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The 

Mendel Journal 



October 1909 



1. ORIGINAL RESEARCH. 

Parthenogenesis in Nicotiana - Mrs. R. HAIG THOMAS 

2. MENDEL COLLECTION OF HUMAN PEDIGREES. 

Inheritance of Suicidal Mania 
Pedigree of Tuberculosis 

Pedigree of Skin Colour in Human Hybrids. A case of 
Segregation of White Skin in a Quadroon Fraternity 

3. PAPERS READ TO THE MENDEL SOCIETY. 

The Evolution of Man - J. T. CUNNINGHAM 

Plea for operation of more virile sentiment 

in Human Affairs - - G. P. MUDGE 

Mendelism and Sex - - - - C. C. HURST 

4. METHODS AND RESULTS - " ardent mendelian " 

Present position of Mendelians and Biometricians 
Skin Colour in Human Hybrids 
Variation in the single combs of Fowls 

5. MISCELLANEA. 

Science and Democracy 
Nature of Scientific Hypotheses 

6. REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 



Copyright All Rights Reserved 

Printed and Published for the Mendel Society by 
TAYLOR, GARNETT, EVANS, & Co., Ltd., 54, Fleet Street, London, E.G., 

and Manchester 

No. 1 Price 2/6 nett 



a 

^1A. A 3 



LI8RARV 

Mendel Journal 

» . - 

No. 1 October 1909 

PROLOGUE. 

Mendelism is a subject which has come to stay and 
to play an important part in human affairs. In 
Agriculture, in Horticulture, in the Prize Pens, and 
in Sociology, its voice will be heard. It will not be 
as a voice in the desert, but as a world-vibratory 
one, uttering its pronouncements, admonitions, and 
definitive conclusions, based on the solid and unshake- 
able ground of accurate experiment, wherever culture 
and life come into contact. 

A subject like Mendelism, full of complexities, and 
liable to be misunderstood by the careless, the hasty, 
and the unwary, necessarily runs many dangers 
among the shoals of human affairs. There are the dilet- 
tante philanthropists and scientists, and social refor- 
mers ; and there are newspaper writers possibly 
seeking to ingratiate themselves with their numerous 
readers, by assuming the garb of " gods who destroy 
false idols," which they themselves first set up. Not 
Mendelism, nor its progress, but the application of it 
to human affairs, is endangered by them. 

A great subject like this,- one with not only an 
academic importance, but clearly of great practical 
importance also, and having a bearing upon some of 
the greatest phases of human activities, so far as 



2 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

its presentation and promulgation are concerned, has 
two courses open to it. These two alternatives are 
inevitable. Mendel ism differs in this respect from 
subjects which are j)urely academic, because these are 
only presented and discussed in scientific societies 
and in their journals. But Mendelism is a subject 
which comes into the category of the " Humanities " ; 
it will be discussed in various circles, by people more 
or less well acquainted with it, and more or less 
antagonistic to it. Must its wider promulgation 
necessarily be left wholly to them ? We think all 
will agree that a better alternative lies before us. 

It is better that Mendelism shall be presented to 
a wider public by men who believe in its truth, who 
foresee its future, and who recognise their responsi- 
bilities in the work they do. That is one of the objects 
with which the " Mendel Journal " starts upon its 
career, and which forms the far distant beacon-light 
towards which it will consistently steer. 

But it has another object. It is to gather for the 
Science of Genetics a harvest rich in facts relating to 
human pedigrees and the inheritance of normal 
characters as well as of peculiarities. To find these 
the seeker must quit the experimental garden and the 
cloister, and he must pass out into the world of his 
fellows. From them shall the grain be gathered in 
order that it may be garnered in these pages. A 
golden field, ripe for the harvest, awaits the coming 
of the Mendelian reapers. We appeal to all who are 
acquainted with families in which peculiarities and 
markedly contrasted normal characters, have run 



PROLOGUE 3 

from one generation to another, to send details to 
the Editor of this Journal. Such contributions will 
be treated in the strictest confidence, they need not 
necessarily be published, and will not be published 
without the consent of all who are concerned, and 
then only in a form approved by them. While it is 
clear that medical men have many unique opportu- 
nities for acquiring knowledge of pedigrees of this 
kind, it is hoped that contributions from laymen will 
also be forthcoming. 

In future numbers of this Journal, prominence 
will be given to matters pertaining to agricultural 
and horticultural practices and problems. It is 
also contemplated to make it a medium by which 
authoritative advice and direction may be given 
in the form of answers to questions upon matters 
of general interest, relating to problems of cattle, 
cereal, and plant breeding. In this way, it is 
hoped that the Journal may become a medium of 
great value to all who are engaged in the breeding of 
live stock of all kinds, and to those who are concerned 
in the production and fixing of new varieties of flowers, 
or of leguminous and cereal stocks. It is certain 
that much money and time have been wasted in the 
past, owing to the haphazard methods and erroneous 
ideas which were employed in agricultural and horti- 
cultural practices. 

It is perhaps not too much to anticipate that this 
Journal may at least be more valuable than a Royal 
Commission and as competent as a Government 
Department, to advance the scientific treatment of 



4 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

matters of the greatest commercial importance to 
the country. 

Any questions directed to the Editor, bearing 
upon the scientific breeding of cattle and plants, 
will, as far as possible, receive full consideration in 
the next number of the Journal. 



Business communications should be addressed to the Manager, Office 
of the Mendel Journal, c/o Messrs. Taylor, Garnett, Evans, & Co., Ltd., 
54, Fleet Street, EC. Literary contributions, or questions relating 
to the scientific breeding of cattle and plants, or pedigrees of human 
families, should be addressed to the General Editor. 



ORIGINAL RESEARCH. 



(I) Parthenogenesis in Nicotiana. 

By ROSE HAIG THOMAS. 

I NOTICED last year and this summer that in several 
different cross fertilisations, made between different 
species of Nicotiana, some plants bearing only the 
characters of the ovule parent were produced along 
with others which were apparently Fi hybrids. Upon 
the first and second occasion when I obtained these 
results — which occurred with reciprocal crosses of 
Nic. Sylvestris x Nic AJfinis. — I thought they must 
be due to accident, for muslin bags had been used, 
and it was possible that pollen from adjacent flowers 
of the same plant may have gained access through 
the bag. I repeated the experiment a third and a 
fourth time, with every precaution, such as the use 
of wax-paper bags and the cleansing of the pollinating 
instruments in spirit before use. At both repeti- 
tions of the experiments the same phenomenon 
was manifested. I then began to suspect the 

cause, and determined to test Nicotiana for 
parthenogenesis . 

In the first few trials the method employed was 
to cut off the anthers alone, but later, after success 
attended these I cut off both stigma and 



6 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

anthers ; the result remained the same, the buds 
developed into full bloom, the corollas withered, the 
capsules set, the seed in due time ripened, and if left 
on the plant long enough the capsules split open and 
shed their seed. 

My first trial for parthenogenesis was with Nic, 
tabaccum Cuba, raised from some seed I gathered from a 
plant in the well-known garden of Casa Loring, near 
Malaga. The gardener there told me that this plant 
had grown from seed brought over from Cuba, and 
that it had been gathered from the finest tobacco 
plants grown in the island. This plant is taller 
than other N. tabaccums, and is 6-|ft. to 7ft. in height, 
and the stems are very thick ; it flowers at first in a 
terminal cluster and afterwards axially. The limb 
and tube of the corolla are pure white ; the corolla 
is sometimes four petalled with four stamens, some- 
times five petalled with five stamens, and both forms 
are found on the same plant. It is a freely self-pollin- 
ating plant, for under protection from insects it will 
seed every blossom. 

On July 15th, 1909, I cut oil all the anthers from 
five young green buds on a spray of Nic. tab. Cuba^ 
and covered them with a wax-paper bag, which was 
wired on in the usual way. At the same time 
all the other buds and blossoms on the spray were 
removed. On July 24th the spray was uncovered 
and it was found that only one ovary had failed, the 
other four capsules having set seed. One or two tiny 
buds were sprouting ; these were pinched off, and 
the bag replaced over the seed. I at once started a 



PARTHENOGENESIS 



second experiment on the same plant to confirm this 
first one, and proceeded in exactly the same manner. 
On the same day I experimented with another plant, 
using the same precautions. This plant was a 
hybrid of Fi N. Tahaccum Cuba x N. Fi P.* 
{N. Sylvestris x N. Sander (v :< N. affinis F\ R.*) 
On August 1st, the eighth day after, all the capsules 
were found set on both these plants. I now deter- 
mined to test every Nicotiana species and variety and 
hybrid flowering in my greenhouse and garden, and 
succeeded in setting parthenogenetic seed on the 
following : — 



Species. 


Number of Successful 
Experiments. 


Notes. 




Nic. Suavolens 


1 spray on 1 plant. 


— 


Nic. Sylvestris 


3 sprays on 3 plants. 


— 


Nic. Sander.T? 


2 capsules on 2 plants. 


— 


Nic. Tabaccum Cuba.. 


5 sprays on 2 plants. 


Parthenogenetic seed 
sowed 9tli Sept., 
germinated on the 
'Jlst Sept. 


Nic. Tab. Mirodato ... 


1 spray on 1 plant. 


Asia Minor ; seed 
obtained from the 
Board of Trade. 


F2 Nic. Sylvestris x 






Nic. Afifinis 


2 capsules on 1 plant. 


This parthenogenetic 
seed sowed 4th 
Sept., germinated 
12th Sept. 


Fi Nic. Sylvestris x 






Nic. Tab. Cuba 


2 sprays on 2 plants. 


— 


Nic.Tab. CubaxFiP.* 






(Sylvestiis x Fi R.* 






Sandera' x AlHnis)... 


3 sprays on 3 plants. 


— 


Nic. F2 P.* (Sylvestris X 






Fi R.* Sanderte x 






AffiniO 


4 sprays on 4 plants. 


— 


Nic. Fi P.* Sanderse x 






Affinis 


1 capsule on 1 plant. 


— 



* R. = red. * P. = purple. 



8 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

The first parthenogenetic seed I examined was 
tliat of Nic. Tab. Cuba ; half the seed was round, full, 
sound looking ; the other half flattened, poor, little 
likely to germinate. The parthenogenetic seed was 
compared with selfed seed of the same variety ; in 
this latter nine-tenths was full, sound seed. It seems 
possible that in this variety all the ovules are not 
capable of parthenogenesis, and that those not set 
might have proved fertile to a pollination either self 
or cross. But in the hybrid Nic. Sylvestris x Nic. 
afpnis F-i the parthenogenetic seed was all round, 
full, and sound. 

In order to ascertain the condition of the pollen 
in the Nicotiana buds, within about twenty-four 
hours of expansion^ I gathered from Nic. Sylvestris x 
Nic. Tab. Cuba Fi an unopened bud 2 Jin. in length, 
and split it open ; the style was two-eighths 
of an inch longer than the stamens, and the anthers 
were green and solid. I cut one and placed the 
section under the microscope ; the pollen was 
miniature, and floated in a colourless liquid that 
dried up after a quarter of a minute's exposure to 
the air. As the anthers dehisce at the opening of 
the corolla, the development of the pollen is 
probably very rapid towards the end. 

The observation of the immature condition of 
Nicotiana pollen in the young bud at a time subsequent 
■ to that chosen for the removal of the anthers and stigma 
testifies both to the ease with which, in this plant, trials 
for parthenogenesis'can be made, and to the reliability 
of the experiments. 



PARTHENOGENESIS 9 

The cutting off of stigma and anthers in the 
earliest stage of the young bud does not in the least 
affect its development ; the tube grows to its full 
length, the corolla expands to its full width before 
withering, and there is no more delay in setting the 
capsule than under normal selfing occurring on other 
sprays of the plant. 

In these attempts to obtain parthenogenetic seed, 
failures resulted in some of the hybrids, but these 
were not more numerous than the failures from 
attempts to self the same hybrids. 

The fact remains that parthenogenesis was dis- 
covered in ten species, varieties and hybrids of 
Nicotiana, and it is possible will be found in all of them 
if the right period is chosen for the trial, i.e., when the 
plant is beginning to go off its fullest bloom. iVmongst 
the hybrids I found success more likely to attend a 
test made at this stage, and also^when that test was 
made on a spray which had already seeded one or 
two of the lower blossoms. Amongst the species 
and varieties this is not so necessar}^ In the 
Tabaccums success was unfailing. 

AVhen we remember the wide geographical dis- 
tribution of Nicotiana, the occurrence of partheno- 
genesis in an Australian plant, hke N. Suavolens, in 
the Tabaccum varieties, and in South American species, 
points to the conclusion that it is an ancient character 
in Nicotiana, and had developed in this genus before 
the separation of the possible land connection between 
Australia and South America. Or, if that conclusion 
is questioned, we are led to infer that partheno- 
genesis has arisen independently in different species 
of the genus. 



10 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

An important consideration whicli this dis- 
covery of parthenogenesis in Nicotiana opens to 
discussion, is the supposed hybrid nature of N. 
Sanderw. This plant is said to be a hybrid of N. 
Forgetiana x N . affinis. The former species was 
brought by one of j\Ir. Sander's travellers from South 
America, and it is said was then crossed with N . 
affinis. But the true history of this hybrid appears 
to be shrouded in mystery. 

In the light of these observations on partheno- 
genesis in Nicotiana, it is conceivable that Sander may 
have obtained amongst the Fi offspring from his cross of 
N . Forgetiana x N. affinis not only some true hybrids 
which he possibly destroyed, but'also some individuals 
derived from the parthenogenetic seed of N . Forgetiana. 
He may have selected these and sent out the seed as 
the type of the supposed hybrid N. Sandercr, In other 
words, N . Sander <v may simply be N. Forgetiana. 
If this is so, it will explain what is, from the Mendelian 
standpoint, the remarkable fact that the supposed 
hybrid N. Sander ir breeds true to seed, for this is a 
phenomenon which is not expected to occur, on Men- 
delian principles of gametic purity and segregation. 

Parthenogenesis in Nicotiana perhaps explains a 
fact which I have frequently observed, namely, when 
Nic. Sanderw is growing alongside of other varieties 
of Nicotiana in the open it always seeds true. This 
remark applies equally well to other Nicotiana which 
I have grown. 



THE MENDELIAN COLLECTION OE HIMAN 
PEDIGREES.* 



(1) Inheritance of Suicidal IVIania. 

The Families of A and B. Pedigree Chart I. 

BY GEO. p. MUDGE. 

I am indebted to Miss Gertrude Flumerfelt, who 
was recently one of my students at the London School 
of Medicine for Women, for the facts of this pedigree. 
I cannot sufficiently express my obligation to her 
for the interest which she manifested in this case, and 
for the trouble and care which she took in elucidating 
the various facts. 

The Facts of the Pedigree. 

This pedigree was constructed in 1907, by enquiry 
of some intimate friends of the B family, f Tliere are 
two families concerned, and they have apparently 
lived for many generations in an English village. 
Both families are very respectable, and their msmbers 
as a whole are moderately well off, while some 
members have been wealthy farmers. 

As already indicated, two families are primarily 
involved in the pedigree, namely, the A and B 
families. There exists a tradition in the village in 

* The Editor will be glad to receiv e from medical men and others, 
family pedigrees showing the transmission of disease, peculiarities, 
abnormalities, or of marked abilities, but not necessarily for publica- 
tion. See Prologue. 

fThe symbolic letters employed to indicate the two families 
concerned do not in any way reveal their identity. The two first 
letters of the alphabet have been chosen for the necessary purposes of 
description. 



12 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which they live that death by means of self-shooting 
belonged primarily to the B family, and death by 
self-drowning to the A family. The two families 
have intermarried, and among their descendants 
three forms of suicide are manifested, namely, the 
two original forms, by shooting and drowning, and 
a new form, by taking poison. 

Before the present history commences, according 
to tradition, the two families were unrelated. 

One peculiar and singularly significant feature 
of the case is the very characteristic mode of drowning 
adopted by the victims of the suicidal mania. It 
seemingly indicates that the manifestation of the 
mania is not a matter of opportunity or suggestion, 
but is an inherent impulse, which all external influ- 
ences are powerless to check or destroy. It is indi- 
cative of an innate determination so pronounced that 
it would call forth our admiration were it manifested 
in nobler ways. The victims proceed to drown 
themselves by lying down, and then forcing their 
faces into a pool of water only a few inches in depth 
until death results. 



Plate I. — " A Pedigree of Suicidal Mania." 

CM. = Cousin marriage. 

D. = Suicide by drowning. 

I. = Ha.s been temporarily placed in asylum. 

L. = Still living in year 1907. 

P. = Suicide by taking poison. 

S. — ,, .• shooting. 

P. = Parental generation. 

Fj., P., Pj., P.,., and P.,., = The different generations. 
The black symbols indicate those members who have manifested 
suicidal mania or whose behaviour has caused their friends anxiety. 
The ringed symbols indicate the normal persons. 
The ringed symbols marked with a transverse line represent 
unknown persons. 

The numbers are merely for descriptive purposes. 



The "Dnily. 



Pedigree Chart I. 



->P^ 



? ? 



->P= 



9xy f x9 



S 
1 / 2 



CM 



f Xf + Q + gx c/-— >P 

I.L.v J.L. 15 16. 17 

1 X Xll4 




1 



o+o --^' 

4 5 



Pedigree Chart I. 



The " Drowning "'or A Family. 



The "Shooting" or B Family. 




e >c e ^ y. G ^ P, 

U + '-' n 

"^ X '•r'+ •f^^- •^+ •r'+ •^+ f + f + 9 + 9 + $' 9X V+ ^ + 9 + 9' X (/ -->P 

"?' ? 4 5 6 7 b' 9 ,0 n 12 fa IL. ,5 16 17 

' Cf cf cf + --i''^' 

12 3 4 5 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 13 

The tendency to manifest the suicidal mania 
developes, as a rule, between twenty and twenty-five 
years of age. There is one marked exception to the 
rule. It is the male member, No. 6 in the P generation. 
(Pedigree Chart 1.) He was a wealthy farmer, 
and was very much respected. He had apparently 
lived in his native village all his life. Notwith- 
standing that he had been very successfal in his 
affairs^ at fifty years of age, in the July of 1907, 
he committed suicide by shooting himself. An 
announcement of his death, accompanied by an 
obituary, appeared at the time in several of the 
weekly newspapers. It appears there was ^no reason 
for the suicide. But it is significant that through- 
out his manhood, according to the account of his 
relatives supplied to us, he was regarded as " crazy," 
though he was never confined in an asylum. 

As is usual in constructing a pedigree of this sort, 
one finds that a few individuals are unknown, or the 
memory of them is lost, and we are perforce compelled 
to supply their place by hypothetical persons. These 
persons, however, we know must have existed. 
There are five of them in the present pedigree, and 
they are indicated by the cross line passing across the 
symbol which stands for them. They are Nos. 1-4 in 
the Pg generation, and No. 2 in the P^ generation. In 
the P^ generation it is known that other members 
besides those shown in the pedigree existed, but all 
family account of them is lost, and I have not yet 
been able to trace them. 



14 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Details of the Individual Members. 
Pg Generation. 
The mode of death of the four individuals repre- 
sented is unknown. The existence of these four 
members is postulated. The family tradition is 
that the wife of Mr. A No. 1, and of Mr. B No. 3, were 
normal, and that the suicidal mania came down 
through the two husbands of this generation. 

P^ Generation. 
In this generation Mr. A No. 1, and Mr. B No. 3, 
are known to have been brothers-in-law. Since Mr. 
B No. 3 was known to have married a woman No. 4, 
unrelated to either family, it follows that Mr. A No. 1 
could only be brother-in-law to Mr. B No. 3 by 
marrying a sister of his. Accordingly, the woman 
Miss B No. 2 is postulated, since nothing is certainly 
known of her in the family or in the village. 

Mode of Death. 
Mr. A No. 1 . . . . Died by drowning himself.* 

Mrs. A, nee Miss B No. 2 Death unknown. 
Mr. B No. 3 .. .. Shot himself. 

Mrs. B, nee ? — No. 4 . . Died a normal death. 

Pi Generation. 
In this generation Miss A No. 3 is known to be a 
cousin of Mr. B No. 4, whom she married. He was 
still living in 1907, and was then 80 years of age, and 
had been sane all his hfe. This cousin marriage 
confirms the conclusion derived from the known 

*ln all cases but this one, drowning was known to be by the 
characteristic method already described. 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 15 

existence of brothers-in-law in P^, that the originally 
lanrelated families A and B have intermarried. 
Mode of Death. 

Mrs. A, nee ? — No. 1 . . Is known to have been 

normal. 

Mr. A No. 2 . . . . Shot himself. 

Mrs. B, nee Miss A No. 3 Drowned herself . 

Mr. B No. 4 . . . . Was still living in 1907 and 

then 80 years of age. 
Sane throughout life. 

Mr. B No. 5 . . . . Tried three times to shoot 

himself and failed. Died 
a normal death. In the 
pedigree he is marked as 
an insane member. 

Mrs. B, nee ? — No. 6 . . Is known to have been 

normal. 

P Generation. 

In this generation, a second cousin marriage, 
resulting in a second intermarriage of the A and B 
families, has occurred. Some individuals of this 
generation, in addition to those who have actually 
destroyed themselves, have been temporarily placed, 
at one time or another, in asylums, because they 
became intensely melancholic and it was feared they 
too would destroy themselves. 

Mode of Death. 
Mrs. B, nee Miss A No. 1 
(cousin and wife of 

B No. 2) . . . . Was temporarily in an asy- 

lum. In 1907 was 40 
years of age and alive. 



16 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

]\lr. B No. 2 . . . . Was temporarily in an asy- 

lum. In 1907 was 40 
years of age and alive. 

Mr. B No. 3 . . . . Unmarried. Drowned himself. 

Mr. B No. 4 . , . . Unmarried. Drowned himself . 

Mr. B No. 5 . . . . Poisoned himself. 

Mr. B No. 6 . . . . Was crazy throughout 

manhood, but never put 
' into an asylum. Shot 
himself in 1907 when 50 
years of age. 

Miss B No. 7 . . . . Poisoned herself " because 

she vowed she would 
never sec the marriage 
of her brother (B No. 2) 
to an A No. 1, his cousin." 

Miss B No. 8 . . . . Was in an asylum for a 

time. In 1907 she was 
becoming " queer" again. 

Miss B No. 9 . . . . Unmarried. Sane. 

Miss B No. 10 . . . . Married. Sane. 

Miss B No. 11 . . . . Married. Sane. 

Mrs. B, nee ?— No. 12 . . Introduced by marriage ; 

wife of No. 13 ; normal. 

Mr. B No. 13 . . . . Shot himself. 

Miss B No. 14 . . . . Unmarried, and was for a 

time in an asylum. 

Miss B No. 15 . . . . Sane. 

Miss B No. 16 . . . . Sane and married. Re- 

moved with her husband 
and two children from 
their native village. 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 17 

Mr. ?— No. 17 . . . . Husband of B No. 16, and 

introduced by marriage. 
Normal. 

Fi Generation. 
Master B No. 1 . . | Quite children. Sane up to the 
Master B No. 2 . . ) year 1907. 
Mr. B No. 3 . . Is now 22 years of age and in 1907 
was sane. 

The two remaining children (Nos. 4 and 5) of this 
generation are quite young, and their name, sex, and 
age are not recorded. They have removed, with their 
parents, from the village, and the desire of the family 
is, I believe, to lose its identity. The children, none 
the less, constitute two of the most interesting 
members of the Pedigree, since they are the only 
members in this Pedigree both of whose parents are 
normal. Their future history is a matter of the 
greatest importance, both from the Mendelian and 
the medical standpoint. I am endeavouring still to 
trace them. 

The Deductions from the Pedigree.* 
We are not justified yet in saying dogmatically 
that this Pedigree is an illustration of Mendelian 
phenomena. But there are clearly some Mendelian 
indications. In the P generation all the individuals 
have passed the twenty-fifth year of life**, and 

* We follow the example admirably set by Professor Pearson, 
in liis " Treasury of Human Inheritance," in keeping our interpreta- 
tions apart from the facts of our Pedigrees. Those who seek for the 
latter can thereby obtain them without wading through the former, 
which at this stage of enquiry must necessarily be wholly tentative. 

** The youagest must be nearly forty. 



18 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

it is between this and the twentieth year that as 
a rule the manifestations of insanity make their 
appearance. Yet there are some individuals who 
are still sane. Others have destroyed themselves 
or have been confined in asylums, in order to 
prevent self-destruction. This fact suggests a 
segregation of the morbid diathesis from the 
normal condition. But it is only right to add 
that melancholia is said to be a trait of the whole 
present family. What such a statement means is 
difficult to precisely understand. Whether this melan- 
cholia is to be regarded as a diluted form of the 
insanity of the family, or whether it is a distinct 
morbid diathesis of itself, or whether it is merely 
the melancholy that is not infrequently associated 
with phlegmatic temperaments leading a monotonous 
life, or whether, in this particular case, it may not be 
merely a neurotic boding, excited by a lonely country 
life and a knowledge of the family history, it is 
impossible to say. Many families have melancholic 
members, but suicidal mania is not manifested by 
them. The facts of the pedigree, I think, justify us 
in believing that if a member of the family has passed 
the twenty-fifth or thirtieth year of life without 
showing any peculiarity of behaviour, he is a sane 
member of that family. The existence of the in- 
dividual. No. 6 in the P generation, who did not 
shoot himself until he reached fifty years of age, does 
not invalidate this statement, for, as is known, he was 
" cranky throughout his manhood." 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 19 

The next feature in the Pedigree we have to 
consider in order to deal with it from a Mendelian 
standpoint is the view we ought to take of the con- 
dition of members Nos. 1, 2, 8, and 14 in the P genera- 
tion. These individuals did not attempt to commit 
suicide, but their degree of melancholia was so great 
and their general behaviour such that, knowing the 
family history, their friends thought them safer in 
an asylum. In 1907 they were free citizens and 
were still living. In the Pedigree Chart we have 
indicated them, in the way their relatives and medical 
advisers apparently viewed them, as insane. If they 
are to be regarded as potentially afflicted with the 
family insanity, then they bring the number of insane 
members too high, if the case is regarded as one of 
simple Mendelian segregation of insanity and normality. 
If, however, they are to be regarded as merely 
extremely melancholic persons, but not insane, then the 
Mendelian expectation will be 7 -5 of those afflicted and 
7 -5 of those not afflicted. The result — u'pon this view 
of the nature of these members — is 6 : 9 respectively. 



(2) A Pedigree of Tuberculosis. 
The ramily of C. Pedigree Chart 2. 

BY GEO. P. MUDGE. 

The following Family history was brought to my 
notice, in response to some enquiries which I made, 
in the early part of this year. The information was 



20 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

vouchsafed by a member of the family, the No. 4 
in the F^ generation. The family is a well-to-do 
Irish one. It is chiefly remarkable in the apparently 
sporadic appearance of tuberculosis in the present 
or Fi generation and in the manifestation of that 
disease, as a rule, at between 19-20 years of age. 
The family is one of such social position that it 
excludes the factors of malnutrition and unhealthy 
surroundings as an operative environment in the 
causation of the disease. 

The Facts of the Pedigree. 
P^ Generation. 
No. 1. Retired Colonel. Death unknown. 
„ 2. Died of senility at 80 years of age. 

„ 4. „ at childbirth. 

P Generation. 

All normal except No. 5, who died of cancer. 

Nos. 4 and 6 are sisters, and No. 2 is the sister of No. 3. 

Fi Generation. 

No. 1. Died at 18 years of age from rapid pulmonary 

consumption. 
„ 2. Still alive. Has suffered from ulcerated throat. 
„ 3. Died at 19 years of age from tuberculosis of 

stomach. 
„ 4. Quite normal. 

„ 5. Quite normal, but has gout in one finger joint. 
„ 6. Still alive, but had tuberculous neck glands 

extracted at 19 years of age. 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 



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22 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

No. 7. Suffers from cough, is very susceptible to 

cold, very slight in build, is losing flesh, 

is 19 years of age, but looks only 15, and 

has no moustache. 
„ 8. Normal. 

„ 9. Delicate : suffers from headache. 
„ 10. Died at 19 years of age from tuberculosis of 

vertebral column. 
„ 11. Died from tuberculosis of lungs. First 

manifested between the 19th and 20th 

year. 
„ 12. Died at 13 years of age from rapid pulmonary 

consumption. 
,, 13. Quite normal. 
„ 14. Normal, but suffers from adenoids. 

In addition to the individuals here given, there 
were in the left hand Family (members Nos. 2 to 7), 
six more children which were stillborn, and in the 
right hand Family (Nos. 8 to 14), there Were seven 
stillborn children. 

Deductions from the Pedigree. 
One fact calls for observation. In the P genera- 
tion, Nos. 2 and 3 are sister and brother respectively, 
and Nos. 4 and 6 are sisters. Tuberculosis has ap- 
peared in both the branches to which Nos. 4 and 6 in 
part gave rise, and it has also appeared in both the 
branches which owe their origin to Nos. 2 and 3. 
Nos. 3 and 4 and 2 and 6 may therefore be tentatively 
regarded as D R's, since clearly the appearance of 
themselves and their members in a family has resulted 
in the manifestation of tuberculosis in that family. 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 23 

If we regard the capacity of contracting tuber- 
culosis as due to the absence of some factor which 
is present in normal individuals, then the parents 
Nos. 3 and 4 and 2 and 6 may be symbolised as 
N n, where N = normality, and n = absence of nor- 
mality = tubercular predisposition. We shall then 
expect in the offspring of Nos. 3 and 4, one 
tubercular to three normal individuals. If we 
bear in mind the fact that the young man. No. 7, 
suffers from cough, is very slight in build, is losing 
flesh, and looks younger than he really is, and if we 
further remember that he has only just reached the 
age, namely, nineteen, when the disease first manifests 
itself in this family, there can be little doubt that the 
prognosis in his case is a grave one. If we then regard 
him as potentially tubercular, that will give us 3 : 3, 
instead of the expected ratio in this particular 
branch. 

If we make similar assumptions with regard to 
the constitution of the two parents Nos. 5 and 6, 
we find that in their offspring there are 4 normals to 
3 tuberculates, instead of 5*2 to 1'8 respectively. 
Taking the whole F^ generation together and includ- 
ing No. 7 among the tuberculates, we have 7 normals 
to 7 tuberculates, instead of 10*5 to 3*5 respectively. 

In regard to this discrepancy of numbers, we 
must remember there were thirteen children who 
were stillborn. Had they hved, it is possible the 
ratios may have been more accordant ; they may 
have also been more discordant. We have yet to 
learn what is the relationship between the tubercular 



24 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

diathesis and the " struggle for existence " during 
intra-uterine life. We have also yet to learn 
whether the people who are N N are more resisting 
in their powers than those who are N n. For of 
the 15-7 persons who are expected to be normal 
in this Pedigree, only one-third will be N N in con- 
stitution, and the rest Nn. We are not justified in 
believing that both types will necessarily be identical 
in resisting powers. The one may resist disease under 
all conditions, and the other only contract it under 
exceptionally bad conditions, leaving it to the 
persons of n n constitution to fall victims under 
even the best conditions, foredoomed to die of 
tuberculosis. And, as a matter of fact. No. 6 in 
FjL has had only a local glandular attack and is 
now apparently quite well. Is she an ISi n ? If 
we take her and her brother. No. 7, out of the list, 
then we have 9 : 5 where 10 -5 : 3 -5 is expected. 

The young man No. 7 is from the modern patho- 
logical standpoint an interesting case, or rather will 
be, if tuberculosis declares itself in him. Can the 
hidden weakness in his constitution be stayed by 
an opsonic substance ? 



(3) 4 Pedigree of Human Hybrids. 
Segregation of European Skin Colour in a Quadroon Fraternity. 

BY GEO. P. MUDGE. 

I am indebted to the courtesy of Mrs. Ilaig 
Thomas, who very kindly passed on to me some 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 25 

information supplied by her cousin, Colonel H, de 
H. Haig, R.E., for the following extremely interesting 
case of the segregation of European skin colour in 
a generation of quadroons. To Colonel H. de H. 
Haig I am under a very great obligation for the 
interest he manifested in my enquiries and the great 
trouble he took in thq endeavour to ascertain the 
answers to them. He very kindly sent me a 
photograph of a group of persons in which three of 
the ladies, who belong to the pedigree, appear. 

The facts of the pedigree are given upon the 
authority of Colonel H. de H. Haig, who was person- 
ally acquainted with all the persons (with three excep- 
tions) who appear in the pedigree. I am not of course 
permitted to mention names, nor can I describe the 
geographical locality to which these events relate. 
It is, perhaps, permissible to say that they did not 
occur in the West Indies. 

The Facts of the Pedigree. 
The Parents -P Generation. 

The father of the family was almost certainly 
a yellow mulatto. His parental origin is not known 
for certain. His skin was light yellow brown ; it 
was the " colour of leather called nut-brown " and 
" lighter than a new brown boot." His hair and nose 
were quite negroid, and his lips slightly so. 

The mother was an Englishwoman, and a daughter 
of English parents of good social position. 

The mulatto father came to England to study 
medicine, and upon qualifying, he married the English 



26 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

lady and returned to his birthplace for the purpose of 
practising his profession. 

The Children = F-i Generation. 

There were seven children. I will describe them 
in order of age. 

No. 1 is a daughter. " Her hair and nose are 
unmistakably negroid. Her skin colour is like her 
father's, but lighter. Her lips are not noticeably 
negroid. She is very easy going and good tempered." 

Nos. 2 and 3. Both were daughters. " The skin 
colour of both is indistinguishable from that of 
ordinary English girls ; it is quite white. The hair 
of both is typically European in form, there is no 
trace of the negro crimp, and in both it is dark brown 
in colour. The two girls are very beautiful and 
have married Eyiropeans, both of them officers in 
the Army." 

No. 4 is a son. He was not seen by Colonel 
H. de H. Haig, but he is known to have both skin 
colour and negro hair like the brother next to be 
described. 

No. 5 is a son. " He had negro hair ; the skin 
colour was like his father's but lighter, though darker 
than that of his eldest sister." 

In addition there are two other daughters whom 
my correspondent has not seen. One of these is 
married, but it is not known if she has children. 

The Grand-children - F^ Generation. 

Both the married daughters Nos. 2 and 3 have 
a family. One has a son and a very pretty daughter, 



HUMAN PEDIGREES 27 

and the other has one son and three daughters. These 
six children have not been seen by my correspondent. 

The Deductions from the Pedigree and General 
Observations. 

There is one fact which I think needs particular 
notice here. In considering this pedigree, we are 
bound of course to face certain possibilities. Many 
Europeans were resident in the island. But it needs 
only the most casual glance at the photograph to 
render it at once clear that the likeness between the 
three sisters is very pronounced. There can be not 
the slightest doubt, I think, that they are sisters by 
the same parents. I have shown the photographs 
to several friends and they concur in my belief. 
Of course the resemblance is much greater between 
the two white sisters than between them and the 
coloured one. But even between them there 
is, in the form of the eyelids and the eyebrows, a 
strong suggestion of sisterhood. 

If this were a Mendelian phenomenon of the 
simplest order, such as Professor Pearson has imagined 
possible, we should expect that the offspring of such 
parents would be in equal numbers " whites " and 
coloured persons. There are actually 2 " whites " : 
3 coloured persons plus two of unknown type. 
But it is clear that this is not a simple type of 
Mendelian phenomenon, because the coloured children 
are not alike in respect of skin colour or hair characters, 
and they are not exactly like their father. It 
is clearly a more complex type of Mendelian 



28 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

inlieritance. But whatever the nature of its com- 
plexity it is obviously a case of Mendelian segre- 
gation of European skin colour in the gametes of a 
coloured father. It is not necessary to consider the 
general problem in detail here, because it is fully 
considered in a later article in this Journal entitled 
" Skin Colour in Human Hybrids," pp. 163. 



PAPERS READ TO THE MENDEL SOCIETY. 
THE EVOLUTION OE MAN. 



(An Address delivered to the Mendel Society, 
February, T908.) 

By J. T. CUNNINGHAM, M.A., Oxon., F.Z.S. 



The present paper is an attempt to consider some of 
the modern conceptions of Biology in relation to the 
human species. With regard to species in general, 
the Darwinian theory assumed that the differences 
between species were differences of adaptation, that 
specific characters were useful, that species were 
adapted to different modes of life. It has, on the other 
hand, been maintained by later zoologists that in the 
vast majority of specific characters there is no evidence 
of such utility, or of correlation with useful characters. 
The most eminent systematists distinguish now, as 
those of pre-Darwinian days did, between diagnostic 
characters, which are of chief systematic value, and 
adaptive characters, which for purposes of classifi- 
cation are often rather misleading than significant. 
The more useless a character is the more valuable it 
is as an indication of affinity. One modern school of 



30 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

evolutionists, recognising the uselessness of diagnostic 
characters, holds that they have not been evolved by 
selection, but have arisen spontaneously as muta- 
tions ; and, with the usual tendency to carry a 
doctrine to extremes, they maintain that all characters 
are independent of utility, all arose as mutations. 
The American investigator. Dr. T. H. Morgan, has 
published a book specially devoted to this doctrine, 
in which he endeavours to show that adaptations do 
not really exist, that mutations have occurred which 
could only survive under special conditions of life, 
which in some cases the modified creatures have 
found, so that habits have been determined by struc- 
ture, not structure by habits. Thus in the short 
period of half a century we have had the swing of the 
pendulum of biological opinion from one extreme to 
another, from the belief that all characters were 
adaptive or useful to the belief that none were adap- 
tive. In the meantime the common-sense view has 
persisted that some characters were useful and some 
were not, and that the former were easily modified by 
conditions of life, the latter unaffected by such con- 
ditions. It must at any rate be admitted that usually 
in studying any group of animals we can certainly 
distinguish between characters which have no visible 
relation to the maintenance of life and others which 
are necessary or advantageous to that purpose ; and 
it is therefore possible to consider the origin of these 
two kinds of characters separately. 

The human species, in spite of the attention 
devoted to Anthropology, and although it is to us the 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 31 

most familiar species, has perhaps been less studied 
from the zoological point of view than any other. 
It is also from this point of view the most difficult, 
partly because it is our own species and we cannot 
get far enough away from it to see it in true perspec- 
tive, partly because it has had such an exceptional 
history, having spread over the whole earth and 
become largely independent of physical conditions ; 
that is to say, it has attained to a great extent the 
power of making artificially uniform conditions which 
render it independent of differences of climate, 
geographical features, and differences of fauna and 
flora in different habitats. The first question to con- 
sider is whether man is a single species or several, and 
what is his relation to other species. This question, as 
well as most of the others which I propose to consider 
in this paper, has been discussed with his usual 
thoroughness and judgment by Darwin in his 
" Descent of Man," so that I am really only trying 
to see whether we know any more about these prob- 
lems than Darwin taught us. 

The chief peculiarities of man, as compared with 
his nearest allies, the anthropoid apes, are all adaptive 
and useful characters, namely, the erect position, 
the structure of the hand and foot, and the faculty 
of articulate speech. Associated with the possession 
of language are the size and differentiation of the 
brain, especially of the cerebral hemispheres, and the 
correlated size and shape of the cranium. The 
reduction of the jaws, teeth, and face generally is 
also a characteristic feature, and adaptive to the 



32 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

diminution in the use made of the jaws and teeth in 
feeding and fighting. If man is regarded as a single 
species, then he affords a conspicuous instance against 
the doctrine that specific characters are not adap- 
tations, but it must be remembered that the con- 
tention is not that no specific characters are adaptive, 
but that in a vast number of cases several species are 
distinguished and named which live in the same 
district under the same conditions, and that where 
they live in different habitats there is no evidence 
that the characters correspond to differences in the 
mode of life. On the other hand, there is no reason 
why a single species should not become adapted to 
some peculiar mode of life, but then it would be a 
matter of opinion among systematists whether it 
should not be placed in a separate genus. 

Before proceeding further with this part of the 
subject, it is interesting to consider the origin and 
nature of these adaptations. While others have been 
disputing whether acquired characters are ever in- 
herited and whether adaptations are due to the 
inheritance of acquired characters, Dr. Archdall Reid 
has made the brilliant discovery that such adaptations 
as those which distinguish man from the anthropoid 
apes are not inherited at all, but are acquired by every 
individual in the course of his development. Inborn 
or congenital characters, he says, are developed by 
the stimulus of nutrition alone, acquired characters 
are developed by the stimulus of use. Modifications 
acquired as a result of use and disuse are clearly never 
transmitted, because they never develop except in 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 33 

response to the same stimulation as in the parent : 
" Plainly, then, that which is transmitted to the_ 
infant is not the modification, but only the power o£ 
acquiring the modification under similar circumstances' 
— a power which has undergone such an evolution in 
high animal organisms that in man, for instance, 
nearly all the developmental changes which occur 
between infancy and manhood are attributable to 
it."* Now, while it must be admitted that it is very 
important to ascertain how far characters are developed 
entirely as the result of the constitution of the germ- 
plasm, and how far they require an appropriate 
stimulus, I think Dr. Reid attributes excessive im- 
portance to the latter factor. We know that a child 
only learns to speak by hearing speech, but we also 
know that monkeys and dogs do not learn to speak 
under the same conditions. The difference, therefore, 
between man and his nearest allies is not in acquire- 
ment, but in hereditary constitution. Indeed, Dr. 
Reid admits as much, but he puts the fact in other 
words, and here, as in much else that he has written, 
it seems to me that he imagines he has discovered 
something new when he has expressed what was 
known before in different and unnecessarily abundant 
language. He says that since " Nature " has en- 
dowed animals with the power of making not all 
possible acquirements, but only certain fixed acquire- 
ments that are commonly useful to the species, there- 
fore species differ not only in characters which are 
inborn, but also in those which are acquired ; for 

'■^ Principles of Heredity, 2nd Edition, page 35. 



34 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

instance, the torelimbs of both ox and man grow 
greatly in response to use, but the lines of growth are 
very different. Exactly. Of course, Dr. Reid 
assumes that the difference in the power of making 
acquirements is due to natural selection. The power 
of growth in response to exercise resides, he says, not 
especially in the parts which are most used, as joints, 
teeth, or tongue, but in the parts in which it is most 
useful ; in other words, in those parts where it has 
been evolved, not by use, but by natural selection. 
It would be difficult to compress a greater number of 
fallacies into such few words. The chief fallacy lies 
in the word use. Use of a muscle means contraction, 
and contraction causes growth of muscle ; but it is 
obvious that joints do not contract, and that a joint 
has no size. The fact that joints can be developed 
by use is proved by their actual formation occa- 
sionally in neglected fractures. It is also obvious 
that the tongue being a muscular organ is developed 
by exercise not merely in absolute size, but in the 
complexity and precision of its movements, as in the 
muscles of the hand ; otherwise we could not learn 
to speak. In fact, it is precisely because the power 
of acquiring certain structural adaptations resides in 
those parts which are used for certain purposes that 
Lamarckians conclude that the power to acquire 
and the acquirement are due to the same causes ; 
in other words, that the hereditary or congenital 
factor and the acquired factor in adaptations are both 
due to external stimuli. The contrary view is mere 
assertion based on no evidence. What evidence, for 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 35 

instance, is there that the ancestor of man possessed 
a variation in the power of acquiring the upright 
position, independently of the attempt to walk on 
his hind legs ? 

Dr. Reid supposes that this power of making 
acquirements is greatest among the higher animals, 
and little or not at all present in the lower animals 
and plants. He instances the frog, and expresses 
his belief that a tadpole enclosed in a hole or crevice, 
if supplied with food, would develop into a perfect 
frog, and that this is possibly the explanation of those 
cases reported in the newspapers from time to time 
of perfect frogs found enclosed in stone in quarries. 
It is unnecessary to discuss seriously this suggestion ; 
it will be sufficient to consider how much foundation 
there is for the dictum of Dr. Reid that the frog's 
body gains nothing from use, and its mind almost 
nothing from experience. This implies that the 
metamorphosis is entirely due to heredity and not at 
all to stimulation. It has been proved, on the con- 
trary, that aquatic larvae of Amphibians can be 
made to retain the larval state by forcing them to 
breathe in the water and not allowing them to breathe 
air, so that in this case, as in many others, the develop- 
ment is partly due to acquirement in Dr. Reid's 
sense of the term. Dr. Reid contrasts with the 
supposed development of the frog the alleged fact that 
if the limb of an infant be locked by paralysis or by 
a joint disease it does not develop into an adult 
limb, but there is every reason to believe that the 
same statement would be true of the frog. 



36 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

We must conclude, then, that man differs from the 
anthropoid apes chiefly in adaptational characters, 
and that these characters are inborn or congenital. 
They are congenital in two senses ; firstly, in the 
sense that they develop to a certain degree under 
what Dr. Reid calls the stimulus of nutrition, by 
which he means nutrition, moisture, heat, and oxygen, 
the essential conditions of all development and all 
life ; secondly, that they attain their adult develop- 
ment from a hereditary tendency to certain modes of 
use and function, and from a degree of exercise which 
would not produce the same development in any 
other species. The new-born infant differs from 
the adult man, but it also differs from the new-born 
ape in all essential human characters, and that adult 
has acquired structural peculiarities which no ape 
could possibly acquire from any stimuli in its own 
lifetime. Obviously these are not merely specific 
characters, and man is not merely a species of a wider 
genus. Adaptational differences are characteristic 
among other animals of a genus, or of a family, or of 
larger groups. For example, among the mammals 
the orders are distinguished by differences of adap- 
tation, e.g., the Cheiroptera and Carnivora ; but 
within a single order a family may be so separated, 
as in the case of the mole family. It is not easy to 
find a genus so distinguished. Man thus appears to 
have the rank of a family. The condition of the hair 
in man might possibly be regarded as a diagnostic 
character which is not adaptive ; if the absence of 
hair on the body be explained by uselessness, still the 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 37 

special development on the head looks like a non- 
adaptive feature. It is difficult, then, to regard man 
as merely a genus of anthropoid apes. 

On the other hand, we do not find that man can 
obviously be divided into a number of distinct 
species as other families of mammals can, or as even a 
genus can be divided. There are distinct races of 
man, and the question is whether these correspond 
to species among other animals. To discuss this 
question we have to consider the diagnostic characters 
of these races. Darwin considers them very carefully 
in the work I have already mentioned, and comes to 
two remarkable conclusions which are of chief im- 
portance in relation to the object of this paper — 
firstly, that these characters graduate into each 
other so that the races cannot be absolutely defined ; 
secondly, that they are in no sense adaptational. 
He says that, so far as we can judge, none of the 
differences between the races of man are of any direct 
or special service to him, nor can they be accounted 
for in a satisfactory manner by the direct action of 
the conditions of life, nor by use and disuse, nor 
through the principle of correlation. He then pro- 
ceeds to enquire whether they can be explained by 
sexual selection. He concludes that this process will 
not explain all the differences, but that there is a 
residuum which must provisionally, at least, be 
regarded as due to spontaneous variations which have 
become constant and general without selection. 
Thus we find Darwin in this case compelled to adopt 
the view which in my opinion still holds good in man 



38 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

as in other animals, that there are two categories of 
characters, namely, the adaptive and the non- 
adaptive. The latter are of the same kind as those 
which are called mutations by modern biologists, 
while the former, in my opinion, are directly due to 
stimuli. Where the stimulus is functional, the 
modification is such as to render organs and structures 
more fitted for the functions ; but certain conditions 
may produce a direct result which has no connection 
with function, and which is, therefore, not in the 
ordinary sense useful or adaptive ; for example, the 
absence of light stimulus causes the absence of pig- 
ment from the lower sides of flat fishes, but this 
character is neither useful nor adaptive. The real 
distinction between the two kinds of characters 
according to my views is that those of one kind are 
due to external stimulation, those of the other kind 
are independent of external causes — the latter are 
mutations, the former may be called modifications. 

Huxley's classification of the races of mankind is 
a somewhat simple one. He divides them into two 
primary divisions, resembling perhaps genera, namely, 
the Ulotrichi with woolly hair, and the Leiotrichi 
with straight hair. The Leiotrichi he subdivides into 
four groups : the Australioid, the Mongoloid, the 
Xanthochroi or fair whites, and the Melanochroi or 
dark whites. The characters in which the races 
differ are colour of skin, hair, and eyes, shape of 
cranium, whether brachycephalic or dolichocephalic 
character of hair, projection of jaws, shape of features, 
especially nose and eye-apertures. The negro race 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 39 

is one of the most distinctly marked, its characters 
being black-brown skin, woolly hair, prognathous, 
dolichocephalic skull, thick out-turned lips, flat nose. 
The type is most perfectly developed in equatorial 
Africa, as in Guinea ; to the north it has crossed with 
the Berbers, on the east with the Arabs ; to the south 
it shows reduced characters apparently without 
crossing. The Bushmen and Hottentots, while 
apparently belonging to the negro stock, are much 
lighter in colour, and this is some evidence that the 
black of the negro is originally due to the tropical sun. 
In the East Indian Archipelago is a type allied to the 
negro, but not identical, extending through the region 
called from its presence Melanesia, from Papua to 
Fiji. These have woolly hair, but the brow ridges 
and the nose are more prominent than in the negro ; 
the colour varies from black to chocolate. The 
Tasmanians, now extinct, are stated to have been an 
isolated colony of this race. The Andaman Islanders 
form a connecting link between the eastern blacks 
and the negroes, but although they have frizzled hair, 
which they shave off, they are brachycephalic, less 
prognathous than the negro, and the nose is narrower. 
The Australians are brown in colour with wavy black 
hair, dolichocephalic, having prognathous skulls with 
well-developed brows, and wide but not flat nose. 
Allied types are believed to occur in India, namely, 
the hill tribes descended from the primitive in- 
habitants, and in North-east and North Africa in the 
Nubians, Berbers, and the ancient Egyptians. The 
Mongoloid race seems to occur in its purest state in 



40 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Central and Northern Asia, and its features are : 
yellowish colour, long black straight hair, high cheek 
bones, short nose, and, especially, slanting eye aper- 
tures. The allied races are of immense extent and 
the features in many considerably modified either by 
variation or inter-crossing. The skulls in some of 
these are extremely dolichocephalic. In Asia the 
Mongoloid type is extended by the Japanese, 
Chinese, Siamese ; in Europe its invasions are repre- 
sented by the Turks, Finns, Lapps, and Hungarians. 
The Malay race seems to be a branch of the Mongo- 
loid, and extends over Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and 
can be traced to New Zealand and throughout 
Micronesia and Polynesia. It is supposed that the 
Maoris and the islanders of the Pacific, differing con- 
siderably from each other in characters, have arisen 
chiefly from crossing between a race allied to the 
Malays and the darker Melanesians. The inhabi- 
tants of the whole of America, North and South, seem 
to belong to one main type supposed to have been 
derived from the Mongolian. The uniformity of the 
American Indians, as compared with the diversity 
of types in the Old World, is one of the most striking 
facts in anthropology, and is most probably ex- 
plained by the view that America was populated from 
a single race, the Mongolian, from Asia, within a 
period so comparatively recent that no great diver- 
gence has been developed. Lastly, we have the white 
men, whose home is chiefly in Europe, and who 
include a great variety of subordinate types. 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 41 

The type with blonde hair and blue eyes is found 
chiefly in the north, e.g., in Scandinavia and North 
.Germany, but representatives of it are found in 
North Africa and in Western Asia. There can be 
little doubt that this is a pure type, but Huxley 
suggests that the Melanochroi originated from the 
mixture of the Xanthochroi and Austral ioids of India 
and North Africa. 

I can only pretend to offer a few suggestions on 
the characters which distinguish the races thus 
rapidly surveyed. Mendelians will assume that they 
are all simple mutations, but this does not seem to 
me to be a reasonable conclusion. Some of them, 
as in other groups of animals, are differences of degree 
in those adaptive characters which distinguish man 
from the apes. For example, prognathism and the 
size of the cranium and brain. The decrease in 
prognathism is obviously associated with the degree 
and duration of civilisation, so that this character in 
negroes and Australians is adaptive. Perhaps the 
same may be said of the extreme dolichocephaly 
associated with a sloping forehead in the same races, 
but we cannot say that the men with the shortest 
skulls are the most civilised, for some of the least 
civilised Mongolians are more brachycephalic than 
the English. In my opinion, there is good evidence 
that dark or black skin-colour is correlated with the 
light and heat of the tropical sun. It may be objected 
to this that the American Indians of the tropics are 
not black like the negroes, but they are known to be 
considerably darker than those of the north. At 



42 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

anyrate, we have the following facts : that no very 
dark race occurs in temperate climes either north or 
south, that the negroes of equatorial Africa are 
distinctly darker than the Bantus and Hottentots 
of South Africa, and that the negroes of North 
America have become lighter since their importation. 
I have sometimes thought that perhaps modifications 
due to stimuli might differ from mutations in not 
exhibiting Mendelian segregation, but the evidence 
so far as we have any is contradictory, for while 
crossing of negroes with whites always gives inter- 
mediates in all degrees of mixture, we have a con- 
stantly repeated segregation when dark whites and 
fair whites interbreed. Eimer mentions this as 
especially conspicuous in South German villages, 
where the inhabitants continually intermarry, and 
yet pure blondes and dark children occur constantly 
in the same family. This may be typical Mendelism, 
the dark complexion being dominant and the blonde 
recessive ; but it requires further investigation.* 
There are, however, many race characters which seem 
to be evidently mutations, since there is no evidence 
that they are useful or due to external conditions. 
As examples of these, we may mention the character 
of the hair with regard to curling, the direction of 
the eye-aperture, the prominence of the nose. We 
have little precise evidence concerning Mendelian 
inheritance in these. Mr. G. P. Mudge pubHshed 



■=■ Mr. C. C. Hurst has recently shown that dark eyes of any 
shade are dominant to blue eyes, and that the two characters 
segregate in Mendelian fashion. — Proc. Roy. Soc, 1908. 



EVOLUTION OF MAN 43 

lately some data concerning the inheritance of such 
features in crosses between Canadian Indians and 
Europeans, but it seemed to me that he found all the 
Indian characters segregating together in one indi- 
vidual, and that this could only occur in a much 
smaller proportion of cases than he stated. His 
evidence would have been more convincing if he had 
dealt with single marked features and proved that 
they segregated.* In negro crosses we have no satis- 
factory evidence of segregation in any character, 
whether adaptive or otherwise.! 

A word or two may be devoted to the considera- 
tion of Darwin's suggestion that sexual selection may 
account for the non-adaptive character of human 
races. I have shown that where the characters are 
confined to one sex selection cannot be the cause 
of this limitation. Where a character is already 
unisexual, however, it may vary and remain uni- 
sexual, as, for instance, in the human beard. The 
question, then, is whether selection by the female is 
required to account for a difference in the beard, or 
whether the mutation might not establish itself 
without selection. In deer the antlers differ in 
different species in size and shape, and it could 
scarcely be suggested that the particular size and 
shape in a given species was due to the fact that they 

* He did, however, state that segregation occurs between the 
blue eye, fair complexion, and light hair of a Scotsman, and the black 
eye, olive skin, and black hair of the Red Indian. — Natutr, Nov. 7, 
1907, p. 9, and Proceedings Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. II., 
No. 3, p. 124. Jan. 1909. 

t This, of course, does not now hold true. See pedigree No. 3 
in this Journal, page 24. — TIte Editor. 



44 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

were the best for fighting, or the most admired by the 
female. But sexual selection might affect characters 
which were not limited in inheritance ; for example, 
the black of negroes might be due to the preference by 
either or both sexes for the darkest skin, but this is 
not a probable view. 

In a short paper like the present I can only give a 
very imperfect outline of the subject, but I hope I 
have said enough to show that anthropology requires 
to be re-investigated from modern points of view. 
My own provisional conclusions are that man affords 
an example of a single species which has started a new 
group, which might become a genus or family. Other 
genera or families may have originated in this way by 
a single species adopting a new mode of life. The 
evidence does not seem to me to support the view 
that all human characters, adaptive and non-adaptive, 
can be regarded as mutations independent in their 
origin of habits or functional or other stimuli. The 
evidence seems to me to agree with the view I take 
of animals in general, that adaptive characters are 
due, not to selection, but to the effects of functional 
and physical stimulation, and that diagnostic 
characters are not adaptive and therefore not due 
to selection, but to blastogenic variation. 



Mr. Cunningham's paper read to tlie Mendel Society in February 
1908, was published in "Science Progress" in the following October.- 
We are indebted to Mr. John Murray the publisher, for kind per- 
mission to reprint the article. 



Biological Iconoclasm, 
Mendelian Inheritance and Human Society 



A PLEA FOR THE OPERATION OF A MORE 
VIRILE SENTIMENT IN HUMAN AFFAIRS. 



An Address delivered to the Mendel Society and to the 
Eugenics Education Society, in June, 1908. 

By GEORGE PERCIVAL MUDGE. 

No biologist who has Hved in our community and 
watches its afiairs, can feel that all is .right in the 
modern sentiment that is guiding it. If he fearlessly 
faces the facts, and puts aside all prejudice arising 
out of mistaken ideas, he cannot fail to see that a con- 
tinuation and extension of this sentiment will lead 
the nation— which is last upon the scroll of greatness 
— to its destruction. 

Let us first consider the nature of the modern 
sentiment of which I speak. It is characterised by 
a wide range of various phases, but all of them 
may be expressed in one general formula, i.e., " Pre- 
serve and procreate the unfit citizens, and hamper 
and discourage the fit." Let me illustrate the different 
ways in which this formula has been applied, by 
giving one or two examples taken from the statements 
and the conduct of the people who are endeavouring 
to apply it. AATien Canon Barnett says that the 
" weak of human society are so because of the short- 
comings of the strong " ; when Mr. Phihp Snowden 



4(> THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

says " he believes we can change human nature 
by education and legislation " ; when Lady Warwick 
and Sir John Gorst demand relief for underfed school 
children from the Lambeth Board of Guardians ; 
when certain well-intentioned but misinformed people 
demand that every elementary State school shall have 
an army of nurses to clean and bandage children's 
cut fingers ; when Mrs. Sidney Webb impliedly 
advocates that the children of workhouse paupers 
can be made vigorous and strong and converted into 
self-reliant and independent citizens if only they are 
nursed by State employed nurses ; when Mrs. 
Humphry Ward believes that the children of the 
lower social classes are going to be made happy, well 
ordered, contented, and healthy citizens if the State 
will but provide their recreation and their playing 
grounds ; when an Act of Parliament decrees that 
public servants paid out of public moneys shall 
cleanse verminous persons ; when certain medical 
men assert that the stunted weaklings whose parents 
live in one-roomed tenements are more stunted than 
those whose parents live in two-roomed tenements, 
and these more so than those of three -roomed tene- 
ments, and in consequence they conclude that 
our nation is undergoing physical degeneration along 
this road, and then further by implication recommend 
that the State {i.e., the fitter citizens) shall provide 
four-roomed tenements ; when one of the leader- 
writers of The Times asserts that " individuals, like 
races, are the product of the environment," implying 
a direct and moulding action of the environment ; 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 47 

and when the Glasgow Board of Guardians, at the 
expense of the ratepayers, send the children of 
reprobates, drunkards, criminals, prostitutes, and 
general failures to be boarded out and cared for 
among the intelligent, virtuous, and thrifty inhabi- 
tants of the western coast of Scotland, in the implied 
belief that they will inevitably become good citizens 
because of the changed environment — they are 
expanding this remarkable formula, and are en- 
deavouring to teach the strange doctrine that sand 
can behave as granite if only both are beaten upon 
by the same tempestuous sea. Verily, the age of 
fairy tales has not yet passed away ! 

This corybantic sentiment, so wildly solicitous 
of the well-being of the civically unfit, is being 
promulgated from every pulpit, by every newspaper, 
by every social reformer, by every political opportu- 
nist, and by every one of the great multitude of 
morbid and neurotic sentimentalists. It is a phase 
of hysteria permeating into the soul of our nation. 
Surely the worst thing any nation can do is to concern 
itself in frantic endeavours to save or pamper its 
weaklings and unfit. It is dangerous to ignore 
the clear teachings of science, that in the hereditary 
processes there is an irrevocable coming out at one 
end of the chain of generations of the characters 
that go in at the other ; they come out not only as 
they went in, but numerically increased, because 
the individuals bearing them are multiplied in 
geometrical progression ; they tend to spread ever 
wider in each successive generation. That which 



48 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

started in the first generation as a pair of parents 
may in the seventh generation become a million 
individuals ! We are not fully aware of the silent 
dangers that we incur in our endeavours to save the 
unfit and render their lot easier. Useless as they 
are, and unable to contribute to national resources or 
progress, they become an ever-increasing source of 
injury and harassment to the fitter citizens, who, 
either voluntarily or under compulsion, contribute 
to their maintenance. While the artificially-endowed 
unfit, who are being relieved in ever-increasing degree 
of their responsibilities, are faithfully procreating, 
the artificially-disendowed fit citizens, whose respon- 
sibilities increase as those of the other class decrease, 
are limiting the number of their children. For any 
nation, under any circumstances, this is a dangerous 
condition ; but for a nation upon the walls of whose 
temples has been written, in the writing of con- 
temporary events, the warning that in the not 
remote future she will be called upon to measure her 
strength with other nations upon the battlefield, it 
is nothing short of criminal and disastrous folly. 

If our nation must depart from the laisser-faire 
policy, and make a positive effort to determine what 
the qualities of its citizens shall be, the only sound 
line of action is to endeavour to encourage and 
preserve the worthier citizens, and to discourage 
and eliminate the less worthy ones. And that 
result can be attained without any conscious effort, 
for those best fitted to survive under the conditions 
which reign on earth will do so by purely natural 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 49 

processes, without any artificial and compulsory 
interference or help. And we may be sure that these 
processes are benign ; biological teaching is clear 
on that point. By these processes, throughout the 
whole realm of nature, the maximum amount of 
happiness and vigour is attained, with the minimum 
amount of misery or pain. Human interference 
but decreases the former, while increasing the latter. 
It is better, in the faith of the greater religions, to 
accept our destiny. 

I will come now to one of the principal objects 
of this address, i.e., the refutation of the main as- 
sumption, sometimes expressed and sometimes im- 
plied, upon which this modern sentiment rests. 
It is tacitly assumed by the exponents of this senti- 
ment that the qualities of the individual depend 
upon his environment ; that he is vicious because 
of the viciousness of his surroundings, and good 
because his environment is made up of good in- 
fluences. It is entirely wrong ; there is no justi- 
fication for it at all in the realm of fact. The very 
converse is true, for in social life the environment 
is the product of the individual, and not vice versa. 
The stunted individuals are not the product of 
a one-roomed tenement, but the one-roomed tenement 
is the expression of the inherent incapacity of this 
race to be able to do anything better for 
itself. They are not undergoing physical de- 
generation because they are living in a one-roomed 
tenement — many a better man has done that — 
but the one-roomed condition is the natural outcome 



60 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of their already-existing physical, moral, ana in- 
tellectual degeneration. These degenerates are muta- 
tions, and breed true to their degeneracy. The 
qualities of an individual are determined within 
him ; they are inherent, and depend upon the 
molecular architecture of the racial lines from which 
he has sprung. An individual is merely a piece of 
his racial stock ; what he can do depends, not upon 
his environment, but upon the innate qualities 
which he has inherited from his stock. Let us 
observe that it is a potato plant, and not a dahlia, 
that grows out of a potato tuber ; it is a dahlia, and 
not a potato, that grows out of a dahlia's tuberous 
root-stock. A change of soil will not alter this 
fact. One potato may be grown among an army of 
dahlias, but it comes up a potato plant in spite of 
that. The susceptible wheat plant falls a prey to 
the " rust," but the inherently immune plant growing 
in a field of " rusted " plants remains unattached 
and healthy. From the fertilised ovum of a fish 
there is developed a fish, and not a bird. Transference 
of the bird to water, or of the fish to the skies, will not 
convert the one to the other. But the exponents of 
modern sentiment are preaching, either directly or 
by implication, that it will. It is a strange doctrine, 
and is so contrary to the common experiences of 
life, that it is marvellous it should ever have been 
believed. But I suppose there is no limit to the 
amount of delusion which the circumstances of a 
democracy, with the various appeals that are made 
to the uncultured and unculturable masses for their 
judgement, will allow to be imposed upon it. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 51 

Let me now proceed to describe one interesting 
case, to show how false is this doctrine of environ- 
ment, before I pass on to the second main purpose of 
my address, i.e., to demonstrate the irrevocableness 
and inevitableness of the transmission from generation 
to generation of those inherent quahties that are, for 
all practical purposes, the sole determining cause of 
what an organism will be and do. In the Tyrolese 
valleys and elsewhere there grow two plants known 
as the Summer Savory and the Flax. In the valleys 
both these plants are green in colour. This green 
colour is due to a substance called chlorophyll, 
and one of its inherent qualities is that it can 
only exist as chlorophyll within a certain range 
of light-intensity. In a too dull light it is not formed, 
and in a too intense light it is destroyed. But this 
chlorophyll is necessary for the existence of the 
plant ; in its absence death ensues. Now, as we 
move higher up a mountain the sunlight becomes 
more intense, because there is a less thick layer 
of atmosphere, with its contained water particles, 
to absorb a certain measure of it. Consequently 
at a certain height the light-intensity will be sufficient 
to destroy the chlorophyll and kill the plant. The 
hypothesis of this modern sentiment demands that 
these two plants, placed under the same environment, 
shall behave in the same way. For, assuredly, if 
it is environment which determines the qualities or 
behaviour of organisms, then the same environment 
shall produce the same response in all organisms 
subjected to its influence. If this be not the as- 



52 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

sumption underlying all efforts at social reform 
then what is the justification for them ? How, then, 
do these two plants react to a changed environment, 
when they are grown in the intenser sunlight that 
shines on the mountain slopes at a height of 2,195 
metres, instead of in the shadier valley ? What 
justification, as living organisms, do they give us 
for those almost frantic efforts which are designated 
under the collective and misleading phrase, social 
reform — efforts which ostensibly aim at improving 
the environment of the weak and unfit on the as- 
sumption that thereby they will be made strong 
and fit ? No justification at all do we find in the 
behaviour of any living organism. Nothing, in fact, 
but condemnation of such efforts. For when these 
two plants are moved from an old environment 
common to them both, and are grown from seed and 
reared under a new and identical environment, do 
they both react in the same way to the same con- 
ditions ? Not at all ! The Summer Savory changee 
its colour, and becomes suffused over its whole 
surface with a purple colouration. Careful examina- 
tion of the tissues of the plant shows that this new 
colour is developed in the most superficial tissues 
only, the internal tissues remaining unchanged. 
What is the meaning of this change of colour under 
the new environment of an intenser sunlight ? 
The purple-coloured sap which is thus called into 
existence possesses the power of absorbing certain 
of the rays of sunlight, and especially the particular 
ones which are most active in the destruction of the 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 53 

plant's green colouring matter. The organism is 
thus protected from the harmful influences of an 
increased intensity of sunlight. Its green colouring 
matter — its chlorophyll — remains undamaged, and 
can continue to discharge those vitally-important 
functions that belong to it. This plant thus thrives, 
flowers, and seeds under the changed environment. 
But it is quite otherwise with the Flax. It does not 
develope any purple sap ; it fails to respond in that 
way, or in any other protective way, to its changed 
conditions. It cannot even reach the flowering 
stage, for soon after it has passed the seedling stage 
its chlorophyll becomes destroyed by the intenser 
sunlight, and it perishes. 

Here, then, are two organisms that give us a 
crucial test of the validity or invalidity of this re- 
markable environmental doctrine. And the answer 
is definite and condemnatory ! What an organism 
can and will do does not depend on the environment, 
but on the qualities of the organism itself. It is 
one of the inherent capacities of the Summer Savory 
to respond to this particular kind of new environment, 
and to adapt itself to the changed conditions. It 
is one of the inherent defects of the Flax that it 
cannot do what the Summer Savory does ; and the 
only result of applying the environmental doctrine 
to it is to kill it. This is a fact which is not without 
its social significance. It is a fact which is not 
without illustration in the case of Man himself. 
Let me give the illustration, for it is highly significant 
and entrancingly interesting. Certain missionaries, 



54 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

supremely innocent of biological facts, rushed into 
some complex biological problems and endeavoured 
to civilise the Tasmanians. Acting under the im- 
pelling influences of mistaken ideas, but prompted 
by the noblest motives, they sought to change the 
environment of these people, and to give them what 
they imagined to be a better one. Their efforts were 
rewarded by the extinction of the Tasmanians ! 
In sometliing less than fifty years the whole race of 
this people was eliminated, not by war, or plague, 
or pestilence, but by the operation of those processes 
that flow from the application of that crude, theoreti- 
cal, and sentimental conception of the power . of 
the environment to make good out of bad that 
is the dominating influence of our own social efforts. 

Some day we shall learn that the characters of 
men are relatively fixed and stable, and that they 
are the products of evolution under set conditions. 
As we find men, at any given period, in any given 
place, they are adapted to the particular combination 
of conditions under which they have evolved, and 
to no other. Arbitrarily change these conditions, 
as in the case of the Flax and the Tasmanians, and 
the organisms, who are thereby no longer fitted to 
the new conditions are destroyed. Leave them 
alone as Nature made them — " let the Tasmanians 
roam as they were wont, and undisturbed " — and 
they will thrive. Interfere with them, by setting 
up a dogma that rushes in where biological philosophy 
fears to tread, and the objects of our solicitude 
" become bewildered and dull, they lose all motives 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 55 

for exertion, and get no new ones in their place," and 
ultimately they perish. 

These are considerations which should be recog- 
nised before any endeavour is made to interfere 
with the conditions and natures of the citizens of 
our own communities. In the same way, but in 
lesser degree, that the inherent qualities of a Tas- 
manian are different from those of an Anglican 
Bishop, so are the inherent qualities of the lower 
social strata different from those of the upper strata 
in civilised communities. And just as the Bishop, 
with liis higher aspirations and nobler sentiments, 
failed to recognise that the Tasmanian had not got 
them, and could not be made to have them, so certain 
well-intentioned, generous, impulsive, charitable, and 
philanthropic persons in the higher social scale fail 
to recognise that the aspirations and ideals of the 
lower classes are wholly different from their own. 
And just as with the Tasmanians, so in our own 
social efforts, disaster and destruction will follow 
any interference with those benign but merciless 
processes of Nature which allow only individuals 
adapted to their conditions to survive. The Tas- 
manians lived the life they did because their inherent 
desires impelled them to do so, and there was nothing 
in their physical environment inconsistent with them. 
But neither was there anything inconsistent in that 
physical environment with half-a-dozen other modes 
of living, had they chose to live them. Other 
ways, it is conceivable, were open to them, but 
they chose the particular one, and the only one. 



56 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which their inherent quahties made possible. The 
Hfe they Kved was the product of their desires — it 
was the outcome of their innate nature ; they were 
not the product of their mode of Hfe. They made 
their hfe, not their Ufe made them. It is the same 
with our own social classes. The mode of life of 
the higher strata is the outcome of their inherent 
qualities in just the same way that the mode of life 
of the lower is the product of their inborn desires and 
capacities. Endeavour by altering the environment 
to compel a cultured and refined woman of the upper 
classes to lead the life of the slums, and we shall 
eliminate her race. But, clear and obvious though 
this is, social reformers fail to recognise the truth of 
the reverse process. Try to alter the environment 
of the lower classes, and compel them to give up their 
inborn habits and desires — which are the product of 
their line of evolution — and to lead a wholly different 
life, and we shall repeat the concluding chapter 
of Tasmanian history. The higher classes are the 
outcome of their evolution, and the lower of theirs. 
The existence of social classes is a natural fact, and 
the existence of different grades of social condi- 
tions is but the natural outcome of that fact. The 
social conditions are the products of the social 
classes, not the social classes the products of 
social conditions. It is in this matter that those 
medical men who are interested in social problems 
and social reformers have confounded cause and effect. 
And it is out of this confusion that modern social 
sentiment has sprung. So long as this sentiment 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 57 

exists, and so long as it is operative in guiding and 
initiating social legislation, it constitutes a source of 
the gravest danger to the nation. It is time we awoke. 
It is time we turned our attention to Biology, and 
refused to heed any longer the " rope-dancers in the 
market places." 

Let us pass now from the question of environment 
to consider inherent qualities and the way in which, 
once they have come into existence, be they good or 
bad, they irrevocably pass on unaltered through 
successive generations. An organism does not mani- 
fest a single quality alone, but is made up of a complex 
combination of many qualities. Some of these 
qualities, be they structural or psychical, are them- 
selves not simple, but complex. Some of them are 
independent of others in the hereditary transmission, 
but others are correlated and always go together, 
in larger or smaller groups, from generation to genera- 
tion. An individual, like his environment, is really 
an aggregate of complexities bound up within each 
other. This fact renders all questions of social 
interest extremely difficult to consider, and is the 
best justification of the laisser-faire attitude. If 
we depart from the certain ground of Nature, and 
artificially touch one link in the series of com- 
plexities that are interlinked and make up the 
tangled chain of life, it is not possible to forecast 
even the immediate, much less the remote con- 
sequences. They are always such as we never 
expected them to be. Nevertheless, certain main 
trends of this chain are sufficiently clear for practical 



58 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

purposes, and can be seen with sufficient distinctness 
running through the phenomena of Hfe. These are the 
facts that I would like now to bring to your attention. 
When a tall person marries a short person, or one 
of sweet temper marries one of a bad temper, there 
are three conceivable possibilities as to the nature 
of the immediate offspring. We can imagine that 
tallness and shortness, or sweetness and badness, 
will blend with each other in each case, and produce 
offspring not as tall or as sweet as one parent, nor 
as short or as bad-tempered as the other. Let us 
call this the hypothesis of " blended inheritance." 
We can, however, imagine another alternative, and 
conceive that some of the offspring may be like one 
parent and some like the other, or that, under certain 
circumstances, all the offspring in one generation 
may be like one of the parents only, those which 
resemble the other parent, in the particular character 
considered, appearing in the next or later generations. 
In such a case there has been no blending of the two 
alternative characters, for they have passed on to 
the next or later generations distinct from each 
other, each retaining its own feature of distinction. 
Let us call this the hypothesis of " segregated or 
alternative inheritance." The third alternative is 
that the union of two characters in marriage shall 
produce an offspring showing a new quality, different 
from the two which by their union produced it. 
We may call this " diapheromorphic inheritance." 
There is yet a fourth possibility, which can, however, 
only occur with certain characters. The bodies of 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 59 

the offspring may be a mosaic of the two characters 
of the parents. We may call this " mosaic, par- 
ticulate, or poecilodynamous inheritance." 

I am not concerned now in discussing these types 
of inheritance, for it is to be observed they are all 
based upon the visible body characters. They are 
descriptive of the somatic features only in inheritance. 
My present line of enquiry will deal with somatic 
or body characters as incidental but still necessary 
features of consideration. It is with the gametic 
or sex-cell characters, which are, of course, invisible 
to us until they are manifested in the body cells, 
that we shall be essentially concerned. And I would 
like you to try and form a mental picture for yourself 
of an individual as a compound made up of a large 
number of sex-cells, which are surrounded by body 
cells, but which are in a sense independent of them. 
The body cells are the perishable cells ; they live our 
life for us, and then die. But the sex-cells, in a sense, 
are the immortal cells, for they carry on our characters 
from the generation in which we live to all those which 
succeed us. Whatever the body cells may do, there 
is no evidence to show that the sex-cells respond to 
environmental influences, in the sense that their 
innate qualities can be altered. Indeed, their stability 
is a matter of vital importance, for without it there 
could not exist species that, throughout long periods 
of time and through a wide range of geographical 
distribution, retain their characters unaltered. There 
could be no survival of the fittest, if the qualities 
which made a race the fittest were not stable and, 
therefore, persistent. 



60 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

The stability of the sex- cell is a fact that I would 
like you to grasp, because it is one of very great 
importance in considering social problems. What 
we have always to bear in mind is not so much a 
question of what the individual himself may be, but 
what is the nature of the characters which his sex- 
cells are carrying and transmitting to successive 
generations. And there is another fact of equal 
importance which we should endeavour to fully 
understand now, and this is that the body or visible 
characters of an individual are not necessarily a reliable 
indication of the characters which his sex-cells may be 
carrying. Three grey-coated animals, externally 
similar, may be carrying in their gametes (sex-cells) 
very different qualities, so far as colour is concerned. 
One may carry nothing but greyness, another greyness 
and albinism, and the third may carry greyness, 
blackness, and albinism. The offspring of these 
three apparently identical individuals would be 
very different. If these processes are at work in 
human life — and I shall presently show you evidence 
indicating that they are — clearly it is a matter of 
the widest significance, and one which all social 
reformers have overlooked. If a youth from the 
lower classes manifests a few superficial accomplish- 
ments — can, for instance, pass an elementary scholar- 
ship examination by a process of cram — but is carrying 
the civic qualities of his class, is it worth the while of 
a State to spend the money of better citizens upon 
that youth ? Is it worth while to spend money in 
order that we may produce in an individual certain 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 61 

artificial accomplishments which can always be 
had for nothing in the class immediately above that 
to which he belongs ? In this next higher grade we 
not only obtain the artificial accomplishments, but 
in addition better innate civic qualities. What we 
are really doing by such methods is paying for an 
inferior stock when we have already the better one 
for nothing. We pay for a few putative accomplish- 
ments in an individual whose sex-cells are going to 
give us an inferior civic stock ! That is one con- 
sideration which tliis new fact of heredity bids us heed. 

We are going to deal, then, with the sex-cells. 
When the male sex-cell unites with the female sex- 
cell there is produced the first body cell, by the 
repeated divisions and growth of which a new in- 
dividual arises. What this new individual will be, 
and what he will transmit to the next generation, 
depends not upon his environment, but upon what 
the two sex- cells, male and female, of his parents 
brought in. A sex-cell which carries leaden social 
instincts is not going to develope into a golden 
individual because he has been given a golden en- 
vironment. From it a person of leaden instincts only 
will develope. 

Let us appeal, then, to accurately-conducted 
experiments, and see how far we can ascertain some 
rehable facts as to what the sex- cells are really doing. 
When a sex-cell of a pure black rabbit is united 
with one of an albino rabbit, to what sort of offspring 
will it give rise ? Without exception, whenever this 
cross has been made, black rabbits indistinguishable 



62 THE MENDEL JOl RNAL 

from the pure black parent have been the result. The 
whiteness of the albino parent is temporarily lost 
to view ; but it is not destroyed or swamped. It 
exists, and under the appointed conditions which 
Nature has determined and we have now learned it 
will reappear, pure and unaltered. Its association 
with blackness, in the processes of heredity, has not 
altered it. Environment, even of this intimate kind, 
has not changed it. For, if we cross the sex-cells 
of the brothers and sisters of this first generation, we 
find that two kinds of rabbits are produced, i.e., 
black and albinoes. Blackness and albinism have 
separated out again, perfectly distinct. There has been 
no blending of these characters, but segregation of them. 
We know that each member of the offspring in 
the first generation which results from uniting the 
sex-cells of a pure black rabbit with those of an 
albino must have been compound individuals, because 
each must have contained both blackness and 
albinism. They are, with respect to these two 
characters, impure individuals. We may call them 
hybrids, or heterozygotes*. But the feature of 
interest is that although they are impure, since they 
carry blackness and whiteness, they are indistin- 
guishable from the pure black parent which carried 
blackness only. Something must have happened 
to the albinism, since it does not manifest itself in 
these hybrids. We are not sure what does happen 
to it, but it does not, for our present purpose, very 
much matter. We have got the fact that one of the 

* A term applied by Prof. Bateson. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 63 

two alternative characters exhibits itself in the hybrid, 
and the other does not. We may speak of the 
character which thus shows itself to the exclusion 
of the other as the Dominant one, and the one which 
temporarily disappears as the Recessive character. 

When these hybrids are mated with each other, 
or are mated back with either of their two aprents, 
or with individuals like their parents, blackness and 
albinism separate out again in this second generation. 
But we know from experiment that all the black 
individuals of the second generation are not alike. 
This is a very important fact, and its social bearing 
we have already glanced at (pp. 60 and 61). Some 
are pure black individuals, and others are hybrids ; 
the one carries blackness only, and the other both 
blackness and albinism. And there is a certain 
proportion in which these types appear when hybrids 
are mated inter se. It is one pure black, two impure 
blacks, and one albino. 

If the pure blacks be bred with each other, only 
pure black individuals are produced in the offspring. 
The dominant character breeds true. If the albinoes 
be mated with each other, only albino offspring are 
produced. The recessive character also breeds true. 
But if the impure blacks be bred together, then the 
offspring again consists in this third generation of 
different individuals in the proportion of one pure 
black, two impure blacks, and one albino. The 
hybrids do not breed true. 

Now a moment's thought will show us that we 
cannot explain these facts on any assumption of 



64 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the blending of the characters carried by the sex-cells 
of the two parents. Had blending occurred, black- 
ness as such, and whiteness as such, would have for 
ever disappeared. When blackness is crossed with 
whiteness, if blending takes place, we should expect 
to find a diluted blackness. And the diluted blackness 
of the first generation, when bred with diluted 
blackness, should on this hypothesis give no other 
individuals but those of diluted blackness ; and it 
should do this for generation after generation. 
When crossed with albinism, a dilute black should 
give a diluter black, but not blackness as black as 
the original, and albinism as pure as the first albino 
introduced. It is clear, then, that the blended 
hypothesis of inheritance fails completely in this 
case. And it similarly fails in a large number of 
other cases, comprising a wide range of characters. 

Will the hypothesis of segregation give us an ex- 
planation of the ascertained facts ? Assuredly it 
does. Let us proceed to see how. The doctrine of 
segregation assumes as a fundamental proposition 
that when two sex- cells unite, one carrying black- 
ness and the other albinism, these two qualities do 
not blend or fuse in the single cell which results, 
but remain distinct ; and that at the ultimate 
cell-divisions by which the sex-cells of the new 
individual will separate out from its body cells, 
these two qualities will be found distinct from each 
other, and carried in different sex-cells. If the in- 
dividual is carrying only blackness, then, of course, 
all its sex-cells will carry blackness. iVnd, similarly. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 65 

if it is carrying only albinism, then all its sex-cells 
can carry albinism alone. But if it carries both 
blackness and albinism, then one-half of its sex-cells 
will carry one character, and the other half will 
carry the other. 

Now it is clear that so long as a pure black 
individual is crossed with another pure black, 
sex-cells carrying blackness only can meet. Hence, 
only a black offspring can result. And in the same 
way, so long as an albino is crossed with an albino, 
there is only one kind of sex-cell which can meet, 
i.e., an albinism-carrying one with an albinism- 
carrying one. But it is otherwise when an impure 
or hybrid black is mated with a similar individual. 
Here the two parents are both carrying two kinds 
of sex-cells, i.e., those transmitting blackness and 
those transmitting albinism. Consequently, at sexual 
conjugation, a male sex-cell which carries blackness 
has an equal chance of meeting an egg carrying 
either blackness or albinism. And the same is true 
of the male sex-cell which carries albinism. If we 
agree to let A stand for albinism, and B for blackness, 
then B A will represent a hybrid individual. This 
individual will be black in colour, although it is 
carrying albinism, because we have seen that black- 
ness is dominant and albinism is recessive. We 
may, therefore, graphically represent the possibilities 
in this way : — 

A A X B B Parents. 

I 

\ BA + BA +BA I Offspring. 



66 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

If No. 1 ^ ^, the sister, is mated witli No. 2 B A 
the brother, then the B sex-cells of the first may 
meet the B and A sex-cells of the second, and give us 
B B and B A respectively. Similarly, the A sex-cells 
of No. 1 may meet the B and A sex-cells of No. 2 
and give us B A and A A respectively. Thus we 
shall obtain I BB + 2 BA + I A A. That is, on 
the average in every four members of the offspring 
of two B A parents, we sliall expect 1 pure black, 
1 pure albino, and 2 impure or hybrid black indi- 
viduals. And this is what experiment does give us. 

We have spoken so far of the segregation of these 
two characters. But there is another feature which 
we should note, and it is this : Segregation of charac- 
ters alone would not be sufficient to explain the 
experimental results. It is possible to have segrega- 
tion and yet have both characters carried in the 
same sex-cell ; they can lie side by side with each 
other in the cell. But it is a fundamental part of 
our proposition that any one sex-cell can carry one 
only of the two alternative characters. To this 
conception of the structure of the sex-cell we apply 
the term " gametic purity." Necessarily, gametic 
purity implies segregation. But segregation does not 
necessarily imply gametic purity. We may now widen 
the description of our principle of heredity, and 
call it the theory of segregation and gametic purity. 

We have arrived, then, at this position : The 
sex-cells are the carriers of the characters of the 
race, from one generation to another. Whenever 
two alternative characters, such as tallness and 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 67 

dwarfness, colour and albinism, short-haired coat 
and long-haired coat, hairy epidermis and smooth 
epidermis, blue eyes and brown eyes, and a large 
number of other alternatives are present in a race, 
each of the sex-cells can carry one only of these two 
characters, the other character being carried by 
another cell. And the distribution of these two 
characters among the whole mass of the sex- cells of 
any individual is such that one-half of the total 
number of them will carry the one character, and the 
other half will carry the other character. 

And the outcome of this structure and arrangement 
of the sex-cells is that when two hybrids are mated, 
their offspring will consist of a mixture of individuals, 
some showing the dominant character and others 
the recessive. Those which exhibit the dominant 
character are not alike, some of them being pure 
dominants and the others impure or hybrid dominants. 
The proportions in which these types appear are one 
pure dominant, two hybrid dominants, and one 
recessive. 

I would like now to ask your consideration of a 
type of mating which is very important from the 
social standpoint, and from the point of view of the 
student of human heredity. It is the mating where 
one of the two parents is a hybrid and the other a 
recessive. In our symbolic representation we may 
state it this way : D R x R R. The result of 
such a mating is to produce only two kinds of off- 
spring, being identical in regard to the two par- 
ticular characters under consideration with the 



68 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

two parents. That is, the offspring will consist, 
in the long run, of an equal number of individuals 
who are hybrids, or D i?'s, and of pure individuals, 
or R Ks, who are carrying only the recessive char- 
acter. The hybrid individual will carry both the 
dominant and recessive character, but will ex- 
hibit in his structural features or psychical con- 
duct only the dominant one. That is, he is some- 
thing different from what he appears to be. His 
influence on the race, in respect of his hereditary 
transmission, may be quite the opposite to that 
expected, if the expectation be based on his present 
apparent condition. This is a fact which social 
reformers and all others who aspire to interfere 
with Nature's processes would do well to clearly 
realise. It is easy enough to heedlessly interfere 
with the workings of Nature, and to misunderstand 
her, but it is impossible to escape the consequences 
of so doing. 

If tliis conception of segregation and gametic 
purity be true of human Hfe, it is easy to see how 
important a bearing it has upon the problems with 
which Genetics* and Eugenics are concerned. If 
we, as students of these branches of biological science, 
desire to see only our individuals of good civic 
qualities mated, and if we find upon further study 
that a certain proportion of our apparently good 
citizens are carrying in a recessive condition the 
antithetic bad quahties, which may become mani- 
fested in the next generation, clearly our line of 

* For a definition of Genetics and Eugenics, see Appendix, p p. 110 and 112. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 69 

action or of social education must be modified. 
There is a pitfall lying across our path, and we 
must be careful to see it, in order that we may avoid 
the consequences of falling into it. 

Before I pass on to consider the other main purpose 
of this paper, i.e., the question whether the evidence 
justifies us in believing that the processes of segrega- 
tion and gametic purity are operating in human 
heredity, I would like to make the task a little easier 
by tabulating all the possible types of mating which 
can occur. We are assuming for the present that 
human beings are composed of a number of alternative 
or unit characters. These are disposed in pairs, 
and each unit character in a pair is capable of re- 
placing the alternative one in the processes of here- 
dity. One of these unit characters we call dominant, 
and the other recessive. This assumption being 
tentatively accepted, we may classify human matings, 
so far as particular pairs of characters are concerned, 
in the following way, and from such matings offspring 
of the nature indicated will be expected : — 

Parent : Parent. Nature and proportion of expected Offspring. 

RR X RR = AW RR. 

DD X RR = AW DR &nd all visibly D. 

DD X DR = I D D + l D R = SiW visibly D. 

DR X DR = lDD+2DR{vkih\yD)+lRR. 

DR X RR =-. 1 DR (visibly D) +1 R R. 

DD X DD = AW DD. 

Now we are in a position to consider what is, 
next to the question of man's origin and destiny, 
one of the most intensely interesting of human 
questions : Do the alternative characters which 
make up human beings, and which decide what we 



70 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

shall be and do, separate from each other during 
the processes and structural changes by which the 
sex-cells are produced, so that, individually, we 
represent the product of a sum of paired characters 
handed down to us by our parents ? And what we 
shall be, therefore, will depend not upon what our 
ancestors as an aggregate were, but upon the gametic 
nature and structure of our parents ? And since our 
parents can only carry between them a single pair of 
alternative characters of the same class, while all our 
ancestors between them may have carried many 
such pairs, it is clear that we individually cannot 
represent in any particular character more than two 
of our ancestors, while in some cases we may represent 
only one and carry in a recessive condition the 
alternative unit character of one other ? Or, are we 
the product of the blending of all the ancestral alterna- 
tive qualities that have been brought into our line by 
all our ancestors ? So far as our evidence is definite 
at all, the answer for the latter question is negative, 
and afiSjmative for the former. I am far from 
asserting that our evidence is complete, or that 
it is of such a nature that the blended hypothesis of 
inheritance is yet altogether excluded. But I am 
prepared to maintain that, making due allowances 
for the circumstances under which the human 
pedigrees have been obtained, and giving proper 
consideration to the probable complexity of many 
human characters supposed to be simple, the evidence 
is very clearly suggestive — and in some cases it 
amounts to a scientific demonstration — that gametic 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 71 

purity and segregation are tlie two processes which 
determine human heredity, alike in the transmission 
of normal and abnormal characters. 

Let us pass on, therefore, to consider some of the 
evidence for segregation and gametic purity in 
man. I propose first to deal with the transmission 
of a normal human character, i.e., eye-colour. Until 
Mr. Hurst, during the years 1905-1907, examined a 
number of families, separately and in detail, recording 
each individual eye-colour, it cannot be said that 
our knowledge of tliis matter was anything like 
definite or satisfactory. Previous records largely 
depended upon the observations of different ob- 
servers, and upon a more or less popular and in- 
definite classification of eye-colours. And, moreover, 
the mathematical methods that were employed to 
deal with the ascertained data were of such a nature 
that the truth was rather masked than elucidated by 
them. As a matter of subsequent knowledge, they 
actually did miss the truth. Mr. Hurst made a 
personal examination of the eye-colours of one 
hundred and thirty-nine pairs of parents, and of 
six hundred and eighty-three of their offspring. 
He found that he was enabled to classify all eye- 
colours into two classes, which he called the " Sim- 
plex " and the " Duplex." These two types of 
eyes are quite distinct. The simplex type includes 
all the pure blue and pure grey* eyes, i.e., blue and 

* Pure grey eyes are simply blue eyes in which the iris tissues are a 
little more opaque, and so cause the blue to appear grey. Eyes which 
are blue in childhood ma}- become grey in later life, owing to an increase 
of this opacity. 



72 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

grey eyes which contain no visible trace of yellow 
or brown pigment. The duplex type includes the 
black, brown, hazel, green, and impure grey and 
impure blue eyes, ^.e., grey and blue with a little 
visible yellow and brown pigments present. He 
found that the simplex type behaves as a recessive 
to the duplex type ; so that, if one parent had pure 
duplex eyes and the other had simplex eyes, all the 
offspring would show duplex eyes. If both parents 
were of the simplex type, then all the children had 
simplex eyes. Since the duplex eyes are a dominant 
type, individuals who possess them may be either 
carrying duplex only, or they may carry as well the 
simplex type as a recessive. When both parents 
have duplex eyes, there are therefore three possible 
combinations which have to be considered. We 
may state them symbolically thus : — 

DDxDD, DDxDR, DRxDR 
That is, we may have a pure duplex married to a 
pure duplex, or a pure duplex married to a hybrid 
duplex, or both parents may be of the hybrid duplex 
type. If we turn back to the tabulation on page 69, 
we can see the nature and proportion of the expected 
offspring in these three kinds of marriages, on the 
assumption that the processes of gametic purity and 
segregation are operating in Man. 

Let us consider Mr. Hurst's results. When both 
parents were simplex all the offspring, one hundred 
and one in number, belonging to twenty pairs of 
parents, were simplex also. That is, the recessive 
character breeds true, in spite of the fact that some 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 73 

of the grandparents had duplex eyes. This is quite 
in accordance with the theory of gametic purity 
and segregation, and it is altogether discordant 
with any other theory of inheritance, whether bio- 
metrical (mathematical) or otherwise. 

Turning now to the results when both parents 
are duplex, we have just seen that three combinations 
are possible. Of these, the two combinations 
D D X D D and D D x D R will give the same 
visible result, i.e., all the offspring will show the 
duplex type of eye. But the third combination, 
i.e., D R X D R, will give a mixed offspring, in the 
proportion of three individuals having duplex eyes 
{ =1 D D + 2 D R) to one having the simplex eyes. 
Examining Mr. Hurst's results, we find that our 
expectations are fulfilled, for of the fifty pairs of 
parents which he recorded, both of whom had duplex 
eyes, thirty-seven of them had a total offspring, one 
hundred and ninety-five in number, all with duplex 
eyes. They, therefore, illustrate the two first com- 
binations. The remaining thirteen parents had a 
mixed offspring, of a total number of sixty-three 
individuals. Forty-five of these showed the duplex 
eyes, and eighteen of them the simplex eyes. In 
nearest round numbers the expectation is forty-seven 
and sixteen respectively. That is, Mendelian pre- 
diction and result are practically identical. 

The next possible combination will be between 
parents having duplex eyes and those with simplex 
eyes. But the duplex parent may be one of 
two things — either a, D D oi Si D R. So that from 



74 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the standpoint of the type of offspring which we may 
expect, we have two real combinations within this 
one visible one, i.e., D D x R R and D R x R R. 
In the first case all the offspring are expected to have 
duplex eyes, and in the latter one-half is expected 
to show the duplex eyes and the other half simplex. 
What are the actual results ? There were seventeen 
pairs of parents, of the nature of Duplex x Simplex, 
with a total of sixty-six offspring all showing the 
duplex type of eye. And there were fifty-two other 
pairs of parents of the same visible nature who had 
a total offspring of two hundred and fifty-eight, one 
hundred and thirty-seven of whom had the simplex 
eye and one hundred and twenty- one the duplex eye. 
The expectation is one hundred and twenty-nine of 
both types. There is thus a very near approximation 
of result to prediction. 

Mr. Hurst's work shows two things quite clearly. 
It demonstrates the absolute segregation of these 
two types of eyes in human inheritance, and compels 
us to accept the conception of gametic purity as 
the only vaUd explanation of it. It is quite evident 
that the alternative hypothesis of blended inheritance 
does not explain a single feature of the phenomena. 
For if it did, why do blue-eyed (simplex type) offspring 
come from two brown-eyed (duplex) parents ? Or, 
why do they come from parents one of whom has 
brown eyes and the other blue ones ? Why do some 
brown-eyed pairs of parents give nothing but dark- 
eyed offspring, and other pairs give a mixed offspring 
of dark-eyed and blue-eyed individuals ? The con- 



VIRILE SENTIMENT ' 75 

ception of blending does not explain it, while that of 
gametic purity and segregation enables us to form a 
mental picture of the main line of the processes 
concerned. The same segregation of eye-colour 
occurs when distinct races of mankind are crossed. 
Among my collection of human pedigrees I have 
several of an European (usually a fair-complexioned, 
light-haired, blue-eyed Scotchman) married to a Red 
Indian woman, and of their descendants. When the 
half-breeds from such a marriage marry an European 
of a certain gametic structure, the fair complexion, 
light hair, and the blue eyes segregate out again 
among their children, 

I pass next to consider another character which 
we cannot regard as pathological, but yet is not 
normal. We may speak of it as abnormal. I allude 
to the quality of albinism. It is a condition in which 
there is a complete absence of pigmentation in the 
body.* It is known not only among the less deeply 
pigmented races of mankind, but also among the 
intensely pigmented races, such as negroes. Mr. 
Farabee has examined an interesting case of the 
hereditary transmission of albinism among negroes. 
An albino negro married a normally-pigmented 
negress. There were three sons, all normally pig- 
mented. All three married pigmented negresses, and 
two of them had only the normally-pigmented off- 
spring. The other son married twice, and in each 

* The pigments of the blood, bile, and of muscle are, of course, 
excepted. It may perhajjs be better, for practical purposes, to define 
an albino as an individual in whom there is absence of visible pig- 
mentation. 



76 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

case married a pigmented negress. But by his first 
wife he had one albino and five pigmented children, 
and by his second wife three albino and six pigmented 
children. The complete disappearance of the al- 
binism in the first generation, and its reappearance in 
the second, shows that albinism in man, as in lower 
forms, is a recessive character to pigmentation. 
The results of these marriages are perfectly unintelli- 
gible on the conception that blending of characters 
occurs. For how, by any process of blending, can 
four albino children be produced out of a marriage of 
a normally-pigmented negro and a negress ? The 
blending of black with black does not produce white ! 
And how can we explain the mixed nature of the 
offspring — some individuals being albinoes and others 
pigmented — on the blending conception. A blend is 
expected to produce an uniform result. But the 
whole of the facts are explicable on the hypothesis of 
segregation and gametic purity. The albino grand- 
father married a normal negress. All three of their 
sons will be, therefore, hybrids of the nature D R, 
where D stands for the dominant character of pig- 
mentation, and R the recessive character of albinism. 
So long as these sons marry only normal negresses 
{i.e., D D's), a pigmented offspring only is expected. 
That appears to have been the case wdth two of the 
sons. But if the third D R son shall marry a negress 
who is also D R , then we expect in the offspring 
albinoes and pigmented individuals in the proportions 
of 1 : 3. This appears to be the kind of marriage 
that the third son contracted with both wives. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 77 

And we note that the number of albinoes and pig- 
mented individuals, i.e., 4 and 11 respectively, is as 
near as it can be to the expected 4 : 12 ratio. This 
case, then, must be accepted as demonstrating the 
existence of the processes of segregation and gametic 
purity in the hereditary transmission of at least one 
other human character. 

Let us consider another case of albinism, but this 
time among Europeans. In a Swiss village there 
once lived an albino, Josephine Chassot. She never 
married, and for three generations back her ancestors 
were apparently normal people. But in her own 
generation she had ten cousins in the second degree.* 
Of these, three were albinoes, and the remaining 
seven were all apparently normal. All the normal 
ones appeared in one family, and all the three albinoes 
in another. In this latter family it is known that 
there were normal members, but the number is 
unknown. One of the normal cousins of Josephine 
married a normal woman, and had twelve children, 
eight being normal and four albinoes. Now this 
case, apparently remarkable because of the sporadic 
appearance of the albinoes, is entirely explicable on 
the Mendelian explanation of segregation and gametic 
purity. The families concerned lived in two Swiss 
villages half a league from each other, and we may 
suppose that at the time {i.e., sixty years ago) travel- 
ling was difficult, and intercourse with more distant 
villages was more or less a rare event. Under such 

* That is to say, they were the children of two pairs of parents, one 
of whom in each pair was a cousin of one of her parents. 



78 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

conditions, consanguineous marriages are apt to be 
common. This we see in a marked degree in the 
Scotch Highlands, where the inhabitants of many- 
villages are nearly all cousins, in nearer or remote 
relationship. We know that albinism is a recessive 
character in animals, and we have just seen in the 
negro marriage that it is so also in man. Individuals, 
apparently quite normal externally, may, therefore, 
carry albinism as a recessive character. So long 
as such individuals marry a quite normal person 
(one not carrying albinism recessive), albinism will 
never appear among the offspring. But if they 
marry another person similar to themselves — that is, 
one carrying albinism recessive — ^then albino children, 
as well as normal ones, will be born to them. So 
that it may happen that in a long line of ancestry, 
apparently normal all along, albinoes may quite 
suddenly arise. That appears to be the explanation 
of the case of Josephine Chassot. And the same 
explanation suffices for the familiar fact that albinoes 
are very often the offspring of a cousin marriage. 
In these villages, where we may assume consanguineous 
or endogamous marriages* were common, there must 
have existed a certain proportion of the villagers 
who were carrying albinism as a recessive character. 
When two such married — and in random selections 
this must now and then occur — albinoes are expected. 
This, then, being the Mendelian expectation with 

* In this particular pedigree it is known that two normal brothers 
married two normal sisters, all of the same village, and albinoes appeared 
in the descendants of both. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 79 

regard to a qualitative result, how far is the ex- 
pectation similarly corroborated by a quantitative 
result ? The Mendelian expectation with regard to 
the proportion of albinoes and normal individuals is 
as 1 : 3. The total number of offspring concerned 
for purposes of calculation is twenty-four plus a few 
normals, the number of which is not recorded. The 
expectation, therefore, in round numbers is six 
albinoes and eighteen normals. The actual number 
is eight albinoes and sixteen normals. There is thus 
what the prediction requires, a large excess of normals 
over albinoes. And when we bear in mind that a 
few more normals, who are known to have existed, 
must be added to the actual result, we see how well 
result and prediction meet each other. 

Dr. A. M. Gossage has quite recently made a study 
of some previously recorded cases of hereditary 
transmission of pathological characters in man, and 
he has produced a number of interesting facts. On 
the whole the cases which he has studied and re- 
published confirm the Mendelian generalisation, 
though there are some exceptions which are discordant 
with it. These latter may, however, receive an 
adequate explanation when we know more of the 
particular diseases with which they are connected, 
or when we have been able to investigate a larger 
number of similar cases. But it seems quite clear 
from his survey of cases that segregation of alter- 
native characters, such as some pathological trait 
and normality, does occur. The crucial test that such 
segregation has actually occurred is to be found in 



80 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the persistency with which a recessive character 
breeds true when once it has been segregated out from 
association with a dominant character. It is true 
that, with the exception of one remarkable case, 
which we shall consider later, we have no very long 
continuous pedigree of an extracted recessive charac- 
ter. But we have a number of short pedigrees, 
and when all their indications point in one direction, 
and almost invariably show that an extracted reces- 
sive character breeds true when the individual 
manifesting it is mated with another also showing 
the recessive character, we are justified in accepting 
this as clear evidence of segregation. And the 
justification is not lessened because a few exceptions 
occur. These may receive an explanation when we 
know what it is that determines which of two alter- 
native characters shall be the dominant one, when 
we have tested the validity of past records by a 
more searching examination of future cases, and 
when pathologists and physiological chemists can 
tell us more of the nature of the factors which go to 
the making up of these pathological characters. 
Many abnormal characters are doubtless more or less 
complex in their nature. To treat such abnormalities 
as simple units is but to disguise the truth. When 
we know the nature of their complexities, the general 
trend of the whole evidence leads us to believe that 
they will fall into line with the general body of facts of 
Mendelian inheritance. 

Some of the characters studied by Dr. Gossage 
are of suggestive interest. In a certain family 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 81 

some of the individuals possessed hair presumably 
of the European type, but others had a " tightly- 
curled, short, woolly hair of the negro type." The 
facial features of these latter individuals were not in 
the least negroid. A tradition in the family attributes 
the woolly hair to a Mexican ancestor several genera- 
tions back. We may assume it as probable that 
this ancestor was of the negroid race. If this is so 
we have a clean segregation of European facial 
characters from negroid ones, for none of the present 
family, thirty-six in number, manifest the least 
negroid trait. But in the random segregation of the 
various negroid and European characters that oc- 
curred in the sex-cells of this Mexican ancestry, 
negroid hair became associated with European facial 
characters. And apparently, the European alter- 
native characters 'being recessive, once the European 
facial characteristics had been extracted they would 
henceforth breed true. Hence in none of the offspring 
that have descended from a Mexican ancestor who 
had European features but negroid hair, do we 
expect any negroid facial characters to reappear. 
But the negroid hair being a dominant character, 
this Mexican individual who bore it may also bear in 
his sex-cells the European type of hair as a recessive 
character. We should then expect to see both the 
negroid and European hair separate out in the 
succeeding generations, and be borne by separate 
individuals. And the curliness and woolliness must, 
on the whole, be as curly and woolly in one individual 
as another. And such appears to be the case in 



82 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

this family. There have been three marriages of 
individuals who had woolly hair { =D R) with persons 
having European hair {=RR). The total number 
of individuals concerned is thirty-six. Of these, 
eighteen had negroid hair and eighteen had ordinary 
hair. The segregation is complete, and the pro- 
portions are in exact accordance with Mendelian 
expectation. 

Another case in which a peculiarity of the hair 
is the character considered is one where a congenital 
tuft of white hair over the brow was hereditarily 
transmitted through six generations. Only a single 
member, the father, in each of the first three genera- 
tions is known. And each of these possessed the 
white tuft. The father of the third generation 
married a normal person, and they had four children, 
two with and two without the tuft. The white tuft 
is a dominant character and the absence of it a 
recessive one. One of the normal offspring in time 
married a normal husband, and their children, three 
in number, were all normals. The two children 
with the tuft also married, and they had a mixed 
offspring, some of the individuals having the tuft and 
others not. Three individuals of this generation 
without the tuft married normal persons, and in 
their total offspring of eight members there was not 
a single one with the tuft. Thus in the total of 
eleven children born of four pairs of parents, one in 
each pair being an extracted recessive and the other 
a normal person, the dominant character did not 
appear. That is, the Mendelian expectation that the 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 83 

recessive character would breed true has been fulfilled 
in fact. With regard to the proportions in which 
the two kinds of offspring derived from parents, one 
of which manifests the tuft {=DR) and the other 
does not {=RR), the actual proportion is nearly 
identical with that required by expectation. There 
are thirty-two individuals in the offspring, and the 
expectation is sixteen of each type. There are, 
actually, seventeen with the tuft of hair and fifteen 
without. 

I have taken these two cases from Dr. Gossage's 
paper because they are of a nature which the layman 
can understand. They do not deal with patho- 
logical characters, but rather with what we may term 
peculiarities. But all the rest of the cases with 
which he deals are of a pathological nature. The 
phenomena of segregation and gametic purity are 
clearly manifested, but, as already stated, there are 
a few doubtful exceptions. Those who desire to 
study these cases will find them described in the 
Quarterly Journal of Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 3. 

I would like now to ask you to consider two 
extremely important and interesting cases. The 
first one has reference to an abnormal condition of 
the fingers and toes. The peculiarities connected 
with them are correlated with others, but these we 
need not consider. The case has been worked out, 
with very great care and labour, by Dr. Drinkwater. 
The peculiarity is technically called " Brachy- 
dactyly " ; more popularly we may speak of it as 
" short-fingerness " or " thumb -fingerness." The 



84 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

fingers of the hand are apparently, like the thumb, 
made up of two joints, instead of three as in the normal 
hand. It is the middle one of the three joints which 
has to all appearance disappeared. There is some 
reason to believe that it has not actually disappeared, 
but that it is vestigal in size and has become fused on 
to the last joint. However, for practical purposes 
we may speak of the peculiarity as a two-jointed 
condition of the fingers. 

The history of the family in which this peculiar 
condition is present is known for seven generations. 
The first three generations are incomplete, but 
the remaining four are complete and comprise a 
fairly numerous collection of individuals. The whole 
seven generations include one hundred and seventy- 
four persons. We may divide the marriages into 
two classes, i.e., those in which an abnormal person 
married a normal one, and those in which an extracted 
normal individual derived from this family married 
a normal one from outside of it. The first type of 
marriage will be represented as D R x R R, and the 
latter type by R R x R R. The brachydactylous 
condition is shown by the observations on this 
family to be a dominant one. Now, what is the 
Mendelian expectation as to the offspring from these 
two types of marriage ? In the first type two classes 
of individuals, i.e., short-fingered and normal-fingered, 
are expected in the offspring. And it is further 
expected that these two classes will be present in 
approximately equal numbers. Once more an appeal 
to the facts of human pedigrees confirms Mendelian 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 85 

prediction. Both classes of individuals are present, 
and in very nearly equal numbers. There are eighty 
individuals from this type of marriage, and therefore 
it is expected that there will be forty each of the 
abnormal and normal individuals. There are respec- 
tively forty-two and thirty-eight. With regard to 
the second type of marriage, i.e., R R x R R, the 
expectation is that all the offspring will be normal. 
There are eighty individuals,* all normal. 

The family which we have just considered is an 
English one. But a case of the same nature, dealing 
with an American family, was earlier published by 
Mr. Farabee. In this case the same principles are 
manifested. The extracted recessive (normal) charac- 
ter breeds true, and the offspring from a marriage 
of a parent with " short fingers " with one of normal 
fingers is composed of the two types of individuals, 
and in approximately equal numbers, i.e., thirty-six 
of abnormal individuals to thirty-three of normal ones, 
the expectation being thirty-four and a half of each. 
These two cases of human brachydactyly, then, are 
clearly Mendelian in nature. Segregation and gametic 
purity explain the phenomena presented by them, 
while the blending hypothesis and the biometrical 
" Law of Ancestral Inheritance " completely fail. 

I pass now to the second and perhaps one of the 
most important cases of a human pedigree. We owe 
its compilation in part to a French Army surgeon, 
the late M. Florent Cunier, and in part to an English 

* In addition to these there are a few individuals known to have 
existed, but the sex and type is now not known. 



86 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

ophthalmic surgeon, Mr. Nettleship. It is one of the 
largest known human pedigrees of its kind, comprising 
somewhere near a total of two thousand individuals, 
and it extends back through ten generations to the 
year 1637, when the individual Jean Nougaret, with 
whom it commences, was born. The peculiar here- 
ditary character which affected one hundred and 
thirty-five persons of this family, and which mani- 
fested itself in each generation, is one which is known 
as congenital stationary night-blindness. The real 
nature of the disease is quite well confirmed, for Mr. 
Nettleship, with Professor True and M. Capion, have 
been able to examine fifteen night-bhnd subjects, 
belonging to the ninth, eighth, seventh, and sixth 
generations. The affected persons can see as well 
during the daytime as normal people. But at night 
time they can see only by candle light and by very 
bright moonlight. On moonless nights, or in very 
dark places such as cellars, they are blind. The 
affection is present from birth, and mothers are able 
to determine whether their babies are night-blind or 
normal by the apathy or interest manifested by them 
when objects likely to attract their attention are held 
up at night time. In this case of congenital night- 
blindness it is shown by the facts of the pedigree 
that the abnormal condition is the dominant one, 
and the normal one is recessive. The Mendelian 
expectation therefore is that when two extracted 
normal persons marry, or when an extracted normal 
person marries a normal individual, that all the off- 
spring shall be normal. Is the Mendelian expectation 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 87 

fulfilled in this case, too ? The answer is Yes. When- 
ever normal parents have married — and in this 
family inter- marriages between extracted normals 
have occurred — the offspring is always normal. 
There is altogether an offspring of one thousand six 
hundred and sixty-three normal individuals derived 
from the marriages of normal parents, and not a 
single abnormal person has occurred. As far as 
human investigation can be concerned, nothing can 
be clearer than the meaning of such a record. The 
segregation of the normal character, once it has 
occurred, is complete, notwithstanding that inter- 
marriages between extracted recessive individuals 
have occurred. And there are cases within this 
family where this pure breeding has extended con- 
tinuously for seven generations. There is nothing 
to suggest that the recessive character will not con- 
tinue so to breed for indefinite generations. 

When we examine the records of the offspring 
derived from the marriage of abnormal with normal 
persons (that is, marriages of the type D R x R R), 
we find the Mendelian expectation fulfilled in that the 
expected two types, i.e., the night-blind person and 
the normal person, are present. But, however, the 
expected equality of the two is widely departed 
from. There are three hundred and sixty-four 
persons in the disease-bearing branches of the family, 
and it is expected that half of these will show the 
disease, and that the other half will be healthy. 
The expected proportion is, therefore, in round 
numbers 182 : 182. The actual result is 135 : 229, 



88 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

or thirty-seven per cent, of night-blind persons 
instead of fifty per cent. Too much stress must not 
be laid upon this numerical difference. It must be 
remembered that segregation and gametic purity 
can exist notwithstanding that the proportions do 
not accurately accord with expectation. Factors of 
which we have no knowledge may be at work, dis- 
turbing these proportions in some families or genera- 
tions, and leaving them undisturbed in others. No 
one with any real experience of living organisms, 
including human nature, doubts it is a fact which 
should be constantly held in view that living gametes 
within a living zygote are not marbles in a bag. 
The latter can be shaken up to ensure an uniform dis- 
tribution of the black and white ones, but gametes 
and human nature cannot be so treated ; we must 
accept them as Nature listeth they shall be. And 
this particular case is instructive, for there are good 
reasons to believe that the number of abnormals 
recorded does not represent the true number. The 
chief of these reasons arises from the promptings of 
a natural human weakness, i.e., a reluctance to admit 
the existence of physical defects, and additionally 
there is upon the part of the women a very laudable 
desire not to jeopardise their chances of becoming 
wives and mothers. For the learned Cure who is 
familiar with the living descendants of this stock, 
and who has contributed to the construction of the 
pedigree, says : " It is considered as prejudicial to 
the establishment of children " to be afflicted with 
this disease, " and it is therefore apt to be concealed." 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 89 

There is, indeed, one somewhat remarkable case 
where a woman kept her husband in ignorance of her 
condition for twenty years. Human nature being 
what it is, we must expect some deficiency in the 
numbers of the afflicted in this and other pedigrees. 

The next case that I have to deal with is one for 
which I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Drinkwater 
for his permission to use. It is a case of congenital 
asthma. There are altogether twenty-three indi- 
viduals in the pedigree. The case is typically 
Mendelian. One individual extracted from a line 
in which the disease is present is free from it, and 
he married a normal person and had all normal 
children, three in number. The other extracted 
normal persons have not married. But four of those 
suffering from the disease have married normal 
people. The asthmatic condition is shown by the 
history of this pedigree to be dominant. We shall, 
therefore, expect in the offspring of these marriages 
an equal number of asthmatic and normal persons. 
There are, in fact, ten of each. Thus in the complete 
segregation of the normal and asthmatic characters, 
in the breeding true of the extracted recessive (normal) 
character, and in the proportion of the two kinds of 
offspring from pairs of parents one of which is asth- 
matic and the other normal, the case is a definitely 
Mendelian one. It is of some interest to note, in 
passing, that of the members who have married 
from this family four of them (two brothers and 
two sisters) are affected, and one only (a brother) is 
normal. This is a fact of some importance to students 



90 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of Eugenics, especially when it is additionally re- 
membered that, in regard to another disease, phthisical 
persons tend to marry early. It is significant because 
physical defects seem to be no hindrance to marriage, 
but apparently, in this case, rather a recommenda- 
tion. 

The last case that I have for your consideration is 
one, it seems to me, of great importance, because it 
is very significant in many features. It not only 
affords us an example of hereditary transmission, 
but it gives us a concrete case where social sentiment 
and philanthropy having interfered, we can arrive at 
a definite judgement as to the pernicious effects of 
this interference. It is not an academic case that I 
have laboriously hunted for in the Archives of the 
Clinical Department of a great hospital, or in the 
volumes of a library. It is a case of the present 
time, that was reported in the Morning Post of May 
25th, 1907 ; it is one that illustrates the proHfic 
growth of unfitness when fed and watered by the 
mistaken kindness of the fit. It appeared in an 
appendix to the Ninth Annual Report of the Children's 
Committee of the Metropolitan Asylums Board. 
It is written by the Medical Officer to that Board. 
I ask you to note that fact, because medical men are 
largely responsible for the birth and promulgation 
of the modern sentiment which we are now con- 
sidering. The general tone of the Report, especially 
the last paragraph, implies the possibiUty of con- 
verting inherent unfitness into fitness by a suitable 
environment. The parents in this particular case 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 91 

demanded the return of one of their children from 
the Wandsworth Home of the Board, and the Medical 
Officer has appended the recommendation that 
" This is one of those cases which suggest most for- 
cibly the advisability of having the control of children 
of this mental condition for a fairly long period." 
And he adds : "It will be interesting to follow his 
case in the future, and see whether his mental con- 
dition improves or deteriorates." Why does the 
Medical Officer recommend that this child shall be 
under his control for a " fairly long period " ? Is it 
expected that any control, however prolonged, is 
going to transform the processes of heredity, or 
turn aside by a hair's -breadth the immutable processes 
of Nature ? Let us examine the case and see how 
futile is the hope. 

The father of this family had phthisis, and was 
insane ; the mother was laid up for four months 
before the boy's birth with spasmodic paralysis, and 
afterwards lost the use of her legs for some months. 
The paternal grandfather died of phthisis, and the 
paternal grandmother, who is still alive, is in an asylum 
with mania and religious fancies. The maternal 
grandmother died of consumption (phthisis). Nothing 
appears to be known of the maternal grandfather, 
but, since the mother suffered from paralysis, it may 
be that it was transmitted from her father. Now 
let us examine the children of these parents, first 
prefacing our statement with the remark that menin- 
gitis in this case is a form of phthisis not attacking 
the lungs, but the membranes of the brain. No. 1, 



92 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

a son, is said to be strong. No. 2, a daughter, suffers 
from meningitis, epilepsy, and tubercular (phthisical) 
knee joints. No. 3, a son, is afflicted with severe 
headaches. No. 4, a son, suffered a severe nervous 
illness, the nature of which is unknown. No. 
5, a son, has had meningitis and paralysis, and is 
mentally dull. No. 6, a son, has had St. Vitus' dance. 
No. 7, a daughter, has suffered from meningitis, and 
is very irritable and subject to headaches. No. 8 
(whether son or daughter is not stated) has suffered 
from paralysis and other nervous diseases. Nothing 
appears to be recorded of No. 9. No. 10, a son, is 
dead, and had paralysis in the legs. 

No. 6, the boy who is afflicted with St. Vitus' 
dance, is the one whom it is recommended should be 
cared for out of public monies, by public officials, in 
public institutions. 

Now we are chiefly interested for the moment in 
the Mendelian aspect of the heritage of this family. 
If we take a general view of the case we shall notice 
that we can reduce the pathological factors in the 
family history to two, if we express them in a general 
way. There is the tubercular taint manifested by 
phthisis, tubercular knee-joint, and meningitis. There 
is the nervous lesion indicated by mania, religious 
fancies, St. Vitus' dance, severe headaches, paralysis, 
and epilepsy. We may therefore say that we are 
dealing from the Mendelian standpoint with two 
pairs of alternative characters, i.e., the tubercular 
condition and physical normality as one pair, and the 
nervous lesion and nervous normality as the other. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 93 

A possible Mendelian prediction for such a case 
is that four kinds of individuals will be present in 
the offspring. We may state them in the following 
manner : 

1. Suffering from tubercular taint and nervous 

lesion. 

2. Suffering from tubercular taint, but no nervous 

lesion. 

3. Suffering from nervous lesion, but no tuber- 

cular taint. 

4. Normal in both features. 

And the proportions in which these four types may 
be expected are, in the order in which they are given : 
9+3+3+1. That is, in a family of sixteen indi- 
viduals, only one normal person is expected ! And 
his normality will not be better than the normality of 
his race. In this family of ten only one is normal ; 
the others all indicate some nervous lesion, or mani- 
fest both a tubercular condition and a nervous lesion. 
And thus far this case shows a resemblance to a 
Mendelian mode of inheritance. There is segregation 
manifested in the case of the normal son, in the pro- 
duction of individuals showing only nervous symp- 
toms without tubercular ones, and in the appearance 
of both tubercular and nervous pathological features 
together in other individuals. But in a complex 
case of this kind many factors must be considered, 
and a larger number of families examined, before any 
degree of positive statement is justifiable. It is 
sufficient for the present that there is some indication 
of a Mendelian mode of inheritance, and that in other 



94 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

human characters this mode has been clearly shown 
to exist. 

Before we leave this case let us consider its 
social aspect. The fact of the hereditary trans- 
mission of the defects of this family is perfectly clear. 
That, at any rate, admits of no dispute. There is 
not an environment on earth that can make this 
stock other than what it is. Every effort that is 
made to save it, or to prolong it, so that the period 
of procreation of its individuals may be reached and 
lengthened out, is an effort which results in an increase 
of persons to whom life is a miserable and unclean 
burden. Every penny which is wrested from the 
earnings and productions of fitter citizens in order to 
rear an army of officials and palatial edifices for the 
maintenance of these unfit is by that amount reducing 
the number of persons to whom life means more or 
less of happiness and contentment. It cannot be 
otherwise. The penny cannot be spent upon both 
the unfit and the fit, any more than we can " eat our 
pudding and have it too." And it is interesting to 
note that what the child thinks of the pudding the 
philanthropist believes of the penny. Both suffer 
from a delusion, but the child is soon undeceived. 
His is a concrete matter, demonstrated in a few 
minutes. The philanthropist's problem is more 
superficially complex, and the avenging hand does 
not strike until as a warning it comes too late, because 
with its warning it also brings destruction. 

Let us remember that in this family the paternal 
grandmother is still ahve, and that the parents have 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 95 

ten children. These two facts are important, because 
they demonstrate that physical and mental unfitness 
and civic uselessness are not necessarily accompanied 
by infertility, nor low fertility, nor shortlivedness. 
Indeed, there is here high fertility and longevity. 
When we bear in mind that there is good reason to 
believe that fertility is a character which is heredi- 
tarily transmitted, we have to recall the possibility 
that the grandparents on both sides may have ten 
children, that is, twenty altogether. And if these 
twenty marry, as the unfit always do, and they marry 
their " likes," as they also nearly always do, and if 
each of these twenty pairs of parents have ten chil- 
dren, we are faced with the appalling possibility that 
from this family alone there are living in our present 
generation two hundred individuals carrying or mani- 
festing the tubercular, paralytic, and epileptic diatheses! 
And if we go forward to the next generation there may 
be two thousand of them, and in the third generation 
twenty thousand of them ! An army of epileptics, 
paralytics, and tuberculates ! 

It may be asserted that I am indulging in wild 
and sensational alarms, and that this sort of thing has 
never occurred and can never happen. It is so easy 
for any nation to play the part of the traditional 
ostrich, for the sands of self-delusion are loose and 
soft. And it is hard to be brave when problems that 
can be put off for some one else to solve call upon us 
to solve them now, before they become so bad that 
their remedy must be heroic. They who assert that 
these things can never happen, and that a great army 



96 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of useless citizens cannot be reared in a short time, 
have either never troubled to ascertain the facts or 
have ignored them. There is the well-known German 
case, for instance. In this example seven hundred 
and nine descendants of a particular woman could be 
traced. She was a drunkard, a tramp, and a thief. 
Of her descendants, seventy-six were convicts, seven 
were murderers, one hundred and eighty-one of her 
female descendants were prostitutes, one hundred 
and forty-two were tramps and beggars, while sixty- 
four lived on charity and one hundred and six were 
illegitimate. In the course of three generations this 
woman and her descendants cost the State, in trials, 
prisons, and workhouses, a quarter of a million of 
money ! There is another case of a like nature, from 
Canada. On the Upper Hudson some generations 
ago there existed a child of the " gutter type." She 
ultimately became a " prolific mother of a prolific 
race." Besides a large army of idiots, imbeciles, 
drunkards, paupers, and prostitutes, the country 
records show two hundred of her descendants who 
have been criminals. 

And this is all that our philanthropy and modern 
social sentiment achieves ! It rears great armies of unfit 
individuals, and it discourages through taxation and 
in other ways the increase of the fit. While the use- 
less are pampered the useful are harassed. \Vhile it 
is becoming increasingly easy and profitable to be 
unfit and yet live, it is becoming proportionately 
difiicult to be fit and yet enjoy the benefits of our 
fitness. Freedom and licence are being granted to 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 97 

the lower classes, and liberty is being restricted for 
the individuals of the classes above. 

The whole influence of this modern sentiment is 
trending in the wrong direction. It sets out with the 
belief that it can effect the salvation of the unfit by 
improving their environment. It will end by achiev- 
ing the destruction of the fit, without having even 
gained the salvation of the unfit. It commenced its 
operations by creating an army of grand-maternal 
officials to guide the footsteps of the weak, the stupid, 
the inane, the imbeciles, and the physical and moral 
wrecks. It will end — indeed, it has begun to end — 
by the creation of an army of lower-grade officials who 
are rapidly degenerating into petty tyrants, who seek 
to restrict the successes of better citizens that have 
achieved what they could not, and have excited alike 
their cupidity and their vanity. And this, it appears 
to me, is the social aspect which the case of the 
Metropolitan Asylums Board presents to us. Through- 
out history every effort to save the unworthy has 
reacted to the detriment of the worthy. It is time 
we looked more seriously both at the teachings of 
History and Biology. 

A popular impression exists that by marriage it 
it possible to minimise in the next generation the 
evil qualities of one of the two partners by the good 
qualities of the other. It is a belief which is based 
impliedly upon the conception that underlies what 
is termed blended inheritance. Its faith is rooted in 
the assumption that the offspring represent a blend of 
their two parents, and of their more distant ancestry, 



98 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

too, through the channel of their parents. It is 
implied that the evil propensities of the one will be 
diluted, in the processes of heredity, by the goodness 
of the other. It seems, however, to be forgotten 
that, even if it be true, the goodness is diluted too. 
But if the processes of segregation and gametic 
purity are operating in Man, there is an end of this 
belief. For no marriage of fit with unfit, of virtue 
with vice, of truth with falsehood, of courage with 
cowardice, and of physical vigour with physical 
weakness will result in any diminution of the alterna- 
tive bad qualities. Marriage will merely procreate 
and multiply the individuals who manifest them. 
When Friedrich Nietzsche, in his " Thus Spake 
Zarathustra," wrote the three following paragraphs 
in the chapter " Of Child and Marriage," he was 
nearer than he imagined to the truth, and he antici- 
pated, in a few words, the Eugenic doctrines of the 
present : — 

" Worthy and ripe for the significance of earth 
appeared this man unto me, but when I saw his wife 
earth seemed unto me a madhouse." 

" Yea, I wish the earth would tremble in convul- 
sions whenever a saint and a goose couple." 

" This one went out for truths like a hero, and at 
last secured a little dressed-up lie. He calleth it his 
marriage." 

The follies and impulses of youth are proverbial ; 
even the youth who ultimately may blossom into genius 
or to a high degree of civic worth, and in his maturity 
may aspire to high ideals, is not free from the errors 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 99 

incidental to his age and temperament. Students of 
the Divorce Courts are familiar with examples that 
serve to illustrate the disastrous consequences that as 
often as not follow in the train of early folly. When a 
youthful member of a noble family, forgetting, in his 
ardent impulses, the traditions and glories of his 
stock, marries a ballet girl ; or when a young man of 
impulsive moods but of good parts otherwise, and 
descended from a family of good social position, and 
who will later develope all the aspirations that belong 
to his social class, accepts a partner without any solid 
qualifications and who has temporarily ascended from 
a lower social level, and will manifest the instincts and 
inherent defects of her class ; or when a young man, 
who because of the stock from which he springs, will 
later on in life become a more serious citizen, marries 
a " dressed-up doll " ; or when a woman, yet in the 
vernal stage of life and of refined instincts, consents 
under parental pressure to marry a rich man of coarse 
habits whose years are strewn with the sere and 
yellow leaves, no Heaven-made conception of the 
nature of human marriages can avert the inevitable 
consequences. It is a serious question for the student 
of Eugenics whether a youthful error of judgement in 
marriage, by which " a dressed-up lie " and " a goose " 
is chosen as a mate, should be visited with permanent 
and lifelong punishment. The time has passed when 
the dogma of " heaven-made marriages " should be 
allowed to operate to the detriment of much that is 
best or good in the community. No marriage that 
declares by its results its obvious inequalities and 



100 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

disastrous disabilities " should be permanently main- 
tained. If one of the two partners is capable and the 
other grossly incapable, if one is intelligent and thrifty 
and guided by high ideals, and the other is foolish, 
thriftless, and incapable of rising above the lowest 
aspirations, then the marriage, as in a part of the 
days of Rome, should be possible of mutual dissolu- 
tion. For to permanently bind a good citizen to a 
bad one is waste of the good civic material. 

I am aware that the problem is a complex one, 
and it is not simplified by the possibility that the 
incapacity to make a good judgement in the choice of 
a mate may be an inherent quality, and not always a 
passing aberration of youth, and will be therefore 
hereditarily transmitted. But in spite of that, 
perhaps it would be wiser to give an individual at 
least one opportunity of rectifying a youthful mis- 
judgement. 

I am treading, I know, upon dangerous ground^ 
and I hope that I shall not be misunderstood. I trust 
that nothing which I have said can be construed into 
implying any sympathy with those ideas of pro- 
miscuous marriage that in certain quarters are being 
preached by men whose fanaticism or desire for 
notoriety is greater than their knowledge of either the 
history or nature of mankind. I, for one, repudiate 
all such ideas. But the sanctity and holiness of 
marriage may be destroyed when earthly considera- 
tions and ideals are ignored by a dogma that has no 
justification in true beUef or in truth.* 

* See Appendix, pp. 113 and 114. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 101 

If now we take a general survey of all the cases 
which we have considered, we shall agree, I think, 
that the evidence is pretty clear in regard to some of 
the qualities of man that there is segregation in their 
hereditary transmission from generation to genera- 
tion. There is reason to believe that future investi- 
gation will widen the number of human characters 
which so behave. There is no reason to believe that 
the mental and moral qualities of man are trans- 
mitted in any way different from the physical 
characters. Indeed, the evidence indicates that they 
are hereditarily handed down in the same way that 
the physical ones are. Without citing more recently- 
investigated cases, it will suffice to point out that it 
is a historically-known fact that the eloquence of 
Marcus Antonious was a hereditary gift, and that 
the high ability of Brutus' family extended through 
many generations, and was manifested in the dis- 
charge of the duties of the many great posts which 
that family occupied during successive genera- 
tions. 

If, then, it shall be ultimately shown that segre- 
gation of alternative characters and gametic purity 
is the rule of man's hereditary processes — if the clear 
indications of the limited cases already known become 
a generalised expression of a general process — and 
justify us in saying that segregation and gametic 
purity express a natural law of man's heredity, what 
bearing will this have upon all social questions and 
upon questions of even wider moment ? 

Looking over the cases which we have already 



102 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

considered, and substituting for such physical 
characters as short fingers, curly hair, and stationary 
night-blindness certain bad civic qualities such as 
those which characterise the loafer, the wastrel, the 
congenital drunkard, the habitual criminal, the con- 
genitally tuberculous, the mentally deficient, the 
thriftless and generally incapable persons, and others, 
how will the problem work out ? When we recall 
with what persistency the peculiarity of stationary 
night-blindness and short-fingerness passed on 
through the generations — passed on for two hundred 
and seventy years in the case of the former character, 
and in the latter case for about one hundred and 
eighty-nine years — without any known alteration, it 
is time that we began to consider what types of 
citizens our philanthropy and charity are breeding. 
It is time we faced the problem. It is time we 
learned how Httle environment can do, and how 
much the inborn qualities determine all for us. In the 
multitudinous efforts which are being made for social 
reformation it is to be hoped that the beauties of 
character will not be forgotten, and that the road to 
success will not be made too easy, nor the road to 
destruction too difficult. If by our social efforts we 
are breeding, rearing, and accumulating an un- 
desirable stock that cannot or will not work, that 
cannot or will not tend its children, that cannot or 
will not be sober and thrifty, that cannot or will not 
educate and feed itself, that cannot or will not attain 
an intellectual and moral level that is necessary for 
social life, then we are advancing along the road that 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 103 

brings destruction to the fit in order that the salvation 
of the unfit may be attempted. 

There can, I think, be no doubt that those circum- 
stances which are attendant upon the workings of a 
democratic state of society tend to create and to fan 
into larger size a flame of emotional sentiment that 
becomes wildly excited over the imagined or exag- 
gerated sufferings of the weak, incapable, and 
generally unfit. We have only to listen to the hust- 
ings speeches of the politicians, especially to those of 
the type dehvered by Mr. Winston Churchill and Mr. 
Lloyd-George, to see how pernicious are the workings 
of democracy when the leaders are unworthy of their 
position. 

The same type of morbid sentiment and craven 
fear that gave the mob of Rome its free circuses and 
free bread, that gave to the Athenian multitude 
expensive theatrical shows free of cost to themselves, 
and placed needy adventurers and profligate dema- 
gogues of the type of Chares in positions of executive 
and legislative power, is to-day in our own community 
increasing the privileges and rights, and decreasing 
the civic responsibilities of the lower classes of society, 
and simultaneously is placing power in the hands of 
men who either represent these classes or are sprung 
from them. Greece and Rome possibly fell in ignor- 
ance. There may have been none among their 
counsellors who saw the importance of the facts of 
heredity, or, even more probably, did not recognise 
that such facts were part of the operations of Nature. 
If England has reached her zenith it cannot be said 



104 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

that her decline is due to ignorance. Rather, it must 
be said that it is coincident with a period of great 
activity and advance in biological knowledge. To- 
day the truth of Evolution, the Processes of the 
Survival of the Fittest, and the fundamental facts of 
Heredity are clearly grasped and understood by 
biologists. At no period in human history has 
knowledge been so extensive, so accurate and so 
carefully generalised as now. No one acquainted 
with human life and with lower animal life doubts the 
identity of the natural processes that act upon both. 
Man's ethical and sesthetic qualities are not new 
creations — only elaborations of qualities present in 
the living kingdom long before he came. And beneath 
his ethical and aesthetic nature lies the animal. In 
the long run the animal instincts, hunger and pro- 
creation, determine man's conduct. We need only 
recall the French Revolutions to remind us of the 
fact. Let us not forget the guillotining until the 
headsmen sank worn out ; followed by the fusillading 
of little children — " the wolflings " of Marat, " who 
might grow to be wolves " — and of women with chil- 
dren at the breast ; of wholesale drownings, of women 
stripped naked before they were drowned, and of 
mothers dragged to the guillotine to witness the 
slaughter of their innocent children. Truly did 
Carlyle say, " Cruel is the panther of the woods, the 
she-bear bereaved of her whelps ; but there is in man 
a hatred crueller than that." The angelic gloss on 
man is but a surface-coat painted in times of peace 
and prosperity, but cast off in times of distress and 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 105 

hunger. We must not forget the recorded facts of 
ship-wrecked and starving men casting lots for their 
next meal, and feeding upon him whom chance had 
marked. Neither must we forget the County Courts, 
nor the now historical episodes of the Marshalsea. 
" Give me the pound of flesh which is due to me, or 
die for aught I shall care," is the general formula that 
designates the doings of mankind, even in normal 
times. I do not regret that it is so. I do not, in even 
small measure, denounce Shylock. I have come to 
recognise that the weak demand the " pound of 
flesh " from the strong whenever they can, no less 
than the strong demand it of the weak. Be careful, 
therefore, philanthropists and social sentimentalists, 
that in your frantic haste to procreate and preserve 
the civically unfit you are not bringing into being a 
great herd whose demand for its " pound of flesh " 
shall be none the less emphatic because it cannot 
earn the value of that pound, or, having earned it, 
finds that others, stronger and fitter, have already 
consumed it. It is a dangerous problem, this of the 
multiplication of organisms, with that philogamic 
passion at their rear ever unresisted, driving onwards. 
It is dangerous even if the multiplication is that of 
the fittest. But if for a while you shall aid the 
maintenance and increase of the unfit and unfittest 
it means ultimately an annihilation on a scale passing 
beyond all comprehension and transcending all con- 
ception. It is therefore wise to heed how far the 
hour may be distant when by the voice of the great 
shipwrecked herd the casting of the lot may be 



106 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

demanded, and in spite of your philanthropy and 
mistaken kindness you shall serve as food, to stay for 
a moment the hunger of that wretched and helpless 
mob that your misguided sentiments called into a 
larger existence. For, as Vergniaud said of the 
execution of the Girondins : " The Ke volution, like 
Saturn, is devouring its own children," so it may be 
said of your sentiment that it will devour you and 
yours. 

If, in defiance of the teachings of biological science, 
modern sentiment persists in breeding and rearing a 
helpless race that cannot by its own efforts satisfy its 
hunger, or if it will persist in rearing a race that mani- 
fests criminal and brutal instincts ; if, in order that 
the lower democracy may be appeased, the unfit, 
the sluggish, the lazy-rapacious, and the cunning 
demagogues are in turn extolled, bribed, and main- 
tained in life at the expense of the fit and worthy, 
then England, in spite of her greater knowledge, has 
commenced to follow the path that led to the destruc- 
tion of Rome and Greece. 

If the ruling classes of this country, the Aristoc- 
racy, have forgotten their duties, which is to face and 
enforce the truth of their generation, or have lost 
their courage, then it must fall to the more vigorous 
and less sesthetic portion of the Intellectual Classes 
to take their place. The danger is clear and eminent 
enough. With the Lower Classes increasing their 
birth-rate, while the Middle and Upper Classes are 
remaining stationary ; with certain well-intentioned 
but mistaken members of the higher social classes 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 107 

making remarkable efforts at much personal sacrifice 
to lower the infantile mortality of the lowest strata of 
society ; and with workhouses, infirmaries, and 
lying-in hospitals using baby incubators to fan back 
into existence the weakly lives that benign Nature, in 
the noblest interests of her race, demands shall perish, 
there is no need of a vivid or expansive imagination 
to picture the end of a nation that has become thus 
far decadent. It seems that we, as a nation which 
have so long professed a belief in a merciful and loving 
God, have forgotten the old cry of resignation, " Thy 
will be done," that brought comfort, courage, and 
virility to Englishmen of the past when the processes 
of Nature eliminated their weak and sickly. They 
understood not these processes, and in ignorance 
resigned themselves in a noble faith that all was work- 
ing towards a beneficent end ; and, in their resigna- 
tion, found their salvation and that of their race. 
The generation of to-day believes it understands these 
processes, and in the arrogance of its belief has played 
the coward and traitor to its heritage. In its senti- 
mental interference with the workings of Nature it is 
leading the community to its destruction. In its 
attempts to be superhuman it has become inhumane. 
In its efforts to save life it has increased the number of 
individuals to whom existence means misery and pain, 
and is decreasing those to whom Hfe means health, 
happiness, and progress. It recalls to my mind some 
of Wordsworth's lines in " The Excursion " : — 

" Vain-glorious Generation ! what new powers 
On you have been conferred ? What gifts, withheld 
From your progenitors, have ye received, 



108 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Fit recompense of a new desert ? What claim 
Are ye prepared to urge, that niy decrees 
For you should undergo a sudden change ; 
And the weak functions of one busy day, 
Reclaiming and extirpating, perform 
What all the slowly-moving years of time. 
With their united force, have left undone ? 
By Nature's gradual processes be taught ; 
By story be confounded I Ye aspire 
Rashly, to fall once more ; and that false fruit. 
Which, to your over-weening spirits, yields 
Hope of a flight celestial, will produce 
Misery and shame. But wisdom of her sons 
Shall not the less, though late, be justified." 

The generation in which, we are living seems to be 
fond of poetry of an emotional kind. Let me address 
to it a few more lines of a type of poetry which is less 
sentimental, but more truthful : — 

" The Moving Finger writes : and, having wi'it. 
Moves on : nor all your Piety nor Wit 

Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line, 
Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it." 

It would be well if we endeavoured to understand 
the real significance of these lines in relation to the 
doctrines of modern sentiment. In more than one 
way it points to us the irrevocable consequences of 
every attempt that is made to interfere with the 
beneficent workings of Nature. The " Moving Finger 
writes," and then " Moves on," is but a poetical way 
of warning us that for every committed act, social as 
well as individual, there are both immediate and 
multiplied remoter consequences, the misery entailed 
by which cannot save us from their inflexible opera- 
tion, nor all the tears engendered by them wash out a 
single punishment which they inflict. 

We all remember as children reading of the 
traditional King Canute, who, at the instigation of 
his flattering courtiers, sat on the sea-beach and bade 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 109 

the tide recede. He bade the immutable processes of 
Nature that determine how and when and to what 
extent the tides shall rise and fall to cease. But no 
decree of man or king can alter by the fraction of an 
inch the rising of the tides. It would be well if we 
recognised that human life is controlled and deter- 
mined by processes that are as immutable and as 
merciless as those which govern the tides or determine 
the movements of the planets. We can learn to 
understand them and to obey them, but we cannot 
destroy or diminish them. 

Unfortunately there exists to-day a Canute who 
is not traditional, but figurative. We may regard 
him as the symbolic emblem of modern sentiment. 
He sits upon the sea-shore of current deeds, and, 
looking forth upon the rising events of Futurity, 
demands that they shall cease to rise ! The hour of 
his disillusionment is not far off ; it is nearer than he 
imagines, for the shore upon which he sits shelves less 
than he believes. By not the fraction of a second 
will the. tide of Nature's processes be delayed or 
hastened in its rise upon the Future of the Nation. 

What we sowed yesterday is to-day germinating, 
and will be reaped to-morrow. There is time, even 
now, to dig up the sprouting tares before their harvest 
shall have destroyed the wheat. Who, with hoe 
and rake in hand, will go forth and lead the way ? 
Will the natural rulers of the Nation, the Aristocracy, 
do it, or must the more vigorous and virile of the 
Intellectual Classes — the Upper Middle Strata of 
Society — ignoring its poetically aesthetical section, 
usurp their position and discharge their functions ? 



no THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

APPENDIX. 

Added February, 1909. 

Note to p. 68. — By " Genetics " is understood that 
branch of Biology which studies the phenomena of 
heredity. Quite recently, owing in part to a redis- 
covery of Mendel's generalisation and in part to the 
large and increasing volume of experimental evidence 
in corroboration of it, the study of heredity has now 
for ever emerged from the chaos which marked its 
previous condition. An appeal to accurately con- 
ducted experiments is the soundest and safest method 
by which the problems of heredity can be solved. 
It may be urged, indeed has often been urged, that 
we cannot apply the experimental method to man. 
But so far as he is concerned, experiments on a vast 
scale have already been performed. It is not the 
want of experiment that we lack, but the proper and 
accurate recording of the results. Blue eye with 
blue eye, brown eye with brown eye, and brown eye 
with blue eye have been mated together in numbers 
that dwarf our most colossal experiments — even 
those of Prof. Bateson with an offspring of twelve 
thousand five hundred chicks — and yet the only 
accurate analysis and record of these facts which 
has been made is that by Mr. Hurst of quite recent 
date. North American Indians and negroes have 
been crossed with Europeans many hundreds of times 
and their progeny have intermarried and been 
married back to the original European or coloured 
stock still more frequently, and yet nowhere is there 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 111 

to be found a scientifically recorded statement of 
the facts. The material exists, but it wants scientific 
analysis and recording. If this address should be read 
by any persons of leisure, or by medical men, who 
may at any time be resident in Canada, and who may 
become acquainted with families where intermarriage 
between Europeans and Red Indians has occurred, 
they may render services of the greatest value by 
taking photographs, both full-face and side-view, of 
the grandparents, parents, offspring, and of as many 
collaterals as possible, and recording as carefully as 
can be the colour of the skin (both that exposed and 
that protected), the colour of the eyes, and the colour 
and nature of the hair of each individual. More 
valuable still would it be if a lock of the hair of as many 
persons as possible were obtained. If it is not possible 
to obtain complete pedigrees, then partial ones will 
serve the purpose, provided that the nature (whether 
half-castes or otherwise) of the different individuals 
is accurately ascertained. A letter addressed to me 
at the London Hospital Medical College, London, E., 
will always reach me. In the same way marriages 
between negroes and Europeans and the various 
marriages of the mulattoes could be recorded. In 
the case of mulattoes, quadroons, and octoroons it is 
desirable, if possible, that observations as to differences 
in tints in each class should be recorded. It is also 
very essential that not only skin colour, but hair 
colour, hair texture (whether European or woolly), 
and eye colour should be recorded. Other facial 
features will, of course, be recorded in the photo- 



112 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

graphs. The results of crossing albino negroes with 
normally pigmented members is also urgently 
required. The same considerations hold with regard 
to human albinism generally. Much of the published 
records are incomplete and not precise enough. The 
case of Josephine Chassot described on p. 77 is an 
example of this. She is described in the original 
publication as " affected with albinism," as having 
" pink eyes (pupils)," but " with peculiar lilac- 
coloured irides," and as having a " very white skin." 
But nothing is said about her hair colour. When 
described in comparison with her sister, who is stated 
to be dark, she is said to be fair (blonde). Such a 
description may mean that her hair is flaxen or white. 
The other albinoes in this pedigree are simply des- 
cribed as " albinoes," or as being " affected with 
albinism." But as to whether they are complete 
albinoes having no pigment at all, or are so-called 
partial albinoes having flaxen hair, we are left to 
infer. 

Note to p. 68. — A definition of " Eugenics " by its 
author, Mr. Francis Galton, may be found in 
" Nature," Vol. LXX., p. 82, 1904. " Eugenics is the 
science which deals with all influences that improve 
and develope the inborn qualities of a race." The 
essential basis upon which " Eugenics " is founded 
exists in the consideration of certain postulates which 
all will accept, i.e., " that it is better to be healthy 
than sick, vigorous than weak, well-fitted than ill- 
fitted for their part in life. In short, that it is better 
to be good rather than bad specimens of their kind. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 113 

whatever that kind might be." " The aim of Eugenics 
is to represent each class or sect by its best specimens, 
causing them to contribute more than their propor- 
tion to the next generation ; that done, to leave them 
to work out their common civilisation in their own 
way." 

Mr. Galton thinks that learned and active societies 
desirous of promoting Eugenics might proceed by the 
following methods : " (1) Dissemination of a know- 
ledge of the laws of heredity so far as they are surely 
known, and promotion of their further study. (2) 
Historical enquiry into the rates with which the 
various classes of society (classified according to civic 
usefulness) have contributed to the population at 
various times, in ancient and modern nations." Mr. 
Galton then adds : " There is strong reason for believ- 
ing that national rise and decline are closely con- 
nected with this influence." " (3) Systematic collec- 
tion of facts showing the circumstances in which 
large and thriving families have most frequently 
originated. (4) Influences affecting marriage. (5) 
Persistence in setting forth the national importance 
of Eugenics." 

With reference to the third and fourth of these 
proposals — and which may also partake of the nature 
of a note to pp. 99 and 100 — I would like to add that I 
have for some time now been endeavouring to collect 
facts bearing on the causes of what we may call 
" unhappy or incompatible marriages," and I am 
desirous of obtaining further information from those 
who are in a position to give it. Names are not 



114 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

necessary, and all information will be regarded as 
confidential. There is reason to believe that in some 
cases these marriages are the result of an inherent 
incapacity upon the part of one of the two partners 
to make a felicitous choice. An inherent incapacity 
of this sort would, therefore, because it is inherent 
or congenital, run through members of the same 
family, and would be manifested by that family 
having a larger proportion than usual of such unhappy 
marriages. If any one of my readers is acquainted 
with families of this kind, I shall be glad if they 
will communicate with me. 

In other cases, my present information suggests 
that these marriages are the result of a too early 
union. At a certain age, say, from twenty to twenty- 
five, a pair of individuals may possess temperaments 
and capacities that are more or less compatible and 
could harmoniously exist together. But at a certain 
later age, let us say about twenty-six to thirty, one 
or both individuals undergo a change in temperament, 
character, and ideals, perhaps as divergently as it is 
possible to conceive, and the marital state becomes 
incompatible and impossible. In this connection, it 
is a fact of some interest, which I have no doubt 
others have observed, though perhaps they may have 
given it no more than passing consideration, that 
there exist people who instead of becoming wiser with 
experience, become more foolish, and who instead 
of becoming more proficient become less so, as 
they pass on towards their primal years. If such per- 
sons passably discreet, tactful, and proficient at the 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 115 

time of marriage, for the positions which their youth- 
ful years are likely to occupy, are married to partners 
who improve in all qualities as time advances, it is 
clear that the barrier of incompatibility must widen 
with the passage of each year. I do not suppose 
that these cases are very numerous, but still they 
exist. 

And it seems to me a very important matter, 
because I think that these changes of which I speak 
are inherent or inborn in their nature, and can no 
more be avoided than the appearance of the antlers 
and of the fighting instincts of the stag when it has 
reached its maturity ; and cannot be commanded to 
stay their appearance any more than can those 
sexual instincts and secondary sexual characters 
which inevitably appear in human beings at a certain 
stage in their developement. This appearance of new 
characters and new qualities at different stages in the 
lives of individuals, and of one kind for one person and 
of another kind for another, is of far wider social 
import than its application to married life. Its very 
existence vitiates a great deal of the medical evidence 
that was given before the Committee on Physical 
Deterioration and Degeneration. This latter question 
is not so much a medical one as it is a biological one, 
and the medical evidence, though valuable, is not 
the most important that can be adduced, and, in fact, 
in many of its conclusions it is erroneous and in its 
nature entirely misleading. 

Note to pp. 102, 104, and 106. — While this address 
has been passing through the press, four events of some 



116 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

significance have happened. One of these is the 
earthquake of Messina and its attendant incidents. 
Among these incidents there is one which is, in 
history, of such ordinary occurrence that in our 
familiarity with it we treat it with an altogether un- 
deserved indifference. I allude to the fact that 
among the stricken and starving inhabitants, " fierce 
fights with knives for bread " occurred. And, after 
some seeming order had been restored, the distribu- 
tion of food by the authorities took place in the pres- 
ence and under the protection of an armed guard. 
Where hunger presses and it cannot be satisfied, 
blood will inevitably flow. 

The second incident is the occurrence of a fire at a 
cinematograph exhibition in the East End of 
London. It was apparently quite a simple and 
not very dangerous affair. The cinematograph 
film caught fire and made a flare altogether 
out of proportion to its possibilities of danger. 
According to the newspaper reports of the 
operator's statement of the accident, the cinemato- 
graph machine was enclosed in an iron box. None 
the less, a panic seized the audience, and the women, 
in their frantic endeavours to save themselves, trod 
down the children, and the men trod down both 
women and children in their equally frantic efforts 
to save their threatened lives. " Each one for him- 
self and destruction to the hindmost," expresses this 
event. And within the past two years there have 
been a succession of similar events. 

The third incident is a " nine-days' wonder." It 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 117 

ought rather to be an iconoclastic fact ever fresh in 
our memories. Whenever it is recalled it will 
probably be spoken of as the " Tottenham slaughter." 
Posterity quickly forgets. In a twelve- months' time 
the affair will have sunk into oblivion, in company 
with a great many more unpleasant facts that ought 
likewise to be remembered. Let me, therefore, 
record its essential details. A Russian outlaw had 
sought the hospitality and protection of English laws. 
He had lived in this country apparently for some 
months, but for a fortnight of this time he had been 
employed in an English factory at Tottenham, but 
gave up the work " because it was too hard." During 
the interval he had learned that the wages for the 
employes were brought from the bank in a motor-car 
at half-past eleven o'clock every Saturday morning. 
On the Saturday morning of January, the 23rd, 1909, 
this outlaw, in company with a companion, who was 
similarly an Anarchist outlaw from Russia, waited at 
the appropriate hour outside the entrance to the 
works. Both men were armed with revolvers and 
with pocketfuls of cartridges. Their intention, there- 
fore, was quite clear and premeditated. As soon as 
the messenger had alighted from the car with the bag 
of money, it was seized by one of the desperadoes, 
and in the struggle which ensued the messenger was 
fired at and wounded. The assassins then made off, 
and endeavoured to clear a path of escape for them- 
selves by indiscriminate and wild firing, right and 
left of them. The hue and cry was raised, and chase 
was given. Some of the pursuers were on foot, some 



118 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

on horseback, and some in a motor-car. The pur- 
sued were chased for a distance of five miles, making 
their way towards Epping Forest. In the course of 
their reckless flight, they boarded an electric tramway, 
fired at and wounded some of the passengers, and one 
of them compelled the driver to proceed at a rapid 
pace by holding a revolver at his head. While this 
one was thus engaged at the front of the car, the other 
was at the rear, and in an indiscriminate fashion was 
firing right and left. At a certain point they left the 
car, which they then believed to be nearing a police- 
station, and boarded a milk-cart, which they drove 
in another direction at a furious pace. This they 
ultimately left, and then took to the fields. Soon 
after this one of the two was brought to bay, and he 
shot himself, but not mortally ; he was taken 
prisoner, and subsequently died from meningitis in a 
hospital. The other effected his escape by an almost 
superhuman effort, and finally took refuge in a small 
house. Here he was at last shot by one of the police- 
men who had taken part in the chase and who had 
borrowed a revolver. 

In the course of this bloody fracas, a policeman 
and a small boy were shot dead and twenty-three 
persons were wounded. One important moral we 
may draw from this event : The civically unfit under 
an autocratic regime are similarly unfit under a 
democratic one, even though it be pervaded with a 
benevolent sentiment. But the autocratic regime 
knows how to get rid of them, and the democratic 
one how to receive them. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 119 

Here, then, in our midst, modern sentiment allows 
a type of criminal not only to exist, but also to breed ; 
and this type is one so devoid of all sense of civic 
responsibility and so destitute of the rudiments of 
social instinct, that the individuals which constitute 
it are deliberately prepared to ruthlessly and indis- 
criminately murder all who shall endeavour to frus- 
trate their criminal desires ; and even children are 
not excluded. 

Do not let us delude ourselves by believing that 
only Russian Anarchists can perpetrate these deeds. 
This type of criminal is a mutation common to all 
nations and to all races of mankind. They are not 
the product of any social conditions any more than 
the short-legged and long-bodied ram which gave rise 
to the Ancon race of sheep was the product of special 
farm conditions. They are germinal mutations, and 
as such will breed true to their mutant character. 

The fourth event occurred on Monday, the 11th 
of January, 1909, at half -past seven o'clock in the 
morning. The Democracy of France has been per- 
meated, in common with other Western European 
nations, with the spirit of sentimental regard for 
all types of civic unfitness which we have been con- 
sidering. ■ And France has been paying the penalty. 
For, encouraged by the knowledge that this morbid 
sentiment would protect murderers from the guillo- 
tine, and would only send them to expiate their 
crimes beneath the genial climes and the cocoanut 
trees of French Guiana, with a profusion of tobacco to 
smoke and of abundant leisure, a gang of desperadoes 



120 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

had terrorised the North of France by a great number 
of motiveless and ruthless murders. The leader of 
this band had committed two hundred and fifty such 
murders, and he was tranquilly playing cards and 
contemplating the happy hours he would spend under 
the cocoa-palms, when he and his companions, three 
in number, learnt the fact that even the stupidest 
sentiment must some time come to an end. For at 
last, craven fear had attained what common-sense 
could not, and these murderers were condemned to 
death. An enormous crowd assembled to witness the 
execution. Throughout the proceedings the crowd did 
not cease to raise shouts of " Death, death ! " The 
crowd was " delighted," " exultant," and " excited," 
France has, through the agency of her sentiment, 
bred her criminals and unfit, just as we are doing, 
and now she must meet the situation by a ruthless 
vengeance and wholesale destruction, just as we shall 
have to, or herself sink into " death vomited in 
great floods. ' ' Laisser faire, which leaves all unfitness 
to reap its own destruction as fast as it arises, achieves 
the end more humanely and much quicker. 

I have appended these four cases in order that we 
may be reminded what will be the conduct of the 
human multitude when the day of adversity and stress 
arrives. Unless a nation is composed of reliant and 
self-supporting individuals this day of adversity is 
inevitable. For so soon as our morbid sentiment has 
reared a shipwrecked horde of helpless incapables 
of such dimension that the fit cannot or will not any 
longer bear the burden of its support, then the day of 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 121 

reckoning will be with us, and " all our piety and wit 
and knowledge will not cancel by half a second " the 
casting of the die, nor all our tears, nor lamentations, 
nor unspeakable anguish of our womenkind and our 
children will avert by a single drop the streams of 
blood that will wash the streets of our great cities. 
It is not well to forget Nantes of the 14th of December, 
1793. The Grirondins came to regenerate a stricken 
France. They were men of talent, of courage, of 
constitutional principles, but the great impotent herd 
of the Sansculottes guillotined them by the verdict 
of a " Patriot Jury " of " terminer les dcbats " for their 
services to their country. Are we sure that we are 
not breeding a race of Sansculottes who will demand 
license for themselves and terror and destruction for 
every good citizen ? The beauty, courage, nobleness, 
and unspeakable pathos of Jeanne-Marie Philipon as 
she appeared before the blood-besodden crowd of the 
lower French Democracy did not save her, nor will it, 
under like circumstances, save the best and highest 
of our women from similar bloody and blindly venge- 
ful deeds, when once our sentiment has called into 
being a multitude that is helpless to live by its own 
efforts and meets all resistance to its demands for the 
confiscation of the property of worthy citizens by 
bloody and ruthless executions. It does not matter 
whether the adversity which excites these deeds is 
due to the corruptions of a Royal Court, to the 
impotence of a brutal multitude, or is the product of 
an excitable and morbid sentiment. Adversity, 
cupidity, and hunger are not altered in their nature 



122 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

or their effects by the method of their origin. And 
the lower the social class we rear and pamper, the 
more animal and the more haemal will its instincts 
and its acts become. 

England, then, should beware of that fatal 
lethargy which rests on the belief that evil and 
destruction cannot visit a nation that was once — 
and may yet remain if she so wills it — the greatest 
of the recorded Ages. Upon the walls of her Temple 
the inscription of ber doom is being written. Shall 
it be erased before it is completed, and in its place 
the motto of viriHty inscribed : " England shall be 
Fit and Strong ? " If that is the nation's desire, 
the day of preaching is done, and the hour of deeds 
has come. For, on the dismembered Empires of the 
Past, the Warning Angel of Historical Experience 
stands, pointing the way to England's safety. The 
admonitions that rise anew from the ruins of Greece, 
of Rome, and of Venice, bid us desert the road of 
a too widened Democracy, and turn to that which 
leads towards a wise, an understanding, and a 
broadened Oligarchy. 

Never to any country came the opportunity 
that hes at England's feet to-day. With an Artizan 
Class unequalled for skill by any rival ; with com- 
mercial organisers of great resources, subtlety, and 
boldness of methods ; with a Middle Class eager for 
enterprise and gifted with productive capacity ; with 
a Literature studded with gems as precious as any the 
world contains, and the names of whose poets and 
prose -writers are honoured in every seat of culture 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 123 

throughout the world ; with a Scientific Hierarchy 
the greatest of its Age ; with a Landed Gentry, the 
blood of whose sons has been shed in their country's 
welfare on the torrid deserts, fertile plains, and 
frozen snows of every Continent, and whose deeds of 
valour, codes of honour, and conceptions of duty 
have furnished an example to every age that shall 
look back to them for inspiration ; with an Aristocracy 
that has succeeded beyond all others in the govern- 
ment of diverse peoples, England is blessed with 
that combination of qualities that should render her 
invincible against the world. And yet, mighty 
though she inherently is, sound in sinew, strong of 
intellect, and prolific of wealth, she lies prostrate 
before the fetich of a lower caste Democracy ; her 
splendour sullied, her energies paralysed, her culture 
forgotten, her knowledge neutralised, and her tradi- 
tions ignored, amid the blatant din of government by 
untruthful mural posters, by uncouth and pyrocephalic 
demagogues careless of veracity, and by newspaper 
placards that shamel essly and ostentatiously offer bribes 
to the lowest and least worthy of English society. Truly 
the hour and its running sands call for leaders who, 
like Pitt and Wellington, the Aristocrats, shall think 
of country before salary, of honour before the acclama- 
tion of a multitude, of principle before expediency, 
and of the preservation of the Fit, not the bribery 
of the Unfit ; who shall put Biology before Sentiment, 
and, wedding the former to History, shall build anew, 
with the aid of a more virile people, the foundations 
of a yet greater Empire. But if she is to accomplish 



124 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

this, then in the immediate self-denial of a mistaken 
sentiment and in the struggle with the errors of to-day, 
she must sow the seed that shall ripen into the glory 
and the welfare of to-morrow. The biological and 
historical hour-glass alike w^arn her, that the sands 
of her greatness have nearly run their course. Is 
England still great enough to stem the Tide and turn 
back the Flood ? If so, her rejuvenated but 
broadened Oligarchy shall proclaim the answer. 



MENDELISM AND SEX. 



An Address delivered to the Mendel Society, 
29th March, 1909. 

BY 

C. C. HURST. 



The question of the determination of sex is an old 
one. It is a problem which has been much debated 
along various lines of inquiry. Until recently it not 
only eluded all solution, but gave no promise of 
solution. 

Recent Mendelian experiments, commenced about 
the year 1900, had not, however, been very long 
in operation before the conclusions to which they 
led afforded clear suggestions that the problem of 
sex could be investigated by the same methods 
and with the aid of the same directing principles. 
Mendelism, in fact, has provided the key by which 
the question can be accurately and experimentally 
answered. Much however remains to be done, 
for the knowledge which we now possess is to be 
regarded as in the nature of a right beginning rather 
than as a final solution. 

Until quite recently it was generally believed 
that external conditions determined the sex of 



126 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

individuals. It was assumed that if we knew 
these conditions we should be able to decide at 
will the sex of the unborn young. Acting under the 
influence of such a belief, several investigators 
designed and carried into operation various experi- 
ments that were intended to show the part which 
different factors in the environment played in the 
determination of sex. The well-known experiment 
of Yung with tadpoles was of this class. In 
this experiment, certain tadpoles were fed on very 
nutritive and abundant food, while others were 
fed on less nutritive and limited material. It 
was found that there was a larger percentage of 
female frogs derived from the former and of male 
frogs from the latter. The conclusion thus suggested 
itself that females were determined by excessive 
anabolic or building up process of nutrition, and 
males by that antithetic process in which anabolism 
only just keeps in excess of the katabolic or breaking 
down processes. But there were several sources 
of error in such an experiment. The most serious 
one is indicated by a similar experiment with the 
caterpillars of certain butterflies. In this experiment 
it was ascertained that under-feeding did not result 
in the production of an excess of males, but in the 
elimination of the females. There being a heavy 
mortality among the females, it is a natural con- 
sequence that there appears to be an excess of 
males. But it is apparent and not real. ■ It is, 
therefore, in reality, not a case of sex- determination 
by environmental influences, but one of survival 



MENDELISM AND SEX 127 

of the fittest. The males are more resistant to the 
harsh effects of a low nutritive diet than are the 
females. Moreover, the interesting case of the 
bee should have been sufficient to expose the fallacy 
of the belief that the environment can determine 
sex. The queen bee lives under special and uniform 
conditions, and she is fed on highly nutritive material. 
If conditions determine sex, then she should produce 
offspring definitely predominating in one direction 
with respect to sex, for it should be mainly feminine 
or mainly masculine. Moreover, if high nutrition 
determined the formation of females, then the 
parthenogenetic eggs of the unfertilised, but specially 
fed, queen bee should be mainly or wholly female. 
But the reverse is the case. The unfertilised eggs 
all produce male bees or drones, while females or 
workers are alone produced from the fertilised eggs. 
The simple fact that the act of fertilisation thus 
determined the sex of the individuals arising from 
fertilised eggs is by itself sufficient to show that sex 
is determined within the germ-cells, and is not 
dependent on environment. 

It is recognised now, by those who are engaged 
in the experimental investigation of the question 
of sex and of cognate problems, that sex itself, like 
other qualities, is predestined in the germ-cells, 
and is definitely determined by fertilisation. And, 
when it has thus been predestined and determined, 
external influences cannot alter it. It is, however, 
possible that in particular cases the proportions in 
which the sexes may appear are determined by 



128 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

environmental influences. In the case of the butterfly 
caterpiflars mentioned above, certain conditions 
associated with semi-starvation, while they do not 
determine sex itself, do determine the proportion of 
males and females, by unduly eliminating the latter 
without influencing the former. But this difference 
in the resisting powers of the two sexes is 
probably exceptional, and, as a rule, the sexes are 
similar in their inherent responsive powers towards 
special environmental conditions. 

In the majority of cases, where we are in possession 
of sufficiently accurate statistics, it appears that as a 
general fact the sexes are produced in equal numbers. 
This is so for Man, for the lower animals, and for 
unisexual plants. The production of the two 
sexes in equal numbers is a significant fact 
from the Mendelian standpoint. It had no meaning 
whatever in pre-Mendelian days ; but now its 
interpretation is clear. The individual distinct- 
ness of the sexes is also a significant fact. It 
indicates the complete segregation of maleness 
and femaleness. This segregation of the sexes and 
their occurrence in equal numbers at once suggested 
the well-known Mendehan ratio of 1:1. This ratio 
is the result of mating a Mendelian hybrid* with an 
individual carrying the recessive character, and it 
indicates that one of the two sexes is a dominant 
to the other. If we use the symbols which have 
been previously described,* and if we tentatively 
regard the female as a dominant hybrid and the 

* For definition and explanation see pages 63 and 67. 



MENDELISM AND SEX 129 

male as a pure recessive, or vice versa, then they 
will be respectively symbolised SiS D R and R R. 
A reference to the table of matings on page 69 will 
show that the expected offspring from 3, D R parent 
mated with a,n R R one, will consist in equal numbers 
of D R's, which in this case will be females — if we 
regard the female character as dominant — and of 
R i?'s, which will be males. Thus far, then, the 
two general facts already known to us, namely, the 
segregation and numerical equality of the sexes, 
strongly suggest that sex is predestined in the germ- 
cells and is hereditarily transmitted in accordance 
with the Mendelian principles of gametic purity and 
segregation. 

It was not however until quite recently that experi- 
ments specifically designed to answer the questions 
presented by sex have, by their results, extended the 
suggestion into proof. Among the most important 
and interesting of such experiments we must place 
those of Professor Correns with two species of the 
Bryony plant. In the species known as Bryonia 
dioica female flowers are found on one plant 
and male flowers on another ; the two sexes are 
borne on different individuals, so that any particular 
plant is either male or female, and not hermaphrodite 
like the majority of plants. The other species, 
named Bryonia alba, has the sexes borne on different 
flowers but on the same plant. Each individual 
plant is therefore hermaphrodite, bearing both male 
flowers and female flowers. When the flowers of 



130 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

female B. dioica are crossed with those of a male B. 
dioica, the offspring consist of a mixture of male and 
female plants. 

The most interesting crosses, however, are the 
reciprocals between the hermaphrodite plant of 
B. alba and the two unisexual plants of B. dioica. 
When the flowers of the female plant of B. dioica 
are crossed with the male flowers of B. alba, all the in- 
dividuals in the offspring are female plants.* But 
the reciprocal cross, strangely enough, gives a very 
different result. For, when the female flowers of 
B. alba are pollinated with pollen from the flowers 
of a male B. dioica, the offspring consist of male 
and female plants in approximately equal numbers. 

Correns endeavoured to interpret these results 
in the following way. Let us take first the cross 
of male B. dioica with female B. dioica. The result, 
as we have seen, is a mixture of males and females 
in equal numbers. We will for the moment assume, as 
Correns did, that maleness is dominant ; that the male 
plants are Mendelian hybrids and therefore carry two 
kinds of pollen-cells in approximately equal numbers, 
one half bearing the character of maleness and the 
other half that of femaleness ; and that the female 
plant, being recessive, must be pure with regard to 
femaleness, and all its egg-cells will therefore carry 
femaleness alone. It is clear that a cross of the 



*A few exceptions — 2 males with 589 females — are said to occur, 
and a few of the females bear occasional male flowers. 



MENDELISM AND SEX 131 

nature which we are now considering will resolve 
itself into the simple Mendelian one of D R by 
RR.^ The DR here represents the male plant 
and the R R the female plant. The symbol D 
in this case stands for maleness, which is dominant, 
and R for femaleness, which is recessive. Since the 
female plant bears only "^ female " egg-cells and the 
male plant bears both ''male" and "female" pollen- 
cells in equal numbers, it must happen in the random 
meetings resulting from pollination that one-half of 
the "female" egg-cells will be fertilised with " male" 
pollen-cells which will give us D R offspring, and 
one-half with " female " pollen-cells which will 
give us R R offspring. And, since maleness is 
dominant, then the individuals which result from a 
fertilisation of R egg-cells by D pollen-cells will 
be hybrids and will be visibly male. Thus there 
will be produced equal numbers of hybrid males 
{D R's) and of pure females [R R's). So far, then, 
the Mendelian interpretation is in accordance with 
the experimental facts, and it gives them an in- 
telligible unity. 

Let us pass next to consider the crosses between 
the two different species. As we have already seen, 
they resolve themselves into crosses of the two 
following kinds : — 

Nature of Cross. 
Bryonia Dioica. x Bryonia Alba. Result. 

(Unisexual). (Hermaphrodite). Offspring. 

(1) Flowers of female plant x Male flowers = All females 

(2) „ ., male „ x Female flowers = Males and females 

* See page 69, where such a cross is explained. 



132 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Now, as we have already pointed out, the in- 
dividuals of Bryonia alba are hermaphrodite, bearing 
both male and female flowers. In other words, as 
individuals they are not differentiated with regard 
to sex. We here meet with a new kind of cross, 
different from that between the unisexual individuals 
of B. dioica. When the unisexual individuals of 
this latter species are crossed with each other, we 
are really dealing with the crosses of two differentiated 
individuals, in each of which the one sex has segregated 
from the other. But in the cross of B. dioica with B. 
alba we are dealing with one where a sexually 
differentiated individual is crossed with an un- 
differentiated one. The results show that we may 
regard differentiation and non-differentiation (absence 
of differentiation) as definite characters capable of 
hereditary transmission. Hence we are here dealing 
with a cross between a differentiated unisexual plant 
and a non-differentiated hermaphrodite one, the 
unisexual character being apparently dominant. 

Let us first consider case No. 2 in the table above. 
Some of the pollen-cells of the male flower of B. dioica 
are carrying maleness and others are carrying female- 
ness. The ego-cells of the female flowers of B. alba 
are carrying undifferentiated hermaphroditism. In 
a cross of the kind we are considering, two 
results may happen. For both the male and female 
carrying pollen-cells of B. dioica will meet the 
egg-cells of B. alba carrying the hermaphroditic 
character. In the former case there will be pro- 
duced fertilised egg-cells bearing the characters of 



MENDELISM AND SEX 133 

maleness and hermapliroditism. These cells when 
they develop into individuals will produce unisexual 
males, because both unisexuality and maleness are 
dominant. The second possible result will be 
attained in the latter case, when fertilised cells 
having the composition of femaleness and her- 
maphroditism are formed. These cells will give 
rise upon development to unisexual female in- 
dividuals, because unisexuality is dominant over 
hermaphroditism. Thus two kinds of individuals 
are expected on this interpretation, unisexual males 
and unisexual females. And the experimental results 
do, as we have seen, confirm this Mendelian ex- 
pectation. 

Now we will take the reciprocal cross as shown in 
case No. 1 in the table. Here again we meet with 
the undifferentiated hermaphroditism of B. alba, 
but now carried in its pollen-cells. In this cross, 
then, only one result, and not two, as in case No. 2, 
will occur : the egg-cells carrying femaleness alone 
of B. dioica will be fertilised by the pollen-cells of 
B. alba, which are carrying hermaphroditism alone. 
And since unisexuality is dominant to hermaphro- 
ditism, all individuals produced by this cross will 
manifest the unisexual female character. Hence, 
our Mendelian interpretation expects females only to 
result from such a cross. And experiment has 
shown that such is the case. 

While the Mendelian interpretation devised by 
Correns does undoubtedly enable us to give an 



134 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

intelligible statement of the probable processes at 
work, it is not altogether free from objection. The 
assumption of the undifferentiated nature of both 
the pollen and egg-cells of B. alba, with the further 
necessary assumption that these have a com- 
position different from those of B. dioica, is one 
that would require a great deal of evidence in its 
favour before we should be justified in finally ac- 
cepting it. 

But there is a simpler interpretation which quite 
as adequately fits the facts and does not involve 
the serious assumption necessitated by Correns' 
theory. It is the interpretation of Professor Bateson. 
In his scheme we regard not the male, but the female, 
as being dominant. The pollen-cells of B. dioica are 
regarded as homozygous carrying maleness alone, 
while the pollen-cells of B. alba are also regarded as 
homozygous but carrying femaleness alone. The 
female or egg-cells of both species are regarded as 
heterozygous. Individuals of both species will possess 
two kinds of egg-cells, and these will occur in ap- 
proximately equal numbers. One half of them will 
carry maleness and the other half femaleness. We 
shall then expect that when the egg-cells of B. dioica 
are fertilised with the pollen-cells of the same species, 
there will be produced equal numbers of male and 
female offspring. For when a pollen-cell which carries 
maleness meets an egg-cell which, as we have 
postulated, carries maleness alone, clearly the 
resulting offspring from such a fertilisation must be 
male. But when the second kind of egg-cell, that 



MENDELISM AND SEX 135 

which carries femaleness, meets a pollen-cell carrying 
maleness, it is clear that if femaleness is dominant, 
the resulting offspring will be female. But whereas 
the male is pure maleness, the female is a hybrid, 
carrying both maleness and femaleness. 

Similarly, the offspring resulting from fertilising 
the egg-cells of B. dioica carrying either maleness or 
femaleness with the pollen-cells of B. alba carrying 
femaleness alone, are expected to consist of hetero- 
zygous (hybrid) females and homozygous (pure) 
females in equal numbers. That is, so far as visible 
characters are concerned — for we cannot distinguish 
these two kinds of females by inspection — the offspring 
are expected to consist entirely of females. And 
experiment shows that such is the case. 

In the reciprocal cross of the egg- cells of B. alba 
carrying either femaleness or maleness fertilised with 
the pollen-cells of B. dioica carrying maleness alone, 
it is expected that one half of the offspring will be 
heterozygous females and one half homozygous males. 
And again experiment confirms our expectations, 
in so far that the offspring does consist of an 
equal number of males and females.* 

The application of Mendelian methods and inter- 
pretation to the consideration of the experimental 
results does, therefore, give us an intelligible and 
consistent statement of the ascertained facts. No 
previous theory has ever accomplished that. And 
we may, I think, feel assured that at last we are 
on the right road towards the elucidation of this 
difficult but interesting problem. 

*It would he interesting to know whether B. alba when self -fertilised produces 
fondle plants as icell as hertnaphrodites, as it should do nccording to this scheme. 



136 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

There are reasons for believing that the different 
factors which determine the hereditary characters 
of organisms are carried by certain nuclear bodies 
called the chromosomes. In form they are some- 
times rod-shaped and sometimes horseshoe-shaped, 
and they make their appearance within the nucleus 
just before cell division is about to occur. They stain 
very darkly with certain dyes and their presence is 
thus rendered more manifest. For the individuals 
of a given species, the number of chromosomes 
present in the nuclei of the cells is constant. But 
the number of chromosomes in the body or somatic 
cells is, however, twice that in the germ-cells or gametes 
of any individual. Consequently, when at fertilisa- 
tion two germ-cells, paternal and maternal, unite, the 
resulting cell, out of which a new individual will 
arise by cell division, contains the higher or somatic 
number of chromosomes. Thence during all the 
cell divisions which occur as the new individual 
developes from this fertilised cell, this higher or 
body number is retained in all the somatic cells 
which result. But, at a certain stage, the individual 
forms its germ-cells, and during the process the num- 
ber of chromosomes becomes reduced to one half. 

Now there is clear evidence, derived from the 
study of these chromosomes in certain insects, 
phylloxerans, and aphids, to show that in some 
way sex is directly determined, or its determination 
is correlated with, the presence of an accessory 
chromosome in certain of the paternal cells. 
That is, if the egg-cells contain five chromosomes 



MENDELISM AND SEX 137 

then one half of the sperm-cells or spermatozoa 
will also contain five, but the other half will contain 
four only. There are thus two kinds of spermatozoa 
developed. We owe this interesting observation to 
the investigations of Professor Wilson, Professor 
Morgan, and Miss Stevens. Between them they have 
examined about a hundred species of insects and 
other animals, and in all of them they have found 
this double form of spermatozoon present. 

Now it is very clear that if there are two kinds 

of spermatozoa in certain animals, the one 

kind approximately equal in number to the other, 

and there exists only one kind of egg-cell, in 

random fertilisations one half of the eggs will be 

fertilised by one kind of spermatozoa and the other 

half by the other kind. And from the fertilised 

eggs, fertilised by two different kinds of spermatozoa, 

it is to be expected that there will arise two kinds of 

individuals. Let us illustrate this by reference to 

the following diagram (Fig. 1). In this diagram 

A represents the spermatozoon carrying only four 

chromosomes, while B represents the other form of 

spermatozoon, that which carries five chromosomes. 

We may speak of the fifth or odd chromosome as 

the accessory one. The egg-cells are all of one type 

and carry five chromosomes ; they are represented 

in the diagram by C. Now when A and C unite it 

is clear that the zygote or fertilised cell D^ will 

contain only nine chromosomes, or one less than the 

zygote D^. This latter, which is formed when 

B and C unite, contains ten chromosomes. The 



138 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 




MENDELISM AND SEX 139 

former zygote will be a male, for the observations of 
the three investigators just mentioned have shown 
that the somatic or body cells of the males investigated 
by them contain one chromosome less than the 
body cells of the females. The latter zygote will 
be a female, since it contains the full complement 
of chromosomes. 

If these observations prove to be of general 
application, then it would appear that sex is 
determined by the presence or absence of the paired 
condition of the accessory chromosome. If it is 
paired in the zygote, femaleness results ; if it is 
unpaired, then maleness results. But, whether the 
zygote shall contain the paired or unpaired accessory 
chromosome depends upon the kind of spermatozoon 
by which fertilisation is effected. The male is 
the arbiter which decides the result. 

These interesting discoveries in connexion with 
the chromosomes of cells enable us to frame explana- 
tions of several things which were previously in- 
capable of any satisfactory or consistent statement. 
We may therefore next turn our attention to the 
new interpretation of old facts which these dis- 
coveries enable us to frame. 

As is well known, the eggs laid by the queen 
bee are some of them fertilised and some not. But 
both sorts of eggs develop. The unfertilised ones, 
however, give rise to the male drones, while the 
fertilised eggs produce the w^orkers, which are im- 
mature or imperfect females. In order to understand 



140 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

this result we must first consider another fact in con- 
nexion with the chromosomes of germ -cells. We have 
already seen that in certain insects there are two kinds 
of sperm- cells or spermatozoa ; one of these carries an 
accessory chromosome and its union with the egg-cell 
produces a female, while the other kind is devoid of 
the accessory chromosome and the egg fertilised by it 
developes into a male. Now, if we suppose that some- 
thing happened by which all the latter kind of sperm- 
cells became destroyed, it is obvious that male offspring 
would never be produced. The product of fertilisa- 
tion would be females always, and this we know 
is the case, not only with the fertilised eggs of the 
bee, but also of the green-fly [Aphis), of a water flea 
(Daphnia), and of a certain genus of plant-lice 
(Phylloxera). Is there then any evidence that this 
seemingly improbable selective destruction of a 
particular type of sperm- cell does actually occur ? 
Such a hypothesis appears to be exceedingly 
fanciful. None the less, it expresses an actual fact 
which has been ascertained by careful observation. 
For Professor Morgan has observed that in a Phyl- 
loxera one half of the sperm-cells are small in 
size and do not contain the accessory chromosome, 
and ultimately degenerate ; they therefore can 
take no part in fertilisation. But these are the 
cells which determine maleness in the offspring 
which arise from the eggs fertilised by them. There- 
fore, fertilisation being effected only by the other 
kind of cell, females alone are produced. Miss 



MENDELISM AND SEX 141 

Stevens has observed a similar condition of 
degeneration of those sperm-cells which are devoid 
of the accessory chromosome in another genus 
of plant-lice, Aphis. And in bees the degener- 
ation of one half of the sperm-cells has also been 
observed by Meves. 

In this way our knowledge of the behaviour 
of the accessory chromosome, while rendering it 
certain that sex is a gametic differentiation, that 
it is a quality not depending upon environmental 
influences, also enables us to explain the phenomenon 
that in bees, plant-lice, and water-fleas, fertilised 
eggs develop only into females. For femaleness, 
as has been shown by Professor E. B. Wilson in the 
insect Protenor, and by Professor Morgan in certain 
species of Phylloxera, is characterised by the presence 
in the body cells of the full complement of chromo- 
somes, while maleness is characterised by the absence 
of one or two of these. 

It may therefore be accepted as a demonstrated 
fact that in certain insects and in certain phyUoxerans 
and aphids the body cells of the females possess 
one — or in some cases two — chromosomes more 
than those of the male. It is also a fact that in some 
insects, phyUoxerans, and aphids there are two kinds 
of spermatozoa, one kind, which is smaller than 
the other, containing one or two chromosomes less 
than the larger kind. The smaller ones, which are 
the carriers of maleness, degenerate, and leave, 
therefore, only the larger ones, which are carriers of 



142 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

femaleness, to effect fertilisation. It therefore fol- 
lows as a natural sequence that from fertilised eggs 
only females are produced. 

These being the facts then with regard to insects, 
phylloxerans, and aphids, and, further, it being 
known as an observed fact that in the bee one half 
of the spermatozoa undergo degeneration, we may be 
justified in believing that the same explanation is 
applicable there. We may feel fairly certain that when 
the case of the bee has been adequately investigated 
we shall find that the reason why all its fertilised 
eggs produce females only is because the male- 
bearing spermatozoa are the ones which degenerate. 

We pass next to consider why it is that in the bee 
the unfertilised eggs — that is, the virgin or partheno- 
genetic eggs — always give rise to drones, which are 
male individuals. Here again we must seek our 
interpretation by appealing to facts which have been 
ascertained in phylloxerans and aphids. We have 
already seen that Professor Wilson and Professor 
Morgan have observed in certain insects (Wilson) 
and in phylloxerans and aphids (Morgan) a certain 
difference in the number of chromosomes in the 
body cells of the females and males. In the males 
of insects and aphids and in some phylloxerans there 
is one chromosome less than in females ; but in other 
phylloxerans there are two less. Morgan has quite 
recently shown that there are two kinds of partheno- 
genetic eggs, one containing a pair of accessory 
chromosomes and the other not ; that is, one kind 



MENDELISM AND SEX 143 

contains two more chromosomes than the other 
kind. And, moreover, he has shown that in Phyl- 
loxera fallax this internal difference is correlated 
with a difference in size, the egg which contains the 
accessory pair of chromosomes being larger than 
the one without. And he has further observed that 
the large parthenogenetic egg produces females and 
the small one gives rise to males. Now this difference 
between the two kinds of eggs arises in the course of 
maturation, for previous to this they both contain the 
higher number of chromosomes. But at the forma- 
tion of the polar body, twelve chromosomes remain 
in the large egg, but only ten in the small one. It 
is clear then, that in the former case there has been 
no extrusion of the pair of accessory chromosomes 
during the formation of the polar body, while in the 
latter case they have been extruded into the polar 
cell. In other phylloxera and in aphids only one 
and not two chromosomes is thus extruded. 

We thus see that those parthenogenetic eggs 
which are destined to give rise to males have one or 
more chromosomes eliminated from them. We may 
suppose this is also the explanation why the partheno- 
genetic eggs of the bee produce males alone. They 
apparently are all of one kind, and have had their 
accessory chromosome extruded during their matura- 
tion. They therefore carry the reduced number of 
chromosomes characteristic of the male somatic 
tissues. 

The next case of sex-inheritance we may consider 
is that which results when the currant moth {Abraxas 



144 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

grossulariata) is crossed with its lighter coloured 
variety lacticolor. Before the series of experiments 
which we are about to describe were made by Mr. 
Doncaster, lacticolor was known to occur only in 
the female form, for males were unrecorded. When 
lacticolor female is crossed with grossulariata male, 
the offspring consist of the grossulariata form alone, 
there being males and females in approximately 
equal numbers. It is clear from this result that 
lacticolor is recessive, since it does not appear in 
the F^ generation. With regard to the dominance 
of one sex or the other, we may for simplicity 
regard the female as being dominant and as carry- 
ing maleness recessive, as we did for Bryonia (supra 
p. 134). The appearance of both males and females 
in the F^ generation is then quite consistent with 
that assumption. Let us now see how the other 
possible crosses fall into line with such a scheme. 

If this representation is right, then the F^ 
grossulariata males will be aU G L ^ ^^ and all 
the females will be G L ^ '^ . The grossulariata 
character being dominant, both these forms are 
visibly grossulariata, but the male character being 
recessive can only manifest itself when femaleness 
is absent ; hence the first form is a pure male and 
the second is visibly female, but carries male recessive. 
It is necessary before we go farther to make another 
working assumption. It is, however, not only ade- 
quately supported by the facts of these particular 

* Where G — grossulariata, L=lacticolor, <S = male and $ = female. 



MENDELISM AND SEX 



145 



experiments, but by other experiments in sweet 
peas. The assumption which the experimental facts 
compel us to make is, that between the grossulariata 
character and femaleness there is repulsion, as a 
consequence of which the two are never carried 
in the same germ- cell. 

Let us summarise the position before going 
farther. The grossulariata character is dominant 
over the lacticolor one ; femaleness is dominant and 
carries maleness recessive, and as a correlative 
outcome of this maleness is therefore recessive and 
pure ; between the grossulariata character and 
femaleness there exists repulsion. Accepting these 
premises, we expect, on the basis of Mendelian 
principles, the following results when the crosses 
indicated below are made : — 



Visible Nature of Cross. 


Visible Character ol Off spring. 


L^ X GS 


= G<2 + G6 


G (L)2 X G {L)d 


= G2 + G^ + L2 


L2 X G{L)6 


= G2 + G^ + L2 + L6 


L6 X G{L)2 


= Gd + L2 



Now these expectations are fulfilled by the 
experimental results, for the above table is but an 

* It should be borne in mind that the lacticolor character is not mani- 
fested vvlien grossulariata is also present, and the recessiveness of the former 
is indicated here by enclosing it in brackets. It should also be remembered 
that all females are carrying maleness recessive and therefore not mani- 
festing it. 



146 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



epitomised statement of them, as well as being a 
tabulated expression of Mendelian predictions. 

For the information of those who desire a full 
statement of the zygotic and gametic composition of 
the parents, and the zygotic composition of the 
offspring, the following table is appended. The 
four crosses here represented are the same as those 
given in the table above, and they are placed in 
the same relative order. 



Zygotic 
Composition 
of Parents. 


Gametic 
Composition 
of Parents. 


Zygotic Composition of Offspring. 


X 


H 


■\-Ld 




GL^d + GLdd 


GG6 6 


G6 




G Q G c? t 


GL<^i 


* 
G6 

Gd 


* 
+ Ld 


U 


GGdd + GLdd + 


X 

GL66 


G L^d + L Lc^d 










GO LO 


LL^^ 


Xcp 


+ Ld 


1 = 


GL^d + GLdd + 


X 






L 


GO G ^ 


G LS6 


Gd 


+ Ld 


) 


LL^d + LLdd 

L L3 


GL(^S 


* 
Gd 


* 


1 




X 






"- = 


GLdd + XZ$c? 


L LS6 


Ld 




) 


G<r 7.0 



* It is one of the working hypotheses that this individual in forming its 
germ-cells cannot carry the grossulariata character and femaleness in the 
same germ-cell or gamete, since these two characters are assumed to repel 
each other. But they can of course be carried in the same individual or 
zygote. 

t The symbols in smaller type represent the visible character of the 
ofTspring. Those in larger type represent their estimated composition. 



MENDELISM AND SEX 147 

The scheme by means of which we have thus 
endeavoured to give a consistent statement of the 
seemingly remarkable and apparently incoherent 
experimental facts is one which we owe to Professor 
Bateson and Mr. R. C. Punnett. 

One feature of a general but very important 
nature remains to be considered. The grossulariata 
individuals used in the experiments were taken 
wild. And in the cross of the male of this with 
the female lacticolor variety, all the offspring, as 
we have seen, were grossulariata. This fact indi- 
cates that the wild male grossulariata is pure with 
regard to that character. But quite recently, 
Doncaster has made the reciprocal cross, 
namely, wild female grossulariata with certain male 
lacticolor s bred in the course of the experiments. 
The offspring consists of males grossulariata and 
females lacticolor. As Professor Bateson points out* 
this is a striking result, and is not only a confirmation 
of the validity of his scheme of interpretation, which 
was framed before this fact was known, but it leads 
to a most important and far-reaching conclusion. 
Because clearly it means that the wild female grossu- 
lariata moths living in districts where the lacticolor 
variety is unknown, are in reality hybrids of lacticolor, 
carrying that character recessive. The males, as we 
have seen, are pure grossulariata. For hundreds of 
generations, possibly, the lacticolor variety has been 
in existence, hidden recessive in the females of the 

* MendtVs Principles of Heredity — Cambridge. 



148 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

wild grossulariata. And it has not been manifested 
because the males are pure and the grossulariata 
character is dominant. Some light is thus thrown 
upon the nature and origin of variations. We 
may be justified in believing that the lacticolor variety 
became a manifest one by a germinal change in one 
or more of the eggs of a wild female grossulariata, 
resulting in the elimination of the factor which 
produces the larger spotted condition that chiefly 
distinguishes grossulariata from its variety lacticolor. 

The first individuals, like the later ones of the 
variety, would be all females ^ and these would 
necessarily have to cross with the wild male grossu- 
lariata in order to perpetuate their race. 

Fundamentally similar to the sex-inheritance of 
the characters we have just considered in the currant 
moth, is that of the black-eye in the " green " or 
the yellow canaries and the pink-eye of the 
cinnamon canaries. Miss Durham has shown that 
the pink-eye condition of these latter birds applies 
only to the early days after hatching, for, as they 
grow older, pigment of a chocolate colour appears. 
Although the pigment in the eyes of adult cinna- 
mon canaries is really chocolate, yet it appears to 
be black, owing to the degree of concentration in 
which it occurs. The pigment in the eyes of the 
" green " and yellow canaries is really, and not 
apparently, black. 

The chief feature of general interest which is 
manifested by these experiments is of the same 



MENDELISM AND SEX 149 

order as that we have just considered in the currant 
moth. For Miss Durham's experiments seem to show 
that while the male black-eyed canary* is pure with 
regard to that character, the female is hybrid and 
carries the pink-eye (or, in reality, the cinnamon 
character)"!" recessive. It will be remembered {supra 
page 147) that among moths the 7nale grossu- 
lariata was similarly pure with regard to the lacticolor 
character, while the feinale was hybrid. 

In canaries the existence of this remarkable 
condition is shown by the different nature of the 
offspring in the reciprocal crosses. For when male 
" black eye " is crossed with female " pink eye," 
all the offspring are black-eyed, both the males 
and the females. But when male " pink-eye " is 
crossed with female " black-eye," then among the 
offspring all the males are black-eyed and all the 
pink-eyed are females. I The result is thus one which 
follows from a mating of the ordinary Mendelian 
kind, namely, D R x R giving \ D R +1 R R (see 
table of Mendelian matings, page 69). In this case 
the female black-eyed bird is the D R, and the 
pink-eyed male is the R R. The black colour of the 
eye is dominant = D, and the pink-eye, or absence 
of blackness, is the recessive = R. 

The new fact which these experiments reveal is 



* It does not matter whether the black-eyed canary is a " green " 
or a yellow one. 'I'lie result is the same 

t In addition to the eye characters the cinnamon further differs 
from green canaries in having light brown (cinnamon) markings 
instead of black ones. This colour is due to chocolate pigment. 

I Four exceptions occurred in which the hens were black-eyed, 



150 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



what in past days we should have called the corre- 
lation or coupling of the pink-eyed condition with 
femaleness. Now we regard it not as a coupling of 
femaleness and pink-eyedness, but as a gametic 
repulsion existing between femaleness and black- 
eyedness. It is important to bear in mind that this 
repulsion exists in the gametes (germ-cells) only, 
and that the female is a dominant and a hybrid 
with regard to sex. That being so, hen birds may 
be black-eyed ; but it must be remembered that 
while the zygote (the individual) manifests femaleness 
and black-eyedness, all its germ-cells which carry 
femaleness will only carry pink-eyedness. Its visible 
femaleness combined with black-eyedness is due 
to the fact that both these qualities, as well as 
maleness and pinkness, which are both recessive, 
were brought in at the fertilisation of the egg- cell 
from which it has developed. 

We may tabulate these facts and their associated 
hypotheses as follows : — 



Zj'gotic 
Composition 
of Parents. 


Gametic 

Composition of 

Parents. 


Zygotic Composition of Offspring. 


PPjc^ 


Pj + Pd 








X 




= BP^d 


+ 


BP6d 


BBS 6 


Bd 


* 




lu 


P P6 6 


Pd 








X 




= BP6 6 


+ 


PP<^6 


B P2^ 


BS + Pj 


lU 




P$ 



* See Second note, page 146, 



MENDELISM AND SEX 151 

Since the pink-eyed condition is really due to 
the absence of black pigment, we may regard the 
alternative factors as being blackness = B and 
absence of blackness = h. In such case, we should 
substitute the symbol h for that of P in the table 
above. Similarly we may regard {infra page 156) 
maleness as simply a condition which is left when 
femaleness is withdrawn. In other words, maleness 
is simply absence of femaleness. 

The two cases, namely, the currant moth and the 
canary, which we have last considered, are instances 
of what may be described as sex-limited inheritance : 
that is, a certain character in its inheritance is trans- 
mitted by the germ-cells which are carrying either 
maleness or femaleness, but not by both. There is 
thus conceivably a process of repulsion between 
this particular character and one of the sexes, when 
the factors which determine both are brought into 
association, in the ripening germ-cells. In both 
the cases we have just considered it is femaleness 
which exerts this repelling influence upon the par- 
ticular character. 

There is one further case apparently similar 
which came under my notice in the course of some 
experiments with poultry. Certain recessive white 
fowls carry the hidden factor which, meeting colour, 
produces grey-white feathers barred with blue-black. 
This " barred " character is spoken of in the " fancy " 
as the " cuckoo" character. When recessive white hens 
carrying "cuckoo" are crossed with black cocks, the off- 
spring consist simply of "cuckoo" cocks and black hens. 



152 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

And the facts of the experiments may be in- 
terpreted by assuming that the " cuckoo " factor is 
repelled by that for femaleness, so that the two 
can never occur in the same germ-cell. Hence all 
germ-cells which carry femaleness will be devoid of 
this barring-factor. The case, indeed, seems to be 
similar to those which we have already more fully 
discussed. 

We pass on now to consider sex in Man. From 
the general fact which has been obtained from 
statistics derived from various sources, that the 
number of males and females are approximately equal 
at birth, we may say that in Man, too, the inheritance 
of sex is probably Mendelian, and follows the scheme 
D R yRR. We have no reliable evidence at 
present which will enable us to say whether maleness 
or femaleness in Man is dominant. We may, how- 
ever, tentatively infer that in Man, as in moths, 
canaries, and fowls, the female character is domi- 
nant, and therefore hybrid with regard to sex, since 
occasionally masculine secondary characters may 
appear in women. The appearance of such characters 
is, presumably, indicative that they are carried by 
woman, though usually not manifested. 

Quite recently a book on Sex in Man, written 
by Dr. Eumley Dawson, has appeared.* It does not 
deal with the subject from the Mendelian standpoint, 
— indeed, the author is apparently not acquainted 
with Mendelism. But he formulates a remarkable 

*^ A review appears on page 212 of this Journal. 



MENDELISM AND SEX 153 

and striking hypothesis, in support of which he 
describes a number of interesting facts. 

To put them briefly, the principal points in his 
theory are these : The male exercises no influence 
at all in the causation of sex ; this influence is wholly 
exercised by the female. From various clinical data 
he arrives at the conclusion that the female produces 
both male and female ova. This conclusion is 
interesting, since it is one which is quite Mendelian, 
but is arrived at by different methods from those 
employed by the Mendelian, and by one who is 
not apparently acquainted with Mendelism. But 
the feature of greatest interest in his theory is his 
assumption that the right ovary produces male ova 
and the left ovary female ova. He then further 
supposes that only one ovary is active and ovulates 
each month, the other not discharging any eggs. 
They thus alternately ovulate every other month, so 
that one month the right ovary is discharging male 
ova and the next month the left ovary will discharge 
female ova. 

From these premises he proceeds to show that 
in normal cases, if we know the sex and date of birth of 
the first child, the sex of the following children 
can be predicted for any particular month, and, 
therefore, a boy or a girl can be begotten at will. 
The author produces some good evidence in favour 
of his theory, but it cannot yet be regarded as fully 
tested. 

He tests his theory by considering the famihes 
of some eminent people. If ovulation occurs every 



154 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

twenty-eight days, there will be thirteen periods of 
ovulation in each year. Consequently, in every 
succeeding twelfth month, the sex of the offspring 
will be the opposite of that in the first month. If in 
any October a baby girl was born, then if a birth 
should occur at the following October, the expectation 
is that it will be a boy. The author considered the 
date of the births of the children of various Royal 
personages. Taking Queen Victoria's family, we 
find that the Empress Frederick (Princess Victoria) 
was born in November, 1840, and King Edward VII. 
in November, 1841. In the case of the Duke of 
Edinburgh's family, a son was born in October, 
1874, and a daughter in October, 1875. With the 
Duke of Connaught's family, a daughter was born 
in January, 1882, and a son in January, 1883. The 
family of the Tsar of Russia is interesting, since 
there are five children. Princess Olga was born in 
November, 1895, Princess Tatiana in June, 1897, 
Princess Maria in June, 1899, Princess Anastasia in 
June, 1901, and Prince Alexis in August, 1904. 

So far, these instances and many others that 
might be quoted do support the theory, since pre- 
diction is fulfilled by fact. But Mr. Mudge has 
recently sent me the case of an Irish family in whicli 
two out of six predictions are falsified. I give it in 
a tabulated form on the next page. 

The symbols with a cross appended to them 
indicate the cases where the prediction is not fulfilled, 
since two daughters were born where sons were 
expected. 



MENDELISM AND SEX 



155 



Prediction. 


Sex of Children. ' 


Date of Birth. 


Year. 




Daughter 


May 31st. 


1880 


X 6* 


j> 


November 20th. 


1881 


y c? 


)> 


March 27th. 


1883 


2 


n 


June 4th. 


1884 


9 


•) 


November 29th. 


1885 


6 


Son 


December 28th. 


1889 



5 = female, and S = male. 



A theory must not be judged too severely upon 
the basis of a few exceptions. Ovulation may have 
been suspended or irregular, or other disturbing 
causes may temporarily have disturbed the normal 
sequence. And if a large number of families, taken 
at random, in general confirm the theory, the excep- 
tions to it must be regarded as exceptional. But 
still there are certain theoretical objections to the 
theory, into which we cannot now enter. Further 
it appears that the author's assumption, that the 
male does not influence the determination of sex, 
is inconsistent with a number of facts. For, as we 
have already seen (supra page 139), in some cases 
the male is the arbiter of sex ; and, in all cases, 
by virtue of his definite gametic composition, he 
may be said to exercise as much influence as the 
female in the determination of the sex of his offspring. 

If we now briefly summarise the facts and con- 
ceptions which we have considered in detail, we 
may say the evidence is clear that sex is pre- 
destined in the germ-cells, and is determined at the 
moment of fertilisation. It is highly probable, too, 



156 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

that sex is due to a germinal factor, and there seems 
to be but little doubt that it is inherited in accord- 
ance with Mendel's law. 

We have however to recognise the possibility that 
the females and the males of different organisms in the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms may be differently 
constituted. The evidence shows that in Man, 
canaries, fowls, possibly in rabbits, and in some 
insects, the female is apparently a Mendelian dominant 
hybrid, carrying the character of maleness as a 
recessive, while the male is a Mendelian recessive 
homozygote, and is therefore pure for maleness. 
On the other hand, in many insects, and possibly in 
lobsters and crabs, it is the male which is apparently 
the Mendelian dominant hybrid, carrying femaleness 
as a recessive. 

The existence of these two types of sex leads 
us to suppose that in sex-heredity we have one 
more case in support of the " presence and absence " 
theory of Mendelian characters. In this newer 
scheme by which experimental results are sym- 
bolically represented, we still retain the original 
terms of dominant and recessive used by Mendel, 
but they are applied in a different way. When a 
pure grey rabbit is crossed with a black one, all the 
offspring are grey. Mendel would have spoken 
of the grey colour as being dominant to black which 
would be regarded as recessive. In other words, 
he would have looked upon the pair of alternative 
characters as being grey versus black. But we do 
not now so regard them. We believe the facts are 



MENDELISM AND SEX 157 

better represented by constituting the alternative 
characters as presence of greyness versus absence 
of greyness which gives blackness.* The presence 
of the character is thus dominant to its absence. 
So that presence of greyness is not said to be dominant 
to the presence of blackness, but to the absence of 
greyness. In the sense that the terms dominant and 
recessive are applied to the manifestation or non- 
manifestation in the zygote of the two unit-characters 
of an alternative pair, the terms are still used in the 
way in which Mendel employed them. But, as we 
have just seen, the conception of the nature of 
alternative characters has been modified. Dwarf- 
ness, for instance, is not now regarded as another 
quality to tallness, but simply as that condition 
which results from absence of tallness. Add the 
factor which determines tallness to dwarfness, and 
tallness is manifested. And similarly in respect to 
sex. We may conceive that femaleness is due to a 
germinal factor which determines the manifestation 
of that sex. It is something which is added to 
maleness, and in its absence maleness is manife.sted. 
The two alternative unit -characters of sex are there- 
fore presence and absence of femaleness. 

This conception of sex seems to be applicable to 
all cases which have yet been investigated, and it 
enables us to give a consistent interpretation of the 
facts in the two types of sex-inheritance which we 
have studied. Thus, if we let F represent femaleness 
and / its absence, then in man, since the female 

* Grey being epistatic to black wliich is hypostatic. 



158 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

seems to be a dominant hybrid, the female zygotic 
composition may be represented as F f. But man, 
the male, is pure with regard to maleness, and 
since this is simply absence of femaleness, his zygotic 
composition may be symbolically represented as / /. 

And with regard to the other type of sexual in- 
heritance, that represented in certain insects where 
the male seems to be the dominant hybrid, we have 
already seen (compare Fig. 1) that the male somatic 
cells carry one chromosome less than the female. In 
other words, femaleness is due to the presence of 
a chromosome absent in the male. In both types 
of sexual inheritance, therefore, femaleness may be 
said to be due to the presence of a factor absent in 
the male, as recently pointed out by Professor Castle, 
of Harvard University. 

We may, therefore, regard the female as of 
more complex organisation than the male. And, 
in that sense, the female may be said to be physiolo- 
gically the superior sex. We may thus further con- 
ceive that either the female is an extra -developed 
male, and has arisen by the addition of a new 
factor to maleness, or, perhaps more probably, that 
the male has arisen as a defective variation from 
the female. 



METHODS AND RESULTS.* 

BY "ARDENT MENDELIAN." 



(I) The Present Position of the IVIendelians and 
Biometricians. 

There exists a Guild of very active and strenuous students 
which is known to science and to others as the Biometrical 
School. Its devotees and exponents are noted for the 
number and diversity of their pilgrimages and expositions, 
for they are prepared to apply mathematical methods to 
any problem, ranging from the infinitely little in the 
realms of Biology and Pathology to the infinitely great 
in the stellar domains of Astronomy. 

It is true that when at last, after a weary journey 
over thorny paths, they reach the temple of their respective 
pilgrimages, the reception extended to them is not 
always gracious. For the gods of Anatomy, Biology, 
Medicine, Astronomy, and, we regret to say, even some 
of those of Mathematics, do not always anoint the pilgrims 
with unctuous and fragrant ointments, for too often 
that which is expected by them to be balm is rendered 
escharotic by the gods. 

With regard to the organisation of this Guild we are 
led to infer, on the analogy of the maxim of " your corn 
in my bushel, "f that the Biometrical School is organised 
on the lines of a field army, and that its constitution 
comprises at least a supreme " field-marshal," a " staff- 
corps," and a " rank and file." We believe at the 
mobilisation of this scientific army martial law was pro- 
claimed, and that it lias not yet been reclaimed. We may 

*Under this lieading the vaiious questions of discussion that may arise, 
or which have ai'isen, between the Mendehans and Biometricians will be 
considered from time to time. 

t" British Medical Journal." March 13th, 1909. Letter by Professor 
Pearson. 



160 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

further infer, therefore, that the disciphne of the army- 
is very severe, and perhaps this may throw some Hght 
upon the constant reappearance of the figure 0-5 in 
relation to the size of some of its artillery equipment. 
We believe further, from certain information which the 
dispatches of the " Field-marshal " reveal,* that the 
army has also its ambulance corps, consisting of "higher 
consultants " and " general practitioners." We have 
not the slightest doubt that such a militant organisation 
has urgent need for an ambulance branch, and that 
its duties must be incessant. And, when we review 
the many battles with the gods in which it has been 
engaged, and we recall their disastrous results, we find 
an explanation of the anomaly, that whereas other 
armies are content with " general practitioners," the 
biometrical one finds it necessary to retain " higher 
consultants." 

In some respects it is a very fine army, and it is 
certainly an imposing one upon parade. It is led, 
officered, and manned by men of transcendent intellect, 
of \\'hom any country may be provid. It is an army 
which in some domains may have achieved some eminent 
victories for truth ; but in other domains we are afraid 
our judgement compels us to say it has but obscured 
the topography and geography of the country of its 
invasion by the smoke of battle, produced by the burning 
of its " correlation " gunpowder, and that it has failed 
to capture the Temple of Truth by the errors of its 
strategy and the ineffectiveness of some of its weapons 
of attack. 

Opposed to the Biometrical army is the Mendelian. 
More recent in origin, less martial in organisation, but 
very vigorous, the Mendelian army has already turned 
the flanks and pierced the centre of the older one opposed 
to it. For signs of surrender on one wing, and of 
retreat, very skiKuUy covered, on the other, are visible 
in the biometrical ranks. The broken centre, encouraged 
by the boldness and coolness of its eminent Field-marshal 
— who hke the kings of old per-sonally fights on the 
battle-field — is making a rally on the high grounds to 
the rear. These hills are marked on the Mendelian 

* " Biometrika," Vol. VI., p. 348. 



MENDELIANS AND BIOMETRIGIANS 161 

map as very rugged and difficult of ascent, not to be 
rushed by brilliant cavalry charges, but not impregnable 
.before the persistent, slow, and methodical onslaught of 
a courageous and patient infantry ; they are named the 
hiUs of "' Masked Segregation.'' On the biometrical map 
they are marked as impregnable, when once occupied and 
entrenched, and are named " Continuous or Fluctuating 
Variations," or, in their more recent maps, as 
" Intermediates." 

The great battle of the future is tnat which will be 
fought along this rugged range of the " Intermediates." 
The task of the Mendelian army is to take it. i^nd, 
aheady in the plains below its brigades are begin- 
ning to deploy, and are making those initial dispositions 
which indicate that the assault is being prepared. At 
the same time, far away on the enemy's flank, in the 
valleys of Copenhagen, a great turning movement is 
being developed, and the brigades of the " pure lines " 
are preparing for their march along the dip-slope of 
the range, in order to strike the Biometrical army in 
its rear at the moment when the main Mendelian army 
unfolds its frontal attack up the rugged face of the 
escarpment. 

MeanAvhile, along the crest of the range, the concen- 
tration and entrenchment of the shaken centre of the 
Biometrical army is apparent. On the right, its wing 
which defended the village wherein the long tradition 
that evolution was almost wholly a matter of continuous 
variation, and that segregation of discontinuous variations 
played but little part or none at all, has been hopelessly 
shattered. For everywhere that advancing and ardent 
left Mendehan wirg has shown the evidence of such 
discontinuous variations and their segregation in the 
kingdoms of plants, animals, and Man. On its left, 
the Biometrical wing has been roUed back, and the 
position which defended the propositions that problems 
of inheritance can be solved by reference to one only 
of the two parents, that the characters of the offspring 
are determined by the summation in a regular series of 
ancestral increments, and that an advance in knowledge 
of heredity can be gained by an indiscrimmate massing 
together of zygotic characteristics, has been carried by 



162 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

assault. The right and left are in possession of the 
Mendelians, the centre has been reconnoitred and the attack 
is beginning. But it is here that the conflict must . 
be necessarily prolonged, on account of the difficult 
nature of the country to be conquered. For it is 
here that the great challenge must be made and 
accepted, as to whether evolution is wholly a matter 
of that organic advance which would result from the 
blending in successive generations of miimte, barely 
perceptible variations, existing simultaneously in large 
masses of individuals ; or whether it is wholly a matter 
of more or less irregular advance, sometimes small, 
sometimes great, due to the spontaneous appearance in 
a single individual of a mutational character or " sport," 
and which in its inheritance, through succeeding genera- 
tions, segregates cleanly and definitely, from its opposite 
or allelomorphic factor, already present in the race ; 
or whether evolution is partly due to the one and partly 
to the other. The existence of selection and elimination, 
without which there could be no evolution, by either 
method, is defended by both armies. 

The battle of the future which is to be fought between 
these two armies therefore turns upon the nature of 
" Intermediates." And it is along this range of biological 
hills that the Biometrical centre is concentrating. 
Do these intermediate stages between the two 
extremes of a character necessarily manifest the 
existence of gametic blending, or do they represent 
simply a series of segregable grades ? That there do 
exist phenomena which at a first examination and in the 
absence of any extended experimental knowledge would 
justify us in the belief that they indicate the existence of 
blended characters is not denied. But the Mendelians 
assert that the appearances are false, that they need 
re-investigation by experimental methods, and that our 
present knowledge renders it easy for us to conceive of the 
existence of segregation without there being any obvious 
manifestation of its existence. The Biometricians impliedly 
maintain that the existence of intermediates between 
any two extremes of a character is inconsistent with the 
segregation of those two extremes, and also with the 
segregation of the intermediates themselves. And, 



SKIN COLOUR 163 

wherever they find the existence — or the alleged existence 
— of these intermediates, there they raise their standard 
and issue their challenge. They have done so, for instance, 
with regard to the colour of the Shirley poppy petals, 
of the colour and markings of mice, of the grades of 
single combs in fowls, and of the grades of skin colour 
in crossed races of Mankind. It will be our pleasant duty 
from time to time to comment upon their efforts in the 
pages of this Journal. And we proceed to do so at 
once by dealing with tlieir recent publications on the 
two latter subjects, in the notes which follow. 



(2) Skin Colour in Human Hybrids. 

A Mendelian Reply, including a New Mendelian Hypothesis. 

In a recent number* of " Biometrika," Professor Karl 
Pearson has a " Note on the Skin Colour of the Crosses 
between Negro and White." Those of us who are 
familiar with the published works of Professor Pearson 
will be impressed by a significant absence of that militant 
note which characterised his earlier attacks upon 
Mendelism. We no longer read the uncompromising 
assurance " that nothing corresponding to Mendel's 
principles appears in these characters for Man."f In 
its place we are glad to note a chastened tone, and we 
are informed, not that the evidence which he has adduced 
in this note is destructive of Mendelism, but simply that 
" In view of the opinions I have cited above, I think 
the suggestion that skin colour ' Mendelises ' should not 
be vaguely made until some very definite evidence in 
its favour is forthcoming." And, so much has the 
uncompromising attitude been modified, that Professor 
Pearson further thinks it conceivable that such qualities 
as the negroid lip, the crimped hair, the characteristic 
aloe nasi, and the peculiar negro temper, would fit the 
Mendehan theory closer than skin colour. % And he thinks 

* Part IV., Vol. VI., March, 1909. 

f " Biometrika," Vol. II., pp. 214 and 215. 

Xlbid, Part IV., Vol. VI., p. 352. 



164 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

also that these characters " offer better material for a 
possible ' Mendelising ' than skin colour." For it to be 
admitted that negro qualities may conceivably fit a 
Mendelian theory, and that possibly " Mendelising " may 
yet be found, is indeed a great admission from one Avho but 
recently proclaimed " that it is too early to assert that 
Mendehsm holds for man or even for any plant or animal."* 
These sentences from Professor Pearson's note almost 
read as though the study of his omti material had, in a 
prescient mood, warned him that the forthcoming of 
" favourable evidence " for Mendehsm is but a matter 
of time, if, indeed, it is not already contained in his 
present note. 

We will proceed to analyse this note with Mendelian 
eyes. The information in it has been obtained. Professor 
Pearson informs us, by communication " with a medical 
man who has spent his whole life in the West Indies and 
knows its people and their ways very intimately." The 
method adopted by Professor Pearson in obtaining this 
information was to put certain questions to his medical 
correspondent. Now, as every barrister knows, questions 
are of two kinds, those which lead and those which do 
not. In some instances. Professor Pearson's questions 
seem to us to be of the essential nature of leading questions 
of a subtle kind. We do not, of course, for one moment 
suggest that Professor Pearson desires to be unfair, 
or that the nature of the question has in the smallest 
degree influenced the answer. We accept the evidence 
quite unreservedly. But we do wish to protest against 
the imputation to Mendelians, direct or implied, of 
assumptions and statements which they have never 
uttered. For instance, in the second question to his 
medical correspondent, Professor Pearson frames his 
query thus: "(2) Mulatto ,< white gives a quadroon. 
Is or is not the quadroon a blend ? Theory says that 
the quadi'oon class should consist of half Vhites and half 
mulattos." And, again, question 3 is put in a similar 
way, thus : "' (3) Mulatto x negro. Is this a blend rather 
darker than a mulatto or not ? Theory would say that 
50 per cent, of the offspring were mulattoes and 50 per 

* Discussion at Royal Society of Medicine. Heredity and Disease. 
London, 1909, p. 57. 



SKIN COLOUR 165 

cent, negroes in skin colour." And question 4 is, from 
the Mendelian standpoint, even more objectionably 
framed, for here we pass from an abstraction called a 
" theory " to concrete persons called " theorists." 
It reads thus: "(4) Mulatto < mulatto. Does or does 
not this cross usually give a mulatto in colour ? The 
theorists say that 25 per cent, should be pure white 
skins, 25 per cent, pure black skins, and only 50 per 
cent, mulattoes." The unconscious prejudice which such 
a mode of questioning tends to create is manifested in 
the correspondent's fourth answer : " This statement 
of those whom you call the theorists is the most ridicu- 
lously incorrect of the lot." The imputed " theorists " 
are thus at once condemned as " ridiculous people." 
They are not even heard in their OMn defence. 
Fortunately, as we shall see presently, . the real 
"theorists" — "the most ridiculous persons" — are not 
Mendehans but Biometricians in a hurry to frame 
too simple formulse. Between Professor Pearson in 
■' Biometrika " and popular writers in daily newspapers, 
the poor Mendelian, upon whose shoulders the 
burden of unwarranted assumptions has been placed, 
must be already cursed with a reputation in the West 
Indies that will ensure his due execution without trial 
when he makes his appearance in that country. 

Now, who are tne " theorists " ? If by this term 
is imphed the Mendehans, Professor Pearson, as a man 
of science, will know there is a canon extant in science, that 
is as the " law of the Medes and Persians," which 
requires the full reference to the authority who has 
been quoted. Will he be good enough to quote the 
actual words of any Mendelian who uttered such state- 
ments as those impliedly attributed to him in the questions 
above ? We may say at once, for the information of 
our readers and for the future guidance of Biometricians, 
that no Mendelian has ever made any such predictions. 
In effect, what the Mendehans have said is this : (1) 
That we have not at present before us evidence which 
has been sufficiently analysed to justify a statement 
one way or the other. (2) That since in human eye-colour, 
in Avhite hair tufts and in some pathological or abnormal 
traits, Mendehan principles have been clearly demonstrated 



166 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

to be operating in Man, there is no reason to believe 
that when the offspring of mixed races are adequately- 
analysed, it wWl be found that Mendehan principles 
are not also operating among them, whether in respect 
to skin colour or other characters. (3) That we cannot 
formulate a prediction of the results which will follow a 
crossing of an European and a negro, and of the subsequent 
matings between the hybrids in their different degrees, 
until we have first ascertained the nature and the number 
of the gametic factors which determine skin colour in 
the negro and the European. This last consideration 
is the essential basis of all Mendehan predictions, and 
these factors have not yet been ascertained in regard to the 
transmission of skin colour in mixed races of Man. And, 
therefore, no Mendehan — whatever a Biometrician may 
be inclined to do — will be so " ridiculous " as to make 
predictions until he has first ascertained his essential 
facts. Tf it is necessary for the purpose of what we have 
been told is a " most exact and purely descriptive science 
of Biometry " to call in the aid of working hypotheses — 
just hke any mere Biologist — then please let the Bio- 
metrician inscribe them on his own banner and not impute 
them to us. 

We may pass now to consider the evidence of Professor 
Pearson's correspondent, and see whether it does not 
indicate some of those signs that we associate with 
segregation. Perhaps it will be best if we give in a 
summarised form the actual results of the matings, as 
far as they are described in Professor Pearson's note. 
We may then subsequently proceed to ask ourselves what 
results we should expect if the hereditary transmission 
of skin colour in mixed races is a process of blending 
and not one of segregation. Having arrived at some 
decision on that point, we can then compare our expecta- 
tion vnth. Professor Pearson's evidence, and note to 
what degree they coincide or diverge. If the comparison 
is indefinite and inconclusive, we may further 
proceed to consider certain possibilities which at once 
suggest themselves to the Mendehan, but which 
appear to have escaped the Biometrician. Having 
stated these possibilities we shall then consider 



SKIN COLOUR 167 

whether their influence is Hkely to mask the mani- 
festation of segregation, and if so, to what degree. 
We may then compare these purely tentative Mendehan 
expectations* with, the existing evidence, and consider 
whetner they do not better fit the facts than those which 
logically flow from the hypothesis of " blending." 

To come then to the facts as they are described in 
Professor Pearson's note. It appears that the offspring 
from a marriage of an European with a negressf is a 
" definite blend," producing a coloured type known 
as the mulatto. Two classes of mulattoes are known. 
There is a " brown mulatto," having his skin the " colour 
of mahogany," and a " yellow mulatto," whose skin 
colour IS that of a " well-cleaned, nearly new brown 
boot." In the West Indies, the mulattoes are comprised 
of about 85 per cent, of the brown type and about 15 
per cent, of the yellow type ; this statement of pro- 
portional numbers is only an approximate one, and is 
based upon the impreswlons of general experience. The 
existence of two such apparently widely divergent coloured 
types of mulatto is an exceedingly interesting fact, and 
it has a Mendelian significance. It is a fact which is 
worth emphasizing now, but we defer its consideration 
until later (infra page 172). 

We may next deal with the nature of the offspring 
which results from a marriage of mulatto with mulatto. 
As far as we can understand the answer of Professor 
Pearson's correspondent, it appears that when two 
brown mulattoes marry, the offspring is a brown mulatto 
Uke the parents. When two yellow mulattoes marry, 
the offspring are similarly like the parents and are yellow. 
The correspondent does not state this definitely. But 
comparing the ansAver with the question (which is the 
No. 4 alluded to above), we feel that is what it is intended 
we shall infer. But we are quite definitely told that 
" no pure black skins nor pure white skins come from 

* We are led to advance those purely tentative specidations in order 
to show how different some Mendelian expectations may he from 
those which have been imputed to Mendelians by persons anxious to disprove 
Mendehsm. 

tApparently the unions are nearly always a male European with a 
negress. The reciprocal union between a white womanand a negro is 
much rarer. 



168 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

mulattoes married to mulattoes." We are informed 
that this " can be stated quite dogmatically." There 
is, however, one important qualification which we may 
notice. It is the statement that among the offspring 
of- mulatto parents " there are now and then slight 
variations from the usual mulatto brown or mulatto 
yellow." Then, in another part of his correspondence, 
where the correspondent is dealing with the question of 
reversions to the negro type, he writes : "Of course, in 
families of the mixed breed you will often see a difference 
in colour [the italics are his] pure and simple ; this is 
not at all uncommon [the itahcs are ours], and I would 
make a marked distinction betAveen this phenomenon 
and that of a throwback to the negro." And Professor 
Pearson adds to it b}'- remarking that : "I take it my cor- 
respondent is here referring to the continuous variability 
within the family." Now we will not further, at this 
point, comment upon this fact further than to emphasize 
the existence of variations, apparently not only in depth 
or intensity of tint, but also in colour, and that these 
variations are not at all uncommon. And, we wiJl at 
once dissent from Professor Pearson's assumption that 
these variations are manifestations of continuous varia- 
bility. There is no evidence for that assumption ; and 
his correspondent's own emphasizing of the important 
fact, by italicising the word " colour," that there exist 
actual differences, not merely of tint, but of colour, 
among mulattoes, directly points to the conclusion 
that we are deahng with discontinuous variations and 
with segregation. In other words, with a Mendelian 
phenomenon. 

We come next to the offspring resulting from a 
cross of mulatto with an European. It appears that 
the quadroon which thus results is " invariably 
fighter in colour than the brown mulatto, and in 90 per 
cent, of the cases is Avhiter than the yeUow mulatto. 
Pure white skins do not occur in quadroons. This 
statement is dogmatic and true." We need make one 
comment only now. There appears to exist the same 
sort of variation among quadroons that there does among 
mulattoes, as is shown by the implication that about 
10 per cent, are darker than the rest. 



SKIN COLOUR 169 

The offspring of the mulatto (which type is not 
stated, but we infer it is the common or brown one) and 
the negro is a " sambo," " having a deep mahogany 
brown skin colour." " The sambo type is very distinct, 
and there is no reversion either to the white or black 
races." There is appended to this description of the 
" sambo " a pedigree of a sambo family. Now this 
pedigree appears to us to be the most important statement 
of fact in Professor Pearson's note, and seems to be the 
key to the whole problem. Let us consider it. The 
father is a mulatto and the mother a negress. There 
are four daughters, one son, and a grandson. The 
colour of two of the daughters is described as '' paler 
mahogany," another one as "dark mahogany," while the 
remaining daughter and the son are described as " very 
dark, but plainly not a negress or negro respectively." 
Now here we have apparently three degrees of colour 
in the one family from the same parents ; there are 
(1) pale mahogany, (2) dark mahogany, (3) very dark 
mahogany. If this be not segregation, will Professor 
Pearson tell us what it is ? He, himself, is apparently 
surprised at the remarkably wide range of colour mani- 
fested, for he remarks that : "In this case the range of 
colour is fairly wide, and it is open to those whom it 
pleases to' divide this or any other family into two halves, 
containing the lighter and darker members respectively. 
The difficulty of such a classification is that the dark 
mahogany members are quite distinct from negroes and 
the paler mahogany from mulattoes." Now this difficulty 
is really not one at all, except to the biometrical 
exponent of the hypothesis of blending, and to him it 
is fatal. It is, however, well to remember that the 
question of distinctness between some negroes and some 
samboes and between these and some mulattoes has not 
yet been investigated by those familiar with the details 
of Mendelian phenomena. 

Before we turn the first lever in the problem with 
the Mendelian key, let us see first how well or badly the 
biometrical key will fit it. This key is the hypothesis 
of blending. AH the questions set by Professor Pearson 
to his correspondent strike that note ; almost, indeed, 
pray for that consummation. What result then shall 



170 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

we expect when " black " and " white " are crossed if 
gametic blending is the process at work ? The result 
so far as colour is concerned may be an}i;hing. In the 
absence of actual information, and basing our expectation 
only upon analogy, we should equally expect the colour 
of the mulatto to be green, or blue, or violet, as that 
Avhich it actually is. For in a combination of two bodies 
by blending, the colour of the separate factors may not 
count. \\Tien they blend, the properties which each 
possessed separately, may in the combination be 
profoundly altered, or even replaced by new quahties 
altogether. We have an instance of this in the action 
of silver nitrate upon living tissues. Both of these are 
colourless, but a person who has been drugged with 
this substance for a certain period will develope a livid- 
blue or lead-coloured skin. The question of skin colour 
is essentially a chemical one, and chemical combinations 
produce substances having characters which have no 
relation to those possessed by the constituent substances 
which enter into the combination before they are 
combined. Hence the fact that the negro's colour is 
black and the European's is white, by itself gives us 
no basis of expectation as to the colour of the offspring. 

But there is one result which we should expect if 
these two qualities are permanently combined or 
blended in the sex-cells. Within narrow hmits of varia- 
tion, we should expect an uniform result. For instance, 
we should expect that all the germ-cells of the father 
and all those of the mother would in each case carry one 
condition only of skin-colour. That is, the father and the 
mother would in respect to this character each carry only 
one kind of sex-cell. And, consequently, since all their 
children Mill develope from fertihsed germ-cells of 
the same kind, we shall expect that their skin colours 
will be the same. Such expectation is not in accord 
A\dth the wide range of variation revealed by Professor 
Pearson's evidence. The evidence of variation, not only 
in tint, but in colour, appears to be fatal to the hypothesis 
of blending. In answer to this, Professor Pearson 
cannot urge that his general evidence does not relate 
to families but to a community. Such a plea only carries 
the question one stage farther back. For the blending 



SKIN COLOUR 171 

which occurs in a family is but a repetition in a small way 
of a much larger blending which antecedently has occurred 
in the community as a whole if the blending hypothesis 
has any meaning at all. Professor Pearson has himself 
endeavoured to convince us by his biometrical instruments 
that a man's ancestry ten generations back is merely a 
sample of his race or community.* If this biometrical 
abstraction is true, then Professor Pearson's general 
evidence as to the community of mulattoes, quadroons, 
octoroons, and samboes holds equally cogently for single 
families of such classes or vice versa. In a few alternative 
words, we may state the problem thus : On the hypothesis 
of blending we should expect not only the individuals 
of separate famihes to manifest considerable uniformity 
in skin colour, but under certain conditions we should 
not expect any large variation in skin colour in the 
community of mulattoes and the other hybrids as a 
whole. The chief of these conditions would be, of course, 
that the Europeans who originally married to the negroes 
in a given island should have been members of the same 
community. For even on the blending hypothesis, it is 
conceivable that the factors determining French skin 
colour may be different to those determining EngHsh or 
Danish, or Spanish or German colour. But even that 
condition does not carry us far. For the breeding together 
of the mulattoes within a circumscribed islandic area 
would soon produce an uniform result if blending be true. 
Professor Pearson does not tell us which particular island 
of the West Indies his evidence relates to. But we are 
probably not far wrong in assuming that so far as the 
nature of the population is concerned, it has remained 
approximately stationary for the past 250 years. That 
will give us something like ten to twelve generations of 
inter-breeding of mulattoes. This is as long a time as is 
required to give us an uniform race, on Professor Pearson's 
own calculation. And, since that racial uniformity has 
not resulted, it is, as far as it can be legitimately carried, 
adverse to the hypothesis of blending. 

But apart from any considerations of this sort, there 
remains the clear and definite family of samboes which 
we have already described (supra page 169). Such large 

* Grammar of Science. Second edition, p. 456. 



172 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

variation as is shown among its individuals, all five having 
the same father and mother, can find no explanation on 
the hypothesis of blending. 

Another fact which it is difficult, if not impossible, 
for this hypothesis to explain, is the existence of two colour 
classes of mulattoes, the " mahogany " and the " yellow." 
It is admitted at once, that this problem has yet to be 
investigated, and the factors producing the difference yet 
to be ascertained. We cannot be quite sure from Pro- 
fessor Pearson's note what the yellow mulatto is. Is he 
only produced when an European marries a negro, or 
does he occasionally come when a brown mulatto marries 
a brown mulatto, or when a yellow marries a brown one ? 
The first answer (supra page 167) of the correspondent leads 
us to infer the first of these alternatives, but his fourth 
answer (supra page 167) further leads us to suppose that the 
other alternatives are also possible. It is most desirable 
that we should definitely know what is the nature of the 
offspring when one parent is a brown and the other is a 
yellow mulatto. And it is also very much to be hoped 
that some information concerning the proportion of the 
yellow mulattoes to the brown ones, in the past, will some 
day be forthcoming. Is the " yellow " race a disappearing 
one or a stationary one ? 

If it should happen to be the case that yellow mulattoes 
are sometimes the offspring of brown mulatto parents, 
then it is evidence of segregation, and is inconsistent with 
the conception of blending. Any such variation is 
necessarily incompatible with the existence of gametic 
blending. Unless the yeUoAv mulattoes represent only 
the offspring of certain European marriages with negroes, 
or the marriages of yellow mulattoes inter se, their exist- 
ence is fatal to the blending hypothesis. For when we 
consider the very large number of illegitimate births, 
which in the British portions of the Islands range from 
53 • 9 to 79 • 2 per cent, of the general births, and that in the 
past it has been much higher, and we try to form some 
idea of the extent of the promiscuity which this represents, 
we find it difficult to believe that in 250 years the yellow 
and the brown mulattoes, if they have intermarried, have 



SKIN COLOUR 173 

not become completely merged, if the blending hypo- 
thesis expresses a truth, and Professor Pearson's calcula- 
tions can be accepted. But it is all quite conceivable 
on the basis of gametic segregation. Indeed, such varia- 
tion would be a manifestation of segregation. 

If we come now to the results of crossing negroes with 
mulattoes, we at once acquire a singularly interesting 
fact. It is one which throws a significant hght upon the 
difference in the methods employed by the Biometrician 
and the Mendehan. The former deals in masses, and in 
essence he seeks for the mean of the colour of the offspring 
and of the parents ; for the coefficient of correlation of 
the negro fathers or mulatto mothers, massed in classes, 
with the sambo offspring, also massed in classes ; and 
for the deviations of some or all the members of the negro, 
mulatto, and European ancestors from the type of their 
respective classes, and of the members of the sambo off- 
spring from the type of their class. And, when all this 
has been ascertained, at the cost of very great labour, 
what reward is gained, but descriptive statements of the 
most general and widest kind, and which, while interesting 
in themselves, fail to throw any clear hght upon the 
processes of inheritance ? If we are prepared to rest 
upon these statements, it is possible to beheve that 
inheritance is merely a matter of blending, for we have 
placed the whole problem into the biometrical melting 
pot. But it so happens that in this case the influence 
of the Mendehans' past work has been felt, even in the 
biometrical camp, for on page 351 of Professor Pearson's 
note we recognise a typical Mendelian method, ^.e., a 
definite and single pedigree to examine. It is the one 
we have already described, and it indicates the nature of 
the sambo offspring derived from a male mulatto married 
to a negress. Now whereas, by the biometrical methods, 
we learn nothing which is inconsistent with the supposition 
of a blending process in inheritance, yet the moment 
we examine the solitary pedigree, and note the specific 
details — that is, adopt a Mendehan method — we begin 
to see some evidence of segregation. We have already 
commented upon this pedigree and pointed out that the 
existence of three colour groups of samboes, in the offspring 



174 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of the same parents, is quite inconsistent with the concep- 
tion of blending, but is intelligibly explained on the con- 
ception of segregation. Thus while the biometrical method 
masks the truth and may even lead us to erroneous con- 
clusions, the method of the Mendelian leads us to the 
clearer understanding of the nature of the problem, and 
renders apparent that which exists. 

With regard to the offspring when both parents are 
mulattoes, there is nothing in the evidence provided by 
Professor Pearson that is inconsistent with the process of 
gametic blending. And it must be admitted there is 
at first sight, and for the present, very Uttle that is indi- 
cative of segregation. But the evidence is far from com- 
plete, as Professor Pearson himself intimates, and on 
some points it is very indefinite. For instance, to which 
type of mulatto do the two parents belong ? Since, 
according to the correspondent, the brown type constitutes 
about 85 per cent, of the mulattoes in the West Indies, we 
infer that the statements as to the oif spring apply to that 
type alone. But it is necessary to know something more 
about the matter. As the "Mendel Journal" will be dis- 
tributed to the West Indies, and it is possible that it may 
fall into the hands of persons who feel an interest in 
advancing the knowledge of the subject, perhaps we may 
take the opportunity of briefly indicating some of the 
observations it would be of advantage to make and 
record. The editor of this Journal will gladly publish 
at its expense, any authentic observations and 
photographs relating to the subject which may be 
sent to him. It is very desirable that some information 
as to the details of the offspring of separate families born 
of mulatto parents should be forthcoming. Particularly 
it is desired that the degree of difference in tint or in 
colour should be indicated. If one son is light mulatto, 
a daughter is dark mulatto, and another son medium 
mulatto, it should be stated, after careful comparison. 
The slightest difference in colour especially, as well as 
in tint or intensity, should be noticed. Another observa- 
tion which is very much desired, is the nature of the 
offspring when the father is a yellow mulatto and the 
mother a brown one, or vice versa. In all cases, differences 
between the children of the same parents should be 



SKIN COLOUR 175 

looked for and carefully noted. Particularly should it 
be noted whether the colour of this offspring is a yellow- 
brown, intermediate between the two parents, or inclining 
more to one parent than another, or whether it is a new 
colour, unlike that of either parent. A further feature 
of some considerable interest is whether any sambo, 
known from his parentage to be a sambo, and not merely 
judged as such by his colour, ever resembles some mulat- 
toes, or vice versa, whether some mulattoes ever resemble 
some samboes. There is some reason to believe that this 
may, now and then, be the case. In general, what is 
desired, is a very careful and very detailed observation of 
separate families of all kinds, and not of classes of hybrids. 
The fuller the pedigree and the farther back it goes, the 
more valuable it is. But even fragments of pedigrees 
are of value. All kinds of pedigrees are required, and not 
only those relating to mulattoes, but to all the various 
crosses between the pure forms and the hybrids, which 
are possible. 

A review then of Professor Pearson's evidence shakes 
our time honoured belief in the existence of the process 
of blending in the hereditary transmission of the skin 
colour of the various hybrids resulting from European 
and negro crosses. The facts are not altogether in accord 
with what we should expect if gametic blending was 
operating in these cases. We may therefore next con- 
sider whether expectations based on segregation any 
better fit the facts. 

Now there are two possibihties arising from segrega- 
tion. If the blackness of the negro is an elemental 
matter, if it is simply blackness and nothing more, and 
if the colourlessness of the European is merely absence of 
negro colour, and if the colour factors, whatever they may 
be, are of the samegenetic nature in Europeansand negroes, 
then the expectations will be those ascribed to the 
" theorists " by Professor Pearson. But there is no 
Mendelian who believes that this is probably the case. 
Not only does our knowledge of colour inheritance in 
animals and plants forbid us to believe that it is in Man 
of any such elementary nature, but anthropological 
knowledge of quite long standing would similarly prevent 
us from falhng into such a pitfall. Almost every coloured 



17(5 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

race of Man manifests more or less considerable range in 
its skin colour. It is markedly so in the case of the 
North American Indians, in which it varies from pale 
olive yellow to dark brownish yellow. And with the 
negro the variation is even more marked still, for in the 
Mozambique region alone, Froberville distinguished 
the presence of as many as thirty-one different shades 
ranging from dusky or yellow brown to sooty black. 
Similarly, among the Arabs, as is well known, considerable 
variation is apparent, and the existence of even jet-black 
races* have been recorded. 

We are not justified in the absence of chemical evidence 
in believing that these various shades are simply expres- 
sions of greater or less dilution or concentration of one 
pigment colour. Analogy would rather lead us to believe 
that each shade is a definite entity, due possibly to 
different ferments or chromogens, or even to different 
pairs of these in association with each other. And when 
we bear in mind Froberville's observation mentioned 
above, and assuming that each of the thirty-one shades 
is a definite chemical entity, how are we to know, in the 
absence of genetic investigation and chemical analysis, 
how many of these shades are carried by any one negro 
of the darker hue of colour ? If his colour is not an 
elementary matter of one simple pigment, but is due to a 
mixture of three, five, ten, fifteen, twenty, or thirty 
different pigments, obviously the problem is much more 
complex than the Biometrician imagines. Unto him the 
injunction might be uttered to remember that : " There 
is more in heaven and earth than is dreamt of in his 
philosophy," even though it is salted with a great 
desire to formulate simple and easy predictions for 
the Mendelian. And, similarly, if the European is 
equally complex in his colour constitution, and is carrying 
a series of ferments and one chromogen, or a series of 
chromogens and one ferment, of such a nature, that while 
he is "colourless " himself, he none the less possesses the 
power of influencing the colour of his offspring when he is 



* The shegya Arabs, south of Dongola, on the White Nile. On the 
authority of Waddington. 



SKIN COLOUR 177 

mated with a coloured person, or if it is even more com- 
plex, clearly then, Nature will have denied those rash 
Biometricians, who imagined it was all so simple. 

There is yet another feature which introduces a 
further complexity, and is indeed, the key to the whole 
problem. Let us try to make it as clear as possible. 
There is good evidence to show that colour in animals and 
plants is due to the interaction of two bodies, both 
colourless. There is reason to believe that one of these may 
be a ferment and the other a substance upon which the 
ferment acts. It is possible that the ferment determines 
the production of actual colour, and the other body — a 
chromogen — determines whether the colour shall be black 
or yellow, or some other hue. Colour cannot be produced 
unless these two substances are simultaneously present 
in the tissues of the individual, and the nature of the colour 
and its intensity will depend upon the nature of these 
bodies. An albino, for instance, may be carrying the 
chromogens, but no ferment or ferments. Consequently, 
in the absence of these latter, the skin will be colourless. 
Now the European skin is not of the nature of the albino 
skin, and it may possibly carry both chromogens and 
ferments, and the light coloured skin of the European 
may be due to the nature of these, or to the 
presence of colour-reducing or colour- inhibiting factors. 
In the negro we may also assume that both chromogens 
and ferments are present, and the nature of these 
is such that his skin is darkly coloured. Now if the 
chromogens and ferments of the European and the negro 
can be brought, by hereditary processes, into chemical 
contact with each other, they will modify the negro and 
European colour, and determine some other sort of colour, 
that of the mulatto. 

Now the crucial point is this. If C stands for the 
presence of a colour producer (ferment), and c stands for 
its absence, and if D^ and D^ stand for the presence of 
two colour determiners (chromogens), and d^ and d- stand 
for their absence in the negro, then C and 0,0^ and d^ 
and D- and d- are three allelomorphic pairs, so that 
Di and d^, and C and c, and D- and d^, cannot occur 
as pairs respectively in the same gamete. But we 
have postulated that the European is also carrying 



178 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

colour determiners and a colour producer. Let D^ 
d^, D^ d^ and C c stand for the presence and 
absence of these bodies respectively. Now if the pig- 
mentary factors (determiners and producers) of the 
European are allelomorphic with those of the negro, so 
that C and c, or D^ and d^ cannot occur in the same 
gamete, then the expectations attributed to the 
" theorists " by Professor Pearson are rational enough, 
however numerous these allelomorphic pairs may be. 
But if they are not, then that expectation is wholly 
irrational. 

This consideration brings us to the question whether 
we are justified in believing that the pigmentary factors 
of the negro are genetically of the same nature as those of 
the European ? Ought we to regard the one series as 
allelomorphic to the other ? Let us take an extreme 
case. Should we expect the absence of blue pigment 
= b in a sAveet pea to be allelomorphic to the presence of 
black = B in a mouse ? Of course, we cannot make such 
a mating, but we desire to illustrate by an extreme case 
the point which seems to us to be one of the possible pivots 
round which the problem of human hybrids may turn. 
To take then the actual case, can we expect the absence 
of the colour producer = c of the European to be allelo- 
morphic to its presence C of the negro ? In other words, 
is C of the European and C of the negro genetically the 
same thing ? And is c of the European genetically the 
same as, or is it different from, c of the negro ? This last 
question compels us to consider what we mean by the 
" absence " of a thing. Must we regard c as a mere 
symbolical negation, or rather should it not be regarded 
as a negative quality associated with a positive base ? That 
is, to take an illustration, the positive base may be regarded 
as an ultra-microscopic chloroplastid, and the negative 
quality as the absence of chlorophyll from the positive 
base or plastid. In a generalised way we may state it 
thus : the hereditary characters of organisms are carried 
in a physical base. When a character, let us say C, is 
present, it is carried by this base. When it is absent 
= c, then the base is present, but its associated character 
is not. The base, however, when without its character, 
behaves as an allelomorph to the base which- is carrying 



SKIN COLOUR 179 

its appropriate character. In other words, the base with 
its character is allelomorphic to that without it. In mixed 
races, such as the mulatto, we may be justified in beheving 
that C introduced by the negro, and c introduced by 
the European, may not be allelomorphic, and can there- 
fore be carried in the same gamete. If we accept this 
assumption, then the apparent breeding true of the 
mulattoes receives an intelligible and consistent explana- 
tion on purely Mendelian principles. And what is true of 
C and c, will be so of D^ of the negro and of df^ of the 
European. 

Let us work out a hypothetical case. We will sym- 
boHse the presence and absence of a colour producer 
( = ferment ? ) in a negro by C and c respectively. Let 
C and c stand for the presence and absence respectively 
of a colour producer in an European. Let D^, D^, D^ 
represent three grades of colour determiners in a negro, 
and d^, d^, d^ their respective absences. In the Euro- 
pean, let i)\ D^, D^ similarly represent the presence of 
three grades of colour determiners, and d^, d'^, and d'^ 
their absences respectively. 

Let us take the constitution of a particular negro to 
be C D^ d- D^, and that of a particular European to be 
C c D^ d^ d" D^. When such a negro is married to such 
an European, the mulatto offspring will necessarily be 
constituted as follows : C O c Qi i)i ^i d^ (Z^ Ds i)3 
These mulattoes will then individually form the following 
kinds of gametes : — 



(1) 


C 


c 


Di Z)i 


d2 d-' 


D3 Z)3 


(2) 


C 


c 


D^ (Zi 


A- d^' 


D3 i)3 


(3) 


c 


c 


Di i)i 


d^ d:^ 


D3 i)3 


(4) 


c 


c 


Di fP 


cl2 d:^ 


D3 i)3 



Now, there are sixteen possible combinations between 
these four gametes, and neither of them will produce 
either a negro or an European. They will produce nothing 
but mulattoes of varying tints. If we analyse the com- 
position of the mulattoes produced by these sixteen 
possible fertilisations, we shall find there are no less than 
eight kinds of mulattoes. One of these will be identical 
with the two parents, assuming them to be the same as 



180 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

each other. Notwithstanding that there may thus exist 
eight kinds of mulattoes in the offspring of a single 
pair of parents, yet, owing to the fact that the differences 
in their composition may be but shght, they will all 
appear to be, Anthin certain limits of variation, of one 
kind, namely, that which has been called the mulatto. 
That is, mulattoes may appear to breed true within 
these limits of variation, and yet in reality there is no 
breeding true, but gametic segregation. 

There is, therefore, nothing at all in the evidence of 
Professor Pearson's mulattoes which is inconsistent 
with the operation of Mendehan principles of inheritance 
in the hereditary transmission of skin colour in human 
hybrids. Indeed, the evidence of some degree of varia- 
tion in the mulattoes' colour is clearly not only consistent 
with Mendelian principles, but actually is precisely what 
these principles require. A glance at the constitution 
of the four kinds of gametes formed by the particular type 
of mulatto we are considering, shows that differences 
in the tint and colour of miilattoes are to be expected, and 
that these will be in some cases of a very minor kind, 
and in others greater. And this is precisely what the 
evidence adduced by Professor Pearson instructs us is 
the case. 

A^Tiile this hypothesis which we have very tentatively 
advanced gives a satisfactory interpretation of the 
absence of European and negro skin colours among the 
offspring of mulattoes, it apparently fails, in the light of 
our present hmited evidence, as adduced by Professor 
Pearson's correspondent, to explain why the sambo, the 
quadroon, and the octoroon are all different in colour 
or tint from mulattoes. But if future precise investiga- 
tion, directed specially to the elucidation of this point, 
shall show that there is a Avider range in colour or tint 
variation among mulattoes than we at present believe, 
and that at one end of the scale some mulattoes resemble 
some samboes, and at the other resemble some quadroons, 
then this hypothesis will cover a wider field of fact. 

Our own hmited observations compel us to believe 
that the variation among all classes of European-negro 
hybrids, is wider than is commonly believed. We have 
several times seen in Wimbledon, a family of three brothers 



SKIN COLOUR 181 

whom we j udged to be quadroons . There were rem arkable 
differences of colour in the three. The eldest, probably 
fourteen years of age, was quite dark and of a 
brownish-black hue ; the youngest one, about ten years 
of age, was much paler, and the difference was sharp 
and at once obvious ; while the middle one, about thirteen 
years of age, was perceptibly a shade paler still, and his 
tint was almost that of a sallow European. The jaws 
and the hair in all three were quite European, as far as 
a cursory examination allowed one to judge. Their 
nurse, on the other hand, while having only a sallow 
European skin, had hair, eyes, and jaws fully negroid. 
But the point we desire to emphasize is, that in some cases 
at least, there is a considerable range of discontinuous 
variation in the hybrid members of the same fraternity. 
That is well shown in this case, and in that of Professor 
Pearson's sambo family. Upon this point more complete 
and more precise information is wanted. 

But for the present even Professor Pearson's evidence 
points to the existence of segregation, and not to blend- 
ing, as the hereditary process at work in the transmission 
of the skin colour of human hybrids. That is, Mendelian 
principles are in operation. 

But there exists more evidence than that adduced by 
Professor Pearson. And it is of a different order. We 
have, in the remarks we have made, accepted Professor 
Pearson's evidence that mulattoes never beget individuals 
with European skins. The tentative hypothesis we have 
framed is based on that accepted evidence. But can 
we regard this evidence as complete or final ? It applies 
to the mulattoes of the West Indies, but does it necessarily 
apply to mulattoes elsewhere ? Professor Pearson him- 
self does not regard " the views of his correspondent as 
conclusive." He says " they deserve great weight," and 
with that we agree, but we do not think this evidence can 
be accepted as final. 

Our reasons for this attitude are based upon two 
facts. We will state them seriatim. On September the 
24th of this year, we were passing a common boarding 
house in the south-east of London, when we observed 
a somewhat big, broad woman standing in the open 
doorway. She had unmistakably the crimped negro 



182 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

hair in profusion, the negro nose and negro jaw, and 
thus far was a typical negress. But the skin of her 
face, neck, and the whole of her forearm, was almost 
that of an European. We have since examined her 
more minutely, and she would certainly pass, at a 
distance, as an European of the darker complexion. The 
skin of her forearm was almost quite white, but in 
contrast with an European it is possible to detect a 
trace of colour in her face and especially on the back 
of her neck. Now we feel little doubt of the negroid 
ancestry of this woman. One of her two parents 
may have been a mulatto, a quadroon, or an octoroon. 
And yet in this woman we have clearly a segre- 
gation of skin colour, still associated with typical 
negroid characters, which Professor Pearson's correspon- 
dent asserts " dogmatically " does not occur. ^; 

For our second fact we are indebted to Colonel H. de 
H. Haig, R.E., who spent many years in an island where 
mulattoes and other degrees of hybrids were abundant.* 
On page 24 of this Journal, under the heading of " The 
Mendelian Collection of Human Pedigrees," we have 
published a pedigree of the offspring derived from a 
marriage of a mulatto gentleman with an English lady. 
And in the family of seven children, two possess un- 
doubted European skins, and are described as very 
beautiful European women. Here we have a very 
perfect and clean segregation of the European skin colour. 
And this case is a perfectly authentic one, inasmuch as 
the family is well known. 

When we combine the observation of Colonel H. de 
H. Haig with the South-east London one, there can be 
no doubt at all that European skin colour does segregate 
from a coloured ancestry, and that it may be quite clean. 

The divergency between the evidence produced by 
Professor Pearson and that produced in this Journal, 
raises further questions. It suggests that the problem is 
very complex. It is not impossible there may exist 
several races of negroes in regard to the genetic behaviour 
of their pigment factors. Or, more probably, there may 
exist a large number of negroes having different zygotic 



* We are not, for obvious reasons, permitted to mention the island. 
It is not one of the West Indies. 



COMBS OF FOWLS 183 

pigmentary constitutions. Thus, a negro having a 
composition of CcD^d^d^d^, when crossed with any 
European, would give a mulatto offspring, the members 
of which, married to an European, would produce Euro- 
peans as well as mulattoes. The divergency, therefore, 
between the two sets of evidence is probably apparent 
and not real. The mulattoes of the West Indies, it is 
conceivable, may have one zygotic composition, perhaps 
similar to that which we gave on page 179, while some 
or all of those of the other island have another, similar 
to that just given. In marriages with Europeans, the 
one kind will not be expected to beget Europeans 
among its offspring and the other wiU. 



(3) Variation in the Single Combs of fowls. 
Some Mendelian Comments. 

In a recent number of " Biometrika"* there appears a 
paper under the joint authorship of Dr. Raymond Pearl 
and Miss Maud Dewitt Pearl, entitled " Data on Variation 
in the Comb of the Domestic Fowl." The authors have 
propounded a number of questions, but the central thesis 
turns upon the one question as to whether single combs 
or their various grades breed true. And, if they do 
not, to what extent do they vary. As the authors 
point out, " nothing is more certain than that all 
single combs are not ahke in respect to any feature 
whatsoever, even including their singleness." While 
we are not disposed to question the statements in 
this sentence as a whole, the last clause of it calls 
for comment. It implies that there are forms of combs, 
which are neither single, nor pea, nor rose, but a sort 
of blend of single with pea, or single with rose. The 
occasional existence of such apparently transitional 
forms, is well known to the Mendelian, and the explana- 
tion of them is given later in this article (infra p. 193). 

* Vol. IV., Part IV. 



184 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

As is generally recognised, there are many different 
kinds of single combs, and some of them are illustrated in 
the authors' paper. Some are high, others low ; some are 
erect and others lop over to one side ; some are prolonged 
backwards in the form of a spur beyond their attachment 
to the skull and others are not, but end, more or less 
abruptly, at the hmit of their attachment ; some single 
combs have many " points " and others few ; in some 
the " points " are broadly triangular in form (Fig. 3), in 
others the triangle is longer and narrower (Fig. 4), and in 
others they are almost rectangular (Fig. 2). 

The authors seek to know whether these different 
varieties of single comb may be hereditarily transmitted in 
accordance with Mendelian principles when individuals 
bearing them are bred together. They also desire to 
learn, " how far from the normal in any direction the single 
comb may be expected to depart in pure-bred birds ? " 

If these represent the objects which the authors had 
in view when they commenced their investigation, we 
feel forced to confess that we are a Uttle sceptical as to 
the utility or validity of the methods employed. They 
are, of course, typically biometrical methods and are 
orthodox to the last letter of biometrical laAv. But, 
unfortunately, that does not make them adequate or 
vaUd instruments of biological research. As biological 
instruments they are now quite antiquated, for biologists 
have a more fruitful and modern method, that of the 
genetic analysis of individuals by breeding experiments. 
But if these objects are after-thoughts, inscribed when 
the investigation was completed, and perhaps traced out 
by the omnipresent sword-point of the biometrical 
" Field Marshal," it will explain the existing incongruity 
between the objects and the methods. 

The apparently real object of the investigators, that 
with which they commenced their investigation, seems to 
be contained in the following statement : "In this 
paper we have endeavoured to give a clear and, as far as 
possible, quantitative description of the nature and 
amount of variation normally occurring in a homogeneous 
pure-bred strain of Barred Plymouth Rock hens in respect 
to the form and size of the comb." Now if this is the 
precise object of the authors, then the methods adopted 



COMBS OF FOWLS 185 

by them to achieve it demonstrates at once the wide 
and inseparable gulf between the methods of the Bio- 
metricians and those of the Mendelians. The object is to 
ascertain the natvire and amount of variation of the single 
comb. Now to do this we must have perfectly homoge- 
neous material in respect of the character which we are 
investigating. We must be sure that the combs we 
measure belong to one gametic entity ; they must be all 
members of a definite, single gametic type. Otherwise, 
we shall not be deahng with true variation at all, but 
merely ^^^th an eidoscopic display of aggregated types. 

Now Dr. Raymond Pearl has investigated the problem 
with biometrical methods, and the appearance of his 
paper in " Biometrika " must be accepted as evidence that 
from the standpoint of the hierarchy of Biometricians it 
is accurate in method and sound in conclusion. We are 
not, therefore, commenting upon Dr. Pearl's work in any 
other sense than that we desire to examine the validity 
or scientific utihty of the biometrical instruments which 
he has employed in his investigation. Could we assent 
to his methods we might commend his results ; we can 
admire his skill as a workman, while lamenting his tools. 
We shall, therefore, consider his paper as a ripened 
product of Biometry, and as one written by, shall we say, 
" an ardent " Biometrician. 

The object then before us is a study of the range 
and nature of the variation in the single comb of a certain 
race of hens. Now it must be confessed that were we as 
Mendehans about to undertake this investigation the 
first thing we should endeavour to obtain would be a 
homogeneous race of combs and not of hens. It is in 
this matter that we think the Biometricians have invali- 
dated at the outset the value of any conclusions they 
may reach. They have endeavoured to obtain what 
they call " a homogeneous pure-bred strain of Barred 
Plymouth Rock hens." Now is it possible to obtain 
such a thing as a homogeneous race of individuals 1 In 
pre-Mendelian days — that is, previous to 1900 — the term 
pure bred had quite a diiferent significance to that now 
attached to it by Mendelians. And, in its older sense, it 
is still employed by fanciers. We know now that a bird 



186 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

can be pure bred in the old sense, can be bred for succes- 
sive generations from a particular race, and yet not be 
homogeneous ; indeed, may be most markedly hetero- 
geneous. Blue Andalusian fowls, for instance, may be 
bred for indefinite generations from blue Andalusians 
and yet not a single homogeneous blue Andalusian bird 
will be obtained by the process. The Andalusian race 
thus bred will, in fact, remain a most heterogeneous one, 
throwing both black and splashed white individuals in 
each generation. Such instances can be multiplied, 
but this particular one will suffice. 

The mere fact then that the Barred Plymouth Rock 
hens which form the material of Dr. Pearl's biometrical 
investigation " had been carefully and closely selected 
in their breeding for more than 25 years " is, by itself, no 
guarantee of the homogeneity of the race, and still less 
is it any guarantee of the homogeneity of the comb 
characters. Neither is there any greater degree of 
guarantee introduced by the fact that " during the last 
nine years they have been ' line bred ' — that is, no fresh 
blood has been imported." The statement therefore 
that : "It would be difficult to find anywhere material 
for the study of variation more homogeneous than that 
dealt with here," has really no scientific meaning at 
all. It has a fancier's meaning, but nothing more. 
There is no proof forthcoming of the homogeneity 
of this material in the scientific sense. On the 
other hand, the three plates containing 96 figures 
of very diverse single combs, which illustrate the 
authors' paper, is an eloquent testimony to the hetero- 
geneity of the material. We think these plates constitute 
such clear evidence of this that there remains little doubt 
in our minds " that it would be difficult to find any- 
where " more heterogeneous material. 

Now what is it the Biometricians want us to under- 
stand by the term " a homogeneous pure-bred strain of 
hens " ? What is a homogeneous race ? We doubt 
whether any such thing exists. Are we asked to beheve 
that this race of Barred Plymouth Rock hens is homo- 
geneous in all the multifarious characters of each indivi- 
dual ? Or that it is so only in respect of those characters 



COMBS OF FOWLS 187 

which have been selected by the fanciers ? If it is this 
latter alternative, then we imagine that the selection of 
plumage, of size, of habit, of form, and other characters, 
has played an equally important part, probably a more 
important one, than that of the selection of comb charac- 
ters. And, if this is so, the Biometricians are not justified 
in believing that the single combs of this race — and it is 
with this character that they are alone dealing — is any- 
thing else than markedly heterogeneous. Even though 
a special selection of comb characters on the basis of old 
conceptions* and by old methods had been made, there 
would, even then, have been no reason to regard the 
material as homogeneous. But even this has not been 
done ; for Dr. Pearl himseK informs us on page 428 : 
" The drawings and figures here presented show that in 
the absence of special selection1[ in regard to comb size, 
the character. shows a range of variation all the way from 
the condition shown in large combed types in Leg- 
horns to the very smallest of single combs." It is clear 
then, on the admission of Dr. Pearl himself, there has 
been no special selection exercised in regard to one of 
the characters of the comb, namely, size, the variation of 
which he set himself the problem to measure and describe. 
How, in the face of this admission, his material can be 
described as "so homogeneous that it would be difificult 
to find any material more so," appears to us to be an 
aberration of enthusiasm not perhaps difficult to com- 
prehend. We are therefore compelled to dismiss as 
untenable the claim that this biometrically chosen mate- 
rial is homogeneous in any but the fanciers' sense of 
the term. 

Let us pass to a further consideration of the problem. 
We will take one only of the many characters exhibited 
by the single comb, namely, its size. Now what is size ? A 

* The old conceptions alluded to here are those which flow from the 
belief that the visible body characters are a true and trustworthy criterion 
of gametic constitution. We now know that in the majority of cases this 
is not so. The old methods alluded to are those which are based on this 
old belief, and which consist in selecting individuals because of their external 
or visible body characters. The Mendehan or newer biological method is 
to select them because of their gametic constitution, which is judged of 
by their genetic behaviour, manifested in the course of experiment, 

■[■ The italics are ours. 



188 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

thing which has size possesses length, height, and width 
( = thickness) ; it has three dimensions. What evidence 
has Dr. Pearl that each one of these dimensions is not a 
biologically independent variable ? In other words, the 
length, height and width of a single comb may be separate 
gametic entities, each segregable from the other. Or, on 
the other hand, they may of course be coupled together. 
Before we can be assured that this material is the " most 
homogeneous possible," we must not only consider the 
comb, but each one of its separate characters. Points like 
these have to be considered and the homogeneity of the 
material proved, not by massing heterogeneities together, 
but by geiietic experiment, before we have any real basis 
upon which our judgement as to the homogeneity or 
otherwise of the material can be formed. 

We must now consider another source of error in this 
biometrical treatment of the subject. It is the implica- 
tion that the ordinary or older method of selection by 
inspection of the visible or somatic characters will enable 
us to fix a homogeneous race. This older method of 
selection is based upon an old conception. In pre- 
Mendelian days it was generally believed that the external 
or visible body characters were a true and trustworthy 
criterion of the gametic constitution of an individual. 
We now know that in the majority of cases which have been 
investigated this may not be so. We know, for instance, 
that two races of white sweet pea, which so long as each 
race is bred within itself will produce only white-flowered 
individuals, but yet when the two races are crossed 
purple-flowered individuals m ay result . It is clear that the 
visible and somatic white character of the flowers of these 
two races is not a reliable criterion of the hidden factors 
which each race carries. Selection of these tAvo races 
because of their visible white character does not produce 
a race homogeneous for whiteness. Again, we know it 
is not possible to fix the jonquil character of canaries by 
selecting the best jonquil canaries to breed from. And 
we know also that we cannot fix the blue Andalusian 
character of the Andalusian hen by selecting the best 
blues and rejecting the black and splashed- white indivi- 
duals. For many years blue Andalusians have been 
selected by such a mode of selection, namely, that based 



COMBS OF FOWLS 189 

on the inspection of visible somatic characters, but it has 
not resulted, and cannot result, in evolving a homogeneous 
race of blue Andalusians. On the contrary, the race 
maintained with steady persistency a heterogeneous 
gametic constitution. It was not the biometrical treat- 
ment of a few thousands of blue Andalusian hens which 
advanced our knowledge of the matter, but that precise, 
specific, individual gametic analysis that is the diagnostic 
feature of Mendelian treatment which finally enabled 
us within a couple of years to show that the blue Anda- 
lusian was a heterozygote, and could be made at any 
time by simply mating a black hen with a " splashed " 
cock or vice versa. 

And the same considerations apply to the comb char- 
acters of hens. We cannot by such somatic selection, 
however long it may be continued, obtain a homogeneous 
single comb in respect to any one of its characters, except 
as the result of a happy and exceedingly rare accident. We 
cannot, for instance, knoAv by mere inspection that an 
individual hen which bears a single comb prolonged 
backwards beyond its attachment to the head into a 
large spur is not forming gametes which carry another 
type or types of single comb. To endeavour to fix a race 
of hens which shall be homogeneous in one particular 
character by breeding from a bird chosen by mere exter- 
nal inspection is waste of time and money. And to 
endeavour to investigate the question of variation of 
the characters of single combs by indiscriminately massing 
together a hundred or a thousand, or even ten thousand 
hens which have been bred upon this principle of selection, 
and to obtain the arithmetic mean, the standard devia- 
tion and the coefficient of variation of their combs, appears 
to us to be of the nature of " love's labour lost." And 
that which is true in this respect of the combs of hens 
is true of all those multifarious questions of inheritance 
and evolution Avhich relate to horticulture, to agriculture, 
and to Man. To believe that an inherently black body is 
white because it is externally painted that colour seems 
to us to be the highroad of delusion, the " straight, 
broad road " of biological science. And yet it is this 
road which the Biometricians are traversing, notwith- 
standing that nine years ago Professor Bateson called 



190 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



their attention to its nature and to the goal of academic 
destruction towards which it led by facile stages. 

Now let us examine Dr. Pearl's material with Men- 
delian eyes. Even a cursory examination of the ninety- 
six figures which illustrate his paper leads us to believe 
it possible that within this so-called " homogeneous and 
continuously variable material " there conceivably exists 
at least four types of single comb, so far as teeth 
characters alone are concerned. And, it is also 
conceivable that they represent gametic types. 
We will endeavour to enumerate and describe these 
groups. In so doing we would desire it to be under- 
stood that we are only indicating in a general 
way some of the considerations a Mendeiian would 
formulate who contemplated undertaking an investiga- 
tion into the variation and transmission of the 





22 50 

Possible gametic types of single comb. Selected from the 9fi iigures 

illustrating Dr. Raymond Pearl's paper in " Bionietrika," Vol. VI. 

Fig. 1 to 4 indicate the types of our four hypothetical groups. 

Figs. 10, 22, 50, and 98 indicate the number of the figure in Dr. Pearl's 
paper, from which those here figured are copied. 

[Reproduced with the kind pe'-mission of tJie, Publishers and Editors of 
" Biometrika.") 

characters of single combs. The type comb of our 
Group 1 is illustrated in Fig. 10 of Dr. Pearl's paper, 
and in our Fig. 1. Around it the combs illustrated 
in his Figs. 1, 35, 36, 42, and 44 fluctuate in one 
direction or the other. This group is characterised 



PLATE ri. 




BiometrikA vi 

This Plate has been reproduced with the 



and nublisliPr^ nf - rT '^':*"^"';,^^i "^i-" i-ue permission ot the Ed tor 
wh1cE"aectnpany D^^^" P^^i's^'" 'r^ '%'''''' P^^^es of 96 figures 
appended to thJ..±^/^'''^ ' P'^P*''- ^o^' explanation, see note 



appended to this article. 



192 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

by the low form of comb ; the serration is not pro- 
nounced, the teeth tend to run together, and the 
apices of the teeth are acute. In our Group 2 we 
find the type iUustrated in Dr. Pearl's Figs. 88 and 96, 
and in our Fig. 2, and around them those shown in his 
Figs. 11, 64, 67, 76, 77, 78, 86, and 90 fluctuate 
in one direction or the other. This group is characterised 
by having the teeth somewhat in the general form 
of a parallelogram, they tend to be indented or 
spurred, and their apices are sub-acute. In our 
Group 3 the type is illustrated in Dr. Pearl's Figs. 
50 and 92, and in our Fig. 3, while a loAver form of 
comb of the same type is illustrated in his Figs. 24 
and 63. The group is characterised by its well defined, 
triangular large teeth with acute apices. Our Group 4 
is shown in its typical condition in Dr. Pearl's 
Figs. 13 and 22, and in our Fig. 4, with his Figs. 7, 
71, and 73, and others fluctuating around them. This 
group is characterised by its well defined, somewhat 
long-narrow, triangular-shaped teeth with sub-acute or 
obtuse apices. A form of comb like that figured in 
Dr. Pearl's Figs. 69 and 85 and some others are probably 
to be regarded as heterozygous ones, and carrying 
some two or more of the above four groups. 

We must once more intimate that we do not commit 
ourselves to the positive statement that these four 
groups are actual gametic entities ; experimental breeding 
alone can decide that. But we do assert that Dr. Pearl's 
figures appear to us not to form a continuous series 
without some perceptible gaps, and that it is possible 
to beheve at least four distinct gametic types exist 
within the class of single comb in the Barred Plymouth 
Rock hen. In the investigation of such problems 
the only method that can be of any avail is that of 
the Mendelian. We must, for instance, take the two 
most diverse types, such as our Group 1 and Group 3, 
and breed them together. In other words, we should 
endeavour to see whether such a comb as that shown in 
Dr. Pearl's Fig. 10 or 36 clearly segregates from such a type 
as that shown in his Fig. 50 or 92. When that has been 
adequately attempted, we shall then be able to claim a 



COMBS OF FOWLS 193 

real advance in knowledge. It is not a difficult experi- 
ment, and it is one which any breeder of fowls who is 
willing to do the work carefully and conscientiously 
could quite easily undertake. 

We have felt bound, though reluctantly, to comment 
upon the conclusions and the methods of Biometricians. We 
have felt impelled to do so, because from the Mendelian 
School — after years of experimental breeding, during which 
more than 12,500 hens were bred and recorded by Pro- 
fessor Bateson and Mr. R. C. Punnett, and to which 
must be added the valuable experimental work of Mr. 
C. C. Hurst and of Professor Davenport, there has issued 
the conclusion that the characters of the combs of fowls 
are hereditarily transmitted in accordance with Mendelian 
principles ; and that the experimental results can be 
adequately explained by supposing that the various 
characters are determined by the existence of definite 
gametic factors. The paper of Dr. Pearl which has 
appeared in " Biometrika " is published ostensibly with 
the purpose of casting doubt upon the Mendelian 
conclusions. It is perhaps unnecessary to further con- 
trast the difference in the method or the extent of the 
work of the two schools. We need only compare 
the 96 combs gathered " indiscriminately to the 
biometrical mill, and remember that the parentages 
of the individuals which bore them were unknown 
or ignored, and the relation of one generation to the next 
therefore was unconsidered, with that precise and 
definite gametic analysis of each of the many individuals 
chosen to constitute the breeding stock from the total 
of the 12,500 hens which were bred in the course of the 
investigation, and which is the essential attribute of Men- 
delian methods, to enable us to arrive at a conclusion as 
to which of the two Schools has its methods most 
based on a lasting foundation. 

There is one further point that requires some comment 
here. On page 432 of their paper the authors lay great stress 
upon the existence of " intermediates " between typical pea 
combs and single combs. That fact has long been known 
to Mendelians, and was described in the first report to the 
Evolution Committee of the Royal Society, in 1901, 
page 94. It would have been more in consonance with 



194 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

scientific impartiality had some reference to the later 
Mendelian work (Rep. Evol. Commt. iv. 1908, page 21) 
been made either by the authors or by the Editor of 
" Biometrika." This later Mendelian evidence suggests 
that these " intermediate " pea combs are not due to im- 
perfect dominance or to continuous variation, but to a 
specific difference in the genetic nature of the single- 
comb base upon which the pea constitutent of it rests. 

To ignore deductions derived from experimental 
evidence and to persist in maintaining conclusions based 
on observations that are eight years old, and which have 
been superseded by more recent and extended work, 
cannot we think help the advance of knowledge. The 
Biometricians still persist in believing that all single- 
combs are genetically alike, in spite of their own standard 
deviations and coefficients of variation, whereas the 
Mendelian has already good evidence to show that 
there exist several distinct gametic types. And the 
existence of these explains the intermediate pea-single 
type of comb. 



NOTE. — After tliis article was in press, we sought the permission of 
the PubUshers and the Editor of " Biometrika," to the reproduction in our 
pages, of four selected figures from Dr. Pearl's three plates. The Editor, 
while unable to see his way to grant permission for the reproduction of 
the four figures selected by us, was willing to allow us to reproduce 
any one of the three plates as a whole. At our further request the Editor 
of " Biometrika " very kindly permitted us to reproduce one of Dr. Pearl's 
plates together with the four figures. Hence the appearance of one 
whole plate, to which there is no reference in the text of our article. 
Doubtless, it is the desire of the Editor of " Biometrika." in fairness to Dr. 
Pearl's conclusions, that one series, at least, of his figures should be seen by 
our readers, side by side, with the four selected by us. We very gladly 
pubhsh this plate. It is intended to show the existence of continuous 
variation. To us there appear to be perceptible gaps. But even though 
the blends or grades formed a perfect series, the fact still remains, that 
the only reliable way to test whether gametic blending exists or not, is to 
breed the extremes of a n-puted lilended character, and note the results. 



MISCELLANEA. 



Science and Democracy. 

In an article in a daily paper of recent date there appeared a 
statement which is as remarkable from the standpoint of imar-ina- 
tion as it is erroneous from the standpoint of fact. After passing 
certain comments upon a letter written by Sir Oliver Lodge, in 
which the writer manifested a misunderstanding of the nature 
and use of scientific hypotheses, he j)i'oceecled to pronounce the 
following obitei- dictum : — 

" It is not the case that the public is incredulous with regard 
to scientific assertions. The tendency is all the other way ; the 
plain man accepts too unhesitatingly what he is told by the pro- 
fessors. And there is danger when anything that claims to have 
the authority of science behind it is too readily accepted. There 
are physiologists and sociologists, for example, who would apply 
the laws which speculation has formulated in other fields to human 
life, though these laws may be nothing more than untested hypo- 
theses or may have no application to man. Thus Mendel's 
famous law is valuable enough in dealing with plants, but in the 
case of man it appears to break down. If it applied to the human 
race, the progeny of every negro married to a white woman 
should be in definite proportions pure white, pure black, and 
mulattoes, and this, as is well known, has never occurred." 

We are not now concerned with considering the credulity or 
incredulity of the public nor in asking whether it is true that the 
" plain man accepts too readily what the professors tell him." 
For we have first to learn that the plain man, or the legislator, or 
the politician, ever reads the scientific works of men of science. 
Neither are we concerned in holding a brief for the so-called 
sociologists. For, unfortunately, the great majority of those who 
pass as such, are neither men of science by training nor by 
instinct. They are perhaps not incorrectly described as dilettante 
or vicarious philanthropists desirous of spending somebody else's 
money in an attempt to secure the salvation of those whose salva- 
tion, there is too much reason to believe, is beyond both prayer and 
hope. With regard to the statement respecting the physiologists. 



196 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

we can only express our surprise that a responsible paper should 
have framed such an accusation without producing a particle 
of evidence to substantiate it. 

It is impossible to conceive of statements more calculated to 
inspire contempt and hatred of science in the popular mind, or 
to lead that mind astray, than those which appeared in this 
article. The "professors" of science are by implication, but perhaps 
not intentionally, denounced as charlatans, and the mature con- 
clusions of academic physiologists, arrived at after laborious and 
prolonged investigations, are lightly dismissed as " untested hypo- 
theses having no application to Man." In the earlier days of scien- 
tific history in this country, when she was fighting and making 
headway against the forces of superstition and bigotr}'', the Canon 
Wilberforces of the time were the open and avowed enemies of 
science. It can be said that they were honest men for they drew 
forth their sword in its unsheathed nakedness. But to-day, the 
locus of this enmity — for anything which misrepresents is a virtual 
enmity — appears to have extended and its form to have varied, 
for it is now no longer open and avowed, but assumes the invidious 
guise of putative criticism, uttered in an ostensibly friendly 
manner. It is akm to the kind of attitude that our lukewarm 
friends adopt towards us ; it " damns with faint praise." 

When we recall the fact, as the late Professor Huxley reminded 
us, that it was not an Autocracy, nor an Oligarchy, nor even a 
Theocracy, but a Democracy which condemned Socrates to death, 
we may well begin to wonder, when we read articles of this 
harmful nature — no doubt unintentionally so — addressed to the 
people, whether history in repeating itself has not brought us 
back to the days when rhetorical sophists swayed the civic 
multitude of Athens, and by the institution of such a form of 
government thereby inevitably wrought the national destruction. 
It compels us to remonber that there are not wanting the 
signs that in the English life of to-day, mere orators, minor poets, 
and tanners of the type of Lycon, Meletus, and Anytus occupy the 
platforms in the market places, where sophistical, erroneous, and 
inflammatory utterances find an appropriate response. And, 
while this is so, the important conquests of science are either 
passed by unheeded and her methods ignored, or they are mis- 
represented and consciously or unconsciously held up to con- 
tumely, as in the case now before us. 

We pass next to consider the particular paragraph in this 
article with which the Mendel Journal is more directly concerned. 
We are told by the writer " that if Mendel's law applied to 
the human race the progeny of every negro married to a white 
M'oman should be in definite proportions pure white, pure black, 
and mulattoes, and this, as is well known, has never occurred." 



SCIENCE AND DEMOCRACY 197 

Now this is a remarkable statement, and it should not for one 
moment be supposed that any Mendelian ever uttered it. We 
should certainly be interested to hear the name of the authority 
and the chapter and verse of the book where such an expected 
progeny from such a mating is stated to be a Mendelian prediction. 

The moment is perhaps opportune for a brief statement 
of the real facts of the subject. Now one of the most significant 
of these facts is that no Mendelian has ever made any prediction 
as to the nature of the expected oflfspring between mulattoes 
bred inter se, or between mulattoes and quadroons, or indeed 
between any of the crosses that are possible between European- 
negro hybrids. These alleged statements have been imputed to 
Mendelians either by those who imagine such predictions are 
orthodox, or by those who have got into a hopeless confusion 
as to the real nature of " intermediates " or grades of characters. 
It is unfortunate, as Mr. R. P. Gregory has pointed out in a reply 
to the article, that people do exist who are sometimes too ready 
to make unwarranted assumptions, which are then attributed 
to Mendelians. If the public desires to know Mendelism, it should 
of course, itself pass through the plains of Cirrha and climb the 
hills of Citha^ron, and accept it from the Mendelian Apollo alone. 

The Mendelian attitude in the matter of European-negro 
hybrids is the same as that in all other questions of genetics. 
It is, in effect, that we must first ascertain by breeding experi- 
ments the nature and number of the primary gametic factors 
which are concerned before we can make any prediction at all. 
In this particular case the Mendelian requires first to carefully 
ascertain the gametic factors which determine the blackness of 
the negro's sldn and those which operate to produce the European 
colour of skin. We need not pursue the question in detail here, 
because we have already considered it (supra p. 163) in commenting 
upon Professor Karl Pearson's contribution to " Biometrika." 

But we desire to pass one more comment upon the remarkable 
statement of the problem as it is given in the article we are con- ' 
sidering. To a Mendelian the error of the statement is of course 
obvious at once. Assuming that Mendelian principles are operat- 
ing in negro crosses with Europeans, and further assuming that the 
negro blackness is an elementary character, not resolvable into 
a series of factors, and that European " whiteness " is simply an 
elementary absence of negro colour, it is even then erroneous 
to say that we should expect " the progeny of every negro married 
to a white woman would be in definite proportions pure white, 
pure black, and mulattoes." For, as Mrs. Haig Thomas pointed 
out in a letter to the paper in which this article was published, 
the first generation cannot manifest the segregation of characters 
which occurs in the invisible gametes of that generation. It is not 



198 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

until the second generation of individuals have been born that 
segregation can be seen. 

We would like to add that if newspaper readers desire some 
knowledge of biological matters, and they have neither tlie time 
nor the desire to read scientific books, the best course available to 
them is either to read articles which are written by men of 
science and are signed by their authors, like that excellent series 
by Sir E. Ray Lankester in the Saturday morning's issue of the 
Daily Telegraph, or be content to leave science alone. For it is 
better for any nation to abide in ignorance than to be led in error. 

How pernicious such errors as these may be is well exemplified 
by a subsequent letter which appeared in the newspaper in which 
the article was published. This letter adverted to that article 
and was signed by " Jamaican." He appears to have lived 
in Jamaica for fifty years, and he expresses " astonishment that 
such an idea as that a white child could be born of a black 
mother could be maintained." And well might" Jamaican " be 
astonished ! But the seriousness of the matter from the 
aspect of science is that this error, having obtained a 
start, may never be completely overtaken. It has gone 
forth to the public that science has made a pronouncement, 
which a part of that public, from its experience, knows is 
erroneous. It has been promulgated that from a black 
mother science has said white, mulatto, and black children 
shall be begotten. And every person of the public who 
may be in a position to judge knows quite well that it is an 
erroneous statement. And the public which seldom or never 
discriminates, will now associate men of science with palpable 
errors, while the real transgressor may very possibly be regarded 
as a god who has destroyed false idols. Such neglect of scientific 
accuracy in any widely circulated journal, is a matter to be 
deplored. 

It is only fair, however, to say that the newspaper in which 
this article appeared, inserted in three different issues a correction 
of the error which the article contained. And we have reason 
to believe that had not the pressure upon its space, owing to the 
political situation, precluded the possibility, a full statement of 
the Mendelian attitude towards the question would have been 
published in its columns. 

Mendelism cannot long remain a wholly academic subject. 
Already the influence which it is to exert in horticulture, in 
agriculture, and in human affairs is manifest. Inevitably it 
must come into more or less public view on that account. And, 
we would like to utter an appeal for a lair treatment to be 
accorded it. It is becoming an increasingly complex subject, 



SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES 199 

and already needs a specialist's knowledge to accurately present 
it to any audience. 

The time has passed when science was solely an affair of 
" cloistered halls " and men of science lived in " academic groves." 
Science has entered into human affairs, and is now an essential 
part of them. Men of science are called upon by circumstances 
to keep pace with the march of events. The old attitude of 
exclusion from participation in these wider events is no longer 
possible, if science is to be rightly understood and properly 
appreciated by Englishmen as a whole. The danger arising 
from that exclusion is manifested in the event which we are now 
discussing. To be forewarned should be to be forearmed. 



The Nature of Scientific Hypotheses. 

The discussion on " Speculation in Science," which took place in 
certain newspapers quite recently cannot fail to arouse wide- 
spread interest in the subject which has been described as the 
" scrap-heaps of science." 

The full consideration of the matter at once raises the ques- 
tion of the nature and use of hypotheses in science, and, it 
is doubtless possible, by means of various analogies, to convey 
some concrete idea of their nature and of the part they play in 
the march of science to those who are not special students of 
scientific problems. 

The various hypotheses which have been formulated from 
time to time, in order to attempt some sort of a description of 
the nature of the aether, have been mentioned in the course 
of the discussion alluded to above. And, the fact that 
many of these have been discarded, or, as it was there 
stated, " thrown on the scrap-heap," is impliedly held to 
be a rebuke to science. Now far from it being a matter 
for rebuke, this " scrapping " of defective hypotheses is in 
reality a great virtue. It is a sign of progress. Holding 
fast to dogmas when they are no longer tenable is not progression, 
but either retrogression or stagnation. The greatest victory that 
science has won for the intellectual freedom of mankind is this 
very right to relinquish exploded conceptions as soon as they are 
no longer tenable, and to substitute for them others more in 
accord with the knowledge of the day. 

The discussion which we are now considering, may perhaps 
have tended to create the impression that this destruction of 



200 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

exploded hypotheses is something which men of science 
regret and only reluctantly tolerate. But it" is only just 
to remember that scientific men themselves look upon 
this relegation of untenable hypotheses to the scrap-heap 
as a quite normal event in the affairs of science. And, 
similarly, they regard the birth of new hypotheses even from a 
frail parentage, so long as it be legitimate, as a normal event. 
There is no danger in the existence of these hypotheses in the 
world of science, because no delusion is there associated with 
them ; men of science understand them and appreciate their 
nature. It is only when they pass into the hands of men who are 
not scientific and who endeavour to use them to support their 
own prejudices or desires that they become dangerous, because 
they then become misapplied. 

These so-called speculations in- science are never intended to 
be infallible dogmas ; no scientific man ever makes that pre- 
tence. They are simply working hypotheses or necessary imple- 
ments of work, without the use of which it is impossible to advance. 
They are not Laws, but merely instruments of scientific research. 
When the work which they are intended to fashion and to mould 
is accomplished, these instruments of achievements — the working 
hypotheses — ^are cast aside. They have fulfilled their function, 
and science cannot be retarded by retaining implements which are 
no longer capable of useful work. In Biology we see one such 
derelict scientific tool in ■ the now almost generally discarded 
hypothesis of the hereditary transmission of acquired 
characters. This hypothesis in its time served a very useful 
purpose. Had it nevei' been called into use, biological science 
in certain of her problems would have stood sixty years 
behind the position she now occupies. In a tentative way 
and to a hniited degree, Darwin utilised it as a working 
instrument, and his use of it ultimately led other biolo- 
gists, and especially Weismann, to subject it to a searching 
inductive and deductive analysis, based partly upon experiment 
and partly upon verified observation. And as a consequence 
of such work — the outcome, let it be emphasized, of the critical 
use of a scientific hypothesis — the large majority of biologists 
to-day feel justified in relegating this hypothesis to the " scrap- 
heap." We need no longer encumber our path and retard our 
progress by futile discussions and unrewarded experiments on 
the " yea " or " nay " of the transmission of acquired characters. 
And when we look into the realm of Medicine — which is but 
applied Biology — we can conceive what an immense impetus to 
progress it must be for medical investigators and pioneers of 
knowledge, scouting out into the unknown regions, to know that 
this particular tool can no longer accomplish any useful work for 



SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES 201 

them. It is a great thing to know that there is one less of the 
useless tools for them to waste their efforts upon in a fruitless 
handling. The regions of the Unknown and even the frontiers 
of the Known, are strewn with such deceptive and futile tools, so 
full of promise, but so unavailing when they are tested, and so 
impossible to detect at sight from the tools of truer metal, that it 
is imperative all within our range must be tried before a 
real step in advance can be accomplished. Biology and Medicine 
to-day owe a forward advance of at least sixty years to the fact 
that Lamarck formulated this worldng hypothesis of the trans- 
mission of acquired characters, that Darwin tentatively used it, 
and that Weismann and others, using it yet more fully, tested it 
thoroughly and found it wanting. Had this hypothesis never been 
formulated, we should to-day on matters of the most profound 
importance — questions for instance that came before the De- 
partmental Committee on Physical Deterioration and before the 
Royal Commission on the Care of the Feeble-Minded — have been 
sixty years to the rear of the vanguard of the knowledge of to-day. 
And this important advance, so intimately affecting our national 
worth, has alone been possible because a working hypothesis 
" has been put upon the scrap-heap." 

We may speak of these exploded derelicts as scrap- 
heaps if we like. In doing so, we are really describing 
their real nature. There is a similarity between these 
discarded hypotheses of men of science and the pile of broken, 
rusted, and antiquated machinery of the manufacturer. 
And it is not only important but just to remember that the 
materials of a scrap-heap, historically or economically, represent 
a value almost infinitely greater than that of " old iron." The 
value of an engine consigned to the scrap-heap is not measured 
merely by its weight of metal at current prices, but in the history 
of mankind it will be valued by the nature and quantity of the 
work it accomplished in the days when it was the " latest thing " 
and was being worked at its highest expedient pressure. And, 
similarly, in the history of mankind we shall not value sailing 
ships by their worth to-day, and think that because they have 
been superseded by " Lusitanias " and other steam leviathans, 
they have been useless in the service of man, or valueless in deter- 
mining the present polity of nations or the present distribution of 
human races. The value of sailing craft will not be historically 
measured by what they are worth to-day as a means of transit be- 
tween Europe and America, but rather by the historical con- 
sequences that have arisen because they were the craft which con- 
veyed Columbus and others to America and opened that vast region 
to Europeans. In old days the corn was cut solely with the scythe, 
but as an efficient instrument of the present it is now to a large 



202 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

extent upon the scrap-heap ; more efficient implements are 
taking its place. Yet assuredly, in the days when it was 
solely used, it was an incalculably valuable tool. So it 
is with the working hypotheses of men of science ; like the 
scythes and the sailing ships, they are the efficient in- 
struments for the work of the day. But men of science 
know that to-morrow and at successive periods they will be 
supplanted by a better instrument, until one is found which does 
its work ideally. And when in Science such a working hypo- 
thesis has been found — one which does its work ideally — it is 
called a " Theory," or if very ideal a " Natural Law." 

These " Natural Laws " wall probably never be surpassed or 
replaced. They differ from hypotheses in their permanence. 
In Science there are very few of them. The conditions of their 
existence are rigid, severe, implacable, and onerous. They are 
tested by facts unlimited and time illimitable. We may count 
the number of them upon the fingers of our hands. It will not 
be amiss, by way of illustration, to mention some of them. In 
the Physical World there is the " Law of Gravitation," the " Law 
of the Conservation of Energy and Matter," and in the Realm of 
Biology there is the " Law of Evolution," and the " Law of the 
Survival of the Fittest." 

Now what is it that a man of science understands by the term 
" Law " ? He does not understand by it the same thing that a 
legislator does. It is not a written code asserting what shall or 
shall not be, or stipulating what we may do or may not do. To 
him it is merely a statement of the consequences or results which 
arise as the outcome of natural processes at work. It is 
a generalised expression which accurately describes all the 
detailed and particular phenomena to which the " Law " applies. 
In other words, it is only a general way of describing the relation- 
ship of a large number of particular events or facts, which are more 
or less remotely related to each other. The "Law of Gravitation," 
for instance, enables us to describe in uniform terms the falling of an 
apple and of a feather ; but it also explains the rising of a balloon, 
the floating of a ship, the swinging of a pendulum, the parabolic 
path of a bullet, the motion of meteors, and the orbits travelled 
by the moon, earth, and sun. The "Law of the Conservation of 
Energy " similarly enables us to describe in consistent and uniform 
language the production of electricity by the burning of coal ; 
the formation of coal forests from the energy of the sun that 
shone millions of years ago ; the production of heat and motion 
in the human body by the. consumption of oxygen and other 
elements ; the conversion of a sugary solution into an alcoholic 
one by the activities of the yeast plant ; the growth of a man or 
a bean plant from a microscopic egg under the influence of the 



SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES 203 

energies liberated from the sun, and a great many other apparently 
diverse phenomena. The " Law " is but the description of the 
fact that when coal is burnt and has apparently disappeared, 
it is not really destroyed, but the energy of heat which has been 
liberated by its oxidation or burning is merely changed into 
some other form of energy, that of electricity or of motion, or of 
both. And similarly, the sun's warmth and light which falls 
upon the growing animal and plant is not lost, but is merely 
changed into that molecular unrest which constitutes life. 

These two " Laws " will stand as long as the present order 
of the Universe endures, for they simply describe in generalised 
language the whole complex and ever-shifting phenomena to 
which they relate. And while they thus describe in accurate 
language the phenomena of Nature, they are not inconsistent 
with — that is, they are not contradicted by — a single fact. And 
yet, for fifty years or more, this " Law of the Conservation of 
Energy" has been tested by multitudinous, detailed, and varied 
experiments conducted in every civilised country throughout 
that period. And as for the " Law of Gi-ravitation," who is there 
who doubts that its duration is coincident with that of the 
Universe itself ? 

And similarly with " Evolution" and " the Survival of the 
Fittest." They too describe the phenomena of Nature in the 
domain of li\dng organisms. They are consistent with all that 
is known of organic life, including Man, and fifty years of hostile 
criticism has left them strengthened, not weakened, impregnable, 
not shaken. 

But we should never confound in our thoughts or in our con- 
versations, the fleeting " hypotheses " which but represent 
the accomplishing tools, with the permanent "Laws," or, as they 
are better called, the formulated statement of the "Processes of 
Nature," which represent the finished product of the accumulated 
labours of, it may be, many generations of men of science. 



REVIEWS. 



Heredity.— J. Arthur Thomson, M.A., Regius Professor of 
Natural History in the University of Aberdeen. The 
Progressive Science Series. ■ John Murray, London. Price 
95. net. Pp. G05. 

Professor J. Arthur Thomson is the Ruskin of Biology. His 
Avritings partake alike of the mellowness of Autiimn and the 
freshening vigour of the Spring. They are full of the hopeful 
joys that arise perennially from the vernal freshness, and they 
spread a golden hue over the pessimism that is eternally born 
of all experience. As one reads his book, one begins uncon- 
sciously to paint life as a resplendent far northern sunset, a scene 
of purple hills and placid waters, lying bathed in their entirety 
beneath a rose-red splendour that emanates from a silver sun. 
This psychological effect is due not to the matter of the state- 
ments but to the poetry of their utterance, for Professor Thomson 
is far too accurate to lead us by his statements into that Utopia 
which is born of dreamers but is demolished by Biology. 

Most of us have to be content with the prosaic utterance that 
" the unfit among organisms are eliminated while the fit survive." 
But in Professor Thomson's book it is given to us in the language 
of imagery : " Rotten twigs are always falling off the tree of 
life. There is a continual irrecoverable precipitation of incapables, 
who thus cease to muddy the stream." In this way he paints at 
once, on the canvas of the mind, a picture of the process of 
Natural Selection. There can be none so uninstructed that they 
do not at once grasp the meaning of this destruction from the 
mental image thus called forth by analogy. 

Now and then. Professor Thomson allows the golden sunset 
to sink, and in the colder, if clearer light, of advanced dawn, the 
ruggedness of life and its pitiless inexorableness, is allowed to 
break upon our vision. Equally well timed and written is his 
warning that: " Besides the advance of preventive medicine, the 
spreading enthusiasm for health, the awakening of a eugenic con- 
science, the suggestions as to 'marriage-licenses' and other forms of 
social selection, all making for the greater healthfulness of the 



HEREDITY 205 

human breed, we have, of course, to remember that our race 
has not got beyond the scope of natural selection, much as we 
try to evade it." It is well that the large audience to wliich 
Professor Thomson's book will appeal should be reminded that 
the Stygian gulf of life cannot be crossed except by such who can 
pay Charon his ferry fee. It might not have been amiss, perhaps, 
if our author had pointed out that had we been brave enough in 
the past to have left Natural Selection unfettered, we need not 
to-day have burdened ourselves with " eugenic consciences," 
with amended " marriage licenses," with costly schemes of 
" preventive medicine," and a " spreading enthusiasm for 
health." To us, it appears preferable to see a community that 
does not care whether the haciUus communis coli is in its corporate 
intestines or not, to one composed of indi\dduals always counting 
their pulses and swallowing lactic-acid tablets ! Picture the two 
types : the one man spontaneously happy, vigorous, indifferent 
to germs, while the other wastes the hours of life standing by 
the brink of its waters shivering from fear and incapable of 
plunging ! And yet it is this latter type that our " enthusiasm 
for health" and schemes of " preventive medicine" are rearing 
fast. Professor Thomson's warning is in season, and it is to be 
solemnly hoped that they who feel the glow of his golden sunsets 
will not forget that upon the other horizon, under cover of the 
rising darkness, a devastating storm is following the sun. 

While, here and there, the author thus expresses a salutary 
warning, not infrequently his hopes appear to be too much of 
the ethereal order. When, for instance, he tries to persuade his 
readers that it is possible to escape, in some measure, the inexor- 
able hereditary persistence of congenital defects, by the same 
mechanism that sometimes causes a desirable or favourable varia- 
tion to be lost, he is approaching dangerously near to " building 
castles in the air." That such a thing may be possible is not of 
course disputed. But such negative variations are, as far as our 
present e^ddence instructs us, exceedingly rare, relatively to the 
number of times in which such characters persist. We have 
only to recall such a pedigTee as that of JVfr. Nettleship's stationary 
night blindness, where a defect persisted through ten generations 
for a period of 270 years, and still exists, to perceive that it is not 
along that line of Nature's processes we can hope for any 
amelioration of human suffering. There is danger in arousing 
such expectations and in building above earth. Careless readers 
— and how many there are — will believe that it is possible to 
stop the sun of heredity at noon-day, and to reverse its inevitable 
onward, westward march. Alas ! it is harsh, perhaps, but better 
to emphasize the lesson that while there may be occasionally a 
tumultuous sun-spot on the sun, the relative motion of which may 



206 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

be for a little while east, the sun itself goes on to the westward, 
with given pace to its unalterable goal. Again, Professor Thom- 
son's allusion to Job's utterance, " Who can bring a clean thing 
out of an unclean ? " in relation to the fact that out of a generation 
of wheat plants susceptible to the " rust," some immune offspring 
may be obtained, is apt to lead careless or emotional readers to 
the contemplation of false beliefs and futile hopes. For Professor 
Thomson asks the question, "If it is possible among plants to 
get a pure thing out of an impure, it may be that for domestic 
animals and for man himself the purification of a tainted stock is 
not a chimera." It would have been more charitable to have 
warned his readers that before the clean can be obtained from 
the unclean, cleanness must first be put in. Professor Biften, 
during his experiments with wheat, did not waft a magician's 
wand over an unclean " rusted " generation, and lo and behold, 
there came forth the clean ! Not in this way are such things 
accomplished. The immune — the symbolically cleanly — was 
first put in to the " rusted " generation, by the act of fertilisation. 
Of course, Professor Thomson does not say that such wand- waving 
feats are possible. But our experience of students and of general 
readers — especially of social reformers seeking a justification for 
their codes — leads us to believe it possible the passage may 
be thus translated. All Professor Thomson desires to state 
is that, given a stock which has become tainted, it may be possible 
to breed out its taint. But this of course supposes that in addi- 
tion to the taint there is some goodness. If the stock is all taint, 
and we breed it away, nothing of the stock will be left. And, in 
social affairs, we may be apt at the end, after we have paid for 
the breeding away, to ask what we have obtained for our money ! 

We strongly recommend this work to all who are interested 
in the momentous and interesting biological questions with 
which it deals. Whether we are students, doctors, philanthro- 
pists, Eugenists, social reformers, Salvationists, or politicians desir- 
ous of the country's welfare, we should read it, mark it, and in- 
wardly digest it, from cover to cover. It is not too much to say 
that he who does that will have gained a knowledge of biological 
and medical problems and facts wider in their range than it is 
possible to obtain in any other single book. 

Many of the older conceptions, such as telegony and the 
transmission of acquired characters, and the phenomena of rever- 
sion, are considered and discussed. There is a chapter on the 
history of " Theories of Inheritance," another on " Heredity and 
Disease," one on " Common Modes of Inheritance," and a fourth 
on the " Physical Basis of Inheritance." The more modern 
aspect of the subject is described in a chapter on " Statistical 



STUDY OF VARIATION 207 

Study of Inheritance," and in one entitled the " Experimental 
Study of Inheritance." In this latter chapter an account of 
Mendel's discoveries, of the theoretical interpretations flowing 
from them, of the recent elaborations of Mendelism and the 
practical bearing of Mendelian results, are given and discussed. 
The problem of " Sex " has a chapter to itself, and so also has 
" Heredity and Development." This last chapter is essentially 
a statement and discussion of Weismann's theory of the Germ- 
Plasm. The final chapter deals with " Social Aspects of Bio- 
logical Results." 

There is appended a Bibliography, a Subject-Index to Biblio- 
graphy, and an Index. There are forty-nine exceedingly good 
illustrations and diagrams, and many of them are coloured. 
They should help to render difficult conceptions clear and easy. 

G.P.M. 



Recent Progress in the Study of Variation, Heredity, 

and Evolution. R. H. Lock, M.A. John Murray, 
London, o.s. net. Second Edition. Pp. 334. 

The object of Mr. Lock's cleverly written book is to give an 
account of the modern progress of knowledge relating to heredity, 
and to attempt to render the account intelligible to the general 
reader as well as to the more scientific public. In this endeavour 
Mr. Lock has admirably succeeded. His statement of some of 
the many questions with which he deals, are the clearest of many 
that have been written. Some problems are of such a nature 
that they may be described in a most laborious fashion and 
rendered more complex than they really are, by the treatment 
they receive. Professor Johannsen's theory of the " pure lines," 
is one of this nature. An unskilful pen would render a statement 
of it intolerably complex and hoijelessly confusing. Mr. Lock's 
treatment of it recalls our nursery days when we lived in fairy- 
land, and all our difficulties vanished by the touch of the fairy- 
queen. We read his description and we grasp its meaning while 
we do so. And it is the same throughout the book. Indeed^ 
the criticism we should feel most inclined to make, is that it reads 
too easily. Readers are apt to imagine that they know more 
than they really do, if they have gathered that knowledge with 
too little effort. 

The book gives an account of the evidences of Evolution and 
of Natural Selection. And, although it is in large measure, a 
" Mendelian book," the author has written an interesting account 



208 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of some of the biometrical methods and conclusions, in relation 
to variation, evolution and inheritance. A chapter is devoted 
to the later aspects of the theory of Mutations and an account of 
de Vries' experiments wdth evening primroses and with ever- 
sporting varieties is given. There is also an interesting chapter 
on the work of the older hybridists, Kolreuter, Knight, Herbert, 
Gaertner, Naudin and Millardet. These are names that Darwin's 
" Origin of Species " made familiar to the reading public. The 
latter part of Mr. Lock's book deals with Mendelism, to which 
two chapters are devoted, and to the bearing of modern cytology 
upon Mendelian problems, which occupies a third chapter. 

The last part of the book considers the application of the 
conclusions derived from biological investigations, to human 
society. And, in this part the author gives an account of the 
origin and meaning of the term " Eugenics." In the chapter 
under the title of this term, Mr. Lock has done good ser^'ice in 
bringing before a wider audience Sir Francis Galton's work on 
" Human Twins." This work was originally published in the 
Journal of the Anthropological Institute in 1875, under the title 
of " The History of Twins, as a Criterion of the Relative Powers 
of Nature and Nurture." It has unfortunately been completely 
ignored in all discussions upon social problems where it should 
have formed their base. It is difficult to believe that the L^topian 
ideas, reforms, panaceas, social transformation scenes, or what 
other name they may be known by, could have been seriously 
preached in the columns of the medical press, in newspapers, in 
pamphlets, before Royal Commissions, and before Parliament, 
had Sir Francis Galton's " History of Twins " been known to 
the promulgators and its full significance grasped. Mr. Lock has 
rendered a service of the greatest value in thus calling attention 
to the existence of what we believe should be regarded as among 
some of the most important facts relating to human life. Sir 
Francis Galton himself propounded the question whether in 
view of the facts revealed by this history of twins, we can believe 
that nurture plays any part at all in the determination of the 
qualities and conduct of men. For it is but too true that " The 
steady and pitiless march of the hidden weaknesses in our consti- 
tutions, through illness to death, is painfully revealed by these 
histories of twins." And, as Mr. Lock points out, " From this 
evidence (the history of twins) it seems right to conclude that the 
hereditary nature of a man is more important than his training 
and circumstances in determining liis adult mental and physical 
equipment. You may educate generation after generation, and 
yet the starting-point from which each individual has to begin his 
struggle upwards may remain the same." 



ACQUIRED CHARACTERS 209 

Mr. Lock concludes this chapter and the book, by quoting a 
paragraph from a paper by Professor Karl Pearson, which we 
recommend all to read. For, whatever may be the differences 
between the Biometricians and the Mendelians, we rejoice in the 
fact, that all are agreed, it is impossible by nurture to evolve 
" golden conduct out of inherent leaden instincts," which are 
born of nature. 

Mr. Lock's book is well illustrated and it contains reproduc- 
tions from the portraits of Dar\\in, de Vries, Galton, Kolreuter 
and Mendel. 



The Heredity of Acquired Characters in Plants. -% the 

Rev. Professor George Hensloiv, M.A., .F.L.S. John 
Murray, London. Price 6s. Pp. 107. 

Professor Henslow is one of the remaining few of a resolute 
rearguard. While the large majority of English biologists have 
followed Weismann, and have rejected the theory of the trans- 
mission of acquired characters either as untenable or unproven, 
there yet remains a small band of biologists who still maintain 
that this theory is worthy of acceptance. Among these, Professor 
Henslow expounds the theory from the botanical side, and 
Professor Gadow and Mr. J. T. Cunningham from the zoological 
side ; and among botanists there are others who occupy a 
neutral territory. 

" The object of the present book is to prove that Evolu- 
tion — so far as plants are concerned — depends upon the 
inheritance of acquired characters." Professor Henslow 
describes a large number of examples, which he believes demon- 
strate " that new and changed structures in plants do arise as 
acquired characters, and that they can be hereditarily trans- 
mitted, and so become fixed as varietal or specific characters." 
He also contends that these examples prove the power of plants 
to adapt themselves during their development by responding to 
new conditions. 

We are afraid not many biologists will accept Professor 
Henslow's conclusions, but before these are commented upon, it 
is only fair to consider the merits of the book apart from the 
particular attitude it assumes towards a once much debated ques- 
tion. It is a work which can be well recommended to every student 
of nature. It is full of most interesting facts relating to the many 



210 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

adaptations and responses of plants to a changeful environment. 
The illustrative examples — which Professor Henslow of course 
regards as " illustrative proofs " — of direct adaptation are culled 
from a wide range of plants and plant organs. The structure of 
stems, spines, and aquatic leaves ; the habits and structure of 
climbing plants, of succulent plants, of Alpine and Arctic plants ; 
of epiphytes, parasites, and saprophytes ; the habits and form 
of swollen roots and tuberous organs ; the phenomena of degener- 
ation, and the various considerations relating to the origin of 
monocotyledons, are all called upon to produce their evidence. 
There are many very excellent illustrations showing the differ- 
ences produced in plants as responses to varying environments. 
The type is large and clear and the paper good. 

Having thus recommended the book as a statement of an 
interesting series of facts, perhaps we may claim the privilege of 
criticising some of the deductions. We will first consider Professor 
Henslow' s main deduction. He asks us to believe that species 
have arisen under " the joint action of the two great factors of 
evolution — variability and environment — without the aid of 
natural selection." He contends that plants directly respond to 
changes in the environment and that in time these changed 
structures or activities are hereditarily transmitted. He denies 
in a quite uncompromising manner that evolution depends at all 
upon the elimination of " unfit " organisms and the maintenance 
or persistence of the " fit." Granting for the moment, that plants 
may become permanently modified by responding to the direct 
action of the environment, and that this change maybe hereditarily 
transmitted, has Professor Henslow ever inquired how this capa- 
city to thus respond came into being ? The wide plasticity of 
plants is an obvious thing. But how did that plasticity arise 
and how has it been maintained in the vast majority of plants ? 
Are all plants equally plastic ? Plasticity is as much an inherent 
quality of a plant as its chlorophyll, its scent, and its form. 
And is not this plasticity — the capacity of responding to a 
changing environment — itself the product of evolution by 
Natural Selection, a matter of the survival of the fittest ? Let 
us imagine two hypothetical plants, both at the seedling stage, 
placed in a nearly sterile soil, and in a diffuse light. One of these 
plants can respond to this harsh environment, and adjusts its 
metabolism to the conditions. The other cannot, and its kata- 
bolism goes on at a pace which is consonant with a richer food 
supply than that available. Clearly the latter must perish, 
while the former, stunted in growth, survives. The stunted 
growth is not an effect of the direct action of the impoverished 
soil, it is merely the manifestation of the inherent capacity of the 
plant to respond to external conditions. And this particular 



ACQUIRED CHARACTERS 211 

innate capacity, tlie evidence seems to us to show, is the product 
of evolution by the action of Natural Selection. Professor 
Henslow, of course, may reply that there does not exist any such 
unresponsive plant. But we think if he will appeal to known 
facts, he will find plenty of evidence demonstrating the existence 
of unresponsive plants. 

Let us illustrate the argument by an appeal to these facts. 
The Sweet Woodruff is a British plant which lives in woods and 
shady places. It is not imcommon, as an undergrowth, in some 
beech forests. In such forests when thickly crowded, there is a 
deep gloom or shade that would be fatal to other green plants. 
But in this semi-darkness the WoodrufE thrives quite well. That 
which is a harsh or fatal environment to other plants is to it a 
necessity of its existence. Now, when for commercial reasons, 
some of the beech trees are felled, and the forest is cleared in order 
to let in more light and air, what happens to the woodruff ? If 
Professor Henslow's contention is true that it is a universal pro- 
perty of living protoplasm to respond to direct influences of a 
changed environment, then the woodruff should adapt itself 
to the new environment of a stronger light and more abundant 
air, and survive under the changed conditions. But it does not. 
It perishes. It is inherently unfit to survive these new conditions, 
and it suffers elimination in consequence. It is the same with 
the flax. It can live in the valleys, but if taken to the mountains, 
where the light is stronger, it perishes. The plants now growing 
in the desert of Kaits, in Ceylon, illustrate the same thing, but 
more cogently. They have been living under desert conditions 
for thousands of years, but yet they have acquired none of the 
characters that belong to desert plants, except a compactness of 
habit. They do not show sunken stomato, thick cuticle, and 
succulent parenchyma. And the only desert peculiarity which 
they possess, namely, their dwarf stature, as shown by Holter- 
mann's observations, is lost when they are removed from the 
desert and planted in garden soil. The influence of the desert 
conditions has not changed the characters of these plants, for 
they do not possess that combination of desert characters which 
is the diagnostic quality of desert plants. 

These phenomena and the whole range of responses which 
Professor Henslow adduces in his book, including M. Ph. Eber- 
hart's experiments with woody stems, and Dr. Reid's statement 
concerning the Kauri pines of New Zealand, seem to us to be but 
different manifestations of the one thing, the inherent capacity 
which most plants have of responding to their changing environ- 
ment. But all plants do not possess this capacity in the same 
degree or in the same way. It is a character which has been 



212 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

evolved by Natural selection operating through the medium of 
spontaneous germinal variations. Those plants which have 
mutated in the direction of acquiring this plasticity can live under 
diverse conditions, because they can respond to them ; those 
which have not thus acquired it, like the woodruff and the flax, 
can only live under certain limited environments, because they 
cannot respond to wider changes in their surroundings. 

In one part of his book, Professor Henslow asks us for the 
evidence of elimination of the unfit. He asserts " that Nature 
does not produce seedling plnats possessing structural and func- 
tional defects." We have not far to go to find it. Any seed of 
Pinus will provide it. In this seed, at a certain stage of develop- 
ment, there are from sixteen to twenty embryos. At the germin- 
ation of the seed only one comes forth as a seedling. The others 
have been eliminated ; their metabolism fell behind the pace set by 
the victor, they were unfit, and they perished. Such illustrations 
can be multiplied and can be culled from the Animal Kingdom too. 

Those who are interested in these problems should of course 
read the case for both sides. And, from the botanical standpoint 
of the transmission of acquired characters, the reader cannot do 
better than to carefully consider the facts described by Professor 
Henslow in his book. 



The Causation of Sex.— % E. Ramley Dawson, L.R.C.P., 
Lond., M.R.C.S., England. H. K. Lewis, London; 6s. 
net, pp. XIL + 196. 

The problem of Sex has ever been one of the most fascinating 
of biological problems. It has attracted to itself the attention of 
both eminent zoologists and botanists, in this and other countries, 
during the current and in past centuries. Around the relatively 
few facts known concerning it, many hypotheses — too often 
incorrectly called theories — have been woven. There are so 
many of these that at the beginning of the last century it was 
calculated more than five hundred of them had been framed 
at one time or another. In the face of such an army of 
hypotheses, one feels that Dr. Rumley Dawson's claim to have 
framed a new one is courageous indeed. It is certain" that it 
departs from the great majority of the older hypotheses Jn that 
it excludes the influence of environmental factors in determining 
Sex, and falls back wholly upon the inherent structure of the right 
and left ovaries of the female. 



CAUSATION OF SEX 213 

The older hypotheses were based upon various assumptions, 
or upon limited evidence, and were born of a preconceived belief 
that the influence of the environment was practically all-powerful 
in the determination of Sex, as well as of other characters. The 
influence of warmth, of geographical elevation, of quality and 
quantity of food, of the relative age of parents, the freshness or 
staleness of the germ-cells at the time of fertilisation, the social 
rank and habits of the parents, the relative constitutional vigour 
or sexual ardentcy of the father and mother, the number of 
spermatozoa taking part in conception, and other factors, have 
all been pressed into ser^dce in the attempt to explain the deter- 
mination of Sex. But in this, as in other biological problems, 
the day of the environmental dominancy is coming to its end. 
It is becoming more clearly recognised that an organism is pre- 
destined in its structure and its habits, for these latter are but 
the manifestations of the hidden factors contained in the fertilised 
egg-cell out of which the organism arises. 

Dr. Rumley Dawson's theory is in harmony with modern 
investigation in so far as he ascribes the determination of Sex 
to the inherent nature and structure of the egg- cells. But he 
departs from our modern conceptions in that he affirms the 
impotence of the male sex-cell to determine Sex at all. He 
says : "It will come as a serious blow to the vanity of man to 
know that this question must be answered with a decided nega- 
tive. Man, or the male, has nothing to do with the causation of 
the sex of the future child." He supports this conclusion by 
adducing evidence which shows that certain women have 
had only sons or daughters by different husbands, and that 
certain female animals have had offspring all of one sex by several 
different males. This evidence is certainly suggestive, but it is 
hardly comprehensive enough to render it conclusive. On the 
other hand, recent Mendelian experiments* tend to show that 
the male does influence the determination of sex. It may be 
possible that in some cases his influence is uniformly in one direction, 
and it may be the peculiar structure of the female egg which 
differentiates in the determination of Sex. But that does not 
justify us in asserting " that the male has nothing to do with 
the causation of Sex." To take a familiar analogy from domestic 
life. It may be true that the mere man has no influence at all 
in determining whether his wife's new dress shall be pink or 
green, or striped purple, green, and white. That may be decided 
wholly by the peculiar temper of the lady. But we imagine that 
the cheque book of the husband does influence the possibility 
of the lady having the dress at all. In the absence of a cheque, 

* See Mr. C. C. Hurst's paper on " Mendelism and Sex," page 125 of this 
Journal. 



214 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

there is no dress of any colour whatsoever ; and, similarly, 
without a male there will be no of?spring, either daughters or 
sons. This part of the theory asks us to accept too much. It 
asks us to believe that there is a fundamental divergence in the 
nature of male and female sex-cells. We do not think that the 
evidence as a whole lends any support to that assumption. 

The central part of Dr. Kumley Dawson's theory is that the 
right ovary of the woman forms egg-cells which carry the male 
characters, while the left one forms egg-cells which carry the female 
characters. Consequent!}', an individual who developes from a 
right ovum must be a male, and one who developes from a left 
ovum will be a female. He then further postulates that ovula- 
tion occurs from each ovary on alternate months, so that if 
conception occurs on one month a boy may be born, while if it 
occurs the month after or the month before a cirl will result. In 
support of his theory he adduces a great deal of very interesting 
facts, mainly of a clinical nature. And it can be said that he 
has produced a strong prima facie case in its support. 

But there are certain general considerations which tell against 
it. The theory implies that there is a fundamental difference in 
the structure of the right and left ovaries. It implies a physio- 
logical and structural asymmetry of a very primary nature. 
It may be true that such an asymmetry can be demonstrated, 
because the right ovary is slightly larger than the left. But an 
asymmetry of mere size does not necessarily imply the same 
thing as one of diverse (jualities. This latter asymmetry can only 
be due to some early asymmetrical cell division in the develop- 
ment of the individual. Are we justified Jn believing that such 
an asymmetry is a normal event in the structure of woman ? The 
assumed existence of alternative ovulation is again another 
hvpothesis which involves this asymmetric physiolosical activity. 
The evidence derived from lower mammalia does not to any great 
degree support it. Dr. Rumley Dawson, however, raises woman 
to a pedestal, and will not admit that her physiology is akin to 
that of lower animals. Of course, the objection to the theory on 
the ground of asymmetry is, it must be remembered, wholly an 
a 'priori one. And very marked asymmetrical arrangements are 
known, as quite normal affairs, in both Man and lower forms. In 
birds and dogfishes there is only one ovary, and in the former only 
one oviduct also ; and, in Man, the functional speech centre in 
the brain is situated in the left side. 

The reader must, however, read the book himself, and con- 
sider the evidence brought forward on behalf of the theory. 
The author also considers various objections which have been 
brought forward against his theory. He has collected a large 
amount of clinical information, and has brought it together in 



PROBLEM OF EVOLUTION 215 

the form of an interestinc volume. Those who are anxious for 
the advent of a son or a daughter should certainly read the book, 
and see whether Dr. Dawson's prophecies always come true. 
For if his theory be true, it is possible to forecast the sex of the 
expected child, and, therefore, by instituting adequate measures 
to determine events in accordance with our wishes. If his theory 
will pass successfully through the crucible of experience and careful 
analysis, it is not too much to assert that it will be a theory of 
very great importance in relation to some affairs of human life. 



The Problem of Evolution.— ^r/cA Wasmann, S.J. Authorised 
translation from the German. Kegan, Paid, Trench, 
Triibner, & Co., London. (Ss. net. Pp. 26(). 

This is a book dealing with scientific problems and written by a 
Jesuit Father. It is true that Father Wasmann claims also to be 
a zoologist, and an authority on the parasites of ants and termites. 
But it is clear that the theologian looms larger than the zoologist ; 
the former stands in the background as far as possible, and this 
is of the nature of a mountain range, the foreground being the 
atmosphere, pervaded with a mist. The book has been written 
with a purpose, one which is often designated by the title " The 
reconciliation of theology and science." The book appears to be 
a publication of a series of addresses delivered in Berlin, before 
an audience containing a number of scientific men. At the 
completion of the series a discussion took place. The report of 
this discussion forms the second part of the book. 

The attitude of the author towards the doctrine of Evolution 
is indicated very early in tlie book. When dealing with the 
various modifications of different parasites infesting different 
species of ants and termites he comes to the conclusion as the 
result of his personal studies that " The principle of the theory of 
evolution is the only one which supplies us with a natural explana- 
tion of these phenomena, and therefore we accept it. But to 
what extent are we to accept it ? Just as far as its application 
is supported by actual proofs." Then the author proceeds to tell 
us just how far, in his opinion, the evidence does extend. We 
will indicate this extent in his own words : "In the case of the 
species of the same genus, the genera of the same family, and 
often for the families of the same order — even for orders of the 
same class, the probabilities are in support of evolution." " But 
the higher we ascend and the more closely we approach the great 



216 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

chief types of the animal world, the scantier becomes the evi- 
dence." It is needless for us to indicate after this that Father 
Wasmann raises Man above nature and refuses to regard him as a 
product of evolution. He even denies that Zoology has any claim 
to express a conclusion as to the origin of Man. Psychology 
alone among the natural sciences has that right. And, beyond 
Psychology, Theology only has a right to pronounce a judgement 
" as to the way man came into being." We are informed Psycho- 
logy teaches us that " the soul of man is not only essentially 
different from the soul of an animal, but is a simple spiritual 
being. Such a being can come into existence only by way of 
creation. Therefore the soul of man cannot owe its origin to 
evolution." We are living in the rationalism and philosophy of 
the 20th century, but this recalls to us the methods of the Scho- 
lastics of mediaeval times. 

Father Wasmann, who acknowledges the evolution of lower 
forms, has overlooked the fact that the conclusions relating to 
Man's evolution are based upon evidence identical in its nature 
with that which he admits is conclusive for these lower 
forms. If this evidence is true for one it is as true for the other. 
The introduction of an obvious prejudice, which is born of an 
unjustifiable pride, into the problem of Man's origin may be good 
Theology but it is bad Science. 

The book will, of course, appeal to many ; it will appeal to 
those who seek for consolation and to whom Truth is only accept- 
able when it is sweet. Those who desire solace in the contempla- 
tion that " Man is a fallen Angel," rather than in believing he 
is passing upwards to a higher state and to nobler realms of intelli- 
gence and morality, will find in this book the comfort which they 
seek. But, for our part, we feel a nobler pride in believing that 
the evolutionary Angel is to be the goal of our nobler future, 
rather than that it has been the lamented loss of a wicked past. 

In all countries and in all times, the Church — under whatever 
denomination she may manifest herself — has high functions and 
noble purposes to fulfil. And surely she must recognise that it is 
better for her and for the populations she should guide, to con- 
sider more exclusively these functions, rather than to intrude 
prejudice or dogma into realms that do not concern her, unless it 
be to give her light and guidance. 

We should like to discuss this book more fully were this a 
fitting occasion. But the reader will find an interesting discussion 
contributed to by distinguished members of Berlin Society in 
the second part of the book. The reader will also find that it is 
freely annotated by Father Wasmann. 

Taijlor, Oarm-it, Evans <(■ Co. Ltd., Printers, Lonilon, Manchester, and lieddish 



The 

Mendel Journal 



February 1911 



1. A TRANSLATION. 

GREGOR MENDEL. T. v. Wiesner. Translation by Countess 
Bertha de Scheler. 

2. PAPERS READ TO THE MENDEL SOCIETY. 

A SKETCH OF MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK. D. J. Scourfield 
INHERITANCE OF "THUMB-FINGERNESS." H. Drinkwater 
ON TABBY CATS R. I. Pocock 

3. CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES. 

INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES Robert Bunsow 

EDITORIAL NOTE ON Mr. BUNSOW'S ARTICLE. 
PLEA FOR OPERATION OF A MORE VIRILE SENTIMENT 
IN HUMAN AFFAIRS. 

A CRITICISM Louis Cobbett 

A REJOINDER, together with an indictment of the Boarding-out 

System of Pauper Children Geo. P. Mudge 

A CRITICISM Miss H. M. Wodehouse 

A REJOINDER Geo. P. Mudge 

4. METHODS AND RESULTS. 

NOTE REGARDING VARIATION IN THE SINGLE COMBS 

OF FOWLS Raymond Pearl 

A REPLY "Ardent Mendelian" 

5. MISCELLANEA. 

APOGAMY AND HYBRIDISATION. 
A NEW THEORY OF SEX HEREDITY. 

NOTE ON PARTHENOGENESIS F. J. Chittenden 

A REPLY Mrs. Rose Haig Thomas 

THE INCIDENCE OF PLAGUE AND THE RELATIVE IN- 
SENSIBILITY OF HOOLIGANS TO PAIN. 

6. REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

7. SIR FRANCIS GALTON. 

AN APPRECIATION. 



Copyright AH Rights Reserved 

Printed and Published for the Mendel Society by 

TAYLOR, GARNETT, EVANS, & Co., Ltd., 54, Fleet Street, London, E.G., 

and Manchester, England 

Agents in the United States of America : — 
G. E. STECHERT & Co., 151-155, West 25th Street, New York 

No. 2 Price 62 cents nett 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



CONTENTS 



1. A TRANSLATION. 

GREGOR MENDEL. Illustrated. T. v. Wiesner. Trans- Page 
lation by Countess Bertha de Scheler ... ... ... 3 

2. PAPERS READ TO THE MENDEL SOCIETY. 

A SKETCH OF MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK. Illus- 
trated ... ... ... ... ... D. J. Scourfield 15 

INHERITANCE OF " THUMB-FINGERNESS." A case 
of Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Illustrated by three 
radiographs and two photographs ... H. Drinkwater 35 

ON TABBY CATS. Illustrated R. I. Pocock 53 

3. CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES. 

INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES, with Pedigree Charts. 

Robert Bunsow 74 

EDITORIAL NOTE ON Mr. BUNSOW'S ARTICLE ... 94 

PLEA FOR OPERATION OF A MORE VIRILE SENTI- 
MENT IN HUMAN AFFAIRS. 

A CRITICISM Louis Cobbett 103 

A REJOINDER, together with an indictment of the Board- 
ing-out System of Pauper Children. Geo. P. Mudge 107 

A CRITICISM Miss H. M. Wodehouse 131 

A REJOINDER Geo. P. Mudge 141 

4. METHODS AND RESULTS. 

NOTE REGARDING VARIATION IN THE SINGLE 

COMBS OF FOWLS Raymond Pearl 189 

A REPLY "Ardent Mendelian" 195 

5. MISCELLANEA. c£ 

APOGAMY AND HYBRIDISATION 202 

A NEW THEORY OF SEX HEREDITY 203 

NOTE ON PARTHENOGENESIS ... F. J. Chittenden 205 

A REPLY Mrs. Rose Haig Thomas 20S 

THE INCIDENCE OF PLAGUE AND THE RELATIVE 
INSENSIBILITY OF HOOLIGANS TO PAIN. 

Geo. P. Mudge 208 

6. REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

MENDEL'S PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITY. W. Bateson 213 

THE FAMILY AND THE NATION. William Cecil 

Dampier Whetham and Catherine Durning Whetham ... 219 

CHARLES DARWIN AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 

Edward Bagnall Poulton 227 

MENTAL AND MORAL HEREDITY IN ROVALTY 

Frederick Adams Wood 232 

HERBERT SPENCER AND ANIMAL EVOLUTION 

Gilbert Charles Bourne 239 

7. SIR FRANCIS GALTON. 

AN APPRECIATION 243 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page Page 

Statue of Gregor Mendel 2 Chart of Height, Span and Reach ... 48 

pZY/1' "n^'f^^l-^V^^t'^'. ■■ ••■■■ It Photograph of Striped Tabby Cat ... .S4 

l^edigree Chart of I humb-tingerness ... 34 

Bones of the Fingers 37 ,, Blotched ,, •■ 55 

Radiograph of "Thumb-engered" hand ... 43 ! Pejigree of the Racehorse " Postumus"... S5 

., ,. „ oi Child 45 

foot .- 47 Pedigree Chart of the grey Arabian Stallion 

Photograph of "Thumb-fingered " hand ... 39 " Celle-Amurath " and his brother 

„ ,, ,, and " Holstein-Amuralh" 90 

normal hand ... 41 , 




THE MENDEL MONUMENT. 



The 

Mendel Journal 

No. 2 February, 1911 

ORCGOR MENDEL 



AN ARTICLE 

On the eve of the unveiling of the statue erected 

to his memory. 

By T. V. WIESNER, 

Member of the House of Peers, and the Academy of Science, 

Vienna. 

(From the Neue Freie Presse, Vienna.) 
Tr(i)islatioii Inj the Countess Bertha de Srheler. 

In front of the Konigskloster (King's Monastery), a 
monument will be unveiled to morrow, the statae 
of Gregor Mendel, surrounded by a garden, which is 
intended to perpetuate the memory of a unique and 
deserving man, and to adorn the town. This beauti- 
ful statue was executed in Vienna by Theodor Charle- 
mont, and more than one reader of these lines may 
have seen it in the Master's Studio, and been charmed 
with the pleasing plastic production. The artist 
represents Mendel in his best years, in the clerical 
dress of the " Altbrunner Augustine Monks." The 
position of the statue and the monastic attire of its 
subject will impress all those who look upon it with 
the idea that this must be a man who had done great 
work for his Institute, or, as a priest had particularly 
earned the love of the populace. For there are many 
who are ignorant of Mendel's epoch-making achieve- 
ments, and his name as yet is far from having become 



4 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

popular. But the erection of the imposing Mendel 
Monument was decided upon for other reasons. 

It is true that Mendel, first as priest and finally 
(1868-1884) as Prelate of the Br (inner Augustine 
foundation, did good work, and that as possessor of a 
vote (Virilstimme) in the Moravian Parliament, he 
was successfully active ; in his younger years also as 
teacher at the newly-founded State School (Staats- 
realschule) he instructed and trained grateful pupils in 
Natural History ; but the greatest successes of his 
work, which he himself with his natural modesty and 
unselfishness hardly suspected, were of a very different 
kind. At his death, about a quarter of a century 
ago, many obituaries of him were published in 
Moravia, where he worked, and in Silesia, where his 
cradle stood. But they only spoke of the honoured 
Master, of the good priest, and of his work in the 
Moravian Parliament ; that in him a great naturalist 
was carried to the grave, nobody who knew him even 
suspected, and in the whole world all were ignorant 
of the fact. And now not only Briinn but the biolo- 
gists and botanists of the civilised world do homage 
to him. This is shown by the history of the monu- 
ment, which to-morrow will be unveiled. Even 
though the Konigskloster contributed largely to the 
erection of the monument, and also the land of 
Moravia, the Ministry of Public Instruction, and 
several large-hearted inhabitants of Briinn, yet the 
contributions poured in from the whole world, not 
only from all parts of Europe, but also from America 



ABBOT GREGOR MENDEL 5 

and Japan, as soon as the intended scheme of honour- 
ing Mendel was made known. 

Mendel's fate as an investigator shaped itself 
very strangely. We see in him a man who in his 
thoughts and works in important biological subjects 
was far in advance of his times, and a noble, modest, 
retiring personality, who did not in the least try to 
attain scientific celebrity. So his fate ordained that 
late, and long after his death, he should be recognised. 
The great question of heredity he studied by means 
of producing hybrids in plants. The question had 
long been raised, especially since Darwin. But the 
answer to this question had been on the one side 
crudely empirical, and on the other too largely 
speculative, so that in reality it was very unsatis- 
factory and of a very hypothetical character. Mendel 
took the only right way which could solve the question, 
for unlike his predecessors he did not experiment in 
a vague or restricted fashion and try to clear up the 
tangled events by hypothesis, but he systematically 
made the simplest trials, interpreting their results by 
the clearest logic. His observations were based on 
numbers, and he pervaded all with a mathematical 
precision. He was dominated by the same spirit as 
the great Julius Robert Meyer, the discoverer of the 
law of the Conservation of Energy, who once said : 
" A single number is of more value than a whole 
library of hypotheses." 

Mendel had, as I have already said, a mathe- 
matical head, and I dwell on this again, so as to put 
Mendel's position as biologist in the right light. It 



6 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

is becoming clearer that the methods of investigation 
for Biology are the same as those proved correct for 
other branches of Natural Science, namely, that 
great problems must be examined with mathematical 
accuracy, and be solved with mathematical clearness ; 
the more the method of working recedes from mathe- 
matical accuracy, the more uncertain, doubtful, and 
phantastical the results will be. Mendel is a luminary 
of the first rank in his conception of biological prob- 
lems, who, through discovering definite laws of 
Heredity, has given the greatest impulse to the study 
of the subject. Numberless men of research, 
zoologists and botanists, have been encouraged by 
Mendel's teaching. Many volumes could be filled 
with work based on his results. Herewith the realm 
of his achievements is not exhausted, rather there 
remains the best part to be told of his work. By the 
simplification of the method of attacking problems, 
by the mathematical spirit with which these are 
handled, he has become a guide for exact biological 
research in the subject of Inheritance, although the 
latter is still in its infancy. 

The Mendel Monument is of white marble. Mendel 
stands upright, looking from a hedge of flowers into 
the distance. The plants which climb and are inter- 
twined are somewhat conventional, but one recognises 
their species — they are peas and beans, v/hich the 
artist chose fittingly, because the fundamental trials 
on which Mendel built up his laws of Heredity were 
especially made with these plants. 



ABBOT GREGOR MENDEL 7 

Even if I cannot now enter more deeply into his 
researches, yet I will indicate the essence of his 
observations as simply as I can. In the beds of the 
Monastery garden at Altbriinn he cultivated white - 
flowering and purple -flowering peas ; he then polli- 
nated them by artificial crossing, and the seed pro- 
duced he used for a fresh culture. Now, what 
happened through this crossing ? According to the 
then prevailing opinion, one expected in these hybrid 
peas pinkish (light purple) flowers whose colour would 
be a mixture or blend of the original colours of the 
two flowers. But the trial turned out quite differ- 
ently. The flowers of the first generation were all 
purple, and in this generation the white-flowering 
character seems to have entirely disappeared. As a 
matter of fact, this character had not disappeared 
but remained latent in this generation. In the 
second one it reappeared, for both purple and white 
flowering peas were present. In respect to this, the 
following marvellous behaviour showed itself. In all 
following- generations when the plants were self- 
pollinated, from white-flowering peas only white- 
flowering peas appeared, but the purple -flowering 
peas divided themselves through their seed into 
white and purple flowering peas and exactly in the 
proportion of one to three respectively. 

This example shows the simplest case of crossings 
as only one character, the colour of the flower, is 
different in the two parent forms. Naturally, how- 
ever, in other crosses two or more characters were 
different — for example, colour of the flower, shape of 



8 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the seed, colour of the seed, &c. Mendel, in tracing 
these relations, has got as far as it is possible to get, 
as he solved the question quite generally, so that now 
every single case, complicated as it may be, is already 
decided by this general law, namely, can be calcu- 
lated in advance.* Mendel's general law of Heredity 
is as mathematically and accurately precise as, for 
example, Newton's law of gravitation. One can 
calculate in advance with the help of this general law 
of Heredity and from the number of characters shown 
by the crossing, the number of possible hybrid forms, 
and the number of the descendants which will 
remain constant. The discovery of laws expressed 
with such mathematical exactness means the highest 
step that can be reached in the investigation of Nature. 
Mendel published the results of his long years of 
patient researches in 1865, and yet almost through a 
whole generation his works remained entirely ignored. 
One must ask oneself how it is possible that Mendel's 
discoveries, which to-day are declared classical and 
epoch-making, could remain without having received 
immediate recognition. 

We must in large measure ascribe it to the modesty 
and retiring nature of Mendel. He published his 
essays on " Heredity " in the Journal of the Society 
of Natural Eesearch of Briinn, which, with all 
deference to this Society, let it be said, was a poor 



* It is to be supposed that what Professor T. v. Wiesner desired 
to expres^s here, was not that the study of inheritance was 
finally settled, as the sentence might lead one to believe, but that 
simply in all cases where it can be shown that the Mendelian law is 
operating, the results can be certainly predicted. — Editor. 



ABBOT GREGOR MENDEL 9 

choice. It is said, had he published his works 
at one of the big academies, his law would have 
been recognised quickly. This explanation is, how- 
ever, not sufficient. We know to-day something 
about the correspondence of Mendel, and that he 
communicated to the great botanist and biologist 
Karl von Nageli all the details of his discoveries. 
But Nageli, who was through his acuteness rightly 
much esteemed as a naturalist, not only did not 
recognise the value and far-reaching importance of 
Mendel's law, but he even apparently ignored it. 
Science, however, had to progress, and it was not 
until some fragments of Mendel's treasures of know- 
ledge had been discovered by others that attention 
was attracted to the great Master himself. Then 
enquiries into past writings on the matter, instituted 
to see if some predecessor had not previously got hold 
of the thread of these phenomena, as yet but frag- 
mentarily known, resulted after long research in the 
discovery of Mendel's work. It was soon apparent 
how deep and embracing, and far in advance of his 
time, or even of the generation which succeeded him, 
were his studies on Heredity. 

As the result of this discovery a wholly unknown 
man became suddenly a famous celebrity. Mendel's 
law was enunciated and discussed everywhere, 
especially in England, where principally his experi- 
ments brought forth fruit and were most fully 
appreciated. Few serious refutations met the law. 
On the contrary, a universal enthusiasm lifted the 
man, who was in the deepest sense modest, to a 
pinnacle of fame which only few attain. 



10 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Not long after the publication of Mendel's experi- 
ments in the modestly planned and unobtrusively 
executed essays which explained the law of Heredity, 
and which slept so long among the journals of a 
society little known in the world, so that in scientific 
circles absolutely no notice was taken of them, thev 
were accepted in the celebrated collection which 
is edited by Ostwald under the name of " Classical 
Authors on the exact Natural Sciences/' 

Here Mendel's name shines beside those of 
the greatest scientists who have worked in the 
field of Natural Science ; beside Maipighi, Knight, 
Briicke, Theodor de Saussure, and Pasteur. Now 
the capital of the land of Moravia can rejoice in 
possessing within its walls the statue of a man who 
laboured here many years^ and created a work which 
has brought appreciation and even fame to Austrian 
Natural History Science Research, as few others 
have done, and whom we can with every right place 
beside such men as Rokitansky, Briicke, Endlicher, 
and Franz Unger, 

To conclude, I would mention that Mendel's 
law has not alone a theoretical interest. In our 
time, in which all the technical and practical sciences, 
aided by Natural Science, progress with giant strides, 
theory is quickly transformed into practical applica- 
tion. See how Bacteriology, one of the most modern 
sciences, seized hold of Medicine, Hygiene, and the 
technique of fermentation, and how quickly the 
discoveries of Uertz led to wireless telegraphy, 
and how rapidly the Rontgen rays became useful to 



ABBOT GREGOR MENDEL 11 

the science of healing. Like these, the laws of 
Heredity determined by the hybridisation of plants 
find their practical application in the cultivation 
of plants and breeding of animals. In the place of 
empiricism a rational breeding of plants and animals 
can now be based on science, thanks to Mendel's 
discoveries, in all those cases at present in which the 
crossing of races is desired. 



Briinn, 1st Oct., 1910. 

The capita] of Moravia is already decorated to 
celebrate the memory of Gregor Mendel, and to greet 
the illustrious guests who will arrive from Austria and 
foreign countries. The following scientists are ex- 
pected : Professor Bateson, Cambridge ; Dr. Lotsy, 
Haarlem ; Professor A. von Tschermak, Vienna ; 
Professor Cieslar, Vienna ; Professor Baur, Berlin ; 
Professor Schindler, Briinn ; Professor Punnett, 
Cambridge ; Professors Grobben, Hatschek, and von 
Wettstein, Vienna ; Professor Kunsker, Breslau ; 
Professor Fruwirth, Vienna ; Professor Molisch and 
Professor Pinter, Vienna ; Professor Dr. Cuboni, 
Rome ; Professor Dr. Mikocsh, Briinn ; Professor 
Honig, Briinn ; Philippe de Vilmorin, Paris ; Pro- 
fessor R. Muller, Tetschar, Liebwert ; Professors 
Walleschek, Drs. Porsch and Brunnthaler, Vienna, 
and manv others. The head of the local committee. 
Dr. Stefan, Baron v. Haupt-Buckenrode, Professors 
Tschermak and litis, have prepared everything which 
could make the Mendel celebration successful and 



12 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

international. The statue is on the Altbriinner 
Monastery Place, which after to-morrow will be called 
Gregor Mendel Place. The figure looks towards the 
Aiigustiner Foundation, where he lived and worked 
for several years. The background is enclosed as a 
garden. The well-known sculptor, Theodor Charle- 
mont, received, after a competition, the order to 
execute the monument, in 1907. On a simple base of 
granite is set the pedestal, which like the statue is 
made of Laasar marble. Gregor Mendel is standing 
in clerical dress, over life size, the right foot stands 
rather forward, the fine head slightly inclined to the 
right ; the head is uncovered. With both hands the 
scientist touches common beans and peas, which 
creep up a little wall to the side. The favourite 
subjects of Gregor Mendel are conventionalised and 
are raised to a clearly visible part of the whole monu- 
ment. Flowers and pods fall over the wall. The 
artist only had a photograph of the scientist at his 
disposal, notwithstanding which the work is full of 
life ; upon the face there is an expression of amia- 
bility and kind-heartedness. On the front side of 
the base is a shield with the inscription : — 

" To the Natural Scientist and Investigator." 
P. Gregor Mendel. 

To the left of the shield kneels a nude boy, in slight 
relief ; to the right, a girl ; they clasp each other's 
right hands at the feet of Gregor Mendel. This 
decoration of the base is intended to show delicately 
the influence of Mendel's theories on human life 



ABBOT GREGOR MENDEL 13 

also. Herr Charlemont has achieved in this work, 
which w^as especially difficult on account of the 
symbolism required, a noteworthy work of art, and 
warm thanks are due to him from all men of science. 



Greeting of the guests in the Br tinner " German 
House," 1st October, 1910. 

This evening the reception of the guests took 
place in the German House. Dr. v. Haupt-Bucken- 
rode, Professor v. Tschermak, and Professor litis 
received the numerous ladies and gentlemen. From 
the birthplace of Mendel, Heintzendorf, appeared the 
only male representative of the family left, Mayor 
Mendel ; also several nephews and nieces of the 
celebrated man came. 



14 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 




ABBOT GREGOR MENDEL. 



PAPERS READ TO THE MENDEL SOCIETY. 



A SKETCH OE MENDEL'S LIEE AND 
WORK. 



An Address delivered to the Mendel Society on June 
6th, 1910. 

By D. J. SCOURFIELD. 

1. Introduction. 

Almost exactly ten years ago the well-known experi- 
mental botanists de Vries, Correns and Tschermak 
independently made a most important discovery. 
It was not the discovery of a new scientific fact, 
however, but the unearthing of a little paper by one 
Gregor Mendel, which had been published as far 
back as the year 1866. We can imagine their 
astonishment as they read that old paper to find 
that it actually contained the clue, set out with 
almost mathematical precision, to many of the 
puzzles they themselves had been struggling with 
in the course of their work. They lost no time in 
making known their discovery, and thus was inaugu- 
rated what, from the point of view of the study of 
heredity, may justly be termed the Mendelian era. 
At the present day, as we all know by experience, 
the name of Mendel and such words and phrases as 
"Mendelism," "Mendel's Law," "Mendelian principles," 
" Mendelian ratios," "Mendelian facts," are continually 



16 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

forcing themselves upon our notice, sometimes in the 
most unlikely places. And yet, in spite of all that 
has been said and done around the name of Mendel 
during the past decade, it is doubtful whether very 
many even of those who take a real interest in 
biological matters have a clear idea of who Mendel 
was and what he did. It is in the hope that 
another brief account of his life and work may be 
useful to some who have not hitherto had an oppor- 
tunity of going into the subject that this paper has 
been written.* 

2. A Short Account of Mendel's Life. 

Mendel was born at the village of Heinzendorf, 
near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia, on the 22nd July, 
1822. His parents and grandparents were all natives 
of the same place, and it is known that the Mendel 
family had been established there from at least the 
seventeenth century. Young Gregor, or rather 
Johann, as he was then called, Gregor being only 
an adopted and not his baptismal name, at first 
attended the local school at Heinzendorf, but at 
eleven years of age he was sent to school at Leipnik, 
and subsequently to the gymnasia at Troppau and 
Olmiitz. It is a sure sign of the exceptional ability 
shown by Mendel in his early student days that he 
should have been enabled by his parents to continue 
his studies so long, for his family was by no means 



* Those who wish for further information about Mendel and his 
work, together with the principal results of recent research on 
Mendelian lines, should consult Bateson's " Mendel's Principles of 
Heredity " {Cambridge University Press, 19U9), a work to which the author 
of the present sketch desires to express his great indebtedness. 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 17 

wealthy, his father being but a small peasant 
proprietor. 

In 1843, Mendel, being then twenty-one, obtained 
admission to the Augustine monastery, known as 
the Konigskloster, at Briinn, the capital of Moravia. 
For the next eight years he was largely engaged in 
taking part in the educational work which in those 
days formed an important part of the functions of 
the " Kloster." During this period he was ordained 
a priest (1847), and he also commenced to make 
experiments on plants in the garden of the monastery, 
a line of work which was to prove so fruitful a few 
years later. 

From 1851 to 1853 Mendel went through a further 
course of study in mathematics, physics, and the 
natural sciences at the Vienna University, being 
aided in this case by the Konigskloster, another 
proof, if one were needed, that he was a man of 
marked ability. On his return to Briinn he again 
took up his educational duties, acting as a teacher 
in the " Realschule," ^ sphere, of work in which he 
is said to have been very successful. At the same 
time he devoted himself with extraordinary strenuous- 
ness to various lines of scientific investigation, 
especially to experimental work on the hybridisation 
of plants. It was during this period, 1854-1868, 
that all his most important scientific work was done. 
In 1868 Mendel became Abbot or Pralat of the 
Konigskloster, and, owing to the increased respon- 
sibilities of his new position, and especially to the 



18 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

worries of a protracted resistance to what he con- 
sidered an unjust law imposing special taxes upon 
the property of religious houses, he seems to have 
found but little time for further scientific investiga- 
tions. He died on the 6th January, 1884, at the 
age of sixty-one. 

3. Mendel's Scientific Work. 

Mendel's scientific interests were very varied, 
but may be grouped mainly under the two heads 
of experimental Botany and Meteorology. As regards 
the latter he made systematic observations for 
many years on the meteorological conditions of 
Briinn, which were communicated to and published 
by the Naturforschender Verein (Natural History 
Society) in Briinn in their " Verhandlungen " from 
the year 1863 onwards. He also published in the 
same journal a special paper in connection with a 
cyclone which swept over the district in October, 
1870. It is further known that he made observations 
on sun-spots, especially from the point of view of 
their possible connection with weather conditions, 
and that he also gave some attention to the systematic 
measurement of underground water. 

It was, however, to the experimental study of the 
effects of hybridisation in plants that his energies 
were mainly directed. He seems to have been 
attracted to this subject by observing the great 
regularity in the appearance of identical hybrid 
forms whenever crosses were made between the 
same species, and he must have conceived the idea 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 19 

of elucidating the constitution of the hybrids by 
observations on their progeny at a very early date. 
It is quite clear at any rate that when he commenced 
his great series of experiments with peas (1856 or 
1857) he must have clearly recognised the importance 
of extended investigation of the progeny of the 
hybrids. This series of experiments with peas un- 
doubtedly constitutes Mendel's chief claim to fame. 
It extended over a period of no less than eight years 
and involved careful records of more than 10,000 
individual plants. As Mendel himself says, it required 
some courage to undertake a labour of such far- 
reaching extent. Nevertheless, he not only brought 
this particular piece of work to a successful termina- 
tion, but he was, as we learn from incidental references 
in his most important paper, " Versuche liber 
Pflanzenhybriden " (read 1865, published 1866-) and 
from his letters to Niigeli, at the same time experi- 
menting in a similar way with many other kinds of 
plants — Phaseolus, Verbascum, Campanula, Lathy r us ^ 
Diantlius, &c. 

More remarkable still, and this is a fact which is 
not often associated with Mendel, who is usually 
regarded as a botanist pure and simple, he was 
also conducting at this time an investigation on 
heredity in bees. It is said that he had fifty hive& 
under observation and that he effected crosses 
between various European, Egyptian, and American 
races. Nothing, however, was published about his 
results in this connectio n, and unfortunately no 

* In Verhandlungen des Naturforschenden Vereines in Briinn. Band IV . 



20 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

trace of his notes on this subject has so far been 
discovered. The only other paper published giving 
results of work on heredity was a little one on 
Hieracium hybrids (" Ueber einige aus kiinstlicher 
Befiuchtung gewonnene Hieraciumbastarde "), read in 
1868 and published in 1869. Considering the great 
amount of unfinished work which he must have had on 
hand in 1868 it must ever be a matter for regret by all 
biologists that Mendel became charged with adminis- 
trative responsibilities which practically ended his 
career as a scientific investigator. 

4. The Special Features of Mendel's Method of 
WORK ON Heredity. 

Coming now to a closer consideration of Mendel's 
work on the crossing of different races of plants, 
we have first of all to notice that Mendel introduced 
into the plan of his experiments three ideas which 
have proved the most powerful means of research in 
heredity that have ever been brought forward. 
All three are very simple ideas and appear almost 
self-evident necessities of any experimental work 
on heredity, but they seem to have been quite novel 
in Mendel's day, and I believe it is very largely 
due to a want of a proper appreciation of these three 
leading features of the Mendelian method of investi- 
gation that so many wholly incorrect notions have 
been, and, unfortunately, are still being disseminated 
about Mendelism and even about heredity in general. 

The first idea is that of fixing the attention in each 
experiment upon a single pair, or at most upon a few 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 21 

pairs of contrasted characters, without being dis- 
tracted by any other changes which may result as 
the effect of the cross. This may seem a very 
obvious method of procedure — something, in fact, 
very like taking the old advice of breaking the 
sticks one by one instead of trying to break the 
whole bundle at once — but in reality it involves an 
assumption which is even yet regarded by many as 
somewhat of a heresy, namely, that an organism 
can be regarded in any degree as a bundle of separable 
unit characters. Luckily^ in the case of Mendel's 
peas, the selected characters proved to be simple and 
completely separable, and so the problem of their 
transmission was reduced to its simplest terms. 
Mendel himself, however, seems to have realised 
that it might be very difficult, in certain cases, to say 
offhand what were the characters which were treated 
in heredity as units, for he says " the uniformity of 
behaviour shown by the whole of the characters 
submitted to experiment permits, and fully justifies, 
the acceptance of the principle that a similar relation 
exists in the other characters which appear less 
sharply defined in plants, and therefore could not be 
included in the separate experiments." Later experi- 
ments have abundantly shown that it is practically 
impossible to say at first whether any particular 
character that can be visually recognised is or is not 
a unit character, and it therefore becomes an essential 
part of any investigation on heredity to ascertain 
what are the fundamental characters involved. 



22 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Disregard of this has led to all sorts of misconceptions, 
and even to actual misinterpretation of results. 

The second idea running through Mendel's experi- 
ments was that of following the results of a 
cross through several (at least three) generations. 
This is an extremely important point, for, in 
conjunction with the next idea of separate 
records of all individuals, it permits clear evidence 
to be obtained from the progeny, of the kind of 
factors present in the germ-plasm of the parents, 
whether those factors are visibly manifested in the 
latter or not. The possibility of carrying out this 
idea evidently depends upon the fertility of the 
hybrids, and it is not the least of Mendel's incidental 
contributions to the methodical study of heredity 
that he so clearly saw the importance of experimenting 
with forms which produce fertile hybrids. Most 
investigators before his time, and for long afterwards, 
were content to make crosses between different 
species and races and to note the results in the 
first generation, without attempting to carry the 
experiment any further. But this only led to 
confusion, for, as we now know, the hybrids may be 
in appearance exactly like one parent or exactly 
like the other, or partly like one and partly like the 
other, or again like neither parent but with a character 
of their own, while all the time perhaps the factors 
determining the original characters of both parents 
are being treated by the cell- divisions leading up to 
the formation of the germ-cells of the hybrids as 
perfectly distinct entities, ready to show themselves 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 23 

again without the slightest change in the individuals 
of the succeeding generations. 

The third idea introduced by Mendel, and about 
the originality of which there cannot be the slightest 
doubt, was that of keeping separate records of the 
results obtained from every individual seed pro- 
duced. So important is this, that it is quite certain 
Mendel would never have formulated the law which 
now bears his name if he had not adopted this method 
of work. The number of forms which the progeny 
of the hybrids between different races can assume 
and the numerical ratios existing between them can 
be ascertained only by this laborious method, and 
without a knowledge of these ratios there can be no 
certainty about the hereditary factors involved in 
any particular case. 

5. The Great Result of Mendel's Work on 
Heredity — Mendel's Law. 

In order to show quite clearly the outstanding 
result of Mendel's work, namely, the formulation of 
what is now known as Mendel's Law, it will be well 
to refer very briefly to a few facts connected with 
his experiments with peas. 

After some preliminary trials, devoted mainly to 
testing the purity of the varieties of peas with 
which he proposed to work, Mendel selected seven 
pairs of differentiating characters for observation. 
As examples of these may be cited : — 

Ripe seeds round and smooth, or nearly so. [ 
„ ,, angular and deeply wrinkled. J 



24 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

I Seed albumen (cotyledons) yellow. I 
I ,, „ ,, o-reen. j 

Plants tall — stem 6 to 7 feet. | 
,, dwarf — ,, i to f foot. J 

Crosses were made between plants possessing 
one character of one or more of the pairs and 
those possessing- the contrasted character or 
characters. In each case the hybrids produced 
exhibited one character only of each pair, and this 
character, which always came out to the exclusion 
of the other, Mendel called the " dominant " 
character. The other he called the " recessive " 
character, because it was not destroyed or 
altered, but simply receded from view, so to speak, 
when the dominant character was present in the 
same plant. It is worth noting at this point, how^- 
ever, ihat the phenomenon of dominance of certain 
characters, although found in all seven of the pairs 
of characters used by Mendel, is by no means of 
imiversal occurrence, and moreover has nothing to 
do with Mendel's Law. When dominance occurs, 
it adds a complication to the results obtained in 
breeding from the hybrids, causing an apparent 
simplification w^hich is misleading without further 
analysis, as will now^ be seen. 

By allowing the hybrids to be self-fertilised 
Mendel next obtained for each pair of characters 
results of the following nature : — 

5,474 round and 1,850 wa-inlded seeds, 
6,022 yellow and 2,001 green cotyledons, 
787 tall and 277 dwarf plants, 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 25 

giving a ratio of almost exactly 3 dominant to 1 
recessive in every case. When two or more pairs 
of characters were present in the same cross the 
results were exactly the same for each pair of 
characters, bnt the characters themselves were 
associated in every possible way and not merely 
as in the parent plants, while the ratios for the 
different types of combination ai)proximated with 
great accuracy to a multiplication of the 3 : 1 ratio 
by itself as many times as there Avere additional 
pairs of characters associated with the first pair. 
Thus when two pairs of characters were associated 
in the cross, four types of plants w^ere produced in 
the following proportions : — 9 : 3 : 3 : 1, which is 
evidently the result of 3 + 1 x 3 + 1. Some 
actual figures obtained by Mendel in the case of 
crosses between round yellow and wrinkled green 
seeded forms were : — 

315 RY : 101 WY : 108 RG : 32 W^ G. 

If Mendel had stopped at this point in his 
investigation it is very unlikely that he would have 
been led to his great discovery. But by continuing 
his work into the next and still later generations 
he was able to show that the apparently simple 
ratio of 3 : 1 for each pair of characters was really 
a ratio of 1:2:1, for whereas the one recessive 
in every four individuals was pure for its character, 
of the other three, i.^.,the dominants, only one Avas 
found to breed true, the other two proving to be 
hybrids exactly the same as their hybrid parents, and 



26 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



giving, upon self-fertilisation, progeny in the ratio 
of 3 dominants to 1 recessive. 

The foregoing facts elucidated by Mendel may 
be tabulated as follows : — 



Generation. 


Description. 


Representation 

of character- 
factors present. 


Parents, one exhibiting thedomin- 
Parental (P) ant and the otiier the recessive 
character of a pair of differen- 
tiating characters. 


D X R 



. Hybrids, allof the dominant type, 
1st Filial (Fj). but all containing the recessive 
character-factor also. 



D (R) 



2nd Filial (F^,). 



Progeny resulting from the self- 
fertilisation of the hybrids, 
namely, 3 dominants to each 
recessive. Two of the apparent ' D, D (R), R, 
dominants, however, as shown in the ratio of 
by later generations, contain ] 1:2:1 

the recessive character- factor, or as regards 
and are therefore hybrids, like appearance onljr 
their parents. The other domin- 3D: IK. 

ant, and also the recessive, are 
pure and remain constant inde- 
finitely. 



We are now in a position to consider the 
problem which presented itself to Mendel ^vheii 
he had made out this constant ratio of 1 Pure 
Dominant : 2 Hybrids : 1 Pore Recessive for each 
pair of characters among the progen}^ raised from 
the hybrids produced by the original cross. That 
hybrids when bred together should produce hybrids 
was what might have been expected, but that 
each of the two original characters should come 
out again in a perfectly pure form, without a ay 
tendency to produce in any subsequent generation 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 27 

the slightest approach to the opposite character 
with which it had been so intimately associated, 
was a fact of fundamental importance, and Mendel 
seized upon it Avith characteristic acimien as the 
key to the whole position. He asked himself the 
question, " How is it possible for the original 
characters to come out again in the progeny of 
hybrids in an absolutely pure form ? " His 
answer "was, since we know from experience 
that to keep a race constant it is essential that 
only individuals exhibiting the same character 
should be mated together, so when constant 
forms arise from hybrids it ihust be due to the 
fact that the}' are produced b}' the meeting of 
germ-cells containing the factor for the character 
in question and that alone. 

Having arrived at the conclusion that in the 
formation of some at any rate of the germ-cells 
of hybrids a complete segregation of character- 
factors takes place, Mendel next sought for an 
explanation of the fact that, in regard to each 
pair of characters, the number of pure forms 
arising from the hybrids was exactly one-half of 
the total number produced (^D + ]R). With 
his mathematical training he had no difficulty in 
seeing that the only assumptions necessary to 
account for this are that the segregation of 
character-factors should take place in such a way 
that half the germ-cells (whether male or female) 
carry the factor for one character and half for 
the other, and that the matings of the two types 



28 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of male and female germ-cells are entirely a 
matter of chance. For under these conditions 
the only possible unions among the germ-cells- 
are : — 

■■•• 2 Dominant x d Dominant 

2 „ X d Recessive 

2 Recessive x 6 Dominant 
2 ,, X J Recessive 

As the nnmbers of each type of both male 

and female germ-cells are equal, it follows that, 

on the average, each 2 D will have an equal chance 

of being fertilised by either a c? D or a d' R, and 

each 2 R an exactly similar chaiice. As the 

chances are eqiial therefore in all cases, the 

numbers of matings of each of the four types 

will be equal also, and the result must be on the 

average : — 

1 D : 2 D (R)t : 1 R. 

So Mendel's Law amounts to this, that when a. 
pair, or am^ number of pairs, of contrasted 
characters are combined in one individual {i.e., 
when that individual is hybrid with regard to those 
characters) the two factors for each pair are 
separated from one another during the formation of 
the germ-cells, so that half the latter contain the 
factor for one character and half the factor for the 
other character, the various pairs of characters 
behaving in an absoluteh^ independent manner and 
giving rise, therefore, to germ-cells containing 

* The sign 2 represents female and J" indicates male. 
t It was ascertained by reciprocal crossing that there was no 
difference between 2 D x c? R and 2 R x J D, 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 29 

every possible combination of simple character- 
factors in equal numbers. In other words, the germ- 
cells of the hybrids are never hybrid, but exactly 
correspond to the original pure stocks, except that, 
when tw^o or more pairs of characters are involved, 
the character-factors are associated in every possible 
way in equal numbers. ■•'" 

The reasoning by which Mendel arrived at the 
foregoing generalisation may seem very simple and 
natural to us now, but it was nevertheless a very 
bold step in the fifties of last century to apply to 
germ-cells, about wdiich scarcely anything was 
known, facts which had been obtained by the 
observation of pure and hybrid races. At the 
present time it is very easy to believe that segrega- 
tion of character-factors, each pair into two equal 
groups, may take place ; in fact, most of the 
phenomena of cell-division and the maturation of 
the germ-cells lead us to suppose that such is 
actually the case. 

C. Ix(]iDENTAL Results of Mendel's Work 
ON Heredity. 

As in the case of all really important pieces of 
work, the effect of Mendel's study of hybridisation 
phenomena was by no means limited to the most 
evident result. In the elucidation of questions 
of heredity, Mendel's Law has of course been of 



♦Mendel's own words are that "Die Erbsenhybriden Keim-und 
PoUenzellen bilden, welche ihre BeschattV.nheit nacli in <jleicher 
Anzahl alien constanten Forinen entsprechen, welche aus der Com- 
binirung der durch Befruchtung vereinigten Merkniale hervorgehen.'" 



30 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

supreme value iu recent years, but it is difficiilt 
even at the present day to fully realise the far- 
reaching influence of a thorough appreciation of 
the Law and of the facts brought to light in 
connection with its establishment and verification. 
There are, however, two important fields in which 
they have had very striking consequences, and 
a few words on these may fittingly serve as a 
conclusion to this little sketch. 

Let us take first the effect which a know- 
leds'e of Mendel's Law and the associated 
facts have had upon the subject of variation in 
animals and plants. It is apparent at once that 
the fact that certain proportions of the progeny 
of hybrids can be perfectly constant, although 
exhibiting quite new combinations of characters 
as compared with the original parents, gives the 
clue to one important section of the very various 
kinds of phenomena grouped under the general 
term of variation. For instance, seven pairs of 
characters can be combined theoretically in 
one hundred and twenty-eight different ways 
{i.e., 2"^), each combination being possibl}" 
constant, and Mendel Avas fortunate enough to 
obtain the full number of forms in the course of 
his experiments with peas. Similar recombinations 
have been obtained in many other plants and also 
in animals, and it is not too much to say that 
the special peculiarities of a considerable number of 
the constant races of domesticated animals and 
cultivated plants are nothing but recombinations of 
characters previously existing in earlier races. 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 31 

Another group of variation plienomena which 
has been very much illuminated hj the work 
clone on Mendelian lines is that due to the 
influence of the character-factors upon one another 
when combined in the same individual. The 
simplest case is that where one character of a 
pair is completely dominant to the other, as in 
all of Mendel's pea experiments. But it often 
happens that the two characters associated in a 
hybrid act upon one another in various degrees, 
so that either a more or less intermediate type 
is produced, or an entirely novel character appears. 
But even more important than this action of one 
character of each pair upon the other in the 
body of the hybrid has been the discovery that 
the characters bel^ging to different pairs may 
profoundly affect one another when occurring in 
the same organism, and that what are apparently 
quite new forms or, it may be, reversions to old 
forms arise in this way. One general outcome 
of Mendel's Law, and of the work done in connec- 
tion therewith, has thus been the demonstration of 
the subordinate and accidental character of many 
of the phenomena of variation, the importance of 
the really fundamental variations in the germ-plasm 
being consequently brought into even greater 
prominence than before. 

The other direction in which Mendel's work on 
Heredity has had a most important though indirect 
influence, is in connection with the problem of 
Evolution. The Darwinian conception of Natural 

c 



32 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Selection undoubtedly decided in the affirmative 
the general question of organic evolution, for there 
can be no reasonable doidot either as to the fact of 
selection taking place in nature, or as to the occur- 
rence of favourable variations to be selected. But it 
was more or less tacitly assumed that all kinds of 
variations could be inherited and thus serve as 
material for the production of new forms by selection. 
Variation phenomena, however, as is now well known, 
are of many different kinds, and, apart from the 
variations due to the recombination and interaction 
of characters alluded to above, there has been much 
uncertainty as to the role, in the process of evolu- 
tion, of continuous variations (i.e., variations which 
are connected with one another by a continuous 
series of intermediate forms) on the one hand, and 
discontinuous variations on the other. It is here 
that the evidence from the Mendelian researches 
seems to come to the support of the view that it is 
the discontinuous variations which really count in 
evolution. For if the factors for the differentiating 
characters between races and species are treated as 
separable entities by the cell-divisions concerned 
in the production of the germ-cells, it is extremely 
improbable that these characters could have been 
evolved from one another by the selection of im- 
perceptibly small variations. In other words, 
segregation of the character-factors involves an 
antithesis between the factors which is inconsistent 
with the idea of continuous variation. So far, 
therefore, as Mendel's Law holds good, and it is 



MENDEL'S LIFE AND WORK 33 

becoming more and more probable that it applies 
to a very large number of tlie characters which 
separate closely allied races, it decidedly strengthens 
the theory that evolution has to a great extent, 
if not altogether, proceeded by the selection of 
discontinuous variations. This conception of 
evolution taking place by distinct steps, some very 
small no doubt, but still discontinuous, is of great 
importance, and, if firmly established, may have 
theoretical and practical results which can only be 
dimly discerned at the present day. This, how- 
ever, is a subject beyond the scope of this paper. 
It only remains to be pointed out that Mendel 
himself clearly saw the bearing of his work upon 
the evolution problem, for, after referring to the 
great labour involved in the method of work he 
adopted, he adds significantly that ," This appears, 
however, to be the only right way by which we can 
finally reach the solution of a question the import- 
ance of which cannot be over-estimated in con- 
nection with the history of the evolution of organic 
forms."* 



♦Translation in Bateson's " Mendel's Principles of Heredity," p. 318. 



34 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



S 

b 

u 

di 

c 

u 

o 

o 

(U 

"SP 

(U 




The Inheritance of ''Thumb-fingerness' 
in a Short-fingered family. 



4 Case of ^endelian Inheritance in IVIan. 

An Address delivered to the Mendel Society 
on June 6th, 1910. 

By H. DRINK\A/'ATER, M.D., M.R.C.S., F.R.S. Edin. 

The family which will be described in this paper 
presents a rare and easily-recognised deformity which 
has affected at least seven generations. It is interest- 
ing in many ways. Its hereditary character is 
particularly striking, for it is practically identical 
in every affected individual, and the student of 
Mendelism will be impressed by the close conformity 
of the numbers affected to theoretical expectations. 

I shall avoid all technical terms as far as possible, 
so that the essential features may be understood by 
the readers who are unfamiliar with anatomy. 

The genealogical chart (Plate 1) shows all the 
individuals, as far as they can now be traced, through 
the last seven generations. Whether the abnormality 
began with the woman at the head of this chart, or 
whether she inherited it from one of her parents, is not 
now known. There is every reason to believe that its 
first appearance was as we now see it, and that it 
did not appear or develop by a gradual process. In 



36 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

other words, it first occurred as a " sfort " or " muta- 
tion," and in each succeeding generation some of the 
offspring have exhibited the deformity. 

The chart shows 174 individuals, of whom 107 
were ahve in 1907 when the chart was constructed. 
The last four generations are complete so far as 
numbers and sex are concerned. The four members 
enclosed in squares in the fifth generation all died in 
infancy, and whether they were affected with the 
abnormality or not cannot now be ascertained. 

The capital letters indicate the abnormal members, 
the small letters the normal ones. M and m stand 
for males, F and f for females. Thus it is seen that 
the first member (now traceable) who showed the 
deformity was a woman. 

I could not ascertain whether she had any brothers 
or sisters. The line passing down to M indicates that 
this woman had a son, and it is seen that he was 
abnormal. Nothing further can be ascertained about 
this second generation. This man had three abnormal 
sons, and a normal one, in addition to nine other 
children whose sex and type are now unknown. One 
of these males of this third generation had four sons, 
three of whom were affected — one normal daughter 
and one abnormal. The youngest son went to 
America and settled there. This is interesting from 
the fact that a family showing an apparently identical 
peculiarity has been described by an American 
observer (Mr. Farabee), and it is possible that they 
have descended from this member of the English 
family, but this point is not yet settled. 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 



37 



The chart is thus complete as regards numbers 
for the last five generations. 

The deformity which this family manifests aSects 
chiefly the fingers and toes, but before describing it 
in detail, it will be well to get a clear idea of the normal 
anatomy of these parts. 






Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



Each finger and toe (except the thumb and big 
toe) contains three bones, those of a finger being 
longer than those of a toe, but otherwise similar. 
Fig. 1 shows the three bones of a normal middle finger. 



38 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

They are numbered 1st (the nearest), 2nd (the middle), 
and 3rd (the terminal one which supports the nail). 
The first is the longest bone, and the third is the 
shortest. 

Each finger or toe has two joints, one between 
the first and second bone, and one between the 
second and third. Each joint in a finger causes a 
crease on the palmar surface, and a knuckle on the 
back. A normal finger shows these two palmar 
creases very clearly. 

The thumb and big toe have each only two bones, 
one joint and one crease. 

Now, how do the hands and feet of the abnor- 
mals differ from the common type ? 

Abnormalities ot the fingers and toes are not by any 
means rare occurrences, and many people are familiar 
with them ; but the precise peculiarity is seldom accu- 
rately reproduced in successive generations. One 
member of a family may have four fingers, another 
three, another two. 

Now, the remarkable fact about this family is 
the accurate reproduction of the deformity in all 
the abnormal members. 

Whenever the deformity appears at all, it affects 
every finger and every toe of both hands and both feet. 
The deformity consists in the absence (or apparent 
absence) of the middle bone, so that each finger and 
toe has only two bones instead of three, and one joint 
and one crease instead of two. The fingers are thus 
reduced to the condition of thumbs (Plates 2 and 3). 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 



39 




Plate 2. 
Photograph of a Short-fingered Hand, 



40 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Mr. Farabee says that the middle bone is absent, 
but this does not appear to be the case in my family, 
for though there are only two separate bones in the 
adult, the middle one, as will be shown presently, is 
not really absent but has undergone a remarkable 
change, which might cause its presence to be over- 
looked. At any rate, this is the case in the English 
family, and from Mr. Farabee's illustrations I feel 
sure that the American people are exactly like the 
English family. 

Fig. 2 shows the shape of the two bones in one of 
these short fingers. The first bone differs from the 
normal type (Fig. 1) in being shorter, but otherwise 
it closely resembles it. The second appears to be 
altogether missing. If, however, the terminal one 
(Fig. .3) is carefully compared with the normal third, a 
marked difference will be observed. 

At the base there is seen a cubical mass which is 
not present in the normal bone (Fig. 1). This cubical 
mass represents the middle bone, which has become 
joined by bony union to the terminal one, the two 
forming one bone in the adult (see 2. 2. 2. 2. Plate 4). 

A radiograph of the hand of an abnormal child 
shows this middle bone as a distinct and separate 
structure, but much shorter than the normal (2. 2. 2. 2. 
Plate 5). It is imperfect also in other respects. Each 
bone during childhood is only partially " ossified," 
for there is a piece of gristle lying at the end of each 
bony portion, and this is well seen in the '' first row " 
of Plate 5. This gristle during early adult life becomes 
transformed into bone and fuses with the joint. 



THUiMB-FINGERNESS 



41 













j^' 


K^t 


N 






l/ 





Plate 3. 

Hand of Normal and Abnormal Brothers. 



42 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Now, in the abnormal child this middle bone 
(the second) consists of one bony piece only instead of 
two, and this one is much smaller than normal (Plate 5). 
Instead of remaining separate, it unites later on with 
the third bone, and thus we eventually have two 
bones in the finger instead of three. Though all the 
bones of the finger are shorter than normal,the marked 
shortening of the fingers is due chiefly to the imperfect 
development of the middle (second) one. 

Union of the third bone with the imperfectly- 
developed second is the rule, but there are a few 
exceptions to it. 

This union invariably occurs in the -first and fourth 
fingers, but sometimes in the middle and ring finger 
it does not do so, and the middle bone can then be 
seen even in the adult as a separate though very 
short bone (middle finger, Plate 4). Thus the second 
hone is never absent, hut it is ahvays imperfect and 
generally joined to the terminal one. When present as 
a separate bone, it has only about one-quarter the 
normal length. 

The first bone of the thumh is very much shortened 
(Plates 4 and 5), sometimes so much so that its 
length is exceeded by its breadth, but it is never 
united to the terminal one. It is imperfectly developed 
similarly to the middle bone of the fingers. 

This description of the fingers and thumb applies 
equally well to the toes (Plate 6). 

It is thus clear that the fingers of these people are 
reduced to the condition of thumbs, for, as a rule, 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 



43 




THU 



Plate 4. 
Radiograph of Hand of Abnormal Adult. 



44 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

each finger has (like the thumb) only two bones and 
one joint, and the same is true of the toes. 

The bonev=^ of the palm show certain peculiarities, 
but as they are of no special interest I shall not 
describe them here. 

The external aspect of the hand is very charac- 
teristic (Plates 2 and 3). It is short, and looks unduly 
broad. Each finger shows only one crease, corre- 
sponding to the single joint. These points are well 
seen in Plate 3, where the abnormal hand of a man 
is shown above that of his normal brother. 

Length of Hands. 
The average length of the hands was as follows : — 





Normal males . . 
Abnormal males 


7J inches. 
. . 5i „ 




Difference . . 


1^ 

A4 15 


Mi( 


idle finger : — 






Normals 
Abnormals 


. . 3j% inches, 

115 

■"■Te ?> 




Difference 





Symmetry. 

In every individual the two hands are sym- 
metrical, the peculiarities of one hand being accurately 
duplicated in the other, as shown both by photo- 
graphy and by radiography. The same is probably 
true of the feet, though in most cases only one foot 
was examined. 

The shortening of the hands is thus seen to be 
almost entirely due to the abnormality of the fingers. 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 



45 




Plate 5. 
Radiograph of Hand of Almornial Ciiild. 



46 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which are nearly an inch and a half shorter than those 
of the normal members of this family ; in fact, the 
fingers are only a trifle more than half the normal 
length (Plate 3.) 

This shortening of the fingers handicaps these 
people very considerably and prevents them following 
any trade or profession requiring fingers of the normal 
length. None of them seems able to play any 
musical instrument. They are all engaged in occu- 
pations where there is no call for great manual 
dexterity. 

Statuee. 

Another peculiarity of these people is their short 
stature. The men are, on an average, 8} inches 
shorter than their male normal relatives (the tallest 
being only 5 feet 3 J inches), and the women are 4| 
inches less than the. normal women. 

This shortness of stature is not present in the 
children ; indeed, at two years of age they are actually 
I inch taller than the long-fingered children. In fact, 
it is not until after the fourteenth year that retarda- 
tion of growth occurs. This is true of both sexes. 
Farabee noted that the American family are like the 
English as regards the short stature of the adults. 

Several comparative measurements are shown in 
Fig. 4. 

The conspicuous peculiarities of these people are 
the shortness of the hands and toes, and the shortness 
of stature ; but the abnormals differ in several other 
respects from their normal relatives. 

I shall only refer to a few of these differences. 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 



47 



UNITED £Np 
AND 3^9 

FIRST BONE 




Plate 6. 

Radiograph of Foot of Abnormal Adult. 



D 



48 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



8 


Sc> 


L£ 


•^ 


//vc// TO/ foor 


































































































7 




































' 


RiAcii oV R\CH 


'■h}^iv6 


































































6 




































































































t^i^r 














5 
























































































_ 


_ 








I 












^ 








4 












. 










__ 


























SPA/i O^A^Mi 






























































3 


































































































" 


' 


















2 










































Ttuclf 




















































































• 


• 
























































































Lie 
























































1 A""- 

















Feet Heicht-S/ ii J' 5^ 

Abnormal Males j/»>i/v - ^ //>-♦ sio** Normal Males 

Fig. 4. 



General Health. 
In the first place, they are apparently more 
vigorous and healthy ; indeed, they seem to be 
remarkably free from sickness. 

Marriage. 
They have not only married in greater percentage 
but at an earlier age. " The short-fingered members 
of the family always get married first." Why this is 
so I cannot tell, for they are certainly not so good- 
looking, but, as before remarked, they are more 
robust. 

There are fourteen marriageable normals still single ; 
there is only one such amongst the abnormals, and 
she has been " engaged " for some considerable time. 
It is her fiance's fault that she is not yet married. 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 49 

Fecundity. 

The abnormals are the more fertile members of the 
family in the ratio of 6 to 4, and the women are more 
so than the men in the ratio of 8 to 4|^. 

Hence it follows that the abnormality does not 
show any sign of dying out ; on the contrary, it 
is increasing in numbers. 

In the 4th generation there are 4 cases. 

,, ,, otn ,, ,, ,, /,, 

„ ,, 6th „ „ „ 19 „ 

,, ,, /tn ,, ,, ,, J ,, 

This last figure (9) will probably be considerably 
increased, for there are three parents of the sixth 
generation still in the child-bearing age, and eight 
who, not having yet reached it, may marry and have 
children. 

SUMMAKY. 

The short-fingered people have short, symmetrical 
hands, short toes — the middle bone being very im- 
perfectly developed ; and they are short of stature. 
They are robust, marry early, and are prolific, and 
are increasing in numbers. 

Their occupation is not mentioned, as it is not 
desirable to do anything which will lead to their 
identification. 

Mendelian Inheritance. 

My investigation of these people was undertaken 
without any bias as to theories of heredity, but a care- 
fid consideration of all the data cannot fail to convince 



60 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

one that they furnish a strilcing example of some of 
the laws propounded by Gregor Mendel, as I shall 
now attempt to prove, 

Mendel selected a tall pea (the offspring of tall 
parents) and crossed it with a dwarf pea (the offspring 
of dwarf parents). The hybrids resulting from this 
cross were all tall, thus 

Tall X Dwarf. 

Tall (Hybrid). 

These hybrids crossed with dwarfs produced tails 
and dwarfs in equal numbers. 

He also experimented with other characters 
besides stature, such as colour of flowers (purple and 
white), shape of seeds (smooth and wrinkled), colour 
of seeds (yellow and green), and found the same laws 
to hold good. The first hybrids exactly resembled- 
one of the parents in respect of the chosen character, 
and when these were again crossed with a plant pre- 
senting the alternative character of the other parent, 
he got in the next generation both kinds in equal 
numbers. 

Thus :— 

Tall X Dwarf. 

Tall X Dwarf. 

Tall and Dwarf in equal numbers. 
The abnormality of these short-fingered people is 
a dominant character,-^-' and each individual may be 
compared to the tall hybrid plant in the above 

* See Mr. Scourfield's paper for an explanation of this term, p. 24. 



THUMB-FINGERNESS 51 

experiment, for since there has been no intermarrying 
each one has had one parent abnormal and the other 
parent normal. 

It follows that when one of these abnormals (com- 
parable to the hybrid plant) marries a normal, their 
children should be of both kinds ; one half should 
show the abnormality and the other half not. 

As a matter of fact, 52 per cent, of the offspring 
of abnormals have been normals, and as there is 
always in such cases an element of chance, this per- 
centage is held to be a sufficiently close approximation 
to theoretical requirements. 

Mendel found that the dwarf plants when self- 
fertilised, or bred amongst themselves, always breed 
true to the dwarf character, and not only so, but that 
the dwarfs of the third generation (one of whose 
parents was tall) invariably breed true and produce 
nothing but dwarf plants. Further than this, if the 
first hybrids (tall) are bred amongst themselves or are 
self- fertilised, they produce a certain proportion of 
dwarfs (25 per cent.), and even these dwarfs breed 
true to dwarfness. 

These dwarf plants, from a hereditary point of 
view, correspond to the normal members of the short- 
fingered family. Such being the case, a norma! 
person (one of whose parents is short-fingered) ought, 
when married to another normal, to produce normal 
children only, and this has been the invariable result. 

If the chart is consulted, it will be seen that the 
normals (represented by small letters) have not in a 
single instance had short-fingered children. The 



52 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

normals, in fact, breed true to the normal character, 
and the abnormality can only be transmitted by one 
or other abnormal parent. 

According to Professor Bateson and Professor 
Punnett, a dominant character is due to the 
presence of some factor wliich determines its 
manifestation, and its non-appearance is due to the 
absence of the same factor. If, then, the peculiarities 
of the short-fingered people are due to the presence in 
them of some factor or element which is absent from 
the normals, it follows that the normals can never 
reproduce the abnormality which requires the 
presence of this factor for its manifestation. 

It is obvious that a purely short-fingered race 
could be established by breeding from them alone, and 
it is equally clear that this abnormality can only be 
eradicated by preventing the marriage of the abnor- 
mals. The same observation applies to any disease, 
or predisposition to disease, and to any defect or 
peculiarity which is hereditary and plays the part of 
a dominant characteristic ; but this is not the place 
to discuss the subject in further detail. 

There is little doubt that in a wild state any 
individuals who presented the physical peculiarities 
described in this paper would, owing to the struggle 
for existence, have little chance of surviving long 
enough to perpetuate their kind : but the conditions 
of modern civilisation are such^ that vast numbers ot 
people, handicapped at birth, are not only able to 
survive, but to perpetuate their kind, even though it 
tends to the deterioration of the race. 

Plate 1 and Fig. 4 are reproduced bi/ kind permission of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, from their " Proceedings," and the others are new. 



ON TABBY CATS. 

And some features in the Inheritance of their Coat 
Patterns and Colour.* 



An Address delivered to the Mendel Society on 
June Qth, 1910. 

By R. I. POCOCK, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Superintendent of the Zoological Society's Gardens. 



According to its derivation from the Arabic atabi, 
meaning a particular kind of watered silk, the epithet 
" tabby " is applicable, strictly speaking, to any 
thing with a wavy pattern, like that of the material 
in question ; but for no very obvious reason it seems 
by common consent to be restricted in use to domestic 
cats marked with a definite brindled or striped pattern. 
Quite superficial scrutiny will show that tabby 
cats may be readily sorted by their patterns into two 
distinct kinds which differ so greatly from one another 
that no zoologist would hesitate to regard them as 
representing different species if they existed in a 
natural state. In one kind, which may be called the 
" Striped Tabby," the sides of the body are marked 
with narrow, wavy, vertical stripes stretching from 
the back towards the belly, and commonly showing a 
tendency, especially on the hindquarters, to break up 

" The question of the origin and relationship of the breeds of 
domestic cats has been alreadj' dealt with by the author in Pro- 
ceedings Zoological Societ}', 1907, pp. 143-168, pts. viii.-x. 



64 



THE MENDEL JOLRNAL 




Plate 1. 



TABBY CATS 55 

into spots ; the middle line of the back is confusedly 
marked, but shows no broad longitudinal stripe on 
each side of the spine (Plate 1 ). In the other kind, which 
may be called the " Blotched Tabby," the stripes are 
much broader and fewer, and form on the sides of 
the body a somewhat spiral or circular arrangement 
which fanciers speak of as the " horse-shoe " mark ; 
while on the back there are three longitudinal stripes 
— a thinner one in the middle line and a broader one 
on each side of it (Plate 2). 

There is considerable individual variation in both 
these types. In the Striped Tabby the stripes may 
be broken up into larger or smaller spots, so that the 
original pattern is more or less obscured ; and in 
the Blotched Tabby the dark marks may widen and 
extend over and more or less obliterate the paler 
intervening areas ; but whatever be the nature of the 
variation, it never seems to take the direction of 
convergence of one type of pattern towards the other. 
The two do not intergrade, and when once the 
differences between them have been seen and under- 
stood, there is no difficulty in assigning every tabby 
cat to the one type or the other. 

This is a very remarkable fact ; yet only within 
the last few years has its importance been appre- 
ciated. Breeders and exhibitors of domestic cats 
have long been acquainted with it ; but it rarely 
happens that fanciers take a scientific interest in their 
pets, and apparently no cat fancier of either sex has 
troubled about the real meaning of tabby markings. 
From this ignorance of the significance of pattern, it 



56 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 




Plate 2. 



TABBY GATS 57 

comes about that the National Cat Club gives a 
quite subsidiary importance to markings as a basis 
for distinguishing domestic breeds, preferring length 
of coat, shortness of tail, tint of hair, and other com- 
paratively trivial features. 

Apart from Siamese, Manx, and one or two other 
less important breeds, domestic cats are classified 
under two headings, namely, " long-haired," other- 
wise called " Persians " or " Angoras," and " short- 
haired " or ordinary cats, both long-haired and short- 
haired being further subdivided by colour into blacks, 
whites, blues, smokes, reds, creams, tabbies, and the 
like. Thus the pattern is merely regarded as equiva- 
lent to colour and of less value than length of coat or 
absence of tail ; nor does it appear that any stress is 
laid upon the difference above alluded to between 
the two types of tabby. 

The real importance of pattern is shown by a study 
of wild species of Cats which zoologists comprehen- 
sively group together as Felis. Tigers, for example, 
are always striped, and leopards always spotted. 
The stripes in the one and the spots in the other may 
vary in number, but the pattern in each species 
remains substantially the same. Not so the hair. 
Mongolian tigers and North Chinese leopards differ 
strikingly from their tropical kin in the length and 
thickness of the Winter coat. The difference is not so 
marked as between a thoroughbred so-called Persian 
Cat and an ordinary Cat. Nevertheless, the fact 
proves that the length of the coat is a much more 
variable feature in Cats than the pattern. 



58 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

So, too, with colour. Black varieties or " muta- 
tions " of wild species of Felis occur in a state of 
nature. Black leopards and jaguars are not un- 
common ; black servals have been shot on several 
occasions, and black tigers have been recorded. 
Leopards of tropical Asia are richly tinted ; those of 
Persia are markedly greyer ; while those of tropical 
West Africa usually have a characteristic dusky hue, 
as compared with Asiatic specimens. Again, some 
species of wild Cats are dichroic ; that is to say, 
reddish or blackish specimens occur side by side in 
the same locality. This phenomenon is known in 
the South American Jaguarondi Cat {F. jaguarondi) ; 
the West African Tiger Cat {F. aurata), and in the 
east Asiatic Temminck's Golden Cat {F. temmincki). 
What is perhaps more remarkable still is that an 
example of theW est African Tiger Cat that lived in 
the Zoological Gardens changed its colour from dark 
brown to blackish grey during growth.* 

All these facts point to the conclusion that colour 
is a somewhat variable feature in Cats, and since the 
pattern, when pattern exists, in the above-mentioned 
species remains the same whatever be the tint of the 
ground colour, it is evident that pattern is a more 
stable characteristic than tint. The spots of black 
leopards are always, it seems, visible in certain 
lights. Similarly the tabby pattern always appears 
to be detectable in black kittens of domestic Cats. I 
have often seen it also in white kittens, the visibleness 

* Proceedings Zoological Society, 1907, p. 659. 



TABBY CATS 59 

of the pattern in both black and white kittens being 
due to the greater gloss of the hair that forms the 
pattern as compared with that of the intervening 
spaces. 

It might at first be considered somewhat curious 
that although domestic Cats are commonly white, 
white examples of wild species are exceedingly rare. 
This, however, is not in reality a surprising thing, 
because, except in the Winter in Arctic and Antarctic 
latitudes, white is a very conspicuous colour. Hence 
a white wild Cat would be severely handicapped in the 
struggle for existence by inability to conceal itself 
both from its enemies and its prey. It is, moreover, 
a matter of common knowledge that white Cats are 
frequently deaf, and if, as is not unlikely, this or some 
other organic defect, such as want of stamina, accom- 
panies whiteness in wild species, another reason for 
the rarity of white wild Cats becomes apparent. 

I have only seen white skins of two wild species 
of Felis, both of which are in the British Museum. 
One is a tiger, the other a cheetah or hunting 
leopard. In both it is noticeable that the pattern is 
not white, like the ground colour, but yellowish or 
" tan." This proves two things : First, that the 
animals were not pure albinos ; and, second, that in 
these partial albinos the yellow or tan ground colour 
has turned white and the black pattern has turned 
" tan " — that is to say, " tan " in albescent individ- 
uals is an intermediate colour phase between black 
and white. Similarly, " tan " is an intermediate colour 



60 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

phase between white and black in nigrescent individ- 
uals or partial melanos. True melanos are wholly- 
black, just as pure albinos are wholly white ; but 
partial melanos are quite common, black-and-tan 
dogs being a familiar instance. If a black-and-tan 
dog be compared with a pale-coloured wolf, it is 
obvious that the tan round the mouth, over the eyes, 
on the paws, and other parts of the dog correspond 
exactly with light areas on the wolf, and that the 
black parts of the dog correspond in the same way 
with the greyish-black pigmented parts of the wolf.* 
Just as black-and-tan dogs are partial melanos, so 
are black leopards, as a rule, if not always, partial 
melanos ; that is to say, they are seldom if ever 
uniformly black. The intermediate spaces are a 
little paler than the spots ; and the underside of the 
body, which in the normal animal has a pure white 
ground colour, is very dark tan. Black domestic 
Cats, on the contrary, are generally complete 
melanos when adult, the pattern being invisible 
because the hair is everywhere as black as the pattern. "f 
Black and white are thus two extremes of 
colour mutation, yellowish-red or tan being the 
intermediate phase. These three phases are usually 
called melanistic, albinistic, and erythristic. All 
three are common in domestic Cats. The majority 
of Cats seen roaming at large and practically uncared 

* R. I. Pocock, Annals Magazine Natural History (7), xix., pp. 
192-194. 

t Black cats commonly have a white speck on the chest at the 
anterior end of the sternum. This white speck is frequently present 
in Scotch wild cats. The persistence of the whiteness of this spot 
in black cats is a puzzling fact. 



TABBY GATS 61 

for are normal tabbies, red tabbies or blacks ; of less 
common occurrence are normal tabbies, red tabbies or 
blacks varied to a greater or less extent with wbite ; 
rarest of all are pure whites and so-called " tortoise- 
shells," the latter being Cats in which both the pattern 
and the ground colour show a confused mixture of 
tan and black, with white commonly pervading more 
or less the legs and lower parts of the body.* 

The question of " red " and " tortoise-shell " 
Cats cannot be dismissed without reference to the 
as yet quite unexplained fact that the former are nearly 
always males and the latter nearly always females. 
The frequency of this phenomenon has given rise to 
the saying that the " red " is the male of the 
" tortoise-shell " variety, f Mr. L. Doncaster, by 
carefully analysing the evidence contained in the 
literature of fanciers, was able to show that female 
tortoise-shell Cats were the mongrel forms of black 
Cats crossed by red ones. On the other hand the 
" red " males were similarly mongrels of the same 
kind of cross. In males, therefore, red is wholly 
dominant, but in females only partially so, some of 
the black manifesting itself. 

One final word about white Cats. I have already 
said that the white tiger and cheetah skins above 
referred to were not the skins of pure albinos, because 
the stripes in the one case and the spots in the other 
were pale tan instead of white. I have never seen a 

* White is considered a defect in " show " tortoise-shells. 

t The only species of mammals known to me which are naturally 
"tortoise-shell" are the African hunting dog {Lycaon pictus), and 
the Lemming {Myodes lemmus). 



62 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

white Cat with tan pattern ; but I have also never 
seen what would be regarded as a pure albino 
Cat ; that is to say, a white Cat with pink eyes. 
White Cats often, however, have blue eyes. This is 
a sign apparently of incomplete albinism, if we may 
judge from the fact that blue or bluish eyes occur 
not uncommonly in white or partly white horses and 
dogs, especially sheep-dogs, and typically accompany 
pale complexion and blonde hair in mankmd. A very 
distinct and remarkable albinistic breed of Cats is 
the Siamese. The newly-born kittens are pure white, 
and the eyes are frequently blue ; but as age advances 
the Cat gradually turns brown, the head, legs, and 
tail becoming first of all suffused with dark pigment, 
and this later in life extends more or less over the 
body as well. This change from the albinistic to 
the melanistic phase is comparable to the change from 
the reddish to the blackish-grey phase in the West 
African tiger cat above mentioned. Faint spots, 
however, may often be seen on Siamese Cats, betraying 
the descent of this breed from a " tabby." It may 
here be explained that the eyes of Cats differ in 
colour, but not to the same extent as the coat. 
Green is the normal tint ; but just as albinistic 
cats resemble blonde human beings in often having 
blue eyes, so do red Cats often resemble red-haired 
men in having red, or as fanciers call it " amber," 
eyes. Amber eyes are also considered by fanciers a 
sign of good breeding in Cats of other colours. 

In addition to the three principal mutations, 
black, red, and white, other colours may be seen in 



TABBY GATS 63 

domestic cats, but much more commonly at cat 
shows than in the streets. Such are dark greys or 
" blues," pale greys or " chinchillas," " creams," 
and others ; but whatever these rarer colours may 
be, they are all intermediate, in one direction or the 
other, between black, red, and white ; and the 
evidence derived from mice and flowers confirms 
the suggestion that " greys " or " blues " are simply 
dilute forms of blacky and cream a dilute form of red. 
A marked feature about the cats at cat shows is 
the number of self-coloured animals that are ex- 
hibited. It happens to be the fashion to dislike 
" pattern." Hence the efforts of fanciers are per- 
severingly directed towards its elimination. All 
breeders, however, know what an obstinate and 
persistent feature it is. In a natural state pattern 
may disappear in several ways; either by the toning 
down of the markings to match or almost to match 
the ground colour, as in desert-living representatives 
of the African cat {F. ocreata), and probably also in 
adult lions and pumas ; or by the darkening of the 
ground colour and the concomitant lightening of the 
pattern till the two reach the same tint ; or, more 
rarely, by the breaking up of the pattern into a 
multitude of small spots or specks which become 
universally diffused. An approach to this is seen in 
the so-called Ser valine Cat, which is flecked all over 
with small black specks instead of being blotched 
with large black spots as in the parent form, the 
Serval {F. capensis). Another good instance of this 
is seen in a variety of the leopard occurring at 



64 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Grahamstown, South Africa, where the multiplication 
and the fusion of small spots has produced a black 
animal by a totally different process from that 
which gives rise to ordinary black leopards. The 
uniformity in colour of self-coloured cats has probably 
in most cases been produced by the toning down of 
the pattern to match the ground colour, or by the 
mutual alteration of both to the same tint. But one 
breed known as the " ticked " seems, like the 
Grahamstown leopard, to owe its origin to the 
disintegration and general diffusion of the pattern of 
the Striped Tabby. " Ticked " domestic Cats, which 
may be met with amongst London Cats, are practically 
indistinguishable from so-called " Abyssinians." Both 
appear to be mutations of the Striped, not of the 
Blotched Tabby. 

All the Cats above mentioned, be they " blacks," 
"blues," "smokes," "reds," "creams," "whites," 
" skewbalds," or " piebalds," are probably all to be 
regarded as mutations either of the one kind of tabby 
or the other. This remark applies both to long- 
haired and short-haired Cats. 

It is possible, but I think not probable, that all 
English long-haired Cats trace their descent from 
specimens imported from Persia or Asia Minor. At 
all events, there is a tradition to that effect ; but the 
truth of it can neither be proved nor disproved. It 
is quite possible that a long-haired breed was in 
ancient times fostered in the countries lying near 
the eastern end of the Mediterranean, just as a special 
breed has for generations been fancied and rigorously 



TABBY GATS 65 

preserved in Siam. But there appears to be not a 
particle of evidence that either Persian or Siamese 
Cats have been derived from species differing from 
those to which our own EngHsh Cats owe their 
origin. As for so-called " Manx " Cats, there is no 
doubt whatever that they are tailless varieties of 
the same type or types. No other pattern than the 
Striped or Blotched Tabby is found amongst them. 
When and where the breed arose is quite unknown. 
Some of those who believe in the specific distinction 
of this Cat claim Cornwall as its home ; others the 
Isle of Man. Probably both suggestions are as 
little supported by evidence as the tradition that 
" Tortoise-shell " Cats came originally from Spain. 
What, then, was the origin of our domestic Cats ? 
This has been a question much debated by zoologists ; 
but it cannot be admitted that the debaters had any 
intimate acquaintance either with domestic breeds 
or with the two wild species from which they sought 
to derive them. No author, for instance, except 
perhaps Blyth, realised that there were two widely 
different types of pattern in domestic Cats to be 
accounted for ; or perceived that neither of the 
wild species claimed as the agriotype resembled even 
remotely the blotched tabby in markings. And 
none apparently was aware that these two wild 
species are closely related forms, differing probably 
less from one another than Chinese differ from west 
African leopards and hardly more than Mongolian 
differ from Sumatran tigers. 



66 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

The two species in question are the European 
Wild Cat {Fdis sylvestris) and the African Wild Cat 
{Felis ocreata).* 

It is needless to describe these two species in 
detail and to point out the comparatively small 
differences that exist between them. The European 
Cat extends at the present time from Scotland and 
Spain in western Europe, through central Europe 
as far as Asia Minor, but does not occur in Scandinavia. 
The African Cat ranges along the southern shores 
of the Mediterranean, and is said to occur in Sardinia. 
The European species is a northern mountain form, 
with a thick coat and bushy tail ; whereas the 
African Cat is a southern low-country or desert 
form, with a short coat and a thin tail. In structure, 
proportions, size, and pattern, these two species 
closely resemble domestic Tabbies of the Striped type 
(Plate 1) ; and since, with the exception of the Jungle 
Cat {Felis chaus), a larger, longer-legged, shorter- 
tailed species than either of the others and than any 
domestic cat, there are no other wild species of Felis 
at all like our Striped Tabby occurring in the coun- 
tries bordering the Mediterranean, the cradle of 
European and north African civilisations, it is 



* Felis sylvestris is almost always called Fdis catus in works on 
Natural History ; but the original description of Felis catus shows 
clearly that the name was applied by Linnjeus to the domestic 
blotched tabby, and cannot therefore be used for the European 
wild cat. Fdis ocreata is better known as the Egyptian or fettered 
cat, or the booted lynx {F. caligata, or maniculata), or the CafFre cat 
{F. caffer), the latter being the south African as F. maniculata is the 
north African representative of a species widely distributed on the 
African continent. 



TABBY CATS 67 

needless to look beyond these two wild species for the 
ancestor of the domestic Cat in question. 

There are, it is true, no records of the taming in 
past times of the European species, but the African 
species is known to have been domesticated in Egypt 
many thousands of years ago. From Egypt it was 
no doubt introduced eastwards into India and Siam, 
and gave rise to the striped or nearly self-coloured 
domestic Cats of the former country and to the 
peculiar albinistic breed of the latter country. Hence 
there is no reason to suppose that these Oriental 
domestic Cats have any infusion of European Wild 
Cat in their veins. It may be that this accounts 
for the differences that commonly but not invariably 
exist between Oriental and European domestic Cats 
of the Striped Tabby type. From Egypt also the 
African Cat was no doubt introduced as a tame 
animal into the countries of southern Europe, where 
it would come into contact with the European 
species. However that may be, the evidence that 
F. sylvestris has contributed to the formation of the 
Striped domestic Tabby is that the latter is seldom 
exactly like either of its supposed ancestral forms, 
resembling the European species in some characters 
and the African species in others. This, however, is 
a matter of no very great moment. The important 
point to remember is that the African and European 
Wild Cats and the Striped Tabby resemble each 
other in all essential characters and differ from 
all other species of Felis known in the world. 



68 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Although historical records show that the Striped 
Tabby has been a domesticated form in Europe at 
least from the 16th century — and no one knows how 
much earlier — and is abundant everywhere both in 
town and country places, at least in England, 
many English writers in modern times seem to have 
been unaware of its existence. Examples introduced 
into the tropics and run wild have been more than 
once described and named as new varieties or species 
allied in the opinion of some authors to the European 
Wild Cat, in that of others to the African Wild Cat. 

Although the origin of the Striped Tabby may be 
claimed with some assurance as definitely established, 
that of the Blotched or Marbled Tabby (Plate 2) is at 
present not only quite unknown, but seems likely to 
remain for ever a mystery. Several hypotheses may 
be held with respect to it. It may have arisen per 
saltum as an abrupt mutation from the Striped Tabby 
and have been capable of preservation by owners 
and breeders who admired the type, because of its 
segregability in inheritance. The only reason 
that can be alleged against the idea of its 
being a mutation is the fact that no such 
variation has ever been known to occur in any 
species of Felis. Nevertheless it is a possible explana- 
tion of the phenomenon. If it be the true one, the 
Blotched Tabby must be described as a highly 
interesting instance of abnormal dimorphism of, 
pattern. It seems quite certain, however, that this 
pattern has not been preserved by the art of selective 
breeding, because, with the possible exception of the 



TABBY GATS 69 

tailless so-called Manx breed and of the peculiarly 
coloured Siamese breed, there seems to be no reason 
to suppose that selective breeding of Cats was started 
before the latter half of the 19th century ; and we 
know from Linnseus's description of Felis catus 
that the Blotched Tabby existed as a perfect type in 
Sweden as early as the middle of the 18th century. 
This fact disposes of another hypothesis that might 
otherwise be entertained, namely, that the blotched 
pattern was developed step by step from the striped 
pattern by the slow and gradual process of preserving 
and breeding from slight varieties tending in the 
fancied direction. 

It has also been suggested by an author unaware 
of the closeness of the relationship between the 
European and African Wild Cats and of their funda- 
mental similarity in pattern that the Blotched Tabby 
was the result of crossing individuals of these two 
species. When two distinct species of striped or 
spotted mammals are crossed the offspring sometimes 
resembles neither of its parents in pattern. Professor 
Ewart,* for example, found that when he paired a 
male Chapman's zebra with a bay female pony, the 
foal, while resembling the dam in colour, showed 
a pattern of stripes not the least like those of its 
sire, but rather closely resembling those of a totally 
distinct species of zebra, namely, Grevy's zebra ; 
and believing that the pattern of Grevy's zebra is a 
more primitive type than that of Chapman's zebra, 
he considered the pattern of the hybrid foal to be an 

* The Penycuick Experiments. A. andC. Black. London, 1899. 



70 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

instance of reversion to an ancestral type resulting 
from crossing the two species. ■•• However that may- 
be, the point to be noticed is that the foal differed 
from both parents. Hence the possibility of the 
origin of the Blotched Tabby from crossing the 
European and African Wild Cats. When tested 
by experiment, however, this suggestion broke down. 
In the Zoological Gardens I crossed a pure-bred male 
Scotch Wild Cat with a female African Wild Cat from 
Uganda, which had never previously kittened. The 
result was, as I expected, a litter of three kittens 
exactly resembling the Striped Tabby. Only one of 
these kittens lived to be half grown. By that time 
she had almost lost the very distinct pattern of 
kittenhood, and was becoming daily more like her 
mother, in which the pattern was evanescent. | 

* Mendelian experiments throw a new light on this phenomenon 
of reversion. A "reversionary character'' is a compound one, and 
is only made manifest when two or more factors react upon each 
other-. If the factors are separated, and one is carried in one 
individual and the other in another, then the "reversionary charac- 
ter" may remain unrevealed for generations, and will only become 
patent as soon as two parents which carry between them the com- 
plementary factors are mated together. Black mice, rats, and 
rabbits may be mated to certain albinoes without begetting any 
gi'ey (brown) individuals among their offspring. Yet, when mated 
with other albinoes, young ones having the grey or reversionary 
colour of the wild type will appear. This is due to the fact that 
colour is a compound character, and that grey is due to the meeting 
of two complementary factors, one of which is carried by the black 
parent and the other, in the cases we are considering, by certain 
albinoes, which carry the factor determining greyness. Other albinoes 
lack this factor, but carry that which determines some other colour, 
such as blackness for instance. The reversionary colour greyness 
can therefore only be produced when an albino carrying the grey 
determiner is mated to some other coloured partner, such for instance 
as a black one. But if such a partner be mated with albinoes 
carrying the black complementary factor, the only colour that will 
appear among the oft'spring will be black. — Editor. 

t P. Z. S., 1908, pp. 749-750, text figs. 194-195. 



TABBY CATS 71 

Another view that may be held is that the Blotched 
Tabby resulted from crossing some introduced exotic 
species with the Striped Tabby. But there is no 
reason to think that, apart from menagerie-kept 
specimens, representatives of any exotic species, 
except tamed African Wild Cats, have ever been 
introduced into Europe. It is also absolutely certain 
that the Blotched Tabby is not the pure-bred descen- 
dant of any species of existing Cat, since its pattern 
is quite unlike that of any known species of the 
genus Felis. 

Finally, it may be held that the Blotched Tabby 
is the survivor of some species of European Cat 
which is now extinct as a wild animal. In this 
connection it may be remembered that complete 
extinction as wild species has followed the domestica- 
tion by man of the agriotype or wild form of Euro- 
pean cattle, of eastern humped cattle, of the ass, 
of more than one species or race of horse, according 
to modern views, certainly of one perhaps of both 
species of camel, and perhaps of our long-tailed 
breed of sheep. This extinction of the wild forms 
of some of our domesticated animals points to the 
possibility of a like fate having overtaken the ancestor 
of the Blotched Tabby. However that may be, 
it seems to me that the origin of this Cat must be 
explained on the hypothesis either that it is a 
mutation of the Striped Tabby or that it is the 
survivor of some species now extinct in a wild state. 

From the Mendelian standpoint these two Cats 
are of the greatest interest, for the following reasons : 



72 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

They have been Hving side by side, and freely inter- 
breeding for many generations witliout ever pro- 
ducing intermediate types, so far as is at present 
known. At all events, I myself have never seen a 
tabby Cat that could not be at once assigned to either 
the Blotched or the Striped type ; and for several 
years I have carefully noted the pattern of every Cat 
that has come under my eyes, both in towns and in 
the country, and I have visited Cats' homes and Cat 
shows, for the purpose of verifying or disproving the 
conclusion that intermediates do not exist. Another 
fact that I can vouch for of my own knowledge is 
that both types may occur in the same litter of 
kittens. 

So far as I am aware, no attempt at experimental 
breeding of Cats on Mendelian lines has ever been 
undertaken ; but from what has been said as to the 
apparent permanence of the segregation of the two 
kinds of tabby, it appears that much useful work 
could be done in this direction. It could be carried 
out, too, at comparatively small trouble and cost 
anywhere in the country. Cats are naturally hardy, 
and require no artificial heat. They should be kept 
in grass runs, the larger the better, covered in with 
wire netting. This enclosure should be fitted with 
wooden shelves and branches, and with a well-made 
warm wooden covered-in shelter as a protection against 
cold winds and rain in the winter. The animals 
should be given water to drink and raw fowls' heads, 
varied with rabbits, mice and sparrows or other birds 
to eat ; that is to say, their diet should be made as 



TABBY GATS 73 

nearly natural as possible. Under these conditions 
the Cats would thrive and breed. 

It was for the purpose of drawing attention to 
Tabby Cats and of thus suggesting the great possi- 
bilities of achieving interesting results by breeding 
them, that the editor of this Journal asked me to 
contribute an article on these animals. But I have 
intentionally discussed at some length the other 
characters, especially colour, by which domestic 
breeds of Cats are distinguished, and have mentioned 
one or two curious facts, such as the correlation of 
of " red " and " tortoise-shell " with male and female 
sex respectively ; so that these features, as well as 
pattern, may be considered in any experimental 
breeding that is undertaken in the future. 



CONTRIBITED ARTICLES. 



INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES. 

Coat Colour. 

By ROBERT BUNSOW. 



Previous publications* have shown that bay^ 
coloured thoroughbred horses may be either pure 
with regard to the hereditary transmission of this 
colour, and will therefore transmit no other colour 
to their offspring, or they may be impure and will 
transmit some other alternative colour, such as 
chestnut. Since bay horses may thus carry in 
their hereditary mechanism some colour which is 
not visibly manifested in the presence of the bay 
colour, we speak of this latter, in Mendelian 
language, as a dominant colour, while chestnut 
is spoken of as a recessive. 

I have just now used the term "hereditary 
mechanism." What is meant by that ? I will 
endeavour to explain. The cells that form 
the tissues of an animal or plant which reproduces 
itself by sexual processes may be divided into the 
body or somatic, and the reproductive, sex or gametic 
cells. It is these latter which, in sexual reproduc- 
tion, constitute the hereditary mechanism. They 

* C. C. Hurst. Proceedings Royal Society, Vol. 77B, 1906. 
1 For the purposes of this article the author h^s used the word 
bay to include browns. There is no absolute distinction between these 
colours. Some horses iu Avinter are bay and brown in summer, and 
some are vice-versa. Others have a colour which cannot be designated 
by either l)ay or brown, and in the Stud Book are described as " bay or 
brown." 



INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 75 

are the carriers of the qualities which one genera- 
tion transmits to another. Now the most essential 
feature of the Mendelian conception of inheritance, 
is that of any pair of alternative characters, such as 
bay and chestnut colours, each sex-cell can carry 
only one of the pair. 

It does not carry both of them blended together, 
like wine and water, nor mixed like oil and water. 
The two characters are regarded as being carried 
in different sex-cells. If, therefore, a given horse 
carries only chestnut colour, all its sex-cells will 
carry that colour — or rather the factors which when 
present in the body cells produce that colour. But 
if it carries both bay and chestnut, then one-half of 
the sex-cells of the individual will carry the one 
colour, and the other half will carry the other 
colour. 

If we remember that every individual is the 
product of the fusion of two sex-cells, one being 
derived from a mother and the other from a 
father, we must regard each of them as a sort of 
double mechanism with regard to every one of the 
characters that make up its body. It is, for 
instance, a bay colour because its bayness has come 
from the sex-cells of both father, and mother, or 
because it came from one only, the sex-cell of the 
other parent contributing chestnutness, which is 
not manifested if bay is already present in the 
body cells. 

Now, we may symbolise these facts and concej)- 
tions by calling the bay colour a dominant character 



7f> THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

over chestnut colour, which we call a recessive 
character. If we sj^mbolise the dominant character by 
D and the recessive one by R, then each letter will 
represent a group of sex-cells. A chestnut coloured 
horse since it carries nothing but chestnut, will, 
therefore, have only one kind of sex-cell with respect 
to this character, and its gametic constitution will be 
represented by R R. Similarly, a pure bay will 
be represented by D D. But a hybrid or impure 
bay will contain two classes of sex-cells in equal 
numbers, namely, those carrying bay and those 
carrying chestnut. Such an individual will be 
gametically represented by the symbol D R. 

Now if a pure D D bay stallion be mated with 
a pure R R chestnut mare, all the foals will be 
impijre D R bays, because the D sex-cells of the 
stallion can in reproduction meet nothing but the R 
sex-cells of the mare. But if an impure D R stallion 
is mated with an R R chestnut, then the foals will 
in the long run consist of l)oth bays and chest- 
nuts in approximately equal numbers. But the 
bays will be impure or hybrid D R^. In this case 
the two kinds of sex-cells of the stallion have two 
possibilities, for its D sex-cells may meet the R 
sex-cells of the mare, and so also may its R sex-cells. 
There thus result two unions, a D R or hybrid, and 
a R R or pure recessive. 

One further feature is of interest. It will be 
observed that a chestnut horse is one which mani- 
fests a recessive colour, and must be therefore 
always pure with regard to this colour ; that is, 



INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 77 

always R R in gametic constitution. When chest- 
nuts are therefore bred together, their foals should 
be always chestnut. If bred with bays their foals 
may be either all bays, or half chestnuts (R R) and 
half bays (D R), as we have j ast seen. In the 
former case, the result is due to the fact that the 
bays mated with them are D D and in the latter 
case because they are D R. 

To the (D D) class of bays and browns l^elong 
" St. Simon," " St. Serf," " Galopin," " Ladas," 
" Merry Hampton," and " Cabin Boy " ; to the 
(D R) bay and brown class "Royal Hampton," 
"Donovan," "St. Angelo," "Isinglass," " Orvieto," 
"Ayrshire," " Florizel II.," "Pioneer,"" Isonomy," 
"Melton," "Wisdom," "Rose Window," and " St. 
Maclou." 

In the records of the "General Stud Book 
of Race Horses," are found some exceptions 
to the rule that chestnuts crossed with chestnuts 
give chestnuts only, and that (D D) bays 
always breed true. These apparent exceptions it is 
worth while to consider. In reality they do not 
exist, but are either misprints or errors of entry. 
It is of course not only difficult, but sometimes im- 
possible, to satisfactorily clear up erroneous entries. 
But in most cases inquiry reveals them. 

If we turn to Volume XXI. of the Stud Book, 
which was published six months ago, we find it 
contains fifteen so-called exceptions to the rule that 
chestnut parents have only chestnut foals, namely — 



78 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



Page. 

12 .. 


Year. 

,. 1904 .. 


.. bay filly out of The Alabama 


25 .. 


,. 1904 .. 


,, 




Anavene 


33 .. 


,. 1900 .. 


jy 




Arcadia 


40 .. 


,. 1899 .. 


,, 




Ashtwig 


65 .. 


,. 1898 .. 


• • ly 




Bella Valley 


106 .. 


,. 1904 .. 


yj 




Burganilda 


121 .. 


,. 1904 ., 


• • 11 




Cassimere 


247 .. 


,. 1903 .. 


.. bay colt 




Evening Flight 


327 ., 


.. 1902 ., 


>? 




Good Day 11. 


327 ., 


,. 1903 ., 


■)i 




Good Day 11. 


381 ., 
552 ., 


.. 1904 . 

.. 1898 .. 


.. bay iilly 

•n 




Inquisitive 

(Stale News) 
Merry Lass 


583 ., 


.. 1901 .. 


. . bay colt 




Mrs. Candle 


611 ., 


.. 1902 ., 


.. bay filly 




Nenemoosha 


615 .. 


.. 1899 ., 


. . bay colt 




(Cyanean) 
Nimblefoot 



In addition to the English Stnd Book, the 
German Stud Book contains only one exception. It 
is there stated that from the mating of the chestnut 
stallion " Botschafter I.," out of the chestnut mare 
"Legality," there resulted the bay foal "Longo- 
barde," which died when it was six months old. 
As soon as 1 drew attention in the German sporting 
newspaper Sportwelt to this erroneous statement, 
pointing out that the entry certainly must 
be a mistake, the breeder of " Longobarde," 
namely, the Prussian Government's official at their 
Stud, at Graditz, came forward with a published 
statement that " Longobarde " never was a bay, and 
that neither the veterinary surgeon who assisted the 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 79 

mare when foaling nor aiiy of ' the Stud warders 
had the slightest doubt that this colt had always 
been a chestnut and that nobody could explain how 
this misstatement came into the Stud Book. 

Now, looking into the fifteen exceptions given 
above, in the first place I would point out that it is 
very often an impossibility to state exactly what 
colour a recently born foal is, for it may look exactly 
like a bay — with the exception that it has no black 
tail and black mane — and yet after having shed its 
first woolly coat it may develope into a real chestnut. 
There is another fact worthy of notice. The entry 
of a foal's colour into the Stud Book may be made 
before it sheds its first woolly coat, and if its coat 
changes at its first or later moult, this entry obvi- 
ously becomes erroneous in as far as the real or 
definitive coat-colour is concerned. It is only in very 
few cases, and never if the foal happens to die 
before it is put into training, that anybody troubles 
to alter the erroneous entry in the Stud Book. It 
remains there as it was originally entered. But even 
after a foal has been put into training, there are still 
some cases in which the original entry of the first 
or foal colour remains as it was. Even the 
Racing Calendars, which give in their index the 
colours of the horses which have performed on a 
racecourse, still preserve the erroneous entry. The 
reason for this is largely a clerical matter. The 
man who compiles the index is a member of the 
office staff, he never comes to the racecourse, and 
has only one book from which he can obtain the 

F 



80 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

record of the colour of different horses, namely, 
"The General Stud Book." So he transfers the 
old error on to the new print, and if somebody is not 
personally interested in the colour of the special 
horse the error remains and becomes a pitfall in the 
hands of persons who are not practical racing men. 
In this way some supposed exceptions to Mendelian 
inheritance of coat-colour in horses have been used 
in an effort to disprove the operation of that law in 
this character of horses. This has been done in 
spite of the fact that these supposed exceptions do 
not constitute more than two per cent, of the whole, 
and in some cases even less. 

For years I have endeavoured to investigate and 
correct such erroneous statements, but have had to 
relinquish it as hopeless in all cases where the foal 
was born dead, because very often nobody was to 
be found who remembered the colour of such a foal. 
In many cases I received an answer to this effect : 
" I took it for a bay, but of course it might as 
well have been a chestnut, for you cannot tell at this 
age, and there was no reason to trouble about it 
because the foal was dead." 

But in all cases, when the foal was still alive 
and older than half a year, it was easy to show that 
a mistake had been made, and the easier of course 
if it had been raced. From the fifteen so- 
called exceptions only two appeared on a race- 
course. One of them is " Cyanean," bred by Lord 
Londonderry in 1902. In the Stud Book of IU05 
(Vol. XX.) it is given as a bay, and even in the 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 81 

Stud Book of 1909 (Vol. XXI.) the same colour is 
given, in spite of the fact that it ran always as a 
chestnut and never was anything else but a chestnut. 
Even the indexes of the various Racing Calendars 
give it as a chestnut. 

The second case is " Stale News," alleged to be 
a bay coming from a chestnut stallion out of a 
chestnut mare. In spite of all inquiries 1 could get 
no explanation, and it appeared to remain a fact that 
*' Stale News " was really a bay. But a few days ago 
the enigma was solved in a very simple w^ay : The 
dam of "Stale News" is no chestnut at all, but a 
bay mare, and so there is nothing extraordinary in 
her daughter's bay coat. These errors never happen 
in Stud Books which are specially kept for the 
breeding of chestnuts only. For instance, we shall find 
none in the Suffolk horses, which are chestnut without 
exception ; nor in the Prussian half-bred Stud 
Trakehnen, w^here a chestnut herd is kept, has 
such a case ever happened. I am informed by 
Herr von Oettingen, the Governor of the Stud, that 
a stud book for the chestnut herd has been kept for 
over one-hundred-and-hfty years. 

So it is, I think, quite proven that chestnuts 
crossed by chestnuts always give chestnuts, and 
that (D D) bays crossed by chestnuts always pro- 
duce bays. 

One of the best known (D D) bays was the 
famous thoroughbred stallion " St. Simon," who 
died two years ago. All his progeny were bays 
or browns, with the exception of the very last one, 



82 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which was born after his death and was called 
" Postnmus " (Plate 1), and is now in training at 
Kingsclere. This colt was and is grey. 

For breeders of race-horses " Postnmus " is a 
specially interesting horse. First of all, it was 
thought by some that " Postumus " did not fall 
into line with the Mendelian principles, and that 
even a pure (D D) bay parent did not breed true. 
But they overlooked the very important fact, that 
the pureness of the (D D) bay character only holds 
with regard to bayness and to colours recessive to 
it, and that it can be best tested by mating it with 
a chestnut. The question at stake is simply this : 
Is the bay colour of this stallion dominant to the 
chestnut colour ? It is answered by the fact that 
"St. Simon's" offspring out of chestnut mares were 
invariably bays. So it is proved that " St. Simon" 
was (D D) for bay, since were he a (D R), that is 
carrying the dominant (D) bay colour and also the 
recessive (R) chestnut colour, he would have pro- 
duced, as some other bays which are (D R^) have 
done, chestnut foals as well as bays. 

If "St. Simon" is thus a pure bay, the greyness 
of his last foal " Postunms " is of some interest. 
Among horse breeders, it has been attempted to 
frame an explanation of the appearance of this grey 
foal upon the fanciers' old conceptions of inheritance. 
We will first deal with these attempted explanations, 
and then view the matter from the Mendelian stand- 
point. We shall see how well the Mendelian 
interpretation harmonises with the facts in the 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 83 

pedigrees, while the other interpretations leave them 
without coherency or relationship. 

We will deal with Mr. B. Robertson's view 
first. He is an anthority upon race-horses, and he 
thinks that the grey colour of " Posturaus " came 
through his sire '* St. Simon " from the distant 
ancestry of the mare "(rrey AVilkes." He 
believes that there is fair proof for this statement 
in the fact that other horses not coming from 
" St. Simon," but having " Grey Wilkes " in their 
pedigree, show grey hairs in their coat, or at the 
root of the tail. In my opinion this view is not 
tenable, because " Grey Wilkes " lived in 1707, two 
hundred years before " Postnmus," and her name 
appears only in the fourteenth remove of " St. 
Simon's" pedigree. It is possible, of course, that 
some posterity of " Grey Wilkes " may show some 
grey hairs, but " Postumus " is another case 
altogether, for it is a good and complete grey colt, 
and not a brown or bay, with a patch of grey. 

A very prevalent idea among horse breeders 
with regard to cases like " Postumus " is that its 
grey coat colour is the result of the " nicking " or 
meeting in his sire " St. Simon " of two grey stems, 
which can be traced down on either side of its 
pedigree. Upon the basis of this hypothesis, the 
greyness of " Postumus " will be traced (Plate 1) 
on the dam's side through " Pontillon," "Maid of 
Wye," " Vedette," and " Mrs. Ridgway " to " Nan 
Darell,"* and also upon the sire's side through 
''Vedette " and "Mrs Ridgway " to " Nan Darell." 

* Nan Darell is a grey mare and is outside the pedigree on the 
dam's side of it. 



84 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

But after a careful study of the matter I am 
convinced that the hypothesis of " nicking," as we 
generally understand it, cannot adequately explain 
the facts of the pedigree. I will proceed to explain 
why. 

A general consideration of the parentage of 
grey horses shows that a grey horse can never be 
obtained imless one of the parents is a grey. No 
exception to this statement is known. Another 
fact throwing considerable light upon the general 
principles of colour inheritance in horses is that 
two grey parents need not necessarily have all 
grey offspring, and that frequently they do produce 
other coloured foals. These two facts thus point to 
the conclusion that grey is dominant to all other 
coat colours, because if it were recessive a grey 
dam and sire coidd not produce other coat colours 
among their offspring. Also a dam and sire of 
some other colour would beget grey foals, but 
this is not the case. 

If grey be thus a dominant colour, it is clear 
that "St. Simon" could not have received any 
grey strain from " Galopin," or " Vedette," or 
"Mrs. Ridgway." The grey colour of "Nan Darell" 
was in fact lost in the roan " Mrs. Ridgway," and it 
does not re-appear in "Vedette," "Galopin," or 
"St. Simon." Clearly, then, "Postumus" does not 
derive his grey from the sire's side of the pedigree. 
The hypothesis of "nicking" is therefore untenable. 

Turning next to consider where " Postumus '* 
got his grey colour from, and why it was that " St. 



INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 
Plate 1. 



85 



(t, <2 n:^ 



POSTUMUS (c) (1908) 


Pontoon (DR) (m) 


Pontillon (to) 


^ — . — 

Maid of 

Wye (to) 


Euxine (to) < 


Varna, m. 


King Torn. s. (bay) 


Vedette (s) J 
(brmvn) j 


Mrs. Ridgway. to. (6. roan) 


Voltigeur. s. (brown) 


T 

Fernandez (s) 
(bay) 


Isola Bella (to) ^ 
(bay) j 


Isoline. to. (bay) 


Stockwell. s. (chestnut) 


Sterling (s) ( 
(bay) 1 


Whisper, to. (bay) 


Oxford, s. (chestnut) 


Orvieto (s) 
(bay) 


Napoli (to) 
(bay) 


Sunshine (to) 1 
{bay) \ 


Sunbeam, m. (bay) 


Thormanby. s. (chestnut) 


Macaroni (s) 

(bay) 1 

v 


Jocose. TO. (bay) 


Sweetmeat s. (brown) 


Bend Or (s) 
(chestnut) 


Rouge Rose (to) j 
(chestnut) ', 


Eileen Home. to. (chestn.) 


Thormanby. s. (chestnut) 


Doncaster (s) j 
(chestnut) 1 


Marigold, tn. (chestnut) 


Stockwell. s. (chestmtl) 


St. Simon (D D) (s) 
(bay) 


St. Angela (to) 
(bay) 


Adeline (m) 
(bay) 


Little Fairie (to) ( 
(chestnut) j 


Lacerta. to. (bay) 


Hornsea, .s. (chestnut) 


Ion (a) 
{bay) 


Margaret, to. (bay) 


Cain. a. (bay) 


King Tom (a) 
(bay) 


Pocahontas (to) 
{bay) 


Marpessa. to. (bay) 


Glencoe. s. (chestnut) 


Harkaway (s) J 
(chestnut) j 


Fanny Dawson filly, to. 
(chestnut) 


Economist, s. (bay) 


Galopin (s) 
(bay) 


T 

Flying 
Duchess (to) 
(bay) 


Merope (to) 
(bay) 


Velocipede's dam. to. (bay) 


Voltaire. 5. (brown) 


Flying ( 

Dutchman (s) i 

(bay) ( 


Barbelle. to. (bay) 


Bay Middleton. s. (bay) 


Vedette (s) 
(brown ) 


Mrs.Ridgway(TO) ' 
(bay-roan) 1 


Nan Daren, m. 


Birdcatcher. s. (chestnut) 


Voltigeur (s) j 
(brown) j 


Martha Lynn. to. (brown) 


Voltaire, a. (brown) 



86 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Simon," who had sired hundreds of foals., but all of 
them bays or browns, and never begot a grey until 
" Postumus," his last foal, icame. We notice that 
along the whole of the maternal line of "Pontoon's" 
pedigree (the dam of "Postumus"), there is an un- 
broken stem of grey (Plate 1). We further notice 
throughout this stem that every grey mare — 
"Euxine," " Maid of Wye," " Pontillon," and 
" Pontoon " — is the offspring of a grey crossed 
with a bay. That is, every grey horse must have 
one parent grey. 

Now these and other indications are clearly 
Mendelian phenomena. "Pontoon," the dam of 
" Postumus," is a Mendelian heterozygote, or 
hybrid, carrying dominant grey and recessive brown 
or bay, and possibly recessive chestnut too. The 
sire of "Postumus," namely, "St. Simon," has 
shown by his numerous offsiDring that he is pure 
for l)ay. 

The mating out of which the unexpected grey 
colt, " Postumus," was produced, therefore resolves 
itself into one of "Pontoon," which is DR for 
grey (D) and bay (R), with "St. Simon" (DD) 
for bay. Now if grey is dominant, the Mendelian 
expectation in such a mating is an equal number 
of heterozygote or hybrid greys (D R) and of bays 
(DD). And it so happens that a grey has come 
first. Unfortunately " St. Simon" is dead, and the 
same pairing cannot be repeated. But it is to be 
hoped that "Pontoon" may be mated on several 
occasions to a sire known to be homozygous 



INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 87 

for broAYii or bay. That will afford a further oppor- 
tunity to test the Mendelian interpretation of this 
case. 

We need not, however, wait for this future 
mating, because Mr. Huby, the stud groom to the 
Duke of Portland's stud at Welbeck, tells me that 
" Pontoon " had a foal previous to " Postumus," by 
*' Gold," and that it was brown. Now for a gi'ey 
horse like " Pontoon " to have a brown foal by any 
kind of mating, shows that it is not a pure grey 
horse (in Mendelian language is not homozygous 
for greyness) but is carrying in its sex-cells 
brownness as well as greyness. The assumption, 
therefore, which the appearance of " Postumus " 
out of " Pontoon " by " St. Simon " suggested, that 
"Pontoon" is a D R, where D stands for dominant 
greyness and R for a colour recessive to it, such 
as brown or bay, is thus demonstrably proved by 
the nature of her raatings and of her resulting 
offspring. 

" Top Hane," another interesting grey horse, 
appears to have the same gametic composition as 
" Pontoon." She is a foal of the grey stallion 
*'Le Saucy," out of the bay mare, "Distingue." 
Consequently she will be a D R for greyness, and 
half of her sex-cells will in that event carry the 
factors for the grey character, and the other half 
will carry them for the brown or bay character. 
Both brown and bay, in addition to gTey offspring, 
may therefore be expected among her offspring if 
she is mated with a sire like " St. Simon," wdio is 



88 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

D D for brownness or bayness. " Top Hane " was 
so served by " St. Simon," and produced a filly 
foal called " Tsii Shima," which was born a grey, 
and is so entered in the Stud Book. But she 
changed at the first moult and became a brown, 
and has so remained. It will be interesting to note 
next the colour of " Top Hane's " other offspring, 
when crossed with other DD browns or bays. As 
taken from the Stud Book, they are as follows : — 

In 1904, a grey filly, " Banzai," by " St. Frusquin," 

a D R brown. 
In 1905, a grey or brown filly "Tsu Shima," by 

"St. Simon," a D D bay. 
In 1906, a grey filly "Topaz," by "St. Frusquin," 

a D R brown. 
In 1907 and 1908, barren. 
In 1909, a grey or brown colt by " Misselthrush," 

a D D brown. 

The colt of 1909, by " Misselthrush," which is 
entered as a grey or brown, is evidently like " Tsu 
Shima." Both were born grey, but turned brown 
at the first moult. 

We have thus good reason to regard the two 
grey horses, " Pontoon " and '*Top Hane," as what 
we may for the moment call impure greys. They 
are externally grey, but we are led to regard them 
as carrjang, in addition to greyness, some recessive 
colour such as brownness or bayness. 

In connection with grey horses the next question 
which we naturally ask is : "Do pure greys exist?" 
By this I mean are there grey horses which transmit 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 89 

no other colour than the dominant greyuess, so that 
whatever kind of mating they may be a partner in, 
their offspring, without exception, will be grey. 
In other words, are there grey horses whose sex- 
cells all carry the factors that produce greyness in 
the coat ? Greyness beiug, as we have reason to 
believe, a dominant character over black, chestnut, 
brown, and bay, it follows that in any mating of 
grey horses, with those of either of these other 
colours, the sex-cells of the pure grey parent, being 
carriers of grey alone, must necessarily introduce 
the dominant colour grey into one side of all such 
matings, and grey will result. I think I can pro- 
duce such a case from one of the most scientifically 
kept Studs in the world, namely, that of Celle 
belonging to the Prussian Government. In this 
Stud every detail is accurately recorded by properly 
trained experts. 

The case I have in view is that of a ten year 
old white Arabian stallion, the *' Celle Amurath," 
This horse, in England, would be called grey, but 
white in Germany. Its coat is white, but its eyes, 
mane, tail, and feet are black. 

" Celle Amurath " has covered about six 
hundred mares of all colours, and his numerous 
offspring, without exception, have been greys and 
whites. There can therefore, I think, be little 
doubt that he is a pure white (grey) and is DD 
for whiteness (greyness), carrying only this colour 
character. 

When we examine his parentage and more 
remote ancestry, our conclusion as to his Mendelian 




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INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 91 

gametic constitution is fully corroborated (Plate 2). 
Following the maternal line we find that grand, great- 
grand, and great-great-grand maternal ancestors 
were all grey. On the paternal side, seven of the 
ancestors and the sire, " Radautz Amurath," were 
whites (greys). Now, from the Mendelian stand- 
point, the nature of the maternal parentage was 
such, that the mother herself must have been an 
impure grey, that is, was D R for greyness, carrying 
in one-half of her sex cells the factors for greyness, 
and in the other half the factors for bayness i)rob- 
ably, while those for chestnut are not necessarily 
excluded (Plate 2). On the paternal side, the father 
was also an impure grey, because his parents were a 
grey mare and a bay stallion. He was, therefore, 
carrying in one-half of his sex-cells the factors for 
greyness, and in the other half those for bayness. 

The parents of " Celle Amurath " are probably 
thus both gametically similar, in that both are 
carrying sex-cells some of which bear greyness 
and others bayness. " Celle Amurath," from the 
Mendelian standpoint, is thus the product of the 
meeting of a grey-bearing egg-cell of the grey 
mare with a grey-bearing sperm-cell of the grey 
stallion. His gametic or sex-cell constitution is 
thus G G if we symbolise the actual colour, or D D 
if we symbolise the fact that greyness is the 
dominant colour. 

That this Mendelian interpretation of the gametic 
constitution of "Celle Amurath" and of his parents 
may be regarded as correct is further corroborated 



92 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

by the nature of the offspring of one of his half 
brothers now serving in another Prussian Stud, 
at Holstein. This brother is named " Holstein 
Amurath." (Plate 2.) 

Now we desire to ascertain the gametic consti- 
tution of this stallion by a reference to his parents' 
origin, and from the gametic behaviour'---' of his 
brother, "Celle Amurath." We have already seen 
that the brother is a pure grey, because all his off- 
spring (six hundred) have been grey. We also 
saw reason (p. 91) to regard " Radautz Amurath," 
the sire of "Celle Amurath," as an impure grey, bear- 
ing in his sex-cells greyness in some and bayness 
in the others. That being the case, the Mendelian 
expectation for his offspring, when he is mated with 
another impure (D R) grey, such as we saw the dam 
of "Celle Amurath " is, will be one-half pure greys 
and the other half impure greys. 

Now impure greys, carrying greyness and bay- 
ness, can be tested by mating with bays. In that 
event, both whites (greys) and bays are expected in 
the offspring. " Celle Amurath's " half brother, 
" Holstein Amurath," was thus mated and his off- 
spring are some whites and some bays. | The 
Mendelian prediction is thus fulfilled in the actual 
results in so far as both expected types appear. 

In conclusion, I would like to add that I do not 
treat the study of Mendelism as a hobby, but try 
to get some deductions out of Mendel's laws which 

* Measured by the nature of his ottspring. 

■}• The number of each is being ascertained from Germany, and 
will be published in the next number. (Editor.) 



INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 93 

we can apply in horse-breeding, where we are sadly 
in need of correct laws, because all we have done 
up till now is simply to wander about in utter dark- 
ness. None of the existing so-called laws in horse- 
breeding can stand a trial before modern biological 
researches. They are all based on statistics got 
from the results on the racecourse, or from the 
degree of inbreeding in pedigrees, and from old 
conceptions largely based on fancies. But, by 
statistics, one might conceivably prove that a horse 
cannot win a Derby if his tail is not at least two feet 
long, or if his jockey has not fair hair, for statisti- 
cal coincidences are not necessarily biological 
analyses. It is not mj' ol^ject now to go further 
into this question, but it will suffice for me to point 
to the fact, that about three thousand blood- 
horses are born year by j^ear in great Britain, 
and that two thousand seven hundred of them 
are quite useless for racing purposes. I believe 
that English breeders are very much interested in 
Mendelism, and I can say the same of continental 
breeders, because when I published last November 
a series of articles in German sporting papers about 
the Mendelian laws and their application to horse- 
breeding, I was simply inundated with letters from 
all parts of German-speaking countries. These 
letters did not only come from horse-breeders, but 
from Professors of Universities, Gynaekologists, and 
Biologists. So the interest exists, it only requires 
developing, and I look to the Mendel Journal as 
one of the best means to further this development. 



Editorial Note to Mr. Robert Bunsow's 

Article on 

Inheritance in Race Horses. 



It has been our good fortune to have had several 
long interviews with Mr. Robert Bunsow. In the 
racing world Mr. Bunsow is a well-known person. 
In this country he represents many foreign horse- 
breeders and the interests of several continental 
sporting papers. 

His article presents several interesting matters 
for consideration. In order that we may observe 
them in their proper perspective two points need to 
be remembered. In the first place, Mr. Bunsow has, 
during the greater part of his career, been in prac- 
tical and every-day contact with all matters re- 
lating to the breeding of race horses. His 
statement, therefore, that a certain percentage 
of errors creep into the Stud Books and Racing 
Calendars, and the reasons which he assigns for 
this, are therefore of the greatest value. 

The most serious error, it seems, that is 
liable to arise in the keeping of the Stud Books is 
an insufficient attention to the fact that horses in 
many cases change their coat colour as they get 
older. In this Avay the divergence of description 
between the Stud Books and the Racing Calendars, 
whenever they occur, can be accounted for. Let 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 95 

lis take the case of " Tsu Sliima," mentioned in 
Mr. Bunsow's article. She is entered in the Stud 
Book as a grey, but Mr, Huby, the stud groom of 
the Duke of Portland's stud, at Welbeck, in a letter 
to Mr. Bunsow, says : " When I saw her last she 
was not grey at all, although she had a tuft of grey 
hair at the root of her tail. She is now a brown 
mare." The case of " Postumus " is interesting in 
the same way. He was born a brown colour, and 
Mr. Huby says : " It was only in the Autumn of the 
year he was foaled that he became grey. He is a 
.good grey now, and every time he sheds his coat he 
will become whiter still ; by the time he is five or 
six years old he will be white. His dam is now 
white, and previously always had been a good grey." 
This statement of Mr. Huby's is interesting because 
it appears to express, in the form of a prediction, 
the result of his experiences. It suggests that in 
his experience grey horses in some cases turn whiter 
with each moult, until they become what are called 
white horses. It is further of still greater interest 
because it suggests that this capacity of changing 
colour is itself hereditarily transmitted. That sug- 
gestion is intimated in the statement that "his dam 
was previously a good grey and is now white," and 
in that relating to her son, "that he is a good grey 
now and will become whiter with each moult." It 
is a matter of some importance to note whether this 
change in " Postumus " will actually occur. 

The question of colour-change with age is one 
worthy of a fuller investigation. It appears not to 

G 



96 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

be a very simple matter ; at least, not at present. 
But Mendelian investigations tend to considerably 
simplify these problems. Mr. Bunsow leads ns to 
understand that grey horses may be born all colours, 
though most of them are born black with sparsely 
scattered white hairs. It seems that it is very 
seldom they are born actually grey in colour. 
Another fact which we have learned from Mr. 
Bunsow is that some grey foals may become white 
in their second year, while others do not become so 
until later years. 

This colour change in animals and in the flowers 
of some plants with advance in age"'-" is a familiar 
fact. It is so much so, that its significance seems 
not to have received that degree of study which it 
deserves. It is, we may suppose, conformable to 
the appearance of the antlers in a stag, and to the 
beard in man, both of which appear relatively late 
in life. Grey rats are born colourless, with 
the exception of the eyes ; their skin then turns 
black and the hairs when very small are black, 
subsequently passing through grey-black to grey- 
ness (brown). The same phenomenon, we under- 
stand from Mr. Hurst, is seen in ral)bits. 

This change of colour in grey horses, and the 
difference in time at which the complete change 
occurs, suggests that grey horses are not all alike. 
Mr. Bunsow has already dealt very fully with that, 
and has shown that some grey horses are pure for 

* The term age is here used wholly in a relative sense. A 
period of a day or a few hour.-s in flowers may constitute the transition 
from full bloom to faded and withered petals. 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 97 

greyness and will beget none but grey offspring, 
while others are impure and may beget both greys 
and bays among their foals. But we think there 
may possibly be a difference more than can be ex- 
pressed in the unqualified symbols D D and D R. 
It is conceivable that a D R grey horse carrying 
greyness and bayness may be foaled of a different 
colour to a horse carrying greyness and chest- 
nutuess, or greyness and roanness. Moreover, some 
factor, which may be independent of any colour 
factor, may exist, which determines not the colour 
but the precise stage at which the colour-change 
will occur. 

There is one statement in Mr. Bunsow's article 
which calls for some comment, from the national 
standpoint. It is that relating to the scientific 
accuracy with which the details of the Prussian 
Government's Stud Books are kept. The matter of 
horse-breeding in Germany is one which is dealt 
with on as sound and as scientific a basis as possible. 
We should hesitate to say that it was perfect in all 
respects ; but there is no question, we think, that 
their system is more precise and accurate in its 
records than ours. The details of their work 
appear to be done with the characteristic 
Teutonic thoroughness. There is little doubt 
either that as soon as the significance of the 
Mendelian principles has been fully grasped and 
their application to the breeding of coat colours in 
horses has been demonstrated — as we hold to 
be the case — those who are officially respon- 
sible for the conduct of the Prussian Government's 



98 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Studs will proceed to investigate the Mendelian 
transmission of other qualities, such as nerve 
strength, staying power, and capacity for speed. 
One problem already awaits investigation either by 
the Prussian Government or by English private 
breeders. It is the question of " nervousness " in 
horses. There is current in racing circles a belief 
that much inbreeding results in " nervousness." We 
believe it may be possible to closely inbreed and 
yet by judicious matings, based upon Mendelian 
principles, to rear horses that are not "nervous." 
We cannot say dogmatically it will be so. There is 
apparently very little data available, and the ques- 
tion is one of careful scrutiny of such facts as we 
already possess and of future observation, definitely 
directed to the particular question. But there is no 
real reason to doubt that it is possible to interbreed 
and yet to avoid, by an early elimination, any 
undesirable character that may have made its 
appearance. But in this matter, as in others, 
an ounce of experiment is worth a ton of 
essay-writing. 

" Pontoon," from the Mendelian standpoint, is 
an interesting horse. So far as Mendelian investiga- 
tions have gone, we know that chestnut is reces- 
sive to bay, brown, and black. Any horse of 
these latter colours may therefore carry chestnut 
recessive. But a point which has not yet been 
investigated in horses is the relationship of these 
colours to each other in reference to their relative 
dominance. We do not know whether brown is 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 99 

dominant to bay. There are some facts, Mr. 
Bunsow tells me, wliicli suggest that a brown 
horse can carry brownness, bayness, and chestnut- 
ness. This possibility leads us to consider the 
gametic possibilities of a grey horse. If grey is 
dominant to all other colours, as it appears from 
Mr. Bunsow's pedigrees to be, then grey horses may 
be of many gametic classes Some may carry black- 
ness and brownness recessive, others blackness and 
bayness, others brownness and chestnutness, others 
roanness and brownness, and so on. Or, they may 
even carry three or four different recessive colours 
in their sex-cells. We may therefore expect that 
when finally the offspring of all the different possible 
matings of grey horses with those of the other 
colours have been adequately noted, they will present 
a polychromatic display. 

The fact described by Mr. Bunsow on p. 88, 
of two horses which were born grey, a dominant 
colour, and later turned brown, a colour recessive to 
grey, is one which it is hoped, in the light of Men- 
delian knowledge, will be more fully examined. 
These two horses w^ere " Tsu Shima " and the colt of 
1909 by " Misselthrush." 

At first sight this fact appears to be quite in- 
consistent with any idea of dominance or of the 
conception of the purity of gametes carrying 
recessive characters. The phenomenon, however, 
is not altogether new in Mendelian experiments. 
In poultry two sorts of " whites " have been 
detected. One of these is a recessive white and the 



100 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

other a dominant. The former is a true recessive, and 
is manifested as a white because no colour is present. 
But the latter is, as it were, a false white. It is so, 
not because colour is absent, but because another 
factor is present which inhibits the manifestation of 
the colour in the body tissues.* 

It is therefore conceivable that two sorts of bays 
and browns among horses may exist. First, those 
which are true recessives to greys because they 
carry nothing but bayness or brownness. Second, 
those which carry greyness in addition ; but in these 
cases, to the greyness there is superadded a third factor, 
which, meeting it in the body tissues, inhibits its 
developement and allows the recessive or underlying 
bayness to manifest itself. 

If we let B stand for the factor producing bay 
colour, G for that producing greyness and g for its 
absence, and B^ for that producing inhibition of G 
and b' for its absence, then we can symbolically 
represent the relationship of grey to the two postu- 
lated types of bay horses as follows : — 

Bay colour - - = B g b^ 
Grey colour - - = B G V 
Bay colour following grey = B G B^ 

There is yet a third possible type of bay or 
brown horse. Its early greyness may be simply due 
to a late developement of its normal colour. 

The bay horse of the composition B g b^ may be 
regarded as a true recessive bay and is bay because it 

* For fuller information about these and for a general discussion 
of colour phenomena see " Mendel's Principles of Heredity," by 
Prof. W. Bateson, p. 102, Cambridge University Press. 



INHERITANCE IN RAGE HORSES 101 

carries no grey factor. But the bay horse of the 
composition B G B^ is not a true bay because it 
also carries the dominant colour grey. It is bay in 
colour only because another factor B^ is present 
which inhibits the developement of the grey colour. 
The horse of the composition B G b^ will be a grey 
colour because it carries the grey factor which is 
dominant over the bay one, and the inhibiting 
factor B^ of grey being absent, grey can accordingly 
manifest itself. 

One feature of some interest and of great 
practical importance remains for consideration. The 
evidence is quite clear that the transmission of coat 
colour in horses, so far as it has been inves- 
tigated, is in accordance with Mendelian principles. 
Mr. Hurst's analysis of the Stud Books and 
Racing Calendars, and the pedigrees, which are 
given and described in Mr. Bunsow's article in this 
Journal, all tend to that conclusion. But as 
a very practical nation — perhaps too exclusively 
so — we naturally enquire as to whether these 
principles of Mendelism apply to other and more 
important qualities. Do they, for instance, hold 
equally true for capacity for speed, for nerve and 
muscle endurance, for great strength, and for some 
of the various diseases to Avhicli horses are liable ? 
It is quite within the bounds of probability that they 
will be found to so apply. These qualities are of 
a physiological and pathological nature, and there 
are already cases known where such qualities 
appear to segregate as distinctly as structural ones 



102 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

do. Indeed, coat colour itself is rather more a 
physiological attribute than a structural one. 

Mr. Robertson has made some attempt in this 
direction, but his cases, though very suggestive, 
appear to require more critical analysis than he has 
at present given them. But as far as they go, they do 
seemingly point towards a Mendelian segregation of 
pathological traits. 

A matter of a few years would be sufficient 
to decide the mode of inheritance of some of the 
physiological and pathological characters of the 
horse, provided that the investigation was adequately 
wide and conducted with scientific accuracy. 



Biological iconoclasm, 
Mendelian Inheritance and Human Society 



A PLEA FOR THE OPERATION OF A MORE 
VIRILE SENTIMENT IN HUMAN AFFAIRS. 



A CinticAsm 
By LOUIS COBBETT, M.D. 

(Lecturer in Pathology, Cambridge University.) 



In liis very vigorous address printed in tlie open- 
ing number of this journal Mr. George Percival 
Mudge attacks the inodern sentiment which is 
guiding our community, and argues that it tends 
to " preserve and procreate the unfit citizens, and 
hamper and discourage the fit," " The whole in- 
fluence of this modern sentiment," he says, "is 
tending in the wrong direction." By our hospitals, 
asylums, and workhouses we are interfering with 
the law of the destruction of the unfittest. "A con- 
tinuation and extension of this sentiment will lead 
the nation to its destruction." 

All this is based upon a study of the biological 
laws of inheritance, and particularly^ on Weismann's 
doctrine that acquired characters cannot be trans- 
mitted. Consequently, do what we will to improve 
the health of the mind or the body, we can but 
influence the individual ; when he dies the results 
of our efforts will perish also, for they cannot be 
transmitted to his progeny. Hence it is of no 



104 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

permanent use to educate a gutter cliild, or to cure 
an epileptic, because the children will have just the 
same propensities as though their parents had been 
utterly neglected. Moreover, such conduct does 
positive harm, because if the potential parents had 
not been cared for, the children might not have 
been born. 

I do not think I overstate Mr. Mudge's case. 
He says himself : " The whole influence of this 
modern sentiment is tending in the wrong direction. 
It sets out with the belief that it can effect the 
salvation of the unlit by improving their environ- 
ment. It w^ill end by achieving the destruction of 
the fit, without having even gained the salvation of 
the unfit." Again : " It is time we learned how 
little environment can do, and how much the inborn 
qualities determine all for us." 

Among much which is admirabh? in Mr. Mudge's 
able address I cannot help feeling that he has kept 
out of sight a very important factor, namely, the 
possibility of creating a permanent environment ; 
for even if w^e admit to the full Weismann's doctrine 
that there is no ])iological inheritance of acquired 
characters, nevertheless there may be a sociological 
inheritance of the new environment which becomes 
associated with those acquired characters ; and the 
inheritance of this new^ environment may be, for all 
practical purposes, as good as the inheritance of the 
acquired characters themselves. Let me explain 
what I mean. If we take children from a slum 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 105 

environment, train and educate them to become well- 
conducted, self-supporting citizens (the possibility 
of which I think Mr. Mudge will be willing to 
grant) their children, though biologically they may 
inherit nothing from our efforts, and will be born 
with the same inherent bad characters as their 
parents, nevertheless will be brought up under 
entirely different conditions from those which they 
would have experienced if nothing had been done 
for their parents ; and their bad characteristics 
may consequently never have a chance of developing. 
For example, what does it matter if I, in England 
inherit cannibal instincts from remote ancestors ? 
Here in a civilized country those instincts have 
no chance of developing. Tiiey may not perhaps 
l)e eradicated by the civilization of centuries, and 
remain latent in my character, yet a permanent 
change of environment has been brought about, 
transmitted by inheritance, which is just as effective 
as if the cannibal instinct itself were abolished. 
Take another example. We do not inherit speech ; 
but because our parents have learnt to talk we grow 
up in an environment such that speech comes to iis 
without conscious effort, almost as easily indeed as if 
we really, in the biological sense, inherited language. 
Or, again, take the hypothetical case of an inherent 
predisposition to tuberculosis in a given family. 
Of what pennanent use to society is it, Mr. Mudge 
seems to ask, to cure the affected members ? Their 
children will suffer all the same. Not so ; if the 
affected members are let alone the children will grow 



106 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

up in an environment which includes the tubercle 
baciihis, and they will become consumptive. If 
the already affected members of the family be cured 
or removed, the children will no doubt, grow 
up with their predisposition unaffected, but they will 
stand a much better chance of not meeting the 
tubercle bacillus in effective numbers, and will there- 
fore, for the most part, escape. It is in this way that 
tuberculosis is being eradicated. 

Enough has been said to show that by the 
conscious efforts of the community, changes of 
environment may be produced which will per- 
manently affect society. 1 need not labour the point. 
I am defending the poj^ular cause. Perhaps Mr. 
Mudge must not be taken too seriously when 
attacking the efforts of philanthropists and others ; 
his business is to show, not so much that we are 
doing wrong in curing the sick, etc., as that we 
are not doing enough to check the multiplication of 
our criminal and worthless classes. And in this 1 
am entirely at one with him. 



A Rejoinder to Dr. Louis Cobbett's 
Criticism. 



By GEO. P. MUDGE. 



Dr. Cobbett appears to accept WeiS,mann's doctrine 
that characters acquired during the life of an indi- 
vidual as the result of external influences are not 
transmitted to the next generation. Here then we 
stand upon common ground. But Dr. Cobbett 
contends that if certain characters need a particular 
external agent to call them into activity, they will 
not be rendered manifest in the absence of this agent, 
even though they exist. Therefore, if civilisation 
can be made to produce certain conditions, unfavour- 
able, for instance, to cannibalism and tuberculosis, 
these qualities and others, though inherently present 
in individuals, will not be manifested. Similarly, 
though the capacity for speech is inherent in us, yet 
it cannot be manifested as speech unless the appro- 
priate stimuli of education and example are present. 
Now I cannot help thinking that the argument 
which rests on cannibalism is exceedingly unfortunate. 
First, Dr. Cobbett cannot show that every individual 
in this country possesses the cannibalistic instinct. 
If it be not present, then of course it cannot be 
manifested. How many of us are there who want 
to eat in grim earnest the flesh of our fellows ? 
Who among us feels an irresistible impulse to first 



108 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

kill our friend and then to eat him, but are only 
deterred from doing so by the conditions of society ? 
I think Dr. Cobbett may rest assured that it would 
" matter very much, if, in England, he and others 
had an inherent impulse to eat human flesh." For, 
in spite of civilisation, he would find means of satis- 
fying that innate hunger, much as the congenital 
drunkard gratifies his irresistible craving in opposition 
to those external influences which operate against 
his deeds. 

We cannot look the ordinary facts of life in the 
face and feel that there is any comfort in Dr. Cobbett's 
contention. The popular memory is proverbially 
short, and those who plead popular causes 
are apt to be forgetful of facts which are ugly and 
immovable. Let us therefore recall one. It is, 
T suppose, only some fifteen years ago, when civilisa- 
tion was horrified by a series of revolting murders 
characterised by unspeakable mutilations in the 
East End of London. The mutilations were all 
marked by certain features in common, which 
pointed to the conclusion that they were the work 
of one criminal. The conditions which attended the 
murders suggested there could be no particular 
or personal motive inspiring their perpetration. 
The facts indeed led people to suppose they 
were done by some man who was impelled by a 
ghoulish delight in such gruesome work. The mutila- 
tions were performed with almost anatomical precision,, 
and must have been carried out with perfect calmness 
and collection of thought and action, and yet with 



A REJOINDER 109 

rapidity. The criminal was apparently never found, 
notwithstanding that these murders were committed 
at different periods.* This being one of the facts 
of our mundane life, I would like to ask Dr. Cobbett 
how far it is consistent with his hypothesis that 
cannibalistic instincts may be suppressed under the 
softening influences of civilisation ? I would like 
to ask him where in that civilisation are those external 
promptings which encourage the perpetration of such 
foul deeds to be found ? On the other hand, are not 
all the influences of society against them ? The fear 
of the hangman's rope is there to keep the wild 
instincts of such cowardly beings in bounds ; but, 
as is clear, no external influences can modify them 
or avert the consequences of their operations, if 
they be present. I need not multiply this particular 
type of example, for almost every day the newspapers 
contain some account of them. 

I may, however, pass to some other matters 
which newspapers do not publish. Partly, perhaps, 
because there is no particular interest in them, 
and partly, because in these days of democratic 
sentiment, when the play is to the highly strung 
emotions of the gallery, it may be deemed impolitic 
from a fmancial point of view to point the moral of 
the facts. Such considerations and others akin to 
them need not deter us. We have no love at all of 
those things that are associated with the gallery, 

* I am aware of Sir Robert Anderson's recent statement to the 
effect that these murders were the work of a Polish Jew, itnown to the 
police, and that the murderer is described as a " maniacal sexual 
pervert." But this does not in any way invalidate my argument. 



110 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

notwithstanding the widely prevalent environment 
of our times. We may therefore proceed to look at 
some particular, though perhaps unpopular, facts. 
I am impelled to the consideration of these facts by 
the nature of Dr. Cobbett's central plea. He says, 
" // we take children from a slum environment, train 
and educate them to become well-conducted, self-sup- 
porting citizens {the possibility of which I think Mr. 
Mudge will be willing to grant), their children, though 
biologically they may inherit nothing from our efforts, 
and will be born with the same inherent bad characters 
as their parents, nevertheless will be brought up under 
entirely different conditions fro?n those which they 
would have experienced if nothing had been done for 
their parents ; and their bad characteristics rtiay 
consequently never have a chance of developing.^'' Now 
I happen to be familiar with a social experiment 
which has been carried on for the past forty years, and 
which conforms in its main features with the con- 
ditions and suppositions described by Dr. Cobbett 
in the sentence which I have just quoted. We may 
therefore proceed from mere suppositions and 
possibilities to accomplished facts, and endeavour 
to see how far Dr. Cobbett and those who believe 
with him, are justified in their golden hopes and 
the aerial castles of their social dreams. 

Travellers along the West Coast of Scotland 
are familiar with the charm, the honesty, and 
the natural gentlemanliness of its inhabitants. 
They have their faults, of course, but we may pass 
them over. For I am not concerned, except in an 



A REJOINDER 111 

indirect way, with the natives of this Western Coast,, 
but with an inherently vicious class which has been 
thrust into their midst. This class has been thus 
thrust upon them by the stimulus of that peculiar 
sentiment which I considered in my original article, 
and which characterises the doings of modern civilisa- 
tions generally. Glasgow has, like other cities,, 
bred and reared a race of useless people, civic cripples, 
hooligans, criminals, and women powerless to protect 
themselves. Faced with the pressing problem as 
to what is to be done with this class of defective 
citizen, the Glasgow Parish Council cast their 
municipal eyes upon the beautiful and verdant 
Western Coast of Scotland and upon its honest 
and simple inhabitants. ''Here," in effect, they said, 
"is a good environment and a trusty people. In the 
sea breezes of this beautiful and romantic coast we 
have conditions of health and scenic displays that 
will arouse the romance and imagination of our 
shipwrecked horde of civic outcasts. Among the 
native population. God-fearing and honest, we may 
find a human environment which will appeal to the 
better nature of our morally and mentally crippled 
citizens, which will induce them to become better 
and nobler men and women, and will rear them to 
service of work and to manly independence. We 
cannot," they proceeded to argue, "hope to do much 
with the parents. We may as well recognise the 
fact that they are hopeless and irreclaimable. But 
with the children it is otherwise ; they are plastic 
to our moulding and responsive to our better influences. 

H 



112 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

We will try our experiment with them. Willy-nilly, 
having conceived our well-intentioned idea, we will 
make no further enquiry, we will assume there exists 
nothing more in heaven or earth than exists in our 
philosophy of fatuity, and in the midst of these honest 
people we will plant our tares, the children of paupers, 
ne'er-do-wells, thieves, murderers, prostitutes, hooli- 
gans, drunkards, and those of vile and vicious 
language and of reprehensible and indescribably 
filthy conduct. From such an ancestry we shall, 
with ratepayers' money and good environment, 
rear a community of civic saints ! " These are noble 
intentions, no doubt, and they are based on the 
same sort of contention as that urged by Dr. Cobbett. 
But let us leave the intentions, and come to the 
results. They are the very reverse of what it was 
intended they should be. In the citation of the 
following facts I mil confine myself to the results of 
personal knowledge and enquiry made in one of 
these Western islands. I do so, because here my 
enquiries and observations have been made 
throughout a sufficiently extended period, of eight 
months spread out over four years. 

The pauper children from Glasgow are boarded 
out with the native crofters, who are paid from three 
and sixpence to five shillings weekly for the main- 
tenance of each child. This money is paid by the 
Parish Council. The children are sent to the island 
when quite young — some little more than infants 
— and attend at the village school under the guardian- 
ship of the crofter with whom they are boarded 



A REJOINDER 113 

until they are fourteen years of age. When they leave 
school some of them remain upon the island and are 
employed in farm work by the crofter upon his 
croft. It was expected that under these conditions 
they would become healthy, useful, law-abiding 
citizens. Taken from the slums and from their 
parents' evil influences, and in many cases deprived 
of all knowledge of whom their parents were, and 
placed under those healthy conditions which it is sup- 
posed had produced the native population, it was 
optimistically believed that a great transformation was 
going to be effected. It was thought that the young and 
plastic minds and bodies of the offspring of congenital 
civic wrecks were to be turned into successful farmers 
and useful citizens. Doubtless in a few cases there 
have been ostensible successes. I say ostensible, 
because in some of the supposed successful cases 
with which I am acquainted, a sufficiently long 
period has not elapsed to enable one to judge of 
permanent success, and in a few cases it is possible 
that the ancestry has not been bad. But these 
cases are outside my present contention, which is, 
that environment cannot modify an inherently had 
stock. What we require to know, in attempting to judge 
of the success or failure of these efforts, is not that 
a particular girl has been in service for a few years 
and is doing well, but we should seek to know what 
has been the nature of her career when her life is 
over and her children are old enough to show their 
worth or worthlessness. Brass may be polished 
and shine like gold for a little period, but it is time 



114 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which tarnishes and covers it with verdigris ; it is 
gold only that remains untarnished. Such ex- 
perience as I have gathered in other fields of these 
ostensible successes, does not lead me to believe that 
they are of lasting duration, not even with the 
individual, and not at all with his offspring. Leaving, 
then, these questionable, untested, and unanalysed 
successes alone, what are the results with regard 
to the remainder ? They are precisely that which 
the old adage " What is bred in the bone will come out 
in the flesh " would lead us to anticipate. We may 
sum them up in a single sentence. It is that, 
in this beautiful island with its historic and even 
sacred associations, a new slum area is being created 
by the operation of the inherent slum instincts of 
the putatively rescued denizens of Glasgow's slums. 
Here we see in the making, not slum people by slum 
environments, but slums fathomed out of the depths 
of the slum instincts of a congenital race of slum 
producers. Here in this island, where at one time 
only ordinary human weaknesses prevailed, is now 
heard the obscene language and the suggestive 
songs of the slums ; here at night time, the Glasgow 
rowdies congregate in bands and create noise and 
disturbance. They link their arms and rushing 
through the village street in a serried rank, shouting, 
whistling, and gesticulating, drive all others before 
them. Where there are maid servants, there they 
collect in groups and indulge in language which is 
not of the Highlands, but of Glasgow slums. No 
windows are safe from them, and many have been 



A REJOINDER 115 

broken by stones thrown at night time. Blinds are 
wrenched from their rollers and knockers from the 
doors. Slates are knocked off the roofs. Old women of 
eighty live in terror of these rowdies. The young 
native children are bullied and terrorised by them. 
They are viciously cruel to the cattle and dogs left 
in their charge. They insult the visitors, making 
personal remarks of an offensive character. They 
collect in groups at corners, and cough, and guffaw 
when a lady or a gentleman, or both, pass by. They 
stand outside the open windows of houses where 
visitors are staying and eavesdrop. They assemble 
at dusk and nightfall when children are going to bed 
and make as much noise as possible, by bursting 
paper bags and in other ways. They deliberately 
come up in groups where two visitors may be talking, 
and commence whistling and laughing in an obviously 
strained manner, while attempting i;o seem inoffensive 
and unobtrusive. They chase and worry sheep in 
lamb, causing premature birth and rendering the 
sheep valueless. They carry false and unauthorised 
messages from their guardians and obtain articles 
of food by false pretences from the shopkeepers, 
and then consume the articles among themselves. 
They steal various articles when cases of goods are 
being unpacked outside a shop, as soon as the shop- 
man's back is turned. When taking messages to 
the natives, the moment an opportunity occurs they 
steal whatever is within reach. Some are such 
perpetual thieves that the crofters send them back. 
If they are rebuked by their masters for bad or 



116 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

neglected work, they will surreptitiously destroy 
some of his property in revenge. The consequence 
is, that deeds which ought to be punished go 
unpunished. 

Many of these youths are half-witted, or are 
mentally defective, and are quite irresponsible for 
their deeds. One such fellow in the Summer of a recent 
year was answerable for the death of two native 
children, and in addition of a fellow Glasgow boy, 
against whom, it is said, he entertained a grudge. I 
went into the circumstances of this case, and I feel 
inclined to agree with the impression existing 
among the villagers, that they contained 
some disquieting features. While, I suppose, it will 
never be possible to say with absolute certainty, one 
way or the other, whether the death of these three 
children, by drowning, at eleven o'clock at night, was a 
pure accident or not, for the natives themselves are 
doubtful, there is no question as to the absolute 
callousness of the dull-witted youth of eighteen or 
nineteen years of age, who was responsible for it. 
Neither at the time, nor since, has he shown any 
sign of regret of any kind, for the sad deed. He passed 
the stricken mothers and fathers whose children 
had been lost, without the least sign of shame or 
remorse. When those who came to the rescue had 
succeeded in saving one child, and had spent some 
time in a futile search for others, desired to ascertain 
how many were in the boat, and turned to question 
the youth who had upset it, they found he had 
disappeared. A search for him revealed the fact 



A REJOINDER 117 

that lie had walked home, undressed, and got into 
bed without mentioning a word of what had happened 
to his master or anyone else. They found him sound 
asleep and difficult to awake. He was roused even- 
tually, and told to come to the village. Arrived 
there, he was asked how many children went over- 
board. His reply was " to stand still and to burst 
out laughing ! " That is all the reply they got from 
him. And greater compunction than that he has 
•never manifested. Now, what is the general signifi- 
cance of this case ? 

Here, under an environment which in no way 
ministers to them, do the slum instincts come out. 
Those instincts which delight in roaming abroad at 
night indulging in horse play, and leading others to 
do wrong, are here manifested, not in the slums, but 
in a beautiful environment. From the evidence it is 
clear that this youth did not appear in the village 
until after 10 o'clock at night, and that he then by 
cajolery or threats inveigled smaller boys, including 
the one against whom it is said he had a grudge, to 
come down to the boats, instead of going home as 
they were at the moment doing. " He packed the 
four children all into the bows of a small boat, where 
they cowered under protestation, and thus weighed the 
bow low down into the water, and though he knew 
nothing of sculling, he then commenced to pull with one 
oar in a slot in the stern sheet of the boat. He swung 
the oar violently from side to side, and while the boat 
was lurching terribly, the oar slipped, and the bow 
being overladen and low in the water, the boat at 



118 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

that part went under, filled and sank." All the 
occupants went under, except the Glasgow parish 
youth who was answerable for the accident. He 
apparently knew the art of floating, and remained 
on his back until a second rescue boat picked him up. 
Only one of the four other children was saved. 

Now I would like to ask Dr. Cobbett a question. 
What influence is there in civilisation generally, or in 
the example of the very cautious natives of this island, 
that can be accounted answerable for the manifesta- 
tion of the utter recklessness which I have just 
described, or for the exhibition of that equally utter 
callousness which this youth exhibited after the 
committal of this deed ? There is nothing whatever. 
Every external influence, every social idea, every 
convention of life is dead against them both. This 
youth did what he did because of his defective nature. 
And to rear him in health at the expense of better 
citizens, in the hope that because our society has given 
up or does not now entertain ^^cannibalistic desires," 
and, that therefore, though inherent cannibals be 
among us, they will fall smoothly into line with non- 
cannibaUstic citizens, is simply to disregard the 
plainest facts of life, and to rear persons who, born 
with innate qualities opposed to the prevailing 
environment, will none the less manifest them. 

But I will take Dr. Cobbett yet a stage farther 
into the consideration of what I cannot but help 
regarding as a remarkable plea. In this island 
there are two brothers of the fellow who caused 
the drowning disaster. Both of them are half-witted, 



A REJOINDER 119 

and one is a broad, burly fellow. This one is boarded 
out with a certain crofter, and he is now about sixteen 
years of age. He is entrusted by his master mth a 
gun for shooting rabbits. If he is annoyed he 
becomes like a madman. One day a native child 
annoyed him over some trifle. This burly fellow 
lost his temper and endeavoured to catch the native 
child. He failed in that, but he threatened to 
shoot the boy when he got a chance. Is he likely 
to do it, it may be asked ? Will he commit a personal 
injury ? His previous deeds may answer for him. 
Some time ago a Glasgow parish girl annoyed this 
youth. He seized a " grape," a double-forked instru- 
ment with pointed prongs used for digging up 
potatoes, ran after her, endeavoured to stab her, 
missed her body but punctured her hand. The 
girl was in a serious condition for some time and 
nearly lost her hand. Does Dr. Cobbett contend the 
conditions of society must be so altered that we 
must not have " grapes " or other peaceful-occupation 
instruments, because they are capable of becoming 
lethal weapons when handled by persons of vicious 
instincts, or that the environment of our society 
must be so altered that tantalizing " Eves " shall 
be no more ? And all this is to be done — and 
those citizens who delight to have teasing " Eves " 
around them are to be rendered restless and unhappy 
— because, forsooth, we must not let the vicious 
instincts of a defective race have an opportunity of 
manifesting themselves ! Surely that is a remarkable 



120 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

doctrine ! I cannot think Dr. Cobbett quite appre- 
ciates what his own doctrine really means. Would 
he like to sweep civilisation clean of its " Eves," 
because some men have very bad tempers and 
little tact, and it is not desirable their environment 
should be such as to allow them to manifest their 
defects ? Would it not be better to get rid of the 
relatively few imperfect men and to leave our Garden 
of Eden as we know it ? I feel sure that Dr. Cobbett 
and I will agree upon the answer. 

But I come once more to insist on the primal 
point, that the environment which reigns in the island 
makes for peace, and industry, and honesty. Yet in 
spite of that, this environment is degraded, the 
lives of people are endangered, slum attributes are 
manifested, because there are thrown into it persons 
of defective instincts, derived from defective paren- 
tages. But not only do they not respond to a good 
environment, they deliberately and persistently 
endeavour to destroy or nullify all the good efforts 
which kind and interested persons endeavour to 
make on their behalf. 

There is a lady who lives upon the island through- 
out the year, and who feels a maternal interest in the 
young persons there, both native and the imported 
pauper element. She endeavoured for several years 
to hold a Bible Class for girls and boys over fourteen, 
in the schoolroom. But it was futile. The Glasgow 
parish youths, who had been sent to the island to be 
influenced by better surroundings, collected together 
outside the schoolroom windows and laughed, and 



A REJOINDER 121 

guffawed, and indulged in horse play^ so that it was 
impossible for the class to proceed. But they even 
proceeded to worse acts of hooliganism than that. 
They opened the windows and threw in mud, snow, 
and stones. 

Very much the same treatment awaited the altruistic 
efforts of one of the assistant schoolmistresses. On 
two evenings a week this lady endeavoured to hold a 
Sewing and Conversational Class for all the girls in the 
island, who were over fourteen years of age. At first she 
tried the schoolroom. But that was rendered intolerable 
by the Glasgow hooligans outside. The teacher had 
to break up the class, night after night, because 
these roughs threw things in at the window. When 
she went home in despair they jeered and laughed 
at her. Not willing to give up without a further 
struggle, she endeavoured to hold the class at her 
own rooms. It was of no avail. The roughs invaded 
her home and indulged in the same annoyance as 
before. The result is, as I am informed, there is 
neither Bible Class nor Sewing and Conversational 
Class in the island. In other words, utter lawlessness 
prevails. Yet here are the very circumstances 
which, if Dr. Cobbett's contention be true, should 
yield us the fruit he has led us to expect. Everything 
in the native environment of the island calls for 
good order. They who are there, be they native or 
visitor or boarded-out youths and girls, find nothing 
to incite them to such acts as I have described. 
Yet we do find precisely what biological considera- 
tions indicate we must inevitably find, namely, that 



122 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the transplantation of inherently vicious and criminal 
instincts from the slums of cities to the beautiful envi- 
ronment of the Western islands, is but re-creatingthere 
the slums which were also made in the city by them. 
Given bad instincts, and be the environment what it 
may, they will manifest themselves with the same 
certainty that the sun rises and sets alike on mountain 
and vallev, on sea and land. 

The operation of the sentiment which I criticised 
in my original article, but which Dr. Cobbett has 
endeavoured to defend, is one of grave menace to 
Society. In an island like the one with which I am 
now dealing we can see its menace at once. It is easy 
to take a bird's-eye view of the whole problem. There 
we can see a peaceful and not too energetic population, 
of honest and easy-going people, enduring the mob-rule 
and tyranny of a lawless section, rather than put them- 
selves to the necessary trouble of crushing the mob, 
or running the risk of incurring stealthy and 
underhand reprisals. Indeed, some representations, 
I have been informed, have been made to the 
Glasgow Parish Council but without avail. 

Among them I may mention that of a very respect- 
able native holding a responsible position. There is 
only one school in the island, and to this both the 
native and Glasgow pauper children are sent. The 
consequences are undesirable. In ways which I cannot 
mention the pauper children are dirty and unwhole- 
some. The bigger ones are brutal and rough. Their 
language is foul and offensive. This native, a man 
with a large family, quite naturally resents sending 
his children to associate with such companions. He 



A REJOINDER 123 

therefore wrote to the Clerk of the Glasgow Parish 
Council, and asked if he was to be compelled to send his 
children to the same institution as pauper children. 
The reply he received was that the school was not an 
institution, and that he must educate his children. 
That is all the care and sympathy which a respectable 
rnember of the community, desiring to preserve his 
children from contact with foul language, rough 
behaviour, and dirty habits, receives from a public 
official ! Nowadays, it seems, we have only pity 
and help and money for the undesirables. And this 
remarkable sentiment, which believes in the influence 
of the environment, and which sends the scourings 
of the Glasgow slums to this island for improvement, 
swamps the place by an importation so great that 
seventy to eighty per cent, of the school population is 
made up of the imported element ! In a word, the old 
and good environment is swamped by the new and 
imported vicious one ! And this by the people who 
believe in the influence of the environment ! Was 
there ever such a reductio ad absurdum of any doctrine 
before ? 

I will not now pursue this matter further, except 
to say, that the remarkable social sentiment which I 
have been criticising, in so far as it has been operating 
in the island, has resulted in sowing there the seeds of 
potential tragedies. I think it right to take this oppor- 
tunity of uttering a serious warning. I should neglect 
an obvious duty if I did not, for the circumstances of 
the situation are fraught with the gravest danger. 
We are all aware of the power which mere suggestion 
can exercise over unbalanced and weakly minds ; 



124 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

minds which are swirled into tempestuous action, 
much in the same way that Autumn leaves are swept 
before the equinoctial gales. In this island, those 
capable of making violent suggestions, and those with 
weak and defective minds that are swayed by these 
suggestions, are both present. I am speaking on reli- 
able information and from personal knowledge, when I 
say, that on a recent occasion a violent suggestion was 
made and the unstable minds responded. A mere 
accident of circumstance only averted a tragic act. 
There are imported youths in the island who are not 
mentally defective in the ordinary sense of the word, 
but on the contrary are exceedingly cunning, calm, and 
calculating. They have almost the voice of a woman, 
the plausibility of a consummate actor, but the 
instincts and habits of a criminal. These are they 
who, at a distance and under cover, throw out sug- 
gestions of mischief and evil. The mentally defective 
— some, as I have said, entrusted with guns or other 
dangerous instruments — are there with responsive 
and helpless wrecks of intellect. They are the 
instruments of the cunning minds. 

Some day, unless the island be purged of its 
defective people, it will be the scene of another 
pathetic tragedy. All the elements for it, are there. 
Those who are responsible for the maintenance of 
this state of affairs are incurring a heavy respon- 
sibility. I trust, before it is too late, they will weigh 
the circumstances carefully. 

I come back now to Dr. Cobbett's main plea* (ante 
p. 105) that, though individuals may be defective in 
their character, yet if they are brought up under new 



A REJOINDER 125 

and better conditions, their bad characteristics will not 
have a chance of developing. This plea, it seems to me, 
falls hopelessly to the ground, in the light of the facts 
which I have described. It is not only in this island 
that these facts exist. They are everywhere around 
us. They are in our pauper institutions, in our 
reformatories, in our prisons, in our schools, in our 
daily life, and in many cultured homes, the good 
names of which have been disgraced by the deeds 
of an adopted son or daughter, chosen from an 
unhappy stock ; so that they who have been deceived 
and whose delusions have vanished, may say in the 
hour of their remorse to those who have disappointed 
them and have crushed the pearls of their benevolence 
and cherished hopes : " Annon sicut lac mulsisti me, 
et sicut caseum coagulasti me ? " 

I will next attempt to deal with Dr. Cobbett's 
contention from another aspect. We may consider 
the question of habitual alcoholism and drunkenness. 
Now, I think all will agree that a permanent change 
of environment, in the sense that social tradition 
and custom have altered, has been brought about 
and that it has been operating for at least two 
generations. Yet both these forms of vice are 
common, and to such an extent that in these latter 
days, optimistic Chancellors have turned into futile 
moralists. Every experience of our social life points 
the conclusion that a traditional inheritance of 
external concepts is incapable of exercising any 
useful influence, except upon those whose physiological 
inheritance is so constituted, that it spontaneously 
responds to the external agents. 



126 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

The truth is, if the inherent desires and instincts 
are there, no environment which we can originate, 
or maintain, or conceive, will render it impossible 
for those instincts, or desires, or defects to 
manifest themselves. We may as well try to 
persuade ourselves that by removing food and 
water from a community, we can thereby still the 
pangs of hunger and thirst, as to believe that mani- 
festations of other inborn qualities will not evidence 
themselves in the absence of that positive environment 
which we conceive to be necessary for their manifes- 
tation. There is some danger that two different things 
are being confused. We cannot, by any environment, 
call into activity qualities which do not exist. 
But neither can we suppress inherent qualities, or 
even the ultimate manifestation of their activities, 
merely because an appropriate environment is absent. 
To take Dr. Cobbett's own example of the supposed 
reduced mortality from consumption because of an 
improved sanitation. Even though we grant, for the 
sake of argument, that the reduced death-rate from 
consumption may be due to those improved conditions 
which have reduced or rendered more difficult of 
multiplication the number or virulence of the tubercle 
bacilli, are we sure we have also minimised the 
manifestation of that human defectiveness which 
results in this disease ? Pneumonia of recent years 
has shown a decided tendency to increase. What is 
that due to ? Is that, too, to be ascribed to improved 
sanitation ? Are we quite sure that, in spite of an 
environment which, we are told, is becoming more 
and more unfavourable to the spread of tuberculosis. 



A REJOINDER ]27 

the defective quality which renders a subject 
liable to tuberculosis is not merely manifesting 
itself in another way ? We may, perhaps, escape 
the toll which Nature demands from us at one gate 
on the road of life, but she will have it from us at 
another. 

Then there is the question of correlation. Does 
the tubercular diathesis accompany some other 
defective quality ? Here we have no certain answer. 
But we have a general experience, and there is no 
doubt that in some families this diathesis is merely 
the expression of a much wider constitutional defect. 
It is accompanied by a frail physique, a slender hold 
on life, and a lassitude of action. Now, any improve- 
ment in the environment which saves this type of 
tuberculous person, also propagates a race charac- 
terised by the possession of the correlative qualities. 
Is that desirable ? I imagine not. The truth is, 
in our desire to save life and reduce death, at all costs, 
we are being carried too far. We are running grave 
risks. Let us try to foresee one of them. 

At a certain, ill-defined stage in the history of 
the world, it could have been said that the march 
of Civilisation and of Empire was Westward. There 
are not wanting the signs that it will again turn 
Eastward. Suppose it does. Before the West 
relinquishes its sceptre to the East, its retention will 
be fought for on many a bloody battlefield. But 
bullets and sabres are not the only instruments of 
destruction, even on a battlefield. Epidemic diseases 
play their part. While the West, according to Dr. 
Cobbett's environmental doctrine, has been saving 

J 



128 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

hordes of persons innately susceptible to microbic 
diseases, because of the improved sanitation, in the 
East, the teeming millions of China have been evolved 
in the unspeakable insanitation of its cities, and 
in many instances, under a tropical sun. The 
armies of the East and West would meet on 
unsanitary battlefields. That of the East is com- 
posed of men evolved under unsanitary conditions, 
and therefore more or less immune or only 
difficultly susceptible to microbic attacks. But the 
army of the West is full of soldiers reared under 
softer conditions, derived from ancestors who for 
generations have evolved under circumstances where 
the constitutionally weak as well as strong survived. 
That army must contain a large proportion, perhaps the 
major part, of persons susceptible to microbic attacks. 
Under such circumstances, the East has an advantage 
over the West. The one army will be decimated by 
epidemics, the other not. The sceptre will pass 
from the nations which feared death too much and 
loved life too well, to those who faced the struggle of 
existence with a hardier bravery and a more Spartan 
resignation. And, again in the history of Mankind, 
the ''breath of the Angel" will decimate another 
army — that of the West, while it lies during the 
night outside the camp of the East — as in ancient 
days, before the sleeping army of the Jews, it 
withered the host of the Assyrians and destroyed 
them to a man. 

This raises a further consideration which I am 
impelled to urge. Even though we grant, for the sake 
of discussion, that it is possible to prevent the 



A REJOINDER 129 

manifestation of tubercular disease in the absence of 
those environmental agents which call it forth, there 
still remains the very important question, Can we 
ensure that these particular agents will always be 
absent ? Is it tolerably certain that at no future 
period in our history circumstances may not arise 
which will render it impossible for this artificially 
imposed environment to be any longer maintained ? 
Let us look, while yet we have time, along one road 
which opens out to a vista, where danger is spelt at 
every point along its view. 

I think the possibility, which I have just described, 
of a crucial struggle between the East and West, 
whose respective denizens are evolving under very 
different conditions of sanitation, suggests that before 
it is too late Western Civilisation should mark time, 
and take heed of the direction and velocity of its 
movement. For it should never be forgotten that 
every improvement in the sanitary conditions of life 
enables yet weaker and less resistant stocks to live 
and propagate. It is, therefore, possible to raise the 
quest of sanitation into a fetich, and under the guise 
of a false health to hide the fact, that we are by 
invidious and stealthy methods ensuring the ultimate 
destruction of our race as a dominating factor in the 
affairs of the world. 

But improved sanitation of the co-operative and 
compulsory type does more than save the weak. It 
saves the innately dirty people from the consequences 
of their habits. I do not think anyone who has gone 
into the question will doubt that, with but few 
exceptions, dirtiness and untidiness of personal habit 



130 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

is a matter deeper than convention or training. 
At any rate, I am prepared to discuss that question 
on a basis of fact, if I am challenged. 

Now to save innately dirty people from themselves, 
is to rear in increasing numbers a race of an undesir- 
able type. At present, apparently, in the plenitude 
of our modern wisdom, we are prepared to compel the 
dirty to live within certain limits of cleanliness. We 
have set aside officials for the purpose. Doubtless, the 
arrangement will work well, until the dirty people are 
so numerous, that it will be impossible to have sufficient 
officials to check the manifestation of their undesirable 
habits, unless we shall be prepared to make all the 
rest of the nation officials. Then will come the 
reckoning. In the latter part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury we did not pay the toll we should have done to 
Nature, but in the latter half of the twentieth century 
She will have it, with exorbitant interest, exacting it 
under "harsh and unconscionable" terms. For the in- 
herently lazy, sluggish, and dirty people, grown into 
numbers beyond control, will destroy the clean en- 
vironment, and will re-create unsanitary conditions, 
which, descending upon a race ripened by modern 
sentiment for the harvest, will garner its fruit in almost 
illimitable measure. 

The noblest sentiment this nation can adopt is not 
that of cheating Nature, by presuming upon our 
imperfect knowledge and the arrogance of over- 
weening aspirations, but that which is expressed in 
Wordsworth's lines : — 

" To the solid ground of Nature, trusts the Mind 
which builds for Aye." 



Biological Iconociasm, 
Mendelian Inheritance and Human Society 



A PLEA FOR THE OPERATION OF A MORE 
VIRILE SENTIMENT IN HUMAN AFFAIRS. 



A Criticism 
By Miss H. M. WODEHOUSE. 

(Lecturer in Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. 



Being myself the most unskilled of amateurs in 
natural science, I am filled with the deepest respect 
for those whose professional studies lie in this 
department ; and I accept with an undoubting faith 
everything that these experts tell me of the objects 
which their studies bring before them. Only when 
a scientific expert crosses the line into my own 
department of " mental and moral " science does 
this paralysing reverence relax its hold. It is this 
overlapf)ing of subjects which gives me courage to 
offer a few tentative comments on an interesting 
paper, by Mr. G. P. Mudge, in The Mendel Journal 
for October, 1909, " A Plea for the Operation of a 
more Virile Sentiment in Human Affairs." 

The part of the paper which concerns me may 
be summed up as follows, probably in unscientific 
language, but I hope not unfairly. " The unit 
qualities which make an individual valuable or 



132 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

valueless are determined by heredity. Environ- 
ment cannot affect them, but it can select and 
encourage the individuals with the best qualities 
by means of getting rid of the unfit. Hence social 
reformers are grievously and dangerously wrong in 
attempting to alter the natural environment of any 
class in society." I propose to examine succes- 
sively the three parts of this text, beginning at 
the end."'' 

1. — "Let Environment alone." 

I have found much difficulty in understanding 
the author's conception of Nature on the one hand, 
and of interference with Nature on the other. 
" Those best fitted to survive," he tells us, " will 
do so by purel}^ natural processes, without any 
artificial and compulsory interference or help. And 
we may be sure that these processes are benign ; 
biological teaching is clear on that point. By these 
processes, throughout the whole realm of nature, 
the maximum amount of happiness and vigour is 
attained, with the minimum amount of misery or 
pain. Human interference but decreases the former, 
while increasing the latter. It is better, in the 
faith of the greater religions, to accept our destiny." 

Metaphysicians who hold that this world, in 
popular language, is the best of all possible worlds, 

* My criticism deals with only a small part of the paper. I do not 
touch, for instance, on the author's plea that the unfit ought to be 
killed off. not maintained in workhouses, asylums, etc. It is conceiv- 
able that in a more enlightened age we should deliberately kill more 
people. I only wish to urge that in such an age we shall not so trust 
the workings of Nature in a slum environment as to leave her to do 
the selection and the killing for us. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 133 

may perhaps be a little surprised that Biology 
should be undertaking in so explicit and coura- 
geous a way to teach Metaphysics ; l^ut they will be 
pleased to have its help in the defence of a Nature 
which includes earthquakes, butcher-birds, keas, 
the typhoid bacillus, and the tsetse fly. We accept 
as benign all processes in which these factors are 
concerned. The difficulty only enters when we 
have to distinguish the natural from the unnatural 
processes in the affairs of human society. Studying 
animal societies, we find that mortal combats 
between jealous wooers, and the careful nursing by 
ants of the larvae of beetles which will presently 
devour the baby ants, and the extermination of 
cattle by the bite of an insect, are all natural and 
therefore admirable events. The moral for us 
would seem to be that we should make haste to 
remove such flagrant interferences with nature as 
are found in the main drainage system and the 
organisation of the metropolitan police. Accept- 
ance of destiny is found purest in that mother who 
refuses to alter her child's environment to defeat 
scarlet fever or concussion of the brain. 

Seriously, what is this Nature which includes 
and justifies the doings of all animals but man ? 
which renders infallible all instincts and aspirations 
but his ? Where is this benign and perfect force 
which we have only to make way for ? and how is 
this making way, in practical politics, to be brought 
about ? 1 can find no profit in this way of using 
words. 



134 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

2. — " Environment Selects the Best Individuals." 

I express this part of the text in an ambiguous 
form because the ambiguity seems really to be 
present in Mr. Mudge's treatment of the subject. 
Tlie literal truth, one is taught to suppose, is that 
any set of conditions tends to select the individuals 
whose qualities give them an advantage under those 
conditions. Science, I take it, commits itself to no 
further meaning of "fittest" or "best." In fact, 
we often condemn an environment because by strict 
natural law it gives the advantage to qualities which 
Ave condemn ; witness " the corruptions of a Royal 
Court " * where the time-server and flatterer succeed 
and survive. Given any environment, Nature may 
be trusted to select. Can we trust her to select 
such qualities as we shall approve of ? 

Further, no conceivable environment can take 
account of the whole of an individual's qualities 
when it gives its judgment for life or death. The 
Summer Savory in Mr. Mudge's instance can turn 
purple on the mountain-side, whilst the Flax from 
an " inherent defect " remains what it was in the 
valley, and dies. But in the valley, I imagine, the 
first woiTld have found not the smallest advantage 
in its possession of this power, and the second not 
the smallest disadvantage in the lack of it. Their 
selection by the valley environment must take place 
without any regard to its presence or absence. 
Whether or not this is so with plants, it is certainly 

* "A Plea," page 121. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 135 

so with any organism as complex as a Imman being. 
How wide is the range of human qualities which 
determine the survival of a Congo native to-day, or 
of a factory child a hundred years ago ? One can 
hardly suppose that the inherent capacity for writing 
the plays of Shakespeare or for making the dis- 
coveries of Newton or Darwin, or any benevolence, 
or wit, or refinement, or gaiety, or unselfishness, 
would have very nnich to say in the matter, (liven 
any environment, Nature will select, but the kind 
and the range of the qualities she favours will 
depend on the environment within which she works. 

On these two points I cannot help thinking that 
"A Plea for Virile Sentiment" is lacking in ex- 
plicitness, and that the author's constant use of 
"fittest" and "best" without qualification has a 
dangerous tendency to disguise the fact that they 
must mean no more than "having an advantage 
under the given conditions." This is all that Nature 
is charged with, and in this sense the fittest will 
survive whatever we do and whatever our aristo- 
cratic Or democratic policy may be. Whether the 
best in any more ordinary sense survive will depend 
on the conditions, and these conditions, by action 
or abstention, we must partly fix. Is it Mr, Mudge's 
opinion that the present slum environment selects 
its survivors on the basis of qualities so valuable 
and so varied that we can no longer hope to 
improve it ? 



136 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

3. — "Unit Qualities, WHICH determine value, are 

DETERMINED BY HEREDITY AND NOT BY ENVIRONMENT." 

I come now to the most serious of all my ol)- 
jections to "A Plea for Virile Sentiment." This 
objection rests on what seems to me the very 
remarkable nature of the author's assumptions as 
to the unit qualities of the mental world. 

If I have not misunderstood Mendelism alto- 
gether, it appears that no application of it can be 
made with certainty until the experimentor has dis- 
covered what the transmissible unit qualities are. 
For instance, the tendency of a sweet pea to be a 
dwarf is such a quality, but the tendency of a 
j)etunia to be white is not a imit but results from a 
combination of factors ; and the prophecies about 
inheritance must be quite different in these two 
cases. Further, the power of a muscle to do very 
hard work is not asserted to be transmissible if that 
power has been acquired by exercise. The capacity 
for developing such a power may be inherent, l)Ut 
the power itself is not inherent Ijut acquired, and 
no prophecies about its inheritance can be made so 
far as Mendelism is concerned. If then we are to 
prophesy about the inheritance of mental character- 
istics, it will be all-important to find out the inherent 
units. Now what I urge from the side of psychology 
is this : that, except to a minute extent, nobody 
can say at present what the units are ; that 
scarcely any of the qualities instanced by Mr. Mudge 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 137 

seem at all likely to be units ; and that we are al- 
most certainly wrong if we choose as units any of 
the qualities which are markedly valuable or hurt- 
ful to the human race. 

I yield at once to my opponent the obvious 
exception of such definite deformity in the mind or 
brain as shows itself in insanity or feeble-minded- 
ness. There seems to be good ground for believing 
that these may be units and transmissible like 
deformities in the hand or foot*^ But, unless special 
evidence is produced, I do not yield those qualities 
which we praise or blame in sane men. My reason 
is that most of them seem to fall with far greater 
naturalness into other classes, in none of which 
inherent and simply hereditary units are to be found . 

(a) For instance, a great part of the social 
value of a man depends not on anything that we 
can believe to be simple qualities, but on the com- 
binations of these. An amount of caution which 
in a phlegmatic character without keen interests 
might almost paralyse the man's power of action, 
might in an energetic nature be just the tempering 
required to make a first-rate general or Prime 
Minister. 

(b) Another great part of social value or dis- 
value depends on the fact that qualities, like muscles, 
increase in strength as they are used. Consider the 
way, familiar to educators, in Avhich a wise training- 
may increase the power of taking responsibility. 
No doubt the capacity for acquiring this poAver may 



138 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

or must be inherent, but this in itself is quite in- 
sufficient to determine the value of the child and 
the desirability of keeping him alive. Consider 
again a boy with a strong enjoyment of bodily 
pleasures, whose desires if unwisely indulged may 
turn to devils within him, but who if temperately 
tiained may keep the love of beautiful and pleasant 
things as a deep rich undertone to all his life, making 
that life delightful to himself and to all around 
him. If we as benevolent autocrats held power of 
life and death over such children, we should be 
bound to ask not only, What is in them ? but, How 
are you going to bring them up ? What are the 
opportunities and temptations of their environment 
to be ? For on the answer might depend whether 
they would grow up to be the best supports or the 
worst burdens for the community. 

(c) The existence of a third and l^y far the 
most important class of values depends upon the 
commonplace of ethics, that nothing in heaven or 
earth is good without qualification, except the good 
will. 

Being interpreted, the truth in this classical 
doctrine shows itself as what common sense knows, 
that we can scarcely say whether a quality is good 
or bad until we know in the service of what purpose 
its owner is using it. The energy and inventive- 
ness which make a small boy the plague of his 
school, may so be turned presently as to make that 
boy the leader of the school in all that is admirable. 



VIRILE SENTIMENT 139 

Tlie same courage and resolution and quick decisive- 
ness that serve Garibaldi serve also the Tottenham 
murderers. Whether the civic value of a man or a 
cliild shall be positive or negative depends chiefly 
not on any simple qualities but on the direction of 
purpose and will. Now it is just this direction of 
will that is found nowhere short of humanity to a 
noticeable extent, which therefore it maybe difficult 
for natural science to judge aright. From the point 
of view of moral science I urge with all possible 
emphasis that to treat such direction as a simple 
quality, transmissible as a deformity is trans- 
missible, is impossible in every way ; it is absurd ; 
it is mythology. Criminality in this sense is no 
more innate than loyalty to Austria was innate in 
the Swiss Von Mecliel, or loyalty to Italy in the 
Englishman Peard. Anyone can see a wise teacher 
winning a child to the side of authority, or a foolish 
one worrying him into rebellion against it ; it will 
only be the foolish one who speaks of " innate 
naughtiness." The child, and still more the man, 
knows that he can make a choice ; can decide for 
himself what object he will serve and pursue. Some 
choose when they are young to serve society as 
such ; a few decide to fight society as such ; and 
none of them ever manage to live consistently on 
those lines. Our lives are made up of a continuous 
series of decisions, and the civic value of most of 
us is positive and negative by turns. Whichever it 
is, we decide it continually as we go along. If our 
choices are inherent, it is in a metaphysical sense 



140 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which makes them jnst as much inherent in the 
environment as in ns. What I do depends on my 
capacity for loving, and on the objects of love 
which are presented to me. 

One may end here with the real and valuable 
political truth which lies behind the scorn thrown 
on environment. Mere environment is truly of very 
little account compared with the presentation to us 
of objects which we are prepared to love. If the 
instinct for bodily comfort is not yet so developed 
and reined as to find satisfaction in cleanliness, it 
may be of little use to provide the man with chances 
of cleanliness. On the other hand, it may at the 
right time be just the chance for which the develop- 
ment of the instinct was waiting. The difference 
betAveen those improvements of environment which 
are thus worth while and those which are not worth 
while is a matter for the most careful, patient, and 
long-suffering study and experiment. As students 
of moral science we hope for the greatest help from 
students of natural science, only they must not 
encourage us to slur distinctions, to draw easy 
a priori conclusions, or to commit in any way those 
sins of rough and careless work from which in 
their OAvn department they have so nobly forborne. 



A Rejoinder to Miss Wodeliouse's 
Criticism. 

By GEO. P. MUDGE. 

I WILL endeavour to reply to most of the criticisms 
which a metaphysical critic has passed upon my 
article in the last number of this Journal. It may 
also be permissible to attempt to show that Biology 
is transcendent to Metaphysics, if not in its aerial 
castles, at least in its mundane temples. 

Though recognising that Miss Wodehouse has 
desired to be fair and has tried to understand my 
attitude, I am afraid that the metaphysical spectacles, 
through which she has surveyed it from a lofty height, 
has rendered her task a little difficult, and not yet 
can it be said that she has fully understood the nature 
of my plea. If we may judge from one of her state- 
ments, it is not certain whether we are to believe 
that metaphysicians regard Metaphysics as a 
science or simply look upon it as a relic of the Scholas- 
tic Period ; an academic reminiscence of the early 
days of culture when it was the best that the era 
could produce, and the pronouncements of the 
Schoolmen were accepted as articles of faith. But 
Miss Wodehouse may rest assured that the days of 
" accepting with undoubting faith everything that 
experts tell us," even though we be " unskilled 
amateurs," have passed for ever. I have asked no 



142 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

one to believe me, but simply and quite honestly 
have endeavoured to bring to the attention of my 
countrymen some biological considerations which, 
I am impelled to think, indicate the existence of a 
grave and imminent danger in the present conditions 
and the ruling sentiment of the body politic. It is 
open to them to enquire whether those considerations 
are valid or invalid ; and whether they do or do not 
throw for them a new interpretation upon the origin 
and cause of the human misery and squalor which 
exists. In this discussion I may be allowed to claim 
an advantage over my critic ; for I have passed 
through the phase that marks her present attitude 
to that which is indicated in my article. I am not 
oblivious to the arguments, nor to the interpretations 
of human life, which are opposed to my own. I 
have endeavoured to consider most of them. 

Miss Wodehouse has in a very fair manner 
intimated in the beginning of her criticism that 
she has probably summed up my position in un- 
scientific language, but she hopes not unfairly. 
There are one or two statements, however, in which 
certainly my position is not represented in language 
which quite accurately conveys its meaning. I should 
not, for instance, say that the environment " en- 
couraged the fit by getting rid of the unfit." We 
may, in social matters^ harass the fit in order to 
encourage the unfit ; but that is a different 
thing. Neither is my attitude quite fully 
stated when I am credited with the statement that 
" social reformers are wrong in attempting to alter 



A REJOINDER 143 

the natural environment of any particular social 
class in Society." I hold this opinion, it is true. 
But the strongest objection to modern sentiment, is 
not so much that it is striving to alter the 
natural environment under which we have evolved, 
as that it is making an effort to substitute for it a 
wrong and dangerous artificial one. This new en- 
vironment, I think every one will admit who has 
considered the question at all, is operating to 
destroy or to harass the better and self-supporting 
citizens in order to save an increasing number of 
altogether unworthy, helpless, and hopeless civic 
cripples, and is encouraging others who are capable of 
self-support, to throw themselves upon the charity 
of their country. What is most dangerous in 
the practical effects of this modern sentiment is that 
it is turning human society upside down, and is by 
artificial processes rendering the naturally fit arti- 
ficially unfit, and the naturally unfit artificially fit. 
In other words, it is destroying a Shakespeare to save 
an itinerant preacher, and it is harassing out of 
existence a Reynolds in order to preserve a pavement 
colourist. It is conceivable that even Miss Wodehouse 
will not contend, in the light of modern knowledge, 
even with the aid of metaphysics, that however 
" careful the treatment and judicious the training," 
it is possible to convert the people who have mistaken 
aspiration for inspiration into Shakespeares or into 
Reynolds'. If she does so contend the question 
may be asked : How is it that in the period when 
Shakespeare and George Stephenson were living, 

K 



144 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

they accomplished what they did without any 
National Elementary Free Compulsory Education ? 
And that after forty years' operation of this national 
fetish neither a Shakespeare nor a Stephenson have 
arisen from the people as the outcome of it ? 
If all that she contends be true, can she vouchsafe 
to us why it is that, now we have Nature Study 
classes in the Elementary Schools, the Surrey County 
Council finds it incumbent to frame a regulation 
imposing a fine for the destruction of flowers in the 
fields ? When that question has been answered, 
is it possible that we may be further informed from 
those heights of metaphysics accessible only to the 
elect, why it is that boys instructed in Nature Study 
classes and reared in the influence of the sentiments 
that appear to have become vicariously attached to 
them, should go into every byeway and field they 
can find, and wring the necks of nestlings just for 
the fun of the thing ? Before compulsory education 
for the masses was instituted, cock-fighting was one 
of their amusements. We have striven by various 
means — including a costly national education — ^to 
suppress this form of recreation. While we have not 
altogether succeeded, wringing " nestlings' necks for 
fun " has appeared as a substitute for it. It may be 
possible to change the form in which cruelty or 
viciousness may be manifested, but we cannot by any 
means at our disposal convert the inherent instincts 
which lie at the root of these things. That is why 
the unmetaphysical prophets of old said : " Who 
can make straight that which the Lord has made 



A REJOINDER 146 

crooked ? " or sought an answer to the question : 
" Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard 
his spots ? " 

Another phrase of Miss Wodehouse's that is liable 
to give a misimpression of my attitude is that in 
her footnote on page 132. She says that I have 
pleaded the unfit ought to be killed off. It is strange 
how almost universally an author's passive attitude 
is converted into a positive one by his critics. 
The phrase " killed off " is not mine. It was 
urged that the multiplication of the unfit should 
cease. Essentially, the view I advocate in nearly 
all social questions is that, after justice, and the 
army and navy have been adequately provided for, 
the rest should be left to voluntary co-operation and 
to laisser faire. In this I simply follow Herbert 
Spencer, whose prophecies are being rapidly fulfilled. 
We cannot escape the obvious conclusion, that 
a fit nation can only be so if it is composed of 
self-reliant and self-supporting individuals. The 
nation must necessarily weaken as the number of its 
weak, helpless, and unreliant citizens increase, while 
those of antithetic qualities decrease. The France 
of to-day is a standing warning of the danger that 
faces the England of to-morrow. A strong nation 
will essentially be one which has adopted as a 
guiding principle the maxim of " letting those 
live who can," and those who cannot shall find 
an abode elsewhere. Of course, I urge nothing 
against the altruism of the family nor of that of 
friends. That is not likely, in the long run, to be 



146 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

misapplied, and it may call into manifestation the 
nobler attributes of our kind. I should certainly 
be the first to regret the disappearance from human 
life of generous and noble deeds, and of altruistic 
efforts voluntarily rendered. But it is dangerous 
to indulge in compulsory altruism, especially when 
it is wrongly directed. It results in altruistic aids for 
those who do not deserve them, and in return they 
who give are met with the grossest and most revolting 
form of egoism. The obtrusive poor who have always 
been the perennial recipients of charity have ever 
afforded the best illustration of this statement. 

Miss Wodehouse says she has much difficulty in 
understanding my conception of Nature. It is not, 
I suppose, difficult to believe that study-chair con- 
ceptions of it will largely depend upon temperament. 
To some people Nature is an abode of beauty, of song, 
of happiness, of peace, of arboreal pathways flowing 
with milk and honey, along which float the strains of 
melodious avian music, and disturbed alone by Man's 
advent. To others it is a ceaseless battlefield of the 
vulture's talons and the tiger's canines, and all is 
ceaseless misery and pain and death beneath a 
canopy of blood. But to others, those whose lives 
have been spent in the mountain, on the sea, in 
tempest and in calm, as well as in cities — and I 
rank myself among them— Nature is but the un- 
ceasing operation of irrevocable, inexorable, and eternal 
processes, which are sometimes called laws. In their 
operation there is inflicted some pain and misery, 
but there is also attained the maximum of happiness 



A REJOINDER 147 

and the evolution of races to which life is a gleeful 
struggle, its vigorous exercise a joy, and death 
merely a passing incident. 

This restatement of my conception of Nature 
brings us next to Miss Wodehouse's gentle and subtle 
sarcasm, when she says " that this best possible 
of all worlds includes earthquakes, butcher-birds, 
keas, the typhoid bacillus, and the tsetse fly. We 
accept as benign all processes in which these factors 
are concerned. Studying animal societies, we find that 
mortal combats between jealous wooers, and the 
careful nursing by ants of the larvae of beetles which 
will presently devour the baby ants, and the exter- 
mination of cattle by the bite of an insect, are all 
natural and therefore admirable events. The moral 
for us would seem to be that we should make haste 
to remove such flagrant interferences with Nature 
as are found in the main drainage system and the 
organisation of the metropolitan police. Acceptance 
of destiny is found purest in that mother who refuses 
to alter her child's environment to defeat scarlet 
fever or concussion of the brain." This seems to 
be a terrible indictment. In reality it is only meta- 
physical war paint. A little biological washing 
and it comes off. 

Let us take the earthquake first, and, uninvited 
by our critic, let us also add volcanoes. Miss Wode- 
house appears to believe they are evil things, even 
though they be natural. Let us see how far they 
may not be also regarded as implements of good. 
Personally, as beneficent agents working through 



148 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the portals of a passing misery to the goal of a lasting 
happiness, I should rank them just as high as 
the plague bacillus. Now what are the facts ? 
The volcanic and earthquake areas of the world are 
all well known. Where an earthquake occurs to-day 
it has occurred before. Where the destructive 
molten stream pours over a country and devastates 
its vineyards, it is but repeating to-day what it has 
done many times before in the history of Man. Yet 
no sooner has one eruption of Vesuvius calmed than 
upon its lava crust, still aglow beneath, new vineyards 
are planted. Is it beneficent or is it malign to 
harass and eliminate silly people who will deliberately 
return to the paths where they must know destruction 
lies in wait ? When a great city has been destroyed 
by earthquakes in an earthquake region, and men 
yet build their hopes and lay down upon its rifted 
surface their material possessions, is it the fault of 
Nature or the folly of men if these hopes are dis- 
appointed and these possessions are destroyed in one 
short minute ? 

It is cruel, no doubt, to our sentimental ideas, 
that at the fiat of sentimentalists and to the tune of 
wailing voices earthquakes and volcanoes will 
not cease to hold possession of the areas where, by 
their permanence in the past, it has been 
indicated long ago that they have come to stay. 
But while they thus ruthlessly destroy the foolish 
races who are not wise enough to profit by experience, 
have they not in some small measure aided in the 
evolution of an intelligent and courageous race of 



A REJOINDER 149 

Japanese, who adapt the structure of their houses to 
the rigid requirements of earthquake mechanics ? 

Cannot we say the same of that which, in the 
medical language of our peculiar and overwrought 
time, is described as " a great scourge," " a terrible 
curse," a " devourer of millions of people " ? I 
allude to the plague. It looks a malign disease 
upon the surface, but let us get deeper than these 
sanitary conceptions created by the growing army 
of sanitary officials, to the biological foundation 
upon which all these questions rest, and see if there is 
not something at least which we can call benign ? 
Plague is a disease essentially associated with dirt ; 
to-day it ravages those villages of India in which the 
subsoil is the product of generations of offal and 
domestic excrementa. In such a soil, the inter- 
mediate host of the plague bacillus, the black rat, 
lives. Clear away the soil, and with its removal or 
destruction that of the vermin which flourish upon 
it follow in its wake. Suppose the natives, whose 
inherently inartistic instincts allowed this subsoil 
to accumulate, will not or cannot be taught to 
voluntarily clear their villages of it and maintain 
a cleaner state of things, are protected against 
themselves by an organised staff, paid for by Govern- 
ment monies wrested from the cleaner citizens, 
are we thereby achieving good or evil ? Let us en- 
quire what it is we are really doing. Here in these 
villages, races have existed and propagated every 
generation, for many centuries. Throughout that 
period dirt has been the condition which their 



150 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

instincts have tolerated. In the light of our know- 
ledge to-day we have no reason to believe that such 
defective instincts are not hereditarily transmitted, 
and much to show that they really are. No one who 
has carefully investigated family pedigrees can doubt 
the fact. I am quite certain from families which I 
know that the qualities of being dirty or clean, 
methodical or unmethodical, are hereditarily trans- 
mitted as such. I affirm nothing as yet regarding 
their Mendelian inheritance. I assert only their 
inheritance. If Miss Wodehouse will make unbiassed 
observations in the light of my statement I feel sure 
she will recognise its truth. The facts are familiar 
to everyone ; it is the interpretation which is lacking. 
Therefore if we set outside powers to work to save 
these people, so that their propagation may be long 
continued and prolific, we shall rear in increasing 
numbers vast hordes of inherently dirty people, 
who will have to be kept clean by an alarmingly 
increasing army of human wash-tub attendants, other- 
wise known as Government officials, paid for by the 
clean people. Why not at once let us be complete 
and logical ; and because the mouth is the main 
portal to the lungs and stomach, in which in dirty 
people all sorts of microbes may be lodged, ordain 
another army of tooth-scrubbers, who shall at a 
stated hour twice a day clean the teeth of all dirty 
people who will not voluntarily do it ? Ludicrous 
though it may seem to those old-fashioned but 
worthy people who believe that an individual should 
stand or fall by his own merits or at most by those 



A REJOINDER 151 

of his family, we are nearer than we imagine to the 
consummation of such a folly. The medical and 
dental inspection of the school children in our own 
country is but the prelude to further agitation by 
the sentimentalists ; for even now they are calling 
for free medical and dental treatment in addition to 
inspection, and they will next demand the free 
supply of tooth-brushes and tooth-powders. Even- 
tually finding that the tooth-brushes are consigned 
to the dust-bins, and the powder is forgotten, they 
will further demand a house-to-house visitation by 
County Council teeth- cleaners ! In this way the 
social momentum of hysteria over the unwashed, 
unwashable, and hopeless increases until we fail to 
recognise in the current momentum the tiny mass 
and the slow pace we set in action only a generation 
back. 

Thus the plague is benign to the race in the long 
run, though ruthless to the inherently undesirable 
individuals of the present. It evolves ethical beauty 
and destroys ethical ugliness. No doubt a few of 
the beautiful are also destroyed, but it is better 
that this should be so than thousands of those who 
are inherently ugly and dirty in their attributes shall 
be reared by the pampeiings of civilisation. In this 
matter there are before us two alternatives. We have 
to choose between our overwrought humanity and 
the consequences which the manifestation of that 
humanity will beget. 

Let us pass to the tsetse fly. Miss Wodehouse 
seems to regard it as a curse ; so do medical men 



152 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

and others. But are we quite sure we know the full 
extent of its operations in Nature ? It cannot yet be 
said just what link it makes in the chain of Nature's 
work. Suppose we shall succeed in eliminating it, 
have we yet thought out the possible consequences ? 
It is well not to forget the fact cited by Darwin, 
that the combs and nests of humble bees are destroyed 
by field-mice and these by cats. If, therefore, the 
people of a particular village, who are pestered by cats, 
destroyed every one they could, they would reap, 
as an unexpected and unpredictable consequence, 
the loss of their honey harvest. No one had ever 
imagined that there could be any relationship what- 
ever between the presence of cats and the production 
of honey. But it is so. When the cats are des- 
troyed, the mice will multiply, and these will raid 
the stores of honey carefully preserved by the bees. 
When the cats multiply the mice will be destroyed 
and the honey will be. saved. There is more even 
in the concrete facts of Biology than is dreamed of 
in the abstractions of Metaphysics. 

But let us grant that the tsetse fly is a malign 
agent. Is there nothing of good which it has 
achieved ? It appears to have evolved a race of 
wild cattle in Africa which is indifferent to its 
bite, since the individuals of that race have 
their blood swarming with the trypanosomic germs 
conveyed by the fly, and yet these cattle are healthy 
and vigorous. There has thus been evolved a race 
of cattle happy and strong in spite of the trypano- 
somes and the tsetse flies. Just as in Malta there has 



A REJOINDER 153 

been evolved a race of goats the individuals of which are 
quite indifferent to the presence in their tissues of the 
germs of Malta fever. In both cases the susceptible 
individuals have been eliminated and the immune 
have survived. What would Miss Wodehouse have ? 
The reverse condition ! A race of weak and con- 
tinually ailing cattle and goats, and no vigorous 
ones. Truly then the metaphysicians would have 
problems to solve, beside which those of to-day 
would be easy and commonplace. 

But still we will accept for the moment her con- 
ception of Nature as a place where the tsetse fly 
should not prevail, and that, although it is a quite 
natural thing, it is not an admirable one. Let us 
then banish the tsetse fly. Has it ever occurred 
to her that the severest struggle for existence 
in Nature is not between widely separated orders 
or genera, but between closely allied species ? If we 
banish this fly, are we quite sure that somewhere 
within the range of its geographical area there does 
not lurk such another species, whose numbers at 
present are by direct or indirect means kept down 
by the operations of this " fitter " tsetse fly ? 
Upon the destruction of the tsetse fly this partially 
suppressed species would become dominant and 
might conceivably introduce another trypanosome, 
against which the present race of cattle have not 
been evolved. Once more, therefore, through the 
processes of elimination of those which have by 
artificial interference been rendered unfit must 
a new race be reared, and the rash disturbance of 



154 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Nature's balance restored by a great indemnity, 
towards which even super-man may be called upon 
to contribute.* 

It is vain to urge that because in our conception 
of things Nature appears brutal in her processes, 
therefore with regard to Man we should become 
artificial and ignore Nature. To endeavour to do 
so is to deliberately reject the fact, that Man is but 
a unit in Nature and is only one link in her long 
chain. Not even his possession of speech and of a 
long tradition raises him above it or removes him 
from it. If our resort to artificial methods is 
to result in increasing the sum total of human misery, 
then whether there be butcher-birds, earthquakes, 
tsetse flies, and typhoid germs, or whether there 
be none of these things, our clear duty is to go back 
nearer to that Great Mother upon whose breast we 
have been reared to our present greatness. 

This much we can say of Her: that while even 
the butcher-birds dwell in our memories, we know 
the she-bear loves its cub, that the lioness will fight 
to her death so long as in so doing she protects her 
offspring. Day and night these wild instinctive 
mothers, born of Nature, hunt and care for their 
offspring. It is only under the artificial conditions 
where butcher's birds are not, but metaphysicians 
and others are, that parents are reared who spend 
their money in the public-houses, and whose children 

* It is not difficult to conceive at least one process by which a given 
species of tsetze fly may keep another reduced in numbers or even induce 
its elimination. 



A REJOINDER 155 

are only saved from starvation because the more 
natural and fitter parents are rated and taxed to 
effect that purpose. It is also under such artificial 
conditions, where the biologist has not yet been 
adequately heard but the wailing of the sentimentalist 
has, that hereditary races of cruel and vicious and 
drunken parents are allowed to procreate and multiply 
their kind, while that of the nobler parents is 
threatened with a rapid extinction. 

Miss Wodehouse seems to think (pages 132, 134) 
that in my treatment of the environment in relation 
to the individual I have left an ambiguous impression 
upon the reader's mind. I think if Miss Wodehouse 
will read the article again she will find no ambiguity 
manifested. But in this matter she pursues an old and 
futile line of argument, and reminds us that all which is 
implied by the conception expressed in the phrase, 
" survival of the fittest," is simply the survival of 
those " whose qualities give them an advantage " 
under the particular conditions which prevailed 
during their evolution. I hope she does not think 
I am such a careless thinker, that I have forgotten 
such an elementary fact. Any careful reader who 
will refer to what I said about the Tasmanians 
(page 54) will at once see that I dealt with that 
very point. It was there stated : " Some day we 
shall learn that the characters of men are 
relatively fixed and stable, and are the 'products of 
evolution under set conditions. As we find men, at 
any given period, in any given place, they are adapted 
to the particular combination of conditions under 



156 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

which they have evolved, and to no other.'''' Is there 
any ambiguity here ? Surely Miss Wodehouse could 
not have read this page. But in making this con- 
tention Miss Wodehouse not only shows she has not 
carefully read my article, but she delivers herself into 
the hands of her opponent. For if that statement be 
true, as we know it to be, then the masses who have 
evolved under the conditions in which we find them, 
are adapted to these conditions. Any alteration 
that is made in them therefore necessarily involves 
a new evolution. This means a new elimination. 
Does Miss Wodehouse plead that the masses shall 
undergo a new elimination ? Does she ask that we 
shall interfere with them, in order that death shall 
reap its harvest among them ? It is Miss Wodehouse 
and those with her, and not I, who ask that the 
''killing of!" process shall proceed at greater pace ! I 
simply urge that consistent with the rights of others, 
people shall be left alone to enjoy the conditions and 
circumstances which belong to their line of evolution. 
I have protested against the sentimental busybodies, 
who under the cloak of a false protection carry the 
instrument of a real destruction. Miss Wodehouse 
then proceeds to say : " Given any environment 
Nature may be trusted to select." Then she puts 
the question which, if I have not misunderstood 
her, is the central thesis of her article, " Can we trust 
Nature to select such qualities as we shall approve 
of ? " Now I take two exceptions to such an attitude. 
I should not in the first place speak of " selection 
of individuals whose qualities give them an advantage 



A REJOINDER 157 

under the set conditions," but rather of the elimina- 
tion of individuals, because they are not adapted to 
those conditions. The one implies a positive act 
which is not operating, and the other a negative 
one which is. 

My second objection is to the assumed superiority 
of man over Nature implied in the sentence : " Can 
we trust Nature to select such qualities as we shall 
approve ? " Now I am curious to know who are the 
" We." Miss Wodehouse quoted a sentence of mine 
containing the phrase " corruptions of a Royal 
Court," and added a comment of her own, " where 
the time-server and flatterer succeed and survive." 
I will not stop to remind her that this type of person 
is found elsewhere than in Royal Courts, and that 
elsewhere they are so unfit in their art that they are 
unmasked by their own crude craft. But I would like 
to ask whether the " We " means the uncultured 
and hormonic demagogue, who, incapable because 
of his inherent defects of acquiring either knowledge 
or property of his own inflames the passions of 
equally unculturable masses against citizens whose 
biological attributes have enabled them to acquire 
such things ? Are the " We " those men who, envious 
of the honourable achievements, marked success, 
and noble family traditions of others, endeavour to 
hold them up to the ridicule of the " great unwashed " 
of democracy — which is still unwashed in spite 
of the fact that there is now no tax on soap 
and education is free — by calling them the " great 
rats " ? Who cling to office at the cost of broken 



158 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

pledges and who ascended to its platform 
•up the steps of pyrophorus oratory that fills 
to the brim the gullibility and credulity of the 
masses ? Or, are the " We " the sentimentalists who 
would give self-government to subject races, whose 
line of evolution demonstrates their incapacity to suc- 
cessfully perform the responsibilities attaching to it ? 
Or, are they the people who are demanding that in 
the National Elementary Schools we shall have an 
army of " State nurses to bind up cut fingers " ?■•• 
If these are the people involved in the " We," let 
us infinitely sooner go back to a Nature that would 
eliminate every Anglo-Saxon and Teuton to-morrow, 
than we should any longer disgrace our manhood 
by crying aloud for help because a few school 
children of the " People " have cut their fingers ! 
Is this the type of selection which the " We " are 
going to adopt for the citizens of a nation whose 
forefathers won on bloody battlefields, ice-bound 
coasts and dense tropical jungles, at the cost of 
cleaved heads, battered limbs, and disentrailed 
bodies ; who crossed the arid deserts and reached 
the verdant slopes and plains beyond ; and who 
have made an Empire on which the sun never rises 
because it " never sets " ? 

* In view of the agitation for the enfranchisement of women, it may not 
be amiss to state tliat this demand was made by a woman. Also that at 
a Suffragist meeting on Wimbledon Common not long ago, another feminine 
advocate demanded that the State should i^rovide flannel " which was 
expensive " for the children of the poor, because flannelette was inflam- 
mable, and would easily catch fire when mothers left their children alone 
in a room with a fire while they went out. presumably to the beer shop. 



A REJOINDER 159 

Poor and contemptible nation it will be which 
shall substitute such a " We " for a bene- 
ficent but merciless Nature which evolves a 
race of men to whom a cracked head in the service 
of their country is but a passing factor in their lives. 
Compare the product of such a Nature with that 
which the " We " seems desirous of evolving. " They 
run," is the message brought to the fatally wounded 
General; "Then I die happy," comes the simple 
answer from the lips upon which death has already 
set its seal, may represent the symbolic and actual 
product of the one, while a wailing crowd of senti- 
mentalists quivering with emotion at the sight of a 
" cut finger " of one of the " People's " children is 
the product of the other ! 

Or, pursuing another line, are the " We " repre- 
sented by those sentimental people who, sitting as 
Justices of the Peace, or as magistrates, or as juries, 
let free the inborn criminal who has pilfered and 
raided the property of others, that he may 
repeat his depredations, wasting alike the material 
possessions and the time of better citizens ? 
That he may by the immunity which he enjoys 
subsequently encourage others and widen his own 
sphere of activity ? The thrifty, capable, and 
acquisitive citizen, thus robbed illegally at one end 
of the scale and legally at the other, through rates 
and taxes imposed by the sentimental and, in very 
recent time, also by the vindictive " We " : What 
line of evolution does all this indicate the nation 



160 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

is following ? Has Miss Wodehouse considered the 
question from this aspect ? 

This transcendent and omnipotent " We " appears 
also to be responsible for that remarkable product 
of Modern Sentiment called the " Boarding-Out 
System " of the children of paupers. This " We " 
believes that the children of congenital paupers 
and congenital criminals, whose grand- children, let it 
be remembered, will be also in the main paupers and 
criminals, can be converted into noble and self- 
supporting citizens if they have their dinners cooked 
in copper utensils, if they have more or less costly 
pictures placed in the passages, bedrooms, and 
lavatories of the residences they inhabit, and if their 
washstands are of marble. It also believes that if 
laws are framed which raise these children into a 
privileged class, and injElicts heavier fines for physical 
chastisement of their misdeeds than would be im- 
posed upon anyone who assaulted the child of an 
ordinary respectable person, that straightway we 
are following the path that shall lead to their glory ! 

I will not dwell on this remarkable type of the 
" We " any farther, though one sorrowfully recognises 
that its remarkable peregrinations have by no means 
been traced in all their manifold ramifications. 
It will suffice for the present to say that Englishmen 
will one day awake, not to read an article in the 
Mendel Journal in which scepticism for the " We " 
is the dominant note, but to find the arms of that 
" We " stretching around and within their homes, 
ordering their every deed,_determining their wishes. 



A REJOINDER IBl 

spending for them their money, and generally directing 
their lives from early morn to night, and from the cradle 
to the grave. That is the inevitable goal of every 
artificial line of evolution determined by the " We." 
Having dealt with the " We," let us turn next 
to another aspect of the question raised by Miss 
Wodehouse. If I have not misunderstood her, 
she implies that the conditions of human society are 
not ideal, and " that in fact we often condemn an 
environment because by strict natural law it gives the 
advantage to qualities which we condemn." Now 
in this matter Miss Wodehouse is dealing with the 
environment of human society. By implication she 
says the environment of the slums is rearing a slum 
race and one adapted to those conditions. Mr. 
Bernard Bosanquet, in his " Philosophy of the 
State " maintains the same attitude, if I have 
rightly understood him. I will not for the 
moment follow the logical extension of such a con- 
tention, but it suffices to point out again a funda- 
mental fallacy involved in it. I have already in 
my article on "Virile Sentiment " alluded to it (pages 
49 and 55). The fallacy consists in believing that 
it was the slum environment which made the slum 
people. The very converse, as I endeavoured to show, 
is true. It is the people of " slum " instincts 
who have created the slums. If they did not, we 
are bound to ask who did ? Will Miss Wodehouse 
point out to me any Act of Parliament which ordained 
the creation of slums ? Have the sentimentalists 
and social reformers for the past eighty years been 



1(52 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

advocating abolition or formation of slums ? Have 
tlie District Visitors created them ? Did the Act 
of 1870 bring them into existence ? Did the 
OHgarchy of England prior to 1830 or its Democracy . 
subsequently call them into being ? Is it the 
Republican Government of France, the Autocratic 
one of Germany, or the Oriental Despotism of the 
East that have made them in these respective 
countries ? Or, finally, has it been the growing 
ethical codes of civilisation that has planted the 
slums — a disfigurement and a waste — in its beautiful 
and verdant valley ? When a benevolent friend of 
mine, a Managing Director of a large works, situated 
three miles beyond a great city, built near them, 
for the ease and convenience of the workers and their 
families, a row of nicely arranged and well-equipped 
cottages, with gardens and bathrooms, and he found 
the workmen w^ould not use them, but preferred to 
pay a daily train fare and a heavier rent, in order 
that they might live in the slums of the city, will my 
critic tell me who made these slums ? Or, when as 
in the South Wales colliery districts, the houses of the 
colliers contain a bathroom, and the baths are turned 
into coal-cellars and dust bins, surely w^e are entitled 
to ask of Miss Wodehouse, if these are the people, 
who if " temperately trained may keep the love of 
beautiful and pleasant things as a deep rich undertone 
to their lives, making them delightful to themselves 
and to all around them," Would Miss Wodehouse 
care to undertake the " temperate training " of these 
people ? I urge, with all humility, that if she really 



A REJOINDER 163 

believes what she writes, which I do not doubt, that 
an imperative duty lies upon her to undertake the 
task, and to demonstrate the reality or falsity of her 
'belief. 

If Miss Wodehouse will pass down a certain 
street near a certain great railway terminus in 
London on a Saturday evening in the Summer, until 
she reaches another street at its other end, she will 
be passing through a slum area. Yet in the upper 
part of the first street (the end nearer the station) she 
will find on either side of it, on the whole, a row 
of clean, well-kept, neat, and orderly houses, inhabited 
by a respectable artizan class. In the lower street 
and its environs the people are mere animals. The 
streets are crowded with children almost naked, 
whose bodies and limbs are freely exposed, who are 
swarming with vermin and infested with sores and 
boils, solely the result of dirt ; there, too, are habitual 
drinkers, and mothers careless in behaviour, uncouth 
and unkempt in appearance, and unsavoury and 
repugnant to every one of our five senses. Can 
Miss Wodehouse tell me why these two adjacent 
streets leading into each other are so different ? 

Who made these two environments, situated under 
the same sun, the same government, the same rate 
collector, served by the same school and public- 
houses, infested by the same dust-laden atmosphere, 
with the same examples and influences operating 
upon both ? The answer of Biology is that it is the 
inherent, congenital nature of the people living 
there. The answer of the older Theology is 



164 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

" Character." What is the answer of Metaphysics ? 
Is it the omnipotent " We " ? 

The considerations and facts which I have put 
forward above must form my answer to Miss Wode- 
house's question to me on page 1 35 of her criticism : 
"Is it Mr. Mudge's opinion that the present slum 
environment selects its survivors on the basis of 
qualities so valuable and so varied that we can no 
longer hope to improve it ? " 

I once more assert that the whole evidence before 
us, when rightly analysed, leaves no alternative 
conclusion but that the slums are made by the slum 
people, and that there does not exist among them 
as a class any good qualities which can be " selected " 
either b}^ man or Nature. They are there as slum 
people because of the absence of any such good 
qualities which can make them otherwise. I will 
not further labour the point, but refer my readers 
to the considerations and facts which I advanced in 
support of this conclusion on pages 49-57 and 94-96 
of my original article. 

Next let us turn to the remarkable moral which 
Miss Wodehouse extracts from my article. We are 
told that the moral of the teaching that all natural 
processes are benign " would seem to be that we 
should make haste to remove such flagrant inter- 
ferences with Nature as are found in the main drainage 
system and the organisation of the metropolitan 
police." I should be sorry if my critic could point 
to a single utterance in the article which she criticises 
which could legitimately justify anyone in inferring 



A REJOINDER 165 

that any such moral could be drawn. Conversely, 
the very opposite doctrine is impliedly taught. I 
have advocated that the fit should enjoy the benefits 
of their fitness. Now under civilisation what is 
fitness ? It is the possession of that degree of capa- 
city, honour, and morality which makes a man a 
useful member of his community. No man who 
becomes a burden upon others, except upon his own 
family, can fall within such a category. Now who 
made the main drainage system possible ? Assuredly 
not a Government ; equally assuredly not sentimental 
considerations ; nor free education ; nor medical 
inspection of elementary national school children ; 
nor free feeding of the children whose parents spend 
the money which should have provided their dinners 
upon beer and tobacco for themselves ; nor the 
workhouses and infirmaries. None of these things, 
all of which are institutions for the weak and defective, 
and the civic lame and halt, built the main drainage 
system. That was essentially the product of the 
fittest intelligences and the highest organising capa- 
cities of a people left free to enjoy the fruits of their 
labours. It was work undertaken by the fit for the 
benefit of the fit. That such work should continue 
and such capable citizens be encouraged to work, 
and not discouraged through the legal robbery of 
the products of their fitness, which they are now 
experiencing, is precisely what I have been urging. 
With regard to the Metropolitan Police, very 
much the same considerations apply. This is an 
institution organised by the fit for the protection 



166 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of the fit. Fifty years ago it did its work effectually, 
and the thief when caught was hanged. But now, 
as I have already pointed out, under the baneful 
influence of a sentiment gone mad, the work of the 
police is being progressively nullified and undone. 
The police may catch the thief, the magistrate may 
agree that a drastic punishment is required, but 
outside sentiment foolishly sets the criminal at 
large.* So far has this pernicious sentiment gone, 
that after a judge and jury have condemned to death 
a cowardly murderer, who has walked into an old 
and defenceless man's office, and shot him dead, 
there can be found a Home Secretary who will yield 
up justice to the clamours of servant girls and of 
small subm-ban tradesmen ! Most assuredly I am 
for the police, as an organisation of the j&t, which, 
when efficiently and justly worked, will remind the 
" unfit " of their place in the scheme of things. 

Miss Wodehouse, not content with fancifully dis- 
torting the logical outcome of my position, goes even 
further, and commenting upon my plea that it is best 
for the congenitally defective to accept their destiny, 
as much greater citizens have done, proceeds to assure 
us " That acceptance of destiny is found purest 



* See the comments of Mr. Lane, K.C., magistrate at the West London 
Police Court, in a case of embezzlement, where he remarked that he held 
the view that such offences should be rather severely punished, but in 
deference to public sentiment ended by merely binding the defendant to 
come up for judgement if called upon. Or, where, as at the Wimbledon 
Bench of Justices, hooligans caught red-handed in the act of thieving are 
set free merely vfith a paternal warning not to do it again. A warning 
which is so effectual that two out of the three thus dismissed are charged 
a few weeks later by the police for a similar offence. In the meantime, it 
may be left to the imagination as to the amount of annoyance and loss 
which the thieves had caused to the honest citizens. 



A REJOINDER 167 

in that mother who refuses to alter her child's 
environment to defeat scarlet fever or concussion 
of the brain." Were I a Carlyle what thundering 
sentences I should write in reply to^ this. But I 
cannot ; so I will simply assure my critic she is 
quite mistaken. It would not be the purest destiny 
but crassest folly for a mother to do anything of the 
sort. What I said in effect was this : When we find 
mothers so inherently defective and so devoid of 
parental love and foresight that they cannot or will 
not save their children from preventable misery and 
injury, it is better such a mother should accept her 
destiny than that we should help her to multiply 
and propagate such a foolish and defective race. 
It is better she should accept her natural destiny than 
that capable and loving mothers should have the 
destiny of the wicked artificially cast upon them 
and their children by the act of sentimentalists. 
If we spend a sovereign through the rates upon 
the vicious mothers, inevitably we take it from the 
pockets of the good and careful mothers. Sovereigns 
are not made in heaven by metaphysicians and 
showered upon the earth at the cry of the worthless ; 
they are the product of the labours and capacities 
of the biologically fit. 

Seeking for further illustrations that natural 
events are not, according to the standard of Miss 
Wodehouse, necessarily admirable events, she cites the 
" mortal combats in animal societies between jealous 
wooers." Well, are these not admirable ? I think 
they are. So long as it is a fact of Nature that some 



168 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

wooers are strong and others less strong, I shall 
continue to hope, in the interests alike of animal 
welfare and of the truest ethics, that mortal combats 
shall continue, and that the strongest shall win. 
Would my critic desire to see the weakest win and 
multiply its feeble race and spread it wide upon the 
surface of the earth ? Is she quite sure that these 
mortal combats are distasteful to the animals which 
indulge in them ? Has she not rather jumped to a 
conclusion and measured their psychology in the 
bushel of some fearsome and timid person ? I have 
my doubts ; from what I have seen and read I should 
imagine they rush to combat as a hungry man does 
to a meal. Miss Wodehouse cannot prove that the 
motor stimulus and the motor gratification of the 
combat are not enjoyable things and are of the nature 
of a normal physiological activity in the absence of 
which normal life would be impossible. She 
will surely recall those savage races of men 
who seek a gratification of their heightened motor 
impulses by laceration of their bodies. To such 
men this is pleasure, and not pain. It is one of the 
most fatal mistakes to imagine that because to fight 
and be lacerated would be to some people a painful 
and fearful thing, that therefore it is so throughout 
the whole animal kingdom. It is not, I believe, 
even true for man. On the steppes of Tartary the 
women are not happy unless their husbands beat 
them periodically ; they imagine they are not loved 
if they do not receive this attention. There can be 
but little doubt that prize-fighters and others are 



A REJOINDER 169 

incapable of feeling pain to the extent that more 
normal people do. Why then does Miss Wodehouse 
think that mortal combats are not desirable ? 
They result in the elimination of the weak 
and the sm:vival of the strong, who fear not 
strife and relatively feel not pain. Surely that is 
a desirable state of affairs. It is better to 
have a strong stock than a weak one ; one that 
cannot feel pain, or, feeling it, can endure it with 
Spartan silence, rather than one which shrinks away 
at the sight of any implement capable of inflicting 
pain. If Nature has evolved that race, surely it is 
superior to that which the " We " is endeavouring 
to bring to a fearsome and miserable existence. 

Very much the same considerations hold for that 
other supposed horrible state of things, which I 
am accused of commending as desirable, where a 
certain race of " ants carefully nurse the larvae of 
beetles, which will presently eat the baby ants." 
But is there any evidence at all that this is a painful 
process ? Even if we suppose it to be so, is it more 
painful than would be the death of the beetle larvae, 
which would perish from starvation if they had not 
the baby ants to eat ? If Miss Wodehouse shudders 
at the fate of the one, does she also shudder at the 
fate awaiting the other ? These things are unavoid- 
able ; they are an integral part of the operations of 
Nature ; and the Kea Parrot which swoops down 
upon the back of sheep and is said to extract their 
kidneys, and the butcher-bird which impales beetles 
and frogs upon thorns to a tree trunk, are doing no 



170 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

more than Man is doing. We must in reviewing 
such events depart from particular aspects and 
come to the general ones. Man and the butcher-bird 
and every other organism are impelled by the instinct 
of self-preservation. To preserve itself the butcher-, 
bird does one thing and Man another. No artificial 
alteration of the environment can modify or destroy 
this instinct. We may as well lament that the 
earth is not Mars, as to bewail the existence of this 
instinct in animal life. We have to recognise that 
it exists, and that every battlefield and every revo- 
lution brings it to the surface in all its nakedness 
and ethical horribleness, as a quality deep seated 
and inherent in Man. We have also to recognise a 
further fact. The moment a race loses such an 
instinct, its end is near. It will be destroyed by one 
whose instinct of self-preservation is strong. 

MissWodehouse asks, "Seriously, what is this Nature 
which includes and justifies the doings of all animals 
but man ? Which render infallible all instincts and 
aspirations but his ? " "I can find no profit," 
she says, " in this way of using words." Neither 
can I, and that is why I did not use them in that way. 
I should not, for instance, ascribe aspiration to the 
lower animals. But I pass this by, for I desire to 
come to the implied and supposed infallibility of the 
instincts and aspirations of some men, perhaps those 
for whom Miss Wodehouse may conceive some hope 
and place them among the " We." Let me recite 
the facts. A girl of eighteen was in a London work- 
house. A male friend of hers and a ne'er-do-well 



A REJOINDER 171 

was outside of it, for the moment. By some mutation 
of chance he had come into possession of half-a-crown. 
He proceeded to the workhouse and asked if the girl 
could come out of it. When asked why he desired 
her to come out, he replied " because he had half-a- 
crown, and as he did not know when he should earn 
another, he would like to marry her now ! " Perhaps 
from the heights of metaphysics we may be informed 
whether this is instinct or aspiration, and whether 
it is fallible or infallible ?* In another London 
workhouse there is a woman inmate with numerous 
illegitimate children by several different paramours. 
Such events are quite common. Is this too an 
" infallible aspiration " of man's ? The sentiment 
which at the cost of thrifty and respectable people 
maintains such persons, may also be regarded, I 
presume, as another human infallible instinct, or 
may it be an aspiration ! I will not multiply these 
instances, though I have records of hundreds of 
them. Truly " no profit can be found " in such 
metaphysical language as the " infallible instincts 
and aspirations of Man," but, as Huxley would 
have said, only in the " veracious facing of the ugly 
facts of life." 

We will come finally to section three of Miss 
Wodeho use's criticism. She calls this the most 
serious of all her objections to my plea for the opera- 
tion of a more virile sentiment in human affairs. 



* While this article is passing through the Press, the Eveninq News of 
July 9th, 1910, publishes the application of a pauper who had an income 
of sixpence weekly, to the Gravesend Guardians, to help him pay the cost 
of a marriage certiticate. His "young Indy'' was in the workhouse. Is 
this, too, one of the infallible instincts of Man which are so superior to 
those of that Nature which ^Fiss Wodehouse impliedly condemns ' 



172 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

She attributes to me certain "assumptions of a very 
remarkable nature as to the unit qualities of the 
mental world." I at once disclaim having made 
anywhere in my article a single assumption as to 
the nature of mental unit-characters. Nowhere in 
Miss Wodehouse's article can I find the least reference 
to any specific case, which in fairness she should 
have quoted, word for word. That they exist and 
will be one day formulated, I have little doubt. I will 
presently give some tentative evidence suggesting that 
such unit-characters may exist. But if my present 
readers will read again pages 57-59 of the article on 
" Virile Sentiment," they will be able to see what I 
actually said in the matter. In a few words, the 
substance of my remarks may be thus summarised : 
It was contended that in regard to some of the 
qualities of man, the evidence is pretty clear that 
there is segregation in their hereditary transmission 
from one generation to another ; that there was no 
reason to believe that the mental and moral qualities 
of man are transmitted in any way different from 
the physical qualities. As examples of the trans- 
mission of mental qualities, I cited the historical 
cases of the eloquence of Marcus Antonious and of 
the high statesmanlike qualities that were known 
for many generations to descend in the family of 
Brutus. Since then I have been working at human 
pedigrees, and it seems clear, that whatever may be 
the nature and the number of the unit-characters, 
if any, involved in such qualities, that the mathe- 
matical faculty and inventive genius are hereditarily 



A REJOINDER 173 

transmitted as such. If Miss Wodehouse will read 
Dr. Adams Woods' book on " Inheritance in Royalty,"* 
she will find abundant historical instances of the 
transmission of normal mental and moral qualities, 
and of high intellectual capacities. But the actual 
existence, nature, and number of the possible unit- 
characters involved is a matter for future 
investigation. More than this I have nowhere im- 
plied. 

In the passages which I have already indicated 
I spoke of the hereditary transmission of those 
qualities that make the " loafer, the wastrel, the 
congenital drunkard, the habitual criminal, the 
congenitally tuberculous, the mentally deficient, the 
thriftless and generally incapable persons." Does 
Miss Wodehouse deny the inheritance of these 
defects ? I gather not, for she says " I yield at once 
to my opponent the obvious exception of such 
definite deformity in the mind or brain as shows 
itself in insanity or feeble-mindedness " ; and she 
admits " there is good ground for believing that 
these may be units." Having made that admission, 
I must confess I fail to see the justification of her 
attitude towards mental traits which are normal. 
Does she wish us to believe that normal and abnormal 
qualities of mind or body constitute two separate 
and distinct kingdoms of characters ? If so, what 
explanation is forthcoming of the fact that feeble- 
minded children are born of the same parents who 
produce normal children ; that in families where 

* Reviewed in this number of the Journal. 



174 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

insanity has been known in each generation for several 
generations, some sons and daughters are sane and 
others are insane ; that sane parents may produce 
insane offspring; that in famiHes where "hooliganism"' 
exists and can be traced at least in two generations, 
there can be found in the same generation of brothers 
and sisters some who are hooligans and others who 
are respectable and hard-working persons ? I am 
speaking from personal knowledge derived from 
investigations not yet complete, and I find it impossible 
to fall in line with Miss Wodehouse's attitude. If 
these things occur in the same parentage, and an 
abnormal feature may be regarded as "a unit- 
character," why not the other, which appears to 
be its alternative character ? 

Miss Wodehouse has attributed to me an attitude 
in regard to mental unit-characters, which as a 
cautious man of science, I did not adopt, and which 
I was very careful to avoid. But since she has raised 
the question, I am not at all averse to discussing it on 
general grounds. I would like, however, to say, for 
the interest of those who are not conversant with 
Mendelian methods, that a general discussion is 
not Mendelism, but is of a converse nature. I am 
now merely concerned in dealing with certain 
theoretical considerations. 

Miss Wodehouse says that she cannot regard 
those qualities which we praise or blame in sane men 
as being due to simple hereditary units. Now, how 
is it possible to test this question of the existence 
of unit- characters in human mental life ? By 



A REJOINDER 175 

precisely the same tests that we apply to it in all our 
experimental cases. We have two antithetic or 
alternative qualities to deal with. If they are 
transmitted as segregable characters and they appear 
in the descendants in certain ratios, we interpret the 
collective phenomena on the basis of unit-characters. 
No cases of this kind have, as far as I am aware, 
been investigated by rigorous Mendelian methods. 
But still I think there is some evidence which points 
strongly in the direction of the segregation as unit- 
characters of these subtle mental differences that 
distinguish sane men from each other. Let us 
imagine what would happen to a normal person if it 
were possible to extract from his nerve cells that 
which we can all conceive as possibly being a unit- 
character, namely, the Nissl granules.* What would 
be the phenomena resulting from such a simple 
change in the constitution of the nerve cells ? As 
far as we can gather, from the slight physiological 
evidence we have before us as to the part played by 
these granules as sources from which the nerve cells 
derive their stores of energy, it would not be a 
simple or single phenomenon, expressed in a single 
word. They would be a whole group of phenomena 
indicating profound organic mental and physical 
disturbances. If this be the case, what validity is 
there in Miss Wodehouse's contention that the 
mental qualities which we admire or blame in sane 

* There is no need in this article to deal with the nature of these 
granules. That they represent a something fi'om which nerve cells appear 
to derive their energy, is sufficient and acc-urate enough for my present 
purpose. 

M 



176 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

men appear to group themselves into groups ? 
Assume that it may appear to be the case, is it 
really so ? May not a whole group of qualities — 
inherited as a whole — be simply due to some simple 
hereditary factor, such as the Nissl granules, or to a 
few factors hereditarily coupled together ? When 
such a contention as that maintained by my opponent 
is accepted by her, is she not merely making an 
assumption ? She is assuming that appearances are 
realities. If we must make assumptions at all, at 
least let us do so in accord with our available 
knowledge, and not in discord with it. 

There is yet more to be said against her con- 
tention. Physiological knowledge leads us to the 
conclusion that our spontaneous and reflex actions 
depend upon the existence of certain groups of 
nerve cells, collectively spoken of as nerve centres, 
which may act either singly or in combination with 
others. The nerve centre that controls the beating 
of the heart is lodged in a certain area of the 
hind-brain ; that of speech, which appears to be 
asymmetrical, in another area ; that of audition in 
another, and so on. Now, in the course of individual 
developement, whence came these groups of cells ? 
Eecent embryological investigations of the experi- 
mental order show us clearly that, not only groups 
of cells, but whole organs, may take their origin 
from a single cell or blastomere, in the early stages 
of the segmenting embryo. If that cell is destroyed 
the organ which arises from it will be absent in the 
definitive (adult) stage. Such a cell may be regarded 



A REJOINDER 177 

as the carrier of the unit-characters which determine 
the number and the quaUties of the cells of a particular 
group in the adult. A\Tiat does it matter if such an 
embryonic cell carries one, two, three, or more unit- 
characters ? So long as it is that cell which has 
dropped out from the hereditary mechanism, the whole 
group of unit-characters carried by it behave as a 
single-whole, and the adult organism will have lost not 
one but a number of qualities. It is conceivable that 
the differences which distinguish some hooligans from 
some respectable people, which mark the brilliant 
person from one a little less brilliant, which contrast the 
lethargic with the active, and which stamps the differ- 
ence between the orator of Celtic fire and overflowing 
language with the unimpassioned person of few and 
adequate words, may be due to the presence or absence 
of such embryonic cells carrying one or more unit- 
characters. Or, the absence of such cells may be rather 
potential than actual, and due to the presence of some 
inhibiting factor, which, although the early embryonic 
cell or cells were present, may have inhibited their 
subsequent multiplication by division. 

These contentions I am quite aware are at 
present hypothetical, but they arise from the 
knowledge of our day. If we must go forward in 
advance of the knowledge of the present, then let us 
follow the road which that knowledge best indicates, 
rather than the one which runs in an opposite 
direction. 

But we can look at the question in another way. 
An individual may be conceived to be made up of a 



178 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

bundle of characters not separable from each other 
and transmitted as a whole. That is the old view 
of inheritance. Under such a conception we look to 
the transmission, not of characters, but of individuals. 
But this conception is being rudely shaken, and in 
many instances clearly does not express the truth. 
In human life, and in mental traits, it obviously does 
not hold in certain cases. For if it did, how do we 
explain the fact that the mother's mental and the 
father's physical capacities may pass to a particular 
child ? . , Clearly in such cases there has been a separa- 
tion of definite characters from individuals, and their 
recombination in another. It is in this way, among 
others, that unit-characters behave in hereditary 
transmission. As far as it goes, therefore, such a 
fact indicates the existence of unit-characcers in Man. 
In further discussing the question along this line, 
I may cite some instances of what may possibly be 
examples of a unit-character, the presence of which 
produces a characteristic trait, which have come under 
my personal notice. The people who are concerned in 
these cases I have known intimately throughout 
the whole period involved in each. Imperfect, as 
scientific demonstrations, though they are, I am the 
more tempted to describe them, since by so doing it 
may be possible that the attention of others will be called 
to the nature of what must be quite familiar observa- 
tions. I assume that Miss Wodehouse will grant that 
speech is related to mind ; and that any characteristic 
intonation which may be manifested may be regarded 
either as a unit-character or as a group of such 



A REJOINDER 179 

characters which are hereditarily transmitted as a 
whole. Now, I know an instance where a young 
girl child when three years old had the same charac- 
teristic intonation in her voice that marked the 
speech of a feminine cousin of her father's. The 
young child had never seen this cousin, and the 
father's speech was quite devoid of the intonation. 
It could not therefore be due to imitation or in- 
struction. The young child's brother did not manifest 
it, neither the father nor his two brothers ; neither 
the two grandparents, nor any of their brothers. 
Neither did the only sister of the cousin, nor any of 
her brothers, or either of her parents. Though 
characteristic it was essentially a feminine intonation. 
It must therefore have been carried as a recessive 
character in the gametes of the child's father and 
paternal grandfather, and the cousin must have 
received it through the gametes of the child's grand- 
uncle. I do not see how we are to interpret this case, 
except on the basis of segregable unit-characters. Of 
course, it is only right I should -say that in comparing 
the intonation of the voice in the two people con- 
cerned I am trusting entirely to ear and memory, 
and that the comparison has not been made with the 
two people side by side, nor under other conditions 
that scientific precision would demand. But I do 
not think I am mistaken, and I recognised the intona- 
tion some years ago, as an ordinary fact of life. It is 
only now that Miss Wodehouse has raised the question 
that I recall the matter. 



180 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

This instance recalls to me another event of a 
very similar kind. Some years ago I knew a lady 
under her married name only. Her maiden name 
I did not know until the event occurred which 
I am about to describe. She was, among other 
things, interested in Celtic folk-lore and symbolism. 
I have often conversed with her, and I had 
noticed when speaking to anyone she had a very 
characteristic style of expressing herself, not in 
her choice of w^ords, but again as what I cannot 
better and yet hardly correctly describe than as an 
intonation. Two years ago I was in lona, and was 
introduced to a certain gentleman from Edinburgh. 
Upon walking one day through the ruined Nunnery and 
Cathedral, and discoursing with him upon the meaning 
of the various symbols sculptured out of the stone 
ornaments, I imagined that I must have heard him 
before. But no events which I could recall brought 
m.e in any way into relation with him, and I 
dismissed the matter. During one of the subsequent 
sentences which he uttered in describing a certain 
symbol, so exactly did his intonation resemble that 
of the lady who had discoursed on a very similar 
topic several years previously, that I could have 
no doubt he must be a relation of hers. Accord- 
ingly I asked him if he were not a brother of Mrs. 

, and he answered that he was. I also know 

the sister of this lady, and her mode of speech 
has nothing in common with either her brother or 
her sister. They were reared together as children, 
and we cannot, I think, attribute this resemblance of 



A REJOINDER 181 

speech to mere unconscious imitation, otherwise the 
other sister should have manifested it. The resem- 
blance in the intonation was so close that had I not 
known it to be a gentleman before me, I should 
certainly have thought it was the lady. 

Miss Wodehouse says " that a great part of the 
social value of a man depends not on anything that 
we can believe to be simple qualities, but on com- 
binations of these." This is precisely what I en- 
deavoured to say in my article when I wrote :* 
" An organism does not manifest a single quality 
alone, but is made up of a complex combination of 
many qualities. Some of these qualities, be they 
structural or psychical, are themselves not simple, 
but complex. Some of them are independent of 
others in the hereditary transmission, but others 
are correlated and always go together. . . . 
These facts render all questions of social interest 
extremely difficult to consider, and are the best justi- 
fication for the laisser faire attitude." Because 
matters are so complex, does Miss Wodehouse think 
that her transcendent " We " is more qualified to 
deal with them than Nature ? ' She condemns her 
own attitude with her own words. It is because 
these things are so seemingly complex that I have 
urged we should leave them alone. 

With regard to the influences of education and 
to Miss Wodehouse' s contention " that some part 
of the social value "of individuals depends upon the 
fact that organs increase their capacity by use ; 

* Page 13. 



182 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

that a wise training may increase the power of 
taking responsibility ; and that a boy with strong 
enjoyment of bodily pleasures, whose desires if 
unwisely indulged may turn to devils within him, 
but who if temperately trained may keep the love 
of beautiful and pleasant things as a deep rich under- 
tone to all his life, making that life delightful to 
himself and to all around him." All these conceptions 
and possibilities we may recognise, but they have 
nothing to do with my article. Whether the boy 
with strong bodily pleasures will be a good or bad 
citizen, depends not on his nurture but his nature. 
If with these strong pleasures he is yet capable of 
responding to good influences, he will do so. But if 
his inherent characters render him indifferent to 
such influences, he will be swept along the path 
which leads to the gratification of those strong 
pleasures. All through her criticism my opponent 
has been dealing with the good, capable, and 
responsive citizens ; while in mine I dealt with 
the bad, incapable, and irresponsive ones. I have 
never said that a good citizen will not be a good one, 
nor a responsive one irresponsive. But what I did 
urge was the folly of believing that inherently and 
congenitally bad and irresponsive citizens could be 
turned by education into good and responsive ones. 
Miss Wodehouse has not endeavoured to controvert 
that plea, but has taken a line of argument entirely 
foreign to the purpose of my article, and has implied 
that I disbelieve or oppose precisely those things 
which I do as a matter of fact accept as obvious 



A REJOINDER 183 

truths. If Miss Wodehouse contends that she can 
by " temperate training instil a deep rich undertone 
into the lives " of all boys, I am afraid, if she attempts 
it, she will experience many disappointments. I 
have in mind just now two young boys of a hooligan 
family, and if Miss Wodehouse would care to under- 
take such an instillation, and if those philanthropists 
who believe that " golden conduct can be wrought 
from leaden instincts " will test the courage of 
their convictions by defraying the cost of the process 
of instillation and of the keep of these boys from 
now until they are twenty-five or thirty, and will 
give them the ordinary liberties of citizens, we shall 
have come down from metaphysical platitudes to 
mundane biological facts, and have ascended to the 
experimental verification or destruction of our 
beliefs. 

These considerations hold, too, for the common- 
place of ethics cited by her, namely, " that nothing 
in heaven or earth is good without qualification, 
except the good-will." But if there be no good- 
will the " common-place of ethics " has no meaning ; 
while the biological fact that the relatively good and 
bad are hereditarily transmitted is full of pregnant 
significance. 

Miss Wodehouse has urged that the civic value of 
a quality may be rendered negative or positive by 
the " direction of purpose and will." She thinks 
it is difficult or even not possible for natural science 
to judge the nature of this direction and this purpose 
and will aright. She says " that from the standpoint 



184 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of moral science, it is to be urged with all possible 
emphasis that to treat such direction as a simple 
quality, transmissible as a deformity is transmissible, 
is impossible in every way ; it is absurd ; it is 
mythology." Has Miss Wodehouse ever read of 
the Jonathan Edwards' and Jukes' families ? If not 
I commend them, not only to her attention, but to a 
reverent study. She will then find that mythology 
becomes fact and absurdity becomes reason. She 
will find that while metaphysics has been soaring in the 
Empyrean regions of speculation and abstraction, 
incontrovertible fact has been walking on the earth. 

Let me make one disclaimer of my opponent's 
statement. I have not said that " purpose and 
will " may be regarded as a simple quality. I did 
not deal with the subject at all. But I am prepared 
to say and to prove that the capacity of forming 
wrong purpose, the capacity of determining will in 
the wrong direction, are both hereditarily trans- 
mitted. I am prepared to state it in another way, 
and to say that there are some people who can never 
form a right purpose, nor develope a right will, nor 
say the right thing at the right time, nor do the 
right thing at the time it should be done ; and that 
these incapacities are hereditarily transmitted and 
are not cured by education. I do not know whether 
this is a " common-place of ethics," but I think 
everyone will recognise it as a common- place 
of life. 

Miss Wodehouse throughout her criticism has 
misunderstood the standpoint from which my article 



A REJOINDER 185 

was written. Consequently she has been criticising 
many matters which she herself has raised,'and which 
find no place in the plea I urged for a more virile 
treatment of the affairs of human life. When she 
urges " that from the side of psychology, nobody can 
say at present, except to a minute extent, what the 
inherent unit-characters of mental qualities are," 
she is dealing with one of these self-created subjects 
of easy criticism. To play at nine-pins by putting 
up the pins of your opponent in the most favourable 
position for bowling over, is, of course, a facile way of 
demonstrating his stupidity. But I confess I prefer 
to arrange my pins myself. The question which 
concerns us for the present, as a body of cautious 
citizens, is not whether it is yet demonstrated that 
mental traits are transmitted as Mendelian units or 
not, but whether they are hereditarily transmitted 
at all. Upon that matter there is no question. It 
is undeniable. Any intelligent and observant parent 
can answer it. Children think and play in some 
things just as their parents thought and played at 
the corresponding age. They may manifest little 
tricks that were the peculiarity of one of their grand- 
parents, whom they have not seen. To endeavour 
to turn my plea from its sociological bearing and from 
those facts which are sufficient and legitimate for 
practical affairs into an academic groove, is but to 
cloud the issue which my plea raises, and to beg the 
question with which it is concerned. 

Similarly, that vague and unsubstantiated accusa- 
tion impliedly brought against me in the closing 



186 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

paragraph of Miss Wodehouse's criticism "of en- 
couraging metaphysicians to slur distinctions, to 
draw easy a priori conclusions, and to commit sins 
of rough and careless work," may serve well as a 
peroration ; but, unsupported by adequate citations 
from the article which she criticises, cannot help 
students of natural science to strengthen their belief 
in the existence of the scientific spirit in the methods 
of metaphysicians. But if it is possible that meta- 
physicians are susceptible to the wicked encourage- 
ments of erring biologists, is it not time they resigned 
their position alike as intellectual speculators and 
critics ? 

If metaphysicians are swayed by extraneous and 
irrelevant influences, what value can we attach to 
Miss Wodehouse's criticism ? Are we justified in 
accepting her obiter dictum concerning " the real and 
valuable political truth which lies behind the scorn 
thrown on environment" T It may be that we are 
impelled to think that political convictions have in- 
fluenced the judgement more than those harsh and 
ugly facts which none of us like. We may be 
driven to believe that when once Miss Wodehouse has 
admitted the crucial fact " that mere environment is 
truly of very little account compared with the 
presentation to us of objects which we are prepared 
to love," to endeavour to tone it down by the doubtful 
hope that " a clean environment may be just the 
chance for which the developement of a questionably 
existing instinct of bodily comfort was waiting," 



A REJOINDER 187 

suggests an attitude of mind which persists in in- 
dulging in futile hopes at any price. " To live in 
hope though we die in despair " may be good counsel 
to those for whom life has in store nothing more solid 
than aspirations which remain unfulfilled, but it is 
neither science nor sound counsel to a nation that has 
forgotten all that was good in its religion and has 
ignored the best of its traditions. We cannot rest a 
nation's destiny upon a metaphysician's " may " ; 
but only upon Nature's " is," 

But though, for the sake of argument, we may 
grant the possibility of her hope, and suppose that 
on a given day in the life of a youth born of hooligan 
parentage with a similar grandparentage behind it, 
there may arise a spontaneous and burning desire to 
become washed with hyssop and to become changed into 
a saintly citizen, at somebody else's expense, and that 
he only awaits the coming of the right environment 
created around him by the national grandmother and 
her retinue of State officials, how futile is this meta- 
physical abstraction compared to the mundane and 
concrete biological fact that given an organism with 
right inherent desires, the right thing will be done, 
even under the most adverse environment. Is it not 
better to have the noble man unscathed and un- 
scathable by the fires of temptation than to endeavour 
to render indestructible that which is incapable of 
transformation ? I commend to Miss Wodehouse 
two names that must be ever honoured by those who 
admire dauntless and brave characters — George 
Stephenson and Captain Cook. They achieved their 



188 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

greatness without national doles or the expenditure 
upon them of metaphysical hopes and " mays." I 
would fain recommend the biography of these two 
men to the study of metaphysicians. It is possible 
that if Metaphysics began and ended with a complete 
study of these two lives, it would avoid those pitfalls 
and erroneous conclusions into which a wider if more 
superficial study appears to have led it. I think all 
will agree that it is better to have a nation of 
Stephensons' and Captain Cooks', wrought into 
great citizens by their inherent worth, than it is to 
have one of incompetent clerks created by County 
Council Scholarships out of persons who would have 
been alike more useful and ornamental as manual 
workers. Scholarships of this sort are themselves 
but the outcome of unsound metaphysical abstractions 
and social hebetations.* 



♦ For further elaboration of the plea in regard to the incidence of 
Plague and to the relative insensibility of some animals and men to 
pain see Postscript, page 208. 



METHODS AND RESILTS. 



A Note Regarding Variation in tlie Single Combs 
of fowls. 

By RAYMOND PEARL. 



In the first number of the Mendel Journal, a copy of 
which has just reached me, I find a number of pages 
under the heading of " Variation in the Single Combs 
of Fowls. Some Mendelian Comments," devoted to a 
rather violent and caustic criticism of a recent paper* 
by my wife and myself on this subject. Inasmuch 
as " Ardent Mendelian," whoever that person may be, 
in these " Mendelian Comments " gives an entirely 
and absolutely incorrect statement of (a) the purpose 
with which the paper he criticises was written, and the 
problem with which it deals, and (6) my general 
standpoint with reference to the problems of inherit- 
ance, I feel bound to make the corrections which 
stand in the present note. A failure to reply would, 
I fear, be taken by the readers of this Journal to mean 
that I really hold the opinions attributed to me by 
" Ardent Mendelian." In this reply I must state at 
the outstart that it is not my purpose to attempt to 
embellish what I have to say with such a wealth of 
rhetorical ornament as is displayed in the writing of 
" Ardent Mendelian." If, as " Ardent Mendelian " would 
I suppose contend, Mendelians are all right and bio- 
metricians are all wrong in their views about inheritance, 
I venture to think that the interested biological public is 
rather more likely to be convinced of this fact by a plain 
and clear statement of the reasons why it is true than it 
is by the methods of sarcasm and ridicule which he 
adopts. 

* Data on Variation in the Comb of^the Domestic Fowl. Biometrika. 
Vol. VI. (not IV.) pp. 420-432. 1909. 



190 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

The points which I wish to make in this note are : — 

(1) A clear and correct statement of the purpose 
with which our study of variation in single combs was 
undertaken. 

(2) An attempt to show that this purpose was a 
scientificahy justifiable one. 

(3) A definite statement of my position in regard 
to the problems of inheritance in general. 

(1) " Ardent Mendelian " states that the objects of 
the investigation reported in the paper criticised were 
(1) to answer the " one cj[uestion as to whether single 
combs or their various grades breed true " (Mendel 
Journal, p. 183) ; (2) to determine " whether these 
different varieties of single comb may be hereditarily 
transmitted in accordance with Mendelian principles " 
(loc. cit. p. 184) ; and (3) to " cast doubt upon Mendelian 
conclusions '' {loc. cit. p. 193). Each one of these state- 
ments is absolutely and entirely' incorrect, and I hereby 
challenge " Ardent Mendelian " to bring forward any 
evidence from the paper he criticises to justify them. 

As to what were the objects of the paper I cannot 
do better than quote from the original : " All studies 
of this kind take their point of departure in an attempt 
to analyze a broad Mendelian category. In Mendelian 
discussion ' single comb ' is a ' unit character.' All 
' single ' combs are put together in one category,* all 
' pea ' combs in another. But nothing is more certain 
than that all single combs are not alike in respect to 
any feature whatsoever, even including their ' singleness.' 
How much and in what ways do they vary ? Do the 
variants within the categorj^ mendelize ? Are all variants 
exactty equivalent in crossing with other categories ? 
An answer to these and other easily suggested questions 
could not fail, it seems to us, to throw light on the 
problem of the constitution and physiology of the gametic 
determinants of ' unit characters/ assuming that such 
determinants exist. 

" In this paper we have endeavoured to give a clear 
and, so far as possible, quantitative description of the 

* This, I may say, was written before I had seen Rep. Evol. Comm, 
for 1908. 



COMBS OF FOWLS 191 

nature and amount of variation normally occurring in 
a homogeneous pure-bred strain of Barred Plymouth 
Rock hens in respect to the form and size of the comb. 
The aim of the 'paper is purely descriptive, and it is regarded 
by the authors as preliminary to the analytical investigation 
of comb inheritance." 

The portion of this quotation which is here italicized 
one would suppose to be a sufficiently clear statement 
of the fact that the writers were studying or about 
to undertake the study of the inheritance of comb 
characters by the application of Mendelian methods 
and that the present investigation was simply preliminary. 
By " an analytical investigation of comb inheritance," 
I meant and still mean a Mendelian investigation, in so 
far as that I know of no way whereby one can determine 
how a particular type of comb is inherited other than 
by breeding birds which possess this type of comb amongst 
themselves and with other breeds of fowls and studying 
the individual pedigree records so obtained. Such 
investigations I have been engaged upon for nearly 
three years* now, and while I have not counted up 
the number of pedigreed chicks that have passed through 
my hands in this time, I fancy that it is certainly not 
so far from the " 12,500 " with which " Ardent Men- 
delian " endeavours to confound and overwhelm me. 
I protest most vigorously against the intimation that 
I am so stupid as to undertake a purely descriptive 
biometrical investigation of variation, and only that 
kind of an investigation, for the purpose of determining 
whether the domestic fowl " breeds true " with reference 
to comb characters ! 

(2) The next point which I wish to consider is as to 
whether the objects which we had in mind, as set forth 
above, in undertaking the investigation and publishing 
the paper under discussion, were biologically valid. 
I think they were, though I freeh^ admit that there is 
room here for a difference of opinion (which is not the 
case in regard to the matter of fact raised under 1). 
While I grant unreservedly (and have, indeed, in the 

* It should be said that the Biometrika paper under discussion was 
written in the earl}' fall of 1908, though it did not appear until well on in. 
1909. 

N 



192 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

papers* from my laboratorj^ tried to emphasize) that 
the somatic condition of a character is, generally speaking, 
an unreliable criterion of its behaviour in inheritance, 
yet I am very strongly convinced that the careful and 
thorough study of somatic characters and their variation, 
quite apart from the study of their gametic determinants, 
is a very important, though distinct, branch of biology, and 
one which at every turn may be of help to the student of 
heredity. I am most heartily in s^^mpathj^ with that 
point of view in biology lately so ably championed by 
Prof. Wm. E. Ritter, which aims to investigate " things 
as they are " in biology, not as they " might be " or 
" ought to be " on this, that, or the other theory. 

It seemed to me that within the broad category of 
" single comb " there might exist more than one gametic 
type. Fully understanding (contrary to the intimations 
of " Ardent Mendelian ") that the onlj^ way ever to 
settle whether or not this was the case was by means 
of the breeding pen and the individual pedigree record, 
nevertheless I thought and still think it a useful and 
valid piece of preliminary research to determine what 
different kinds of combs actually occur in a " pure 
bred "f flock of birds, particularly since I was using the 
birds from this very flock in Mendelian experiments. 
It seems to me that " Ardent IMendelian " virtually 
admits this himself, since he picks out on the basis of 
our figures alone four " possible gametic types " of 
single comb. Hitherto in Mendelian writings I have 
never seen any reference to more than one gametic type 
of single comb, excepting for the suggestion as to the 
different types of single comb base made by Bateson 
and Punnett in Rep. Evol. Comm. 1908. To have so 
successfully gained recognition for the idea that there 



* Cf. for ex.ample. Ztschr. f. Abst. u. Vererb.-Lehre, Bd. II., pp. 
257-275. 1909. 

t " Ardent Mendelian" objects to our use of the terms "pure bred" 
and " homogeneous." To set his mind at rest I will at once say that I did 
use those terms in the much maligned " fanciers' " sense. On a strict inter- 
pretation of the case such usage is, I admit, open to criticism, but just how 
I was to describe the actual facts regarding the past history of the birds 
at this Station without either the use of these terms or a long dissertation 
on the subject I do not know. It would convey an utterly wrong impression 
regarding the true breeding history of these birds to say that they were 
heterogeneous or not " pure bred." 



COMBS OF FOWLS 193 

might be more than one such genotype in regard to 
other characters than the base of the single comb, is, 
it seems to me, no small point to the credit of our paper. 
The piece of work here under discussion was, as has 
been said, undertaken and carried out as a contribution 
to the descriptive anatomy of the domestic fowl. It 
is no more justly to be criticised for not being a Mendelian 
investigation than is any text book of human anatomy. 
It is my con\'iction that in spite of the lucubrations 
of " Ardent Mendelian " there still remains in biology 
room for the ideals and methods of careful and accurate 
descriptive anatomy. 

(3) Finally I wish to state as clearl}' as possible, 
so that there may be no room for misunderstanding, my 
position regarding the general problems of inheritance. 
I should not think of doing this, since my personal 
point of view is of no particular interest to anybody 
but myself, were it not for the fact that views are attri- 
buted to me b}^ " Ardent Mendelian " which I do not 
hold, and because he singles me out as an example 
of a school of thought respecting inheritance with which, 
as a matter of fact, I am not at all in agreement. My 
position is simply this : I am thoroughly convinced 
of the great usefulness in helping to solve biological 
problems of the application of appropriate mathematical 
methods. Being of this mind, I have endeavoured 
so far as possible to perfect myself in the use of such 
methods, inasmuch as it would seem the part of wisdom 
to learn to use correctly am^ scientific tool which one is 
to use at all. But the fact that I have used such mathe- 
matical methods in my work should not imply in the 
slightest degree, so far as I can see, that I agree with 
any person's theoretical views regarding heredity. There 
would seem to be as much justification to assume that 
a person subscribed to the doctrine of the quadrille 
of the centrosomes, for example, because he used a 
microtome !* As a matter of fact my own study of 

* In the writer's opinion it is extremely unfortunate that the impression 
should have become so prevalent among biologists that the use of biometric 
methods implies per se a behef in any particular view of inheritance. 
This iiea, one feels sure, has kept biometric methods from taking the place 
in the biological armamentarium which they justly deserve to occupy. 



194 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

inheritance has led me to the opinion that the so-called 
" law of ancestral inheritance " probably has very 
little relation to the actually important and essential 
facts of inheritance in plants and animals. On the 
contrary, I am led, primarily as a result of the investi- 
gations carried on in this laboratory during the past 
three years regarding the inheritance of, and effect of 
selection upon a character exhibiting fluctuating variation 
(egg production or fecundity in fowls)* to believe that 
inheritance is in general in accordance with Johannsen's 
" pure line " scheme. The fact of " line " inheritance 
for a character showing such wide fluctuations ( = phaeno- 
typic variation, Johannsen) as does egg production 
is made very obscure and difficult of analysis as 
compared with the characters of self-fertilising plants, 
by the circumstance of sexual reproduction. But of 
the fact there can, in my judgment, be no doubt. Further- 
more, I may say that it is my opinion that the general 
viewpoint respecting inheritance comprised under the 
idea of " pure hnes," which is so clearly and forcibly 
set forth by Johannsen in his recent book, is the most 
fundamental, accurate, and comprehensive view of 
heredity yet proposed. The relation of Mendelism to 
this view is evident. 

" Ardent Mendelian " calls me an " ardent bio- 
metrician." If by this he means merely (which he 
obviously does not) that I am an ardent advocate of 
the proper use of mathematical methods in biology, 
including Mendelian studies, I accept the designation. 
If, on the contrary, he means (which he obviously does) 
that I " ardently " uphold the views regarding inheritance 
which he attributes to me he is in most complete error. 

The " ardent "' espousal of schools of biological 
thought seems to me to be somewhat absurd. L^nless 
I quite mistake the import of the scientific method it 

* Cf . in particular the following papers : Pearl, R. , and Surface, F. M. 
A Biometrical Studj' of Egg Production. Part I. Variation in Annual 
Egg Production. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. An. Ind. Bulletin 110, pp. 1-80, 
1909. Studies of the Physiology of Reproduction in the Domestic Fowl. 
II. Data on the Inheritance of Fecundity Obtained from the Records of 
Egg Production of the Daughters of " 200-egg " Hens. Me. Agr. Expt. 
Stat. Bulletin 166, pp. 48-84, 1909. Is There a Cumulative Efft ct of Selec- 
tion ? Data from the Study of Fecundity in the Domestic Fowl. Ztschr. 
f. Abst. u. Vererb.-Lehre, loc. cit. 



COMBS OF FOWLS 195 

implies above everything else the maintenance of a 
critical spirit, both in regard to observations and to 
theories. Dogma, whether it be Mendelian or " bio- 
metric," has, it seems to me, no place in science. It 
has appeared to many biologists that the standpoint of 
some of the workers along Mendelian lines has been 
that a critical attitude towards Mendelian results or 
theories was necessarily a hostile one. Such a position 
is, of course, in the long run not tenable. The present 
writer, and he feels tolerably sure that the majority 
of conservative biological opinion is with him on this 
point, proposes to continue in his study of inheritance, 
to maintain a • critical attitude towards all methods 
and ideas, whether Mendelian or otherwise, trying all 
and holding fast to those which are good. Nobod}^ is 
going to be argued, whipped, or ridiculed into the adoption 
of any view of heredity. If the basic and iunclamental 
Mendelian data and ideas regarding inheritance cannot 
withstand the most searching criticism which can be 
brought to bear upon them (the writer believes that 
they can) then the sooner they are relegated to the 
scrap heap the better it will be for biology. To seek to 
avoid criticism or to crush and annihilate it by militant 
rhetoric is not onlj^ futile but foolish. 

Biological Laboratory', 

Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Orono, Maine, U.S.A. 



A Note Regarding Variation in the Single Combs 
of rowls. 

A REPLY BY "ARDENT MENDELIAN." 



We are afraid that Dr. Pearl in his reply to some comments 
of ours, concerning the memoir published by him in 
" Biometrika," and which he has we cannot help thinking 
ungenerously called a "rather violent and caustic criti- 
cism."' has not done us the honour to read that criticism 
with sufficient care. Had he done so, he would have learned 



196 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

that none of the imputed statements were written by 
us. We were extremely careful, in all essential points, 
not to write our own interpretations of Dr. Pearl's 
utterances, but to quote them fully and without 
modification. 

Wlien Dr. Pearl accuses us of " stating that the 
objects of his investigation were (1) to answer the one 
question as to whether single combs or their various 
grades breed true ; (2) to determine whether these 
different varieties of single comb may be hereditarily 
transmitted in accordance with Mendelian principles ; 
and (3) to cast doubt upon Mendelian conclusions," 
he is clearly under a misimpression as to the object of our 
criticism. What was stated was this* : " The authors have 
propounded a number of questions, but the central thesis 
turns upon the one question as to whether single combs or 
their various grades breed true." This is quite a different 
thing to asserting that these questions were the objects 
of his investigation. 

Now did Dr. Pearl propound these questions or 
not ? If we turn either to his origmal article in 
" Biometrika " or to his reply, we shall find the answer. 
We may quote his statement verbatim. " All ' single ' 
combs are put together in one category, all pea combs^ 
in another. But nothing is more certain than that all 
single combs are not alike in respect to any feature 
whatsoever, even including their singleness. f How much 
and in what way do they vary ? Do the variants within 
the category Mendelize^ ? Are all variants exactly 
equivalent in crossmg with other categories ? " In 
slightly different words, f;]: these are precisely the questions 
which we said Dr. Pearl had propounded in his- 
paper, and it was not asserted that they were the objects 
of his investigation. 

Let us come to what we actually did say was the object 
of his investigation. Since this was the crucial point 
around which the criticism centred, our invariable rule 

* MendelJournal, No. 1, October, 1909, p. 183, fourth line from the 
beginning of the article. 

t This is only another way of stating that single combs do not breed 
true. 

% This is only another way of asking whether the various grades ol 
single comb breed true, and whether they are transmitted according ta 
Mendelian principles. 



SINGLE COMBS OF FOWLS 197 

of quoting fully the statement which we purposed criti- 
cising was followed. On page 184 it was stated : "The 
apparently real object of the investigators, that with 
which they commenced their investigation, seems to 
be contained in the following statement : ' In this paper 
we have endeavoured to give a clear and, as far as possible, 
quantitative description of the nature and amount of 
variation normally occurring in a homogeneous pure- 
bred strain of Barred Plymouth Rock hens in respect to 
the form and size of the comb.' " And now. Dr. Pearl 
in endeavouring to put our putatively aberrant pen 
right, quotes in his reply (pages 190-1) this very sentence, 
as explaining the object of his investigation ! This is just 
what we said was the object of his investigation as stated 
in his own words. Surely Dr. Pearl must have overlooked 
this part of our article. 

In another matter Dr. Pearl has misread the comments 
which wo ventured to pass upon his conclusions. Nowhere 
was it asserted or implied that he was " so stupid as to 
undertake a purely descriptive biometrical investigation 
of variation, and only that kind of investigation, for the 
purpose of determining whether the domestic fowl 
' breeds true ' with reference to comb characters." Our 
criticism was confined wholly to Dr. Pearl's own state- 
ments and conclusions, and had he carefully read 
page 185, he would have surely noticed the sentence 
in which was indicated again the real problem we had to 
consider. " The object then before us is a study of the 
range and nature of the variation in the single comb of a 
certain race of hens." That is precisely what Dr. Pearl 
tells us was the nature of his enquiries in the sentence 
which we have just extracted from his reply, and quoted 
above. 

In our article two general objections to the conclusions 
arrived at by Dr. Pearl were raised. First, it was 
contended his methods were invahd. Second, that the 
so-called homogeneous material was not homogeneous at 
all but markedly heterogeneous. And that, therefore, 
conclusions based upon material which is assumed to be 
one thing but is in reality the reverse, can be of no value. 

Now Dr. Pearl, in his reply (p. 191) "freely admits 
that there is room for a difference of opinion as to whether 



198 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the object of his investigation was biologically valid." 
The dominating and all-embracing object we should 
bear in mind was to measure (quantitatively describe) 
the variation of this so-called homogeneous material. 
Since Dr. Pearl admits it is possible that this object may 
have no validit}/ there is nothing to be gained by repeating 
here those considerations which we gave for regarding his 
biometrical methods (namely, mass measurements) as 
wholly invalid for the purposes of the mvestigation. 

It was further contended that the somatic condition of 
a character maj; be quite unreliable as a criterion of its 
gametic behaviour in inheritance. Dr. Pearl now frankly 
admits that it is so (p. 192). Having done this he has de- 
stroyed altogether the foundation of ' ' Biometrics " as a valid 
instrument for dealing with problems of inheritance. 
For that which can alone measure somatic characters 
cannot give valid conclusions on problems of inheritance 
which depend upon gametic behaviour. 

With regard to our second criticism, that the material 
investigated by Dr. Pearl was not homogeneous, he 
has attempted no real answer to it. He says he " did 
not use the term ' homogeneous ' in the fancier's sense " 
(footnote, p. 192). But he does not tell us in what sense 
he did use the word. It is not, it seems to us, any reply 
at all, to say he could not see " just how the actual facts 
regarding the past history of these fowls was to be told, 
without describing them as a homogeneous race." But 
this particular race of hens is either homogeneous in some 
definite sense or it is not. If it is homogeneous, the first 
canon of science requires the strict definition of the term 
employed. And, if it is not homogeneous, then no matter 
what the mconveniences, the use of the term is unjustified. 
As a matter of fact, Dr. Pearl did describe the past history 
of the birds without reference to this term when, in his 
original memoir, he stated " that they had been carefully 
and closely selected in their breeding for more than 
twenty five years." This, surely, would have been sufficient 
description of his material, and it would, by itself, have 
been quite accurate, without the introduction of a term 
which Dr. Pearl, under the light and stress of criticism, now 
virtually admits has no meaning at all, in the context in 
which he employed it. 



SINGLE COMBS OF FOWLS 199 

Another objection which was urged against the homo- 
geneity of his material was " that we cannot by mere 
somatic selection, however long it may be continued, 
obtain a homogeneous race of smgle combs in respect 
to any of their characters, except as the result of a happy 
and exceedingly rare accident." Now Dr. Pearl admits the 
justice of this criticism, for he says, as we have ahead}'- 
pointed out, in his reply (p. 192) " that the somatic 
condition of a character is, generally speaking, an un- 
reliable criterion of its behaviour m inheritance." And 
this race of hens, selected on the old somatic basis in 
vogue twenty years ago, and which has been continued to 
the present, can therefore have no claim of any sort, 
on Dr. Pearl's own admission, to be regarded as homo- 
geneous. 

Thus, on all the essential points which we criticised, 
Dr. Pearl virtually admits the justice and validity of the 
criticism. 

There is one further point in Dr. Pearl's reply which 
calls for notice. He says (p. 192) " it seemed to him 
that within the broad categorv of ' single comb ' there 
might exist more than one gametic type." Now, we do not 
question that Dr. Pearl conceived, even before the 
appearance of our criticism, the possibility of there 
existing more than one gametic type " within the category 
of smgle comb." But we do know, as the note appended 
to the article in which that criticism is expressed shows, 
the Editor of " Biometrika " declined to allow us to 
reproduce the figures of four particular combs which we 
had selected from Dr. Pearl's illustrations. But he was 
willing that we should reproduce any one of Dr. Pearl's 
three plates complete. As a concession, and upon our 
suggestion, he subsequently kindly allowed us to reproduce 
both the four selected figures and one whole plate 
of figures. Now there can be only one object m 
desirmg this reproduction of a whole set of figures, 
as they were arranged by Dr. Pearl, and which were quite 
immaterial to our purpose. And that object is to demon- 
strate what the Editor of " Biometrika " conceives to be a 
case of contmuous or fluctuating variation. And, if these 
figures conceivably show continuous variation, where, 
then, we may ask, is the conception of gametic types ? 



200 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Clearly, the Editor of " Biometrika " and his biometrical 
contributor do not see " eye to eye." But, apart from a 
consideration of this sort. Dr. Pearl does not anywhere 
in his original paper allude to gametic types among single 
combs. But what he does allude to are " variants." 
Now " variants," as used in the biometrical language 
of Dr. Pearl's paper, are w^holly somatic, and not gametic, 
in conception. Whatever conceptions Dr. Pearl may have 
had in mind, certainly the gametic ones were not expressed 
in his original memoir. Perhaps in the shadow of the 
Biometrical " Field Marshal " they froze at their incep- 
tion, and they awaited the more genial atmosphere of the 
" Mendel Journal," for their fruition. 

Dr. Pearl seems to imply (p. 193) that we have 
attributed to him views regarding heredity which he does 
not hold. If we understand him rightly, and have 
correctly followed his context, Dr. Pearl appears to think 
that w^e have ascribed to him a belief in the biometrical 
"Law of Ancestral Inheritance." We should be exceedingly 
sorry to attribute to anyone beliefs which they do not 
hold. We can quite sympathise with Dr. Pearl's anxiety 
to be dissociated from that burning and blackening 
chestnut of the biometrical harvest. But surely it is a 
httle ungenerous to seek an opportunity of discarding 
a fallen idol and a shattered faith by accusing us of 
statements which we have not made. We have nowhere 
attributed to Dr. Pearl a belief in any theory of 
inheritance. His methods, his statements, his conclusions, 
and his material were criticised, but nothing more. The 
fact that Dr. Pearl has spoken of our "mihtant rhetoric " 
and of the " Law of Ancestral Inheritance " suggests to 
us that he has confused together two distinct articles, 
namely, " The Present Position of the Mendelians and 
Biometricians " and the one entitled " Variation in the 
Single Combs of Fowls ; some Mendelian Comments." 
In the latter, no " militant rhetoric " of any sort occurs, 
and the " Law of Ancestral Inheritance " is not 
mentioned. In the former article, which does not deal 
with Dr. Pearl, the author of this Law is mentioned, 
and the article was advisedly written in the style of 
martial imagery. But it was not intended that the 
cap should fit Dr. Pearl. Of course, if he should like 



SINGLE COMBS OF FOWLS 201 

to put it on, only for the purpose of creating an 
opportunity of throwing it off, that is an exercise which 
he is at perfect Hberty to practise. But it is unkind of 
him to accuse us of perpetrating the cruel act of placing 
such a veritable crown of thorns as the " Law of 
Ancestral Inheritance " upon his head. 

With regard to the maintenance of a critical spirit in 
dealing with observations and theories in science, we 
are all agreed. But we may, in conclusion, express the 
hope that those who are subjected to criticism should 
endeavour to fairly read the comments and to grasp the 
spirit of the critic. If that were done, " militant 
rhetoric " would not be found where it does not exist, 
and " caustic comments " would assume the appearance 
of an honest and even genial attempt to deal with 
problems in which many find an interest, but who 
approach them from different standpoints ? 

Nothing was further from our intention than to make 
any " caustic comments " upon the memoir of Dr. Pearl 
and his wife. The paper from the standpoint of Mendelism 
appeared to require comment. With much of Dr. Pearl's 
recent and experimental work we are in accord, and could 
only write of it in terms of the fullest admiration. 



MISCELLANEA, 



Apogamy and Hybridisation. 

3Ir. C. H. Ostexfeld, of Kohfuhav!., who in 1906 brought 
out a paper on Apogamy and Hybridisation of the Hieracia, 
popularly known as Hawk-weeds, repeating some of Mendel's 
experiments, has just pubUshed an accoimt of the results of 
some further experiments on apogamy and hybridisation of the 
Hieracia from 1906 to 1909.* The plants experimented on 
were obtained from a wide area, north, south, east, and west of 
Europe, and included many from North America, besides the 
offspring of previous experiments. 

The method of castration was a complete shave with the 
razor, cutting off the top of the unopened head within two or 
three days of expansion ; this operation removed all the stigmas 
and anthers. Every precaution was taken to ensure isolation 
of the seed, the soil in which it was sowed being first baked — 
very necessary when experimenting with such a common and 
widely distributed genus as the Hieracia. 

The experimental results obtained by Mr. Ostenfeld as the 
outcome of castration of the flower heads, suggested the necessity 
of a cytological investigation of the embryo sac and surrounding 
nucellus of the ovules. Prof. 0. Rosenberg undertook this. He 
made examinations of the developing apogamous ovules and found 
the chromosomes of the egg-cells unreduced, i.e., their number 
equalled those of the body cells. 

Mr. Ostenfeld carefully summarises all the current theories 
on the connection between mutations, their constancy, and 
apogamy ; he regards Winkler's opinion, that in parthenogenetic 
or apogamous plants there is great likelihood of a mutant keeping 
constant, as the truest view of the question up to date, and is 
inclined to believe that apogamy influences the constancy of a 
mutant and causes its persistence, but is not the cause of the 
mutation. 

* Castration and Hybridisation Experiments with some species of 
Hieracia, by C. H. Ostenfeld. Ssertryk of Botanisk Tidsskrift. 27 Bind. 
3, Haefte, Kobenhavn, 1906; and 

Further Studies on the Apogamy and Hybridisation of Hieracia (Experi- 
mental and Cytological Studies on the Hieracia, by C. H. Ostenfeld and O. 
Rosenberg. Part III.), by C. H. Ostenfeld. Sonderabdruck aus " Zeit- 
schrift fiir induktive Abstammungs-und Vererbungslehre." Band III. 
Heft 4. 1910. 



MISCELLANEA 203 

One particularly interesting " sex-mutant " arose from a 
cross made by Mr. Ostenfeld between Hieracium excdlans, 
which bears female flowers only, and Hieracium aurantiacum, 
which is hermaphrodite. The primary hybrid of Fj^ was, like 
H. excellans, i.e., female only. It was isolated, and 53 individuals 
obtained in F„. These were, of course, developed apogameticallv. 
Of these 52 were Uke the primary hybrid, but one differed in 
several features and was hermaphrodite with copious pollen, 
ft was sterile on isolation, and did not set any seed. Mr. Osten- 
feld speaks of it as a sex-mutant. 

Of special interest is his discovery that two apogamous species 
i.e., H. aurantiacutn and H. piloseUa are fertile when the latter is 
polhnated by the pollen of the former species. Nineteen indi- 
viduals were obtained in this experiment, of which one was an 
indubitable hybrid. 

Amongst other interesting points shown by his work, Mr. 
Ostenfeld foimd all forms of Hieracium umbellatum normally 
sexual except one which is apogamous ; but he states that, 
setting aside this species, he believes himself justified in declaring 
that almost all the numerous species of the sub-genus Archieracium 
are apogamous. He tells us further that he found some species 
apogamous and capable of cross fertilisation, while others 
were only apogamous and incapable of cross fertilisation. 

!Mr. Ostenfeld points out that Professor Bateson's view that 
no indisputable examples of non-segregating hj'brids have been 
found amongst plants is upheld by his experiments with 
Hieracia, which prove that the constancy of certain hybrids 
is due to apogamy. 

Apparently all apogamous hybrids are not constant, for in 
Mrs. Haig Thomas' experiments with apogamous seed from an 
extracted Fo white Nicotiana,* derived by the selfing of an 
F^ hybrid of N. Sylvestris x A^. affitiis there were produced in 
F3 all the shades of reds, purples, and whites with coloured 
under-surface fomid in Fi and Fg. It would seem, therefore, 
that apogamous plants are not necessarily constant. 

A beautifully executed coloured plate containing drawings 
of the parents and 23 hybrid offspring F^, F,, and F3 of 
Hieracium excellans x Hieracium aurantiacum accompanies the 
memoir. 

A New Theory of Sex Heredity. 

In a letter to "Nature," February 2-l:th, 1910, Mr. Frederick 
Keeble, Professor of Botany at the University of Reading, pro- 
pounded a new theory of sex heredity based, he states, on the 

* This plant had white flowers with coloured under surface. 



204 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

presence and absence theory of Professor Bateson and Professor 
Punnet. 

On Mr. Keeble's suggested hypothesis naaleness and femaleness 
are independent allelomorphs, each with its presence and absence 
designated thus : "Mm" and "Ff." Proceeding on the usual plan, the 
scheme presented contains among Ifi individuals nine hermaphro- 
dites with varied possibilities, three males, three females, and one 
sexless. Amongst the nine hermaphrodites is one zygote, in 
which both sexes are doubly present, and symbolically represented 
as M M F F, and four of the type M m F f, where each contains 
only a half-dose of the two sexes. Naturally the question arises 
as to the actual sex which either type of zygote, i.e., M M FF 
and M m F f , will manifest. Both contain maleness and female- 
ness in equal amount. Other theories of sex regard maleness 
as being dominant in some cases, and in others femaleness. 
But Dr. Keeble, faUing back upon the familiar fact that double 
begonias which normally bear female flowers, may be induced 
to develope male flowers upon starvation of the plants, postu- 
lates the conception that it is external conditions, such as nu- 
trition, which determines the definitive sex of zygotes of either 
these two types. He thinks that in general the number of males 
and females among zygotes of the MMFF and MniFf type will be 
about equal, though wide departures may be expected under 
conditions which favour the development of one sex more than 
another. The question is one which experiment alone can 
decide. 

Among the remaining hermaphrodite types, i.e., Mm F F 
and M M F f , the former, it is supposed, will produce female 
organs and the latter male. 

Four of the remaining types will be unisexual, containing only 
maleness or femaleness, and may be represented as MM f f, 
M m f f, ra m F F, m m F f. The one remaining type will be 
sexless, i.e., mm f f . Naturally it must be supposed that 
M M f f and M jn f f will bear male organs and m m F F, m m F f 
female organs whatever the nature of the external conditions. 
The m m f f type, if viable, will be sterile. 

Dr. Keeble proceeds to show that many interesting problems, 
such as prepotency, partial steriHty, homosporous and heteros- 
porous ferns (the latter bearing spores which produce both male 
and female or hermaphrodite prothalh, and the latter having 
two sets of spores, one large which produce female prothaUi, 
and the other small which produce small male prothalU), the high 
rate of mortality accompanying spore formation, and the absence 
of sexual reproduction in certain algfe, may receive an intelligible 
explanation on the basis of his hypothesis, in part elaborated by 
the collaboration of his colleagues, Miss Rayner, Miss Pellen, and 
Mr. Jones. 



MISCELLANEA 



205 



Dr. Keeble's hypothesis, that it is starvation which induces 
tbe appearance of male flowers in double begonias of the postu- 
lated type M M F F and M m F f, and by imphcation that 
it is high feeding which produces the development of female 
flowers, while not inconsistent with the cases he had in view, is 
yet not consistent with the fact that another variety of the same 
plant, Begonia Gloire de Lorainc, so much cultivated as a stove 
plant, forced under heat and richly fed, which produces only 
male flowers until the end of the flowering season, when one or 
sometimes two female flowers appear. The cultivation of the 
melon furnishes another example of the appearance of abundant 
male flowers in spite of rich feeding, the female flower being much 
rarer and appearing later. 

The following is Mr. Keeble's scheme, showing the distri- 
bution of the nine different types of zygotes among every 16 
individuals, which accompanies his' paper in " Nature," Vol. 82, 
No. 2104, February, 1910 :— 

MM 
MM 

Mm 
Mm 
MM 
M m 



Dihybrid 
Scheme. 



< 



2. 

2. 
4. 
1. 
2. 
1. 
2. 



m m 
ni m 
m m 




A Note on Mrs. R. Haig Thomas's Article 
on Parthenogenesis. 

In her interesting paper on " Parthenogenesis in Nicotiana "' 
in the Mendel Journal for October, 1909, Mrs. R. Haig Thomas 
suggests that Nicotiana Sanderae may be simply the result of 
parthenogenetically produced seed of N. Forgetiana, not the 
result of crossing that plant with i\^. affini?, as has been alleged. 

The chief ground for her belief that N. Sandera? is not a hybrid 
appears to lie in the fact that it breeds true from seed, a 
" phenomenon which is not expected to occur, on Mendelian 
principles of gametic purity and segregation." 

Now the authoress shows that N. Sanderat is capable of 
forming seed parthenogenetically, and suggests that it is for this 



206 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

reason that even when growing alongside of other " varieties " 
(species ?) " of Nicotiana in the open it always seeds true," and 
this suggestion carries with it the implication that all the seed of 
N. Sanderae are produced parthenogenetically. 

Mendelian segregation is not to be expected in the case of 
parthenogenetically produced offspring. Thus the evidence on 
which N . Sanderae is regarded as not a hybrid is, to say the least, 
somewhat weak. 

FurthermoiC, it is not shown that iV. Forgeiiana exhibits 
the phenomenon of parthenogenesis, although this is of course 
possible. If this were shown, greater weight might be attached 
to the suggested origin of N. Sanderae., but in the absence of this 
proof the origin of N. Sanderae seems certainly not less " shrouded 
in mystery " than it was before. 

It is conceivable that a hybrid, such as N . Sanderae is alleged 
to be. should breed true by producing seed parthenogenetically. 
Royal Horticultural Society. Feed. J. Chittenden. 



\ Reply to IVIr. Chittenden's Nete. 

Mr. F. J. Chittenden's criticism of the doubt which I expressed 
respecting the hybrid nature of Nicotiana Sanderae, in a short 
paper on "Parthenogenesis (Apogamy) " in '" Nicotiana, "t 
is based upon the supposition that " Mendelian segregation is 
not to be expected in the case of parthenogenetically produced 
offspring." But within my experience segregation has occurred 
among apogamous plants. I will cite the case : 

An F, N. sylvestris x N. afjinis ; white upper surface, 
coloured under surface, was treated for apogamy, by cutting off 
the anthers and stigma in the young bud. and ripe capsules were 
gathered on the 31st of August, 1909. The seed was sown 4th 
Sept. ; and germinated r2th Sept. 1909. In May, 1910. all these 
Fg apogamous plants, some sixty in number, flowered under glass, 
and split into the reds, purples, and whites with coloured under- 
surface which we would expect in the case of self-pollinated 
seed ; unfortunately, the ratio of the different colours was not 
counted before the plants went off flower, but in June fourteen of 
them were planted in the open border. These flowered again in 
September, and the colours were counted : — 

White, with coloured under surface. Red. Purple. 

10 3 1 

t" Mendel Journal," October, 1909. 



MISCELLANEA 207 

Further, the ripe seeds iu an apogamus capsule are usually 
fewer in number than those in a selfed capsule, and it may there- 
fore be inferred that all the ovules are not capable of apogamy. 
Given this inference, it is not difficult to imagine that some 
N. Forcjetiana were reproduced apogamously among the hybrids 
made by Mr. Sander, and chosen for their deeper colour to con- 
tinue breeding from 

I fear it is not possible, until some traveller again imports it 
from South America, to ascertain positively that N. Forgetiana 
is apogamous, for in reply to a letter of enquiry Mr. Sander wrote 
to me April 23rd, 1907, as follows : — " We regret to say we have 
neither seeds nor plants of N. Forgetiana, as the plant was 
deemed not worth keeping after the hybrids were obtained 
from it." It seems a pity that a plant which produced such 
splendid results horticulturally and financially in the cross 
with N. afflnh should be destroyed instead of being crossed 
with other varieties of Nicotiana. Again, all the Nicotiana 
species and varieties I have observed under cultivation are each of 
them distinguished by three gradations of colour — pale, medium, 
and dark in distinct shades, the medium shade most numerous, 
the pale and dark far less frequent ; and these same three grades 
of colour exist on the under surfaces of the so-called White 
Nicotianas, Affinis and Suavolens. Now, it is conceivable that 
Mr. Sander's traveller may have brought over N. Forgetiana 
in one only of these colours, the medium, which might further 
confuse the issue, as it would seed all three shades. This I have 
found experimentally in selfed plants. 

Varieties of Nicotiana seeding true in the open ground 
subjected to insect crossing, and growing within two feet of one 
another, seemed to demand some explanation ; in the case of 
the N. Tabaccums, this is found in the fact that fertilization 
takes place just before the bud expands, but N. Sanderae and 
others have not that habit, and apogamy in these might partly 
explain it, though not altogether, as apparently all the ovules 
are not apogamic. 

Rose Hatg Thomas. 



208 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Appendix to Mr. fudge's Rejoinder to tlie Criticism of 
IVIiss Wodehouse. 



Ttie Incidence of Plague and ttie Relative Insensibility 
of Hooligans to Pain. 

PosTSCKiPT TO PAGE 151. " Tlius the [Aague is benign to the race 
in the long run" &c. 

While these pages were passing through the Press, I felt curious 
to ascertain whether as a matter of history, quite apart from 
biological considerations, however plausible and cogent they may 
be, the plague does actually tend under the ordinary conditions 
of life, to eliminate particular classes of people, and thereby to 
exercise a selective value in the evolution of a community. 
During my quest I came across, among others, a well-known 
book, namely, Daniel Defoe's " Journal of the Plague Year."* 
In order that I might gather a right impression of the events of 
that period, namely, 1665, and obtain a true conception of the 
nature of the author's experiences, and of the observations which 
he had gathered from eye-witnesses, I carefully read the book 
through. I think anyone who will do the same will be able to 
arrive at a general conclusion something like this : that in the 
course of a great and terrible epidemic such as the plague of 
1665 was, there is an actually heavier incidence of the disease 
upon the foolish, the reckless, the criminals, and those who are 
of dirty instinct or habit. 

Let us deal with the foolish and reckless first. Defoe des- 
cribed certain precautions which were enjoined upon the people, 
and he tells us " It must be acknowledged that when people 
began to use these cautions they were less exposed to danger, 
and the infection did not break into such houses so furiously as 
it did into others before ; and thousands of families were pre- 
served by that means. But it was impossible to beat anything 

* As scientific evidence this book cannot of course be quoted. But 
it does not necessarily follow that all evidence which is not strictly scientific 
is not true. Defoe was only six years old during the Plague year, but he 
had an uncle and other relatives who were in London, at the time, and he 
became acquainted with others who were intimate with the incidents of 
that year. Moreover, he had access to volumes, some written by medical 
men, which appear not to be obtainable now. There is, therefore, no 
reason to doubt the essential accuracy of his records, especially as the book 
appears to have been WTitten as a means of administering precaution and 
tendering advice to Londoners in view of the threatened extension of the 
plague which was raging at Marseilles in the years 1720-2L 



MISCELLANEA 209 

into the heads of the poor. They went on 'vith the usual im- 
petuosity of their tempers, full of outcries and lamentations when 
taken, but madly careless of themselves, foolhardy, and obstinate 
while they were well. This adventurous conduct of the poor 
was that which brought the plague among them in a most furious 
manner, and this, joined to the distress of their circumstances 
when taken, was the reason why they died so by heaps ; for I 
cannot say I could observe one jot of better husbandry among 
them — I mean the labouring poor — while they were all well and. 
getting money than there was before, but as lavish, as extrava- 
gant, and as thoughtless for to-morrow as ever ; so that when 
they came to be taken sick they were immediately in the utmost 
distress, as well for want as for sickness, as well for lack of food 
as lack of health." 

This, then, is the contemporary, or nearly contemporary, 
record of the incidence of the plague, and it seems to have fallen 
upon the foolish and the reckless — which then, as now, appear 
to be more frequently found among the poor than in other social 
classes — " so that they died by heaps." It is pathetic, no doubt ; 
but we must not overlook the real significance of this incidence 
because of that. The gist of the matter, indeed, is very simple. 
Foolishness and recklessness are not the products of poverty, 
but poverty is the consequence of inherently foolish and reckless 
natures'. That is why the poor are poor ; that is why civic 
defectiveness is more largely developed in them as a class than 
in other classes ; it is because the inherently defective tend to 
sink downwards into the lower social strata. The twentieth 
century does not diflfer from the fifteenth in this matter. And, 
if a great epidemic were to sweep over England to-day, the 
Defoe of our time would write precisely what the Defoe of two 
hundred and forty-five years ago wrote. The " poor are always 
with us," but it is too often forgotten to add, "and are always 
the same." 

As a further illustration of the reckless and wasteful nature 
of the poor we read : "There was a most excessive plenty of all 
sorts of fruit, such as apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, and 
they were the cheaper because of the want of people ; but this 
made the poor eat them to excess, and this brought them into 
fluxes, griping of the guts, surfeits, and the like, which often 
precipitated them into the plague." 

In yet another part of the " Journal " we read as follows : 
" They not only went boldly into company with those who had 
tumours and carbuncles* upon them that were running, and 
consequently contagious, but ate and drank with them, nay, 
went into their houses to visit them, and even, as I was told, 

* Of the Plague. 



210 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

into their very chambers where they lay sick." " Nay, even into 
the same beds, with those that had the distemper upon them, 
and were not recovered." 

Now let us consider the criminals, and the incidence of the 
disease upon them. " That there were a great many robberies 
and wicked practices committed even in this dreadful time I do 
not deny. The power of avarice was so strong in some that they 
would run any hazard to steal and to plunder ; they would break- 
in [to houses] at all hazards, and without regard to the danger of 
infection take even the clothes off the dead bodies.'" " It is, 
indeed, to be observed that the women were in all this calamity 
the most rash, fearless and desperate creatures, and as there were 
vast numbers that went about as nurses to tend those that were 
sick, they committed a great many petty thieveries in the houses 
where they were employed." These statements speak for 
themselves, and I need not further comment upon them, except 
to say this : that very probably a great number of persons of 
thievish propensities became nurses, not to nurse, but in order 
to utilize the opportunities for stealing. If these passages and 
others in the " Journal " have any meaning, they signify that 
the thieving and pilfering instincts took their possessors into 
danger, and led the majority of them to their destruction. 

It is often said that the plague strikes all persons alike, irre- 
spective of strength or weakness. There are reasons to justify 
us in doubting this beUef, and Defoe's " Journal " strengthens 
these doubts. There is no reason why we should doubt that the 
plague, like malaria, inflicts some fatally, otliers not fatally, and 
others not at all. In other words, the plague, not only socially 
but constitutionally,exerts an evolutionary influence, eliminating 
the susceptible and leaving the immune. There is, for instance, 
the case of John Hay ward, under-sexton, gravedigger, and bearer 
of the dead. " This man carried, or assisted to carry, all the 
dead to their graves, and who were carried in form (that is bodily 
and individually), and after that form of burying was stopped, 
went with the dead-cart and the bell to fetch the dead bodies 
from the houses where they lay, and fetched many of them out 
of the chambers and houses ; for the parish was remarkable for 
a great number of very long alleys, into which no carts could 
come, and where they were obliged to go and fetch the bodies 
a very long way." " Which work he performed and never had 
the distemper at all, but lived twenty years after the Plague." 
" His wife at the same time was a nurse to infected people, and 
tended many that died in the parish, yet she never was infected 
neither." 

Then there is the case of the " piper," who one night having 
drunk too much, lay down upon a stall in the street, and was taken 



MISCELLANEA 211 

up for dead by the bearers, placed in the dead-cart, and upon 
and around him a number of dead were laid. All the while 
that the bearers were collecting their gruesome cargo, and piling 
the bodies into the dead-cart, the "piper" slept soundly, 
surrounded on all sides by the plague-stricken dead. He was 
nearly buried alive. But in spite of his intimate contact with 
the dead, he did not contract the plague. It should also be 
remembered that this " piper," from the nature of his calling, 
mingled freely with people of the lower classes, upon whom, 
according to Defoe, the incidence of the plague was very heavy, 
and must have come many times into contact with persons 
suffering from the disease, either manifest or not. 

From Dr. Boghurst's " Loimographia " we may extract the 
following, which shows how though some persons may come into 
the most intimate and prolonged relationship with the infected, 
throughout an extended period of time, in fact during the whole 
of the plague year, yet they do not contract the disease. " I 
commonly dressed forty sores in a day, held the pulse of 
patients sweating in their beds half or quarter of an hour together, 
let blood, administered clysters to the sick, held them up in their 
beds to keep them from strangling and choking,* half an hour 
together commonly, and suffered their breathing in my face 
several times when they were dying ; ate and drank with them, 
especially those that had sores ; sat down by their bedsides and 
upon their beds, discoursing with them an hour together." 

It is not necessary to give any further quotations. These 
serve to indicate my general purpose. It seems, therefore, there 
are those who are immune to the disease ; those who are only 
difficultly susceptible ; those who fall easily. The quotations 
further show — and a full reading of the " Journal " would 
demonstrate this even more cogently — that the disease does 
manifest an incidence in its effects and carries off the foolish, 
reckless, vicious dirty, and thievish in greater numbers than those 
who are wiser, more discreet, cleaner, and more capable of 
adjusting themselves instinctively or intuitively to sudden 
emergencies and new conditions. In as far as it does that, 
plague serves to purge a community of undesirable units and to 
leave it sounder in those attributes tliat are essential in civilised 
communities. It exercises a selective and therefore evolutionary 
effect upon the race which it visits. I have been assured by 
travellers, some of them medical men, that in other epidemic 
diseases, such as yellow fever, the incidence of the disease is very 
much heavier upon those whose habits are dirty and licentious 

* This evidently indicates the pneumonic or more infectious form of 
plague. To allow such to " breathe in one's face " means almost cei'tain 
infection to susceptible people. 



212 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

than upon the clean and tliose of temperate habits. The latter, 
in fact, are relatively seldom attacked. Whether by these 
means we pay too high a price for evolution is not a question 
with which I am now concerned. Perhaps the annals of the 
future may supply the answer, when our defective citizens — 
defective in clean instincts, in discreetness, in thrift, in ordinary 
judgement — have so accumulated that our army of sanitary 
officials shall have become so augmented that it cannot be further 
enlarged on account of its prohibitive cost, and it will therefore 
be unable to suppress or control the manifestation of the 
defective qualities of the accumulated horde of defective citizens. 
Then these imperfectnesses of character may manifest themselves 
in a way which will surprise us. I am only desirous to point 
out the dangerous nature of the road along which our modern 
sentiment is urging us, and to emphasize the consideration that 
all its hopes are futile, because it hag overlooked the fact that in 
saving certain citizens from the consequences of their own 
spontaneous deeds, this sentiment is evolving a sadly defective 
race. 

Postcript to page 168. " It is one of the most fatal mis- 
takes to imagine that because to fight and be lacerated tooidd be 
to some people a painful and fearful thing, that therefore it is so 
throughout the whole animal kingdom. It is not, I believe, even 
true for Man," &c. Pages 168-9. " There can be little doubt that 
prize-fighters and others," &c. 

Since these pages were in the Press, there has been pubhshed 
in the " New York Medical Record,' an account of an extremely 
interesting psychological study of the gang of hooligans who have 
recently terrorised New York. These researches were made in 
the Department of Psychology of Columbia University by Dr. 
Siegfried Block, A.M., M.D. The research raises many problems 
of serious import to civilisation, and it entirely confirms the 
general contentions which were put forward in my original 
article and in my reply to Miss Wodehouse's criticism. But 
with the general results we shall hope to deal in our next number. 
Only one point it seems necessary to direct attention to now, 
because it is an experimental verification of the contention, that 
all animals, and certainly all men, are not equally susceptible to 
pain, and that any argument based upon the assumption that 
they are, such as that urged by Miss Wodehouse, is 
invalid. Dr. Block tells us that these hooligans " are remarkably 
insensitive to pain." This being so, Miss Wodehouse's lamenta- 
tion over " mortal combats between jealous wooers and the exter- 
mination of cattle by the bite of an insect " loses the pathos it 
was no doubt intended to excite, and the point of the argument 
is so truncated that it is no longer capable of cogent application. 



REVIEWS. 



Menders Principles of Heredity.-^ w. Bateson, m.a., 

F.R.S., V.M.H., Fellow of St. John's College, Professor of 
Biology in the University of Cambridge. Cambridge, at the 
University Press. 1909. 

Professor Bateson's book will remain as the classic exposition 
of Mendelism. No man more than he has served by the brilliance 
and patience of his work, and the insight indicated by his methods, 
to place Genetics, or the study of Heredity, upon what is in reahty 
its first enduring foundation. Whatever may be the ampUfica- 
tions and extensions which future investigation may necessitate, 
we do not think there is much doubt that the basis of the Science 
of Inheritance, which is now being reared by the MendeUan 
School, will remain as a permanent edifice in biological science. 
The conceptions of gametic segregation and gametic purity have 
come to stay. That the processes embraced within these con- 
ceptions play a part in inheritance and in evolution is clear 
enough. Whether they are the sole agencies at work, or whether 
their pari; in Nature, though limited, is of wide extent, is a 
question for the future to answer. But no conception of Nature 
Avhich omits them can be complete, or have any pretence to be 
regarded as full or sound. 

If inheritance and evolution are wholly or in part based upon 
gametic segregation, then our conceptions of the essential nature of 
the phenomena of variation will benecessarily profoundly modified. 
For, as is pointed out in the article in this Journal on " Mendel's 
Life and Work," it is difficult to picture the process of evolution 
as merely a matter of the blending of minute incremental varia- 
tions all tending in one direction, while the processes going on in 
the sex-cells are those of segregation. We may as well try to 
imagine that St. Paul's Cathedral was reared by a continuous 
welling upward motion of Uquid stufi, while all the time we know 
that it was built up of solid, separate blocks, deftly laid and 
arranged, one by one. It was not constructed by a flowing pro- 
cess, but by the sequential addition of separate though small 
steps, each block and brick of its masonry representing a step 
Tipward. 

Thus we have before us these two conceptions of evolu- 
tion as a process based on variation. It is clear, to start 



214 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

with, there can be no evolution without change. A change in 
structure or function is variation. The direction of evolution 
will necessarily depend upon the " selection " of certain changes 
and the "ehniination" of others. The great biological controversy 
of the present time centres around the question, What is the 
nature of these changes or variations ? If there are two species, 
one bigger and the other smaller, one swift of foot and the other 
less swift, the essential problem before us is. Were the changes 
by which the smaller and less fleet of foot evolved into the bigger 
and the swifter species of the nature of a thousand and one im- 
perceptible stages, or did they partake of the nature of a series of 
definite and appreciable steps ? Those who hold to the view of 
" continuous variations " maintain the former thesis, while those 
who beUeve that " discontinuous variations " supply the material 
of evolution, hold to the latter view. 

Let us try and form a tangible mental picture of the difference 
between an evolution proceeding on the basis of continuous 
variations, and that which proceeds on the basis of discontinuous 
variations. In the evolution of the larger from the smaller species 
are we to picture a niimber of the individuals among this species 
as varying to an inappreciable degree in size in the direction of 
being larger, and that as the result of the mating of such indivi- 
duals there arises a race, definitely and permanently larger than 
the parent species, though so slight in extent as to be barely appre- 
ciable ? And, accepting Darwin's proposition, that it is conceiv- 
able a variation once arisen may continue to vary for many 
generations in the same direction, and, therefore, in the course of 
time the summation of a series of barely appreciable differences 
will ultimately result in an appreciable advance in size. Or, are 
we to believe that the difference in size arose by either a single 
jump or by a series of small but appreciable steps ? 

Now, at this point we need to be careful to draw another 
mental picture of the difference between the two processes. So 
far, we have as it were, pictured the outside of the process ; but 
it is very necessary to picture also that of its inner mode of 
working. When we picture the outside of the process, we have 
in mind the body itself of the individuals. But the inner picture 
focusses our attention upon their reproductive cells or gametes. 
Now, when an individual's body varies in size, even to an inappre- 
ciable extent, upon what does this variation depend ? Upon 
the answer to this question rests or falls the case for evolution 
by continuous variations. Is the change a permanent one and 
maintained in inheritance ? For if it be not preserved in here- 
ditary transmission, it has no evolutionary value, since evolution 
is simply progress in form and time. Or is it merely a temporary 
one — a passing response to environmental conditions, and 



PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITY 215 

merely an expression of that plasticity which evolution has im- 
posed on all Uving protoplasm ? In other words, does it depend 
upon some definite change in the architecture of the germ-cells 
and is therefore transmitted from one generation to another ? 
Or is it simply a matter of a nutritional responsive capacity of 
the body-cells, an event for this generation only, and the outcome 
of a passing influence of environmental combinations ? If it be 
that, its manifestation through succeeding generations will 
depend upon the continued presence of these same environmental 
influences. But if it is not that, then its manifestation will be 
independent of particular combinations of environmental in- 
fluences, and throughout long ranges of geographical distribution, 
and under diverse conditions, will exhibit its particular quahty, 
whether it is size or any other. 

Now, it is known that there are species, the individuals 
of which live under very different conditions, and yet preserve 
an identity of specific characters. We may cite the case of a small 
snail {Helix arbustorwn var alpestris) which is found hving above 
the snow hne on the Alps and also in the marshes of Hoddesdon, 
in Herts. Notwithstanding that these conditions are wholly 
different, the individuals living in the one region are not distin- 
guishable from those hving in the other. Or, we may show the 
same thing by taking a converse case, namely, where distinct 
forms within a species maintain their characteristic differences 
though grown under the same conditions. The vernal whitlow 
grass is a case of this sort. This species has a large number 
(about 200) of forms which differ from each other in several 
features. These forms breed true, both in their local stations 
and when brought together and reared in botanical gardens. 
Take, for instance, two of these forms, one with narrow leaves 
and the other with a broader foliage. They have been cultivated 
side by side, and yet each form retains its own peculiar features 
in a quite imiform way. In Nature, on the geographic borders 
of the limits of the different forms, intermediates are not known. 
Hence, it is clear that some minor and greater differences of 
character which mark the individuals of many species are of 
fixed gametic origin, and though in some cases small in amount, 
are yet quite distinct and unblendabl.e. Experiment alone can 
decide for certainty whether these forms are really unblendable 
when crossed. For the present, we have only the evidence of 
the absence of intermediate forms on the geographic limits of 
the overlapping groups. But still it is known that in other 
species similar differences do not blend in inheritance. 

Then there is the wide range of comparative studies, where 
in comparing the extremes of numerous variations of very 
different kinds, we fail to find evidence that intermediate stages 



216 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

exist. In the case of the dog-whelk, very common around the 
Enghsh coast, the differently coloured and banded varieties are 
distinct, and though they have been seen breeding together, 
nothing in the nature of blends or intermediates occur. 

It is therefore clear that the differences which distinguish 
some forms from others are " discontinuous " and do not blend 
in the hereditary transmission, but segregate. The question 
which the future has to answer is no longer whether discontinuous 
variations exist at all, nor is it any longer a matter of upholding 
in an unquahfied fashion the contention that evolution is based 
wholly on the blending and summation of continuous variations, 
for the existence of discontinuous variations is now a fact. But 
the question is one of whether evolution is wholly a matter of 
discontinuous variations, or whether it is partly this and partly 
due to continuous variations. 

All that can be said in the way of general considerations and 
of essay speculations has already been written. The answer of 
the future to these questions lies in experiment. No doubt, 
observation of Nature has its value in suggesting new problems 
and in controUing the interpretations of the experimental evidence. 
But, by itself, it is insufficient to permit us to arrive at definite 
and certain conclusions, which can be regarded as incontro- 
vertible. 

Professor Bateson's book on " Mendel's Principles of Inherit- 
ance " thus comes as the exposition of the experimental method 
in biological science. In effect, he says : " We have done with 
essay-writing, and the time is ripe for the apphcation of experi- 
ment to all the problems of inheritance, variation, and evolution." 
In the present book the author has preferred to restrict his treat- 
ment of the subject to the concrete facts of inheritance, as they 
have been ascertained by experiment. The consideration of the 
theoretical conceptions which those facts suggest he has left to 
be dealt with in another book. 

We may now glance, in a general way, at the contents of the 
book and some of the problems with which it deals. In the intro- 
ductory chapter there is an account of some pre-Mendelian 
writings, and it includes Darwin's " Origin of Species," and 
his " Animals and Plants Under Domestication," as well as those 
of Francis Galton, Weismann, and some of the earlier works of 
De Vries. The account of the pre-Mendelian writings is followed 
by a statement of the way in which Mendel's paper was re- 
discovered and of the new methods which he introduced into 
the study of inheritance. There is also, in this chapter, a 
description of the Mendelian principles illustrated by reference 
to some recent experiments in breeding hybrids derived from a 
cross between tall and dwarf sweet peas. 



PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITY 217 

In many ways Chapter IT. is an'important one, since it describes 
the nature of the material with which Mendehan experiments 
have dealt, and to which Mendelian principles have been shown to 
apply. Some of the characters, the inheritance of which have 
been studied by Mendelian methods, are not only structural in 
nature, but several of them are physiological. The difierent 
habits assumed by plants are among some of the characters 
which have been investigated. Some individuals in a race are 
tall and others dwarf ; some have a branching habit, others are 
unbranched ; some straggle and others are erect ; some are 
biennial and others annual ; some wheats are susceptible to the 
attacks of the " rust-fungus," while others are immune. These 
habits, with the exception of the biennial and annual habits, 
and the straggling and erect habits, which require further investi- 
gation, behave in inheritance according to Mendelian principles. 
Among animals, the peculiar round-about motion of waltzing 
mice and the normal habit are known to be transmitted in 
Mendelian fashion. Hairiness and smoothness of the epidermis 
of plants, the prickliness and smoothness of fruits, lax and 
dense ears in wheat, starchy endosperm and sugary endosperm, 
short hair and long hair in rabbits and guinea-pigs, the various 
forms of combs in fowls, and eye-colour and various abnormalities 
in man, and a large number of other characters, for which the 
reader should refer to the book itself, have already been shown 
to behave in inheritance as Mendelian factors. 

How extensive has been the work which has dealt with the 
transmission of colour in plants, animals., and Man alike, may be 
gathered from the fact that four chapters, namely, four to eight 
inclusive, are AvhoUy concerned in describing the phenomena 
relating to colour-transmission. Perhaps in no other character is 
a knowledge of inheritance so certain, and of such a great degree 
of refinement, as in that of colour. Heredity and sex, and some 
interesting problems related to the subject, are dealt with in 
Chapter X. The existence of Mendehan inheritance in Man is 
discussed in Chapter XII. In Chapter XV. the bearing of 
Mendehan principles upon old biological conceptions is dealt with 
in a tentative and suggestive manner. Here we find a discussion 
of the nature of Mendelian units and of segregation ; the possible 
moment at which segregation occurs is indicated ; the nature of 
reversion and variation, discontinuity in variation and the 
relationship of Mendelism to Natural Selection is dealt with in 
a lucid and inspiring fashion. 

The final or sixteenth Chapter deals with the practical appli- 
cation of Mendelian principles. In this chapter we are introduced 
to several extremely interesting matters. We learn that our old 
conception of a pure-bred race or individual must be profoundly 



218 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

modified. Here the art of the breeder is at once touched by 
the introduction of a new standard of precision. The possibilities 
of raising horticultural novelties is much increased ; " rogues " 
may be with more certainty eliminated or prevented from appear- 
ing ; and " types " may be fixed within a few generations, 
where previously years were spent, and, even then, in many cases 
only to end in futile results. Most important, perhaps, is the 
lesson which the newer knowledge of Genetics has to teach us, that 
some types are unfixable. 

The last section in this chapter deals with the sociological 
apphcation of Mendehsra. We commend every advocate of 
social panaceas and of legislative interference with natural processes 
to read this part of the book. In a few well-chosen sentences, 
the author gives expression to the judgement of every biologist, 
alike of the present and the past, who has given to social problems 
adequate and imbiassed thought. For nothing is more evident 
to the naturalist, than that we cannot convert inherent vice into 
innate virtue, nor change " leaden instincts into golden conduct," 
nor " transform a sow's ear into a silken purse," by any known 
social process. Our vast and costly schemes of free compulsory 
elementary education, of County Coxmcil Scholarships and 
evening classes, which are among these social processes supposed 
to possess the magic virtue of transforming the world into a 
fairy land, may be a delusion and a danger. And so, too, may 
be all the other well-intentioned but costly panaceas that harass 
and tax and eventually destroy the fit in order to attempt — for 
they can never achieve — the salvation of the unfit. 

The chapters which we have indicated, namely, I. — XVI. are 
included in Part I. of the book. Part II. cannot fail to be of 
general interest. It gives an account of Mendel's life, and shows 
what sort of man he was, and what Avere the methods of his work. 

Gregor Mendel was during part of his life an Abbot, yet there 
is little in his appearance, as it is depicted in the portrait repro- 
duced in Professor Bateson's book, to suggest the priest. But 
there is something manifested in his countenance which escapes 
analysis ; it is evident that he was a kindly and tolerant person, 
for although the face is wholly masculine, there is that in it which 
indicates a feminine gentleness and patience with little things. 
His character was doubtless of a complex nature : possibly there 
were combined in it the sternest resolution and the sweetest 
docility ; and the academic spirit of the Cloister and the College 
were commingled in happiest harmony with the utilitarian 
capacity and clear thinking of successful practical life. 

Gregor Mendel was not eminent in the popular sense, for he 
was not a " rope-dancer in the market place," nor a charlatan 
standing on a self-exalted pedestal, but he was great because he 



THE FAMILY AND THE NATION 219 

was what Nietzsche would have called a '' Creator." He came 
into a branch of knowledge that was in chaos and he gave us 
order ; he found there stagnation and he converted it into pro- 
gression ; he saw multitudinous facts dead because they had no 
consistent interpretation, and he gave them Ufe. The magnitude 
of the task that he accomplished and the nature of the debt that 
posterity owes to him, only those who fully know the state of 
hereditary studies in his day can properly appreciate. 

The reader of Professor Bateson's book will find a great deal of 
matter of absorbing interest. He will find problems that have 
escaped elucidation for centuries glowing under the newer Ught of 
the Science of Genetics. At last we see the only way by which 
problems of inheritance can be effectually and scientifically 
attacked. The facts of geographical distribution, of the inter- 
relationship of species on the overlapping bomids of their common 
territory, may suggest problems for investigation, but they cannot 
by themselves supply a truthful answer. The problems of evolu- 
tion and of variation to-day give promise of receiving correct 
answers. We cannot, of course, yet close the book of knowledge, 
for we have only just passed its preface and reached its first real 
page; but we no longer grope in semi-darkness, for now we have a 
method by which we can put to Nature a single definite question, 
and get from her a single and definite answer to every question 
we choose to put. That is an enormous gain. This method 
is the most powerful instrument biological science has ever 
wielded, and the intellectual conception that lies behind it and 
supplies the motive power must be ranked among the greatest 
of her victorious achievements. 

With regard to Man, it is now clear that what medicine, social 
reform, legislation, and philanthropy have failed to accomphsh, 
can be achieved by Biology. Tell the student of Genetics what 
type of nation we desire, within the limits of the characters which 
the nation already possesses, and confer upon him adequate powers, 
and he will mould it, by the process of elimination. It is not too 
much to say that if he were instructed to evolve a "'iit" nation — 
that is, one of self-rehant and self-supporting individuals — in the 
course of a few generations there would be few workhouses, 
hospitals, unemployables, congenital criminals, or drunkards. 



The family and the Nation.— .4 study in Natural inheritance 
and Social Responsibility. By William Cecil Dampier 
Whetham, M.A., F.R.S., and Catherine Durning Whetham, 
His Wife. Longmans, Green, & Co., London. Is. M. net. 

Perhaps in no book of its size has so much information of the 
greatest value, from the civic standpoint, been incorporated, nor 



220 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

written in sucli a charming style, as Dr. Whetham's " Family 
and the Nation." From its Preface to its concluding page are 
to be found felicitous phrases that sei"ve to carry home and fix 
upon the mind ideas which had but vaguely floated before it. 
There are many in this nation of ours who feel strangely perturbed, 
haunted by vague fears that something is wrong in the body 
pohtic, and yet who cannot define their fears or express the nature 
of the intellectual restlessness which they feel whenever they 
think of our social problems. To them the book of Dr. Whetham 
and his wife will give coherency of thought, definiteness of 
idea, and will express their experience in a beautiful language. 
It may do more even than that. It is to be hoped it will arouse 
the nation — or at least those who have undertaken to lead opinion 
and initiate action — to a sense of the danger of the over-valued 
altruism and emotional sentiment which seems to be guiding its 
destiny now. 

The general aim of the book can be best indicated by a few 
sentences culled from the Introduction : " The efEorts of men of 
science, philanthropists, and statesmen have been directed for 
centuries towards improving the general environment of the race, 
and of late years with conspicuous success." . . . '' But in 
our wise and beneficent search for better conditions of life, we 
must not forget the other influence which, even more than en- 
vironment, goes to make personality. To improve the conditions 
in which life is passed and by which it is moulded, is but part, 
probably by far the smaller part, of the problem. The deeper 
question, the conscious solution of which is opening out to all 
civilised nations, is how to maintain, and if possible to improve, 
the innate quality and character of the life itself." The answer 
to this latter question is given in the book itself. The main- 
tenance of quaUty is achieved by inheritance alone. In the 
Introduction the authors point out that enough is known of the 
problems of heredity in lower forms and in Man, " to give us, 
here and there, certain principles which should be borne in mind 
when we are considering proposals for legislative or social action." 
They point out that until recently the effects of individual con- 
duct or of social legislation on the innate qualities of a people 
have been ignored, perhaps not even suspected. We suppose that 
deficiency in the knowledge of these effects must apply to our states- 
men, philanthropists, and the community generally, for fifty years 
ago, and again sixteen yearsago, Herbert Spencerwarnedhisnation, 
in his characteristically vigorous and lucid language, not only of 
the futility of legislation, but of its disastrous tendency in creating 
new evils as well as in faihng to remedy those it set out to mend. 
He it was who asked us to " Change our vague idea of a bad law 
into a definite idea of it as an agency operating on people's lives. 



THE FAMILY AND THE NATION 221 

and we see that it means so much of pain, so much of ilhiess, so 
much of mortahty. A vicious form of legal procedure, for 
example, either enacted or tolerated, entails on suitors, costs, or 
delays, or defeats. What do these imply ? Loss of money, 
often ill-spared ; great and prolonged anxiety ; frequently 
consequent illness ; mihappiness of family and dependents ; 
children stinted in food and clothing — all of them miseries 
which bring after them multipUed remoter miseries. Even 
to say that a law has been simply a hindrance, is to say 
that it has caused needless loss of time, extra trouble, and addi- 
tional worry ; and among over-burdened people extra trouble 
and worry imply, here and there, breakdowns in health with 
their entailed direct and indirect sufferings. Seeing, then, that 
bad legislation means injury to men's lives, judge what must be 
the total amount of mental distress, physical pain, and raised 
mortahty, which these thousands of repealed Acts of Parliament 
represent ! "* This warning was pubUshed in a magazine of 
wide circulation in this country ; but it appears, as Herbert 
Spencer fully expected, to have received no adequate heed. It 
is, therefore, all the more to be welcomed that Dr. Whetham and 
his wife should once more, in a rather different way, and with a 
wider experience and an expanded knowledge before us, repeat 
the warning, and ask anew our consideration of the problem. 

It is clear we cannot continually harass through the agency 
of taxation and by other means the more self-respecting, the 
self-supportmg, and generally better portion of the community, 
for the benefit and maintenance of the thriftless, the foohsh, the 
lazy, and drimken, without in the long rmi definitely modifying 

* Herbert Spencer had been caDing attention to the fact that an Act of 
ParUament would not be repealed if it were beneficent in operation, and 
that it can usually only be repealed with difficulty — as witness many 
vicious unrepealed and active laws of our times — and then only after it 
has inflicted intolerable wrong and prolonged suffering. Then he pro- 
ceeded to show how vicious the great mass of legislation was by citing the 
remarkable fact that since the Statute of Merton (20 Henry III.) to the 
end of 1872, there had been passed 18,110 public Acts: of which, Mr. 
Janson, Vice-President of the Law Society had estimated that four-fifths 
had been repealed. The same gentleman also stated that during the three 
years 1870-71-72, 3,532 Acts had been repealed, partially repealed or 
amended, and of these 2,759 had been wholly repealed. In order to ascer- 
tain whether this rate of repeal had been maintained, Herbert Spencer 
referred to the volume of "Public General Statutes," which is issued 
annually, and noted the number of repealed Acts for the last three Sessions 
of Parliament. These would be the three Sessions immediately preceding 
the year 1884. Leaving aside numerous amended Acts, the result was 
that in this short period 650 Acts were repealed. Doubtless a number of 
them were laws wliich were obsolete ; others had been demanded by 
change of circumstances, but seeing how many belonged to the current reign 
and were of quit« recent date, it must be inferred that in multitudinous 
cases, repeals came because the Acts had proved injurious. 



222 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the innate nature of the race. For, as the authors point out, the 
struggle for life, incessantly at work in the lower world, affects 
Man also. Selection will tend to modif)^ the character of a 
nation as it modifies the flora and fauna of a country. 

Therefore, the first care which we must manifest with regard 
to every legislative proposal or contemplated social change is : 
" Will it tend to favour the growth of those elements of the 
population which already are known to be of national worth ? " 
" Will it tend to check the reproduction of those who the present 
fragmentary knowledge already points out as detrimental to the 
community ? " We have but to ask these questions, and then to 
look at our legislative machine, our party caucus, to the hungry and 
penurious portion of our Democracy, and to such of our unscru- 
pulous pohticians as are working their way to the front, to find 
a sufficiently clear answer. But when to these agencies, all 
working for evil, we add the achievements of philanthropists, of 
hospitals, of infirmaries, of workhouses, of the boarding-out 
system, and of the socal agitation in part led by certain medical 
men and in part by Fabians, we have not only an answer but a 
demonstration. 

But there is another question of very grave importance and 
without the existence of which that of selection has no national 
meaning. There is nothing gained by a rigorous selection of the 
best, imless it is propagated in such numbers that the individuals 
representing it are passed on to succeeding generations in adequate 
numbers. There must not only be success in hfe, but also a 
" dominant fertihty " of those who succeed. It is obviously useless 
for the best citizens to succeed if they leave the breeding of the 
race to the worst citizens. Clearly, it is even more disastrous if, 
by legislation and altered social customs we allow the degenerate 
types of citizens to both succeed and breed. Yet to us it appears 
that this is precisely what we are doing in many walks of life. 
In poHtics, personahties of the type of Thersites flourish, and are 
raised to positions of eminence : — 

"Loquacious, loud, and turbulent of tongue: 
Awed by no shame, by no respect controll'd. 
In scandal busy, in reproaches bold : 
With witty malice studious to defame, 
Scorn all his joy, and laughter all his aim : — 
But chief he gloried with licentious style 
To lash the great, and monarchs to revile. 
And much he hated all, but most the best: 
Long had he lived, the scorn of every Greek, 
Vex'd when he spoke, yet still they heard him speak. 
With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate, 
He's but a factious monster born to vex the State." 



THE FAMILY AND THE NATION 223 

Not only in politics of a period not more ancient than the last 
election, but, we are afraid, in Nonconformist pulpits, types 
deserving of the anger of a Ulysses are also to be found. The 
sterner but loftier sentiment of three generations back would have 
made short work of that degenerate type of leader which we now 
usually call a demagogue. That these men escape punishment 
and suppression, not only in England, but in most of Western 
Europe, is one of the signs of the weakening and degeneration of 
national tone. And this tone, we are afraid, but reflects the 
intellectual attitude of the nation which tolerates it. Whether 
this is due to an inherent incapacity to foresee its dangerous 
consequences or to an innate slothfulness that must see the very edge 
of the precipice before it will resort to action, time and the result 
can alone decide. In lower walks of social life the same success 
of degenerate types is seen. They reap the fruits of harvests 
which others have sown. They are accommodated, clothed, 
washed, and fed in palatial workhouses ; they are treated with 
the minutest care and the best skill in infirmaries, which are much 
more than comfortable ; their sUghtest ailment is attended to with 
expedition and dispatch ; they are visited by district visitors, 
and attended by district nurses ; charitable institutions vie with 
each other in relieving their merited miseries ; religious bodies 
convert them into cunning hypocrites, so that every family contains 
a Roman Cathohc, an Anglican, an Episcopalian, a Presbyterian, a 
Methodist, a Baptist, a Calvinist, a Jesuit, a Wesleyan, a Primitive 
Methodist, and a Jew. These f amihes doubtless would also contain a 
Mahommedan, a Buddhist, a Confucianist, and a Laotryist, but that 
these are creeds outside the range of charitable disbursements in 
this country. Their children are educated for nothing. An 
attempt is made to shoot them up the social rampart against their 
wills in a remarkably expeditious hft, called " Scholarships." 
They are fed for nothing and invited to come again. At some- 
body else's cost, they are medically inspected, the only intelhgible 
reason for which is that more officials — another degenerate type 
of citizen — may be given employment ; for certainly we cannot 
suppose that a cleft palate, a congenitally malformed heart or 
brain, a club foot or scattered and prematurely-decayed teeth 
are going to be remedied by a doctor's inspection. Not only are 
we not satisfied in a futile medical inspection, but now we are 
going to medically treat them for ills which cannot be cured. 
And so on, doing everything for them — even liberating them from 
prison when a Home Secretary, dazzHng in the limelight, pays a 
visit to the prisons, never remembering that the leopard cannot 
change his spots, and that where we have social chamoeleons, 
the birch sometimes succeeds in obtaining the requisite change of 
colour where peurile sentiment fails. 



224 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

But to come back to the book. Considerations of this sort 
and many others justify us in feeUng disquieted as to the direction 
in which the evolution of our nation is tending. We clearly cannot 
go on restricting the birthrate of our better citizens, hampering 
them increasingly in the struggle of life, while at the same time 
the birthrate of the inferior stocks is rising and their deathrate 
decreasing, and life is made easier for them by the compulsorily 
enforced altruism of the other citizens, without some day in 
the near future being called upon to face disaster. 

Life, no doubt, is a difficult and stern afEair. But, as the 
authors of Family and the Nation say in a passage of 
singular beauty : " Out of the very agony and weariness 
of the strife, is born that social and moral sense which 
gives to man his highest attribute and noblest reason for 
existence." If before the goal of human perfection is reached 
we reduce this agony and weariness, or lessen the strife, we are 
undoing that process which raised man to his present state. But 
notwithstanding this, as the authors are careful to point out, 
"■ of late years, the means of keeping aUve the falhng and fallen 
have grown with ever-increasing speed. Each advance in medical 
skill, in knowledge of Pathology or Hygiene, each new moral 
effect to cope with external evil, results in prolonged hfe for the 
members of weak and unsoimd stock, and still more significant, 
a lessened mortahty among their children. There is often an 
inclination to deprecate the struggle for Ufe, an endeavour to 
minimise its effects, to moum with the loser rather than to 
rejoice with the winner." 

When we endeavour to trace the origin of this softened senti- 
ment which is so solicitous of the defective and the weak, so 
strangely heedless of the beauty of the strong, we are brought 
face to face with rehgious conceptions, reUgious change, and 
rehgious decay. In the older days, well within the memory of 
some of us as children, the dominant conception of our reHgion 
was that this hfe was a " probationary training ground for a 
higher one which was to succeed it." For better or worse, this 
conception is decaying, and no worthy ideal has taken its place. 
The cry of resignation " Thy will be done," or of that " I am in 
the hands of the Lord," uttered in almost every home within the 
land, and inscribed on many tombstones, not more than forty 
years ago, is now heard in but a few, though its inscription still 
continues. We apparently no longer believe in that great behef, 
carrying within it the germ of national salvation, and anticipating 
by many centuries the biological truths of to-day : " My God, 
" in Him will I trust. Surely He shall dehver thee from the 
" snare of the fowler, and from the noisome pestilence. Thou 
" shalt not be afraid for the terror by night ; nor for the arrow 



THE FAMILY AND THE NATION 225 

" that flieth by day ; nor for the pestilence that walketh in 
" darkness ; nor for the destruction that waste th at noonday. 
" A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right 
" hand ; but it shall not come nigh thee ; there shall no evil 
■' befall thee, neither shall any plague come nigh thy dwelling.'"' 
Were it necessary to preach biological truths in the exalted 
language of imagery and addressed to a people to whom the 
methods and aims of science were unknown, is there any better 
language than this of the Psalms, to preach to men a subUrae 
resignation to the powers of their own fitness or unfitness ? If 
a man is naturally alert and wise of understanding, he is not 
caught by " the snare of the fowler." If he is innately brave, 
the " terrors of the night " have no meaning for him. If he be 
constitutionally strong, having that chemistry of blood and tissue 
which renders him immune or only difficultly susceptible to 
disease, he will escape the " pestilence that walketh in darkness 
and the destruction that wasteth at noonday." And, if he be 
not wise and strong, do we want him to be a breeding centre for 
our nation ? The Psalmist in effect said " No," but modern 
social sentiment says " Yes." Here, then, is an opportunity for the 
Church. It nfey further justify its existence by its social service. 
It is not ritual but guidance that the nation wants. Behind the 
Psalmists and the Prophets stands the justification of Biology. 

We now no longer resign the faltering to the call of the 
Inexorable. Save life at all costs, and disregardful of every 
national requirement, prolong it under all circumstances, is the 
attitude we have substituted. 

In appealing to the community to face the social problem 
which confronts us, two classes of men — each characterised by 
its own code of behef — present themselves. There are those who 
have no behef in a future State. " To such minds," the authors 
believe, " pending the revival of a deeper faith, the thought of 
the future welfare and improvement of the nation may supply 
the ideal necessary for a worthy fife." But those "who regard 
each man's frame as the dwelling-place of an immortal soul, will 
feel more the awful responsibihty that is ours to determine, by 
our individual and corporate action, whether or no the bodies; 
and minds of succeeding generations shall be fit temples for such 
sparks of the divine, fit habitations in which they can expand 
and develop until they are worthy of a sublimer sphere." Those 
who for years have been engaged in an attempt to obtain a recog- 
nition of more rational methods in dealing with the congenitally 
hopeless, civic and physical wrecks of civilisation, have long 
recognised that one of the greatest difficulties athwart their path 
is the theological conception of man's relation to a future state. 
The pure biologist can, of course, express no opinion upon this 



226 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

conception. It lies outside his legitimate domain. But it is 
perhaps permissible for him to accept the conception as it stands, 
and to plead that it is a nobler thing to invest the " divine spark " 
in a beautiful and healthy body, than in an ugly and repulsive 
one. If the great object of rehgion is to teach a noble ideal of 
Hfe, and is to lead men to love the beautiful in conduct and 
thought, surely that end will be the better attained, if the love of 
beautiful bodies and repugnance of stunted, distorted, and 
abnormal ones, becomes a prevailing tone of Society. That 
frame of mind which loves beauty in structure will be less 
apt, we should imagine, to love ugliness of conduct, than 
minds which dehght in " broken reeds." And this prevailing 
tone is only possible when those who "give tone" to Society are 
themselves so innately constructed that beauty spontaneously 
appeals to them. But quite apart from an abstraction of this 
sort, there remains the consideration that if there be any relation- 
ship at all between the merits of men on earth and their trans- 
formed selves in another sphere, then it is the bounden duty of 
the Church to exert itself to the utmost to see that only a sound 
and noble stock is propagated on the earth. For surely it is the 
highest duty to ensure that its efforts shall stock»that subhmer 
sphere with high souls worthy of their place. But if there be no 
such relationship, then the Church and its present efiorts are 
futile. They would have no meaning. If it does not matter what 
our bodies and conduct are in this world, because irrespective of 
anything we have been or of any deeds we have done on earth, 
we are all equally to be angels in a higher sphere of hfe, then the 
whole base upon which the teaching of the Church is founded 
falls away. It has nothing which can appeal to man. Such an 
attitude is, of course, hopeless and spiritually meaningless. 
Therefore, it seems to us, that the Church has by the progress of 
biological knowledge been brought face to face with a problem 
to which it must give at once a definite '' Yea " or " Nay," or 
cease any longer to be either the spiritual or material guiding 
hght of its nation. It is in duty bound to fall into line with the 
Eugenic movement of to-day, and in season and out of it, rising 
supreme over ever}^ other consideration, to preach that it is 
sinful for defective stocks to propagate and equally sinful for 
sound stocks not to multiply. 

It will thus be seen that the book of Dr. Whetham and his 
wife raises within its pages many interesting problems. To those 
who read it, many others will present themselves, as they 
have to us. The introductory chapter is followed by one on 
the "Scientific Study of Variation and Heredity." Chapter III. 
deals with " Inheritance and Variation in Mankind." In Chap- 
ters IV. and V. the subjects are " Inheritance of Mental Defect," 



DARWIN'S ORIGIN OF SPECIES 227 

and " Ability " respectively. Chapters VI. and VII. consider 
the important questions of the " Rise " and " Decline of Families " 
respectively. Chapters VIII., IX., and X. deal with problems 
of the " Birth-rate," the efiects of a selective birth-rate, and the 
causes of a declining one are very fully considered. Chapter XI. 
gives general conclusions, and summarises the previous chapters. 

G. P. M. 



Charles Darwin and the Origin of S\itcks,— Addresses, 

<&e., in America and England in the year of the two 
Anniversaries. By Edward Bagnall Poulton, D.Sc, MA., 
F.R.S., Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of 
Oxford. Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. Price Is. 6d. net. 

This book is dedicated to Alfred Russel Wallace. It is divided 
into seven Sections or Addresses, and there are four Appendices. 
The first Section attempts to wive a brief account of the 
history which led up to and followed the publication of the 
theory of Natural Selection and the Origin of Species. It is 
entitled " Fifty Years of Darwinism," and was one of the cen- 
tennial addresses in honour of Charles Darwin which were read 
before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
at Baltimore, on January 1st, 1909. To the present generation, 
that has been born long after the struggle which the enunciation 
of the Origin of Species and the Descent of Man called into 
tempestuous existence, and that finds itself Uving in a 
period of complete intellectual Uberty — perhaps in some directions 
too complete — this Section of the book cannot fail to be of the 
greatest interest and stimulus. It is difficult for the young men 
of to-day to fully appreciate the magnitude of the great victory 
which was achieved for freedom of thought during the earlier 
half of the fifty years that began with the publication of the 
Origin of Species. So deeply rooted were the religious convictions 
of men, so firm a hold had the orthodox conception of Man's 
origin upon men's minds, that even some of the scientific savants 
of the period who eventually recognised the success of the new 
doctrine of Organic Evolution, did so with feelings of regret, 
and others who ultimately accepted it, felt a reluctance 
in so doing. How fearsome was the spirit that pervaded many 
— even men of science — at that period, may be gathered from a 
quotation of a letter which Darmn sent to Fawcett on September 
18th. 1861 : " Many are so fearful of speaking out. A German 
naturalist came here the other day, and he tells me that there 
are many in Germany on our side, but that all seem fearful of 
speaking out, and waiting for some one to speak, and then many 



228 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

will follow. The naturalists seem as tiinid as young ladies 
should be, about their scientific reputation." Fortunately, the 
period produced its man ; one who, having become convinced 
of the verity of organic evolution, fearlessly disregarded con- 
ventions and consequences, and became " the great and beloved 
teacher, the unequalled orator, the brilliant essayist, the un- 
conquerable champion and literary swordsman." Thus has 
Thomas Henry Huxley been happily described by Sir Ray 
Lankester. 

The influence which his friends exercised upon Dar\\dn, and 
especially the debt which in one direction he owed to Lyell, 
and in another to Huxley, is also dealt with in an interesting 
manner in this Section of Professor Poulton's book. Here, too, 
we read a vivid account of the almost inexplicable opposition 
which was offered to Evolution by the great anatomists, Richard 
Owen and St. George Mivart. 

In this Section, Darwdn's attitude towards the idea of 
evolution by means of mutations is set forth, and the fact that 
he had considered the possibility of the progress of evolution by 
large variations is considered. And, in order to leave his reader 
in no doubt as to Darwin's repudiation of " mutations " as 
factors in evolution, Professor Poulton cites a paragraph from a 
letter which Darwdn sent to Lyell, in which he criticised some 
statement of the late Duke of Argyll. Here Darwin spoke of 
" the variation in the bill of a bird ' borD ' mth a beak the 
one-hundredth of an inch longer than usual." The letter then 
proceeds to say, " The more I work, the more I feel convinced 
that it is by the accumulation of such extremely slight variations 
that new species arise." Apparently, one of the chief con- 
siderations which influenced Darwin to repudiate mutations as 
steps in evolution was " that it seemed to liim in almost every 
case the adaptation of structure was too much, too complex, 
and too beautiful to believe in its sudden production." It 
is, of course, clear from this statement that Darwin regards a 
mutation as being necessarily of large moment, a kind of sport or 
monstrosity. That is not the view which Mendelians hold of 
mutations. But to this point we shall return. 

Lamarck's hypothesis of the hereditary transmission of 
acquired characters and the recent attempt of Francis Darwin to 
amplify it, together with Weismann's theory, are also considered 
in this Section. The chapter is brought to a conclusion by a 
singularly eloquent tribute to the pathos of the dramatic conflict, 
out of which intellectual emancipation arose. " The distance 
from which we look back on the conflict is a help in the endeavour 
to realise its meaning." ..." We have passed through one 
of the world's mighty bloodless revolutions ; and now, standing 



DARWIN'S ORIGIN OF SPECIES 229 

on the further side, we survey the scene and are compelled to 
recognize pathos as the ruling feature." ..." There were 
sons of great men to whom the new thoughts brought deepest 
grief, men who struggled tenaciously and indomitably against 
them. And full many a household unknown to fame was the 
scene of the same poignant contrast, was torn by the same 
dramatic conflict." 

Section II. deals with the personality of Charles Darwin. 
This is perhaps, from the general standpoint, one of the most 
fascinating chapters in the book. 

In Section III. Professor Poulton controverts, and we think 
successfully so, the old and oft-repeated error that between the 
love of science and the love of literature there is an incom- 
patibility which renders the pursuit of both impossible. The 
author goes to great pains to show that Darwin's attitude to 
art and literature in his later life has been greatly misrepresented, 
and even indeed perverted. There seems to be a widely 
prevalent idea that the nearly exclusive study of science 
leads to a loss of appreciation of poetry or music. Probably no 
greater error was ever promulgated as a general statement, and 
certainly not as a particular one applicable to Charles Darwin. 
Professor Poulton shows that it has no foundation. On the 
other hand, we believe there are, perhaps, some cases, where it 
could be more truthfully contended that the study of science 
succeeded in arousing dormant faculties and in exciting a love 
of music, poetry, and literature. For there have been persons 
in whom there existed little appreciation of the beauties of the 
arts until they had succeeded in arousing their interests in 
science. But the truth of the matter is probably not to be found 
in considerations of the influence of the pursuit of science upon 
literary faculties, or vice versa. It is probably not a matter of 
training or of general education. It is one which doubtless finds 
its explanation in the nature of the person himself. If a man 
inwardly loves both science and literature he will appreciate 
both. If he has a passion for the rigid analytical work of science 
and also for the flowing rhythm and expansive conceptions of 
poetry, he will find pleasure in the practice of both, in their due 
seasons. It would not be difficult to name an eminent German 
scientist, whose love of art was so great that the precision and 
accuracy of his scientific records were sometimes in danger in 
consequence. We need only recall the name and work of 
Tyndall to remind us that beauty and fire of literary expression, 
combined with a poetic fervour, are consistent and compatible 
with a scientific training and a life devoted to science. But 
after all, however varied may be our interests, what we can 
actually accomplish is determined by the shortness of life and tlie 



230 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

limitations of daily time. Ars longa, vita brevis is true in this 
respect, as in others. Many men accompUsh very little of a 
definite nature in life, not because they are incapable or unworthy, 
but because they attempt the impossible and endeavour to 
express in deeds their all too varied interests. Such men are 
not uncommon in the scientific world. It was once said of 
Lord Brougham " that he would have been an excellent la\vyer 
had he known a little law." There are, unfortunately, men in 
every calling of life, who like Brougham have such a 
varied interest in things that it may be said of them, " they 
would be better workmen at their calling if they but knew a 
little more of their work.'" Men of science, as well as those of 
art, have to remember this, in order that something definite 
and tangible may constitute the edifice which their Ufe leaves 
behind it. 

In Section IV. Professor Poulton gives an account of Darwin's 
connection with the University of Cambridge, one of whose 
great and illustrious sons he was. It would be impossible here 
to give a proper idea of the fascinating interest of this chapter. 

Sections V. and VI. deal respectively with the " Value of 
Colour in the Struggle for Life " and of " Mimicry in the Butter- 
flies of North America." Both these sections are largely written 
from the historical standpoint, in order to restate, presumably 
in Ught of present-day controversies, the bearing which the 
facts of colour and mimicry have upon the conception of evolution 
by means of continuous variations and of the origin of adaptations 
through Natural Selection. 

Section VII. cannot fail to be of the greatest interest, since 
here, we understand, a series of characteristic letters which 
Darwin sent to Mr. Roland Trimen are published for the first 
time. As we read Mr. Trimen's account of his first acquaintance 
with Darwin, there are revived again the memories of the old 
prejudices which the appearance of the Origin of Species 
aroused in 1859. And, as for the letters themselves, '"' we feel, 
again and again, as we read them, the presence of the bright, 
courageous spirit that could pierce the dark shadow of lifelong 
pain and discomfort, and preserve undimmed its humour and 
its breadth of view." 

The Appendices A, B, C, and D are a little polemical in 
nature. Appendix A revives the old controversy as to the 
existence of single or multiple origins of species. Appendix B 
considers Darmn's attitude towards the question of evolution 
by mutation. Professor Poulton points out that Darwin's 
critics and others from time to time called his attention to the 
possibility of evolution through the agency of " monstrosities " 
or " sports," and that Darwin very carefully at different periods 



DARWIN'S ORIGIN OF SPECIES 231 

considered the matter, and decided that, in his opinion, evolution 
did not proceed in Nature by such means. Professor De Vries' 
statement that Darmn beUeved evolution occiuTed both by 
mutations and by the accumulation of fluctuating variations, is 
traversed by Professor Poulton. If we read him rightly, his 
attitude is that Dar-^dn denied altogether the probabiUty of 
evolution in Nature by mutation. It is certain that in some of 
his letters, Darwin has on more than one occasion expressed, what 
was for him, very decided opinions adverse to modifications of 
species by sudden jumps. But it is only fair to bear in mind, 
that Darwin himself said " that no definition can be draM'n 
between monstrosities and sUght variations (such as his theory 
requires) though he suspected there was some distinction." 
That was in the year 1860. In 1873 he said, '' It is very difficult 
or impossible to define what is meant by a large variation. Such 
graduate into monstrosities." We cannot, therefore, very clearly 
see the real justification for believing that evolution can proceed 
by slight variations and yet not by larger ones or monstrosities, 
when no definition which can express real difierences between 
them can be framed. Here, in fact, Darwin was face to face 
with the difficulty which faces us to-day. Are these small 
variations — the so-called fluctuating variations — in reality, in 
some cases at any rate, simply small mutations ? That is, variations 
which really express definite features due to gametic factors and 
which are capable of hereditary transmission. And, further, is it 
possible that under the one term, namely, " fluctuating varia- 
tions," we have been all along including two externally similar 
but intrinsically different phenomena ? Are some of these 
variations really small mutations and the others merely individual 
responses of a plastic organisation to differences in environmental 
influences ? Professor Poulton becomes satirical upon this 
point, and in alluding to the fact that the Mendelian has recognised 
the possibility that some small variations are in reality mutations 
of small moment, has twitted them with the hope that they 
may yet " save their face " by calHng the same thing (Darwin's 
small variations) by another name (small mutations). But this 
mode of controversy is a double-edged sword. For suppose the 
future shall demonstrate that there are two kinds of small varia- 
tions ; those which are germinal and those which are environ- 
mental. The latter are not inherited, the former are. We must 
distinguish between them. For is it not the function of science 
to analyse ? The difference between the Present and the Past 
in our conception of these things is that now we are beginning to 
perceive the possibility that there are two kinds of fluctuating 
(small) variations and propose to distinguish them in our minds 
by calling them different names. Is that scientific or not ? At 



232 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

any rate, if there are those who " save their face " by resort to an 
ordinary scientific habit, namely, that of distinguisliing different 
conceptions by different names, there are certainly those who 
may be in danger of losing their reputation for scientific acumen 
by seeing only one phenomenon where two in reality exist. 

However, apart from these polemics, which are inevitable in 
all new forward movements, there is much, indeed the greater 
part of the volume, which is of more peaceful interest to all who 
would know something of the great controversy which began 
fifty years ago and of the works of the eminent man, out of and 
around which, the conflict arose and centred. For those 
of this generation, the battle is practically over, and the fight 
for intellectual emancipation has ceased. But how that battle 
began, how it was fought, who were its great leaders, who the 
faithful and unfaltering, who the doubtful and seceders, and 
how the great victory was finally attained, and at what cost, 
are questions of abiding interest that must appeal afresh to every 
succeeding generation. In the pages of Professor Poulton's 
book, once more the gTeat controversy is unfolded before our 
eyes, and we can almost feel again its pathos and its tragedy, 
but yet too, we feel the glory and the thrill of battle, and rejoice 
in the conquest which the great leaders won for all who shall 
succeed them. 



Mental and Moral Heredity in Royalty.— By Frederick 

Adams Wood, M.D., Lecturer in the Biological Defartment 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; late Instructor 
in Histology and Embryology in the Harvard Medical 
School. With One Hundred and Four Portraits. Henry 
Holt d Co., Neiv York. 

Or all subjects that deserve treatment by scientific methods we 
may, perhaps, regard History as having a paramount claim. So 
great is the influence of the events which it is its especial function 
to record, and so important to the welfare of mankind is a correct 
appreciation and interpretation of its facts, that not only is 
no apology needed for an attempt to deal with History by right 
methods, but it is a matter of surprise that no attempt to deal 
with the subject on anything hke scientific principles was made 
until John Richard Green pubhshed his " History of the Enghsh 
People " in 1888. It is perhaps a matter of significant value as 
showing how great things are done from inner promptings, and 
not from extraneous sources — be they designated educational or 
otherwise — that with Green, the historian, " the study of history 
was with him never a matter of classes and fellowships, nor was 



MENTAL AND MORAL HEREDITY 233 

he in his work touched by the rivalries, the conventional methods, 
the artificial hraitations, and the utiUtarian aims of the schools. 
College work at Oxford and history work went on apart, with 
much mental friction and difficulty of adjustment and sorrow of 
heart. Without any advisers, almost without friends, he groped 
his way, seeking in very sohtary fashion after his own particular 
vocation." 

To those who regard History — -as we all do nowadays — as some- 
thing more than a record of Kings' births, ascents to the Throne, 
and descents to the grave, or desultory or vivid descriptions, 
varying according to the temperament of the writer, of battles 
and disasters, retreats and victories, Richard Green's attempt to 
present the facts of Enghsh History not as isolated events, but 
as factors in a process of evolution, came as a welcome departure 
from the time-worn method in vogue in his day. He endea- 
voured to show the relationship of deeds accompUshed in the 
Past to the consequences which the Present paid for them and 
the Future reaped. To himself he would say : "A State is 
accidental ; it can be made or unmade, and is no j^eal thing to 
me. But a nation is very real. That you can neither make 
nor destroy." To him History had its philosophy, and whether 
he was conscious of it or not, this philosophy centred around 
the idea of evolution. To him the story of a great people is 
not to be found in the ecclesiastical annals of a period which are 
too often but the records of the mere squabbles of priests, but 
must be sought in the things men did, in the institutions they 
evolved, in the names of their streets, in the memorials of their 
guilds, in the nature of their market-places, in their struggles 
over poll and toll and tax, and in their social customs. 

Dr. Frederick Adams AVood, deahng not with the history of a 
nation but of a social class, has endeavoured to further extend 
the appUcation of scientific methods to the elucidation of historical 
problems. There is no social class that lends itself so well to 
scientific treatment as the Royal Class. In the first place, it is 
limited in numbers, and, therefore, the whole field of investigation 
can be more completely explored than any other. In the second 
place, its individuals Uve in such pubhcity, and their deeds are 
of such interest or importance, that they are more fully 
recorded than those of any other class; and through 
these records an estimation of the character of the men and 
women who committed them can be formed. Court diaries and 
biographies, moreover, contain the expression of personal judge- 
ments which contemporaries were able to form of the character 
of the royal personages with whom they came in immediate contact. 
It seldom happens that a King has escaped such an estimation 
of his character by one contemporary alone, and it is, therefore, 



234 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

possible to weigh several estimates of a particular royal personage, 
and, to obtain a kind of mean result. For practical purposes 
such an average judgement will doubtless approximate very nearly 
to the truth. Certainly it is as near to the truth as we can possibly 
get. By thus endeavouring to weigh the intellectual, moral, 
and physical worth of the kings, queens, princes, and princesses 
whose characters Dr. Adams Wood has attempted to investigate, 
he has eliminated from his enquiry that most disturbing of all 
factors — the personal equation. By standardising, as it were, 
the average judgements thus obtained, it is possible to trace the 
hereditary descent not only of definite types of intellectual, 
moral, and physical traits, but also within a margin of error, of 
the different degrees of their developement. Dr. Adams Wood's 
method of ascertaining facts and arriving at conclusions, 
are such that " the basis of his book is placed in the hands of his 
readers, so that anyone doubting the truth of his assertions can 
easily take a few characters at random and look them up." We 
have so looked up his estimations of the chief Portuguese royal 
personages which are described in the three pedigrees on pages 209, 
210, and 213, and, on the whole, we endorse the values which 
the author has assigned to them. They represent, we think, 
very fairly the general verdict of History. 

Now, how far do these three pedigrees justify us in believing that 
intellectual and moral quahties are transmitted by inheritance 
with the same degree of inevitableness and inexorableness as the 
physical characters ? We think they fully justify such a belief. 
If we start with Alfonso I., the founder of the Kingdom of Portugal, 
we shall notice that while his father, Henry of Burgundy, is valued 
highly in the scale of morahty, his mother Theresa, though a very 
able and accomphshed woman, had a bad character, and was violent 
and passionate. Her low grade of moral character is indicated 
in the pedigree by the symbol X. We can trace this symbol 
throughout all the three pedigrees, marking in a symbohc way the 
relentless operations of inheritance, and justifying the old adage 
" That what is bred in the bone comes out in the flesh." But 
what is yet more important, since it shows that neither sex nor 
environment are answerable for moral character, is the fact that 
this symbol sometimes attaches to a woman's name and some- 
times to a man's. Moreover, it may indicate a particular brother 
or sister, while the others are not so stigmatised. Yet they have 
been reared under the same influences. Coming back, then, to 
Alphonso I., we find him of decidedly higher morality than his 
mother but not so high as his father. In neither of his 
three children does his mother's low degree of morahty appear. 
He married Matilda, of whom httle is known. It may be taken 
that her moral nature was not notorious or some record would 



MENTAL AND MORAL HEREDITY 235 

have certainly been forthcoming. In the third generation of 
descendants from Alfonso I. we find Alfonso III., who, though a 
great warrior and statesman, was an unprincipled tyrant, again 
indicated by the symbol of low moraUty. Now, there is no other 
person in the pedigree, except Theresa, where this "miprincipled 
tyranny " and low morahty could have emanated. For the 
various famihes which were introduced by marriage into the line 
of the descendants of Alfonso I., were of a high grade of morality, 
or their general character was such that they have been described 
as " kindly and pious," " virtuous and highly eulogised," and 
" able and moderate." Following the descendants of Alfonso III. 
we find the same symbol of low morality appearing by the side of 
the name of Alfonso IV., who was brave and able, but cruel and 
tyrannical, and by that of his daughter Mary, who was a wicked 
and revengeful queen, while her brother, ' Peter the Rigorous,' was 
a wise, able, and just ruler. Following down the Une of descent 
of 'Peter the Rigorous,' through the next two generations, where 
the pedigree terminates, we find that his descendants are, with 
but two unindicated cases, all of high order from the moral stand- 
point. They are " moderate and enUghtened " or " liberal and 
accomphshed " or " accredited with the highest praises for the 
possession of many virtues." It is interesting to note that much 
of this high standard may be due to the introduction of PhiUppa, 
sister of Henry IV. of England, who had an elevated character 
and many virtues, into the pedigree, by marriage with John I. of 
Portugal. This fact is worth emphasizing, because there is a 
tendency in the popular conception of these problems, to regard 
the female part of the line as having less influence than the male. 
The pedigrees contained in Dr. Adams Wood's book will dispel 
this erroneous idea if they are studied carefully enough. 

Theappearance of many new characters, intellectual and moral, 
in the various lines of descent which are traced in these pedigrees, 
are accounted for clearly by feminine introduction. Such a case 
occurs, for instance, in the pedigree of Maria Theresa, on page 180, 
She married Francis of Lorraine, in whose ancestry individuals 
of intensely rehgious feeUngs do not occur. But both the mother 
and the grandmother on the father's side of Maria Theresa were 
intensely reUgious. Maria Theresa herself is not so indicated. 
But her son, Joseph II. of Austria, was austere, and his interest 
in reUgious matters as manifested by his ecclesiastical poUcy was 
deep and intense. We may in passing say that we cannot agree 
that the epithet " bigoted " which is applied to him by the author 
is altogether justified. We do not think that a Holy Roman 
Emperor, such as Joseph II. was, who brings himself into conflict 
with the Holy See, by issuing an edict of toleration, granting 
freedom of worship to all Protestants and to members of the 



236 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Greek Church within his reahn, can be truly regarded as bigoted. 
Neither can we think that an Emperor who transfers the censor- 
ship of books from the clergy to laymen of Uberal sympathies 
can be regarded as a bigot. We are inchned to think this epithet 
is accidentally misplaced. Thus the descendants of Charles V. 
of Lorraine (great-grandfather of Joseph II. along the father's 
Une) manifested no decided rehgious bent until it was introduced 
through the Empress Maria Theresa, from her mother and grand- 
mother. 

There are those who believe that indolence, viciousness, 
licentiousness, dissoluteness, inferior capacities, stupidity, im- 
becility, and insanity are the products of the environment, and 
are begotten in the slums of cities or engendered in the stress of 
hfe. To them we commend a careful study of the " Chart of 
Modern Spain," which faces page 154 of Dr. Adams Wood's book. 
This chart deals solely with the descent of royal personages, to 
whom were accessible all the charms that render Hfe smooth, 
whose wishes were commands satisfied in the moment of 
their utterance, to whom all activities were open and the 
means of participating in them were freely forthcoming. Yet, 
living under the best conditions that the civihsation of their time 
knew, the Royal Stock inscribed upon this chart contained 
individuals manifesting the undesirable quahties we have just 
enumerated. It may be contended, as we are afraid it has often 
been by people who are content with unsupported assertions 
that carry comfort to their own preconceived ideas of the nature 
of things, that licentiousness and imbeciUty are equally the pro- 
duct of a Eoyal Court and the slums. That such a contention 
has no vahdity, notwithstanding its wide acceptance, is clearly 
shown by the fact that in the Royal family which contains violent, 
passionate, licentious, and feeble-minded members, there are 
others who are normal, virtuous, amiable, and wise. But what 
this chart does show, is that once degenerative characters are 
introduced into a hne of descent, and individuals of degenerate 
families are married to each other, they may be perpetuated 
through succeeding generations. In this chart, for instance, 
they pass down through six generations, and would continue to 
pass on indefinitely, so long as the mode of selection of the worst 
individuals, and the inbreeding which the chart shows to have 
occurred, are continued. Historians and others have been too 
apt to assert that inbreeding which is more common in Royal 
families than in others, leads to sterility and the termination of 
the stock. But, as Dr. Adams Wood points out, there is not 
only no indication of it in this case, but on the contrary, nearly 
every marriage was prohfic of children, even amongst the closest 
blood relations. 



MENTAL AND MORAL HEREDITY 237 

That the circumstances which are attendant upon Royal 
Courts have nothing whatever to do with the origin or encourage- 
ment of Hcentiousness or weak Uves, but that the mode of life, the 
mental level of the persons concerned, their ambitions and aspira- 
tions, and their capacities or incapacities are dependent upon 
their inherent nature, is clearly demonstrated by an examination 
of the Pedigree which contains the individuals of the House 
of Orange. Probably, in the history of the world there has 
never been a family which in its civic attainments and its high 
abilities of a varied order has surpassed that of this great and 
noble house. Their members have reigned in different countries, 
and yet the rough manners and low standards of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries did not produce one depraved 
Prince of Orange, and the daughters of the house were noted for 
their many virtues. 

The same lesson of the futility of environmental influences to 
overcome the congenital and inborn quaUties, be they physical, 
mental, or moral, is shown by the remarkable and, we may add, 
cogent case of the descendants of a brother of Peter the Great, 
who are described on page 221 of Dr. Adams Wood's book. 
For poUtical reasons five of these descendants, all brothers 
and sisters of one family, were, while infants, imprisoned. Their 
imprisonment lasted for thirty-six years. One of the five children 
was almost an imbecile and showed occasional symptoms of 
insanity. He was violent and eccentric. Now if this child stood 
alone we should no doubt be told by the people whose faith is 
pinned to environmental influences as a causal agent, that this 
imbecihty was the consequence of thirty-six years of severe 
imprisonment. But it so happens there were four other children 
imprisoned under the same conditions and for the same period 
of time. Yet they were all normal. Indeed, one was much 
above the average and at the time of her release was " a woman 
of high spirit and elegant manners." Upon her release " she 
wrote a letter of thanks to the Empress so well expressed as to 
excite admiration how she could have obtained sufficient instruc- 
tion during her long confinement." The explanation of this 
remarkable case is clear upon an examination of the Pedigree. 
Inheritance is its keystone. The father of these children was 
Anthony Ulric, of Brunswick, an excellent but mediocre man. 
Their mother was Ehzabeth Anne, eccentric, extremely capricious, 
passionate, and indolent. Their maternal grandmother was 
Catherine, lively and good humoured and not pecuUar in any way. 
Their maternal great-grandmother was the Empress Ivan, who 
was an imbecile, was epileptic, and pious. Thus the imbecility 
of the eldest of the five children is derived from the maternal 
great-grandmother, while the high spirit of the youngest child 



238 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

appears to have descended from the maternal grandmother. 
The mediocre qualities of the other three children were derived 
partly from the father and partly through the mother. 

One other point of great interest, because it confutes a dogma 
too well but not too wisely loved of Democracy, is revealed by 
Dr. Adams Wood's research. This dogma is to the effect that 
royal and aristocratic blood is only saved from degeneration by 
occasional sprinkhngs of plebian blood.* Unfortunately for this 
poetic conception an appeal to fact lays it low in a prosy dust. 
Peter the Great, though a man of " extraordinary will and 
energy," was at the same time violent and epileptic. His 
brother, Ivan, was an imbecile and epileptic. Another brother, 
Feodor, was also an imbecile. His sister Sophia had great 
force of will and ambition, and was intriguing and cruel. 
Now, it happens that the father of these children was the Czar 
Alexis, who was wise, temperate, and virtuous. In his day " it 
was the custom for the Czars to choose their wives from a large 
number of their subjects. The most charming girls in the king- 
dom were brought to the court for their sovereign's inspection, the 
most beautiful of all being selected and made legal queen. Alexis 
was married twice, and on both occasions to a peasant girl, as was 
his father before him. Yet, despite this treble introduction of 
plebian blood, epileptic children came from both his marriages, 
and the epileptic and imbecile psychosis has been transmitted to 
succeeding generations. Now the facts suggest that the degenera- 
tive character was not introduced by the peasant girls who married 
Alexis, but probably came from some of his obscure ancestry. 
Healthy though the peasant stock was, we see that it was ineffec- 
tual in regenerating a defective royal stock, and, it therefore 
follows, as a logical corollary, that royal and aristocratic blood, 
when it retains its virihty and greatness, does so in virtue of 
its own innate qualities. 

Dr. Adams Wood's book contains not only much of the greatest 
interest, but of the highest importance. For the first time there 
has been brought together the pedigrees of Royal Houses, so 
arranged that the relationship of the various members can be 
seen at a glance or easily ascertained. Moreover, for the first 
time, we have before us a definite standard by which we can 
measure to an approximate degree of accuracy the moral and 

* It was to us a matter of great surprise, when a short time ago 
we read a sentence written by the Right Hon. G. W. E. Russell, in a 
little book entitled " Collections and Recollections," second series, in 
which this popular delusion was again expressed. We will give the 
sentence as it stands : " The ever-increasing dilution of the English 
aristocracy with elements drawn from other strata has prevented, or 
at least arrested, decadence." We should certainly like to hear the 
scientific evidence in support of this statement. 



ANIMAL EVOLUTION 239 

intellectual worth of royal and other individuals. In the Ught of 
this Biologico-Historical research, we must as a nation recast our 
too prevalent modern ideas, and in regard ahke to Democracy, 
Aristocracy, and Royalty, seek to place our recent and developing 
national policy upon a sounder and more rational basis. We 
shall learn that oui" oldest traditions, fast losing their hold upon 
a people who have passed through the stage of being a nation of 
shopkeepers and are fast becoming a nation of slaves — slaves to 
democratic demands of rights and neglects of duties and to con- 
ceptions of the equality of men, and to the system of the propping 
up of weaklings by the steel props of officialism — -have been more 
firmly and truly based on the sohd ground of Nature than we at 
present conceive. Good blood first, good blood last, good blood 
always, that is the lesson we can gather from Dr. Adams Wood's 
research. Degeneracy in Royalty like the same quality in lower 
social classes, is due to bad blood. Greatness and nobleness in 
Royalty is due to good blood. Good stock may be spoiled by 
contamination with bad blood is the lesson engraven in deep-set 
inscriptions on almost every page and every pedigree in Dr. 
Adams Wood's book. No greater lesson exists to be learned by 
any nation. For what is true of Royalty is true of humbler 
classes. The nation which shall first learn the lesson and apply 
its knowledge, pressing forward ruthlessly and fearlessly to the 
goal of a worthy Manhood, an efficient and noble Kingship, and a 
patriotic Citizenship, is the nation that will win and hold the 
world. G. P. M. 



Herbert Spencer and Animal Evolution.— ?^/^^ Herbert 

spencer Lecture, deJivered at the Museum on the 2nd 
December, 1909, b;/ Gilbert Charles Bourne, M.A., D.Sc, 
Oxford, at the Clareftdon Press, MCMX. Price \s. %d. net. 

This booklet contains the substance of the first Herbert 
Spencer lecture which is to be annually delivered at Oxford 
University. Professor Bourne, who is the Linacre Professor 
of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, has in a very interesting 
way brought some of Herbert Spencer's conceptions into the light 
of modern biological knowledge. ]\Iore especially has he dealt 
with that clearer light which experimental Embryology throws 
upon some of the most fascinating problems of Biology, and 
incidentally upon Sociology. 

The first part of the Lecture, among other things, deals with 
Herbert Spencer's belief in the transmission of acquired characters. 
This is followed bv an account of Weismann's refutation 



^40 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of the doctrine. Then conies the most interesting and central 
part of the Lecture. Essentially it is a consideration of the 
nature of the germ-plasm as we can elucidate it by our knowledge 
of experimental Embryology. This part of the Address is not 
long, but it is very clear and is illustrated by several figures. 
It is moreover of great importance on account of the light which 
it casts upon the nature of tlie germinal substance. It should be 
read by every statesman, politician, social reformer, and philan- 
thropist. 

The central feature of the embryological experiments here 
described is that what the organism wijl become, depends not on 
the environment, but on the nature and constitution of the 
germ-plasm. Let it be remembered, this is not an assertion, 
not a conception born of emotion, not a daughter-expectation 
begotten of a father-wish, but a simple, demonstrable fact 
observed and always to be observed, in the experimental labora- 
tory. It was ascertained yesterday, it can be verified to-morrow. 

Professor Bourne speaks not as a Sociologist but as a Zoologist. 
His attitude to social problems— which inevitably Zoology must 
trench upon — is indicated in the following sentence : "It is not 
the business of a zoologist to offer solutions of social questions. 
But he is within his right if he tenders to those whose business 
it is to study these questions such evidence as is relevant.'" We 
are not altogether in agreement with this attitude. It seems to 
us that those who can best solve social problems are they whose 
work and experience have brought them into contact with the 
actual foundations upon which they rest. We do not say 
biologists are the only persons who can approach them. But we 
do think that the certainty of experience and the strength of 
conviction which arise as the outcome of first-hand knowledge of 
life in its widest manifestation are essential to a full, a right, and 
a fearless understanding of these difficult questions. Doubtless 
there may be room for two classes of biologists : those who decide 
to remain in the calm and dispassionate air of the laboratory 
and those who prefer to enter the complex arena of human life 
outside, and to apply their academic knowledge and experience 
to the questions which there arise. There is an advantage 
certainly in such a subdivision. It may be that the conclusions 
of those who have brought their biological knowledge to bear 
upon human affairs, may be the more readily accepted by Society 
generally, if they are supported by the evidence of those biologists 
who have stood outside the strife and heat of the arena, where 
scientific knowledge and method must inevitably come into 
conflict with partisanship, and with those preconceived ideas 
upon the rise or fall of which. Schools and Creeds rest their 
existence. 



ANIMAL EVOLUTION 241 

Regarding Professor Bourne's Address in this light, accepting 
his conclusions as those of an eminent Zoologist who views social 
questions from the calm perspective of the laboratory, we note 
two conclusions which seem to us of special value. The first is 
this : " We should hold fast to Herbert Spencer's conviction that 
mankind is governed by the same laws as govern the animal 
kingdom, and that no true system of Sociology can be offered 
which does not take full account of those laws." This, we may 
say in passing, is one of the facts which is among the objects 
of the Mendel Journal to bring home to the minds of men. We 
welcome this pronouncement of Professor Bourne all the more, 
that it comes from him as a Zoologist purely and not as a 
Sociologist. 

The second conclusion to which we refer is stated in the 
following sentence : " You will probably be inclined to the 
opinion that the conclusions to which Zoology has arrived are 
not sufficiently secure to warrant an attempt to apply them to 
affairs of State. Be it so. But it is a fact commonly overlooked 
that ideas derived from biological science are being applied to 
the affairs of the State, and that some who would hurry on the 
march of progress wish, consciously or unconsciously, to apply 
them still further. But these ideas are founded on the conclusions 
reached fifty years ago, and science has moved far forward since 
then. It is to be feared that much that still passes for "progress " 
is really regress, for it is founded on mistaken conceptions of the 
operations of Nature." 

The chief idea to which this sentence refers, is the possibility 
of the transmission of acquired characters. If we have to discard 
this idea, in the form in which it has been promulgated since its 
conception, it may be asked how we can rely upon any other, 
even the latest of biological conceptions. If this one must be 
thrown over, what guarantee have we, that those which occupy 
the pedestal of thought to-day, may not to-morrow, in their turn 
be tumbled into fragments on the ground. It should, however, 
be remembered that the hypothesis of the transmission of acquired 
characters, arose as a speculation and was tacitly accepted as a 
supposed self evident truth. It was never based upon unques- 
tionable exjDerimental evidence. The newer conclusions of to-day 
are. They are the products of the experimental laboratory and 
the experimental garden. The facts thus ascertained are endur- 
ing ; fresh knowledge cannot alter old facts. If we must apply 
biological conclusions to human affairs, and if we are impelled 
to hurry on the march of events, let us, at any rate, be sure we 
are applying the enduring portion of Biology, and that we do not 
advance beyond its well ascertained facts. That in essence is the 
plea of Professor Bourne, and everyone will agree it is the soundest 
that can be made. 



242 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

The conclusions of modern Biology, those which rest upon 
the irrefutable basis of experiment, certainly lend no support to 
the cardinal feature of present social sentiment. Not only do 
they not render any corroboration of the ideas upon which this 
sentiment is based, but they indicate clearly enough that these 
ideas are diametrically opposed to truth, and are largely the 
outcome of a confusion of cause with effect. Q. P. M. 



The Late SIR TRANCIS OALTON, f.R.S. 




Photo] 



[Elliott d- Fry. 



News of the death of Sir Francis Galton reaches us as 
the pages of this Journal pass to the press from their 

final revision. We have not 
therefore the opportunity of 
presenting to our readers a full 
account of his scientific and 
other work which is so inti- 
mately concerned with pro- 
blems of Human Inheritance. 
But the death of one who, 
more than any other person, 
called attention in the 
early forties, to the import- 
ance which heredity played 
in the phenomena of life in general and of human 
attributes in particular, cannot be passed over 
without some word of appreciation, however im- 
perfect, in a Journal which deals with problems 
that centre around the application of Heredity to 
human affairs. 

Sir Francis was in his own personality a very clear 
illustration of that process of inheritance which he 
did so much to expound. His maternal grandfather 
was Erasmus Darwin, the poet-naturalist, and both 
his father and paternal grandfather were men 
of scientific ability. Erasmus Darwin married twice, 
and Sir Francis Galton was his grandson by one wife, 
while Charles Darwin was his grandson by the other. 
Sir Francis and Charles Darwin were thus cousins. 
The Galton-Darwin-Wedgwood alliance of families was 
indeed a striking example of the influence of stock in 
the production of eminent men. The Galton family 
became connected through marriage with the Darwin 
family, by the marriage of Mr. S. T. Galton, of 
Duddeston, Warwickshire, with a Miss Darwin, 
daughter of Erasmus Darwin. The Wedgwood family 



244 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

entered the alliance through the marriage of a Miss 
Wedgwood with Dr. Eobert Darwin. Of this marriage 
there were six children, and Charles Darwin, the 
great naturalist, was one of them. From these three 
allied families, in five generations, comprising about 
sixty individuals, there are no less than sixteen 
eminent men, showing exceptional scientific ability. 
Of these, nine are Fellows of the Royal Societ}' . 

Sir Francis was born in 1822, and died on Tuesday, 
January 17th, 1911. He was thus eighty -nine years 
of age at the time of his death. He was one of the 
many eminent men of science which Cambridge 
University can claim for its own, since he graduated 
at Trinity College in 1844. 

He was a man of very varied attainments, to 
which we are afraid the popular conception of his 
achievements does but little justice. In the popular 
mind he is mainly remembered as the author of the 
finger-impression method of identification. Yet this 
work, valuable though it be, is but a small part of his 
contribution to knowledge or to human affairs. His 
earlier days after leaving Cambridge were devoted 
to travelling and to the publication of his observations. 
He was indeed a pioneer among the explorers of the 
Dark Continent, for in 1844 he spent two years in 
ascending the White Nile. This was followed in 
1850 by an exploration, in company with Dr. John 
Anderson, of Damaraland and the Ovampo country 
in South- West Africa. He next turned his attention 
to Meteorology and made the first serious attempt 
to chart the weather on an extensive scale. Subse- 
quently, in about 1863, he devoted himself to the 
study of inheritance, and ever since his life has been 
occupied in working at the subject. Space does not 
now permit us to deal with this part of his work as it 
deserves. No real conception of it can be conveyed 
to the mind of readers in a short dissertation. But 
we hope in our next number to publish a full account 
of his work upon inheritance and of the fruits which 



AN APPRECIATION 245 

it has borne, and the harvest it is yet destined to 
produce. 

Meantime, we can perhaps give no better indica- 
tion of his real greatness, as distinguished from 
eminence, than by reciting his utterances of virility, 
pronounced as recently as 1909, which are among 
the last he has given to his countrymen. In a recent 
article* he wrote : " I have studied the causes of civic 
prosperity in various directions and from many 
points of view, and the conclusion at which I have 
arrived is emphatic, namely, that chief among those 
causes is a large capacity for labour — mental, bodily, 
or both — combined with eagerness for work." " A 
prosperous community is distinguished by the alert- 
ness of its members, by their busy occupations, by 
their taking pleasure in their work, by their doing it 
thoroughly, and by an honest pride in their com- 
munity as a whole. The members of a decaying 
community are, for the most part, languid and 
indolent, they shirk work when they can do so, and 
scamp what they undertake." " Prosperous com- 
munities are also notable for enjoyment of life, for 
though their members must work hard in order to 
procure the necessary luxuries of an advanced 
civilisation, they are endowed with so large a store 
of energy that, when their daily toil is over, enough 
of it remains unexpended to allow them to pursue 
their special hobbies during the remainder of the 
day. In a decadent community, the men tire 
easily and soon sink into drudgery ; there is conse- 
quently much languor among them and little 
enjoyment of life." 

Recalling these words now, when he who wrote 
them has passed from the world, leaving the memory 
of his greatness and social insight, they remain 
as a warning to a nation, which by the signs of its 
times already shows evidence of that decadence 

* " The Eugenics Review," .luly, 1909. 



246 THE MENDEU'JOURNAL 

and absence of strenuousness that mark the road 
along which a nation marches to its destruction. 
It is a significant matter that in the newspapers 
which recorded his death there also occurred the 
records of " that sinking into drudgery, of that 
languor, of that little enjoyment of life, of that 
indolence, of that shirking " which the great, but 
alas, during life too silent, counsellor indicated as 
the sure signs of communal decadence. His wise 
counsel and sure intellectual penetration are no longer 
with us in the flesh, but his work lives, and they whom 
that work has inspired remain to carry it, if possible, 
to fruition. In that sense, this Journal, in part, 
may claim to be one of his heirs. 



Taylor, Garnet/, Kranx, <(■ Co., Ltd., Printers, London and Manchester. 



A. & F. DENNY 



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Vol. II. No. IV. JANUARY, 1911 

THE EUGENICS REVIEW 

"Eugenics is the study of agencies under social control that may improve or 
impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally." 

CONTENTS. 
I. Editorial Notes 
II. Heredity and Insanity - - F. W. Mott, M.D., F.R.S. 

III. Woman's Progress in Relation to 

Eugenics - - - R. Murray Leslie, M.D. 

IV. Eugenics and Deafmutism - - MacLeod Yearsley, F.R.C.S. 
V. The Eugenics of Migrants - - Charles E. Woodruff, M.D. 

VI. DISCUSSION — The American Eugenics Section. Sterilisation of the 

Unfit. Marriage and Insanity. Eugenics Information Bureau, &c. 

VII. RECENT BOOKS :— Reviews by Professor Haddon, Mrs. Whetham, 

W. C. D. Whetham, J. H. Koeppern, R. Dixon Kingham, and others. 

Published Quarterly by the Eugenics Education Society, 6, York Buildings, Adeiphi, W.C. 



Price 1/- net. Post free l/lj. Annual Subscription, 4/6 



The 

Mendel Journal 

September 1912 Edited by GEO. P. MUDGE 



ALTERNATIVE HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS 

Frederick Adams Woods 

SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES IN SPAIN 

Rose Haig Thomas 

PRIMITIVE EUGENICS E. Torday 

HEREDITY OF RAGING STAMINA IN THE 

THOROUGHBRED HORSE ... J. B. Robertson 

SOME SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS ARISING 
FROM INHERITANCE IN RACE HORSES 

Geo. P. Mudge 

HEREDITY IN GOATS C. J. Davies 

A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES W. J. Rutherfurd 

"MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES" The Editor 

HEREDITY OR ENVIRONMENT ... Louis Cobbett 

A PLEA FOR THE OPERATION OF A MORE VIRILE 
SENTIMENT. A Further Reply .. Geo. P. Mudge 

INHERITANCE OF HUMAN DEGENERACIES 

(Cataract) W. J. Rutherfurd 

OCCURRENCE OF TWINS IN SUCCESSIVE GENERA- 
TIONS W. J. Rutherfurd 

MENDELIAN CONSIDERATIONS AND LENTICULAR 
CATARACT The Editor 

INFANTILE MORTALITY The Editor 

MISCELLANEA 



Copyright AH Rights Reserved 

Printed and Published for the Mendel Society by 

TAYLOR, GARNETT, EVANS, & Co., Ltd., 54, Fleet Street, London, E.C, 

and Manchester, England. 

No. 3 Price 62 cents, nett 

Agents in the United States of America : 
G. E. Stechert & Co., 151-155, West 25th Street, New York. 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



CONTENTS 



ALTERNATIVE HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS Page 

F. Adams Woods 5 

SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES ... Rose Haig Thomas 17 

PRIMITIVE EUGENICS E. Torday 31 

HEREDITY OF RACING STAMINA IN HORSES 

J. B. Robertson 37 

SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND STAMINA IN 

HORSES Geo. P. Mudge 93 

HEREDITY IN GOATS C. J. Davies 104 

A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES W. J. Rutherfurd 117 

INHERITANCE AND MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES 

The Editor 128 

HEREDITY OR ENVIRONMENT Louis Cobbett 137 

A PLEA FOR MORE VIRILE SENTIMENT IN HUMAN 

AFFAIRS Geo. P. Mudge 146 

INHERITANCE OF LENTICULAR CATARACT 

W. J. Rutherfurd 167 

OCCURRENCE OF TWINS IN SUCCESSIVE GENERATIONS 

W. J. Rutherfurd 173 

MENDELIAN CONSIDERATIONS AND PEDIGREE ON 

LENTICULAR CATARACT The Editor 183 

PEDIGREES AND INFANTILE MORTALITY ... The Editor 189 



MISCELLANEA 

MENTAL QUALITIES AND MENDEL'S LAW A. F. 196 

DUN AND CHESTNUT COLOUR IN HORSES C. J. Davies 197 

SEX LIMITATION AND EYE COLOUR IN FLIES 

An Abstract 199 

FORM OF NOSE AND SEGREGATIVE INHERITANCE 

Editorial 200 

NATURAL OR INSTINCTIVE EUGENICS ... Editorial 203 

THE CORONER AND A BIOLOGICAL FACT... Editorial 205 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD OF SCOTLAND AND 

"THE MENDEL JOURNAL" Editorial 207 



A Pedigree showing the Hereditary Transmission of Genius and 
its AUernative Inheritance with Mediocrity. 



1 

Annb 

Famous Ooiistiiliie 

of Prance, 


Loll 
Mmlio 



Henry II. :^ 

Prince of Cond6 I 

Ambitious and | 

successful. I 



Strong, heroic 
character. Not un- 
usually intellectuttl. 



Orange. : 

WILLIAM THE 
SILENT 

"Illustriuus founder 
of the Dutch 
Republic." 



powers of imi 
disposition.'" 



I 

ANNE 

Duchess de 

Longueville. 

(_Treat~abiIity. 

r 



Sti 



Juliana 
3ng character. 



MAURICE 

' One of the greatest 
captains of modern 



Frederick Henhi 
Distinguished 
Stadtholder. 



ELIZABETH 

Keraarkably 
intellectual. 



I 

Palatinate. 

Frederick V. 

Good though mediocre. 

I 

I 

SOPHIA 

Great force of 

character and 

intellect. 



ELIZABETH 

larkably guod charac 
Mediocre intellect. 



Sophia Charlotti 
" The Philosophical Qu 
A'^erv intellectual and vie 



Frei.erick I. 
Ostentatious 
and childish. 



Dorothea 

Ambitious, proud, 

virtuous, and refined. 



= Fheiierick William 

I Eccentric, tyrannica 

j Remarkable will. 

I A shrewd administrator. 



FREDERICK THE 
GREAT 

Of the highest ability. 



Will 
Not rem; 



HENRY 

Exceptional ability 



SOPHIA ULRICA 

The Minerva of the 

North." 
Very intellectual. 

GUSTAVUS III. OF SWEDEN 

Very brilliant. 



Of brilliant prom 
Died young. 



WILLIAM III. 

< hie of the greatest 
of England s kings. 
A precocious genius 



AMELIA 

Remarkable intellect. 
Noted as a musician, 



The 

Mendel Journal 

No. 3 September, 1912 

ALTERNATIVE HEREDITY OE MENTAL 
TRAITS. 

BY 

FREDERICK ADAMS WOODS, M.D., 

Lecturer in the Biological Department of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology; late Instructor in Histology and 
Embryology in the Harvard Medical School, Boston, U.S.A. 



The sharp contrasts in traits of character between 
children born of the same parentage and educated 
under the same surroundings is often a matter of 
wonderment, and such variations in the human strip, 
reckless as they at first sight seem in their wide 
individualistic expressions, have often deterred belief 
in the value of heredity. The real lesson is quite the 
reverse, and these same contrasts, when rightly 
understood, form, perhaps, the strongest argument 
in favour of mental inheritance. They support the 
belief in the essentially predetermined nature of such 
differences as commonly exist between man and man, 
and bring the whole question of family and individual 
vicissitudes within the scope and understanding of 
the germ-cell theory. 

Alternative heredity is exemplified when any two 
contrasted qualities are present in a stock, either as 
outward body manifestations or as inward germ-cell 
determinants, and these qualities are passed onward 
from generation to generation without neutralising 
each other, or, in other words, without mutually 



6 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

destroying the contrast. Qualities black and white, 
good and bad, are in the parentage and in the stock. 
The offspring must be made up and entirely com- 
pounded out of either black or white or good or bad, 
one or the other, this is the " alternative." In the 
case of sheep the creature must be, as we all know, 
clearly and absolutely either one thing or the other. 
This is alternative heredity working at its perfection.* 
How far is this true for mental and moral traits ? 
Though man cannot be divided into good and bad, 
great and small, there is nevertheless much more 
alternative heredity at work than is commonly 
supposed. This can be the more readily demon- 
strated if one divides individuals into three classes. 
Let the great mass be placed in the middle or common 
grade, and then watch the appearance and reap- 
pearance of either one of the types belonging to the 
extreme ends of the scale, either the rare superior or 
the rare inferior. If these types are traced through 
long pedigrees of human beings by studying inten- 
sively families where most of the brothers and sisters 
and uncles and aunts can be traced and accounted 
for, the phenomenon of alternative inheritance can 
be seen to have an universal value. Everywhere we 
find certain children inheriting the peculiarity in 
question, while, if the records are complete, it is 
equally clear that others do not. 

* The phrase, alternative heredity, Mas in use before the rediscovery' of 
Mendel's law in 1900. It is a broader, looser term than strict MendeUan 
heredity-, and does not raise the question of dominance and recession. It 
does, however, involve the idea of segregation of the germ plasm, and is a 
convenient term to employ when " factors " and " units," " dominance " 
and " recession " have not yet been unravelled. 



HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS 7 

No pedigrees are better preserved than those of 
Royalty, the names and dates being quite complete. 
As I have elsewhere offered proof of the essential 
validity and general utility of the historical and bio- 
graphical materials,* I will cite some instances to 
prove how frequently a peculiar or exceptional 
mentality shows its presence in one member of the 
family while its absence is found in the very close of 
kin. 

The House of Hanover had a sprinkling of 
pleasure-loving and dissipated princes, but the 
majority were quiet and domestic. Frederick Prince 
of Wales, Frederick Henry Duke of Cumberland, and 
Edward Duke of York, and Frederick Duke of York 
resembled George IV. in this particular, and in their 
moral nature stood in sharp contrast to George III., 
William Henry Duke of Gloucester, Edward Duke 
of Kent, and Adolphus Duke of Cambridge. 

The Hohenzollerns in Prussia have had among their 
number a few men and women of remarkable mental 
endowments, and these also well illustrate the action 
of alternative inheritance, the genius springing appa- 
rently from the Houses of Orange and Coligny with 
Montmorency in the background (see Pedigree). This 
first appeared in the Great Elector of Brandenburg, a 
son of Elizabeth of the Palatinate, who was one of 
the thirty-two grandchildren of William the Silent — 
four only of whom had shown the family genius. The 
parents of the Great Elector were neither of them 

* " Heredity in Royalty," Henry Holt, New York, 1906, and " His- 
toriometry as an Exact Science," " Science," New York, April 14th, 1911. 



8 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

more than mediocre. His son Frederick I. was but 
a vain and ostentatious figure-head, but an inter- 
marriage caused at least a partial reappearance of the 
exceptional type in Frederick William L, of Prussia, 
and a second intermarriage produced Frederick the 
Great. Four of this generation were almost equal to 
Frederick the Great himself. His brother Prince Henry 
was a great strategist. His sisters Sophia Ulrica (Queen 
of Sweden, "The Minerva of the North"), Charlotte of 
Brunswick, and the Princess Amelia, were noted for 
their intellect, while at least four of the other five 
brothers and sisters could not possibly be placed in 
the same class. Out of all the nieces and nephews of 
Frederick the Great it is quite easy to pick seven as 
showing in one form or another the family brilliancy, 
while at the same time the feeling is strongly forced 
on one that, with one or two partial blendings as 
exceptions, the others do not. The seven whom I 
have included in this group which seem characterised 
as " brilliant " are Gustavus III. of Sweden and his 
sister Sophia Albertina ; Augustus Frederick of 
Prussia, reputed the best artillery officer in the 
Prussian army, who died young ; Louis, a son of 
Ferdinand of Prussia ; Amelia Duchess of Saxe- 
Weimar, the distinguished patron of genius and 
learning, of Wieland, Herder, and Goethe ; sixth, 
the celebrated commander Charles William Ferdinand 
of Brunswick ; and seventh, his brother William 
Adolphus. 

The House of Montmorency shows in the same way 
that genius tends to hold itself as a single entity and 



HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS 9 

skip about in course of descent. From Eberhard 
Montmorency, contemporary of Hugh Capet, to 
Anne, the great Constable of France, there were 
eighteen generations — one hundred and seven indi- 
viduals — yet only two great names, Mathew L, who 
died in 1151, and his grandson Mathew 11. , who died 
in 1230. From his death to the birth of the cele- 
brated Constable Anne two hundred and fifty-three 
years passed, and then a new centre of genius appeared 
which probably had nothing to do with the earlier 
manifestation, though it may, of course, have been 
an extreme reversion. Anne's second son, Henry L, 
Duke of Montmorency, was a distinguished legislator, 
being the only one of seven mature children to attain 
high fame, the others representing the mediocre 
ancestors. Henry II., the representative of the next 
generation, was even more eminent than his father. 
He was the only son to reach maturity. His 
three sisters were not distinguished for intellectual 
qualities. One of these sisters, Charlotte, married 
Henry II., Prince of Conde, and became the mother 
of Louis the Great Conde, and also of Anne Duchess 
of Longueville, celebrated for her beauty, tact, and 
diversified talents. The youngest of the children, 
Amand, Prince of Conty, in no way inherited the same 
qualities. He was an utterly weak and insignificant 
person. The marriage of Louis 11. , the Great Conde, 
with Clemence de Maille de Breze brought insanit^^ 
and degeneracy into the line, and for three genera- 
tions brilliancy, debauchery, and eccentricities ran 
rampant. There were, however, five other members 



10 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of the family about whom little is known, or at least 
nothing is readily obtained. The presumption is that 
these were mediocre normal and negative persons, 
who, having neither gifts nor vices, did not interest 
the gossips of the time. 

The talent in the House of Bourbon also shows an 
alternative tendency, especially in the capacity found 
among the relatives of Henry IV. of France, His 
father was mediocre, but his mother, Jeanne d'Albret, 
one of the chief supporters of Protestantism, was 
distinguished for her talents, virtues, and heroic 
qualities. Her father, Henri d'Albret, was of little 
account, but her mother was Margaret d'Angouleme, 
famous for her literary work, and gave chief refuge to 
the advocates of the reformed doctrine in her time. 
Among the five children of Henry IV. Henrietta, who 
married Charles I. of England, seems to have had the 
brains and spirit, while Louis XIII. and Gaston of 
Orleans were unusually weak. In the next generation 
Anne Marie amply represented the genius of her 
grandfather. She was Duchess of Monpensier — 
generally known as " Mademoiselle " — and belongs 
among the few famous military leaders who have been 
women. The spirit and daring of " Mademoiselle " 
were indeed remarkable, especially at the capture of 
the town of Orleans, where she rendered important 
service. She also wrote memoirs which are interest- 
ing reading. 

This type of active mentality disappeared in the 
subsequent generations of the French royal family. 
I have accounted for this in " Heredity in Royalty," 



HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS 11 

by the force of selection. The marriages of Henry IV. , 
Louis XIIL, and Louis XIV. were especially disas- 
trous, since they introduced the Italian and Spanish, 
Hapsburg psyco-neurosis. Degeneracy and vicious- 
ness thus introduced did not appear in Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Henry IV., or in Louis Duke of 
Burgundy, father of Louis XV. There is no good 
evidence that the two youngest daughters of 
Louis XV. were otherwise than normal, and in the 
last generation Louis XVIII. and his sisters, Princess 
Adelaide and Princess Elizabeth, seem to have en- 
tirely escaped the family blight, which in one form or 
another had affected certain individuals among their 
ancestors since the days of Joanna " the Mad," who 
died in 1555. 

The Regent Philip of Orleans was notorious for 
his vices, and his daughters have left a bad name ; 
but it must not be forgotten that Louis his son and 
Philippine the youngest of the daughters were as 
remarkable for their virtues as Marie, Charlotte, and 
Elizabeth were for their depravities. The mother, 
Frances Marie de Blois, was a good character, and the 
explanation from alternative heredity, of course, is 
that, in morality, some resembled the father and some 
the mother. The later history of -the House of 
Orleans presents an exception inasmuch as normality 
was universal in the two generations following the 
debauched " Egalite." There were eleven children, 
and one or two might have been expected to repeat 
the degenerate type. 

In the early history of Spain, at the time of the 



12 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Moorish wars, strength alternated with mediocrity. 
After the time of Charles V. an unfortunate ancestral 
combination gave nothing for mediocrity to alternate 
with as far as mentality was concerned, save insanity 
and imbecility. A few fine moral characters are still 
found here and there rising conspicuously among a 
mass of lazy or cruel degenerates. 

The heritage from the mad Joanna also appeared 
in the Austrian line of the Hapsburgs, but did not at 
first affect many members. Selection was almost 
entirely through normal parentage. Vehse, in his 
well-known " Memoires of the House of Austria," 
refers to the more recent reappearance of the ancient 
ailment, " Whereas the children of Maria Theresa 
were all of them healthy, the sons of Ludovica were 
afflicted with the hereditary evil of the Spanish 
Bourbons, convulsions and epilepsy. The Archduke 
John alone was free from it, and all the other sons 
suffered more or less from the terrible malady ; the 
Archduke Charles very badly, most of all the 
Archduke Rodolph. Ludovica's daughters were free, 
but the malady reappeared in the grand-daughters — 
as, for instance, in the Archduchess-Co-Regent 
Caroline of Saxony." 

The history, of Portuguese royalty is easily divided 
into two main periods, that prior to Emanuel the 
Fortunate, who died in 1521, which was an era of 
great kings, and the subsequent generations composed 
of little or mediocre personages. In the early period 
Ferdinand I. and Alfonso V. stand out in contrast, 
owing to their weakness ; while in the latter period 



HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS 13 

much alternative heredity is seen on a close analysis 
of all the family members, especially evident in the 
different types of moral character. In fact, much the 
same picture is seen here as among their close cousins, 
the Spanish, Hapsburg- Bourbons. Since the middle 
of the nineteenth century the Saxe-Coburg and best 
Orleans blood has eliminated the insane and abnormal 
types, but has not introduced any ancestry containing 
great ability. 

The early Romanoffs in Russia show a cruel, 
passionate, violent, and often epileptic type. This 
was absent in the Czars Michael and Alexis, appeared 
in Peter the Great, his brother Ivan and sister Sophia, 
and in two of his children, but not in his daughter 
Anne. The children of another Anne, who had her- 
self inherited the Romanoff eccentricities and had 
married the excellent though mediocre Anthony Ulric 
of Brunswick, are especially interesting, as they show 
what the outcome may be after a very exceptional 
environment. All the children were taken when 
infants and for political reasons imprisoned for 
thirty-six years. Ivan, the eldest, was almost an 
imbecile, and showed occasional symptoms of in- 
sanity. This imbecility might naturally be attri- 
buted to the imprisonment, which was extremely 
severe ; but the characteristics of the other four 
children make one suspect alternative heredity pure 
and simple, " Elizabeth, the youngest sister, was a 
woman of high spirit and elegant manners. On being 
released she wrote a letter of thanks to the Empress 
so well expressed as to excite admiration how she 



14 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

could have obtained sufficient instruction during her 
long confinement." 

The other children were mediocre, and in no way 
peculiar. " They amused themselves with reading, 
playing billiards and cards, riding, and walking. 
They walk about the town and in the environs, and 
drive out in carriages ; the princes frequently ride, 
and particularly Alexis, who is very fond of that 
exercise, and said to be an expert. They not infre- 
quently pay visits in the country and dine with the 
neighbouring families."* 

Thus among five children exposed to a very 
unusual environment from infancy, we find a result 
showing 4ittle influence other than should be expected 
from heredity. Three were mediocre, representing 
the majority of the strain ; one was an imbecile, 
corresponding to his mother and great-grandfather, 
Ivan ; and one was spirited and cultivated in spite 
of it all, and rose very nearly as high as any of the 
immediate ancestors. Of course, such remarkable 
circumstances must have modified the characters of 
the four normal children, to some slight extent at 
least ; still, even these exceptional cases deviate very 
little from what is to be expected from the force of 
heredity, if segregation of the germ-cells be taken 
into account. 

The early history of the House of Oldenburg, 
in Denmark, shows little alternative heredity of a 
striking sort, but this is because there is little devia- 
tion from mediocrity or the average. Of course, if 

* Coxe, " Travels," Vol. V., p. 19. 



HEREDITY OF MENTAL TRAITS 15 

no marked peculiarities are obvious, then there is no 
opportunity to contrast its absence. Sweden, on 
the contrary, had, just before and after the time of 
Gustavus Adolphus, several very remarkable persons 
in the royal family. These are quite clearly differen- 
tiated from the mediocre types, though transitions 
also exist. These transitions naturally exist to con- 
siderable extent in all families. It is impossible to 
always satisfactorily estimate, classify, and grade 
mental and moral differences ; but I believe these 
transitional individuals are much rarer than is 
commonly supposed, and my purpose in writing this 
article is merely to call attention to the universal 
tendency in mental heredity to give at least a 
partially perfect alternative inheritance. I have 
often looked for demonstration of piu-e Mendelian 
dominance and recession in psychic heredity, but have 
never found it in the material I possess. It may 
very likely be that a further splitting up of such 
rough first approximations and classifications as I 
have been forced to make will bring to light some 
unit character that will prove dominant or recessive. 
It would seem as if the mental qualities were more or 
less formed into one unit, and certain specific moral 
types into another, and as if the germ-cells were 
trying with more or less success to segregate these 
units. 

The appreciation of the general principle of 
alternative heredity in human mentality is at least a. 
valuable consideration, because it is something which 
environment cannot, we must think, tend to cause,. 



16 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

but rather would tend to obliterate had environment 
a power to do so. The fact that these differences are 
not obliterated, even among those living in the same 
social atmosphere, is a strong argument in favour of 
germ-plasm causation. The more minutely one 
studies separate families and traces them through 
succeeding generations the more one is convinced 
that the welfare of the family and consequently the 
nation depends on stock. At the same time, the more 
one seeks an explanation for the facts of family 
variation in any humanly imposed or artificially 
created atmosphere of surroundings the more one 
finds his expectations fail. 



Some Observations on the Segregation 
of Human Types in Spain. 

By ROSE HAIG THOMAS. 

A PAPER on " Heredity and the Jew," by Dr. 
Redclyffe N. Salaman, appeared in " Genetics," Vol. 
I., Part III., in which the author dealt with the 
Ethnology of the Jewish people, first historically 
tracing the probable origins of the Sephardic and 
Ashkenazic, the two Jewish types, and illustrating 
with photographs of ancient Assyrian sculpture and 
modern portraits the persistence of the Jewish type 
from those early times down to our own. He pointed 
out evidence of the working of Mendel's law in the 
offspring of marriages between Jews and Gentiles, 
and came to the conclusion that the Gentile facial 
characters were dominant over the Jewish. 

The great interest of Dr. Salaman's article recalled 
to my memory some observations made on human 
type segregation in Spain contained in the following 
notes, which do not pretend to be more than a mere 
sketch ; the notes were jotted down during a journey 
through Spain in the spring of 1908 as an attempt 
to record whether the two types, i.e., Visigoths and 
Moors, could still be traced, each preserving some- 
thing of its purity of race. 

The reader should be reminded that the first 
invasion of the Moors took place about a. d. 711, and 
the Moorish dynasties in Spain extended over a 



18 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

period of nearly eight centuries, terminating with the 
fall of Granada in 1492. Nevertheless, the segre- 
gation of the two types may often be clearly 
seen, even among the members of a single 
family. And it is interesting to remember that this 
segregation occurs even though more than four 
centuries have elapsed since the commingling of the 
two races in Spain. In Granada, Cordova, Seville, 
Malaga, and all the places visited in Southern Spain, 
the extraordinary dissimilarity of skin, eye, and hair 
colour between members of the same family showed 
a " split " of the most pronounced divergence of type 
which drew the notice even of travellers who were 
not (as I was) looking for it. One American lady 
was heard to express her surprise " at not finding the 
dark race of Spaniards " she expected to see, adding 
" there are many as fair as at home." 

The Province of Barcelona. 
The Moors never penetrated so far North-East as 
Barcelona. The town of Barcelona submitted to 
Moorish rule after the sacking of Tarragona, and thus 
escaped the mixture of races which occurred further 
South. Here about four-fifths of the population 
seem to have brown hair of varying shades ; the 
children and some adults have often quite flaxen hair, 
the complexions are generally fair, and the olive skin 
is rarely seen. 

From Barcelona to Valencia. 
Travelling along the coast line through Tarragona 
and Tortosa to Valencia on a Sunday, crowds of 



SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES 19 

people were collected at every station to see the train, 
giving ample opportunity to observe the proportion 
of fair to dark, which apparently preserved much the 
same ratio as in Barcelona, about three-fourths fair 
to one -fourth dark. In Valencia no observations 
were made on the colour of the population. 

Province of Ciudad Eeal. 

Alcazar is a junction between the East coast 
line and the main line from Madrid to Seville, 
and here we had a seven hours' halt. A man 
came into the waiting-room, remaining some time 
cleaning the lamp ; he had a perfect Nigger crop of 
black, woolly hair, tight frizzled curls close to the 
scalp, also a very dark skin, but the features ivere 
not Negro type. 

At Manzanares, further South on the line, was a 
twenty minutes' halt. Here was seen another man 
with an absolute Nigger crop of tight, black, woolly 
curls. Otherwise all along the line fair-haired children 
and blue-eyed, brown-haired adults abound. At a 
station, looking out at a standing train which had 
come from the South, amongst a number of heads 
thrust out was that of one man with a face almost 
pure Negro in type of feature and skin colour, with 
prognathous jaw ; but the hair, though black, was 
smooth and straight. In the three men thus located 
in different parts of Spain, the hair appears* to segre- 
gate independently from the features, and also hair 
colour and hair structure seem to be two independent 
factors. 



20 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Province of Malaga. 

Near Palo, a small fishing village four miles from 
the town of Malaga, at the door of a cottage, lying 
basking in the hot sun, was a family of five small 
children — two flaxen-haired, two brown-haired, and 
one with coal-black hair and very dark brown skin, 
in marked contrast to his brothers and sisters. They 
were evidently of one family, being in steps of age 
upwards, from the flaxen-haired baby of a few months 
old who was rolling just inside the door. 

In the town of Malaga was noticed a man with 
Negro features and skin colour. He was photo- 
graphed. Amongst ten men sitting on a wall in the 
sun at the end of the Alameda, one was a Negro in 
feature, skin colour, and prognathous jaw, but the 
black hair was smooth. On the Alameda at the same 
hour, were two boys with Negro skin colour, hair 
colour, and eye colour, and one girl having the same 
Negro characters. 

At Mass in the Cathedral was a school of twenty 
girls — amongst them one partially negro featured 
with Negro skin colour and prognathous jaw. 

One man in the street with exact Negro features, 
the wide-spreading upturned nostrils ; but his black 
hair was straight, and he had a beard. 

Another man with the high nose and Arab type 
of features, but with a Nigger crop of woolly curls. 
Here again we appear to have evidence of the 
segregation of the factors for facial features from 
the factors for hair. 



SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES 21 

On the Alameda one of the boot cleaners seen 
sitting in the same place every day, was a Mulatto. 
(On enquiry it was found he was a Cuban who had 
been forty years in Malaga.) He was not married. 

Walking on the Mole of the harbour was a very 
dark Arab type of Spaniard, raven-black hair and 
eyes, carrying a year-old boy with flaxen hair and a 
skin of railk and roses. No fairer child could have 
been seen in England, and it was evidently his own 
from the tender care he bestowed upon it. 

In one or two of the dark-skinned, thick-featured, 
prognathous types was noticed a long, flat nose with 
scarcely any bridge (not projecting from the face), 
but without the wide- spreading, upturned nostril.* 

We met a woman in Arab dress, with very dark, 
high features, raven-black straight hair, and there 
was also a woman selling oranges and vegetables in 
the market on the river bank, whose features, hair, 
and skin colour were all pronounced Negro type. 
Both were photographed. 

An old man near the market showed the Negro 
type strongly in feature, hair, skin, and prognathous 
jaw. 

The extremes of fair and dark are very much 
greater in Southern Spain than in France or England, 
as the dark types are many shades darker than any to 
be found in the latter countries, and the features, 
more particularly in Malaga, have often a resemblance 

* This seems to suggest, as we should on general grounds expect, that 
the form of the nose is due to many factors and that these are capable of 
segregation. See also "Miscellanies," page 200. — [Editor.] 



22 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

to those of a Negro race. On the other hand, one 
would describe the Spaniards, from Barcelona down 
the East coast to Valencia and in the centre of Spain, 
as a fair race, among whom brown or grey eyes, with 
fair skin and brown or fair hair, are the most frequent 
combinations, though blue eyes are quite common. In 
reckoning with the number of Negro features and 
characters found in Malaga, it must be remembered 
that commerce with Cuba has played some part here, 
and that there has probably for two hundred years 
or more, been a constant intercrossing with the 
African races from that island. The mixtures of race, 
however, probably ceased with the cession of Cuba to 
America twelve or thirteen years ago. 

The Province of Cadiz. 

Amongst the military in Algeciras a great diver- 
gence of type is observable. An old woman with 
Negro hair and skin colour, but not Negro features, 
was noticed in the town. 

A very dark Arab type of woman (possibly a 
gipsy ?) was seen in Algeciras carrying a flaxen-haired 
rosy-hued, white-skinned baby, and evidently her 
own, from the care and affection bestowed upon it. 
Both in Gibraltar and Algerciras a considerable 
number of real Moors in Eastern dress come over from 
Morocco. These are nearly as varied in colour and 
type of feature as the people of Southern Spain. 
One of the Moors had yellow hair and blue eyes ; 
another, shorter by a head than several he walked 
with, resembled in colour and feature the Negro type. 



SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES 23 

The greater number were high featured, dark, and 
tall. 

No observations were made at Ronda. 

The Province of Granada. 

In the Arab quarter of the town of Granada 
called the Albaicin, the descendants of the Moors live 
separately from the Spaniards with whom, however, 
they occasionally intermarry. 

The first interesting case in the Arab quarter was 
a blue -eyed child with dazzling white skin, rosy 
cheeks, and an aureole of golden curls, a boy of about 
eighteen months old in the arms of a woman of true 
Arab type, possessing black hair, dark olive skin, and 
black eyes. When asked, she said the child was her 
own, and that her husband was " rojo " (fair) ; the 
sight of this little fair-skinned child nestling its golden 
curls against the mother's black head was striking. 
A photograph was taken of the two. The guide now 
led the way into an old Mauresque house. Over the 
balcony hung a fair girl who beckoned us up. We 
entered, and found her brother to be a pure Arab, 
smooth, raven-black hair, black eyes, and a skin of 
the deepest olive brown. The mother stood beside 
them, also Moorish type, black hair and dark skin, 
but the eyes were grey. I asked what the father was. 
The reply was " Moreno " (black) Arab type. To a 
question about the grandparents, the mother replied 
that her father was " Rojo," a fair man, from whence 
came her grey eyes. Thus in part was the fair grand- 
child accounted for. The segregation of hair colour and 



24 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

complexion here seems undoubted. The name was 
Gomez. Of this family six photos were made. One 
of the girl alone, two of the girl with her mother, one 
of the boy alone, and two of the boy with his father. 
None of these give the true sharply-defined contrasts 
between these people, because the photographs were 
taken on ordinary films instead of on panchromatic 
plates with colour filters. The expression " Arab 
type " is a common one in Southern Spain, where the 
type is found. 

The following photos were made in the Arab 
quarter: Two "Arab type" boys not brothers; 
another dark Arab type woman with her child, the 
latter with flaxen hair and very white skin. The 
father, she said, was fair. There were also taken 
three sisters — one pure Arab type, one intermediate 
and a fair baby. (Illustration I.) A group of 
people in the Arab quarter, was also photographed, 
and a man with his wife, both very dark, and their 
child, a flaxen-haired little one with light-blue eyes. 

The larger number of dark over fair persons in 
Granada was noticed from the first, and confirmed 
by daily observation. 

A plan for the more accurate reckoning of the 
colour-types of the population was arranged by 
counting the persons met with in the streets. My 
niece counted the dark and I the fair. We both 
walked upon the same side of the street, started 
and stopped the reckoning at a given moment. Mixed 
types which combined blue or grey eyes, with very 
dark skin and black hair, or fair skin w4th black hair 




Illustration No. 1. 



SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES 25 

and very dark eyes, were not reckoned. The follow- 
ing groups of reckoning show results in the total of 
about three-fourths dark to one-fourth fair, being the 
reverse of Barcelona, where the population was 
approximately one-fourth dark to three-fourths fair.* 



1st reckoning 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 
5th 

Total . 



Wholly dark. 

10 
5 
20 
16 
31 

82 



Wholly fair. 

4 
6 
2 
4 
10 

26 = 108 



The extremes were widely separate in shade of 
colour, the appearance being that of two separate 
races. This was the first fairly-accurate reckoning 
made, all other observations on the apparent numbers 
of dark and fair were based upon impressions, after 
walking the streets of the various towns ; as the above 
agrees with the impression I had set down of the 
proportion of the population colour-segregation in 
Granada, it is probable I may have formed a fairly 
correct estimate in other towns. 

A very fair, flaxen-haired little girl of about seven 
years, was photographed alongside of a dark woman 
(her grandmother). Her mother was afterwards seen, 
and found to be also dark. The father was " Moreno," 
(dark), too, but he was not seen. There were six 
more children of this family, all of whom were said 



only. 



*The Barcelona approximation was arrived at by general impression 



26 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

to be fair, but we were unable to see them, and could 
not judge of their fairness. 

In a doorway were three girls, evidently sisters. 
Two were blue-eyed with flaxen hair, one with black 
eyes, olive-brown skin, and black hair. These 
extremes in one family are the rule in Southern Spain. 
I have only once or twice seen a family all fair chil- 
dren, or a family of all dark. The manager of the 
hotel at Alhambra was a man with dark hair and dark 
eyes, but of fairish complexion ; he had a very dark 
Arab-type wife, yet their two children, a girl of 
four years and a boy of three years, had golden hair 
and light-blue eyes. 

The Negro crop of tight woolly curls so often 
observed in Malaga was not once seen in the town 
of Granada. Intercrossing with Cubans is probably 
the explanation of its frequent occurrence in the 
seaport town. 

Referring to the observations made up to the 
present, I am inclined to believe that the grey eye is 
intermediate, and will breed both blue eyes and brown 
eyes, and that probably of these latter the true-blue 
breed pure. The percentage of dark over fair persons 
in Granada is considerably higher than in the previous 
towns visited in Southern Spain, such as Malaga and 
Algeciras. This is more particularly true of the 
Albaicin or Arab quarter in Granada, where the Moors 
from Baeza took refuge, when that city fell into 
Catholic hands, in 1227. 

The Province of Seville. 

In the city of Seville several reckonings were made 



SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES 27 

in the Moorish quarter in the same manner as in 
Granada, the very old people and the types having 
combinations of dark hair and fair eyes and com- 
plexion, or vice versa, being left out. The result was : — 

Wholly daik. Wholly fair. 

In one reckoning . . 70 . . 22 
In another reckoning 72 . . 13 

Total .... 142 . . 35 = 177 

Roughly, four-fifths dark to one-fifth fair. This is 
approximately the same as in Granada. 

In the tobacco factory at Seville, where only 
women are employed, the percentage of dark over fair 
was much higher ; this might have been due to the 
employment of gipsies, but the question was not 
asked. 

In Seville City, one prognathous-jawed woman 
with Nigger type of hair and skin was seen. 

Several times I made reckonings of the Seville 
population -colour, and they always came out in the 
same proportion of approximately four to one. 

Madkid. 
In Madrid, the extreme contrasts of dark and fair 
are not so noticeable ; there are so many more 
intermediate in all gradations, and the gulf between 
the two extremes is not so wide. There was nothing 
I observed calling for remark. 

Genekal Considerations. 
In most cities in Southern Spain there is a gipsy 
quarter generally immediately outside the town. 



28 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

In Granada, the gipsy quarter is adjacent to the 
Arab quarter, and consists of a long line of caves 
hollowed out of the mountain. The tribe have a chief 
and keep themselves socially, entirely separate from 
the Arab inhabitants of the Albaicin. They only 
marry among themselves. To this custom of inter- 
marriage is perhaps due the fact that their numbers 
never increase, but remain at about eight hundred. 

Though informed by the guide that these gipsies 
never intermarried with the Spaniards in the Arab 
quarter, close questioning revealed the fact that he 
knew a Spaniard who had married a gipsy girl, and 
that they had three children ; the man, he said, was 
fair, and the gipsy very dark. As this promised to 
be an interesting family group, a visit was arranged 
up the dirtiest, narrowest streets in the Arab quarter 
to their dwelling behind the Church of San Nicholas. 
There was found a dark-skinned, black-haired, black- 
eyed gipsy woman, with her three children. The 
eldest was a very fair girl with flaxen hair and blue 
eyes. The second was a boy, with black eyes, black 
hair, and an olive skin, as dark as the mother's. The 
third was a flaxen-haired, blue-eyed, fair-skinned baby 
girl of eighteen months.* The gipsy mother said the 
father's eyes were blue. It will be observed that the 
coloration of the two girls resembled the father, and 
that the boy took after his mother in colour. Of 
course, we should not infer from a single case that 

*We may accept it as pretty certain that the eldest girl of this group 
was an actual fair type, and not merely fair because she was young. The 
second brother, younger than his sister, was already dark in all characters. 
What the youngest member of eighteen months really is, fan only be 
determined when she is seen at a later age. — [Editok.] 




Illustration No. 2. 



SEGREGATION OF HUMAN TYPES 29 

there is a definite correlation of eye and hair colour 
and complexion between the males of one genera- 
tion and the females of the next. I had no chance 
of adding the father to the group, since he was in the 
Customs Service, and never came home till 8 p.m. 
Four photographs were made of the gipsy mother 
with her three children, of which one is reproduced 
in Illustration No. 2. 

The guide related a curious form of marriage. It 
is the only form prevailing amongst the Granada 
gipsies. When a young man falls in love with a girl 
he elopes with her, and carries her of! into the hills. 
In seven or eight days he returns, and obtains her 
parent's consent. There is no other ceremony. When 
children are born, however, they are baptised. 

In a drive through the gipsy quarter outside 
Seville, in a long street of wretched houses, were seen 
at least seven or eight Negro-type gipsies, idling 
among the lounging population of these very dirty 
dwellings. The Seville guide confirmed the informa- 
tion of the Granada guide, that the gipsies and 
Spaniards never intermarry, but stated that Cubans 
and gipsies have interbred, which one could see was 
true. The Guadalquiver is a tidal river. Seville 
being thus a virtual seaport, the Negro of Cuba has 
left his traces here as in Malaga. 



PRIMITIVE EUGENICS 

By E. TORDAY. 



A FEW days ago the daily Press recorded that in 
1911 London alone gave the respectable sum of 
four-and-half million pounds to charities. A million 
and a half of this went to the hospitals and three 
millions were given for missionary work. As a 
considerable part of this money finds its way to parts 
of Africa, with which I am well acquainted, I am 
desirous, in the interest of knowledge, of discussing 
the expediency of such an outlay. Missionary work 
is of two kinds ; first, it aims to spread our moral 
ideas among the savages ; and, secondly, it seeks 
to confer the blessings of our civilisation upon the 
benighted heathen. I will not dwell on this first 
aim, but I cannot pass it over without mentioning 
that there are tribes in Central Africa whose moral 
code is inferior to none, and any European living 
according to its precepts would richly deserve a 
'' frix de vertu.^' It is principally with the second 
aim that I desire to offer a few critical considerations. 

I have travelled in Central Africa for about ten 
years and have visited places where European influence 
has long been established, where natives weax trousers 
and top-hats, go to chapel and drink gin, and where 
workhouses and prisons flourish ; or, in other words, 

* This paper is a resume of a chapter in a forthcoming book on his 
travels, which Mr. Torday hopes to publish in the Autumn. — [Editor.] 



PRIMITIVE EUGENICS 31 

places which must be considered as highly civilised 
centres. I have visited countries where no European 
had been before me, and I have been on such good 
terms with the natives that I was enabled to get a 
thorough insight into their ways of thought. As I 
occupied no Government position, I was the favoured 
witness of ceremonies carefully hidden from the 
vigilant eye of the official and the missionary. Sitting 
around the camp fire I have discussed with the 
negroes many of the social problems that one hears 
talked about even in the most select drawing-rooms 
of London " Suburbia." The summary of what I 
have seen and what I have been told on this subject 
may well be called " Primitive Eugenics." 

It is a well-known fact that the child is the real 
aim of marriage among the negroes ; tribes exist 
where a man can divorce his wife at will if she has 
not borne him a child, whereas the birth of one at 
once makes the union indissoluble. Thus the racially 
valueless sterile females are not a drag upon the 
husband's energies, disappointing his hopes, and 
cutting short the stock of which he is the representa- 
tive and the gametic bearer. It is considered a 
shame as well as a misfortune to be childless. I 
mention this, because it is necessary that the reader 
should understand that the savage negro is not less 
fond of his progeny than the European parent. But 
fond as he is of his children, the welfare of his race 
is still instinctively dearer to his heart, and I want 
to show in this paper by what means he manifests 
this love of his race. 



32 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Initiation ceremonies have often been recorded 
by travellers, but few have understood their real 
importance. Their true purpose is to aid the boy 
and the girl in the fulfilment of their duties as husband 
and wife ; in the case of boys this may seem un- 
necessary in a country where even the smallest 
children possess knowledge which is carefully con- 
cealed from our own. But the girl, when she leaves 
the " fattening house " or the bush, wherever the 
initiation takes place, knows how to conduct her 
life, so as to have every chance of fulfilling the expecta- 
tions of her race. She also Jias been taught what 
her conduct must be during the quickening of a life 
yet forming, and how to prepare for its advent to 
the world. Thus the life of the first-born child is 
more likely to be preserved than among the ill- 
informed and needlessly apprehensive young European 
mothers. When the infant is born, it is examined 
carefully ; if it is weak or deformed, then in one way 
or another, it is no longer allowed to burden its own 
life nor handicap its race in the struggle for survival. 
This is the reason why one sees no cripples or other 
kind of defective persons in Central or West Africa ; 
this is the reason why man there is a 7nan, virile in 
habit, strong and lithe in body. 

No woman has marital relations with her husband 
during the suckling period, which lasts from three 
to four years ; this means that an interval of four 
or five years must elapse between the advent of the 
first and second child. Not only can the mother, 
therefore, bestow all the necessary care on each child. 



PRIMITIVE EUGENICS 33 

but she herself is enabled to recuperate for several 
years between one birth and another. There can 
be no doubt that this gives the progeny a good chance, 
for they are fed through a sufficiently prolonged 
period with natural food. But of necessity it must 
tend to the production of small families. This is 
remedied by polygamy. 

Westermarck and others have pointed out that in 
a country where intermarriage is prohibited and 
where prosperity reigns, the number of female children 
who survive is considerably greater than the number 
of males. This must be the case in Central Africa, 
where marriage between people who can trace the 
slightest relationship to each other, or who belong to 
the same village, or the same clan, or who own the 
same totem, is looked upon as incest. And in this 
region of Africa incest is considered the most des- 
picable of crimes, and poverty is unknown. 

It is in the name of the poor black woman that the 
abolition of polygamy is claimed by philanthropists 
in Europe ; in Africa it is not so much the negro man 
who objects to the introduction of monogamy as the 
woman. It is easier for a negro to get a second wife 
than a first, and his wife will soon urge him to give 
her a companion. I remember a case where a black 
trooper presented himself before the Registrar in 
order to have the banns of his contemplated marriage 
with a dusky beauty published. The only paper of 
identity he could produce was his marriage certificate 
with another woman ! He was greatly astonished 
when informed that, although his real wife was 
c 



34 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

sterile, he could, according to European laws, marry 
no other woman as long as she lived. It is a fact, 
significant of the futility of legislation to control 
social customs, that shortly afterwards the legitimate 
spouse disappeared in a mysterious way. 

The negroes have their rough rules of hygiene, 
which are now forbidden by the rules of the white 
man. The Batetela north of the Sankuru river 
remember a terrible epidemic that raged in their 
country some thirty years ago. As far as I can make 
out it was akin to cerebro-spinal-meningitis. All 
the afflicted were sent into the forest, and if they 
showed themselves in the villages they were killed. 
Food was deposited for them at a certain place ; 
when they no longer came to fetch it they were con- 
sidered dead and duly lamented. The epidemic not 
only disappeared, but it never spread over more than 
a limited area. The same was the case with sleeping 
sickness ; it existed before the white man arrived, 
but never, got a chance of spreading until the Euro- 
pean Governments put down the ancient and barbaric 
but none the less effectual custom. Since then half 
of the population of Uganda has perished from it. 
Among the Baluba, even now, any person who is 
known to have given syphilis to another is executed. 

Criminals — by whom I mean people who habitually 
committed larcenies, or were guilty of some serious 
crime, were sold as slaves to a strange tribe. Instead, 
therefore, of being a burden to the law-abiding popu- 
lation as our criminals are, they were made use of to 
compensate their victims, to whom the purchase 



PRIMITIVE EUGENICS 35 

money was paid. They were also prohibited from 
transmitting their instincts to the children they might 
have begotten in their own tribe. This latter con- 
sideration was to such an extent part of the reason 
for this form of punishment that among certain 
tribes (as those of Manyema) criminals were regularly 
neutralised. Slaves who misconduct themselves are 
often slain and eaten in cannibal tribes and most 
tribes in Central Africa are anthropophagous. 

All this may seem cruel and barbarous, but it cannot 
be denied that, once we are away from the civilised 
centres in Central Africa, there are no beggars to be 
found. Among the Bayaka, a person who asks for alms 
becomes, ifso facto, the slave of the man to whom he 
addresses his request. There is no such thing as real 
poverty. Very few crimes are committed, for it 
does not pay to play that game, and the native laws 
are enforced without regard to the sentimental con- 
siderations that weaken or nullify the influence of 
our own. 

It is not in accord with my present desire to draw 
any conclusions from what precedes ; the sole task 
of the traveller consists in recording facts. None the 
less, I may be permitted to express the fear that the 
disadvantages and dangers of our civilisation as 
applied to Africa will be only understood when it is 
too late and when the natives will have become 
civilised out of existence like the Tasmanians and 
other unfortunate races, who had committed no 
greater crime than having been the product of a line 
of evolution wholly different from our own. The policy. 



36 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

too often, alas, inflicted in the name of humanity and 
civihsation, of compelling so-called savage tribes to 
conform to habits to which they were not born, to 
live up to aspirations that Nature has rendered alien 
to their understanding, and to burden them with 
luxuries which carry the seed of racial sterility, is a 
punishment too heavy for any race to bear. 



The Heredity of Racing Stamina in the 
Thoroughbred Horse. 

By J. B. ROBERTSON. 

Ix the literature of inheritance there is a trite obser- 
vation that speed and stamina in the racehorse are 
not separate characters, but the manifestation of a 
combination of characters, involving bone, muscle, 
internal organs, and a capacity for making acquire- 
ments. This, however, reads rather like a loose 
excuse for not coming to close quarters with hereditary 
characters in the racehorse. A capacity for making 
acquirements is a convenient phrase which can be 
applied equally well to a senior wrangler or a bucking 
broncho in a Wild West show. All the higher animals 
have a capacity for making both mental and physical 
acquirements ; but the capacity is subservient to the 
hereditary morphology and physiology of the tissues. 
The merest tyro can see that the bony skeleton of the 
thoroughbred and his relatives, the Arab and Barb, 
differs very materially from that of shires, Clydes- 
dales, hackneys and so forth. Indeed, the crude 
ungainly bones of the shire, which give one the im- 
pression of a horse in the making, would be an im- 
possible proposition in a racehorse. In certain racial 
characters the bones of thoroughbreds are alike. 
Nevertheless, individual differences are very great. 
But in the passive skeleton these differences rarely 
offer any explanation for the extremely wide diver- 



38 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

gencies in both speed and stamina seen in various 
thoroughbreds. The length, width, and circum- 
ference of the bones, and the surfaces which they 
present for muscular and tendinous attachments have 
differed as widely among classic winners as between 
them and common selling-platers, or horses too slow 
for racing. It is not a very rare occurrence for well- 
grown, good-looking yearlings with good action to 
realise at public auction anything from one to two 
thousand guineas, and yet prove absolutely useless 
for racing purposes. Their failure is due not to want 
of symmetry, lung space, and so forth, but, as a rule, 
may be set down to one or other of the two following 
causes, or sometimes both, viz. : Insufficiency of 
what, for want of a better term, we may call nerve 
energy, and inability of the voluntary muscles to 
respond to stimulation for more than a short period ; 
that is to say, these horses are either too slow or do 
not stay the minimum racing distance of four fur- 
longs for two-year olds, and five furlongs for older 
horses. 

It seems necessary to emphasise the fact that 
muscular movements play a leading part in all the 
great bodily functions. The circulation of the blood 
and respiration, the two functions most essential to 
the maintenance of life, are kept up by the alternate 
contraction and relaxation of muscles. The control 
of the blood supply to all parts of the body, and the 
movements of the alimentary canal, in addition to 
that immense class of movements which are more or 
less under control of the will, all depend upon muscular 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 39 

action, which, iri its turn, owes its initiation to stimuli 
passing along the nerve fibres from the central cells 
in the brain or spinal cord. All muscular tissues 
have certain common properties, such as excitability, 
contractility, growth, and respiration. All are made 
up of units which readily take up oxygen and give 
off carbon dioxide. But there is, nevertheless, a 
wide divergence between the muscles which are known 
as involuntary, or smooth, and found in the walls of 
the blood vessels and alimentary canal, and those of 
the heart and the skeletal or voluntary muscle group. 
The smooth muscles do not concern us here, but, in 
order to make the subject of stamina in the race- 
horse intelligible, it is necessary to set forth a brief 
account of the structure and functions of the unit of 
voluntary muscle, the muscle fibre or cell. 

In regard to microscopic structure, it cannot be 
said that finality of opinion has yet been reached. 
Eminent observers diifer widely as to what is to be 
seen, and it would be out of place here to enter upon 
a discussion of the points in dispute. All, however, 
are agreed that the muscle cell, or fibre, is surrounded 
by a structureless membrane, the sarcolemma, and 
that the fibre shows alternate dim and bright trans- 
verse bands, and can be split up into discs by certain 
reagents such as osmic acid. It is also agreed that 
the fibre shows longitudinal striations which appear 
to separate it into fibrils ranged side by side. " The 
contents of the muscle fibre appear to consist of two 
functionally distinct substances, a contractile sub- 
stance and an interstitial, perhaps nutritive non- 



40. THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

contractile material of a more fluid nature. The 
contractile substance is arranged as longitudinal 
fibrils embedded in interfibrular matter."* 

Oxygen and a carbo-hydrate in the form of glycogen 
are essential to muscular life and action. A stock of 
both, but principally of oxygen, is taken up and 
stored in the essential constituents of the muscle 
fibre. These constituents are broken down during 
muscular contraction, and more slowly during rest, 
carbon dioxide and lactic acid being the end pro- 
ducts. Kanke has shown that the exhausted muscles 
of a frog can be restored by washing out the vessels 
with physiological salt solution. He claims that it 
is the removal of carbon dioxide and lactic acid, the 
products of contraction, which immediately restored 
the muscle. The injection of arterial blood, or of an 
oxidising agent, like potassium permanganate, into 
the vessels of an exhausted muscle also causes 
restorationf. 

When a muscle fibre is stimulated it increases in 
cross sectional area, but the volume remains con- 
stant, contraction commencing in the middle of the 
fibre and passing to the ends. 

The Varieties of Muscle Fibres in the Race 

Horse. 

So far we have considered the structure and pro- 
perties of what may be termed typical striped muscle 
fibre. But it has been clearly established that there 
are two varieties of striated muscle, namely pale and 

* Stewart. t Kroneeker. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 41 

dark red. In some fish, the domestic fowl, and in 
the greater part of the musculature of the rabbit, the 
muscles are of an extreme pale variety, whilst in the 
falcon, and other birds which possess the faculty 
of long-sustained flight, the muscle fibres are almost 
exclusively dark red. In the horse the two varieties 
of muscle fibre are found, but not nearly so widely 
separated in structural appearance as are the muscles 
of the domestic fowl and the falcon. I shall endea- 
vour to show, however, that the physiological pro- 
perties of the two types of muscle are in the horse 
very widely differentiated, the dark red type being 
correlated with the capacity for long-sustained 
muscular effort, whilst the presence of an excess 
of the pale variety is correlated with inability to 
respond to repeated stimulation continued for more 
than a very short period. The difference between 
the two varieties of muscle fibre may be summarised 
thus : — 



Pale Red Fibre. 



Dark Red Fibre, 



1. Pale red in colour. 

2. 4 5o*li part of an inch or 

more in diameter, and 
cross sectional area large 
in proportion to length. 



3. Transverse stripes very 
plainly marked, but 
longitudinal stripes in- 3. 
distinct. 



Dark red in colour, and in 
transverse section granu- 
lar in appearance. 

Less than ^^^oth of an 
inch in diameter, and 
cross section small in 
proportion to length. 

Longitudinal stripes very 
plainly marked. 



42 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



Pale Red Fibre. 



Dark Red Fibre. 



Owing to tlie bulk of the 
fibres in cross section, 
the capillary network of 
blood vessels running be- 
tween them is narrow. 

Stimulation repeated at 
short intervals rapidly 
produces exhaustion. 

Moderate stimulation is 
sufficient to produce a 
maximum contraction. 

In the living animal, the 
essential constituents of 
live muscular substance 
are rapidly broken down 
during continued muscu- 
lar contraction. Carbon 
dioxide, together with 
other end products col- 
lect in the muscle, pro- 
ducing the phenomena 
of tissue asphyxiation 
and fatigue. 



The capillary network ex- 
ceeds in size the ordinary 
capillaries, and is dilated 
into little reservoirs. 

Stimulation at short in- 
tervals does not rapidly 
produce exhaustion. 

Requires powerful stimu- 
lus to ensure a maximum 
contraction. 

In the living animal, the 
essential constituents of 
the live muscle appear to 
possess an accentuated 
faculty of storing up 
oxygen, and perhaps gly- 
cogen, in some com- 
pound or compounds. 
The amount of carbon 
dioxide given off by the 
muscle during work is at 
the same time compara- 
tively small, and passes 
immediately into the 
dilated capillary loops, 
in place of lodging in the 
muscle fibre itself. Tissue 
asphyxiation and fatigue 
is, consequently, long 
delayed. 



From the above it will be gathered that, in the 
case of a horse whose muscles are principally, if not 
solely, of the pale red variety, the materials necessary 
for contraction are used up during continued fast 
work much more quickly than they can be renewed, 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 43 

and, secondly, that waste products are formed by 
the muscle faster than they can be removed. It is, 
of course, true that fatigue does not wholly depend 
on the lodgment in the muscle fibre oi carbon dioxide 
and other broken down products, for experiments 
clearly show that these substances also act on the 
central and peripheral nerve tissues ; but in the 
racehorse, muscle asphyxiation is the primary cause. 

The muscles in the heavy breeds of horse appear 
to be exclusively of a pale red variety. The shire 
horse, even when thoroughly conditioned and fit, 
rapidly suffers from muscle asphyxiation if made to 
gallop at his top pace, poor as it is, for a short distance. 
In some individuals a furlong will suffice to produce 
distress. 

In the thoroughbred both varieties of muscle are 
to be found in the same individual, and, although in 
this class of horse the opportunities for making 
microscopic examinations are few, it is permissible 
to conclude from the specimens of muscles which I 
have examined that the dark red fibres greatly pre- 
ponderate in the muscles of a " stayer " and the 
paler variety in the muscles of a " sprinter."* At 
all events, I trust it will be clear from the evidence 
which I shall advance that the physiological proper- 
ties of the muscles of certain racehorses are sharply 

* Mr. Robertson tells me, in answer to my inquiry, that he thinks 
about 75 per cent, of the muscles of a true "sprinter" are of the pale 
variety. In an " Intermediate " racer he thinks there is about half and 
half, and in a "stayer,'' .such as Willonyx,he would sa3' that 90 per 
cent, of the fibres are of the deep red variety'. These statements are of 
course very approximate, and they partake of the nature of constructing 
the whole horse from a microscopic examination of a few muscles 
onlv. — Editor. 



44 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

defined from those of others, and that the gametic 
composition of these individuals is in accordance with 
a Mendelian conception of alternative unit characters. 
In the laboratory it is not difficult to demonstrate, 
either on the living subject, or by electrical stimulus 
applied directly to excised muscle, or indirectly 
through its nerve, the amount of work a particular 
muscle is capable of performing before fatigue is 
induced. In man muscular fatigue can be directly 
measured by means of an ergograph. By this instru- 
ment a record of successive contractions repeated 
at regular intervals, say of one of the flexor muscles of 
the finger in raising a weight, is taken on a revolving 
drum. So long as the muscle is working within its 
capacity, no alteration is observable in the successive 
curves traced out ; but, when the muscle becomes at 
all fatigued, the diminished height of contraction is 
at once indicated on the drum. The actual amount 
of work which the muscle can perform at a given 
frequency of stimulation before fatigue is induced is, 
of course, obtained by multiplying the weight by 
the total distance through which it is raised. This 
method of testing muscles and measuring their work 
is really only applicable when the subject brings 
intelligent co-operation into play. It is inapplicable 
to the horse, and, more particularly, to the thorough- 
bred horse. Then, too, there is the serious drawback 
that the behaviour of only a few muscles can be 
studied, whereas what is really required is a record 
of the amount of work performed in a given time in 
executing a series of co-ordinated and strenuous 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 45 

movements such as are brought to play in galloping 
at racing pace. Here we are not concerned with the 
staying power of an individual muscle, but with 
that of almost the whole of the striated skeletal 
group, and the heart included. 

The Severity of the Racecourse Test as a 
Selective Agent. 

By the racecourse test, it is true, we are not able 
to measure in foot pounds per second the amount 
of work done by the muscles of a racehorse before 
fatigue {i.e., muscle asphyxiation) commences ; but 
the graduated series of distances over which races are 
run in Great Britain and Ireland provides a test 
which, though perhaps not entirely free from error, 
is, nevertheless, a reliable standard by which an 
individual horse's racing stamina can be assessed. 

In order to appreciate fully the part played by 
the racecourse as a selective agent for stamina, it is 
necessary to draw attention to the rules of the Jockey 
Club bearing on the distances to be run and the 
apportionment of stake money for these distances. 
These rules provide : — 

(1) That no horse or mare of three years old and 
upward shall run over a less distance than five 
furlongs. 

(2) There shall not be more than two races per 
diem of less distance than seven furlongs, 
only one of which may be of less distance than 
six furlongs. 



46 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

(3) There shall be two races per diem of a minimum 
aggregate distance of 2j miles, differing at 
least one furlong in distance. 

(4) At every meeting one half at least of the total 
amount guaranteed for prizes must be 
apportioned to races of a mile or over for 
three year olds and upwards, and of this 
not less than a moiety shall be for races of 
Ij miles and upwards. 

It will be observed there is every inducement from 
a monetary point of view to run a horse in a race of 
IJ miles or upwards. The effect of the distance rule 
is forcibly illustrated by comparing the present 
distribution of races over the different distances with 
the distribution prior to the introduction of the 
above rules in 1899. To facilitate comparison, the 
figures have been given in the form of percentages 
in Table I. 

It will be observed that for some years prior to 
1899 the opportunities of running a horse over a 
greater distance than a mile were few. Selective 
agencies did not favour the horse which could stay 
1-^ miles or over. Indeed his opportunities were so 
few that there is considerable difficulty in picking him 
out from his fellows who were non-stayers. For 
this reason the records for the decade prior to 1899 
are of little value for our purpose, and excepting 
in the case of the produce of a few notable stallions 
they have not been taken into account. 

Yet another factor which seriously discounts the 
value of the early data is found in the consideration 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 47 



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48 ,THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

that, prior to the year 1899, races exceeding six or 
seven furlongs in length were rarely run at a true 
pace ; consequently they were not infrequently won 
by horses running beyond their proper distance. In 
the early part of the contest the competitors were not 
'called upon to do serious work. But the advent of 
Sloan and other American jockeys revolutionised the 
methods of race riding in this country, and from 1899 
races have been run at a true pace. The crouching 
position of the latter-day jockey is partly responsible 
for the difference in times shown in Table II. ; but, 
as practically all horses have been ridden alike during 
the last ten years, it is unnecessary to refer further 
to the jockey's seat in relation to bio-mechanics. 

The Essential Qualities of a " Stayer." 

It has frequently been asserted that the physio- 
logical properties of muscle are largely, though not 
wholly, acquired characters, being dependent on 
nurture and use. Whilst this contention in a qualified 
sense is true, it does not apply to the subject under 
discussion. Racehorses are skilfully trained, and no 
stone is left unturned to bring them to their best. 
Environmental conditions are, in almost all cases, 
equally favourable ; but nevertheless, it has been 
demonstrated times without number that a horse 
has his course, and, notwithstanding the most careful 
management and scientific training, he cannot stay 
beyond it. Training and racing merely bring out 
the full potentiality of inherited characters ; but 
whether a horse is able to win over a long or short 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 49 



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50 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

course is determined by the bodily qualities brought 
in by the gametic factors of his parents. In other 
words, it is determined by the germ plasm. It is a 
congenital matter. 

In Table III. all two year old running is ignored, 
as horses of that age are rarely asked to race over a 
greater distance than five furlongs, and further at this 
period of their existence the tissues, and especially 
the dark red muscle fibres, are immature. If a horse 
does not run after two years it is difficult to arrive at 
his somatic composition as regards muscle fibre. 
The same difficulty arises in connection with those 
individuals which run after that age but do not 
succeed in winning a race on the flat over any distance. 
Not infrequently the interactions of nerve force and 
muscle fibre lead to some strange and unexpected 
results. A horse may have all the physical and 
physiological properties of a " stayer," but be too 
slow for racing, owing to his motor-nerve cells dis- 
charging with insufficient force or rapidity. On the 
contrary, he may possess nerve cells capable of dis- 
charging in a superlative degree, but carry muscle 
fibres which become asphyxiated before he has run, 
at racing pace, the minimum distance of five furlongs. 
To include these two classes would introduce a large 
element of personal opinion, therefore they have 
been omitted from the produce groups of the various 
stallions. In regard to horses and geldings the slow 
staying group is undoubtedly the more numerous, 
but in mares the reverse condition obtains. Thus 
though the sexes are produced in approximately 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 51 

equal numbers, and the number of fillies which win at 
two years of age slightly exceeds the number of 
colts, at three years of age and upwards horses and 
geldings which are successful outnumber the mares by 
nearly two to one. The fillies are, in fact, quite as if 
not more speedy than the colts, but some factor or 
factors correlated with sex inhibit in certain, but 
not in all, cases the physiological properties of a 
mare's dark red muscle fibre. It is a matter of com- 
mon knowledge that some fillies stay even better at 
two years than later in life. 

The Types of Racehorses. 

In Table III. (page 81) the sprinters, symbolically 
indicated by PP, represent a group of horses unable to 
run at true racing pace more than seven furlongs; inter- 
mediates, indicated by PR, a second group which 
stayed from 8 to 1 1 furlongs ; and stayers, indicated 
by RR, a third group which won at twelve furlongs 
and upwards. This classification is to a certain 
extent arbitrary, and possible sources of error lie in 
the border lines between sprinters and intermediates, 
and intermediates and stayers. It is probable that 
the limit of the sprinters is fixed a little too high, and 
that winners at seven furlongs on straight and rather 
severe courses, such as Newmarket, Ascot, Newbury, 
and Grosforth Park, are really intermediates. Then 
it may be open to question whether twelve furlongs 
provides a sufiiciently severe test to distinguish in all 
cases between horses of PR and RR composition. 
The Epsom twelve furlongs most certainly does not ; 



52 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

hence Ayrshire, Ladas, and some other Derby winners 
cannot be classified as stayers. In the table the 
probable gametic composition of each stallion is 
affixed, though it will be observed it does not always 
coincide with his manifest somatic character ; that, of 
course, is a familiar Mendelian phenomenon. 

Let us assume for the moment that the dark red 
fibres, symbolised as R, and the pale red fibres, as P, 
are represented in the germplasm by alternative unit 
characters, and that neither factor in the body cells is 
dominant. In these circumstances, granted that 
sharp and clearly-defined segregation, both in the 
sex and body cells, took place, we may conceive 
theoretically that three possible somatic combinations 
of the pale and red fibres would occur. They are 
shown in the following table : — ■ 

Sprixters = pp. i.e., theoretically all their muscles are of the pale 
variety. 

Intermediate = PR, i.e., theoretically their muscles are a mixture 
of the red and pale varieties. 

Stayers = RR, i.e., theoretically their muscles are assumed to be 
of the red variety. 

Nature of Mating. 

Parents. Result of Cross. OfiEspring. 

PP X PP = PP only. 

PP X PR = PP and PR in equal numbers. 

PPxRR== PR only. 

RR X RR = RR only. 

RR X PR = RR and PR in equal numbers. 

RR X PP = PR only. 

PR X PR = PP, PR, and RR in the ratio of 
1:2:1. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 53 

It will be apparent that here, as in other Mendelian 
characters, it is possible considerable variations in 
the relative proportions of the two kinds of fibre may 
exist. 

The variation in the amount of black pigment on 
the limbs of bay horses may offer an analogy compar- 
able with the variation of the specific properties of 
the dark fibre. In certain bays black pigment is 
absent on the limbs, in others it is scanty, whilst a 
third variety shows intense pigmentation. All, how- 
ever, behave in the same manner in relation to the 
recessive character, chestnut, which, in itself, has a 
wide range of tint. Individual horses may be ar- 
ranged in such a manner as to form a graduated 
series, commencing with very light yellow chestnut 
with flaxen mane and tail, and yellow almost albinis- 
tic limbs (reference is not made to white stockings, 
which are truly albinistic) and ending in dark bay 
with intensely melanistic mane, tail, and limbs. At 
times it is difficult to decide whether a horse is a 
rufous bay or a chestnut, and still more difficult to 
distinguish between a dark chocolate chestnut and 
a black. It will be readily understood that in the 
characters of muscle fibre, of which the heterozygous 
form is evidently a mosaic* of both characters, it is 
not possible to fix a hard and fast distinguishing line 
between the muscles of the three types of race- 
horses, namely, sprinters, intermediates, and stayers. f 

*Mr. Robertson tells me that in the horse, unlike the rabbit, the red 
fibres are not found in one muscle and the pale in another, but that they 
both occur in varying proportions in the same muscle. — [Editor.] 

t See footnote, page 43. 



54 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Sex Limitation in Staying Powers : Horses 
V. Mares. 

As already stated, the sexes are foaled approxi- 
mately in equal numbers. There is also but little 
difference between the number of colts and fillies 
which win at two years of age. Thus the winning 
two-year-olds sired by the stallions set forth in the 
table are made up of 980 colts and 1,050 fillies. But 
in the whole of the winning stock of three years and 
upwards by the same stallions the sexes are far from 
being equally represented. 

It may be urged that the falling off in the number 
of mares which win after two years of age is the direct 
result of a corresponding decrease in the number of 
mares which start at three years old and upwards. 
To argue thus, however, would merely be to confuse 
cause and effect ; for it must be remembered that the 
trial ground, as well as the racecourse, is selective. 
Owners, quite naturally, do not desire to pay training 
expenses, entrance and jockeys' fees for mares or 
fillies which, through lack of stamina, are unlikely 
to win races. Were the number of races won by each 
individual the subject of inquiry, the disparity in the 
numbers of horses and mares which start after two 
years might have to be taken into account. But this 
is beside the point, for in the foregoing stamina 
tables a winner of one race after two years has the 
same numerical representation as a winner of eight 
or a dozen races. Actually it is found that two-year- 
old colts and fillies start in equal numbers, but that 
after two years of age the horses which start out- 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 55 



number the mares by two to one. The following 

figures, taken for the last ten years, show the ratios 

of horses to mares for the different ages, the mares at 

each age being represented by unity : — 

7 yrs. 
and 
2 yrs. 3 yrs. 4 yrs. 5 yrs. 6 yrs. upwards 



1 1-6 1-9 2-4 3-4 5 

In the following Table IV. is shown the propor- 
tion of winning colts to fillies from three years up- 
wards of the progeny derived from the stallions 
numbered one to sixty in Table III. 
TABLE IV. 

Table showing the Proportion of Winning Colts 
TO Fillies, from Three Years Upwards, all 
FROM THE Stallions shown in Table III. 





Colts. 


Fillies. 


J. ,. Colts 
^^*^° 1 Fillies 


From RR stallions* . . 
„ PR 
„ PP „ .... 


540 

1,065 

95 


270 

557 

78 


2 : 1 
1-91 : 1 
1-22: 1 


From all stallions 


1,700 


905 


1-88: 1 



* St. Simon's winners prior to 1899 are not included in the calculation. 

The above figures show that factors are at work 
which place the mares at a disadvantage as race- 
horses after two years of age. One of these factors, 
manifestly, is a sex limitation, in certain mares, of the 
specific functions of the staying muscle fibre. 

A further proof of sex limitation for this character 
is obtained by taking out, from the produce Table 
III. of the specified sires, the ratios of horses to 



56 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

mares which have won at the different distances. 

Thus :-- 

At 5, 6, and 7 furlongs the ^ 

ratio of horses to mares > 394 : 318, that is 1 * 24 : 1 

is j 

At 8, 9, 10, and 11 furlongs ^ 

the ratio of horses to [ 702 : 366, that is 1 "92 : 1 

mares is . . . . J 

At 12 furlongs and up- "^ 

wards the ratio of ■ 604 : 221, that is 2 -73 : 1 

horses to mares is . . J 

These results include races open to mares only. In 
this category are the One Thousand Guineas, the 
Coronation Stakes, and the Irish Oaks (all eight fur- 
longs), the Yorkshire Oaks and the Atalanta Cup (ten 
furlongs), the Epsom Oaks and the Nassau Stakes 
(twelve furlongs), the Park Hill Stakes and the New- 
market Oaks (fourteen furlongs). It is highly signi- 
ficant that the subsequent running of many mares 
which have won one or more of the above races has 
shown them to be incapable of staying their accredited 
distances. If races open to mares only be excluded 
from calculation, though no appreciable alteration is 
produced in the proportions of sprinters and inter- 
mediates, the disparity at twelve furlongs and upwards 
is still more marked than as given, viz., 3 horses : 1 
mare instead of 2*73 : 1. Here it is convenient to 
mention that in all weight-for-age races mares receive 
an allowance of 3lbs. 

The foregoing data refer solely to the offspring of 
the sires enumerated in Table III. I will now give a 
few figures dealing with a wider field. The annexed 
Table V. has been obtained by extracting the maxi- 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 57 



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58 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

mum winning distance of every horse and mare over 
two years of age which has been successful under the 
Eules of Flat Racing in the years 1906-1910 inclusive, 
Irish races of less value than 90 sovs. being ignored. 

For one hundred and thirty-nine winners of the 
most important and highest class long distance races 
of fourteen furlongs or over, 1900-1911 inclusive, the 
ratio of horses to mares is 112 : 27, that is 4 '15 : 1. 

It would appear that the inhibition of the staying 
factor is due to the presence in certain mares of a unit 
character. The exact nature of this character can 
only be guessed at, but it is permissible to surmise that 
it is an enzyme connected with an ovarian secretion. 
Evidence goes to show that a mare possessing the 
inhibiting character may transmit it to both her sons 
and daughters, and that it is dominant in mares, and, 
necessarily, recessive in horses. In the absence of 
this character mares carrying one unit of R and one 
unit of P will be intermediates, and those carrying 
two units of R will be stayers. Conversely, the 
presence of the inhibitory factor, I, would reduce an 
intermediate mare carrying R and P to a sprinter, 
the R factor being inhibited in her soma. But, never- 
theless, a mare of this composition would give off 
gametes containing R and P alternatively and approx- 
imately in equal numbers. The effect of the presence 
of inhibition and two units of R is not quite clear. 
Theoretically the inhibitory factor should have the 
same effect on the muscular tissues of mares of RR as 
of PR gametic composition. But the facts do not 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 59 

altogether show that is the case, and doubtless some 
further factor is concerned. 

Do Stallions Transmit the Female Inhibitory 

Factor ? 

The interesting question now arises, do mares 
transmit the inhibitory factor to their sons, and do 
the gametes of the staying and intermediate stallions 
pass it on to some of their daughters ? 

In Table III. it will be noted that the daughters of 
some horses, in regard to stamina, fall far below the 
standard of the same stallion's sons. Martagon is a 
marked case. Count Schomberg, Marco, Collar, and 
Wolfs Crag are others. The dams of these horses 
were all non-stayers. An analysis of the produce 
of these mares may help to a solution : — 

TABLE VI. 

Offspring of the Dams of the Five 
Stallions. 



Dams of the Five 
Stallions.* 


Sprinters. 


Intermediates. 


Staj-ers 


Produce 
which Cannot 
be Classified. 




Colts. 


Fillies. 


Colts. 


Fillies. 


Colts. 


Fillies. 


Colts. 


Fillies. 


Tiger Lily {Pri) .. 
Clonavarn (Pri) . . 
Novitiate {Pri} . . 
Ornament {Pri) . . 
Lucy Ashton (Pp.) 


3 
1 
1 

3 


1 

2 
4 
5 
5 


2 
2 

2 

4 


1 


2 
3 
1 
3 


1 

1 

1 


2 
2 


— 


Total . . . . 


8 


17 


10 


1 


9 


3 


4 


— 



Total fillies = 21. 



Total colts = 31. 



*To which stallions these five dams were rtspectiveh* mated may be 
seen in Table III., bj^ looking down the first column for the stallion's name. 



60 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

It is at once apparent that Tiger Lily, Clonavarn, 
Novitiate, and Ornament are not of the same composi- 
tion as Lucy Ashton, although all were sprinters. Out 
of fourteen matings Lucy Ashton did not breed a 
stayer of either sex, though mated nine times with 
horses of PR and five times with horses of RR composi- 
tion ; therefore it is clear that she was a mare of 
gametic composition PP. The other four mares all 
bred stayers, and, manifestly, were of gametic com- 
position PR ; but since they were sprinters, the R 
was inhibited in their soma by the sex limiting 
character, and we may therefore symbolise them as 
PRI. Lucy Ashton may also have carried I, but 
there is no evidence to show that this was the case. 
We cannot conclude, therefore, that she transmitted 
it to her son Wolfs Crag. But it is permissible to 
surmise that the stallions Martagon, Count Schom- 
berg, Marco, and Collar all derived this inhibiting 
factor from their dams, carried it as a recessive, and, 
in due course, passed it on to certain of their daugh- 
ters, in which it was again manifested. 

Sex limitation at once explains the paradox that 
many of our best racehorses and most noted stayers 
have been out of mares which were almost useless on 
a racecourse after two years of age, principally, if not 
solely, owing to lack of stamina. Some were abso- 
lutely useless. Here are a few examples which may 
be of interest. They are by no means exhaustive. 
If space permitted numerous additions could be 
made. See Table VII. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 61 



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HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 63 

Offspring of RE, Sires Mated to Random 
Selection of Mares. 

When we consider the nature of the expected off- 
spring from RR sires mated with random samples of 
mares, several interesting points present themselves 
for consideration. We should, for instance, expect 
the offspring to consist of stayers and intermediates, 
but no sprinters. There are, however, one hundred 
and four of the last group. The stallions numbered 
1-17 in Table HI. may be taken as RR composition. 
Diamond Jubilee and Bay Ronald are possible excep- 
tions, because their produce are rather too few to 
enable us to form a reliable estimate. The offspring 
of these seventeen stallions is as follows : — 

Sprinters. 

Colts 61 

Fillies 43 

104 310 396 

Dealing now with the appearance of the one 
hundred and four unexpected sprinters, we have no 
difficulty, so far as the 43 fillies are concerned. Three 
of them won at seven furlongs, the arbitrary upper 
limit which is fixed for sprinters, and were placed at 
a mile or over in good company. Their proper posi- 
tion virtually is in the intermediate group. In regard 
to the remaining forty, it is highly probable, from the 
evidence I have already submitted, that all mares 
sired by RR horses, which do not themselves manifest 
the R factor, either as intermediates or as stayers, 
carry a factor for inhibition ; that is to say, these 



Intermediates. 


Stayers. 


, . 195 . . 


. . 284 


, . 115 .., 


, . 112 



64 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

mares derived an R factor from their sires which their 
sex inhibited, and a P factor from their dams, which 
is manifested as the somatic character. They are 
therefore really PR in composition, as we expect, but 
the R factor is inhibited by the sex inhibiting factor, 
and they therefore behave as though they were PP 
in somatic composition and were sprinters. These 
forty fillies, however, do not comprise the whole of 
the sex limited offspring of their sires. The balance 
is to be found in those mares which, through failure 
to stay the minimum distance of five furlongs, did not 
win after two years of age. Many were unable to win 
at two, and others never appeared in public. 

In regard to the appearance of the sixty-one 
sprinting colts, certain circumstances call for con- 
sideration. Twenty-five were unlucky not to win at 
eight furlongs or over,* six at least were roarers, 
one broke blood vessels, and another, Longy, by 
Trenton out of Saintly, became extremely obstinate 
and mulish after two years of age. The race he won 
at six furlongs was in the nature of a fluke, and much 
against his will. It was not so much stamina that he 
lacked as a willing disposition. Thus, taking into 
account the five hundred and forty matings which 
produced colts, there are twenty-eight apparent 
exceptions to the rule that RR x PR and RR x PP 
should give RR and PR solely. Having regard to 
the fact that the disposition of the skeletal levers 

* Of these twenty-five, fourteen won at seven furlongs, and were 
placed at longer distances, and eleven \\on at six furlongs, and were placed 
at eight furlongs, in good company. Some of the twenty-five were merely 
beaten by short heads over a greater distance than seven furlongs. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 65 

plays a part — though in the thoroughbred only a 
minor one — in relation to the rapidity with which 
muscles tire during work, and allowing for other 
disturbing factors, the twenty-eight exceptions are 
not beyond reasonable expectation. A more exact 
knowledge of the individual horses would probably 
reduce these twenty- eight exceptions to a negligible 
quantity. 

The objection may be urged that the winning male 
stock of a stallion are a selected sample, and that the 
incidence of non-stayers will be heavier in those of his 
produce which never run on the flat. This is true in 
the case of non-staying sires, but the argument has 
little or no weight in regard to RR stallions. Slow 
their colts may be, and not infrequently are, but it 
is rare in the absence of disturbing conditions, such 
as roaring or blood vessel breaking, to find one which 
cannot stay five furlongs. 

The Mating of Sires and Dams both of 
Known Performances. 

So far, we have only considered the results of 
mating the seventeen sires of known staying capacity, 
shown in Table TIL, with a random sample of mares 
whose performances were not considered. But now 
it is necessary to study the results of mating sires of 
known performances with dams also of known per- 
formances. 

As already stated, no great reliance can be placed 
on public form, as regards stamina, prior to 1899. 
The greater part of these dams were in training prior 

E 



66 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



to 1899. Many ran in the eighties, and a few as far 
back as the seventies. 

Following the plan adopted in Table III. with the 
stallions, these dams are divided in Table VIII. into 
groups of sprinters, intermediates, and stayers. A 
fourth group comprising those mares which never 
started is added. The sprinters, in addition to actual 
winners, include all runners of two years which did 
not reappear as three-year-olds, and also mares which 
ran over courses of seven furlongs and under without 
winning a race. 

Excluding from the offspring columns of the table 
the 43 fillies, the six roarers, the blood-vessel breaker, 
and Longy, and adding to the intermediates the 
twenty-five colts which won at seven furlongs or 
were placed at one mile or over, we obtain the follow- 
ing results. 

TABLE VIII. 





MAKES. 


Winning offspring of three 
years old and upwaards 
sired by the 17 staying 
sires from the different 
types of mares. 




Sprin- 
ters. 


Inter- 
mediates 


Stayers. 


17 staying 
Sires RR ^ 


/- Sprinting Mares, PP 
\ Intermediate Mares, 
j Staying Mares, RR . 
(^ Mares which never r 


+ (PR 
PR.. 


+ 1) 


17 

1 
1 
9 


152 
65 
14 

104 


156 
7-2 






54 


an . . 




114 











Assuming all the sprinting mares to be PP in 
composition, the calculated result for RR sires mated 
to PP mares is, of course, 325 PR. The appearance of 
the 156 staying individuals in the offspring clearly 
demonstrates that a very large number of these 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 67 

brood mares were really PR in gametic composition, 
but carried a factor which inhibited R in their own 
soma. For none of these mares could run more 
than seven furlongs, yet they produced 156 stayers. 

The mating of the RR sires with the PR mares 
comes close to expectation, that is PR (intermediates) 
and RR (stayers) in equal numbers. The solitary 
sprinter from this mating is the colt Leisure Hour, by 
*S^. Simon out of Love in Idleness, a mare who with 
difficulty could get a mile. 

In the group RR sires mated to RR mares, which 
should give RR only, the intrusion of a sprinter 
needs a little consideration. The colt in question is 
Carburton, by Carbine out of Mrs. Butterwick. This 
mare won the Oaks, but, like many other winners of 
that race, was not really a stayer. Still she must 
have carried one R factor, else she would not have 
bred Phaleron to Gcdlimde and Wombwell to Isinglass, 
both of which won races of twelve furlongs or over. 
Why, then, did Carburton so belie his ancestry ? A 
reference to Vol. XIX. of The General Stud Book gives 
the answer. Carburton was Mrs. ButterwicFs first 
living foal. She produced a dead filly to Morion in 
1895, was barren in 1896, 1897, and 1898, and Car- 
burton was foaled in 1899. Here, unmistakably, is 
an instance of some defective quality in reproduction, 
or some segregable factor in the germinal plasm 
leading to weak viability in the offspring. Her next 
foal, Greatorex (1900), also by Carbine, was a great 
improvement on Carburton. As a two-year-old he 
could stay seven furlongs in the best class, but, being 



68 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



sold for shipment to South Africa, did not run in this 
country as a three-year-old. 

But how are we to account for the fourteen inter- 
mediates from RR sires mated to RR mares ? For 
the purpose of more fully considering the question, 
we may set them out in detail as in Table IX. : — 

TABLE IX. 



The Fourteen 

Intermediates from 

presumably staying dams x 

staying sires. 



Remarks on dam' 
performances. 



SANDBAG (c),* 8 furlongs, by 
Carbine out of Sander- 
ling. 



MOUSQUETON (c), 8 fur- 
longs, by Carbine out of 
Musa. 

FRIOSSART (c), 8 furlongs, 
by St. Frusquin out of 
Musa. 

LARKSPUR (f), 8 furlongs, 
by St. Frusquin out of 
Japonica. 

PILGRIM'S WAY (f), 8 fur- 
longs, by St. Frusquin 
out of Canterbury Pilgrim. 

CHAUCER (c), 11 furlongs, 
by St. Simon out of 
Canterbury Pilgrim. 

STYMIE (c), 10 furlongs, by 
St. Frusquin out of Mimi. 

SIMON'S BATH (c), 10 
furlongs, by St. Simon 
out of Mimi. 



Won one falsely-run race of 
2 miles, but could not 
really stay more than 
10 furlongs. G-ametic 
composition PR. 

Winner of the Oaks, 12 fur- 
longs. Not a stayer. 
Gametic composition 
PR. 

Winner of the Oaks, 12 fur- 
longs. Not a stayer. 
Gametic composition 
PR. 

Won at 12 furlongs on an easy 
course. G-ametic com- 
position PR. 

A stayer =RR. 



A stayer =RR. 



Winner of the Oaks, 12 fur- 
longs. Gametic com- 
position probably RR. 

Winner of the Oaks, 12 fur- 
longs. Gametic com- 
position probably RR. 



*C = colt; f = filly. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 69 



The Fourteen 




Intermediates from 


Remarks on dam's 


presumably staying dams x 


performances. 


staving sires. 





PLANUDES (c), 8 furlongs, 
by St. Simon out of 
Lonely. 

CORNFIELD (f), 11 furlongs, 
by Isinglass out of Land- 
rail. 

SANCTUARY (c), 8 furlongs, 
by Isinglass out of Stags- 
den, 



LUCKY JAP (c), 8 furlongs, 
by Santoi out of Bel 

WISE DUCHESS (f), 11 
furlongs, by Love Wisely 
out of Merry Duchess. 

PADDINGTON (c), 10 fur- 
longs, by Martagon out 
of Padua. 
(A roarer and tubed.) 



Winner of the Oaks. Not a 
stayer. Gametic com- 
position PR. 

A doubtful stayer =PR, 



Won one race of 14 furlongs 
at Alexandra Park. Only 
other performance sixth 
in a 5 furlong race at 
Birmingham. Stagsden 
did not stay. Gametic 
composition PR. 

Won a small race of 12 fur- 
longs in Ireland. Not a 
stayer =PR. 

A stayer. Won at 1 4 furlongs 
=RR. 

Won at 12 furlongs. 



It will be gathered that seven of the above cases 
were not actually from mares of RR composition, 
and Paddington, being a roarer, may also be put on 
one side. Chaucer^ s actual position is a little doubtful. 
In addition to winning the Liverpool Cup (eleven 
furlongs) twice, he ran a moderate fourth in the 
Great Yorkshire Handicap, nearly 15 furlongs. 
Simon's Bath, by St. Simon out of Mimi, was an 
incorrigible rogue ; no reliance whatever can be placed 
on his performances. Cornfield and Wise Duchess 
are fillies, and could stay eleven furlongs and perhaps 



70 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



a little more. We have thus eliminated twelve of the 
exceptions, and only P^7^rim's Way and Stymie (a bad 
selling plater), by St. Frusquin out of Mimi, remain. 
One of the standard tests of Mendelian segregation 
is the behaviour of impure dominants or, in my present 
terminology, intermediates, when bred inter se. As a 
fair representative sample of intermediates, the fol- 
lowing sires have been taken, viz. : Gallinule and his 
half-brother Pioneer, Orviefo and Laveno (own bro- 
thers), Ladas, Ayrshire, Orme, Enthusiast, Hackler, 
Raehurn, Eager, Amphion, Despair, and Grey Leg. 
Here are the results of the matings of these fourteen 
horses with mares of various compositions as deduced 
by their performances : — 

TABLE X. 





MARES. 


Winning offspring of three 
years old and upwards 
sii-ed by 14 intermediate 
sires from the different 
types of mares. 




Sprin- 
ters. 


Interme- 
diates. 


stayers. 


14 

Inter- 
mediate X . 
Sires, 


Sprinting Mares, PP or (PR + I)- 


118 


109 


40 


Intermediate Mares, PR 


44 


88 


60 


Staying Mares, RR 


3 


26 


27 


PR 






Mares which never ran 


75 


97 


65 



The calculated result for PR sires mated with PP 
mares is sprinters and intermediates in equal num- 
bers. The forty stayers which appear here are 
obviously the consequence of a percentage of the 
mares in this mating having an PR composition, but 
carrying the inhibitory factor I. The presence of the 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 71 

inhibitory factor would ex hypothesi reduce them to 
sprinters. As, approximately, only half of the PR 
stallions' gametes carried R, their percentage of 
staying produce must fall considerably below that 
of RR stallions in the same mating. The actual 
result shows that the crossing of the seventeen RR 
sires with PP and (PR +1) mares gives 48*0 per cent, 
of stayers (see Table VIII.), whereas the heterozy- 
gous PR stallions show 15 per cent, of stayers from 
the same mating. (See Table X.) 

In the next mating, PR sires to PR mares, the 
result is remarkably close to the typical ratio of 
1:2: 1, and affords unmistakable evidence of 
Mendelian segregation. The expectation is 48 : 96 : 
48. The result is 44 : 88 : 60. 

The three sprinters from the mating of PR sires 
with RR mares, just considered, are aberrant. One 
of these was the gelding Ashdod, who, like certain 
other sons of Gallinule, broke blood vessels. Another 
is Mailed Fist, by Orme out of Gantlet. This mare 
Gantlet won the Park Hill Stakes, Doncaster, nearly 
fifteen furlongs, but the fillies she beat were, like 
herself, non-stayers. Next year, as a four-year-old, 
she ran at five and eight furlongs. She is the dam of 
Duke of Westminster, also by Onne, and of Grey Plume, 
by Grey Leg, neither of which could stay more than 
a mile. The third sprinter from PR xRR is Excelsior, 
by Eager out of Perchance (by Persimmon). Per- 
chance won one race only, and is probably an inter- 
mediate. 

In the last series of matings shown in Table X., 



72 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



namely, the mixed sample which never ran, the 
mares are made up principally of sprinters, PP, and 
sex limited intermediates, PRI, together with a small 
percentage of slow intermediates and slow stayers. 
It is not possible to give any approximate expectation 
from such a mixed and undetermined parentage. 
The actual result, as will be seen, is 75 : 97 : 65, which 
stands out clearly from the ratio of 9 : 104 : 114, 
which we have seen is the result of crossing the 
seventeen RR stallions with mares very similar to 
those mated to the PR sires. 

Turning now to the ten sprinting sires at the 
bottom of Table IIL, we have a striking contrast 
to the first seventeen staying sires in the same table, 
and already considered. The offspring of these ten 
horses is made up of :— 



Sprinters. 
118 



Intermediates. 
50 



Stayers. 
5 



The following table illustrates the actual matings : 





TABLE XL 










MARES. 


Winning offspring of three 
years old and upwards 
sired by ten sprinting 
sires from the different 
types of mares. 




Sprin- 
ters. 


Interme- 
diates. 


Stayers 


10 
Sprint- 
ing X J 
Sires, 


Sprinting Mares, PP or (PR + 1) 


65 


14 


1 


Intermediate Mares, PR 


9 


15 


— 


Staying Mares, RR 


2 
42 


4 

17 




PP 


Mares which never ran 


4 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 73 

Here the numbers are few, in all only one 
hundred and seventy-three matings. This, however, 
is unavoidable, for it is difficult to find a sprin- 
ter with even ten winning produce. Missel Thrush 
probably should be included in the above clas- 
sification, for his percentage of intermediate and 
stayers is small. He is the first foal of the 
St. Leger winner. Throstle, who so far has been 
somewhat of a stud failure ; but as Missel Thrush 
never "ran, and as his brother Songcraft, by Orme, 
and his half-brother Grey Bird, by Grey Leg, could 
stay a mile, he may be given the benefit of the doubt 
till his further stud record proves his composition. 
The sprinter Sundridge has been omitted from the 
list, first because he might have stayed a mile or over, 
had he been sound in his wind ; then, in the second 
place, his winning produce of three-year-olds and 
upwards, as yet, only total fourteen, viz. : Seven 
sprinters, six intermediates, and one stayer — that 
is if the Derby winner Sunstar really is a stayer. In 
any event, Sunstar's dam, Doris, is an interesting 
example of the staying factor being sex limited. 
Doris, like many other good brood mares, was just a 
five furlong sprinter, but it seems clear that some of 
her gametes carry R. 

Reverting to Table XL, the offspring table of the 
ten sprinting sires, I would emphasize that the result 
in the first mating of PP sires with PP mares, 
allowing for sex limitation of the R factor in some of 
the mares, is pretty much what one would expect ; 
for, in place of getting the whole eighty offspring as 



74 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

sprinters, we have sixty-five sprinters, fourteen 
intermediates, and one pseudo-stayer, to which I 
shall refer presently. 

In the mating of PP sires (sprinters) with PR 
mares (intermediates) we expect in the offspring, if 
there are no complications due to inhibiting factors 
in the mares, equal numbers of sprinters and inter- 
mediates. The result, as the Table XL shows, is to give 
nine sprinters and fifteen intermediates. This dis- 
crepancy in the proportions may be due to the small- 
ness of the numbers or to some of the mares being 
really RR in composition but carrying an inhibiting 
factor. Coming next to the mating of sprinting sires 
PP with staying mares, the number of the offspring 
is extremely small, and this gives an exaggerated value 
to the two sprinters from the staying mares Sacristy 
and Carnatum. Sacristy, although mated repeatedly 
with Marco and other horses of intermediate com- 
position, has never bred anything which could stay. 
In these circumstances she must really have been an 
intermediate PR. It is the same with Carnatum, 
for she, too, has never bred a winner at a greater 
distance than five furlongs. 

In dealing with the theoretical considerations 
arising from the facts, we must remember, as already 
stated, that the border line between intermediates 
and stayers is not clearly enough defined. Twelve 
furlongs does not afford a sufficiently severe test. 
But, even so, a scrutiny shows that two of the five 
presumptive stayers in the fourth column of Table XL, 
produced as the offspring of sprinting sires mated with 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 75 

different types of mares, were moderate platers whose 
proper courses were eight to ten furlongs. They 
ought, therefore, to fall into the intermediate class. 
The other three were Trevor, by Juggler, out of 
Chevrette, Hulcot, by Crafton, out of Queen of the 
Riding (a five -furlong mare by Galopin), and Lawn 
Sand, by Ugly, out of Oheria (who never ran), by 
Oberon. Eight or nine furlongs truly run was suffi- 
ciently far for both Trevor and Hulcot, and this leaves 
Law7i Sand, by Ugly, as an apparent exception to the 
rule that sprinting sires crossed with mares of any 
composition do not give staying produce. To view 
this divergence in its proper perspective it is impera- 
tive to bear in mind that Ugly sired eighty-nine foals 
from mares of various extractions, but only one of his 
produce, Lawn Sand, won a race of twelve furlongs 
or over, and only four have won at eight to eleven 
furlongs. The offspring of Hazlehatch numbered 
127 ; but only five were successful over a greater 
distance than seven furlongs. Prince Hampton sired 
95 foals of which only three won at a mile or over. 
The case of Americus is still more glaring. His 65 
foals give four winners at eight to eleven furlongs, and 
none over the latter distance. 

Scattered throughout the Racing Calendars there 
are a fair number of sprinting horses which have only 
sired one or two winners during the course of their 
lives. When these horses have been mated with 
non-staying mares, the offspring have been invariably 
sprinters. Taking this evidence in conjunction with 
the results given in Table XI., it seems clear that 



76 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

sprinters breed true, and this irrespective of weight 
of ancestry, for I need hardly point out that natural 
selection by the racecourse test is against the sprinting 
sire. If the pedigree of a sprinter be examined, it 
will be found that the names of the males which 
occur in the second and earlier parental generations 
are those of horses which could stay at least a mile, 
and usually a greater distance. 

The winning stock of these sprinting sires can go 
fast. Their nerve axons and muscle fibres conduct 
impulses readily. Co-ordination, which involves the 
alternate contraction and relaxation of voluntary 
muscles, and even parts of the same muscle, is as 
perfect as in the stayer. They have good bone, well- 
proportioned frames, and the capacity for making 
acquirements, desirable and undesirable, is not 
wanting. One essential feature, however, they lack, 
and can never acquire. They have not the faculty 
for storing up an excess of oxygen in their muscle 
fibres. A signal proof of this lies in the fact that 
inhalation of oxygen has very little effect in increasing 
a non-stayer's distance, but it has a decided effect in 
that direction if given to an intermediate, and still 
more in the case of a stayer. It very frequently 
happens, if an attempt be made to train and race a 
sprinter over long courses, that he rapidly looses 
muscle and becomes slow. This would appear to be 
the practical outcome of his carrying a muscle 
slightly deficient in proteins and glycogen, and 
proportionately increased in muscle fats and 
water. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 77 

Some Hypothetical Coxsiderations. 

Reviewing all the circumstances then, it may be 
gathered that the assumption of the dark and pale red 
muscle fibres being represented in the germplasm of 
the thoroughbred by two alternative unit characters 
requires a little qualification. It would be more 
correct to say that a number of separate entities are 
with some regularity correlated to form a unit 
character, for it seems fairly certain that the various 
properties which mark off the dark fibre are in the 
nature of additions to the pale fibre. At some time 
far back in the phylogeny of the horse, those additions 
no doubt arose through germinal variation, and were 
fixed by natural selection. But, as the thoroughbred 
is a comparatively recent creation, having arisen in 
the 17th and early part of the 1 8th centuries from 
crossing the Arab, Turk, Barb, and the native Gallo- 
way, some of his ancestors brought in the phylo- 
genetically newer staying character, and some — there 
are good grounds for the belief that it was the hybrid 
Turkish horse — the older character. From the incep- 
tion of the thoroughbred to the present moment there 
has been persistent segregation of the two types of 
muscle. Sprinters and stayers have with constant 
regularity made their appearance when intermediates 
have been bred together. And this is true whether 
we take results in the mass or analyse the offspring 
of specific parents as I have done in Table XII. (page 
90). The crossing of stayers and true sprinters has 
nearly always given intermediates. 

That these intermediate forms should at times 



78 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

have a bias to one or other of the homozygous char- 
acters — that is, tend to become sprinters or stayers — 
may possibly be due to a variabiUty in the number of 
chromosomes which carry the phylogenetically later 
developed staying character. This, of course, is a 
purely speculative hypothesis. Walker has endea- 
voured to show that older or racial characters are 
carried by the cytoplasm of the gamete, and the later 
ones by the chromosomes.* Let us tentatively apply 
this theory to the two muscle characters in the race- 
horse. Underlying, as it were, the factors which 
produce the dark fibre we should have an ever-present 
factor for the pale fibre carried by the cytoplasm of 
the gamete, for it is inconceivable that the presence 
of the pale fibre could be alternative to its absence, as 
this would entail that a horse might be born without 
voluntary muscles. If, however, the entities making 
up the unit character for the dark fibre were carried 
by the chromosomes, the presence and absence theory 
fits in remarkably well. The presence in the chromo- 
somes of these entities forming the unit character of 
red fibre would be alternative to their absence. 
Therefore, during the reduction of the chromosomes 
from twenty-six to thirteen, which takes place prior 
to the maturation of the gamete, the presence factor 
would enter some chromosomes, but not others. The 
greater the number of chromosomes carrying the 
staying factors of the red fibre, the greater may be the 
intensity of the character manifested in the soma of 

* Walker, C. E., " Hereditary Characters and their Mode of Trans- 
mission." 1910. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 79 

the filial generation. Latency may thus be the result 
of a minimum number of the chromosomes carrying 
the factors for the dark fibre. The gametic formula, 
RR, would therefore represent a horse in which the R 
factor was present in a maximum number of chromo- 
somes which can carry the character, and the formula 
PP, in a strict sense, a horse in which R was not 
present in any chromosome. The dark fibres, how- 
ever, would appear to be never entirely absent from 
the tissues of the thoroughbred, but certain individuals 
carry so few that they are practically no use to them 
as aids to stamina. 

The epistatic and hypostatic theory is thoroughly 
in accordance with the conception of the recapitula- 
tion process. During foetal life and foalhood the 
two muscle characters — red and pale — are morpho- 
logically indistinguishable. At a year old the differ- 
ence is still imperceptible, and even at two years of 
age the physiology of the dark fibre is imperfect. It 
rarely reaches the full potentiality before the bearer 
is four years of age, and sometimes not till he is six. 

In collecting the data for this paper I have received 
valuable assistance from my son, H. C. Robertson. 
I have also to thank the Editor of " The Sportsman " 
for allowing me to reproduce the time-distance table 
(Table II.) which originally appeared in one of my 
communications to that paper. 



The statistics for this paper were brought up to June 30th, 1911. 
Whilst the material was in the printer's hands, the extra data for the 
latter part of 1911 became available, but too late to be incorporated in 
the tables. I have gone carefully through the extra figures and find that 
thej- make no material alteration in the results, except that the increased 



80 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

numbers approximate the percentages nearer to expectation. Typical 
stayers like Carhiiie, Isinglass, Florizel II., and Persimmon show an 
increase in the staying and intermediate, but none in the sprinting group. 
In the intermediate sires there are additions to all three groups. The 
new material in the case of the ten sprinting stalUons consists of two 
sprinters only. 

Author. 



HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 81 



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ERS. up- 
wards 

V 15 16 


- 1 




l^ oo 




lO CO 




IM — 1 




c 1 




1 ^ 








^ 1 




e^^ c<) 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 










o 




^ 


1 1 


05 




t- 


1 1 


kA 


' 


CO 






«^ ^ 


c^ 1 


th 


^ 1 


1 1 


Tl 


-^ 1 


th 


1 1 


th 


^ 1 


■»-( 






g s 


1 1 




CO (N 




'-* 1 








IC 1 




1 1 






o 




1 1 








1 




1 




1 




1 1 






SS 


M 


CO 1 




lO I- 




00 IM 




O (M 




-* CO 




^ 1 














f—* 









i-H 














5 " 


1 ^ 




CO 1 




^ (M 




1 1 




■^ 1 




-- 






CO 


-3 o 


<M M 




I- Tt* 




iM <M 




lO ^ 




t^ Cs| 


a> 


lO -H 






w 


osS -^ 




N 




^ 




O 




CO 




eg 




lA 




o 


^s 




th 




■>* 




«M 






I 






TH 






g « 


1 "^ 




^ -H 




1 i 




^ 1 




' 1 




. 1 1 






H 


H 


















t^ 










2S 


z 00 


CO CO 




t^ ^ 




00 in 




C- (M 




-H (M 




Tt< CO 






o 








f^ r—* 






















03 «^ 


1^ 




-H -* 




C^ -H 




1 1 




^ 1 




1 1 








0. lO 


P-4 ^ 


CO 


OS ICi 


s 


^ r-H 


O 


lO I-H 


CO 


CO I-H 


CQ 


CO >c 


tH 






1 1 






CO 




■rH 




Tl 




th 




▼H 






1 1 




^ o 




rt Tj( 




CO T}< 




CO Tt( 




iM ^ 








00 






1— t 
























CO ai 
;i5 — 


Is 


^1 




CO m 


Is 


DO 






-t2 


CO 


"3 
4^ 






o ^ 


o 


"o :^ 


o 


o ^ 


o 


'o ^ 


o 


O ^ 


O 


'o ra 


o 






OfJH 


H 


OP^ 


H 


OPn 


H 


OPq 


H 


OPh 


H 


Of=H 


H 




UOIi 

-isodinoo 






P5 




A 




P3 




P3 




P5 






DiiaiUBO 


P3 




Ph 




f^ 




CM 




Ph 




Ph 






•sSuoijtIjI 






(?-• 




c^- 








CO 










HI 83irei«ia 


c^ 




« 






* 


(^ 




• 




CO 






Su'maiM-XBK 






o 




(N 








Tt< 




" 








s 


_ 






g 




5 


e 




SS 




'S 






1 


1 

O 


S 


§ 




2 s 


e 

sJ 


S 




s 


3 


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1 




i^ 
^ 


5^ 


Si, 




1 


1 




1 






' 












' 




' 






^ 


o 


























1— I 
1— 1 


3 

< 






; 




















1— 1 


m 






Eq 
















^►< 




s 












c 

Cr 


^ 






fe 












ft: 


OS 


^c 


J" 


CO 
OS 


0: 


05 


C 


00 


T 

■; 






00 




o 


00 


GO 


00 


o2 






C 


> 


^ 




fe 




'^ 




c 




■^ 
.^ 








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.^ 




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o 




i-H 




(M 




CO 




-* 




irt 










(N 




M 




C-l 




(M 




<M 




Oi 





HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 85 



C5 05 


CM 


C5 00 




I> 


CM O 


CM 


o i-O 


o 


00 o 


o 


05 CM 


a 


■* CO 


r-, 


00 CO 


'^ 


CC -H 


IC 


t- o 


00 


CO CO 


CO 


CO 00 


o 


o o 


»c 


t^ ^ 


CM 


-* eo 


-^ 


—1 eo 


CM 


(N (N 


CM 


M eo 


e-1 


CM — 1 


CM 


C^) CO 


CO 


CM eo 


CM 


CM ^ 


CM 


CO eo 


eo 


eo CO 


Tt 


ci CO 


Ti< 


00 CO 


CO 


-* O 


X 


C5 »0 


lO 


iO o 


00 


C^ Tl< 


CO 


O Tt< 


TjH 


^ CM 


lO 


t- o 


on 


o c^ 


GO 


t- CM 


LO 


-H 00 


t^ 


CM O 


CO 


Th Ti< 


-* 


O eo 


CO 


05 00 


»o 


n -* 


sc 


lO Tt< 


T*< 


lO lO 


lO 


IC CO 


^ 


CO lO 


lO 


■* ^ 


Tt< 


IC CO 


^ 


0-. 


'^ 


00 lo 


Tt< 


CO a 


O 


Tt* O 


o 


-1 o 


IC 


t- o 


CM 


CS Tt< 


OO 


CO CO 


lO 


^CM 


^ 


uo f- 


<© 


-H CO 


CO 


CO CM 


^^ 


CM CO 


CM 


CO o 


CO 


C^ -t 


CM 


lO CO 


Oi 


C5 00 


CM 


CO lO 


CO 


CM C^l 


CM 


-H CO 


CM 


CM CM 


C-J 


— ( CM 




CM -* 


CO 


^ CO 




" 


" 


t^ (N 


o» 


^ CO 


1^ 


-H lO 


tf> 


t- CO 


o 


-t o 


'i' 


CO 00 


Tl 


CM C5 


tH 


CM —1 


CO 


«0 CO 


O) 


CD CM 


00 


CO CM 


00 


CM ^ 


* 


CM C^ 


* 


^ -H 




CO 


^ 


CM ^ 


eo 


lO -H 




Tj- CO 




CM 1 




M CM 




-H 1 




CM 




CO -H 




CM CM 




■" 1 


to 


" 1 


lO 


1 1 


o 


1 1 


CM 


1 1 


.1-1 


^ 1 


<* 


1 1 


.* 


1 i 




-H —i 


PJ 


1 1 


CM 


1 1 


CM 


1 1 


tn 


^^ 1 


T^ 


1 1 


th 


1 '~' 


"^ 


I 1 




<N 1 




1 1 




1 1 




I 1 




- 1 




1 ^ 




1 1 




1 ^ 




05 lO 




CM CM 




'^ ^^ 




lO CO 




CM CO 




O -H 




lO -H 




lO rt< 




»0 -H 




-* CM 




CM CM 




CM 1 




^ 1 




1 1 




eo 1 




CO 1 




lO IM 




LO CM 




t- CM 




CO CM 




CM CM 




— 1 CM 




^ 1 




^ 1 






00 




CM 




00 




OS 




\a 




t- 


1 


Oi 


1 


lO 




CO 




Tf 




^ 




T^ 




CM 








^H 




T-l 


(M eo 




pH —, 




e<\ -H 




^ 1 




^ 1 












^ ^ 




CO t^ 




^ CO 




Tt* 00 




00 CO 




^ GC 




CO CO 




C- (M 




m ^ 








CM 




CM 








»-H 




r-H 












CM 1 




CM -H 




'-' 1 




1 1 




^ 1 




1 ^ 




CM -^ 




1 1 




O Tt< 


to 


CO 1 


o 


^ CS) 


00 


CO -H 


o» 


1 «M 


00 


CO CO 


o 


— ( -M 


00 


CM Ot 


* 




CO 


1 


CM 




tH 






1 






CM 










<M 00 




>C CO 




00 CO 




CO M 




CO c^ 




CO ^ 




CM -1 




i 1 






1 

o 


olts 
illies 

otal 




"3 

o 




"3 

c 






K _C 


"cS 


CD _0 


~s 




o 


Ofe 


H 


Ofe H 


a^ 


C-l 


O^ 




0'-^ 


H 


ot^ 


H 


OP^ 


c-i 


OPq 


H 


05 




P? 


P3 




^ 




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C5 




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P5 




Oa 




Ph 


Ph 




PL| 




Cm 




flH 




en 




fL, 




(N 




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o 




o 




CO 




o 




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s 


Bend Or 

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oc 




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tt3 = 


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q2 


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86 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL j 









00 ■»*' 


^ 


oo o 


00 


^ 


o 


-H lO 


05 


o o 


t^ 


05 t- 


t 




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<ffl o 


o 


t- 1 


o 


00 (M 


M 


LO O 


^ 


O i» 


Oi 






-.# -^ 


CO 


CO M 


CO 


CO 


(M 


(M -H 


(M 


IM -H 


IM 


(M -H 






« 22 


oo 00 


00 


^ o 


o 


^ >* 


o 


O IC 


IM 


O O 


O 


00 o 


CO 




s? £ 


eq w 


eq 


t^ lO 


^ 


t^ CO 


(M 


O IM 


4 


6 o 


6 


LO O 


lA 






■<t ■* -* 


■* CO 


'* 


CO o 


■* 


lO o 


o 


UO LO 


lO 


■* lO 


-* 






tJ< oo 


00 


00 o 


IM 


oo CO 


O 


05 O 


en 


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CO 


CO CO 


CO 




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CO 


lO o 


00 


LO CO 


IM 


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00 


CO CO 


CO 






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o\ 


-H -* 


C-J 


(N ^ 


CO 


IM C^ 


(M 


IM Tf 


(M 


CO CO 


CO 




_2 


00 Tt* 


N 


05 o 


o» 


lO >o 


o 


M « 


^ 


CO o 


CD 


■^ IM 


CO 




l| 


<N ^ 


"*< 


-H IM 


eo 


CO — < 


lO 


CO — 


CO -H 


* 


IM -H 


eo 


































































M 1 




^ ^ 




(N 1 




CO 1 




,M 1 




1 










I 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 _ 




1 1 




] 








C£ 


















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ii s 




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N 




eo 








o 




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j 1 


IH 


<M 1 


iH 


1 1 


■r* 


1 1 


tH 


l-H 1 






oi 


^-ti 


1 1 




1 1 








1 1 


TH 


1 1 




1 






z 


^ s 


^ 1 




-I 1 




Tt< 1 




1 1 




1 1 




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c 




1 




1 








1 1 




1 1 




1 








N 


00 (N 




lO ■<* 




lO I 




ffl y- 




t~ -H 




IM — 






M ^ 




























Z 


« s 


" 1 




1 1 




IM 1 




^ I 




-H -H 




^ 1 






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< 




























05 


a o 


■rj* CC 




CO (N 




IS 1 




"* c 




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CO 1 






» 


Bja "^ 




00 




CO 




tH 




CD 




eo 




l> 




-a! 


o-S 




tH 




T-l 




N 




<M 




05 




th 




« » 


1— 1 -H 




c^ — 




1 1 




1 




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1 ^ 






H 




















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g 00 


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t^ ■* 






n 






























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1 1 




^ 1 




Tl 




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tt<"fc CO 


r-t (M 


o 


—1 c<- 


•^ 


-+ CO 


CD 


^H ^- 


■rH 


-* —I 


eo 


LO C- 


04 






a-2 




T-< 




TH 




th 




•^ 




■^ 




tH 






OS 

0. U9 


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C<l IS 




CO Tt< 




o c 




Tj< (M 




1 - 








03 _ 


05 a. 


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05 

05 « 

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to _a 




05 


1 


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o 


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o 


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O 






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H 


O^ 


H 


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H 


Ofe 


H 


Oft 


H 




-isodiiioo 


P3 


CC 




P3 




PC 




P3 




Pf 






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fM 


&. 




^ 




p. 




PLI 




p. 






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00 


oc 




00 




oc 




OC 




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j 




Sterling 

j Cherry 
[ Duthess 




i 




1 


s 




1 


s 


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1 


1 


^ 


3 


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l-H 
1— 1 


^ 
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l-H 


03 


=Q 






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f-i 












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ft; 


p 


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cq 




tec 

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CO 





HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 87 



r^ 00 






t» IN 



(N -H 
iO (N 



S 



^ 



CO -* 



O CO 

CO iC 



(M IM 



t1< C<) 

CD a 






i: -= -k^ 



5h 





S 


r§ 


S, 


u 


o 











:^ 



iis 



=Q 






O CO 

►-H 00 

a.— 



5. 00 

-<( 00 



«1 00 
E^ 00 



C5_ 



.^ 00 



C5 
O 00 



lO 






"^ 00 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



• 




j 


^ 00 


IM 


■* 


lO 


IM CO 


» 


00 


00 




o 




00 




t^ 




s? 5 


Oi o 


l> 


<N 


M 


« CO 

CO 


CO 


li 1 


<N 


1 1 


-* 


' ' 


- 


1 1 


CO 






Tj4 ^ 


CC 


-* O 


l> 


lO -* 


o 


O 00 


-* 




o 




00 




l> 




S5g 


lO 00 


(M 


-^ 6 


tc 


(N CO 


•<* 


CO CO 


-* 


I 1 


o 


1 1 


lO 


1 1 


CO 






-<t e<5 


^ 


(N -H 


■"^ 


•~£> CO 


»o 


lO CO 


'^ 




Tjl 








M 






to OO 


o 


<M O 


00 


CO CO 


00 


(M <M 


00 




o 




ij" 




CO 




5S E 


IC o 


6 


t-^ 6 


o 


-^ CO 


^ 


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M 


1 I 


o 


1 I 


(M 


1 1 


CO 






-* n 


Tf 


ic c; 


c^ 


JO CO 


CO 


-+ -^ 


IS 




L'5 




X 




CO 




Ss <M CO 


^ 


^ O 


* 


CO :0 


&] 


t- a: 


CO 


CO 05 


la 


00 c; 


t- 


Oi CD 


\a 




S.S ' <N — 1 


^H ^H 


OJ 


(— ( 


C4 


l-H 1— 1 


eo 




cq 




■pH 




T^ 




■^ 
































ce 1 




1 1 




T"" 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 








■^UJ , , 
































OS I'll 




i 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 








«< '^ 1 


CD 


1 1 


CO 


1 1 


CO 


1 1 


■»M 


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Tl 


1 1 


N 


1 1 


y* 






^ S! 1 1 




1 1 




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1 1 




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1 




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1 1 






1-3 

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Si ^(M 




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^H I 




rH I 




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1 


















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ir, 


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in 


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CQ 
































B 


g 00 t-<M 




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t> (N 




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CO CO 




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IM rH 






00 11 




1 '^ 




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i-'k » ^: <M 


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CO <M 


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r-l CO 


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1 ^ 


O 






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Ti 




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tH 




tH 


1 


th 






% « 


tr- (M 




CO W5 




1 1 




v6 iffl 




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CO CO 








03 O 


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03 _(B 


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3 


03 




03 ID 




Its 
lies 

tal 


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CH 


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P? 




CM 




PM 




PL, 


p. 






bijauiBO Cm 




CM 




Cm 




Ph 




Ph 




Pm 


P- 






■sSuoi.mj 




> 

c 


« 


c 




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HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 89 





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THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



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HEREDITY OF RACEHORSE STAMINA 91 



Pretty Polly (f) .. 18 
Adora (f) .. ..12 
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Hammer kop (f) . . 22 

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Dahchick (f).. .. 8 
Sirenia (f) . . . . 10 
Goosander (f) ..11 
General Peace (c) . . 8 
General Cronje (c) . . 11 
Christian De Wet (c) 8 
Carita (f) . . . . 8 

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Mark Antony (c) 
Amendment (c) 


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Rhoda (f) 
Miss Astley (f) 


Vane (f) 
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THE MENDEL JOURNAL 









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Some Sociological Considerations 

Arising out of Mr. Robertson's Article on the Heredity of 
Stamina in the Thoroughbred Horse. 

By GEORGE PERCIVAL MUDGE. 

The investigation of the question of stamina in 
racehorses by means of exact experiment along 
Mendelian lines must be preceded by an adequate 
consideration of the facts which are known to men 
in every- day contact with the more concrete problems 
of inheritance in horses. The value of these 
considerations is very much enhanced when the 
practical men themselves become interested in the 
theoretical aspect of the problem and in the Mendelian 
principles of inheritance. All recent enquiry 
shows that hidden away as it were in the records 
kept by practical men, or in the common experiences 
of life, there are undoubted evidences of segregation, 
both somatic and gametic. But like many other familiar 
things they have been passed over and ignored 
because they were familiar and their place in the 
scheme of Nature was not adequately recognised 
in the absence of an unifying and embracing theory. 
For reasons such as these and for others, the article 
which is published on " The Heredity of Racing 
Stamina in the Thoroughbred Horse," by Mr. J. B. 
Robertson, in this number of the Mendel Journal^ 
and the article on " Inheritance in Coat Colour," by 
Mr. Robert Bunsow, which was published in the 



94 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

last number, carry with them a large measure of 
utility to those who propose actually working along 
Mendelian lines and will be of use to others interested 
in the general problems, as showing how important 
and widespread are the evidences of segregation in 
the mechanism of inheritance. 

I shall in the few remarks I am about to make, 
endeavour to show the suggestiveness of some of 
the facts in Mr. Robertson's paper. They have not 
only a bearing on horses but on sociological problems 
that touch human life at many points. 

In considering Mr. Robertson's figures on page 
55, which show that horses and colts have on the 
whole a greater staying power than mares and fillies, 
it is desirable to bear in mind that more horses from 
three years of age upwards are in training for a race 
than mares, in the proportion of 1 mare : 1*6 horses. f 
But the proportion of mares to horses which actually 
start in a race is as 1 : 2. This specific fact does 
not of course invalidate the more general fact, as 
manifested by the figures shown on page 55, that the 
horses win more races than the mares. For not- 
withstanding the smaller numbers entering a race, 
if mares had more staying powers than horses, it 
should still be manifested in a higher percentage of 



t This fact and the followmg explanation ^\•e^e kindh' supplied to me 
by Mr. Robertson upon my enquir^y. Mr. Robertson tells me that " The 
reason there are fewer mares than horses in training at three years old 
and up\\ ards and still iewer which start in a race, is because during training 
a large number of mares are found to be useless for racing after two years 
of age ; the principal factor determining their uselessness is want of staying 
power." 



SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 95 

the winning records.* Mr. Robertson's conclusion 
that the mares, in some cases, carry some inherent 
factor which inhibits their staying powers, therefore 
seems to be provisionally justified. I think the 
further facts which he has so clearly brought out 
and which show a continual decrease in the proportion 
of winning mares as the severity of the test (length 
of the race) increases, is strongly in favour of his 
view, f Thus in a race of five to seven furlongs in 
length the ratio of winning mares and horses, though 
slightly in favour of the horse, is nearly equal ! But 
in more severe races of twelve furlongs and upwards, 
the winning horses are nearly three times more 
numerous than the mares. That is an extremely 
interesting physiological fact. I do not know that 
in any problem turning about the question of sex, 
any more significant fact could be found. For 
it seems to demonstrate the important general 
deduction that the more severe the test of staying 
power becomes, the more clearly the males and 
females are differentiated from each other. 

Though this deduction is derived from a series 
of very accurate experiments with horses — for the 
racecourse is virtually a place where a supreme 
experiment takes place — it is probably true of human 
beings. It would be of great interest to put the 

* It is additionally necessary to bear in mind the fact, as pointed out 
to me by Mr. Robertson, that if the mares A\ere good enough, there are a 
sufiScient number in training to win every race run. But while compared 
to horses they are but of little use as stayers, as sprinters they seem to 
excel. For in purely sprint races (five furlongs length) they gain a greater 
number of victories than their proportion to horses entering the race with 
them warrants. 

fSee p. 56. 



96 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

matter to experimental test in children and adults 
of both sexes. The result might serve to remind us 
that beneath our civilisation lie the more enduring 
factors upon which our existence ultimately depends. 
It would answer for us the extremely important and 
interesting question as to whether the more or less 
apparent equality with men which is seemingly 
attained by women under the refined conditions of 
civilisation would manifest itself as a reality under 
sterner circumstances and under tests of endurance 
more severe than civilisation applies. 

There are some facts which enable us to reach 
some idea as to the nature of the ultimate answer. I 
am indebted to a colleague, Miss Winifred Cullis, who 
kindly called my attention to the following data from 
Professor Thomas' book on " Sex and Society." At 
Vassar, a Woman's college in New York, there is held 
an annual field day. The results of the first field day 
of the Vassar College Athletic Association, held on 
November 9th, 1895, were compared with those 
of Yale, a Man's college, in the same year. They 
came out as follows :— 





Yale. 


Vassar. 


100 yards 


. . lOf sec. 


15j sec. 


220 yards dash 


. . 22f sec. 


36i sec. 


Running broad jump 


. . 23ft. 


lift. Sin. 


high jump 


. . 5ft. 9in. 


4ft. 



This gives the results very much in favour of 
the men. But since 1895 the women seem to have 
improved, or more strictly speaking, the women who 
took part in the sports of 1904 were superior to those 



SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 97 

of 1895. For in 1904 the results at Vassar were 
as follows : — 

100 yards . . . . 13 sec. 

Running broad jump . . 14ft. 6 Jin. 
,, high ,, . . 4ft. 2 Jin. 

But though these results are an improvement on 
the earlier attempt they still fall very far short of 
the men's attainments. 

On the other hand, Miss Cullis tells me that in 
Miss Helen B. Thompson's book on " The Mental 
Traits of Sex," a series of measurements show that 
women are better able than men to form new co- 
ordinate movements and to co-ordinate more rapidly 
to unforeseen stimuli. I called Mr. Robertson's 
attention to these results, and he says that, so far 
as the latter fact is concerned, it is much the same 
with mares when contrasted to horses. " If anyone 
passing into a mare's stall should happen to unex- 
pectedly touch her, she will have kicked the intruder 
before he has had time to get away. But a horse is 
slower and there is time to get out of harm's way." 
Of course, so far as woman is concerned, this quicker 
response to unforeseen stimuli has been generally 
recognised for centuries, and has found expression in 
the popular saying " that woman's nervous mechanism 
is finer and more delicate than man's." It is one of 
the attributes indeed which give to her a large 
measure of her charm in the ordinary intercourse 
of life. 

Another fact of extreme interest in Mr. Robertson's 
paper, and which is also applicable to human society, 



98 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

is the difference in the physiological energy and 
endurance between the red and pale varieties of 
muscle fibre. Mr. Robertson has explained that the 
red fibre in racehorses has a greater staying power 
than the pale on account of its innate capacity to 
store up within its own substance a greater reserve 
of oxygen. But from the social aspect of the matter, 
in which I am now chiefly concerned, this fact is 
valuable as emphasizing that inherent physiological 
differences do exist between different sorts of muscle 
fibres. We may take two horses which in form 
and other external attributes appear very similar, 
but yet their performances will be very dissimilar. 
And that dissimilarity is due to inherent causes. 
No amount of environmental influence, in the way 
of feeding, training, and external stimulation, will 
ever convert the pale-fibred " sprinter " into the 
red-fibred " stayer." Indeed — and from our view 
this is a crucial social fact — the more we endeavour 
by environmental influences to change the " sprinter " 
into the " stayer " the worse we make him. For in 
Mr. Robertson's words : "It very frequently happens, 
if an attempt be made to train and race a sprinter 
over long courses, that he rapidly loses muscle and 
becomes slow."* In the light of this fact, perhaps 
we have a more rational explanation of the dullness 
and stupidity often shown by children in elementary 
national schools, than that other explanation so 
often urged by emotional sentimentalists, that these 
mental defects are due to want of proper food. 

* Page 76. 



SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 99 

They are more probably due to physiological deficiency 
in the attributes of the nerve cells. For who among 
us have not seen children bright and alert even when 
hungry, and others dull and inert even though 
well fed. That there is a difference in the quality 
as apart from the mass of the muscle fibre and of 
nervous energy in different human subjects can be 
seen at any swimming contest. I have seen some 
of the finest looking specimens of manhood, so far 
as external form and mass was concerned, break 
down half way through a race, while in the same 
contest a lean, sparse figure has glided in easily to 
the winning post. It is not only among adults but 
also among boys of ten to fourteen years of age that 
such differences may also be observable. 

It was biological facts of this kind that several 
years ago caused me to depart from an adherence 
to the prevailing social sentiment, and to enquire 
whether it was not a more statesmanlike conception 
to frame a social policy which should leave every 
individual to find his own level by the spontaneous 
exercise of those qualities which Nature has given 
to him. We cannot convert human " sprinters " 
into human " stayers " by training or racing, however 
costly we make the process. We but spoil the 
" sprinter," as Mr. Robertson has shown in horses, 
by the process. Not even the inhalation of oxygen 
has any appreciable effect in increasing a " sprinter's " 
staying powers.* 

Here, again, we meet another significant fact. 

* See p. 76. 



100 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

When oxygen is inhaled by a " stayer," that is, by a 
horse inherently capable of storing it up, the staying 
powers are increased.* In other words, if we 
desire to express it as a social analogy, an environ- 
mental influence may improve the powers of an 
organism which naturally possesses an inherent 
mechanism for responding to it and is capable of 
utilising its stimuli. In the light of such a considera- 
tion, perhaps it would be well to consider the 
advisability of no longer wasting millions of money 
annually upon the elementary education of social 
classes incapable from inherent defects of benefitting 
by it, but of spending instead a few hundred thousands 
upon the organisation and equipment of the higher 
education of our more cultured and successful classes, 
from among whom the leaders of the nation ought 
naturally to be chosen. In other words, train and 
oxygenate the " stayers," and leave the " sprinters " 
to do such sprinting as they can. The one can 
benefit by training ; the other not only does not 
benefit, but is harmfully affected by it. " What is 
one man's food is another man's poison," is as true, 
of social classes as it is of individuals. What is a 
stimulus bringing brightness and gladness to one, 
is an inhibition bringing anguish and hopelessness to 
another. In that fact lies, in large measure, the 
explanation of human happiness and misery and 
the futility of the sentimentalist's hopes. 

Another point of sociological interest in Mr. 
Robertson's paper lies in the consideration which he 

* See p. 76. 



SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 101 

has adduced, that previous to the introduction of 
more severe tests of endurance on the racecourse, 
in the year 1899, it was difficult to pick out a good 
staying horse from his non-staying fellows. At 
that time not miany races were run of a greater 
distance than a mile. This difficulty of discrimination 
did not arise because the good staying horses were 
not there, but because the selective tests were so 
easy that most racehorses with no real staying powers 
could stay them out. It was only when the races 
were lengthened to a mile and half or more, and the 
pace throughout had to be run at racing rate, that it 
became easy to make discriminations between the 
horses, and to classify them as " stayers " and " non- 
stayers." 

Now this fact has an important and significant 
bearing on civilisation as it is manifested in the 
social life of Western Europe. Just as in the racing 
period prior to 1899, good " stayers " among racing 
horses were virtually lost to the racing world because 
they were submerged in a multitude of " inter- 
mediates " and " sprinters," so in human life, every 
step in the direction of softening the environment — 
such as free education and the like — does not make 
better men, it only serves to label the inherently 
vigorous and capable with the same label as the inert 
and incapable. The difference between the two 
classes is very soon shown when exceptional circum- 
stances momentarily raise the selective test. It is 
not, as a rule, the men who took highest marks in 
the Army examinations who have proved the most 



102 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

competent commanders of men and the most intrepid 
of soldiers. And at the other end of the social scale, 
one chooses one's domestic servants not because the 
London County Council gave them Domestic Scholar- 
ships and had the poor girls lectured to on subjects 
they never understood, but because they have muscle, 
good temper, capacity to work, honesty, and a power 
of happy adaptation. We are aware that there 
are but few servants with these desirable qualifications, 
but the moment the environment is softened and 
conditions are rendered so easy that scholarships are 
not only given away in thousands, but are accom- 
panied with a prayer to the recipients to be kind 
enough to accept them,* we submerge our really 
vigorous and competent girls beneath the army of 
" slackers," who only accept scholarships because 
the life it confers upon them is easier than the life of 
the world. 

Another fact of social significance in Mr. Robert- 
son's article is that every horse has his course, beyond 
which he cannot stay. It is not training that makes 
a " stayer." Whether a horse is able to win over a 
long or short course is determined by bodily qualities 
brought into his constitution by the gametic factors 
of his parents. This is a fact equally true of human 
life. No sane person with adequate knowledge of 
the facts doubts it, but every politician and senti- 
mentalist and social reformer systematically ignore 

* I have had many occasions to see a good deal of this scholarship 
system as undertaken by the London County Council, and my statement 
is virtually correct and there is ver\' little exaggeration in the metaphorical 
allusion to prayers made to the recipients. 



SOCIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 103 

it. It is not education that gives the capacity for 
acquiring strength or knowledge. Our statesmen of 
the year 1870, and before and since, would have been 
more of statesmen had they first enquired whether the 
masses possessed the inborn capacity of acquiring 
and retaining knowledge, before they thrust com- 
pulsory and pauperised education upon them. The 
inborn instincts of the masses were, indeed, in this 
matter truer than the artificial aspirations of their 
social superiors, for at the time they bitterly resented 
— and in my opinion rightly so — the compulsory 
interference with their legitimate liberties and the 
rightful privacy of their lives. 



HEREDITY IN GOATS. 

By C. J. DAVIES. 

In all the literature dealing with modern heredity- 
only the slightest allusion is made to goats. It 
might have been thought that some of the obvious 
difierentiating characters possessed by domesticated 
animals of the genus Capra would have been seized 
upon to demonstrate the working of familiar principles 
or to prove exceptions to accepted rules. Yet this 
is so far from being the case that we find heredity in 
goats either being taken for granted as analogous 
to that in other forms, or else being described as 
baffling. 

In the early days of Mendelism it was tenta- 
tively assumed that the inheritance of horns in 
goats followed the same course as in cattle. The 
following paragraph on page 133 of Report 1 to the 
Evolution Committee of the Royal Society (1901) 
expresses the view taken at the time : — 

" The fact that the hornless breeds of goats still 
give some horned offspring is probably referable to 
the same cause, namely, promiscuous selection. 
The point is, of course, not certain, but from the 
analogy of cattle (page 140) we may anticipate that 
the hornless form is dominant. In the polled breeds 
of cattle, which are never promiscuously selected, 
the polled character has naturally been easily fijxed 
pure, but in goats selection among the ewes has been 
probably to a large extent promiscuous." 



HEREDITY IN GOATS 105 

On page 140 of the Report, the polled character 
is given as dominant to the horned character in 
cattle, and in, it is added, " probably goats " also. 

No further allusion is made in the chief technical 
publications to heredity in goats until 1909, when 
Professor Bateson again briefly alludes to them in his 
book on " Mendel's Principles of Heredity." By 
this time additional evidence rendered a change of 
view necessary, and the author says, on page 32 : 
" In sheep the inheritance of horns is sex-limited,. 
and from evidence given me by Mr. E. P. Boys- 
Smith I suspect that this is true in the case of 
goats also." Further on in the same volume (page 
170), when describing the phenomena connected 
with the inheritance of horns in sheep and cattle, a. 
footnote is inserted by the author to the following 
effect : — 

" As to the descent in goats I have no thoroughly 
adequate evidence. The Rev. E. P. Boys-Smith 
has kindly given me particulars of many matings. 
which he has made, but the details are complex 
and I have not been able to extract a consistent 
scheme from them. There is probably some intricacy 
due to gametic coupling comparable with that 
described in the next section, or perhaps to sex- 
limitation." 

In consequence of the unsatisfactory results 
hitherto attained in this bye-path of knowledge, the 
writer has recently been endeavouring, by a consul- 
tation of the excellently-arranged and carefully-kept 
Herd Books, issued by the British Goat Society, to 



106 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

•collect more evidence upon the subject of heredity 
in goats. These Herd Books date back to 1875, and 
comprise the entries of something like one thousand 
seven hundred goats. Of this number it has been 
possible to discover the horn characters of the parents 
of one thousand three hundred and seventy indivi- 
duals ; and it has also been found possible to analyse 
^till further the breeding of seven hundred and one 
goats. Although the results are not perhaps entirely 
satisfactory, yet they conclusively clear up more than 
one debatable point ; and they will, it is hoped, help 
to throw a little light on the elusive problem of the 
-inheritance of horns in goats. 

First of all, the twenty-four matings of a polled 
animal bred from polled parents, with a horned 
animal bred from horned parents give equal 
numbers of polled and horned offspring (6 horned 
males, 6 horned females, 3 polled males, 9 polled 
females). 

If inheritance had followed the same lines as that 
in cattle, this mating would have given all polled off- 
spring. If, on the other hand, it had been analogous 
to the phenomena observed in sheep, all the male kids 
would have been horned and all the females polled ; 
which is equally not the case. So we are apparently 
confronted at the outset with the fact that there is 
jio dominance (sexual or otherwise) of either character, 
^nd that the horned or polled condition is equally 
likely to be inherited by cross-bred goats of either sex. 

In cattle the horned individuals of the Fg genera- 
tion are pure (namely, breed true). In sheep only 



HEREDITY IN GOATS 



107 



the Fg polled males and F.^ horned females breed 
true to their respective characters. In goats a 
pair of horned animals descended from fom* parents 
all of which were also horned breed true to the 
horn character without exception in the few cases 
of this precise mating which the writer has been able 
to collect ; but practically all matings of two polled 
individuals throw a proportion (1:3) of horned 
progeny whatever the precise germinal constitution 
of the parents may be. 

The following tables give full details of the data 
collected from which readers can draw their own 
conclusions : — 

The Breeding op 1,370 Goats. 



Both 
Parents 
Homed. 


1 PoUed X 1 Both 
Horned Parents 
Parent. Polled. 


Offspring. 


55 
63 
14 
18 


73 39 
151 107 
116 222 
231 281 


167 Horned he-goats. 
321 Horned she-goats. 
352 Polled he-goats. 
530 Polled she-goats. 



Approximate percentages : — 

488 Horned Goats are bred : — 

24 per cent, from 2 horned parents. 

46 per cent, from 1 polled 1 horned 

parent. 
30 per cent, from 2 polled parents. 
882 Polled Goats are bred : — 

3 '50 per cent, from 2 horned parents. 



108 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



39 '25 per cent, from 1 polled 1 horned 

parent. 
57*25 per cent, from 2 polled parents. 

Analysis of the Breeding of 701 Goats of all 
Varieties, Pure and Crossbred, in respect op 
THE Horn Character. 



Characters of Parents 
and Grandparents. 




a o3 


13 05 


P-l v 

1^ 






Grandparents. Parents. 
(P P X H H) P X P N 
(P P X P P) P X P 




3 


2 


5 


9 


5 


14 


U 


6 


25 


50 


47 


31 


97 


(P P X P H) P X P 


05 T3 


11 


28 


54 


83 


39 


137 


(P H X P H) P X P 




4 


7 


18 


24 


11 


42 


(HHxHH) PxP 




— 


- — 


1 


— 


— 


1 


(PHxHH) PxP J 




2 


3 


6 


8 


5 


14 


(P P X H H) H x H \ 




1 


1 







2 





(HHxHH) HxH 


le . 


— 


8 


— 


— 


8 


— 


(H H X P H) HxH 


^ -sl 


4 


8 


2 


5 


12 


7 


(HP xHP) HxH 




3 


3 


1 


1 


6 


2 


(P P x P P) HxH 




1 


— 


1 


4 


1 


5 


(H P X P P) H X H J 




1 


3 


3 


5 


4 


8 


(P P x H H) P X H A 


^-6 


6 


6 


3 


9 


12 


12 


(PHxHH) PxH 




2 


14 


9 


16 


16 


25 


(P H X P P) PxH 




9 


25 


24 


38 


34 


62 


(P P X P P) PxH 


r !^-t^ 


5 


13 


9 


23 


18 


32 


(HHxHH) PxH 




1 


3 


— 


3 


4 


3 


(H P X H P) P X H J 


p,ft 


7 


11 


7 


7 


18 


14 



Now, the foregoing particulars are drawn from all 
the entries in the Herd Book, irrespective of variety. 
The basis upon which the modern pedigree goat of 
these islands has been built up is presumably the 
native English, Scotch, or Irish animal, which is 
naturally horned in both sexes. The British goat 



HEREDITY IN GOATS 



109 





Anglo-Nubian Goats. 

Illustration No. 1. — Upper figure is that of Miss Mortimer's polled 
Anglo-Nubian she-goat, Wigmore Tojpsy. It shows English rather than 
Nubian characteristics. 

The lower figure is that of Mrs. Taylor Marsh's po'Ied Anglo-Nubian 
he-goat, Scriventon Budget. It shows Nubian characteristics. 



no THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

has, however, for many years been continually crossed 
with imported animals of a totally different type 
which are known to the fancy as " Nubians," and 
from which a so-call Anglo-Nubianed breed has been 
evolved. These " Nubian " or Eastern goats differ 
so markedly in many respects from the British and 
Continental types of common goats that they may 
have originated from a distinct wild species. If this 
was actually the case, it is not impossible that a 
complication might have been introduced into the 
heredity of the horn character in their descendants. 
Many of the imported Oriental he-goats possess 
horns, but the shape and carriage of these appendages 
differ totally from that familiar to English goat 
owners. They are usually small with a downward 
and outward curve or corkscrew-like twist difficult to 
describe. It should be added that although the term 
Anglo-Nubian has always been applied to goats 
which have been crossed with the Nubian, the cross 
may be so remote as to be negligible for all practicable 
purposes. In other words, an Anglo-Nubian goat 
may be almost indistinguishable from a pure English, 
as shown in the illustration No. 1, upper figure, or a 
pure " Nubian," as seen in the lower figure, or it may 
possess characters peculiar to both races. 

As a check on possible complications due to 
complex crosses, a separate analysis has been made 
of horn inheritance in all those goats belonging to 
the Toggenburg section of the Herd Book. When 
horned at all the Toggenburg goat has scimitar- 
shaped horns like those carried by our British breeds, 



HEREDITY IN GOATS 



111 



and there can be little doubt that it is, in origin, a 
descendant of the same primeval stock. 

Pure Toggenburgs are rare in this country, hence 
the number of pedigrees available for separate 
analysis is few. The results, however, are not without 
interest when compared with the figures obtained 
for all breeds in the Herd Book. 

The Breeding of 164 Pure Toggenburg Goats. 



Parents. 




Both 
horned. 


One polled 
1 horned. 


Both 
polled. 


Offspring. 


1 


2 

2 

12 

11 


3 
24 

60 
49 


5 Horned males. 
26 Horned females. 
72 Polled males 
61 Polled females. 



Approximate percentages : — 
31 Horned Goats are bred : — 
None from 2 horned parents. 
About 13 per cent, from 1 polled and 1 

horned parent. 
About 87 per cent, from 2 polled parents. 
133 Polled Goats are bred : — 

About • 07 per cent, from 2 horned parents. 
About 17 per cent, from 1 polled and 1 

horned parent. 
About 82 per cent, from 2 polled parents. 

Another pair of characters in goats which might 
have been expected to yield interesting results when 
analysed by Mendelian methods is long coat and short 



112 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 




TOGGENBURG GOATS. 

Illustration No. 2. — ^Upper figure shows Dr. Clutterbuck's short-haired 
horned Toggenburg she-goat, Withdean Babette. 

The lower figure shows Mr. W. A. Wilcox's long-haired polled Toggen- 
burg he-goat. Champion Le Castor. 



HEREDITY IN GOATS 



113 



Analysis of the Breeding of 82 Pure 

TOGGENBURG GoATS. 



Characters of Parents 
and Grandparents. 


ffl DO 


a a 


11 
(2§ 


Si 
1^ 






Grandparents. Parents. 

(PPxHH) PxP 
(PPxPP) PxP 
(P P X P H) PxP 

(P H X P H) PxP 
(HHxHH) PxP 
(P H X P H) PxP 

(PPxHH) HxH 
(HHxHH) HxH 
(HHxPH) HxH 
(H P X H P) HxH 
(H P x P P) HxH 
(P P X P P) HxH 

(PPxHH) PxH 
(PHxPP) PxH 
(PHxPP) PxH 

(PPxPP) PxH 

(HHxHH) PxH 
(H P X H P) PxH 


1 

2 


5 
4 

1 


22 
9 

2 

7 


14 

8 

1 

2 
3 

1 


6 

4 

1 

2 


36 
17 

1 

4 

10 

1 



coat. In rabbits and guinea pigs long hair is reces- 
sive to short hair, but in the Fg generation segrega- 
tion is thought to be imperfect, and a type with an 
intermediate length of hair is produced in addition 
to the two pure parent forms. 

In goats the hair character is only stated in the 
first seven hundred entries in the Herd Book, and a 
distinction is made between long and medium 
haired individuals. Among the seven hundred there 
seem only to be twenty-five medium or long-haired 



H 



114 



THE MENDEL JOURNAL 



animals. These are bred as shown in the following 
table : — 



Parents. 


Number of Medium or 
Long Haired Offspring. 


Both short haired 


5 


Both long or medium haired .... 

One long x one short 

One long x other unknown .... 

One short x other unknown 

Both of unknown character .... 


6 

3 ' 
5 
3 
3 



From this unsatisfactorily brief analysis one learns 
that two short-haired goats may throw long-haired 
animals ; but two long hairs have not in the cases in- 
vestigated thrown short hairs. It should be added 
that recent conversations with breeders have led the 
writer to gather that in some of the Swiss breeds the 
pure-bred males are sometimes long-haired in the 
Summer and Winter coats, while the females are 
always short-haired or at most have merely a dorsal 
fringe of long hair in the Winter coat. The accom- 
panying photographs of pairs of pure Toggenburgs 
and Saanens show animals with this sexual differen- 
tiation. 

When Oriental blood was introduced into British 
stock, among other things there was also introduced 
the totally pendulous or " drop "ear. In view of the 
originally erroneous conclusions arrived at from the 
analysis of insufficient data, it is unsafe to be too sure 
that the very scanty details available on the heredity 



HEREDITY IN GOATS 



115 




Saanen Goats. 

Illustration No. 3. — The upper figure shows Mr. H. E. Hughes' short- 
haired polled Saanen she-goat, Broxhourne Venus. 

The lower figure is that of Mr. H. E. Hughes' long-haired Saanen he- 
goat, Broxhourne Adversal. 



116 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

of " prick " and " drop " ears point to any definite 
conclusion. In the " Book of the Goat " it is stated 
that the progeny of Oriental lop-eared goats crossed 
with native prick-eared goats, were always popular 
because of the short, sleek coat, small horns, rich 
black-and-tan colour, " and drooping ears which 
characterised the progeny of this combination." 
This suggests dominance of the pendant ears, as do 
certain photographs, records, and results of observa- 
tion. The point is one which is worthy of closer 
investigation by those actually acquainted with the 
characteristics of all the well-known goats of the last 
thirty years. 

The heredity of the tassel-like appendages which 
are found on the throats of many individuals of all 
breeds of goats is another point which merits a 
detailed investigation. 



A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES. 

By Dr. W. J. RUTHERFURD. 

The following extraordinary family history affords 
food for thought. The common ancestor, a work- 
ing-man of whose antecedents nothing is now known, 
married twice, and his descendants by each marriage 
have proved themselves so markedly abnormal that 
it would seem highly probable he must have been 
the common source of the tainted stock. 

By the first marriage he had six children. The 
oldest, a son, fortunately did not marry. The 
second child, a daughter, married, and had six 
children, and in a family epidemic of dii)htheria* 
no less than four of them died. The next, also a 
daughter, died of apoplexy when sixty-two years old. 
The fourth was a son, who married, and had six 
children, the two oldest of Avhom have families of 
their own. This man got hold of a dynamite 
cartridge one day, and thought it would be "a nice 
sort of toy" to give to one of his children when he 
got home ; so he gave it to his eleven-year-old son, 
who thereupon " played with it " with fatal results. 
The next son in this first family died of apoplexy, 
leaving one daughter, who is now about fourteen 
years old. The last of the six children was a daughter, 
who died in childbirth, probably, as the sequel 

* An illness the poison of which exerts a specially damaging effect 
upon the nervous structures, especially if these are already not of the 
most robust. 



118 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

would seem to indicate, before the latent abnormal 
tendencies of her stock had had time to show them- 
selves. This woman had four daughters ; the oldest 
died of apoplexy at the comparatively early age of 
thirty-four, and has left one daughter ; the youngest 
developed, when getting on in years, attacks of 
what may have been either the petit mal or hystero- 
epilepsy. She is married, and has been pregnant 
eight times ; the first four pregnancies resulted in 
live-born children, who are now aged from six to 
nineteen years, then came two still-births, then a girl 
who had a series of fits " when she was cutting her 
teeth " ; and her last pregnancy again resulted in 
a stillborn child. 

The progeny resulting from the second marriage 
of the male ancestor of this stock now come to be 
considered. Happily, there was but one child — a 
woman now aged sixty-four years. At the age of 
nineteen she developed a double rupture ; later in 
life she began to be subject to fits ; and for the last 
twenty years she has been afflicted with paralysis 
agitans. She married a drunken and immoral 
husband, who, however, rose to the position of being 
an employer of labour in one of our manufacturing 
towns. When nearly seventy years old he died of 
apoplex}^, receiving posthumous eulogies from the 
local press. 

This evilly-matched pair had no fewer than 
eleven children, whom we must consider in detail. 
Their oldest daughter, now aged forty-four years, as 
a girl and young woman showed most pronounced 



A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES 119 

homicidal impulses, always directed against babies 
or quite young children ; she was kleptomaniac, had 
extraordinary outbursts of destriictiveness, and at 
the age of twenty-eight became epileptic. None of 
these many negative advantages, singly or combined, 
was sufficient to prevent her obtaining a husband ; 
and on his death she married again ; but fate has 
been kind, and she has had no children. 

The second daughter deserves special considera- 
tion, and I shall deal with her later. 

The third had the good fortune to die in fits in 
infancy. Of number four there is little to record, 
except that, coming of such a stock, he did not 
refrain from either marriage or parenthood. The 
fifth child was an epileptic, and died of apoplexy at 
the quite abnormally early age of twenty-four. 
Number six died of fits in infancy. The seventh 
had fits in infancy, has been neurasthenic for years, 
is married, and has three children. The next child 
died of fits at the age of three. The ninth child was 
prematurely born, and only lived for three days. 
The tenth is subject to some sort of fainting 
seizures ; she is married ; her first child was still- 
born, and the only other child died in convulsions 
when but three days old. The last child in this 
family, i.e., the eleventh, was prematurely born, 
became early convulsed, and died probably in 
consequence of the fits when nine hours old. He 
was polydactylous, having an accessory little finger 
on each hand. 

The second child of this family (vide ut supra) 



120 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

was an epileptic, and either in consequence of this 
or of her general unstable heredity, was a drunkard, 
was unveracious to a degree, and was a thief. 
At one time in her life she seems to have been 
distinctly insane ; but she was not incarcerated, as 
she soon " got all right again " — as people term it in 
their ignorance of the fact that insanity is far more 
than a mere matter of a transitory train of more or 
less striking symptoms. At the age of thirty-six 
years she developed ataxic paraplegia ; and when 
forty-two years of age had an attack of pneumonia, 
and after lingering on for over a month she died. 
On her deathbed, in a practically furnitureless house 
to which she had obtained entry by guile, and of 
which she paid no rent, and deserted by her para- 
mour, she took in as a lodger a young married 
prostitute, who became a companion to her fifteen- 
year-old daughter, the two becoming inseparables 
except when temporarily estranged by violent out- 
bursts of quarrelling. This woman had married a 
drunken and immoral husband, and during her 
married life had nine pregnancies. Her first child 
Avas prematurely born, took fits in infancy, and soon 
died. The next two pregnancies resulted in abor- 
tions. Then came another prematurely-born infant, 
which also developed fits and died. She then had 
another abortion, and then came still another pre- 
mature child, about which there is the same story 
of convulsions leading on to a fatal issue. Then 
came a daughter, born at full time, being subject 
to attacks of laryngismus for years, and at the age 



A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES 121 

of fifteen presenting a suppurative nasal sinusitis of 
long standing: this is distinctly worthy of remark, 
as it is established beyond dispute that one of the 
common predisposing causes of the low forms of 
inflammation that lead on to a chronic sinusitis is 
the existence of some anatomical peculiarity in 
these situations prcA^enting proper drainage of the 
normal secretions. The next two children were 
prematurely born, and both died with fits while 
still infants. Becoming tired of her husband's 
behaviour she divorced him, and for years there- 
after occupied herself in paying on the instalment 
plan the lawj^er who had ]3ut this matter through 
for her. After getting rid of her husband she took 
up with a half-bred Irish navvy, who, like herself, 
was a thief ; and she bore to him two illegitimate chil- 
dren. The first of these had a gross malformation 
of the cerebrospinal axis of the type that is known 
technically' as spina bifida, and untechnically as "a 
hole in the back": it only lived four weeks, and 
mainly spent its brief life in having fits. The last 
child appeared a fairly normal infant, but at the 
age of seventeen months it took a cold, and died 
almost before her relatives were aware that the 
child was ill."^'" 

It must be acknowledged that there is always 
room for doubt whether apoplexy does not imply 
a vascular disorder rather than a nervous one. 
Though dependent upon degeneracy of the blood- 

* The story is suggestive of pneumonia, the same disease as her 
mother had died of. 



122 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

vessels, it is questionable whether in a stock such 
as we have here to deal with, where, among many 
and varied nervous disorders, including gross 
physical defect, women — who, as a general rule, have 
a certain exemption from apoplexy — suffered from 
fatal attacks at the age of thirty-four and even twenty- 
four years, there may not have been, in addition to 
the weakness of the vessel-wall, a contributory 
weakness in the supporting structures, such as the 
nerve fibres and the neurogliar tissue. Yet it is 
but fair to admit that in one of the best-known of 
modern medical text-books, written, however, by 
one who makes no claim to be regarded as an 
authority on the subject of heredity, it is asserted 
that "heredity influences cerebral haemorrhage 
entirely through the arteries. ""•■■ 

To a family like this the expression of Professor 
Raymond, of Paris, is particularly applicable where 
he refers to certain " nervous diseases . . showing 
the bad quality of certain parts of the nervous 
system as a hereditary malformation, total or par- 
tial, of the cerebro-spinal axis, ""f It would seem that 
such nervous diseases and conditions are due to a 
primary constitutional vulnerability of the cerebro- 
spinal axis, and that this defective condition of the 
central nervous system is invariably transmitted to 
few or many of the descendants. In considering this 
pedigree it must be remembered that it contains 
individuals of whom nothing is known. They are 

* Osier, Principles and Practice of Medicine, ed. 6, 1906, p. 966. 
t British Medical Journal, July 4th, 1908, p. 7. 



A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES 123 

indicated as normal in the chart simply because they 
were not known to be abnormal. What they really 
were, or what they would become later in life, is a 
point of the greatest interest which I am unable 
to answer. As Clouston* has put it, " the 
weak and troublesome point of all studies of 
heredity is that they cannot be regarded as com- 
plete till all the subjects of them are dead ; " the 
obvioas reason for this being that at any time 
during life it is possible for hitherto latent tenden- 
cies to display themselves, or (within certain limits) 
for more children to be born who may or may not 
have further manifestations of the conditions under 
observation. A very striking example of this has 
come under my own notice in the case of a man 
who had been epileptic from his youth, and who 
had a nephew — out of the line of direct descent, 
be it noted — who only became epileptic at the age of 
fifty-seven : this condition (and I can vouch for it, as 
I examined him myself, and had him under observa- 
tion for months) being a true epilepsy, and not 
traumatic or due to syphilis. Now, in this particular 
case, if this second person had died before reaching 
the age of fifty-seven years, none of his epileptic 
manifestations would ever have been displayed, and 
the uncle might then have remained the only member 
of the family group who was known to have dis- 
played any of the phenomena of that disease. 

The sociological importance of a knowledge of 

* Clinical Lectures on Mental Disease, ed. 6, 1904, p. 620. 



124 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

the existence of such hopelessly defective strains 
in the population can hardly be over-estimated. It 
is truly unfortunate that they should exist, and not 
only so, but that they should increase the way they 
do : but it will always be making the best of a bad 
job — to use a phrase that is more blunt than 
elegant — if we can avail ourselves of the knowledge 
of such infamies in preparing for the fight which 
must inevitably come sooner or later against such 
sources of weakness and degeneracy. It will not 
do to forget that there are many stocks whose 
nature, in the ^vords of the old writer of the Wisdom 
of Solomon in the JcAvish Apocrypha, by birth is 
evil and their wickedness inborn, whose manner of 
thought can in no wise ever be changed, for they 
are " a seed accursed from the beginning."* 

The idea that production of a clean bill of health, 
either in the shape of a doctor's certificate or of an in- 
surance policy, should be made an essential condition 
as a preliminary to marriage would, if attempted, 
defeat its own ends. That this is so cannot be too 
widely understood before the time comes when some 
government — as governments have such a habit of 
doing — begins to interfere blindly, as may perhaps 
happen any day in these over-legislated times. No 
attempt to put difficulties in the way of marriage 
will permanently affect the birth-rate except among 
the more decent and self-respecting sections of the 
community. The others will remain as they were, 
and might very easily be encouraged by such legisla- 

* Wisdom of Solomon, R. V^, ch. 12, vv. 10-11. 



A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES 125 

tion to accentuate their social misdeeds. Everyone 
who has a first-hand knowledge ol" the conditions of 
dysgeny that exist in the ranks of the thriftless and 
degenerate is aware of the wholesale disregard 
shown by such for the marriage bond and the rife- 
ness of illegitimacy even under existing conditions. 
To debar legal marriage to these, to impose extra 
formalities, especially if they tended to be either 
of an irksome or of an expensive nature, would only 
serve to place a premium on promiscuity and on 
illegitimacy, not to promote eugenics, or to hinder 
the perpetuation of what the nation can well be 
without. 

Other alternatives there are, of which perhaps 
the most widely advocated at the present time is 
wholesale segregation. To round up the hopelessly 
debased, the insane, and all the other representa- 
tives of undesirable stocks, and then to allow 
them to lead happy, useless lives, sheltered and 
comforted till a long-deferred period is at last put 
to their protracted senilit}^ by the slow decay of 
Nature, would, if attempted on any but that scale 
at present available to amiable and amateur private 
philanthropy (as is already attempted in some parts 
of the country) lead to the imposition of such an 
intolerable biirden of taxation upon the remaining 
portion of the community as would speedily 
render the attempt unworkable. Any attempt 
to enforce the adoption of segregation on a scale 
such as would alone be of practical utility could 
otherwise only end in an intolerable national burden. 



126 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

Still another idea finds adherents ; namely, that 
the nnfit should be sterilised, so that in the course 
of, at the most, a very few generations the inherited 
strains of unfitness would tend automatically to 
become extinct. Apart from the oppressive tyranny 
with which this would arm officialdom, grave objec- 
tion can be taken to such an idea. In practice it 
might work fairly well in the case of the male 
degenerate, but it would be another story altogether 
Avith the female. Little imagination is required to 
foresee that, as segregation and effective mutilation 
are alternatives, and as any combination of alterna- 
tives can only result in excess of the most wasteful 
and extravagant form, such a course would at once 
result in letting loose on the community hordes of 
utterly reckless characters whose instincts would 
lead them to spend lives of depraved abandon in 
the realisation of having been emancipated from 
those physiological consequences which, to a certain 
extent, act at the present time as deterrents to the 
depraved of both sexes. 

Such is some of the criticism that can be 
directed against suggestions already put forward 
for the remedy of a danger which, though always, 
present and never inactive, has, in these latter days 
of increased populations, of added facilities for 
luigration wherebj^ stocks may become disseminated 
in all directions, and of the increasing struggle for 
existence, assiuned an importance that can hardly 
be over-estimated, and the menace of which becomes' 
ever greater as time goes on. It remains to be seen 



PEDIGREE OF A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES 




A FAMILY OF DEGENERATES 127 

whether some other remedy can be found for the 
evil, whether we will be driven to fall back on a 
combination of these glaringly faulty remedies 
adjusted to a sexual basis, or whether the field in 
which the enemy is sowing tares will, after all, just 
have to be left to itself. 

Explanation of Symbols Used in Pedigree of a 
Degenerate Family. 
The dotted line indicates illegitimate descent. 

A = apoplexy. 

B = designates the man who gave his child a live 
cartridge to play with. 

C =died in childbirth. 

D =died of diphtheria. 

d =of drunken habits. 

E = suffered from epilepsy. 

F =had fits in infancy or childhood. 

F^= subject to fits after twenty years of age. 

G -details not known. As a matter of fact the 
child was not yet born when this table was 
made up. 
H = hernia {or rupture). 

I = insane. 

i = immoral. 

K = syncopal attacks. 

L = laryngismus stridulus, 
&c. 

M = petit Trial? 

N = neurasthenia. 

P = paralysis agitans. 

R =no details known. 



S = spina bifida. 
T = thief. 
U = Polydactyly. 
V = prematurely born. 
W = abortion. 
Z = stillborn. 



Some Facts of Inheritance and their 

Bearing on the Advocated Issue of 

"Marriage Certificates," 

By THE EDITOR. 



The article by Dr. Rutherfurd on a " Family of 
Degenerates" is of great interest academically and 
sociologically. The title of the article is that given to 
it by its author. It is clear, if we carefully read what 
he writes of this family, that Dr. Rutherfurd was 
at the time when he made his enquiries, impressed 
with the degenerate nature of the people whom he 
was professionally attending. And with a com- 
mendable enthusiasm for recording facts in order 
to advance our knowledge of inheritance, he framed 
the pedigree and drew up the notes, which are now 
published in this Journal. It is a thankless and 
tedious task which only men of indomitable courage 
and great energy ever undertake. 

When Dr. Rutherfurd sent his article to us 
for publication, an examination of the pedigree 
accompanying it revealed the fact that he had 
left all the symbols open ; that is, he had not 
" blacked in " the symbols that are meant to indicate 
the degenerate individuals recorded there. He later 
wrote, while the proofs were passing through his 
hands, and suggested to us that it would be a 



SOME FACTS OF INHERITANCE 129 

desirable thing to indicate the degenerates in solid- 
black symbols. As we have had some previous 
experience of trying to indicate in a precise way who 
are, and who are not degenerate individuals in a 
stock, we felt some interest in seeing how Dr. Ruther- 
furd would acquit himself of the responsibility he had 
thus imposed upon his own judgement. His answer 
did not surprise us. He wrote after due considera- 
tion, to say that, " when one comes to analyse over- 
closely it becomes more and more difficult to say 
definitely what is normal and what is not. It is a 
matter of definition. What do we mean by a de- 
generate ? " Dr. Rutherfurd therefore declined to 
accept the responsibility of marking any of the 
individuals on the pedigree chart as degenerate, and 
concluded his letter by saying : "I think, there- 
fore, that I shall leave it to your discretion to decide 
which symbols should and which should not be 
blacked in." We accordingly undertook the task, 
and we are alone responsible if any error of judge- 
ment has been committed. But having accepted this 
responsibility we feel it due to many considerations 
to justify ourselves by a statement of the reasons 
which impelled us to mark some members as 
degenerate, and to formulate the doubts which caused 
us to leave others unmarked. 

But before doing so there is one aspect of this 
matter having a sociological significance which we 
desire to discuss. There are certain very well-inten- 
tioned people, prompted by the highest and most 
generous motives, who believe that the foundation of 



130 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

a sound nation is to be sought in the creation of an 
army of medical officials, who are to decree who shall 
marry, and are to weigh us all in the scales of Hygeia, 
and to label us " fit " or " unfit," " degenerate " or 
" normal," as they think right according to official 
judgement. All this is to be done by Act of Parlia- 
ment. Such schemes are very pretty on paper, and 
very plausible when discussed over a round table 
after dinner. But it is in the working of them, when 
we come into contact with all sorts and degrees of 
realities, that their latent and inherent dangers, 
impossibilities, imperfections, incongruities, and 
absurdities become painfully and obtrusively patent. 
Here, in Dr. Rutherfurd's pedigree, we have a con- 
crete case. Dr. Rutherfurd, who personally knows 
some of the people recorded in it, finds it difficult to 
say who are normal or degenerate. He prefers, 
therefore, not to indicate them in any precise way. 
But when a self-satisfied body of medical officials in 
the discharge of their statutory functions, have to 
say whether a given person shall or shall not marry, 
whether this man, woman, or child is or is not sound, 
they have got to be specific. No vague general 
principles, floating nebulous in an optimistic and 
otiose atmosphere, will suffice. Persons are very con- 
crete things, and their passions and desires are persist- 
ently imperative. It is unsafe and unstatesmanlike 
to dismiss either by definition or statute, laboriously 
formulated amid many confficting doubts, impossible 
of certain interpretation by the wisest judges, and 
incapable of general enforcement upon the people. 



SOME FACTS OF INHERITANCE 131 

The Sansculottes of Paris and their leaders attempted 
it in connection with other problems, and deservedly 
lost their heads on the guillotine in consequence. To 
play with the subtle and yet powerful promptings of 
men is to invite a conflagration in which decrees shall 
be rightly burned and their authors justly destroyed. 
All the suggestions put forward in advocacy of 
" marriaore certificates " seem to those who are 

o 

acquainted both with the course of History and the 
facts of Heredity to be untenable in even the smallest 
measure. The pedigree of Dr. Rutherfurd affords a 
concrete example of the difficulties which beset the 
practical application of all such schemes. 

Let us take, for instance, the individual No. 8, 
in the B. Generation, and ask ourselves the question : 
Is he degenerate or normal ? Is his degeneracy 
physical, intellectual, or moral, or all three ? If 
he is only physically degenerate, but mentally and 
morally normal, shall we incarcerate him and forbid 
him marriage ? If he is morally as well as physically 
degenerate, but mentally quite capable, what shall 
we do with him ? Let us enquire, then, into the facts 
concerning him. He was drimken and immoral, and 
at seventy years of age died of apoplexy. He mani- 
fested the sort of reckless deeds of which he was 
capable by marrying a woman who suffered from 
double hernia, was epileptic, and ultimately developed 
paralysis agitans. Such a woman undoubtedly had 
undesirable family connections, and he must, or 
should, have known of them. Was he civically 
degenerate because of his consistent immorality and 



132 THE MENDEL JOURNAL 

drunkenness and of his stupidity in the choice of his 
partner ? Was he physically fit because he was 
capable of living until seventy years of age, in spite 
of his vicious habits of life ? Should we let him marry 
because of his physical robustness, and decree his 
celibacy because of his moral delinquencies ? These 
are tough questions for a board of medical marriage 
assessors, calculated truly to shake their self-com- 
placency ! And when we further learn that this man 
was " an employer of labour in an industrial town, 
and received posthumous eulogies from the local 
Press," we shall find it hard to say whether he or his 
degenerate offspring shall or shall not be forbidden to 
marry. And thus in imagination, postulating that 
we are living in a degenerate and helotised England, 
which tamely tolerates a " Marriage Board," and 
that we are the Chairman of that Board, and have a 
casting vote, we decide to regard this