(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Messenger"

THE MESSENGER 



OF THE 



I 



SACRED HEART 



WITH SUPPLEMENT. 



A MAGAZINE OF THE 
LITERATURE OF CATHOLIC DEVOTION. 



VOL. XII. NEW SERIES. 
VOL. XXXII. of whole series 32d year. 



JANUARY DECEMBER, 1897. 



EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY 

THE APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER 

Central Office, U. S. A. 

27 and 29 West i6th Street, 

NEW YORK. 






COPYRIGHT, 1896, 
BY APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER. 



INDEX. 
VOLUME XII. NEW SERIES. 

VOLUME XXXII. OF WHOLE SERIES THIRTY-SECOND YEAR, 

MESSENGER OF THE SACRED HEART 

WITH SUPPLEMENT 

i8 97 . 



PAGE. 

Adirondacks, In the 638 

Afoot with America's First Martyr. Illustrated. Late Rev. George O'Connell, S J 406 

Albania and the Sacred Heart. Illustrated. Rev. C. Ghezzi, S.J 622, 700 

Alps, Mary's Shrine in the. Illustrated. R. M. Taylor 292 

A Mountain Funeral. D. Gresham 93 6 

Annecy, Early Days at. E. Lummis. ... 1095 

Announcement A New Depa'tment 1041 

Apostle of Prayer, An. E Lummis 809, 906 

A-menians, The. Rev. D. A. Merrick, SJ 121 

Art, Modern Christian. Illustrated . . 436 

Art. St. Anthony in. Illustrated. M.F.Nixon 915 

Asia, The True Light of. D. A. Dever 297 

Association of tn"e Holy Childhood 940 

Australasia, The Catholic Church in. Illustrated. Rev. M. Watson, S.J 77* 

Austrian Tyrol, In the. Illustrated. E. McAuliffe 1059 

Blessed Sacrament, To Jesus in the. Rev. M. Russell, S.J 722 

Books Catholic, in Public libraries. J. F. O'Donovan, S.J. 314 

Book Notices 9'- 188. 286. 380, 476, 572, 669, 762, 861, 958, 1053, 1149 

Boy Savers, The Announcement 1041 

Boyer, The Late Cardinal. Illustrated 226 

Calendar of Intentions 96, 192, 288, 384, 480 576, 672, 768. 864, 960, 1056 

California, A Legend of Lower. A. R. Crane 454 

Cardinal Boyer, The Late. Illustrated 226 

Cardinal Franzelin, A Cardinal of the Sacred Heart 441, 506 

Catholic Books in Public Libraries. J. F. O'Donovan, S.J . . 314 

Catholic Church in Australasia, The. Illustrated. Rev. M. Watson, S.J 771 

Catholic Village in Protestant England, A. Ellis Schreiber 159 

Champion of Christian Education in the Seventeenth Century, A. Illustrated .. 880 

Childhood, Association of the Holy 940 

Christian Art, Modern. Illustrated 436 

Christian Education, A Champion of, in the Seventeenth Century. Illustrated 880 

Christians of St. Thomas, The. Illustrated. Rt. Rev. Charles Lavigne, S.J 227 

Christian Wives and Mothers, The Patron of . . 458 

Christmas Mass in the Mountains. D. Gresham 71 

Chronicle of the Padres, A. Illustrated. Late Rev. George O'Connell, S.J iota 

Churches of Oriental Rite. Rev. James Conway, S.J . . 420 

Colombiere, Marguerite Elizabeth de la. Religious of the Visitation . . 922 

Colombiere, Ven. Claude de la of the Society of Jesus. Illustrated 126 

Condescension, True and False. Rev. H. VanRensselaer, S.J 635 

Conversion, A 841 

Conversions, Some Remarkable 373 

Corpus Christi in an Irish Village. Rev. James Hughes 168 

Corpus Christi in an Italian Valley. Rev. Thomas Hughes, S.J 619 



........ 619 

Corpus Christi in Venice .... ........ ... 357 

Cranford, A Modern. D. Gresham .................. ' iogg 

-- 



Dedication of the Month of June to the Sacred Heart. Ellis Schreiber ...... 

Director's Review : 

January i First Friday- The MESSENGER Index iSge-Diocesan Directors-The New In- 
tention Blanks-Review of i897-The SUPPLEMENT Cover-The November Treasury- 
Promoters' Receptions-Triduum for Promoters Premiums and Novelties .... 

The New Statutes-The Statutes in this Country-Diocesan Directors-Why so many 
Conversions-Apostleship Annuals-Progress of the Apostleship-Intentions and 
Treasury Suggestions for February .................... 

Apostolic Books An Example to be Imitated Dire tors Honored Lei. ten Duties 

ing of Promoters-The Character of Promoters' Meetings-Temperance Offerings- 
Votive Mass of the Sacred Heart Apostleship Music The Apostleship at Home- 
Obituary ........................................... 279 

This Month's Intention Some good Sources Special Intentions -The Statutes A Timely 
Editorial League Hymnal Promoters in April Intention Blanks About Subscrip- 
tionsAgainst Collection Agencies The Emblem The Apostleship Abroad The 
Apostleship at Home ......................... ...... . ' ' ' 369 

A New Coat-of- Arms- New Centres- Promoters' Receptions Preparing Receptions- 
Providing Receptions MESSENGER Commendations The Divine Praises For Pro- 
motersPromoters and the Intention Promoters in May Active Woiks for May 
The Apostleship Abroad The Apostleship at Home Obituary The Apostle -hip for 
all the World ................................. 4*8 

Conferring the Badge Conversions by Prayer A Practical Intention Din ctors in June 
Available Sources A Jubilee Offering For Promoters : Promoters' Own Month- 
General Means Special Means- The Apostleship Abroad and at Home Obituary 
Our Apostleship ................................. 56 

Special Intentions Protestants and the MESSENGER The Union to Pray for Prayer for 
this Intention A Word for Promoters The Prayer of our Apostleship -The Apostle- 
ship Abroad and at Home Obituary .......................... 661 

Promoters' Roll Book The Work in June In Memoriam A Practical Application To 
Promoters : Treasury of Good Works Objections to the Treasury Distributing the 
Blanks Unusual Occurrences The Apostleship at Home ............ 755 

The League in Summer The September Meetings Organizing the Promoters Some 

Cautions To Promoters The Apostleship at Home and Abroad .... . . . . 853 

The Daily Decade The Revised Statutes League Bands The Number ina Baud A 
Model for Directors A Model for Promoters The Apostleship at Home and Abroad 

Obituary ...................................... 950 

The New Hand Book Diocesan Directors Their Importance The Clause an Old One- 

Annual Reports Against Bogus Agents To Promoters 1897 Intentions The Holy 
Souls For Conversions Two Things to be Remembered Correct Addresses -Two 
Things of Interest The Apostleship at Home and Abroad Obituary ...... 1045, 1] 4 2 

Dove of the Churches, The. Illustrated. P. J. Coleman ...................... 588 

Duchess and Nun : Maria Felicia Orsiiii. Illustrated. J. M. Cave ....... ....... 983 

Early Days at Annecy. E. Lummis. .............................. 1095 

Echoes from Paray. Illustrated ............................ ...... 1104 

Editorial : 

New Education Striking Figures Press Prophets Spreading the Mischief A Strong 
"Last Word" Who is to Blame ? Misuse of Words Other Instances- Reunionist 
Temper Still Protesting ............................... 75 

Coventry Patmore A Defunct Periodical Physical vs. Mental Culture Dr. Temple and 
the Creed A Scottish View Hard on Ritualists An Australian Primate on Orders 
An English Vicar's View . . ....................... 172 

What is Worth While ? Dr. Oilman's Mind-Moulders The Burial Service vs. Continuity 

Brownjohn vs. Temple Defect of Intention Religion and Art The Second Apostle 

of Germany A Devoted Cardinal Mr. Gilbert a Knight ............... 273 

A People's Synagogue A Check on Perjury The Check Needed La Croix a Dreaded 
Weapon Protestantism in Germany Archbishop Ryan's Jubilee Our Debt to Em- 
siedeln Not so Catholic .... .......................... 363 

The Madagascar Missions Danger in Mere Majority Rule Offerings to the Dead -A 
New Aspect of Death Spread of Ritualism The Senate and Our Indian Schools- 
Music in Church and Church Music Church Music Illogical Prayers ......... 460 

False Credit About Bigotry Supernatural More than Spiritual The True Faith Makes 
Patriots The Opening up of the Far East The Anglican Coronation Oath The 
Modern Epistle to the Romans A Senator on Our Indian Schools An Anglican 
" Pastor Pastorum " ............................. .... 555 






Ill 

The Lie Direct to His Archbishops A Prayer Book as a Bond of Union Seeking Allies 

A Reparation Religious Art in the Paris Salons The Voice of the Deaf 655 

The " New Collect "Which is the More Ignorant? Common Race and Faith A Strange 
Memorial Window Advance of Ritualism in England Revival of Mystery Plays A 
Champion of Relig ous Education A Protestant Testimony to Religious Educators- 
Summer Schools 74 s 

The Irish Pastoral on Morality and Politics A Sample of French Liberty An Attempted 
Primacy A Christian Theatre Suggested A Strange but True Admission The Col- 
lege for Catholic Women 8 4 6 

Leo XIII. on Canisius Educated Catholic Leaders Theology in Education A Promoter of 
Education The Lambeth Conference Some Inconsistencies Adopting the Protes- 
tant Principles Uucatholic in Spirit Absurd Hopes of Union . . 944 

Catholic Congresses Abolition of the Catholic Indian Bureau A Central Seminary 
Beware of Confounding Augu^tines The Histoiical Parallel at Ebb's Fleet 

" Timely Suggestions" IO 37 

Education, A Champion of Christian, in the Seventeenth Century. Illustrated 88 

Education, Decline of in Germany in Consequence of the Reformation. Rev. James Conway, S.J. 217 

Extract from a Letter of the Vice-Director-General of the Apostleship of Prayer . . J93 

Fiction : 

A Christmas Gloria. Illustrated. M. T. Waggaman X 7 

The Prodigal. Illustrated by A. V. Tack. J. Reader 45 

TomTilltr. Illustrated by Schwarzeiibach. Alba IJ 4 

Man Proposes : God Disposes. Illustrated by J. E. Kelly. John P. Ritter 140, 247 

The Half-Natural. Illustrated by A. V. Tack. P. J. Coleman 20 5 

A Moiher's Saciifice. Rev. A. C. Porta, S.J 26 9 

The Boy m the Blue Blouse. Illustrated by O. C. Weigand. Rev. David Be arne, S.J. . . . 303 

Revolutionary Spirits. From the Spanish of LUIS Coloma, S.J 

A Double Release. Illustrated by O. C. Weigand. T.M.Joyce 43 

God s Confessor. Illusirated by A. V. Tack. Francis W. Grey ... 495 

St. Anthony's Envoy. M. Murray Wilson 54 8 

Pitied of Angels. Illustrated by O. C. Weigand. .Rev. David Bearne, S J 6l 

Buffalo Falls. C. Caldi.S.J 6 4 6 

A Little Child Shall Lead Them. Illustrated by O. C. Weigand. J. Marie 6 9 

Kcce Homo. Illustrated by J. A. Espelt. D. Carroll 7^7 

Caught by the Beard. Rev. A. C. Porta, S.J 8 3' 

lather Paul's Stratagem. Illustrated by A. V. Tack. John P. Ritter 899, 972 

The Prayers That Save. C. H. Gallagher 933 

La Rabina ; or, What Does it Mean ? Padre Luis Coloma, S.J. Translated from the Span- 
ish by P. J. Whitty ICO1 

In the Service of the King. T.M.Joyce . . I0i 9 

One Shall be Taken. Rev. David Bearne, S J IO 79 

Annis. Illustrated. Harold Dijon IIO 9 

Fiesole and Its Sanctuaries. Illustrated. Rev. P. I. Chandlery, S.J. 4 8 3, 7 2 5 

First Pastor of Pennstown, The. S. Trainer Smith 9 6 9 

Fourier, St. Peter. Founder of the Congregation ot the Sisters of Notre Dame. Illustrated . . . fe8o 

Franzelin, Cardinal. A Cardinal of the Sacred Heart 44 1 . 56 

From the Seat of War. Padre Gaetano Romano, S.J 

Frontispieces : 

Dolci, Carlo. " The First to Adore Him" 2 

" The Author of the Spiritual Exercises " 9 8 

Capparoni. "The Holy Family '' X 94 

" Jeanne D'Arc Listening to the Heavenly Voices" 2 9 

Bartolommeo, Fra. " The Resurrection " 3 86 

" The Sacred Heart of Jesus Pleading." After the Statue in the Shrine at Toulouse. 

France 4 82 

" Execution of Jeanne D'Arc at Rouen " 5?8 

"St. John Berchmans" 674 

"Blessed Bernardino Realino " 77<> 

Schwartz. " The Walking on the Waters" 866 

Francisi, Guido. " St. Stanislas Receiving Holy Communion " . . 96* 

" Blessed Margaret Mary Alacoque of the Visitation " i l 5 8 

Funeral, A Mountain. D. Gresham 93 6 

General Intentions : 

January The Welfare of Religious Communities 65 

February The Cause of Ven. de la Colombiere 161 

March The Third Centenary of Blessed Peter Canisms 257 

April More Interest in the Lives of the Saints 353 



IV 

May-The Welfate of the Church in England by the Celebration of the Thirteenth Cen- 
tenary of St. Augustine of Canterbury 449 

June Filial Submission to the Vicar of Christ 545 

July The Propagation o( the Faith 

An-nst The Apostleship of Good Example 737 

September Priests and Communities in Retreat 

October Religious Instruction in Our Schools 929 

November Souls in Their Agony . . .... T02 5 

December Parish Works II2t 

GoinffHome. D. Gresham 74' 

Hail! Full of Grace. Illustration by Orazio Lomi, 1563-1646 225 

Hainan. Illustrated. Rev. Win. Hornsby, S.J 9 6 3 

Hammer of Heretics, The. Illustrated 201 

How Saints Are Made. Rev. F. Lamb, S.J 107 

India, The Plague in. Rev. Stanislas Boswing, S.J 73 

Indian Burial in Rome An. Rev. D. J. Driscoll 1138 

Intention, An Ever Timely 448 

Interests of the tlean of Jesus 

Ancient Monument in Ireland Tianslation of the Relics of St. Remigius -Anglican 
Homage to St. Edward the Confessor Anti-Catholic Propaganda Catholic Seamen's 
Club in Montreal The Anti-Masonic Congress A Masonic Exhibit Father Smith on 
Reunion 79 

A Tribute to Catholic Missionaries Disturbances caused by the other Missionaries .. . . 178 

Catholics Honored in the Netherlands A Doll Show in Church The Catholic Hall at Ox- 
fordA Catholic Fellow at Oxford A Tribute to the Catholics of Madras Silver Jubi- 
lee of the Montmartre Basilica A Witness in Stone Works of the Sea The Causes 
of John Nepomucene Neumann. C.SS.R., and Ven. Madeleine Sophie Barat, R.S H. 
Dr. Pasteur at rest in the Pasteur Institute, Paris .... 277 

Converts' Aid Society Training of Christian Teachers Abb Roussel, the Orphan's 
Friend Removal of a Cemetery Cross Unjust Fining of a Sister of Charity Audif- 
f red Prize for Central African Missions Prize of Louvet's Book on Catholic Missions 
A well-paid Radical Journalist Jewish Rule in France Anti-Catholic Instance at 
Delle Probable Relics of Jeanne d' Arc Five Commemorative Bells at Domremy St. 
Vincent de Paul's Conference Receipts Silver Jubilee at Montmartre The Late V. 
Rev. Brother Joseph Students in the Catholic Institute, Paris The Golden Rose for 
Duchess Ma-ia Theresa Recantation of a Poser as " Escaped Nun" The Colored 
Race in the United States ^,66 

Petition of the Bishops of England and Ireland for the canonization of Blessed Margaret 
Mary Gregoi ian University, Rome -Ten Clerics enter Greek Pontifical College, 
Rome The Church in England Injustice of the Municipal Council of Macon 
Brave Mayor of Concoret Mgr.Lamoroux and Leo XIII. The Saint Paul New London 
Club-house for Seamen Sailor's Home in Bordeaux and Nantes Blessing of Fishing 
Fleet at Paimpol Work among Belgian Boatmen Prisons replace Convents in 
France Fatal religious parody at Vinneuf Collections a Civil Marriages Nocturnal 
Adoration at Montmartre Night Shelter Society of Paris Missionaries of Labor- 
French injustice in Priests' Salaries Night Schools in Romer-Medal for the igth year 
of the Pontificate of Leo XIII. Count Campello at Lambeth Probable new Archi- 
episcopal See for England Edward Vl.'s dispensing Cranmer from fasting Bishop 
Forre.t as a church-builder Pilgrimage of the Cauisius Verein to Fribourg Injus- 
tice to Catholic children in Prussia Efforts of the German Centre to recall the 
Jesuits Death-knell of Swiss Old-Catholicism .... . 6 . 

Commemorative Medal of Leo XHI.-Papal Brief for Dom Oasquet-Close-of-the-Century 
Celebration-Proposed Italian Scientific Union-Fruits of Ital'an Unity-Report of 
Tabernacle Society-Pope honors French Valor at Canea-American Sailors visit the 
Pope Fishermen of Boulogne prepare for the Season Their Brethren at Dunkirk 
:atholic Reading Room for Sailors in New York-Bishop of Orleans and Jeanne d' Arc 
-Czar's Bell for Chatellerault-Six French Seminarists Fined-A Distinguished Fran 
iscan Tertiary-Chapels closed in France-A Bishop's salary stopped- Priest's alar- 
5 stopped A Mayor intimidated-Passive attitude to the Law ePAbonnement Comte 
e Mun. an Academician-St. Veronica, Patroness of Photographers-Simultaneous 
in Marseilles-Archbishop of York in Russia-Two ex-ministers go to Rome- 
.dmiral converted-Progress of Catholicity in England-i 3 th Centen- 
cille-Memorialof B. Canisius in Innsbruck- Catholics in Crete-The 
Church ,n Norway-King Alphonsoand Cathedral of Westminster-General Gallien! 
d e s?t a ^O ' na , ry - Pr greSS f the <** in Madagascar-Ruthenianst he 

:d States-Queen's Daughters' Pilgrimage in St. Louis-Religion in Switzerland 
e Festival of Ven. Jeanne D'Arc, at Paris and Orleans-A Catholic School in Iceland ' 

Oriental Rite-The Pope on Paray-Leo. XIH, and^heTun^el^of DanTeTo'con- 



iiell Colonel Froment Catholicity in the French Navy Ancient Catholic Customs in 
Austria and Spain The Shah and the Pope Ven. de la Colombiere Spain and the 
Sacred Heart A New Pious Association The Almoners of Labor Paternalism in 

Italy Pilgrimage of French Artisans to Rome 661 

The Paray Eucharistic Congress Additions to the Montmartre Basilica Golden Jubilee 
of La Salette Outdoor Preaching in London Outrages in Ecuador Leo XIII. and the 
Academy of the Arcades Duke d'Aumale's Piety Religious Orders in Norway 
Union of Franciscan Branches St. Bede's College, Rome- Statue of Cardinal Guibert - 
Graded Sunday School Classes Cure through Ven. de la Colombiere Association of 

Perpetual Adoration 752 

James Britten and the Catholic Truth Society Death of a Distinguished Belgian Jesuit 
The Kaiser and the Benedictines The Seminary of Anagni The Pope and the Irish 
People Verdi's Faith A Royal Nun A Model Choir School Cardinal Vaughan and 
Catholic Seamen Imposing Services at Montmartre The Feast of the Sacred Heart 
in Toulouse A Monument and an Inscription A Russian Dignitary among Anglicans 
The Reconversion of Wales The Tabernacle Society The Colutnkille Celebration- 
Honors for Rev. Luke Rivington Catholic Aldermen in London A Mistake and a 

Correction 850 

Monument to St. Bonaveuture The Feast of St Anne Success of Catholic Colleges in the 
Irish Intermediate Examination Catholic Sisters Decorated The Dominican House 
of Study in Jerusalem A Memorial Church to Herr Windhorst Chartres and Car- 
dinal Pie Work of The Christian Brothers Mgr. Paul Bruchsi 948 

The Late R. H. Hutton Blessing of the Bells at Domremy Statistics of Growth in the 
Catholic Church The Centenary of St. Augustine's Lauding in England The Cause 
of Mother Marie de Sales Chappuis The Eucharistic Congress at Venice The Pope 
Knights James Britten Miracle Through B. Margaret Mary Mme. Canovas del 
Castillo and her husband's Assassin Distinguished Catholic Students The Martyrs 
of the French Revolution A. Unique Service Recent Miracles at Lourdes For the 

Conversion of England . 1043, 1140 

In Thanksgiv.ng for Graces Obtained 87, 183, 282, 376, 473, 568, 666, 758, 857, 954, 1048, 1145 

In the Austrian Tyrol. Illustrated. E. McAu.iffe .... 1059' 

Jeanne D' Arc. Illustrated. John A. Mooney, LL.D 319,387,511,579,683,778, 891 

Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, to. Rev. M. Russell, S.J : 722 

Jubilee of the French National Vow. Rev. E. Cornut, S.J. . 328 

Jubilee of the Work of the Propagation of the Faith 653 

June, Dedication of the Month to the Sacred Heart. Ellis Schreiber . . 736 

Kirkstall Abbey, The Story of. J. Reader 346 

Knight Hospitallers, The Origin and Rise of the. Illustrated. J. Arthur Floyd 1069 

Lake, the Parable of the. Illustrated. Rev. C. W. Barraud, S.J 867 

Landing of St. Augustine in England, The Illustrated. Rev. F. Felix, O.S.B 528, 676 

Legend of Lower California, A. A. R. Crane . . . 454 

Lessius, The Ven. Leonard, S.J. Illustrated. G. J. D lion 993 

Libraries, Catholic Books in Public. J. F. O'Donovau, S J 314 

Lourdes, The Cure of. Illustrated. J. M. Cave 1088 

Loving God .... 673 

Mangalore, the Sodality of Christian Mothers in. Illustrated. Rev. A. M. L. Vas 743 

Martyr, Afoot with America's First. Illustrated. Late Rev. George OConnell, S.J 406 

Martyr, Jesuit and Poet Illustrated. P. J. Coleman 58 

Mary's Shrine in the Alps. Illustrated. R. M. Taylor 292 

Miraculous Picture of St. Ignatius. Illustrated 609 

Missionary Diocese in the Days of the Heptarchy, A. Illustrated. J. A. Floyd .... loo 

Missioner, A Model . 65 / 

Modern, Cranford, A. D. Gresham 357 

Mother of a Famous Priest, The. L. W. Reilly 1066 

Music Our Lady's Lullaby. Rev. Ludwig Bonvin, S.J 175 

New York Diocese, 1826-1834. Francis T. Furey, A.M 827, 873 

Notes from Head Centres . . . 82, 181 

Notice. . . i, 97 

Old and Yet New 481 

Oriental Rite, Churches of. Rev. James Couway , S.J 420 

Origin and Rise of the Knight Hospitallers . Illustrated. J. Arthur Floyd. .- . 1069 

Orsini, Maria Felicia: Duchess and Nun. Illustrated. J. M. Cave 983 

Padres, A Chronicle of the. Illustrated. Late Rev. George O'Connell, S.J 1012 

Parable of the Lake, The. Rev. C W. Barraud, S.J 867 

Pennstown, the First Pastor of. S. Trainer Smith ; . . . . 969 

Phi. adelphia Diocese Sixty Years Ago. Francis T. Furey. A.M 521 

Poecry : 

A Christmas Lullaby. Sonnet 2 

Hail the Christ Child ! St. Mary's of the Woods 3 



The Stahat Mater of the Crib. Translated by Rev. J. F. Quirk, S. J. . , J 

Ulessed Night. F. de Sales Howie, SJ " ' ,\* ' , 7 

The Burning Babe. Illustrated by J. E. Kelly. Ven. Robert Southwell, S. J 57 

An Ideal. E. Lummis 

Love not in Words, but in Works. Francis J. McNifi, S.J. . . *J 

The Vespers of the Slain. P. J Coleman 

Our Lady's Lullaby (Hymn). Rev. T. B. Barrett, SJ 

St. Joseph and the Presence Light. Richard E. Ryan, S. J. . . : 

Gratia Plena. From the Latin. Rev. C. W. B ,rraud, S. J 

Ode of Leo. XIII. Translated by Rev John F. Quirk, SJ 

Peccavi. Si. Mary's of the Woods 

Seven Last Words. Seven Sonnets. F. W. Grey 3 ^ 

Heaven. E Lummis . . 

Easter Song. F. J. McNiff, S. J 

Easter Lilies. Illustrated. W. F. X. Sullivan, S J 

Rosary Time. M. M. Halvey 

The Paschal Light Illustrated St. Mary's of the Woods 

St. Aloysius. D. O'Kelly Brauden 

The Sanctuary Light. Rev. J. F X. Burns, SJ 

Brother Amadeus. S. Trainer Smith 

The Lotus. E. Lummis : 

St. Columba's Reverie. M. M. Halvey 

Ballade of Our Lady's Mantle. Rev. Joseph J. Keaiing, SJ. . . . 

A Lesson. F. de S. Howie, S J 

Refugium Peccatorum. Rev. Joseph J. Keating, SJ 

A Song of the Sea Francis J. McNiff S J 

Civitas Dei. F. W. Grey 8 45 

A Dead Beggar's Beads. Joseph O'Halloran 

At an Altar of the Sacred Heart. Cbarles Hanson Towne Syq 

Father Damien. Illustrated. E. B. E 88 9 

God's Church. Rev. C. W. Barraud, S J 9?8 

Consecration. M 93 2 . 

Sweet Childhood. F. de S. Howie, SJ 943 

Saint Winefride. Illustrated. Rev. C. W. Barraud, SJ 981 

Amendment. Eamon Hayes 102 4 

The Just Man's Death. Rev. M. Watson. S J 1036 

I Waited, Lord, /or Thee. J. A. Mullen. S J iosi 

Mary's Jewels. Rev. John B. Tabb 1057 

Saint Francis Xavier. Rev. M. Watson, S. T 1065 

Donum Dei. C. Nugent 113? 

God's Meetest Praise. Rev. W. J. Ennis. SJ "39 

Prayer , 289 

Prayer, An Apostle of 809, 906 

Preparing for a Later Day 577 

Propagation of the Faith, Jubilee of the Work of the 653 

Promoters' Receptions 95, 190, 287, 383, 479, 575, 670, 765, 863, 959, 1055 

Reader , The: 

Books for Christmas Gifts Catholic University Bulletin La Croix of Paris Catholic 

Books in Public Libraries 90 

Pedagogy Run Mad A False History of Education Catholic Juvenile Literature The 
Paulists and the Catholic Truth Society's Publications Bias of the American Library 
Association Christmas Numbers of Catholic Newspapers The Cardinal's Latest 
Book 186 

Literature and the Young Changes in The London Month Silver Jubilee of the Irish 
Monthly PL Successful Literary Experiment The London Catholic Truth Society- 
Gladstone as a Theologian The Ode of Leo XIII. to France . . 284 

Novels About Nuns Proscribed Newspapers Exposure of Crime Not a Deterrent- 
Coventry Patmore's Holocaust for the Faith 379 

Gracious Acknowledgment of L'terary Labors The Story of Liberty Another Literary 

Fraud A Sacred Heart Library 475 

Discontinuance of the Catholic School and Home Magazine Protest Against Nun Hero- 
ines in Novels Not the Name, but the Spirit Masonic Verdict on Irreligiors Educa- 
tion 570, 668 

Sketch of the Late Sister Mary Genevieve of St. Mary's of the Woods The Pope's En- 
cyclical on the Holy Ghost " 760i 86o 956) IO52i IJ4? 

Recent Aggregations 94,190,287,383,478,575,670,764,863,959, 1055, 1151 

Relics of the Sacred Passion, The. Illustrated. Rev. H. Van Rensselaer, SJ 233, 334 

Romewards with Archbishop Seghers. Illustrated. L. S :i 



Vll 



Sacred Heart, A Cardinal of the. Cardinal Franzelin 441, 506 

Sacred Heart, Albania and the. Illustrated 622, 700 

Sacred Heart in the Tyrol, The 4^8 

Sacred Passion, the Relics of the. Illustrated. Rev. H. Van Rensselaer, S.J 233, 334 

Saintly Sister of a Saintly Brother, The 922 

Sodality of Christian Mothers in Mangalore. Illustrated. Rev. A. M. L. Vas 243 

Some Religious Founders and Their Spirit. Illustrated 29 

Some Remarkable Conversions 373 

St. Anthony in Art. Illustrated. M. F. Nixon 915 

St. Catharine as Promoter of Unity .... 361 

St. Ignatius in the Santa Cueva. Illustrated. Rev. A. J. Maas, S.J 146 

St. Ignatius, Miraculous Picture of. Illustrated 609 

St. Joseph's Day, Thoughts for. Illustrated. Rev. Matthew Russell, S.J 196 

St. Thomas, The Christians of. Illustrated. Rt. Rev. Charles Lavigne, S.J . 227 

Statutes of the Apostleship of Prayer, The Revised . . 261 

Statutes of the Pious Association of the Apostleship of Prayer 165 

Story of a Lover of Christ, The. Illustrated 4 

Story of Kirkstall Abbey, The. J. Reader 346 

Summer in Tuscany. Illustrated. E. McAuliffe 816 

Theophile. Illustrated. From the French of Rev. V. Fontanie, S.J .... 537 

To Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. Rev. M. Russell, S.J 722 

Treasury of Good Works 96, 192, 288, 384, 480, 576, 672, 768, 864, 960, 1056 

True and False Condescension. Rev. H. Van Rensselaer, S.J 635 

True Light of Asia, The. D. A. Dever 297 

Tuscany, Summer in. Illustrated. K. McAuliffe 816 

Tyrol, the Sacred Heart in the ' 428 

Venice, Corpus Christi in 418 

Ven. Leonard Lessius, S.J., The. Illustrated. G. J. Dillon 993 

Visitation, Marguerite Elizabeth de la Colombiere, Religious of the .'. . 922 

War, from the Seat of. Padre Gaetano Romano, S.J '. 602 

Where Our Protomartyr Lies Buried. Illustrated. The Late Rev. George O'Connell, S.J 797 

Wives and Mothers, the Patron of Christian 458 

Zionism 1034 



NOTICE. 

The MESSENGER OF THE SACRED HEART and its SUPPLEMENT, which have 

hitherto been issued at different times each month, will henceforth, beginning with 
this number, appear on the same day under one cover. 

Subscription to the MESSENGER will include, as formerly, its Supplement; 
those who wish to take the latter separately may do so as before, as it will be 
reprinted under a special cover for their benefit. 

The PILGRIM OF OUR LADY OF MARTYRS, which was formerly the Supple- 
ment of the MESSENGER, will in the future, beginning with the January number, 
be devoted exclusively to devotion to OUR LADY OF MARTYRS, to the Cause of 
her servants Father Jogues and his Companions, to the interests of her Shrine 
at Auriesville, and to the history of our Catholic Missions past and present. 

This change has been made for the advancement of the different works for 
which our periodicals are published, and for the good of our subscribers and 
friends, to whom, in opening this number of the new year, we wish all the 
blessings of this holy season. 








THE FIRST TO ADORE HIM. 
(Carlo Dolci ) 



A CHRISTMAS LULLABY. 

Rest Thee, my Jesus, my Maker, my Son, 

Flesh of my flesh, my only One ! 

The weeks of the Proohet seen are run. 



These little hands willfbe pierced for sin ! 
My babe's Blood shed a world to win ! 
And His Heart be opened to let men in ! 



Rest Thee, my little One, smile and sleep ! 
Thy ransomed are tossing out on life's deep, 
They fear not : Thy Heart will vigil keep. 



To keep at Thy side in peace and strife, 
To taste of Thy portion with bitterness rife, 
To know Thee, to love Thee, this is life. 



THE AESSENGEP^ 

OF THE 

SACKED HEART OF JESUS 

Vox, xxxii. JANUARY, 1897. No. i. 



HAIL THE CHRIST-CHILD! 

^ ^ip^IS solemn midnight ; over all 

The silver moonbeams coldly fall, 
And, like the murmur of the sea, 
The night-wind moans how bitterly ! 
But list ! above the snowy plain 
Resounds the wondrous, glad refrain : 
' ' Be praise to God, be peace on earth ! ' ' 

The tidings of the Saviour's birth. 
Oh, let us meetest off'ring bring, 
And haste us to our Infant King 

Who in the matter He hath made 
Is masked and in a manger laid. 
Our Life, our Truth, our Way, 
Our Yesterday, To-day. 
Our joy of all that now we see, 
Our hope our Heaven yet to be ! 

In cave of earth where Thou art thrust 

To mingle with Thy creatures' dust, 
We stand abashed at love of Thine 
And mute adore, O Babe divine ! 

O holy Child ! O beauteous One ! 

O Juda's Star ! O Mary's Son ! 

The stable-cave so cold and drear 
Is heaven now for Thou art here ! 



Copyright, 1897, bv APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER. 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST 

Thy sinless Mother hovers nigh, 
Thy foster-father standeth by, 

The angels voice their joy, and we 
Our " Nunc dimittis " sing to Thee 
Our Life, our Truth, our Way, 
Our Yesterday, To-day, 
Our joy of all that now we see, 
Our hope our Heaven yet to be ! 

A manger must Thy cradle be ; 
No room hath Bethlehem for Thee. 

No room yet Thou art Lord of all 

And in Thy baby hand so bmall, 
The trembling earth Thou boldest up 
As dew-drop in a lily-cup. 

No room ? Dear Babe, we give to Thee 

Our lowly hearts Thy home to be ; 
Fill them and leave Thou room for none 
But Thee alone, sweet little One. 

What blessedness ! what heavenly charms 

To fold Thee in our mortal arms ! 
Our Life, our Truth, our Way, 
Our Yesterday, To-day, 

Our Joy of all that now we see, 

Our hope our Heaven yet to be ! 

Sf. Mary's of the Woods, Indiana. 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 

WERE you ever in Bruges ? Did The clump, clump, clump of the wooden 

you ever ramble through its in- shoon rattles but not too rapidly on the 

definite old streets, or loiter on the stone pavement. Women, old and young, 

bridges which span its lazy canal, or rich and poor, fair and not so, in long, 

look up at its beautiful belfry while its black-hooded cloaks which have come 

carillon filled your ears and soul and the down from an epoch when the fluctua- 

sky above with music? They were days tions of fashion were not felt, meet you 

of quiet delight if you ever had them, as you walk along. The world has 

Not that you were in a Castle of Indo- changed many a time since those all-en- 

lence there, for there are no indolent veloping garments were first assumed, 

Flemings, but in a land where there is no but not so the wearers. It is now nigh 

worry. Nor is there any hurry. Now and twenty years since we were there. The 

again a heavy waggon rumbles behind king had just passed through and arches 

you leisurely as you walk unconcerned of flowers still spanned the streets. But 

in the middle of the roadway. If you it looked as if it had always been so and 

are an American it will not overtake you. nobody seemed to care how the world was 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 5 

wagging outside of Bruges, whether com- panels on the great gilded shrine which 
merce was greater or less, whether war once encased her relics. It is the great- 
was impending or peace was assured. It est treasure of the Hopital St. Jean to- 
was happy in its graceful and quiet en- day. There are ten marvellous minia- 
joyment, and its holiday garb seemed tures on it, which Memling made, and 




INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF ST. URSULA, 



for every day use, so becomingly did the Memling 's hand was enough to make 

city wear it. them marvellous. The six which tell 

It was the quiet city of Bruges that the tale of her earthly life are on the 

had its great painter tell the story of body of the reliquary, while the other 

St. Ursula. He told it on luminous four suggestively also as they speak 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 



of heaven, are on the roof and ends. 
Under his brush light takes the tones 
of gold such as Claude Lorraine might 
envy. The wonderful way in which 
his waters are made deep but crys- 
tal-like, his meadows glittering like 
constellations with flowers, his tufted 
woods full of mysterious shadows, 
his transparent skies of azure just 
veiled by a banishing film of haze, 
all marked him as the proper one to por- 
tray the little maid who brought heaven 
and earth so close together. In sym- 
pathy so to speak with St. John's of 
Bruges there is in St. John's of Ford- 
ham a great painting of the Saint with 
her maidens gathered beneath her mantle. 
The happy angels on either side touch 
its border to lift it. A most exquisite 
innocence displays itself on the beauti- 
ful upturned faces. They are all of the 
same type, but all with just a shade of 
difference to distinguish them from each 
other. The 'painter has treated the 
drapery with the carelessness of an im- 
pressionist, and has devoted all his at- 
tention to the child-like candor of the 
faces. It is an old thing, by I don't 
know whom, but he has left us a beauti- 
ful bit of devotion on canvas. 

There is besides a splendid work on 
the legend filled with radiant illumi- 
nations which carry one through the 
entire history of the Saint. They are 
copies from a pupil of Memling, but of 
course they are not those of the master 
whose wondrous work only the magni- 
fying lens can reveal to you. The infini- 
tesimal is almost as wonderful as the 
infinite when God works, and His paint- 
ers have sometimes tried to imitate Him. 
This little Saint, born, no one knows 
when, away off in the beginning of the 
centuries, and dying in a strange land by 
the hands of savages, has a Memling to 
paint her life, to make his fame while he 
illuminates her little story, a miniature 
itself, but greater than the great lives of 
conquerors. 

And what is the story of her life ? One 
that the world finds very unlike its own, 



and therefore scoffs at. Only lately the 
usually impartial Century in its con- 
tinued Dictionary had rare sport with 
the story of her life and martyrdom . But 
that was to be expected. Heresy and 
unbelief destroy the poetic instinct just 
as they do the power of right reasoning. 
No Protestant could ever paint Memling 's 
pictures, or even understand her legend. 

The story goes back to the Crucifixion 
as all stories of holiness must, either open- 
ly or by implication. It tells us that the 
centurion, who exclaimed at the foot of 
the Cross: "Truly this is the Son of 
God," went home when his legion was 
disbanded. And where was his home do 
you think ? Where else but in the Island 
of Saints. Why should it not be so ? The 
soldiers who were Christ's executioners, 
we are told belonged to the Spanish 
legion. And why should there not be 
among those conscripts of the Celtiberian 
Peninsula, one who was a genuine Celt. 
The race even then seemed to be ubiqui- 
tous. When he found himself among 
his people, religious apparently from 
the beginning, he wept so copiously and 
so often in describing the harrowing 
scenes of the Crucifixion, that his tears 
caused bright flowers of every virtue to 
spring up all over the land. The thought 
is like that of Fra Angelico, who, in his 
picture of Calvary, makes the hard rock 
on which the Cross is planted bloom with 
flowers of every hue. If the centurion 's 
tears did not produce such a result, at 
least the tender love which the Irish peo- 
ple always cherished for the passion of 
Christ could have done so. 

It was in this land of Hibernia, three 
or four centuries later (three, four or five, 
it matters not, these poetic chroniclers, 
take no heed of time, for are not these 
facts for all times and peoples ?) that a 
holy king, Theonotus by name, or 
Known-to-God, reigned in the South. 
To him and his holy consort no child 
was born, and when at last their prayers 
were answered, lo ! it was a princess and 
not a prince. But that princess brought 
more glory to the realm than perhaps 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 



even a prince might have done. They 
called her Ursula, a name whose mean- 
ing you would never suspect or perhaps 
would be afraid to conjecture, so modern 
does it seem. It is nothing else than the 
name that has had glory about it in many 
a historic scene since that time especially 
in our own days. It is the name of Mc- 
Mahon. They were in the South, which 
seems strange, for does not the sept be- 
long to the North ? Not in those days at 
least ; or, perhaps the facts are recorded 
to tell poetically of the division that un- 
happily has always distinguished the 
Celt. 

The fame of her beauty and purity 
spread abroad, and Conan the Prince of 



forthwith from Britain and Ireland no 
less than eleven thousand maidens came 
to her to be guided in prayer and the 
practice of every virtue. But they were 
not to dwell at home, and what vast fleet 
could carry such a multitude away ? 

Her royal father began the work 
which went on apace, for God was 
speeding it, and soon the fair throngs 
came to the shore to embark on their 
vessels. Every day they sailed out upon 
the sea, coming back to the land at the 
setting of the sun. Ursula led the host 
in her bark which had the pennon flying 
from its peak with the words "Maria 
Victrix. " There was no toil, no peril, 
for angels guided the helm and soft 




A CASEMENT OF RELICS. 



the Picts in Britain came a-wooing. It 
was an invasion of Erin, but this time 
not for war. The suit was hopeless, the 
father thought, for the virgin had already 
in hertenderest youth given her life to 
God. To his amazement she consented 
to marry, but with a certain roguish re- 
serve that was a little bit Celtic and that 
even saints may practise. The Prince 
might have suspected it, had he not 
been from a land that was slow in di- 
vining, for the condition was that she 
might spend three years in solitude and 
prayer in some foreign land in company 
with whatever virgins might join her. 
The condition was accepted, for what else 
could be done ? The call w as issued and 



breezes from clear skies wafted them 
over the serenest of seas. 

At last the day came for their depart- 
ure and amid the tears of those whom 
they left on the beach, these fair exiles 
from a land which has become synony- 
mous with exile, willing or enforced, 
sailed away. Out they went upon the 
open ocean, south of the land of the 
Picts where Conan was breaking his 
heart, and at last into the Northern Sea 
until they came with favoring winds to 
ancient Batavia. Apprised of their ar- 
rival, the bishops and priests and people 
came out to meet them and to pay them 
every honor. But there they were not 
to abide. They entered the mouth of the 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 



Khine, and, ,n spHe of the cu.ent 
came rapidly to Coloma Agnpp-na, h 




LKLICS AND RELIQUARIES 



sibly none knew it save Ursula. Con- to the Eternal City and, like so many 
tinuing up the beautiful river they bright spirits, this vast army of white- 
came to Mayence and still further on robed virgins, illumining the mountains 
until they disembarked at the fair city as they passed in their flight, paused not 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 



till they found themselves before the 
great Pope Cyriacus who blessed them 
and called all the city to do them honor. 
All their time was spent in visiting the 
holy places and in praying at the tombs 
of the martyrs for courage in the struggle 
before them. Light was coming to all 
of them now and they saw before them 
what was in store for them. 

At last their pious pilgrimage over, 
they turned their faces to the battlefield 
of the North. The Pope himself accom- 
panied them as far as Mayence Some 
even say he was martyred at Cologne. 

Meantime poor Conan the Prince was 
weary of waiting and came in search of 
his spouse. He met her at Mayence and 
there, the story has it, was baptized, for 
he was yet a heathen. But, as he knelt 
at the altar and received the Bread of 
Life, his heart was changed, and he 
arose, no longer thinking of his earthly 
espousals but longing for martyrdom 
with Ursula. It was not long delayed. 
The stream bore them rapidly to Cologne 
and there Attila's Huns met them as they 
descended from their ships. Up from 
the blood-stained city this vast multitude 
ascended with their crowns and palm 
branches into the kingdom of their 
heavenly Bridegroom. 

Such is the legend of St. Ursula. Of 
course it is poetical in many of its de- 
tails, but the substance of truth is easily 
distinguished in the ornament that the 
admiring love of poet and painter has 
overlaid it with, perhaps too heavily at 
times, but never so much that the eye 
of faith cannot see the meaning. 

To begin with, it was not in the third 
century the event took place, but as late 
as the end of the fifth. Father Du 
Buc, S.J., the famous Bollandist, has 
carefully collated all the documents 
bearing on the question, and has fixed 
it at the time that Attila was with- 
drawing his forces from Europe. He 
rejects the story of the Pope as coming 
to Mayence, and even denies that there 
was such a Pope. There does not seem 
to be any doubt about the native place 



of the Saint and as to the Irish name 
it may be added also, as one of the curi- 
osities of genealogy that the McMahons 
are bolder yet in their claims of remote 
descent, by tracing their origin to the 
Centurion who came over from Palestine 
to tell the story of the Crucifixion. 

It is not very likely that the royal 
father of Ursula constructed the fleet for 
the transportation of the great multi- 
tude under his daughter's rule. Many 
of those maidens, indeed, may have been 
transported in that way with the Princess, 
but very likely Ursula and others had 
left Ireland and settled near Cologne 
and the fame of her virtue brought many 
others from Britain and Ireland to place 
themselves under her guidance. What 
is signified by the vessels going out 
daily from the shores of Ireland and 
returning at the close of day is hard to 
conjecture, except that it is a poetic pic- 
ture of the training in virtue that char- 
acterized the family life of these high- 
born maidens. 

One of the early Bollandists, Father 
Crombach, who wrote a vindication of 
the legend of St. Ursula assures us, 
however, that it was a common thing 
for the young women of Great Britain, 
Denmark, and Norway to engage in bat- 
tle, to direct contending fleets and even 
command whole armies of women. If 
that is true they were more advanced in 
some respects than the women of our 
day. We are not prepared to say that 
Ursula, in her youth, engaged in any 
such masculine occupations as these. 

The voyage of the fleet over unknown 
seas, its passage against adverse winds 
and currents, the ready and perfect obedi- 
ence accorded to Ursula, are all of course 
descriptive of the guidance which they 
followed and the dangers and difficulties 
of religious life. The journey of the 
eleven thousand over the Alps to Rome 
is of course not to be taken literally. 
Many may have gone, and the hearts of 
all most assuredly made the journey. 
But the strong attachment to the Holy 
See, the solicitude of Rome for the wel- 



10 



THE STORY OF A LOVER OF CHRIST. 



fare of religious families, as well as the 
honor always accorded them, would am- 
ply justify the poetic description of the 
legend. 

These are easy matters to dispose of. 
What has for centuries been a subject of 
discussion is the vastness of the multi- 
tude said to have been martyred along 
with St. Ursula. It is contended that 
there would have been some record in 
profane history of such an awful mas- 
sacre, and there appears to be none. 
Protestants and unbelievers scout the 
whole thing as a myth. Others contend 
that it is simply the result of a misread- 
ing and maintain that the inscription 
"Sancta Ursula Et XIMV " does not 
mean eleven thousand virgins, but only 
eleven martyrs virgins, the "M," in- 
stead of being taken for ' ' martyrs, ' ' has 
been taken by popular credulity to mean 
"thousand." A further attempt to re- 
duce the figure is that Ursula had but 
one companion, namely Undecimilla, 
and that the proper name was trans- 
ferred into what it sounds like, viz. 
Undecimmille, which means eleven 
thousand. 

Other suggestions more ingenious 
still, have been made, but against all 
this stand the following facts. In the 
first place the tradition was never ques- 
tioned for centuries. As far back as the 
ninth century, and consequently ante- 
dating any legend, we find calendars, 
martyrologies, episcopal documents and 
missals, all stating without any qualifi- 
cation that there were eleven thousand 
martyrs. There is an indication in one 
of these authorities of the very convent 
in which they lived outside of the city. 

But perhaps the best possible refuta- 
tion of all objections is the existence of 
the Golden Chamber in the Church of St. 
Ursula in Cologne. It is a chapel forty 
feet high, and long and wide in propor- 
tion. It is called the Golden Chamber, 
because it is glittering with gold and 
silver and precious gems. It is one mass 
of human remains the bones nearly 
altogether of women, piled up on every 



side. There are no less than seventeen 
hundred skulls many of them bearing 
the marks of deadly instruments such as 
the Huns made use of. There are tombs 
and graves and vaults and cases and 
receptacles and double walls, all holding 
these relics, and all this after the whole 
Christian world has drawn from it to sat- 
isfy its devotion. 

In a single church of Ghent, for ex- 
ample, there are six heads taken from 
this collection. The danger and the de- 
votion became so great that a Papal Bull 
had to check the ravages that were being 
made. 

Were there fully eleven thousand who 
won the palm of martyrdom ? That we 
are not prepared to say with absolute 
certainty. But there is no difficulty 
about admitting that fully that number 
may have lived under the sway of the 
Saint and were mostly the victims of the 
trouble with Attila as he withdrew from 
France after the defeat of Chalons. The 
Bishop Lupus, who had, like the Pope on 
another occasion, gained great influence 
over this savage, went with him as far as 
the Rhine. On its opposite shore, when 
this restraining power was no longer 
felt, the massacre took place. That there 
is no record of it in profane history is 
not surprising, as the nations after he 
passed by were deserts. Besides, there 
was no profane history. The chroniclers 
of those days were the monks. Every- 
one knows how vast were the monastic 
establishments of those ages of faith. 
Even in our own days of degeneracy 
there are actually living in one enclosure 
in the Beguinage of Ghent no less than 
nine hundred nuns, many of them oc- 
cupying separate houses. In those bet- 
ter times when heaven was more neigh- 
borly for us than it now seems to be, the 
very deserts were peopled, great multi- 
tudes lived under one rule, especially 
when the abbot or abbess was of princely 
lineage, as in the case of St. Ursula. 
What readier prey could there be for a 
horde of savages, such as the terrible 
hosts of Attila were, than these convents 



ROMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS. 



11 



of defenceless nuns ? Some few may 
have escaped or been led into cap- 
tivity, but we know the slaughter was 
frightful and many more than these 
eleven thousand may have perished, 
whose names will be known only in 
heaven. 

It is this great woman of the early 
centuries that the modern Ursulines have 
taken as their model. Their purpose, 
like hers, is to train young maidens in 
learning and piety, to give them princi- 
ples which will guide them over the 
ocean of life after they have left the pa- 
ternal abode, and to teach them, if need 



be, to offer their blood for their virtue 
and their faith. 

That they have followed the teachings 
of their mother, their history in the 
work of education in Europe attests. 
Our own country in those savage days 
when Quebec and Louisiana were like 
what Europe was when Attila was rav- 
aging it, saw them come as Ursula did, 
from their princely homes, if need be, 
to confront death to advance the faith. 
Their work at the present day among 
the degraded Crows and Cheyennes, and 
their aspirations for still more perilous 
missions, all show that Ursula still lives. 



ROMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS. 

FROM THE DIARY OF AN AMERICAN STUDENT. 

By L. S. 



is with the consciousness that we are 
open to the charge of being illogical, 



of untiring activity, the same attach- 
ment to the field of his first labors in 



that, after having described the life of preference to posts of greater honor, the 



an American student and his rambles 
among the Alban and Sabine hills, we 
have come forward to tell of our trip to 
Rome. Let our defence and justifica- 
tion be the memories stirred up within 
us by reading the letters of Archbishop 
Seghers lately published in the American 
Ecclesiastical Review. We owe a debt 
of gratitude to Rev. Dr. Stang for thus 
placing before the world the inmost 
workings of the mind and heart of the 
great Archbishop, as they stand revealed 
to us in that best of all histories, the 
autobiography woven from his personal 
correspondence. In the light of these 
letters, there must appear to one who 
has read with attention the Abbe" 
Hamon's Life of St. Francis de Sales, a 
striking resemblance between the char- 
acter of the illustrious Bishop of Geneva 
and that of our American prelate. There 
is the same meekness, the same combi- 
nation of episcopal dignity and priestly 
zeal, the same love for God and man, 
the same constant realization of the 
divine presence, the same unswerving 
confidence in Providence, the same spirit 



same union of practical common sense 
and business tact with the tenderest 
piety, so that without presuming to 
attribute to Archbishop Seghers the 
same degree of consummate sanctity, 
we may yet, without violation of the 
Bull of Urban VIII., salute him with the 
title of the Francis de Sales of the United 
States. "To know him was to love 
him, "and to have been brought even 
for a short time within the sphere of his 
influence was in itself a grace ever to be 
remembered. 

We were three in number, starting for 
the American College in Rome. Two of 
us, alike in age, in tastes, in our high 
youthful aspirations for the future, as 
we met for the first time that bright 
October morning on the deck of the 
City of - , laid the foundation of a 
friendship fruitful in offices of mutual 
assistance and encouragement. The 
third God rest his soul ! was a decade 
older, and years of struggle ere he 
attained the goal of his desires, the sem- 
inary, had stripped life of the roseate 
hues in which our imaginations still 



12 



ROMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS. 



pictured it, and had implanted in their 
stead a practical matter-of-fact view of 
all things earthly. Hence, acting on 
the advice of some ill-informed friends 
he was at this moment snugly ensconced 
in his berth below, in the hope of stav- 
ing off by anticipation the dreaded sea- 
sickness. 

There is the usual hurly-burly that 
marks the departure of an ocean grey- 
hound. The air a-flutter with waving 
handkerchiefs, those hundred little fare- 
well messages so meaningless and silly 
to an indifferent spectator, but vested 
with such power to hide the deeper feel- 
ings of active participants in this scene 
of separation, and then, by the aid of a 
large tug, our floating palace turns its 
prow towards the land of the rising sun. 
We would fain deny it, but the truth 
must be told ; there is a faintness around 
our hearts, a peculiar lumpy sensation 
in our throats, and, although a moment 
ago the air was transparently clear and 
the sun dancing merrily on the waters, 
between our eyes and the great city we 
are leaving, there swings a misty veil 
due to no atmospheric influences. For 
relief, we start towards the saloon to 
arrange with the purser for our seats at 
table. 

As we turn from the rail, our atten- 
tion is attracted by a thin, rather tall 
gentleman of ascetic mien, whose purple 
rabbi proclaims him a bishop, and whose 
clean but well-worn clothes give equally 
clear evidence of the poverty of the dio- 
cese over which he presides. We raise 
our hats in respectful salutation. He at 
once approaches, and, in a voice of sin- 
gular sweetness, slightly tinged by a 
trace of foreign accent, inquires, ' ' Cath- 
olics and students? " "Yes, Bishop," 
we answer. "Of art ? "he further asks, 
for, as we were not yet seminarians our 
dress as to color and cut was secular. 
' ' No, Bishop ; for the Church, and on 
our way to Rome." This was enough. 
His bright smile deepens into a look of 
tenderest paternal affection, and holding 
out a hand of greeting to each, "My 



dear young friends, " he says, " I am so 
happy to meet you. I, too, am going to 
Rome, "and drawing out his card from 
an old note book, we read the name, 
Most Rev. Charles}. Seghers, D.D., 
Archbishop of Oregon City, 

Portland, Oregon. 

We then give him our names, but 
with a kindness and tact that put us at 
once at ease, he asks if we would not 
prefer to have him call us by our Chris- 
tian instead of family names a proposi- 
tion to which we gladly assent. " But 
come, let me introduce you to my secre- 
tary, and we shall see to getting seats at 
the same table." And so Rev. Father 
H is added to our list of acquaint- 
ances. He is a tall, broad-shouldered, 
full-bearded Belgian, who, after many 
years of heroic, self-sacrificing mission- 
ary labor in the far West, was looking 
forward with undisguised pleasure to 
seeing once more his country and rela- 
tives. 

The matter of the table is soon ar- 
ranged, and our next business, at the 
Archbishop's suggestion, is to persuade 
our recumbent friend of the falseness of 
his theory on escaping seasickness. 
This, after much talking, we succeed in 
doing, and he meets us at lunch with a 
ravenous appetite, the result of a twelve 
hours' fast. In a few hours more we have 
lost sight of land, and with the hauling 
down of the Stars and Stripes we seem 
to bid a long farewell to home and 
country. 

' ' Water, water, everywhere, ' ' and the 
sky above and the horizon around the 
only limits to our vision. Wind and 
wave were most propitious, and through- 
out the whole seven days our sea journey 
lasted, there was scarcely a real bona-fide 
case of seasickness. Friday, it is true, 
with its fish dinner, staggered a little the 
confidence of the Catholics among us, 
but by dint of remaining all afternoon 
and a part of the evening on deck, 
Saturday morning found us at the break- 
fast table. 

Sunday dawned bright and beautiful, 



ROMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS. 



13 



I 



and by a striking coincidence it was the 
feast of Our Lady, Star of the Sea. The 
cabin passengers were anxious to have 
the Archbishop " hold services, " as they 
called it, in the saloon, but the bigoted 
Scotch captain gruffly refused, alleging 
that in the absence of a Protestant clergy- 
man, his rules required him to read the 
Church of England service. The rules 
were obeyed in the presence of a congre- 
gation of less than a dozen members. 
The rest followed us to the second cabin 
where His Grace pointed out in a few 
well-chosen 
words the ap- 
propriate les- 
sons of the 
day's feast, and 
led in the reci- 
tation of the 
Rosary. The 
exercises fitly 
closed with the 
singing of the 
Ave Maris Stel- 
la. Our tenor 
was the Arch- 
bishop, the bass 
my companion, 
the soprano a 
strong and 
sweet voice a 
buxom Irish 
cook, returning 
after fifteen 
years of ' ' liv- 
ing out ' ' to see 
"the old sod." The chorus headed by 
Father H - and myself contributed 
volume if not music to the hymn. 

And so the endless round of meals arid 
monotonous ocean scenery ran its course. 
Everybody was on terms of familiarity 
with everybody else, for all distinction 
of wealth, of social position, or of relig- 
ion seems banished from the little world 
of an ocean steamer. And yet how dif- 
ferent were the factors that went to make 
up this harmonious whole ! A retired 
U. S. Army Colonel is bringing his in- 
valid wife to Europe in search of health. 




ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS. 



Two Irish gentlemen are hastening home 
from Pittsburg to attend the deathbed of 
a younger brother. That tall, lanky in- 
dividual is a Presbyterian deacon, too 
conscientious to gamble in the pool made 
each day on the ship's run, although he 
furnishes his fifteen-year-old son with 
money for this purpose, and duly scolds 
him when he does not win. An upstart 
American girl is straining every nerve 
to capture the son of a rich Manchester 
manufacturer, while a Belfast college 
lad, returning from a summer vacation 
in the States, is 
looking daggers 
at his successful 
English rival. 
There is a talka- 
tive Arkansaw, 
who tries to im- 
press you with 
the fact that 
there is nothing 
in heaven or on 
earth that has 
escaped his ken, 
and a young 
Englishman 
just completing 
a tour of the 
world, a taci- 
turn fellow, who 
is as tightly 
bound up in his 
island prej- 
udices as if 
he had never 
stirred a foot from England, and who, in 
reply to your questions as to the differ- 
ent countries he has visited, volunteers 
only one point of information : "Yes, I 
have been there." And thus from the 
old Captain on the bridge down to the 
raging maniac in the hold who is being 
sent back to the British Government, 
which had tried to foist her on the 
United States, there are characters that 
would prove good subjects for pen or 
brush. 

But above them all towers the dear 
Archbishop. Saint, theologian, musi- 



14 



ROMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS. 



cian, his figure even after this lapse of 
time stands out in clear relief against 
the background of the past, and I doubt 
not that our life has been made better, 
our views spiritualized, for the week we 
passed in his company. Here we were, 
thinking that we were doing great things 
for our Lord in leaving for a short time 
our homes to prepare ourselves for a 
ministry to be exercised among our 
friends and amid all the comforts and 
conveniences of civilization, and talking 
with us in familiar conversation was one 
who had severed every tie of blood and 
country to devote himself to the rude 
savages of our western wilds. 

We were ready and eager to embrace 
the cross, but compared to that which 
he had borne these many years, our cross 
would be light indeed more like the 
bright and golden symbol which adorns 
our churches than the hard wood on 
which our Saviour died. How often 
had those eyes been blinded by the 
falling snows of distant Montana and 
Alaska, those feet frost-bitten in a cli- 
mate where the thermometer registered 
forty degrees below zero, and that frail 
frame nourished by an Indian diet so 
repulsive as not to bear description ! 

But to come to some traits of a per- 
sonal character. I have called the good 
Archbishop a musician and, in truth, I 
know few more worthy of the title. 
How many a time he would curtail his 
dinner or supper to steal away to the 
piano in the saloon ! ' ' For thirteen 
years he had not touched a note, ' ' he 
explained in blushing apology, as he 
turned to find the admiring passengers 
thronging around to listen. After this, 
nothing could induce him to continue 
playing when there were others in the 
room, and so we hit upon the expedient 
of opening the glass transom between 
the dining hall and the saloon, and there 
in silence we drank in the floods of clas- 
sical music which flowed from his mas- 
terly fingers. Selections from Mozart, 
Rossini, Verdi, Gounod, snatches from 
operas and Masses were played from 



memory, while ever and anon, as if his 
soul had been transported to the vast 
cathedral of his native Ghent, the stately 
strains of Palestrina or the simple accom- 
paniment of the Preface filled the room. 
Applause could no longer be restrained, 
and covered with confusion at being 
overheard, the modest prelate would 
rush on deck to escape congratulations 
by reading his Breviary. 

Not less retentive and solid was his 
knowledge of philosophy. I remember 
well how our elderly student friend once 
dared to measure swords with His Grace 
on some obscure point of metaphysics. 
"You will find this doctrine on such 
and such a page of Liberatore, ' ' he as- 
serted, with all the confidence of a young 
philosopher still glorying in the honor 
of having captured the philosophical 
medal of his class. "Yes," mildly 
rejoined the Archbishop, "but if my 
memory serves me aright after twenty- 
five years, you will find that Liberatore 
admits my position as more tenable in 
the paragraph immediately following the 
one you have quoted. " 

But great as was the learning of Arch- 
bishop Seghers, his zeal and holiness 
were still more admirable. Time after 
time, at our entreaty, he would tell us 
the story of his vocation and apostolate, 
always ending with an appeal that we 
leave the crowded dioceses of the East, 
where there were so many priests, and 
come and share with him the happiness 
and hardships of the missions. Happi- 
ness and hardship how incomparable 
the two terms seemed ! And yet as you 
listened to this true apostle you would 
deem them inseparable. 

Once in particular, I recall a descrip- 
tion of a year of more than ordinary 
suffering. His episcopal revenue for a 
twelvemonth had been but eleven dol- 
lars, and hunger, and thirst, and jour- 
neyings ; perils of all sorts, labor and 
painfulness, fastings, cold, and almost 
nakedness, and, above all, his solicitude 
for all the churches, had come, as they 
did to St. Paul, to bow him down. 



ROMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SECHERS. 



15 






' ' And you were still happy ? " I in- 
quired. " Happy, " lie repeated, " I was 
so happy that I could have sung aloud 
for very joy. " And then as he noticed 
our surprise, he added with charming 
simplicity and earnestness : ' ' How could 
it be otherwise ? If our Lord had prom- 
ised a hundredfold even in this life to 
those who leave all things to follow 
Him, why should He not give it on 
occasions like this ? My dear young 
friends, one hour of spiritual joy com- 
pensates long years of hardship, and the 
happiest hours of my life have been 
those which, humanly speaking, have 
been passed in extremest misery and 
want. " 

I have alluded to the poverty of the 
Archbishop's outfit apparent at the first 
meeting which led to our acquaintance. 
Let me bring out this fact in greater 
prominence. All who made the trip 
across the Atlantic know the indispen- 
sable need of a good overcoat or shawl. 
Well, these were comforts unknown to 
the Archbishop, and in lieu thereof he 
used a linen duster. Upon my remon- 
strating that this afforded no protection 
against the cold, he smilingly answered : 
" Nor is it intended for that purpose. 
You see, I wear it to protect my coat 
and not myself. ' ' 

But we must not pass unnoticed the 
Archbishop's acting secretary, Father 

H . I say acting secretary, for the 

reason that he did not come from the 
diocese of Oregon, but laboring in a still 
more distant mission, had gladly ac- 
cepted the invitation of his old friend 
and fellow countryman to accompany 
him to Rome. Much as the two men 
differed in appearance, they were both 
cast in the same heroic mould, and had 
made equally great sacrifices to devote 
themselves to the American Mission. 
As these lines will probably not fall 

'under Father H 's eyes, I may be 

permitted to relate an incident about 
which he in his humility would doubt- 
less command silence. It will serve to 
illustrate the love and devotion with 



which those pre-eminent missioners, the 
Belgians, give their lives to the salva- 
tion of souls in distant iands. " Give 
me Belgians, " was the cry of St. Francis 
Xavier in the sixteenth century, a cry 
repeated over and over again by mis- 
sionary bishops and superiors, and which 
has been always generously answered 
by the clerics of this privileged nation. 
But to 'my story. 

Father H 's parents were strongly 

opposed to his giving himself to the 
Missions, and so when, despite this 
opposition, he entered the American 
College at Louvain, they allowed him to 
take none of his clothes away with him 
save those he wore. In consequence ot 
this harsh measure, he was obliged him- 
self to wash his single set of underwear, 
and to remain in his room while the 
process of drying was going on. Now 
it happened one Saturday night that 
after he had washed his long black 
stockings, he tied them around his 
lamp-chimney to dry, while book in 
hand he divided his time between study 
and watching that the precious stock- 
ings did not take fire. But alas for all 
his precautions, lie fell asleep to be 
awakened by the smell of burning wool. 
His only pair of stockings were lost 
beyond redemption ! Here was a di- 
lemma. It was a rule of the college 
that all seminarians should be present 
in the choir stalls at the High Mass on 
Sundays. But to go to church without 
stockings was an impossibility on ac- 
count of the ecclesiastical custom on 
the Continent of wearing short trousers 
beneath the cassock. Were he to absent 
himself, it would draw down on his 
head a severe reprimand, perhaps a 
doubt of his vocation, whereas if he 
were to offer an explanation, it would 
reflect on his family. But "necessity 
is the mother of invention, " and a small 
brush and a bottle of ink were soon 
weaving for him a novel pair of stock- 
ings. He had just finished to his satis- 
faction the painting in black of one 
limb, when there was a rough knock at 



16 



HOMEWARDS WITH ARCHBISHOP SECHERS. 



the door, and a moment later the porter 
had deposited a large trunk full of 
clothes on the floor of his room. It was 
from home, and was accompanied by a 
note announcing the forgiveness of his 
parents and their blessing on his holy 
purpose. 

Of course we laughed heartily at this 
description of his embarrassing situa- 
tion and the expedient he had adopted 
to solve the difficulty, but beneath its 
humor, who will say that there was not 
evidence of the highest courage, a fit- 
ting prelude to the labor and self-sac- 
rifice that were awaiting him in after 
days ? 

Father H 's work in the West 

had thrown him much in contact with 
mining people, and he thus summed up 
his experience in the camp : ' ' When 
they struck gold or silver, I fared well. 
But when they did not, well, I fasted 
with my flock, " and from this statement 
we may fairly conclude, that the fast 
days often outnumbered the feasts in his 
yearly calendar. 

The Archbishop and Father H 
parted from us at Liverpool, where some 
of their former classmates at Lou vain 
were waiting on the dock to receive 
them. 

We met His Grace once again at Rome. 
It was the day after his memorable audi- 
ence with Pope Leo when the Holy 
Father, his eyes filled with tears of emo- 
tion, expressed his approval and accept- 
ance of the generous offer already sub- 
mitted to Cardinal Simeon i, that he 
return to his old see of Vancouver. ' ' I 
am going back to Alaska," was the 
simple announcement which he made to 
us of this act of heroic virtue after a few 
minutes of general conversation, and the 
joy that lighted up his pale countenance 
told more clearly than words the feelings 
with which he welcomed the permission 
to return to the first scene of his mission- 



ary labors. Indeed what struck us most 
in his detailed account of this interview 
with the Pope, was his complete uncon- 
sciousness of the fact that he was doing 
anything extraordinary which would 
excite universal admiration. On the 
contrary, his main thought was of the 
Pope's gracious kindness and condescen- 
sion in granting him this favor. Such 
is the humility of holy men. They at- 
tribute to others the good that is really 
in themselves. 

Little did we think as the bell for noon 
examination of conscience called us away 
from the parlor, and we knelt to ask a 
blessing on our studies, that within a 
short three years, our beloved Archbishop 
should fall a victim to an assassin's bul- 
let. We all know how on the eventful 
twenty-eighth of November, 1886, he 
was aroused a little after daybreak to 
find the maniac Fuller with levelled 
rifle standing before him. No cry of 
fear escaped his saintly lips, no vain 
effort to prolong a life already devoted 
to God and ripe for heaven. Calmly 
folding his arms across his breast, and 
bowing down his head in resignation to 
the divine will, he offered his death, as 
we may well believe, in sacrifice for the 
welfare of the Alaska Mission. ' ' Greater 
love than- this hath no man, that he lay 
down his life for his friend, " and as from 
the death of our Saviour flow all bless- 
ings on this sinful world, so too, with 
due measure of difference, may we trust 
that from the blood of Archbishop Seg- 
hers will come to the poor Indians, the 
friends, the children of his heart, a 
harvest of God's best and choicest gifts. 
A small cross on the banks of the far 
away Yukon marks the place of his 
martyrdom, and as during the long 
night of an Arctic winter it keeps its 
solitary vigil, the wind, howling and 
sighing through the naked trees, sings 
a sad threnody for the Apostle's death. 






A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 
By M. T. Waggaman. 



f< HRISTMAS EVE in all its gladness 
^^ and glory. Christmas Eve and 
the sun winking down merrily from 
a clear frosty sky, the hard-packed snow 
glittering like diamond dust, the river 
frozen three inches deep, curving around 
Ben Mar hills with the glint of a Damas- 
cus blade. 

Christmas Eve, and the stores burst- 
ing with holiday presents, the streets 
thronged with holiday buyers, the mar- 
kets brimming with holiday cheer. 

Best of all, Christmas Eve, at old St. 
Asaph's, where the heavy college doors 
had swung open at the stroke of noon 
and three hundred boys with a combined 
whoop that would have put a band of 
Sioux to shame had burst forth into holi- 
day freedom. Gripsacks and travelling- 
bags had been hastily grasped, merry 
goodbyes spoken, prefects of "schools " 
and ' ' studies ' ' had dropped all their 
pedagogic terrors and were cordially 
speeding their parting pupils " home. " 

' ' Hurrah for Christmas, ' ' shouted Har- 
vey Wright, who lived in the town near 
by, to his chum and neighbor, Jack 
Lawrence. 

"Let's take a spin on the river, Jack, 
before we start home. They say you 
can go humming down three miles with- 
out a break. Ice like glass best we've 
had this year." 

"I'm with you," said sturdy red- 
cheeked Jack, clearing the gray stone 
steps at a bound. Just wait until I get 
my skates from the gym But, my ! I 
forgot Mother gave me a package for 
Father Neville " 

" Oh pshaw, don't wait for that ; give 
it to Brother Anselm here at the door. " 

"I can't," said Jack, reluctantly. 
"Mother would not like it. She told 
me to give it myself, and ask his bless- 
ing before I left. The doctor told her 



he was sinking very fast, that he did 
not think he would live to see the new 
year. ' ' 

' ' What ! Father Neville ! ' ' exclaimed 
Harvey incredulously. " I don't believe 
a word of it. Why, I met him in the 
corridor only last week ; and he stopped 
to talk to me about our football match 
and chaffed me about the way we were 
used up, and was just as jolly as I ever 
saw him in my life. " 

" He is pretty sick for all that, I can 
tell you," said Jack solemnly. "Dr. 
Roland told mother that he was just 
dying like a hero without a groan or a 
sign. He never saw anything like it in 
his life. It will make me feel awful to 
see him, I know, but I must give moth- 
er's message and little Christmas pres- 
ent. Keep in to the river and I '11 be after 
you in five minutes. " 

And Jack sprang up the broad steps 
again into the college hall and made his 
way by various corridors and staircases 
to Father Neville's room. 

The door stood slightly ajar, and, as 
Jack reached the threshold a faint moan 
from within made his heart suddenly 
sink. But his tap was answered by a 
cheery " Come in ; " and he entered the 
room, to find Father Neville propped 
up in his big chair by the sunlit win- 
dow in apparently tranquil comfort. 

He was a man still in the prime of 
life, of kingly form and presence, that a 
mortal disease had not been able to mar, 
though the noble countenance was 
marked with lines of pain, and the suf- 
fering eyes told a pathetic story the 
smiling lips could not belie. 

' ' What ! Jack, my boy is it you ? I did 
not think that ropes would hold you 
five minutes after twelve, to-day. Skat- 
ing on the river, coasting on the hill?, 
sleighing, snow-balling. Whew ! this 



IS 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



is the real right sort of a rousing Christ- 
mas we boys like, isn't it? " 

"Yes, Father," answered Jack, and 
as he looked into the kind, smiling face 
and thought of the Doctor's words some- 
thing swelled up from his heart to his 
throat that made him feel he had better 
get through his business quickly or he 
would make a break some where. " Mother 
asked me to stop and give you this this 
little Christmas present from her, "and 
he handed a dainty package to Father 
Neville. 

"You will have to open it for me, " re- 
plied the invalid, smiling. "My hands 
are like puff-balls to-day, as you can 
see. Silk handkerchiefs, " he continued 
as Jack broke the string and showed the 
contents of the pretty box within. " God 
bless that good mother of yours, doesn't 
she know I have made a vow of poverty. 
And an initial on the corner, too ; I sup- 
pose she put out her eyes doing all that 
filigree work herself. " 

"Ye yes, sir, " faltered Jack, think- 
ing of the tears that he had seen falling 
on that same filigree work when his 
mother had heard Doctor Roland's sen- 
tence, for Mrs. Lawrence was one of the 
many converts that Father Neville had 
led into the fold of Truth. 

"Well, well," he continued, "I won't 
call her foolish, for an old fellow likes to 
be remembered, especially when he is 
knocked out of wind and time, as I am 
just now. Pretty well used up as you 
see, Jack ; fairly out of the game I I, ' ' 
here a sudden spasm of pain contracted 
the speaker's features, his helpless hands 
tightening on the arms of his chair ; he 
leaned back on his pillow and closed his 
eyes, gasping for breath. 

Jack stood dumb and terror stricken. 
Oh, this was the suffering of which Doc- 
tor Roland had spoken ; this was per- 
haps, perhaps "The glass there," 

panted Father Neville, "on the table." 

Jack recovered himself enough to hold 
the wine glass to the sufferer's lips. 
" I'll I'll run for Brother Francis," he 
stammered. 



' ' No, no, no, ' ' the helpless hand made 
a dissenting gesture, ' ( wait wait a bit. 
It's just just one of my twinges, 
Jack; I'll I'll be better in a minute. 
I'mI'm getting my wind back, you 
see," and the pale lips tried to force 
their usual smile. " Don't don't call 
any one ; Brother Francis is at his din- 
ner. Poor man, his bones are fairly 
rattling in his skin now ; let him get 
one good, square meal in peace. Look 
out of the window, Jack ; my eyes have 
failed me this last week ; isn 't that Will 
Dutton walking down the road ? ' ' 

" Yes, sir, Ned Brace and Lem Foster, 
and all your old class. They are looking 
up here, I think they see you ' ' 

" Open the window wave one of your 
mother's handkerchiefs to them, Jack, I 
can't." 

Jack obeyed ; paths and playgrounds 
were alive with boys rushing, tumbling, 
wrestling, racing to meet car or stage, 
but at the flutter of that white signal 
there was a sudden pause in the gleeful 
tumult. Even Tommy Bond, who was 
relieving the exuberance of his feelings 
by a series of somersaults on the bar, 
stopped head down. 

"Father Neville! Father Neville! 
Look, boys, look! " went up the ring- 
ing shout. "Father Neville is at his 
window. Hurrah for Father Neville ! 
Happy Christmas! Rah, Rah, Rah!" 
and hats and caps were flung wildly 
into the air, and the frozen hills rang 
again and again to the college cry, 
while Jack waved his silken pennant 
and Father Neville nodded and smiled 
as cheerily as if the clutch of death 
were not on his heartstrings, and its 
shadow on his fearless soul. 

"Enough, enough, Jack, put down 
the window. If Brother Francis should 
catch us at any such skylarking as this 
we would both get a fine scolding. 
God bless those boys, they are shout- 
ing yet. What a thing it is to have 
lungs and wind ! And Tommy Bond is 
spinning round that bar like a whirligig. 
That boy never did know his head from 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



19 






his heels, and never will. It makes an when they brought us their Christmas 
old water-logged hulk like me feel better greeting. Good will. It's salvation in 
just to look at him. Ah, Jack, there is a nutshell, Jack. Have the good will 



I 




"HURRAH FOR FATHER NEVILLE! HAPPY CHRISTMAS!" 

nothing that braces one up like a breeze to serve God, and help your neighbor in 
of good will. Remember that, my boy; all things, little or great, and if we do 
the angels knew what they were about make a stumble or two on the road, well 



2O 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



we only scratch our noses not our 
souls. They will come out all right. 
Take the angel's watchword, Jack. It 
will pass you through the lines. Good 
will, good will ! And now, I am sure 
Brother Francis has got as far as his 
apple pie and will be up in a couple of 
minutes, and ready with a lecture for 
both of us ; so you had better run off. 
Thank your mother for her Christmas 
gift. Tell her I send her my blessing 
and good-bye." 

It had to come, the sob that Jack had 
been choking down so manfully for the 
last ten minutes. If Father Neville had 
been the least bit solemn, or doleful, or 
" preaching " Jack might have man- 
aged himself very credibly and skipped 
off with a glad sense of relief into the 
holiday sunshine but to leave him 
jolly, smiling dying like this ! It was 
more than any fellow could stand, and 
Jack dropped down on his knees beside 
the big armchair, and buried his face 
in the cushions while his curly head 
shook convulsively. 

" Why Jack, my dear boy, Jack, Jack, 
what is the matter ? ' ' 

"Mother mother told me to get 
your your blessing, "blurtedjack husk- 
ily. 

"You have it, my son." The kind 
voice grew grave and the helpless hand 
was laid tenderly on the boy's hair. 
"May God the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost bless you and yours forever. 
Remember me in your prayers, and 
and Jack don't grieve. The road may 
look a little rough and dark but I'm 
I 'm near the end, thank God. I'm like 
the rest of you, Jack just a big boy, 
going home." 

* * * 

Jack was glad to find that Harvey had 
not waited for him, he felt as if skating 
had lost its charms, even the bright sky 
looked blurred and dim as he came out 
through the smiling sunlight into the 
bare white walks, from which the merry 
crowd had scattered, leaving the great 
college gray, grim and silent the wind 



moaning thiough its leafless groves. 
Ah, a shadow had fallen upon Jack's 
Christmas, bravely and brightly as 
Father Neville had tried to veil the 
presence of death, Jack had felt for the 
first time its awful chill. 

He turned gravely homeward but 
soon the frosty air sent the warm blood 
tingling through his veins, the shouts 
of the skaters echoed merrily from the 
river, Jack paused, listened, and decided 
he must take one turn one turn only 
and that blue, glinting, shining track 
stretching far into the dazzling distance. 
And, oh, what a glorious turn it was ! 
Jack quite forgot the four last things to 
be remembered, as with the rollicking 
Christmas wind at his back he sped 
down the glassy stream on feet that 
seemed shod with lightning. Since he 
had determined on only one turn, he 
resolved to make that turn a long one. 
So he kept on until the ekaters disport- 
ing themselves near the town, were left 
far behind and he found himself at a 
point where the river banks rose in great 
overhanging cliffs, rough, jagged, frown- 
ing, fiercely repellant of all approach. 

Further on that same ridge of rock, 
terraced into beauty by landscape gar- 
deners, was dotted with smiling homes, 
but here it had only been hacked and 
torn and smitten into deformity that the 
massive masonry of the railroad bridge 
below might span the stream. 

There are such lives harsh, fierce, 
repulsive lives in which only men like 
Father Neville can recognize the same 
rock that builds the temples, and upbears 
the home. 

And underneath these rough-hewn 
banks such a life was struck down into 
piteous helplessness to-day. A faint 
moan reached Jack 's ear, and, wheeling 
round suddenly, he saw crouching under 
the shelter of the rock the huge, un- 
kempt, sodden, shaking wreck of a man. 
He had torn his ragged shirt loose at 
the throat and breast, as if to ease his 
labored breathing. His dull, bleared 
eyes were starting painfully from their 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



sockets, and the livid features, scarcely 
visible under his matted hair and beard, 
twitched convulsively. There was an 
ugly club at his side, and near it the 
red knapsack of the genus ' ' tramp. ' '- 
Altogether, the picture was not a 
pleasant one and Jack's first impulse 
was to skim hastily away, but but that 
hoarse breathing recalled that other 
sufferer, whose blessing still lingered on 
his brow, and the boy paused with a new- 
born pity in his heart.. 

"Hallo ! " he called, skating closer to 
the bank. " What's the matter? " 

There was no answer, the man could 
not speak, but the shaking hands made 
a grasp at the club, for to his dulled 
brain "boy" was synonymous with 
" tormentor. " 

"I say," repeated Jack in a louder 
tone, " are you sick ? " 

"None of your business," gasped 
the other, with an oath that made Jack, 
though by no means a saint, wince. 

' ' Well, you might be a little more 
civil about it, " said Jack grimly. " You 
look pretty bad, I can tell you. I 
thought you were making a die of it 
here alone." 

Another oath was the only reply. 

Jack felt his good nature rapidly 
diminishing under this fusillade ; but 
good "nature" and good "will" are 
very different things, as the Christmas 
angels know. " Blast you ; what what 
are you standing there gaping for," 
hoarsely panted this neighbor of Jack's. 
" Get out, or I'll I'll, " he clutched his 
bludgeon fiercely and tried to struggle 
to his feet. Jack made a brisk backward 
curve, and in a moment was out of reach. 
Then he paused again, for the wretched 
sufferer had fallen down with a piteous 
moan. 

"Jing, he is going to make a die of 
it, sure enough. It don't seem right to 
leave him here alone like a dog ; you're 
a nice one, " continued Jack, addressing 
himself indignantly to the shaking hulk 
of poor humanity before him, "to go 
clubbing people when they only mean 



to help you ; you're a dandy sort of dy- 
ing man. " 

"Water," came faintly through the 
working lips, " blast you, water." 

It was scarcely the appeal to touch 
Jack's heart, but again the picture of 
that noble face, darkened by a like agony, 
rose before Jack's eyes, and he grew piti- 
ful once more for Father Neville's sake. 
He glanced around, there was not a drop 
of water within sight ; everything was 
frozen hard and cruel as steel. Then as 
in boyish perplexity he thrust his hands 
in his reefer pockets, he felt a package 
there. It was the little silver-mounted 
vinaigrette he had bought for his pet 
sister Nellie, a delicate little girl, whose 
"sniffs," as her brother called it, saved 
her many a fainting spell. In a second 
Jack had the package from his pocket 
and the dainty flask in all its uncorked 
strength under his neighbor's nose. It 
was a powerful whiff, for the pungent 
salts were fresh and strong. 

The fainting man gasped, struggled, 
revived. Like a drowning creature, he 
clutched the tiny vial and inhaled it 
again and again. 

"Gosh! " he muttered, "it's good 
good. It just hits the right place. That 
cursed spell came near doing for me ; I 
I crawled down under these here rocks 
to die; but I ain't ain't gone yet; 
guess I kin hold out long enough to set- 
tle accounts with some folks I know." 
And the sodden face lit up with a ma- 
lignant gleam. "Here's your bottle, 
youngster, and thank you for it. It's 
done me a power of good. What sort of 
stuff is it, and where do you get it ? I'd 
like to have some, 'gin another turn 
comes on. " 

"Oh, you can keep that, " said little 
gentleman Jack, who, apart from all char- 
itable considerations, felt his pretty gift 
had been profaned for dainty Nellie now. 

"I can," and the man, who was 
rapidly regaining strength and voice, 
looked at the little silver-topped, crystal 
toy as if it were a talisman ; "keep this 
here ? What do you ask for it ? " 



22 



was 



"Ask for it? " 
why nothing." 

" D'you mean to give it to me ? 
the amazed question. 

"Why, yes, of course, laughed Jack, 
" It isn't worth much, it's just a little 
stuff to keep people fiom reeling over. 
Keep the bottle tight corked, and when 
you feel your spell coming on, open it 
and take a good whiff that's all." 

The man looked from boy to flask 
in dull amazement. Happy, sheltered, 
home-blessed Jack could not guess 
what a bitter story of hopeless, friend- 
less, sunless life that look conveyed. 

It was as if the hacked and blackened 
rock, under which the wretched being 
lay, had suddenly found on its strong 
breast a flower of spring. 

' Lord ! " he said, with a harsh, strange 
laugh, "that's a curious youngster. 
I've had to beg, and buy, and earn, and 
borrow and steal and I've done them 
all, but it's the first time anybody ever 
gave me anything the very first time. ' ' 
"That's a pretty tough show for a fel- 
low, " said Jack. "Never had a Christ- 
mas gift when you were a boy ? ' ' 

" No ; never had nothing but kicks 
and licks, any time." 

" Well, I'll break your record with a 
Christmas gift to-day. All right again, 
are you ? Let me help you up ; better 
take another sniff before you start oft" 
There's your stick ; keep to the road 
under the bridge if you are going to 
town ; you'll find it's not so much of a 
climb so good-bye and Happy Christ- 
mas ; ' ' and Jack made an artistic back- 
ward curve and then a straight sweep 
down the shining river home. 

"Happy Christmas! " muttered the 
man, his face lowering again as the 
boy's blithe figure disappeared around 
a bend of the stream. " Happy Christ- 
mas ! Mebbe I ain't going to make 
it happy for some folks I know; " and 
gripping his knotted stick, he thrust 
his hand in his side pocket as if to 
assure himself of something hidden 
there, and then passed under the shadow 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 

of the blackened 
town. 



lepeatedjack, "why- 



rocks towards the 



The beautiful drawing room of the 
Lawrence home was a very bower of 
greenery, a Yule log snapped and blazed 
jovially on the tiled hearth, the gar- 
landed chandelier, with its pendant crys- 
tals flashed and gleamed like an Arctic 
sun. For Jack 's family held to the old 
German custom, and the " Christkind- 
chen " came on Christmas Eve. 

Dolls, tea sets, baby carriages, horns, 
trumpets, rocking horses and bicycles 
were arranged about the tree, which, 
twinkling with tiny tapers, glittering 
with tinsel ornaments, arose in all its 
splendor in the centre of a miniature 
Christmas garden on which Jack had ex- 
pended all his artistic taste. 

" A complete success, my dear, " said 
Judge Lawrence, who, though a stern 
administrator of justice on the bench, 
was the most tender and genial of house- 
hold law-givers. "The tree strikes me 
as particularly dazzling this year, while 
the garden, " and the Judge surveyed the 
landscape at his feet with a whimsical 
smile, "excepting some slight discrep 
ancies in the sizes of those elephants 
and lambs that are gamboling over the 
walks, is" unusually fine. I trust the 
banks of that miniature Como are se- 
cure Was it not last year we had a 
freshet that ruined six yards of carpet ? ' ' 
" I know, John, dear, " said Mrs. Law- 
rence apologetically, ' ' but we have been 
very careful, and the children would be 
so disappointed if the lake were not real 
water as usual. 

' ' My remark was not intended as an 
objection, my dear, not at all, " answered 
the Judge. " Christmas conies but once 
a year, and childhood but once in a life 
time. So if our young folks demand 
irrigation on this occasion, let us irri- 
gate by all means. And now, before we 
open the doors and admit the young 
revellers on the scene, here is a little 
Christmas gift for their mother. ' ' The 
Judge's light tone deepened as he spoke 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



23 



the word, and he placed in his wife's 
hand a tiny, velvet case. Touching the 
spring it flew open, revealing within a 



face flushed, the low voice trembled with 
emotion, for a sweet, dawning hope 
seemed to flash from the glowing jewels ; 




IN A SECOND JACK HAD THE PACKAGE FROM HIS POCKET. 

little rosary of rubies, every bead a flaw- never before by word or sign had the 

less gem. Judge given sympathy to the holiest 

" Oh, John, how beautiful !" The fair feelings of his wife's heart. His utter 



24 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



lack of Christian faith had been the one 
bitter trial of an otherwise happy mar- 
ried life. 

"Since you must tell your beads, my 
little Papist, I would have fitting ones 
for those dainty fingers. Nay, sweet- 
heart," and his voice grew graver, "un- 
believer as I am, I say with Hamlet, ' In 
those orisons be all my sins remem- 
bered,' and if there be a heaven, beyond 
that which you have made for me on 



' ' Tut, tut, ' ' laughed the Judge kissing 
the upturned face, "you have simply 
strained nerve and fancy in preparing 
pleasure for others, as you blessed 
women always do. We must not stand 
here love-making any longer or those 
young people outside will get impatient. 
Is everything ready for the curtain to 
rise on the Christmas drama ? Good ! 
then I'll open the door and call the 
children in." 




HIIFORE THE BAR OF ONE WHO JUDGES NOT AS M, 



eirth, I ieel it will open to me at the 
prayer of my wife. ' ' 

"God grant it!" she whispered 
through happy tears, " but, oh ! John, I 
do not know why it is, there seems a 
strange shadow upon my heart to-night 
that I cannot banish. Perhaps it is the 
very brightness of my home that makes 
me fear and tremble, but I feel, I cannot 
say how, ' ' a light shudder passed through 
her frame, " as if something dark, some 
evil or danger were near. " 



He flung the doors open as he spoke, 
and with a wild outburst of delight the 
six young Lawrences, who had been 
possessing their souls as well as they 
could in patience on the stairs without, 
sprang into the drawing-room, driving 
every shadow from the mother's heart 
and hushing every chord of fear. 
* * * 

Outside, the night was bitter cold. 
There was no moon, but the dark velvety 
sky glittered with myriads of stars 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



25 



U 



ranging in splendor from a great white 
planet blazing in the East, to tiny points 
of light, now flashing, now vanishing 
in the infinite distance. It was as if 
heaven to its uttermost boundaries was 
keeping vigil to-night; as if the gaze of 
the mighty universe were fixed on little 
earth in wonder at her blessed dignity. 

St. Asaph's clock was striking eleven, 
when through the starlit shadows a 
deeper shadow crept up to Judge 
Lawrence's home. The house stood 
apart from the street amid its own 
gardens and shrubberies that secluded 
it usually from the passing gaze, but the 
lower windows were open and a flood of 
light and the sound of gay voices and 
happy laughter poured out into the 
night. The shadow paused by the gate 
and peered cautiously around. 

' ' Curse him ! ' ' and the light from 
the windows showed the dark figure to 
be that of a great gaunt man leaning 
upon a knotted stick. "He can have his 
larks, can he ? He ain 't guessing what 's 
tracking him down. He ain't guessing 
what's a coming close to him to-night. 
He ain't a guessing that oath I swore 
seven years ago. 

"Seven years, seven years, with y.our 
heart a bursting with spite and hate 
until it fairly bursts out of place. My ! 
there's the pain gripping me again. 
Where's that youngster's bottle ? " and 
the shaking hand lifted the dainty 
vinaigrette. " If it hadn 't been for this 
I couldn't have kept up, I couldn't have 
got here, I couldn 't have settled this 
account with Mr. John Lawrence, as I 
mean to settle it to-night. 

' ' I wonder if they keep a dog, ' ' he 
continued, looking around in the dark- 
ness. " I don't hear none. But dogs, 
nor lions, nor tigers wouldn't stop me to- 
night," and the speaker's teeth clenched 
together with a grit at the words. 
' ' Nothing wouldn 't stop me. I 've been 
a waiting for it, a living for it, aye, a 
dying for it too long. It's come at last ; 
me and John Lawrence is going to be 
even at last," and the baleful shadow 



crept on closer and closer to the brilliantly 
lit window before which Judge Lawrence 
sat carelessly in his great armchair, 
fearlessly silhouetted against the Christ- 
mas lights, while standing beside him, 
his hand resting on his father's shoulder, 
was Jack, gay, laughing, reckless Jack, 
his bright boyish face fully revealed to 
the burning eyes looking in the window. 

" Darn it ! " burst from the watcher's 
foam-flecked lips. "It's my youngster 
and his boy ! " 

#.".'*'''* 

" Come, children, it is bed time. Let 
us have our Christmas hymn before our 
sleep on this blessed night," said Mrs. 
Lawrence, taking her place at the little 
parlor organ and striking the first chords 
of the Adestefideles. 

A chorus of young sweet voices took 
up the grand old hymn. Leaning back 
in his armchair the Judge listened, 
little dreaming of the shadow of death 
that was upon him, and of the Christmas 
angels that were guarding him with out- 
stretched wings. 

Adeste, fideles, 
Laeti, triumphantes, 
Venite, venite in Bethlehem. 

The father's heart thrilled to the ten- 
der* harmony. Nellie, the frail, lovely 
little daughter, who was his idol, was 
singing soprano ; her clear voice rising 
like a bird note above her mother's richer 
tone. Small Dick and Ned came in with 
shrill, boyish trebles. Baby Belle seated 
on the organ chirped sleepily, while 
Jack's tenor swelled the refrain. 

Venite adoremus, Venite adoremus, 
Venite adoremus, Dominum. 

The Judge's thoughts were wandering 
in unaccustomed ways to-night. He 
found himself pondering on the Beth- 
lehem to which his children's voices 
called him ; on that birth for which a 
world still rejoiced ; on that babe, from 
whose humble coming history dated her 
records and whose teaching had rev- 
olutionized the pagan world. 



26 



A CHRISTMAS GLORIA. 



Deum de Deo, 
Lumen de Lumine 

rose the sweet chorus in unfaltering 
faith. The sceptic's heart stirred 
strangely. Was there light revealed 
to these babes that he was too blind to 

see ? 

Gloria, Gloria, 
In Excelsis Deo 

rose the triumphal chant caught from 
angelic choirs. 

Gloria, Gloria, 

and all the voices that made earth's 
music seemed to echo back the raptured 
song. 

Gloria, Gloria, 

went swelling through the Christmas 
gladness and beauty of the room and 
pulsing into the darkness without, when 
suddenly the harmony was broken by a 
shot, a crash, a muffled cry. Mrs. Law- 
rence started from the organ, the chil- 
dren clung to her in terror, the Judge 
sprang to the window, swept aside the 
curtain and flung open the sash. 

"Jack, quick. Brandy from the side- 
board some one is hurt out here, ' ' 
and he leaped from the low sill to the 
ground where a dark figure lay moaning 
piteously. 

' ' What hurt you, my man ? ' ' asked 
the Judge, bending over the writhing 
figure. ' ' Who fired that shot ? ' ' 

" Me, " was the harsh answer. " Me, 
Mr. John Lawrence, but you needn't be 
skeered. It was fired in air, but it was 
loaded for you. " 

"For me, " repeated the Judge in 
amazement. 

' ' Look close, ' ' gasped the man ; 
' ' mebbe you won 't remember me, for I 
guess you've done the same job for many 
a chap since. Mebbe you don't know 
Pete Wright." 

"Pete Wright, the lifer in State's 
prison. " 

' ' Where you put him when you was 
persecuting attorney seven years ago, ' ' 
panted the speaker. ' ' I swore I 'd be 
even with you for it, if I ever got the 
chance. Swore it on my knees day and 



night, swore it harder and deeper when 
the pain gripped me here, ' ' he struck 
his breast fiercely, " and they let me 
l oos e_to die. To die, but I swore I 
wouldn't die until I sent you to death 
before me, and that's what I come here 
to do to-night. And I 'da done it, I had 
the drop on you through that window, 
and Pete Wright is a dead shot yet. I 
could have done it, Mr. John Lawrence, 
but I I didn't. Mebbe, " and the dim, 
bleared eyes fixed themselves on Jack, 
who had reached the scene with the 
brandy, " mebbe, youngster, you can 
tell why ? ' ' 

' ' My ! ' ' exclaimed Jack, staring in 
breathless amazement, "it's you again, 
is it ? Father, it's it's the man I told 
you about that I met on the river bank 
this evening. ' ' 

"It's it's that that chap of yourn 
that saved you, Mr. John Lawrence. He 
came across me when I was most most 
gone. He was good to me, and he a boy, 
too. He was good and I was rough and 
ugly to him, but but he didn't get 
scared or back out. He just kept along 
being good. He gave me this," the 
trembling hand showed the little vinai- 
grette in its icy clutch. " Good stuff; 
it gave me back my breath again, it 
helped me to get get here. And 
and when I got here with with mur- 
der in my heart and that pistol loaded 
to the muzzle for you, John Lawrence; 
when I had the drop on you through 
that window and saw saw that boy's 
face at your side, that boy's hand on 
your shoulder, when I knowed he was 
yourn well, I fought it out with the 
old spite and the old hate for a minute, 
and then then I give up, John Law- 
rence, and I fired my pistol in air. And 
now now I'm I'm dead beat out. No, 
I don't want no liquor 'tain't no use 
fighting death no longer. Might as 
well give that up, too. Where are you, 
youngster ? Would you mind gripping 
my hand, I can't see. That Christmas 
gift, you know, well, for it, I've I've 
given you your your, ' ' the words came 



THE STABAT MATER OF THE CRIB. 



27 






with a piteous struggle, " your father's 
life." 

There was a shudder, a sigh, and the 
convict's soul lit with the first gleam 
that had ever fallen upon its darkness 
was before the bar of One who judges 
not as man. 

' ' There was not a more desperate ruf- 
fian walked the earth, " said Judge Law- 
rence, as a little later, amid his pale, 
excited, family group, he told Pete 
Wright's story. Yet one little act of 
kindness softened him. "Ah, my dear 
children, " said the tender mother, "re- 
member what we have been spared to- 
night. If Jack had not been pitiful to 
that wretched man this evening " 

' ' I tell you I did not feel much like 
it, " said Jack frankly, but you see I had 
just left Father Neville, and he was so 
sick himself, and so kind and so jolly, 



and he talked to me about being good to 
everybody, so that somehow, just then 
I could not have turned away from a 
dying dog. ' ' 

"God bless Father Neville then, let 
us all pray to-night," said Mrs. Law- 
rence in a trembling tone. 

" Glory to God, and good will to 
man, " has been the text of his life. He 
preaches it to the last. 

To the last, indeed, for the Christmas 
chimes sounded through the midnight 
as she spoke. 

Spire after spire caught up the joyous 
peals, until the starry darkness seemed 
to thrill and throb with triumphant 
Glorias. Then suddenly through the 
glad carillons a deep-toned solemn note 
came from the tower of St. Asaph's. 

The tolling bell for a departed soul 
Father Neville had "gone home. " 



THE STABAT MATER OF THE CRIB. 

Translated by Rev. J. F. Quirk, SJ. 



Stood the Mother wondrous fair, 
Joyous by the manger where, 
Lapped in straw, her infant lay. 

And her soul with gladness flowed, 
Till it mantled, till it glowed 
'Neath her joy's ecstatic sway. 

Oh ! how glad and blest her lot, 
Virgin Mother without spot, 
Mother of the Only-Born ! 

How she joyed, and how she smiled, 
Glorying in that noble child 
Whom she bore this very morn ! 

Who could still his heart for glee, 
If Christ 's Mother he should see 
In such great supporting joy ? 

Who could see her and forbear 
In her happiness to share, 
As she fondled Him, her Boy ? 

Mid the cattle there she saw 
Christ exposed to winter's flaw 
For the sins of His own race. 



Stabat Mater speciosa, 
Juxta fcenum gaudiosa, 
Dum jacebat parvulus. 

Cujus animam gaudentem, 
Lsetabundam et ferventem 
Pertransivit jubilus. 

O quam laeta et beata 
Fuit ilia immaculata 
Mater Unigeniti ! 

Quse gaudebat, et ridebat, 
Bxultabat, cum videbat 
Nati partum inclyti. 

Quis est qui non gauderet, 
Christi Matrem si videret 
In tanto solatio ? 

Quis non posset collsetari 
Christi Matrem contemplari 
Ludentem cum filio ? 

Pro peccatis suae gentis, 
Christum vidit cum jumentis, 
Et algori subditum. 



28 



THE STAB AT MATER OF THE CRIB. 



Saw the Son she held so sweet, 
Whom the adoring angels greet, 
Moan in that poor lodging place. 
To Christ's manger angels throng, 
Carolling their gladsome song 
With a joy no words can say. 
Stood old age there with the maid, 
Yet nor word nor speech essayed, 
For their hearts had swooned away. 
Mother, who art love's own source, 
Give me some of thy love's force, 
Shape my feelings unto thine ! 
Grant my heart may learn to glow, 
In Christ's love may learn to grow, 
Till He love this heart of mine. 
Holy Mother, favor grant : 
On my soul His wounds implant, 
Grave them deep upon my heart. 
Since He stoops from heaven 's bliss 
To a crib of straw like this, 
In His pains, oh, give me part. 
Fain would I thy gladness share, 
Fain the lot of Jesus bear 
Even to my latest day. 
Let thy love in me abide, 
Let me love thy Darling's side, 
While a pilgrim here I stray. 
Make our loves together knit ; 
Never from my soul permit 
The pure wish to turn away. 
Virgin of all virgins blest, 
Do not slight my fond request : 
Give thy Son to my embrace. 
Give Him me, whose very breath 
Was a triumph over death, 
Who hath brought us life of grace. 
Make me feel thy brimming joy, 
And for rapture of thy Boy 
Revel in thy keen delight. 
Wrought to burning is my soul, 
Languishing beyond control, 
As this union strikes my sight. 
Grant thy Son as warder tend, 
Grant the Word of God defend 
And preserve me by His grace. 
Grant that when my body dies, 
On my soul the vision rise 
Of thy dear Son, face to face. 



Vidit suum dulcem natum 

Vagientem, adoratum 

Vili diversorio. 

Nato Christo in prsesepe, 

Cceli cives canunt Isete 

Cum immenso gaudio. 

Stabat senex cum puella, 

Non cum verbo nee loquela, 

Stupescentes cordibus. 

Eia Mater, fons anioris, 

Me sentire vim ardoris, 

Fac ut tecum sentiam ! 

Fac ut ardeat cor meum 

In amando Christum Deum, 

Ut sibi complaceam. 

Sancta Mater, istud agas : 

Prone introducas plagas 

Cordi fixas valide. 

Tui nati coelo lapsi, 

Jam dignati foeno nasci 

Poenas mecum divide. 

Fac me vere congaudere, 

Jesulino cohaerere, 

Donee ego vixero. 

In me sistat ardor tui, 

Puerino fac me frui, 

Dum sum in exilio. 

Hunc ardorem fac communem, 

Ne facias me immunem 

Ab hoc desiderio. 

Virgo virginum praeclara, 

Mihi jam non sis amara : 

Fac me parvum rapere. 

Fac ut portem pulchrum fan tern, 

Qui nascendo vicit mortem, 

Volens vitam tradere 

Fac me tecum satiari, 

Nato tuo inebriari, 

Stans inter tripudia. 

Innammatus et accensus, 

Obstupescit omnis sensus 

Tali de commercio. 

Fac me nato custodiri, 

Verbo Dei prsemuniri, 

Conservari gratia. 

Quando corpus morietur, 

Fac ut animse donetur 

Tui nati visio. 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



QOD is wonderful in His saints ! And 
if in any particular class of saints, 
surely it must be in those who have 



kindliness of another, the prayerfulness 
of a third. He fasted ; he lay on the 
ground ; above all he cherished piety 



been called by Him to be founders of toward Christ and charity toward others, 
religious families. 

To all the call has been given to con- 
form themselves to the likeness of His 
Son, the great model, the first born of 
every creature. Thus in all we find the 
same general features yet beautifully 
diversified. Each has striven in an es- 



They esteemed him a special friend of 
God. He underwent every temptation 
belonging to his age, but without ever 
failing. This was his preparation for a 
solitary life. 

When he was thirty-five years old, he 
retired to the desert where he shut him- 



pecial way to reproduce some feature of self up in an abandoned building, where 
the life of Christ that most appealed to he lived alone for twenty years, receiving 

bread twice a year 
for his support from 
the top of the house. 
At the expiration of 
this term those de- 
sirous of imitating 
his life burst in the 
doors. Anthony 
came forth and by 
his conversation per- 
suaded many to em- 
brace the monastic 
life. Thenceforth, 
when occasion de- 
manded, he would 
issue from the soli- 
tude of his monas- 
tery to meet any 
trial of his brethren. 
And troublous in- 
deed were the times 
embracing the last and greatest pagan 
persecution and that of the Arian here- 
tics. 

St. Anthony's struggles with the pow- 
ers of darkness are famous. Strong in 
God's power he laughed the demons to 
scorn. "We must, " he said " fear God 
alone, but despise them and have no 
dread at all of them. But the more they 
do these things [attack and tempt] let us 
increase the tenor of our asceticism 
against them. For an upright life and 
faith in God are a great defence. They 

29 



his heart. To an 
Anthony, the Mas- 
ter's love of retire- 
ment alone on a 
mountain in prayer 
made the call to a 
solitary life in the 
desert an impera- 
tive appeal. 

How the call 
came is well known. 
Hearing the words 
of the Gospel read, 
in which the Lord 
said to the rich 
young man: "If 
thou wilt be perfect, 
go sell what thou 
hast and give to the 
poor, and thou shalt 
have treasure in 
heaven, and come follow me." He 
straightway left the church and sold 
all his property and goods. He reserved 
a little money for the support of his 
young sister whose guardian he was. 
But not long after, again in the church 
the voice sounded, "Be not solicitous 
for the morrow. ' ' He went out and 
gave way all that he had, confiding 
his sister to faithful virgins to bring 
up. Moreover he began to practise 
the virtue of all he saw around him, 
cherishing the continence of one, the 




ST. AUGUSTINE. 



30 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



dread in ascetics the fasting, the watch- 
ing, the prayers, the meekness, the tran- 
quility, the disregard of wealth and vain- 
glory, the humility, the love of the poor, 
the alms-giving, the gentleness, and 
above all, their piety towards Christ." 
We dwell thus long on St. Anthony be- 
cause of the influence of his example on 
all who after him led the contemplative 
life. 

His watchword was piety towards 
Christ. He had but one desire to follow 
his Lord to be like Him, to enjoy com- 
munion with Him. This was to be car- 
ried out in solitude when charity did not 
require his aid ; when it did then he lent, 
but never gave, himself, for he had laid 
down as a maxim that monks must live 
in the mountains as fish live in the sea. 

St. Anthony is considered the most 
perfect example of the ascetic life in 
itself, while his disciple, St. Pachomius, 
is ranked as its legislator, for he was 
the founder of the community life and 
gave its rule. As Paul was the first her- 
mit, so Anthony is the patriarch of 
monks. The greater severity of pen- 
ance in the hermit's loneliness was bal- 
anced by the greater opportunity of ex- 
ercising charity in a religious household 
living together under a rule. 

The real legislator, however, of the 
religious life is St. Basil, who was born 
in Caesarea of Cappadocia in 317. He 
belonged to a family, eight of whose 
members are reckoned among the saints. 
St. Gregory Nazianzen, his fellow stu- 
dent and friend at Athens, describes their 
life as follows : ' ' We two had the same 
end in view ; we sought the same treas- 
urevirtue ; and we thought we would 
make our friendship everlasting by pre- 
paring ourselves for eternity. We knew 
but two roads at Athens the one that 
led us to the church, the other to the 
schools. All others were ignored. " 

The law could not long satisfy the 
longings of such a soul. Nobler aspira- 
tions were inspired by his holy sister, 
Macrina. He betook himself to the des- 
ert to study the virtues of the disciples 



of SS. Paul and Anthony. When he 
returned after several years, he found 
that his mother and sister had taken 
refuge in a solitary place on the bank 
of the river Iris, where they were living 
in community with other virgins who 
had accompanied them. 

Basil resolved to follow their example 
and with some friends, his companions, 
he built a monastery on the opposite 
bank of the same river. For their guid- 
ance he composed a rule. Prayer and 
manual labor form its foundation. After 
praying to God with heart and lips ; 
after contemplating Him with the eyes 
of the spirit, prayer is to take the form 
of work. Cutting wood, tilling the soil, 
it matters not, prayer and work are the 
watchword against the enemy of souls. 
But Basil was not long to enjoy a life of 
solitude, however dear to him. He was 
called to the priesthood, afterwards to 
the episcopacy, and to be the invincible 
champion of orthodoxy. 

The institute of St. Basil spread rap- 
idly in the East and thence passed to the 
West. Even in the fourth century there 
were many monasteries following this 
rule in Italy. In the lifetime of the 
saints, the Arian heretics considered the 
Basilian monks and nuns as their most 
dreaded ~ adversaries on account of their 
numbers and the purity of their doc- 
trines. 

The monks united the active and con- 
templative life. They prayed and medi- 
tated in their monasteries, took care of 
the poor, worked with mind and hand, 
writing against heretics and cultivating 
the earth. It was their aim to live near 
the clergy and the Christians at large, to 
assist and strengthen them in the com- 
bat. The monastery was not their 
boundary line, and in a truly practical 
spirit St. Basil had said: "If fasting 
prevents work, you had better eat like 
Christ's workmen, which you are." 
How unceasing this work was to be he 
lays down saying: "Athletes, work- 
men of Christ ; you have enlisted with 
Him to combat all the day ; do not, then, 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



31 



seek for rest until the end of the day 
when night falls, that is at the end of 
life, the hour when the Father of the 
family will come to reckon with you and 
give you your pay. " 

The nuns devoted themselves chiefly 
to the liturgical chant, psalmody and 
prayer. 

In 340 the great St. Athanasius was 
driven into exile and 
fled for protection from 
new Rome to old Rome, 
where Pope Julius wel- 
comed him. The con- 
fessor of the faith 
brought with him a 
full knowledge of the 
monastic life as prac- 
tised in the desert by 
the disciples of SS. An- 
thony and Pachomius. 
Moreover, he was ac- 
companied by two 
monks, and thus the 
knowledge and esteem 
of this life were intro- 
duced at Rome. 

About twenty years 
later Pope Liberius re- 
ceived the solemn pro- 
fession of the sister of 
St. Ambrose in St. 
Peter's, amid a great 
company of nuns, her 
friends and partners of 
her life. St. Augus- 
tine, when still a young 
convert, testifies that 
he had seen monas- 
teries of men and 
women at Rome and 
Milan. 

From the beginning 
of Christianity as a 
direct following of the Apostles and of 
the Apostolic Church at Jerusalem, there 
had been those who carried out in their 
own lives many of the practices con- 
tained later in the monastic discipline. 
St. Cyprian called the consecrated vir- 
gins the brides of Christ a hundred years 




before Pope Liberius in St. Peter's had 
dwelt upon that dignity in the sister of 
St. Ambrose. But during times of per- 
secution it was impossible to have houses 
openly acknowledged in which the com- 
mon or community life could be led. 

This common life required of its mem- 
bers three things : an unmarried con- 
dition, the non-possession of private 
property and the re- 
nunciation of self-will 
in obedience. To guide 
such a community of 
those in no ways re- 
lated by kinship, a rule 
and a ruler were nec- 
essary. The spirit of 
both is seen in the 
names given to the 
rulers of abbot and 
abbess, showing that 
in the case of men it 
was to be paternal, in 
the case of women, ma- 
ternal. 

An account given 
by St. Augustine of 
a "community of 
saints, ' ' which he saw 
at Milan is interesting: 
' ' Its superior was an 
e x c e 1 1 ent and most 
learned priest. . 
He rules the rest, who 
dwell with him, in 
a life of Christian 
charity, holiness and 
liberty. They are a 
burden to no one, but 
maintain themselves 
by their own handi- 
work, after the Ori- 
ental custom, and the 
teaching of the 
Apostle Paul . It came to my knowledge 
that many exercised quite incredible 
fastings, not taking refreshment once a 
day at the approach of night, which is 
the universal custom, but very often 
passing three or more days without food 
or drink. And this was the case not only 



32 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



with men, but also women, where many 
widows and virgins dwelt together, main- 
taining themselves by woolen work and 
spinning. Each house has a superior of 
recognized gravity and experience, not 
only in directing and maintaining good 
conduct, but of ready skill in the culti- 
vation of the mind. ' ' 

The idea of monastic life affected pow- 
erfully the life of St. Augustine. At his 
conversion he retired to Tagaste with a 
few friends to lead a hidden life. When 
called forth to receive the priesthood, he 
set up a monastery at Hippo. The idea 
was modified when he became bishop, 
and he formed a community of which 
his own clergy collectively were mem- 
bers. This institution, though it has 
passed through many changes, remains 
to the present day active and efficient as 
a combination of the monastic and cleri- 
cal life. Those who followed the rule of 
St. Augustine were called Canons Reg- 
ular. The great bishop founded also a 
monastery for nuns at Hippo and con- 
fided its direction to his sister Perpetua. 
The rule which he drew up for them is 
extremely simple and readily adapts 
itself to the particular constitutions of 
orders which, later on, took it as a foun- 
dation. 

We might say that fraternal charity 
was the distinguishing mark of the 
spirit of St. Augustine. " Bear one an- 
other with charity, and work hard to 
preserve mutual union by the bond of 
peace, for you will always find things 
that must be borne at the "hands of 
others." "Endeavor to prevent com- 
plaints or strifes among you, or if they 
arise, smother them at once. Be more 
careful to preserve union than to reprove 
one another. " 

The Austin Canons, or Black Canons, 
as they were called in England, claim 
St. Augustine as their father and the 
giver of their rule, so too do the Augus- 
tinian hermits or friars. 

We pass over with a few words the 
admiration of St. Jerome for the monastic 
life which he saw at Rome and which he 



encouraged by the construction and gov- 
ernment of religious houses at Bethle- 
hem during the last part of his life. 

We must remark that in the beginning 
religious were of the laity, and that it 
was St. Augustine who first formed a 
community of clerics. 

In the East the monks of Anthony, 
Pachomius and Basil had been a bul- 
wark of strength against the enemies of 
the true faith. In the West the Roman 
empire was giving way before the bar- 
barian invasion, the monks formed an 
insurmountable barrier of faith, charity 
and penance. By faith they saw the 
value of souls, which they accordingly 
loved. In opposing poverty, chastity, 
and obedience, the bases of monastic 
life to the triple concupiscence, they at 
once offered a contrast and a remedy, 
though they had no intention of making 
this exceptional life the common rule for 
all. But by the very excess of their sac- 
rifice they showed people in the world 
the possibility of their being able to 
keep at least the happy mean. At the 
close of the fifth century God raised up 
one who is justly called the Patriarch of 
Monks St. Benedict. Like his proto- 
type, St. Anthony, he first formed him- 
self in a dreary solitude, dwelling in a 
cave in the mountains above Subiaco. 
There he dwelt for thirty-five years when 
he withdrew to Monte Cassino where he 
founded a new monastery which he ruled 
for fourteen years, until his death. From 
the experience he had of the disciples 
who had gathered around him in both 
these places, he drew up that rule which 
was to be embraced by so many genera- 
tions and to change the face of Europe. 

To understand the services of Benedict 
we must review the history of the monas- 
tic life. When he came upon the scene it 
had been in practice for two hundred 
years from its commencement by St. 
Anthony. From its home in Egypt it 
had spread throughout the East. The 
greatest eastern saints had encouraged 
it, and among them Basil had regulated 
it by his laws. Athanasius had written 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



33 



a life of the first patriarch Anthony, 
which became widely known, and per- 
sonally had helped to found it in Rome 
and the West. Augustine had made it 
an institution of his diocese, pointing it 
out to his fellow-bishops as the form of 
an episcopal home. The three vows on 
which the common life depended had 
been generally accepted and acted upon, 
but though St Basil had drawn up a 
rule with much pains, and many monas- 
teries had received it, still there was a 
great divergence in practices, and it was 
not until St. Benedict wrote his rule that 
there was a real religious order. 

The holy patriarch does not undertake 
to found an institute, but finding the 
coenobites, that is, the monks, who live 
under a rule or an abbot in monasteries, 
he seeks to regulate their mode of life. 
The abbot is to be, as his nam^ implies, 
a father. His authority is absolute, 
permanent and elective, with the obliga- 
tion of taking counsel of the whole com- 
munity, and of acting with a single re- 
gard to its interest. 

The monastery is to be so constituted 
that all things necessary, such as water, 
a mill, a garden, and the various crafts 
may be contained within, so that there 
may be no need foi the monks to go 
abroad ; for this is by no means expedi- 
ent for their souls. 

The whole monastic life was built 
upon obedience. But this sacrifice car- 
ries another with it, renunciation of all 
right to private ownership. After due 
probation the candidate who is to be re- 
ceived is to make before all, in the ora- 
tory, a promise of stability, conversion 
of life, and obedience. This promise he 
himself draws up in writing and places 
on the altar. He has already bestowed 
upon the poor whatever property he had. 
He then strips himself of his own gar- 
ments and is clothed in the habit of the 
monastery. The holocaust is complete. 

With such forces under command no 
wonder the Benedictine Abbot and 
Abbess carried all before them. They 
went forth from Monte Cassino armed 




I 



ST. BERNARD. 



with the triple vow and with a missoin 
of civilization. Europe was in the throes 
of barbarian invasions, and a blight 
showed their trail. It was the vocation 
of the sons and daughters of Benedict to 
redeem the waste places. They drained 
the marshes and cut down the forests, 
they cultivated the fields and founded 
cities, they formed libraries and saved 
the learned works of heathen and Chris- 
tian authors, they taught school and 
trained generations in faith and piety, 
they won over to Christ the barbarous 
peoples, Franks and Germans, Anglo- 
Saxons and Normans. Their monaster- 
ies were the refuge of souls that longed 
to serve God. From them went up the 
unceasing sacrifice of prayer and suppli- 
cation for mankind. 

After fourteen centuries the spirit of 
St. Benedict is as powerful as ever and 
the work of his children is carried on 
in the lives traced by his guiding hand. 

Some six hundred years after the death 
of the patriarch of monks a new branch 
sprouted from the parent trunk in the 
beautiful Cistercian Order, whose chief 
glory is St. Bernard. 



34 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



Though not strictly a founder, he 
deserves to be ranked as such by the 
new life he infused into the Order of 
Citeaux. Possessing all the gifts of 
nature in a high degree, noble of family 
and assured of advancement in the world 
he determined to abandon all when in 
his twenty-third year. 
His example was con - 
tagious and all his 
brothers but one, the 
youngest, followed 
him. Later on, he too 
knocked for admis- 
sion, accompanied by 
his aged father with 
the same request. 

He practised him- 
self what he after- 
wards taught his nov- 
ices : "If you wish to 
live in this house, 
you must leave out- 
side the bodies which 
you brought into the 
world ; for the souls 
alone are admitted 
here and the flesh is 
useless." The interior 
peace he enjoyed from 
constant union with 
God was reflected on 
his countenance and 
he seemed rather a 
spirit than a mortal 
man. 

The task of found- 
ing the Abbey of 
Clairvaux was con- 
fided to the young 
monk. At first he 
found it hard to un- 
derstand the difficul- 
ties of his less favored 
brethren, and showed himseli somewhat 
severe as though the same measure of 
grace were given to all. When he saw 
his mistake he humbled himself for not 
having compassion for the weakness 
of others. From this time forth he 
manifested an extraordinary gentleness 




ST. FRANCIS OF ASSIST. 



and condescension for his brethren. 
This, however, instead of relaxing the 
regular observance, rather increased it, 
for in a holy emulation the more indul- 
gent to them he showed himself, the 
more severe they proved to themselves. 
Like many another saint he went to 
excess in the practice 
of bodily mortifica- 
tions, which, in after 
life he regretted as 
blameworthy because, 
though one should get 
the mastery over the 
body, one should not 
destroy the strength 
given by God to be 
used for His service. 
But strength was lent 
to him on occasions to- 
speak before kings and 
peoples, to make long 
journeys, to preach 
two crusades, to de- 
fend the Church 
against heretics, and 
to found one hundred 
and sixty houses of h & 
Order. No man of his 
time wielded such in- 
fluence as the Abbot 
of Clairvaux. His de- 
votion to our Lord and 
His Blessed Mother 
was intense, and his 
writings in their 
honor show a heart 
burning with fondest 
love. This love mani- 
fested itself in won- 
drous zeal for souls. 
Such unction had he 
that the title Doctor 
Mellifluus was ac- 
corded him. Though honey-tongued, 
he could use a holy liberty and an 
apostolic courage when circumstances 
requested them, but withal tempered by 
humility and charity. Trials and per- 
secutions were not wanting but he ac- 
cepted them as God-sent means of puri- 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



35 



fying his soul, and God endowed him. 
with the gift of working miracles to 
advance His glory. 

After forty years of religious life, sur- 
rounded by his spiritual children in tears 
at the prospect of losing their Father, 
Bernard, raising his eyes to heaven, said 
with an angelic smile: "I know not 
to which I must yield : to the love of 
my children which urges me to stay 
here below, or to the love of my God 
which draws me up to Him." The 
love of God triumphed, and the last of 
the Fathers of the Church went to his 
reward. 

The spirit of St. 
Bernard still ani- 
mates the holy order 
of Citeaux, the spirit 
of prayer, recollec- 
tion, and penance. 
And since its aim 
was personal sancti- 
fication in solitude, 
its abbeys are to be 
found apart from the 
haunts of men in 
lonely places. In the 
course of ages a re- 
laxation in the mat- 
ter of food and other 
points was intro- 
duced. This led to 
several reforms or 
returns to the primi- 
tive rule, the most 
famous of which is the Trappist, whose 
members live dead to the world in per- 
fect silence, except when reciting the 
divine office, and not even known by 
name to one another. But the spirit of 
Bernard lives in them in their constant 
union with God and like him they say : 
" Living in a cell is living in heaven. " 

About fifty years after the death of St. 
Bernard the call of God came to Francis 
of Assisi. Faith was weakening and 
morals were degenerating. The virility 
of the Christian spirit was disappearing. 
The Crusades had failed, and the dis- 
ciples of Mohamet were bent on conquer- 




ST. CLAKE 



ing Christendom. To this foe from with- 
out came an ally from within the fold of 
the Church. Heresy was laying waste 
the faith in the regiod of the Alps. It 
was time for God to raise up for Himself 
a champion. Francis Bernardone was the 
man of providence. 

There was need of an apostle of de- 
tachment from all things earthly. Fran- 
cis was called to imitate Christ in His 
complete destitution on the Cross. Fran- 
cis became the practicer and preacher of 
holy poverty. He despoiled himself of 
everything he had, even to his garments, 
and in return received the clothes of a 
beggar from the 
hand of his bishop, 
lie renounced home 
and family. Thus 
freed from all things 
he retired to a cave, 
where in solitude he 
could listen to the 
voice of God. After 
forty days he came 
forth an enthusiastic 
lover of God and of 
souls redeemed by 
the precious blood. 

His zeal was a 
flame that enkindled 
all with whom he 
came in contact. 
Disciples flocked 
around him. He im- 
parted to them his 
spirit. A true Catholic, he would have 
the approbation for his work from the 
Vicar of Christ. At first his request 
was rejected, but a vision enlightened 
the Pontiff, Innocent IV., of the provi- 
dential character of the mission of St. 
Francis, and the sanction was accorded. 
A true apostle, he longed to bring the 
world to the feet of Jesus Christ. Like 
his model he first practised and then 
preached penance. A living example of 
perfect poverty, detachment and charity, 
no wonder his words burned deep into the 
hearts of men . Not content with receiv- 
ing the faith of Catholics, he burned 



36 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 




ST. DOMINIC. 

with the desire to impart the gift of God 
to the Moors. He crossed the sea to 
Egypt. He appeared in the camp of the 
Crusaders. Then in an excess of dar- 
ing he penetrated the ranks of the Mus- 
selmans and stood in the presence of the 
Sultan. Astonished at the hardihood of 
St. Francis, the Sultan spared his life 
and even granted him permission to 
preach to the soldiers ; but the soil was 
barren and the seed of the Word of God 
was unfruitful. 

The apostle returned to Assisi, and 
in the little church of Our Lady of the 
Angels he organized his order, embrac- 
ing three classes : the Friars Minor, the 
Poor Clares, and the Third Order for 
those living in the world. The Pope in 
the Council of the Lateran approved his 
Rule. 

His life had been distinguished by his 
burning love of Christ crucified. He 
was to be conformed to the likeness of 
the Crucified even in his body. So on 
the heights of Alverno, after long fasting 
and prayer, the sacred stigmata were im- 
pressed on his side, hands and feet by 
one who had the appearance of a seraph, 
whom he resembled in his burning love 
of God. He could well say with St. 



Paul : " From henceforth let no man be 
troublesome to me : for I bear the marks 
of the Lord Jesus in my body. " 

Worn out by mortification and labor, 
though only forty-four years of age, he 
felt his end approaching. Where his life 
for God had begun, there would he have 
it end. So he begged to be carried to Our 
Lady of the Angels, and there, lying on 
a bed of ashes, he breathed out his soul 
to God in a transport of love. At his 
death he left ten thousand Friars Minor 
to carry on his work ! And the work has 
gone on in the spirit of the founder. The 
name of Franciscan is synonymous with 
perfect poverty, child-like confidence in 
the providence of God, great simplicity 
of faith and zeal for souls. The family 
likeness is visible in the Seraphic Doctor 
of the Church, St. Bonaventure ; in the 
mighty wonder-worker, St. Anthony of 
Padua, and in the humble lay brother, 
St. Didacus. "My God and my all," 
represents their wealth and their poverty. 

What Francis was to do for men, Clare, 
under the guidance of the seraphic 
saint, was called by God to do for 
women. Noble in family, but nobler in 
heart, rich and beautiful, but despising 
riches and beauty as transitory, she 
longed fox a life hidden in God. Though 
only eighteen years of age the world had 
no charm for her, and she determined to 
consecrate herself to God alone. In the 
little church of Our Lady of the Angels 
St. Francis cut off her hair as a sign ot 
renouncing the vanities of the world, 
and clothed her in sackcloth with a cord 
as a girdle. She then plighted her 
eternal troth to her divine Bridegroom 
and retired to the Benedictine Monastery 
of St. Paul. A few days later her young 
sister Agnes, only fourteen years old, 
joined her. 

A violent storm of opposition arose. 
The noble Count Favorino, their father, 
was determined to regain his daughters. 
But One who had higher claims than he 
interposed in behalf of those pure souls 
who had offered Him the holocaust of 
their lives. The Count accepted the evi- 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



37 



dent will of God and blessed his chil- 
dren. 

St. Francis could now establish the 
Second Order of Penance. He installed 
the two sisters in a small house adjoin- 
ing the church of St. Damian, and soon 
many " doves, " as the saintly foundress 
called them, "took shelter in the little 
nest of poverty." Among them were 
Clare's mother, her other sister, Beatrice, 
and her niece, Amy. 

They were called the Poor Women, 
poverty, their distinctive mark, being 
thus emphasized, but the name by which 
they are commonly known now is the 
Poor Clares. 

They went barefoot, observed perpet- 
ual abstinence, constant silence and abso- 
lute poverty. ' ' They say we are too 
poor, ' ' said the Saint, ' ' but can a heart 
which possesses God be truly called 
poor ? " In this spirit their only treas- 
ure was the Blessed Sacrament, and our 
Lord more than once gave proof of His 
protection in a signal way. Once, when 
twenty thousand Saracens were en- 
camped near Assisi, a body of them 
attacked the convent at night. There 
were no guards to resist, nor was there 
any money to buy off, the enemy. Put- 
ting the Sacred Host in a monstrance, 
St. Clare thus armed went to meet the 
barbarians. A celestial light shone from 
the Host ; blinded and alarmed, the Sara- 
cens fled. Hence in sacred art St. Clare 
is represented bearing a monstrance or a 
ciborium. With some modifications of 
rule, the spiritual daughters of St. Clare 
are to be found in nearly all civilized 
countries. In a luxurious and money- 
worshipping age the Poor Clares by their 
lives carry out the dying injunctions of 
their foundress. "I conjure, you, my 
daughters, for the love of that divine 
Saviour, who was born poor in a manger, 
who lived poor among men, and died 
naked on the Cross, to see to it that this 
little flock, formed by the Heavenly 
Father in His Holy Church, through the 
words and example of St. Francis, our 
blessed Father, always imitate the pov- 




ST. TERESA. 



erty and humility of His dear Son and 
of the glorious Virgin Mary." 

The Saint of Assisi, having provided 
for men and women who were willing to 
forsake all to follow Christ in the First 
and Second Order, bethought himself of 
the needs of those who might serve God 
with a perfection suited to their state 
without abandoning the world. It was 
the inspiration of the Third Order open 
to all, even to the married, who would 
follow a rule adapted to their wants. To 
what multitudes in all ages and coun- 
tries has it proved the means of leading 
a holy life amid the cares and seductions 
of the world. To how many has it been 
the stepping-stone to a religious vocation 
and eminent sanctity. 

While the voice of God was calling St 
Francis in Italy, to set an example of per- 
fect poverty and detachment, the same 
voice was speaking to St. Dominic in 
Spain. The young Castilian had a heart 
burning with the love of God and con- 
sequently hating sin, and yearning to 
make all men know, love and serve their 
master. An instance of his zeal gives a 
clue to his character. He heard one 
day that a young man had been taken 
captive by the Moors. Such a captivity 
might cause the loss of salvation to that 
soul. He offered to sell himself that the 
price of his own liberty might be the 
ransom of the captive. 



38 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



Dominic was sent into France on a 
diplomatic embassy. While in that 
country his heart was touched with sor- 



Onr Lady took St. Dominic under her 
special protection and gave to him that 
most powerful spiritual weapon, the 



row and indignation at the ravages of Rosary, with which to overcome heresy. 



the Albigensian heretics. He inflamed 
other priests with some of his zeal, but 



But while the Friars Preachers were try- 
ing to gain souls by the apostleship of 



as there was no stability in the bond the Word they had need of power and 



connecting them with him and the work, 
he decided to found an order and sought 
the sanction of Innocent III. It was 
not granted for a while. Finally the 
Pope yielded on condition that Dominic 
and his companions should follow some 
rule already approved. They selected 
that of St. Augustine. Convinced, like 
St. Francis, of the 
necessity of bodily 
mortifications he 
enjoined complete 
abstinence from 
meat, except in 
serious illness, a 
fast from Septem- 
ber 14 to Easter 
day, the use of 
woolen garments, 
a rigorous poverty 
and other austeri- 
ties. 

As the aim of 
the new founder 
was to gain souls, 
the spirit which 
he infused into his 
brethren was zeal 

for the apostleship, ST ' JANE FRANCES 

and hence their title of Friars Preachers. 
The new order spread rapidly. Like the 
Friars Minors ;,they depended wholly 




unction. So the nuns of St. Dominic 
in their cloisters were to carry on the 
apostolate of prayer and thus strengthen 
the arms of their brethren that else 
might have grown weary and powerless. 
Faithful to their vocation both sons and 
daughters of St. Dominic, the former by 
preaching, the latter by praying, are 
bulwarks against 
the spread of error. 
In the sixteenth 
century a new 
enemy was deso- 
lating the fold of 
Christ. He needed 
new champions. 
The Reformers 
railed against bodi- 
ly m o r t i fi c ation 
and the monastic 
life. God would 
give to them a 
striking example 
of a mortified nun. 
So He drew to Him 
the little maiden of 
Avila, and Teresa, 
when only seven 
years of age, 

longed for death, because, as she said, 
"I want to see God, and I must die 
before I can see Him," desiring like 



CHANTAL. 



for their subsistence on the alms of the Apostle "to be dissolved and to be 
the faithful. As missionaries they are with Christ." This same love of God 
known all the world over. 

Unlike St. Francis, Dominic estab- 



drew her to forsake the world with its 
attract ions and seek Him in the solitude 
lished first a convent of nuns in order of Carmel where He could speak to her 
to rescue and shield young girls from heart. Though the Second Order of 
heresy and crime. In spite of seniority, Carmelites had not long been in ex- 
in time the Dominican nuns form the istence its first fervor had somewhat 



Second Order, [while the Friars Preachers relaxed, 
have precedence as the First Order. 



Teresa, appreciating in her 
own case the need of the strict observ- 



Lastly came the Tertiaries, cons : sting of ance, resolved to practise the primitive 
persons of both sexes living in the world, rule and to induce her fellow nuns to do 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT 



the same. Naturally opposition arose. Although so opposed to the weak- 
Teresa, convinced of her mission, was nesses of human nature, prone to ease 
resolute although humble and obedient, and self-indulgence, the Order of Car- 
She persevered and she triumphed. In mel nourishes. The f daughters of the 
a suburb of her own town of Avila, she Seraphic Mother, living shut off from 
opened the first convent of Discalced the world by their strict cloister, bring 
or Barefooted Carmelites. Poverty down upon that world God's richest 
reigned there and bodily mortification, blessings obtained by their prayers and 
but only as means of freeing the soul to penances. A child-like spirit of joy 
hold a more intimate converse with characterizes them, caught perhaps from 



God. Where 
every human 
consolation 
was lacking, 
there was an 
abundance of 
spiritual joy. 
The de- 
lights of the 
Carmel of 
Avila be- 
came known 
abroad and 
can didates 
in numbers 
begged ad- 
mittance. In 
various cities 
of Spain 
Teresa was 
implored to 
found con- 
vents. Nor 
did the call 
come from 
women only, 
but men too 
caught the 
prim it ive 
spirit of 
Carmel as 




ST. VINCENT DE PAUL. 



their con- 
stant con- 
templation of 
the mysteries 
of the Holy 
Childhood of 
our Lord . 
They have 
the simplic- 
ity and sweet- 
ness taught 
them by Him, 
and these are 
the treasures 
of Carmel. 

In the six- 
teenth centu- 
ry Teresa was 
called by God, 
as she has re- 
corded, to im- 
plore grace 
for heretics, 
especi ally 
those in 
France, by 
pr actis ing 
herself and 
inducing oth- 
ers to prac- 
tise great 



preached and practised by St. John austerity of life and constant union with 

of the Cross, the fellow worker of St. God in prayer. Two centuries later a 

Teresa in the great reform. She lived more insidious enemy, Jansenism, was 

to see seventeen convents of nuns and ravaging France. It represented the 

fifteen of friars following the primitive Catholic religion as hard and exacting ; 

rule. Her wonderful ascetical works, her it dried up the springs of divine love, 

Foundations, her Way of Perfection, her and under the pretence of respect for the 

Castle of the Soul, and other writings, sacraments tried to keep men from fre- 

have won for St. Teresa a place in the quenting them. To counteract this spe- 

foremost rank of writers of the Church, cious heresy God chose two elect souls 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



to found a religious order in which sweet- 
ness should temper strength, and faith 
inspire love ; in which bodily austerities 
should give precedence to interior disci- 
pline of the mind and heart. St. Francis 
de Sales and St Jane de Chantal were 
the instruments in founding the order of 
the Visitation of St. Mary. God willed 
that the work of the saintly bishop of 
Geneva should last, and that his spirit 
should live through the ages. It was he 
who conceived the plan of the new insti- 
tute and wrote its constitutions, but it 
was the noble Baroness de Chantal who 
carried it into execution. Had she been 
the author the rule might have been too 
severe ; had he not had her counsel it 
might have been too easy. 

The life of St. Jane is well known. 
Her heroic sacrifice of so many endear- 
ing ties is famous. A daughter leaves 
her aged father, a widowed mother her 
orphan children, when they seemed still 
to need her care. But a higher claim 
than that of father or children had been 
made known to her. The Church in the 
collect for her feast strikes as a keynote 
of her greatness her marvellous fortitude 
of spirit in pursuing the way of perfec- 
tion in four states of life, and attributed 
it to her burning love for God. The 
world was aghast at the news that the 
beautiful and charming baroness had 
forsaken it to devote her life to the 
founding of a religious order. The gen- 
tle and sympathetic Francis intended to 
provide for those devout souls that dwelt 
in frail bodily tabernacles and were, 
therefore, unable to bear the austerity 
of the old orders. Moreover, when first 
instituted, the Visitandines were not 
cloistered, and thus they could visit the 
sick and needy in their homes as one of 
their practices of charity. But it was an 
innovation in those days for nuns to be 
seen in the streets. The good people of 
Annecy were edified, and the virtues of 
the members of the new order attracted 
many postulants. A call came to form 
a monastery at Lyons, and thither St. 
Jane was sent. The archbishop received 



her with honor and respect, but insisted 
upon the cloister. St. Francis at first 
stood firm, saying that circumstances 
altered cases and that the new needs of 
the Church required new measures. Mgr. 
de Marquemont was inflexible, and the 
saintly bishop of Annecy yielded. He 
used afterwards to say : " I do not know 
why people call me the founder of an 
order, for I did not do what I wanted, 
and I did do what I did not want. " He 
was consoled, however, by the approba- 
tion by Paul V. of the new order under 
the rule of St. Augustine, which he char- 
acterized as "so animated by charily 
that throughout it breathes only sweet- 
ness, gentleness and kindliness, and 
hence is suitable for all sorts of person >, 
whatever be their strength or nation- 
ality." 

Thirty-two years did St. Jane live in 
religion, guided during twelve by her 
saintly co-founder. When death claimed 
her, at the age of seventy, she had 
founded eighty-six monasteries. St. 
Francis seemed to have an intuition of 
the part his order was to play in spread- 
ing the devotion of the Sacred Heart, for 
he begged the nuns ' ' to unite their vows 
to the Heart of Jesus ; " to be the serv- 
ants and adorers of the loving Heart of 
the Saviour, and he called them "The 
daughters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. " 
A little more than thirty years after the 
death of St. Jane our Lord made the great 
revelation of His Sacred Heart to B. 
Margaret Mary, and the humble Visitan- 
dine became the apostle of this world- 
regenerating devotion. 

Mgr. Bougaud portrays the spirit of 
the institute as follows : ' ' The Visita- 
tion knows not the long fasts nor the 
other austerities of Carmel. Mortified, 
however, for without bodily mortifica- 
tion there can be no religious life, the 
daughter of St. Francis de Sales immo- 
lates herself especially by interior sacri- 
fice, by carefulness to keep herself gen- 
tle, recollected, humble, amiable, agree- 
able to all and in all things. She lives 
in the cloister and behind bars, but less 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPJRIT. 






severe ; the veil which God puts on her 
head does not hide her face from view. 
Her distinctive trait is sweetness. " 

St. Francis de Sales had realized the 
need of a body of devoted women who 
would visit in their homes the poor, the 
sick, and the unfortunate. We have 
seen how he was obliged to change the 
work of his Visitandines. St. Vincent 
de Paul was able to carry out the plan of 
the saintly 
bishop. Per- 
haps the rea- 
son was that 
one began by 
writing an 
institute, and 
the other 
wrote an in- 
stitute after 
the work had 
been success- 
fully under- 
taken. The 
"father of 
the poor, ' ' as 
.St. Vincent 
was called, 
like many 
another foun- 
der, had no 
idea that he 
was founding 
a congrega- 
tion. As a 
priest he was 
inflamed with 
:zeal for souls. 
He saw that 
souls could 
be gained 

through] ministering to the body. He 
believed in organized efforts, so he 
established in parishes the celebrated 
confraternities of charity for the spirit- 
ual and corporal relief of the sick poor. 
He gathered around him other zealous 
priests, who in time became known as 
the Priests of the Mission. Wherever 
they went to preach there they started in 
every parish a confraternity of charity. 




ST. PHILIP NERI. 



But the great work was to take a new 
development. There was much pious 
emulation in Paris among the ladies of 
the highest class. -Foremost among 
them was Louise de Marillac, widow of 
M. Le Gras. St. Vincent de Paul recog- 
nized her eminent piety and ability and 
charged her with the task of putting 
unity of action into the different associa- 
tions of charity already established. 

It resulted 
in the forma- 
tion of the 
celebrated 
Congrega- 
tion of the 
Sisters of 
Charity. It 
was a new 
departure in 
religious 
life. Vincent 
called them 
the Servants 
of the Poor 
and wrote 
his admira- 
ble confer- 
ences to form 
them in 
practical 
spirituality. 
Heexpressed 
his idea of 
his spiritual 
daughters in 
the follow- 
ing words : 
"They will 
consider that 
although 
they are not in a religious order, inas- 
much as this state is not suitable to 
their vocation, yet, because they are 
much more exposed than the religious 
who are cloistered and grilled, since they 
have for monastery only the houses of 
the sick, for a cell some poor room and 
that, too, rented ; for chapel the parish 
church, for cloister the streets of the 
city, for enclosure obedience, for grille 



42 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



the fear of God, and for veil holy 
modesty : on account of all these con- 
siderations they should have as much 
or even more virtue than if they were 
professed in a religious order. " 

Of course St. Vincent, in declaring 
that his daughters were not religious, 
spoke in the strict ecclesiastical mean- 
ing of the word, which implied those 
things which he declared incompatible 
with their public duties. At first he 
would not allow them to take any vows 
at all, but finally yielded to their making 
simple vows, which would not make of 
them nuns, for as he said, " when you 
say nun, you imply cloister, grille, and 
other things incompatible with your 
vocation." They were not to wear a 
religious habit, but the costume of a 
peasant of those days, the gray dress and 
the white linen cornette. Thus they 
could go freely in and out without at- 
tracting attention or exciting adverse 
criticism. St. Vincent knew how to 
adapt means to the end, and what an 
end he had in view ! Every work of 
charity was a work for his daughters. 
The sick, the needy, the aged, the 
foundling, the ignorant all had a claim 
on their services. Hospitals, asylums, 
homes, schools were to be the scene 
of their labors. Their zeal was not 
to be confined to any country, "for 
the earth is the Lord's"; hence they 
were to be missionaries in all lands. 
They were to brave every danger, so they 
were to follow the army on the battle- 
field, and while tending the bodies of 
the sick and wounded to pour in the oil 
and balm of spiritual consolation. How 
they have fulfilled the design of their 
founder, the whole world is witness. 

Space does not allow us even to men- 
tion the numerous congregations of 
women which claim St. Vincent de Paul 
as their founder. But the successors of 
those first Priests of the Mission, com- 
monly known as Lazarists, have made 
his name glorious, not only for their 
work in the civilized world, but for their 
missionary labors in heathen lands. 



When the voice of God was calling 
Vincent de Paul to His service, a glorious 
life was closing in Rome. 

In the foremost rank of lovable saints 
is St. Philip Neri, whose very presence 
was sufficient to banish sadness and mel- 
ancholy. From his childhood upwards 
he was remarkable for the singular 
beauty and purity of his character. Given 
to penance and mortification himself, he 
had nothing but sweetness and kindness 
for others. He was consumed with the 
love of God, and it showed itself in a 
burning zeal to do good to others. A 
Florentine by birth, he exercised hi& 
apostolate in the Eternal City and earned 
the glorious title of Apostle of Rome. 

Even as a layman he acquired great 
influence over men whom he won to the 
practice of Christian virtues. By the 
advice of his confessor he received the 
priesthood that he might the better gain 
souls. His room became the resort of 
those who wished to be trained in the 
spiritual life. A larger room was soon 
needed. Then he got leave to build an 
oratory over one of the aisles of the 
church of St. Jerome. Other priests 
were attracted to engage in the work, 
and the Congregation of the Oratory 
was formed. St. Philip lived in the sun- 
shine of God's presence, and reflected 
his joyful spirit on all who came near 
him. When he met his spiritual chil- 
dren in the street, he would pat them on 
the cheek, or playfully pull their hair 
or their ears and fill them with joy. He 
wished them to serve God, like the first 
Christians, in gladness of heart. This, 
he said, was the true filial spirit which 
expands the soul, giving it liberty and 
perfection in action, power over tempta- 
tion, and fuller aid to perseverance. His 
own life was a succession of miracles. 
He could read the hearts of men and fore- 
tell their destiny. He could restore 
health to the body and peace to the soul. 

The great son of St. Philip, Cardinal 
Newman, thus speaks of the mission of 
his father in God : " Instead of combat- 
ing like St. Ignatius, or being a hunter 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



43 






of souls like St. Cajetan, Philip pre- 
ferred, as tie expressed it tranquilly, to 
cast in his net to gain them ; he pre- 
ferred to yield to the stream and direct 
the current which he could not stop 
of science, literature, art and fashion, 
and to sweeten and sanctify what God 
had made very good and man had 
spoilt." So we find the Saint in the 
great metropolis of the world in the six- 
teenth century, when the pagan spirit 
of the renaissance was at its height, not 
so much resisting it as subjugating it. 
One instance will show it. Music had 
alluring charms. Then music shall be 
one of the attractions 
in his oratory ; and 
Palestrina, one of his 
disciples, composed 
many hymns to be 
sung at their meet- 
ings. And so to this 
day popular devo- 
tions, a simple in- 
struction and congre- 
gational singing, 
draw every evening 
in the week except 
Saturday, reserved 
for confessions, a de- 
vout congregation. 

But we must not 
imagine that the gay 
spirit of St. Philip 
was opposed to mor- 
tification. On the 
contrary, it sprang from a constant 
practice of penance ; and this he taught 
those whom he attracted and formed 
into the Brothers of the Little Oratory, 
laymen living in the world, but meet- 
ing regularly in their own chapel where 
among other exercises they take the dis- 
cipline in common. 

The picture of St. Philip would be in- 
complete indeed were no mention to be 
made of his tender love for the Mother 
of God. She in return gave many a 
striking proof of her affection, among 
others she miraculously upheld the roof 
of his chapel which was about to fall 




ST. ALPHONSUS LIGUORI 



and crush him, and restored him to 
health when at the point of death. His 
devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and 
his ecstatic state when offering the Holy 
Sacrifice are well known. But it is as 
the Saint of children and young men 
that Philip will ever be held in benedic- 
tion. "Amuse yourselves, but do not 
offend God ' ' was the burden of his talk. 
And once when a visitor remarked to 
him what a noise the young people 
were making in his room and wondered 
how he could stand it, the Saint replied : 
" Provided the}' do not commit any sin, 
they can cut wood on my back, if it 
gives them pleas- 
ure." Beloved by 
God and man, St. 
Philip, when dying, 
left to his congrega- 
tion his spirit of joy 
and of devotion to 
young men. 

A century after the 
death of St. Philip, 
a saint made this 
prophecy of a new- 
born babe : ' ' This 
child will live to a 
very advanced age ; 
he will not die until 
his ninetieth year ; 
he will be a bishop 
and will do great 
things for Jesus 
Christ. " The prophet 
was St. Francis de Girolamo, S.J., and 
the subject of the prophecy was St. 
Alphonsus Maria de Liguori. 

From his childhood Alphonsus was 
remarkable for his tender piety, especial- 
ly to our Lord in the Blessed Sacra- 
ment and to the Virgin Mother of God. 
But his piety helped, rather than im- 
peded his studies, so that he took the 
degree of doctor in canon and civil law 
when only in his sixteenth year. The 
bar, however, could not satisfy his as- 
pirations. The voice of God sounded in 
his heart : ' ' What have you to do in the 
world ? " " Lord, do with me what Thou 



SOME RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS AND THEIR SPIRIT. 



wilt, ' ' was the answer. In spite of the 
opposition of his family, he entered the 
ecclesiastical state. He ambitioned to 
become an Oratorian, for he had long 
been a Brother of the Little Oratory, and 
like St. Philip, he tenderly loved the 
young, whom he would collect around 
him, teach them, and bring them to 
church. But the oratory was not to be 
his home. He began his public ministry 
as a priest in a congregation founded in 
Naples for the giving of missions and 
retreats. For a whole year after his 
ordination he abstained from hearing 
confessions out of humility. Only under 
an order of obedience from Cardinal 
Pignatelli did he take his seat in the 
tribunal of penance. His extraordinary 
kindness to penitents brought multitudes 
to his confessional. He never forgot 
that, though he was the judge of the 
penitent, he was also the father, and 
that it was a ministry of reconciliation, 
and not of condemnation, that had been 
confided to him. So he was wont to 
condemn in after life all rigorism, say- 
ing : "The more a soul is plunged in 
vice and bound by the bonds of sin, so 
much the more must one try by means 
of kindness to snatch it from the arms 
of the devil to throw it into the arms of 
God. It is easy to say : ' Go away, you 
are doomed; I cannot absolve you ; ' but 
if one consider that this soul is the 
price of the blood of Jesus Christ, one 
should be horrified at such conduct. " 

True to his teaching, the Saint, in 
extreme old age, testified that he never 
remembered to have sent away a sinner 
un absolved, still less to have ever treated 
any one with hardness or bitterness. 
This came not from laxness or easiness 
in giving absolution, but from the 
power he possessed of disposing the 
hearts of his penitents by his charitable 
interest and gentleness. 

The success of Alphonsus in giving 
missions and the spiritual destitution 
that he found among the poor peasants 
filled him with the desire of devoting 
his life to the succor of the rural popula- 



tions. Other priests felt drawn to the 
same work, and the Congregation of the 
Most Holy Redeemer was founded. In 
order the more effectually to carry out 
the principal end of the Institute, which 
is to assist the most ignorant and 
neglected souls, St Alphonsus forbade 
his Fathers to undertake such works as 
the instruction of youth, the government 
of seminaries and the direction of nuns. 
Their main occupation was to be the 
apostolic ministry in the preaching of 
missions and retreats to all classes of 
persons, but with a preference for such 
as are most neglected, especially those 
who live in remote villages and hamlets. 
As, however, in many countries the most 
neglected souls are to be found in the 
great cities, the intention of the founder 
is carried out in laboring for them. 

The Saint, who was himself so eminent 
in learning, insisted on the duty of 
continual study, so that his priests 
might be "of use and profit to the 
Church on all occasions. " Some sixty 
volumes attest the wonderful knowledge 
and assiduity of him who has been 
declared a doctor of the Church. Had 
he but written his Commentary of Moral 
Theology, it would have been a sufficient 
monument. His doctrinal works breathe 
a most tender piety, and his Glories of 
Mary could have been produced only 
by one who, as he declared, had from 
his childhood held direct converse with 
our Lady, and thus knew her marvellous 
power with God. 

With great natural repugnance he 
accepted, by order of holy obedience 
from the Pope, the bishopric of St. 
Agatha of the Goths. As a bishop he 
emulated the virtues of St. Charles 
Borromeo, but when his health had 
completely failed he applied to be 
relieved of his pastoral charge. The 
request was refused by two successive 
Popes; the third, Pius VI., granted it. 
When the news reached him, he ex- 
claimed : " God be praised, for He has 
taken a mountain off my shoulders." 
He returned joyfully to his religious 



THE PRODIGAL. 



45 



brethren to edify them by his exact 
observance of their somewhat severe 
rule and by his holy counsels. Full of 
years, the saintly patriarch died, be- 
queathing to the Redemptorists the spirit 
of zeal for souls and great devotion to 
the Blessed Virgin. 

We have not pretended to give any- 
thing like a complete account of those 
founders whom we have selected, and we 



have been obliged to pass over in silence 
through want of space many whose 
claims are evident. But we must re- 
mark the truth to which St. Paul calls 
attention, saying : "There are diversities 
of graces, but the same spirit ; and there 
are diversities of ministers, but the same 
Lord ; and there are diversities of opera- 
tions, but the same God, who worketh 
all in all." 



THE PRODIGAL. 

By J. Reader. 
(Concluded.} 



THE night of John's flight Father 
Stewart sat waiting by himself in 

[rs. Stephenson's little kitchen. He 
was sitting, stooping forward in his 
chair, with his eyes fixed on the fire, 
and a pained sad look on his kindly 
face. 

He had brought the doctor himself 
to see poor little Mary, who lay nigh 
unto death, stricken to the soul by her 
brother's conduct. She did not seem to 
have the strength to rally from the 
shock of the discovery of his cruel con- 
duct ; she lay unconscious and nerveless, 
and the mother absorbed in her own 
bitter grief was not conscious that an- 
other loss threatened her. 

Father Stewart hoped that the sight of 
the doctor would arouse her to the danger 
of Mary's condition. " Poor woman, 
poor child : ' ' said the good Father to 
himself. "Who could have imagined 
such a blow for them, and from such a 
quarter ; the sorrows and sufferings of 
human life without our faith, how could 
we ever bear them ! ' ' 

The doctor came bustling down stairs, 
treading heavily with his creaky boots, 
and talking loudly, as if he desired to 
rouse the little cottage out of the death- 
like silence that had fallen on it. 

"There now, Mrs. Stephenson, " he 
said when he reached the kitchen : 
"cheer up, cheer up, grievin' will no 



bring yer lad back, an'it'lltak' ye a'yer 
time to comfort the bit lassie up there ; 
she's sair shaken." 

The doctor generally lapsed into " the 
Scotch " when talking with the poor 
people, and so indeed did Father Stewart, 
though he confessed to a more limited 
vocabulary than the doctor. " She'll 
neither speak nor eat, doctor," said 
poor Mrs. Stephenson between her sobs, 
' ' she was aye that set on her brither, 
I'm fearin' it'll be the death o' her." 

" A weel, she's no deed yet ; ye'll gie 
her the bit draughty noo, an' I'll look 
in the first thing i' th' mornin'. Yer 
lad '11 be a' richt, ye'll see ; he has good 
abeelities an' he'll no' stick " adding 
under his breath, "an' the deil's aye 
kind to his ain." 

Father .Stewart said a few consoling 
words, and he and the doctor left the 
cottage. 

' ' Had you any idea, Father, that 
young Stephenson was going to turn out 
badly? " said the doctor, as they walked 
home together. 

" None whatever ; it had shocked me 
more than I can tell you. Certainly for 
the last month or two he has not been 
so attentive to his duties as formerly, 
but I did not think anything was wrong, 
and lads of that age do not want too 
tight a rein, as they get restive. " 

' ' Ah well, I 'm not surprised ; he comes 



46 



THE PRODIGAL. 



of a bad stock, though the mother is a 
decent body, and a 'a good woman, but it's 
' bred in the bone ' you see, as they 
say. ' ' 

" You are great on heredity, doctor. " 

"I should not be much good in my 
calling if I kept that out of my calcula- 
tions. Shakespeare says, ' the evil that 
men do, lives after them, ' and we see it 
alive and rioting in the offspring, with 
destructive vigor. There is not much 
advance yet on the wisdom of the 
ancient writings ; it is ' to the third and 
fourth generations, ' Father, and the 
law is inexorable. Sometimes it's the 
physical, and sometimes the moral being 
that suffers from the ancient evil ; in the 
Stephensons you have an example of 
both the lassie is a cripple with a 
diseased hip joint, and the lad has a 
congenital twist in his moral nature, and 
an inherited tendency to depravity. He 
has started the downward path now, 
and nothing will stop him. " 

' ' Fie, doctor ! If I thought as you do 
about these matters, I'd ask you for an 
ounce of laudanum and make an end 
of all things. There are other and 
higher laws you should include in the 
scope of your philosophy ; I am no 
student of heredity, as you know, but 
whatever I have ever learned regarding 
the question, either from books or from 
personal observation, I have no difficulty 
in reconciling with the higher, ' the 
perfect law of charity, ' which wills not 
the death of a sinner, but promises 
grace sufficient to save, in spite of all 
inherited instincts to evil or in feeble 
will. To overcome our evil tendencies, 
whether inherited or not, is the con- 
tinual warfare of man's life on earth, 
and, thank God, there are many who 
make a good fight of it. Bodily suffer- 
ing, too, if borne patiently, purifies and 
strengthens the soul, and sceptic as you 
are, doctor, you are not going to deny 
that man has a soul, and that this is 
often the stronger part of him and 
dominates the physical being. " 

" I don't deny it, I admit a something 



in man beyond the purely material, 
which you call a soul. " 

"Well, anyway, my prayers will be 
for the poor prodigal, that he may have 
grace to return to himself and to those 
who love him.". 

So they shook hands and parted, tak- 
ing their several ways home. They were 
good friends and much attached to each 
other, although the doctor was quite a 
free lance in matters of religion, and a 
sad sceptic altogether, but his heart was 
kind, and his life devoted to good and 
useful work. They met almost daily for 
some time at Mrs. Stephenson's cottage, 
where day by day love and death bat- 
tled for the frail and gentle Mary. But 
love conquered, and kept her, the om- 
nipotent love of a good mother who 
knows how to pray and what will it 
not accomplish ? 

Before very long Mary was sitting 
knitting on her old seat at the cottage 
door, and mother and daughter had 
taken up the thread of their daily life 
with patient but saddened hearts. They 
had silently joined the drooping ranks 
of those who wait the votaries of the 
"Madonna of Sighs " a pale company 
of women chiefly, of whom for the 
most part, " the world is not worthy " 
who wait for their prodigals, for their 
loved, for their lost, with tears and 
prayers, but with much patience. 

Mary made a great effort for her 
mother's sake, and the mother buried 
her own sorrow very deep in her heart 
for Mary's sake, and made a brave show 
of cheerfulness. It was a long time be- 
fore they could talk of John, though 
each knew he was never absent from the 
other's thoughts. 

One day Father Stewart came in with 
' ' a grand piece of news for Mary ' ' : Mr. 
Lindsey's picture was the picture of the 
year. It was hung on the line and bade 
fair to make his fortune. " He has had 
praise enough to turn his head, Mary," 
said the good Father, his eyes shining 
with pride and pleasure. "They say it's 
an inspiration his face of St. Elizabeth, 



THE PRODIGAL. 



4-7 



so delicate and tender but there! I'll 
give you the paper to read for yourself, 
Mary. You'll maybe not understand 
the half of it, but you will see he has 
done a fine piece of work." 

' ' Think o ' that now, Mary, ' ' said Mrs. 
Stephenson . ' ' She 's said many a rosary 
for him, Father, she was that ta'en up 

iwi' Mr. Lindsey. But what's his picter 
a' aboot ? " 
" We will be having a sketch of it 
soon, I expect, in one of the illustrated 
papers, then I will show it to you. But 
Mary here will be getting so vain there 
will be no putting up with her. " 

"I am so glad, Father," said Mary, 
"but he'll have made me a deal bonnier 
than I am, I'm thinking, an' I'll no be 
vain if you'll just let us see what it's 
like." 

Mr. Lindsey did not forget his promise 
to Mary to "go shares." He felt a 
boundless gratitude, he said, to the own- 
er of the fair face that had helped him 
so much. His picture was exhibited, 
engraved, photographed and stereotyped, 
so that by the end of a couple of years 
the famous picture of St. Elizabeth was 
known to most people in the kingdom, 
and Charles Lindsey, R. A., could name 
his own price for his pictures henceforth, 
and take his place amongst the best 
artists of his day. By the end of a few 
years he was a comparatively rich man, 
and his annual presents to Mary and her 
mother secured them from that degree of 
poverty which would surely have over- 
taken them if such welcome help had 
not been forthcoming. 

As the years went on, Mrs. Stephenson 
lost the robust health which had happily 
been hers during the earlier years of her 
widowhood, and there were many days 
when she could not go out to work. The 
sorrow and disappointment she had suf- 
fered through her son, had in a great 
measure broken her spirit and sapped her 
energies. More and more she longed 
for John's return, and she and Mary 
offered up all their prayers and com- 
munions for their poor prodigal. If they 



could only get some news of him, only 
hear that he was alive and well, and 
leading a good Christian life they would 
be satisfied, even if they never saw him 
again. 

As it sometimes happens in the case 
of delicate children, Mary's health im- 
proved as she reached maturer years, 
and a young fisherman, the son of a 
neighbor, who had long ' ' wanted Mary, " 
set himself more determinedly to win her 
for his own. He was a decent Catholic 
lad, with a boat of his own and "a bit 
sillar " put by in the bank. 

"A fine fule ye '11 look wi' a cripple 
wife, ' ' his mother would say sometimes, 
who wished her son to look higher than 
the daughter of a poor widow like Mrs. 
Stephenson, working for her living. 
" An' its no ain of they Stephenson lot 
that I'm carin' to hae for a dauchter-in- 
law. ' ' 

" It'll be Mary Stephenson or nae- 
body, " he always answered shortly. 

Mary had never thought seriously of 
marriage, but she was touched by the 
man's constancy and his love for her, 
in spite of her physical defect. ' ' If 
things had been different ' ' she would 
say to herst-lf with a sigh, "I might 
have fancied him, but as it is, I am best 
as I am." 

One day after he had been talking with 
her some time at the cottage door, her 
mother came out and took the seat he 
had vacated. "That's a good lad, 
Mary," she said, "and a fine. I've 
niver thoucht o' ye takin' up wi' a lad, 
but he'd mak' a guid husband for ye, 
gin ye were minded tae merry. " 

" I 'm too cripple, mother, I should be a 
burden to him, I'm fearin'. I like Archie 
well enough, but I'm no much set on 
being married and the lad 's no born yet 
I 'd care to leave you for, mother. ' ' 

" Ah, but whiles I'm fearin' I may be 
leavin ' you, ma bairn, I 'm no ' that strong 
noo, an' I've a heavy feelin' on me mony 
a time, fearin' ye micht be left a' yer 
lane, wi' naebody tae care for ye. I've 
aye been hopin' and prayin' yer brither 



48 



THE PRODIGAL. 



waud come hame, an' that I'd see ye 
baith happy thegither again; but it's 
fourteen year a' but a month sin' he 
set off, an' we'll maybe niver see him 
1 again. The Lord's will be done, Mary, 
but I could na dee in peace, lassie, if I 
thoucht ye were to be left friendless an' 
alane. " 

"Don't, don't mother, " cried Mary in 
great distress, "we'll pray to die to- 
gether don't talk about dying, mother, 
I can't bear it." After they had wept 
together a little, Mary said : ' ' Tell me 
about your own marriage, mother, and 
how you felt about it were you very 
happy ? ' ' 

Mrs. Stephenson had never said much 
about her married life, but it was so long 
past and its sorrows and struggles had 
faded into such pale and sweet recollec- 
tions, that she felt no pain in speaking 
about it now and giving Mary the whole 
sorrowful little history. She told it all 
in a simple matter-of-fact way it was 
such an old story now, such a short 
period out of a life of nearly sixty years. 
To the girl, however, it was new, and of 
heart-breaking pathos. A great indig- 
nation filled her heart as she listened, 
and a great compassion for the gentle, 
loving woman who had been marked for 
so many and great trials, even from her 
girlhood. 

' ' I thought it was a ' made up to me 
in ma bairns," her mother went on, 
but John was his father's son, tho' I 
did ma best to keep him a God-fearin' 
lad. Maybe he was sair tempted, lassie, 
we canna tell." 

Presently Mary rose and kissed her 
mother and took her way down to her 
old seat on the rocks. She wanted to 
think over the sad story she had just 
heard, and weep by herself over her 
brother's past sorrows. She had sus- 
pected for some time that her father had 
not been a good man and the neighbors 
had had a good deal to say of him at the 
time when her brother ran away ; but he 
must have been bad to treat her good 
gentle mother so cruelly. ' < And she 



thought it was all made up to her in her 
children," said the girl bitterly to her- 
self. "I've been a fine handful to her 
all my life and John treated her worse 
than my father ; little we've done to 
make it up to her. " 

A rush of tears came to her eyes, a 
rush of sacrificing love to her heart. 
" Oh God, " she cried, " if I could only 
make it up to her, oh, let me make it up 
to her, let me, let me ; if my worthless 
life can avail, I offer it for her happiness; 
send her back her son and take me in- 
stead. He is more to her than I can 
ever be send him back to work for her 
in her old age, as I could never do for 
the sake of them both, I beseech Thee, 
that it may be well with them, through 
Thy mercy." Mary had always been 
near to God as Father Stewart had said, 
and now with the whole power of her 
soul she prayed ; the fervent prayer of a 
heart burning with filial and self-sacri- 
ficing love. 

* * * 

Under a burning Australian sun a 
small band of men, diggers from some 
neighboring gold fields, were riding into 
a town. Their way lay through a dry, 
barren, sandy country, wild and deso- 
late, which gave no shade from the 
fierce noon-day heat They swore at 
the heat, at the drought, at the long 
dreary tract, without stint, but without 
any particular rancor, for they had gold 
hid in their shirts glorious yellow 
gold, and they were, therefore, well dis- 
posed, on the whole, to creation in gen- 
eral. Luck had been with them of late ; 
and when they should have banked their 
gold in the town, they would feel like 
men who had earned some rosy hours of 
pleasure, after their hard toil and rough 
life. Their spirits rose as they neared 
the town. One of them tried to whistle, 
but his lips were too dry and stiff, and a 
long pull at the whiskey flask did not 
help matters much, so they rode along, 
almost in silence. 

There were five of them, and they 
were a fair sample of the band of des- 



THE PRODIGAL. 



49 



perate, lawless men, who had rushed to 
the newly discovered gold field, at the 
first rumor of its treasure. Before even- 
ing fell, they had eaten and drunk and 
rested. They had pockets full of money 
and hearts hot with the desire of life 
and pleasure. Before midnight they 
had gambled and fought, but at length, 
one by one, they subsided into silence, 
overcome by whiskey and sleep. 

At daybreak one of them stirred, 
moaned, and awoke, with a heavy ach- 
ing head, and a bullet 
wound in his arm. His 
pain had aroused him. He 
got up, cursing his sleep- 
ing companions, and made 
his way out to the cool 
morning air, for he was 
hot and feverish, though 
his wound was not seri- 
ous. He found a pump 
and a bucket, and he re- 
freshed himself with a 
good wash, and bathed 
his arm and tied it up. 
Then he wandered out 
into the streets of the city, 
where a few early risers, 
like himself, were astir. 
Carts loaded with fruit 
and vegetables, passed 
him, coming in from the 
country. He bought some 
grapes from one of these, 
and he ate them, as he 
walked aimlessly along, 
less and disturbed, but not despondent ; 
his losses of the previous night had not, 
by any means, "cleaned him out"; 
and a drunken fight was nothing un- 
iisual to him ; but he was restless, and 
he walked on and on. 

The morning advanced ; shop-keepers 
opened their shutters, and men and 
women passed to and fro on their daily 
occupations. 

Later, he came to one of the better 
streets, where the shops were larger and 
more attractive. One window had a lit- 
tle crowd gathered around it. It was a 



picture dealer's shop window, and the 
attraction was an engraving of a famous 
picture, newly placed there. The man 
(whom his mate called Stevie), slowed 
up, and waited his turn to get near the 
window. When he did so, and had seen 
the picture, he staggered back with a 
smothered cry of amazement, and would 
have fallen had not a bystander caught 
him roughly, with the admonition, 
" look out, mate." 
He pulled himself together, and looked 




HE FOUND HIMSELF 
INSIDE A CATHO- 
LIC CHURCH. 



He was rest- 



again. Yes, it was the picture of Mary 
Stephenson, his sister; Mr. Lindsey's 
successful picture, which John Stephen - 
son saw now for the first time. Oh, the 
purity, the goodness shining in that 
exquisite face ! He shrank before it, 
feeling degraded and ashamed. Was 
she really so beautiful ? Ah, yes, it was 
Mary to the very life ; her eyes looked 
into his those innocent, soulful, wide- 
open eyes into his very soul. His 



50 



THE PRODIGAL. 



patient, beautiful sister, his playmate, 
his comrade, so gentle and so good. He 
thought of the time when she had sat 
for this picture, and the whole scene 
rose up before him the whitewashed 
cottage, with the sea spread out before 
it, and the breezy green braes behind. 
He could hear the splash of the waves, 
and the scream of the sea gulls on the 
rocks. Memory awoke and gripped him 
by the throat, a rush of feeling swept 
over him, and almost choked him. He 
tried to throw it off, and he turned away 
to seek distraction by looking at other 
shop windows ; but in a minute or two, 
almost unconsciously, he was back again 
before the picture. Those eyes, Mary's 
wonderful blue eyes, fascinated him, 
held him, pleaded, commanded ; but 
what ? He began to feel very nervous, 
as though some unseen presence were 
beside him, whispering that which awed 
and frightened him, in a language he did 
not understand. 

" It's this wound in my arm, curse 
it," he growled, (< it must have bled a 
good bit in the night, and made me 
weak. I want a drink ! " He found a 
bar room and went in and gulped down 
several drinks, but for once his spirits 
failed to respond to the accustomed stim- 
ulants, or his brain to be dulled to dis- 
quieting reflections. On the contrary, 
he was conscious of a great clearness of 
mind, something within him, usually 
dormant, had been startled into terrible 
and discomforting wakefulness. There 
was a fear on him, and he shuddered 
when he realized that it was deepening, 
in spite of the alcohol. He told himself 
he was taken by surprise at seeing 
Mary's picture so unexpectedly. Poor 
Mary ! He would just go back and have 
another look at it ; poor little girl ! He 
was trying a little bravado with himself, 
for he had to go back to the picture, and 
in his heart of hearts he knew this. 

Again he stood before the picture ; he 
tried to confine his attention to the de- 
tails ; to the hands, delicate and spirit- 
like, to the clinging white robes ; but no ! 



he had to meet those calm, penetrating 
eyes. He tried to avoid them, but he 
could not, and soon, powerless to avert 
his own, he gazed as one fascinated. As 
in a dream, he was back on the rocks by 
the sea, telling Mary stories and watch- 
ing the ships. He was in the homely 
cottage on the quay, and he saw its 
cheerful firelight flickering on his 
mother's gentle face as she prepared the 
evening meal. He was in the chapel, 
and he swung the censer at Benediction, 
and saw the Host through a scented cloud 
of incense. What a bright-faced, happy 
boy he was, with curly brown hair 
and wide open blue eyes, like Mary's ! 
How vivid it was ! Was he really a boy 
at Rockhaven ? Was that a dream, or 
was this ? He touched himself, his 
coarse flannel shirt, his leather breeches, 
his burning, painful arm ; but he could 
not assure himself of his own identity. 

There is a suggestion of auto- hypno- 
tism here, the man of science might 
say, and maybe all the essentials were 
there for producing such a condition ; 
the man's prolonged and fixed gaze at a 
certain object, and that object something 
in itself capable of "striking the electric 
chaijfl, " of all the memories associated 
with his early life. 

John was not his own man, he w-''S 
caught at a disadvantage, being weak 
with fasting so many hours, and with 
loss of blood, and the sudden and most 
complete reminder of his boyhood had 
startled him out of his usual callous in- 
difference. His soul, which so long had 
mourned within him, awoke and cried 
out for a chance for life and God. 

He wandered about the town all the 
rest of the day, living over again, in 
memory, the innocent days of his child- 
hood, in the gentle company of his 
mother and sister, without sadness and 
without regret, even with an occasional 
smile at some happy recollection. Now 
and then a pang of dismay shot through 
him, as at the thought of some great 
loss, but for the most part, his past life 
and his present, had become wholly dis- 



THE PRODIGAL. 



51 



associated, and the faculty of combining 
them in himself, and comparing them, 
was numb. 

Towards evening he found himself in 
the busier part of the city, and he fell in 
with a stream of working people who 
were thronging to wards a building which 
stood inside some railings. He passed 
through the gates unheedingly, and on 
to the door. When he reached it, he 
saw it was a church and he stopped 
short and shrank back. The crowd was 
rather thick here, and for a moment he 
blocked the way of several who were 
eagerly making their way inside. " Now 
then, " said one man, " either get in or 
get out, and don't stand there blocking 
the way for others. " 

Just then the little crowd received a 
fresh impetus forward from behind, and 
in another minute John Stephenson 
found himself inside a Catholic church 
for the first time since he left his home 
on the far-off Scottish coast. The church 
was packed, for there was that evening 
a special preacher of great repute. John 
sat down mechanically on a seat which 
was shown him, and before he had time 
to look about him, the preacher was in 
the pulpit and giving out his text. 

He said, ' ' What are these wounds in 
the midst of thy hand ? With these 
was I wounded in the house of them that 
loved me," and he repeated it over two 
or three times, his keen gray eyes wan- 
dering over the faces of his audience, as 
if to assure himself that they were 
attentive. ' ' It has been said, brethren, ' ' 
he went on, "and wisely, that no 
stranger can get a great many notes of 
suffering out of a human soul. It takes 
one that knows it well parent, child, 
brother, sister, friend to wound it in its 
most sensitive part ; and it is in pro- 
portion to its power of loving, that the 
heart is capable of suffering." His 
theme that night was the love of Jesus, 
and the power He has given us, through 
His very love for us, of inflicting suffer- 
ing on His Sacred Heart, and the 
preacher led up to it by human ex- 



amples the prodigal son, the faithless 
spouse, the false friend. 

It seemed to one wretched, half-dazed 
man, at the end of .the church, that the 
preacher had singled him out from the 
first, and that he was preaching to him 
alone. He tried not to hear, but every 
word came home and beat in upon his 
brain, and he felt like a man listening to 
a recital of his crimes before sentence 
should be passed on him. He became so 
nervous that he could hardly sit still in 
his seat, and once in a kind of panic he 
half rose, as if to fly. 

" Set still, can't you, " growled a man 
next to him, and he sat down again, 
with the frightened, desperate look of a 
trapped animal. He could not, he felt, 
struggle through that crowd of silent 
wrapt listeners between him and the 
door. But the preacher was nearing the 
end ; his charge against sinners was 
finished, and he was speaking of the 
mercy and love of the Sacred Heart. 

" Here, " he said, " is the source of all 
love. In loving this adorable Heart, we 
cancel all our lesser debts of love ; in 
atoning to this Heart we atone for all ; 
the love of Jesus fills up the measure 
of our love for all men. Come then to 
this wellspring of charity ; demand the 
pardon which this loving Heart cannot 
refuse ; learn of His love, pray for it 
fervently, and in loving Him you will 
learn that universal charity which He 
has promised, shall cover a multitude 
of sins." 

Then followed Benediction, and in the 
adorable presence, did one poor prodigal 
' ' return to himself ? ' ' Oh wonderful 
operation of divine grace by which 
a sinner "returns to himself!" No 
wonder there is "joy before the angels 
of God " at this marvellous manifesta- 
tion of His mercy ! Yes, one prodigal 
returned to himself, but it was a hard 
won victory, and John Stephenson was 
found at the end of the service in a dead 
faint, with his face still wet with his 
tears. 

" Please, yer Reverence, we have a 



52 



THE PRODIGAL. 



man ill, in the porch, "said a young 
man, coming into the sacristy, after 
service. "He fainted in the church, 
and he seems weak and ill. What had we 
better do ? " 

"Take him into the house, Brady," 
said the priest, ' ' and I '11 come and have 
a look at him. " 

A few minutes later he found the 
stranger sitting in the Presbytery 
kitchen, looking dazed and ill. He 
fetched some wine and made him drink 
it off. ' ' That's better, ' ' he said, John 
nodded, and whispered "Thank you, 
Father." 

' ' How did you come to faint ? ' ' the 
priest went on. 

"A slight wound in my arm," an- 
swered John, " and I've had no food to- 
day, I believe, and, I I want to talk to 
you, Father." 

" Yes, but not to-night, my lad, you 
must have some food, and a good night's 
rest first." 

" Let him come home with me, 
Father," said the young man called 
Brady, "I'll look after him." 

"That's good of you, Brady," said 
the priest, ' ' do so, by all means, and 
call in at Dr. Wilson 's on your way, and 
have this wounded arm seen to. " Turn- 
ing to John he said, ' ' you will be in good 
hands, if you will trust yourself with 
this young man; you are a Catholic are 
you not ? ' ' 

' ' I was one, Father. ' ' 

' ' Then you are one still. What is your 
name, by the way ? ' ' 

' ' John Stephenson. ' ' 

"Well, good-night now, and I will 
look in and see you in the morning. " 

' ' A stray lamb with a vengeance, ' ' 
Brady whispered as he passed the priest. 
"Well, take care of him, Brady, for the 
sake of the Shepherd, and good-night to 
you." 

1 ' John Stephenson umph ' ' said 
the priest to himself. " A country- 
man of mine, I'll be bound. Well John, 
my man, you are not a very creditable 
specimen just at present, and I fancy 



you'll have a sorry story for me in the 
morning. But, please God, you'll be all 
the better for telling it. ' ' 

It was "a sorry story" indeed, he 
heard in the morning, but the "stray 
lamb ' ' was safely folded and the good 
Father was happy. A week later John 
sailed for home ; he sold out his claim at 
a favorable moment and it realized well, 
so there was something to take back 
after all, if not a fortune. He longed 
for home with all his soul, for the peace 
of that humble godly dwelling, and for 
the fresh sweet coolness of the Northern 
air, after the hot, dry climate ; for the 
quiet and repose of his native village- 
after his feverish life of excitement and 
dissipation. Above all he longed for 
Mary, his friend and comrade, so fair to 
see, and so sweet to talk with, so quick 
to understand. He never doubted of 
forgiveness, or that his dear ones would 
receive him again ; he knew their good- 
ness and their love. His friend the 
priest saw him on board his steamer, and 
bade him Godspeed. 

"You '11 be home for Christmas," he 
said, "and what a happy meeting!" 
He had heard about the beautiful sister 
and how it was seeing her picture that 
brought John to repentance, so the good 
father bought a fine photograph of the 
famous picture and hung it up in his 
study, and to this day he tells the touch- 
ing little incident connected with it. 
One or two of his visitors inclined to the 
study of psychology, have given him 
some lengthy explanations on the mat- 
ter, but he smiles quietly to himself the 
while for he knows something of God's 
dealings with the souls of His children, 
and he can explain a good deal to his 
own satisfaction without the help of 

science. 

* * * 

Mary had been failing in health for 
some months. She did not complain 
much nor did there seem any special 
cause for her weakness and languor, but 
every day she grew visibly frailer and 
her mother mourned over her and 






THE PRODIGAL. 







HE THREW HIMSELF ON HIS KNEES AT HER FEET. 



watched with jealous eye, her steadily 
decreasing store of health and strength. 

"What's wrang wi' the bit lassie 
awa ? " a neighbor asked Mrs. Stephen- 
son one day. 

" There's no anything vera muckle 



but si e 



wrang wi' her, " she answered, 

seems to be just slippin' awa. " 
" Is't a decline, think ye ? " 
" Na, it's no' a decline; the doctor puts 

another name till't, something o' the 

nervous system. " 



THE PRODIGAL. 



" I'm wae for ye, Mrs. Stephenson, " 
the woman answered, as the poor mother 
hurried away with her apron at her eyes. 

One night Mary awoke after a long 
sleep and sat up in bed with her eyes 
glowing with excitement. "Mother," 
she called. 

" Ay, ma lamb ? " 

"Mother, I've seen John, and he's 
coming home. " 

"There, there, honey, dinna excite 
yersel', ye've been dreamin' a wee." 

"I've seen him, mother, " she went on 
decidedly, "he's a man grown now, 
mother, with a beard, strong and brown 
lie looks, and his arm is in a sling ; he's 
coming home, mother, I saw him say 
good-bye to a priest on a big ship and 
the priest said, 'you'll be home for 
Christmas. ' " 

"May the Lord grant it, bairn, but 
ye 're talking ower muckle ; lie doon and 
lie quiet a bittee. " 

"Ah, mother ! how happy j^ou'll be to 
have him again; you'll have him all to 
yourself and he'll no want to be going 
off again ; I '11 see it all mother, I '11 be 
there too." 

" 'Deed ay will, ye bairn." 

'Ah, but you'll no see me, for I'll 
soon be leaving you, but I shall die con- 
tented now, mother, for I know you'll 
soon have John to take my place. " 

' ' Oh lassie, lassie, ye fair grieve me 
heart ! " 

' ' Don 't cry, mother, you know the 
doctor always said that you couldn 't look 
for a long life for me. It's a happy 
home I'm going to, and whiles I'm feel- 
ing tired here. Tell John I knew he 
was coming home, and that I was glad, 
and that he's to take good care of you, 
mother; tell him that from me, and to 
ti y and make it all up to you, mother, 
all your sorrow, and the trouble we've 
given you. " 

" Never* you, me darlin'; I'd rather 
never see the lad again, than lose you." 

" Ah, you think so now, but you won't 
when once you see him again. Give him 
my picture that Mr. Lindsey did, and 



tell him to think of me sometimes when 
he sits on our old seat on the rocks, and 
pray for me wher- I have so often prayed 
for him. " 

A week later she died. Father Stewart 
was with her at the last, and the old 
doctor came in just before the end. They 
walked home together, sad and unusually 
silent. "She fair nickered out, "said 
the doctor at last, as if speaking his 
thoughts aloud. "She's puzzled me 
from the first. ' ' 

"How will you fill up the causa 
mortis form, think you ? ' ' 

"It's not easy to say just what she 
did die of. She was aye different from 
other lasses, and she died after a fashion 
of her own." 

"She made up her mind that she was 
to die from the first, doctor, and I don't 
think anything would have kept her 
alive ; from what she said to me, I 
gathered that she had some idea that if 
she died her brother would come home ; 
a most extraordinary notion ! ' ' 

" You might explain it on the theory 
of suggestion," the doctor went on 
musingly, " if you fancied the psycho- 
logical doctrine, that the soul accepts 
the suggestion and acts upon it. If I 
were to tell my patients they were going 
to die, the chances are that in a great 
number of cases they would die. " 

1 ' But you can hardly give suggestion 
as the cause of death ? ' ' 

"No, we must look to the objective 
symptoms. Psychology does not count 
much in these matter-of-fact details, as 
yet ; it was really heart failure at the 
end." 

"An effect without a cause; do you 
know that Mary declared she had seen 
her brother and that he was coming 
home ? " 

' ' She was fey, Father. ' ' 

"Well, fey or no fey, she was quite 
convinced of the truth of her vision, 
and died happy in consequence." 

"We may live to verify that," said 
the doctor. " I 've known strange things 
happen to dying people, and 1 'm not 



BLESSED NIGHT. 55 

such an unbeliever in the supernatural beads in her hands, gazing sadly into 

as you fancy, Father, and we come of a the glowing embers. She looked up 

superstitious race ; heredity comes out inquiringly as the door opened, and, 

in this seeing a stranger, she -half rose from her 

" Now, now, doctor, you're off on your seat but he said : " Mother ; oh, mother, 

pet topic, so I'll say good-night; I'll mother! " and threw himself on his 

have it out with you another time ; knees at her feet, asking for forgiveness, 

your conversion must wait." A few minutes after he raised his head 

and looked round. 

' ' Where is Mary ? " he asked brokenly, 

One dark, snowy evening, John Steph- with a sudden sinking at his heart, as he 
enson reached his home. The sea was saw no signs of her presence, 
roaring on the rocks, and the wind was " In the kirkyard, laddie, in the kirk- 
whistling round the little cottage. His yard these two months she's won home 
mother sat in the firelight, with her afore ye. ' ' 



BLESSED NIGHT. 
By F. de S. Howie, SJ. 

The light burned low in the cottage home, 

And the stars were sadly shining ; 
The raw wind sighed, and the lattice creaked, 

And the tree you love was pining. 

Be still, my heart, 'tis the blast you hear, 

In their graves the dead are lying ; 
My chair I pushed, and I sang a song, 

But the tree you loved kept sighing. 

O night, I cried, thou resemblest death, 

On thy brow is written sadness ; 
And yet, sweet night, thou art ever kind, 

To the good thou bringest gladness. 

'Twas night, I thought, when the Infant God 

From the realms of day descended ; 
'Twas night when, round the manger poor, 

The kingly strangers bended. 

'Twas night, I thought, when He blessed and gave 

To His own the Bread pf Heaven ; 
'Twas night when He triumphant rose, 

And the rock of death was riven. 

The light burned low in the cottage home, 

And the stars were sadly shining ; 
The raw wind sighed and the lattice creaked, 

And the tree you love was pining. 

But I was brave, for my heart was strong, 
And I smiled in the midst of my dreaming ; 

And night, in spite of the sighing tree, 
Was as bright as the moon just beaming. 




THE CHRISTMAS VISION. 

A pretty babe all burning bright did in the air appear. 
And straight I called unto mind that it was Christmas Day. 








S I in hoary winter's night stood shivering in the snow, 

Surprised I was with sudden heat which made my heart to glow ; 
And lifting up* a fearful eye to view what fire was near, 
A pretty babe, all burning bright, did in the air appear, 
Who scorched with exceeding heat such floods of tears did shed, 
As though His floods should quench His flames with what His 
tears were fed. 



Alas ! quoth He, but newly born, in fiery heats I fry, 

Yet none approach to warm their hearts, or feel my fire but I ! 

My faultless breast the furnace is, the fuel wounding thorns ; 

Love is the fire and sighs the smoke, the ashes shame and scorns ; 

The fuel Justice layeth on, and Mercy blows the coals ; 

The metal in this furnace wrought, are men's defiled souls ; 

For which, as now on fire I am, to work them to their good, 

So will I melt into a bath, to wash them in my blood : 

With this He vanish 'd out of sight, and swiftly shrunk away, 

And straight I called unto mind that it was Christmas Day. 



57 



MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET. 
By P. J. Cole man. 



OF that glorious company of English 
martyrs whom the untiring labor 
and holy zeal of the late Father John 
Morris, S.J., has well advanced towards 
the honors of the altar there is none more 
interesting than the Venerable Robert 
Southwell. Young, gentle, talented, a 
poet of subtle charm, a member of the 
Society of Jesus in his seventeenth year, 
a missionary to England by intense desire 
in the face of certain martyrdom, a mar- 
tyr in the flower of his manhood, and 
soon, we hope, to be enrolled in the cal- 
endar of the Church, his story will ever be 
a fascination and inspiration to Catholics, 
while his writings wells of ' ' pure Eng- 
lish undefiled ' ' speak the magnanimity 
of his character and lend a tinge of mel- 
ancholy romance to his saintly life. 

Dr. Robert Chambers surely no par- 
tial authority says in his Cyclopedia of 
English Literature: "Robert South- 
well is remarkable as a victim of the 
persecuting laws of the period;" and, 
after reciting the events of his brief but 
eventful life, continues : ' ' found guilty 
. . . of being a Romish priest, he 
was condemned to death and executed 
at Tyburn . . . with all the horri- 
ble circumstances dictated by the old 
treason laws of England." Another 
critic, writing of him in Ward's Eng- 
lish Poets, says : "No Protestant could 
be so desperately bigoted as not to be 
touched by the sad yet noble story of 
what this young English gentleman 
dared and endured. Whatever may be 
thought of his cause one can only ad- 
mire the fearless devotion with which 
he gave himself up to it, reckless of dan- 
ger, of torture, of death. . . . Such 
a story could not but move men the 
story of a spirit so strong in its faith, 
zealous, inflexible." While Hallam in 
his Introduction to the Literature of 
58 



Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries refers to him with 
ill-disguised rancor, as ' ' one whom the 
jealous law too prematurely deprived of 
life." 

The story of one who could thus move 
even his enemies to admiration must 
ever be a touching theme and a proud 
heritage to the children of the martyrs. 

Robert Southwell, the son of an old 
patrician family, was born at Horsham, 
St. Faith's, in Norfolk, about the year 
1562. A youth of extraordinary dili- 
gence, fervor, and piety, gave promise of 
the saintly parts that crowned his later 
life. Leaving England as a boy and 
completing his studies at Paris, Douay 
and Rome, he was admitted into the 
Society of Jesus at the early age of 
seventeen years. After an exemplary 
novitiate and a brilliant course in phil- 
osophy and theology, he was made Pre- 
fect of Studies at the English College, 
Rome, whence, at his own earnest solicita- 
tion, eager even to the shedding of his 
blood for the glory of God and the sal- 
vation of souls, he set out for assured 
martyrdom, as a missionary to Eng- 
land, in 1586 having, as he put it 
quaintly, "travelled far and brought 
home a freight of spiritual substance la 
enrich his friends, and medicinable 
receipts against their ghostly maladies. "" 

The date of his arrival in England was 
marked by a particularly savage out- 
break of " reforming " zeal. The " per- 
verted ingenuity " of intolerance, so 
vehemently denounced by Edmund 
Burke, two centuries later, was at work 
with its inhuman accompaniments of 
rack and gibbet, stake and thumb -screw, 
" Scavenger's daughter, " " iron virgin " 
and all the other machinery of torture 
still to be seen in the Tower of London. 
Special statutes breathing vengeance and 



MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET. 



59 



slaughter against "Jesuits," "Semina- 
rians " and "Papist" recusants had 
been enacted. Seventy priests had been 
banished the year before, under penalty 
of death, should they return. Throck- 
morton and Dr. Parry had died on the 
scaffold. Babington and his friends 
were active in the interests of Mary 
Stuart, the hapless Queen of Scots. 
Philip, Earl of Arundel, was a prisoner 
in the Tower, soon to follow in martyr- 
dom his father, the Duke of Norfolk, his 
grandfather, and his great grandfather. 
Cecil and Walsing- 
ham ruled the 'royal 
Council and fulmi- 
nated the anathemas 
of the ' ' Established ' ' 
Church. Topcliffe 
and Young enforced 
their bloody edicts 
against the Catho- 
lics, and the "~ land 
was full of pursuiv- 
ants, spies and in- 
formers. Indeed, 
Southwell's gloomy 
poem, A Vale of 

Tears, is but an alle- 
gory of the England 
of his day the place, 
as he put it in ter- 

ible epigram, to ter- 
ror framed by art. These are the lines : 

Resort there is of none but pilgrim wights, 




FATHER SOUTHWELL. 



bre melancholy of which is but a reflex 
of the grievous condition in which Cath- 
olics were then placed. Here, too, he 
soothed the mourning of the Countess 
for her imprisoned husband by a series 
of spiritual exercises, and wrote The 
Triumphs over Death, or a Consolatorie 
Epistle for afflicted minds in the affects of 
dying friends, a copy of which is pre- 
served in the library of Jesus College, 
Oxford. 

He also wrote, specially for the con- 
solation of the noble Earl in the Tower, 
An Epistle of Com- 
fort to the Reverend 
Priests and to Hon- 
ourable, Worship/nil 
and Other of the Laity 
Sort, restrayned in 
durance fot the Catho- 
lic Faith. 

But at last came 
the day of his desire 
when he was to suffer 
"this purgatory we 
are looking for every 
hour. " After a min- 
istry of six years he 
was seized early in 
1592 at Uxenden, 
near Harrow, in Mid- 
dlesex, the home of 
the Bellamys, an old 
Catholic family, whither he had been 
inveigled through the agency of Ann 



>~VJV^A \. HAV-A ^, 10 WA llWllt LUb L/lAli-i. 1A-IA VVlJt.IJ.UOj - - f .+ 

That pass with trembling foot and panting Bellamy, an apostate daughter of the 



heart, 

With terror cast in cold and shivering frights, 
They judge the place to terror framed by 

art. 

Yet for six years Father Southwell 
managed to escape his enemies, in the 
zealous and perilous work of the minis- 
try. He found a safe asylum in the 
home of Lord Vaux, of Harrowden, at 
Hackney, whence, after some months, 
he was appointed domestic chaplain to 
the Countess of Arundel in London. 
There, surrounded by a thousand perils, 
in imminent and hourly danger of arrest, 
lie wrote most of those poems, the som- 



house, who had lost both her faith and 
her virtue in the notorious Gatehouse 
prison in Westminster. Deprived in 
consequence of her father's favor and 
aid, and anxious to secure the revenue 
offered to informers under "Act 27, 
Elizabeth," she made an appointment, 
as a would-be penitent, with Father 
Southwell, to meet Her at her father's 
house, which he had, been wont to visit 
in his ministerial capacity. The unsus- 
pecting young priest went to Uxenden, 
accordingly, where Topcliffe and his 
pursuivants, as pre-arranged, surprised 
him in a secret hiding place, the exact 



60 



MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET 



location of which had been divulged by 
the recreant Ann. 

He was first taken to Topcliffe's 
house, where, during a few weeks, he 
was put to the torture thirteen times 
with such barbarous severity that South- 
well, complaining of it later to his 
Judges, when on trial for his life, de- 
clared, before God, that death would have 
been preferable. After two months in 
the Gatehouse prison, he was removed 
to the Tower and cast into a dungeon, so 
filthy and noisome that, when brought 
forth at the end of a month for exami- 
nation, his clothes were covered with 
vermin. His father, therefore, peti- 
tioned the Queen, begging that his son 
be executed if he had done aught de- 
serving it ; if not, that, being a gentle- 
man, he might be treated as one and not 
confined in such a filthy hole, which 
petition the Queen acceded to, and 
ordered him better quarters, at the same 
time permitting his father to supply him 
with clothing, necessaries and books. 
Of the latter, the only ones he asked for 
were the Bible and the works of St. 
Bernard. But withal, his fortitude was 
not shaken nor his composure disturbed, 
for it was in the Tower that he wrote 
that enduring classic, The Funeral 
Tears of Mary Magdalen, and St. 
Peter's Complaint, a long poem filled 
with sublimest thought and sparkling 
with gems of poesy, the scope of which 
he describes himself : 

Prophane conceits and reigned fits I fly ; 

Such lawless stuff doth lawless speeches fit; 
With David verse to virtue I apply, 

Whose measure best with measured words 

doth fit. 

It is the sweetest note that man can sing, 
When grace in virtue's key tunes nature's 
string. 

After three years' confinement in the 
Tower, Father Soujthwell wrote to Cecil, 
the Lord Treasurer, asking that he 
might be either brought to trial or per- 
mitted to see his friends. To which ap- 
peal Cecil is said to have answered 
brutally that "if he was in such haste 



to be hanged, he should have his desire. "" 
Accordingly, on February 18, 1595, he 
was removed from the Tower to New- 
gate and there confined in the Limbo, a 
noisome, subterranean dungeon , hallowed 
by memories of martyrs, who had occu- 
pied it before him. Thence, on the 
twenty-first, he was brought to West- 
minster, where he was placed on trial 
before Chief Justice Popham, Justice 
Owen, Baron Evans and Sergeant 
Daniel, Sir Edward Coke, the Solicitor 
General, conducting the prosecution. 

The hearing, however, was but a 
solemn formality, and he was sentenced 
as a "traitor," in accordar ce with, 
the barbarous edict of the day, to 
be hung, bowelled and quartered at 
Tyburn. He had at length the desire of 
his heart, and next morning went to his- 
fate, gladly as to a bridal, being drawn 
on a hurdle to the place of execution, 
hallowed by the blood of so many 
martyrs. 

Such an effect had his behavior on the 
usually turbulent and derisive mob that, 
when the executioner wished, in terms of 
his sentence, to disembowel him while 
he was yet alive, they cried out indig- 
nantly against him nor would they allow 
him to be cut down until he was dead. 
Lord Mountjoy, who happened to be 
present, was so touched by his constancy 
that he exclaimed aloud : ' ' May my soul 
be with this man 's ! " 

His head was impaled on London, 
Bridge and his dismembered body placed 
over four of the gates of London. So- 
perished this saintly, gentle and accom- 
plished priest one of the most remark- 
able men of his day, according to the 
concensus of his enemies in his thirty- 
third year. But his memory is fragrant 
in the Church for which he suffered, and 
from his blood and that of his fellow 
martyrs will yet burst an efflorescence 
of Catholicity in a regenerated England. 

Father Southwell's works fill a distinct 
place in English letters. He is best 
known as a poet, but whether he wrote 
in verse or prose and his prose writings. 



MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET. 



61 



are extensive his work has all the attri- 
butes of poetry, vivid fancy, lofty senti- 
ment, delicacy and grace of expression, 
exuberant imagery, felicitous epithet, 
sonorous rhythm thus adding one more 
proof to the old truth, poeta nascitur 
nonfit, and showing that all true poetry 
is independent of form, being essentially, 
like Ruskin's work in modern times, 
but noble thought expressed in noble 
language. The fact that his poems were 
printed and circulated at all, when the 
taint of treason attached to their author, 
is ample guarantee of their merit. Yet 
we know on the authority of his contem- 
poraries that this was so that not only 
was he regarded as one of the choice 
minds of his day when alive, but that 
his works were in high favor and widely 
studied after his death, his enemies, 
even the Queen herself, being touched to 
pity by the fate of one so talented, and 
having copies of his poems printed at 
their own expense. 

But, were all other proof wanting, we 
have the all sufficing testimony of Ben 
Jonson to his genius. For Jonson de- 
clared, in his conversation with Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden, that Southwell 
had so written ' ' that piece of his, The 
Burning Babe, he (Jonson) would have 
been content to destroy many of his. " 

What then are the characteristics of 
Southwell 's poetry ? Though he him- 
self describes it in a preface from The 
Author to His Loving Cousin as a 
"blameworthy present, in which the 
most that can be commended is the good 
will of the writer ; neither art nor in- 
vention giving it any credit, ' ' we must 
dissent from his modest estimate. It is 
not the euphuistic language of com- 
pliment nor of classical and mytholog- 
ical allegory, so common to the Eliza- 
bethan bards, though inevitably it could 
not have escaped the hyperbolic vein in 
vogue in his day. It is not the lan- 
guage of courtiers in a hypocritical 
court, for it is essentially unworldly in 
its themes. Had Southwell been merely 
a courtier lisping honeyed flattery, such 



talents as he had must undoubtedly 
have left us lyrics as immortal as any 
"Drink to me only with thine eyes." 
And probably in this 'his fame as a poet 
suffers, where worldlings like Jonson and 
Sidney and Raleigh take high rank in 
the Elizabethan choir. But his poetry 
is essentially the poetry of devotion, of 
religion. And in this it is indeed ex- 
travagant, but with the extravagance 
of the saint, who finds words, similes of 
human compliment all too weak to 
image forth its divine ideals. 

Where sin was hatched, let tears now wash 
the nest, he exclaims in an exquisite image. 

And again : 

Baptize thy spotted soul in weeping dew. 
And of life he sings : 

Ah ! life, sweet drop, drown'd in a sea of 

sours, 
A flying good, posting to doubtful end. 

And mark this metaphor : 

Ah ! life, the maze of countless straying 

ways, 

Open to erring steps and strew'd with baits, 
To bind weak senses into endless strays, 
Aloof from Virtue* s rough, unbeaten straits. 
A flower, a play, a blast, a shade, a dream, 
A living death, a never-turning stream. 

And St. Peter thus quaintly questions 
himself : 
Didst thou to spare His foes put up thy 

sword, 

To brandish now thy tongue against thv 
Lord? 

And again, recurring to the incident 
on the Sea of Genezareth, mentioned in 
Matthew xiv, he says : 
Why did the yielding sea, like marble way, 
Support a wretch more wavering than the 
waves ? 

And then, in a burst of penitence, the 
saint reproaches himself : 
Ah ! whither was forgotten love exiled; 
Where did the truth of pledged promise 
sleep ?' 

Again, he says : 

Base fear out of my heart his love unshrined, 
Huge in high words, but impotent in proof. 



62 



MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET. 



And what could excel the beauty of 
the line 

Christ, as my God, was templed in my 
thought. 

To the penitent he says : 
Attire thy soul in sorrow's mourning weed. 

A thought re-echoed in ' ' Shame, the 
Livery of Offending Mind, ' ' and again re- 
curring in " Death 's Unlovely Liveries. " 

" In them I read the ruins of my fall, " 
he says, in a beautiful image, of the 
eyes of Christ, confronting him with 
reproach for His betrayal. And he 
aprostrophizes those eyes of mercy in 
thoughts, each more exquisite than the 
other. 
Their cheering rays that made misfortune 

sweet, 

Into my guilty thoughts pour'd floods of 
gall. 

sacred eyes ! the springs of living light, 
The earthly heavens where angels joy to 

dwell. 
Sweet volumes, stored ivith learning fit for 

saints, 

Where blissful quires imparadise theit minds; 
Wherein eternal study never faints, 
Still finding all, yet seeking all it finds. 
The matchless eyes, matched only each by 

other. 

All- seeing eyes worth more than all you see, 
Of which one is the other's only price 

1 worthless am, direct your beams on me. 

By seeing things you make things worth the 
sight. 

Oh ! pools of Hesebon, the baths of grace, 
Where happy spirits dive in sweet desires ; 
Where saints delight to glass their glorious 
face. 

Images like these the poet pours forth 
in prodigal profusion. 

Much of Southwell's poetry is autobi- 
ographical and depicts his sad lot and 
saintly resignation in suffering, as : 

At sorrow's door I knocked. They craved 

my name ; 

I answered, one unworthy to be known. 
What one? say they. One worthiest of 

blame. 
But who? A wretch, not God's, nor yet his 

own. 



And later : 

Pleased with displeasing lot, I seek no 

change. 
My comfort now is comfortless to live. 

Southwell had known sorrow face 
to face ; had desired and lived with it 
until he became inseparably enamoured 
of it. 

Sorrow the smart of ill, sin's eldest child, 
A rack for guilty thoughts, a bit for wild ; 
The scourge that whips, the salve that cures 

offense ; 
Sorrow, my bed and home, while life hath 

sense. 

For him, as for so many other Cath- 
olics of his day, sorrow was the hand- 
maiden of religion, and how closely he 
had become wedded to it we know from 
a passage in Peter's Complaint, vividl}- 
descriptive of his three years' imprison- 
ment in the Tower. 

Here solitary muses nurse their grief, 
In silent loneness burying worldly noise ; 
Attentive to rebukes, deaf to relief, 
Pensive to foster cares, careless of joys ; 
Ruing life's loss under death's dreary roof, 
Solemnizing my funeral behoof. 

A self-contempt the shroud ; my soul the 

corse ; 
The bier, an humble hope ; the hearse-cloth 

fear; 
The mourners, thoughts in black of deep 

remorse ; 

The hearse grace, pity, love, and mercy bear: 
My tears, my dole ; the priest, a zealous 

will ; 
Penance, the tomb ; and doleful sighs, the 

knell. 

And all because he was a Catholic 
priest, bearing the solace of religion to 
his persecuted countrymen. 

"Thus griefs did entertain me," he 
says : 

With them I rest, true prisoner in their jail, 
Chained in the iron links of basest thrall. 

And throughout his poems run these 
same metaphors of bondage and abuse 
metaphors, the significance whereof he 
had so cruelly learned. 






MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET. 



63 



Days pass in plaints, the night without re- 
pose 
I wake to sleep ; I sleep in waking woes. 

And then follows an apostrophe to 
' ' sleep ' ' that is worthy of comparison 
with a like apostrophe in "Macbeth," 
which did not appear until at least five 
years after the poet's death. 

S'eep, Death's ally, oblivion of tears, 
Silence of passions, balm of angry sore, 
Suspense of loves, security of fears, 
Wrath's lenity, heart's ease, storm's calmest 

shore ; 

Senses' and souls' reprieval from all cum- 
bers, 
Benumbing sense of ill with quiet slumbers. 

Whisperer of dreams, 

Creating strange chimeras, feigning frights ; 
Of day-discourses giving fancy themes 
To make dumb show with world of antic 
sights ; 

Shakespeare has : 

Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleeve of 

care, 
The death of each day's life, sore labor's 

bath, 
Balm of hurt minds, great Nature's second 

course, 
Chief nourisher in life's feast. 

Again compare this, from Southwell, 
with Shakespeare's well-known passage : 
The sea of Fortune doth not ever flow. 
She draws her favors to the lowest ebb ; 
Her time hath equal time to come and go. 

In ' ' Julius Caesar ' ' the thought runs 
thus : 

There is a tide in the affairs of men, 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to for- 
tune ; 

Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries. 

Again in The Funeral Tears of Mary 
Magdalen Southwell says : "A guilty 
conscience doubteth want of time, and, 
therefore, dispatcheth hastily. It is in 
hazard to be discovered, and, therefore, 
practiseth in darkness and secrecy " a 
passage that is worthy to be compared 
with Shakespeare 's : 

O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict 
me? 



From Richard III., and also with the 
well-known lines in Hamlet : 

Thus conscience does make cowards of us 

all; 

And thus the native hue of resolution 
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought, 
And enterprises of great pith and moment, 
With this regard, their currents turn awry 
And lose the name of action. 

And again we find Southwell saying : 
" Thus when, her timorous conscience had 
indited her of so great an omission;" 
while Shakespeare makes Richard III. 
say: 

My conscience hath a thousand several 

tongues, 

And every tongue brings in a several tale 
And every tale condemns me for a villain, 

Of Southwell's prose works, The 
Funeral Tears of Mary Magdalen is the 
most notable. 

Indeed, if all else of his work were 
wanting, his Funeral Tears would assure 
Southwell a green memory in English 
letters. It is to the ascetical what the 
Fairy Queen is to the purely profane, and 
Utopia to the ethical literature of the 
Tudors. It is pre-eminently the great 
Catholic classic of Elizabethan litera- 
ture. 

But, manifold though the graces of 
his work, we wonder not at it, so muck 
as at the equanimity in suffering, the 
constancy in affliction, the unshaken for- 
titude of soul that could produce such 
poetry in the midst of abuse and con- 
tumacy. Yet the secret is plain. His 
song is the song of the soul strong in 
its confidence in God, securely an- 
chored in His love, joyful in its suf- 
fering for His sake. Hence its beauty. 
For the beauty of his soul of his 
thoughts, made beautiful from life-long 
communion with God, the sum and 
essence of all beauty was reflected in 
it. And, as he himself says : 

Man's soul of endless beauties image is. 

There was yet another reason. He wrote 
to correct the tendency of the times, 
even in men of the noblest disposition 



MARTYR, JESUIT AND POET. 



towards, if not profane, certainly idle 
and frivolous works works which were 
largely responsible for the depravity of 
morals that characterized the times 
and renders Marlowe, Green, Peele and 
others of their contemporaries noisome 
to the healthy mind. This grievous 
state the poet deplores in his prefatory 
stanzas to St. Peter's Complaint. 

So ripe is vice, so green is virtue's bud, 
The world doth wax in ill, but wane in good. 

For to the world, the sensual, the 
material, then, as now, 

Christ's thorn is sharp ; no head His garland 

wears ; 

Still finest wits are stilling Venus' rose : 
In paynitn toys the sweetest veins are spent ; 
To Christian works few have their talents 

lent. 

Therefore, he says elsewhere : "Because 
the best course to let them see the error 
of their works is to weave a new web in 
their own loom, I have here laid a few 
coarse threads together to invite some 
skillfuller wits to go forward in the same, 
or to begin some finer piece, wherein it 
may be seen how well verse and virtue 
suit together." 

That he was master of ' ' their own 
loom " and made "verse and virtue suit 
together, ' ' we have the testimony of three 
hundred years three hundred years of 
tendencies alien to the spirit of the poet, 
that have been unwilling to let his 
poetry die, reproach and scourge though 
it be to themselves By the spell of his 
song he took the world out of itself into 
ethereal realms of religion, of holiness. 



And the world through his teaching has 
recognized the charm of religion, has 
seen the beauty of holiness. 

But he was not blind to the life about 
him. There were in him touches of 
tender human philosophy, of gentle 
humanity, that endeared him, and will 
forever endear him, to his fellow-men. 
He had a song to cheer affliction, to bid 
it look up and be comforted, yet with- 
out vainglorious presumption. 

Not always fall of leaf nor ever spring, 
No endless night, yet not eternal day ; 
The saddest birds a season find to sing, 
The roughest storm a calm may soon allay ; 
Thus with succeeding turns God tempereth all 
That man may hope to rise, yet fear to fall. 

He could also rebuke wrong by the 
old eternal truth ' ' do unto others as you 
would be done by. ' ' 

To rise by others' fall 

I deem a losing gain ; 
All states with others' ruins built 

To ruin run amain. 

And like Burns though, sainted 
servant of God that he was, he had 
none of Burns ' vice he could reconcile 
the lowly, the humble, the poor to their 
lot, in a strain as human as ever brake 
from the Bard of Ayr a strain that dis- 
tils all the wisdom of all the ages into 
the one and only secret of happiness : 

I dwell in Grace's court, 

Enrich 'd with Virtue's rights ; 

Faith guides my wit, Love leads my will, 

Hope all my mind delights. 

My conscience is my crown, 
Contented thoughts my rest. 




GENERAL INTENTION, JANUARY, 1897. 

Approved and blessed by His Holiness, Leo XIII. 

THE WELFARE OF RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES. 



a cartoon lately published in the 
weekly edition of the great French 
Catholic paper, which bears the name 
and imprint of the Cross, the various 
^religious communities of France are re- 
presented marching in procession up to 
an urn labelled ' ' Budget, ' ' into which 
an imperious minister of the State forces 
them to pour the taxes imposed upon 
them by the law of subscription, enacted 
against them in 1895. Below and to the 
right of the platform on which the Bud- 
get rests, is a group of well-to-do citi- 
zens, by whom, or at least, in whose 
interest, the law was framed, and they 
are helping themselves greedily to the 
coins that leak through a hole in the 
urn. On the opposite side is a group of 
sufferers, an orphan, a widow, a lame 
man and a feeble veteran, once the 
happy wards of the religious, but now 
outcasts and destitute of every human 
support and consolation. 

Our readers are doubtless aware that, 
under the pretext of secularizing every 
good work hitherto conducted by the 
religious communities of France, the 
government of that nation has been 
striving for the last fifty years to de- 
prive them not only of the means of 
supporting their various enterprises of 
zeal and mercy, but even of the very 
means of subsistence. Banishment, con- 
fiscation, excessive taxation, conscrip- 
tion of novices and seminarists, restric- 
tion and denial of the commonest civil 

(I) 



rights and privileges, every odious and 
burdensome measure has been tried, in 
order to rob them of the resources which 
they are devoting to the education of 
the young, and to the many works of 
mercy to which their lives are conse- 
crated. For robbery is clearly the mo- 
tive : the secularization of the various 
institutions controlled by religious -is 
only a pretext. The very same govern- 
ment that is now taxing every member 
of a religious community seven or eight 
times as much as it taxes its ordinary 
citizens, is glad to employ these same 
religious men and women, and to help 
them to extend their religious influence 
in institutions where it controls the 
financial management. In spite of its 
secular and godless purposes, it still 
sets a high appreciation on the services 
of these same religious, whose influence 
as missionaries in its colonies, indirectly 
at least, contributes greatly to the na- 
tional influence and prosperity. 

If we were recommending the welfare 
of religious communities in France only, 
we might with profit pause to consider 
how futile all this persecution is; for, 
although the French Government has 
hindered the religious within its terri- 
tory from achieving a great deal of 
good, it is wonderful, nevertheless, how 
much divine Providence has enabled 
them to accomplish in spite of, or, to 
speak correctly, in virtue of, this very 
persecution and the graces won by suffer- 

65 



66 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



(2) 



ing Driven from their monasteries and 
convents, and obliged to desist from the 
parochial exercise of the ministry, or to 
close their colleges and academies, they 
have displayed a marvellous ingenuity 
and zeal in conducting missions, giv- 
ing retreats, evangelizing the working 
classes, writing for the reviews and 
daily press, and even in leading a com- 
munity life so far as their circumstances 
permit 2,000,000 children are still in 
their schools, over 100,000 old and feeble 
in their homes, 60,000 orphans under 
their charge, 12,000 in their refuges, and 
thousands of homeless deaf and dumb 
and blind people in their asylums. 
Truly, the religious congregations of 
'Frarice are thriving by persecution ; 
vocations multiply, religious training is 
necessarily rigorous, and the very in- 
justice of their enemies makes many 
who -would at other times be indifferent 
'to' their welfare, sympathize and co- 
' operate with them in their pious enter- 
prises. 

Our Intention, however, is for the wel- 
fare- of all the religious communities in 
the world, and we must, therefore, adverj- 
to their needs and hardships in other 
'parts of the world, although the difference 
between their conditions in France and 
elsewhere is merely a difference in the 
degree, rather than in the kind of suffer- 
ing they meet with everywhere. Thus, 
'for- instance, our readers will remember 
our appeals in behalf of certain communi- 
ties of cloistered nuns in Italy, four hun- 
dred of whom, in 1893, were without the 
very necessaries of life, entire commun- 
ities actually going several days without 
food. In the MESSENGER for June, 1895, 
" An American at the Vatican " described 
the lot of these poor women, and the 
same writer, in the American Catholic 
Quarterly for July, 1896, tells at length 
how wretchedly they live. Twenty- 
three years ago their property was confis- 
cated. The State invaded their cloisters 
and impiously seized on all that they 
had acquired, whether from their own 
dowries or by the alms of the faithful 



cheerfully given to maintain them and 
help on the good works in which they 
were engaged. Ten cents a day was 
allowed each professed nun, until she 
should die, and it was to be paid, not in 
advance, but only at the end of the 
quarter, so that in case of death it would 
not be paid at all. 

We might go on multiplying instances 
of the injustice and cruel extortion that 
are practised, under one pretext or an- 
other, on religious communities in various 
European countries. We do not need to 
picture to our readers the privation and 
distress to which nuns, in particular, 
are reduced by men who are filling the 
world with their cries of liberty, charity, 
sympathy for the weak and downtrodden. 
Were it only temporal want and hard- 
ship religious had to suffer, as a con- 
sequence of the confiscation of their 
property, and of the unequal taxation 
imposed upon them, it would be enough 
to excite our pity and make us hasten 
with our prayers and alms to their relief. 
We might of course deem temporal mis- 
fortunes in their case, as blessings in 
disguise, as religious themselves con- 
sider them. But neither they nor we 
can look upon it as a blessing that they 
should be prevented by lack of means 
from harboring the orphan and found- 
ling, teaching the ignorant, reforming 
the depraved, consoling the afflicted, 
nursing the sick, ministering to the old 
and infirm, burying the dead. Surely 
it is not a blessing for the nations that 
ill-treat them, to lose the thousand and 
one forms of charity religious practise 
in the exercise of the corporal works of 
mercy. What a curse such nations must 
have drawn down upon themselves by 
closing the churches and the shrines at 
which religious used to minister, dese- 
crating sanctuaries, sealing the doors 
of God's house, breaking up the very 
homes of prayer, and cutting off from 
the free exercise of their faculties, men 
whom God has constituted channels of 
grace for their fellow men ? 

What we have been saying of the con- 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



67 



dition of religious communities in France 
and Italy, might be repeated for Germany 
during the past twenty-five years, and in 
some measure for Austria, for in both 
countries the free action of religious com- 
munities is seriously hindered, while in 
the former some of them have suffered un- 
justly the penalty of exile and some are 
still unjustly excluded from the country. 

Although there is no formal persecu- 
tion or oppression of religious congrega- 
tions in this country, it is clear that the 
same motives that prevail with French 
and Italian politicians are influencing 
many of our own. Not to mention the 
hatred of Catholicity that manifests 
itself publicly from time to time, the 
race for gold and the ambition for pat- 
ronage and influence turn many a politi- 
cian against the men and women whose 
zeal and economy are a painful reflection 
on the idleness and waste that usually 
characterize the secular administration 
of State charities. Were lower salaries 
offered to teachers or to employees gen- 
erally in State institutions, there would 
be less clamor about common school 
education, and less desire to see State 
charities grow and multiply. Office 
seekers and leaders must create places 
for the men whose votes they canvass, 
and hence they are never done grabbing 
at the various institutions of relief, 
hypocritically protesting against them 
as sectarian, or not sufficiently national, 
while secretly they want control of the 
moneys supporting them. The usurper 
of the presidency of Ecuador is bolder 
in his admission than such men usually 
are. The religious banished lately from 
that country would not have been moles- 
ted had they contributed to aid his insur- 
rection, instead of raising moneys, as he 
falsely avers, to support the lawful gov- 
ernment. 

Still, temporal persecutions, whether 
it be by confiscation, unjust taxation, 
restriction of liberty, or any other 
means, are not the only misfortune 
which we should strive by our prayers 
to avert from religious communities. 



Indeed, such persecutions usually bring 
their own compensation, and that in 
such measure that the founders and re- 
organizers of certain religious families 
have often prayed that their followers 
might always suffer from them in some 
form or other. Among the compensa- 
tions that they invariably secure for 
religious communities are the sympathy 
of the faithful, the protection and favor 
of the clergy and hierarchy, and the 
special concern of our Holy Father, the 
Pope. On the other hand, one of the 
keenest trials that can befall religious 
communities, no matter how affluent 
they may be in resources with which to 
conduct their various good works, is 
that they should be misunderstood or 
misrepresented by those from whom they 
naturally expect a correct view of their 
institute and a cordial co-operation in 
their enterprises. It is bad enough that 
those who are outside the household of 
the faith should have queer and erron- 
eous notions of the religious life gen- 
erally ; but in this they are more to be 
pitied than blamed, and the very extrav- 
agance of their errors and their blind 
trust in the wildest traditional prejudices 
make them more an object of our prayers 
than the congregations whom we are 
recommending in this Intention. Now, 
if the errors of non- Catholics excite our 
pity and move us to pray for them, what 
limit can we set either to our pity or 
prayers for Catholics who admit the 
same or worse views about our religious 
communities ? 

Religious communities in this country 
cannot, as a general thing, complain of 
persecution or of any legislation dis- 
criminating against them. Fanatics 
here and there have thought of extermi- 
nating them, and many of them are just 
now sorely afflicted by the withdrawal 
of government support from their Indian 
schools. Still this affects their temporal 
welfare only, and they would be the last 
to pray to be entirely relieved from tem- 
poral hardship or distress. So far as 
they themselves are concerned, they 



68 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



(4) 



would pray for the grace to bear it all 
patiently ; and if they should seek relief 
at all, it would only be that they might 
have the means of attending to the souls 
dependent on them. In like manner, 
Associates of the League, when praying 
for their temporal relief in every part of 
the world, should first beg of Almighty 
God to help them to support their bur- 
dens, to convert their enemies, to make 
them understand how efficiently these 
helpless victims of their hatred and 
greed would employ their energies for 
His glory and the good of their fellow- 
men, if they were not deprived of their 
very homes and resources. 

Our chief prayer, however, should be, 
that religious communities may not 
have to suffer from the harm that is 
constantly done them by those who 
ought to be their best friends, either by 
erroneous views of their calling, or by a 
misconception of their spirit and scope. 
To estimate how great a harm this is, 
we need to keep before our minds the 
common Catholic teaching about voca- 
tion, the nature of the religious state, 
the substantial requirements of every 
religious rule, and the common pious 
observances which every religious con- 
gregation sees fit to adopt, whether as a 
means of preserving its spirit or of facili- 
tating its work. Not to repeat what 
Catholics should commonly believe 
about all these points, it is clear that 
one might more truly deny that a law- 
yer should have special capacities for his 
profession than to question the fitness 
required in candidates for the religious 
state. Still, there are people who talk 
of the religious life as if it were merely 
a haven of rest from the turmoil of the 
world, a safe asylum for characters that 
would be too weak to resist the tempta- 
tions of everyday life, a resort for souls 
whose crimes call for lifelong penance, a 
retreat from remorse; in a word, a con- 
dition of life that men may enter when- 
ever it pleases them, a calling that no 
one will adopt who feels capable of con- 
tending vigorously with the world. 



Others, again, ignore the real substance 
of the religious state. While admitting 
that its members are bound to aim at 
perfection, and recognizing that Christ 
Himself instituted it for this very pur- 
pose, even while admiring the holiness 
of the means with which He provides it 
for the pursuit of this perfection, they 
still complain that it unfits men and 
women for the world, that it arrests the 
development of their character, makes 
them all of one mould or pattern, de- 
stroys their individuality, keeps them 
behind their age and renders them capa- 
ble only of a contemplative life within 
the cloister, or of the rude, half-savage 
life in distant heathen missions. They 
forget that the perfection counselled by 
Christ was His own, and that it was to 
raise up families whose members should 
imitate Him perfectly, that He deigned 
to institute the religious state. Finally, 
some cannot understand why each re- 
ligious congregation should cultivate its 
own peculiar spirit, limit its activities 
to the special work for which it was 
founded, or why religious should live so 
secluded from their fellow men, devote 
so much time to spiritual things, shun 
notoriety, cling to certain customs in 
dwelling and in apparel, that mark them 
off from other men and women. Christ 
was misunderstood, as much by His 
Apostles as by other men; they, in turn, 
were misunderstood; and in proportion 
as souls approach Him more closely, 
they must expect that those who stand 
far off will misunderstand their calling 
and misinterpret their motives. 

These erroneous views of religious life 
do it much more harm than any form 
of external persecution. They mislead 
young people and make them question 
whether they ought to heed and culti- 
vate the first call to the religious state. 
They lead many who are but newly con- 
verted or poorly instructed to give too 
much credit to the familiar Protestant 
views of convents and cloisters, and even 
to believe that some of the traditional 
libels on religious life may be partly 



(5) 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



69 






true. They blind many to the sacred 
character of the religious state, insinuate 
worldly principles into its cloister, dis- 
tract even some religious from the true 
spirit and scope of their rule, and scatter 
their energies over many things to the 
neglect of the special work for which 
they were instituted. 

One would think that Catholic doc- 
trine is so plain and even bold on this 
point that it calls for assent or denial, 
leaving no room for error or misunder- 
standing. Bven were there no such 
thing as a body of doctrine in the mat- 
ter, it should seem that the rare services 
which religious communities are con- 
stantly rendering the Church and the 
blessed fertility with which they mul- 
tiply, would satisfy any truly Catholic 
mind that they are among the special 
creations of divine Providence, and that 
it is a mark of sound Catholic faith and 
piety to appreciate them for what Christ 
intended them to be. Even Protestants 
recognize the divine influences of the re- 
ligious life, thanks to the many services 
of religious communities, notably in the 
late war, and before it and since, in the 
hospital and schoolroom, in the asylums 
and other institutions, in which they 
seem to divide up among them all the 
needs and miseries of human nature. 
The best proof of this influence is that 
they work not for a day or while under a 
spell of vain enthusiasm, but day after 
day, and year after year, while the misery 
lasts, patient under adversity, cheerful in 
spite of misunderstandings and misrep- 
resentations, brave in meeting every op- 
position, and above all constant with the 
constancy which would be impossible 
without the enduring obligations of their 
religious vows. 

We may be grateful for it, then, that 
instead of needing to pray that the relig- 



ious communities in the United States 
should be relieved from the external 
persecutions and oppositions they suffer 
from so grievously in other countries, 
we may utter a prayer in thanksgiving 
that the true Catholic sense of the faith- 
ful, and the instinct of religious rever- 
ence, prevalent among our fellow citizens 
of every belief, protect them from every 
hindrance in their holy occupations and 
enable them to do so much for the glory 
of God and the salvation of souls. 
Three thousand priests belonging to re- 
ligious communities, over five thousand 
lay-brothers and nearly forty thousand 
nuns, all bound by vows and specially 
dedicated to the service of God and of 
the Church, are at present laboring in 
our midst, giving missions in city par- 
ishes and helping in the mission parishes 
so numerous in the far West and South ; 
conducting more than one hundred col- 
leges for boys and five times that number 
of academies for girls, not to mention 
the numerous high-schools under their 
charge ; aiding the pastors in over four 
thousand parochial schools; teaching 
nearly eight hundred thousand pupils in 
every grade, and relieving every form of 
human misery in a thousand charitable 
institutions. 

We may well bless God for this mar- 
vellous providence in our regard. Take 
away this army of religious men and 
women and who will replace them ? We 
should pray, therefore, that every relig- 
ious community in the land may advance 
in number, in fervor, and in the spirit of 
its rule ; in all gratitude, pray that the 
favor and protection which our bishops 
and clergy have always extended to the 
religious in their dioceses may ever con- 
tinue to enable them to live as true 
religious, entirely devoted to their own 
sanctification and the salvation of souls. 



AN IDEAL. 

By E. Lummis. 

"Paint me a picture, sir artist. I pray you, 
The work of your brush I have reason to prize, 

Choose any subject, I care not to name it 

But whatever you choose, it must be a surprise. 

"Something artistic of exquisite beauty, 
That friends may delight in its charm ever new, 

A joy when I'm joyful, a solace in sadness ; 
Such is the task that I set you to do. " 

The artist then searched, with fancy poetic, 

The realm of beauty, the regions of art ; 
Vain was his quest of a subject, and useless 

The dream to fulfil of a kind patron 's heart. 

One day a mendicant stood in the doorway, 

Cheered by a coin, ere the man turned away, 
He gave in return a look of such gladness 

The smile of the soul, from its prison of clay. 

' ' Ah now, ' ' cried the artist, ' ' I have found inspiration 
To-day, in the light of this poor beggar's eyes ; 

At last I can offer my kind noble patron 

A picture, I trust, that will prove a surprise. ' ' 

At even he stood by the closely veiled easel, 
The picture was finished, the patron was near ; 

The curtain he drew aside from the canvas, 
And trembling, awaited, the verdict to hear. 

The nobleman looked, and saw but a beggar 

Stand out from the canvas in colors so true, 
Weary and footsore, in poor tattered raiment. 

" Nay, friend, " he exclaimed, " I call not this new ! " 

" Approach, " said the artist, "and view it still nearer, 
Right here, in the light, from the dome far above. ' ' 

He looked again closely, and he saw was it fancy ? 
In the form of the beggar, the lyord of his love ! 

Yes, there was the shadow of thorns on the forehead, 
The eyes in whose shining were pity and grace ; 

Outstretched were the hands, as if tenderly greeting 
He knelt 'neath the spell of the Saviour's face. 

Oh ! many a time as we walk on unheeding, 
The Lord passes by in the souls that we meet ; 

Oh, greet them with kindness the least, yea the lowest, 
And trembling await the sound of His feet ! 

70 (6) 



(7) 



CHRISTMAS MASS IN THE MOUNTAINS 




He comes in the duties that lie in our pathway 
In voices of loved ones who dwell at our side : 

In shadow and sunshine, in prayer and in labor, 
We through the long day in His presence abide. 

He comes in temptation, in sorrow, in trial, 
And clad as a mendicant pleads at our door ; 

While angelic artists are silently painting 
The image divine on our souls evermore. 

The image divine, that in colors unfading 
Will shine to enraptured and wondering eyes, 

The likeness of Jesus, by love's own art painted, 
In ways that will prove an eternal surprise. 



CHRISTMAS MASS IN THE MOUNTAINS. 
By D. Gresham. 



thad heard of it, read of it, thought of 
it, and finally one bleak, biting day 
in December longed for it so intensely 
that it became un fait accompli. The 
sleet pelted me spitefully, the leaden sky 
above scowled at my discomfiture, the 
sun scorned even to put in an appear- 
ance, and wrathful and weary, I resolved 
to turn my back on the North and go 
where I could be warm, and where the 
sun is a sun and not a mockery and a 
delusion. To resolve was to act 

Two weeks later I am on the road to 
my destination Asheville spoiled child 
of the mountains, petted beauty of North 
Carolina, haven and hope of weary con- 
sumptives the wide world over. Out 
into the bright sunlight, by winding 
ways, the train rushes merrily on until 
first hills, then the mountains steal upon 
us. Puffing onward it tears into them, 
then up them ; two engines are needed 
for the feat, and creaking and groaning, 
the toilsome journey begins " raouend 
and raouend, " leaving valleys, cabins, 
rushing torrents and pine woods far down 
below. Oh ! the clear, sweet air, the 
wild grandeur, the uplifting of mind and 
heart. Oh ! that all I love were here to 
enjoy it. 

The setting sun is irradiating the 



Peaks as we neared the town. Resting 
on the crest of the hill overlooking the 
Swannanoa, Kenilworth Inn, with its 
great stone porte-cochere, loomed above 
us ; running along by the river the train 
winds round the mountains, and slowly, 
we steam into Asheville. Coming out of 
the station, one involuntarily stands and 
looks up, up into the pines, the hills 
that tower on each side, and one's spirits 
mount and gladden with the scene, and 
that first never-to-be-forgotten whiff of 
air that seems to come from another 
world. Merry sounds of laughter, negro 
wit forsooth, bargains with livery men, 
soft southern voices, chattering pleasant 
northern ones meanwhile fall cheerily on 
the ear. Up the steep road into the 
town, flanked and guarded by the moun- 
tains, a gleam of the French Broad river 
flashes in the sunlight, valleys open and 
vanish, peak upon peak rises above each 
other, and high over all, deep blue 
Italian sky crowns the whole. I reach 
my hotel with a softened feeling for 
humanity in general, and a solid satis- 
faction that I am where I am, and no 
place else in the world. 

I am up betimes next morning, 
anxious for a tramp before breakfast, 
standing by the windows to salute the 



72 



CHRISTMAS MASS IN THE MOUNTAINS. 



(8) 



mountains. I exclaim involuntarily, 
"Oh! the sea! and a steamer starting 
out. ' ' For the moment I have forgotten 
where I am, then, enchanted, from 
where I stand I look down on the city, 
but there is no city. Instead, a vast, 
white, level expanse of clouds, shut in 
by the mountains, blue and protecting. 
At one end the effect is a cove where 
the spur of the mountains pushes into 
the seeming ocean, the pines rising out 
of theiwater ; beyond the point a white 
streak as of a river flowing into the 
sea, while stretching away a great waste 
of shadowy waters still and dreamy. The 
only real thing about it is the smoke 
rising from the chimney stack of one of 
the hotels, the highest point in the city, 
the red roof alone visible like nothing 
so much as a steamer starting for dis- 
tant lands. The effect is so vivid, so 
realistic, that it seems impossible to 
believe it merely clouds, that will vanish 
at the first kiss of the sun. 

Coming down to breakfast I run 
against an acquaintance from New York, 
and a few minutes' conversation elicits 
the fact that a dozen or more are in the 
town . Asheville is dearly loved in the 
North ; but where is it not loved ? 

In the hush of the dying day I 
wander into the little church on the 
hill, as plain and unpretentious as any 
country chapel in Ireland, but smaller 
than any I had ever seen even there. As 
one closes the door on the outside world 
a solemn stillness reigns ; the altar and 
statues are gems in their way, and the 
exquisite neatness would do honor to any 
convent chapel. The dear Lord is loved 
Here ; and where could He seek a more 
beautiful dwelling ? From every window 
the blue mountains seem to rise up and 
guard the sanctuary; wherever the eye 
rests there they are, never one moment 
the same. A peace steals over one's 
spirit ; earth and heaven seem to meet ; 
and in that little mountain chapel 
prayers go up with a fervor never 
known elsewhere. 

In and out with slow and weary feet, 



the sick and the dying are passing 
through the long Southern day. That 
cough has less pathos when heard close 
to the altar, with the kind wistful eyes 
of the Sacred Heart statue, so wonderful 
in their calm, sweet pity, looking down 
on the upturned, stricken face. 

Now it is a young mother from the far- 
off Northwest, wasted and worn, who 
comes to beg for a life that she knows 
too well is so necessary for those who 
love her. Old and young, rich and poor, 
from the snows of Canada, as from the 
prairies of the West, all meet there, with 
one great cry, to spare them yet but a 
few years longer. And the cough breaks 
forth again, and the soft air comes 
through the open windows, and the 
mountains turn to gold with the setting 
sun, and the twinkling lamp before the 
altar keeps up its undying light, and 
the dear patient prisoner hears all in 
His own way and in His own time, and 
the crushed spirit and the broken heart 
go forth into the mountain world com- 
forted, for He knows and He loves. 

It is Christmas morning, Christmas in 
the South, Christmas in the mountains. 
It was ushered in at midnight by 
cannon, and since day -break the school- 
boys have revelled in fire- crackers to 
their hearts content. The only day in 
all the year the law allows them free 
license in that respect. It is the South- 
ern Fourth of July. 

Through the darkness of the early 
morning the poor and the strangers are 
climbing up the hill to keep another 
Christmas. 

The little church so often the scene of 
many a silent tragedy, is this morning 
all joy and gladness. The altar is 
beautiful in its simplicity, the candles 
blaze through the red berries of the 
holly that cluster round the pillars, 
gleam out from unexpected corners, and 
are backed in artistic masses behind the 
tabernacle. The place is innocent of 
lamps, so the sole light comes from the 
altar the centre, and irradiator of every- 
thing. The effect is to render the 



(9) 



CHRISTMAS MASS IN THE MOUNTAINS. 



73 






poverty of the little church pathetic and 
touching beyond words. The small 
congregation is all out, and even some 
of the invalids have braved the morning 
mists. It may be their last Christmas ! 
for when the spring flowers are on the 
mountains, the weary step and the wear- 
ing cough may be silent forever. Just 
before Mass the priest comes up the 
aisle, he looks at the altar, the fervent 
little congregation, and then, as if a 
thought suddenly struck him, he stops 
before a kneeling figure in the darkness 
and says a few words. Then quietly 
going to the side altar, he takes a lighted 
candle, which he hands to some one. 
A young girl conies out of the gloom 
with her dim light carefully guarded, an 
old white-haired man stretches forth 
some matches with a kindly air as she 
passes down the aisle. Her steps go 
softly up the stairway and I silently 
wonder what it all means. The Mass 
begins solemnly and reverently, the 
kneeling congregation scarcely outlined 
in the darkness, while out of the still- 
ness a voice rises from above. 

It was a strange scene. The small 
organ with the solitary candle and the 
stranger singing, singing what seemed 
to come first, and that not a Christmas 
carol, but a hymn to the Sacred Heart. 
Thy Heart is my Home, Sweet Lord. 
Thy Heart is my Home. To the 
strangers far from all their own, the 
words were peculiarly comforting, and to 
the sick and dying gathered below they 
told of a home nearer, brighter, better 
than any earth could give them. The 
elevation is over and the bowed heads 
show the deep earnestness of the little 
flock, when scarcely above a whisper, 
the strange voice rises again in a hymn 
I had never heard, and never will forget : 
Peace be still our Lord is dwelling 
Silent on His altar throne. 

The words and music seemed made 
for each other, they were so full of deep 
earnestness and pathos. With a great 
wail of tenderness, the words fall sadly 
on the ear : 



Thou hast called the heavy laden, 

Called the poor, the frail to Thee. 
See us then O Son of maiden, 

None could poorer, frailer be 
Heart of Jesus, come we hither 

With our burdens, meekly in 
From a world where spirits wither 

From a world whose breath is sin. 

Not a word was lost, and not a soul 
there that did not feel its power. Out 
on the mountains the light had not yet 
broken, the palatial hotels and mansions 
are wrapped in slumber, only in this 
little church poor and simple is the 
Infant King greeted and received. Only 
the faithful few are out in the darkness 
to welcome Him. As in the old days in 
Jerusalem, strangers from over -all the 
country are in the town the great, the 
rich, the powerful. Stately churches 
welcome Him with closed doors, and in 
the midst of all this wealth and luxury 
it is only in this little Bethlehem on the 
hill, that the great Lord of heaven and 
earth has come down to His people, as in 
the obscure cave, with but the shepherds 
and the strangers from the East to do 
Him homage. 

The Domine non sum dignus rings out 
joyously, the great moment has come, 
and the last words of the hymn : 

Heart of Jesus, light eternal, 
Fill our souls with light and love, 

die out from above, with a fervor and 
pathos I shall always remember. It is 
the day, the scene, the place, that make 
that Christmas Mass in the mountains, 
so dear to my heart. Where could one 
find such an ensemble ? A young priest, 
earnest beyond his years, living in the 
midst of the dying, the suffering and 
the distressed, whose days and nights 
are given up almost exclusively to the 
dying not his own people but sadder 
still, to strangers dying in a strange 
country. The little congregation, many 
whose days are numbered, the others, 
the first fruits of a missionary country, 
and the corner-stones of a great church 
just springing into active life. All go 
to Holy Communion, and the young 



74- 



CHRISTMAS MASS IN THE MOUNTAINS. 



(10) 



men seem to predominate, a hopeful sign 
of a parish. Then in solemn silence the 
Mass of thanksgiving quickly follows, 
and as the sunrise falls in golden bars 
through the long windows, the fervent 
congregation melts slowly away. 

I linger long I am loath to go back 
into the every-day, work-a-day world. 
Such graces do not often flow as in the 
early hours of this Christmas Mass of 
the Sacred Heart, if I may so call it. 
Will the dear Lord hear the cries of His 
children and change their Bethlehem 
into a mighty church, with its great cross 
outlined against the peaks and convent 
spires rising above the pines, where the 
Angelus will echo down the valley, and 
the mountains will look on the convent, 
and the convent will look on the town ; 
and young hearts will learn to love that 
great Heart that has so loved men, and 
prayers and praises will rise up from 
holy souls, whose watchword is "one 
heart and one soul in the Heart of 
Jesus, ' ' and whose great deeds may one 
day be done for the glory of God. And 
as I look up at the altar, it takes but 
little faith to see all this at no distant 

day. 

* * -x- 

The Winter had passed, and with the 
Spring came a stranger from the Kast, 
sent in the vain hope that the mountain 
air and the mountain wildness would 
cure a bleeding heart. She had all the 
world could give, but counted it as 
nought ; she was a convert, and had 
given up much for her new faith ; she 
was generous and true and faithful, and 
God, to try her, took what she prized as 
only such a mother can her little child. 
It was too much. With her little one, 
she lost all faith and hope and love. 
Prayer was a mockery ; henceforth her 
life was an unending misery. She wan- 
dered through the mountains more deso- 
late than ever in all this beautiful 
world none so sad as she. One day, com- 
ing down the hill, she saw the cross, 
and with reluctant feet she entered the 
little church. Who could resist it? 



That tiny white tabernacle, those won- 
derful pitying eyes of the Sacred Heart 
that seemed to look straight at her soul. 
In a moment the light came, and with it 
the blessed tears a great sobbing fiat, 
and all was over ! 

Easter was at hand ; for the first time 
the Repository was seen on Holy Thurs- 
day ; such a wonder of flowers and lace 
and lights as drew even many non-Catho- 
lics to the strange, beautiful scene of 
faith and love in the little church on the 
hill. How her reawakened faith showed 
itself in lavish gifts of flowers for the 
great day, and on Easter morning the 
electric lights blazed in the once dark- 
ened little church, her generous token 
of the light she had received in her dark 
hours before its simple little altar. 

The weeks have run from me blithe 
and merry, and they linger in my mind 
this evening as I watch from the hill- 
side for my last mountain sunset. The 
shadows lengthen, the blue mists veiling 
the mountains ; the sun, after the day's 
work, is resting on the peak ; he lingers 
lovingly, as if loath, like myself, to 
leave so fair a scene, smiles down at the 
valley, flushes the river, warms up the 
whole sky around him, and is gone. 

Bluer than ever the mountains seem 
flung out by the gorgeous afterglow he 
leaves behind, which if seen on canvas, 
would be scorned as the dream of some 
imaginative artist. 

But nature is more vivid and daring 
than was ever art. She mixes her colors, 
blends her tints, that while they startle, 
they charm the eye and lift the thought, 
mind and heart to the great Artist, whose 
hand has fashioned this unrivaled pic- 
ture His own world. The night comes 
on, darkness is gathering around me, 
and reluctantly my feet turn homewards. 
Along the mountain-side the city lights 
are flashing ; one by one they twinkle as 
if stars come down from the sky. Not a 
sound anywhere, and silently, softly, 
peacefully, the wings of night fold over 
the mountains, and with the sun they, 
too, go to their rest. 







EDITORIAL. 



NEW EDUCATION ! 



STRIKING FIGURES. 



NOTHER phase of the New 

Kducation ' ' is the heading un- 
der which The Forum for November de- 
scribes a system of educating young 
people by making them live over again 
the lives of certain models. Strangely 
enough the model children as well as men 
need most is left out, for Christ does not 
seem to be one of the models. Many 
another is chosen, pagan and even sav- 
age though they be, for one of the oddi- 
ties of this system is to suppose that 
"an actual, though very elastic corre- 
spondence, does exist between the devel- 
opment of the child's mind during the 
school period and a succession of phases 
in the history of civilization." Hence 
every child is treated as Rousseau would 
have had him treated, like a young sav- 
age, and made to study from Hiawatha 
up to a number of higher types, Cromwell 
and William of Orange not excluded, as if 
they really were higher in the scale than 
our favorite Indian hero. New educa- 
tion, surely ! Of course, the system has 
some obscure pedagogue's name to rec- 
ommend it, though we are assured its 
American advocates have developed new 
phases in it. Shall we never have done ? 
Or, if it has taken us thousands of years 
to learn, or, better, to invent such sys- 
tems, why should we hasten to work 
them out on poor young brains. Verily, 
education will ever be made a bugbear to 
the young ; the ferule has but given 
way to the " modern system, " the rod is 
spared, but the system is applied most 
mercilessly. 

(ii) 



Taking the parochial and public 
schools of Rochester as a basis, a 
writer in the Rochester Cathedral Calen- 
dar, shows from actual figures that it 
would cost the different States of this 
Union $20,927,754.12 yearly to educate 
the 946,101 children who receive their 
education in our American parochial 
schools. If the cost of buildings, repairs, 
and the like expenses, are added, they 
raise the amount to the enormous sum 
of $27,597,766.17. The support of our 
parochial schools, it is true, costs the 
Church not more than one-third of that 
amount ; but this is owing to the neces- 
sary economy which is practised in the 
administration of our Catholic schools, 
and the self-sacrifice of our religious 
teachers, who receive for their labors 
what is barely necessary for their sup- 
port. 

Yet, these schools, whatever disad- 
vantages they may labor under, thanks 
to the devotedness of their unselfish 
teachers, and to the religious piety of 
the children, which "is useful for all 
things, " compare favorably in scholar- 
ship with the palatial, well furnished 
and well manned public schools. This 
fact should be ' ' blown into ' ' the ears of 
our hard-hearing fellow-citizens until 
they realize the just claims of denomi- 
national schools to an adequate remunera- 
tion for the work they are doing for the 
country. The State considers it its 
privilege and its duty to pay for the sec- 
ular instruction of its subjects. Are the 
three R's and the other secular branches 

75 



76 



EDITORIAL. 



(12) 



of knowledge, less valuable because they 
happen to be taught in a parochial, 
school ? 

PRESS PROPHETS. 

"Nothing new under the sun, "is 
truer in our day than ever before, with 
all the enterprise of our modern news- 
paper. The foresight of the editor and 
the insight of the reporters leave nothing 
to discover. Bach day's press predicts 
so much and pretends to know so much 
more, that we should know all about 
every event before it happens. Should 
it turn out, as it usually does, different 
from the prophecy, it gives no annoy- 
ance to the newspaper man, as the 
journalist is vulgarly called. He simply 
tells the fact and proceeds at once to 
forecast the future, to foresee conse- 
quences and to present a number of 
likely circumstances with every possible 
graphic detail, using illustration where 
his style would not be sufficiently actual 
or life like. What does it matter to 
him should most of it turn out false ? 
Who can hope to follow him in the 
multiplicity of his deceits ? With the 
cool effrontery of falsehood, he is ready 
to announce the very opposite of his 
statement of yesterday, and skilful to 
distract the minds of his readers from 
examining his fabrications, by offering 
them news as startling and unfounded 
as ever before. Still the world reads it 
all, and craves for more. The world 
lives on lying, and likes to be deluded. 
How well the One who came to save it 
could say : ' ' Sons of men, how long will 
you be dull of heart ? Why do you love 
vanity, and seek after lying ? ' ' 

SPREADING THE fllSCHIEF. 

It is bad enough that the world should 
run after lying. Some who are not of 
the world seem to run after it also. 
Some even who presume to teach the 
multitude, through a press nominally, 
at least, Catholic, repeat week after week 
the idle rumors and the false imforma- 
tions of an unprincipled secular press. 
These things are painful to mention, 



even when they must be mentioned in 
order to be denied ; when printed with- 
out a denial they are scandalous and far 
more hurtful to those who read them in 
a religious weekly than to those who 
give them a passing attention in the 
morning newspaper. And still the edi- 
tors of such papers are clamoring for 
Catholic patronage, and complaining that 
their efforts to publish a Catholic jour- 
nal meet with little encouragement. We 
sometimes blame our great dailies for 
giving erroneous and misleading notices 
on Catholic affairs. How can we blame 
them justly if our own newspapers admit 
into their columns so much that is 
merely imaginary, or even evidently 
false ? Not long ago a New York news- 
paper, still in good repute, made some 
very ignorant statements about the cere- 
mony of the Mass. A week after we 
were surprised to see the same state- 
ments repeated word for word in a news- 
paper bearing a Catholic title. Lately 
we have been treated to the wildest ru- 
mors about men and things we all con- 
sider sacred. Even secular newspapers 
denounced the license taken, and still 
no less than five so-called Catholic week- 
lies repeated them without question. 

A STRONG " LAST WORD." 

Father Breen, O.S.B., the distin- 
guished English controversialist, puts 
the continuity question very forcibly as 
follows : "If Cranmer had wished to 
retain the Catholic priesthood he would 
have retained the Catholic rite of ordina- 
tion. But he deliberately and of set 
purpose put it aside. He sent for 
Bucer, a Lutheran, to come over to Eng- 
land and draw up a rite for making 
Gospel ministers such as he had drawn 
up for the German Lutheran, which was 
practically adopted. In estimating the 
value of such a rite we have to bear 
in mind the principle laid down by Sir 
James Stephen : ' That in the interpreta- 
tion of statutes in general the following 
points are to be considered : The old law, 
the mischief, and the remedy, ' 






(13) 



EDITORIAL. 



77 






" Now, in this case, the old law was 
the Catholic Pontifical, the mischief was 
its sacerdotalism, and the remedy the 
elimination of every trace of a sacrificial 
priesthood from the new rite. It is the 
fact of this evisceration, this emascula- 
tion of the old Catholic rite that the 
Pope appeals to, and that Anglican 
divines have always appealed to as the 
crucial factor that determines the non- 
sacrificial character of the Anglican 
Ministry." 

WHO IS TO BLAnE ? 

A gentle .complaint on the misuse of 
words appeared lately in The Churchman, 
(Prot. Epis.) Bishop Paret is the plain- 
tiff. He gives two instances : The 
words regeneration and ordination. He 
says, "In Holy Scripture, and in all 
early use, it [regeneration] designated 
the change in relation of the soul to 
God, and the consequence of that change 
as effected by God's grace in the Holy 
Sacrament of Baptism. Careless writing 
and popular misuse made it mean the 
same as conversion under the revival 
system, and many thus lost all idea of 
sacramental grace." The Bishop lays 
the charge at the wrong door. It was 
not popular misuse and careless writing 
that are responsible for people losing all 
idea of sacramental grace. It was the 
deliberate act, not of the people, but of 
clergymen, who tampered with the 
ancient creeds and formularies and cut 
themselves off from the infallible teach- 
ing Church. 

The Bishop must recollect the decision 
in the Gorham case not so many years 
ago. The High Court of Appeal decided 
that in the Established Church of Eng- 
land people were free to believe as they 
liked about baptismal regeneration. 
Why, then, impute the loss of ideas 
about sacramental grace to popular mis- 
use? The Protestant principle of the 
right of private judgment is wholly re- 
sponsible, and that is taught in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church whereof the 
plaintiff is a bishop. 



MISUSE OF WORDS. 

His next complaint is about the mis- 
use of the word ordination. Alack ! it is 
now used by his own sect for the 
appointing of women to be deaconesses. 
He admits that, by a recent canon of the 
General Convention, permission was 
given for "setting apart " or "appoint- 
ing " women to this office, but he 
notices the careful omission of the word 
"ordain," and the use of "office "and 
not ' ' order ' ' ; moreover, the service is 
variable at the will of any bishop and 
the office may be resigned. So, too, 
may deacons resign their office, and as 
for variableness of service, any bishop 
may use one of two forms, variable doc- 
trinally, in the ordination, not of a 
deacon, but of a Protestant Episcopal 
priest. 

The complaint is founded on the fact 
that Bishop Paret holds that ordination 
' ' conveys the grace of orders "and ' ' im- 
prints an indelible ' character. ' ' ' This 
is Catholic doctrine, but not warranted 
by the Bishop's own formulary in the 
XXV Article of Religion which ex- 
plicitly denies that orders "is to be 
counted among the sacraments of the 
Gospel, ' ' since it has not ' ' any visible 
sign or ceremony ordained by God." 
We know of no other sacraments than 
those of the Gospel and having a visible 
sign or ceremony ordained by God, for 
He alone can attach the giving of grace 
to the use of an outward sign. 

OTHER INSTANCES. 

It was an unfortunate instance for the 
bishop to bring forward. He might add 
a few more examples of the same ilk. 
Confirmation was retained in name by 
the Anglican Reformers, although they 
put it in the same category with orders, 
penance, matrimony and extreme unction 
as lacking a God-ordained visible sign. 
It became a mere Lutheran ceremony of 
an adult renewing and assuming the 
baptismal vows made by his sponsors. 

As for the loss of the idea of sacra- 
mental grace in Matrimony, in the same 



78 



EDITORIAL. 



(14) 



way, it must not be attributed to ' ' popu- 
lar misuse " or to " careless writing, ' ' 
but to the perverse minds and wills of 
the Fathers of the Protestant Reforma- 
tion. The present working of the 
divorce court, the logical outcome of the 
doctrine of non-sacramental marriage, is 
the best commentary. The Reformers 
substituted for the infallible authority 
of God and His Church the private 
judgment of fallible men. The teachers 
are responsible for the lessons taught. 

Dryden admirably answers in the fol- 
lowing lines the objection of Bishop 
Paret : 

As long as words a different sense will bear, 
And each may be his own interpreter, 

Our airy faith will no foundation find, 
The word a weathercock for every wind. 

REUNIONIST TEMPER. 

The Pope's Encyclical on Anglican 
Orders, it seems, has completely dissi- 
pated the illusive hopes of ' ' Corporate 
Reunion." Lord Halifax has given up 
the struggle; but, instead of drawing 
the one legitimate conclusion, that there 
is no possibility of reunion except by an 
unconditioned submission to the visible 
head of the Church, the successor of St. 
Peter and Vicar of Christ, and practi- 
cally acting upon that inevitable princi- 
ple, he sulks and rails as if the Anglican 
body were treated without '-love," 
"sympathy " and "justice." 

Lord Halifax should have learned at 
an earlier stage of this movement that 
there could have been no compromise 
where truth is concerned. He should 
have realized the fact that in the matter 
of truth there could have been no desire 
and no effort of ' ' meeting him half-way. ' ' 
Truth is a thing that cannot be halved. 
He should have known that "other 
foundation no man can lay but that 
which has been laid, which is Christ 
Jesus." On Christ and His teaching 
the Church is founded, not on the policy 
and work of man. Corporate reunion 



on their own conditions would have been 
very acceptable to Lord Halifax and his 
party, but not corporate reunion on the 
conditions put by the divine Architect 
of the Church's constitution. They 
would have reunion of their own inven- 
tion and at their own dictation, a Church 
within a Church reunion without unity. 
Their present attitude shows but too 
evidently how far these gentlemen were 
removed from true corporate reunion 
when they fancied themselves nearest 
to it. 

STILL PROTESTING. 

It is much to be regretted that the 
late Archbishop of Canterbury closed his 
career with a statement which is calcu- 
lated, as far as its weight may carry, to 
widen the breach which exists between 
Anglicanism and the Catholic Church. 
His Grace of Canterbury's last utterance 
suggests some reflections to the Episco- 
pal Bishop of Albany which are very 
characteristic of that dignitary. His 
Lordship of Albany finds it " a matter of 
congratulation that the [Pope's] decision 
takes the form of a denial. " Else " cer- 
tain Anglican priests, "he thinks, might 
be led to recognize the infallibility and 
supremacy of the Pope in other words, 
there might be a partial reunion with 
Rome, as far at least as these ' ' Anglican 
priests" are concerned; and this, of 
course, would be the greatest evil in the 
mind of the Protestant Bishop of Albany. 
This means praying for unity, and pro- 
testing against unity with Rome, in the 
same breath. 

Yet, while the visionary movement for 
corporate reunion in the Anglican sense 
has subsided, it is consoling to know 
that conversions of individuals are mul- 
tiplying through the prayers of the faith- 
ful and the spread of enlightenment con- 
cerning true Christian unity, which is 
submission to the one supreme authority 
and centre of unity the Apostolic See, 
the Bishop of Rome. 



The interests of Jesus Christ are so 
numerous that we cannot hope to offer 
anything like a complete or extensive 
review of them in these columns. The 
most we can attempt is to call attention 
to some special items that might easily 
be overlooked in the mass of news that 
fills our daily and weekly journals, and 
to select and chronicle what should keep 
our readers informed about the triumphs 
or reverses of His kingdom. If we re- 
joice at the one and grieve at the other, 
He who knows their full import for the 
salvation of souls cannot be indifferent 
to them. 

The ancient monuments of our holy 
faith naturally become an object of great 
interest to Christendom. Lovers of 
Ireland's former glory will rejoice to 
hear that the Irish Commissioners of 
Public Works are carefully helping to 
preserve the ancient or mediaeval struc- 
tures from the ravages of time. Sixteen 
important ruins have been thus treated. 
The most important are the great Cister- 
cian Abbey of Dunbrody, in the County 
Wexford, and the famous stone cross of 
St. Boyne at Monasterboice near Drog- 
heda, which is considered by many to 
be the oldest religious relic in the coun- 
try, as it dates back beyond 534. 



In France the ancient casket, which 
for so many years had enclosed the 
relics of the Apostle of the Franks, has 
been replaced by a new one, which is 
described as an artistic gem. The new 
shroud in which the holy remains were 
wrapped is of the' most splendid mater- 
ial. The translation was the occasion of 
a solemn triduum in the venerable 
Cathedral. Cardinal Richard, Arch- 
bishop of Paris, presided, and Cardinal 
Perraud, bishop of Autun, delivered the 
opening discourse on the vocation of 
Christian France. On the closing day 
of the triduum, which was a Sunday, 
Pontifical High Mass was celebrated 



by the bishop of Arras in the pres- 
ence of three Cardinals, two Arch- 
bishops and nearly forty bishops. In 
the afternoon, the celebrated Domini- 
can Pere Monsabre, preached to an im- 
mense audience. He sketched in a 
masterly way the terrible crisis through 
which France had passed, and which, by 
the grace of her baptism, she had passed 
through safely. He recalled the pact 
entered into between God and France ; 
if France had wished to break away 
from God, He in His infinite mercy had 
not accepted the rupture as final. He 
instanced the numerous sanctuaries of 
our Lady, and especially the great 
national votive basilica of the Sacred 
Heart at Montmartre. He then appealed 
to the people to renew the baptismal 
vows taken by Clovis fourteen hundred 
years ago, and in response the whole 
assembly, in the name of the nation, 
repeated the promise made by the 
Frankish King ages ago at Rheims. A 
procession of the relics of St. Remigius 
and Benediction of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment closed the festivities. The music 
of the Mass was composed by the late 
Charles Gounod by request of Cardinal 
Langenieux. After Gounod's death it 
was found in a box with the inscription : 
" Mass of Clovis, after the Gregorian 
style." 



Very different, but very well meant, 
was the Anglican service which was held 
on St. Edward's day, the first since the 
Reformation, to honor him at his shrine 
in Westminster Abbey. At evensong 
Bishop Creighton delivered a lengthy 
sermon upon the saintly Confessor. It 
was the cause of much disappointment, 
for many Catholics had come to the 
Abbey to pay their devotions to the Saint 
at his shrine. This they could not do, 
as there is a rule in force which closes 
the chapels to the public during divine 
service. When the sermon was over, 
such was its length, the hour for open- 
ing the chapels had passed. 

79 



80 



INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



(16) 



In some way or other, however un sec- 
tarian these non-Catholic celebrations 
and movements profess to be, they are 
generally sectarian in tendency. East 
1 4th Street, New York, has a new mis- 
sionary organization called the Brother- 
hood Club. The originator of it is Mrs. 
Katharine A. Tingley, and so her name 
precedes the word Brotherhood in the 
title of the club. Our readers may be 
aware that she is the President of the 
occult branch of the Theosophical Soci- 
ety. She started, in the Winter of 1893, 
to work among the east side poor. To 
continue and enlarge this work the club 
in question has been organized. It is 
the intention of the organizers to estab- 
lish classes for the education of children 
in useful occupations, to form a free read- 
ing club and a medical dispensary, and 
to carry out a system of relieving the 
needy. A "Lotus Circle" or a non- 
sectarian Theosophical Sunday-school 
has already been established for the 
young. One of the chief objects of the 
new organization is to get the tenement 
dwellers well acquainted with one 
another and with the Theosophists. We 
imagine the latter is the thing most de- 
sired. To attain this they purpose hav- 
ing from time to time ' brotherhood 
suppers. " Is it not the old story of the 
' ' soupers ? ' ' The first of the series was 
held at 607 B. Fourteenth Street. Fifty 
men and women sat down to a repast of 
sandwiches, pork and beans, bread, 
cakes, and coffee. Theosophical songs 
were sung. The object of these suppers 
is to inculcate the principles of brotherly 
sympathy and co-operation among the 
tenement dwellers around the big car 
stables in Fourteenth Street. 

The Protestant Episcopalians have 
also an establishment on a grand scale 
in East Fourteenth Street, where the 
work of proselytizing is being carried 
on among the poor and needy. Of 
course, as usual, the main effort is to 
gain the rising generation. And now 
the news comes that the Universalists 
will soon open a campaign in the same 
neighborhood, where some five others 
are already in the field. 



How successfully such influences as 
these can be counteracted is clear from 
the following instance : Four years 
ago the Montreal Branch of the Catho- 
lic Truth Society organized a club for 
Catholic sailors while in that port. A 
Protestant Sailors' Institute had long 



been in sole possession. Montreal 
claims to have been the first to pro- 
vide for Catholic seamen, and her ex- 
ample has been successfully followed 
in London, New York, and other sea- 
ports. The French "Works of the 
Sea, ' ' especially among the fishermen 
on the Newfoundland and Miquelon 
Banks have already been described in 
our pages. The activity of the Prot- 
estants is astonishing ; they have mis- 
sions or bethels for seamen in more than 
fifty seaports, and one society alone, the 
British and Foreign Sailors' Society, has 
one hundred and thirty-five agents and 
seventy-two establishments. 

In the face of such opposition, the 
work in Montreal was undertaken. 
They began in an attic in St. Paul 
Street. Games and reading matter were 
provided, and every Thursday evening a 
concert was given by the sailors them- 
selves, assisted by local talent. The aver- 
age attendance at these concerts was 
from one hundred to one hundred and 
fifty. Greater space was needed and a 
large four-story building on the corner 
of St. Peter and Common Streets, was 
rented a year ago. Two floors are given 
to the reading and games rooms. An- 
other floor is used as a concert hall with 
a seating capacity of three' hundred. The 
top floor will be fitted up as a gymnasium. 
The founder of the club was Rev. A. E. 
Jones, S.J., the editor of the Canadian 
English Messenger and Central Director 
of the Canadian English Apostleship of 
Prayer, but on account of the multi- 
plicity of his work, he was replaced this 
year by Rev. E. J. Devine, S.J , the pres- 
ent chaplain. In his report he states that 
12,800 seamen have enjoyed the hospital- 
ity of the club since the opening of navi- 
gation ; 100 took the abstinence pledge ; 
1 80 added their names to the League of 
the Sacred Heart ; 960 packages of read- 
ing matter were given to sailors on out- 
bound ships ; 3000 MESSENGERS were 
distributed, besides innumerable pious 
articles, such as prayer books, beads and 
scapulars ; 900 letters were written and 
about 700 received. Twenty visits were 
made to seamen in the hospital. 

The organization of the club consists 
of an inside and outside committee. 
The former is made up of members of 
the Catholic Truth Society ; the latter is 
formed of ladies, of whom Lady Kings- 
ton is President. They do the collecting 
and provide the funds. They have 
worked most admirably. We wish the 
good work godspeed. 



(17) 



INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



81 



II 



Active work like this is imperative, 
but it will not do to devote all our 
activity to external work merely. It is 
a higher form of Christian philanthropy 
to give a fellow man sound principle 
than to afford him bodily relief or 
amusement. How well the enemies of 
Christianity perceive this truth, and 
how zealous they are in propagating 
their evil principles is clear from the 
sessions of the anti-Masonic Congress 
lately held in Trent. 



The report of the Congress contains 
important conclusions founded on 
authentic documents. It declares that 
the religious doctrines by which Free- 
masonry has been inspired are those 
of nature-worship, practised in ancient 
times in the mysteries of the Indians, 
Persians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Ro- 
mans, Greeks and Druids. In Chris- 
tian ages the same was professed by 
the Gnostics, Manichseans, Albigenses, 
Cathari, and kindred sects, as well as of 
the Templars, Philosophers of Fire, 
Alchemists or Rosicrucians, who, on 
June 24, 1717, founded Freemasonry 
with its actual symbolism, in order to 
perpetuate their creed. The funda- 
mental principle is : " The ability of 
nature, the intelligence of the power 
that exists in nature, with its various 
operations. ' ' The impious developments 
of this creed are not imparted to all the 
initiated, but the various beliefs pro- 
fessed may be summed up as " Monism, ' ' 
or the " Great- All-in- All, " of idealistic 
Pantheism, and of Materialism under 
the name of Positivism. The connect- 
ing link of Masonic doctrines is the 
identification of the universe with God, 
and the idea of a generating God of the 
universe is substituted for the Christian 
idea of God, the Creator of heaven and 
earth. This is said to be shown in the 
name Architect of the Universe, the 
word architect implying the pre-existence 
or co-existence of the materials of archi- 
tecture, and of the forces used in 
handling them. The Congress defined 
the aim of Masonry to be " destruction 
in the moral, intellectual and physical 
orders. " 

This it does in the moral order by 
substituting evil for good, in deifying 
the evil principle, and with it of all the 
vices under the name of virtues. In the 
intellectual order, the explicit and neces- 



sary profession of secrecy and falsehood 
destroys truth. In the physical order, 
death or universal destruction is divi- 
nized. The Holy Trinity is rejected, and 
the Indian trinity of a generating, 
destroying and regenerating god, rep- 
resenting the Triangle, is substituted. 
We see this in the principle that the 
death of one is the birth of another, and 
in the phrases " struggle for existence, " 
' ' perpetual revolution ' ' and ' ' indefinite 
progress. ' ' 



There was at the Congress an inter- 
esting though horrible exhibit of Ma- 
sonic writings and documents in one 
hundred and fifty volumes. Together 
with these were exhibited Masonic maps,, 
symbols and ornaments. Among the 
latter was a crucifix arranged as a sheath 
of a poniard. There was also a collection 
of emblematical designs belonging to 
the Palladist Formulary, all of which are 
horribly blasphemous. The cross is put 
as the symbol of darkness, while the 
triangle represents light. The spirit 
which animates them is seen by the rep- 
resentation of a Host transfixed by a 
dagger beside a chalice overturned and 
spilling its sacred contents. 



On the subject of reunion : " Here in 
England," says Father Smith, in Les 
Etudes for September, " we have not ob- 
served that the movement of Lord Hali- 
fax had any great influence on those 
who had Catholic tendencies or on those 
who have in the meantime come over to 
the Church. On the contrary, we find 
that the number of converts to Catholi- 
cism have increased to a marked degree 
since the publication of Leo XIII. 's En- 
cyclical ad Anglos ; and this increase we 
attribute to the prayers which this En- 
cyclical has elicited. This is a hopeful 
omen. We must not forget that it was 
the action of Abbe Vortal and Lord Hali- 
fax that led to the publication of that 
document, and we cannot help being 
thankful to them. In another respect 
also this movement is calculated to ex- 
ercise indirectly a very salutary influ- 
ence. It has called attention, on the 
one hand, to the dreadful evils of relig- 
ious disunion, and, on the other hand, to 
the magnificent spectacle of Catholic 
unity. In the long run, the contrast 
thus brought into relief cannot fail to 
impress serious minds." 




NOTES FROM HEAD CENTRES. 



SOUTH AFRICA. The Rt. Rev. A. 
Gaughran, O.M.I., writes from Kim- 
berly : "Of the fruits of the Apostleship 
of Prayer in South Africa I can say, 
from my own experience, that they can- 
not be exaggerated. Shortly after my 
arrival here this whole vicariate was 
consecrated to the Sacred Heart ; for I 
made this promise to the Sacred Heart 
before the Altar at Montmartre before 
setting out from Europe. Since then 
all the Catholics of this Mission seem 
to be wholly devoted to the Sacred 
Heart. In our Mission in Basudaland 
the power of the Sacred Heart was 
shown in an almost miraculous manner. 
On the very day of the consecration to 
the Sacred Heart a large number of pa- 
gans presented themselves for instruc- 
tion, and during that year the number 
of conversions increased in a remarkable 
degree. Where formerly there were ten 
converts we have now one hundred. In 
all our missions we owe great thanks to 
the Sacred Heart for its marvellous 
favors." 

POLAND. During the year 1895 in 
the Province of Galicia 69 parishes were 
aggregated to the League, with about 
100,000 members, 20,000 of whom be- 
long to the 2d and 1,000 to the 3d 
Degree. The number of subscribers to 
the Polish Messenger was between 137,- 
ooo and 138,000. This number has 
doubtless been considerably increased 
during the past year. The fruits of the 
devotion to the Sacred Heart are also 
manifest from the fact that during the 
same year over 300 remarkable favors, 
obtained through the prayers of the 
League, were recorded. This speaks 
well for the faith and piety of the Polish 
people. 

ENGLAND. In England the number 
of Aggregations are very considerable. 
The Local Directors are careful to make 
the reception of Promoters and also of As- 
sociates as solemn as possible. June 28, 
1896, such a reception was celebrated in 
St. Joseph's Church, Surrey. At the nine 
o'clock Mass about 200 approached Holy 
Communion. The Reception took place 

82 



at the evening service. The Church was 
packed. After Vespers, before Benedic- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament, the Pro- 
moters approached the altar rails hold- 
ing lighted tapers in their hands, re- 
ceived their Crosses and Diplomas, and 
pronounced the Act of Consecration. 
Hereupon about 300 Associates were in- 
vested with the League Badge. It was 
particularly gratifying to see that a 
large number of the Associates were 
young men. 

November 3, Feast of St. Winefride, a 
large statue of the Sacred Heart, over- 
looking the whole town, was blessed at 
Holywell by the Vicar Apostolic of 
North Wales. Thus the Sacred Heart 
will greet from a distance the pilgrims 
that flock from all parts of the Kingdom 
to this hallowed spot, and soften the 
bigotry of the Protestant inhabitants. 

The Apostleship of the Sea is carried 
on vigorously by the Promoters of the 
League, while the Central Director offers 
up the holy Sacrifice of the Mass for this 
object every fourth Friday of the month. 

The English Messenger will be slightly 
enlarged -this year. Promoters make it 
a part of their duty to circulate it every- 
where. 

. IRELAND. The Irish Messenger with 
true Irish zeal urges, in season and out 
of season, the Apostleship of Temper- 
ance, and that to very good effect ; for 
the League supplies all the means neces- 
sary to overcome even the strongest 
pas -ions and to peform the most heroic 
sacrifices. It takes also the greatest 
interest in the Work for Seamen. In a 
recent number it recommends the custom 
which has obtained in some fishing vil- 
lages in Ireland at the commencement 
of the fishing season to ask the priest to 
come and bless the boats, nets, and the 
crew themselves before setting out to 
their perilous work. But above all they 
are exhorted to prepare themselves 
against the dangers of the sea by a good 
confession and Communion. 

The Kinsale fishermen, who are very 
devout to the Sacred Heart, are accus- 
tomed to affix to some safe part of their 

(18) 



(19) 



NOTES FROM HEAD CENTRES. 



83 



boats the Badge of the Sacred Heart. 
Others are exhorted to imitate their ex- 
ample, and not only carry the Badge in 
their boats but also on their persons. 
These exhortations will bear direct fruits 
for seamen, as the Irish Messenger is 
widely circulated among them. 

SPAIN. The Spanish Messenger al- 
ways inspires respect. It is decidedly 
the most progressive of the organs of 
the League of the Sacred Heart. The 
General Intention always combines solid 
instruction and information with ardent 
piety and devotion. Its biographical ar- 
ticles, under the heading of ' ' Friends of 
the Sacred Heart, "which run in regular 
series, are very interesting. Controversial 
subjects are treated in a solid and, at 



the same time, in a popular manner. At 
present it is publishing a series of articles 
on Galileo. Another very interesting 
series, now running in the Spanish 
Messenger, is that of P. Watrigant on 
Protestants and the Exercises of St. 
Ignatius. Familiar conferences on social 
questions, by Father Van Trich, are al- 
ways sprightly and instructive, while the 
Literary Department (the popular story) 
has received a world-wide reputation 
through the genius of Padre Coloma. 
The League notices are very carefully 
compiled, but are, to our taste, rather 
minute in detail. In short, the Spanish 
Messenger bespeaks not only superior 
literary ability on the part of the editors, 
but also, what is more significant, a 
very intelligent constituency of readers. 



FRUIT OF THE; LEAGUE IN SCHOOLS EAST INDIA. 



The following obituary comes to us 
from St. Joseph's College, Darjeeling, 
East India. The subject, little Leonard 
Snee, was a member of the Sodality of 
the Blessed Virgin, for whom he had an 
ardent devotion, and of the League in 
Schools, whence he derived the spirit of 
self-conquest which animated him in his 
last moments. 

When, some days ago, I heard of death's 
first visit to North Point College, Darjeeling, 
I could well recall the lad with his bright, 
round face, lively as a lark, innocent as a 
babe, and loved by all, masters and boys. 
He was one of those boys for whom silence 
or refraining from an innocent trick, when 
occasion offered, meant a heroic act, but in 
chapel he could pray like an angel. There 
he appeared quite a different boy. Early 
and thorough Catholic training, in a pious 
Catholic Irish home, had made Leonard Snee 
what he showed himself so unmistakably in 
his last moments. 

He was ill for hardly more than a week ; 
it was a case of high fever, and the doctor 
soon declared it to be a serious one. Sun- 
day, September 20, was the day for the Gen- 
eral Communion of Reparation, and Leonard, 
used to frequent Communion, would not 
let that day pass without Holy Communion. 
It was given to him as viaticum. When 
Extreme Unction was spoken of, he said : 
" Oh yes, the catechism says, ' it will help 
the sick man, he will recover." He received 
the sacrament in presence of his masters and 
the officers of the Sodalities : he was a Sodal- 
ist and he always kept his medal by him 
during his last illness. He had been taught 
to say "Thy will be done ! " and till the last 
these words were on his lips Very early 
on Tuesday morning he remarked : " I hope 
I'll go to heaven! There is nothing like 
heaven ! " Mass was said in his room ; he 



wished to make his last Holy Communion. 
He followed with great devotion, but at the 
offertory he exclaimed : " Good bye ! I am 
going!" However, he recovered and re- 
ceived his dear Lord and joined in the 
prayers of thanksgiving. After that, his 
brother Willie kissed him and Leonard said 
to him : " Good bye, Willie ! Give my love 
to all at home ; poor mother, she will feel 
it!" 

The fever remained high and the poor 
little fellow began to grow delirious ; but 
religious thoughts alone occupied him. In 
his fevered imagination, he fights over again 
the spiritual battle which he had so often 
victoriously fought against the evil one, and 
he is heard to exclaim: "Where is my 
crucifix, and my Sodality medal? " Grasp- 
ing them he cries : " Begone, Satan ! don't 
you know this is holy ground ? The Holy 
Sacrfice of the Mass has been said here. 
Don't you see I'm a child of Mary? Here is 
my medal ! " Holding his Badge of the Sacred 
Heart, he said in a touching tone : " Behold 
this Heart ! Have you ever seen a Heart like 
this? This is the Heart of my God, who 
died for me ! " Indeed from the fulness of 
his pious heart his pure mouth spoke, even 
under the influence of the raging fever. 

Thursday, September 24, our Lady of 
Mercy came for this faithful child of Mary. 
In the morning he was calm and conscious, 
and he wished once more to receive Holy 
Communion. He was still able to do so, but 
he was evidently sinking. Yet, there was 
strength enough left him to repeat frequently 
his favorite aspirations , " Thy will be done ! 
Jesus, Mary, Joseph ! " Towards evening the 
prayers for the dying were recited, and the 
dear little boy gently expired at about 9 130 
P. M. A solemn Requiem Mass was celebra- 
ted in the college ; there was general Com- 
munion and a short sermon preached on the 
text : " He pleased God and was beloved. He 
was taken away lest wickedness should alter 



NOTES FROM HEAD CENTRES 



(20) 



his understanding or deceit beguile his boy who has not said to himself since that 
soul." day: "May my last hour be like unto 

I am convinced there is no North Point his ! " 



THE LEAGUE AT HOME. 



The American Sendbote (Messenger) 
records the following Aggregations for 
October and November, 1896 : St. Mary's, 
Des Moines, Iowa; St. John's, Alden 
Centre, N. Y.; The Guardian Angel's, 
Cedar Grove, Ind.; St. Anthony's, Jeffer- 
sonville, Ind.; The Guardian Angel's, 
Ottawa, Kans. 

The careful reader will remark an in- 
crease in the number of our own Aggre- 
gations for the last few months. They 
now nearly average one a day. 

ST. PATRICK'S CENTRE, PROVIDENCE, 
R. I. The League was started here Sun- 
day, October 25, by one of the Fathers 
from the Head Centre, New York, who 
preached at all the Masses and at Ves- 
pers. Seventy Promoters, a few of whom 
formerly belonged to other Centres, pre- 
sented themselves at the Promoters' 
Meeting, which was called at 3 o'clock, 
and about 1,000 Associates were regis- 
tered the first week. Since that time 
the number of Associates has doubled, so 
that we have now about 2,000 registered. 
The League at St. Patrick's promises to 
be a grand success. 

ST. CATHARINE'S CENTRE, BROAD- 
BROOK, CoNN.-The Apostleship of Prayer 
was organized in this parish Sunday, No- 
vember 15, by a Jesuit Father from New 
York. The reverend Father preached at 
Mass and Vespers on the Devotion to the 
Sacred Heart and the Apostleship of 
Prayer, and held a Promoters' Meeting 
at 4 P. M. We had 15 Promoters to 
begin with ; and there is good reason to 
hope that the bulk of our congregation, 
which numbers about 500 souls, will 
soon be enrolled in the League. 

ST. MARY'S TRAINING SCHOOL, FEE- 
HANVILE, ILL., reports 413 Associates of 
the ist and 2d Degree and 258 monthly 
communicants, or of the 3d Degree. 

ST. FRANCIS DE SALES' CENTRE, 
BROOKLYN, N. Y., reports a total enrol- 
ment of 5,350, an increase of 1,520 over 
last year. The number of Promoters is 
215, 82 more than last year. 

ST. FRANCIS XAVIER'S CENTRE, NEW 
YORK CITY. The congregation of deaf 
mutes at St. Francis Xavier's, New York, 
is nourishing. They meet every Sunday 
afternoon and receive an instruction 
from the Father in charge, after which 
they attend the Benediction of the Blessed 



Sacrament. The League of the Sacred 
Heart has been established among them. 
There are 14 Promoters and 161 Associ- 
ates. It is gratifying to note that the men 
are well represented among the Associ- 
ates. Out of the total of 1 6 1, the men num- 
ber 60. The Promoters ' meetings are held 
at St. Joseph's Institute, 113 Buffalo 
Avenue, Brooklyn ; the ladies meet on 
every third Sunday, the gentlemen on 
the following day. One of the Asso- 
ciates has been sick in the hospital for 
over two months, and her fellow Associ- 
ates have shown their charity and zeal 
by visiting her frequently. 

A Director writes: "I am highly 
gratified with the success and the spir- 
itual fruits of the League. The Sacred 
Heart melts everything as fire does wax. 
As Local Director I feel my own heart 
inflamed, and I realize God's love to us 
daily more and more. The League is 
the soul of Catholic devotions. " 

ST. PATRICK 'S.TABERG, N. Y. Thurs- 
day, October 29, a reception of Promoters 
took place in this Centre. Rev. Dr. 
Lynch, of St. John's Church, Utica, 
N. Y., assisted by the pastor and a num- 
ber of the neighboring priests, after de- 
delivering an eloquent and touching 
address, conferred the Crosses and Diplo- 
mas on fifteen Promoters. The occasion 
was one that will be long remembered 
in this congregation. 

THE HOLY ANGELS' INSTITUTE, FORT 
LEE, N. J. A Branch of the League in 
Schools was established in this institu- 
tion by one of the Jesuit Fathers from 
the Head Centre, New York, Sunday, 
November 29. The children and young 
ladies all entered with great fervor upon 
the work and promise, under the foster- 
ing care of the zealous School Sisters of 
Notre Dame, to make this Apostleship 
productive of much spiritual fruit as 
well as intellectual profit. 

OBITUARY. 

Patrick Burke and Charlotte Moore, 
St. Patrick's Cathedral Centre, New 
York City; Mrs. Joanna Delany, Cathe- 
dral Centre, Philadelphia; Catherine 
Irene Poland, Convent of the Sacred 
Heart, Clifton, Ohio ; Rev. John P. Mc- 
Incrow, Pastor of St. Mary's Church, 
Amsterdam, N. Y. R. I. P. 



The new year begins on 
adayspeciallyconsecrated 
to devotion to the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus. It offers a fine oppor- 
tunity to Promoters to have their Asso- 
ciates begin the year with a proof of 
their eagerness to honor that Heart, and 
to make it their first and last thought 
during the whole year of 1897. It would 
be a splendid tribute to the Heart of 
Jesus, if Promoters could induce all or 
most of their Associates to approach 
our Lord at His banquet table that day. 
The turn of the year is a time for better 
aspirations and holier resolutions. Men 
as a general thing, want to bury the 
past, and look forward to the future as a 
chance of repairing its evils. With 
Christ our Lord in their hearts, they 
might attempt the work of reparation 
with every assurance of success. Even 
if each Promoter could induce but one 
or two of a band to receive Holy Com- 
munion that day what a glorious begin- 
ning it would make ! Where the Blessed 
Sacrament is exposed during the entire 
day or part of it, there should be no 
difficulty in having every League Asso- 
ciate visit the church on this day of 
mutual courtesies and civilitv. 

The index for last year's 
T "* R MESSENGERS quite differ- 
ent from the indexes drawn 
up for former years. Instead of group- 
ing various articles under common titles, 
it gives them all alphabetically, keeping 
together only the poetry and the League 
department. It makes a very good 
showing by the variety and interest of 
its titles, and proves how broad the scope 
of our Apostleship is. For those who 
have their MESSENGERS bound it is in- 
dispensable. Every subscriber received 
a copy with the December issue. 

The monthly bulletin, 
issued b y the Director 
General of the League, 
publishes a list of the Diocesan Direc- 
tors of our work in France. They are 
seventy-eight in number, one being 
appointed for each diocese by the Bishop 

(21) 



Dl Ce S"ectors 



advising with the Director General. This 
is in strict accordance with our statutes, 
although even in a Catholic country like 
France it is not always easy to provide 
Diocesan Directors at liberty to attend 
to the work, even when they are well 
acquainted with it, and interested in its 
advancement. Usually, some active Lo- 
cal Director takes this charge. The ob- 
servance of this statute has been tried in 
this country, but always with some loss 
to the League. Now that it has become 
so widespread, and that so many efficient 
Directors have grown familiar with every 
detail of it, it should not be impossible 
to find among them capable Diocesan 
Directors, who would promote its inter- 
ests among their brother clergymen. 

The new It is gratifying to hear 

intention of the satisfaction given 
Blanks, by the new Intention and 
Treasury blanks. They will save us 
much trouble, and what is more im- 
portant, they will be a means of inducing 
secretaries of League Centres to be more 
punctual in sending us the summaries 
of Intentions instead of leaving that 
task to the Promoters who may wish to 
send them. In this w r ay the union of 
prayer, for which the League has been 
instituted, will be more extensive and 
fervent. The change announced last 
month for the Calendar of Intentions, to 
go into effect this month of January, 
will help to this end. By the use of 
clearer and more compact type, there is 
now space enough on this .sheet to give 
not only the Calendar, but blanks for 
the Intentions and Treasury. 

There is scarcely any 
Review need of a review of our 

97 ' work this month, as the 
Almanac furnishes so many details about 
almost every branch of it. What is 
chiefly worthy of notice, viz., the changes 
in our periodicals, has been so widely 
advertised, and speaks so well for itself, 
that it would be useless to mention it 
here. One thing we cannot help men- 
tioning, as gratitude requires it : al- 

85 



86 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



(22) 



though we cannot acknowledge all the 
letters that say complimentary things of 
the MESSENGER, we are still very grate- 
ful to the writers and much encouraged 
by their kind expressions of approval. 
We are happy to add that these senti- 
ments seem very common even among 
those who do not write them, if we can 
judge by the prompt and numerous 
renewals of subscriptions and by the 
fact that the few who give up the MES- 
SENGER do so with regret, in which we 
cordially sympathize with them. 

The To enable all our readers 

SUPPLEMENT to know the full extent of 
cover, the changes we are making 
in our different periodicals, we have in- 
serted in this number the design for the 
cover of the SUPPLEMENT, printed on the 
red-colored paper that will be used for 
that magazine. It has been inserted 
just before the General Intention, because 
with the explanation of that, as the 
special pagination shows, the SUPPLE- 
MENT properly begins. The Pilgrim cover 
design is very beautiful, as our readers 
will have an opportunity of judging for 
themselves on receiving the first num- 
ber, which will be mailed to all who are 
now on our lists for the MESSENGER or 
Pilgrim . 

The The increase in the 

November number of good works, 
Treasury, reported in the Treasury 
printed for this month, is the result of 
the work of Promoters during the month 
of November in behalf of the souls in 
purgatory. Many special reports are 
only now reaching us, too late for men- 
tion here. Three to four million good 
works, the increase over our last Treas- 
ury, is no slight proof of the piety of 
our Associates toward the faithful de- 
parted. 

If December has come 
around to find some 
Centres without enough 
candidates for the Promoter's office to 
hold a solemn reception for them, 
Directors and Promoters themselves 
should be reminded that it is not too 
early to begin preparing for the reception 
they hope to hold in June, as candidates 
chosen now will by that time have 
finished their six months of probation. 
It is not fair to keep any of them wait- 
ing too long. It ensures the permanency 



Promoters' 

Receptions. 



of League work to keep training a num- 
ber of them for its continuation. 
Promoters are not doing all they should 
do by merely enrolling new members ; 
part of their work is to help Directors 
in getting and in forming new Promoters. 

_ ., __.__ Triduums have been 

given to Promoters for the 
past twelve years, and in 
some places they have been attended by 
Promoters from other parishes as well as 
from the parish in which they were 
given. This year, for the first time, 
Promoters have been invited to make 
these exercises in a common church, and 
thanks to the zeal and cordial coopera- 
tion of Local Directors, they have been 
a means of giving a new impulse to 
Promoters in several dioceses, notably 
in Boston and in New York. The triduum 
given in the Church of the Gesu, Phila- 
delphia, beginning November 30, and 
closing December 4 with a Reception of 
Promoters, was really a .short retreat, 
three exercises being given every day. 
The triduum in St. Francis Xaviers, 
New York, which was held the same 
time, was attendt d by Promoters, repre- 
senting over forty of the League Centres 
in that city. Both of these were con- 
ducted by Fathers from the Central 
Direction. Many of the Promoters from 
the various Centres attended the recep- 
tion held in this church the night after 
the triduum, at which Rev. J. H. Mc- 
Mahon, Director of the Cathedral Centre 
preached the sermon. 

A neat eight page cir- 
cular has been issued from 
the Central Direction, 
showing by illustrations the beauty and 
variety of some of the premiums and 
novelties prepared for our subscribers 
the coming year. A mere list of its con- 
tents will show how well it has been 
designed to effect its object, which is to 
increase our subscription list. The new 
SUPPLEMENT cover design ; the premium 
pictures, The Mission of the Apostles, 
and Imle's Sacred Heart of Jesus and 
Immaculate Heart of Mary; the emblem 
and Apostleship medal for the premium 
beads ; the new Pilgrim cover design, 
and the premium given to Pilgrim sub- 
scribers, together with a summary of 
the contents for the January MESSENGER, 
all make a circular worth having and 
circulating. 



Premiums 

and Novelties. 




IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 
TOTAL NUMBER OF THANKSGIVINGS FOR LAST MONTH, 120,148. 
"/ all things give thanks. " (I. Thes., v, 18). 
A REMARKABLE CONVERSION. 



A priest returns thanks for a won- 
derful conversion. A Protestant man 
had a Catholic wife and children. He 
himself was a strict Scotch Presby- 
terian. His little boy fell sick and the 
father asked the priest to call. So 
pleased was he with the visits, that, 
when some time later he was ill, he sent 
for the priest, stating, however, that the 
visit was to be purely a friendly one. 
He asked the priest ' ' to put up a prayer 
for him, " warning him, however, not to 
form a wrong impression as he intended 
to die, as he had lived, in the faith of his 
fathers. He pointed, as he said this, to 
a trunk, containing his Presbyterian 
baptismal certificate. The priest, noth- 
ing discouraged, asked if he believed in 
the Holy Trinity and the different 
articles of the creed, and if he would 
not like to be a member of the true 
Church. "Yes, indeed," he replied, 
' ' and I would die for the Church if I 
knew it were true. " So he begged for 
more prayers. It happened to be a First 
Friday, and the priest at once spoke to 
the Local Director of the League to ask 
the Associates to beg for this honest man 
the light of faith. On the next Monday 
the sick man sent for the priest and 
asked for more prayers. " Why can I 
not be anointed like other sick persons, 
Father ? " " Because you are not a 
Catholic. " " Then I want to be a Catho- 



lic. The Reformation, I believe, came 
from passion and the love of money. " 
As he was very ill the priest thought it 
imprudent to delay. He, therefore, 
questioned him to try his sincerity and 
explained various things. Convinced 
that he was in earnest, the priest baptized 
him conditionally, heard his confession, 
anointed him, and was about to give him 
Holy Communion, when there was a 
knock at the door. ' ' That is the minis- 
ter, " said the sick man. "Do you 
want to see him," asked the priest? 
" No, let my wife tell him that I will see 
him as a friend bye-and-bye. " He had 
stood the test. He seems to have 
had a great love for the Sacred Heart, 
for he wore the Badge and frequently 
asked for prayers to be made to the 
Sacred Heart. On Wednesday night he 
waked up, and missing the Badge 
which had slipped off, he at once asked 
to have it replaced, and for the priest, who 
happened to come in, to say some more 
prayers. He lived till Thursday morn- 
ing. When dying he took his crucifix 
in his hands, whereupon his brother, a 
strict Presbyterian, was so displeased 
that he went off in a rage and has never 
come. near the family since. But this 
did not trouble the dying man He 
looked lovingly at his Badge and died 
with a smile on his face saying : " Isn't 
the Sacred Heart good ? " 



Special Thanksgivings. A zealous 
Promoter records the following conver- 
sion : She asked a Protestant to make 
the Morning Offering, telling him that 
he would have a share in the prayers of 

(23) 



millions of people, and he promised to 
do so. From that moment there was the 
greatest change in him. He is a lawyer 
and a very intelligent man. His parents 
are extremely bigoted so that his change 

87 



88 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



(24) 



of faith is a cause of great surprise to 
everybody. He is extremely fervent and 
edifying. 

Thanks are returned for the saving of 
property from damage and ruin by a 
flood. The whole town suffered terribly. 
The water was rising rapidly, and above 
us a larger body of water than at any 
previous flood was overflowing the 
country and coming down upon us. A 
Badge was thrown into the water and 
Mass and publication promised. It was 
truly wonderful how we were spared. 

A society woman married to a Prot- 
estant, and surrounded by Protestants, 
had for many years practically aban- 
doned her religion. After many prayers, 
Masses and novenas offered to the Sacred 
Heart by pious relatives, she consented 
to see the priest, received the sacra- 
ments, and is now looking forward to an 
early death with sentiments of true pen- 
ance, piety and resignation. 

A young man of twenty-two years had 
a very sore finger, caused by a little 
abscess at the nail, in which he caught 
cold. The doctor said an operation was 
necessary, that he would lose the first 
joint and perhaps the entire finger. Re- 
course was had to the Sacred Heart and 
publication was promised. The finger 
is perfectly well and not even the finger 
nail was lost. 

A person was compelled to sign a note 
payable in three months, but there 
seemed little likelihood of being able to 
meet it. An intention for work was 
recommended to the League so that the 
money might be earned. The request 
was granted and the obligation was can- 
celled when due. Three Masses for the 
suffering souls and publication were 
promised. 

A prominent man, non- Catholic, was 
very ill with pneumonia. He consented 
to receive a Badge and applied it him- 
self to his chest with great faith. He 
was at once relieved, and attributes the 
cure to the Sacred Heart. He had a 
handsome frame made for the Badge and 
hung it over his bedstead. 

Thanksgiving is made for the im- 
mediate cure of a young woman at the 
point of death with typhoid fever. The 
doctor had no hope of her recovery and 
she had received the last sacraments. A 
medal of the Infant of Prague was put 
on her and she was instantly cured. 

A dying man was in a state of coma 
and could not respond to the questions 
of his confessor enough to receive abso- 
lution. A Badge was pinned on his 



breast and he then became able to repeat 
the act of contrition and make the sign 
of the cross. 

Spiritual Favors : Several conversions 
to the faith ; a man of twenty-nine 
prepared to make his First Communion ; 
return to the sacraments of a young 
man after ten years ; of another after 
fifteen years ; of another after twenty- 
four years ; of two others after thirty 
years ; of a father and son long neglect- 
ful ; of a brother after several years ; of 
many other similar favors. 

Reconciliation between a husband and 
wife, when a separation seemed inevit- 
able. Almost in despair the poor wife 
fell upon her knees and cried out : ' ' Oh 
God, why hast Thou forsaken me ? ' ' 
Her prayers were heard immediately and 
perfect peace now reigns in her home. 

A mother, after recommending her 
intention to the prayers of the League, 
got news from her absent son, of whom 
she had not heard in fourteen years. The 
account was consoling. 

Temporal Favors : Restoration of 
reason to a father of a family, who had 
been insane for ten years ; after three in- 
tentions had been sent in to the League, 
a letter came stating that he was entirely 
cured. Recovery from a serious case of 
lung trouble through a novena ; sudden 
and wonderful cure of a very sore foot in 
a few days ; cure of a very badly ulcer- 
ated sore throat, through St. Blaise ; re- 
lief from severe stomach trouble ; cure 
of two children of whooping cough and 
of three of very sore eyes ; relief from 
severe headaches, through St. Aloysius ; 
recovery of a little boy from diphtheria ; 
regaining of strength to perform duties 
after receiving Holy Communion five 
times in honor of St. John Berchmans ; 
restoration to health of a man down with 
nervous prostration for a year ; relief by 
applying a relic of B. Margaret Mary ; 
recovery of one at the point of death ; 
cure of a woman from an abscess which 
threatened to prevent her working for 
many months. Many other cures and 
successful surgical operations. 

Remarkable success of a pupils' re- 
cital and many benefits resulting from 
it ; successful building and working of 
machinery ; increase of business ; satis- 
factory settlement of a matter which 
threatened a great loss of money; a favor 
obtained from the Sacred Heart through 
St. Expedit after fifteen years of prayer ; 
also quick alleviation of extreme pain 
through the same Saint ; many other 



(25) 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



89 



favors obtained and acknowledged but 
not specified. 

Success in obtaining funds to con- 
tinue work on a church when it seemed 
hopeless to be able to raise them ; unex- 
pected help to meet debts ; means to send 
a young man to college when there 
seemed no way of doing so ; money to 
take a health cure ; means for an insti- 
tution to pay a heavy indebtedness. 

Position assured to one in danger of 
losing it ; another position retained 
through devotion to the Sacred Heart, 
when the loss of it was threatened 
because the holder was a Catholic ; re- 
gaining a position which had been given 
up ; employment obtained for many per- 
sons, when recommended to the League. 

Preservation of a house from catching 
fire from a burning building across the 
street ; safety in several severe storms. 
The averting of a great trial. Preserva- 
tion from a threatened danger during a 
cyclone. 

Favors through the Badge and Promo- 
ters' Cross. Recovery of a patient with- 
out a threatened operation ; cure of a 
non-Catholic from a bad case of neu- 
ralgia when all other remedies failed ; 
cure of a little girl from spasms ; im- 
mediate change for the better of a woman 
dangerously ill ; a temporal favor 
granted in an extraordinary manner; 
great ease obtained for a rheumatic per- 
son ; cure of a serious lung trouble that 
seemed to be consumption, Lourdes 



water was also used, the recovery is 
perfect ; cure of an ingrowing nail in 
lour days without any operation ; relief 
from a nervous attack, from toothache ; 
a cure of typhoid fever. 

The cure of the broken arm of a little 
boy, eleven years old, is acknowledged. 
Though the doctor pronounced the 
fracture serious, by using the Badge a 
speedy recovery was effected and the 
little fellow is as active as ever. Cure of 
one who had so serious a trouble in one 
of her legs that she could scarcely walk. 
The doctor could do nothing to help her, 
but a Badge was applied, and she is now 
entirely well. Many other favors not 
specified were also obtained through the 
Badge and Promoter's Cross, 

A Promoter called on a Protestant 
friend who was very sick and of whose 
recovery the doctor had very little hope. 
The Promoter pinned her Cross, a Badge, 
and a St. Benedict's medal on the sick 
woman, making some promises and 
getting the patient and her mother and 
sister also to promise something. The 
sick person is now convalescent and 
says the Badge of the Sacred Heart has 
been doing its work. 

An Associate, who had suffered for 
over twenty -eight years with a severe 
shooting pain in the spine, which at 
times would affect the heart and make 
her feel as if she were dying, was in- 
stantly cured by the application of a 
Promoter's Cross. 



A CORRECTION. 



ST. MICHAEL 's COLLEGE CENTRE, 

Sante Fe", N. M., November 30, 1896. 
DEAR REV. FATHERS : 

It was with the greatest pleasure I 
received, and with no less degree of in- 
terest, read, the last issue of your valu- 
able magazine, the MESSENGER OF THE 
SACRED HEART. The article, entitled 
"New Mexico and the City of Holy 
Faith," does justice to the able pen and 
thorough researches of the late Rev. 
Father to whom the readers of your 
magazine are indebted for its production. 

A mis-statement is found in the sec- 
ond column, page 982, beginning with 
the words "The cracked old bell " and 
ending with the words, ' ' into the heaving 
crucible. ' ' 

There can be no doubt that the late 
Rev. Father was fully convinced that he 
was justified in putting the date of its 



casting as 1850 ; but when he speaks of 
a "cracked old bell," and one that is 
at present in "mournful disuse," it 
seems to me that the subject of his 
statement must have been an entirely 
different bell from the one for which 
there is a claim of old age ; for there 
is just such a bell as the one he 
describes standing near to where the old 
one hangs. This bell would exactly 
coincide with the said statement, as being 
cracked, out of use, and probably cast in 
1850. But there never has been any 
claim of old age given to it, and the real 
old one hangs by its side, in use to-day, 
pronounced by all to have the most 
beautiful of tones, and with proofs to 
justify the claim of its having been cast 
in 1356. It still bears the inscription 
San Jose rogadpornosotros,Agosto 9,1356- 
I remain, dear Fathers, 
Yours truly, 

BRO. BOTULPH. 



THE New Year's MESSENGER will 
reach its readers just about the 
time when they will be asking 
themselves the important question : 
What shall I give for a Christmas present 
this year ? This question we answered at 
great length in the ' ' Reader ' ' for Decem- 
ber, 1895, when we also touched on the 
motives which should animate us and 
the rules which should guide us in 
making such presents. We could now 
add considerably to our list of good 
books, but we must content ourselves 
with referring our readers to our Book 
Notices during the past year, which will 
serve as a safe guide for Catholic book- 
buyers at this season. Without incur- 
ring the stigma of egotism we may be 
allowed here to suggest that a bound 
copy of the MESSENGER for 1896, or a 
subscription for 1897, would be a very 
appropriate, and in very many cases, 
acceptable Christmas or New Year's 
present. Such a gift would not only 
give joy to the heart of the individual 
to whom it would be inscribed, but 
bring light and gladness to the fortunate 
family of its possessor. 



In selecting books for Christmas pres- 
ents we should combine usefulness and 
edification with pleasure choose with 
preference those books that are edifying 
and instructive. It is to be feared that 
we trust too little to the intelligence of 
our young people, as if they appreciated 
nothing but beautiful covers and pic- 
tures, and wild adventures in books. 
We had an evidence of the contrary the 
other day, when we received a letter 
from a cultured Catholic mother asking 
us to send her a copy of Father Jogues" 1 
Life, by John Gilmary Shea, for her 
little son, who asked to have it as a 
Christmas gift. The lad is not yet 
twelve years of age. He has been read- 
ing the graphic account of Father 
Jogues' martyrdom in the Pilgrim, and 
wanted to know all about the holy priest 
90 



who had suffered so much for Christ's 
sake. 



In the January issue of 1896 we gave 
an extended review of the work of the 
largest and most efficient organization 
of the Apostleship of the Press in exist- 
encethat of the Lroix, in Paris. We 
are pleased to see from the report of the 
general " congress of the Croix held at 
Paris in September last, at which over 
600 representatives of local organizations 
from all parts of France assisted, that 
the work is spreading rapidly and doing 
immense good. "^_ j 

The Croix of Paris itself, with its 
various weekly and monthly supple- 
ments, has now an aggregate circulation 
of very nearly 2,000,000. The provin- 
cial and foreign supplements, over a 
hundred in number, have an aggregate 
circulation of nearly 500,000. The in- 
crease of circulation during the year is 
about 500,000. 

The organization of the Croix is being 
perfected " from year to year. At this 
year's congress an elaborate plan of 
campaign has been arranged and adopted 
to defend Catholic interests at the polls. 
It is based on the organization of the 
German Catholics, which is acknowl- 
edged to be the most efficient in the 
world. 

Another very important resolution has 
been adopted to consolidate local Cath- 
olic papers with the Croix of Paris, re- 
serving one page in each number for 
local items. This plan, if it succeeds, 
will enable even the smallest hamlets in 
France to have the full benefit of the 
most up to-date daily or weekly in the 
metropolis with all the interest of a local 
paper at very small cost, the local ad- 
vertisements paying the additional ex- 
pense of printing the local page. 

' ' The Croix, ' ' says the Director, ' ' has 
passed through its critical period, over- 
come the prejudice against it, found sup- 
porters in short, taken a firm foothold. 
The time has now come when we should 

(26) 



(27) 



THE READER. 



91 



no longer rest satisfied with certain vic- 
tories gained in this or that place, but 
should endeavor to secure a truly effec- 
tive and universal circulation for the 
safety of the country. Our motto is : 
Faith and confidence in God ; submis- 
sion and devotion to the Pope, His Vicar 
on earth, loyalty to his teaching and 
guidance ; we are his soldiers. " 
* * # 

The Catholic University Bulletin for 
October, publishes a set of interesting 
and valuable documents from the Vati- 
can library, bearing on the history of 
the early Church f in Greenland and 
America before the discovery. They 
are ten in number. "These ten docu- 
ments," says the editor, "form that 
chapter of the Chartularium of the 
Church of Norway which deals with her 
in all her dependencies. No doubt much 
more has perished, but enough remains 
to show that the Curia had a knowledge 
of, and an interest in, the lonely territor- 
ies that lay far off in the Atlantic flood, 
where the dwellings of men were six 
days 'journey apart, and the visits of 
merchants rare, sometimes at intervals 
of eighty years ; where wealth consisted 
of hides and peltries, and the products of 
whaling ; where wine and bread and oil 
were obtained with difficulty, and barter 
was slow and coin depreciated ; where 
men lived on dried fish and milk and 
carried their tents of skin on the sledges 
that bore them over the great icebergs ; 
where the savage Esquimaux harried 
the white settlers, and cut them off from 
the sea and left them at last without a 
priest to say Mass with only a corporal 
that they kept one hundred years and 
exposed once a year, waiting for the re- 
turn of their priests. ' ' 
* -x- * 

The idea of a public library is to provide 
books for the reading public at the city's 
expense. Now, as this expense is usu- 
alty met by funds coming from taxes, it 
is clear that the taxpayers should have a 
voice in the selection of the volumes to 
have a place on the shelves of their 
library, for theirs it really is, both be- 
cause it is intended for their use and 
provided at their cost. 

We have called attention in times past 
to the great dearth, if not entire absence, 
of the works of Catholic authors. This 
would not be so remarkable if there 
were not an abundance of books by de- 
cidedly anti- Catholic writers and written 
professedly against the Catholic religion, 



so that the perennial excuse of non-sec- 
tarianism cannot be alleged. 

We could understand an intention to 
exclude all books on controversial ques- 
tions, but understand* we cannot, how 
in equity the Protestant side should have 
free fling, and the Catholic side no fling at 
all. Fair play is a jewel and one prized by 
all fair minds. Unfortunately Catholics, 
hitherto being a minority in numbers, 
as well as in wealth, have been very 
passive in the matter. Perhaps it comes 
from the fact that the public libraries 
are not so much patronized by them. 
Perhaps, too, it comes from a compara- 
tive scarcity of Catholic authors The 
fact remains the same that the history of 
religion available in our libraries is in- 
variably from Protestant sources. 

Our attention was called to this great 
danger by an editorial in the Catholic 
Universe of Cleveland. It seems that 
the Cleveland public library, strange to 
say, has a Catholic department. Stranger 
still is the collection of "religious" 
works comprising the " Catholic collec- 
tion, " which is supposed to constitute a 
"concession " to the Catholic sentiment 
in that city. As the Universe remarks : 
"What an admirable 'working libra- 
ry ' it would make for the bitterest and 
most uncompromising anti-Catholic 
evangelist, crusader or Protector of 
American Institutions ! Here it is : 

Plain Reasons Against Joining the Church 
of Rome, (Littledale). 

Elliott on Romanism, 2 Vols. 

Romanism and the Reformation ( Protest- 
ant Educational Institute, Exeter Hall, Lon- 
don). 

Political Romanism. 

Variations of Popery. 

Romanism in Canada. 

Romanism at Home. 

Growth of the Papal Power. 

Evenings with Romanists. 

The Faith of Our Forefathers (Reply to 
Card. Gibbon's Faith of our Feathers). 

Rome, Christian and Papal. 

History of Roman Catholicism. 

Essay on Romanism. 

Catholicity, Protestantism and Roman- 
ism." 

If other public libraries were examined, 
doubtless we should make similar dis- 
coveries in the Catholic department, if 
any such department exists. It is time 
for the Catholic taxpayers and public at 
large to see to it that the true Church 
be properly represented, and that the 
young and unsuspecting be safeguarded 
against imbibing such soul-poisons. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Our Martyrs. A record of those who 
suffered for the Catholic faith under 
the penal laws in Ireland. By the 
late Rev. Denis Murphy, S.J., LL.D., 
M.R.I. A. Illustrated from contempor- 
ary prints. Dublin: O 'Fallen & Co. 
1896. 8vo. Pages xxii and 373. Price 6s. 

This is a book of rare historical value 
and research as well as interest. It 
is culled from contemporary records 
scattered through many libraries of 
the British Isles and the continent of 
Europe. The learned and painstaking 
author did not live to give it the finish- 
ing touch. But even as it is, it cannot 
but elicit the interest of the Irish at 
home and abroad, and of Catholics gen- 
erally. 

The preface, which has been written 
not by the author himself, but by 
another hand, forms a succinct and 
instructive treatise on martyrdom as 
understood by the Church. Then fol- 
lows the author's introduction, giving 
in nine periods, as so many different 
phases, the history of the Penal Laws in 
Ireland from the reign of Henry VIII. 
to that of Victoria. The main body of 
the book gives the record of over three 
hundred Irishmen who gave their lives 
for their faith under British persecution. 
Of these a good number are bishops. 
Of the remainder the great majority are 
religious, particularly Franciscans, Do- 
minicans, Augustinians. Cistercians, 
Carmelites and Jesuits. Yet the secular 
clergy and laity are well represented. 
The book is illustrated with six charac- 
teristic contemporary prints, the frontis- 
piece being a portrait of the Venerable 
Archbishop Plunkett. 

Yet this record does not make any 
claim to completeness, as many others 
were massacred, or starved, or tortured 
to death, whose names are known to 
God alone. We warmly recommend this 
excellent work to all who would gain an 
accurate and detailed knowledge of the 
history of the dark days of persecution 
in Ireland. 

Rome and Enarland. By the Rev. 
Luke Rivington, M.A. London : Burns 
& Oates. New York : Benziger Broth- 
ers. i2tno. Pages 193. 

This is the latest controversial work 
by that master of controversy, Father 
Rivington, His sub-title, Ecclesiastical 
92 



Continuity gives us the subject of the 
book. It is a refutation of ' ' The National 
Church in the Middle Ages," by Dr. 
Creighton, then Bishop of Peterborough, 
but since translated to the See of Lon- 
don. His work was selected as being 
' ' fairly representative of the line of argu- 
ment adopted by members of the Church 
of England on the subject of continuity. " 

Anglicans are difficult people to refute 
for they are always shifting their ground, 
adducing new theories, and have no 
standard of authority. 

Father Rivington undertakes to prove 
that " the present titular church of Eng- 
land is not a spiritual continuation of 
the old Church of England, but that the 
Roman Catholic body in England is. ' ' 
He does not, however, ' ' deny a certain 
kind of continuity between the present 
Establishment and the Anglican Church 
of the past. There is a kind of legal 
continuity ; there is a sort of material 
continuity ; there is a continuity of 
nomenclature." But this is not suffi- 
cient ; there must be unity of govern- 
ment, unity of faith, unity of sacra- 
ment, and not unity in name, or material 
privileges, or local habitation. 

It is a question of history. " Is it, or 
is it not, true, ' ' he asks, ' ' that the Church 
of England by which I do not mean the 
Parliament, but the accredited teaching 
body in England held that doctrine 
concerning her relationship to Rome to 
be a part of the faith once delivered to 
the saints ? " 

Father Rivington conclusively proves 
his point. He clinches it from the teach- 
ing of Cramner's predecessor in the See 
of Canterbury ; and the testimony of 
Archbishop Warham is conclusive for 
the hitherto universally recognized 
power of the Pope in spiritual matters 
in England. 

A Key to Labor Problems: being an 
adapted translation of the Catechisme 
du Patron, by Leon Harmel, with an 
illustration by Virginia M. Crawford. 
London : Catholic Truth Society, 1896. 
i6mo. Pages xxiv and 52. Price 6d. 

This little book, which was first pub- 
lished in French under the modest title 
and unpretending form of a Catechism 
for Employers, condenses a vast amount 
of matter in very small space. It con- 
tains no vague speculation, but solely 

(28) 



(29) 



BOOK NOTICES. 



and simply the outcome of the author's 
own experience. Leon Harmel has for 
many years controlled an extensive in- 
dustrial concern which served at the 
same time as a model and as a social 
and economic experiment. The experi- 
ment has proved a success and is 
regarded almost as a prodigy of industrial 
organization. It is based on a strictly 
religious foundation and is conducted on 
scientific economic principles. Every 
principle laid down in this book has 
been practically and thoroughly tested 
and found efficient towards the formation 
of a healthy, intelligent, moral and 
happy working population, as well as a 
successful and profitable development of 
the industry in question. There is 
nothing one-sided in the principles of 
M. Harmel. He treats of the rights 
and duties of employer and employed 
with equal fairness and impartiality. 

The translation is carefully done and 
is enlarged by a copious and highly in- 
teresting introduction by the translator, 
chiefly descriptive of the admirable or- 
ganization of M. Harmel's woolen in- 
dustries at Val-des-Bois. In the English 
translation the work has been stripped 
of its catechetical form, which we can 
hardly regard as an improvement. We 
should like to see this excellent little 
book adopted as the standard handbook 
of employers and employees. Here they 
could find their true rights and duties, 
as based on the law of God, and sanc- 
tioned by all just human legislation, 
clearly set forth, and thus they would 
become, at the same time, proof against 
the pernicious doctrines of the hundreds 
of social and economic quacks who in- 
fest our modern society and cajole the 
unsuspecting working-man. 

Father John Morris, S.J. By Rev. J. H. 
Pollen, S.J. London : Burns and Gates. 
New York : Benziger Brothers. Pages 294. 

We quite agree with the criticism of 
this book sent to the author by Mr. 
Gladstone. "It seemed to me while 
reading it that you had executed an ac- 
complished piece of biography. ' ' It will 
interest not only those who knew Father 
Morris personally, but even strangers, 
on account of his intimate connection 
with so many prominent men of the day, 
particularly with Cardinals Wiseman 
and Manning, to both of whom he was 
secretary. He earned a great reputation 
as an historical writer, especially for his 
life of St. Thomas Becket, and of Father- 
John Gerard, and Troubles of our Catholic 



Forefathers. Largely through his efforts 
as Postulator were the English martyrs 
beatified. He was well known as a skil- 
ful director of souls and held the office of 
Master of Novices. Father Pollen is 
very fair in giving both light and shade, 
and in not trying to make out his sub- 
ject faultless, as too many biographers 
do. 

Cochem's Explanation of the Holy Sac- 
rifice of the Mass. Benziger Brothers. 
i2mo. Pages 424. Price $1.25. 

This is a translation of an excellent 
book by Father Martin von Cochem, a 
Capuchin, who lived in Germany in the 
seventeenth century. He wrote several 
other works, both in Latin and German, 
which were very popular, but his expla- 
nation of the Holy Mass is considered 
his masterpiece, for learning and practi- 
cal usefulness. 

The matter is treated both dogmati- 
cally and devotion ally. The style is 
agreeable and impressive, and the trans- 
lation is, on the whole, well done. The 
holy sacrifice of the Mass is, as Father 
von Cochem rightly says, an inex- 
haustible treasury, whence we all, sin- 
ners as well as just, may draw the riches 
we stand in need of. To make these 
treasures more widely known is the object 
of this book. There is a useful preface 
by the Right Rev. C. P. Maes, D.D., at 
whose suggestion the translation was 
made. 

Katakombenbilder. Erzahlungen aus 
den ersten Jahrhunderten der romischen 
Kirche. Von Anton de Waal. New 
York: Pustet & Co. Illustrated. i2tno. 
Pages 430. 

This volume contains three delightful 
stories of the Catacombs told by one 
who combines an accurate historical and 
archaeological knowledge with superior 
literary culture Mgr. De Waal, the ac- 
complished rector of the Amina in 
Rome. The series consists altogether 
of six stories, representing different peri- 
ods of the persecutions, and thus giving 
a complete picture of the first four cen- 
turies of the Church's history. The 
chief persons, places and facts are strictly 
historical, while the details, which go to 
make up the narrative, are taken from 
life. If only some competent hand would 
put these stories in English, they would 
be a very valuable addition to our Catho- 
lic literature. 

Children of Mary. A Tale of the 
Caucasus. By Rev. Joseph Spillmann, 



RECENT AGGREGATIONS. 



(30) 



S.J. Translated from the German by 
MivSS Helena Long. St. Louis : B. Her- 
der. i6mo. Pages 122 Price 50 cents. 
This interesting tale forms the third 
volume of a series of stories for the 
young. As intimated in the title the 
scene is laid in the Caucasus, amid the 
horrors of the Russian war of extermina- 
tion. Our young friends will find the 
story full of stirring incidents, and, at 
the same time, high ideals of Christian 
heroism. The translation is well made, 
and the book is attractively gotten up. 

Prayer. By St. Alphonsus Liguori. 
Benziger Bros. Pages 222. Price 50 
cents. 

This is a neatly printed handy edition 



of the celebrated treatise on prayer, as 
the great means of obtaining salvation 
and all the graces which we desire of 
God. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Catholic Family Annual. 1897. New 
York : Catholic School Book Company. 

Jus Pnblicnm Ecclesiasticnm. Dis- 
sertationes. Auctore Sac. Jeremia Rossi. 
Roma: Festa, 1896. 8vo. Pages 91. 
Price 2 lire. 

Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed 
Sacrament and Eucharistic League of 
the People. New York : Cathedral 
Library Association. 1896. 321110. 
Pages 15. 



RECENT AGGREGATIONS. 

The following Local Centres have received Diplomas of Aggregation from the Central Direction 
from October 20 to December i, 1896. 



Diocese. 


Place. 


Local Centre. 


Date 
of 
Diploma. 


Buffalo 


Newfane. N. Y 
Chicago, 111 
Kankakee, 111 
Bond Hill, 
Cleveland, O 


St Bridget's 


Church 

Academy 
Church 

Convent 
Church 

ns' " 

Hospital 
Church 

College 
Institute 
Church 

s Convent 
Church 

Chapel 

Convent 
Church 


Nov. 17 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 27 
Oct. 30 
Oct. 26 
Oct. 26 
Nov 12 
Nov. 12 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 21 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 21 
Nov. i 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 30 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 6 
Oct. 26 
Nov. 21 
Oct. 26 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 30 
Oct. 26 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 12 
Oct. 30 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 17 
Oct. 30 
Nov. 17 
Oct. 26 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 6 


Chicago 


St. Mel's 
St Patrick's 








Cleveland 


St. Vitus' 




Columbus, O 


St Francis' 




St Lawrence's 


Dallas 
Denver 
Dubuque . 
Erie 
Fort Wayne 

Grand Rapids 


Cleburne Tex 


St. Joseph's 
Loretto 
Sacred Heart 
St. Ann-'s 
St. Bernard's 
Holy Cross 
St. Mary's 


Denver, Colo. . 
Rockwell la 


Erie, Pa 
Crawfordsville, Ind 
Notre Dame, Ind. . . . 
Musfcegon, Mich 


Saginaw, E. S., Mich 
Briggsville, Wis 
Delwich, Wis 
Broad Brook, Conn 
Kansas City Kan 


Holy Family 
St. Mary, Help of Christia 
Our Lady of the Snow . . 
St. Catharine's 
St Margaret's 
Immaculate Conception . 
St. Alphonsus' 
St. Benedict's 




Hartford 


Kansas City, Kan. . . 
< " " Mo 
Natchez 


Lee Summit Mo 


Ocean Springs, Miss. . . . 
Newark, N. J 
Fort Lee. N. J. 
Sylvan Lake, N. Y. . . . 
Tarrytown, N. Y. ... 
Allegheny, Pa 


Newark 




New York 


St. Denis' 
Transfiguration . . 
Y. L. Sodality, St Andrew 




Pittsburg ... 
Providence 

Richmond 


Providence, R. I 


St. Patrick's 
St. Mary's 
St Mary's 


Taunton, Mass 
Richmond. Va 
Fort Myer, Va 


St. George's 
St Louis' 


St. Louis 


St. Louis, Mo 

Mexico, Mo 
St. Paul, Minn 
Byrnesville, Minn. . . . 
Rome, Ga. ... .... 
E. Syracuse. N. Y 
Hutchinson, Kan 




St. Brendan's 
St. Luke's 
St. John Baptist's .... 
St. Mary's 


St. Paul 

Savannah ... .... 
Syracuse 
Wichita 


St. Teresa's 



Aggregations, 38; churches, 29; chapels, 2 ; convents, 3; college, i ; school, i ; institution, i ; sodality i. 



PROMOTERS' RECEPTIONS. 

Diplomas and Indulgenced Crosses for the solemn reception of Promoters who have faithfully served 
the required probation have been sent to the following Local Centres of the League of the Sacred Heart 

(October 21 to November 21, 1896). 



Diocese. 


Place. 


Local Centre. 




Diploma 




Ilion N Y 










Albany, " 


Holy Name 
Our Lady of Angels 


. . Convent 
Church 


4 
4 


Alton 
Baltimore 


Effiugham.Ill 
Mt. St. Mary's Md . 


Sacred Heart 




2 


Brooklyn 


Baltimore, Md . 
Brooklyn, N. Y 


St Joseph's 
St. Francis de Sales' 


. . Church 


I 


Buffalo 


East Buffalo," 


St. John's 
Holy Name of Jesus 


. . College 


II 

g 


Chicago 


Chicago 111 


All Saints 










St Elizabeth's 


li 




Cincinnati 


Cincinnati, O 


Atonement ... 


11 








St. Xavier 


College 




Cleveland 

Coviugton ' 
Dallas 
Davenport . . . 
Denver 


Cleveland, " 
Akron, O 
West Covington, Ky 
Fort Worth, Tex 
Davenport, la 
Colorado Springs Colo 


St. Agnes' 
St. Vincent's 
St. Ann's 
St. Patrick's 
St. Anthony's 
Loretto 


Church 
Academy 


5 
I 
5 
3 

2 




Trinidad Colo 








Dubuque 
Galveston 


Denver, Colo 

Odebolt, la. . '.'. ! . . .'. '. . 
Galveston, Tex 


Sacred Heart . 
Sacred Heart 
St. Mary's 
St. Mary's 


. . College 
. . Church 
. . Cathedral 


I 

5 

i 
i 


Green Bay 
Hartford 


Oshkosh, Wts 
Hartford, Conn .. ... . 
Mtriden " 


St. Peter's 
St Joseph's 


. .'cathedral 
Church 


6 
g 


Kansas City 


Ottawa, Kan . 


Holy Angel Guardian 








Paola, " . ... 


Holy Trinity 


ii 




' : : : : : 


Leavenworth, Kan 
St. Mary's, ' 


Mt. St. Mary's 
St. Mary's 


. . Academy 
. . College 


2 

J 7 


Louisville 


Loretto, Ky . 


Loretto 


Academy 






Fancy Farm, Ky. . . 


St. Jerome's 


Church 




Manchester 


Concord, N. H 


St. John's 






Marquette 
Monterey and Los An- 
geles 
Nashville 
Natchez 


Manistique, Mich 

Santa Barbara, Cal 
Nashville, Tenn 
Bay St Louis Miss 


St. Francis de Sales' .... 

Our Lady of Sorrows .... 
St. Joseph's 




6 

H 

I 
g 


Nesqually 


Seattle, Wash 
O'Brien's " 


Imtnac. Concep 
St Bernard's 


Church 


5 


Newark . . 


Macopin, N. J 


St Joseph's 


ii 




New Orleans 


Paterson, " 
New Orleans, La 


St. Joseph's 
Holy Name of Jesus' 


: ; 


18 

2 


New York . 


New York City 


All Saints 


i 






Mt. Loretto, S. I., N. Y. . '. . 
New York City 


Guardian Angels 
Immaculate Virgin . . . . 
Nativity 
Sacred Heart 


! '. Mission 
. . Church 


I 

3 

2 


11 


H it 


St Catherine's 


11 




..::.. 


Milton, Ulster Co. N. Y. . '. 


St. Ignatius Loyola's . . . 
St. James" 


.: ;';' 


2 

5 

i 


:::::. 


Tremont, New York City . . 
Brewster, N. Y 
New York City 


St. Joseph's 
St. Lawrence O'Toolt's . . . 
St. Vincent Ferrers' 


. . Academv 
. Church 


22 

27 


Ogdensburg 
*** " 
Omaha . . 


Watertown, N. Y 
O'Neill Neb 


Antwerp 
Notre Dame 
St Patrick's 


Mission 
. . Church 


3 
9 


Oregon City 


Portland Ore 


St Mary's 


Academy 




Peoria 


Peoria, 111 


St. Mark's 


Church 




Philadelphia 
Pittsburg 


Philadelphia, Pa 
Pittsburg Pa 


St. Boniface' 
Holy Trinity 




IO 

6 


Providence 


Providence, R. I 
Woon socket, " 


Assumption 
Sacred Heart . . 


. . " 


2 


Sacramento . . 

ig^" 

San Francisco 


San Andreas, Cal 
Nevada City, " 
Santa Clara ' ' 


St. Andrew's. .... 
St. Canice's 
Santa Clara 


College 


Q 
12 

6 


Savannah . 


Macoii Ga 




. . Church 


I 


St. Augustine 


Tampa, Fla. ... 


St. Louis' 




2 


St. Cloud 


McCauleyville Minn 


St Thomas' 


11 




St. Louis 


St Louis Mo " 


St Francis Xavier's . . . 


ii 








St. Paul's 


it 




Syracuse . 


Taberg, N. Y . . . 


St. Patrick's 




9 


Wheeling 


Huntington, W. Va 
Wheeling, " 


St. Joseph's 
St. Joseph's 


.' Cathedral 


7 

12 






Total number of Receptions, 78. 
(31) 



Number of Diplomas, 633. 

95 



CALENDAR OF INTENTIONS, JANUARY, 1897. 

THE- MORNING OFFERING. 

O Jesus, through the immaculate heart of Mary, I offer Thee the prayers, works, and sufferings of this 
day for all the intentions of Thy divine Heart, in union with the holy sacrifice of the Mass, and in par- 
ticular for RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES, for the intentions of the League throughout the world, and for these 
particular intentions recommended by the American Associates. 



2 


F. 
S. 


First Friday. CIRCUMCISION OF OUR 

LORD ist u., A.C. 

Octave of St. Stephen. St. Macarius (Her- 
mit 39.). 


Self-denial. 
Pray for enemies. 


120,148 Thanksgivings. 
53 075 in affliction. 


3 


S. 


Octave, St. John. St. Genevieve .(512). Pr 


Humility. 


54,358 sick, infirm. 


4 

I 

8 
9 


M. 

T. 
W. 
Th, 
F. 
S. 


Octave Holy Innocents. B. Angela, W. 
(0 S.F., 1309). 
Vigil. St Telesphorus, P.M. (139). 
The Epiphany of our Lord. A.I. , B.M. 
St. Lucian, M. (312). H.H. [482.) 
St. Severio, Ab. (Ab. Austria and Bavaria, 
SS. Julian and Basilissa, M.M. (313). 


Morning Offering. 

Confidence in God. 
Thanksgiving, 
fidelity in trifles. 
Zeal for souls. 
Forbearance. 


66,951 dead Associates. 

35,912 League Centres. 
2,152 Directors. 
19,872 Promoters. 
182 732 departed. 
104,249 perseverance. 


10 


S. 


1st after Epiphany. St. Agatho, P. (682). 


Sorrow for sins. 


450,3 1 2 the young. 


ii 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 


M. 
T. 
W. 
Th. 

F. 
S. 


St. Hyginus, P.M. (142). 
St. Bennet, Bp. (690). [Bp. (608). 
Octave of the Epiphany. St. Kentigern, 
St. Hilary, Bp. D. (368). St. Felix, M. 
(2 5 6).-H.H. 
St. Paul, First Hermit (342). St. Maur, Ab. 
(O.S.B., 580). 
St. Marcellus, P. M. (310). 


Crush human respect. 
Purity of heart. 
Kindliness. 
Read good books. 

Retirement. 
Generosity with God. 


35,753 ist Communions. 
117,112 parents. 
85,373 families. 
37,596 reconciliations. 

140,500 work, means. 
77, 206 clergy. 


17 


S. 


2d after Epiphany. The Holy Name St. 
Anthony, Ab. (366). C.R. 


Repair blasphemy. 


114,083 religious. 


18 
19 

20 
21 

22 

23 


M. 
T. 

W. 
Th. 
F. 
S. 


St. Peter's Chair at Rome. St. Prisca, V.M. 
(54).-A.S. 
St. Canute, M. (K. 1086) SS. Marius and 
Comp. MM., C. (270). [288). 
SS. Fabian, P. and Sebastian, MM. (250- 
St. Agnes, V. M. (304). H.H. 
SS. Vincent and Anastasius, MM. (303) [304). 
Espousal B V M. St. Emerentiana, V. M. 


Devotion to Holy See. 
Detachment. 

Knowledge of self. 
Love holy purity. 
God's holy will. 
Say Daily Decade. 


61,889 seminarists, novices. 
43,709 vocations. 

42, 190 parishes. 
64,033 schools. 
36, 583 superiors. 
31,319 Missions, Retreats. 


24 


C 


3d after Epiphany. St. Timothy, Bp. M. (97). 


Respect authority. 


2 4 333 societies, works. 


25 
26 
27 
28 

29 
30 


M. 
T. 
W. 
Th. 

F. 

S. 


Conversion of St. Paul, Ap. (35). 
St. Polycarp, Bp. M. ( 66). 
St. John Chrysostom, Bp. D. (407). 
zd Feast of St. Agnes. St. Julian, Bp. 
(1208). -H.H. 
St. Francis de Sales, Bp. D. (1622). Pr. 
St. Martina, V.M. (260). 


Guard the eyes. 
Spirit of justice. 
Fear mortal sin. 
Guard the tongue. 

Judge not. 
Patience in trials. 


8 r, 618 conversions. 
J 39.87o sinners. 
121,315 intemperate. 
122,197 spiritual favors. 

96,654 temporal favors. 
I 37,653 special various. 


31 


S. 


4th after Epiphany. St. Peter Nolasco, F. 
(Order of Mercy, 1256). 


Be firm in hope. 


MESSENGER Readers. 



?: Ap. Apostleship. (T).=Degrees, Yr.= Promoters, C. R.=Communron of Repara- 
\.. ..=Archconfraternity ; .=Sodality ; B. M.=Bona Mors ; A. I.=Apostolic 



PLENARY INDULGENCES: Ap. 
lion, H..H.=ffoly Hour); A. C.=<4; 

Indulgence; A. ^>.= Apostleship of Study ; S. S.=St.'john Berchmans' 1 Sanctuary Society ;' B. \.=Bridgettinc 
Indulgence. 

TREASURY OF GOOD WORKS. 
Offerings for the Intentions recommended to the League of the Sacred Heart. 

ioo days 1 Indulgence for every action offered for the Intentions of the League. 

NO. TIMES. 
Masses heard . 
Mortifications . 



NO. TIMES. 

Acts of Charity 762,563 ii. 

Beads 697 356 12. 

Way of the Cross 104,279 13. 

Holy Communions 126,469 14. 

Spiritual Communions 357, 147 15. 

Examens of Conscience 234,802 16. 

Hours of Labor 996 648 17. 

Hours of Silence 320,183 18. 

Pious Reading 147,401 19. 

Masses read 15,457 20. 



303.9" 

2-9/02 

Works of Mercy 185,654 

Works of Zeal 138,593 

Prayers 4,681,279 

Kindly Conversation 64,812 

Sufferings, Afflictions 113,482 

Self-conquest 201,023 

Visits to B. Sacrament 400,944 

Various Good Works 447,517 



Special Thanksgivings, 1,392; Total, 10,550,806. 

Intentions or Good Works put in the box, or given on lists to Promoters before their meeting, on or 
before the last Sunday, are sent by Directors to be recommended in our Calendar MESSENGER in our 
Masses here, at the General Direction in Toulouse, and Lourdes. 



9 6 



(32) 




THE HONORABLE WILLIAM GASTOX, 

Catholic Pioneer in North Carolina. 



THE MESSENGER 



OF THE 



SACKED HEART OF JESUS 



VOL. xxxiv. 



FEBRUARY, 1899. 



No. 



CATHOLICITY IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

By Very Rev. F. Felix, O.S.J3. 



JULY 4, 1584, opens the annals of the 
history of North Carolina. Sir 
Walter Raleigh, at the direction of 
Queen Elizabeth, sent two vessels, under 
the command of Philip Armidas and 
Arthur Barlow, to the New World, not, 
however, to fulfil the pious ambition of a 
Columbus, to plant the standard of salva- 
tion upon the virgin soil of America, but 
acting effectively upon the order of the 
reigning Tudor, to conquer and appro- 
priate in England's name. 

These vessels were driven about the 
bays and inlets of what is now the Caro- 
lina coast, until a landing was effected on 
Wokoken Island. Here they discovered 
a friendly tribe of Indians, artless and 
generous, upon whose chief, at a later 
date, the English Queen conferred 
the title, ' ' Lord of Roanoke. ' ' This was 
the Anglo Saxons' preface to the great 
chapters of their history on the new con- 
tinent. 

The visit paid to the amicably disposed 
red men and their island, was not succeed- 
ed by a settlement in this region until 



Copyright, 1897, by APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER. 



the year 1637, when we may speak of 
the first colony in North Carolina. Re- 
ligious persecution had driven men and 
women into the inhospitable wilderness 
of the then unbounded State. 

The Puritans of Massachusetts, those 
liberty-loving, God-fearing exiles of the 
Mother Country, forced the Quakers as 
far south as Virginia, after having muti- 
lated their bodies by revolting tortures 
which truthful historians do not hesitate 
to depict in all their shocking details. 

I shall pass over the Palatines founded 
in this State by Swiss and French Hugue- 
nots. The number of these immigrants 
was barely one thousand. Many of them 
were massacred in struggles with the In- 
dians, and their homes destroyed. Sub- 
sequently English settlers, Scotch Pres- 
byterians, and Lutherans formed com- 
munities, and by Colonial legislation, the 
" Church by Law Established " enjoyed 
exclusive rights; other religions were per- 
mitted, provided they did not interfere 
with the Episcopal form of worship. 

The voluminous Colonial Records of 

99 



100 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



North Carolina give no evidence of any 
early Catholic settlers. Even the names 
chronicled suggest none that may be sus- 
pected of belonging to the true Faith. If 
there were a few faithful souls, no trace 
of them can now be discovered. Prob- 
ably Catholic emigrants feared to share 
the cruel treatment their co-religionists 
received in Virginia, where they enjoyed 
no liberty, were named incompetent to 
act as witnesses ' ' in any case whatso- 
ever, ' ' and hence were mere slaves to 
lordly proprietors. There Irish women 
and children were actually sold as slaves, 
when under Cromwell seventy thousand 
sons and daughters of Erin were trans- 
ferred to the colonies, the greater num- 
ber, however, being sent to the Barba- 
does and Jamaica. 

Bicknall's History of North Carolina, 
published in Dublin, 1739, refers to a 
Catholic settlement at Bath Town, on 
PamlicoSound, where a priestwas supposed 
to have resided, but no trace of such an 
established colony is extant. The ao- 
sence of any positive law against the 
Church in the primitive days of the set- 
tlements, leads one to imagine the non- 
existence of a necessity for framing such 
ordinances. Only after the sons of the 
State had rallied and banded themselves 
in freedom's cause, to which the cele- 
brated Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence (of which the Carolinians are 
justly proud) gave an impulse, laws det- 
rimental to the Catholic Church were 
enacted; in fact, no early constitution of 
any State, except Massachusetts, equalled 
that of North Carolina in animosity to- 
wards those professing that belief ' ' any 
man who shall deny the existence of God 
or the truth of the Protestant Religion, 
or the divine authority of the Old and 
New Testament, shall not hold any office 
in this State." 

These difficulties naturally deterred 
conscientious Catholics from seeking an 
asylum within these hostile borders. 
Later and present perplexities will be 
mentioned as we proceed. 

Research proves that the torch of 



Catholicity was first lighted in the little 
town of Newbern. In 1774, Gerard and 
Joseph Sharpe, two English gentlemen, 
were extensively engaged in commercial 
pursuits in this town. They were visited 
that year by their sister, Margaret, a de- 
vout, pious Catholic woman of strong in- 
tellectual acquirements and an equally 
intense attachment to her faith. Though 
far away from the consolations of the 
Church, she was not shaken in her belief, 
and by her example kept alive the 
smouldering flame of faith in her brothers' 
bosoms. 

In May, 1775, she married Dr. Alex- 
ander Gaston, a native of Ballimini, Ire- 
land, a graduate of the medical college 01 
Edinburgh, and a surgeon in the English 
navy, a position which he resigned to 
sail for the North American provinces. 
He settled in Newbern, where, after a 
few years' residence, during which he 
practised his profession, he married Mar- 
garet Sharpe. Her two brothers had 
died and her husband was shot by Tories 
commanded by Major Craig of the 
British army, in August, 1781, whilst 
attempting his escape in a canoe across 
the river Trent. Mrs. Gaston was then 
left entirely alone in America with a 
young son and infant daughter dependent 
upon her. Too strong to shrink amidst 
these disasters, supported by religion and 
energy of character, she met the exigen- 
cies of the hour with fortitude, and made 
the education of her son the grand object 
of her existence. 

Upon his susceptible childish character 
she stamped her own exquisite sensibility, 
high integrity, and above all her religion, 
thus fashioning his volatile and some- 
times irritable temperament in her own 
perfect mould. She knew he might be 
of use to his God and country ; therefore 
he was reared for these two great ends. 

William Gaston received his education 
in that bulwark of learning, Georgetown, 
where his name is immortalized. "Few 
institutions in America can boast of hav- 
ing matriculated a man of higher intel- 
lectual attainments and more spotless 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



101 



character," wrote Stephen B. Weeks, of 
Johns Hopkins University. Mrs. Gas- 
ton lived to see her son loved by his 
fellow-citizens, honored by his State, 
and promoting the cause of God' s Holy 
Church, so that the very name of Gas- 
ton was sufficient to dispel the pulpit 
defamations of would-be religious min- 
isters. By his eloquence he succeeded 
in having the constitution of his State 
amended so as not to exclude Cath- 
olics from office. His mother 
died at Newbern full of days, 
blessed with temporal posses- 
sions, but more glorified for 
preserving the pearl of religion 
in a hostile State, and after 
giving the same trust to her 
son, departed to God to re- 
ceive her reward. 

In time Newbern became 
the residence of other Catho- 
lics, Francis Lamotte, a ref- 
ugee of the French Revolu- 
tion, two other French gen- 
tlemen, Francis Xavier Mar- 
tin, author of a history of 
North Carolina bearing his 
name, Mr. Gillet and wife 
and Mr. William Joseph Wil- 
liams, formerly a respectable 
Episcopal clergyman and a 
convert to Catholicity. 

Rt. Rev. John England 
visited the town for the first 
time in 1821, remained eight 
days, preached each night in 
the court house, and cele- 
brated Mass every morning 
in Hon. William Gaston's 
house. He organized the 
little congregation, and erected Newbern 
into an ecclesiastical district under the in- 
vocation of St. Paul. This may be con- 
sidered as the opening of the Catholic 
missions in North Carolina. 

From that year, Bishop England paid fre- 
quent visits, baptizing, confirming, preach- 
ing, and in 1824 appointed Rev. Francis 
O'Donoughue missionary for the entire 
State, with Newbern as his residence. 



The vestry met on June 24 of the same 
year for the purpose of raising funds to 
purchase a site for a church. The founda- 
tion was soon laid and the church 
finished, but owing to the death of Bishop 
England in 1841, was not blessed until 
his successor, Dr. Reynolds, paid his first 
visit in 1844, placing it under the patron- 
age of St. Paul. 

The death of Judge Gaston, January 
19, 1844, affected the interests of thelit- 




R1GHT REVEREND LEO HAID, O.S.B. 

tie church materially, so that its pastor, 
Father Quigly, was obliged to solicit con- 
tributions from other cities. Bishop 
Reynolds continued to visit Newbern, 
carrying on the good work; converts in- 
creased, and the congregation was now 
fully organized. Yet the death of Judge 
Gaston would long be felt. 

Judge Gaston was also the founder of 
the first Catholic colony in the western 



102 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



part of the State, in a county named after 
him " Gaston," which now forms the 
centre of Catholicity in the State. He 
composed the stirring lyric so dear to the 
hearts of Carolinians, a stanza of which 
will suffice to show the trend of its verses 
and convey an idea of the love which 
gave it birth : 
Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessing 

attend her, 
While we live we will cherish, protect, and 

defend her ; 
Tho' scorner .may sneer at, and witling 

defame her, 

Yet our hearts swell with gladness when- 
ever we name her. 

CHORUS. 

Hurrah ! Hurrah ! the old North State 

forever ! 
Hurrah ! Hurrah ! the good old North 

State ! 

At the present writing the church at 
Newbern is in a flourishing condition. 
Extensive improvements have been made 
by the present pastor, who, together with 
an assistant, labors energetically for the 
propagation of religion and the educa- 
tion of white and colored children. As a 
number of prominent colored people re- 
side in the town, a school has been re- 
cently erected for their accommodation, 
and a church, both placed under the 
patronage of St. Charles. The result 
has been very gratifying. 

jje * # # # 

Edenton, a mission attended by the 
priests of Newbern, was inaugurated in 
1857, when three young graduates of St. 
Joseph's Academy, Emittsburg, who were 
converts to the Faith, conceived the idea 
of building a church in their home. The 
twelve Catholics of the place were com- 
pelled to worship in a small room in one 
of their houses, and forced to be satisfied 
with an annual visit from some good old 
missionary. Without a farthing in their 
pockets, the young girls commenced the 
great work among Protestants ot every 
persuasion, nothing daunted by the re- 



fusal of the visiting priest to assist in the 
project, lest failure be the ultimate issue. 

Applying to her Protestant father, one 
of the girls received $100 and a promise 
of a site for the church. A trip to 
Baltimore followed and an appeal to 
Archbishop Kenrick, whose answer, as 
he placed a twenty-dollar gold piece in 
her hand, deserves to be recorded: 
"Go, my little apostle, with my abund- 
ant blessing; you will succeed with the 
help of God. Be sure, my child, to put 
all insults in your heart and the money 
in your pocket." 

Returning home with $585.50, the 
work was commenced and continued by 
the young women, who translated French 
works, taught music and, through the 
post, solicited donations . in the United 
States and Europe. Father Faber of 
the Oratory of St. Philip, Prince Hohen- 
lohe, and even the great Cardinal Anto- 
nelli, helped them. Bishop Lynch of 
Charleston laid the corner stone on the 
feast of St. Anne, to whose care it was 
entrusted, and the occasion was made 
memorable by his eloquent discourse. 

Surmounting innumerable obstacles, 
these persevering converts prayed the 
humble church to completion, and on 
July 26, 1858, the first Mass was celebrated 
in Edenton in a house really dedicated to 
God's service. On that happy morn, as 
the congregation knelt at the altar to 
receive the Bread of Life, as the priest 
advanced with the uplifted Host, a beau- 
tiful white dove flew in through the 
window and hovered over the middle of 
the sanctuary until the priest returned to 
the altar. 

The church gained converts and 
thrived until the Civil War, when it 
became the barracks of soldiers and 
everything of value was stolen or sold at 
auction among them. , From this deplor- 
able condition it has been rescued, rededi- 
cated, and brighter days have dawned 
for the little church of St. Anne. 

%. $i %. %. % 

A church in time arose at Fayetteville, 
a quaint old town in the centre of the 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 




ST. MARY'S COLLEGE AND ABBEY, BELMONT, N. c. 



State, which, even to-day, gives the vis- 
itor many reminders of the colonial 
epoch, when the curfew meant "lights 
and fires out all abed," as even now it 
rings at nine o'clock. 

John Kelly presented the property 
upon which a church was built, but a 
fire destroyed the greater portion of the 
town and consumed this wooden struc- 
ture also. In 1839 the present building 
was erected, and stands to this day a 
significant monument of the poverty of 
God's religion in the South, especially in 
North Carolina. Yet sweet are the 
memories that linger around that hal- 
lowed place. The eloquence of an 
England and a Reynolds flowed in a 
golden tide within those sacred precincts, 
but the once flourishing mission gave 
way to time, so that, in the period when 
in Northern cities a cathedral might have 
graced the site, the poor frame church 
still remains, its little tower pointing 
heavenward. In recent years Fayette- 
ville has again received a resident priest 
after a vacancy of nearly thirty years, 
and by his energy and careful zeal he has 
wiped away the dust of by-gone years, 
and now the mission is growing. 

During the war hundreds of Catholic 



soldiers worshipped in this humble house 
of God, dedicated to Ireland's saint and 
built by the faithful sons of Erin. 

The capital of North Carolina-, Raleigh, 
is situated near the geographical centre 
of the State, a city flourishing by reason 
of the various institutions located there, 
supported by State appropriations, and 
owing its aristocratic reputation to guber- 
natorial influence. 

The first Mass celebrated in Raleigh 
was by Father Whelan in 1832. A small 
church was built the same year and dedi- 
cated by Bishop England, but subse- 
quently sold and new property purchased 
near the capitol. This second edifice 
was blessed by Bishop Hughes, of New 
York, on his way to Chapel Hill, N. C., 
to deliver the annual address to the grad- 
uates of the State University. 

The church building acquired was 
formerly a Baptist meeting-house, and 
being of many years' erection, was offici- 
ally condemned and a new lot with house, 
etc. , bought, and to this was attached a 
chapel of the Sacred Heart. 

The late Rev. James B. White, who 
was ordained by Bishop Gibbons after 
having served the United States as an 



104 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



important Federal officer, gave to Raleigh 
all that it can boast of to-day. He was 
a familiar figure in Northern cities, for 
only through Northern Catholics was he 
able to effect what proudly claims to be 
his monument in this State. His vener- 
able appearance, sweetness of voice, and 
charm of manner made him loved every- 
where. For many years he was pastor in 
Raleigh, and when he was removed to 
Asheville, he left the place free of debt 
and a handsome property as its own. 

Few churches in the United States 
have experienced greater visitations than 
this; God's Bride has bowed her head 
amidst severe trials ; she could exclaim 
with Jeremiah, "Intuere et respice oppro- 
brium nostrum."" Let us cover these 
dead sorrows with the mantle of love and 
consider only the present and future. 
Gloriously she arose out of chaos, and 
now enjoys the respect, love, and con- 
fidence of the city and State. 

The present efficient pastor has done 
much to further the interests of Catholi- 
city, not only in Raleigh, where the con- 
gregation has numerically increased, but 
in all the missions attached. 

# * * * * 

Wilmington, the seaport of the old 
North State, is our largest city, and has 
many advantages commercially and soci- 
ally. Doubtless Catholics reached this 
point early in the century, owing to easy 
communication with the West Indies. 
The present church, known as the Pro- 
Cathedral of St. Thomas, was built by 
Rev. F. Murphy in 1854. It is a mas- 
sive structure with a beautiful interior. 

Wilmington was frequently ravaged by 
yellow fever, but in 1862, the malignant 
disease hurried unusual multitudes to an 
early grave. Father Murphy, assisted by 
the Sisters of Mercy, with untiring zeal 
administered to the dying, averaging more 
than one hundred each day. The scenes 
which transpired in this plague- stricken 
community baffle description. Old citi- 
zens, survivors of the dread epidemic, can 
with difficulty be persuaded to refer to 
those mournful days when death's sable 



pall hung over the city. Father Murphy 
died in 1863, a victim of yellow fever, 
and was buried in the basement of the 
church, where a marble monument marks 
his last resting place. 

Subsequent to the separation of North 
Carolina from the Charleston Diocese by 
Pope Pius IX. in 1868, when it was 
raised to a vicariate, the young Vicar 
Apostolic, our present beloved and most 
eminent Cardinal, selected Wilmington 
as his residence. In a paper read by 
His Eminence before the Historical So- 
ciety of New York, in his " Recollections 
of North Carolina," he says : " My sole 
companion here was Rev. M. S. Gross. 
Our accommodations (we had no house) 
consisted of two small rooms, one for an 
office, another for a library, attached to 
the rear of the church. But my work on 
hand left no leisure to breed homesick- 
ness. Everything had to be started, 
missions inaugurated, schools established, 
priests to be had, conversions to be 
made. ' ' 

The young Bishop Gibbons worked 
without ceasing among the five hundred 
Catholics in the State. He introduced 
into the Vicariate the Sisters of Mercy, 
from a branch of the order founded in 
Charleston by the illustrious Bishop En- 
gland, and they established a flourishing 
school in the city. The Pro-Cathedral 
was adorned by marble altars and grand 
paintings, which the Bishop brought with 
him from Rome when he returned from 
the Vatican Council. 

Wilmington's present pastor has iden- 
tified himself with the cause of his people 
and his church. Bishop Haid, now 
Vicar Apostolic, has established a suc- 
cessful school for colored children, and is 
aiding the good priest in all his noble 
undertakings. 

Speaking of colored schools, my mind 
reverts to the significant words penned 
by Cardinal Gibbons : "I remember on 
the Saturday after my arrival in Wilming- 
ton, October 31, 1868, I witnessed a 
political torchlight procession of colored 
people. I learned that this element was 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



105 



the leading political factor in the State, 
as it was at that time in the South gener- 
ally. While right-thinking men are 
ready to accord the colored citizen all to 
which he is entitled, yet to give him con- 
trol over a highly intellectual and intri- 
cate civilization in creating which he had 
borne no essential part and for conduct- 
ing which his antecedents had manifestly 
unfitted him, would be hurtful to the 
country as well as to himself. ' ' 



A beautiful church was built in recent 
years at Goldsboro, and dedicated to the 
Virgin Mother. Another was only lately 
dedicated at Taboro. Both owe their 
existence to the noble efforts of Father 
Price. This Reverend gentleman, a 
North Carolinian by birth, now sacrifices 
his sacred ministry to an exclusive mis- 
sionary work. He publishes Truth, a 
monthly magazine for non- Catholics, 
which is doing effective good in dispel- 
ling ignorance and aids the priests in the 
work of conversion. It is edited in 



Raleigh, and subsists by the charity of 
the faithful. 



In Sampson County there is a small 
settlement called Newton Grove, twenty 
miles distant from a railroad, in which a 
congregation sprang up in almost the 
same miraculous manner as did that 01 
Jerusalem on the first Pentecost. Dr. 
Monk, a gentleman of more than ordin- 
ary intelligence, entertained for a long 
time serious doubts concerning his reli- 
gious views. By chance a copy of the 
New York Herald, in the shape of wrap- 
ping paper, reached his isolated home. 
Upon reading it, he perused a sermon, 
preached by Archbishop McCloskey, on 
the "One True Church.'-' Instantly 
the light of faith dawned on his heart. 
He addressed a letter to "any Catholic 
priest in Wilmington," requesting to be 
received into the Church. Shortly after, 
Bishop Gibbons baptized him and his 
family, and the neighbors began to imi- 
tate his heroic example with the happiest 






GROTTO, ST. MARY'S COLLEGE, BELMONT, N. c. 



io6 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



results. The mission numbers nearly 
six hundred souls now, all of them con- 
verts. 

Another mission, with a beginning 
somewhat similar, was started by three 
brothers, Irish peddlers, who settled in 
Duplin County. Strange ! They could 
neither read nor write, yet by their in- 
tegrity and personal influence, they as- 
sisted the priest whom they called to their 
home, in the work of conversion, and 
helped to erect the Church of the Good 
Shepherd. These men have now passed 
to their reward. 

When Bishop Haid visited those coun- 
ties for the first time in 1888, Mr. 
Galagher, one of the brothers, drove 
him in an open buggy from Newton to 
Good Shepherd, a distance of thirty-six 
miles. The road took them through 
sand beds, and swamps alive with rep- 
tiles, malaria, and mosquitoes. The 
Bishop remarked the dismalness of the 
country, but Galagher, equal to the 
emergency, retorted, "Yes, my Lord, our 
good God forgot to finish this portion of 
North Carolina, ' ' and sadly added, ' ' and 
I believe He never will. ' ' 

In his " Memoirs," Cardinal Gibbons 
refers likewise to another interesting 
mission in this locality: "One of the 
missionaries went still further and visited 
the 'classic' precincts of Chinquepin, a 
village in the dark pineries, where lives a 
most primitive people, blissfully ignorant 
of the outside world. Here he met an 
old Irish woman, who had not seen a 
priest for forty-five years. Her faith, 
she said, was still as fresh as the sod of 
her native home, and her prayers, em- 
balmed in the old Irish tongue, were 
never forgotten or omitted. Chinquepin 
grew into a mission of converts with 
chapel and school. ' ' 

Goldsboro being conveniently located, 
has now these missions attached to its 
church. The zealous priest who attends 
to the spiritual wants of them has indeed 
to endure countless temporal wants, 
owing to the extreme poverty of the 
people. And yet no place has produced 



greater or happier results, for God's 
words seem to be fulfilled: " The poor 
you have always with you. ' ' 

Having considered Catholicity in the 
eastern portion of North Carolina, we 
shall now briefly regard the growth 
and condition of our Faith in the 
western division. Like a queen among 
her subjects stands the most beautiful of 
the cities of the State, Asheville. Tra- 
vellers claim for her the grandeur and 
natural magnificence of the most favored 
retreats in Europe, and for healthfulness, 
agriculture, mineral, and other resources, 
she is without a peer in the Old North 
State. Picture to your mind a region 
where range after range of heavily for- 
ested mountains parallel each other like 
waves of the sea, where interlacing val- 
leys are rich with verdure and flowers, 
and where silver streams murmur un- 
ceasingly. Imagine an air so light and 
pure that breathing itself seems a new- 
found joy, then throw over it all a can- 
opy of bluest of Italian blue, and you 
have what our eminent Catholic novelist, 
Christian Reid, first named the " Land 
of the Sky. ' ' 

* ' Land of forest-clad mountains, of fairy 
streams, 

Of low, pleasant valleys where the bright 
sunlight gleams 

Athwart fleecy clouds gliding over the 
hills, 

Midst the fragrance of pines and the mur- 
mur of rills. 

"A land of bright sunsets, whose glories 

extend 
From horizon to zenith, there richly to 

blend 

The hues of the rainbow with clouds pass- 
ing by- 
Right well art thou christened the ' Land 
of the Sky. ' ' ' 

During the administration of Bishop 
Gibbons and while paying the first visit to 
Asheville in 1868, a vacant plot of land, 
seven and one-half acres in extent, at- 
tracted his attention as a suitable site 
for a church. Whilst conducting negotia- 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



107 



tions for the purchase of a church site, 
the present valuable Battery Park prop- 
erty could have come into his possession 
for a few hundred dollars. Now, mil- 
lions cannot buy it. But means were 
then wanting. After much labor the 
necessary funds were collected, a brick 
building erected and dedicated by him 
under the invocation of St. Lawrence. 
Later at Hot Springs, forty miles distant, 
the resort of health and fashion, Father 
Gross built a small church for the accom- 
modation of visitors. After years had 



bright beams of the sun streaming from a 
dazzling blue sky full upon the mountains 
in the near distance, at the same time 
transforming the creamy tints of the altar 
into pale gold, is impossible. A correct 
estimate of the amount of good the pres- 
ent pastor in charge accomplishes cannot 
be given. Numbers who would never 
have had a claim to a heavenly inherit- 
ance now enjoy the bliss of the celestial 
city through his kindness. They came 
to this health resort with the last hope for 
life. Whilst many are cured, many more 




'AKOCIIIAL SCH( 



elapsed, St. Lawrence's in Asheville was 
found on account of its location to be in- 
convenient of access. To better meet 
the demands of the growing congregation, 
land was obtained in the central portion 
of the town, almost opposite Battery 
Park, and a church erected thereon. It 
is an attractive edifice, just the dainty, 
ornamental structure required in such a 
place. To describe the gentle, restful 
feeling which soothes one's senses as he 
kneels in that hallowed sanctuary, with the 



never see their home again. The con- 
gregation may be termed fluctuating, as 
it grows and decreases with the seasons, 
owing to the influx and departure of visi- 
tors; however, the few hundreds perma- 
nently located in Asheville are fervent 
Catholics, worthy sons and daughters of 
the true Church. 

The grandest of the grand peaks sur- 
rounding Asheville is Mt. Mitchell, the 
highest mountain in the United States 
east of the Rockies. In 1866, with a 



io8 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



half dozen companions, Dr. Jeremiah 
O'Connell reached the top through 
treacherous passes. It had been made 
memorable by one sacrifice, the life of 
Prof. Mitchell, of the State University, 
who, while engaged in authenticating his 
measurement of the peak, was dashed to 
pieces on the rocks lying in the bed of the 
Caney River. But now the summit was 
to be consecrated by another sacrifice, 
the grandest and sublimest sacrifice of a 
God, the unbloody rite of Calvary. Early 
that August morning, as the sun shot his 
first rays in great splendor over the east- 
ern hills, diffusing all around a flood of 
golden light far more brilliant than St. 
Peter's illuminated, Father O'Connell 
erected an altar and said Mass. It was 
the feast of St. Rose of Lima, the first 
flower of the American Church. There 
could be no temple more sublime or more 
worthy of the Holy Sacrifice. The ma- 
jestic mountains that stood around on all 
sides, like the ancients before the throne 
of God, seemed to bare their heads in 
tumultuous adoration before their Maker. 
Who can know and tell us that they did 
not rejoice after centuries of waiting, in 
being able to pay their first act of jubilant 
homage to the Hand that raised them up, 
the unbending witnesses of His power, 
wisdom, and goodness ! 

Again on August 17, of this year, 
our zealous missionary, Father Price, as- 
cended this mountain and nearest to 
heaven, offered the unbloody Sacrifice 
for the conversion of North Carolina. It 
was the Mass of the Assumption of the 
Glorious Virgin. 

* # * # * 

Leaving the everlasting hills, the Pied- 
mont Valley next claims our attention. 
The Southern Railway passes an in- 
significant looking station, " Belmont;" 
but one mile beyond that village, we find 
the very nucleus of Catholicity in the 
State, as the majestic towers of Maryhelp 
Abbey greet our eyes. From here the 
spiritual affairs are administered ; here 
resides the Bishop of the Vicariate ; here 
too is the centre of Catholic education, 



comprising the magnificently equipped 
St. Mary's College and the Academy of 
the Sacred Heart. 

Great, and almost insurmountable, 
difficulties faced the Benedictines when, 
in 1875, they first set foot on the spot. 
Remote from the great centre of Catho- 
lic population, and outside the settled 
currents of immigration, the foundation 
seemed destined to become a failure. 
The gift of the Rev. Dr. J. J. O'Connell 
of many acres of forest, with many oner- 
ous conditions attached, gave little prom- 
ise for the future. The first colony that 
came from the Mother-House in Penn- 
sylvania, regarded the undertaking as 
extremely hazardous, premature, and 
hopeless. Men, who themselves doubted, 
marvel at the success to-day. 

By apostolic decree the infant college, 
in the pineries of North Carolina, was 
raised to the dignity of an Abbey in 
1885, and the following year Rev. Leo 
Haid, O.S.B., was elected Abbot. With 
a band of energetic young men, he came 
to North Carolina, to be clothed with a 
dignity which in European countries a 
prince might envy, but here meant 
little more than drudgery. The mitre 
was placed upon Father Leo on Thanks- 
giving Day, 1886, in the Pro-Cathedral 
of Charleston, S. C. , to which diocese 
the vicariate was then attached under 
the administration of Bishop Northrop. 
The noble personality of Bishop Haid is 
thus described in the New York Sun, 
February 24, 1886 : 

"He is deservedly esteemed one of 
the foremost pulpit orators of America. 
Unconscious of self, his very sermon is 
an entire tract touching all the impor- 
tant truths bearing on the subject 

Perhaps no one else could be found better 
adapted to the situation, or equally cap- 
able to found a new abbey. He attends 
personally to every department and 
seems ubiquitous on the field, in the 
chapter, at the workshops, at the altar, in 
the pulpit, in the choir from four o'clock 
A. M. to eight P. M. at the canonical 
hours, in the class room. ' ' Even as 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



109 



1 



bishop he continues 
the same simplicity 
of life, and he never 
fails to bring before 
our people the truth 
of the Gospel in 
churches, in court- 
houses, opera houses, 
public halls any- 
where, everywhere. 
Like the great Bish- 
op England, he 
thinks no place un- 
worthy and no audi- 
ence too small to hear 
the word of God. 

Abbot Haid was 
consecrated titular 
Bishop July i, 1888, 
in the Cathedral of 
Baltimore, and in 
him was united the 
double dignity and 
honor, unique in 
America, of Abbot 
and Bishop. He is the successor of three 
living prelates, His Eminence, Cardi- 
nal Gibbons, Archbishop Keane, and 
Bishop Northrop, of Charleston. I shall 
leave to future historians the good work 
of recording the labors of Bishop Haid as 
a missionary, and only speak of his monu- 
ment, the present St. Mary's College 
and Abbey. 

The most conspicuous of the massive 
buildings within the monastic precincts 
is the Gothic church erected in 1895 
and dedicated by His Eminence, Cardi- 
nal Gibbons, surrounded by all the 
Abbots of the United States and many 
Bishops. The interior contains gems 
of Christian art. The stained glass 
windows are acknowledged universally 
the finest in the country, and as such, 
were awarded first prize at the World's 
Fair. 

The Abbey comprises one half wing of 
the building, is two hundred and 
forty feet long, forty feet wide, and 
three stories high, and contains a mon- 
astic chapel, chapter rooms, a suite 




IN THE CONVENT FOREST, BELMONT, N. C. 



of rooms reserved for the Abbot-Bishop, 
domitories, and cells for the monks. 

The College is two hundred and 
fifty feet long and sixty feet wide ; 
has study halls, class rooms, dining 
hall, parlor, laboratory, reading room, 
library, chapel, and recreation halls. 
All the buildings are lighted by elec- 
tricity. 

To the north of the church is situated 
the Music Hall, equipped with a hand- 
some stage. It is outside the monastic 
precincts, so that the neighboring popu- 
lation may attend the entertainments, 
which are generally of a classic nature. 
The workshops, power house, etc., an- 
swer the required needs. What strikes 
the natives most forcibly is the handsome 
barn, large herd of cattle, and agricul- 
tural implements. Benedictines laid the 
foundation of agriculture in Europe ; no 
surprise, then, that in the forests of North 
Carolina, history should repeat itself. 
His Eminence, the Cardinal, is exceed- 
ingly proud of this place, which he terms 
his foundation, since the first steps were 



I 10 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



taken whilst he was Vicar Apostolic, and 
I once heard a Bishop remark to His 
Eminence, upon viewing the Abbey 
from a distance, "Cardinal, this is the 
brightest jewel in your crown." 

The little seminary attached to the 
Abbey has already become the nursery 
for priests in the South. More than 
twenty-five have been ordained within 
the past twelve years, who now labor in 
Southern missions. As Seminarians, 
they learned the poverty and privations 
of the Bishop's missionaries, and as 
priests they expect only to share in them, 
their only aim being the advancement of 
religion. May the good work go on ! 

Several years ago, a pet project of 
Bishop Haid's was to found an academy 
for girls on a lovely hillside, a short 
distance from St. Mary's College. His 
chief object was to place the mother 
house of the Sisters of Mercy in the Vi- 
cariate under the immediate spiritual 
influence of the Abbey. These good 
sisters had worked for nearly twenty-five 
years on various missions, and through 
the scarcity of priests had never really 
enjoyed the spiritual comforts for which 
the soul longs in religious life, though 
they had deserved them a hundred-fold. 
The Bishop's project was gratefully and 
joyfully received by the sisterhood, a 
plain, yet pleasing building was erected, 
and a school for girls opened. It now 
enjoys, after seven years of existence, an 
enviable reputation. Considering all the 
difficulties to which schools in this State, 
with only thirty-five hundred Catholics, 
are exposed, it has achieved wonders. No 
other academy in the South, it may be 
safely said, enjoys such advantages as this. 
The Sisters now contemplate the erec- 
tion of a magnificent chapel, which, in 
addition to the various and handsome 
buildings, will give to the Sacred Heart 
Academy an imposing appearance. 
Through the beneficence of a wealthy 
Catholic, an orphanage for girls was like- 
wise added to the convent, so that the 
poor of the Vicariate may have a safe 
refuge for their children. The convents 



at Wilmington and Charlotte are subject 
to the jurisdiction of the Rev. Mother at 
Belmont. 

On St. Patrick's Day, 1851, Rev. 
Jeremiah O'Connell laid the corner-stone 
of the first Catholic church in Charlotte, 
the queen city of the State. The cere- 
mony was simple, quite as unostentatious 
as the structure, which was dedicated 
the following year by Bishop Reynolds 
and called St. Peter's. The church lot 
is located almost in the heart of the city. 
At that time a very small sum was paid 
for the property in comparison with its 
present value. At the date of erection 
there were scarcely one hundred adult 
Catholics in the town, the mission was 
poor, but the priests who attended 
this and other places labored with zeal, 
fidelity and disinterestedness during 
many years, even through the bitter days 
of civil strife. 

Later the church was attached to the 
Benedictine mission, and for a number 
of years has been in charge of a resident 
priest of the Order. A handsome new 
church and rectory have replaced the 
dilapidated frame building of '51. St. 
Peter' s has an attractive exterior and a 
surprisingly beautiful interior, lovely 
altars, walls daintily frescoed, windows 
the best creations of American manufac- 
ture, and a grand organ recently placed 
in position. 

The congregation numbers more than 
six hundred, an extraordinary increase 
in the South. The energetic pastor has 
organized various societies, all of which 
have many members. A parochial school 
in charge of the Sisters of Mercy is grati- 
fyingly successful. On the whole, this 
parish may be considered the most suc- 
cessful in the State. The Rev. Rector 
is especially successful in making con- 
verts. Prominent families were recently 
added to our faith. Considering that 
Charlotte was first settled by Scotch 
Presbyterians, it will be only the more 
gratifying to know that possibly nowhere 
in the State are priests and Sisters more 
respected than here. The gentle influ- 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



1 1 1 



ence of the educational institute of St. 
Mary's, only eleven miles distant, has 
gradually worked upon the people, and 
the more they come in contact with 
Catholicity, the more pleased they seem 
to be. The founding of a school for col- 
ored people has opened a new channel 
for conversions among those people. It 
may here be mentioned that Bishop 
Haid has made it a regulation in the 
Vicariate that in all churches to be built 
a row of pews either to the left or the 
right of the aisle must be set aside for the 
colored people. In this way he has 
overcome the great difficulties he first 
met in solving the race question in the 
church. 

Salisbury, forty miles north of Char- 
lotte, is an old mission. During the 
war, Salisbury was a 
noted stockade for 
the captured Federal 
soldiers, among 
whom were many 
thousand Irish and 
German Catholics. 
The horrors of this 
military prison baffle 
all description; suffice 
it to say that over 
eleven thousand died 
of disease and star- 
vation whose remains 
now peacefully slum- 
ber in the national 
cemetery to await the 
eternal call. Their 
names were never 
recorded, so it is im- 
possible to compute 
how many of these 
belonged to the true 
faith. The fearless 
Father]. P. O'Con- 
nell administered 
spiritual consolation 
to the dying. It may 
be mentioned that in 
the Museum of St. 
Mary's College a 



chalice is preserved which was stolen 
during these days in the house of a 
Catholic and put up as a target by Federal 
troops. It was hit no'less than fourteen 
times. 

The present handsome little church 
owes its existence to the celebrated Fisher 
family, on whose property it is located. 
Colonel Fisher of the Confederate army 
fell in the first battle of the Civil War. 
His sister, Miss Christine, and his chil- 
dren entered the Church. Among them 
is the gifted Frances C. Fisher, now Mrs. 
Tiernan, who, under the nom de plume of 
"Christian Reid," ranks among the 
leading Catholic novelists of this country. 
In the parlor of their colonial residence 
they were baptized and later confirmed 
by Bishop Gibbons. The congregation 
steadily increased by conversions greatly 




ST. PETER'S CHURCH, CHARLOTTE, N. c. 



112 



Catholicity in North Carolina. 



due to the pious example of the Fishers. 
In justice it may be said that no mission 
in the State is as thoroughly Catholic and 
as edifying in its piety as that of Salis- 
bury. The Southern Railway by its 
recent enterprises has imparted new com- 
mercial life to the city, and in conse- 
quence Bishop Haid has assigned the 
first resident priest to the little flock 
there. This kindness of the Ordinary is 
keenly appreciated by the faithful, and 
they work most harmoniously with the 
Rev. Rector to the social and religious 
advancement of the congregation. The 
church was at once remodelled, a resi- 
dence built for the priest, and a. school 
opened. 

At Greensboro, twenty-five miles north 
of Salisbury, the present mission was es- 
tablished about 1871. Rev. F. Moore 
erected a frame chapel and dedicated it 




ST. LAWRENCE'S CHURCH, ASHEVILLE, N. c. 



to St. Agnes. Bishop Haid gave the 
place a resident priest. At the present 
writing transactions are on foot to erect 
a new church, more conveniently located 
and better suited to new demands. St. 
Leo's at Winston is attached to this 
mission and visited once a month. In 
each of the other prominent towns of 
that district, as Reidsville, Burlington, 
Thomasville, Highpoint, etc., at least 
one family can be found to represent our 
faith. 

The State of North Carolina, with its 
fifty-two thousand, two hundred and 
fifty square miles, is almost as large as 
England; among its one million, seven 
hundred and fifty thousand inhabi- 
tants, probably three thousand five 
hundred are Catholics, or one man 
in five hundred. The missions with 
resident priests are few for the ter- 
ritory represented, and often more than 
one hundred miles apart. No other 
State of the Union is so densely Pro- 
testant. 

If the Church in the South has never 
enjoyed that vitality which it justly claims 
in the North, the general and specific 
reasons may be applied a fortiori to North 
Carolina. Dr. Jeremiah O'Connell, who, 
with his two Rev. brothers, Mgr. O'Con- 
nell and the Very Rev. Lawrence 
O'Connell, labored for nearly one half 
century in Southern missions, most ap- 
propri ately says: 
"Slavery, like an- 
other wall of China, 
isolated the Southern 
Church from the 
world abroad, and 
during a century she 
sat in darkness and 
in the shadow of 
death. The learn- 
ing of her Bishops, 
like a lightning flash, 
was the only ray that 
rent the universal 
gloom. Eminent 
writers who fluently 
related the progress 



Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



of the Church in America, slightly noticed 
its existence in the South, or barely 
recognized it in a line or two, like the 
epitaph on a tomb. ' ' 

The entire absence of immigration to 
North Carolina is the most potent cause 
of the apparent stagnation of the Church. 
In recent years, the average immigration 
to this State was seventy persons a 
year, less than any other State in the 
Union, and probably only five of them 
might have been Catholics. Were it not 
for the terrible race question, which 
again, like a fiery dart, has flashed over 
the horizon of this State, immigration 
might be encouraged. Our farm lands 
are fertile, our mountains are rich with 
pasture and valuable lumber, and in their 
bosoms they bear priceless mineral wealth; 
and yet the dreaded negro stands guard 
over the princely domains and repels the 
white foreigner who wishes to seek a 
home. Will it always remain so? Is 
there no change? The All- Wise Father 
alone can answer. 



To speak of manufacture and commer- 
cial enterprises, I must limit myself to 
cotton mills and distilleries. The labor- 
ers in the former, though white, are of 
such a moral and social standard that 
Catholics cannot be induced to be num- 
bered among them. And as to the lat- 
ter, they had better abstain from them 
entirely. Our Catholics are mostly con- 
verts, true and noble sons and daughters 
of our holy religion. They have a fear- 
less, zealous band of priests protecting 
their religion and defending their faith. 
Nothing is left undone by prayer and 
work, by teaching and preaching, by zeal 
and good example, by spreading whole- 
some literature, and coming in social 
contact with non-Catholic citizens ; and 
if the harvest of conversion nevertheless 
remains small, we can only, with humble 
and fervent hearts, point heavenward to 
the Giver of Grace, and say with St. Paul: 
" Neither he that planteth is anything, 
nor he that watereth; but God that 
giveth the increase." (I. Cor.3, 7.) 



MODERN CHRISTIAN ART IN CATHOLIC CHURCHES. 

By Professor William H. Goodyear. 
( Continued. ) 



WE shall now assume that a simple 
church, Basilica plan, with large 
wall surfaces, sufficiently light- 
ed, is ready for the brush of the decora- 
tive artist. How shall the work be begun ? 
What'are the conditions of success? 

The first condition is the employment 
not necessarily of one artist, but distinct- 
ly of one absolutely controlling artist, who 
employs and directs the others. In no 
other way can one color scheme be at- 
tempted and carried through. That there 
should be great personal confidence and 
good feeling between the employers and 
the employed is also, of course, necessary. 
It is also necessary, or desirable, that the 
employing priests should appreciate the 



educational and spiritual value of the 
pictures to be made, and quite essential 
that the artists should have in view this 
value as the real cause ot their employ- 
ment. In other words, we must throw 
away the idea of decoration as an end in 
itself, and yet without denying that the 
merely decorative end must be thor- 
oughly understood and compassed by the 
designing artist. We must exalt the point 
of view that the Resurrection and the 
Crucifixion, the Apparition, the Draught 
of Fishes, the Giving of the Keys to 
Peter in a word, the whole inexhausti- 
ble list of Bible subjects have a unique 
power when presented in pictorial art, 
a power which, of course, depends on 



Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



some contact with the story as it is found 
in literature, or, at least, on a traditional 
knowledge of it. Pictorial art is a most 
important adjunct to religious instruc- 
tion, and its assistance has been wofully 
neglected in recent times. 

I do not see how a reform is possible 
unless ecclesiastical students strive to ac- 
quire some elementary knowledge of the 
conditions under which the great works 
of Christian art were achieved in the past; 
unless they school their taste by some 
knowledge of the actual matter-of-fact 
history of the subject. In the present 
tendency to specialize occupations, and 
in the hurry of modern life, from which 
even the Catholic Church cannot escape, 
I have no exalted anticipations as to the 
number of ecclesiastics who might under- 
take their own art education, even in the 
cause of their beloved Church, but I can 
see that a respect for the knowledge and 
power of others in such matters depends 
on a certain amount of knowledge in 
themselves. That much knowledge, it 
seems to me a part of their calling to 
obtain or strive for. 

The elementary condition of any atti- 
tude whatever to the subject of art is 
an ability to guage the subject matter and 
to value the work according to subject 
matter and its worthy conception. I have 
found among Catholics an excellent 
literary standard, far superior, it seems to 
me, to that held by the average Protest- 
ant of corresponding position or station 
in life. What is needed is enough ful- 
ness of mind, enough knowledge of the 
subject to apply this literary standard to 
an art work the ability to look at the 
subject and the conception of the subject 
are then essential. 

The application of this remark to our 
immediate topic is this : In the choice 
of an artist do not consider that your 
main mission is to test his knowledge of 
design. The knowledge of design is 
essential, but the ability of the artist to 
present the religious subject in a serious, 
earnest spirit, in which his own science is 
purely a means to the worthy representa- 



tion of the subject, is the main point. 
Character is the quality which we must 
seek in a work of art and in an artist. 
The whole matter then of Catholic 
church decoration seems to me to rest on 
this question : Is it possible for ecclesias- 
tics, by study of historic art, to acquire a 
standard which will make them apt in 
their choice of painters ? I will not at- 
tempt any answer to the question. 
Neither is this my affair. My business 
is rather to point out the causes which 
have produced the decline of religious 
art, to indicate the traits by which this 
decline is distinguished, and to explain 
the conditions under which religious art 
once flourished. If this is properly done 
the remedies will suggest themselves. 
The greatest remedy of all, a conception 
of the possibilities and mission of 
Christian art, might even dawn on some. 

It will probably appear from the matter 
of my papers, as so far presented, that 
the starting point and axiomatic mental 
condition of the art critic, as I under- 
stand him, is a profound sense of the 
superiority of the past and of the in- 
feriority of the present in the matter of 
Christian art. This inferiority is due in 
the first place to the invention of print- 
ing. The substitution of printed books 
for pictures and carvings deprived these 
of the one important field of subject- 
matter which had been their chosen one 
for ten centuries, viz. : the Bible story, 
Christian tradition, and Church history. 
When you deprive an art of its subject- 
matter, you have cut away its root ; it 
will perish by degrees for want of em- 
ployment. This is a simple statement of 
the causes which have led us step by step 
from the decorations of the Sistine Chapel 
to the pitiful barrenness in art of a 
modern Catholic church. 

Now there is going on in the civilized 
world to-day a movement in education 
which recognizes the failure of an educa- 
tional system which is confined to books. 
This movement is represented by the 
kindergarten, by the idea of manual train- 
ing in public schools, by the revival of 



Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



decorative art, and in the revival of in- 
terest in historic art. It is for the 
Catholic Church to say whether or not it 
will take part in this movement outside 
the necessary reaction which it must in 
any case experience from it. 

But we have to consider another cause 
of decline, that determined by the di- 
vision of labor, the specializing of occu- 
pations, and the use of machinery. What 
is done by the trained hand, is done 
well ; what is inspired by independent 
creative effort is well thought out. The 
modern stone-cutter is given a cathedral 
capital carving to copy, the ancient stone- 
cutter invented one for himself, and a dif- 
ferent one for each separate column or 
pillar of the church. This example ap- 
plies to all trades and consequently to all 
arts. In general, the use of machinery 
and the consequent division of labor 
have crippled the creative power and 
lowered the moral stamina of the work- 
ing classes. The artisan of our day is, 
man for man, the pitiable inferior of the 
artisan of the Middle Ages. 

We have for this difficulty at present 
only one practical remedy and only one 
practical recourse. We must get from 
the aristocracy of intellect and talent by 
paying double and treble prices, in fact, 
by paying ten-fold prices, a work 
of art which any ordinary painter of the 
sixteenth century could have surpassed. 
Raphael had fifty scholars, to any of 
whom we might have confided a work of 
church fresco decoration with greater se- 
curity than we should feel with the great- 
est modern artist. Our only consolation 
is that if we revive the demand, we shall 
also revive the supply. Patronage is the 
lever of art patronage, not of wealth or 
caprice, but permanent patronage, will 
raise any art to any desired level in the 
long run. 

I come back then to the question, how 
shall taste be cultivated in religious art ? 
The answer is not difficult. Owing to the 
causes named, viz. , the use of printed 
books, the division of labor and intro- 
duction of machinery, to which I am in- 



clined to add the general influence of the 
Protestant reformation (for its antagon- 
ism to Catholic art undoubtedly had re- 
active detrimental influence on Catholic 
countries), there has been a gradual and 
consecutive decline in religious art from 
about the year 1530 down to the present 
time. According to the law of decline the 
seventeenth century art is inferior to that 
of the sixteenth century, and the eigh- 
teenth century art is inferior to that of 
the seventeenth century. We have, then, 
a sequence in time by which a sequence in 
art is determined. The student of religious 
art traces a progressive rise from the time 
of the Catacombs up to 1530, and a con- 
secutive decline after that date. When the 
traits of the progression and of this se- 
quence of decline are once grasped and 
understood, the criticism of art, relig- 
ious or otherwise, stands on a firm basis. 
It is true that but few of us may have 
sufficient contact with the originals to 
train the eye to quick recognition of 
artistic quality. Still it is important to 
note that there is a science in this subject 
which appeals to definite standards and 
definite authorities. I shall, therefore, 
now undertake some account of the dis- 
tinctive traits of the centuries of progress 
and greatest success in Christian art, as 
compared with the centuries of its de- 
cline. 

We begin by noting that in historic 
Christian art, there were long centuries 
in which technical perfection in design 
was made impossible by historic condi- 
tions. In the matter of realistic illusion 
and of scientific drawing, the whole period 
from the fifth to the fourteenth century 
was one of frequent shortcomings and 
general incompetency according to our 
modern point of view and knowledge. 
This was owing to the coincidence of 
early Christian history with the relative 
barbarism of early Mediaeval Europe, to 
its coincidence with the decadence of 
Roman civilization, and to the battle 
between paganism and early Christianity 
which was waged for the destruction of 
pagan art as representing pagan belief. 



u6 Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



From this period of Christian art we may 
learn, however, most interesting lessons; 
for instance, in Cathedral sculpture, how 
the beauty of the whole building was still 
furthered by work which was undeniably 
deficient in scientific knowledge of form; 
in mosaics, how gorgeous color effects and 
imposing solemnity of conception were 
possible in works which were likewise de- 
ficient ; in all branches of art, how 
Mediaeval interest in the subject-matter 
carries our thoughts beyond the mere 
question of technical perfection. 

The study of early Christian art does 
not lead one to despise science in de- 
sign, but it leads one to understand how 
inadequate this science, by itself and 
alone considered, must be, since such 
great results were achieved without it. 

Both in decorative results and in 
thoughtful conception of subject-matter, 
in simple faith and in ingenuous inno- 
cence, the art of the Middle Ages is full of 
exquisite beauties and profound lessons. 
It had its undeniable limitations, but it 
had also its undeniable merits, both 
artistic and religious. 

I should say that the great lesson of 
Mediaeval art between the sixth and the 
fourteenth centuries is, that art to be 
great must be popular, that it must ap- 
peal to faith, to conviction, to the in- 
terests and needs of the whole people, 
not of the favored few of wealth and cul- 
ture. When we consider the solemn 
power of the Romanesque frescoes, now 
mainly destroyed, but still here and there 
to be judged by surviving relics when 
we consider the decorative beauty of the 
Gothic Portal Sculptures, the unrivalled 
solemnity and decorative color of the 
Byzantine Mosaics, the delicacy of the 
Mediaeval wood carvings made for de- 
votional purposes, the extraordinary vigor 
and inventive quality displayed in Medi- 
aeval metal works, and notice how the 
Christian subject and the Church tradition 
ruled throughout we shall find a wide 
field for the cultivation of taste in Chris- 
tian art beyond the senseless modern 
habit of laughing at every design whose 



quaintness separates it in exterior appear- 
ance from the style of the nineteenth 
century. An art must be judged by its 
subject-matter. Where that matter is 
worthy and serious, the art will be essen- 
tially good this I consider the great 
lesson of Mediaeval art. 

In the fourteenth century the Italian 
painting began under Cimabue and 
Giotto to struggle after greater accuracy 
in the design of the figure and after a 
more powerful expression in the matter 
of gesture and action. The illusive rep- 
resentation of details was, however, still 
fluite neglected. In the fifteenth century 
this also became a care to the painter. 
Perspective, light and shadow, precision 
in drawing, the scientific expression of 
form and action, the reproduction of the 
facial portrait all these things were grad- 
ually brought inside the aims of Christian 
art. 

In the early sixteenth century, the 
supreme moment arrived when modern 
science in design had been perfected and 
when intellect and thought still rose tri- 
umphant to their own higher aims, 
making this science their servant and 
hand-maid. The time of Raphael and 
Michael Angelo has this distinguishing 
quality, that its science in design was of 
supreme perfection, but that the thought 
of the artist,' the subject-matter of Chris- 
tian art and Catholic tradition, continued 
to be the essential thing. Design was 
still a means to an end. 

Although we are accustomed to quote 
the names of certain great geniuses like 
those above named as characteristic of 
this period, its greatness was not con- 
fined to them. The greatness was that 
of a period, not of certain men of special 
genius. This greatness lay in the fact 
that the subject-matter of the art con- 
tinued to be what it had always been 
since the history of Christendom began, 
that the technical capacity and facilities 
of the artists were superior to what they 
had ever been before, and that they had 
not yet become an end and object of 
themselves, as distinct from the subject- 




Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



natter. To reattain the perfection of 
his period oi Christian art would de- 
nand an amount of patronage equal to 
hat which it enjoyed, an equal amount of 
niblic interest, an equally quick and pro- 
bund public appreciation of the value of 
irt to the cause of religion and the cause 
)f culture, an equally high public con- 
:eption of the mission of Christian art. 
For the present, perhaps forever, we 
must put aside even the ambition of 
rivalling this past perfection, since it im- 
plies a social revolution beyond our 
power even to hope for. None the less 
it is clear that our efforts for improve- 
ment, our efforts to realize our own pos- 
sibilities, and to do our own duty in the 
matter of religious art, must look back to 
the sixteenth century as the source of in- 
spiration, and that we must be able to 
realize that little has been done since, 
even in individual cases, that has not 
been relative decadence. I am far from 
saying that we should make the sixteenth 
century our outward model. This would 
appear to me absurd, since no century 
can revive successfully the exterior forms 
or appearance of its predecessors. But 
we should make its art the object of study 
and reverence and appreciation. We 
should use its art as a standard of appeal 
in the cultivation of taste, and we should 
above all consider as the main thing the 
knowledge of the conditions which pro- 
duced it. Among these conditions uni- 
versal patronage of it and universal in- 
terest in it must be put first. Let 
the fact be grasped that the decline 
of religious art since the sixteenth 
century is at bottom a decline of patron- 
age ; by which I understand a decline 
in the whole amount of work done and a 
decline in the whole number of artists 
employed. 

The elementary difference between the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, is 
this that whereas the sixteenth century 
painted the Holy Family entire, the 
seventeenth century painted a head of 
the Madonna ; the sixteenth century 
painted the historic Crucifixion ; the 



seventeenth century painted the head of 
Christ crowned with thorns ; the six- 
teenth century painted the Last Supper, 
the Draught of Fishes, or the Charge to 
Peter, scenes in which the apostles ap- 
pear in their historic activity ; the seven- 
teenth century painted the half figure of 
one saint in a picture whose main claim 
to interest is the realistic success in 
painting the portrait of a picturesque 
model. The distinction between the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries is thus 
in the first place a distinction in physical 
extent, in amount, quantity and dimen- 
sions, a distinction concealed from view 
by the fact that the characteristic pictures 
of the former period are wall paintings 
which can only be seen in the buildings 
which they decorate, whereas the char- 
acteristic pictures of the latter period are 
the panel pictures which fill the galleries 
of Northern Europe. In this mere fact 
of portability, the element of smaller di- 
mension is contained. Otherwise, when 
the panel pictures themselves are con- 
sidered, the same philosophy of the sub- 
ject asserts itself, when we notice that the 
characteristic type of the seventeenth 
century panel is a head or a half figure, 
as compared with the full figure compo- 
sition of the sixteenth century. 

Side by side with the diminution in 
patronage thus attested, ran the efforts of 
the artist to save himself, to make him- 
self felt, to draw the eye, to please the 
sense. In a word, the whole character 
of the seventeenth century religious art 
betrays the relative insecurity and the 
anxiety of the artist. Hence it is more 
demonstrative, more sentimental, more 
disposed to exalt the importance of de- 
tails and consequently more common- 
place. What use may be made of these 
historic distinctions by the patrons of 
modern religious art, I shall now endeavor 
to point out. 

We have seen how the diffusion of 
printing deprived the art of painting 
of its importance and leading position. 
The social and political revolutions of 
the Reformation period had also much to 



n8 



Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



do with the decline of Christian art. 
In Protestant countries it was formally 
antagonistic. In Catholic countries, the 
battle with the Reformation absorbed 
the energies which had once found their 
outcome and expression in it. The 
Catholic Church was now poorer, it was 
often hard pressed to hold its own in the 
field of politics or religion, as the case 
might be. All this tended to depress the 
enthusiasm of the artist, to lessen the 
exaltation of his spirit, and to weaken the 
moral and material support which the 
community gave him. 

We turn now, under these conditions, 
once more to the seventeenth century, 
the time of Van Dyck, Rubens, Murillo 
and Domenichino, of Carlo Dolci and 
Le Sueur. 

I have no wish to under- estimate the 
beauty of its paintings or the warmth of 
its Catholic faith, but there was a la- 
mentable decline at this time in power of 
thought, in simplicity of expression and 
in average dimension, for wall decoration 
was almost abandoned. There was a 
tendency to exalt the means above the 
end, to make the picture pleasing to the 
eye, at the expense of its serious interest. 
The machinery and science of art began 
to be exalted at the expense of subject- 
matter. This is the time of Madonnas 
which are simply aristocratic ladies, of 
holy families which are scenes taken 
from the nursery, of Divine shepherds 
which are simply beautiful children, of 
crucifixions whose human agony was more 
interesting to the artist than the triumph 
of our Lord over death, of martyrdoms 
whose gory cruelties were stressed at the 
expense of good taste, of saints whose 
emaciation is more evident than their 
learning, or their piety, or their services 
to man, of evangelists whose sentimental 
attitudes and expressions ought to be re- 
volting to every well-bred gentleman. 
The seventeenth century was at times a 
very carnival of bad taste in religious art; 
it was at its best generally not much more 
than a period of art when beautiful pic- 
tures were more in demand than serious 



thought. Its productions have flooded 
the galleries of northern Europe. The 
print-shop windows are full of its Mag- 
dalens and Ecce Homos. There is not 
much hope for modern Catholic art until 
the true quality of seventeenth century 
Catholic painting as universally known 
to art historians, is equally well known to 
the average taste of the cultivated Cath- 
olic world. What is needed is that we 
should learn to reverence Raphael and 
Michael Angelo not only as great painters 
but also as sincere Christians, and good 
Catholics. 

I do not allow myself to be guilty of 
the absurdity of elevating the Catholicism 
of the sixteenth century above that of the 
seventeenth century, but I do most dis- 
tinctly say that the quality which makes 
Shakespeare greater than Dryden, and 
which makes Corneille greater than 
Racine, also makes Michael Angelo 
greater than Guido Reni. I say that the 
distinction, as far as paintings go, is not 
one simply between men, but that it is 
also one between periods. I say that 
there is no criticism of Christian art which 
does not draw the line distinctly against 
what was done after 1600 as compared 
with what was done before, and I say 
that it is highly important for intelligent 
and educated Catholics to master the 
rudiments of art criticism as recognized by 
all historic critics in the matter of the dis- 
tinction of styles according to centuries. 

It is rather important after the sweeping 
assertions preceding, to qualify our gen- 
eral remarks on seventeenth century re- 
ligious painting by noting the more seri- 
ous artists as against the less serious. 
The heaviest weight of stricture falls on 
the Italians ot this century. The Flem- 
ings and Spaniards are undoubtedly su- 
perior in point of religious warmth and of 
serious intellectual purpose for the given 
time. Among the Flemings, we must in 
this point of view again differentiate be- 
tween Van Dyck and Rubens in favor of 
the latter, who was the greatest religious 
artist of the century. In Italy we must 
place Domenichino far above Guido Reni 






Modern Christian Art in Catholic Churches. 



119 






or Guercino in the matter of sincerity and 
thought. The summary of all this matter 
is that in the decline of religious art the 
facility and science of the artist came to be 
of more importance than the serious treat- 
ment of his subject. 

I have taken the point of view in pre- 
ceding matter that some historic knowl- 
edge of Christian art would be an excel- 
lent guide to a proper standard in modern 
Catholic art, as tending to correct the 
mistake commonly made by the non-ex- 
pert, that a painting is judged for its tech- 
nique before it is judged for its thought. 
I do not wish to urge this matter of 
historic art education further than com- 
mon sense or average possibility would 
carry us, but it seems to me high time 
that intelligent Catholics should put them- 
selves on the average level, and even on 
the progressive level, of the taste of the 
day. Admitting that taste in art can- 
not be ladled up in buckets or dealt 
out in reading courses, it is still possible 
for non-experts to recognize the success 
and employ the talents of the admitted 
leaders in American art. 

When we strike the heart of the matter 
the truth will be this, as to the present 
relation of the Catholic Church to art : 
In all matters of general culture, all 
religious faiths are interested, and all are 
dependent on a general movement in 
culture which is confined to none. As a 
question of general culture, there has 
been in modern architecture a deplorable 
indifference to interiors as to their proper 
color decoration by monumental pictures, 
a deplorable excess of attention to exte- 
riors and an excess of expenditure on exte- 
riors, with inadequate results. In this 
mistake the Catholic Church of the 
nineteenth century has suffered, as is 
natural. In the progress of events and 
of modern education there is a tendency 
to correct this error and to retrieve this 
lapse, which becomes more and more 
apparent the more the works of his- 
toric Italian art are studied and en- 
joyed, the more the possibilities of in- 
terior decoration are realized, as these 



works of the past become known to a 
wider circle of.travellers" and students. 

The progressive movement is distinctly 
felt in this country, and of its effects I 
might cite many instances. Now I say 
that the Catholic Church ought to be 
abreast of this movement and it ought to 
lead it. A taste for color and a taste for 
music are natural to the Catholic tem- 
perament, which is at large warmer, more 
sympathetic, and more artistic than the 
Protestant temperament. The subjects 
of religious art are nearer to the tastes 
and comprehensions of Catholics; the 
average dimensions and splendor of their 
churches are already superior to others, 
their church financial policy is sounder and 
their church financial standing is firmer. 

What is needed first, then, is a redis- 
tribution of estimates in the matter of 
new churches; second, a collaboration of 
architect and artist in which the wall 
spaces needed by the latter are properly 
distributed and seen to by the former; 
third, an appreciation by the priesthood 
of the spiritual and educational value of 
pictures in churches ; fourth, the em- 
ployment of artists of recognized distinc- 
tion or possibilities in the given specialty 
and of known decoKative power. 

On this last head let me say a final 
word. The wall painting demands 
qualities and talents which may or may 
not be possessed by a successful oil 
painter. More than that, the almost ex- 
clusive use of oil paintings in the last 
two centuries has cultivated methods of 
painting which are prejudicial to the 
qualities of fresco. Hence our difficul- 
ties in reviving that art. The first ele- 
mentary difference between these arts is 
that of permanent location on the one 
side and of portability on the other. 
Permanent location means monumental 
quality, and this again means dignity and 
power as inexorable conditions of success. 
In the oil painting we may ask for many 
other qualities and may concede the 
absence of these. In the wall painting 
dignity and power are absolutely essen- 
tial. In the latter again we demand life- 



20 



After the Battle. 



size figure, composition and subordina- 
tion of landscape and detail. Wall- 
painting, therefore, demands a draughts- 
man having at his fingers' ends the science 
of figure. Simplicity of arrangement 
and effect is presupposed by the fore- 
going conditions. The oil painting may 
win favor by complication and by elabora- 
tion, not so the wall painting. With 
every increase of dimension in painting 
we demand a simpler scale of color, a 
more commanding balance of outlines 
and forms at the expense of multiplied 
tints and shadows. As regards the color 
scheme, the very best decorative talent of 
our day is needed if even a remote ap- 
proximation to the glories of old Italian 



art in color harmony is to be obtained. 
It is, therefore, essential that artists be 
employed who have already made a 
specialty of the problem of decoration. 
That many superior oil painters have paid 
no attention to these problems is well 
known. Finally, artists of serious char- 
acter and intellectual power, as distinct 
from those merely efficient in technical 
detail, are demanded by the wall paint- 
ing. It is one glory of the Catholic 
Church to have developed in past cen- 
turies the greatest school of art which 
has been known since the ancient Greeks. 
Doubtless she will do her fair share in 
that revival of art which is one glory of 
the later nineteenth century. 



AFTER THE BATTLE. 



By D. S. Beni. 



" Fleet footed is the approach of woe, 
But with a lingering step and slow 
Its form departs." 

A LETTER to-day from a sorrow- 
stricken, widowed mother, tell- 
ing of the death of her two sons, 
her only children, at the battle of San 
Juan, revives within my heart, most viv- 
idly, some incidents of the Civil War, 
one of which, a scene so sad in its sur- 
roundings and its sequences, will hardly 
be credited by those who did not witness 
it. But before unveiling the sad picture, 
let us throw a gleam of sunshine on this 
page, by showing the happy home-life of 
a most estimable family, before the ' ' dis- 
astrous accidents ' ' of war had veiled all 
in gloom. 

Our home was in a small city or town, 
picturesquely nestled in the shadows of 
the Blue Ridge, and in a population of six 
or eight thousand, I think no man was 
more universally respected and beloved 
than John Randolph Creighton. He 
was a lawyer, as distinguished for his lit- 
erary tastes and attainments, as for his 
success in his profession. His family 



were among our nearest and certainly our 
dearest neighbors, and interwoven with 
the most pleasant recollections of my 
childhood, are the hours I spent under 
their hospitable roof. Mr. Creighton 
had some peculiarities; he visited little, 
finding his pleasure in his own home; he 
had few intimate friends, he was exceed- 
ingly particular about the associates of 
his children, he devoted himself to his 
family, who fully repaid all his tender- 
ness. Mr. C. and all his children were 
musical, and every evening they had a 
little musical entertainment, followed by 
reading selected by Mr. C. About once 
a week, they invited a little coterie of 
congenial friends to spend the evening 
with them in this charming and improv- 
ing way. Mrs. C. was a niece or grand- 
niece of Thomas Jefferson, and she look- 
ed like a lady of the olden times, for the 
beauty of her sweet, gentle face was en- 
hanced by the quaint lace caps which she 
always wore. She was thoroughly con- 
genial to Mr. C. in his tastes and incli- 
nations ; both were devoted to chil- 
dren, and certainly both practised in a 



After the Battle. 



121 



marked degree that "affability to the 
poor" recommended by Holy Writ. 
They dispensed an open-handed charity, 
and in after years, when I read in the 
"Life of Charles Dickens" that he 
often walked five miles a day to visit 
some poor child, the pen-picture of his 
charity immediately recalled Mr. C. to my 
mind. I think he never passed a child 
without speaking to it; if it was bright 
and intelligent, he invited it to come 
and see him, and in this way many young 
men of humble .position were allowed 
the use of his fine library, and Mr. C. 
himself directed their reading, for he was 
always willing to "help those who helped 
themselves." As to his home, his door 
was always open, and no one of refine- 
ment ever visited L without being 

entertained by the Creightons, not at a 
grand table catered by Delmonico, but 
with real, genuine hospitality at a well- 
filled board, where was found 
"The feast of reason and the flow of 

soul." 

The old-fashioned house must have 
been a remnant of Colonial days ; cer- 
tainly there were no ground rents when 
it was constructed, for the one object 
seemed to be to spread out as much as 
possible. The furniture and all the sur- 
roundings were antique ; old china, old 
silver, everything in it would have been 
treasures beyond price in the Centennial 
craze. There were old-fashioned por- 
traits, fine oil paintings and beautiful en- 
gravings. The history of each one I 
think I knew perfectly when I was ten 
years old, for it was Mr. C.'s delight to 
relate or read to us everything connected 
with them. Among their treasures was 
a handsome chair which had been used 
by the ill-fated Marie Antoinette, 
which was either given to Mrs. C. 
or bequeathed to her by Thomas Jeffer- 
son, who was in Paris at the time of the 
execution of that unhappy Queen, and 
secured the chair as a souvenir. Some- 
times Mrs. C. would show us the queer 
little ball dresses and high-heeled slippers 
which she had worn as a young girl in 



Washington, such as we afterwards saw 
reproduced at the Martha Washington 
tea parties. She told us many stories of 
the olden time, but none touched my 
heart, or had such a fascination for me, 
as that connected with the chair of Marie 
Antoinette. How many tears I shed over 
her death and the sufferings of the poor 
little Dauphin, as dear Mrs. C. related it 
to us so pathetically as a true story. The 
Creightons were Episcopalians, and I 
believe conscientiously exact to their con- 
victions ; in all the years we lived to- 
gether almost as one family, I never 
heard one unpleasant word about religion, 
and from what I know of their character, 
I am sure they respected us all the more 
for being staunch Catholics. My mother 
had so impressed it upon our youthful 
minds that, living among Protestants, we 
had a double duty to perform ; we must 
"be ready to give a reason for the faith 
that was in us, ' ' give good example, and 
let every one see that we were proud to 
be of the true faith. I was so imbued 
with this pardonable pride, that although 
I then knew not the words : " Oh, if 
thou didst but know the gift of God, ' ' it 
was certainly the sentiment uppermost in 
my heart, and the extensive sign of the 
Cross I always made when I was at the 
table with Protestants, I am sure must 
have surprised them. 

One day at Mr. Creighton's, I forgot 
it was Friday, and was just going to help 
myself to a piece of meat, when Bessie 
whispered to me gently: "Agnes, 
don't forget this is Friday," and 
with a delicacy which would have 
done credit to maturer years, she 
quietly had my plate removed. Oh! how 
I thanked her, for had I eaten meat on 
Friday, I should have deemed life too 
short to atone for the scandal given to 
my Protestant brethren ! Mr. C. had 
lost his oldest children, five boys, who 
died in childhood, who were known to 
me only by family tradition and the names 
on their tombstones. He had two mar- 
ried daughters, besides two daughters 
and two sons at home. It was his rule 



122 



After the Battle. 



to take a long walk with his children 
every day for exercise, for there was 
nothing effeminate in his training of 
young people. In these long walks we 
always accompanied them, but later 
when the two Creightons went to the 
University and our boys to college, the 
little party was reduced to Mr. C. , Bessie 
and myself, and as we walked along he 
told us beautiful stories or repeated rural 
poems for us. There was a favorite walk 
of several miles to a place called the 
" Rattling Bridge," where the scenery 
was most beautiful. High hills, covered 
with wild azaleas, surrounded it in every 
direction, and the bridge spanned a deep 
ravine, the sides of which were covered 
with luxuriant ferns which cast their long 
shadows in the silvery stream below. In 
the Spring it was like fairy land. Along 
the road, broad fields, green with tender 
young wheat, spread out before us ; the 
orchards laden with pink and white 
feathery fruit tree blossoms, the little 
violets peeping out from their mossy beds 
showed us that all nature had put on its 
sunniest smile to greet Christ in His 
glorious Resurrection. Turning our 
faces back towards the town, the moun- 
tains towered far above it, covered with 
verdure of many shades, relieved by white 
dogwood and graceful festoons of that 
beautiful mountain moss which I have 
never seen elsewhere, but which there 
falls in great sheets of pure white and 
brilliant rose color from the overhanging 
rocks, ' ' upon which nature' s ready pen- 
cil paints the flowers. ' ' 

The wagon road which leads up to the 
summit of the Blue Ridge is thickly cov- 
ered with a silvery white sand inter- 
mingled with quartz which shines and 
glistens in the sun like a terrestrial 
' ' Milky Way ' ' upon a dark-blue back- 
ground. The hills in every direction 
are covered with " Johnny-jump-ups," 
and later in the Summer we used to 
gather wild field poppies and the pretty 
corn-flowers, which 

"With their blue eyes in tears o'erflow- 
ing 



Stand like Ruth amid the golden 
corn. ' ' 

Afar off towards the north a spur of the 
Alleghanies loomed up grand and gloomy, 
with its sighing pines and its hemlocks, 
"a remnant of the forest primeval." 
In Winter, when the fleecy snow covered 
our beautiful valley with its silvery veil, 
we took our sleds, for Mr. C. always 
knew the best sliding places, and he 
even ' ' pulled us up " the hills. But 
these were days of peace. 

At the beginning of the Civil War, Mr. 
C.'s sons had graduated with the high- 
est honors at the University, John Ran- 
dolph Creighton, Jr., was practising law 
with his father, and Henry was studying 
for the Anglican ministry. Miss Jennie, 
the oldest daughter, was about twenty- 
five, a charming, intellectual woman, 
Bessie, the youngest of the family, was 
seventeen, and I, her little friend, just 
fifteen, when we saw the troops march 
out with glittering arms and martial 
music, little dreaming of the horrors of 
fratricidal war. 

'.* The noble steeds and banners bright, 
And gallant youth and stalwart knight 

In rich array ; 

Where shall we seek them now ? Alas I 
Like the bright dew-drop on the grass, 

They passed away. ' ' 

One month later, it was Sunday, July 
21, the town looked deserted, and the 
clouds hung low all day not the clouds 
which portend a thunder shower " but 
over it was spread a heavy night, an 
image of that darkness which was to 
come upon it. ' ' There was a sound of 
distant rumbling, and in whispers it was 
passed from mouth to mouth : "A bat- 
tle is going on," and the day was spent 
in suspense and fear, which cannot be 
described. At three o'clock that day, a 
young lady died in the town, and just 
before her death, when she was supposed 
to be unconscious or delirious, she ter- 
rified every one around her by her 
screams : "A battle ! see how they 
fall ! Now they lie flat with their faces 



After the Battle. 



123 



to the ground ! The shells tear them to 
pieces, and among the bushes, side by 
side, die Randolph and Henry Creighton 
locked in each other's arms ! There on 
that side falls Cousin Creighton Carter !" 
Then she expired. I think we must 
have been sixty or eighty miles from the 
battle field, and at another time, perhaps 
the low rumbling of the artillery would 
not have been noticed. A sleepless night 
followed the next day passed and still 
no news. The clouds still hung over us 
like a funeral pall, and there was around 
us the stillness of death when suddenly, 
at 8. 30 P. M., a horseman dashed down 
the street, and halting in the Court House 
square, looked in every direction, as if to 
locate something. His right arm was in 
a sling and the bandages on his hands 
were covered with blood. My father 
immediately stepped out to the curb- 
stone, and the trooper advanced towards 
him, and looking at a paper he held in 
his hand, he said, "Can you tell me 

where I can find George B. ? I 

bring news of the battle. ' ' 

' ' I am he, what news do you bring ? ' ' 
"Victory is ours," said the young 
soldier triumphantly, " but Col. S. of 
the Third Regiment sends the list of 
dead from Co. B." Here he read 
aloud : First Lieut. John Creighton 
Carter; Second Lieut. John Randolph 
Creighton; Private Henry Carter Creigh- 
ton, the fourth name which had been 
written with a pencil on the battle field 
was - illegible. "Can you not tell 
me the name of the fourth ? " my father 
asked anxiously. 

" I am sorry I cannot, but it was im- 
possible to learn, as I was detailed to 
bring the bodies, as soon as my wound 
was dressed, and the battle was scarcely 
over. Oh ! it was a noble charge, the 
enemy in full retreat, the war is virtually 
at an end. I came in advance of the 
wagon, which moves slowly, as we have 
travelled all night and all day. The burial 
must take place at once." My father 
tried in vain to hear something of my 
brother, who was also in Co. B, only 



eighteen years of age, and as the mes- 
sage was sent directly to ray father, it led 
him to believe that the fourth name was 
that of my brother, though he told his 
fears to no one. It was a terrible mo- 
ment. My father turned to me and 
said: "Try to dress his wound, give 
him a substantial supper, tell John to 
assist him to bed, and see that his horse 
is put up I must go." The wound 
which the young warrior called slight, 
was the loss of the first three fingers on 
his right hand ! My father went to carry 
the crushing news to Mr. Creighton. As 
he reached the house, he saw through 
the open windows, Bessie at the piano 
and Mr. C. accompanying her with the 
flute; Mrs. C. and Miss Jennie sat at a 
little distance from them, playing chess. 
My father paused, and these words of 
Keble's hymn fell on his ear: 

" And'well it is for us, our God should 

feel 
Alone our secret throbbings: so our 

prayer 
May readier spring to heaven, nor 

spend its zeal 
On cloud-born idols of this lower air. 

' ' For if one heart in perfect sympathy 
Beat with another, answering love for 

love, 
Weak mortals all entranced, on earth 

would lie, 
Nor listen for those purer strains 

above. ' ' 

My father walked away, he was un- 
equal to the duty laid upon him. Then 
he sought a friend, Mr. R. and begged 
him to take his place. Finally both went 
together, and calling Mr. C. they told 
the crushing news. Mr. C. received it 
quietly, said not one word, but returned 
into the house. Lieutenant Carter was 
Mr. C.'s nephew, a promising young 
lawyer only twenty-seven, who left a wife 
and four children. When the news was 
carried to Mrs. Carter, she fell to the 
floor and remained unconscious for 
several hours. Mr. R. and my father 
then repaired to the cemetery to have 



I2 4 



After the Battle. 



the graves prepared. The night was 
spent walking back and forth from the 
suburbs, watching for the wagon which 
bore such a precious weight. About two 
A. M. , while the moon was shining almost 
as bright as day, the wagon rolled slowly 
down the street. About six gentlemen 
followed it with Mr. C. Anxious in- 
quiries were made about the fourth 
coffin, which strange to say was the only 
one unmarked, but the driver knew 
nothing, he was a civilian pressed into 
service. As the procession passed on 
slowly, from the house directly opposite 
to Mr. Creighton's, a young man stepped 
forth, and joined in silently. He was a 
Catholic priest. At the grave there were 
no funeral services, "not a prayer was 
heard, not a funeral note," as the bodies 
were lowered into the earth, but we 
know that some prayers were said from 
the heart, though not audibly. 'Where 
was the fourth one to be buried ? In con- 
secrated ground? or where? No one knew. 
Mr. R. said: "We will be obliged to 
open the box. ' ' My father walked away. 

"Breathless he waits and listens 

A desolate hearth may see; 
And God alone to-night knows where 

The vacant place may be !" 
And when Mr. R. called out softly: "It 
is John Foster," all wept, not because 
John Foster was a relative or even a 
friend, but death is "that touch of na- 
ture which makes us all kin. ' ' 
"There all are equal, side by side 
The poor man and the son of pride 
Lie calm and still." 

And all hearts wept in deepest sympathy 
and sorrow. John Foster was a brave 
young fellow, some one must tell his 
poor father then Mr. Creighton, forget- 
ting his own grief, said: "I will go with 
you when the day dawns. Poor Foster ! 
when he sees a companion in shipwreck 
and in sympathy, it may help him to 
bear his cross. ' ' 

As Mr. Creighton turned away from 
the grave, his eyes fell upon the 
young priest; he looked at him a 



moment and then extended his hand 
to him across the grave; it was a recon- 
ciliation. Father X. was a most gifted 
man, a convert, and seven years before 
when he announced his intention of 
going to Rome to study for the priest- 
hood, Mr. C. had opposed it earnestly. 
For a year Father X. had been the pas- 
tor in L , and although his house 

was directly opposite to that of Mr. C. , 
the latter had never called on him or shown 
him any courtesy. Father X. had retali- 
ated as the saints retaliate; he had spent 
that night in prayer for Mr. C. and his 
sons, and we will see later how that 
prayer was answered by the conversion 
of Mr. and Mrs. Creighton. The next 
day the whole town was in mourning. 
Everybody knew and loved the Creigh- 
tons; they had had a kind word for every- 
one, rich and poor. During the follow- 
ing week the funeral services were held 
in the Episcopal Church, a meaningless 
ceremony certainly, for they knew not 
of prayers for the dead. Everybody 
wondered at the composure and self-con- 
trol of the Creightons; theirs was that 
awful, crushing, stunning sorrow which 
paralyzes the heart and finds no relief in 
tears. Miss Jennie had scarcely spoken 
since that awful night of July 22, and 
after the service in the church she ceased 
to speak, and for seven years she never 
uttered one syllable, neither did she eat 
unless the food was put in her mouth. 
She acted like one in a trance, never 
changing her position unless she was told 
to move, and then she did so mechani- 
cally. Bessie was the sunlight and the 
comfort of her home. She had no 
thought of self, but tried in every way to 
lighten the .TOSS of her devoted parents. 
One day she asked me to go with her to 
the cemetery, where a massive slab had 
been placed over the double grave. Mr. 
C. himself wrote the epitaph. 
" Under this stone lie buried 

John Randolph Creighton, 

aged 23, and 

Henry Carter Creighton, 

aged 21, 



After the Battle. 



I2 5 



Brothers, as they fell side by side in battle 
July 2ist, 1861. 

"Brothers in blood and faith, 
Brothers in youthful bloom; 
Brothers in life, brothers in death, 
Brothers in one same tomb. 

" Well fought they the good fight, 
In death the victory won; 
Sprung at one bound to Heaven's light 
And God's Eternal Son !" 

Bessie sat down beside the grave, and 
wept as if her heart would burst under its 
weight of woe. Could this be the pretty, 
joyous, light-hearted Bessie Creighton ? 
Oh ! true it is, that "the lightest heart 
makes sometimes heaviest mourning," 
and as I tried to console her, she said : 
" Oh ! let me cry, I am so glad to be 
where no one can see me. I hide my 
tears and my grief at home, because I 
must try to bring a little sunshine to my 
father and mother. Do you remember, 
Agnes, when we were studying Ancient 
History, like foolish children we said, we 
wished we could see a war ? Now we 
have seen it, and this is what it has 
brought to me." Hoping to divert her, 
I pointed to the beautiful acacia trees 
around the cemetery which were covered 
with a heavy dew, or drops from a gentle 
shower, that sparkled in the sunshine 
like innumerable diamonds. Bessie said : 
"They are tears all nature weeps, and 
every flower I see has a tear hidden 
within its heart. ' ' Mr. Creighton tried 
to alleviate his own grief by going from 
house to house to comfort the sorrowful, 
for almost every day brought news of 
more wounded, dead or dying, and his 
heart knew how to sympathize and " to 
weep with those who weep. ' ' Later, 
when the great battles near us made our 
town one vast hospital, Mr. C. visited 
the wounded every day, waiting on them, 
writing letters for them and cheering 
them in their suffering; whenever he 
found a Catholic ill, he notified the 
priest, and I never attended a soldier's 
funeral that Mr. C. was not near the bier. 
He was especially kind to the widows of 



those who fell in battle, and from his 
farm near the town, he had provisions 
sent to them. But this did not last long, 
for even "the seed time and harvest 
failed," for there were neither men to 
work nor horses to plow, and at the close 
of the war, I think we might have gone 
from one end of the county to the other, 
without seeing one field fenced in, the 
boards had been used for firewood, 
and stone fences levelled to give way 
for the passage of the troops, first of one 
army, then of another. There was 
scarcely a family in the town which was 
not in mourning, and now, as I look 
back, I wonder how the human heart 
survived each sorrow and the continual 
anguish of suspense, almost as crushing 
as the sad reality. We learned from the 
wounded, who were brought home from 
camp, that on the twenty-first of July 
the Third Regiment, with others of the 
same brigade, had orders to fall flat 
among the bushes, where they lay for 
two or three hours under heavy fire, 
without firing a shot, until they were 
ordered to charge, just before three 
o'clock, and in the charge the two 
Creightons fell and died in each other's 
arms. Lieutenant Carter fell by their 
side, and thus the words of the dying 
woman were verified. The Holy Scrip- 
ture says, "It is better to go into a 
house of mourning than to a house of 
joy," and Mr. Creighton' s was certainly 
the house of mourning. There was no 
longer the sound of music within its 
walls. The piano was covered with its 
pall, the shrouded violins in their nar- 
row cofrins were hidden from the sight 
of men and the flutes hushed in silence; 
for the Divine Musician played upon the 
human heartstrings, attuning them to 
the song of sorrow, until every note 
should be in perfect harmony with His 
own. 

During the Summer of 1862, Mr. C. 
received word that his daughter^ Mrs. 
R. , was dead. Her husband was in the 
army, and her seven children, the eldest 
ten years of age, were on their Southern 



120 



After the Battle. 



plantation with about two hundred col- 
ored slaves. We were then within the 
Federal lines, there was no way to reach 
them or write to them, and his other 
married daughter and her only child had 
died within the same week. Mr. and Mrs. 
C. tried to be cheerful and look forward 
to the time when the little ones could 
come to them to bring sunlight into their 
desolate home, but that time never came, 
for their father would not part with them. 
In spite of their sweet, quiet resignation, 
I think I never looked at Mr. or Mrs. 
C. without thinking of the words of Job, 
''Have pity upon me, have pity upon 
me, at least you, my friends, for the 
hand of the Lord hath touched me;" 
for, like him, they saw before them only 
ruined hopes, a desolate fireside and a 
name extinct, and they said always, 
' ' May His holy will be done. ' ' 

This was the agony, but the summit 
of Calvary was not reached. There were 
still ties to be severed, and on July 21, 
1863, after a short illness, the noble- 
hearted Bessie Creighton, bowed down by 
suppressed grief, passed beyond the veil. 
I went at once to the sorrow-stricken 
home. I asked Mr. C. to let me take his 
place by her side. He answered: "Let 
me have her to myself; I will not leave 
her till she is taken from me. ' ' I tried 
to say a word of sympathy and consola- 
tion, but I could scarcely speak. 

' ' O, what were life if life were all ? Thine 

eyes 
Are blinded by their tears, or thou 

wouldst see 

Thy treasures wait thee in the far-off skies, 
And Death, thy friend, will give them 
all to thee." 

After the record of Bessie's death in 
the family Bible, Mr. C. had written 
these words, which were seen only after 
his death : 

My God, these gifts were Thine ere they 

were ours: 
Oh give us strength to give them back to 

Thee. 
With patient resignation. 



One day towards the close of 1864, 
Mr. C. called at our house, and my 
father said to him cheerfully: "There 
is a prospect of peace, and that is good 
news." Mr. C. said: "You may read 
it to me," and as my father read aloud, 
Mr. C. leaned his white head upon his 
cane. "They cry peace, peace, when 
there is no peace, the time is past, ' ' said 
Mr. C. My father continued the article 
in which the word reconstruction was 
used many times. Then almost in a tone 
of despair Mr. C. said: " Reconstruction ! 
impossible ! Can they reconstruct our 
desolated fire-sides, can they breathe the 
breath of life into my dead children and 
give me back my home? Reconstruc- 
tion is beyond the power of man. ' ' 

In 1866 Mrs. Creighton was para- 
lyzed, and although helpless her mental 
faculties were unimpaired. This was the 
moment of God ; she and Mr. C. re- 
ceived the light of Faith, and together 
they were admitted into the true Fold, 
by Father X., and her death in 1868, was 
to her but the beginning of life. Mr. C. 
had never spoken of his children after 
their death, but of Mrs. C. he spoke in- 
cessantly, saying over and over again: 
"All good came to me through her, she 
taught me to trust in God, and though 
He slay me, I will trust Him still." Miss 
Jennie's condition remained unchanged, 
and at last Mr. C. yielded to the solici- 
tation of his friends and consented to 
send her to a hospital for treatment. 
Only those who knew Mr. C. can judge 
what this separation cost him. In her 
affliction he had devoted himself to her, 
and it was like giving publicity to his 
family troubles, which were to him so 
sacred. After a year, she returned home 
much improved, but still her condition 
was most pitiable, she spoke as one awak- 
ing from sleep. She was so gentle, and 
so grateful for every attention. She had 
been exceedingly fond of chess, and as 
she had frequently played with my 
younger sister, the physician suggested 
this as a diversion for her. At first she 
placed her men at random, but after they 



After the Battle. 



127 



were placed for her she began to play, 
and when she observed that my sister did 
not checkmate her, when she could have 
done so, she said gratefully, " How kind 
you are, you do not want to give me 
pain. ' ' But the battle of life for her was 
over, and in 1870 she joined her loved 
ones who had passed beyond the tomb, 
and Mr. Creighton said: " My God, I 
thank Thee, all have passed over the 
river before me." 

Mr. C. remained in the old home- 
stead, with no other companions than 
two faithful Irish Catholic girls', who had 
been in his household for years, and 
whose silent fidelity had made an im- 
pression upon him for good, and a 
colored man-servant who waited on him. 
Instead of the long walks to the country, 
he now lived the life of a recluse, taking 
exercise only in his large garden. We 
went sometimes to see him, and although 
he received us most kindly, we were not 
sure but that we were intruding upon 
his grief. Indeed I never could pass 
the house without emotion, when I 
thought of the many hours I had spent 
there, for Dante says: " Nessunmaggior 
dolore che ricordarsi della gioia nella 
miseria, there is no greater grief than 
to remember days of joy, when sorrow is 
at hand. ' ' 

One day in 1876, I was surprised to 
see Mr. C. sitting on his front porch, and 
as I drew near, he said : " Come here, 
my child, sit down beside me and tell 
me where you have been that I have not 
seen you for so long I love you be- 
cause you are the child of a good and 
virtuous man I knew your father and 
your grandfather, yes, and even your 
great-grandfather, and where have you 
been all this time ? " I answered that I 
had only been away three weeks attend- 
ing the Centennial Exposition in Phila- 
delphia. ' ' And what is this Exposi- 
tion? " It was then September, and he 
had lived so far out of the world that he 
had not even heard the echo of the In- 
dependence bell which resounded over 
the whole Continent, but he seemed inter- 



ested when I told him what I had seen, 
especially when I spoke of. the paintings, 
and he talked like himself, ' ' though as 
one whose voice seemed faint, through long 
disuse of speech." The next time I 
went to that dear old house it was to pay 
a last tarewell to that kind friend, who lay 
still in death, but a happy death pur- 
chased by a long crucifixion, which 
opened to him the gates of life eternal. 
But it was a sad funeral. Everything in 
the house remained just as I had first 
seen it in my childhood, not even a piece 
of furniture had disappeared or changed 
its place, and in the midst of those 
things he had loved, lay the master, the 
noble-hearted Christian gentleman whose 
life had been spent in kindness towards 
others. He was a gifted man, 

" But he has a higher and nobler fame 
By poor men's hearths, who love and 

bless the name 

Of a kind friend ; and in low tones to- 
day 

Speak tenderly of him who passed 
away. ' ' 

The chief mourners who walked next 
to the coffin, were his two faithful Irish 
girls who were faithful to the end they 
had assisted him when the summons 
came suddenly, repeating with him acts 
of love, contrition, hope and confidence, 
catching his last whisper : " Though He 
slay me, yet will I trust Him still, Jesus, 
Jesus come ! I believe I hope, I re- 
pent. " 

A short time after his death, some am- 
biguity in the wording of his will, resulted 
in an auction sale of all his property. 
The things which had been so sacred 
in his eyes, seemed now to be public 
property, even the record in the family 
Bible and his own private diary were 
opened, read and commented upon. 
''Nothing is our own; we hold our 
pleasures 

Just a little while, ere they are fled : 

One by one life robs us of our treas- 
ures j 

Nothing is our own except our dead. ' ' 



ONE OF THE UNNUMBERED. 

By John J. a Becket. 



r 



was six in the morning of a cheerless 
December day. The lowering sky 
hung in dismal greyness above the 
bare brown fields. The country road, stiff 
with the frosts of the night, stretched a 
forlorn streak of solitude. The dawn 
seemed breaking dispiritedly on the chilly 
world. A few fitful snowflakes, dry mi- 
nute particles, floated about in the air, 
not even hardy forerunners of a cheering 
storm. It was an hour and a morning 
which they best enjoyed who were snugly 
bestowed in warm beds, asleep. 

The numbing dullness of the scene 
was punctuated by one living thing. An 
old woman past seventy-five Winters (she 
did not suggest past Summers) was toiling 
along the road with resolute slowness. 
Her burden of years lent a feeble roll to 
her gait humorously suggestive of a 
mariner's. 

A black shawl was held tightly around 
her narrow shoulders. A warm but un- 
sightly ' ' quilted ' ' hood sheathed her 
head like a baby's cap. From it her 
wrinkled faced peered out, as a walnut 
might from its shell. 

One intuitive of the soul in human 
features would have found an odd beauty 
in that old face, of a serener grace than 
the senile tenderness breathed for cen- 
turies from the stone Silenus with protec- 
tive yearning for the Babe in its arms : 
the beauty to which the heart quivers. 
As the face of age has its last ugliness 
when it shows the scorings of vice, this 
wrinkled visage held the mellowed sweet- 
ness of a lifetime on the heights. 

The small sunken black eyes had the 
shy softness of a wood violet. The thread- 
like line of the thin, closed lips was 
movingly benign. The cheeks dipped 
from the broad high bones into hollows 
with a like pathetic accent. 

Her dark brown woolen skirt cleared the 
128 



ground by three or four inches, revealing 
the stoutly shod feet. One of the shoes 
showed a small rent near the toe, elo- 
quent of poverty rather than untidiness. 

The old woman's hands were tucked 
away beneath her shawl, perhaps through 
the spirit that leads him who prays to his 
closet. For the stubby fingers were 
slowly passing one bead after another of 
a wooden rosary through their calloused 
tips. From longtime friction of this kind 
the grains had taken on a modest lustre. 

Poor old hands, whose rest was prayer, 
though their labor was a prayer, too. On 
their backs, in dim blue ridges, rose the 
veins, hypocritically full conduits of the 
blood that performed its function for 
the outworn body with tepid laggardness. 

Had the villagers seen her, this is 
what they would have surmised her 
hands were doing, as they would also 
have known the term of her lonely course 
that Winter morning before the sun had 
softened the iron grey sky to cloudy pearl. 
They knew nothing short of a cyclone 
would prevent Mother Brennan from 
journeying each morning to the ugly 
wooden church on the outskirts of the 
village, a full mile from her own box of a 
house. Not a villager but felt heartened 
by her sweet homely smile of greeting. 
Never a smile breathed more dignity, 
content and warm fellowship of heart. 

The ravens that brought his loaves to 
the Prophet were not more regular than 
was the lone old woman in quest of her 
daily bread, the manna of the Lord. 

Lone, for Mike Brennan had been 
sleeping, tired laborer that he was, full 
forty grateful years in the small graveyard 
on the slope of the hill, and only a few 
months back had her gently streaming 
eyes seen stout Tom Brennan, her only 
son, " and she was a widow" lowered 
to a place by his father's side. 



One of the Unnumbered. 



129 



It was a pleasant place to sleep, that 
sunny slope, when one was to sleep so 
long, and one felt they must sleep in 
dreamless peace who were laid there. 

The field flowers flecked it with their 
artless prettiness in Springtime, and in 
Summer the ruminant kine roved along 
the hilltops above it, their cumbrous- 
ly gracious forms a pastoral proces- 
sional athwart the sky. Yes ; a 
sunny tract, one to charm from out the 
hearts of the living any rancor of regret 
for the dead. 

Mother Brennan felt no farther re- 



as one of the Wise Virgins', and then 
prepared her simple breakfast : a cup of 
coffee and a cut from the loaf of her own 
making. Having renewed her slender 
strength, she made her slow, loving way 
to the church, where, with the childlike 
audacity of God's little ones, she held 
familiar converse with her Lord. 

Through sheer humility she would not 
receive Communion except on Sundays, 
the Feast Days of the Church and the 
days of Saint Michael the Archangel, 
Saint Thomas the Apostle and Saint 
Rose, the family patrons. Mike and Tom 




THE NUMBING DULLNESS OF THE SCENE WAS PUNCTUATED BY ONE LIVING THING. 



moved from her long dead husband than 
from her recently lost son. They were 
both only over the border line of the two 
worlds, and few could know how close 
those two worlds were to each other for 
Mother Brennan. Now, especially when 
she was so near that border herself, she 
was nearer to her dead than to the living 
ones about her ; she dwelt more in their 
company. The Communion of the Saints 
was a lively tenet of her simple faith. 

Each day she rose before the sun, 
lit her oil lamp, as neat and trimly kept 



were Saints now themselves, and though 
she never thought it, so was she. Those 
dear ones, their address was different 
from her own ; but hers, like theirs, 
was in the ' ' Care of God. ' ' 

Friends she had on earth as in heaven. 
The whole village regarded her as a 
homely comfort and an honor rather than 
as a duty heritage to the community. 
The tender heart had other ties, not as 
close as those which bound her to the 
dear Unseen with Mike and Tom, nor as 
strong as the bonds between the good 



i 10 



One of the Unnumbered. 



village folk and herself; yet sweet and 
soothing. There was the fragile rose 
bush, back of her kitchen window. It 
responded to her constant care by two or 
three sumptuous blooms which seemed 
to tax its whole system. This was in the 
Summer. The remainder of the year it 
pined, a chronic invalid. 

Then there was the cat, sleek, de- 
murely affectionate and house-loving. It 
would curl itself up on the hearth when 
Mother Brennan went to church in the 
morning, and would come to greet her 
with a tremulous miaou on her return, 
arching its back caressingly against the 
brown woolen skirt, though it was cool 
from the morning air, and Bethlehem 
loved warmth with her whole soul. 

For Mother Brennan had named it 
Bethlehem. It had not seemed quite 
right to call it after one of the Saints and 
yet she wished it to bear a holy name. 
There was an advantage in it she had not 
foreseen ; for it was so long and said it- 
self so slowly that it was like having a 
little talk with the petted thing to call it 
by its name. The soft grey creature 
answered to it with sweet simplicity and 
no more abashedness than if it were 
Jessamine or Mehitabel. 

But Mother Brennan loved it dearly. 
For Tom had brought Bethlehem in one 
evening, a small, wild-eyed mop of 
stringy fur. He had plucked it from the 
mill-pond, where small boys had thrown 
her, not through a laudable Malthusian 
view of kittens, but merely in exuberance 
of innocent cruelty. 

When Tom's stout hand had placed 
the damp, rattled waif upon the sanded 
floor, it had worked to its feet, raised its 
head and regarded Mother Brennan with 
wide, arraigning eyes. Then with deep 
conviction it tottered toward her, doling 
out a feeble yowl. A mere fraction of 
such commending things would have won 
her hospitable welcome. Bethlehem al- 
ways reminded the old lady of the sweet 
heartedness of her big, powerful son, 
who could never see a weak thing ill- 
used. Many a prayer had Mother 



Brennan breathed with deepest devotion 
for Tom's dear soul, at sight of Bethlehem 
dreaming in homely comfort on the 
hearth, a purring coil of contentedness. 

One other object, dear to her old 
heart, she cherished with some spiritual 
reserve because its appeal was only human 
and roused reflections the good soul 
viewed askance in that they were tinged 
with melancholy. One who is a friend 
of God should not be traitor to Him by 
any feeling of that kind. Not one drop 
of melancholy had ever mingled with her 
beautiful sorrow that Mike and Tom had 
gone from her. This qualified object of 
Mother Brennan' s affection was a pot of 
shamrock, grown from a tiny sprig 
Father Downes had brought back to her 
from her native Limerick. Like that 
little plant, she had been uprooted from 
the land of her birth. Unlike it, she had 
no one to care lor her. 

Other loved objects, partly of heaven 
and partly of earth, were the beautiful 
things of the bright world that surrounded 
her. The broad tranquil mill-stream in 
front of her small house, which the sun 
stroked with lambent touches and into 
which the wild swallows would dip in 
their needless haste, and then dash away; 
the willows, that stretched their slender 
wands of palest yellow above the mirror- 
ing water, and when the wind ruffled 
them turned the silver underside of their 
lanceate leaves, as if paling at the thought 
of a storm ; the broad sweep of meadow, 
sparkling gaily with dewdrops in the 
Summer mornings, soft in soothing green 
after sundown, and hushed in white 
silence when Winter wrapped it in a pall of 
snow; the undulating line of hills melting 
into hazy blue against the distant horizon; 
the genial brightness of the sun by day, 
and the fantastic clouds, snowy, pearly, 
rosy, which God let play in His heaven ; 
the stars that blazed in glittering con- 
fusion in the night's dome of blue, each 
of which answered to God from just that 
spot where He had set it these were all 
Mother Brennan' s good, dear friends. 
She loved them all, for they were God's,. 



One of the Unnumbered. 






and so was she, and kinship is cement- 
ing. 

But kind, stupid, human friends had 
been telling Mother Brennan of late that 
she ought to provide for herself and for 
her latter days. Not that they were 
weary of supplying her with things to be 
knitted or made up; but they saw that 
she took longer to get to church, and 
that the sturdy, faltering steps were more 
faltering, if still determined. She would 
need be cared for at home, how soon 
none could tell, nor for how long. There 
was no one to give that care. 

A factory man wanted her plot of 
land. He needed it for business ends. 
With the money he would give her she 
could comfortably provide a refuge for 
herself in her last days. She could go to 
the Little Sisters of the Poor in the 
neighboring town and be tenderly looked 
after till she died, and with a sense of in- 
dependence withal. 

Mother f Brennan, who had gone on in 
utter trustfulness upon God, nursing her 
rose-tree and caring for Bethlehem, her 
soul exhaling an aroma that sweetened 
her lone but not lonely life, lent humble 
ear to their superior wisdom. She did 
not want to trouble any one. She had 
thought before that came to pass, the 
Angel would have called and taken her 
to Mike and Tom. God knew how will- 
ing she was to go. But the simple faith 
that accepted and did not analyze or 
rebel, or even pray that something that 
God wished might be changed to some- 
thing that she wished, felt that duty 
might point to what the neighbors urged. 
She was not insensible to her growing 
weakness. She had noted it with inward 
joy as a loosening of the bonds. But 
she had no right to impose herself as a 
burden upon others. She had no wish to. 

So the small house where she had 
lived for half a century, where Tom had 
been born and where Mike and Tom 
had died, with her quarter acre of ground, 
including the forlorn rose-tree, passed to 
the factory man, who could hardly wait to 
tear it down. Her few household goods 



she gave to a poor shoemaker who had 
made shoes for Mike and Tom and her; 
good shoes, if they were the only thing 
she wore out. To him she also gravely 
consigned Bethlehem in perpetual trust 
on his promise that the cherished thing 
should never want a home or food. 

Then Mother Brennan rode in the 
milkman's cart ten miles to the town,, 
the neighbors coming to the doors and 
waving their hands and handkerchiefs to- 
her as the rickety white horse slowly 
jogged by the cottages, she bowing simply 
and gravely to them like an old queeik 
going into exile. 

She endured her asylum in the noisy, 
ugly city six months without a murmur 
of tongue, look or feeling, not knowing, 
that she was making greater headway 
toward heaven than ever before. But 
one soft early day of Spring, a broad sun- 
beam stole into her room, and the tepid 
air that lightly stirred the grey locks on 
her temples smelt of the warm, resolvent 
earth. It said budding willows, the 
peace of a sunlit stream, the elms waving 
in a mist of green welcome, the long 
sweep of meadows quickening to emerald 
life after their Winter sleep, the moun- 
tains dim in the azure distance. Oh, so 
distant! 

A yearning for the soothing touch of 
that old friendly environment, as posses- 
sive as Death's fingers, laid hold of 
Mother Brennan' s soul. The balmy 
Spring, the joyous Summer were coming 
to the hillocks ot her dead, and she would 
not be near them. 

There was an almshouse in her little 
village. She must go there and wait so 
long as God should will. It was His inn, 
and they would take her. 

She told the Sisters with slow earnest- 
ness that she must go back. They had 
been good and kind. Yes, very. But 
she was nearer to God there, where she 
had lived so long. She knew the path- 
ways to Him better there. 

They strove to dissuade her, strove in- 
nocently, ignorantly, and in vain. They 
told her they could not give her back the 



One of the Unnumbered. 



money, for it was gone. She did not 
want it. She was glad the poor old 
things for whom they cared should profit 
by it. She must go back. They would 
not ask anything for her keep in the 
almshouse. She must go there. The 
graveyard on the hill, the meadow, the 
stream, the waving willows, all the beauti- 
ful dear things God had lavished on her, 
and which had woven themselves into 
the slow pulsations of her tired old heart 
she said almshouse, she meant them. 

So they reluctantly let her go. For 
her soft, sweet patience was so different 
from the querulous exactions of the other 
old people, that the Sisters loved her. 
She revived visibly in that dear home- 
setting. Poor old woman in an aims- 
house ; everything about her was her 
own. 

A tinge of pink crept into the fine 
skin with its myriad wrinkles, like the 
reflection of a rose petal on old ivory, 
and the dim, worn eyes had almost a 
glow. 

Never had Spring been so soothingly 
gentle, never a Summer so bounteously 
sweet. They were as great flagons 
brimming with Nature's wine, from 
which her weary old body and grateful 
young soul drew gladness and refresh- 
ment. 

Then came the nipping touch of 
Autumn. The willow leaves turned their 
silver backs upon the harsh air with art- 
less aversion. The sleepy stream broke 
into a dumb whimper of steely ripples, 
and the blooming meadow fell into 
shrivelled brownness before its Winter 
sleep under the snow. 

Mother Brennan felt the chill of the 
dying year like those friends of hers. 
The almshouse was not her cosy, if 
humble home, seasoned with hallowed 
memories and brightened by Bethlehem's 
sympathy. The Fall was despoiling her 
as it did the other creatures of the dear 
God, and the coming Winter forenumbed 
her brave, resigned spirit. She must 
take her heart to what warmed it most, 
the Lord in His little church. 



So she told the Overseer one day that 
she must go to church the following 
morning. It was the anniversary of 
Tom's death, though she was character- 
istically silent about that. The Over- 
seer remonstrated with her well-mean- 
ingly. The morning air was too cold for 
her, the walk too long. At least she 
should have some bread and coffee be- 
fore going, and she could not get that 
before seven. Let her wait till then. No, 
she could not. There was only one Mass 
and that was at six. She would go fast- 
ing in any case, for she wished to receive 
Communion. She could do it well ; she 
had often done it before. 

The sullen dark morning found her 
faring slowly over the old familiar road. 
The chill got into her blood, but there 
was something in her heart that made her 
insensible to it as well as to the feeble 
lagging of her feet. The enfolding peace 
of her thoughts surpassed the charming 
of the Springtide. Mike and Tom 
seemed never so near. As she passed 
the little graveyard and looked at their 
two graves, side by side, a more than 
wonted tenderness for her dead made her 
poor old eyes grow moist with unshed 
tears as she plodded on without a pause. 
When she got to the bare little church, 
with its three or four worshippers, she 
made her way to a pew near the sanctuary 
and sank exhausted on her knees. When 
the time for Communion arrived, a young 
girl near her, a factory hand, marvelled 
that she did not rise and go to the altar 
railing. She knew Mother Brennan well. 
Looking at her more closely she saw 
that her head drooped, that she was 
breathing with the fitful respiration of a 
gaunt dog, dreaming on the hearthstone. 
Leaning forward the girl touched her, 
and as Mother Brennan roused herselt 
with conscious effort, asked if she did not 
wish to go to Communion. The sweet 
smile came to the old woman's lips, her 
smile of lowly gratitude. 

She rose laboriously, and with tenacious 
purpose made her flagging strength bear 
her to the Communion rail. When the 



One of the Unnumbered. 



133 



Priest came to her, the venerable old 
head sank back upon her shoulders as 
she raised her face, that he might place 
the sacred particle upon her tremulous 
tongue. Then it slowly bent in touching 
dignity of obeisance to her Lord, and the 
small black figure did not stir. 

She clung close to the Communion 
rail, as a ruffled bird snuggles into some 
tiny niche in a Cathedral tower, seeking 
shelter from the scurrying blast. 

The Priest had marked the 
expression of the wan, worn 
face. The soul had never 
stood forth so strongly in it. 
When he came down the al- 
tar steps at the end of Mass, 
he looked at her again, keen- 
ly. He made hisgenuflection, 
walked quickly into the sac- 
risty, and having set down 
the chalice, took a leather case 
containing the Hojy Oils from 
a closet, and without unvest- 
ing hurried back to her. He 
touched her sloping should- 
ers, then gently raised her 
head. Mother Brennan re- 
vived under his hand like a 
fainting flower, and slowly the 
sunken eyes upturned to his 
with the look of a baby in 
their innocent gaze. 

' ' You are ill, Mother Bren- 
nan, are you not? " he said 
in his warm, unctuous tones. 
"Would you not like to have 
me give you the Last Sacra- 
ment and Absolution ? Then 
I will send you home, or take 
you there myself. ' ' 

The bony fingers feebly interlaced 
themselves and the lids fell over the 
dimmed eyes in meek assent. With 
light touch of the Holy Oils the Priest 
anointed the eyes, ears, nostrils, lips 
and hands, those organs of the senses 
which Mother Brennan had never used, 
save to get at God with through His vesture 
of the sweet, clean universe, never any- 
thing but sweet and clean to her. 



Then the weary old head, with its 
touches of the consecrating chrism, sank 
slowly forward once again and the homely 
little figure became motionless. The 
Priest walked rapidly back to the sacristy, 
returned the leathern case to the closet, 
took off his vestments as quickly as he 
could and, in soutane and biretta, re- 
turned to her at once the shepherd to 
his stricken sheep. 

" Now, Mother Brennan," he said ? 




THE VENERABLE OLD HEAD SANK BACK UPON HER 
SHOULDERS. 



with quiet, cheerful tones, " I will take 
you home. Come." 

For the first time in her life, Mother 
Brennan paid no heed to the Priest. He 
placed his hand on the bowed figure. 
There was no movement. Stooping, he 
peered into the placid face, which seemed 
to be shyly hiding, as if with a smile at 
her own playfulness. Mother Brennan 
had gone home by herself. 




LIGHT HOUSE AT ENTRANCE TO RIVER PASIG. 



MANILA AND ITS SUBURBS. 

By R. V. V. Schuyler. 



TEN years ago, when the steamer, 
on board of which I was a passen- 
ger, plowed her way up into Ma- 
nila Bay, little did I think that the Stars 
and Stripes would ever be floating over 
the Philippine Islands. Not the most 
imaginative mind could have conceived 
such an idea. Except to those, possibly 
a score, who had business connections 
with the Islands, I doubt if many Ameri- 
cans could have told their exact location, 
if the question had been put to them 
suddenly. 

As you sail up the Bay, your first im- 
pression of Manila is not favorable, and it 
produces a feeling of homesickness, even 
before landing. After getting on shore, 
the next step is to the Custom House, 
where fortunately I had no trouble, as I 
was well prepared; to be " forewarned is 
to be forearmed. " As I had no dutiable 
effects, I was detained only a few 
moments, and I have been put to much 
more inconvenience, in our free and glo- 
I ^d 



rious America. The next thing was to 
present my letters of introduction to one 
of the American firms, which I did, and 
was at once given a cordial welcome and 
installed as a member of their household; 
from that moment things assumed a 
more couleur de rose aspect. My first 
night in my new home was an eventful 
one. I retired early, as I was completely 
fagged out. During the night I was 
awakened by the rocking of my bed. 
Thinking that I had not quite got over 
the motion of the ship, I lay awake for a 
moment, and then went to sleep again 
and forgot all about it. 

In the morning, about nine o'clock, as 
we were taking our "desayuno," or be- 
fore-breakfast cup of chocolate, one of 
the gentlemen asked me how I had rested. 
I told him of my experience, and they 
all smiled very audibly, and informed me 
that we had had an earthquake. This was 
rather a startling experience for the first 
night in a country to which you had come 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



35 




LOWER PART, RIVER PASIG. OLD FORT ON LEFT. 



with the intention of locating for some 
years. After "tiffin, "or noon lunch, 
my friend took me in his carriage to call 
upon the foreign residents. This was 
soon accomplished, and I became, in one 
day, a duly accredited citizen so far as 
the foreign element was concerned. But 
there was still another important formality 
to be gone through, and that was to ob- 
tain permission from the Spanish authori- 
ties to remain in the Islands. I signed 
a petition made out on fapel sellado, 
official paper, which costs fifty cents for 
the seal; this had to be countersigned by my 
friends, guaranteeing that I was a proper 
person. This same formality has to be 
gone through when you desire to leave 
the country. Visitors coming to stay 
only a few weeks, have to get some respon- 
sible person to be guarantee for their good 
behavior during their stay; this is required 
only in the event of their not having 
passports; should they have them, they 
will have to be countersigned by their 
consul, and these passports will be re- 
tained by the authorities until the parties 
are ready to take their departure, when 
the consuls will have to make application 
for their return. Thanks to our Army 
and Navy, this red tape business will soon 
be done away with. 



It is now time to say something about 
Manila, and the customs of its inhabitants. 
One of the most notable features is the 
Rio, or River Pasig, which has its source 
in a large lake some distance up country. 
It is the dividing line of the Old City, 
always spoken of as Manila, with its 
crumbling old walls and generally dilapi- 
dated appearance, from the commercial 
quarter, or New City, so to speak. The 
Old City is on the right bank of the 
Pasig, as you enter from the bay. The 
Custom House and other government 
buildings are located there, and many of 
the government officials reside within its 
walls. On the left bank is located the 
commercial quarter; a short distance from 
the entrance you will find the stores 
usual to a seaport, ship chandlers, sailors' 
boarding houses, etc. Further up the 
river are the business places of the 
foreign merchants, some of which are 
very handsome buildings, with large 
warehouses or "Go-downs," as they are 
there called, for the storage of merchan- 
dise awaiting shipment. At one time 
many of the foreign residents lived over 
their places of business. The terrible 
earthquake of 1863 partially destroyed 
most of these buildings, rendering them 
uninhabitable as residences, though 



'36 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



some of them were still occupied for 
offices. Much serious damage was caused 
by that shakeup in Manila proper and its 
suburbs. Churches that had withstood 
many previous shocks were either partially 
or entirely destroyed. The Custom 
House and other government buildings 
were badly damaged. 

The earthquake occurred June 3, at 
7:20, in the evening before the Feast of 
Corpus Christi. Great preparations were 
being made for the celebration and many 
persons were in the churches at the time, 
but, thanks to a merciful providence, 



badly injured and for a time was con- 
demned, so to facilitate traffic a pontoon 
bridge was constructed, as the only other 
bridge was the suspension bridge further 
up the river; strange to say, it was scarcely 
damaged at all. 

The natives are very much afraid of 
earthquakes, and when they feel the 
slightest shake they cry out " tembla, 
tembla ! ' ' and are on their knees in a 
moment, beads in hand, saying their 
prayers. The Fathers maintain that 
these little "shakes" have a beneficial 
effect upon the natives, as it induces 




PONTOON BRIDGE OVER RIVER PASIG. 



few were injured. The Cathedral, 
founded about the year 1578, suffered 
severely, as did also the Convent of 
Santa Isabel. One of the Fathers, who 
was caught in the Cathedral, was almost 
completely buried under falling stones, 
but was most miraculously saved. It 
took several hours to remove the stones, 
as the utmost precaution had to be taken 
for fear of crushing him. Had the shock 
occurred on the day of the celebration, 
when the procession was in the streets, 
there would have been a great loss of life. 
The old stone bridge over the Pasig was 



them to be more mindful of their duties 
to the Church. 

The Chinese are the retail dry goods 
merchants of the Philippines, and you 
will find them in every little village, no 
matter how unimportant it is. 

The principal shops in Manila are 
located in Binondo, one of the suburbs, 
and in the Calle del Rosario (Street of 
the Rosary) you will find dark-skinned 
Seiioras making their purchases at almost 
all hours of the day, for they do not 
mind the heat so much as do their fair 
sisters of America. 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



137 






Over the narrow sidewalks are stretched 
canvas awnings, which hang down quite 
to the curb, completely shutting out all 
glare from the street and affording shelter 
from the extreme heat. 

The Tagalos, as the natives of the 
Island of Luzon are called, seldom have 
regular shops, but have instead little cov- 
ered stands in the streets. Their stock 
in trade usually consists of the native 
fruits and sweets, and articles made from 
the fibre of the pineapple plant, such as 
handkerchiefs, shirts, and other knick- 
knacks suitable to the needs of the people. 



Their pay is very small, but their wants 
are few, and they seem satisfied with 
their lot. The writer has often visited 
the factories, and chatted with the em- 
ployees, and invariably found them cheer- 
ful and contented. A more tractable, 
happy-go-lucky people does not exist. 
They are born gamblers, and are very 
fond of card playing; but their greatest 
sport is pelea de gallos, as they term it 
(cockfighting in our language). They 
seem, actually, to think more of their 
game-cock than they do of their families, 
and should their house, or rather hut, 




STONE BRIDGE OVER RIVER PASIG, PARTLY DESTROYED BY AN EARTHQUAKE, 1863. 



Some of the handkerchiefs that are made 
from this fibre are very elaborate, the 
work is all done by hand, and will com- 
pare favorably with our best imported 
lace goods. Some bring ^as high as a 
hundred dollars apiece. The natives are 
also skilful in the manufacture of hats and 
cigar cases made from a species of grass 
called Tarey. They also make many 
fancy articles out of the tortoise and 
mother of pearl shells. 

A great industry is the manufacture of 
cigars and cigarettes, which gives employ- 
ment to many thousands, mostly women. 



for it is little more, catch fire, their first 
thought is for the safety of their " gallo. ' ' 
The wife is supposed to look out for her- 
self and children. 

Hospitality seems to be innate in them, 
and on occasions, such as their "Fiesta 
del Pueblo" (Feast of the Village), and 
christenings they keep open house, and 
give a hearty welcome to every one that 
calls, they are uniformly courteous, and 
pride themselves on being up in little 
points of etiquette. They are undoubt- 
edly superior in many respects to the na- 
tives of Cebu, and some of the other 



Manila and its Suburbs. 




SECTION OF RIVER PASIG. 



islands. They do not seem to be crushed 
by the supposed iron heel of despotism 
of the so much censured Augustinian and 
Franciscan Friars. 

Touching on this subject, it would be 
well to reflect a moment as to what might 
have been the condition of these people 
had it not been for the kind care and 
solicitude of the Friars. It was their good 
counsel and advice that prevented them 
from an outbreak years ago. The writer, 
then a non-Catholic, during a residence 
of many years, often wondered at their 
patience under the tyranny of the Spanish 
Government. The Fathers are surely en- 
titled to some credit for this, as well as for 
the general contentment of the natives. 

One of the accomplishments these Ta- 
galos possess is that of dancing. They 
are very fond of it, and dance besides the 
"Habanera," originated in Habana, 
from whence it derives its name, all the 
dances known to Europeans. The women 
are exceedingly graceful, and waltz beau- 
tifully. A most remarkable feature of their 
dancing is that they wear heelless slippers, 
which they keep on their bare feet, as 
they do not wear stockings, by placing 
their little toes outside of the slippers; 



they hold them firmly, never losing them 
no matter how rapidly they dance. 

Smoking is universal, men, women 
and children indulge. When one enters 
a house, after the usual salutation Mag- 
andary a vi Po, cigars, cigarettes and the 
betel nut are offered to all present. It 
is the exception when any one declines, 
as it is not considered courteous to do so, 
but occasionally the line is drawn at the 
betel nut. In appearance this nut is not un- 
like our nutmeg. For chewing purposes, 
the nut is cut into slices, or small pieces, 
and a part of the leaf of the plant is 
rolled or twisted around it. It discolors 
the teeth very much and it has a sharp, 
pungent taste, not unpleasant to most 
persons, but the effect it produces in 
some is not altogether agreeable, for it 
is like that produced by liquor, flushing 
of the face and momentary dizziness in 
the head. Old timers put a small quan- 
tity of lime in the leaf to make the effect 
more lasting. 

There is a great mixture of races in the 
Island of Luzon, the worst is that of the 
Chinese and native women; the offspring 
Chinese Mestizo seems to inherit all the 
vices of both races and none of the vir- 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



139 



tues of either. Aguinaldo, the Insurgent 
Leader, looks like one, and probably is 
one; certainly his conduct towards our 
people demonstrates his fondness for 
double dealing. 

The Palace of the Captain General, 
a large comfortable looking building, but 
not much from an architectural point, is 
located in the Village of San Miguel. It 
is surrounded by some beautiful tropical 
plants and is considered one of the sights 
worth seeing. 

Many of the foreign merchants reside 
in that vicinity, and in the suburbs of 
Sampolos, San Sebastian, Nagtajan, and 
Santa Ana. Many of these residences 
will compare favorably, in point of com- 
fort, with any in Europe or America. 
The foreign merchants live in the most 
luxurious manner, no expense being 
spared. 

All the suburbs of Manila are accessible 
by water, and although th gondola is 
not in evidence, the graceful and buoy- 
ant canoe answers the purpose quite as 
well. Nearly every one keeps a trap of 
some kind, as the cost of keeping one is 
moderate. Some of the turnouts are very 



fine ; the horses are small, but quite 
speedy. 

One of the most amusing things at an 
entertainment there is to watch a new- 
comer trying to roll a cigarette in the pres- 
ence of a bevy of young girls, who try 
their utmost to keep from laughing, but 
after witnessing the destruction of a dozen 
or so of cigarettes, one of them steps 
forward, and in the most charming man- 
ner offers her assistance. After giving a 
few lessons in the art of rolling, she lights 
one, puffs it for a moment and then, with 
her dainty fingers, places it between the 
stranger's lips. Is it to be wondered at 
that men take to smoking cigarettes in 
the Philippines ? 

The costume of the Mestizo, (half- 
breed woman) consists of a richly striped, 
colored skirt, generally of silk, over which 
falls a shorter skirt, called tapis, somewhat 
like an apron, in front. The waist has 
long, loose sleeves; it is rather low in the 
neck, while a bright colored handkerchief 
is carelessly thrown over the shoulders, 
coming down below the waist in a point. 

The native girl wears a loose skirt and 
waist of fine Nipe, or pifia cloth, a valuable 




RUINS OF CUSTOM HOUSE, EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE, 1863. 



140 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



material of the finest tissue. Her neck is 
bare and ornamented with beads. On her 
head she wears a handkerchief of bright 
fantastic colors, which comes over her 
eyebrows and down to the tips of her ears, 
from which hang long earrings of spark- 
ling gems. One end falling over her neck 
is fastened to her waist, in front. Her 
legs are bare, and on her feet she wears 
slippers half shod, which when she walks 
she drags in a careless way, peculiar to 
her class, but inconceivable to a European 
lady. 

The theatre, located near the " Calza- . 
da" or Boulevard, just outside of the 
walls of Manila, is well patronized, Sun- 
day and Thursday being the ' gala ' ' 
nights. 

There is a very imposing and exceed- 
ingly well-proportioned monument erect- 
ed in memory of the great navigator Ma- 
gellan, the discoverer of the Philippines, 
who lost his life in battle with the na- 
tives. 

The great event of the day is the drive 
on the ^Calzada," or Boulevard; every 
one that can muster a vehicle of any kind 



turns out. The Spanish element dine at 
five o'clock, and then go for their drive. 
The foreigners take their drive before 
dining at 7:30. When the Captain Gen- 
eral, with his escort of Mounted Lancers, 
drives down the centre of the avenue, all 
the carriages, with their gay occupants, 
line up on either side until he passes. 
Crowds of pedestrians, hurrying along to 
their homes after their day's labor, sud- 
denly come to a halt, as well as the car- 
riages, at the sound of the '' Angelus " 
bell. Hats are removed, and for a mo- 
ment there is a deathlike silence. The 
effect is most impressive, and if there is 
a spark of Christianity in one it must 
kindle with love for God, and his fellow- 
beings, at that moment, at this reminder 
of the great mystery of the Incarnation. 
Each suburb has its own church and 
parochial residence. Some of these 
churches are very fine specimens of 
architecture, San Sebastian and Santo 
Domingo being notably so. The 
"Tagalos," apparently, are a religious 
people, very strict in their observance of 
the rules of the Church. Not so much 




SPANISH VESSELS AWAITING CARGO. 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



141 




CHINESE SHOPS, ESCOLTA, BINONDO. 



can be said of the Spanish element ; the 
men are very lax in their duties, the 
women, as they are everywhere, are 
more devout. The Military Mass is 
usually well attended, on account of the 
music. There are no pews or seats in 
the churches and the worshippers have 
to kneel on the tiled floors, so they have 
to be well imbued with a good share of 
Christian fervor to go through the ser- 
vices on their knees. Since the arrival 
of the Jesuits, some thirty-five years ago, 
there has been a notable improvement 
in the community in every particular, 
but especially from an educational stand- 
point. Comparatively little had been 
done towards improving the condition of 
the natives in that direction. In the 
Philippines, as everywhere, the presence 
and refining influence of the Jesuits is 
felt. 

The fertility of the soil of the Philip- 
pines is marvellous ; the growth of every 
tropical product is so spontaneous that 



scarcely any cultivation is needed. The 
methods hitherto used are of the most 
primitive character. Just imagine the 
immense increase in the production 
when modern implements are introduced. 
It is impossible to compute the wealth of 
these islands, as many thousands of acres 
are uncultivated, in fact are virgin soil. 
Its resources are illimitable. In minerals 
alone there are immense opportunities, to 
say nothing of the thousands of trees of 
the most valuable and merchantable 
species of wood The fruits grow wild ; 
you can ride for miles and miles through 
the woods and will find the mango, 
banana, lemon, orange, guava and other 
products, natives of the soil, in abun- 
dance, and can indulge your appetite to 
the utmost, free of cost. The export 
trade is at present confined principally to 
sugar, hemp, tobacco and indigo; coffee, 
Japan wood, hide cuttings, and rattans 
are also shipped in small quantities. 
The staff of life of the natives is the 



142 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



cocoanut. They use it for many pur- 
poses. It provides them with food, 
wine, oil, fishing tackle, fuel, etc. But 
little attention is paid to the cultivation 
of coffee, which could be made a great 
source of income if properly cultivated. 
The berry is very similar to that of the 
''mocha" and the flavor is quite as 
good. 

Cavite, where the navy yard is located, 
is about twelve miles from Manila, just 
across the bay, and stands about in the 
same relation as Brooklyn does to New 
York. It is but little visited by the resi- 



upset and other such complaints. If 
these persons would tell the truth about 
their manner of living, we should find 
that they had kept up most of their old 
habits, particularly in the way of imbib- 
ing, taking their Guinness' stout, brandy 
and soda ad libitum, and then blame the 
climate. This is probably the trouble, 
at this time, with our soldiers that are ill 
in Manila. If the matter were looked 
into, it would be found to be attributable 
to their excessive indulgence in drink. 
Malaria exists there, but are the islands 
in the neighborhood of New York free 




VILLAGE OF SAN SEBASTIAN, SUBURB OF MANILA. 



dents of Manila. It contains several very 
old churches. 

Much has been written about the un- 
healthiness of tropical climates, but that 
objection cannot hold good so far as the 
Philippines are concerned. On the 
contrary, there is no healthier spot on 
the face of the globe ; but of course one 
has to adapt one's mode of living to the 
climate. The difficulty with Europeans 
is that they do not take proper, or even 
ordinary care of themselves. We often 
read of persons coming back from the 
East Indies broken down in health, liver 



from it? Yellow fever is not known. 
The most prevalent fever is typhoid, but 
it is seldom epidemic. During certain 
hours of the day the heat is intense, but 
is tempered by cooling breezes; besides, 
no work is done during those hours, and 
the nights are invariably cool and re- 
freshing, so one can sleep and arise in 
the morning invigorated and ready for 
the day's work. How I longed for such 
nights last Summer in New York. The 
temperature changes but little, the rainy 
season sets in about July and continues 
until the middle of October. During 



Manila and its Suburbs. 



'43 



RESIDENCE OF AN AMERICAN, NAGTAJAN 




RESIDENCE OF CAPTAIN GENERAL, SAN MIGUEL, SUBURB OK MANILA. 



144 



A Peasant Wedding in France. 



that season occasional typhoons make 
things lively; the river overflows its 
banks and canoes become serviceable for 
navigating the streets; but such events 
happen even in climates that are not 
tropical. If there is a Paradise on earth, 
in my opinion it is in the Philippines. 



When the American government shall 
have extended its benign sway over the 
inhabitants and given to them their rights, 
while exacting a strict observance of the 
law, then will open a new era of prosper- 
ity, and, we trust, of happiness for all 
classes of Filipinos. 



A PEASANT WEDDING IN FRANCE. 



IN a picturesque part of Northern 
France stands a charming old 
chateau, surrounded by a park with 
many fine large trees and vast stretches of 
greensward. The neighboring hills and 
meadows are covered with innumerable 
wild flowers, which lift their purple and 
golden heads to show their joy at the re- 
turn of Spring and sunshine. 

The chateau, still inhabited by repre- 
sentatives of a monarchical age, though 
architecturally not imposing, is rather a 
spacious home-like structure, with many 
dependent buildings near by; and a short 
distance from a town quaint with moss- 
thatched cottages, a town hall and school 
house, not to mention the village church 
with its pretty Norman tower. Adjoining 
the church is a deserted Calvary, long 
the scene of many beautiful reunions, 
when father, mother and children gathered 
round the foot of the cross, to offer their 
first prayers at morning, their thanks- 
giving at night, to Him who by the cross 
had redeemed them. At least the sym- 
bol of salvation is allowed to stand, and 
though few gather near to pray as in the 
good old days of faith, perhaps this silent 
reminder may be an influence, which in 
time will make the many as fervent as 
the few now are, and bring back a re- 
petition of other days, before wars and 
revolutions came to work such havoc. 

Evidently something unusual has 
happened in the quiet little town, for the 
peasants hurry to and fro with garlands 
and bunches of flowers, and beaming 
faces and expectant looks tell of some 
pleasant event to occur. It is nothing 



less than a wedding, and the bride- 
groom being one of the richest men of 
the village, a cultivator of the soil, 
whose wealth in a newer country might 
make him aspire to positions of great 
importance, here is perfectly content to 
till his fields and live as his fathers have 
done for generations. 

The nineteenth century with its pro- 
gress, however, has invaded this secluded 
spot, and no longer will the scene be 
bright with quaint old-fashioned cos- 
tumes; short petticoats, knee breeches 
and bright ribbons, all belong to a by- 
gone age, and in very few parts of 
France do we see anything picturesque 
in costume, though many old customs 
still remain. 

The bride is from an adjacent village 
where the marriage ceremony had oc- 
curred the day before, but in a few 
hours, the bridal procession will reach 
this town, which being the home of the 
groom is the last place to be visited. 
Whenever a wedding takes place, it is 
customary for the newly married pair to 
visit all their friends, and this duty is not 
confined to a single hamlet, but if they 
are peasants of some wealth and impor- 
tance, they must visit all the neighboring 
villages, and in this case, it is the second 
day after the wedding, before the bridal 
couple reach their home. Fortunately 
these maidens are little less sturdy than 
the men, otherwise their visiting, we 
fear, would be apt to result disastrously, 
as in most cases they go entirely on foot, 
and the fatigue of the dancing and mer- 
riment in addition would hardly be borne 



A Peasant Wedding in France. 



by those who were not brought up in the 
open air and green fields of a healthy 
country. 

Two triumphal arches have been 
erected, one at the entrance to the town 
which they must pass through, the other 
outside the bride's new home. These 
were gayly decked with flowers and 
boughs of trees, and the words "Hap- 
piness, joy, felicity to the newly married" 
were inscribed below. The plan was 
that the bridal party should come from 
the town to the chateau, where they 
would be entertained by the family, and 
this would conclude the ceremonies, at 
least, the bride's visits would then be 
completed. The young people from the 
chateau go down into the village to see 
the entry of the procession. Nearly all 
the peasants are in their freshest frocks 
and the children are wandering about in 
evident glee. At last the signal is given 
that the party is in sight, and im^iediate- 
ly a grand cannonading begins. It was 
a slightly alarming spectacle to behold a 
smoking gun in the hands of a next-door 
neighbor, and a somewhat astonished 
small child having the hardihood to cry 
at such unexpected proceedings, is sum- 
marily suppressed by a determined 
mother's well-timed slap, and in the 
midst of the uproar, the bride and bride- 
groom appear. She had discarded her 
white dress and veil of the preceding 
day, and was now attired in a silk dress 
of a light color, and wore a hat bedecked 
with flowers, which if scarcely of the 
style adopted by the Parisian lady of 
fashion, at least bore more resemblance 
to that mode than to the quaint pictur- 
esque peasant costume of an earlier date. 
She was said to be very young, but this 
child of the fields had not worked for 
naught, and her robustness gives her the 
appearance of a maturer age. The 
groom wears a high silk hat and black 
suit and the rest of the procession are 
dressed in their best clothes. 



A table had been placed beneath the 
arch with bisque figures^ of a man and 
woman, and before this the newly mar- 
ried pause while a speech of congratulation 
is read to them. At last they turn their 
footsteps towards the chateau, the pro- 
cession being led by performers on the 
cornet-a-piston, and make their way 
to a beautiful grove where they are to be 
received. Light refreshments had been 
prepared, but they first began by a dance. 
All the men wore their hats as they went 
through the mazes of a sort of 
quadrille, which was performed 
with considerable solemnity. As soon 
as this dance was over, the groom left 
his wife, and invited one of the ladies 
of the chateau to dance, and then all 
the men left their village partners, to 
ask different members of the household 
to honor them. The young ladies 
graciously complied. An onlooker could 
not help thinking how much prettier the 
sight would have been, had there been 
glimpses of vivid color and quaint garbs, 
rather than the imitation of city styles, 
reaching a culmination in stove pipe 
hats. However, everything was very in- 
teresting, and when the lord of the 
Chateau came forth to drink the health 
of the young couple and in graceful 
words wished them many blessings and 
much happiness, a fitting termination 
seemed to have been given to the day. 
As all had been invited to stay and 
make merry, the music and dance went 
on somewhat longer, and then the wed- 
ding party moved back to the town, 
where the bride's entry into her new 
home was marked by a second cannon- 
ading. 

On the morrow everything had re- 
turned to its ordinary condition, and 
these simple pleasure-loving people 
were ready to begin again their rustic 
toil, brightened by the memory of this 
wedding festival. 



A GLIMPSE OF MISSION LIFE 
IN THE PHILIPPINES. 



LETTER OF FATHER RAYMOND PERUGA 

TO FATHER PAUL PASTELLS, SUPERIOR 

OF THE MISSION. 

MY VERY DEAR FATHER SUPERIOR, P. C. 

Last week I went to Cauit, thence to 
Oteiza to greet Father More who is all 
alone at his station; then I visited, suc- 
cessively, the missionary posts of Tago, 
Alba, and St. Michael, and finally re- 
turned to Tigas for the Easter duty. 
Thus in a few days I managed to make a 
little visitation of the whole of this mission. 
Everywhere I found good health, and 
moreover a general appearance of cheerful 
content, because the rice-harvest, which 
they have just gathered, was everywhere 
fairly good. This will keep them in food; 
their clothing, tribute, and other neces- 
sary expenses, will be supplied by the 
filament of the abaca, which abounds in 
this region and brings a good price. 
It remains now that, in acknowledgment 
of so many favors received from our Lord, 
these people should try to lead a good 
Christian life and serve God by a faithful 
observance of His Commandments. 

I would to God that I could tell you 
positively and without qualification that 
all our converts are fulfilling this duty of 
gratitude. But among so many there are 
always some lame, some laggards, some 
stragglers, as if the light burden of serving 
God were too heavy for them. There 
are some, too, who seem to grow weary 
at times of walking steadily on the beaten 
road and who, like wild goats, leap the 
barriers and run wild in the woods and 
mountain paths, which are full of perils 
for their souls. But even these wan- 
derers, it must be said, if once their 
shepherd can succeed in reaching them, 
submit readily enough and return humbly 
to their duty. From this it appears 
clearly enough that the mistakes and the 
146 



sins of our poor Indians proceed much 
less from lack of good feeling or real 
wickedness than from ignorance and a 
certain levity of character. 

As you know already, in the vast basin 
of the river Tago which is navigable for 
boats of light draft, there are unconverted 
natives of various races, who are in great 
need of the work and the zeal of the 
missionaries, who should be able to devote 
to them abundant time and care. These 
races are the Mandayas, the Manobos, 
and the Mamanuas. The Mandayas are 
already, for the most part, converted 
and baptized. Some of them are in- 
cluded in the municipal limits of Tago, 
as their plantations lie near that settle- 
ment; the remainder of them form the 
Reduction of Alba, which is situated on 
the right bank of the river, about a day's 
journey from its mouth. For this peo- 
ple, then, the chief part of our work has 
been accomplished; they need only cul- 
tivation in Christian life and principles, 
that is, frequent visits and instructions, 
to become deeply rooted in Christianity 
and to bear abundant fruit in the Vine- 
yard of the Lord. 

It would be very consoling to be able 
to say as much of the Manobos and Ma- 
manuas. Unhappily their story is vastly 
different. However, in order that you 
may be able to take measures for the 
conversion and the organization of these 
people, with full knowledge of their case, 
I shall tell you all that we know of their 
character, their customs and their atti- 
tude towards Christianity. , 

The Manobos of the Tago consist of 
natives of the valley of the Tago itself 
and of those who have come to them from 
beyond the mountains, that is, from the 
basin of the Agusan. These immigrants 
are called by them Luyohanon, which 
means, those from the other side. These 



A Glimpse of Mission Life in the Philippines. 147 



Konn the majority, and they are the dregs 
,nd the refuse of the Agusan district, 
from which they have fled for various rea- 
sons : some for fear of the troops, who 
have been hunting them because of their 
crimes, which are innumerable ; others to 
avoid the Fathers of that Mission, who 
were seeking them with great zeal and 

elicitude, in order to bring them to a 
tter life, and to form them into civilized 
mmunities. From this, you can easily 
judge what manner of hardened wretches 
and criminals they are, and how hard it 
will be, if at all possible, to Christianize 
them. There are other difficulties con- 
cerning these poor savages, which, to- 
gether with those mentioned, would make 
us despair of ever converting them, were 
it not that our chief ground of hope is in 
the Precious Blood of Christ, which was 
shed for them, as well as for us and for all. 
However, I may say, for your consola- 
tion, that something has been dcpe by 
way of an opening, towards winning them 
over to Christianity. It is not quite three 
years since I made my first visit to a num- 
ber of those Manobos who are nearest to 
Alba, though it takes a good day's jour- 
ney by water to reach them. Though 
they received me, on that occasion, into 
their dens and their forest-haunts, I made 
no headway with them concerning the 
chief purpose of my visit. Yet this was 
more than I expected, for I was quite pre- 
pared to find that they had all taken to 
the woods on my approach. Thank God, 
they did receive me well enough, after 
their fashion, though I observed that they 
seemed very suspicious. As I soon dis- 
covered, they believed that I had brought 
with me a large body of troops, left some- 
where in the rear, to make them all pris- 
oners. Though I protested repeatedly 
that I had no thought of any such thing, 
I could not quite overcome their mistrust. 
I found them with hardly enough cloth- 
ing on to cover their bodies ; indeed, 
many of them wore nothing but a dirty 
breech-clout. All night long some of 
them kept watch, fearing a surprise from 
the fancied escort of troops. 



On the following morning I proposed 
to them to form themselves into a com- 
munity, and I promised them that we 
would establish a court among them to 
adjust their constant and troublesome dis- 
putes. They answered that if I would 
allow them time, say until I should make 
them another visit, they would consult 
about the proposal and then give me a 
definite decision. As this was all I could 
obtain from them for the moment, 1 
treated them to a few cups of nipa wine, 
of which they are exceedingly fond. Be- 
fore I left them they promised, as it is 
very hard to reach their distant habita- 
tion, to meet me at the shores of their river 
and to put up a little hut for the night. 
Finally, I took leave of them, and rowed 
away with mingled feelings of satisfaction 
at the fact that I had effected an opening 
for further negotiations, and of sadness 
at the sad condition of those poor savages 
who had no knowledge or thought of the 
true God. 

When the time fixed for my next visit 
had come, I went up the river again to 
meet them. I found a few Manobos at the 
appointed place, and when I inquired 
about the shelter they had promised to 
provide, they answered very coolly: 

"We were just beginning to put it up 
when a limbcon began to sing, which we 
take to be a bad omen, and so we all left 
the place. ' ' 

"Is it possible," I asked, "that men 
as brave as you, are afraid of a wretched 
little bird?" 

"What could we do ?" they answered, 
"for so we believe." 

And so I was compelled to make a new 
appointment for a meeting, which had 
happier results. This time I found a 
shelter prepared, a very poor one, it is 
true, but it gave me much encouragement, 
for I looked upon it as a token of progress 
in my relations with these savages. We 
had a long talk together before retiring 
to rest at night, though it was hardly a 
rest for me, as the sleeping place was so 
small that there was no possibility of 
stretching one's self out in it. 



148 A Glimpse of Mission Life in the Philippines. 



Early in the morning I began by re- 
commending my undertaking to St. John 
Francis Regis, whose feast we celebrated 
on that day. When the sun was well up 
we resumed our conference, which re- 
sulted in their promising to build them- 
selves houses like civilized men, and I 
was able to appoint judges and judicial 
procedure for settling differences among 
them. They begged, however, that I 
would not insist on their receiving bap- 
tism immediately. I told them that I 
should be happy to baptize those who 
might apply to me for it, but that it was 
not the custom of the missionaries to 
force anyone to receive baptisim. 

I have visited them twice since then, 
and I find that they are actually building 
themselves dwellings, very few indeed, 
so far, but it is a beginning. In this 
new reduction there are about twenty-five 
families, and there is another band of 
.them about half a day's journey further 
on and about as numerous. I have not 
yet been able to meet these, but I hope 
to bring them in soon. They tell me 
that there is also another party of Mano- 
bos, still further off, consisting of about 
fifty or sixty families. Their chief is an 
escaped convict from Surigao, and his 
presence and influence will increase the 
difficulty of treating with them. He is a 
real fugitive and always keeps himself 
out of sight, for he is, as he has reason to 
be, very fearful of the approach of 
strangers. I hope to make another ex- 
cursion soon into that region with some 
hopes of taming those savages. Could 
you not send me a supply of hardware, 
tools, and the like, as a means of attract- 
ing them ? They are fond of such things 
and it would be well to have them learn 
the use of them. But enough of the 
Manobos for the present. Now let me 
say a word about the Mamanuas. 

These savages seem to me to be among 
the most wretched of the children of 
Adam. I have no idea of their number, 
nor is it easy to ascertain it, because of 
their nomadic life. They are vagrants, 
always moving and carrying with them all 



that they possess, which amounts to a 
spear and the dogs they keep to hunt 
wild boars. As far as I can learn, they 
wander about the region which stretches 
from the source of the Tago to the basin 
of the Cantilan. They lead so miserable 
a life that they are despised even by the 
Manobos. I beg you to consider whether 
there may not be some means of ap- 
proaching and of bringing them to the 
knowledge and service of God. 

In a word, I believe that the gaining 
and Christianizing of the Manobos along 
the Tago, will be a very hard task, and 
even much harder still will be the work 
of dealing with the Mamanuas. I hope 
that you will help me to overcome these 
difficulties, by your prayers, your coun- 
sels and some timely alms, which are all 
levers of great power for removing ob- 
stacles. 

But I am running on too far, though I 
have endeavored to spare you by omit- 
ting details that wonld be interesting. 
But, to come to an end, I recommend 
myself to your Holy Sacrifices and 
Prayers. 

Your Servant in Christ, 

RAIMUNDO PERUGA, S.J. 

LETTER OF FATHER RAMON RICART TO 
THE REV. FATHER PASTELLS, SUPE- 
RIOR OF THE MISSION. 

DEAR FATHER SUPERIOR, P. C. 

This letter is my account of the second 
quarter of 1892. Until the zyth of 
June, I was helping Father Ramo among 
the natives, near Talacogon, and those 
who dwell on the shores of the river 
Gibon. I reached Veruela on the i6th, 
and there celebrated the feast of St. John 
Francis, patron of that settlement. After 
the feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, I 
set out, on the 27th, for Jativa, where 
Brother Mataniala had been left all 
alone. 

The news of the murders at Talacogon 
came upon us here like a thunderbolt, 
and spread terror among our communi- 
ties of Christians in these parts. The 



A Glimpse of Mission Life in the Philippines. 149 






unbelievers around about us have also 
committed murders, and have carried off 
some captives into slavery. I have heard 
likewise of three human sacrifices in May 
and June. Some of them, early in May, 
made an attack upon the old settlement 
of Filar, where they killed some and en- 
slaved others, and they did the same to 
some Manobos at Salug. By way of re- 
prisals, the infidel Bacudan of Salug car- 
ried off into slavery a woman and her two 
little sons, though they failed to seize the 
husband, who is a Christian of the sta- 
tion of Patrocinio. 

In the beginning of June, among the 
hills opposite Veruela, there were two 
murders, and a chief performed a paghu- 
aga, or human sacrifice, the victim being 
a Christian maiden whom he had brought 
for the purpose from I know not where. 
We shall probably soon hear of other 
murders by these same inhuman wretches. 
The chief motive of all these crimes 'may 
be found in the iniquities which accom- 
pany the traffic in slaves. These are 
nearly always carried through Gandia 
and Compostela, and the Gandians 
always know when they pass. By trans- 
ferring the detachment of troops sta- 
tioned in Veruela to Gandia, and order- 
ing them to bring the slave-drivers as 
prisoners to Surigao, there would be an 
end to this nefarious business; one thing 
certain is that the Manobos of these 
mountains and along these rivers, will 
soon disappear, for it is known that every 
slave means preceding murders and con- 
sequent reprisals for revenge. 

Here in Jativa we have Aferez, who 
was one of the civic guard that was en- 
gaged in the pursuit and punishment of 
malefactors, and who is quite ready for 
such work. If we could have, in addi- 
tion, from Surigao, Sergeant Bernardino 
Leasurra, who was in the same service, 
and who knows those evil-doers very 
well, and who, moreover, is acquainted 
with every foot of ground along these 
rivers and mountains, it would be a great 
help toward setting things right. 

I mast add that, for the care and the 



consolidation of these communities, there 
ought to be a Father in* residence here. 
It is impossible for me to visit them all, 
even as often as twice a year. Though 
I am on my feet and travelling without 
interruption, yet I cannot even attend 
properly to the conversion of the unbe- 
lievers and the recovery of our stragglers. 
I must be content to send messengers 
to them and thus I have managed to 
reach nearly all the backsliders. By this 
means I have been able to organize three 
new settlements. 

During the eight days I spent in 
Veruela, I made up a number of feuds 
and quarrels among the Manobos, most 
of which sprang from assassinations. In 
Patrocinio I met five converted families 
that had come in to escape the dreaded 
assassins. At Jativa no one dares to go 
over to the other side of the river, where 
their plantations are left uncared for be- 
cause of the terror that reigns everywhere 
among them. 

In our visitation of the settlements of 
San Luis, Santa Ines, Novele, Ebro, 
Borbon, Navas, Prosperidad, Azpeitia, 
and Arcos, Father Ramo heard confes- 
sions and preached in their language, 
and without any need of an interpreter. 
It seemed to me that all was going on 
well there. 

You perceive that I have not asked for 
anything this time ; however, if it should 
occur to you to send me any little thing 
that might be useful in our dealings with 
the savages whom we shall try to bring 
over, or any church articles, they will be 
received very gratefully, for Veruela is 
quite destitute. If any money comes in 
for alms, I might give you a hint as to the 
objects in which it could be most use- 
fully invested. 

I wish you all a very happy feast on 
the day of our Blessed Father Ignatius. 
Present my affectionate greetings to our 
Fathers and Brothers, to whose Holy 
Sacrifices and prayers I commend my- 
self. 

Your Servant in Christ, 
RAMON RICART, S.J. 



THE AUGUSTINIANS IN ASIA. 



' r TT v HE following interesting and in- 
structive details are taken from 
the " Annual Report of the Mis- 
sions of the Augustinian Province of the 
Most Holy Name of Jesus in the Philip- 
pines, China, Spain and Rome for 1897- 
1898, printed at Malabon, at the Or- 
phan Asylum of Our Lady of Consola- 
tion, under the management of the Au- 
gustinians, 1898." 

REPORT. 

From this report we gather the follow- 
ing data relating to the missionary work 
of the Augustinians in Asia, in the Phil- 
ippine Islands and China. 

In the Philippine archipelago, in the 
care of the Fathers in the Islands of 
Luzon, Panay and Cebu are twenty-two 
extensive districts, whereof six are in the 
archdiocese of Manila, and sixteen others 
in the following dioceses, eleven in 
Nueva Segovia, one in Cebu, and four in 
Jaro, embracing in all two hundred and 
twenty-five parishes and missions, in 
charge of three hundred and twenty-six 
religious. 

The statistics of their work for the last 
year (as given in the Report) present 
the following figures: Souls in charge of 
the Fathers, 2,377,743; number of bap- 
tisms, 110,233; number of marriages, 
17,909; number of deaths, 67,508. 

As we learn from the Report, co-work- 
ers with the above Augustinian mission- 
aries are three secular parish priests in 
care of souls, under the direction, how- 
ever, of the Father Provincial. 

All the missions (as well as those on 
the Asiatic continent in China) are un- 
der the direction of a chief, styled Pro- 
vincial, whose headquarters are in Ma- 
nila. With him as assistants in his 
widely scattered territory, are associated 
seventeen coadjutors, known, all but one, 
as vicars provincial, whereof one resides 
at Madrid, Spain, another in China, the 



others assisting him in the Philippines, in 
different parts of the islands under his 
care, in the several mission groups, 
thirty-two in number, which are formed 
of parishes and cures. 

These groups, all comprising a larger or 
smaller number of cures within their limits, 
are centered in the four dioceses of the 
Philippines as follows : In the archdiocese 
of Manila are six of them with 940,906 
souls in charge ; in the diocese of Nueva 
Segovia (also in the Island of Luzon), 
are eleven with 553,739 souls, whereof 
140,392 are pagans ; in the diocese of 
Cebu (in the island of the same name 
and others of the Visaya group) is one 
district with 258,866 souls in charge, 
while in the diocese of Jaro (in the island 
of Panay) are four missions-centres with 
623,302 souls in care of the Fathers. 

In Luzon the six mission groups (in 
the archdiocese) have their headquarters 
as follows : Manila with ten parishes ; 
Batangas with ten parishes ; Bulacan 
with eighteen parishes ; Nueva Ecija with 
twenty-two parishes ; Tarlac with four 
parishes ; Pompanga with twenty- five 
parishes. 

These are in the archdiocese (as said 
of Manila), while the other eleven in the 
diocese of Nueva Segovia (in the same 
island of Luzon), are in four groups 
known as provinces, Ilocos Norte with 
twelve parishes ; Ilocos Sur with eleven 
parishes ; Union with twelve parishes ; 
Abra with four parishes; five known as 
districts, distntos, Tiagan with two mis- 
sions ; Lepanto with five missions ; Bontoc 
with four missions ; Quiangan with two 
missions ; Benguet with three missions, 
and two commanderies, commandancia\ 
Amburayan with three missions ; Cabu- 
gaoan, data not given. 

On the island of Cebu is one sole pro- 
vince known by the same name, with 
seventeen parishes, while in Panay are 
three provinces, Iloilo with thirty-one 




The Augustinians in Asia. 



Ulb 

.: 



parishes ; Capiz with eighteen parishes ; 
Antique with sixteen parishes, and a 
district, Concepcion, with seven parishes. 
Thus in these two hundred and twenty- 
e parishes and missions the Fathers 
have in care 2,376,813 souls, of whom 
140, 392 in Luzon are yet to be Christian- 
ized. 



CONVENTS. 



n/Vith these immense burdens depend- 
on the labors of the missionaries, yet 
are there only three convents, so-called, 
in the Philippine group. At Manila are 
the convent headquarters of the brethren 
in the islands founded on June 24, 
1571. Here are fifty-one religious in com- 
munity; twenty-six Fathers, whereof 
eight are retired from active mission 
service ; fourteen scholastics and eleven 
lay brothers. 

At Manila, which is -the headquarters 
of the Eastern missionaries, resides the 
Father Provincial with his immediate 
assistants, as definitors, the procurator- 
general of the missions (with his assist- 
ant), the archivist, chronicler and secre- 
tary of the provincial and the preacher 
general of the province. 

Here at Manila, it may be observed, 
was held the second provincial chapter of 
the province on May 3, 1572, whereat 
twelve Fathers, all at the time in the East, 
were present. 

A second convent in honor of the Most 
Holy Child is at Cebu, founded on April 
28, 1565, the year the Augustinians with 
Admiral Legazpi reached the Philippines 
from Mexico, whence they had sailed 
the year before. At Cebu are eight re- 
ligious in community, four Fathers and 
as many lay-brothers. At Cebu was held 
the first provincial chapter of the Fathers 
in the Philippines, in June, 1569. 

Then, thirdly, comes the convent of 
Nuestra Senora de G facia at Guadalupe, 
a Sanctuary or Shrine much frequented 
by the devout, especially the Chinese, two 
leagues E.S. E. from Manila, where a 
house of the Order was opened in 1601. 
At Guadalupe are four religious in res- 



idence, three Fathers and one lay- 
brother. 

Belonging to the Philippine province 
are two other convents in Europe, one at 
Madrid (in Spain) where resides the 
European vicar-provincial depending on 
Manila, with two Fathers and one lay- 
brother, and the other in Rome (Italy) 
with a Father and a lay-brother in res- 
idence. 

COLLEGES. 

Both in Spain and the Philippines are 
colleges under the direction of the Pro- 
vincial at Manila for the education and 
training of youth destined for work on 
the missions. 

One of these institutions is at Valla- 
dolid, the novice-house of the Philippine 
province, founded in 1735, under the 
title of the Most Holy Name of Jesus, 
where there are 158 religious in resi- 
dence, nine Fathers, 134 clerics, of whom 
twenty- five are novices, and fifteen lay- 
brothers. 

Here is taught philosophy, a three 
years' course, and one year's divinity. 1 

At La Vid (also in Spain) a monas- 
tery founded in 1032, but granted to the 
Order in 1865, are 108 religious in resi- 
dence, ten Fathers, eighty- one clerics and 
seventeen lay-brothers. Here the Schol- 
astics pursue a four years' course of The- 
ology. 

At both convents lay-brothers pass their 
year of novitiate. While at the Manila 
convent (to which reference has been 
made), the students finish their fourth 
and fifth year of divinity. 

So much for the administrative depart- 
ments of the Philippine province. 

For the aged mission-workers and such 
as have been invalided in service, a house 
of the province known as la Casa de 
Gracia was opened in Spain in 1880. 
This community embraces twenty-three 
religious in residence, twenty-two priests 
and six lay-brothers. 

INSTITUTIONS. 

In the Philippines under the direction 
of the Fathers are conducted the follow- 



The Augustinians in Asia. 



ing establishments of training and benef- 



icence. 



COLLEGE AND SEMINARY. 



At Vigan, the Villa Fernandina of 
other times, a charming city, thus named 
in memory of King Ferdinand VI., who 
conferred on it city rights, and place of 
residence of the bishops of Nueva Se- 
govia since 1755, is a seminary and 
college under the direction of the 
Fathers, seven of whom are teachers. 
Here 209 students are taught the follow- 
ing branches (as set down in the Report), 
viz. : Dogmatic Theology, Moral The- 
ology, Metaphysics, Logic, Ethics, Phy- 
sics, Chemistry, Geography, Poetry, 
Rhetoric, Trigonometry, Geometry, Al- 
gebra, Arithmetic, Analysis and transla- 
tion of Latin, Greek, Spanish and French, 
Church History, Natural History, Uni- 
versal History, History of Spain, History 
of the Philippine Islands, Christian Doc- 
trine. 

ORPHAN ASYLUM FOR BOYS. 

At Tambohn, about a league from 
Manila, is an orphan asylum under the 
care of six religious, two Fathers and 
four lay brothers, inspectors of the 
schools, where 145 lads are taught the 
following trades: Compositors, thirteen; 
press work, twelve; bookbinders, thirty; 
gilders, three; candle makers, forty- 
three, and forty-four too young to train. 

ORPHAN ASYLUM FOR GIRLS. 

At Mandaloya on the Tasig is another 
orphan asylum for girls, conducted by 



Augustinian Nuns, in number twenty- 
two. From the report we gather the fol- 
lowing items: Number of pupils, 122. 

The course of instruction embraces 
music, piano; painting, drawing, embroid- 
ery, artificial flower making, dressmaking, 
hairdressing, lacemaking, laundry work 
and sewing. 

GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE SAID 
PROVINCE. 

Total number of religious engaged on 
the missions entrusted to the Order or 
associated therein, 613, of whom 326 are 
in the Philippines, thirteen in China, 
two at Rome in Italy and 272 in Spain. 
Total number of missions with care of 
souls, 234, of which nine are in China 
and 225 in the Philippines. 

CHINA. 

In China, where the Fathers, twelve 
in number, have charge of the province 
of North Hu-nan in the interior of that 
empire, they have missions in eight dis- 
tricts with headquarters at Hofu or Jofu, 
Yalan or Pateros, Cai-tchi-kiao, Tseleang- 
ping, Yotchon, Sesuetien, Semen-sien 
and Nie-kia-se. At Shanghai and Hang- 
how, cities nearer the coast, are resi- 
dences, which, with the missions, are 
under the direction of the Augustinian 
Vicar Apostolic, Father Louis Perez, 
Titular Bishop of Corcyra, and Vicar 
Provincial, Father Saturnine de la Torre. 
Unfortunately, no detailed statistics of 
these Chinese missions similar to those 
referring to the Philippines, whereon 
they depend, are given in this report. 



VITAL STATISTICS RELATING TO THE MISSIONS OF 
EXCLUDED) IN THE PHILIPPINES. 



Baptisms 



!o3,oi5 
104,049 

io7,573 
1 12,130 
110,233 







Parishes, 






Year 


Pueblos 


Missions 




Souls 


1892 


203 


1 88 


2 


,082, 131 


1893 


208 





2 


,096,281 


1894 


219 





2 


,136,103 


1895 


231 





2 


, 191,604 


1896 








2 


,324,968 


1897 





225 


2 


,377,743 



THE AUGUSTINIANS (RECOLETOS 
FROM 1892-1898. 

Augustinians 

in the 
Marriages Deaths Philippines 

20,355 83,051 310 
21,279 78,335 286 

25,005 73, 6 9 6 3*7 

22,660 81,652 317 

19,421 71,295 344 

17,909 67,508 319 






THE VENERABLE FATHER ALOYSIUS 
MARY SOLARI, S.J. 



TT THAT Father Bernard de Hoyos 
yV was to Spain in the last century, 
the venerable Father Aloysius 
Mary Solari, the subject of this sketch, 
was to Italy in this century, in spreading 
devotion to the Sacred Heart. Both were 
priests of the Society of Jesus, both 
died young and in great repute of holi- 
ness, and the cause of the Beatification 
of both has been begun. 

BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD, 1795-1806. 

Father Solari was born May 13, 1795, 
in Chiavari, now an important town 
of thirteen thousand inhabitants on 
the Riviera di Levante, about 
twenty-five miles south ot Genoa. 
*He was baptized on the Feast of the 
Ascension, the day after his birth, 
in the paiish church of St. John the 
Baptist, and was named Augustine John 
Nicholas Aloysius and Raphael. 
Although it is not the custom in the 
Society of Jesus, for its members to take 
a new name in religion as in other re- 
ligious Orders, still instances are found 
of names being changed or modified. 
Before his entry into religion, Father 
Solari was always called Augustine, but 
thenceforth he wished to be called 
Aloysius Mary, out of devotion to the 
Blessed Virgin and to St. Aloysius, to 
whom he had made a vow when he was 
in trouble about his vocation. He re- 
ceived the Sacrament of Confirmation, 
January 18, 1801, from his uncle, Mon- 
signor Luke Solari, Bishop of Brugnato. 
Another uncle, Father Joseph Solari of 
the Congregation of Pious Schools, en- 
joyed some fame as a man of letters. 

Augustine was the only son of a family 
of four children. Like many others we 
read of, he amused himself at a very early 
age by preaching to his three sisters. 
On one of those occasions he indulged in 



a rhetorical flight to which significance 
was attached in the light of after years. 
He compared the Solari family to a 
beautiful torch with four lights, and him- 
self to an extinguisher which should put 
them all out. The four lights, it seems, 
were his father and his three uncles, the 
Bishop, the Scolopian, and another who 
was a lawyer of note. The fact proved 
that the renown of the sanctity of the 
young orator eclipsed in after years the 
fame of those distinguished personages, 
though his father had his fears at the 
time that the youth would prove any- 
thing but a credit to the family on ac- 
count of some faults he observed in his 
character. This good man died in the 
July of 1807, and in him Chiavari lost 
one of its most respected and public- 
spirited citizens. He was one of the 
three founders of the Societa Economica 
of Chiavari, the first of its kind in all 
Italy, and it was through its means that 
the cultivation of Indian corn was intro- 
duced, as well as that of another popular 
vegetable sometimes called solatium 
tiiberosum, but better known as the potato. 
So slow, after all, is the spread of the 
knowledge of useful things. 

AT SCHOOL IN SAVONA, 1806 1814. 

In the November of the year 1806, 
Augustine was sent to a college atSavona, 
once the property of the Society of Jesus, 
now kept by the Lazarists. The Rector, 
Father Castagna, has left us in a letter, 
written March 16, 1830, the following 
account of Solari as a school boy : 

"During the first year of his college 
life he was so lively that at times he 
seemed to be beside himself. His viva- 
city, however, never led him to breaches 
of good manners and failure in docility. 
His levity sprang from impulse, and never 
from malice, nor did it ever degenerate 

J 53 



154 The Venerable Father Aloysius Mary Solari, S.J. 



into boldness or wilfulness. He was in- 
constant in study, though he was not 
backward in class, owing to his clear and 
ready mind. During that year he was 
neither fervent or negligent in practices of 
piety. In the following year he changed 
so suddenly and completely that the 
Fathers used to say he was no longer 
the same boy. Thenceforth he was 
always diligent at study, constant and 
faithful in his piety, and guarded in his 
conduct. At proper times he was jovial 
but always in moderation. He chose 
the most virtuous of his companions for 
friends and they called him their St. 
Aloysius. He had a tender devotion to 
the Blessed Virgin, and was solicitous to 
make her the subject of conversation at 
the evening recreation, especially on Sat- 
urdays. ' He arranged with his com- 
panions to draw by lot a little ticket every 
week on which was prescribed some 
special virtue to be practised during the 
following week, a pious practice he kept 
up the whole of his stay in the college. 
He would not tolerate anyone speaking 
ill of another in his presence, even though 
it should be of trifling faults ; much less 
would he stand scurrility, or anything 
wanting in decency. I know that he 
fasted, especially on the eve of the feast 
of our Lady, but I am not sure whether 
or not he practised other mortifications, 
though I suspected that he did. He used 
to pray by his bedside longer than was 
prudent, and it was remarked that he 
knelt on his bare knees. His humility 
led him to give unstinted praise to the 
gifts of others, while without affectation 
he accounted himself inferior to all in 
talent, knowledge, and endowments of 
the mind. He was charitable to the 
poor, equal to every emergency, and 
docile to the orders of his superiors and 
the advice of his spiritual director, 
though he was somewhat scrupulous on 
account of the delicacy of his conscience. ' ' 
The salutary change recorded in this 
letter was largely owing to a Prefect who 
came to the college in 1807. Up to 
that time the young Solari was apt to 



give too free rein to his natural liveli- 
ness. Hence his sisters, when vacation 
time approached, did not look forward to 
his home-coming with feelings of unal- 
loyed satisfaction. They knew by ex- 
perience what a disturbing element his 
vivacity was in their quiet home. But 
when he returned to them in the Autumn 
of 1807, they were agreeably surprised to 
find him changed so much to their lik- 
ing. 

In the Summer of 1814, he left the 
college of Savona, having completed 
his course of rhetoric, and studied 
some philosophy. The impression he 
made on his companions and superiors 
during his eight years of college life, was 
one that lasted all their lives. One of 
them wrote in 1871, after an interval of 
sixty years, that he remembered him as a 
saintly youth, who was the joy and admir- 
ation of all, and that to his love of letters- 
he united a rare and winning piety. 

UNIVERSITY AND CLERICAL STU- 
DENT. 1814-1817. 

After his return to Chiavari, Augustine 
studied mathematics for a while under 
Father Spotorno, a Barnabite, a famous 
teacher of the exact sciences. Being 
more of a literary than a scientific turn 
of mind, he derived little profit from the 
two lessons he received each day from 
his tutor, who was called away soon after 
to Bologna to be professor of rhetoric in 
the Barnabite College. Solari then went 
to Genoa to continue his philosophy in 
the University under a certain Father 
Massucco. During that year he. was of- 
ten blessed by Pope Pius VII., without 
being aware of it. The Pontiff had re- 
moved from Rome to Genoa, where he 
lived for a time in the Durazzo Palace, 
now the Royal Palace, in the Via Balbi. 
From its terrace Pius VII. often beheld 
Solari, in a little room in the house oppo- 
site, all intent on his studies. The Holy 
Father, filled with admiration at his appli- 
cation and the modesty which revealed it- 
self in his countenance, blessed him as 



iThe Venerable Father Aloysius Mary Solari, S.J. 155 



often as he beheld him; and this blessing 
was productive of abundant fruit. 

A year later he returned to Chiavari, 
where he put on the clerical habit, and 
began to study theology under the direc- 
tion of the Provost of Rupinaro. He 
agreed to this arrangement to content his 
mother, who, failing to induce him to give 
up the idea of adopting the priestly life, 
preferred to see him a secular priest rather 
than a member of the Society of Jesus, 
which had 'been lately restored through- 
out the whole world by Pope Pius VII., 
and to which he felt strongly drawn. 
During his studies, his zeal displayed it- 
self in every direction. At one time v/e 
find him striving to do away with abuses 
that crept in at the celebration of a festi- 
val in a neighboring village; at another, 
nursing the fever-stricken in the hospital, 
and ministering to the spiritual as well as 
the temporal wants of those detained in 
prison. His charity to the poor impelled 
him to give away to them even his own 
clothes. Within his own home circle he 
always exerted his influence for good 
among his sisters, relatives and friends, 
in short, his conduct was so edifying that 
the old people in Chiavari still retain 
memories of him as a most edifying 
cleric. 

This one fact alone will show how ear- 
nest he was at this time to attain the 
perfection of his state. He made an 
agreement with his relative, Christopher 
Gandolfo, to mutually admonish each 
other of their faults, and because Augus- 
tine always insisted on the fulfilment of 
the bargain, in order to satisfy him, 
Christopher scrutinized him most care- 
fully, to try to detect even the slightest 
fault in him. His efforts, however, were 
unsuccessful, although he enjoyed his 
closest friendship, and well understood 
what goes to make up perfection. 

On May 16, 1817, he received the 
tonsure and minor orders from Mgr. 
Gentile in that prelate's private chapel 
in Genoa. On the 3ist of the same 
month he was raised to subdeaconship, 
and to deaconship on the 2oth of Sep- 



tember, in the chapel of the convent of 
St. Sebastian. In the ame year he 
made a public defence in theology in the 
Church of St. John the Baptist in Chia- 
vari, in the presence of the Cardinal 
Archbishop, Spina, and a number of 
learned ecclesiastics. 

VOCATION. 

Solari' s vocation to religion resembled 
somewhat that of St. Aloysius in the 
opposition he had to encounter for three 
years. This opposition came from his 
mother who, being a very religious 
woman and unwilling to run counter to 
the will of God, multiplied examinations 
and trials of his vocation in the hope of 
proving it to be a passing whim or fancy. 
From letters written before he left school 
at Savona, we learn that it was his inten- 
tion to become a religious, but it was not 
fell the middle of August, 1814, that he 
made known to his brother-in-law, Chris- 
topher Gandolfo, that the Order of his 
choice was the Society of Jesus, which had 
been restored one week before, August 7, 
1814, having been suppressed through 
the machinations of Freemasonry in 1773. 
A month later, he broke the tidings to 
his mother, who at first made light of it. 
Seeing afterwards that he was in earnest, 
she made an agreement with him not to 
speak of the matter any more for a cer- 
tain length of time, after which, should 
he remain firm in his resolve, she would 
give her consent. When the term of the 
truce had come, she found that he was as 
steadfast at his vocation as ever, where- 
upon she had him examined by seven 
different ecclesiastics, who one and all 
approved of his decision. Blinded by 
maternal love, she still resisted, and as- 
sembled under her own roof another 
tribunal of distinguished persons, among 
whom were the Archpriest of Chiavari, a 
canon, a Capuchin, the confessor of her 
son, and some others. She then went 
before them and pleaded her cause for 
withholding permission for her son to be- 
come a Jesuit with an eloquence of which 
none had believed her capable. Never- 



156 The Venerable Father Aloysius Mary Solari, S.J. 



theless, she found herself in the minority; 
the vocation carried the day. Still she 
would not yield, but had recourse on two 
occasions to Cardinal Spina, Archbishop 
of Genoa, to have him throw the weight 
of his authority in the scale against her 
fon's entering religion. She would have 
him in his capacity of Archbishop forbid 
him once for all to become a religious. 
On the first appeal the Cardinal wrote 
from Forli, where he happened to be at 
the time, to Augustine, exhorting him to 
weigh the matter more attentively; but 
the second time he answered the mother 
plainly that he could not oppose a voca- 
tion which bore the stamp of truth. In 
the theological disputation before men- 
tioned, Solari concluded with some ver- 
ses of his own composition expressing his 
thanks, and to the surprise of all, ended 
his appeal with the two lines: 

E mai non tergero dagli occhi il pianto, 
Finche non vesta di Loiola il manto. 

For two years the mother had resisted 
her son, and could not bring herself to 
give her consent to his becoming a relig- 
ious. Having now come of age he de- 
termined, after taking counsel of Mgr. 
Biale, Bishop of Ventimiglia, who was 
then in Chiavari, to do at all hazards 
what he believed to be the will of God. 
Accordingly, at the country-house of a 
kinsman near Chiavari, he renounced be- 
fore a notary his rich inheritance in favor 
of his three sisters. He then returned 
home happy in the thought that he had 
freed himself from at least one bond that 
might have bound him to the world. 
Then, after having once more consulted 
the Bishop, he left a letter to his mother 
on the table in his room, and set out 
under the cover of night for Genoa. 
This was probably the 26th of September, 
and the day following, accompanied by 
the kinsman in whose house he had made 
his renunciation, he knocked at the door 
of the Jesuit novitiate attached to the 
Church of St. Ambrose. 

His mother took some time to become 
resigned, but at length yielded, and 



wrote to her son giving her full consent 
and her blessing. The occasion of this 
reconciliation was the visit of three young 
Jesuit novices, who came on foot from 
Genoa in guise of pilgrims to visit the 
sanctuary of the Madonna del' Orto at 
Chiavari. The novices preached in the 
Church of the Sanctuary, and in another 
near by, and God made use of their words 
and example to bring about a change of 
heart in the mother when they visited her 
and explained to her that further opposi- 
tion might entail the sending away of her 
son to some more distant place than 
Genoa. 

LIFE IN RELIGION. 1817-1829. 

The new novice, henceforth to be 
known as Aloysius Mary, spent the whole 
two years of his rioviceship in Genoa. 
We have noticed that from boyhood he 
had quite a taste for literature, and that 
he cultivated from a very early age his 
talent for preaching. One of the reasons 
why he preferred the Society of Jesus be- 
fore other religious orders was that he 
believed it would give him a wider field 
for turning these two talents to account. 
In connection with this it is pleasing to 
note that before he effected his entrance 
into the Society, he said daily prayers 
that he might be sent to preach in 
America, "as I have always desired," 
are his words. Being in deacon's orders 
his superiors occasionally appointed him 
to preach in their church. He evidently 
acquitted himself with credit, for he was 
selected to preach the panegyric of Saint 
Ignatius on his feast day, July 31, 1819. 

The steady advance he made as a 
novice in the practice of every kind of 
virtue corresponded with the high ex- 
pectations raised by the singularity of his 
vocation. He was especially remarkable 
for his obedience and simplicity of man- 
ner, so much so that his Master of 
Novices declared that he could never find 
in him the least trace of self-will. On a 
scrap of paper, which after his death was 
given to his sister, Teresa, a\ong with a 
picture of the Sacred Heart, which bore 



The Venerable Father Aloysius Mary Solari, S.J. 157 



he impress of many a fervent kiss, the 
ollowing was written in the third person 
n which he gives an account of himself : 
"He one day asked his Master of Nov- 
ces for a spiritual book to read, and he, 
lolding up a crucifix, said to him : ' It is 
)ut of this book you should study. ' Hav- 
ng thus rid himself of the thought of other 
reading, he set himself to hear what this 
Divine Master was teaching from His 
chair of the Cross, and soon learned 
there to despise whatever passes with 
time, to deny his own will, to desire to 
suffer, to think little of himself, to take 
pleasure in being made little of, to desire 
earnestly the salvation of his neighbor, 
and many other virtues." 

On October 3, 1819, he made the three 
vows which Jesuit novices take at the end 
of their noviceship, and was sent immed- 
iately to the Collegio del Carmine, at 
Turin, to teach rhetoric. He taught 
this class until after Christmas, when 
superiors relieved him of a burden to 
which he was not equal, and, knowing 
that he was a man of solid virtue, they 
put him to teach the lowest grammar 
class in the same college. To one who 
was naturally as ambitious of glory as he 
was this would have proved a severe trial 
if he had not learned well those lessons 
he was taught by the crucifix. 

During the month of November, 1820, 
he went back in Genoa and preached to 
the congregation of Bona Mors in the 
Church of St. Ambrose, and explained 
the catechism. He was then sent for a 
term to Rome to perfect himself in 
Italian, Latin and Greek. From Rome 
he went to Naples to teach grammar, and 
was soon after ordained priest and de- 
voted to the ministries proper to the 
priesthood, especially preaching. He was 
stationed chiefly at Benevento, where he 
remained till his death in 1829. 

The well known philosopher and writer, 
Father Liberatore, S.J., who died a few 
years ago, often heard Father Solari 
preach, and said of him that he usually 
mounted the pulpit with his eyes dimmed 
with tears, and that he easily moved his 



audience also to tears. When he preached 
on the Passion, he remained the whole 
time on his knees bathed in tears. He 
was so powerful in word that at Naples 
where gambling was a prevalent vice, in- 
veterate gamesters were known to go and 
hand over to him their cards and dice, 
and make a confession full of compunc- 
tion. There was a young man who had 
resisted every entreaty to give up a -long 
standing enmity until Father Solari took 
him in hand, and holding a crucifix up 
before him, said so pathetically : "Will 
you refuse this to Jesus? " that he yielded 
at once. In the confessional he was so 
kind and loving that all sorts of people 
flocked to him. He frequently visited 
the hospitals and prisons, where every- 
one wished to confess to him. On his 
way back to the college he was sure to 
meet some sinners, whom he used to 
lad to a little chapel, where, after a few 
words, he would kiss the feet of all, 
which so won them over that he had no 
difficulty in getting them to make their 
confession. In giving the Spiritual Exer- 
cises he was exceedingly successful, and 
perhaps nowhere were their beneficial re- 
sults seen to better advantage than among 
the three hundred boys, for the most part 
undisciplined and wayward, who flocked 
to the College of Benevento, when the 
Society was restored in the Kingdom of 
Naples by decree of Ferdinand I. , Sep- 
tember 3, 1821. 

The celebrated Father Parisi, S. J., who 
was called the Apostle of Naples, used to 
say that it would be a difficult thing to 
write the life of Father Solari, because his 
sanctity consisted rather in the perfection 
of his interior life than in any showy ex- 
ternal work. The sweetest hours to him 
were those he passed before the Blessed 
Sacrament, and for a long time it was his 
custom to visit our Lord at midnight. 
He was once found as if in ecstasy before 
the Tabernacle. On one occasion he 
distributed to the poor the money given 
him for a journey of thirty- five miles. He 
made the journey on foot and fasting, and, 
as soon as he arrived at his destination in 



158 The Venerable Father Aloysius Mary Solari, S.J. 



Naples,' he went without taking rest or 
refreshment to shut himself up in the 
chapel before the Blessed Sacrament. 
Sometimes while passing through the cor- 
ridors he would stop and remain motion- 
less as if rapt in spirit. His love of cor- 
poral mortification was so great that 
superiors had to watch over him to check 
him. His desire of the foreign missions 
never deserted him, and when he died, 
he had been already destined by the 
General of the Society, Father Roothan, 
for the Missions of the .^gean Sea. 

DEVOTION TO THE SACRED HEART 
OF JESUS. 

The devotion to the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus is in our day universal. But at 
the beginning of the present century, it, 
had many opponents, although so often 
approved and defended by the Holy 
See. The opposition came mainly from 
the spirit of Jansenism, which found 
itself in direct opposition to the spirit 
of the devotion. Father Solari, when a 
boy at school, read the life of Blessed 
Margaret Mary Alacoque, and it was 
probably the reading of this book that 
attracted him to the Order which was 
commissioned by our Lord to propagate 
the devotion to the Heart of Jesus. He 
began this apostolate among his fellow 
students at the University of Genoa. It 
is not surprising, then, that his attach- 
ment to the devotion and his zeal for its 
spread took very deep root in his heart 
during his noviceship. From that time 
forward he was accustomed to have fre- 
quently on his lips the following verses 
which he himself composed : 

II Cuor del mio bene 

Tutt' arso d'amore, 

II Cuor del mio cuore, 

II Cuor de Gesu. 

The Heart of my Beloved 
All burns with love, 
The Heart of my heart 
The Heart of Jesus. 

When he was professor, first in Turin 
and afterwards at Naples, his school- 



room was the field of his apostolic work. 
The themes which he set his scholars 
always contained some allusion to the 
Heart of Jesus and Mary. Then, as 
now, it was the custom in the colleges of 
the Society to excite emulation among 
the students by dividing them into two 
opposing camps of Romans and Cartha- 
ginians, who wage relentless and blood- 
less battles with pen and tongue. Father 
Solari substituted for the old historic 
rivals the two departments of Jesus and 
Mary. At Naples he placed a picture 
of the Sacred Heart on the door of his 
class-room, and woe to the boy who 
neglected to salute it as he passed. 

He continued the same apostolate in 
the Roman College among his fellow- 
students of the Society, and their fervor 
wonderfully increased. His letters reveal 
this tender devotion to the Sacred Heart. 
In one written from Naples in 1828 to a 
relative, he says: " I rejoice with you 
and your sister that you have propagated 
devotion to the Sacred Heart in the 
Church of St. Peter. What spiritual 
and temporal favors are in store for you 
and your children ! What inestimable 
treasures of merit may you not promise 
yourselves from the Divine Heart, which 
is so pleased with this devotion, and has 
promised to shower down blessings on 
those who practise and spread such a 
tender and excellent and fitting devo- 
tion ! You could not, I assure you, 
have given me more consoling news than 
this." He then goes on to treat at 
length of the many practical ways of 
spreading the devotion. 

In 1829 he wrote from Benevento to 
his sister Rose : "Be sure to have a beau- 
tiful picture of the Sacred Heart in the 
church of the future Hospice (an institu- 
tion he was instrumental in founding at 
Chiavari), exposed to public veneration. 
If you love me, help me to extend this 
attractive devotion, which I long to be 
able to spread throughout the world, 
coupled with that of the Sacred Heart 
of Mary." 

In every sermon he preached there 






The Venerable F'ather Aloysius Mary Solari, S.J. 159 



was mention of the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus. He founded at Benevento the 
Confraternity of the Sacred Heart and 
preached to its members on the First 
Friday of every month with great fervor. 
At recreation with those of his com- 
munity he could not speak of anything 
but the love of Jesus ; and he went so 
far in this that his superiors used to re- 
commend him to moderate it. In his 
daily meditation he invariably introduced 
some point relating to the Sacred Heart. 
On the very Friday morning when he 
was seized with his last illness, he 
preached on devotion to the Sacred 
Heart in such a way that one who heard 
him wrote: " If your Reverence had 
heard that sermon you would have said, 
' This is the last sermon from Father 
Solari. ' He made a resume of his for- 
mer sermons, explained the nature of 
solid devotion to the Sacred Heart, and 
concluded with a stirring exhortation to 
practise it. ' ' 

LAST ILLNESS AND DEATH. 

It is not known whether the day of his 
death was revealed to Father Solari, but 
it is certain that he spoke many times as 
if he had that knowledge. He gives 
some indication of it in his last letters to 
his relatives, especially in one written to 
his mother in the month of July, 1829, 
the month before his death. He said 
also one day to a lay-brother of the house 
that he would soon die. On the first 
Friday of the month of August, he was 
taken with a fever, the nature of which 
the doctors could not well determine, so 
one called it brain fever, another spotted 
fever, and another nettle-rash. After 
several days he appeared to be well again, 
but it was an illusion ; the spots disap- 
peared, but the disease was inwardly 
progressing. The day before his death, 
he told those about him that the morrow 
would be the last day of his life ; an 
opinion that was shared in by no one. 
He then called his confessor to make his 
last confession, and begged that Extreme 
Unction should be administered to him. 



The following day all admitted that the 
disease had taken a change for the worse. 
Notwithstanding the weakness of his 
stomach, which rejected the least thing 
he took, he was able to receive the Via- 
ticum. When he was anointed, he bade 
farewell to many of his brethren, as one 
about to start on a distant journey, and 
then turned his thoughts heavenward. 
He joined in when the prayers for the 
dying were recited, and repeated to him- 
self many ejaculations. When the end 
came he laid his hands on his breast in 
the form of a cross, and breathed his last, 
with his eyes turned toward heaven, 
about the hour of noon, on Thursday, 
August 27, 1829. 

A missionary of the Precious Blood 
who was present at his death, expressed 
the sentiments of all when he exclaimed: 
"This is the death of a saint !" During 
ike progress of his illness, the whole city 
of Benevento was interested in hearing 
the latest news about him, and many 
were the prayers offered for his recovery. 
As soon as he was dead, there was uni- 
versal mourning. At his funeral it was 
found necessary to put barriers around 
the bier, so eager were the people to 
secure some memorial of him. The 
Fathers who watched his remains, as they 
lay in an open coffin, were kept busy 
touching them with the rosaries to satisfy 
the devotion of the people. Some of 
them even sent candles afterwards to be 
lighted at his grave, where many went to 
pray and weep. The Fathers of the 
community, foreseeing the honor that was 
in store for him in after times, decided to 
have him buried in a closed coffin, such 
as we see in general use nowadays. 

THE FAME OF HIS SANCTITY. 

Father Solari' s reputation for holiness 
was very widespread, even during his 
life. It was the fame of his sanctity 
chiefly that drew great crowds to the 
church of the Society at Benevento when- 
ever it was known that he was to preach. 
Although other Fathers who had some 
claim to eloquence succeeded him 



i6o 



Ash Wednesday. 



they never brought such crowds to hear 
them. In 1869, his sister Rose, accom- 
panied by her two sons, who were priests, 
visited Benevento, to pray at his tomb, 
and although forty years had elapsed 
since his death, she learned from some 
aged canons who had known him, how 
his memory was held in veneration. 
When there was question of receiving 
Father Solari's sister into the congrega- 
tion of the Sisters of Mercy, Father 
Minini, S.J., said to one who consulted 
him : "Certainly, receive her, she is the 
sister of a saint, who perhaps will be one 
day venerated on the altar. ' ' His mother 
used to say to her grandchildren, when 
she would show them Father Solari's 
room : "Respect this room in reverence, 
for it is the room of a saint." In Naples 
he was commonly called an angel, on 
account of his modesty and recollection. 
When there was question of his being 
sent as a missionary to the islands of the 
^Egean Sea, the Fathers of the house de- 
clared that the wonders of the apostolate 
of St. Francis Xavier would be renewed 
in him. Even during his life, material 
was collected for his biography ; and a 
Father in Benevento had such confi- 
dence in his intercession with God, that 
he begged a certain favor by means of a 
letter which he placed in the tomb of 
of Father Solari. The Rector of the 



Jesuit college at Naples, as soon as he 
learned of the death of the saintly Father, 
assembled the whole community and de- 
clared him holy during life, at death, and 
after death. He and others were of 
opinion that his soul was not detained in 
Purgatory. The Fathers of Benevento 
concluded a letter, which they wrote two 
days after his death, with these words : 
"Everyone of us looks forward to the day 
which the Lord God for His great glory 
may make manifest." 

That day seems to be near at hand, 
for the preliminary processes before the 
Ordinary have been successfully gone 
through at Benevento and Genoa, and 
the cause of his Beatification was pre- 
sented to the Congregation of Rites on 
April 27, 1894. The cause of Father So- 
lari will be watched by all with much in- 
terest on account of his connection with 
the devotion of the Sacred Heart, and by 
the brethren of the Society of Jesus, for 
the additional reason that he is the first 
member of the restored Society whose 
cause has been so far advanced. Many 
special graces obtained through his inter- 
cession, especially in Naples and Bene- 
vento, are reported, which are at present 
the subject of inquiry by ecclesiastical 
authority. May this great apostle of the 
Sacred Heart intercede for the Apostle- 
ship of Prayer and all its Associates! 



ASH WEDNESDAY. 

By S. T. Smith, 

ASHES of penance ! Ashes of vain desires ! 
Ashes of memories, blown so wide and far ! 
Upon my brow before the altar fires, 
The priestly hand hath traced the Stem and Bar. 
" Remember, thou ! " he said unto my soul, 
' ' Thus, even thus shall end the years' long roll 
In ashes light as these, as pale, and worth 
Less as a sigh. For this God gave thee birth ? 
Nay ! For the Cross. And, as I sign and seal, 
The welcomed Cross doth only wound to heal. ' ' 
The welcomed Cross ! Be forty days for me 
Companionship and service, Lord, with Thee ! 
I bring the ashes of my life. Thy touch 
Kindles to flame the love that loveth much. 




PRIESTS IN PARISHES. 

GENERAL INTENTION FOR FEBRUARY, 1899. 

Recommended to our Prayers by His Holiness, Leo XIII. 



TT ^E pray for our priests continually. 
V/V We join with them in the 
august prayer of the Mass, and 
we kneel with them before the Blessed 
Sacrament exposed, invoking blessings 
upon them through whose ministry we 
have the inestimable blessings of Christ's 
Eucharistic Presence. Our eyes and 
our hearts follow them as they go about 
their ways of mercy, and our lips utter 
only blessings on their work. Nor do we 
forget them when death deprives us of 
their presence; we inscribe their names 
where the faithful may read them as they 
enter the house of prayer, and without 
ceasing we sing our requiems on the 
anniversaries of their departure. 

It is right that we should pray for all 
those who are "ordained for men in 
the things that appertain to God," since, 
as our mediators with God, they all must 
offer gifts and sacrifices for our sins. It 
is, therefore, most proper and natural 
that we should pray unremittingly for 
priests whose occupations bring them 
directly and constantly into contact with 
ourselves, whose lives and energies are 
devoted to our welfare, and who by a wise 
constitution of the Church dwell in our 
midst in such close and familiar relations 
with us as to form with us the household 
of the faith, shepherds keeping their 
flocks in the great fold of the Chief 
Pastor, and able to say for their several 

(33) 



sheep, as He says of all : "I know 
mine and mine know me. ' ' 

A parish is wholly a Catholic creation. 
It is so constituted as to enable bishops and 
priests to carry out the design of Christ 
in appointing Peter to be his Vicar, with 
the Apostles, His disciples and their suc- 
cessors to take His place in extending 
the benefits of the Redemption to souls. 
Its object is to make certain priests and 
their assistants responsible for the salva- 
tion of a definite body of people, to 
whom they are to give the most careful 
personal attention. The priests of a 
parish are in every case selected and ap- 
pointed by the bishop ; the parishioners 
usually are those who dwell within a 
certain district, also determined by the 
bishop, though sometimes those who 
dwell beyond the limits of a parish may 
become parishioners by fulfilling certain 
conditions which the bishop again must 
name. In any case the parish priests 
must live among the faithful confided to 
their care, and dedicate their whole life 
to the welfare of the parish. As much 
as possible they are to remain with their 
several flocks, so as to know them 
thoroughly, watch them growing from 
infancy to mature age, study their char- 
acters, observe their needs, recognize 
their various capabilities, and be ready 
always to keep them from error, to pre- 
vent them from falling, to confirm them 

161 



162 



General Intention. 



(34) 



in virtue, and inspire them with zeal. 
The priest in a parish is verily a spiritual 
father to the souls under his care, and 
gladly do the faithful give him this title, 
and all the love and veneration it calls for. 

Since, therefore, we are always the 
special objects of their paternal solicitude, 
since we are ever in their prayers, we 
should not ask why we are invited to pray 
especially at this time for those for whom 
we pray at all times. Much as we may 
pray for them we cannot realize how 
frequent and fervent our prayers for them 
should be without recalling, from time to 
time, how w^ell they deserve and how 
greatly they need our prayers, and how 
our own obligations of gratitude and piety 
should move us to make intercession for 
them above all other men. 

The priests who build up and maintain 
our parishes deserve our special prayers 
at all times, because they sacrifice them- 
selves for our benefit and devote their 
lives to labor for our salvation. In the 
spirit of the chief duty of the priesthood, 
which is to offer up sacrifices for sins, 
they begin by making their own sacrifice, 
leaving house and brethren, sisters, father 
and mother, wife and children, lands, 
and all things, in the name of Christ. 
To be entirely conformed to Him, the 
great High Priest, they leave home and 
kindred, and go to dwell in the company 
of their fellow priests ; consecrated for 
the exercise of divine worship and for 
the administration of holy things, they 
withdraw as much as possible, not merely 
from the evil influences of the world, but 
even from its lawful and innocent asso- 
ciations, lest anything earthly should dis- 
tract them from the things that appertain 
to God, lest the things that are their own 
might keep them from the things that are 
Jesus Christ's, and lest secular ties, pur- 
suits, or pleasures might hinder them 
from working for our good. They are 
in the world but not of it, they stand 
apart, not to live solely for themselves, 
but the better to help us ; they are never 
aloof from us, because they are constituted 
mediators between God and men. 



The sacrifice a priest must make before 
receiving Holy Orders cannot be esti- 
mated by simply enumerating the things 
he must leave or forsake. It must be 
measured by the generosity with which 
it is made, by the fact that it is to be 
lifelong, and by the motive of charity 
which prompts him to make it for others 
as well as for himself. Its earnestness 
also must be considered, for it is made in 
all sincerity and with every possible 
precaution to persevere in the life of 
privation thus begun, by sworn submis- 
sion to the authority of the Bishop and^ 
other ecclesiastical authorities, by giving 
up the opportunities of engaging in com- 
mercial life to live in a spirit of poverty, 
and by a promise, which is considered as 
binding as a vow, to lead a life ot celi- 
bacy, so as to be forever and entirely free 
to work for God's glory and for the sal- 
vation of souls. 

How well our priests deserve our pray- 
ers by the sacrifices they make in order 
to dedicate themselves to labor for our 
welfare, we can only judge when we 
remember that no men in the world re- 
alize more clearly than they the nature 
and extent of that sacrifice, experiencing, 
as they do, its hardships already in their 
seminary life. The sacrifice once made, 
the priest who is to engage in parish 
work assumes the responsibility and obli- 
gations of his office, which also have been 
explained to him most thoroughly during 
the seminary course, and put before him 
in the solitude ot retreat to be measured 
and weighed solemnly in God's presence, 
so that no man entering a profession is 
made to study its responsibilities as con- 
scientiously as our candidates for the 
priesthood. With this clear knowledge 
of what he is undertaking for oar sake, 
the young priest generously enters the 
labors of his vocation, and the experience 
of each day but makes his sense of re- 
sponsibility all the more vivid and trying, 
and his obligations more numerous and 
exacting. 

With responsibility comes labor, the 
never-ending lot of a priest who gives 



(35) 



General Intention. 



163 



himself to parish work. Indeed, in cer- 
tain religious orders, the consecrated 
>rm used to designate a priest engaged 
parish duty is the significant Latin 
;rm operarius, or workman in the sanc- 
lary or pulpit on Sunday, in the confes- 
sional or parochial office, in the schools 
or. homes of his parishioners the rest of 
the week, from early morning until late 
at night. His night' s resfoften disturbed, 
and his day laden with cares, he is con- 
stantly weighed down in body and mind, 
and often unable from sheer fatigue and 
ceaseless demands on his time, to devote 
himself to all his high and holy tasks as 
he longs to do. He is responsible for 
saving and perfecting every soul under 
his care as well as his own, and instead 
of being free to meditate and study spiri- 
tual books, or even to prepare his ser- 
mons properly, too frequently his very 
thanksgiving after Holy Mass is inter- 
rupted, and one duty presses upon an- 
other so rapidly that he barely finds time 
for reading his Office, and with difficulty 
can recollect his thoughts sufficiently for 
this pious duty. The catechism class and 
the schoolroom, the parish register and 
account books, the adornment of the 
sanctuary and the altar, the training of 
altar boys, the management of a choir, 
the direction of pious and benevolent 
associations, and the constant adminis- 
tration of the sacraments, baptisms, mar- 
riages, First Communion and Confir- 
mation classes, sick calls and funerals, the 
instruction of converts, and all the special 
cases of poor to be relieved, the distressed 
to be comforted, the afflicted to be con- 
soled, of scandals to be averted or re- 
paired, of injustice to be exposed, of 
crimes to be prevented, of wrong to be 
righted, of virtue to be protected and 
sustained, these are only the ordinary 
tasks of a priestly life, not to mention the 
special and extraordinary occupations or 
solicitudes with which every faithful priest 
is invariably charged. 

The priest's parochial duties are, there- 
fore, so numerous and so supernatural in 
their nature as to require extraordinary 



helps of divine grace, and the special 
favor of divine providenqe for their ac- 
complishment. Difficult as they are in 
themselves, they are doubly so in our 
country where our parishes are still but 
quasi or missionary parishes. With com- 
paratively few exceptions they are con- 
stantly changing. A parish is scarcely 
built up and completely established be- 
fore the change begins; now it is a change 
of parish limits, or new people come to 
dwell within the limits, while old parish- 
ioners move away, and this change means 
new requirements, and different resour- 
ces; again a church must be renovated or 
replaced by a larger and finer struc- 
ture, or rectory, school, society rooms 
and library must be provided, and 
in many dioceses all this material work 
devolves upon the priest: he is thus made 
responsible for the temporal as well as for 
the, spiritual interests of his parish, and 
that one or other of these interests does 
not suffer is due only to the self-sacrifice 
and devotion with which our pastors and 
their assistants apply themselves to both. 
Surely our parish priests need our 
prayers quite as much as they deserve 
them. If their hands are constantly up- 
lifted in prayer for us, we must needs 
stand by to keep them uplifted when 
human infirmity leaves them unable to 
sustain their many burdens. They need 
our prayers to keep up their disposition 
and desire for their own and our perfec- 
tion, when all around them is a world of 
disorder, indifference, lukewarmness, in- 
gratitude, discontent and depravity. 
They need our prayers to sustain their 
zeal in spite of the discouragement which 
seizes their spirit when they are left with- 
out resources or cooperation, and con- 
fronted with apparent failure, or met by 
contradiction. They need our prayers 
to keep their faith strong and vivid, their 
confidence unwavering, their prudence 
at once simple and wary, their fortitude 
indomitable and their reverence for holy 
things so conspicuous, as to compel and 
justify the pious reverence we have for 
them. 



1 64 



The Two Victories. 



(36) 



We might go on forever enumerating 
the needs of a priest in parish work and 
his titles to our prayers. When all is said, 
each one of us can quietly recall the 
special blessings we owe to their minis- 
tration. Suppose for a moment and 
may God avert the misfortune ! that 
their number should be lessened, that 
their spirit of piety and zeal should fail, 
or that they should be taken from us, as 
in some European countries, or prevented 
from devoting themselves freely to our 
welfare. Without making the supposition, 
we have reason to know too well how 
many of our brethren in our own country 
are falling away from the faith for want 
of priests, and too often we have to de- 
plore the good left undone and the evils 
caused by priests who are careless and 
indolent, worldly and even faithless to 
their holy calling. ' ' Like people, like 
priest," was a saying of the prophets, and 
it means that our lot is bound up with 
theirs, and that as we depend on them 
for instruction, example, and all the sacra- 
mental channels of grace, so they in 
turn, look to us for our prayers and for 
the encouragement afforded them by 
our cooperation with them, and for the 



benefits we derive from their ministry- 
We must therefore pray for the priests 
who are building and maintaining our 
parishes and laboring night and day for 
our welfare, that their number may be in- 
creased so that every hamlet in our land 
and in the territory lately brought under 
our control, may have the blessing of 
their ministry, that they may grow in piety 
and zeal, and impart their own spirit to 
ourselves so abundantly that the Catholic 
life, thus engendered and propagated, 
may compel not only the admiration of 
sectarians and unbelievers, but also by 
divine grace, their acceptance of our holy 
faith. While blessing God for His mercy 
in providing us with so many good and 
zealous priests, who go about their work 
quietly and humbly with so much con- 
solation for our souls, we must pray that 
the good work they are doing may be 
multiplied by the proper cooperation of 
the laity, that their holy lives and ex- 
ample may influence even those who do 
not believe as we do, to recognize the 
divine forces at work in our holy religion, 
and that God may make every one of 
them "a faithful priest, who shall do ac- 
cording to my heart, and my soul." 



THE TWO VICTORIES. 



Bv F. S. 



SOME years ago, I attended a mili- 
tary hospital in one of our cities, 
where self-sacrificing religious gen- 
erously devoted themselves to the care 
of the sick and wounded. They had 
consecrated their labors to the Sacred 
Heart with the earnest supplication that 
not one soldier confided to their devoted- 
ness should leave this world unprepared 
to appear before God. To this end, 
they had attached a Scapular of the 
Sacred Heart to every bed, remitting 
with entire confidence each soul to the 
mercy of the Divine Heart, while they 



lavished most tender cares on the wounds 
of their mangled bodies. 

One day, a young officer was brought 
in, whose state excited the deepest com- 
passion, and the efforts of the attending 
physician to relieve him only aggravated 
his excruciating torture ; however, a 
strong constitution gave a slight ray of 
hope. Morning and evening, the visits 
of the doctor occasioned such acute 
suffering to the patient that his compan- 
ions could scarcely bear to witness the 
cruel operations. Every time his wounds 
were probed, they were found more 



(37) 



The Two Victories. 



165 






fatal; soon all hope was abandoned, and 
the Christian doctor expressed to the 
gentle religious his wish that something 
might be done for the soul of the un- 
happy man, whose condition at this 
moment was most critical. The patient 
was morose and insensible to every other 
thought than that of his agonizing pain. 
The Sister, at the same time his nurse 
and good angel, at first sought only to 
make him endure patiently his awful 
sufferings. Who would not accept a 
word of kindness at such an hour ? 
What nature would not incline towards 
a religion which is our only support when 
all else fails ? Instinctively, the eyes of 
the dying man rested on the little scapu- 
lar suspended at the foot of his bed. As 
he gazed on the image of that meek and 
merciful Heart, his cries of anguish and 
distress were changed to this touching 
prayer : My God ! My God ! In spite 
of his state he still clung to the hope of 
life, but there were moments when almost 
in despair he wished at any price to end 
his existence. One night in a paroxysm 
of pain, he called for some one to shoot 
him and thus free him from such misery. 
The Sister approached his bed and tried 
by gentle words, drawn from the Sacred 
Heart, to soothe the anguish of his soul. 
Seeing him somewhat calmer, she spoke 
of the disquietude of the physician in his 
regard, adding that the interest she felt 
in his eternal welfare would no longer 
permit her to dissimulate the gravity of 
his condition. " You tell me there is no 
hope ! " he cried. " Impossible ! " It 
must be acknowledged resignation was 
difficult for a man in the flower of his 
age, already decorated with the highest 
military honors and captivated by the 
seductions of the world. ^Danger, how- 
ever, was not immediate. The next 
morning I visited him again, but alas ! 
my ministry was refused. This was a de- 
lay, but not a defeat, for his soul was in 
the keeping of the Sacred Heart, in which 
no one has ever vainly trusted. It should 
certainly be a miracle, such as has never 
yet been wrought, nor shall ever be seen, 



if that royal Heart were wanting to them 
that rely upon its aid,'Or if it did not 
hasten to their assistance. Meanwhile fer- 
vent prayers ascended in the patient's 
behalf to the Throne of Mercy, and I 
was asked to make a second attempt. 
Grace had done its work, the Sacred 
Heart had triumphed. The young 
officer made his confession with senti- 
ments of deep contrition and prepared 
with true devotion for the reception of 
the Holy Eucharist. Reminiscences of 
childhood being awakened, carried him 
back in spirit to that happy day, when 
for the first and probably the only time 
in life, his heart had been the dwelling 
of his Saviour. After a fervent thanks- 
giving he renewed with great fervor the 
promises of baptism, and when an Act 
of Consecration to our Immaculate 
Mother was suggested to him, he gladly 
acquiesced. During this little ceremony, 
the countenance which heretofore had 
worn an expression of suffering and sor- 
row, shone with hope and joy. Weak- 
ness gradually increased, and as the pallor 
of death overspread his features, he 
gently murmured: "Oh! how good 
God has been to me ! " and in these 
dispositions passed from this vale of tears 
to bless eternally the infinite mercy of 
the adorable Heart of Jesus. 

Another miracle of mercy has recently 
come under our notice manifesting again 
the unlimited power of the Sacred Heart 
over the most wayward of its creatures, 
proving once more the miraculous virtue 
of that little talisman, the Scapular of the 
Sacred Heart. 

Miss M. made a practice of giving daily 
to the first person she met a Scapular of 
the Sacred Heart. One Friday, last 
June, a man selling strawberries called 
at her residence and according to 
her custom, she presented him a 
scapular. At first he appeared startled, 
but when she told him to put it on, 
he obeyed. Some hours later, the man 
returned to her palatial home, and asked 
to see Miss M. alone, which impu- 
dent request was refused. He mani- 



1 66 



The Boy Savers. 



(38) 



fested such distress and insisted so ear- 
nestly that the interview was permitted, 
the mother of the young lady remaining 
within calling distance. As Miss M. 
entered the room, the visitor of the 
morning, telling her not to fear, mysteri- 
ously closed the door. Great was her 
surprise when the unhappy man informed 
her that she had that day prevented the 
commission of an enormous crime, as it 
had been his intention to kill his wife. 
The dread deed consummated, he 
planned escape on the first train leaving 
the city. When he placed the little 
scapular on his breast, remorse seized 
him, and some hours later he determined 
to seek his benefactress, acknowledge his 
guilty design and beg her to release the 
intended victim, who at that moment 
was locked up in one of the rooms of her 
house. Imploring light and strength 
from above, Miss M. spoke to him of 
the love of the Heart of Jesus for his im- 
mortal soul, and after many fruitless 
attempts, finally convinced him of the 



necessity of seeking pardon in the Sacra- 
ment of Penance. A good priest, to 
whom Miss M. recommended this poor 
man, took a deep interest in him; many 
interviews resulted in a fervent retreat 
from which the penitent came forth a 
changed person, and has since led an 
edifying life. 

How encouraging are these facts which 
exemplify the promises made by our 
dear Saviour to His faithful disciple, 
Blessed Margaret Mary, the Apostle of 
Devotion to the Sacred Heart, who as- 
sures us on the part of her Divine Mas- 
ter, that we shall want for help only when 
His Heart shall want power! If, then, 
these little Scapulars are as a spark en- 
kindling in a soul the love of the Heart 
of Jesus, bringing it back to the sweet 
empire of grace, with what zeal should 
we not spread them, recalling the words 
of our Lord Himself: " Those who pro- 
pagate this devotion shall have their 
names written in My Heart, and they 
shall never be effaced." 



THE BOY SAVERS. 

JUVENILE USE OF BILLIARDS, POOL AND CARDS. 



LAST month, we outlined a deience 
for those who would offer the 
above pastimes to lads in their 
teens. Opponents cry " away with such 
games ; they will lead our boys to 
saloons." On the contrary, provide 
these games, say we, and thus prevent 
young people from filling saloons. 

Concerning billiards and pool in par- 
ticular; there is a fact, generally un- 
noticed and unknown by critics : these 
amusements usually excite no permanent 
interest, but merely a short-lived, though 
passionate attachment. A little practice 
at driving billiard balls eliminates from 
the game much of the delectable element 
of chance, and develops something un- 
pleasantly suggestive of skilled labor. As 
we were once informed by a retired ex- 



pert of fifteen summers, "when a feller 
gits so he knows how ter make shots, de 
fun is most gone. ' ' 

Amusement seekers soon tire of the 
cue, as saloon proprietors well know, 
hence, these unworthies usually regard 
cushioned games, not as permanent fix- 
tures but in the light of passing novelties. 
Saloon tables are great travellers. A 
dozen of them trundled about town, 
halting now at this bar, and again at 
another, like Indian strategists, take on 
semblance of great numbers by simply re- 
appearing in several different places. In 
Young Men's Clubs, also, the above two 
games frequently pall, and to the extent 
of suffering exclusion. Indeed, the boys' 
rendezvous would have to relate simik 
experience, only for its sustained copious 



(39) 



The Boy Savers. 



i6 7 



influx of new members, all of whom be- 
gin by enthusiastically contemplating the 
green table surface as if a most delicious 
oasis amidst the arid deserts of life. 

Conjointly with this, consider another 
feature of the situation : By consenting 
to saloon monopoly over these innocent 
games, you drive the vast majority of even 
God-fearing, young men into drinking 
places for that trial of the cue which they 
ivill inevitably make. Be not deceived by 
imagining that boys can be successfully 
turned against future patronage of the 
amusements in question. They grow up 
with pleasing anticipations concerning 
these choice games that '' the men play,' 
and in passing glistening doors, give eager 
heed to the wondrous, clicking balls. After 
a few years, these young auditors will be- 
gin their pool noviceship to be pro- 
fessed, at least for a season or two and 
the period thus occupied will find them 
saloon habitues. 

Therefore, observers are thoughtlessly 
and needlessly horrified that, in a pure 
moral atmosphere, lads of thirteen crowd 
about pool tables. The earlier this, the 
better. The vast majority of our boys 
will soon tire of the cue: let them, there- 
fore, have full use of the same, and be 
done with it before reaching the age that 
admits into drinking resorts. Let them 
in early years " work off the fever," and 
thus become immunes, able to withstand 
climatic moral evils of social life. 

No doubt, through juvenile attach- 
ment to the cue, an occasional lad ends 
sadly enough, by permanently accepting 
saloon hospitality, just as vaudeville 
actors of low type sometimes begin de- 
velopment in school theatricals, but be 
assured that, while one youth may lapse 
from early billiards or pool to alcoholism, 
a dozen of his companions obtain happy 
satiety of these games which averts their 
otherwise inevitable patronage of saloons. 

The foregoing reasoning, confidently 
advanced regarding amusements that 
quickly pall, is not, however, applicable 
to cards. These latter remain a joy for- 
ever, because always handy, while de- 



pendent less on skilful play than on 
Dame Fortune's favors bestowed in shuf- 
fling and deal. 

The situation thus created is more 
serious than the one just considered. 
Cardplay in general certainly inclines to 
cardplay in the saloon; and, do what you 
will, cards boys are going to plav. Posi- 
tive restrictions on this point only alien- 
ate the youthful crowd. The most that 
can be done is to check the game very 
considerably by inducing its patrons to 
interest themselves in other forms of 
amusement. 

The club that excludes cards suffers 
disastrous lack of membership; hence we 
advise a policy of toleration, if only to 
secure the following that is to be led into 
new fields of recreation. Gambling must, 
of course, be under severest ban, but 
legitimate play should be mercifufly per- 
mitted in the interest of many boys ready 
to '''suffer expatriation out of loyalty to 
their favorite game. 

There need be no fear that such liber- 
ality will increase the local contingent of 
card devotees. On the contrary, since 
a well equipped club actively weans boys 
from objectionable sports, less attention 
will be given to spades and diamonds 
when all of their young patrons flock to 
the rendezvous, and there learn to play 
at something else; but card games will 
not decrease as long as players, debarred 
from the amusement centre, are returned 
to former haunts, which offer scarcely 
any indoor diversion save this very one 
that ought to be checked. 

While undertaking at once to permit 
and discourage cards, the writer has 
found great advantage in obliging mem- 
bers to carry their playing packs to and 
from the club; this arrangement saves 
trouble for attendants, while rendering 
the greater service of gently directing 
youthful visitors to safer amusements. 

In the present instance chronic boyish 
heedlessness, for once, serves a purpose. 
Tell a lad that cards may not be used in 
the rooms, and he will become a deserter 
for the sake of enjoying them. On the 



i68 



De Gaudiis Paradisi. 



(40) 



other hand, effusively bid him to bring 
his own cards, for play, to the rooms, and 
half of the time, out of forgetfulness, he 
and his chums will arrive in empty- 
handed readiness for other pastimes. In 
this way, cards, even left idle at home, 
become contributory to the cultivation of 
amusements of better class. Sometimes 
they lead to such pursuits as music, light 
reading, etc. , in other instances, by de- 
veloping taste for gymnastics and general 
athletics, they place still stronger barriers 
to saloon frequentation. 

We believe the foregoing arguments 
justify boyish use of billiards, pool and 
cards, even when associated religious in- 
fluences are not at all considered. How- 
ever, our position becomes immeasurably 
stronger when it is remembered that the 



games in question are of unspeakable ad- 
ditional value as attractions to a Catholic 
recreation centre, wherein religion and 
morality are actively cultivated. 

It seems, then, a deplorable mistake 
that the best of indoor pastimes should 
be surrendered, with anathema, to the 
evil one, because he has power to set 
them up within the "wide gate," and 
on the "broad way that leadeth to de- 
struction." Rather, let. God's children 
reclaim what is really their own. Let 
them thwart the enemy by placing inno- 
cent amusements for cheer and encour- 
agement, for temporal support and spirit- 
ual gain beside the "narrow gate," 
and along the ' ' straight path that 
leadeth to life. ' ' 



DE GAUDIIS PARADISI 

Attributed to Saint Augustine. 

Ad perennis vitae fontem 
Mens sitivit avida, 
Claustra carnis praesto frangi 
Clausa quaerit anima, 
Gliscit, ambit, eluctatur 
Exul frui patria. 

Dum pressuris ac aerumnis 
Se gemit obnoxium, 
Quam amisit, dum deliquit, 
Contemplatur gloriam, 
Praesens malum auget boni 
Perditi memoriam. 

Nam quis promat summse pacis 

Quanta sit laetitia, 

Ubi vivis margaritis 

Surgunt sedificia, 

Auro celsa micant tecta, 

Radiant triclinia. 

Solis gemmis pretiosis 
Haec structura nectitur ; 
Auro mundo, tanquam vitro, 
Urbis via sternitur, 
Abest limus, deest fimus, 
Lues nulla cernitur. 



THE JOYS OF PARADISE, 

Translation. 

For the fount of life eternal 
Panteth the enamored soul, 
From its bonds th' imprisoned spirit 
Seeketh freedom of control, 
Exiled here it turns and flutters, 
Struggling for its native goal. 

When ' neath trial and confusion, 
Pressed by misery and pain, 
It beholds its glory clouded, 
By the breath of deadly bane, 
Present evil but enhanceth 
Memory of a perished gain. 

Who can voice the joy surpassing 
Of that endless peace supreme, 
Where the living pearls of beauty 
In the lofty dwellings gleam, 
Where the spacious halls and mansions 
With a golden glory stream? 

Precious are the gems compacted 
In that palace, stone on stone, 
Purest gold like unto crystal 
Is upon the highway strown 
Free of dust and spotless ever, 
For no darkening stain is known. 



De Gaudiis Paradisi. 



169 




Hi ems horrens, aestas torrens 
Illic numquam aeviunt, 
Flos perpetuus rosarum 
Ver agit perpetuum, 
Cadent lilia, rubescit 
Crocus, sudat balsamum. 

Virent prata, vernant sata, 

Rivi mellis influunt, 
igmentorum spirit odor, 

Liquor et aromatum. 
endent poma floridorum 
on lapsura nemorum. 

Non alternat luna vices, 
1 vel cursus siderum, 
gnus est felicis urbis 

Lumen inocciduum, 

Nox et tempus desunt ei, 

Diem fert continuum. 

Nam et sancti quique velut 
Sol praeclarus rutilant, 
Post triumphum coronati 
Mutuo coniubilant, 
Et prostrati pugnas hostis 
lam securi numerant. 

Omne labe defaecati 
Carnis bella nesciunt, 
Caro facta spiritalis 
Et mens unum sentiunt, 
Pace multa perfruentes 
Scandalum non perferunt. 

Mutabilibus exuti 
Repetunt originem, 
Et praesentem veritatis 
Contemplantur speciem. 
Hinc vitalem vivi fontis 
Hauriunt dulcedinem. 

Inde statum semper idem 
Existendi capiunt, 
Clari, vividi, jucundi 
Nullis patent casibus, 
Absunt morbi semper sanis, 
Senectus juvenibus. 

Hinc perenne tenent esse, 
Nam transire transiit, 
Inde virent, vigent, florent : 
Corruptela corruit, 
Immortalitatis vigor 
Mortis jus absorbuit. 



Blighting Winter, burning Summer 
There no longer hold their sway, 
Spring perpetual bright with roses, 
Bloometh, knowing no decay : 
Lilies glisten, crocus gleameth, 
Balsam sendeth perfumed spray. 

Verdant are the springing meadows 
And the honied rivers flow, 
Odors breathe their sweet aroma 
As the spicy breezes blow, 
In the groves, with fruit unfailing, 
Leafy boughs are bending low. 

There no fickle moon appeareth, 
Nor do planets speed their way, 
For the Lamb is light undying 
Of that happy land alway, 
Night and time are ever banished 
For ' tis never ending day. 

There the saints in light supernal 
As a glorious sun-burst shine, 
Crowned triumphant then, exulting 
In an Vcstacy divine, 
They recount their glorious conquests 
With the raging foe in line. 

Free from stain, their battle over, 
E'en the flesh is glorified; 
Flesh transfigured, with the spirit, 
Doth in harmony abide, 
Peaceful with a holy stillness 
Troubled by no sinful tide. 

Freed from weight of all mutation, 
To their source they swiftly rise, 
On the Face of Truth eternal 
Gazing with enraptured eyes, 
Thence to draw reviving sweetness 
From the fount of Paradise. 

They rejoice in changeless being, 
Glory in a steadfast will, 
Lit with vivifying rapture, 
Subject to no passing ill, 
Sickness flying, health undying, 
Though eternal, youthful still, 

Thus they have perennial being, 

For transition now is o'er, 

Thus they flourish, bloom and flower, 

Ne'er decaying, as of yore. 

Strong with an immortal vigor, 

Death is conquered evermore. 



De Gaudiis Paradisi. 



(42) 



Qui scientem cuncta sciunt 
Quid nescire nequeunt, 
Nam et pectoris arcana 
Penetrant alterutrum 
Unum volunt, unum nolunt, 
Unitas et mentium. 

Licet cuiquam sit diversum 
Pro labore meritum, 
Caritas hoc facit suum, 
Quod dum amat alterum, 
Proprium sit singulorum 
Fit commune omnium. 

Ubi corpus, illic jure 
Congregantur aquilae ; 
Quo cum angelis et sanctae 
Recreantur animae, 
Uno pane vivunt cives 
Utriusque patriae. 

Avidi et semper pleni, 
Quod habent desiderant, 
Non satietas fastidit, 
Neque fames cruciat, 
Inhiantes semper edunt 
Et edentes inhiant. 

Novas semper melodias, 
Vox meloda concrepat, 
Et in jubilum prolata, 
Mulcent aures organa, 
Digna per quern sunt victores 
Regi dant praeconia. 

Felix cceli quse praesentem 
Regem cernit anima, 
Et sub sede spectat alta 
Orbis volvi machinam 
Solem, lunam et globosa 
Cum planetis sidera ! 

Christe, palma bellatorum, 
Hoc in municipium 
Introduc me post solutum 
Militare cingulum, 
Fac consortem me donetur 
Beatorum civium ! 

Probes vires inexhausto 

Laboranti praelio ; 

Nee quietem post procinctum 

Deneges emerito, 

Teque merear potiri 

Sine fine pnemio. 



Knowing Him who knoweth all things, 
In all knowledge they delight, 
E'en the secret of each bosom, 
Charmeth now each ravished sight, 
One in mind, in will, in spirit, 
They in all of good unite. 

" Star shall differ," for the glory 

Is apportioned to the pain, 

But in bond of sweet communion, 

Charity doth so ordain, 

That the treasure each possesseth 

Shall enrich the common gain. 

To the body flock the eagles, 
For the royal feast is spread, 
Saints and Angels rest together, 
On celestial bounty fed; 
Citizens of earth and heaven, 
Seek the one life-giving bread. 

Famished yet restored with plenty, 
What they have they yet desire, 
Sated, yet they languish never, 
Nor doth hunger ever tire. 
Ever longing they are feasting, 
Yet to feast they still aspire. 

Songs of melody enchanting 
Their melodious voices raise, 
String and psaltery are mingled 
With the jubilee of lays, 
Offering to the King eternal 
Homage of the victor's praise. 

Happy soul to whom the vision 
Of the Heavenly King is known, 
Who hath seen the vast creation 
Circling 'neath His lofty throne, 
Sun and moon and sphery splendor 
In their varied beauty shown. 

Thou, O Christ, the palm of battle, 
Lead me to Thy land of rest, 
When I shall have loosed the sword-belt, 
Cast the buckler from my breast, 
Make me sharer in the guerdon 
Thou bestowest on the blest. 

Prove the valor of Thy warrior 
W T hen the din of war is rife, 
But refuse not sweet refreshment 
To the victor after strife, 
Be Thyself my prize eternal, 
Thou, my everlasting life. 





in 



THE ANNUNCIATION. 

ST. LUKE explains this mystery 
the first chapter of his Gospel. 

And in the sixth month [after 
the birth of John the Baptist], the Angel 
Gabriel was sent from God into a city of 
Galilee called Nazareth. To a virgin es- 
poused to a man whose name was Joseph, 
and the virgin's name was Mary. 

And the Angel being come in, said 
unto her : Hail full of grace : The Lord 
is with thee : Blessed art thou among 
women. 

Who having heard, was troubled at 
the saying, and thought with herself what 
manner of salutation this should be. 

And the Angel said to her : Fear 
not, Mary, for thou hast found grace with 
God. Behold, thou shalt conceive in thy 
womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and 
thou shalt call his name Jesus: 

He shall be great, and shall be called 
the Son of the most High, and the 
Lord God shall give unto him the throne 
of David his father : and he shall reign 

(43) 



in the house of Jacob forever. And 
of his kingdom there shall be no end. 
And Mary said to the Angel : 
How shall this be done because I 
know not man ? 

And the Angel answering said to 
her : The Holy Ghost shall come 
u\)on thee, and the power of the 
most High shall overshadow thee, 
and therefore also the Holy which 
shall be born of thee, shall be called 
the Son of God. 

And behold thy cousin Elizabeth, she 
also hath conceived a son in her old age; 
and this is the sixth month with her that 
is called barren : Because no word shall 
be impossible with God. 

And Mary said : Behold the handmaid 
of the Lord, be it done to me according 
to thy word, and the Angel departed from 
her. " 

The mystery, known as the Annuncia- 
tion, is, therefore, the Incarnation of the 
Son of God. The Second Person of the 
Blessed Trinity, the Eternal Word of the 
Father, His Only Begotten Son, born of 
Him before all ages, was made flesh in 
the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary, as- 
suming our human nature in its integrity, 
a body and soul, real and in all things 
endowed like ours, and made it truly His 
own, uniting it so closely to His divine 
nature, without, however, confounding 
the two, that it could be truly called 
His own body, and the Virgin Mother of 
whom He was born the Mother of God. 

171 




EDITORIAL. 



INDIVIDUALISM VS. UNITY. 

''Meanwhile Rome remains calm and 
undisturbed, logically rejecting the indi- 
vidualism that a persecuting Protestan- 
tism first scorned and then embraced," 
are Dr. De Costa' s own words, as re- 
ported in the daily papers of December 
12. Which means that the Catholic 
Church logically rejects selfishness in 
every form in which it can manifest 
itself, whether it be in the form of private 
judgment or in the excessive attachment 
to one's own will to the oversight, and 
often to the positive injury, of others. 
Logically is not the word here, though it 
does express part of the fact ; the Church 
rejects individualism instinctively, as the 
source of every breach of God's great 
law of love, and as the cause of disunion 
among the members of Christ. The 
right of the individual she protects, and 
she promotes in every way the personal 
development of each of her subjects ; in- 
deed, the more one submits to her laws 
and ordinances, the more completely is the 
individual character preserved and per- 
fected. It is not individuality that she 
seeks to suppress, but individualism, or 
the selfishness which aims at imposing 
one's views on others, and at making 
them contribute to one's own advance- 
ment without due regard to the common 
welfare and progress. Protestantism, 
which is individualism in the extreme, 
may well regret having embraced a prin- 
ciple, which has produced so many hope- 
lessly divided sects, and even within 
each sect such hopeless disunion among 
ministers and members. 
172 



AS OTHERS SEE US. 

' ' They never descend to sensational- 
ism ; institutional methods are not popu- 
lar with them. They insist upon parish 
limits, and compel their people to respect 
them. They require all attendants upon 
their churches to give. They invest the 
Mass with a sacredness that no Catholic 
thinks of disregarding. They exalt the 
altar and bring the confessional into the 
foreground, and by a system carefully 
articulated and consistently put into 
practice, they keep their adherents closely 
tied to the church and carry on a suc- 
cessful propaganda among Protestants. ' ' 
So spoke a Moderator of a Presbyterian 
Assembly, quoted by Dr. De Costa, in 
his tirade against Protestantism in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of the Re- 
deemer, Sunday evening, December 12. 
And the Presbyterian Moderator says 
much that is true, and discerns very well, 
from a natural point of view, some of 
the causes of the vitality of our holy 
religion. This is precisely the trouble. 
These well meaning men either do not 
understand what is meant by a superna- 
tural religion, or they deal with all relig- 
ious belief as if it were of purely human 
origin. Still we may hope that either 
they, or others prompted by their utter- 
ances, will be led to investigate the truly 
divine origin and character of a church 
whose mere external discipline excites 
such admiration. 

THE CATHOLIC'S BEST ARGUMENT. 

Apparently, Dr. De Costa is right, be- 
cause Protestants cannot agree on any- 
thing, even on the fact that their at- 

(44) 



(45) 



Editorial. 



173 



tempt to make a religion is a failure. The 
Rev. F. D. Luddington, of Shelton 
Baptist Church, Derby, Connecticut, 
contradicted the New York divine, and 
said so many outrageous things against 
the Catholic Church that his own con- 
gregation rose up against him, and his 
resignation is now before the Board of 
Trustees of his church. Pending the ac- 
ceptance of his resignation, the poor man 
has been burned in effigy in various parts 
of Derby, Shelton and Ansonia, as the 
New York Herald of January 4, reports. 
The people in these cities know too well 
the virtue of the Catholic women in their 
communities to tolerate Mr. Ludding- 
ton' s slanderous reflections on their vir- 
tue, as reported in the local newspaper, 
the Evening Sentinel for December 19. 
Meantime, the two ministers are reported 
to be exchanging letters, and the news- 
papers hint that the Derby preacher may 
have to answer in a suit for slander. It 
is consoling to know that the people are 
so much better informed and fair-minded 
than their ministers, and that the Catho- 
lics of Connecticut generally command 
such respect. If heresy spreads, the 
ministers are to blame; the good lives of 
Catholics are the strongest proof of the 
divinity of our holy religion. 

OUR SALVATION ARMY. 

We shall not need our army chaplains 
much longer ; some of our generals and 
colonels are ready to take their places. 
It simplifies things to combine in one 
and the same person, spiritual and civil 
authority It is edifying, indeed, to see 
our army officers so deeply interested in 
the spiritual welfare of their men, but we 
do not understand why officers only 
should feel inspired, or take upon them- 
selves the religious advancement of the 
troops. Since this vocation is usually 
considered to come from above, why 
should not some of the men preach to 
their officers ? Since there is question of 
providing religious instruction and min- 
istry not only for the army, but also for 
the benighted Porto Ricans, Cubans and 



Filipinos, at present under our care, may 
it not be that our private soldiers will be 
needed and that they will suffice to 
evangelize the natives in their respective 
territories ? It would be so economical 
and effective in every way to have religion 
preached by the men whom we send to 
police the islands. 

NOT TOO BAD FOR USE. 

It seems that after all the monks in the 
Philippines were not so bad, and, accord- 
ing to the New York Herald, "one of 
the most well informed [sic] men in 
Spain," says that all they did was to 
make the islands a "monastic colony, 
the enormous profits of which went to 
Rome and into the hands of chiefs of 
various orders which exploited the archi- 
pelago." The Universities in Manila 
"distributed every year a great quantity 
of diplomas to the natives, who thus 
regarded^ themselves as young literary 
men. " . . . The monks filled the 
empty heads of the Tagalos with the 
theory of Roman law and the philosophy 
of St. Augustine and St. Thomas. Ma- 
sonic lodges and Spanish liberal demo- 
cratic newspapers quickly transformed 
this kind of learning into revolutionary 
aspirations and protests against an insup- 
portable theocratic domination. ' ' That 
was all; and since they constitute a power 
in the country, they could be utilized, 
"but their sphere of action, he thought, 
should be limited to purely religious and 
moral functions. " As if it were not a 
religious function to teach, and to fill the 
empty-headed Tagalos with the philoso- 
phy of St. Augustine and St. Thomas. 
With all this lofty knowledge, and with 
the inner light and lectures of the lodge- 
room, which, we presume, will also be 
utilized, why concern ourselves about the 
highly cultivated Filipino, unless, indeed, 
we mean to profit by his knowledge of 
Roman law, and his readings in the Doc- 
tors of the Church, as we hope to profit 
by the material products of his native 
soil? 



174 



Editorial. 



(46) 



CAPTIVE TURNED CONQUEROR. 

The most well informed Spaniard who 
spoke with the correspondent was not al- 
together wrong in his tribute to the high 
grade of education given by the monks in 
Manila, but he expressed himself as 
ignorantly on this point as on every 
other. The Independent, in an editorial 
on "The Educational Outlook," in its 
issue of December 29, pays the following 
tribute to the higher education in Cuba, 
Porto Rico and the Philippines, which is 
quite remarkable after all we have been 
hearing the past year about Spanish 
ignorance and dread of civilization 
generally. 

"It is important," the Independent 
says, ' ' at this moment in our national 
life to emphasize the claims of higher 
education. We have had much to do 
with training inferior peoples, but in our 
new possessions we encounter an un- 
familiar class. For ages they have been 
in contact with a civilization in which 
higher education has been honored and 
fostered. The leaders in all the con- 
quered islands, Cuba, Porto Rico, and 
the Philippines, are familiar with, and 
many of them are formed upon, the hu- 
manities; they have intellectual standards 
by which to measure us. Moreover, we 
shall come in touch with foreign diplo- 
mats in respect to matters that have to 
be settled by historical precedent rather 
than upon a broad basis of principle. 
Knowledge, comprehensive and minute, 
must supplement the natural aptitudes 
which have heretofore been the chief re- 
liance of our diplomacy. ' ' 

So the new territories, which we shall 
in all likelihood annex as colonies, under 
the pretext of civilizing them, will force 
and help us to improve our own civiliza- 
tion. It is a hopeful sign that we are so far 
emerging from the conceit of ignorance 
as to admit that we have much to learn 
from our elders. 

ONLY ONE INSTANCE. 

The Rev. T. J. Earley, of St. Peter's 
Church of the Borough of Richmond, 



New York, has succeeded in having a 
public school teacher reprimanded and 
punished for making remarks and criti- 
cisms in her class of history which were 
both untrue and prejudicial to the Catho- 
lic Church. Even had she escaped pun- 
ishment, Father Earley would have suc- 
ceeded in showing how defective and 
dangerous is any school system which en- 
gages teachers who neither know nor re- 
spect a doctrine which is at least as im- 
portant as the branch of a science they 
are employed to teach. Father Earley 
has also succeeded in convincing a num- 
ber of Catholic parents that they cannot 
send their children to the public schools 
without taking extraordinary precautions 
to preserve them from shipwreck in their 
faith, and he has put clearly on record 
another instance of the abuses in our 
much- cherished school system, which 
even some pastors, who persist in prais- 
ing it, will do well to examine. 

A FIELD FOR FADDISTS. 

If we cannot appreciate the benefits 
of educating our children in Catholic 
schools, and the importance of helping 
pastors to make these as good as we de- 
sire to see them, we should at least take 
the trouble to know something of the de- 
fects in the public school system, which 
commonly receives such indiscriminate 
praise. A Western educator has lately 
shown the weak points of the system as 
applied in the Empire City, and though 
some members of our school board re- 
sent his attack, they are painfully aware 
that the Mayor of the city has the same 
opinion of many of their methods as their 
Western critic. The sensible superin- 
tendents and teachers of our public schools 
are raising an outcry against educational 
fads. That the abuse is prevalent in 
more than one city we can judge from the 
repeated charges of our local newspapers, 
which are well summarized in the editorial 
of the Independent quoted above : 

" One of the chief causes for alarm in 
respect to the public schools is the ten- 
dency to make them an experimental 



(47) 



Editorial. 



175 



field for faddists. Unfortunately, even 
superintendents are found in this class, 
and may sacrifice the interest of a whole 
generation in the pursuit of crude fan- 
tasies, psychological, sociological or 
what-not." 

NOT UNWELCOME. 

The Superintendent of Education in 
the State of New York says that nuns 
employed as teachers in public schools 
must give up their religious garb or go. 
By this decision some few parishes will 
lose the support they have been deriving 
from the towns of which they form part, 
but they will gain by having the nuns free 
to give their children a thoroughly Catho- 
lic education, without constant hindrance 
and annoyance from officials of the city 
and State. As there is no election in 
sight the decision is not likely to be re- 
versed. The nuns will surely not regret 
it, but rejoice that it has at length been 
announced, along with the principles laid 
down by Mr. Skinner in explanation of 
his views. We have seen this system of 
conducting some of our parochial schools 
at work in various places, and whatever 
may be said of its advantages, when 
Catholic lay teachers are employed, it is 
always both humiliating and oppressive 
for sisters, preventing them from giving 
the full course of instruction for which 
they are instituted, and submitting them 
to countless annoyances from people who 
cannot be expected to appreciate the 
modesty and reserve of religious women. 
The decision will not be welcome to the 
pastors, who must now seek to support 



their schools by collections from their 
parishioners ; but they have at least the 
satisfaction of knowing how vainly they 
look to politicians for State aid for our 
schools, and no doubt, they will recognize 
in this as in otherinstances the advantages 
of the union of Church and State, against 
which so many declaim, while at heart 
they long for it. 

TO PURIFY THE NEWSPAPERS. 

"To announce a murder or a suicide, 
to allow a few lines for the circumstances 
of time, of place and of persons, to seek 
the motives and the causes of such an 
odious act with a view to showing the 
shame and ignominy thereof, constitutes 
the honest use of a liberty which nobody 
thinks of contesting with you." So 
writes Archbishop Bruchesi of Montreal, 
to the newspaper editors of that city. 
Were he addressing his letter to our own 
journalists, he would add what seems so 
obvious to everyone but them, viz. , that 
they should report only what they have 
reason to believe true, and leave out all 
invention, conjecture, and ill-founded re- 
port. Our yellow journalists will consider 
the Archbishop as very simple-minded 
and innocent to address such an appeal 
to men who act on their principles ; but 
apparently he has reason to hope for a 
respectful hearing from the Montreal 
editors, and it is possible that they will 
at least publish less revolting illustrations 
and less sensational details in their re- 
ports of crimes which His Grace well 
describes as a sort of diabolical attack on 
the imagination of the readers. 




The third national congress of French 
Catholics was held at Paris from Novem- 
ber 27 to December 4. The best 
Catholic orators of France spoke in turn 
on various subjects interesting for the wel- 
fare of religion and society. We notice 
the following points in particular: 

The work of teaching catechism to 
children by volunteer instructors was 
highly praised and strongly recommended. 
To make it more efficient, it was sug- 
gested to award certificates to such 
teachers as should have qualified them- 
selves by an examination in Christian 
Doctrine. It seems that similar diplomas 
are already given by the Catholic Insti- 
tute of Paris, and that they are greatly 
appreciated by the zealous catechists of 
the capital. 

Father Lemius, superior of the chap- 
lains of Montmartre, called the attention 
of the congress to a plan of his, aiming at 
nothing less than the creating in every 
parish of France of groups of ''Men of 
the Sacred Heart." They are to be the 
right-hand of priests and pastors in all 
their works and enterprises. They will 
at the same time form an immense army, 
with the banner of the Sacred Heart as 
their standard, and will group themselves 
around the national Basilica to promote 
the speedy consecration of France to the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

The ever-increasing popularity of cleri- 
cal schools in France, and the conse- 
quent disrepute of government institu- 
tions, have once more aroused the spite- 
ful anger of the atheistic legislators. A 
socialist deputy introduced a motion in the 
Chamber, prohibiting religious congrega- 
tions and members of the regular clergy 

176 



from taking part in educational work. 
Urgency was asked for the proposal, but 
the demand was rejected by 303 votes 
against 149. Urgency was likewise re- 
fused for another motion to give the 
university a monopoly of education. 



Mgr. Laborde, Bishop of Blois, is one 
of the latest victims of religious persecu- 
tion, as it now prevails in France. Whilst 
making his episcopal visitation in a small 
village of his diocese, he was seen cross- 
ing the short distance from the presbytery 
to the church, attired in rochet and cape. 
Immediately the law stepped in, and the 
bishop was found guilty of attempt at 
procession, and condemned to the maxi- 
mum penalty, a fine of five francs. 



The next Eucharistic Congress is to be 
held at Lourdes. It will open on August 
6th. 

An interesting feature of the Exposi- 
tion recently held at Turin, was the 
presence of a number of missionaries from 
various parts of the globe, accompanied 
by natives from those countries, and ex- 
hibiting important collections of ethno- 
graphical curiosities. Before returning 
to their several missions, both the mission- 
aries and their charges had an audience 
at the Vatican, and were most kindly re- 
ceived by our Holy Father, Leo XIII. 
In the motley and picturesque gathering 
there were nine Arab children, fourteen 
Chinese Christians, seven Bedouins, six- 
teen Hindoo women and native nuns, 
twenty-six Copts of Upper Egypt, thirty- 
three Abyssinians, eight Bolivian Indians, 
and five Brazilian Indians. Each group 
was in turn led before the Pope, and had 

(48) 



49) 



Interests of the Heart of Jesus. 



177 



he honor of kissing his hand and of re- 
viving his blessing. The Pope appeared 
jreatly moved at this manifestation of the 
jreat progress made by Catholicity of 
ate years in the wildest and most distant 
regions of the world. 



The question, Of what good are reli- 
gious ? was thus answered lately at one 
of the sittings of the Paris Congress, by 
the Very Rev. Pere Le Dore, Superior 
of the Eudists. "Preparations are being 
made," he said, "for selling this month 
in the name of the law, the premises of 
certain religious communities. Men thus 
turned out are not so helpless as women. 
Yet not one of these women is inclined 
to falter in her resolve. When our 
country is invaded and an army of 120,- 
ooo sent to defend it, the loss of 20,000 
soldiers is reckoned of small account as 
the price of victory. And so let it be 
with our nuns. Let 20,000 of them 
perish, if necessary. They are ready. ' ' 
The orator said that he could affirm with- 
out exaggeration that in several commu- 
nities the religious had already asked 
what hymn they should sing in going to 
prison or to the scaffold, in order that by 
practice they might become perfect in it. 

He proceeded to point out that be- 
side the 180,000 religious whom it is a 
question of putting outside the reach of 
the law in the matter of their rights, there 
is a much vaster array of human beings 
dependent on these religious for all the 
necessities of life. He alluded to the 
pupils of the colleges, convents and or- 
phanages, whom they taught, and to the 
inmates of homes, asylums and hospitals 
whom they tended, housed and fed, 
these making in all with the benefactors 
and those benefited the sum total of up- 
wards of 2,500,000 persons in France at 
the present time. Alluding to the in- 
stitution of the Bon Pasteur of Pere 
Eudes, he showed 7,000 religious to be 
employed in connection with it at the 
work of reclaiming fallen women. 

"This is what religious communities 
are good for ! " he exclaimed in ringing 



accents and with a tone that communi- 
cated his energy and conviction to those 
who heard him. Alluding to the work of 
foreign missions, he showed how mis- 
sionary priests were to be foremost in the 
great work of winning to Christianity the 
twelve hundred million souls of the as 
yet unconverted races of the globe. 
" This is what religious are good for ! " 
he again exclaimed. Coming to the con- 
templative orders, he said: " But there 
is still greater work being done by re- 
ligious than any we have been enumerat- 
ing. Members of the active orders 
speak before men, but their work would 
be of little profit were not the angels to 
pray for them before God. Carmelite, 
Ursuline, Carthusian and other contem- 
plative orders serve as precious lightning 
conductors to the world. Destroy the 
contemplative orders of prayer and pen- 
ance and the fabric around would quickly 
crumble. ' ' 



In connection with the foregoing just 
and indignant protest against the iniq- 
uitous proceedings of the French Govern- 
ment our readers will remember that not 
long ago a law was passed in France im- 
posing such heavy taxes upon religious 
orders that the payment of them was im- 
possible if the orders were to continue in 
existence. Under the disguise of a tax 
it was nothing else than a law for the 
suppression of religious communities. Jus- 
tice demands that taxes for the public good 
should be distributed proportionately over 
the whole population. A tax laid upon 
one class of the people for the benefit of 
other classes is manifestly unjust. No 
one is obliged to obey a law manifestly 
unjust. And hence of 180,000 religious 
in France, 120,000 refuse to pay this 
suicidal tax. 



The twenty-seventh Annual Report of 
the Apostolic School at Turnhout, Bel- 
gium, furnishes striking evidence of 
the assistance rendered by it to the 
Foreign Missions. Conformable to the 
motto of its founder that their work was 



i 7 8 



Interests of the Heart of Jesus. 



(50) 



to be accomplished without noise, the 
Report is silent as to much of the good 
effected by its former pupils, but a few 
extracts from their letters home, testify to 
their career of usefulness on the Missions. 



At a Secret Consistory held in the 
Vatican, on November 28, the Holy 
Father appointed Mgr. Ephraem Rahmani 
to be Patriarch of Antioch. 



The Pope has addressed a letter to the 
Franciscan Order urging renewed zeal 
for higher studies, and apostolic work 
among the masses. He hopes that the 
Third Order of St. Francis, intended for 
people living in the world, will greatly in- 
crease in membership. When we recall 
all that the Church has done to promote 
the honor of St. Francis of Assisi, and 
the welfare of the great Order which he 
founded, it is amusing to hear a ' 'learned' ' 
critic in a recent periodical telling us that 
St. Francis had a ' 'dread of dogma' ' and 
that he believed in "the annihilation of 
creed and cult" in other words St. 
Francis was not a Catholic. Later on we 
are told that "the famous economic aph- 
orism of Proudhon, 'Property is theft,' 
an unconscious echo of Brissot de War- 
ville's 'Wealth is theft,' " was almost an- 
ticipated by the creed of St. Francis and 
his followers in other words, St. Francis 
was a Socialist. After this we shall not 
be surprised to hear that Washington was 
King of England or that Luther was Pope 
of Rome. $ 

Renewed life and vigor have come to 
the Baltimore Mirror, the official organ 
of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, with 
the advent of its new editor, Rev. M. 
O' Keefe. In his salutatory editorial he 
declares that one of the objects dearest 
to his heart will be to uphold Christian 
education, and particularly parochial 
schools. He quotes in this connection 
the strong language of the Pastoral 
issued by the last Plenary Council of 
Baltimore, and signed in his own name 
and in the name of all the Fathers by 



Cardinal Gibbons, who, as Apostolic 
Delegate, presided over the Council. 
Father O' Keefe is Superintendent of 
Parochial Schools for the Archdiocese of 
Baltimore, a position for which he is well 
qualified, having devoted himself to the 
cause of Catholic education for the space 
of eleven years. 

Mgr. Rubies, Bishop of Kaschau, in a 
recent pastoral, deplores the decline of 
Catholicity in Hungary that land once 
so thoroughly Catholic. The cause is 
State education Speaking of the youth 
the Bishop says: "When this precious 
treasure of the nation, they who are des- 
tined to rule the country in the future, 
step out into lile at the close of their 
studies, very few will be recognized as the 
children of Catholic parents." As the 
University of Pesth has almost entirely 
lost its Catholic character, and the two 
other universities are non-sectarian, that 
is to say, infidel, Mgr. Rubies proposes to 
establish a new university which shall be 
thoroughly Catholic, under the invoca- 
tion of St. Stephen, Hungary's famous 
monarch. The Bishop promises to sub- 
scribe for this purpose 200 florins a year 
as long as he lives. 

When President Grant inaugurated his 
' ' Peace Policy ' ' according to which the 
various Indian tribes were arbitrarily ap- 
portioned among the different religious 
denominations without regard to the 
rights of conscience, the arrangement was 
made that each denomination should ap- 
point its own teachers for Indian schools, 
and these teachers should receive their 
salaries from the government and be 
placed on its pay-rolls as if they were 
government officials. But as this arrange- 
ment seemed to many too much like a 
union of Church and State, it was after a 
time abolished and the system of con- 
tract schools was introduced. Under 
this system the religious denomination 
built and equipped its own Indian schools 
and was paid per capita for the support 
and tuition of the children who attended 



(50 



Interests of the Heart of Jesus. 



179 



them. At first this arrangement was 
satisfactory to all, but when it was seen 
that the Catholics, having the largest 
number of schools and the largest num- 
ber of pupils, received 'the largest share 
of the public money, there arose a great 
outcry from those who had hitherto 
favored the contract school system, and 
the result was that in 1897 Congress de- 
clared it to be " the settled policy of the 
government to hereafter make no appro- 
priation whatever for education in any 
sectarian school," and proceeded to cut 
down the appropriations for Catholic 
Indian schools by twenty per cent, of 
the allotment for 1895. 

Thus the government has undertaken 
to force non-sectarian schools upon the 
Indians. Those who have lived among 
them can testify that such schools so far 
from improving them only make them 
worse than they were before. 

And now it is proposed to compel 
the Indians to send their children to 
those schools whether they like it or not. 
And without waiting for the law the In- 
dian Commissioners as far back as 1896 
issued a declaration that Indian parents 
have no right to designate which school 
their children shall attend, and Indian 
agents to-day claim the right to enter an 
Indian home, seize the child by force, 
carry him off to whatever school they 
please, and punish the parents for har- 
boring their own child. Surely this is 
persecution of the most atrocious charac- 
ter. It would be less cruel to burn 
mother and child at the stake than to 
tear the child from the mother and force 
it to receive an ' 'education ' ' which, with- 
out a miracle of grace, must result in the 
ruin of its faith and morals, and most 
likely its everlasting misery. 



Why should the government pay for 
the education of the Indians? First, 
because they are unable to educate them- 
selves. Secondly, because they are 
"Wards of the Nation" and the gov- 
ernment has undertaken to provide for 
their welfare. Why should the govern- 
ment support denominational schools? 
Because without religion it is impossible 
to civilize. The government is not 
asked to pay for the religion that is 
taught, but it should pay for everything 
else that is taught. 

In the name of all the Archbishops of 
the United States, Cardinal Gibbons 
has addressed a petition to Congress in 
favor of retaining the contract school sys- 
tem. He asks that the whole subject be 
investigated by a committee of Congress 
and the result given to the world in a 
public report, " and not kept as a secret 
of State concealed in the files of any de- 
partment or office. ' ' 

On the same day that Lord Kitchener 
proposed the founding of a college in the 
heart of Africa, Mr. Hope proposed the 
founding of a Catholic University in Ire- 
land. The first request has been granted, 
the second, thus far refused. The re- 
ligion of the Mussulmans is to be scrupu- 
lously respected, the religion of the 
Catholics is to be scorned. What Ma- 
hometan Africa desires, is to be cheerfully 
conceded, what Catholic Ireland de- 
mands, is to be contemned. We are not 
surprised then to learn that Lord Emly 
has left the Unionist party in disgust, 
declaring that as a Catholic he can no 
longer subscribe to the anti-Catholic 
attitude of what he calls " the most offen- 
sively anti- Catholic government of mod- 
ern times. ' ' 




Under the heading " Apos- 

Annual , A , j ,, 

tleship at Home and Abroad, 
Reports , 

Directors will note an abstract 

from the Reports of two Local Centres 
which have been published as supple- 
ments of our Almanac and Calendar. 
One of them, St. Aloysius Centre, Wash- 
ington, D. C., with 381 active Pro- 
moters, reports the distribution of 84,481 
Leaflets during the year, 60,000 Com- 
munions of Reparation, and 3,230 Re- 
ports handed in at the Promoters' Coun- 
cils. The Director of this Centre has 
written his views on the benefits of an An- 
nual Report as follows: 

DEAR FATHER: The 500 Sacred 
Heart Almanacs arrived safely. The As- 
sociates of the Apostleship of Prayer in 
this Centre are very much pleased to see 
our local report printed under one cover 
with your Almanac and Calendar. 

< ' Printer's ink is nowadays a very great 
power to help on organization. The list 
of Promoters in clear type with addresses 
attached is of incalculable service. I am 
convinced that it would benefit the work 
of the League immensely if every Centre 
would publish an annual report. Local Di- 
rectors could then exchange reports and 
thus see at a glance what is being done 
for the glory of the Sacred Heart in every 
Centre. 

"Now, the cheapest way to print a 
report is to accept your terms. ' ' 

It will be observed that both these re- 
ports lay special stress on the part that 
men take in League work in these 
Centres. In St. Aloysius' Centre, 
Washington, D. C. , the services every 
third Friday evening are chiefly for 
them ; and in St. Francis Xavier's Cen- 
tre, New York, they occupy places in the 
middle aisle on the first Friday evenings, 
and make the nocturnal adoration during 
the Forty Hours Exposition and on Holy 
I 80 



Thursday. Their interest in the League 
was enlisted by young men, who as 
Promoters canvassed the parish a year 
ago to make sure thai every parishioner 
was enrolled in the League, and the five 
hundred or more men, that they dis- 
covered were not active members, have 
since become more faithful and zealous. 



Promoters' 
Triduum. 



We recommend to Local 
Directors the triduum of in- 



structions for Promoters, as 
described in the letter of the Diocesan 
Director of the Apostleship in San Fran- 
cisco. Though such an invitation comes 
most properly from the Diocesan Di- 
rector, still there are many cities and 
towns distant from a Diocesan Director, 
in which Promoters might very properly 
be assembled in one or other of the 
churches to hear special instructions from 
one or several Local Directors. Such 
triduums might be held before some 
feast day, or before the first Friday, so 
that the Promoters might conclude the 
exercises by Holy Communion. 

The Apostleship of Prayer 
Please . . v . 

Notice 1S av "v incorporated under 
the laws of the State of New 
York, under the title of the "Apos- 
tleship of Prayer." Directors may 
communicate with us under this title, 
sure that one of the Fathers, whose 
names are given in the Annual Almanac 
and in the Catholic Directory, will give 
their letters personal attention. They 
will do us a favor by letting us know of 
Post Office clerks and others who are 
not satisfied with this title, for registered 
letters and money orders. 

The League Director for February 
will contain the continuation of the sub- 
ject taken up in the January number, 
why pray for all men ? Last month the 
answer was: Because God wishes the 

(52) 



(53) 



Director's Review. 



181 



salvation of all, and calls on all to pray for 
it. This latter point will be developed in 
the February number; the usual summary 
of the General Intention; some practical 



hints and some questions and answers, 
together with a refutation of a strange 
error regarding images or pictures of the 
Sacred Heart, will complete the number. 



To PROMOTERS. 



1. St. Francis de Sales 1 feast is trans- 
ferred this year from January 27, to 
February 3, and the indulgence granted 
to Promoters on his feast may be gained 
on this day. 

2. The two days before Lent, February 
13 and 1 4, are days for special reparation, 
since so many people make the Carnival 
of those days a time for licentiousness 
and of grievous insult to God. Promoters 
should strive to multiply the Communions 
of Reparation received on the Sundays 
previous and following. 

3. Lent begins on February 15, just 
as the Promoters' Councils begin, and 
they should make it from the very start 
a time of special prayer and zeal for the 



Associates, taking care to repair the past 
by more than usual fidelity to the 
practices of the League, and the duties 
they have assumed for the benefit of 
others. 

4. Thanksgivings are published almost 
verbatim as they come to us, without 
discrimination on our part as to the send- 
ers or the locality whence they come. We 
must, however, insist on having them 
signed. A priest opens the letters, so that 
no one need hesitate to give us this evi- 
dence that the thanksgiving is sent us in 
good faith. If we give preference to any, 
it is to those that are expressed with the 
greatest simplicity and that recount favors 
obtained through our special practices. 



APOSTLESHIP ABROAD AND AT HOME. 



ENGLAND. Seldom has the trite ex- 
pression "Much in Little" had fuller 
meaning than when applied to the Annual 
Almanac, issued for the Associates of the 
Apostleship by the Rev. Editor of the 
English Messenger. The whole booklet 
is brimful of interest and of hints, sugges- 
tions, and advices which, if carried out, 
would make the perfect Apostle accord- 
ing to the model set before us by the 
founder of our Apostleship, Father 
Ramiere. Its six stories are all well told, 
and the virtues proposed for each day of 
the year are eminently practical and 
within the power of every Associate. 
What, however, we most admire is the 
Promoters' Corner, a short instruction, 
averaging some twenty lines, placed at 
the foot of the Calender for each month. 
The Promoters' Cross, the necessity of 
having the Handbook at their fingers' 
ends to do effective work, a personal, en- 
thusiastic love of our Lord, the Sacred 
Heart as the Centre around which every- 



thing revolves in the Apostleship, the 
value of the Morning Offering, the pur- 
pose of the Messenger, are some of the 
subjects treated, and this with a freshness 
and succinctness which invite reading. 
The year's progress is thus summed up : 
Forty-four Diplomas of Aggregation have 
been sent to new Centres. Seven hun- 
dred and thirty-three have received 
Promoters' Diplomas, 40,000 Certificates 
of Admission and 123,750 Monthly 
Leaflets have been issued, and the num- 
ber of Messenger subscribers has reached 
37,000. A reprint of "Messenger 
Stories' ' at the low price of twopence is 
announced as a feature of the League 
publications for 1899. 

FRANCE. The French Almanac is 
more elaborate than the English, espe- 
cially in point of copious illustrations. 
There is a peculiar charm and naivete 
about its many short stories. Its open- 
ing page, greeting the Grand Army of 



182 



Director's Review. 



(54) 



those who pray under the banner of the 
Sacred Heart, has truly a military ring. 
Its keynote is found in the following 
forceful quotation from Donoso Cortes ; 
"I believe that those who pray do more 
for the world than those who fight, and 
that if the world is going from bad to 
worse, it is because there are more battles 
than prayers. If we could penetrate the 
secrets of God and of history, I hold as 
certain that we would be seized with ad- 
miration for the prodigious effects of 
prayers, even in human affairs. My 
conviction on this point is so strong that I 
believe that if there were a single hour or 
a single day on which no prayer ascended 
from earth to heaven, that day and that 
hour would be the last day and the last 
hour of the world. ' ' An item of practi- 
cal interest and weight as coming from 
the Moderator General of the Apostle- 
ship is the announcement that the total 
number of Local Centres throughout the 
world is 56,592, representing a member- 
ship of upwards of 20,000,000 souls. 

CALIFORNIA The following letter of 
the Very Rev. Diocesan Director for San 
Francisco, may suggest the possibility 
and advisability of a similar reunion of 
Promoters, especially in large cities. It 
may be here remarked that there is no 
State in the Union where the Apostleship 
of Prayer is better organized, has more 
numerous Associates in proportion to 
the Catholic population, and gives so 
many signs of spiritual activity, than Cali- 
fornia. 

ST. IGNATIUS' CHURCH, 
SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 12, 1898. 
REVEREND AND DEAR FATHER : 

I have arranged a Triduum for all the 
Promoters of the League of the Sacred 
Heart in the city and its immediate 
neighborhood, to be held on Tuesday, 
Wednesday and Thursday evenings, the 
3d, 4th and 5th of January, and to be 
concluded with a solemn Renewal of 
Consecration, on the Feast of the Epiph- 
any, January 6. 

You will, I am sure, agree with me as 



to the great profit to be gained from 
gathering all our Promoters together for 
this renewal of spirit. That those of your 
Centre may receive the necessary cards of 
admission, I beg you to be good enough 
to request your Secretary to call upon me 
for them ; or to send me a list of the 
Promoters' names and addresses, that I 
may send them to each by mail ; or to 
direct your Promoters to apply individu- 
ally to me for them, as maybe most con- 
venient. 

Should you desire to attend any of the 
exercises yourself, you will be most wel- 
come ; and I most earnestly invite you 
to be present in the Sanctuary at the 
closing ceremonies on the Feast of the 
Epiphany. 

Your servant in Christ, 

J. P. FRIEDEN, S.J., 
Diocesan Director. 

COLORADO. REV. DEAR FATHER, 
P. C. Your note of October 6, 
in regard to Diplomas of Aggrega- 
tion to the Apostleship, after many 
meanderings, reached me yesterday. 
Thanks for kindly interest manifested in 
my work. Wish I had one of your men 
to help me ; there is a whole empire out 
here to evangelize, Colorado, Wyoming, 
New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, 
Western Texas, Western Kansas and 
Western Nebraska. Many souls are lost 
to the faith in this vast territory. Mis- 
sions have never been given save in a few 
of the very largest centres of population 
and there is not a town of even 500 peo- 
ple that would not yield a sufficiency of 
fruit to gladden a missionary's heart. 
The poor people are good-hearted, but 
become negligent and incredulous through 
ignorance. It is astonishing how they 
brighten up and get interested when the 
great truths of Holy Church are made 
plain to them. A large percentage of the 
Catholics are Irish, and you know it is 
very hard to knock all the faith out of an 
Irishman's heart. I tell them this, and 
quote Moore: "You may break, you 
may shatter the vase as you will, but the 



(55) 



Director's Review. 



83 



scent of the roses will hang round it still. ' ' 
You should see the tears glisten for a 
moment in the eyes of some brawny 
miner who had not been to confession 
since he left the " Auld dart," and then 
he hangs his head in shame and sorrow, 
but he will be sure to turn up for confes- 
sion. Some weeks ago I was giving a 
mission in a town on the other side of the 
Range. A manager of a mine invited me 
to hold a service or two at his ' ' camp, ' ' 
almost at "timber line." So I went. 
The ' ' Bunkhouse' ' was put in order, and 
some seventy-five persons assembled. 
Started the Rosary. No response. So 
I turned towards them, and said "My 
God, boys, is it possible that you have 
forgotten the Hail Mary which your good 
old Irish mothers taught you in the old 
land ?" ' ' No, father, no, father, go on. ' ' 
And after that the responses were loud 
enough to deafen you. The service 
lasted two hours, then confessions, Mass 
at four o'clock in the morning, to ac- 
commodate both the " Dayshift " and 
"Nightshift," as the crews are called. 
When all was over, a delegate approached 
me. "Father," said he, " the boys is 
very sorry ye didn't come round pay 
day this is all we have now they is 
awful glad ye came anyhow. Shure we 
didn't think there was any God up in 
these hills. ' ' 

I have given ten missions, and esta- 
blished nine Local League Centres this 
Fall. The work is hard, but there is a 
world of good in it. The League takes 
like hot cakes when explained. I always 
introduce it with a talk on the personal 
attractions of our Lord the workman 
of Nazareth and nature's only gentle- 
man. Protestants, or rather agnostics, 
for they have no faith at all, come in 
crowds to hear "the big talker up at 
the Catholic Church," and they persist 
in coming night after night, even though 
I roast them for their immorality and 
want of faith. Many of them want to 
join the League ; let us hope that the 
Sacred Heart will be mindful of their 
good desires. 



NEW YORK, ST. FRANCIS XAVIER'S 
CENTRE. The special edition of the 
Apostleship Almanac prepared by this 
Centre furnishes us with many interest- 
ing and instructive details of the work 
accomplished by Promoters and Associ- 
ates. One hundred and seventy-five 
new Promoters received their crosses and 
diplomas during the past year, despite 
the fact that the parish is not a growing 
one, and the already large number of 
Promoters. For this increase, not merely 
of number, but also of fervor and zeal, 
several causes are assigned. First there 
was the careful attention given to the 
Promoters by the Rev. Local Director, 
and his insistence on fidelity to the duties 
of their office. A second cause was the 
facilities afforded by setting apart and 
furnishing an office for the use of the 
Secretary and other assistants. This 
office was found useful, not only as a 
store-roofe for League supplies, the new 
card registers, and all report and account 
books, but also as a reception room for 
those who have any business connected 
with the Apostleship, that needed the 
Director's or Secretary's attention. A 
third, and perhaps the most potent fac- 
tor in this increase, was the new impulse 
given to the zeal by the approved Pro- 
moters, and the need thereby created of 
a number of others to help them in the 
additional fields of labor opened to their 
energies. A striking evidence of this 
was the house to house canvass of the 
parish made by some of the most active 
men Promoters. Their apostolic work 
was blessed beyond the most sanguine 
expectations. In two weeks they had 
registered five hundred men, almost all 
of whom agreed not merely to observe 
the three degrees, but also to give one 
or more hour's time watching before the 
Blessed Sacrament during the nocturnal 
adoration of the Forty Hours, and to 
attend the First Friday evening services. 
This canvass revealed a fact of great im- 
portance, namely, that some of these 
men had never even heard of the 
League, while others who had long ago 



1 84 



Director's Review. 



(56) 



given their names for membership, had 
never received the essentially necessary 
certificates of admission, or their 
monthly leaflets. This discovery shows 
how there is always work to be done, 
even in well-organized Centres, and 
serves as as admirable illustration of one 
leading principle of our Apostleship, that 
Promoters must not wait for people to 
come to them, but go out to them, to 
lead them to the Church and an active 
and devout attendance at her services. 
A fourth cause was found in the beauty 
and attractiveness of the First Friday 
services, and the solemnity and prepara- 
tion attending the semi-annual Recep- 
tion of Promoters. A great increase in 
the circulation of the MESSENGER, work 
in the hospitals and on the Islands, 
organized adoration of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, are other evidences of the activity 
of this Centre. The Deaf Mute Associ- 
ates have twenty Promoters from among 
their own number, and thirty regular 
Adorers. The League in the Parish 
School has been rendered more efficient 
by the establishment of the Apostleship 
of Study. Out of eight hundred and 
forty pupils, one hundred and seventy 
qualified themselves for the decorations 
by their faithful performance of all the 
devout practices recommended, especially 
the daily offering to the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus of an hour of study, an hour of 
silence and an hour of recreation. A 
full list of Promoters and another list 
of deceased Promoters and Associates, 
give completeness to this sixteen page 
report, and make us cherish the hope 
that other Centres may imitate their ex- 
ample by annually setting forth the his- 
tory of the League in their respective 
parishes. 

WASHINGTON, D. C., ST. ALOYSIUS' 
CENTRE. A sixteen-page supplement, 
printed and bound in with the regular Apos- 
tleship Almanac, constitutes the Special 
Edition issued by this flourishing Centre. 
Here, again, the success of a house to 
house canvass for Associates is a marked 



feature of the year' s work, an increase of 
1,200 Associates being the immediate re- 
sult. There are 381 active Promoters, 
of whom ninety received their Crosses and 
Diplomas during the first year. Forty-nine 
others are filling their term of six months' 
probation; nine who were formerly active 
have resumed work; thirteen resigned 
either because they entered convents or for 
other reasons; death deprived us of four 
faithful Promoters and 121 Associates, 
while the names of fivePromoters have been 
erased from the Register, owing to re- 
missness in duty. Eighty-four thousand, 
four hundred and eighty-one Leaflets 
were distributed during the year, and 
60,000 Communions of Reparation of- 
fered. Three thousand, two hundred 
and thirty- six Monthly Reports have 
been handed in by Promoters, and 5,500 
Badges distributed. A steady increase 
in the use ol the Intention Blanks, and 
the Treasury of Good Works, has been 
noted, an effect due, in part, to the hand- 
some new ''Sacred Heart Casket" 
placed in a prominent position in the 
church. A " Roll of Honor," contain- 
ing the names of those Promoters who, 
during the year, never failed to hand in 
their reports before the fourth Sunday of 
the month, was read at two of the Pro- 
moters' Meetings, and then hung up in a 
conspicuous place in the League office. 
The third Friday night of each month 
is called the Men's League Night. On 
that occasion, the middle aisle is reserved 
for men, and their deep voices lend an 
additional charm to the congregational 
singing, which is now a striking fea- 
ture of all public services in this Cen- 
tre. The practical and energetic Local 
Director notes with pleasure an increase 
in the number of subscriptions to the 
MESSENGER, the great means, as he says, 
to keep alive the true spirit of the Apos- 
tleship, and he declares he shall not rest 
satisfied until every Band subscribes for 
at least one copy. His short chat with 
Promoters which closes the report, is full 
of valuable suggestions and clearly-enun- 
ciated practical principles. 



(57) 



Director's Review. 



d 

tl 



FROM OUR MAIL BAG " I am in re- 
ceipt of the first number of the MES- 
SENGER for 1899, and to-day I received 
the beautiful picture you sent as a prem- 
ium to my address. I feel now that I 
was never so rich in all my life. My 
sincere thanks for both, and I will save 
up every cent I can, in order to be able 
to continue my subscription for the MES- 
SENGER for many years to come." 

"With this find subscription for an- 
other year. I could not do without the 
MESSENGER." 

I have recommended the M ESSEN - 
ER all I could, but not as much as it 
deserves, for I do not believe we have in 
the English language anything like or 
equal to your MESSENGER. May God 
prosper it ! " 

" Enclosed find subscription to the 
MESSENGER for 1899. Would have re- 
newed it sooner, but being a working 
girl and only paid once a month, I did 
not have the means to do so sooner. I am 
very much pleased with the MESSENGER, 
and being a member of the League of 
the Sacred Heart, I hope to continue 
taking it as long as God spares me and 
gives me the means to do so." 

"Thanks for your kind offer to send 
me MESSENGER free next year. I con- 
fess that I would have missed it very 
much, had I been obliged to do without 
it. A friend has been sending me hers, 
but it reaches me late in the month. I 
glance at it and mail it to my niece who 
lives nine miles from a church. She 
has gathered the few Catholics around 
her, and after unceasing effort a priest 
has been appointed, who comes twice a 
month to say Mass. Every Sunday she 
reads the devotions and some suitable 
selections to the people in the little hall, 
and she and her children lead the sing- 
ing of hymns, and teach catechism. 
This good woman -is married to a non- 
Catholic. When she has read the MES- 
SENGER, she forwards it to my nephew, 
who went a year ago to a mining district 
in northern California. Many Catho- 
lics are scattered over the mountains, and 



for miles reading matter goes from hand 
to hand, returning honbrably to the 
owner, only to go forth again. ' ' 

"Hoping for the unlimited success 
which your efforts deserve, I beg to as- 
sure you that an inestimable amount of 
practical good in the parish, is always the 
result of the presence of the Apostle- 
ship. " 

A STRANGE ERROR. "While the 
Church," says the Catholic Weekly, 
' ' approves the devotion to the Sacred 
Heart, she only tolerates pictures or 
images of the Heart alone or of Christ 
with His Heart exposed. Such repre- 
sentations will be gradually withdrawn 
and the scapular of the Sacred Heart now 
bears only an image of Christ. ' ' 

This is wrong. The Church has re- 
peatedly approved of such images by 
granting Indulgences at various times for 
the use o/ scapulars or badges bearing 
the image of the Heart alone, and for 
prayers before pictures of the Christ ex- 
posing His Heart, and the Sacred Congre- 
gation of Rites has decided that such In- 
dulgences could not be gained unless the 
Heart appears on the picture. The dates 
of these decrees are given in the League 
Director for February. 

The Sacred Heart scapular still bears 
the image of the Heart of Jesus alone, 
and so also does our Badge ; if we have 
added on one side the figure of Christ 
exposing His Heart, it is because we 
wish to make our Badge a perfect ex- 
pression of the spirit and practices of our 
League, by representing Christ plead- 
ing for us and showing us His Heart in 
order to suggest the love and devotion 
with which He prays for us, and would 
have us pray for others. 

OBITUARY. 

Ellen Handibean, St. Aloysius Centre, 
Washington, D. C. ; Patrick Lally, St. 
Ann's Centre, St. Louis, Mo.; Nicholas 
Martin, St. Patrick's Centre, O'Neill, 
Nebraska. 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



TOTAL NUMBER OF THANKSGIVINGS FOR LAST MONTH, 1,075,899. 
"/ all things give thanks" (I. Thes. , v. 18. ) 



Special Thanksgivings. GARDINER,. 
N. Y. " Please announce in the MESSEN- 
GER, that I attribute my recovery from 
a severe attack of influenza to the Sacred 
Heart of pur Divine Lord. I promise, 
therefore, to say a Mass, for the inten- 
tions of the League, on the first Friday 
of each month during the coming year of 
1899. I asked for this favor when my 
illness was most critical." 

" I wish to offer a public thanksgiving 
for the safe return of my husband 
from the Santiago campaign. Though 
not a Catholic, he wore a medal of the 
Sacred Heart, also a Badge, and a medal 
of Our Lady of Victory. His regiment 
was under fire from noon, July i, until 
July 3, when the flag of truce went up. 
Its members occupied a position nearer 
the Spanish lines than any other regi- 
ment, and here it remained in the 
trenches until July 17, without once be- 
ing relieved. The rifle pit of my hus- 
band's company was penetrated by a 
Spanish shell, which exploded, injuring 
no one, though the cap of the shell, 
weighing many pounds, fell in his own 
rifle pit, immediately in rear of his com- 
pany. Neither was he ill a single day in 
Cuba. For these great favors I wish to 
return a special and fervent thanksgiving 
to the Sacred Heart." 

WASHINGTON, D. C. " Being obliged 
to go to a hospital to undergo a serious 
operation, I placed myself under the pro- 
tection of the Sacred Heart, and felt 
great confidence in the prayers of 
the League Considering my age and 
weak condition, doctors and nurses 
thought I got on remarkably well, better 
than many others who appeared to have 
much in their favor. One night, in par- 
ticular, I suffered severely. I knew 
1 86 



nothing could be done to relieve me, and 
I tried hard to be patient. I had my 
Promoter's Cross, Badge and a relic of 
Blessed Margaret Mary fastened together, 
aud I suddenly remembered having heard 
that it was proper to make use of these 
articles. I placed them just over the 
terrible pain, begging the Sacred Heart 
through the virtues attached to them, 
and the intercession of Blessed Margaret 
Mary, to ease my suffering. In a few 
moments the pain was gone, and I fell 
into a comfortable sleep. ' ' 

WASHINGTON, D.C. "Since January 
of last year, my brother had been out of 
employment, trying all the while, both 
in Washington and other cities, for some- 
thing to do, but all his own efforts and 
those of friends seemed of no avail. Still 
he never lost faith in the prayers of the 
League. On the First Friday of October, 
the intention was read out at our regular 
League meeting, and a novena begun to St. 
Joseph, with a promise of publication in 
the MESSENGER, and a Mass for the poor 
souls in honor of the Sacred Heart. That 
same month, from a most unexpected 
source, he was helped into a position 
here in this city." 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. "About a month 
ago, some articles were lost, and in con- 
sequence I was in danger of being retired 
from my position. I prayed to the 
Sacred Heart and promised to go to Holy 
Communion and to have favor, if granted, 
published in the MESSENGER. I had 
searched everywhere, but could not find 
the lost articles. On Monday morning, 
when I came in, I found them where I 
am sure that I had looked before, in full 
view. I received Holy Communion, and 
hope that you will publish this, so that I 
may fulfil my promise. ' ' 

(58) 



(50 



In Thanksgiving for Graces Obtained. 



187 



ASHTABULA, OHIO. "We wish to 
re urn special thanks to the Sacred Heart 
fo the cure of a child sick with a fever. 
Ti e little one grew worse rapidly from 
th j beginning of her sickness, and almost 
fr< m the beginning her mind wandered. 
A Badge was pinned on the child's cloth - 
in , r , a Mass promised in honor of the 
Sacred Heart, and promise of publication 
if the child were cured. Almost imme- 
diately the child grew better, and in 
at out three days after, the little one was 
atle to be up and play about the house. 
Her cure was certainly wonderful, and 
with grateful hearts we offer this for pub- 
lication. ' ' 

CALIENTE, CAL. "I wish to return 
thanks to Blessed Margaret Mary for 
recovery of health, when very much de- 
pressed at the prospect of being obliged 
j to give up work. In a short time I 
picked up wonderfully. ' ' 

WATERBURY, CT. "Would you al- 
low me space in the MESSENGER to thank 
I the Most Sacred Hear.t for obtaining the 
grace of a happy death for my husband? 
He had seen the priest several times, but 
refused to go to confession or Commun- 
ion, though he knew his end was fast ap- 
j proaching. Almost discouraged, I pro- 
! raised the Sacred Heart that I would 
have it published in the MESSENGER if he 
received the Sacraments, which he did, 
several times, before death came. ' ' 

Spiritual Favors through the Sacred 
Heart. Two conversions to the faith; a 
return to religious duties; a deliverance 
from temptation; reform of two persons 
addicted to drink; reconciliation of two 
brothers and two sisters who had been at 
enmity for years. A wife and her non- 
Catholic husband were about to obtain a 
divorce on account of suspicions and 
misunderstanding. The wife was asked 
by a Promoter to wear a Badge of the 
Sacred Heart, that the separation might 
be avoided. She consented. The diffi- 



culty was happily settled, and the divorce 
suit dropped. The wife is* convinced 
that all is due to the Sacred Heart. 
The return to his duty of a neglectful 
Catholic; the grace to make a good con- 
fession; preservation of virtue amid grave 
danger; the conversion of an only bro- 
ther; peace of mind and patience for 
several persons ; the good work done by 
the Promoters in my parish. 

Temporal Favors. Success of four 
surgical operations; good positions for 
three; recovery of a child from malignant 
scarlet fever; successful examination; un- 
expected sale of some property, after 
promise of publication and a novena of 
communions; a brother's restoration to 
health; the cure of a severe cold; abate- 
ment of a high fever; recovery of health; 
receipt of an important letter; means of 
livelihood for several persons ; settlement 
of a lawsuit; unexpected success in busi- 
ness; recover^ of a mother and daughter 
from a contagious disease; recovery of a 
husband from serious bone trouble; cure 
of rheumatism; recovery from an injury 
which threatened a serious operation; 
rapid convalescence after an attack of 
pleurisy; employment through a novena to 
Blessed Margaret Mary; the return of a 
nephew who had been missing for nearly 
eighteen months; cure of headaches and 
nervous trouble; a good position; re- 
covery from severe attack of appen- 
dicitis. 

Favors Ascribed to Application of Badge 
or Promoter' s Cross. Escape from 
threatened appendicitis; relief from pains 
in the side; cure of sore eyes in the case 
of two; cure of earache; stopping of hem- 
orrhage of the lungs; relief from rheu- 
matism of the back; checking, of a severe 
cold which threatened to lead to con- 
sumption; cure of a swollen leg; subsiding 
of a swelling on the face; cure of sore 
throat; relief from severe pain in the 
limbs; recovery from cramps ; cure of 
bronchial troubles. 



It has been often said and cannot be 
too often repeated that reading is for the 
mind what food is for the body. Just as 
the strongest constitution must needs 
succumb to the effects of unwholesome 
diet, so the sturdiest soul will sicken and 
die from the effects of unwholesome 
reading. The enemy of mankind was 
quick to seize upon the press for the ruin 
of souls, but it can also be made one of 
the mightiest means for their salvation. 

* * * 

We have reason to rejoice at the great 
increase of Catholic literature during the 
past decade of years. In every depart- 
ment Catholic authors are coming to the 
front. We must not, however, make the 
mistake of thinking that because an 
author is a Catholic, therefore everything 
in his book is commendable, nor allow 
ourselves to imbibe the poison of a book 
which caters to the popular taste at the 
expense of principle and even sometimes 
of purity. Still, of good literature by 
Catholic authors there is now an abund- 
ance. Every taste can be gratified, every 
condition of life find something to suit 
its needs. 

* * * 

College students will derive both bene- 
fit and entertainment from a little book 
recently published by Rev. John F. 
Quirk, S.J., late Professor of Rhetoric 
at St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y. 
This work contains a eulogy on Bl. Ed- 
mund Campion, S.J., together with the 
martyr's Homo Acadeinir.us, a Latin 
oration delivered at Douay. There is an 
English translation by Father Quirk. As 
a boy Edmund Campion, a pupil of the 
Blue-Coat school, was chosen among all 
the school-boys of London to address 
188 



Queen Mary upon her entrance into that 
city. The little orator was then only 
thirteen years of age. At sixteen he 
entered St. John's College, Oxford. 
Here his brilliant talents and especially 
his gift of eloquence soon made him 
famous. When Queen Elizabeth visited 
Oxford he took the principal part in a 
Latin disputation held in her presence. 
He delivered the funeral oration over 
Amy Robsart, whose tragic death is told 
in Scott's Kenilworth. He became the 
model and hero of university students. 
He was the leader of the fashion not 
only in literary style, but even in dress 
and manners. He was the favorite of 
Elizabeth, of Cecil, and of Leicester. 
Cecil called him one of England's dia- 
monds. Who could then have predicted 
that this dashing young student, this 
spoiled child of fortune, would end his life 
upon the scaffold ? 

Hitherto he had remained faithful to 
the Catholic faith. But in a moment of 
weakness, yielding to temptation, he 
allowed himself to be made a deacon of 
the new religion which Elizabeth was 
forcing upon the English people. Re- 
penting of his sin, he resolved to devote 
himself to the service of God. He left 
Oxford in 1569 and after a short stay in 
Ireland passed over to the Continent. 
He entered the Society of Jesus, re- 
turned to England as a missionary, and 
became the most famous champion there 
of the persecuted religion. Proscribed, 
hunted, but always feared, he was at last 
taken and finished his life a glorious 
martyr for the Faith. 

Next to St. John's College where Cam- 
pion studied there stands a massive and 
noble-looking building, though of modest 

(60) 



The Reader. 



189 



pr (portions. It was there in Campion's 
tii ie and had been there for centuries 
In ore. As you enter the door the first 
th ng you see is a statue of the martyr 
in his Jesuit dress, and you know that 
yc u are in Campion Hall, where the 
yc ung Jesuit students of Oxford are pre- 
pi ring themselves to follow in the foot- 
stops of their great patron. The Homo 
Academicus puts before us an ideal col- 
lege student, such as all students should 
strive to become. Father Quirk is to be 
congratulated on bringing it within reach 
four Catholic young men. 






Lovers of fiction will be charmed by 
Westchester, a tale of the Revolution, by 
Henry Austin Adams, M. A., the well- 
known lecturer and editor, and two books 
of stories by Maurice Francis Egan. We 
! need not make any remarks on these 
l . books. The names of their authors are 
a sufficient commendation. 



The Apostleship of Prayer in England 
is working hard for the sailors. It has 
published a Sailors' Hymn Book and a 
series of Letters to Catholic Seamen by 
the Rev. John G. Gretton, S.J. These 
letters are short but solid, well-written 
and impressive. The following extract 
will serve as a specimen of the style : 

"Eternity is not made up of years 
and centuries, like time. No amount 
of time could ever make up eternity, 
just as no amount of the restless ocean 
could make up the immovable rock. 
Time and eternity differ much more 
than sea and land. Time is always mov- 
ing and changing, filled with our count- 
less thoughts, words and actions. Eter- 
nity knows no movement, no change. 
// is one unchangeable, everlasting, in- 
finite Now. It has no yesterday and no 
to-morrow. It is foolish, therefore, to 
imagine, as some do, who have not the 
faith, that after an immense time the soul 
will change its mind and return to God. 
After ages and ages of time, eternity has 
not moved by the fraction of a second 



from its beginning, for it is an everlasting 
existence." 



In far greater need of help than the 
sailors are the pagans and the slaves of 
Africa. The Life of Cardinal Lavigerie, 
by Rev. J. G. Beane, tells of the im- 
mense labors and glorious success, not 
however unmixed with great trials, of 
one man- the Apostle of a Continent. 
To give an idea of what he accomplished 
it will be sufficient to state that before 
his death there were 100,000 Catholic 
Africans in Uganda alone, where his 
first missionaries had found not one. 



A bright and interesting little book is 
Father O' Conor's Sacred Scenes and 
Mysteries. It contains accounts of such 
places as Paray-le-Monial, Oostacker, the 
home of St. John Berchmans, with short 
articles on devotional subjects such as 
the Childhood of Mary, St. Ursula, 
the Guardian Angels, etc. The volume 
closes with a hymn and several poems, 
composed by the author. There are 
numerous half-tone illustrations taken 
from the works of great masters. It is a 
book that can be taken up at any time in 
moments of weariness, when one is in 
search of spiritual recreation and refresh- 
ment. 



The Columbian Guard designates 
an important booklet, by Rev. M. P. 
Heffernan of St. Anthony's Church, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. , and is descriptive of a 
happily named boy's society which he 
has organized on military lines. 

The pamphlet contains very earnest and 
eloquent appeals for increased attention 
to Juniors, besides offering a constitu- 
tion for their government. Father 
Heffernan' s practical, literary contribu- 
tion emphasizes the charity-duty of 
priests who are successfully engaged in 
boy care : let them, for the benefit of 
others, publish their experiences, expedi- 
ents, etc. Guide books of this kind 
would provide inquiring beginners with 



190 



Recent Aggregations. 



(62) 



large choice of methods, and therefore 
cannot be too numerous. 

By the way, the above booklet should 
enlighten Mr. B. Paul Neuman, who, in 
the very interesting Fortnightly Review 
article, ' 'Take care of the Boys, ' ' makes 
no exception for Catholic priests when 
declaring that clergymen are incompetent 
to organize and care for the junior male 
growth of cities. 

A writer, so experienced in men and 
things, should know that heresy's blight 



of sterility does not afflict the Mother 
Church. Here, for example, is a 
Brooklyn priest modestly unfolding 
methods that bring him hundreds of 
young followers. Many of the same 
vocation, who are silent, have like suc- 
cess ; and others still might enjoy it if 
they would. Perhaps new workers will 
be formed by the booklet now considered. 
It is intended for private circulation only, 
and can be had on application to the 
author. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



BENZIGER BROTHERS, 

New York, Cincinnati and Chicago. 
Marice Corolla. A Wreath for our Lady. By Father 
Edmund of the Heart of Mary, C. P. (Benjamin 
D. Hill). Pages, 201. I2mo. Cloth, $1.25. 

H. L. KILNER & CO. 

Philadelphia. 
Prince Ragnal and other holiday -verses. By Eleanor 

C. Donnelly. Pages, 40. 12 mo. Cloth. 
In a Brazilian Forest and Three Brave Boys. By 
Maurice Francis Egan. Pages, 219. 12 mo. 
Cloth. 

The Leopard of Lancianns and other stories. By 
Maur-ce Francis Egan. Pages, 229. 12 mo. 
Cloth. 

B. HERDER, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Westchester. A Tale of the Revolution. By Henry 
Austin Adams, M. A. Pages, 264. 12 mo. Cloth. 
Lasca, andother stories. By Mary F. Nixon. Pages 
190. 12 mo. Cloth. 

CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY, 

London. 

Christian Argument. By J. Herbert Williams, M. 
A. Pages, in. 12 mo. Cloth. 



MESSENGER OFFICE, 

Wimbledon, England. 
The Catholic Sailors' 1 Hymn Book. Edited by F. M. 

De Zulueta, S.J. Pages, 33. 12 mo. Cloth. 
Letters to Catholic Seamen, on Christian Doctrine^ 
I to VIII. By Rev. John George Gretton, S.J. 
Paper, 4 pages each. 

APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER, 

New York. 

A Patron for Scholars. Eulogy on the Blessed Ed- 
mund Campion, S.J.. with his oration on 'The 
Model College Student." By Rev. John F. 
Quirk, S.J. Pages, 8r. 12 mo. Cloth and paper 
LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., 

New York. 

Sacred Scenes and Mysteries. By Rev. J. F. X. 
O'Conor, S.J. Pages, 138. 12 mo. Cloth. $i oo. 
THE CATHOLIC BOOK EXCHANGE, 

New York. 

The Voice of the Good Shepherd. Does it Live ? and 
Where ? By the Rev. Edmund Hill, C.P. Pages, 
24. Paper. 

ANGEL GUARDIAN PRESS, 

Boston, Mass. 

Impressions and Opinions By Walter Leckey. 
Pages, 180, 12 mo. Paper, 50 cts. 



RECENT AGGREGATIONS. 

The following Local Centres have received Diplomas of Aggregation, December i to 31, 1898. 



Diocese. 


Place. 


Local Centre. 




Date. 


Cleveland 
Denver 

Dubuque . . 

*Erie ... 
Fargo 


Defiance, Ohio 
Fruita, Colo 
Grand Junction, Colo . . 
Dubuque, la . . .... 
Fairbank. la ... 
Titusville, Pa ... 
Mmot, N. Dak ' 


St John's. . 
St. Malachy's ' 
St. Joseph's 
St. Ambrose's 
Immaculate Conception 
St. Walburga's 
St. Leo's 


. . . Church 

. . . Convent 
. . . Church 


Dec. 22. 
Dec. 6. 
Dec. 6. 
Dec. 9. 
Dec. 16. 
Nov. 5. 


*Galveston . . . 
Indian Territory . . . 


Mexia, Tex 
Hennessy, Okla. Terr'y . '. 


St. Mary's , 
St. Joseph's . ... 


(1 


Nov. 12. 
Dec 6 


*Milwankee 
New York 
Pittsburg 


Tomah, Wis 
Jefferson, Wis . 
Mt. Vernon N. Y 
Millvale Pa 


vSt. Mary's 
St. Laurenz' 
St. Joseph's 


. . Academy 


Dec. 29. 
Dec. 10. 
Dec. 8. 




Pitcairn. Pa .... 


St. Michael's 


. . . Church 


Dec. 21. 


Portland 
Providence 


Wilmerding, Pa . 
South Brewer, Me ... 
Warren R. I 


vSt. Aloysius' 
St. Teresa's 
St. Mary s. . 


. . " 


Dec. 21. 
Dec. 6. 
Dec 22. 


*St. Louis . 
*St Paul 
San Francisco . 
Wichita 


North Attleboro, Mass . 
Florissant, Mo . . . 
New Allm, Min . . 
Oakland, Cal . . 
Wichita, Kans . 


St. Mary's 
Sacred Heart 
Holy Trinity 
St. Joseph's ....... 
St. Aloysius' 


. '. School 
Pro-Cathedral 


Dec. 25. 
Dec. 10. 
Nov. i. 
Dec. 8. 
Nov. 4. 



Aggregations. 22; churches, 19; schools, 2; convent, i; 'German-speaking Centres. 



Promoters' Receptions. 



191 






PROMOTERS' RECEPTIONS. 

Diplomas issued from December i to 30, 1898. 



Diocese. 


Place. 


Local Centre. 


No. 


Alton 
Baltimore 
toston 
Brooklyn 
~3rownsvi le 

Buffalo . . ... 
Chicago 

Cleveland ... 
Columbus 

Dallas . . 


Newton, 111 
Washington, D. C 
Brighton, Mass 
Brooklyn. N. Y 
Goliad Texas 


St. Thomas' 
St. Aloysius.- 


. Church 2 

22 

7i 
7 


St. Columbkille's. . . 
Nativity .... 


St. Maiy's 
St. Patrick's 


5 
7 
15 
H 
4 
3 
5 
7 

. College 1 8 
. Convent i 
. . Church 4 

" 10 
" 2 
" 12 

. Cathedral 14 
. Church 20 

" 5 


San Patricio, Tex 
Buffalo, N. Y 
Chicago, 111 

Delphos, Ohio . . 
Ironton, Ohio 
Steubenville, Ohio 
Dallas, Texas 
Dubuque, Iowa 
Collegeville, Ind 
Tipton, Ind 
Houston, Tex 
Green Bay, Wis 
Oconto, Wis. . 


Holy Angel's 


St. Vincent's 
Our Lady of Sorrows' 
St. John the Evangelist's. . . . 
St. Lawrence's 


St. Peter's 
Sacred Heart 


Dubuque ...'.. 
Fort Wayne 

Galveston 


St. Patrick's. 


St. Joseph's 
St. Joseph's 
St. Joseph's 


St. Patrick's 


Harrisburg 
Hartford 


Shamokin, Pa 
Hartford, Conn.. . . . 
E.Hartford, Conn 
Norwalk. Conn 
Monett, Mo , . . . 
Pao'a, Kans 
Louisville, Ky 


St. Edward's 
vSt. Joseph's 
St. Mary s. . . 


Kansas City 
Leavenworth 
Louisville 
Milwaukee 


St. Lawrence'a ... 
Holy Family .* 
Assumption 
Holy Rosary . . .... 


4 

2 

. Cathedral 3 
. Church 5 
" i 


Milwaukee, Wis 
Spokane, Wash 
Jersey City, N. J 
Paterson.N. J 

New Orleans, La 
New York City, N. Y. . . 

Portland Ore 


Nesqually 
Newark 

New Orleans 
New York. '.'.'.'.'.'. 

Oregon City 
Pe ria 
Philadelphia 


St Mary's .... .... 
Franciscan .... 


41 
. Monastery 5 
. Church 3 
19 
3 


St Joseph's 
St. Alphonsus' 


St. Ambrose's , . . . 
St. Ann's ... 
St. Patrick's 
St. Paul's 


" 22 

15 

. Cathedral 42 
. . Church 3 

. Academy u 
. . Church 2 
4 
. . Convent 6 
. . Church 18 


St. Mary's ... 
Immaculate Conception . . . 
St. Columba's 
St. Joseph's 


Streator, 111 
Philadelphia, Pa. . . 

Glenfield, Pa ....... 
Rochester, Pa. ... ... 
E'mhurst. R. I 
Nevada, Cal 
Fernandina. Fla 
Florissant, Mo 
St. Louis, " .... 

San Francisco, Cal 


Pittsburg ....... 

Providence 
Sacramento 
St. Augustine 
St. Louis 

San Francisco 

Scranton 
Sioux Falls 
Springfield 
Vincennes 


St. Kyran's 
St. Mary's 
St. Cecelia's 
Sacred Heart 


23 
. . i 

. . Academy i 
. . Church 8 


St. Michael's 
St Ferdinand's 
St. Francis Xavier's .... 
St. Mary's and St. Joseph's. . 
St. Francis of Assium's 


. 2 

. . " 7 
. . i 
. . " 28 

" st 

. . " 13 

10 


Vallejo,Cal ......... 
Scranton, Pa 
Emmet. So Dak 


St. Peter's 




. ' 21 


St. Joseph's 


Clinton, Ind 
Evansville Ind 
Indianapolis, Ind 


St. Patrick's ... ' * . . 


. . ' 4 
. . 3 


Good Shepherd 


. Convent 3 


Total Number of Receptions, 62. Total Number of Diplomas issued, 654. 



CALENDAR OF INTENTIONS, FEBRUARY, 1899. 

THE MORNING OFFERING. 

' O mv God I offer Thee my prayers, works and sufferings this day, in union with the Sacred Heart of 
Tesus Tor the intentions for which He pleads and offers Himself in the Mass, for the petitions of our 
Associates; especially this month for Priests in Parishes. 





W ' 


St. Ignatius, Bp.M. (107). Pr. 


All far Jesus. 


^075,899 thanksgivings. 




Th. 


Purification B.V.M.-H.H., A.C., A.I. 


Care of Children. 


77,286 for those in affliction. 


^ 


F. 


First Friday._St. Francis de Sales, Bp.C.D. 


Amiability. 


83,041 for the sick, infirm. 






(1622). St. Blaise, Bp.M. (316). ist D , 










A.C., Pr 






4 


S. 


St. Andrew Corsini, Bp.C. (O.C., 1373)- 


Compunction. 


67,830 for dead associates. 


5 


S. 


Sexagesima. st. Philip of Jesus (O.F.M.- 


Constancy. 


56,850 for Local Centres. 






1597)- 






6 


M. 


St Titus Bp.C. (94). St. Dorothy, V.M. ! Union with Christ. 


66 823 for Directors. 






(304) 






T 


St. Romuald, Ab.C. (1207). Penance. 


95,943 for Promoters. 


Q 


W 


St. John deMatha.C.F. (Trinitarians, 1213 ) Charity. 


215,540 for the departed. 


o 


Th 


St. Cyril of Alexandria, Bp.C.D. (444). -St. Reading good books. 


166,730 for perseverance. 






Apollonia V.M. (249) .H.H. 




10 


F. 


St. Scholastica, V. (O S.B., 543). Trust in God 


162,696 for young persons. 


II 


S. 


Seven Servites, FF. CC. (1233). Love of our Lady. 


47,128 for ist Communions. 


12 


S. Quinquagesima. St. Eulalia, V.M. (304). Self-Immolation. 


95 968 for parents. 


i ^ 


M 


St. Raymond, C.(O.P., 1275).- St. Catharine 


Prayer for the dead. 


104,017 for families. 






de Ricci, V. (O.S.D., 1590). Pr. 






14 


T 


St. Valentine, M. (306). 


Kindness. 


52,065 for reconciliations. 


yr 


W 


Ash Wednesday. ^ 


Mortification. 


107,245 for work, means. 




Th 


St Onesimus, Bp.M. (95). HH. 


Liberty of spirit. 


192,167 clergy, religious. 


TT 


F 


Holy Passion. St. Fiutan, Ab.C. (560). ;> 


Self-denial 


41,711 seminarists, novices. 


18 


S. 


SS. Paul, John and James, MM. (S.J., 1597) 


Zeal for souls 


52,966 for vocations. 


19 


S. 


1st in Lent. St. Conrad of Placentia, C 


Resistance to evil. 


124,037 for parishes, schools. 


20 


M. 


St. John the Almoner, Bp.C. 


Compassion. 


51,699 for superiors. 


21 


T. 


St Ephrem, C 


Humility. 


53,167 for missions, retreats. 


22 


W. 


Ember Day. St. Peter's Chair atAntioch.^, 


Loyalty to the Church. 


49,715 for societies, works. 


2 S 


Th. 


St. Peter Damian, Bp.C.D. H.H. 


Faith. 


203,080 for conversions. 


2 4 


F. 


Ember Day. St. Matthias, Ap.-A.I. ;<> 


Obeying vocation. 


3}4,86o for sinners. 


25 


S. 


Ember Day. Holy Crown of Thorns. ^ 


Resignation. 


76,147 for the intemperate. 


26 





2d in Lent. St. Porphyry, Bp.C. (420). 


Horror of superstition 388.789 lor spiritual and tem- 
j poral favors. 


27 


M. 


St. Brigid, V. (Patroness of Ireland, 523). 


Imitation of Mary. 


114, 161 for special, various. 


28 


T. 


St. Joseph of Leonissa, C. (1612). 


Devotion to crucifix. 


For MESSENGER Readers. 



PLENARY INDULGENCES: Ap. Apostlcship. (T).=Degrees, PT.=f^omo(ers, C. R.=Communton of Repara- 
tion, H..H.=Jfoly Hour); A. I., B.I.=Apostolic, Bridgettine Indulgence ; A. .=Apostleshit> of btudy . 

TREASURY OF GOOD WORKS. 
Offerings for the Intentions recommended to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 



/oo days' Indulgence for every action offered for the Intentions of the League. 

NO. TIMES. 

Acts of Charity 4,210,161 n. Masses heard 

Beads . 



3. Way of the Cross . . . 

4. Holy Communions . . . 

5. Spiritual Communions 



', 789 

6. Examens of Conscience 400,484 

Hours of Labor 2,633,593 



> I 73>344 I2 - Mortifications 

6i,375 13. Works of Mercy 

45,960 14. Works of Zeal 



15. Prayers 

16. Kindly Conversation . 

17. Sufferings, Afflictions 



8. Hours of Silence 1,954,209 18. Self-conquest 

9. Pious Reading 67,615 19. Visits to B. Sacrament 

10. Masses read 6,380 20. Various Good Works. 

Total, 23,273,173. 



). TIMES. 

296,121 
332.09Q 

1,471,876 

1,317.553 
3,163,760 
2,130,482 

34,851 

1, 733.011 

324,268 

2,354,202 



Intentions or Good Works put in the box, or given on lists to Promoters before their meeting, on or 
before the last Sunday, are sent by Directors to be recommended in our Calendar, MESSENGER, in our 
Masses here, at the General Direction in Toulouse, and Lourdes. 



192 



(64) 



" If we wish to know the value of the power of prayer, we must consider the 
prayer that goes up from the lips and the Heart of one who is God, sure of being 
heard, because it begs and desires and wishes only for the Father's desires and will, 
and its supplication is worthy of Him. It is by this prayer that every other becomes 
meritorious, availing, efficacious. In fact, but one prayer is really worthy of God, 
because there is but one mediator between God and man, Jesus Christ. Through 
Him we must make our every demand : through Hirp present our every request ; 
properly speaking, Jesus Christ is the only and the universal man of prayer. St. 
Augustine puts this doctrine in this way : " When we pray to God we do not dis- 
tinguish between the Son and the Father; and in like manner when the mystical 
body of the Son sends up its supplications to heaven it must not separate itself from 
its Head, but so pray with Him, that it may be Jesus Christ who prays for us and by 
us. He prays for us as our priest, He prays by us as our Head, He is Himself the 
one we pray to as our God. Let us recognize our accents in His and His accents 
in our own." 







JEANNE D'ARC LISTENING TO THE HEAVENLY VOICES. 




THE AESSENGEP^ 

OF THE 

SACKED HEART OF JESUS 

VOL xxxii. APRIL, 1897. No. 4. 




PECCAVI. 

AVE mercy, Lord, have mercy Thou on me ! 
Lone and despised, I turn imploringly, 
As in debasing penury I wait .; 
To beg a pittance at the temple gate. 
Yea, Lord, the loathsome leprosy of sin 
Hath long defaced Thy beauteous work within ; 
Yet, 'neath these scales, me beggared and denied 
Thou seest, still Thy creature still Thy child. 
Thou who hast made me, Thou wilt not despise 
My voice of weeping and my piteous cries. 
Unclean, unclean ! Low in the dust I fall. 
Pity me, pity me, Lord of all ! 
Peccavi ! peccavi ! 

Almighty Ruler of the wind and wave, 
'Tis Thou canst heal ; 'tis Thou alone canst save. 
Thy hand out-stretch, O Thou of gentle mien, 
And speak the word of blessing, " Be thou clean. " 
Healer of all who hope, good Master, stay, 
Nor from Thy presence cast my soul away. 
Forbid it now, where none but grace do meet, 
That one who hopes should perish at Thy feet. 
No price I bring, no privilege I claim, 
But hide my face in misery and shame. 
Unclean, unclean ! Hark to the leper's cry ! 
Pity me, pity me, Lord, I die ! 
Peccavi ! peccavi ! 

St. Mary's of the Woods, Indiana. 



Copyright, 1896, by APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER. 



291 



MARY'S SHRINE IN THE ALPS. 

By R. M. Taylor. 



WHEN the great mystery of the In- 
carnation had been accomplished 
in the Virgin Mother through the po- 
tency of the Holy Ghost, she went across 
the mountains to sanctify by her pres- 
ence the Precursor of God. On this 
pilgrimage, the first in the New Law, 
Mary, in the plenitude of grace and 
inspiration, announced that henceforth 
all generations should call her blessed. 
Guided by the Spirit of Truth, the 
Church of God has in every age and 
clime designated her as such. Cathe- 
drals, churches, sanctuaries, altars, have 
been erected in her honor, and wherever 
a Catholic heart beats there is found an 
almost innate love of the Mother of God. 
Divine Providence, furthermore, sancti- 
fied certain spots consecrated to Mary's 
name, whither man in his misery might 
direct his steps and find relief from all 
ailments in this valley of tears. Thus 
France has her Lourdes, Italy her Lo- 
retto, Germany her Altoetting, Mexico 
her Guadalupe, and the United States 
her Auriesville. 

Equally renowned, and peacefully 
nestled among the Alps of Switzerland, 




THE JUNGFRAU. 



is the famous shrine and abbey of Our 
Lady of the Hermits. 

Modern civilization has found its way 
even to this sequestered portion of the 
Alps, and thus the pilgrims are now 
very comfortably conveyed to their des- 
tination by a mountain railway. It 
makes .its start at Wadensweil, a quaint 
little village, and, running along the 
beautiful lake of Zurich, it speeds to 
higher ground, affording them a delight- 
ful view of the blue Swiss waters. The 
smiling banks, dotted with villas and 
farm-houses, front the lake and are sur- 
rounded by orchards and vinej'ards, 
while the lofty Alpine heights pierce the 
sky like unsheathed daggers and bound 
the horizon with their sunlit but inhos- 
pitable brow. 

Far below on the shining waters rests 
the little island of Ufnau, with its an- 
cient church ; in the distance the island 
of Lutzelau floats upon their surface, 
and the high towers of Rapperschwyl, 
pointing upwards, appear as an atmos- 
pheric mirage. 

Arriving at Schindellege, the road 
crosses the Sihl, a picturesque torrent 
rushing into the Lake of 
Zurich, and here the tourist 
delights in new scenery. 
The placid water, blended 
with amethystine and azure 
sky and luxuriant vintage, 
is exchanged for the austere 
ruggedness of nature itself. 
Swiftly the railway passes 
Alpine villages and roman- 
tic chalets planted on the 
crevices by the mountain- 
side. Passing by St. Mein- 
rad's Brunnen, Biberbruck 
will be reached, and cross- 
ing the River Alp, the green 



292 



MARY'S SHRINE IN THE ALPS. 



293 




pastures of the valley of Einsiedeln 
stretch before him, while the towers of 
the monastery shape themselves against 
the clear, unclouded heavens. 

The town owes its existence to the 
abbey and its thrift to the constant in- 
flux of visitors. The hotels are crowded 
throughout the year with pilgrims and 
tourists alike. Piety is breathed in the 
very atmosphere of this village Even 
the hotels bear the names St. Bene- 
dict's, St. Meinrad's, St. Catharine's 
and many other glorious and saintly 
names. The well-known firm of Ben- 
ziger Brothers has here its ecclesiasti- 
cal institute. It affords employment to 
nearly a thousand of the mountaineers. 

But the glory of the country is the 
abbey, which incloses the shrine of Our 
Lady of the Hermits. To ascertain the 
history of its foundation we must re- 
trace our steps to the year 837. 

In the ninth century a scion of the 
noble family of Hohenzollern, called 
Meinrad, assumed the habit of St. Bene- 
dict. His rank deprived him of the tran- 
quillity he sought in the cloister, and, 
deciding to attain a higher degree of 
sanctity, he secured the permission of 
his superior and retired to Mount Ezel 
near Lake Zurich. The fame of his 
sanctity spreading abroad, he was vis- 
ited by such numbers that, alarmed, he 
fled to a dense forest near a fountain to 
which he carried a statue of the Blessed 



Virgin. Such was the origin 01 the 
Monastery of Einsiedeln. 

Twenty-six years had passed in peace 
and happiness for Meinrad when, on Jan- 
uaiy 21, 863, two men begged for shelter 
within his hermitage. The weather was 
excessively cold and the saintly anchor- 
ite welcometl them in his humble abode. 
The travellers were robbers, who, expect- 
ing to secure booty, murdered the recluse 
during the night. A hair shirt was the 
reward for their crime, for he had noth- 
ing else. Terrified by what they had 
done, they fled, but two faithful friends 
and guardians of the martyr interposed. 
During the years of his sojourn in the 
secluded forest Meinrad, like many other 
hoty men, had gained the love of two ra- 
vens, which were his faithful companions 
in life, and even in his death proclaimed 
their fidelity. They followed the mur- 
derers wherever they went. They men- 
aced them by their cries, even to the 
city of Zurich where, consequently, the 
strange behavior of these birds and the 
men attracted the attention of an inn- 
keeper. Suspecting evil he had the men 
given over to justice, and confessing their 
crime they were put to death. The inn 
to this day bears the sign of the two 
faithful ravens, and the crest of the 
Prince-Abbot of the Abbey of Einsiedeln 
immortalizes their heroic deed. 

The body of the dead saint was con- 
veyed to Reichenau, where God made 



294 



MARY'S SHRINE IN THE ALPS. 




manifest the sanctity of his servant by 
many miracles. Forty-four years subse- 
quent to Meinrad's death, Benno, the son 
of the king of the Burgundians, visited 
the cell and the small oratory. Here he 
experienced heavenly peace, and, filled 
with the spirit of St. Meinrad, he ex- 
claimed : "This is the place of my re- 
pose " Some of his companions joined 
him and they lived together in the exer- 
cise of piety and virtue until the arrival 
of St. Eberhard who came to share their 
retreat. 

He employed his riches in erecting a 
monastery and church, and, adopting 
the rule of St. Benedict, he was made the 
first abbot. At his invitation St. Conrad, 
Bishop of Constance, came to consecrate 
the newly erected church in 948. St. Ul- 
ric, Bishop of Augsburg accompanied 
him. The church was constructed over 
St. Meinrad's little oratory, and on its 
altar was placed the sacred Madonna 
once the pride and joy of the great saint. 
On the night preceding the consecration 
the Bishop arose, and in the company of 
a few of the monks went to pray before 
this image. Their devotion had occu- 
pied them but a short time when sud- 



denly the church was filled with a bril- 
liant light brighter than the sun at mid- 
day, and the chant of psalms and hymns 
by a great multitude fell upon their ears. 
Hastening towards the altar, which was 
illuminated as for a solemn festival, St. 
Conrad beheld Christ offering the Holy 
Sacrifice assisted by the four Evange- 
lists. Angels on either side of the divine 
Priest swung the fuming censers. The 
Apostles, SS. Peter and Paul, and the 
Pope, St. Gregory, bore the pontifical 
insignia. SS. Stephen and Lawrence offi- 
ciated as deacons, and a choir of angels 
made the temple resound with celestial 
melody. 

Morning dawned, and still the good 
bishop remained in ecstasy at the vision. 
Finding him there the monks requested 
him to vest for the solemn ceremonies, 
but he refused, maintaining that the 
church had been divinely consecrated. 
St. Eberhard, skeptical of the miracle, 
insisted. The bishop obeyed, but no 
sooner had the highest step of the altar 
been reached than a voice from heaven 
cried: "Cease, brother, the church is 
divinely consecrated." Such is the tra- 
dition handed down from antiquity. 

The Church of Our Lady of the Her- 
mits acquired great celebrity. The Em- 
peror Otho I. conferred the title of prince 
upon the abbot. Pontiffs, emperors, 
kings, prelates, noblemen vied with 
one another in enriching or granting 
privileges to the abbey. The buildings 
were decorated with the most lavish art. 

In 1039 the body of St. Meinrad was 
translated thither, and many other pre- 
cious relics were entombed in the various 
altars. The gifts of Mary's clients con- 
stituted a valuable treasury, and, al- 
though the revolution which closed the 
last century materially injured the build- 
ings and the church, it is still one of the 
most beautiful edifices in Switzerland. 
Five times the monastery has been de- 
stroyed by fire in various centuries, and 
upon as many occasions the holy chapel 
and image have been preserved. 

The present structure is a large square 



MARY'S SHRINE IN THkL ALPS. 



295 



building, divided into quadrangles. It 
is somewhat similar in construction to 
the Escurial, Spain's famous monument 
of royalty. In the centre of the fa9ade, 
fronting the large square, is the church 
with its twin towers the arch between 
them crowned with the Blessed Virgin 's 
statue, and in a medallion above the 
entrance the crest of the monastery, two 
ravens upon a ground of gold. The en- 
tire building is four hundred and fifty by 
five hundred and sixteen feet. On either 
side of the abbey are the workshops, 
lodgings for farm-hands and poor pil- 



The image of the Blessed Virgin before 
which St. Meinrad once prayed is Ein- 
siedeln's greatest treasure. 

Upon the left arm of the Madonna rests 
the Infant Saviour, in whose hand nestles 
a tiny bird pecking at the Babe's fingers. 
The flowing hair of the Virgin falls in 
graceful tresses on the shoulders. The 
expression of the countenances is tender 
and pleasing, although they are black 
from age and the incense of ten centuries; 
and happily the words of the Canticle of 
Canticles may be applied to it : "I am 
black, yet beautiful." The whole is a 




ABBEY AND CHURCH AT EINSIEDELN. 



grims who come to the Shrine, stables 
well stocked, and gardens. 

The church is a gorgeous specimen of 
architecture, from the tesselated pave- 
ment to the glowing roof; everything is 
radiant, beautiful, bewildering, even to 
the cynic. The altar upon which the 
miraculous image stands is of purest 
marble, framed in gold and silver, and 
is a masterpiece of ecclesiastical art. 
The resemblance between this chapel 
and the house of Loretto is marked. 
Both are simple, unpretentious chapels 
enclosed within magnificent temples. 



wonderful creation of mediaeval Christian 
art. Clustered about the altar are the 
offerings of those, who, like the woman 
in the Bible, have found the reward of 
their great faith. Innumerable tablets 
announce miraculous cures recently as 
well as in the past. Among the most 
precious offerings is a handsome cande- 
labrum presented by Napoleon III. in 
commemoration of a pilgrimage made 
by him when a boy in the company of 
his mother, Queen Hortense. 

Over the timeworn pavement watered 
by so many tears of penitent souls and 



296 



MARY'S SHRINE IN THE ALPS. 



upon which millions have knelt, once 
passed the illustrious Charles Borro- 
meo, Nicholas, and numbers who are 
now canonized saints. Emperors, kings, 
princes and the great ones of the earth 
have come hither offering in common 
their homage to Mary. Goethe, who 



it may, there is a yearning in the human 
heart for the same warmth and light of 
faith which consumed the heart of Ein- 
siedeln's saintly founder, St. Meinrad. " 
It is said that the pilgrims who annu- 
ally visit Einsiedeln number over two 
hundred thousand. Upon the feast of 




AN ALPINE VILLAGE. 



twice visited Einsiedeln, leaves the fol- 
lowing testimony of his edification in his 
writings : " It is a subject of deep thought 
that morality and religion have here 
kindled a flame ever brilliantly burning. 
Thousands of pious souls come to this 
flame amidst untold hardship. Be it as 



the divine Consecration, September 14, 
great numbers are unable to procure ac- 
commodation in the town. The Ameri- 
can Catholic tourist, when visiting the 
sacred places in Europe or when sojourn- 
ing in Switzerland, should never fail to 
visit Mary's Shrine in the Alps. 



THE TRUE "LIGHT OF AS!A. J 
By D. A. Dever, 



EDWIN ARNOLD^ with a power 
founded upon great natural gifts, 
wide culture, and a partial grasp of 
real Christianity, has given to the world, 
in the great work whose title we have 
borrowed, such an exposition of Budd- 
hist thought and principle as even 
their most erudite adherent could hardly 
have hoped to produce, and one in which 
the beauty of poetic thought and expres- 
sion have been twined about the ancient 
Asiatic idol with so sympathetic a hand 
that its native ugliness almost seems to 
have given place to an air of mysterious 
power and majesty. We do not look 
with satisfaction upon this use of Chris- 
tian talent ; nevertheless we see in it an 
indication of reawakened interest in the 
peoples of those vast regions which 
cradled the infancy of the human race, 
but which have not shared to a proper 
extent in its later progress. We have no 
time to lose in thus regilding the unsub- 
stantial phantasms of diseased human 
thought, but there is, in those far lands, 
a real work for Christian hands to do in 
behalf, not of heathenism, but of its 
victims ; and a fair hope of its accom- 
plishment beams before our eyes, and 
urges us to be eager and confident in the 
task. We refer to the longed for return 
of the Eastern Church to ecclesiastical 
unity as the first step towards the Chris- 
tianizing of Asia. The true God must 
reign in the East, as well as in the West, 
and the glorious promise that the Cross 
may soon gleam from the Euxine to the 
Pacific seems to herald a flashing dawn, 
which we may justly term the "True 
Light of Asia. ' ' 

We can take up this work with all the 
more ardor and hopefulness, when we 
consider that God's ever watchful care is 
evidenced by the character of the leader 
whom He has given us in these difficult 



and dangerous times In the chair of 
Peter sits one of the very greatest of the 
popes, a pontiff who acquired command- 
ing power in the most important affairs 
of men ; for, besides the elevated spirit- 
uality by which he stands supreme, Leo 
XIII. has proved himself a leader in the 
higher realms of purely intellectual life, 
and has devoted all the force of his many- 
sided genius to the one task of elevating 
mankind, and leading it to eternal salva- 
tion. Even his enemies have been forced 
to acknowledge the more than human 
wisdom of his words, while his children 
look up with confidence and love to the 
faithful guardian and guide who antici- 
pates their every^need, and warns them 
of even- danger. The whole world 
listens to the great seer who, from his 
rock-bound height, looks out upon the 
nations, and in tones that resound to the 
uttermost ends of the earth points out 
to men the destruction to which they are 
drifting, and calls upon them to gather 
round the cross of Jesus Crucified, the 
emblem of their only salvation. With a 
range of vision as wide as the world, and 
with an ability proportioned to the great- 
est, as well as to the least, of the issues 
which concern the spiritual welfare of 
the human race, he is ceaselessly plan- 
ning, perfecting, and executing, designs 
whose splendor befits the Vicar of Christ, 
and proves the divine origin of his mis- 
sion. 

France, England, Germany, each pre- 
sents a mighty field where stupendous 
interests hang upon Leo's word ; and the 
far-reaching influence which he wields 
in those great countries would be suffi- 
cient to cast a halo of fadeless glory over 
any pontiff's reign. But even the ever- 
increasing and affectionate care with 
which he regards German, Frank, and 1 
Briton, cannot exhaust his apostolic 

297 



298 



THE TRUE LIGHT OF ASIA. 



solicitude, and all the accumulated splen- 
dors which cluster around the close of a 
long and glorious life are not sufficient 
to prevent him from detecting the first, 
faint shimmering of a holy light which 
promises to flood the East with an out- 
pouring of celestial splendor more mag- 
nificient than any which the Christian 
ages have as yet witnessed. With all 
the fervor of heavenly zeal, the Holy 
Father seeks to shield and cherish the 
reawakened life of light and grace which 
is beginning to throb anew in the long- 
palsied members of the once great East- 
ern Church ; and with all the eagerness 
of- one who knows their value, he is 
trying to restore to the Church of John, 
of Ignatius, of Polycarp, and of Chrys. 
ostom, the dazzling glory which has 
suffered so long and so disastrous an 
eclipse. 

Already his earnest prayers and his 
prudent action have borne glorious fruit; 
a sense of his sincerity and sanctity has 
pervaded the East, the true source of 
Christian unity has been indicated by the 
holding of the Eucharistic Congress of 
Jerusalem, and the wise regulations con- 
cerning the election of bishops, the train- 
ing of ecclesiastics, and the preservation 
of liturgical integrity, have convinced the 
Eastern mind that the Bishop of Rome 
is seeking only the glory of the Father, 
and the restoration of the wounded ex- 
ternal -beauty of the Spouse of Jesus 
Christ. lyet us turn from so much that 
is sad in the West, to gaze with L,eo upon 
the vast scene just glimmering in the 
advancing light of what may prove the 
most glorious dawn which earth has 
witnessed since the True Light Himself 
came down two thousand years ago. 

During one half of the Christian era, 
schism has cast its dark shadow over 
these historic lands. After an infancy of 
such splendor as the West has never 
known, after the toils and the blood of 
the most illustrious confessors and 
martyrs, after the burning eloquence of 
the most fervent and gifted preachers, 
after ten centuries of glorious and fruit- 



ful life, the Eastern Church suddenly 
sank to insignificance ; for the magni- 
tude of their ecclesiastical organization, 
and the consciousness of lofty intellec- 
tual achievements sowed the fatal seeds 
of pride in the hearts of the Oriental 
patriarchs, and blinded them to the true 
source of their undoubted greatness and 
power. Political jealousy fanned the 
flames of ecclesiastical discord, and tem- 
poral rulers, for their own temporal 
ends, studiously labored to prevent any 
reuniting of the ruptured bonds of Chris- 
tian charity. We need not enter upon 
a detailed history of the separated church. 
Ere long the scimitar of Mahomet fell 
upon the obstinate people, the crescent 
supplanted the Cross on the turrets of 
Constantine's capital, and dreary cen- 
turies, shrouded in the nameless curse 
of Islam, bring the sad record down to 
our own day. We do not mention the 
reconciliations which took place, for 
they are known alike for their brevity 
of duration and their barrenness of re- 
sult ; but we shall linger for awhile 
on the scene before us, to seek the causes 
which have proved so fatally effective in 
prolonging, through the life of nations, 
the existence of a state of affairs which 
owes its origin to the caprice of proud 
and misguided individuals. 

Rising like a leaden barrier between 
the active Roman Church and the semi- 
civilized races of the East and North, 
the palsied Schismatic Church interposes 
an almost insuperable obstacle to the 
beneficent spiritualizing energy which 
has rescued and refined Europe. The 
Christian conquest of the East, the 
proper task of the Greek Church, and a 
task for which its territorial contiguity 
and consequent similarity in thought, 
language, and custom, peculiarly adapt 
it, lies all unattempted, save for the 
heroic labors of the ill-equipped mission- 
aries from the West : and countless mil- 
lions who should have received the 
Gospel of Truth have passed, and are 
passing, from the face of the earth with- 
out any knowledge of Jesus Christ. The 



THE TRUE LIGHT OF ASIA. 



299 



schismatic peoples themselves, enervated 
and enfeebled by their long separation 
from the fount of all true life, whether 
national or religious, are unable to as- 
sert their natural rights, and lie supine 
outside the pale of vigorous, healthy 
humanity, in the direction of whose des- 
tiny they no longer have a voice. They 
who, in conjunction with the Roman 
Church, could long since have driven 
despotism into the Arctic seas, and idol- 
atry into the Pacific, lie leprous at home, 
a corrupted and corrupting people, sub- 
jected to the whims of semi-barbarous 
sovereigns, and used by the devil to sus- 
tain and perpetuate the reign of organ- 
ized lechery in the East. 

It is upon this awful scene that the 
light of heaven is breaking, and with 
all the ardor of true zeal, the Holy Father 
is striving to bring to reality the glori- 
ous promise which now shines from these 
long unhappy lands. The masses of the 
people are eager for reunion, but their 
masters are laboring to prevent it ; and 
this secular opposition is the principal 
difficulty with which we have to deal. 
And here, even at a cost of a digres- 
sion, we shall not resist the temptation 
to read a lecture to those who are wont 
to clamor so loudly for the complete 
separation of Church and State, mean- 
ing, of course, the denial of any partici- 
pation in civil affairs to the Church of 
Rome. Why are they silent when they 
see the double sceptre in the hands of 
the English Queen or the Russian Czar ? 
Where is their indignation when the 
openly immoral Turk prescribes the kind 
and amount of religion which may be 
granted to his Christian subjects, with 
the least of whom he is unworthy to 
speak ! It is common enough to decry 
the interference of Rome, when the just 
condemnation of a saintly pontiff falls 
upon the iniquitous proceedings of cor- 
rupt legislative bodies ; but the suffer- 
ings and the blood of pure and holy 
hearts, whose only offence is fidelity to 
conscience, appeal in vain to the self- 
constituted champions of religious lib- 



erty who swarm everywhere in our 
favored days. 

The nineteenth century .has been great 
in many ways ; it has been no whit be- 
hind its predecessors in the production 
of monstrous shams ; but it has wit- 
nessed no pretension more absurd than 
the hollow mockery which now passes 
for enthusiasm in the cause of religious 
liberty. Mankind knows very well that 
there is co-ordination and correlation in 
the social, as well as in the material 
world. It knows that Church and State 
have an essential and indestructible inter- 
relation ; and temporal rulers have al- 
ways recognized this fact and acted upon 
it. The struggle between the ecclesias- 
tical and the civil power has not been 
for independence or autonomy, but for 
precedence in one and the same sphere ; 
and, to return to our subject, the unjust 
invasion by the civil power of the proper 
domain of the Church has been largely 
responsible for all these sad centuries of 
unnatural separation. The real enemy 
of reconciliation is the crystallized 
national policy of rulers who have placed 
the material above the spiritual, and who 
recognize in ecclesiastical jurisdiction a 
most powerful means of leading the 
masses to assist in the accomplishment 
of designs inspired by worldly ambition. 
The disposition of the people is the 
bright feature of the prospect, the oppo- 
sition of their rulers is its dark side ; but 
we may hope that even this will soon 
yield to better counsels, for all must ad- 
mit that neither Constantinople nor St. 
Petersburg has much to show for ten 
hundred years of toil. Surely it is time 
for these rulers to reverse their policy, 
or, if the} r fail to do so, for outside pres- 
sure to reverse it for them. 

The principle of international inter- 
ference in cases of extraordinary injus- 
tice, though so long but feebly acknowl- 
edged, is not firmly established. It now 
is, and still more in the future is to be, 
a very powerful factor in determining 
the action of even seemingly isolated 
and irresponsible despots; for the Church 



3OO 



THE TRUE LIGHT OF ASIA. 



has taught nations, as well as individu- 
als, that all the world is their neighbor; 
and, how little soever it may be to their 
taste, both Czar and Sultan know that the 
mailed hand of the stranger will put an 
end to their bloody persecution, if it be 
carried to any great extent. Ages of 
submission have solidified their power, 
and lessened the energy of their people; 
but the first breath of freedom will 
awaken a spirit of liberty which there 
will be no bonds to shackle, and which 
will not be silenced until it rests sure in 
the possession of restored religious right. 
Millions of earnest souls will at once 
rejoin the great Roman communion, and 
their rulers, blessed in spite of them- 
selves, will find that they govern nations 
which have become really and truly 
great. With a united Church, once moi e 
firmly established at the portals of Asia, 
the future of the world belongs to Jesus 
Christ. 

Such is the possibility, such the prob- 
ability, that causes Leo's eyes to kindle 
as his eager gaze flashes from the Orient 
to the Pole, and such is the promise 
which thrills many an unknown but 
generous heart and makes it prompt for 
any sacrifice required for its realization. 
The very conditions, which have rendered 
the situation so deplorable in the past, 
now justify the most glorious hope for 
the future. We are far from the scene, we 
seem to be powerless in the matter, but 
we are near to God, and He is every- 
where, and if we bring our tears and 
prayers to Him, He will make them 
effective wherever we wish Him to do so. 
The sons of God rejoice in their Father's 
power, and the influence of every Chris- 
tian is proportioned to his zeal. Our 
opportunity and our obligations to lend 
all the aid in our power is present and 
imperative. May God in heaven bless 
our splendid hope, and may we not be 
wanting in our duty. 

We can rest assured that the enthusi- 
asm with which we enter upon this 
glorious work will not be thrown away ; 
for the policy of the Pope is such as to 



insure the greatest possible results from 
the efforts we are making. Even the at- 
tractive ideal of iiniversal liturgical 
unity has no power to deflect his zeal 
from the one paramount "desideratum" 
in this matter, the immediate reconcilia- 
tion of the Schismatic Church. We 
are not sure, moreover, that there would 
not be loss, instead of gain, in reducing 
all nations to absolute uniformity in 
liturgical observance. There are many 
valid reasons why the Christians of the 
Greek Church should retain their beauti- 
ful and impressive ritual. The East was 
the cradle of Christianity; its soil first 
drank a Christian martyr's blood; its 
language was the link which bound the 
New Revelation to the Old; its liturgy, 
warmed into rich, demonstrative life by 
the best emotions of the human hesrt, 
formed, perhaps, the noblest exterior 
public worship which God has ever 
received from man. The very schism 
itself is a proof, though a sad and dis- 
astrous one, of the conscious power of 
Oriental thought. No Grecian heart can 
ever forget its countiy's immortal 
achievements. Next to that formally 
religious life, of which the Church is 
the only and ever- vigorous soul, the 
vast intellectual fabric which the mighty 
mind of the centuries has fashioned, 
is the noblest thing in all the world, 
and we cannot but feel a profound 
reverence for the lofty spirits who reared 
the magnificent edifice whose turrets rise 
until they glitter in the very light of in- 
finity itself. And Greece was the earth- 
ly home of the all but inspired architects 
who, in the ancient world, flung highest 
and fairest the glories of human thought, 
and its noble language was the medium 
through which their sublime concepts 
flashed to the zenith of the soul's exalted 
firmament. 

God Himself seems to have ordained 
that the Hellenic tongue should bear His 
message to the Gentile world; for, twenty- 
two hundred years ago, three centuries 
before the coming of our Redeemer, the 
Septuagint was written under c : rcum- 



THE TRUE LIGHT OF ASIA. 



301 



stances which scarcely permit us to 
doubt that it was the means of which 
God made use in acquainting pagan 
peoples with the prophecies concerning 
the Messiah, and thus preparing them 
for the reception of the truths which He 
was to establish. We know that' it was 
principally through this language that 
the Gospel was first given to mankind, 
and we know that it has never ceased to 
ascend with the noblest and the sweetest, 
and the holiest aspirations of the heart 
clothed in its flowing periods. Why 
break the golden Grecian chain which 
flashes beside its Latin brother down 
through all the dim ages to the very 
rock of Peter, and stretches alone far 
beyond, to bind the Vatican to Sinai? 
Heaven has not blessed the attempt to 
do so in the past, nor have we any reason 
to believe that it would act differently 
now; and it is worthy of the command- 
ing genius of Leo XIII. to perceive the 
error of such a course. The Church has 
no need of being unreasonable. Strong 
in her essential, immanent life, she can 
confidently adapt her exterior acts to the 
exigencies, and even the proprieties, of 
her various surroundings. All the real 
beauty of the world belongs to her by 
right divine, and it is eminently fitting 
that the chosen language of scholars 
should have a place, and that an import- 
ant one, in the service of the one great 
civilizing and educating agency of the 
world. 

We know not whether sorrow for the 
past, or hope for the future should urge 
us the more powerfully to be zealous in 
this matter. Either should be sufficient 
to rouse us to instant and earnest action. 
Besides those separated, though Chris- 
tian, peoples, countless millions whom 
the Greek Church should long since 
have evangelized, still lie in the darkness 
of idolatry ; for the splendid talents of 
the Eastern mind, whose true sphere of 
action was made so evident in the early 
ages of the Church, no longer flash in 
the lofty realms of religious truth, but, 
dimmed and broken, are scarcely able to 



pierce the clouds of pride and error which 
hide the heaven-lit cross of St. Peter's, 
the source of the only in'spiration which 
can ever cause them to blaze forth again 
with all their ancient lustre. But, once 
united with Rome, the keen, poetic in- 
tellect of the East would cease to be the 
barren principle that it now is. A new 
era of elevated spiritual life would shed 
its radiance over those long-slumbering 
lands, and could not fail to illumine the 
benighted countries whose conversion, 
as we have said, is the proper, but long 
neglected task of the Eastern Church. 
Of all the works now open to Christian 
zeal, no other offers rewards as great for 
an equal expenditure of toil. A vast 
amount of missionary labor, and a long 
period of time, would be needed in order 
to bring one-half, or one-fourth of the 
number with which we are now con- 
cerned to a knowledge of the faith, to 
say nothing of supplying the ecclesiasti- 
cal organization that would be required ; 
but in the East we have only to strike 
the earthy incrustations from the jewel, 
and release its imprisoned splendor ; we 
have only to tear away the false pomp 
with which pride has obscured the ce- 
lestial beauty of Christ's immaculate 
spouse. The civil authorities will resist 
as long as they can ; but the titled Pris- 
oner of the Neva, as well as the Sick Man 
of the Bosphorus, will soon have to face 
demands which thus far they have been 
able to ignore, and their response will be 
the knell of unwarranted and irresponsi- 
ble interference in the religious affairs of 
their subjects. A thousand years is long 
enough for any mistake to endure. Let 
us have a return to reason and sense. 

As we have said, it may seem that our 
power is necessarily limited, and that we 
can do but little to determine the final 
result ; but this view would be utterly 
erroneous, since we need not be less 
powerful where we are than we would be 
were we actually upon the scene. There 
are many ways by which our whole in- 
fluence for good can be brought to bear 
upon this, the greatest issue of our age. 



302 



THE TRUE LIGHT OF ASIA. 



Our power can be exerted wherever that 
of God is known. To begin with what 
seems little, we all know the extreme 
value of pecuniary aid in almost every 
important undertaking, and it is alto- 
gether unnecessary to call attention to 
the fact, that the comprehensive and far- 
sighted policy by which the Sovereign 
Pontiff seeks to insure the permanence of 
the great results at which he aims, will 
admit of the advantageous disposal of 
vast sums of money. The beneficent 
influence of the institutions to be estab- 
lished for the training of Greek clerics 
will be directly proportioned to the scale 
upon which they can be projected and 
maintained. Indeed, an adequate sys- 
tem of these seminaries would solve the 
question almost at once ; for its presence 
would immediately infuse a new life into 
the long paralyzed ecclesiastical organi- 
zation of the East. Besides the solid 
culture and the intelligent zeal which the 
students themselves would quickly ac- 
quire, the prestige of the able and learned 
body which they would form would pos- 
sess great weight with the scholarly 
minds of the Eastern races, and would 
do much to bear down the principal ob- 
stacles to reconciliation. We can con- 
ceive of but few motives which could 
appeal more powerfully to the liberality 
of our Catholic people than these con 
siderations, especially when we consider 
that the great results already pointed 
out, are but secondary and intermediate 
to others, the importance of which can 
be measured by no earthly standard. 
What would really be bestowed by this 
Christian benevolence would be, for 
countless souls, the priceless boon of 
perfect union with the only fount of true 
spiritual life ; and for countless others, 
it would be the whole treasure of the 
faith, with all its wealth of heavenly light 
and grace, and all its fulness of divine 
strength and consolation. Here we can 
truly say, Qui dat pecuniam dat Christum, 
because the priests whom we help to 
form will bear the sacraments far and 
wide, and administer them to multitudes 



of our fellow- creatures ; so that to ad- 
vance this great work is, in reality, to 
place Jesus Christ in the hearts and souls, 
of those He loves, and for whom He died, 
but who, without our intervention, might 
never hava known the ineffable sweetness 
of His presence. We would search in 
vain fora nobler transmutation of earthly 
substance than that in which Christian 
charity changes worldly wealth, always 
a source of danger, and often of sin, into 
the Most Precious Body and Blood of 
Jesus Christ who ceaselessly pleads for 
us from the depths of the gentle hearts 
He has forever sanctified. In truth, it is 
a very great privilege due to God's good- 
ness thus to be enabled to co-operate with 
Him in the salvation of souls by employ- 
ing temporal gifts for the furtherance of 
eternal interests. 

But money is the most insignificant 
of our resources. All the exertions of 
the Pope, all the efforts suggested by 
the experience and piety of his minis- 
ters, and all measures of reconciliation, 
no matter by whom, or how skilfully, 
they may be devised, must find their 
ultimate principle of efficacy in the 
blessing which Almighty God places 
upon them, and in the dispositions 
which He excites in those for whose 
benefit they are intended. To secure 
God's blessing, therefore, upon the 
splendid zeal of our Great Father, and to 
ensure the inflowing of the Holy Spirit 
into the hearts of our long-lost brethren, 
should be the first desire of those who 
3 T earn with holy longing to see the fair 
unit} 7 of Christ's beautiful Church re- 
stored. And who possesses more power- 
ful means of effecting this, of moving 
God's compassionate heart, than His 
own chosen people? We need not set 
forth the efficacy of the most Holy Sacri- 
fice. We know that the Victim there 
offered never pleads in vain, and we 
know that He will ask His Heavenly 
Father to grant our requests, if they pro- 
ceed from hearts really lacerated by the 
evils which we see, and really on fire 
with zeal for the magnificent consumma- 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



303 



tion which now seems to be a near possi- 
bility. Nor is the Adorable Sacrifice the 
only means by which we can secure the 
favor of God. One of the privileges of a 
zealous life is to possess an intimacy 
with souls in which God's delighted 
friendship is evidenced by the most 
splendid gifts of sanctification ; souls 
whose power with heaven cannot be 
doubted, and we can join with these 
glorious spirits in praying for the inten- 
tions of the Pope. Moreover, we can 



speak to those about us of the import- 
ance and the necessity 'of earnest in- 
terest in this great affair of the Church, 
and the lisping prayer of some little 
child may shake the foundations of Rome 
and Constantinople. The task before us 
is great with respect to our strength, 
but it is little compared to God's om- 
nipotence, and all His power lies at 
our disposal. If we labor with hu- 
mility and faith, the result is God's and 
ours. 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE, 

By Rev. David Bearne, S.J. 



44 fl REEP a little closer to the cross, 
^^ my son ! ' ' This is what the 
good canon, his confessor, had said. 
Benoit repeated the words to himself 
again and again. Well, if that was what 
the good God wanted of him Benoit 
thought he could obey. Now that the 
lonely widower had lost his only child 
he must needs nestle close to something, 
somewhere. " It is either for the boy 's 
good or your own," the priest had said, 
his heart throbbing with pity for his 
poor penitent, and his kindly voice shak- 
ing with tears, "either for the good of 
the little Denis or your own. If for his, 
you dare not weep; if for your own, you 
should not sorrow. " Yet the priest wept 
much. 

Benoit spent a long time in the cathe- 
dral that Saturday evening. He could 
not kneel among the crowd in the chapel 
of the Holy Sacrament, much as he 
wished to do so. He feared that his 
sobs would disturb the prayers of others. 
He knew that his was not the only bleed- 
ing heart that the Saviour would be 
asked to heal that night, but then his 
wound was so very fresh. It was the 
day after the funeral of his son. So 
Benoit stole away into the recesses of 
the south aisle of the choir and knelt in 
the farthest corner close to the big cruci- 



fix, which stood half hidden behind a 
disused confessional. It was very quiet 
there and, through me curtained screen, 
his eye could rest upon the tabernacle 
in the neighboring chapel of the Holy 
Sacrament yes, he was near to the 
tabernacle, and very close to the cross, 
but he could not pray, he told himself. 
Yet he was praying devoutly enough. 
He was saying the beads of Mary 's Dol- 
ors, but his own were uppermost. He 
tried to see Mary in the Temple on the 
road to Egypt on the Way of the Cross ; 
but Denis was in every picture, the dead 
Denis, who was lying deep down in the 
soil of the cemetery. The tears \7ould 
not come now. Perhaps their fount was 
exhausted. He wished to weep that he 
might have tears to offer to Mary, but 
they would not flow. A sort of hardness 
was creeping over him, he thought. He 
did not know that this was only the 
physical reaction after so much sadness. 
He said his beads to the very end ; said 
the last three Aves in honor of Mary's 
tears and then took from his pocket 
a tattered manual of prayers. He knew 
that he was acting rightly. 

1 ' Never mind what you may feel, my 
son," his confessor had said, "only go 
on praying mechanically, if you will ; 
something good will come of it. It is 



304 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE 



just that steady persistence, that dogged 
will to pray on, that the Sacred Heart 
delights in, not feelings, emotions, 
tears." 

So Benoit read his acts of love and 
resignation \vith_ his heart rather than 
with his lips, and rose strengthened. 

Benoit walked slowly home so slowly 
through the big streets and, in a poor 
quarter of the town, mounted many 
stairs that led to his desolate rooms. 
How desolate ! He passed into the bed- 
room beyond. Denis' little bed, that 
folded into a chair, was put away. Upon 
the white coverlet of Benoit 's own bed 
the outline of a coffin was still visible. 
The man had not slept for several nights. 
He asked himself now if he might not 
tidy the sitting-room first. Denis had 
never allowed it to remain in disorder. 
Should he begin with Denis' corner? 
Yes ; for that portion must always be 
tidy, and kept fair and clean for the love 
of Denis. 

What a very pretty fiction it had been, 
that division of the room into apart- 
ments ! There had been, first of all, 
the kitchen, which included the stove 
and a little space in its neighborhood ; 
then "my father's apartment;" the 
cosy corner farthest from the draught, 
farthest from the window, yet facing it, 
and in full view of the blue and scarlet 
blossoms Denis had coaxed into life and 
color ; then the space about the table, 
the salle a manger ; then Denis' own 
apartment ! the space near the window, 
where stood a little cabinet, which was 
at once a prie-dieu, a writing table, a 
bookcase and a chest of drawers. Yes, 
that cabinet was Denis' own was full 
of his "things." It had been the 
father's present to Denis on the latter 's 
twelfth birthday. What a fete they had 
had on that day ! What a solemn in- 
stallation of Denis' "things " ! It was 
amazing how many articles Denis pos- 
sessed all presents. So natural, the 
father thought, that people should 
shower presents upon Denis. Did not 
everybody love him ? Even the cross 



old lady on the front floor said to be a 
miser, and known to dislike all boys 
had said that the sound of Denis' wooden 
shoes on the staircase was as the sound 
of music. But then Denis could step 
lightly, even in sabots. 

Benoit's hands rested for a moment on 
the dead boy's cabinet. It must be kept 
intact, of course. There was the crucifix 
in the centre, a crucifix of wood carved 
in Switzerland, and given to Denis by 
his confessor. There was the colored 
picture of Our Lady of Victories, and 
another of the boy's patron, St. Denis, 
There was the Decade of the present 
month, and some prayers on a card writ- 
ten in Denis' big round hand. The lit- 
tle vase given him by the old lady below 
on the day of his First Communion, a 
vase filled now with dead wild flowers, 
the last Denis had plucked. The row 
of books what a precious row ! "I am 
the happiest boy in all France," Denis 
had exclaimed, whenever a volume was 
added.- There they were lives of the 
saints, books of history, and poetry, and 
travels books of devotion. More, a mil- 
lion times more, they had been to the boy 
and his father, than are the libraries of 
the wealthy to their owners. What 
nights the father and son had spent to- 
gether nights too blissful to last, Benoit 
always knew. What a home-coming it 
had been for the tired artisan ! What a 
marvel that Denis who had never known 
a mother she had died when he was but 
a few months old should have been so 
handy, so tidy, so natty. He could pre- 
pare soup with the best could cook a 
cutlet had more than once achieved an 
omelet. Benoit's evening meal had ever 
been a banquet, brightened with the 
merry tongue, and the shining eyes of 
his son. And afterwards ! Could the 
music of the opera have equalled Denis' 
reading aloud? Benoit knew it could 
not. How quickly, once the lingering 
meal was over, would every vestige of 
supper disappear into the little scullery 
beyond, and how deftly would the boy 
roll his father's cigarettes for the long 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



305 




COULD THK MUSIC OF THE OPERA HAVE 
EQUALLED THE MUSIC OF DENIS, 
READING ALOUD? 



evening's consumption. And what a 
pretty choice the boy had in the reading 
he selected. By some instinct he always 
knew what his tired father would enjoy 
most. There were few Catholic papers 
and magazines published in France that 
did not, sooner or later, find their way 
into Denis' hands. 

Some were bought regularly, week 
after week, month after month ; some 
were borrowed, for who would refuse a 
loan to Denis ? And so the nightly 
reading, always good if not always 
directly devotional, contributed much 
to that pious atmosphere which both 
father and son delighted to breathe. 
Stories were kept for Sundays and 
feasts, but then the feasts were many. 
It was one of Denis' surprises, this pro- 
duction of some little tale he had saved 
for a bonne bouche. Over these father 
and son laughed or wept together. Then 
before bed-time always a page of the 
Imitation of Christ, or a chapter of St.. 
Francis de Sales, and night prayers, 
kneeling side by side Benoit and his 
Denis, before the crucifix on the cabinet. 
The cabinet ! It was very sacred, Benoit 



thought, as he opened one of the drawers 
and looked in, too sacred almost to 
touch. How full of little things was. 
this very drawer, and how tidily kept ! 
A pile of religious magazines, a small 
reliquary and many little pictures, a 
bottle of Lourdes water, a box of domi- 
noes, a draught board, and many odds- 
and ends. Benoit closed the drawer, 
not before the holy water of tears had 
sprinkled its contents. There were a 
few articles of clothing lying about : 
these he would fold and put away in the 
lower drawers. So he took up the small 
blue blouse, the leathern belt, the broad 
white collar, still clean and fresh as on 
the day when that cruel inflammation of 
the lungs had seized the child, and, kiss- 
ing the little bundle, laid it away ten- 
derly. Some day, perhaps, he would give 
them to one in need, but not immedi- 
ately. No, he could not at present part 
with a single thing that had belonged to- 
Denis, not even the little pair of wooden 



306 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



shoes which he also carefully put away 
underneath the cabinet. On a future 
day, perhaps, for the love of Denis, he 
might bestow them on some poor lad, 
but not yet. 

* * 

Sunday and how lonely? But O, 
liow more than lonely it would have 
been but for the Banquet of the Angels 
at sunrise, and the all-day open portals 
of his Father's house ! He must spend 
the day there, Benoit told himself. So 
the desolated rooms saw little of him 
that day. He had returned after Com- 
munion, had made his bowl of coffee and 
smoked a cigarette ; then he had gone 
Taack to the cathedral. He sought out 
his quiet corner of the night before, and 
remained there except at the time of 
the sermon close to the crucifix, during 
the whole of the solemn Mass. It was 
very soothing. The music, heard from 
this retired chapel, had a far-away sound, 
and the voices of the boys might well 
have been from heaven the abode of 
Denis, and his own future home. Lying 
far away across the chapel of the Holy 
"Sacrament, and beyond the aisle that 
separated it from the choir, he could 
almost see the high altar, could actually 
see the movements of the sacred minis- 
ters. 

It was very peaceful and beautiful, 
and sometimes he could pray with at- 
tention. Was it possible that Denis 
could be in purgatory! "Denis of the 
Lily Soul," as the good priest, his con- 
fessor, had always called him? Who 
could say ? At least, Benoit knew it 
was his duty to pray for his child's soul. 
A sufficiently beautiful and profitable 
occupation that. Tears for the dead 
were natural enough, but they had not 
the supernatural value of prayers. Be- 
noit had received many condolences that 
day from sympathizing acquaintances. 
Bach he had thanked in few words, but 
to each he had said : ' ' Pray for Denis. " 
And was he himself to neglect such a 
plain duty ? 



At the warehouse next day it was 
one of several great woolen and hosiery 
establishments Benoit received the 
sympathy of his fellow-workmen. They 
knew how it was with him. " Beautiful 
as the spire of Chartres is the love of Be- 
noit for Denis," they had been wont to 
say to each other, justifying the remark 
by adding that both pointed to the 
heaven of heavens. Now, however, as 
they watched the bowed man go about 
his work with less than half his former 
alertness, they shook their heads. "He 
is unhinged, " they whispered. " If he 
is not roused from this stupor he will 
die or " they tapped the forehead with 
a significant finger. They did not know 
he was praying for Denis. They were 
always kind to him. From time to time 
they tried to carry him off to a cafe to 
the gardens, into the country about 
Chartres but Benoit always gratefully 
refused their offers. "I must creep a 
little closer to the cross," he told him- 
self again and again. " If such a wound 
as mine will never heal, the more need 
I have to hide it in the torn side of 
Christ. ' ' So, after his lonely meal every 
night, he passed under the great door- 
way of the cathedral, made his way to 
that retired spot in the farthest corner 
of the choir aisle, and knelt or sat beside 
the crucifix. It was seldom he was in- 
terrupted. Once his confessor had passed 
through on his way to the chapel of the 
Sacrament. Returning an hour later, 
the good priest, seeing Benoit still 
kneeling had brought him a chair. ' ' Be 
seated for a little while, my son: you 
should not fatigue yourself overmuch. 
I will take care that this chair remains 
here. Now you may say: ' I sat down 
under the shadow of my beloved, and his 
fruit was sweet to my palate. ' " So all 
the summer through Benoit sought the 
' ' shadow of a high rock in a weary land. ' ' 
As the days lengthened, and the light 
lasted, he could bring his book one of 
Denis' books and read. Not for long, 
however, for at nightfall, though the light 
fell through a hundred shining windows, 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



SOT 



the old jewelled glass turned it into a 
mellow gloom soothing and restful, but 
less fitted for reading than for prayer. 



wa 
to 
ch; 



One August night, after a day of ex- 
ceeding heat and heavy labor, Benoit 
was late in reaching his place of prayer. 

ng shadows lay upon the deserted 
:hapel, and the lamps already shone 
through the cathedral like fixed stars. 
Benoit was very weary. He had remained 
at the warehouse two hours later than 
the usual time, for the sending away of 
a large and important order. After his 
evening meal he had almost doubted if 
he were able to pay his usual visit to the 
cross. But he had come. He was leav- 
ing the chapel slowly and wearily, when 
a sound of sobbing made him pause. 
Was it possible that some one was kneel- 
ing there ? For a moment Benoit experi- 
enced a feeling of annoyance a feeling 
for which he immediately chided himself 
severely. Star ding in the middle of the 
chapel he tried to scan the neighborhood 
of the crucifix without proceeding fur- 
ther, but the big old confessional threw 
the entire corner into a shadow deeper 
than that of the already deepening twi- 
light. Benoit advanced a step or two, 
and then stopped as one who has sudden- 
ly received a blow. It was well that he 
could stagger a few steps further, and then 
lean against the confessional. A figure 
was kneeling in prayer the figure of a 
boy the figure of Denis himself! If 
only Benoit could see the face ? but that 
was bowed upon the hands. The boy's 
elbows rested upon Benoit 's chair. It 
must be Denis ! Height age figure 
dress, everything suggested Denis. The 
white collar over a blue blouse reaching 
to the knees, the long black stockings, 
and wooden shoes each single item the 
very counterpart of what the dead boy 
had worn. Bendit trembled and clutched 
a pilaster of the confessional. His 
breath came quick and short. Suddenly 
he lost his hold, reeled, and fell. 
* * # 

Benoit awoke in a sunny bedroom 



under the shadow of the cathedral, woke 
to the ringing of the cathedral chimes. 
An old man, the canon's servant, was 
sitting at the foot of the bed. Benoit 's 
eyes wandered round the bright little 
room, and at length looked to the watcher 
appealingly. ' ' Monsieur must not talk, ' ' 
he whispered: " the canon has said it. All 
was very well now. The doctor would 
come again shortly. Monsieur must 
have nourishment. ' ' Benoit was entirely 
obedient. He took whatever the man 
offered a sip of brandy, a spoonful of 
jelly. The servant nodded and smiled, 
and whispered again that all vas very 
well very well, indeed. A quarter of 
an hour passed away, and the chimes 
were again in the air a soft silvery ring- 
ing of many bells. A moment later and 
the faint music of a far-away organ 
reached the sick man 'sear. The canons 
were singing Tierce. Benoit had slept 
long and heavily, had slept and dreamt 
an aching, weary dream of Denis. Yes, 
all the long night through, from the twi- 
light hour of his swooning in the cathe- 
dral until the light of day had filled the 
room in which he was lying, Benoit had 
seemed to dream of Denis. The dead boy 
was before his eyes not dead, but alive, 
so close to him, and yet ever beyond the 
reach of the father's hand. Sometimes 
Denis was kneeling at his night prayers 
before the little cabinet in the Rue. 
Benoit would fain have knelt at his side,, 
but could not rise from his chair. Some- 
times the child was crying out with pain, 
crying through a palpable, visible dark- 
ness, and the father toiled hither and 
thither in his longing and his agony to- 
relieve his darling's sorrow. O the piti- 
ful, desperate groping in the strange 
gloom with the boy's sobs ever in his 
ears, and the face he knew so well hidden 
in a veil of perplexing mystery! What a 
night of painful toil, now walking over 
heated high roads, and climbing lofty 
hills in search of a wandering voice, and 
the echo of a little sigh; now plunging" 
into the growing dimness of a low valley, 
and now passing into the heart of a wood 



308 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



whose darkness was deeper than the 
midnight. 

But perhaps the dawn of day penetra- 
ted the dream mists, for the morning had 
brought light and restful sleep. He had 
caught a glimpse of Denis not in pain 
or sorrow, but Denis radiant and beaute- 
ous, Denis singing and triumphant! Just 
for a moment the happy boy bent over 
him: then the vision vanished. But the 
burden of Denis ' cry was still in his ears. 
Benoit had heard that with startling dis- 
tinctness. "All is well O, very well 
indeed." Benoit had heard the words 
again and again long after the momen- 
tary vision had vanished and each repe- 
tition of the burden had brought him 
peace and rest. After that he thought he 
must have slept, dreaming. For several 
days Benoit lay there, tended by the 
canon, and visited by the doctor. The 
soul of the sufferer was in great peace. 
The atmosphere of the canon's house, 
the presence of his good confessor, may 
have contributed to this: but to the pa- 
tient himself it seemed as though the 
happy epilogue of that long and painful 
dream had bestowed upon him a lasting 
benediction. He had seen Denis in 
vision it may have been, but then he told 
himself that the vision had been sent by 
Ood for his consolation. He had heard 
O how distinctly he had heard the 
words that declared that all was well, 
very well with Denis. But what of the 
apparition in the cathedral ? When the 
canon permitted him to talk a little 
which was at the end of the second day 
his first remark was connected with this. 
The priest argued with him very gently. 
" In such matters, my son, it is so easy 
to be mistaken. Remember, you were 
very weary the twilight was falling 
you were in bad health. Yes, Benoit, 
you were in bad health, I am sure. The 
doctor thinks you have neglected your- 
self somewhat too little food too little 
rest too little change. We must see to 
all this. As for the apparition try not 
to think of it." Benoit would have 
obeyed if he could have done so. 



" Father, it was so very real, " he urged 
as on the morning of the third day the 
canon invited his guest into the garden 
for a little air. 

" And he was kneeling; O yes he was 
certainly kneeling, I could have touched 
him, I had got so very close, and was 
going to put out my hand when my 
strength failed." 

" But think, my son, " said the canon 
smilingly: " How should Denis who is 
surely in heaven, Denis with whom you 
yourself say ' all is now very well, ' how 
should he be kneeling, and in sorrow, at 
the foot of the crucifix ? " 

"Ah, Father, what can I say? It 
may have been that he was not then 
released from purgatory. He may have 
come to me for one more rosary, one 
more De Profundis. But Your Reverence 
is right. All is well now, very well with 
him : this I know." 

Later the same day the canon inquired 
of one of the Suisses attached to the 
cathedral, if others besides Benoit were 
in the habit of praying in that far 
corner. The man said no. He and his 
confreres called it the chapel of Benoit. 
He did not think it was ever visited save 
by Benoit. Still for the future he would 
look there from time to time. As for a 
boy in a blue blouse, well, his Reverence 
knew there were many such at that time 
in Chartres ; many came to the cathedral 
every day to Mass and to Vespers, to 
pray in the chapel of the Sacrament. 
Why, on the night Benoit swooned, one 
such boy came running to him in the 
nave. 

" "Ah," inquired the canon eagerly, 
" that is what I want to hear about ; 
don't you see, this very boy may have 
been praying there at that time ? " 

Yes, the Suisse had not thought of 
that. As his Reverence said it was most 
probable, though the boy might have 
come from the chapel of the Sacrament. 
Some of the worshippers there had run 
out into the aisle hearing the noise. 

' ' And }*ou would know the boy again ? 
The verger could not be sure of that. 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



309 




A FIGURE WAS KNEELING IN PRAYER THE FIGURE OF DENIS HIMSELF. 



310 



THE BOY IN THE BLUE BLOUSE. 



He only remembered hearing a great 
clatter of sabots, and a cry. He was, in 
fact, going to rebuke the boy for running 
in the cathedral, but saw that the lad 
was frightened and that something had 
occurred." 

After this the canon himself would 
occasionally look into Benoit 's corner, 
it was always empty. Doubtless the 
whole thing was an illusion on the part 
of Benoit. Weak and tired and ill as 
the poor man had been, what more likely 
than the kneeling figure was a creature 
of his imagination ? 

A day or two later Benoit, still stay- 
ing in the canon's house, came in to the 
cathedral to pay a visit to the Blessed 
Sacrament. The canon had forbidden 
him to remain there for more than a few 
minutes. He returned greatly agitated. 

" Father," the poor man cried, meet- 
ing the canon on his way back, " I have 
seen Denis again. Look, Your Rever- 
ence, it is bright daylight, how then 
can I be mistaken ? And again he is 
weeping, my poor Denis ! But I dare 
not remain, I came to find Your Rever- 
ence. " 

" Be calm, Benoit, " said the priest: 
" I myself will see him. Be sure there 
is some mistake. It cannot be Denis. " 
The canon left him and hurried into the 
cathedral. There, in the corner of the 
choir-aisle, knelt a boy, with his face 
buried in his hands and sobbing. 

' ' What is the matter, my poor child ? ' ' 
whispered the canon bending down. 
The boy lifted a pale tear-stained face, 
and rose to his feet. Yes, in height and 
figure, and dress he was certainly like 
the dead Denis. There was some excuse 
for poor Benoit. The canon repeated 
his kindly inquiry, and led the boy out 
of the cathedral into the sacristy. For 
some time the lad could not speak for 
weeping, after a little while he told his 
story brokenly. 

His name was Henri, and he lived 
with his grandmother. On Monday 
evening last his father had died. His 
mother had died long ago. His grand- 



mother was old and could only work a 
very little. Already the authorities had 
said they must go to the poor-house 
He was trying to get work, but nobody 
would employ him ; they said he had not 
strength enough. 

The canon eyed him pityingly. It 
seemed to be true that he had little 
strength. He was tall for his Pge, over- 
grown, and his face was pinched and 
pale. 

" You shall take me to see your grand- 
mother, " said the good canon. "We 
must think what can be done." The 
canon led the way to his own house 
first, "you must have some breakfast 
my poor child, then we will set out." 
The canon also wanted to see Benoit. 



There are three persons now living 
on the second floor at No. of the Rue 

. Benoit has a housekeeper who, 

now that she has a sufficiency of good 
food, is quite capable of looking after 
the wants of her benefactor, and of her 
grandson. They are very happy. In 
many ways Henri reminds Benoit of 
the dead Denis, and certainly the boy's 
love for his foster-father could not be 
greater. There are few things once be- 
longing to Denis that Henri has not in- 
herited. The nightly readings have 
been resumed, and sometimes when Be- 
noit is drowsy he fancies that Denis is 
sitting there at the cabinet as of old. 
But both by Benoit and Henri that dark 
little corner of the choir aisle is visited 
daily. The cross old lady on the first 
floor likes the newcomer, but sometimes 
scolds him, for, though Henri is now 
wearing Denis' sabots, she declares that 
he walks like an elephant. Benoit only 
smiles and thanks God for sending him 
a dutiful and loving foster-son in place 
of the child that he grieved over per- 
haps too deeply and too long. But of 
one thing he is certain, with Denis all is 
now well very well indeed. 

"Yes, I see how it is. Father; God 
would have me take him in the place of 




THE SEVEN LAST WORDS. 311 

Denis. I have been selfish in my sor- had come to the cathedral to pray for his 

row; that must now cease. And he dead father. I had gone there to pray 

will help me to pray for Denis. He is a for Denis. The living boy mistook me 

pious child, this Henri, and even if I in the twilight for his father. And I 

cannot love him as I loved my son, I well, I was certain that the kneeling 

can benefit him, and he is a comfort to figure was that of Denis ! " 
me." All who know Henri tell Benoit that 

" A strange coincidence, " Benoit often the boy will be to him another Denis, 

ays to his friends. "My poor Henri and the good man knows they are right. 



THE SEVEN LAST WORDS. 

SEVEN SONNETS. 

By Francis W, Grey, 

Gloriam Domini nostri Crucifixi, et in honorem Septem Dolorum Beatissimse Virginia Marii 
"FATHER, FORGIVE THEM, FOR THEY KNOW NOT WHAT THEY DO." 

' ' Father ! forgive, they know not what they do ; " 

Not knowing, low upon Thy cross of pain 

Their cruel hands have laid Thee not in vain 

Thy generous prayer ; ah ! surely, if they knew 

The spear, the nails, had never pierced Thee through, 

And Thee, the Lord of Life they had not slain. 
" Father, forgive ! " and doth Thy love constrain 

Thee for Thine enemies ? oh, love most true, 

All perfect, all unselfish, all Divine, 

In that dread hour triumphant ! 'Twas for me 

Thy praj^er ' ' Forgive them ! " for the sin was mine 

That laid the weight, the Cross, the shame on Thee 
"Father, forgive ! " may that sweet prayer of Thine 

In my last hour, my hope, my solace be. 

"TO-DAY THOU SHAI/T BE WITH ME IN PARADISE." 

To-day ! the strife is short, the end is near, 

The prize eternal ; thou shalt be with Me 

In Paradise to-day, and I with thee 

My fellow sufferer. Dost thou doubt or fear ? 

Turn but thy face to Me, and thou shalt hear 

My faithful word of promise ; "Thou shalt be 

To-day in Paradise ; ' ' and thou shalt see, 

Shalt share My Glory, and for every tear 

Find joy eternal ; suffer j^et awhile 

With Me and for Me, patient to the last ; 

I will not fail thee ; hell, with all its guile 

Shall never tear thee from Me ; hold Me fast 

In this last agony, for I will smile 

And bid thee " Welcome " when the strife is past. 



312 THE SEVEN LAST WORDS. 

"WOMAN, BEHOLD THY SON; SON, BEHOLD THY MOTHER. 

11 Behold thy Son ! " Thou canst not hold Me now 
In those dear arms of thine, or know the bliss 
Of perfect mother love ; thou canst not kiss 
The dews of death from off my aching brow ; 
I may not stay to share thy life, and thou 
Must taste the bitterness of death in this, 
Thy soul-transfixion : Mother ! thou must miss 
My loving care for thee ; and grief will bow 
Thy gentle head, sweet Mother, day by day, 
For those calm years which thou and I have known ; 

" Behold thy Mother ! " Thine to wipe away 
The tears from those dear eyes, and thine, alone, 
The task to love and tend her ; thine to stay, 
As I have stayed, beside her all her own. 

" i THIRST." 

" I thirst ! " Of old, when Thou didst sit and rest 
Beside Samaria's well, Thy sacred feet 
Worn with the dusty way, the noontide heat, 
Thy sacred mouth by burning thirst distrest 
One gave Thee drink, dear Lord, with willing zest, 
Drew, at Thy bidding, water cool and sweet, 
Glad but to do the service, as was meet, 
As waits a slave upon a royal guest. 

" I thirst ! " Oh, son of man ! by God accurst, 
That nailed Thee to the Cross ! What tongue may tell 
All Thou hast suffered ? Nay, nor this the worst, 
Thy mortal anguish ; since on Thee there fell 
The Father's wrath. Oh cry of God, " I thirst ! " 
Oh, thirst of God ! that saved my soul from hell. 

"MY GOD! MY GOD! WHY HAST THOU FORSAKEN ME? 

" My God ! My God ! "The darkness, like a pall, 
O'ershadows all the world ; and, now, Thy Face 
Is turned from Me in anger : all disgrace, 
All bitterness and shame ; the sins of all 
That ever sinned against Thee, now must fall 
On Me alone. My God ! and wilt Thou place 
The heavy guilt of all the fallen race 
Of sinful men on Me ? Lord, w r ilt Thou call 
Me to account, Me only ? Lo ! the dread 
Of Thy just anger shakes Me, and the weight 
Of sin is all too heavy on My Head. 

' ' My God ! My God ! forsake Me not ! ' ' too great 
My lonely grief, give back Thy peace instead ; 
Give back Thy Love, nor leave Me desolate. 



THE SEVEN LAST WORDS. 
"IT IS FINISHED." 

Lo ! ' ' It is finished ! ' ' Perfect and complete 
The one great offering Thou alone couldst make ; 
The task stupendous Thou didst undertake ; 
The victory won, and, crushed beneath Thy Feet 
The deadly foe whom Thou alone couldst meet 

" Finished ! " Sweet Lord ! 'twas only " for our sake, " 
Since, by Thy Death, Thou bidd'st our souls awake 
To Life in Thee, to servitude most sweet. 

" Finished ! " The toil was long, but Thou hast died 
To triumph over death ; and Thou hadst need 
To lay Thy glory for awhile aside, 
And share in all our griefs, that so a greater meed 
Of glory might be Thine ; and, Crucified 
Hast made Thy work, O Lord ! complete indeed. 

"FATHER, INTO THY HANDS I COMMEND MY SPIRIT. 

"Into Thy Hands, O Father ! " Lord ! at last 
Thou prayest for Thyself, for Thou hast done 
All that Thy Father bade Thee, didst not shun 
The toils, the sorrows all the pain is past 
But the one parting sigh, and Thou dost cast 
Thyself upon His Love, O Perfect One 
Into Thy Father's Hands, His Blessed Son, 
His well-beloved. Love made sure and fast 
In Love Divine, was in Thy dying Heart 
With that last word Lord ! when the hour is near 
That bids me pass to meet Thee, where Thou art, 
Oh ! may I whisper in Thy listening ear 

4 ' Into Thy Hands ! ' ' and then in peace depart ; 
If Thou be with me Lord, I shall not fear. 



313 




CATHOLIC BOOKS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

ByJ. F. O' Donovan, SJ. 



THE question which, at the very out- 
set, may suggest itself to the readers 
the MESSENGER is, Why should an 
article on a topic of this kind be present- 
ed in a magazine whose aim is the spread 
of devotion to the Sacred Heart ? 

The answer may be found in the MES- 
SENGER " Reader " for November, 1893. 
" Each and every Catholic should ask 
himself, what can / do to contribute my 
share to the conversion of America ? 
Among the agents that may be employed 
for the conversion of America, the press 
is certainly not the least important ; in 
fact we are warranted in saying that if 
America ever becomes a Catholic country, 
at least one-half of the work of conversion 
will have been accomplished by the press. 
Reading has converted thousands in the 
past and is destined to play a still more 
important role in the conversions of the 
future." Surely, then, those who pro- 
fess to realize in themselves, and to bring 
to the knowledge of others, the motto of 
the Apostleship of Prayer, ' ' Thy King- 
dom Come," cannot afford to neglect 
so important a means of doing good as 
is here presented for their consideration. 

The late President Porter of Yale, in 
Ms work on Books and Reading, strikes 
the keynote of the warfare which is being 
waged to-day by the enemies of God 's 
Church, when he remarks : "A youth in 
an unhappy moment meets a volume, 
and it makes him a hater of his fellow- 
man and a blasphemer of his God. One 
book makes one man a believer in good- 
ness and love and truth ; another book 
makes another man a denier or doubter 
of these sacred verities." 

If we carefully observe the trend of 
opinion at the present day, we must 
admit that the evil of godless reading is 
at the root of the thousands of crimes 
which are committed by those whose 

3H 



minds are poisoned by the more than 
doubtful moral principles, the mawkish 
and sickly sentimentalism which are in- 
stilled by hundreds of modern books. 
Readers ask for the bread of truth and 
they are given the hard stones of lying 
and error, coated with the glitter and tin- 
sel of a flowing and graceful diction. 
The evil seems to be spreading under 
the, let us say, unintentional guidance oi 
purblind leaders, for we are not prepared 
to say that their acts are malicious. 

From Cleveland conies the telling 
story that a list of books on Catholic (?) 
doctrine was prepared at the public 
library for those who desired to study it, 
and, what a list that was ! From.another 
Western state comes the news that a 
certain volume, the product of a highly- 
wrought imagination, written, doubt- 
less, with a view of spreading the whole- 
some food of truth was being quietly, 
but surely, propagated by means of 
school libraries. While from a third 
source, we hear that a special alcove for 
Jewish books has been placed in the 
Denver public library. We reach the 
climax when we are told by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Hurth, C.S.C., of Dacca, 
Bengal, formerly President of St. 
Edward's College in Texas, that the 
Protestant ministers in that country, in 
order to poison the minds of the natives, 
and make them hate Catholic doctrine, 
had translated the apostate Chiniquy's 
villainous attack on the Church into 
their native tongue and spread it broad- 
cast throughout the entire country. 
"Verily, the children of this world are 
wiser in their generation than the chil- 
dren of light. ' ' 

Perhaps the most insidious attempt, 
however, to spread throughout the entire 
country the seeds of scepticism and in- 
fidelity was made, wittingly or unwit- 






CATHOLIC BOOKS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



31S 



tingly, when a certain volume, the com- 
pilation of an educated monopoly, was 
brought to light some three years ago. 
Considering the source whence it came, 
we think that it is the accepted standard 
for most, if not for all, of our public 
libraries. 

The magnitude of the design which 
the authors had in view was, we pre- 
sume, in keeping with the wants of a 
nation which embraces within its limits 
all shades of religious opinion, from the 
one which possesses the fulness of truth, 
the Roman Catholic Church, to the never 
ending " isms " which are the result 
of the prime tenet of Protestantism. 
Justice, and a regard for the wants of 
their readers, which is the first requisite 
of every well equipped and properly con- 
ducted public library, would demand 
that the literatures of the various beliefs 
should have been consulted with a view 
to presenting the best which each con- 
tained. To bring about this desired 
result, the course adopted by a certain 
standard work, in giving the article on 
the Jesuits to a Littledale, should not 
have been adopted. Yet, if we judge by 
what is offered, the natural conclusion is 

No. of 



that something similar did really take 
place in the general make-*up of this one- 
sided production. 

The volume was issued by the United 
States Government Printing Press, with 
the sanction and approval of the Com- 
missioner of Education. It is a strange 
monument to the learning and, we trust, 
well-meant consideration of ' ' the com- 
mittee who passed upon the suggestions 
of about seventy-five librarians and 
specialists." Indeed, the crowning 
glory of their labors was the world-wide 
reputation which the work attained 
when it was presented to admiring 
thousands at the Chicago World's Exhi- 
bition. 

To make it evident to the readers of 
the MESSENGER why we call their atten- 
tion to this selection of five thousand 
volumes for a public library, we shall 
examine in detail one of the systems of 
cataloguing, that known as " Classed 
Catalogue," according to the expansive 
classification, "embracing from page 149 
to 1 6 1 , exclusive. We confine our review 
of the work to those matters only which 
are of special interest to Catholics. The 
following items will speak volumes : 



Catholic 



General Title Authors. Vols. 


Writers. 




Various Headings \ _ 
of Philosophy, j 


O 


D 




St. Augustine's 


1 




Confessions. 


| 


Christian Ethics (?) 10 10 


Kempis. 





Religion and 
Allied Subjects. 



Ecclesiastical 
History. 



153 



46 



Fenelon s Spiritual Letters 

2 Vols. j 

Card. Gibbons' Christian ] 

Heritage. 
Dixon's Life of Christ, 

2 Vols. 

Catholic Bible. 

Catholic Dictionary. 

Montalemberts' Monks 

of the West. 

2 Vols. J 



Some non-Catholic 
Writers. 



Darwin, Mill, Spencer, 

Draper, and all the 

German School. 

William Penn, 
Jeremy Taylor, 
Richard Baxter. 

Pfleiderer, 

Renan, 

Matthew Arnold, 
A. D. White 
Martineau. 

D'Aubigne". 

Foxe. 

Milman, 

Dorchester. 



Total number of volumes, 325 ; Catholic, n! 
Periodicals recommended, 27 ; Catholic Reviews, o. 



We shall now, for the amusement of our readers, give a few specimens of the 
cataloguing practised by these experts : 



-316 CATHOLIC BOOKS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

MORAL PHILOSOPHY. NATURAL THEOLOGY. 



Burton, Robert. Anatomy of Melancholy. 
Oilman, N. P., Jackson, E- P. Conduct as a 

Fine Art. 

Mathews, William. Getting on in the World. 

Ward, Mrs. H. O. Sensible Etiquette of the 

best Society. 



Draper, J. W. History of the Conflict be- 
tween Religion and Science. 
Laing, Samuel. Modern Science and Mod- 
ern Thought. 

Hinton, James. Mystery of Pain. 
White, A. W. Warfare of Science. 



CHRISTIANITY. 



DOCTRINAL THEOLOGY. 



Luther, Martin. Table Talk; tr. by Hazlett. Clarke, J. F. Common Sense in Religion. 
Coleridge, S. T. Aids to Reflection ; States- I Hughes, Thomas. Manliness of Christ, 
men's Manual. 



"Angels, and ministers of grace, 
defend us" from such leaders ! 

It is worthy of remark that two of 
the Catholic books adopted were given 
by "The Cathedral Library " of New 
York City. 

No elaborate comments are needed to 
bring vividly before our minds what dire 
consequences will follow if our reading 
public are to slake their thirst for knowl- 
edge at these poisoned fountains. When 
there is question of the Catholic Church, 
it is true to say that the scripture ex- 
pression, "The venom of asps was un- 
der their tongues," may be justly ap- 
plied to a number of the writers recom- 
mended by the American Library Asso- 
ciation . 

We would not have the readers of 
the MESSENGER understand that there 
are no Catholic books in our public libra- 
ries besides those already mentioned. 
The present writer examined the cata- 
logues of two public libraries, one in the 
South, the other in the East, and, as a 
result of his work, found in the former 
the best Catholic works on history, re- 
ligion and philosophy. An examination 
of the various committees which gov- 
erned the library showed that prominent, 
influential and aggressive Catholic lay- 
men had a voice in the management of 
the institution. In the latter, a sturdy 
and devoted pastor of one of the local 
churches, who was a member of one of 
the committees, left the impress of his 
zealous work on the pages of the cata- 
logue. A lesson to those who desire to 
imitate noble examples. 



What we do wish to emphasize is the 
animus which, whether intentional or 
not, was shown in the making of this 
volume ; also, the incalculable mischief 
which may be wrought by placing within 
easy reach of an almost omnivorous read- 
ing public the works which have been 
recommended by the learned doctors who 
govern so many of our public libraries. 

The evil, as all can perceive, which we 
have to contend with is evidently very 
great, hence, we must, following the ex- 
ample of the man who wished to build a 
tower, ' ' sit down and reckon ' ' the 
amount of labor which will be required ; 
also, the most effective ways whereby to 
execute our designs. To spur us on- 
wards, it would be well to recall fre- 
quently to mind the words of one who 
has done yeoman service for the cause of 
truth, in the work of converting non- 
Catholics in America. Father Elliott, 
writing in the Catholic World for April, 
1895, said : ' ' The condition of things in 
America is this : the Catholic Church in 
America is among a non-Catholic people 
who are willing to listen to Catholic 
truth. Stop at that fact and square your 
conscience with it. As layman, priest, 
or prelate, reckon with God thus : I can 
get a hearing for its claims from non- 
Catholics, what should I do about it ? " 

We can learn from his method of work 
what it is possible to do to effect this 
holy object. Every where he goes, Cath- 
olic books are distributed by the hun- 
dreds. This same work, the diffusion of 
Catholic literature, was earnestly recom- 
mended, some three years ago, to the 



CATHOLIC BOOKS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



317 



readers of the MESSENGER : ' ' We are 
convinced that thousands of non-Cath- 
olics would be converted to the faith if 
they were placed within reach of Cath- 
olic books." What more sure and se- 
cure means of taking part in that apos- 
tolate than by seeing to it that the pub- 
lic libraries be well stocked with the 
best Catholic books, so that non-Catho- 
lics may have them for the asking ? 

Those who are familiar with the his- 
tory of St. Ignatius Loyola may, per- 
haps, pass rather hurriedly over one 
incident in his life which is the turning 
point in his career; the fact that his 
change of life was due, in great measure, 
to the chance-reading of a Catholic book: 
Truly, then, might we say, if we trace 
the stream of blessings which have 
refreshed and renewed to a better life 
the millions who have come under the 
influence of his sons, that the source 
was like the mustard-seed of the Gospel 
which became a wide-spreading tree. 

We were about to quote the trite ex- 
pression, Fas est et ab hoste doceri, when 
the thought came to our mind that we 
need not have recourse to the enemy's 
camp to learn a fruitful lesson. The 
learned and zealous priest who is editor 
of The American Ecclesiastical Review, 
with that foresight which is so conspicu- 
ous in his magazine, engaged the 
co-operation of experts in the various 
branches of knowledge which befit the 
priestly rank to give a list of books which 
would further the study of his confreres in 
these several departments of knowledge. 
The result appeared in the Review, under 
the title "The Library of a Priest " 

With much greater reason a like work 
should be done for our Catholic laity, 
the vast majority of whom know little or 
nothing about what Catholic literature 
means. They are frequently told to ask 
for Catholic books when they visit the 
public libraries; would it not be well 
first to give them a list of the best books 
written by Catholic authors ? We say 
the best, for we would not be under- 
stood as approving a deposit of works in 



the alcoves of a public library which 
have nothing to recommend them but 
flashy bindings and irrelevant pious pic- 
tures which present all the colors of the 
rainbow. 

The symposium on ' ' Pastors and 
Reading Matter for Children," in the 
December number of the magazine, 
shows how readily our best writers will 
give their valuable assistance to any 
movement which has for its aim the 
direction of the Catholic reading public 
in the matter of books. 

When the proposed volume on Cath- 
olic works is prepared, the Reverend 
clergy, throughout the country, will 
surely bring it to the notice of their 
respective congregations. One of their 
number, a man who has risen to promi- 
nence in the world of fetters as Walter 
Lecky, writing in the Catholic News of 
New York, about two years ago, made 
this very pertinent remark: " What a 
wonderful advertising agency for Cath- 
olic literature lies in the hands of 
priests ? And, in these days, when in- 
fidelity is going to the poor, and when 
her weapon is the printing press, the 
dissemination of sound, honest Catholic 
literature is in the front rank of priestly 
work. The priest's voice reaches all 
classes ; and his praise of a book will 
often gain it an entrance when ordinary 
methods would be resented. " 

The work can also be taken up by 
Catholic papers. The columns which 
are sometimes devoted to matters that 
have little or no interest for Catholics 
would be more fruitful of good and 
more in accord with the mission of that 
department of the public press, if some 
earnest, suggestive, and lucid articles 
were written on the books recommended 
by the catalogue. 

Reading circles, and, indeed, all Cath- 
olic societies of whatever description, can 
adopt no better means of fostering among 
their members the true spirit of zeal, and 
of bringing about the reign of the king- 
dom of Christ, which is the special work 
of the League of the Sacred Heart, than 



318 



CATHOLIC BOOKS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



by uniting their efforts for the insertion 
of Catholic books where the poorest can 
find them. The voice of our glorious 
Pontiff, Leo. XIII., bids them nerve 
themselves for the battle of truth against 
the onslaughts of wicked and cunning 
scribblers. With his paternal blessing, 
he recommended the " Apostleship of the 
Press " during the past year as an object 
most dear to the Heart of Jesus. By 
tongue and pen he has urged this glori- 
ous work on all his children. This, 
therefore, ought to be a sufficient incen- 
tive for earnest work. 

If we look for motives from our Spir- 
itual Rulers in the United States, we 
have them abundantly. The Fathers of 
the II. and III. Plenary Councils of Bal- 
timore, in their efforts for the welfare 
of the Church and human society, among 
the many wise and well-defined provi- 
sions which they enacted for this end, 
took particular pains to call the attention 
of their flocks to the necessity of using 
every honest endeavor to distribute 
Catholic books. "We most earnestly 
desire that such pious societies shall 
everywhere exist, whose object shall be 
the publication and distribution of good 
Catholic books and tracts. ' ' We may be 
permitted to add, interpreting their 
wishes, and of placing them whither the 
American public flock to get books, pub- 
lic libraries. "These societies ought to 
be protected, assisted, and propagated 
with all the more alacrity and zeal in 
proportion to the daily increasing efforts 
and incredible diligence of wicked men 
and sectaries who spread everywhere 
countless publications against God, His 
Church, and sound morality. We are not 
deserving of high praise if, for the best 
of causes, we do only that which the im- 
pious do for a wicked cause, and take for 
the salvation of souls the same pains 
which they take for their damnation, 
but not in any way to rival them were 
most disgraceful sloth. ' ' 

Words cannot be clearer. We may, 
therefore, say with truth : this is God 's 
work ; this will promote the interests of 



the Sacred Heart ; this will hasten the 
spread of His kingdom. ' ' The consent of 
the saints is the sense of the Holy 
Spirit, ' ' wrote a noted Catholic theolo- 
gian. If ever there was unanimity in 
any matter, it is, undoubtedly, with re- 
gard to the 'propagation of sound and 
wholesome reading. We may, and do, 
complain bitterly about the lack of Cath- 
olic books in public libraries ; the fault 
is ours, in a great many cases. We merely 
denounce the bigotry which ignores that 
portion of the sum of knowledge, while 
no concerted action, no vigorous, intel- 
ligent measures are adopted to make our 
Catholic laity know what that is which 
is designated by the name of Catholic 
literature. It may be, that there are 
some who fancy that Catholic literature 
and goody-goody story books about 
angels and saints, and bright youths 
whose youthful piety betokened a voca- 
tion to the priesthood, are convertible 
terms. If such there be, and we can 
hardly conceive that state of mind at the 
present day, let them but stud)' the ques- 
tion honestly, and they will find that the 
world has moved since they were young. 

We cannot but deplore the ignorance 
of many well-meaning persons on this 
subject. Experience has taught some of 
us that not even our Catholic College 
students are aware of the wealth of 
knowledge which is hidden in the un- 
worked mine. 

"Faith comes from hearing," says 
St. Paul ; we might say intelligent 
faith, "the reasonable service," which 
the same Apostle demands of us, comes 
from a well -regulated, orderly course of 
Catholic reading. Hence, the necessity 
that lies upon us to procure it, if pos- 
sible, for all. 

If we create a demand for such read- 
ing, it will be supplied. We may, fre- 
quently, with profit, address ourselves- 
in the words of St. John, adapting them 
for our present purpose : ' ' He that hath 
the truth of God, the Catholic faith, and 
shall see his brother wandering in error> 
and shall not help to enlighten him,, 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



319 



how doth the charity of God abide in 
his heart. Let us not love in word, nor 
in tongue, but in deed, and in truth." 

It is high time to take up the work, 
earnestly, of placing the standard Catho- 
lic works which have been written on 
every branch of knowledge, in our public 
libraries, and of prosecuting our work 
orderly until the treasure of knowledge 
which we possess shall be ready at hand 
for the millions who are without the 
true fold. Work we must if we wish to 



accomplish anything worthy our holy 
faith. Opposition will be. placed in our 
way, the cry of bigotry will, at times, 
be heard ; but, if God, as He certainly 
is, be for us, who can be against us ? 

Our last suggestion is that when we 
have secured a goodly number of Catho- 
lic books wherever we are, a printed 
catalogue be supplied, if feasible, for 
every Catholic family. For truth, "to 
be loved," must, as Pope says, "be 
seen." 



JEANNE D'ARC.* 

FROM DOMREMY TO CHINON. 

By John A. Mooney. 



f ESU ! JESU ! JESU ! " Ten thou- 
^ sand hear the piteous cry ; and, 

irough pity, some swoon ; others, re- 
morseful, shiver; many weep and moan. 
The soft-hearted have already fled. A 
gust of wind parts the greedy flames, 
disclosing the figure of a young girl. 
Upon a crucifix her eyes are fixed; a 
crucifix held aloft, outside the circle of 
the crackling fire, by a priest. Now 
the girl is hidden from sight, by the 
fagot's ruddy blaze, rising higher and 
higher. Even the hardened English 
soldiers blench, as the scent of burning 
flesh is diffused. Again, out of the fire, a 
voice issues ; a firm, a confident voice: 
" My mission was from God. Jesu! Jesu! " 

The end is near. Only agony could 
inspire the beseeching cry : ' ' Water ! 
blessed water ! ' ' a vain cry. Not a 
man or woman, though human feeling 
prompted, dare risk the proffer of a single 
drop of water to soothe the victim 's soul 
or body. One English soldier responded 
to the appeal by flinging a dry fagot 
into the glowing fire. Choking, dying, 

* Having read carefully several Lives of Jeanne 
d' Arc, by Catholics, Protestants, and infidels, of 
differing nationalities, and having also read several 
works dealing with incidents in the Maid's life, aud 
having consulted those documents upon which all 
reliable Lives of Jeanne must be based, the wri- 



| 



once more the voice invokes the Sav- 
iour : ' ' Jesu ! Jesu ! ' ' and the writhing 
girl 's last breath is expended in uttering 
that dear name : "Jesu ! " 

The executioner gathers up the re- 
mains. A few bones he finds, and a lit- 
tle dust. These he looked for ; but with 
terror does he perceive a heart ; and he 
trembles as, touching it, he feels it warm ; 
warm, not with the faint heat exhaled 
from wood-ashes, but with that generous 
ardor that smoulders in the embers of the 
Saint. Trusting not to the piled up fag- 
ots, he had nourished the flames with 
oil and sulphur. The heart should have 
been burned to a crisp. Now he remem- 
bers that, before mounting the pyre, the 
girl-victim had besought the bystanders 
to give her a cross ; and that, none be- 
ing at hand, a gentle English soldier had 
formed one, roughly, out of a couple of 
bits of a stick. Kissing this rude cross 
devoutly, she had placed it over her 
heart, close to her flesh! The wooden 
cross was no more ; but the heart it had 
pressed, remained. Was this a sign ? 

ter determined to follow, as he has followed, closely, 
the narrative of the learned historian, M. Marius 
Sepet, as told in the twentieth edition of his admir- 
able work: Jeanne d' Arc, Alfred Mame et Fits, 
Tours. 1895. 



320 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



Neither the executioner, nor the curious 
onlookers, who wondered with him, dare 
say yes. Bones, ashes, and even the 
heart, were cast into the River Seine. 
An English cardinal, the cardinal of 
Winchester, so ordered. 

Did this young girl deserve the pun- 
ishment and the indignities meted out 
to her on the thirtieth of May, 1431, in 
the market-place of Rouen ? Return with 
me to the scaffold ! To yonder tall, 
charred stake, she was tied. Surmount- 
ing the stake is an inscription, still legi- 
ble. Thus it reads: "Jeanne, who 
named herself the Maid, a liar, a perni- 
cious woman, a deceiver of the people, a 
sorceress, a superstitious woman, a blas- 
phemer of God, a presumptuous woman, 
an unbeliever, a boaster, an idolatrous, 
a cruel, a dissolute woman, an invocatrix 
of devils, apostate, schismatic and here- 
tic. " If the inscription be true, Jeanne, 
who named herself the Maid, was pun- 
ished justly. But if the inscription were 
a lie ! Lie it was ; every word a lie ; and 
the men who devised the inscription were 
liars, pernicious men, deceivers of the 
people, presumptuous and cruel. To- 
day, better than ever, we know the truth 
about Jeanne the Maid ; and for the sake 
of truth, men of every land love to tell 
her story ; and, most of all, those who, 
like her, glory in the cross, and believe 
and trust in Him whom her burning lips 
greeted, as her pure soul flew heavenward. 
How did it happen that English sol- 
diers played leading parts in the painful 
scene we have just witnessed; and why 
did an English cardinal lend his pres- 
ence to the burning of Jeanne, the Maid, 
in the market-place of Rouen ? A com- 
plete answer to these questions would 
be the history of a hundred years of war 
between English and French kings. 
When William, the conqueror, Duke of 
Normandy, seized the English crown, he 
did not renounce his Norman duchy; 
and, after his death, his successors on 
the throne of England claimed the Nor- 
man dukedom as a right. Nor was this 
claim rejected by the French kings, who, 



however, required that, as dukes of Nor- 
mandy, the English sovereigns should 
do homage, presenting themselves be- 
fore the French kings, bareheaded, and 
withoiit gloves, sword or spurs, as a 
mark of vassalage. In the course of 
time, through prudent marriages, the 
kings of England increased their posses- 
sions on the soil of France, acquiring 
and controlling a territory larger than 
that subject to the kings of France. A 
vassal more powerful than his lord was 
a vassal to be feared. So Philip Augus- 
tus wisely argued; and he proved his- 
conclusion true by dispossessing the 
English of three of their fiefs, leaving 
them but one, Guyenne. Of even this 
province, Philip the Fair deprived them 
a century later; though, imagining that 
generosity could temper avarice, he 
made the mistake of returning it. 

Occasional intermarriages between the 
members of the English and French 
royal families should have assured the 
peace of both countries, but had no such 
effect. Indeed, one of these marriages 
brought only war and disaster upon 
France; for, upon the death of Charles 
the Fair, in 1328, Edward III. of Eng- 
land claimed the French throne as the 
heir of his mother, Isabella, the sister of 
Charles and of his predecessor, Philip 
V., known as the Long. Not confining 
himself to mere wordy demands, Edward 
invaded France with a well-equipped and 
well-trained army, and at Crecy (August 
28, 1346) inflicted a grievous defeat upon, 
the French. Philip VI. lost the port of 
Calais, and no French king recovered it 
until two centuries had passed. The 
Black Prince, Hdward, proved a scourge 
more terrible than his father, Edward III. 
At Poitiers, ten years after Crecy, he 
vanquished an army in whose ranks the 
most valiant among the nobility of 
France fought to the death. There, too, 
he made a prisoner of the King, John II..,. 
who, six years earlier, had succeeded 
Philip VI. A prisoner on English soil 
John remained during more than half of 
the eight following years. 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



321 



His son, Charles V., showed more wis- 
dom and more courage than his father, 
and with the aid of that romantic 
knight, Bertrand du Guesclin, drove the 
English out of almost all the territories 
they had seized during the preceding 
reign. Dying in 1380, he left a son but 
eleven years old to succeed him. At the 
age of twenty this son, as Charles VI., 
assumed the sovereignty that, during his 
minority, had been exercised by his 
uncles, the Dukes of Berry and of Bur- 
gundy, but his administration of the 
royal power was short lived. Within 
four years of his elevation to the throne 
he lost the kingdom of his mind, not 
without cause, and the mad semblance 
of a king he remained for full thirty 
years. 

When Charles VI. was practically de- 
throned, his eldest son, Louis, being a 
minor, ruled but nominally until his 
death in December, 1415. Then his 
brother John, also a minor, succeeded to 
the vain authority he inherited, and, on 
his death in 1417, Charles, the youngest 
son of the insane Charles, acquired a 
title which, though it must have grati- 
fied a youth of fourteen, made him no 
more powerful than his brothers had 
been. 

Since his father's misfortune twenty- 
five years had elapsed ; twenty-five years 
of ill fortune. Ambitious nobles, con- 
tending for the control of the persons of 
the young princes and for the possession 
of Paris, then as now the heart of France, 
had divided the people into warring fac- 
tions. Seeing their chance, the English 
attempted to recover their lost territories. 
Indeed they hoped to gain the crown 
that Ed ward III. ambitioned. Led by the 
aspiring and gallant Henry V. a powerful 
army disembarked near the port of Har- 
fleur on August 14, 1415. After a month 's 
siege Harfleur capitulated. Around the 
French princes the chivalry of France 
rallied only to meet at Agincourt a de- 
feat no less calamitous than that of 
Crecy or of Poitiers (October 25). Still 
the English king feared to risk an ad- 




HOME OF JEANNE AT DOMREMY. 

vance and returned home to prepare for a 
new invasion. 

One of the most puissant and daring 
French nobles lent no aid to his country 
at Agincourt John the Fearless, Duke 
of Burgundy. His father, Philip the 
Bold, had striven for supremacy in 
national affairs during the minority of 
the oldest son of Charles "jjfl., thus op- 
posing the clever but debauched Duke 
of Orleans. In the face of a rival, John 
was less timid than his father. He did 
not hesitate to connive at the murder of 
Orleans, and by this crime not only 
weakened his own position but also dis- 
rupted the country. Out of revenge the 
son of Orleans took the field and with 
him a powerful Southern noble, to whom 
he was allied by marriage, Bernard, 
Count d'Armagnac. In Paris and else- 
where the people were by turn Burgun- 
dians or Armagnacs, as interest, senti- 
ment or passion moved them. When the 
youngest son of mad Charles VI. became 
Charles the Dauphin, Bernard d'Armag- 
nac, whose party the new dauphin 
favored, ruled Paris ; and through him 
Charles might have quickly united the 
country, were it not for the base act of a 
wanton woman. 

This woman was Isabeau of Bavaria, 
wife of the unfortunate Charles VI., and 
mother of the youth who was rightfully 
claiming recognition as heir to the throne 
of France. Originally, Isabeau had sup- 
ported the debauched duke of Orleans 
against Philip the Bold; but in Novem- 
ber, 1417, she conspired with John the 
Fearless against her own sou. Having 
proclaimed herself regent at Troyes, 



322 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



she appointed John her administrator, 
and, setting up a revolutionary gov- 
ernment, kindled the flames of a civil 
war. 

In the name of this unnatural woman, 
who had been exiled from Paris on ac- 
count of her scandalous behavior, the 
Burgundians ravaged the centre and the 
South of France ; while the English 
King, taking advantage of the French 
Queen's treachery, returned into Nor- 
mandy, where he campaigned victori- 
ously. In May, 1418, Paris fell into the 
hands of John and Isabeau. Fortunate- 
ly, young Charles escaped and estab- 
lished his government at Poitiers ; but 
his daft father, Charles VI., remained a 
prisoner of his wife, Isabeau. As the 
English advanced, John of Burgundy, 
opened negotiations with Henry V. 
John was a self-seeking trickster. Once 
master of Paris, he tried to make 
terms with the dauphin, Charles. They 
met at Montereau. Had they never met 
it could have been no worse for France. 
Neither one had confidence in the other. 
They disagreed. Their retainers fought, 
and John met a death similar to that 
of his old enemy, the duke of Orleans. 
Meantime, at Rouen, the capital of 
Normandy, Henry V., of England, 
was coining money bearing his name, 
and the title : King of France. 

Worse fortune was in store for the 
rightful heir to the throne. Philip of 
Burgundy, son of the murdered John, 
declared for the English ; and so did his 
unwomanly ally, Isabeau. Nay more, 
she and Philip, and their helpless tool, 
Charles VI., signed a treaty, at Troyes, 
on May 21, 1420, by which the king of 
England was acknowledged to be the 
legitimate heir of the insane king of 
France, and, during his lifetime, sole 
regent. Isabeau 's daughter, Catharine, 
was betrothed to Henry V., with the 
understanding that their first child 
should wear a double crown: the crown 
of England and of France. Without de- 
lay, the marriage of Catharine and Henry 
was celebrated ; and in the following 



December, the royal pair made a solemn 
entry into Paris. 

Even after Crecy, or Poitiers, or Agin- 
court, who would have imagined that 
the brave, the glorious, the proud, the 
great nation should be thus humiliated ! 
Still the rightful heir to the throne was 
not wholly discouraged. South of the 
Loire, the people were loyal. Aided by 
their Scotch allies, his forces won a 
notable victory at Bauge (March 22, 
1421), where the Duke of Clarence, 
brother of the English king, lost his 
life. When, in June of the same year, 
Henry V. headed an army of twenty- 
eight thousand men, Charles might well 
fear for the future. They closed him up 
in Bourges ; but, at the darkest hour, 
hope returned. Word came of the death 
of Henry V., at Vincennes, on August 
31, 1422. Seven weeks later the un- 
fortunate Charles VI. died. Displaying 
courage, if not confidence, his son as- 
sumed the title of King of France, six 
days afterwards, on October 30. 

Of hope and courage, Charles VII. 
had need. The duke of Bedford, 
brother of Henry V., as a soldier and a 
politician, was second in ability only to 
that illustrious monarch. Having as- 
sumed the regency, and, in the abbey of 
St. Denis, amid the tombs of the French 
kings, having proclaimed king of 
France the infant son of Henry and 
Catharine, Bedford warred actively 
against Charles, defeating him often. 
Fortunately for Charles, though he was 
hampered by selfish and intriguing min- 
isters, Bedford was no less impeded by 
a rash and ambitious brother, the Duke 
of Gloucester. Had it not been for 
Gloucester's passions, Charles would 
not have enjoyed three years of com- 
parative peace. In 1426, the English 
pushed forward, won, and then halted. 
Two years later, under the lead of the 
Earl of Salisbury, they carried every- 
thing before them. Between June and 
October, 1428, twenty-three strong 
places surrendered to them ; and on 
the twelfth of October, they laid siege 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



323 



to Orleans, the key to the centre of 
France. 

Under the command of the famous 
Bastard of Orleans, the inhabitants 
defended the city bravely; women show- 
ing no less courage than men. Fatally 
wounded eleven days after the opening 
of the siege, Salisbury died at the end of 
October; but his death did not lessen the 
efforts of the English. William de la 

Poole, earl of 

Suffolk, now 
directed the 
operations. 
Orleans is 
situated o n 
the right 
bank of the 
Loire. Sal- 
isbury had 
fortified the 
left bank; 
Suffolk, 
crossing the 
river, en- 
t r enche d 
himself on 
the right 
bank, and 
warily c i r - 
cled the walls 
of the city 
with strong 
forts. Fail- 
ing to cap- 
ture Orleans 
by assault, 
he purposed 
starving it 
into submis- 
s i o n . All 
winter the besieged defended, sallied, 
countermined. Spring came, bringing 
no hope. The French king offered only 
slight assistance. To provision the city, 
was growing more and more difficult, as 
the English forts girdled the walls more 
closely. An attempt on the king's part 
to surprise a strong body carrying food 
to the besiegers, February 12, 1429, was 
a sad failure. Despairing, the inhabit- 




JKANNE D'ARC HEABING HER DIVINE MISSION. 



ants of Orleans offered to surrender, 
not to the English, but to the duke of 
Burgundy. Suffolk declined, saying 
that : "he had not beaten the bushes 
in order that o'hers should catch the 
birds. " 

His many trials, defeats, losses, dis- 
couraged Charles VII. He began to 
view the downfall of his dynasty as 
providentially ordained. A tormenting 
suspicion 
had wormed 
itself into his 
mind and 
heart : Was 
he a legiti- 
mate son of 
Charles VI.? 
If he were 
fi o t, should 
he not lay 
down his 
arms? He 
besought 
God to re- 
solve this 
doubt , s o 
that his 
course might 
be in accord 
with justice; 
yet the doubt 
remained. 
The peril of 
Orleans i n - 
creased his 
anguish. 
Partisans 
were forsak- 
ing him; the 
royal treas- 
ury was empty. When Orleans should 
fall into the power of the English, 
how could he hope to hold even the 
mean remnant of a kingdom that still 
acknowledged his authority ! Strong 
hands and courageous hearts there were, 
upon which he could count to the death; 
but, vainly sacrificing them, would not 
he be a coward ? Thus disturbed, 
wavering, anxious, Charles passed his 



324 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



days in the castle of Chinon. The 
cause of the French king, the independ- 
ence of the French people, the life of a 
grand nation, were in jeopardy. Who, 
but God, could save ? 

On February 23, 1429, just eleven days 
after the rout of the royal army sent 
to aid the inhabitants .of Orleans, six 
armed men, led by a girl all a-horse- 
back ambled through the gate of Chi- 
non. Though her hair was cut short, 
like a man's, and though she was ac- 
coutred exactly like a-man-at-arms 
her lean breast and supple back covered 
with a cuirass ; at her belt, on the one 
side, a dagger, on the other, a sword; in 
her right hand a lance no observant, 
man or woman, could have questioned 
the leader's sex. The completest armor 
never disguised a maid ; and this girl 
was a maid. 

At Chinon, they had reason for expect- 
ing her ; for, from a neighboring village, 
she had written to no less a personage 
than the king, saying : "I have travelled 
fifty leagues to be near you, and I have 
many excellent things to tell you." 
From Vaucouleurs to Chinon was a good 
fifty leagues, and only a brave girl would 
have dared the journey. The cities, the 
bridges on the route, were in the hands 
of the English, or of the Burgundians. 
A partisan of the French King ran great 
risks. At Vaucouleurs, friends had 
warned the girl. ' ' I do not fear men-at- 
arms," was her answer; "my way is 
prepared. Should there be enemies on 
the road, I have God, my Lord, who will 
open for me a path by which to reach the 
dauphin ; for I was born to save him. " 

They travelled by night ; they sought 
unfrequented or roundabout roads. The 
men-at-arms found the journey hard ; 
but the girl did not complain. All day 
and every day, she was joyous, having 
one sole anxiety : to hear Mass. To be 
present at this holy office she hazarded 
her liberty more than once, though her 
male companions were more prudent. 
On the morning she wrote to Charles, 
she had been present at three Masses in 



a pilgrim church. As she journeyed, the 
beggars by the way had learned to love 
her. For their sake, she was ready to 
borrow. 

' ' I have God, my Lord, who will open 
for me a path to reach the dauphin ; for 
I was born to save him. " A wonderful 
saying ! A girl, born to save the defeated, 
despairing King of France born to save 
not merely a crown, but also a people, a 
nation. All that her words expressed 
and implied the girl-soldier meant. Nor 
had she waited until she reached Chinon, 
to affirm that she was chosen of God to 
do marvellous deeds in and for France. 
In the preceding year, accompanied by a 
male relative, Durant Laxart by name, 
she had sought and obtained an inter- 
view with Captain Robert de Beaudri- 
court, who held Vaucouleurs in the inter- 
est of Charles VII. ' ' Send word to the 
dauphin, ' ' said she to Captain de Beaudri- 
court, ' ' that he must have courage, and 
that he must not, as yet, enter the field 
against his enemies ; for God will send 
him succor toward the middle of the com- 
ing I^ent. The kingdom does not belong 
to him, but to my Lord, who desires to 
confide its guardship to him. The dau- 
phin shall be a king, in spite of his ene- 
mies. I will lead him to Rheims, and 
there he shall be crowned." Then de 
Beaudricourt asked : ' ' Who is your 
Lord? " And she made answer; "The 
King of Heaven." "Take this girl 
home to her parents ! ' ' exclaimed the 
captain ; ' ' she is raving. ' ' 

The captain's farewell to the girl who 
offered to lead Charles, in the face of 
the victorious English, up to and into 
Rheims, a city controlled by his enemies, 
and there to crown him King of France, 
was not a polite farewell. Still, it was 
as polite as the greeting with which the 
Captain welcomed her when she en- 
tered Vaucouleurs. 

Durant Laxart, having called on de 
Beaudricourt, and having told who he 
was, and who his companion was, and 
what she claimed to be, the captain 
summoned a priest, and together they 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



325 



went to the girl 's lodging and forthwith 
exorcised her, surmising that she was 
possessed by an evil spirit. Though she 
submitted, she could not help laughing 
as she said to the priest : "It would 
have been more sensible to hear my con- 
fession first." Probably she was better 
pleased at being called mad than she 
had been when they treated her as a 
child of the devil. 

From Durant Laxart, and from the 
girl herself, the Captain learned the 
story of her life. Born on the sixth 
of January, 1412, she was but a little 
more than sixteen years of age. Her 
birthplace was the village of Domremy, 
nigh to Vaucouleurs, on the border of 
Champagne and Lorraine. There her 
father, Jacques d'Arc, and her mother, 
Isabelle, simple peasants, esteemed for 
their industry and virtue, lived labori- 
ously, comforted only by their three 
sons and two daughters. From their 
earliest years these children were trained 
to labor and to fear God. Of the five, 
the daughter, Jeanne, had been noted for 
piety from her infancy. Loving work 
she was as expert with a spade as with a 



needle, could spin with the best, and 
was as trusty among the hills with the 
sheep as if under the eye of her mother. 
A joyous child, companionable and fond 
of play, Jeanne was even fonder of 
prayer. In the midst of a merry game 
she would slip away, kneel behind a 
hedge, breathe a prayer and return to be 
as merry as the merriest. To the Blessed 
Virgin she was especially devout. Near 
to Domremy were several chapels dedi- 
cated to our Lady. With a candle, a 
garland of field flowers, an orison, 
Jeanne embellished each altar. At all 
the offices of the village church she was 
faithful, and most exemplary in confess- 
ing and in receiving the Holy Commun- 
ion. Obedient to her parents, she was 
also a loving sister, a kindly neighbor, 
generous to the poor, tendei/Lothe ailing. 
All these adornments of womanhood 
Jeanne d'Arc had acquired without ever 
learning the esteemed art of reading or 
of writing. 

These details may have interested de 
Beaudricourt, though it is more than 
probable that he knew many peasant 
girls no less virtuous or pious. How 




THE MAID'S PARENTS AND PRETENDED LOVER CLAIM HER AT TOUL. 



326 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



ever, this was not the whole of the story. 
In her thirteenth year thus she told 
the captain and often during the three 
years that had since passed, heavenly 
beings had appeared to her and had 
spoken to her. Jeanne's home adjoined 
the parish church ; and it was in the 
garden, close to the church wall, on a 
summer's day in 1425, at midday, that 
a glorious light shone on her, and out of 
the light issued a voice, saying: "Jeanne, 
be good and pious, go often to church !" 
The resplendent light, the mysterious 



sun, was but the shadow of the splendor 
of the Archangel Michael; the voice was 
the Archangel's voice; the multitude 
with him was a squadron of his immor- 
tal, invincible, army of angels. 

The mysterious voice, on that first 
summer-day, counselled her to be a 
Christian, and no more; but, as time 
passed, portentous words were spoken to 
her. She had heard of the wars. Her 
parents were loyal to the crown. Before 
her day, Domremy had suffered from the 
enemies of France. The history of her 




THE MAID'S PROGRKSS. 



voice, affrighted the girl, as, certainly, 
they would have affrighted you or me. 
Who spoke, she knew not Whence 
came that indescribable radiance and 
the voice whose speech she could never 
forget? A second, a third time, she 
heard the voice, though perceiving no 
form. Then a form appeared, a com- 
manding form accompanied by a multi- 
tude of unearthly, though real, beings. 
Finally she grew into the knowledge 
that the wondrous light she had first 
seen, more lustrous than the noonday 



country, she knew well; the traditions 
were familiar to her; but one can easily 
understand that the peasant girl of 
thirteen was not prepared to assume 
that she had been selected to save 
France, to rout victorious armies, to 
make a king and unite a nation. Still, 
Michael, promising prudently, suggested 
much, and finally ordered. She had a 
mission from heaven, he said, to succor 
the King of France. During three years, 
the simple girl listened, trembled, won- 
dered, feared. Two sainted women came 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



327 



: 



to aid her: Catharine and Margaret. 
They encouraged her, calmed her. To 
neither mother, nor father, nor confes- 
sor, did she disclose her secret. Alone 
she bore her burden, day after day, year 
after year. A rare sacrifice was de- 
manded of her by God, if her guides 
(re trust- 
jr thy . 
The paren- 
tal home, 
mere hu- 
man love 
of every 
sort, she 
must re- 
nounce, if 
Michael, 
Catha- 
rine an d 
M a r g aret 
spake true. 
Should she 
doubt? To 
prove her 
confidence 
in them 
and in their 
word, she 
made a vow 
of virgin- 
ity. Come 
what may, 
h e n c efor- 
ward she is 
the Lord's. 
When, 
after three 
years of 
compan- 
ionship 
with the 
A rchangel 
and with 

Saints Catharine and Margaret, Jeanne 
first presented herself to Robert de Beau- 
dricourt, at Vaucouleurs, it was not to 
please herself, or to satisfy an idle 
fancy. She would not have dared to take 
a step so unbecoming to a modest girl, 
were it not that the directing Archangel, 



and her guiding Saints as well, had 
insisted, saying : ' You must seek out 
Robert de Beaudricourt, and have him 
give you an armed escort to bring you 
to the dauphin ; him you shall crown 
King at Rheims, and drive the foreigner 
from the kingdom. " To St. Michael, to 

SS. Catha- 
rine and 
M argaret, 
Jeanne put 
a most 
natural 
qu estion. 
" How, " 
she asked, 
"shall I, 
who am 
onlya peas- 
ant girl, 
give orders 
to m e n - 
at arms? " 
Whereupon 
A r changel 
and Saints 
responded : 
"Child of 
God, great- 
hearted 
child, you 
needs must 
go ; God 
will aid 
you." 

Dismissed 
by de Beau- 
dricourt as 
one bereft 
of reason, 
Jeanne was 
not d is - 
couraged. 
She re- 
turned home. Her parents were un- 
aware of her venturesome journey. She 
had left them to visit a cousin. As 
of old, she worked in the house and 
in the field; but the Saints were not 
silent. Indeed they commanded her 
anew to go forth and free the city of 




THE HOLY MARCH TO ORLEANS. 



328 



JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 



Orleans from the enemy. No longer 
could she resist. In the early part of 
January, 1429, once more she set forth, 
without saying a word to father or 
mother. Durant Laxart, who still had 
faith in her, accompanied her to Vau- 
couleurs. There de Beaudricourt was as 
obstinate as ever. The girl's claims 
were not lessened by time. " No one in 
the world, " said she, " neither the king, 
nor the duke, nor the daughter of the 
King of Scotland, nor any one else, can 
recover the kingdom of France; from me 
atone shall it have aid, although I had 
rather spin alongside of my poor mother; 
for such is not my condition in life But 
I must go and do that ; for so my Lord 
wishes. ' ' Then once again they asked : 
' ' Who is your Lord ? ' ' and she gave the 
same answer : " He is God. " 

The people of Vaucouleurs saw Jeanne 
and heard her words ; and they believed 
in her. They noted her modesty, her 
piety, her sincerity. The soldiers trusted 
her ; they had faith in her mission. Peo- 
ple and soldiers united to provide for 
her journey to the king, buying a horse, 
armor and arms. As she was called to 
do a warrior's work, Jeanne determined 
to dress like a man. 

When de Beaudricourt learned the tem- 



per of the people, he consulted the royal 
council ; and at length, on February 23, 
permitted her to set out for Chinon, 
where Charles was playing king ; nay, 
more, he presented her with a sword. 
Long before she reached Chinon the 
name of Jeanne the Maid was known in 
camps, villages, cities. At Orleans they 
had heard of her, and of her promise to 
raise the siege, and a deputation of offi- 
cers had been sent to meet her at Chinon 
and to report whether there was indeed 
reason for hoping. 

* -x- * 

Yes! It was this girl, Jeanne d'Arc, 
pious, charitable, gallant maid, that we 
saw amid smoke and flames in the mar- 
ket place at Rouen. Her heart it was 
that, red, firm, unburned, was flung, 
with the ashes of her bones, into the 
river Seine. Did she receive no mission 
from her Lord ? Were Michael and Cath- 
erine and Margaret creatures of her im- 
agination ? Did some one else, some 
king or duke, save Orleans ? Was her 
story, that she was chosen to crown the 
dauphin at Rheims, the fiction of a mad- 
dened brain ? We shall see. Thus far 
we know her only as "a child of God, a 
great-hearted child. ' ' Surely ' ' God will 
aid her " at Chinon and elsewhere. 



(To be continued.) 



JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 

By Rev. E. Cornut, SJ. 



QREAT WORKS are not the product 
of chance circumstances ; they need 
a deep soil to take root in, and an 
atmosphere suitable for their develop- 
ment. Such was the case with the 
national vow of Montmartre, whose 
twenty-fifth anniversary was celebrated 
on January 17, of this year. Few mon- 
uments have a more eloquent history. 
Every one of its stones is literally a cry 
of anguish, of faith and hope, evoked 
by penitence and love. 

In one of His apparitions to Blessed 



Margaret Mary, our Lord expressed His 
will that France should be officially con- 
secrated to His Sacred Heart. Louis 

XIV. in his glory neglected this demand, 
or, perhaps, he never knew it ; Louis 

XV. was unworthy to hear it ; Louis 

XVI. and Marie Antoinette, in their 
prison of the Temple, accomplished it 
as far as it was permitted them. Then 
many years rolled by handing down this 
precious heritage. 

The association of the Apostleship of 
Prayer and the MESSENGER OF THE 




JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 



329 



SACRED HEART revived this tradition, 
rendered it popular and enkindled in 
pious souls an intense desire to see it 
at length realized. The evils that befell 
France in 1870-71 providentially pro- 
vided the occasion. 

In August, 1870, after the first reverses 
of the French, the MESSENGER published 
an article written in 1823 by Father 
Louis de Bussy, S.J., in which he pointed 
out the Sacred Heart as the only salva- 
tion for France. 

Unforeseen and terriHe disasters oc- 
curred. In the beginning of September, 
1870, Father Ramiere, S.J., wrote two 
articles in which he urgently appealed 
to the repentance and the devotion of 
France, and proposed to her a national 
act of expiation for the past, and of con- 
secration to the Sacred Heart for the 
future. At the same time he scattered 
broadcast a leaflet with the title : The 
Heart of Jesus the only salvation for 
France. 

This appeal found a responsive echo. 
On October 17, Father de Boylesve, S.J., 
in an important sermon, preached in 
the convent in Paris, known as Les 
Oiseaux, gave definiteness to the idea of 
Father Ramiere by calling for an expia- 
tory church in honor of the Sacred 
Heart. The very next day he com- 
posed and distributed 330,000 copies of 
a leaflet recalling the desires and the 
promises of our Lord. In his inten- 
tion, France, repentant and confident, 
was to erect this monument at Paray- 
le-Monial. 

About the same time, or shortly after, 
M. Legentil and M. Beluze, men of faith 
and action then exiled to Poitiers by 
the turn in public affairs with M. Ro- 
hault de Fleury and some other friends, 
conceived the idea of proposing to the 
Parisians to make a vow to the Blessed 
Virgin, or to the Sacred Heart, to save 
Paris, in imitation of the Lyonnese who 
had promised to rebuild the Church of 
Notre Dame de Fourviere, if their city 
were spared. The leaflet of Father de 
Boylesve decided them in favor of the 



Sacred Heart, and M. Baudon agreed 
with them on January 6, 1871. 

Father de Boylesve had put M. Legen- 
til in communication with Father Ra- 
miere, who had for some time been 
engrossed in spreading the formula of a 
vow to the Sacred Heart, which was both 
patriotic and Catholic, since it had for 
objects the deliverance of the Sovereign 
Pontiff and the salvation of France. 
These two causes were, in his eyes, in- 
separable ; nevertheless, he promised M. 
Legentil his assistance, and the publicity 
of the MESSENGER, of which he was the 
founder and editor. He made, however, 
a condition that the project so far only 
local and particular, inasmuch as it was 
question of an appeal to the Parisians for 
the deliverance of Paris, should be 
enlarged by taking in Rome aid France. 
After the siege of the capital, the name 
of Paris disappeared. 

M. Legentil at first resisted ; he feared 
that this general proposition would fail 
to influence those whose hearts were so 
preoccupied by their own sufferings. 
He yielded, however, and gradually 
adopted almost literally the ideas and 
the formula which Father Ramiere had 
already been propagating for a month 
and a half. The vow to erect a church 
to the Sacred Heart in the spirit of 
expiation and consecration became truly 
national and Catholic. These are pre- 
cisely the characteristics which Cardinal 
Richard praises and brings out in the 
beautiful letter written by him on the 
occasion of this first jubilee. 

Having come to an agreement, Father 
Ramiere and M. Legentil set to work, 
each in his own line and sphere. The 
Apostleship of Prayer, with its universal 
organization, its far-reaching circulation 
of the MESSENGER, and wisely directed 
activity of its Promoters, was, from the 
beginning, and always, according to the 
expression of M. Legentil, " an all-pow- 
erful lever. ' ' It was, in fact, in this at- 
mosphere of piety and devotedness that 
the successive appeals were best under- 
stood. 



330 



JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 



A lay committee was formed to organ- 
ize the undertaking, start the subscrip- 
tions, and superintend the works. An 
admirable, religious man, M. Leon Cor- 
nudet, was elected president. 

Mgr. Darboy was not favorable to the 
project ; his successor, Mgr. Guibert, at 
first tempered his sympathy with a pru- 
dent reserve ; but soon gave his full ap- 
probation and all his devotion to the 
cause. The National Vow became his 
work of predilection. At the request of 
Very Rev. Father Jandel, General of the 
Dominicans, Pius IX. blessed the work, 
and subscribed 20,000 francs. The 
Bishops of France followed his exam- 
ple. Finally, on July 24, 1873, the Na- 
tional Assembly, after a serious discus- 
sion, declared that the project was for 
the public benefit, and conferred on the 
Archhbishop of Paris ample powers to 
carry out the undertaking. 

Where should they build ? They first 
thought of the site of the Court of the 
Exchequer, and of that of Finance, 
burned by the Commune ; they were sit- 
uated on the bank of the Seine and easi- 
ly approached. The heights of the Troca, 
dero offered also great advantages. How- 
ever, Montmartre was chosen because 
of its elevation above Paris, and the 
abundance of its historical and religious 
memories. 

In the brilliant contest which was 
opened to artists, the plan of M. Aba- 
die, the able restorer of the Cathedral 
of Perigueux, the Byzantine Church of 
St. Front, was preferred. The summit 
of a hill did net afford sufficient space 
for the long nave of a Gothic edifice. 
Apart from other technical difficulties 
this style would have lost its most ad- 
vantageous points. 

Once the work was begun, difficulties 
were not wanting. It was soon perceived 
that the mountain was too friable to offer 
solid base for so heavy a construction . 
After reflection and prayer, however, 
Mgr, Guibert persisted in his choice; but 
it was necessary to dig 83 wells, 33 
metres deep, fill them with masonry and 



bind them together with arches. This 
entailed an unforeseen expense of four 
million francs. Then came successively 
the deaths of M. Cornudet, president of 
the committee ; of M. Abadie, the archi- 
tect and director of the works ; of M. Leg- 
entil, one of the chief promoters, and 
finally of Cardinal Guibert, the great pro- 
tector of the nascent basilica. Happily 
he bequeathed to his pious and beloved 
coadjutor and successor his prudent and 
devoted zeal. 

In another line, other attacks and -an- 
noyances befell the undertaking. In 
1880, the partisans of free thought at- 
tempted to repeal the legislative act of 
1873; but the proposition of Delattregave 
way before the firm reasoning and author- 
ity of Mgr. Guibert. In fact, in spite of 
everything, there never was a single 
stoppage or even a sensible slacking of 
the work. Funds kept coming in when 
needed with a regularity that smacked 
of the marvellous. 

How were the 30,000,000 francs al- 
ready spent, collected ? Providence, in 
great part, holds the secret ; many givers 
concealed their names. One day, the 
Duchess de Galliera proposed to the Car- 
dinal to build at her sole expense the 
edifice, then scarcely begun ; this was 
an offering of 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 
francs; Mgr. Guibert refused to accept 
the condition which would have taken 
away from the votive basilica its na- 
tional character and all its meaning of 
penitence and devotion. 

There is nothing more touching than 
the long lists of subscribers published 
every fortnight in the Bidletin of the 
work. Paul Feval used to read them 
with rapt admiration, reading beneath 
the naive names the heroic piety of the 
givers. Truly we can truly see in them 
faith, generosity, humility, love. Large 
offerings are not wanting ; but moderate 
ones predominate and makeup the bulk. 
How many hidden sacrifices and heroic 
privations are represented by most of 
these innumerable blocks of stone! If 
they brave the ravages of time and 




JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 



331 



weather, the love of which they are the 
expression, should, we would think, 
draw down rich graces from heaven. 

Many touching and ingenious methods 
have been successively invented to 
stimulate, foster, and reward the gener- 
osity of subscribers. Thus families, 
communities, colleges, religious orders, 
parishes, dioceses, corporations have 
combined to offer a stone, a pillar, a 
column, a chapel, according to their 
means. Nearly 4,000,000, French peo- 
ple have brought their offerings. It 
is really with hearts, we may say, that 
the immense walls have been built ; from 
all these stones gleams the soul of the 
true France. 

The chapels of the upper church and 
of the crypt are dedicated to the heavenly 
protectors of France : Our Lady, St. 
Michael, St. Joseph, St. Martin, St. 
Remy, St. Louis, St. Genevieve, St. 
Radegunde, B. Margaret Mary Alacoque. 
The principal religious orders are repre- 
sented by their founders : St. Benedict, 
St. Bernard, St. Bruno, St. Francis of 
Assisi, St. Dominic, St. Ignatius, St. 
Vincent de Paul, St. Teresa, all have 
their special chapel. 

Many of the professions and depart- 
ments of state have their chapel, for 
instance : the magistracy, the army, 
navy, medicine, the priesthood, writers, 
the arts, agriculture, commerce, trades. 
There are the pillars of music, poetry, 
of the sick, orphans, widows, the be- 
trothed. 

The four pillars which support the 
dome, and which cost 100,000 francs 
each, are due to the liberality of the 
College Stanislas, the students of the 
Jesuits, the newspaper Pelerin, and the 
Children of Mary. 

As regards the symbolism and artistic 
value of the monument, we must wait 
until the work is finished before we can 
fully appreciate it. Some visitors are 
premature in their strictures. When 
the basilica shall spread out on the 
transformed mountain, and shall crown 
it with its massive white structure, its 



marvellous crypt, its great cupola like a 
gigantic tiara, its lofty tower whence the 
Savoyarde will sound its urgent appeals 
over Paris, its gaping porch which seems 
to await pilgrims, its immense nave, 
from whose end the ostensorium will 
gleam, while the Sacred Heart will 
stretch out its arms to embrace the 
human race, its innumerable glittering 
chapels, its mosaics and its statues; the 
effect will be truly original and majestic. 
We shall feel that we are entering a 
sanctuary of penitence and devotion; 
and this unique monument, in contrast 
with all that exists in the enormous 
capital spread out at its feet, will appear 
worthy of France and of Christ, recall- 
ing in an imposing unity the patriotic 
and religious anguish in the midst of 
which its solid foundations fwere laid 
and the bright hopes for France and the 
Church, which the Sacred Heart has 
promised to realize in favor of the nation 
which has thus consecrated herself 
publicly to His honor and His service. 
Between the guilty earth and the infinite 
mercy of divine love, there will be 
henceforth one bond the more, the 
basilica of the National Vow, raising up 
above the crowd, its noise and its crimes, 
the motto of expiation and of consecra- 
tion : Christo Ejusque Sacratissimo Cordi 
Gallia Pcenitens et Devota. 
* * -si- 
Father Corn ut in the preceding article, 
which appeared inFrench in theEtudesfor 
January, has pointed out briefly the part 
which the Apostleship of Prayer and the 
French Messenger played in the National 
Vow of France. We have a right, then, to 
look upon the Basilica of the Sacred 
Heart on Montmartre as due in great 
measure to the League. A few points 
may throw stronger light on the subject. 
We, therefore, give in full the protesta- 
tion of Father Ramiere proposed to the 
Catholics of France in December, 1870. 

"At the moment when, in Christian 
Europe, brute force is, with impunity, 
crushing the most sacred rights ; 

" At the moment when the patrimon}' 



332 



JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 



given to the Church by the early Kings 
of France is sacrilegiously invaded, when 
the Capital of Christendom is taken by 
force ; when the Head of the Church is 
deprived of the freedom indispensable to 
fulfil his office, and when the liberty of 
all the Catholics of the universe is affected 
by the loss of the independence of their 
Supreme Pastor ; 

"At the moment, finally, when con- 
trary to the will of France, very clearly 
expressed many times by its represen- 
tatives, the Charge d' affaires of the Re- 
public has thought himself authorized 
to congratulate the government which 
has triumphed over the august weakness 
of the Vicar of Jesus Christ, and the re- 
sistance of his faithful subjects ; 

1 ' French Catholics can wait no longer 
to join their voices to that of all the 
other Catholic nations in the universe, 
and to manifest openly, in the face of 
heaven and earth, the profound indigna- 
tion which fills them at the sight of these 
outrages. 

"WE PROTEST, then, in the name of 
justice outraged in its holy personifica- 
tion ; in the name of right the most 
legitimate in its origin, the most vener- 
able in its antiquity, the best justified by 
its benefits, the most authentically sanc- 
tioned by the pledges of governments and 
the suffrages of peoples. 

" WE PROTEST in the name of France, 
our unhappy country, which, a victim 
of violence, would no longer have the 
right to appeal to the judgment of the 
world and of posterity, if she connived 
at a violence more gratuitous and more 
sacrilegious than that which she herself 
is suffering. 

" WE PROTEST in the name of the peace 
of Europe, which has no longer any 
guarantee, from the moment when, with- 
out provocation, without motive, with- 
out any pretext, a state is authorized to 
take advantage of its superior power to 
invade another state. 

"WE PROTEST in the name of Christian 
civilization, which makes way for bar- 
barism, so soon as the right of might 



substitutes itself without resistance for 
the might of right. 

" WE PROTEST finally, in the name of 
liberty of conscience, which is a thousand 
times dearer to us than life. We declare 
that we are resolved to use every lawful 
means in our power to obtain the full 
independence of the supreme guide of 
our souls. We do not wish that the 
word of God should be fettered ; that the 
mouth charged to make known to us the 
thoughts of Jesus Christ should be 
exposed to be gagged by any human 
power. Rome, adorned with its monu- 
ments erected by the papacy with the 
offerings of all Christendom, is the prop- 
erty of all Catholics, and we demand its 
restitution. We openly demand it of 
its unjust invaders ; we earnestly ini- 
plere it of the infinitely just God; and 
in virtue of the part of sovereignty which 
the existing form of the Government of 
France confers upon us, we demand it as 
well of those who recognize themselves 
as our proxies. 

' 'And, in order to repair the outrages 
done to St. Peter in the person of his suc- 
cessor, in order to obtain, through the 
merciful intervention of the Heart of 
Jesus, the pardon of our crimes and the 
extraordinary helps which alone can de- 
liver Rome from its captivity, and cause 
the misfortunes of France to cease, WE 
PROMISE when these two graces shall 
have been granted, to contribute, accord- 
ing to our means, to the erection of a 
church consecrated to the Heart of Jesus, 
under the invocation of the Prince of the 
Apostles. " 

With this protestation Father Ramiere 
sent an explanation of the intention of 
the Vow he proposed, and an appeal to 
the Associates of the Apostleship to 
assure by their energetic co-operation the 
success of his peaceful but salutary 
crusade. 

The Messenger was the first to tell its 
message in all the dioceses of France and 
even in foreign countries. The vow as 
conceived by Father Ramiere, was na- 
tional in so far as it affected the deliver- 






JUBILEE OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL VOW. 



333 



atice of France, but it was Catholic, that 
is, universal, in that it had for end the 
freeing of the Papacy from its unjust 
aggressors. For nearly three years the 
organ of the Apostleship might be said 
to have adopted the cause of the National 
Vow, until the latter founded its own 
Bulletin; even then the Messenger still 
continued to stimulate the zeal of its 
innumerable readers in carrying on the 
great work at Montmartre. As soon as 
the provisional chapel was erected, it was 
at once affiliated by diploma to the Apos- 
tleship of Prayer. To hasten the accom- 
plishment of the Vow, the Messenger 
proposed to all the Associates the denier 
du Vo3U National, and the League Coun- 
cils organized collectors in sets of tens, 
who collected abundant alms. A year 
later the Bulletin of the National Vow 
thus testified to the work of the League. 
" At this time, the Apostleship of Prayer 
is our all-powerful lever. Some day we 
shall treat of the origin and extension of 
this admirable work which occupies the 
first rank in the army of the Sacred 
Heart, and has contributed in the broad- 
est and most effectual way to extend this 
devotion. It has adopted with an abso- 
lute devotedness the idea of the National 
Vow. ' ' 

In 1877 tne Holy League of the Nation- 
al Vow to the Sacred Heart was founded 
by M. Rohault de Fkury and approved 
by the Pope. Its founder at once asked 
Father Ramiere to aggregate it to the 
Apostleship, which he readily granted. 



He did more, for the General Intention 
for the following July, was ' ' TJie Suc- 
cess of the National Vow." No wonder 
the Bulletin could say : ' ' We rejoice to be 
sustained and seconded by the Associa- 
tion of the Apostleship of Prayer, the 
magnificent work, whose success is one 
of the greatest marvels of our times. We 
thank the Messenger of the Sacred Heart 
for the news it gives every month of the 
work of the National Vow. Our solemn 
prayers for each day of the month include 
always both the General Intention and 
the Particular Intentions proposed to 
the Associates of the Apostleship." 

We think that our readers will now 
appreciate the share which Father Ra- 
miere, the Apostleship of Prayer and the 
Messenger have had in erecting this 
magnificent monument of expiation and 
consecration to the Sacred Heart at Mont- 
martre. But the views of Father Ra- 
miere were not limited by the horizon of 
France, and he wrote: "Our desires would 
be still more completely fulfilled if we 
could bring to pass that every nation 
should have, like France, its monument 
of repentance and hope, and if, by the 
united efforts and offerings of the serv- 
ants of the Sacred Heart throughout 
the world, there should rise in Rome, 
that capital of Christendom, a splendid 
sanctuary, whose construction should 
express to the divine Heart our confi- 
dence, and whose completion should 
mark for the centuries to come the hour 
of His complete triumph ! " 




THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 

By Rev. H. Van Rensselaer, SJ. 



4 1 \A /B ought to glory in the Cross 
W of our Lord Jesus Christ, in 
whom is our salvation, life and resurrec- 
tion, by whom we have been saved and 
delivered." So sings the Church in the 
introit of the Mass for Maundy Thurs- 
day, quoting the Apostle of the Gentiles 
in his epistle to the Galatians. Again 
she uses these words on the feast of the 
Finding of the Holy Cross, May 3, as 
well as on September 14, when she 
celebrates the Exaltation of the Holy 
Cross But still more strikingly than 
by the celebration of these two feasts, 
does she bid us honor the symbol of our 
salvation on Good Friday, in the most 
affecting ceremony of the veneration of 
the cross. 

On the eve of Passion Sunday all 
crucifixes are veiled in violet. On 
Maundy Thursday the purple is ex- 
changed for white in honor of the 
Blessed Sacrament, but it in turn gives 
way to black on Good Friday. On that 
day of days the crucifix stands draped 
in mourning over the empty tabernacle 
on the high-altar until the Passion has 
been solemnly chanted, and the priest 
has sung those most touching prayers 
for all sorts and conditions of men. 
Then the celebrant lays aside the chasu- 
ble, and, going to the epistle side of 
the altar, receives from the deacon the 
cross in its mournful drapery. He turns 
the crucifix towards the people, uncover- 
ing at the same time a little of the upper 
part, and sings: "Behold the wood of 
the cross, on which hung the Salvation 
of the world," the sacred ministers 
assisting in the singing. The choir 
answers : " Come, let us adore, " and all 
humbly kneel. Then the celebrant 
advances up the steps of the altar, un- 
covers the right arm of the cross, ele- 
vates it, and, taking a higher tone, again 

334 



intones the Ecce lignum Crucis, and 
again the people answer and genuflect. 
The priest next goes to the centre of the 
altar, lays bare the cross, lifts it aloft, 
and in a still higher key sings the same 
words, and the faithful respond and 
kneel as before. The celebrant then on 
bended knee lays the cross on a violet 
cushion at the foot of the altar. After 
this he retires to the bench, takes off his 
shoes, and then advances to adore the 
cross kneeling three times on both knees 
before he kisses the crucifix. Then fol- 
lows the adoration of the cross by all 
present, first by the clergy and then by 
the laity, all approaching with the triple 
genuflection. 

While this very impressive ceremony 
is taking place, the chanters sing those 
most touching complaints drawn from 
Holy Scripture called The Reproaches, 
in which our Lord upbraids the Jews 
with ingratitude for the manifold bless- 
ings He had conferred on them. " O my 
people, what have I done to thee ? Or 
in what have I grieved thee ? Answer 
me." Then comes a recalling to their 
minds of the various deliverances and 
favors He had bestowed on them. After 
each one the choir answers first in Greek 
and then in Latin : ' ' O Holy God, O 
Holy Mighty One, O Holy Immortal 
One, have mercy on us." 

The retention of the Agios o Theos, 
Agios Ischyros, Agios Athanatos, eleison 
imas, like that of the Kyrie and Christ e 
eleison in the Mass and litanies, reminds 
us of the fact that the language of the 
Church, now Latin, was once Greek, and 
shows her identity through the centuries 
from the time when the sacred writings 
of the New Testament were all in Greek. 

Next is sung the anthem : ' ' We adore 
Thy Cross, O Lord, and we praise and 
glorify Thy holy resurrection, for behold 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



335 



irough the wood of the cross joy hath the cross in that masterpiece of liturgi- 
>me upon the whole world. " The first cal service which the Church directs her 
/erse of Psalm LXVI follows : " May children to perform in honor of the Pas- 
God have mercy on us and bless us ; sion of Christ. 

may he cause the light of his counte- It is hardly necessary for us to tell our 
nance to shine upon us, and may he have readers that when we prostrate ourselves 
mercy on us;" and the anthem is re- to venerate the Cross on Good Friday, 
peated. and, indeed, whenever, or wherever, we 

show this extraordinary honor 
to the crucifix, the adoration, 
exteriorly given to the repre- 
sentation, interiorly goes to the 
only one to whom it is due, 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Only 
those who are ignorant of our 
religion could imagine that we 



Then comes the versicle : 

" O faithful Cross ! O noblest Tree ! 
In all our woods there's none like thee ! 
No earthly groves, no shady bowers 
Produce such leaves, such fruit, such 

flowers. 

Sweet are the nails and sweet the wood 
That bears a weight so sweet, so good." 



The first four lines of this are 




repeated as a chorus after each verse 
of the hymn Pange lingua gloriosa 
lauream certaminis : "Sing, O my 
tongue, devoutly sing, the glorious 
laurels of our King. 
With this ends the veneration of 



terminate our act of worship in a 
bit of wood, metal, or stone. Every 
Catholic knows the difference be- 
tween praying before a crucifix, and 
praying to a crucifix, between wor- 
shipping Christ with divine wor- 



Crucifixion as conceived by M. Renault de Fleury, showing the portions of the Cross above and under 
ground, footrest, title, and height at which the crucified hung. 



336 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



ship and honoring with an inferior 
worship any representation of Him, so 
that if the word worship or adore could 
be taken only in the strict sense of 
divine worship or adoration, as non- 
Catholics insist, contrary to common 
usage, upon understanding it, it could 
never be used except of an act directly 
relating to our Lord, or the other persons 
of the Blessed Trinity. 

We have dwelt purposely long upon 



surprised that the heretical leaders of the 
sixteenth and later centuries should reject 
the relics of the Cross, as well as its very 
sign, since they also rejected the sacrifice 
of the Mass and the sacraments as under- 
stood by the Catholic Church, and, by 
denying the real presence of Christ in 
the Blessed Sacrament, they relegated 
Him from earth to heaven and wished to 
have no sensible reminders of His death. 
Hence the horror which Protestants of the 




CHRIST CARRYING THE CROSS. Design of M. Renault de Fleury. 
A 1 . Side view of footrest. A 2. Cross-section of footrest. 



the part which the cross plays in the lit- 
urgy of the Church, though we have not 
touched upon the constant use of the 
holy sign in the sacrifice of the Mass, in 
the administering of all the sacraments, 
in every blessing, and, in fact, we might 
say, at the beginning and end of all her 
actions. All this will help us to under- 
stand the value that the Church sets 
upon the relics of the true Cross. 

On the other hand, we should not be 



old school feel at the sight of the paint- 
ing of the crucifixion or the crucifix. It 
was too awful, they thought, for repre- 
sentation, and too unpleasant to look 
upon. The Lutherans are an exception, 
as they retained the crucifix in their 
churches. All the other sects repudiated 
even the use of the bare cross. They 
were right from their standpoint, espe- 
cially in England. The altar gave way to 
a four-legged table ; the symbol of Christ 




THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



337 



ie king on His throne of the Cross was 
replaced by the royal coat-of-arms of the 
temporal sovereign, who had usurped the 
place of the Vicar of Christ in the spirit- 
ual government of England. 

The late revival of the use of the cross 
by Protestants comes either from a return 
movement towards the old faith, or from 
a spirit of indifference that adopts it be- 
cause it lends itself well to decorative 
art. 

What was the form of the Cross ? We 
are accustomed to consider it as being 
what is known as the Latin cross, crux 
immissa or capitata, which has its hori- 
zontal beam at two-thirds of its height, 
t. In this it differs from the Greek, 
whose cross-beam divides the height, f . 
The crux decussata is what is commonly 



Fathers; Socrates, Theodoret, Eusebius, 
Innocent III., Justus Lipsius and Gretser 
support this opinion. 

From a practical point of view this 
latter would be preferable, because the 
cross would be simpler and stronger. A 
single pin or peg would hold it together, 
and the part rising above the cross-beam 
would serve to hold the title. When St. 
Peter was crucified head downward an 
ordinary cross was used, and it must 
have had a projecting head piece, which, 
in this case, was sunk into the ground. 
As the case stands, there does not seem 
to be any cogent reason to abandon the 
form so sanctioned by the use of the 
Church 

Besides the perpendicular and horizon- 
tal beams there was, in all probability, a 







TITLE OF THE CROSS AS RESTORED TO ONE-FOURTH SIZE. 
By M. Rohault de Fleury. 



called St. Andrew's cross, and is an X- 
The crux furca is like a Y- The crux 
commissa is in the form of a T. The 
question seems to lie between the first 
and the last mentioned, and there are 
grave authorities for both, but the strong- 
est arguments seem to favor the one so 
familiar to us all. Tertullian, St. Jerome, 
St. Paulinus, Sozomen and Rufinus 
would appear to consider the tau or T as 
the correct shape. The eminent archae- 
ologist Father Raphael Garucci, S.J., and 
the translator into French of his works, 
Mgr. Van den Berg, gave their verdict 
for this, and Dom Calmet seems to agree 
with them. 

Those who maintain the form of the 
Latin Cross are St. Justin Martyr, St. 
Irenaeus, and St. Augustine among the 



piece of wood attached to the Cross as a 
support for the feet, as the weight of the 
body is too great for the hands to bear. 

The traditional measures of the Cross 
are fifteen feet for the vertical post and 
seven to eight feet for the beam forming 
the arms ; in scriptural cubits they would 
be ten by five. If we apply these to the 
details of the Cross, we shall have two 
cubits under ground, one cubit from 
the ground to the footrest, five cubits 
from this latter to the cross-beam, and 
from that to the summit two cubits. It 
will be seen from this that the body of 
the crucified was not raised up high 
above the earth. There are many rea- 
sons for this supposition. The pagan 
Latin authors speak of dogs, lions, and 
bears tearing out the entrails of the vie- 



338 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 




THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



339 



tims ; and of slaves being able to mount 
the gibbet with a running jump. An- 
other argument comes from the difficulty 
of raising a cross with the body attached, 
and the higher the position of the body 
the greater would be the difficulty, as the 
centre of gravity would be proportion- 
ally raised. That, of course, is on the 
theory that the body was fastened to the 
Cross before its elevation. Moreover, 
had the crosses been high, a foot-soldier 
could not easily have broken the legs of 
the thieves, nor have pierced the side of 
the Lord. 

It has been estimated that the weight 
of the Cross was about one hundred kil- 
ogrammes, or more than two hundred 
pounds avoirdupois, of which three- 
quarters would bear upon our Lord's 
shoulders and the remaining quarter rest 
upon the ground, as He dragged it after 
Him. On the supposition of this weight, 
and taking the density of the Scotch 
pine as being an example of medium 
density, the total volume of the wood 
of the Cross might be one hundred and 
seventy-eight millions of cube millime- 
tres. This is important to note, for Cal- 
vin attacks the authenticity of the relics 
of the true Cross on the ground of their 
absurd quantity, whereas, in fact, the 
total volume of all the known relics only 
amounts to 3,941,975 cubic millimetres, 
leaving 175,000,000 unaccounted for. 

One should think that it would be an 
easy matter to decide what was the wood 
of which the Cross was made. Yet it is 
still much disputed. The Venerable Bede 
held that the Cross was composed of four 
different woods ; the inscription on box, 
the top on which it was fastened of pine, 
the cross-beam of cedar and the post of 
cypress. Durandus substitutes the palm 
and olive for the box and cypress. Other 
authors suggest different woods, but the 
idea of a composite cross seems to be 
only the pious fancy of contemplatives, 
who wished the different trees to have a 
share in the honor of having borne the 
' ' sweet weight ' ' of the Redeemer of the 
world ; or attached mystical meanings to 



the various woods ; or applied vague 
Scripture texts as proofs. In all proba- 
bility, then, the Cross was of one wood 
only, as the executioners would naturally 
employ the simplest means. Some in- 
cline to think it was oak because it is com- 
mon in Judea, and is strong and adapted 
to the purpose. Others claim it to be 
cedar, but this was a precious wood not 
likely to be so used. The best opinion is 
that it was a conifer belonging to the 
pine family. These trees were commonly 
employed, and a microscopic examina- 
tion of portions of the Cross coming from 
the relics kept at Santa Croce in Geru- 
salemme, Rome, and in the Cathedrals 
of Pisa, Florence and Paris, show that 
they were pine. 

Let us now turn to the finding of the 
Cross. For three centuries dt lay hid 
with the other relics of the Sacred Pas- 
sion. This was providential, for had 
they been discovered sooner, they would 
have been objects of derision, and would 
certainly have been destroyed. It was 
left to the Emperor Constantine, vic- 
torious through the cross, to seek and to 
find them. He erected in various parts 
of his empire magnificent churches, and 
thought to add to their splendor by 
enriching them with fragments of the 
instruments of the Passion. Rightly 
enough, he judged that they might be 
found in the holy places, and charged 
his mother, St. Helena, with the pious 
commission of finding and procuring 
them, cost what it might. 

St. Cyril of Jerusalem (350 to 386) 
wrote to Constantius, son of Constan- 
tine : ' ' Divine grace made known the 
spot in the holy places, to him who 
sought it in the piety of his heart. ' ' 

St. Ambrose, in his panegyric of 
Theodosius, says : " Helena, then, came 
and began to examine the holy places ; 
the Holy Ghost inspired her to search 
for the wood of the true Cross ; she 
reached Calvary, and said : ' ' Here is 
the spot of the combat, where is the vic- 
tory ? I seek the standard of salvation 
and I find it not. Am I on the throne, 



340 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 




TERRA COTTA BRICK (ONE-HALF SIZE) COVERING THE NICHE IN WHICH THE RELIC OF THE TITLE 
WAS KEPT AT SANTA CROCE-IN-GERUSALEMME, ROME. 



and is the Cross of the Lord in the dust ? 
Am I in gilded palaces, and is the 
triumph of Christ among ruins ? Is it 
still hidden ? Is the palm of eternal 
life concealed? How shall I believe 
myself redeemed, if I see not redemption 
itself?" 

Unconsciously, the pagan Emperor 
Hadrian had preserved the identity of 
the spot where the Cross had stood, by 
erecting over it a temple of Venus, in- 
tending thus to stamp out the remem- 
brance and devotion of Christians for so 
sacred a place. 

This impious fane Helena demolished 
and ordered excavations all around its 
site, for it was the custom to bury near 
by the place of their death the bodies of 
the criminals and the implements used 
in their execution. 

The work of the Empress was success- 
ful and the three crosses were unearthed. 
But how was that of Christ to be dis- 
cerned from those of the thieves ? St. 
Ambrose says the title served to identify 
it. But the common tradition, sup- 
ported by the institution of the feast of 
the Finding of the Holy Cross, attributes 
the identification to a miracle wrought 



on the spot in the immediate restoration 
to full health of a woman, either half, 
or, according to some, wholly dead. 
This is held by Rufinus, born in 340 ; 
St. Macarius, then Bishop of Jerusalem ; 
St. Paulinus of Nola ; Sozomen, and St. 
Theophanus, and with them the Bol- 
landists agree. 

Those who would deny the identity of 
the Cross, because of the seeming im- 
possibility of wood having been pre- 
served under ground for three centuries, 
can be refuted by pointing out to them 
the fact of wood found in Herculaneum 
and Pompeii after some two thousand 
years. This is confirmed by discoveries 
of timbers used in constructions in the 
mines of Campiglia, and in the ancient 
aqueduct and port of Carthage, antedat- 
ing the Christian era, and which learned 
men declare to be the same kind of wood 
as that of the Cross. 

A strong proof of the authenticity of 
the Cross found by St. Helena, is held in 
the immediate use of fragments of it 
Constantine placed a piece of it in his 
statue at Constantinople to protect the 
city. St. Chrysostom records that those 
who were fortunate enough to have por- 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



341 



tions enclosed them in rich reliquaries, 
which they wore on a chain around the 
neck. 

St. Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, sent a 
very small particle as a present, and 
Juvenal, Patriarch of Jerusalem, had 
another taken with authentications to 
Pope St. Leo I. 

Long after this period the relics were 
eagerly sought after, and carried from 
Jerusalem to various cities ; and, espe- 
cially, by the Crusaders. Queen Rade- 
gunde presented to a convent at Poitiers 
a fragment which she had received from 
the Emperor, Justin II. In 569 Queen 
Theodelinde had a similar gift. 

St. Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, writing 
only twenty years after the finding of 
the Cross, said : " If I deny the Passion 
of Christ, Golgotha, which is close to 
me, will give me the lie, as also will the 
wood of the Cross, which, divided into 
small portions, has gone forth from, this 
city to be distributed throughout the 
world " 

We can readily understand the wild 
diffusion of these relics, when we con- 
sider the smallness of the pieces given 
to the greatest princes, and the mere 
particles, St. Paulinus calls them atoms, 
presented to various churches. 

As we have already seen, the total 
volume of the wood of the Cross might 
be estimated at 178 millions of cube milli- 
metres. Now each of these millimetres 
could easily be divided into five or six 
appreciable parts, and we could thus 
have some 1,000 millions of particles. A 
skilful preparer of microscopic objects de- 
clared that he could cut off 400 slices 
from every millimetre of wood, and so 
the true Cross might furnish 70,000 
millions of perceptible fragments. 

The learned M. Rohault de Fleury, 
from whose work we have taken our 
illustrations, and a great deal of material, 
has endeavored to trace and descr be all 
the relics of the Cross known to be in 
existence. He has even calculated the 
volume of each one, and states that the 
total would not equal the tenth part of 



the volume of the Cross itself. The 
other nine-tenths not to be found 
would amply suffice to form the myriads 
of relics unknown or destroyed. 

In the 4th and 5th Breviary lessons 
for the feast of the Exaltation of the 
Holy Cross, we have an account of the 
capture of Jerusalem in 614 by Chosroes 
King of Persia, who carried off the true 
Cross as the most valuable trophy, and 
treated it with the greatest honor, not 
even daring to remove it from its case. 
In 628, Heraclius defeated Siroes, son of 
Chosroes, and, as a price of peace, de- 
manded the restoration of the Cross, 
which was restored intact and in the very 
reliquary in which St. Helena had placed 
it. In commemoration of this triumph, 
Heraclius had a medal struck, on one 
side of which was a representation of the 
Cross, and on the other his own likeness. 
He himself bore the precious relic to 
Jerusalem on his shoulders, barefooted 
and in the simple dress of a peasant, 
having in vain endeavored to pass 
through the gate leading to Calvary 
clad in imperial garb. 

After his death in 636, the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre was partly burned 
by the infidels, and, to save the Cross, 
the Christians decided to divide it into 
nineteen parts of which crosses were 
made. They were distributed as follows: 
To Constantinople 3; to the Isle of 
Cyprus 2; to Crete i; to Antioch 3; to 
Edessa i ; to Alexandria i ; to Ascalon i ; 
to Damascus i; to Jerusalem 4; to 
Georgia, 2. This is related in 1109 by 
Anseau, a priest and chanter of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusa- 
lem, in his correspondence with Galon, 
Bishop of Paris. He only mentions the 
dimensions of one of the four deposited 
in Jerusalem, and which was kept in the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre. It was 
a palm and a half long, by an inch broad 
and thick. He does not mention the 
cross-beam, which we can suppose. The 
volume of this cross would be about 
500,000 millimetres, and, taking it as an 
average we would hnve for the nineteen 



342 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



crosses, which represented the original one-third of his rich treasures to the 

piece kept at Jerusalem, 9,500,000 milli- poor of Christendom, and two-thirds to 

metres. the archbishops and bishops of his em- 

With this period began the great dis- pire and kingdom, that they might 

pcrsion of relics, and there is a docu- divide them among all the churches 




1. Cross of Justin I!. St. Peter's, Rome. 

2. Cross of Constantino St. Peter's, Rome. 

3. Relics kept in St. Nicholas Chapel, Vatican 

4, 5, 6. Relics at Jerusalem respectively 57,55 and 
115 millimetres. 



7. Relic at St. Paul's, outside-the-walls, Rome. 
8,9,10. Relics at Santa Croce - in - Gerusalemme, 

Rome. 
All except 4, 5, 6, are natural size. 



ment showing at the beginning of the convents, and hospitals. These execu- 
ninth century the most important cities tors were twenty-one in number repre- 
in which the greatest number of relics senting Italy, Germany, and France. 



would be found. It is the last will 
of Charlemagne, who left at his death 



To enumerate all the extant known 
relics of the Holy Cross would take too 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



34-3 



much space and be tedious. We shall, 
therefore, only mention a few of the most 
remarkable. At present Rome has the 
most notable fragments. The principal 
ones are kept in St. Peter's in the Vati- 
can and in Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, 
the latter 's relic was presented to it by 
St. Helena herself, or better this basilica 
was built as a reliquary for it. Of the 
four at St. Peter's, one is said to be that 
worn by Constantine himself, another 
was sent to Pope John VII., between 560 
.and 574, by the Emperor Justin the 
Younger. Fourteen other Roman 
churches possess portions of the Cross, 
Some fifteen other cities of Italy have 
pieces of this precious wood, Venice, 
Florence and Pisa, being the richest and 
in this order. About forty-five cities 
in France claim to have relics; the 
treasure of Notre-Dame of Paris contains 
one of the largest pieces known. It 
comes down d irectly from St. Louis, who 
Teceived it from the Latin Emperor 
Baldwin in the year 1241. Brussels, 
-Ghent, Limburg, Ragusa in Dalmatia, 
and the convents on Mt. Athos have 
large and important relics. 

As we have already mentioned, M. 
Rohault de Fleury made a table of the 
volumes of the known relics of the Holy 
Cross, the total being 3,941,975 cube 
millimetres. He was enabled to make 
this calculation by information obtained 
through an appeal to all possessors of 
such relics. In most cases he person- 
ally visited, examined, measured and 
drew representations of every piece of 
the sacred wood. Allowing for great 
losses owing to the iconoclastic spirit 
-of the revolutionists of all ages, it is 
evident that no argument against the 
authenticity of these relics can be ad- 
duced from their quantity, since it falls 
vastly short of what the actual volume 
of the Cross might reasonably be sup- 
posed. 

We cannot pass by in silence the title 
of the Cross composed by Pilate himself 
and proclaiming, to the intense chagrin 
of the Jews, the Kingship of Christ. Ac- 



cording to SS. John and Luke, it was 
written in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. 
As is well known, the Evangelists do 
not give precisely the same words, 
though they do agree in Rex Judceorum, 
which, indeed, is all that St. Mark re- 
cords. SS. Matthew and Luke put be- 
fore this Hie est Jesus, while St. John, 
omitting the Hie est, qualifies Jesus by 
Nazarenus. There is no real difficulty 
in this diversity, for the cause of the 
crucifixion, that Christ was "King of 
the Jews," is stated by all. Hie est, 
' ' This is, ' ' are useless words and not 
common in inscriptions. That St. John 
should give Nazarenus is not strange, 
for he was the only Evangelist that was 
an eye-witness, and in confirmation of 
his gospel, almost the only word pre- 
served in the relic of the title in Rome 
is this : Nazarenus. 

The title was probably cut into a thin 
board with a sharp instrument and the 
letters were then colored red. It was 
carried in the procession conducting 
criminals to the place of execution and 
here fastened with nails to the gibbet 
over the head of the victim. 

The dimensions of the relic as restored 
are about 65 x 20 centimetres, or, in an- 
cient measures, a cubit and a half long 
by a half cubit broad. 

It was found, according to tradition, 
by St. Helena, when she discovered the 
true Cross. In all likelihood she divided 
it into three parts ; giving one to the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jeru- 
salem, another to Constantinople, and 
the third to the Church of Santa Croce 
in Gerusalemme, in Rome. Our illus- 
tration represents the last-named. It is 
apparently a thin board 235 millimetres 
long by 130 broad. It has some Latin 
and Greek letters and fragments of what 
must have been the Hebrew or Syro- 
Chaldaic. It was not uncommon to place 
relics in columns, and to this day some 
of the most precious in St. Peter's in the 
Vatican are thus kept. This relic was 
placed in the keystone of the great arch 
of the basilica of Santa Croce. A cen- 



344 



THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 




RELIQUARY OF THE TRUE CROSS (ONE-FOURTH SIZE) CEDED BY THE EMPEROR BALDWIN TO ST. LOUIS 
^ OF FRANCE, AND FORMERLY IN THE SAINTE CHAPELLE, PARIS, BUT LOST IN THE REVOLUTION. 




THE RELICS OF THE HOLY CROSS. 



345 



tury after the death of St. Helena, Pla- 
cidus Valentinian III. ornamented this 
arch with mosaics. Troublous days for 
the Church followed, and the precious 
relic lay securely hidden for ten centur- 
ies. It was not until February i, 1492, 
that it came to light in the following 
manner : 

Cardinal Gonsalvi de Mendoza, whose 
titular church was this very basilica, 
ordered it to be repaired and whitened. 
When the workmen sounded the top 
of the arch they found it to be hollow, 
and discovered a niche in which was a 
leaden box well shut, and concealed by a 
terra cotta brick on which were cut the 
words TITVLVS CRVCIS. 

The fragment of the title enclosed in 
the box has, as we have said, the word 
NAZARINUS RE ... in Latin, HAZ- 
APENOC I in Greek, and the lower 
strokes of the Hebrew characters. The 
letters are written from right to left after 
the Hebrew fashion. Most likely the 
Roman soldier, who prepared the title, 
knowing only Latin, wrote the three 
inscriptions in Latin with Hebrew, Greek 
and Roman characters. 

The very difficulties, arising from 
the use of certain letters and the Hebrew 
style of writing from right to left, so far 
from militating against the genuineness 
of the relic, are rather proofs in its favor. 
For a counterfeiter in later centuries 
would never have so written the Latin 
and Greek, nor used an I for an E, nor an 
H for a Greek N, although these letters 
in ancient times, according to good 
authority, are found interchanged in 
inscriptions. The title, then, most likely 
was Latin, written in Hebrew, Greek and 
Latin letters. As is clear from the word 
NAZARINUS, only the central portion 
of the title board is preserved as the relic 
at Santa Croce. The parts containing 



the beginning and the end were probably 
presented by St. Helena to'Jerusalem and 
Constantinople. 

It is well to remark that the genuine- 
ness of any particular relic is not a mat- 
ter of divine faith for Catholics, but a 
question of human testimony, yet, with- 
out being credulous, we should rather 
be inclined to accept than reject what 
has come down through the centuries 
with the honor and the veneration of our 
forefathers in the household of faith. 

Let us not forget the almost priceless 
value which emperors, kings, and the 
great ones of the earth attached to the 
relics of the Sacred Passion. Had it been 
only popes, bishops, and priests, who so 
esteemed them, then there might have 
been some ground for slanderously accus- 
ing these ecclesiastics of wishing to 
make capital for their churches by the 
supposed possession of such treasures. 
But history shows plainly that, begin- 
ning with Constantine and Helena, it 
was the princes of Christendom who held 
holy relics in such wonderful estima- 
tion. 

Let us not forget that the Church, in 
her use of them, has ever in mind the 
strengthening and cherishing of the 
devotion of the faithful to Him who 
sanctified the wood of the Cross by being 
crucified upon it. When we recall the 
tender spirit of piety of St. Helena, as 
witnessed by the words attributed to her 
by St. Ambrose, we should blush at our 
own coldness and indifference, and 
resolve, like the Apostle, to glory in the 
Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, in whom 
is our salvation, life, and resurrection, 
and say, as the Church bids us, in mak- 
ing the Stations of the Cross : ' ' We adore 
Thee, O Christ, and we bless Thee, be- 
cause by Thy holy Cross Thou hast 
redeemed the world. ' ' 



THE STORY OF KIRKSTALL ABBEY. 

By J. Reader. 

Man and his littleness perish, erased like an error and cancelled; 
Man and his greatness survive, lost in the greatness of God." 



AT this time, when the conversion of 
England to the true faith, is a 
subject of interest for all, and of prayer 
for many ; when the Holy Father, the 
Pastor of the lambs and sheep, is yearn- 
ing yet more and more for the return of 
the straying ones to the fold; it may not 
be amiss to turn to a page of her history, 
of a time long past when the Cistercian 
Order nourished in the land that was 
" Mary's Dowry, " and the holy monks 
lived and worked, and raised these won- 
derful abbeys and monasteries through- 
out the country, to the glory of God, and, 
unwittingly, to their own enduring re- 
membrance. 

Three hundred years ago the monks 
were driven from their homes, and it did 
not take very long to rid the whole coun- 
try of all who wore the cowl and habit ; 
but come and look at their ruined homes, 
come and examine their gray and deso- 
late walls, these marvels of building, 
strong and beautiful in deca}% and it will 
be seen, that not three times three hun- 
dred years, will remove the traces of 
these holy lives from this land. Indeed, 
at this time, everything is being done to 
preserve these ruins to posterity; the 
Cistercians Abbeys are "the gems of 
Gothic architecture " of which the coun- 
try is justly proud : do they survive as a 
memorial of a noble past, or a pledge of 
future revival of Christian zeal in this 
once Catholic England ? Who can tell ? 

The coming of the Cistercians to Eng- 
land, sent thither by St. Bernard of Clair- 
vaux himself, is recorded by an ancient 
writer who tells us in simple words, how, 
" in the reign of Henry I., St. Bernard, 
Abbot of Clareval, a man full of devotion, 
and chief of many monks, some of whom 
346 



he sent to England, who were honorably 
received by both king and people." 

This pioneer band of Cistercians came 
to Northumbria. St. Bernard having 
commended them to the care of his friend 
Thurston, Archbishop of York ; and here 
in this Northland they settled themselves, 
at a place afterwards called Rievaux 
a wild and unfrequented spot, there, 
like the brethren at Clairvaux " to keep 
more perfectly the rule of the blessed 
Benedict," in prayer, in labor, and in 
silence. For the next fifty years, in 
the wild and rugged Northumbria, the 
people thereof might well have exclaimed 
" the land that was desolate and im- 
passable shall be made glad, and the 
wilderness shall rejoice and nourish like 
a lily;" for the Cistercians, forbidden by 
their rule to establish themselves near a 
town, always sought out wild and desert 
places for their homes, and made them- 
selves a beginning of things, in those 
parts, both of religion and agriculture. 
Soon, therefore, the land all around, cul- 
tivated by their patient toil, bloomed 
into fertility : rocks and stone, and 
wood, and undergrowth, obstacles to 
man's habitation, became the indispensa- 
ble materials of their work first for the 
wattled oratory and thatched hut, to 
which succeeded in time, a noble pile of 
Gothic architecture a Cistercian Abbey, 
dedicated, as their rule enjoined to "St. 
Mary, the Queen of Heaven and Earth. " 

Kirkstall Abbey, on the banks of the 
river Aire, is described as a singularly 
pure specimen of genuine Cistercian 
architecture. Indeed, more than either 
of its glorious " Sisters " in the North 
of England, it adheres to the severe 
lines and unadorned style, laid down as 



THE STORY OF KIRKSTALL ABBEY. 



347 



the rule for the order, in their building. 
A.t the present day, however, it is hard to 
realize how the site of this abbey could 
ever have fulfilled the necessary condi- 
tion for a Cistercian house, in the respect 
that it should be a remote spot in the 
wilderness, and far from the "busy 
haunts of men. " To-day, the great City 
of Leeds, extends almost to the ruined 
walls of the abbey, and any unromantic 
sightseer, on architectural ' ' thoughts 
intent," may jump into a steam tram- 
way in the heart of Leeds, which will 
snort up to within a few yards of its hal- 
lowed precincts, and land him in a good 
position to make his first observations. 
Here it is hard to bring back the past 
to mind very vividly, because of the too 
obtrusive present the trains roar past 
through the once silent meadows, by the 
river ; while the river itself, polluted 
by a hundred different ' ' foreign sub- 
stances, " from mills, foundries, and 
factories ; the smoke-laden atmosphere, 
and the blackened vegetation, proclaim 
loudly the fact of the busy life, and com- 
mercial activity around. What a change 
from the time, when the holy monks 
came thither, to make their home, on 
the banks of the Aire, in the middle of 
the twelfth century ! Then the country 
round about was the home only of the 
deer, the wild boar, and the white bull, 
which roamed at will over boundless 
heaths, and high rocks and lurked in 
deep and unfrequented woods. In the 
distance, remote enough, and unobtru- 
sive, the little Villa of Leeds was strug- 
gling into a township, still in the hard 
grip of the feudal system, the Conquer- 
or's merciless legacy. This was the 
" Loidis " mentioned by Bede ; it had 
almost suffered extinction by the Danes 
in their devastating invasions ; it had 
shuddered through the miseries and 
bloodshed of the Norman Conquest, but 
surviving, it recovered itself little by 
little, in its peaceful intervals, and made 
the most of its resources, and life gener- 
ally under its hard conditions. At the 
beginning of the century, one Ilbert de 



Lacy, who came over with the Con- 
queror the lord of this, and many other 
manors, granted his Vill of Leeds to a 
certain Ralph Paganel, and, after a time, 
one of this Ralph Paganel's descendants, 
built himself a castle here, which became 
a tower of strength to the little Vill ; 
and under the protection it afforded from 
troublesome and turbulent neighbors, 
the inhabitants made their first commer- 
cial ventures, and throve and prospered. 
Kirkstall has now become identified with 
Leeds, but the city itself preserves no 
signs of its own antiquity even the site 
of the castle is long since forgotten 
while the beautiful ruin of the old abbey 
stands just without its boundaries 
gray and ghost-like, as a spirit of the 
past ; a protest against the frivolous, 
purposeless life of its noisy neighbor, 
which invades its sacred precincts and 
disturbs its silent vigil among its sleep- 
ing dead. 

The founding of Kirkstall was in this 
wise : Henry de Lacy, one of the family 
already mentioned, lay grievously sick 
dying it was feared and in his suffer- 
ing and distress he implored God to 
spare him, and promised, that if he re- 
covered he would found a monastery, or 
perform some such work equally pleasing 
to Him. He recovered his health, and, 
mindful of his vow, he at once set about 
considering the best means of fulfilling 
it. He bethought him of the holy 
monks at Fountains Abbey founded 
some ten years earlier and determined 
to go and seek the advice of the prior 
there. The prior, Abbot Alexander, 
advised him to found a Cistercian Mon- 
astery, and this de Lacy decided to do, 
and he begged the abbot to find the 
monks, while he provided the money and 
lands needful for the mission. 

Alexander, himself, undertook the 
founding of the new colony, and, with 
twelve monks, and ten lay brothers, he 
set out on the nineteenth of May, 1147, 
for a spot called Bernoldswic, in Craven, 
where de Lacy desired to establish them. 
Here they found a building ready to 



34-8 



THE STORY OF KIRKSTALL ABBEY. 



their hand, also a dilapidated parish 
church, which they immediately an- 
nexed. This proceeding, of course, was 
a manifest departure from the Cistercian 
rule of reclaiming waste and solitary 
tracts of land, and settling in the wilder- 
ness, and their commencing thus in com- 
parative ' ' comfort ' ' was not a very for- 
tunate innovation. The good people of 
the district, accustomed to the ministra- 
tions of their own parish priest, naturally 
resented the intrusion of the monks and 
their rather high-handed proceedings in 
taking possession of their parish church ; 
and from all accounts, they took all pos- 
sible means of visiting their displeasure 
on the holy men, and we read that they 
were very " troublesome " to the monks. 
Besides this, the brotherhood suffered 
very much from cold and hunger, and 
an unfavorable climate also, they were 
much exposed to the attacks of robber 
bands, and had their goods plundered 
again and again, for "the times were 
evil." After some disturbed years they 
decided to remove, and Abbot Alexander 
set out to go and see de Lacy and consult 
him about the matter. 

One day, as he was journeying to- 
wards the house of his patron, he came 
to the Valley of the Aire, and here, it 
was the will of God, he should find a 
solution for his difficulties. As he 
passed along this lonely vale, shady and 
green and watered by the fair flowing 
river, to his great surprise, he came 
upon a small band of men, dressed after 
the manner of religious, living, evi- 
dently, a holy life, apart from men, like 
the hermits of old, but without rule or 
organization. Alexander, seeing them 
there, was at once struck by the suita- 
bility of the place for a home for re- 
ligious, its beauty and solitude and shel- 
tered position, were all most desirable 
features here, indeed, might be estab- 
lished an ideal home for his monks He 
approached the men and addressed them, 
and in answer to his questions he re- 
ceived this strange account of their pres- 
ence there. 



Their spokesman, Seleth by name, said 
that he had journeyed thitber from the 
south of England, in obedience to a 
voice from heaven. "Arise, Seleth," 
this voice had said to him, " and go into 
the Province of York, and seek diligently 
in the valley that is called Airedale for a 
place known as Kirkstall, for there shalt 
thou prepare for a brotherhood, a home 
where they may serve my Son." And 
he said : ' ' Who is thy Son whom we 
must serve?" "I am Mary, " was the 
answer, ' ' and my Son is called Jesus of 
Nazareth, Saviour of the world. " 

For a long time Seleth pondered in his 
mind what this command might mean, 
but assuring himself of a divine mis- 
sion, he left his home and all things, 
and set forth to obey. He found the 
place without difficulty, and there he 
stayed for some time alone, living on 
roots and herbs ; and a little later, he 
was joined by others, desiring the soli- 
tary life. 

" Under the guidance of her who 
called me, " said Seleth, " I reached with 
some difficulty this valley which you are 
beholding ; and here I learned from some 
herdsmen that the spot on which we now 
dwell was named Kirkstall. Many days 
was I a lonely man, feeding on roots and 
herbs, and the alms which some Chris- 
tians gave me for the sake of charity. 
These brethren whom you now see, af- 
terwards joined themselves to me, re- 
garding me as their rule and master. " x 

While the abbot listened, he de- 
cided that this was the spot for his 
monastery, and heaven had selected it 
for him, also here were men worthy to 
become sons of St. Benedict. He there- 
fore spoke to them of his order, of a 
higher form of religious life under rule 
and guidance, and at length, sure of his 
converts, he went on his way, and find- 
ing de Lacy, he told him of his plans 
and begged fora settlement at Kirkstall. 
The abbot had his way, and soon he 
brought his brethren to their new home, 



i. From a MS in the Bodleian Library. 




THE STORY OF KIRKSTALL ABBEY. 



349 



where at once they set about building 
themselves a house, and a church dedi- 
cated to St. Mary, Queen of Heaven and 
earth, and they called their monastery 
Kirkstall. 

l< In the year of our Lord 1153, King 
Stephen reigning in England, and Arch- 
bishop Roger presiding over the See of 
York, the monks came on the nineteenth 
of May from their first abode, now reduced 
to a grange, to the spot now called Kirk- 
stall a spot, woody, unfruitful, and des- 
titute of almost every kind of produce, 
except timber and stone, and a pleasant 
valley, with a river flowing through the 
midst of it." l 

Thus runs the charter of Henry de 
Lacy concerning the foundation of the 
Abbey of Kirkstall ! 

"Be it known unto all present and 
future, that I, Henry de Lacy, have 
given and granted, and by this my pres- 
ent charter confirm, to God and the Holy 
Mary, and to the Abbot Alexander of 
Kirkstall, and to the monks there serv- 
ing God, in frank almoigne, for the 
purpose of building an abbey of the Cis- 
tercian order, the site itself of Kirkstall 
andBernoldswic, together with all their 
appendages in forest and plain, in mead- 
ows and pastures, and waters, and every- 
thing that appertains to these lands," 
etc., and later from an autograph in the 
tower of St. Mary's at York. 

" Henry de Lacy to all his retainers, 
both French and English, and to all 
sons of Holy Church, greeting. 

"Know ye that I have given and granted 
and by this present charter have con- 
firmed to God and to the Abbey of St. 
Mary of Kirkstall, and to the monks 
there serving God, a half mark of silver 
in each year for lighting a certain lamp 
day and night before the altar in the 
presence of the Most Holy Body of our 
Lord, in frank almoigne, for the health 
of the souls of myself and heirs. ' ' 

Considering the grandeur and mag- 
nificence of these old Cistercian Abbeys, 

i. From a MS. in the Bodleian library. 



one might think, that, if these wonderful 
monkbuilders of the twelfth century 
had been men who had given up all the 
pleasures of the world, and all the dear 
attractions of hearth and home, for no 
other purpose than to raise noble tern pies 
to the glory of God, where He might be 
worthily honored, they had spent their 
lives in a good cause, and had left to 
future generations a full and complete 
expression of the idea which had so 
allured them. But, as a matter of fact, 
all this noble work of building and fash- 
ioning was work done by the way. 

The real business of these men 's lives 
consisted of prayer, and hard manual 
labor ploughing, sowing, reaping, gar- 
dening all the needs of the community 
had to be met by their own hard and 
continual exertions. Yet, as t$e late 
William Morris says, "every day the 
hammer clinked on the anvil, and the 
chisel played about the oak beam, every 
day, stone by stone, some fair edifice 
rose to its stately proportions. ' ' 

Further he says : " It was no great 
architect carefully kept for the purpose, 
and guarded from the common troubles 
of common men, who designed these 
great marvels of mediaeval architecture, 
it was the monk, the ploughman's 
brother ; oftenest his other brother, the 
carpenter, smith-mason, what not a 
common fellow, whose common everyday 
labor, fashioned works which are to day 
the wonder and despair of many a hard 
working ' cultivated architect. '" The 
monk's church was the expression of all 
that was good and noble in themselves, 
the expression of their "zeal for God's 
house" hardly could they stay their 
hands from such rich adorning and orna- 
menting as their rule prohibited. 

Whether the Abbot Alexander was his 
own architect at Kirkstall, or whether 
it was the ' ' ploughman 's brother ' ' or 
some other humble worker, we do not 
know, but we are told, by one who 
evidently does know, that "Kirkstall 
Abbey is a monument of the skill, the 
taste, and the perseverance of a single 



350 



THE STORY OF KIRKSTALL ABBEY. 



man ' ' for the same Alexander who 
chose its site and directed its founda- 
tions lived to see both the church and 
the monastery completed, having lived 
there thirty-five years and seen the com- 
munity prosper exceedingly under his 
rule. With regard to the architectural 
details of Kirkstall, the writer cannot 
speak as " one having authority" but 
in these days of societies, antiquarian, 
archaeological, and what not, all busy 
with research, and eager for a hearing, 
there are a good many items of fairly 
reliable information to be picked up 
at second-hand by any one interested in 
such matters. The simple form of the 
Latin cross was the main feature in all 
Cistercian churches, and this, strictly 
adhered to, with a short and aisleless 
presbytery, and if a tower were desirable, 
a very modest one, rising no more than 
one square above the crossing of the 
nave and transept, and all unadorned 
and severe in detail, was the ideal Church 
of St. Bernard. 

At Kirkstall the builders kept very 
closely to the lines laid down for them : 
in style it is "a good specimen of the 
later Norman, grave and chaste, with 
channelled columns and grooved and 
moulded arches." Here and there are 
evidences of later work. The modest 
tower of Abbot Alexander's plan, was 
raised to a lofty height in the perpen- 
dicular style at the time wlien the 
seventh Henry ruled in England ; it is 
long since fallen in ruins (a warning to 
the too ambitious), for the foundations 
thereof were not intended " for so proud 
a burden. " 

In the beautiful east window, and in 
the east windows of the presbytery and 
chapels, we find the pointed arch, but the 
additions to the twelfth century work 
are but few, and the round arch prevails 
throughout. The remaining features of 
special interest in the church, are the 
beautiful western fa9ade and the north- 
west doorway; the chapter house, which, 
two centuries after the Abbot Alex- 
ander's time, was enlarged, also deserves 



special notice. In the later work here, 
the walls are built to a great extent of 
stone coffins, some hollow, some filled 
up, with here and there a coffin-lid effec- 
tively worked in. To some this may 
seem a desecration of material, sacred 
to another use and purpose, but it is 
not hard to imagine that the good men 
whose bones crumbled to dust within 
these narrow cells, would not have been 
ill pleased to find such a resting place 
for their stony shells, if they could have 
had a voice in the matter. The chapter- 
house was a place hallowed by its close 
proximity to the church, a part of 
the church itself almost. Here the 
monks were " chalenged and chiden " 
here each confessed publicly his culpa 
and received his punishment: herein 
also, lay buried abbots and holy men, 
patrons and benefactors of the Monas- 
tery. Surely a place for serious re- 
flection, where the contrite heart might 
feel still greater compunction, and 
where the woes of living longer might 
be solaced by a remembrance of the 
peace of the dead, in the " Hie jacet " of 
the sculptured coffin lids. 

When the Abbot Alexander passed 
away the community were not quite so 
fortunate in his successors, and for some 
years their fortunes were at rather low 
ebb. 

History makes mention of one, the 
4th Abbot, named Turgesius, who pos- 
sessed to a remarkable degree the rare 
gift of tears. He wept always. The 
tears hardly ever ceased to rain from his 
eyes even in conversation. At the altar 
he wept so much, that no one could wear 
the vestments after his Mass, until they 
were dried. Moreover, he clothed him- 
self in haircloth, and went without 
shoes even in the coldest depths of win- 
ter. One is inclined to think that the 
abbot of a large monastery had needs be 
more practical and "made of sterner 
stuff, ' ' but whether he ruled wisely and 
well, or the reverse, we know not ; his 
tears alone have kept his memory green. 

But in the story of Kirkstall the most 




THE STORY OF KIRKSTALL ABBEY. 



351 



ithetic incident is the closing one. In 
November, 1540, came the dread sum- 
mons to surrender to the crown. The 
monks dispersed, each going his way, 
and everything of beauty or value 
in the abbey, which had been accumu- 
lating during the four centuries of its 
existence, was ruthlessly plundered to 
help to fill the king's empty coffers, or 
else destroyed as a relic of Popery. 
John Ripeley, twenty-seventh Abbot of 
Kirkstall, watched with breaking heart 
le destruction of his home, the depart - 
of his companions, the desecration 
the sanctuary that he loved : and 
rhen the vandals had finished their 
pork, and departed with their booty ; 
rhen the brethren had taken their last 
irewellof their stately abbey, and when 
silence had fallen, that should never 
more be broken by prayer, or praise, or 
the call of matin or vesper bell, then 
the Abbot Ripeley sat down and wept, 
that hi? house was left unto him deso- 
late. But having loved it in the day of 
its prosperity, he did not abandon it in 
its adversity ; and where he had praised 
Cod amongst his brethren, he worshipped 
Him in his solitude. He took up his 
abode in the gate-house, and there he 
spent the remaining years of his life ; 
the gray cold walls of Kirkstall were 
more to him than the gleam and warmth 
of a strange fireside. Who can walk 
amongst the ruins, and not think of that 
lonely soul, that sorrowful heart, bank- 
rupt of everything that had once made 
its life ? Who can refuse the tribute of 
a loving thought for this faithful serv- 
ant, faithful unto death, watching by 
this sepulchre of the dead hopes of an 
ardent brotherhood, offering up the sac- 
rifice of his broken life and desolate 
heart, when bereft of all things else. 
" After life's fitful fever he sleeps well, 
amongst a goodly company of his fel- 
lows heaven takes their souls, and 
"England keeps their bones, " and the 
ruined abbey is their monument. 

* * * 
There is one recent episode in the 



history of Kirkstall which, having a 
certain element of romance in it, de- 
serves mention. Years ago, a good 
man, a certain poor workman, left the 
city of Leeds, together with some com- 
panions, to carry out some engineering 
work in South America, which their 
employers had undertaken. When the 
work was completed, this man remained 
in that country, when his fellows re- 
turned home, having some little schemes 
of his own in hand. When at length he 
returned to England, about ten years 
ago, his native city of Leeds welcomed 
him home as Colonel North, "The 
Nitrate King," and one of the noble 
army of millionaires. At this time the 
jfa/'had gone forth that Kirkstall Ab- 
bey should be sold, and there was a 
great outcry amongst the more qfisthetic 
portion of the townspeople, at the idea 
of the demolition of this beautiful ruin, 
the glory of their unlovely city; and 
indeed all classes, to some degree, 
deplored the threatened loss of their 
familiar abbey. The city fathers them- 
selves were loath to let it go to the ham- 
mer, but it was a financial question, and 
pressing, and while they anxiously 
deliberated the matter, along came the 
generous and wealthy Colonel North. 
" What, sell Kirkstall," pull down the 
old abbey, the place he had known from 
babyhood, sacred to the memory of those 
far off courting days, where, as "whis- 
pering lovers " are wont to do, he 
walked with his humble sweetheart in 
his own humble days ? Never ! If any 
money of his could prevent it. 

He went to the mayor of the city 
and offered to buy it, and present 
it straightway to the corporation of 
Leeds. His offer was gladly accepted, 
and Kirkstall belongs now to the people 
of Leeds. The work of "repairing" 
the ruin was devised in an evil hour, 
and goes on apace. In many parts the 
walls, stripped of their sheltering 
mantle of green ivy, stand gaunt and 
woebegone, defaced with props and 
stays, and other "preserving " devices, 



352 HEAVEN. 

grievous to behold. The drooping ash follow up their work, with those touches 

trees and graceful witch-elms that of beauty, she alone can give. To those 

nestled lovingly against the sheltering who go thither with Catholic hearts, 

walls and broken arches, have been Kirkstall will always be beautiful, as 

ruthlessly dealt with and ordered out long as one stone stands upon another, 

of court to make way for buttresses, and there is a greater attraction for such 

good honest nineteenth century bricks than the study of Gothic architecture, 

and mortar. ' ' 'Tis true, 'tis pity, ' ' but This is a spot, hallowed by prayer and 

after all, nature always begins again praise, by watching and by fasting and by 

where man leaves off. Let the city fathers tears, where good men fought the hardest 

preserve the gray walls, and nature will fight of all and conquered self. 

HEAVEN. 

"0 MON SAUVEUR JESUS, LE CIEL C'EST VOUS MEME (PERE FE^IX.) 
By E, Lummis. 

O perfect Chord of Love Divine, 
Wherein all harmonies combine ! 
O Crystal Fountain, springing up 
With Life Eternal in Thy cup ! 
O flawless Mirror, in whose sphere 
All lesser beauty doth appear ! 

Universe ! divinely fair, 

Where thrones and seraphs cloud the air; 

Where hosts of crowned saints are seen 

Like shining stars, in light serene; 

In silvery mists the sanctified 

In splendor gleam on every side. 

And unknown worlds of wondrous grace 

Roll on, in endless depths of space. 

Ah, truly were it vain to paint 

The bliss of each enraptured saint. 

Too dull am I to understand 

The beauty of the Heavenly Land. 

Too full, alas ! of self and sin 

To let the light of glory in. 

Yet, looking up, a face I see, 

In pity, Jesu, bent to me, 

From Throne and Seraph at Thy side, 

To me, who Thee have crucified ! 

And in Thy tender, loving eyes, 

1 see, O Lord, my Paradise. 
Thy face, my God, is all I see, 
For Thou alone art heaven to me ! 
The weary bonds of earth to break, 
And cast aside, for Thy dear sake; 
O Love Divine ! in death to rest 
With childlike trust, upon Thy breast; 
To seek and find my all in Thee, 
What more, what less, could heaven be? 




GENERAL INTENTION, APRIL, 1897. 

Approved and blessed by His Holiness, Leo XIII. 

MORE INTEREST IN THE LIVES OF THE SAINTS, 



WHY should we be asked to pray 
that Catholics generally may 
take more interest in the lives of the 
saints ? 

We worship the saints, we pray to 
them, we venerate their images, we 
know, or at least we should know, how 
to explain this worship, intercession, and 
veneration, and how to answer the objec 
tions raised against us by non-Catholics 
for honoring as we do these heroic 
servants of God. Many of us go so far 
as to cultivate a few of them as special 
patrons, and all of us like to hear the 
beautiful legends which are commonly 
associated with them; but how few 
Catholics read and study the lives of 
the saints with real interest ; how few 
make any effort to overcome the ob- 
stacles to such a study, or take the time 
to recognize its advantages ? 

Now, it is a general principle that 
prayer must be employed whenever we 
wish to obtain something which is ac- 
knowledged to be most excellent, but yet 
so difficult of attainment that human 
means seem altogether inadequate. 
When the very excellence of the object 
in question is ignored, and, when more- 
over there is an indisposition to respond 
to the ordinary efforts made to induce us 
to embrace it, prayer is the only means 
at our disposal. A knowledge of the 
(97) 



lives of the saints is something so useful 
and excellent, that, although noj one is 
strictly obliged to acquire it, still no one 
can well be excused for neglecting it. 
It is considered by all holy writers a 
necessary means for leading a good 
Christian life. Instead of realizing its 
necessity and seeking its benefits, the 
majority of Catholics ignore it entirely, 
and they are so absorbed in other things 
that without prayer it is hopeless to ask 
them to cultivate it. Let us see then 
whether the advantages of this universal 
interest in the lives of the saints be so 
excellent as to be a worthy object of the 
prayers of the Apostleship; and, finally, 
whether the effort needed to dispose men 
to read and profit by these lives be so 
superhuman as to call for our fervent 
prayer ; whether a knowledge of the 
lives of the saints is so necessary as to 
make this an urgent General Intention. 
The fruits of this interest in the lives 
of the saints, recorded in the history of 
the Church, are so marvellous as to jus- 
tify the hope that we should again be 
restored to something like the terrestria 
Paradise, could all Christians be guided 
by St. Alphonsus Liguori's example and 
counsel to spend, if possible, a half 
hour daily in reading the life of some 
saint. When one recalls a St. John 
Columbini, changed from the covetous 

353 



354 



GENERAL INTENTION 



(98> 



and passionate nobleman into the meek 
and generous saint, by reading the life 
of St, Mary of Egypt ; an Ignatius 
Ivoyola converting his worldly ambition 
into a heavenly zeal, by poring over the 
lives of the saints to relieve his ennui ; 
a Teresa, breathing in the first senti- 
ments of her seraphic love, while grati- 
fying her childish curiosity with the Acts 
of the Martyrs ; an Augustine, aroused 
to a sense of the divine truth that in- 
spired the heroic conduct of the early 
martyrs and hermits ; when one remem- 
bers all that is told of the preference 
which all saintly souls have shown for 
reading the lives of their saintly models, 
it becomes easy to understand how sanc- 
tity begets sanctity, how r heroism com- 
pels admiration, how the good the saints 
do lives after them in the influence of 
their holy example. 

Clearly as the instances just given 
prove the advantages to be derived from 
a study of the lives of the saints, it is 
these very instances, strange to say, 
that deter some people from reading 
them. Some natures are afraid to do 
anything that would commit them to 
more than an ordinary Christian life. 
They justify their consciences by quot- 
ing a part of St. Francis de Sales' say- 
ing, that saints are to be admired, not 
imitated, ignoring that the holy Doctor 
also said that some saints can be imi- 
tated in most things, and that all the 
saints should be imitated in some 
things. It is a common trick of the ene- 
my of human nature to make us dread 
what is most useful and necessary for 
us. Souls that fear to aim at perfection 
in their proper state of life are the very 
souls that most need to read and study 
the lives of the saints ; for, if these lives 
prove one thing more clearly than an- 
other, it is this, that the work of perfec- 
tion is the natural employment of every 
Christian, and that painful to human 
nature as this task may be, it is infi- 
nitely more satisfactory than the dissi- 
pation of a lax or worldly life. 

It may be idle to remind people who 



fear to read the lives of the saints, that 
sanctity should be the great aim of 
every Christian. "This is the will of 
God, your sanctification " wrote St. 
Paul to the Thessalonians. "He has 
chosen us to be saints ; " ' ' we are called 
to be saints, ' ' and similar expressions 
recur constantly in his epistles. Not 
only are we, in the words of Tobias: 
' ' the children of the saints ; ' ' but we 
are bidden to be holy, and, so 'far as God 
is concerned, everything possible is done 
to sanctify us, for the very simple reason 
repeated over and over again in the Old 
Testament, that God is holy, and He 
has chosen us to be like Himself. Now, 
if this be our calling, we must learn 
what it is like in the lives of those wha 
have been true to their calling ; if it be 
our profession, we must study it in the 
science of the saints, which is found 
both by precept and example in the 
records of their lives. Holiness consists 
in uniting ourselves closely to God by 
the theological virtues of faith, hope 
and charity; in clinging to Him in spite 
of every interference, 'by the moral 
virtues, justice, temperance, prudence, 
and fortitude. To realize this fact and 
to learn these virtues in their highest 
degree we must necessarily study the 
lives of those who have cultivated them 
to perfection. 

" God is admirable in His saints, " the 
scripture tells us. Wonderful though 
His name be in every grade of creation, 
it is most wonderful in the soul of a 
saint. Ribadeneira expresses this beauti- 
fully in his quaint manner by compar- 
ing the manifestations of divine power 
in the lower orders of inanimate and 
animate nature, with its most excellent 
workings in the souls of those who sub- 
n it to the divine will in all things. 
' ' Now without doubt the greatness of 
God's grace and goodness is not so much 
manifested in any of the visible things, 
or in all of them put together, as in one 
only soul of a saint. Not only for that, 
there is no work of nature to be com- 
pared with the supernatural works of 




GENERAL INTENTION. 



355 



grace, but also because all the other 
works are only the traces and footsteps 
of God ; whereas the saint is His image 
and resemblance, His temple, His friend 
and His child, in whom He taketh de- 
light. Besides this, the holiness that 
man hath comes not by himself, nor 
from himself, but by the blood of Jesus 
Christ, which was shed upon the Cross 
to render him holy. From whence it 
cometh that neither the earth with all 
its fertility and abundance of diversity 
of flowers, fruits and beasts; nor the 
extent of the ocean with all its monsters 
and fishes; nor the air with its several 
kinds of birds; nor the fire with its 
thunder and lightning; neither the 
heavens with the course and light of the 
sun, moon and stars, which cause such 
wonderful effects on the inferior bodies, 
preach unto us as much the glory of God 
as doth the soul of a saint ; in which He 
abideth as in His temple, reposeth as in 
a bed, and embraceth as His spouse." 

Aubrey De Vere expresses some of this 
thought by saying : ' ' The saints of God 
are divine works of art ; they are the 
living monuments of supernatural grace, 
wrought out, touch by touch, and line 
by line, by that sanctifying spirit who is 
Digitus Patentee Dextera. The ' Lives ' 
of the Saints constitute the gallery in 
which these monuments are stored. ' ' The 
theologian, Lessius, of saintly memory, 
tells us that we cannot form any true 
view of the external glory of God unless 
we consider the excellence of saints. 
His comparison is that, just as a king's 
great glory is in the splendor of his 
court, so the glory of God is best shown 
in the glorious company of souls that 
make His heavenly household. Hence, 
to know God as perfectly as we can in 
this life, we must study His master- 
pieces in the souls of the saints. In 
them shine out His power, His wisdom, 
His goodness. In the triumphs of His 
grace in their lives, we can read His 
power and His determination to achieve 
the same triumphs in our own, if we but 
co-operate with His will. 



If the lives of the saints are the great- 
est external glory of God, they are also 
our own greatest glory. To quote Alban 
Butler : ' ' They make the history of the . 
most exemplary and perfect virtue and 
piowess. . . . Their names stand 
recorded in the titles of our churches, 
in our towns, estates, writings, and 
almost every other monument of our 
Christian ancestors." And, elsewhere: 
"Neither is it a small advantage that, 
by reading the history of the saints, we 
are introduced into the acquaintance of 
the greatest personages who have ever 
adorned the world, the brightest orna- 
ments of the church militant, and the 
shining stars and suns of the trium- 
phant, our future companions in eternal 
glory." "Men of renown, our fathers 
in their generation, " the Scripture calls 
them, . . . rich men in Hrtue, 
lovers of beautifulness, living at peace 
in their houses, . . . men of mercy, 
whose godly deeds have not failed." 
The lives of our worldly heroes are not 
without their use and their charms ; 
the lives of the saints surpass them in 
both, because their deeds are always 
heroic, their motives always excellent, 
and their sentiments always sincere. 

Nor is it fair to plead that the lives of 
the saints are less interesting than oth- 
ers. An objection of this kind shows 
an unpardonable ignorance. It shows, 
likewise, that the one who makes it is 
ill-disposed toward the contents of these 
lives. It is precisely because such ig- 
norance and prejudice against the lives 
of the saints prevails, even among many 
Catholics, that we deem it of little use 
to add reason to reason for studying 
the lives, and, therefore, have recourse to 
prayer. The objection may mean that 
saints ' lives are not written in the same 
attractive style as others ; but this is 
not true in all cases, since we have many 
that are considered masterpieces. Surely 
the objection cannot mean that the 
saints did little of external interest, or 
took but slight part in the great events 
of their time ; because, it is exceptional 



356 



GENERAL INTENTION. 



(100) 



to find a saint who did not take great 
interest in his fellow- men, and ordinarily, 
men or women, they devoted themselves 
so actively to the needs of others and 
took such a prominent part in the affairs 
of this world, that it seems incredible 
how they should have found any time for 
God. The history of Christendom is, in 
its best chapters, the history of such men 
as Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory, Ans- 
elm, a Becket, Helena, Clothilde, Cath- 
arine of Sienna, and of the great pioneers 
of our holy faith, who planted Christi- 
anity in heathen lands. 

There is no lack of interest, human or 
divine, in the lives of the saints ; but 
there is, unfortunately, little relish for 
the supernatural element so predominant 
in them all. We have grown too critical 
of late years, or, better, we fancy that it 
is critical to doubt all that we cannot 
see, to question all that we cannot prove. 
We have, perhaps, let our faith be 
shaken by listening to unbelievers brand 
all that is extraordinary in the saints as 
a lie or blasphemy ; or, we may have 
lost our reverence for the Spirit of God, 
and failing to appreciate His workings 
in the souls of the just, we set down as 
pious fables all that, for want of piety, 
we are too slothful to examine. We be- 
lieve, or, at least, we respect the cred- 
ulity that makes some people believe in 
spiritualism, and in the absurd preten- 
sions of hypnotism, and such other oc- 
cult and unexplored phenomena ; but we 
are less considerate with the saints, and 
"treat the marvellous in their lives as 
popular legends, pious surmises, if not 
fictions, or worse. 

One would expect the intelligent 
reader to distinguish between what is 
related as fact and what is added as 
legend, to weigh the reasons given for 
extraordinary statements or miraculous 
manifestations. Every Catholic should 
know something of the Bollandists.whp, 
for three hundred years, have been writ- 
ing the Lives of the Saints and applying 
<every accepted canon of criticism to 
what is ordinary as well as to what is 



extraordinary in them. No Catholic can- 
be ignorant that even those who ridicule 
our veneration for the saints declare that 
it is a miracle to have the Holy See 
admit the accounts of their lives that are 
presented for examination when there is 
question of pronouncing them Blessed or 
Saints. With all this in mind, it is un- 
reasonable to complain that their lives 
lack interest, or require too pious a 
credulity ; and it is always a loss to look 
for such interest or a matter-of-fact treat- 
ment in Lives wiitten by non-Catholics, 
which, to one who knows the Catholic 
Lives, give an impression like walking 
in a beautiful garden despoiled by win- 
ter, in which the breath of a cold and 
killing frost has left neither flower or 
perfume. 

Fervent prayer is necessary to remove 
the ignorance and prejudices which keep 
so many from reading Lives of the Saints. 
It is necessary also to overcome the diffi- 
culty of putting good Lives within the 
reach of all, and to save so many from 
the trashy and corrupt reading of the 
day. How much needed this study of 
the saints is in our age, Aubrey De Vere 
tells us in his essay on "A Saint." In 
the first part of his own excellent study, 
he points out how much we need a knowl- 
edge of the saints in order to arrive at 
something more than a stunted knowl- 
edge of Christ, the King of Saints; since, 
in their manifold and derivative perfec- 
tions, that perfection, one and infinite, 
which belongs to Christ is brought down 
to our poor intelligence, and revealed to 
us in paits. Again, as the saints are 
fragmentary images of that illimitable 
perfection expressed in the divine Hu- 
manity, so ' ' the Word made Flesh ' ' is 
Himself to us a picture of Him whom no 
eye can see. These two thoughts recur 
often in the essay referred to, and their 
importance stands out fully toward the 
end of it, where he writes : "In propor- 
tion as the idea of God, the ' creator of 
heaven and earth ' stands distinctly be- 
fore us, we must needs see with a grow- 
ing clearness that all creaturely perfec- 




( 01) 



A MODERN CRANFORD. 



357 



t on consists in dependence, not in a 
( od-like and self- asserting might. In 
r icent times, wherever Pantheism has 
\ een superseding a belief in a creative 
( rod, the Pagan ideal of human character 
1 as been reasserting itself; and what has 
the consequence been? an avowed and 
t oastful hero-worship ! Men who refused 
to yield ' honor where honor is due, ' and 
to reverence God's saints, have expiated 
their irreverence by becoming a ' servant 
of servants ' by rendering a servile 
adulation to those false gods of the 
world who perhaps in their day had 
themselves been the most servile to hu- 
man opinion." 

To save ourselves from adopting low 
standards, to rise above an earthly level, 
to live in this world for the better world 
to come, to be guided by heavenly max- 



ims, and to act on true Christian motives, 
we must pray for a greater interest in 
our saints for ourselves and for others. 
As members of the Apostleship of 
Prayer, we have been taught to cherish 
as one of the leading principles of our 
peculiar spirit, the communion of saints. 
It means a great deal to appreciate what 
these two words mean; we cannot appre- 
ciate it without studying the lives of 
those with whom we should have so 
much in common. Gratitude requires 
us to know those who have left us such 
a glorious legacy; piety requires that we 
should cherish the memory of our elder 
brethren in the household of the Father; 
if we have any sentiment of Christian 
honor, it must impel us to pay these 
true heroes the sincere tribute of. our 
imitation. 



A MODERN "CRANFORD/' 
By D. Gresham. 



YT was unlike anything we had ever 
^ seen before, we had read of such. 
Mrs. Gaskell touched off some of its 
points. Miss Mitford had immortalized 
part of its beauties in " pur Village, " 
but here we found ourselves in a real, 
living spot like no place in this busy 
work-a-day world. 

We wanted the South, and we wanted 
the mountains, and we wanted air that 
was worth breathing, and that could be 
breathed out-doors, when the wintry 
sharpness set in, and the Northern world 
was wrapt in its icy pall. Florida was 
trumpeted, and Asheville was lauded, 
and here, there, and the other place, rang 
out in chats and letters, but they were 
either this, that, or the something not 
the desired object. Casually one day we 
heard of a little place among the North 
Carolina mountains, with its back 
against a high range that effectually 
sheltered it from the North winds, its 
face smiling towards the South. Fifteen 



hundred feet high, air with great cura- 
tive properties, and last and best, this 
treasure was all encased in the Thermal 
Belt. ' ' That sounded well, but sounds is 
deceivin' things! " and we thought we 
had better take a look behind the scenes 
first, and see how things really were. One 
of our party descended on the hidden 
treasure late in October, dreading disap- 
pointment, but determined to find out all 
the deceptions and drawbacks if they 
could be found. She returned late one 
evening, with hardly suppressed excite- 
ment, mildly stating that she thought 
the place would do, and furthermore, had 
secured a cottage, pending our appro- 
bation. It was not ideal, she said that 
cottage it is only in books one tum- 
bles on ideals, but she was very grateful 
to get it No enthusiasn, mark, so far 
but we decided to try. 

The last day in October saw our arrival; 
we brought otir invalid up the mountains, 
and, as she slowly stepped off the train, 



358 



A MODERN CRANFORD. 



(102) 



her face lighted up, but we uttered not a 
word. The engine puffed busily down 
the mountain, and we were left, standing 
on the little platform. Kind words of 
welcome came from a stranger beside us; 
it was our landlady, her hand was out- 
stretched in kindly greeting, her face 
said more even than her few cheery 
words. There was a waggon for our 
boxes, a carriage for ourselves, and with 
one hasty glance at the mountains that 
loomed majestically from the pretty lit- 
tle station, we drove silently down the 
steep road to the cottage. The roses 
were doing their duty, a delicate bud close 
to the door, and deeper shades showed all 
the way up the short walk from the 
country road. Some purple morning 
glories lingered on the railing of the 
piazza to greet us, and they must have 
been satisfied with our appreciation, for 
we gave it unstintingly. 

We entered the pretty hall opening by 
folding doors into the parlor. "Oh, 
how beautiful, " said our invalid, "what 
a splendid place for the Mass, ' ' for God is 
always first with our invalid. And we 
examined everything and we declared 
that our new abode is ideal, just as one 
finds it in books, and we are satisfied. 
The November days go languidly by; 
such warmth and sunshine, such roses 
and chrysanthemums as that dreary 
month never gave us before. Our in- 
valid is out and has slept seven hours 
at a stretch, the first time in more than 
twenty years. There is an utter absence 
of mountain tempest, and more, a fog is 
almost unknown in this Eden, and so we 
smile the sunny happy hours away. Then 
the inhabitants come to see us, and bid 
us welcome; they are almost all North- 
erners, who came South with a delicate 
relative, found out this little place, and 
nothing could tempt them away. They 
are all charming, speak enthusiastically 
of the cultured society, and count up 
some of the stars, who shine beneath 
this favored sky. 

A well-known poet lived his last years 
here and is buried in the little cemetery 



among the mountains he loved so well. 
A free library was opened here by his 
admirers and bears his name. A Prus- 
sian and German poet writers innumer- 
able, retired actors, and a famous play- 
wright, who has a quaint cottage beyond 
the village, buried in the woods, where 
he shuts himself up to compose, soothed 
and refreshed by this wonderful air, and 
the wild mountain scenes, stretching 
away from his romantic retreat. There 
are literary, dramatical and musical 
clubs, where kindred spirits meet and 
discuss their tastes and ambitions. Club- 
men from the great Northern cities are 
willing to forego all metropolitan de- 
lights, and, coming here, grow strong 
and interested in the cultivation of ex- 
tensive vineyards. With such a sky, 
and such a land, who with a touch of 
nature could want aught else ? Hearing 
all this we are encouraged, and our in- 
valid asks, with great interest, if there 
are any Catholics among them all. A 
slow but disappointed negative is re- 
luctantly given, but our warm-hearted 
Congregationalist hastens to add : 
"There will be some soon, w T hen the 
Northerners come for the winter. " " Yes, 
but can't you find some here now among 
the mountaineers ; do try and get some, " 
appealingly. One of the ladies is a Con- 
gregationalist, the other a Presbyterian, 
and both seem anxious to produce the 
required article, when an Episcopalian 
sister, in a habit like a mother abbess of 
Chaucer's time, who has left her tene- 
ments, her Bible class, and her dear New 
York, to see our invalid safely settled for 
the winter, looks lovingly and mischiev- 
ously over at her dejected face, saying ( 
"That is not what we are usually look- 
ing for. ' ' 

They all laugh at the humor of the 
scene, our invalid the merriest of all. 
"Yes," she declares, "I know, but it 
only shows the beautiful spirit I have 
found among you all, so willing to make 
others happy, so utterly devoid of big- 
otry." They are surprised that she is 
surprised at what they only consider 



(103) 



A MODERN CRANFORD. 



359 



common kindness and charity. And 
they go, promising every help if she 
will but always remain among them. 
And others come with the same sweet 
spirit, bright, clever, pleasant women, 
from all over the States, and even Can- 
ada is represented. They belong to every 
sect almost, and know little or nothing 
of Catholicism, yet they are all interested 
in our invalid's efforts to find some stray 
sheep ; tell her their cares, hopes and 
griefs, and one and all leave her with 
kind words of encouragement and earn* 
est hopes that she will remain among 
them. And last of all conies a bonnie 
little Scotch widow, with the glad news 
that she has found one Catholic ! Is 
there any need to say that he hailed from 
the green shores of Erin ? I do believe 
that if Nansen had gone the whole way 
to the North Pole (as he should have 
done), he would have found an enterpris- 
ing Irishman sitting on it, coolly de- 
manding, in his best Cork brogue, why 
he had not come up before now, that it 
was going on thirty years since he had 
seen a priest ! 

Sunday our corner-stone appeared, 
venerable and respectable, we hailed him 
with joy, since he was "the congrega- 
tion " ! He had a nice, honest old face, 
with a name and a brogue as racy of 
Kerry as O 'Council's own. He ex- 
presses his delight at our invalid's 
arrival, and says that fifteen years ago, 
when the railroad was being built, an 
Italian missionary sent word to the 
Catholic men on the road that he was 
coming through the mountains and 
would hear their confessions. There were 
only five, three Italians, a Scotchman, 
and our old Edward ; they all met him, 
took him to a Protestant farmhouse, 
where they boarded in the country. The 
Father said Mass the next morning and 
.gave them all Holy Communion. I fear 
Edward has not heard Mass since ! He 
lias been a rolling-stone, and, of course, 
no golden moss has ever clung to him. 
He landed in Montreal in the early forties, 
drifted South, fouirlit on the Confederate 



side in the war ; had been here, there, 
and everywhere since, fout this is the 
spot he liked to consider home. Would 
our invalid remain now, and let him end 
his days in piety and peace ? He shows 
his new clothes that his Protestant con- 
nections gave him this morning to come 
to us ; his brother-in-law wanted him to 
wear his own fine coat, but he refused, 
declaring he would be welcomed just 
the same in his own old one, but he 
would wear it for Mass, please God. 
When he hears the priest will be down 
next week he looks pleased, but solemn, 
too ; he wants to go to confession, but 
he seeme to think that the preparation is 
no small matter. 

Wednesday morning he arrives, as he 
promised, "bright and early," looking 
like a fine old Irish farmer in his gala 
attire we are proud of him. THe parlor 
is the chapel, and the altar is beautiful 
in white roses and chrysanthemums, 
gathered last evening in the warm June- 
like air. An Episcopalian lady, who 
wants to know much of our religion, 
the little Scotch widow, who, though a 
Protestant, had gone to the nuns 'school, 
in Glasgow, were there and prayed, and 
knelt as we. It was a pathetic little 
congregation, but Edward could not look 
happier or more proud, if he had been at 
some gorgeous ceremony at Notre Dame 
in Montreal. The Father gave a practi- 
cal instruction ; and, after Mass, Ed- 
ward, the corner-stone, and the Protest- 
ants came forward to bid him welcome, 
and earnestly hope that this, his first 
Mass, would be the prelude of great 
things in this favored and growing little 
Eden. 

And as we begin to look out hopefully 
on the future, and sometimes in great 
moments actually to see a little church 
among the woods yonder, the kindly 
face of the Episcopal Rector, looks in on 
us one lovely afternoon in December. 
His ultra-Roman collar and reserved, 
ascetic air are very suggestive, indeed, 
deprived of his Dundreary whiskers, 
he might have been an old Jesuit Father, 



360 



A MODERN CRANFORD. 



(104) 



come to see how we were getting along. 
No need to say ' ' Anglican Orders ' ' are 
not the order of the conversation. We 
talk as if we all belonged to the one 
God and the one Shepherd. 

The two great evils of the day the 
Rector considers are avarice and intem- 
perance, the great barriers and enemies 
to the interests of Jesus. He talks long 
and interestingly, and he leaves us with 
a kindly feeling for those who are not so 
blest as we, and a prayer for Christian 
unity, in one sense, at least, if we can- 
not have all. If the " Cranford " spirit 
of charity and toleration existed through- 
out the world, heaven would soon be 
down on us. 

And as with the Rector so with all: 
every one comes with news of hitherto 
unknown Catholic relatives, but now 
brought strongly to the front. They 
are here, there, and everywhere through- 
out the world, and of course, "such 
charming people. " One young widow, 
airy and graceful, bearing an old Dutch 
name, famous in early New York, tells 
of three aunts who became Catholics, 
one a nun in Virginia, the best beloved 
of all. She spends her winters here, and, 
like every one else has taken "Cranford" 
and its doings and sayings, its climate 
and pleasant ways, straight to her heart. 
While waiting to build her winter home, 
she has turned the barn into a bower. 
This she describes with inimitable hu- 
mor. A window flung out here and 
there, portieres, pictures, books and old 
china, with all the entourage of a fine 
lady, she has made her ' ' barn ' ' one of 
the curiosities of the place. 

It is only on Sunday mornings as the 
solitary bell echoes across the hills that 
we realize how far apart we are, in 
thought and feeling. The people come 
down the mountain roads, across the 
brooks, out from the pines, on their way 
to the three chapels on the hill and the 
One True Church, where is it? Before a 
little altar with its crucifix and candles, 
three people are kneeling in union with 



the Mass now being said in Asheville 
forty miles away. The only Mass this Sun- 
day morning in all the beautiful .niouu- 
tain world of Western North Carolina. 

The sunlight falls on the bowed white- 
haired old man, his voice rising in the 
Hail Mary as he counts the beads to 
which he has clung in all his wild 
wanderings through the New World. 
At the reading of the Gospel he sits close 
beside our invalid, " being, " as he said 
" hard of hearing, " to catch every word 
of the old beautiful story. The devo- 
tions always ends with the Litany of 
Reparation to the Sacred Heart and the 
"We all promise for the future that we 
will console Thee O Lord" sounds 
strangely and touchingly from the soli- 
tude of this mountain wilderness. From 
the first Sunday with three, the Rosary 
seems to bring a blessing, there are four 
next Sunday, five the next, and very 
soon a dozen gather round the little 
altar and, better than all, the children 
appear. The visitors arrive from the 
North, and for the first time in "Cran- 
ford" they can practise their religion 
openly. From Maine to Michigan they 
all "meet in the one same spirit of faith, 
reparation and love. " At the next Mass 
when the Father comes from Asheville, he 
is greeted with rapture, and the Protest- 
ants are to the fore, one Baptist walk- 
ing four miles to be in time. 

The power of a good priest! what can- 
not he do with his people. To get here 
this morning, the Father had to be up at 
daybreak, arriving a little before eleven 
o'clock, hear the confessions, say Mass, 
preach, and hurry back to his sick and 
dying, his Christmas cares and duties. 
The Christmas communion must be 
anticipated by three days. The Father 
feared the invalids could not stand the 
long fast, but one and all scorned to lose 
their communion for a breakfast. 

And thus history repeats itself; the 
spirit of the old missionaries is alive to- 
day in the youthful priest, whose vineyard 
stretches from end to end of the State. 




ST. CATHARINE AS PROMOTER OF UNITY. 



a large hall of the palace of the popes 
at Avignon sat the Holy Father, 
Gregor} - XI , surrounded by cardinals 
and officials of the Papal Court, listen- 
ing with rapt attention to one who 
spoke as if inspired. Who was the elo- 
quent orator who could thus hold so 
exalted an audience ? It was a woman 
about thirty years of age, ascetic in 
appearance, clad in a coarse white 
woolen habit partly hidden by a black 
mantle, with her head coifed and veiled. 
It was a woman known not by her 
family name of Benincasa, however 
honorable it might be, but by the name 
of the city and republic of Sienna, which 
claimed this honor. It was Catharine 
of Sienna. 

How came she by such a distinction ? 
What title had she to be heard by the 
Sovereign Pontiff in full conclave ? Was 
ever such a privilege accorded to a 
woman before ? Has such an honor ever 
been granted since ? No wonder some of 
the cardinals were astonished, and re- 
sented such a novelty. Three of them, 
eminent for learning, undertook to 
prove her by their questions. They 
were put to confusion by the humility 
and wisdom of her answers, and ac- 
knowledged to the Pope that their suspi- 
cions were unjust, and that Catharine 
was a true servant of God with a mis- 
sion from on high. 

What was that mission ? It was no 
less an undertaking than to restore the 
Papacy to Rome. For seventy years the 
venerable See of Peter had been desolate, 
while the successors of the Fisherman had 
resided at Avignon. Those threescore 
and ten years were commonly known as 
the Captivity of Babylon. Hitherto all 
efforts had been futile to effect a return 
to the Eternal City. What princes and 
men had failed to obtain, the daughter of 
an artisan was destined to accomplish. 
It was high time ; for the Patrimony of 
(105) 



Peter was being wrested from the Church. 
The Popes during their sojourn at Avig- 
non governed their provinces by legates. 
Their rule was not paternal, and constant 
turmoil ensued, which threatened the 
loss of the States of the Church. Flor- 
ence, Perugia, Bologna, and more than 
sixty Papal cities were in revolt. Who 
was to bear the olive branch of concili- 
ation ? Catharine, who loved her coun- 
try devotedly, but loved more fondly still 
the Church, inspired by heaven, under- 
took the apparently hopeless task. It 
was the role of a diplomatist; where had 
she studied diplomacy ? It was the part 
for a political economist; what kfjowl- 
edge of political economy had she ? Yet 
she was a mistress of both. 

She wrote to the Pope: "Alas, my 
gentle Father, in the name of Jesus cru- 
cified, I beseech you to act with kind- 
ness, and to overcome the malice and 
pride of your children by patience, 
humility and gentleness. You know, 
Holy Father, you cannot drive out the 
devil by the devil, but by virtue alone. 
Alas, Holy Father, give us peace for 
the love of God, that your children 
may not lose the heritage of eternal 
life. Peace, and no longer war ! Let 
us march against our enemies bearing 
the sacred standard of the Cross, and 
armed with the sword of the sweet and 
holy Word of God. I can do no more ; 
take pity on the sweet and loving de- 
sires that I offer you with my tears for 
Holy Church. As for me, I will give 
willingly my life for the glory of God 
and the salvation of souls. Jesus, love ! ' ' 
Such was the policy of Catharine: 
Prayers, tears, pardon, peace. It is the 
policy of the Cross. She was not, how- 
ever, an advocate of unjustly wrung con- 
cessions, but of justice tempered with 
mercy. Was not Gregory XI. the Father 
of the Faithful ? Could he not, then, be 
mercifully indulgent to his children, if 



362 



SF. CATHARINE AS PROMOTER OF UNITY. 



(106) 



they were repentant for their misdeeds ! 
But those who were to be the objects of 
mercy must show themselves worthy of 
it. So Catharine addressed herself to 
rulers and people to do their part. Her 
representations were true to the life. She 
pointed out the real source of all the 
troubles. She sought to enkindle in the 
hearts of the princes the fire of patriotism 
and respect for the rights of the people- 
When she failed with her pen, she 
determined to accomplish with her voice. 
So we find her in the presence of the 
Holy Father, to demand in person, the 
inestimable boon of peace. She stands 
in the great hall, in the august presence 
of the Vicar of Christ and his councillors, 
fearless in the knowledge of the justice 
of her cause. She represents not men, 
but God. She hesitates not to lay bare 
the wrongs of the people and their 
rights. She exposes the vices preva- 
lent in high places. She demands a 
reformation. She bears down all oppo- 
sition. She forces conviction even on 
the unwilling. The Pope quitted 
Avignon, and took up his abode near 
the tomb of St. Peter, on January 17, 
1377. It was the day of Catharine's 
triumph. 

Florence must now be pacified. The 
revolutionary party were in power 
when the Siennese Virgin came on the 
scene. Was she to be the victim 
whose blood should purchase peace? 
The populace sought her with evil 
intent. She heard it and offered herself 
saying: " You seek Catharine, here I 
am. Do to me whatever God shall per- 
mit, but do not harm those with me. ' ' 
Echo was it not of the divine words 
spoken centuries before in Gethsemani? 
The leader, at whose feet she knelt, 
overwhelmed by such courage and con- 
tempt of life, quickly bade her make her 
escape, before the mob could harm her. 
" No," she replied, "I want to die here. 
I want to give my blood for the God, 
whose representatives you are out- 
raging, and for you and for your salva- 
tion. This is mv sole desire." The 



stormy waves sank into the bosom of 
the deep. Catharine had poured the oil 
of peace on the troubled waters. 

The peace of Sarzana concluded her 
mission. She then retired to her humble 
cell, this woman who had been received 
in Sienna with a public triumph. There, 
in the retirement she loved so well, she 
dictated her famous Dialogue, one of 
the most remarkable works on mystical 
theology ever written. 

But once again was she to play an 
important part for the Church's weal. 
Gregory XI. had been gathered to his 
fathers, and Urban VI. reigned in Rome. 
Upright, just, but somewhat severe, he 
sought to establish ecclesiastical reform 
in all its rigor. The cardinals, who 
should have supported him, rebelled. 
The Pope had known Catharine at 
Avignon. To her he had recourse in 
his troubles and summoned her to 
Rome. Though sorely shattered in 
health she obeyed. Once again we see 
the wondrous spectacle of a woman 
addressing the cardinals in full consist- 
ory ; she discoursed on the particular 
providence of God over His Church. 

She appealed by letter to the princes 
of Europe in behalf of unity. She 
sought to win over three cardinals guilty 
of schism in setting up at Avignon an 
anti-pope, Clement VII. Political mo- 
tives were the mainspring of the schis- 
matical movement. Catharine fought 
valiantly, but her work on earth was 
drawing to a close, and she died in her 
thirty-third year. 

' What was the secret of Catharine's 
power. It was her life of most intimate 
union with Christ, who espoused her in 
mystical wedlock. An angel in the 
flesh, {she lived in the practice of the 
most austere penance. Raised to heights 
of ecstasy, knowing the secrets of the 
future, possessing the gift of miracles, 
in her own estimation she was the low- 
liest of God's creatures, His handmaid, 
His instrument to accomplish great 
things for the divine glory and the good 
of souls. 




A PEOPLE'S SYNAGOGUE. 
5 is one of Chicago 's latest prod- 
cts. It was organized by Rabbi 
Isaac S. Moses, because but 1,000 of the 
4,000 Jewish families residing on the 
South Side were identified with any 
synagogue. The chief reason of this is 
that the prices asked for pews in the 
existing synagogues are prohibitive to 
the mass of the Jews, who either can- 
not or will not pay them. He thus de- 
scribes the organization of the new 
Temple Israel : ' ' The congregation is a 
stock company, with a dividend-draw- 
ing agent, called Rabbi, whose chief task 
it is to swell the ranks of contribu- 
ting shareholders ; or a club maintained 
for the benefit of members who demand 
the latest and the best in the line of 
amusement and opportunity for display. " 
This would seem to be up-to-date enough, 
even for progressive Chicago. The move- 
ment is said to promise much for the re- 
Judaizing of the Jews. We have too 
much respect for the ancient religion of 
Moses, the lawgiver, to confound it 
with that of the People 's Synagogue of 
Moses, the dividend-drawing agent. 

A CHECK ON PERJURY. 

It is not infrequent to read in the 
public papers of charges of perjury made 
against those who have appeared as wit- 
nesses in courts of justice. Probably, 
many a perjurer goes unscathed, while 
his victim is meted out undue punish- 
ment. The question is a serious one, 
for it concerns the carrying out of jus- 
tice. Unfortunately, among the most 
(107) 



EDITORIAL, 

unreliable witnesses are to be found 
those who belong to various depart- 
ments of city or state government. 
The kissing of a book, which they are 
told is the Bible, and the raising of the 
right hand, seem to make very slight 
impression upon those intended to be 
impressed. The same difficulty appears 
to exist elsewhere. In Catholic countries 
the presence of the crucifix in law courts 
is said to be a powerful check on perjury. 
On this plea, it was lately proposed in 
the Chamber of Representatives of Lux- 
emburg, and carried by a large majority, 
to hang up a crucifix in all courts of 
justice in the Grand Duchy. Would 
that the Supreme Victim of false wit- 
nesses might mutely preach from the 
walls of our courts. 

THE CHECK NEEDED. 

Apropos to kissing the Bible, an effort 
has just been made in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of Delaware, but unsuccess- 
fully, to do away with this time-honored 
custom. The motive of those who fav- 
ored the repealing of the law requiring 
this act of a witness before testifying, 
was the omnipresence of the microbe, 
which does not even respect the sacred 
volume, and the consequent danger of 
contagion. One of the opposers "wanted 
to know if it was right that men who 
believed it is necessary to go through 
certain formalties in order to be saved 
should have their faith in the Bible 
shaken by the passage of the bill." 
Another representative suggested that 
each witness should be sworn on a new 

363 



364 



EDITORIAL. 



(108) 



Bible which had been examined by a 
bacteriologist, for, said he: " there is 
a growing sentiment in favor of individ- 
ual communion cups." Another mem- 
ber was ' ' shocked at the deception prac- 
tised by witnesses who touched the 
Bible with the tips of their noses instead 
of with their lips. " Delaware is conserv- 
ative. The spirit of the times can be 
gauged by the fact that to-day there are 
comparatively few States of the Union 
where a simple affirmation, without any 
formality, is not accepted as sufficient to 
bind a witness to be veracious. Perjury 
is becoming out of date ; we must coin a 
new word to meet the emergency ; or, 
better still, let us endeavor to revive 
the true faith and bid the witness look 
upon Him whom they pierce and crucify 
again by the sin of false witness. 

LA CROIX A DREADED WEAPON. 

The enemy's note of alarm is a joyful 
sound to those beleaguered. The Ma- 
sonic newspapers in France show their 
fear of the influence of that wonderfully 
vigorous and well-organized paper, La 
Croix, which appears in Paris, but has its 
local issues in all the departments of 
France. One of the anti-clerical papers 
says : ' ' All these sheets obey the same 
direction, and receive the same word of 
command. It [La Croix] is the most 
powerful weapon of war that audacity 
and clerical fanaticism have ever in- 
vented. " Moreover, a certain sub-prefect 
addressed a confidential note to the 
mayors and teachers of his district, in 
which he begged them to watch the 
movements of the clergy, and to point 
out to them those among them who were 
engaged in propagating La Croix. Noth- 
ing could better express what the paper 
is doing for the cause of religion. The 
loyal support it is receiving from Catho- 
lics is an example for our countrymen of 
the true faith to imitate. 

HONOR FOR LA PUCELLE D'ORLEANS. 

The women of France are clamoring 
for the Government to make a national 
holiday in honor of Jeanne d'Arc. No 



wonder they are proud of her, and their 
petition is so just that it will probably 
be granted. France, in the providence 
of God, owes her national existence to 
this simple, pious, peasant Maid of Dom- 
remy. She is a phenomenal instance of 
how a woman can leave her natural 
sphere without surrendering a whit of 
her maidenliness. Wherever La Pucelle 
went, she carried with her an atmosphere 
of purity, modesty and piety. She af- 
fected her surroundings, not they her. 
All honor to the women of France who 
appreciate the character and the achieve- 
ments of Jeanne d'Arc. 

PROTESTANTISM IN GERMANY. 

Professor Harnack who enjoys the 
highest authority in Germany as a Prot- 
estant divine, in a recent address deliv- 
ered before a coterie of his co-religionists 
gives expression to the fact that Protest- 
antism in the Fatherland is tending 
toward what he calls Catholicism. ' ' The 
old, narrow, doctrinal form cf Protest- 
antism," he says, "is disappearing; 
the old relation between theolog}^ and 
Church no longer exists ; the ancient 
system of religious instruction has proved 
insufficient, there is a tendency towards 
extending, remodelling,organizing, while 
the clear conception of the fundamental 
condition of Protestantism is vanishing. " 

The learned Professor very seriously 
warns his countrymen and co-religionists 
against this movement. Such a devel- 
opment and organization of German Prot- 
estantism, would, he thinks, lead to a 
weak and ineffectual species of Catholi- 
cism, having none of the safeguards and 
advantages of Roman Catholicism. 
"Roman Catholicism," says Harnack, 
"has the Pope, it has the saints and the 
monks (The italics are Harnack 's). 
These we cannot obtain. The monastic 
tendency towards the formation of 
saints, the self-sacrifice, contempt of the 
world and devotion in the Catholic 
Church form a mighty barrier and cor- 
rective against worldliness and formal- 
ism which we do not possess. In the 




(109) 



EDITORIAL. 



365 



papacy, on the other hand, lies the 
power of adaptation to circumstances, 
personal authority as against the author- 
ity of the letter, the firm conviction that 
the Church of God in the highest in- 
stance is not to be governed by a tradi- 
tion, but by living men guided by the 
spirit of God. But Protestantism, if it 
should continue to develop on the lines 
of Catholicism, could not reach these 
ideals ; for they are excluded from its 
first principles. " 

The only logical advice for Professor 
Harnack to give his Protestant fellow- 
countrymen would be to submit to the 
pope, and the "monks and the saints " 
would soon be forthcoming from the now 
sterile soil of German Protestantism. 
Strange, that an historian and divine 
of such broad and liberal views should 
shrink from this conclusion. But stranger 
still that a rationalist, to whom Christ is 
a merely human being and the Christian 
religion is merely human work, should 
be so eager to preserve in the Fatherland 
the rigid forms of L/utheranism and be so 
shy of the slightest symptom of Catholi- 



cism. 



ARCHBISHOP RYAN'S JUBILEE. 



Readers of the MESSENGER and Asso. 
ciates of the Apostleship of Prayer owe 
a debt of gratitude to His Grace, Arch- 
bishop of Philadelphia. For ten years 
his archdiocesan city was the home of 
the Central Direction of our work, and 
during all that time he extended to it 
not only the ordinary courtesies of a kind 
ecclesiastical superior, but also a most 
gracious and encouraging personal inter- 
est. Now that he has reached the twen- 
ty-fifth anniversary of his elevation to 
the episcopate, we should gratefully 
unite our tribute of prayer to the splen- 
did festivity with which the Catholics of 
Philadelphia are preparing to celebrate 
this happy event. His Grace presides 
over a most important See, and his influ- 
ence in ecclesiastical matters in this 



country has always been as welcome as 
it has been beneficial. In praying that 
his jubilee year, and the many years yet, 
as we trust, in store for him, may be 
fraught with blessings for himself, his 
clergy and his genuine Catholic congre- 
gations, we are praying for something 
that largely affects the welfare of the 
Church in this country. 

OUR DEBT TO EINSIEDELN. 

Apropos of our sketch of ' ' Our 
Lady's Shrine in the Alps," it may be 
interesting to note that St. Meinrad's was 
the convent from which our own Bene- 
dictines came to this country. In the 
United States these zealous religious 
now number 804; two bishops, one arch- 
abbot, ten abbots and abbeys, 405 priests, 
149 professed clerics, 237 lay-brothers. 
There are two provinces or congrega- 
tions, the American Cassinesse and the 
American Swiss. 

NOT SO CATHOLIC. 

Not every newspaper that gives a pro- 
fessedly Catholic editorial now and 
then, can be said to have "a Catholic 
tone, " or to be fair to Catholic interests, 
and therefore worthy of Catholic patron- 
age. If the very same editorial page 
offer principles that are questionable or 
false, and if the news columns tell their 
stories in a manner that offends the mod- 
esty of the reader whether Catholic or 
not, a stray Catholic item or principle can- 
not leaven the entire mass. Catholic taste 
is eminently consistent and likes to find 
the truth in politics as well as in theol- 
ogy, dislikes an unprincipled partisan- 
ship in the former as well as sectarianism 
in matters of faith. A trained Catholic 
mind will detect error in the corre- 
spondence columns, no matter how 
speciously the truth may be presented 
in the editorial paragraphs. The true 
Catholic spirit detests immodesty, and 
resents calumny, no matter how plau- 
sibly the writer may sometimes treat 
Catholic topics. 



Subscriptions to the Converts' Aid 
Society in England are coming in quite 
satisfactorily. In the first month of its 
establishment nearly ,300 were re- 
ceived. Two individual benefactors have 
guaranteed sums of ,500 and /2oo 
respectively during the first year. 

Great interest is being manifested in 
Paris in the work of Christian Teachers, 
founded by the Countess d 'Adhemar and 
much favored by the late Mgr. d'Hulst. 
Its object is to form model governesses 
who will be capable of giving solid 
reasons for their faith and of defending 
it ably wherever they may be placed. 

The Abbe Roussel, the well-known 
founder of the work for Orphan Appren- 
tices, died lately. He was born in 1825, 
and was an assistant priest in Paris and 
a military chaplain, when in 1865 he 
took pity on a little street urchin and 
lodged him in his room. Within a week 
he had given shelter to six. The work 
was founded, but where was the house 
to accommodate them ? He heard of an 
old villa for sale at Auteuil. He collected 
alms and bought it, though it was very 
much out of repair. On St. Joseph's 
day, 1866, he installed the little family. 
Naturally, the work became popular and 
grew rapidly. Four times a year he had 
a band of these forsaken lads prepared 
for their First Communion. But should 
he then send them out to battle with the 
world, would they persevere ? He re- 
solved to keep them and make Christian 
apprentices of them. He began to have 
all the trades taught; his printing 
press was especially remarkable. From 
it issued weekly, La France Illustree, 
noted alike for its matter and illustra- 
tions, and the other illustrated weekly 
L'Ami des Enfants. 

In 1878 the French Academy awarded 
the Abbe a Monthyon prize of 2,500 
francs. This was most timely, for it 
came when he was 200,000 francs in 
debt. This he made known and within 
eight days a subscription brought him 

366 



in 33 l , l 77 francs, and the work was- 
saved. 

In 1887, a violent attack was made on 
the good Abbe and his little flock, but 
he went on in spite of it, receiving 
orphans until he had over 16,000. 
Finally, May 12, 1895, grown feeble 
from a long and laborious life, he con- 
fided his work to the Brothers of St. 
Vincent de Paul. 

In 1882 he established at Billancourt 
an institution for uncared for little girls 
and placed it under the direction of the 
Sisters of the Child Jesus. Truly we can 
say of good Abbe Roussel that he rests 
from his labors, and that his works 
follow him. 



The Cure of Saint-Claude ( Jura > 
erected a cross in the cemetery. The 
municipal council met soon after, and a 
councillor who had not spoken at any 
meeting during the twelve years in 
which he had held office, spoke to have 
the cross removed. This was ordered to 
be done within twenty-four hours. The 
devil and his followers always have 
hated the cross. 



A good sister of charity, Sister Elios- 
ippe, in charge of a school for many 
years at Cudot, France, was in the habit 
of providing free medicines for the poor 
of the district. Government officials 
seized her supplies and condemned her 
to pay a heavy fine of 500 francs for 
infringing on the law of monopoly of 
pharmaceutical products. An appeal to 
the court at Paris has resulted in revers- 
ing the decision, since acts of charity 
cannot fall under the penalty of the law. 
The medicines were returned. 



At the annual meeting of the Academy 
of Moral and Political Science the Audif- 
fred prize of fifteen thousand francs was 
awarded to the Catholic Missions of Cen- 
tral Africa, which have so powerfully 
worked against slavery. The heads of 
the two principal Centres have received 
it for division : Mgr. Augouard, C.S. Sp., 

(no) 




INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



367 



7icar Apostolic of Congo, and Mgr. directors of Neutral Education are all 
v ivinhac, Superior General of the White rampant Protestants. Verily the minor- 
Bathers, ity rules. 



This same academy has awarded a 
orize to the fine book of M. Lou vet : 
Les Missions Catholiques au XIX e . Siecle. 
The author states that 30 committees or 
congregations have at present 13,314 
priests in 300 missions scattered over the 
world ; 2 1 institutes of Brothers provide 
these missions with 4,500 catechists ; 
42,300 Sisters of various congregations 
are in charge of schools and hospitals. 
A century ago there were only about 300 
apostolic workmen in the field. Two- 
thirds of the missionaries are French, 
four-fifths of the Brothers and Sisters 
corne from France; that country supplies 
the chief funds; she can claim five-sixths 
of the martyrs, for of the 119 priests put 
to death within a hundred years in hatred 
of the faith 95 were French. 



It is interesting to note what a profita- 
ble thing it is sometimes to be a cham- 
pion of the " poor, down -trodden people, 
the victims of rich capitalists, " etc. M. 
Rochefort, editor of a socialistic, radical 
paper, receives for his pay the comfort- 
able sum of 242,000 francs a year. No 
wonder he pities the "proletariat." He 
can afford to. 



It is lawful to learn a lesson even from 
a teacher whose morals we cannot en- 
dorse. Mme. Sarah Bernhardt gave the 
following view of the woman bicyclist : 
" I believe, " she said, "that the bicy- 
clist is on the high way to transform 
our manner of life more profoundly, it 
seems to me, than is imagined. All 
these young women, all these young 
girls who fly along, devouring space, re- 
nounce family life for a considerable por- 
tion of their time." 



France has a population of about 39,- 
000,000. Of these only some 100,000 are 
Jews. Yet this absurdly small minority 
rules the country. Jews fill 49 prefect- 
ships or subprefectships; there are 19 in 
the State Council ; 10 in the Court of 
Appeals ; 10 counsellors in the Court of 
Paris ; a considerable number in other 
Courts and Tribunals, and in education ; 
ii officials in the department of agricul- 
ture ; 21 in the direction of the Post 
Office ; 30 in the Department of Public 
Works ; 27 in that of Finance ; 35 in 
that of Public Instruction. When Jews 
fail, Protestants are taken, and the 3 



Another instance of the same spirit is 
seen in the little town of Delle, which has a 
population of 2,500. Of these only 150- 
are Protestants or Jews, yet the munici- 
pal Council withdrew the usual allow- 
ance for Catholic worship, while contin- 
uing that for Protestants and Jews. 
Happily the Council of the Prefecture of 
Besanon has reversed this decision. 

Lige has celebrated the twelfth cen- 
tenary of the martyrdom of its reputed 
founder, the Bishop St. Lambert. Fif- 
teen bishops and the Cardinal Arch- 
bishop of Mechlin, Mgr. Dechamps, took 
part. The wonderful procession, relig- 
ious and historical, attracted one hun- 
dred thousand strangers to the ancient 
city. A remarkable feature of the pa- 
geant were the portable shrines, oijsreli- 
quaries, of all the great Saints ot the 
diocese, which were, for the most part, 
marvels of the goldsmith's skill, and 
dating back many centuries. Foremost 
was the great golden bust containing the 
skull of St. Lambert, which happily 
escaped the French Revolutionists, who 
contented themselves with stealing the 
precious stones. 

M. Tourlet, a druggist of Chinon 
(France), possesses an old bottle contain- 
ing some bones, over the stopper of which 
is a bit of parchment, sealed with red 
wax, on which are the words in seven- 
teenth century French writing; ' 'Remains 
found beneath the scaffoldof Jeanne d' Arc, 
Maid of Orleans," The supposition is 
that some one collected them on the 
night of May 31, 1431, as relics. A 
commission, under the presidency of the 
Bishop of Orleans, has examined the 
matter. It states that the bottle has 
been closed since the seventeenth cen- 
tury. It then opened and took out a 
packet wrapped in an old cloth of pure 
hemp going back at least to the fifteenth 
century. This wrapper contained three 
bones and two bits of wood. One of the 
bones is a portion of a human rib. It is 
covered with a sort of pitchy substance. 
One of the pieces of wood has a similar 
covering. The other bones are not of a 
human skeleton. Probably, whoever 
gathered them, picked up whatever he 
could find beneath the scaffold. Under 
analysis, the fragment of the side offers 
the composition of human bones, but 



368 



INTERESTS OF THE HEART OF JESUS. 



(112) 



the calcination by the fire has caused it to 
lose, before it was picked up, all trace of 
bony envelope. It is known that, to an- 
nihilate the body of Jeanne, whose heart 
and entrails, according to witnesses, re- 
sisted the action of fire, the execution- 
ers used oil, sulphur and coal. Does 
not this explain the coating on the bone 
and bit of wood ? Canon Cochard, at 
the end of his report, announces : ' ' That 
there is at least great probability that 
we possess a rib of Jeanne d'Arc. " 

Five bells are to be placed in the tower 
of the national monument to Jeanne 
d'Arc in her native place, Domremy. 
Two of these have already been pre- 
sented, the other three are to be paid for 
by subscriptions of ten cents (fifty cen- 
times) a person. 

The receipts at the conferences of St. 
Vincent de Paul in France for 1895 were 
2,227,203 francs; other offerings make up 
a grand total of 7,726,007 francs be- 
stowed upon the poor by the Brothers of 
St. Vincent de Paul conferences. 



What a glorious day for France was 
the last seventeenth of January, when 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Na- 
tional Vow was solemnized in the Votive 
Basilica of the Sacred Heart, on Mont- 
martre. The Cardinal Archbishop of 
Paris celebrated the Mass, at which very 
many received Holy Communion ; the 
men being well represented. After a 
short address Cardinal Richard read the 
Act of Consecration to the Sacred Heart. 
In the afternoon deputations from the 
city and the provinces arrived, 7,000 
men in all ! Under the lead of General 
de Charette, 150 Pontifical Zouaves were 
present, but not in uniform. More than 
i, 800 men were ranked under the ban- 
ners of the capitals of each department. 
Vespers were sung by this great con- 
course of men, and after a sermon by 
Pere Feuillette, they all joined in re- 
peating aloud the Act of Consecration. 



When the late Rev. Brother Joseph, 
Thirteenth General of the Brothers of 
the Christian Schools, became superior, 
in 1884, there were 12.000 Brothers, with 
300,000 pupils under their charge. At 
his death he left 15,000 Brothers with 
350,000 boys. His government was 
characterized by intelligence, prudence 
and firmness, and he had much at heart 
the founding of associations to guard 
the graduates of his schools from the 
evil influences of the day. 



The work of the Catholic Universities 
of France is beginning to tell through 
their numerous graduates. The public 
is awakening to the fact that they aee 
deserving of support. The Catholic 
Institute of Paris in 1885 had only 284 
students; in 1891, 410; in 1897, it has 
719. 

lyeo XIII. has announced his inten- 
tion of sending the Golden Rose this 
year to the Duchess Maria Theresa, wife 
of Duke Philip of Wiirtemberg, who, in 
all likelihood, will one day wear the 
royal crown of Wiirtemburg and be the 
first Catholic King of this important 
South German State since the Reforma- 
tion. The Duchess is a pious and 
charming woman, and worthy of this 
distinction. 



Mrs. Mary M. White, nee Windsor, 
before her death, on January 25, at An- 
napolis, Md., made a statement before a 
notary public in which she retracted all 
she had said about the Catholic Church 
and the life of nuns. Some years ago 
she posed on the lecture platform as 
an escaped nun. She also made serious 
charges against certain priests. 



Mr. Rudd, a colored man, and editor 
of the American Catholic Tribune of 
Detroit, Michigan, is responsible for 
the following statistics concerning his 
race in the United States. They are 
paying taxes on $370,000,000 worth of 
property, have 57 college presidents, 30,- 
ooo school teachers, 25,000 Piotestant 
ministers who have studied theology, 
100 authors on different subjects, 1,000 
lawyers, 800 doctors, 250 newepapers, 2 
dailies, 4 magazines, 4 banks and sev- 
eral building loan associations. Accord- 
ing to him there are 10,000,000 negroes 
with the right of suffrage. Out of that 
population only 2,900,000 are professing 
Christians, and, out of this number, only 
250,000 adults are Catholic, with 2 priests 
and 30 seminarists, 3 convents with 
about 200 sisters. Mr. Rudd is interested 
in founding the National Catholic Indus- 
trial School for colored youths, where all 
trade branches will be taught. He says : 
' ' The colored man in his love of music 
and ceremony, in his gratitude and sub- 
mission in suffering, and in his needs, is 
naturally a Catholic, and I hope to see 
him very largely represented in the Cath- 
olic Church in a few years. " 




DIRECTORS-REVIEW 




Phis Month's 

Intention. 



Those who have read 
Father Ramiere's Apos- 
tleship of Prayer will re- 
member his chapter on the communion 
of saints. This great dogma of our faith 
was, to his mind, one of the principles 
ipon which our Apostleship was based. 
The community of interests which unites 
as in one body the saints of the Church 
Triumphant and the elect of the Church 
Militant brought home to him the im- 
portance and necessity of prayer. The 
communion of saints implies that the 
members of Christ depend upon one 
another and mutually share the influ- 
ence ttyey receive from Him as their 
Head. Prayer is the great means by 
which we can help those who depend 
upon us, as it is also the chief means by 
which we can derive help from those 
upon whom we depend. 

We have quoted from 
sources. several sources in explain- 
ing the General Intention 
this month. Indeed, the sources on this 
topic are so plentiful that there would 
be little need of explaining it at all, only 
some might not have our references at 
hand. Those who wish to obtain excel- 
lent reading on the subject should read 
DeVere's essay on "A Saint," in his 
Essays Chiefly on Poetry, a study 'we 
cannot commend too highly. Alban 
Butler has some good points in the Pref- 
ace and Introductory Discourse to his 
Lives of the Saints, Father Ribade- 
neira is charming and his remarks on 
this point are well translated in the Eng- 
lish version of his Lives. Father Du Pont 
has a few good chapters on it in his 
Spiritual Guide. Father Giry treats it 
more thoroughly than any of the others 
in his epilogue to the Petites Bollan- 
distes* 

Special We are often asked to 

intentions, recommend in our General 

Intention things of great 

importance to Catholics in this country. 

It does not depend upon us to determine 

the General Intentions which are chosen 

for the entire world; but we can recom- 



mend in a. special manner the interests 
which affect us more than Catholics in 
other nations. There is no reason why, 
besides praying for the particular inten- 
tions recommended in our Calendar, we 
should not keep in view other things 
also; for instance, we might pray at the 
present holy season that the missions 
given in so many churches at this time 
may be successful; we should also rec- 
ommend about the time of Holy Week 
the welfare of the holy places in Jeru- 
salem, which are made an object of our 
charity on Good Friday; the missions for 
colored and Indian people are properVub- 
jects of prayer just now, and so is the 
promised prosperity for which we have 
been waiting so long and patiently. 



The Statutes. 



"I am pleased beyond 
measure, ' ' writes a Local 
Director, ' ' that the Revised Statutes are 
so simple and yet so complete. ' ' What 
pleases him pleases all who have read 
them with any attention. As soon as 
we shall have received from the Modera- 
tor General the various explanations 
and decisions he may see fit to give in 
answer to the questions raised by the 
revision, we shall publish them for our 
Directors, in order that no time may be 
lost in applying them, and in obtaining 
by them the many advantages they are. 
meant to bring to our League. 

The Catholic Columbian, 
me i y ,, - . a Catholic weekly, which 

Editorial. J ' . ., 

has always promoted the 
interest of the Apostleship, printed lately 
the following advice in its editorial col- 
umns : "All Catholics should belong 
to the Apostleship of Prayer. Its one 
essential obligation is to offer up the 
prayers, works, and sufferings of the day 
for the Intentions of the Sacred Heart, 
for the General Intention of the League 
for the month and for the intentions of 
all the members of the organization. 
One half minute in the morning will 
fulfil this obligation." 

The Columbian prints many an edi- 
torial of this pious character, and its 

369 



370 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



(114) 



paragraphs on current topics are just as 
well phrased. 

We have never recom- 

I/eagUe H ninai mended the League Devo- 
tions and Choral Service 
so strongly as a Local Director does in 
the following letter: "I think this 
League choral service in music is grand, 
indeed. I have the Sacred Heart devo- 
tion on every first Sunday of the month, 
with choral service, and I must say, 
amongst the different afternoon services 



the Sacred Heart devotions take the 
lead. The choral service I use for the 
congregational singing, and it is very 
effective. The congregation likes this 
beautiful devotion. The choir and con- 
gregation render the singing with ex- 
pression and effect. I wish that this 
choral service could be introduced in all 
the League Centres of our United States. 
A little patience and practice required 
of the priest and choir singers will lead 
to its success. " 



To PROMOTERS. 



Promoters 

in April. 



In April Promoters 
should try to gain, and 
have their Associates gain, 
the plenary Indulgence granted to all 
the members of the Apostleship who re- 
ceive Holy Communion with the inten- 
tion of making reparation for those who 
neglect to make their Easter duty. About 
the time of Holy Week and Easter they 
can be of great help to pastors who are 
striving to have the ceremonies of the 
Church performed worthily ; if they 
would only urge their Associates to make 
a congregation, it would be doing a great 
deal. As May comes they will find 
many opportunities in preparing for the 
May devotions, First Communions, and 
the different festivals that are commonly 
kept during this month. Zeal, as well as 
prayer, is a duty of every Promoter. 
" Catholic Books in Public Libraries, " is 
an article in this number of the MES- 
SENGER, which we commend to their no- 
tice ; it may suggest a proper field of 
zeal for many of them. 

The folded intention 
^Blanks blank i s evidently as con- 
venient for Local Directors 
and Secretaries as for ourselves. If they 
could appreciate how much it facilitates 
our work, they would use it even at their 
own inconvenience. It is not meant to 
exclude the use of the smaller intention 
blanks ; on the contrary, the new form 
adopted for these, and the reduction in 
price, makes them much more useful 
than before. It is needless to remind 
Promoters that these blanks help won- 
derfully the practice of mutual prayer 
for which the Apostleship exists. 

It takes time to insti- 
a change such as we 
have lately made in our 
various periodicals. Usually, it is nec- 



Intention 



Ab 

subscriptions. 



essary to repeat the notifications about 
such changes over and over again. We 
are fortunate, however, in having for the 
most part subscribers who heed first 
notices, and this is why all our readers 
now understand that a subscription to 
the MESSENGER OF THE SACRED HEART 
now includes subscription to the Messen- 
ger Supplement, both reaching sub- 
scribers the fifteenth of each month. 
From the increase of subscribers to the 
Messenger Supplement only, it is clear 
that all understand that this can be 
taken separately. The Pilgrim of Our 
Lady of Martyrs is now published as 
a separate periodical, entirely distinct 
from the MESSENGER OF THE SACRED 
HEART, and from the Messenger Supple- 
ment. It was gratifying to note the 
number of subscribers who were disap- 
pointed at not receiving the Pilgrim, 
because they had overlooked the fact 
that we send our periodicals only to 
those who expressly order them or renew 
their subscription. 

We never employ a col- 
ToiLtion lec * on agency to collect 
Agencies, amounts due for subscrip- 
tions to our periodicals or 
for other supplies. Our own agents, 
who are usually known to subscribers and 
to our Local Directors, or at least prop- 
erly furnished with credentials, are the 
only ones authorized to solicit new sub- 
scriptions, or collect amounts due on old 
bills. Fortunately our present system 
makes the latter task seldom necessary, 
and we are constantly being thanked by 
Directors and others for saving them 
from the embarrassment of contracting 
debts. We shall always be glad to re- 
ceive application from Promoters who 
may wish to act as agents for the MES- 
SENGER and Supplement. 



(1 5) 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



371 



T e Emblem. 



.ely 



To meet the demand for 
our emblem, we have 
authorized several jewellers to 



we have ever officially issued for Asso- 
ciates of the League; aparl from this 
fact, its beauty and cheap price lecom- 



pply it to their customers. We remind mend it as the most popular for its pur- 
r readers that this is the only emblem pose. 



THE APOSTLESHIP ABROAD. 



SOUTH AMERICA. A zealous Pro- 
moter sends from California an intert st- 
ir g account of the flourishing condition 
of the Apostleship of Prayer in Santos, 
South America. 

In 1886, a civil engineer, an Associate 
of the League, passing through Santos 
met a friend who had been a Promoter in 
Petropolis and was surprised to find that 
the Promoter had given up the work. 
He urged her to begin again and to the 
objection that there were many obstacles, 
he replied ; " Oh, never mind the obsta- 
cles. Go on with the work, and I'll send 
you a statue of the Sacred Heart for the 
church." 

Two years later the engineer while 
travelling in France, bought a beautiful 
life-size statue of the Sacred Heart and 
sent it, in fulfilment of his promise, to 
the old church at Santos. 

The fervor of the people was awakened 
by the practices of the Apostleship, and 
a new church dedicated to the Sacred 
Heart is building to replace the old one. 
The land on which the new church stands 
was the gift of the Promoter, although a 
woman of over fifty years of age she gave 
all her savings in order to secure the land 
for the Church of the Sacred Heart. 

The Lord is rewarding her in the tangi- 
ble results of her apostolate. There are 
now, through her efforts, 1126 Associates 
and where formerly twenty communions 
on Easter Sunday was considered good 
for a year, there are at least 100 every 
First Friday. 

The good work is spreading and in the 
district of San Paolo, about thirty miles 
away, the results are more gratifying. 
There are about 100 daily communi- 
cants. A zealous Associate like the en- 
gineer and an active Promoter can, with 
God's help, effect much for the glory of 
God. 

ALBANIA. A correspondent from 
Austria draws our attention to the omis- 
sion on our recent list of Messengers, of 
the Albanian Messenger, the Eleija, 
which is published in Scutari, under the 
editorship of Rev. Father Genovizzi, S J. 
The Eleija is widely circulated among 
the Albanians, and has been a very 



effective means of propagating the devo- 
tion to the Sacred Heart among them. 
"Wonderful conversions have been ob- 
tained by our missionaries," says our 
correspondent, "in the mountains of 
Albania by the preaching of the devo- 
tion to the Sacred Heart. These conver- 
sions are often published in the Eleija 
and render its perusal very interest- 
ing. The Sacred Heart often rewards the 
devotion of the Albanians with numer- 
ous favors and graces, which are also re- 
corded in the Messenger, ' ' 

CROATIA. We give the following,, in- 
teresting extracts from the Glasmk or 
Crotian Messe7iger . 

A new college consecrated to the Sacred 
Heart. A new boarding-school was 
opened at Segna, one of the episcopal 
towns of Crotia, last December. Besides 
a large gathering of townsmen, a good 
many people had come from outside to 
witness the opening ceremony. At nine 
o'clock, the Right Rev. A. Maurovic, 
Bishop of Segna, solemnly pontificated 
at the Cathedral. Mass being over, 
a devout procession moved from the 
Cathedral to the new building; the 
large crowd, the clergy (sixty priests 
and fifteen canons) singing the Veni 
Creator on the way. After the recital 
of the prayers prescribed by the Ritual, 
His Lordship ended the devout ceremony 
with the dedication of the new institu- 
tion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, whose 
beautiful statue he had just before un- 
veiled and blessed. Then the procession 
made its way back to the Cathedral sing- 
ing the Te Deum. 

Very Rev. Aloysius Pareparambil, was 
consecrated bishop of Tyana and vicar- 
apostolic of Ernakolam, on the twenty- 
fifth of October, 1896, at Kandy, Ceylon. 

On the twenty-fifth of November, the 
first diocesan conference, presided over 
by him, was held on a grand scale 
at St. Mary's Church, Ernakolam. In 
accordance with the programme, His 
Lordship delivered a short, but eloquent, 
address on the devotion of the League of 
the Sacred Heart, and expressed his 
desire of dedicating the Ernakolam 



372 



DIRECTOR'S REVIEW. 



(116) 



Vicariate to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 
About one hundred priests and two 
hundred representatives of the laity 
were present for the conference. With 
one voice they accepted the bishop's 
proposal. The League was formally 
established. The prayer of dedication 
was read aloud by one of the clergy and 
repeated in turn by the assembled multi- 
tude. All those who assisted at the serv- 
ices were moved as if the Sacred Heart 
had sent its fire to kindle their hearts 
with divine love. As soon as the dedi- 
cation ceremonies were over, His Lord- 



ship spoke about the devotion of the 
Nine Fridays, the Communion of Repa- 
ration, and the public adoration of the 
Blessed Sacrament, and requested the 
clergy to be very earnest and diligent in 
propagating this devotion. 

While Drs. Lavigne, S.J., and Medly- 
cott were our Vicars-Apostolic, this ad- 
mirable devotion was implanted in our 
hearts. Now, we hope, in the immense 
goodness of the Sacred Heart, that the 
League will reach far and wide through- 
out this vicariate, and produce a plente- 
ous spiritual harvest. 



THE APOSTLESHIP AT HOME. 



ST. JOSEPH'S CENTRE, TROY, N. Y. 
The League Guide and first annual of 
St. Joseph's Church contains some items 
of exceptional interest. 

St. Joseph's Centre was organized 
in September, 1888, and almost immedi- 
ately became, what it has since been, 
one of the most important religious forces 
of the community. At the present mo- 
ment it is impossible to give the number 
of its Associates with accuracy. How- 
ever, a conservative estimate founded 
on the number of monthly leaflets dis- 
tributed, and on incomplete returns 
by reports, give for January, 1897 : 

Associates in the First Degree only 2,000 
" " Second and Third 

Degrees .... 7,000 



Probable total of Associates of the 

League Centre . . 9,000 

At the date of its organization this 
Centre had forty Promoters. They 
rapidly increased to the number of three 
hundred or more, which figure has been 
retained up to the date of this writing. 
At present the Promoters stand as fol- 
lows: 

Men Women Total 
Promoters of St. Joseph's 

congregation . 62 115 177 

Promoters of other con- 
gregations . , 130 130 

Total 62 245 307 

During the eight and more years of its 
existence St. Joseph's Centre has been 
active from a devotional standpoint, 
but within the past four months it has 
made important developments on the 
side of parochial and charitable work 
dear to the Sacred Heart. The in- 
mates of the County House are visited 
and cheered, the use of pious articles 
is increased amongst the faithful, con- 



verts and First Communicants are in- 
structed, and the cause of temperance 
is advanced. The Promoters have re- 
organized and improved the parish 
library. Their night school for young 
men and boys continues with undi- 
minished ardor on the part of its seventy 
grateful students, quite rivalling that of 
twenty-six instructors (teaching in bands 
of five), all of whom hold positions in the 
Troy public schools. Meanwhile God's 
poor are not forgotten. The Aid Com- 
mittee, with the co-operation of the 
body of the Promoters, is making stren- 
uous and successful efforts to enable the 
needy to bear the rigors of the prevail- 
ing hard times. 

ST. JOSEPH'S CENTRE, PITTSFIELD, 
MASS. A very interesting sketch of the 
history and working of the Apostleship 
of Prayer in Pittsfield was recently pub- 
lished in the Father Matthew Herald. 
It was organized in 1892, by Rev. 
Francis McCarthy, S.J., and has now 
on its registers, 7,000. From it, six 
other Centres have been formed in as 
many neighboring congregations. 

ST. MARY'S CENTRE, NEWBURGH, N.Y. 
The Apostleship was started here 
last summer by one of the Fathers of 
the Head Centre of New York City. 
Since then it increased very steadily by 
the judicious guidance of the zealous Local 
Director. On Sunday, February 7, fifty 
Promoters of St. Mary's received their 
well-earned Diplomas and Crosses well- 
earned, according to the testimony of 
their reverend pastor, Dr. McGlynn, who 
presided. Father Malone, of Brook- 
lyn preached the sermon. They have 
in that short time brought at least 
one-half of the congregation into the 
League. Few Centres, have, in such 
a short time, and in proportion to 




SOME REMARF/BLE CONVERSIONS. 



373 



their number, done so much towards 
the circulation of the MESSENGER as St. 
Mary's. This is a sure indication of pres- 
ent, and an earnest of future success. 

ST. BRIDGET'S CENTRE, ETTRICK,WIS. 
I am happy to inform you that the 
League of the divine Heart was success- 
fully established here during our recent 
mission by Rev. Father Murtagh, C.M. 
We have at present 150 members belong- 
ing to the ist Degree, most of whom also 
practise the 26. Degree, and some have 
joined the 3d Degree. We expect to re- 
cruit about fifty more members, the com- 
ing month. 

ST. BONIFACE CENTRE, PHILADELPHIA, 
PA., reports 755 members of the First 
Degree, 764 of the Second ; 588 of the 
Third ; Number of leaflets distributed, 
2,120. 

ST. IGNATIUS' CENTRE, NEW YORK 
CITY. Since October 17, 1895 (till Janu- 
ary 25, 1897) we have enrolled 2,358 new 
members at our Centre. 

ST. MARY'S CENTRE, CLINTON, N. Y. 
The League was successfully estab- 
lished here on January 17. 506 took 
the ist Degree ; 326 the 2d Degree ; and 
190 the 3d Degree, promising to make 
the Communion of Reparation each 
month. 



ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST'S CENTRE, 
BROOKLYN, N. Y. We are exceedingly 
gratified at the success of the League 
of the Sacred Heart since its establish- 
ment five years ago in our parish. It 
is in a most prosperous condition. Our 
Associates number over 1,500, and our 
Promoters 80. 

In honor of the Sacred Heart, a daily 
Communion of Reparation is made by 
one of the Promoters or Associates of 
the League, and the same devout clients 
of the Heait of Hearts spend half an 
hour each day praising, thanking and 
adoring Jesus in the most Holy Sacra- 
ment of the Altar. 

On the First Friday we have : In the 
morning, at eight o'clock, solemn Mass, 
followed by exposition of the Blessed 
Sacrament during the remaining part of 
the day. In the evening, at 8 o'clock, 
are announced the petitions of the faith- 
ful to the Sacred Heart, and the good 
works performed in honor of thejsame 
adorable Heart. A short sermon is then 
preached, after which acts of reparation 
and consecration are read, and benedic- 
tion of the Most Blessed Sacrament is 
given. 

The Promoters of the League meet the 
third Sunday of each month in one of 
the rooms of St. John's College. 



SOME REMARKABLE CONVERSIONS. 



SINCE the erection of the Dahlgren 
Chapel, at Georgetown University, 
which is dedicted to the Sacred 
Heart, some remarkable conversions 
have taken place here, a brief recital of 
which will doubtless prove interesting 
to the readers of the MESSENGER. In 
submitting them for publication I grate- 
fully fulfil a promise made to the Sacred 
Heart. 

I. 

Some five years ago I made the ac- 
quaintance of an influential business 
man, a German, who, after leaving the 
elementary school, had entirely aban- 
doned his religion. Having completed 
his education in Germany and spent 
some time in France and England, he 
came to this country. He had imbibed 
a thorough hatred and contempt of re- 
ligion from the reading of such works as 
those of Rousseau and Voltaire. His 
superior ability and education soon se- 



cured him an independent position as 
business manager in a large concern. 
In a short time he himself was the pro- 
prietor of a business establishment of 
world-wide fame. He married outside 
the Church, became a Freemason and 
soon occupied a high degree in the lodge. 

Soon after our first acquaintance I 
drew his attention to his responsibility 
for his children. But he rejoined that, 
in his opinion, the children should be al- 
lowed to choose their own religion after 
they came to the years of discretion. 
I gave him Father von Hammer- 
stein's Edgar and What Is Christ? by 
Father Roh, to read. But he tried to 
evade their arguments. If God wished 
him to believe, he said, why did He 
not work a miracle before his eyes ? It 
would be an easy matter for Him, he 
thought 

I insisted on his praying, but he ob- 
jected that he could not pray, as he felt 
no inclination that way. 



374 



SOME REMARKABLE CONVERSIONS. 



(118) 



Meanwhile I daily made a memento 
for him in the holy sacrifice of the Mass 
and promised publication in the MES- 
SENGER in case of his conversion. Now 
divine Providence, which so far had 
given him all the temporal success, 
prosperity and happiness his heart could 
crave for, sent him a series of very severe 
trials. First, his beautiful villa, where 
he had treasured up a valuable collec- 
tion of precious objects and curiosities, 
in which he prided himself not a little, 
was, on one bleak December day, reduced 
to ashes. The next calamity befell his 
youngest son, his special favorite, whose 
left eye was accidentally pierced by a 
lead pencil. Despite the best medical 
treatment and enormous expenses the 
boy has remained hopelessly blind of 
that eye. The third was the severest 
blow of all. His only daughter, just out 
of school, died on the very anniversary 
of the first mentioned misfortune. 

The loving parents were inconsolable. 
I called at Christmas to offer him the 
good wishes of the season ' ' No meny 
Christmas for me ! " he said, and began 
to weep bitterly. He then called his 
wife, who explained to me the cause of 
their grief, and added that a few months 
before the girl had, of her own free choice, 
been baptized in the Protestant Church. 
Yet her remains were cremated in right 
pagan fashion 

Having listened to tne mother's dole- 
ful tale I spoke to them of the loving 
disposition of divine Providence, which 
prepared the child's soul by baptism 
while chastising the father for his obsti- 
nacy. My intimate acquaintance en- 
titled me to speak freely to them. 

The mother was greatly affected, and 
was soon, with two of her little boys, 
baptized in the same Protestant Church ; 
and, led more by sentiment than by faith, 
rented the same pew which the deceased 
girl used to occupy, where she easily 
persuaded her husband to accompany 
her. But he found no relief in his sor- 
row. In his despair and unbelief he 
went even so far as to visit a spiritist, in 
order to obtain a glimpse of his daughter. 
For the paltry sum of a dollar she was 
shown him, but only in outline. He 
thought he heard her say : ' ' Follow 
mamma ! ' ' 

Next morning he came to see me, the 
very picture of despair. "I am an un- 
happy man," he began, "I have no 
rest; I come to ask you what to do." 
He then told me his spiritistic experi- 
ence. It took me some time to convince 



him that God was not likely to put his 
child at the disposal of a spiritist for the 
sum of one dollar ; and, on the other 
hand, that the evil spirits were very 
much interested to have him ' ' follow 
mamma." I asked him if he had not 
finally come to believe in the divinity of 
Jesus Christ. After some hesitation he 
said, "Yes," and began to repeat the 
argument of Father Roh, that if Christ 
is not God He must have been a liar or a 
fool; and neither could be said of Him. 

I then conducted him to the chapel of 
the Sacred Heart. Following my ex- 
ample, he took holy water, and made the 
sign of the cross. He then knelt on 
the floor, apparently much moved. I 
then led him up to the communion rail, 
and explained to him the beautiful 
stained-glass picture of the Sacred 
Heart, and added that the Sacred Heart 
is the fountain of true happiness. ' ' That 
is what was wanting to me, "he said, 
" thus far I have sought only what was 
material, and in that I found no happi- 
ness. " 

Before we parted he assured me that he 
felt much relieved, and spontaneously 
declared himself ready henceforth to 
comply with all the commandments of 
the Church: to hear Mass on Sundays 
and holidays, to abandon the lodge, to 
go to confession and Communion, and 
to keep the abstinence. 

Meanwhile Masses, prayers and no- 
venas were offered for him. Within a 
week he had made his confession, and 
on the feast of the Ascension, in that 
same chapel of the Sacred Heart, he re- 
ceived holy Communion the first time in 
thirty-five years 

II. 

On Easter Sunday of last j*ear the 
Dahlgren chapel was the scene of another 
very remarkable conversion, which shows 
the merciful love of the Sacred Heart. 
It was that of a chaplain of the Navy, an 
Anglican of ritualistic tendencies. He 
believed all the articles of the faith ex- 
cept the supremacy of the Pope. He also 
thought that his orders were valid, ad- 
ministered all the sacraments, and 
dressed, and behaved in all things, like a 
Catholic priest. 

Of late years he had been detailed as 
chaplain to a school ship, where there 
were many Catholic as well as Protestant 
cadets. Having little influence over his 
Protestant hearers, he took much inte* 1 - 
est in the Catholic boys, and as no Cath- 
olic service was allowed on board, and 



SOME REMARKABLE CONVERSIONS. 



375 



they were not permitted to go ashore 
alone, he accompanied them himself to 
the Catholic church, and introduced them 
to the pastor. He even taught them their 
own catechism, and thus prepared them 
for confession, Communion and confirma- 
tion, and presented them in the best dis- 
position to the Catholic priest. 

The Sacred Heart generously rewarded 
his charity and zeal, and soon showed 
him his error. He recognized the su- 
premacy of the successor of St. Peter, 
and fearlessly followed his conviction. 
What a terrible sacrifice ! He had a 
wife and children. All his studies had 
been of a clerical nature. Without any 
fixed means of support he faces a world 
with which he is but little familiar. But 
he is resolved to do the will of God, 
come what may. Magnanimously he 
followed the direction of the Catholic 
priest, to whom his charity has greatly 
endeared him. He spent Holy Week 
here in retreat, devoutly preparing him- 
self for the important step he was about 
to take. On Holy Saturday he made his 
profession of faith and received condi- 
tional baptism, and, after a contrite con- 
fession of his whole life, on Easter Day 
made his First Communion in the Chapel 
of the Sacred Heart. 

He immediately resigned his commis- 
sion and is now studying law in order to 
fit himself for a profession in which he 
may honorably support his wife and 
family. 

III. 

Whitsuntide of this same year brought 
another stray sheep into the true 
fold. She is the daughter of a German 
Lutheran mother and non-practical Catho- 
lic father. She was educated with great 
strictness, but without religious princi- 
ples. When the time came to declare 
herself to the Lutheran persuasion, she 
absolutely refused; religion she would 
have none. The death of her parents 
soon threw her on her own resources, but 
this condition only confirmed her in her 
unbelief. 

Yet the loving Heart of the Good 
Shepherd watched over her. She obtained 
for a short time a position as teacher of 
art in a Catholic noble family. The piety 
of this family, both in their own private 
chapel and in the public church kneel- 
ing side by side with the simple peasant- 
ry, made a deep impression on her. Yet 
she remained in her unbelief, until one 



day one of the young ladies of the house 
happened to remark, as if by chance: 
"What a pity you are not a Catholic ! " 
This simple remark set her a thinking. 
She saw the misery of her own condition 
and the happiness of religion in the case 
of the young noblewoman. 

She was just about to set out for 
America. She thought she would make 
a beginning before entering upon her 
journey. Her first step was to procure 
a copy of the Following of Christ to read 
on the journey. Its pious maxims deep- 
ened the impressions already received. 
Arrived at her destination her first search 
was for a Catholic priest, with whom she 
discussed the existence of God and other 
philosophical questions She was study- 
ing Stockl's Handbook of Philosophy, vf^n 
she found a situation as governess in our 
vicinity and was directed to me for in- 
struction. I made her acquainted with 
the books of Father von Hammerstein, 
which she eagerly devoured. Soon,, how- 
ever, she gladly exchanged philoVophy 
for piety, and spent more time in visit- 
ing the churches and praying than in 
study. 

On the feast of Pentecost, after due 
preparation, having made her profession 
of faith, and being conditionally bap- 
tized, she received our Lord for the first 
time in the Dahlgren Chapel. The noble 
lady who gave her the first religious im- 
pulse acted as godmother by proxy. 

Some two years and a half ago, the 
son of a prominent astronomer, himself 
an astronomer and mathematician, was 
received into the Church by his abjura- 
tion, and made his First Communion in 
the chapel of the Sacred Heart. Of 
Puritan descent, he had become an 
Episcopalian, and had received baptism 
from a High Church clergyman. Con- 
versations with one of the Paulist 
Fathers at the Catholic University 
brought him to the knowledge of the 
Church. The absence later of this 
Father from the city, did not allow him 
to undertake his instruction, so he 
recommended him to apply for this to 
one of the Jesuit Fathers, with whom he 
was already somewhat acquainted. The 
increasing approach to Catholic truth in 
the Episcopalian body, over which we 
cannot but rejoice, is shown by the 
fact that two of the Jesuit Fathers could 
not find even the shadow of a reason for 
questioning the validity of his bap- 
tism. 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 
TOTAL NUMBER OF THANKSGIVINGS FOR LAST MONTH, 197,985 

1 ' In all things give thanks. ' ' (I. Thes. , v, 1 8). 



Special Thanksgivings. A person de- 
sires to return thanks for her restoration 
to health from severe and long-standing 
rheumatism. She had tried many rem- 
edies and various prescriptions of the 
doctors, but obtained no relief; on the 
contrary, she became incapacitated for 
duty and her sufferings increased. At 
length she determined to go to the 
Sacred Heart, in the Blessed Sacrament, 
and to depend entirely on Him. 
Scarcely had she placed her case in His 
paternal care when the affliction left her, 
and she is now entirely cured. 

' * Some months ago I got into some- 
what serious trouble with my Bishop, 
about a certaic* administrative change in 
my parish. It was considered for the 
best interests of the parish, and the 
people desired it. While yielding en- 
tirely to the Bishop, I committed the 
matter to the Sacred Heart, whose name 
the parish bears. I promised if our 
divine Lord would have the matter set- 
tled favorabl} T that I would say three 
Masses in honor of the Sacred Heart, and 
have the matter published in the MKS- 
SKNGER. My prayer has just now been 
granted." 

' ' Being in a serious business trouble, 
I made a novena to the Infant Jesus, and 
on the ninth day a way was opened to 
me by which I was led to make a 
settlement. I am a Protestant, but wear 
a Sacred Heart Badge, and use a St. 
Vincent Manual in my daily devotions. 
I was raised a Protestant, and have never 
yet come to where I can fully accept the 
Catholic faith, but I pray that, if it be for 
my eternal welfare. God will lead me 
into the light. Pray for me. I ask 
you to publish this notice in the MESSEN- 
GER." 

Thanks are returned for the perfect 
restoration to health of an old lady, si xty 
eight years of age. She was stricken 
with paralysis, and her left side was 
completely dead for several days. Three 
doctors agreed that there was no hope of 
her recovery but that if she should re- 
cover, she would be a helpless cripple for 
life. Her only child and her whole sup- 
port had a novena of M .. . - 

376 



her welfare, temporal and eternal. On 
the fourth day she was able to move her 
hand and foot, which had been para 
and she is now perfectly well. Priests. 
nuns and doctors, interested in tlu 
acknowledged that it was miraculous. 

A young man was afflicted with the 
most painful trouble in his feet. He 
was treated by doctors for nearly four 
years, but without benefit, as they de- 
clared they were baffled. One said it 
was rheumatism, another that the nerves 
of the feet were affected, and ordered a 
special kind of shoe to be made 
vena was made to the Sacred lU-art 
through the intercession of Our Lady of 
Perpetual Help, publication was prom- 
ised, and the young man joined the 
League. He now records his thanks. 

A man had not practised his re 
in over forty years, and was a constant 
source of anxiety to his family. Nvve- 
nas were being made for him continually, 
but seemingly to no effect, as he would 
become exasperated whenever religion 
was mentioned, so that they had 
sist. A few weeks ago he fell fatally ill. 
and lay unconscious for some days One 
of his daughters is a religions a: 
her community to join her in a novi-na. 
and had nine Masses offered for him. 
His consciousness and speech were re- 
stored, he asked for the priest, and re- 
ceived the last sacraments on the First 
Friday . 

A man was married to a Protestant by 
a minister, and had his first child bap- 
tized by a Protestant. He even attempt- 
ed to induce his younger brother and 
one of his sisters to give up their religion; 
and the}- both became indifferent v 
lies. Their mother's pious death made 
an impression on them; the daughter at 
once attended to her duties, and tl ( 
brother promised to reform, but d< 
doing so. Some time after, the elder sis- 
ter, always a devout Catholic, h 
to let her be godmother to his IK 
son. To this he consented, and she in- 
duced him to take the child himse' :" 
church. Later on he met some iv. 
ers from his old college and tlu 
suaded him to make the mission. He 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



37Y 



lid so and approached the saeraments, 
ic first time in seventeen years ! He is 

io\v interested in converting his wife. 

A Promoter acknowledges two great 
favors grunted. One was the conversion 
of her grandmother at the age of eighty- 
nine years. The old lady always had 
great respect for the priest and many 
things about our holy religion, but it 
seemed as though she could not make 
up her mind to become a Catholic. 
Last June, when she took to her bed, 
she was glad to have the Father come. 
At first he had little hopes ; but when 
lie had been coming for nearly a week, 
he said that we should be prepared, as he 
would bring her First Communion on the 
next Saturday. He brings her commun- 
ion every two weeks since then, and it is 
surprising with what devotion she re- 
eei ves our Lord. The second favor was the 
answer to a petition that has been prayed 
for over two years, besides having Masses 
said for that intention. It was at last 
obtained by making the nine First Fri- 
days, and invoking Our Lady of the 
Sacred Heart. 

tual Favors. Several religious 
vocations; marked improvement in per- 
sons recommended to the prayers of the 
Apostleship; relief from scrupulosity; a 
father's consent to his daughter enter- 
ing a convent, although he had persisted 
in refusing for two years; a young man 
approached the sacraments after neglect 
of fifteen months; another after two 
return of a man after thirteen 
years of neglect; of a woman after fifteen 
years; of another woman after more than 
thirty years; return of two brothers who 
have stayed away from the sacraments 
for many years; conversion of an obsti- 
nate sinner; perseverance of one in a 
virtuous life; conversion of a husband 
when very ill, he received the last sacra- 
ments with great fervor; many other re- 
turns to duties; many became temperate; 
reconciliation of parties who had given 
great scandal; restoration of peace be- 
tween some members of a family and 
thereby averting serious scandal; and 
many other graces not specified. 

Temporal Favors: A cure of deafness, 
which had resisted all the efforts of doc- 
tors for fifteen years at great expense; a 
novena to the Sacred Heart was made 
and a Mass of thanksgiving was offered. 
Speedy relief from pain in the arm; 
almost immediate cure of sore eyes of a 
seminarist; restoration of reason to an 
insane woman who had to be put in an 



asylum; cure of a child from epilepsy; 
recovery of a mother and brother danger- 
ously ill; cure of a sudden attack of 
sickness; instant relief from a severe 
cough, upon promising publication if the 
favor were granted; disappearance of 
severe pains that seemed to indicate 
pneumonia, upon invoking Ven. de la 
Colombiere; immediate and permanent 
cure, through a novena, of a man who 
suffered agonies for nine years from 
neuralgia of the stomach, which doctors 
could not relieve; cure of a child suflfer- 
from a terrible kidney disease; recovery 
from a complicated case of grippe; relief 
from pain in the eyes; cessation of what 
had been a chronic discharge from the 
ear for ten years; safety of a mother and 
infant deprived of human assistance; 
recovery of a man in danger of losing 
his reason through nervousness; cure of 
a person threatened with consumption; 
a cure of severe headaches; disappearance 
of symptoms of the growth of a tumor, 
after one had been removed; sucress of 
several serious surgical operations; 
deliverance from an annoying and per- 
haps serious throat trouble; removal of 
a skin disease of three years' standing, 
and restoration to perfect health of mind 
and body, through the thirty days' 
prayer and the nine First Fridays. 

The obtaining of pupils by one who 
was the support of her family; pre- 
vention of the threatened loss of a 
father's position; several lost articles 
found; renting of rooms as soon as the 
intention was put in the intention box; 
position as a school teacher; the obtain- 
ing of a situation that seemed almost 
impossible; a money matter settled with- 
out scandal; relief of a person in great 
need; prosperity in business, upon 
recommending to the prayers of the 
Apostleship, though, at the same time, 
it was thought that the firm would fail 
within three months; a house was de- 
stroyed by fire, the only piece of furni- 
ture spared was a bureau in which 
was a painted picture of the Sacred 
Heart; the owner begged the firemen 
to look for her picture, and it was 
found in the only drawer untouched, 
everything else was charred; preser- 
vation of a foot, burned by boiling metal 
being thrown over it, and which the 
doctor thought would have to be ampu- 
tated; cure of a man's arm, through 
which a burning wire passed, while he 
was working in a mill, and which caused 
the rottening of the bone, the doctor 
feared that amputation would be neces- 



378 



IN THANKSGIVING FOR GRACES OBTAINED. 



(122) 



sary; release of a young man unjustly 
accused; restoration of peace in a family; 
news from a brother who had not written 
for a long time; aposition obtained after 
a year's idleness; means to meet the 
payment of a mortgage through a 
novena, the money was got where it was 
least expected; money and clothing for a 
family in great need; success of many 
in their work; successful examinations; 
amicable settlement of a threatened law- 
suit; means to pay pressing debts in 
several cases; many positions obtained; 
various other favors not specified. 

Favors through the Badge and Promot- 
er's Cross: A young girl was ill with 
scarlet fever, a Badge was put on her, a 
novena begun, and in a few days she 
was convalescent ; a similar favor was 
obtained for a fellow pupil at death's 
door with pneumonia ; cure of a little 
girl ill with diphtheria, and given up by 
the doctor ; cure of another child, the 
Badge and Lourdes ' water being used in 
these cases ; great relief from rheumatic 
pains ; a man, suddenly rendered help- 
less through intense pain, was speedily 
helped by applying the Badge ; immedi- 
ate cessation of neuralgic pain in the 
chest ; several restorations to health ; re- 
lief from fluttering of the heart; cure 
of two children of bronchial trouble ; 
immediate relief from pleurisy wheri 
remedies failed ; cure of liver disease, 
when the doctors gave no hope and the 
patient had heen prepared for death ; 
cessation of headache by applying the 
Promoter's Cross ; a cure without an 
operation, which had been deemed neces- 
sary ; instant relief of terrible pain in 
the side ; favorable turn in a case of ap- 
pendicitis, by applying the Badge and 
invoking Ven. de la Colombiere ; recov- 
ery of a child from scarlet fever, and the 
preservation of its little brother from 
catching the disease. 

While lifting a piece of furniture, an 
Associate sprained her back so that after 
a few hours she could scarcely move. 



When put to bed, some one suggested to 
place the Badge over the sprain, and 
asked : ' ' What do you request ? ' ' The 
patient replied : ' ' That I may assist at 
Mass and receive Holy Communion in 
the morning. " The next morning she 
was well, and obtained her request. 

An alarming symptom of throat affec- 
tion suddenly disappeared upon the ap- 
plication of the Badge. The patient at 
the time was a non-Catholic, but has 
since embraced the faith, 

We record the return to her religious 
duties of a mother after twenty years of 
neglect. The occasion was the illness 
of her four children. The oldest, who 
had been baptized when an infant, died 
without the priest being called to assist 
her. The mother and the other children 
went to a Sisters' Hospital. Another 
child was given up by the consulting 
doctors. A Badge was put on him ; he 
made his First Confession and Commun- 
ion, and was cured, to the surprise of an 
infidel doctor and the boy's Protestant 
father, who both admitted that the cure 
was miraculous, as it was beyond human 
skill or power. Another of the children 
is being instructed, and the mother has 
become a practical Catholic. 

OBITUARY. 

Sisters Mary Seraphim and Mary Lo- 
retta, of the Sisters of Charity, Leaven- 
worth, Kansas ; Mrs. Kate Fahy, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; Miss Mary McGarvey, St. 
Patrick's Centre, Newburgh, N. Y. ; 
Miss Mary Manning and Miss Lizzie 
Donovan, Centre of Our Lady of Mercy, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Brother Philip Cas- 
sidy, O.S.B., Archabbey, Beatty, Pa.; 
Miss Elizabeth J. Daly, St. Francis' 
Centre, San Francisco, Cal.; Mrs. Mary 
Quinn, St. Joseph's Hospital, Lexington, 
Ky.; Margaret Mary Jordan, Woodbury, 
N. J.; Mrs. Michael Morissey, Philips- 
burgh, N. J.; Catharine Maguire and 
Henry Miller, Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. 
W. J. Corcoran, St. Vincent's Church, 
South Boston, Mass. 




BtREADER- 




ISS MARY J. ONAHAN writes 
on Nuns in Novels for the 
Catholic Citizen of Milwaukee. 
She deals especially with two writers : 
James Lane Allen and Marion Crawford, 
and justly calls them to account for their 
misrepresentations. All such stories have 
one characteristic in common they fail 
to portray the truth. The grave error 
of such novelists is the entire fail- 
ure to grasp the true spirit of convent 
life. Nuns there may be who have lost 
their vocation, but this was the falling 
away from an ideal which they once had. 
The heroines of such novelists seem 
never to have had an ideal at all. More- 
over, the situations depicted are impos- 
sible. Discipline exists in convents, and 
Carmelite nuns do not stray abroad at 
midnight ; or, for that matter, at any 
hour of the day or night, being perpet- 
ually enclosed. In some of these novels 
punishment overtakes the guilty nun 
heroine, but that does not atone for the 
false impression left on the mind of the 
public that this is a true picture of every 
day convent life. Truth demands a rep- 
resentation of real religious life ; and, if 
the heroine is a scapegrace she must be 
depicted as such, an exception and a dis- 
grace which would throw out into clearer 
light the grandeur and beauty of lives 
hidden in God. 



The trustees of the Newark (N. J ) 
Public Library have taken a step which 
must commend itself to all right thinkers. 
They have decided unanimously to drop 
their subscription, and refuse admission 
to two New York papers, which are 
samples of the new realistic journalism. 
As they represent two political parties 
the move cannot be ascribed to politics. 
The sole motive of this unanimous action 
is, as one of the trustees declares, the 
impropriety of young people who fre- 
quent the Library, not only reading the 
most minute descriptions of foul crimes, 
but also seeing them depicted in the 
most shameless manner. As he well 

(123) 



remarks : ' ' What notions must a child 
get from seeing illustrations of the most 
successful methods of suicide, or the 
quickest and most satisfactory way to 
kill a human being? What notions 
must our young men and women get of 
the sacredness of the marriage contract 
when actions for divorce are told in 
detail?" Unfortunately, the evil is not 
to be ascribed wholty to the unscrupu- 
lousness of the journalist, but in great 
measure to the pruriency of the. public 
who support such sheets, and, funda- 
mentally, to self-constituted reformers 
of God's Church and His unchangeable 
code of morality. However, the action 
of the trustees of the Newark Public 
Library is most commendable and iniita- 
ble, yet they should not stop at news- 
papeis but ostracize and eliminate all 
magazines and books which treat in a 
SMnpathetic, if not admiring, tone those 
who defy the laws of propriety and 
decenc} 7 . 

* # # 

Readers of modern literature, whether 
in the form of book, magazine, or paper, 
must be impressed with the tendency to 
depict in no uncertain terms the crimes 
to which our times are so given. This 
seems to be all-pervading and is not re- 
stricted, as in times past, to certain fla- 
grantly sensational and off-color publica- 
tions. A masterly refutation of the com- 
mon extenuating argument is attributed 
to Archbishop Elder. When His Grace 
was asked by a reporter, what would be 
the first thing he would do if elected 
Mayor of Cincinnati. He said : 

"I would try to close the saloons on 
Sunda}^ and abolish the immoral theat- 
rical posters, both of which are a disgrace 
to the community. 

" Another thing I would endeavor to 
accomplish would be to stop, if possible, 
the sensational publication of criminal 
and other disgraceful and disgusting 
trials. It is the greatest evil with which 
we have to contend. Familiarity with 
crime in its details may be divided into 

379 



380 



BOOK NOTICES. 



(124> 



three stages. First it is endured, 
then pitied, then embraced. 

"The argument that exposure is greatly 
dreaded and acts as a restraint on crime 
is weak. Those who dread such exposures 
are the very ones who may be redeemed, 
and, if exposed, grow hardened, and when 
hardened, desire notoriety." 

Facts prove the truth of the Archbish- 
op's statement. Moreover, many a 
criminal is made by reading the account 
of the crimes of others. Such evil exam- 
ples suggest imitation. Many instances 
might be mentioned. We shall give one 
instance only, that of the derailing of a 
train a year ago by a gang of boys. It 
suggested the idea to others all over the 
country, who accounted the young ruf- 
fians to be heroes and who were tempted, 
and attempted to imitate them and get 
their names in the paper. No, exposure 
of a crime, in too many cases, acts not as 
a deterrent but rather as an incentive, 
and is a menace to society. 



The robustness of the faith of the late 
Coventry Patmore is proven by a holo- 
caust which he made of prose work, en- 
titled Sponsa Dei. He had intended that 
it should appear only after his death, 
and so had instructed his friend Edmund 
Gosse to issue it at a certain time after 
the author's decease. The manuscript 
was probably completed in 1883. Five 
years later, Mr. Gosse was a guest of 
Mr. Patmore at Hastings. One morning, 
the author remarked " abruptly, almost 
hysterically : You won't have much to 
do as my literary executor ! " and then 
proceeded to announce that he had 
" burned the entire manuscript of 



Sponsa Dei on the previous Christ- 
mas day. " "I asked him, ' ' relates Mr. 
Gosse, "if he seriously meant what he 
had stated. He replied yes, that it was 
all destroyed, every scrap of it, every note, 
except one page, which he had published 
in 1887 in \hzSt.James" Gazette. He had 
come to the conclusion that, although 
wholly orthodox and proceeding no 
further than the Bible and the Breviary 
permitted, the world was not ready for 
so mystical an interpretation of the sig- 
nificance of physical love in religion, and 
that some parts of the book were too dar- 
ing to be safely placed in all hands." 
Mr. Gosse, who was familiar with the 
work, speaks of it as a " vanished mas- 
terpiece, not very long, but polished and 
modulated to the highest degree of per- 
fection. No existing specimen of Pat- 
more 's prose seems to me so delicate or 
penetrated by quite so high a charm of 
style as this lost book was." . . . "The 
subject of it was certainly surprising. 
It was not more nor less than an inter- 
pretation of the love between the soul 
and God by an analogy of the love be- 
tween a woman and a man. " 

As the public at large has not ' ' the 
purity and crystalline passion which 
carried the writer safely over the most 
astounding difficulties," according to- 
Mr. Gosse, we honor the heroic sacri- 
fice of Mr. Patmore, who, for conscience 
sake, lest any of the little ones of Christ 
might therefrom take harm, offered to- 
God a most fragrant and precious holo- 
caust in the burning of the Sponsa Dei, 
" which involved a distinct loss to litera- 
ture," if that can be called loss, which 
is a distinct gain to the glory of God' 
and the good of souls. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Thoughts for all Times. By the Rt. 
Rev. Mgr. John S. Vaughan. With a 
Preface by the Rt. Rev. J. C. Hedley, 
D.D., O.S.B., Bishop of Newport. West- 
minster: Roxburghe Press. New York: 
Benziger Brothers. 8vo. Pages x and 
385. Price $1.50. 

This handsome volume is made up of 
about a score of well written essays on 
important theological and philosophical 
themes, mostly reprints of different pub- 
lications by the author. Such subjects 
as the " Nature, " " Love " and "Wis- 
dom" of God, the " Blessed Trinity, " 



the " Riddle of Human Life, " " Man, 
a Microcosm, " " Heroes, True and False. " 
' ' Vivisection, " and so forth, are treated 
in a popular and interesting style, and, 
at the same time, with sufficient scientific 
accuracy. The author follows a middle 
course between the strictly doctrinal and 
ascetic treatment. All direct appeal to 
sentiment is avoided. The truths are 
allowed to commend themselves to mind 
and heart by their own light and loveli- 
ness. While these essays afford interest- 
ing reading to all intelligent Catholics 
and Protestants, they will prove very 



.'(125) 



BOOK NOTICES. 



381 



serviceable to the pulpit orator, inasmuch 

as they offer him a rich mine of thought 

and illustration, leaving him perfect free- missions. 

dom for oratorical development. 



inseparable companion of every parent. 
It is an excellent book lo distribute at 



Logic and Metaphysics. By Rev. Louis, 
Jouin, S.J. Fordham, N. Y. City: St. 
John's College. i2mo. Pages 263 and 
ix. Price $1.00. 

The veteran professor of philosophy at 
Fordham College has conferred a real 
benefit on the .students and professors of 
American Colleges by publishing this ex- 
cellent little handbook. Father Jouin has 
been long and favorably known to the 
public as the author of the popular text- 
book of Evidences of Religion and a 
Latin handbook of Moral Philosophy, 
both of which have been widely adopted 
in our colleges. Few men are better 
qualified to write a college text -book. 
A convert to the faith in his early 
3'outh, and an exile from the land 
of his birth, bringing with him a thor- 
ough knowledge of the languages and 
literatures of Europe (including the 
Slav languages) he has devoted himself 
for nearly half a century to college work, 
mostly as professor of Philosophy, in the 
colleges of his Order. 

This text-book, like his other works, 
is remarkable for accuracy of doctrine, 
clearness, brevity and systematic ar- 
rangement. It is only a master who 
could condense so much matter in such 
small compass, without becoming ob- 
scure. The book furnishes a complete 
outline of the extensive subject without 
overtaxing the student's mind, and leav- 
ing the teacher sufficient room for orig- 
inal exposition and development. We 
doubt not but Father Jouin 's work is 
destined to become a favorite text-book 
in our colleges. A copious alphabetical 
index adds to its practical usefulness. 
We miss a table of contents which would 
serve much to bring out the connection 
between the various parts. 

Popular Instructions to Parents in the 

Bringing up of Children. By Very Rev. 
Ferriol Girardey, C.SS.R., New York: 
Benziger Brothers. 1897. 321110. Pages 
202. Price 35 cents. 

This little book is a fitting supplement 
to the author's recent work entitled 
Popular Instructions on Marriage which 
has been deservedly received with much 
favor. The present volume is truly 
popular, instructive, and devout and is 
sure to bring a blessing to every house- 
hold, which it enters. It should be the 



Cochem's Life of Christ. Adapted by 
Rev. Bonaventure Hammer, O.S.F. New 
York: Benziger Brothers. 1897. 8vo. 
Pages 314. Price $1.25. 

This volume is an abridgment and re- 
arrangement of the best and most popu- 
lar work of the distinguished seven- 
teenth century Capuchin, Father Martin, 
called from his birthplace in Germany, 
von Cochem. Father Bonaventure has 
done his part remarkably well, and puts 
within reach of an English reading pub- 
lic an excellent devotional life of Christ. 
Some beautiful illustrations adorn the 
book. 

Flora, the Koinan Martyr. London : 
Burns & Gates. New York : Benziger 
Bro.thers. 1896. 8vo. Pages 496. Price 
$1.60. 

As the preface states, this is tr.e third 
edition of a book written during a visit 
to the Eternal City many years ago, with 
a view of recording the impressions of 
devotion gathered at many a Roman 
shrine. This latest edition is presented 
as a grateful acknowledgment for the 
great favor the book has received at the 
hands of the public, not only in England, 
but abroad. The proceeds of this little 
work are destined to relieve the nuns of 
Italy, ruthlessly torn from their convent 
homes, and oftentimes left without any 
shelter, or at best, having the most mea- 
gre means of support. The excellence 
of the book is proved by its successive 
editions and its translation into French, 
German and Italian. 

Pius the Seventh. By Mary H. Allies. 
London: Burns & Gates. New York: 
Benziger Brothers. 1897. 8vo. Pages 
310. 

Miss Allies has written an extremely 
interesting life of a most eventful sover- 
eign pontificate. The exorbitant and 
unscrupulous ambition of the Corsican 
Pretender to universal empire are well 
shown in his correspondence with, and 
treatment of, the saintly pontiff, whom 
Napoleon sought to make the first vassal 
of his throne. The magnanimity of the 
pope as contrasted with the egotism of 
the adventurer are well depicted. The 
sudden reversal of positions in the res- 
toration of Pius to his sovereign 
dignity and the deposition of Napoleon, 
offers a striking climax in two fateful 
lives. 



382 



BOOK NOTICES. 



(126) 



Pray for Us! By A. Sewell. London: 
Burns & Gates. New York: Ben- 
ziger Brothers. Pages 88 

The sub-title, Little Chap lets for the 
Saints, explains the design of the book, 
which is to provide short and suitable 
devotions for novenas and triduums now 
so much in vogue. As the compiler 
states, "most of the prayers are original 
translations, and with very few excep- 
tions, are not found in English man- 
uals of prayer. ' ' We admit this last and 
regret that the beautiful collects of the 
Church were not adopted. Another 
desideratum is a table of contents. 
However the little book will find many 
to welcome it, as it helps to supply a 
long felt need. 

Manual of the Forty Hours' Adoration 

New York: The American Ecclesiastical 
Review Co., 1896. Pages 32. 

This is a most useful handbook for the 
clergy, as it gives all the instructions 
necessary for carrying out correctly 
this popular devotion, and contains the 
Litany and prayers to be used, printed 
in large readable type. 

Catholic Ceremonies. From the 
French of the Abbe Durand. New 
York: Benziger Brothers. 1896. Pages 
283. Price 50 cents. 

This is an excellent Manual, giving a 
short and clear explanation of the Church 
liturgy and offices, its ceremonies, sym- 
bolism, vestments and ornaments. The 
illustrations, ninety-six in number, con- 
vey important object lessons of, we may 
say, everything connected with exterior 
worship, A study of this book would 
help Catholics to assist at devoutly, 
and explain intelligently, the services of 
the Church. 

The Philosophy of Literature. By 
Conde H. Fallen, PhD., LL.D. St. 
Louis : B. Herder. 1897. Pages 184. 
Price 75 cents. 

Dr. Fallen presents in this well printed 
and attractive volume five essays in lec- 
ture form. The thesis is a noble one, 
which must commend itself to all who 
realize that Christ is not only the Light 
of the World, but also the focus in which 
all rays of true created light meet. 
Hence the author well states : " It is in 
the Philosophy of the Incarnation that 
we must look for the philosophy of 
literature. By the Light of the Eternal 
Word made manifest to men in the flesh 
is human life solved and harmonized. 



As literature is but a reflex of life, it is 
only in the same Eternal Word that its 
meaning may be read aright and its final 
significance interpreted." Dr. Fallen 
handles his theme in a masterly way, 
from his first enunciation that : ' ' Liter- 
ature is the written expression of man 's 
various relations to the universe and its 
creator, " to the closing one : "Truth in 
the word by virtue of truth in things ; 
truth in the visible universe by the 
power of the Eternal Word, who is the 
Eternal Truth of the Eternal Life." 

Sacred Heart Bannerettes. We have 
received some beautiful Bannerettes of 
the Sacred Heart, made of watersatin, 
bearing the motto, Thy Kingdom Come, 
in gilt letters, surmounted by the Heart 
and Thorns, neatly done in red and 
brown, with an aureola in golden yellow. 
The larger size, hanging from brass bar 
and chain, is 11x9 inches for $1.50, the 
smaller with ivory bar and silk cord, 
7X X 5 inches, for seventy-five cents. Ad- 
dress, Miss Edwards, 393 Clermont 
Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mirli's King and the Mysterious 
Shrieks. By Margaret E. Merriman. 
London: Catholic Truth Society. 1896. 
i2mo. Pages 165. Price is. 

This little volume contains two inter- 
esting and well-told stories. The hero- 
ine of the first is a plain, good-natured 
and generous Swiss village girl, whose 
character is delineated in a very life-like 
manner. Incidents, scenery and sur- 
roundings generally are true to nature, 
and present a very fair picture of Swiss 
peasant life. The second story, taken 
from English life, is equally interesting. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

My Crucifix and Other Verses. By 

Caroline Harris Gallagher. Baltimore : 
Gallery & McCann. 1896. 

Report. America's Relief Expedition 
to Asia Minor under the Red Cross. 
Washington, D.C. 1896. 

Annual of the League of the Sacred 
Heart. St. Francis Xavier's Church, 
New York City. 1896-1897. 

Imitation of the Most Blessed Virgin. 

From the French by Mrs. A. R. Bennett- 
Gladstone. New York : Benziger Bros. 
1897. 

Devotion to St. Anthony of Padua. By 
Rev. J B. Manley. Baltimore: Gallery 
& McCann. 1896. 



RECENT AGGREGATIONS AND PROMOTERS' RECEPTIONS. 

The following Local Centre'; have received Diplomas of Aggregation, February i to 28, 1897. 



Diocese. 


i lace. 


LOCH! Centre 


Date 




Buffalo, N. Y 


St. Marv's School 


Feb. 17 


Bunaio . 




St. Raphael's Ch., St.Mar\ 's Academy 


Feb. 27 


u 


t< 1 1 


Sac. Heart Ch., Mt. St. Mary's 


Feb! 27 


Cl veland ! ! . ! 


Cleveland O 


St. John's Hospital 


Feb. 10 


Covington 


Verona, Ky 


St. Patrick's Church 


Feb. 27 




Cascade, la 


St. Marten's " 


Feb. 3 


A 


Cherry Mound. la 


vSt. Pius' " 


Feb. 6 


Erie 
Grand Rapids 
Kansas City, Kans 
La Crosse 


Johnsonburg, Pa 
Big Rapids, Mich 
Clay Centre, Kan 
Reedsburg, Wis 


Most Holy Rosary " 
Mercy Convent 
SS. Peter and Paul's .... Church 
Sacred Heart . ' 


Feb. 20 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 15 


Monterey and Los Angeles 
Natchitoches 
New Orleans 
New York 


Fresno, Cal 
Na chitochts, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . . . 
Mt. Vernon, N. Y 


St. John's " 
Immaculate Conception . Cathedral 
St. Joseph's Ch., Newsboys' Home 
Immaculate Conception . . . Church 


Feb. 19 
Feb. 14 
Feb. 20 

Feb <5 


Philadelphia 


Cheltenham, Pa 


Presentation B. V. M 


Feb 9 


Pittsburg 
Wheeling 


Leisenring, Pa 
Ronceverte, W. Va 


St. Vincent de Paul's .... " 
St. Catharine's. . . 


Feb. 8 
Feb. 20 



Aggregations, 18 ; churches, 12; chapels, 3; convent, i; school, i; institution, i. 
Promoters' Diplomas and Crosses have been sent to the following Local Centres, February i to 28, 1897. 



=^= 


Flan-. 


Local Centre. 


Number. 


Albany 
Alton . . 
Baltimore 


Troy, N. Y 
Quincy, 111 
Baltimore, Md. . . . 
Washington, D. C 
Westminster. Md 


St. Joseph's 




St. Francis Solanus . 
St. John's 
St. Augustine's 
St. John's 
Woodstock 


. . College 4 
. . Church 20 

. . " i 


Belleville 


Woodstock Md 
Waterloo Ills 


SS. Peter and Paul's .... 
Immaculate Conception . . 
St. Mary's 
Immaculate Conception . . 
St. Ann's 
Holy Name . . 
Immaculate Conception . . 
St. Patrick's 
LaSalle 
St. Joseph's 
Sacred Heart 
St. John's 


. . Church 6 
. . " 12 

2 
I 

. . 6 
. Cathedral 10 
. Church i 
. . 8 
. . Study 33 
. . Convent i 
Church 5 


Salem, Mass . 
Corning, N. Y 
East Aurora, N. Y 
Hornellsville, " 
Chicago, 111 
Cleveland O 


Buffalo 

Chicago 
Cleveland 

Davenport 
Denver 
Detroit 
Duluth 
Grand Rapids .... 
Green Bay 
Helena 
Kansas City, Kans. . 

Little Rock . . 
Louisville 
Marquette 
Milwaukee 

Monterey and Los j 
Angeles. . . J 
Nesqually 

New York '. . . '. '. '. 


Salineville, O 
Toledo, O 
Ottumwa, Iowa ...... 
Denver, Colo 
Monroe, Mich 


Duluth, Minn 
Parnell, Mich 
Keshena. Wis. . . ... 
Missoula, Mont 
Burlington Kans 


St. Clement's . . , 


. Prior v 


St. Patrick's Church 14 
St. Joseph's ..... Industrial School i 
St. Francis Xavier's Church i 

SS. Peter and Paul's " 5 
Sacred Heart ' T 


Clay Center, Kans 
Kansas City, Kan-;. . . 
Leaven worth, " 
Paola, Kans. ... ; . . 
Pocahontas, Ark 
Louisville, Ky 
Marquette, Mich 


Mt. St. Mary's ... 
Holy Trinity 
St. Paul's 
St. Benedict's 
St. Peter's 


. . I 
. . I 

. . " I 
. . Academy 2 
. Cathedral 2 
Church 2 
. - " 2 
. . 6 
. . i 
. . i 


Gesii 
St. Rose's 
St. Bridget's 
Our Lady of Angels 
St. Aloysius 


Hanford, Cal 
Los Angeles, Cal 
Spokane, Wash 
Walla Walla, Wash 
Mt. Vernon, NY 
New York, N. Y. . . . 


St. Patrick's 
Sacred Heart 
St. Anthony's 
St. Augustine's 
St. Ignatius Loyola . . . . 
St. Jerome's 


" 3 

4 

. . " 2 
. . I 


Philadelphia . . 
Pittsburg ...'.'.'.'. 


St. Monica's 


3 


Our Lady of Good Counsel . 
St. Mary Magda' en's . . . . 
St. Joseph's 


3 
7 
. . i 


Lost Creek, Pa . . 


Philadelphia, Pa 
Pittsburg Pa 


St. Joseph's 
Our Lady of Visitation . . . 
St. Mary's . . . . 
St. Mary's 
St Bernard's 


. . Convent 5 
, . Church ioo 
- 5 
114 

18 


Providence 
Sacramento . . ... 

St. Joseph . .' '..'.''. ', 
St. Louis . . . .'[.'. 


Mansfield Mass 
Eureka, Cal 
Marysville, Cal 
St. Joseph, Mo 


Notre Dame 


Colleere i 


St. Mary's 


. . Church 4 
. . Cathedral 13 
. Monastery i 
. . Church 3 

9 
. . Convent i 
. . Church i 
. . 30 


St. Joseph's 
Our Lady of Good Counsel . 
St. Charles 
Holy Name 
Visitation ... 
St. Francis Xavier's ... 
St. Joseph's 


Normandy " 


St Charles " 




St. Louis, Mo 




Florissant, Mo 


St. Ferdinand's 


3 



Total number of Receptions, 60. 

(127) 



Number of Diplomas, 588. 
3S3 



CALENDAR OF INTENTIONS, APRIL, 1897. 

THE MORNING OFFERING. 

O Jesus, through the immaculate heart of Mary, 1 offer Thee the prayers, works, and sufferings of this 
day for all the intentions of Thy divine Heart, in union with the holy sacrifice of the Mass, and in par- 
ticular for more interest in the I/ives of the Saints, for the intentions of the Apostleship throughout 
the world, and for these particular intentions recommended by the American Associates. 



I 

2 

3 


Th. 
S. 


St. Hugh, Bp., (1142). H.H. 
First Friday. Most Precious 
A.C. 
St. Benedict the Moor (589). 


Blood. ist D., 


Respect innocence. 
Pray for sinners. 

Prav for colored race. 


T 97-9^5 thanksgivings. 
52,278 in affliction. 

55,048 sick, infirm. 



4 { S. Passion Sunday. 



Sorrow for sin. 



67,870 dead Associates. 



5 


M. 


St. Vincent Ferrer (O.P., 1419). Pr. 


Pray for preachers. 


43>3 I 7 Local Centres. 


6 


T. 


St. Isidore, Bp. D. (639.) (Apr. 4). B. Juli- 


Honor the Eucharist. 


6,082 Directors. 






ana, V., (Corpus Christi, 1258). 






7 


w. 


B. Herman Joseph, (Prmontr, 1236). ;g; 


Love of solitude. 


23,007 Promoters. 


8 


Th. 


St. Walter, Ab. (1099). H.H. 


Contempt of self. 


164,127 departed. 


9 


F. 


Seven Dolors B.V.M. St. Mary of Egypt, 


Devotion of 7 dolors. 


173,404 perseverance. 






Penitent, (421.) ^> 






10 


S. 


St. Mechtilde, V. Ab. (O S.B.. 1300) 


Honor Sacred Heart. 


245,914 young people. 


11 


S. 


Palm 'Sunday. St. Antipas, M. ( The faith- 


Despise honors. 


45,212 First Communions. 






ful witness, 92). 






12 


M. 


St. Zeno, Bp. M. (380) 


Spirit of faith. 


167,636 parents, families. 


13 


T. 


St. Hermenegild, K. M. (586). 


God's glory first. 


39,021 reconciliations. 


14 


W. 


St. Justin Martyr (167). ;<> 


Defend the Faith. 


104,142 work, means. 


I c 


Th. 


Maundy Thursday. A.C., B.M., H.H 


Devotion to Mass. 


87,705 clergy. 


1 j 

16 


F. 


Good Friday. ^ 


Die to the world. 


170,650 religious. 


17 


S. 


Holy Saturday. ;<> 


Silence. 


56,541 seminarists, novices. 


18 


S. 


Easter Sunday. A. i., A.C., B.M., C.R. 


Joy with Christ risen. 


59,207 vocations. 



19 


^/. 


Easter Monday. St. Expeditus, M. (IX. 
Cent.) 


Begin a new life. 


40,799 parishes. 


20 


T: 


Easter Tuesday St. Agnes of Monte Pul- 


Be steadfast in hope. 


61,022 schools. 






ciano, V. (O.S.D., 1371). 






21 


JF. 


B. Hugolino (O.S.A., 1470). [H.H. 


Pious reading. 


37,293 superiors. 


22 


Th. 


SS. Soterand Caius. PP., MM. (170295.) 


Detachment. 


28,145 missions, retreats. 


23 


F. 


St. George, M. (Patron of England, 303.) 


Pray for England. 


37,456 societies, works. 


24 


S. 


St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen, M. (1622). St. 
Wilfrid Bp., (709). 


Fidelity to promises. 


131,214 conversions. 


25 


S. 


1st after Easter. Low Sunday. 


Spirit of prayer. 


190,284 sinners. 


26 


Af. 


Our Lady of Good Counsel. SS. Cletus and 
Marcellin, PP., MM. (83-204.) 


Confidence in Mary. 


110,381 intemperate. 


27 


T. 


B. Peter Canisius (S.J., 1597.) St.Turibius, 


Spirit of meekness. 


170,645 spiritual favors. 






Bp.. (Peru, 1506). 






28 


W. 


St. Paul of the Cross. F. (Passionists, 1775.) 


Honor the Passion. 


95,420 temporal favors. 


2 Q 


Th. 


St. Peter Martyr (O.P., 1252). H.H. 


Defend the Faith. 


145,360 special, various. 


3 


F. 


St. Catharine of Sienna, V. (O.S.D , 1380). 
Pr. 


Loyalty to the Pope. 


MESSENGER readers. 



. . PLENARY INDULGENCES : &&. Apostleship. (Q.^Degrees, \>r.=Promoters, C. R.=Communton of Repara 
tion H.H.=7/o/ Hour) A. ^.-Archconfraternity; &.=Sodality ; B. M.=Awa Mors ; A. !.== Apostolic 
'' *;~ A P osaeshi P f stud y i s - &-St. John Berchman? Sanctuary Society; K.I.=Bridgettine 



TREASURY OF GOOD WORKS. 
Offerings for the Intentions recommended to the League of the Sacred Heart. 

ioo days' Indulgence for every action offered for the Intentions of the League. 







NO. TIMES. 




NO. TIMES. 


I. 


Acts of Charity , 


160,072 


n. Masses heard 


. . . 127,438 


2. 

3- 
4- 

I: 

I: 


Beads 
Way of the Cross .... 
Holy Communions .... 
Spiritual Communions . . 
Examens of Conscience . 
Hours of Labor 
Hours of Silence 


427,561 
36,183 
59,002 
166,656 
160,908 
708,317 
198,454 


12. Mortifications 
13. Works of Mercy 
14. Works of Zeal 
15. Prayers 
16. Kindly Conversation . 
17. Sufferings, Afflictions 
18. Self-conquest 


. . . "3,971 
. . . 57,825 
. . . 48,701 
3,570,982 
. . . 34,452 
. . . 59,039 
. . . 76,611 


9- 


Pious Reading 


85,285 


19. Visits to B. Sacrament 


. . . 179,465 


10. 


Masses read 


5,78o 


20. Various Good Works 


118 218 


Special Thanksgivings, 1,229; Total, 6,396,149. 





^ t Int f " tion! ? r G od Works put in the box, or given on lists to Promoters before their meeting, on or 
before the last Sunday, are sent by Directors to be recommended in our Calendar, MESSENGER n our 
Masses here, at the General Direction in Toulouse and Lourdes 



384 



(128) 



EASTER SONG. 
By F. J. McNiff, SJ. 

rSTCLOUD and storm, and night on all the land, 
Moan of the waters, and flash of lightning brand ; 
Seaweed and wrecks along the beaten strand. 

Sunshine and calm, and faded is the night, 

And all the sea is golden, and all the land is light ; * 

And in the sky a rainbow, and all the world is bright. 

All hail ! Blessed Sun, whose glory withereth 
The old fruits of Sin. The old wound of Death 
Is healed once again, and Jesus conquereth. 

Joyfully carol a hymn of triumphing. 
Passed are the old days, and Christ will be our King ! 
" O grave, where is thy victory ; O death, where is thy sting ? " 






*%S'l"*% 




THE RESURRECTION. 

(Fra Bartolommeo. ) 






THE WESSENGEI^ 



OP THE 



SACKED HEART OF JESUS 



VOL. xxxii. 



MAY, 1897. 



No. 5. 



JEANNE D'ARC. 

FROM CHINON TO RHEIMS. 

By John A, Mooney, LL.D. 
(Continued.} 



JEANNE the Maid, could she have had 
her way, would have met Charles 
VII. within an hour after her arrival at 
Chinon. Imagine then how impatiently 
she waited, during a whole fortnight, 
while the royal Council debated whether 
she should be admitted to the king's 
presence. Doubts were expressed as to 
the girl's sanity, and as to the saintliness 
of her inspiration. De Beaudricourt, was 
not alone in thinking that her prompter 
might be the devil. A committee of 
ecclesiastics was appointed to test her. 
Having done so, with much formality 
and caution, and being favorably affected 
by her manner and speech, they advised 
the king to grant the girl an audience. 

Into the grand hall of the castle, where 
a crowd of courtiers had assembled, the 
peasant of Domremy was led, on the 
night of March 10, 1429. Purposely, 
the king bore no mark of royalty ; still 
the Maid, who now saw him for the first 
time, picked him out at once, saluting 
him with the words : ' ' God give you 
good life, gentle prince." "What is 
your name ? " Charles asked. " Gentle 
dauphin," she replied, "my name is 



Copyright, 1896, by APOSTLESHIP OF PRAYER. 



Jeanne the Maid, and by me the King of 
Heaven sends word that you shall be 
anointed and crowned at Rheims, and 
that you shall be lieutenant of the King 
of Heaven, who is King of France." 
Then she gave a proof that w r hen she 
wrote to Charles of " the many excellent 
things she had to tell him," her words 
were not boastful. "I say to you, on 
the part of my Lord," said she, "that 
you are the true heir of France, and the 
son of the King. I am sent to you to 
conduct you to Rheims, in order that 
there you may be anointed, and crowned, 
if you so will. " 

Why should this peasant girl publicly 
assure Charles that he was the legitimate 
son of the late king ? How could she 
know of the tormenting doubt locked up 
within the heart of Charles, and dis- 
closed by him to God alone ? All the 
secrets of which she had knowledge, 
Jeanne did not reveal at this first inter- 
view. A few days later, in the presence 
of Charles and of four of his confidants, 
having first sworn the latter to secrecy, 
she related that, on the first day of No- 
vember, 1423, in the royal chapel at 

387 



388 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



Loches, Charles had begged God to free 
his soul of the doubt of his legitimacy. 
Unless a messenger from God had dis- 
closed this fact for it was a fact to 
Jeanne, she could have known nothing 
of it. If Charles desired a sign proving 
the Maid's heavenly mission, he had at 
least one. 

Whatever the king's conviction, the 
royal Council still doubted. A second < 
commission of ecclesiastics was ap- 
pointed to question the girl, and a 
deputation of Friars Minor was des- 
patched to Domremy, to inquire about 
her family, habits and reputation. 
Though the reports of both the friars 
and the doctors were favorable, the royal 
Council decided to carry her to Poitiers, 
where the king's parliament was in ses- 
sion There another commission of 
theologians, professors, canonists and 
lawyers, catechized her and argued with 
her, displaying much art, learning and 
subtlety, as became men of prudence and 
of erudition, not unmixed with vanity. 
Members of parliament, courtiers, great 
ladies, visited her ; all observing, prob- 
ing, and some spying. These official 
and private inquisitions ended in a gen- 
eral acknowledgment of Jeanne's piety, 
virtue, sincerity and intelligence. With- 
out pronouncing her mission super- 
natural, the theologians, professors, can- 
onists and lawyers declared that it was 
not impossible that God had sent her; and 
that, considering the alarming condition 
of France, the king not only might, but 
should employ her against his enemies. 

During the month, and more, that 
Jeanne had been questioned, cross-ques- 
tioned, sounded and curiously inspected, 
her heart was strained almost to break- 
ing ; nor could she help resenting a 
method that seemed to her witless, if not 
absurd. There was she, sent by God, 
vowed to Him she who had left a dear 
mother, a good father, brothers, a sister, 
loved companions, the garden, the sheep, 
the fireside, home and her cherished 
shrines ; she, a Maid, who having 
doffed maiden attire donned armor, 



and risked a long and dangerous journey 
among men, among enemies was eager 
to rescue the city of Orleans, to crown a 
king, to save France, and yet, instead of 
accepting her promptly, instead of fol- 
lowing her lead and fighting the Eng- 
lish, not a man had sense enough to do 
more than ply her with interrogatories, 
just as if she were trying for a univer- 
, sity degree ! She wept often, but it was 
when alone, kneeling before God. Fac- 
ing men she was calm, firm, fearless. 
Through prayer, she knew that God 
was with her ; and that, therefore, she 
could not be overmatched. 

Assuming that Jeanne had no special 
aid from heaven, one could not help 
attributing to her rare gifts of mind. 
She was quick of understanding, far- 
sighted, ready of speech, direct, witty. 
The bachelors of law, the licentiates in 
theology, who were tempted to be smart 
at her expense, regretted, with reason, 
their callow impertinence. For hours 
at a sitting, solemn, dull clerics, bored 
her with questions as futile as that of 
Master Peter, who, though her faith in 
God was constantly expressed, asked 
her: " Do you believe in God ? " Natur- 
ally, the more he reflected upon her 
answer: " Better than you, " the more he 
doubted her mission. "You say, "- 
thus another learned ecclesiastic tried 
her "You say that you have had a 
revelation that God desires to deliver the 
people of France from the evils that 
oppress them. If God so desires, being 
all-powerful, He has no need of the aid 
of men-at-arms." One can see the 
Maid's pitying look, as she answered: 
"In God's name the men-at-arms will 
fight, and God will give the victory. >r 
Once, aweary of their prosy inquiries, 
she exclaimed: "I don't know A from B; 
but I am sent by God to raise the siege 
of Orleans and to conduct the king to 
Rheims, in order that there he may be 
anointed and crowned." 

In this answer, according to the books, 
she spoke of Charles as "the king"; but 
such was not her custom. Generally, 



389 




THE MAID ENTERS ORLEANS. 



she named him, "the dauphin," a title 
applied, at the time, to the heir to the 
French throne As we have already 
seen, in 1422, six days after his father's 
death, Charles had assumed the title 
7 king. Neither he, nor any of those 
who met Jeanne could help noting that 



she spoke of Charles as if he were, in 
1429, no more than an heir expectant. 
They may have thought her ignorant of 
the meaning of the term she commonly 
used, but she disabused them. ' ' Why do 
you call the king dauphin and not king? " 
she was asked at Poitiers. "I will not 



390 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



call him king" she replied, "until after 
he has been anointed and crowned at 
Rheims, whither I have a mission to con- 
duct him. ' ' There is a whole treatise on 
kingly government in Jeanne's speeches. 
Would that kings and peoples had 
learned from them! The King of Heaven 
is indeed the sovereign of every land. 
The Christian who would be a lieutenant 
of the King of Heaven, should bear the 
King's sign on his forehead, before wear- 
ing a bauble crown. The gift of the 
King of kings, freely given, He may, at 
will, withdraw. What kings may lose, 
peop'es may lose. The proud He puts 
down; the humble He uplifts. 

At Poitiers, as at Chinon and at Vau- 
couleurs, the people had not waited for 
the decision of Council or commission. 
They saw and noted the girl ; devout, 
prudent, frank, great-hearted, showing 
more spirit than king or courtier. That 
she was heaven-sent they doubted not. 
When the royal Council recommended 
that Jeanne the Maid should be put in 
charge of an army corps, and sent to 
Orleans to victual the city and supply 
the besieged with arms, there was great 
rejoicing. A word had passed around 
and Durant Laxart was the authority. 
More than a year back, rumor said, 
Jeanne had spoken to Durant of an old 
prophecy, that he, and all his country- 
folk had heard again and again. Its pur- 
port was, that the Kingdom of France 
should be ruined through a woman, and 
then saved by a young girl from Lor- 
raine. Through a woman, Isabeau, the 
unnatural mother of Charles, had not 
the kingdom been ruined ? And Jeanne 
the Maid, was not she from Lorraine? 
Seventeen is young, and Jeanne was but 
seventeen. 

From Poitiers they led her to Chinon, 
thence to Blois, and finally to Tours, 
where she arrived towards the end of 
April, 1429. During her stay at Blois, 
the king gave her a complete set of 
armor, and empowered her to organize a 
military staff becoming to a leader. On 
this staff she appointed her two younger 



brothers, Jean and Pierre d'Arc, \*ho 
had affectionately followed her. As her 
chaplain she chose Jean Pasquerel, an 
Augustinian. Robert de Beaudricourt 
had presented her with a sword, when 
she set out from Vaucouleurs. At the 
suggestion of one of her saints, she put 
aside the captain's weapon and used 
another in its stead. The village from 
which, on the way to Chinon, Jeanne 
wrote to the king, was known as Ste. 
Catherine de Fierbois, and so it is called 
this very day. To the church, founded 
by Charles Martel and dedicated to Ste. 
Catherine, pious pilgrims were wont to 
resort. 

Of a morning, while at Tours, Jeanne 
summoned a skilful armorer. "Take 
this letter," said she, "to the priests 
of Ste. Catherine de Fierbois. Follow- 
ing my directions, they will find a sword 
buried behind the altar. Bring it to 
me." The priests had never heard of 
the mysterious sword. However, they 
upturned the earth back of the altar, 
and, wonderful to relate, not far below 
the surface discovered a sword. The 
weapon was covered with rust. They 
cleaned the blade and polished the five 
crosses that ornamented the guard. 
Then the armorer carried the sword to 
Jeanne. Some folk said that Charles 
Martel himself had wielded the weapon ; 
but Jeanne called it Catharine's sword. 
In the Maid's hands we shall see it do 
braver work than Charles Martel ever 
did, and better work, for, often as she 
fought, Jeanne never shed one drop of 
human blood. 

The battles she was to fight, in the 
name of the Lord, the Maid determined 
to wage only with the aid of Christian 
soldiers. And that no one should doubt 
upon whom she depended for victory, 
she gave orders for a standard having a 
white ground strewn with lilies, and on 
this ground a painted image of the God 
of Majesty throned on clouds, and bear- 
ing in His hand the globe ; beneath, 
adoring, were two angels holding lilies. 
Inscribed on the standard were the 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



391 



words: "Jesus, Mary." Another and 
a smaller standard she also designed. 
This one bore a figure of the Blessed 
Virgin, to whom an angel offered a lily. 
To these Jeanne added a banner upon 
which was portrayed an image of Christ 
on the Cross. 

Though no worse than that of the 
fighting men of any prince of the time, 
the discipline of the French king's army 
was not creditable to a Christian coun- 
try Blasphemy, murder, robbery, in- 



with to confess to one of the priests at 
hand. And with the sword of St. Cath- 
arine she performed a glorious deed, 
for she drove out of the camp a woman 
who was neither the mother, nor wife, 
nor child, nor sister, nor relative of any 
man there. As the Maid pursued hotly 
the blade broke in her hands, but no 
sword in so short a time did braver 
work than the sword of St. Catharine. 
Within a few days Jeanne had a new 
army, an army of decent men, all devot- 




ORLEANS MUJKUM JKANNii Ji'AK.C. 



cendiarism, even rape, were common 
crimes. At Blois, by Jeanne's orders, 
every morning and evening the banner 
bearing the image of the crucified Christ 
was set up in a public place ; and be- 
neath the banner Jeanne and her chap- 
lain, with the priests of the city, sang 
hymns to the Mother of God. And as 
the soldiers gathered around the banner 
to join in the devotions, the Maid ques- 
tioned each one: "Have you confessed?" 
If the answer were negative, the Maid 
ordered the man to withdraw, or forth- 



ed to her, just because, by her example 
and teaching, she had helped them to be 
Christian. 

At length, all things being ready, on 
April 27, in the morning, the army 
set out from Blois to rescue Orleans. 
Preceding Jeanne, who, seated on a 
white steed, held aloft proudly the ban- 
ner of the God of Majesty, walked the 
priests chanting the hymn: "Come, 
Holy Ghost,'" A day's march, a night 
under the sky, an early reveille, and 
marching again till past mid-day, they 



392 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



saw Orleans in the distance. The Bas- 
tard of Orleans, with a detachment of 
troops, met Jeanne's force. " I bring 
you, " said she to him, " the best succor 
ever sent to knight or to city, for it is 
the succor of the King of Heaven. ' ' The 
night was passed inactively, because the 
leaders deemed daylight more favorable 
to their enterprise. Coming by the left 
bank of the Loire, the provisions could 
only reach Orleans by means of boats. The 
citizens of Orleans made a feint of attack- 
ing one of the English forts. The effort 
was wasted. Jeanne 's men worked undis- 
turbed, and before night- fall of the same 
day, the twenty-ninth, Orleans was re- 
victualled and reinforced. By the light 
of torches, the banner of the God of 
Majesty in front, Jeanne entered Orleans 
amid the glad welcomes of the inhabit- 
ants. Her armor, the trappings of her 
horse, they touched reverently, as if she 
were a messenger of the Lord. And 
she. gentle and grateful, led the way to 
the Cathedral, there to thank God for 
His favor. 

Jeanne marched to Orleans, I said, 
along the left bank of the Loire, but the 
road was not of her choosing. The king's 
officers who accompanied her feared to 
risk the road leading along the right 
bank, because there the English were in 
force. "In the name of God," ex- 
claimed Jeanne, "the counsel of my 
Lord is surer and wiser than yours." 
Where the English were, the Maid would 
be. Was not she commissioned by her 
Lord to drive them out? Why then 
should she fear ? The sooner done, the 
better. To save words, she yielded to 
the timid, but having entered Orleans, 
she was unwilling to let one day pass 
without assailing the enemy. 

Again the timid opposed. All but 
two hundred of her army insisted on re- 
turning to Blois. Soon they would 
come back, so they promised. Not a 
day beyond the first of May would she 
wait. The people were ready to follow 
her anywhere at any hour. Along the 
whole of the right bank of the river she 



tested the strength of the English on 
two successive days. Early on the morn- 
ing, on the fourth of the month, her 
Christian soldiers returned from Blois. 
Before mid-day they engaged the enemy 
and captured one of the strongest of the 
English forts. On the sixth, at the 
head of four thousand men, she sallied 
forth again. Before sun-down two other 
forts had fallen. At night, the English 
burned a third which they dare not de- 
fend. After Mass, on the morning of 
the seventh, at the head of a company 
of soldiers and citizens, Jeanne rode up 
to one of the city gates, meaning to 
lead an attack on another English fort. 
The gate was closed and a high official 
informed her that the Council of War 
forbade her exit without their permis- 
sion. " You are a bad man, " cried the 
Maid, "whether that please you or not, 
the soldiers shall go out of the city, and 
they will conquer as they have con- 
quered." The great man was flung 
aside, the gates were forced, and Jeanne 
and her troops assailed the English once 
more. 

Then the Council of War gained cour- 
age. Soldiers hurried from the city, the 
guns opened fire. All day besiegers and 
besieged fcmght desperately. Night fell, 
and still they fought. At last the 
strongest of the enemy's forts surren- 
dered. Early on the morning of Sun- 
day, the eighth of May, forsaking their 
wounded, their provisions, their artil- 
lery, the English deserted all their posts, 
retreating. Orleans was saved. The city 
that had been besieged for seven months, 
and that had offered to surrender, so 
hopeless was its case, had been vict- 
ualled, reinforced, and freed from all 
danger within nine days. The succor 
brought by Jeanne the Maid, the succor 
of the King of Heaven, was indeed the 
best succor ever sent to knight or to 
city. 

' ' Are the English facing us as they 
flee, or do you see only their backs ? " 
asked Jeanne. ' 'They show their backs, ' ' 
was the answer. Then said Jeanne: 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



393 



' Let them go ; my Lord does 
not wish us to fight them to- 
day. We shall have them at 
another time." Thereupon, 
in a field they set up an altar, 
by her order, and the whole 
army worshipped at two 
Masses of thanksgiving. 

As they hurried to Jar- 
geau, the English leaders 
must have recalled the words 
of Jeanne's summons, issued 
from Blois before she opened 
the campaign. Against the 
foreigner, or the Burgundian, 
she bore no hate. The latter 
she hoped to unite to Charles; 
the former she would fight, 
only if they refused to ac- 
knowledge the rights of the 
lawful sovereign. "Give up," 
thus she wrote to the En- 
glish, "the keys of all the 
good cities taken in France 
to the Maid sent by God, the 
King of Heaven ... I am 
sent here by God, the King 
of Heaven, to cast you out of 
the whole of France .... 
And if you will not believe 
the news that God sends you 
by the Maid, wherever we 
shall find you we shall hit you hard, and if 
you do not make satisfaction, we will cre- 
ate a tumult the like of which has not been 
in France for a thousand years. And be- 
lieve firmly that the God of heaven will 
send the Maid a greater force than you 
can assemble against her and her gal- 
lant men, and when it comes to blows 
we shall see who has the best right, 
God or you. . . . Answer whether you 
desire to make peace in the city of Or- 
leans, and, should you not do so, re- 
member that soon you shall suffer great 
losses." They laughed at her, reviled 
her ; but the seventeen-year-old girl had 
hit hard ; great losses they had suffered, 
unexpectedly. Would she drive them 
out of the whole of France ? 

" Child of God, go on, go on, go on! 




JEANNE D'ARC REPULS 



ORLEANS. 



I will aid you, go on." Thus a voice 
spoke to Jeanne. On the second day 
after the flight of the English from 
Orleans, standard in hand, she set out 
for Tours. The king must be crowned 
forthwith at Rheims, as her Lord desired. 
Charles went forth to meet her, and 
meeting, embraced her before all the 
people. Ten days were passed at Tours, 
then the king accompanied her to Loches. 
The royal Council hesitated to advise 
Charles to venture on a journey to 
Rheims. " Let me go against the Eng- 
lish, " said the Maid, when she found she 
could move neither king nor Council. 
They had discharged her good soldiers, 
and six weeks passed before another 
force was gathered. 

On June 6, she rode forth from the 



394 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



town of Selles, this time mounted on 
a black horse, armored, all but her head, 
and holding in her hand a small axe. 
She reached Orleans on the ninth. Two 
days later she hurried to Jargeau, where 
the English, strongly fortified, blocked 
the way. At once, the Maid attacked. 
The fight was bloody, the English lost 
heavily. Those who could, escaped. 
Jargeau was in the king's hands. On 
the thirteenth Jeanne re-entered Orleans; 
on the fifteenth she was once again in the 
saddle. At the bridge of Meung, on the 
Loire, she came up with the English, 



fate of Beaugency. The leaders took 
fright and ordered a retreat. On the 
plains close to Patay, the Maid cameTup 
with them. ' ' Have you spurs on? ' ' asked 
she of the Duke of Alen9on. "Why," 
said he, " must we flee?" "No," an- 
swered she, "in the name of God, the 
English will show their backs and you 
will need your spurs to follow them." 
And so it proved; two thousand of them 
were killed, two hundred made prisoners 
the others ran like frightened hares. 
Dismayed, the English evacuated fortress 
after fortress. The Maid had kept her 




THE ROYAL PROGRESS TO RHEIMS. 



attacked and defeated them. The fol- 
lowing morning she was in front of 
Beaugency. Not awaiting an attack, 
the English abandoned the city and fell 
back on the castle. 

Early on the seventeenth she learned 
that a force of five thousand men, sent 
by Bedford to crush her, was near at 
hand. That night the garrison of the 
castle of Beaugency capitulated. At 
daylight Jeanne went in search of the 
army of five thousand. The English 
had determined to fight near the town 
of Meung. News came to them of the 



word, and, wherever she met them, had 
hit them hard. The God of heaven had 
sent a greater force than they could 
assemble against her or her gallant men. 
Verily, God has the best right. 

Nine days and Orleans was saved ; 
eight days more and the English 
power was weakened, the English spirit 
broken ; better still, the courage, the 
patriotism of the French were renewed. 
Could it be that for these extraordinary 
achievements Jeanne deserved little cred- 
it ! Had she been merely a pretty figure 
in armor, a romantic "daughter of the 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



395 



regiment, " who was permitted to play 
soldier in order to kindle a false enthu- 
siasm among ignorant and superstitious 
men ? Positively, No ! At Orleans, and 
in the valley of the Loire, there were 
capable men and bold, the best blood 
of France; men of education, training, 
ambition. The Maid had learned to 
spin, sew, dig, and pray, but no more. 
When the king presented her with a 
suit of armor, she put it on gladly, little 
knowing how her tender flesh would 
suifer from the weight and pressure of 
the metal. And yet, to the astonish- 
ment of the graybeards as they frankly 
testified this green girl disposed an 
army with a science beyond theirs, 
though some of them had fought and 
led a good thirty years. Her tactics no 
contemporary had equalled. When she 
entered the field, artillery was a novelty; 
still, this did not hinder the spinner of 
Domremy from handling a battery more 
skilfully than the best trained gunner. 
In what military school was she so 
quickly and thoroughly educated ? In 
the school of her saints, the Maid said. 

At Orleans, when veterans fled she 
stood firm, holding aloft her standard. 
More than once, when panic meant ruin, 
she rallied panicky troops. Fearless, 
she carried the banner of the God of 
Majesty up to the enemy's wall. On 
the memorable day that, against the 
will of the royal Council, she forced 
her way through the city gate, just as 
she had planted a scaling-ladder against 
the rampart of an English fort, an arrow 
pierced her above the breast. She had 
foretold the event on the preceding day, 
and a long time back, at Chinon. Still, 
she had not spared herself. Strong- 
hearted as she was, the girl could not 
hold back her tears when she saw her 
blood flowing. They drew out the arrow 
head and dressed the wound, whereupon 
she returned to lead her men, as though 
she felt no pain. 

During the eight days' campaign on 
the Loire, again and again did she dis- 
play her chivalrous spirit. The dukes, 



marshals, captains, were all pusillani- 
mous, ever seeking delay, ever timorous 
of the enemy's strength and doubtful 
of their own. While they palavered, 
Jeanne, standard in hand, would face 
the men-at-arms and give the order : 
' ' To the assault ! Fear not, be bold ; 
God is our leader ! ' ' Thus the Maid 
forced the fighting. At Jargeau, as, 
with her standard, she was mounting 
a ladder, a heavy stone, striking her 
helmet, stunned her. The moment she 
recovered, up she rose in the ditch, urg- 
ing the men : ' ' Friends, at them ! At 
them ! Courage ! Our Lord has con- 
demned the English ; even now they are 
ours! " "In the name of God," said 
she, on the road to Patay, "we must 
fight ; we should have them even if they 
were hanging halfway betwe&H earth 
and sky." 

At Domremy, she had been brought 
up to dig, to spin/to sew, to tend sheep. 
A from B she did not know, and yet, in 
all France, there was no braver soldier, 
no more intelligent, skilful, dashing 
leader of men than Jeanne the Maid. 
If her saints did not instruct her, if God 
did not aid her, pray who did ? 

" I am sent by God to raise the siege 
of Orleans and to conduct the king to 
Rheims, in order that there he may be 
anointed and crowned." Her mission 
was still unfulfilled. The will of God, 
Jeanne was anxious, promptly and com- 
pletely to execute. She had hoped, and 
so had the people, that, after the victory 
at Patay, Charles would come to Orleans, 
uniting with soldiers and subjects in 
their solemn thanksgiving and in their 
festal rejoicings ; but the king remained 
at Sully, a short thirty miles away, 
seemingly careless of God's will and un- 
mindful of God's mercy. The Maid 
hastened to him, urging him to set out 
for Rheims without delay. Charles con- 
sulted the royal Council and they debated 
as usual. 

Finally on June 22, Jeanne induced 
him to advance a dozen miles to Chateau - 
neuf. There the royal Council, having 



396 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



argued, duly consented to the Maid's its of citizens and soldiers, Charles 
wishes! She galloped to Orleans, gath- and Jeanne entered Troyes triumphantly 
ered her army corps, and, on the twenty- Next Chalons surrendered, 
fourth, marched to Gien, where she met The army halted within a day 's journey 
the dauphin. As the king and the of Rheims. At Rheims the authorities 
Council insisted on another leisurely were undecided. Since they heard of 
discussion, Jeanne left them to talk and Jeanne's coming, they had sought aid 
advanced by herself. 
Two days later Charles 
followed her with 
twelve thousand men. 
By July fifth they had 
reached Troyes. A 
number of lesser places 
had acknowledged 
Ch a r 1 e s from day to 
day. But Troyes was 
garrisoned by English 
and Burgundian sol- 
diers and refused to ad- 
mit a French force into 
the city. 

After a five days' 
siege the royal Coun- 
cil advised Charles to 
waste no more time on 
such obstinate people. 
Was it not better to 
proceed to Rheims, 
having as little trouble 
as possible. Jeanne 
protested. "Gentle 
King of France, " said 
she, ' 'this city is yours. 
Remain here two or 
three days and without 
any doubt it will be in 
your power, through 
love or by force." They 
gave way to the girl. 
Then she mounted her 
horse, called out the 
men-at-arms, and set 




JEANNE AND CHARLES VII. ENTER RHEIMS. 



them to making entrenchments and dis- 
posing artillery. All night they labored. 
In the morning, Jeanne, bearing the 
standard of the God of Majestj^, was 
about to lead the army in an assault 
against the walls, when, from the 
gates of the city, a deputation advanced 
offering to capitulate. Amid the plaud- 



from the duke of Burgundy, their inten- 
tion being to stand a siege rather than to 
admit Charles. No help came from Bur- 
gundy. The news from Chalons and 
Troyes had a chastening effect. On the 
sixteenth of July, a motley crowd of citi- 
zens left the city, tramped to Septsaulx, 
where Charles was encamped, and invited 



JEANNE D'AKC. 



397 




CORONATION OF CHARLES VII. AT RHEIMS. 



him to make Rheims his own. Towards 
evening he entered the city. Forthwith 
it was arranged with the Archbishop that 
Charles should be crowned on the morrow. 
All night there was bustling, and hurry- 
ing and scurrying. When sleepy citizens 
opened their eyes on Sunday morning, 
they asked : " Can this be Rheims ! " so 



changed was the appearance ot the 
houses, the streets, the churches. 

At nine o'clock on the morning of 
the seventeenth, the king, the arch- 
bishop of Rheims, the bishop of Laon, 
the bishop of Seez, the bishop of 
Chalons, accompanied by an escort 
of nobles, rode through the central 



398 



JEANNE D'ARC. 



door of the cathedral of our Lady, dis- 
mounting from their horses, only at the 
entrance to the choir. At the Church of 
St. Remi, the abbot of the abbey at- 
tached thereto had committed to the 
archbishop la sainte ampoule; a vial 
containing holy oil reserved for the 
anointing of the kings of France so the 
tradition ran ever since the coronation 
of Clovis. As Charles took the custom- 
ary oaths ; as his forehead was signed 
with the holy oil ; as the kingly crown 
was placed upon his head, Jeanne the 
Maid stood beside him, upholding the 
victorious banner of the God of Majesty. 
From the walls of the cathedral of our 
Lady the blare of the trumpets echoed 
exultingly, high above the shouts of the 
gladdened people ; yet none, not even 
the new king, felt a joy more intense 
than that which filled the heart of 
Jeanne d'Arc. 

In the glad chorus, her voice was not 
heard. Emotion overpowered her. But, 
after Charles had been crowned, weeping 
she fell on her knees and kissed his feet, 
thus addressing him as she knelt : 
"Gentle king, now has been accom- 
plished the will of God, who desired that 
you should come to Rheims and be worth- 
ily anointed, thus showing that you are 
the true king, him to whom the kingdom 
should pertain. ' ' 

Omit the supernatural wholly from 
the story of Jeanne d'Arc, and still it 
reads like a romance. She freed de- 
spairing Orleans in nine days ; out of 
the valley of the Loire, she drove the 
English within eight days ; from the 
day she forced the dilatory Charles and 
his garrulous Council out of Gien, until 
the coronation at Rheims, barely three 
weeks had passed, and in that short 
time not only had she given France an 
anointed king, but she had also re- 
covered an extensive territory, shaken 
the whole fabric of the English power 
the labor of fourteen eventful years 



and aroused the national spirit in every 
part of France. 

But one cannot omit the supernatural 
from the story of Jeanne the Maid. The 
men-at-arms fought ; it was God gave 
the victory. Not as a mere patriot did 
Jeanne lay down the distaff and take up 
the sword of St. Catherine ; not because 
of military ambition did she put off 
woman's attire and put on armor. Of 
herself, independent of God, her Lord, 
she pretended to do nothing. " To save 
the dauphin I was born," said she to 
de Beaudricourt. "God will aid him 
through me. I will lead him to Rheims, 
and there he shall be crowned. No one 
in the world, except me, can recover the 
kingdom of France; from me alone 
shall it have aid, and I must do that, 
for so my Lord wishes. " . . . "I bring 
you, " said she to the Bastard of Orleans, 
"the succor of the King of Heaven." 
. . . "I am sent by God, the King of 
Heaven," was her message to the Eng- 
lish at Orleans ... " Now is the will 
of God accomplished, He who desired 
that you should come to Rheims to be 
anointed," are the words we last heard 
from the Maid's lips as she knelt, weep- 
ing, at the feet of the king she had 
crowned. A child of God, and an instru- 
ment of God assuredly, was Jeanne d'Arc. 

The very same! I grieve to say it. 
Great-hearted Jeanne, chaste Jeanne, 
believing Jeanne, gallant Jeanne it was 
that we saw burning at the stake in the 
Rouen market-place. Her valiant heart 
it was that we saw cast into the river 
Seine. It was her expiring cry we heard: 
1 ' Jesu ! Jesu ! ' ' That beseeching cry I 
hear this very day and hour. Shed no 
tears for the Maid ! The children of 
her Lord, neither men nor women, need 
weep for her. Believe firmly that the 
God of heaven will aid her still. He is 
the God of Majesty, and bears in the 
palm of His hand the globe of the world 
from generation to generation. 



REVOLUTIONARY SPIRITS. 

From the Spanish of Luis Coloma, S.J. 




NXIETY and apprehension filled the 
hearts of all the townspeople. The 

n left off their work at an earlier hour 
han usual ; and, having laid aside their 
implements of labor, hastened in small 
batches to the tavern of old Mai-Alma. 
The women, likewise, were in a state 
of great anxiety, and gathering occa- 
sionally into groups here and there 
would immediately disperse, while some 
of them would run every now and then, 
as if in quest of news, from the tavern 
to the door of the dilapidated old house 
of Don Pablo Sin-Cara. 

Tied to an iron ring in the wall of this 
house was a superb, jet-black horse, with 
massive bit and double rein, saddlebags 
thrown across behind, a pair of pistols 
at the pommel and a double-barrelled 
rifle slung on the right. 

A knot of interested youngsters sur- 
rounded the spirited animal, who em- 
ployed himself in shaking his mane 
vigorously and in pawing the ground 
impatiently, as if in indignant protest 
against the outrage which deprived him 
of his liberty. 

By his side was another coarse, sinewy 
animal of the class generally ridden by 
cowboys and farm servants. He was 
comparisoned in a style similar to his 
more mettlesome companion, that is, in 
a style half rustic, half warlike, and by 
his quiet demeanor might be said to be 
giving a lesson in submission to his un- 
subdued and high-spirited neighbor. 

Anxious inquiries, half-finished an- 
swers and exclamations of surprise, fear, 
hatred, hope, were heard on every tongue, 
and were invariably connected with the 
curious name, Lopijillo. 

"Lopijillo has come," the men re- 
peated with mingled hope, fear and mys- 
tery, but the women, on hearing the 



sound of this name, were filled with 
feelings of hate and horror, and cried 
out angrily in such uncomplimentary 
terms as these : ' ' May Old Nick fly away 
with him, " "Is there no bolt in heaven 
to come down and crush the villain? "... 

At the last house in the town (a house 
separated from the others by a small 
melon garden), a very stout, puffy- faced 
man was resting his capacious shoulders 
against an aged fig tree which grew at 
the door and around the stem of which 
a tender green-leafed vine was climbing 
and coiling with all the playful trust of 
a child who twines his arms around an 
old man's neck. He pretended to be 
dusting his pantaloons with a cane 
which he held in his hand, but in reality 
was only thereby trying to conceal the 
agitation which was but too clearly de- 
picted on his simple good-natured coun- 
tenance. A woman of dark complexion 
and with piercing bright eyes was stand- 
ing on the threshold holding a man's 
hat beneath her arm and knitting with 
a nervousness and hurry which betrayed 
the irritation and excitement with which 
she was at the moment agitated. 

' ' I tell you you shall not go, Juan 
Antonio," she was saying, "that Don 
Pablo (whom the title Don suits just 
about as nicely as a bishop's mitre 
would suit yourself) will most certainly 
ruin you. What matters it to you who 
rules, whether it be a king or only a 
pawn chessman ? Then for the love of 
heaven let these people cook their dish 
as they like, when you have not got to 
eat it." 

' ' What matters it to me ? ' ' replied the 
husband. "See here, one of these days 
when we have got our rights, no one 
will be more delighted than yourself. 
Why, Don Pablo has promised me all 

399 



400 



REVOLUTIONARY SPIRITS. 



those wide fields that adjoin our little 
farm. Look at those broad acres of 
waving wheat, every stalk as thick as 
an oak and every ear as big as my hand. 
Never mind, we'll have great times yet, 
something infinitely better any how, 
than all this present toil and slavery 
which, bitter as it is, can scarce bring 
us in enough to eat. ' ' 

"Bless me; "exclaimed the woman, 
if that Don Pablo or Don ' ' Falso ' ' has 
made you promises, you ought to go 
and write a mark on the water of the 
well to remind you how sure he will be 
to fulfil them. Do you know what he 
will do if he gets to the top of the tree 
himself? He will kick away the ladder 
to prevent you or anybody else from 
ascending like himself. Take care you 
are not cutting a hide into thongs to 
scourge your own skin . ' ' 

"But what about all those rich folks, 
who are so sleek and comfortable, and 
do not a thing the livelong day except 
what their lordly fancy pleases ? ' ' 

" Not so, Juan; the poor indeed must 
work and suffer, but does not everybody 
know that the wealthy also have their 
troubles, which oftentimes are much 
worse than those of the poor ? And are 
not their very riches a source of anxiety 
to them ? Besides, why are there rich 
and poor at all, only that they may 
help each other to get to heaven; the 
rich pay the entrance- fee by the alms 
they give, while the poor pay it by their 
patience and resignation; and if there 
be some rich people who have hearts of 
flint and hands that never give; well, 
there is a God, and a judgment and a 
hell and a heaven; so I crave you not to 
go to the house of that wretch Don 
Pablo, where they only cram your head 
with folly and your heart will gall. " 

' ' I told you before that I promised to 
go, Catalina; and you know the old say- 
ing: take the ox by the horns, but a man 
by his word." 

"But if that word be such that by 
keeping it you put the rope around 
your own neck ! If that word "