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THE 



PAL^ONTOGMPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 




LONDON; 



MDCCCLXVI — MDCCCLXXII. 



THE SUPPLEMENT 

TO THE 

BRITISH FOSSIL COliALS OF THE TERTIARY, CRETACEOUS, 
OOl.lTIC, AND LIASSTC FORMATIONS. 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

This Supplement will be found in the Volumes of the Palseontographical Society issued for the 
years 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, and 1872. 

Cancel the title-pages and table of contents given in the Volumes for the years 1866, 1867, 1868, 
1869, and 1872, and substitute the accompanying title-pages and tables of contents, and place the sheets 
and plates in the order indicated below. The plates of the Tertiary Corals to follow their pages; the 
plates of the Cretaceous Corals to follow their pages ; the plates of the Oolitic Corals to follow their 
pages, and the plates of the Liassic Corals to follow their pages. 



ORDER OF BINDING AND DATES OF PUBLICATION. 



FAGSS 


PLATES 


ISSUED IN TOL. 
POE YEAH 


PUBLISHED 


General Title-page 


— 


1890 


April, 1891. 


PART I, Tertiary 
Title-page, Table of Contents 




1865 


December, 1866. 


1 — iii ; 1 — 66 

PAET II, Cretaceous 

Title-page, Table of Contents 

1—26 

27—16 


I— X 

I-IX 
X— XV 


1890 
1868 
1869 


April, 1891. 
February, 1869. 
January, 1870. 


PART III, Oolitic 

Title page, Tahle of Contents 

1—24 


I— VII 


1890 
1872 


April, 1891. 
October, 1872. 


PART IV, Liassic 

Title-page, Table of Contents 

i, ii, 1—43 

45—73 


I-XI 
XII-XVII 


1890 
1866 

1867 


April, 1891. 
June, 1867. 
June, 1868. 


Iiide.\ to Tertiary Species 

Title-page, 3 — 6 

Inde.x to Secondary Species 

Title-page, 3 — 12 





1872 
1872 


October, 1872. 
October, 1872. 



Hi 

//VYT- A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS., 



SECOND SERIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B.Lond., F.R.S., F G S. 

PEOFESSOE or GEOLOGT TO, AND HONOKAKY FELLOW OF, KINO's COLLEGE, LONDON. 



Being a Supplement to the 
Monograph of the British Fossil Corals' hy MM. Milne-Edwards and Jolks Hatmk. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOE THE P AL^O NTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1866—1872. 



PRINTED BY 
ADLAKD AND SON, BAETHOT.OMKW CLOSE. 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



SECOND SERIES. 



P, MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B. LOND., F.G.S., 



SECBETAEY TO THE GEOLOGICAL SOOIETT. 



Being a Supplement to the 
' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Hat me. 



PART I. 

IntEODTJCTTON ; COEALS FEOM THE TeETIAET FORMATIONS. 



Pages i— iii ; 1—66 ; Plates I— X. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL^SIONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
1866. 



I'lll.NlliU BV J, li. AllUHl), UAKlllol.OMKW LLUSh. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface --■•....... i 

I. General Anatomy of Recent Corals (Sclerodermic Zoantharia) . . . .1 

II. Anatomy of the Scleeenchymatous Stbucturbs . . . . . .5 

III. Anatomy of the Soft Tissues . . . . . . . .19 

IV. Reproduction and Multiplication . . . . . . .26 

V. Physiology ■■-■-...•.. 28 

"VI. Classification. A Diagnostic Scheme of Classification for the Secondary and 

Tertiary British Species . . . . .' . . .32 

VII. Corals prom the Tertiary Formations; Description of Species fAospthe Brocken- 

HURST Beds . . . . . . . . . .40 

VIII. Description op Species prom the Eocene of the Isle of Wight and from the London 

Clay . ■. . ■•••.... 54 

IX. List op British Tertiary Species . . . . . . . .64 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



SECOND SEBIE8. 



PREFACE. 



Twelve years have elapsed since MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime completed 
their great ' Monograph of the British Eossil Corals' for the Palseontographical Society. 

During this period Geology and Palaeontology have been very carefully studied, 
with the aid of all the accessories of modern scientific research. Many strata which had 
been considered almost unfossiliferous have been discovered to contain both known and 
unknown species, and those beds which yielded the specimens so admirably described and 
figured by the great French Zoophytologists have been successfully searched for others. 

The interest in the study of the Madreporaeia has been greatly increased since the 
publication of the " Introduction" in the ' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' for the 
list and the description of the genera which it contained facilitated the diagnosis of species. 
In 1857 the authors of that "Introduction" commenced a work which has remained the 
best and, in fact, the only text-book for the student of recent and fossil Corals. The 
'Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires ' was completed in 1860, by Milne-Edwards, after the 
death of his able and amiable colleague, M. J. Haime. The anatomy, physiology, and 
classification of the Zoantharia are admirably given in this work, and the classification is, 
with slight modifications, adopted by all Zoophytologists. 

The distinguished authors modified many of their genera and introduced others, con- 
sequently the " Introduction" in the First Part of the ' British Fossil Corals' is incomplete 
and behind the day. 

Many authors have added to the general knowledge of the comparative anatomy of 
recent Corals, and a few have given elaborate descriptions of fossil species ^ since the publi- 

' Reuss, in his ' Beitrage zur Charakteristik der Kreideschichten in den Ostalpen,' &c. De Fromentel, 
' Polypiers Fossiles.' Laube, ' Corals of St. Cassian, in Die Fauna der Scliichten von St. Cassian,' 1 Abtheil. 
Micbelotti et Ducbassaing, 'Mem. Acad. Turin,' 2nd series, vol. xix, p. 279, 1861. Seguenza, ' Disquisi- 
zioni Palenn. intorno di Corall. Foss. di Messina.' There are also memoirs on the West Indian, Australian, 
Sindian, Maltese, and Javanese fossil Corals, by myself. 

a 



ii BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

cation of the Monograph already alhided to, whilst the majority of Palaeontologists have 
graduivlly learned to appreciate the value of the evidence afforded by Corals in many of 
the most important geological inquiries. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime had not the advantages of the inspection of 
many collections made by private individuals and provincial Geological Societies, from 
the lower members of the Lias and from the Mountain-limestone ; they had not an oppor- 
tunity of studying the Coral-fauna of Brockenhurst ; and time as well as some unintentional 
difficulties prevented their examining many of the most interesting forms from some of 
oxu- Museums. 

It has been felt, moreover, that although the " Introduction " in the First Part of the 
' Monograph on the British Fossil Corals' was a great advance on all that had been done 
before, still the absence of those anatomical details which were so elaborately given in the 
' Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires' rendered the Monograph of no very great practical 
value. 

No one could comprehend the minute details which distinguish species, by the study 
of the " Introduction " alone, but a very superficial examination of the ' Histoire Naturelle 
des Coralliaires ' renders the anatomy of Corals, and the principles of their classification, 
easy of comprehension. 

It is of very little use having detailed descriptions of species unless the anatomy of 
the whole class to which they belong is understood, and the publications of a Society like 
this should be instructive as well as recording. 

A Supplement, or a Second Series, to the Monograph by MM. Milne-Edwards and 
Jules Haime is thought to be required. It might introduce the anatomy and physiology 
of recent Corals, the new genera, with descriptions of new species, and it might embody 
a general scheme of classification. 

Following the plan adopted for the Brachiopoda in Mr. Davidson's Monograph, the 
relation between the hard and soft parts of the Corals will be considered, and their anatomy 
will be explained as correctly and as briefly as is possible. The earlier pages of this Second 
Series will refer to the fossil Corals of the Tertiary and Secondary rocks, and the classification 
of the species found in them will be given at once ; that of the Palaeozoic species will not 
be attempted until after the completion of the description of the Secondaiy Coral-fauna. 

There will be some irregularity in the succession of the pai'ts of the Second Series, for 
it is necessary to describe those large collections which can be had at once, and which 
might be scattered after a short period. Thus, the entirely new Coral-fauna of Brocken- 
hurst, and many new species from Bracklesham, Barton, and Sheppey, will appear first of 
all ; their description will be followed by that of the hitherto neglected Liassic Coral- 
fauna ; and the Cretaceous species will be then considered, or the Oolitic, if necessary. 

At the end of the description of the species from every formation, the forms already 
described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, or others, will be placed in a 
catalogue, and their last synonyms will be given, the name of the first describer of the 



PREFACE. iii 

species being attached ; alterations in the generic names and specific determinations by 
the authors of the Monograph, subsequently to its completion, will be noticed, and also 
whatever fresh information may be requisite about previously described species. 

It is hoped that after the description of all the new species has been finished there 
will be an opportunity for noticing the geographical distribution of Corals, and the pecu- 
liarities of the palseontological evidence offered by them. 

Note. — In writing this Supplement, or, as I have termed it, " Second Series," I am most anxious to 
acknowledge that the foundation of all ray knowledge upon the anatomy, physiology, and classification of 
the Zoantharia was derived from the writings of MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. It will be found 
that the greater part of the following Introduction is taken, if not in exact words, still in ideas, from those 
writings ; and if any palaeontologist or naturalist should think that I have neglected other works, it may, 
perhaps, be an excuse, that it is right, in following such distinguished men as those who wrote the "First 
Series," to carry on their train of thought, and to choose the results of their labours in preference to 
those of others in compiling the " Second Series." 



A MOIS^OGRAPH 

OF THE 

BEITISH FOSSIL COKALS. 

(SECOND SERIES.) 



INTRODUCTION. 

I. — General Anatomy of Recent Corals.^ 
Madreporaria, or Sclerodermic Zoantharia. 

When a simple or solitary Coral is living in pure and well aerated sea-water its 
superficial soft tissues are noticed to form a disc, marked -with a central depression and 
more or less covered by tentacides, as well as a covering to the general external surface." 

The disc is superior, and the other soft tissues are inferior to it.' 

The tentacles * surround the central mouth at varying distances ; and the mouth is 
capable of being elevated above the level of the disc by the protrusion of a conical 
process.^ Certain ridges or radiating lines mark the sides of the mouth (the /2}?s), and 
extend outwards amongst the tentacules to the margin of the disc. 

The margin of the disc gives origin to those soft tissues which are visible on the 
outside of the coral. 

When any unusual stimulus is applied to the tentacules they contract, become smaller, 
and the conical mouth usually projects more than before.'' If the irritating influence 
persists, the mouth is retracted, the disc sinks, the tentacules disappear, and finally the hard 
parts of the calice come into view, covered simply by the flaccid and transparent soft 
parts. At the same time much water escapes through openings at the end of the 
tentacules, and the tissues covering the outside appear to lose their colour. 

1 The Introduction is illustrated by Plates I, 11, III, IV, as well as by reference to some of the figures 
in those plates ■which refer more especially to species. 

2 Plate II, figs. 4, 9, 11, 12, 13, IC. ^ pjate II, figs. 12, 13, 16. * Plate II, figs. 4, 9, 11, 
5 Plate II, fig. 10. 6 Plate II, fig. 10. 

1 



2 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

The relation of the soft to the hard parts can then be well seen, and it will be at 
once comprehended that there is a correspondence between the disc and the star-like 
upper opening of the hard parts, which is called the calice} 

On examining a dried coral, or a Mell-preserved fossil specimen, certain plates will be 
seen projecting inwards from the edge of the calice like the spokes of a wheel ; these are 
the sejjta,^ and each is usually composed of two lamina, but their union is so exact that 
it often requires microscopic sections for its determination. 

On the edge of the calice, and running down the outside of the coral, are some 
projections, not so long as the septa, but corresponding generally with them, which are 
called cosfce? 

The rim or edge of the calice, although it appears to be made up to a great extent by 
the bases of the scjjta and costce, still presents a structure which unites their bases 
laterally ; or, in other words, if the septa and costse were all planed off, there would remain 
a more or less cup-shaped structure, called the theca or wall.'' 

The wall determines the shape of the coral ; and it may be even horizontal, or more 
or less turbinate, cup-shaped, &c. The lowest part of the wall is called the base of the 
coral, and it may be broad or pedunculated. 

The outside of the base, and more or less of the outside of the coral, are occasionally 
covered by a calcareous investment, which results from a soft tissue, called by Dana 
"foot-secretion.'' 

The inside of the base forms the floor of a cavity, whose superior termination is the 
calice. This cavity is divided off by the septa, and its axis is usually filled up by a 
structure called the coluinella^' which, in transverse sections of corals, occupies the 
relative position of the axle to the spokes and tire of a wheel. The upper end of the 
columella is free, and usually forms centrally the bottom of the calice. 

In some corals " there are thin processes, which are more or less oblique or even 
horizontal in their direction ; they are situated between the sejjta, and they separate the 
cavity into compartments, the upper or calicular lieing the newest. In other forms these 
dissepiments {clissejnmenfa) are nearly vertical ; and in one great series they simply connect 
the septa laterally, without dividing or restricting the cavity. These latter processes are 
called synaplicalcB? Horizontal dissepiments are termed tabulae. 

There are corresponding processes between the costa; in many corals, and they are 
often so fully developed as to project beyond and over them. The processes which are 
inside the wall and between the septa compose the endotheca^ whilst those without the 
wall and in relation to the costje are termed exotheca? 

The " foot-secretion " is an i'j)itheca}° 

1 Plate II, fig. 11. - Plate I, figs. 1, 3, 14, 18. '' Plate I, figs. 2, 7, 11. 

♦ Platel, figs. 3,4, 14, 13, 17, 18. ■• Plate I, figs. 5, (J, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18. « Plate I, figs. 15, 13, 18. 

■ 7 Plate III, figs. 1, 2. « Plate I, figs. 13, 15, 18. » Plate I, figs. 11, 18. 
"' Plate I, fiz. IG. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

On looking into a calice and down the internal cavity the vacant spots between the 
septa become apparent; these are the interseptal locidi ; they are restricted in depth 
when dissepiments exist, and extend from the bottom to the cahce when there is no 
endotheca.'^ 

The septa vary in size, and may or may not reach from the wall to the columella, and 
all the space left between them, restricted or not by dissepiments or tabulcs^ (horizontal 
dissepiments), forms in living corals part of the visceral cavity. When there is no 
columella there is a central space, into which the interseptal loculi open ; the visceral 
cavity is then all the larger, but the depth of its inferior boundary always depends 
upon the existence of the endotheca. The septa are frequently raised in an 
arched form ^ above the level of the top of the loall (theca) ; and a line carried 
across their tops over the calice would bound a cavity whose base is the top of the 
columella and the internal ends of the septa. This cavity is the calicular fossa; 
the interseptal loculi open into it, and it is very variable in size and depth. When 
the columella is very prominent the calicular fossa is all the more restricted in depth ; 
but wJien the Avail is high, the columella absent, and the septa not exsert, the fossa is 
deeper. 

It will now be evident that the hard parts of a coral form the boundaries to a 
system of cavities (the interseptal loculi), and to the calicular fossa, into which they 
open. 

The disc, in living corals, elevated very slightly above the tips of the septa, closes 
the calicular fossa above, and opens into it over the columella, so that when the mouth 
is widely open the markings on the free surface of this structure can be seen faintly 
covered by the tissue which lines all the hard parts of the coral above the newest 
dissepiment or the base, as the case may be. 

The septa, dissepiments, and the columella, being covered with a soft tissue, which 
is continuous with the margin of the disc, it is evident that there is a cavity in the soft 
parts of the coral which corresponds M'ith that already mentioned as being within the 
calcareous portion. 

Thus, the inierseptal loculi, calicular fossa, and the space between the tops 
of the septa and the disc, all lined by continuous soft tissue, form the whole visceral 
cavity. 

The mouth, seen on the upper surface of the disc, opens into a short stomach, which 
in its turn opens into the visceral cavity by means of a pyloric orifice situated above the 
level of the top of the columella (or junction of the inner ends of the septa when there is 
no columella). 

The stomach is an inversion of the membranes of the disc, is tubular, ridged longi- 

1 Plate I, figs. 5, 14. ^ pjate III, figs. 9, 11, IC. ^ Plate I, figs. 4, 14, 15. 



4 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

tiulinally, and very short. It is bounded above by the Hps with their ridges,' below by 
the pyloric constriction, and its outside is free in the visceral cavity. 

The ridges correspond with mesenteric folds, which are attached to the under surface 
of the disc and to the outer or visceral surface of the stomach. Where the mesenteric folds 
are attached to the lower margin of the stomach (the pyloric constriction), some tubular 
prolongations" arise which float in the visceral cavity. There is an intimate relation 
between the mesenteric folds, the septa, the interseptal loculi, and the tentacules. These 
last open inferiorly into the visceral cavity between the mesenteric folds ; and, being hollow 
and also perforated at their free extremity, they connect the visceral cavity with the 
outside. The septa are developed between the mesenteric folds, and correspond with the 
suhtentacidar spaces. 

There are, in some species, processes which are internal and accessory to certain septa ; 
they arise from the base internally, and pass upwards in the form of thin plates, and are 
attached to the columella. These are the pali.^ 

The costse and the exotheca are covered by, and, like all the other hard parts, are 
developed by, soft tissues. 

The coloration of the soft tissues is very varied and Ijeautifid ; they are, of course, 
not preserved in the fossil state, but they occasionally leave behind them the chemical 
proofs of their former existence. 

The soft tissues are — 

1. The disc and its accessories. 

2. Membranes of the visceral cavity. 

3. Stomach. 

4. External membranes. 

The disc supports the tentacules and forms the lips. The external membrane coverino- 
the co.staj arises from its external margin. It is marked by radiating ridges. 

The membranes of the visceral cavity line the interseptal loculi, and cover the septa, 
wall, pali, and columella; they form also the mesenteiic folds and the tubular processes. 

The stomach, formed by membranes continuous above with those of the disc and below 
with those of the visceral cavity, is bounded above by the mouth with its lips, which are 
capable of being extended above the level of the disc. 

The foot-secretion or epitheca has its especial membrane. 

The membranes or tissues of these cavities of the disc and tentacules consist of three 
layers. 

The Sclerenchjma, skeleton, or calcareous polypary — the hard parts, as they may be more 
simply called — consist of the ii:all or Iheca, septa, costce, columella, pmli, endotheca, exotheca, 
and epitheca. 

1 Plate II, figs. 11, 13. 2 Plate II, fig. 2. ^ Plate I, figs. 8, 9, 10, 1-1, 18. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

The base, sides, calice, calicular edge or margin, are self-explaiiative terms. The 
terms calicular fossa, and interseptal loculi, have been noticed. 

These are the usual structures observed, and they are modified in every way to 
produce the various shapes of corals. 

The word corallum is used to individual corals when solitary in their growth ; but 
when aggregated to form a compound mass each individual of the mass is called a 
corallite, the aggregation retaining the name of corallum. 

The corallites of a compound corallum may be united together by the fusion of their 
walls, no costae existing, or they may be united by a great development of the costae and 
the exothecal dissepiments. Sometimes the exotheca is so developed as to form a very 
distinct tissue between the corallites ; it is then more or less cellular, and is termed 
cmnencliyma anA peritheca. 

Some simple and many compound corals extend by a process of lateral calicular 
growth, so that there is not a circular or ovoid calice, but a long, and often gyrate assem- 
blage of septa ; such a calice is called " serial." The shape of compound corals is deter- 
mined, to a great extent, by their method of gemmation} and by the existence of 
Jissiparotis " and serial^ calices. 



II. — Anatomy of the Sclerenchymatous Structures. 

Calice, Wall, Septa, Pali, Columella, Costce, Endotheca, Exotheca, Epitheca, Feritheca, 

Ccenenchyma. 

Calice. — The upper and open extremity of a coralluui is called its calice.^ Its outline 
is formed by the upper or marginal part of the luall, and is very various in its form. The 
superior boundary is determined by the greater or less exsertness of the septa, and its 
depth by the greater or less prominence of the structures forming the floor of the 
fossa. 

The periphery of the calice is called its margin, and its floor is formed by the septa, 
the interloculi, the top of the columella, and, when that structure does not exist, by the 
axial space. 

Every variety of form may be noticed in the outlines of calices ; they may be circular, 
circular and slightly compressed, oval, elliptical, elliptical and slightly angular at the end 
of the long axis, ovoid and compressed from side to side, ovoid at one end, linear or leaf- 

1 Plate III, fig. 15 ; Plate IV, figs. 10, 11, 17, 18. 

2 Plate IV, figs. 12, 13. 3 Plate IV, figs. 14, 15. 

* Plate I, figs. 1, 11, 6 ; Plate II, figs. 11, 13, 14 ; Plate III, figs. 15, 17, 18, 19, 20 ; Plate IV. figs. 
8, 11, 12. 



15K1TIS1I I'OSSIL CORALS. 

shaped, wavy in their outhiic, nipped in centrally or in the figure of eight, more or less 
square, pentagonal, hexagonal, polygonal, polygonal and elongated, linear or serial, ser- 
pentine, &c. 

The margin is not always on the same plane throughout. It may be ridged, so as to 
form an ornamental series of projecting angles ; the plane of the minor axis may be much 
higher than that of the major, and vice versa. In corals which are simple and horizontal 
the wall is covered completely by the calico, and the septa arc necessarily very exsert. 

The calice may be prominent, and even placed at the end of a cone, or may be 
depressed below the surface, as in many compound corals. Calices may be distant or 
connected together by their walls, or they may form series by a succession of calices 
running one into the other in a linear or radiating direction. 

The opening of the calice may be very wide and everted or contracted and inverted ; 
the calice may be deep, shallow, wdde, narrow, and widely open ; its margin may be 
broad, flat, or narrow, and sharp ; moreover, it may be below or above the bend of the 
top of the septa. Deformed calices are produced by the pressure incident to the growth 
of crowded coralhtes in a compomid corallum, and a great number of calices are more or 
less altered in outline by the phenomena of fissiparous and calicinal reproduction. 

The calices vary in size on different parts of the same corallum. 

In some genera one half of the calicular margin may be lip-shaped or more elevated 
than the other, and in a few the distinction between the calicular fossa aiid the general 
surface is by no means easy. 

Wall. — The wall gives support to the costa: externally and to the septa internally, and 
it can be seen in the most complicated corals between the costse at the bottom of the 
intercostal spaces and between the septa, where it bounds externally the septal interloculi. 
It determines the shape of the corallum and the amount of its solidity ; moreover, it has 
intimate relations with the columella and endotheca, as well as with the exotheca. 

The hardness and thickness of some walls^ is as remarkable as the porosity, reticulate 
character, and fragility of others, and the so-called perforate" condition of the last is always 
noticed in an important section of the Madrcporaria. Every possible variety of thickness 
and solidity may be noticed, as well as of fragility, thinness, and porosity ; moreover, 
these opposite conditions are brought together by the existence of perforations in compara- 
tively solid walls. 

Usually the wall is a very prominent feature in the corallum ;' but it may become so 
united to cxothecal structures or to the cccnenchyma as to be indistinguishable from them; 
and in some large simple corals, where the cpitheca is strongly developed, the wall is 
either rudimentary or has become absorbed.* In these species the coral is kept together 
by the enormous development of the dissepiments or tabulfc. 

1 Plate I, figs. 3, 1-1. = Plate III, figs. 3, 4 ; Plate IV, fig. l.s. a pi„te I, figs. 3, 14. 

* Plate IV, fig. 6. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

Some simple forms have walls which are moderately stout superiorly and excessively 
thick and hard inferiorly, so as to encroach on the visceral cavity; this filling up of the 
lower part of the corallites is observed in some compound corals. It is very evident that 
the thickness and the hardness of the wall are determined by the mitrition of the coral ; 
but no defect in this will produce the perforate condition. 

Two series of wall-shapes are noticed, — -one more or less horizontal and the other 
ranging from a shallow cup to a long cylinder in shape ; the square, polygonal, and com- 
pressed outhnes of some walls are either the result of pressure or are characteristic of the 
species. 

The horizontal wall produces shallow, disc-shaped corals ; the septa arise from its 
upper and the costse from its lower surface. In some species the under surface is concave, 
so that the cup-shape is seen reversed. 

The second and commonest form may be slightly horizontal at first, and with growth 
the edges turn up and enclose the calinular cavity ; then any height, width, and contortion 
may result; the turbinate, subturbinjite, conical, conico-cylindrical, tubular, and other 
forms, may thus arise. 

The wall forms the most important part in some corals, but only a secondary in others ; 
it may be uncovered externally by costse or by epitheca, or it may be in such close 
contact with neighbouring walls, in compound corals, as to become fused.' The upper 
termination or margin of the wall is very visible when the septa are not exsert ; and in 
compound corals, when the walls have become united, this margin may be sharp or broad, 
and variously marked. Usually the walls of neighbouring coraUites (not fused together) 
are separated by a dense tissue, which is ornamented superiorly, and often traversed by 
costse. 

The wall occasionally gives out processes, and is often marked by growth-rings, con- 
strictions, and ridges. It is ]-arely symmetrical; for most simple corals are curved, 
twisted, or more or less compressed ; and this is equally true as regards the compound. 
The base of the wall is often attached to foreign substances, and may be broad, even 
concave from rupture, or very delicate and pedunculate. The epitheca, where*it exists, 
is generally more strongly developed over the base ; the inner base is the floor of the 
visceral cavity. 

Septa. — The septa have been already noticed in a general manner ; and it has been 
mentioned that they are developed between the mesenteric folds, and that they are 
localized in the intermesenteric or subtentacular spaces. 

The number of tentacules has a direct ratio to that of the septa and pali. 

The septa, in their simplest condition, are spiniform agglomerations of nodules, pro- 
jecting slightly into the calice from the wall,' and there is every imaginable variety 

1 Plate III, figs. 3—16 ; Plate IV, fig. \\. ^ pjaje III, figs. 5, 6. 



8 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

of structure between these and the highl}' developed septa of some Tertiary corals, where 
the laminae composing the septa are distinct, very long, broad, and imperforate, very 
much arched and exsert, beautifully dentate on their free upper margin, and magnificently 
ornamented with granules in regular series.' 

The number of septa in a calice varies in many species, and there is great diversity 
in their arrangement. The number and arrangement of the septa differ according to the 
age and development of the individual, to a certain extent. Many species have six septa, 
never more and never less ; others have a second series, and a new septum is introduced 
between each of the old. Thus twelve septa and no more are found in a species of 
Alveopora. (Plate III, fig. 5.) 

The six septa which appear first of all, are termed the primary, and they constitute a 
cycle or order ; the next six, which are developed between the primar\', are termed the 
secondary, and constitute a second cycle. The Alveopora has, then, two cycles of septa, or 
six primary and six secondary. In very many species other septa are developed, which 
are always foimd regularly distributed, one occupying each interseptal loculus. That is 
to say, in every intei'septal loculus between the original primary and the after-coming 
secondary septum a third arises from the wall. There are, therefore, twelve of these 
tertiary septa, and the twelve form the third cycle or order. The three cycles, first, 
second, and thu'd, combined, form twenty-four septa." That is to say, between two primary 
septa there is one secondary and two tertiary septa. These septa between the two primary 
constitute a system ; and when the primary septa are six in number there are six systems. 
If there be twelve septa, there are six systems of two cycles ; and if there be twenty-four, 
there are three cycles in six systems. 

There are interlocular spaces between the first septa and the tertiary, and between 
the tertiary and the secondary ; any more septa must be developed one by one in these 
spaces. The additional septa are, in fact, developed in the space which intervenes between 
the first and the third septa, and simultaneously others come in between the second and 
the third septa, so that in each system four more septa arise. Those between the primary 
and tertial-y constitute the/o/«V/< order of the fourth cycle, and those between the secon- 
dary and the tertiary the fffh order of the fourth cycle. The septa arise simultaneously 
in all the systems in this manner.^ 

The number of the septa in the last instance is forty-eight, or five orders of four 
cycles in six systems. Each system contains the following orders : 

1st. 4th. 3rd. 5th. 2nd. 5th. 3rd. 4tli— 1st. 

Any other septa are introduced between the primary and the fourth septa, then 
1 Plate I, fiir. 15. - Plate IX, figs. 5, C. ^ Plate V, figs. 3, 4, 9. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

between the secondary and the fifth; then others between the third and fourth 
and third and fifth. This regular cychcal arrangement multiphes the septa rapidly 
and regularly, and determines the symmetry of the calice and of the tentacular 
disc. When the fifth cycle is complete, there are ninety-six septa, or sixteen in each 
system.^ 

When six cycles are developed, no less than 192 septa result; and seven cycles, when 
perfect, produce 384. 

It is rare for these higher cycles to be complete and the septa are aborted in many of 
the interlocular spaces. 

The primary septa are usually larger, more exsert, and extend further inwards than 
the others ; but, as the cycles become complicated, the secondary and even the tertiary septa 
often resemble the primary. Nevertheless, in the majority of instances, it is easy to 
determine the orders of the septa. The development of six systems of septa is seen in 
the majority of corals, but there are some very curious and important exceptions to its 
universality. Some species have four, five, eight or ten systems, and a corresponding 
number of large or primary septa. Moreover, monstrosities often occur, and produce an 
extra system, with a normal cyclical arrangement. 

The pentameral, octomeral, and decemeraP arrangements are accounted for either 
by the abortion or duplication of a system or by their being natural and normal 
types. 

The palseozoic corals belong generally to species in which there are four primary 
septa, or in which vacant spaces produced by aborted large septa are counted with the 
other large septa. But even this generalization is not free from great exceptions, and 
there are many genera where no trace of the quaternary septal arrangement is to be 
made out. 

It must be acknowledged that septa do not always exist, and in the genus Axopora 
there is a proof of this.'' 

The septa thus elaborated as regards their succession and number present many 
peculiarities in their direction, size, length, breadth, height, exsertness, ornamentation, and 
in the structure of their lamellae and margins. They usually pass directly inwards from 
the wall towards the columella or the centre of the calicular fossa and middle of the 
visceral cavity ; occasionally they vary in this course ; and it is by no means uncommon 
f(jr the smaller septa to turn towards and even to join their larger neighbours. In calices 
where there is fissiparous growth, or the development termed serial, the septa pass inwards 
almost at right angles to the wall. 

1 Plate V, fig. 16. 

2 De Fromentel, ' Introduct. Polyp. Foss.,' may be consulted concerning these unusual types ; and see 
my "Memoirs on Maltese and Australian Tertiary Corals," 'Ann. Nat. Hist.,' Sept., 1865. 

3 Plate VII, figs. 11, 12, 13, 14. 



10 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

There is every possible variety in the size of the septa ; but, as has already been 
mentioned, the primary are the largest, and the members of the higher orders the 
smallest. 

The same observation holds good, as a general rule, with regard to the height. The 
exsertness of septa varies greatly; some are arched and extend far higher than the top of 
the wall, and others do not extend upwards above the wall at all. The longer septa in 
some species meet and are twisted centrally, whilst those of the higher orders only just 
project within the calice. 

The breadth of the septa depends very much on the habit and size of the corallum ; 
the bi-laminate arrangement is very distinct in some species, whilst in others it cannot be 
seen, and the septa are thin, delicate, and very fragile. The genus Dasniia has a tri- 
plated arrangement of the septa. 

The thickness of the septa varies in corals of the same genus, and it becomes of some 
importance in a diagnostic sense. 

Usually all the septa are thickest at their origin from the wall, they then thin off 
towards their inner edge, but very often there is an increase of their bulk near the 
columella and midway. 

The ornamentation consists of ridges, papillae, spines, and granules, which are variously 
arranged in radiating, parallel, or irregular series. 

The structure of the laminae differs in many species. The laminae may be dense and 
imperforate, or more or less perforate generally or only in certain parts. In some corals the 
septa are mere spiny processes, in others they are spongy in appearance, and in the other 
extreme they are very dense and solid. 

The upper or superior margin of the septa is free, and the inner margin or end is 
towards the columella or long axis of the corallum. The upper margin may be smooth 
or incised, lobed or entire, granular or largely dentate, serrate and spined ; it may 
be arched, or may be directed downwards and inwards, and it may be enlarged at any 
part. 

The inner end or margin may be free, may join a columella by processes of dense or 
of lax hard tissue,— may send off processes to form a columella, with others from other 
septa, — may be attached to pali, — and it is often very ragged, twisted, clubbed, and 
perforate. 

The inner ends of small septa may become attached to the sides of the larger. 

Finally, the sides of (he septa are marked more or less by the dissrpimcnts^ and tahuloe^ 
and they give origin to these structures as well as to the synapticidcB? 

Note. — The description of the septa of the Rugosa is omitted until the introduction to the palseozoic 
corals is commenced. For an exhaustive essay on the septa, see Milne-Edwards and J. Haime, ' Hist. Nat. des 
Corall.,' vol. i, p. 40. M. E. de Fromentel's criticisms on it, and his own able descriptions, maybe found in 
his ' Introduction a I'etude des Polypiers Fossiles," p. 18. 

1 Plate I, figs. 12, 13, 15 ; Plate IV, fig. 4. ^ pi^te III, fig. 16 ; Plate IV. fig. 2. s pj^te III, fig. 2. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

Pali. — The palP are the small processes which exist between certain septa and the 
columella. They generally arise from the base of the visceral cavity, or close to it, 
and pass upwards, united by one edge to the columella, and by the other to the 
inner end or margin of the septa. When there is no columella they are adherent to 
the septa, present a free edge to the cavity in the axis of the corallum, and arise with the 
septa. 

The upper or free margin of the pali is usually lobed, and is thicker than the end of 
the septum to which it corresponds ; it may project higher than the end of the septum, and 
may form a very marked feature in the calicular fossa. 

The sides are more or less broad, and are usually ornamented differently to the septa. 

The inner and outer edges are united to the septa and columella, either by processes 
or by a perfect fusion. 

The number and size of the pali vary in different species. The pali may exist before 
(or rather internally to) one or several orders of septa, and they are then said to form one 
or more crowns. 

The development of the pali has often, but not invariably, a very singular relation to 
that of certain septa. Thus, when there is but one row or crown of pali ^ they are placed 
at the inner edge of the penultimate septa ; and when there are two rows, or crowns, they 
may be seen at the inner edge of the penultimate and antepenultimate cycles of septa. In 
some corals with numerous septa pali are found in contact with all the septa, except those 
which have been developed the last — the last cycle. In others the pali are found in 
relation to all the cycles. One genus has the pali attached to all the septa except those 
of the cycle which precedes the last, and a genus well marked in the West Indian fossil 
coral-fauna has no pali before the principal septa, but they exist before the penultimate 
and antepenultimate cycles. 

There is a curious relation between the perfection of the septal development and the 
presence of pali. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime have proved that, if in one half of a 
system the cycles of septa are not complete, there is a corresponding absence of pali ; thus, 
a coral with four cycles may have pali before the secondary and tertiary septa ; but if one 
or both of the orders of the fourth cycle are wanting in one half of a system there would 
be no palulus before the tertiary septum of that half-system. 

When there is a columella the appearance of the pali is generally very distinct, at the 
same time they may be confounded with its papillae ; but when the calice has been worn 
away, the attachment of the pali to the columella is often so distinct that they may be mis- 
taken for the ends of large septa. 

The large spines on the inner end of some septa, or some enlargement of the laminee 
at that spot, may be mistaken for pali, and the terms paliform tooth and swelling are very 

1 Plate I, figs. 8, 9, 10, 14, 18. 

2 For an exception, see pali in Porites panicea, Lons. 



12 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

commonly met with. In the genus Acervularia the distinguishing of so-called paliform 
lobes or enlargements and teeth is sufficiently difficult. 

The number of genera without pali is very considerable. 

Columella. — This structure is in the axis of the coral, and may be noticed in the 
centre of the calice or of transverse sections of corallites, whilst in longitudinal 
sections it is to be seen passing from the base upwards, having the pali or septa ou 
either side.' 

The columella is not invariably present, but in some species it forms the most important 
part of the calicular apparatus.^ The most highly developed columellse spring from the 
centre of the base of the young corallum, increase in height with the growth of the septa, 
and always appear as prominent organs in the calice. These columellse grow uide- 
pendently of the septa, and are not fonned by their internal and free terminations. For this 
reason they are called "essential" or "jorojona;" they generally assume the styliform, 
the fasciculate, or the lamellar character, and may or may not have pali attached to 
them.' 

The second kind of columella is termed " septal," and is produced by the inner ends 
of the septa dividing into longitudinal " poutrelles." They have a fascicular arrangement. 
These "septal" columellse are rare, and may, for all practical purposes, be considered 
with the next kind. 

The third kind of columella is formed by the septa dividing into numerous processes 
before they approach closely ; the processes unite centrally, and throw out lateral growths, 
so that a more or less dense, spongy, or cellular structure results. This columella is 
termed parietal, and may be very highly developed or may be rudimentary. In the 
latter instance the columella may only be recognised by a slight bifurcation of the inner 
ends of the septa, with a sparely developed cross tissue. 

False columellcB are formed by the soldering together of the inner ends of two or more 
septa, by the twisting of the inner ends of several septa, and by the presence of endotheca 
close to the septal inner margin. 

Rudimentary columella are often observed, which cannot be classified with any of the 
above ; they may be formed by a lateral junction of the inner ends of the larger septa, by 
processes connecting them, and by the inner ends becoming clubbed in outline, and more 
or less irregular in their direction. 

There are many modifications of these varieties of columellae, but their division into 
essential, septal, parietal, and false, is of great practical value, and they can always be dis- 
tinguished with care. The calicular terminations of the columellse vary in size, projection, 
outhne, and arrangement. 

1 Plate I, figs. 5, 6, 10, 18. 2 Plate VII, fig. 12. 

2 Plate I, figa. 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 ; Plate IX, figs. 3, 6, 10. 



INTRODUCTION. 1 3 

Amongst essential coluraellse the styliform may end in a cylindrical and pointed 
process, or in a more or less compressed and blunt, which may project even higher than 
the septa, or in a bulbous termination marked by ridges corresponding with large septa ; 
or the organ may be angular in transverse outline, and project but slightly above the 
bottom of the calicular fossa. The styliform columellse may be studied in the genera 
Turlinolia, Synhelia, Stylophora, Axosmilia, Stylosmilia, Stylina, Iloloccenia, Styloccenia, 
Astroccenia, Stephmioccenia, Holocystes, Cyatlioxonia, Syringophyllum, and FUillips- 
astrcea. They are nearly solid, spring from the base, and may or may not be attached by 
processes to the septa. Very visible in well-preserved specimens, these columellas are 
readily destroyed by rolling, and cannot then be distinguished except by sections. In 
many species, especially in the Astrocosnies, the columella appears to be very large in 
certain fossil conditions ; but this appearance arises from a mechanical adhesion of calca- 
reous particles to the outside of the columella and between the inner ends of the septa. 
There are examples of styliform columellse (Plate IX, figs. 3, 6, 10). 

The lamellar form of essential columella (Plate I, fig. 6 ; Plate IV, fig. 14) may occur 
in circular, elliptical, or in elongated calices. It is seen as a sharp edge, generally 
at the bottom of the calicular fossa, and may be in contact both with septa and pali. Its 
sides are occasionally ornamented with granules. In the genus Madrepora, and in some 
species of Solenasircsa this lamellar columella does not really exist, but is simulated either 
by the junction of opposite septa or by the irregular development of neighbouring septal 
ends. The true lamellar columella is not formed by septa, but springs from the base of the 
corallum. 

The fascicular columella is a very complicated organ. In its simplest form it is a 
bundle of rods coalesced laterally, adherent below, and rounded at the free calicular 
surface. 

This structure is well seen in the genus Awopora (Plate VII, fig. 14), and in an Austra- 
lian fossil, the Conosniilia anomald (nobis) ^ Here are two riband-shaped processes arising 
from the base, and projecting in the calicula fossa; each is simply twisted five or six 
times, so that the riband's edge takes on a spiral form ; this is the simplest form of the 
common fascicular columella, and in Plate I, fig. 13, several processes, really riband- 
shaped, but much twisted, are seen in lateral contact, the whole forming the columella. 
The number of the processes varies in different species, and it is tolerably constant in 
certain forms ; the processes, were they untwisted, would form a number of flattened and 
lamellar columellse in lateral apposition. The septa and pali do not contribute t(j their 
formation. The calicular surface of the fascicular columellee may be papillary, or even 
twisted ; and it most frequently resembles the arrangement of the central portions of the 
flowers of certain Compositse-; hence the term "chicorace," which is most significant and 
explanatory of the appearance of the calicular surface of the columella in the genus 
Caryopliyllia. 

1 ' Ami. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' ser. 3, vol. xvi, pi. viii, fig. Ae. 



14 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

The septal columellae may be mistaken for tlie fascicular and essential ; but a longitu- 
dinal section will show that the inner edges of the septa forms tbe organ, and that it does 
not arise from the base. 

The parietal columellae are very common, and their structure is illustrated (Plate IV, 
fig. 13; Plate VII, fig. 9). 

The calicular surface of the columella may be prominent or depressed, papillary or 
spongy ; and the organ may be very dense or consist of very lax tissue. 

The columellae of the following genera may be studied with regard to this variety : — 
Parasmilia, Eusmilia, Dendrosmilia, LitliophyUia, Circophyllia, Jiliabdopliyllia, Mceandrina, 
Manicina, Diploria, Heliastrcea, Solenastreea, &c. 

As a general rule, when pali exist, they are in close contact with the columella, and 
as they spring from the base they often look like lateral processes of essential columellae. 
It will be observed, in the descriptions of living corals, that the columella fills up much of 
the visceral cavity, and is developed by the inner layer of the soft tissues. Playing a very 
important part in the economy, and being in relation both with the septa and pali, the 
columellae are structures whose variations in form are of generic import. 

CostcB. — The costae may be considered in a general sense to be the continuations of 
the septa beyond the wall.^ 

In some Tarhitiolim the continuity between the costae and the exsert septa is very 
evident, and both of the structures are much higher than the upper margin of the wall.' 
But it is very probable that this exsert condition of the septa and costae is to be referred 
to the corallum having attained its full development as regards height ; the further up- 
ward growth of the wall was arrested, and only the combined costo-septal apparatus 
grew on. For when the costae of the same specimens are broken oflT low down, it is 
tolerably evident that the wall intervened between their bases and those of the corre- 
sponding septa. 

It would appear that the costae and septa are not developed by the same parts 
of the soft tissues except when they are exsert and above the wall; and the want 
of correspondence between the septa and costae about to be mentioned is in consequence 
of this. 

It is probably quite correct to give the costae an origin independent of the septa, and 
to assert that the}/ are frequently separated by the thickness of the wall from the septal 
laminae. 

The costae are developed by the inner layer of the tissue which covers the wall 
externally, and the outer surface of the wall and the exothecal structures are also formed 
by it. The costae follow, as a rule, the cyclical development of the septa, and are called 
primary, secondary, &c. 

1 Plate I, figs. 2, 6, 7, 11, 15, 18. - Plate I, tigs. 6, 14, 15, 18. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

All the varieties of length, thickness, porosity, solidity, and ornamentation, observed 
on the septa are represented in the costal structures. As a rule, the costse are shorter 
than the septa in transverse section, but there are many exceptions to it, and it is very 
common to find a rudimentary septum of a high cycle with a corresponding well-developed 
costa.^ The projection of the costse from the wall and the size of the space between 
them (intercostal space) vary greatly ; in some species the costse are close and form 
simple prominent ridges, whilst in others they are wide apart, project greatly, and may be 
covered with great spines, dentations, or serrations. The greater projection of certain 
costse, the ornamentation of others, and their correspondence with the cyclical arrange- 
ment of the septa, are readily studied in different species. 

The costae do not always project at right angles from the wall, and those that are 
very long often curve and twist. Whatever may be their form or length, they have sides 
and a free surface. The sides of neighbouring costse are frequently joined by the 
dissepiments of the exotheca, or they may be simply marked by dissepiments which do 
not stretch across the intercostal space.^ The sides are often spined or granulated, and 
are even perforated in certain species. The variety in the ornamentation of the different 
cycles of costse in the same individual is very interesting, and its study is of great use 
as a secondary method of specific diagnosis. 

In many compound corals the costae of one corallite run into and join those of the 
neighbouring corallites,^ whilst in others, where the walls are fused,* the costse abort 
altogether. There are many species where the costse are simply rows of granules ; in 
others the rows of granules^ become lines of slight elevation, and finally well-developed 
costse. The reverse occurs, and well-developed costse on the outside of a calice often 
become granular or even become aborted on the wall.^ 

The exothecal dissepiments extend beyond the costse in some instances, and, as a rule, 
the costse are then feebly developed.''' The following are some of the most important 
variations in the structure of costse. They may be absent or rudimentary, and they may 
arise on the corallum at various heights from the base. They may be recognised under 
the following aspects : — Small, large, finely granulated, indistinct, generally indistinct 
inferiorly, prominent, prominent near the calice only, prominent inferiorly, sub-equal, 
equal, alternately large and small. As faint ridges, as strise, moniliform, very thin, per- 
forate, wedge-shaped, flexuous, broad, flat ; formed by a series of globules, spines, and 
granules ; wide apart, close, rounded, cristseform, tubercular, largely spined, dentate, alse- 
form, crenulated, striated, verrucose; folded in zigzag, echinulate, long, dichotomous, 
inclined, &c. 

The costse do not invariably correspond to septa, and are not constantly continuous 

1 Plate IX, fig. 11. 2 Plate IX, fig. 7. 

8 See ' Descriptions of the " Thamnastreea," in 'Brit. Foss. Corals,' MM. Milne-Edwards and J. 
Haime. * Plate IV, fig. 11. 

5 Plate V, fig. 6. 6 Plate I, fig. 4. 7 Plate V, fig. 2. 



16 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

with them. It will be noticed that in some species of Cyalhophyllidce, and in many 
Tertiary^ simple corals, that the external edges of the septa correspond with the intervals 
between the costae, and not with those organs themselves. This is not an accidental 
variation in growth, but is constant in several species. 

In some species there are small costae which do not correspond to any septa ; the 
large costae are continuous with septa ; but these so-called rudimentary costae simply 
project externally, and correspond internally with an interseptal space.^ 

In some corals the epitheca, whilst covering the costae and hiding them from view, 
appears to have produced their partial absorption, for above the limit of the epithecal 
structures the costae may be seen to be prominent and to be greatly ornamented.^ It 
may be inferred that in young specimens whose epitheca is not fully developed the costae 
would command more attention in the specific diagnosis than is proper, and this has 
taken place in more than one instance. The costae may, however, retain all their orna- 
mentation when covered by a very dense and membranifonn epitheca, and this peculiarity 
is generally constant. Occasionally the long spines on the costae of some Lithophi/llace<s 
project through the epitheca, but in the majority of instances they are included. It is 
evident that the costae were well developed before they were covered by the epitheca. 

The more prominent the costae, the more they are exposed to the destructive influences 
of rolling and of wear and tear ; it happens, therefore, that the large cristaeform costae, the 
long delicate spines on their edges, and the finely granulated dentations, are rarely dis- 
tinguishable in many fossil species, and their former existence can only be suggested in 
consequence of scars and raggedness on the surface, or by the preservation of an ornament 
here and there. 

In examining the costal structures the specimen should be placed in several 
positions and in different lights, for small structural peculiarities are often hidden in the 
shadows. 

Endotheca. — The structure which, stretching from one septum to another, closes more 
or less the interseptal loculi,''' — the horizontal processes which, extending from side to 
side in a corallite, shut out all beneath from communication with above,^ and certain 
exaggerated septal papillae, which meet in the interlocular spaces and form a system of 
joistwork,* constitute the Endothecal Sderenchyma. 

The first variety, termed by Milne-Edwards and Haime " Traverses '' or Endothecal 
dissepiments^ characterises many genera ; whilst the second, termed by these authors 
" Planchers " or Tahulm^ serves to distinguish a great series of Madrejjoraria. The third 
variety is seen in the family Func/idcB, which it characterises, and the name Synapticula 
is given to it. 

1 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' loc. cit. ^ i^ Turbinolia Forbesi, Dune. ' Plate I, fig. 16. 

* Plate I, figs. 16, 18 ; Plate IV, figs. 2, 4, 6, 8. 5 pja^g m^ flg §_ g^ iq, 1 1. 

6 Plate HI, figs. !, 2. 7 Plate V, fig. 3 ; Plate I, figs. 15, 18. ^ Plate I, figs. 3, 5, 14. 



INTRODUCTION. , 17 

The endothecal dissepiments, greatly developed in some genera,^ are either rudimentary 
or quite absent in others ;^ they are nearly horizontalj inclined and nearly vertical in 
different species, and they may be concave or convex upwards ; moreover, they may either 
be very numerous in each interlocular space or but one or two only may exist. 

As a rule, there is no exact correspondence in all the interloculi as regards the dis- 
tance of the last dissepiment from the upper septal margin. In some species the distance 
is considerable, whilst in others the dissepiments fiU in the interloculi close up to the 
bottom of the calicular base. 

The dissepiment is attached to the septum on either side of the interlocular space 
and to the inside of the wall. Its inner edge is either free or joins another dissepi- 
ment, which, not reaching the wall, is carried inward in its growing course, and so with 
other dissepiments in succession. It results that, according to the convexity and size of 
the dissepiments, they produce more or less cellular or vesicular divisions^ in the interloculi. 

The dissepiments may be very coarse or the reverse, and in some species they are 
found of several sizes. The distance between the dissepiments varies, and the cellular 
condition of the outer part of the interloculi is often very marked. The straight dissepi- 
ments do not produce the vesicular appearance. Dissepiments often form a vesicular 
tissue when tabulae exist. There are some important genera without dissepiments, 
and whose species contain individuals whose internal base forms the lower margin of the 
visceral and interlocular cavities. 

In some species, a fiUing-up of the interior of the corallum by a process of thickening 
of the lower part of the wall and base supplies the place of the endotheca.* 

The second variety oT endotheca, the tabular, is recognised by the horizontal direction 
of the processes/ and by each process being on the same level Avith regard to the inter- 
septal loculi. In fact, the tabula give the idea of passing through septa and everything 
else in their horizontal course, for they appear to shut out all the space beneath them most 
perfectly. Their extent varies with the diameter of the corallite, and is influenced by the 
occasional presence of vesicular endotheca^ near the wall; but, as a rule, they are attached 
to the inside of the wall and to the septa : they may be distant or very close, very delicate 
or very strong, and they are often marked either by depressions or elevations on their 
upper surfaces. Some tabulae are not quite horizontal, but curve upwards in the long 
axis of the corallite, and others are inclined between horizontal series. 

In Axopora Fisheri (nobis) the great fasciculate columella clearly passes through the 
tabulae, and in the genus Columnaria the large tabulae may be broken off the septa, in 
longitudinal sections, and it may be readily observed that the septa are continuous and 
that the tabulae are not their foundation. 

1 Plate V, fig. 3 ; Plate I, figs. 15, 18. ^ pia,e I, figs. 3, 5, 14. 

^ Plate I, fig. 15. * Noticed in many West Indian Tertiary corals. 

5 Plate III, figs. 9, 10, 11. « Plate IV, fig. 2; Plate III, fig. 16. 

3 



18 . jmiTISII FOSSIL CORALS. 

The synapiicidcB arc not considered to be endotliecal structv;res by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Haime, but their development in some species renders their present clas- 
sification necessary. Li their feeblest development they are papillae (on opposite septal 
lamina?), which have coalesced, and thus form a bar across the interlocular space, whilst in 
their greatest they form long ridges between the septa, and they cannot be distinguished 
from very vertical dissepiments except that they do not tend to close a cavity. 

Exotheca. — There are structures resembling endothecal dissepiments between the 
costae of some species •} in others these sclerenehymatous laminse — the exotheca — extend 
beyond the costae and form a more or less cellular envelope to the corallite, by which it is 
joined to its fellows to form a compound corallum.' 

The simplest exothecal dissepiments are stretched horizontally across the intercostal 
spaces, they generally reach the free edge of the larger costse, and now and then hide the 
smaller. They may be inclined or not. 

The highest dissepiment, or that nearest the calice, bounds the lowest reflection of the 
soft tissues, just as the highest endothecal dissepiments bound and form the base of the 
soft tissues of the visceral cavity. 

In some species there are dissepiments between the costae very high up, and in others 
much lower down. The distance between the dissepiments, their arched or plane course, 
their vesicular character, and the presence of vertical laminae dividing the space betweer 
dissepiments into cells, are all seen to vary greatly in different species. 

The dissepiments are very feebly developed in most simple corals, and they may be 
noticed as simple fold-like elevations on the sides of costae and as forming dimple-shaped 
depressions on the wall at the bottom of the intercostal spaces in some of the Turbinolice . 

In Solenastrcea they may be distinguished as forming cells on the wall and between 
the costae and as a tissue which extends around each corallite. 

The upper surface of the dissepiments is often marked with elevations resembling 
blunt papilla?. 

The genus Galaxea has this exothecal cell-growth in excess ; it is termed in such an 
instance Peritheca} 

Cosnencliyma^ — Some corallites in many compound corals are separated by a very 
dense sclerenchyma, which is variously ornamented on its free or intercalicular surface. 
In some species the walls of the corallites are evidently independent of this structure, but 
in others this is not the case. It would appear that this tissue, M'hich is very cellular in 
its simplest development and hard and sohd in its greatest, is really an exothecal %ix\xcX\]LX&, 
and that it is formed by the lowest and reflected layer of the external soft tissues. The 
costal markings, the granules, spines, monticules, ridges, and depressions, on the surface of 
the cccncnchyma difl'er greatly in many species. 

1 Plate I, figs. 11,18. = Plate V, figs. 2— .5. 

■ Plate I, fig. 19. * Plate IV, figs. 7, 12, 17, 18. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

Epitheca} — This structure is occasionally seen both in simple and in compound 
corals ; it is the " foot-secretion " of Dana," and may either be closely applied to the wall 
of the corallite or may simply cover the costal, leaving them more or less perfect in their 
ornamentation. In some simple corals it covers the wall so closely as to resemble a 
coating of varnish, in others its texture is rough and marked with concentric or encircling 
ridges, and in a few instances it is marked by chevron-shaped lines. The epitheca may 
be very thin or very dense, and it may simply cover the base or only reach a short 
distance upwards from it ; or it may cover all the external surface as far as the calicular 
margin. The dense epitheca of some MontlivalticB is accompanied by a great diminution 
in the strength of the wall ; this is seen also in many Hugose corals. The epitheca of 
compound corals is rarely ornamented, but is laminate and often readily destroyed. Its 
preservation in fossils is comparatively rare, and it should therefore not be made of very 
great classificatory value. 

The epitheca developes processes in certain species and only covers the base of others ; 
it is porcellanous in some, as in Flabelluvi, and pellicular in others, as in Balanopliyllia. 
It is membranous, striated, verrucose, marked by growth-rings, shining, rough and partial, 
in diiferent species. 

It is a structure evidently formed after the development of the costse, and results fi'om 
a tissue which is a continuation of that which determines the agglutination of the bases 
and peduncles of certain corals to their supporting earth, stone or rock, or foreign 
organism. 



III. — Anatomy of the Soft Tissues. 

The membranous surface which covers the calice, supports the tentacules, and is 
perforated by the mouth, is called the Tentaculiferous Disc? 

The opening of the mouth is central, and is either circular or elliptical in outline ; it 
is at the top of a truncated cone^ whose base is continuous Avith the disc and whose 
height varies according to circumstances. The margin of the opening — the lip — is usually 
marked by radiating ridges, is very prehensile, and can be moved in different directions. 
The cone, whose upper extremity is the mouth, varies in its power of protrusion in 
different species ; this is especially great when the tentacules are small and are only 
arranged at the margin of the disc ; and, as a rule, when the tentacular development is 
considerable the labial protrusion is slight. In some species, such as Heliastrcea cavernosa 
and Litlioplyllia Qiibensis, there is a considerable space between the mouth and the 
tentacules, and these last are feebly developed ; consequently the mouth can be so pro- 
truded as to form a hollow between its cone and the base of the tentacules. 

1 Plate I, fig. 10. "- Plate lY, fig. C. 

3 Plate 11, figs. 4, 9, 11, 10, 13, 14, IG, 17. * Plate II, figs. 10, 11. 



20 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

The ridges which mark the lips are continued on to this vacant space, and radiate 
towards the bases of the tentacules. 

In some species the moveable mouth and the hollow between it and the tentacules are 
of more use in obtaining food than the tentacules themselves.^ 

The contrary is very evident in Caryo^jhyllia davus" (the CaryophylUa borealis of British 
zoophytologists), and in Cladocora casjntosa? In these species the tentacules are greatly 
developed and extend close up to the base of the cone which is surmounted by the mouth 
and lips ; there is but little of the disc unoccupied, and the power of protrusion on the 
part of the cone is comparatively slight. Yet it must be observed that when the tentacules 
are withdrawn, the mouth is capable of being projected further than Avhen they are in full 
extension. 

The lips, the external surface of the cone, and the disc, are covered with cilia. At the 
marginal extremity of the disc in some species, and scattered over more or less of the 
whole disc and extending even very close to the labial orifice, in others, are the tentacules.* 
These organs vary in length and thickness in different species, but each has a base con- 
tinuous with the tissues of the disc and opening into the upper part of the visceral cavity. 
Generally terminated by a bulbous swelUng, the tentacules are perforated throughout by a 
delicate canal, and consist of tissues which render them very mobile, contractile, extensile, 
and more or less prehensile. The external margin of the disc corresponds with the 
calicular margin ; it is separated from it by a very small space, is continuous with the 
tissues covering the outside of the coral, and in some species has a small fold which 
covers in the tentacules. 

The opening of the mouth, when fully expanded, admits of the columellary surface 
being seen at the bottom of a shallow cavity ; and the sides of this cavity, marked by the 
continuation of the ridges noticed on the lips and disc, are often protruded through 
the lips.^ The cavity is the stomach, and it is separated from the visceral cavity, which 
is below or at about the level of a prominent columella, by a faint constriction — the 
pylorus. The stomach is very short and very extensile. 

The sides of the cavity are continuous, by means of the lips, with the outside of 
the disc ; they are formed by the same tissues, but the tegumentary layer of the 
disc is altered and becomes the superficial layer of the mucous membrane of the 
stomach. 

The ridges already noticed on the hps, disc, and stomach, correspond on the under 
side of the disc and outside of the stomach with mesenteric folds. 

The pylorus opens into the visceral cavity, whose upper boundary is the lower surface 
of the tentaculiferous disc, and it therefore is clear that the stomachal membranes con- 

1 Plate II, fig. 10. 2 Plate II, figs. 7—11. ^ Plate II, fig. 4. 

* Plate II, figs. 4, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20. 
' The ridges are seen in Plate II, figs. 11, 13, 14. 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

tinned over the pylorus are reflected, upwards again, outside the stomach to cover the lower 
surface of the disc. Here, moreover, they form the mesenteric folds, upper attach- 

ment is to the under surface of the disc, and whose inner is in part to the ridges of the 
lips and the corresponding structures on the outside of the stomach. There are openings 
between these mesenteric folds corresponding with the bases and canals of the tentacules. 
The pylorus exists more in name than in reality, for the passage into the visceral 
cavity is large and easily passed. Around the lower margin of the pylorus, and 
attached where the ridges already alluded to end, are the free edges of the mesenteric 
folds and a tubular structure?- There is a distinct numerical relation between the 
development of the ridges, mesenteric foldsj tentacules, septa, and pali. 

If the disc Avere removed from the subjacent corallum by cutting the membrane 
which is continued from below upwards to its margin, and the pylorus were pulled 
upwards, the septa, pali, columella, wall, and dissepiments, would be exposed to view, 
covered by soft tissue ; in other words, all the boundaries of the visceral cavity except the 
upper would be seen. 

The upper boundary — the under surface of the excised disc — presents a series of 
radiating soft folds, separated ^^j' intermesenteric spaces, which are perforated by foramina, 
continuous with the tentacular canals. The pali and septa are developed in these 
spaces, and hence it is that the tentacules over these hard parts appear to grasp them by 
their bases. 

The visceral cavity is bounded below and externally by the tissues covering the 
inside base, the wall,. and the dissepiments which close in the calicular fossa, as the case 
may be. 

The cavity is divided by the septa and mesenteric folds into a series of radiating 
fissures, which may be recognised in the dead specimen by means of the interseptal loculi. 
The absence of the columella and of endothecal dissepiments infers a large visceral 
cavity, and it may be readily understood that a coral developing endothecal dissepiments 
rapidly will have a short visceral cavity, for the newest dissepiment bounds the calicular 
fossa inferiorly. 

The sea-water and its minute organisms would pass into the mouth, through the 
stomach and pylorus, and would enter between the mesenteric folds into one of the peri- 
visceral fissures of the great visceral cavity, and the water passes out again through 
the tentacular canals. 

The under surface of the disc is continuous with the soft tissues covering the septa 
and wall (internally) by their direct continuation upwards. The contiguity of the tissues 
covering the costse and outer part of the ioall with the outer rim of the disc has been 
noticed. 

The disc thus constituted is, when the polype is well nourished and lively, slightly 

1 Plate II, fig. 2. 



23 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

elevated above the calicular margin ; its tentacules are stretched out and overlap the hard 
parts, whilst the conical mouth is barely visible. Under other circumstances the disc is 
contracted, the mouth open, the tentacules more or less retracted, and the outer part of all 
the septa is visi1)le through the translucent tissues. 

In certain " serial " corals, such as Diploria cerchriformis} the edge of the disc gives 
exit io prehensile cirrlii, and these organs are to be seen projecting from the rim of the 
disc in Caryopliyllia clavits." They are very thread-like, and have prehensile powers. 
The mici'oscopic anatomy of these cirrhi has not been studied. 

The tubular structures, " cordons pelofonnes" Avhich are attached to the juncture of 
the mesenteric folds with the pylorus,^ float about in the visceral cavity, and especially 
near the inner margin of the smaller septa ; their lower end is unattached and often rises 
on to the top of the columella. These tubular structures are very much twisted, 
hollow, and contractile, and are covered with cilia. They often contain ova. The relation 
between the mesenteric folds and these tubular structiu-es in the physiology of repro- 
duction requires further examination. 

The hard parts of the corallum are included in and nourished by soft tissues.' This 
is invariably the case in every species up to a certain period of growth. In some it is 
true during all the stages of their development, whilst in many species only the upper 
part of the corallum is in contact with the soft tissues after a certain height has been 
attained. 

Thus, in the Caryophjllia clavus the outside of the corallum is covered by soft tissues 
from its narrow base to its calicular margin and the inside also. The wall, the costse, 
the septa, the pali, and the columella are covered by a membrane which sends processes 
into their dense structm-e. The nutrition, growth, and in some instances the absorption of 
the hard tissues, are carried on by means of the membrane and those processes, and so 
long as the hard and soft parts are in contact, the first cannot be said to be independent 
of the latter. 

In corals where the groAvth is accompanied by the formation of dissepiments in the 
interloculi, the whole of the interior of the corallum below the dissepiments nearest the 
calice, is not in contact with the soft parts ; it has ceased to be nourished by them, and it 
is to all intents and purposes dead. Moreover, the external membrane does not descend 
for any considerable distance below the calicular margin, and the lower parts of the costse 
and wall are as dead as the lower parts of the interior of the corallum. This is the case 
in most of the large and luxuriantly growing compound corals, and only a few lines on 
their surface may be living, the rest is dead. Each portion of the endofheoa, as it springs 
from the septa or wall, is formed by the fine membrane and is included in it ; as growth 
proceeds the curved, straight, horizontal, or vertical dissepiment is lined on each surface 

1 Plate II, fig. \7. ■ Plate II, fig. 1 1. ^ Plate II, fig. 2. 

^ Plate I, fig. 17, diagram. 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

by tlie soft tissue, but as the dissepiment closes off the space beneath it the inferior 
layer of membrane is absorbed, and finally is no longer to be noticed. This is the case 
with the exotliecal structures also ; the exothecal layers, the coenenchymal cells, and the 
perithecal cells, are formed by the membranes, and as the cells become closed the included 
membrane is absorbed. All the granular and spiniform ornamentation of the scleren- 
chyma is also formed in the soft tissues, and the more or less dense epitheca results from 
the development of a tissue from the base of the corallum. 

This last is called the foot-secretion, and covers the results of the growth of the 
membrane which develops the wall and costse. 

The deposit of earthy and inorganic matter in living corals is not, then, a simple con- 
cretionary process, but is essentially a vital one ; it follows certain laws, and its extent 
and amount depend on the nutrition of the individual. When the influence of the soft 
tissue is no longer felt the hard parts become harder and denser and are subject to 
various changes in their mineral condition. 

In those corals whose calices are not separate, but are continuous and running into 
series, the tentacules, as a rule, are small, numerous, and are often partly hidden by a ridge 
of membrane.^ There are several moutlis to the elongated and tortuous calices. 

The microscopic structure of the soft tissues of the Sclerodermic Zoantharia has been 
ably studied by many observers, and the following extract from the description of the 
soft parts^ of Cladocora ccespitosa by the late M. Jules Haime contains information 
sufficiently exact for the present purpose. 

" The surface of the corallum is more or less convex. When extended the polypes 
touch each other with the extremity of their tentacules, and when they are seen from 
above there is no interval between them. The tentaculiferous disc is never more than 
two or three millimetres above the calicular margin of the polyperites, and the lateral and 
inferior continuation of the disc only descends one or two millimetres below the margin. 
When a polyperite is cut longitudinally it will be readily observed that the soft tissues 
are not prolonged much deeper internally in the visceral chamber, so that in the adult 
coral, which is usually several centimetres long, only about five or six millimetres of its 
upper part are covered by the soft tissues. This limited portion is bounded inferiorly by 
the uppermost of the series of horizontal dissepiments. All the rest of the corallum 
appears to be dead, and is ordinarily covered with Serpulse and NulHpores. 

" When the tentacules are fidly extended, the diameter of the circle formed by 
their extremities is about one and a half times as large as that of the calice. The 
margin of the calice is usually visible on account of the transparency of the soft parts 
covering it. 

" The tentaculiferous disc is horizontal, but towards the middle of it there is a slight 

1 Plate II, figs. 14, 16, 17- 

2 ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, page 589 et seq. See description of Plate II. 



24 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

concave track, and the mouth projects in the form of a more or less oblong truncated 
cone. There are from sixteen to eighteen internal folds, faintly shown, however, on the 
rim around the mouth. 

" The tentacules are of the same number as the septa whose summits they envelope, and 
there are always from thirty-two to thirty-six. They are evidently equal in size and in 
length. Their length is nearly equal to that of the diameter of the corallite. They 
are elongated, swelling a little above their insertion, and then becoming very slender as far 
as their free extremity, which is terminated by a small knob-shaped enlargement. 

" The polypes can contract to various extents. Several very characteristic movements 
may be noticed, however. A slight agitation of the surrounding water or the contact with 
small particles, suflices to cause a shortening of some or all of the tentacules, although the 
disc does not alter its shape or position. 

" When the exciting cause acts more decidedly and continuously, the shortening of the 
tentacules increases, the disc retreats, and the protractile mouth elongates in advance of the 
calice. This state of things is very usual in disturbed or decomposing water. If the 
animal itself is shaken or is touched, it retracts its disc into the calicular fossa, and 
nothing is to be seen of the soft parts but some small elevations corresponding with 
the tentacules. Finally, a violent shock or a prolonged irritation produces so complete a 
retractation that the tentacules disappear completely, and the white colour of the septa is 
seen. The calice looks as if it were dried, and there is only a light brown tissue in the 
interseptal loculi. In this last case the water which usually distends the tissues has been 
gradually expelled, and they are so reduced in volume that they are readily Avithdrawn 
into the interseptal and columellar spaces. 

" The disc and the tentacules are of a transparent brown colour, and when the sun 
shines, a brilliant green tint may be seen within the tentacules. This coloration evidently 
depends in some instances upon the light. But it is necessary to remark, that the 
primary and secondary tentacules and those of the third cycle which are flanked by 
quaternary are those which show this green tint in their insides. The peculiarities of these 
tentacules coincide with the presence of pali, which are situated beneath and withiu them. 

" When the mouth opens, as it often does when the polype is semi-retracted, the 
papillae of the columella are visible. The stomach is very short, and is almost reduced to 
a rim, which is confounded with the lips. 

" The tentacules are not smooth, but are covered with a multitude of small wart-shaped 
prominences, of a transparent white colour ; they are equal in size, and measure a tenth 
of a millimetre in width. The terminal bulb presents a narrow central canal, which 
communicates both with the tentacular cavity and with the external medium. The 
three layers of tissue which constitute the tentacules have the same general characters 
as in the Adinice, but the fom- layers of the tegumentary covering are not to be 
detected. 

"1. The first envelope is quite transparent, and is composed principally of nematocysts of 



INTRODUCTION. 25 

three dimensions, those of raecliiun size being the commonest ; also, of very simple cells, 
either irregular in shape, or oblong or pyriform ; and of small rounded and transparent 
globules, which form the innermost layer. 

" There are no cells in the external tegument which produce the colour of the 
polype. The white warts which project ou the surface are made up of a mass of large, 
transparent and elongated vesicles. 

" The nematocysts, which form the most important part of the integument of the 
tentacules, are slender and cylindrical, one of their extremities being smaller than the other .^ 
They contain a thread regularly rolled up as a spiral, and which near the large end termi- 
nates in a straight and central portion. The thread when unrolled is about two tenths of 
a millimetre in length. The nematocysts are perpendicvilar to the tentacular surface, 
and their large end is the most external ; the internal thread makes its exit by this 
extremity. 

" The terminal bulb" of the tentacules is almost entirely composed of these filiferous 
capsules ; there are two other kinds in it unlike those just described, some larger and 
stouter, and others much narrower and more slender. The first are elliptical, slightly 
attenuated at one of their ends, and they contain a thread rolled into a slack spiral. This 
thread shoots out from the small end of the cell. The remaining nematocysts do not 
appear to have a proper cell-wall ; they are cylindrical, slightly smaller at both ends, and 
very slender; they are formed by a filament very closely rolled into a dense spiral, which 
unrolls itself like the wires used in some elastic clothing.^ 

" The -structure of the skin is the same over the whole surface of the polype. The 
nematocysts of the second size are the most common. A certain number of those of the 
largest size are found in the stomacho-buccal rim. The cilia are very distinct at this spot, 
and around the disc also, although they are very delicate ; they are rare and feeble on , 
other parts of the polype ; they are very indistinct on the tentacules, and are wanting on 
the bulb. 

" 2. The middle or muscular layer is formed by transverse and vertical fibres which 
are excessively slender and sparely distributed. Very thin oblique muscular fibres may 
be seen at the bases of the tentacules. 

" 3. The internal membrane is formed by a layer of transparent cells tolerably adherent 
to each other, and by a layer of colour-bearing globules which are spherical or slightly 
oval in shape. > 

" It is these cells which give the colour to the polype ; they are filled with irregular- 
shaped grains, of a bright brown colour ; they themselves are secreted in certain trans- 
parent vesicles, and present the greatest resemblance both in shape, colour, and structure 
to the globules which float free in the tentacular cavities of young sea-anemones. It is , 
probable they have a corresponding function in their early age. Near the top of the : 

1 Plate II, fig. 1. 2 Plate II, fig. 3. » Plate II, fig. 6. 

4 



20 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

tentaculcs these colour-bearing cells arc arranged in small irregular groups, but elsewhere 
they become more numerous. 

" The internal membrane lines the interseptal loculi, Mhere its presence is rendered 
evident by its colour ; it is stopped inferiorly by the last sclerenchymatous dissepiments. 
The mesenteric folds formed by this membrane present a few colour-cells. The folds^ give 
attachment to the simple " boyaux pelotonnes " which float in the large interseptal loculi 
along the smaller septa, and which often show themselves on the columella when the 
mouth is half open and the polype is slightly contracted. Their walls are almost entirely 
composed of nematocysts of the largest size, and their surface is furnished with large 
and strong cilia ; they are frequently affected by ])eristaltic movements, and they arc 
attached to the tentaculiferous disc by strong muscular fibres." 



IV. — Reproduction and Multiplication. 
Ovular Rejn'odtiction ; Gemmation; Fissi2)arous and Serial Growth; Reproduction. 

The mesenteric folds and the twisted tubular j}i^ocesses, w'hose ends are free in the 
visceral cavity, appear to be the organs vphich develop the male and female elements. 

It would appear that all corals are not bisexual, but the majority are so. Spermatozoa 
w-ere asserted to exist in the tubular processes, but their description tallied with that of the 
thread-processes of nematocysts. Milne-Edwards dispelled this illusion, and the true male 
elements have been discovered. The presence of ova in the mesenteric folds and in the 
tubular processes has been noticed and in the latter position by Michelotti andDuchassaing 
in large compound corals.^ The ova are matured in the folds and processes, and then 
escape into the visceral cavity, and are expelled through the stomach and mouth. They 
have some power of active locomotion, and select favorable localities for their resting-place. 
The young polypes have faint traces of the future sclerenchyma, and grow rapidly when 
once fixed, provided they are well nourished. 

As growth proceeds, the structure of the wall determines the shape of the corallum ; 
and its simple or compound character is regulated by the particidar methods of the mid- 
tiplicatioH of the individual. Some corals are always simple or solitary, others for a 
considerable period, and some for a very short time. The kind of yemmation or buddiny 
determines the massive, dendroid, encrusting, &c., natm'e of corals. 

It appears to be very rare for buds to fall from the j)arent corallum and to form inde- 
pendent individuals. 

By gemmation is meant the development of corallites from the tissues of a parent 
corallum. A very small patch of the membrane in immediate contact with the scleren- 
chyma of the parent appears to pucker, and septa are rapidly formed within the enlarge- 
ment which occurs ; tentaculcs have already appeared, and the small bud proceeds as if it 
1 Plate II, fig. 2. = Op. cit. 3 Qp. cit. 



INTRODUCTION. 27 

were an independent organism as regards its growth, but its membranes are continuous 
with those of the parent. In many corals the base of the bud and the visceral cavity of 
the parent are at first contimious ; but in others the membrane reflected over the septa, 
the margin of the wall, the external surface of the wall or of the base, produces the 
gemmation. 

The gemmation may take place, then, on any part of a coral. It may occur within 
the calice, on the calicular margin, on any part of the wall between the calice and the 
base, and it may happen at the base. The direction of the line of growth of the bud has 
much to do with the future shape of the corallum, and the power of growth of the parent 
coraliite after the development of the bud also. 

The parent coraliite may not grow after the production of a bud from its external M'all ; 
the bad becomes a perfect coraliite, and gives origin to a bud in its turn. This repetition 
may go on, and a corallum results, formed by an ascending series of simple corallites ; or 
the parent coraliite may elongate after giving off a succession of whorls of buds which do 
not in their turn always develop others. The space between the Avhorls and the individual 
buds becomes filled up with exotheca and coenenchyma. A dendroid corallum results, as 
in the genera Madrepore^ and Stylophora. 

Again, straight cylindrical corallites give off one or two buds, and all continue to grow, 
passing upwards, the calices keeping on one level, and the corallites being parallel. This 
determines the massive corals of many Astrmdce. 

A corallum with geometrical calices whose walls are soldered together buds within 
the calices f the parent calice and the bud grow, and the coral both expands laterally and 
increases in height. This produces a very common form of compound coral. 

Certain corals never raise themselves far from the foreign substance they rest upon ; 
the base gives off a bud, which, stolon-like, gives forth others, and all turn upwards 
slightly. 

From these considerations it is evident that there is a necessary division of the 
gemmation into ccdicular, basilar, and lateral. 

Calicular gemmation takes place from the interseptal loculi near the columellary space, 
and either midway between it and the wall, or just within the calicular margin. One or 
more buds may grow at once, and the budding may or may not be fatal to the parent. A 
pseudo-calicular gemmation is occasionally seen in simple corals which are only oviparous. 
It is produced by one of the young polypes settling on the parent accidentally, and 
growing to its detriment.^ 

The true calicular gemmation is well seen in the simple forms of the genus Cyatho- 
pliyllmn^ in a new genus from the Lias {Lepidophylluvi), and in the genera 8taiiria,^ 
Isastrcea^ &c. 

1 Plate IV, fig. 18. - Plate IV, fig. 11. "" Plate IV, figs. 8, 10. 

* Plate IV, fig. 10. s Plate III, fig. 15. « pi^te IV, fig. 11. 



28 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

Gemmation from the wall — the lateral form — may occur at the top so as to affect the 
calicular margin, and at any place between this and the base. The gemmation may be 
solitary, alternate, M'horled, numerous, or irregular ; and the parent may or may not grow 
after the development of the buds.^ 

The genera Claclocora, Solenastraa, Oculiiia, Lophohelia, ^[adrepora, HeliasircBa, 
Sti/Ioccenia, Stylina, Asfrocoenia, Slephanocania, &c., furnish examples of lateral and 
marginal gemmation. 

The basilar gemmation is especially to be observed in the genera Mhizangia, Astrangia, 
Plii/llanffia, and other Astrangiacea. 

Fissiparotis growth. — Many corals increase in dimension and become caespitose, 
gyrate, laminar, or massive, by a repetition of a fissiparous process in the calice or calices. 
The general nature of this method of calicular division and subsequent growth may be 
seen in Plate IV, figs. 12, 13. The calice is fairly bisected through the columella or 
columellary space by the growth of two or more opposite septa, and the wall appears to 
curve inwards, whilst the parts on either side grow independently and separate with 
varying rapidity. The process may be more or less speedily repeated in the new calices, 
and as they separate and grow npwards they may or may not be enveloped in 
coenenchyma. 

Very differently shaped corals thus result. 

The genus Dichocoeiiia offers examples of massive corals where there is fissiparous 
growth and much coenenchyma. The genus Favia has its fissiparous individuals in close 
contact, and the species of Thecosmilia yield long, dendroid, and caespitose forms. 

Serial groioth} — Corals of the genus Dijihria, LathiKScmdra, Bhipldogyra, Pcdinia, 
Teleiophyllia, Thysanus, Manicina, &c., have either faint traces of calices running laterally 
into each other, or else the septa follow each other in a longer or shorter series, which is 
sometimes straight, at others twisted. The occurrence of coenenchyma, and the particular 
manner in which the " series" may be joined laterally, determine the shape of the corallum. 
In the LathnceandrcB the faint traces of calices may be seen. In Diploria and Mmandrind' 
the septa are in series, and form a massive coral ; whilst in the TdeiophyUi(B and Tliysani,*" 
where there is a long series, the corallum is simple and pedicillate. 

Gemmation occurs both in fissiparous and serial corallites. 



v.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

The ovules of corals are projected from the visceral cavity through the pyloric con- 
striction, the stomach, and the mouth, by the contraction of the tissues of the disc; and the 
cilia of the cavities assist the transit. Cilia cover the small ovule and move it onwards 

' Plate IV, fig. 16, 17. - Plate IV, fig. 14. = Plate IV, fig. 15. 

♦ Plate IV, fig. 14. 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

with the assistance of the currents in the water ; when it comes in contact with a hard 
substance, or rests, out of a current, on soft ground, the base adheres, and the minute 
tentacular disc is gradually developed^ and finally expands. The young polypes are 
carried here and there ; they exercise no volition, and only those which find a fit base upon 
which to rest live on to maturity. Either the young corallum adheres fixedly through life, 
or is so buried in mud or sand as to be immovable. 

The locomotion of corals, therefore, is confined to the early period of their existence, is 
more or less passive, and the organs concerned in it are the cilia. The cilia vary in length, 
and their movement is vigorous ; their activity is increased by light, warmth, and a highly 
aerated pure sea-water. 

The adhesion to the foreign substance occurs by means of the outer membrane : if the 
base of the future corallum is to be small and pedunculate, the membranes at the base 
grasp some irregularity of the surface of the stone or shell, as the case may be, or envelop 
the body should it be small. As the hard parts are developed by the inner membranes, 
they pass around or envelope the substance, and fix the coral permanently. Occasionally, 
specimens are found with erosions at the base, as if they had sufi'ered a violent rupture 
from the supporting substance and had continued to exist. 

When a broad and flat base occurs, either the membranes and the subsequently 
developed sclerenchyma fill up the irregularities on the surface of the substance upon 
which the polype has rested, or are attached to it by a secretion of the epitheca. When 
corals rest on soft mud or sand, and become immersed, the tentacular disc appears just 
above the surface, and the body of the coral is very generally found covered by the 
epithecal membrane and its badly organised calcareous secretion. It is especially these 
corals that have large lateral growths, large costae and processes ; and they may be broad 
at the base, or quite the reverse. 

The epitheca acts as an anchor and as a sheathing to the coral. 

It has already been noticed, that the skeleton of the coral — its sclerenchyma — is 
developed and nourished by the inner membrane; and the retreat of this membrane, as well 
as the apparent death of all the hard pai'ts below its level, have been explained. It will 
be found that the inner membrane permeates the hard tissues, that these are developed 
as granules in its intercellular spaces, and that, as the granules become hard, close, and 
solid, the nourishing influence of the membrane gradually ceases. In perforate corals the 
membrane is always in contact with the reticulate sclerenchyma, and the interiors of 
adjacent corallites are constantly in mutual relation. 

Considering the weight of many individual corals, and the tenuity of the soft parts, 
this development of sclerenchyma is very wonderful. It must be remembered, that in 
many large compound corals only the few upper lines of the corallites are really nourished 
by the soft parts ; all the rest has been gradually developed and left by them. 

The density of the sclerenchyma difiers more in species than in individuals, and size 
has nothing to do with it. As a rule, very quickly growing corals are less dense than 



30 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

others, and the tissues in contact with the membranes are the least resisting. The 
calcareous and other salts which form the sclerenchyma are derived from the matters 
assimilated by the coral during its digestive and respiratory processes ; their deposition is 
a vital and not a mechanical process, and its amount is regnlated by those conditions which 
affect the general nutrition of the individual. 

The following analyses of recent corals are selected from those made bv Silliman ■? 





Porites. 


Madrepora. 


Pocillopora. 


Msandrina. 


Astrjea. 


(Heliastraea?) 




95-84 


94-80/ 


94-583 


,. 93-559 .. 
.. 0-910 .. 


. 96-471 

. 0-802 


... 91-782 
2100 


Phosphates and Fluorides . . . 


2-05 . 


.. 0-745 . 


1-050 . 


Organic matter 


2-11 . 


.. 4-448 .. 


,. 4-397 .. 


.. 5-536 .. 


. 2-727 


... 6-118 



The fluorides, phosphates, &c., yielded the following results (per cent, of their 
precipitate) in three examinations. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


Silica 


22-00 


12-5 


8-70 


Lime .... 


13-03 

7-G6 
7-83 


7-5 

4-2 

26-34 


1674 


Magnesia 


45-19 


Fluoride of calcium 


0-71 


Fluoride of magnesium... 


12-48 


26-62 


2-34 


Phosphate of magnesia... 


2-70 


8-0 


0-34 


Alumina and Iron 


1000 
18-30 


14-84 


25-97 


Oxide of iron 





Silliman arrived at the following conclusions respecting the proportions of the 
phosphates, fluorides, and other salts : — " Fluorine is present in much larger proportion than 
phosphoric acid. The silica exists in the coral in its soluble modification, and probably is 
iinited to the lime. The free magnesia existed as carbonate, and was thrown down as 
caustic magnesia by the lime-water." 

The dead and living tissues arc liable to I)e perforated by parasitic borers ; and 
the surface of the coral below the soft tissues is often covered with Bryozoa, Ser- 
pulse, &c. 

The inner membrane develops the buds, and it has an absorbing as well as a 
depositing power. 

Food is obtained by living corals through the agency of the tentacules, the spiral 
threads, the cilia of the disc, and the lips. It consists of Animalcula, small Crustacea, the 
ova of Mollusca, and the spores of Alga^ and smaller marine plants. Mj-riads of 
organisms may be seen in every small glass of water taken from the tropical seas, and the 
growth and nutrition of the coral-polypes can be readily accounted for. 

' B. Silliman in Dana's ' Structure and Classification of Zoophytes,' Appendi.x, p. 124 et seq. 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

The nematocjjsts of the tentacules^ and of the general surface are the destroying 
weapons ; their missiles paralyse and slay, whilst the spiral threads envelope and kill as 
well. The spiral threads are observed in the corals with " serial" calices especially," and 
the tentacules are not well developed in those species. The threads appear at the 
calicular margin, and have openings through which they pass to and fro from the 
visceral cavity. They are sometimes noticed in simple corals with well-developed 
tentacules.^ 

Anything destroyed by the nematocysts of the tentacules, or killed by the spiral 
threads, either falls on to the disc, or is passed on to the mouth directly and without the 
agency of the cilia. The cilia are especially useful in passing small bodies towards the lips; 
and these, when protruded, are moved in all directions seeking food. 

Once within range of the lips, the food is grasped by their sphincter and passed into 
the stomach. 

The movement of the tentacules and of the lips is produced by the contraction of tlie 
second or muscular tissue. All the tissues are very excitable, and contractions are readily 
produced by irritation ; but the muscles act with a remarkable coordination, considering the 
absence of the organs of vision and of all nervous structm-es. 

The stimulus of light acts very decidedly, so does that of heat, and direct contact 
produces that series of changes which has been described by M. J. Haime. 

The stomach dissolves more or less of what goes into it, and passes the solution into 
the visceral cavity through the pylorus, Avhilst the faeces are returned and rejected. No 
acid reaction has been obtained from the stomachal membrane. Much water passes 
through the stomach and into the visceral cavity. 

The visceral cavity receives the primarily assimilated food and the water which passes 
through the stomach ; all this is brought in contact with the irrigatory system — with the 
tissues lining the interloculi covering the septa, &c., with the mesenteric folds and the 
tubular processes, as well as with the inferior surface of the disc and the bases of the 
tentacules. Finally, this watery medium kept in agitation by the cilia of the visceral 
membranes is now and then expelled through the tentacular orifices. A process of 
absorption goes on, and the results of secondary assimilation appear to be the deposit 
of the sclerenchyma and the nutrition of the soft tissues. 

Doubtless, the external tissues with their nematocysts have a power of retaining and 
more or less absorbing nourishment without the process of digestion. 

The respiration of corals appears to be carried on by the tentacules, the membrane 
lining the intermesenteric spaces — the ii'rigatory system, and by the general surface. 

1 Plate 11, figs. 1, 3, 5, G, 7, 8. ^ Plate II, % 17. » Plate II, fig. II.- 



32 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

Well-aeratecl water of a certain temperature and containing minute organisms is abso- 
lutely necessary for the nntrition and respiration of corals ; and mud and sediment 
held in suspension by brackish water, or by water very slightly saline, are very noxious. 

Corals soon die when exposed to such adverse influences ; and it is probable that the 
contractions which are noticed on some simple forms are due to periods when noui'ishment 
was scarce and the sea-water impure. 

Corals are often phosphorescent ; and this is very constantly observed when they have 
been removed from the sea and allowed to drain away on stones. 

There are no special structures in the mesenteric folds which account for the process 
of absorption, and the method of the development of the male and female elements of 
generation in them is not satisfactorily determined. The tubular processes allow the ova 
to escape, and the ciliary motion of the visceral cavity tends to their ejection. The gene- 
ration of corals is said to require a temperature of not less than 75°; but it must be 
remembered that very temperate seas have their corals, and that the coast of Norway and 
of Scotland abounds with them. 

Without entering into the question of the geographical and bathynietrical distribution 
of corals, it may be safely determined that the perforate corals are the most rapid growers, 
and have the largest amount of soft tissues ; they are usually found where the sea is the 
best aerated and full of organisms, just as some of the most solid of the aporose corals are 
to be found in calm water and at great depth. 

It is the comprehension of the stomach, pylorus, mesenteric folds, and tubular pro- 
cesses Avithin one cavity that distinguishes true Madreporaria from the liydroid Acalephs. 
The tabulate corals have been classified amongst these last, but upon insufficient data. 
Whenever the polype of a tabulate coral is proved to have its digestive and repro- 
ductive organs in separate cavities, then the views of Agassiz will be justified, but not till 
then ; the tabulae are not necessarily calicular bases, for they may often be separated 
from the continuous septa and columellse. 

VI. — Classification. 

In examining a fossil coral, attention must be first of all paid to the structure of its 
wall and septa. It must be determined whether the first is aporose,i or, on the contrary, 
perforate,- and whether the septa are assignable to systems of cycles which follow the 
disposition of the rugosa or not. Should there be a tubulate structure of the wall and a 
rudimentary condition of the septa, it. should be noted. Finally, the existence of hori- 
zontal tabulae in the endotheca^ must be ascertained. 

1 Plate I, figs. 1, 2, .3, 4, 14, 1.5. * Plate III, figs. 3, 4 ; Plate IV, fig. IS. 

3 Plrtte III, figs. 9, 10, 11, IG. 



INTRODUCTION. 33 

There is a vast difference between the economy of a coral with imperforate and a 
coral with porose walls, and a method of diagnosis arises from it. The aporose and 
perforate sections are at once natural and easily distinguished. 

The horizontal tabulae may be found in perforate as well as in aporose corals, but the 
absence of vesicular endotheca and of the usual endothecal arrangements may be so marked 
that a section can be very fairly marked off. Nevertheless, the gradation of dissepiments 
into horizontal tabulae^ is witnessed in many Mugosa, and is not feebly marked even in 
some corals of the section Aporosa. 

The tubulate wall and defective septa offer materials for a doubtful section, for they 
are very closely matched by some aporose forms. 

The Bugosci^ are so peculiar in their septal arrangement that, as a rule, they are dis- 
tinguished at once ; but their diagnosis will be carefully elaborated in a future page; 

When the section of a coral has been determined, the existence or deficiency of endo- 
thecal structures becomes diagnostic. The existence of endotheca refers very definitely 
to the nutrition and growth of the species, and is readily discoverable. 

The method of multiplication, the existence of fissiparous or serial calices, and the 
independence or the soldered condition of the corallites, must be then noticed. 

The existence of pali and the nature of the septal arrangement must be made out, 
and the absence or presence of a columella determined. The nature of the columella, 
the shape of the calices, the size and ornamentation of the septa and costse, must be 
examined, and the plain or incised condition of the septal margin decided. The exist- 
ence of exotheca, coenenchyma, peritheca, and epitheca is to be discovered, and the pecu- 
liarities of the structures noticed. The height and breadth, and the habit of the coral 
should be estimated. There are, then, many data for the foundation of a classification ; 
and the following tables have been drawn up of that of the genera which are most likely 
to be found in the British Secondary and Tertiary rocks.^ 

1 Plate IV, fig. 2. "' Plate III, figs. 15, 18, 19, 20. 

^ The tables have been selected from the 'Hist. Nat. des Coral,,' Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, and 
have been altered -where requisite. 



34 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



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BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 






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VII. CORALS FROM THE TERTIART FORMATIONS. 



I. Corah from BrocIienJiiirst find Boydon. 

The fossiliferons bed at Brockenhurst in Hampshire was discovered diu-ing the 
formation of a railway; it was dihgently examined, and it has produced some most interest- 
ing raollusca and corals. 

The molluscan fauna has much in common with those of the beds in Germany about 
Magdeburg, Bernburg, Aschersleben, Egeln, Helmstadt, and Latdorf,^ and with those of 
the strata at Tongres, near Liege. Moreover, some of its most characteristic species are found 
in the Middle Headon beds at Colwell Bay and at WhiteclifF Bay, in the Isle of Wiglit.^ 

The Brockenhurst bed lies immediately upon a freshwater formation,* the fossils of 
Avhich are specifically identical with those of the freshwater beds of the Lower Headon ; 
and it is covered by unfossiliferous sands. 

The fossils from Roydon probably came from a well. 

Corals are not found in the Middle Headon beds, but they abound at Brockenhurst; 
and it may therefore be admitted that the strata at the latter locality are the purely marine 
and oceanic representatives of the former.^ 

The specimens of fossil corals from Brockenhurst are tolerably perfect ; they are gene- 
rally covered with a red argillaceous sand ; and they often contain selenite and sulphide 

1 It is necessary in using the terms "Tertiary," "Eocene," &c., to remember that there has been 
a constant and gradual development of " species " from the first appearance of life on the globe to the 
present day, and that the terms are only \iseful as parts of a scientific nomenclature. There is only an 
arbitrary distinction to be made between any of the successive formations and systems. Hence I have felt 
very disinclined to term the Brockenhurst beds Lovfer Oligocene, although they are clearly the equivalents 
of the German beds so called by Beyrich, and of the Tongrien Inferieur of Dumont. 

- Beyrich, ' Ueber den Ziisammenhang der Norddeutschen Tertiiirbildungen, zur Erliiuterung einer 
geologische Uebersichtskarte ; Abliandl. der K. Akad. der Wissenschaften z« Berlin,' 18jj. 

Roemer, in Dunker's ' Palfeontographiea,' 18C2, IStiJ ; Reuss, "Zur Fauna des Deutschen Oberoligo- 
ciins," ' K. Akad. der Wiss.,' Nov. 1864. 

^ Von Koenen, "Oligocene Deposits," 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' Dec, 2nd 1863. (Mr. F. Edwards' 
researches formed the basis of this paper.) F. Finch, Dr. Sc, has assured me of the truth of this statement 
from the results of his personal observation. 

■• Von Koenen, op. cit. 

'■> ' Mem. Geol. Survey Great Britain,' on the "Tertiary Fluvio-marine Formation of the Isle of Wight," 
by Edward Forbes, edited by R. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., and others, 18.i6. 'Mem. Geol. Surv.,' "The 
Geol. of Isle of Wight; Explan. Sheet 10," by H. VV. Bristow, F.R.S., 1862. These publications contain 
admirable and exhaustive descriptions of the Headon series. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 41 

of iron. Many have been rolled j and in all the original carbonate of lime of the sclerenchyma 
has been but slightly altered. 



TAMihY—JSTB^ID^. 

Sub-family— ASTR^IN^. 
Tribe— ASTRMA.C^JE. 

GemiS — SoLENASTRiEA.'' 

The generic characters of the Solenastree<s are as follows -^ 

The corallum is usually massive, convex, cellular, and light : the corallites are long, 
and are united by a well-developed exotheca, and not by the costse, which are never large 
enough to come in contact with those of neighbouring corallites. The costse are always 
more or less rudimentary. The calicular margins are free and circular : the columella is 
spongy, and usually but feebly developed. The septa are very thin, and are formed by 
well-developed laminae.: their margin is dentate, and the lowest teeth are the largest. 
The endothecal dissepiments are simple, numerous, and close. The gemmation is extra- 
calicinal. 

The species already recorded have been separated into those with rudimentary and 
those with distinct columellse,^ but they are all well and easily distinguished from the six 
forms about to be described. 



1. SoLENASTRiEA CELLXJLOSA, Buncan. PI. V, figS. 1 7. 

The corallum is rather short, and appears to increase in breadth : its upper surface 
is irregular, and covers more space than the lower. 

The corallites are inclined, distant, parallel, and are connected by a cellular exotheca 
which here and there forms a denser connecting tissue. 

The calices are unequal in size and irregular in outline ;* they project considerably above 

1 ' Compt. Rend, de I'Acad. des Sc.,' vol. xxvii, p. 494, 1848. Milne-Edwards and J. liaime. 

2 ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 495, Milne-Edwards et J. Haime. 

3 Edwards and Haime, op. cit., page 497. * Plate V, fig. 7. 

6 



42 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

the upper surface of the ccenenchyma which separates them ;^ their margins are sharp, the 
fossa is shallow, and the columella rudimentary. 

The septa are thin and well marked ; they form six systems, and there are four cycles. 
Tire primary, secondary, and tertiary septa are very much alike, and extend well towards 
the centre of the calice. The septa of the fourth and fifth orders are short, and do not 
extend far from the wall.^ 

The columella is rudimentary, and consists of a few processes derived from the inner 
margins of the septa. It is made to appear larger than it really is, by the frequent deve- 
lopment of the endotheca near the inner septal margins. In some calices it appears as if 
one of the larger septa crossed over the columellary space, and became connected to the 
opposite one. 

The endotheca is greatly developed ; the dissepiments incline so much that transverse 
sections of corallites or worn calices show numerous transverse bars between the septa :' 
really these bars are but sections of oblique dissepiments. 

The costae, when covered by the exotheca, are rudimentary, and exist as faint unequal 
ridges which are slightly raoniliform ; but where they are above the ccenenchyma, and 
close to the calicular margin, they are feebly developed, but distinct, unequal, alternately 
large and small, and bluntly dentate.* 

The exotheca is abundant, and consists of small square cells, rectangular cells, and of 
a tissue in which the cells form a dense ccenenchyma.^ It passes from corallite to 
corallite, and is marked on its upper or free surface by faint ovoid and rather flat ele- 
vations, which are close in some places but distant in others.* The upper layer of 
the exotheca often grows up the sides of the corallites to the calices. 

Height of corallum ^th inch. Diameter of corallites f^tli inch (in the largest). 

Locality. — Brockenhurst. In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 



2. SoLENASTRiEA KoENENI, DuncaU. PI. V, figS. 8, 9. 

The corallum is short, gibbous, and irregular. 

The corallites are rather but unequally distant from one another. The calices are 
hardly exsert, and are very shallow and open. There are no costse visible, and a continuation 
of the ccenenchyma upwards reaches the calicular margin.' 

The septa are in six systems and there are four cycles. The septa are thin, delicate, wide 
apart, unequal, and occasionally not quite straight.** 

1 Plate V, fig. 1. - Plate V, figs. 3, 4. » Plate V, fig. 3. 

" Plate V, figs. .5, 6. '■> Plate V, figs. 2, 5. ^ Plate V, fig. 7. 

7 Plate V, fig. 8. 8 Plate V, fig. 9. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 43 

The columella hardly exists, and it is formed by a few offshoots from the inner margins 
of the septa. 

The endotheca is scanty. 

The wall is thin above, but thick low down in the corallites. 

The exotheca is well developed ; its cells are small, and its upper or free surface is 
but faintly marked. 

Height of corallum I inch. Diameter of corallites -^^t\i inch. 

Locality. — Brockenhurst. In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 



3. SolenastrjEA Reussi, Duncan. Plate V, figs. 10 — 16. 

The corallum is tall, with an irregular upper surface. The corallites are subturbinate, 
with wide calices and narrow bases ; they are irregular in their distances, but are con- 
nected more by bands or layers of dense exotheca than by a cellular ccenenchyma, but 
both structures exist.^ The calices are very slightly exsert, and irregular in shape and 
distance. The fossa is shallow, and the margin is thin. The columella is very rudimen - 
tary. The septa are very distinct, unequal, not always straight, thin ; and the highest 
orders are rudimentary, but exist as small projections. There are six systems and five 
cycles.^ The laminae are marked with granules in a series of slanting rows.' 

The endotheca is very scanty and highly inclined.* 

The wall is not very stout. 

The costse where uncovered by exotheca are distant, very slightly prominent, straight, 
unequal, and very bluntly dentate. 

The exotheca forms layers which curve around the corallites, and connect them 
together at certain heights only, the intermediate parts being uncovered by exotheca ; 
the uppermost layer is more or less granular, and reaches to the calicular margin.^ The 
layers are formed by elongated and very thick cells, and they rarely are square and thin. 
The gemmation is extra-calicular, but several buds spring from the same wall, very close 
to each other.^ 

Height of individual corallites ^th inch. 

Diameter of the calices ^th inch. 

Locality. — Brockenhurst. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

' Plate V, figs. 10, 11, 14. ^ Plate V, fig. 16. s pjate V, fig. 15. 

* Plate V, fig. 15. ^ Plate V, fig. 12. « Plate V, fig. 10. 



44 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



4. SoLENASTR^A GEMMANS, Buncaii. Plate VI, figs. 1 — 7. 

■ The corallura is tall, its base is small, and the caliciilar surface is very irregular. 

The corallites are very unequal, they are sometimes crowded and for the most part are 
separated by canienchyma ; they are not very exsert, as a rule, but many pass up above 
the level of the common coenenchyma and exhibit their vrall marked with small 
costse. 

The exotheca is dense, and resembles layers of membranous epitheca more than a cellular 
exotheca. It is found here and there only, so that much of the wall of many corallites is 
free. The exotheca spreads across from corallite to corallite in wavy horizontal layers, and 
the costse are hidden by it. But where the exotheca is wanting the costae vary greatly 
in their size and development.^ 

The calices are irregular in shape, size, and distance ; the fossa is shallow, and the 
columella is rudimentary. The calicular margin is rather blunt. The septa are long, 
delicate, very ragged on their sides, from their connection with the endotheca, and but 
slightly granular.- There are four cycles and six systems ; the primary and secondary septa 
extend Vi^ell inwards, and their ends, which are occasionally enlarged, are connected by 
ragged and irregular processes ; the tertiary are smaller ; and the septa of the fourth and 
fifth orders are almost rudimentary. Sections of corallites show the wall to be mode- 
rately thick. 

The costaj are unequal, and are either plain, short and rounded, short and monili- 
form, short and bluntly dentate, or even almost vesicular. They are rudimentary when 
covered by the exotheca. 

The endotheca is very abundant and highly inclined.' The gemmation is pecuhar, and 
causes the species to resemble in its growth some of the Cladacoracem .• the bud separates 
widely from the parent, and then passes upwards and soon gives forth a bud which takes 
the same course. 

Height of corallum several inches. Diameter of corallites ^'oth inch. 

Locality. — Brockenhurst. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 



5. SoLKNASTR^A Beyrichi, Diinccm. Plate VI, figs. 8 — 13. 

The corallum is massive, short, and has a very irregular calicidar surface. The 
corallites are short, and widen out rapidly from a comparatively small base. 

The calices are large, very irregular in shape, generally close, and they are separated 
by the cccnenchyraal exotheca ; the fossa is shallow, the columella is rudimentary, the wall 
at the margin is stout, and the septa are thin, often wavy, and rugged laterally. 

' Plate VI, figs. 2, 3, 4. ° Plate VI, (ig. 7. ^ Plate VI, fig. ;. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 45 

There are six systems of septa, and four complete cycles ; moreover, in the largest 
corallites there are many rudimentary septa of the fifth cycle. The septa are unequal 
in the sectional view ; often larger (the primary) at the inner end than midway; and mav 
extend across the columellary space. A little below the calice the wall is very thick, and 
the endotheca is most abundant and very inclined. The costee exist above the level of 
the common coenenchyma; they are alternately large and small, but always short, ill 
developed, and faintly dentate. 

The exotheca is greatly developed ; its cells are irregular in shape, not elongate, but 
more or less square in outline -^ it covers up the corallites, leaving them free to a small 
extent only. The upper surface of this exothecal coenenchyma is faintly granular. 

Height of corallum 1 inch. Great diameter of calices ^th to ^Ijth inch. 

Locality. — Brockenhurst. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

6. SoLENASTRiEA GRANULATA, jDuncati. Plate VI, figs. 14 — 18. 

The corallum is short, and its upper surface presents much granular ccenenchyma^ 
between the calicular ends of the corallites. The corallites are small and distant ; and 
in well-preserved specimens are seen to project somewhat above the common exothecal 
coenenchyma, but in worn fossils they are but slightly elevated, and present a very thick 
wall. The calice is circular in outline, its fossa is shallow, its margin is thin ; and the 
columella is rudimentary. 

There are six systems of septa and four cycles of them ; they are unequal, the 
primary being much the largest,^ and all except those of the fourth and fifth orders have 
a paliforra elevation near the columellary space. 

The septa are rugged laterally, from their connection with much endotheca, which is 
highly inclined. 

The costae are seen above the surface of the coenenchyma as short ridges alternately 
large and small, and they appear to emerge into the large granules on the free surface of 
the coenenchyma ; where the corallites are not covered by exotheca below the free surface, 
the costse are also visible. 

The exotheca is cellular and banded.* The occurrence of the bands admits of much 
corallite wall being costulated. 

The free surface of the exotheca is dense and covered with large granules. 

Height of corallum \ inch. Diameter of calices ^th inch. 

Zoca/^7^.^Brockenhurst and Roydon. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., 
F.G.S. , and in the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

All these species present the most important generic characteristic of the Solenastrcece, 
and they are all very closely allied. The principal specific distinctions are in the amount 

> Plate VI, %. 9. . ,- Plate VI, fig. 14. 3 Plate VI, fig. 17. 

* Plate VI, figs. 15, 16. 



46 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



and structure of the exotheca, in the method of gemmation, and in the septal develop- 
ment. These distinctions render the division of the Brockenhurst Sohnastrcea into six 
species absolutely necessary. This increase in the number of the species proves that the 
genus must have been a large one ; and the resemblance of the specific forms to varieties 
(from the really slight structural distinctions) is what is generally noticed in the case of 
large genera. 

These new species belong to a division of the genus which is not represented else- 
where ; it is characterised by the high septal number, the deficient columella, and the 
amount of inclined endotheca. 

The recent Solenastraa are found in the Red Sea, the Caribbean Sea, and in the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans. The horizontal endotheca and low septal number distinguish all 
these species from those of Brockenhurst. 

The fossil species of the genus are Solenastraa Verhelsfi, Ed. and H., Solenastraa 
Turonensis, Michelin sp., and Solenastraa composifa, Reuss sp. 

Solenastraa VerUehti is an Eocene form from Ghent ; and its rudimentary third cycle 
of septa, very close corallites, and its paucity of slightly obhque and subconvex endotheca, 
distinguish it at once and very decidedly. 

Solenastraa Turonensis has very long and close corallites with three cycles of septa and 
a well- developed columella ; its very scanty and very feebly inclined endotheca, and the 
wide-apart exothecal dissepiments, separate it from the form from Ghent, as well as from 
those from Brockenhurst. MM. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime determine that this species 
and Solenastraa composifa are identical. The Touraine form is of course from the Upper 
Miocene. 

The following is a scheme of the classification of the Tertiary SolenastnecB : 



Solenastrcea, 

■with the coin- < 

mella 



OS -j; 



' The endotheca 
greatly deve- 
loped. 

The endotheca 
not much de- 
veloped. 

Five cycles com- 
plete, or nearly 



Three cvcles 



Exotheca, banded 
and cellular, in- 
complete. 



fre- 



Exotheca very cellular and complete Cellulosa. 

> Gemmans. 

Granulata. 



Gemmation 
quent 

Calices small ; 
septa withpali- 
form lobe 



Exotheca cellular and complete . 

Corallites partly covered vrith cellu- 
lar and banded exotheca 

Corallites completely covered with 
cellular exotheca 



Kueneni. 

> Reussi. 

> Beyrichi. 



Verhelsti. 



well developed. Three cycles of septa; corallites close ; endotheca ] „, 

slightly developed J 



TERTIARY CORALS. 47 



^^mio^—MADBEPOBABIA PERFORATA, 

Family — Madreporid(s. 

Sub-family— EUPSAMMINiE. 

Genus — Balanophyllia. 

Balanophyllia granulata, Duncan. Plate VII, figs. 1 — 5. 

The corallum is short, has a very large and encrusting base, and is constricted imme- 
diately below the calice. There is no epitheca, and the costse are large and very 
distinct.^ 

The calice is oval in outline, is compressed, and is marked by very small and equal 
costse externally ; it has a small columella and very numerous septa. 

The septa are delicate, wavy, and granular ; there are six systems of them and five 
complete cycles, with half of a sixth. 

Very large, equal, rather wavy, flat, and rounded costse are seen at the edge of the 
base ; they bifurcate inferiorly^ here and there, and are profusely granular, as well as con- 
nected by many cross bars. 

As the costse approach the constriction they diminish in size, become thinner, more 
numerous, and less granular, until, close to the calicular margin, they are almost linear. 
All are connected by the cross bars. The granules often are large enough to stand up 
well in relief. 

Height of corallum i inch. Diameter of base l^rd inch. Diameter (greatest) of 
calice -nith inch. 

Locality. — Brockenhurst. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

The genus Balanophyllia (Wood) has received mach attention since MM. Edwards 
and Haime's ' Monograph on the British Fossil Corals' was written. These authors have 
described in the ' Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires' (vol. 3) some new species. 

Since that work was completed Reuss has described three species from the " lower 
marine sand" of Weinheim : and F. Roemer and Philippi have each discovered a new 
species in the fossiliferous beds of Latdorf. Moreover, the South Austrahan Tertiary beds 
contain species. 

The Balanophyllia calycuhis, Wood ; B. verrucaria, Pallas, sp. ; B. cylindrica, Miche- 
lotti, sp. ; B. Italica, Michelin, sp. ; B. tenuistriata, Ed. and H. ; B. desmophyllum, Lons- 

' Plate VII, figs. 1, 2. 2 piate VII, figs. 2, 3. 



48 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

dale sp. ; B. Bairdiana, Ed. and H. ; B. geniculata, D'Archiac ; B. Cumingii, Ed. and H., 
and B. suhcijlindrica, Philippi sj)., may be arranged together to form a subgenus charac- 
terised by forms with broad adherent bases. The following species will fall into another 
subgenus whose forms have the base more or less pedicillate : — Balanophyllia prcelonga, 
Michelotti, sp. ; B. Gravesii, Michelin, sp. ; B. sinuata, Reuss ; B. incequidens, Reuss ; 
B. fasciadaris, Reuss, and B. Australiensis, Duncan. 

The new species from Brockenhurst, B. (/ranulata, must be received into the first sub- 
genus. The absence of cpitheca, the profusely granular costae, and the existence of part 
of the sixth cycle of septa, distinguish B. granulata from all the species already described. 

There is nothing in the species B. granulata to connect it with any geological horizon ; 
for the BalanopJii/lIiie without epitheca range from the Eocene to the present day. 
The species B. gramdata has only a generic alliance with those described by Reuss, 
Roemer, and Philippi. 



Genus — Lobopsammia. 

LoBOPSAMMiA cARiosA, Goldfi/ss, sp. Plate VII, figs. 6 — 10. 

The corallum has a wide base, above which it is slightly constricted. It rises in the 
form of a short cylindrical trunk, terminated by several gibbous processes, which support 
calices and project outwards. 

The under surface of the base has a concavity^ which is lined and surrounded for a 
short distance by a dense epitheca ; the costae radiate around the margin of the epitheca, 
and ascend the outside surface of the corallum, pursuing very irregular and wavy courses, 
being thin, rounded, equal, and joined laterally by numerous cross bars of exotheca. 

The costae, which are very faintly granular, have this same peculiarity" on the upper 
surface of the corallum between the gibbous calices. 

The calices are irregular in shape, and so speedily commence to elongate prior to 
dividing fissiparously, that simple ones are rarely seen. They are, nevertheless, in the 
figure of eight, and are situated on the ends of the gibbous projections ; their margins are 
irregular, the fossa is shallow, and the columella is very feebly developed. 

The septa are very numerous, and form at least five cycles in six systems; they are 
unequal, stout, and often bifurcate near the columella. 

Height of corallum about one inch ; diameter of trunk /^ths inch ; greatest diameter 
of calices •[■'jths inch. 

Locality. Brockenhurst, Acy, Auvert, and Vahnondois. 

' Plate VII, fig. 10. ? Plate VII, fig. 7. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 49 

In the Museum of Practical Geology, London, and in the collection of Frederick 
Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

Lohopsmiimia cariosa is a common fossil at Brockenhurst, and the specimens differ in 
the stoutness of the corallum and distinctness of the costse. There is a so-called species, 
L. dilatata, Roemer,^ from Latdorf j'' but it is not worthy of more than the title of a variety 
of our widely diffused form. The same may be determined with respect to L. Parisiensis, 
Michelin, sp. 

^^CTio^—MABBEPOBABIA PEBFOBATA. 
Eamily— PORITIDES. 

Sub-famili/—VORnimM. 

Genus LiTHARyEA. 

LiTHAKjjA Brockenhursti, Buncan. Plate VII, figs. 17, 18. 

The corallum is massive, irregular in shape, and has an uneven upper surface. The 
corallites are close, and are very rarely separated by umch reticulate cellular structure ; 
they are rather short, and vary in their diameter in different parts of the corallum. The 
walls are well marked. ' 

The calices are shallow, close, and generally quadrangular. The margins are formed 
by trabecular tissue, and the septa are irregular, unequal, wavy, and are often enlarged at 
the inner end ; their laminae are much perforated ; they are in six systems, and there are 
three cycles, the primary being the largest ; the others are often very small. The laminae 
are faintly dentate laterally. 

The columella is slightly developed, and appears to be formed by processes from the 
septal ends. Diameter of the calices ^ths inch. 

Locality. Brockenhurst. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

The scanty coenenchyma, the shallow and quadrangular calices, the three cycles of 
unusually perforate septa, the ill-developed columella, and the shape of the corallum, dis- 
tinguish this species from LitJiarcea Websteri and the Litharcsm of the French Tertiaries. 

The genus ranges from the Maestricht Chalk to the Faluns at Dax. 

' Roemer in Bunker's 'Palseontograpbica,' 1862 — 1864. 
2 In the Lower Oligocene. 



50 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

SEcnoi^—MJDBUPOBJJilJ TAB ULATA. 
Family— MILLEPORIDiE. 

GC7UIS AXOPORA. 

AxopoRA MiCHELiNi, Buncaii. Plate VII, Figs. 11 — 15. 

The corallum is large, very irregular in shape, and marked by inequahties of the 
surface. The ccenenchyma is abundant, very finely reticulate, and is dotted by numerous 
and very small calices, which are not very deep, and often irregular in shape ; they are 
not separated by ridges. The columella is formed by longitudinal fibres, and projects but 
slightly at the bottom of the calice ; it is slender, very long, and often wavy. 

There are no septa. 

The tabulae are horizontal, not numerous, very small, and do not go through the 
columella, and divide the corallite off perfectly. 

A variety of this species is in the form of a flat cake, and its corallites are very long 
and thin.^ 

Locality. Brockenhurst. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

Axopora is a very remarkable gemis, for its corallites have no septa, but a great 
columella and tabute. The tabulae do not pass through the fasciculate columella, and 
yet they cut off all the space below them from that nearer the calice. 

The species are not numerous ; they were probably rapid growers, and the structures 
entering into their composition are so simple that it is very difficult to determine specific 
distinctions. 

The Eoloraea Parisiensis, which is synonymous with Alveolites Parisiensis, Michelin, 
and which was described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, in the first part 
of their Monograph, has been determined by them to be an Axopora. The Axopora 
MicJielini is a very large and fine form, and is closely allied to Axopora Solanderi, 
Defrance, sp., and less so to A. FisJieri, Dune, but it differs very decidedly from 
A. Parisiensis. 

1 Plate VII, figs. 13, 15. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 51 



Section— MJJDBUT OH JBIJ PEJIFOBATA. 

Pamily— MADREPORID^. 

Genus — ^Madrepora. 

1. Madrepora Solanderi, Befrance. Plate VIII, figs. 12 — 14. 

The corallum is arborescent ; the branches are subcylindrical. 

The calices are sunken in the very porous coenenchyma, and they are large and wide 
apart. 

This is the description given by MM. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime,^ and the 
following is from Michelin •? 

M. ramosa, porosa ; ramis subcylindricis, sajpe compressis, raro coalescentibus, granu- 
losis; stellis universis, rotundis; lamellis 12 fragilissimis, 6 maximis, aliis parvulis. 

The Brockenhurst specimen shows the granulated ccenenchyma and the septa ; but it 
proves that the calices, like all others of the genus, were more or less prominent before 
being worn. 

Localities. Brockenhurst. Mary pres Meaux (Seine et Marne), Auvert, Graux, and 
Valmondois. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

2. Madrepora Roemeri, Duncan. Plate VIII, figs. 8 — 11. 

The corallum is partly foliaceous and partly ramose, but the branches coalesce. 

The calices are very distant and, in unworn portions of the corallum, are on the top 
of conical and very costulated projections. The caKcular margin and the conical base 
produce a " tubuliform calice." 

The costse are projecting, wavy, rounded, and are lost in a very granular and 
almost echinulate ccenenchyma. 

The septa are stout, and twelve in number. 

Locality. Brockenhurst. In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

3. Madrepora anglica, Duncan. PI. VIII, figs. 1 — 7. 

The corallum is in the shape of a stout trmik, with numerous aborted branches whicli 
give it a very gibbous appearance. 

' Op. cit., vol. iii, p. 162. - ' Icon. Zooph.,' p. 16.5. 



52 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

The calices are either scattered irregularly over the papillate eoenenchyiua or are 
aggregated in sets ; a parent corallite being surrounded by its buds. The calices are 
small but slightly projecting, t>ibuliform and finely costulated, the costse being lost in the 
irregular, porose, and papillate common tissue. Some are not costulated, but are sunken 
in the coenenchyma, and all are circular in outline with thickish walls. 

The septa are as is usual in the genus ; and the opposite primary septa frequently 
join by their inner ends. There are six large and six small septa. 

The coenenchyma is highly cellular, and its free surface is almost aciculate with sharp 
papillae. Locality. Brockenhurst. In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

These species of the genus Madrcpora are all new to the British coral-fauna. M. 
Solanderi is an indifferent species, for there may have been any amount of ornamentation 
on the coenenchyma, and the calices may have been very prominent and costulate, but 
nearly every detail has been worn off the specimens. Many well-characterised species, 
were they worn and rolled, would present the appearance of the typical specimen of 
M. Solanderi. 

Madrejjora Boevieri is well characterised by its form, its distant tubuliform calices with 
costulated external surfaces, and by its very granular and echinulate coenenchyma. The 
species most closely allied to 31. Roemeri is M. granulosa, Edwards and liaime, a recent 
form from the He de Bourbon. 

The Madrepora Anglica is a well-marked species, and is allied to M. crassa, Edwards 
and Haime, a recent form whose locality is unknown. 

The genus l\[adrepora comprehends at least ninety-two species, of which only eight are 
fossil. The Paris Basin and the Turin Miocene have hitherto been the localities whence 
the fossil species have been collected ; and now the Brockenhurst beds must be admitted 
amongst the strata whose remains indicate the former existence of coral-reefs exposed to 
a furious surf and the wash of a gi'eat ocean. 

The Brockenhurst Madrejjorm do not resemble, except generically, the species from 
Turin. 

The recent species are found all over the Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean 
Sea, and one species has retained its position in the White Sea, near Archangel {M. 
horealis, Edwards and Haime). 

As yet the very fossiliferous Tertiary strata of the islands of the West Indies have 
not yielded any fossil Madrepora. 

REMARKS ON THE CORAL-l'AU.VA OF BROCKENHURST. 

The coral-fauna of Brockenhurst and Roydon consists of thirteen species : — Solenas- 
trcea ceUidosa, S. Koeneni, S. Benssi, S. gemmans, S. Begrichi, S. granidata, Balano- 
phyllia granidafa, LobojJsammia cariosa, Axopora Michelini, Liiharcea BrockenJiursti, 
Madrepora Anglica, j\[. Boemeri, M. Solanderi. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 53 

Two of the species, viz., Lobopsammia cariosa, Goldf., sp., and Madrepora Solanderi, 
Defrance, sp., are found in the Eocene beds of the Paris Basin ; they have not, however, 
been noticed either in the London Clay or in the Bracklesham and Barton beds in 
England. 

The Madrepora Solanderi is a species of very doubtful value, and the reasons for this 
assertion have been already given. 

The Lobopsammia cariosa is found under the name of L. dilatata, Roemer, at Latdorf. 

The Litliarcea and the Axopora from Brockenhurst have no very close specific alliance 
with the forms of the genus found in the London Clay and the Bracklesham beds. 

The Nummulitic corahfauna^ of Italy, Sinde, &c., has no species in common with that 
of Brockenhurst ; and the researches of Reuss and Roemer in the coral-faunse of the 
Tertiary series termed Lower, Middle, and Upper Oligocene, have not produced any 
results which enable me to correlate any one of those series with the coraliferous beds at 
Brockenhurst. 

The Miocene coral-fauna has no specific relationship with that under consideration. 

It becomes evident from these considerations that the new coral-fauna has very 
slight resemblances and affinities with those already described. 

The Brockenhurst corals are, therefore, very remarkable ; the absence of simple forms 
and the presence of species of Madrepora, Axopora^ and Solenastraa indicate the fonner 
existence of a vigorous polype-growth, and of all the physical conditions now observed 
near and about coral-reefs. The great size of the trunk of Madrepora Anglica is 
especially significant. It may be still true that this coral-fauna was a local one, for at 
the present day the distinction between reef-, barrier-, and simple coast-corals is suffi- 
ciently determinable. 

The coral-fauna of the so-called Lower Oligocene beds of Germany is associated with 
the mollusca which characterise the Brockenhurst beds and their equivalents in the 
Headon series of the Isle of Wight.'' It is distinct from the coral-fauna of Brockenhurst, 
although the correlation of the strata can be established from the study of the Mollusca ; 
hence the probabilities of the Latdorf coral-fauna being that of a coast-line, and of the 
Brockenhurst being that of an oceanic and reef area, are great. 

The coral-fauna of Brockenhurst is more recent than that of Barton and evidently 
flourished under very different physical conditions. It is older than the Ealunian and 
Crag-faunse. 

' The coral-fauna of the Londou Clay, and of the Bracklesham and Barton beds, and of the Paris Basin, 
is contained to a certain extent in the great Nummulitic coral-fauna of Southern Europe and India ; but 
there were clearly two coral-provinces during the early Tertiary period, just as there are at the present day — 
the West Indian and the Pacific. 

2 Axopora is represented in existing reefs by many tabulate corals. 

8 Von Koenen, "Die Fauna der Uuter-Oligocanen Tertiiir-Schichten von Helmstadt," 'Zeitschrift 
der Deut. geol. Gesell.,' Band xvii, 1865. 



54 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



VIII. Corals from the Eocene of the Isle of Wight and from the London Clay. 

Okd^^—ZOANTHJRIA. 

Family— TURBINOLIDifl. 

Tribe — TuRBixoLiNiE. 

Genus — Turbinolia. 

1. Turbinolia affinis, Banean. Plate IX, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The corallum is slightly truncated inferiorly, and it is conical low down, but cylindro- 
conical above ; it is symmetrical and very small. 

The costae are well developed and obtuse ; the largest are swollen out inferiorly, and all 
are moderately prominent ; not very thick, but very distinct. 

The intercostal spaces are wide on account of the costae being separated by a portion 
of the wall, which is very visible at the bottom of the spaces. 

There are no dimpled markings on this portion of the wall. 

There are very decided markings on the sides of the costae produced by rudimentary 
exotheca. 

The wall is thin. 

The calice is circular in outline. 

The septa are thin, delicate, unequal, rather ragged, granular, and slightly enlarged 
near the columella. There are three perfect cycles of septa and six systems. 

The numbers of the septa and costae are the same. 

The columella is not very projecting above the base of the calicular fossa, and is rather 
elongated and ovoid. 

The height of the corallum is ~\X\% inch, and the diameter of the calice nearly ~,th inch. 

This species is more closely allied to the rare Tuvhinolia firma, Edwards and Haime, 
than to any of the other members of the genus. The broad intei'costal spaces and the 
markings on the sides of the costae in the new species distinguish it from Turbinolia 
Jirma. 

Localitij. High Chff, Isle of Wight. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., 
F.G.S. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 55 

2. TuRBiNOLiA EXARATA, Duncan. Plate IX, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

The corallum is conical inferiorly and cylindrical superiorly, so as to be rather sub- 
turbinate. Its base is small and narrow, although the costse are very projecting there. 

The costse are greatly developed ; they are subequal, very prominent, and thin ; their 
free margin is rather sharp, and not much narrower than their base. 

The largest costse are very prominent inferiorly, and the tertiary arise at the distance 
of about one quarter of the whole height of the corallum from the base. 

The costse are very wide apart, and the base or bottom of the intercostal spaces is 
wide, very visible, and it is not marked by any dimpling. 

The sides of the costse are strongly marked with a rudimentary exotheca, which is 
attached to the wall close to the base of the costse (fig. 7). 

The wall is very thin. 

The calice is circular in outline, very deep, and its margin is rendered very distinct by 
the well-developed costse. 

The septa are slender, thin, and unequal ; they form three perfect cycles, and there are 
six systems. 

The septa and costse correspond. 

The columella is very small, cylindrical, pointed, and in the typical specimen there are 
two papillse on its free surface. 

Height ~ths inch. Diameter of the calice ^ths inch. 

This very interesting species resembles the Turbinolia PrestwicM, Edwards and 
Haime, in some points ; but it has no vestige of a fourth cycle of costse ; moreover, the 
new species has not the truncated base of Turbinolia PrestwicM, and its third cycle of 
costse arise high up. 

The width of the intercostal furrows and the absence of well-marked dimpling are 
very distinctive peculiarities of Turbinolia ewarata. 

Locality/. — The species is found at Brook, Hampshire (New Forest). In the collection 
of Frederick Edwards, Esq., E.G.S. 

3. Turbinolia Eorbesi, Duncan. Plate IX, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

The corallum is very small, conico-cylindrical, and has rather a sharp base. 

The costse are very stout, obtuse, and slightly prominent; the largest are often wavy 
in their upward course, and all are separated by wide intercostal furrows or spaces. There 
is a well-marked but very small costa situated high up in the corallum and in each 
intercostal space. 

There ai-e large and distinct exothecal markings on the sides of the costse ; but the 
existence of dimples on the wall at the bottom of the intercostal spaces is too doubtful to 
be safely asserted. 



56 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



The calice is unsyrametrical, from its peculiar septal arrangement ; its marginal wall 
is very thin, and the fossa is deep. The columella is angular in its transverse outline, 
and is often very prominent. 

The septa are unequal, straight, and delicate. There are no septa corresponding with 
the rudimentary costae ; their arrangement gives tlie idea of there being two systems of 
three cycles, the septa of the third cycle being deficient; but there are really six 
systems. 

In four systems there are three cycles of septa, and the rudimentary costse are of the 
fourth and fifth orders ; and in the remaining systems there are two cycles of septa with 
the rudimentary costse of the third order. 

Height of corallum ^ths inch. Diameter of the calice ;"ith inch. 

The cyclical arrangement and the rudimentary costse distinguish this species from all 
the others. 

Locality. High Cliff"; Isle of Wight. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., 
F.G.S. 



The genus Turbinolia, thus enriched by the discovery of three new species, was so 
elaborately described by MM. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime, that it only remains to place 
these species in their proper position in the genus. 

The following scheme will point out their correct affinities : 

TURBINOLIA. 

TuRBiNOLi.* with four cycles of septa ; the fourth more or less incomplete. 



three cycles of septa 



three cycles of septa, with costae of a fourth cycle 



three incomplete cycles of septa 



Turbinolia costata. 


1. 


— 


dispar. 


2. 


— 


*exarata} 


3. 


— 


*Dixoni. 


4. 


— 


*Jirma. 


5. 


— 


*affinis. 


6. 


— 


Pharetra. 


7. 


— 


laminifera. 


8. 


— 


Nystana. 


9. 


— 


attemiata. 


10. 


— 


pygmcBa. 


11. 


— 


*sulcuta. 


12. 


— 


*BowerbanTci. 


13. 


— 


*Fredericiana. 


14. 


— 


*Prestwichi. 


15. 


— 


*minor. 


16. 


— 


*Forhesi. 


17. 


— 


*humiUs. 


18. 



' The species marked with an asterisk are British. 
Turbinolia attenuata, Keferst. r These species require further examination ; they were discovered 

— laminifera, Y^dersi. \ in the " Unter-Oligociin " of Germany, are very minute forms, 

— pygmcea, Roemer. L and are probably the young of other species. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 57 



Ykmm—CABYOPHYLLIACE^. 

Tribe TllOCHOCYATHACEiE. 

Genus — Trochocyathus. 

1. Trochocyathus Austeni, Buncan. PI. IX, figs. 15 — 17. 

The corallum is rather tall, slightly curved and compressed ; it is rounded at the 
base, and its sides are marked with slightly prominent but not spined or crested costse. 

The cahce is elliptical, much compressed, and slightly angular at its extremities ; its 
long axis is on a lower plane than the short axis, and its margins are raised into 
several angular processes, on account of the primary and secondary septa being less exsert 
than the tertiary. 

The fossa is moderately deep ; and the columella is long, and not very visible. The 
septa are thin, rather close, and very subspinose laterally. 

The septa are in six systems, and there are four perfect cycles. The septa are 
unequal, and are not very exsert: the primary and secondary septa are on a lower 
level than the others, and correspond to the largest and most prominent costse. 

There are small pah before the primary, secondary, and tertiary septa. 
-The costae are distinct from the base, and granula • ; the primary and secondary are 
the largest, and all are broader than the septa. Height of corallum, ^ths inch. Great 
diameter of calice, ilths inch. Small diameter of cahce, ^ths inch. 

This species belongs to the striated TrocliocyatU ^ and its tall and curved form, with 
its four cycles of septa, bring it in close relation with Trochocyathus elongatus, Edwards 
and Haime.^ The angular calicular margin is wanting in this last species, whose coral- 
lum is moreover slightly twisted. 

It is very evident that the new species is the representative of Trochocyathus elongatus. 
Trochocyathus elongatus is found at Quartier-du-Vit, near CasteUane (Basses Alpes), in an 
Eocene formation, and Trochocyathus Austeni was discovered at Bracklesham. 

In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., E.G.S. 

2. Trochocyathus insignis, Duncan. PI. X, figs. 1 — 4. 

The corallum is tall, compressed, shghtly curved inferiorly, and it has a large calice and 
a sharp base. 

The calice is ovoid, and its axes are on the same plane. 

' 'Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 27. "~ ' Ann. des Sc. Nat.,' 3rd ser,, vol. ix, p. 305, 1848. 

8 



58 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

The septa are small, thin, wavy, unequal, and have very long and sharp lateral spines. 
The septa are in six systems, but the four cycles are incomplete. The four cycles are 
complete in two systems, but are incomplete in one of the halves of each of the other 
systems. There are therefore eight septa in two systems and six in the rest. 

The columella is small and situated deeply. 

The pali arc small, and are situated before all the septa, except those of the 
last cycle. 

The costge are subequal, broad, very slightly roimded, and barely prominent ; they 
are generally marked by three rows of granules, and at the calicular margin they become 
conical, and ornamented with a prominent and wavy ridge-like process, which passes 
downwards, becoming soon lost in a faint fissure, which may be seen on most of the 
costse low down. 

Height, ^ths inch. Great diameter of calice, ^ inch. Small diameter of calice, between 
fijths and ^^ths inch. 

This species is readily distinguished from all other striated Trochocyailii by its shape, 
septal arrangement, small pah, and the curious ornamentation of the costae. 

Locallti/. Whetstone (Loudon Clay). 

In the collection of N. T. Wetherell, Esq., F.G.S. 

These are the only Trochocyathi which are known in the London Clay, and it is very 
doubtful if Trochocyathm sinuosus, Brongniart, sp., was ever found there.^ 



Genus — Paracyathus. 
1. Paracyathus cylindricus, Duncan. Plate IX, figs. 18 — 21. 

The corallum is cylindrical, straight, tall, and has a flat base, whose diameter is nearly 
equal to that of the corallum. There is a constriction just above the base, the wall is 
often marked with growth-rings, and in some corallites the calice is slightly expanded. 

The calice is circular in outline, its fossa is shallow, and the columella very small. 

The septa are slightly exsert, and in some calices more so than in others ; they are 
delicate, are marked with large granules laterally (fig. 21), and have an irregular upper 
margin. 

There are six systems of septa, and three perfect cycles ; moreover, in one half of four 
or more systems a septum of the fourth cycle is developed. The septal number is there- 
fore very irregular, and there are from twenty-eight to thirty septa in the calice. The 

^ See 'Corals of tlie London Clay,' MM. Edwards and J. Ilainie, page 22. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 59 

pali are small and lobular, and appear to be placed before all the septa except those of the 
fourth cycle. 

The cost« are distinct from the base upwards, are subequal, slightly prominent, and 
granular. The intercostal grooves are very distinct. Near the calicular margin the costae 
are often found projecting outwards and becoming exsert. 

Height of the corallum , — ~ inch. Diameter of the calice ^ths inch. 

Locality, Bramshaw, New Forest. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., 
F.G.S. 



2. Paracyathus Haimei, Duncan. Plate IX, figs. 12 — 14. 

The corallum is short and broad, and its base is nearly as broad as the calice. 

The wall is thin. 

The calice is irregularly elliptical, and its long axis is on a lower plane than the 
short axis. The margin is sharp and iiTegular, the fossa is not deep, and the columella 
does not occupy very much space. 

The septa are slender, crowded, unequal, granular, and slightly exsert. There are 
six systems, and the arrangement of the cycles is very irregular. There are two systems 
in which the septa of five cycles are complete, two in which they are incomplete, and two 
presenting septa of four cycles only. The primary septa are readily distinguished, 
and all the septa are long and often flexuous. The tertiary septa join the secondary 
in some systems. 

The pali are present before all the septa, except those of the last cycle. 

The columella'is spongy. 

The costse are thin, sharp, laminate, and project; they are often slightly flexuous, 
and their free margin is moniliform. The intercostal spaces are wide and deep. 

There are traces both of exotheca and of endotheca. 

Height of corallum j%ihs inch. Great diameter of calice ^ths inch. 

Locality, Barton. In the collection of Frederick Edwards, Esq., F.G.S. 

These Faracyatlii ai'e closely allied to the species already described from the London 
Clay, by MM. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime. 

P. Haimei differs, however from its nearest ally, P. crassus, in its septal arrangement, 
in the sharpness and ornamentation of the costse, and in the size of the intercostal 
spaces. 

P. cylindricus has some resemblance to some varieties of P. caryophyllus, but the 
septal arrangement, the small columella, and the very small pali, distinguish it. 



60 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

Family.— OCULINIDiE. 

Tribe. — OculinacejE. 

Genus. — Oculina. 

1. Oculina incrustans, Duncan. Plate IX, figs. 22 — 24. 

The corallum is small and encrusting. There is much cceneuchymaj but it is not 
granular on the surface ; it is marked near the calices by very faint costal ridges. 

The calices are arranged without order, and are situated upon more or less prominent 
eminences ; they are usually circular in outline, but there are indications of fissiparity. 
The calicular margin is sharp, the fossa is shallow from the presence of a large and 
prominent columella, and the spaces bounded by the columella, the margin, and the 
primary septa are deep. 

The primary and secondary septa are long and nearly equal ; they reach the columella 
and appear to be extended over its upper surface, but this appearance is really produced 
by the pali. 

There are four cycles of septa, and six systems ; but the septa of the fourth and lifth 
orders are very small. All the septa are delicate, rather narrow, and very unequal, except 
in the case of the primary and secondary. 

The pali are before all the septa, except those of the last cycle ; they are small and 
indistinct. 

The columella is bulky, projected, rounded, and probably was papillated. 

The costse are very faintly marked, are not straight, and can hardly be said to exist. 

Height of calicular projections ^ths inch. Diameter of calice fgths inch. 

Locality. Bracklesham. In the Sharpe Collection of the Geological Society, 

The deficiency of granular coenenchyma, the existence of additional septa, the bulky 
columella and the thin pali, distinguish this species from 0. conferta. 

2. Oculina Wetherelli, Duncan. Plate X, figs. 5 — 7. 

The corallum is short, has a very broad base for its size, is constricted above the base, 
and expands into a calice. It increases by gemmation just below the caUcular margin ; 
many buds are aborted. 

The surface is very finely granular under high magnifying powers, but smooth to the 
naked eye. 

The calice is nearly circular in outHne, and has a moderately thick wall and a deep 
fossa. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 61 

Its septa are delicate, unequal, thin, and belong to four cycles, there being six systems. 
The primary are the longest, and there are small pali before all except the septa of the 
fourth and fifth orders. 

The columella is small, blunt, and delicately papillose. 

There are no costae. 

Height of corallum ^th — ^.ths inch. Diameter of calice j^th — ^ths inch. 

Locality. Ballad's Lane, Pinchley (London Clay). In the collection of N. T. 
Wetherell, Esq., F.G.S. 

This species is closely allied to 0. conferta and 0. incrustans, and but remotely to 
0. Halensis} The gemmation, the small columella and pali, and the septal arrange- 
ment, distinguish the new species. 



^^CTioii—MADBEPOBABIA PERFORATA. 
Family— MADREPORIDiE. 

Sub-family — Eupsammin.^. 
Genus — Dendrophyllia. 
Dendrophyllia elegans, Duncan. Plate X, figs. 15 — 19. 

The corallum has a broad encrusting base which gradually tapers into a tall, slender, 
and straight stem, terminated by a calice. Gemmation occiurs close below the calicular 
margin on the outside wall, and the branches are in whorls, are long, and do not coalesce. 

The calices are either circular in outline or compressed ; they are deep, have a very 
irregular cellular margin, and a very regular septal arrangement ; they vary in size, and 
are peculiarised by long, thin, and delicate septa, and large interseptal loculi. 

There are six systems of septa, and four complete cycles ; all the septa are well deve- 
loped, laminar, and project very decidedly from the wall. The primary and secondary are 
straight and project well inwards ; and processes from them develop the columella. The 
tertiary septa are small, but well produced ; and the septa of the fourth and fifth orders 
meet externally to the tertiary septa and proceed to the columella. The laminee are 
sharply granular, but not irregularly so, and their perforations are decided. 

The columella is formed by processes from the ends of the septa, and is small. 

The costse are close, rounded above, and wider and more flattened below. The tipper 

1 Fossil Corals from Sinde : 'Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,' April, 1864. 



62 BRITISH POSSIL CORALS. 

costae arc granular either in series of one or of two rows, whilst the lower present many 
irregular rows. The cross bars of the exotheca are numerous. 

Height of corallum 2 inches. Diameter of calice f'„ths inch. 

LocaJiii). — Bracklesham. In the Dixon Collection in the British Museum. 

This species, very closely allied to D. dendrophyUoidcs, is distinguished from it by the 
habit of growth, by there being multi-granulose costa;, and by the development of the 
higher orders of the septa. 



Smno^—3IADBEP OB Alii A PEBFOBJTA. 
Family— MADREPORIDiE. 

Sub-family — Turbinarin^. 
Genus — Dendracis. 

Dendracis — generic characters.^ 

Corallum arborescent ; coenenchyma very dense, granulated on the surface ; calices 
siibmammiform ; no columella; septa few in number and barely exsert. 

Dendracis Lonsdalei, Duncan. Plate X, figs. 11 — 14. 

The corallum consists of stems branching laterally, both the stems and branches 
being nearly cylindrical. 

The coenenchyma is very abundant, is covered with blunt conical dentations, and the 
calices are rare, but slightly elevated, and very small. The calices seem to be defects 
in the ccenenchyma rather than independent structures. They are wide apart, circular, 
shallow, and have no columella. The septa are twelve in number, very large at the 
margin, and every other one has a thin continuation which passes inwards. The central 
space is deep. There are no costae (fig. 12). 

The transverse section of a stem shows its cellular nature, and that it consists of 
superimposed coenenchymal cells (fig. 13). 

Diameter of stems j^ths inch. Diameter of calices ,„th inch. 

LocaUty. Bracklesham. In the Dixon Collection in the British Museum. 

The wide apart and rare calices, and the strongly echino-deutate coenenchyma, dis- 
tinguish this species from the Dendracis Gervillii, Defrance, sp. 

The new species is attached to the under part of the base of Lonsdale's typical 
specimen oi Porites panicea described in Dixon's ' Geology of Sussex' (pi. i, fig. 7). 

1 'Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. iii, p. 1G9. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 63 



^wfio^—MADBEPOBABIA PEBFOBATA. 
Family— PORITIDiE. 

Sub-family — Poritin^. 
Genus — Porites. 
PoRiTEs PANiCEA, Lonsdde} Plate X, figs. 8 — 10. 

The corallum is flat and encrusting, and its upper surface is irregular. 

The calices are small, circular, and either crowded or rather distant. In the first 
instance, the outer margins of the septa are in close contact, and in the second there is 
more or less granular coenenchyma between the calices. 

The calices vary in the depth of their fossae, but the septa are always thick externally 
and thin internally; they are granular superiorly and laterally. There are six large and 
six small septa ; the largest are connected by pali with a solid columella. All are rather 
exsert. 

The longitudinal section shows the corallites to be deep, to have some endotheca, to be 
very porose, and to be .united by a coenenchyma of very distinct cells. The amount of 
this coenenchyma varies according to the approximation of the corallites. 

Height of corallum |ths inch. Diameter of calices ^th inch. 

Locality. Bracklesham. In the Dixon Collection in the British Museum. 

There can be no doubt about this coral possessing a granular coenenchyma, a colu- 
mella, and pali. It is not the Astrosa panacea of Michelin,^ which is really an Astrceo- 
pora^ having neither columella nor pali. The Porites panicea has more lamellate septa 
and a more decided coenenchyma than the other species of the genus, and it unites the 
genera Astrmopora, Porites, and Litliarma. The species has no resemblance to the Porites 
incrustans, Defrance, from the Miocene of Turin, nor has it close alliances with any of the 
recent forms. 

1 ' Dixon, ' Geol. and Foss. of Susses,' pi. i, fig. 7. ^ Micheliu ' Iconogr.,' pi. 44, fig. 11. 

^ Pictet, ' Paleont.,' vol. iv. 



64 BRITISH POSSIL CORALS. 

S-ECTio^—MJDEEPOIiAIilA TABULATA. 
Family— MILLEPORID A. 

Genus — Axopora. 
AxopoRA FisHERi, Dimcctn. Plate X, figs. 20 — 22. 

The corallum is large ; it has an oval encrusting base, and a gibbous and tumid upper 
surface and sides. 

The coenenchyma is coarsely reticulate even for an Axopora, and is very abundant. 

The calices are larger than usual in the genus, are very distinct, rather distant, and 
are separated by irregular elevations of the coenenchyma. 

The columella is large, is very simple and prominent, and is rounded and rather 
sharp. The tabute are very wide apart. 

Height of the corallum 1^ inch. 

Locality. Bracklesham. Collected by the Rev. Osmond Fisher, F.G.S. 

The coarse coenenchyma and the size of the calices, with the nature of the encrusting 
base, distinguish this species from those already described. 



IX.— LIST OF BRITISH TERTIARY CORALS FROM THE CRAG, BROCKENHURST BEDS, AND 
THE EOCENE OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT AND THE LONDON CLAY. 

I. — No new species have been discovered in the British Crag since the publication 
of the Monograph of the British Fossil Corals by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 
Those noticed and described in that monograph are as follows : 

1. Sphenotrochus intermedius, Miinster, sp. 

2. Flabellum Woodi, Edwards and Hatme.^ 

3. Cryptangia Woodi, Edwards and Haime. 

4. Balanophyllia calyculus, Searles Wood. 



1 The Rpecies should be called Flabellum semilunatum, Wood, but doubtless Mr. Searles Wood will 
be satisfied with the distinction MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime conferred on him. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 



65 



II. — The following species have been described from the Brockenhurst beds : 



1 . Solenastrcea celMosa, sp. nov. 

2. — Koeneni, 

3. — Heussi, 

4. — gemmans, 

5. — Beyrichi, 

6. — granvlata, 

7. Balanophyllia granulata, 

8. Lobopsammia cariosa, Goldfuss, sp. 

9. Axopora MicJielini, sp. nov, 

10. Litharcea BrockenJmrsti, „ 

1 1 . Madrepora Anglica, „ 
c 12. — Boemeri, „ 

13. — Solanderi, Defrance. 



III. — The following list includes all the species from the London Clay, the 
Bracklesham beds, and the Barton beds : 



1. 


TurUnoUa sulcata, Lamarck. 


2. 


— JDixoni, Edwards and Hairae. 


3. 


— BowerbanJd, ,, 


4. 


— Frederieiana, „ 


5. 


— Jiumilis, „ 


6. 


— minor, „ 


7. 


— Jirma, „ 


8. 


— Prestwichi, „ 


9. 


— affmis, sp. nov. 


10. 


— exarata, „ 


11. 


— Forbesi, „ 


12. 


Leptocyat/ms elegans, Edwards and Haime 


13. 


Trocliocyatlms sinuosus, Brongniart, sp. 


14. 


— Austeni, sp. nov. 


15. 


— insignis „ 


16. 


Baracyatlius crassus, Edwards and Haime. 


17. 


— caryophyUm, Lamarck, sp. 


18. 


— brevis, Edwards and Hairae. 



66 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

19. Paraci/athus Tlaimci, sp. nov. 

:20. — cyl'mdricvs, „ 

21. Dasmia Sotcerdi, Edwards and Haiiue. 

22. OcuVma co/iferta, 

23. „ incrustans, sp. nov. 

24. „ WethereUi, „ 

25. Diplokelia papulosa, Edwards and Haime. 

26. Stylocania emarciafa, Lamarck, sp. 

27. — monticuJaria, Schweigger, sp. 

28. AstroccEnia pukhella, Edwards and Haiine. 

29. StephanophjUia discoides, 

30. Balanopliynia desmophi/llim, 

31. Dendrop/ii/Uia eJeyans, sp. nov. 

3:2. — dendrophylloides, Lonsdale, sp. 

33. Sfereopsanmia humilis, Edwards and Haime. 

34. Dendracis Lonsdalei, sp. nov. 

35. Pontes panicca, Lonsdale. 

36. Litharaa Websteri, Bowerbank, sp. 

37. Axopora Fisheri, sp. nov. 

38. — Parisirnsis, Michelin, sp. 



NcMBEii OF Species.^ 

Crag . . .4. 

Brockenhurst . .13. 

London Clay ^ 

Bracklesham >- . . • 38. 

Barton ) 

Total Tertiary Species . . 55. 

' Till' corals from Leiilmm and the ferruginous sands of the North Downs are only found as 
indeterminable casts 



PLATE I. 

TO ILLUSTRATE THE STRUCTURE OF CORALS. 

(See Lttroductmi.) 

The calice of Balliycyathus Sowerbi/i' (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime). The projection of the cos/te externally 
and of the s(v;/a internally is shown ; the existence of a wall between the junctions of the septa and costie is evident. 
There is no columi'lla. 

The costie running down the outside of the coralluni of Trochosmilia tnberosa (after llilne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime). 

\ section of a corallite of Lophohelia anthophyllites, Ellis, showing the dense tfatl, with the projection inwards of the 
septa. There are no costiie. From nature, magnified. 

k corallite of Coenocyallms Jdamsi, Duncan,' showing the base, the boily, and the calicular termination. The base is 
rou;;h, and was formerly strongly attached to a foreign substance; the body has a few aborted buds on it, and the 
upper extremity shows faint costs terminating in septa. 

A longitudinal section of Sphemtrochm intermedins' (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime). The central styliform 

' process is the columella ; it arises from the base internally, and is joined to the septa by lateral processes. It is an 

"essential" columella. The septa are shown as broad plates, granulated and arched; they are attached externally to 

the wall. Outside the faint shading of the wall is the slight projection of one of the costse. This corallite is open 

from the calicular margin to the base. 

The calice of Placotroclms costatus, Duncan.'' The upper and free surface of a long columella is shown, also the same 
structures as in fig. 1. Magnified. 

The external surface of the same coral, showing the irregular calicular margin, the strong costae, and the AeWciXe peduncle 
of the base. 

Part of a calice of Placocyathus Moorei. Duncan," showing the costae, septa, and part of a long columella, as in fig. 6 ; but 
there urepali on the ends of four of the septa. Magnified. 

The calice of Trochocyathus obesus^ (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Hainie), magnified. The larger septa are separated 
by three smaller, of which the middle one is the longest. There are twelve large septa, and every other one is a 
prmiary septum. The pali are before the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary septa. There are four cycles 
of septa. 

The calice of Discocyathus Eudesii' (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime), magnified. The columella is lamellar, and 
the large pali are before the antepenultimate cycle (or the third). There are five cycles. 

Two corallites of Seliaslrtea endothecata," Duncan, magnified. The costae seem to be united by transverse exotbecal 
dissepiments, and the tooth of a small costa projects in the space formed by the dissepiments and the costie. 
Some coenenchyma exists between the corallites. 

A longitudinal section of Conosmilia anomala,^ Duncan, magnified. Tlie twisted processes forming the essential columella 
are seen, and one side of the lamina of a septum. This is granidar, and is marked by a broken ridge, which once was 
continued to the next septum as a dissepiment. The wall is seen externally. 

A section of a corallite of Calamophyllia Stoiesi^" (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime), magnified. The formation of 
a rudimentary columella is shown, and the sections of oblique dissepiments between the septa and crossing the interseptal 
loculi are seen. 

A longitudinal section of the upper part of a corallum of Caryophyllia cyathus" (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime), 
magnified. The wall is the external and structureless part, and it has no costaj projectmg from it. The lateral view of 
the septa shows them to be granular, arched above, and slightly exsert. The pah are attached to the inner margin of 
the septa and to the outer part of the columella, which is formed by many twisted processes. A line drawn from the 
top of opposite septa forms the upper limit of the calicular fossa, and whose base is the top of the columella centrally, 
and the tO|p of the pali. There are no dissepiments. 

A longitudinal section of part of the corallum of Antillia Lonsdaleia,''' Duncan, magnified. The thin wall gives off inter- 
nally many dissepiments, which are joined by their side to the septum. Externally, it is in contact with a few 
oblique exotbecal dissepiments. The granulated structure crossed by the exotheca, and external to the wall, 
is a costa, and is seen to emerge into a septum superiorly. The septum is very exsert, is bilobate, dentate, and is 
marked by radiating ornamental ridges. The columella is dense. The endotheca is vesicular. 

A corallum of the genus Montlivallia, showing the epitheca with circular rings. 

A diagram of the relation of the hard and soft parts of a coral. The parts shaded are the wall, the part of the sclerenchyma 
below the newest dissepiment, and the columella. All the rest is in contact with soft tissues. The mouth and tentacles 
are shown. 

A diagram of the hard parts of a coral. The living tissues only cover the portion above the topmost exotbecal and 
endothecal dissepiments. The base is pedunculate, and embraces a foreign substance; the columella springs from the 
inside of the base, and is in contact laterally with the pali. The septa, wall, costae, endothecal and exotbecal dissepi- 
ments, are shown, and the trace of an epitheca quite externally and interiorly also. 

Corallites of a Sarcinula '•! (after Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime), united by peritheca ; the costae are rudimentary. 

' ' Brit. Foss. Corals,' t;il). ii. ^ " Corals of Maltese Miocene," 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' s. 3, vol. xv, pi. xi. 

■' ' Brit. Foss. Corals,' tab. i, fig. 5. ■* Duncan and Wall, Jamaica. ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' Fei) , 1SG5. 

^ Duncan and Wall, op. eit. " 'Ann. des Sciences Nat.,' 3me serie, " Zool.." torn, ix, pi. x, fig. 2. ' Ibid., pi. ix, fig. 7. 
'* Duncan, " Foss. Corals of West Indies," ' Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' Nov., ISli,'}, vol. xix, p. xv. 
^ Duncan, " Foss. Corals of Australian Tertiaries," ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' Sept., 1865. 

'" ' Brit. Foss. Corals,' part ill. " ' Ann. des Sci. Nat.,' ut supra, tom. ix, p. 85. 

''' ' Foss. Corals of West Indies,' part ii, pi. iii. '■' ' Ann. des Sci. Nat.,' ut supra, tom. x, pi. vi. 



Tl.I. 




lie Wilde litK^ 



JyL&lf itaaihixfc jmp 



CORALS 



PLATE II. 

TO ILLUSTRATE THE STRUCTURE OF CORALS. 
FlO. 
1 to 8, and fig. 19. The soft parts of Cladocora ccespitosa^ (after Jules Haime). Fig. 4. The tentacules, 
tentacular disc, mouth, and radiating lines on the lips. Fig. 3. Magnified view of a 
section of part of a tentacule ; the arrangement and nature of the nematocysts and of the large 
transparent vesicles of the verrucose prominences are shown ; the structure of the internal layer, 
with its colour-bearing cells, is also shown. Fig. 1. A portion of the terminal swelling of a 
tentacule; the two kinds of nematocysts are very well seen. Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. Nematocysts 
of the terminal swelling. Fig. 2. The tubular processes attached to mesenteric folds ; they 
are covered with cilia, and contain nematocysts. Fig. 19. A portion of a tentacule, magni- 
fied, showing the terminal swelling and the verrucose swellings. 

9, II. 12, 15, 18, 20.2 The soft tissues of Caryophyllia davits (borealis). Fig. 12. The polype attached 
to a Ditrupa by a fine peduncle ; the costse are seen to be covered with a transparent tissue, 
which gives them a rounded outline ; the tentacules overlap the calicular margin, and are fully 
expanded (slightly magnified). Fig. 9. The tentacules of various orders fully expanded, the 
central mouth, the lips, and the disc immediately around them, with the radiating lines, are 
shown. The hard parts of the calice are completely covered and hidden. Fig. 11. A 
magnified view of the tentacular disc, the tentacules not being fully expanded. The septa 
are seen, but are covered with soft tissue. The mouth, lips, and disc, with the radiating lines, 
are shown. 

1.5. The top of a tentacule, magnified, showing scutiform processes aiialogous to the verrucose projections 
of Cladocora. Figs. 18 and 20. The same processes, highly magnified. 

10. The tentacular discs^ of the corallites of Heliastreea cavernosa, magnified. The mouth is projected 
on a truncated process, and the tentacular development is small. 

13. LithophtjlHa Cubensis* in the living state. The costse are quite hidden by the soft parts, and 
the large disc, with its central mouth and radiating lines, is seen. The base is very broad. 

1-4. ColpophylUa gyrosaj' from a living specimen. The three mouths to a part of a serial calice. 

I(). Manicina areolata^' showing the relation of the tentacules to the mouths in the serial calice. 

I 7. A coral of the same species,^ with the prehensile cirrhi fully expanded. The tentacules are small, and 
there are two mouths to the serial calice. 



' ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, plate, a, iv. 

- These beautiful illustrations were drawn for me, from nature, by Mr. Peach, who also gave me his 
notes on the anatomy of the C borealis, Fleming. 

i 1 a c 7 The figures are after Michelotti et Duchassaing, op. eit., pi. v. 



PI II. 




JJe.Wiiaelltk. 



M.& Tr.HaliKii.rt.imj>. 



COEAIjS 



PLATE III. 

to illustrate the structure 0¥ corals. 
Fig. 
1, 2, and ". These illustrate the nature of synapticulae, from species of Micrahacia and Mycedmm. The 
cross bars are not in the nature of dissepiments, and must not be considered to be the upper surfaces of 
very oblique or nearly vertical dissepiments. 
.3. Corallites of Alveopora (hedalaa} showing the regular perforations in the wall, constituting the species 

a " perforate" or porose coral. 
-1. The perforate septa and walls of Litkarcea Websteri. Compare these cribriform septa with those of 

Sphenotrochus intermedins in Plate I, fig. 5. 
.5. The wall, septa, and false columella of Alveopora fenestrata} 

6. The structure of the septa of the same coral seen longitudinally. They consist of a simple series of 
projections, and do not form a continuous plate or lamina. 

8. The calice of Pocillopora erassoramosa,^ showing a horizontal dissepiment (a tabula) closing the 

calice below. It is marked by faint septa near the calicular margin ; the cceneuchyma external to 
the calice is very dense and granular. 

9. A diagram of a longitudinal section of the same species. The tabulae with arched superior surfaces 

and the dense coenenchyma with its granules are shown. 

1 0. The tubuliform structures marked across by lines are corallites of Heliolites Murchisoni ; the tabulae 

represented by the lines are close ; the wall of the corallites is very slender, and there is much 
cellular coenenchyma between the corallites. 

11. A longitudinal section of a tabulate coral, a Favosites. There is no ccenenchyma, but the walls are 

fused. 

12. Calices of Heliolites interstincta, magnified. The coenenchyma is cellular. 

13. Qi&\ices oi s.n Alveolites. 

14. Perforate walls of a i^(zwo«;Ye«. 

1.5. A calice of Stauria astrceceformis,* with three calicular buds. The quadriseptate arrangement is very 

evident. Magnified. 
1 G. Longitudinal section of a corallite of the same species.* The dense walls, the endotheca forming 

cellular dissepiments externally and horizontal tabulje internally, and the septa, are shown. 

Magnified. 

1 7. The calice of Anisophyllum Agassizi,^ magnified, showing three large septa. 

18. The calice of Cyathaxonia cornu^ magnified. 

ly. The calice o{ Aulacophylluin mitratiim,^ magnified. 
20. The calice of Ptycliophyllum expansum? 



^ ' Foss. Corals of West Indies,' pi. xiv. 

- ' Ann. des Sc. Nat.,' t. ix, pi. v. 3 < Yo^%\\ Corals of West Indies,' pt. ii, pi. 5. 

*~' Selected from 'Polyp. Foss. des Terr. Paleo.,' MM. Milne-Edwards et Jules Haime; they are 
intended to illustrate the Introduction which will appear when the palaeozoic species are described. 









^« 
















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]ytW,T&n>.a.rt inij 



PLATE IV. 

TO ILLUSTRATK THE STRUCTURE OF CORALS. 
Fig. 

1. Magnified view of part of a transverse section of the corallum of Antillia Walli} The upright 

plates are septa, and the lowest structure at right angles to the septa, and which has its lower 
margin somewhat wavy, is part of the epitheca. The structure parallel with the epitheca, and 
separated from it by the short costse and intercostal spaces, is the true wall. Higher up 
are two transverse dense layers of sclerenchyma ; they spread from septum to septum across 
the interseptal loculi and simulate secondary walls. They are highly developed masses of dissepi- 
ments, whose intercellular spaces have been filled up with carbonate of lime. 

2. A longitudinal section of part of a cor.allite of Lonsdaleia Bronni,- magnified. The columella has 

been removed. The tabulae are seen stretching across, but not interfering with the growth 
of the septa; externally, the vesicular endotheca partly produces a false wall. The dense wall 
is shown. 
3 and 4. Examples of inner and outer walls in Rugose corals. 
."). The septa and the cut edges of oblique dissepiments in a large species of Zaphrentis, from 

nature, 
(i. Part of a corallite of Zaphrentis gigantea,^ showing the granular epitheca, the slight true wall, the 

septa, and the interseptal loculi, with dissepiments. 
7. Cahces and cccnenchyma of Lijellia Americana,^ magnified. 

S. Calicinal gemmation in a Caryophyllia ; it is fatal to the parent, and is accidental. From uature. 
!) and 10. Calicinal gemmation in a Cyathophylhitn. The normal and the budding corallites are 

shown. 
1 1 . Calicinal gemmation close to the margin, in the genus Isastrcea, magnified. 
\i 
13 
N 

!.■; 
ifi 



Fissiparous division of calices in Dichoeania. 

Fissiparous division of calices in Leptastrcea Roissyana,^ magnified. 

A serial calice of the genus Thysanus. 

Calices (serial) of a Mceandrina. 

An example of extracalicular gemmation, from nature. 

A corallum of Oculina Halensis. The centre is occupied by the parent stem, and the buds radiate 

from it.'' 
A section of a branch of a species of Madrepora, magnified. The parent corallite occupies 

the centre, and the younger arise from it more or less at right angles. The peculiar septal 

arrangement of the genus and the porose condition of the sclerenchyma are shown. From 

nature. 



' Duncan and Wall, op. cit., pi. ii. 

- ^ * From ' Polypiers Fossiles des Terr. Pal.,' MM. Milne-Edwards et Jules Haime. 

'" ' Ann. des. Sc. Nat.,' t. x, pi. ix. 

•* " Foss. Corals from Sinde," ' Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,' &c., April, 18G4. 



PI. IV 




JDeWalde UtK . 



JvT.^K.lIarihar-b imp 



n n TD A T. c 



PLATE V. 



CORALS FROM BROCKENHURST. 



SolenastrcBa cellulosa, Duncan. (P. 41.) 
Fig. 

1 . View of the upper surface of the coraUum. 

2. Lateral view, showing the cellular exotheca. 

3. One system, with its four cycles ; the abundant endotheca is showai, also the rudi- 

mentary costse. Much magnified. 

4. A transverse section of a corallite close to the cahce, magnified. 

5. A lateral view of a corallite covered with exotheca, magnified. 

6. Part of a corallite above the exotheca, and showing the costse ; magnified. 

7. View of the upper surface, magnified. 

Solenastrcea Koeneni, Duncan. (P. 42.) 

8. The corallura. 

9. A calice, highly magnified. 

SolenastrcBa Reussi, Duncan. (P. 43.) 

10. The corallum, showing the banded exotheca. 

11. Costae ; there is exotheca above and below them. 

12. Upper surface of corallum, highly magnified, showing the granular surface of the 

upper layer of the exotheca, the banded structure of part of the exotheca, and the 
calices. 

13. Upper surface of corallum, worn. 

14. Exotheca, cellular and banded. 

15. Side view of one of the septa, magnified. 

16. One system of septa, showing five cycles. 



PI V 




]IvI.*-H JlRJ-CKa-rt, imp 



X)e"VVilcLe,liUn.. 



TERTIARY CORALS. 



PLATE VI. 



CORALS FROM BROCKENHURST. 



Solenasfrcea gemmans, Duncan. (P, 44.) 

Fig. 
1. The corallum, a side view. 
:2. Corallites showing the method of gemmation, slightly magnified. 

3. Costse, magnified. 

4. Two corallites, united by exotheca, magnified. 

5. A view a little below the calice, magnified. 

6. One of the septa; the lateral processes join endothecal dissepiments. 

7. Granular and endothecal markings on the side of one of the septa, magnified. 

Solenastran Beyricld, Duncan. (P. 44.) 

8. The corallum, its upper surface. 

9. Lateral view of corallites and exotheca, shghtly magnified. 

10. One of the septa, showing the thick wall and inclined endotheca, magnified. 

11. Costse, thick wall, and septa, magnified. 

12. Transverse section, close to a calice, magnified. 

13. A deformed calice, magnified. 

Solenastraa granulata, Duncan. (P. 45.) 

14. Upper surface of a worn corallum. 

15. Cellular and banded exotheca uniting corallites, magnified. 

16. CoralHte wall without exotheca; exotheca in cells and bands; the costse are also 

shown. Magnified. 

17. Transverse section of a corallite, magnified. 

IS. The septa at the caUcular margin, showing the paliform lobe, magnified. 



PITE 




"De "Wilde hl.h. 



M:S;lf,Ha.i-:hB.rtjnij 



PLATE VII. 



CORALS FORM BROCKENHURST. 



Balanophyllia granulata, Duncan. (P. 47.) 
Fig. 

1. The corallum fixed to a shell. 

2. General view of the costse, magnified. 

3. Larger or inferior end of the costse, magnified. 

4. Costae higher up, magnified, to show their granules. 

5. The rough and elevated granular surface of the smaller costse, magnified. 

Lobopsammia cariosa, Goldf., sp. (P. 48.) 

6. Lateral view of a corallum. 

7. Costae, magnified. 

8. A corallum with fissiparous calices. 

9. A fissiparous calice, magnified. 

10. The base of a corallum. 

Axopora Michelini, Duncan. (P. 50.) 

11. Corallum. 

12. Magnified view of calices, with the columella and coenenchyma. 

13. Magnified view of corallites in longitudinal section. 

14. Columella, tabulae, and ccenenchyma, highly magnified. 

15. Longitudinal view of corallites in longitudinal section, magnified. (Figs. 13 and 15 

are from a variety.) 

Litharcea Brockenhursti, Duncan. (P. 49.) 

16. Calices, magnified. 

17. A calice, highly magnified. 



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PLATE VIIT. 

CORALS FROM BROCKENHURST. 

2Iadrej)ora Anglica, Duncan. (P. 51.) 
Fig. 

1. The corallum. 

2. Group of calices from the end of an aborted branch ; the union of opposite primary 

septa is well seen. Magnified. 

3. A diagram of the septal arrangement, the wall, and the faint costse. 

4. Slightly projecting calices, separated by much papillate coenenchyma, magnified. 

5. One of the calices, magnified, showing the papillate coenenchyma also. 

6. Longitudinal section of two corallites and the intervening cojnenchymal cells ; the 

papillae on the surface arc shown. Magnified. 

7. Magnified view of a projecting tubuliform calice, with costse ending inferiorly in the 

coenenchymal papillae. 

Madrejwra Roemeri, Duncan. (P. 5L) 

8. The coalesced branches of part of the corallum. 

9. Diagram of the septal arrangement. 

10. A tubuliform calice, with projecting costse, magnified. 

11. A branch (worn), magnified. 



Madrepora Solanderi, Defrance. (P. 51.) 

12. Part of a corallum. 

13. Group of calices, magnified. 

14. Group of calices and surrounding granular coenenchyma, magnified. 



■'%^^^1 



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TERTJiffi-Y CORAiS. 



PLATE IX. 

COKALS FROM HIGH-CLIFF, BROOK, BRACKLESHAM, BRAMSHAW, A^'D BARTON. 

TurbinoUa ajjijiis, Duncan. (P. 54.) 
Fig. 

1 . Cor.illum, natural size. 

2. Corallum, biglily magnified. 

3. Calice, magnified. 

The costal markings are shown in fig. 2. 

Tarbinolia exarata, Duncan. (P. 55.) 

4. Corallum, natural size. 

5. The same, highly magnified. 

6. The calice, highly magnified, showing the projecting costse, the thin wall, and the small columella. 

7. The rudimentary exotheca on the side of one of the costae, and its attachment to the thin wall. The 

portion of the wall is at the bottom of an intercostal space. Magnified. 

TiirhinoUa Forhesi, Duncan. (P. 55.) 

8. Corallum, natural size. 

9. The same, magnified ; the rudimentary costse are seen between those well developed, close to the 

calicular margin. 

10. Calice, magnified, showing the irregular septal arrangement, the rudimentary costse, and the angular 

shape of the columella. 

1 1 . A part of a calice, highly magnified, to show the rudimentary and the perfect costre ; the rudimentary 

costse are sharp, and have no septa. 

Paracyathm Haimei, Duncan. (P. 59.) 

12. Corallum, natural size. 

13. The calice, magnified. It is worn. 

14. Costse, magnified. The exotheca is shown. 

Trochoci/athus Austeni, Duncan. (P. 57.) 

16. Corallum. 

16. Calice, magnified. 

17. One of the septa joined to a costa, showing the spinules ; magnified. 

Paracyatlius cijlindricus, Duncan. (P. 58.) 

18. Corallum, natural size ; adult. 

19. Young corallum. 

20. Calice, magnified. 

21. Side view of a magnified septum, showing the large granules. 

Oculiiia incrustans, Duncan. (P. CO.) 

22. Part of a corallum, slightly magnified. 

23. Part of a corallum, showing the faint costal striae and the absence of granules ; slightly magnified. 

24. Calice, much magnified. 



Pl.lX.. 



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Itj j J'., 














DeWilde.litK. 



M-tTT-Hanha-Tt ojng 



PLATE X. 

CORALS FROM BRACKLESHAM, WHETSTONE, AND FINCHEEY. 

Trocliocyatlms insignis, Duncan. (P. 57.) 
Fig. 

1. Corallum. 

2. The calice, magnified. 

3. One of the septa, magnified, to show the lateral spinules and the wavy shape. 

4. Costse, magnified (at the calicular margin). 

Oculina Wether elli, Duncan. (P. 60.) 

'ICorallites, showing the broad base. 

6.j 

7. The calice, magnified. 

Pontes panicea, Lonsdale. (P. G3.) 

8. Corallum. 

9. Calices and intercalicular tissue, magnified, showing the columella, pali, and granules. 

10. The inter-corallite tissue, magnified. 

Dendracis Lonsdalei, Duncan. (P. 62.) 

11. Corallum, natural size. 

12. Calice, highly magnified, showing the granules around the calice. 

13. Transverse section of a branch of the corallum, showing its reticulate appearance. 

14. Intercalicular or coenenchymal granules, highly magnified, 

Bcndropliyllia elegans, Duncan. (P. 6L) 

15. Corallum. 

16. A calice, highly magnified. 

17. The method of gemmation. 

18. Costffi, near the calices, magnified. 

19. Costse, near the base, magnified. 

Axopora Fisheri, Duncan. (P. 64.) 

20. Corallum. 

21. Calices and intercalicular tissue, magnified. 

22. A calice, columella, and coenenchyma, highly magnified. 



Pl.X. 







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M&K.Hsu-i'Kayt imp 



A MONOGRAPH 



BEITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



SECOND SERIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B.Lond., F.R.S., 

PELLOW OF, AND SBCEETAET TO, THE aEOLOaiCAL SOCIETT. 



Being a Supplement to the 
'Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' by MM. Milne-Edwaeds and Jules Haimb. 



PART II. 

COEALS FROM THE WhITE ChALK, THE UpPER GrEENSAND^ THE EbD ChALK Or HuNSTANTON, 

THE Upper Geeensanb of Haldon, the Gault, and the Lower Geeensand. 
Pages 1—46 ; PJates I— XV. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOE THE PALiEONTOG-EAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1869—1870. 



PEINTED BY 
ADLAED AND SON, BAETHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



CONTENTS OF SUPPLEMENT TO THE CEETACEOUS CORALS. 



I. iNTEODtrCTION ....... 

II. Corals from the "White Chalk ; Description of Species . . . 

III. List of New Species ...... 

IV. List of Species ....... 

V. Corals from the Upper Greensand ; Description of 

VI. List of Species ....... 

VII. Corals from the Red Chalk of Hunstanton ; Description of 

VIII. Corals from the Upper Greensand of Haldon .... 

IX. Corals from the Gault ; Description of New, and Notes on Old Species 

X. List of Species from the Gault ..... 

XI. Corals from the Lower Greensand ; Description of New, and Notices of Old Species 

XII. List of New Species . • . . . 

XIII. List of Species from the Lower Greensand .... 

XIV. List of Species from the Cretaceous Formations .... 



PAGB 

1 
•2 
15 
16 
18 
23 
23 
27 
31 
38 
39 
43 
43 
44 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS, 



SECOND SEEIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B. LOND., F.R.S., 

EELLOW OP, AND SECEETAEY TO, THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Being a Supplement to the 
'Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 



PART II, No. 1. 

COEALS FEOM THE WhITE ChaLK, ThE FpPEE GbEENSAND, AND THE ReB ChaLK 

OP Hunstanton. 
Pages 1—26 ; Plates I— IX. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1869. 



PEINTED BY 
J. E. ADLAED, BAETHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



A MONOGEAPH 

OF THE 

BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

(SECOND SERIES.) 
Part II.— No. I. 



Corals from the Cretaceous Eormations. 
INTRODUCTION. 

Notwithstanding several years have elapsed since MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime wrote their description of the Corals of the British Cretaceous series, and vast 
additions have been lately made to the faunse of the Chalk, Upper Greensand, Gault, and 
Lower Greensand, very few new Madreporaria have been discovered in these Upper 
Secondary deposits. 

A few species which had been described by Mr. Lonsdale before MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime wrote their Monograph for the Palseontographical Society, but which 
those authors did not consider sufficiently distinguished, appear, from the study of new 
specimens and the examination of the original types, to be worthy of re-publication. These 
species, with some others known in Continental Cretaceous deposits, but not hitherto 
noticed in Great Britain, and several new species, are described and illustrated in this Part. 

Some important varieties of the species described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime and by Mr. Lonsdale have been studied and described, and some illustrations of the 
specific forms themselves have been added in consequence of the reception of fine 
specimens. 

1 



HRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



Corals from the Upper and Lower White Chalk.^ 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime noticed and described nine species from these 
formations. One of these species had been previously described by Mantell and another 
by Reuss, so that seven species were added to om* British fauna through the industry of 
the great French Zoophytologists. 

During the last few months I have thoroughly examined the specimens offered to 
me and those which had been studied by Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, Lonsdale, and 
Mantell. I can add ten new species to the list of the Corals from the White Chalk, and 
five good varieties of formerly known species. It is necessary, also, to admit a species of 
Mr. Lonsdale's, and to suppress one of MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime's. 



Sectio^^—JPOBOSJ. 
Family— TURBINOLID^. 

Division CARYOPIITLLACEiE. 

Genus — Caryopiiyllia. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime adopted for a Coral from the Upper Chalk the 
name Cyaildna Imvigata. They published this name in their " Monog. des Turbinolides" 
('Ann. des Sciences Nat.,' 3me serie, vol. ix, p. 290, 1848), and in their 'Monograph of the 
Corals of the Upper Chalk' (Pal. Soc, 1850). Lonsdale named the same coral Monocarya 
centralis, Dixon (' Geol. of Sussex,' 1850), and probably Monocarya cultrata also. 

In 1850 D'Orbigny ('Prodr. de Palcont.,' t. ii, p. 275, 1850) gave the Coral the 
specific name cylindracea, it having become evident that Reuss was the primary disco- 
verer of the species in 1846. In his ' Kreideformation,' p. 61, pi. xiv, figs. 23 — 30, 
Reuss gave the name AnthophyUum cylindraceim. The genus of the Coral is evidently 
Caryopiiyllia in the sense adopted by Charles Stokes in 1828. 

^ The following authors hiive written upon this subject : 

Parkinson, 'Organic Remains of a Former World,' &c., 1811. 

Mantell, 'Geol. of Sussex,' 1822; and 'Trans. Geol. Soc.,' 2nd series, vol. iii, 1829. 

Fleming, 'British Animals,' 1828. 

Phillips, 'lUust. Geol. York,' parti, 1829. 

S. Woodward, 'Syn. Table of Brit. Org. Remains,' 1830. 

R. C. Taylor, in 'Mag. Nat. Hist.,' vol. iii, p. 271, 1830. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, op. cit. 

Lonsdale, in Dixon's 'Geol. Sussex,' ISJO. 



PROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 3 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, having all this information before them, very 
properly admit the generic and specific names to be Caryopliyllia cylindracea, Reuss, sp. 
C Hist. Nat. des Corall./ vol. ii, p. 18). 

This species is very polymorphic, and the pali of some specimens are very lUce the 
outer terminations of the columellary structures in some JParasmilim. Very frequently it 
is hardly possible to determine in Caryo;phyllia cylindracea which are pali and which the 
ends of the columellary fasciculi. Moreover, in some specimens the base is small and the 
costa3 reach low down, whilst in others the base is normal and large, the costse being 
abnormal from their length. 

There is a new species of this genus in the Dunstable Chalk and another in the Chalk 
of Sussex. There are thus three species of Caryophyllia in the Upper Chalk of England : 

1. Caryophyllia cylindracea, Reuss, sp. 

2. „ Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

3. „ Tennanti „ 

1. Caryophyllia cylindkacea, Beuss, sp. PI. I, figs. 7 — 12. 

Li the British Museum, Dixon Collection. 

2. Caryophyllia Lonsdalei, Duncan. PI. I, figs. 1 — 3. 

The corallum has a large and encrusting base, and the stem is cylindro-conical and 
straight. There is a slight curve near the base. 

The calice is circular, small, not very open, and moderately deep. 

The columella is small, and is terminated by rod-shaped processes. 

The septa are slightly exsert, the primary especially. There are three complete 
cycles, and the septa of the higher orders of the fourth cycle are not developed in every 
system. The primary, secondary, and tertiary septa are very alike. They have a wavy 
inner edge, and are granular. 

The pali are situated before the tertiary septa, and are knob-shaped and rather flat 
from side to side. 

The costae are nearly equal at the calicular margin, and pass downwards as flat, band- 
like prominences, separated by shallow intercostal grooves. They are continued to the 
base, but are hidden midway by an epithecal growth. 

Height of the corallum, |ths inch. Breadth of the calice, 3rd inch. 

Locality. Dunstable. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

This species is readily distinguished by its costse, and is more closely allied to 
C. cylindracea than to any other form. 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



3. Caryophyllia Tennanti, Duncan. PI. I, figs. 4 — 6. 

The corallutn has a large base, a curved cylindrical stem, and an inclined elliptical 
calice. It is short in relation to its broad base. 

The calice is open and shallow. 

The columella is small, and terminates in twelve knob-shaped endings to the 
fasciculi. 

The septa are unequal, and there are five incomplete cycles. 

The lamina; arc marked with curved lines of granules, are wavy and unequal. 

The pali arc higher than the columellary processes, are wavy, flattened, and curved. 

The costse are sub- equal in the upper third, but are not seen below. 

Height, 1 ird inch. Length of calice, |ths inch. 

LocalUij. Sussex ; Upper Chalk. In the Collection of Professor Tennant, P.G.S. 

This species connects the Cretaceous Caryoplajllice with those of the Tertiary and 
Recent systems.. 



Fam ily— TURBINOLID^. 

Division TuilBINOLIACE^. 

Genus nov. — Onchotrochus. 

The corallum is simple, tall, slender, ratlier hook-shaped or clavate, and presents 
evidences of irregular growth. 
There is no endotheca. 

The costse are rudimentary, and there is no columella. 
The septa are few in number. 
The epitheca is pellicular and striated. 

The genus is somewhat allied to Smihtrochus, Siijhirochis, and very distantly to 
Flahellum. 

... ONCUOTROcnus SERPENTiNUS, Duncctu. PI. VI, figs. 1 — 4. 

The corallum is tubulate, curved superiorly, and straight and tapering inferiorly. A 
sudden diminution in the diameter of the upper part of the corallum exists. 
The costcie are quite rudimentary. 
The epitheca is marked with fine transverse striations. 



FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 5 

The septa are continuous witli what appear to be rudimentary intercostal spaces. 

The laminae are twelve in number ; they project into the circular calice^ but are not 
exsert. A section proves that they are very stout, even low down in the corallum. 

Length of the corallum, 1 inch. Diameter of the calice, jth inch. 

Locality. Charlton, Kent. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshii-e, E.G.S. 

This species is mimetic of Parasmilia serpentina, Ed. and H., from the same geological 
horizon, just as TrocUosmilia cylindrica is mimetic of Parasmilia cylindrica. The Stylo- 
trocJd of the Cambridge Upper Greensand are closely alhed to this species, which is found 
in the Grey Chalk and Lower White Chalk. 



Eamilt— ASTR^IDiE. 
Genus — Trochosmilia. 
Sub-yenus — Ccelosmilia. 

It is a great question whether Ccelosmilia can stand as a genus. It is impossible to 
separate its species from those of Trochosmilia by an external examination, and sections 
prove that there is no columella and a very scanty endotheca. Still there is an endo- 
theca, and the visceral cavity of the Coral was not open from top to bottom, as in the 
TarUnolidce. It is true that there is a facies common to the Codosmilice, and that they 
are a natural group ; but, in fact, they do not differ from a Troclosmilia with scanty 
endotheca. On studying the genus Trochosmilia it will be noticed that many of its 
species have never been described with reference to their endotheca. Many were deter- 
mined from one or two specimens, and sections of the majority have not been made. 
Now, Trochosmilia sulcata, Ed. and H., has very little endotheca ; it is a species from 
the Gault, and the Codosmilim are all from the Cretaceous, Eocene, and recent Coral- 
faunse. In placing Ccelosmilia as a sub-genus, but included in Trochosmilia, it must be 
admitted that the classification becomes simpler and more natural. Since MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jides Haime pubhshed their 'Hist. Nat. des CoraUiaires,' some new 
species of Ccelosmilia have been published or described. 

The following species have been described : 

1. Ccelosmilia poculmn, Ed. & LI., recent. 

2. „ Faiijasi, „ ^^Hiite Chalk, Ciply. 



punctata, „ ,, 

laxa, „ Norwich Chalk. 

Edwardsi, D'Orb., Sezanne. 

Atlantica, Martin, sp.. Timber Creek, New Jersey. 
excavata, Hagenow, sp., Chalk of Rugen. 
radicata, Quenstedt, Nattheim. 



6 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The new species arc — 

9. Calosmilia cllipiica, Reuss, Castcl Gomberto. 

10. ,, Javana, Duncan, MS., Java. 

11. „ cornitcojjice „ Trimmingliara Chalk. 

12. „ Willshm „ Norwich Chalk. 

13. „ Woodwardl „ Wliite Chalk, England. 

14. „ (/ranulata, „ „ 

15. „ cijUndrica, „ „ 

The species cornucopia, U'UfsJdri, Woodwardl, gramdaia, and cylindrica are new to 
British palaeontology, and are very characteristic of the Upper Chalk. 

There are in the Upper Chalk three well-marked varieties of Codosmilia laxa, 
Ed. & H. 

An analysis of the species produces the following results. 

1. The ^■^ftzx^'s, Athuitka, punctata, Edtvardsi, excavata, and radicala, either pertain to 
other species or are really indeterminable. 

2. The species whose septal arrangement shows more cj^cles than four or which have 
some septa of the fifth cycle are — 

Calosmilia poculum. 

„ Faujasi. 

„ Javana. 

„ cornucop)i(B. 

„ Wiltshiri. 

„ Woodioardi. 

„ elliptica. 

3. The species whose septal arrangement shows three cycles or four cycles, or some 
septa of the fourth cycle, are — 

Ccelosmilia f/ranidata. 
„ cylindrica. 
„ laxa. 

4. The species with large bases and with more than four cycles are — 

Ccelosm ilia poculum . 
„ elliptica. 

5. The species with a large base and with more than three cycles of septa, but not 
more than four, is — 

Calosmilia cylindrica. 



FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 



9 
O 



15 a 

3 ^ 



«S 



-uT ^ 
§ =5 



O 

w 

o 
o 

P5 



a ^ 



2 5a 






8 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Genus — Trociiosmilia. 

Suh-(jenus — Ccelosmilia. 

L TiiocnosMiLiA (Ccelosmilia) laxa, M. ^- II. PI. Ill, figs. 11—17; PI. IV, figs. 
9—12. 

In examining good specimens of this species I found the fourth cycle of septa to 
be present. Its laminae are small, but decidedly visible. Consequently the calice as 
drawn by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime (' Monog. Brit. Poss. Corals,' P. I, PI. 
VIII, fig. 4 c) is incorrect. The following description will apply to three varieties of the 
species. 

Variety 1. — The corallum is conico-cylindrical and straight. 

The costse are intensely granular inferiorly, and two large costaj are separated by 
three smaller. Near the calice the larger costse have a wavy cristiform ridge upon them, 
the intermediate costa? being very granular, with chevron patterns, or they may be moni- 
liform. At the calicular margin the costse are nearly flat and granular. The fourth cycle 
of septa is distinct. 

Variety 2. — Inferiorly in structure as variety 1. Superiorly the principal costae are 
very cristiform, and well marked with a secondary ridge. The chevron markings of the 
intermediate costse are very distinct. 

Variety 3. — Costse inferiorly wavy and sparely granular. Superiorly the costse are 
subcristiform and plain, the continuity of the crests being defective. The interme- 
diate costse are broken and moniliform, and here and there chevroned. 

Localities. — Norwich Chalk ; Wiltshire Chalk. In the British Museum and in the 
Salisbury Museum. 

2. Trochosmilia (Cielosmilia) cornucopI/E, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 6 — 10. 

The corallum is strongly curved in the plane of the smaller axis, and it is compressed 
superiorly, and is finely pedunculate. The growth rings and swellings are moderately 
developed. 

The costse are subequal above, and cristate and unequal inferiorly. 

The septa are numerous and very unequal. There are five cycles of septa and six 
systems. The primary septa are very exsert, and the secondary are less so. The septa 
of the fifth cycle are very small. 



PROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 9 

The calice is elliptical, and the fossa very deep, the larger septa joining those opposite 
at its bottom. 

There are traces of epitheca. 

Height, 1 inch. Breadth of calice fths inch ; length of calice, 1 inch. Depth of 
fossa fths inch. 

Locality. Trimmingham ; Upper Chalk. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wilt- 
shire, F.G.S. 



3. Trochosmilia (Ccelosmilia) Wiltshiri, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 1 — 5. 

The corallum is tall, curved, finely pedicillate, and is not compressed. 

The growth-rings are distinct. 

The costse are very distinct and unequal, and they reach from base to calice. The 
smaller intermediate costse are ornamented with chevrons and horizontal lines. The 
larger costae have a secondary crest upon their free surface. 

The septa are unequal, slender, and not crowded. 

The calice is circular. 

There are five cycles of septa, but the fifth is incomplete in some systems. The 
primary septa are large, slightly exsert, and extend far inwards. 

The calicular margin is very thin, and the fossa is deep. 

Height, l|rds inch. Diameter of the calice, |rds inch. 

Locality. Norwich ; Upper Chalk. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, 
F.G.S. 



4. Trochosmilia (Ccelosmilia) Woodwardi, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 5 — 8. 

The corallum is tall, cornute, slightly pedicillate, and narrow. 

The growth-markings are distinct. 

The costee are distinct from base to calice. Two large subcristiform and very 
distinct costge bound three intermediate small and more or less moniliform costse. Sets 
of these costse occur around the corallum. 

The septa are crowded, wavy, and unequal. Many unite laterally, and the largest 
reach far into the axial space. 

The calice is circular, and the wall is very thin. 

Height, 2 inches. Breadth of the calice, §ths inch. 

Locality. Chalk of South of England. In the British Museum (Dixon Collection). 

2 



10 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

5. Tkociiosmilia (Ccelosmilia) granulata, Z)««m«. PI. IV, figs. 1 — 4; PI. VI, fig. 9. 

The corallum is tall and slightly curved, and it has a long pedicel, with a very distinct 
base. 

The corallum is slightly compressed, and bulges here and there. 

The costiB are well marked, distant, subequal, and intensely granular. The larger 
costse are more distinct inferiorly and midway than close to the calicular margin ; they 
are cristiform in some places, notched by chevron-shaped ornamentation in others, and 
occasionally sharply pointed or absent. The spaces between the larger costae are wide, 
faintly convex, and are marked longitudinally by small costse, and transversely by wavy 
or chevroned ornamentation. 

The whole external surface of the corallum is very granular. 

The calicular wall is very thin, and the calice is elliptical. 

There are three perfect cycles of septa, and some orders of the fourth cycle in some 
of the systems. The septa are wide apart, slightly exsert, unequal, and slender. They 
do not reach far inwards at once, but dip downwards with a gentle curve. 

In a section the inner margin of the larger septa is wavy. 

The endotheca is scanty. 

Height, l|rds inch. Length of calice, Jths inch ; breadth, |rds inch. 

Locality. Norwich, and Chalk of south of England. In the British Museum 
(Dixon Collection). 



6. Trochosmilia (Ccelosmilia) cylindrica, Duncan. PI. V, figs. 1 — 3. 

The corallum is tall, cylindrical, and very slightly bent. The calicular opening is 
smaller in diameter than the rest of the corallum. 

The costse are nearly equal, broad, slightly rounded, and are separated by shallow, 
narrow, and undulating intercostal grooves. The costse are profusely ornamented with 
transverse ridges, straight, curved, or angular, and with large granules. 

The calicular edge is very thin, and the broad convex costse are continuous with 
slender, unequal septa. 

There are four cycles of septa. The primary are exsert, and the laminse of the higher 
orders are very small. 

There is no columella, the larger septa are united by a few short attachments from 
their inner margins. 

The endotheca is scanty. 

Height, several inches. Breadth of the calice, iths inch. 

Locality. Norwich, Upper Chalk. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 11 

The sub-genus Ccelosmilia is represented in the British Chalk by one species 
formerly known, by three varieties of it, and by five new species. 

1. Trochosmilia {C<£losinilia) laxa, Ed.&H. 

„ „ „ Varieties 1, 2, 3, Duncan. 

2. „ „ „ cornucopits, Duncan. 

3. „ „ „ Wiltsldri, „ 

4. „ „ „ Woodwardi, „ 

5. „ „ „ gramdata, „ 

6. „ „ „ cylindrica, „ 

These Trocliosmiliae, with a slight amount of endotheca — what there is of it is generally 
low down — are very characteristic of the Upper Chalk, and their presence suggests that 
the Upper Chalk of Norwich and Trimmingham is, from the evidence of its Corals, as 
well as from the proofs already asserted from its Mollusca, on a higher horizon than the 
Upper Chalk, usually so called, in the south-east district. The Coral evidence brings the 
Norfolk Chalk closer in relation with the Faxoe, Rugen, and Ciply deposits. 

The affinity between Trochosmilia (C.) cornucopice and Ccelosmilia excavata, Hagenow, 
sp. (a doubtful form, but well drawn by Quenstedt), is evident. It is from Rugen. 
Trochosmilia Wilfshiri and T. Faujasi from Ciply are closely allied. 

The depth of the space between the calicular margin and the top of the upper dis- 
sepiment in these species indicates that the corals had great mesenteric, ovarian, 
perigastric, and water systems. They were probably very rapid growers. The wall is 
merged into the costal system, which is strengthened by a most unusual cross-bar and 
cristiform ornamentation ; and this development, which is almost epithecal, is comple- 
mentary to the defective endotheca. 



Family— ASTR^IDiE. 

Division — TROCEOSMILlACEiB. 

Genus — Parasmilia. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime described five species of this genus from the 
Upper Chalk, viz. — 

1. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp. 

2. „ Mantelli, Ed. and H. 

3. „ cylindrica,, „ 

4. „ Fittoni, „ 

5. „ serpentina, „ 



12 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Parasmilia cylindrica and Parasmilia serpentina are readily distinguislied by their 
external shape ; but, owing to the polymorphic character of Parasmilia centralis, it is 
by no means easy to separate it from Parasmilia Mantelli and Parasmilia Fittoni. 

Parasmilia Mantelli, Ed. and H., was determined from one specimen alone, and it is 
clearly united to Parasmilia centralis by Parasmilia Gravesana, Ed. and H., of the White 
Chalk of Chalons-sur-Marne and Beauvais (Oise). This species has been found in Eng- 
land. Having found many specimens of Parasmilia centralis with costse like those of 
P. Mantelli in some parts of the corallum, and found normal costse in others, I consider 
P. Mantelli a variety of P. Gravesana, and that this last species is a variety and good 
sub-species of P. centralis. Parasmilia Fittoni, Ed. and H., has a large columella and 
a definite structural distinction in its tertiary costse from P. centralis. 

The following is a list of the British Parasmilice ; 

1. Parasmilia centralis, Mantel], sp. 





, „ variety Mantelli. 




, „ sub-species Gravesana, Ed. and 11, 


2. 


Fittoni, Ed. and H. 


3. 


, cylindrica, „ 


4. 


, serpentina, „ 


5. 


,, monilis, Duncan. 


6. 


,, granulata, „ 



1. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp. ; sub-species Gravesana, Ed. and IT. PI. VI, 
figs. 14—17; pi. V, figs. 8, 9. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Hairae notice that P. Gravesana is "tres voisine de la 
P. centralis; elle s'en distingue seulement par ses cotes." — 'Hist. Nat. des Coral.,' 
vol. iii, p. 173. PL V, figs. 10—15. 

In the British Museum. 



2. Parasmilia monilis, Duncan. PI. V, figs. 4 — 7. 

The corallum is long, much curved, and distorted. It is more or less cylindrical 
above, and contracted here and there. Inferiorly it is pedunculate, the peduncle being 
small, curved, and long. 

The costa; are nearly equal on the peduncle ; and there they are rather subcristiform, a 
secondary crest being fomid on each costa. In the intercostal spaces there is either a faint 
ridge, or a moniliform series of granules. On the body of the Coral the principal cost£e 
are sharp, wavy, granular, and keeled. They have several smaller and less prominent 



FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 13 

granular costse between them, and in the intercostal space there is a series of moniliform 
granules. 

The calice is often smaller than the body, and the wall is very thin. 

The septa are small, and there are four cycles, the last cycle being rudimentary. 

The columella is small. 

The height varies from I inch to 2 inches, and the diameter from 5 to |rds inch. 

Locality. Gravesend. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



3. Parasmilia granxjlata, Duncan. PL VI, figs. 5 — 8. 

The corallura is tall, nearly straight, finely pedunculate, and cylindro-conical. 

The calice is very large, widely open, deep, and has a thin margin. 

The columella is well developed. 

The septa are barely exsert, reach but slightly inwards, and pass downwards at once. 
They are very unequal, and alternately large and small, and there are four complete cycles 
and part of the fifth. 

The costse are subequal near the calice, and the broadest are continuous with the 
smallest septa. On the body the costse are subcristiform and in sets of four. On the 
pedicel they are very granular and very distinct. 

Height, l|rd inch. Breadth of caHce, \ inch. In the British Museum (Dixon 
Collection). 

This species was included by Lonsdale in his genus Monocarya, and was termed 
M. centralis. Parastnilia has the priority as a genus, and the species is evidently not 
P. centralis. 

The position of the genus Parasmilia is somewhat like that of Ccehsmilia, but MM. 
Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime have created the genus Cylicosmilia for Parasmilice with 
abundant endotheca. Now, in careful sections (pi. VI, figs. 12, 13) I find that 
P. centralis and its varieties have endothecal dissepiments reaching close to the calicular 
fossa. The genus must, therefore, absorb Cylicosmilia ; and C. Altavillensis, Defrance, sp., 
of the Eocene of HautevUle, must become Parasmilia Altavillensis, Defrance, sp. 

Reuss has described an Eocene Parasmilia from Monte Grumi which is closely allied 
to the Parasmilia centralis series. 



14 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

OKTi^v.—Z0ANTHABIA APOBOSA. 

Family— OCULINIDiE. 

Genus — Diblasus, Lonsdale. 

This genus was established by Lonsdale in Dixon's 'Geol. of Sussex,' 1850, pp. 248 — 
254, pi. xviii, figs. 14 — 28), and was described by the learned zoophytologist with all that 
critical acumen which characterises him. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, whilst 
they acknowledge the genus to be " voisin des Spihelia" (' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' pi. 2, 
p. 115), do not give it a place in their classification. I have, therefore, carefully studied 
and drawn the specimens from the Dixon Collection in the British Museum, and have 
great pleasure in doing justice to Mr. Lonsdale by inserting his genus with slight altera- 
tions, to meet the terminology of the day. 



Genus — Diblasus, Lonsdale (amended). 

The corallum is encrusting, and very irregular in shape. 

The calices are wide apart, and projecting. 

The intercalicular tissue is costulate. 

The septa are unequal. 

There are no pali. 

The columella is formed by the junction of the larger septa, and does not exist as a 
separate structure. 

Gemmation marginal and intercalicinal. 

The genus is clearly not closely allied to Synhelia, for it has no palular or true 
columellary structures. It approaches the genus Astrohelia, which is a transition genus, 
bringing the Ocidinidce in relation with the Astrceinae through the Cladangia (Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime, 'Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 111). 



]. Diblasus Gravensis, Lonsdale. PL II, figs. 1 — 11. 

The corallum is very irregular in shape and size. 
The calices project, and are irregular in their projection and size. 
The costae are granular, equal, subequal, and unequal in different parts of the same 
corallum. 

There are three cycles of septa, and sometimes some of the fourth cycle are seen. 



PROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 15 

Some primary septa nearly reach those opposite to them, and form a rudimentary 
columella. They are dentate, crowded, and are granular laterally. 

Diameter of usual-sized calices, jth inch. 

Locality. Gravesend Chalk. In the British Museum (Dixon Collection). 

The condition in which the specimens of this species are found is very remarkable. 
The inside of nearly every cahce has been worn away, so that the mural edges of the 
septa are all that remain. The perfect calices appear to have shrunk from the surrounding 
ccenenchyma, and in many places the costse have been worn off. 



A large Calice magnified. 

There are several specimens of Corals from the Lower Chalk, which cannot, however, 
be identified, on account of their fragmentary condition. Most probably, Onchotrochus 
serpentinus, Duncan, is a Lower as well as an Upper Chalk form. 

The following is a complete list of the Possil Corals from the Upper and Lower White 
Chalk of Great Britain ; 



III. — List of New Species. 

1. Caryophyllia Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

2. „ Tennanti, „ 

3. Onchotrochus serpentinus, „ 

4. Trochosmilia {Ccelosmilia) cornucopits, Duncan. 

5. „ J, Wiltshiri, „ 

6. „ „ Woodwardi, „ 

7. „ ,, granulata, ,, 

8. „ „ cylindracea, „ 

9. Parasmilia monilis, Duncan. 

10. „ granulata, „ 

1 1 . Diblasus Gravensis, Lonsdale. 



16 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



IV. — List of the Corals from the Upper and Lower White Chalk. 

1. Caryophyllia cylindracea, Reuss, sp.^ 

2. „ Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

3. Caryopliyllia Tennanti, Duncan. 

4. OnchofrocJms serpentiniis, ,^ 

5. Trochosmilia laxa, Ed. and H., sp., and varieties I, 2, 3.* 

6. „ cormicopi(s, Duncan. 

7. Trochosmilia Wiltshiri, „ 

8. „ Wbodwardi, Duncan. 

9. „ yranulata, „ 

10. ,, cylindracea, „ 

11. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp., varieties 1, 2.* 

12. ,, cylitidrica, Ed. and H. 

13. „ Fittoni,'- 

14. „ serpentina, „ 

15. „ monilis, Duncan. 

16. ,, granulata „ 

17. Diblasus Gravensis, Lonsdale. 

18. Synhelia Sharpeana, Ed. and H. V 

19. Stephanojjhyllia Boicerbanki, Ed. and H. ) 

The list of species presents a remarkable assemblage of forms. The CaryophyllicB are 
represented in existing seas, from low spring-tide level to 80 or 200 fathoms. The 
West Indian, the Mediterranean, the south-west and the north-east British seas, are 
favourite localities. With one exception, the CaryojjJryllia Sniithi, they are always deep water 
forms ; and this Coral is evidently a littoral variety of C. horealis. The Oculinid<s of 
the present day are usually found under the same conditions as the CaryophyllicB, and 
doubtless the Farasmilia and Trochosmilice were dwellers in from 10 to 200 fathoms.'' 

There are no forms which indicate shallow waters, or anything like a reef. The Coral 
fauna was a deep-sea one. 

' Synonym, Cyathina Icevigata. 

^ Lower Chalk. 

^ Varieties or sub-species not hitherto described. 

'' Varieties or sub-species not hitherto described. 

'' See the remarks upon the propriety of absorbing P. ManteUi. M. de Fromentel has described 
Cnryopliyllia decemeris from Southfleet. Much experience in these species inclines me to believe that the 
decenieral arrangement is a monstrosity. There bas only been one specimen of this species found. 

* Lower Chalk. 

' Dr. W. Carpenter, F.R.S., dredged up living Ocnlinida from the great dcjoth of .530 fathoms, in the 
autumn of 1868. 



PROM THE UPPER AND LOWER WHITE CHALK. 17 

iVOrjE".— CORALS IN FLINTS. 

The flints of the Upper Chalk often contain Corals. Usually the destructive silicification has produced 
such loss of structures as to render the specific and often the generic diagnosis impossible. No new species 
have been distinguished in the flints. 

The flint pebbles of the Woolwich series and the basement bed of the London Clay were derived from 
the Upper Chalk principally. In breaking up a series of the pebbles Mr. J. Flower, F.G.S., discovered 
several Corals. A cast of a Trochosmilian (Ccelosmilia, sp. — ?) is represented below. 




Cast of a Coral from a pebble. 

Several young simple Corals were noticed by Mr. Flower, but their structures are very badly pre- 
served. 




Section of simple Corals in flint. 

The most interesting fossil of the series is a perforate Coral, with a most delicate lace-like structure of 
its ccenencbyma. Within this Coral is an aporose form, probably a Caryoiihyllia. 




Sections of Coral in flint. 

The perforate structure resembles that of the Alveoporse. 

The only example of an aporose Coral which is invariably surrounded by another structure is in Cryptan2;ifl, 
a genus whose species are always immersed in Celleporee. It is possible that this Caryophyllia of the 
Chalk was, like Cryptangia parasita, always immersed in a mass of cellular Alveopora. 

3 



18 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



V. COEALS FROM THE UpPER GrEENSAND.^ 

The scanty Coral-fauna of the Upper Greensand was described by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime ; and although some years have elapsed since the publication 
of the first part of the 'British Fossil Corals/ Pal. Soc, and the beds have been well 
searched, very few additions can be made to the list of the Aladreporaria. The following 
is the list of the published species (1850) : 

1. Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. and H. 

2. Trochosmilia fuberosa, „ 

3. Parastrcea stricta, „ 

4. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 

In their ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime make 
some alterations in the synonyms of the genera, and add a species to the list. They 
do not give any further information respecting some doubtful species noticed by Mr. 
God win- Austen and Prof. Morris. Their amended list is as follows : 

1. Peplosmilia Ansteni, Ed. and H. 

2. Smiloirochus tulerosus, „ 

3. „ Austeni, „ 

4. Favia stricta, Ed. and H. 

5. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 



Family— TURBINOLIDiE. 

Division — TurbinoliacEjE. 

Genus — Smilotrochus. 

Trochosmilia tuberosa, Ed. and H., has no endotheca, and therefore is of necessity 
included amongst the TurbinoUdce. The genus SmilotrocJms was determined in order 
to receive the species. 

^ The following authors have written on this subject : 

W. Smith, ' Strata Identified by Organic Fossils,' 1816. 
Godwin-Austen, 'Trans. Geol. Soc.,' 2nd series, vol. vi, p. 452, 1842. 
Morris, ' Cat. of British Fossils,' p. 46, 1843. 
MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, op. cit. 



FROM THE UPPER GREENSAND. 



Genus — Smilotrochus, Ed. and H. 

The corallum is simple, straight, cuneiform, free, and without a trace of former 
adhesion. There is no columella. 
The wall is naked and costulate. 
There is no epitheca. 
The simple costse are distinct from the base to the calice. 

This is the simplest form of Agarose Zoantharia, and its structures only comprise a 
■wall, septa, and costse. Flabellmi has an epitheca in addition, and Styloirochus of De 
Fromentel is a Smilotrochus with a styliform columella, the septa uniting also by their 
thickened internal margins. OncJiotrochis, nobis, has a pellicular epitheca, no columella ; 
but, like Styloirochus, the septa are united internally. 

1. Smilotrochus tuberosus, Bd. and H. 

Teoohosmilia tuberosa, Ed. and H. 
TURBINOLIA COMPRESSA (?), Morris. 

This species, with five cycles of septa, was described in the ' Monograph of the Brit. 
Foss. Corals, Upper Greensand,' Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 



2. Smilotrochus Austeni, Ed. and H. PI. VII, fig. 12. 

This species is thus described in the ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 71 : 
The corallum is regularly cuneiform, very much compressed below, and slightly elongate. 
The calice is elliptical ; the summit of the larger axis is rounded. 
Forty-eight costse, subeqaal, straight, fine, and granular. 
Height of the corallum, about ^rd inch. 
Locality. Farringdon. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime do not mention where the specimen is 
deposited. 

3. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. PI. VII, figs. 1 — C. 

The corallum is tall, straight, and nearly cylindrical. 

The columellary space is large. 

The septa are fine and unequal, especially in length. There are four cycles of septa. 

Height, about an inch. 



20 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

LocaUfy. Upper Greensand of Cambridgeshire. In the Collection of Jame^ 
Carter, Esq. 



4. Smilotrochus angulatus, Duncan. PI. VII, figs. 7, 8. 

The corallum is conical, hexagonal, and slightly curved at its very fine inferior ex- 
tremity. It is broad superiorly, has six prominent angles, and is slightly compressed. 

The septa are fine, unequal, and each plane between the angles has a system of four 
cycles. 

The columellary space is large. 

Height, 2ths to 1 inch. Breadth, I inch. 

Locality. Upper Greensand, Cambridge. In the Collection of James Carter, Esq. 



Genus — Onchotrochus. 
Onchotrochtjs Carteri, Duncan. PI. VIII, figs. 1 — 14. 

In the young corallum there is a flat and rounded expansion at the base, by which it 
was attached to foreign substances, but this is lost as growth proceeds. 

The corallum is either straight or slightly curved, is tall, very slender, cylindro- 
conical, clavate, and enlarged here and there. 

The worn specimens are more or less angular in transverse outline. 

The costse are angular projections, which extend from base to calice ; they are sub- 
equal, wide apart, and are connected and covered with a fine, striate, pellicular epitheca, 
which readily disappears. 

The growth-markings are very common. 

The calice is circular and shallow. 

The septa are stout at the walls and Avedge-shaped ; they are rounded superiorly, and 
do not extend far inwards. There are twelve septa, and they are subequal. The septa 
in sections often appear to be equal, and their inner ends are joined, and the axial space 
is filled up by a deposit of coral structure ; but the reverse is the case occasionally, and 
the irregularity of the septa may often be well seen. The septa are continuous with the 
costse. 

Height, ird — |rds — 1 inch. Diameter of costae, jsth — i^th inch. 

Locality. Cambridge Greensand. In the Collections of James Carter and Rev. T. 
Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



PROM THE UPPER GREENSAND. 21 

The species has great resemblance to the lower part of Onchotrochus serpentinus, 
nobis. Very careful examination of sections and calices proves that there is no columella, 
that the inner ends of the septa produce a false one, and that the styloid appearance is 
due to fossilization. 

The discovery of better specimens may, perhaps, lead M. de Fromentel to consider his 
Stylotrochus, which resembles this form, to be of the same genus. 



Pamilt— ASTR^IDiE. 

Division — Stylinace^. 

Genus — Ctathophora, Michelin. 

This genus has the usual characters of compound Astrtsince, but the dissepiments act 
as tabulae, and shut in the calice below, just as in some of the Liassic Isastrcem. There 
is no columella. The curved dissepiments are not noticed, and the family of the genus 
must remain unsettled, for the minute structure is clearly tabulate. The genus flourished 
in the Lower and Middle Oolites, and the only Cretaceous species is that under considera- 
tion, and which has been described by D'Orbigny from the Craie tuffeau of Martigues. 

1. Cyathophora montictjlaria, jyOrh., sp. PL VIII, figs. 15 — 18. 

The septa are rather thick. 

There are three cycles, but the third is often deficient in one or two systems. 

Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of the Geological Society. 

Division — Favia ce^ . 

Genus — Favia, Ehrenberg. 

This genus has absorbed the Parastrceacece, so that the old Daraslrma stricia, EJ. and 
H., is now named Favia stricta, Ed. and H. 



22 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



1. Favia minutissima, Duncan. PI. VII, figs. 9 — 11. 

The corallum is encrusting, gibbous, and small. 

The calices are very small, close, and with very scanty intercorallite tissue. 

There are twelve septa. 

The costae are continuous. 

Diameter of the calices, under ^^ inch. 

Locality. Hal don. In the Collection of the Geological Society. 

This is the smallest of the Favice. 



Division — AsrHiEAuE^. 
Genus — Thamnastr^a. 
Thamnastr^a superposita, Michelin, sp. PI. VII, figs. 13 — 17. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime thus notice this species (' Hist. Nat. de 
Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 559) : 

" M. Michelin's specimen is very young ; it is encircled by a strongly folded epitheca, 
which is formed of two layers. 

" No columella is distinguishable. 

"The septa are tolerably strong and unequal. 

"There are three cycles, with the rudiments of a fourth in one or two systems." 

The superposition of the calices is remarkable, and I cannot but place a Coral found 
in the Irish Upper Greensand by Ralph Tate, Esq., F.G.S., in this species. 

Locality. Ireland; Upper Greensand. In the Collection of R. Tate, Esq., F.G.S. 



FROM THE UPPER GREENSAND. 23 



VI. — List of Species from the Upper Greensand. 

1. OncJtotrochus Carteri, Duncan. 

2. Smilotrochus tuberosus, Ed. and H. 

3. „ Austeni, „ 

4. „ elongatus, Duncan. 

5. „ angulatus, „ ' 

6. Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. and H. 

7. Cyatliophora monticularia, D'Orbigny. 

8. Favia stricta, Ed. and H. 

9. „ minutissima, Duncan. 

■ 10. Thamnastraa superposita, Michelin. 

11. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 



VII. — Corals from the Red Chalk of Hunstanton, Norfolk. 

The Red Chalk of Hunstanton contains several forms of Madreporaria. The small 
fauna has this peculiarity — its species belong to the group of the FungidcB without excep- 
tion. The specimens are small, usually much worn at the calicular end, and are readily dis- 
tinguished by their mammiliform appearance and white colour. There are no compound 
Fungidce in the Red Rock, but only such small simple forms as would now characterise the 
presence of physical conditions unfavorable for Coral life. The recent simple Fungidm are 
fomid at all depths. Vast numbers of fossil specimens are to be collected in the 
Lower Chalk of Gosau, a few exist in the Upper Greensand and in the Neocomian forma- 
tions. In the existing Coral-fauna no simple Fungidce are found in the West Indian 
Seas, whilst the Red Sea, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, abound with them. It is probable 
that pecuhar conditions are necessary for their development.^ 



List of the Species of Corals in the Red Chalk of Hunstanton, 

1. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 

„ „ variety, major. 

2.. Cychlites ptolymorpha, Goldfuss, sp. 

3. Podoseris mammiliformis, Duncan. 

4. „ elongata, Duncan. 

1 For a notice of the geology of the Red Chalk, see Rev. T. Wiltshire's communication to the Geol. 
Soc, Feb., 1869, 



24 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Family— FUNGID^. 

Suh-Family — Fungin^. 
Genm — Miorabacia. 

There are specimens of a small form of Micrabacia coronula, Goldf., sp., and of a large 
variety, in the Red Rock (pi. IX, fig. 1). The species is well known in the Upper Greensand 
of England and in the Chalk of Essen. There is another species, which is hardly dis- 
tinguishable from M. coronula in the Neocomian of Caussols (Var.). 

The variety of the species found in the Red Rock rather resembles the Neocomian 
species in its diameter and flatness. The geniis had a very short vertical range, and 
was represented in later times by the Stejjhunojjliyllice. 

Sub-Family— LOPIiOSERIN^. 

Genus — Cyclolites. 

This genus almost characterises the geological horizon of the Craie tuffeau ; Gosau, 
He d'Aix, les Martigues, Vaucluse, Corbieres, Uchaux, &c., having deposits in whicli 
numerous species have been found. A few species are found in the White Chalk, and in 
the Eocene and Miocene deposits. There are some doubtful Neocomian species, and the 
genus is extinct. 

Cn'LOLiTKs POLYMORPnA, Goldfuss, sp. PL IX, fig. 18. 

The corallum is very irregular in shape, generally sub-elliptical, and not very tall. 

The highest point of the calice is not central, and the central fossula is very variable 
in its place. 

The septa are very numerous, thin, close, flexuous, crenulate, and occur in series of 
fours. 

The solitary specimen of this form is small, but the fossula and the septa are tolerably 
distinct. 

Locality. Hunstanton. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, E.G. S. 



FROM THE RED CHALK. 25 

SUE-FAM14.Y— LOPHOSERIN^. 

Genus nov, — Podoseris, Duncan. 

The corallum has a large concave base, by which it is attached to foreign bodies. 

The epitheca commences at the basal margin, and is stout and reaches the calicular 
margin. 

The height of the corallum varies. 

The calice is generally smaller than the base, and is convex. 

The septa are numerous and unequal, the largest reaching a rudimentary columella. 

The central fossula is circular and small. 

The costse are seen when the epitheca is worn ; they are distinct, connected by 
synapticulse, and are straight. 

The genus has been created to admit MlcrabacicB with adherent bases and more or 
less of a peduncle. 

1. PouosEKis MAMMiLiFORMis, Dimcan. PI. IX, figs. 2 — 15. 

The corallum is short, straight, and broad. The base is concave, and is either larger 
than the calice or there is a constriction immediately above it, and it is slightly smaller 
than the calice. 

The cahce is round, convex, depressed in the centre, and is bounded by the epitheca. 

The laminge are stout, unequal, curved superiorly, and often join. 

There are five cycles in six systems, the last cycle being very rudimentary. 

The synapticulae are numerous. 

The costse are straight and subequal, and are smaller than the septa. 

The ornamentation of the septo-costal apparatus varies, and there may be an almost 
moniliform series of enlargements on the septa, or they may be plain. 

The columella is formed principally by the ends of the longest septa. 

The height of the corallum appears to be determined by the growth of the body 
between the base and the calice. 

Height of the corallum, \ inch. Breadth at the calicular margin ^rd inch. 

JJ 3J » H^"- >? >• !> 33 ? 33 

33 3, 3) 2 3> 33 33 33 3o''^° 53 

Monstrosities are often found amongst specimens of this species. 

Locality. Hunstanton. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



26 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



2. PoDOSERis ELONGATA, Duncan. PI. IX, figs. 16, 17. 

The corallum is tall, with a broad, circular, and slightly concave base, a long, conico- 
cylindrical stem ; and a small calice, much narrower than the base. 

The epitheca is in bands. 

The costtE are alternately large and very small, somewhat distant, wavy, and united 
by synapticula;, many of which are oblique. 

The septa frequently unite by their axial ends. There appear to be five cycles of 
septa. 

The base of the corallum has a cellular tissue, probably from the fossihzation of some 
body to which it was adherent. 

Height i inch. Breadth of base \ inch. Calice \ inch. 

The shape of this species is most unusual. 

Locality . Hunstanton. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



A MONOGKAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



SECOND SERIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B. LOND., F.K.S., 

FELLOW OF, AND SECKETAEY TO, THE GEOLOGICAL SOOIETT. 



Being a Supplement to the 
'Monograph of the British Fossil Cm-als' hy MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 



PART II, No. 2. 

COEALS TBOM THE UPPEE GrEEENSAND OF HALDOIf, FEOM THE GaTJLT, AND THE LOWEE 

GEBENSAJiTD. 



Pages 27—46 ; Plates X— XV. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1870. 



FEINTED BY 
J. E. ADLARD, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



A MONOGEAPH 



BKITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

(SECOND SERIES.) 
Part II.— No. 2. 



I. — Corals from the Upper Greensand op Haldon. 

Some time after the ' Supplement to the Monograph of the Fossil Corals of the Upper 
Greensand ' was published several very interesting specimens of fossil Corals vrere sub- 
mitted to examination from the deposit at Haldon, in Devonshire.'' It was necessary to 
describe them, for they had not been previously noticed, and this could not be done before 
the Corals from the Red Chalk were published. The Corals from Haldon should have 
been described amongst those of the Upper Greensand. It is, of course, evident that the 
list of Upper Greensand species (p. 23) is incomplete. 

MADBEPOBABIA APOBOSA. 

Family— ASTR^IDtE. 

Suh-family — Eusmilin^ . 
Genus — Placosmilia. 
1. Placosmilia cuneiformis, Ed. and H. PI. X, figs. 1 — 5. 

The corallum is much compressed, and deltoid in shape. 

The costse are delicate, close, slightly prominent, and subequal. 

^ Mr. Vicary, of Exeter, had collected the fossils himself, and pointed out to me their siliceous condition 
of fossilization. 

5 



28 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The caliciual fossa is very narrow, long, and shallow. 

The septa are close, alternately thick and thin. They number (in full-sized calices) 176. 

The columella is lamelliform and indistinct. 

Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of William Vicary, Esq., F.G.S., Exeter. 

The specimen figured in PI. X is a young corallum, and has only five cycles of septa. 
Its granular costse and the peculiar striation of its septa are very characteristic. 

The height of the specimen is \ inch, and the length of the cahce is rather more. The 
breadth is ^^ths inch. 

The PlacosmilicB hitherto described are from the Craie tuffeau and the Hippurite 
Chalk of Soulage and Bains de Rennes (Corbieres), Les Martigues, Uchaux, Obourg near 
Mons, and Gosau. 



3. Placosmilia Parkinsoni, Ed. and H. PI. X, figs. 6 and 7. 

Placosmilia consobrina, Reuss. 

The corallum is tall, compressed, conical, and slightly curved. 
The costse are fine and separated by decided intercostal spaces. 
The calice is subelliptical in shape. 
The fossa is narrow and shallow. 
The columella is feebly developed. 

There are five cycles of septa, and the laminae are very unequal. 
Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of Wilham Vicary, Esq., F.G.S., Exeter. 
The specimen from Haldon is somewhat rolled and worn. The height is i^ths inch. 
The breadth of the calice is -i%lhs inch, and its length is i%ths inch. 

Placosmilia Parkinsoni has been found at Gosau, in the Corbieres, and at Uchaux. 

3. Placosmilia magnifica, Duncan. PI. X, figs. 11 — 13. 

The corallum is compressed, short, very elongate, and the calicular margin is curved 
and rounded. 

Tlie calice is very long, curved, rounded at each end, compressed, very open, and 
shallow. 

The septa are unequal, distant, large, and curved ; they correspond to costse of the 
same size. There are five cycles of septa. 

The columella is lamellar, very much developed, thick, continuous, long, and slightly 
prominent in the calicular fossa. 

Tlic costa) are unequal and distant. 



FROM HALDON. 29 

The exotheca is inclined and very strongly developed. 

Height of the corallum, 1^ to 1| inch. Length of the calice, 2^ to S^^th inches. 
Breadth of the calice, ^^ths to li^th inch. 

Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of WiUiam Vicary, Esq., F.G.S., Exeter. 

This fine species is strongly Placosmilian, and might be taken as the type of the 



Genus — Peplosmiha. 
Peplosmilia depressa, E. de Fromentel. PI. X, figs. 8 — 10' 

The corallum is not very tall, and shows traces of epitheca. 

The calice is shallow and ronnd. 

The septa are well developed and thin. There are more than four cycles, and 
probably a fifth exists in full-grown individuals. 

The columella is very thin and narrow. 

Height, \ inch- Breadth of calice, i^ths inch. 

Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of William Vicary, Esq., F.G.S. , Exeter. 

M. de Fromentel, 'Pal. Franp., Terr. Cret./ pi. 46, fig. 1, 1863, and page 241, 
states that his specimens came fi'om the Upper Greensand of Mans. 

The specimen from Haldon is fragmentary, and its columella is defective, but it is 
so like M. de Fromentel's delineation of Peplosmilia depressa that there is no doubt aboiit 
its being of that species. 



Division — A str^ ace^ . 

GeilUS ASTROCCENIA. 

Astroc(enia decaphylla, Ed. and H. PI. XI, figs. 1 — 6. 

This species, described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime ('Ann. des 
Sci. nat.,' 3me serie, t. x, p. 298, 1849) was subsequently named Astreea reticulata by 
D'Orbigny (1850), and was noticed as Astroccenia maynifica by Reuss in his great work 
on the Corals of Gosau (' Denkschr. der Wien Akad. der Wissensch.,' t. vii, p. 94, pi. 8, 
figs. 4—6, 1854). 

Reuss's admirable delineation of the species enables the British form to be recognised 



30 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

at once, and it even possesses the curious transverse arrangement of the walls of some 
calices which renders the comprehension of Reuss's sixth figure rather difficult. 

The Astrocoenics have been fully considered in the ' Monograph of the Liassic Corals ' 
(Pal. Soc, 1867). 

Astrocania decaphylla is a rather variable species, on account of the preponderance or 
deficiency, as the case may be, of ccenenchyma. The size of the costse is limited by the 
ccenenchyma, and when this is very deficient they are almost rudimentary. 

There are ten principal and ten secondary septa ; the secondary are the smallest, and 
do not reach the styliforra columella like the primary. They are slightly spined towards 
then- inner margin. The costEe are small. The columella is well developed, and is 
essential and styliform. The shape of the calices varies ; in some places they are 
circular, and in others polygonal. 

Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of William Vicary, Esq., F.G.S., Exeter. 

The British specimens are not to be distinguished from those of the Hippurite Chalk 
of Gosau, or of the Craie tufi'eau of Corbieres. 

Astfoccenia decaphylla was a very persistent form. It resembles in some of its peculiar 
structures the Astrocoenias of the Lias, and a specimen from the Miocene coralliferous 
strata of Jamaica^ cannot be distinguished from the form from Gosau. 



Geims — IsastRjEa. 
IsASTR^A Haldonensis, Buucan. PI. XI, figs. 7 and 8. 

The corallum is hemispherical. 

The calices are large, irregular in size, very deep, and rather quadrangular. 

The wall is thin. 

The septa are crowded, small, long, and there are five cycles of them in the largest 
calices. 

There is a disposition to serial growth in some calices. 

Diameter of the largest calices, nearly \ inch. 

Locality. Haldon. In the Collection of William Vicary, Esq., F.G.S., Exeter. 

The depth and size of the calices, their thin walls, and the numerous septa, distinguish 
this species, whose closest allies are Isastrcea lamellosissima, Michelin, sp., from the Craie 
tufi'eau of Uchaux, Isastraa Haidinyeri, Ed. and li., from the same formation at 
Piesting, in the Eastern Alps, and Isastrcea tetmistriata, M'Coy, sp., of the Inferior 
Oolite. 

' Duncan, "West Indian Corals," 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' Nov., 1863, vol. xix, page 440. 



FROM THE GAULT. 31 



List op Upper Greensand Corals from Haldon. 

[ 1. Placosmilia cuneiformis, Ed. and H. 

2. „ Parkinsoni, „ 

3. „ magnifica, Duncan. 

4. Peplosmilia depressa, E. de Fromentel. 

5. Astroccenia decapliylla, Ed. and H. 

6. Isastrcea Haldonensis, Duncan. 

Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. and H., and Favia stricfa, Ed. and H., are also found at 
Haldon. They have been already noticed as Upper Greensand forms. 



n. — Corals from the Gatjlt. 

Only six well-marked species of Corals were known to MM. Milne-Edwards and 
Jules Haime as having been found in the Gault. They were all simple or solitary forms, 
and such as one would expect to find in moderately deep water. It is evident that the 
area occupied by the English Gault was not the Coral tract of the period. The resem- 
blance of the Coral-faunas of the Gault and the London Clay is somewhat remarkable, 
and probably the physical conditions of the area during the deposition of the strata were 
not very dissimilar. 

The following pages contain the descriptions of some species which were not known to 
MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, and some notices of the most important forms 
they described. 

MADBJEPOBABIA AP0B08A. 
Eamtly— TURBINOLID^. 

Sub-family — Caryophtllin^. 

Diviaioti — CaryophylliacejE. 

Genus — Caryophyllia. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime have changed the generic term Cyatliina into 
that of its predecessor Caryophyllia ; consequently Cyatliina Boioerhanhi, Ed. and H., is 
now called Caryophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. and H. ('Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 18). 



32 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

A very interesting variety of this species is in the Rev. T. Wiltshire's Collection, and 
has its costse running obliquely to the long axis of the corallum. They are profusely 
granulated (PI. XII, figs. 8, 9). 



Division — Trochocyatuace^. 
Genus — TiiocHOCYATnus. 
1. Teochocyathus Harveyanus, i,¥. ««f/ if. 

This species was described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime in their' Mono- 
graph of the British Fossil Corals,' Part I, p. 65. They associated it with two species, 
which are, as they suggest, indistinguishable, viz. Trochocyatlms Koenigi and Trocliocya- 
thus Warhiirtoni. The first of these species is the Turbinolia Koenigi of ]\lantell. 

An examination of a series of specimens attributed to Trochocyathus Harveyanus, Ed. 
and H., and the consideration of the value of the TrocJiocyathi just mentioned, have led me 
to recognise five forms of Trochocyathi breves, all closely allied and well represented by 
the original type of Trochocyathus Harveyanus, Ed. and H. When placed in a series with 
this Trochocyathus at the head, there is a gradation of structure which prevents a 
strictly specific distinction being made between the consecutive forms ; but when the 
first and the last forms are compared alone, no one would hesitate to assert that there is 
a specific distinction between them. All the forms are simple, short, and almost hemi- 
spherical ; all have four cycles of septa, and the same proportion of pali. These are the 
primary and most essential peculiarities of the genus. 

The costse differ in their size, pi'ominence, ornamentation, and relation to the septa in 
some of the forms ; and the exsert natm-e of the septa, their granulation, and the size of the 
corallum, also differ. The structural differences are seen in many examples, and are 
therefore more or less persistent ; nevertheless it is fomid that, whilst several specimens 
have the septa springing from intercostal spaces instead of from the ends of the costas, one 
or more, having all the other common structural peculiarities, present septa arising from 
the costal ends. This method of origin can hardly constitute a specific distinction. I 
j)ropose to retain Trochocyathus Harveyanus as the type of a series of forms the sum of 
whose variations in structure constitutes the species. 

Variety \ (PI. XIII, figs. 1, 2). — The corallum is nearly double the size of the type ; its 
i^epta are rather exsert, and are very granular. 

The costas are very prominent, ridged, marked vrith nmnerous small pits, and are 
continuous with the septa. 



FROM THE GAULT. 33 

The epitlieca is waved and well developed. The spaces between the larger costse are 
more or less angular. 
The peduncle is large. 
Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the British Museum. 

Variety 2 (PI. XIII, figs. 3, 4). — The corallum is as large as that of variety 1, but it 
is more conical. 

The costse are less pronounced, and the septa, which are more granular than those of 
variety 1, arise from the intercostal spaces. The costal ends are very elegant in shape, 
and form a margin of rather sharp curves, side by side. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the British Museum. 

Variety 8 (PL XII, figs. 1, 8, 4 ; and PL XIII, fig. 13).— The corallum is rather flat, 
but hemispherical. 

The septa are not exsert, and they arise from the costal ends. 

The costse are equal ; none are more prominent than others. They are all rather 
broad, flat, and beautifully ornamented with diverging curved lines. Their free ends are 
equal and carved. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

Variety 4. — The corallum and costse are like Variety 3, but the septa arise from the 
intercostal spaces. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

Variety 5 (PI. XII, fig. 2). — The corallum is rather more conical inferiorly than in 
Varieties 3 and 4. 

The septa are exsert, and project slightly beyond the costal margin. 
The costse are all rudimentary. 

The epitheca is well developed, and reaches up to the septa. 
Locality. Gault, Folkestone. 

The forms may be distinguished as follows : 

( The type. 
With more or less ridged costse . . . ■< Variety 1. 

C „ 2. 



With nearly equal flat costse 
Costse rudimentary 

Septa arising from the costal ends 
Septa arising from the intercostal spaces 



f Variety 3. 

I ,. 4. 
Variety 5. 

( The type. 
\ Variety 1 . 
( „ 3. 
f Variety 2. 
I „ 4. 



34 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

All the forms have four cycles of septa and pali before the first, second, and third 
orders. 

An ill-developed and monstrous form is shown in PI. XIV, figs. 1 — 5. 



2. Trochocyathus Wiltshirei, Duncan. PI. XIV, figs. 10 — 12. 

The corallum is straight, conical, and either cylindrical above or compressed. Its 
base presents the trace of a peduncle for attachment. 

The epitheca is scanty and in transverse masses. 

The costse are distinct and subequal. 

The calice is very open and rather deep. 

The septa are unequal, hardly exsert, and broad at the margin of the calice. There 
are foiu' cycles of septa, and six systems. 

The pali are large, and are placed before all the cycles except the last. 

The columella is rudimentary. 

Height, i^ths inch. Breadth of cahce, i^ths inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. .In the Museum of the Royal School of Mines, and 
in the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

This species is closely allied to Trochocyaihus conulus, Phillips, sp. The compressed 
calice, the rudimentary columella, and the shape of the corallum, distinguish the new 
species from I'rochocyalhus conulus. 



Genus — Leptocyathus. 
1. Leptocyathus gracilis, Duncan. PL XIII, figs. 5 — 8. 

The corallum is small, flat, and circular in outline. 

The costa? are very prominent, and join exsert septa. The primary and secondary 
costse are very distinct, and the others less so. All the costse unite centrally at the base. 
Many are slightly curved. 

The septa are thick externally, very unequal, thin internally, and the largest are more 
exsert than the others. There are six systems and four cycles of septa. 

The pali are small and exist before all the septa. 

The columella is very rudimentary. 

The calicular fossa is rather wide and shallow. 

Height, hardly ^oth inch. Breadth, -j^ths inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the British Museum. 

This species is very closely allied to Leptocyathus eleyans, Ed. and H., of the London 



FROM THE GAULT. 35 

Clay. Leptocyathus elegans has not a flat base, and it has very granular septa. Moreover, 
its costEB are large and small in sets. Nevertheless the alliance is of the closest kind. 



Genus — Bathtcyathus. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime described a species of this genus in their 
' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' Part I, pp. 67, 68. Two specimens in the 
Collection of Rev. T. Wiltshire present all the appearances recognised by those distinguished 
authors. The costas are very granular, and not in a simple row. In one specimen the 
breadth of the base is very great (PI. XII, figs. 5 — 7). 



Family— TURBINOLIDtE. 

Sub-Family — TcuBiNOLiNiE. 

Division — TuBiNOLiACEiE. 

Gemis — Smilotrochxjs. 

Some species of this genus were described amongst the Corals from the Upper Green- 
sand,^ and one was noticed as belonging to this geological horizon which should have 
been included with the Lower Greensand forms. 

The Upper Greensand Smilotrochi are — 

• SmilotrocJius tuberosus, Ed. and H. 
,, elongatus, Duncan. 



There are four species of the genus found in the Gault, which are all closely allied. 
One of them cannot be distinguished from SmilotrocJius elongatus of the Upper 
Greensand. 

The specimens of this species found in the Upper Greensand are invariably worn and 
rolled, and are generally in the form of casts ; but in the Gault the structural details are 
well preserved, and even the lateral spines on the septa are distinct. 

The Gault forms are shorter and more cylindro-conical and curved than those from the 
Upper Greensand. 

^ See ante, p. 19. 
6 



36 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The species of the genus Smilotrochus from the Gault are as follows : 

\. SmilotrocJius elonffcdus, Duncan. 
„ cylindrirAis , ,, 

„ granidatus, „ 

„ insiffiiis, „ 



1. Smilotrochus elongatus, Buncan. PI. XII, figs. 10 — 16; PI. XIII, figs. 10 — 12; 

and PI. XIV, figs. 13—15. 

This species is described at page 19 of the first number of this Part, and is figured in 
PI. VII, figs. 1—6. 

Locality. Folkestone. In the Collection of the Royal School of Mines. 

The lateral spines of the septa are very well marked, and the costse are equal in size in 
this species. Its septal number varies, on account of the very late perfection of the fourth 
cj'cle of septa. 



l. Smilotrochus cylindricus, Buncan. PI. XIV, fig. 16. 

The corallum is small, cylindrical, nearly straight, and has a truncated base. 

The costse are equal, very distinct above, and rudimentary below and in the middle. 
They are marked with a few large granules in one series. 

The septa are subequal, very exsert, thin, close, and marked with large granules, 
few in number. The septa are in six systems, and there are three cycles. 

Height, T^ths inch. Greatest breadth, rather less than i^ths inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



3. Smilotrochus granulatus, Buncan. PI. XIV, fig. 17. 

The corallum is conico-cylindrical in shape, and has a more or less truncated base. 
The costse are subequal, prominent, very granular, and distinct superiorly. 
The septa are subequal, thick, and very granular. The septa are in six systems, and 
there are three cycles. 

Height, T^yths inch. Breadth, ^jths inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



FROM THE GAULT. 37 



4. Smilotrochus insignis, Buncan. PL XII, fig. 17 ; and PI. XIV, fig. 18. 

The corallum is trochoid, short, and has a wide caHce, and a conical and rounded 
base. 

The calice is circular in outline ; the fossa is deep and small, and the septa are wide, 
exsert, curved above, and so marked with one row of granules that their free margin 
appears to be spined. There are three cycles of septa, and the orders are nearly equal as 
regards size. 

The costse are large, prominent, broad at their base, and are marked with one row of 
granules on the free surface. 

Height, i^ths inch. Breadth of calice, i^ths inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

An analysis of the genus will be found after the description of the species from the 
Lower Greensand. 

There is a compound or aggregate Madreporarian found in the Gault of Folkestone. 
It has much endotheca, and resembles worn specimens of the well-known Holocystk 
elegans of the Lower Greensand. The specimens are not sufficiently well preserved for 
indentification with any genus. 



i^««2«7j/— FUNGIBLE. 
Sub-family — Fungin^. 
Genus — Micrabacia. 
1. Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. PI. XIV, figs. 6 — 9. 

The corallum is nearly hemispherical in shape. Its base is flat, aud extends beyond 
the origin of the septa in a sharp and uninverted margin. The breadth of the base exceeds 
the height of the corallum. 

The costae are flat, straight, convex externally at the calicular margin, and equal. 

The septa are unequal, much smaller than the costse. There are four cycles of septa, 
in six systems. 

The synapticulse between the septa are large. 

Height, -j^ths. Breadth, nearly \ inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



38 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The flat base, the flat costse, and the limitation of the septal number to four cycles, 
distinguish this species from Micrabacia coronula^ of the Upper Greensand, and from 
Micrabacia Beaumontii ", Ed. and H., of the Neocomian. 



List of New Species from the Gaui.t. 

Variety of Caryophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. and H. 

Five varieties of Trochocyathus Harveyanus, Ed. and H. 

TrochocyatJius WUtsJdrei, Duncan. 

Leptocyathus gracilis, „ 

Smilotrochus elouyatus, ,, 

,, yranulatus, „ 

„ insignis, „ 

„ cylindricus, „ 

Micrabacia Fittoni, „ 



III. — List of Species from the Gault. 

1. Caryophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. and H., and one variety. 

2. Trochocyaihus comilus, PhiUips, sp. 

3. „ WillsJdrei, Duncan. 

4. „ Harveyanus, Ed. and H., and five varieties. 

5. Batliycyathus Sowerbyi, Ed. and H. 

6. Leptocyathus gracilis, Duncan. 

7. Cyclocyathus Fittoni, Ed. and H, 

8. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan.^ 

9. „ yranulatus, „ 

10. „ cylindricus, „ 

11. „ insignis, „ 

12. Trochosmilia sulcata, Ed. and H. 

13. Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. 



' ' Hist. Nat. des Coral.,' vol. iii, p. 30. 

2 Ibid., p. 30. 

3 Common to the Gault and Upper Greensand, 



FROM THE LOWER GREENSAND. 39 

IV. — Corals from the Lower Greensand. 

One species of Coral was described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime from the 
Lower Greensand, in their ' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals.' 

Fitton had noticed a compound Coral in the Lower Greensand, and named it Asfrcea 
in his " Essay on the Strata below the Chalk," ' Gaol. Trans./ 2nd series, vol. iv, p. 362, 
1843. In 1847 he called the species Astrcsa elegans, and Lonsdale separated it from the 
Astraidcs under the name Cyatliophora ? elegans in 1849 (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 
vol. V, pt. 1, p. 88, pi. iv, figs. 12, 15, 1849). 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime recognised the quadrate arrangement of the 
septa of this species, and classified it amongst the Bugosa, in the family Stauride. Their 
Holocystis elegans, Eitton, sp., is a very good species, and specimens are found varying in 
the size of the corallum and of the calices. 

Since the publication of their ' Monograph on the British Fossil Corals,' MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime have named a species from Earringdon Smilotrochus Atisteni 
{' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 71). I have noticed it inadvertently in my description 
of the Upper Greensand Corals, p. 19, and PI. VII, fig. 12. In order to complete this 
part it is introduced here again. 

Family— TURBINOLID^. 

Division — Turbinoliace^. 
Genus — Smilotrochus. 
1, Smilotrochus Austeni, Ed. and-H. PI. VII, fig. 12. 

The corallum is regularly cuneiform, very much compressed below, and slightly 
elongate. 

^ The following authors have written upon the Fossil Corals of the Gault : 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, ' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals ;' Pal. Soc. 
„ „ ' Hist. Nat des Coralliaires.' 

Phillips, ' lUust. of Geol. of Yorkshire.' 

Mantell's ' Geol. of Sussex,' Lonsdale in. 

Fleming, ' British Animals.' 
The authors who have written upon the Corals of the Lower Greensand are — 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, opp. citt. 

Fitton, 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. iii, p. 296, 1847. 

Lonsdale, 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. v, p. 83. 

M. de Fromentel has paid especial attention to the French Neocomian Corals ; and C. J. Meyer, 
Esq., F.G.S., has enabled me to study the most interesting species in his collection. 



10 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Tlie calice is elliptical ; the summit of the larger axis is rounded. 

Forty-eight costa;, subequal, straight, fine, and granular. 

Height of the corallum, about ^rd inch. 

Locality. Farringdon. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime do not mention where their specimen is 
deposited. Mr. Vicary, of E,\eter, has a fine specimen of this Coral. 

The genus Smilotrochus has become of some importance in the palaeontology of the 
Cretaceous rocks. The species are distributed as follows in Great Britain : 



elongatus, Duncan clipper Greensand. 



Smilotrochus tuherosus, Ed. and H."! 
„ elongatus, Du 

„ angulattcs, , 

„ elongatus, „ \ 

,, qranulatus, „ 

. . . )GauIt. 

,, insigms, ,, i 

„ cylindricus, ,, J 

„ Austcni, Ed. and II. Lower Greensand. 

Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan, is found in the Gault and Upper Greensand. 
Smilotrochus Hagenowi, Ed. and H., is a fossil from the Maestricht Chalk (Ed. and H., 
' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii, p. 71). Smilotrochus irregularis, E. de Fromentel, is a 
small cornute form, with rounded primary costae and rather an open calice ; it is from the 
Chalk ('Pal. Franp.,' tome viii, livraison 4, Zooph., pi. ix). 

Sub-famihj — CaryophylliNjE. 

Division CARYOPHYLLIACEiE. 

Genus — Brachycyathus. 
1. Brachvcyathus Orbignyancs, Ed. and H. PI. XV, figs. 8, 9. 

The corallum is very short. 

The costae are indistinct. 

The septa are long, very slightly exsert, granulated from below upwards, and there 
are four cycles in six systems. The primary and secondary septa are equal. The 
tertiary are a little longer than those of the fourth cycle. All are thin and straight. 

The pali are like continuations of the tertiary septa before which they are placed. 
They are granular. 

Height, J^th inch. Breadth, i^ths inch. 



FROM THE LOWER GREENSAND. 41 

Locality. East Slmlford, Surrey. Base of the Lower Greensand ; found with 
CeritUmn Neocomiense, D'Orb. ; Exogyra subplicata, Tqm. ; Area Eadini, Leym. ; Tere- 
hratvla sella, Sow. In the Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, Esq., F.G.8. 

The specimen upon which the genus was founded was found in the Neocoraian forma- 
tion of the Hautes Alpes, at St. Juhen, Beauchene. I have added to the original descrip- 
tion, as some portions of the English specimen are better preserved than the type. 



Family— ASTR^IDiE. 

Sub-family — Eusmilin^e. 

Division — Troohosmiliace^. 

Genus — Trochosmilia. 

Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. PL XV, figs. 1 — 7. 

The corallum is small, cylindrical or cyhndro-conical. Its base may be wide or very 
small, and was adherent. 

The epitheca is complete. 

The costge are very small, and are occasionally seen where the epitheca is worn. 

The calice is rather deep. 

The septa are crowded, unequal, spined near the axis, and form six systems. There 
are four cycles of septa. 

The cahce is usually circular in outline, but it is occasionally compressed. 

The axial space is small. 

The endotheca is very scanty. 

Height, i^ths inch. Greatest breadth, ^ths inch. 

Variety.— 1\\t corallum is short, broad, cylindrical, slightly constricted centrally, and 
has a broad base. 

Height, -^ths inch. Breadth, ^ths inch. 

Locality. Bargate Stone ; upper division of the Lower Greensand. Guildford, 
Surrey. Found with Avicula pectinata, Sow. In the Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, 

Esq., F.G.S. 

These small Trocliosmilia are common in the Bargate Stone, where they were 
discovered by Mr. Meyer, from whom I have obtained the names of the associated fossils. 
The presence of epitheca would apparently necessitate these fossils being placed in a new 
genus, but, after a careful examination of the bearings of the absence or presence of 



42 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

epithecal structures upon the natural classification of simple Corals, I do not think the 
point sufficiently important to bring about the separation of Mr. Meyer's little Corals 
from the TrochosmilicB. They form (^. e. the type and the variety) a sub-genus of the 
Trochosmilics. 



Sub-family — Astr^inj;. 
Division — Astr^ace^. 

Genus — Isastr^ea. 
IsASTRiEA MoRRisii, Diincan. PI. XV, figs. 10 — 12. 

The corallum is flat and very short. The corallites are unequal, and usually five- 
sided. 

There is no columella. 

The wall is thin. 

The septa are slender, unequal, and most of them reach far inwards. There are in 
the perfect calices three cycles of septa in six systems. Usually some of the septa of the 
third cycl^ are wanting. 

Breadth of a calice, rather more than yg^th inch. 

Locality. Bargate Stone, Guildford, Surrey ; with Terebratella Mttoni, Meyer. In 
the CoUection of C. J. A. Meyer, Esq., F.G.S. 

This small Isasircea is usually found as a cast, and the restored drawing is taken from 
an impression. The central circular structure is due to fossilization. 

The species is closely allied to Isastrcsa Guettardana, Ed. and H., of the Lower Chalk 
of Uchaux. 



i?fem7y— FUNGIDiE. 

Sub-family — LoPHOSERiN.fi. 

Genus — Tijrbinoseris. 

Genus nov. — Turbtngseris. The corallum is simple, more or less turbinate, or 
constricted midway between the base and calice. The base is either broad and adherent, 
or small and free. 



FROM THE LOWER GREENSAND. 43 

There is no epitheca, and the costse are distinct. 

There is no cohimella, and the septa unite hterally, and are very numerous. 



TuRBiNOSERis De-Fromenteli, Duncan. PI. XV, figs. 13 — 18. 

The corallum is tall, and more or less cylindro-turbinate. 

The calice is shallow, and circular in outline. 

The septa are very numerous, long, thin, straight, and many unite laterally with longer 
ones. There are 120 septa, and the cyclical arrangement is confused. 

The synapticulas are well developed. 

There is no columella, and the longest septa reach across the axial space. 

The costse are well developed, and often are not continuous with the septal ends. 

Height, I^ths inch. Breadth of cahce, l^^ths inch. 

Variety. — With a constricted wall and large base. 

Locality. Atherfield, in the Lower Greensand. In the Collection of the Royal School 
of Mines. 

The necessity for forming a new genus for this species is obvious. , It is the neighbour 
of Trochoseris in the sub-family of the Lo'plioserincs. This last genus has a columella, 
and the new one has none. 

The species has not been hitherto described, but it has been familiarly known as a 
Montlivaltia ; but the synapticulse between the septa and costse determine the form to 
belong to the Fmpdes. 



V. — List oe New Species from the Lower Greensand. 

1. BracJiycyathus Orhignyanus, Ed. and H. 

2. Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. 

3. Isastrma Morrisii, „ 

4. Turhinoseris De-Fromenteli, „ 



VI. — List of the Species from the Lower Greensand. 

1 . BracJiycyathus Orhiynyanus, Ed. and H. 

2. Smilotrochus Austeni, Ed. and H. 

3. Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. 

4. Isasfrcea liorrisii, „ 

5. Turhinoseris De-Fromonteli, ,, 

6. Holocystis eleyans, Lonsdale, sp. 

7 



44 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

VII. — List of the Species from the Cretaceous Formations. 
A. Upper and Louver White Chalk. 

1. Caryophyllia cijlindracea, Reuss, sp. 

2. „ Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

3. „ Tennanti, „ 

4. Onchotrochus serpentinus, „ 

5. TrochosmiUa laxa, Ed. and H., sp., and three varieties. 

6. „ corniicopice, Duncan. 

7. „ TFilfshirci, „ 

8. „ Woodwardi, „ 

9. „ ffranulafa, „ 

10. „ cylindrica, „ 

11. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp., and two varieties. 

12. ,, cylindrica, Ed. and H. 

13. „ Fittoni, 

14. „ serpe?itina, „ 

15. „ mouilis, Duncan. 

16. ,, yranulala, ,, 

17. JDiblasHs Gravensis, Lonsdale. 

18. Synhelia Sharpeana, Ed. and H. 

19. Stephanophyllia Bowcrbanlii, Ed. and H. 

B. Upper Greensand. 

20. Onchotrochus Carferi, Duncan. 

21. Smilotrochus tuberosiis, Ed. and H. 

22. „ elongatiis, Duncan. 

23. „ angidatus, „ 

24. Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. and H. 

25. Cyathophora monticularia, D'Orbigny. 

26. Favia stricta, Ed. and H. 

27. „ minutissima, Duncan. 

28. Thamnastrcea superposita, Michelin. 

29. Micruhacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 

30. Placosmilia cuneiformis, Ed. and H. 

31. „ Parkinsoni, „ 

32. „ maynifica, Duncan. 

33. Peplosmilia depressa, E. de Fromentel. 

34. Astroccenia deca^jhjlla, Ed. and H. 

35. Isastraa Haldonensis, Duncan. 



FROM THE CRETACEOUS FORMATIONS. 45 



c. Med Chalk of Hunstanton. 



36. Cydolites polymorpha, Goldfuss, sp. 

37. Podoseris mammiliformis, Duncan. 
88. „ elongata, „ 

39. Micrabacia coromda, Goldfuss, sp., and variety. 



D. Gault. 

40. Carophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. and H., and a variety. 

41. Trochoci/athus conulus, Phillips, sp. 

42. „ Wiltshirei, Duncan. 

43. „ Harveyanus, Ed. and H., and five varieties. 

44. Bathycyathus Sowerbyi, Ed. and H. 

45. Leptocyatlms gracilis, Duncan. 

46. Cyclocyathus Fittoni, Ed. and H. 

47. SmilotrocJms elongatus, Duncan. 

48. „ granulatus, „ 

49. „ insignis, „ 

50. „ cylindricus „ 

51. Trochosmilia sulcata, Ed. and H. 

52. Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. 



E. Lower Greensand. 

53. BrachycyatJms Orbignyanus, Ed. and H. 

54. Smilotrochus Austeni, „ 

55. Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. 

56. Isastrcea Morrisii, „ 

57. Turbinoseris Be-Fromenteli, Duncan. 

58. Holocystis elegans, Lonsdale, sp. 

Micrabacia coronula is common to the Upper Greensand and the Red Chalk. 
Smilotrochus elongatus is found in the Gault and in the Upper Greensand. 

The number of species of Madreporaria in the British Cretaceous formations is 
therefore fifty-six. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime had described twenty-three species before this 



46 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

series was commenced. Of these I have ventured to suppress 'Parasmilia Mantelli, 
Trochocyathus Koeni(/i, and Trochocyaihus Warhurtoni. 

The Coral-fauna of the British area was by no means well developed or rich in genera 
during the long period during which the Cretaceous sediments were being deposited. The 
Coral tracts of the early part of the period were on the areas now occupied by the Alpine 
Neocomian strata, and those of the middle portion of the period were where the Lower Chalk 
is developed at Gosau, Uchaux, and Martigues. 

There are no traces of any Coral reefs or atolls in the British Cretaceous area, and its 
Corals were of a kind whose representatives for the most part live at a depth of from 5 to 
600 fathoms. 



PLATE I. 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 



Fig. 

1. The corallum of CaryophylUa Lousdalei, Duncan. (P. 3.) 

2. The caUce and columella, magnified. 

3. The costse, magnified. 

4. The corallum of CaryophylUa Tennanti, Duncan. (P. 4.) 

5. The calice, magnified. 

6. The costse, magnified. 

7. CaryophylUa cyUndracea, Reuss, sp. (P. 3.) On a Belemnite. 

'•1 

9. > Unusual shapes of this species. 

lO.J 

11. A calice, magnified, showing the small pali noticed in many specimens. 

12. A septum, its dentation, and a portion of one of the pali, magnified. 




M&'SBaiihdJt urn 



rnOATC r^nn^/f ttj- c ruATi,^ 



PLATE II. 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 

Fie. 

::l 

^ Various shapes of the corallura of Diblasus Gravensis, Lonsdale. (P. 14.) 

10. 
11. 

'■1 

6. >-The costse, magnified. 

9.J 

5. The pecidiar appearance of tolerably well preserved calices, induced by fossilization, 

magnified. 
8. The method of gemmation, and the appearance of a large calice with the septa 

worn out of it, magnified. 



Pill 




M& ITHanliart i 



nnPATS FROM THF r.HAFK 



PLATE III. 

CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 

Fig. 

1. Tlie corallum of Trochosmilia {Ccelosmilia) Wiltshiri, Duncan. (P. 9.) 

2. A portion of the calice, magnified. 

3. A side view of one of the septa, magnified. 

4.1 

. > Magnified views of the costse. 

6. The corallum of Trochosmilia [Ccelosmilia) cornucopice, Duncan. (P. 8.) 

7. The calice, magnified. 

8. The costse near the calicular margin, magnified. 

9. The arrangement of the septa as regards their size (a diagram). 
10. The peduncle, magnified. 

I Specimens of Trochosmilia {Ccelosmilia) laxa, Ed. and H., varieties. (P. 

12.1 ,^ .r. . 

r Magnified portions. 

"■1 

16. >Cost3e, magnified. 
18.J 

17. A diagram of the septal arrangement. 



Pi.iir. 




CORALS FROM THE CHALK 



PLATE IV. 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 



Fig. 

1. The corallum of Trochosmilia {Calosmilid) graiiulala, Duncan. (P. 10.) 

2. The costse, magnified. 

3. The cellular margin, magnified. 

4. The peduncle, magnified. 

5. The corallum of Trochosmilia {Ccehsmilia) Woodwardi, Duncan. (P. 9.) 

6. The costaj, magnified. 

7. The septa, magnified. 

8. The peduncle, magnified. 

9.1 The corallum (nat. size and enlarged) of a variety of Trochosmilia {Coelosmilia) lasca, 

10. J Ed. and H. (P. 8.) 

11. The costae, magnified. 

12. The calico, magnified, showing the septa of the fourth cycle. 



Pl.lV 




M& N Harihart imp. 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK 



PLATE V. 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 



F]G. 

1. The corallum of Trochosmilia {Coelosmilia) cylindrica, Duncan. (P 10.) 

2. A fractured portion of the corallum, showing the endothecal dissepiments and 

the septa. 

3. Costae, magnified. 

4. The corallum of Parastnilia monilis, Duncan. (P. 12.) 

5. A magnified view of the costse on the peduncle. 

6. A magnified view of the costae high up. 

7. The costae on the body of the corallum, magnified. 

8.1 The coraUum of Parasmilia centralis, Ed. and H., sub-species Gravesana. 
9.1 (P. 12.) 

\ The corallum of Parasmilia centralis, showing the typical costal arrangement, 
lo. J 

The costae of the corallum, magnified. 



PIV 




De vVilole dal ctlith 



M &: H Ha-Tilit^^'b 1 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 



PLATE VI. 



CORALS FROM THE CHALK. 



Fig. 

1. The corallum of Onchotrochus serpentinus, Duncan. (P. 4.) 

i. The calicular end of the coialluni, magnified. 

3. The corallum of a small specimen. 

4. The costae, magnified. 

5. Ihe coxfAXmn o^ Parasmilia ffranuIata,Y>v\\K9.x\. (P. 13.) 
(). The costa?, magnified. 

7. The calice, magnified. 

8. The peduncle and its costse, magnified. 

9. A longitudinal section of the corallum of Trochosniilia [cmhsmilia) (jranulata, 

Duncan, showing the wavy inner ends of the septa, and the scanty 
endotheca. 

1 0. The corallum of a Caryoj)hyllia, showing u-regular growth. 

11 . The calice, magnified, showing a distorted arrangement of the sepia. 

12.1 Longitudinal sections of Parasmilia centralis, showing the large columella and tlic 
13. J scanty endotheca. 

14. A corallum of a young P«ras»«7/« ee??/rff/fs, variety ^/r/w^^//;'. (P. 1.2.) 

16. A younger specimen. 

15. The costac, magnified. 

17. A portion of the calice, magnified. 

18. A distorted corallum oi Parasmilia centralis. 

20. >Its costse, magnified. 
21. 



PI V^l 




DeWiiie acl eblitn. 



M*-K.¥a,nTaart.injri, 



CORALS FROM THE CflALK. 



PLATE VII. 

CORALS FROM THE UPPEIl GREENSAND. 

Fig. 
l."| Various shapes of the corallum of Siailotrochiis elongatus, Duncan. (P. 19.) The 
3. y specimens are worn, and the coralUtes are in the form of casts. Small portions 

3. J of the original hard parts still remain. 

4. A transverse section of a corallum, slightly magnified. 

' ' \ The casts of the intercostal spaces simulating costae, slightly magnified. 

7. The corallum of ^Siwi/o/foc/^as G/?77«/afos, Duncan. (P. 20.) 

8. The transverse section, sUghtly magnified. (The specimens are in the form 

of casts.) 

9. The corallum of Wavia mimitissima, Duncan. (P. 22.) 

10. A portion, magnified. 

11. Endothecal structures of the corallum, magnified. 

12. The corallum of Smilotrochus Austeni, Edwards and Haime. (P. 19.) Copied 

from the ' Hist. Nat. des Coralliaires.' 

13. Tlie corallum of Thamnastraa superposita, Michelin, sp. (P. 22.) 

14.1 
.' \ Specimens from the French Upper Greensand. 

16. A corallum, magnified. 

17. A calice, close to the edge of the corallum, magnified and drawn with the camera 

lucida. The continuous costai are to be observed inferiorly. 



pi.vn. 




M 1^ K HfiLnhartimp 



CORALS FROM THE UPPER GREENSAND' 



I 



PLATE VIII. 



CORALS FROM THE UPPER GREENSAND. 



Fig. 

i; 

2. 
3. 
4. 



Corallites of Onchotrocus Carteri, Duncan. (P. 20.) 



11. 
13.J 

6. A worn calice, magnified. Fossilization has produced a false union of tlie septa, 
and a central space. 

7.^ 



I Sections of the same specimen. The central tissue is due to fossilization. 

o. J 

9. A normal calice, magnified. 

12. [-The costal and e])ithecal structures of three different specimens. 
14.J 

15. Tlie corallum of Cyalhophora monticularia, D'Orb., sp. (P. 21.) 

16. A portion, magnified. 

17 1 

" \ Sections magnified, showing the endotheca, and in fig. 18 one of the tablulae. 
1 8. J 



?1^/1]T. 




■)8lMIde M etla. 



M*:'N'Ha.nharliTtip 



CORALS FROM THE UPPER .&REENSAND. 



PLATE IX. 

CORALS FROM THE RED CHALK OF HUNSTANTOI^. 
IG. 

1. A variety of Microbaaa coronafa, Goldfuss. Natural size. (P. :24.) 

2. The usual appearance presented by the worn specimens of Podospris mumiuiliformis. 

Duncan. (P. 25.) 



\ Tlie calice, magnified. 



5.. 

6. A specimen with a large base. 

4. A natural section (longitudinal) showing the synapticulse, magnified. 

7. A specimen showing a convex calice, the costse and synapticulae, magnified. 
10. A specimen with epitheca, magnified. 
11.' 



, Natural size 
12. 

13. An irregularly shaped corallum. 

14. Its base, magnified. 

9. The side view, magnified. 

15. A short specimen. 

8. A magnified view of it, showing the synapticulse. 

16. The corallum of PoJoseris elongata, Duncan. (P. 26.) 

17. Its costae, magnified. 

18. The corallum of Cydolites pQlymorpha, Goldfuss. (P. 34.) 



71. IX. 




De Wilde dd et lith. 



M" & B Hanhar t imp 



rn"RAT„S FROM TKR RF.n HRAFK". 



PLATE X. 

CORALS FROM THE UPPER GREENSAND OF HALDON. 

Fig. 

1. The corallum oi PJacosmflia cuneiformis, Ed. and H. (P. 27.) 

2. Part of a septum, magnified. 

3. The costse, magnified. 

4. Oblique view of the costse, magnified, 
o. The cahce, magnified. 

6. The corallum oi Placosmilia Parkinsom, Ed. and H. (P. 28.) 

7. The calice, magnified. 

8. The corallum oi Peplosmilia depressa, E. de From. (P. 29.) 

9. The costBB, magnified. 
10. The cahce, magnified. 

12. r- The corallum oi Placosmtha maffnifica, Duncan. (P. 28.) 
13.) 



\ 



\ 



PI. X 




I 



PLATE XI. 

Fig. 

1. The corallum oi Astroccenia decapliylla, Ed. and H. (P. 29.) 

2. The same, magnified. 

3. The upper part of a calice, magnified. 

4. The corallum of a variety. 

5. The upper part of a calice, magnified. 

6. The corallum, magnified. 

'iThe corallum and calices of Isastrmi HaMonensis, Duncan. (P. 30.) 
8. J 



PI. XI. 




Wilde JiLli 



rnoAT.Q Tunif Tnu" TT"nr>Tri 



T D TTt? M n 



PLATE XII. 

CORALS FROM THE GAULT. 
Fig. 
2' y Varieties of Trocliocyathm Harveyamis, Ed. and H. (P. 33.) 

3. Magnified view of the ends of the costse of one of the varieties. 

4. A longitudinal section of a variety, slightly magnified. 

5. A variety of Batliycyathm Soiverbyi, Ed. and H. (P. 35.) 

6. Its costae, magnified. 

7. The corallum of Batkycyathus Sowerbyi, Ed. and H. (P. 35.) 

8. A variety of Caryophyllia Boiverbanki, Ed. and H. (P. 32.) 

9. Its costae, magnified. 

10 to 16. Views of Smilotrochus elonyatus, Duncan. (P. 36.) 

12. Costae, magnified. 

14. The calice of a young specimen, magnified. 

16. The costae, magnified. 

17. Cox^\\\xm oi Smilotrochus insiffnis,'D\ync^x\. (P. 37.) 



PI XI L 



|- ,:Pf f , . ^ 




*»tiii^i-'' 



t.; 











"H^f#SB» f 



"^N* 



Kl*u"Haj-Ji;7'C xrr 



PLATE XIII. 



CORALS FROM THE GAULT. 



Fig. 

1. A variety of Trochocyathm Harveyanus, Ed. and H. The base. (P. 32 and 33.) 

2. Costaj and septa, magnified. 

3. A variety of the same species. 

4. Costae and septa, magnified. 
13. A transverse section, magnified. 

5. Leptocyathus gracilis, Duncan. Under surface. (P. 34.) 

6. The under surface or base, magnified. 

7. A transverse section, magnified. 

8. A side view, magnified. 

9. Smilotrochus insignis, Duncan. (P. 37.) 

lO.. 

11. \Young of Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. (P. 36.) 

12.J 



Pl.iQIl. 






.'S-r-if^, 







M&^ "EsLlonai^t imp 



PLATE XIV. 



CORALS FROM THE GAULT. 



Fig. 
I 



I Abnormal form of Trochocyathus Harveyanus, Ed. and H. (P. 34. 



4. ^Magnified views. 
5.J 

6. Base of Micrabacia Fitloni, Duncan. (P. 37.) 

7. The same, magnified. 

8. Side view of the corallum, magnified. 

9. Junction of septa and costse, magnified. 

10. Corallum of Trochocyathus W^iltshirei, Duncan. (P. 34.) 

1 1. Magnified view. 

12. The calice, magnified. 

13. Smilotrochus elo7iyatus, Duncan. Adult form. (P. 36.) 

14. The same, magnified. 

15. The calice, magnified. 

16. Smilotrochus cylindricus, T)unca.n. Corallum, magnified. (P. 36.) 

17. Smilotrochus yranulatus, Duncan. Corallum, magnified. (P. 36.) 

18. Smilotrochus insignis, Duncan. Corallum, magnified. (P. 37.) 



PL XIV. 




CORALS FROM THE GAULT. 



PLATE XV. 

CORALS FROM THE LOWER GREENSAND. 

Fig. 

2. /Corallites of Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. (P. 41.) 

3.J 

4 1 

'Calices, magnified. 

5. J 

6. Variety with broad base. 

7. Its calice, magnified. 

8. Part of the corallum oi Brachycyatlms Orhignyanus, Ed. and H. (P. 40.) 

9. Longitudinal view of the septa and pali, magnified. Tlie notch indicates the 

commencement of paU attached to tertiary septa. 

10. Corallum (cast) oi Isastrcea Morrisii, Duncan. (P. 42.) 

11. The cast, magnified. 

12. Impression, magnified. 

13. The corallum of Turhinoseris De-Fromenteli, Duncan. (P. 43.) 

14. A variety. 

15. Synapticulse and septa, magnified. 

16. Calice, size of life. 

17. Costae, magnified. 

18. The unusual appearance of septa ending in intercostal spaces, magnified. : 



PI. XV 




CORALS FROM THE LOWER GREEN SAWD . 



MANEd/iliiU-tmip 



A MONOGRAPH 



BEITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



SECOND SEEIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B.Lond., F.R.S., F.G.S., 

PEOPESSOB OP GEOIOaT TO, AND HONOEAEY FELLOW OF, KlUa'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 



Being a Supplement to the 
'■ Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 



PART III. 

Corals from the Oolitic Strata. 

Pages 1—24 ; Plates I— Yll. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOG-R APHIC AL SOCIETY. 

1872. 



PBINTED BT 
ADLAED AND SON, nABTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



CONTENTS OE SUPPLEMENT TO THE OOLITIC CORALS. 



Inteoduction . . 

List of Species already described from the Oolitic Strata 

List of New Species . . 

List of all the Species described 

General Eelations of the Oolitic Coral-faunas of Great Britain 

Description of New Species from the Great Oolite 

Description of New Species from the Inferior Oolite 



PAGE 

1 
4 
6 
7 
9 
14 
16 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

(SECOND SERIES.) 
Part III. 



1. — Introduction. 



This Part concludes the description of the new species of Fossil Corals which have 
been discovered in the Secondary rocks of Great Britain and Ireland since the 
appearance of the Monograph by Messrs. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, of which 
this work forms the continuation. 

It treats of the Corals from those Jurassic strata which are popularly known as the 
Oolites ; and it will, of course, precede, in the arrangement of the volume, the parts 
relating to the Liassic Corals, which have already been published. 

The following authors have contributed to our knowledge of the Oolitic Corals : — 
R. Plot, 'Nat. Hist. Oxfordshire,' 1676. J. Walcott, ' Descr. and Fig. of Petref. found 
near Bath/ 1779. Parkinson, ' Organic Remains,' 1808. W. Smith, ' Strata Identified,' 
1 816. W. Conybeare and W. Phillips, ' Outlines of the Geol. of Eng. and Wales,' 1822. 
Eleming, 'British Animals,' 1828. G.Young, ' Geol. Survey of York,' 1828. J. Phillips, 
' Geol. of Yorkshire,' 1829. R. C. Taylor, 'Mag. Nat. Hist.,' 1830. S. Woodward, 
'Synopt. Table of Org. Rem.,' 1830. E. Bennet, 'Cat. Org. Remains, Wilts,' 1837. 
Fitton, " Strata below the Chalk," ' Geol. Trans.,' 2nd series, 1843. Morris, ' Cat. of 
British Fossils,' 1843. M'Coy, ' Ann. Nat. Hist.,' 1848 (several essays). MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime, ' Monog.' (Pal. Soc), 1851. T. Wright, M.D., F.G.S., 
'Cotteswold Club Trans.,' 1866. 

I 



2 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

An analysis of the work of these authors, with the exception of that of Dr. Wright, is 
found scattered over the pages of MM. Mihie-Edwards and Jules Haime's "Monograph of 
the Oolitic Corals," Pal. Soc., 1S5L No new species of fossil Corals have been described 
from the Oolitic rocks since that date until very recently. During the last year or two, how- 
ever, I have added to the species already known five from the Great Oolite, and thirteen from 
the Inferior Oolite. A careful study of the Thecosmiliai of the Inferior Oolite at Crickley 
has enabled me to distinguish five very remarkable varieties of Thecosmilia (jregaria, M'Coy, 
sp., and to satisfy myself that the relations of the ThecosmilicB of the Lias to the genera 
IsastrcBa, LatimcBandra, and others were repeated in the Inferior Oolite. There are specimens 
of Thecosmilia gregaria in Dr. Wright's collection which, had I not had a considerable 
series to examine from other sources, might have been associated with Reuss's new genus 
Heteroggra, together with Sgjiiphgllia and Latimaandra. The relation of these genera 
(except Heteroggra) to Monilivaltia has been noticed in the first Report (Brit. Assoc. 
Report, Norwich, p. 106 et seq.), and there is a clear proof that the same phenomena of 
evolution may occur consecutively. That is to say, the St. Cassian Monilivaltia and 
ThecosmilicB varied and became permanent, compound, and serial Corals of such genera 
as Elgsaslrcea, Isastreea, and LatimcBandra ; then the Liassic Thecosmilia did the same ; 
and now it is evident that a Monilivaltia of the Inferior Oolite occasionally took on 
fissiparous growth, and superadded to others a marginal gemmation and a serial growth, 
and evolved forms which cannot be distinguished from those of the genera above 
mentioned and Sgmphgllia and Heteroggra. There was evidently an inherent power of 
variation which declared itself in the same direction during the ages which witnessed the 
formation of the St. Cassian and the Liassic and the Lower Oolitic deposits ; and it is 
impossible to deny a genetic value to these oft-repeated structural phenomena. 

One of the Thecosmilia from the Inferior Oolite at Crickley, which I have named 
Thecosmilia Wrighti, is very closely related to one of the Lower Liassic species. 

It is interesting to find the genus Cyclolites represented in the Inferior Oolite by two 
well-marked species, one of which is like the rest of the forms of the genus in shape, and 
the other is exceptional in its trochoid form. This last species has, however, all the other 
characteristics of the genus. The Cgclolites are extinct; they flourished in the earlier 
Cretaceous seas, and lasted during the Miocene. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime 
(' Hist. Nat. des Corall.') mention that the genus originated in the Jurassic age, but 
they produce no evidence to substantiate the assertion. 

A form belonging to a new genus of the Fungida was found by Mr. Mansel at East 
Coker in the Inferior Oolite In general shape and in the arrangement of the calices 
the specimen resembles Dimorphastraa ; but the existence of synapticulae between the septa 
and between the costse necessitates its association with the Fungida. There is a central calice, 
and the others are in a circle around it, being separated by long horizontal septo-costal pro- 
longations ; the whole is surrounded by an epitheca, and forms a turbinate shape, the free 
surface being flat and circular. This genus, which I have called Dimorphoseris, foreshadows 
the genera Cgathoseris and Trochoseris of the Lower Chalk. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 3 

Mr. Leckenby discovered the interesting specimens upon wliich I have founded the 
genus Gonioseris, one of the most extraordinary fornis of the Fwnpdce as yet described. 

There are several new species of the genus Thamnastrcea. Thamnastreea JBrowni, nobis, 
is remarkable for having in some specimens a long stalk surmounted by a knob-shaped head. 
The calices are small on the stalk, and very large on the head ; so that when the form is 
examined before it is mature, thei'e is a danger of producing two species instead of one. 
The stalk often attains the height of three or four inches. In other specimens there is no 
stalk, and the knob-shaped corallum is sessile. 

A large specimen of Thamnasfrwa Manseli, nobis, Inferior Oolite, is pedunculate, short, 
and very expanded superiorly; the epitheca is well preserved, and the endothecal dissepiments 
can be seen. This is a very satisfactory species, and I have had it very carefully drawn, 
so that the suspiciously synapticular endotheca can be proved to be really dissepimental. 

A specimen of Cladophyllia Baheana is remarkable from the disposition of the 
Corallites to combine and form serial and fissiparous calices as in Thecosmilia. 
Plate HI, figs 1—4. 

I am under great obligations to Dr. Holl, F.G.S., Mr. Manseli, F.G.S., Mr. R. Tate, 
F.G.S., Dr. Wright, F.G.S., Mr. T. C. Brown, Mr. Leckenby, P.G.S., and many other 
geologists, for the kind loan of specimens. 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



II. List of Species already described. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime described the following Oolitic species^ in 
their 'Monograph' (Pal. Soc), 1851 : 

Portland Stone. 
1. Isastraa ohlonga, Fleming, sp. 

Coral Hag. 

1. Stylina tubitlifera, Phillips, sp. 

2. — De-la-Bechi, Ed. & H. 

3. Montlivaltia disjmr, Phillips, sp. 

4. Thecosmilia annularis, Fleming, sp. 

5. JUiahdophyllia Edwardsi, M'Coy, sp. 

6. Calamophylla Stokesi, Ed. & H. 

7. CladopJtyllia ccespitosa. Con. & Phil., sj). 

8. Goniocora socialis, Ronier, sjj. 

9. Isastrcea exj^lanafa, Goldfuss, sp. 

10. — GreenoiigU, Ed. & H. 

11. TJiamnasfrcea arachnoides. Parkins, sp. 

12. ■ — concinna, Goldfuss, sp. 

13. Comoseris ir radians, Ed. & H. 

14. ProtoserisWaltoni, „ 

Great Oolite. 

1. Stylina conifer a, Ed. & H. 

2. — solida, M'Coy, sp. 

3. — Floti, Ed. & H. 

4. Cyathophora Luciensis, d'Orb., sp. 

5. — Pratti, Ed. & H. 

6. Convexastrcea Waltoni, „ 

7. Montlivaltia Smitki, „ 

1 There are three species common to the Great Oolite and the Inferior Oohte, anil one is common to 
the Coral Rag, the Great and the Inferior Oolite. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 

8. Montlivaltia WaferJioiisei, Ed. & H. 

9. Calmnophyllia radiata, Lamouroux, s 

10. Cladojjhyllia Babeana, Ed. & H. 

11. IsastrcBU Conyheari, „ 

12. — limita, Lamouroux, s]). 

13. — explanulata, M'Coy, sp. 

14. — serialis, Ed. & H. 

15. Clausastrcea Pratti, „ 

16. ThamnastrcBa Lyelli, „ 

17. — mammosa, „ 

18. — scita, „ 

19. — Waltoni, „ 

20. Anabacia orhdites, Lamouroux, sp. 

21. Comoseris verniicularis, M'Coy, sp. 

22. Microsolena reywlaris, Ed. & H. 

23. — excels a, ,, 



Inferior Oolite. 

1. Discocyathus Eiidesi, Michelin, sp. 

2. Trocliocyathus Magnevillianus, Michelin, sp. 

3. Axqsmilia WriyJiti, Ed. & H. 

4. Montlivaltia trochoides, „ 

6. — tenuilamellosa, Ed. & H. 

6. — Btutchburyi, „ 

7. _ — Wriyliti, „ 

8. — cupuliformis „ 

9. — De-la-Bec/ii, „ 

10. — lens, „ 

11. — depressa, „ 

12. Thecosmilia gregaria, M'Coy, sp. 

13. Latimmandra Flemingi, Ed. & H. 

14. — Bavidsoni, „ 
16. IsastrcBa Bichardsoni, „ 

16. — tenuistriata, M'Coy, sp 

17. — Lonsdalei, Ed. & H. 

18. Thamnastrcea Befrancia7ia, Michelin, sp. 

19. — Terquemi, Ed. & H, 

20. — Metlensis, „ 



6 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

21. Thainnastrceafungiformis, Ed. & H. 

22. — Maccoyi, „ 

23. Anahacia hemisphcerica, ,, 

i\Ir. Walton has forwarded uie Zapkrentls ? Waltoni, Ed. & H., from the Inferior 
Oolite at Dundry, which MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime felt inclined to think was 
a remanie fossil. There is no doubt about the specimen being a Zaphrentis, and it is 
clear that it was derived from an older rock. 



III. List of New Species. 

Great Oolite. 

Thecosmilia obtusa, D'Orl). 
Cyathophora insiynis, Duncan. 

— tttberosa „ 

IsasfrcBCi ylbbosa ,, 

llianmastrcea Browni 



Inferior Oolite. 

Montlivaltia Holli, Duncan. 

— FainswicH, Duncan. 

— Morrisi ,, 
Thecosmilia Wriyhti „ 
Symphyllia Ethericlyei, ,, 
Thaiiinastrcea Walcotti, „ 

— Maih'seli, „ 
Gonioseris anyulata, „ 

— Lecketibyi, „ 
Bimorphoseris oolitica, „ 
Cyclolites Lyceti, ,, 

— Bea?ii, ,, 
Podoseris constrict a ,, 

Inchiding M. d'Orbigny's species there appear to be eigliteen new forms which may 
be added to those formerly described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime in their 
Monograph of the Oolite Corals (Pal. Soc). 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 



IV. List or all the Species described. 

The Oolite fauna may be described as follows : — Species. 

Poi'tland Stone 1 

Coral Rag 14 

Great Oolite 28 

Inferior Oolite 3G 



Portland Oolite. 
Isasfreea oblonga, Fleming, sp. 

Coral Bag. 

Sfylina tuhulifera, Phillips, sp. 

— Le-la-BecJd, Ed. & H. 
Montlivaltia dispar, Phillips, sp. 
Thecosmilia annularis, Fleming, sp. 
Bhabdopliyllia Edwardsi, M'Coy, sp. 
Calamophyllia Stohesi, Ed. & H. 
Cladopliyllia caespitosa, Con. & Phil., sp, 
Goniocora socialis, Romer, sp. 
Isastraa explanata, Goldfuss, sp. 

— GreenouyJii, Ed. & H. 
Thamnastrtsa arachnoides, Parkinson, sp. 

— concinna, Goldfuss, sp. 
Comoseris irradians, Ed, & IT. 
Trotoseris Waltoni, ,, 

Great Oolite. 

Stylina conifera, Ed. & H. 

— solida, M'Coy, sp. 

— Ploti, Ed. & H. 
Cyathophora Luciensis, d'Orb., sp. 

— Pratti, Ed. & H. 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Cyatlioplwra msignis, Duncan. 

— tuberosa „ 
Convexastrcea Waltoni, Ed. & H. 
Montlivaltia Smithi „ 

- — Waferhousei „ 

T/iecosmilia obtusa, d'Orb. 
CalamojihyUia radiafa, Lamouroux, sp. 
Cladophyllia Babeana, d'Orb., sp. 
Isastrcea Conybeari, Ed & H. 

— limitata, Lamouroux, sp. 

— explanata, M'Coy, sp. 

— sprialis, Ed. & H. 

— yibbosa, Duncan. 
Clausastraa Pratfi, Ed. & H. 
Tliamnastrcea LyeUi, „ 

— mammosa, „ 

— scita, ,, 

— Waltoni „ 

— Browni, Duncan. 
Anabacia orbulites, Lamoui'oux, sp. 
Comoseris vermicularis, M'Coy, sp. 
Microsolena regularis, Ed. & H. 

— exceha, ,, 

Inferior Oolite. 

Biscocyathus Eudesi, Michelin, sp. 
Trochocyatlius MagnevillianHS, Michelin, sp. 
Axosmilia WrigJdi, Ed. & H. 
Montlivaltia trochoides, „ 

— • tenuilamellosa, Ed. & H. 

— StufcJibiiryi, ., 

— Wrighti, ,, 

— ciipuliformis, ,, 

— Be-la-Bechi, ,, 

— Ie7is, ,, 

— depressa, „ 

— Ilolli, Duncan. 

— Painsicicki, „ 

— Morrisi, „ 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 

Thecosmilia gregaria} M'Coy, sp. 

— Wrigliti, Duncan. 
Latimaandra Flemingi, Ed. & H. 



Sgmphgllia Etheridgei, Duncan. 
Isastrma Michardsoni, Ed. & H. 

— tenuistriatae, M'Coy, sp. 

— Lonsdalei, Ed. & H. 
Thamnastrcsa Befranciana, Michelin, sp. 

— Terquemi, Ed. & H. 

— Mettensis, „ 

— fungiformis, „ 

— Maccoyi, „ 

— Walcotti, Duncan. 

— Manseli, „ 
Gonioseris angidata, „ 

— LecJcenbgi, „ 
Anabacia hemispharica, Ed. & H. 
Bimorphoseris Oolitica, Duncan. 
Cyclolites Lyceti, „ *. 

— Beani, „ 
Podoseris constrida, „ 



V. — General relation op the Oolitic Coral-eaunas. 

The Oolitic Corals, as a whole, indicate the geographical conditions incident to reefs 
and atolls, and do not represent those bathymetrical states which the Upper and Middle 
Liassic coralliferous strata appear to have illustrated. A deep oceanic coral-fauna is not 
found amongst the relics of the Oolites, and the forms characteristic of the reefs are 
positively aggregated in an upper and lower mass at Cricldey in the Inferior Oolitic 
beds. 

Dr. Wright noticed some years since ^ an Oolitic coral-reef near Frith Quarry, on the 
northern spur of Brown's Hill, about two miles from Stroud. There is a corresponding 

1 The numerous forms I consider to belong to Thecosmilia gregaria are not mentioned or considered as 
species, although they have a very fair claim. There are three varieties very Symphyllian, and two very 
Heterogyran in their aspect, PI. VII, figs. 12 — 15. There is a well-marked variety of Montlivaltia trochoides 
at Painswick in the Inferior Oolite. 

2 Dr. Wright has kindly sent me these details. See 'On Coral Reefs,' by T. Wright, M.D., F.G.S., 
Cotteswold Club. Transact. 

2 



10 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



reef on the opposite side of the valley, the whole of the intervening space having been 
excavated by denndation. The coral-bed consists of large masses of coralline limestone 
imbedded in a fine-grained cream-colom-ed mudstone. The corals are in a highly 
crystalline state, so that the genera and species are determined with difficulty. The bed 
is from fifteen to twenty feet in thickness, and forms one of the finest examples of fossil 
coral-reefs that Dr. Wright is acquainted with in the district. The bed may be traced 
along the escarpment, in a north-westerly direction, for several miles, to Witcomb and 
Crickley on the west, and to near Cubberley and Cowley on the east, where it was worked 
several years ago. Judging from the thickness of the bed, and the abundance of corals 
it contains, it must have formed a barrier-reef of considerable magnitude in the Jurassic 
sea. The following is a section showing the relative position of the Lower Coral-reef. 

Section of the Lower Coral-reef, in the Inferior Oolite, at the Quarry, North Frith Wood, 
near Brown's Hill, Gloucestershire. 



Lithological Characters and 

Thickness. 



Beds 



Cream-coloured Marl, with 
several inconstant layers of 
Mudstone, upper part pass- 
ing into a loose, friable 
Freestone, with large Tere- 
bratula fimbria. 
From 20 to 2.5 feet. 



Fine-grained oolitic Limestone, 
very white, and emitting a 
metallic ring when struck 
witii a hammer. 
40 to 50 feet. 



Coarse brown ferruginous 
Oolite. 

Masses of Coralline Limestone, 
imbedded in a light-coloured 
Mudstone; the Corals highly 
crystalline, forming the chief 
part of the bed. 
15 to 25 feet. 

Brown ferruginous pisolitic 
rock. Pea-grit structure not 
much exposed. 



Upper Freestones. 



oolite-mael. 
Middle Ooeal-bed. 



Freestones. 



Lower Ragstones. 



Lower Coral-reef. 



Pea-grit. 



Organic Remains. 

Fossils. 



Leading 



Ttiamnastrtea, Isastraa, Axo- 
smilia, Terebratula fimbria, 
T. carinata, T. maxillata, 
RhynclioneUaLycetti,Lucina 
Wrigtiti, Lima pontonis. 



Shelly fragments, not determin- 
able. 



Terebratula plicata. 



Latimceandra, T/iamnastrtBa, 
Isastreea, Axosmilia, The- 
cosmilia, Pecten Dewalquei, 
Tricliites, Lucina Wrighti. 

Lima sulcata, Hinnites abjectus, 
Ceromya Bajociana, Avicula 
compUcata, Nerita costata, 
Troctiotoma carinata, Py- 
ffaster, Hyboclypus, Dia- 
dema. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 



11 



The Middle Coral-bed is included in the Oolite-marl, and in some localities, as at 
Frith, Leckharapton, Sheepscombe, and others, it contains masses of corals. 

The Upper Coral-reef occupies the horizon of the Upper Trigonia Grit, and is very well 
exposed in many sections. That of Cleeve Hill has yielded the best corals. The following 
section is open near Frith. Ascending the bank above this quarry for a short distance 
some fields or arable land are passed over, on which are several heaps of the Upper 
Ragstones, with Trigonia costata, Gryphcea suhloha, and other shells of the higher zone. 
Walking in the direction of the Grove, after passing over the summit of the hill and 
descending a short distance, a good section of the upper reef may be seen in the Slad 
Valley. 



Section of the Quarry at Worgin's Corner, Tipper Zone of Liferior Oolite} 
Lithology. Beds. Organic Kemains. 



Masses of Coralline Limestone, 
4 feet thick. 



Hard shelly Limestone, full of 
the shells of Brachiopoda, 
5 feet. 



Hard shelly sandy Oolite, full 
of GrypJieea, 6 feet. 



Upper Coral-reef. 



Terebratula-globata Bed. 



GRYPHiSA Bed. 



Thamnastreea, Isaslrcea, The- 
cosmilia, Magnotia Forbesi, 
Stomechinus intermedius, 
Pecten, Trigonia costata. 



Terebratula glohata, Rhyncho- 
nella spinosa, Pholadomya 
fidicula, P. Heraidti, Ostrcea, 
Gervillia, Trichites. 



Gryphma suhloba, Lima pro- 



The remarkable varieties of Thecosmilia gregaria, which resemble the genus Symphyllia 

and Heterogyra, are found principally in the lower reef, but they exist in the upper also. 

Some species appear to be peculiar to the different reefs, but it is unsafe to form lists at 

present. There is evidently a considerable affinity between the faunas of the reefs, and 

tbere is nothing to indicate anything more than a temporary absence from and a return 

of the species to an area. 

1 See Dr. Wright's pamphlet, from which the whole of this description is abstracted. 



12 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The corals of tlie Great Oolite are found in the Upper Ragstones underlying the 
Bradford Clay. Near Bath large masses of Calamoplujllia radiata are associated with 
the roots, stems, and heads of Apiocrinites rotundtis, MiU., which flourished like a 
miniatiu'e forest on the reef, and luxiu'iated amongst the polypes until the clear water was 
invaded by a current charged with mud, which destroyed the Encrinites and the Corals 
also.^ 

The Coral Rag in Wiltshire is divisible into (1) Upper Calcareous Grit, (2) Coral Rag, 
(3) Clay, (4) Lower Calcareous Grit. It is in the Coral Rag proper (2) that the Coral- 
beds are found. Of these Mr. Lonsdale " remarks : " The irregular beds of Polyparia 
consist of nodules or masses of crystallized carbonate of lime, which afford, invariably, 
evidences of the labours of the Polypus ; and associated with them are others of earthy 
limestone, which bear only partial proofs of an organic origin. The whole are connected 
by a pale bluish or yellowish stiff clay. It happens frequently that a bed is composed of 
one genus of Polyparia." 

In Yorkshire the Coralline Oolite is well developed, and several reefs are found at 
Hackness, Ayton, Seamer, &c. John Leckeuby, Esq., F.G.S., of Scarborough, gives the 
following details (see Dr. Wright, op. cit.) : — 

" In various parts of the district occupied by the Coralline Oolite around Scarborough 
are found patches of coral-reef, sometimes occupying an area of fully an acre ; and, although 
never attaining an altitude so high as the beds on the inclined surfaces of which they rest, 
they are truly the uppermost beds of the formation. 

" They are sometimes fi'om ten to fifteen feet in thickness, and consist of a series of 
layers of crystaUized coral, from eighteen to twenty-four inches in thickness, of the species 
Tliamnastraia concinna, Goldf. (which is the Th. micraston, Phillips), each layer being 
separated by rubbly clay and mud, in all probability the decomposition of each 
successive reef. The rock is quarried to supply material for i-epairing the roads of the 
district ; but it is by no means so well adapted for the purpose as the adjacent calcareous 
grit, which, at the cost of a little additional labour, would furnish a material much more 
durable. The crystalline coral-reef is quickly ground to powder, and its use affords 
less satisfaction to the traveller than to the geologist, as the blocks which are stored 
up for use along the sides of the road yield many a handsome specimen to adorn his 
collection. 

" The largest deposit is near the village of Ayton : there are others not quite so 
extensive ; one near the village of Seamer, another close to the hamlet of Irton, and others 
in the neighbourhood of Wykehara andBromptora — the intervening distances being about 
a mile in every case." 

Messrs. Leckeuby and Cullen visited the coral-reefs of the Coralline Oolite near 
Scarborough with Dr. Wright, who writes as follows : — 

1 Dr. Wright, op. cit. 

2 "Oolitic District of Bath," ' Trans. Geol. Soc.,' 2nd ser. vol. iii, p. 261. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 13 

" One quarry, near Ayton, wliicli may be considered as a type of the others, consisted 
of masses of crystalline coralline limestone, the beds having an irregular undulating 
appearance. The corals appear to have grown in areas of depression of the coralline sea ; 
the rock consists of large masses of highly crystalline limestone, forming nodulated 
eminences and concave curves, in beds of from twelve to eighteen inches in thickness, 
having a stratum of yellowish clay filling up the hollows, and forming a horizontal hne 
again to the stratification ; then follows another stratum of crystalline limestone, which 
assumes the same nodulated condition as the one below it, the surface of the coral masses, 
where exposed, showing that the whole is almost entirely composed of a small-ceUed 
AstreBa, Thmnnastrcea concinna, Goldf. {Th. micraston, Phillips), in some altered condition ; 
the reef is exposed to about ten feet in section, and rests on another, forming the floor of 
the quarry, and which descends many feet deeper. The corals are bored by Gastrochcenes, 
and numerous shells were seen imbedded in the coral mass, which had nestled in the 
crannies of the reef." 

Dr. Wright sums up with regard to the French, German, and British strata of the 
Etage Corallien as follows : — 

" From this general view of the geographical distribution of the Coralline Zone, it 
would appear that this formation was composed of a series of coral-reefs in the Jurassic 
sea, which, during the period of their construction, occupied a large portion of the region 
now constituting the soil of modern Europe ; and that the bed of the Jurassic sea was a 
slowly subsiding area of great extent, like many parts of the Coral Sea in the Indo-Pacific 
Ocean of our day."^ 

The restriction of species to very definite areas, and to limited zones amongst these 
succeeding coral-reefs, is very remarkable, and, as was noticed to occur in the Lias, the 
corals are occasionally persistent, and are associated with different moUuscan species. 
But the physico-geological changes which produced new reefs must have been preceded 
by considerable geographical changes, for, as a rule, the species of the grand divisions of 
the Jurassic system are different. Thecosmilia Wrighti of the lower reef of the Inferior 
Oolite has considerable resemblance to the Thecosmilice of the Inferior Lias ; but no Liassic 
species pass upwards into the Oolites. Only four species are common to the Inferior and 
Great Oolites, and one to the Coral Rag and Great Oolite ; yet there was a succession of 
the physico-geographical conditions favorable for the formation of reefs on the same area. 
The existence of reefs in so high a latitude during the Oolitic Period, and their formation 
by polypes whose genera were all extinct during the early Cainozoic Period, but which 
are clearly represented by allied genera in the existing reefs, are very suggestive. These 
were the last reefs of the British area ; for there are no traces of agglomeration of reef- 
building genera in the Lower Greensand, the Gault, Upper Greensand, Chalk, or Tertiary 
formations. The nearest approach to a reef must have been in the Lower Oligocene 

^ Dr. Wright, op. cit. 



14 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

period, when the Tabulate Corals and Solenastraeai of Brockenhurst formed a small outlier 
of the European coral sea of the time between the Nummulitic and the earliest Faluuian 



VI. Description of New Species from the Great Oolite. 

MABUEPOBABIA AP0R08A. 

Family— ASTRiEID^. 

Genus — Th ecosmilia. 

1. Thecosmilia obtusa, B'Orbigjiy, sp. PI. I, figs. 1 — 4. 

The corallum is short. 

The calices sometimes remained united in short series. 

The fossula is shallow. 

Some sixty septa may be counted in the series. The margin of the septa is oblique 
and delicately toothed ; and their sides are covered with delicate striae, which are radiating 
and projecting. 

The English locality is in the Great Oolite, Cirencester. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime give the following French localities : — Villers (Calvados), Neuvizi (Ardennes) in 
the Group Oolite Moyen. 

In the Collection of T. C. Brown, Esq. 

Genus — Cyathophora. 

2. Cyathophora insignis, Duncan. PI. I, figs. 9 — 11. 

The corallum is massive, and in layers. 

The calices are unequal, not equally distant from each other, circular, and they do not 
project above the inter-calicular surface generally, but in some instances they form cribri- 
form projections. 

The costse cover the inter-calicular surfaces, are sub-equal, wavy, and long. 

The septa are very short, and do not reach far into the calice ; there are three cycles 
in six systems, and the primary septa, which do not project much more than the 
secondary, are the largest. 

' P. M. Duncan, "Coral Faunas ofWestern Europe," &c., ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' No. 101, p. 51, 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 15 

The base of the calicular fossa is formed by a broad tabulate dissepiment. 
Diameter of the calices -^th to -g^th inch. 
Locality. Great Oohte, Cirencester. 
In the Collection of T. C. Brown, Esq. 



3. CyATHOPHORA TUBEROSA, i)«??ca;2. PL III, figs. 15 — 18. 

The corallum is tuberose, and the base is contracted and small. 

The corallites are numerous, not crowded, unequal, and are separated by much 
exotheca. 

The calices are circular, slightly crateriform, and raised, and the primary septa 
encroach upon the central space, which is shallow. 

The costge are unequal and long, and the calicular wall projects between the primary 
and secondary septa to produce tertiary costse, which have no corresponding septa. 

The septa are unequal, and there are six systems and two cycles. 

Height of corallum \\ inch. Breadth of calices Yoth inch. 

Locality. Great Oolite^ Cirencester. 

In the Collection of T. C. Brown, Esq. 



Genus — Isastr^ea. 
4. IsASTR^A GiBBOSA, Duncun. PI. II, figs. 10, 11. 

The corallum is gibbous, and the corallites are excessively crowded. 

The calices are depressed, irregular in shape, and have a broad margin, and art; 
shallow. 

The septa are sub-equal, crowded, short, and marked with lateral ornamentation of a 
moniliform character. There are six systems and three cycles. 

The central fossa is encroached upon by the larger septa, which do not meet with 
their central margins. 

Diameter of largest calices \\k inch. 

Locality. Great Oolite, Cirencester. 

In the Collection of T. C. Brown, Esq. 



16 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Family— riJNGID^]. 

Ge}ws — Thamnastr^a. 
1. THAMNASTRiEA Browni, Buiican. PI. II, figs. 1 — 5. 

The corallum is variable in shape, and appears in two series of orms : 1st, as a nearly 
globular mass with a very small base ; 2nd, as a pillar-shaped corallum, terminating in a 
knob. 

The calices are large, and have wide and rounded margins ; they are shallow, and do 
not present any appearance of columellse. 

The septa are large, unequal, broadly dentate, arched, and not crowded. There are 
six systems and four incomplete cycles. 

The costse pass down the base of the corallum in long, parallel, wavy lines ; they are 
sub-equal, broadly dentated above, and most so below, where they become more equal 
and more level. 

The epitheca is scanty, but covers the costee here and there. . 

Breadth of cahces i%ths inch. * 

Locality. Great Oolite, Cirencester. 

In the Collection of T. C. Brown, Esq., and in the British Museum, 

VII. Description of New Species from the Inferior Oolite. 
Family— ASTRtEID^. 
Genus — Montlivaltia. 
1. Montlivaltia Holli, Duncan. PI. I, figs. 5 — 8. 

The corallum is cornute, tall, and slightly compressed laterally. 

The epitheca is very strong and plain, but marked with transverse folds and slight 
costal strise. 

The calice is elliptical, rather deep, open, and has a thin margin. 

The septa are very unequal as regards the higher orders, but the primary and 
secondary are equal, slightly exsert, and convex on the upper margin. They are mode- 
rately prominent in the calicular fossa. The other septa are much smaller. There 
are six systems and four cycles in each and part of the fifth. The appearance is that 
of twelve systems of three cycles. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 17 

Height of coraUum 1^ inch. Length of calice i^ths inch. 
Locality. Oolite-marl, Painswick. 
In the Collection of Dr. Holl, F.G.S. 
Calicular gemmation is frequent. 

2. MoNTLiVALTiA Painswicki, Dmccm. PI. I, fig. 12. 

The corallum is rather flabelliform, compressed, especially inferiorly, has a narrow but 
elongated base, with the remains of former adhesion, and an elliptical and deep calice. 

The epitheca is very strong, transversely ribbed, and folded, moreover, inferiorly ; 
there is a projection on either side of the base. 

The calicular margin is broad and rounded. 

The septa are numerous, unequal, not exsert, crowded, and some are attached to 
others near the central space. 

There are six systems of septa and five cycles, with some orders of the sixth in each. 

Height of corallum j^ths inch. Length of calice T^ths inch. 

Locality. Oolite-marl, Painswick. 

In the Collection of Dr. Holl, P.G.S. 

3. MoNTLiVALTiA MoRRisi, Duncau. PL II, fig. 13. 

The corallum is turbinate, the base is slender and conical, and the calicular margin is 
deformed, and more or less' oval. The corallum expands above. 

The calice is deep ; its margin is rounded, rather sharp, and there is no columella. 

The septa are stout, numerous, unequal, long, and curved. The larger septa unite 
deep in the fossa in a kind of whorl. 

There are six systems and five cycles, with part of the sixth. 

The corallum is often deformed by arising close to others. 

Height of corallum ^^ths inch. Breadth of calice Ifths inch. 

Locality. Inferior Oolite. 

In the Collection of the Royal School of Mines. 



Genus — Thecosmilia. 

1. Thecosmilia Wrighti, Duncan. PI. V, figs. 1 — 6. 

The corallum is large, massive, and irregular in shape. 

The corallites are cylindrical and increase very slightly in their calices during their 

8 



18 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

groAith. They do not remain long united after fissiparity and budding, and they form 
an aggregate of rather short tubes which are not united by a common epitheca. 

The epitheca of each corallite is dense and marked with lateral lines, but it is usually 
worn off here and there so as to show the costse which are delicate, straight, numerous, 
and subequal. 

The calices are usually slightly, elliptical and the epitheca reaches to them. They are 
not of greater diameter than the corallites. 

The septa are few in number and probably do not attain the full complement of the 
fourth cycle. The primary septa are the largest, but in some calices the secondary equal 
them in size. 

The columella is rudimentary. 

Length of calices J inch (largest). Height of corallite 2 inches. 

Locality. Crickley. Inferior Oolite. 

In the Collection of Dr. Wright, F.G.S., Cheltenham. 



2. Thecosmilia gregaria, M'-Coy, sp. PI. VI, figs. 1 — 4. 

This common species appears to vary greatly in some districts, and Dr. Wright, of 
Cheltenham, has a series which appears to gradate towards and into the genus SyniphylUa. 
The figures explain this tendency, but the calices of fig. 1 are rather too much levelled 
internally. Fig. 2 represents the calices on the outside of the corallum. 

Locality. Crickley. 

In the Collection of Dr. Wright, F.G.S., Cheltenham. 



Genus — Latim^andra, Ed. Sf- H. 

1. Latiji^andra Flemingi. Ed. §• H. PI. V, figs. 6, 7. 

A fine specimen of this Lower Oolite form is delineated in plate V. The magnified 
view (fig. 7) shows a calice in which gemmation has taken place very remotely from the 
centre. Many portions of the corallum do not present serial calices, and if such fragments 
were found separate they would necessarily be associated with the genus Isastrcea. The 
Latimceandrcs may be regarded as modified /sa«/r«a ; but most probably they descended 
from lliecosmilicB. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 19 



Genus — Symphtllia, Ed. Sf H. 
1. Stmphyllia Etheridgei, Duncan. PI. VI, figs. 5 — 8. 

The corallum is nodular in shape ; the base is uneven, and the sides and upper 
surface are irregular, convex, and gibbous. The remnants of a basal epitheca exist and 
the costae of the calices end in a wall vi^ith which the costse of the base are continuous 
(fig. 8). 

The calices are irregular in shape and size, and often form short series. The intercalicular 
spaces are broad, and are marked by the costse which are continuous with the septa. 

The septa are numerous, very unequal, and crowded. The larger reach to the 
columellary space, and the small are almost rudimentary. 

In small calices the fifth cycle is incomplete. 

The columella is small and not always visible. 

The dissepiments are close and join the septa so as to resemble synapticulse. 

Height of corallum If inch. 

Breadth of corallum 2f inch. 

Breadth of calices i-oths to i-oths inch. 

Locality. Crickley. Inferior Oolite. 

In the Collection of Dr. Wright, E.G.S., Cheltenham. 

This is the earliest representative of the genus Symphyllia, and its derivation from a 
TJiecosmilia does not admit of much doubt. 



Family— EUNGID^. 

Genus — TnAMNASTRiEA. 
1. Thamnastr^a Walcotti, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 5 — 10. 

The corallum is moderate in size and of a flat conical shape. 

The apex of the cone is truncated and forms the inferior part or peduncle of the 
corallum which was adherent. 

The base of the cone is inferior and is flat, and there is a tendency to inequality and 
curving of the margins. -* 

The epitheca is well developed, rigid, and marked with transverse lines ; where 
abraded it permits the subequal moniliform costse to be seen and their connecting 
synapticulse. 

The calices are large, flat, shallow, and tolerably well defined, and are separated by 
much cceneucliyma covered with costse. ^ 



20 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The columella is distinct and formed by one pimple-shaped mass. 

The septa are in very unequal systems, and there are three incomplete cycles. They 
are short, rather moniliform, perforated on their free margins, marked with lateral synap- 
ticulas, and end in larger or shorter costse, which are continuous with the septa of 
neighbouring calices. 

The endotheca is fully developed, and is partly in the formof synapticulseand partly of 
dome-shaped dissepiments. 

Height of corallum x%ths inch. 

Breadth of calicular surface 2| inches. 

Breadth of calices troths inch. 

Locality East Coker. Inferior Oolite. 

In the Collection of W. Mansel, Esq., F.G.S. 



3. ThamnastRjEA Manseli, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 11 — 14. 

The corallum is small and conical, with a rounded apex, which is inferior, and a 
circular flat but slightly gibbous upper or calicular surface. 

The epitheca is distinct and is marked with transverse lines, and where abraded 
permits the costse to be seen. 

The costse are numerous, alternately large and small, slightly apart, and are connected 
by numerous synapticulse. 

The calices are numerous, small, nearly circular, shallow, and are separated by distinct 
nodular elevations of coenenchyma. 

The septa are distinct, rather monihform, unequal, and more or less continuous with 
those of the neighbouring calices. They are broader externally than within the calice, and 
the larger unite more or less to form a false columella. 

The costge on the calicular surface are wavy and moniliform. 

There are six systems of septa and usually some orders of the fourth cycle in addition 
to the complete but very irregularly disposed third cycle. 

The endotheca is abundant and assumes the synapticular form. 

Height of corallum iijths inch. 

Breadth of calicular surfaces l^ths inch. 

Breadth of calices about xoth inch. 

Locality. East Coker. Inferior Oohte. 

In the Collection of W. Mansel, Esq., F.G.S. ^ 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 21 



Genus nov. — Gonioseris. 

The corallum is simple and free. 

The base is polygonal in outline and the projecting angles are formed by groups of 
cost^ terminating in septa. Between the angles the margin is concave externally. The 
centre of the base is concave. 

The costas are numerous and they cover the base. Many converge at each angle 
along a line leading from the large septum to the centre. 

The upper surface of the corallum is convex, and is divided by masses of septa which 
are continuous with the angles of the base, and which, after projecting there, become 
exsert and pass to the axial space where they meet. 

There is a large, prominent, primary septum in each mass. 

The calicular wall is invisible. The synapticulse are broad and numerous. 

This extraordinary genus is represented by two forms in the Inferior Oolite. Probably 
the normal number of projecting angles is six, but in one specimen there are five, and a 
careful examination of it tends to prove that there was no abortion of a septum, but that 
the quinary arrangement was initiated from the first. 

The type is Gonioseris angulata nobis. Probably the small specimen delineated in the 
same plate is a young form of it. Plate VII, figs. 10 — 11. The third specimen I have 
called Gonioseris Leckenhyi after the discoverer of these fossils. 



1. Gonioseris angulata, Duncan. PI. VII, figs. 1 — 5. 

The base is hexagonal, and the projecting angles are connected by marginal concavities. 
The space between the central concavity of the base and the margin is broad and slightly 
convex. 

The costse are of two kinds — those which pass from the concave margins to the 
concavity of the base, and those which pass from the margin near the angles to a line 
directed from the angle to the base. All the costae are thin, slightly crenulate, alternately 
large and small ; and they are all continuous with the septa. Each septal mass, which 
forms one of the six angles, consists of a large primary septum and several small septa 
associated on either side. The mass projects upwards and outwards from the base, 
and then curves inwards and slightly upwards to the axial space. The spaces between 
the six masses are convex from within outwards and concave from side to side. 

There are six large primary septa ; and the others are subequal, long, thin, crenulate, 
and unitinsr. 



22 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

There is no columella, but the large septa and many of the small appear to unite over 
the axial space. 

The synapticulse are not numerous, and are delicate. 
Height of corallum i%ths inch. 
Extreme length 1^ inch. 

Localiiy. Millepore bed, Cloughtou Wyke, near Scarborough. 
In the Collection of John Leckenby, Esq., F.G.S. 



2. GoNiosERis Leckenbti, Duncan. PI. VII, figs. 6 — 9. 

The corallum is pentagonal. 
The costse are thick. 

The concavity of the base is angular in outline. 

The septal masses at the angles are formed by small septa, which converge towards 
the large costse. 

Height of corallum iVths inch. 

Length 1 ^^jths inch. 

Locality. Millepore bed, Cloughton Wyke, near Scarborough. 

In the Collection of John Leckenby, Esq., F.G.S. 



Genus nov. — Dimorphoseris. 

The corallum is compound, turbinate, and adherent. 

The epitheca is dense and faintly striated, but in no way incised or plicated. 
The calicular surface is slightly concave and circular in outline. 

There is a large central primary calice, and one or more concentric rows of calices at 
some distance from the primary. 

The septa are continuous and moniliform. 

There is no columella. 

The secondary calices increase by fissiparous division. 



1. Dimorphoseris oolitica, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 1 — 4. 

The corallum is turbinate, and has a small peduncle and a large and slightly concave 
calicular surface. 

The central calice is large, and about twenty-four septa enter into its composition, 
but there are many others just outside. 



FROM THE OOLITIC STRATA. 23 

The fossa is shallow. 

The septa are ornamented with elongated, bead-shaped projections, and their costal 
prolongations are very long, and are also ornamented in the same manner. 

Some of the external costae on the calicular surface bifurcate, and even divide into 
three portions. Usually the costse are subequal and the synapticulse are very numerous 
and distinct. 

Height of corallum 1 inch. 

Breadth of calicular surface If inch. 

Locality. East Coker. Inferior Oolite. 

In the Collection of W. Mansel, Esq., E.G.S. 



Genus — Cyclolites. 
1. Cyclolites Lyceti, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 7 — 9. 

The corallum is small, pedunculate, depressed, and nearly flat, and the calicular margin 
is everted and elliptical. 

The epitheca is strongly marked, and is in folds. 

The calicular fossa is in the centre of the calicular surface. 

The septa are very numerous, alternately large and small, and are delicately ornamented 
with monihform projections. 

The calice is slightly convex. 

Height of the corallum i^ths inch. 

Length of the calice l^^ths inch. 

Locality. Inferior OoHte. 

In the Collection of Dr. Holl, E.G.S. 



2. Cyclolites Beanii, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 10, 11. 

The corallum is turbinate and greatly expanded, and slightly concave above. It is 
slightly flat at the base where it adhered. 

The epitheca is stout, and in transverse folds. 

The calicular margin is nearly circular. 

The septa are very numerous, and number about 220. They are unequal, long, 
and moniliform, here and there. 

The synapticulse are very numerous. 

Height of corallum \ inch. 

Breadth of calice li inch. 



24 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Locality. Lower Ragstoiie, Dorset. 
In the Collection of Dr. Roll, F.G.S. 



Genus — Podoseris. 
1. Podoseris constricta, Duncan. PL III, figs. 5, G. 

The coralluui is fungiform and constricted beneath the rounded calicular surface. 

The base is small and presents the concave surface of a former adhesion to a foreign 
body. 

The epitheca is delicate. 

The calico is convex. 

The septa are delicate, narrow, long, slightly unequal, and there are five cycles of 
them and part of the sixth. 

The costse are distinct and equal inferiorly where they are linear. 

The synapticiilaB are rare. 

Height of corallum y^jths inch. 

Breadth of calice -j^ths inch. 

Locality. Lower Ragstone, Dorset. 

In the Collection of Dr. Holl, F.G.S. 



PLATE I. 



corals from the great oolite and from the inferior oolite. 

Fig. 

1 . Thecosmilia obtusa, d'Orb. The corallum. (Great Oolite.) (P. 14.) 

2. The upper margin of a septum, magnified. 

3. The cahcular surface, magnified. 

4. Costse, magnified, and epitheca. 

5. Montlivaltia Holli, Duncan. (Inferior OoUte.) (Page 16.) 

6. The calicular sm-face, magnified. 

7. The caUce, magnified. 

8. A corallum with calicular gemmation. 

9. Cyathophora inslgnis, Duncan. (Great Oolite.) (Page 14.) 

10. A calice, magnified. 

11. Three calices, slightly magnified. 

13. Montlivaltia Painswicki, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 17.) 




CORALS FROM THE GREAT OOLITE, AND FROM THE IKFERIOR OLITE 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 

1. Thamnastriea Browni,D\yt\c?a\. (Great Oolite). (Page 16.) 

2. The calices, magnified. 

;3. The costse and epitheca, magnified. 

4. A septum, magnified. 

5. A costa, magnified. 

6. Thamnastrcea Waltoni, Ed. & H. (Inferior Oolite.) 

'•) 

8. > Details, magnified. 

9.) 

' |- Isasfrcea (/ibbosa, Duncan, and magnified view. (Page 15.) 

\-2. Montlivaltia trochoides, Ed. & H. (Inferior Oolite.) 

13. 31onllwalfia Morrisi, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 17.) 























teWade del etlith. 



fc H Hioiirt imp 



CORALS PROM THE GREAT OOLITE , AND FROM THE mFERIOR OOLITE 



PLATE III. 

Fig. 

1.1 

2.1 

}■ C/adop//t/Iha Baheanna, Ed. & H. Corallum and details. (Page 3.) 

5. Podoseris constrida, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 24.) 

6. Corallum, magnified, 

[ Cyclolites Lyceti, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 23.) 

9. The costae, magnified. 

10. Cyclolites Beanii, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 23.) 

11. The septa and synapticulse, magnified. 

13. J> A Montlivaltia with distinct costge. (Inferior Oolite.) 
14.J 

15. Cyatliopliora tuberosa, Duncan. (Great Oolite.) (Page 15.) 

16. A calice, magnified. 

17. Calices, magnified. 

18. Side view of calice, magnified. 



CORALS FROM THE GREAT OOLITE, AND FROM THE INFERIOR OOLITE 



PLATE IV. 



Fig. 
1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5.^ 
6.1 
7. ' 
8. 
9. 
10._ 



Dimorphoseris oolitica, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 22.) 
Calicular surface. 
A calice, magnified. 
Synopticulas, magnified. 



.Corallum and details of Tliamnastrtea Walcotti, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (P. 19.) 



12.1 



13 
14.j 



\ Thamnastraa Manseli, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) (Page 20.) 



^Jl! 



'/ ^^v 



li^N 



»^ 




m 



tT/wk ^\'^- 




CORALS FROM THE INFERIOR OOLITE 



PLATE V. 
Fig. 

1-1 

2. I The corallum and details of Tkecomiilia WrigUi, Duncan. (Inferior Oolite.) 

3. \ (Page 17). 

4J 

5. A calice, magnified. 

6. 



^ > Views of LatimoBandra Flemingi, Ed. & H. (Page 18.) 



PI. V. 




R D6"?SMe litk 



"WWest*C?i»tp 



CORALti FROM THE INFERIOR OOLITE 



PLATE Vl. 

Fig. 
1. Thecosmilia gregana,Vi'QjQ)\ Variety. (Page IS.) 



2. -^ 

I Parts of corallmu, magnified slightly. 



3. 

4. Costse and exotheca, magnified. 

5. The corallum Q>i Symjjliyllia Etheridgei, Duncan. (Page 19.) 
fi. 
7. 
S. CostiB, magnified. 



\ Calices, magnified. 




G,«. i)8 Wilde Kth 



W.Wost«C°iEnje- 



CORALB FROM THE INFERIOR OOLITE 



PLATE VIT. 

Fig. 

1. Gonioseris anguluta, Duncan. (Page 21.) 

2. Under side — the base. 

3. Side view. 

4. Costae. 

5. Synapticulae. 

(5. Gonioseris Leckenhi/i, Duncan. (Page 22.) 

7. Base. 

8. Side view. 

9. Costas at tlie angle of the base. 

> Small specimen of young Gonioseris. 
12.1 

,. j- Symphyllian form of a 27/(?cosw27zo». (Page 9.) 
I5J 



PI. "VII. 

» 







/ it'ii ^? & « sJ-a J^ 







-i; 



'^»»S« -,~'sMin. 





. -~t^''^,#™^''V. 





DeWildelith. 



M4.JrHaiiliartxmp 



CORALS FROM THE SUPERIOR OOLITE 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



SECOND SEEIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B.Lond., F.G.S., 



SECEEIAET TO THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Being a Supplement to the 
' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals^' by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 



PART IV. 

COKALS FROM THE ZoNES OF AMMONITES PLANORBIS, ANGULATUS, BuCKLANDIj OBTUSUS, AN1> 
BARICOSTATUS OF THE LoWER LlAS ; FROM THE ZONES OF JaMESONI AND HeNLEYI OF 

THE Middle Lias ; and from the Avicula-contorta Zone and the White Lias. 



Pages i, ii ; 1—73. Plates I— XVIL 



LONDON: 
FEINTED FOE THE PALiEONTOGEAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1867—1868. 



PRINTED BY 
AIJLAKD AND SON, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



CONTENTS OP SUPPLEMENT TO THE LIASSIC COEALS. 



Peeface . . • • • • • • ^ 

I. Introduction to the Study of Liassic Corals . . • • • 1 

II. Description of the Species contained in the Zone of Ammonites planorbis . • 5 

III. Description of the Species contained in the Zone o£ Ammonites angulatus in the Sutton 
stone, and in deposits at Brocastle, Ewenny, and Cowbridge in Glamorganshire. 
List of Species . . • • • • .6 

IV. Description of the Species from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus at Marton, near 

Gainsborough . . . . • • ■ . oo 

V. Description of the Species from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus in the North of 

Ireland . . . . • • ■ • ^^ 

VI. Description of the Species from Lussay, in the Isle of Skye . . .41 

VII. List of the Species described and noticed from the Zones of Ammonites planorbis and 

angulatus . ■ • ■ • • ■ .412 

VIII. Eemarks upon other Species from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus ■ • 45 

IX Description of the Species . . . ■ ■ • .46 

X. On the Corals of the British and European Lower Liassic Deposits of the Zones of 

Ammonites angulatus, Ammonites planorbis, and Avicula contorta . . 47 

XI. List of Species from the Continental Zone of Ammonites angulatus . ■ .48 

XII. List of Species of Corals from the Continental and British Strata of the Zone of Ammon- 
ites angulatus . . ■ ■ ■ • .49 

XIII. Description of Species from the Zone of Ammonites BucMandi (bisulcatus) . 51 

XIV. List of Species from the Zone of Ammonites BucMandi . . ■ .55 
XV. Description of the Species from the Zone of Ammonites obtusus. Sow. . . 56 

XVI. Sections of the Beds in Gloucestershire and Warwickshire containing Corals from the 

Zone of Ammonites raricostatus, Ziet., and Description of the Species . . 57 

XVII. List of Species from the Zone of Ammonites raricostatus . . ■ .61 

XVIII. List of Species from the Zones of the Lower Lias above the Zone of Ammonites 

angulatus . • ■ ■ ■ ■ • . bi 

XIX. Corals of the Middle Lias from the Zone of Ammonites Jamesoni, Sow. . . 62 

XX. Corals of the Middle Lias from the Zone of Ammonites Henleyi, Sow. . . 63 

XXI. Enumeration of the British Liassic Species . . . • -64 

XXII. Description and Notice of Species from the Zone of Ammonites planorbis . . 65 

XXIII. List of Species from the Zone of Ammonites planorbis . . ■ -66 

XXIV. Notice on the indettrminable Corals of the Avicula Contorta Zone and White Lias of 

the British Isles (Ehsetic of Moore) . . . • -66 

XXV. Note on the Age of the Sutton Stone and the Brocastle Deposits . . .69 

Index of Species . . • • • • .72 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



SECOND SEEIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B. LOND., F.G.S., 



SECBETAEY TO THE GEOIOGHCAI SOCIETY. 



Being a Supplement to the 
'Monograph of the British Fossil Corals' hy MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 



PART IV, No. 1. 

COEALS FEOM THE ZONES OP AmmOKITES PlANOEBIS AND AMMONITES 

Angtjiatus in the Liassic Poemation. 



i, ii ; 1—43 ; Plates I— XI. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
1867. 



FEINTED B¥ J. E. ADLAKD, BAHTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C. 



A MONOGRAPH 

OP THE 

BEITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

SECOND SERIES. 
Part IV. No. 1. 



PREFACE. 

It was noticed in the Preface to the First Part of this series that some irregularity in 
the succession of the Monographs would occur. According to the plan adopted by 
MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, the Corals of the Cretaceous rocks should have 
been described in this Part ; but it was found advisable to take advantage of Mr. Charles 
Moore's splendid collection of Liassic Madreporaria, and to describe the species contained 
in it at once. 

MM. MUne-Edwards and Jules Haime only described three species from the whole 
of the British Lias ; and as one was probably a remanie fossil,^ and another could not be 
determined generically/ only one good species, Trochocyatlius Moorei, Ed. and H., remained 
to characterise this great formation. 

Since those authors wrote, many careful collectors have foand large numbers of Corals 
in the Middle and Lower Lias ; and Dr. Wright,^ the Rev. P. B. Brodie,* and Mr. Ralph 
Tate,^ have published notices and descriptions of species. 

Lately Mr. Tawney and the author brought the Corals of the Sutton Stone** before 
the notice of the Geological Society ; and Mr. Charles Moore, who had long before 

' 'Monograph. Brit. Foss. Cor.,' p. 145, Palseontograph. Soc, 1851. 

2 Ibid. 

3 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 1857, p. 34. 

* ' Reports of the British Association for 1860, Reports of Sections,' p. 73. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 
1860, vol. xvii, p. 151. "A Sketch of the Lias, &c.," 'Transact. Woolhope Nat. Field Club,' No. 1. 

^ ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xx, p. 111. 

* Ibid., vol. xxii, p. 91. 



ii PREFACE. 

cuUected Sutton Stone Corals, and had discovered the highly fossiliferous deposit at 
Brocastle, forwarded me his specimens, which are about to be described. The above- 
mentioned geologists have afforded me all the information at their command ; and 
Messrs. Kershaw, Winwood, Boyd Dawkins, Burton, Chamberlin, and Mrs. Strickland, 
have placed me under great obligations. 

Finding that at least fifty new species would have to be added to the list of British 
Liassic Corals, it was thought advisable to publish the most important at once. 

This Part of the Second Series will refer to the Corals of that portion of the Lower 
Lias which intervenes between the Rhastic strata and the beds which contain Ammonites 
BucMandi {bisulcatus) and Gryphcea incurva (type) in abundance.^ 

The next portion of this Monograph (Part IV, No. 2) will contain the description of 
the Corals of the other beds of the Lower Lias, and of the forms in the Middle and 
Upper Liassic deposits. It is probable that several Liassic beds whose geological horizon is 
not yet determined may yield new species of Corals which will have to be associated with 
those of the zone of Ammonites angulatus, and they will, of necessity, be included in 
Part . IV, No. 2, in which the lists of the species will be given, with a notice of the 
Corals of the Liassic strata of Continental Europe. 

Owing to the paucity of specimens, it is thought advisable to defer the consideration 
of the species from the White Lias of the Rhsetic series and from the Zone of Avicula 
cantorta to a future occasion. 

' jMadreporaria of the Infra-Lias of South Wales. P. Martin Duncan, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Sec.,' 
Feb., 1867. 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

(SECOND SERIES.) 
Part IV.— No. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Corals contained in the Liassic strata of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy 
have a very decided community of fades ; at the same time it is evident that some 
portions of the Liassic Coral-fauna resemble Triassic types, and that another portion is 
allied to the Oolitic. 

This was to be expected, for it is evident that the stunted Thecosmilim, and the 
Astrocanice of the Zone of Ammonites angulatus, are the descendants of the equally 
stunted Tliecosmilice and of the Astrocwnice of the Triassic age. Moreover, the descendants 
of the Isastrace, and of the larger Montlivaltim of the Lower and Middle Lias, luxuriated 
in the Oolitic seas. 

The bulk of the Liassic Coral-fauna is, however, characteristic of and special to the 
formation; and, as is the case in other great series of strata, certain assemblages 
of species appear to characterise certain definite geological horizons. Yet not unex- 
ceptionably, for some species range into higher zones in certain areas, whilst others, which 
are confined to a definite horizon in one area, are found below and above the equivalents 
of the horizon in a distant locality. Thus a species, which is only found in a particular 
bed, and is associated with a particular molluscan fauna in one locality, may be found to 
be associated with a molluscan fauna antecedent or posterior in its recognized succession, 
in another place. 

It is this uncertain vertical range of species, this variation in vertical range in different 
geographical areas, which causes the apparent antagonism of Physical Geology (as applied 
to Classificatory Geology) and Palaeontology. 

1 



2 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

It is this coining in of the same species at various positions in a large formation and 
their association M'ith diilerent groups of species that renders Palseontology of more or less 
uncertain value in the exact determination of the age of strata. 

But it is this varying vertical range of species in different areas and their association 
with different groups of forms that points to an ever-changing life-scene, to migration of 
faunae, to changes of physical conditions, to variation in the intensity of competition, to 
the rise of dominant and the decay of feeble forms, and to all those external agencies which 
affect the inherent power of variation peculiar to the animated nature of this world, where 
no two things are exactly alike. 

The persistence of a species in a succession of strata, and its consecutive association 
with different groups of competitors and contemporaries, is constantly observed in the Lias, 
taken as a whole ; and it is the strongest fact that can be adduced against the almost 
exploded notion of a series of cataclysmal destructions and of successive creations of 
beings occurring at intervals which are denoted by changes in physical geology. It is 
necessary to assert that those doctrines are not quite exploded, for they have a deep hold 
on the minds of many who have only a limited area of geological observation. The 
disposition to limit the possibility of the occurrence of certain specific forms to definite 
vertical ranges arises from a partial belief in those ideas, and they are apparently 
strengthened in the force of their application when pliysical breaks accompany palseonto- 
logical changes. 

Here the question concerning the physical causes which permit of and assist in the 
preservation of dead organisms must be considered in reference to those which have a 
diametrically opposite effect. 

If it be admitted that when the terrestrial conditions are in statu qno the preservation 
of organic remains from destruction is hardly possible ; that during elevation of areas the 
entombment and fossilization of organisms is equally unlikely, and that a gradual 
depression of the surface is in the majority of instances necessary for the preservation of 
deposits, it becomes evident that, whilst the physical break has a diminished value in its 
relation to the persistence of the life of species, the existence of a species in a considerable 
series of strata which could not have all been deposited during a continuous and uninter- 
rupted sinking of their area becomes most suggestive. Taken in combination with the 
remarks which have preceded, it is suggestive of the evident want of relation between 
the formation of strata and the origin and decadence of the species of the period ; and it 
points out that no Stratigraphical Palscontogeology can be perfect in a classificatory 
sense, and that zones of species may have little to do with the notion of time. 

With an ever-progressing animated nature there are and have ever been associated 
terrestrial and inorganic changes. There is no definite connection between them, and 
hence our classificatory systems have an increment of error which is constantly rising to 
the surface when the pure physical geologist and the pure palaeontologist argue upon their 
own bases concernino; the age of strata. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

The»notioii that the succession of strata all over the Avorld must be upon the same plan 
as that of the best studied, typical or most familiar district favours this difficulty ; and it 
is most true that the Lias has been, from the applicability of the foregoing remarks, a 
very debateable ground. 

The relation of the Bone-bed to the Trias ; the propriety of forming a Rhaetic series ; its 
relation to the Trias and Lias ; the possibihty of arranging the strata of the Lias in Zones of 
Ammonite life ; the propriety of including the Liassic strata between the Keuper and the 
Zone of Ammonites BucklancU, or between the base of the Zone of Ammonites planorbis 
and the Zone of Ammonites BucJdatidi in a sub-group, calling it Infra-Lias ; the possibility 
of separating the Zone oi Ammonites Bucklandi from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus, and 
the impropriety of distinguishing Zones of Cephalopoda, Insecta, Sauria, or Madreporaria 
— all these have been points debated over and over again, and they will ever be so as 
long as artificial distinctions are placed " en rapport " with nature. 

Nevertheless, carefully collected palseontological data concerning the vertical range of 
species are gradually deciding many of these questions, and with the effect of isolating 
the palcBontologist more and more in his relations with the received classificatory geology. 
These remarks are made because it is necessary to give the various groups of species 
of Madreporaria of the Lias places in some classification or other. It is impossible to 
associate them with beds determinable on purely stratigraphical or mineralogical data ; 
and it is equally impossible to include them in Zones of special life, for Cephalopoda and 
Saurians are rarely in relation with Corals. Tlie groups of Madreporaria have a general 
relation to certain zones of life and to certain strata ; and if they are associated for the 
sake of a necessary classification with certain Ammonite-Zones, it must be understood that 
it is only an approximative classification, and that both the Ammonites and the Madre- 
poraria may range out of their supposed restricted zone, or not even be represented m 
certain portions of its area. 

If it be admitted that by a Zone of an Ammonite or of any other Mollusc the general 
and usual vertical limit of the species is meant, all the difficulties thrown in the way of 
the philosophical, but still artificial, separation of the Liassic series into Ammonite- 
Zones vanish. 

Dr. Wright has elaborated this system in his 'Monograph of the Oolitic As- 
teriadce,'^ and had his Zone of Ammonites angulatus been known to have been as well 
developed in Glamorganshire and in Lincolnshire as it is in some of its most typical 
districts in Erance, his arrangement would have met with slight opposition. But the 
endeavour to give definite horizons to and to correllate Saurian, Insect, Ostrtsa, Ammonite, 
and Lima beds has resulted in the production of confusion instead of the reverse. 

Whether the principle of the arrangement in Zones of Ammonites is admitted or not, 
it is absolutely necessary that the foreign equivalents of our Liassic subdivisions should 

1 Pal. Soc. 



4 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

be studied. If this be done the association of the characteristic species of certain British 
beds with the characteristic species of a lower geological horizon on the Continent becomes 
evident, and the unphilosophical nomenclature of geologists who restrict themselves to 
the study of small areas is exposed. 

In classifying the groups of species about to be described, in the geological scale 
attention will be directed to the Ammonite-Zone in which they are found and to the 
Mollusca associated with them. 

There are a few Triassic species in the Liassic Coral-fauna, and the Branching Corals of 
the Sutton Stone have, generally speaking, a very Triassic facies. The majority of the 
Corals of the lowest members of the Lias are peculiarized by the imperfection of their 
septal arrangement : the distinct development of definite cycles in six systems is rarely 
observed, and it would appear that this high organization was not attained in the forms 
which had varied from Palaeozoic into Mesozoic species. The Montlivaltice, Thecosmilice, 
and Astrocosuia of the Lower Lias of Glamorganshire illustrate this remark ; and the first 
definite septal arrajigeraent is met with in the .Montlivaltia Ilaimei, Ch. et Dew, in the 
Zone of Ammonites angulatm at Marton. 

The septal number is also very uncertain in the species of the above-mentioned genera 
in the Lower Lias, and multiseptate Monilwaltice are found in the same deposit as those 
possessing an imusually small number of septal laminae. It may, in fact, be asserted that 
the so-called rugose peculiarities had hardly left their hold upon Madreporarian life at 
the time when the lowest members of the Lias were deposited. The genus Elysastrcea, 
Laube, retains some " rugose " peculiarities, and the transition from the tabulae and 
vesicular endotheca of a Cyatliophylliim to the dissepiments and vesicular endotheca of 
some forms dL Montlivaltia poly viorpha, Terq. et Piette, is certainly within the bounds of 
possibility. Nevertheless, no Palaeozoic genera of Corals have been found in the Lias 
except as "remanie" fossils. 

The genera which are represented in those subdivisions of the Lias called the Zones 
qI Ammonites planorhis and Ammonites angulatus are — 

I. Mo7itlivaltia. 
II. UhaJjdophyllia. 

III. Thecosmilia. 

IV. Oppelosmilia^ gen. nov. 
V. Isastraa. 

VI. Astrocoenia. 
VII. CyathoccBnia, gen. nov. 
VIII. Elysastrma. 
IX. Septastraa. 
X. LatimcBandra. 



PROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES PLANORBIS. 5 

No Tabulate nor Perforate genera have been discovered ; yet as they existed both 
in palaeozoic times, and in formations more recent than the Lias, they doubtlessly will be 
found. 

The multitude of branching Thecosmilia, stunted MontlivalticB, and small-caliced 
JstrocoejiicB, give the peculiar facies to the Coral-fauna of these members of the Lower 
Lias. 



IL Corals from the Zone of Ammonites planorbis. 

The yellow shale in the section at Street which contains Ammonites planorbis and 
Ichthyosaurus intermedins has yielded a large and well-preserved specimen of the genus 
Septastrma} At Binton there are said to be Corals in the " Guinea ^ bed," but no 
specimens could be obtained. 



^^CTio^—APOBOSA. 

Family— ASTRiEID^. 

Division — FAViACEiE. 

Genus — SeptastrjEa.^ 

1. SEPTASTRiEA Haimei, Wright, sp. PI. T, figs. 1 — 5. 

The corallum is massive, tall, club-shaped, and rather gibbous. The shape is 
generally sub-cyhndrical, the base is small and conical, and the top is large and convex. 

The calices cover the corallum, are very numerous, and are separated by rather thick 
and united walls. The calices are irregular in size, shallow, and more or less polygonal ; 
and they have a tendency to elongate at one end, as well as to divide fissiparously. 

The septa are irregular in size, shape, and number ; they are small, unequal, rather 
distant, and the only ornamentation is an ill-defined swelling here and there. They are 
not exsert ; the smallest reach but a slight distance from the wall, but the larger 
occasionally reach the centre of the calice and unite. 

Fissiparity is produced by two large septa stretching across the calice and developing 
others from their sides. The septa vary in number, from thirty to forty, but no cyclical 
arrangement is distinguishable. The endotheca is rather plentiful. 

I 2 Wright, 'Monogr. Oolitic Asteriadse, Pal. Soc.,' p. 5 and p. 10. 
* ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.,' vol. ii. 



6 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

Height of coralluin, 7 inches. Breadth, 44 inches. Diemeter of calices, ^ths to ^,ths 
inch. 

Localiiy. Street, Somersetshire. In the Collection of Dr. Wright, F.G.S. 

The genns Septastrtsa resembles Isastrcen ; but there is fissiparous growth in the 
calices of the first, and never in the calices of the last-named genus. The peculiar caiicinal 
gemmation of IsastrcBci never produces septa which, crossing the calice, divide it ofi" 
into separate individuals. The walls of Sepfastreea are not so perfectly united as in 
Isasireea. The genus is found in the Lias and in the Tertiary Coral-fauna. 

The shape of the corallum and the septal structures and arrangement distinguish the 
species from Septastrcea excavata} E. de From., and Septastrcea Fromenteli, Terquem et 
Piette. 



III. Corals from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus. 

The Sutton Stone" and the deposits at Brocastle, Ewenny, and Cowbridge,' are highly 
coralliferous beds in Glamorganshire. They rest on the Mountain-limestone, and are 
covered by members of the Lias higher in the series than the Zone oi Ammonites an(julatus. 
They have the homotaxis* of the Continental strata, which are classified within the Zones 
of Ammonites angulatus and Ammonites moreanus, such as the Calcaire de Valogne, the 
Foie de Veau, in the Cote d'Or, and the Gres Calcareux, in the Duchy of Luxembourg. 
Their British equivalent strata are well shown at Marton, near Gainsborough, and in 
Ireland^ near Belfast, besides in the localities mentioned by Dr. Wright.^ 

' Dr. Wright named this Coral Isastraa Haimei, and noticed its specific distinction from Isastrcea 
Murchisoni, Wright. Its genus is evidently Septastraa, and although Dr. Wright has not published a 
specific diagnosis of the form, still it is just that it should retain his name. He is answerable for its 
discovery in the locality given above. 

^ Sir Henry de la Beche, 'Mem. Geol. Survey,' vol. i, p. 270; Mr. Tawney, and P. Martin Duncan, 
'Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xxii, p. 69. 

3 Mr. Charles Moore discovered the Brocastle and Ewenny deposits some years before Mr. Tawney 
drew attention to the Sutton Stone. He collected a vast number of fossils from them, and forwarded them 
to me for examination. His able essay on "Abnormal Conditions of Secondary Deposits," &c., was read 
before the Geological Society, March 20tli, 1867. See my notice of Mr. Chas. Moore's labours, ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc.,' Feb. 1867, p- 13. See also "On the Lower Lias or Lias-Conglomerate of a Part of 
Glamorganshire," by H. W. Bristow, F.E.S. ; ''On the Zone of Ammonites angulatus in Britain," 
by R. Tate, F.G.S. 

* " On the Madreporaria of the Infra-Lias of South Wales," by P. Martin Duncan, ' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.,' 1866, Feb., p. 12. See also Terquem et Piette, 'Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de la France,' 2de 
s^rie, tome 8, 1865. 

5 R. Tate, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xx. No. 78, p. 103. 

^ Wright, 'Monogr. Ool. Aster., Pal. Soc.,' p. 13; see also Oppel's ' Juraformation.' 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 7 

Section— ^P OB OS A. 

Family— ASTR^IDtE. 

Division — Lithophyllace^ simplices. 

Genus — Montlivaltia. 

There are seven species of the genus Montlivaltia in the Sutton Stone and the deposits 
at Brocastle, and six of theiu are new forms, the seventh having ah-eady been described 
by MM. Terqnem et Piette.^ Three of the species belong to the section of the genus 
which is characterised by forms having their bases and calices of equal width, and three 
others have a more or less turbinate shape, whilst one species is pedunculated. The 
discoid Montlivaltits appear to be absent, although they are largely represented in the 
equivalent beds in the east of England and in the north of Ireland. 

I. Montlivaltia Walli^, Duncan. PI. VIII, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

The corallum is cylindro conical in shape, the base is small, and the calice large, open, 
and. shallow. 

The calice is surrounded with a well-marked margin, which is double in some places, 
and the smallest or rudimentary septa, which are barely visible in the true calice, are 
distinct on the outer rim. 

The septa are very unequal, but narrow and lamellar, and rather plain, but dentate 
internally. They are not exsert as regards the calicular margin, but curve upwards and 
then inwards, terminating by a process marked with at least two teeth. 

The fourth cycle of septa is incomplete, and the fourth and fifth orders are rudi- 
mentary when they exist ; so that the septal number is irregular. The rudimentary septa 
alternate with the larger. There are about thirty well-developed septa of unequal lengths, 
and between these are the rudimentary septa. 

Height of the corallum, ^ths inch. Breadth of the calice, ~ths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle,' In the Collection of Chas. Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

The wide and shallow calice, the low septal number, and the capacious interseptal 
spaces characterise this species. 

' Terquera et Piette, ' Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de la France,' 2de serie, torn. 8, 1865. 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



2. MoNTLivALTiA MuRCHisoNi^, Dunccin. PI. VIII, figs. 10, 11,12. 

The coiallum is short and turbinate : the peduncle is small, and the calice is large, 
deep, and open. 

The epitheca is distinct and swollen out in some places, being slightly constricted 
in others. 

The calice is circular in outline, very deep, and has a sharp margin. 

The septa are numerous, very distinct, and very remarkable, both in their arrangement 
and relation to the costse. 

The largest septa are bluntly dentate and exsert ; the rest are faintly dentate, and pass 
deeply into the fossa, and there are a few rudimentary septa. The rounded costae are 
continuous internally with the interseptal spaces, and the septa are continuous wrth inter- 
costal spaces (fig. 12). 

The cyclical arrangement of the septa is confused. There are forty-eight septa, but 
these do not appear to form four cycles in six systems, but to be arranged in four systems, 
there being four septa larger than the others. 

The height of the corallura is i^ths inch. 

The breadth of the calice is fgths inch. 

Localiti/. Brocastle. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., P.G.S., Bath. 

The arrangement of the septa and the depth of the calice distinguish this species very 
readily. It has its mimetic Thecosmilia in Thecosmilia Brodiei, Duncan. 



3. MoNTLiVALTiA roLYMORPHA, Terqiicm et Piette} PI. VII, figs. 14, 15; PI. VIII, 
figs. 1—4 and 13—15. 

The corallum is simple, very variable in form, and has a thick and folded epitheca 
reaching to the calice, and is marked with fine and regular costse. Tlie corallum is rather 
narrowly pediculate, or adheres by a portion of its base. In shape the corallum may be 
conical, oblong, or flattened. 

The calice is more or less deep, is either round or oval, and its margin is thin. The 
septa are numerous, have strong teeth on the upper margin, and are smooth laterally. 
There are five complete cycles, and the sixth is incomplete. 

MM. Terquem et Piette do not give the measurements of the Coral, but in their plate 
the height varies from f inch to 2, inches, and the calicinal diameter from ' inch to 
Ij inch. 

' 'Le Lias Infurieur de I'Est de la France,' p. 127, pi. xvi, figs. 17 — 21. 



FROM THE ZONE OE AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 9 

MM. Terquem et Piette notice that the species is found in great abundance at 
St. Menge in a bed lower than that containing Gryphaa incurva and between the strata 
containing Ammonites bimlcatus {Bucklandi ) and A. angidatus. 

The specimens from Brocastle show much of the anatomy of the Coral ; and the high 
septal number and dense wall of the corallites when broken off short are well seen 
in them. 

The taller specimens are often denuded of their epitheca, and the highly developed 
and inclined endotheca is then well seen. One specimen had a broad base, but the others 
taper and become rather pedunculate. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



4. MoNTLiVALTiA PARASITICA, Duticun. PL IV, figs. 13, 14. 

The coraUum is small, very short, has a base as broad as the calice, and is elliptical 
in outline. 

The calice is very shallow. The septa are few in number, are very irregular ; and the 
costae run a short distance down the sides of the corallum. 

The septa are stout and unequal in length, but not very much so in thickness. The 
shorter septa bend towards and usually unite themselves to a larger septum. There 
appear to be twelve large septa, and five of these had either one or two smaller septa 
joined on to them. There would appear to be two complete cycles of equal septa, 
and that the tertiary cycle is incomplete. 

Length of the cahce \ inch. Height of the corallum ^i\\ inch. 

Locality/. The Sutton Stone. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., 
F.G.S., Bath. 

The species is founded upon a specimen fixed upon an Astrocoenian, and the extreme 
shortness, the attachment to a very wide base, and the union of the tertiary to the secondary 
septa, are very distinctive. 



5. MoNTLivALTiA SIMPLEX, Buncmi. PI. Ill, figs. 16, 17. 

The corallum is short, has a broad base, and an elliptical calice, which is very sHghtly 
broader than the base. 

The epitheca is strong, does not show any costse, and it reaches to the cahcular 
margin. 

The calice is shallow, and has rather a wide margin. 

The septa are very few, very distant, slender, and curved : their arrangement is very 

2 



10 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

irregular ; and although there are six septa which reach nearer the calicular centre than 
the others, still no cyclical development can be asserted to have existed. There are 
sixteen septa ; three are rudimentary, and there are thirteen of a larger size. 

Height of corallum, f'^ths inch. 

Long diameter of calice, f^ths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

The paucity of septa and the shape distinguish this remarkable species. 



6. MoNTLiVALTiA BREvis, Diincati. PI. VIII, figs. 8, 9. 

The corallum is short and cylindrical, and has a base as broad as the calice. 

The calicular margin is sharp, and the calice is rather irregular in shape : the calicular 
fossa is shallow, and the septa are few in number. 

The septa are unequal, distant, stout, and have a large tooth at the internal end. This 
dentation is more distinct in the secondary and tertiary cycles than in the primary. 
There are three cycles of septa, but the third is incomplete. The primary septa are the 
longest, and reach to the central space, whilst the smallest septa end in a blunt knob, 
not so near the central space as the termination of the intermediate septa. 

Height of the corallum, ^ih. inch. 

Breadth of the calice, \ inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, F.G.S., Bath. 

The septa are very characteristic of this short and widely based Coral. 



7. MoNTLiVALTiA PEDUNCTJLATA, Duncmi. PI. II, figs. 12, 13; PI. VIII, fig. 16. 

The corallum is large above, cyhndro-conical midway, and finely pedunculate at the 
base. 

The epitheca is thin, rather but finely ridged transversely, and permits the costae 
which are small to be seen where it is veiy scanty. The calice is not symmetrical, and 
the septa are numerous, and apparently constitute five cycles, and part of a sixth. The 
peduncle is much smaller than the body of the corallum. 

Height of corallum T=j,ths inch. Width of the calice ^ths inch. 

Locality. In the Sutton Stone, and at Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles 
Moore, Esq., F.G.S., and in the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

The shape and high septal number distinguish this species. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULA.TUS. 11 

Division. — LithophtllacejE C^spitosje. 
Genus. — Thecosmilia. 

The Thecosmilia of the Sutton Stone are principally capitate forms, that is to say, they 
spring from a peduncle and divide suddenly. The short and fissiparous species, Thecos- 
milia rugosa, is very common amongst the non-capitate forms, and so is the Thecosmilia 
Michelini, Terq. et Piette. 

At Brocastle and Cowbridge the larger Thecosmilios are common, but Thecosmilia 
Michelini forms large masses at Cowbridge, and studs blocks at Laleston. Although 
the specimens are very numerous, still the individaals rarely attain that bush-like 
structure vt^liich is noticed in the Continental beds. 

At Cowbridge the specimens are mostly found as casts. 

1. Thecosmilia Scttonensis, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 7 — 9. 

The corallum has a slender and nearly straight peduncle, which gives oflF corallites 
from an enlarged summit. 

The peduncle is moderately marked with transverse ridges and constrictions, and 
does not taper symmetrically from above downwards. The epitheca is thin, and permits 
very numerous and fine costge to be seen through it. 

The corallites springing from the parent (the peduncle) originate by intercalicinal 
gemmation ; they are separate as regards their walls, and differ in size, being marked 
with transverse epithecal folds and constrictions. The calices are not quite circular, and 
their septal arrangement is irregular. The septa are unequal, and one half of them 
extend nearly to the centre, whilst the smaller pass inwards but for a short distance. 
The number of septa increases with the growth of the calices. In large calices there are 
more than four cycles, and in the smaller less than three cycles, or three cycles. 

The endotheca is highly developed. 

Height of corallum 1 J inch. Diameter of large calice ^Iths inch. Diameter of small 
calice ^ths inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., 
Bath. 

This species has some resemblance to Thecosmilia serialis in its short peduncle and 
capitate swelling ; but the retention of the circular outline by the calices is distinctive. 
It has some resemblance in its calice to the simple calice of Thecosmilia rugosa, Laube, 
but there is no fissiparity observed. The origin of the corallites by intercalicinal gemma- 
tion is very distinctive, as are also the thin epitheca and the columnar shape of the 



1.2 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

peduncle. The habit of the species resembles that of the majority of the stunted 
TheconmilicB of the period. 



2. Thecosmilia MiRABiLis, Duncccn. PI. II, figs. 10, 11. 

The corallum is short, very finely pedicellate, increasing rapidly in breadth, and 
terminating by a large upper surface on which are several circular and distinct calices. 
The trunk of the corallum is smooth, and is slightly marked with rounded transverse 
swellings, and corresponding constrictions. No costse can be seen. The corallites are 
unequal in size, separate immediately, do not increase by fissiparity, and are characterised 
by circular calices having a very sharp margin. The calices are shallow. The septa are 
numerous, crowded, and very regular ; they are alternately long and short, and all are 
marked with small lateral swellings and faint linear depressions on the upper edge. 
The largest calices have four cycles of septa, and nearly a complete fifth cycle, the septa 
numbering from seventy-six to eighty-four. 

Height of the corallum ^^ths inch. Breadth of the upper surface ^ths inch. Dia- 
meter of the largest calice /jths inch. 

LocaUf//. The Sutton Stone. In the Collection of Rev. H. Winwood, F.G.S., 
Bath. 



3. Thecosmilia serialis, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 10 — 12. 

The corallum has a narrow, curved, and rather long peduncle, which gives off several 
corallites from its summit. 

The peduncle is strongly marked with lateral ridges and constrictions, and so are the 
corallites. 

The epitheca is stout, and, where worn, permits the costae to be seen. 

The young corallites arising by fissiparity from the parent, which constitutes the 
peduncle, separate into some which remain circular in transverse outline, and into others 
which form short serial calices. 

The circular calices present four cycles of septa, and the serial have their septa less 
crowded and larger. The serial calices do not present any evidences of fissiparity. 

Height of corallum l^i; inch. Diameter of circular calice ^th inch. Length of serial 
calice ^ths inch. Breadth of serial calice i^th inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

This species belongs to the stunted Thecosmilice so characteristic of the Triassic and 
Liassic coralliferous strata ; it is readily distinguished by the number of coralhtes spring- 
ing from the peduncle, and by its long and serial calices being mixed with rounded ones. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 13 

The mineralization of the specimen gives the appearance of a columella in the elongated 
calice, but there is really no such a structure. 



4. Thecosmilia rugosa, Laube} PI. II, figs. 1 — 6. 

The corallum springs from a small base, divides soon, and the branches are covered 
with an exceedingly strong epitheca marked with thick folds. 

The calices, one or more in number, are either nearly round, or are irregularly 
distorted. They are deep, and the septa are stout, straight, and not very unequal. 
They number from thirty-four to thirty-six. 

The diameter of a tolerably regular calice is fgths inch, and the length of a distorted 
calice ^ths inch. The height of the corallum is about an inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., 
Bath. 

M. Laube's description of the species from the St. Cassian beds is simple and accurate. 
His small Thecosmilia has a strong epitheca, with constrictions and swellings, and its 
calices are now and then fissiparous. His plate gives the idea of there being more septa; 
and this is the only distinction which can be made between the St. Cassian and the British 
species. 



5. Thecosmilia Brodiei, Duncan. PI. X, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The corallum is rather short ; the corallites are cylindrical and large in relation to 
their height, and they appear to divide near together, so that regular calices are rare. 

The epitheca is stout and complete, being marked with slight constrictions. 

The calicular margin is sharp, and the calices are deep. 

The septa are numerous, and the large primary and secondary septa are equal and 
very dentate. The tertiary septa are very much smaller than the secondary, are not 
dentate, but are long ; and the septa of the fourth and fifth orders are very small. 

Diameter of the calices ^ths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

The extraordinary development of the dentate first and second cycles of septa 
characterise the species. 

' Laube, ' Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian,' 1 Abtheil. 



14 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



6. Thecosmilia Martini, H. de From} PI. X, figs. 6 — 9. 

The corallura is busli-sliaped, and is formed by dichotomous cylindrical corallites, 
which are covered with a strong folded and complete epitheca. 

The corallites separate rapidly, and remain free for some distance before fissiparous 
growth occurs again. 

The dissepiments are very developed, and are inclined. 

The calices are circular, or slightly oval. 

The septa are very thin and distant. There are thirty-two large septa, one half of 
which reach the centre, and there are forty-eight small, or rudimentary septa. 

The calices are about |ths inch in diameter. 

Localities. Brocastle, Ewenny, Cowbridge. In the Collection of Charles Moore, 
Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

This species is distinguished by its size, high septal number, and highly developed 
endotheca. 

In the British specimens the septa are stouter, and the calices are often larger than in 
the French ; moreover the larger septa are often raised to the number of forty-eight. The 
rudimentary septa are not shovra in M. Martin's plate. 

The localities whence the species has been derived have been the middle and upper 
beds of the Zone of Ammonites Moreaniis, at Semur, and Vic de Chassenay Cote d'Or. 

It is found in the limestone of Charleville, with Ammonites bisulcatus, in the sand- 
stone containing Ammonites bisulcatus, at Saul, and in the Hettangian sandstone con- 
taining Ammonites angulatiis. The species had thus a considerable range both in space 
and time ; and it followed the usual habit of widely wandering species, in varying from 
the true specific type. 



7. Thecosmilia Michelini, Terq. et Piette.^ PI. VII, figs. 10—13 ; and PI. X, 
figs. 10—14. 

The corallum is bush-shaped, and is formed by numerous, close, dichotomous, sub- 
cylindrical, long and slender corallites, which are surrounded with a thick, folded, smooth, 
complete, and persistent epitheca. 

The calices are nearly on the same level, are rounded or oval, and the fossa is not 
very deep. The septa are forty in number, and are alternately large and small. 

The endothecal dissepiments are very close. 

1 Martin, ' Pal. Strat. de I'Infra-Lias,' 1860, pi. viii, figs. 8, 9. 

^ ' Le Lias Infeiieur de Test de la France,' p. 127, pi. xvii, figs. 7, 8. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 15 

The height of the corallum may reach 6 inches. 

Diameter of a coralHte |rd inch. 

Localities. Brocastle, Cowbridge, Laleston, the Sutton Stone, and Ewenny. In the 
Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

MM. Terquem et Piette ('Le Lias Inferieur de Test de la France,' p. 127, PI. xvii, 
figs. 1, 8) have described this well-marked species in their usually concise manner. The 
smaller size of the corallites, the septal number, and the small amount of endotheca, dis- 
tinguish the species, which is very common in the Glamorganshire beds. The bush shape 
of the corallam may be imagined from the grouping* of the casts of the species in the 
limestone at Cowbridge ; and the dichotomous and slender form of the corallum is 
common at Laleston and in the Sutton Stone. 

The rounded swellings and intermediate constrictions of the plain epitheca are very 
characteristic. 

The French specimens are derived from the beds at Aiglemont, in the zone of 
Ammonites angulatas. 



8. Thecosmilia irregularis, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 1 — 6 ; and PL X, fig. 5. 

The corallum is small, short, and has a broad base. It consists of a short and rather 
cylindrical peduncle with a broad base, a very strongly marked and ridged epitheca, and 
of an upper part whence the calicos spring by fissiparity. 

The calicular surface is considerably broader than the peduncle, and overhangs. 

The calicos are small, shallow, irregular in shape, and have a distinct margin. 

The septa are few in number, large, unequal, and very irregular in their arrangement. 
They have large rounded teeth upon their upper margins, and the larger septa occa- 
sionally unite by their inner margins, which are toothed. 

There are about twenty septa, and several others which are rudimentary. 

There are no costse. 

Height of corallum ^ths inch. Diameter of calices -j^ths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



Thecosmilia irregularis, Duncan. (A variety.) PI. Ill, figs. 14, 15. 

The calices are deeper, the septa longer and more slender, and the dentations sharper 
and more distinct than in the type. 

Locality, Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



16 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



9. Thecosmilia Terquemi, Bimciui. PI. Ill, figs. 7 — 12. 

The corallum has a fine pedicle, which increases in breadth very rapidly, and produces 
a large upper surface, upon which are the calices, or one corallite may spring from the 
edge of the upper surface, and give rise to others in the same manner. (Plate X, fig. 4.) 

The epitheca is strong, folded, and constricted ; where worn, the costae and exothecal 
dissepiments appear. 

The calices are irregular in shape, size, and distance. 

The septa are unequal in size and are bluntly dentate, their arrangement is irregular, 
and a quaternary disposition of the laminae is very evident, and they may number sixteen, 
twenty, or thirty-two. The larger septa do not indicate an hexameral arrangement. All 
are thick, distant, and pointed internally. 

Height of the corallum fl,ths inch. Diameter of the calices ~ths — |jths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



10. Thecosmilia affinis, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 18 — 20. 

The corallum is short, and the coralhtes separate soon after leaving a short, conical 
peduncle. 

The calices are deep and open. 

The septa are irregular, unequal, distant, often curved, dentate at their inner margin, 
and about sixteen in number. 

The epitheca is moderately strong. 

The height of the corallum is ^ths inch. The diameter of the calices is ^^gths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., E.G.S., Bath. 



11. Thecosmilia dentata, Duncan. PI. Ill, figs. 21 — 23. 

The corallum has a broad base, and the corallites separate soon, and diverge ; they 
are subcylindrical, and their epitheca is smooth. 

The calices have a very distinct margin ; they are slightly deformed, not very deep, 
and contain numerous septa. 

The septa are unequal ; alternately large and small, irregular, and present distinct and 
numerous blunt dentations. The smallest septa are simple dentations, and the difierent 
sizes of the septa and dentations are very remarkable. 

There is no exact arrangement of the septa in cycles, and their number varies from 
thirty to thirty-two and thirty-six. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 17 

Height of corallum i^ths inch ; breadth of calice ^ths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

12. Thecosmilia plana, Buncmi. Plate III, figs. 24, 25. 

The corallum is short, the calices separate rapidly, and soon attain a considerable size. 

The epitheca is strong, and constricted here and there. 

The calices are large, shallow, oval, and are deeper at the centre than elsewhere . 
their margin is indistinct, and the septa are rounded, faintly dentate, distant, and very 
irregular. There are about thirty septa. 

Height of corallum ^ths inch ; breadth of calice ^ths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

These species of the genus Thecosmilia may be arranged for the purposes of 
diagnosis as — 

T 1 , , , 1 J { Th. Martini. 

Long and more or less bush-shaped . ■ \Th. Michelini. 

( Th. Suitonensis. 
„,,,,. 1 Th. mirubilis. 

Pedunculate and capitate .... Wh. Terquemi. 

\ Th. serialis. 

' Th. irregularis. 

Th. I'uyosa. 

Short and stunted . .... J. „,' ^'""!! . 

Ih. Brodtei. 

I Th. dentata. 

\^Th. affinis. 

Taken as a series, the species are very characteristic of the Coral-fauna of the 
period. 



Genus — Rhabdophyllta. 
1. Rhabdophyllta recondita, Laube} Plate II, tigs. 7 — 9. 

The corallum is pedunculated, has very fine costal markings, which are flat, and 
a delicate epitheca. 

The corallites separate rapidly at the extremity of the peduncle. 

The calice (section of) is almost circular, and is crowded with rather stout septa. 

The septa are unequal, longer at the calicular margin than elsewhere, and either 
reach the columella or enlarge at their free extremity at different distances from it. 

1 Laube, 'Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian,' 1 Abtheil. 



18 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

There are four cycles of septa in six systems. The primary reach the columella. The 
tertiary, which are longer than those of the higher orders, join the secondary septa. 

The columella is well defined, and is circular in its transverse outline. 

The diameter of the corallite is about , inch. 

The specimens are usually covered with parasitic corals or sponges. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone. The St. Cassian beds. In the Museum of Practical 
Geology, London. 

Laube's' description of this species is very faithful, and it is readily recognised by 
the curious septal arrangement. The specimens are rare in the Sutton Stone, and 
the sections showing the septa require very careful examination before they can be 
understood. 



Family— ASTRiEACE^. 

Genus — Astroccenia. 

1. Astroccenia gibbosa, Duncan. PI. V, figs. 2, 3, 4, 12; PI. IV, fig. 3; PI. VI, 
figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The corallum is large, and covered with rounded eminences of various sizes. 

The calices are large, polygonal, close, irregularly placed, irregular in size, and 
shallow. 

The septa are usually twenty in numbei', are joined to small narrow club-shaped 
straight costse, are very unequal in size, and usually one half of them reach to the 
columella. The smaller and shorter septa unite in many instances to the larger septum 
between them, but not very close to the columella. The septa are finely dentate laterally, 
and there is a trace in some of the longest of a swelling close to the columella. Their 
development is very irregular. 

The columella is moderately prominent and large. 

The coenenchyma is not strongly developed, but in sections the presence of orna- 
mentation in the form of round processes is observable. The endotheca is occasionally 
noticed in the cahcular fossa, and extends from septum to septum. 

Three large calices, with their coenenchyma, occupy the length of nearly ^^ths inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone, and Brocastle. 

In the Musemn of Practical Geology, London ; and in the Collections of Charles Moore, 
Esq., F.G.S., and Rev. W.Winwood, F.G.S., Bath. 

^ Laube, op. cit. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 19 



2. AsTROccENiA PLANA, Butican. PL y, fig. 1. 

The coralluni is large, flat, and short. 

The calices are small, very regular in their linear arrangement, polygonal, and nearly 
equal : they are rather deep and rather distant. 

The septa appear to be from eight to ten in number, and reach the columella. 

The costse are very indistinct. 

The columella is large. 

The coenenchyma is well developed, and becomes divided into rounded eminences 
between the calices ; and where four of these are together, the intervening coenenchyma is 
decidedly peaked. 

Three of the largest calices, vs^ith the intervening coenenchyma, cover a length of 
f'ijths inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone. In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 



3. AsTROCCENiA iNSiGNis, Duiican. Plate IX, figs. 1 and 2. 

The corallum is large ; it is flat on the upper surface, and is short. 

The calices are somewhat regular in their linear arrangement ; they are unequal, and 
are irregular as regards their outline and distance. They are shallow, and are large in 
comparison with those of most of the species of the genus. 

The septa are large, and nearly equal in size at the calicular margin, but all do 
not reach the columella. Generally five primary septa extend to the columella, and there 
are three which only reach a little way into the calicular fossae between the longer pri- 
mary. The central of these smaller septa is often longer than those on each side of it. 
The septal number is irregular, but twenty is the usual number. In some calices the 
shorter septa are decidedly smaller than the others. 

The costae are large, broad, straight, nearly equal, club-shaped, close, and are oblique 
in some, but flat in other calices. They extend over the coenenchyma when it exists, do 
not coalesce with those of other calices, and are often separated by a ridge. Neither 
septa nor costse appear to be spined or dentate, but a very slight unevenness of the margin 
may be noticed in well-preserved specimens. 

The columella is small, sharp, and prominent. 

The size of the calices varies, and in large specimens, where there is some coenenchyma, 
three calices and their coenenchyma occupy rather more than ^ths inch. The smallest 
calices, with a small quantity of coenenchyma, do not occupy one half of that space. 

Locality. — Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



::0 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



I. AsTROccENiA RErTANs, Duncau. Plate IV, figs. 4, 5, 6, 15. 

The corallum is short, convex, and very irregular; it is moderately large for an 
Astrocoenian, and is covered with numerous and closely packed calices. 

Tlie calices are polygonal and shallow, and are separated by very distinct, plain, 
ccenenchyma, which is obtusely ridged, and prominent here and there. 

The septa arc twenty in number ; ten reaching the columella, and ten joining five of 
the longer, in pairs. 

The septal arrangement is very marked. 

The columella is small and the costae are rudimentary. 

The length of three calices, with the ccenenchyma, is about Ijths inch. 

Localiiy. The Sutton Stone, Brocastle, and at Ewenny. In the Collection of 
Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



.1. AsTRoccENiA PARASITICA, Duucan. Plate V, tigs. 5, 6. 

The corallum encrusts other Madreporaria, such as dendroid Astraeaceae or "remaiiie 
Lithostrotions ; it is small and short, and possesses much ccenenchyma. 
The caHces arc very small, distant, and shallow. 
The septa appear to be ten in number. 
The columella is well mai'ked. 
The ccenenchyma is plain. 
The diameter of the calices is about ;i'„th inch. 
Locality. The Sutton Stone. In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 



(5. AsTROccENiA PEUUNCULATA, Duncaii. Plate V, figs. 7, 8, 9. 

The corallum is small, pedunculate, and fungiform ; it has an epitheca and much 
ccenenchyma. 

The peduncle is short, small, and rounded, and joins the expanded discoid epithecate 
base of the true corallum near its centre. 

The discoid base has an epitheca, and its edges are slightly rounded. 

The convex upper part of the corallum is covered with unequal, shallow, and distant 
caHces. 

The calices are irregular in size, and are small. 

The septa are small, alternately long and short, and are granulated laterally. Theie 
are twenty of them, and the smallest are rudimentary. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 21 

The ccenenchyma is abundant, and is elevated between some calices and flat between 
others. 

Height of the corallum iths inch. 

Locality. — Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



7. AsTROccENiA cosTATA, Duncau. PI. IX, figs. 15, 16, 17. 

The corallum is small, irregular in shape, and rounded above. 

The calices are numerous, and rather deep ; they are either very close together, 
or they are separated by more or less ccenenchyma, whose upper surface is marked by 
wavy costse. 

The septa are usually twenty in number, and their costal ends are nearly equal. 

The costse are either very small, small and curved, or large and more or less curved 
as they approach the costse of neighbouring corallites. 

The columella is small. 

The space occupied by three large calices, separated by much ccenenchyma, is 
/gths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



8. AsTROccENiA FAvoiDEA, Duucan. PL IX, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

AsTR^A FAVOiDES? Quetistedt, Der Jura, 1858. 

The corallum is more or less globose, and the calices are very small, veiy deep, and are 
separated by sharp ridges. The ccenenchyma is rudimentary. 

The septa are twenty in number, the smaller being very rudimentary. 

The costse are rudimentary. 

The columella is small, and is situated at the base of the very deep calice. 

Localities. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 
Also in the Arieten-Kalk of Germany. 

9. ASTROCCENIA suPERBA, Duncan. PL IX, figs. 3, 4, 5. 

The corallum is small, and irregular in shape. 
The calices are shallow, wide apart, and usually circular in outline. 
The septa are usually twenty in number, are small near the columella, and thicker at 
the costal end. About one half of them reach the columella. They are dentate. 



22 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The costse are highly developed, and cover the ccenenchyma, which is also spiny 
between the costal ends. Nearly all the costse are equal ; they are straight in some places 
and wavy in others, but all are strongly dentate and well marked. 

The columella is small. 

Three calices occupy about \ inch in length. 

Locality. Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



10. AsTRoccENiA DENDROiDEA, Bimcan. PI. IX, figs. 9, 10. 

The corallum is in small branches, with blunt extremities. 

The ccenenchyma is highly developed and plain. 

The calices are wide apart in some places, but close in others ; they are shallow, small, 
and more or less circular. 

The septa are very irregular in their number, and their costal ends are club-shaped 
and rounded. 

The columella is small. 

The branches rarely exceed \ inch in length. 

Locality. Brocastle, and at Ewenny. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., 
E.G.S., Bath. 



11. AsTRoccENiA MiNUTA, Duncan. PI. IX, figs. 18, 19, 20. 

The corallum is large, flat, and thin. It is more or less encrusting in its habit. 

The calices are very small, rather deep and close : they are more or less circular in 
outline, and are separated by a small quantity of ccenenchyma. 

The septa are usually twenty in number, and many of them have a paliform tooth close 
to the columella. The costse are small. 

The columella is small. 

Locality^ Brocastle. In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



12. AsTROCCENIA SiNEMURIENSIS, V Orb., Sp.^ 

The corallum is in the shape of a rounded mass, which is formed of superimposed 
layers. The calices are small, and tolerably regularly polygonal. The columella is stout, 
and projects. The septa are rather thick, unequal, and slightly close. There are twenty 

* Martin, op. cit., pi. vii, figs. 26, 27. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 23 

in each calice, ten large and ten small. The internal ends of the large septa are rounded 
and swollen out. 

Diameter of the calices U inch. 

M. D'Orbigny considered the swollen ends of the principal septa to be pali, and placed 
the species in the genus Stephanoccenia, but M. de Fromentel determined the correct 
position of the form to be amongst the " decemeral" Astrocoenise.^ 

The species does not appear to have been formed from very perfect specimens, and 
in M. J. Martin's admirable plate the septa are all equal in length and thickness, and the 
calices are close together. It is impossible to determine from either the description or the 
plate whether the calices are deep, virhether there is any ornamentation, or whether the 
ccenenchyma is marked in any way. There are many species of Astrocoenia which are 
massive, and their formation from superimposed layers is the result more of a process of 
minerahzation than of growth. The form is readily recognisable in its strata, because it 
is rare and as yet the only species discovered ; but placed in comparison with others from 
distant localities it is hardly to be distinguished, on account of its defective specific 
distinctive peculiarities. The Astrocoenise of the Sutton Stone, and from Brocastle, 
show the smaller septa joining the larger more or less, but this does not appear to be 
the case in A. Sinemuriensis. The enlarged state of the septal ends is common to several 
Astroccenise. It is very probable that with more complete specimens, the occasional 
union of the septa will be observed in A. Sinemuriensis, for in some specimens of most of 
the species this non-union is seen in certain caKces. 

Specimens of some Astroccenise in the Sutton Stone and Brocastle beds put on all the 
appearances of this species when worn. It is therefore introduced here ; but not figured.'^ 

The genus Astrocoenia was formerly included in the Uusmilinte aggregates., but 
Reuss^ pointed out the fact that the upper margins of the septa of the species falling 
under his observation were dentate and not smooth. 

M. de Fromentel* discovered in the Neocomian formation some species which had 
dentate septa; and after acknowledging Reuss's discovery, he placed the genus amongst 
the XXVth family of his classification, the " Astreens." This family corresponds in part to 
the Astrceaceee of Milne-Edwards and J. Haime, and the genus may be considered to 
form a part of the Astrtsacece. 

In the Introduction to the British Fossil Corals,^ Astrocaiiia, being placed amongst 
the Eusmilints, follows the genus Sfylocania, and was evidently considered to be closely 
allied to it. The following is the generic diagnosis by MM. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime : 

1 Pal. Strat. de Infra-lias, p. 94. J. Martin, 1860. 

2 See " Remarks on Astroccenia Sinemuriensis and Asfrocosnia Oppeli" Laiibe, in my essay on the 
" Madreporaria of the Infra-Lias of South Wales," ' Quart. Journ. Gaol. Soc.,' Feb. 1867, p. 25 (note). 

^ Reusa. ' Beitrage, zur Charakteristik der Kriedeschiehten.' 
^ E. de Fromentel, ' Introd. k I'Jltude des Polyp. Foss.' 
^ ' Introd. to Brit. Foss. Corals : Palseontogr. Soc' 



24 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

" Corallum very dense, and not bearing columnar processes, as in the preceding genus. 
Calices polygonal, columella styliform, not projecting much. No pali. Septa thick, 
apparently eight or ten systems, two or four of the secondary septa being as much 
developed as the six primary ones. Walls thick and united as in Sti/locoenia." 

]\I. de Fromentel separated the genera Astrocoenia and 8tyloccenia, and retained the 
latter amongst the Eusmilince aggregatm. There was no reference made, therefore, in his 
generic diagnosis of Aslroccenia to the genus Stylocoenia. M. de Eromentel's descrip- 
tion of the generic peculiarities of Astrocosnia are as follows : " Corallum massive, com- 
posed of corallites united by their walls, which are prismatic in shape ; the calices are 
polygonal ; the columella is styliform, and more or less projecting ; the septa are tolerably 
thick, are few in number, and are dentate, especially near the columella ; there are no pali." 

Whilst investigating the Madreporaria of the Maltese rocks in 1865, I found that 
the septa of the common species Sfgloccenia lolato-rotundata, Mich, sp., were dentate.^ 
The species occurs also in the Chert of Antigua, and presents there the usual plain septa 
considered to mark the family of the genus. If fossilization can remove the dentations 
of the septa of one Stylocvenian^ it can do so in others, and it may be safely asserted 
that all the Stglocoenians had dentate septa. 

This dentate condition of the septa brings the genera Astrocoenia and Stglocosnia 
together again, although it removes them from the Eusmilina into the Astraacecs. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime's generic description can thus stand, and its 
concluding sentence respecting the thick walls of the genus which was omitted by M. 
de Fromentel is very important. 

In some species, as in A. jmlchella, Ed. & H., the calices are so wide apart in some 
specimens, and in certain spots in all the specimens, that there is evidently here and 
there a coenenchyma between the walls of the corallites. The surface of the ccenenchyma, 
which appears to arise from an hypertrophied condition of the adjacent corallite walls, is 
usually ornamented either with prolongations of the costge, or with small papillose granules. 
This is observed in other species, and it is noticed that the amount of coenenchyma 
varies according to the shape of the corallum, and the rapidity of the multiplication of 
the corallites. The presence of scattered granules, or of small papillae on the ccenenchymal 
surface, and between the external terminations of the costae, is observed in some speci- 
mens of a species, and not in others ; but the costse, although they may extend far over 
the inter-calicular spaces (or, in other words, over the surface of the coenenchyma), never 
unite, and run into those of adjoining corallites. There are modifications in the length and 
straightness of thecosta), and where there is no coenenchyma, and the walls of the corallites 
are thin, they may be so reduced in size as to appear to be simple terminations of septa. 

In many species the ccenenchyma, when non-costulated, and not ornamented with 
granules, becomes slightly ridged, and foreshadows the condition which peculiarises the 
genus Stylocoenia. 

' ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' April, 1865. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 25 

The reproduction by gemmation cannot occm' from the walls of the corallites, except 
at the edge of the corallum. The close contact of the walls, and the existence of dense 
coenenchyma, prevent any budding from the wall ; but where the outside corallites are 
partly free, there gemmation may occur outside and below the calicular margin. 

Fissiparity does not occur, but the young buds arise either from the top of the calicular 
edge or margin, or just within the calice. When there is some distance between the 
calices on account of the thickened walls or coenenchyma, buds may arise on the coenen- 
chymal or inter-calicular surface. 

Many of the species have an epitheca, some are pedunculated, and others are 
massive, encrusting, or dendroid. 

The septa vary greatly in their numbers and cyclical arrangement, and very often 
they have a large paliform tooth close to the columella. There are no pali. 

A styloid columella projecting more or less, is an essential generic requisite. The 
endotheca is scanty, but it always exists. 

The calices are small, and vary in depth ; but, as a rule, they are arranged with great 
symmetry, and are polygonal in outline. Transverse sections show the complete consoli- 
dation of the walls, and the space between the costal ends, in these sections, is often 
marked with granules. 

The species without any coenenchyma, and whose walls are thin, are distant in their 
alliance to Stylocosnia, and had they no columella, they would be considered to belong 
to the genus Isastraa. The genus Cyathoccenia (Duncan) comprehends Astroccenice 
without columellas. 

The fossil condition of the specimens must be considered during the specific deter- 
mination of AstrocosnicB. Usually, the columella is represented by a flat, central, and 
more or less circular mass with the ends of thick septa adherent to it. In these in- 
stances a calcareous deposition has occurred around the columella and between the 
septal ends, the columella having been broken off. It happens, however, that the 
columella may be broken off without the deposition having taken place, and either the 
structure retains its normal size at the point of fracture, or is absent altogether. 

On examining doubtful specimens which have lost their columellse, much attention 
should be paid to longitudinal sections produced by weathering, fracture, or by artificial 
means. A small projection at the base of the calice is more readily determined to exist 
in longitudinal views than in those which simply show the open calice. 

There are eleven species of the genus Astroccenia special to the Welsh Lias, and one 
species found with these has been described byD'Orbigny &?, Stephanocoenia Sinemuriensis. 
M. D'Orbigny obtained his specimens from the Lower Liassic deposits of France. M. de 
Fromentel and MM. Terquem and Piette have found the species in several localities, 
and the first-named palaeontologist has determined it to belong to the genus 
Astroccenia. 

The Liassic AstrocoenicB occur as large and massive, small and dendroid, or as irregu- 



26 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



lar and sometimes as encrusting forms. All are very irregular in their septal arrange- 
ment, and none of them present definite and clear cyclical sequences. 

Some of the species have the coenenchyma between the calices irregularly ridged, so 
as to present the first traces of that coeuenchymal development which characterises the 
genus Sfi/locoenia. The columella is very distinct in all the species, and the junction of 
the laro-est septa to it is marked in some forms by a paliform svveUing, but there are no 
pali. In many species the smaller septa unite more or less to the larger, and in others 
the dentate condition of the septal edge is very marked. The costae are either rudi- 
mentary or well developed in different species; they may be straight, spined, and 
wavy. 

The size of the corallum, its shape and its habit, with the size of the calices, and the 
character of the costae and of the coenenchyma, appear to separate certain forms from 
others and enable eleven new species to be classified with the Astroccenice . 

The following scheme of the structural peculiarities of the new Astrocoenice will show 
hoAV readily their specific distinctions may be recognized : 



ASTROCCENIA. 



Corallum 



large 



(small 



gibbons and tall 

fliu aiul short . 

short, and irregular in outline 
' encrusting 

pedunculate, witb an epitbeca 
dendroid 
flat and narrow 
globose .... 
irregular 
flat and semi-encrustiiiir . 



Astrocoenia gibhosa. 

— plana. 

— insignis. 

— reptans. 

— parasitica. 

— pedunculata. 

— dendroideu. 

— sicperba. 

— favoidea. 

— costata. 

— minuta. 



Corallum having the coenenchyma 



scanty 



abundant 



moderately developed 



Astroccenia favoidea. 

— minuta. 

— parasitica. 

— dendroidea. 

— super ba. 

— pedunculata. 

— insignis. 

— reptatis. 

— costata. 

— gibbosa. 

— plana. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 



27 





ornamented . 


C costse well 
' (. developed ( 


spined 
wavy 


f 


— 


superb a. 
costata. 
gibbosa. 
gibbosa. 


The surface of the 










— 


plana. 


coenenchyma ' 


ridged 
plain 




. 


{ 


— 


minuta. 
reptans. 
dendroidea. 
parasitica. 








— ' 


peduneulata. 




rudimentaiy 








— 


favoidea. 



Genus nov. — Cyathoccenia. 

This genus has beeii determined for species which, had they columellse, would belong 
to the genus Astroccenia. 

The walls of the coraUites of the species are joined, and there is more or less cceneu- 
chyma. The costse are not confluent, and the septa are finely dentate. There are 
no pali, nor is there a columella. There is no fissiparity, and the gemmation is either from 
the intercalicular surface, or from the calicular margins. 

There is always some ccenenchyma present, and this distinguishes the new genus from 
Isastrcea, the only genus with which it can be confounded. 

The following is the generic formula : 

Cyathoccenia. — The corallum is compound. The corallites are united by their walls 
and by more or less ccenenchyma ; they are more or less polygonal, but are often cylin- 
drical. The calices are small, the costse are not confluent, and the septa are finely 
dentate. There is no columella. There are no structures on the coenenchyma between 
the calices except granules and costae. The gemmation is superior and marginal. 



1. Ctathoccenia dendroidea, Duncan. Plate IX, figs. 6, 7, 8, 9. 



The corallum is large and tall, forming fasciculate masses. The corallites are more or 
less crowded on the surface of stems, which branch rarely, and which are close and more 
or less parallel. The transverse outline of the stems is irregular, from variability in 
their thickness, and also from the presence of superficial calices. The stems consist of 
calices separated by coenenchyma whose amount varies. 

The calices are distant when there is much coenenchyma, but occasionally they are 
close, and their margin then becomes round ; they are small, are irregularly placed, and 
are rather deep. 



28 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The septa are dentate, distinct, distant, unequal, stout, not exsert, and pass obliquely 
downwards and inwards, so that they do not encroach much upon the calicular fossa. 
Thei'e are eighteen in some and twenty-four in the largest calices. Three cycles appear 
to be the normal number. There is no columella. 

The costse either reach on to the surface of the coenenchyma or end abruptly at the 
calicular margins, and they never become continuous with those of other calices. 

The stems are several inches in height, and are from l^ths to i^ihs of an inch in 
diameter. 

The calices rarely exceed Jjth of an inch in diameter. 

Localify. Brocastle. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S. 

The peculiar mineralization of the specimen prevents the structure of the central parts 
of the stems being distinguished. 

There is a dendroid Astrocoenian in the Brocastle beds which has some resemblance 
to this species, but the well-developed columella of the first distinguishes it at once. 

MM. Terquem and Piette have described a species Microsolena Fromenteli} whose 
bush-like form and parallel constricted and irregular stems resemble Cyathoccenia 
dendroidea, but the calices have a columella, and the costse are continuous ; nevertheless, 
tiie " habit" of both species is very similar. 

2. Cyathoccenia incrustans, Duncan. PI. IV, figs. 1, 2. 

The coralliun is very thin and encrusts portions of the shells of Bivalve Mollusca. 

The calices are unequal, circular or subpolygonal, rather close and very shallow. The 
septa are few in number, are very small, and are marked with distinct and almost monili- 
form processes. They are thickest at the margin of the calices. The larger septa usually 
alternate with smaller, but, as a rule, the largest are the most numerous. 

The septa cannot be recognized as following a cyclical arrangement, and they vary 
in number from fifteen to twenty. 

There is no columella. The coenenchyma is scanty and is marked with large granules, 
which are the representatives of costse. The gemmation occurs between the calices. 

Diameter of calices nl,th to ii^th of an inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone, encrusting an Ostrea. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S. 

The papillate septa and encrusting habit distinguish the species from C dendroidea, 
and C. costata. 

1 Op. cit., pi. xvii, figs. 11, 12. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 29 



3. Ctathoccenia costata, Duncan. PI. V, figs. 10, 11. 

The corallum is flat, and presents slightly rounded eminences ; it is short, and has an 
irregular base where it is attached to foreign bodies. 

The calices are numerous, nearly equal, and distant. The margins of the calices 
are flat, and are continuous externally with the coenenchyma, whose upper surface is 
covered by the costae. 

The calicular fossae are deep. 

The septa are small, unequal as regards length, but rather equal in their thickness ; 
they vary in number from twenty to twenty-four. 

There is no columella. 

The costge are large, slightly rounded, not continuous, and occasionally slightly wavy. 

Three calices occupy a length of ^Iths inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



Genm — Elysastr^a.'^ 

1. ELYSASTRiEA FiscHERi, Laube? PL VI, figs. 5 — 9. 

The corallum is massive; the corallites are close and united above and near the calices, 
but separate and more or less covered with epitheca below. 

The corallites are unequal in size, tall, and more or less cylindrical below and 
polygonal above. 

The calices are very variable in shape and size, and the margin is broad and distinct. 

The septa are numerous, often wavy, unequal in length, and near to the centre of 
the calice a new set appears to come in, in some calices. There are no pali. 

The number of septa depends upon the size of the calice, and it may vary from 
forty to sixty. 

The septal laminae are thin, and faint traces of costae may be seen where the walls 
are not fused together. 

The gemmation is extra-calicular, but the bud probably springs from the centre of 
a corallite, and works its way outwards. 

The columella is rudimentary. 

Diameter of calices, ^ths to #hs inch. 

Locality. The Sutton Stone. The St. Cassian beds. 

In the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

1 Laube, op. cit., and ' Intro. Brit. Foss. Corals,' 2nd series, part i. 

2 Laube, op. cit. 



80 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



■2. Elysaste.ea Moorei, Duncan. PI. VI, figs. 10 — 15. 

The corallum is massive, and the upper surface is very irregular. 

The coralhtes are joined by their walls in many places, but are free in others, both 
superiorly and lower down in the corallum. 

The corallites vary greatly in size, and the smallest are usually joined by their 
walls, and are more or less angular in outhne. The largest corallites are circular in 
outline. 

The calices are irregular in their depth, and are either circular or polygonal. They 
are close, even when not adherent. 

The septa are alternately large and small, are faintly dentate, and are very variable in 
number. There are forty-eight septa in the largest calices. 

The costae are continuous with the septa in the separate corallites, but do not exist 
when the walls are united. 

The columella is deficient. 

The endotheca is very abundant. 

The diameter of the calices is from fjths — /gths inch. 

LocalUy. The Sutton Stone, and at Brocastle. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

The genus Elysastraia is very remarkable ; it has affinities with Isastrcea and with 
the very close bush-shaped Thecosmilia. The bush-shaped Thecosmilim are noticed to 
become united by their walls in some specimens, and the walls of Septastreea and 
PrioastracR are occasionally not united inferiorly. 

The species Ehjsastrcea Moorei has its corallites more distinctly separate than the 
St. Cassian form, which is, however, clearly represented in the Sutton Stone. 

The appearance of septa near the centre of the calice is very characteristic of 
the genus. 



Genus — Isastr^a. 

1. IsASTRyEA SiNEMURiENSis, E. ch Fromeutel} PI. VII, figs. 1 — 9. 

The calices are polygonal, and tolerably deep. 

The septa are very numerous, spined, close, and unite occasionally by theii' inner 

' Martin, 'Pa'. Strat. de I'lnfra-Lias du dep. de la Cote d'Or,' 1860, pi. vii, figa. 16, 17. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 31 

border. There are seventy-eight septa in the largest calices, and they are unequal. The 
calices are from ^ths — ^ths inch in diameter. 

To this specific determination of M. de Fromentel the following may be added, as 
better specimens have been derived from the Brocastle bed than elsewhere. 

The corallum is massive, and irregular in shape, but often assumes a subglobular 
form. When this is the case there is an epitheca, which is strongly folded, but which is 
lost as the calices are developed. 

The size of the calices is very irregular, and marginal gemmation is very 
common. 

The septa are crowded and distinct, and in the largest calices there are many of the 
fifth cycle, but there is great irregularity in the septal number. The septa are often not 
quite straight, and present swellings at several points. 

Locality. Brocastle. Menetreux, near Samur. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



2. IsastrjEA globosa, Duncan. PI. VIII, figs. 17, 18. 

The corallum is nearly spherical in shape ; it has a cylindrical but short peduncle, 
covered with epitheca, and a rounded upper surface marked with very numerous and 
closely placed small calices. 

The calices are shallow, faintly polygonal, and crowded with septa. The septa are 
unequal, not very thin, and have now and then an enlargement at the inner end. The 
smaller septa frequently unite to the lai-ger. All are very distinct. A cyclical 
arrangement of the septa cannot be distinguished, and the septal number varies from 
twenty, twenty-four, to thirty-six. 

There is no columella. 

The diameter of the calices is about ^^ inch. 

Locality. Brocastle. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

The largest specimens of this fossil are usually much worn, and some care nmst 
be taken in examining the perfect calices, for their minerahzation often suggests a 
columella. 



:U BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Genus — Latim^andra. 
Latim^eandra denticulata, Buncan. 

One or two calices of a Latimceandra occur in several of the hand-specimens in the 
Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S. The calices are long and are straight ; they 
are separated by sharp walls, and the larger septa have a high paliforra tooth close to 
their inner end. This structure of the septa distinguishes the species j but as no very 
satisfactory views can be obtained of a series of calices in the specimens, it has not been 
thought worth while to have the incomplete structures drawn. 

Localifj/. Brocastle. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 



Division — FAViACEiE. 
Genus — Septastr^a. 
Septastr.ea excavata, E. de Fromentel} PI. I, figs. 6, 7. 

The corallum is rather tall and rounded. 

The corallites are intimately united by their walls, which, although very thin, have a 
slight line of separation between them. 

The calices are polygonal, irregular, and deep. 

The septa are thin, distant, and strongly dentate, especially near the centre. 

Fissiparity occurs, and the longest calices may have three calicinal centres. 

In simple calices there are from thirty-six to forty-two septa, which are unequal. 
The hexanieral type is very distinct. 

The diameter of simple calices is from ^ths to ^ths inch. 

In the specimens from Brocastle the abrupt rise of the septa near the calicular margin 
is veiy well seen. The calices are very irregular, and the longitudinal sections show 
constrictions and irregular swellings, which are very characteristic. Most of the calices 
have forty-eight septa or more, especially those about to divide. 

LocalUjj. Brocastle; and Pont d'Aisy, Cote d'Or. 

In the Collection of Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., Bath. 

1 Martin, op. cit., pi. viii, figs. 1 — 5. 



PROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 33 

The remarkable Thecosmilia rugosa, Hhahdophyllia recondita, and Mysastraa FiscJieri, 
from the lower part of the Sutton Stone, have been described and drawn by Laube from 
the St. Cassian beds of the Trias. The fauna with which they are associated in the Trias 
has not been described ; but the presence of the species in the Angulatus-Zone of the 
Lower Lias or the Lifra-Lias is very interesting. 

The species described by Terquem and Piette, E. deEromentel, and D'Orbigny, viz. — 

Isastrtea Sinemuriensis, E. de From., 
Septastrcea excavata, E. de From., 
MontlivaUia polymorpha, Terquem et Piette, 
Astrocoenia Sinemuriensis, D'Orb., sp., 
Thecosmilia Martini, E. de From., 

„ MicJielini, Terquem et Piette, 

are associated in the Continental Liassic strata with many of the species of Mollusca which 
are noticed in the Sutton Stone and in the deposits at Brocastle in Glamorganshire. 

In the Lumachello of the upper series of the Infra-Lias of Normandy^ (the Calcaire de 
Valogne) Septastroea excavata is found to be associated with the following species, found 
also with it in the Glamorganshire Lias, which rests on Carboniferous Limestone: 

Cerithium acuticostatum, Terquem. 
Turritella Dunkeri, Terquem. 

„ Zenlceni, Danker, sp. 
Phasianella Morencyana, Piette. 
Ostrea anomala, Terquem. 
Cardinia regularis, Terquem. 

At Vic de Chassenay 3 Thecosmilia Martini, E. de From., and Astroccenia Sinemuriensis, 
D'Orb., sp., are associated with — 

Ammonites Moreanus, D'Orb. 
Littorina clathrata, Desh. 
Cerithium Semele, D'Orb. 

„ gratum, Terquem. . 

„ acuticostatum, Terquem. 

The middle bed of the Gres calcareux described by Terquem (' Pal. de Hettange,' 

1 Deslongchamps, 'Mem. Soc. Linn^enne de Normandie,' vol. xiv, 1804. 

2 Martin, 'Pal. Strat. de I'lnfra-Lias,' &c., 1860. 



34 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



1855), contains Isastraa 8'meinuriensis and the following species, in addition to the 
Mollnsca just mentioned from the Cote d'Or and the Calcaire de Valogne : 

Neritopsis exigua, Terquem. 
Gervillia acuminata, Terquem. 
Lima tuberculafa, Terquem. 
Plicatula intusstriata, Emm. 
Ostrea irregularis, Miinst. 

These species, common in the French beds which are included in the Zone of Ammonites 
angulatus, and which form part of the Lower Lias of some and of the Infra-Lias of other 
geologists, are those that are associated with the great Coral-fauna of the Sutton Stone 
and of the equivalent deposits at Brocastle, in Glamorganshire. 

The following Table shows the community of some well-known species in the 
coralhferous Liassic beds of Glamorganshire, and those of France and the Duchy of 
Luxembourg. 











„ 




^' 


„_ 






^ 


S 




» C 


13 aj 




S c 


^g 




c 


i 


I 






•g « 
II 




is 

Eg 




« 


M 




a. 




05 


'^ 


O 


Septastrcea excavata, E. de From 






# 




* 




* 




Montlivallia polymorpka, Terq 


* 




« 








* 






* 




« 








* 




Isastraa Sinemuriensis, E.de From 


Tliecosmilia Martini, E. de From 






* 




* 




* 




— Mic he I ini, Terq 


* 




* 








* 




Amjnonites angulatus, Schl 




* 










* 




Cerittiium acuticostatum, Terq 






« 


« 


* 




* 


# 


— gratum, Itrq 






* 






* 


* 


» 


— Semele, D'Orb. ... 






* 




* 


* 


* 


* 


Turritella Bunlceri, Terq 


— Zenkem,J)wik., &-g 






» 




» 




* 


* 


Littorina cluthrata, Desli 




* 


* 








* 
# 


7^ 


Phasianella Morencyana, Piette 


Neritopsis exigua, Terq 


» 














* 


Gervillia acuminata, Terq '. 






* 








* 


* 


Ostrea irregularis, Miiuster (0. liassica, 


Strickland) 


* 


* 


« 


# 




* 




» 


— multicostata, Miinst 


* 
« 


* 


* 

* 




* 








— anotnala, Terq 


Lima tuberculafa, Terq 


* 


* 


* 






* 


* 


* 


Cucullcea Hettangiensis, Terq, 






* 








< 




Cardita Heberti, Terq 






* 








* 




Lima exaltata, Terq 


* 












* 


* 


— dentata, Terq 


* 


* 












♦ 


Cardinia regularis, Terq 


* 








* 


* 


* 


* 


Plicatula intusstriata, Emm 


* 


* 




* 




* 


« 


« 





1 Terquem et Piette, op. cil. 



■ Cote d'Or. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 35 

The range in space and in time of some of these species is very remarkable. Several 
of them range from the Italian to the Welsh Lias, and from the Zone of Avicula coniorta 
to that of Ammonites BucMandi; but the general grouping of the Gasteropoda, Lamelli- 
branchiata, and Madreporaria indicates a Zoological Province vrhich flourished anterior 
to the characteristic fauna of the time of Gryplicsa incurva and Ammonites BucMandi} 

The richness of the Glamorganshire beds beneath the arenaceous deposits containing 
Gryplicea incurva in species and specimens is very evident. The Madreporaria are rare in 
the equivalent strata on the Continent. 

IV. Description of the Species erom the Zone oe Ammonites Angulatus at 
Marton, near Gainsborough. 

At Marton/ on the line of railway from Gainsborough, in Lincolnshire, to Lincol», 
there are dull blue earthy and shelly hmestones, which are very fossiliferous. These beds 
have been carefully searched for fossils, and a very rich and interesting fauna has been 
collected.^ 

They occupy a position above the White Lias and below the blue compact limestones 
of the Ammonites BucMandi series. 

The fauna is very characteristic, but the Madreporaria are allied rather to those of 
the equivalent beds of the Lower Lias in the North of Ireland and of the East of France 
than to the species at Brocastle and in the Sutton Stone. 

1. Montlivaltia Haimei, Chapuis et Bewalque. PI. X, figs. 24 — 32. 

" The corallum is simple, discoidal, and depressed ; the base is very slightly pedicillate ; 
the epitheca is very thin, ridged, and extends to the calicular margin. 

" The calice is circular in outline, slightly or not at all convex, and the central fossa is 
small and circular. 

"The septa are numerous, and form six cycles in six systems. The primary and 
secondary septa nearly reach the centre of the calice, and barely differ from those of the 
third cycle. The septa of the sixth cycle are very small. All the septa are thin, and 
their margin is strongly crenulate ; those of the first and second cycles become thicker 
near the centre of the calice, and thinner at the periphery, where all the septa are about 
the same thickness." (' Descript. des Foss. des Terr. Second, du Luxembourg,' Chapuis et 
Dewalque, p. 268.) 

The resemblance of the species to a Cyclohte is noticed by MM. Chapuis and 

1 P. Martin Duncan, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' Feb., 1867. 

2 F. M. Burton, Esq.,F.G.S., and the Rev. B.Chamberlin, F.G.S.,liave given me information on this section, 
s Ealph Tate, Esq., F.G.S., " On the Fossiliferous Development of the Zone of A. angulatus, &c.," an 

unpublished paper from which I have obtained much information, and all my knowledge of the iMoUuscan 
fauna of Marton. 



36 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Dewalque ; and they remark that the base is ordinarily slightly convex, but sometimes 
perfectly horizontal ; moreover, they observe that the calice is more convex when the base 
is horizontal. 

MM. de Fromentel and de Ferry have divided the species Montlivaltia Haimei into 
three : 

1. Montlwaliia Haimei, Ch. et Dew. 

2. ,, tenuisepta, From, et Ferry. 

3. „ granifjera. From, et Ferry. 

He doubts the propriety of admitting so great a variation in septal number and in 
septal ornamentation as must be tolerated if the species Avere left entire. 

A very considerable series of specimens of the species has been examined, and the 
distinctness of such forms as those considered worthy of the specific names tenuisepta and 
f/ranigera has not been satisfactorily determined. Like the recent simple corals, Montlivaltia 
Haimei may have had a great variability. It was a very common species, and therefore 
all the more likely to vary in its shape, septal number, and ornamentation. 

It is evident that there are forms of the species which are either concave or horizontal 
at the base ; and others which are barely convex at the base, and which may become 
conical, sensibly taller than usual, and even cylindro-conical in shape. The convexity 
of the calice, or rather the exsertness of the septa, is often, but not always, correlative to 
this development of the base, and concave calices are not uncommon in the tallest 
corallites. The septal number varies in the development of part of the seventh cycle, and 
the dentate or crenulate condition of the septal edge is very variable. 

The diameter of the calices and the height of the corallum depend upon the age of 
the individual. 

It would appear that no British specimen exactly resembles the type from 
Jamoigne, but a variety from the Irish Lias at the Island Magee is nearer to it than any 
of the British forms. 

Localities. Marton, near Gainsborough ; Newark, Notts ; east shore of Island 
Magee, North of Ireland. In the Collections of Rev. P. B. Brodie, Mr. Burton, Rev. 
Mr. ChamberHn, the Geological Society, and the British Museum. 

3. Montlivaltia papillata (sp. nov.). PI. X, figs. 15 — 18. 

The corallum is Cyclolitoid in shape, the base is slightly concave, and the calice is 
convex, there being a circular depression at the centre. 

The epitheca of the base reaches to the calicular margin ; it is very thin, is 
marked with concentrical shallow depressions and elevations, and the costse are seen 
through it faintly. 

The calice is nearly circular. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 37 

The septa are exsert, and the larger have very large dentations or papillae on them. 
The papillae are small at the margin and at the columellary space, but midw^ay there are 
six or more of them which are very prominent. There are twenty-four septa, which reach 
the margin of the columellary space, and they are strongly papillated. Between two of 
the longest septa there are three others, one, the central, is longer than the others, 
which are almost rudimentary ; all are papillate. There are thus five complete cycles 
of septa, in six systems. 

The columellary space presents several small papillae, but they are septal. There is 
no columella. 

Diameter of calice, jSths inch. Height of corallum, ^ths inch. 

Locality. Marton, near Gainsborough ; east shore of Island Magee, in the North of 
Ireland. In the Collections of F. M. Burton, Esq., F.G.S., Gainsborough, and R. Tate, Esq., 
F.G.S. 



3. MoNTLiVALTiA PAPiLLATA (sp. nov.). A Variety. PI. X, figs. 19 — 21. 

The corallum is smaller than the type, and the papillae are smaller and sharper. 
Locality. Marton, near Gainsborough. In the Collection of Rev. B. Chamberlin, F.G.S. 



4. Septastr^a Fromenteli, Terquem et Piette. PL XI, fig. 5. 

The corallum is massive, and resembles a flattened cone in shape. 

The corallite walls are very thin, and are fused together. 

The calices are polygonal, irregular in shape, and deep. 

The septa are thin, finely dentate, and rather wavy; they number from twenty-four 
to twenty-six in small calices, and from fifty-two to sixty-two in the larger. 

The fissiparous division of the calices is very constant, and occurs both in the midst 
of the calices and at their angles. It is very rare to observe calices which do not present 
evidences of fissiparity, so that the calices are almost always double. 

Diameter of the calices, about ird to jrds inch. 

Locality. Marton, near Gainsborough; Harbury, Warwick; east shore of Island 
Magee, North of Ireland. In the Collections of F. M. Burton, Esq., F.G.S., and Ralph 
Tate, Esq., F.G.S. 

The shape of the corallum is subject to variation, and the Marton specimens are massive 
and flat, whilst that from Harbury, belonging to Rev. P. B. Brodie, is very gibbous and 
irregular in shape. The specimens from the North of Ireland are also irregular in shape. 
The species has a considerable range, and it has been found by MM. Terquem et Piette^ in 
the " Calcaire a A. planorbis de Volfsmuhl, pres de Mondorf et de Beaufort." But in 

1 Terquem et Piette, op. cit., p. 129. 



3S BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

England and Ireland it occupies a higher zone, and is accompanied by Montlivaltia Haimei 
and its varieties. 

The following Cephalopoda, Gasteropoda, and Lamellibranchiata accompany the 
Madreporaria just described in the section at Marton ■} 

Ammonites Jolnisfoni, Sow. 
,, nngulcdus, Schl. 

Nauiilus sfriafus. Sow. 
Cerithium Semele, D'Orb. 
PhasianeUa Morencyana, Piette. 
Turbo subelegam, iMiinst. 
Turritella Dunkeri, Terquem. 
Cmullcea Rettangiensis, Terquem. 
Anomia jjellucida, Terquem. 
Cardinia Listen, Sow. 

„ ovalis, Stutch. 
Cardita Heberti, Terquem. 
Lima ti/berculata, Terquem. 

„ punctata, Sow. 
Pecten piinctatissimus, Quenst. 

The following is a list of the Madreporaria fi'om the zone of Ammonites angidalus at 
Marton -. 

• Montlivaltia Haimei, Ch. et Dew. 

,, „ 2 varieties. 

„ papillata, Duncan. 
„ ,, a variety. 

Septastraa Fromenteli, Terquem et Piette. 

V. Description of the Species from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus in the 

North of Ireland. 

In the subdivision of the Lias at Waterloo, Larne, where the Cephalopoda and 
Mollusca about to be mentioned are found, there is a very remarkable coral which cannot 
be classified with any of the genera of the Astrseidse. I have founded the new genus 
Oppelismilia to receive this species and another which belongs to the Lias at Harbury, 
and which will be described in the next part of this Monograph. 

In the Ammonites angidatus Zone on the east shore of Island Magee there are 
several species of Madreporaria. 

' List furnished by Ralph Tate, Esq., F.G.S., as was also that at p. 40. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. .39 

Montlivaltia Haimei, Ch. et Dew., is found there, and the form has a greater resem- 
blance to the Belgian type than to the specimens from Marton. The multiseptate and 
granular varieties of the species are also found. 

Montlivaltia papillata, Duncan, is noticed amongst the Irish coral-fauna, and 
Septastrcea Fromenteli, Terquem et Piette, also. 

The Coral-fauna of the Zone of Ammonites angulatus of Lincolnshire is clearly strongly 
represented in the North of Ireland, and the MoUusca which accompany the Corals of the 
first locality are noticed to be associated with those of the last. 

There is a Montlivaltia of the Montlivaltia papillata type which is special to the 
Irish Lias. Oppelismilia gemmans is not found in any other locality than Waterloo, 
Lame. 

Genus — Oppelismilia. 

The corallum is simple, attached, and conical. The epitheca is well marked, and 
reaches to the calicular margin. 

The calice is shallow, and the septa are numerous and close. There are no costse, 
and there is no columella. Gemmation occurs within the calice, and the bud, which has 
an epitheca, grows with the parent. 

The genus thus includes Month valtise with calicular gemmation. 

Oppelismilia gemmans (sp. nov.). PL X, figs. 33, 84. 

The corallum is short; it has a broad and flat calice, an oval space at the base 
where it was once adherent ; a strong epitheca, with circular markings, and there are 
no costse. 

The calice is flat and shallow, and its margin is sharp. 

The septa are very numerous and unequal. 

The bud on the calice has an epitheca, and its septa are faintly dentate. 

Height of the corallum, #hs inch. Width of the calice, ^ths inch. 

Locality. Waterloo, Larne, North of Ireland. In the Collection of Ralph Tate, 
Esq., F.G.S. 

The following new Montlivaltia is also from the Lias of Ireland : 

Montlivaltia Hibernica (sp. nov.). PL X, figs. 22, 23. 

The corallum is discoidal, the base is flat, and the calice is convex. 

The epitheca of the base is strongly marked concentrically. 

The septa are numerous, close, unequal, and are marked by small papillae, 
which are very close together, and by flat eminences, which are also very close 
together. There appear to be nearly five cycles of septa, and the largest septa are papillose. 



40 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

The diameter of the calice is /gths inch, and the height of the coralhim ~„t\\ 
inch. 

Localify. The eastern shore of Island Magee, in the North of Ireland. In the Col- 
lection of Ralph Tate, Esq., P.G.S. 



List of Species op Madreporaria from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus in thk 

North of Ireland. 

1. Oppelismilia ffemmans, Duncan. 
MonilivaUia Haimei, Ch. et Dew. 

„ ,, varieties. 

„ papillata, Duncan. 

„ Hibernica, Duncan. 
Sejitastrcea Fromenteli, Terqueni et Piette. 

The following Cephalopoda, Gasteropoda, and Lamellibranchiata were found asso- 
ciated with the Madreporaria in the zone of Ammonites ayigulatus of the North of 
Ireland : 

Ammonites Johnstoni, Sow. 
„ angidatm, Sch. 
Nautilus striatus. Sow. 
Actaonina fragilis. Dunk. 
Ceritkium Seviele, D'Orb. 

„ gratum, Terquem. 
Phasianella Morencgana, Terquem. 
Tleurotomaria coepa, Terquem. 
Turbo subelegans, Miinst. 
TurriteUa tenuicosta, Portl. 
Peden calvus, Goldf. 
Plicatula Hettangiensis, Terquem. 

„ intmstriata, Emm. 
Terebratula perforata, Piette. 
Avicula Sinemuriensis, D'Orb. 
Cardinia Listen, Sow. 

„ ovalis, Stutch. 
Cardium Philippianum, Dunk. 
Lima acuticosta, Miinst. 

„ tubercidata, Terquem. 
Ostrea irregularis, Miinst. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 41 



VI. Description of the Species from Lussay in the Isle of Skte. 

Dr. T. Wright has described the Coral-bed of the Lower Lias of Skye, and the species 
of Isastrcea which, grouped in masses, appears to be the only Coral found there. It is 
most probable, from the position of this coral-bed,^ and the association of Ostrea arietis 
and Cardinia concinna with it (in the bed beneath), that Isastraa Murchisoni belongs to 
the same geological horizon as the Liassic deposit at Brocastle and the Sutton Stone. 

IsASTR^A Murchisoni, Wright. PI. XI, figs. 1 — 4. 

Dr. Wright's description of this species gives the following characters : 

Corallum large, massive, convex. Calicos unequal, deep, polygonal ; sides unequal. 
Margin thin. Septa, 30 to 36, and even 40 or more in the large calices ; unequal in 
length, thin, waved, granulated superiorly. Columella absent ; point of convergence 
of septa excentral. Diameter of calices, ^ths toT''5ths inch. Depth of fossa, ~ths inch. 

Locality. Lussay, Skye. 

The surface of the type specimen is very uneven ; the calices are very irregular in 
size, shape, and depth, and the margins are not even. Thus one calice may be on a higher 
level than those to which it is attached, and often so much so that there is a faint trace 
of a subsequent growth of wall. The septa are very irregular in their number, and the 
longest have one or more teeth at their inner end. There is often a ridge between the 
margin of the calice and the centre, indicating calicinal gemmation, but the gemmation 
of the corallum usually takes place at the margin, and there is no fissiparity. No cyclical 
arrangement of the septa can be distinguished. 

The large and shallow calices, thin septa, the peculiar relation of contiguous calices, 
and the sharp elevated margins, distinguish this species, which is allied rather to a 
new genus from the Middle Lias of Pabba, Lepidophyllia (Duncan), than to any of the 
Liassic Isastraese. 



" See Mr. Geikie's memoir "On the Geology of Strath, Skye;" with "Descriptions of Fossils," by 
Dr. T. Wright, 1857, 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xiv, pp. 1 et seq. There is a most interesting 
description of the Coral-bed in the Isle of Skye by Hugh Miller, in his " Essay on the Corals of the 
Oolitic System of Scotland," read before the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, and published in 
' The Old Red Sandstone,' 7th edition, 1859. 

2 ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xiv, p. 34. 



42 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



VII. List of the Species described in this Part from the Zones of 
Ammonites planorbis and Ammonites angulatus. 



1. 


Oppelisviilia gemmans, Duncan. 


2. 


Montlivaltia Wallim, „ 


3. 


— Murcliisonia , „ 


4. 


— poIymorjjJia, Terquem et Piette. 


5. 


— parasitica, Duncan. 


6. 


— simplex, „ 


7. 


— brevis, „ 


' 8. 


— pedunculata, „ 


9. 


— Haimei, Chapuis et Dewalque. 


10. 


— papillata, Duncan. 


11. 


— Hibernica, „ 


12. 


Thecosmilia Suttonensis, „ 


13. 


— mirabilis, „ 


14. 


— serialis, „ 


15. 


— rugosa, Laube. 


16. 


— Brodiei, Duncan. 


17. 


— Martini, E. de Fromentel. 


18. 


— Michelini, Terquem et Piette. 


19. 


— irregularis, Duncan. 


20. 


— Terquemi, „ 


21. 


— ajjinis, „ 


22. 


— dentata, „ 


23. 


— plana, „ 


24. 


IlhabdopjJiyllia recondita, Laube. 


25. 


Astrocoenia gibhosa, Duncan. 


26. 


— jjlana, „ 


27. 


— insignis, „ 


28. 


— reptans, „ 


29. 


— parasitica, „ 


30. 


— pedunculata, „ 


31. 


— cosfata, „ 


32, 


— favoidea, „ 


33. 


— superba, „ 


34. 


— dendroidea, „ 



FROM THE ZONES OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS AND PLANORBIS. 43 



35. 


Astrocoenia 


minuta, Duncan. 


36. 


— 


Sinemuriensis, D'Orbigny^ sp. 


37. 


CyathoccBnia 


; dendroidea, Duncan. 


38. 


— 


incrustans, „ 


39. 


— 


costata, „ 


40. 


Elysastrcea 


Fischeri, Laube. 


41. 


— 


Moorei, Duncan. 


42. 


Septastraa 


excavata, E. de Fromentel. 


43. 


— 


Hahnei, Wright, sp. 


44. 


— 


Fromenteli, Terquem. 


45. 


Latimceandr 


a denticulata, Duncan. 


46. 


Isastrcea Sinemuriensis, E. de Fromentel. 


47. 


— 


globosa, Duncan. 


48. 


— 


MurcJdsoni, Wright. 



Varieties of Tliecosmilia irregularis, Duncan. 

— Montlivaltia Haimei, Chapuis et Dewalque. 

— — papillata, Duncan. 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS, 



SECOND SEEIES. 



P. MARTIN DUNCAN, M.B. LOND., F.G.S., 



SEORETAKT TO THE GEOLOGHCAl SOCIETY. 



Being a Supplement to the 
'Monograph of the British Fossil Corals' by MM. Milne-Edwards «mi:Z Jules Haime. 



PART IV, No. 2. 

COEALS FEOM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS {continued). 

COEALS FEOM THE ZoNE OF AMMONITES BuCKLANDI, AMMONITES OBTDSUS, AND AMMONITES 

EAEICOSTATUS, OF THE LOAVEE LlAS. 

CoEALS FEOM THE MiDDLE LlAS ; FEOM THE ZoNES OF AMMONITES JaMESONI AND AMMONITES 

Henleti. 
Additional Species of Coeals feom the Zone of Ammonites planoebis. 

CoEALS FEOM THE AviCULA-CONTOETA ZoNE. 

Coeals feom the White Lias. 

Appendix to the Liassic Coeals. 

Index. 

45—73 ; Plates XII— XVII. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1868. 



FEINTED BY J. E. ADIAKD, BABTH0L05IEW CLOSE. 



A MONOGRAPH 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

(SECOND SERIES.) 
Part IV.— No. 2. 



VIII. Corals from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus. 
{Continued.) 

There are some Coralliferons deposits belonging to the Lower Lias at Inkbarrow, at 
Chadbury, in Worcestershire, and Eladbury, near Evesham, whose exact geological horizon 
has riot been determined. They are low down in the Lower Lias, but their commonest 
Corals do not identify them with the Coralliferous beds of Brocastle. The genus Isastrcea 
is dominant in these localities, and its species are unlike any which have been described. 
The Corals will not do more than associate these beds on one horizon. There is a 
great probability, from the presence of small Gasteropoda, whose shells are left in the 
calices of the Corals, that careful search will yield a sufficient number of fossils to deter- 
mine whether these deposits are below the Zone of Ammonites Bucklandi. Our present 
knowledge does not justify the association of these Isastrcece with the Coral-fauna of the 
Zone of Ammonites angulatus. 

The Coralliferous deposits at Abbott's Wood, Harbury, Aston Magna, and Down 
Hatherly may belong to more than one zone ; but, from the association of Thecosmilia 
Michelini, Thecosmilia Martini, and Septastrcea Fromenteli, the presence of the Zone of 
Ammonites angulatus may be satisfactorily asserted. 

There is an Isastrcea found in the Lower Lias of Lyme Regis, which is said to belong 
to the Zone of Ammonites angulatus, but the mineralization of the specimen and its affini- 
ties are sufficiently distinct to associate it with the beds containing Ammonites Bucklandi. 

7 



46 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

IX. Description of the Species. 

SRCTioii—APOBOSJ. 

Family— ASTR^IDtE. 

Division — Lithophyllace^ simplices. 

Genus — Montlivaltia. 

I. Montlivaltia Ruperti, Duncan. PI. XII, figs. 3, 4, 5 ; PI. XV, fig. 15. 

The corallum is turbinate ; it is truncated at the base, and is widest at the caHce. 

The epitheca is strong, and is marked transversely with ridges, prominent lines, and 
constrictions ; tlie longitudinal markings are faint, but there is a tendency to split in 
their direction. 

The cahce is moderately deep, and is circular in outline. 

The septa are crowded, unequal, long, and irregular ; the longest are thick internally, 
and reach so far inwards as to give the appearance of a false columella ; all are slightly 
spined. 

There are five cycles of septa, in six systems, and those of the highest orders are small, 
whilst the primary and secondary are equal and very long. 

The wall is thick, and the epitheca does not project upwards as a ridge around the 
circular margin. The endotheca is abundant. 

The costse are small, and are rarely visible beneath the epitheca. 

Height of the corallum ^ths inch. 

Breadth of the calice ^^ths inch. 

Locality. Down Hatherly. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 

Division — Astr^ace^. 
Genus — Isastr^ea. 
1. Isastr^a Tomesii, Duncan. PI. XV, fig. 20. 

The corallum is massive, large, and irregular in shape. The upper surface is sub- 
gibbous. 

The calices are irregular in size, are separated by very thin walls, and are rather deep 
and polygonal, quadrangular, or more or less circular. 



FROM THE ZONE OP AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 47 

The septa are very thin, and are faintly dentate ; they often curve and unite. They 
reach well into the axial space, and are united by dissepiments. They are subequal, but 
many rudimentary septa exist. There are not four complete cycles of septa. 

Diameter of calices jgths — ^ths inch. 

Locality. Long Coppice, near Binton, Warwickshire. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 

The delicacy and subequal character of the septa, their deficiency in decided den- 
tations, and the dissepiments between the septa, characterise this species. 

There is an immense Isastraa at Inkbarrow, with small calices and thick walls ; unfor- 
tunately it is not determinable specifically, but the honeycomb appearance and subgibbous 
upper surface, and the low septal number, may distinguish it. A specimen is in the col- 
lection of the Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S. 

Isastrcea MurcJdsoni, Wright, is found attached to the Inkbarrow specimen, and thus 
this Scottish Coral has also an English habitat. 



X. On the Corals of the British and European Lower Liassic Deposits op the 
Zones of Ammonites angtjlatus, Ammonites planorbis, and Avicula contorta. 

The strata of the Lower Lias evidently contain more than one Coral-fauna, and there is 
a strong distinction between the assemblage of species of the Zone of Ammonites Buck- 
landi and those of the zones below. The Corals of the White Lias are few in number, and 
probably belong to the genus Montlivaltia, but they cannot be distinguished specifically. 
The Avicula contorta series of France and England are uncoralliferous, but the Italian beds 
at Azzarola, which probably are on that horizon, contain a very remarkable Coral-fauna. 

The extent of the area of Coralhferous beds described by Stoppani as the Azzarola series 
is very considerable. The " Madrepore-bed," as it is termed by Stoppani, is seen above 
the Azzarola beds, with Cardiwm Bhceticum, 3Iyoplioria injlata, Mytilus psilonoti, Avicula 
contorta, Terebratula gregaria, &c., wherever the succession of the rocks can be made out, 
either on the south-eastern slopes of the Alps, as on the Lake of Como, or on the north- 
western slopes to the south of the Lake of Geneva.^ The Madrepore-bed is described, more- 
over, as occurring below and in the midst of the Azzarola beds, and as forming a dense layer 
of eight to ten yards in thickness. The prevailing Coral is Rhahdophyllia Langohardica, 
Stop., and the genus is represented by three other species. The Bhabdophyllics resemble 
in their habit of growth many TUecosmilioe, and form in the Azzarola beds great masses 
of tangle, like Thecosmilia Martini in the Coralliferous beds of the Cote d'Or and of 
Cowbridge in South Wales. Stoppani describes a Stylina from some casts which 

1 Stoppani, 'Monog. des Foss. de 1' Azzarola.' 



48 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

resemble those of Astrocoenia gibhosa, nobis, from the Sutton Stone. The species I select 
as distinguishable in the Azzarola deposits are — 

Bhabdophi/Uia Sellce, Stopp. 

„ Langohardica, Stopp. 

„ Menegliini, Stopp. 

„ De-Filippi, Stopp. 

Montlivaltia Gastaldi, Stopp. 
Stylina Savii, Stopp. 
ThamnastrcBa Batarrce, Stopp. 

„ Escheri, Stopp. 

„ Meriani, Stopp. 

„ rectilamellosa, Winkl. 

These Rhabdophyllice, Stglina, and ThamnastrcscB, are represented in the lowest zones 
the British Lower Lias by Thecosmilice, Bhabdophylliee, and Astrocceniee. 

The strata between the Trias and the Zone of Ammonites BucMandi in Germany are 
very uncoralliferous, and the determinations of the species given by Quenstedt are not suf- 
ficiently exact. MM. D'Orbigny, Terquem et Piette, and De Fromentel, have noted and 
described the following species from the Lower Lias, below the Zone of Ammonites Buck- 
landi, GryphcBa incurva, &c., in France and Luxembourg, and by omitting Isastraa basal- 
fiformis, De From., which belongs to the Zone of Ammonites plaiiorbis, tlie following table 
Avill give all the species from the Continental Zone of Ammonites angulatus -. — 



XI. List or Species from the Continental Zone of Ammonites angulatus. 

L Montlivaltia Sinemuriensis, D'Orb. 

2. „ dentata, De From, et Feny. 

3. „ Martini, De From. 

4. ,, BJiodana, De From, et Ferry. 

5. ,, discoidea, Terquem et Piette. 

6. „ Haimei, Chapuis et Dewalque. 

7. „ Gueitardi, Chapuis et Dewalque. 

8. „ jmlymorpha, Terquem et Piette. 

9. „ denticulata, De From, et Ferry. 

10. Thecosmilia Martini, De From. 

11. „ Michelini, Terquem et Piette. 

12. „ coronata, Terquem et Piette. 

1 3. Septastrcea Frmnenteli, Terquem et Piette. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 49 

14. Septastrcsa excavafa,J)e,~E]:om.. 

15. Isasfrcea Condeana, Chapuis et Dewalque. 

16. „ Sinemuriensis, J) eVrom. 

17. StylastrcBa Sinemuriensis, De From. 

18. „ Martini, De From. 

19. Astrocoenia Sinemuriensis, D'Orb. 

20. „ davellata, Terquem et Piette. 

Probably some of the species of Montlivaltia wilt have to be absorbed by others, but 
this list, when added to the Table of British Corals from the Zone of Ammonites angulatus, 
proves that, instead of the Lias being an uncoralHferous series, it was quite the contrary. 
The great development of Coral-life in the Azzarola series, the scanty remains of it in the 
western and north-western European Avicula contorta Zones and in the White Lias and 
in the Zone of Ammonites planorbis, and the luxuriance of the species in the Zone of 
Ammonites angulatus, are very significant facts ; and the significance is not diminished when 
the paucity of the species of the Ammonites BucJclandi Zone and their distinctness from 
those of the Zone of Ammonites angulatus is considered. 



Xn. List of Species of Corals from the Continental and British Strata of the 
Zone of Ammonites angulatus. 

1 . Oppelismilia gemmans, Duncan. Ireland. 

2. Montlivaltia Wallim, „ South Wales. 

3. — MurcJiisonice, „ „ 

4. — Buperti, „ England. 

5. — parasitica, „ South Wales. 

6. — ' simplex, „ >, 

7. ■ — brevis, „ ,> 

8. — pedunculata, „ „ 

9. — polymorpha, Terquem et Piette. South Wales ; East of France. 

10. — i/"ttOTei, Chapuis et Dewalque. England ; Ireland ; Luxembourg ; 

France. 

11. — Hibernica, Duncan. Ireland. 

12. — papillata, „ England; Ireland. 

13. — Sinemuriensis, D'Orb. France. 

14. — dentata,De~Emm.et'FeYTLj.„ 

15. — denticulata, „ „ 

16. — BJiodana, „ » 

17. — Martini, „ » 



50 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

18. Montlimllia discoidea, Terquem et Piette. France. 

19. — Guettardi, Blainville. Luxembourg and England. 

20. Tliecosmilia Suttonensis, Duncan. South Wales. 
2L — mirabilis, „ „ 

22. — serialis, „ „ 

23. — irregularis, „ . „ 

24. — Terquemi, ,, „ 

25. — affinis, „ „ 

26. — dentata, „ „ 

27. — plana, „ „ 

28. — Brodiei, „ „ 

29. — Martini, E. de From. South Wales ; England ; France ; Luxem- 

bourg. 

30. — i^/^c/^e/^'«^, Terquem et Piette. „ ,, „ ,, 
3L — coronata, „ France 

32. — rugosa, Laube. South Wales ; St. Cassian. 

33. BJiabdophi/llia recondita, „ „ „ 

34. Astrocmnia Sinemuriensis, D'Orb., sp. South Wales ; France. 

35. — clavellata, Terquem et Piette. France. 

36. — gihhosa, Duncan. South Wales ; Azzarola ? 

37. — plana, „ „ 

38. — insignis, „ „ 

39. — reptans, „ „ 

40. — parasitica, „ „ 
4L — pedunculata, ,, „ 
42. — costata, „ „ 
48. — favoidea, „ „ 

44. — superba, „ „ 

45. — dendroidea, „ „ 

46. — minuta, „ ;, 

47. Cgathocosnia dendroidea, „ „ 

48. — incrustans, „ „ 

49. — costata, ,, „ 

50. Elysastrma Fischeri, Laube. „ St. Cassian. 

51. — Moorei, Duncan. „ 

52. Septastraa excavata, E. de From. „ France. 

53. _ Fromenteli, Terquem. „ England ; Ireland ; France. 

54. Stglastraa Sinemurietisis, E. de From. „ 

55. — Martini, „ „ 

56. Latimceandra denticulata, Duncan. „ 



FROM THE ZONE OE AMMONITES BUCKLANDI. 51 

57. Isastrcea Sinemuriensis, E. de From. South Wales ; France. 

58. — Condeana, Chapuis et Dewalque. Luxembourg ; France. 

59. — glohosa, Duncan. South Wales. 

60. — MurcJdsoni, Wright. Isle of Skye ; Inkbarrow, England. 

61. — Tomesii, Duncan. Worcestershire, 

Of these 61 species 50 are found in the British Isles. 



XIII. COBALS FROM THE ZoNE OS AMMONITES BuCKLANDI (bISXJLCATUS). 

Corals are not numerous in this zone, and the commonest species of the Zone of 
Ammonites angulatus are not found in any of its strata. It is probable that Thecosmilia 
Martini, E. de From., which in France ranges from the beds containing Ammonites 
Moreanus into those in which Ammonites bisulcatus is found, has a corresponding vertical 
distribution in England. Thecosmilia Michelini, Terq. et Piette, appears to be present in 
the Zone of Ammonites Bucklandi, but only in the form of casts, which resemble those 
found at Abbott's Wood, in the Zone of Ammonites angulatus. These casts and some of 
Tliecosmilia Martini have been assigned to the genus Cladophjllia, but without sufficient 
reason. Tliecosmilia is a large genus, and the species contain individuals of all sizes, so 
that to give to very small cylindroid Thecosmilice the term Cladophyllice is too artificial a 
distinction. The septa of Thecosmilice are generally, but by no means universally, regularly 
toothed, granular, and slightly exsert ; and the septa of Cladophyllics are said to be 
small, not numerous, and slightly dentate ; moreover, the endotheca is scanty in 
Cladophyllia, but abundant in Thecosmilia. These are not generic distinctions, and it is 
very probable that one genus will absorb the other. 



Section— ^POiZO/S^. 
Family— ASTRJ5IDiE. 

Division LiTHOPHYLLACEyE SIMPLICES. 

Genus — Montlivaltia. 
1. Montlivaltia Gtjettardi, Blainville, 1830. PI. XII, figs. 10 — 14. 

The following is the specific diagnosis given by MM. Chapuis and Dewalque.^ 
Corallum simple and rather variable in shape ; often conical, more or less depressed, 
rarely cylindro-conical ; the base is slightly pediciUate. 

1 Chapuis et Dewalque, ' Descript. des Foss. des Terr. Second, du Luxembourg, 1854.' 



52 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Epitheca thick, ridged, and extending to the caUcuIar border. 

Calice circular, ordinarily concave, shallow. 

Septa usually thin, granular; strongly toothed on their arched margins. 

Five cycles, the first three nearly equal. 

This Coral varies greatly in its height and basal flatness. It may be sub-turbinate, or 
even discoidal ; and the specimen from Bottesford, in Lincolnshire, is flat below and very 
convex above, but it presents an axial depression. The Continental specimens appear to 
be found in a lower horizon of the Lias than that in which the specimen figured in PI. XII 
was found. 

Locality. Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 

In the Collection of Rev. T. C. B. Chamberlin, F.G.S. 

There are specimens, which I believe are young forms, that were found at Fenny 
Compton and Aston Magna. PI. XII, figs. 6 and 7. 

There is a microscopic Coral at Willsbridge, in the Lima-series (PI. XV, fig. 9), 
but the species is not distinguishable. It is figured, as perhaps a lai'ger form may be 
discovered. Small and young Montlivaltim are very common on Gryphaese and on large 
Corals. 



Family— ASTRvEIDiE. 

Division — Fa v i ace^e. 

GetlUS — SEPTASTRiEA. 

L Septastr^a Eveshami. Duncan. PL XIII, figs. 5 — 7. 

The corallum is large, tall, and fiabelliform, and the surface is subgibbous. The 
base is small, and the corallites radiate and elongate rapidly. 

The calices are very irregular in shape and size, and many are twisted and irregular ; 
all are shallow, and those which are fissiparous are narrow. Some caUces are polygonal, 
but fissiparity can be distinguished in most. 

The septa are small, dentate, and very irregular in size and arrangement. There are 
between thirty and forty septa in regular calices, but in the elongated there are many 
more. The calicular wall is very thin, but where it has been worn a groove is noticed. 
The endotheca is rather scanty. 

Diameter of a polygonal calice ^ths inch, and of elongated calices from ^th to ^^ths inch. 

Locality. Evesham. 

In the Collection of the Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES BUCKLANDI. 53 

Division — Astr^ace^. 
Gemcs nov.- — Lepidophyllia. 

The corallurn is compound, and the coraUites are joined by their walls. The gemma- 
tion is calicular and gives an overlapping appearance both to the sides and the upper part 
of the corallum. 

The epitheca is distinct. There is no columella. 

The septa are dentate. The calicular gemmation and Astraeacean characters distinguish 
the genus. 

There are two species ; one is found at Chadbury, and the other in the Island of Pabba, 
in the Middle Lias. 

1. Lepidophyllia Stricklandi, Duncan. PI. XII, fig. 15. 

The corallum is tall, and is composed of two sets of coraUites. 

The calicular gemmation is very frequent and successive. The calicular margins are 
sharp and wavy ; and they are free, except where the coraUites join. 

The fossa is deep. 

The costse are distinct. 

The epitheca is scanty. 

Height of corallum 1 inch. Breadth of calice /gths inch. 

Locality. Chadbury, Worcestershire. 

In the Collection of Mrs. Strickland. The specimens were collected by the late Hugh 
Strickland, F.G.S. 

Genus — Isastr^ea. 
1. IsASTR^A ENDOTHECATA, Duncan. PI. XII, figs. 17 — 21. 

The corallum is large, and either massive and flat, or tall and arising from a small 

base. 

The caUces are very irregular in shape, size, and depth. The largest calices are very 

deep. 

The septa are small, and often wavy. They are not exsert, but are very irregular. 
They are faintly dentate, wide apart, and project slightly from the calicular wall. 



54 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

The cyclical arrangement cannot be determined by the number of the septa ; there 
are between four and five cycles. The largest septa reach the floor of the caHce, where 
they join. 

The endotheca is greatly developed, and it forms small dissepiments, and others which 
stretch across the corallites almost like tabulae. 

The marginal gemmation is frequent. 

Length of the largest calice '. inch. Depth i — ^ inch. 

Locality. Lyme Regis. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 



2. IsASTRiEA iNSiGNis, DuTican. PI. XIII, figs. 10, 11. 

The corallum is massive and forms a flat mass. The corallites are very equal in size 
and regular in shape. 

The calices are placed very regularly in linear series ; they are shallow, open, and are 
separated by a stout wall. The calices are generally hexagonal, but many are square. 

The septa are small, project but slightly from the wall, are dentate and unequal. 
There are four cycles of septa in six systems in the largest calices. The primary and 
secondary septa are nearly equal ; the tertiary are decidedly smaller, and the rest are 
the smallest. 

The endotheca is close. 

There is no columella. 

Diameter of largest calices ^ths inch, and of the usual size j'bths inch. 

Locality. Lyme Regis. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 

This is a very well-marked species, and belongs to a section which comprises Isastraa 
Hemcquei, Ed. and H., from the Lower Lias of Hettange, Isastraa polygonalis, MicheUn, 
sp., of the Muschelkalk, and Isastraa Lonsdalei, Ed. and H., of the British Inferior Oolite. 

3. IsASTR^A Stricklandi, Dutican. PI. XIII, figs. 1 — 4. 

The corallum is very tall, has a small base, and is expanded superiorly. 

The corallites are unequal in size and length, and vary much in shape. 

The calices are very irregular in form and depth ; their walls are thick, and the septa 
stout and very dentate. The dentations are blunted and are very large, and more so 
internally than near to the calicular margin. 

The septal number varies, and 32 — 40 appear to be the usual number. The laminas 
are stout, and the primary and secondary septa reach downwards to the base of the fossa 
and are dentate. The others, which are short, are also stout. 



FROM THE ZONE OE AMMONITES BUCKLANDI. 



55 



The endotheca is greatly developed, and consists of small vesicular dissepiments, and of 
larger masses which stretch across the corallites like tabulae and close in the calicular fossa. 
Height of corallum 6 inches. Breadth of largest calice ^ths inch. 
Locality. Chadbury, Evesham. 
In Mrs. Strickland's Collection. 



Genus — Cyathoccenia. 
1. Cyathoccenia globosa, Duncan, PL XIII, figs. 8, 9. 

The corallum is nearly spherical. 

The calices are numerous, small, and shallow. They are rarely circular, and are 
generally rather polygonal in outline, and they are separated by a small amount of ccenen- 
chyma. There are no costae. 

The septa are stout at the wall and taper off inwardly ; they are subequal, distant, and 
form three more or less perfect cycles in six systems. 

Diameter of the calices J^th inch. 

Locality. Fladbury, in Drift with Gryplma incurva. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 

The shape of the corallum, the absence of costse, and the shallow calices, distinguish 
this species from Oyathocoetiia dendroidea, nobis, C. costata, nobis, and C. incrustans, nobis, 
from Brocastle and the Sutton Stone. 



The following analysis of the genus will enable the diagnosis of the species to be 
determined readily. 



CyathoccenIjE with the corallum 



branching, having costse C. dendroidea. 

encrusting, without costse, coenenchyma granular . C. incrustans. 

flat, having large costae and a deep calice . . C. costata. 

globular, without costse, coenenchyma plain . C. globosa. 



XIV. List of Species from the Zone of Ammonites Bucklandi. 

1. Montlivaltia Guettardi, Blainville. 

2. Septastrcea Eveshami, Duncan. 

3. Lepidopliyllia Stricklandi, 

4. Isastrcsa endothecata, 

5. „ insignis, 

6. „ Stricklandi, 

7. Cyatliocmnia globosa, 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



XV. Corals from the Zone of Ammonites obtusus, Sow. 

Some worn and light-coloured simple Corals of the genus MontUvaliia are found at 
Pebworth, five miles south-west of Stratford-on-Avon, in a bed with AmmonUas Sauzeanus, 
D'Orb., and Ammonites semicosfafus. One of the species [Montlivaltia mucronata, Duncan) 
will be described amongst those of the next zone, in which it is common. The specimens 
are worn, the calices especially, and all the spines are broken off. The coluniellary space 
is occasionally occupied by the prominent ends of the principal septa, the laminae having 
been worn away in their middle course. The longitudinal series of costse are rarely visible, 
and there are many examples of deformed corallites. 



Family— ASTRtEID^. 
Division — Lithophyllace^ simplices. 
Genus — Montlivaltia. 
L Montlivaltia patula, Duncan. PI. XV, figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The corallum is turbinate, depressed, and slightly longer than broad. 

The calice is large, elliptical, very shallow, and open ; its margin is sharp, and the 
wall shelves very gradually inwards, giving to the calice a very open appearance. 

The septa are unequal and numerous, and the largest are very long and dentate ; the 
tooth nearest the axial space points inwards and is romided, and those of the longest 
septa form an irregular circle around the space. The smallest septa are very rudimentary, 
but the next in size have, in common with all the others, an internal oval tooth. All the 
septa are delicate, and they are not crowded. There are five cycles of septa in six 
systems. The primary, secondary, and tertiary are nearly equal in length. The septa are 
not exsert, but all are lower than the calicular margin. 

Length of the calice /jths inch. Breadth ^^ths inch. 

Locality. Walford Hill, Stratford-on-Avon, with Ammonites scniicoslatus and 
Ammonites Sauseanus. In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES RARICOSTATUS. 57 



XVI. Corals from the Zone of Ammonites raricostatus, Ziet. 

The brick-fields in the vicinity of Cheltenham present dark-coloured clay beds, which 
have the foUovifing succession (see Wright, 'Fossil Oolitic Asteriadse,' p. 25). 



Marie Hill Section. 

NO. FT. IN. 

1. Gri/phcea-bed ; a hard, ferruginous clay, which broke into frag- 

ments, and contained GryphcBa obliquata, Sow. . . 3 to 4 

2. Coral-band ; a thin seam of lightish-coloured unctuous clay, 

containing a great many small sessile Corals, Montlivaltia 
rugosa, Wright and Duncan, most of which appeared to 
have been attached to the curved valves of the Gryphasae . 1 in. to \\ 

3. liippopodium-bed . . . . . 10 , 

4. Jmmonite-bed ..... ? 

In Warwickshire the railway-cutting at Honeybourne presented the same beds, and 
the Coral-band contained a considerable number of the Montlivaltia. 

A section on the line of railway at Fenny Compton, in Oxfordshire, near the 
station, presents the following beds in descending order ; the bed No. 2 is highly 
coralliferous.^ 

Fenny Compton Section. 

NO. FT. IN. 

1. White clay, containing Gryphma obliquata {Maccullochii ?), 

G. incurva, Belemnites acutus, Hippopodium ponderosum, Pleu- 

rotomaria similis, &c. . . . .40 

2. Blue clay, with included hard blue calcareous bands, containing 

Corals and the Mollusca mentioned in Bed No. 1 .20 

8. Blue shale . . . 10 

Middle Lias clays and shales, with Ammonites Ilenleyi, are superimposed on 
Bed No. 1 ; and the blue shale (3) rests on a clay with calcareous masses, the " Cardinia- 
zone." 

The Coral-bands at Marie Hill and Honeybourne are upon the same geological 
horizon as bed No. 2 of the Fenny Compton section. These beds contain some of the 
finest specimens of Montlivaltia ever discovered. 

1 The Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.G.S., has given me great assistance, and has furnished me with this 
section. 



58 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

Family— ASTR^IDtE. 

Division — LithophyllacejE simplices. 
Genus — Montli valti a . 

The Monttivaltice from Fenny Compton, Honeybourne, and Cheltenham, belong to 
several species, and two of these are singularly polymoi-phic. Shape has not very much 
to do with the specific diagnosis of some recent simple Corals, and it is necessary to assert 
this in collecting under one fossil species Corals of very diverse external forms. Singularly 
enough, the Liassic MontlivalticB from the Zone of Ammonites raricostatus are common 
and are extraordinarily well preserved, although a few years ago a Liassic Coral was 
excessively rare. Even the ornamentation upon the dentations of the septa is pre- 
served, and the longitudinal striations of the epitheca also. The Fenny Compton 
Coral-bed contains specimens of the species of all sizes, and this is the case with the 
deposits containing the so-called Thecocyatlms rugosus, Wright, at Honeybourne and 
Cheltenham. At Febworth the Fenny Compton species are not found in a dark blue 
matrix, but in a white deposit ; moreover, the specimens are usually worn, and they appear 
to have grown under less favorable conditions than the others. 

Thecocyatlms rugosus is referable to a group of forms specimens of which are very 
common ; it does not belong, however, to the same family that contains the Thecocyatlii. 
Dr. Wright gave the species a name in his MS., but the description and diagnosis have 
never been published. The Corals have been associated so long with the name of Dr. Wright, 
that it is just to append his name to the species. 

1. MoNTLivALTiA RUGOSA, Dunccin and Wright. PI. XIV, figs. 1, 2, 3; PI. XV, 
figs. 14, 16, 17 ; PI. XVI, figs. 5—15. 

Thecocyathus eugosus, Wright, MS. 

The corallum is very variable in its shape ; it may be tall, conico-cylindrical, and curved, 
sub-turbinate and curved, short and cylindrical, short and turbinate and curved, or 
straight. It is pedunculate, and the scar by which it adhered to foreign substances, such 
as shells, is large and oval, or small and very irregular in shape. 

The epitheca is stout and identified with the wall ; it is strongly ridged transversely 
and folded as well as gi-ooved. It is rarely marked by longitudinal lines, and is usually 
deficient in ornamentation. When the epitheca is worn, the external ends of the septa are 
seen like costse, and the oblique external terminations of the endotheca are very apparent, 
sometimes having a herring-bone pattern. Young corallites are often adherent to the 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES RARICOSTATUS. 59 

epitheca, they are therefore not buds, but accidentally attached Corals. When more than 
one Coral is attached to the same shell the bases appear to join. 

The calice is shallow, and its margin is formed by the epitheca, which often intrudes 
upon its periphery ; it is circular or slightly deformed, and it may be either contracted or 
very open. 

The septa are numerous and unequal ; they are irregular in size and in their arrange- 
ment ; they are dentate, and the teeth are regular, rounded above, and ornamented with 
waving lines and are largest near the axial space. The worn septa show their bases in 
the form of oval swellings, and when these are of full size the appearance of a colu- 
mella and pali is simulated. There are four perfect cycles of septa, and the fifth is very 
irregularly developed, the higher orders being often rudimentary. In some large calices 
the fifth cycle is complete. 

The endotheca is strong and well developed, and its dissepiments are numerous, oblique, 
and arched. 

Height of Coral l/gths inch, 2 inches, l^ths inch, ^'sths inch. 

Breadth of calice ^^ths inch, foths inch, ilths inch, i^ths inch. 

Locality. Hippopodium-bed and Coral-bed of Marie Hill, Honeybourne, and Fenny 
Compton. 

In the Collections of the Geological Society, British Museum, Dr. Wright, F.G.S., 
Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., R. Tomes, Esq., and Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S. 

The ornamentation of the teeth of the septa is very well seen in some specimens, but 
usually it is worn ofi" and the teeth also. The Coral, although very polymorphic, is very 
easily distinguished from all others by its septa, epitheca, and base. 

2. MoNTLivALTiA MTJCRONATA, Bmican. PL XIV, figs. 4 — 11 and 14 — 16; PI. XV, 
figs. 10—13. 

The corallum is very variable in shape ; it has a small peduncle, and a small and 
more or less circular flat scar. The corallum is turbinate and symmetrical, and widely 
open at the calice ; or more or less compressed and subturbinate ; or cyHndrical and com- 
pressed. When turbinate and with a circular calice, the calice is singularly shallow ; but 
when cylindrical and compressed, or in the young state, the cahce is deeper. 

The epitheca is strong and rises up with the wall to produce a sharp margin to the 
calice. The transverse markings are very distinct, and there are constricting ridges and 
folds. The longitudinal markings are very distinct, ornamental, and symmetrical ; they 
are in groups which are smallest at the base, where they are most distinct and rounded, 
but they are less distinct at the calice where they are flat. The groups dichotomize, 
so that there are usually 12 at the base and 24 at the calice; they are separated by 
well-marked grooves and consist of bundles of longitudinal epitheca swellings and costse. 

The cahce is either very shallow and circular, or deep and circular, or deep and 



60 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 

elliptical. The septa are strongly spined, and the spines are very large, and are ornamented 
with granules. The largest septa are exsert and largely spined, and the spines near the 
axial space are so distinct from the septa as to simulate a columella. The first, second, 
and third cycles of septa are nearly equal in size, and the rest are much smaller. The 
septa of the fourth cycle are spined, and are larger than those of the fifth cycle. There 
are a few rudimentary septa of the sixth cycle in large specimens. 

The endotheca is abundant. 

Height of the corallum 1 inch, 4,ths inch, ,|ths inch, f'gths inch. 

Breadth of calice l^ths inch, li'^th inch, f^ths inch, ^ths inch. 

Locality. Fenny Compton and Pebworth. 

In the Collection of the British iMuseum, Charles Moore, Esq., F.G.S., R. Tomes, Esq., 
and Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S. 

This beautiful Coral is readily distinguished by its peduncle, longitudinal markings, 
many septa, and ornamented spines ; it is very variable in shape, and some very distinct 
varieties occur, as well as deformed and monstrous shapes. 

Variety I. — With curved peduncles, elHptical calice. PI. XIV, figs. 5 and 15, 16, 17. 

Variety II. — Coral cylindro-conical, tall and compressed. PI. XIV, figs. 14, 18. 
Height of Coral l^^ths inch. 
Breadth of calice ^^ths inch. 
Length of calice ^ths inch. 

Variety III. — Coral conical and wide at the calice. PI. XV, figs. 12, 13, 14. 

Variety IV. — Coral cornute, slightly curved, and the longitudinal markings very in- 
distinct. No transverse corrugations of the epitheca. PI. XV, figs. 10, 11. 

A deformed corallum is figured in PI. XIV, fig. 10. 

The young corallites are often slightly curved, and their septa are very numerous. 
Very probably a Coral with strong transverse markings^ but much worn, and which is 
figured PI. XIV, fig. 11, is a variety. 

3. MoNTLiVALTiA NTJMMiFORMis, Duncan. PI. XIV, figs. 12, 13. 

The corallum is nummiform. The base is perfectly flat, and is covered with epitheca 
strongly marked with concentric lines. 

The epitheca does not extend to the septal edges, and these project out from the peri- 
phery of the base. 

The calice is flat, and has a central depression. 

The septa are numerous, crowded, convex externally, and less so superiorly. The 
larger septa are spined, and the septa of the highest orders are small and rudimentary. 
There are five cycles of septa and a part of a sixth. 



PROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES RARICOSTATUS. 61 

The breadth of the calice is ^^ths inch, and the height foths inch. 

Locality. Penny Compton. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 

The shape and the peculiar base distinguish this species. 



4. MoNTLiVALTiA KADiATA, Duncan. PI. XV, figs. 1 — 5. 

The corallum is small, circular, discoid, and very flat. The wall is almost horizontal, and 
has a central depression. The calicular margin presents radiating septo-costal ends, which 
project. 

The calice is very shallow, circular, and presents four principal septa. 

The septa are unequal. The longest reach into the axial space, and are more exsert 
than the others. There are thirty-six septa, and a few rudimentary laminse. The quater- 
nary arrangement is obvious. The septa are stout, straight, and granular. 

The costse are very distinct, and are covered with a pellicular endotheca, which presents 
transverse ridges between the costse. No dissepiments can be discovered. 

The diameter of the corallum is i^ths inch, the height ~th inch. 

Locality. Penny Compton. 

In the Collection of R. Tomes, Esq. 

This is a very abnormal species, and retains the quadrate septal arrangement which 
is faintly preserved in many Liassic Corals, but which is so characteristic of many Palaeozoic 
forms. The pellicular epitheca is very remarkable. 



XVII. — List of Species from the Zone of Ammonites raricostatus. 

Montlivaltia rugosa, Wright, and many varieties. 

— mucronata, Duncan, and many varieties. 

— nummiformis, „ 

— radiata, „ 



XVIIL List of Species from the Zones of the Lower Lias above the Zone ov 

Ammonites angulatus. 

1. Montlivaltia Guettardi, Blainville. 

2. — patula, Duncan. 

3. — rugosa, Wright, sp. 

4. - — mucronata, Duncam 

5. — nummiformis, „ 



Crl BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

6. Montlivaltia radiata, Duncan. 

7. Sepfasfrcea Eveshami, 

8. LepidopliijlUa Stricklandi, 

9. Isastraa endothecata, 
10. — insignis, 
1 L — StricMandi, 
12. Ci/athocamia globosa. 



CORALS FROM THE MIDDLE LIAS. 

XIX. Corals from the Zone of Ammonites Jamesoni, Sow. 

Dr. Wriglit notices that this zone is well developed in the Island of Pabba, near Skye, 
in the Hebrides, and the remarkable Coral about to be described appears to form a bed 
there of some extent.^ 

Family— ASTRtEACE^ . 
Genus — Lepidoph ylli a . 
1. Lepidophvllia Hebridensis, Duncan. PI. XVI, figs. 1—4. 

The corallum is flat, and the corallites are short. 

The calices vary in size and number; they are open and shallow, and ai'e crowded with 
delicate, unequal, and not prominent septa. 

The septal arrangement is very irregular. The laminae are dentate and narrow, 
and the largest approach the axial space. In calices of ordinary size there are four 
cycles of septa, and part of a fifth in some systems, whilst in the largest calices the fifth 
cycle is complete. 

The epitheca on the free wall of the corallites, where they overlap those below them in 
the general imbrication, is smooth. The calicular gemmation occurs centrally, and also 
near the margin. 

Height of the corallum /gths inch. 

Breadth of the calices ^ths — /^ths inch. 

Locality. Pabba shale. 

1 n the Collection of the School of Mines, Jermyn Street. 

' See note 1, page 41, Part IV, No. 1. 



FROM THE ZONE OE AMMONITES HENLEYI. 63 



XX. COEALS FROM THE ZoNE OF AMMONITES HeNLEYI, SoW. 

A great number of specimens of all sizes of a very polymorphic Montlivaltia have been 
found on the surface of the fields at Cherrington, near Skipton, and in a water-course or 
ditch section of the Middle Lias close by. Ammonites Henleyi, Ammonites Chiltensis, Car- 
dinia attenuata, and Cardinia elongata, were found with the Corals. 



Family— ASTR^ID^. 

Division LiTHOPHYLLACEiE SIMPLICES. 

Genus — Montlivaltia. 
1. Montlivaltia Victoria, Duncan. PI. XVII, figs. 1 — 10. 

The corallum grows to a great size, and generally presents a scar where it was 
formerly attached. The shape of the corallum is very variable, and it may be short, 
turbinate or sub-turbinate, or long and conical, or rudely cylindrical. The corallum is 
rarely straight, and generally there is a very decided curve in it and a twist also ; more- 
over, there is frequently a constriction just below the calice, and at this point also there is 
generally a curve. 

The calice is either widely open or contracted and small ; it is never very deep, but 
may be characterised either by exsert and rounded septa or by septa which dip at once 
into a concave fossa. The outline of the calice is usually circular, and slightly compressed. 
The margin is sharp and is formed by the epitheca. 

The septa are numerous, crowded, long, and the principal often extend to and across 
the axial space, which is rather elongated. 

The laminse are not much thicker at the wall than elsewhere, and the dentation is 
more distinct close to the wall. 

There are six cycles of septa, in six systems, the highest orders being very small. 

The epitheca is very dense and is strongly marked with transverse elevations and de- 
pressions ; where it is worn away, the septal ends are seen, like costaB with transverse dis- 
sepiments connecting them. The wall is very thin, and appears to be identified with the 
epitheca. 

The endotheca is very abundant, thick, curved, and branching. 

Height of various specimens 5 inches. Smiths inches, S/cths inches. Breadth of speci- 
mens 2 inches, 2T5ths inches, 2 inches. 

Locality. Cherrington, Skipton-on-Stour. 



64 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS 



In the Collections of the Geological Society, British Museum, Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S., 
R. Tomes, Esq., &c. 

This is the largest simple Coral of the British Fossil Coral-fauna, and is readily distin- 
guished. Its variability of shape almost equals that of MontUvaltia rugosu, Wright. 

There are some fragmentary Corals in the Marlstone, but their genera are doubtful ; 
and the cast of a MontUvaltia was found by Mr. Charles Moore at Wells, but I cannot de- 
termine the species. 

The Corals from the Middle Lias are — 

1. LepidophyUia Hebridensis, Duncan. 

2. Montlivaltia Victoria;, ,, 

XXI. Total number of Species of Madreporaria which can be distinguished 
IN THE Lias of the British Islands. 



In the zone 


of Am 


monites p)lanorhis . 


2 






— ancjulutus . . 


50 






— BucJclandi . 


7 






— obtusus . 


1 






— raricostatus . 


4 






— Jamesoni . . , 


1 






— Henleyi . . . 


I 



66 
From the Upper Lias described by MM. 
Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime^ ... 1 



Total 



67 



Lower Lias . . 


. 64 


Middle Lias . 


. 2 


Upper Lias . . 


. 1 



Total 



67 



' See page 65. 

Some are common to this and the next zone. 
' ' Brit. Foss. Corals,' Pal. See, 



PROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES PLANORBIS. 65 

XXII. Corals from the Zone of Ammonites planorbis.^ 
Division — Astr^acejE. 
Genus — Isastr^a. 
1. IsASTRiEA latim^androidea, Duncan. PI. XV, figs. 18, 19. 

The corallum is massive, and lias an angular and rather gibbous upper surface. 

The corallites are long, and their united walls are thick. 

The calices are very irregular in shape, and although some are small and polygonal, 
others are more like the serial calices of the genus Latimeeandra. The calices are deep, 
and gemmation takes place quite on the margin. 

The septa are numerous, very unequal, and there is a very small septum betvpeen the 
larger. The larger septa are very dentate, and the tooth near the axial space is very 
distinct, especially in the long calices. The larger septa are not very unequal, do not 
project much into the calice, and the axial space is left very free^ but is closed by 
endotheca. The existence of the small rudimentary septa makes the septal number very 
irregular, and the long serial calices contain very variable numbers of septa. 

The endotheca is strongly developed, is vesicular, and closes in the corallites. 

Diameter of ordinary calices ^ths inch to ^ths inch. 

Diameter of serial calices i^ths inch. Length of serial calices j^gths — ^ths inch. 

Locality. " No. 3^' bed in the Street section. 

In the Collection of Dr. Wright, F.G.S. 

This is a most remarkable species, and the existence of serial calices with an abundant 
marginal gemmation is very suggestive. It renders the genus Latimeeandra of rather 
doubtful value. The new species is readily distinguished by the calices and the dentate 



It is erroneously named Isastrcea Murchisoni by some collectors. 
The locality whence the specimen was derived is the same which yielded Septastraa 
Haimei, Wright, sp. 

Genus — Thecosmilia. 

Some small stunted Corals have been found in the " Guinea bed" at Binton, in Worces- 
tershire. Only one specimen is fairly preserved, and its calice is so like that of Thecosmilia 
Terquetni, Duncan, from Brocastle, that it must be referred to that species. 

1 The specimens from the Zone of Ammonites planorhis were not forwarded for description until after 
the first part of this Monograph was finished. 



66 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 




Fig. 1. T/tecosmitia Terguemi, from tlie " Guinea Bed" at Biaton. 

The drawing of Thecosmilia Terquemi (PI. Ill, fig. II) greatly resembles the form 
from Binton, fig. 1, in the large septum which passes across the calice. 

There are small Corals, probably Thecosmilice,m the " Guinea bed," at Wilmcote, but, 
as may be decided from the accompanying drawing, fig. 2, they are not determinable 
specifically. 




Fig. 2. Thecosmilia, from the " Guinea Bed " at Wilmcote. 



XXIII. List of Corals from the Zone of Ammonites planorbis. 

1. Septastrcea Haimei, Wright, sp. 

2. IsastrcBa latimcBandroidea, Duncan. 

3. Thecosmilia Terquemi, „ 



XXIV. Corals from the Zone of Avicdla contorta and the White Lias. 
(The Rhajtic series, Moore.) 

It has been noticed that but one fossil which could be referred to a Coral has been 
discovered in the Zone of Avicula contorta in England. The specimen is said to belong 
to the genus Montlivaltia, and to have a high septal number. The deposits containing 



PROM THE WHITE LIAS. 67 

Avicula contorta iu England, Wales, and Ireland, are not of that character in which Corals 
would be usually found ; but the Azzarola beds of Lombardy are, as has been already 
noticed, highly coralliferous. '^\\e, Montlivaltia from the British y^yica/a contorta series is, 
however, of some importance as a species, for it is the oldest Secondary form, there being 
no Madreporaria between it and the Carboniferous fauna except the few species of the 
Permian. 

The White Lias, which was deposited under very different conditions to the Avicula 
contorta series, contains two genera of Corals, but the species are indeterminable, on account 
of the specimens being either in the form of casts or so altered by a destructive mineraliza- 
tion as only to present sections of their septa and part of the epithecal covering. 

The White Lias of Watchet contains Montlivaltite and stunted conico-cylindrical 
T/iecosmilicB. A species of this last genus has its wall and epitheca very well shown (fig. 3). 




Fig. 3. Thecosmilia, from the White Lias of Watchet. 



No Thecosmiha from the White Lias can be determined to belong to the species 
Michelini or Martini, but there is a cast of a Coral in the White Lias of Sparkfield which 
has some resemblance to casts of Thecosmilia Terquemi, Duncan. 




Fig. 4. Cast of a Thecosmilia, from the White Lias of Sparkfield. 



Several specimens, probably, of MontlivaUi(S, from the White Lias of Warwickshire, 
are only distinguishable by the radiating septal laminse (fig. 5). 



68 



BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 




Fig. o. Montlivaltia, from the White Lias of Warwickshire. 

There is a great Montlivaltia in the Leamington beds, which is elliptical and ver}- 
large at the calice. It is only found in the form of casts, one of which is here figured. 




6. Cast of a Montlivaltia from Leamington. 



A cast of a multiseptate discoidal Montlivaltia is found at Punt Hill, Warwickshire, 
and I beUeve it to belong either to Montlivaltia Haimei, Chapuis et Dewalque, or to one 
of its varieties which have been noticed in the part No. 1 of this description of the 
Corals of the Lias. It is figured below. 




Fig. 7. Montlivaltia, from Punt Hill, Warwickshire. 

The great vertical range of this Montlivaltia has already been noticed. When the 
local nature of the White Lias is appreciated, and it is acknowledged as " a passage-bed" 
between the Zone of Avicula contorta and the beds containing Ammonites planorbis, the 
discovery of these Corals, which in the East of France and in Luxembourg are found in 
the Ammonites planorbis series, and in that of Ammonites angulatus, will not be exceptional. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 69 

XXV. APPENDIX. 

Note on the Age op the Sutton Stone and Brocastle, &c., Deposits. 

A long and very elaborate essay, by Mr. Charles Moore, F.G.S., has been read before 
the Geological Society, and published in the ' Quarterly Journal' of that society, with the 
title, " On Abnormal Conditions of Secondary Deposits when connected with the Somerset- 
shire and South Wales Coal-Basin, and on the Age of the Satton and Southerndown 
Series," whicli suggests that it is more or less controversial; but although this is the case, 
still it has great intrinsic merits. 

Mr. Bristow, F.R.S., read a paper before the Geological Society, which appeared in 
its ' Quarterly Journal,' " On the Lower Lias or Lias-conglomerate of a part of Glamorgan- 
shire." Like Mr. Charles Moore's communication, it is very valuable, besides being con- 
troversial. Lately also Mr. R. Tate, F.G.S., in his essay "On the Fossiliferous Develop- 
ment of the Zone of Ammonites angulatus, Schlot., in Great Britain," has produced a palseon- 
tological criticism which refers in one part to the "abnormal deposits" and "the Lias- 
conglomerate." 

Each of these essays refers to the characters and to the age of the Sutton Stone, whose 
Madreporaria have been described in this Part. Mr. Bristow considers the Southerndown 
series of Mr. Tawney^ to be a portion of the Sutton Stone or " Lias-conglomerate," and 
asserts that Mr. Tawney has made a great error in his section of the sea face of the deposit 
by giving it too great an elevation. Mr. Bristow also considers the Sutton Stone to be 
Lower Lias, and that the usual Gryphma incurva occurring in abundance renders his 
opinion incontrovertible. Mr. Moore, on the contrary, admits the correctness of Mr. 
Tawney 's section, but considers that insufficient altitude has been given. He considers 
that, as Ostrea Liassica {0. irregularis) occurs high up in the series as a " zone," and as 
Ammonites planorbis is wanting, the Sutton Stone is in the " Ostrea division" of the 
Ammonites planorbis Zone. Mr. Moore places the Brocastle deposit in the Ostrea 
series. He insists upon the presence of Gryphaa incurva in the Sutton Stone and in 
the deposit at Brocastle " in abundance," and localizes the deposits in the Lower Lias.^ 

Mr. Tate proves what I had already demonstrated^ — that Mr. Tawney placed the 
Sutton Stone too low down in the geological scale ; and, after a survey of the beds above 
the White Lias in Ireland and England, he considers that the Ammonites planorbis Zone is 

' Tawney, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xxii, p. 91. 

2 A palseontological combination of the forms of the lower part of the Zone of Ammonites planorbis 
with Gryphcea incurva would indeed be incredible. 

3 P. Martin Duncan, 'Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,' Feb., 1867 ; and in the 1st No. of this Part. 

10 



70 BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 

so mixed up with that of the Ainvionifes angulatus that it had better disappear from 
liritish geology. 

Mr. Tate, however, supports indirectly the geological position I have given, from the 
study of the Madreporaria, to the Sutton Stone and Brocastle deposits. 

I agree with Mr. Bristow, or rather he agrees with me, as I was first in the field, that 
the Sutton Stone is what is usually called Lower Lias ■} but I dispute the possibility of 
associating the Sutton Stone, Brocastle, and other equivalent deposits, including, of 
course, the Coral-bed of Cowbridge, with the strata composing the Ammonites BucMandi 
Zone in the same division of a great formation. 

The word " Infra-Lias, " which refers to the deposits below the Ammonites BucJdandi 
series, does not assume separation from the Lias, and, although Low, Lower, and Lowest 
will apply to some places, it would rather confuse a geological series. 

To combine in one division of the Lias, under the term Lower, such zones as those of 
Ammonites raricostatus and Ammonites planorbis is to associate widely different faunae. 
There are many species which have a great range in this division of the Lias, but there is 
a clear palseontological distinction to be drawn in the British Isles, in France, Luxem- 
bourg, and in Germany, between the faunae of the Zone of Ammonites Buckkmdi and of 
those below. 

Ostrea irregularis {0. Liassica) is a shell so widely distributed, and has so great a 
vertical range, that it is of no value in fixing a geological horizon. It must be considered 
in relaton to the fauna associated with it ; and the forms found in the Sutton Stone in 
company with this variable Oyster are not those which elsewhere characterise the Ostrea 
beds of the A. planorbis Zone. 

I have examined the Gryplicece, and do not consider them typical incurvm. The cha- 
racters of the Molluscan and Madreporarian fauna which I have already pointed out, and 
the affinities and grouping of the species, induce me to retain my opinion that the Sutton 
Stone, the Brocastle, Ewenny, and Cowbridge deposits are on one geological horizon, and 
still to assert that they are the equivalents of the French and Luxembourgian Zones of 
Ammonites angidatus. 

The deposits have a different Coral-fauna to the corresponding beds in the east of 
England, where simple Montlwaltice indicate different external conditions, but not a 
difference in time. 

Corals from the Upper Lias. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Ilaime described Thecocyathus Moorei, Ed. and H., 
from tlie Upper Lias of Ilminster. Mr. Charles Moore has sent me specimens from Lans- 
down, near Bath. The same excellent collector has a fossil, probably a Sponge, with 

' Sir Henry de la Beche was the first to prouounce the Sutton Stone to belong to the Lower Lias. 



FROM THE ZONE OF AMMONITES ANGULATUS. 71 

markings upon it like those of a cast of the calice of a Coral ; it is from Ilminster. 
Trochocyatlms primus, Ed. and H., is too doubtful a species to be admitted into the 
Liassic Coral-fauna at present. 

I have to acknowledge with many thanks the great assistance I have received in 
completing this Monograph of the Corals of the Lias from Mr. H. Woodward, of the 
British Museum, Mr. R. Etheridge, of the School of Mines, and Mr. R. Tomes, besides 
those gentlemen whose collections have been placed at my sei'vice. (See Preface to 
Part IV, No. 1.) 



ERRATUM. 

In the Preface to Part IV, No. 1, " Trochoajathus Moorei, Ed. and H.," should be " Thecocyathus 
Moorei, Ed. and H." 



INDEX OF THE SPECIES, ETC. 

DESCEIBED AND NOTICED IN 

Part IV, No. 1 and No. 2, 
CORALS FROM THE LIAS. 



Astroccenia costata 

dendroidea 

favoidea 

gibbosa 

insignis 

minuta 

parasitica 

pedunculata 

plana 

reptans 

Sinemuriensis 

superba 

Astrocoenise, notes on the 
,, scheme of the 

Cyathocoenia costata 

,, dendroidea 



Elysastraja Fischeri 
„ Moorei 

Isastraea Condeana 
endotUecata 
globosa 
insignis 
latimteandroid 
Murchisoni 
Sinemuriensis 
Stricklandi 
Tomesii 



PAOES 

21,50. 


Latimseandra denticulata 


PAGES 

32, 43, 50. 


22, 50. 
21,50. 


Lepidophyllia, genus of . 
Hebridensis 


41, 53. 
62, 64. 


18, 48, 50. 


Stricklandi 


53, 55, 62. 


19, 50. 
22, 50. 


Montlivaltia brevis 


10,49. 


20, 50. 
20, 50. 


dentata 
„ denticulata 


48,49. 
48,49. 


19,50. 
20, 50. 

22,33,34,49,50. 
21,50. 


,, discoidea 
„ Gastaldi 
„ Guettardi . 
„ Haimei 


48,50. 
48. 

48,50,51,55,61 
35, 40, 48, 49. 


26. 


,, Hibernica . 


39, 40, 49. 


23. 


„ Martini 


48,49. 




mucronata . 


59, 61. 


29, 50. 


„ Murchisonise 


8,49. 


27, 50. 


„ nummiformis 


60, 61. 


55,62. 


„ papillata 


36, 38,40,49. 


28, 50. 


„ parasitica . 


9,49. 


29, 50. 


„ patula 

„ pedunculata 


56,61. 
10,49. 


30, 50. 


„ polymorpha 


8,33,48,49. 




,, radiata 


61,62. 


49,51. 


„ Rhodana 


48,49. 


53, 55, 62. 
31, 48,51. 

54, 55, 62. 


„ rugosa 
„ Ruperti 
„ simplex 


57, 58, 61. 
46, 49. 
9,49. 


65, 66. 
41,47, 51. 
30, 33, 34, 51. 
54, 55, 62. 


„ Sinemuriensis 

Wallise 
,, Victories 


. 48,49. 

7,49. 

63, 64. 


46,51. 


Oppelismilia gemmans . 


39,40, 41, 49. 



INDEX OF THE SPECIES. 



73 





PAOES 




PAftES 


Rhabdophyllia De-Filippi . 


48. 


Thecocyathus Moorei . 


i, 71. 


Langobardica 


47, 48. 


„ rugosus . 


. 57,58,61. 


„ Menighini 


48. 


Thecosmilia affinis 


. 16, 42, 50. 


„ recondita 


17, 42, 50. 


,, Brodiei 


. 13, 42, 50. 


Sellse . 


48. 


coronata . 


. 48, 50. 






„ dentata 


. 16, 42, 50. 


Septastrsea Eveshami 


52, 55, 62. 


„ irregularis . 


. 15, 42, 50. 


„ excavata 


32, 33, 49, 50. 


„ Martini 


. 14,33,45,48,50 


,, Fromenteli . 


37, 40, 48, 50. 




51. 


„ Haimei 


.5, 6, 66. 


Michelini . 


. 14,33,45,48,50, 


Stylastrsea Martini 


49, 50. 




51. 


„ Sinemuriensis 


49, 50. 


„ mirabilis 


. 12, 42, 50. 


Stylina Savii 


48. 


plana 


. 17,42,50. 






rugosa 


. 13, 50. 


Thamnastraea Batarrae . 


48. 


„ serialis 


. 12,42,50. 


„ Escheri . 


48. 


„ Suttonensis 


. 11,42,50. 


,, Meriaui . 


48. 


,, Terquemi . 


. 16,42,50,65,66. 


„ rectilamellosa 


48. 


Trochocyathus primus . 


. 71. 



11 



PLATE I. 

LIASSIC CORALS FROM STREET AND BROCASTLE. 

Fig. 

1. Septastrcea Haimei, Wright, sp. (P. 5.) 

i. The base of the coralluni. 

3. Calices, magnified. 

4. Fissiparous calice, magnified. 

5. Septa, magnified. 

6. Septastrcea excavata, E. de From. (P. 32.) A calice, magnified. 

7. The usual appearance of longitudinal sections in the Brocastle beds, magnified. 



Pll 




«" 1.''' A*' '*«:■* M'*i I' 



LIAS Sir, r,0RAT,.s 



PLATE 11. 

LTASSIC CORALS FROM THE SUTTON STONE. 

TJiecosmilia ritgosa, Laube. (P. 13.) 

Its calice, magnified. 

A fissiparoiis calice, magnified. 

A corallite, magnified. 

Part of the wall, some septa, and some dissepiments, magnified. 

A deformed corallite. 

Rhahdopht/llia recondita, Laube. (P. 17.) 

Part of its transverse section, highly magnified, to show the septal arrangement. 

The costse, magnified. The corallite has Astrocoenia 2Jarasitica upon it. 

ThecosmUia mirabilis, Duncan. (P. 12.) 

A caKce, highly magnified. 

Montlwaltia pedmiculata, Duncan. (P. 10.) 

Its costse and epitheca, magnified. 

) Peduncles of ThecosmilicB. 




Jvr,^K.H3iiiia.pt:,,ii"Qp 



LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE III. 



MASSIC CORALS FROM BROCASTLE. 



Fig. 

1. TJiecosmilia irregularis, Duncan. (P. 15.) 

2. Its upper surface, magnified. 

3. Its epitheca, calices, and base, magnified. 

4. A circular calice, magnified. 

5. Septa (upper margin), magnified. 

6. Side view of a septum, with terminal tooth. 

7. Thecosmilia Terqiieuii, Duncan. (P. 16.) 

y. Its base, magnified ; the epitheca has been worn, and the costae are seen with 

dissepiments. 

9. Its upper surface, magnified, 

;»•} Its calices. ,„agnffled. 

12. A side view of a septum, magnified. 

13. Ky&x'ieij oi Thecosmilia irrec/ularis,T)wncwi. (P. 15.) 

14. Its calice, magnified. 

15. A side view of a septum, magnified. 

16. MontlivaUia simplex, Duncan. (P. 9.) 

17. Its calice, magnified. 

18. Thecosmilia affinis, Duncan. (P. 16.) 

19. A calice, magnified. 

20. A side view of a septum, magnified. 

21. Thecosmilia dentata, JinncdiW. (P. 16.) 

22. Its calice, magnified. 

23. A septum, magnified. 

24. Thecosmilia plana, Duncan. (P. 17.) 

25. Part of its calice, magnified. 



Pl.lU 




lie Wilde ,Wh 



LIAS SIC CORALS 



PLATE IV. 

LIASSIC CORALS FROM THE SUTTON STONE. 

Fig. 

1. Ct/at/ioccenia incrusians, Duncan. (P. 28.) 

2. Some calices, magnified. 

3. Casts oi Astroccenia ffidbosa, Dimcan. (P. 18.) 

4. Astroccenia re^tans, Duncan. (P. 20.) 

' [ Its calices, magnified. 

6. Calices altered by fossilization, magnified. 

7. T/iecosmilia Suttonensis, Duncan. (P. 11.) 

8. Side view of the corallum. 

9. A calice, magnified. 

10. Tliecosmilia serialis, Duncan. (P. 12.) 

11. Upper surface of the corallum. 

12. A serial calice, magnified. 

13. Montlivaltia parasitica, Duncan. (P. 9.) 

14. Its calice, magnified. 



■hiX^" 



#' 



•^r^, 




WL 






iifc^p*' 



'm¥ 



<im^i 



^lv,^-^>..-^ 



# 



^iC, 









"^ft.'ii 








ȴtJ 



%. 



ir 



%;! 



)e Wilde Wh 



M & K Hanlurb imp 



LIASSIC CORALS. 



PLATE V. 

LIASSIC CORALS FROM THE SUTTON STONE AND BR0CAST1.E. 
Fig. 
1. Jstrocoenia plana, Duncan. (P. 19). The corallum, natural size. 
~. Astrocoenia ffibbosa, Duncan. (P. 18.) A corallum, with much ccenenchyma. 

3. A corallum somewhat worn. 

4. The usual appearance of the Coral in the Sutton Stone ; all the calices have been 

worn away, and it requires some trouble to distinguish the fossil. 
12. A section at right angles to the corallites, highly magnified. The columella, the 
faint lateral dentations of the septa, and the round ornamentation betAveen the 
costal ends are shown. 

5. Astrocoeiiia parasitica, Duncan. (P. 20.) 

6. The same, magnified. The Coral is parasitic on Bhabdophyllia recondita. , 

7. Astrocosnia peduncidata, Duncan. (P. 20.) The corallum, magnified. 

8. The corallum, natural size. 

9. A view of the peduncle and base, magnified. 

10. Cyathoccenia costata, Duncan. (P. 39.) The corallum, natural size. 

11. Some calices, magnified. 



PIV 




Ds. "Wilde liLh 



M&KOiflaihar't I 



LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE VI. 



LIASSIC CORALS FROM THE SUTTON STONK AND BROCASTLE. 



Fig. 

1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
14. 
13. 
15. 



Astrocoenia (/ibbona, Duncan. (P. 18.) Some calices, magnified, showing a very 

usual state of preservation . 
A worn calice, magnified. 
A side view of worn calices, showing the dense intermediate tissue, and faint 

traces of endotheca, magnified. 
A side view of a cahce, magnified. 
ElysastrcEa Fischeri, Laube. (P. 29.) A transverse section of part of the coral- 

lum, slightly magnified. 
A transverse section showing some coralhtes not united by their walls. 
The septa of neighbouring calices, the walls being united, magnified. 
Corallites which are separate, and covered with epitheca, magnified. 
This is a diagram, and shows the plan of the genus. 
Eli/sastnea Moorei, DnncavL. (P. 30.) Upper surface of corallum. 
A calice, magnified. 



United calices, magnified. 

A corallite, showing costae, the epitheca having been worn ofi 



Pl.VL 




Be.Wjlde.lith- 



M ftW-Hanhar-t,! 



LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE VII. 



LIASSIC CORALS FROM BKOCASTLK. 



Fig. 

1. Isastroea Sinemuriensis, E. de From. (P. 30.) 

2. The upper part of its corallum. 

3. The cahces slightly magnified to show the marginal gemmation. 

4. Another view. 

5.] 

P r Cahces, magnified. 

7. Septa, magnified. 

8. A corallum with larger calices than is usual. 

9. Calices, magnified. 

10. Thecosmilia Michelini, Terquem et Piette. (P. 14.) A large variety. 

11. Its calice. 

12. A corallum bifurcating. 

13. Its calice, magnified. 

14. Monflivaltia polymorpha, Terquem et Piette. (1^ S.) A fractured corallum. 
lo. A transverse section, magnified. 




LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE VIII. 

LIASSIC CORALS FROM THE SUTTON STONE AND FROM BROCaSTLE. 

Fig. 

1. Montlivaltia polpiior2)Iia, Terquem et Piette. (P. 8.) A long and large spechiieii. 

2. A part of its transverse section, magnified. 

3. Exothecal and endothecal dissepiments, costae, and septa, magnified. 

4. A smaller corallum. 

13. Two corallites springing from a common base. 

14. Septa of a young corallite, magnified. 

15. Costae and exotlieca of a young corallite, magnified. (See also PI. VI 1, figs. 14 

and 15.) 

5. Montlivaltia Wallice, Duncan. (P. 7.) A corallum in the rock. 

6. A calice, slightly magnified. 

7. A side view of a septum, magnified. 

8. Montlivaltia brevis, Duncan. (P. 10.) A corallum on the rock. 

9. A calice, magnified. 

10. Montlivaltia Murchisonia. (P. 8.) A corallum. 

1 1 . A part of the calice, magnified. 

1.3. The peculiar costal arrangement and septa, magnified. 

16. Montlivaltia peduuculata, Duncan. (P. 10.) A corallum. 

17. Isastrcea glohosa, Duncan. (P. 31.) A corallum, the calices are worn. 

18. Calices, magnified. 



PIVTIT. 




DeWiWe liUi 



M&N Heuntwli 



1 I A Q Q Tr. rn"D A i a 



PLATE IX. 



LIASSIC CORALS FROM BROCASTLE. 



Fig. 

1. Asfroccenia insi^nis, Duncan. (P. 19.) Acoralluui. 

2. Calices, magnified. 

3. Asfrocoenia superda, Y>nncan. (P. 21.) Part of a coralluin. 

4. A calice, magnified. 

5. A side view of a calice, magnified. 

6. Cyatlioccenia dendroidea, Duncan. (P. 27.) A coralluin. 

7. A calice, magnified. 

8. A calice, magnified ; a side view. 

9. A transverse section of a stem, showing the concavities produced by tlie calices and 

the intermediate coenencliyma. 

10. Asiroccetiia dendroidea, Duncan. (P. 22.) A part of a corallum. 

11. A calice, magnified. 

12. Adroccenia favoidea, Duncan. (P. 21.) A corallum. 

13. Calices, magnified. 

14. A side view of a calice, magnified. 

15. Astrocmnia costata, Duncan. (P. 21.) A corallum, 

16. Calices, magnified. 

17. A corallum. 

18. Astrocmnia minuta, Duncan. (P. 22.) A corallum. 

19. A calice, magnified. 

20. A side view of a calice, magnified. 



PI. IX. 




T rA.^.sir, r.f^RAT.c, 



PLATE X. 

CORALS FROM BROCASTLE ; MARTON, NEAR GAINSBOROUGH ; NEWARK, IN NOTTINGHAMSHIRE ; 
AND FROM THE NORTH OF IRELAND. 

Fig. 

1. Thecosmilia Brodiei, Yiuwc&w. (P. 13.) The upper part of a corallite, natural size. 

2. The calice, magnified. 

3. A side view of a septum, magnified. 

4. A septum seen from above, magnified. 

5. Some corallites of Thecosmilia irregularis, Duncan. (P. 15.) Showing tlie gemmation from 

the calicular edge, and the rough and ridged epitheca. 

6. A corallite of Thecosmilia Martini, E. de From. (P. 14.) 
7 and 8. Views of its transverse section and calice, magnified. 

9. Corallites, with strong epitheca. 

10. A section of a cast of Thecosmilia Michelini, Terquem. (P. 14.) From Cowbridge, magnified. 

1 1. The calicular end of a corallite. 

12. The calice, magnified. 

13. A corallite, showing the rounded ridges of the epitheca. 

14. A calice. 

1.5. The upper surface of Montlivaltia papillata, Duncan. (P. 36. ~1 

16. A side view of the calice. 

17. Septal dentations, magnified. 

18. The base of the corallum. 

19. Montlivalfia jMpillata, J)v.nca.n, \ahetY. (P. 37.) Its calice. 

20. Tiie side of the calice. 

21. The septa seen from above, magnified. 

22. Montlivaltia Hibernica, Duncan. (P. 39.) Its calice. 

23. The septa seen from above, magnified. 

24. Montlivaltia Ilaimei, ChuTpws etBe-walque. (P. 3.5.) The Irish form. View of the calice. 

25. The septa seen from above, magnified. 

26. A variety of Montlivaltia Haimei. The calice. 
27 and 28. Views of the corallum. 

29. A variety of Montlivaltia Haimei. The calice. 

30. The side view of the corallum. 
31 and 32. Unusual shapes of the corallum. 

33. Oppelismilia gemmans, Duncan. (P. 39.) The calicular surface, showing calicular gem- 

mation. 

34. The side view of the corallum. 



PI, X, 




M * F. Ha^nhaft imp 



LIAS SIC CORALS 



PLATE XI. 

LIASSIC CORALS FROM LUSSAY, IN SKYE, AND MARTON, NEAR GAINSBOROUGH. 

Fig. 

1. Isastraea Murchisoni, Wright. (P. 41.) 

2. Calices, magnified. 

3. A calice, magnified. 

4. A septum, magnified. 

.5. Septastraa Fromenteli, Terquem et Piette. (P. .37.) Some fissiparous calices, 
slightly magnified. 



PI xr 




IJE WII.DE ilTH. 



LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE XII. 

CORALS FROM THE LOWER LIAS. 
Via. 

1. Thecosmilia Martini, E. de Froraentel. (P. 45.) 

2. Part of its epitlieca magnified. 

3. Monflivaltia Riiperti, Duncan. (P. 4G.) 

4. Its calice. 

5. The calice, magnified. 

6. A young specimen oi Montlivaltia Guettardi, Blainville. fP. 51.) 

7. The calice, magnified. 

'"■) 

11.- A full-grown specimen. (P. 51.) 
12.) 

13. Its calice, magnified. 

14. The septa, magnified. 

S. The calicular surface of a young Thecosmilia Martini. 

9. The same, magnified. 

15. Lepidopliyllia Stricklandi, Duncan. (P. 53.) 

16. A cast of Thecosmilia Michelini, Terquem. (P. 51.) 

17. Part of the corallum of Isastraa endothecata, Duncan. (P. 53.) 

18. A regular calice, magnified. 

19. A side view of a magnified calice, showing the endotheca in the calice. 

20. Oblique view of some cahces, magnified. 

21. Endothecal dissepiments connecting the septa, magnified. 



PI All 




I'linS Uarfnajjt imp 



i.iAftfifr, rnRATiS 



PLATE XIII. 

CORALS FROM THE LOWER LIAS. 

Fig. 

1. The corallum of Imstraa Stricklandi, Duncan. (P. 54.) 

2. A calice, magnified. 

3. The dentations of a septum, magnified. 

4. The strong dissepimental endotheca, magnified. 

5. Part of the coralhim of Sepfastnea JSveshatni, Duncan. (P. 52.) 
0. A calice, magnified. 

7. An irregular and contorted calice, magnified. 

8. The corallum of Cyathocoenia glohom, Duncan. (P. 55.) 

9. Calices of Cyathocmnia globosa, magnified. 

10. Part of the corallum oi Isastrcea wMvyw/s, Duncan. (P. 54.) 

11. A system of four cycles of septa, magnified. 



PI. XIII 




De Wiiac liHi 



M <5- W Hsoihart. imp 



LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE XIV. 



CORALS I'ROM THE LOWER LIAS. 



Fig. 

1 . A calice of MontlivaUia rugosa, Wright, magnified. (Pp. 58.) 

2. An oblique view of some dentate septa of the same species, magnified. 

3. A portion of a worn caUce, magnified, showing the irregular septal aiTangement of 

some specimens of this species. 

4. A young specimen of Monilivaltia mucronata, Duncan. (Pp. 59.) 

5. A variety oi MontlivaUia mucronata. 

6. One of its septa, magnified, showing the mucronate processes and the granular 

ornamentation. 

7. One of the processes, magnified. 

8. A side view of the corallum of a full-grown individual, rather enlarged. 

9. A calice of a full-grown MontlivaUia mucronata, magnified. (Pp. 59.) 

10. A deformed specimen of a variety of MontlivaUia mucronata. 

11 . A conical variety of MontlivaUia mucronata. 

14. A variety oi MontlivaUia mucronata, with a deeper calice than the type. 

15. The calice, magnified. 

1 6. One of its septa, magnified. 

17. A process, magnified. 

lb. A variety oi MontlivaUia mucronata. 

12. The corallum of i1/b??^//wa/i;m «M/«wj/bra/M-, Duncan. (P. GO.) 

13. The basal epitheca and projecting septa, magnified. 



PI. XIV. 




UeWndc UU-T 



LIASSIC CORAIiS 



PLATE XV. 

CORALS FROM THE LOWER LIAS. 

Fig. 

1. The upper calicular surface oi Montlivaltia radiata, Duncan. (P. 61.) 

2. The under surface. 

3. A side view of the corallum, showing the central depression of the base. 

4. The calice, magnified, showing the quaternary arrangement of the septa. 

5. The base, magnified, showing the pellucid epitheca and the costae. 

6. The corallum oi Moiiflivaltia pafi/Ia, Duncan. (P. 50). 

7. The calice, magnified. 

8. Part of the wall and one of the septa, magnified, showing the direction of the teeth. 

9. A very young Montlivaltia, of an unknown species. The calice magnified (P. 52.) 

10. A cornute variety of Montlivaltia imicronata, Duncan. (P. (!().) 

11. One of its septa, magnified. 

12. A portion of the external surface of the type of Montlivaltia tmu-ruuuta, Duncan, 

showing the dichotomous longitudinal bundles of costse, magnified. 

13. A conical variety of Montlivaltia nmcronata, Duncan. 
15. A section, magnified, of Montlivaltia Buperti, Duncan. 
10. A large and unusual shape of Montlivaltia ru^osa, Wright. 

17. A side view of its dentate septa. 

14. A dentate process, magnified, showing the ornamentation. 

18. The corallum of Zf«.s'/r(®f/ latimceandroidea, Duncan. (P. 05.) 

19. Its septa, magnified. 

20. The corallum of hastrcBa Tomesii, Duncan. (P. 46.) 



PI XV 




DeVffldeliih. 



M* K.Hanhart. imp 



LIASSIC CORAIjS. 



PLATE XVI. 



CORALS I'ROM THE LOWER AND MIDDLE LIAS. 



Fig. 

1. Lejy'idophyllia Tlebridensis, Duncan. Natural size. (P. 62.) 

2. Calices, magnified, showing calicular gemmatioii. 

3. Side view of corallites, showing the epitheca. 

4. Septa, magnified. 

5. 1 

6. L, „ „ \MQnUivaltia rugosa, Wright, sp. (P. 58.) 
„ )Common lorms oi ■^ ^, ,, -.ht • w ajo 

7. [ YThecocyathus rugosus, Wright, Mo. 



9. 
10. 
11. 

12. JUniisiial and young forms of the same species. 

13. 

14. 

8. Septal ends (external) and intermediate endotheca (magnified). 
15. A section magnified, showing the strong and arched endotheca between the 
septa. 



PL XV 




M5tKHa.nh3JT?ti 



LIASSIC CORALS 



PLATE XVII. 



CORALS FROM THE MIDDI-K IJAS. 



FrG. 

1. MontlivaUia Vicforice, Duncan. Nat. size. A corallum, with a constriction near 

the calice. (P. 63.) 

2. A magnified view of some septal (external) ends, with eiidotheca, simulating costae 

and exotheca. The epitheca is shown covering these structures. 

3. A specimen with a large calice. 

4. A calice slightly magnified. The rudiuieutary septa are shown as faint white Hues 

close to the thin margin. 

5. Diagram of the septa. 

6. Slightly magnified view of the thin epithecal wall and the curved eudotheca. 

8. >• Different forms of the species. 
9.) 
10. A septum, magnified. 



PLXVII. 




M&M Ha,riha.rt imp 



LIASSIG CORALS. 



INDEX 



BRITISH TERTIARY CORALS 



DESCRIBED IN THE MONOGRAPH 



H. MILNE EDWAKDS, 

PKOFESSOE AT THE MUSETJM OF NATTJEAL HISTOET, PAEIS, ETC., 



JULES HAIME, 



AND IN THE SUPPLEMENTARY MONOGRAPH 



P. MAETIN DUNCAN, M.B. Lond., E.E.S., F.G-.S., &c., 

PEOEESSOE OF GEOLOGY TO KIKG'S COLLEGE, LONDON. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 

1850—1866. 



Dates of Publication of the various portions of tlie Monographs ou the 

Tertiary Corals. 



Pages i — Ixxxv, I — 43, Plates I — VII, of the Monograph by H. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime 
(in the volume of the Palseontographical Society issued for the year 1849), were published August, 1850. 

Pages i — iii, 1 — 66, Plates I — X, of Part I, by P. Martin Duncan (in the volume for the year 1865), 
were published December, 1866. 



INDEX TO THE TERTIARY CORALS.* 



Classification and Structure 



Corals from the Crag 

,, Brockenliurst and Roydon 

,, London Clay 



Edw. and Haime, p. i ; Duncan, Pt. i, 1 



Edw. and Haime, 1 

. Duncan, Pt. i, 40, 52, 65 

Edw. and Haime, p. 12 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 54, 65 



*^* The synonyms are printed in italics. 



ALCYONARIA, Dana 

Alveolites Parisiensis, Michelin ; see Holareea Parisiensis. 

ASTR^^ACE^, Ediu. and Haime 

ASTREA, LamarcJc 

Astrea cylindrica, Defrance ; see Stylocoenia emarciata. 

„ decorata, Michelin ; see Stylocoenia emarciata. 

„ emarciata, Lamarck ; see Stylocoenia emarciata. 

,, hystrix, Defrance; «ee Stylocoenia monticularia. 

,, styloporu, Goldfuss ; see Stylocoenia emarciata. 

„ Websteri, Bowerbank ; see Litharaea Websteri. 



Edw. and Haime, pp. Ix.xiv, 41 

Duncan, Pt. i, 41 
Edw. and Haime, xxxix 



ASTREID^, Dana 
ASTREIN^, Edw. and Haime 
ASTROCCENIA, Edw. and Haime . 
Astrocoeiiia pulchella, Edw. and Haime 
AXOPORA, Edw. and Haime 
Axopora Fisheri, Buncan 
„ Michelini, Duncan 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xxiii, 8, 30, 47 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 41 
Edw. and Haime, pp. xxxi, 8 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 41 
Edw. and Haime, pp. xxx, 33 
Edw. and Haime, 34 
Duncan, Pt. i, 50, 6^ 
Duncan, Pt. i, 64 
Duncan, Pt. i, 50 



BALANOPHYLLIA, Wood . Edw. and Haime, pp. Hi, 9, 35 ; Duncan, Pt. r, 47 

,, calyculus. Wood .... Edw. and Haime, 9 

,, granulata, Duncan .... Duncan, Pt, i, 47 

,, desmophyllum, Edw. and Haime . . . Edw. and Haime, 35 



CARYOPHYLLIACE.a:, Edw. and Haime 



Duncan, Pt. i, 57 



* The words " Edw. and Haime " preceding the numerals, refer to the Pages in the Monograph of 
British Fossil Corals by MM. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime ; and the word " Duncan " to the Pages 
in the Supplementary Monograph by Professor Duncan. 



BRITISH TERTIARY CORALS. 



Cellastrea emareiata, Blainville ; see Stylocojniaemarciata. 
„ hystrix, Blainville ; see Stylococnia monticularia. 
Cladocora cariosa, Lonsdale ; see Cryptangia Woodii. 
CRYPTANGIA, EJw. and Haime 
Cryptangia Woodii, Ec/w. and Haime 
CYATHININ.E, Edw. and Tlaime 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xliv, 8 

Edw. and Haime, 8 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xii, 21 



and Hai 



DASMIA, Edw. and Ilaime 
Dasniia Sowerbyi, Edio. and Haime 
DENDRACIS, Edtv. and Haime 
Dendracis Lonsdalei, Duncan 
DENDROPHYLLIA, BlainviUe 
Dendropliyllia dendrophylloides, Edw 

„ elegans, Duncan 

DIPLOHELIA, Ediv. and Haime 
Diplohelia papillosa, Edw. and Haime 



EUPSAMMIDiE, Edw. and Haime . 
EUPSAMMINjE, Edw. and Haime . 
EUSMILIN^, Edw. and Haime 

f LABELLUM, Lesson 

Flabelluni Woodii, Edw. and Haime . 

FUNGIA, Lamarck 

Fungia semilunata, Wood ; see Flabellum Woodii. 



GORGONID^, Dana 
GRAPHULARIA, Edw. and Haime . 
Graphularia Wetherelli, Edw. and Haime 

HOLAR^A, Edw. and Haime 
Holarsea Parisiensis, Edtv. and Haime 



ISINiE, Dana 

LEPTOCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime . 
Leptocyatlius elegans, Edw. and Haime 
LITHAR^EA, Edw. and Haime 
Litharsea Brockenhursti, Dicncan 

„ Websteri, Edw. and Haime 
LOBOPSAMMIA, Edw. and Haime 
Lobopsammia cariosa, Gold/uss 

MADREPORA, Lin, 

Madrepora Anglica, Duncan 
,, Roemeri, Duncan 

„ Solanderi, Defrance 

MADREPORID.a;, Edw. and Haime 



Edw. and Haime, pp. six, 25 

Edw. and Haime, 25 

Edw. and Haime, p. xxiii ; Duncan, Pt. i, 62 

Duncan, Pt. i, 62 

Edw. and Haime, pp. liii, 36 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 61 

Edw. and Haime, 36 

Duncan, Pt. i, 61 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xxi, 28 

Edw. and Haime, 28 

Edw. and Haime, pp. li, 9, 34 

. Duncan, Pt. i, pp. 47, 61 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xxiii, 30 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xviii, 6 
Edw. and Haime, 6 
Edw. and Haime, xlvi 



Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixxix, 42 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Lxxxiii, 41 

Edw. and Haime, 41 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ivi, 40 
Edw. and Haime, 40 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixxxi, 42 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xiv, 21 

Edw, and Haime, 21 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Iv, 38 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 49 

Duncan, Pt. i, 49 

Edw. and Haime, 38 

. Edw. and Haime, p. liii ; Duncan, Pt. i, 48 

Duncan, Pt. i, 48 

Duncan, Pt. i, 51 
Duncan, Pt. i, 51 
Duncan, Pt. i, 51 
Duncan, Pt. i, 51 
Duncan, Pt. i, pp. 47, 51, 61, 64 



INDEX. 



MILLEPORIDjE, Edw. and Haime 

MOPSEA, Lamouroux 

Mopsea costata, Edw. and Haime 



PAGE 

Duncan, Pt. i, pp. 50, 64 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixxxi, 42 

Ewd. and Haime, 42 



OCULINA, Lamarck . . . Edw. and Haime, pp. xix, 27 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 

Oculina conferta, Edw. and Haime ..... Edw. and Haime, 

„ dendrophylloides, Lonsdale ; see Dendrophyllia dendrophylloides. 

„ incrustans, Duncan ..... Duncan, Pt. i, 

„ Wetherelli, Duncan ..... Duncan, Pt. i, 

OCULINACE^, Edw. and Haime ..... Duncan, Pt. i, 

OCULINIDiE, Edw. and Haime . . Edw. and Haime, pp. xix, 27 ; Duncan, Pt. i. 



PARACYATHUS, Edw. and Haime . 
Paracyathus brevis, Edw. and Haime . 

„ caryophyllus, Edw. and Haime 

„ crassus, Edw. and Haime . 

„ cylindricus, Duncan 

„ Haimei, Duncan 

PENNATULIDiE, Fleminff . 
PORITES, Edw. and Haime 
Porites panacea, Lonsdale . . . 

PORITID^, Edw. and Haime 
PORITIN^, Edw. and Haime 
PSEUDOTURBINOLID.E, Edw. and Haime 



Edw. and Haime, p. 23 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 
Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 



60 
27 

60 
60 
60 
60 

58 
25 
24 
23 
58 
59 



Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. i, 

Duncan, Pt. i, 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixxxii, 41 

Edw. and Haime, p. Iv ; Duncan, Pt. i, 63 

. - Duncan, Pt. i, 63 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Iv, 38 ; Duncan, Pt. i, p. 49, 63 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Iv, 38 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 63 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xix, 25 



Siderastrcsa Wehsteri, Lonsdale ; see Litharsea Websteri. 
SOLENASTRiEA, Edw. and Haime 
Solenastrsea Beyrichi, Duncati 

„ cellulosa, Duncan 

„ gemmans, Duncan 

„ granulata, Duncan 

„ Koeneni, Duncan 

„ Reussi, Duncan 

SPHENOTROCHUS, Edw. and Haime 
Sphenotrocbus intermedins, Edw. and Haime 
STEPHANOPHYLLIA, Michelin 
Stephanopbyllia discoides, Edw. and Haime 
STEREOPSAMMIA, Edw. and Haime 
Stereopsammia hurailis, Edw. and Haime 
STTLOCOENIA, Edw. and Haime 
Stylocoenia emarciata, Edw. and Haime 

„ monticularia, Edw. and Haime 

Stylopora monticidaria, Schweigger ; see Stylocoenia monticularia. 



Duncan, Pt. i, 41 

Duncan, Pt. i, 44 

Duncan, Pt. i, 41 

Duncan, Pt. i, 44 

Duncan, Pt. i, 45 

Duncan, Pt. i, 42 

Duncan, Pt. i, 43 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xvi, 2 

Edw. and Haime, 2 

Edw. and Haime, pp. liii, 34 

Edw. and Haime, 34 

Edw. and Haime, pp. liii, 37 

Edw. and Haime, 37 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xxix, 30 

Edw. and Haime, 30 

Edw. and Hairae, 32 



TROCHOCYATHACE^, Edw. and Haime 
TROCHOCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime 
Trochocyatbus Austeni, Duncan 
„ insignis, Duncan 



Duncan, Pt. i, 57 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xiv, 22 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 57 

Duncan, Pt. i, 57 

Duncan, Pt. t, 57 



BRITISH TERTIARY CORALS. 



Edw. and Haime. pp. xvi, 



TrochocyatbuB sinuosus, Ediv. and Uaime 
TURBINARINjE, Edw. and Haime . 
TURBINOLIA, Lamarck . 

Turbinolia affinis, Duncan .... 
Bowerbaukii, Edw. and Haime 

„ caryophyllws, Lamarck ; see Paracyathus caryopbyllus. 

,, Dixouii, Edw. and Haime . 

„ duhia, Defrance ; see Trochocyathus 

„ exarata, Duncan . 

„ firma, Ediv. and Haime 

„ Forbesi, Duncan . 

„ Frederifiiana, Edtv. and Haime 

„ humilis, Edw. and Haime . 

„ intermedia, Miinster ; see Sphenotrochus intermedius. 

,, Milletiana, Wood ; «ee Sphenotrocbus intermedius. 

„ minor, Edw. and Haime ..... 

„ Prestwicbii, Ediv. and Haime .... 

„ sinuosa, Brogniart ; see Trochocyathus sinuosus. 

„ sulcata, Lamarck ..... 

,, turhinata (pars), Lamarck ; see Trochocyathus sinuosus. 

TURBINOLID.a;, Edw. and Haime . . Edw. and Haime, pp. xi, 2. 

TURBINOLIN/E, Edw. and Haime . Edw. and Haime, pp. xvi, 2, 



Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Ft. i, 

13 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 

Duncan, Pt. i, 

Edw. and Haime, 



62 
54 
54 



Edw. and Haime, 15 

Duncan, Pt. i, 55 

Edw. and Haime, 20 

Duncan, Pt. i, 55 

Edw. and Haime, 17 

Edw. and Haime, 18 



Edw. and Haime, 19 

Edw. and Haime, 20 

Edw. and Haime, 13 

13 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 54 

13 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 54 



WEBSTERIA, Edw. and Haime 
Websteria crisioides, Edw. and Haime 



Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixxxiv, 43 
Edw. and Haime, 43 



ZOANTHARIA, Gray 



Edw. and Haime, pp. ix, 2, 13 ; Duncan, Pt. i, 54 



INDEX 



BRITISH SECONDARY CORALS 



DESCRIBED IN THE MONOGRAPH 



H. MILNE EDWAEDS, 

PEOPESSOE AT THE MUSEUM OE NATUBAIi HISTOET, PAEIS, ETC., 



JULES HAIME, 



AND IN THE SUPPLEMENTARY MONOGRAPH 



P. MAETIN DUNCAN, M.B. Lond., F.E.S., E.G.S, &c., 

PEOEESSOE OE aSOLOQ-Y TO Klir&'S COLLE&E, LOITDON. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1850—1872. 



Dates of Publication of the various portions of the Monogkaphs on the 

Secondary Corals. 



Pages i— Ixxxv, 44 — 71, Plates VIII— XI, of the Monograph by H. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime (in 
the volume of the Palseontographical Society issued for the year 1849), were published August, 1850. 

Pages 73—14.5, Plates XII— XXX, by H. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime (in the volume for the 
year 18.51), were published June, 1851. 

Pages 1 — 26, Plates I — IX, of the Supplementary Monograph, Part II, by P. Martin Duncan (in the 
volume for the year 1868), were published February, 1869. 

Pages 27—46, Plates X— XV, of Part II, by P. Martin Duncan (in the volume for the year 1869), 
were published January, 1870. 

Pages 1—24, Plates I— VII, of Part III, by P. Martin Duncan (in the volume for the year 1872), 
were published October, 1872. 

Pages i— ii, 1—43, Plates I— XI, of Part IV, by P. Martin Duncan (in the volume for the year 1866), 
were published June, 1867. 

Pages 45 — 73, Plates XII — XVII, of Part IV, by P. Martin Duncan (in the volume for the year 1867), 
were published June, 1868. 



INDEX TO THE SECONDARY CORALS. 



Classification and Structure 



Corals from Upj er Chalk . 
,, Lower Chalk . 

,, Upper Greensand 



Edw. and Haime, p. i ; Duncan, Pt. i, 



Gault 

Red Chalk 
,, Lower Greensand 

„ Portland Oolite 

„ Coral Rag 

„ Great Oolite 

,, Inferior Oolite 

„ Lias . Edw. and Haime, p 

„ Zone of Ammonites angulatus 

,, „ Am. Bucklandi . 

„ „ Am. Jamesoni and Am. Henleyi 

„ „ Am. planorbis 

„ ,, Am. obtusus 

„ ,, Am. raricostatus 

,, ,, Avicula contorta . 

Skye 
„ Sutton Stone . 

Remarks on Coral Zones . 

,, Oolitic Coral Faunas 



Edw. and Haime, p. 44 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 2, 16, 17, 44 
Edw. and Haime, p. 53 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 2, 16, 44 
. Edw. and Haime, p. 57 ; Duncan, Ft. ii, pp. 18, 23, 31 
of Haldon .... Duncan, Pt. ii, 27 

. Edw. and Haime, p. 61 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 31, 38, 45 
Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 23, 45 
. Edw. and Haime, p. 70 ; Duncan, Ft. ii, pp. 39, 43, 45 
Edw. and Haime, p. 73 ; Duncan, Pt. hi, 7 
. . Edw. and Haime, p. 75 ; Duncan, Pt. hi, 7 

Edw. and Haime, p. 104 ; Duncan, Pt. hi, pp. 7, 14 
Edw. and Haime, p. 125 ; Duncan, Pt. hi, pp. 8, 16 



144 ; Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 5, 42, 51, 56, 65, 66 
Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 6, 35, 38, 45, 47, 49 
Duncan, Pt. iy, pp. 51, 55 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 62 
Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 5, 17, 47, 65 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 56 
Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 57, 58, 61 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 66 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 41 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 69 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 1 
. Duncan, Pt. hi, pp. 2, 9 



*„.* The synonyms are printed in italics. 
Agaricia lobata (pars), Morris ; see Stylina tubulifera. 

„ „ see Thamnastrea conciuna. 

Alveopora microsolena, M'Coy ; see Microsolena regularis. 

ANABACIA, D'Orbigny .... Edw. and Haime, pp. xlvii, 120, 142 

Anabacia Bajociana, D'Orbigny ; see Anabacia orbulites. 



* The words "Edw. and Haime" preceding the numerals refer to the Pages and Plates in the 
Monograph by MM. H. Milne Edwards and Jules Haime ; and the word " Duncan " to the Pages and 
Plates in the Supplementary Monograph by Prof. Duncan. 



BRITISH SECONDARY CORALS. 



PAGE 

Anabacia hemispherica, Edw. aud Haime .... Edw. and Haime, 1-12 

„ orbulites, Edw. and Haime .... Edw. and Haime, pp. 120, 142 

Anthophyllum obconicum, Goldfuss; see Mouilivaltia dispar. 
Aplocyathus MagnevilUana, D'Orbigny ; see Trochocyathus Magnevillianus. 

ASTRiEACE/E, Edw. and Raime . . Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 22, 29 ; Pt. iv, pp. 46, 53, 62, 65 

Astrea arachnoides, Fleming ; see Thamnastrea arachnoides. 

„ concinna, Goldfuss ; see Thamnastrea concinna. 

„ Befranciana, Michelin ; see Thamnastrea Defranciana. 

,, elegans, Fitton ; see Holocystis elegans. 

„ exjilanata, Goldfuss; see Isastrsea explanata. 

„ explamdata, M'Coy ; see Isastraea e.xplanata. 

„ favosioides, Phillips ; see Isastrsea explanata. 

„ helianthoides, M'Coy ; see Isastrsea explanata. 

„ inaequalis, PhUlips .... . Edw. and Haime, 104 

„ limitata, Lamoureux ; see Isastrsea limitata. 

,, micrastun, Phillips ; see Thamnastrea concinna. 

„ tenuistriata,'WCoy \ «ee Isastrsea tennistriata. 

,, Tisburiensis, Fitton ; see Isastrsea oblonga. 

„ tubidifera, Phillips ; see Stylina tubulifera. 

„ tubidosa, Morris ; see Stylina tuberosa. 

,, ran'«?i«, Roeraer ; «ee Thamnastrea concinna. 
ASTR^ID^, Dana Edw. and Haime, pp. xxiii, 47, 57, 68, 73, 76, 105, 1 10, 128 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 

pp. 5, 11,21, 27, 41 ; Pt. hi, pp. 14, 16; Pt. iv, pp. 5, 7, 46, 51, 52, 56, 58, C3 
ASTREINjE, Edw. and Haime . . Edw. and Haime, pp. xxxi, 59 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 42 



ASTROCCENIA, Edw. aud Haime . 
Astrocoenia costata, Duncan 

„ decaphylla, Edw. and Haime 

„ dendroidea, Duncan 

„ favoidea, Duncan 

,, gibbosa, Duncan 

,, insignis, Duncan 

,, minuta, Duncan 

„ parasitica, Duncan 

„ pedunculata, Duncan 

„ plana, Duncan 

,, reptans, Duncan 

„ Sinemuriensis, i)'0/'5/(/Hy 

,, superba, Duncan 

AXOSMILIA, Edio. and Haime 
Axosmilia Wrighti, Edw. and Haime 

BATHYCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime 
Bathycyathus Sowerbyi, Edw. and Raime 
BRACHYCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime 
Brachycyathus Orbignyanus, Edw. and Raime . 



Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 29; Pt. it, pp. 18, 23 



Edw 



Duncan 


Pt. iv. 


21 


Duncan 


Pt. 11, 


29 


Duncan, 


Pt. IV, 


22 


Duncan 


Pt. IV, 


21 


Duncan 


Pt. IV, 


18 


Duncan 


Pt. IV, 


19 


Duncan, 


Pt. IV, 


22 


Duncan 


Pt. IV, 


20 


Duncan 


Pt. IV, 


20 


Duncan, 


Pt. IV, 


19 


Duncan, 


Pt. IV, 


20 


Duncan, 


Pt. IV, 


22 


Duncan, 


Pt. IV, 


21 


Edw. and Haime, 


pp. xxvi. 


128 


Edw. and Haime, 


128 



and Haime, pp. xiii, 67 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 35 

Edw. and Haime, 67 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 40 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 40 



CALAMOPHYLLI.^, Guettard 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xxxiii, 89, 111 



INDEX. 



. Edw. and Haime, 89 
. Edw. aud Haime, 1 1 1 
Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 2, 31 



Edw. and Haime, 
Duncan, Pt. ii. 



143 
3 



Calamophyllia prima, D'Orbigiiy ; see Ciadopbyllia Babeana. 
Calamophyllia Stolcesi, Edw. and Haime 

Calamophyllia radiata, Lamouroux .... 
CARYOPHYLLIA, Lamarck .... 

Caryophyllia annularis, Fleming ; see Thecosmilia annularis. 

,, centralis, Fleni. ; see Parasmilia centralis. 

„ cespitosa, Conybeare and Phillips ; see Ciadopbyllia Conybearii 

„ conulus, Phillips ; see Trochocyathus couulus. 

„ convexa, Phillips .... 

,, cylindracea, Reuss .... 

„ cylindrica, Phillips ; see Thecosmilia annularis. 

„ fasciculaia, De Blainville ; see Lithostrotion irregularis. 

,, Lonsdalei, Duncan 

„ Tennanti, Duncan 

CARYOPHYLLIACB^, Edw. and Haime 
CARYOPHYLLINjE, Edw. and Haime 
CLADOPHYLLIA, Edw. and Haime 
Ciadopbyllia Babeana, D^Orhigny 

,, Conybearii, Edw. and Haime 

CLAUSASTREA, D'OrUgny 
Clausastrea Pratti, Edvj. and Haime . 
CGELOSMILIA, Edw. and Haime . 
Ccelosmilia laxa, Edw. and Haime 
COMOSERIS, D'Orhigny . 
Comoseris irradians, Edw. and Haime 

,, vermicularis, J/' Coy 

CONVEX ASTRE A, D'Orhigny 
Convexastrea Waltoni, Edw. and Haime 
Coralloidea columnaria, Parkinson ; see Isastrsea oblonga. 
Cryptoceenia Luciensis, D'Orhigny ; see Cyathophora Luciensis 
CYATHINA, Ehrenberg .... 
Cyathina Bowerbankii, Edw. and Haime, p. 61 ; see Caryophyllia Bowerbanki (Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 31). 
Cyathina laevigata, Edw. and Haime ..... Edw. and Haime 44 
CYATHININiE, Edw. and Haime ... 
CYATHOCCENIA, Dwcara 
CyathoccEnia costata, Duncan 

„ dendroidea, Duncan 

,, globosa, Duncan 

,, incrustans, Duncan 

CYATHOPORA Uichelin . . Edw. and Haime, p. 107 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 21 ; Pt. hi 

Cyathopora elegans, Lonsdale ; see Holocytis elegans. 

insignis, Duncan . . . . . Duncan, Pt. hi, 

,, Luciensis, D^Orbigny 

„ monticularia, D'Orb. 

„ Pratti, Edw. and Haime . 

„ tuberosa, Duncan 

CYATHOPHYLLID^, Edw. and Haime 



Duncan, Pt. ii, 3 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 4 

Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 2, 31, 40 

Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 31, 40 

Edw. and Haime, pp. 91, 113 

Edw. and Haime, 113 

Edw. and Haime, 91 

Edw. and Haime, 1 ] 7 

Edw. and Haime, 1 1 7 

Edw. and Haime, pp. x.yv, 52 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 5, 8 

Edw. and Haime, 52 

' . Edw. and Haime, pp. 101, 102, 122, 143 

Edw. aud Haime, 101 

Edw. and Haime, pp. 122, 143 

. Edw. and Haime, 109 

Edw. and Haime, 109 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xii, 44, 6 1 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xii, 44, 61 

Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 27, 55 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 29 

Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 27, 55 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 55 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 28 

14 



Edw. and Haime, 
Duncan, Pt. ii, 

Edw. and Haime, 
Duncan, Pt. hi, 



14 
107 

21 
108 

15 



Edw. and Haime, pp. kv, 143, 145 



BRITISH SECONDARY CORALS. 



CYATHOPHYLLUM, Goldfuss 
Cyathophyllum novum, Edw. and Haime 
CYCLOCYATHUS, Ediv. and Haime 
Cyclocyatbas Fittoni, Edio. and Haime 
CYCLOLITES, Lamarck . 
Cyclolites Beanii, Duncan . 

„ Eudesii, Michelin ; see Discocyathus Eudeai. 

,, Icevis, Blainville ; see Anabacia orbulites. 

,, Lyceti, Duncan 

„ polymorpha, Goldfuss 

„ tnincata, Defrance ; see Discocyathus Eudesi. 

Decacosnia Michelini, D'Orbigny ; see Stylina tubulifera. 
Dendrophyllia plicata, M'Coy ; see Goniocora sociale. 
Dentipora r/lomerata, M'Coy ; see Stylina tubulifera. 
DIBLASUS, ions</n/e 
Diblasus Graveiisis, Lonsdale 
DIMORPHOSERIS, Duncan 
Dimorpboseris oolitica, Duncan 
DISCOCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime . 
Discocyathus Eudesi, Michelin 

ELYSASTR.EA, Laube 
Elysastrsea Fischeri, Laube . 
„ Moorei, Duncan 
Eunomia Babeana, D'Orbigny ; see Cladophyllia Babeana. 
,, radiata, Lamoureux ; see Calamophyllia radiata. 
EUPSAMMID^, Edw. and Haime . 
EUSMILINiE, Edw. and Haime 

Exphinaria /exuosu, Fleming ; see Thamnastrea arachnoides. 



PAGE 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Lxviii, 145 

Edw. and Haime, 145 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xiv, 63 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xiv, 63 

Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 24 ; Pt. hi, 23 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 23 



Duncan, Pt, hi, 23 
Duncan, Pt. ii, 24 



Duncan, Pt. ii, 14 
Duncan, Pt. ii, 14 
Duncan, Pt. hi, 22 
Duncan, Pt. hi, 22 
Edw. and Haime, pp. xiii, 125 
Edw. and Haime, 125 



Edw. and Haime, 



Duncan, Pt. iv, 29 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 29 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 30 



Edw. and Haime, pp. Ii, 54 
pp. xxiii, 47, 57, 68 ; 
Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 27, 41 



F A.\l. \,Ehrenberff 

Favia minutissima, Duncan 

FAVIACE^, Ediv. and Haime 

Favosites radiatu, Blainville ; see Calamophyllia radiata. 

FUNGIA, Lamarck . . . . . 

Fungia clathrata, Geinitz ; see Micrabacia coronula. 

„ coromda, Goldfuss ; see Microbacia coronula. 

„ Icevis, Goldfuss ; see Anabacia orbulites. 

„ orbtdites, Lamoureux ; see Anabacia orbulites. 
FUNGID^, Du?m . Edw. and Haime, pp. xiv, 60, 101, 120, 14' 

FUNGIN.*, Edw. and Haime . . . . 

Gemmastrea Hmbala, M'Coy ; see Stylina conifera. 

GONIOCORA, Edw. and Haime . . . . 

Goniocora socialis, Roemer .... 



Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 



Duncan, Pt. ii 

Duncan, Pt. ii 

!1 ; Pt. IV, pp. 5, 



21 
, 22 
32, 52 



Edw. and Haime, Ixvi 



Duncan, Pt. h, pp. 24, 37, 42; 

Pt. hi, pp. 16, 19 
Duncan, Pt. ii, 24 



Edw. and Haime, 92 
Edw. and Haime, 92 



INDEX. 



GONIOSERIS, I>raca» 
Gonioseris angulata, Duncan 
„ Leckenbyi, Duncan 

HOLOGYSTIS, Lonsdale . 
Holocystis elegans, Fitton . 
IIydnopho7-a Frieslebeniil Fischer; see Stylina tubulifera 



ISASTR^A, Edw. and Haime 



Edw. and Haime, pp 



IsastrseaConybearii, ^c?w. and Haime 
endothecata, Duncan 
explanata, Goldfuss 
explanulata, M'Coy 
gibbosa, Duncan . 
globosa, Duncan 
Greenoughi, Edw. and Haime 
Haldonensis, Duncan 
insignis, Duncan 
latimEeandroidea, Duncan 
limitata, Lamouroux 
Lonsdalii, Edw. and Haime 
Morrisii, Duncan . 
Murcbisoni, Wright 
oblonga, Fleming . 
tenuistriata, M'Coy 
Tomesii, Duncan .. 
Richardsoni, Edw. and Haime 
serialis, Edw. and Haime 
Sinemuriensis, E. de From 
Strickland!, Duncan 



PAGE 

Duncan, Ft. hi, 21 
Duncan, Ft. hi, 21 
Duncan, Ft. hi, 22 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixiv, 70 
Edw. and Haime, 70 



74, 94, 113, 138 
Ft. Ill, p. 15 ; 



Duncan, Ft. ii, p. 30 ; 
Ft. IV, pp. 30, 41, 46, 
Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 
Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 
Duncan, Ft. hi. 

Duncan, Ft. iv. 
Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Ft. ii. 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 
Edw. and Haime. 
Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Ft. ii, 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 
Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Ft. iv. 
Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 



53, 65 
. 113 

53 

94 
, 115 

15 
, 31 

96 
, 30 
, 54 

65 
, 114 
, 139 

42 
, 41 
, 73 
, 138 
, 46 
138 
116 
, 30 

54 



Lasmophyllia radisensis, D'Orbigny ; see Moiitlivaltia dispar. 
LATIM^ANDRA, D'Orbigny . Edw. and Haime, pp. xx.xiv, 136 

Latimseandra Davidsoni, Edw. and Haime 

„ denticulata, Duncan 

„ Flemingi, Edw. and Haime . Edw. and Haime, 

LEFIDOFHYLLIA, Duncan 
Lepidophyllia Hebridensis, Duncan 

„ Stricklandi, Duncan 

LEFTOCYATHUS, Edw. and Hai)ne . 
Leptocyathus gracilis, Duncan 
LITHODENDRON, Phillips 

Lithodendron annulare, Keferstein ; «ee Thecosmilia annularis. 
„ astreatum, M'Coy 

„ centrale, Keferstein ; see Farasmilia centralis. 



; Duncan, Ft. hi, p. 18; 

Ft. IV, 32 

Edw. and Haime, 137 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 32 

p. 136; Duncan, Ft. hi, 18 

. Duncan, Ft. iv, pp. 53, 62 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 62 

Duncan, Ft. iv, 53 

Duncan, Ft. ii, 34 

Duncan, Ft. ii, 34 

Edw. and Haime, Ixxi 

Edw. and Hainie, 143 



BRITISH SECONDARY CORALS. 



Lithodendton dickotmnum, M'Coy ; see Cladophyllia Conybearii. 

dispar, Goldfuss ; see Montlivaltia dispar, 

Edwardsii, M'Coy ; see Rhabdophyllia Phillips!. 

eunomia, Micbelin ; see Calamophyllia radiata. 

oblongum, Fleming ; see Isastrsea oblonga. 

sociale, Roemer ; see Goniocora sociale. 

trichotomvm, Morris ; see Thecosmilia annularis. 
Lithostrotion oblongum, Morris ; see Isastrsea oblouga. 
Lobophyllia trichotoma, M'Coy ; see Thecosmilia annularis. 
LOPHOSERINiE, Edw. and Haime . 



Duncan, Pt. ii, 24,42 



Madrepora arachnoides, Parkinson ; see Thamnastrea arachnoides. 

„ centralis, Mant. ; see Parasmilia centralis. 

„ Jlexuosa, Smith ; see Cladophyllia Babeana. 

„ porpites, W. Smith ; see Anabacia orbuUtes. 

„ turbinata, Smith ; see Montlivaltia Smithi. 

Meandrina vermicvlaris, M'Coy ; see Comoseris vermicularis. 
MICRABACIA, Edw. and Haime Edw. and Haime, pp 

Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss 

,, Fittoni, Duncan . 

MICROSOLENA, Lamoiireux 
Microsolena e.xcelsa, Edw. and Haime . 

„ regularis, Edw. and Haime 

Monocarya centralis (pars), Lonsdale ; see Cyathina laevigata. 

„ centralis (pars). Long. ; see Parasmilia centralis. 

MONTLIVALTIA, Lamoureux . Edw. and Haime, pp. xxv, 

p. 16 ; Pt. IV, 
Montlivaltia brevis, Duncan . . . . 

,, eutryophyllata, Bronn ; see Montlivaltia trochoides. 

„ cupuliformis, Edw. and Haime 

„ decipiens, M'Coy ; see Montlivaltia Delabechii. 

,, Delabechii, Ediv. and Haime 

„ depressa, Edw. and Haime 

„ dilatata, M'Coy ; see Montlivaltia dispar. 

„ dispar, Phillips . . . . 

„ gregaria, M'Coy ; see Thecosmilia gregaria. 

„ Guettardi, Blainville . . . . 

„ Haimei, Chajmis and Dewalque 

„ Hibernica, Duncan . . . . 

„ Holli, Duncan . . . . . 

„ lens, Edw. and Hairne . . . . 

,, Moreausiaca ; see Montlivaltia dispar. 

,, Morrisi, Duncan . . . . 

„ mucronala, Duncan . . . . 

„ Murchisonise, Duncan . . . . 

,, nummiformis, Duncan . . . . 

„ obconica, M'Coy ; see Montlivaltia dispar. 



xlvii, 60 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 24, 37 

Edw. and Haime, 60 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 37 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ivi, 122 

Edw. and Haime, 124 

Edw. and Haime, 122 



iO, 110, 129; Duncan, Pt. hi, 
pp. 7, 3.5, 39, 46, 51, 5G, 58, 63, 68 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 10 

Edw. and Haime, 132 

Edw. and Haime, 132 
Edw. and Haime, 134 

Edw. and Haime, 80 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 51 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 35 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 39 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 16 

Edw. and Haime, 133 



Duncan, Ft. hi, 17 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 59 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 8 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 60 



INDEX. 











PAGE 


Montlivatia Painswicki, Duncan ..... Duncan, Ft. hi, 


17 


„ patula, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv, 


56 


„ parasitica, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


9 


„ papillata, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv, 


36 


„ pedunculata, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


10 


,, polymorpha, Terquem and Pietie 






Duncan, Pt. iv, 


8 


,, radiata, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


61 


„ rugosa, Duncan and Wright 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


58 


,, Euperti, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


46 


,, simplex, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv, 


9 


„ Smithi, I]dw. and Haime . 






Edw. and Haime, 


110 


„ Stutchburyi, Edw. and Haime 






Edw. and Haime, 


131 


„ tenuilamellosa, Udw. and Haime 






Edw. and Haime, 


130 


„ trochoides, Edw. and Haime 






Edw. and Haime, 


129 


,, Victoriee, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


63 


„ Wallise, Duncan 






Duncan, Pt. iv. 


7 


„ Waterhousei, Edw. and Haime 






Edw. and Haime, 


111 


„ Wrighti, Edw. and Haime 






Edw. and Haime, 


131 



OCULINIDiE, Edw. and Haime 
ONCHOTROCHUS, Duncan 
Onchotroclius Carteri, Duncan 

„ serpentinus, Duncan 

OPPBLISMILIA, Duncan 
Oppelismilia gemmans, Duncan 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xix, 53 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 14 
. Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 4, 20 
Duncan, Pt. ii, 20 
Duncan, Pt. ii, 4 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 39 
Dnncan, Pt. iv, 39 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xxiv, 47 ; Duncan, Pt. 

. Edw. and Haime, p. 47 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 

Edw. and Haime, 

Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 

Mantelli, Edw. and Haime ; see Parasmilia centralis (Edw. and Haime, p. 49 ; 
Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 12, 46) 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 
Edw. and Haime, 



PARASMILIA, Edw. and Haime 

Parasmilia centralis, Mantell 

„ cylindrica, Edw. and Haime 
„ Fittoni, Edw. and Haime . 
„ granulata, Duncan 



,, monilis, Duncan . 
„ serpentina, Edw. and Haime 
PARASTREA, Edw. and Haime 
Parastrea stricta, Edw. and Haime 

PEPLOSMILIA, Edw. and Haime . . Edw. 

Peplosmilia Austeni, Edw. and Haime 

„ depressa, E. de Fromentel 
PLACOSMILIA, Edw. and Haime . 
Placosmilia consohrina, Reuss ; see Placosmilia Parkinsoni 

„ cuneiformis, Edw. and Haime 

„ magnifica, Duncan 

„ Parkinsoni, Edw. and Haime 
PODOSERIS, Duncan 



11 
12 
50 
50 
13 



12 
51 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xliii, 59 

Edw. and Haime, 59 

and Haime, pp. xxv, 57 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 29 

Edw. and Haime, 67 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 29 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 27 

Duncan, Pt. ii. 27 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 28 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 28 

Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 25 ; Pt. hi, 24 

2 



10 



BRITISH SECONDARY CORALS. 



Podoseris constricta, Duncan 
„ elougata, Duncan 
„ mammiliformis, Duiican 
PORITIDiE, Edw. and Haime 
Prionastrea alimena, D'Orbigny ; see Isastrsea limitata. 

„ explanata, Edw. and Haime ; see Isastraea explanata. 

„ limitata, Edw. and Haime ; see Isastraea limitata. 

„ Lvciensis, D'Orbigny ; see Isastrsea limitata. 
PROTOSERIS, Edw. and Haime 
Protoseris Waltoni, Edw. and Haime 



PAGE 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 24 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 26 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 2.5 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Iv, 122 



RHABDOPHYLLIA, Edw. and Hai7ne 
Rhabdophyllia Phillipis, Edw. and Haime 
„ recondita, Laube 



Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 



Edw. and Haime, p. 8" ; Duncan, Pt. iv, 

Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. iv. 



103 
103 

17 

87 
17 



SEPTASTR^A, D'Orbigmj 
Septastrsea Eveshami, Duncan 

„ escavata, E. de From 
„ Fromenteli, Terquem and Piette 

,, Haimei, Wright 

Sideraslrcea agariciaformis, M'Coy ; see Thamnastrea aracbnoides. 
,, cadomensis, M'Coy 

,, explanata, Blainville ; see Isastrsea explanata. 
„ incrustata, M'Coy ; see Microsolena excelsa. 
,, Lamourouxi, M'Coy ; see Thamnastrea Lyelli. 
„ meandrinoides, M'Coy ; see Comoseris irradians. 
SMILOTROCHUS, Edw. and Haime . 
Smilotrochus angulatus, Duncan 

,, Austeni, Edw. and Haime 

„ cylindricus, Duncan 

,, elongatus, Duncan 

„ granulatus, Duncan 

„ insignis, Duncan 

„ tuberosus, Edw. and Haime 

STAURIDiE, Edw. and Haime 
Stephanoccenia concinna, D'Orbigny ; see Thamnastrea concinna. 
STEPHANOPHYLLIA, Michelin 
Stephanophyllia Bowerbankii, Edw. and Haime 
STYLINA, Lamarck 

Stylina Buheana, D'Orbigny ; see Stylina solida. 
„ conifera, Edw. and Haime 
,, Delabechii, Edw. and Haime . 
„ Luciensis, Edw. and Haime ; see Cyathophora Luciensis, 
„ Ploti, Edw. and Haime 

„ solida, M'Coy .... 

„ tubulifera, Edw. and Haime . 
„ tubulosa, Michelin ; see Stylina tubulifera. 
STYLINACE.^;, Edw. and Haime 



Duncan, Pt. iv, pp. 5, 32, 37, 52 
Duncan, Pt. iv, .t2 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 32 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 37 
Duncan, Pt. iv, 5 

Edw. and Haime, 143 



Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 18, 35, 39 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 20 

. Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 19, 39 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 36 

Duncan, Ft. ii, pp. 19, 36 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 36 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 37 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 19 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixiv, 70 



Edw. and Haime, pp. liii, 54 
Edw. and Haime, 54 
Edw. and Haime, pp. xxix, 76, 105, 128 

Edw. and Haime, 105 
Edw. and Haime, 79 

Edw. and Haime, 106 

Edw, and Haime, pp. 105, 128 

Edw. and Haime, 76 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 21 



INDEX. 



11 



Stylopora solida, M'Coy ..... 
SYMPHYLLIA, Edw. and Haime .... 
Sytnphyllia Etheridgei, Duncan .... 

Synastrea concinna, Edw. and Haime ; see Thamnastrea concinna. 

„ Befranciana, Edw. and Haime ; see Tliamnastrea Defranciana. 
SYNHELIA, Edw. and Haime .... 

Synhelia Sharpeana, Edw. and Haime 



PAGE 

Edw. and Haime, 105 
Duncan, Pt. hi, 19 
Duncan, Pt. hi, 19 



Edw. and Haime, pp. xx, 53 
Edw. and Haime, 53 



THAMNASTREA, Edw. and Haime Edw. and Haime, pp. xlii, 97, 1 18, 139 



Tliamnastrea arachnoides, Parkinson . 
Thamnastrea Browni, Duncan 

„ concinna, Goldfuss 

„ Defranciana, Michelin . 

„ fuugiformis, Edw. and Haime 

„ Lyelli, Edw. and Haime 

„ M'Coyi, Edw. and Haime 

,, mammosa, Edw. and Haime 

,, Manseli, Duncan 

„ Mettensis, Edw. and Haime 

„ scita, Ediv. and Haime . 

„ superposita, Michelin 

„ Terquemi, Edw. and Haime 

Walcotti, Duncan 

,, Waltoni, Edw. and Haime 

THECOCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime 
Thecocyathus Moorii, Edw. and Haime 

„ rugosus, Wright ; see Montlivaltia rugosa. 

Thecophyllia Arduennensis, D'Orbigny ; see Montlivaltia dispar. 
THECOSMILIA, Edw. and Haime . Edw. and Haime, pp. xxvi. 



Edw. 



; Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 22 ; 

Pt. Ill, pp. 16, 19 

Edw. and Haime, 97 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 
Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 

Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 

Edw. and Haime, 
Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 

Edw. and Haime, 

Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 

Edw. and Haime, 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 
Edw. and Haime, 
and Haime, pp. xiv, 144 
Edw. and Haime, 144 



16 
100 
139 
141 
118 
141 
119 

20 
141 
119 

22 
140 

19 
120 



Thecosmilia affinis, Duncan 

„ annularis, Fleming 

„ Brodiei, Duncan 

„ eylindrica, Edw. and Haime ; 

„ dentata, Duncan 

„ gregaria, M'Coy 

„ irregularis, Duncan 

„ Martini, E. de From. 

„ Michelini, Terq. and Piette 

„ mirabilis, Duncan 

,, obtusa, D'Oi-bigny 

„ plana, Duncan 

„ rugosa, Lauhe 

„ serialis, Duncan 

„ Suttonensis, Duncan 

„ Terquemi, Duncan 



see Thecosmilia annularis. 

Edw. and Haime, 



84, 135 ; Duncan, Pt. hi, 

pp. 14, 17; Pt.it, 11, 65 

Duncan, Pt. iv, 16 

Edw. and Haime, 84 

Duncan, Pt. it, 13 

Duncan, Pt. it, 16 

p. 135 ; Duncan, Pt. hi, 18 

Duncan, Pt. it, 15 

Duncan, Pt. it, 14 

Duncan, Pt. it, 14 

Duncan, Pt. it, 12 

Duncan, Pt. hi, 14 

Duncan, Pt. it, 17 

Duncan, Pt. it, 13 

Duncan, Pt. it, 12 

Duncan, Pt. it, 1 1 

Duncan, Pt. it, 16 



12 



BRITISH SECONDARY CORALS. 



PAGE 

Tliecosmilia Wrighti, 2>Mnca?j ..... Duncan, Pt. iii, 1" 

Tremoccrnia varians, D'Orbigny ; see Thamnastrea conciuna. 

TROCHOCYATHACE^, £rf!«. and iJaime .... Duncan, Pt. ii, 32 

TROCHOCYATHUS, Edw. and Haime Edw. and Haime, pp. xiv, 63, 126, 145 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, p. 32 

Trochocyathus conulus, Phillips ..... Edw. and Haime, 63 

' „ Harveyanus, Edw. and Haime . Edw. and Haime, p. 65 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 

„ Koenigi, Mantell ; see Trochocyathus Harveyanus (Edw. and Haime, p. 66 ; Duncan, 

Pt. ii, pp. 32, 46) 
,, Magnevillianus, Michelin .... Edw. and. Haime, 

„ primus, Edw. and Haime .... Edw. and Haime, 

„ Warburtoni, Edw. and Haime ; see Trochocyathus Harveyanus (Edw. and Haime, 

p. 67 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 32. 46) 
Trochocyathus Wiltshire!, Duncan .... 

Edw. and Haime, pp. xxiv, 58, 



32 



126 
145 



34 



TROCHOSMILIA, Edio. and Haime 



Trochosmilia (Coelosmilia) cornucopise, Duncan 
„ ,, cylindrica, Duncan 

„ „ granulata, Duncan 

„ „ laxa, Duncan 

„ Meyeri, Duncan 

„ sulcata, Edw. and Haime 

,, tuberosa, Ediv. and Haime 

„ (Coelosmilia) Woodwardi, Duncan 

„ ,, Wiltshirei, Duncan 

TROCHOSMILIACE^, Edw. and Haime 
TURBINOLIA, Lamarck . 
Turbinolia centralis, Roemer ; see Parasmilia centralis. 
„ eompressa, Lam. ; see Trochosmilia tuberosa. 
„ conulus, Michelin ; see Trochocyathus conulus. 
,, didyma ? Goldfuss .... 

,, f/j«/jar, Phillips ; «ee Montlivaltia dispar. 
„ excavata, Hag. ; see Parasmilia centralis. 
„ Konigi, Mantell ; see Trochocyathus Konigi. 
„ Magnevilliana, Michelin ; see Trochocyathus Magnevillianus. 
TURBINOLIACE^, Edw. and Haime 
TURBINOLID^, Edw. and Haime . 



Duncan, Pt. ii, 
68 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 

pp. 5, 8, 41, 50 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 8 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 10 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 10 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 8 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 41 

. Edw. and Haime, 68 

Edw. and Haime, 58 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 9 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 9 

Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 11, 41 

Edw. and Haime, xvi 



Edw. and Haime, 104 



TURBINOLIN.E, Edw. and Haime . 

TURBINOSERIS 

Turbinoseris De-Fromenteli, Duncan . 

ZAPHRENTIS, Rafnesque and Cliford 
Zaphrentis Waltoni, Edw. and Haime . 
ZOANTHARIA, Gray 



Duncan, Pt. ii, pp. 4, 18, 35, 39 
Edw. and Haime, pp. xi, 44, 61, 125, 144 ; Duncan, 

Pt. II, pp. 2, 4, 18,31,35,39 

. Edw. and Haime, p. 2 ; Duncan, Pt. ii, 35 

Duncan, Pt. ii, 42 

Duncan, Pt. ii. 43 

Edw. and Haime, pp. Ixv, 143 

Edw. and Haime, 143 

Edw. and Haime, pp. ix, 44