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Each volume 12mo, cloth, 57c. (postpaid) ; paper, 35c, 

UNDER OUR FLAG. By Alice M, Guernsey. 
THE CALL OF THE WATERS. By Katharine R. CrowelL 

ney, D.D, 

THE NEW AMERICA. By Mary Clark Barnes and Dr. 
L. C Barnes. 

AMERICA, GOD'S MELTING-POT. By Laura Gerould Craig. 
Paper, net 25c. (postage extra). 

IN RED MAN'S LAND. A Study of the American In- 
dian. By Francis E, Leupp, 


and Grace Petrie Williams. 


Cloth, 45c, (postpaid) ; paper, 29c. (postpaid). 
BEST THINGS IN AMERICA. By Katharine R. CrowelL 
Goo0BiRD THE INDIAN. By Gilbert L. Wilson. 
ALL ALONG THE TRAIL. By Sarah Gertrude Pomeroy, 
BEARERS OP THE TORCH. By Katharine R. CrowelL 






A STUDY 1 ' ,c* 








Copyright 1817 

of Women for Home Missions 
New York 








It is with grateful hearts that the Study Course Com- 
mittee of the Council of Women for Home Missions sends 
forth this book. We truly realize that the American 
women of the 20th Century owe more to the Reformers 
of the 16th, than perhaps any other group of the human 
race. It is, therefore, most fitting that the members of 
the Woman's Home Missionary Societies of the sixteen 
Communions composing the Council, as well as all of our 
friends, be given an opportunity for a personally con- 
ducted visit to this "portrait gallery" which we have 
named "Missionary Milestones/' 

May our study of these pictures of the great founders 
and molders of the Protestant Church of America render 
us even more earnest in the endeavor to make "Our 
Country, God's Country." 



I. At the Crossroads Page 5 

II. Landmarks of Liberty Page 35 

III. On New-World Soil Page 6p 

IV. The Road of Strong Hearts Page 101 

V. Home Mission Movements and Leaders. .Page 133 

VI. A Home Mission Honor Roll Page 167 



Luther Translating the Bible .............. Frontispiece 

Zwingli, Knox and Calvin ................... Page 38 

John Wesley and Bishop Wm. McKendree ___ Page 118 
Thomas Campbell and George Fox. .......... Page 126 

Sheldon Jackson and Dr. Guerrant 

"Santa Claus, He Never Come to Our House." 
Lutheran Deaconesses in German Hospital, 

Philadelphia .......................... Page 


This book is not a history of the Reformation. 
Mightier pens have written that tale. 

Nor is it a history of Protestantism. That is a library 
in many volumes. 

Still less is it a history of denominationalism. Each 
great Protestant body can best tell its own story to its 
own children. 

It is just a portrait gallery. Part of it has for a back- 
ground the awakened Old World; part the unfolding 
New. In either case, the history is only the wall to hang 
the pictures on. 

Forget the wall, if you will, but look carefully into 
the faces of the portraits. For there you will see the 
emancipators of human thought, the pioneers of modera 
progress, the true builders of America the Free. 



"Luther freed religion, and by that he freed all things." 
Adolf h Harnack. 

"Our civil liberty Is the result o the open Bible which 
Luther gave us/' Henry Ward Beecher. 

"Luther Is the real author of modern liberty of thought 
and action, the giant founder of modern civilization and 
of pure religion." James Freeman Clarke. 

"The ages past did not make him ; rather did he make 
the ages which were to come. 

"Luther has influenced the Protestant world without 
regard to type." Bishop Hurst 



The Parting We speak often and justly of the 

of the Ways* birth of Christ as marking the 

cross-roads of human history. It 
is the higfc crisis in the story of our race, the point of 
divergence between ancient and modern ideals of 
liberty and service. 

But it has not been the only critical period in the 
spiritual history of man. The letters "A. D/ f mark no 
unswerving path from the stable at Bethlehem to the 
City of God. The road whereby man's spirit fares up- 
ward has been divided, tangled, and sometimes well- 
nigh lost in a confusion of by-paths. Here and there 
stand finger-posts, pointing the way out of the chaos; 
and along the road that leads to spiritual freedom 
there are milestones quarried from the rock of truth 
which outlasts the ages, even the unchanging Word of 



The most significant parting of ways at whicK 
Christendom has stood throughout these nineteen cen- 
turies since Christ was born, is the great crisis which 
we call the Reformation. Leading forward from this 
cross-road there runs a path whose goal is liberty, and 
whose marks are those of service to God and man. 
The open Bible is the symbol graven on every mile- 
stone. Across two continents runs the path, and its 
end is not yet. Shall we trace this road together for a 
little while, and read the mighty names that mark its 

Europe Before The thousand years of the Middle 
the Reformation. Age had passed heavily over 
dreaming Europe. Like the prin- 
cess of the fairy-tale who was pricked by the sleep- 
thorn, she had lain down, in the fall of Rome, to slum- 
ber for centuries. 

Nor was her sleep a dreamless rest Great visions 
now and then brought restless tossing. There was one 
dream of a mighty social system of mutual dependence, 
called Feudalism. There was a clashing of arms and 
a tossing of banners as the bright dream called 
Chivalry passed by. There was a wondrous vision of 
crusading knights, and of a Christian standard planted 
upon the walls of conquered Jerusalem. There was one 
persistent dream of a man who sat on seven hills, 
crowned with a triple tiara, calling himself the Vicar 
of Christ, and the ruler of kings and peoples; and 
Europe groaned in her sleep as she dreamed of the si* 
preme powefc of the Papacy. 


But now the time was come for awakening. The 
dawn of the Modern Era was at hand the prince who 
should waken the dreamer. The fifteenth century, next 
to the nineteenth, is the most significant period of 
change and growth in all the Christian Era. 

Changing Social conditions in Europe had 

Social Order. reached a stage when they were 

ripe for great revolutions. The 
explorations and discoveries which began in that cen- 
tury opened men's minds to the vastness of the world, 
and to the immense possibilities of material expansion. 
Out across the seas went the daring galleons of Spain, 
of Portugal, of England, and came home laden with 
fabulous riches, and tales of lands where gold and dia- 
monds lay about like stones, and rich tropical fruits 
were the food of unarmed savages. All was theirs for 
the taking ! 

With the rise o trade, as a: direct result of this 
commercial expansion, came the rapid growth of the 
cities and their vast increase in wealth* This did not 
mean merely what it would signify for us today; the 
cities of medieval Europe were like none we know. 
For several centuries they had been developing into 
small independent states, within their strong walls and 
guarded portals. A city was a little world, complete 
within itself. Every handicraft that was needed to 
supply the demands of the inhabitants was carried on 
within the city walls. If the town had not a mason, or 
a goldsmith, or an armorer, it would import one, and 
set him to teaching apprentices. 


Political The result of this independence of 

Awakening* outside assistance soon showed it- 

self in the form of a strong ten- 
dency to self-government Out in the country, the 
peasants were serfs, bound by the feudal ties of service 
to the great lords who ruled the land. But the citizens 
of a free town were independent of such bondage. A 
proverb of the time declares, *City air makes free/' The 
town might indeed render military service to the baron 
in whose realm it lay; but it was strong enough to 
extort in return many political and commercial privi- 
leges. We shall not be surprised to find the cities of 
this period becoming hot-beds of new ideas about the 
liberties of men. 

We shall not wonder, either, that the peasants were 
in constant unrest and frequent revolt The barons, 
needing large areas of land for their favorite pastime 
of hunting, encroached more and more on the little 
fields of the peasantry; needing money for their luxu- 
ries, they grew reckless of tenant rights. "We read of 
a rich lady in Swabia who, rather than be out- 
shone at a tournament, sold a village and all her rights 
over it in order to buy a blue velvet dress/* Qass 
hatreds grew daily more bitter. 

Mental The social unrest was augmented 

Activity. by a great mental awakening. 

The invention of printing opened 
the world of thought to men's minds, as the discoveries 
of Columbus opened the earth's pathways to their feet. 
Books were multiplied as they could never have been 


by the slow process of copying by hand. "What was 
once confined to a favored few became common prop- 
erty. New thoughts could act on men In masses, and 
began to move the multitude/' 

This was also the period of the growth of great uni- 
versities. No less than seventeen were founded in Cen- 
tral Europe within 150 years, running from the middle 
of the fourteenth to the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The young manhood of Europe sought these 
"studious cloisters'* as the bees seek honey. 

The Revival The Renaissance, or Revival of 

of Learning. Learning, came in the very heart 

of this period. The fall of Con- 
stantinople before the Turks in 1453 sent many 
scholars of that Eastern Empire to seek safety in the 
western lands of Europe. They brought with them a 
knowledge of Greek, which had well-nigh been lost in 
western Europe, beside many precious manuscripts in 
that language. Some of these were copies of the 
classics ; others were ancient manuscripts of the Bible. 
While the Scriptures had formerly been known to 
Europe in the Latin version called the Vulgate, they 
had not been available in the original Greek to any 
but the most erudite scholars. Even yet, they were a 
sealed book to the laity ; but now at least the originals 
were accessible, and translations made possible. 
Froude has said of this revival of Greek learning, 
"Greece rose from the grave with the New Testament 
in her hand," 


The Authority But not yet, and not without a 
of Rome. struggle, were the people of Europe 

to claim this treasure. For waking 
mind and expanding soul the Church of Rome had no en- 
couragement. Her policy was one of suppression for 
every stirring of liberty. 

We cannot tell the exact date at which the Bishops 
of Rome began to claim supremacy over all other Chris- 
tian authorities. At first, the Bishop or Pope was merely 
the head of the Church in the capital of the empire ; but 
as time passed, more and more power was attributed to 
him, until, in 256 A.D., Cyprian of Carthage admitted 
that Rome was the Chair of Peter, "whence the unity 
of the priesthood took its rise." These words have been 
called "the Magna Charta of the Papacy/' 

Even then, it was only as a spiritual head that the 
Pope claimed primacy. But in the chaos that followed 
the fall of Rome, the Church was the only power strong 
enough to curb the barbarians who ruled the empire, to 
make peace between rival leaders, to protect the people 
from violence. Naturally, inevitably, the Popes came to 
the position of dictators, whom warriors and kings 

At length, in the eleventh century, a man came to the 
Papal chair who had a great vision of the supreme claim 
of the Church over all the kingdoms of the world, and 
the glory of them. Before Gregory VII, the proudest 
of European princes stood barefoot in the snow and did 
penance at Canossa; and from that day forward, Rome 
has arrogated the supreme civil as well as religious au- 
thority in all tilings. 


This would have been a frightfully dangerous power, 
even in the hands of righteous men. But the successors 
of Peter were not all righteous; and of them all, per- 
haps none were so evil in their lives, and so extravagant 
in their claims, as those of the fifteenth century. It was 
a member of the infamous family of the Borgia Pope 
Alexander VI. who, "acting as the lord of the uni- 
verse, made over the New World to Isabella of Castile 
and to Ferdinand of Aragon by legal deed of gift/* in 

Abuses of Words cannot picture the moral 

Power* condition of the priesthood at this 

period. Acknowledging no higher 
law, they became a "law unto themselves," with the 
usual results of laxity, priestcraft and extortion. Worse 
than the oppressions of the barons were the pitiless de- 
mands of the clergy upon the people. 

"The priests/ 1 says an English writer, "have their 
tenth part of all the corn, meadows, pasture, grass, wood, 
colts, lambs, geese and chickens. Over and besides the 
tenth part of every servant's wages, wool, milk, honey, 
wax, cheese and butter : yea, and they look so narrowly 
after their profits that the poor wife must be countable 
to them for every tenth egg, or else she getteth not her 
rights at Easter, and shall be taken as a heretic." Nor 
did this cover all their claims. "I see/* said a Spaniard, 
"that we can. get scarcely anything from Chrisf s minis- 
ters but for money; at baptism money, at Kshoping 
money, at marriage money, for confession money no, 
not extreme unction without money! They will ring 


no bells without money, no burial in the church without 
money; so that it seemeth that Paradise is shut up from 
them that have no money/* 

Degeneration In return for all this, they gave the 

& Worship. people nothing but the routine per- 

formance of liturgical forms. 
Preaching amounted to little but the rehearsing of tra- 
ditions and legends of the saints, often grotesque and 
nonsensical. Pictures and images were placed in the 
churches to help the ignorant laity in their devotions; 
the grossest sort of idolatry was often the result. The 
people were taught that God could not be approached, 
even through his Son, without the intervention of the 
yirgin Mary, or of some one of the many saints of the 
Roman Church. Penance, or the mortifying of the flesh, 
was substituted for penitence of the heart. Meantime, 
the priests themselves often set their people the example 
of a life given over to excess of every kind, 

Monastic Very early in the history of the 

Orders. Christian Church, men had begun 

to go apart into the deserts, or to 
shut themselves up in cells, to pray without distraction 
from the tumults of the world. While the Roman Em- 
pire was being torn apart by hordes of barbarians, there 
was some excuse for a scholar's retiring thus into seclu- 
sion, and many priceless manuscripts were preserved in 
this way. The monasteries became the safe-deposit 
vaults of kwwledge during the Dark Ages. 
But the temptations of the world were not shut out 


when the door of the monastery closed. Vice grew and 
flourished in many a holy house, where able-bodied men 
lived the life of indolent parasites. Men like Francis of 
Assisi and Dominic of Spain tried reform, bringing back 
their followers to vows of poverty and chastity; they 
gave them work to do in teaching and ministering to 
the poor, and for a time the monks and nuns did real 
service to their generation. But the unnatural mode of 
living, cut off from the normal ties of family, had its 
revenge, and again the monastic orders became corrupt. 

Penance and In a day when the mass of the peo~ 

Pilgrimage. pie could not read or write, and 

even clerics had little store of learn- 
ing, it was to be expected that superstition should run 
riot. Great evils, also, held men's minds in terror. The 
Turk had seized the Bosphorus, and was looking with 
eager eyes toward further European conquests. The 
plague ran again and again unchecked through city and 
country. Signs and wonders were reported on every 
hand. Such fears have always driven men to unusual 
religious performances. 

In many districts these took the form of pilgrimages 
to shrines where sacred relics were reported to be kept. 
Men, women and children thronged the roads, going to 
pray at the holy places. "Sometimes school-masters 
headed a crowd of pilgrims; mothers deserted their 
younger children; country lads and maids left their 
work in the fields to join the processions. They traveled 
without provisions, and depended on the charity of tie 


peasants for f ood/* Large numbers of the pilgrims were 
children, who did not know where they were going, or 
why. There was a dumb, helpless sense of terror that 
drove them to sanctuary ; that was all that most of them 

The Faith of Under all this superstitious and 

the People. unreasoning devotion, however, 

there blossomed among the people 
a pure and simple piety. In the home, mothers put their 
babes to sleep with hymns that told of the infant Jesus 
in words fit to be sung 6ver the children of the strictest 
Puritan* Fathers taught their little ones to lisp the 
words of the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, and the 
Ten Commandments. The pity of it was that they were 
taught to believe this simple faith insufficient for salva- 
tion without the addition of penances and self-torture. 

Fifteenth Cen- x Such was the century which closed 
tury Conditions. the Middle Age and introduced the 
Modern Era. A rising middle 
class, a rapacious nobility, a submerged peasantry ; an 
expanding world, awakening minds, a questioning of the 
old order of things ; an arrogant Papacy, a corrupt priest- 
hood, useless monastic orders, ignorant laity; a supersti- 
tious worship overlying a simple popular faith these 
are the things we find. Who will deny that there was 
room for protest? 

. And protest had not been lacking, through this cen- 
tury and several that preceded it. 


The Waldens- There were the Waldenses, "the 

ian Protest Israel of the Alps/' first appearing 

1 as an organization in the twelfth 

century, tinder the name of the "Poor Men of Lyons/' 
Peter Waldo, a merchant of Lyons in France, being 1 per- 
plexed over the evils in the Church, and unable to find 
spiritual peace, employed priests to translate parts of the 
Bible for him. He was so inipressed by the truths he 
learned that he began to repeat passages of Scripture to 
others, and to speak about the wrongs he saw tinder 
the guise of religion. His followers also preached 
throughout southern Europe, till they were excommuni- 
cated by the Church of Rome, and driven to shelter in the 
Alpine valleys. For three centuries and more, they were 
the object of bitter persecutions, no less than thirty-three 
such attacks being recorded. 

Yet they managed to send abroad copies of the Scrip- 
tures translated into the popular tongue, by traveling as 
peddlers, with the precious books concealed in rolls of 
silk and other merchandise. They also taught orally; 
many of them could recite whole Gospels from memory. 
Their favorite saying was, "The Scripture speaks, and 
we ought to believe it 1 * A remnant of the Waldensian 
Church still survives in Northern Italy. 

John Wyclif There was John Wyclif, "the 

(1324-1384). Morning Star of the Reformation*' ; 

an Oxford scholar, rector of Lut- 
terworth, chaplain and adviser to the king. He denied 
the civil authority of the Pope, whom he called "the 
proud and worldly priest of Rome" ; declared, "No man 


should follow the Pope, nor even any of the saints in 
heaven, except as they follow Christ"; Insisted that the 
highest service of the clergy was to preach the Word of 
God to the people, and that the one rule of faith and life 
is found in the Scriptures. 

Pronounced a heretic, and forbidden to preach, he 
gave himself to making* the first translation of the Bible 
into English. So dreadful a heresy was this considered, 
that in 1414, thirty years after Wyclif's death, the read- 
ing of the English Scriptures was forbidden to the people 
"upon pain of forfeiture of land, cattle, life, and goods 
from their heirs forever/* 

Some years later, by order of the Council of Constance, 
his bones were disinterred and burned. In the words of 
Fuller, "They burnt his bones to ashes and cast them 
into Swift, a neighboring brook running hard by. Thus 
this brook hath conveyed his ashes into Avon, Avon into 
Severn, Severn into the narrow seas, they into the main 
acean. And thus the ashes of Wyclif are the emblem of 
his doctrine, which now is dispersed the world over.** 

John Huss At Prague, in Bohemia, another 

X1369-1415). preacher and university professor, 

John Huss, took up the views of 

Wyclif, who had been hailed in that country as the "Fifth 
Evangelist." Huss translated Wyclif's writings into the 
language of his people, beside writing protests of his own 
against the power of the Papacy. Excommunicated and 
driven from Prague, he preached in the fields and woods 
to those who came to hear him, "It is better/* he wrote, 


"to die well than to live badly. Truth is the last con- 

Summoned before the Council of Constance the same 
which decreed the burning of Wyclif s bones he was 
kept a prisoner for six months, tormented by the cross- 
questioning of his enemies and assailed by false wit- 
nesses. He professed himself willing to retract what- 
ever words of his could be proved untrue by Scripture, 
but nothing else ; and, as nobody was able to meet this 
challenge, he declared he would be burned a thousand 
times rather than abjure his teaching. 

He suffered the fiery death of a heretic at Constance, 
on July 6th, 1415, praying and singing till the flames 
silenced his voice. From the teachings of Huss arose 
the party known as the Bohemian Brethren, who kept 
alive the spirit of reform until forcibly suppressed by 
the Austrian government 

Jerome Savonarola A still more dramatic protest was 
(1452-1498). that of Savonarola, in Italy. Like 

one of the ancient prophets, he 
shook the city of Florence by his eloquence, denouncing 
the sins of the people and the iniquities of the Church, 
Visions and prophecies adorned his discourse ; yet strong 
through all its extravagances sounded the voice of God's 
Word. "I preach the regeneration of the Church/' he 
said, "taking the Scriptures as my whole guide/' 

The Pope tried to bribe him into silence by the offer 
of a cardinalate; but he declared that he desired not the 
red hat of a cardinal, but only the honor God gives to 
his saints the crimson crown of martyrdom. Moved 


as by an angel's voice, the gay and luxurious Florentines 
brought their trinkets, mirrors, dice, cosmetics, and other 
vanities, and cast them into a great bonfire in the public 
square. Savonarola proclaimed that henceforth Jesus 
Christ, and He alone, was king over Florence. 

More and more bitter grew his denunciations of Rome. 
It is too long a story to tell how an ordeal by fire was 
proposed, to settle the dispute between Savonarola and 
the Church ; how its fiasco set the fickle populace to mob 
their former idol ; how he was tortured, and finally exe- 
cuted, on instructions from Rome to "put Savonarola to 
death, even if he were another John the Baptist." For 
years afterward, repentant Florence strewed flowers on 
the spot where her prophet perished, 

John Colet A quieter but not less earnest pro- 

(1456-1519), test was that of the Humanists, as 

the scholars of the Renaissance 
were called. Among them were many whose eyes were 
opened to see the abuses practiced by the Church, and to 
revolt against her claims over the minds of men. 

One of these was John Colet, dean of St. Paul's, in 
London, who labored for the reform of ihe clergy "in 
every respect, both in life and religion/* He condemned 
the pride and ambition of the priests, their luxury and 
idleness, and told them that their example had more influ- 
ence over their people than their words. "Our good* 
ness/ 1 he says to his clergy, ''would urge them on in the 
right way more efficaciously than all your suspensions 
and e&communications. They should live a good and 


holy life, be properly learned in the Scriptures, and 
chiefly and above all be filled with the fear of God and the 
love of the heavenly life." Of him it was afterward 
said, "This great dean of St. Paul's taught and lived like 
St. Paul/' 

Reuchlin John Retichlin^ the great German 

(1455-1522). Humanist, and Desiderius Eras- 

Erasmus mus, of Rotterdam, while neither 

(1466-1536). of them can be called a reformer, 

or took any direct part in the Refor- 
mation movement, rendered each a great service to that 
cause. Reuchlin was the pioneer of Hebrew learning in 
northern Europe; he published a Hebrew grammar and 
dictionary, and advised the emperor to establish a chair 
of Hebrew in every German university. Erasmus rend- 
ered a similar service to the study of Greek. He "edited 
and translated Greek classics and Church Fathers and 
made them familiar to northern scholars, and he fur- 
nished the key to the critical study of the Greek Testa- 
ment, the Magna Charta of Christianity," 

These labors were of priceless value later on, when 
the Reformers desired to translate the Old and New 
Testaments from their original tongues. Erasmus also 
wrote biting satires on priests, monks and Pope. It was 
a common saying in later days, "Erasmus laid the egg, 
and Luther hatched it** 

Not only scholars, but the unlettered and humble could 
see by this time the frightful abuses wrought in the name 
of the Roman Church. Every r?mk of society was ready 


for revolt against its yoke of bondage, if only a leader 
could be found. The time was ripe for the man of God's 

Martin Lutiber On the night of November 10th, 
(14E3-1546). 1483, a son was born to a young 

miner and his wife, named Hans 
and Margaret Luther, in the German village of Eisleben. 
The following day he was christened Martin, in honor 
of the saint whose festival it was. Six months later, 
the parents removed to the neighboring town of Mans- 
feld, in hope of bettering their fortunes, and there spent 
the rest of their lives. 

Boyhood of No luxury surrounded the boyhood 

Luther. of the great Reformer. Many chil- 

dren came to Hans and Margaret, 
ajid unremitting toil was necessary for their support. 
Hans labored daily in the mines, while his wife climbed 
the hills to gather fagots for the fire, bringing them home 
on her back. There was no bitterness in their poverty, 
however, but a wholesome and good-humored common 
sense, and an industry that won its way to better things. 

Early From the first it was determined 

Education. that the eldest son was to be a 

scholar. He attended a school in 
Mansf dd at an age so early that he was unable to climb 
up the steep hill to the schooUiouse, and had to be car- 
ried up on the back of a neighbor's son. But the master 
of this school was a man of exacting and unreasonable 
temper, who once whipped Martin fifteen times in a 


single morning, and that for not knowing lessons which 
had never been assigned. 

By the time that Martin was thirteen, his father had 
risen to the ownership of a smelting furnace, and was 
able to send his son to a better school at Magdeburg. He 
spent a year there, and then went to another institution 
at Eisenach. At neither place were his father's means 
able to provide his entire support, and he earned many 
of his meals by singing from door to door, together with 
other poor students a common practice of the day. It 
brought him great good fortune by introducing him to 
the family of Conrad Cotta, a wealthy burgher, whose 
good wife Ursula was charmed with the boy's sweet 
voice and shining dark eyes, and made him practically 
a member of her family during the remainder of the four 
years he spent in Eisenach. 

University At the age of seventeen he entered 

Training. the University of Erfurt, and some 

four years later, to his father's 
great delight, he took his master's degree, standing second 
in his class. Now the long-cherished dream of Hans for 
his son was to be fulfilled; he should become a lawyer. 
The proud father purchased a set of expensive law- 
books for Martin, and sent him back to Erfurt to receive 
his legal training. 

Takes the The profession of law was little to 

Monastic Vow. Martin's mind. "Jurats," h e said 

in later life, "say a great deal and 

use many words, but without understanding," By this 


time, moreover, a deepening sense of spiritual unrest was 
beginning to haunt him. All the teachings of the Church 
seemed to point to the uselessness of trying to please God 
in any but a distinctly religious calling. These impres- 
sions were increased by a visit of the plague to Erfurt, 
and by the sudden death of a dear student-friend. In 
distress of soul, he went home to Mansfeld to tell his 
father that he could no longer study law, but found no 
courage to approach the subject. As he returned on foot 
to Erfurt, in torment of mind, a sudden storm arose; 
and in his terror at a narrow escape from being struck 
by lightning, he fell to the ground and cried, "Save me, 
holy St. Anna, and I will become a monk!" 

To his excited conscience, these words, as soon as 
they were uttered, appeared a binding vow. He returned 
to Erfurt, set his affairs in order, gave a farewell supper 
to his friends, and on the 17th of July, 1505, he entered 
the monastery in Erfurt, 

Spiritual Iti the monastery, Brother Martin 

Struggles. soon became noted for the severity 

of his penances, sometimes scourg- 
ing himself and fasting, so that he would be found faint- 
ing in his cell. The awful sense of an angry God, who 
would cast him into perdition if he made a mistake in 
repeating mass, and before whom every impatient or re- 
bellious thought was an open book, drove the young monk 
almost to distraction. In later life he said, "If ever a 
monk gamed heaven by his monkery, I must have done 
so." Flesh could not endure such self-torture, and his 


brethren believed their monastery would soon gain 
credit for a new saint in the Roman calendar. 

Fortunately, a man of sanity as well as sanctity pres- 
ently took command of Martin's troubled spirit. John 
Staupitz, Vicar-general of the Augustinian Order of 
monks, to which Luther belonged, rebuked him for his 
self-tormenting, declared to him that there was cleansing 
in Christ for all sin, and directed him to the study of the 
Latin Scriptures. Being a wise man, Staupitz also exerted 
himself to have Luther appointed a professor in the new 
University of Wittenberg, knowing that such work would 
keep him too busy to conjure up what the Vicar-general 
vigorously insisted were only "painted sins/* not real 

Visit to Rome. About this time Luther visited 

Rome with another monk, on busi- 
ness for the monastery. His enthusiasm for the holy 
city was unbounded, and he went from shrine to shrine, 
saying masses for his own sins and those of all his rela- 
tives and friends, but getting disillusioning glimpses at 
the same time of the avarice and irreverence of the 
Roman priesthood.* At this time is said to have occurred 
the famous incident of the Holy Stairdase and the inner 
voice declaring, "The just shall live by faith/' Be the 
tale fact or fiction, the reason of the man was beginning 
to shake itself loose from the fetters of tradition, and 
his soul to respond to the teaching of God's word con- 
cerning Christ as the way of salvation. 


Preaching Back at Wittenberg, before long 

Against we find Luther who owed his ap- 

Abuses. pointment as professor there to the 

great founder of the University, 
Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony preaching 
against the adoration of sacred relics in the Elector's own 
Castle Church, wherein that pious monarch had recently 
housed a rare collection of relics brought at great expense 
from the Holy Land. He also declared in his sermons 
that the money spent in going on pilgrimages could far 
better be used in charity, and that God is better pleased 
when we perform our daily duties with patience than 
when, we run around to pray at shrines. 

The Sale of In the spring of 1517 came the 

Indulgences. monk Tetzel riding in state with his 

chest of indulgences for sale. These 
were certificates of pardon, granted on payment of a 
sum of money, guaranteeing forgiveness of sins past, 
present and to come, to the person, living or dead, in 
whose name the pardon was bought Pope Leo X, who 
had much need of money for building his great church 
of St. Peter, was thus dispensing the extra merits of 
the saints, of which the Vicar of Christ was supposed 
to be the guardian. Whole cities turned out in festal 
parade to hail the sellers of indulgences, and many a 
hard-earned coin tinkled in the chest before the crowds 
dispersed with the precious documents. 

The Elector of Saxony permitted no sale of indul- 
gences in his domain ; but Tetzel came close to the bor- 
ders, scarce twenty miles from Wittenberg, and many 


of Luther's flock went to hear him, in spite of earnest 
warnings. Luther endured it for some months, but at 
length the protest that burned in his soul could no longer 
be suppressed. 

The Ninety- On the 31st of October, citizens 

five Theses. and students of Wittenberg coming 

to afternoon service in the Castle 
Church found on the door a copy of ninety-five theses, 
or propositions, attacking the abuses of the Church, 
especially the sale of indulgences ; challenging debate on 
the truth of these charges ; and signed with the name of 
Martin Luther. This was the spark to the tinder. In 
two weeks, the theses were carried abroad over all Ger- 
many, "as if," says one writer, "the angels were the post- 

"I hoped the Pope would protect me/' wrote Luther, 
"for I had so fortified my theses with proofs from the 
Bible and papal decrees that I was sure he would con- 
demn Tetzel and bless me. But when I expected a bene- 
diction from Rome, there came thunder and lightning 
instead." Threats and orders to recant were hurled at 
him; cardinals and papal ambassadors endeavored to 
show him the error of his way. The books he wrote to 
explain his position were condemned. Luther was sum- 
moned to a great debate at Leipsic, where the ablest Cath- 
olic theologian of the day in Germany, Dr. John Eck, 
contested with him the statements made in the theses, 
and accused him of holding doctrines similar to those for 
which Huss had been burned a century before. 


Melanchthon Meantime, the faculty and students 

(1497-1560). o Wittenberg, and their patron, 

Elector Frederick, stood faithfully 
on the side o the University's most famous professor. 
Among them was a young man, frail and boyish, who had 
taken his master's degree at seventeen, and was made full 
professor at twenty-one. He was to become not only 
Luther's closest friend, but the foremost scholar of the 
Reformation, and the author of its greatest creed 
Philip Melanchthon, 

Defiance When at length the bull of excom- 

to Rome. munication from Rome declared 

Martin Luther a heretic and out- 
cast, it was the faculty of Wittenberg who marched with 
him in solemn procession outside the city gates, and for- 
mally burned the document, while the students rejoiced 
and held a mock funeral over its remains. 

The Diet And then, in 1521, came the dra- 

of Worms. matic climax the answer of 

Luther to the imperial Diet, or 
Council, in the city of Worms. By this time, "the great 
majority of lawyers, canonists, grammarians, poets, 
priests and monks, together with the masses of the com- 
mon people, in fact, nine-tenths of all Germany, were on 
Luther's side/' or at least, against the Papacy. His 
journey to Worms was a triumphal progress; every city 
and village on the route turned out to do him honor. 
At length the monk, in his plain black gown, stood 


solitary before emperor, princes and cardinals ; but back 
of him, unseen, yet present in spirit, stood not Germany 
alone, but all Europe, waiting for his reply. 

"Will you abjure the teachings of the books you have 
written? Will you recant?" came the insistent question. 
And Martin Luther, fearless and serene, replied: 

"Unless convinced by the testimony of Scripture, I 
neither can nor will recant anything. Here I stand; I 
cannot do otherwise. God help me! Amen/* 

The Outlaw of Luther departed from Worms with 
the Wartburg. the ban of the Empire hanging over 

his head. "Thenceforth to the end 
of his life he remained an outlaw. He was to be seized 
wherever found and sent to the emperor, or held in safe- 
keeping until his fate was decided upon. All his books 
were ordered burned, and to publish, sell, buy or read 
any of his writings was strictly forbidden/* His friends, 
fearing for his safety, had him captured as if by high- 
waymen on his return journey, and took him secretly to 
the strong castle of the Wartburg, where he dwelt al- 
most a year, disguised with a full beard and in knightly 

Translation This confinement, irksome as it was 

of the Bible. to him, was one of the most fruit- 

ful periods of his life; for It was at 
the Wartburg that he began his great task of translating 
the Bible into clear, simple German, such as the common 
people could understand. There had been German ver- 


sions before, but they were translated from the Latin 
Vulgate, and copied its errors ; Luther translated directly 
from the original Hebrew and Greek. The former ver- 
sions were in a style that was above the heads of the 
people, his was on their level. He got it, as he said, 
"from the mother in the home, the child in the street, 
the common man in the market-place." Knowing how 
much the Scriptures had meant to him, he felt that the 
greatest need of every man. was to have God's Word in 
a form that he could read and understand. No gift of 
Martin Luther's to the world is greater than that of an 
open Bible. 

Return to Concealment soon became odious 

Wittenberg. to him, and in the spring of 1522, 

learning of disorders in Wittenberg, 
Luther quietly returned, and took his place there as if 
he had never been away. 

One of the most remarkable spectacles the world has 
seen is that of Martin Luther, declared an outlaw by the 
Church and State, dwelling calmly for twenty-four years 
in full publicity, preaching and teaching, writing books 
and pamphlets of all sorts to explain and uphold his doc- 
trines, the centre of a busy circle of co-laborers, living 
in perfect safety and dying in tranquility, honored and 
beloved by his countrymen, and by thousands in other 
lands. It is the sure proof of his appeal to the waking 
mind and conscience of his time. He was no longer a 
voice in the wilderness; he was the leader of a mighty 
snovement, the hero of the Protestant cause. 


The Peasants* That name of Protestant, however, 

War. " was not fixed upon the Reformers 

till the Diet of Speyer, when formal 
protest was made against Rome; and again at Augsburg, 
when the great Confession of Reformed principles was 
presented to the Council. Many things were to happen 
before that significant day. Soon after Luther's return 
from the Wartburg came the Peasants* War, which might 
have, made him a popular idol had he thrown himself into 
the cause of the people. Instead, he rebuked both princes 
and peasants, deploring oppression on the one side and 
violence on the other, and upholding law and order, and 
the peaceable doctrine of Christ He was a reformer, 
but no revolutionist 

Luther's Having been very positive against 

Marriag^ the celibacy of monks and: nuns, he 

was urged by his friends to marry; 
and at last, in his forty-second year, he wedded Katherine 
von Bora, a nun who had abandoned the convent with a 
number of others after reading some of his books. This 
late marriage proved exceedingly happy, and was blessed 
with six children, of whom four survived him. 

Later Years at In controversies, which were not 
Wittenberg. few, Doctor Martin was a bitter 

opponent, fighting with all his 
might for what he believed to be the truth, without re- 
gard to civility. In his writings, as he himself admits, 
lie was "stormy and warlike." But in his garden at Wit- 
tenberg, planting lilies and roses ; or in the circle of his 


friends, discoursing with lively humor ; or singing hymns 
with his children about him, or decking their Christmas 
tree, or pointing 1 out to them the little bird who sleeps 
so sweetly on the swaying bough, trusting iu the Maker 
of all; or in his pastoral work at Wittenberg 1 , visiting the 
sick and dying when* the plague was at its height; or 
writing the Shorter Catechism and explaining it to the 
children of his parish; or giving away his wedding silver 
to help the necessities of some poor student; or writing 
a letter from the birds, complaining that his old servant 
set traps for them in such guise, no less than in the 
mighty moment at Worms, or the labors in the Wart- 
burg, we must seek the real Martin Luther. In crisis or 
in calm, his source of strength was the same an un- 
broken faith in the promises of God. His death came 
to him on a peace-making errand to his birthplace at 

Value of LutH-^ What had he accomplished? A 
er's Protest, protest had been launched against 

greed, tyranny, and all manner of 
spiritual wickedness in. the high places of the Church. 
The doctrine of justification by faith had opened to men 
the straight pathway to the heart of God, with neither 
man nor angel to stand between, save Christ the Mediator. 
All believers were declared kings and priests unta God. 
The right of man to liberty of conscience had been as- 
serted in no uncertain tone. The Bible had been given 
to his people in their own every-day speech; and the 
impulse to learn the truth that makes men free had 
^spread to every country in Europe, The Church of the 


Reformation had come into being. The age-riveted 
shackles of Rome had been broken, and the Modern Age 
was born to its heritage of freedom, 

"All human progress/' declares Phillips Brooks, "must 
remember Martin Luther/* 



The connection of woman with the Reformation is not merely 
a sentimental, but a very practical one. Romanism had lowered 
the status of marriage, by forbidding it to the clergy, and exalt- 
ing the nunnery at the expense of the home. 

The marriage of Luther to Katherine von Bora struck directly 
at both, these errors. The Reformers, t>y marrying, restored the 
home to its place of honor, banished the false preferment of 
celibacy, and re-established the ^ Christian parsonage as a com- 
munity centre of helpful activities. Some one has said that 
ministers' children may be called a **by-product of the Reforma- 

Katherine's influence on tibe later life of Luther was incal- 
culable. How bitter his warlike spirit might have .become without 
the tender cares -of home-life, we may judge from his writings 
of earlier date. Katherine found him a lonely bachelor, in a cell 
full of dust, papers, and, a ubiquitous little dog. She gave him 
a true German home, shining with, neatness; secured him from 
bankruptcy by guarding the little income he was forever giving 
away ; added to it by diligent oversight of the little farm at Zuls- 
dorf ; and battled with vigorous common sense against his tend- 
ency to melancholy. . Once, in a period of great despondency, 
such as his failing health often induced, he came home to find 
her dressed in deep mourning. To his anxious inquiries she re- 
plied, "Oh, dear Martin, our Lord God is dead, and that is why 
I am weeping!" With a burst of hearty laughter he admitted, 
"You are right! I tehaved foolishly, just as if there were no 
God any more in heaven!" and took tip his work with renewed 
courage. The length as well as the happiness of his life was 
largely due to die sane, masterful Influence of "Lord Katie." 

Katherine Krapp, wife of Melanchthon, was wedded by him 
at the urgency of his friends, with grave reluctance. *'So," lie 
said with resignation, "such is the will of God ; I must relinquish 


my studies and joys." But the care of his devoted wife increased 
rather than impaired his facility for mental labors; and his nurs- 
ery became such a source of aelight and inspiration to him that 
he called it his "little church." He was often seen rocking the 
cradle while reading a book. 

A third Katherine was the wife of Matthew Zell, the Stras- 
burg Reformer. Her house became a "veritable hotel" for Pro- 
testant refugees. One night there came 150 of these to Stras- 
burg; she lodged eighty, and for the next few weeks had fifty 
or sixty daily for meals! Equally great were her labors for 
the sick and destitute. She was called the "female theologian and 
mother of Reformers." 

The most remarkable record as a wife of Reformers is that 
of Wittbrandis Rosenblatt, a knight's daughter who was married 
successively to Ludwig Cellarius, Oecolampadius of Basel, Capito 
of Strasburg, and the still greater Strasburg Reformer, Martin 
Bucer. The three children she bore to Oecolampadius were named 
Eusebius, Aletheia and Irene (Piety, Truth and Peace), to indi- 
cate the pillars on which their home was founded. 

A woman who might almost herself be counted among the 
Reformers was Argula von Stauff, wife of Frederick von Grum- 
bach, a high official of Bavaria* Argula, when a child of ten, 
was given by her father a German Bible (one of the early trans- 
lations from the Vulgate, which appeared before Luther's trans- 
lation), and bidden to study it well. She was frightened from 
its use by the denunciations of some begging friars ; but after 
her marriage she became a student of Luther's works, and carried 
on correspondence with the circle of Reformers in Wittenberg. 
Luther mentions her in his letters, with great admiration for her 
intellect and zeal. In 1523, when the mother of four smaU chil- 
dren, and in her household "a true Martha," she was! aroused .by 
the forced recantation of Arsacius Seehof er, a youth of eighteen, 
lately returned from Wittenberg. She wrote a letter inviting the 
entire University of Ingolstadt, including the redoubtable Dr. 
Eck, to a debate before the ducal court on the doctrines of Luther. 

Eck felt it beneath his dignity to return a serious reply to a 
woman, but sent her (it is said) a distaff and spindle, to suggest 
her proper sphere. On her appealing to the town council of 
Ingolstadt, Eck took the matter before the Duke. Argula's 
husband, though violently opposed to her beliefs, was deposed 
from office, and the family retired to obscurity on one of his 
country estates. Argula afterward paid Luther a visit in his 
detention at Goburg during the Augsburg Diet 
^Margvret Blaarer, sister of Ambrose Blaarer of Constance, 
aided him as deaconess, and organized the first Woman's Society 
in the Protestant Church. 


Among many high-born ladies of Protestant faith, a notable 
one was Elisabeth of Denmark, married at sixteen to Elector 
Joachim of Brandenburg, a bigoted Romanist In later years she 
became a Lutheran, and during the Elector's absence caused the 
Lord's Supper to be celebrated in the castle after the Protestant 
manner. On Joachim's return, their daughter Elizabeth told him 
what had happened, and in violent rage he imprisoned his wife 
in her apartments. Escaping, disguised as a peasant, in a rude 
cart by night, she sought the protection of her uncle, the Elector 
of Saxony. He gave her the castle of Lichtenberg, where she 
passed the rest of her life in study and devotion. She was a 
personal friend of Luther, and godmother to his daughter Mag- 

Her daughter Elizabeth became the wife of Eric of Brunswick; 
she was at first a bitter opponent of her mother's faith, and when 
she visited her at Lichtenberg, would carry away information 
which often made trouble for the Protestants. Finally she be- 
came convinced of the truth, openly declared for the Reforma- 
tion, and took active measures to spread its teachings throughout 

Another princess of Protestant faith was Electress Elizabeth 
of the Palatinate, whose daughter, a favorite pupil of the Philoso- 
pher Descartes, was also a staunch champion of the Reformation* 



"Flung to the heedless winds, 

Or on the waters cast, 
Their ashes shall be watched 
And gathered at the last ; 

"And from that scattered dust, 

Around us and abroad, 
Shall spring a plenteous seed 
Of witnesses for God. 

"Still, still, though dead 

And trumpet-tongued proclaim 
To many a wakening land 
The one availing Name/* 

Luther's hymn on the Dutch 
martyrs, Voes and Esch. 

''While the lot of God's church is to endure blows, not 
to strike them, yet it is an anvil that has worn out many 
hammers/' Theodore Beza* 



The Protest of When the Protestant leaders as* 
the Nations. sembled at Augsburg had heard the 

great Confession read, there came 
an anxious pause, while the document waited for signers. 
Then its author, Philip Melanchthon, realizing that for 
the princes to subscribe it meant civil as well as spiritual 
warfare, proposed that it should be signed only by the 
theologians, who were already involved in the charge of 

But John the Constant, Elector of Saxony, took up the 
pen, declaring: 

"Not so, Philip! I too will confess my Christ!" 

And they all signed it there seven princes of Ger- 
many, beside the representatives of two free cities. 

Henceforth the Reformation becomes a matter not 
merely of professors and preachers, but of princes and 
peoples as well. Its widening course through Europe 
begins to shake the nations, to make all despotism trem- 
ble. The Reformation, says James Bryce, "erected the 
standard of civil as well as religious liberty/ 1 Or, in the 
words of Bancroft, "The principle of justification by 



faith alone brought with it the freedom of individual 
thought and conscience against authority/' 

The Reformation in In Scandinavia, where the doctrines 
Northern Lands. of the Reformation were very early 
received, "the religious awakening 
was bound up with political and social movements more 
than in any other countries/' As early as 1519, Chris- 
tian II. of Denmark, a nephew of Frederick the Wise of 
^axony, tried to make use of the teachings of Luther 
to break the power of the Roman clergy in his domain. 
This was not finally accomplished till 1536, under Chris- 
tian III., who had been present at the Diet of Worms, 
and was a great admirer of Luther* 

Gustavus Vasa The truly picturesque figure of the 
(1490-1560). , time, however, is that of Gustavus 

Vasa, both civil and religious eman- 
cipator of Sweden. Under his leadership, in 1520, Swe- 
den gained her independence from Denmark, and Gus- 
tavus was later crowned king. He found the country in 
bankrupt condition. Not only was it impoverished by 
war, but two-thirds of the land was held by the Roman 
Church, which refused to pay taxes upon it 

Calling to his aid two brothers, Olaf and Laurence 
Petri, who had studied under Luther at Wittenberg, Gus- 
tavus openly espoused the Reformation cause. Under 
the royal patronage, Laurence Petri translated the Scrip- 
tures into Swedish, and the people read them eagerly. 
Before the long reign of Gustavus ended, Sweden was 


practically a Lutheran country, and the bulk of the prop- 
erty held by the Church of Rome had been confiscated 
for the restoration of Swedish credit While there is 
no doubt that the financial problem had a large share 
in the zeal of Gustavus for reform, there is no reason 
to believe that he was not in full sympathy with the 
movement from higher motives. His last message to his 
people was, "Rather die a hundred times than abandon 
the Gospel/' 

Custavtis Adolphus The story of Protestantism in Swe- 
(1594.1632), den would be incomplete without 

the name of the greater Gustavtts, 
grandson of Vasa Gustavus Adolphus, the "Lion of 
the North/' His life leads us up to the century follow- 
ing the Reformation, when the powers of Romanism had 
gathered themselves for a desperate effort to blot out 
Protestant teachings from Europe. The Emperor Ferdi- 
nand II., who declared that he would rather rule in a 
wilderness than over a prosperous nation of heretics, 
proceeded to lay Protestant Europe waste in the Thirty 
Years' War, assisted by those countries which had re- 
mained faithful to Rome. Into this arena, like a paladin 
of old, came Gustavus of Sweden to the defence of Pro- 
testantism. 'The Snow King will melt as he moves 
south," declared the scornful Emperor; but he saw his 
own forces melt before the Swedish onslaught his mur- 
dering and plundering Croats and Walloons overcome by 
men who held two prayer-meetings every day through- 
out their camp ! After a triumphal march through Ger- 


many, Gustavus won a decisive victory and laid down 
his own life on the field of Liitzen. 

Freedom on Her All writers who mention the Swiss, 
Mountain Height, from the time of Caesar down, agree! 
in pronouncing them a people of 
independent spirit and unbreakable will. Trithemius, a 
German abbot, describes them thus : "They are a people 
proud by nature, enemies of princes, riotous, and for a 
long time have been contrary and disobedient to their 
overlords/' Pope Pius II. also complains that "they hold 
nothing for right except when it agrees with their fan- 
tastic ideas." Their clergy were not allowed to inter- 
fere in secular matters, and could even be held answer- 
able to courts of law. 

Ulrich Zwingli It will scarcely surprise its to find 
(1484-1531)* the Reformation beginning in 

Switzerland simultaneously with 
its rise in Germany, and to a large extent independent of 
the latter. The great challenge to the Papacy from Switz- 
erland was launched by the hand of tllrich Zwingli. 

Childhood and He was born on January 1st, 1484, 

Education. in the village of Wildhatis, high in 

a valley of the Alps. His father 

was a prosperous farmer and herder, chief magistrate 

of the village; his father's brother was the village priest. 

Young Ulrich proved to be a boy of brilliant mental 

ability and high spirit. His father determined to train, 

him for the priesthood, and at the age of ten he was sent 


to school at Basel, and four years later to Berne. At the 
age of sixteen he was sent to the University of Vienna, 
but in two years came back again to study at Basel. At 
twenty-two he received his master's degree, and a call 
to his first charge at Glarus. 

Religious Up to this time the strongest spirit- 

Influences, ual influence he had experienced 

was that of his teacher at Basel, 
Thomas Wyttenbach, who pointed out to him "what a 
cheat and delusion indulgences were," and also empha- 
sized the authority of the Scriptures. During his stay at 
Glarus, Zwingli corresponded with the great scholar, 
Erasmus, whose writings he vastly admired. About this 
time he began the study of Greek, "in order/' he says, 
"that I might learn the teaching of Christ from the origi- 
nal sources." The influence of Erasmus had much to do 
with this. 

Preacher and After ten years as pastor at Glarus, 

Protestant. he removed to Einsiedeln. Here his 

preaching became constantly more 
Scriptural, and his fame as a preacher grew, until in 
1519 he was called to the city of Zurich. 

Almost immediately he came into conflict with Ber- 
nardin Samson, a seller of indulgences. The town coun- 
cil of Zurich upheld Zwingli, with the result that word 
came from Rome for Samson's recall if he annoyed the 
city, and he returned to Italy with his "heavy, three- 
horse wagon of gold/* Zwingli went on attacking the 
abuses of the Church, preaching against the system of 


tithes, compulsory fasting, image-worship, and the like. 
He also gave up a pension he had been receiving from 
the pope, and urged the right of priests to marry. He 
himself married Anna Reinhard in 1522, but did not an- 
nounce it publicly for several years. 

The council of Zurich at first tried to control the 
actions of those who carried Zwingli's teachings to their 
logical results, refusing to fast, and breaking down 
images. But, as the bishop of Constance tried to inter- 
fere, the independent spirit of the free town asserted 
itself, and Zurich grew more and more favorable to the 
teachings of Zwingli. These teachings were by this time 
spreading throughout Switzerland, in the form of sixty- 
seven articles prepared by Zwingli, resembling the nine- 
ty-five theses of Luther. As in Luther's case, learned 
men were sent to refute him in public argument; but 
Zwingli defended his position ably, and Zurich was 
finally committed to the Reformation. In 1524, all the 
churches of the city "were purged of pictures, relics, 
crucifixes, altars, candles, and all ornaments, the frescoes 
effaced and the walls whitewashed. The pictures were 
broken and burnt. The bones of the saints were buried. 
Even the organs were removed, and the Latin singing of 
the choir abolished." Nothing was to be left that could 
remind the worshippers of Romish pomp and ceremony. 

Constructive There must not only be the abolish- 

Reform. ing of the old, but also the establish- 

ing of the new; so the next step 
was the opening of a college for training preachers in 
the reformed doctrine. A Swiss version of the Bible 


was also prepared, in which service the chief credit be- 
longs to Leo Jud, Zwingli's close friend and assistant 
pastor at Zurich, who was to him as Melanchthoti was 
to Luther. 

Visions Unrealized. Zwingli had large plans for a union 
of all the Protestant forces. For 
this purpose was held the famous Colloquy at Marburg, 
where Zwingli and Luther met, and agreed on fourteen 
out of fifteen points of doctrine, but most unfortunately 
were divided on the significance of the Lord's Supper. 
Finding that there could be no union on purely spiritual 
grounds, Zwingli turned to the scheme of a political al- 
liance of all Protestant states ; but this also failed. 

A Heroic Death. Meantime the cantons, or confed- 
erated states of Switzerland, which 
had remained faithful to Rome engaged in civil war with 
the four cantons which had become Protestant. For a 
time, a truce was patched up; but in 1531 open hostilities 
broke out. The five Forest Cantons, which were Roman 
Catholic, were blockaded and shut off from provisions; 
and becoming desperate, attacked the Protestant cantons 
at Capped on the 9th of October. 

Zwingli, armed and mounted, rode with his people 
into the battle. He made no use of his weapons, but 
cheered on the soldiers and assured them that God would 
prosper the good cause. Soon after the battle opened, 
he was wounded, and fell declaring, "They may kill the 
body, but they cannot kill the soul/' Some of the enemy 
tried to make him confess to a priest, or invoke the saints, 


but he only shook his head; and one of them finally 
thrust him through, exclaiming, "Die, obstinate heretic !" 
They burnt his body, and scattered the ashes to the four 
winds. The day of defeat at Cappel turned the course 
of the Reformation thenceforth from German to French 

Three Great Luther was the warrior, the pioneer 

Reformers. of the Reformation ; the breaker of 

ground, the clearer of stumps, as he 
himself expressed it; often rugged and harsh, but always 
heroic. Zwingli was the polished man of letters, the 
statesman of far-reaching theories. Now we meet with 
a man different from either ; a man who was above all a 
theologian, with mind fitted to grapple the most subtle 
problems of religion. "History furnishes no more strik- 
ing example of, a man of so little personal popularity, and 
yet such great influence upon the people; of such nat- 
ural timidity and bashfulness combined with such 
strength of intellect and character, and such control over 
his and future generations. He was by nature and taste 
a retiring scholar, but Providence made him an organizer 
and ruler of churches." 

John Calvin John Calvin, or Cauvin, was born 

(1509-1564). July 10th, 1509, at Noyon, in 

France. His father, Gerard Cau- 
vin, was secretary to the bishop of Noyon, and also held 
a secular office in the county. 

"When I was yet a very little boy," writes Calvin, 
"my father had destined me for the study of theology. 1 * 
In fact before he was quite twelve years old, his father 


had obtained for Mm a chaplaincy in the Noyon cathe- 
dral The boy was tonsured, and received the revenue 
of the office, but of course, did not perform its duties. 

Education. At the age of fourteen he was sent 

to the University of Paris; later 
studied law at Orleans ; but returned on his father's death 
to Paris, where, at the age of twenty-three, he published 
his first book, a brilliant commentary on one of Seneca's 

Conversion. He speaks of having experienced 

"a sudden conversion," but names 
no human agency. "God Himself," he says, "produced 
the change. He instantly subdued my heart to obedi- 
ence/' When or where this happened we do not know; 
but on his return to Paris he became one of the little 
band of Protestants who met in the house of a pious 
merchant, and often explained the Scriptures to them. 

Exiled From Forced to flee tradition says, dis- 

France. guised as a vine-dresser from 

Paris, because he was suspected of 
having composed an address delivered by a friend of 
his, which the French Parliament condemned as heretical, 
Calvin wandered for several years through France. Final- 
ly, despairing of safety in his native land, where violent 
persecutions had arisen against Protestants, he went to 
Switzerland. At Basel he composed his great doctrinal 
work, the "Institutes," defending the doctrines of the 


Call to Geneva* In 1536, Calvin reached Geneva, 
expecting to remain only a night. 
There, however, he was discovered by William Farel, 
the pioneer of the Reformation in French Switzerland, 
one of the most fiery and fearless preachers of the day. 
He went at once to Calvin and told him that he was 
needed in Geneva, and must stay and help to establish 
Protestant doctrines there. Calvin pleaded his youth, 
his inexperience, his timidity; but Farel, with the elo- 
quence of a prophet, declared that he would be resisting 
the call of God if he went away ; and Calvin, shaken to 
the soul, obeyed, "as if God from on high had stretched 
out his hand to arrest me." 

Schaff remarks, "Calvin was foreordained for Geneva, 
and Geneva for Calvin. He found in the city on Lake 
Leman *a tottering republic, a wavering faith, a nascent 
Church/ He left it a Gibraltar of Protestantism, a school 
of nations and churches," 

Beginnings Geneva was not conscious at first 

of Reform. of her new honors. The people 

heard the preaching of Calvin with 
attention, but the city council granted him no support for 
some months, speaking slightingly of him as "that 

The city itself was not noted for holiness. The peo- 
ple were gay and careless, fond of all sorts of amuse- 
ments, and not ignorant of the vices that flourish under 
such circumstances. Farel and Calvin prepared a "Con- 
fession of Faith and Discipline/* and a Catechism, for 
the better instruction of the people, and petitioned the 


council to assist them in maintaining church discipline. 
Meantime the council had passed a series of "blue laws," 
and began to enforce them, much to the disgust of the 
baser element in the city. 

Revolt and The Reformers received all the 

Banishment. blame, and were repeatedly threat- 

ened. Calvin in later days declared, 
"I have lived in marvellous combats here. I have been 
saluted in mockery of an evening by fifty or sixty gun- 
shots before my door more than enough to astonish a 
poor scholar, timid as I am/' The people elected a prac- 
tically new council, and the Reformers were left unsup- 
ported. Ordered to hold Communion on Easter Sunday, 
they refused to administer it amid scenes of tumult, and 
were commanded to leave the city. "Very well/' replied 
Calvin to the council, "it is better to serve God than 
man !" and the preachers departed to Berne. 

In Strasburg. The next three years were spent by 

Calvin in Strasburg, in fruitful 
labors as professor, pastor and author, yet so poor that 
he was obliged to sell his library to pay his landlord. He 
married during this period Idelette de Bure, a widow 
with several children, and lived happily with her until 
her death, nine years later. 

Recall to Geneva. In 1541 he was recalled ta Geneva, 

and Strasburg with great regret 

gave up "that elect and incomparable instrument of God," 

as their letter to Geneva calls him. He was brought back 


in honor, given a house and garden, a salary of 500 gold 
florins, and "a new suit of broadcloth, with furs for the 
winter/' and was declared by act of the council "an hon- 
orable man and a true servant of God." 

A Model Henceforth, though not without 

Community. conflicts, Calvin was the real ruler 

of Geneva. He instituted civic 
house-cleaning and pure-food regulations, closed taverns, 
promoted industries, and made church attendance the 
most popular recreation. Geneva became a model com- 
munity "the most perfect school of Christ that ever 
was in the earth since the days of the Apostles," John 
Knox pronounced it A German pastor who visited it 
fifty years after Calvin's death called it "the perfect in- 
stitute of a perfect republic/' 

A stern and uncompromising society it was, and some- 
times darkened its records with deeds of intolerance, like 
the execution of Servetus, who denied the doctrine of 
the Trinity. But those were days of religious persecu- 
tion, and even the Reformers believed that obstinate dis- 
sent called for punishment. Religious liberty, as we know 
it today, was only dawning. 

A Fruitful Life. For twenty-three years after his 
recall, "Master Calvin," as he was 
universally called, lived and labored in Geneva. He died 
at the age of fifty-four, and by his own request was 
buried in a grave unmarked by any stone, so that, like 
Moses, "no man knoweth his sepulchre." The whole 
great fabric of the churches known to this day as "Cal- 
vinistic" in their teaching is his enduring monument 


Lefevxe The persecution which had driven 

(1455-1536). him from France did not cease, 

though there were temporary lulls. 
Indeed, the trouble had begun ten years before the flight 
of Calvin, when Jacques Lef evre, the "real beginner of 
the Reformation in France," had published a revised edi- 
tion of an old French translation of the Bible, believing 
that the Scriptures should be in the hands of the people. 
The Parliament took stern measures to suppress all 
books embodying Reformed doctrines, publicly burnt 
Lefevre's translation of the Bible, and compelled the 
author and his friends to take refuge in Strasburg. 
Afterward they were restored to royal favor, and all 
seemed going peaceably when the storm arose which 
drove Calvin away. After this, not only books were 
burned, but Protestants as well, and the skies dark- 
ened daily. 

While things grew worse in France, the Protestants 
there, known as Huguenots, drew together more and 
more, and organized churches. Calvin corresponded 
with them constantly, urging organization, recom- 
mending pastors, warning and encouraging the per- 

Beza In close association with him was 

(1519-1605). Theodore Beza, the "courtly Re- 

former/' noble in birth, cultured 
and handsome. He was born in 1519, and, like Luther 
and Calvin, studied law for a time; afterward devoted 
himself to literature, and published a volume of Latin 


poems. Soon after, sobered by a serious illness, he 
abandoned his literary labors, joined the Protestant 
Church, and in 1548 journeyed to Geneva, where he 
met Calvin, who speaks of him as "a man whose 
lovely spirit, noble, pure manners, and open-minded- 
ness endeared him to all the righteous." 

For nine years Beza taught Greek in the Academy 
of Lausanne, also giving public lectures on the Epis- 
tles. In 1558 he went to Geneva as rector of the new 
Academy there. It would take too long to tell how 
he argued the cause of Protestantism before kings and 
cardinals, and became known as the foremost Hugue- 
not orator. Much of his time was spent in missions 
to France for the good of the Protestant cause. He 
rode in the front rank of the Huguenot army at the 
battle of Dreux, returned to Geneva with a price on 
his head, and shortly after, on Calvin's death, became 
his successor. 

When the awful massacre of St Bartholomew's Day 
threatened to blot out Protestantism in France, he re- 
ceived the fugitives in Geneva, and collected large 
sums of money for their aid. In his old age, Francis 
de Sales came to Geneva to convert him, and made 
the mistake of offering him a pension of 4,000 gold 
crowns, in the name of the Pope, as an inducement 
to turn Catholic. Beza, always courteous, politely in- 
formed him that he was too old and deaf to be able to 
hear such a proposal! He died at the age of eighty- 
six, having lived to see freedom of worship granted 
to French Protestants by the Edict of Nantes, in 1598. 


Reform in The Reformation in the Nether- 

Holland* lands fills* a heroic page of Protest- 

ant history. There a Dutch trans- 
lation of the Bible was published as early as 1477, and 
twenty-five translations of the Bible or the New Testa- 
ment appeared between 1513 and 1531. There tracts 
against indulgences were circulated before Luther's 
theses were written. There the Inquisition was estab- 
lished in 1522, and the first Protestant martyrs, Henry 
Voes and John Esch, were burnt at the stake in 1523. 
The real crisis, however, did not arrive -until Philip II 
came to the throne of Spain, and endeavored to wipe 
out Protestantism from this part of his domain. 

The Coming "I would lose all my States, and 

of Alva. a hundred lives if I had them," he 

wrote to the Pope, "rather than 
be the lord of heretics." From his Dutch subjects 
came the prompt reply, "We are ready to die for the 
Gospel." At first they held their meetings at night 
in woods and desolate places ; but soon, growing bolder, 
they marched through the streets of the towns, 
singing psalms, and armed themselves to defend their 
preachers, while speaking in public. Philip pretended 
to withdraw the Inquisition and granted toleration, 
though he informed the Pope that this was only a 
blind. Some extremists presently indulged in image- 
breaking, and the terrible Duke of Alva wa? sent with 
over 10,000 troops to subdue the Netherlands. 


William of Orange In the reign of terror that fol- 
(1533-1584), lowed, executions by the whole- 

sale are recorded, 1,500 being 
taken in their beds on Ash- Wednesday morning, and 
later 800 more, of whom Alva calmly reports, "I have 
ordered all of them to be executed/* The only hope 
of the Netherlands was in the noble Prince of Orange, 
William the Sitent. Defeated by land, he armed the 
Dutch sailors. The "Sea-Beggars/ 1 as they called 
themselves, scattered the Spanish fleet, took its ad- 
miral prisoner, and forced Alva to leave the country* 
Still the war with Spain went on, reaching its climax 
in the heroic defence of Leyden. "We have two arms/* 
shouted the besieged from the walls when urged to 
surrender, "and when kunger forces us, we will eat 
the one and fight you with the other!" The dykes 
were cut and the sea let in, and at last the Sea-Beggars 
were able to come in with supplies, "sailing over 
buried cornfields and gardens, piloted through orchards 
and villages." 

The Spaniards fled, and thereafter the cause of 
Spain went backward; and in 1581 the northern prov- 
inces of the Netherlands solemnly renounced allegiance 
to the King of Spain, and declared themselves an in- 
dependent republic. Thirty years of struggle were 
still before them; William of Orange was to fall 
before Philip's hired assassin; but nothing could stamp 
out the spirit of freedom^ or the undying faith of the 
little republic. 


The Bohemian Austria, as well as Spain, has 

Brethren. many deeds of blood to account 

for in dealing with her Protestant 
subjects. We have already made the acquaintance of 
the Emperor Ferdinand II, who shared Philip's dis- 
like for ruling over heretics. So great was his zeal 
that he well-nigh destroyed his Protestant provinces 
of Bohemia and Moravia. The evangelical church in 
these countries was, as we have seen, a survival of the 
teachings of Huss; and these "Bohemian Brethren" 
are the ancestors of the Moravian church of to-day. 
By battles, by executions, by exile, the population of 
Bohemia was reduced during the Thirty Years* War 
from 3,000,000 to 800,000. Yet they were not de- 
stroyed. We shall hear again of this "Hidden Seed," 
as the Moravians styled themselves. 

Hiibmaier Before these persecutions began^ 

(1481-1528). another Protestant people had 

taken refuge in Moravia. The 
Anabaptists, like the Moravians, can scarcely be called 
a product of the Reformation of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, since their origin seems to be connected with 
that of the Waldenses, whom we have noted as fore- 
runners of the general Reformed movement About 
1520, when the Anabaptists were numerous in Swit- 
zerland, we first observe the outstanding figure of 
Balthasar Hiibmaier, their greatest theologian, preach- 
ing the doctrines of the Reformation and instituting 
reforms in his parish of Waldshut, so vigorously that 
not much later the Austrian government was demand- 


Ing of the town "that within a month's time you expel 
the said Doctor and preacher from the city, and 
choose in his place another suitable and pious preacher, 
who does not hold Luther's condemned doctrines." 
When finally driven from Waldshut, he took refuge 
in Moravia, and in a short time built up a strong 
church there, in the city of Nikolsburg. 

But Austria was not through with Hiibmaier; to 
the charge of heresy was now added that of "rebellion 
against the government/' and after some months of 
imprisonment, he was burned at Vienna on March 
10th, 1528. His devoted wife, who had urged him to 
fortitude on his way to the stake (and of whom it was 
said that she was "hardened in the same heresy, more 
constant than her husband"), was three days later 
thrown into the Danube, with a great stone tied to her 
neck. In spite of bitter persecutions, the Anabaptists 
continued to flourish in Moravia. 

Tyndale We have seen how the reading of 

(1484-1536). Wyclifs Bible was forbidden to 

English subjects on pain of death, 
and all copies that could be found were destroyed. 
Yet the Lollards, as the followers of Wyclif were 
called, increased in secret, though constantly hunted 
down by zealous churchmen. In 1521, the Bishop of 
London had 500 Lollards arrested at once. Divinity 
students were required to take an oath renouncing the 
doctrines of Wyclif, Huss and Luther. King Henry 
VIII wrote a book against the heresy, and received 
from Rome the title of "Defender of the Faith/ 1 It 


seemed an unfavorable time to attempt a new trans- 
lation of the Scriptures ; but tliat was the ambition and 
achievement of William Tyndale. 

His Training He was born about 1484, and 

For the Task. "brought up from a child/' says 

Foxe, in the University of Ox- 
ford, where he was "singularly addicted to the study 
of the Scriptures/' Later he studied at Cambridge. 
While tutor in the family of Sir John Walsh, he came 
often into controversy with priests and men of learn- 
ing who visited there. It was when one of these had 
declared that "we would better be without God's laws 
than the Pope's/' that Tyndale made the memorable 
reply, "If God spare my life, ere many years I will 
cause a boy that driveth the plough to know more of 
the Scripture than thou dost/* He tells us he "per- 
ceived by experience that it was impossible to estab- 
lish the lay people in any truth, except the Scripture 
were plainly laid before their eyes in their mother 
tongue, that they might see the process, order and 
meaning of the text/' "Which thing only/' he says, 
"moved me to translate the New Testament/' 

First Attempts. Wyclif had had only the Latin 
version, or Vulgate, to translate 
from ; but now Erasmus, who had for some years been 
a professor at Cambridge, had published the Greek 
New Testament, and Tyndale could thus study the 
original. Accordingly he came hopefully to London, 
with a specimen of Greek translation he had made, to 


show the Bishop that he was fitted to undertake such 
a task. The Bishop received him coldly, and told him 
there was no room for him in his house. An alderman 
of London gave him a home, where he lived and 
studied until he "understood at the last not only that 
there was no room in my lord of London's palace to 
translate the New Testament, but also that there was 
no place to do it in all England." Then he left his 
native land, never to return. 

Cast Dawn, but First he spent some time in Ham- 
Not Destroyed. burg, but there was no printing 
press there, so he went on to 
Cologne and began his work. But ten sheets of the 
Testament were printed, when he was discovered 
there by Cochlaeus, a bitter enemy of the Reforma- 
tion, who had heard some of the Cologne printers 
boast of a revolution that was to take place in Eng- 
land. Cochlaieus invited them to his house, served 
them with wine to loosen their tongues, and learned 
that 3,000 copies of the English New Testament were 
soon to be shipped to England. He informed the 
Cologne authorities, and sent warnings to England. 
Tyndale escaped with his printed sheets to Worms. 
It was only about four years since the great Diet, but 
already the city had "become wholly Lutheran/' 

The English Bible, There the work of translation and 

printing went on, and thence the 

completed New Testament was sent into England. A 

German writer of the time relates that the English 


were so eager for the book "as to affirm that they 
would buy a New Testament even if they had to give 
a hundred thousand pieces of money for it/' 

The new translation was violently attacked by the 
English bishops. "My lord of London" preached a 
sermon against it, professing to have found 3,000 
errors in it Search was made in Oxford and Cam- 
bridge for copies of the books, and those who pos- 
sessed them were forced to burn them. An imposing 
scene at St. Paul's in London is described for us, 
where the cardinal, "with six and thirty abbots, mitred 
priors and bishops, in gowns of damask and satin/' 
sat upon a platform overlooking a great bonfire ; and 
the "heretics," after listening to a sermon condemning 
the books, must go thrice around the fire and cast in 
the offending volumes. Yet by 1530, six editions had 
been distributed in England a total of about 15,000 

A Martyr's Prayer. Six years later, having been cap- 
tured at last by treachery, Wil- 
liam Tyndale suffered a martyr's death at Antwerp, 
praying with his last breath, "Lord, open the King 
of England's eyes!" 

Cranmer It was a prayer right speedily to 

(1489-1556). be answered, though by strange 

means. The man who was most 
instrumental in making the Bible free to the people 
of England was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. None of the Reformation heroes appears so' 


little admirable at times as he; a time-server, a poli- 
tician, a turncoat, we are tempted more than once to 
call him. Yet none more gloriously redeemed himself 
in the end; and to none do the English-speaking 
peoples owe a greater debt 

The early orthodoxy of King Henry VIII has al- 
ready been remarked. It was no change of conviction, 
no adoption of loftier principles, which brought about 
his estrangement from Rome, but simply his desire to 
secure a divorce from his queen, Catherine of Aragon, 
in order to marry Anne Boleyn, of whom he was 
greatly enamored. 

But Catherine was the daughter of "their Most 
Catholic Majesties/' Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, 
and the aunt of the Emperor Charles V. Much as the 
Pope might have inclined to please Henry, he dared 
not consent to the divorce. That no moral scruples 
influenced his refusal is shown by the fact that the 
pontiff several times suggested during the controversy 
that Henry take a second wife without abandoning 
the first! 

If the Pope would not free him, Henry decided he 
would be free of the Pope. Cranmer, who believed 
that the marriage with Catherine had never really been 
valid s he had been the wife of Henry's deceased 
brother and also considering an English king a more 
fitting head for the English Church than a Spanish or 
Italian Pope, undertook to help the monarch out of 
his difficulty. He asked the King's permission to try 
the case before his own ecclesiastical court; declared 
the marriage null and void, and thus brought about a 


complete rupture between England and Rome* Thus 
was the door opened to the Reformation. 

How much or how little the new Church of Eng- 
land resembled the old Church of Rome in doctrine 
and practice, it is not necessary for us to discuss. The 
most important provision of the "Ten Articles/' pre- 
pared by Henry for the guidance of his people, is the 
removal of the ban upon the Bible. The "Injunctions/* 
issued soon after, declare it "the lively word of God 
that every Christian man is bound to embrace and 
follow," and warn the clergy to beware of discouraging 
any man from reading it. 

Tyndale's Prayer Two years earlier, Cranmer had 
Answered. secured a petition to the king 

that he would allow a translation 
of the Scriptures to be made and put into the hands 
of the people. Tyndale's version had been condemned 
and burnt; but in the very next year after Tyndale 
himself endured martyrdom, Cranmer recommended 
for official adoption in England a translation which, 
under another name, was practically that of Tyndale. 
This the archbishop asked to have licensed to "be sold 
and read of every person, without danger of any act, 
proclamation or ordinance heretofore granted to the 
contrary, until such time that we, the bishops, shall 
set forth a better translation, which I think will not 
be till a day after doomsday." So Tyndale's dying 
prayer received its answer; for his Bible became the 
licensed version of the land from which he had been 


Building the Church The "Christian quietness" which 
of England. the Ten Articles had been created 

to secure was not without its in- 
terruptions. There were Romanist reactions, charges 
of heresy against Cranmer, and aspersions against his 
favorite version of the Scriptures, which was known 
as "Cranmer's Bible," Henry became more capricious 
and brutal every day, and persecuted Protestants and 
Roman Catholics impartially. On one and the same 
day, three Lutheran clergymen were burnt at Smith- 
field for heresy, and three Romanists tortured and be- 
headed for denying the King's supremacy. Cranmer 
trimmed his sails to the wind more than once, and 
came safely through it all, though threatened as often 
as the more outspoken preachers, Ridley and Latimer. 
He was a constructive rather than a destructive re- 
former, and all through the brief reign of the boy-king 
Edward he went quietly on building up the English 
Church, formulating her creed and ritual, and stand- 
ing as the patron of education for all When the 
Cathedral School at Canterbury was founded, he in- 
sisted that poor men's sons, if apt to learn, should 
have equal privileges there with the children of the 

Martyrdom of Too soon the gentler days of 

Cranmer. Edward were over, and the Ro- 

manist princess, Mary Tudor, 
daughter of Catherine of Aragon, ascended the throne. 
Then the fires of Smithfield were kindled anew, and 
hundreds of Protestant martyrs passed through the 


furnace. Then was carried to his death sturdy Hugh 
Latimer, exhorting his companion in martyrdom, 
"Play the man, Master Ridley ; for by God's grace we 
shall this day light such a candle in England as will 
never be put out!" Cranmer also was a shining mark 
Condemned as a traitor, stripped of his episcopal gar- 
ments and thrown into prison, for a season he 
wavered, and actually signed several papers called 
"Submissions/* which were yet not positive recanta- 
tions. But even a penitent heretic might be burned, 
for the sake of a warning to others ; so in spite of all, 
he was told he must die. Then his courage gave way; 
he consented to sign a sweeping recantation, giving up 
every point of Reformed doctrine, and condemning all 
Protestant teachings as heresy. 

It failed to save him. But when he stood in view of 
the stake, courage returned. He repudiated all his 
recantations, declared the Pope to be Anti-Christ, and 
steadfastly held in the flames his right hand, which had 
signed his denial, saying with a loud voice, "This hand 
hath offended !" Without a cry or a groan, he passed 
manfully to stand before the tribunal of God. 

John Knox Meantime in Scotland a man of 

(1505-1572). far different type had arisen 

John Knox, the "Scottish Elijah/' 
Of all the Reformers, his life is most dramatic. 
Quietly preaching in the town of St. Andrews, at the 
age of thirty-two, he was interrupted by the arrival of 
a French fleet, which battered the walls of the castle 
until it was obliged to surrender, carried off all the 


inmates to France, and made them galley-slaves. 
Nineteen months of torture in chains on the rower's 
bench did not tend to make Knox more tolerant of 
the religion of his tormentors, or of their influence in 
his native country. 

The English government procured the release of 
the prisoners, and Knox spent nearly five years preach- 
ing in England; but when Queen Mary came to the 
throne, his work was at an end. He stayed in Lon- 
don long enough to see Mary enter it, and actually 
dared to rebuke the multitude for- rejoicing at her 
accession; then he crossed the Channel, and joined 
Calvin in Geneva. 

Reformation in He revisited Scotland in 1556 to 
Scotland. find the Reformation in full 

swing, stimulated by the Marian 
persecutions in England. The bishops summoned 
"that knave Knox" to come before them for trial, ex- 
pecting him to flee the country; but he appeared 
boldly in Edinburgh and preached there to large 
audiences under the bishops' very noses. "Sweet were 
the death," he cries, "that should follow forty such 
days in Edinburgh as I have had three!" For ten 
days he continued to preach, and remained in Scotland 
till his flock in Geneva demanded his return, a few 
months later. 

The First In 1557 was signed by many of 

Covenant the Scottish nobles and gentry 

the first "Covenant," organizing 

themselves as Protestants into a league for common 


defence. Knox, by his writings, upheld and greatly 
strengthened the movement ; and when Queen Mary's 
death brought her Protestant sister, Elizabeth, to the 
throne, Knox returned finally to Scotland, to help in 
establishing on a firm basis the Church of the 
Reformation there. Owing, however, to a treatise he 
had published while abroad, entitled "The First Blast 
of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Rule of 
Women/' Elizabeth never became a real friend of the 
Scottish Reformer, and the Protestant church of Scot- 
land pursued its own course of development, inde- 
pendent of that of England, 

The Elijah of We know Knox best in his con- 

Scotland, flict with the charming but -un- 

truthful and thoroughly Roman- 
ist Mary, Queen of Scots. If he spoke of her as 
"Jezebel," it was because he foresaw that the blood 
of the martyrs was not yet all shed, and that there 
could never be religious freedom in Scotland while 
French influence was permitted to rule there. Instead 
of being "a young princess unpersuaded," Mary, with 
all her fascinations, was really a most dangerous tool 
in Romish hands for the subjugation of the Scottish 
nobles. Tt was a notable day for both civil and re- 
ligious liberty when Knox ventured to attack the doc- 
trine of the divine right of kings, in the very face of 
his captivating young sovereign. 

"What have you to do/' said she, "with my mar- 
riage? Or what are you within this common wealth ?" 
"A subject born within the same/' replied plain John 
Knox right sturdily. "And albeit I neither be earl, 


lord nor baron within it, yet has God made me (how- 
ever abject I be in your eyes) a profitable member 
within the same/' , "Modern democracy," says Lind- 
say, "came into being in that answer." In spite of 
Mary's tears, which had vanquished so many ad- 
versaries, he steadfastly opposed her scheme of a Span- 
ish marriage, her re-introduction of the Mass, and told 
her bluntly that "if princes exceed their bounds, there 
is no doubt that they may be 'resisted even with 
power." After seven years of struggle, Mary was de- 
posed and imprisoned, and Knox was left victor on 
the hard-fought field. The Scottish Estates or Parlia- 
ment adopted the Reformed Confession of Faith, and 
the Reformation was legally established in Scotland. 


(Switzerland, Holland, France, Great Britain, etc.) 

Anna Reinhard, wife o Zwingli, was a woman of great beauty 
of mind as well as person. Zwingli read to her the proofs of his 
translation of the Bible, and consulted her judgment in many 
ways Left desolate by his fall at Cappel, she and her children 
became inmates of the home of his successor, Henry Bullinger, 
whose wife, Anna, a converted nun, was famous for her hospi- 
tality, making her home a shelter for refugees of the faith from 
all over Europe, including England and Scotland. 
, Idelette de Bure, Calvin's wife, was called by him ^the excel- 
lent companion of my life," "the faithful assistant of my min- 
istry," "a model woman." He enumerates her virtues gentleness, 
purity, modesty, patience, and devotion to the wants of her hus- 
band. Moderate in all his speech, it is high praise when he says, 
"From her I never experienced the slightest hindrance." Her 
death was felt deeply by him, and he never married again. 

Many letters were received by the Reformers from nuns who, 
having read their books, were impelled to ask further light, 
especially on tie merits of the monastic life. Such a letter was 
written to Zwingli by Margaret Wattevitte, a nun of Konigsf eldt 


His words inspired her and other nuns to petition the Council 
of Berne for permission to leave the convent. Their first request 
was refused; they sent a stronger one, beginning, "We, your 
prisoners." The word made its appeal to the council, the mon- 
astery was opened, and all who desired were allowed to depart 

A similar letter written to Bullinger by Clara May, a Domi- 
nican nun of Berne, was followed by her retirement from the 
convent, and her subsequent marriage to Nicholas Watteville, Mar- 
garet's brother. Many happy Protestant homes were the fruit 
of the Reformers' writings, secured, read in secret, pondered and 
obeyed by thoughtful monks and nuns. 

The women of Holland bore a prominent part in the Reforma- 
tion movement. Among them the family of the Prince of Orange 
is noteworthy. His third wife, Charlotte de Bourbon, was a 
daughter of the Duke de Montpensier, "the most ardent Romanist 
of the princes of France," who compelled her to enter a convent, 
where she became abbess. The Reformed doctrines, however, 
which she had learned from her mother, kept hold of her mind, 
and presently she began teaching them to her nuns. The news 
of her heresy spread, and she escaped and sought refuge with 
Elector Frederick III, at Heidelburg, her father having utterly 
disowned her. She was presently sought in marriage by William 
of Orange, whose wedded life with her was exceedingly happy. 
After four years, the strain and anxiety following an attempt on 
her husband's life, when for eighteen days she never left his 
bedside, caused the death of Charlotte. Motley says, "The Prince 
was saved, but unhappily, the murderer had yet found an illus- 
trious victim the devoted wife who had so faithfully shared his 
joys and sorrows." 

His fourth wife was Louisa, daughter of the great Huguenot 
leader, Admiral Coligny. Her first husband was killed in the 
massacre of St Bartholomew, and she escaped to Geneva, and 
then to Elector Frederick, in whose court she met Charlotte de 
Bourbon, and became her friend, and in time her successor as 
Princess of Orange. A year and three months after their mar- 
riage, the Prince was assassinated. Princess Louisa survived him 
forty years. 

The daughter of William and Charlotte, Lowsa Juliana, mar- 
ried Elector Frederick IV. She was a staunch Protestant, and 
"with unexcelled statesmanship she brought about a reconeilia-- 
tion between Gustavus Adolphus and the Elector of Brandenburg, 
after hopeless attempts by leading statesmen of the day,'* with 
important results to the success of the Protestant cause. 

William's grand-daughter, AmaHe Elisabeth, wife of William 
V. of Hesse Cassel, was left at her husband's deatn with fourteen 
children, and a debt of 500,000 thalers on her land. The Emperor 


declared her husband's will void, and ordered the Landgrave of 
Hesse Darmstadt to seize her land. She sought aid from Sweden 
and France, defied the Emperor, and declared, 'there would be 
no peace till her lands were returned, and not only Hesse Cassel 
but all German states be granted religious toleration. She was 
regarded by her grateful people as the Deborah of the Reformed 

A humbler Dutch heroine was Lysken Dirke, so loved by the 
people that when she was imprisoned for her faith, they would 
gather -below her -window and sing hymns for her encouragement. 
Then her voice from within would answer with another hymn, 
while the people cried, "Sing out, Lysken!" till the magistrates 
dispersed them. She was drowned before dawn in the Scheldt, 
to avoid the interference of the people. 

Marguerite of Valois, the 'Violet in the royal garden" of 
France, was one of the most learned women of her day. She 
knew not only Latin, Italian and Spanish, but even studied Greek 
and Hebrew, to read the Scriptures in their originals. She gath- 
ered about her all the finer spirits of France, and became a 
follower of Reformed doctrines, and the centre of a band of 
Reformers known as the "group of Meaux," including such men 
as Lef evre, Farel and Briconnet She was the patroness of Le- 
f evre's French translation of the Bible, but was unable to prevent 
the storm of persecution which drove him from France. 

She married the King of Navarre, and their daughter, J eanne 
d'Albret, the Joan of Arc of Protestantism, was mother of the 
famous Henry of Navarre. "To the statesman's ability inherited 
from her mother she added fearlessness and military leadership/ 
Bravely she defended her kingdom from intrigue and violence, 
and brought up her son in her faith, to become conqueror in the 
great Protestant victory of Ivry. 

The Reformation was carried into Italy by Rente, a protegee 
of Queen Marguerite of Navarre, afterward wife of the Duke 
d'Este. Calvin visited her court, and preached in her palace. 
The Pope protested, and her husband aided in persecuting her. 
Orr his death, she removed to the Castle of Montargis, where she 
taught her subjects the Bible, and gathered a colony of French 
refugees. The people called her castle the "Hostelry of God. 
But the Duke of Guise sent a troop of horse, threatening to 
batter down the castle; the refugees fled, and her work was 

At the court of the d'Estes at Ferrara lived for a time Olympia 
Morata, a cultured Italian woman who had accepted the Refor- 
mation. She was denounced for heresy, and fled to Germany 
with her husband, a German professor. There she wrote many 
poems and essays, and corresponded with the Reformers as well 


as with persecuted Italian Protestants. She died at the early age 
of 29. 

Susan Larantfy of Hungary, was a distinguished Protestant 
writer, author of a theological work, "Moses and the Prophets/' 
which was exceedingly displeasing to the Romanists^ 

In no country had women more to do for and against the Rev 
formation than in Great Britain. We have seen the influences 
of Anne Boleyn, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth and Mary Stuart at 
work. A confessor and martyr at the age of 24 was Anne Askew, 
whose devotion to the Bible brought on her the charge of heresy. 
Her husband, urged by the priests, drove her from his house. 
She took refuge in London, where spies set on her track were 
compelled to pronounce her the most devout woman they had 
ever seen. Brought to trial, her constant reply to all questioning 
was, "I believe as the Scripture teacheth." From trial she went 
to torture, from the rack to the stake, with "an angelic coun- 
tenance and smiling face/' As the fire was started, a packet was 
shown her the king's pardon, if she would recant "I am not 
come here to deny my Lord and Master," was her unyielding 

Cranmer's second wife was a niece of the Lutheran preacher 
Osiander, of Nuremberg. He was obliged to send her from 
the country when Henry VIII. required the enforcement of the 
edict against clerical marriage. 

John Knox, as a widower of 58, married a Scotch maiden of 
16, Margaret Stuart, of royal name and blood. Queen Mary 
"storjned wonderfully 1 * at his audacity, and Romanists declared 
that he secured her affection by sorcery! 

The Scotch women of the faith are too many to mention. A 
sample of their courage and devotion is fdund in the story of 
Grixel, the young daughter of Sir Patrick Hume, who kept her 
father alive by food secreted from her own meals and carried to 
him at night, while he lay hid in the family burying-vatilt at Pol- 
warth Church. She afterward helped him to escape in disguise 
into France. 

These are only a few out of many women whose connection 
with the Reformation has preserved their names to us. And still 
beyond are the thousands of faithful ones whose names we do 
not know, who are no less real and glorious heroines of the 



"They patiently endured the privations of the wilder- 
ness, watering the tree of liberty with their tears and 
with the sweat of their brow, till it took deep root in 
the land and sent up its branches high towards the 
heavens/* Prescott. 

"An exile poor, and nothing more, 

This is my sole profession; 
Banished from home, of God's pure word 
To make a clear confession. 

"A country, Lord, I ask of Thee, 

Where I Thy Word may cherish, 
Where, day and night, within my heart 
The fruits of faith may flourish/' 

Hymn of the Salzburgers, 



The Road Divides. Already we have seen the Protest- 
ant Church branching out into 
various sects,, tinder the leadership of the great 
teachers we have been studying. Nor need we use the 
word "sects" with any unworthy meaning. It was 
perhaps an inevitable result of the broad principle of 
liberty for which the Reformation stood, that the 
genius of different races and temperaments should de- 
velop "diversities of operations/ 1 If the Reformers 
and their followers had always maintained a "sweet 
reasonableness," the stigma resting on the name of 
denominationalism might never have existed. 

The main line of division, at first, was that' which 
separated the Lutheran wing of the Protestant Church 
from the Reformed. The latter accepted the teachings of 
Zwingli and Calvin, and was the ruling influence in Swit- 
zerland, France, Holland and Southern Germany; while 
the northern part of Germany, with Norway, Swedem 



and Denmark, followed Luther. In Scotland, also, the 
Calvinistic teaching took firm hold. The doctrine then 
known in general as Reformed, emanating, as we have 
seen, from Zurich and Geneva, is perpetuated to-day 
in the denominations classed under the names of Re- 
formed and Presbyterian. 

We have also seen the beginnings of the Baptists 
and Moravians; and we have beheld an Anglican 
Church separate itself in name and polity from Rome, 
while retaining enough of her form and ceremony to 
make it certain that within a very few years dissent 
would arise in England, and would grow strong 
enough to give birth to several other powerful and 
active denominations. 

A New Sphere. Imagine, then, all these sects, 
churches, denominations, or what- 
ever we may call them, shut up in the narrow space 
of Europe, growing more and more bitter against one 
another, preying upon each other until Protestantism 
might have perished of internal disorders. Then we 
can realize what it meant to the cause of religious 
freedom, not only in that day, but for all time, that 
just at this critical moment the hand of God led out 
our Protestant ancestry into a new arena "the 
blessed Land of Room Enough" where, in vast 
spaces and on virgin soil, each denomination might 
work out its larger destiny, and where all might find 
plenty to do in Christianizing a New World, without 
interfering with one another. 


When America Not at first was America recog- 
Was Roman nized as the great, new field for 

Catholic. Protestant .forces. It almost 

startles us to remember that by 
deed of gift the whole Western world had been divided 
by Pope Alexander VI between Spain and Portugal ; 
and that the cross first traversed our continent in the 
hands of Jesuit missionaries, French and Spanish* 
We need not now review the causes of Rome's failure 
to hold the land so early claimed in her name. It is 
sufficient to say that Spain came for conquest, and 
France for commerce, but neither of them for coloniza- 
tion. That was reserved for the Protestant exiles. 
And so we may speak of the Roman Catholic con- 
quest of America; but only the Protestant forces ac- 
complished what can truly be called an occupation of 
the New World. 

The strangest chapter in modern history is that 
which tells how, by bloody and unsparing persecu- 
tions, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Romish 
spirit fostered in the Anglican Church under Catholic 
monarchs, drove hosts of Protestants out of Europe, 
to take from Rome a large portion of the lands she 
had discovered on the Western Continent, and to raise 
there the standard of religious liberty which was being 
dragged in the ashes of many a European market- 
place, where the stake was set for "heretics/' 

The Coming of The earliest attempt to found a 
the Huguenots. Protestant colony in North Amer- 
ica was that of the expedition 


sent out from France by Admiral Coligny, the great 
Huguenot leader. One party of colonists landed in 
Florida in 1562; a second two years later. The fol- 
lowing year, Pedro Menendez, commissioned by 
Philip II of Spain to occupy Florida, butchered in cold 
blood the entire Huguenot colony, hanging some of 
them, it is said, on trees, with the inscription above 
them, "I do this, not as to Frenchmen, but as to Luth- 
erans." (The Spaniards called all Protestants Luth- 
erans.), He then wrote to his royal master: 

"It appeared to me that by thus chastising them, 
God our Lord and your Majesty were served ; whereby 
in future this evil sect will leave us more free to plant 
the gospel in these parts/' 

Many Huguenots afterward emigrated to the South- 
ern States, particularly to North Carolina; others to 
New York and New England. We cannot find to-day 
any French Reformed Church in America; but there 
is perhaps no other denomination that has not re- 
ceived some leaven from these noble and devout 

Dissent in We have seen that from the very 

England. first there were elements of dis- 

sent in the Euglish Church; and 
dissent was accounted crime in those days. Even un- 
der Elizabeth, Separatists were imprisoned, and in a 
few cases were executed not in the name of religion, 
but as attacking the authority of the queen, and incit- 
ing others to rebellion. The persecutions under the 


Stuarts were increasingly more violent. The chief 
stumbling-block was the claim of the monarch to be 
the head of the Established Church a claim growing 
under the Stuarts into the full-blown doctrine of the 
divine right of kings. Those who could not accept 
this doctrine, or who believed that Church and State 
should be separate in their functions, were constrained 
to seek a home outside the United Kingdom. 

"On a Stern and No historian is needed to tell the 
Rockbound Coast/' tale of the coming of the Pil- 
grims. Celebrated in song, in 
story, in oratory, in art, the little Mayflower has been 
pictured as the ark of our national deliverance. It was 
but the flagship of a fleet that was making ready to 
sail from every port of Europe for many years to come 
the Protestant armada of occupation. 

These English Separatists, the ancestors of the mod- 
ern Congregational Church, brought with them their 
own preachers of the Word. The church was the 
centre of their community life that "large, square 
house, with a flat roof, made of thick-sawn planks, 
stayed with oak beams, upon the top of which they 
have six cannons/' as a Dutch merchant describes it 
on his visit to Plymouth in 1627. 

Living in small, well-defined settlements, and being 
at no time without the ministration of their pastors, 
there was less need for the New England colonists to 
be sought for over a large area, as in the case of more 
scattered settlers. Perhaps it is for this reason that 
the chief great missionary name we find among them 


is not that of one who gathered the dispersed of his 
own faith, but of him who has been truly named "The 
Apostle to the Indians/' 

John Eliot John Eliot was bora in England 

(1604-1690). in 1604, of a family said to have 

come over with the Conqueror, 
He tells us that his first years "were seasoned with the 
fear of God, the Word and prayer/' He was an ex- 
cellent scholar at Cambridge; became teacher in a 
grammar school in Essex, and was greatly influenced 
by its principal, the famous Thomas Hooker. "To 
this place was I called/* says Eliot, "through the in- 
finite riches of God's mercy, for here the Lord said to 
my dead soul, Live" 

While there he decided to become a preacher; but 
being a non-conformist, soon found he must leave 
England. He landed in Boston, November 3rd, 1631 ; 
acted as substitute there in the pastor's absence, and 
afterward became pastor in Roxbury, where he 
preached almost sixty years, at an annual salary of 
60. All his missionary work was done in addition to 
his regular pastoral duties at this place. 

He was witty and amiable, especially interested in 
young people and children. His preaching was so 
simple that Cotton Mather says, "the very lambs 
might wade into his discourses on those texts and 
themes wherein elephants might swim/ 1 When he re- 
buked sin, however, "there were as many thunderbolts 
as words/' 


Missions to At Roxbury he came into fre- 

Indians. quent contact with the Indians, 

who often came into the villages, 
sometimes to sell articles of their own making. The 
colonists were not without concern for the souls of 
these people. The charter of Massachusetts states 
that it was the principal aim of the Plantation to "win 
and incite the natives of the country to the knowledge 
and obedience of the only true God and Savior of 
mankind, and the Christian faith." The seal of the 
Colony bore the figure of an Indian, with the words, 
"Come over and help us/' Already some attempts had 
been made to teach them, and a few had become 

The most successful of these efforts was that of 
Thomas Mayhew and his son on the island of Martha's 
Vineyard, where a settlement of "praying Indians" 
was established. 

Learning the Eliot learned the language from 

Language. a young Indian who was a serv- 

ant in an English house. "By his 
'help I translated the Commandments, the Lord's 
Prayer, and many texts of Scripture; also I compiled 
both exhortations and prayers by his help." He adds : 
"Prayer and pains through faith in Christ Jesus will 
do anything." 

Eliot's First Set- His first attempt to preach to the 

mon to Indians* Indians was at Dorchester Mills, 

in 1646. They proved indifferent ; 

but another effort, at Nonentum, was more successful. 


A party of four conducted this meeting. Eliot prayed 
in English, because "his command of the language of 
the Indians was so imperfect that it seemed hardly 
reverent to address the Deity with such broken words." 
He then preached to the Indians for an hour and a 
quarter, explaining the Commandments, and showing 
how they were breaking them ; telling also of forgive- 
ness through the Savior. Being invited to ask ques- 
tions, one inquired "whether God could understand 
Indian prayers/' A number of other questions were 
asked and answered. "After three hours* time thus 
spent with them, we asked them if they were not 
weary, and they answered, No. But we resolved to 
leave them with an appetite! 9 

Upon the cordial invitation of the chief, they re- 
turned two weeks later, and found a large audience. 
Eliot began by teaching the children the first three 
questions in a catechism he was preparing for them; 
preached an hour, and spent the whole afternoon an- 
swering questions. This time he prayed in their lan- 
guage, to their great joy, for now they knew God 
could understand Indian speech. 

Preaching and From this time on he preached 

Civilizing* for them once a fortnight. They 

forsook their worship, prayed in 
their families, and asked for teachers for their chil- 
dren. Eliot taught them to enclose their fields, build 
themselves houses, spin and make garments, plant 
gardens and orchards. Through his appeals for aid 


was founded the "Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel in New England." 

An Indian A larger plan for Indian civiliza- 

Settlement. tion was now formed; land was 

granted for a town, to be called 
Natick, and a settlement begun in 1651. The com- 
munity was organized on a plan borrowed from the 
book of Exodus. The Indians made a compact, be- 
ginning: "We do give ourselves and our children unto 
God, to be his people. He shall rule us in all our 

Natick was the model for a number of other Indian 
communities organized by Eliot within the next thirty 
years. In 1674 there were fourteen such settlements. 
He trained young natives as preachers, and lived to 
see twenty-four of them at work. 

The Indian Bible. Besides, Eliot spent almost forty 
years in translating and publish- 
ing an Indian Bible. It first appeared in 1663 ; the first 
edition comprised 1,500 copies, and cost ;1,000 to 
print. "My age," wrote Eliot, "makes me importunate. 
I shall depart joyfully, may I but leave the Bible 
among them." To-day not one person remains alive 
who can read it. 

The Work Eliot endured tnany hardships in 

Overthrown. his travels, and opposition from 

chiefs and their medicine men* 
The notorious King Philip told him he "cared no more 
for his gospel than for a button on his coat 11 The 


uprising called "King Philip's War" swept away most 
of the communities of praying Indians, who suffered 
greatly through it. After the war, Eliot gathered the 
remnants and tried to re-establish them, but only four 
of the fourteen villages remained. He died at the age 
of eighty-six. It was in this same region that David 
Brainerd offered up his "living sacrifice" a century 

Roger Williams Upon the New England stage we 
(1599-1683). now behold the most unique fig- 

ure of colonial days, and in some 
respects one of the most significant ones of United 
States history Roger Williams, the founder of the 
Baptist Church in America. 

A Sensitive Born probably in London about 

Conscience. 1600 (other accounts make him a 

Welshman), educated at Cam- 
bridge, he early became a separatist of the most ex- 
treme type. He declined two church livings because 
of a "tender conscience," and in 1631, having received 
a call from New England, he landed at Boston in 
February, amid fields of drifting ice. "God knows/* 
he wrote forty years later, "what gains and prefer- 
ments I have refused in universities, city, country and 
court in Old England, and something in New England, 
to keep my soul undefiled, and not to act with a doubt- 
ing conscience." 


A Fearless Critic. "Being unanimously chosen 
teacher," or assistant pastor, "at 
Boston, I conscientiously refused and came to Plym- 
outh," he says, "because I durst not officiate to an 
unseparated people." He carried this so far as to de- 
clare that the members of the Boston church ought 
publicly to express repentance for having communed 
with the Church of England while living in that coun- 
try. He also expressed the conviction that magistrates 
have no right to punish for purely religious offences, 
such as idolatry, false worship, blasphemy, or Sabbath- 
breaking. One of the principal charges against him in 
after days was that he maintained "that the civil mag- 
istrates' power extends only to the bodies and goods 
and outward state of men." 

"It was the sentence of divorce between Church and 
State," says Scott, in his work on Constitutional 

The Red Man's During his two years at Plym- 
Champion. outh, and afterward at Salem, he 

made friends with the Indians, 
Kving with them to learn their language. "My soul's 
desire/* he writes, "was to do the natives good, and to 
that end to have their tongue." His interest in them 
soon led him to the conclusion that the lands of the 
New World really belonged to the Indians, and that 
the King of England had no right to give them away 
to his subjects ; that the reception of such a grant was 
a sin, and should be publicly atoned for. He was 


brought to trial for expressing these opinions, but was 
acquitted on taking the oath of allegiance to the king. 

Exiled From It was little wonder that he was 

the Colony, presently the most unpopular 

man in New England. After he 
had been chosen "teacher" by the Salem church, a 
grant of land was refused the congregation on his ac- 
count. He told the church they must choose between 
him and their interests. In those days, voting and 
church membership went hand in hand. The court 
threatened to disfranchise the Salem congregation. 
They submitted to the ruling, and Williams was ban- 
ished from Massachusetts, in October, 1635. The gov- 
ernment tried to get him and ship him to England; 
but, though ill, he left home and went into hiding. 

"I was sorely tossed for one fourteen weeks," he 
says, "in a bitter winter season, not knowing what bed 
or bread did mean." His Indian friends gave him 
shelter his "ravens in the wilderness/' as he called 

The Founding of Finally, "that ever-honored gov- 
Rhode Island. ernor, Mr. Winthrop, privately 

wrote to me to steer my course 
to Narragansett Bay and Indians, encouraging me, 
from the freeness of the place from any English claims 
or patents/* Embarking with five friends in a canoe, 
he came to a place which, in recognition of God's care, 
he named Providence, and settled there, in June, 1636. 


This was the beginning of the colony of Rhode 
Island, which was founded on the broadest principle 
of toleration for all. Its charter provided that no per- 
son should be at any time "molested, punished, dis- 
quieted, or called in question for any difference of 
opinion in matters of religion/' The Act of Tolera- 
tion in Maryland, a few years later, offered liberty of 
conscience to all Christians. Roger Williams went 
further; "Papists and Protestants, Jews and Turks/' 
were all to be allowed equal liberty on board his "ship 
of state." 

Williams Becomes Among those who took refuge in 
a Baptist. Rhode Island were a number of 

Baptists, whose opinions on many 
points agreed with those of Williams. In 1639 he was 
baptized according to their custom, and afterwards 
baptized twelve others, thus founding the first Baptist 
church in the New World* 

His Service to Re- The extreme independence of his 
ligious Liberty. views afterward led him to with- 
draw even from this communion, 
and for the rest of his life he calls himself simply a 
"seeker." He had carried his "soul liberty" too far, 
and ended in uncertainty and isolation. But he had 
established once for all the broad principle of freedom 
D conscience. 'It was the first enunciation of a great 


principle, which years later formed the cornerstone of 
the Great Republic. It was the act of a statesman 
fully a century in advance of his time." Such is the 
knight errant of liberty to whom American Baptists 
look as their founder. 

The Founding of The long struggle of heroic little 
New Netherland* Holland for freedom had not been 
in vain. She had repelled the 
Spanish tyrant, driven out the Inquisition, and was 
mistress in her own house. Taine says of Holland, 
"In 1609 it was on sea and in the world what England 
was in the time of Napoleon. Internally its govern- 
ment was as good as its external position was exalted. 
For the first time in the world, conscience was free 
and the rights of citizens were respected/' 

It was Holland that sent vessels to the aid of Eng- 
land when Philip II, their common enemy, sent his 
Invincible Armada to break in disaster upon the Brit- 
ish coast. It was in Holland that the exiled Pilgrims 
spent twelve years before sailing for America. 
Thomas Hooker, whom Fisher calls "the father of 
American democracy/' and William Penn, author of 
the "holy experiment" of an equal commonwealth, 
each spent some time in Holland before coming to 

So it was "not as the flying come/' that the Dutch 
came to America ; no persecution at home drove them 
out, but commercial enterprise ordained the founding 
of New Netherland. 


Michaelius Comes The West India Company was 
to America, 1628. chartered in 1621; in 1623, per- 
manent settlements began to be 
made at Manhattan, Fort Orange (Albany) and else- 
where. The first minister, Jonas Michaelius, came in 
1628. But even before his coming, religious services 
were held in New Amsterdam, by two lay helpers, 
known as Kranken-besoeckers, of Comforters of the 
Sick, by name Sebastian Crol and Jan Huyck. "These, 
while awaiting a clergyman, reaci to the commonalty 
on Sundays texts of Scripture with the creeds/' In 
the same year, it is reported, "Francois Molemaecker 
is busy building a horsemill, over which shall be con- 
structed a spacious room, sufficient to accommodate a 
large congregation. Moreover, a tower is to be erected, 
where the bells brought from Porto Rico will be hung." 

In April, 1628, Michaelius organized the first Dutch 
Reformed church. There were then 270 souls in New 

In a letter of Michaelius, dated August llth, 1628, 
he says : "We have had at the first administration of 
the Lord's Supper full fifty communicants not with- 
out great joy and comfort for so many Walloons and 
Dutch ; of whom a portion made their first confession 
of faith before us, and others exhibited their church 

"The Walloons and French have no service on Sun- 
days otherwise than in the Dutch language, of which 
they understand very little. Some of them live far away, 
and could not come on account of the heavy rains and 


storms, so that it was neither advisable, nor was it 
possible, to appoint any special service for so small a 
number with so much uncertainty. Nevertheless the 
Lord's Supper was administered to them in the French 
language and according to the French mode, with a 
preceding discourse, which I had before me in writing, 
as I could not trust myself extemporaneously. 1 ' (This 
gives us a glimpse of Huguenots in the process of 
absorption into a Dutch Reformed congregation,) 

Mcgapolensis We do not know how long the 

Comes in 1642. ministry of Michaelius lasted, or 

what became of him after leaving 
New Amsterdam, except for a hint that he may have 
been later in Virginia. A clearer figure now emerges 
that of John Megapolensis, who was called in 1642 
to Fort Orange (Albany) as minister. A .number of 
emigrants came over with him, and a church was built 
the following year. 

Megapolensis was greatly concerned for the spiritual 
welfare of the Indians, and learned the difficult lan- 
guage of the Mohawks in order to preach to them. A 
number of them united with his church. This was 
several years before Eliot began to preach to the 

In 1649 Megapolensis stopped in New Amsterdam 
on his way to Holland, and was persuaded by Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant to remain there. He was pastor 
there till 1670. "He was a man of excellent scholar- 
ship, energetic character and devoted piety." 


The Rescue of An incident of Megapolensis 1 
Father Jogues, ministry in America was his sav- 

ing of Father Jogues, a Jesuit 
missionary, from torture and probable death at the 
hands of the Mohawks, The priest was hidden for 
six weeks at Fort Orange, and then Megapolensis saw 
him safely embarked for New Amsterdam, whence he 
returned to Europe. Later on, he visited the Mo- 
hawks in Canada, and was put to death. 

Father Jogues* Father Jogues was the first Ro- 
Description of man Catholic priest who ever 

Manhattan. visited New York, and his de- 

scription of it is most interesting. 
He says of the infant city : 

"On this island of Manhate, and in its environs, 
there may well be four or five hundred men of different 
sects and nations. The director-general told me that 
there were persons there of eighteen different lan- 
guages. They are scattered here and there on the 
river, above and below, as the beauty and convenience 
of the spot invited each to settle. Some mechanics, 
however, who ply their trades are ranged under the 
fort. All the others are exposed to the incursions 
of the natives, who in the year 1643, while I was there, 
actually killed some two score Hollanders, and burnt 
many houses, and barns full of wheat. . . * No 
religion is publicly exercised but the Calvinist, and 
orders are to admit none but Calvinists. But this is 
not observed, for there are, besides Calvmists, in the 


colony, Catholics, English Puritans, Lutherans, Ana- 
baptists here called Mennonists etc. 

"When any one comes to settle in the country they 
lend him horses, cows, etc. ; they give him provisions, 
all which he repays as soon as he is at ease ; and as to 
the land, he pays in to the West India Company, after 
ten years, the tenth of the produce which he reaps." 
Albany h$ calls "a wretched little fort, built of logs, 
with four or five pieces of cannon/' 

The Moravians. We have not forgotten the "Hid- 
den Seed," the persecuted Mo- 
ravians. "God searched out two extremes of 
society for his agents in the resuscitation of this 
almost extinct evangelical church a carpenter and 
a nobleman." The carpenter was Christian David, 
who became a visiting evangelist among the Morav- 
ians, and inspired in them the hope of emigrating to 
some safer place. 

Count Zinzendorf The nobleman was Nicholas 
(1700-1756). Louis, Count Zinzendorf, son of 

a distinguished Austrian house. 
He was born in 1700, at Dresden, where his father was 
at the time in diplomatic service. His parents were 
devoted Pietists, and Spener, the leader of that move- 
ment, was one of their son's sponsors at hi baptism. 

Young Zinzendorf was sent to school at Halle at 
the age of ten, and at fifteen formed among his school- 
mates a missionary society, the "Order of the Grain of 
Mustard Seed," whose motto was, "No man liveth to 


himself/' Btit his relatives his father now being 
dead sent him to Wittenberg to study law, and in 
1721 he became a councilor at Dresden. 

Founding of The following year he learned to 

Hermhut. know Christian David, who in- 

terested him in the Moravians. 
Zinzendorf promised them a refuge on one of his es- 
tates in Saxony, though as yet he had no special inter- 
est in their teachings. 

From this small beginning grew the settlement at 
Herrnhut, which constantly became larger and more 
important Zinzendorf resigned his post at Dresden 
and identified himself with the Moravians, being con- 
secrated as one of their bishops in 1737. 

Settlements in Even before that date, Moravians 
America. from Herrnhut had begun to 

emigrate to America. Some set- 
tled in Georgia, but the larger number proceeded to 
Pennsylvania, where the first settlement they planted 
was named -Nazareth. 

Meantime Zinzendorf had been preaching not only 
in Germany, but in Holland, Switzerland, England 
and the Danish West Indies. In 1741 he arrived in 
New York, proceeded to Philadelphia, then up along 
the Delaware to a new settlement just begun by his 
people. "On Christmas eve, in connection with a cele- 
bration of the nativity, he named the place Bethlehem, 
in token of his fervent desire and ardent hope that 


here the true bread of life might be broken for all who 

Missions to The Moravians have always been 

Indians. a missionary church; and from 

the very first they recognized the 
duty of teaching the gospel to the Indians. Zinzen- 
dorf made three missionary tours through the Indian 
country, preaching and making friends with them, and 
gaming from them permission for the Moravian 
teachers to come and go freely among them. 

Plan for He also planned an alliance of all 

Church Unity. German Protestants in Pennsyl- 

vania, where the Lutheran and 
Reformed people were for the most part without pas- 
tors, and unorganized as denominations. He held a 
series of "Pennsylvania Synods" seven in six months 
laying aside his title as Moravian bishop to increase 
the sense of unity. It was the project of a dreamer, 
and could not endure; confusion of beliefs and worse 
discords than ever were the immediate outcome. The 
further results were the organizing of the Lutheran 
and German Reformed churches in America, as we 
shall presently see. 

Zinzendorf returned to Europe in 1743, and died in 

Swedes in The first Lutherans to form a 

Delaware. colony in the New World were 

from Sweden. Out of the disturb- 
ance preceding the Thirty Years' War, and the in- 


creasing danger to people of Protestant faith in Europe, 
grew in the mind of Gustavus Adolphtis the project 
of establishing a refuge in America for European ex- 
iles. He did not live to see the plan carried out ; but 
his great minister, Oxenstiern, appreciating its com- 
mercial possibilities, sent an expedition in 1638, to land 
at Lewes in Delaware. Torkillus, who came in 1639, 
was the first Lutheran minister who ever set foot on 
American soil. John Campanius, who arrived in 1643, 
conducted a mission among the Indians, and translated 
Luther's Catechism into their language. 

The Woes of German Lutheran immigration 

the Palatinate. had been scattering at first; we 

have seen how some early comers 
were to be found in New Amsterdam and elsewhere. 
But with the dawn of the eighteenth century a new 
class of these settlers began to arrive. 

That part of Germany known as the Palatinate had 
suffered most severely during and after the Thirty 
Years* War. Army after army had overrun its fields, 
till there was nothing left to plunder, In 1688, Louis 
XIV of France determined to ravage this district with 
fire and sword, so as to place a vast desert between 
his borders and those of Germany. 

"His general informed its inhabitants, numbering 
500>000, that they were to leave within three days if 
they desired to escape death. Thus in mid-winter the 
snow-clad hills were black with fugitives who, look- 
ing back, discovered their possessions, their cities, vii- 


lages, orchards and vineyards In smoke and ruins/* 
Some fled to England, where Queen Anne arranged 
for their transportation to America. They began to 
arrive in 1701, settling along the banks of the Hudson, 
but afterwards moved into Pennsylvania. These we'rg 
Lutherans and Reformed. 

Salzburgers in A later arrival was that of the 
Georgia. Salzburgers, in 1734. The Arch- 

bishop of Salzburg had decided to 
root out Protestants from his diocese ; he trapped them 
by pretending toleration, and urged them to put their 
faith on record. In this way, he got evidence against 
20,000 Lutherans, whom he then succeeded in having 
banished ; all who refused to become Roman Catholics 
being ordered to emigrate, leaving at home their chil- 
dren not of age, that they might be brought up as 

Many of these exiles sought America, and a colony 
was founded by them -in Georgia, which they called 
Ebenezer. Their descendants still live in that vicinity ; 
they have a flourishing Lutheran church in Savannah, 
beside a number of others in the state. 

Muhlenberg In 1750 there were about 40,000 

(1711-1787). German Lutherans living in 

Pennsylvania; and it was they 
who became the objects of the first organized Luth- 
eran work in America, and of the ministrations of 
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg. 


His Student This pioneer of Lutheranism in 

.Years* America was born in Eimbeck, 

Germany, in 1711; studied in the 
town school till the age of twelve, when his father 
died. From that time on he assisted one of his 
brothers in trade, and studied as he might; becoming 
at twenty-two a teacher in a school at Zellerfeld, and 
in 1735 beginning his university course at Goettingen. 
While there, he and two other students gathered a 
number of street Arabs, rented a room, and gave their 
spare time to teaching the "three RV and the 
Catechism there, half a century before the days of 
Robert Raikes. Out of this charity school grew the 
Goettingen Orphan House, which still exists. 

Looking To- In 1738 he went to study at Halle, 

ward India* the headquarters of Pietism in 

Germany. While there he was 
seriously considered by the directors of the institution 
for a mission to India; but during his temporary ab- 
sence from Halle a pressing call came from the India 
field, and other men had to be sent at once. So, in- 
stead of the foreign field, Muhlenberg went out from 
Halle to settle down as pastor in a small town near 
the borders of Bohemia. Here he spent two } r ears. 

Call to In 1741, while on a visit to Halle, 

America. he was tendered "a call to the dis- 

persed Lutherans in Pennsyl- 
vania," and the following year took ship from Eng- 
land on a vessel bound for Georgia. The passage oc- 


cupied 102 days; during the voyage he acted as 
chaplain, preaching his first English sermon in mid- 

After a happy week spent in the model community 
of the Salzburgers at Ebenezer, a large company escorted 
Muhlenberg to the river, where he was to take boat 
for Savannah. One of the Ebenezer pastors accom- 
panied him, to be his temporary assistant As they 
embarked, Muhlenberg's fine voice struck up the 
choral, "Follow me, says Jesus Christ, our Captain." 

His Nev^ Field. It was a long, perilous journey of 
almost two months, in the course 
of which his Ebenezer companion was forced to turn 
back and leave him. Muhlenberg finally arrived in 
Philadelphia in November, 1742. He came at the time 
when Zinzendorfs attempts at church union were 
causing confusion and strife. Not only the city, but 
all Eastern Pennsylvania was said to be "full of people 
o no religion at all, and of all religions and sects." A 
particularly bad person in that day was said to have 
"Pennsylvania religion/' This was not because there 
were not plenty of excellent people there, but because 
churches were without pastors, and the young were 
drifting from religious influence. 

On the day after his arrival, Muhlenberg was nearly 
drowned trying to reach "The Swamp/' where he 
preached the next Sunday in an unplastered log 
church. The next day he visited "The Trappe," where 
the preaching-place was a barn. He preached to large 
audiences the next Sunday in Philadelphia, and within 


a few weeks had been installed as pastor at Philadel- 
phia, New Providence (The Trappe) and New Han- 
over (The Swamp). 

There was plenty of missionary work to do, without 
going farther. At the Swamp he found youths of twenty 
who did not know 'their alphabet; he started reading 
classes in the New Testament and a catechetical class. 
But he did not stop there ; he was constantly on horse- 
back, making missionary journeys through eastern 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York and Maryland. 
His motto throughout his busy life was, "The Church 
must be planted !" 

"In Journey- The hardships of these journeys 

ings Often." were many. Even in going from 

Philadelphia to his country 
churches he had to ford three streams, which often 
rose dangerously high. Once he had a hard fall from 
his horse upon the ice; again, from a thirty-mile ex- 
posure to cold rains, he became delirious with fever; 
at another time, was obliged to break a road through 
deep snow, making but ten miles in five hours. An- 
other fall of his horse threw him on the edge of a 
precipice, from which he was saved by grasping some 
bushes. He suffered much from preaching out of 
doors in winter, when the building would not hold 
the audience. 

His salary was precarious also. "One man bong's 
me a sausage," he writes, "another a piece of meat, a 


third a chicken, a fourth a loaf of bread, a fifth some 
pigeons, a sixth a rabbit, a seventh some eggs, an 
eighth some tea and sugar, a ninth some honey, a 
tenth some apples, an eleventh some partridges," etc. 

The Church As time went on, more preachers 

Is Planted. came over to help him. The va- 

cant churches were supplied, the 
scattered people gathered ; and in 1748 the first Amer- 
ican Lutheran Synod was organized, with six pastors 
and twenty-four lay delegates present. Over all the 
churches of this Synod about seventy at this time 
Muhlenberg maintained a patriarchal influence and 
oversight, until his death in 1787. 

A Patriotic His family was no less distin- 

Family. guished than himself. He married 

a daughter of Conrad Weiser, the 
famous government interpreter to the Indians. Their 
eldest son, Peter, was a general in the Revolution, vice- 
president of Pennsylvania, and thrice elected to Con- 
gress. The second son, Frederick, was the first Speaker* 
of the House of Representatives. Another son was 
called "the American Linnaeus"; he discovered about 
a hundred new species of plants, and published many 
learned botanical articles. A fourth, for some years a 
pastor in Reading, later was elected to Congress, and 
became American Minister to Austria. The fifth, a 
physician, was the father of a college president, whose 
college still bears his name. The oldest daughter be- 
came the mother of a Pennsylvania governor; the 


youngest married a member of Congress. Surely a 
nation was builded, as well as a church planted, by 
the aid of these German pioneers. 

Schlatter A personal friend of Muhlenberg's 

(1716-1790). was Michael Schlatter, of the Ger- 

man Reformed Church, who came 
to America four years later than the Lutheran patri- 
arch, "on nearly the same footing and for the same 
object." The history of the German Reformed immi- 
gration is practically the same as the Lutheran, they 
having come from the same regions, and for identical 
causes. They, like the Lutherans, were included in 
Zinzendorf s plan of union, and Schlatter was sent by 
the Reformed Synod of Holland to correct the dis- 
order that ensued on the breaking of the unity bubble. 

Education and Schlatter was born in the town of 

Call to America. St. Gall, in Switzerland, in the 
year 1716, of an eminent family. 
When fourteen years old he was formally recognized 
as a candidate for the ministry. After his education 
was finished he taught for some years in Holland; was 
ordained to the ministry, held several temporary 
preaching positions in Switzerland, and at the age of 
thirty went back to Holland and offered his services 
for American mission work. On his arrival, he set 
to work with immense energy to visit and encourage 
the scattered churches, to reanimate the spirits of the 
pastors who had become disheartened, and to arrange 
for their organization into a Coetus, or Synod. 


Building Up The story of his labors is very 

Churches. similar to that of Muhlenberg's, 

though Schlatter did not accept a 
regular pastorate, but gave himself wholly to itinerat- 
ing. "From northern New Jersey to the valley of Vir- 
ginia, there was hardly a Reformed congregation which 
he did not visit, except some of those which were sup- 
plied with independent ministers. Wherever he went 
he organized the churches according to instructions re- 
ceived in Europe." In a short time he had thus estab- 
lished sixteen charges, each consisting of several con- 

A Pioneer of He paid a visit to Europe in 

Education. 1751-2, to present the cause of the 

Reformed churches of America, 
and brought back with him six young ministers, and 
700 Bibles for distribution. A movement for the es- 
tablishment of a system of charity schools was set on 
foot, a large sum collected for the purpose, and Schlat- 
ter was persuaded to become superintendent. 

For various reasons, the plan did not succeed; the 
object was misunderstood, the schools were not pat- 
ronized, and Schlatter, in discouragement, resigned 
and became a chaplain in the British army. During 
the Revolution, however, he was an ardent patriot, and 
was imprisoned by tne British while they held Phila- 
delphia. He died in 1790, having been the organizer 
of many churches, the collector of large funds for 
their aid, and "practically the earliest superintendent 
of public instruction in Pennsylvania." 


Otterbein One of the six young men who 

(1726-1813). came over with Schlatter was "the 

truly reverend and very learned 
Mr. Philip William Otterbein/' who became the 
founder of the United Brethren Church. 

Otterbein was born in Germany in 1726; his 
"grandfather, his father, and his father's brother were 
ministers, as were also his own five brothers, and the 
four sons of his eldest brother." His mother used to 
say, "My William will have to be a missionary; he 
is so frank, so open, so natural, so prophet-like." 

On his first coming to America, as a minister of the 
Reformed Church, he served a congregation at Lan- 
caster for six years. During the early part of Otter- 
bein's ministry at Lancaster he was led into an experi- 
ence which became the key to his after life. He had 
preached a great sermon on repentance and faith, 
when an inquirer came to him for spiritual advice. 
His only reply was, "My friend, advice is scarce with 
me today/* He then went apart to pray until he came 
into a clearer personal assurance of salvation. 

Beginning of the Some years later, while preach- 
United Brethren, ing at York, a "great meeting'* of 
Mennonites was held in a large 
barn in Lancaster county, and Otterbein was present 
He heard an impressive sermon by one of their most 
eloquent preachers, Martin Boehm, and was so deeply 
moved by its fervor that he arose and flung his arms 
about the preacher, exclaiming, "We are brothers!" 
This was the genesis of the United Brethren Church. 


While never formally separated from the German 
Reformed Church, Otterbein was from this time the 
leader of the new movement. In 1774 he became pas- 
tor of an independent church in Baltimore, which he 
served till the end of his life. He was made a bishop 
of the new denomination, Martin Boehm becoming 
the other. The first General Conference of the United 
Brethren Church was held in 1815. 

Friendship Between Otterbein and the Meth- 

With Asbury. odist leader, Francis Asbury, there 

grew up "an almost romantic 
friendship/' though nearly twenty years separated 
them in age. Asbury asked Otterbein to assist in the 
service when he was consecrated a bishop of the 
Methodist Church; and when Otterbein died, at the 
age of eighty-seven, Asbury was asked to preach on 
the life and labors of his friend at the Methodist Con- 
ference which met in Baltimore four months later. Of 
"the holy, the greaf Otterbein/' as he called him, 
Asbury said on that occasion: 

"Forty years have I known the retiring modesty of 
this man of God, towering majestic above his fellows 
in learning, wisdom and grace, and yet seeking to be 
known only to God and the people of God/* 


"To thee, plain hero of a rugged race, 
We bring the meed of praise too long delayed ! 
Thy fearless word and faithful work have made 

For God's Republic firmer resting-place 

In this New World : for thou hast preached the grace 
And power of Christ in many a forest glade, 
Teaching the truth that leaves men unafraid 

Of frowning tyranny or death's dark face. 

Oh, who can tell how much we owe to thee, 
Makemie, and to labor such as thine, 
For all that makes America the shrine 

Of faith untrammelled and of conscience free? 

Stand here, grey stone, and consecrate the sod 

Where rests this brave Scotch-Irish man of God!" 

Henry Van Dyke. 

"Soldiers of Christ, arise, 

And gird your armor on, 
Strong in the strength which God supplies 
Through His eternal Son. 

"Strong in the Lord of hosts, 
And in His mighty power, 
The man who in the Saviour trusts 
Is more than conqueror. 

"Stand, then, in His great might, 
With all His strength endued, 
And take, to arm you for the fight, 
The panoply of God." 

Charles Wesley. 


The Martyrs of "So I lay down my life," declared 

the Covenant. Isabel Alison in her Edinburgh 

prison, "for owning and adhering 

to Jesus Christ his being a free King in his own house, 
and I bless the Lord that ever he called me to that. 
I have looked greedy-like to such a lot as this, but 
still thought it was too high for me/' 

No Perpetua or Felicitas, no Polycarp or Cyprian 
in the early days of Christianity ever went to torture 
and death more radiantly serene than the martyrs of 
the Covenant in Scotland and in Ireland under the 

Scotch-Irish From the Scotch colony in the 

Immigration. Irish province of Ulster came 

most of the early Presbyterian 
settlers in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, 
when the treatment of dissenters from, the Estab- 
lished Church in the British Isles became unbearable. 
These immigrants of Scotch-Irish stock were men and 
women of inflexible will, with a high regard for edu- 
cation and an intense attachment to the Word of God. 



Settlers in In Maryland they found little to 

Maryland. satisfy their mental or moral 

needs. That was the period in 
which Governor Berkeley was thanking God "that 
there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we 
shall not have them these hundred years/' It was the 
region, out of all the colonies, where the Church of 
England and the Church of Rome divided most of the 
power between them, and neither of them had any 
good will to Presbyterian dissenters. 

Yet here, in 1649, was passed by the colonial Assem- 
bly an Act of Toleration, which declared that "No per- 
son professing belief in Jesus Christ shall be in any 
ways troubled, molested, or discountenanced for or in 
respect of his or her religion, nor in the free exercise 

Makemfe A few years after this, there was 

(1658-1708). born of Scotch parents in county 

Donegal, Ireland, a boy by the 
name of Francis Makemie, In that province of Ulster, 
he grew up amid the alarms and hardships of Presby- 
terian folk; his own pastor, Thomas Drutnmond, was 
expelled from his pulpit, and scores of others were thus 
driven out, forbidden to baptize or to preach, 

Persecutions Later, when Makemie went to 

in Scotland Glasgow as a student, he saw gar- 

and Ireland. risons placed in the houses of 

Presbyterians, to prevent services 
from being held in church or home, on moor or moun- 


tain. He saw the dragoons go forth to hunt down the 
Covenanters like wild beasts; perhaps he heard the 
heroic Cargill preaching in the narrow streets of Glas- 
gow, with sentries at every corner to warn him when 
the troopers appeared. In twenty-seven years, about 
eighteen thousand men and women were "murdered 
and destroyed for the same cause/ 5 as the Edinburgh 
monument records. 

In the midst of these dark times, Francis Makemie 
applied to the Presbytery of Laggan, in Ireland, as a 
candidate for the ministry. In 1683, behind closed 
doors, he was commissioned by the Presbytery to go 
to Maryland, in response to the call from that colony 
for a minister. "His ordination seems to have been 
among the last acts of the Presbytery of Laggan, be- 
fore its dispersion by official violence." 

A Preacher Col. William Stevens, who had 

for Maryland. written to Ireland asking for a 

minister, received Makemie at his 
plantation named Rehoboth ("There is room" ; a name 
full of meaning for the exiles from lands of oppres- 
sion). Then, on the bright Southern Sabbaths, might 
be seen the colonists from all the country around, com- 
ing by boat or on horseback, to hear once more the 
Word proclaimed by a preacher of their own faith. 
Joy was in every heart, as he pointed them in elo- 
quent discourse to that **clear looking-glass/' that 
"perfect Rule/' the Truth of God for which so many 
of their countrymen had given their lives. "A man of 


attractive presence, a speaker of considerable oratori- 
cal power,\his chief strength lay in the honor which 
he placed'upon the Holy Bible.'^ 

Not only at Rehoboth did Ke preach, but up and 
down all the eastern shore, as far as South Carolina, 
he went seeking the "sheep without a shepherd/' and 
ministering to them. He desired, like Paul, not to 
be a burden to any; so he combined commerce with 
his preaching, sending a trading sloop up and down 
the bay, laden with wheat, pork and other merchandise, 
to earn a living for him, while he steadfastly refused 
any regular salary. 

No impractical mystic was he, but a man of affairs, 
with an eye to the possibilities of developing that fair, 
new country. He writes of its "free and fertile soil/* 
its excellent climate, its advantages for trade by water, 
its products of all sorts. He saw it with the eye of a 
true pioneer, and within a few years he had acquired 
a considerable grant of land along Matchatank Creek, 
on the eastern shore of Virginia, had settled there and 
married one of his flock. 

Labors of His literary labors now began to 

the Pen. increase. He became the cham- 

pion of Presbyterianism in vari- 
ous controversies; prepared a Catechism for the in- 
struction of children, and was the author of several 
other books; chief among them, "Truths in a True 
Light, or a Pastoral Letter to the Reformed Protes- 
tants in Barbadoes," which he visited several times 


on evangelistic tours or on business ; and "A Plain and 
Friendly Persuasive to the Inhabitants of Virginia 
and Maryland for Promoting Towns." He had early 
pointed out the great advantages to settlers in a new 
country of building up towns instead of living in "re- 
mote and scattered settlements." He also appears 
more than once as an advocate of free public educa- 
tion in the colonies. 

As the organizer of the Presbyterian Church in 
America, he gathered the brethren of his faith in New- 
Jersey, on Long Island and in Pennsylvania to form 
with the churches of Delaware and Maryland the first 
Presbytery in the United States. It met in 1705 in 
Philadelphia, with Makemie as moderator. 

Arrest and The following year, Makemie was 

Trial. arrested and imprisoned for 

preaching without a license in 
New York, where Governor Cornbury "was ruling the 
people after the Stuart fashion in the matter of sup-r 
pressing dis&ent" Makemie defended himself vigor- 
ously in the trial that followed, and was acquitted, but 
forced to pay all the costs! For the payment of the 
exorbitant charges he was not even granted a re- 
ceipt. But the opposition to Cornbury was so intensi- 
fied by this trial that he was removed from office a 
few years later; was arrested by his creditors and 
committed to the same prison where he had kept 
Makemie nearly two months! 


Death of But before that day, the busy life 

Makemie. of the pioneer had drawn to a 

close* He lived to see a new 
church built at Rehoboth, where he had begun his 
American ministry, and passed away quietly in 1708, 
after twenty-five years of service on the shores of the 
New World. 

Scottish In- The United Presbyterian Church 

dependence. sprang from various sources, 

uniting later in one main body. 
One of the chief of these sources was the extremely 
strict Covenanting element in Scotland, which denied 
all allegiance to the Stuarts in the dramatic Declara- 
tion of Sanquhar. They also refused communion with 
all* ministers who had accepted the "Indulgence" 
granted by the government. Being thus left for the 
most part without ministers, they organized a system 
of societies meeting for prayer, and in "deserts and 
mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth," they 
held their secret sessions, until the final overthrow of 
the Stuarts brought them liberty of worship. 

Cuthbertson Meantime, however, many fami- 

Comes to lies had emigrated to America, 

America, 1751. and had brought with them their 

system of praying societies. It 
was to these societies that Rev. John Cuthbertson was 
sent, in 1751, landing in Delaware. 

His missionary circuit embraced part of south- 
eastern Pennsylvania, including a number of points 


on both sides of the Susquehanna, as far south as 
Gettysburg" and York. "This circuit he made more or 
less frequently for twenty years. He also made two 
or three visits into the State of New York, and as far 
as Rhode Island, and westward as far as Pittsburgh 

Preaching With- There were no meeting-houses 
out a Church. on this circuit for years ; the meet- 

ings were held in a "tent," 
pitched in a grove, and consisting "simply of a small 
elevated platform for the minister, where he could be 
seen and heard by all; a board nailed against a tree 
supported the Bible, a few rude benches served for 
seats, and some boards overhead protected the min- 
ister from sun and rain. Thus accommodated, they 
worshipped a good part of the day." A description ex- 
ists of the first communion held by Mr. Cuthbertson 
in America, at Stony Ridge. The services that day 
lasted for nine hours, during which about 250 persons 
communed, which "must have comprised very nearly 
the entire number of adult Covenanters in Pennsyl- 


Touring and For thirty-nine years JoHn Cttth- 

Organizing. bertson labored among his people, 

travelling through unbroken for- 
ests, crossing streams without bridge or boat, doing 
most of his studying on horseback, and getting food 
and lodging as he could. During these years he 
"preached on 2,452 days, baptized 1,806 children, mar- 


ried 240 couples, and rode on horseback about seventy 
thousand miles, or nearly equal to three times around 
the world/' In 1773, with two other ministers who 
had arrived from Ireland, and several elders whom he 
himself had ordained, he organized a Presbytery, cov- 
ering Dauphin, Cumberland, York, Lancaster, Adams 
and Franklin counties. Other bodies later joined with 
them to form the United Presbyterian Church of North 

Daniel Baker The Southern Presbyterians 

(1791-1857). claim as a pioneer Evangelist 

Rev. Daniel Baker, born in Lib- 
erty County, Georgia, in 1791. He came of "a race, 
the chief culture of whose heart, conscience and un- 
derstanding was at the family altar and in the closet; 
was in the Sabbath sanctuary, that central home of 
their souls; in oft-repeated seasons of fasting and 
prayer, and gathered in real as well as outward 
brotherhood around the table of the Lord's Supper." 

Early orphaned, he entered mercantile life in the 
city of Savannah, and for some years drifted away 
from religious habits. But about the age of nineteen 
his conscience re-awakened, and he decided to study 
for the ministry. 

While at Princeton, he found that only six of the 
145 students there were Christians. Four of the six 
agreed to meet daily to pray for a revival. The result 
was "one of the mightiest revivals Princeton has ever 


First Preaching. On graduating, he went to Vir- 
ginia to teach in Winchester Fe- 
male Academy, intending to continue his theological 
studies privately. "His instructor, however, evidently 
took his duties very lightly, for he put the young man 
in charge of several small congregations, providing 
him with Butler's Analogy as his only text-book, to 
which the student himself added thorough study of 
the Shorter Catechism and the Bible." 

After being licensed in 1816, he says : "I began to 
have a hankering after a missionary life." For seven 
years he served a mission church in Washington City. 
Next he went to a wealthy church in Savannah ; but 
finding that his preaching seemed without results, he 
"became dissatisfied, and, going to a distant grave- 
yard, he spent the entire day in reading, fasting and 
prayer/' He appears to have discovered how to stir 
the dry bones, for "within a week a mighty revival 
began in his fashionable church, and calls came for 
him in every direction to hold meetings." He resigned 
his pastorate to devote himself to evangelism. For 
two years, preaching throughout the South, he aver- 
aged two sermons a day, and was the means of con- 
verting more than 2,500 persons, mostly men. 

Pioneeriag in the He spent a short time in Ohio, 
Middle West. then went to Kentucky, but in 

1839 he felt the call of the great 
Southwest, and the next year began work in Texas. 
From there he went to Arkansas, to New Orleans, intp 
Mississippi, Tennessee and Missouri, <ind back to 


Texas again "a veritable home missionary, a bird of 
passage." Many are the hairbreadth escapes recorded 
in his diary border tales of great adventure. 

A College He felt deeply the need of Chris- 

President, tian education in this new coun- 

try, and in 1849 succeeded in 
getting a Presbyterian college established at Hunts- 
ville, Texas. The Board wanted to name it the 
"Daniel Baker College/' but he would not consent; 
and it was called "Austin College/' Dr. Baker be- 
came its second president. 

He made a number of tours to the East to secure 
funds for the college. But begging, as he called it, 
was distasteful to him; so he found a more congenial 
method. This was to go to a church, hold evangelistic 
meetings there for a week, and when a number of 
conversions had been made, let the church officers take 
an offering for his college. Thus he won many con- 
verts, besides bringing in large sums for educational 

A Citizen Dr. Baker died in 1857, having 

of Note. been instrumental in the conver- 

sion of more than 20,000 persons. 
The Legislature of Texas stopped in the midst of a 
thronged and excited session to hear the news of his 
passing, which the member announcing it declared to 
be a "public calamity/' the loss of one of Texas' great 
benefactors. In later years, a college was established 
at Brownwood, Texas, bearing his name. 


The Results of The casting out of so much of the 

Persecution. best element from the population 

brought its revenge in Europe. It 
has often been pointed out that by the banishment of 
the Huguenots, her peaceful and industrious burgher 
class, France prepared the way for the awful struggle 
between the nobility and the mob in the French Revo- 
lution. England also was suffering in the eighteenth 
century for her treatment of dissenters. 

England in the The relaxed morals of the Stuart 
XVIII Century. period were somewhat mended 
under the more austere rule of 
William and Mary, but by the time that the Georges 
came to the English throne, the moral sense of English 
society had suffered another relapse* Gambling, racing 
and intemperance were the amusements of all classes ; 
in spite of an unmerciful penal code, which inflicted 
death for treason, forgery, theft and smuggling as 
well as for murder, crime did not diminish, but rather 
increased, on account of the hardening of the public 
mind by frequent executions. The state of the prisons 
was frightful. Highway robbery and wrecking of ves- 
sels were common incidents of travel. Many of the 
clergy had lost their zeal for religion, and were con- 
tent merely to hold their livings with as little labor as 

John Wesley Out of these surroundings arose 

(1703-1791). the call to a pure and earnest 

Christian life which received the 

name of Methodism. Its originator, John Wesley, was 


brought up in the country parsonage of Epworth ; his 
forefathers for three generations were clergymen of 
the Church of England. His grandfather and great- 
grandfather both were driven from their pulpits for 
refusing to obey the Act of Conformity; the former 
was four times thrown into prison, and died of his 
hardships at the age of thirty-four. Samuel Wesley, 
the father of John, angered the baser element among 
his hearers by his bold rebukes of sin. "They 
wounded his cattle, twice set fire to his house, and 
fired guns and shouted beneath his windows.** In one 
of these fires, little John Wesley narrowly escaped 

The "Holy Club." The Wesleys had nineteen chil- 
dren, of whom thirteen were liv- 
ing at once in the Epworth parsonage, on a salary 
nominally 200 a year actually much less. Piety and 
a spirit of independence were their only heritage. 
John, born in 1703, and Charles, five years younger, 
were students in Christ Church College, Oxford, when 
the famous "Holy Club" was formed. "It consisted 
of a little group of students who met together for the 
study of the Greek Testament, for self-examination 
and prayer. Their methodical lives led to their re- 
ceiving the epithet of 'Methodists/ a name of con- 
tempt which was destined to become one of highest 

In Georgia. After becoming ministers of the 

Anglican Church, the Wesley 

brothers were asked to go as missionaries to Georgia. 


They were deeply impressed on the voyage with the 
behavior of a number of German Moravians, who held 
daily service on the boat, and during a terrible storm 
sang hymns of trust, while all others on board were 
in a panic. 

In Georgia, the Wesleys pursued their work with 
zeal, living ascetic lives. They slept on the ground, 
lived on bread and water, and John went barefoot to 
encourage the boys of his school. Yet their spiritual 
longings were not satisfied. John Wesley wrote in 
his journal: "I went to America to convert the In- 
dians, but O, who shall convert me?" His "fair sum- 
mer religion/' as he called it, gave him no real assur- 
ance of salvation. This came to him, as he tells us, 
after his return to London, while hearing a layman in 
a Moravian meeting read Luther's preface to the Epis- 
tle to the Romans. He was then in his thirty-fifth 

y ear - 

The Beginning With his brother Charles and 
of Methodism. George Whitefield, he now begaa 

to preach repentance and free 
salvation, with a new tone of confidence. In 1739 the 
first Methodist society was organized in London, with 
eight or ten members. They secured an old foundry 
as a meeting-place, and some friends helped to fit it 
up for services, equipping part of it with desks for a 
school. Here charity pupils were taught, and after- 
wards a bookroom and dispensary were added, and an 
almshouse for poor widows and children. In four 
years the Foundry Society numbered 2,200 members. 


It would take too long to tell of the persecutions 
the early Methodists endured. Stone-throwing and 
window-smashing were the least of the violent acts of 
the mobs aroused by their fearless preaching. At 
Wednesbury, mob rule continued for a week. "The 
houses of Methodists were pillaged and plundered as 
in a sack of a foreign town/' Everywhere the preach- 
ers went, tumult followed them ; but so persistent was 
their preaching, so fearless their attitude, that public 
sentiment began to change,* their journeys became 
"like a royal progress." 

Work of the John Wesley continued his round 

Wesley Brothers, of travel and preaching, at the 
rate of 5,000 miles a year, till he 
was sixty-nine. After that, he continued to preach till 
his eighty-eighth year. "From being one of the worst 
hated he became one of the best beloved men in the 
kingdom." His books were sold in large editions, but 
he was never enriched thereby. "It is estimated that 
he gave away over 30,000 which he had earned with 
his pen/* His brother Charles was one of the greatest 
of all hymn-writers, being the author of nearly 7,000 
hymns. "He often recited and sometimes sang them 
among the raging mob/ 1 Four of them were written 
"to be sung in a tumult/' 

Methodism in Thus Methodism was preached 

America. and sung into existence. Nor was 

the New World forgotten. In 

1771, at a Conference in Bristol, John Wesley called 


for volunteers for the American field. This was not 
the first preaching of Methodist doctrines in America. 
"Whitefield, with tongue of fire and heart of flame, 
had traversed the continent, like an angel, trumpet- 
tongued, calling on men everywhere to repent/* "In 
seventy-five days he had preached 175 sermons, and 
stirred the consciences of thousands from Maine to 
Georgia." Local preachers, like Embury and Captain 
Webb, had begun to establish Methodist societies in 

Asbttry But now the work was to be or- 

(1745-1816). ganized and put on an abiding 

basis. The answer to Wesley's 
call was found in the willing response of Francis 

Born in Staffordshire, England, in 1745, he left home 
in his fourteenth year to learn a trade. Hearing the 
Methodists spoken against, he became curious, and 
attended one of their meetings, which at first sur- 
prised him because not held in a church; "but," he 
says, "it was better than a church; the people were 
so devout/' (This was in an age when, at Oxford, 
"Charles Wesley went in the morning to the prayers 
at Christ Church, and found men in surplices talking, 
laughing, and pointing as in a playhouse during the 
whole service/') 

Asbury entered zealously into the work of holding 
open-air meetings, and was soon licensed as a local 
preacher. "Multitudes were attracted by his extreme 
youth, he being then not more than seventeen years 


of age. Besides his Sabbath services, he often 
preached five times during the week, faithfully at- 
tending meanwhile to his daily toil." 

Arrival in The call to America was ac- 

America, cepted, and he started with a 

meagre outfit; on shipboard he 
slept on the bare planks. He preached to the sailors 
when it was so stormy that he had to hold to the mast 
for support After a voyage of eight weeks he reached 

Growth of He set out at once to tour the 

Methodism. country, preaching everywhere. 

"At New York he preached to 
5,000 people on the race-course, and exhorted the multi- 
tude to run with patience the race set before them/' 
The next year Wesley appointed him superintendent 
of the societies in America. The first Methodist Epis- 
copal Conference was held in 1773 in Philadelphia. 
For several years Methodism grew so fast that the 
membership doubled annually. 

The pressure under which Asbury worked is indi- 
cated by an account he gives of a visit he made to 
Sulphur Springs, during a spell of illness. While rest- 
ing there, his moderate schedule was as follows : "To 
read about a hundred pages a day, pray in public five 
times a day, preach in the open air every other day, 
and lecture in prayer-meeting every evening." 


In War Times. When the Revolution broke out, 
some of the English preachers 
went home ; but Asbury said, "I can by no means leave 
such a field for gathering souls to Christ as we have 
in America ; neither is it the part of a good shepherd 
to leave his flock in time of danger/' He stayed, but, 
being suspected of sympathy with England, was 
forced to remain in hiding for a time, until the gov- 
ernor of Delaware, where he had taken refuge, granted 
him special protection. 

The Hardships The story of his journey ings 

of a Pioneer. reads like a romance. Riding day 

by day through the Alleghanies, 
amid their majestic scenery, he was often without food 
from morning till night. At times he would ride 
seventy-five miles in a day, reaching a cabin at mid- 
night, and leaving it at four in the morning. Some- 
times he slept in the woods, sometimes on the floor 
of a cabin. Wild beasts and Indians were among the 
perils of the way. He crossed the Alleghany Moun- 
tains sixty times. 

He never married, because he would not ask a 
woman to share a home in which he could live per- 
haps but one week out of fifty-two. For many years 
he supported his aged parents in England. "My sal- 
ary/' he writes to them, "is sixty-four dollars (a year). 
I have sold my watch and library, and I would sell my 
shirts before you should want. I spend very little. 
The contents of a small pair of saddlebags will do for 
m, and one coat a year/* 


Asbury was in large measure a self-educated man. 
Lacking the college training of the Wesleys, "he was 
better read than many a college graduate in theology, 
church history and polity, civil history, and general 
literature. In his saddlebags he carried his Hebrew 
Bible and Greek Testament, and in his long and lonely 
rides, and in the smoky cabins of the wilderness, he 
diligently studied the oracles of God in their original 

The First Ameri- After fifteen years of work in this 
can Bishops. country, he was made bishop of 

the Methodist Church in America, 
jointly with Dr. Thomas Coke. Soon after this, a 
church college was built, and named "Cokesbury," 
after the two bishops; but ten years later it was 
burned to the ground. Asbury College, in Baltimore, 
was also destroyed by fire. A Methodist academy was 
established in Georgia, and one in the West; but the 
expense was hard to meet, since most of the Methodist 
people of that day were not wealthy. Asbury labored 
hard to secure funds for these institutions. "We have 
the poor/' he writes, "but they have no money; and 
the wicked rich we do not wish to ask" 

A Venerable Bishop Asbury .lived to complete 

Itinerant. forty-five years of toil in the New 

World. In his seventieth year he 
travelled 6,000 miles in eight months, met nine Con- 
ferences and attended ten camp-meetings. In the 
course of his labors he ordained more than 3,000 


preachers, preached 17,000 sermons, travelled 300,000 
miles, and had the care of a hundred thousand souls* 
One who knew him well has said : 

"He was great without science and venerable with- 
out titles. He pursued that most difficult course as 
most men pursue their pleasures. Prayer was the sea- 
soning* of all his avocations/* 

McKendree Closely knit with him in service 

(1757-1834). was the builder of Methodism in 

the South, William McKendree, 
the first native-born Methodist bishop. Born in Vir- 
ginia in 1757, an adjutant in the army during the Revo- 
lution, he was converted under the preaching of the 
eloquent John Easter, who urged him to become a 
preacher. Not having a classical education, he 
thought himself unfit; but Asbury, judging rightly of 
his ability, appointed him to a circuit. 

A John of the In his early ministry he "was re- 

Wilderness, markable for the austerities which 

he imposed upon himself." His 
diary records frequent fasting, and such incessant 
prayer that one wonders when he ever slept There 
are continual entries like these: "Rode twenty miles 
fasting; preached and held class-meeting." "Out in 
the woods by break of day, reading, praying and medi- 
tating. 1 * "Every night has been a watch-night with 
me for some time/' etc. 

His journeys carried him through Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, West Virginia, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri 


In 1808 he returned from this field to attend General 
Conference in Baltimore, and preached in one of the 
city churches, "clothed in very coarse and homely gar- 
ments, which he had worn in the woods of the West." 
The sermon he preached was so powerful that Asbury 
predicted it would "make him a bishop" which it did, 
a few days later, by the largest vote ever received by 
any except Asbury himself. 

He travelled much with Asbury, at times when that 
fast-aging bishop was so crippled with rheumatism 
that McKendree had to lift him on and off his horse. 
His tender care of the older bishop, his dignified yet 
winning courtesy, his "mildly radiant face/' made him 
beloved wherever he went 

Loved by the In later years, he took a deep in- 

Indians. terest in organizing missions 

among the Creek and Choctaw 
Indians. He visited several times a Methodist mission 
among the Wyandots, and preached to them through 
an interpreter, beside visiting from house to house. 
They were greatly attached to him, and when he was 
no longer able to travel, they wrote him an affectionate 
letter, telling him of their welfare, and signed by lead- 
ing members, including, "Between-the4ogs," "Pea- 
cock," and "James Big Tree." 

His last days were like those of Asbury travelling 
with failing strength until he had almost to be carried 
from place to place. He preached his last sermon in 
November, 1834, in the large Nashville church which 
had just been dedicated as the "McKendree Church." 


A Gentle Legacy. Like Asbury, he never married; 
the nearest he came to a family 
tie was his love for his faithful horse, "Old 
Gray/' who had taken him for many years over 
his circuit. "In the Bishop's last will and testament, 
he bequeathed to Old Gray money sufficient out 
of his little savings to furnish him plenty of food, a 
good stable, a nice blue-grass pasture for life, and an 
honorable burial.'* It was the characteristic act of a 
heart considerate of every creature's welfare but his 

Evil Times The years following the Revolu- 

for America. tion were trying ones for Ameri- 

can Christianity. Fiske has called 
this "the critical period in American history/' and it 
was so spiritually as well as politically. The spirit of 
lawlessness which always follows a great war was 
abroad. The French Revolution, with its rejection of 
all religious belief, and the reign of the "Goddess of 
Reason/' had a debasing influence on the minds of 
Americans. Infidelity, fostered by such books as 
Paine's "Age of Reason," became widespread. The 
young men in colleges were particularly attracted by^ 
these daring theories. In 1782, there were but two 
professing Christians among the students of Prince- 
ton ; in 1795 only four or five were found in the student 
body at Yale. 

Intemperance was a commonplace ; everybody used 
intoxicants. "A pastor in New York City, as late as 
1820, has left on record the statement that it was diffi- 


cult to make pastoral visits for a day without becom- 
ing in a measure intoxicated"; he was expected to 
drink with every family he called upon! Lyman 
Beecher and others have given accounts of ministers 
becoming drunk at ordinations; Dr. Woods declared 
he could reckon among his acquaintances forty min- 
isters who were habitually intemperate. 

A Famine of While liquor flowed freely, the 

Bibles. Water of Life was scarce. Dur- 

ing the Revolution, a Bible 
famine was one result of the stoppage of trade with 
England. Congress was petitioned to have an edition 
of 20,000 Bibles printed, but in all the thirteen colonies 
there was not enough of suitable paper and type for 
such an enterprise; so it was decided, by a vote of 
seven States against six, to import that number of 
Bibles from Holland. 

A Great Revival. To meet and combat the deaden- 
ing influence of these conditions, 
there began about the last year of the eighteenth cen- 
tury a great revival movement, which spread, in the 
form of camp-meetings, over a large part of the coun- 
try then settled, beginning in Kentucky and Tennessee, 
With this movement was allied the Disciples of 
Christ, or, as frequently called, the Christian Church. 

Thomas Campbell The inaugurators of this body 
(1763-1854). were Thomas Campbell and his 

son Alexander. Thomas Camp- 
bell was born in 1763, in County Down, Ireland. His 


father, Archibald Campbell, was in early life a Roman 
Catholic, but later decided that this belief was not in 
harmony with the teaching of the Bible, and joined 
the Church of England. His son Thomas, consider- 
ing the worship of that church too formal, connected 
himself with the Seceding or Covenanter branch of 
the Presbyterian Church. An independent conscience, 
an unfailing tenacity of purpose, and "a most sincere 
and earnest love for the Scriptures" were his equip- 
ment for his life-work. 

Coming to After preaching and teaching for 

Pennsylvania. some years in his native country, 

his health became so impaired 
that his physician ordered a sea-voyage. He arrived 
in the United States in June, 1807, and was so pleased 
with the country that he resolved to bring his family 
over and settle. The family set sail the following year, 
under the care of Alexander, the eldest son, but the 
vessel was wrecked off the Hebrides, and it was found 
impossible for the Campbells to carry out their plan* 
They waited almost a year in Glasgow, where Alex- 
ander studied in the university, and was thus further 
prepared for the work he was to do in America. 

Break With Meantime the father, who had be- 

His Church. come minister to a "scattered 

flock of pioneers" in Washington 
County, Pennsylvania, had been impressed with the 
lack of spiritual care suffered by the members of va- 


rious religious bodies in that sparsely settled region, 
of whom there were not enough to form churches of 
their own faith. 

In the largeness of his sympathy, he invited these 
scattered believers to partake of the Lord's Supper 
with his flock. For this act he was disciplined, and 
finally obliged to withdraw from the ministry of his 

The "Christian He began preaching in private 
Association." homes or in groves to those who 

shared his convictions. These 
hearers soon organized themselves into a body which 
at first was called "The Christian Association of 
Washington, Pa." 

Thomas Campbell was assigned the task of drawing 
up articles of agreement for the new Association, 
which should also be a statement of its principles. He 
prepared "A Declaration and Address," whose opening 
sentence runs: "Our desire for ourselves and our 
brethren would be, that rejecting human opinions, and 
inventions of men as of any authority, or as having any 
place in the church of God, we might forever cease 
from further contentions about such things; return- 
ing to and holding fast by the original standard ; tak- 
ing the Divine Word alone as our rule." "Nothing," 
it has been said, "has ever been written on the subject 
o! Christian union that surpasses in strength and clear- 
ness this document. It at once became the Magua 
Charta of the movement." 


Christian Church Just about this time, the Campbell 
(Disciples of family finally arrived in America. 

Christ). Alexander Campbell entered at 

once into his father's plans; and 
owing to his greater talents for leadership, soon be- 
came the active head of the movement But it was 
the heart and mind of Thomas Campbell that had con- 
ceived and formulated its principles. He lived to see 
a great body of disciples pledged to the system he in- 
augurated, closing his earthly career in 1854, 

Albright About this same period, the 

(1759-1808). church known as the Evangelical 

Association took its rise in east- 
ern Pennsylvania, under the labors of Jacob Albright 
He was born near Pottstown, Pa,, in 1759. When 
about the age of twenty, he went to Lancaster County 
and entered into the business of making brick and tile. 
He became known as the "Honest Brick-Maker/' 

Though brought up in the Lutheran faith, he had 
never taken much interest in religion till the year 1790, 
when he lost several children by death. He was pro- 
foundly affected by their loss, and some time after was 
converted through the efforts of Adam Riegel, an inde- 
pendent lay preacher. Soon afterward he joined the 

He found this church congenial, but left it later to 
become a preacher among the Pennsylvania Germans. 
The Methodist Church did not see fit, at that time, to 
take up any work among Germans, believing that their 
language would soon become extinct in America. 


Evangelical Asso- Albright's converts were widely 
elation Formed. scattered over the country; he 
knew they must be united into 
some sort of organization if they were to be kept from 
falling away, so he began to organize classes in various 
neighborhoods, with class-leaders to hold regular 
prayer-meetings. From that time the work began to 
increase; and in 1802 the first "Big Meeting" was held 
at Colebrookdale. this was in the nature of a pro- 
tracted meeting. 

In 1807 the first regular conference of Albright's fol- 
lowers was held. "There were present five travelling 
preachers, three local preachers, and twenty class- 
leaders and exhorters twenty-eight in all." They 
adopted temporarily the name of 'The Newly Formed 
Methodist Conference/' Later they accepted the title 
of "Albrights," by which they were popularly known; 
and finally decided to be called "The Evangelical As- 
sociation." The United Evangelical Church was 
formed from it by a division in 1891. Albright, who 
was the first bishop of the Association, died the year 
after his election, at the age of forty-nine. 

George Fox A religious body unique in many 

(1624-1691). ways at the time of its inception 

was the Society of Friends. Its 
founder, George Fox, was of English birth, the son of 
a pious Leicestershire weaver. In youth he "was en- 
dued with a gravity and stayedness of mind that is 
seldom seen in childhood." "When I came to eleven 

Lower, GEORGE Fox 


years of age/' he says, "I knew pureness and righteous- 

A Seeker A crisis in his experience came at 

After Peace. the age of nineteen, when he was 

asked to drink by some young 
men who were "professors" of religion. Leaving the 
room, he spent a sleepless night, the precursor of many 
troubled days* He was oppressed by the evil about 
him, and his own sense of helplessness. He fasted, 
prayed and studied his Bible. He asked advice of va- 
rious clergymen. One advised him to take physic; 
another to chew tobacco and sing psalms ; another he 
found to be "an empty cask/* At length, "when all 
my hopes in men were gone, I heard a voice which 
said, There is One, even Christ Jesus, that can speak 
to thy condition* ; and when I heard it, my heart did 
leap for joy, 1 * 

Spread of His Soon after he began to preach, 

Teaching. and within seven years had sixty 

men and women associated with 
him as preachers. By the time he was thirty, the doc- 
trines he taught had spread over England, Scotland 
and Ireland. "In 1655 many went beyond seas/' and 
"in 1656 truth brake forth in America/* By 1660, he 
mentions most of Europe, beside Turkey, Jerusalem, 
the West Indies, Virginia and Newfoundland, as hav- 
ing been visited by Friends. There seems to have been 
no organized plan for these missionary tours; they 
went where the Spirit led them, following the doctrine 


of the "Inner Light" They were first called "Chil- 
dren of the Light," but were nicknamed Quakers, 
because Fox once bade a Justice quake before the 

"In Stripes, In Fox protested against slavery and 
Imprisonments, war; declared the taking of oaths 
In Tumults." forbidden by Christ ; would doff 

his hat to none but God, nor call 
any individual by the plural "you," a term at that time 
much used in flattery. He called upon people to sepa- 
rate themselves from the world and seek salvation in 
Christ These convictions brought him and his fol- 
lowers into heavy persecutions, and he spent many 
years in foul English prisons. 

"Their zeal was such in those early days that the 
term Quaker meant, in the minds of a large number of 
outsiders, a people who were a terror to their religious 
opponents, an unanswerable puzzle to the magistrates, 
and whose frenzy neither pillory, whipping-post, jail 
nor gallows could tame/' In America as well as in 
England, Friends were whipped, imprisoned and 
branded for their beliefs, and some were even hung. 

Fox in America. To encourage the faithful in 
America, George Fox made a 
visit to these shores, travelling twice over the country 
from Massachusetts to Carolina, wading swamps, 
swimming rivers, and facing storms at sea. Great 
multitudes flocked to hear him. It is said that the 


numbers of the Society in America were about doubled 
by his mission. Many Indian chiefs were greatly im- 
pressed by his eloquence, believing him to be inspired. 
William Penn said : "He had an extraordinary gift in 
opening the Scriptures. But, above all things, he ex- 
celled in prayer/' 

The "Holy Ex- Pennsylvania was the most fa- 
periment/* mous of Quaker settlements. 

"Our first concern/' writes one of 
Penn's companions on the "Welcome/* "was to keep 
up arid maintain our religious worship/' At first meet- 
ings were held in private houses, but soon meeting- 
houses were built Schools and a printing-press were 
established and "a population of 7,000 collected in less 
than three years/' Like Rhode Island, it became the 
refuge of the persecuted. 

"Thus the seventeenth century closed with congre- 
gations of Friends established in all of the colonies 
under the English rule, while in Pennsylvania they 
were the controlling element, and in the Jerseys and 
Maryland they had much influence in modifying legis- 

Death of Fox. George Fox died in London in 

1691. Zealous, but always rev- 
erent ; meek, yet fearless ; modest, though marvelously 
successful; a mystic, yet a leader and organizersuch 
was the founder of the Society of Friends. 


Alexander To these leading Protestant 

Whitaker, bodies which evangelized North 

America, we must add the 
Protestant Episcopal, the American daughter of the 
Church of England. This denomination was especially 
strong in Maryland and Virginia, where it claims the 
very earliest Protestant preacher to the Indians Alex- 
ander Whitaker, who baptized Pocahontas. "He left 
station, wealth, the sure prospect of preferment, and 
many cultivated friends, to help bear the name of God 
unto the Gentiles," 


"Look from Thy sphere of endless day, 

O God of mercy and of might ! 
In pity look on those who stray 
Benighted in this land of light. 

"Send forth Thy heralds, Lord, to call 

The thoughtless young, the hardened old, 
A scattered, homeless flock, till all 
Be gathered to Thy peaceful fold. 

"Then all these wastes, a dreary scene 

That makes us sadden as we gaze, 
Shall grow with living waters green, 
And lift to heaven the voice of praise." 

William Cutten Bryant* 

"O beautiful for pilgrim feet, 

Whose stern, impassioned stress 
A thoroughfare for freedom beat 

Across the wilderness ! 
America ! America ! 

God mend thine every flaw, 
Confirm thy soul in self-control, 
Thy liberty in law!" 

Katherine Lee Bates. 


Has It Been It is frequently charged that the 

a Failure? Protestant Church in America 

has failed in her mission, in view 

of the millions yet unchurched. We do not attempt 
to deny that much more might have been done, if all 
the churches had been constantly alive to their duty 
and opportunity. But those who apply the brand of 
failure overlook both the immensity of the task, and 
the greatness of the work actually accomplished. 
Some of the notable movements along home mission 
lines are now to be considered. 

Evangelistic We have seen the great builders 

Home Missions* of the denominations in America 
going out usually as lonely itiner- 
ants. Later we observe missionaries seeking the 
Western frontier in larger companies. The history of 
Congregational missions furnishes a fine example of 
this. In 1829, seven young men in Yale Theological 
Seminary "signed their names in solemn pledge" to 
go as missionaries to the opening territory of Illinois* 



This "Illinois Band" was followed in after years by 
the Kansas, Iowa, Dakota and Washington Bands. 
Other denominations also sent large companies, such 
as the* "Great Reinforcement" of the Methodist 
Church, commissioned for Oregon in 1839. Often they 
led the way for whole colonies of Christian settlers. 

Educational After occupation quickly came ed- 

Influences. ucation. Each religious body 

soon began to establish colleges 
for the training of preachers and teachers. The early 
universities all arose for this purpose, though most of 
them are not denominational today. 

In state universities, a home mission device to off- 
set the lack of religious teaching is the Bible Chair 
Movement, originated by the Christian Woman's 
Board of Missions. It consists in professorships at 
State institutions, for teaching the Bible and related 
subjects. Such a chair was first established at the 
University of Michigan, afterwards at the universities 
of Virginia, Kansas and Texas. In two of these insti- 
tutions certain studies of this department are credited 
for graduation. Other religious bodies have adopted 
this plan with various modifications, the Presbyterians 
having such work in thirty state universities. 

Wherever the government school fails to reach, 
there the mission teacher has been busy among the 
neglected and backward races, such as the Indians 
and negroes; among the isolated mountaineers, and 
in new territory, such as Alaska and Porto Rico. 
Those too young for public school are reached by mis- 


sion kindergartens, and those above school age, by 
means of night schools. Much aid in the banishment 
of illiteracy among negroes has been given by the 
Fireside School plan, originated by the Baptists; and 
among the mountain people, by "Moonlight Schools," 
conceived in the mind of a graduate of a mission school 
under the Christian "Woman's Board of Missions, and 
now adopted by the government. Its attitude on this 
question of public education alone should be sufficient 
to mark Protestantism as a great constructive force in 

Industrial This educational work has sought 

Training* to train not the head alone, but 

the hand as well. The home mis- 
sion teacher has been in large measure a civilizer. The 
value of industrial training for the backward element 
of our population can scarcely be exaggerated. Few 
if any mission schools lack some industrial features, 
and many of them make this a large part of their 
work. Fine service is also rendered in the teaching of 
English to foreigners in the cities and towns where 
they congregate. 

Ministries Medical home missions, and the 

of Mercy* founding of institutions of mercy, 

such as homes for incurables, de- 
fectives, orphans and the aged, and rescue work, form 
another large branch of activities, almost as needful in 
our own land as on the foreign field, especially in out- 
lying districts. In the Lutheran Church, all these and 


similar ministries are classed under the name of "Inner 
Missions/' and an effective aid in carrying them out 
is that of the deaconess. 

The Deaconess The Deaconess movement is not 
Movement. a native growth of American soil ; 

in fact, it is well-nigh as old as the 
Christian Church. We find traces of it as early as 112 
A.D. ; and up to the fourth century the deaconess con- 
tinued to be a valued helper in ministering to the sick 
and poor. Then the cloister began to absorb the ener- 
gies of devout women, though many nuns continued 
to do charitable work. 

After the Reformation, the chief experiments with 
deaconess work were made at first in the Reformed 
communion, with temporary periods of service. While 
the Pilgrim Fathers dwelt in Amsterdam, they had 
"an aged widow as deaconess/' who visited the sick, 
collected aid for the poor, and kept order among the 
children in church. But organized deaconess work 
began with Theodore Fliedner, who in 1836 founded 
the Motherhouse at Kaiserswerth in Germany. 

Ten years later the movement was brought to Amer- 
ica by a Lutheran pastor, W. A* Passavant There 
are now nine Lutheran Deaconess Motherhouses in 
America ; the largest is the Mary J. Drexel Home in 
Philadelphia. There are also German Evangelical, 
Reformed, and Episcopal sisterhoods in America ; and 
in 1888 the Methodist Episcopal Church adopted the 
deaconess idea. It was suggested in 1881 by Dr. J. M. 
Thoburn (later Bishop Thoburn), a pioneer of the 


Methodist Episcopal Church in India, as a solution of 
many problems in both home and foreign fields. Mrs. 
Lucy Rider Meyer, founder of the Chicago Training 
School for City, Home and Foreign Missions; Miss 
Jane Bancroft, first Secretary of the Deaconess Bureau 
of the Woman's Home Missionary Society, and her 
sister, Miss Henrietta Bancroft, were leaders in the 
opening of the work. The German-speaking confer- 
ences instituted their own deaconess work at about the 
same time. The Methodist work now includes several 
large Training Schools, nearly a hundred Deaconess 
Homes, more than a score of Deaconess Hospitals, and 
about 800 deaconesses and probationers. No more effec- 
tive agency has been found for combining philanthropy 
with distinctly religious influences. 

The Church and Social welfare is a comparatively 
Social Problems. new field for the Church, as an or- 
ganization, though it might be 
shown that practically all social uplift and reform have 
come through workers trained in the church and in- 
spired by her message. 

The Presbyterian Department of Church and Labor 
was a notable step in this direction, originating in 1904, 
The Methodist Episcopal Church in its General Con- 
ference of 1908 adopted a "Bill of Rights" which in- 
dorses protection of workers, arbitration in industrial 
disputes, abolition of child labor, Sabbath rest, a liv- 
ing wage, old age pensions for workers, and tlie abate- 
ment of poverty. The Northern Baptist Convention 
of 1911 declared for "the control of the natural re- 


sources of the earth in the interests of all the people; 
the gaining of wealth by Christian methods and prin- 
ciples, and the holding of wealth as a social trust 
anu the exaltation of man as the end and standard of 
industrial activity/' Almost all Protestant bodies have 
adopted resolutions favoring temperance and other re- 
forms. The Anti-Saloon League is an inter-denomina- 
tional movement in this direction. 

Enlisting All The great Home Mission Boards 

the Forces. of the denominations came to or- 

ganization during the early half 
of last century. The women were definitely organized 
for service in the latter half of the century. In the 
same period began the enlistment of American young 
people for religious study and service in the Young 
Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations, 
the Christian Endeavor Society, and the various de- 
nominational societies, such as the Epworth League, 
Luther League, Baptist Union, etc. 

An interdenominational movement for concerted 
missionary activity is the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, which was organized 
in 1905 by the representatives of thirty Christian 
bodies. Its purpose is "to manifest the essential one* 
ness of the Christian Churches of America in Jesus 
Christ as their Divine Lord and Saviour, and to pro- 
mote the spirit of fellowship, service and co-operation 
among them/ 1 

The Young People's Missionary Movement became 


an organized force in 1902, and was projected as a 
union agency of the young people's departments of 
the various home and foreign missionary boards of 
North America, for promoting missionary intelligence 
and interest among young people by means of litera- 
ture, missionary exhibits, conferences, etc. Later, 
under the name of Missionary Education Movement, 
it has not been confining its efforts to the young peo- 
ple, but aids missionary education wherever the way 

The Y. M. C A. and Y. W. C A., while not directly 
connected with the churches, were founded on a most 
definite platform of Christian service. The American 
branch of the Y. M. C. A. abides firmly by the first 
principles and the Evangelical test as drawn up in the 
Paris Declaration of 1855, which says : 

"The Young Men's Christian Associations seek to 
unite those young men who, regarding Jesus Christ as 
their God and Saviour according to the Holy Scrip- 
tures, desire to be His disciples in their doctrine and 
their life, and to associate their efforts for the exten- 
sion of His Kingdom among young men/* 

The first "Ladies' Christian Association," organized 
in New York in 1858, was still more definite, confiniajf 
membership to women who were communicant mem- 
bers of some Evangelical church. In their conception 
and object, as well as in much of the work they are 
doing, tfiese great organizations may justly be classed 
as home mission agencies. 

But the principles of home missions are best exem- 


plified in the life and work of real home mission work- 
ers ; and to sketches of a few standard-bearers of this 
great army the remainder of our study will be devoted. 


The Apostle "Short, bewhiskered, bespec- 

of Alaska. tacled. By inside measurement, a 

giant. Such is a newspaper writ- 
er's terse description of Sheldon Jackson in his prime. 

Dedicated to the ministry at the age of four, it was 
first intended he should go to the foreign field; but, 
his health not permitting this, he went to Indian Ter- 
ritory, then to Minnesota, and later became pioneer 
missionary superintendent of Presbyterian work in the 
entire Northwest, and established many churches over 
an immense area. 

Then he heard the call of Alaska, and went to see 
the field in 1877. He returned to carry the news of 
Alaskan need from Atlantic to Pacific, making about 
vOO addresses in leading cities. In 1884 he became 
superintendent of missions in Alaska, and thenceforth 
carried on work there, under most difficult conditions. 
He travelled over ice-fields where he was attacked by 
swarms of mosquitoes ; established schools and located 
teachers in places where whales sported at the front 
door in spring, and polar bears prowled about in win- 
ter. He became "preacher, teacher, lawyer, doctor, 
nurse and business adviser of his people"; cleared 
ground, built houses, organized town governments. 
He was largely instrumental in securing territorial 



government and a school system for Alaska. He also 
made explorations of great value to the government, 
and sent over twenty annual reports on education to 
Washington. His best known work was the introduc- 
tion of the reindeer into Alaska, to provide the natives 
against famine. The sum of his journeyings during 
his half century of service was about 1,000,000 miles. 

A Brave Woman. When Dr. Jackson went to Alas- 
ka the first time, he felt that he 
dared not awaken the hopes of the Alaskans and leave 
them only with promises ; he must take them a teacher. 
He found a volunteer in Mrs. A. R. McFarland, who 
went with him to Fort Wrangell, Alaska, and remained 
there to teach in the school already opened by Philip 
McKay, a Christian native. For seven months she 
was the only Christian teacher in Alaska, and for five 
months longer she was alone at Fort Wrangell. She 
taught in an old dance-house, with a native assistant, 
an interpreter, four Bibles, four hymn-books, three 
primers, thirteen First Readers, and a wall-chart, as 
her entire equipment. Her duties were those of a 
civilizer as well as a teacher. She presided at a law- 
and-order meeting of natives; snatched tortured girls 
from the maddened heathen at a devil-dance; con- 
ducted Sunday services and funerals; sheltered girls 
whose parents wanted to sell them, and constantly 
kept writing home for the help that was so long de- 
layed. At last the longed-for minister arrived, and 
Mrs. McFarland could give herself to teaching, sew- 


ing-schools and home visitation. She served twenty- 
two years, at Fort Wrangell and afterwards at Sitka. 

The Lumber-jacks* Francis E. Higgins was born in 
Sky-pilot. Toronto, Canada. Becoming a 

Christian while quite a young 
man, he organized a semi-weekly prayer-meeting in a 
schoolhouse. Nine of the young men who attended 
these meetings became preachers. At the age of twen- 
ty-five he was licensed to preach. He labored at first 
tinder the Methodist Church, but in 1895 entered the 
service of the Presbyterian Church at Barnum, Minn. 
"It was at Barnum that he found himself and his be- 
loved lumberjacks. Here he learned of the roaring 
'riverpigs* and wilful 'timber savages/ and the uncon- 
ventional love of his heart went out to them with a 
desire that was steadfast to the end. The unchurched 
foresters became his hearers, and by the swift-flowing 
streams and in the low-built bunk-houses he declared 
to them Christ's way of salvation." In 1902 he gave 
tip a regular charge to devote his whole time to camp 

No more picturesque figure has ever flashed across 
the home mission screen than that of Higgins, tramp- 
ing with his pack from one logging camp to another, 
preaching with a barrel for a pulpit, dragging men 
from the saloon and the gambling table by physical 
force at times ; no formal exhorter, but a real brother 
to men. He died at the age of forty-nine. 


Sisters in A beautiful ministry was that of 

Service* Misses Sue and Kate McBeth 

among the Nez Perces Indians in 
Idaho. The elder sister, a teacher of high ability, was 
first a worker among the Choctaws in Indian Terri- 
tory; then a Civil War nurse; then a mission worker 
for ten years in St. Louis. After a severe illness, she 
took up work among the Indians again, though partly 
paralyzed. She taught first in a government school at 
Lapwai, Idaho; the Jesuits there complained that she 
taught religion, so she moved to Kamiah, where she 
gave herself to the training of Indian young men for 
the ministry. She has often been called "a whole 
theological seminary in herself." 

After her death her sister, Miss Kate, who had here- 
tofore devoted herself chiefly to the women and chil- 
dren, took up her sister's work of training young men 
for ministers, elders, deacons and Sunday-school 
workers. Today in that region, six Nez Perces 
churches, with native pastors and officers, attest the 
work of these devoted sisters. Miss Kate died in 1915 f 
after thirty-six years of service. 

A Worker Among In November, 1915, slipped quiet- 
Mormons, ly out of this life "the one man 
most feared and hated by the 
Mormon hierarchy" Samuel E. Wishard. Born al- 
most ninety years before, in an Indiana log-cabin; 
starting to college at twenty-one, with a capital of $20 
loaned by an elder brother ; serving for over a quarter 
century in various churches, while conducting an ever- 


growing evangelistic work through the Middle West, 
he was appointed in 1883 synodical missionary for the 
state of Kentucky. In these isolated regions, especial- 
ly among the mountains, he traveled over 40,000 miles 
in a little over four years. 

In 1890 he received a similar appointment for Utah, 
and set himself to breaking the power of Mormonism 
by two weapons teaching and preaching. The edu- 
cational work prospered greatly under his oversight, 
in spite of much opposition. At one period during his 
work the Presbyterian mission schools in Utah num- 
bered 2,300 pupils, many of whom became mission 
teachers, and some preachers. The evangelistic work 
was carried on in a "gospel tent/' carried from place 
to place for holding meetings. The Mormon leaders re- 
sented his work bitterly, but he succeeded in organizing 
thirty-four congregations and establishing a college dur- 
ing his term of service, which ended with his retire- 
ment at the age of eighty. 


A Black Man The first missionary of the Meth- 

Who Helped the odist Church to the Indians was 
Red Men. John Stewart, a negro. One night, 

praying in a grove, he thought he 
heard voices calling him from the Northwest. He 
took this as a call to preach to the Indians. At Upper 
Sandusky, he found the Wyandot Indians, drunken 
and pagan in habits. The only man he could find as 


interpreter translated under protest, adding, "This is 
what he says, but I don't believe it, nor care/* Stewart, 
however, succeeded in converting him. 

The first congregation consisted of one old squaw. 
At the next, an old man was added. By Sunday there 
were seven or eight Then a great war-dance took 
place, and Stewart took the opportunity of speaking 
to the assembled Indians. Afterward he asked all who 
were well disposed to shake hands with him, which 
they did, Chief Bloody-Eyes setting the example. 
Many chiefs were converted under Stewart's ministry* 

He was much opposed by Roman Catholics, who 
told the Indians Stewart was no priest and had not 
the right Bible. At length helpers were sent him, and 
by 1822 the Wyandot Mission was prospering, with a 
church of 200 members, schools, a farm and a saw- 
mill These were the Indians so much beloved by 
Bishop McKendree. 

A Cheerful Jesse Lee, though a native of Vir- 

Itinerant. ginia, is best known as a pioneer 

of Methodism in New England. 
A man of large mould, physical and spiritual, he came 
into his Connecticut circuit riding one horse and lead- 
ing another; and a rumor arose that "a Methodist was 
coming who weighed 300 pounds and rode two horses/* 
"No man of less cheerful temperament could have 
brooked the chilling treatment he encountered while 
travelling the New England States without a colleague, 
and without sympathy/ 1 At Norwalk, refused a house 
to preach in, he asked for a deserted building ; denied 


again, he asked to preach in an orchard, but was re- 
fused lest he should "tread the grass down/' He finally 
preached under an apple-tree by the road. On Boston 
Common he preached under an elm. 

His eloquence and fine singing attracted great 
crowds. The president of Yale with many students 
came out in a rainstorm to hear him. But nine weeks 
of daily preaching- effected not a single conversion, 
and after seven months he had formed but two classes, 
with a total of five members. 

Sixteen years later, on a return visit, he found thou- 
sands of Methodists, sprung from this small beginning, 

An Apostle of About the middle cf the eigh- 

Liberty. teenth century, a "leading Mary- 

land family, possessing broad 
acres and many slaves," named their little son Free- 
born Garrettson. After he grew up, he heard the 
preaching of Methodist itinerants, and was converted ; 
he tells us, on horseback. His first act was to go home 
and free all his slaves. 

He soon began preaching from the Carolinas to 
Nova Scotia. He met with much opposition, especially 
because of his views on slavery ; he was interrupted in 
his sermons, threatened by armed men, and one of his 
friends was shot (though not mortally) for entertain- 
ing him. Once he was struck from his horse by a 
blow with a club, and lay senseless. "With his face 
bruised and scarred, and sore wounded, he preached 
that night from his bed, and next day rode many miles 


and again preached twice with power." In fifteen 
months he added 1,300 to the church in Delaware. In 
that state he was thrown into jail for two weeks, but 
later he preached to over 3,000 people near the same 

He died in his seventy-sixth year, having made pro- 
vision in his will for a missionary to carry on the work 
he laid down. 

A Colonizer of In the spring of 1834, Jason Lee 

the Coast. set out "on his way to the Flat- 

head Indians on the other side of 
the Rocky Mountains." On July 27th he held the 
first religious services west of the Rockies. The Wil- 
lamette Valley was selected as the site of the mission. 

Only a few of the labors of this pioneer can be men- 
tioned. He formed a cattle company to import stock for 
the settlers. He prevented the first attempt to begin 
the manufacture of liquor in Oregon. He travelled 
widely, spreading information about Oregon, and se- 
curing large funds for the work. He drafted a memor- 
ial to Congress asking for the organization of Oregon 
as a territory. 

The "Great Reinforcement" sent to Oregon in 1839 
consisted of forty-nine persons ; to avoid the overland 
trip they were sent around by way of the Hawaiian 
Islands. They entered the Columbia River in May, 
1840. A settlement was now made at Puget Sound, 
where the first Fourth of July celebration west of the 


Rockies was held in 1841. The first school established 
on the western coast was planted there by Jason Lee ; 
the church at Willamette Falls was the first erected 
in Oregon, and Lee's residence was the first dwelling 
built in Salem, the capital o the state. 

Elect Ladies. A small beginning of great things 

was the work of Mrs. Jennie 
HartzelL While her husband (afterward Bishop Hart- 
zell) was pastor in New Orleans, she became unof- 
ficially a helper o the negro women in that city. Later, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Lowndes Rust, whose husband was an 
officer of the Freedmen's Aid Society, became inter- 
ested in Mrs. HartzelFs work, which by that time was 
reaching over 500 girls and women, and required the 
services of seven missionaries, who conducted thirteen 
schools, and visited about 150 homes weekly. 

It was at first hoped to carry on this work in con- 
nection with the Freedmen's Aid Society, or the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, but this was 
found impossible for legal reasons ; the final outcome 
was the organizing, in 1880, of the Woman's Home 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Its first president was Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes, then 
Lady of the White House ; its secretary for many years 
was Mrs. Rust, whose untiring labors of tongue and 
pen, and journeys of many thousand miles, did much 
to build up the work. The Washington Training School 
for Missionaries is named for Mrs. Hayes; one of its 
chief buildings bears the name of Mrs. Rust 



A Pennsylvania When the Lutherans in Pennsyl- 
Pioneer. vania wrote to Halle to ask for a 

minister, they said, "There is not 
one German Lutheran preacher in the whole land, ex- 
cept Caspar Stoever, now sixty miles distant from Phila- 
delphia/' This "indefatigable missionary/' John Cas- 
par Stoever, Jr., came to America in 1728, aged twenty- 
one. Though not then ordained, he preached and bap- 
tized because of lack of ministers; after two years he 
was ordained in the barn used as a church at New 

All over eastern Pennsylvania he organized churches, 
"at almost every crossroad, wherever there were any 
number of Germans." Those were dangerous times, 
and the people came to church armed against wild 
beasts and Indians. Sentinels watched during service, 
and it is said that Stoever used to take his gun with 
him into the pulpit. There were no stoves in the 
churches, and sometimes a fire was built of logs out- 
side, where the oeople would warm themselves before 
going in. 

He lacked the large vision and executive ability of 
Muhlenberg, but did much to prepare the way for him. 
His eventful life of seventy-five years, strong and 
stormy, was that of a typical pioneer in those rude and 
perilous days. 


A Dane in the The first ordained minister among 

Great Northwest. Norwegian Lutherans in America 
was Claus Clausen, a native of Den- 
mark. A theological student at the age of twenty-one, he 
went to visit in .Norway, and heard letters from Nor- 
wegian emigrants, telling of their spiritual need, and the 
fact that their children were growing up uninstructed in 
the faith. Clausen immediately returned to Denmark, 
married, and set sail with his bride for America. 

He was ordained in 1843, and installed pastor of 
the first Norwegian church in this country, at Mus- 
kego, Wisconsin. "Zealously and faithfully he admin- 
istered to the spiritual wants of the pioneers, travelling 
continually between the small and scattered settle- 
ments throughout the Northwest." He was president 
of the first Norwegian Synod, organized in 1850. 

When the question of abolition became a burning 
one, a controversy over it arose in the Synod, Clausen 
standing practically alone against the belief that slav- 
ery was sanctioned by Scripture. Finding himself in 
the minority, he left the Synod to form another Luth- 
eran body, the "Norwegian-Danish Conference/* be- 
coming its first president. During the Civil War he 
served as chaplain of the 15th Wisconsin Regiment. 
His entire life of pastoral service covered more than 
forty years of activity, largely missionary. 

A Shepherd A Swedish pioneer was Tuve N. 

Among Swedes. Hasselquist, who in 1852, after 

preaching in his native land for 

thirteen years, heard that there was but one Swedish 

"Santa Clans he never come to our house" 

Lutheran Deacon esses in German Hospital, Philadelphia 


missionary working among his countrymen in Illinois, 
and decided to go to his assistance. 

When Hasselquist and his wife arrived at their new 
charge, in Galesburg, 111., they found there was no 
church property and no parsonage. 

"To begin with they lived in two small rooms of a 
house, the other half of which was occupied by a drink- 
ing man and his wretched family. ... At first 
they had no furniture to speak of. They slept on the 
floor and their table was the chest in which Pastor 
Hasselquist kept his precious books. The roof leaked 
badly and in rainy weather the floor was covered with 

Undismayed, they took up their work, and in one 
year added 165 members. A chapel was purchased, 
which soon had to be enlarged. The missionary's 
journeys extended to all parts of the middle west, 
wherever Swedes were settled. He became an organ- 
izer and leader, the editor of two papers, and finally 
president of Augustana College and Theological Semi- 
nary. He continued to preach and teach till his death, 
at eighty-five. 

A Pioneer of "The idea of sitting down in one 

Inner Missions. spot, having the same round of 
duties from week to week and 
year to year, is to me very melancholy. I always 
longed to be a gospel ranger, to go from place to place 
assisting my companions in labor, or laying a founda- 
tion on which others might build/' 
So wrote William A. Passavant, and made it good. 


Whether a student at Seminary, going up to preach in 
the neighboring mountains; or serving a church in 
Baltimore, establishing new Sunday-schools all around 
him; or taking a struggling church in Pittsburg, to 
build it into a mighty one, five new churches being its 
offspring in ten years; or initiating those works of 
mercy which may be classed under the title of "Inner 
Missions/' he was ever a true missionary pioneer. 

He first introduced deaconess work into America 
from Germany, organizing the "Institution of Pro- 
testant Deaconesses of the County of Allegheny/' 
His labors and faith founded hospitals at Pittsburg, 
Milwaukee, Chicago and Jacksonville, 111., and orphan- 
ages at Rochester and Zelienople, Pa., and Mt Ver- 
non, New York He was leader of the movement that 
established Thiel College; founder of the Pittsburg 
Synod ; and for fifty years an editor of various church 
papers, including the Missionary, the Lutheran and 
Missionary, and the Workman. The Synod he organ- 
ized was known, from its zeal in mission work from 
the beginning of its history, as the "Missionary 
Synod/' He was also the leading organizer of the 
General Council. 

A Notable A remarkable family in Lutheran 

Family. annals is that of the Henkels, 

preachers for five or six genera- 
tions. Their ancestor, Gerhard Henkel, chaplain to 
Duke Maurice of Saxony, was exiled when the Duke 
became a Roman Catholic. He was the first Lutheran 


preacher in Virginia, going from there to Germantown, 

The family has been located for the most part in 
Virginia and North Carolina. Several of them have 
been prominent in pioneer mission work; the most 
noted is Paul Henkel, who traversed Virginia, Ten- 
nessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio and the Carolinas 
on preaching tours, on horseback or in a two-wheeled 
"gig/' for twenty years. When a log* church was to 
be built at New Market, Va., he helped fell the trees 
and erect the building, while his wife cooked in the 
open field, in wash kettles, the meals for the men who 
came to the "log* raising." The energetic preacher 
also "made a trip with a one-horse cart to Philadelphia, 
300 miles distant, for glass and a bell, which some 
friends in that city gave him for the new church." He 
was also, like others of the family, the author of a num- 
ber of books. 

A Man of Vision. Samuel Bacon Barnitz entered 
the Lutheran ministry in his 
twenty-fourth year. He accepted a call to a mission 
at Wheeling, W. Va., which had been without a pas- 
tor for more than a year. There were but sixteen 
members ; they had no church building, but leased an 
"old, dilapidated, dirty" building in one of the worst 
sections of the city. When he left it after twenty 
years of ministry, it had its own church home, was 
self-supporting, and had a model Sunday-school of 
over 500, He had also established a Home for desti- 
tute children in Wheeling. 


He resigned to accept the position of Travelling- Sec- 
retary of Missions in the West. He pushed the mis- 
sionary frontier of the Lutheran General Synod from 
Nebraska to the coast, during the twenty-one years 
of his service. It was he who advised the newly formed 
Woman's Missionary Society of the General Synod to 
take California as its special field, and in twenty years, 
sixteen churches were organized. 

His last message was, "Occupy, occupy, OCCUPY!" 
"When shall we have another so unique, so filled with 
longings unutterable for the scattered children of the 


A Bringer of Bibles John Mason Peck, son of a Con- 
to the West. necticut farmer, became a Baptist 
preacher in New York State; was 
drawn to home mission work by reading David Brainerd's 
Memoirs, and by learning the spiritual needs of the newly 
acquired Louisiana Purchase; and in 1817 started west 
with his family in a one-horse wagon. It took them 
one month to go from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, 
three weeks longer to cross Ohio. After that they had 
to leave the wagon and travel by boat, being almost 
wrecked on the trip. 

Reaching St. Louis, they found an unchurched pop- 
ulation, an open Sunday, and a dearth of Bibles. Peck 
first secured a box of Bibles from Connecticut, and 
then rented a room and began teaching and preaching, 
presently organizing a church, a day school, and a 


Sunday-school for negroes. Later he travelled through 
Illinois and Missouri, often among people of the poor- 
est "squatter" type ; in three years he established over 
fifty schools. He became an agent of the American 
Bible Society, and distributed many copies of the Scrip- 
tures. He began the publication of a religious newspaper, 
"The Pioneer." He visited churches, camp-meetings 
and other gatherings of Baptists, and in conjunction with 
Jonathan Going, of Massachusetts, established the Ameri- 
can Baptist Home Missionary Society. He also raised 
funds for a seminary. 

A Settler Hezekiah Johnson was born in 

of Oregon. Maryland, the family afterward 

moving to Ohio, where he grew up 
and entered the ministry, first preaching in country 
school-houses. He once had the door locked on him, 
because of a fervent missionary sermon he had 
preached. He accepted an appointment to a circuit in 
Iowa, where he founded many churches, travelling on 
foot or horseback. His success here led to his being 
sent to Oregon. The journey was made with ox-teams, 
and took six months. There was but one Baptist Min- 
ister there, beside himself and Rev. Ezra Fisher, whd 
accompanied him. In 1848 they dedicated the first 
Baptist meeting-house on the Pacific Coast. When 
the ground was first obtained donated by the pro- 
prietor of Oregon City, Dr. John McLaughlin there 
were but seven members of the congregation, and a 
sum of $350 subscribed for a building; but the next 
year they had their church home, simple and unpre- 


tentious. Hezekiah Johnson's salary as pastor was 
100 bushels of wheat a year. He labored in Oregon 
for twenty-one years, founding a number of churches. 
"He was pronounced in his advocacy of missions, of 
total abstinence, and of freedom for the negro." 

A Herald of Hope On the eve of Jan. 1st, 1863, in 
to the Negro. Rockford, 111., a jubilee watch- 

meeting was held to celebrate the 
Emancipation Proclamation, about to go into effect 
There first sounded in the heart of a girl student of 
Rockford Seminary the call to help the negro. The 
girl's name was Joanna P. Moore. 

She spent eight years in service to the freed negroes 
on Island Number Ten in the Mississippi River, and 
in the Orphanage at Lauderdale, Miss., laboring 
there through a cholera epidemic. In 1873 she went 
to New Orleans, spending nine years there in house- 
to-house visitation, teaching negro mothers and chil- 
dren, establishing mothers' schools and training 
classes, as later in Memphis, Baton Rouge, Little 
1 Rock, Nashville and other cities. 

Her greatest work was the establishment of the 
"Fireside School" a plan of work including the study 
of the Bible by parents and children in the home ; Par- 
ents* Meetings for mutual help; Sons 5 and Daughters' 
Meetings, in the church or private homes; Sunshine 
Bands, or Childrens' Meetings in private homes; 
Bible Bands, for daily study not mere reading of 
the Bible; distributing good literature, and giving in- 
dustrial training in the home. In such ministry Miss 


Moore spent over forty-five years. She died in April, 
1916, and was buried in the colored cemetery at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., that the people she loved might feel her 
still among them. 

An Efficient Anna M. Barkley was first pre- 

Worker in Cuba, pared for foreign mission work, 
and spent five years in India. Re- 
turning from there, she gave fourteen years of happy, 
successful service among colored people in Memphis; 
but when the call came to the opening West Indies, 
she was ready with the cheerful response, "Myself and 
my wheel for Christ in Cuba/' 

She reached her new field in November, 1900, and 
began work among the young people in the church 
at Santiago. Soon after she started services in El 
Caney, a veritable heathen village. The Sunday-school 
she organized there had an average attendance of be- 
tween eighty and ninety before the year was out She 
soon had schools in seven places, visiting them each 
in the week. In some she had only house-to-house 
visitation at first; in others, Sunday-schools, sewing 
classes, and Home Departments for the older people. 
She wrote, "I have not yet preached a sermon; but 
sometimes I have come dangerously near the line." 
For the young people she organized "What I Can" 
Societies ; out of the one in Santiago have come several 
young women who have taken courses in the Baptist 
Training School in Chicago, and gone back to Cuba 
as missionaries. Miss Barkley was recently obliged 


to leave Cuba on account of her health, and has since 
been working among Spanish speaking people in 
Southern California. 

Two Brave One of the most important Bap- 

Teachers, tist mission institutions, Spelman 

Seminary, was founded by two 
New England women, Harriet Giles and Sophia Pack- 
ard. They met in school at New Salem, as teacher and 
pupil, and became close friends. Both became active 
in the Home Mission Society in a Boston church. On 
a trip South, Miss Packard's illness at New Orleans 
brought Miss Giles to join her; and, though middle- 
aged, they determined to undertake work for the help 
of negro women. They were finally commissioned to 
teach, if they could secure their own salary; and go- 
ing to Atlanta, Georgia, they opened a school in a base- 

It was not at first received with favor by the white 
people ; but "it soon became evident," writes an Atlan- 
ta editor, "that these brave, unselfish handmaidens of 
God were actually making better negro girls, girls 
more intelligently industrious, more reliable, more 
trustworthy in life and character . . Today, a 
miniature world is planted under the banner of Spel- 
man Seminary for the best possible preparation of 
negro girls for every relation of life/* Miss Packard 
passed away after ten years* service. Miss Giles lived 
to open the twenty-ninth year of the Seminary, a 
month before her death. 


The Heroine of A most delightfully original home 
Saddle Mountain, mission worker is Isabel Craw- 
ford, in whom deep devotion to 
her Indian friends, and a keen sense of humor, are 
most delightfully balanced. She was a Canadian 
girl, who learned to know the Indians while her 
father was head of "Prairie College/' in Manitoba. 
She attended the Baptist Missionary Training School 
in Chicago, and in 1893 began work among the 
Kiowas, first at Elk Creek, afterwards at Saddle 

How she came to the latter place, fifteen miles from 
any church; how the Indians marvelled at the "one 
white woman, all alone with Indians, and no scared !" ; 
how she lived in a tepee, soaked by rain and pillaged 
by pigs ; how she organized the society called "God's 
Light on the Mountain/' and how they began to work 
together for a "Jesus House" ; how they went to Rainy 
Mountain to cut grass for a payment on the new 
church; how the women stood all day long at the 
quilting frames, tying off nine comfortables, and earn- 
ing thereby $37; how at last the cornerstone was laid; 
how they organized the Sunshine Mission, to take the 
gospel to the Hopi Indians these are mere sugges- 
tions of a most fascinating story. 


A Friend of The Society of Friends has al- 

the Red Man* ways been active in Indian mis- 

sion work George Fox advised, 
"Let them know the principles of truth, and salvation, 


and how Christ died for them/' Penn wrote, "I had 
in view the glory of God by the civilization of the poor 
Indians, and their conversion to Christ's kingdom/* 

Their pioneer Indian missionary, Thomas Wistar, 
gave his time, substance and friendship for fifty years 
to the red man. His sympathetic understanding of 
the Indians led to his appointment as United States 
Commissioner under different administrations "a 
service which involved much difficulty, arduous and 
self-sacrificing labor." The Indians trusted him be- 
cause he had invariably been just and truthful toward 
them. Again and again they chose him as their inter- 
cessor with the government. Once, when treaty meas- 
ures seemed about to fail, the chiefs exclaimed, "Send 
us the Man-with-ctrtear-in-his-eye. We will do what 
he tells us/' 

A Blind Among the neglected mountain- 

Evangelist. eers of North Carolina there came 

riding, about thirty-five years ago, 
a blind missionary, named David E. Sampson. "He be- 
gan his work on horseback, holding meetings in school- 
houses and visiting families." Thus he organized many 
little churches in isolated places. Much of his work 
was also done by means of tent-meetings. 

"When he travelled by team his wife or one of his 
children would be eyes for him, reading to him along 
the way where the road was smooth enough to permit/' 
In this way, through mountain passes and over swol- 


len streams, he reached the foot of the Blue Ridge in 
Virginia, and opened a school for mountain children in 
a lawless district. In six months he had the whole 
country-side gathered harmoniously at a school exhi- 
bition, to hear the children give recitations on peace 
and prohibition ! The outlaws had been won to Christ 
by the blind Quaker missionary. 

The Indian Chil- Charles Kirk and Rachel Holl- 
dren's Foster- ingsworth were married in 1858. 

Parents. Twenty years later they went to 

the Wyandotte Government 
School as superintendent and matron. "They were in 
charge of this school for six years. From 85 to 125 
children were clothed, fed, nursed, instructed in prac- 
tical domestic science, farming, school work, public 
speaking, editing and printing a little school paper, 
and first always, taught of the love and care of God." 
The Kirks wrote out and printed on their hand press 
a simple "Confession of Faith" for the Indians. Their 
first wedding, that of a Seneca chief, was in a house 
so low that Dr. Kirk could only stand erect between 
the beams! "The home established that day by that 
Christian ceremony became a centre for prayer and 
preaching/' In 1884 they took up mission work under 
Friends in Indian Territory. After Dr. Kirk's death, 
his wife became superintendent of Indian mission work 
tinder Friends. She worked thirty-seven years for 
the Indians. 



An Organizer of John Jacob Larose was descended 
the Middle West from a noble French family, who 
were driven by persecution to 
America. His early years were spent on his father's 
farm in Pennsylvania. In 1776 he enlisted in the Rev- 
olutionary Army, and took part in the Battle of Tren- 
ton. After returning from the army he went to North 
Carolina, where he was married, and having studied 
privately for several years, was licensed to preach. 

He felt strongly the missionary call, and in 1804 
"took his family and all his possessions, with a four- 
horse team, and after a six weeks' journey, travelling 
over 700 miles/* he reached what is now Miamisburg, 
Ohio. Here he began preaching in private houses, and 
presently organizing congregations. In later years he 
toured Indiana and Kentucky, seeking scattered mem- 
bers of the Reformed Church. He preached about fifty 
years in all, and spent his last years in meditation and 
prayer, passing away in his ninety-first yean 

A Pittsburg John William Weber was born in 

Pioneer. Germany in 1735, and came to 

America about 1764. He first 
preached to destitute Reformed congregations in 
Eastern Pennsylvania ; later he was called to the west- 
ern part of the state, to preach at four points one of 
them Pittsburg, where as yet there were no "public 
buildings as houses for worship/' He could get no 


suitable dwelling, and had to rent an old house so 
open and exposed that he and his family almost per- 
ished of cold during the winter. Later he bought 100 
acres of land, on which to make a home for himself, 
his wife, and eighteen children. It was many years 
before he could clear his farm of debt He met his 
appointments on horseback, usually armed with mus- 
ket or horse-pistol ; his congregation stacked their guns 
at the church-door, and left a sentinel there. He died 
in 1816, aged eighty-one. 

A Pathfinder of Samuel Weyberg, son of a Re- 
Righteousness, formed pastor of Philadelphia, 
crossed the Mississippi in 1803, 
preaching the first Protestant sermon ever delivered 
west of that river. He went into "a country inhabited 
by Indians, backwoodsmen, buffaloes, wolves and 
bears ; a country where the land had first to be cleared, 
where all roads and paths had to be made; a region 
forty miles from the place where meal and flour could 
be bought, and without any mail conveniences." 
There he travelled from place to place, preaching in 
German or English, frequently in private houses, and 
administering the sacraments. He laid special empha- 
sis on the instruction of the young in the catechism. 
His people had the good reputation of being punctual 
in paying debts and keeping promises ; lawsuits were 
rare among them. He died of cholera in 1822, after 
ministering faithfully to his stricken parishioners. 



"If the pulpit ever wears out, by much preaching, the 
eleventh chapter of Hebrews, we can find a new roll- 
call of heroes in the record of home missions. Nor Is 
there any volume on chivalry or knighthood that will 
surpass these wondrous volumes." 

Quoted in Stewart's "Life of Sheldon Jackson?* 

"I cared not where or how I lived, or what hardships 
I went through, so that I could but gain souls to Christ.** 

David Brainerd. 

"It pays to follow one's best light to put God and 
country first; ourselves afterward." 

Samuel Chapman Armstrong. 


(Continuing sketches of Home Mission Leaders.) 


A Man of Ten A most remarkable life-record is 

Talents. that o Manasseh Cutler, born in 

Connecticut in 1742. A graduate 

of Yale, he first practiced law, combined with commerce ; 
then studied theology, and for over fifty years served as 
a pastor. He also studied and practiced medicine, was 
chaplain in the Continental Army, and then settled down 
to add science and statesmanship to his varied accom- 
plishments. In astronomy, but still more in botany, he 
was a careful observer, and discovered some new plants. 
He superintended the making of the first screw pro- 
peller for a boat, and predicted, before Fulton, the use 
of the steamboat. He had a part in drafting the Ordi- 
nance for the government of the .Northwest Territory, 
as the states north of the Ohio were called, and was 
probably responsible for the anti-slavery clause therein. 
He was one of the company who founded Marietta, Ohio, 
He was offered a botanical professorship in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and was appointed by Washing- 
ton Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio; but nothing 



could draw him from his pastoral work. He was presi- 
dent of the Salem Bible Society, an important organiza- 
tion in its day. During his last few years, he preached 
from an arm-chair, dying at the age of eighty-one. 

A Martyr of Marcus Whitman was trained f of 

Oregon. a physician ; in 1834 he was sent by 

the American Board to examine the 
prospects of mission work in Oregon. He reported a 
great opening there, and in 1836 he and Rev. H. H, 
Spalding started with their brides for the new field. Dr. 
Whitman insisted on taking a wagon, though everybody 
said it could not be done. He had great difficulties with 
it but finally got through, leaving the first wagon-trail 
across the continent. A settlement was made at Waii- 
latpu; and there, three years later, a visitor to the mis- 
sion records finding 200 acres under cultivation, a school 
of forty or fifty Indian children taught by Mrs. Whit- 
man, a grist mill running, and the Indians copying the 
mission station by cultivating land and raising cattle. 

At that time, England desired Oregon, and the United 
States seemed indifferent. One orator in Congress de- 
clared, "The whole of Oregon is not worth a pinch of 
snuff!" The Hudson Bay Company discouraged set- 
tlers from the East. Believing Oregon would be lost 
to the States, Whitman took his famous ride in mid- 
winter, crossing icy rivers, sometimes lost in the snow, 
finally reaching Washington to urge Oregon's claims on 
the President. Daniel Webster objected that a wagon- 
road could never be made across the Rockies. Then 
Whitman was able to say he had made one himself ! 


He went back with a large company of emigrants, act- 
ing as their guide part of the way. A few years later, 
he and his wife, with twelve others, were brutally mas- 
sacred by the Indians. 

A Desert Home. Stephen and Mary Riggs took 
their wedding journey from civili- 
zation to the wilderness in 1837, ax-riving after four 
months' travel at Lacqui-parle, Minn., where Dr. Wil- 
liamson was already beginning to put the Dakota lan- 
guage into writing. Mr. Riggs applied himself to this 
work, making a dictionary and grammar, translating the 
Bible and hymns. Meanwhile he and his wife lived in 
the unfinished attic of a log-house, with quilts nailed up 
to keep the cold out. Mrs, Riggs taught the Indian 
girls English, and showed them how to cook, wash and 
keep house. In 1843 they opened work at a new point, 
but their cattle were killed, their horses were stolen, and 
drunken Indians with guns and knives threatened to teat* 
down their house. They went back reluctantly to Lacqui- 
parle, which mission now began to thrive better. The 
meeting-tent was always crowded, the day school was 
filled, and later a new settlement was formed, with a 

They had eight children, eighteen grand-children and 
six great-grand-children born on the field, of whom fif- 
teen became missionaries. Their oldest son, Alfred L. 
Riggs, founded Santee Normal Training School. He has 
been called "The Father of the Sioux/* He died in 
April, 1916. 


A Maker of The first marriage solemnized and 

Michigan. the first funeral service held in 

western Michigan were both per- 
formed by John D. Pierce, commissioned to this field in 
1831. "He was a man of vision, but not a dreamer, 
adding to intense missionary enthusiasm, practical sense 
and a knowledge of affairs/' With his young wife, he 
travelled over a large and difficult field, and came to 
understand in a peculiarly intimate way the needs of this 
growing commonwealth. He was on the field when 
Michigan became a state, in 1837, and by the influence 
of Gen. Isaac Crary was made the first superintendent of 
public instruction. 

"The scheme formulated by the new superintendent 
was simple but comprehensive, and so wisely drawn that 
to this day it stands without radical change. It is un- 
sectarian, but provides for the impartial representation 
of all churches, both in the governing boards and in the 
teaching force/* A state university whose regents were 
elected by popular vote, and a state-wide system of pre- 
paratory schools, were included, and the whole system 
thrown open in all branches to both sexes. Other new 
states have since been glad to follow the example of 
Michigan, building along the lines laid down by this 
missionary educator. 

A Christian In the home of a missionary, on the 

Soldier. Hawaiian Islands, Samuel Chap- 

man Armstrong was born, in 1839. 
At the age of twenty-one he was sent to Williams Col- 
lege, to the guidance of that prince of educators, Mark 


Hopkins. In 1862 he entered the Union Army. He com- 
manded several regiments of colored troops, and be- 
came convinced of the powers and needs of the race. 
"A dream of the Hampton School, nearly as it is, came 
to me a few times during the war," he has written, "an 
industrial system, not only for the sake of self-support 
and intelligent labor, but also for the sake of character." 
In 1866 he was placed in charge of a military court at 
Hampton, which he managed with such fairness that 
when civil courts were established everywhere else, two 
years later, this court was kept up six months longer, by 
request of the community. In 1868 Hampton Normal 
and Agricultural Institute was founded by him, under 
the American Missionary Association. In 1870 it was 
chartered by the State of Virginia, and became inde- 
pendent of any denomination, but has largely retained 
the missionary spirit of its founder, who continued as 
its beloved head for twenty-five years. 

"A Mighty Moral Schools for "females" were scarce 
Architect/* and costly in the beginning of last 

century ; they taught little but use- 
less accomplishments. Then came Mary Lyon, from a 
poor little Massachusetts farm, with her voracious brain 
that assimilated the whole Latin Grammar in three 
days and her wise, tender soul, that dreamed and 
realized Mount Holyoke, the first real college for women. 
It was built of the little contributions of New Eng- 
land farmers and townspeople, gathered largely by Mary 
Lyon's own persuasive enthusiasm. It was established 
on the plan of a great home, where all the housework 


was done by the pupils, and the teachers taught mostly 
for love. But, above all, its founder and head never 
ceased to dwell on its first object: "To cultivate the mis- 
sionary spirit among the pupils; the feeling that they 
should live for God, and do something." No wonder 
the home and foreign mission offerings, even in the 
early days, used to total $1,000 a year; that during its 
first dozen years, forty foreign missionaries went out 
from it, and hundreds of home mission teachers, and 
home missionaries' wives. A letter from one of them 
tells how she taught seventeen scholars, boarding eleven 
of them, in her little Illinois home, sixteen by thirty feet, 
teaching with her baby in her arms. Miss Lyon's one 
published work is called "The Missionary Offering/' 


A Christian Albert Christian Van Raalte was a 

Colonist. minister's son, born in Holland, 

educated at Leyden University and 
Theological Seminary. He was ordained by the Separ- 
ated or Free Reformed Church of the Netherlands in 
1836. This church was a secession from the State 
Church, and the government tried to crush it out by 
persecution. Van Raalte joined these oppressed seceders 
at great cost to himself. "Possessed of high intellectual 
gifts and rare eloquence, he turned from the career which 
might have opened before him in the reigning church, 
and was often subject to civil process, even to fines and 


Coming to America with emigrants of his faith who 
sought refuge here, Dr. Van Raalte chose Ottawa 
County, Michigan, for the settlement of his little colony, 
because a suitable tract of land could be obtained there* 
His people suffered greatly from poverty and pioneer 
hardships. But Van Raalte "set an example of unflinch- 
ing fortitude." Beside building up the Reformed Church 
in Michigan, he went about through the East soliciting 
funds for Holland Academy. This institution has since 
grown into an influential college, which celebrated its 
fiftieth anniversary in June, 1916. 

Teacher, Pastor and The first ordained minister sent by 
Community Helper, the Women's Board of Domestic 
Missions to service among the 
mountain people was Isaac Messier, then pastor at 
Ghent, N. Y, He found the field at McKee, Ky., with a 
school building erected, but not yet opened. 

It was opened in January, 1906, and enlarged ia 1910; 
a high school department and a normal course have been 
added; domestic science, manual training and music are 
recent developments. Mrs. Messier conducts an indus- 
trial department, which distributes clothing to the needy 
over a large territory. The school library is open to tlie 
public each Friday. Duplicate books donated are given 
to public school teachers in the county. Nor is the re- 
ligious element neglected. , A church and an efficient 
unton Sunday-school are connected wjith the school "The 
pastor has seven classes in Bible study each Monday 
morning. Three King's Daughters* societies are con- 
nected with the mission, and three Christian Endeavor 


societies, rural Sunday-schools and preaching stations." 
A community work was begun at Gray Hawk in 1905, 
and has now a cottage for workers, church and hospital. 
A farm of eighty acres was secured at Annville for an 
industrial school Neighborhood betterment is apparent 

throughout the vicinity. 


A Mountain William A. Worthington was born 

Pathfinder. in Illinois in 1877. His father was 

of English descent, a soldier in the 
Civil War; his mother was a physician, who continued 
to practice until her death in 1884. The family travelled 
extensively in search of a healthful climate for the 
mother, living at various times in Texas, Washington 
Territory, Idaho and Florida. William Worthington first 
entered a business career, but the death of his father and 
his young wife changed his plans, and he took a theolog- 
ical course for training as a missionary. 

While tinder appointment for India and awaiting a 
chance to sail he found his life-work in the mountains of 
Kentucky, where the Women's Board asked him to be- 
come superintendent of a proposed school at Annville. 

"School was begun with forty pupils in the spring of 
1910. We have now at Annville a school building well 
equipped, a chapel, girls' dormitory, parsonage, large 
barn, boys' dormitory, workshop, blacksmith shop, plan- 
ing mill and canning factory. The school with 265 seats 
is kept full, with waiting lists in each room/' A church 
of eighty members, a Sunday-school of 200, and two 
outlying Sunday-schools also centers of social service, 
and a prospering village are further results of this work. 


An Indian Frank Hall Wright is the son of 

Evangelist. Rev. Allen Wright, a full-blooded 

Choctaw chief, and a cultured 
woman of New England ancestry. Their son began his 
work as an evangelist in the East, but felt that his Indian 
blood called him to labor for his own people. Though 
infected with tuberculosis, he went in 1895 to the West, 
under the Women's Board, and has there established five 
important missions. The first, in Colony, Oklahoma, will 
appear more fully in the next sketch. The second was 
among the Apache prisoners of war at Fort Sill the fa- 
mous Geronimo's Band. Many of these fierce warriors 
were won to Christ, including Geronimo himself. A 
church, school and orphanage were established there. 

The Comanche Mission near Fort Sill also became a 
flourishing church. Then Mr. Wright started for Win- 
nebago, Neb., and rebuilt a work that had lapsed. The 
fifth mission was at Mescalero, N. Mex. His method 
was first to preach in the government schools, so as to 
reach the children. Then he would go and camp among 
the Indians, visiting from tepee to tepee. Mr. Wright 
is now in general evangelistic work, but holds annual 
camp-meetings among the Indians, keeping in touch with 
them by these yearly visits. 

The Red Man's When Frank Hall Wright, the In- 
Counselor. dian evangelist, was seeking a 

pastor for his mission to the 
Cheyennes at Colony, he met Walter C. Roe, then pastor 
of a Presbyterian church at Dallas, Texas, and became 
fast friends with him. Shortly after, Dr. Roe's health 


having broken, the doctors decided he must have out- 
door work, and he accepted a call to the Indians at 
Colony, where he and his wife labored for a number of 
years. His last illness was occasioned by a winter visit 
to Washington in 1912 to urge a fair adjustment of the 
claims of the Apache prisoners at Fort Sill. 

"Iron Eyes," as the Indians called Dr. Roe, brought to 
the study of the Indian problem a largeness of vision and 
judgment which made him the trusted friend of the red 
man. Never a day passed at the mission without visitors 
from the tepees to consult with him on all sorts of mat- 
ters. As other missions were established, the Women's 
Board made him superintendent of the work His wife 
was no less efficient ; the mission lodge, which has done so 
much for the women and children, was her idea. Henry 
Roe Cloud, the young Indian preacher, looks upon them 
as his adopted parents. 

A Life Invested. The son of a Japanese "Samurai" 
is Rev. E. A. Ohori. Early in life 
he decided to become a business man, and at his own 
insistence was apprenticed to a silk dealer. Becoming 
ambitious for more education, he ran away, and came to 
America as a stowaway, suffering many hardships on 
the passage. He was discovered and watched, but es- 
caped from the ship at San Francisco by climbing down 
the cable. He met a man on the streets who directed him 
to the Japanese Y. M. C. A. There he became a news- 
carrier, earning fifty cents a month, beside board and 
meals. He says : "My bed was in the attic, made up of 
two benches tied together. You can imagine the extent 


fifty cents a month covered for my clothing. In spite of 
all this, schooling was kept up, and also attendance at 
prayer-meetings and Sunday-school, and Sunday serv- 
ices. Thus the knowledge of English and of Christianity 
have been steadily gained. And I confessed and joined 
church in May, 1896. Since that day I changed my pur- 
pose in life/' After passing through college, while a 
theological student he was asked to take up work among 
the 3,000 Japanese in New York He is now living there 
with his Japanese bride, conducting a varied ministry 
which includes much pastoral work, Sunday services, a 
night school and reading-room. 


A Spender Though not herself in actual Home 

of Self. Mission service, few workers have 

been the authors of a larger work 
for Home Missions than Miss Lucinda B. Helm, founder 
of the Home Mission Society of the Methodist Church, 
South. Daughter of a governor of Kentucky, gifted and 
cultured, she devoted her talents gladly to the work of 
organizing a Woman's Department of Church Extension. 
She travelled, talked and wrote to such good purpose that 
in her first year as Secretary of the new society, there 
were ninety-two auxiliaries organized, with 1,595 mem- 
bers. To this was later added the regular Home Mis- 
sion work. "In four years, schools among mountaineers 
were inaugurated, work among the Cubans was begun, 
and some effort at city evangelization organized." After 


eight years she resigned as Secretary, and became editor 
of "Our Homes," the official organ of the society. "Her 
name is as ointment poured forth throughout the South." 

An Uplifter of George Williams Walker, of South 
the Black Race. Carolina, volunteered in 1881 for 
service in the lately established col- 
lege for educating negro preachers, which the M. E. 
Church, South, helped the colored M. E. Church to se- 
cure, in the years of poverty following the war. When 
he told his mother God had called him, she wept and 
said: "Oh, that God had called some other woman's 
son!" but she did not oppose him. For thirty years he 
served the negroes of the South as President of Paine 
College. The school has trained not only preachers, but 
"teachers, wives and makers of Christian homes." 

The personal influence of Dr. Walker meant so mucK 
to the negroes that during his last illness the colored 
people of Augusta presented him an elegant silver serv- 
ice. It was said there was not a negro man, woman or 
child in the town who had not contributed at least five 
cents toward it. 

A Lover of "St. Mary" was the name lovingly 

Latin Peoples. given by her co-workers to Mary 

Bruce Alexander. Her first mis- 
sionary work was in Brazil; after five years there, she 
became Principal of the Wolf Mission School for Cubans 
at Tampa, Florida. "Promptly she learned Spanish, 


easily she got into the hearts and homes of the Cubans; 
In sickness, in sorrow or in joy she was their best friend" 
Later she went to pioneer a larger school at Key West, 
in spite of yellow fever perils ; and after coming baqk to 
the work at Tampa, found time in addition to learn 
Italian, and give several hours daily to teaching the 
Italian immigrants who came to Tampa in large numbers 
in 1904-5. "Through her ministry an Italian church was 
established, and the General Board brought an Italian 
pastor to take charge of the little church formed by this 
woman with the pioneer spirit/' 

A Sister of The first deaconess consecrated by 

the City. the Methodist Church, South, was 

Mattie Wright, who had already 
given herself to social service in her home at Waco, 
Texas, organizing there the first Newsboys' Club in the 
South, also a Mothers' Club. After her consecration she 
was sent to St. Louis, where her labors in the slum dis- 
trict resulted in the establishment of the great Kingdom 
House, a centre of helpful activities. 

After four years she was sent to Houston, Texas, to 
work among the foreign-born. She visited in homes, 
established night schools, taught English to Mexicans, 
and gathered tinder her own roof a number of working 
girls without homes in the city. The business men of 
Houston esteemed her work so highly that they built a 
Co-operative Home for Working Women, to extend the 
good influence. She has later been sent to San Fran- 
cisco, to open there the Wesley House, 


A Lily Among Another deaconess who rendered 
Thorns. service, not in the crowded city, but 

in the lumber camp, was Mae Me- 
Kenzie. First a volunteer for the foreign field, a serious 
illness so weakened her heart that she could not go 
abroad. When the call came for a deaconess in the 
Arkansas lumber camps, she was chosen as an ideal 
worker, except for her physical frailty. In two years 
among the isolated camps, she had won the respect of 
the roughest man, the confidence of the shyest woman, 
the adoration of every child. Her clubs and visits helped 
to mold the new settlement. After two years, a brief 
illness brought her to the gates of death. In her last two 
hours, she spoke to more than two hundred people, ad- 
mitted to her bedside for a last message; and around her 
casket her Baraca class of twenty boys joined hands and 
pledged their lives to God's service. 


A Shepherd of A Kentuckian of French Hugue- 
the Hills* not descent was Dr. Edward O. 

Guerrant. While a practicing 
physician, lie decided to preach the gospel, gave up his 
practice, and entered Union Theological Seminary in 
Virginia. As pastor of a large church in Louisville, he 
soon began to plead for work among the mountain people. 
He was made Synodical Evangelist, and served four 
years, preaching- at many unchurched places. Later, for 
physical reasons, he took a rural charge of four churches; 


and while there organized "The American Inland Mis- 
sion/' or "Society of Soul Winners/' an undenomina- 
tional effort to give the gospel to the mountaineers. 

"In ten years, 362 missionaries employed by this so- 
ciety held over 22,000 public meetings at 10,069 places, 
resulting in 6,304 conversions. They taught 879 Bible 
schools with 39,456 pupils; built fifty-six churches, 
schools and mission houses, including three academies 
and an orphan asylum." In 1911 this work was trans- 
ferred to the Southern Presbyterian Church. Dr. Guer- 
rant continued in it till his death, in April, 1916. 

Educator and The name of Henry Barrington 

Translator. Pratt is honored by all Christian 

workers among Spanish-speaking 
people. A missionary in countries of Spanish speech for 
a number of years, the translator of the Bible and other 
religious books into Spanish, he returned to this country 
because of his wife's health, and took up work among 
the Mexicans in Texas in 1895. This Texas mission had 
been founded twelve years earlier by a converted Mexi- 
can, and served for some years, first as interpreter and 
then as pastor, by Rev. W. S. Scott, an American bora 
and reared in Mexico. 

Dr. Pratt's peculiar gift to this mission was the train- 
ing of three native evangelists. While pastor at Laredo, 
he took into his home three of the brightest young men 
and prepared them for the ministry, studying the Bible 
with them, verse by verse. They all became devoted and 
efficient preachers. 


Master Workmen. About eighteen years ago, two 
young kinsmen from an Alabama 
town attended the Theological Seminary at Louisville, 
Ky. They became impressed with the needs of the col- 
ored people, and had soon organized a mission with six 
students for teachers, and twenty-six black gamins of 
the city for pupils. These two young men were John 
and D"aniel Little. In their home town in Alabama had 
been established, more than twenty years earlier, the 
school for training negro ministers and missionaries 
known as Stillman Institute. To teaching in this institu- 
tion Daniel Little afterward devoted six years. Rev. 
John Little has remained with the Louisville Colored 
Mission since its inception. To this mission three or- 
dained men now give their whole time. It owns two com- 
modious brick buildings, with baths and playgrounds; 
has an attendance of more than 1,500 pupils, with eighty 
teachers ; and "instruction is given in every department 
of usefulness, from preaching services to sewing and 
cooking classes." 

A Lightbearer in "James, the Apostle of Good 
a Southern City. Works," otherwise Rev. James A. 
Bryan, is pastor of a large church 
in Birmingham, Ala., but is known throughout the South 
as a tireless evangelist In his own city, he "labors from 
dawn until long after dark, holding regular services at 
all the fire stations of the city, at police headquarters, at 
shops, in the homes of the people, and wherever men 
and women can be brought together/' He is often found 


at the car-barns at 4 a. m., to address the men who 
cannot get to Sunday services. He has organized many 
churches in outlying districts, usually beginning with a 
Sunday-school. He has also been largely instrumental 
in establishing a chain of missions for the foreign-speak- 
ing people connected with the steel industry. A leading 
citizen, of Birmingham, who was not a Christian, once 
said of him : "He is giving the Devil more trouble than 
any other man in the city!" 

To the Third A remarkable record is that of the 

Generation. Hotchkin family, missionaries to 

the Indians for three generations. 
Ebenezer Hotchkin, the first, became a missionary to 
the Choctaws of Mississippi in 1826. When they were re- 
moved to Indian. Territory in 1832, he an3 his wife ac- 
companied them, she riding an Indian pony, with her 
baby in her arms. Their children were brought up for 
the same work, learning to speak Choctaw before they 
knew English. One son served the Indians as an or- 
dained minister, another as a Christian layman, reading 
the Choctaw Testament to his Indian farm-hands. His 
wife was for forty years a teacher among them. 

Ebenezer Hotchkin, of the third generation, is an evan- 
gelist and educator among the same people. Largely to 
his labors is due the success of Oklahoma Presbyterian 
College, at Durant, Okla,, the only Christian school for 
the higher education of either white or Indian girls in 
that section of the state. 



A Long Life A veteran in the service was Rev. 

of Service. C Hammer, who spent fifty-two 

years in home mission, work. He 
was licensed to preach in 1829; preached in Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, New York, and in Baltimore, Md. The 
periods o his most successful labors were the three years 
spent in Ohio, and the time of his work in the city of 

In 1839 he was elected General Book Agent, and 
served three years, then returned to the active ministry. 
In 1854 he became General Book Agent again, holding 
the position this time for fourteen years. For eight years 
he was superintendent of Ebenezer Orphan Institute at 
Flat Rock. He reared eleven children, all of whom be- 
came professing Christians in early youth. He retired 
from active service at the age of seventy-seven. At the 
time he entered the ministry, there were but 2,862 mem- 
bers of the denomination, and a preacher's yearly salary 
was $42,18, 

A Leader in Into a pious home in Berks County, 

Mission Work. Pennsylvania, was born on Christ- 
mas morning in 1830 a boy, who 
was named William Yost. His conversion took place at 
the age of twenty, and four months later he preached his 
first sermon, but did not enter the active ministry till 
three years later. He served various charges in Eastern 


Pennsylvania for eleven years, receiving over 800 into 
church membership. In 1863 he was elected by General 
Conference to the office of Corresponding Secretary of 
the Missionary Society, which made it necessary for him 
to remove to Cleveland, Ohio. For forty-eight years he 
served in responsible positions, such as Secretary, Pub- 
lisher, Treasurer of Home and Foreign Mission Funds, 
Treasurer of Ebenezer Orphans' Home, and Ebenezer 
Old People's Home. At the age of eighty-six, he is still 
vigorous and able to preach. 

A Helper in In 1903, Miss Katherine Eyerick, 

"Little Italy/* shortly after her graduation from 

Naperville Theological Seminary 
(its first woman graduate), was asked to work among 
the Italians in Steubenville, Ohio. She found 400 of 
them crowded into an old seminary building, and started 
a night school to teach them English. Meantime, she 
studied Italian from them. She ordered Italian Scrip- 
tures, and encouraged them to read, especially John 3; 
and as she learned a few words daily, tried to tell them 
of Christ She held a Sunday-school on the flat roof of 
the old building, and taught the children to sing "Come 
to Jesus/* Her first three converts became preachers. In 
1904 she went to Wellsville to start a similar work, which 
became a mission under the supervision of the Woman's 
Missionary Society. Another organization was effected 
by her in Milwaukee. On a visit to Italy she became the 
bride of Rev. Giuliani. She died in July, 1916. 



A Leader of the Bishop Rudolph Dubs, who spent 
Vanguard, more than fifty-eight years in the 

ministry, was in his earlier years a 
pioneer in the Middle West ; first in Illinois, then in Iowa, 
where he travelled over a large territory. The people 
were much scattered, and bad roads made it a difficult 
task to reach them. He established a number of con- 
gregations and aided them in building churches. In 1860 
he was sent to Kansas as a missionary. 

Referring to his experiences, he once wrote: "With 
horse and buggy I travelled through Iowa, Missouri, and 
down through Kansas to Humboldt. No minister had 
been stationed here before. This was a very hard jour- 
ney. I was the farthest in the front at that time. The 
battle was raging between the border ruffians and slave- 
holders, who endeavored to make Kansas a slave state, 
and the men who fought to make it a free state. That 
year Kansas was visited by a great drought. I suffered 
with the people. I slept more than once on the prairie, 
having nothing to eat but raw buffalo meat, which was 
'cured' in fire." 

The first year his salary was $100, and the next four 
years $125 per year. In later days he became a bishop, 
holding that office for twenty-seven years, and was an 
editor about twenty-two years. He was identified with 
the United Evangelical Church from the time of its or- 
ganization, in 1894. He died in 1915. 


A Planter and B. H. .Niebel went, in 1881, to 
Builder. Southwestern Iowa, where he gave 

the early years of his ministry to 
missionary labors, taking up new appointments, estab- 
lishing congregations and building churches. His most 
interesting experiences were among the Scandinavian 
peoples of Central Iowa. On one of these missions he 
received into the church people of seven different na- 
tionalities. He was accustomed to make a house-to-house 
canvass of the communities where he labored, and per- 
sonally conducted his revival meetings, in which there 
were many converts. For nine years he served as pre- 
siding elder of districts largely composed of mission 
churches. He was instrumental in founding Western 
Union College, a training school for home missionaries. 
He served as Financial Agent and Treasurer of this in- 
stitution for over six years. For the past ten years he has 
been Corresponding Secretary of the Home and Foreign 
Missionary Society of the United Evangelical Church. 


A Hero of the Joseph Alter, a soldier in the Civil 

Frontier. War, later became a home mission 

hero. On leaving the theological 
seminary, he asked to be sent "where the other fellows 
didn't want to go," and went to the Kansas "dugouts/* 
"In these underground houses he preached, held com- 
munions, baptized infants; sometimes the little room 
would be so crowded with worshippers that it would be 
necessary for him to step over their heads on the way to 


the corner reserved for him/* His bed was a wheat-bin ; 
the heat of the stove often drove him out of doors to 
study tinder the only tree on the ranch, where he was 
tormented by the chiggers that infested the grass. His 
diary records chills and fever every third day for weeks. 
After eight years of such labor, he was called to 
Washington Territory, Here he built churches and or- 
ganized congregations over an area so vast that he often 
rode a whole day to visit a single family. One such trip 
of 200 miles he ended by fainting from exhaustion as 
he dismounted from his horse. He afterward ministered 
to Indians oa an Oregon reservation. Once, when there 
was an epidemic, he was urged to keep the Indians out of 
the parsonage. "No," he replied, "they need us now 
more than ever." 

A Friend of The first United Presbyterian 

Freedmen. school for freedmen was opened by 

J. G. McKee in Nashville, Tenn. 
He arrived in time for the "dreadful winter of 1863-4, 
when wood for fuel cost from $25 to $50 per cord, and 
other things in proportion/' Into the city kept coming 
long trains of fugitives, barely clothed, "the feebler and 
little children dragging behind with naked feet and legs, 
plunging through the mud and snow." Often he labored 
late at night to get them housed, and sometimes could not 
find quarters to crowd them all in. Those who were left 
on the streets often froze to death. Mr. McKee himself 
suffered great privations. The white people would have 
nothing to do with him, and some nights he slept on the 
steps of the Capitol, wrapped in a blanket. He stuck 


to his post, but in a few years fell a victim to its hard- 
ships, dying in 1868, 

"A Faith That Will Eliza Wallace was for twenty years 
Not Shrink.** principal and matron of the Knox- 

ville School for Negroes. At one 
time the school was so crowded that closets, bathrooms 
and some classrooms had cots in them, and the boys said 
they "headed in at night and backed out in the morning." 
The Board could spare no money for building. Miss 
Wallace told the students the situation, and they began 
to hold sunrise prayer-meetings, to pray for help. Friends 
in the North sent contributions ; the students added their 
mites; the teachers helped; and at last the money was 
gathered, and the building arose. 

Miss Wallace also started the movement for a colored 
school at Miller's Ferry. It started in 1884 in a log 
church with backless benches, and no desks. Now it has 
dormitories, recitation hall, hospital, shops and printing- 
office, parsonage and teachers' home, and about 300 
pupils, while the whole community about has felt the 
uplifting force of its influence. 


A Wise Master- In 1749, there was born in Lancas- 
builder. ter County, Pennsylvania, in the 

home of a Swiss carpenter, a boy 
named Christian Newcomer, who was to be known as 
the "refounder" of the United Brethren Church. It was 


under his influence that the "society," as it was first 
called, became a "denomination." 

Newcomer was one of those mighty itinerants who 
carried the Word o God far and wide through the 
Middle States and Near West. "For fifty-three years he 
was in the saddle almost constantly. On these trips he 
passed through a thousand perils; yet these perils and 
escapes he referred to simply as the 'pepper and salt* 
which gave zest to his further and greater efforts." 

As bishop, he formed classes, drew up plans for 
church government, began the gathering of funds for 
missionary work, handled difficult problems with gracious 
tact, and in every way proved himself not only a devoted 
missionary, but a gifted organizer* 

A Progressive John Collins Bright was born in 

Leader. Ohio, of pioneer parents. His life 

as a circuit preacher and presiding 
elder was marked by a largeness of vision that made him 
a leader along many lines. He was a staunch supporter 
of higher education, in a day when many looked upon 
it as hostile to spiritual growth. He was an advocate of 
music in worship, and was one of the first pastors of his 
denomination to introduce an organ or favor instrumental 
music in church services. 

Most of all, in a day when few had missionary zeal, he 
prompted the founding of the "Home, Frontier and For- 
eign Missionary Society" of the United Brethren 
Church. "His impassioned address moved people to give 
as they had never done before/* His pen, as editor of 
the "Missionary Telescope/' helped to educate the church 


into a broad missionary policy. He was a prophet to his 

A Pioneer o Jacob B. Resler, a Pennsylvanian 

Education. by birth, came early into the serv- 

ice of his Master, being licensed to 
preach at the age of twenty. He travelled through the 
Alleghany Mountains as an evangelist, at a time when 
churches were scarce, and much of the preaching was 
done at camp-meetings. In such work he was exceed- 
ingly successful ; but he is known even better as a pioneer 
in the educational work of his church. Mr. Resler felt 
his own handicap in having entered the ministry without 
sufficient preparation, and did all in his power to keep 
others from the same mistake. He was identified with 
the early history of several denominational colleges, but 
chiefly with Mt. Pleasant College, as agent for which he 
did his most notable work, collecting funds, and inspiring 
young men to seek an education. "It is said no minister 
of his times turned more young men toward the gospel 
ministry than he." 


Builders for A boy and girl were born in the 

the Future. same year, in two homes of the 

Middle West They grew up, and 
attended the same college in Indiana. On October 6th, 
1890, they were married ; and their wedding journey car- 
ried J. B. Lehman and his bride, Effie B. Lehman, to 


Edwards, Miss., to take tip the work of negro education 
in the Southern Christian Institute. Later, Professor 
Lehman became Superintendent of all the negro work of 
the Christian Woman's Board of Missions. 

When they began their work, a quarter century ago, 
there were but two small schools. Now there are six, in 
as many different states, with an annual attendance of 
about 500 students. Four of these institutions own large 
tracts of land, used as experiment stations for teaching 
scientific farming. All of them teach many kinds of in- 
dustrial work. Professor and Mrs. Lehman have always 
exalted the dignity of labor; but there is also "thorough 
academic training, and the Word of God is studied every 
day, by every pupil." 

A Mother of Mrs. Caroline Neville Pearre was 

Missions. for years a successful teacher of 

young women in colleges in Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois and California. In April, 
1874, during her morning devotions, the thought came to 
her to organize the women of her church for missionary 
work. She began by organizing a woman's missionary 
society in her own congregation, and followed this by 
correspondence with women all over the United States, 
presenting the plan of forming a national organization. 

At the fall meeting of the General Missionary Con- 
vention of the Disciples of Christ, an organization of the 
women was formed; seventy-five women were present, 
from nine states. Mrs. Pearre helped to draft the con- 
stitution, "which was formed broad enough in its scope 
to include both home and foreign fields, both men and 


women as its missionaries, and all forms of mission work 
educational, medical, benevolent, industrial, and di- 
rectly evangelistic. It was unique in that all the business 
of the society was to be managed entirely by women, 
who were to collect and disburse the funds, and employ 
and direct their missionaries/* This was the first na- 
tional organization of women doing home mission work. 
Mrs. Pearre became the first Corresponding Secretary of 
the new Board, which now represents a membership of 
over 100,000. 

A Torch That The work of Professor F. C. But- 
Scatters Darkness, ton in Rowan County, Kentucky, 
began at a time when a notorious 
feud was terrorizing that section. He was sent there to 
open a school by General Withers, of Kentucky, who be- 
lieved that Christian education would make such feuds 
forever impossible. He supported Professor Button and 
his mother until his death, some years later. 

They opened a school in Morehead, the county seat, 
in 1887, when the feud was at its height. At first there 
was but one pupil, and the work was both difficult and 
dangerous. But the school continued, and has since had 
pupils from most of the Kentucky mountain counties. 
One year its students numbered more than 500. 

Professor Button was principal of this school for 
twenty years, helping to found two other mountain 
schools during this time. In 1911 he resigned to accefft 
the position of State Agent of Rural Schools. 

When Rowan County decided on a campaign to elim- 
inate illiteracy, almost all the fifty volunteer unpaid 


teachers who rendered service were graduates of More- 
head Normal School. One of them, Mrs. Stewart, 
originated the Moonlight School idea, which is now ac- 
cepted by the National Bureau of Education as a model 
plan for the whole country. 

The "Father of T. M. Westrup was born in Lon- 
Mexican don, England, in 1837, and came 

Hymnology." with his parents to Mexico in 1852. 

He became a proficient linguist, 
studying Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French, beside Span- 
ish, in which he was an authority. His Hebrew scholar- 
ship made him very helpful to translators of the Bible 
into Spanish. 

He worked for many years as a Baptist minister, but 
the last thirteen years, of his life were spent in work 
under the Christian Woman's Board of Missions. He 
and James Hickey, also a Baptist, laboring- together in 
Monterey, organized in 1864 the first Protestant church 
in: Mexico. It consisted of five members Mr. and Mrs. 
Hickey and three Mexican converts. 

Mr. Westrup worked with the American Bible Society 
as successor to Mr. Hickey at the latter's death. For 
some years he was withdrawn from active mission work, 
but organized a church while living in San Luis Potosi 
as agent of a sewing-machine company. Later the Bap- 
tist Board employed him again, and he organized nine 
churches in the state of Nuevo Leon. He united with the 
Christian Church in 1892, and passed away at the age of 
seventy-two. His hymns are sung in all Protestant 
churches in Mexico. 


A Teacher of Teizo Kawai was . born in Japan. 

His People. He became converted while a mem- 

ber of a Bible class, and decided 
to dedicate his life to Christian service. He was educated 
in Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. After his grad- 
uation he returned to Japan and served as pastor of the 
Akita Christian Church. The Christian Woman's Board 
of Missions called him to Los Angeles in 1909, to be- 
come a worker in the Japanese Christian Institute, con- 
ducted by this Board. "He is considered a capable, 
efficient leader, and a cultured Christian gentleman," 



NOTE. Many of the denominational Boards sent their 
data for the last two chapters in manuscript form, giving 
no sources for the information contained, which must 
have been gathered from a considerable range of leaf-, 
lets, magazine articles, etc. From these manuscripts were 
prepared the greatly condensed sketches of Chapters V 
and VI. Hence no bibliography of most of these sketches 
can be given. The author desires to acknowledge the 
painstaking assistance of all the Boards concerned, and 
to render hearty thanks to all who thus co-operated. 
Special acknowledgments are also due to the librarian 
of Mt. Holyoke College for the loan of much material on 
the life of Mary Lyon; to the librarian of Bucknell Uni- 
versity for unwearying assistance in locating information 
about Roger Williams ; and to the authorities of Hampton 
Institute for data concerning General Armstrong. 


Heroes of the Reformation Series. " (Putnam.) 

(Lives of Luther, Melanchthon, Erasmus, Zwingli, 
Calvin, Beza, Hiibmaier, Knox and Cranmer.) 

Life of Luther. Koestlin, Hay, Freytag, McGiffert, 

j; Smith, Bayne. 

Reformation in Germany. Vedder. 

History of the Reformation, Lindsay. 

History of the Christian Church, Schaff. 

Records of the English Bible. ' Pollard. , 

Annals of the English Bible. - Anderson. 

Romance of Protestantism. Alcock. 

American Church History Series. (Scribners.) 

(Histories of the following denominations: Congre- 
gational, Baptist, Methodist, Methodist South, Pres- 
byterian, Presbyterian South, United Presbyterian, 
Lutheran, Dutch Reformed, German Reformed, Mo- 
ravian, United Brethren, Evangelical Association, 
Disciples of Christ, Friends ; also volumes on "His- 
tory of American Christianity," by Bacon, and "Re- 
ligious Forces of the United States," by Carroll.) 

Life of John Eliot 

Brief History of the Lutheran Church in America. Neve. 

Life of H. M. Muhlenberg. Mann. 

Roger Williams, the Pioneer of Religious Liberty. 

Heroes and Heroines of the Scottish Covenanters* J. 
M. Dryerre. 

Days of Makemie. L. P. Bowen. 

Makers of Methodism. Withrow. 

History of Methodism. Hurst. 

Life of William McKendree. 


Among the Alaskans. Wright. 

Life of Sheldon Jackson. R. L. Stewart. 

Measure of a Man. Norman Duncan. 

Parish of the Pines. T, D. Whittles. 

The Mormons. Wishard. 

The Story of the Pilgrim. Wishard, 

The Redemption of the Red Man. Brain. 

The Conquerors. Atwood. 

Heroes of the Cross in America. Shelton. 

American Lutheran Biographies. 

Life and Letters of W. A. Passavant. Gerberding. 

My Church. Gerberding. 

Life of S. B. Barnitz. Parson. 

"In Christ's Stead." Joanna P. Moore. 

Our Heroes of Home Missions. United Brethren Board. 

The Heroine of Saddle Mountain, Woman's Baptist 

H. M. Society. 
Kiowa. Isabel Crawford. 
In Camp and Tepee. Page. 
Life of Mary Lyon. Gilchrist. 
Recollections of Mary Lyon. Fidelia Fiske. 
Leavening the Nation. Clark. 
Historical Writings of Fiske and Parkman. 
The Deaconess and Her Work. Sister Julie Mergner. 
Francis Asbury Centenary Volume. H. K, Carroll 
Woman in the Reformation, Emma L. Parry.