) to keep Akp&rw Jackson in sights 
through this little ^rolume ; and although the deep- 
ly interesting acenestin which he was the {Nrincipal 
actor, must necessarily be adverted to, it is hoped 
the attention of the reader will not be diverted 
from the subject of these memoirs^ by blending 
with his fife, those descriptions which more proper- 
ly belong to the voluminous historian, than to the 
brief biographer; 

Gen. Jackson, having conquered the most war- 
like tribe of savages within, and perhaps, without 



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ANDRBW JACKSON. 149 

the AepabUoyby tte surbrd, and having sccared to 
ItiflT goverdmetit the benefit of the conquest by trea- 
%% he waa ted» not into regular negociation, but 
into singular intercourse with a power that calls it- 
tdtcioilized! 

It is painful to see a nation, which once held an 
elevated rank among European powers, sunk to 
the lowest state of degradntion. Spain, in the 
reign of Philip, inenacedi by its armada^ the same 
BrfHsh powOT, which has recently dragged its im- 
becile, but tyrannical monarch from the humblest 
exile, and placed him upon the Spanish throne* 
Sirugglfaig to r^ain the power of his predecessors^ 
aM tr^fnbling uncter the rod of his imperious mis- 
tr^s, he lends all his little aid in Europe and 
America, to subserve the interest of the British 
govemment. Knowing that the ^ holy alliance** 
entered into in I8l4s iyy the «< Allted Sovereigns,*' 
guarantees to each other their ancient colonies, 
XPerdmand yil. covertly gave every aid and &ciK- 
ty to the British forces, in their last war against the 
American R^ttbMc, ^e British colonies. - This, 
Gen. laekson ibll well knew during the prosecu- 
tion, and at the close of the Creek war. He knew 
that the governour of the Spanish province of Fio- 
rUb, although Spain was in a state of professed 
neutrality, either through fear of Britain, or hatred 
to America, had ^ven every assistance to the In- 
dianfi in their sanguinary war against our frontiers. 

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150 «siioiiis or 

Thence he had obnqiJWidrfrotn ike Cm^Sf 
he was aware .would not be a peraiMaiit. aw» ator 
the treaty he had made regatdtd* so long as Ihdr 
hostile chiefs and warriors, were fostcared, proteeted, 
and encouraged to further hostililies, by the gofer- 
nour of Florida, acting under his <<adolr^ dastfrj^' 
I'erdiiiand Vfl. He was deteivi»i|ied, iC posaiUe, 
to secure to bis country the benefit ot the^vietories 
which he had acquired, by the loss of $Qaie of his 
valiant coimtrynien, and by the death oThuiidMla 
of Creaks, who Xeli victims to religious &oatt^«i, 
and Briti$h and Spanish maehiiiations. 

Gen. Jaeksoi), is toocaotious nm a siatesnuui^ and 
too generous as a sk>ldiei!, to. trust to vugiie fepMi, 
and unsupported assertions, as gfounds of. impedr- 
tant measures. While making a treal;y wt^ Hke 
Creeks, he dlspat^ed som^ of his conBdential oBi- 
cers to Pensacola; to observe the coutse^ j^ursoed 
by Gonzalez Manrefuezy the Spanish govf^aoor. 
From the Greeks also, he was receiving, afaaost 
daily inibrmatiou of the peifidioiis c(diidiiel.o£thiji 
obsequious minister of the faitblesa Ferdinatid. ; 

Upon the return of his officersrttet irhfeh was 
before believed upod the stroaigest presumpUte 
evidence, was now reduced to absolute certahrty. 

Gen. Jackson, at this time, (Sept. 181^) had 
received no instructions from the War DepartmeBt, 
relative to the course to be punrued with the Dan- 
ish authorities in Florida^ He sent a direct mes- 
sage to Gov, Manrequez, requesting him to poitvt 



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'ANBAEKi JACKSON. iSl 

oat tbe ccMirae he waft about to pjinue. The. cc^- 
veftpcnteooe ths^ fellowed beiwera Umaod iSea. 
JaoksDA, has l<ms been bdoie the publie^ end i* 
tfio lesgthy to be hetc imevled. Thegoveraour 
wm less equivocal) aod iBC»e explicit than he had 
preFicMsIy foeM* He b^gan to leei a strong assu- 
faaee that the British government, which had res- 
toted bis wmiteT to the throne, would suppcurt him 
in ati his measures against the Republic. He knew 
4hat;tfee l^itifinate sovereigns of Europe we«& safe- 
ly eiKhroiied, and that pride as well as interest, 
would induce them to secure to Ferdinand YIL 
his South American colonies, and to endeavour to 
js^^aifi fiac , G^crge III. the. colonies he had lost in 
KcHTlh/ His language was confident, sot to say 
isiparious. He rq^l^d the charges against Ami 
hf criminating tte American government. Tiie 
eiffceapondence was closed by the following letter 
ta Jhi<B» fiK)m. Qm<^ackson« 
. i* Were J akithed" says the general^ « with dtpto- 
nlayc powere, for the {Mirpose of discussing the to- 
pics en^kraced in the wide raogeof injnrieaof whieh 
ywa eonplain, and which have long since been ad* 
justedt I could eairily deoionirtrate that the United 
2^tes have beea always &ithful to their treaties ; 
eteadfast in their flrindsfaips ; nor have ever claim- 
ed any thing that was not warranted by justice. 
They have endured many insults from the govern- 
ours and other officers of Spain, which if sancUon- 
^ by their sovereign, amounted "to acts of war. 



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152 ifEMOiv or 

vithout any prnmous cteciaifttioa^& . Uie ^dgcct; 
Thqr havQMcifeed ^esalragcy to wi^, Md affanM 
ihfitt the nuaQs of wigiiig it. Tlie pooipfert; of oar 
citiieiisJias been eaptiaecd at aei^^ and if conpaina^ 
tion kas not been rc£ned, it lias^at hast bueii 
Uritbbdd. Bat as na aich povrers -teve bem d#la- 
gated to owi i gbatl not assume tliM]» butteive 
tbem to tlie reprcseittaiives of our vespactive gff^- 
emnieiits* 

I hsva the boaotir of hemg efitr^slDd witb Aa' 
oommuid of this district CSiargad with its Jkro- 
teetJoHf aod the safety of its eitfiBiiisr, I ftel toy 
abiiit; to disabarge tfaa task, and Ify^ yoia* ez&et- 
lency will always find jm nadyaod urittii^ to go 
for\?ard, in the fetS^amame g( thatdiity, wheammit 
cireamstanoes diafi render itoeeessary* I agcaa 
with yoiit perfectly, that csadoar and polite laa« 
goage shottid» at all timesi obam^ertze tlie com*- 
municatious between the offieeiy of fipieiidly savo- 
reigiuies ; and I assert, witlioii^t the Dear of con* 
tradtctioti, that my former letters were couched im 
tttf'ffls the most respedt&l and oaexeeptioMbieb I 
Qidjr tefufistci^ aad did iiot danumd^ as yo« assar- 
ted, the dag l^^rs of the Greek coiileckraey^ who 
had tajfien. refuge in your town, and who had vtoiar 
ted all laws^mofal, civil, and diviBe* This I had a 
right to dO| from the treaty which I sent you, and 
which I now again eu^lose^ with a jrcquest that you 
will change your translation i beHeving^ as I do> 
that your former one was wrong, and has deceiv- 
ed you. 



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tojamMtumnaflkm. Tte wteArof it brtstk* 

ftctS) and false diargesr and wtMkf tmS&ag the 
ittfttMni timt B«d ten. inada. 

I eaa-lmt engross 09 amniislaMal at jmat fro 
ttfit a^iwt tlw cesrioK «» th# AhitaiM, fyiog 
fritkm die.i dp wM »i i dg g * jBrirtkeiw i<i tiie Puttri 
States^ and wbiah iMa bem mtito^ to dw S^m, 
hf tte prmeipalclriafii andtNirrioes of ti« sation. 
Bit Biy astaniihaiiiii mbaidcs^ frim^aa comp^iiif 
iV I And it upon apar with Arrest of ^pour letter 
mo4 eomOntt ; taliat tpgetlMif, tkiy aflTon) a satt* 
eknt jasliieatieo fdv any* eonteqaencts Hiae maj 
cneoe. My gaveniBMii wtii pniteet C!iitry Inch ot 
Jier teKritDT jTr her eittaons, and hm property, Jtirom 
ionlt and dspredatioii, regardless ef tlie pofttieal 
Tarolittiooa at .Etmipe : eadahbot^ sbe bas been 
aft all tiBics sedalaoe ta preserve a good undtrstand- 
iqg with all the woeld, yet she has sacred rights, 
ttat canant be trampled upoo with impmiity. 
Spain hod belter laoh ta her own intssiine comnio- 
tiaue^ btfore she walks forth' in that majesty at 
atreagdi anri^ pawer, which you threaten to draw 
d^wn npott the United States. Your eK^slteney 
has faeen candid'OHiiegli to adknit your haring sup- 
plied the Indians with arms^ In addition to this, 
I ha?e learned tiiat a British flag has been seen 
flying on one of yoor liirts. AH this is done whilst 
you are pretradiag to be neutral. 



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J54 wmmm^imv. 

♦ 

ttarr will 'pwvite t:tcn iuimattrnm^ tm mtfmA^ 
dim and lodiaiit, iBiMHrid I ttheft i& my feMi m 
pay yoa a villi. • 

In futoft, i beg ycm te. witiAdM y<mf handtia g 
charges against my governmeat) iDr^one more Itt- 
cUmd.lA liaien to slaadtr liMm I ami; um eonaidar 
me any mc^ as a dipkNowlie el«meiB0UHr, neJem so 
proclaim^ to you fumn tMraMthaof .mg^Gaanaii.?' 
It is wkfa the hif^Mst pleasme ! ineecpoialie^ tlia 
J(»regotag l^ler into these memoits ; and the msdtt 
trill feel an eznttatiOB at ^nomng, that wt ^mt 
not only tmti bot * many generals in the army ci 
the Aepublic, who unite the Statcaman Md Ifee 
Soldi^. Although Gen. Jaeksooj at the time he 
wrote it, was not clothed wHh diplomatic powesa, 
he shews, in a few paragmphs, that he perAetiiy 
understands the poii^ in controversy betwe^i the 
imbecile, yet haughty govommmt of Spate, a&d 
the American Republic Had he been a negoiaa- 
tor ten yew^sago^ it would probaialy .m>t now bt 
said tfa^t America has been tkirUenfemrs ist trying 
to settle omr diffnences with Spain, and that ebe 
may fieom tbeooe infer that we shaU auirtinae lo4ie 
very moderate, in bringing tiie controversy U^nxi 
amicable adjustment. The Aviitid diittte Am fie- 
quires men to ^< render g<H)d fer «o«V* bas not ^ 
been added to the code of the Law of NAtioas ; t&d 
if our Republic is disposed to^aet upon thatpeUici- 
pie with the allied sovereigns of Europe, every one 



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ANDft^r #«M3«SON. iS6 



%mttmmmm iodm^mj ft, wtongr «i well 
our iiidlipMnteiirg^^ at ^m^ wyl nmm 

€bii* JbuAaoQ ^^iiM n«w, 08io«i«iid«r> ui '^hief of 
.tii6 7lii.milllRi|riiiairi«t,:i«id«dingft^ mostia^cMr- 
tUxk%tpmiiM.tii0tf»aikttm wpeAotk ot^mwaim. It 
,wm tmwmtiGffiamth^ mwt ctadbfiigQDift pan of it. 
ifte Jftoadidr vktocaea at CA^pm^ BrU^fmKberj 
rMirt Eme^ ^nA ma^rimgh, hmi idkyed all aiqpra- 
JiaMJMft^SKMBBrktekaraiitoft&ihemrth. Tfieda- 
clfinea of if«fv 7<»whw ai^ ^Sl9fiai|$'!r)Qii» ^mp y«ri: 
m»A Bakimorjei badfoUwd fititish :«« naval denras- 
B"o£4bpir;tfitrjWs» upoa the easM^n-MBi- 
The Brkaeh admiiais aad Bdlmli gen^ab, 
£vciecoiiee»lvali!^ their farces, wUh a deteRnina- 
riioR a» «^ aff Ibe tikgiraoe, which bad with jae- 

ilee^been- atlaahed to tfaeBi-»«-iiot sa jcueh firpm the 
jMMa.theyhad'^ttfftfvedi as tnm the Yaodalisoi 

Afif^hfA cSftplayaA ia ihe Chesiqaeake Bay, t^a 
:4h(a Nh^i^ finmtitri , and at the eity of Washing- 
;^lOi>.} ThealttMst eonSdeaeeitas^ezfaessfid/by the 
Jbiliihiii iuMries,; of l^ soiicess of this f;reati and 

ttiHted effort of the armies and navits^f fiiitaia ; 
.land a? Biilish^oaolalts8]OIl(»r at^6i|imt, who at this 

.tiaae^waailMDaciaiiag apcaee with AaiexJMa cam- 

arissioaiim, leilixtijisty reoierked, that befoie they 
ihad tjflieto ccMidade a peace, New Orleaoa aad 

Uia Mates opep the Missisippi, wasdd be in 
tof Sk £dwaidFaAetihi»l 



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iern naeAm of JbhemiiiM^cr^tlMffMVt of JlidMfted 
«poB tl» Gutf of Mjmmp rnaH aufilttwmllA «f 
die Minisiiipi. A tmr tgnte ym^oiAai ^of ite 
HoK^ of ftBftcptibttciqri •£ OeoERmitew of ioh^* 
WOK iai tbt nofiiAmii, «aMUn,;ftiui mMflicirtlam «t 
an iniMiifle disttant bom VUm Q^fmm^. ^Bm 
vOiiofe sea^faoanif AvwrfiaMiM40 liiiat | i « w» : mat: 
canumnded bjr a m^KriGQr a«nl Aircerof ^ dttjnB«r:> 
aj, wiia ^eould by ibat 6oimiauld« iv mvwf)skm^^ 
time a p p w aeh any <« aasaiMIe fdiot^' ii|MMa tka* 
ooeuL Sir Qmsg^ BmRnet'saraBgr itf iil«OO0^^«i^; 
in Leirer Canada, bimiaig^ 4« refSiige'Aa* 
t^y met with alHatUPtiwrtli. liai^f 
«^reJni0»n teliamawMd Seimb fi^^teod imc^llib 
'Vest ladi^ uodar cammiiD* of Maae <^ 
reqcmapid geamdsiii W^ittogfob^wiiigr^ attiewjr 
JndiGationttiripead Aedrftenaiinatlim-of tkia ^^faik 
Jand and «fnl hnsm tut At a w a nj i, opoo tte 
Aneifew si»tb)ti, to make ajdewait moir tte 
nHHithof the Mig^i$ippL 

Msiiy erjliait: ^iflkert had >ab«ttdy atrinad «^ 
PftBBamla, afioot TOjadlfl^ caat^of MoMIateyv <m 
whkdi Ati-^ B^wffer ta^^ttaalMsU £toe ^bay^ imiD 

8irfBved<t<>eaihody<ani4 tnoQ sv^agoii/ OeauJacii* 
son, about the fiieat of feplaphac, oiditfeaiedrftlae 
War Department in the most pressing terms. . lu 



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tml5tkm letters, be uljs—^* How fosfg will the 
l&iiltd States pocket the* refH'ofteh aiHl «pen in-^ 
mM% lof Spaia ? It ts alone by a maiily and d%iii« 
fed eoftree, tlmt we caneecure respect from other 
Btttbiis, mtd peace to tmr own, TempcMri^itig pol^ 
iqriaiKit^oiily a di^iraee, tmt a curse to any aa« 
amh it is a fact, that a Brkish captaio of mariae^ 
ii» aodhas been^lbr soiae thne, engaged in drilling 
aaad organiziog the fiigitti^ Creeks'; uiid«r the c^ 
el the gammmr ; endeavoiiriiig, by his infltieQce 
aod pMiento, to draw to his standard, as well the 
paaetoUe^ae the hostile iDdiaos. If^rmissioa 
had bten giTea me to march against ^s place, 
(BsBsaeofa,) twenty day ago, I would ere this^ 
have phmied there the Ah bstcah £&gi;b ; now 
xm BUnt tn»t alone to our valour, and the jastice 
of cMiT .cause. But esy pvesest remorses are so lim- 
ilied«^ft sickly etimafie, as weU as an enmny to con- 
tend with, and withoot the means MF transporta* 
tien, to change die position of my ara^, that, 
resting on the bravery of my little jdialanx, I can 
only A^e for suceess.^' 

The Secretary at War, Mr. Monroe^ incessantly 
ejser^ himself to second the measures of Gen. 
Jackson* Having acquired Lcniisiana, and the ex*^ 
chsmve ccmimasd of the Missmlppi by negociation, 
he w^s mm called upon to defend it as the head of 
the War Departaent As there w>as, within the 
7th military district, b0t a very small amount of 

rwiilar troops, the Secmtary made a re;uisttion 
14 



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158 iiBJioiES or 

ttpon the executives of the states of Louisiaaa, Mis- 
sisippl) and Tennessee, to ha?e their foil quota ol 
militia in readiness hr immediate servipe, at t^be 
command of Gen. Jackson. Volunteers ^rtrere again 
invited by Gen. Jackson to resort to h^ standard* 
und^ which they had illways conqi^red. The 
whole civilized region of the MissisippI, was <« wide 
awake." The unbounded popularity of Gen, Jack- 
son induced tlie'miiitia not only with promptness^ 
Imt with anioatation, to rq;>air to the rendezvous.; 
and the <* Tennessee Volunteers" under thmr 
gallant, accomplished, an^ befeved iea^, G«q. 
Coffee were again in motion. Tliey had atoiost in- 
variably formed the van of Gen* Jackson's arqiy ; . 
and of ebeir immediate eomnmnder, it may be said, 
** he dared to lead where any dared to foltolr." 

Gen. Jackson, before the middle ol Septemiwr, 
had establiiAed his headquarters at Mobile^ wait- 
ing the arrival of the militia and volunieers, some 
of whom had to travel more than 4S0 miles. Upon 
the 14th be received a message from Maj\ Wii- 
Ham Lawrence^ commander of Fort Bowyer at the 
mouth of Mobile bay, requesting immediate assis- 
tance in the defence of that important post, as the 
enemy had landed in, the vicinity of that place, 
with a force probably ten times the amount of Us 
own. Maj. Lawrence had but 1S8 mep fit fordsty. 
He took immediate measures to succour this ex^ 
posed garrison ; but before reinforcements could 
reach tl»kt place, it was simultaneously attacked 



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ANDREW JACKSON^ 159 

upon the 1Mb, by the British and ladiaa £irc€a^ 
bylandi and by a large naval force in the bay. 
The defence of this j^ace is described in the finish- 
ed styie of Gen. Jackson, and Maj. Lawrence. 

G$K. JACKSOir, XO HON. JAMES JSfONBOE. 
H. Q. rth MUitaiy Pistiiet, M^Oe, Sept. irtb, 1814. . 

•Sir-^With lively emotions, of satlsfaetioii, I 
cominanicate that success has crowned the gallant 
efforts of our brav& soldiers, in- resuming and repul- 
aiag a combined British naval aad land force, which 
en the 15th instant, attacked Fort Bowyer, on the 
Point of Mobile. 

I enclose a copy of t)^ official report of Maj. 
Wm. Lawrence, of the M infancy, who comman- 
ded. In addition to the particulars communicated 
In his letter, I have learned that the ship which was 
destroyed, was the Hermes, of from 24i to 38 guns, 
captain, the Hon, Wm. H. Percy, senior officer 
in the Gulf of Mexico ; and the brig so consider* 
ably damaged, is the Sophie, 18 guns, Capt. Wm. 
Lockyer, the other ship was the Carron, of from 
24f to 28 guns, Capt. Spencer, son of Earl Spen- 
cer ; the other brig's name unknown. On boanT 
of the Carron, 85 men were killed and wounded -, 
among whom was Col. Nichoil, of the Royal Ma- 
rines, who lost an eye by a splinter. The land 
force consisted of 110 marines, and 200 Greek 
Indians, under the conamand of Capt^ Woodbine, 



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160 vxiiotKg or 

%f mariBfts, and abovt 30 artiniBrisIs, iritli one fear 
andao half inch kowitzer, firoBi wbieh tbey dis* 
charged shells and nina powad ahat* Theyfe'-ani- 
barked the piece, and retreated by land towards 
Fensacola, whence they came. 

By the morning report of the 16th, there were 
present in the fort, fit for duty, officers and men, 
158. ^^The result of this engagement has stamped a 
diaracter on the war in this quarter, hfghfy fiivour- 
able to the American arms ; it is an event from 
which may be drawn the most fitvonrable augury* 

An acfaievement so glorious in itself, and so im- 
portant in its consequences, should be appreciated 
by the gorernment $ and those concerned are en- 
titled to, and will, doubtless, receive the most grat- 
ifying evidence of the approbation of their coan- 
trymen. 

In the words of Maj. Lawrence, «^ where all be- 
haved well, it is unnecessary to discriminate." But 
all being meritorious, I beg leave to annex the 
nam^ of the officers, who were engaged and pre- 
sent ; and hope they will, individually, be deem- 
ed worthy of distinction. 

Maj. Wm. Lawrence, 3d infantry, commanding ; 
Capt. Walsh of the artillery ; Capts. Chamberlain, 
Brownlow, and Bradley of the M infantry ; Capts. 
Sands, deputy-commissary of Ordnance ; Lieuts. 
Villard, Sturges, Conway, H. Sanders, T. R. San- 
ders, Brooks, Davis, and C, Sanders, all of the 2d 
infantry. 



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ANDKBW JACKSON. 161 

^ I am confideal that yourx)wn feelings will Ic^d 
yclti to participate in my wishes on this subjects 
Permit me to suggest the propriety and justice of 
allowing to this gallant band, the value of the 
vcilsel destroyed by them. I remain, &c. 
: ANDREW JACKSON, Brig. Gen. Com. 

The Hon. Secretary of War; 

. The following is « the official repeat of Maj. W il- 
liam Lawrence,'' alluded to by Gen. Jackson, in 
bi» letter to the Secretary of War. 

MAJ. X.VW&&NGE TO G£N. JACKSON. 

I\)rt Bowyer, Sept 15th, 18t4, 13 o'clock at night. 

Sir — After writing the enclosed, I was prevented 
by the approach of the enemy, from sending it by 
an express. At meridian they were under full sail, 
with an easy and favourable breeze, standing di- 
rectly for the fort, and at 4 P. M. we ope^ned our 
battery, which was rieturned from two ships, and 
two. brigs, as they approached. The action be- 
came general at about 20 minutes past 4, and was 
continued without intermission on either side un- 
til 7, when one ship and two brigs were compelled 
to retire. The leading ship, supposed to be the 
Commodore, mounting twenty-two 32 pound car- 
ronades, having anchored nearest our battery, was 
so much disabled, her cable being cut by our shot, 

that she drifted on shore, within GOO yards of the 

14 ^ v 



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163 MKJIOIRS or 

battery, ami ttie other vessels haviag got out of our 
reacby we l^ept such a treraendousfire upon btr^ 
that she was aet on fire, and abaodoued by tiie feiv 
of the crew who survived. At 10 P. M* we k»t 
the pleasure of wituessiog the eixplosiou of her nMXg^' 
aziue. The loss of lives on board must have lieen 
iuimeDse, as we are certain no boats left her ex* 
cept three, which had previously gone to l^r as- 
sistance, and one of these I believe was sunk ; in 
fact one of her boats was burned along side of her. 

The brig that foUoweil lier, I am certain was 
much damaged both in hull and rigging. The oth* 
er two did not approach near enough to be much 
* injured, but I am confident they did not escape, as 
a well directed fire was kept on them during the 
whole time. 

During the action, a battery of a 12 pounder and 
a howitzer, was opened on our rear, but without 
doing any execution, and was sileneed by a few 
shot. Our loss is four privates killed; and five 
pri^tes wounded. 

Towards the close of the actioo the flag-staff 
was shot away; but the flag was immediately 
hoisted on a sponge staff over the parapet. While 
the flag was down, the enemy kept up their most 
Incessant and tremendous fire ; the men were with- 
drawn from the curtains and north east bastion, as 
the enemy's own shot completely protected our 
rear, except the position they had chosen for their 
battery. 



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AWDRBW JACKSON. ^ 1C3 

Where aH bc^mved well, it is uouecessary to dis- 
criminate. Suffice it to say, every officer and man 
did hift dnty.; tl^ .whole behaved with that cool- 
ings and aitrepidity which is characteristic of the 
true Amerliean') and which could scarcely have Ijeeu 
expected from men, most of whom had never seen 
an entmy» and were now for the first time, expo- 
sed for nearly three h<nirs, to a force of nearly or 
quite, lour guns to one. 

We fired during the action between 4 and 500 
guns, most of them double shotted, and after the 
first half hour but few missed effect. 

September 16thj 11 o'clock A. M. 

Upon an examination of our battery this mor- 
ning, we find upwards of 300 shot and shot holes, 
in the inside of the north and east curtains, and 
northeast bastions, of all calibres, from musket ball 
to 3i pound shot. In the north-east bastion,^there 
were three guns dismounted ; one of which a four 
pounder, was broken oS, near the trunnions by a 
32 pound shot, and another much battered. I re- 
gret to say that both the 34 pounders are cracked in 
such a manner as to render them unfit for service. 

I am informed by two deserters from the land 
forcCi who have just arrived here, and whom I send 
for your disposal, that a reinforcement is expected/ 
when they will doubtless endeavour to wipe off the 
stain of yesterday. ^' 

If you will send the Amelia dowi^, we may pro- 
bably save most or an of the ship's guns, as her 
wreck is tying in six or seven feet water, and some p 



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164 KEMOIRS OF 

of them are just covered. ' They vrill uot, however, 
answer for the fort, as they arc too short. 

By the deserters, we learn that the ship we have 
destroyed, was the Hermes, but her commander'^ 
name they did not recollect. H was^ the Commo- 
dore, and he doubtless fell on his quarter-deck, as 
we had a raking fire upon it, at about two hundred 
yards distance, for some time. 

To Capt. Sands, who will have the honour of 
handing you this dispatch, I refer you for a more 
particular account of the movements of the enemy 
than may be contained in my letters ; his services 
both before and during the action, were of great 
importance, and I consider fully justifj*" me in hav- 
ing detained him. Capt. Walsh and several men 
were much burned in the accidental explosion of 
two or three cartridges. They are not included in 
the list of the wounded heretofore given. 

The enemy's fleet this morning at day break, 
were at anchor in the channel, about 4 miles from 
the fort ; shortly after, it got under weigh and stood 
to sea ; after passing the bar, they hove too, and 
boats have been constantly passing between the 
disabled brig and the others. I presume the for- 
mer is so much injured as to render it necessary to 
lighten her. 

I Fifteen minutes after 1, P. M. 

The whole fieet have this moment made sail, ami 
are standing to sea. I have the honour to be, &c. 
WILLIAM LAWRENCE. 
^Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, &c. 



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Wben it is considered that this fort was is a very 
iDcoiUplete state, having been almost totally aban- 
doned, until Gen. Jackson had recently discovered 
. its importance to the surrounding country in time 
of war«->that it was only in a progressive state of 
improvement — ^that it was garrisoned by only an 
hundred and fifty Jiew recruits, who had never 
before faced a veteran enemy — and that it was as- 
sailed on every side by land and naval forces, pro- 
bably amountiog to 1500. men, and an hundred 
pieces of cannon, its defence may be ranked among 
the most gallant achievements in the last, or any 
]irevious war in America. When the defences 
of Stomngton^ Fort M^Henry^ Fort Boun/er^ and 
Fort St. Fhillips are remembered, the " naval de- 
monstrations" of the haughty mistress of the oceau^ 
lose the terrour which our countrymen formerly at- 
tached to them ; and shews that independent and 
valiant freemen, defending tbeiir homes against 
modern hired Vandals, sent to destroy them, xdll 
be victorious. 



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166 MEMOIRS. OF 



CHAPTER Xn. 

Gen. Jackson is appointed Maj. Gen. in IT. S. army-— Fort Bowyer 
—its importance, and its danger — Gen. Jackson determines to 
reduce Pensacola-^Arrival of Gen. Coffee witb Tennessee 
Volunteers and Missi^ppi Dragoons — Capture of Pensacola-r 
Gea. Jackson's account of it — Destruction of the Baranca»— 
He returns to Mobile— Col. Nicoll's proclamation— Remark. 

PREVIOUS to this period, (Oct. 1814,) Gen. 
Jackson bad been appointed a Major General in the 
army of the United States, and commander of t^e 
Tth military district. He had been Major-general, 
by brevet, some time antecedent to this appoint- 
ment, and commander of the same district. 

The importance of Fort Bowyer as a military 
post, became more and more apparent to him, as he 
discovered the immense preparation of the enemy, 
to assail the whole American sea, board, from Pen- 
sacola to New Orleans. This fort was but three 
days' march for land forces from Pen sacola, where 
the British had already hoisted their flag ; and from 
thence to New Orleans, but ten days' march. By 
the possession of this fort at the mouth of the car 
pacious bay of 'Mobile — the bay itself, and the ad- 
joining coumTy,the British land and «aval forces 
would, derive incalculable advantages. To secure 
it, therefore, was, in the view of the commandinjg 
general, pf the utmost impoctance. Bui however 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 167 

important the measure, the means to accomplish it* 
were altogether beyond his reach. Without a na- 
val force to cover the fort, or to assist in its defence, 
with hut a smali regular force under his command 
at Mobile, ami wholly uncertain whep the forces, 
from the distant state of Tennessee, and other pla* 
CCS, would arrive, it would seem to have been the 
dictate, not only of t,he cardinal virtue otprudence, 
but of fortitude itself, to have evacuated the fort 
and the country at once. The gallant defence of 
this place, upon the 15th Sept. although a severe 
mortification to the eneoay, would induce them to 
send a force against, it, absolutely irresistible. So 
insufficient' were his means of defence, from the 
middle of September, to about the 20th October, 
and so overwhelming was the superiority of the 
enemy's force, and constantly augmenting, that had 
he at this time, retired to New Orleans, with his 
little army, an unanimous sentence of approbation 
must hme been pronounced by his countrymen. 
But his language was ** besting on the b&avekt 
OF Mv LITTLE PHALANX, I HOPE F0& SUCCESS." Not- 
withstanding the discouraging aspect of affairs, it 
was at this period that be resolved, oh his own res- 
ponsibility, to march for Pensacola ; and with his 
arm) — " to carry our arms where we find our ene- 
tnies^^^* Having been educated as a jurist, he was 

* Had it nojt been for some unaccountable neglect er design In 
the War Department, in Jofy, 1814, Gen. Jackson would not have 
been reduced to this dilemma. .Upon . Jbrniary 17th, 1815, he 
received a letter from Mr. Armstrong, dated July IStibw 18l4 9» 



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160 ii^U0i9» or 

yeraed ia tbe principles of tbe Iaw of Kati#iii« 
He had a kaowledgq of the obUgattoos whi^ <i90 
gov^nment owea to another^-Jie waa, aware of t|# 
acts which this code would justify in a keUig^penf 
power» and the duty it eojoiocd upon a power tti9t 
was professedly a neuttal oue. The Spanish gov* 
^no^ent at this time^ in regard to the Americaia 
Republic, was of the lattar character hy profesnm^ 
and of the fcurmer oue by practice* He detenniiiei 
tp place himself within striking distance of. t||e 
enemy, whether he found them devastating tlie ter- 
ritory of tlie Republic, ot preparing to do it in ibm 
adjoining territory of another power. The paropi-^ 
ety and legality of this meaaure will more pioperl^ 
be considered, when we have traced the life of 
Gen. Jackson to the year 18i8, when he* a mcquA 
time, carried the American arms to the capital of 
Florida. 

About the 25th October^ the exhilarating intelli^ 
gence was received at Mobile, that Gen. Coffee 
had arrived at Fort St Stevens, with nearly 300Q 
' Tenuessee Volunteers,' and Missisippi Dragoons. 
The news operated upon the << little phalanx," Hk« 
a shock of electricity upon the hiunan system. 
Though previously resolved to follow their com- 

Secretafy of War, whidi sa.y8^*< If aUthe wxumHmntet Mtaied fjr 
9MI, unite f the eonchmon it irretUtibh. ' U becomee mer dvt^ t9 eta^ 
ry our artiu where -we find our enemies.** Mr. Armstrong', not loiag 
alter this date, was aocceeded intbewar departaient^ hf Mr. 
Monroe. The whole of this letter may be 8e«B by recqmiiee ¥f 
the pubficatioQa vf that pefiod. 



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▲NMSW XMMON. M9 



MMbnOer totteoMiMMi'k mdftith, Md imm tUr trsy 
Ittiotlie Ibrtifss ^f tbeeBea^f tihot:^ bristled irith 
lAyowti^ tkey beeame eoAuisiaeic wlm the^ 
Irmmr ttagr wircf ntnlof^M b j ireceraM, lo miB^ 
«f <wli!Mi vhntatyhwihecamt ftiiftHar, ftrd Wbd 
tMPi igmmot <if thetiaaieof tar. Geo. Jaekseo 
iKfltttniidto the ocampmciit of life eooipatiioii Ul 
srnis, lie migiit kavie saU of Gen. Ooflhe, as Hat 
iioti Mi of eairt. Butdj^^He h my Hghi arm.*' 
They had triivdiad haiid m hand, isi tlie liigli md 
to icdiufawt trrtt savages, apd mtte bo^ agaia 
dnittd in a thapeAte eflbrt to save tbtfir oouotry 
tebta aubjttgatioo and sfavary, by the Taunting^ 
conquerors of the rights of lAan fai Europa. 
' Many of the troops \f^o arrived from Tennessee, 
apDd Miiaiifqipi, bad seen ik> servioe, but they sfaar 
their beloved eonntry endangered^ and tbey imtne- 
diately became practical, if not theoretical soldiers. 
Parts of the 3d, d9tii, and 4i4th infantry of U. S. 
soldiers, were mingled with them. In a few days, 
they were all ready for aft expeditioti to Pensacola, 
tio ^ plant the American Ec^le*' in the place of the 
Brkisih Lim.^ 

Upon tiie 3d November, the amiy took up the 
Una of marcfh. Gen. Jackson comnuinded in per- 
son* Upon the Gtb, ba approtebed 4he places and 
sent forward a Qag to the govemo^ at Fort St. 
Gaorgi. In -opM vii^tioo^ ei^ry principle of 

* A British fiag had| Ibr many days, been lioisted at £he Spanish 
tet ilk I^cnfMsda. 

16 



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rightflf even of conMid^ wmies^ M^^.F^mt who 
bore Uieftig, was fimd on Iqr a cui^n ftim tlif» 
JortI It was 0(»irtesy aloMf that indiiMl. G««u' 
Jaoksoo to send ihit fla|^ Hia wish was, soUiitl^ 
ittandiag tlie preyioos iusolenee of gottmmt Masr 
i«qu«B» to save the eflbsumof himiui Iitoid^ Iqr a 
pacific interview, exptainic^.tlie object of. his miti 
and had he immediately stormed the fort|f afid p^ 
title gmrrison to the swords the laws ^ war would 
have justified the ^xsced&re. He^ tmofmi^ hIa 
troops for the nigbt» and ap<»i the mornii^ of tisa 
Tthf ^ proclaimed his dipiommtic character from ike 
mouths qf Us camum*^ 

The genemd hastily and briefiy describea &e 
battle in the followiog letter, having sobseqnently 
made his Report to the Secaet^ry of War. 

0£N. JACXSOK TO GOV. JBI017KT. 

H. Q. rth Ifilitaiy District, Temawy Not. 1814. 

Sir— »0n last evening I returned flrom Ptensa^ola 
to this place. I reached that post on the eveidag 
of the 6th. On my approadi I sent Major Fi^m 
with a flag to communicate the object of my vkit 
to the Gov^oour of Peosacola. He approaehi^ 
Fort St. George, with his flag displayed, and waa 
ftred on by the cannon from the Jbrt ; he retiirQe4 
and made report thereof to me. I immediatly.weot 
with the Adjutant-General and the Major, with a 



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AirHftftW jTACMoir. 171 

nuMMOortf and itewid the fc^» a&d found it de- 
feiKled* by both Britkh aB# Spasish troops. I im- 
noditttely detetmiaed to vtorf» the town ; retiral 
and eDCsmped my troops^ldr the night, and made the 
necesiary arrangeOM&ut to carry my determioatioa 
into efficet the next dd(y. 

On the morning of the 7th, I marched with the 
ellBctive regulars of the 3d, 39th, and 44th infkntry ; 
part of Gen. Goffi^Vl^igade; the Missiaippi dra- 
goons, and part of the West Tennessee regiment^ 
eommanded by Lient. Col. Hammonds, (Ck>L LoW' 
ly having deserted and gone home,) and part of 
UieChoctairs, led by Maj. Blue, of the S9th, and 
Maj. Kennedy, of Missisippi Territory. Being en- 
camped on the West of the town, I calculated they 
Woald expect the assault from that quarter, and be 
prepared to rake me from the fort, and the British 
armed vessels, 7 in number, that lay in the bay. 
To cherish this idea, I sent out part of the mounted 
men to show themselves on the west* whilst I pass- 
ed in rear of the fort undiscovered to the east of^ 
Hk town. When I appeared within a mile, I was 
fai fiiil view. My i»1de was never more heighteued 
tfian in viewing the uniform firmness of my troops^ 
and with what undaunted courage they advanced 
with a strong fort ready to assail them on the 
right ; seven British armed vessels on the left; 
etroiig Mock-houses and batteries of cannon in their 
front : but they still advanced with unshaken firm- 
ness, entered the town, when a battery of two can- 



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171 

ef rdgu]ftr»> vitli bttt tmd gnpe^ tad H skowfir fit 
imudMry flnn tke ImnM and gitdattflb Tht fctt- 
ttr; wm Imiiidtotely stmifd by Otffe Limll aad 
eoiii{iiagr» and earrM^ uul tbe moftkctvy }itM 8oa» 
silenced by the steady aod wttt directed fire ei 
the reguMre. 

The ffof emoitr m^ Cola. WilliaauKiiiandfkitfdt, 
who led the dismoanted vialiuiteers^ wHb a fla^ 
begged for mercy, and tarfoadtfod the to%ritftod 
lort» ujMsonditbBaUy. M m;y waa g?aiili0dra&dfiii^ 
lection given to the dttisens and their properly, 
and stiU Spanish ireaehery kept as out of posses^ 
aion of the fort, until nearly 12 oVrlock at night 

Never was more cool, detenamed brmvery H^^ 
pfeyed by any troops ; and tha ChMtawaadieaawi 
to the charge with eqnal bravery. 
-"On the nuMrning of the 8th, I prepaead (a marehk 
andMorm the Baraacas, but beisifi I could nioTe» 
tremendous explo^ns toU me that the Baniieaa, 
with ail its appendages, was blown up. I dis- 
patched a detachmeirt of two huivired men to ex^ 
plcdre it, who returned in the night with the inforr 
matioo that it was blown up ; alltiie eomhuslihla 
parts burpt,* the eannon spitosd and dismoiinted^ 
except two* This being the case, I detmalned to 
withdraw my troops ; but beSore I did, I had tba 
pleasure to see the British depart. Col. NieoU 
abandon^ed the fort on the night of the 6lh, and 



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Ke<^k Umsdf to bk sMppifag', wiibbisirieQdGa{^4 
Woodbine, aod. tbeor red friends* 

Tbe steady firmaesa of wj ttmpi^has drawn a 
just respect from om enemies. It bas convkieed 
tiH» Red Sticksy tbattbej bave no strong bold or 
protection, only in tbe friendsbip of tbe Untied 
States* Tbe good order and conduct of my tioops 
wbilst in Poisaeola, bas convineed tbe Spaniards 
ef our friendship and our prowess, and bas drawn 
from tbe citizens an expression, that our ChockHos 
are more divilized than the British^ 

In great baste, I am, &c* - '. 

ANDREW JAClES€»f. 4 

In tMsengagenient not an American lost bis life. 
'I%e gatlUntCapt. Levall, mentioned in the gene* 
raFs letter commenced the attack, and fell despe- 
mtdy wounded at the head of his command, itf 
storming the enemy's battery. Tlie conduct of 
Gov. Manrequez, in tbe midst of the engagement, 
is a volume of commentary upon bis previous 
conduct. ** With a flag, he begged for mercy, and 
surrendered the town and fort, ancondiUanaUy P^ 
0en. Jackson might have said to fafan, as a g^Uant 
cbieflain of antiquity did to a trembling and sup- 
plicating loe~>«<Be not as ezlneme in snbmis^i^^ 
as in offence.^* This generous commander felt a 
contemptuous pity for tbe humbled govemour« 
He was aivase that he was not a free agent, and of 

course, hardly an accountable being. He acted 
15* 



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174 MSltmRtOP 

under duveds from the imp^rioos CoL Nicolt and 
Capt. Woodbine, wto» no leas tinnrlfied thaa tte 
governoor, fled ia consternatioo to their shipiiii^;, 
before a gun wasJred ; in whtdk^ if they cottM aot 
withala&d, they coidd fle^ from the rengeaoce of 
Kepd^iican Soldiers* 

Soon after the lerma of cs^^laiioD were agned 
upon, the go veraour agreed also to aurren^r the 
Batancasy about fifteen miles to the westward. 
Bat in perfeiotcooBtstency with l^anish &iib, and 
Brjtish honoiur, it wa& blown up and comptady de» 
molished before it cohld be possessed by the Asaer^ 
Icao forces. 

Gen. Jackson, having struck this important blow;* 
having convinced the hoatileladttasythat Spanlarvk 
could not proleet them ; and Spaniards, that the con^^ 
fident security they had ^^ped in British protec* 
tton only exposed them to destruction, ho iadmedi- 
ately prepared to throw himself and his amy, into 
the more exposed parts of the country. It exdtes 
astonishment that henfaoiddhave left MotuUe upon 
the 3d, aitived at Peasacolaupon the 6th, captured 
it upon the 7thy agreed upon the siurra»ler of the 
BaranoiSi upon the 8th,' and upon the 9th, have 
taken up the line of mardi for Mobile to defend Fort 
Bowyen To this celerity of movement, and impor- 
tance of meaaures, modem war&re scarcely fur-^ 
nish^ a paralleL Geo. Jackson possesses one of the 
anost essential attribotes of a vf^^mm^-^pramptUMis*. 
He decides pfon^tiy, he executes prom|»tIy. He 



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ANDRSW JACMAOV* 176 

93»> possesses the rare quality, of infusiag iato the 
hearts of his -sobliara^ the ardour that inspires bis 
own* 

Wiule these events were transpiring in the eas* 
tarn section of the 7th nrilitary distriet, the solici- 
tude of the commander and of the whole adjoining 
ccMintry) waa encreasad for the safety of New Or« 
kansy emphatically the key of the whole Western 
Stales and Territories. 

Col. NiooU, soon after his arriyal at Pensaeob; 
eonfident of success, and swelling with the *< un- 
gathered laurels'* of anticipated yictories, endeav- 
oured to {Mrepare the minds of Louisianians, Ken* 
tocfciansy Tennesseeans, and the citizens of Missi- 
sippi, for the blesiringB of British domi&ioii, to 
which they would shortly be subjected. Although 
his celebrated Proclamation has long been before 
the indignant neader, to bdd that and him up again 
to contempt, I insert it in this woric. 

COX» KICOXL, TO I/>VIS]AHIAirS, KBHTUC&lANS, &C. 

^« Natives of Louisiana ! On you the first call ia 
made, to assist in liberating firom a faithless, imbe- 
cijte gova*nment, your paternal soil : SpaniardSt 
Frenohment Italians, and Britbh, whether settled, 
or residing f<[^ a time io Lonisiaoa, on you, also, I 
' call, to aid me in thia just cause. The American 
nmrpaticn^ io this country must i)e abolished, and 
the kutful owners of the soil put in possession. I 
am at the head of a large body of Indians, well arm- 
ed^ disciplined, and commanded by British off- 



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176 MEMOIRS OJ* 

cers — a good train of artilleiry, with every requisite, 
seconded by the powerful aid of a numerous Brftfrii' . 
and Spanish squadron 6f ships and vessels of war. 
Be not alarmed, inhabitants of the country, at our 
approach ; the same good faith and disinterested* 
nessjwhich has distinguished the conduct of Britons 
in EnropCy accompanies «them here ; you will have 
DO fear of litigious taxes imposed on 3rou, for the 
purpose of carrying on an unnatural and unjust war ; 
your property, your laws, the peace and tranquillity 
of your country, will be guaranteed to you by men, 
who will suffer no infringement of their's. Rest as-: 
sured, that these brave red men cmly bum with an 
ardent desire of satisfaction, f<^ the wrongs they 
have suJfered from the Americans ; to join you, in 
liberating these southern provinces from thefr yofce^ 
and drive them into those limits, formerly prescri* 
bed by my sovereign. The Indians have pledged 
themselves in the most solemn nanner, not to injure, 
in the slightest degree, the persons or properties of 
any, but enemies. A flag over any door, whether 
Spanish, French, or British, will be a certain pro- 
tection ; nor dare any Indian put his foot on the 
threshold thereof, under penalty of death from his 
own countrymen ; not even an enemy, %7iit an In- 
dian put to death, except resisting in arms ; and as- 
£)r injuring helpless women and children, the red 
men, by their good conduct, and treatment to them, 
will (if it be possible) make the Americans blush for 
their more inhuman conduct lately on the Escam^ 
bia ; and within a neutral territory. 



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of VmUfMk fi yoo Ib^m too long 
iiome wiib griemm iispQsituwi«».tlM itbolo btitot 
fd the iroff iN» liiUm o« ]r«qr braire aoiui ; Im ia- 
poocd DO no iDOgfr, buft eillMr vaoge yomaehres 
HBder tlmMiiiair4qfp>mJhr^ati€r$y.or obosrve. 

If jvott Qo«^y with «ith«r of tliMeaffera, wliat- 
w«r fiovittioni you send dowm wili be ^idd for in 
dallarSf and tkfmfc^rf ike per$9m Srinfmg iU as 
vteU as the free namgatim ^ tie JH^mifipi^ guar- 
aiiteed ta yms. Men of Kentucky ! let me call to 
your view, (and I trust to your abbcmence,) the 
conduct of those factkms^ which hurried you into 
tbb ciaSU UBJusif md wmatwral waofi at a time 
when Great Biritain was straisiing every nerve, in 
defence of her own» and die UkerHes o&the world-<- 
wiien the tnavest of her sons were fighting and 
bleeding io aei sacred a causc-i^when she was 
spending millions olhiw treasure^ in endeavouring 
to pull dmvn onejof the most formidable and dan- 
gerous tyrants, that ever ifisgraccd the form of 
man— *wben gEoaniog Europe was almost in her 
Ifuitgasp-^when BHUms akns showed an miaiMed 
Jit^tU^-'b^Miy dad those assassina endeavow to stab 
herefrom the rear ; she has turned on them, ram- 
eel^ from the btoody, but successful stri«gl& 
£im^ is haffif and Jra^ and she now hastens, 
justly, Xo revenge tiie unprovoked insult. Show 
them th^t you are not collectively unjust ; leave 
that eaniMn^^tiUe Jkw to shift lor themselves : let 



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irt Muoims or 

IlicMie s!avi» of the tyrant smd an tmhwsy to Kte, 
and implcwe his aid ; but let every honesty upr%fa€ 
American spurn them with vnitediconteaipt. After 
the experience of twerOg^ane yeups, can yon longer 
sopport those brawlers Sor liberty, who call it fm&^ 
dom, when themselres are fires ? fie no longer 
their dupes^-accept qf my oflersr— every thing I 
have promised in this paper, I guarantee to yoo, 
on eke $9cred honour of a British officer* 

Glren under my band, at my head-quarters^ 
Pensacota^ this SStbday of August, 1814. 

EDWARD litiCOLL. 

It would be difficult to determine whether weafc^ 
ness, ignorance, arrogance, or falsehood predomi- 
nates in this British state paper ; and whether it was 
the {Hxxlaction of a cabinet council at London, or of 
the individual labour of the redoubted Col. NicolK 
It would be «< stale, flat, and unprofitable," to ana- 
lyze or criticise it. It evinces the weakness of the 
author, his ignorance of the Ainerican character, 
the arrogance of a coward, and the baseness of a. 
scoundrel. The conduct of Nicoll at Pensacoja, is 
a sufficient commentary upon his proclamation. 
Having duped the governour of Fl<»ida, and expos*- 
ed his capital to destruction, he basely deserted hka^ 
in his utmost need, and shewed, that with an aAcie&t 
J[)ritish Knight, he thought ** the better part of 
valtor is— discretion.". Maj. Lawrence at Finrt 
Bowy«r, taught him, for the rest part of bis life, to 



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■■4. 



look tmih a m^U ege.^ No proekmation couid be 
hetler eakuiated to call the gallant sons of Ken- 
tttcky, Teanesaee, Louisiaiia, and MissUippi to ijhe 
Mndard ol the AifiweiLii Hsao, than this. They 
kaew wtti how to distioguish between his patriot* 
iam and oouime, -and «' the sacred henour of a BfU- 
khitficer.** It will be remembered that asother 
British offieei» Geo. BrisbaBe» laTited the citizens 
of New- York and Termont, to flee to the standard 
of Sir Gea Prevost, at Plattsburg. They preferred 
that ml Gen. Maeomb ; and there tai^t the vaimt* 
ihg eoaquc^reirs of Napolecm the same lesson at the 
Ninth, which Gen. Jadncm afterwards repeated to 
tfeemattheiSotitA* 

• See Gen. Jacluon's account of the defence of Fort Bovyer. 



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fn " «iiitdtR» m 






plnceF— reliaoce i^khi dutvnt forced--4ui addfewto the peopi^ 
ef Louiaiana— timidity of the leipblature— -eTidence of disaffec- 
Itoli, IM tr«i1xmm» tt>Batiel'--II«6kNlltoR ^ IbMSfel LM»^ 
Ifoanim 0f de£anee«^Aj«ivBl of peinforoCTie]it»--44a»di9|p Ijf 
the enemy— Battle of the 23d Decembei>— Official reportof it- 

THEwIldiiidttvlddhGcii.Jiiei^ £ar Ae 
siftty of MoMte bsjr amd Fart Bowjwr, ivw new 
aJiDlist inrspttailii the ^r^wbOaAng htmktf ht 
endured for tbe most important pUMin kb tSstiic^ 
and in some respects, in the Union-^-AT^^u; Orleans. 
For a considerable period there had been no gen- 
eral officer in the 7th military district but himself 
who was attachecl^ to the'army of the United JSMatea> 
although with him there bad long Been one g^iernl 
officer who would adorn any service. At length 
Brig. Gen. Winchester, of U. S. army, arrived^ and 
to him Gen. Jackson assigned the command of *the 
east^n section of his district, and immediately re* 
paired to New Orleans. 

He arrived at this place upon the 2d December, 
1814. A mere casuist may wonder why the pre* 
sence of a single individual at an esq^sed place, is 
an augury of its safety ; but it is in vain for casu- 
ists, philosophers, or stoics, to l«]gh at a sentiment 
that is common U> our nature. The prescaice of 



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^ ANSIKEW JACXMN. * 181 

WASBiNotoH at Trmiiim^ and of Puthah at £tfti- 
kerU HiUj had Ihe same effect upon citizens and 
soldiers, as tiiat of J ACfxsoir at New Orleans* 

At no period si«ee the lieclaiatioti of American 
XndepeBdeQce in Jaly 1776, to December 1&14, had 
ail Amertean oomttander a dmy of more impor- 
tance and difficulty to discharge than had Gen. 
Jackaonat this portentous period. At Mobile, with 
means apparently wholly insufficient, (to use his' 
own langoagej) he had <*a sickly climate, as well 
to an^enemy toeofttend with." At New Orleans he 
had to contend with the consternation of the citi- 
xensy the insole«€e of judicial power, and the tijpaor- 
<IBS policy of the legislature of LouMana ; as well 
as against the most powerful land and naval force, 
that had, for forty years, menaced any one place 
in the Republic. He had also to contend with the 
pif^udices, the fovouritism, and the perfidiousness 
of foreigners, a vast number of whom had migrated 
to Loui^na before its accession to the Republic, 
by Mr. Monroe's treaty. 

Although the Proclamation of Nicoll, excites in 
the mind of an intelligent American reader, no 
feeling but that o£ ineffable contempt ; yet with the 
inized population of Louisiana, its effects might be 
essentially different. Although amongst that pop- 
ulation, where many native Americans of distin- 
<niished talents and patriotism, it is without a doubt 

le fact, that in 1814, a majority of its inhabitants 
were of foreign extraction ; and that much the 
16 



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18S itEiioiiis oy 

most numeroua class of foreigners were Frefichmeiu 
They saw the same fomidable power, that had re* 
cently taken the lead in conquering the conqueror 
of Europe, driving him into exile, a&d restoring 
Louis XYIII. to the French throne, bow menacing 
Louisiana with a force, that seemed to be irresisti- 
ble. SpaniardSf in the same power, recognize^ 
the restorer of Ferdinand VII. EnglUhmm^ dared 
not take up arms against their own countrymen un- 
less certain of victory. Gen. Jackson was aware 
that in this disc(»rdant mass of people, there would 
be many who Would not only neglect to repair to 
the American standard, but who would <* give aid 
and comfort" to the enemy* He was abo aware 
that energetic and coercive measures to detect do- 
mestic traitors, or to conquer a powerful foe, woukl 
meet with resistance from that undefined, and fre. 
quently unrestrained spirit of liberty, wlUch for- 
eigners, recently settled in the Republic, almost in- 
variably manifest. But it was in vain for him to 
wish for a different state of things, or to pursue a 
course of coj^ducl which adifferentstate would have 
rendere<^}fidicious and expedient. He was compel- 
led to j^t as circumstances dictated, without the pow- 
er of |hanging them. Like a great man in danger, 
described by a great poet, wilt elegance — ^ Serene^ 
and master of himself ^ he prepared for what might 
conie^ and left the rest to heaven.*^ 

Commander in chief of the. extensive and im< 
portant military district No. 7, he knew that the 



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ANDREW JACKI$ON» iSS 

eyes and the hopes of the Americau people were 
fixed upon him, and <« the little phalanx" who had 
followed him to victory. With many who knew 
the peril of his situation, these hopes were mingled 
with despair ; but despair never produced its par- 
alizing effects in the bosom of the general. In Gov. 
Claiborne of Louisiana, Gov. Blount of Tennes- 
see, and Gov. Shelby of Kentucky, he felt a safe» 
a certain reliance, as he knew them to be ps^triotie 
statesmen of the first water. In Gen. Coffee and 
Gen. Carroll, and the gallant men who he knew 
woald follow him to victory or to death, he could 
recognize officers and soldiers who would cheerful- 
ly unite with him and the small regular force he had 
under his command, at New Orleans. From Mis« 
sisippi, he also felt the strongest assurance that 
his force would be augmented by mauy of its gal- 
lant soldiers, who had followed him in taking am- 
ple vengeance upon the Creeks, for the massacre at 
Tensaw, in their territory. It was still, however, 
. wholly uncertain how soon an effective force, which 
would give any hopes of a successful defence of the 
place would arrive. His first reliance was upon 
the Louisiana militia, upon whom, from circum- 
stances already mentioned, he could place the least. 
He had a faithful coadjutor in Gov. Claiborne; and 
from Mr. Edward Livingston, derived every assisi. 
tance which his great talents and influence enabled 
him to afford. Gen. Jackson addressed the citizens 
and soldiers of Louisiana, in the following*' imprc^/ 
ive manner : — 



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184 nsMOiRs or 

<< Natives of the the United States! the enemy 
you are to centend with, are the oppressors of your 
iD&nt political existence—- they are the men your 
fathers fought and conquered, whom you are now 
to oppose. 

Descendants of Frenchmen! natives of France! 
they are Snglish, the hereditary, the eternal ene- 
mies of your ancient country, the invaders of that 
you have adopted, who are your £3es. Spaniards ! 
remember the conduct of your allies at St. Sebas- 
tian, and recently at Fensacola, and rejoice that 
you have an opportunity of avenging the brutal 
injuries inflicted by men who dishonour the human 
race. Louisianians !. your general r^oices to wit- 
ness the spirit that animates you, not only for your 
honour but your safety; -for whatever had been 
your conduct or wishes, his duty would have led, 
and yet will lead him, to confound the citizen, un- 
mindful of his rights, with the enemy he ceases to 
oppose. Commanding men who know their rights, 
and are determined to defend them, he salutes you 
as brethren in arms ; and has now a new motive to 
exert all his faculties, which shall be strained to 
the utmost, in your defence. Continue with the 
energy you have begun, and he promises you not 
only safety, but victory over an insolent foe, who 
has insulted you by an affected doubt of your at- 
tachment to the constitution of your country. Yout 
enemy is near ; his sails already cover the lakes : 
but the brave are united ; and if he find us coi\> 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 185 

tending among ourselves, it viU be for the prize of 
valour-^nd fame, its noblest reward/' 

Considering the nature of the people and of the 
troops he had to address, it is difficult to conceive 
of an appeal more appropriate. The native Amer* 
icans are pointed to " the oppressors of their infani 
political existence^^^^The natives of France to the 
<* eternal enetny of their ancient country^ he irwaders 
of tlw one they had adoptetP^ — Spaniards too, are 
reminded of *< the brutal injuries inflicted?^ upon 
their country, " by men who dishonour the human 
race.^^ It ^ was argvmentwn ad Aom^num— an appeal 
to men ; which is generally more effectual than 
arguments deduced itmsi principle. But excepting 
with the America4[|^rt'^^B(hi2^e population, it had 
no effect. Indeed,' 4|^i £fli||ean Spaniards but 
little exertion could bWI|fectft(l«in the cause of 
the Republic, when they^Kieiiy expected to see the 
country they inhabited return to, the Spanish 
yoke ; and the Frenchmen there, who, a short pe- 
ifiod before, were vociferating, Vive PEmperettr ! 
were now sending in their adhesions to Louis 
XVIII. and exclaim. Five le Roi! — So far from 
volunteering, they/ refused to comply with the mil« 
itary drafts that were made. 

The disaffection of the few is easily checked, 
-when the public functionaries discharge the neces- 
sary duties devolved upon them ; but so far were 
the legislative and judiciary powers of the state, 

from calling in the power of law to check the 
16* 

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186 MEMOIRS or 

growing discontent, . that they encouraged it by 
conniving at it Governour Claiborne did every 
thing which a patriotic and vigilant executive conid 
discharge ; but a majority of the legislature, nerve- 
less, timorous, and desponding, hung upon him ii&e 
an incubuBy and paralized all his exertions. In re- 
gard to this house of assemblyi the governour might 
have said, " mine enemies are those of my own 
household.'* 

From the Police of the city of New Orleans, no 
more hopes could be derived than from the major- 
ity of the legislature of the state ; and some of its 
Inhabitants were carrying on a treacherous inter- 
course with the enemy. _3ilfie writer would not so 
confidently have ^^^t0^^^^^ contained in 
this chapter, unlessff^iha^^ffiis possession indu- 
bitable evidence of thelh al|bracy. From the mass 
of testimony, the fQllowiAg is selected from the 
correspondence between Gov. Claiborne and Gen. 
Jackson. In one lett^ the governour says, «^ On 
a late occasion I had the mortification to acknowl- 
edge my inability to meet a r^iuisition from Gen. 
Flournoy ; the corps of this city having lot Uie 
moat part resisted my orders, being encouraged 
in their disobedience by the legislature of the 
state, then in session; one branch of which, the 
senate, having decl9tred the requisition illegal and 
oppressive, and the house of representatives 
having rejected a proposition to approve die mea- 
sure. How far I shall be supported in my late 



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AN0R£W JACK80K. J 87 

orders reuiains yet to be proved. I liave reason 
to calculate upon the patriotism of the interior and 
western counties* I Icnow also that there are 
many faithful citizens in New Orleans ; but there 
^fe others, in whose at&chmmt to the United 
States I ougpht not to confide« Upon the whole, 
Sir, r cannot disguise the fact, that if Louisiana 
should be attacked, we must principally depend for 
security upon the prompt movements of the regu- 
lar force under your command, and the militia of 
the western states and territories. At this moment 
we are in a very unprepared and defenceless condi- 
tion! several important points of defence remain 
unoccupied, and in caie of a sudden ,attack, this 
cai»tal would, I4k fvM^sy sacrifice.'^ 

In another letteff^m^^pressiveiy remarks, 
— ^ Inclosed you baWisi^ies of my late general 
orders. They may, anfl| tril^t will be obeyed ; but 
to this moment, my fellow citizens have not mani- 
fested all that union and zeal the crisis demands, 
and their own safety requires. There is in this 
city a much greater spirit of disaJBTection, than I had 
anticipated ; and among the faithful Louislanians, 
there is a despondency which palsies all my prepa- 
rations; tliey see no strong regular force, around 
which they could rally with confidence, and they 
seem to think themselves not within the reach of 
seasonable assistance, from the western states. I 
am assured,, Sir, you will make the most judicious 
disposition of the forces under your command ; but 



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188 MEMOIRS or 

excuse me for suggesting, that the presence of the 
seventh regiment, at or near New Orleans, will ' 
have the most salutary effect. The garrison here 
at present, is alarmingly weak, and is* a cause of 
much regret : from the great mixture of persons, 
and characters, in this city, we have as much to ap- 
prehend from within as from without* In arresting 
the intercourse between New Orleans and Pensacolaj 
you have done right. Pensacola is in fact, an en- 
emy's 'post, and had our commercial intercourse 
with it continued, the supplies furnished to the en- 
emy, Would have so much exhausted our own stock 
of provisions, as to have occasioned the most 
serious inconvenience to ousselves. . 

I was oh the point ol^lltkingfl^ myself, the pro- 
hibition of the trad^WRi Peflpttcola : I had prepa- 
red a proclamation to dNi#ffect, and would have 
issued it the very day f faetfQ of your interposition. 
Enemies to the country may blame you for your 
prompt and energetic measures ; but, in the person 
of every patriot you will find a supporter. I am 
very confident of the very lax police of this city, 
and indeed throughout the state, with respect to 
the visits of strangers. I think with you, that our 
country is filled with spies and traitors. I have 
written pressiugly on the subject, to the city author- 
ities andparishjudges— Ihopesome efficient regula- 
tions will speedily be adopted by the first, and more 
vigilance exerted for the future, by the latter-" 



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ANMEW JACK«ON* IS9 

In a tiiird letter, the governooi^ ob8er?es^ 
«' Th^ only difflcolty I have hitherto experienced 
in meeting the requisition, has been in this dty, 
and exclusively from sone European Frenchmen, 
who, after giving dieir adhesion to Louis XYIIL 
htave, through the medium of the French consul, 
claimed exemption from the drafts, as French sub- 
jeiits. The question of exemption, however^ is 
now under discussion, before a special court of in- 
quiry, and I am not without hopes, that these un- 
grateful men, may yet be brought to a dBx^harge of 
their duties* 

You have been informed of the contents of an 
intefoepted letter, written by Col. Coliel, a Span- 
ish officer, to Capt. Mcnrales, of Pensacola. Xhis 
letter was submitted for the dpinion of the attorney 
general of the state, as to the measures to be pursu- 
ed against tbe^ writer. The attorney general was 
of opinion, that the courts could take no cognizance 
of the same ; but that the governour might ordet 
the writer to leave the state, and in case of refusal, 
to send him off by force. I accordingly, Sir, or- 
dered Col. Coliel to take his departure, in forty- 
eight hours, for Pensacola, and gave him the ne- 
cessary passports. I hope this measure may meet , 
your approbation. It is a just retaliation for the 
conduct lately observed by the governour of Pen- 
sacola, and may induce the Spaniards residing 
among us, to be less communicative upon those 
subjects which relate to our military movements.'' 



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190 HBMOI&8 or 

In another letter, this patriotic chief magistrate 
says to Geo. Jackson, «^ If Louisiana is invaded, I 
sliall put myself at the head of such of my militia 
as will follow me to the field, and on receiving, shall 
obey your orders." It will be remembered that 
the venerable Gov. Shelby, of Kentucky, served 
under Maj. Gen. Harrison, when he obtained his 
signal victory over Gen. Proctor. In addition to 
this explicit evidence, Garnished by Gov. CIaiborne» 
Charles K Blanchard, Esq. writes to Gen. Jackson 
thu8-*-«' Quarts-master Peddie of the British army, 
observed [to me] that the commanding officers of 
the British forces, were daily in the receipt of 
every information from the city of New Orleans, 
which they might require in aid of their <^rationS| 
for the completion of the objects of the expedi- 
tion ; — that they were perfectly acquainted with 
the situation of every part of our forces, the manner 
in which the same was situated, the number of our 
fortifications, their strength, position, &c. He fur- 
thermore stated, that the above information was re- 
ceived from persons in thecityof New Orleans, 
from whom he could ai any hour^ procure every in- 
formation necessary to promote his majesty's in- 
terest ! I" 

I have been thus particular in describing the 
situation in w^hidhi Gen. Jackson found the citizens 
of Louisiana its legislature, and its captta],upon his 
arrival there 6arly in December, 1814, because it 
induced, and indeed <5ompelled him to resort to h 



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ANOmCW JACESON. 191 

measure which had never before been resorted to 
in the Republic, since the adoption of the Consti- 
tution— thx BXCJLA&ATIOir OP MABTIAL Xa W. This ' 

took place upon the JlOth of the month, twenty- 
three days before the splendid victory, which secu- 
red the city of New Orleans and the~~states border- 
ing upon the Missisippi, from the rapacity of an 
enemy whose principles of warfare had been de- 
monstrated, upon the western frontier, at Havre de 
Grace, at Hampton, and at Washington ! 

The proceedings of the legislature weresuspen- 
ded« But let the majority of the members, who 
then constituted it, remember, that the suspension 
of their civil power, was occasioned by their resis- 
tance of a legal military power. Gen. Jackson 
had been too long in the discharge of the highest 
civil functions, not to acknowledge the superiority 
of the civile over the military power* He had been 
too long in military life, to be ignorant of the 
duties of an Ammcan General, to whom was com- 
mitted the defence of a district, the safety of which 
was parampunt to every other consideration. 

The citizens of New Orleans, and its environs, 
were, for a few days deprived of their accustomed 
privileges. But the patriotic part of them, endu- 
red the deprivation with pleasure, since it prohi- 
bited the perfidious and traitorous part of them, 
from holding an intercourse with the eneii.y, calcu- 
lated to aid them in the subj jgatioii 6t it. 



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Its XSVpIRt Off % 

GeD* Jftckfion kad been idetttantly mgage^ 
since hk arrival^ m atkeling the Mist donukiftii^ 
diag scitcs for Sbrtiieaikms, usfirtliB nmiAli^ef tfatt 
Miasisippi. Fort St. Philip, mm setecto^astte 
iBo^t ei^lble ouei aodMaj. W. H. OfortMi wm 
aplpointecl to the comamnd oMt. EBa gaH^itt d^ 
fence of it, will coisstiliile a soiM^ttent wticAe i» 
these memoirs* The naTal {atet near New Ofiwnsi 
consisted of small giin vesseb, under the eoYfiffiatld 
of JGapt. Fattersoii. The gaHaoftry, ool to say dis^ 
peratioD, with which thfy were defended, move 
properly belongs to the naval cBrotiicIe than to 
this work. 

From the I6th, to the ^d De(*enil>er, fhe gea- 
eral, by bis animatioOi vigYlance^ and eitertlons, 
seemed to magnify his little phalanx into a host, 
and to dissipate the despondency that pervaded the 
citizens, by the confidence his presence exci^d, , 
Upon the last mentioaed' day, the reinforcements 
from Tennessee, under Generals'^ Carroll and CofSet^ 
-iiad arrived. Those under Gen. tkiffee, were^ the 
most of them, the same ^en who had enoamped at 
Fori St. Stephens, two months previous, and who 
were present at- the capture of Pensacokt; upon the 
7th Novcmbcrv From the time ttiey left Tennes* 
see, to the time they meamped at New Orleans^ 
they had marched over 800 miles ! The troops 
under the command of Gen. Carroll, were those 
recently raised by order of Gov. Blount, and but 



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fcw of them had stta usy service* 'Hu^had and- 
46a|y:rapaiKd: to.thflir neodesvoi^ at hcMiie;iiBp 
wsdiateiy ealcied tlw vMeticnSt ia the Mk^ppU 
and had oo-on^odtuiity to study evea tfat.firat 
pkicqptai of military tactica, bc&m they weit 
oftUed . to ftoe a Telerui foe» whoae prowess was 
tefciuariedged through the worJd. . The MissisipiMi 
Sragoo&s had also arrived^ under the GCMamand of 
thrisr aeeofliplished leader, Maj. Hinds ;> and this 
heterogenoas mass^ of cUtzen^soldhrs^ was conver- 
ted« as by magic, iato an army^ whose aohie^emeats 
under their i^reat leader^ Gen. Jacksoo, will now be 
detailed. At this period, the Kentucky troops, 
raised by order of Gov. Shdby, and commanded by 
Maj. Gen. Thomas, had aot arrivftd at New Orleans. 

ftevious to the* %d, the gun vessels had been 
captured by the enemy, with an overwhdming force, 
after a defence by Lieut. Thos. Ap. Gatesby Jones, 
which ^* reflects additional splendour on oar naval 
glory, and dinanishes the regret Mt by their 
lQas.''« 

Upon the 23d, Maj. Gen. Keene landed nine 
miles below New Orleans, with SOOO men, inured 
to arms, and Gen. Jackson, with less thsm half that 
number of men, mostly militia, immediately march* 
ed to give him battle. His account of the contest 
follows. 

^ Vide Capt. Pattenon*8, and lieut Jones' offidal reports. 
17 



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Kfik ^ «juioiua» 



«nii^ bclM Mir»Oiiiai%Oio. 9\UH^ 
S^s^Tbt taa» otaut gem hostantM (be; pass. 

aialtafik. b httiiM IbmiDra an olgnot eliiiifM^ 
tKfip^ to i4»laapt tib» DWMDras hff^ousr«iHlM«fil0i^ 
liDadiag fii0i»that lake tq.tbciliif UuubioDidMMtei 
aitippL. i;iii» iiipfvtaDf» asgmct vasr. eopiii|iid» 
ia ihe&si Hi^tmefii to* ^jit^okummkoiitkfi^ TibiiNv^ 
i«M»W aflarnHKl^' V» 6ok fie. I/anMriev cd^ tte 
^uteianftimiliUai wd lagUy* to^mnlie^ dti«Qr%. ta 
ll^r. Gte% YiUftJre, Q0auMAil|ngrtbe:4i8tji^bJm 
tweta. thft^ riwT; ukL ^iImi l»ke9>. and- wlio Jb^D^^ 
mijvtt of tbe cwmxyi waa^i^mQ^aid iq bck bt»tiae« 
quaiotftl.witk aU tbcma p^aes. UitfoitHAMdyf 
I)ai«6V^» a^pkquat wliick. tl^ gmtiial bad : ««i9iji»* 
li9ti«d a| tlift sKOjutkof thci faflaro|i;QifimeiHi^ wA: 
vbiehf fliQtmlhilaii^i^ aVi^«dfira» liad. baesi left^ 
imptetmcfteA was. oomplaieljf^ sorffriMd^ ud. Urn. 
enemy penetrated through a canal leading to bia 
farin> abcwt ti«Ql9agu«^bQ(o|{itbie« city» apdsuc- 
qwM ia €9itt«iigoff a coppftny o£iwlitta;8iaiioi>T 
ed tbava*: Tb|B totdiigeciiea. waa.coauiittiiic9^ to 
nn about 12.49fdQckQ£ the J3d. My Corea aft.tbia. 
tmh. cons^ttd^ piurt9 of the 7tkaod. 4Mh nsh 
mtnts, not exceeding six hundred together* the/city; 
mili^iai a par| 0/ G^n. Cq^^e's brjgs^di^ of u^oyQt^d 
guiiuneu, and the detached militia^ from the wes- 
tern division of Tennessee nnder the command of 



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Ammi 4 Biite atovfe tbe city. Afl^relieiidteg « 
49GMe tfttiMek lair fktt uttsr <tf Ghief-lleiitetir, I 4elt 
6c». XknroH^s ftim «iid 4te miHiiA <tf die €lt]f ^ |ki«- 
Mi oa CheGMliUy t^ftd ; and ttt ite ^Vlook iP. % 
tUfeltdii taveet liie w«m3r« #teiai -I was mohFtd 
to ailftck in Ml first posttidO) w4fh Maj. Ififid'« dra* 
9Mi»,Gn. Cbffee's bri|^, parts of the 7tli and 
4iitti 4l^filimtii)the di]$form6dcompa^te8#filiili- 
€la, ander^the o^Hasaaiid of Maj. naoGSia, 900 meti 
ItfbofcittrfteiykeftyframSt Domiago, raised by GoL 
Atimry, imd acting Q»d<r the seommand of Maj. 
0agvrin, and a d^Mtoimt of artiltery teider the 
'ailieeti6a ^f Ool. M<ahea» vith two 6 pciufidiE^rs, 
undertite GoaaeaaiJd of Jlieut^^^ not ^xcce* 
fag til all) 1500« I arrived near tbe enemy's eik* 
tmrnpiBent aliout se^^^n, ^tid imniediately made ffljr 
disposition^ ibr tlie ^t^ack. His Sotdes amounting 
at that tiiile tm land^ to ai>otit dOOO, attended half a 
snHe on that Hv^, ta^d f ti the rear nearly to the 
trdod. €S^^ GofHe ^ks otdbred to tufn their 
right, fehile with the ^residue ofthe force, I attack- 
ed his sts^ngesi posil^on on the left, htnv the rir^. 
Com. Patterson^ hikving dropped cTo^n the river in 
the ichoontr Cardiae, was directed to bpen a fire 
ijpoA their t»iii^, wfaith he execitted at about half 
l^st sieVea. This beidga signaVof attack, Gea* Gof- 
fefe^s men. With, thl^ir u^ual impetuosity^ rasbed ou 
the emebty's right and entered then* camp^ wMfe 
our right advanced with equal artloiir. Therein 



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196 ' ItSMOIRS OF 

be but little doubt, that we sbouldhave succeeded 
on that occasion, with our inferior force, in destroy- 
ing br capturing the enemy, had not a thick tbg 
which arose about 8 o'clock, occasioned some con- 
fiisiop among the different corps. Fearing the con^ 
sequence, under this circumstance, of the further 
prosecution of a night attack,. with troops thefi 
acting together for the first time, I contented my- 
self with lying on the field that night ; and at fonr 
in the morning assumed a stronger position, about 
two miles nearer the city* At this position I re- 
mained encamped, waiting the arrival of the Kem 
tucky militia and other reinforcements. As the 
safety of the city will depend on the fate of this 
army, it must not be incautiously exposed. 

In this affair the whole corps under my command, 
deserve the greatest credit. The best compliment 
1 can pay to Gen. Coffee and his brigade, is to say, 
they have behaved as they have always done, while 
under my command* The 7th led by Maj. Pierre, 
and 4j4th, commanded by CoL Ross, distinguished 
themselves. The battalion of city militia com- 
manded by Maj. Planche, realized my anticipations, 
and behaved like veterans. Savary's volunteers 
manifested great bravery ; and the company of city 
riflemen, having penetrated into the midst of the 
^enemy's camp, were surrounded, and fought their 
way out with the greatest heroism, bringing with 
them a number of prisoners. The two field pieces 
were well served by the officers commanding them. 



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ANDEEW JACKSON. 197 

/ All Jo; offiqers iathe line did their duty, audi 
Iiave ev»y reason to be satisfied with the whole of 
my field and staff. Ck>Is. Butler and FIatt» and 
Maj. Chotard, by their intrepidltyi saved the artil- 
lery* Col. Haynes was every where that duty or 
dialer caUed^ I was deprived of the services of 
one of my aids, Capt. Butter, whom I was obliged 
to station, to his great regret, in town. Capt. Reid, 
my oth^ aid, and Messrs. Livingston, Duplissis, 
and Davizac, who. had volunteered their services, 
freed dang^ wherever it was to ht met, and carri- 
ed my orders with the utmost promptitude. 

We made one Major, two subalterns, and sixty- 
three privates prisoners ; 4ind the enemy's loss in 

killed and wounded must have been at least . 

My own loss I have not as yet been able to ascer- 
tain with exactness, but suppose it to amount to 
100 in killed, wpunded and missing. Among the 
former, I have to lament the loss of Col. Lauder- 
dale, of Gen. Cofiee's brigade, who fell while 
bravely fighting. Cols. Dyer and Gibson of the 
same corps, were wounded, aud Maj. Kavcnaugh 
taken prisoner. 

Col. De Laronde, Maj. Yillere, of the Louisiana 
militia, Maj. Latour, of engineers, having no com- 
mand, volunteered their services, as did Drs. Kerr 
and Hood, and were of great assistance to me. 
I have the honour to be, &p. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

Hon. Jamxs Monroe, Secretary of War, 



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19b UBMOtKB Of 

Sidk;c the civilized world tiav« ttade iht trade 
of trar a stieDce, p^kaps uo tivo araiiits ever met 
and separated, with opinions so diftreat of each, as 
those of Gen. Jaekson and Gen. Keene, oft tlieJSd. 
The first, ccmsisting of a small namber of regolav 
troops, and the rest of gentlemen andyeoaefty whb 
had spent their days amidst the seenes of peace, 
the whole amounting only to 1500, muat have siet 
a veteran army of 3000, in field fight, with fare* 
bodings bordering upon despair. The second, oon- 
scious bf great snperiority in numbers,in disciplinef 
and in experience, marehed to the coalest with 
contempt for their enemy, and .^ eertafaity of 
making them their ittey. The battle gave to the 
first, coii)(£f^}ice^to thesficond, it taught cmiiHm* 

As the general, in his official report, doee not 
mention the number the enemy lost, I extract firooi 
Insp. Gen. Haynes' report, ** Killed^ left on the 
field of battle, IQO^JFounied, left on the field of 
battle, 230^Prisonerst 70— total, 400." The Ipsa 
in tlie American forces, were— Killed, S4— Woua* 
dcd, 115~missing, 74t— total,2l3. 



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AN01IEW JACKSON; 199 



CHAPTER XIV. 

WembvqhB^ «xistioni of tilie La^ee of Mew Orteaas-^Gen. Jack* 
flon. adecU the final positioB of hki anny— -Loss of the naval 
force — Capt. Patterson— Lieut Jones— Haxmony between land 
and BflM foreet— -DelHice at the mouth of the MIssii^|ii-* 
AflMiioanlinM <ni the eait and west aide of the rinrer described 
-—Battle of the 28th December— of the 1st Januaiy-^ Attempt 
upon the left wmg^ of the American army. 

THE tettle of the 33d December, although by 
no means n decisive one» produced those effects 
lAidi. led to ultiiMle victory* The despondency 
of the citisens was conv^ted into hope> and tlM) 
imdiscipHned troops of ^the Bepnbiic, presented 
^nranipart ijf k^49nnded and brax>e mai." 

From the lomamio age of chivalry^ to this period 
of the world, the defence of the fair sex has been 
the pride of the warrior, and their s^proving sen- 
tence, one of his highest rewards. The ladies qf 
New Orleans, not content merely to bestow their 
applause and their smiles upon their defenders, ex- 
erted all their ftcnhiea to ameliorate the hwrd3bip9 
tihcy endured, and to relieve thf m from the priva- 
tioos they sofliBred. Clothiog of a necessary Icind, 
was fornished to a large amount for the troops, whoii 
from long service and absence from home, found ii ' 
a most seasenabk supply. Almost eoustaii^ tt- 
posure to the inclemency of the season, rendered 



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300 '' MEMOIKS OF 

an iuldkional supply of clothings a com&rt to the 
war-w&ra veteran^ whidi he knows wdl bow to ajK 
preeiate. Imitating the exalted beuevolence of thci 
American matrons and daughters, in the gloomy 
period of the revolution, the females of the city, 
became ministering angels to the wants of thek, 
heroic protectors. The historian will iipmediatelx 
recollect, that the women of ancient Carthage in 
a time of danger, divested themselves of their flow- 
ing locks^ and converted th^m into cordage to aid 
the common defence. While tjie achievements of 
female Amazons, rather excite disgust than ap- 
plause, the refined benevolence of the tender sex, 
commands the admiration of men ; and even angds 
must witness it with a smile of complacency. 

Notwithstanding the rigorous execution of mar- 
tial law,' over citi^seus as well-as soldiers, the sullen 
murmurs of the disafl'ected were drowned by the 
applause of the patriotic. All was animation in the 
camp— -all was confidence in the city. Gen. Jackr 
son was in, daily, indeed in hourly expectation of a 
renewed attack from the enemy. Although the 
American troops remained upon the field of battle 
until the 24th, yet the disadvantages of the situa- 
tion, and the continuance of the enemy in their 
first position where they landed, with nearly treble 
his force, induced him to fall back nearer to the 
city. Offensive operations, under these circum- 
stantes, would have been rashness bord^ilig upon 
desperation. 



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ANDREW JACVSON* SOi 

AHbougb fiom the gallant achievements of his 
troops upon the ^^d, €ren. Jackson bad every 
thing to hope from' them, yet he did not, as haa 
often been the case in modern warfare, consider 
men zs dmmuniiioni to be expended at pleasure, 
to grace the commander with laurels. His lan- 
guage to Mr. Monroe was— ^ Js the safety of^his 
eity^ xdll depetid on the fate qf this army^ it must not 
be incdiitiously exposed.'*^ He selected the most 
advantageous position, upon the east bank of the 
Missisippi, and commenced a system of defence, 
which wilt forever give him an exalted rauk among 
the great commanders of the nineteenth century* 
Although to use his own expressions, for which 
otd? copious tengnage catt with dfffieully fufDish a 
substitute—" The surest defence^ that seldom ftdh 
of success, is a rampart qf high-minded and brave 
m^n"— he acted in every situation, as. if he was 
accountable to his country and his God, for the 
-life of every man that was lost, who fought under 
his standard. 

After the loss of the small flotilla under Lieut. 
Jones, there was no naval defence but the schooner 
Caroline, and she was placed in a situation, which, 
owing to the current of tha Mis^isippi, and the 
course of the winds, rendered her an easy prey 
to the enemy. Her gallant crew, however, defend- 
ed her until the red hot balls thrown from the 
enemy's battery, set her on fire and bll^ her up, 
upon the 37th. Gapt. Patterson and all his o^* 



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ikr iht 4WBm9MA of Gen. JirinM* ud Jby their 
nmwinnwme akiU iDrguoMry) tmikimA mo$l estia* 

brief Mtnet kom Capt. Baiteraon** letter 40 t3» 
mrj dtpanmeotf dated 37tli Jan. 18 1&~'« 1 hMW 
neeiwl Ami all thexifficert wkoai i bare tfce liom 
our io«oiQiiiaiid.«rer3r^id andeuj^port^iirhicli could 
poaiihly be rwdered* Tbey baira ^baea e:qiDai|| 
to eslracMNlioary bardshipi, both ^ day axid sighM, 
to ait the cbaoffes o| this wistablt <dime, te «Ua 
incleaMnt seasoH^ tbe year ; ferfwariog ilie«Mie 
aiduQiM daiies on shore, oMt of the line ^ tfaair 
ij^x^tesian, uidepemieiH of thetr ordinary diitiffii; 

faluees and alacrity that raleets upon ibem the 
highest credit ; and that the unwear led exertioBB^ 
the soialf naval force ba this atatioUt from the first 
apfjearanoe of th^ aiemy, has tx>iitrR>iited» in « 
great degree, to hl3 eipulsiofi, h fireely achiioWl- 
edged by the gallant general, commanding ihe lat&d 
hfc^V The officers mentidnid in this letter, are 
Capl. Henley, Lieuts; Aleiia» Thompson, Norria, 
and CutmiDgham ; Mr. Parser Shields, Dr. Morrelf, 
sailiisg-mast^r]>eaIy,8tirgeon Ifeermaii,t]aty»ageQt 
Smith, Maj. Cormielc^ commanding thib marine 
ee^, Mr. ShefAard, atd^de-camp, Lieut. N^irltt, 
¥0lQiileer ; acting Lic^ts. Speddin and M'Keffrer. 
He further 8ays-»<< my petty officers, seamen, afi<i 
flnriaeB, perfiwmed their duties to my entire satSa^ 
faction.'* 



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MittBiaadQd% b|r Uma^ Jow% xiretemftanA mpom 
Ike UAtkf ao^ tte .onamaactetf aeireteiy i«D^riodkr 
ffiftSbim vm^ fittikBMts, JNoi^ 5/ >3S^ 166^ Jtffl^airt 
|fi8^«Nlfa«jirJtoie. mmrstifig dSigncm MdbfaMdBg £BS 
«wni as board.) Zht B&liftlii to^m ttat. attaoked 
tUs; Ikde «aUa0i\i0liUaii ci»asliMliA£ 4ti\bMt^^ 

yr». wbo0e,Jb» in( kilM andiWaaodcd.- M^eeded 
3eO:.atti |. and be rooeHnBd. thme sadroce, weusd* 
lUtaiseie. Upoa Lieiil* Jjooq^* Ga|il. Satttsaoa b€H 
iNtam^tbe iK^heal a|ipba»; and BMOt dcMnied^^ 
toa:;Jbr oeBavteiiig Ihe, spaoias oC Sacee. ba haA 
QodanUa ooQiaumdi :aiid.Aa.iimDBi»a sitperioritjs 
aC ifiia epamj;, bfaigallaAtey la.soarealjr cxaaeded b)^ 
angr c^ker io oiu) lAvy^ 

It oi:^[^.to baiiiantiaiiiad» wbaiMn^^ 
Mtjr oomfB» aa&a lad iv'hieb mtittos tba emuoiaiidera 
of the Jaadamknavali&ffocaof tba^Repofalie^ to ia^ 
§ai|e.anBdit^.tbatJni€Mry instance^ exeeptiog one» 
where. tbaycuuidact Jirtco&juiietiim in conqoeriog 
the euBm^f tba;,utiBoat.hani]Qsy prevaihd. Gaiu 
HaoisoQ and Capfe* Fenry— -Gtn.. Bdaaoflib and 
Qafi. MacdQ0x>vgli-«-6«a. Jackson aod Cafit. Fat- 
WtMUr ureni bajid in ba»d i ta vJiBterfi AUhoagb 
ia^tba Jaat' ioataiiaa, . tba oafitain was oompelled toi 
IjMre^ Uft. cboseiueUiiieolt. witb bas gallaat. crewc^ 
ha*jaiAed:tbeMaqfk And aided in tb^ final violoi^. 

Tba? ruimr paaaas at tba mautb of tbe Misai* 
ttfj^itnereguaadfid hi tba baatrpfssible ammmf if. 



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304 looKHRs or 

difflerent Ibrts ; and coosiderii^ tht thoitlMalt*' 
lowed to constrad theni} amd the feir nieti oi^,* 
who ooirijd be spued to gsrriscm theta» tiiehr d^Bn&^^i 
eea entitle the gairiaoBs to the highest applauetf; 
Maj. Overton, at Fort St. Philips, deierauBiDgfy 
never to* surrender, actually i»tiled the Amerieati' 
flag to his standard, and resolved thM if shoolft 
triomphantly wave over that of Britain, as long as 
a living man remained in the fort to d^^ j^ 
The trdops at thb mbuAs of the river, wefe aa 
much inspired with fortitude by the addresses «qA 
examples of Gen. Jadeson, as those und^ his imma^ 
diate command. Having these forts, as well as tbe^ 
current of the Missisippi to qppose, the BrMsh* 
admiral was prevented from bringing any of his 
larger vessels, to co-operate with the land Jbrces, iu 
their various attacks upon the American lines* 
Had he been enabled to effect this, it ts difficult to' 
conceive how the city ^ouU have been saved. 

Upon the ^th. Gen. Jacksom took his final po-- 
sition. It extended in a^direct line from the east 
bank of the Missi^ppi, iuto the edge of the Cy^ 
press ^wan^^ a distance exceeding a mile. For 
the whole^ idtotance, the troops almost fncessantly 
laboured, and with a vigour worthy of the came 
that called forth their laborious exertions, in throw- 
ing up a strong breast work, under the protectioai 
of which they were to be inti^nched. Frcm the 
bank of the river to the edge of the Cy^ess Swampi 
a diMknc^e of y;ery near a mile» the country was 



1 



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^yefiwi i*iia. Tke analt tenaochf Oeii. Jack 
9M^ were i& fiiii f4nr q£ the Ttttly supificnv 
turn ia the Brilisb eaiap. AUhmtJ^ tbty tad 
iMdved a cteckm tile brilUi^ affair ttEtlM 38d^ 
ii vottM awn te be tlia ce^k^f tDfitfuatiea teeli^ 
tiMUt tlicgr maaiMd nnoioved ayatatora of the 
^HMtuieft of dalBDCC, the Amciricaa coraawwcHir 
was takings wbiohi if pcoaecutod ta comptelioiiy 
wmM irader them bopriess oinuomu. It Ib has* 
aidow judging ftom api»araiic€s» wMiovt a kiiovl* 
«4b0 of molivca; but the eoaduct of tbo ttiUA 
mmjf at this tiine^ weald seeai to justify the afipli* 
eetioato them, of a prnticm maintalMd Ibragai— 

Qod willa to destroy) be first maboB mad*) 

A^JMnioff die river, and ia edvaooe of the mate 

leevkt a eedeiilit was fbrmed to i»otoot the rl^^t 

wtag of the armj, upoo which were mowmied a 

numbered pleees of lieavy artillery. Through Oe 

whole line were aoanted, at proper distaBeos, eaa* 

BDi» from sit to^ thirty-two poundbca. Tlie breast* 

work was extended from 490 to 500 yards, lafa the 

swamp, to pievent die enmiy from taraiag* the left 

wing of the army* Thia part of the HXtreD^uieBt, 

was ooustmcted with extreme difficulty, an^ wHh 

eaesiBive fatigue^ befaig ectoled ina morase^ ahoost 

impassable from the depth of the mud ami water. 

It was wisdy stqppoaed that the Biiti^ eoasmauder 

would eottchkts that the Aaierieau tetreoehment, 

reaahed oaly eo the edge of the swamfi; and that 
18 



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i 



906 KKJcoiRs or 

h^ would enhftwur to force a passage through it^ 
and gain th^ rear of the American army. At the 
iauaediate edge of the swamp» an angular indent 
was made in Uie intrenchment, upon which heafy 
pieces of artillery were placed so as to rake the 
enemy in the swamp, from one side of it, and in the 
open fieU» from the other. Every hour's labour 
increased the strength of, th^intrenchment, and 
i^v«7 event that transpired, augmented the con^ 
d<mce of the troops. Notwithstanding the rapidly 
increasii^g^ security of his small, and to a very con- 
siderable amount, unarmed troo|)3, Geo. Jackson 
endeavoured . to provide against every event, that 
oould endang^ their safety, or that of the city. 
Admitting the possibility that the British army, 
fr<mi their great superiority in numbers, and from 
the numerous pieces of heavy ordnance they were 
QOnstantly transporting in>.barges, from their ship- 
ping to^ t^eir encampment, might force his lines, 
he dispatched' the whole of his unarmed men two 
mites in his rear, to erect another breast- work, as a 
rallying point, at no great distance from the city. 
In this way, he furnished constant employ for all 
I^is men, prevented their despondency, and arous- 
ed their courage. 

Gen* Jackson was aware that the enemy's main 
army had not yet, (Dec. 24,) landed, and wholly 
uncertain where they would make a descent, he 
took the same measures to fortify the country on 
the west, or right hank of the river, aste had 



1 



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ANl>1tKir JACKSON* 309" 

upon the east, or left bank. An intrenchment was 
there thrown up from the bank of the river, extend- 
ing west to a swamp, which approaches nearer to 
the river than that upon the east side. Gov. Clai- 
borne and the Loubiaha militia, being more per- 
fectly acquainted with the country, were stationed 
on the right bank of the river. The gallant Capt. 
Paitterson and his - crew had erected a battery 
near the bank of the river, and to the main in- 
trenchment. This intrenchment was about three 
quarters of a mile below that on the left bank ; 
and being supported by Patterson's battery and his 
crew, whose skill in gunnery was evinced in the 
battle of the 23d, it was supposed as capable of 
sustaining and repelling an assault, as that on the 
left. . Tlie command of the right bank of the river, 
was entrusted to Gen. Morgan, and a force placed 
under his command sufficient to rwder it as secure 
as the left. 

The description of the situation of the American 
forces after the 23d, and the measures then resorted 
to for future safety, may be deemed too minute ; 
but it will shortly be ishewn that more than two 
thirds of the loss sustained by the Republican army 
in all the severe engagements before New Orleans, 
was suffered in that engagement in the open field. 
Had Gen. Jackson, like a rash commander, led 
his few undisciplined, and badly armed forces, 
to field figktj against the immensely superiour 
force of Sir Edward Pakenhara, furnished with 



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tvftry BmttriBl and iftanitbD of war« it is afaaost a 
MMtiBty, A«t fae aod Us army, Would hMt bcett 
proBlmted u|ioii the same j^ain where tloit galiaM 
(Nieral^ and so many of his vele^n troops vrerl ' 
jBiiigied with the AmU The great aiid g6od G«n 
Jaskson^ knew th«!t the men fe commanded, #ert 
net merceawry troops, hired by a sangainary mon- 
arsfa, lo fight and to die at the pleasure of an am^ 
MliottB commaodttr. His army, thou^ small, cofh 
laiaed the best Mood in the adjoion^ states. 
Ftthars ar^Pe thne, exposihg Aeir lives fi>r thefr 
ilusrfliss» and sons were thei^e fis^tiiig tat theor 
.Mhets. To return them homa to a ooimtry de* 
Vmded by theb* valomr, and to restore them to 
blessidgs seGmred by their toils, was lar more giate^ 
fid ta his heart, than laurels obtained foy^^ blood, 
to decorate his brows. 

From the94(t}i to tl» 28th, the two armies re- 
mained in the position each had taken. Excepting 
the destruetioh of the sdiooner Caroline, and oc- 
casional 8kirmishiDg,xiothing was heard but <<dresd- 
fttl notes of preparatk>n/' Having biown up this 
vessel, which committed such ravages among their 
troops upon the 23d, and having been reinforced^ 
Sir Edward Pakenham, in person, attacked the 
American lines upon the 28th» The commander 
thus describes this engagement, in bis report to the 
Secretary of War. 



vGooqIc 



ANDREW JACKSON. flO0 

OEK. JACKSON TO HON. JAJBCS8 JfONBOB. 

. HeadQuarteiSy 7th militaiy ^sttict. 

Camp below JVew Orleans, 29th Dec. 1814. « 

' l^r— The enemy succeeded on the 37th, ia blovir- 
ing up the Caroline, (she being becalmed)by means 
of hot shot firom a land battery which he had erect- 
ed in the night. Emboldened by this event, he 
marched his whole force the next day, up the level, 
in the hope of driving us from our position, and 
with this view, opened upon us, at the distance of 
about half a mile, his bombs and rockets. He was . 
repulsed, however, with considerable loss— not 
less, it is believed, than 120 in killed. Out's was 
inconsiderable— not exceeding half a dozen in 
killed, and a dozen wounded. 

Since then he has not ventured to repeat his at- 
tempt, though lying close together. There has 
been frequent skirmishing between our pioquets. 

I lament that I have not the means of carrying 
on Aore offensive operations. The Kentucky 
troops have not arrived, and my effective force, at 
thb poinl, does not exceed 3000. Their* s must be 
at least douhle-«both prisoners and deserters 
agreeing in the statement, that 7000 landed from~ 
their boats. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

In this brief account, it is mentioned that rockets 

iHd bombs were sent from the British army into the 

Almpcan lines. Bombs have long been kno^ifn 
18* 



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310 aiBvoiis or 

to our ONiatryffiai ; and ilAofigh they sometiyies 
occasion accidents, tbejr saver excite terror. 
Rockets are of recent inventibn ; ^i^d the glory of 
having inveiited them is fcMrever secured by royal 
favour, to an English statesman by the name of 
Congrtve. They are called «^ Cougreva rockeia ;" 
aad as long as Ei^ibhmen are permitted to spread 
havock and devastation through the world, tlM 
name of the htmume inventor will si^und and shine, 
through it. Monsiear Gtdllotm is entitled to the 
same kind of glory for having invented an kAfU^ 
ment of death, which bears his name, and to which 
ha leH a victim himself Mr. Congreva may die a 
natural deaths Gen. Jackson's, intn^Ghoent had 
already acquired too much strength, and his ^ yam^ 
part of high minded and brave men," too mocb 
confidence to be aflected with any thing but solid 
iron or lead. 

Sir Edward found in this^ his first esssayi in the 
western world, that he had to contend with oth* 
er soldiers than those of despots, who detest the 
power they fight for* li^ had to contend with &e* 
publican Freemen, each of whom had sacred righta 
to defend ; and who were ready to sacrifice their 
lives, in defence of their beloved Republic. 

From theSSdi to the Jst January, the enemy 
were incessantly engaged in strengthening their 
forte by transporting heavy pieces of artillery from 
their shipping to thtir fines. The Americafis \^u^ 
no lesi^ industrionsly engagM iik preparing m^ 



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ANDftSW JACKSON. 211 

ted Uitir'a ftgainst th^ mo$t furious onset that 
rottU be made. 

Upoa tlye 1st January, the enemy pushed ior- 
ward the whole of their heavy artUtery, and at the 
same time, irith bombs and rockets^ commenbed an 
atiack upon the whole line, from the Missisippi to 
the Cypress Swamp. They were immediately an* 
ffsrered by the heavy messengers of death that were 
planted upon the exten^ve intrenchment, and by 
the rifles and muskets that were wielded by the 
troops who were secured behhid it. The battle 
reged until the approach of darkness induced the 
British assailants, to retire totheirlhies for safety. 
Th6 entmy were repulsed with great loss ; but 
having earried th^ dead and wounded from the 
field, the nuoibor ooaid not be ascertained* The 
loss of the Americans was— killed ll^^wounded 2% 
. -^Total34. 

I Convinced that an attack in linfc, could not be 

made with any hopes of success, they next attempt- 
ed to turn the left wing of the army, by means of a 
battery they had erected in the night season, and 
in a £)ggy morning, in the edge of the Swamp. Con- 
fident of accomplishing this object-— as the sun ap- 
peared through the fog, to thehr utter astonishment 
and consternation, they found the American in- 

* tnenchment completed 300 yards beyond their bat- 
texy in the Swamp, and the gallant Gen. Coffee and 
bis Tennessee Volunteers ready to repel them. 

, Their battery was destroyed— >many lives were lost, 



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212 • MEMOIRS OF 

and the assailants precipitately retreated to their 
camp. . 

By these repeated attempts, and as often unsuc- 
cessful onesr the British commander was experi- 
mentally convinced, that some mode yet unessayed, 
must be adopted to gain a victory which his coun- 
trymen expected, and even Americans feared, he 
would obtain. No British commander in chief, 
since the capture of Lord Cornwallis and his army, 
by Washington, which terminated the war of the 
Revolution, had a duty of more peril and impor- 
tance to perform, than had Sir Edward Pakenham, 
before New Orleans. Had he gained a victory 
over Gen, Jackson, as Wellington did over Napo- 
leon, he would as well have been entitled to a 
dukedom. He resolved not to despair, but to make 
another desperate effort, to acquire equal gliory in 
the western, as Arthur Wellesley has in the eastern 
world. ' » 



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ANBftBW ^ACSMN. 8l3 



to the SQi JuHiaiy— ^Gen. Itopui's ]m«»^Batt]e of the 8& 
Januoy— 'CSco. liM^sOa's ttport of it— Gen. lloigan's retreat-* 
Gen* Jbdta^s MittM Hb the artfiBe»^e regains tlie rigM 
bank of t)io M]iffl&ippi--lkinilNtfdl]ieatf and attaok HponFoit 
St. PJi]]ip9-*)fiij. Overton's report to Gen. Jackson. 

THE mal aroiies^-the one ufider the Mtndard 
of the Eagle, iSie other umler tbat of the Lyon, kt 
a short period gased at eadi other in silent majesty. 
The armies of the Frince Regent, having met with 
nothing bot disasters, during the whole caihpaign 
of 1814, had coneentmted their forces with the 
navy, before New Orleans, with a determination 
to wipe off the disgrace they had incurred, by a 
series of almo^ uninterrupted defeats. The histo* 
ry of some of their achievements thus fer, has ne- 
cessarily been blended with the Memoirs of Gen. 
Jackson. From no army sent to America, since 
the commencement of the war of the revolution, 
to this peiiod, had sanguinary Englishmen expect- 
ed so much, as from this. One of the first oikers 
under Wellington, Sir Edward Pakenham, was 
selected as its commander. Major-generals Keane, 
Gibbs, and Lambert, were generals of divisions, 
lost of the troops were those who had followed 
iiem, in their victorious career through the Pyren- 
-is^ into the heart of France, and who had assist- 



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214 MBMCMIU OF 

€(1 in gaining victories over the first Marshals in Eu- 
rope. In these considerations, may be found the 
reasons for the desperation, not to say infatuation, 
of the British officers, after they landed in Louisia- 
na. They seemed to have adopted the sentiment of 
Napoleon, in the days of his glory, that « troops who 
had always conquered, will continue to conquer.'* 
' Gren. Jackson, undismayed, and apparently un- 
concerned, instead of concealing himself in his 
headquarters in the rear of his intrenchment, was 
constantly with his officers and troops, encour- 
aging them by his example, animating them by 
his presence, and arousing their patriotism by the 
most impassioned eloquence. Upon the 4th, the 
Kentucky militia arrived, under ''Gen. Thomas 
and Gen. Adair. They amounted to about twen- 
ty-three hundred ; but they brought very little 
with them, excepting hearts glowing with patriotic 
ardour. But little disciplined, and almost without 
arras, as the general remarked to the Secretary of 
War — ^^ My forces, as to number had been encreased 
—my strengthy had received but very little addi- 
tion." The city of New Orleans had been almost 
completely stripped' of arms, to furnish the Louisia- 
na militia, and the United States' arms which were 
known to be in the Missisippi, by some unaccoun- 
table neglect, had not yet arrived. The unarmed 
troops, however, were immediately placed in situa- 
tions to be the most serviceable in strengthening 
the main intrenchment, and forwarding the one 
two miles in the rear. 

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r • 

I ANDREW JiXSKSON. 315 

T&e reader is referred to the description of the 
I American intrenchments on each side of the Mis- 
L »sippi^ in the preceding chapter* Gen. Jackson, 
[ had so divided his forces, as to render the one as se- 
I cure as the other. The British commander, resol* 
ved, as appeared from an order found in the pocket 
of a slain British olficer, and by his subsequent 
measures, to attack both iines simultaneously. 
This, was anticipated by Gen. Jackson, and mea- 
I s'ures were taken' accordingly; Gen. Morgan, on 
j the righ t bank of the river, wasaided by the consum- 
I mate ^kill and courage of Capt. Patterson, whose 
battery was so situated as to protect his lines, and 
t annoy the enemy in the most eflfectual manner. 
f A detachment of choice Eentucl^y troops was also 
I passed over the river, to give him additional 
' strength. Gen. Jacksbn^s' forces were thus sta- 
tioned—The regular troops in the redoubt, and on 
i the right next to the river-rGen. Carroll's Tennes-- 
see militia, and Gen. Adair's Kentucky militia, in 
the centre — and Gen. Coffee's brigade' upon the 
left, which penetrated some distance into the Cy- 
press Swamp. 

The British army had been reinforced by the 
landing of Maj. Geii. Lambert's division. It has 
been ascertained to be an undoubted fact, that froni 
the time the British commenced the landing of 
troops below New Orleans, the full amount of 14,000 
men, had been placed under the command of 
Sir Edward Fakenham. It is impossible to deter- 

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410 nviftoiits Of 

mioe ho V mmj bad bm iMt in ihe taMral tii- 
gag^o^iits, ima the 23d DMMkbcr, to ihfi Sih 
January » or how aiujr* upcdi tbotilojr, wens qgoa 
tiiA aick list. It vodd oot hoWctec^ bo dmnodL 
imprdi^abito, ta cosdadfi tlMt from 10 to 13^006^ 
vere en9^;ed, about double the eflPoctivo lovoe of 
Gen* Jtckton. 

Early tipon the nondof of the 8th Jaouaiy, ISiS, 
a day which will ibrever he Intaiaarable in Ameri-' 
can and BritidiL annab^ a tramndoiis *' diower of 
boaibs and Coiigrcve rockets/' firoax tho British 
dgmjf announced the baHle begun. The reenlt 
Mrill be found in the folkwing leports^ of the 
Atier ican Conqueror. 

QMS. lACKSON 70 HOK.. JAMBS MONEOE« 

Camp 4 mile4 below J^^ <HM«% 9tk Jaouaryw I^IS. 
Sir-'-'Doriog the days of the Gth and 7th, tboene. 
my had been actively empfoyed in making prepara* 
lions for an attack on my lines. With in£nite la- 
hour, they bad succeeded on the nigkA of the 7tli^ 
in getting their boats across from the lake to the 
river, by widening and deepening the canal on 
which they had effected their disembarfcatioD. It 
had not been in my power to impede these opera- 
tions by ageneral attack : added to other reasoosi 
the nature of the troops under my conunand, mostly 
militia, rendered it too hazardous to attempi ezten* 
^y^^ *'Jrnme movements in an open oimatry, against 



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a fiumetoiis and welt 'disoii)lined army. Although 
my forceSf as to number, ha4 been increased by the 
n^ital of the Kentucky division, my strwgth had ^ 

reoetved very little addition ; a small portion only 
of that detachment being provided with arms^ 
Oompell6d thus to wait the attack of the enemy, I 
took evory measure to repel it, when it should be 
made, and to defeat the object he had in view. 
Qen. Morgan, with the New Orleans contingent, 
theXouisiana militia, and a strong detachment of 
the Kentucky troops, occupied an intrenched camp 
on the opposite side of the river, protected by 
strong batteries on the bank, erected and superin- 
tended by Com. Patterson. 

In my encampment, every thing was ready for 
action, when, early on the morning of the 8th, the 
enemy, after throwing a heavy shower of bombs and 
Cdngreve rockets, advanced their columns on my 
right and left, to storm my intrenchments. ' I can- 
not speak siiiEcientlyin praise of the firmness and 
deliberation, with which my whole line received 
their approach->-»more could not have been expec- 
ted from veterans inured to war. For an hour, the 
fire of tbe small arms was as incessant and severeTas . 
can be imagined. The artillery, too, directed by 
oficttrs who displayed eqdal skill and courage, did 
great execution. Yet the columns of the enetn^ gf^ 
continued to advance, with a firmness which re* 
Sects upon them the greatest credit. Twice, the 

column which approached me on my left, was re- 
1» 



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MB . unrans . cmt 

pidted bf the tioopft of Gto« Ciirrolt» thow^iin* 
CMb«,iisidA^iviaiMo(tkeKtBliickfMK(i^ a«d 
iMrtoe diey farmvl tgmia miyir rwcviM tte ateaiHu 
At length howeveiv eutto |^eocs|^tlleJilfidistei•- 
fusion fimta tko fiBidi leavii^ it covdrod Witli €k^ 
dead wid noundeck Tbe km whiek th6 An^mgr 
suBttifoed OB thii occ^sloet cannot beestiaaaaed at 
Jess than 1400 in kiUcdt voiiiided> and -priioaimk 
Upwuda of three huoditd havte alraai^ baen-da- 
Nvered over for bnrial ; and mf men are niSil eia- 
gagad is picking them op within my iinea^ and cai^ 
rying Ikemto the point wh^e the enemy are to 
reoajve thfun* This is in additieoto the deadaiid 
wounded, whom the enemjr have been enabled to 
carry from the fields dnring, and since tte aetitia, 
and to ^lose who have since died of the wemails 
fjbey reoeiycd^ We have takem ahoal 400 prisott- 
era, i^pwards of SQO of whom are wounded^ and a 
gi^at part of them mortoJJy^ My loss has not. ^az* 
oeeded, aod I believe hiis not amounted to^tea kil- 
led^and as many wounded. . Tiie entire destnietion 
of tbe enemy's army was now inevitable, had it not 
been £>r an nofertunate occwrea^,. wbiehat this 
moment Hook place on the other aide of the tivav- 
Siiibultaneously with his advanice upon mylines^be 
had tbrawo over in his bnais^ a e<mstderable. Infee 
to the other aide of the river* T^se having landed 
were ha^ enoagh to ^vaisDe against the works 
of Gen* Morgan ! and what is straiHS^aAd difllcult 
to aeoattnftfirtM^beverir moment i^dbeath^ir en* 



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jiiicmdK. tit 

loBO^isMiiitim WM looAnl iof wit|i t eonidenee 

jMBtSi ngloriiNialy ied^dtmwing after tbieaifby 
-Ihfiir «zMipIe^ tlie nmaindmr df the forcei ; and 
ifeu jneMii^Bp to ttetMiny tluit most Itototi^e pd* 
«i8ioii. TJM tetterieff which but vendened me, 
ibr mafiy days, the most iaiportaiit service, though 
hswt^ defe&ded, treie of ooucee now abandoned ; 
nbt however, imtil the gnuM had been sptted; 

Xma imfortanate ioq^ had totally ehanged the 
asfmot of affairs; The eoemy now oocupM a 
positioa from whicda they might antioy us without 
hazard, and by means of which they might have 
bedo enabled to deiBeat^ in a great measure, the 
effects of our success on this side the river. It 
became dMsreixe, an object of the first eonaequence 
to dislodge him as soon as possible. For this 
dbject, all the means Uk my power* which I could 
widi any safety use, weie immediately put in pre- 
paraftion. Perhapa, howerer, it was somewhat 
iowing to another eauae, that I sueeeeded, beyond 
my eq^ootatiotts. In negoeiating th« terms of a 
temporary suspension of hostilities, to enabk the 
enemy to bury their dead, and provide for their 
wounded, I bad required certain iirapositlons to he 
acceded to as a basis ; among which this was one-^ 
that although hostilities should ceaseon/Ats side 
the river until 12 o'clock of this day, yeiit was not 
to be understood, that they ahonid ceaae .onthe 
otker side ; but that no reinfimmaents shmild be 



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1IV1IOIR8 W 

fleat lK3f088 by either arm^, uiitH (he txpimiioii of 
Ihftt day* His ezcelleiicy Maj. Gen. Lambert, 
begged time to consider of those propositions tratil 
10 o'dock of to-day, and in the mean time re^mss- 
cd his troops. I need not tell you with how much 
eagerness I immediately regained possession of the 
position he had thus hastily quitted. 

Tiie enemy having concentrated his forces^ may 
again attempt to drive me from my position, by 
storm. Whenever ^e doest I have no doubt my 
men will act with their usual fimmess, and sustain 
a character now become dear to them. 

I have the honour, &c. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

It will be noticed in this account, that Gen. Jack- 
son, while he bestows the most unqualified appro- 
bation upon his own brave trdops, does not omit to 
declare, that the << columns of the enemy continued 
to advance with a firmness which reflects upon ^ 
them the highest credit." A brave man is always 
generous to a brave foe ; and although a Alien one, 
^ivltitfaolds from him no credit that is justly his due. 
The general estimates the loss of the enemy, at- 
scarcely half what it reially was; tot although the 
Inspector-general Haynes, makes it 2;600, subse- 
quent acknowledgments from British prisoners, 
make it exceed 3000. 

The agitation felt by the general, at tte loss of 
the important post) on the right bank of the river, 



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ANDREW JA^Q^SON* ^l 

^qder Gm. Moigmt is clearly disociferabte in tln^. 
IsMogi^age he uses ; 9nd it has beea said tkat ha 
was too severe in sayiag» << The Kentucky rein^* 
forcepientp ingloriously fled." He immediately 
delivered to t]iem the following elegant address^ in^ 
ifhich he gives them the fullest credit, for courages, 
except in this instance. 

« While» by the blessing of heaven, one of the 
most brilliant victories was obtained by the troops 
under my immediate command) no words can ex- 
press the mortification I felt, at witnessing the 
scene exhibited on the opposite bank. I will spare 
your feelings and my own, nor enter into a detail 
on the subject To all who reflect, it must be a 
source of eternal regret, that a few moments' ex-^ 
ertion of that courage you certainly possess, was 
alone wanting to have rendered your success more 
complete, than that of your fellow citizens in this 
camp. To what cause was the abandonment of 
your lines owing ? To fear ? no ! You are the 
CQuntryraen, the friend, the brothers of those who 
have secured to themselves, by their courage, the 
gratitude of their country ; who have been prodi- 
gal of blood in its defence, and who are strangers 
to any other fear than disgrace-— to disaffection to 
our glorious cause. No, my countrymen, your gen* 
«ral does justice to the pure sentiments by which 
you are inspired. How then could brave men^ 
firm in the cause in which they were enrolled, ne- 
glect their first duty, and abandon the post commit- 
19* 



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33S MBiioms^F 

Ud to tbeir caara ? The wantetdiscipHoe, the wtmt 
of 9rdep» the total disregard to obedience, and a spi- 
rit of iii6ubordiDatioD,not lessdestriictive than cow- 
ardice itself are the causes which led to tfate die- 
jister* and they must be eradicated* tar I must cease 
to commaDd. I desire to be distinctly understood, 
that every breach of orders, all want of discipliuet 
ev^y inat'tentiou of duty, will be seriously ted 
promptly punisihed ; that the attentive oflioers^iaiid 
good soldiers, may not be mentioned in the dis- 
grace and danger, which the negligeoee of a &w 
may produce. Soldiers ! you want only the will, 
in order to emulate the glory of your fello^-citteens 
on Uiis bank of the river*— You have the same mo- 
tives for aetion~>the same interest--»thli same oaim- 
try to ^otect : and you have au additional interest, 
from past events, to wipe off reproach, and show 
that you will not be inferior, in the day of trial, to 
ady of your countrymen. 

But remember, without obedience, without order, 
without descipline, all your efforts are vain. The 
brave matif inattentive to his duty, is worth little 
mcMre to his country, tlian the coward who deserts 
her in the hour of dinger. 

Private opinions, as to the competency of oificerS) 
must not be indulged, and still less expressed. 
It is impomible that the measures of those who 
command, should satisfy all who are bound to 
obey ; and one of the most dangerous faults fat a 
soldier, is a disposition to criticise and blame 



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ANDkSW JACKSON. 

ib» ontos aod elmiracters of his super tours. 1^- 
,di^rs! I know that many of you have dooeyoar 
^ty ; afid I trust in future, that I shall have no 
-reason to fuake^ny exoeption. Officers t I have 
the fullest confidence that you will enforce obedi- 
ence to your commands ; but above all, that by 
subordination in your different grades, you will set 
au e»iiiple to your men ; aud that hereafter, the 
army of the right w HI yield to none, in the essential 
qualities which characterize good soldiers^—that 
they will earn their share of those honours and 
rewards, which their country will prepare for its 
iMberers**^ 

. Gm. Jackson» toot^immediate mea^res to re- 
gain by forccy the important post on the right 
bank of the Missisippi ; but -ever anxious to spare 
the effusion of human blood, he obtained it by ne* 
gociatiOH^ as mentioned in his letter to the Secretary 
of W^ar. The relinquishment of this post^ seems to 
be the result of that infatuation which evinced 
itself in every measure of the British commanders, 
after they landed in Louisiana. Had they aban- 
doned the east side of the river, and concentrated 
their forces upon the west, with the immense quan- 
tity of heavy artillery in their possession, they would 
liave had the exclusive command of the country to 
New Orleans ; and what could then have saved 
the city, must be tell to conjecture. H^ice the 
solicitude of G^i. Jackson, to regain it ; hence 
too, his excessive mortification at its temporary loss* 



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231 MEMOIRS. OF 

Notwithstanding this unpaFallekd victory obtaip- 
ed, it appears from the following letter, that the. 
general acted as if the enemy were prepar}i]^ ^^ to^ 

make a still mightier effort to attain his first object.*^ 

GEN. JACKSON TO HON. JAMES MONROE. 

Head Quarters, Camp 4 miles below . 
MtP OHean»^ Jan. 13tb, 181f . 

Sir— At such a crisis, I conceive it my duty, to 
keep you constantly advised' of my situation. 

On the iOth instant, I forwarded you an account 
of the bold attempt made by the enemy, on the 
morning of the 8th, to take possession of my works 
by storm, and of the severe repulse which he met 
with. That report having been sent by the mail 
which crosses the lake, may possibly have miscar- 
ried ; for which reason, I think it the more neces- 
sary, briefly to repeat the substance of it. 

Early on the morning of the 8th, the enemy hav« 
ing been actively employed the two preceding days, 
in making preparations for a storm, advanced! ia 
two strong columns on my right and left. They 
were received however with a firmness which it 
seems they little expected, and which defeated all 
their hopes. My men, undisturbed by their ap- 
proach, which indeed they long anxiously wished 
for, opened upon them a fire, so deliberate and cer? 
tain, as rendered their vcaling ladders and i^cines, 
as well as their more direct implements of warfar^^ 
perfectly useless. For upwards of an hour it vrm 



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▲N01tSW JACRSON*. 235 

'eoBtinued with a briskneHs of which there have 
l>eeQ but few instances, perhaps, in any country. 
Injustice to the enemy, it must be said, they with- 
stood it as long as could be expected, from the 
most determined bravery. At length, however, 
when all prospeet of success became hopeless, they 
fled in confusion from tiie field, leaving it covered 
with their dead and wounded. Their losa was 
immense. I had at first computed it at 1600 ; but 
it is since ascertained to have been much greater* 
Upon information, which is believed to be correct, 
Col. Haynes, the Inspector-general, reports it to 
be in total 3600. His report I enclose you. My 
loss was inconsiderable, being only 7* killed, and 
6 wounded* Such a disproportion in loss, when 
we consider the number and the kind of troops en- 
gaged, must, I know, excite astonishment, and may 
not every where be fully credited ; yet I am per- 
fectly satisfied that the account is not exaggerated 
on the one part, nor underrated on the other. 

The enemy having hastily quitted a post, which 
they had gained possession of, on the other side of 
the river, and we, haying immediately returned to 
it, both armies at present, occupy their former po- 
sitions. Whedier, after the severe losses he lias 
sustained, he is preparing to return to his shipping, 
or to make still mightier efibrts to attain his first 
object, I do not pretend to determine. It becomes 

* This WM in th« acticm on the lme*-«fterw«idB a sldrnoLdiing 
was kept up, in whtchafew more of our men were lost. 



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Ml nMniiMior 



Om lUng boNRvWt a^em ecrtaki, tiM tf heflftM 
e«lG«lMflB M effeciiiig wfaM ke has lAlMtD bmm 
lutabk lo toeottpUsli, lle^alll8t txpwi omaMiroMg 
iWDAMeaimts ; as the fotee wMli witloii ke laaii 
fd must be uockHibtedly dunlBuhed, by at^iMUt 
SOOO, Besidw Ito lois v^rhieli be «iilaiofld» on 
ih« n^ftl of the 89d ulw which is eeiiflfMted at 
400, be cannot have saflercd leaa betvew tlMt 
periods asd the sKH'tiiog of iheSifa iatt^tban 900^^ 
bavijw, viihio that time, been repoiead in tw 
gerieral^ atteeapts to dHit as firom oar poiitiao, and 
there baviag beea eontioual cannonading and skii^ 
taishing, daring the whole of it Yet he is s€UI 
able to shew a trerj formidahie fbrcse. 

There is no doubt that the oommatiding general^ 
Sjr Edward Pakenham, was killed, in the action 
of tiie 8tb, and that Majorgeherals Eeane» mA 
Gibbs, were badly woonded. 

Wheoever a more leisure moment diali oeew, 
I will take the liberty to make and forward you 
a more circumstantial account, of the several ao- 
tions, and partieulariy that of tlie^h, in doing 
whtch» my cbitf motive will be to render justice la 
those brava men I have the hoooor to command, 
and who have so remarkably distlnguisbed IhMi* 
selves. 

I have the honour, &e. 

ANDREW JACKSON* 



.1 



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tlHBii^ fiNMBTpMlliow^ «i]Abo4h treee igiHiMitof 
ftk»liN»iliDnaf tidi wHMt*, SirBdwairdrAikcii* 
iiui faring tlaj% MdlSeiieralsKttae ^odOibbs, 
Mtig, tte om laoAtliy, liid tiie «tiMr sevcMly 
nMwidcd^ wen ooaptltol, the one l» Hmgulsli andfv . 
die, tiie otlMr to iMgatoh a»d terety survive^ 
ItiftGMMMiBd de^lvad ttpcHi Maji Gta. Lambarfe 
Sli* dHp peniiMtiott of €taft. J«k»oii, mtg^ 
iMM lent Mm te siippiiee tlMOni. Lambert, aad 
CfiL TfaacDtott, (who had enoe oonfoaved on ^ 
t^ bftfik wf the r ivw) woald oirite their <* mightier 
^orts," to ooof «er ea tha east. Ever vigilant, 
and never «»iaBt he leiaaed not m the least 
from his former eacxgy^t The phtine of Capua^ 
after a tietecyi aiMl the laauriwe iedidgeBce of 
tha fruili of oimquest opon tiiem, proved to be 
the des^etioti of Hamdhal aad his aimy* Gen. 
laokeoa was resolved, that the ba&ks of the Mi^ 
aisi^pi should not prove so to him, a&d his pat- 
fic^ic coaipaiiioiis. 

While eveqr exertion was made to prepare for 
another attadc, the dbtaot thvnder of eanaon, an- 
$o<i9c6d tothearmleB» the operations of thepow> 
ecfid British naval force at tte nmuth of the Mis- 
•isii^L From the ofioial teport of Mig. Overton, 
to^a* Jaehson, it may he cxmcluded that Admhral 
Cbohrade, and Sir Edward Pakeaham, had agreed 
to eommatice inal operatiooa at the same time«-> 
fiMLoae to cai^tem New (kleaiia^ the other to des- 



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ftm . • nUfOiM^ oat. K 

Woj tlM Amrioiii teto at tlM mmH^ of tke dhmt* 
Upoa the memoeaUe 8th Ituiiwry^a sqafldraHof tlie 
Britith Oftval fiif«e «f ptaied b6fiim\Eail ftl* PWIiiMii^ 
(3kcD« Jaekao&y tbut wtiim to tbe SmwUupy lii 
War~«< I-Jtutvt Uwl lionour lo tecloie fM iS9§0 
Ov^oq's nvMl, of tbe altiu^k of Fort St* PhiKf% 
and of thft maimer in whieb it vfu ddmML 
The codduct of that oftoWf aad ofttbose wim 
aeled uodar Wm, aioritsi I tUnky |^r«at praiM* 
Tliqr «aiied tk^ own oobon to die $taiidar«tt«»A 
pUmdtbofloof the cpreaiy tHidorooath ttaBi» deiap^' 
qrioied oevor to siurmdar the fort." The fritoviBf 
is the report alluded to by the geoeial. 

HAJ. W. H. OVaBTOir TO GSH* j/kossoir. « 

Fw^ Si. PmpB, Jmiuary 1% 1815. 
Sir-^On the first of the present month, I rec^v* 
ed the infortoatioD, that tbe enraiy imenfded pae* 
sing this fort, to coroperate with their laud foroesy 
in the subjugation of Looieiana> arid the destructkm 
of New Orleans* To effect this with more faeiKty, 
they were first, with their heavy bomb-vessels, to 
bombard this phbce into com|riianoe. On the 
grounds of this information, I turned my atteotirni* 
to the security of my command. I ereeted smiail 
magaannes in different parts of the garrison, ^iat 
if one blew up^ I could r^ort to an<M^er ; bniH; 
covers for my men, to secure them from the esflo- 
sion of tbe shells, and removed the combustible 
matter without the work. Early in. the day of 
tlie 8th tnst. I was advised of their approach, and 



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^m the Mh, at a^piiHnr paiH l<^ A. M: Kew la sigft^ 
tiro bomb resseh, Got sloop, one brig, and ontf 
sMoMtr ; llily' lUMboi^ <4n> antf om qMetetmik^ 
lMioir-«4tt toirpft8ttitofGe»» iv4«tMdl^pMl twelve 
di»!ra4iHte«pi4^^tiN> barg«S) appailniiiy>lbMlie piif^' 
fMe ef soundtogv miiiiii oae wofd a bMf' Hiite» of 
^efort. At this moment, I ordered my water 
JMMy, andM Ulie eaiflftmasd of ILieoti Cudftiiig- 
l^Hir of tMe i^avy^ to open upon iSbtft i its iirdl 4f- 
i^9ote€t riiot^ caused a predpitate retreat. At half 
patft tluree o^oelt, P. M. the enemy's biamb' vessel" 
cQiened their fire, from four sea-mortars, two of 
thirteen inches, two orten, and to my great morti- 
fication, I found tlyBy were without the effective 
range of my shot, as many sub^uent experiments 
j^oved. They continued their ^e, with ItttTe iu- 
termission, during the 10th, 11th, 12th, 19th, 14th,. 
ItSthi ICth, and Iftb. I occasionally opened my bat- 
tirieson them with great vivacity, particularly whea 
t|iey showed a disposition to change their poslticm. 
' On the 17tii, in the; evening, our heavy mortar 
was said to ber in reailiness. I ordered thi^ excel- 
IW^ «fioii, Gapt Wol^toncioft* of the actillorisls, 
"ate prevJMsly haiidlacge af it^ to-opm a, &e>. 
iHki0b.waa« daaa widi. gstat eflbBl» m thai enemy 
tem< that aMomat becaoie dioo9deroct, andatitay^ 
Hgh^ oatha Iftdi, commeiKe^ their ittreM, riher 
lilraig Ihmwa opwaids-of a Aeasand^toivy sheik, 
bandes sbatta ftoa hawitsMra^ voimd akofriUKt g«ape» 
2» . ^ 



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9W MHOiM «r 

wliich hediehitgQd from boils, ooder eont of tiie 

Our loM hi this affair lias becB imeommoQlly sraaUt 
owing entirely tx> the great pains that were taken bjr 
the diflbrent officers, to keep their men under oqv^ ; 
id the enemy left tearoely ten feet of this garrison 
untouched* . 

Tlie officers and soldiers through this whole af- 
&ir, although nine days and nights under arms, In 
the dififerent batteries, the consequent Citi^e and 
loss of sleep, have manifested the greatest firmness 
and the most zealous warmth to beat ^he enemy* 
To distinguish individuals, would be a delicate task, 
as merit was conspicuous every where. . Lieut. Cun- 
ninghamof the navy, who commanded my water bat> 
tery, with his brave crew, evinced the most determio. 
ed bravery, and uncommon activity throughout ; iu 
&ct, Sir, the only thing to be regretted, is, that the 
enemy was too timid to give us an opportunity of 
destroying him. 

I herewith enclose you, a list of the killed and 
wounded. . • I am Sir, very respectfully, 

W. H. OVERTON. 

The loss of the Americans, from the official repcMrt, 
was killed S— wounded 7^ — ^Total 9 — Nothing but 
the immense imporuiace of the post he commanded^ 
can justify {^aj. Overton in naiting his colours toiiis 
standard. £ven the praise of Gen* Jackson, cannot 
wholly exculpate acommaiidcff for anact, whieli 
ndght have led to the aacrifioe of his €oA(»fe garrison bgr 
a force, jta eontend with whic]^ would have beeii 
desperation. 



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ANinaw jAcnoR. 23t 



CaiAFTEBXTL 

Situation of the araues after the battle of the 8th Januaxy-^Melab. 
tikoly and distrewing scene-^Opentions at the moatili of the 
lfiH^Iu--Dep«rtuieof the enemj^— Gen. Jacbon't addre« 
to the American troopa— Diqiarity inthe kae of the two anme*. 

ALTHOUGH tlie American army under Gen. 
lackson, and the British army under Gen. Lambert, 
remained in full view of each other» from the 9th, 
to the 18fk, no hostile military operatfons took place 
between them, during that time. The first were 
preparing for a renewed attack, enjoying the re*, 
pose their valour had rendered secure, and which 
many days of excessively hard labour, and a num- 
ber of severe fighting, rendered^ peculiarly neces- 
sary. The last were employed in discharging the 
most melancholy duties of the camp* The sol- 
diers were engaged in depositing in the bosom of 
the earth, their slain comrades, who had for many 
days j^vious, fought by their sides upon its sur- 
face, and assuagini^ the distresses of the woun- 
ded who yet survived. Humanity must weep over 
such a scene ; and. in the death and anguish of 
the gallant, and •compafa.tively innocent soldiers 
of England, lor a season forget the wicked cause 
in which they fell-^the oause of tyranny against 
freedom. Even the patriotic soldiers of our belov* 
td Republic, in beholding the banks of the majestic 
Missisippi, converted into an outspread sepulchre 



/ 



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28$ IIS1I01R8 «r 

for veieraif foemtQ, ^^o had oae common or%in 
with themselves, must have dropped a manly tear. 
.But how soon wBl lefiltlianiaDMpfel them to pour 
forth the most indignant imprecations against the 
British Governmentt whose systematic injustice 
Am aocarfoned the wcr, and vgalRfft tlw M#9h 
officetSi whose Tandalismat)d1>^rbariiy, even char- 
ity itself can never forgive. It must crimBon MtHh 
a blush every Ei^ishmaBt wiio reads tlie history 
of the jxiqeteenth centiiry» when he flnds it re* 
corded, that aa officer, the j^iAb of fingUislt ^stm* 
jGdentofcaftoringoiie-of the fittest okies in iboiei^ 
]ca,gaveaa a c^tpilf m^it, upon t|ie day Imaraqr 
WM to enter it«^«« Boon and BsArrr n" Tim 
hard earnings of patieoit industry, twe to be m^ 
visbed fiom the defenceless citixeof y^aad thdr wivM 
and daughters to be subjected to the di^[x>lical luat 
of a full-gorged soldiery'/ The innocent and «o 
complished females, of New Orleans^ who had spent 
days of labour, and nigiits'of watchfulness, in alle* 
viating the toils of their valiant coutrymen, while 
stationed under the banners of the Republic, were 
to suffer more than ten thousand deaths could in* 
flict, before the very eyes of thooe who had blessed 
theoi for their bounty, but who could bo Imiger 
extend to them protection* Well may the Engfish 
reader exclaim with an luicient poet--«><' Muis tevt" 
peret a iachrymiSf toMa fanio^^^ (who cad refrain 
from tears in relating such deeds ;) and well may 



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AVDRSW JACKSmi. 9SS 

tlie patriotic sons of Colambia, when thinking of 

their implacable enemy, resolve to be, 

^ Rre to fire» flint to Hint^ and to oiK&oe 
* The brow of bnggin^ hoRQr.^ 

It would seem that Gen. Lambert, had determi** 
ned to maintain hjs position upon the Missisippi, 
until he learned the result of the naval operations 
9i% its mouth. Upon the ITth, Capt Wolstoncroft, 
of the artillerists, having taken a positbn wliich 
brought the British shipping within the range 
of his mortar, immediately threw them into disor- 
ders^ and compelled them to retire* Upon the 18th, 
Gen, Lambert, having had time to receive this 
discouraging intelligence, decamped in the night*, 
season, as appears from the following official com-, 
munication. 

G£N. JACKSOK, TO HOK. JAMJBS MONROE. 

Camp below JWw Orteam, 19th Jan. 1815. 
Last night at 12 o'clock, the enemy precipitate- 
ly decamped and returned to their boats, leaving 
behind him under medical attendance, eighty of 
his wounded, including two officers, 14 pieces of 
his heavy artillery, and a quantity of shot, having 
destroyed much of his powder. Such was the situa- 
tion of the ground he abandon^, and of that 
through which be retired, protected by canals, re- 
doubts, intrenchments,. and swamps on his right, 
and the river on his left, that I could not without 
encountering a risk, which true policy did not seem 



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t^ raaaifviy « to «^tlioria»aaaiipt to ^miof Inm 
much on bis retcMt Wc tookonlsr dght prnovers. 
, Whether, itUtim |Nirpotf&4>f flie imenjf to alan- 
dpn theei^pedition aUogether* or renew his efforts 
^ some other poUit, I do liot pretend to determine 
%vitb positiveness. In my own mind, however, 
there is but little dotibt, that his last ex^ions have 
been made in this quarter ; at apy rate for the pre- 
sent season, and by the next^ I^hope we shall be ful- 
ly prepared for him. fn this beliel^ I am strength- 
ened not only by the prodigious loss he has sus- 
tained at the position he has just quitted, but by 
the failure of his fleet to pass Fort St Philips. 

His loss on the ground, since the debarkation of 
his troops, as stated by the last prisoners and desert- 
ers, and as confirmed by many additional circum- 
stances, must have exceeded four thousand ; and 
was giwter In the action 4if the 8thf than was esti- 
mated, from the most correct data, tbe« in his iios- , 
sesf uMii by the inspector gwu^i^ whose re{ioii h^ 
bee^ fi^rwarded to yoiA. We s^c^eeded, on the BiOh 
in getting irom the mmy abont JIOOO staod ef 
arfii9 of varloiia deecriptiojis. 

SiAce the aoti&n of the3th, the tMaqr bi^e been 
allow()d very little iespite-^-«y artillery firc^a bath 
sides olthe rivter^ being O09»tant]y enjoyed, till 
the nig^t, aiad indeed until the bone of their retn^t, 
in annoying them* NndocOit thejf tfacHig^t itqnite 
time to qnjt a position in which iso little yest oonld 
be found. 



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AKDEIBV #A«WON. . M5 

I cm advtaed by Jf aj. Ovisrtoii, viko cofftmcnds'^al 
Fori St;< Phiiii^, in alette ^f the 18th, thaittlw 
caimy faavittg l^ombanLeil bis ferf^f^t^Sor^dajrat 
from 13 iiMsh mortars, ir{i2i<hit eSsct, ]2ad> oo the 
aloning <of ttet day, retired. I bave littJe doubt 
tJ^ lie would Jiave been able to bare subJc their 
?Miele, had they attempted to ruo by. 

GKvfog tbd proper weight to all these eoosidora* 
tio]i9, 1 believe |k>u will &ot thiitk' nae too sangufne 
JQ the beliefi that Louisiana^ is %\i>W <deda of its 
eMoiy. f bof»e« howerer^ I need not assure youi 
that vrherever / comrmnd^ such a belief shall aever 
oecaaion any relaxation in the measures for resist* 
aneeu X a« but too senidblej thai the moment 
when the eMBiy 16 o^^miag us, is 0ot the most 
proper to provide for cbem. 

I have the hoDodr to be, &c 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

/ F. S. On the 18th, our prisMers on shore were 

. deliverisd uSi an exchange havipg beta iire?ioiisly 

agreed to. Those who are #n board the ileet, will 

'^lie delivered at Petit <joguiHe*-4ifter which, I shall 

9ilU hava m my hands an excess of seireral huodkad, 

aOth«->^M[r. Shields, purser ia the navy, has to- 
day taken 54 prisoners ; among them are four ofG- 
oers. A.J. 

Thiui tncM tibe expeditiiMi of die Briti^ army^ 
agains^ the oiiyof New Ocbftos^thiia ended the 
denaTitratloii of the British naval £9roa» against 



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23d MBMoiRS or 

the forts at the mouth of the Missisippi. Hie de- 
tail of events which took place in this interesting 
and important section of the Republic, have ne- 
cessarily been blended with the Memoirs of Genl 
Jackson. Indeed, they are identified with each 
other«-he was the first motion of evary movement. 
The deeply interesting scenes through which 
Gen. Jackson, his army, and the citizens of New 
Orleans were called to pass from the 16ih Decem- 
ber, 1814, to the 18th January, 18J5, would furnish 
subjects for a volume far more extended than the 
%x>hole of this little work. In a few pages I have 
endeavoured to present the reader with the promi- 
nent facts connected with these great events. That 
they were d^ved from sources indisputably accu- 
rate, I have the most confident assurance. A brief 
recapitulation would be attempted, were it not in 
my power to furnish the reader with the elegant 
and impressive address of Gen. Jackson to his 
troops upon the 31st January, which follows. 

ADDRESS, 

Directed by M&j. Gen. Jackson, to be read at the head of each 
of the covpacomponn^the line below New Orleanfl^Jan. 21, 
1815. 

Citizens, and fellow soldiers f The enemy has 
retreated, and your general has now leisure to pro- 
claim to the woiid what he has noticed with admi- 
ration and pride— your undaunted courage, your 
patriotism, and patience^ under hardships t X fbt- 



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<Mr the iral tM«» in «h» camp ; differiag in habki 
and Ui iMgNM^iQ^ UiA«ad of tiefvi^g is thtM^t^ 
cii«is4aiioc8» ili«ig«ttpf distruftt aiiildiyJBiooi you 
kwt made tfaeai ilM souks o£ aa .lioiMilUiaible «»«» 
teiion, niid fram tbe seed* ^ dkoord Ha4lf| bw^ 
mafkOd the frukfi af fta hcoKHlFable ttoio»« This 
day completes the fourth wttek^ siiifie £iitd» bun*- 
dsed of yM attoohed Irebteyour dumber of men, 
mho had boaatad of Ihek diac^fie and their ser- 
yioes under a celafavated leiader^ in n long tod 
€¥eAt£al war— uttMskad tbem in their oaeap, the 
alomeat they hud profiuied the soU of Apeedom^ widi 
Ibeir Jiostile treads and inflicted a bloir which was 
a prelude to the i^al result of their attempt ^ con- 
ggiier, or their poor oontrivauoes to divide us. A 
Jew bouiv was eufficient to unite the gallaut l)and^ 
thoqgh at the momeat they received the wefcome 
order to narch, they were separated luany league^ 
in different directions firom the city. The gay ra*^ 
pidtty of the nsarch^ and the clfeerful counttnauces 
of the officers and nieB» would have induced a belief 
that some festive entertaiuflueat» n^t the strife of 
battle, was the scepe to which they hastened with 
so much eaderaess and hilarity. In the conflifet 
that ensued, the aame spirit waseupportad, and uiy 
oommunicaticMis, to the ejeecutive of the U. States^ 
have testified the sense I entertained of tlie merits 
of the corps and officers that were engaged. Aest*^ 
ing on the field of battle^ they retired in perfect or* 



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Mi ittiMMRs or - 

det ott Ibe maA moieii^lo ttteifb IkM, AittAttif^ 
biBcoiiie the soene of fBfi»e viclbfles, vhicb (toy 
visretoshtrewiilKiifrie^ ofym, «rf bm^tooHK 
panio&B in arim. Soarcefy iM« yimr lities a pffb^ 
uotbn against mosket sfaotf wfam on the WA^ 4 
dispo9itiaii was made to ottaek thbm with all tha 
IKHnp and parade of aiiUta^ tsetfos, as Improired 
by those T^eraAs of the ^nish war. 

Thar batteries of hearjr caomm tept iq» av 
iucessaat fire ; their rockets ilkunfoaied the afar f 
and unddr their cover, two strmig ootaraas tteeat^ 
ened oor flasks. The foe insokntly thought that 
this spectacle was too impoatfig to be resisted, and 
Jn the iatozfcati^i of his pride» he already saw ow 
lines abandoned wi&oat a conte^-^ow were th^il 
menacing appeiMrances met? By shouts of d^* 
ance, by a manly countenancci not to be sfaakBi 
by the roar of his cannon, or by the glare of his 
firework rockets ; by an artillery served with so* 
perior skill, and with deadly efieet. Never, nrjr 
brave friends, can your general forget the testimoni* 
als of attachment to our glcnious cause, of indignant ' 
hatred too^r ibe, of affecticmate confidence in your 
chief, fthat resounded from every rank, as he pass- 
ed along your line*. This aniuatiiqg^ seene daiqped 
the courage of the enemy ; he dropped his scaling 
ladders and fascines, and the threatened attack 
dwindled into a demons^ationi which served only 
to shew the emptiness of his parade, and to inspire 
you with a just confidence in yourselves* > ' 



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'Wl» mw fmaewBB vaSmtd in wi& the most ttt- 
i|Wl|doti8 fir« Us i^^e artillery could prodnee : « 
lEiMh bdttfs doSfj hmmtts w&e necessary for the 
hpKveF and shiMil tt0», who directed our own, to 
^ssMont Ids G»ifie% destroy his bAtMies, and ef- 
jbetoally silesoe hk fire. Hitherto^ way brave 
frteodfly in the ocnstest on onr lines, your courage 
had been passive onty ; you stood with calmness, a 
fire ilfat wouldhave tried the firmness of a veteran, 
and ymi aniSeipateda nearer contest with an esiger- 
n«is whieh^ was soon to be gritted. 
. On the Sth'olJao. the final eJBSbrt was made* At 
the dawn of day the batteries opened, and the co- 
Iwins advanced. Knowing that the volanteers 
frost Tenneseee, and the militia from Kentucky, 
were stationed on your left, it was there they di- 
rected their chief attack. 

Reasoning always from fidse principles, they ex* 
petted little o|q[K>sition firom men, whose officers 
even were not in uniformf* who were ignorant of the 
rules of dress, and who had never been e^cd into 
dimpime. Fatal mistake ! a fire incessantly kept 
up, directed . with a c^mness and unerring aim, 
strewed the field with the bravest (Ulcers and men, 
of the column which sfowly advanced, according to - 
the most approved.rules of European ^tactics, and 
waacut down by the untutored courage .of Ameri- 
OHi militia. Unable to eustain this galling and 
uiioeastng fire, some hundreds nearestthe intrench- 
meat called ftr quarter, which was granted'— 



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tile mMt iietraitbiy, wen nilte* tt ^wpe^ i iii inci , 
but 0B>]r teiMte Item a ^MP MuA ftotba yrafiF 
and oamiiMtr Om of wr arilMtty* iAMi» w iUfcyfOf 
engs^rattom BKMviddtoimi lAife nunlts at a^Wj^ 
dischwge : and at hiagth thajr Fmlj^ttatrij^ Mtead 
jEltoB the Md. 

Our right kadoolsr a abon^oiNilMtto^raitaiB uMi 
a ftw raiAiiiiD,^ivli^ iktiallgr for thaoMttaKSi fccMd 
thdr eBtmnee teto tkaatifi&Mied radoabt 0» tha 
riTer. They ware qiiicklf diiqw aa eqU odH aadt tkia 
glorious day tercvinalcd with thalosa tathaene«iy» 
of theil^ eeimnatukt k> dkie^ amloiie aajiM^geaMU 
killed, aaether majer^gtaaral woaojied^ the most 
experienced aad bmv«ail af their officMSv and laote 
than tHrea thousand flMh killed^ wotinAMband am* 
sing, whlleour ranks, my ftiendo^ irerathuMMdaii- 
ly by the loss.of seven of our hnl^t caaipaiiiDna fei^ 
led and six di^aMsd bf wouada<--*>woiidarful interpo- 
sition of heaven 1 ttncanaaipled' efanfe tn tile»hist<NPf 
of war ! 

Letushe grateMto the God of battles, who has 
dicected the arrows oflndl^atioti against our fn« 
vadtrs, while he eolrefadwith bis proteoliog stiiehl 
the brave deftndera of their eoantry^ 
^ After tins UAsueoesaftit andr dbastrauaaeceaipt, 
their spiipite wtfe brohen, thMr f(i^toe^iiM^ desirdjr- 
ed^ and thiar ^hole atUBflitio&weeeoiptoyedin pra- 
viding tiie B|0asis of ^seape. Thk they bameiafi^ 
tedi; laaeii^ ttmriieavy adilieigr v» our posr^^ 
aadmanih^ their itfiao^e^ta^oprotexieMp* Xha: 



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m» ioQalcQiftbly ifirf^cirtMt. The pride of our^^ar* 
fogant eocwy bombJed, his for€e3 broIiiBii, bis lea* 
<kffs kiUed, bi» ioaoleat hopes of our disunioa. frus- 
tr«tai-«4ii8«xpeotatiQn of rioting io our spoils and 
wasting our oountry, changed into igoooiinious de* 
leal, shaaiefiil &igbti ai^ a relucUnt acknowledg- 
ment of the bttiBMiity and kinclness of those, whom 
he fa^d docHiied to all the horrors and hamUiation 
9f aeosquoeed sti^te. * 

On the other side, unanimity established, Asaf- 
ttsetioa crushed, confidence restored, your country 
sav<^ from conquest, your property from pillage** 
yQur wives and daughters from insult and violation 
•*-4he unipn preserved ftojn dismemberment, and 
perbaps, a period put by this decisive stroke, to 
a bloody aiul savage war. These, my brave friends, 
are the consequences of the efforts you have made* 
and the success with which they have bfien crown- 
ed by heaven. 

These important results have been effected by 
the united courage and perseverance of the army ; 
but which the different corps, as well as the indi- 
viduals that compose it, have vied with each other 
in their exertions to produce. The gratitude, the 
admiration of their country, offers a fairer reward, 
^han that which any praises of the general can be- 
stofw, and tbe best is that of which they can never 
be deprived, the cooseiousness of having done their 
dttty,andQf meritiBstheappbiiae they will receive." 
21 



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jn0 litrtotfjr ^ Utoikm wuvte AiMMkos ftunh 
fllMdUe iofitiooo irftotbliftlitltoMd aMdM ftppeMl 
ttthft ftifttnioA eouti^ of soldto^^ biftM htMm 
wan Ibiiglit, tad lAMt ^itttifciPagMt «x»gs«M«kim'of 
«lbi»br«clite#MM0Cs» ftft^ tbef imrawoi^. imtht 

eftM«d the satigoiiuiry tekl, notyseris t» be •dfft* 
#5V«ed but tlie eool^ d%ii8Bed, afid tDftjesik Ami- 
gmige ore gieet eemieMdAer, pr^pGfei Ibr tfelc»9^. 
WhAi be had veDqaisbed his feei the hlglMM eA^ 
c^ftiiii be eoold bestdir apon bi^. fleers aed sol- 
dlet« was, that tbey had a&9wei«d hia evcp&iHStkmi^ 
Ilk no iastaftee iMit one, in the OQeaeroas baitiea 
be had'ltnigbc ami conquered, hn^ he oeeaaioB eo 
esiMss tegret) at the oo^ucft of any penion of bis 
ttoQ^ ; and in that veryinftlance) be gtiMd one. 
of ibegreatQ^ ti^tories recorded in modrara bie^>- 
ry«.^hat of t&e 8lh January, 1816, m& i^^- 
^11 at losing the right bank bl^ttie Misrislppf/for 
only a few hours, compelled him to say to a seeiion 
Of fai$ little a^ifny, that lie ynzsdUapp^inted. 

With Gen, Jackson, vietory was never the re- 
sult of accident or fortune* It was the necessary 
effect iNToduced by a known cause. Afthough inva- 
riably victorious, it wonkt be a miserable eulogy, 
to pronounce biA> a foHunate ooramander. ife left 
notbing to bfe decided by the capricious ** fortune of 
War,'* Wbieb as bfleii gifea glory to 4 blundering 
braggadoei<h as to an aceoaipiished generaU He 
a^ed as ^bsctafjk he waa the gueardian^ as well as the 



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AN9»lilF #44MNION. .910 

QOflwaiidif of tb» axrfiliai^, Md mit 1m nm ^^ 
qwQt^bte lor «vpy li«9b. ain)* Mfe l^st J^ ^mn- 
liog hift comiWKJa* Ti^ viaioaftr in wliiob. M <te' 

l9f Ite lifct 1^ bi» tpMierfr; ai^l ^UbQiigli fte w{p 
wrm0i(m^ tJiiit it wo^ assunge ihe sfirirow of t^ 
«i|rvivittg friciids ^t ni%m hgroes^ to 4ef lar« tji^ 
Ib^ 4M «Q?fii«d wi^ glory^ y^t» in^r^iloriiig^ 
tMa to %b^ bospiiuB ^f their copm^iaas,* wftb tbe 
lniiMb q| riotory Qpoi^ tbdf liviog bmwfiy^d the 
aidooi^f pMxi^lttmiii their beating hortst^ fete 
as if he wasrendaring to hiai^ countrymen ami tp 
hift eounttry^ the best account of his bauke and his 
yii^rieii* 

The 8At<wshiag di8g«.r^ in the iostfeo of the 
Aioedean and British armies, would stf^gger the 
belief of the im4er» witre it not pi^senteA tp 
Um fcom most indubitable evi4eiice. From ottr 
cial feportsi i»>w in t))e War Qffioe, it iippiBars that 
the whole^ loss of the Americans, before New Or- . 
leaiisi} and at the mputh of the Sf is^jlftij^pi; was as 
feHowQ :«-- 

Killed. Wounded. Missini:. Total,. 

Dec. 23d, -24 1—116 74— -213 

Dec. 28th, • 7 — — ^ 8 00 15 

Jan'y 1st, -11 23^ 00 34 

Jany 8th, 13* 30 19 62 

From9thtoirth,>. ^ y q q q 

atFort St. Philips, J ^ ■ ^ ^ 



* But 9even were kiUed in the engagement. 



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Mi imiOf M or 

Tims it appeirs that bat 57 wefe kifMU-of tbe 
185 wounded, it is not known tbat any one died ; 
and of the 93 mksing, it is not known that tmt oat 
deserted, and he was hung before the British camp, 
by order of the commander, bninediately after the 
final victory over him.* Notwithstanding the se* 
verity of the season-— the ezoessive IM>oar and 
Atigne of the troops,«-^nd the want of camp eqai- 
page, but few died ; so that it may be said of Gen* 
Jackson, as it was said of an ancient warrior*^^ He 
tons %oice a cqnquerorf fbr kt brmtgkt hemefiM tmm* 
hers*' 

' The loss of the British, from their own acknowl- 
edgment, and from the most correct accounts, must 
have been from 4609, to fiOOO. The mention of 
New Orleans, while it calls up the most grateful 
and animated recollection of Americans, reminda 
Englishmen, of one of the most disastrous defeats 
recorded in the history of their country. 

* Ttus man was the only deserter from Gen. Ja&son's army. 
He told Sir Edward, where the weakett part of the American fines 
were» having notfdt^ bat Termeuee and Kentucky mUUia, to de- 
fend it The principal column of the enemy attacked tkai point* 
After liie def«al^ they railed at the deserter and ta^r him. 



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AHttMv M^mtamv* 4MA 



CHAPTER XVn. 

Ylctories «>btsiDed» «Bdib? tbe ^cetervatioii of tibe ci|y!« upqp 
tiie 23d January — Doct Dubourg's address-^the ^neral's an- 
swer— continues his exertions to fender the country more se. 
ciw«>8tmettderogrort JBkHyjwgwOtoce piockiaiff d dkchifgl 
- of troc^s—Gen. Jackson's address to tli£Ph-^Bei»Nrk. 

T?HE attention of the reader is now to be called 
fipom scenes of carnage, wounds, death, defeat and 
victory, to one, the most deeply interesting that caa 
possibly he presented to the view of man. He is 
to be suddenly transported from those appalfihg 
scenes, which, if tears are permitted to soil the pu- 
rity of heaven, must make the angels weep, to- one 
which must make them rejoice. 

Gen, Jackson, his^ gallant officers, and his troops, 
although loaded with earthly honours, and greeted 
with the acclamations of a grateful and protected 
people, did not omit to render that homage which 
is due to that Almighty Being, who ** reigns in the 
armies of heaven abovcy as well as in the earth be* 
neath/" A day of thanksgiving and solemn praise 
was appointed by the general. It was upon the 23d 
of January. The solemn rites werie performed in 
the Cathedral in New Orleans. To behold a war-, 
worn veteran, like Gen. Jackson, surrbunded by 
his war-worn officers, -and troops, prostrated upon 
- 31* 



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M8 tmi^iftsop 

the ftl|«rof adoftttioa, and idnring to te Goo m 
BATTI.XS, that glory which the world had bestowed 
upon tkemt oust.have oioired the h»n of ufa^hj 
ftiei£ It ia totally impoiistUe tof ooe who was not 
awitficai of tbe^ceae, to hare a eooeqpi^kmt^f te 
aeleiBn gvandenr. Thesolemn peah of the oigaa* 
in unison with vocal praises, sent up to heaven the 
paiaful ac&nowlei^iaients of a preserved people. 
^ Grim visag*dtmr had smooiVd its ivrbAled friM?^ 
•— 4ear8 of e^uisite ^y rolled down the eheehs of 
soldiers and qitizens, and tte lmx$s of all w«re 
swollen with gratitude to the King of kings, and 
Xrford of loDds. The Republic was safe ; a i^un- 
ting fde was overthrown, aud although tbe meno* 
ries of the few who had fallen in the sanguinary 
field — ^ m sad remembrance roset*^ it was a sniped of 
inexpressible consolaticm, that almost all the soldiers 
who had formed the, impregnable rampart upon tte 
plains of the Misslsippi, were now assembled in the 
city, which owed its preservation to their vakaTt 
and to the blessing of heaven. 

Upon this occasion, the Rev. Doct. Dubomrg, 
the administrator apostolic of the diciicese of Lou* 
isiana, delivered to the general an address, replete 
with the piods effusions of the Christian, and the 
elegancies of the scholar. Although it has long 
been before the public, I cannot omit to enrich 
this volume by inserting a part of it, together 
with the impressive answer of Geiv Jackson* 
While they will be read with rapture by the Chjris- 



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ANMlSir JA€«MH« 2ii7' 

tiMf iliey cannot lUl to ewke iIm admtrstioa of thn 

• The veiMalilo miooler of tke gospel tkus' ad- 
irosaed line Hem of NiBtr Orkaas, and the gallant 
ofiMTs and scJdiefs who had fidloved him to vk> 
lory, and now joined hiai in adoration-^'^ Geoe^ 
ral-«»While the stale of Loaisiana, in the joyful 
ttanqiiortsof her giatkude^ hails you as her delir* 
eror, and the assertor of her menaced liberties— t 
arldle gmtefoL America, so lately wrapped up in 
anxions suspense, on the fate of this iioportant 
city, is re-echoing from shore to shore, your splen- 
fttd^K^hievmaents, and preparing to inscribe your 
name on her immortal rolls, among those of her 
Washingtons-^^While history, poetry, and the mon« 
umental arts, will vie, in consigning to theadmira* 
tion of the latest posterity, a triumf^ perhaps, 
nnpaialleled in their records-^while thus raised 
by universal acclamation, to the very pinnacle of 
iSuBie, how easy had it been for you, General, to 
ferget the FajMa Movaa of your wonderful suc- 
cesses, and to assume to yourself a praise, ivbich 
must essentially return to that exalted source, 
whence every merit is derived* But, better ac* 
qaintedwith the nature of true glorys»and justly 
placing the summit of your ambition, in approving 
yourself the jworthy instrument of heaven's merci- 
fid designs, the 6rst impulse of your religious heart, 
was to aclinowledge the interposition of Provi- 
dence--»your first step, a solemn display of youF 



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tambh mam of fiia SmmmL itell tgitttttl.t 
the remembraaoe of those dreadfiil agooiM, Snm 
wbioh w€ havQ ben so mimiuloualy leMved, k i^ 
our pride to eekoowkdge, that Urn Mmighif heie 
truly had the jprloeifal hand in our delireauMiff 
nd to feHow you, geneial, iDuttributiDg la Hie ini 
fioile goodoeesi the bonageof oorisufcigaol gealt* 
tttde. LettheiafatuatedTotaryofabUfidchaaoet 
deride our oredaloue ainplicity ; let the coM heart- 
ed atheist look for the ezptoatloa of leiportaBt 
ewnUf to the mere co&catenalion of buiuan caueea i 
to us, the whole uaiverse is ioiid io pfoeiaiflsisg a 
Supreme Ruler, who, as he holde the hearts of mea 
in his hand, holds also the thread of all ooatiogeva 
occurrences* 

To Him, theiefope, our most fenreut thanks are 
due, for our late unexpected rescue. It is Hini wo 
intend to praise, when considering you, g enefa l, as. 
the man of his right hand, whom he has taken pains 
to fit out for the important commission of our de- 
fence. We extol that fecundity of genius, by wUph, 
under the most discouraging distress, you created . 
unforeseen resourees, raised, as it were, trom tfie 
ground, hosts of intrepid warrtcHrs, and provided 
every vuIneraUe point with ample means of de- 
fence* To Him we trace that instinctive superior*^ 
ity of your mmd, which at once rallied around you 
universal confidenoe ; impressed one irresistiMe 
movement to all the jarring elements of which this 
political machine is composed ; aroused their slum- 



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teriiig spMts, and ^SXasei tbfbtigli eiwy rank, tbe 
ndble ardour whieh glowed in your bosom* To 
HiiD^ in fine, we addfess our aeknowtec^ments for 
ftat conannumte prudence, which defeated all the 
ooMinatioiis of a eagaeious enemy, entangled him 
In the very snafes which he had spread for us, and 
suceeeded in effecting his utter destruction, without 
exposing the lives of oar citizens. Immortal tbanlcs 
be to nis Supreme Majesty, for sending us such an 
instrument of His bountiful designs ! A gift of that 
vahie, is the best token of the continuance of His 
|irotectioflb-4he most solid encouragement, to sue 
for new flivours. The first, which it emboldens us 
humbly to supplicate, as nearest our throbbing 
hearts, is that you may long enjoy the honour of 
your grateful country ; of which you will permit 
us to present you a pledge, in this Wbeath of 
IiAiTEBi:., the prize of victory, the symbol of immor- 
tality. The next, is a speedy and honourable ter- 
mination of the bloody contest, in which we are 
engaged. No one has so efficaciously laboured as 
. you, general, for the acceleration of that blissful 
periods may we soon reap that sweetest fruit of 
your splendid and uninterrupted victories." 

The general thus replied to this solemn and im- 
pfessive address. His allusion to the » cypresj^ 
leaf," a symbol of grief and woe, is inimitably 
Bmt* Cypress groves were constantly in view of 
die rival armies, during their sanguinary conflicts, 
and they Will hereafter remind Englishmen of the 



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mea, iBVading #iv aoUi^ ksf tktt fl%Uwft: mn ^ ff i of 
tbe Rej^bJ^ic ia deloDfUflg il« 

«' Revfrwd &ir**«I receifv, mith ffilUliide Mi4 
plea8ttre» the syaibol Growa, iprliiob i^i^ tmvjpil- 
pved. I rtoeive it, ia tbe Bime of the b«|ve imm 
who flo . effectually aeepnded mf Mjmti wi»^ * Ahn 
well ctaBenre the Uorele which tb«ir w^atiy vitt 
bestow. 

For myself, to havebeea inatrwieatal in the 
deliverance of such a country, ie the gieateat l^- 
aiug that heavea eoukt ooo jer« That it has been 
effected withso little IoM*^tfaat so.liw taar^ $ko$iA 
cloud the smUes of our triumph, aod not a ^jgmm 
leaf be interwoven in the wreath ^Hh yoo pii- 
seat, is a source of the moet ej^qaiBile pleaemt. 
I thank you, reverend Sir, nm&t ainetu)riy, fof the 
prayers, which you offer up for my happineis. May 
those your patriottsm dictates for our beloved 
eountry, be first beard: and may mine, ibr jfmt 
individual prosperity, as well as that of the eon- 
gr^tttion committed to your cafe» be fovourabiy 
received-^the prosperity, wealth, and happiMse 
of this city, will then be commensumiB with Ihe 
courage amd other qualities of its inhaMteate*'' 

Gen. JacksQp, although be felt as if LoiiMMfk 
and its capital were safe, did not ranit any of tu^ 
exertions to render the country etitt more secwHi. 
With the assistanoB of his beloved a$8oeiale$> 
Generals Ckiffee, GarroUt Adair, &c. and the troops 



] 

I 



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imdir tbeilf kinM^m 6mimmuA^ he cotftimied to 
iN^dttite tbe rtrimgih ef Mi Ihm^ ott eaieh bank df 
tilt Misrfffi|ipu I^ooK his uniform latigimge anid 
0MMlitt u thift fttrfod, it in>iiM ftppeat thai he sup* 
jposed the m^^oeiatlons at Ohent, would Xkot ter<* 
fiifitiate aaaiieably. In erne of his tefters to Mfi 
MoMToe, th« Stecntary of War, he says^^ In fliy 
elm firfod, there ia but I^tle doubt, Ihat his [the 
Btiilsh eofumaiider's] kusi exenkms have been 
made in this quarter, at any rate for thtpipesetti sea- 
aoft ; and by the tmxt^ I hope we shall bei\AlIy pre- 
fved fer him '* In another one he says<^<^ Where- 
ever I eommand, sudi a belief, [that the enemy 
would teiire^] shaU never oceasicMi any relaxation 
in the measures of resistance. I am but too sensi* 
bw that the moment when the enemy is cppodng us, 
is not the most proper to prtnide for him." 

By the Mlh of January, every hostile tooi was 
driven fiom the soil of Louisiana, and Gen. Lam* 
bert and his nrmy, were eompetied to seek for safe- 
ty in tht fleet of Admiral Cochrane, and even that 
was compelled to keep at a respectful distance from 
the shores of the Republic. 

Before the 8th February, the British forces had 
positive Md oeriain intelligence, that a tr^ty of 
peace between America and Great Britain, had 
beai signed by tlie commtssioners of the two gov«> 
emments at Ghent. They were aware, however, 
that it was not dtnding until rat^ations werp ex- ' 
clmnged. Anaiotis to wipe off the indeHble ^^ 



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SM iiBHOiM or 

graoe Ibeyliad UMLtnistNm^QiimDMi nptmUm 
8th of Jaiutafjr* Aqr MMiiled Fort Bowfor, i^ Oe 
voiith of the Mobile, upoa tke 8th Fdtawy, iritl^ 
their whole land and nftTal forpes* Tlie gattott 
Lawmice was slAll there; bQt mristanoe w>«ld 
have been the sacrifice of hts «« little |(halaax.^ 
He sorrendered the fort; butoiie oooditioit was, 
that the AJWrieans should march oiUiof it <« oiMk 
colours fyingi mid ^drums beatmg'm4h^^ficers retmuh 
ing tkdr swards*** 

The ^^companders in chief of Us Prikmio mn- 
jestg*s land end wmal forces upon the JmersBon 
station^" nrc welcome %o all the Uttk glory tbttf 
claim, for taking this little fortt only to amiwdsr 
it up ^ain. 

Upon the ISth February, Gen. Jackson^ waa^aA- 
vised of the rattficatipu of the Tr^tty of Bb^ms, 
by an express from the War jDepartment. The 
£pUpDri«g address to his troops, upon ordering tktm 
to be marched hojm, will always be read with de- 
light. * . 

'< The major-general is at length en^ikd to pe<^ 
form the pleasing task, of restoring to Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Loubiana, and the tmritory of tiie Mis- 
sisippi, the iHrave troops who have acted suohja 
distinguished part, in the war which has jo^ termhp^ 
ated. In restoring these braye men to their homes, 
much exertion is expected qt, and great rssponsl- 
bility imposed on, the commanding offiocdtof the 
diJBTerent corps* It is required of Maj.G^ Cap- 



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Hi^Md ItettMM, aiid'Bi%. Gcb. Gdfttti ta imrcfc 
tfeiir QMBiMtuls, itriiboiit nBMccMary deky, to 
tiMif rmfC0tbrt 6ta^«8. The ^foops irom the MBs- 
flldpfi Tenritorymiiii (Mie of Loabiftqa, boHmiin* 
Jii^Md firitti^bers, wit) be i«Bi»e4iately imisfeereA 
iM of 8«^t«ii, paid, aftd discharged. 

Tbe majwp^tiefAl has the wtfs&ction of an* 
aoancing ehe approbatios of the Fresfdent of the 
Uoiled SteteS) to the eoiidue^ of the trdops tind^ 
his^eooiaaiid, expressed fo flattering terms, through 
^hoBOurable the Secretaty of War. la parting 
Hitii these hrave men, whos^ destiofes have been so 
ioiig Qttlted with his ovm, and in irhose labours and 
Hlories H is hfs happiness and his boast to have 
panieipatcd, the commanding general can neither 
siipi^sss Ms feelings, nor give utterance to them 
ai'lieoaghi. In what terms can he bestow suita- 
Me prai^on nmit so extraordinary, so unparalldt* 
idA9 Let him, in one burst of joy, gratitade, and ex- 
^dltatton cMlalm-^these are the saviours of their 
country— these the patriot soldiers who triumphed 
*6<rer the invjkk^ibles of Wellington, and conquered 
the GonGpil^ors of Europe ! ^ 

WjllfTwhat patience did you submit to privations- 
whJit fortitude did you endure fatigue— . 
it valour did you display in the day of battle ! . 
^ybu have secured to America a proud name among 
tile nations of the earth — a glory whict will never 
^rish. Possessing those dispositions, ^rhich equal- 
ly adorn the citizen, and the soldier, the expecta- 
23 



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tiooft of your oountcy will b(& met ia t»c^ asjkci 
fishes have bt^ gisitified ip war* Gotlieo»,JiQr 
teavecoiBpaoioaai to your homes; to tliose tenAur 
ootmezionsy and blissful fioenes, which reader life 
•o dear— 4ttU of .hfrnooTt and crowxtec) with iawab 
which will never fade, Wheo particijpatiog, in ^lu 
bosoms of your fiunilies, the enjoyment of peace- 
ful Hie, with what happiness will you not look back 
to the toils you have borne— to tbe dangers yoa 
have encountered? How will aU ypor postexpo- 
sures be converted into sources o{ inexfi^ssibk i 
delight ?Who9 that never experienced your. ;^|ffer- < 
ings» will be able to appre<^ate your joys? The 
mair who slumbered iugloriousiy at honie, daring 
your painful marches, your nights of watehfulaess, 
and your days of toil, will euvy you the hapf^ness 
which these recollections will afford— still mote < 
will he envy the gratitude of that country, wbieh 
you have so eminently contributed; to Aave. Con* 
tinue, fellow-soldiers^ on your jiassage ix^ your sev- 
eral destinations, to preserve that subordination^ 
that dignified and manly deportment,, which have* 
so ennobled your character. 

While the commanding general is thus*giving 
indulgence to .his feelings, towards those bi^ve 
companions, who accompanied him. thrdugb dilS^ 
Gulties and danger, he cannot permit the names of 
Blotmt, and Shelby, and Holmes, to pass unnotfced^ ^ 
With what generous ardqur and patriotism, have 
these distinguished governours contributed aU tlieir 



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ANDRinV^JACl^SOK. 255 

taertt(»is X sind tbe stifccess which has Tesulted, will 
be to them a reward more gratefnl than any which 
the* pomp of title, or the splendour of wealth, can 
bestow. 

What happiness it is tothe^^qmiimndiDg general, 
^at while danger wasJ)^ore him, he was, on no 
occasion, compelled to use towards his compan- 
ions in arms, either severity or rebuke. If, after 
the enemy had retired, improper passions began 
their empire in a few unworthy bosorasi and render- 
ed a resort to energetic measures necess^j^ for their 
Suppression, he has not confounded the* innocent 
with' the gulty— -the seduced with the seducers. 
Towards you, fellow-soldiers, the most cheering 
recollections exist, blended, alas ! with regret, that 
disease and war should have ravished from us, so 
many worthy companions. But the memory of 
the cause in which they perished, and of the virtues 
which animated them, while living, must occupy 
the place where sorrow xvould claim to dwelL 

Farewell, fellow-soldiers. The expression of 
your general's thanks is feeble, but the gratitude of 
a country of freemen is yours — yours the applause 
of an admiring world.*' 

* In this address to the troops, the solicitude of 
Gen. Jackson, for the reputation of the army,- is 
clearly evinced. Aware that the exultation they 
felt from the victories they had obtained, and 
the animation that aroused them to enthusiasm, at. 
the " wreath of laurel" bestowed upon them by 



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3M imoiM 09 

tbeir countrjFneVy taigjbl oocasioii abtrraliMMM 
Irom the nguiv imlk of soberekiveiia^hettbortad 
them not to taraish ki |ieae9» the glory they had 
acqdir^ in war. The troops thas dismissed by their 
commaiider, had to march from five to eight hon- 
dxed miles, before they reached their homes. Ttafe 
citizens, inhabiting the country through which they 
paased« so far from treating them with distant cold- 
ness, and exlx>rting from them the pittance they had 
obtained for defending the Republic, (conduct not 
unknown to some parts of Amorica,) received them 
with unbounded hospitality, and congratulated 
them as the gallant defenders of American Tnde- 
plindence. ^ 



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ANi>m»w jjuiffMN. SIT 



CHAFTBR Xyilf . 

Rfsr^tiilatipn of fac^ relative to the pi^pdamation of Mardf^ 
Law, writ of habeas corpw^ LouaiUier, and Judge ffaU^Axrtat 
' of Gen. J M iPow M i difiMMe^ coaviclM» and fine^Mal by 
, i^aff^T^jptiJit^feMSaM^ of (Qea. Jac]aon--he advi- 

ses to a 9acred regard for civil power. 

IT will be r«eaUectcd by the reader, ttet Ofioii 
the 16lfa December, Gte. Jackson )[)roclaiaKd mar* 
tial lam In New Orkans, and m the en?irtcNis ol it» 
Xiie reMOf^ of that flaeasiire, bave.abeadjr been 
brieljr^ven^ and the impedoits neeesflity of adopt* 
teg it 4le»oii6trQAed, Neit to the efficietil mea- 
aunesof defence hAm t^city, the peofle are 
indebted to the tempomry exeeution of thfs system 
o( governoie&t, for their salratioQ from the hoi;r6rs 
of British invasion. 

That the mHHary power? 4nuit be secondary to 
tbedviU is an axiom in oar Ee^ublio generally 
asaenied to. That they are both, on great emer- 
geacied, to snpport the honour, dignity, and inde- 
pendehoe of the States, is a qeoiiment no less gen- 
arally prevalent. It is a firinciprle, that may4)e 
said to becoevai with the CormiticMd of civil gov- 
ernment, that laws are- silent in the midst of arms, 
or as the Aomans tiad it, >< leges silent inter armaJ* 
These priadj^es areeach to. liave an influence up- 
on the mind, in forming an opinion of the propriety 
oCGen, Jackson's conduct, in b^rd to thesuppres- 
32* 



/ 



Mg mammuQw 

tton of Ihe civil Mthority at Noir Orlcaos^tttd the 
Itgishilttre of Louisiana* at that time ia atsaioB 
there. 

Npthiug but the ag^tioD produced at the ap- 
proach of imminent danger, upon fearful minds, 
can fufoiak ihe least pallialioo for tlia.eKl3»^rdina* 
ry course pursued by the dty poiieebf New Orieaiis, 
and the legislature of Louisiana, during the most 
portentous period of their hisloryy t. 0. from the 
IGth Dec. 1814, to the. middle ot Feb. 1845. 
These ccmfident aasertiona would not bt luadei Wen 
thqr not susceptible of the clearest proof. The 
ezisteBQeoftfaatsUte of things wfaich led to the 
dectoration of nuurtial law, by. Gen. Jaofcs6ii> hai 
been partly unfelded by preeenting the iseadv, ia a 
preceding chapter, with what was deemed appro* 
^ate extracts, ttom the correspondence. of Qov^ 
Claiborne with him. Thia eyidrace anist be com- 
pletely satisfactory, asnt was derived from a dis* 
tln^uished civil officer, who must, with distressing 
reluctance, have detailed to the world, themelan*- 
cboiy confession of foets. so jlerogatory to. the 
dignity and to the patriotism pf the kgidature, 
over whom he presidixl, and of thecity, wliere thi^ 
were iu session. It will never, however, bel6r* 
gotten that the police of New .Orleans, at this per- 
ilous period, was not iu accordance with the wishes 
of a great pro|portion of its patriotic citizens ; nor 
did the timorous, and vacillating policy of the l^is* 
lature, coincide wHh the ardent desires, of a great 



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ed tbe gjovcraour froai the houae o{ Icigisiatioa, to 
the camp of Gen* J^ckaofit Vid ab^red that th^ 
Ut inore soHettem to ptwavm tbi^ir state from 
the eeutaminatiDg IbotsCcps of A.barbareua enemyi 
than, to tanaki in cooclaiw» ddbatii^ iwoa %u^. 
tioo» of pttDCtiiioas etiqadte, betweeo. the civil 
aod mUitafj^ powens* 

It fafcisitlimdy been stated, that a majpri^ of the 
senate and .boMiai of fepreseatativeS) in the state 
iegklatare of L(Miisiana> were opposed to the re* 
qfnisitioius lehioh Gov. CJaibocoe had made upon 
the LMidana ffiiiitia^ The patriotism of the mili- 
tia, hoUierer, was not to be damped by a legisla- 
tivei a€^09 and tbty JDUowed their patriotic goyera* 
our to the field; and while they weie repelling the 
trenseni4<3iU9 assault of the enemy, upon the 38th 
Dec. with th^r brave countrymen from Tentnessee, 
Kentucky/ and Miasisippi, the legislature were 
actually engaged in debatii^ the question, whether 
the^ should not surrepder the capital and state, 
to the British. army--4knd make the best terms they 
could with Sic Edward Fakenliami 1, Gen. Jackson 
ord^ed Gov. ClaiborQe, to repair to the city with 
a requisite number of troops, to preserve it from 
tJbe danger of their owu legislature, ^hile he would 
defend it from tl^e enemy banging upon its borders. 
This order was promptly executed, and the legislar 
turcvby their own governour, was prevented from 
Merificii^ the city as a victim to their own fears. 



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98& lUUMIftS Q9 

To ««• a sid^ ligiriiiluM gtS9^ f«kt^^^ 
to asgoelaie wkh the eiiMrjr of tht loMt R»r 
piibiict evinced almost aeoiB{riete. deiei!ioi|iiioii of ' 
iQtetieet. TheoonNRaodir of the fonw/ao tu m» 
Mis power exteoAi, is the repmeoLtatfese of tiie «#* 
titmal power-^he oqI J must be the jeilgeof whal 
wHi conduce to IbeBafHy of theeoantry, A^eoB»- 
loauds ; and he only is accountable for.tbe meaeuces 
that may be adopted. If New Orleans had been 
sacrificed by the oommander, ia a asaniier as das* 
tardly as was Detroit^ the same dii^aoe' wioiild 
now have been attached to the name of Jackso^ 
as there is to tlEa| of Hull \ but by defeudiag tt 
against the power of the enemy ; the f nirigues of 
some of its eiti»ns, and the Isvstish agita^on of 
the l^slatnre, he has placed himself beyond the 
reach of rfvahhip, upon the roils of fome. 

Without pursuing this subject &rther« the rea- 
der is now called to leave the legidahweoi Louisia* « 
na, in 1814 — 15, where fhcts have left it, and follow 
Gen. Jackson from the solemn scene of thanks- 
giving to heaven, and the aeclamatfofis of a preserv- 
ed people for victories obtained, to answer for his 
ndUtary conduct before a ^iHticial tribunal. To a 
believer in the doctrine of decrees, H would $eem 
to have be^i ftHPcordained, that Andrew Jackson 
should be the iastroment of (Hrocuring the greaie^ 
temporal blessings for his country ; and that the 
ingratitude of republics should have made him, in 
some respects, a signal instance^ to show tl^t they 
are still ungrateful 



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Getii Jwk$oiKftiiiiffllnii88tt8oderAeiiq^eriom 
necessity of contbuiiBg^ the exocutioD at ntttiirt 
iMt, uotU theienearfliiut totally tbioAoii«i his hos- 
tUe vk W9 sgalmt Ntw OHcatn. aaA IMbhtte ; or un- 
til the nlmotsf s of peace were eonfirmed hf efficiat 
obtn Aiufiicalioiis fiomi the Wcu? SepaftoRnt. ITpoD 
the first circulatioii of these romoars, the troops 
evinced the utnu^ imf9ikDot, aod a. spirit of m<* 
sdbordtnatkm> pervaded the army foefiore Nevr Or- 
leaos* From his fcnoirkdge of tiie innttinerabte 
stratagems of the eoamy,^ to gaio by the policy of 
war, what they despaired of acquiring by the force 
of arms; Geo. Jackson was appreheBsive that they 
had devised this tep^t, to lulf the soldiers and olt« 
izens into a fattf security, and to take the first fa- 
vourable opp(»rtamty that offered, to tuvade the 
countryt and subjeet it to British dominion. 

A member of the legislature, by the uarae^ of 
LomUUer^ had published in a New Orleans* Ga- 
zett^f an article cakmiated to excite reheilion in 
the American army, and to^ encourage the enemy 
to renew their attack. Gen. Jacksbn immediately 
ordered him to be arrested and confined. Mr. 
Dominic A. HaU^ judge of the district, immediately 
issued a writ of habeas corpus^ directed to Gen. 
Jackson, commanding him to shovT reasons for the 
detention of this legislator. The general, knowing 
that his appearance before his troops, in a time of 
danger, was of more consequence to his country^ 
than his appearance before a judge, who was en- 



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dtis^onrin^t by the eaerebe ofjudiaal power, to pro- 
feel a dooMalic enemy, itnEiedlately ordered Juc^ 
Hall to be arrested and sent out of tfae'dty* Tbfi 
trial was po$ipwied until the oountay was secored. 

In a ^ery few days after this oommencement of 
xoar between the mflhary power bf the Amortcan 
Repabltc^and the judicial authority at New Orleans, 
peace was officially announced to Gen. Jackson, 
from the War Department. " imoeen his Britannic 
Majesty and the United States^ and betxjueen their res- 
pective cmnitriesy territt/neS^ cities, towns, and peo" 
f^ of every degree^ without exception of places or 
persons.^^ The joy that filled evety heart at tlic 
return of peace, wks liiingled with gratitude to 
Gen* Tackson, his long tried, brave, and patriotic 
officers, and gallant soldiers, for their protection in 
time of war. But amidst this exhilarating scene,- 
the sullen murmurs of disappointed faction, were 
heard in discordant notes ; and the very men whb 
were indebted to Gen. Jackson and his army, for 
the preservation of their lives, fortunes and fami- 
lies, seemed to be actuated by the bitterest malice 
against him. 

It was upon the 11th March, that Judge Half, 
was removed from New Orleans-^ipon the 1 3th, 
the ratification bf the treaty of Ghent, was officially 
announced thare-^upon the 19th, military opera- 
tions were brought to a close between the two 
armies— and upon the 31st, Gen. Jackson was 
arrested and brought before the same Judge Hally 



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(oaHsiM? lor Us omtmgt ^ He cmtn^ tor not 
«9StF^tfllgi iftjtaifej', to tbeAohw^ corfus, and for 
ioifdfDmdg ikf^ Judge win iasocd/it i ! From tto 
iiM»i^ rof tbe-salgBct^ and tlie OMKh of p«Gioeedii^ 
this iwly. Im» pfoooimoQd by^.tke 1^1 j^fessioOi to 

Cfttled thas sttdcfenly ;£Km theeacaflipiimtt'Of 
a^armyv before iacqart of law. Gen. Jackson di* 
vi^sted liiiiisflif of tbejrtera character of the solctiei^ 
and resumed the more gentle one of the advocate^* 
not to defend a dien^ as he often had dcme, against 
gfotindlesfl charges ; bat to saye himself from the 
vengeance of infuriated malice. The defence he 
madev^iLs been before the public, ever since he 
made it. It is a sourceof regret, that the insertion 
of it entire^ cannot be inadt« It comiurises not 
only the facts upon which it was grounded, but a 
profound disquisition upon the civil and military 
power, in a time of imminent danger. The follow- 
ing selections from it will show the reasons, in addi* 
tion to those already given, why be proclaimed and 
enforced martial law--^imprisoned a legislative 
scribbler— 4ieglected to regard a writ of habeas car- 
pu&% aud compelled the judge who issued it to leave 
the city of New Orleans. In this defence, the geor- 
eralsays^- 

*< A disciplined, and powcarful army was on our 
coast, commanded by officers of tried valour, and 
consummatejskill ; their fleet had already destroyed 
the feeble defence, on which, alon^ we could rely, 
to prevent their landing on our shores^ 



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Wk ■ mm^m^ti 



Their ppittfc.oC4tfcick mtm mBmUAn ■ a iim i< ii» t 
iiikts wees I^Jie^tatDia^ b^ a jMWJDot^^iiilikiiwfe 
in oaiolKr for Qnft i wehtd ao Jjmb irf >Mboiw i 
UeaMn lu^Ai niiauB'^ ^ «id.i9|il|ir^«^ai^^lMMV^ 
iiieal4>f cXf«oUd defiBfti) «o Bhm itodfop^^^ 

Our oien weie &Wr aod of iAmib JMj wt 4ill 
were nenmii our nttor ^lon il vm &UoA» nt'kMdi, 
«fid tiMsritfliblfi ; evergt UiiogdepeoiWofi^lie fimnft 
sad energetic ve of tb# meeiie we |i enee s ed » ftai 
oaUuig the wJiok £ifceiOf ^^ ooomiiia^f tele 4M^ 
tioa ; it was a jooalest for .I9i# vesy ^tetenee «( 
the stale, aad evcrjr nerve wat to he eiraimd it 
ks defence. The ^ymal force -^^^vtrjr ind^Ut 
aal, his moral laci^ltieB, Us {ROjperty, ai^ the €»» 
gy of his exw^le, were Id be ealled Mkto aof o«i 
and ku^agU adioo. No dcday«..-4io hetliation^— *no 
inquiry about rigli^f or aUwmsJosl;; and e?«9. 
thing dear to man, bis fHTopcrt)!^ life, the bcMiour 
of his fitmily, Jiis coontry, its oonstitotion eMd 
laws, were sw^ away by the airowed f^im^ks^ 
the C4>en practice of the eaemy, with whom we 
had to contend. Fortifications were to be^ erected 
supplies procured, arms son^t for, requisitioiis 
made,theemis8aries of the enemy waftphed, inrking 
treason overawed, insobordittation punidied, and 
the contagion of cowardly example to be stopped. 

lu this. crisis, and under |t irm perpiasion that 
none of those objects could be effected by the 
exercise of the ^dimtm/ pow^^ confided to him — 
under a solemn conviction that the country conn- 



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:i^^ j1 



flftt»t to Ms ctre, could be saved bjr that measare 
&aij^ bom otter raio— ander a religious belief, - 
tbal he \mA perfoniiing the most important and 
sacMl darj^ the respondent pboclaimbo martial 
£AW, He intonded, by that measure, to supersede 
soeh efIrM powers, as id their operatSixi, interfered 
wftb those he was obliged to exercise. He thought, 
in sttch a moment; constitutional forms must be 
sospeiidfld, for the permanent preservation of c<m- > 
stteitional rights, and that there oould be no ques* 
tion, whether it were best'to depart, for a moment, 
Worn the enjoyment of bur dearest privileges, or 
have them wrested from us forever. He knew, 
that if the ci^il magistrate were permitted to exer- 
cise his usual functions, none of the measures neces* 
sary to avert the awful fate that threatened us, 
could be expected. Personal liberty cimnot exist 
at a time when every man is required to become a 
soldier. Private property cannot be secured, when 
its use is indispensable to the public safety. 

Uolimiled liberty of speedi is incompatible with 
the rdlscipline of a camp ; and that of the press, 
more dangerous still, when m^e the vehicle of 
conveying intelligeace to the enemy, or excitii^ - 
mutiny among the troops. To have suffered the 
uncontrolled enjoyment of any of those rights, 
during the time of the late invasba, would have 
been to abandon the deCenee of llie country. The 
civil magistnte is the guardian of those rights; 

but no tether." 
25 



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966 «nmB0 w 

b perming tte pttoMibg cxMctv ^eiMir 
vfttst Ibel a prilte in reteetfagi ttat Ocii. Jaekflo^* 
and iMiijr etktr oficeitf in tin nsy of tiM tm- 
pnUMH kaw acqoind tl» fpefeaee df StiBibeaflMii 
as ivdl as tiie fiune of SoMters. 

Tke Oeneial, is Us masterly dafimce, «fiiutiA|^ 
and forcibiy assigns the reasons for the course 
be pnrsned tn re|;ard to Ltmittiei^j the ^t of 
habeas eo^fusy and Judge HaH ; and proceeds-^ - 

« To haire silently looked on siieh an ofenee, 
ivldumt making any attempt to punish it, vonM 
ha?e been a formal surrender of ail discipline, dt 
order, all personal dignity, and puJbKc salety. This 
could not lie done ; and tlie respondent immediate- 
ly ordered the arrest of the offender. A writ of 
IMeoi ccrpus was directed to issue for his enlarge* 
ment. 11m very case which had been foreseen ; 
the very contingency'on which martial law was 
intended to operate, liad now oocured. The 
civil magistrate seemed to think it his duty, to en- - 
force the enjoyment of civil rights, although the 
consequences which have been described, would 
probably have resulted. An unbending sense of^ 
what he seemed to think his station required, indu- 
ced him to order the liberatbn of the prisoner. 
This, under the respondent's sense of duty, produ- 
ced a conflict, which it was his wish to avoid. 

No odier course remained, than to enforce the 
principles which he had laid down as his guide, 
and to suspend the exercise of the judicial power 



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Himi i i ^^r it wtfcfii^ wM)b: tkt mmwuv mtaas 
^ 4ife«K^ Thf onljr m^j^t^UmUj to do tU8, 
was tQ plifie IM judge i» « «iti(«lkio, in wlucli his 
isiirlir«Qee eouM sol count^act ?tlK jmat iu«8 •{ 
dcIenee»(Mr si¥t eeiMMmiuie to the anti&oiia dia» 
foiiti^it lk«* hid 4lK>ira i«arif in so atarimis ^ 
d^lpee^ Merely to hafe diftregarded the nvritt 
^oirid have JQcifiMd the evil, and to have obeyed 
it waa whctiy ifpugnaot to the reefKHwdent's ideas 
id the puhiic sa&tyi afid. to his ovn sense of duty. 
The jqdge was themfore cimfiiiedy aod removed 
beyoiid the lines of defence^" 
. After denying the jarisdietion &l the eourt^ and 
daimim^ as a oonstitotional right, a trial by jury, 
he thns coiiclodes a defence, which the jurist may 
cead with edyantagei and the patriot with admira- 
tion. 

^ Thif was the conduct of the respondent, and 
ikise the motives which ^ompted it They have 
he^v^ fairly and openly exposed, to tliis tribunal, 
a.nd to the w;arld, and would not have been ac- 
/companied by any exceptions or waver of jurisdio^ 
tion, if it had been deemed expedient to give him 
that species of trial, to whieh he thinks himself 
«&titled by the constitution of his country. 

The powers which the exigency of the times 
forced him to assume, have been exercised ex- 
chisively for the. public good ; and, by the bles- 
sing of God, they have been attended with un- 
paralleled success. They have saved the country ; 



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MB amoAs 6r 

and whalevir may be die opinion of that coonify, 
or the dicfMB of its courts, in relatfon to Ae 
means he has usad, he can neter regret t&at he 
employed them.'^ 

The treat hj jury, however much it may te simr- 
ed at, by the possessMv and advocates of ondefined 
povrer, has stenred to Englishmen the few ri^ls 
remainiBg to them. To Americans, it is secored 
by oor inimitable Ck>nstitntfon.; but in the fti- 
stance before the reader, it was refused to Gen.. 
Jackscm, by calling in the aid of the common hiw* 
of Englandt to insure the conTiction of the respon- 
dent ibr contend ^ court ! ! Bommic A. Hall, was 
the judge whose dignity was alledged to be affected 
by contempt of court-^Dominic A. Hall was the 
man who was said to have sustained an indivktuai 
injury by the operation of martial law--Dominl€ 
A. Hall was the judge who wouU tuwe jurisdiction 
of the case— who deprived Gen. Jackson of a trial 
by jury, and who amersed him in a fine of a tkau- 
sand dollars ! Halfof this sum must have been ex* 
pended in delays, costs of prosecution, and in tfeue 
expenses of making defence, and thewhole fiiteen 
hundred doUan, was drawn out of the pocket of die ' 
man whose inde&tigable emrtimis, consummale 
wisdom and gallent courai^, had secured to the 
judge the privilege of convicting him. 

The records of Judge Jeffery himself, scarcely 
furnished a parallel with this {uroce^ing. An 
lExhgMshjttryf saved Penn and M^a^-— afterwards 



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ANDREW JA0K80V. 369 

Uie D^an qf St. Asaph^ and in the present reigOt 
TwJi€t Hardy and Thelwell^ frott tbe grasp of a 
▼indieiive mttustry* and subservient judkiary ; aod 
bad Geo* Jackson been arraigned befi9ieaiiiiBpar<* 
tial and an independent jiyy of Americansi allowed 
to consider his whole case, with what readiness 
would they have pronounced a verdict of '<not 
gisllty»'* and changed tbe indignant mnrmors of the 
andience at his conviction, into joyous aoclama- 
UoAs at bis acquittal. 

6m. Jaeicson immediately satisfied the judg- 
ment, and retired f^gpa the court to hb carriage. 
The throng that surrounded the haH ef justice, 
(TOuM nee repress their feelings. The horses were 
unharnessed-— the carriage elevated upon their 
sllioulders, and tbe Hero of New Orleaui was, in 
thifli manner, borne through the streets to his lodg- 
ings, by its protected and secured citizens. Flat- 
tering as was' this demonstration of respect and 
admiration for Aim, the general was apprehensive 
that it was evincive of some disrespect for cioil pauh 
<r,aiid addressed them, in the most pathetic man- 
ner. This address is before the writer ; but its 
length forbids its insertion. He aclcnowledged the 
civility of the people, not with the studied fi>rmali- 
ty of fashionable etiquette, but with the impassion- 
ed eloquence of the heart. He exhorted the people 
whom he loved, and who almost adored him, not to 
suffer the ebullitions of passion, to make them for- 
get the respect due to civil authority. They of- 
23* 



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270 MAifoiRs or* 

fered to pay the amount of the fyae inflicted upon 
iiiiii« but he declined receiving it ; and retired to his 
lodgings with the unaseumed dignity ol cooscioas 
integrity. 

It 18 with pride, mingled with veneratiop> that 
the writer iseuabled thus to ftiroish the reader 
with conclusive evidence, of the dignified niodera* 
tion of a conqueror, who eoaqueced, not tp ag- 
grandize himself, hut to render secure that inde- 
pendence acquired by bis countrymen. Ahhoiigh 
by military fower^ he had saved an important 
section of the RepuUic, and secured the enjoy^ 
ment of doU power, he was conscious that the frst 
was, and must be, in a free govternment, superior 
to the last;Md if^ by a civil or judicial functionar 
ry, he had sustained what his countrymen deemed 
an injury, he was conscious that it was faa: pre^ura- 
ble to suffer himself, and to have errors of judgment 
overlooked, than to have the civil ijistitutions of his 
country disregardeil. 



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ANDltBW JACKfiON. 271 



CHAPTER "XIX. 

4aM. JtdtaoBi«tire8finmNevOileaii8--anive8atKa^^ hb 
plioe of readtnce— Beftecttoanr-JBe feoeLvet » mMMge to re. 
pur to the seat of goyemment^ to asauit in arrange the Peace 
BstabEahmeiit of the U. S. azmy— DiffieoKy of that dnty— Votes 
^tfattik% &c. to Qea. Jm^kmnt^^O^ repuxa to tfaeaeat of gor- 
enunent— Civilities received upon his passage^ and on his arri- 
val — ^Returns to his head-^uavters at Nashville, and in 1816, re- 
pifcto Mew Metttf^ and Mtuqpes ^e aimf. 

GEN. JACKSON, having preserved the military 
district assigned to nis command, from invasion--- 
having defended it against a force which the enemy 

' supposed irresistible, and bis countrymen alarm- 
ingly formidable— 'having restored his gallant army 
to the fire-sides rendered safe by their valour- 
having submitted to the adjudication of a civil 
tribunal, and complied with its decision, he had 
an opportunity to enjoy that repose to which 
he had long been a stranger, and which was now 

. rendered secure from the disturbance of savage 
and civilized foes. He beheld an immense por- 
tion of the Republic, which was recently in danger 
of subjugation, by a power whose ambition is as 
boundless as its cupidity, enjoying in security, this 
blessings of the American Constitution. 

It is utterly impossible to describe by language, 
the emotions of the heart upon this occasion— des- 
cription lags far behind reality, and its power, is 



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S7S mifoiRs OF 

impotency itselt^ SanxHUided by a receotly ahno* 
ed, and now a secured people, wboae hearts wefe 
swoIlcA ivith gratktide and whose eyes were 
swiinmiag in tears of joy, he stood aaiidst tiie 
ciliMDs of Net¥ Orieass, like a fatibcr in Iks 
midst of a family, who owed their temporal feft- 
oity to his assiduoqs labours* Tliefeaiales-itf the 
city, who owed their I ires, and what was dearer, 
their honour, to bis courage, ia ifapre^sive sileace, 
evinced their gratitude iOf their «* BatfOB *ud 
Friend.'* 

** A glance sends volumes to Ifee hearty 
*< While wor4i impasaon^d dxe.^ 

Gen. Jackson had a family eight hundred miles 
distant, from which be had long been separated, 
and to which He was impelled, by the most a£kc* 
tiooate attachment, to return. He left New Or- 
leans with the blessings of its citizens for hb 
wisdom and courage in defending them, and with 
their prayers for his happiness. In the long dis- 
tance of country through which he passed to his 
residence at Nashville, he was every where receiv- 
ed by the people, with the most enthusiastic de- 
monstrations of respect ; and greeted as the great 
Inslroment in the hands of heaven,' of prescrviog 
their country firom British outrage, and British do 
minion. It was the only reward ^Aey could bestow, 
and the most grateful one' A^ could rec^eive. In 
every heart a monument was erected to his glory 
upon the foundation of gratitude, which will never 



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be sbaken ; bot tiiuch will be traiifaiiilled from the 
tmom of tbe «te to tlM SOD, thfoiigh all t^ di«- 
tani-agat ol posterity* 

Be anrifed at Nashiiile ufen tbe IJHh May, 1815, 
Ti^BDty-sefeii years before, he arrived here at the 
age of twenty-foor years, an in^dated being, rely* 
ing soMy upon hisown eiertions and the smiles 
of heaves, for bis e&mblishment in life. He ra^ 
pidly advanosd in fiuiM, as the ooontry withrap^- . 
ty,advaticed to civilization*— he literally *' grew with 
the growth, and strengthisaed with the strength'' 
of the people of Tennessee. He had gone hand 
in hand with his &Ilaw citizens, in pioteoting the 
territimf and the skttej from the barbarous carnage 
of savages, and securing the rude cottage of the 
. early settler firom conflagration, and his fiimily 
.from massacre. He had seen an expanded wil- 
derness, where the majestic silence of nature was 
broken only by the howling of beasts, the yells 
of savages, and the tumbling of waters, converted 
into a region of eivilization, where the arts^ so 
conducive to the happiness of man, and tbe sci- 
eiteest which enlarges his views, were practised^and 
tanghu He had seen, in the space of a quarter 
of a century, a new people arise in a new country, 
to .. an elevation equal to that of many portions of 
the globe, which have enjoyed the inestimable 
blessings of civilization for many centuries. He 
bad seen a ocmstitution established to secure the 
rights of the peoples-courts inetituted to adminis* 



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ler i««|ife» Hid time imi?«rdt||»|9iind0 M 4Utai& 
^Hi« Mgbta.ol «oiwi». Ue ted awtiuMlid^flMMap in* 
portant offioes intbestate^ aiidbtd ripmswtiedit 
in botli hraocliei of tbe oatkiiial gwerMMBt» ajid 
bad laboured to render tbe civile ieligioii»» andlpor 
litieal ri^its of the pepple Mcwe* To pRoitct 
tbese ei\jojvient99 he bad, at the call olbis fellQW? 
icUisens, ted theia into the beirt of a Q9wa4icy of 
sayagee, and conquered them inio piBace, B(e 
also .bad led them into tbe feoe of the most for- 
midable and best disciplined army, ttei ever lui^ 
sailed the American Republic, and compelled tlieae 
of them who were not left to motiMer in the soiii 
tbty invaded, Ur flee from destniction. At Naah- 
viile be found himself surrounded by. bis grateful 
fellow-citizens, in thp eryoyaoMOU of peace and hi^^ 
pinesa ; and by his accomplished officers and gallant 
soldiers who had, by their courage, rendered diemse- 
cure. Terrestrial regions could not afford a scene 
baore impressively iutoresting. In Gen. JaoJuoo, 
the people recognized a Statesnmn, whose bborious 
and scientific exertions bad conduced greatly to 
the security of their political rights ; and a Soldier^ 
whose vafoor had defended them from viofaitkin* 
In tbe people who now surrounded him, the general 
recogntpwd virtuous and iadoi^prious citi^en^ and 
laithf q1 and pliant epldiers. 

6^. Jackson had receitred a messagi^ some 
time previous to bis arrival at Nashville, to repair 
to the seat of governmeiit, torenda that assistance 



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wfeldi MiMdwftdge %,M eiKpcHence eoftbied liiiii 
t»ig<rt^ inoiil^wlflbiKm pttoeMUMtsfameot in the 
tmyof ^Aq^iiSiHe. Io<iispenftdl>lediitito,i&tbe 
dktriel oiKto bfai coiiimaiid^ rendered a eomplianoe 

Ihii* li lift 1 >r m#li^ii " 

mpijamne* 

The task wy€h tSevolved upon the War, and 
tfie other Depstrtmeirts of the goTerament, mdis' 
baodiog an arsiiy, wh^lch, in the i/zif campaign of 
the war, had every where covered itself with glory, 
was implMrtaiit and delicate f n the extreme. To the 
primte sdMer^ whose toils had been severe, whose 
pH^tfons had tieen hard, and whose reward at the 
concliision of the war was ample, to be restored to 
private life* Wras a gratification. But to officers^ 
from the highest to the lowest e^rade, who enter- 
ed the service, more for the acquisition of fame than 
fortune-^who had left promising prospects in pri- 
vate life, to defend their endangered country-— for 
sfKh. meti to be dismissed irom the service, with 
wffich they had become familiar, and be compelled 
to return n/gsAn to the dull pursuits of civil life^ 
which has but few charms for the soldier, was a 
difficult, although a necessary duty. 

The American RepoMic isnof a miittary govern- 
ment—and ao overgrown standing army in a time 
of peace, amn^ he maintained. 

From the immense extent of the country — from 
the number of its forts on the sea-board, and fron- 
tier, a smalt standing force is necessary, and a 
small one onty, in a time of |)eace, will be endured 



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^QDt Md nodifii. wttiafsr gofwrnmrnm^ tte ibMip- 
feui people are jeetous ot. u^Sioetf pc^rar^ A oe> 
cessiry ayUtary ibice willalwajs be eopported^rHa 
soperaomerary army, will always be c on s M e i a A anfti 
opposed as dangerous. At tfae oosolosiosi of the 
eecond war between tkeAjneriqanKepMMic, aad 
tiieidiiedoiD of Gfwt BKitaki» the go^nnept do* 
cidedtlMtlM^Aoirsoiul troops, proper^ propmi^kia* 
ed^asto ofliccra andsoldios, should oooatltuia the 
peace ^stsMiVAsMitf ~probahly ths siaaUM grad- 
ing army, coosideriog the ezlentt pep^atiOD» and 
UuportaaGe of the oouutry, in aoy natioa ia the 
world. Many officers, who wopld have adorned 
mjf army, must have been demised by the reduc- 
tion of the American aroiy, from the war .to the 
peace establishment. 

The whole of the BepuMic was divided into two 
divisions, or d(qpartaient3-<-»the .South, an^ J^, 
North. Maj. Gen. Jackson was aj^nted oofn*'' 
mamler in chief of the Division of the South* Hi^ 
appcHOtment tQ this importi^t command, met with 
the iHpprobation of the country. His ajHI^y |o 
commandy had been proved hy obtaining /i series 
of victories, over the mpet warlike tribe of savages, 
and the best disciplined armies in the woridt under . 
the most disadvantageous circqpstansfs* 

Gen. Jackson established his bead:quari^» at 
Nashville, where he was constantly recetviog th^ 
most unequivocal evidnpp of ^e gra|iMMl« ^i im 



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ANDMW JACftSON. S77 

flM Hfliits of tMs work ; ollienris^ tlketeoder migllt 
lie Ikmisfaed wMi tlie prooeediegs of vtitens hf^ 
tetintft, in ptadng yoIm of tbaiiksi ezpresBed In the 
stibngest terms of approbfttibn. A vote of tbankih 
aitiiotti^ unaoeompanied wttliany pecuniary favbuf 9 
ie, to a dteinterested patriot, the highest regard he 
ean reeeive; Hie l^sktnre of Tenfles^ee, pf(^» 
among^ the first to manffest their respect for the 
Aaracter and a^Mevemeots of Gen. Jaekson. 
They passed a rote of thanks, and presented him 
witiKa gqtd oNdali They coald not fcMrget hfs gal* 
lanft associates. Gen; Coffee^ and Carroll, to whom 
they presented elegant swords. 

A Brkish parHaoient, wticai it tetows the tUe of 
a cMtf, also drains the treasury, to purchase a duke* 
dem for the emwbled subject, and compels the hum: 
dfe subjects to refimd it, by huposing exorbitant 
taxes. The American govierament, although jVii^ 
to its dhtingmsked citizens and soldiers, cannot be 
generous at the expence of the tduUe of diem. 
Geo. Washikoto9, in the^r^^ war b^ween the 
BepuMic and Britain, thought nothing of pecunia* 
ry rewaid, nor did Gen. Jacssok in the second ; \mt 
the one could not have been, and the odMtf cannot 
bcindiflCerail to Uie grateful applause of indepen* 
dent and protected Americans. 

iUthoi^h Gen. Jackson, in early Kfis, felt^lfttle 
solicitude for the acemnulstion tar preservation of 
wealths he neverthekasy afw he eonuuenoed bod- 
24f 



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attt MMOmft M 



bf fryg%lHy» « ftiui rarf «Btile»dtiigfeifatfy lOmmnt 
oprattetaiftkof ihtComlMritiKljriiM. To nkk 
ktflrililttteve retired, Imd ke toft tke mnrkaB, «M 
llftf« eigo]F€il«ft dcgant iadqpeiidtiioe. H# iii%lit 
]^«v»fl8nN9«l JOs twiftimnta mad ftttito ficMs, amd 
hmt cuelftiaMd, wick eieviMic ddl%fat» ** liMe 
iveire acyuied by my toboiiiw4lMM wore ditody 
ed by ny Taiovr^ aad Imv« I etB «&jo)r domcsiie ift* 
Ikdly io safirty.*' But altbM|^ the Republie wm 
at petce witk ftU the woildt It eonld liot dispeue 
nith the flHlifary senmes of Ais gntt CbounMd* 
ecu He w|m feCsiMd ia the aetirice, not like a 
peDtiooed duke, with a auoMRins ptMtaifd reti* 
fine, u^ excite the aaawaafang adadittlim of a da^ 
giaded paasaatryy but ta pevfeet a miUtaty systeai 
for hiaofmatiy. The diviokm aietsiMd to hie ema- 
nmad, ie laiyer thaa half af Ettfope» ind r^Qis&aa 
the mast oonsuminate skill ia the eomoiander, to 
plaoe it III asitaatiosi to vqpelfiitaia iavasioask 

late m the aDrtamn of 1815, Gea. Jaekteo te* 
failed, ior the first time since the dechuratfon of 
war, to the seat of govema^fit. Upon his passi^ 
thatlier, hateoslvad that amrked atttettoc, which a 
gratefal aad aa aKhairiag people bestow, apeii a 
distiitgnisbed benelaotoc* Ahlioiq^ fax tiaM of war 
he avoided all parade and oeraHoaies JaeOii^etiBt 
with tt^ fsipsrioas daaiands of duty, yet he eoald 
not, at thia period, amid a eoaqptmnce wUh^ the 
e€ld» conBtiyii«i,toaBicvtewith their gaK 



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«f tlAir ciHlitj and ho«pital^* 
. M LjmdAorglu ia Yirgifiia, a |^iMie4iiiiler was 
f^mn lite, at wliteb the plaioioplier of BtoatioBlfe, , 
XftciH AS JafrasMir^ ipas present. Hie veMratioa 
Aal was ttdted by tlie preseBice' of the Aaierieaa 
Stelesvan^ eooM hardly restrain the enthomsgi 
pr<)daoed liy the preeenoe of the Ameriean Hero. 
▲ItlMMigii to removed frooi tiM deeply interesting 
eeanes of Ges. Jaekson's military operations, th^ 
people of this place and its vicinity, duly appre^ 
cialed his exalted merit Toasts have been said to 
diaeover the undioguiaed sentiments of the people ; 
and itispcasttoied the toast given n(K^ this occasion, 
iarefapenea to Gen. Jackson, by Ifr. Jefferson^ 
will be cordially a^sented to, by every American-^ 

^ HoKOVK 4tnd gratieude to the h^k, ti>ho has 
viXx^B the mea^wreof his coirKxaT^s- hokoue/' 

Upon this occasion, the general, knowing that 

the couotry te had defended was acquired by neg^ 

. elation, by the sapae man who had so eraentially 

aided him in protecting it, gave for a toasKM»> 

«Jjuij|sMo?raoE.^' 

Upon his anrivsd at Washiiigton, he ^iTas received 
withtlttt dignified affability, and cordial«ffeetion, 
for which the Pnsident and the heads of the seve- 
ral dqiartments are distlngaished. No ostenta* 
tioos parade, better cafculated Ut repress ttein to 
elicit, the ftelingsof the h^rt, was displayed upon 
the occasion. The civil fathers of the Eepdbli<* 



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9K> KSMOIlfl Of 

Mir teiwe thMa a toMier, wlio kad «i)pr«rtod ia 

the ^Id the meaaSres thqr bad derised ia thm 
cabinet. Ref^ecttug, and rdBpected, tb^ nm^oaUy 
congratulaied each other, iifion the soccessfal tar* 
mination of their arduoaa labours. In survqrii^ 
the city, the eSects of Tandal warCue, wart risible 
in the barbarous ravages of a Briiisk wtmy. He 
saw the ruins of the Capitol and the President's 
bouse, aad knew that it was in open violaticm 
of the principles of civilized warfare, that it was 
produced. He must have rejoiced that a Pakenham 
was prevented from leaving such tracks of desola? 
tion ia New Orleans, as a Ross had in Washingtoa. 
At all the public parties which the gei^al at* 
tended at WasbingUHi, at Geoxgetpwa, and at other 
places io the vicinity, be shewedi that although in 
time of war, a soldier must be as a lion to bis ene- 
mies, he could, in time of peace, be a iamb to bis 
friends — that he could, ^ smooth thev^inkledfrotU^* 
of the soldier, and enjoy the <« lulling tuM of Che 
lute." At the table, he could enjoy the luxuries it 
afforded, with the elegance of the gentteman— at 
a levee, or a drawiug room, could recij^rpcate the 
civilities be received, and in the baltroom, could, 
if be chosed, display the refined accomplisbmmits 
of the courtier. Mrs. Jackson accompanied her 
busban^ to Washington ; and every where received 
that distisguish^ respect, which her oxrn merit, as 
well as admiration ibr the genera), induced every 
one to bestow. 



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ANDREW JACKSOK* 281 

^ But amidst the fascinating blandishments of re- 
fined society, and the alluring charms of elegant 
amusements, he never forgat his duty to his coun- 
try. More than one half of one of the largest na- 
tions in the world, in point of territory, had been 
assigned to his command. Although the olive 
branch of peace, waved over his country, where 
the clarion of war had, for a long time, assailed 
the ears of his countrymen, he never remitted his 
exertions to secure, in time of peace, by efficient 
regulations and necessary establishments, the rights 
and blessings that had been defended by the sword. 

It is inconsistent with the design of these me- 
moirs, to give a minute detail of all the inter- 
esting scenes through which Gen. Jackson passed, 
in his extensive private intercourse with the most 
exalted, as well as the middling classes of society. 
A Bosweli, might swell the life of a Johnson to 
three octavos, by telling the world how the «* gi- 
ant of literature'' dressed upon particular days — 
upon what days he drank wine with his frieftQs— 
cream with his coffee, and enriched his bunus with 
butter. Gen. Jackson's life is interspersed with 
incidents more interesting to his countrymen, thaa 
such events ; and it is presumed they will be more 
interested in the detail of them. 

In the spring of 1816, Gen. Jackson repaired to 
the great scene of his military operations. New 
Orleans. It is utterly impossible to give the reader 

any conception of the rapture of the people, in 

34# 



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SBS MSMOIES OF 

again seeing in the bosom o| the clty» the maa 
who had saved it from carnage and destruction«*-it8 
sous from murder, and its^ daoghters from wanton 
violation. Afier the scenes of cordial eongratnh* 
tion were passed, he immedialely reviewed the 
troops<--ezamined minutely into the police of the 
camp, and finding the troops unhealthy, resolved 
to have them removed to the Alabama Territory, 
which was soon after effected. 

Although the health and comfort of troops, is 
a primary object with a commander, yet in addi« 
tion to this ocmaideration, Gea. Jackson, consider- 
ed, from iormer experience, that the most eadaa* 
gcredpartof the *« Division of the South,^' was 
that which bordered upon the Spanish pDovinces 
of Florida, in which the Alabama and Semiuole 
Indieos were emboscnned. He was aware that thfi 
stationing of American troops upon their borders, 
would tend to restrain their barbarity ; and that 
they could more promptly be punished when com- 
mitted. Subsequent events, shewed the wisdom of 
this measure. 



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AiroRBW j;ac&son. dB3r 



CHAFFER XX. 

Qeii. Jack^E nogociates a tr«atf for eztiaguishmen^ of Indian 
titles to land — ^Issues an order relative to this subject — ^Receives 
a silver vase from the Ladies of South Carolina, &c.— Retams 
to Nashville— iMttes an importaiit general order— Prepares to 
defend his Division— Commencement of Seminole War — Gtin. 
Gaines attacks the Semiiftles— ^en. Jackson addresses the 
'^Telmeasee Yolunteeis^—veiMBrs to Geoigia— 9^ enters with 
his army into Fl<mdar— Justification of that measure— he cap- 
tures St. Marks. 

6£N. JACKSON, having didchavsed the iinpor- 
tam dutj of r^fulatiDg and statiohiDg the army) in 
tl^ southern section, of the Division of the South,^ 
he entered into negociatton with the Chickasaw,t 
Choctavr, Cherokee, and Creek Indiana. The 
object of the nq;ociatbn, was to obtain from them, 
the absolute relinquishment of all the claim they 
pretended to have to lands, within the limits of 
the United SUMte8,.and which had previously been 
ceded by them* This measure evinced, in a sig- 
nal manner, the moderation of the American gov- 
ernment toward the natives* Although tMe ter* 
i^itory had before been obtained, first by conquest, 
after a sanguinary war, occasioned by the . savages 
themselves, and afterwards by treaty with them, 
by which they acknowledged their gratitude to 
the government for permitting them to retain any 
territory, yet, to pacify them completely, for the 
diminution of their limits, and to extinguish their 



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984 MEMOIRS or 

title, Gen* Jackson, engaged, ia behalf of his goT^ 
eminent, to pay the Creeks, $ 10,000 a year, for 
ten years ; and the Cberokees, S 10^000 a year, for 
eight years. 

Having accomplished this Important nieasare, 
Gen. Jackson repaired to Hu^tsville, in the State 
of Missisippi, and upon the 8th of October, pub- 
lished an order which was sanctioned by the. gov- 
ernment, by uliich all citisjens of tlie United Statesi 
were enjoined to abstain from all encroachments 
upon Indian lands, and ordered such as had^ to be 
removed in a limited number of days. Although 
this might operate hard upon individuals who. had 
acted under misapprehension, yet it was doing 
that justice and equity to savages, which the Amer- 
ican government has always extended to them ; 
and it rendered still more secure the frontiers of 
Missisippi, Tennessee, and €reorgia. 

During this season, Gen. Jackson received a 
manifestation of respect from the <« Ladies of South 
GaroKna," his native state, which must have been 
peculiarly grateful to his feelings. They presented 
him, through Col. Haynes, and Maj. Gadsden, with 
a splendid silver vase, elevated upon a pedestal. 
The figures attached to it, are emblematical of the 
country's glory, and of the glory of " the man or 
KJEW ORLEANS.'* Upon onc side of it, is a striking 
representation of the great battle, and an inscrip^ 
tion, *« EIGHTH JANUARY, 1815" — ^upou the other 

** PEESENTSO BT THE XAOIES Of SOUTH CABOLINA) TO 



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ANMBW JAeUOH. S85 

jajoirGBmnufi abbebw jacmwov.^ Tte gift was 
TTorthy of the noeiver««*worlhy of the gmr»~ 
worthy of the dcsecodaats of the putriotic matrons 
of South CaroliQa, who, in the gloomy period of the 
zwolotiont addedlostre to their chareoters, by ex- 
ercising a benevolence, as boandless as the wants 
of their assailed countrymen. The toits, the grief, 
and the death, of the venerable mother of Akd&bw. 
Jacksoh, carmat ht forgotten.* 

At about the same time, the general received 
another present, although less splendid, equally 
appropriate. A boot manufacturer of Pittsburgh, 
presiented him with an elegant and superb pair of 
mlUary boats. He received them with great affa- 
bilityt and reciprocated the civility with his usual 
oordiidily. The presentation of a pair of toooUen 
^ockir^Si to the Emptor Alexander, when at Lon- 
don, suitable for the frigid climate in which he 
refgnSy was received with all the eondescensian which 
the head of the allied sovereigns wuld bestow upon 
a peasant 

In October, 1816, Gen. Jackson returned to his 
head^quarters at Nashville, Tenn. It has long 
been his haiqpiness, when returning to the place of 
Ms residence, from the discharge of civil and mili- 
tary duties abroad, to have, in his absence, raised 
an additional claim to the gratitude and admiration 
of his fellow citizens. The treaty he had recently 

•Vide Chap, I. Page ^. 



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280 MUotM or 



r wkk tke Iii^im» WW Mill ptnAiilj adimii- 
tagwoft to the people of TeniifissfiB, as it din|iiufth<> 
ed, and almost allayed the i^pg^ieheiiaipBa Qf tfae 
' people» IroiB all future fears of Indian warfare*. 
' Haviug become perfectly fiuniltarized wUh the 
Deceeeary regulatkm and police of an aroey, bis Ut 
tentioD was almost exohisively devoted to the in* 
Iroduction of themt into ^he American ajrmy« la 
the spring of 1817, he issued the folbwing geaetal 
older, which has been the sul^t of severe anif. 
madversion, from some distinguished officers in the 
army, and of approbation from others. 

DIVISION ORDER. 

Adjuteat-Gsaenl^s Office, H. a tSMdtm of me Sbutli; 

The commanding general considers it due U^ 
the principles of subordination, which. ought, iMid 
must exist in an army, to prohibit the obedienoe 
of any order emanating from the Dej^Uneat of 
War, to officers of this division, who have re* 
ported and been assigned to duty, ynless coesing 
through him, as the proper organ of communica' 
tion. The object of this order^ is to prevent the 
recurrence of a circumstance, which resKyred i» 
important oJBSicer from the division withput the 
knowledge of the commanding generaU wA in- 
deed, when he supposed that office, engaged in 
his official duties, and anticipated hourly the re- 
ceipt of his official reports, ou a subject of great 



ibvGoogk 



r 



ANDUW JTACHaOll. i87 



i]^[iorfiiace talis command; also to {Mreveat the 
to|iQgrapliiGal reports ftom being made public 
throagfa the medium of the newspapers, as was 
done in th^ case alhtded to, thereby enabling the 
enemy to obtain the benefit of all our topographical 
researches, as soon as the general commanding, 
who is responsible for the divbion. Superiour offi- 
oets, haring commands ass^poed tfaem, are held res- 
poBtf hk to the government, for the character and 
Gotidoct of that command ; and it might as #ell be 
jufified in an oflfeer, senior in ccmimand, to give or- 
ders to u,guard on duty, without passing that order 
dtfoiqih tlie officer of that guards as that the 
Department of War, should countermand the ar* 
nngenieBts of coammttng generals,without giving 
thefr ofder throogh the proper channel. To ac- , 
qiiieace in snch a course, would be a tame surren- 
der of military rights and etiquette ; and at once 
snbvfirt the establiriied principles of subordination 
and good order. Obedience, to the lawful com- 
mands of snperioor officers, is constitutionally and 
moriAly required : but there is a chain of commu- 
nieation that binds the military compact, which^ 
if broken, opens the door to disobedience and 
dfsrespeetr and gives loose to the turbulent spirits, 
who are ever ready to excite mutiny. All physi- 
cianVf able to perform duty, who are absent on 
furlough, will forthwith repair to their respective 
]p<s8ts* CoBunanding officers of regiments and corps, 
ihre ordered to report specUU^^ all aSioat absent 



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^^ 



288 MEMOIRS sr • 

from dutyt on the 36th of June Aezt, and their 
cAise of ateeoce. The army is too toall to ttrie- 
rate idlers, and they will be dismited the service. 
By order ofMaj. Gen. JacJUmu 
(Signed) ROBERT BUCE^ER^ 

jidjvknU General. 

Until the commencement of the last war, ^ 
American R€|>ublic could hardly be said to Imve 
had K practical military 8>^tem. From t& Qpndii- 
sion of the war of the revoltttion, tothatpeMbd, 
it had, indeed^ a small/ military lofce ! bnt thqr 
were scattered, in small sections, tlurot]^ na im- 
mense country, and but little of a iystemaiifi^ or- 
ganization, 0T of regular subordtnatidn, was to be 
discerned. The collisions that unhappUy subaisl' 
ed in the army, and between the army and iIm 
War Department, in the campaigns of 1813, and 
1813, evince tlie jastice of the remiurik. It requir- 
ed the energy of a MpNKos, in the last, and-Of a' 
Jacksok, Browk, Macosib,* GAisras, Sco^^ Rrt- 
XET, &c. in the first, to give efllci^cy and systen/* 
to the physical power of the cbuntry, when caUtd 
into action. The preceding general (Mrdi^ of the 
Ck>nimander in Chief of tSe Division of the Sondi, 
is inserted, not for the purpose of dHiscussic^ its 
merits. It would be arrogance in the ^"^^n(|p^ to 
attempt it. That subject more proj^ly bdoogs 
to the acoompltshed officers of the army, than to 
the unaaanming^tSogtaphen / 



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em. Jfai^Mfi, ifMhitoiwfeflftiiie wliteli always 
clMflGMHsBBf a gftBt comaMfider, extended hin 
iiewrtteQiiq^ lb* u^hoieot bo iq)iiD«iisely ejitensi ve 
'division ; bul be was fally aware from whence the 
gfiaiestri»! i«^Nr,'tbe moet immediale danger was 
t» be apprehetided. He was well acquainted wiek 
SfHUitsli perfidy, and had once carried the Aniorl- 
fiananw to tbecai^tal of tbdr North Americaa 
p0SB8imf^ and tmiiniir into the heart of an effemt* 
mH/tt tboogb vindictive miniftter of the 'iinbecile» 
tibwi^ tyirannical Ferdinand YIL The sparing 
mm^ #f the Aneriean government^ was extended 
tn hi«i and to : his nation,^ frooi the most solemn as* 
asa«M(Gift that the treaty existiBg between the Amer- 
iaan and Spa^bb \||^<^ran|BntSy should ba inviola* 
i^y Jsapt, andfuthfolly executed* Withont alln- 
ding to Gther articles, and other violations, it is 
suffieieot Ibr the present pnrposeto state, thai one' 
article of this treaty provides, that Ae Spanish gov* 
^^mnt, shall wholly restrain the savages within 
the Umils of tbefar posscssiom in North Anieriea, 

V from ^cfredatieios^ol every kind upon the citizens 
of the United States. In the precodii^ p«rts of thi« 
wdrk,tbe eonduetof Mawr^meZf the then Spanish 
aov«rQour, hm been unfolded. Conxtost equally' 
flagrai^ in osKtrage, was ptirsned by theSpanisli 
ai^ttjprities, after, the eoncla^osof. pea(» between 
AaMdca and Great Briiaini as was pursued during 
the last war. So &r from iDestraiiiing the hostile 

^ savages from commuting depredations ^n the 



25 



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QiU^QMi.ttiv^wvni MHoueisMlit the j 

Ma tjhmikaie dm item Amm'imm$ %o tMftpwi 
iihiiahwltiH^^IUorldhwfai the ftmm m^jBhhtm 
mAtktfA fo^ «.«PMiilenil)tofcriQfl^ hi|wMii.|l^i 
IwMMwii Aii4 pMple o< the iinmcRii BtpiWifti 

«HHwiof Iadiao&:Mr viUtfaoaehmr^ wdii^ilii*^ 
^fA Mpi of thft farail> tbank titeoi Sm il»9ii4»tef 
lhHB.lci invfi^fi MUTiwt ft mgoMlowiB w^^itip^ 
itkmt jffomm^ dkected by. ttoooimgorani mm^w^ 
ol fiee* JftGki0M» h4yi«cMiqiiefod ftfatm into a #•»•%. 

tlM sMNdfcsgaitLlajiiiliiiet w^ Ib^kidi^ 

Qh«mpc«riflti^ af tte AaMPricaa 0»irerMiwu laU 
itnttohUyngtrdit. Tli^trilM|s» ArMUbtmeii 
o«ni(4 lafapiMtiKiB, f oiiU l»kigi»li>.tlie,fiield»m 
liiZ, kOS^ mnitirt.: tiul fwio of Ibemv caMft 
tteditfeffiecitdf wbo.haidiby t;^a€duoli9ii!9r(ait- 
•iga enkMUMiy jbiaed tba £8mm/«9i «iJM(li)» .. 
bttcfhct ffgffiyiff AiBcnfa&B. 

Tba SoBOaoto IbOi^m aee joot a ^HegUm^^ 
I(iba4^ aottbtf AmtrioM^^ Tbcgr ase anasiaeiar 
Hen o|4ai9eMlot» wko^bava bw^baoiriidl Aiaik. 
allMtl*tt)aA,aQd whabavedmwo iDtoUbiif coQ|||a^ 
4||«jri» auagr nifaara]^ aegiwsi wboie' AJWaui s«k- 
teattftyjiaB bce»aKiittad to mdisc^iisiiiate raa- 

the aoia jbaiftfai iusy of tfca AoiipisaA ^ 



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Hw% froth iiifUi attd ^nn ttovk fltava|;« smUky^ thit 

f «6t^«d) Md lie B0IIM^ «Min ! ' 

{Mice il6]t;MiatM &€ Okent, Ikad bten More eaiittod% 
in triuHkg, tfi«feipliid»g, «ti4 (iri^ing- ^i^«ig<» tlilb 
nw lifMi AUMTiOfttis, tMoi it Ii«d i^tf^vlovksljr MM : 

ncT JtMristie^ iMid loii^ beeo «)cMi>lingr» ilfilMr tte 
«picfMs pfetttt of eatrytng M merchiaMtej tile 
irislHMl efthe eiiMiiiid of tbtt AiMrittun lUf^iMte. 
Vi €6neMl their d^pr^Vily, ttey iMy ln?e ftamisli- 
M Ite SMilttdle ladteffi trttik flttiM ilw «rtideB «C 
^tkteg r btiN; the ^tidpal aitlelei M ^IMr tndEte, 
were Aviib^^, hxlche^i musketsi Hjlest balb, aod 

Frott the year 18 14 to 1817, tbie fnr^ckMiselfeui 
df Amtrfean sata^, and Afirteaei Mgroek^ ^^^iW- 
xaiitiNt may depradattooe aad watiiott iniird^^) in 
Ihe AmirleaaaittleiMiits. Qm. Edmund F, GabtH, 
the next in command to Gen. Jackaoli in the Dit i- 
dioii of the Sduth« was ^iaitonea lit Hhi vicinity of 
iiMeoiMmge»« in aeoiQMaiftkMioB iriMch wtiiiM 
|g¥ftce thtsf or any othor trolaine, bet ti^hieb ie re- 
iQCtaotly ooiftMa, he pottrtra5iMl tbe^il Violenoes 
of the savagea^ nM the iUiidfottt Mi^ickwiDeftt^itf 
8pat>i9h tiDd Brittoh emissa^i^, hi a ntatiner not to 
ht dfjitej^iiied. HbM«^ 6lhti0ii«a at FisTt Sooti ; 



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aod had with Inai tot pmafiki^7ik Regiiaratof 
U. S. io&ntry. He however immediately put his 
forces in motion against them, although wholly la- 
competent, from deficiency in amount, to cope with 
the immense hoct of savages that surrounded him, 
and his little gallant lorce. ^e demanded a sur- 
render of the murderers of American citizens. No 
answer was given but savage defiance. No com- 
punctions were manifested for the innocent Mood 
that stained them. Gen. Gaines, aware tjiat patient 
flufferance of injuries from savages, forever in- 
creases their ferocity, proceeded against them-*-^ 
orossed the Flint River— ^dispersed theln-r-*destroy- 
tCL Findtamf and returned to Fort Scott. A nu- 
merous horde of desperate warriors, red and black, 
surrounded the fort, and entirely cut off the com- 
municatioo.:of the American forces. Appearand 
ces indicated a repetition of the tragical scenes 
of Fort Mimins in Misaisippi. The signal ven- 
geance inflicted upon the Creeks, by Gen* Jack- 
son, and his invincible army, probably occasioned 
tlie Seminoles to pause, befcMre they ^^cast their 
iives upon a dieJ^ 

Gen. Gaines had called upon the executive 
of Georgia, whose state was more immediately 
endangered than any oth^, for inuuediate suc- 
cour* The miserable system of temporary draft-, 
ing, had been adopted ; and before the troops 
could be brought to act efficiently, their term of 
service expired, and the small regular force was the 



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ANDEBW JACKSON. 39S 

0Qly reliance the frontier settlers had, as a protec«> 
tion from devastation and massacre. A boat with 
40 passengers was taken upon Flint River, and 
every soul on board slain. Universat consternation 
prevailed; and Gen. Gaines once more called 
upon the Georgia forces, 2000 of whom were de* 
tailed, and rendezvoused at Hartford, Geo. 

Gen. Jackson, as commander in chief, was again 
called upon, frpm a sense of duty to take the field. 
Again were the "Tennsssea Voutktbbrs," by 
their beloved and almost adored general, exhorted 
to resume the armour of war, in the following zA- 
dte&Sy'^^^FoluMeersof West Tennessee — Once more, 
after a repose of three years, you are summoned to 
the field. Your country, having again need for your 
services, has appealed to your patriotism, and you 
have met it promptly* The cheerfulness with 
which you have appeared to encounter the hard- 
ships and perils of a winter's campaign, afibrds the 
highest evidence of what may be expected of you, 
In the hour of conflict and trial. 

The savages on jour borders, unwilling to be at 
peace, have once more raised the tomahawk to 
shed the blood of our citizens, ajid already they are 
assembk>d in considerable force, to carry their mur- 
derous schemes into execution. Not contented 
with the liberal policy that hks from time to time 
been shewn them, but yielding themselves victims 
to foreign seducers, they vainly think to assail and 

conquer the country that protects them. Stupid 
25* 



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9M mamK9 o# 

iMTtmlsi Thtf liafttfoigottMitwsooBl^i 
•rbiGaddidriUfiiiKt fiOky hmAiOgmtmt Ommu 
Tbcy hav« Coc^Dttea loot that but a riiOTt tiMe <in«v 
ooaqprnvd, and rin^sl dctlro)f«i, thqr wiecnly 
(ffMorvcA by Ike miUncH and hanttDitjr «{ tha* 
caantry, vbich tbsj mam appose. Tkt j 
be uughl» tbftt howavar benaaoknt a^ba 
tbftt comitry is^ sbe yet hm uered rigktft to pmttet^ 
mid with iadpoDity^ wSi aoft pennk the bolcfaery of 
hm peiMeabb and uooffending oitfaens. 

Brmfe FoiwUeer^^Tht eafiiny yoa aie gofaig to 
QwtaiMl witti, yoa have beratofora met and Iboght. 
ToQ have once doneit» aad can agaiu eon^aar tbiK 
. Yon go not to figfat^ but to be viotoriotis | itaeaii^ 
ber than, that tbe way l«> prove tuoceiaM, h notbgr 
being toatteativa to die first ditties of a sddier, b«t 
by bearing and «m»ting with Ghserfuhies% tbaofw 
deraof saperiQwa, and being c<mstanlly Bttadfial of 
the obligations yoUi are under to yoar ooUiHry and 
to yourself. Stdiordination and attentkio tor disci- 
pline, are all-imporlattt andindispensaUe; withont 
them, nothing like system can ba preserved, and 
this belog waoted, nodiing ftvootable oaa rssnlt. 
But in youi every conidence is reposed. Yovar 
general wiU not believe that farava. ine9» who hava 
so promptly oonie forth at the caU of their coaotiyi. 
will Withhold their assent to rq^tiaos which cau 
alone assail them safely and success* Hardshipa 
and dangera are incident to war ; but brave men 
will bear them without murmuring or complaiiujig. 



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AJrDRSW JAMISON. S96 

KoBOvii^ jma to( be siidi^ no fieaes we enteitidiied 
bol: tk9t Cray imtf iofosed on you, will be m^ 
with prmaptittss aa[id cfaeerfiiineffik 

Y^oiflr gencrftl fiMs before jroa to open tbe waj, 
«iMi prepara fur your mceptioti. Coa&diiig ia your 
dil^DMe and ezerticma^ he will exji«el ytmr eri^ival 
9A year deaftined poim, witfaoat noiieeessary <klay-« 
led by Ck>W Arthur F. Hayoes^ an <^oev in wbooi he 
has fsirery conideMe^ TMs bmiig effeetedf be will 
place himself at your head, and with you share the 
deagetaaskd hardships of tbe campaign." 

Tlie iNTOud title and unCadinglaureU which these 
gidlant aoiis^ ol the Republie had acquired, would 
Bat auffef theoi ta remain unmoved at aa address 
from 9 chiefialm under whom tfiey ' had acquired 
them. With a promptoesa* that had ev«r signalized 
them, they repaired to their rendezvoiis, and, undet 
tte eomnsand of Ckil. Arthur P. Haynea, so often 
mentioned before, rs^ired to die point of destina- 
tion, at Fott Seott.^ 

tCen* Jaekson, in Jamiary^ 1S18, had repaired to 
Georgia, and had placed himself at the head of 
the 6eoif;ia inilitia. Situated in a country which 
aflbrds bat few materials for the subsistence of an 
army, he actnaRy commenced a march of ten 
days through a wilderness, with only ^jntit of cam 
to each man .per day I He jvas also conscious^ 
that a supply eould not be relkd upoa at Fort 
Scott. But he knew the importance of celerity 
in the moyementof an army, and the brilliancy 



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296 HJBMOiRS or 

of bis achievementa had hitherto depended aiuc£ 
upoD it. At Fort Scott, he formed a junction with 
the regular forces ; and upon the arrival of the 
Tennessee Volunteers, was prepared to make a 
sudden termination of the Seminole war. 

This tribe had not a solitary claim to compas- 
sion, excepting what arises from the consideration, 
that they' were imiling victims to Spanish and 
British machinations. Even their principal chief, 
Pepiticoxtft when asked the reason of his hostility 
against t.hc American Republic, replied — ^^ The 
government were always ready to do Mm justice^ a7id 
to make peace mth him ; but that war toas a fine 
manly exercise^ in which he wished to practise his 
young men ! /" Their " foreign seducersj,^' were 
ever ready to make them victims to their own in- 
fatuation. The same CoL Nicolly of proclamation 
memory, Jind the same Capt. Woodbine^ of no mem- 
ory, but that of infamy, were found to be skulk- 
ing among the Seminoles, as they sneaked from 
Fensacola in the last war, aftar having exposed 
the feeble and impotent Manrequez, to the just 
vedgeance of a magnanimous but insulted govern- 
ment. 

By the first week in March, 1818, the measures 
of Gen. Jackson, were determined upon ; and 
when fixed, Indian hostility, Spanish intrigue, and 
British perfidy, might as well divorce the sun from 
the ecliptic, as to divert him from their accom- 
plishmei^. He had been compelled, in avenging 



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tbe iojuiim <rf bia country^ to sake tbs bravis, 
infatuated, and misguicled Creeks bleed at every 
pore. Although the SemiRoIes had less claim to 
compassion, yet this great commander was awisure 
that they were also misled ; but upon them, as 
epen aggressors, his powor was Jirsi to operate, 
and then^ upon their mUleaders. He was deter- 
mined to strike at the root of the evil ; and, if pos- 
. sible, to remove it. 

Minute details might be entere4 into, and they 
might gratify minute curiosity ; but it is sufficient 
to say, that Gen. Jackson, marched with his for* 
ces through a country, in which the savages had 
every advantage, from their acquaintance with if, 
and from its better adaption to savage, than to civ- 
ilized warfare; Like the powerful representative 
of a great people, he determined to punish the 
guilty wherever found, and to spare the innocent* 
where innocence was evinced. He passed through 
that part of the American territc^y, occupied by 
the Semiuoles; and they either fell, or retired 
before him and his gallant followers. He reached 
the borders of Florida, upon lOth March. Know- 
ing that geographical boundaries, were not the 
boundaries of right and wrong, and determining 
to penetrate the darkest recesses of guilt, and pun- 
ish its instigators, he entered the Spanish province 
of Florida with his forces. 

Many of the countrymen of Gen. Jackson, Jhave 
bestowed a liberal portion of censure tipon him> 



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■?■; 



mji vfUhwkom (ke RepubUc wa a peaxlei WiMe 
k fa adoHiedy tliift afHrai xmi o9teniAfy at f«MB 
whh AaMcfaiiM» it n«it &(^ te AenM- dn« ^te 
SpasM mtimitieB id Florida^ were paipMy fil- 
iating tha tiaaiy, bsronittiag loMAraifi tkaaawges 
fa thair territory, Iroai acts of bas^t^f lifi;iAnft 
them,' and by enoiwMgiiig tbc satag^ tu eoiMitl* 
tins tbem- Should it be said that tliay jMra «i- 
abie tofestraia them^ froti their o^nlir^kdM^, and 
liEom the snperiority of the tsavag^s, it msj be al^ 
awered-i^iFary anthm mast )>erft»tD theif oim 
traaty-stftfiBlationB, or suffer lltt oonsitqiiMees <rf 
a viohitlon. Is not the ]^iea of weakness^ a M* 
kf^, as it regafds the Spanfsk iMft^ Irish AiMtf- 
oa ? la it to be saM that one of'the ^ AlHed 8ava- 
reigns'* of Burope, caiinot restraift a singia ^Vtit 
of Indians from breaking his treactes? A tMlh 
part of the farces be has, Ibr yaai^ maidMned 
in Sooth iUiierlea, vainly endeavoyring to eiishii% 
the Patriots, aDdsu^ject them to Spanish tyranny, 
the tc^uN, and the f cqnisitiod^ might easily hafVe 
restrained the Seminol« Ifidians from depredation 
and murders^ in the American settlements. 

Geift. Jacksoft had uncfer liis eonimandf and of 
course, ander his mttitary profeetlon, afl that p&t- 
tioo of the RepuMie which boadd» upon the eited- 
siye province of Florida. He held himself, in a 
dquree^ aceottntable for evo^ Inch of territery, 
dmt was inraM^ aad every ffaobattdlife that was 



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▲KPUW JM 



hit ty l>». mu4miti§M» coaBiq^ Htittfe Ida 

<^pe6liditijr0».lu«.. H^»wliiafloiiQli!jmiiimuv^ 
4ae4 iqpM Ite iRiiiii^ttt» aiiAihem«fdii«fs protect* 

ed IQ ftttMia the aMigies*. who had eammfctedl 
themt Iron iOPdyyact.af hoAtilftgr* It wcmiM have 
t^wihiil; a paatiwftlDr these Uood'»ie«kiiigt deafe« 
mteStsiiMile% ta ham satweted themselfts wUb 
tbftMMcl^f Aneootta weoam and chUdroa, and 
ipaadky to be deiiwii to, their hcnaea ia the ftoetts irf 
jPletUat. oq]^ «> i^epare to ghit thtir WBgeaooe 
I9 ffe|^# iMalB. ol inaocest hlood. Are the 
SMABqrs taod safiMe of Flerida, lite the horaa of 
aacsent eiitare^ a pnoleetieD fi»i miivderers? Ask 
the pareots of slaki^ inntoeDta, whether tkls is the 
protection their gwemment is pledged to extend 
to tkem. «No matter what might have been the iii- 
i^uetions of the gpyeminent to God. Jackson— No 
matter what may be the opinion of the ftstidious 
civilian upon abstract questions of international 
law. The Spanish govemoiient had palpably vio* 
lated their treaty with America ; and if thirteen 
years more^ of negociation were to be spent, the 
Alabama Teiritory» the frontiers of Georgiai Ten- 
nessee, and Missisippl, will have presented a widb 
spread scene of desolatbn, ia which the bones of 
Aiuerican citiaxiha would be found mingled with the 
mine of their habitatioaa» and the devastatioaaof 
the country. 



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mmmM w 



Gea. Jaoksott, Wat w w«iml |M{tot» ^J^eriiMl* 
by ao anoieoi kUtoriWi is *^n mm ■ nA^h^mndeat 
iiMfi» fflAo teoiM Ai»4iit#jr9' mi kmmMkigi ddrtt fmfikiu: 
U*^^ He ni^ Jiare aid, as bisigctat laiid-caaiii^ 
firicDd, Pf(»ideiil I^kbdb did, when he^estered tbe 
highest statioa filled by an faifiBan b^^^-^^^ f»Nc 
A JUST masvoNsiMUTx I SHA££ ir2V£|i snawiE.*' 
He led his army ipto Florida. The orafidenoe of 
the vretffibed Sennnoles was oonvarte^ to despaliv 
and they fled in consternation before the avenger 
of their inhuman mimtos^ He {fenetrated into the 
interiour of Florida, and cabled FmtSt. M»^ 
Hie dmrk scene of Spanish and Briti^ macbinatiooei 
and Uie^fsttfii mobile of lndukn^caraage,«nd wa»- 
sacre. The Spanish aiithorides pmtestedaiainei 
it, bat conscious guilt unnerved tl^ir wtmsh and 
they dared not defend it by farce* 



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Gen. Jackson Kt fy)it St. VbAs, FforidA— captafes tod executes 

:^i9M^tiM^Pi^^V«BdmiMlwChM^-^ aim pliu^ 

takea Aibutiinot and Ambristie— details a general court-maxtial 

• ftptlMirtiiii-^|nr0v«»ofibe aet^nce and'orden them to be 

« sx^ditieA— Hcipark— Geo. Jackson inarchea for Pemacolar-o 

' ' captures It— appoints Col. Kin^ to the command (tf it^ and re- 

liMatoJMinlk,T«i» 

6EN. JACKSON was now, (April, 1818,) in pos- 
fffssKHi* of the most important post in Florida, (ft 
Penstcbtai be * excepted,)— Forf 5^ Marks. It is 
ftitdatri ftef fn the interiour of that province, upon 
the riVer St Marks ; has long been the theatre of 
the most nefcrioas designs, and the starting point 
fimn whieh naraoders, depredators, and murderers 
IM^ taken their departure — certain of being wel- 
comed home, when plunder and scalps were brought 
Wift them. From this place. Gen. Jackson direct- 
ed his operations against the Seminoles, yet unsub* 
ihied. An important town of their's, by the name 
of StoHomeyj thirty miles distant, was taken by a 
detaclmient of the army.^ The savages dispersed 
or^orrendered, in every part of the country, and 
the war of c{^/i?fic^ against the Seminoles, was sud- 
denly brought to a clbse. 

By hoisting a British flag upon the fort, many hos- 
tite IndUms entered the water-craft in the river, and 
were captived. Among them, were a ferocious chief, 
and the Prophet FVands, whose murders, com- 
mitted and instigated, cannot afl be mentioned. 
They suffered the reward of tlieir diabolical wick- 
iiteess apcin the gallows. T4ie rest of the savages 
w«re discharged. Francis. had recently visited 
26 

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* 9D8 MEnaiRs or 

England ; and there was foimd in his possession, a 
generars commission io the ft^itish army. 

At the same place were tokeki the two ftltish 
subjects before mentioned-*-^rAifeA7ior and ^utMt- 
tie. The most conclusive evidence was furnished 
Gen. Jackson, that these men were, and for a 4mig 
time had been, in open hostility against the Se- 
yublic. That they had furnished the Semieoles 
and n^^roes, with every species of deadly weapcms, 
the better to enable them to carry on war agatast 
the Amerkmns. That they had sitmulated them 
to the commission of many of the murders that had 
been perpetrated by them, upon the defenceless 
citizens upon the frontiers ; and that they had 
rendered themselves subject to the most rigovoos 
'execution of vengeance against them, as violat<Mrs of 
the acknowledged principles of the law of nations. 

Gen. Jackson, imitating the dignified moderation 
of the government, whose power he represented, 
detained them for trialy to give them an c^portum- 
ty to evince their innocence. A g^eral court- 
martial was detailed, of thirteen membersrh Hhc 
President of this court, was Maj. Gen. Edmund J^. 
Gaines^ one of the most distinguished and acc6Bi< ^ 
plished officers in the American, or any other 
service. The members consisted of officers of 
high reputation in the regular army, and in the 
corps of volunteers. Every indulgence, consistent 
with the dignity of the proceeding, was extended 
to the arrested men; and every opportunity '9fv 
forded them to make a full defence. After the 



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ANDREW 3%CK&01X. ^ SQB 

most Boieina d6itbaratioii« the court found them 
guilty of the artielef and specifications exhibited 
JigiflQst tbera^ and ordered them to be executed* 
Gen* Jackson approved of the sentence ; and Ar^ 
HflMot and AndfrUtie atoned with their lives, so 
bs as two guilty lives could atone, for the murde)^ 
of many innocent and worthy men ; many lively 
and heiress women-*^many weeping and beseech- 
ing children which had been instigated hy them, 
and perpetrated by the most feroeious clan of infu- 
riated ^^rados that infest the earth.% 

These trials, these ^condemnations, aqd these 
executions have excited unmeaning claoiaur from 
^some, and perhaps, as unmeaning applause from 
others. The wise advice ^^ first hear, and then 
judge,'* seems to have been totally disregarded up- 
on this subject After the most assiduous endeav- 
ours, the writer could not i>rocure the trial of these 
misguided^ and, on the strength qf the sentence of 
a distinguished court, we may say gmUy men. It 
isrin the department of the government ; and will be 
divulged when the wisdom of the goj^rnment sees 
fit. It may be proper^ however to state, that the 
whole proceedii^s and the record, bave^ been sub- 
aiitted to an eminent man, who thus speaks of it-i^ 
(« I have been favoured with the perusal of the 
trial of Arbuthnot and Ambristie,by a military tri- 
bunal, upon the 28th April, I8'l8. The charges 
preferred agains(t them, were so completely estab- 

• To shew the unparalleled barbarism of the Seminole clan, it 
need only be mentioned, that in June, 1S18, Bull Bead^ Claef t^ 
the lower Seminoles, died ; and that^ four of his finest plundered 
horses, and his favourite negro, were burned on the ocoRsion. 



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SOi KSMOIRA OV 

liahedyES nol to « ktwe a kngp i^ hang a dbiiM,*' M 
to the justice of the sentence^ Whea the facfs 
connected with the execHtiaii of theae menj. aliali 
be spread before the world, they will be satisfac- 
tory and conformable to the law of natioii8.> 
When the letters of Arbutknot to Mr* Baget, «nl 
the governours of the. Bahemat Havornu^ &c. 
are laid before the American peo{rfe, they ^ill then 
see the << cloven foot" of British influencei as plain 
as the noon day's sun.*' An officer of intelligence 
and veracity, who attended tte whole trials corro-^ 
borates this statement ; aiKl even a leading Gassette, 
published in London^ as late as 1st July, says — '^ If 
Arbutbnot and Ambristie, were really guilty of the 
crime with which they stood accused, their fate was 
such as the law of nations warrants." 

Many British prints, however, and what excites 
rather pity than indignation, many American prints, 
have ^)estowed upon the administration, and Gen. 
Jackson, the most opprobious epithets, for their 
proceedings in relation to the capture of St, Marks 
and Fensacola, and the executbn of Ari^uthnot 
and Ambristie ! The justice of heaven is often re- 
cognized in bringing the solitary murderc^i to jus- 
tice ; and although it is ever a solemn scene, hu- 
man tribunals are justified in inflicting it Is it* 
because these miscreants occasioned blood to flow 
from /midreds of bosoms, that they are to be screen* 
ed from punishment ? They were murderers, in 
the strictest sense of the word. Britain and Spain, 
were both 4t peace with America ; they therefore 



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ANDREW JACKSON. 305 

could not claim the rights of prisoiMrs of war. 
They lived by the knife, the tomahawk, imd the 
musket, and they justly expiated their crimes upoa^ 
the gibbet. 

. The Seminoles had been conquered ; their pow- 
er broken ; their warriors dispersed ; and their in- 
stigators punished. At the very moment when 
Gen. Jackson, was abont to (discharge his army, in* 
formation was received by him, that many recent 
murders had been ^^convimtted on the Alabama^ by 
a party of the enemy from Pensdcola^ where they 
were /umished with protddons and ammmmtmLby a 
friendly power /"* . . 

Governour Joseph Maset^ had bilccecded Gon- 
zalez ManrequeZf in the gubernatorial autioidty of 
Florida ; but although there was a change of men^ 
there was no alteration in measures* The hostile 
savages were still fostered, armed, and instigated to 
war, in the capital of Florida. Gea. Jacksoif re* 
solved again to ** carry our arms where he found our 
enemies.^^-f Encountering hardships and privations 
which he and the Tennessee Volunteers, had for 
years encountered, they moved towards Pensaoola. 
Conscious of having incurred the just vengeance of 
the American government and army, the go^teaour 
renumsttated against the procedure, 'in orderto lay 
a foundation for a little more negociatioii with his 
<( adored master ;*' but Gen. Jackson had no other 
power of negociating with Masot^ than be had with 

• Vide Gen JaclcBon's ftddreM to lut 9mji i{9^ May, IMS. 
t Vide Chap. xn. ... 

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30C MSMOIIM Of 

Manrequet^^^ frw^i the months if his cywiw^.'** 

He emtcred FensacolOy without opiiosilion. The 
govemmtr, his reiinue, and his fqrces relir^ ta the 
fortress of BarancaSy which had been repaired, at 
ioispusie expense, since the explosion in the last 
war. It was Iiere^ that the Aiueriean forces* ex- 
pected the most determined opposition, from the 
superkmr advantages that the Spaniards possessed. 
Dirt ^^-he is daudly arm^d wha hath hm qttart^tjmtJ*'* 
The garrison heJdout but one day, and surreader- 
edi upon the 38th May. The articles of capitis** 
tioD^ are faefere the pubiiv^ and are too long* to be 
here inserted. 

Uipod tlio 29tli May, 6en« Jackson isomHieaoes 
liis Qf(kcs*r-^«* MaBd^^uartcrSi division iif the Soutky 
^tfiiiek:o^a."-fr'Speaking of the gpssession of this 
place, he- salys-^*^ he has not been prompted t9 this 
iMoasureJroma nish to extend the territorial limits of 
the. IMted^StaieSk-' Alluding to the Spanish treaty, 
and the Spanish violation of it, he says^— <^ helpless 
WQisusn liave been butch^pd, and the cradle stained 
with the blood of innocenee •'' He assigned the 
commai^ of Peasa^^oia to CoL King, ^* as milititfy 
andx>ivil governour," and prefixed to retire to his . 
oldfasaA quarters^ at Nashville^ fie arrived there, hut 
in Juoev aasd \^s reoeived by a deputation of citizens, 
affioogtixhomtvas 1ms gallant associate, Gen.'Caivall. 
From that time to the (tfesent^CNov. 1818,)rGM. 
Jachson has been aaaiduoualy engaged in theim- 
porfmit dttli^ iS^v<etv«i| yipm hm% 9» ^^ coJUJ^^^Neaa 

IN CHIEF OP THE BIYISION OF THE SOrTIf .'^ 
• Vide Chap. xi. 

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ANDHXW JACKSON. 307 

COirCLUSION. 

. Incidents of Gen. Jackson's life—bis chamcter. 

IN concluding these Memoirs, I cannot omit to 
insert a few mctdents of Gen. Jackson's life, which 
arc not yet embraced in them. 

When sitting as judge of the Scpreme CJourt of 
Tennessee, an atrocious calprit escaped from the 
cnstody of the sheriff; seized a loaded musket 
with a bayonet ; placed himself in the angle of 
two stone walls, and swore he would shoot the 
first, ^und bayonet the second man that attempted 
to take him. The sheriff ordered ten men, as 
assistants, but they dared not approach him. The 
sheriff reported the fact to the Judge. ^« Summon 
100 men then,'* said judge Jackson. It was done ; 
hot they also feared to arrest him. Upon a second 
report— •* Summon me then,** said the judge. It 
was done. He descended from the bench — ap^ 
proached the culprit with a stem countenance, and 
dignified firmness — seized the musket with one 
band, the culprit with the other, and handed him 
to the sheriff. 

In the most gteomy peripd of the Creek war, 
when Gen. Jackson's little army was in imminent 
' danger from the savages, and still more alarmed 
at the almost certain prospects of famine ; when 
•an alarming despoadency perraded the hearts of 
those brave men, who would face death in its most 



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306 KIM oiRs or 

horrible forms, the general invited a number of 
his officers to breakfast with him. They repaired 
to his marquee, and found him sitting, with digni- 
fied composure, under a wide spreading oak, which 
had produced an abundant crop of acrons. << Sit 
down, gentlemen," said the generaf, ^ this is mt 
breakfast, and it is all I have to serve toit with; 
but a soldier never despairs. Heaven will bless 
our cause — will preserve us from famine, and re- 
turn us home conqucbors." The officers return* 
ed to their tents with encreasing admiration of 
their general ; adhered to him to the end of the 
war ; and saw his predictions verified. 

The troops before New Orleans embraced many 
of the first young gentlemen, in point of talents, 
education, family, and fortune, in the states of 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Missisippi : 
and among them were, of course, many of a rougher 
character. The pleasant raillery, which is the 
very 2sest of life, when played ofi^ by one gentle- 
man upon another, was unfortunately practised 
upon a captain of a company, who took it in high 
dudgeon* In imitation of the names of Indian 
chiefs, his men called him Capt. Flat-foot* He re- 
monstrated against it to Gen. Jackson, who plea- 
santly remarked— -«« Really Captain, it is difficult 
getting along with these gay young fellows ; but so 
long as they toil at thfr lines with such vigour, and ' 
fight the enemy with such courage, we officers must 
overlook a little innocent levity. Why, Captain,. 



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ANDREW lACBMN. 

tbey eall me OM Htckdry ; and iCjPoa preto «iy tkle 
to your's I wiH raaxtily inakeaa e^b^ng^" Tbe 
Captain retired, proud of tlie title oCCapt. Fiatf^ao^^ 

JPages migtit be filled in i^latlag^ ititeretfting 
anecdotes, and incidents of 6ra« JacdLsoo, wbich 
would clearly show, tbsut although austere dignity 
is his predominating characteristic, he stiU posses- 
ses the most amiabk and boievolent heart* But the 
work is already extended much beyond the original 
design of it. One subject, however, ttiust not be 
omitted ; that of dueUmg* That Geo. Jackson has 
a mimber of times, entered the field of nngle com- 
6i^, is not disputed; but that he ever entered it 
the t^ggressort is most unequivocally denied. That 
he has that susceptibility which is always a con* 
comitant with genius and greatness is admitted ; 
but t^at \^e ever wantonly provoked an honourable 
man to resort to the sword or pistol for redress, 
is Inadmissible. Gen» Jackson respects his feUow 
men, according to their merits ; and he respects 
himself according to his own. He is never guilty 
of insulting with wantonness, and will never be 
insulted with impunity. 

If Gen. Jackson, in repelling and punishing the 
rude attacks that have been n^e on his feme and 
his honour, has i^orted to a mode of redress, not 
sanctioned by the laws of his country, it is a mode 
which legislatures have hitherto been tioable lo 
restrain. 



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3)0 • aBKoms of 

In €<»! .r^oding^tese meinoirah I attempt with deep 
flolicituje, briefly to poortray the exalted eimxwcUi 
who- is the subject of them. - 
. ANDREW JACKSON was born a great «An-« 
he was born frete. The first dawoing of his iateUeoli 
elicited tlH» independence of his spirit. Arif his 
youthful blood instinctively glowed with indigna- 
tion, at the miseries his ancestors had sustained from 
abused power, the first signal act of his life was 
performed in resisting it. Intuitively great, he 
explored the regions of science with the rapidity 
of thought* Acute in observation, he studied mea 
as be mingled with them. Aspiring in his views, 
he sought Sot a capacious field as the sc^eof ■ his 
exertions. He entered the stage of life entirely 
alone. With no extrinsic advahtages to raise him 
into life, he sought no aid out of himselll and he 
received no aid but what he commanded by his own 
energy. A theoretical and practical statesman, he 
led the people of Tennessee, to the adoption of a 
constitution, to give permanency to their civil rights 
— A soldier from boy*hood, he led his fellow cttiasens 
to the frontiers, to preserve them from devastaiioo, 
and the settlers from massacre.. Unsatisfied with 
a min(» station, ev^y step he gained in his aaceilt 
to the temple of fame, gave him new vigour in as- 
cending still. He became a senator of the Ameci- 
can Republic; and to shew the world that hh greatr 
ness was not derived , from his ofiicial elevation, he 
retired to the « post of honour-— a private station.'* 




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AVDRBW JACKSON. 311 

When tiie 6\ive of peace oeaaed to ^ave over 
tkeRepubUci and the clarion of war assailed the 
ears of her citizetis, his miiltwry character suddetify 
deireldped itsetf. Enjoying the traiigail charms of 
domestic felicity, the soothing suggestions of inac- 
tivity urged him to re^ But he was born for his 
country — ^his country was endangered-^its hopes 
were fixed upon him, and he espoused its cause* " 

Devoted to the cause of his country from princi- 
ple, he scarcely breathed, after subjugating a savage 
Xoe, before he thundered defiance to t he conquerors 
Of the Old World. Upon the banks of the majf^stic 
Missisippi, he soared before his enemies, in sheets 
of firew^he rendered every defile a TbermopaUB^ and 
every plain an Jmarathon, 

He is deeply versed in the science of human na* 
tore-— hence he is rarely deceived in the confidence 
he reposes in his firiends, and knows well how to 
detect his enemies. The first he loves, and sets 
the last at defiance. In the discharge of oScial 
duties, he imparts dignity to the oflice, and secures 
respect to himself— in the circles of private life, he 
ia aflTable, without descending to low familiarity. 

In his person, he is above the ordinary height, 
el^iantly formed, but of very siiare t\abit. But 
«< toil has strung his nerves^ and purified his Haod^^ 
and he can bear any fatigue within the power of 
human endurance. The features of his lace have 
that striking peculiarity, which immediately at- 
tracts attention. His large, dark blue eyes» are 



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31S MBIfOIES OF»fte. 

aittlecl deep iiiiter proaiittnt areking eye brows, 
which ht ean dotbe in frowos to npel an emmff 
aiiddraiain smilM to delight his friends— «his whole 
person shows that he was bora to coamaad. 

In flne^ he is loipsd bj bis friends—- respected by 
his eBemies— ithe frieottrite of his ooontryi and the 
admiration of the world. 



7 



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