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THE MORAVIANS 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



AN AUTHENTIC HISTORY. 



Rev. levin T.^REICHEL, 



OP SALESf, N. C. 



SALEM, N. C: 
0. A. KEEHLN. 

PHILADELPHIA: 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT AND CO. 

1851. 



A^^O^ 



CONTENTS 







PAGE 


1. 


North Carolina in 1752 


. 13 


2. 


Wachovia 


. 22 


3. 


First Settlement at Bethabara, 1753 . 


. 28 


4. 


Indian War. Bethania, 1759 


. 42 


5. 


F. W. DE Marshall .... 


. 56 


G. 


Salem, 1766 


. 61 


7. 


Friedberg, 1772 


. 69 


8. 


Frieoland, 1780 


. 73 


9. 


Hope, 1780 


. 77 


10. 


Revolutionary War . ' . 


80 


11. 


Half a Century, 1803 .... 


96 


12. 


Salem Female Academy, 1804 


113 


13. 


Indian Mission, 1801 .... 


132 


14. 


Negro Mission, 1822 . 


139 


15. 


Home Mission, 1835 .... 


142 


16. 


New Congregations, 1830 . . . , 


149 


17. 


The older Congregations, 1806 — 1856 . 


154 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

18. List of Ministers and other brethren in the 

SERVICE OF the PROVINCE IN GENERAL, AND 

OF the Salem Congregation in particular 165 

19. Ministers of the Country Congregations . 1G9 

20. The Brethren's Unity 172 



APPENDIX. 

1. First Settlers 179 

2. Churches and Public Buildings . . . 191 

3. Houses built in Salem 196 

4. Additions and Notes 200 



THE 



MORAVIANS K NORTH CAROLINA. 



I. 

NOETH CAROLINA IN 1752. 

In 1749 the British Pariiament passed an act 
by which the TJnitas Fratrum, or Unity of the 
Brethren, was acknowledged as a Protestant 
Episcopal Church. By this act the free exercise 
of all their rights as a church was secured to the 
Moravian Brethren throughout Great Britain and 
all her colonies, a privilege which they did not 
then fully enjoy in any other European kingdom, 
and which is still denied to the church in certain 
other countries, even to the present day. 

During the protracted deliberations of the 
Parliament, which lasted from February 20th to 
2 



« 
14 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA, 

June 6th, and by means of many public documents 
collected in a folio volume as Acta Unitatis Fret- 
trum in Anglia, the attention of members of the 
Parliament, and other men of high standing, was 
repeatedly drawn to the Moravians, both as a 
church organization and as a social body. The 
■testimony which Thomas Penn, proprietor of 
Pennsylvania, had given them in 1141, when the 
first act of Parliament was granted in their be- 
half, was abundantly confirmed, that they had 
conducted themselves as a sober, quiet, and reli- 
gious people, and had made many improvements 
in their settlements which eventually would prove 
beneficial to the whole colony of Pennsylvania. 
Hence it seemed desirable to induce them to 
make settlements in other countries also, and in- 
vitations and ofi'ers of various kinds soon came 
in greater numbers than could be complied with, 
for want of means and men. Some of these, 
referring to Nova Scotia and Maryland, were not 
entertained at all. Another one of the Duke of 
Argyle, who wished a settlement of .the Brethren 
in Scotland, led to no results ; another of Lord 
O'Neil led, in It 64, to the settlement of Grace- 



NORTH CAROLINA IN IT 52. 15 

hill, in Ireland. But, for the present, the most 
acceptable offer seemed that of Lord Granville, 
President of the Privy Council, who was the 
owner of a very large tract of land in North 
Carolina, of which he offered Count Zinzendorf 
100,000 acres on very reasonable terms. 

At a conference of the Brethren, held in Lind- 
say-house, London, November 29th, 1*751, it was 
resolved to accept this offer. The leading idea 
of Count Zinzendorf was the following : He de- 
sired that his Brethren might not only have an 
opportunity to be of spiritual benefit to such 
persons as in process of time might settle in 
their neighborhood, as well as to gain access to 
various tribes of Indians, such as the Cherokees, 
the Catawbas, the Creeks, and the Chickasaws, 
but his main object was to acquire the possession 
of a larger tract of land where the Moravians 
might live undisturbed, having the liberty of ex- 
cluding all strangers from their settlements. For 
this purpose it was resolved not to make the 
good quality of the land the principal object, nor 
to buy detached parcels of the best land, but 
rather to select an undivided tract of about 



16 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

100,000 acres. In the centre of this territory of 
the Brethren a town was to be laid out, contain- 
ing the choir-houses for single brethren, single 
sisters, and widows, the educational institutions, 
and mercantile establishments. In this central 
place were also to be located a preparatory school 
for ministers and missionaries, and the directing 
boards for the outward and spiritual affairs of 
the Brethren in this their own and independent 
country. Besides this one town, the rest of the 
territory was to be parcelled out to farmers be- 
longing to the Brethren's Church. According 
to an old plan in our possession, the little capital 
of this new Moravian country was to be built in 
a circular form, the eight-cornered church to form 
the centre, to be surrounded, in a large circle, by 
six choir-houses, an apothecary-shop, and a Mo- 
ravian inn ( Gemein Logis), between which build- 
ings were to radiate eight streets, each with 
twenty town-lots, to be interspersed with gar- 
dens and rows of shade-trees in double circles. 

This was the plan made in London by Count 
Zinzendorf and other Brethren, to whom North 
Carolina was terra incognita — an utterly unknown 



NORTH CAROLINA IX It 52. IT 

country. In order to select a tract suitable for 
the intended settlement, Brother Spangenberg, 
who was well acquainted with American alfairs, 
was sent in IT 52 to reconnoitre the country and 
act according to his own judgment. But before 
we accompany him on this journey, we will add 
a few words concernino: 



THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITION OF 
NORTH CAROLINA IN 1752. 

North Carolina may justly be called the Old 
North State, containing within its borders the 
spot on which the first Anglo-Saxon ever landed; 
for in July, 1584, two ships fitted out by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and commanded by Philip Ami- 
das and Arthur Barlow, dropped their anchors 
on the sandy beach of Roanoke Island (now Cur- 
rituck County, Xorth Carolina), and the land 
was formally taken possession of in the name of 
''Elizabeth of England, as rightful queen and 
princess of the same." It was called Virginia, 
in honor of the virgin queen. The first settle- 
2* 



18 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

ment on Roanoke Island, attempted in 1585, was 
soon after abandoned, and no permanent settle- 
ment established there until 1653. 

Before this occurred, however, various parts of 
the present State of North Carolina had been 
explored by the settlers of Yirginia, and here 
and there might be found, in the midst of friendly 
Indians, small clearings of the white man, who 
had fled the religious persecution of his native 
country or the tyranny of a colonial governor. 

In 1663, King Charles IT. granted, by a pa- 
tent of March 24th, a part of Virginia, viz., "all 
the country between the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans, between 31 and 36 parallels of latitude," 
in his honor to be called Carolina, to eight noble- 
men. These eight proprietors were — 

Edward, Earl of Clarendon ; 

George, Duke of Albemarle ; 

William, Earl of Craven ; 

John, Lord Berkeley; 

Anthony, Lord A^shley ; 

Sir George Carteret ; 

Sir John Colleton ; 

Sir William Berkeley. 



NORTH CAROLINA IN 1*752. 19 

These proprietors for a long time appointed 
the governors, by whom the colonies were some- 
times well, sometimes ill managed, but still con- 
tinued to increase in numbers and to expand 
in cultivated lands. By the influence of Lord 
Granville, son of Sir George Carteret, who died 
in .1696, the General Assembly passed a law in 
n04, by which the Church of England was 
acknowledged as the established church of the 
colony, and received privileges which were de- 
nied to all dissenters. This intolerant law pro- 
duced frequent tumults among the people. In 
the beginning of the next century a new element 
was introduced into the colony by the arrival and 
settlement of a considerable number of Germans 
and Swiss. Of the 30,000 Germans who had left 
their own country to seek their fortunes in the 
Far West, about 18,000 eventually settled in 
North Carolina. About the same time, Christo- 
pher, Baron de Graffenreid, received a grant of 
10,000 acres of land on the Neuse and Cape 
Fear Rivers, and settled there a body of 1,500 
Swiss emigrants, by whom the town of New 
Berne was founded. The seat of government 



20 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

was at that time in Edenton, called so in l'r20 in 
honor of Governor Eden. 

In 1125 the boundary-line was run between 
North Carolina and Virginia, and in 1^38 the 
southern borders were more clearly defined, the 
people of South Carolina having already in It 19 
revolted from the feudal sway of the lord pro- 
prietors, and expelled their governor. Westward 
the extent of this colony was as yet quite unde- 
fined. 

Both on account of the rebellion of the South 
Carolinians, and also on account of the compara- 
tively small revenues to be derived from these 
transatlantic estates, the lord proprietors accept- 
ed the proposals of the home government, and 
in 1129 surrendered their claims to the crown, 
receiving in return the sum of 2,500 pounds ster- 
ling each. Only John, Lord Carteret, Baron of 
Harnes, afterwards Earl of Granville, concluded 
to retain his eighth part, which was laid off for 
him in 1143, adjoining Virginia. It is rather 
doubtful whether Lord Granville ever fully un- 
derstood the extent of his American possessions, 
which were bounded on the north by the Yir- 



NORTH CAROLINA IN 1152. 21 

ginia line, on the east by the Atlantic, on the 
south by a line in latitude 35° 34" from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by 
the Pacific. 

The number of inhabitants of North Carolina 
in 1Y29 scarcely amounted to 10,000, mostly scat- 
tered along the coast, in the three counties of 
Albemarle, Bath, and Clarendon. 

The immense territory of Lord Granville was 
for the most part an uninhabited and utterly un- 
known wilderness. In 1U6 Granville County 
was formed, and Anson County in 1149, which 
two counties contained the greater part of Lord 
Granville's vast possessions. In 1*753 Rowan 
County was formed from parts of Anson County, 
and comprehended most of the western part of 
the present States of :N'orth Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, covering the valley of the Yadkin, and 
extending to or even beyond the Mississippi. 



22 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



11. 

WACHOVIA. 

Bishop Spangenberg having accepted the ap- 
pointment of selecting in the trackless wilcls of 
western Carolina a tract of land of sufficient ex- 
tent for the purposes intended, left Bethlehem, in 
Pennsylvania, on the 25th of August, 1152. He 
was accompanied by the brethren, Henry An- 
tes, Timothy Horsefield, Joseph Miller, Herman 
Loesch, and John Merk, all on horseback. In 
Edenton, where they arrived September 10th, 
they were joined by Mr. Churton, the surveyor- 
general and agent of Lord Granville. They di- 
rected their course to the Catawba River, which 
they reached by the end of October, after great 
hardships. They had suffered more or less from 
fevers, especially Br. Horsefield, who had to be 
left at the last house they met, under the charge 



WACHOVIA. 23 

of Br. Miller. Br. Spangenberg and his three 
companions, the surveyor, and two hunters, were 
now at the end of all civilization, but, provided 
with bread for fourteen days, they manfully en- 
tered the forest wilderness, scarcely, however, 
anticipating that they would be wandering about 
here nearly fourteen weeks. It would be im- 
possible to give an exact account of their wan- 
derings in these trackless mountain regions of 
western Carolina. Suffice it to say that about 
eight weeks were spent in the wilderness, on the 
Catawba River, the heads of the New River, the 
Mulberry Fields (Vilkes), and the mountains, in 
fruitless attempts to make a suitable selection; 
for all the tracts which they surveyed proved too 
small for their intended purpose. Meanwhile 
winter had set in ; their supply of provisions, 
though used very sparingly, was entirely con- 
sumed, and they had to rely on the exertions of 
the two huntsmen who had accompanied them. 
But even they, though well accustomed to the 
roving forest-life, became discouraged. Game 
was not as plentiful as might be expected, and 
the pasture for the horses became more scarce. 



24 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

After three clays of fasting, two deer were sliot, 
whicli revived their strength and courage. Fol- 
lowing their compass eastward, they reached the 
river Yadkin by the end of December, and wil- 
lingly accepted the offer of some white settlers 
to spend a few days under their humble but hos- 
pitable roof. In their neighborhood, and by their 
direction, they found at last what they had been 
seeking for too far westward in vain — a larger 
tract of rolling woodland, well watered, and ap- 
parently v/ell adapted for their plans. 

December 2tth, lt52, at the southwest corner 
of the Wachovia tract, the surveyors commenced, 
and continued to January 13th, 1Y53. The tract, 
surveyed in fourteen parcels, contained "73,037 
acres. Br. Spangenberg and his companions 
having returned to Pennsylvania, Mr. Churton 
subsequently surveyed five other parcels, amount- 
ing with the other to 98,985 acres. The whole 
tract was called Wachovia, or Wachau — the Aue 
(meadow-land) along the Wach (the principal 
creek) bearing some resemblance, on account of 
its watercourses and meadow-lands, to a valley 



WACHOVIA. 25 

in Austria of the same name, which formerly was 
in possession of the Zinzendorf family. 

On August Tth, 1153, John, Earl of Granville, 
the proprietor, conveyed, according to the desire 
of Zinzendorf, by nineteen deeds, the title of this 
tract, lying in the forks of Gargalee or Muddy 
Creek, Rowan County, to James Hutton, of Lon- 
don, secretary of the Unitas Fratrum, or United 
Brethren. 

By dividing and subdividing the large county 
of Rowan, this tract has been successively in 
Rowan, IttO in Surry, 1*789 in Stokes, and since 
1848 in Forsythe County. 

The purchase of Wachovia coinciding in time 
with the great financial embarrassments of the 
Brethren in England, precluded the possibility of 
their paying the purchase-money. In order to 
obviate this difficulty, and because the American 
Brethren were yet too poor to take the responsi- 
bility upon themselves alone, it was resolved to 
form a land company, with the view of opening 
subscriptions among the members and friends of 
the Brethren, in order to obtain funds for the 
3 



26 MORAVIANS In north CAROLINA. 

payment of the land, the discharge of the annual 
quitrent, the expenses of the first settlement, the 
transportation of colonists from Pennsylvania and 
Europe, &c. The subscribers were to be reim- 
bursed for their advances by receiving tracts of 
land in Wachovia, containing each 2,000 acres, 
provided they further bound themselves to con- 
tribute, 'pro rata, to the wants of the colony for 
five years from the time of its establishment. It 
was expected that the enhanced price of the land 
would eventually repay the outlays. 

On December 18th, 1753, Br, Spangenberg 
and Cornelius van Laer in Holland were ap- 
pointed directors of this company. 

Subscribers were obtained, though not as many 
as had been anticipated, and the purchase was 
effected. The centre of the tract was reserved 
for the Moravian settlements, and the whole plan 
gradually carried out in its main features, as will 
be shown in the sequel. For this purpose, F. 
W. de Marshall came to reside in North Caro- 
lina in lt68, as attorney of J, Hutton. 

In ltt9, Fy^ed. Will, de Marshall, the adminis- 
trator of the estates of the Unity in Wachovia, 



WACHOVIA. 27 

became the legal proprietor of all the lands of 
the Brethren in North Carolina, James Hutton 
having by deed conveyed Wachovia to Marshall. 
This transfer occurred during the revolutionary 
war, and fears being entertained that by the con- 
fiscation act of North Carolina (HIT) the legal 
title might be invalidated, Hutton being an alien, 
tlie General Assembly of North Carolina in 1782 
revested in F. W. Marshall, his heirs and assigns 
forever, the Wachovia tract and all other lands 
in North Carolina which had been acquired by 
the Brethren. 

After the death of F. W. Marshall, in 1802, 
the following Brethren held the ofSce of adminis- 
trator of the Unity Estates in Wachovia : — 

Christian Lewis Benzien, 1802 — 1811 ; 

Lewis D. de Schweinitz, 1812—1821 ; 

Theodore Schultz, 1821—1844; 

Charles F. Kluge, 1844—1853. 

His successor, Emile A. de Schweinitz, is the 
present administrator. 



28 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



III. 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETHA- 
BAR A.— 1753. 

The necessary preparations for forming a set- 
tlement in the distant forest wilds of the South 
having been completed, a company of twelve 
single Brethren set out from Bethlehem, Pa., 
October 8th, 1^53.^ 

' Zuvor wurden sie durcli Pr. Petrus (P. Bohler) 
der Gemeine segnend empfolilen, und ihneu dabei zu- 
gerufen : — 

" Willst du kleine Kreuzes Caravane 
Wirklicli sclion von liinnen zieli'n, 
Nacli dem dir bestimmten richt'gen Plane, 

In den Nord von Caroline ? 
Willst dii dorten audi das Land erfreuen, 
Seel' und Glieder williglicli lierleilieu, 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETflABARA — 1753. 29 

Among these we mention especially — 
Bernhard Adam Gruhe, who was the first 
minister of the infant settlement. He had re- 
ceived ordination in Germany in 1740, had been 
actively and variously employed in Pennsylva- 
nia, and, after his return from Carolina, served 
there again as minister of different congregations 
till 1792. He died in 1808, at the advanced age 
of ninety-two years and nine months. As late 
as 1806, he expressed, in a letter to the father of 
the writer, the great interest which he took in 
the affairs of the Wachovia settlements. On his 
ninetieth birthday he ventured to walk from 
Bethlehem to Nazareth, a distance of ten miles, 
and a few days after returned on foot. 

Jacob Lbsch^ the great-grandfather of the Lash 
family of Forsythe County, born in the State of 

Ihm zu bauen eine Stadt, 
Nach dem Grundrisz, den er hat ? 
Nun so benadige dicli der Vater" u. s. w. 
Nach dem Kelch der Danksagung wurde ilmen der 
Kuss des Friedens ertheilt, dass sie fiihlen konnten : 
"Die Herzen der Gemeine sind wahrhaftig mit ihnen." 
3* 



30 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

New York, where his father had arrived in It 10, 
was intrusted with the management and superin- 
tendence of the . colony in its temporal affairs. 
He returned to Pennsylvania in 1169, and died 
in 1182. 

Hems Martin KalherlaJin, a Norwegian by 
birth, arrived in Bethlehem in September, having 
lived for several years in Herrnhaag, and cheer- 
fully accepted the appointment of surgeon and 
medical adviser to the first settlers. He died in 
1759. 

The other nine Brethren were farmers and me- 
chanics, mostly immigrants from Europe. 

They were accompanied by the Brethren Na- 
thaniel Seidel and Joseph Haberland, from Beth- 
lehem, and Gottlob Konigsdorfer, who was on a 
visit in Pennsylvania from the European congre- 
gations. 

Their route led through the western part of 
Virginia. In a wagon with six horses they car- 
ried with them various articles needed on a long 
journey over roads seldom travelled. To provide 
food for their horses, some of their number would 
go to the different farms, sometimes ten miles off 



31 

their road, and help to thresh the oats, besides 
paying its full value. Not unfrequently they had 
to unload, and carry a portion of the load over 
the mountains. Sometimes the night set in be- 
fore this task was accomplished, and thus the 
company became separated, some passing the 
night in the wagon, others sleeping under their 
tent. They generally prepared their frugal mor- 
ning meal at three o'clock, and started by the 
dawn of day, after their regular morning prayer. 
Travelling by Winchester and Augusta Court- 
House,^ Ya., a small tow^n of twenty houses in 
the mountains, after crossing the Blue Ridge at 
Evan's Gap, and passing the Upper Sauratown, 
they arrived on the 13th of November on the 
northern line of North Carolina. On Saturday, 
the l*Jtk of November, at three o'clock P. M., 
they reached the spot where stands to this day 
the town of Bethahara, now commonly called 
Old Town ; thankful to the Lord for his gracious 
help and protection vouchsafed unto them during 

' Now Staunton. 



32 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. . 

their long and toilsome journey of nearly six 
weeks. 

Here they found shelter in a small cabin, built 
and previously inhabited by a German of the 
name of Hans Wagner, but then unoccupied. 
Though this cabin was very small, scarcely af- 
fording room for all to sleep in (Br. Konigsdor- 
fer, in his hammock, being suspended over the 
heads of the others), still, they were thankful for 
even this scanty shelter, and resolved to remain 
here for the present. The daily word of the 
church, appointed for the day, seemed very ap- 
propriate : I know where thou dwellest, Rev. ii. 
13, even in a desert place. To which was added 
the admonition. Be ye of one mind. In the eve- 
ning, when keeping their first love-feast,^ they 
were forcibly reminded that it was a wilderness 

' Br. G. Konigsdorfer opened tlie evening meeting 
with tlie following verse : — 

" Wir lialten Ankunftsliebesmalil 
Im Carolin'sclien Lande, 
Mit einer led'gen Briiderzalil, 
Die Er zum Pilgerstande 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETIIABARA — 1753. 33 

{ein iv'dster Ort), for they heard the wolves howl- 
ing round about their cabin. 

The next day, being Sunday, was a real day of 
rest to the weary pilgrims ; but on the following 
day they cheerfully went to work, some sharpen- 
ing their axes and preparing their hoes, others 
beginning to construct a bakeoven, one explor- 
ing the country to find a mill where they might 
buy some corn, &c., whilst the three clerical 
Brethren (X. Seidel, Konigsdorfer, and Grube) 
were busy in the house, preparing a kind of gar- 
ret with rough boards, where they could store 
their goods. 

Perceiving that the country was very thinly 
inhabited, and that they could not rely on others 
for provisions for any length of time, they imme- 
diately set about clearing some land ; eight acres 
having been selected for that purpose on the 

GezaMt hat unter Seinem Volk, 

Die alle Welt durclizieliet, 
Als wie die grosse Zeugenvolk, 

Die Niemand, als Er, siehet." 

Diary of Bethabara, 1753. 



34 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

19th, on the days following the clearing was 
effected and the ploughing done, so that on the 
4th of December Br. J. Losch was able to sow 
the first wheat in this hitherto uncultivated soil. 
Four days after their arrival, November 21st, 
tho Brethren celebrated the Lord's supper, on 
which solemn occasion the Saviour manifested 
his presence in their midst so graciously, that 
their faith and hope were greatly strengthened, 
notwithstanding the prospect of many trials and 
difiQculties awaiting them in the prosecution of 
their labors. Difficulties of various kinds were 
not wanting. The Brethren N. Seidel, Konigs- 
dorfer, Haberland, and Lisher having left them 
for Pennsylvania, December 19tli, the remain- 
ing eleven Brethren made preparations for the 
coming winter. One was despatched to bring 
salt from Virginia, a distance of forty miles ; 
another went to the Dan River to buy oxen 
for winter use; while several took a two days' 
journey to the Yadkin, to buy flour and corn. 
They occasionally supplied themselves with game, 
such as the deer and wild turkey, and not un- 
frequently the present of a bear w^as received 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETHABARA — 1753. 35 

from a neighbor. Beaver, though scarce, were 
sometimes trapped, aud wolves and panthers 
were often heard close by at night. On Janu- 
ary 1st, 1754, their little cabin caught tire, 
which was providentially discovered, and extin- 
guished before much damage was done. A week 
later, one of their number was nearly killed by a 
falling limb whilst felling a tree. The great- 
est difficulty, however, was the want of house- 
room in their small cabin, which scarcely sufficed 
them, and proved quite too small when travellers 
wished to stay over night ; those who were inva- 
lids being attracted by the medical and surgical 
skill of Br. Kalberlahn, which was soon in great 
demand in the whole neighborhood, even to a 
distance of sixty miles. Money being scarce in 
the country, the Moravian doctor was paid in 
provisions of various kinds, or live stock, which 
materially assisted them in their general house- 
keeping. Their tailor, Br. Peterson, was also 
soon brought into requisition by the wants of 
the scattered settlers, who hitherto, if not desti- 
tute of clothing, were still in considerable straits, 
as their original stock was nearly exhausted, and 



36 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

the use of the needle and the loom not yet intro- 
duced among them. One day, for instance, a 
young man by the name of John Williams, living 
seven miles distant, brought several deerskins, 
instead of linsey woollen, for his needful nether- 
garments. In order to be able to afford their 
visitors better accommodations, a second cabin 
was erected, with a shed of split rails and posts 
to serve as general sleeping apartments. The 
garden was laid out and fenced in, and roads cut 
through the woods. Thus passed the first winter 
of the Moravians in North Carolina. 

In April, 1^54, quite unexpectedly, in com- 
pany with John Lisher (who returned from Penn- 
sylvania), Br. John Jacob Fries arrived, being 
successor of Br. Grube, who was recalled to the 
North. Br. Fries, who was born in Denmark, 
where, previous to his emigration, he had ofii- 
ciated as an assistant minister, and was known as 
an accomplished scholar, especially in the He- 
brew language, was nevertheless a very humble 
servant of the Lord, ready to do the meanest 
service for his Brethren, and peculiarly adapted 
for such a station in the wilderness. He often 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETIIABARA — 1T53. 37 

referred to that time which he spent in this pa- 
triarchal housekeeping, amidst many toils and 
great privations, as the happiest period of his 
life. Utterly averse to all formality, he pre- 
ferred to be a free servant of the Lord, instead 
of accepting any permanent appointment. lie 
assisted in preaching and teaching whenever and 
wherever he thought he could be most useful, 
even unto his eightieth year. He died in 1793. 

One day a stranger arrived, embraced the Bre- 
thren most affectionately, and said that he also 
was a Brother and a servant of the Lord, Charles 
"Wesley by name. Br. Fries had his doubts 
about the truth of this story, and, after listening 
for a while to his religious professions, advised 
him in future rather to make horses and cows 
the subject of his conversation, which would suit 
him better, and do less harm to others. He had 
scarcely gone, when a friend of the Brethren, 
from the Yadkin, came to inquire how this pre- 
tender had been received by them ; confirming 
what Br. Fries had suspected, that he loved 
whisky more than his Saviour. 

In September, Bishop P. Bohler arrived, ac- 
4 



38 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

companied by Br. Hoger. During his stay, the 
name of Bethahara (house of passage, John i. 
28, 2 Sam. xix. 19) was given to the new settle- 
ment ; still keeping in view, at a future day, the 
founding of a more central settlement, although 
it was resolved, for the present, to continue their 
present improvements. About this time more 
detailed surveys of the different parts of Wacho- 
via were made, and on that occasion names were 
given to the numerous watercourses, by which 
some of them are still known. The Cargel Creek 
was called Dorothea, in honor of Countess Zin- 
zendorf; the great Lick Fork was called '3o- 
hanna, Grave Fork was called Benigna, and the 
whole tract in cultivation received the name of 
Christiansburg, as most of the settlers had come 
from Christiansbrun, in Pennsylvania. 

Their number was increased, on October 26th, 
by the arrival of seven Brethren, led by Br. 
Christensen, who was to superintend the erection 
of a mill. A few days after their arrival a gene- 
ral muster of the militia took place. By act of 
Parliament, the Brethren were exempt from mili- 
tary duty, and their not participating caused the 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETHABARA — 1753. 39 

ill-will of their neighbors to be manifested in 
various ways. In order to vex the Brethren, 
the piece of meadow-land, just sown with grass, 
was selected and used for military exercises, 
which compelled the Brethren to repeat their 
work upon the land, and even to procure new 
seed from Pennsylvania. Some of the horses 
became frightened, and were not recovered until 
a week after. The Brethren meanwhile con- 
tinued their daily labor, and found opportunities 
to sell different articles, and thus to create a 
market for themselves. 

The necessity of erecting a suitable building 
having become more urgent by the arrival of 
these seven Brethren from Pennsylvania, on the 
26th of November, 1754, the corner-stone of the 
first house erected by them in North Carolina 
was laid with due solemnity, thus providing for 
a habitation where these Brethren, all being un- 
married, might live together in Christian fellow- 
ship. On the 11th of March this building (a 
log house) was dedicated, during a visit of Bi- 
shop David Nitschman and Christ. Thomas Ben- 
zien, and soon after the Brethren moved into it. 



40 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

It appearing desirable, according to the then 
existing customary division of the country, to 
have the district of Wachovia formed into a 
separate parish (for a separate county the num- 
ber of inhabitants was too small), Br. Christ. 
Thomas Benzien, secretary of the Wachovia Land 
Company, went to New Berne and obtained an 
act of Assembly, by which this district was de- 
clared a separate parish, by the name of Dobbs 
Parish, which name was retained until the year 

In the course of this year (1*755) the number 
of inhabitants was increased by the arrival* of 
twenty-three single Brethren and seven married 
couples, among whom was Clir. Heinr. Ranch, 
the first missionary among the Indians, as their 
spiritual guide. In the mean time the building 
of a grist-mill had been commenced, as well as a 
dwelling and meeting-house, the corner-stone of 
which was laid on October 25th. 

Both buildings were finished in the course of 
n56, the former proving of great advantage, 
not only to the inhabitants of the place, but to 
the whole neighborhood, both then, and subse- 



FIRST SETTLEMENT AT BETHABARA — 1753. 41 

quently in times of scarcity. The seven married 
couples moved into the new building in Febru- 
ary, and here, on May 11th, the first child was 
born in Bethabara, and in holy baptism received 
the name of Anna Johanna Krause. In August, 
Bishop M. Hehl paid a visit, and introduced Br. 
Christian Seidel as German minister of Betha- 
bara, while Br. Gottloh Hofman had the especial 
charge of the single Brethren, in Br. Fries's 
place, who had returned to Pennsylvania. Br. 
C. H. Ranch being appointed missionary for Ja- 
maica, Br. and Sr. David Bishop assisted in the 
special care of souls among the married people. 

The number of colonists was further increased 
by new arrivals from Pennsylvania, amounting at 
the close of 1156 to sixty-five persons (eighteen 
married people, forty-four single Brethren, one 
boy, and two infants). 

Thus, the first difficulties of a new settlement 
in the forest having been overcome, more pros- 
perous times could reasonably be expected. 



4* 



42 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



lY. 

INDIAN WAH.— BETHANIA. 
1759. 

The favoralDle prospects of the colony were 
for several years disturbed by the breaking out 
of the Indian war generally called the Old French 
War. This commenced in the northern colonies 
in It 55, and also affected the Brethren, ten Bre- 
thren and Sisters being murdered on the Mahony, 
November 24th, 1^55. Gradually it spread more 
to the south. In 11 bQ it was found expedient to 
fortify the new settlement by surrounding it with 
palisades, whence it was commonly called the 
Dutch Fort. The mill was also fortified in a 
similar manner. These fortifications, rude and 
imperfect as they no doubt were, soon became 
very important for the whole neighborhood. 
Many fugitives, even from distant parts of Yir- 



INDIAN WAR. — BETIIANIA — 1 750. 43 

ginia, there found a place of refuge and a tempo- 
rary home, and at the same time an opportunity 
to hear the word of eternal life. Some of these 
afterwards entered into a more close connection 
with the Brethren. As yet there was no real 
danger. Occasional detached companies of Che- 
rokee warriors, as also several bodies of Creek 
and Catawba Indians, passed through the settle- 
ment, or encamped near the mill. Receiving 
plenty to eat, they behaved very well, and gave 
no cause for complaint. Sometimes they were 
accompanied by British officers, who paid for 
them. At other times, coming alone, with a 
passport of the English government, they were 
freely received and hospitably entertained (the 
government of North Carolina afterwards remu- 
nerating the Moravians). In consequence, Be- 
thabara became a noted place among the Indians, 
as the "Dutch Fort, where there are good people 
and much bread." Br. Ettwein, who had come 
from Bethlehem on a visit in 1158, took an espe- 
cial interest in them, and asked a company of 
sixty warriors whether they would like it if some 
of our young people should come to their coun- 



44 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

try to learn their language ; to which they re- 
plied that they would be proud of it, it would be 
a very good thing. In HSt and 1^58 more than 
five hundred Indians passed through the settle- 
ment at various times. 

With Br. Ettwein, Br. Jacoh Rogers arrived in 
Bethabara in July, n58, having been appointed 
the first English minister of Dobbs Parish. He 
was a deacon of the Episcopal Church, had come 
to this country in 1152, and served as Moravian 
minister in Philadelphia and New York, and in 
Wachovia till 1162, when he returned to Eng- 
land. 

In consequence of the war, a famine prevailed 
in parts of North Carolina and the adjacent dis- 
tricts of Virginia, and many people resorted to 
Bethabara (some even coming the distance of 
one hundred miles) to purchase flour. The Bre- 
thren having, with the assistance of those who 
had found a place of refuge with them, cleared 
an additional sixty acres of land, were thereby 
enabled to supply them at the usual price; while, 
at the same time, they omitted no opportunity to 
point out to them the necessity of providing for 



INDIAN WAR — BETIIANIA. — 1759. 45 

the wants of tbeir souls, and seeking to obtain 
the bread of life. Some of these refugees, who 
had become concerned for the salvation of their 
souls under the preaching of the Gospel, applied 
for permission to join the church. To accommo- 
date them, as well as others of the older settlers, 
who would have preferred their own housekeep- 
ing to the general family economy, the establish- 
ment of a new settlement was resolved upon. 
With a view to find a suitable location, Br. 
Spangenberg, who had arrived on an official 
visitation, June 3, lt59, with several others, 
went to the so-called "Walnut Bottom," about 
three miles northwest of Bethabara, and there, 
on the 12th of June, selected the spot on which 
the settlement was to be formed. Thirty town- 
lots and two tracts of bottom-land were at once 
surveyed and marked off by Br. Renter, as well 
as a number of acres of upland for gardens and 
orchards, and about two thousand acres set apart 
for the use of this congregation, to which the 
name of Bethania was given. 

It was resolved that eight married couples of 
the Bethabara congregation should form the nu- 



46 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

cleus of this new settlement, and should be sup- 
ported for a year, until their houses could be 
built and some land brought into cultivation. 
The names of these first settlers, who built the 
lower part of the village, were — 

Gottfried Grabs, John Beroth, 

Balthasar Hege, Adam Kramer, 

Charles Opiz, Michael Ranke, 

Christopher Schmidt, Henry Biefifel. 

They began felling trees on July 10th, on the 
15th the lots were distributed by lot, and on the 
18th Br. Grabs with his wife occupied the first 
cabin erected there ; the daily word on that day 
being, I will fear no evil, for thou art with me, 
Ps. xxiii., which proved a word of much comfort 
to them amidst the horrors of a cruel war, and 
the consequent necessity of being on the alert 
both day and night. 

Besides these Brethren, eight neighbors were 
allowed for the present to occupy a number of 
lots in the upper part of the new settlement. 
These were — 

Martin Houser, and his two married sons, 
George and Michael Houser ; 



INDIAN WAR. — EETIIANIA. — 1^59. 47 

Henry Spocnbauer; 

John Strup ; 

Philip Shaus; 

Frederick Shore, a widower, and his son, 
_ Henry Shore. 

In 1760, Br. D. Bishop moved to Bethania, to 
keep the daily meetings. 

About the time when the new settlement was 
commenced, and all was bustle and activity in 
the Black Walnut Bottom, an alarming sickness 
broke out in Bethabara, which proved fatal in 
many cases. In quick succession were called to 
their eternal home, Sr. Mary Rogers, wife of the 
English minister ; Sr. Maria C. Seidel, and her 
husband, Christ. Gottfried Seidel, the German 
minister, only forty-one years old ; Hans Martin 
Kalberlahn, the doctor; and five other single 
Brethren and one married Sister — mostly after a 
sickness of only three or four days. Fourteen 
more were very ill, expecting their departure 
also, and twenty had a less serious attack of the 
same fever. There were but nineteen who en- 
tirely escaped this epidemic. As their physician 
had been one of the first who departed, Br. 



48 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Spangenberg became not only the spiritual, but 
also the medical adviser of bis Brethren. 

In Br. Seidel's stead, John Ettivein^ who had 
returned to Pennsylvania, was recalled to Wacho- 
via. Accompanied by his wife, they accomplished 
the long and tedious journey on horseback. Dur- 
ing the trip, Br. Ettwein suffered much from a 
severe attack of fever. For the space of nine 
days he was daily compelled to lie upon the 
ground five or six hours, losing all consciousness 
from the severity of the fever, Sr. Spangenberg 
was also sick for several months, which obliged 
her husband to remain longer than he had in- 
tended. This was very fortunate, as he proved 
the very man to advise and direct his Brethren 
in the real difficulties and dangers of the Indian 
war, which recommenced in October, It 59. 

The Cherokees and Creeks having declared 
war against all the white people, and murdered 
seven persons near Fort Loudon, the North Ca- 
rolina militia was ordered to assemble in Salis- 
bury, in November, n59. The Brethren being 
exempt from military service, remained on their 
land, and Br. Losch received a commission as 



INDIAN WAR. — RETIIANIA. — IT 59. 40 

captain of the " Dutch Fort" and governor of 
the watches in Bethabara and Cethania. Almost 
daily, either ]3r. Spangenberg or Br. Ettwein, 
accompanied by some Brethren, went to Betha- 
nia, one going and remaining there, the others re- 
turning. "On one occasion," Br. Ettwein relates 
(probal)ly in March, 1760), "when early in the 
morning the tracks of Indians had been observed, 
the accompanying Brethren w^ere rather fearful, 
because we generally rode quite slowly, and were 
talking among themselves how they might make 
Spangenberg ride faster. When they came to 
the dense woods, where the most danger was to 
be apprehended, Spangenberg said : 'You don't 
know how to ride; let me lead.' " Saying which, 
he set off at full speed, never stopping till they 
came to Bethania. There Spangenberg remained, 
whilst he returned to Bethabara, but was treated 
with less ceremony. "'It is not yet safe,' my 
companions said ; ' we must ride as fast as we 
can ; Spangenberg has also done so ;' and thus 
we were racing day after day." It was subse- 
5 



50 MOHAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

quently proved that tliis precaution, as well as 
the orders of Br. Spangenberg to have the church- 
bell rung every morning at dawn of day, was not 
needless. Often in the morning the traces of In- 
dians were found quite near the houses, and it 
was afterwards ascertained, through some who 
had been prisoners among the Indians, that one 
hundred and fifty of their warriors had encamped 
for nearly six weeks about six miles from Betha- 
nia, whilst a smaller camp was only three miles 
distant. Several times they \vere on the point 
of attacking the Fort of the Dutch, but when 
they came near they heard the big bell, a sign 
that they had been discovered. Their design of 
taking prisoners between the old and new town 
had also been unsuccessful ; " for," as they ex- 
pressed it, "the Dutchers had big, fat horses, 
and rode like the devil." Thus, under the kind 
providence of God, no assault was made upon 
either of the two settlements ; but still a strict 
watch was kept by day and night, the new bury- 
ing-ground, which was cleared in December, 
1757 (being situated on the top of a very high 



INDIAN WAR. — BETHANIA. — 1T59. 51 

hill), proving a very convenient place for this 
purpose.* 

' Hence called the Gutherg. 

The following hymn was composed by Br. Ettwein 
for the watchman, March 27, 17G0 : — 

" Die Loosung hiess : ' Sie liielten "Wacht 
Urn's Hause Gott's audi in der Nacht.' 
Da fall'n mir die Liturgi ein 
Die Briider, die bestellet sein 
Zii wachen um uns in Bethabara 
Und auch die draussen in Bethania. 

" Ich wiinsche Jedem, der da wach't 
Um die Gemein', bei Tag und Nacht, 
Ein klares Aug', ein leises Ohr, 
Ein muthiges Herz, wenn was kommt vor, 
Und dass eines der starken Engelein 
Mag immer mit ilim auf dem Posten seiu. 

" So wird, wenn auch des Satans Heer 
Der Wilden zehnmal starker war', 
Und Satan kame selber mit 
Zu attaquiren unsere Hiitt', 
Doch unser Hiiuflein in der Ruh' nicht Sturen, 
Dieweilen wir in Jesu Reich gehoren. 



52 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

During this time, a man wounded by the In- 
dians arrived in Bethabara, with two arrows still 
in his body. He had started out, accompanied 
by two others, to obtain provisions from some 
of the neighbors, but suddenly they found them- 
selves surrounded by Indians, who, after dis- 
charging their guns without effect, attacked them 
with bows and arrows. His two companions 
were killed upon the spot; he himself, however, 
escaped, and, though thus wounded, reached and 
forded the Yadkin River, but, meeting Indians 
on the opposite side, recrossed the stream, and, 
after losing his way and wandering about twenty- 
four hours in the woods, he arrived at the Dutch 
Fort, where Br. Lash extracted the arrows, one 
of which had nearly pierced him through. 

A Baptist preacher, John Thomas, was killed 
near Abbot's Creek by the Indians. In a short 

" Wenn Gott nur immer mit uns ist, 
So kann uns keines Feindes List, 
Noch Zorn und Maclit liier etwas tliun, 
Wir konnen saiift mid selig riili'n ; 
Denn seine starken Helden lialten Waclit 
Und unsere Briider geben treulich aclit." 



INDIAN WAR. — BETIIANIA — 1759. 53 

space of time no less than fifteen persons were 
murdered in the neighborhood. 

A fall of snow in March caused the enemy 
finally to retire, whereby quiet was restored, so 
that the blessed season for commemorating the 
Saviour's sufferings, death, and resurrection 
proved a time of rich spiritual enjoyment. On 
Easter-Sunday a company of Orange County 
riflemen, sixty persons, arrived, and requested 
Br. Spangenberg, as the German preaching was 
just closed, to preach again for them, in the Eng- 
lish language, with which request he cheerfully 
complied, selecting Acts ii. 36 for his text. The 
whole company, having laid down their arms be- 
fore the house, listened with awe and attention to 
the fatherly admonition of the venerable Bishop, 
whose words seemed to make a deep impression 
on many. 

On April 2Tth, Br. Spangenberg finished his 
labors in Wachovia, and returned again to Penn- 
sylvania. He left for Europe in 1762, where he 
served the Brethren's Unity as an active and 
influential member of the Unity's Elders' Confer- 
ence, nearly thirty years. lie died in Berthels- 
5* 



54 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

dorf, in Saxony, September 18tb, 1192, at the 
advanced age of eiglity-eiglit years. 

In n61, the war with the Indians was brouo-ht 
to a close. The South Carolina militia having 
entered, near Fort Prince George, the country of 
the Cherokees east of the mountains, burnt about 
eight hundred houses, and laid waste thirteen 
hundred acres of Indian-corn, the Indians were 
forced to sue for peace, while, at the same time, 
the transmontane Cherokees were subdued by 
the Yirginians. The latter were assisted by 
North Carolina troops, and supplied with large 
quantities of flour from the Bethabara mill. 

Peace being fully restored, in the following 
year (1762) a company of fifteen Brethren and 
Sisters arrived from Pennsylvania, by way of 
Wilmington, among whom were the Brethren 
John Michael Graff (died 1^82 as Bishop) and 
Abraham de Gammern, both appointed to offices 
in this settlement. They brought with them a 
small organ, the first in this place, an instrument 
at that time little known in the colony, and also 
a bell for Bethania. In July, eight couples were 
married, among them L. G. Bachhoff, minister of 



INDIAN WAR. — BETIIANIA. — 1750. 55 

Betliania. Br. Ettwein undertook a long mis- 
sionary journey as far as Charleston, preaching 
and holding meetings wherever opportunity of- 
fered. 

At the close of the year the congregation of 
Bethabara numbered seventy-five, and Bethania 
seventy-two souls. 



58 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



Y. 



FEEDEIC WILLIAM DE MAE- 
SHALL. 

In 1163, Br. Marshall was appointed Q^cono- 
mius of Wachovia, i, e. superintendent of all the 
temporal and outward affairs of the Brethren in 
these new settlements, which office he retained 
until his death in 1802. 

As he has certainly acted the most conspicu- 
ous part in the affairs of Wachovia, and may be 
called the founder of Salem, a short biographical 
sketch may with propriety find its place here. 

His father, George Rudolph Marshall, of Ilerrn 
Grosserstaedt, was an officer in the Saxon army. 
Having lost his right arm in Poland, and thereby 
disabled for active service, he became commander 
of the garrison of Stolpen, and afterwards of the 
fortress Konigstein. In the former town, Stol- 



FREDRIC WILLIAM DE MARSHALL. 5T 

pen, near Dresden, Freclr. \Yill. de Marshall was 
born, February 5tb, 1121. lie and bis tbree 
brotbers received a christian, but at the same 
time a very strict military education, by which be 
in early years was prepared for many hardships, 
and acquired those traits of punctuality and me- 
thodical order which were essential qualifications 
for his future usefulness. 

Ilis parents were desirous that he should enter 
the military service, or fill some office at the court 
of the King of Saxony. But the King of Kings 
bad selected him for his service as a soldier of 
the cross, and a champion of the truth, as it is in 
Christ Jesus. By means of a pious tutor, named 
Bretschneider, he was not only led to seek the 
Lord, but also became acquainted with the Bre- 
thren at Herrnhut. This acquaintance was cul- 
tivated and strengthened by a visit which he 
made to that place whilst a student at the Uni- 
versity of Leipzig. At the latter place he 
attended a meeting held by Count Zinzendorf, 
in which he felt the inward conviction that he 
would serve the Lord in the Brethren's church, 
for which purpose he studied the English Ian- 



58 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

guage. At the especial invitation of Count 
Zinzendorf, he came to Herrnhaag in 1139, and 
soon after became a member of the Brethren's 
congregation. From this time forward he de- 
voted all his talents to the church of his adop- 
tion, and proved himself a faithful servant of the 
Lord for upwards of sixty-two years. 

According to his own calculation, he spent 
thirty-one years in the German congregations, 
fifteen in England, one and a half in Holland 
and Prussia, thirty-two and a half in North 
America, and fifteen months at sea. 

Concerning the earlier part of his activity in 
Germany and England, it will sufBce to say that 
preaching the Gospel, attending conferences and 
synods, and superintending the erection of large 
buildings {e. g. Lindsay-house in London), fully 
occupied his time, and often tasked his strength 
to the utmost. He took an active part in the 
negotiations with the British Parliament, to 
which reference was made at the beginning of 
our narrative. 

In 1^50 he married Hedwig Elizabeth de 
Schweinitz, who proved a faithful and efficient 



FREDRIC TVILLIAM DE MARSHALL. 59 

helpmate, and departed Ibis life in It 05. His 
eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, married, in 17 1 7, 
Hans Christian Alexander de Schweinitz, the 
grandfather both of the present administrator 
of the Unity's possessions in Pennsylvania, E. 
A. Friiauff, and in North Carolina, E. A. dc 
Schweinitz. 

After the death of Count Zinzendorf, with 
whom he had been in the most intimate con- 
nection, and for years in daily intercourse, he 
became a member of the first Directorial JBoard 
of the Unity, and, as such, in IT 61, visited Penn- 
sylvania, to assist in dissolving the family eco- 
nomy existing in Bethlehem and Nazareth, and 
afterwards to superintend the settlement of the 
central town on the Wachovia tract. Being de- 
layed by the second Indian war of 1763, he 
could not venture to travel south before the fall 
of 1764. After returning to Europe, he in 1768 
removed with his family to Bethabara. 

In 1775 he attended the General Synod of the 
church, held at Barby, in Saxony, where he was 
detained, on account of the revolutionary war, 



60 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

until 1719, when be succeeded in reaching New- 
York, and afterwards Salem, in safety. 

There he remained, active, energetic, faithful, 
and self-denying, in the service of his Lord and 
Master, to the day of his departure, which took 
place February 11, 1802, six days after he had 
finished the eighty-first year of his pilgrimage on 
earth. 

The 14th of February — the day on which, 
thirty-seven years before, he had selected the 
site for the town of Salem — the same on which, 
thirty-three years before, he had reached Betha- 
bara with his wife — was the day of his interment 
in the shady grove of Salem's ''acre of God." 



SALEM. — 17 GG. Gl 



yr. 

SALEM.— 1T6G. 

Br. Marshall had been appointed director of 
the secular affairs in Wachovia, and Br. Ettwein 
his assistant until he himself could remove to the 
South. It had been recommended by the Gene- 
ral Board of the Unity that the place for the 
central settlement, Avhich, by direction of the late 
Count Zinzendorf, previous to his departure in 
May, 1760, was to be called Salem, should be 
determined upon as soon as possible. Therefore, 
in 1765, during the temporary presence of Br. 
Marshall and John Frommelt, a spot was selected 
which seemed suitable for the intended purpose. 
The situation was nearly central, between the 
Middle Fork, or Wach, the Brushy Fork, or 
Lick, and the Petersbach. The daily word on 
that day, February 14th, was very encouraging : 
6 



62 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Let Thine eyes be opened towards this house 
night and day, even toward the place of which 
Thou hast said, My name shall be there. 1 Kings 
viii. 29. 

Meanwhile the number of inhabitants had been 
increased by new arrivals from Pennsylvania and 
from Europe. In 1164 two companies arrived 
from Pennsylvania, the first consisting of eight 
adult persons, the second of twelve youths, led 
by Br. Lawrence Bagge, who succeeded Br. Hoff- 
man as spiritual guide of the single Brethren. 
In January, 1766, the first company direct from 
Europe, consisting of one married couple and 
eight single Brethren, arrived, by way of Charles- 
ton. Four of these and four residents of Betha- 
bara removed on the 19th of February to a log 
house^ erected in the woods, for which the first 

' This log house is still standing, though consider- 
ably enlarged, and used as a potter-shop. 

In June, 1766, the corner-stone was laid for the first 
family house, which was finished in August. Br. Prae- 
zel put up his loom there, and Charles Holder com- 
menced the saddlery business. This house is still 



SALEM.— ITGG. 63 

tree had been cut clown on January Gth. On the 
following clay, the 20th of February, Br. Renter 
surveyed the ridge, and laid out the sciuare of the 
future town of Salera. The names of the first 
settlers were — 

Gotfried Praezel, from Europe. 

Niels Peterson, 

Jens Schmidt, 

John Birkhead, 

George Holder, from Bethabara. 

Jacob Steiner, " " 

Michael Ziegler, " " 

Melchior Rasp, 

Going to their solitary hut in the woods, they 
were so fortunate as to kill two deer, part of 
which Br. Peterson prepared for dinner. The 
first dwelling-house was finished in August. 

In October and November of the same year 

standing, and may easily be recognized by its dilapi- 
dated appearance. 

A two-story building, commenced in the same year, 
and finished the nest, served as a meeting-house till 
1771. 



64 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

two companies arrived from Pennsylvania, the 
first consisting of eight youths, four single Bre- 
thren, and one widower, the latter of sixteen Sis- 
ters or girls, accompanied by Br. Bichard Utley, 
who now entered as English minister of Dobbs 
Parish. Previous to this arrival, Br. M. Schropp 
had entered upon his duties as warden, Br. A. v. 
Gammern having been called to his eternal home 
the year before. 

Br. Ettwein, who had continued from time to 
time to visit in South Carolina, and embraced 
many opportunities for preaching the Gospel in 
the vicinity of the Congaree, Saluda, and Broad 
Kivers, after serving the Lord faithfully in various 
capacities for seven years, now returned to Penn- 
sylvania, having been appointed a member of the 
General Conference at Bethlehem. At the close 
of the year Bethabara contained one hundred and 
twenty-two inhabitants, and Bethania, eighty- 
seven. 

After the death of Br. M. Schropp, in Sep- 
tember, 11Q1, the Brn. Graff, Utley, L. Bagge, 
and J. Loesch formed a Diaconsis Conference, 
and managed the secular affairs of the three set- 



SALEM.— 1766. 65 

tlcracnts till Br. Marshall arrived, ia 1168, ac- 
companied by Trangott Bagge, merchant, and 
several other Brethren from Europe.* 

Br. Marshall now entered permanently upon 
the duties -of his office, and under his energetic 
administration of affairs the work of the new 

' In 1770 four single Brethren arrived from Europe. 
One of these, John Klein, appointed to superintend the 
outward affairs of the congregation of Salem as warden, 
whilst on a journey to Cross Creek (now Fayetteville), 
was drowned in attempting to ford Little River. His 
body was afterwards recovered and brought to Salem. 

Two others, T. Nissen (afterwards minister in Fried- 
land) and A. Brosing, experienced a remarkable pre- 
servation of their lives. Returning in a wagon from 
Salisbury, they found that the ferry-boat, on which 
they hoped to cross the river, had been taken away. 
The driver resolved to ford the river, though warned 
not to do so, as the water was very deep. They had 
scarcely entered, when the horses commenced swim- 
ming, and the wagon rolled over twice. The driver 
and three horses were drowned, but the two Brethren 
succeeded in gaining a footing on the top of the wagon, 
and remained in this perilous situation for two hours, 
until they were rescued by a canoe. 



66 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

settlers progressed rapidly. In Htl Br. Paul 
Tiersch arrived as the first minister of the future 
Salem congregation. He was soon after followed 
by the Brethren John Lorez and Christian Gre- 
gor, from Germany, accompanied by Br. Ettwein, 
from Bethlehem. These Brethren, with Br. H. 
C. A. de Schweinitz, from Bethlehem, had been 
commissioned by the General Board of the Unity 
to visit the congregations in North America. 
During this visit several important changes were 
made. The superintendence of the affairs of 
Wachovia, hitherto vested in the General Board 
in Bethlehem, was transferred to a separate Board 
of Directors constituted for this province, con- 
sisting of the Brethren Marshall, Graff, Tiersch, 
and TJtley ; and the system of common house- 
keeping, hitherto maintained in Bethabara, and 
partly in Salem, was relinquished. In 1712 a 
separation of the two congregations took place, 
the majority of the inhabitants of Bethabara re- 
moving to Salem, which novf became the centre 
of trade and commerce in Wachovia. By these 
measures the original design of establishing one 
principal central congregation was carried out, 



SALEM.— 17 GG. BY 

nineteen years after the arrival of the first Bre- 
thren in Wachovia. 

At the close of 1712 the congregation of Sa- 
lem contained thirty-eight married Brethren and 
Sisters, two widows, forty-three single Brethren 
and youths, twenty-two single Sisters and girls, 
and fifteen children — one hundred and twenty 
persons in all. 

Among the married people were the following, 
as first settlers in Salem : — 

F. W. Marshall, director of outward affairs ; 

Kev. P. Tiersch, minister; 

Pvev. R. Utley, warden ; 

Pan. Schnepf; 

Matthew IMiksch ; 

George Holder ; 

Jacob Meyer ; 

Jacob Steiner ; 

Traugott Bagge, merchant ; 

John Henry Herbst ; 

Charles Holder ; 

Yalentihe Beck ; 

Philip Meyer ; 

Chr. Gottl. Pveuter : 



68 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Jacob Bonn, physician ; 

J. G. Stockburger; 

Gottfried Aust. 

In 1T73 Br. Graff moved from Bethabara to 
Salem. In June he had been consecrated a 
bishop of the Brethren's church in Bethlehem, 
by the Bishops M. Hehl and N. Seidel, and in 
October he ordained the Brethren L. G. Bach- 
hof and J. J. Ernst deacons of the Brethren's 
church, the latter being appointed minister of 
Bethania, and the former minister of the new 
congregation of Friedberg. 



FKIEDBERG. — In 2. 69 



yii. 
FHIEDBERG.— 1772. 

In August, 1154, not quite a year after the 
arrival of the first Moravian settlers in Wacho- 
via, Adam Spach^ settled about three miles from 
tlie southern line of the land of the Brethren. 
In September (19th) he visited Bethabara for 
the first time, to become acquainted with his 
nearest German neighbors, and cut a road from 
his house to Bethabara. At a second visit, in 
December, he requested the Brethren from time 
to time to send one of their number to hold 
meetings in his house ; but, for various reasons, 

' Adam Spach, bom in 1720, in Pfaifenhofen, Alsace, 
came in 1754 to North Carolina ; died in 1801, leaving 
nine children. His daughter, Johanna, born in 1766, 
is still living at Salem. 



*rO MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

this request could not be complied with at that 
time. During the first alarms of the Indian war, 
he and his wife were among those who took 
refuge in the Dutch Fort. 

At his oft-repeated and urgent solicitations, 
Br. Bachhof visited Adam Spach on November 
26th, n58, and preached in his house, eight Ger- 
man families having assembled there for the pur- 
pose. The commencement was thus made, and 
preaching at this place continued at intervals, 
the number of hearers gradually increasing, and 
at one time considerably augmented by the ar- 
rival of some families from Pennsylvania, pre- 
viously in connection with the congregations at 
Heidelberg and York, who now settled in this 
neighborhood. 

A meeting-house would have been built by 
them at once, if they could have received any 
promise or assurance of receiving a stationed 
minister. Thus matters remained until 1706, 
when, in answer to their petition, they received 
the promise that a minister should be stationed 
among them, which caused them to prepare im- 
mediately for the building of a meeting-house. 



FRIEDBERG. — 1112. Tl 

During the preparations of tlie building, Peter 
Frey died, and was buried in the present Fried- 
berg burying-ground. 

The house being finished, Br. Utley conse- 
crated the same on March lltli, 1160, and kept 
a love-feast for all those who desired to become 
members of the new congregation. On the 12th 
he preached publicly, and baptized two children, 
viz., Joseph Frey and John Walk. 

They now had stated service every four weeks, 
and very soon fourteen married couples pledged 
themselves to the support of a resident minister. 
Their names were — 

Valentine Frey, John Nicol. Boeckel, 

Christian Frey, Fred. Boeckel, _ 

Peter Frey, Jacob Graeter, 

George Frey, Martin Walk, 

George Ilartman, Peter Yolts, 

Adam Ilartman, Adam Spach, 

John Mueller, Christian Stauber. 

On February 18th, 1770, Br. L. G. Bachhof 
was introduced as their minister by the Brethren 
Graff and Utley. 

In January, 1772, this society was formally 



12 ^lOllAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

constituted a, INIor.ivian l>retlivcirs CongTcgaiion, 
by the name of Friedherg (hill of peace), in 
Avliich, besides the preaching of the Cospel and 
other means of grace, the sacraments were hence- 
forth regularly administered, the first comraunioii 
being held January Hth, l'[t2. 

In nC)8 (February 19th) the corner-stone was 
laid for a larger church, which was consecrated 
May 12th, ItSS, and served till 182t, when the 
present church was finished and solemnly dedi- 
cated. 



FRIEDLAND.— 1180. 13 



YIII. 
FRIEDL AND.— 1780. 

In nC9, quite unexpectedly, six German fami- 
lies arrived from Broad Bay, in Maine. They 
originally belonged to a larger company of emi- 
grants from the Palatinate and Wurtemberg, 
who, about the year 1138 or 39 had landed near 
Broad Bay and the Muscongus River, in the 
province of Maine. There they had settled, and 
founded the town of Waldoboro', so called in 
honor of the principal original proprietor of the 
soil. General Waldo. They were Protestants, 
either Lutherans or German Reformed, but for 
a long while destitute of the means of grace. 
Since 1162, Br. George Soelh, who, before he 
entered the church of the Brethren, had been a 
Lutheran pastor in Denmark, visited them from 
time to time. Thus they became acquainted 
1 



^4 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

with the Brethren, and soon began to build a 
meeting-house, with a view of retaining Br. 
Soelle there as their resident minister. But as 
there were legal difficulties concerning their title 
deeds, and they could not enjoy full religious 
liberty, they resolved, according to Br. Soelle's 
suggestion, to emigrate to North Carolina. 
Having been shipwrecked on the coast of Yir- 
ginia, they arrived, by way of Wilmington, in 
November, n69, on the Wachovia tract, poor, 
wayworn, and many of them in ill health. 

As the Brethren had not been apprized of 
their intentions, no preparations had been made 
for them. Some found a temporary home in 
Bethabara, others in Salem, where some new 
houses were yet unoccupied. In the following 
year they were joined by another company of 
eight families, with whom. Br. Soelle arrived."^ 
Not wishing to remain in Salem, they resolved 

' The last survivor of these first settlers, Elizabeth 
Ilein, late Vogler, died near Friedland, April 7th, 1855, 
at the advanced age of eighty-five years and three 
months. 



FRIEDLAND. — IT 80. tS 

to commence a settlement of their own on the 
southeast corner of the Wachovia tract, where 
nine lots, of two hundred acres each, were sold 
to them, and thirty acres in the centre being 
reserved for a meeting-house and school pur- 
poses. In 1T71 nine houses were finished and 
occupied, and the settlement received the name 
of Friedland (land of peace). 

In February, 1772, the corner-stone was laid 
of the house destined for church and school pur- 
poses. This house was consecrated to the wor- 
ship of the Lord on the 18th of February, 1775, 
and Br. Tycho Xissen was introduced as minis- 
ter. The names of the members of this society 
in connection with the Brethren's church were — 

John Peter and Elizabeth Kroehn, 

Michael and Catharine Rominger, 

Christopher Philip and Barbara Yogler, 

Melchior and Jacobina Schneider, 

Frederick and Salonn Kuenzel, 

Michael and Elizabeth Seiz, 

Jacob and Barbara Rominger, 

Frederick and Anna Maria Miller, 

Jacob and Maro-aret Hein, 



1 6 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Peter and Elizabeth Schneider, 

John and Catharine Lanius, 

Peter and Elizabeth Fiedler, 

George Frederick and Gertrude Hahn, 

Jacob and Elizabeth Ried. 

In September, 1Y80, this society, which had 
meanwhile increased to forty persons, received a 
regular constitution as a congregation in fall 
communion with the Brethren's church. 



HOPE. — 1780. 11 



IX. 
HOPE.— 1780. 

As early as the year 1T58, the Brethren Ro- 
gers and Ettwein had kept meetings on the 
southwestern borders of Wachovia, having been 
invited there by Christopher Elrod and John 
Douthit, who had enjoyed the protection and 
hospitality of the Brethren whilst fugitives to 
the "Dutch Fort" during the Indian war. They 
repeatedly expressed their desire of entering 
into a more close fellowship with the Moravian 
Brethren, and soon attached themselves to the 
congregation at Friedberg. 

But as this was an entirely German congre- 
gation, they desired to have an English Brother 
residing in their midst. After some years, their 
numbers increased by the arrival of several En-g- 



T8 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

lish families from Carrol's Manor, in Marjlancl, 
where Br. Joseph Powell had preached the Gos- 
pel to them for some years. These were followed 
by others a year or two later, all settling in the 
southwest corner of the Wachovia tract, near 
the Muddy Creek. For the time they partici- 
pated in the enjoyment of the means of grace at 
the neighboring congregation of Friedberg, the 
Brethren Utley and Soelle attending to the Eng- 
lish part of the congregation. 

In 1775 the building of a meeting-house at 
Hope was commenced, but not completed until 
the spring of 1780. 

On the 28th of March, 1780, the house was 
solemnly dedicated to the worship of God, and 
Br. John Christian Fritz placed in charge of the 
little flock of Christ, which was, on the 28th of 
August following, fully constituted a congrega- 
tion of the Brethren's church. On this day, the 
28th of August, 1780, two married couples, viz., 
John and Mary Padgett, and Benjamin and Mary 
Chitty, were added to the congregation ; and on 
the 24th of September the first children, William 
Pettycord and Elizabeth Ellrod, were baptized. 



HorE.— ItSO. TO 

The holy communion was administered for the 
first time on October 14th, to eight communi- 
cants. 

The burial-ground at Hope was laid out dur- 
ing the same year. 



80 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



X. 
EEVOLUTIONAEY WAR. 

The Moravian Church, as a body, has always 
endeavored to abstain from any participation in 
the political movements of the diiferent countries 
to which the Lord in his providence has led 
them. Without prescribing anything in this 
respect to the individual members of the church, 
leaving it to every one to cherish monarchical or 
republican sentiments, to be unbiased in his po- 
litical views, the church and all its governing 
bodies have ever acknowledged and acted upon 
the plain Gospel principle of submitting them- 
selves to every ordinance of men for the Lord's 
sake, 1 Peter ii. 13; and, as faithful and loyal 
subjects, conscientiously to obey the laws of the 
land in which the Lord has placed them, and to 
love and honor their rulers and governors. 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 81 

Being conscientiously averse to bearing arms 
and taking oaths, tliey — in the earlier times of 
the renewed Brethren's church — would never re- 
sort to violent measures for redressing their own 
grievances, nor participate in any measures of 
this kind adopted by others. 

They therefore endeavored everywhere to com- 
ply with the apostolic exhortation, that, first of 
all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giv- 
ing of thanks be made for all men, for kings and 
for all that are in authority, that we may lead a 
quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and 
honesty. 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. 

Moreover, in {jreat Britain and all the English 
colonies they received important privileges by 
the act of Parliament of 1149. It was then 
enacted, "That from and after the 24th day of 
June, 1149, every person being a member of 
said Protestant Episcopal Church, known by 
the name of Unitas Fratrum, or the United 
Brethren, and which church was formerly set- 
tled in Moravia and Bohemia, and are now in 
Prussia, Poland, Silesia, Lusatia, Germany, the 
United Provinces, and also in His Majesty's 



82 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

dominions, who shall be required upon any 
lawful occasion to take an oath in any case 
where by law an oath is or shall be required, 
shall, instead of the usual form, be permitted 
to make his or her solemn affirmation or de- 
claration in these words following: 'I, A. B., 
do declare, in the presence of Almighty God, 
the witness of the truth of what I say.' Which 
said solemn affirmation or declaration shall be 
adjudged and taken, and is hereby enacted 
and declared to be of the same force and effect, 
to all intents and purposes, in all courts of 
justice or other places where by law an oath 
is or shall be required within the kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and also in all and 
every of His Majesty's colonies and dominions 
in America, as if such person had taken an 
oath in the usual form." 
Furthermore it was enacted, "That every mem- 
ber of the said church or congregation, resid- 
ing in any of His Majesty's colonies in Ame- 
rica, who shall at any time after the said 24th 
day of June, 1749, be summoned to bear arms 
or do military service in any of His Majesty's 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 83" 



said colouies or provinces of America, shall, 
on bis application to the governor or com- 
mander-in-chief of the said colony or province, 
or to such officer or person by whom such per- 
son shall have been summoned or required to 
serve or be mustered, be discharged from such 
personal service : Provided, That such person, 
so desiring to be discharged from such per- 
sonal service, contribute and pay such sum of 
money as shall be rated and assessed on him 
in lieu of such personal service, so as such 
sum shall be rated, assessed, and levied, and 
be in such proportion as is usually rated, as* 
sessed, levied, and paid by other persons resid- 
ing in the same colony or province, who are 
by reason of age, sex, or other infirmity un- 
able to do personal service, and who are pos- 
sessed of estates of the same nature as the 
persons desiring such discharge." 
Further it was enacted that this privilege 
should be extended only to those who could pro- 
cure a certificate, signed by a bishop or pastor, 
proving their church-membership. 

Now, when in ^768, by the many acts of op- 



84 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

pression on the part of Governor Try on, the 
associations of the " Regulators" were formed, 
the Moravians in North Carolina took no part 
whatever in these movements, either for or 
against the governor, or the Regulators. Hence 
they were looked upon with a suspicious eye by 
both parties. In ITH civil war was fully de- 
clared. Many deserted their plantations to join 
the army, which was collecting near New Garden, 
Guilford County, to fight against the governor, 
and publicly declared that the Moravians, and all 
those who had not assisted them, should after 
harvest give the half of their produce to those 
who had done the fighting. At the same time it 
was insinuated to the governor that the Brethren 
secretly supported the Regulators. 

On May 16th a battle was fought on the road 
leading from Hillsborough to Salisbury, five miles 
west of the Great Alamance River, the forces of 
the Regulators being about two thousand men, 
those of the governor eleven hundred. The 
action lasted about two hours, and resulted in 
the total defeat of the Regulators. 

On his march westward, th% governor reached 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 85 

Betliabara on June 4tb, and encamped there 
with his army several days. About three hun- 
dred horses enjoyed the fine crop of grass in the 
hirge fifty-acre meadow, for which, however, the 
Brethren were paid. 

The Brethren refrained, for conscience sake, 
from taking any active part in the struggle for 
independence. But, at the samq time, they were 
perfectly willing to bear their part of the bur- 
den imposed by the troubles of the war on the 
land of their adoption. 

In the beginning of ITYG some from these 
parts joined the army collecting at Cross Creek 
(now Fayetteville) to oppose the Highlanders, 
who had come to the support of Governor Josiah 
Martin. During this time some wagons from 
the Moravian settlements were sent to Cross 
Creek for salt. Being seen there, the report was 
spread that, under the pretence of bringing salt, 
munitions of war had been carried up the coun- 
try, and secreted in the Moravian settlements. 
Thereupon, after the battle of Moore's Creek, in 
which the Tory army was defeated, the Com- 
mittee of Safety, at Salisbury, sent a commis- 
8 



86 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

sion, consisting of seven officers and sixty men, 
to investigate the trutli of the report. Febru- 
ary 14th and 15th the three Moravian towns 
were visited, and the officers had abundant op- 
portunity of convincing themselves of the per- 
fectly peaceful character of the inhabitants. The 
Brethren, on their part, gave them a written 
declaration that they would submit to all re- 
quirements of the existing government of the 
province, but should not meddle in any way with 
the political movements of the country. The 
commissioners, on their part, gave them a cer- 
tificate that the rumors referred to above were 
ungrounded, and that no one should molest the 
Moravians. Soon after. Bishop Graff was cited 
to appear before the Committee of Safety, in 
Salisbury, to answer for an intercepted package 
from Europe; which, however, contained nothing 
of a political nature, but only the regular ac- 
counts of other Moravian settlements. 

In im the Brethren were required to take 
part in the military service. They objected, 
from conscientious motives, declaring again that 
they should not refuse any tax or contribution 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 8T 

laid upon them by the existing government. 
This tax was a heavy burden, especially as the 
price of provisions was very high, corn selling 
at eight shillings, and salt at six pounds tea 
shillings per bushel. 

But still more trying was the so-called " Test 
Act," of nV5, requiring of every one an oath of 
fealty to the Government of the United States, 
and connected with it an oath of abjuration to 
King George. In case of refusal, expatriation 
and confiscation of property was threatened. 

On this account, the Brothers T. Bagge and 
Blum were sent in August with a petition to the 
State Assembly which held its sessions at Hills- 
borough, by which, however, only so much was 
obtained, that the enforcement of this act should 
be postponed till the following year. A Brother 
was sent to Bethlehem to consult with the Bre- 
thren there, who were in the same difficulties and 
at a loss how to act. Meanwhile many, espe- 
cially the younger portion of the Moravians, 
voluntarily took the State oath, whilst the older 
and most influential members refused to do so. 

Some of the neighbors, believing that the 



88 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Moravians would surely be driven from the coun- 
try, began to enter different parcels of their lands, 
supposing that no lawful deeds were in existence ; 
and even the town plots of Salem and Bethlehem, 
as also the two mills, were entered by some specu- 
lating neighbors at the rate of 50 shillings, Con- 
tinental money, for 100 acres. That there was 
considerable danger of the Moravians losing the 
title of their land there is no doubt, especially as 
the transfer of the legal title from James Hutton, 
of London, to Fred. W. Marshall, a naturalized 
citizen of North Carolina, had taken place after 
the passage of the Confiscation Act of North 
Carolina in 1111, and the legal proprietors were, 
at that time, absent in Europe. 

But the wisdom of this world is often con- 
founded by the simple faith of the children of 
God. When the Wachovia land had been bought 
from Lord Granville, Count Zinzendorf, against 
the advice of learned men of the town, insisted 
on it, that the nineteen original deeds should be 
given to J. Hutton "in trust for the Unitas 
Frafrum,^^ which deed of trust made it apparent 
now that the Confiscation Act could not well, in 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 89 

right and equity, be extended to the Moravian 
lands. 

Still, it was a time of perplexity and great 
anxiety for those Brethren, who, in the absence 
of Brother Marshall, had the management of the 
outward affairs of the church. Meanwhile, it 
was a matter of great thankfulness that a peti- 
tion sent to the State Assembly in Halifax, 
handed in by the Brethren Praezel and C. Hecke- 
welder, in January, 1179, was favorably received, 
and the resolution was passed: "that if the 
Moravians would render the prescribed affirma- 
tion of fealty to this and the other United States 
of America, they should remain in the undis- 
turbed possession of their property, also be ex- 
empt from all military service, but instead of it 
pay a twofold tax." 

According to this decision, all the Brethren, 
who had not yet taken the Test Oath, by their 
solemn affirmation before Justice Dobson, de- 
clared their fealty to the United States, and re- 
ceived certificates to that effect. 

To aggravate their troubles, the seasons were 
unpropitious, the price of provisions increased, 



90 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

whilst the value of the paper currency was re- 
duced to only four pence for the dollar. Apples 
and peaches froze in the bud, and the wheat was 
greatly injured by mildew, and the corn crop in 
some localities totally failed. Salt was sold at 
eighty shillings Continental money, or forty shil- 
lings, specie, per bushel; iron at sixteen pence 
per pound. Besides this, the smallpox spread in 
Salem, brought there by a company of cavalry of 
the Pulaski Legion, which had remained there 
for several days. No less than forty persons 
suffered from this disease, of whom, however, 
only two died. 

In the fall of the year. Brother Marshall ar- 
rived, having been detained in Europe by the • 
war since lYt5, and was followed in spring of 
1^80 by Bishop J. F. Reichel, who was sent by 
the General Board of the Unity on an official 
visitation of all the Moravian congregations in 
North America. By his judicious councils and 
fatherly admonitions, the difficulties which had 
arisen here, as well as in the congregations at 
the North from conflicting political views, were 
gradually overcome ; and be it said, in honor of 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 91 

tlie German Brotlier, brought up in a monarclii- 
cal country, that by his clear perception of the 
state of affairs, and sound judgment, he succeeded 
in reconciling many whose conscientious scruples 
had left them in much perplexity. 

His labors were signally blessed by the Lord, 
and the harmony was restored, which is so essen- 
tial to the welfare of a Christian community. 
During Brother Reichel's visit, the monthly con- 
ference of the ministers of the country congrega- 
tions was instituted at Salem, Sept. 15th, 1*180, 
which has been continued ever since. Friedland 
and Hope received their full organization as 
Congregations of the Brethren. 

Of the incidents of the revolutionary war, the 
following interesting particulars have been pre- 
served, which, in their details, prove sufficiently 
that our fathers conscientiously refrained from 
any participation whatever in it. 

In June, 1*780, more than a thousand Tories 
assembled in the neighborhood of the Moravian 
settlements, committing many acts of violence. 
To oppose them, the militia was collected every- 
where, which scoured the country, taking horses. 



92 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

rifles, and provisions at tlieir pleasure. The 
Moravian settlements were often visited. Mean- 
while, 3000 Continental troops had assembled at 
Cross Creek, and were joined by tOOO militia, to 
march against the English. For their support, 
supplies from the newly gathered v.iieat were 
ordered, which, in Salem and neighborhood, were 
collected by an officer and sixty men. Wagons 
and horses were also taken, to convey the flour to 
the army. In the disastrous battle of Camden, 
in which General Gates was totally defeated, 
some of our wagons and horses were lost, of 
which six belonged to the Brethren of Bethania. 

In August, several hundred men of the A^ir- 
giiria militia, as scouting parties were quartered 
at Bethabara. The military possession of the 
place lasted three weeks, causing great scarcity 
of provisions and suffering to the Brethren. 

On Sept. loth, Brother Fritz received at Hope 
a visit of sixteen horsemen, who were provided 
for by him. 

In October, a party of 500 militia made Betha- 
nia their head-quarters. Soon after, 300 prison- 
ers, anion q; whom were 50 En^-lish taken near 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 93 

King's Mountain, were brought and kept there 
nineteen days, until all provisions to be found in 
tlie place were consumed. 

lu n81,the Brethren had abundant cause of 
appreciating the truth of the promise : lie shall 
deliver thee in six troubles; yea in seven there 
shall no evil touch thee. Job v. 19. For when, 
in the first months of the year, the theatre of 
war came nearer and nearer to the Moravian 
settlements, still no actual hostilities occurred on 
the Wachovia Tract. 

January tth, 22 men, 40 horses, and 2 baggage 
wagons of General Greene's division were quar- 
tered in Salem, and remained there till February 
4th. 

January 12th, a committee of four Brethren 
was appointed, to care for the military affairs, by 
whom a barrack was erected at some distance 
from the town, where a military store was kept 
for some time. This military store, and a hospi- 
tal, which had been erected in Salem, were re- 
moved on February 5th, the Friedberg and Be- 
thania Brethren furnishing wagons. On the same 



94 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

day, General Pickens's corps encamped near Be- 
thabara. 

February Yth and 8tli, several hundred men of 
Wilkes County (N. C.) and of Georgia militia 
passed through Salem. 

On the 9th of February, the British army 
under Lord Cornwallis encamped in Bethania, 
and passed the next day through Salem and the 
Friedland settlement, which proved a rather ex- 
pensive visit, Bethania alone losing 23 horses, 30 
head of cattle, and all their poultry. Soon after 
the Wilkes County militia paid a second visit to 
Salem and Bethabara. 

In November, 63 members of the Assembly, 
with the newly elected governor, Alexander Mar- 
tin, of Guildford County, spent several weeks in 
Salem for the purpose of holding, their session, 
which, however, failed for want of a quorum. 

In January, 1182, this visit was repeated, and 
the members of the Assembly had abundant op- 
portunity of making themselves fully acquainted 
with the religious and social state of the Mora- 
vian settlements. 

This was important for the Brethren, and 



REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 95 

proved of advantage in obtaining an especial Act 
from tlie Legislature of North Carolina assem- 
bled at Ilillsboro', by which F. W. Marshall was 
duly acknowledged as the proprietor of the Wa- 
chovia Tract, and all the lands which had been 
acquired by the Brethren in North Carolina. 

Brother Traugott Bagge was elected member 
of the Assembly, auditor, and justice of the 
peace. 

In this year the faithful pastor of the Salem 
congregation, Brother J. M. Grafl", the first bi- 
shop ever residing in any of the Southern States, 
departed this life. 

In 1783, the solemn thanksgiving day for the 
restoration of peace, was celebrated on July 4th 
with great joy and gladness of heart, and with 
especial gratitude to the Lord for all his mercies 
and providential preservations during these try- 



96 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



XT. 
HALF A CENTURY.— 1803. 

Early in the morning of January 31st, HSl, 
tlie cry of fire disturbed the peaceful slumbers of 
the inhabitants of Salem. The tavern was in 
flames, and the inmates. Brother and Sister 
Meyer, with their children, and Brother Holland 
had barely time to escape. The kitchen build- 
ing was destroyed, but the stables and other out 
buildings were saved. The timber and other 
building materials, which had been prepared for 
the erection, during this year, of a building for 
a " Single Sister's House," were now used for 
the re-construction of the tavern, and the erec- 
tion of the sister's house deferred until the follow- 
ing year. 

In September, 1*784, Br. Jolin Daniel Kohler 
arrived from Europe, as minister of the congre- 
gation at Salem. He was accompanied from 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 9T 

Litiz, Pa., by Brother Simon Peter, who took 
charge of the congregation at Friedberg. 

In company with Brother Kohler from Europe 
were also Brother and Sister John and Benigna 
de Watteville, who were deputed by the General 
Board of the Unity to pay an official visit to all 
the American congregations. They sailed from 
the Texel (Holland), September 2Tth, 1183, and 
arrived off Sandy Hook in November, but a con- 
tinuation of severe northwest storms, rendered 
all their attempts to land at New York fruitless, 
so that they finally resolved, in January follow- 
ing, to sail to the West Indies. On the Hth of 
February, n84, they stranded on a cliff near the 
Island Barbuda, which they reached in boats with 
difficulty. The governor of the island assisted 
and entertained them kindly. From Barbuda 
they proceeded to Antigua, and thence to Phila- 
delphia and Bethlehem, which place was reached 
June 2d. 

After having visited all the northern congre- 
gations. Bishop Watteville proceeded to the south 
and arrived in Salem October 23d, 1785, where 
he remained till April 26th, 1*786. During his 
9 



98 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

stay, a Board of Directors for this province was 
recognized, and called the Provincial Elders' Con- 
ference, consisting of the Brethren Marshall, 
Kohler, Praezel, and Benzien. This directing 
Board resolved to erect at Bethlehem, a new 
church building, in connection with a dwelling 
for the minister. The site thereof having been 
determined upon, the corner-stone was laid on 
April 8th, 1*185. The Lord's blessing accompa- 
nied this undertaking in such a manner, that, 
notwithstanding the apparent insufficiency of 
means, through the active Christian zeal of the 
people, this church-building was ready for con- 
secration before the close of the year, its solemn 
dedication to the worship of the Triune God 
taking place November 26th, 1788. The daily 
word of the church : Thus saith the Lord of 
Hosts: My cities through prosperity shall yet 
be spread abroad, afforded promise of his aid 
and blessing in days to come. A large num- 
ber from the other congregations were present 
on the occasion, participating in the blessing, 
attending the various meetings during the day. 
On the following Sunday, tlie 30th, the first 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 90 

public preacliing was hold in the new church, 
Brother Kohler delivering the first sermon in 
the German, and Brother Fritz, assistant minis- 
ter in Bethabara, preaching in the English lan- 
guage. Many of the neighbors were present, 
the whole number being about GOO, whose at- 
tention during service, and subsequent declara- 
tions indicated that the Spirit of God had borne 
testimony to the word of the cross. 

The General Synod of the Brethren's Unity, 
held at Herrnhut, Germany, in 1V89, which Br. 
Benzien attended as delegate of the Wachovia 
Conferences, resolved upon the establishment of 
a Moravian congregation in South Carolina. 
This was to be undertaken in compliance with 
one of the many invitations which, since the close 
of the war, had been extended to the Brethren 
to increase the sphere of their usefulness. The 
Hon. Henry Laurens, formerly President of Con- 
gress, and one of the commissioners for the 
United States at the peace of Paris, had long 
been well acquainted with the Brethren at Sa- 
lem. Whilst visiting in Bethlehem, Pa,, during 
the war, he held friendly intercourse with Bishop 



100 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Ettwein, and proposed to him an establishment 
of the Brethren in South Carolina, for which 
purpose he made both verbal and written pro- 
mises to convey to them, by deed of gift, two 
thousand acres of land in the district of Ninety- 
Six. 

This district embraced the northwestern part 
of the State of South Carolina, deriving its name 
from a military fort built in the Indian wars, 
about ninety-six miles from Orangeburg. On 
its site now^ stands Cambridge, in Abbeville Dis- 
trict. 

To comply with the direction of the General 
Synod, the Brethren Marshall and Benzien un- 
dertook a journey to this then wdld and unsettled 
region in November and December, 1190. They 
first visited Mr. Laurens at his rice-plantation 
on the Cooper Eiver, nine miles from Monk's 
Corner ; then his partner, John Lewis Gervais, 
in Charleston, by whose assistance they were 
conveyed to the agent in Abbeville District, 
Major Bowie. After a difficult journey through 
swamps and over almost impassable roads, they 
reached, on December 10th, the wilds of Long 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 101 

Cane Creek and Reedy Branch, where Major 
Bowie assisted them in selecting, from the five 
thousand acres belonging to Mr. Laurens, a 
tract of two thousand acres which seemed well 
adapted for a settlement, distant about twenty- 
five miles from the Savannah lliver. As the 
season was already far advanced, the survey 
could not at the time be made. They thereupon 
returned home. Major Bowie promising them 
that as soon as practicable he would have the 
survey completed. Before this was accomplished, 
however, Mr. Laurens died ; and as by his last 
will and testament all his property was be- 
queathed to a grandchild, without any provision 
being made therein for the proposed grant and 
settlement, the whole plan had to be abandoned. 
On May 31st, 1^91, Salem was visited by the 
first President of the United States, George 
Washington, then on a visit to Alexander Mar- 
tin, Governor of North Carolina. Gen. Wash- 
ington spent a day among the Moravians, visiting 
the houses of the single Brethren and single Sis- 
ters, and in the evening attending service in the 
church. The President seemed to take an espe- 
9* 



102 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

cial interest in the water-works by which the 
town was supplied with water. 

The following address was presented to him 
on June 1st : — 

" J(9 the President of tlie United States: 

"Happy in sharing the honor of a visit from 
the illustrious President of the Union to the 
Southern States, the Brethren of Wachovia hum- 
bly beg leave, upon this joyful occasion, to ex- 
press their highest esteem, duty, and affection 
for the great patriot of this country. 

"Deeply impressed as we are with gratitude 
to the great Author of our being for his un- 
bounded mercies, we cannot but particularly 
acknowledge His gracious providence over the 
temporal and political prosperity of the country, 
in the peace whereof we do find peace, and 
wherein none can take a warmer interest than 
ourselves, in particular when we consider that 
the same Lord who preserved your precious per- 
son in so many imminent dangers has made you 
in a conspicuous manner an instrument in his 
hands to forward that happy constitution, to- 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 103 

getlier with those improvements whereby our 
United States begin to flourish, over which you 
preside with the applause of a thankful nation. 

"Whenever, therefore, we solicit the protec- 
tion of the Father of Mercies over this favored 
country, we cannot but fervently implore His 
kindness for your preservation, which is so inti- 
mately connected therewith. 

''May this gracious Lord vouchsafe to prolong 
your valuable life as a further blessing and an 
ornament of the constitution, that by your wor- 
thy example the regard for religion be increased, 
and the improvements of civil society encou- 
raged. 

"The settlements of the United Brethren, 
though small, will always make it their study to 
contribute as much as in them lies to the peace 
and improvement of the United States, and all 
the particular parts they live in, joining their 
ardent prayers to the best wishes of this whole 
continent that your personal as well as domestic 
happiness may abound, and a series of successes 
may crown your labors for the prosperity of our 
times and an example to future ages, until the 



104: MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

glorious reward of a faithful servant shall be 
your portion. 

" Signed, in behalf of the United Brethren in 
Wachovia, 

"FREDERICK WILLIAM MARSHALL, 
"JOHN DANIEL KOHLER, 
"CHRISTIAN LEWIS BENZIEN. 
"Salem, the 1st of June, 1791." 

To which the President of the United States 
was pleased to return the following answer : — 

^^To the United Bretlireii of Wachovia : 

" Gentlemen : I am greatly indebted to your 
respectful and affectionate expression of personal 
regard, and I am not less obliged by the patri- 
otic sentiment contained in your address. 

"From a society whose governing principles 
are industry and the love of order much may be 
expected towards the improvement and pros- 
perity of the country in which their settlements 
are formed, and experience authorizes the belief 
that much will be obtained. 

" Thanking you with grateful sincerity for 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 105 

your prayers in ray bebalf, I desire to assure 
you of my best wishes for your social and indi- 
vidual happiness. 

"G. WASHINGTON." 

Before the close of the century, during the 
latter half of which the Brethren had settled in 
this State, the erection of a new and larger 
church for the increasing central congregation of 
Salem became necessary. The corner-stone was 
laid June 1st, 1T98, with appropriate ceremonies. 
Br. Marshall superintended the erection of this 
building, and had the pleasure of witnessing its 
completion in 1800. On November 9th, 1800, 
it was solemnly consecrated to the worship of 
Almighty God ; the Brethren Benzien, from Sa- 
lem, and Simon Peter, of Bethania, officiating 
upon this occasion. Br. Kohler, who had during 
the space of sixteen years officiated as pastor of 
the Salem congregation, and since 1790 as bishop 
of the Brethren's church, was prevented from 
participating on this joyful occasion, having 
already set out on his journey to Europe, to 
attend the General Synod of the church at 



106 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Hcrnibut, in Germany, in 1801. On the loth 
of November, an important memorial day of the 
church, the holy communion was for the first 
time administered in the new church, the com- 
municants of all the neighboring congregations 
having assembled for the purpose. 

At the General Synod of 1801, Br. C. G. 
Reicliel, then minister in IS^azareth, Pa., and 
principal of the Boys' Boarding- School at Naza- 
reth Hall, was appointed Br. Kohler's successor. 
He was consecrated a bishop of the Brethren's 
church by Bishop Ettwein, and arrived in Salem 
May 31st, 1802. Br: Marshall had departed 
this life in February of the same year. Shortly 
before his death he wrote a long letter to Br. 
Beichel, containing minute directions in refer- 
ence to his journey, the provisions and other 
needful preparations for "camping out," &c. ; an 
interesting document, showing that fifty years 
ago a journey to or from Pennsylvania was a 
greater undertaking than a voyage across the 
Atlantic in our days. 

Br. Reichel entered upon his duties as pastor 
of the Salem congregation on June 6th, 1802, 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 107 

and served fuitlifullj till April, 1811. lie was 
at the same time president of the General Direct- 
ing Board, in which were associated with him 
the Brethren Benzien (Br. Marshall's successor 
as proprietor and administrator of the "Wachovia 
estates) and Simon Peter (minister of Betha- 
bara). 

In the year 1803, fifty years having elapsed 
since the arrival and settlement of the Brethren 
at Bethabara, in this State, the event was cele- 
brated by a solemn jubilee, held on the Hth of 
November at Salem. All the members of this 
first congregation, with their children, were in- 
vited to repair to Salem, and the same invitation 
was extended to the adult members of the con- 
gregations at Bethania, Friedberg, Friedland, 
and Hope. Contrary to expectation, the wea- 
ther on this day proved unusually pleasant for 
the lateness of season, so that a large number 
were able to attend. These met at half-past 
nine o'clock A. M. in the handsomely decorated 
church, uniting in rendering thanks and praises 
to that unchangeably gracious God and Saviour 
whose mercies had never failed throughout the 



108 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

half century past. Deeply bowed down before 
Him, who had indeed done great things for them, 
the voice of gladness and rejoicing broke forth, 
and their hearts united in covenanting anew with 
the Lord, and with each other, to be and to re- 
main His faithful people. At the love-feast, 
held in the course of the day (of which upwards 
of five hundred and sixty person partook), the 
aged Br. John Beroth, of Bethania, one of the 
two survivors of the twelve Brethren who com- 
menced Bethabara fifty years before, was present, 
together with his wife ; Br. Grube, then eighty- 
eight years of age, had sent from Pennsylvania, 
where he then resided, a congratulatory ode com- 
posed by him for the occasion, which we insert 
in full :_ 

BR. GRUBE'S HYMN. 

1. Du liebe Wacliauer Gemein' ! 

Ich stimm' lieut' in dein Loblied ein. 
Das du zu deinem Jiibelfest 
Frohlich dem Herrn erscliallen liisst, 
Fiir alles was Er hat an dir getlian 
Seitdem die ersten Briider kamen an. 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1803. 109 

2. Icli war audi mit in ihrer Zahl, 

Und freu' mich noch derselb'geii Wabl, 

Da wir zwolf Briider auf dem Land', 

Wo eine kleine Hiitte stand, 

Den Einzug laielten, voller Dankbarkeit, 

Und war'n beisamm'n in Lieb' und Einigkeit. 

3. Es war uns freilich alles neu, 
Und mangelte uns mancherlei ; 
Wir waren aber nicht verlegen, 
Und hofften auf des Heilands Segen ; 
Man hijrte, denn ein Jedes war vergniigt. 
Von keinem auch die mind'ste Klage nicht. 

4. Zur Arbeit musst' man sicb gleicb riibr'n, 
Um ein Stiick Land zur Saat zu clearn; 
Die Kost d^bei war freilicli scbmal, 
Allein wir batten keine Wahl, 

Als Hominy war unser tiiglich Brodt, 
Und wir genossen's mit Dank gegen Gott. 

5. Wir gin gen wohl zu manchen Tagen 
Aucb aus, um etwas zu erjagen ; 
Allein das scblug uns immer feH ; 
Bekamen denn zum Welscbkornmebl 
Doch ein'ge Kiirb'se, so war's sclion und gut, 
LTnd wir behielten immer guten Muth. 

10 



110 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

G. Pcnn audi an cliesem wiisten Ort 
Erquickto uns des Heilands Wort ; 
Wir weideten ims immer d'ran, 
Und unser "blut'ger Sclimerzensmann 
Erwies sicli uns selir freundlicli und voll Huld, 
Und liatte mit uns Kindern viel Geduld. 

7. Er selbst wusst' uns' audi zu bedcckcn 
In mandierlei Gefalir und Sdirecken. 
Bei'm Biiumefellen sdiien einnial 

Ein Bruder unserer kleinen Zahl 

Durdi einen Ast tudtlidi verletzt zu sein ; 

Dodi konnt' man siclx bald seiner Besserung freu'n. 

8. Als ich ein lialbes Jalir gewest 
Bei'n Briidern, ward idi abgeloSt 
Durdi unseren sel'gen Bruder Fries, 
Der sidi als ein Mann Gott's bowies, 
Und sicli zu allem williglich gab lier, 

Und wenn's audi nur die Ruli' zu liiiten war'. 

9. So wurde der Anfang gemadit. 

Man hat's damals wolil nicht gedadit 
Was unser Herr in fiinfzig Jaliren, 
Darunter manclie scliwere waren, 
Zu Seinem Lob und Preis docli liat bcreit't. 
Er sei dafiir gelobt in Ewigkeit ! 



HALF A CENTURY. — 1 803. Ill 

10. Icli wiinsclie nun besonders heut' 
Dass unser Heiland hiitt' die Freud', 
Dass jede Seel' auf diesem Land' 
Reclit innig wiird' mit Ihm bekannt ; 
moclite Jedes ganz fur Ihn gedeih'n ! 

So wird Er sich, und wir mit Ihm uns freu'n. 

11. Gott gebe dass der ganze Sinn 
Nur immer geh' auf Jesum liim, 
Auf Seine Martcr, Blut und Tod, 
Der uns erlust aus aller Noth, 

Und dass die Hcrzen bleiben abgekebrt 

Von allem, was zur Welt, zum Fleiscli geliort. 

12. Mit Jesu Segen geht denn fort, 
Rccbt frob, ein Jed's an seinen Ort. 
Er sei Eucb alien innig nab', 

Ibr mog't sein dorten oder da. 

Ja Er erbcbe die durcbgrab'ne Hand 

Uber Eucb all' auf dem Wacbauer Land' ! 

Within fifty years there were baptized l,35t 
children of the members of the six congregations, 
43 adults, and about 1,300 children of friends 
and neighbors ; G66 persons were buried at the 
different burial-grounds. 



112 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



The whole number of church-members and 
children at the close of the half century pre- 
sents the following 



SUMMARY. 







Communi- 
cants. 


Non-com- 
municants. 


Children. 


Total. 


1. 


Salem . 


180 


27 


83 


290 


2. 


Bethabara . 


33 


16 


32 


81 


3 


Bethauia 


76 


9.1 


122 


293 


4. 


Friedberg . 


75 


10!) 


147 


231 


r, 


Friedland 


21 


72 


42 


135 


6. 


Hope 


35 


66 


74 


175 






420 


3S5 


500 


1305 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 113 



XIL 

SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. 
1804. 

The year 1804 was distinguished in our pro- 
vince by the commencement of the Salem Female 
Academy, which has since become well known in 
the Southern States of the Union, and has flou- 
rished more than fifty years. This institution, 
now one of the oldest in the Southern States, 
kept in grateful remembrance by many Christian 
mothers who here received their first and lasting 
impressions of eternal truths, and have had the 
satisfaction of seeing their daughters and grand- 
daughters educated at the same place, and accord- 
ing to the same Christian principles. For the 
sake of the juvenile scholars of this institution, 
we have endeavored, with the kind assistance of 
its present principal, to collect all the dates re- 
10* 



114 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

ferring to the outer history of this institution. 
Still more important and more instructive would 
be the inner history thereof, embracing the expe- 
riences made by the hi:ndreds of little girls and 
young ladies who have been its inmates, and of 
the influence which their education in the Mora- 
vian boarding-school has had upon their after- 
life on earth, and upon their dying hour ; but to 
trace their inner history would be in most cases 
impossible, and we, therefore, leave it to the for- 
mer pupils, into whose hands this historical sketch 
may fall, to supply this want from their own per- 
sonal recollections, feeling confident that they 
could do it more completely and more to their 
own satisfaction than we can. The following 
carefully collected notes, though referring only to 
the outer history will, we trust, not prove unin- 
teresting. 

Before the close of the last century, the wish 
had often been expressed by visiting friends and 
strangers, when seeing the educational advan- 
tages of the youth of this small Moravian town, 
that their children might be permitted to partici- 
pate in them, and there were among the members 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 115 

of the Salem congregation not a few, who consi- 
dered it their Christian duty to serve their friends 
in the Southern States, and at the same time to 
work in their heavenly Master's cause by raising 
the standard of female education. 

These petitions became more urgent, and the 
plan received a more definite expression, after 
Bishop Reichel, the founder, and for seventeen 
years principal of Nazareth Hall, ^ had become the 
president of the Wachovia Provincial Conference, 
the directing Board of the Moravian congrega- 
tions at the South. The main difficulties seemed 
to be the want of a suitable house for school 
purposes, and an adequate number of well quali- 
fied female teachers. Brother Reichel's daugh- 
ter, educated in the Bethlehem Female Academy, 
assisted by M. S. Meinung and J. E. Praezel, who 
had given full satisfaction in the day-school for 
little girls, sufficed for the present, and among 
the older girls who had received private lessons 
from Brother C. Th. Pfohl, there also were some 
who could be calculated upon as suitable assist- 

» History of Nazareth Hall, from 1755 to 1855, p. 29. 



116 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

ants for the future. Taking all this into consi- 
deration, the Conference resolved, October 31st, 
1802, to give to Brother Samuel G. Kramsch^ 
minister of the English congregation at Hope, 
who, as well as his wife, had served as teachers 
in boarding-schools, and were well acquainted 
with their details, the appointment of commenc- 
ing a female boarding-school at Salem. 

On October 6th, 1803, the corner-stone for the 
building to be erected on the square between the 
"congregation house" and sister's house was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies, Bishop Reichel 
conducting the religious exercises both in the 
meeting-hall and out-doors, in the German lan- 
guage. 

In a copper case — inserted into the corner- 
stone, at the northwest corner of the building — 
the following inscription was deposited in the 
German and English languages: — 

In tlie name of God, 

the Father and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 

in the year 

after the birth of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ 

one thousand eicht hundred and three, 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY.. — 1804. 117 

on the sixth day of October, 

in the twenty-seventh year 

of tlie Independence of the United States of America, 

when Thomas Jeflferson was President of them, 

in the fiftieth year 

after the settling of the first members of the Cliurch 

of the United Brethren in North Carolina and 

the beginning of building Bethabara, 

in the thirty-eighth year 

since the beginning of building Salem, 

the foundation-stone of this house 

for a BOARDING SCHOOL of Girls 

was laid in a solemn manner, 

in the presence of the whole Congregation, 

with fervent Prayer to our Lord, 

that by the School, to be established in this House 

His name may be glorified, 

His kingdom of Grace be enlarged in this Country 

and the Salvation of Souls 

of those, who shall be educated therein, be promoted. 

The daily word avas : 

Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be 
saved, and thy house. Acts xvi. 31. 
A dying, risen Jesus, 

Seen by the eye of faith, 
At once from danger frees us, 
And saves the soul from death. 



118 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

The doctrimal text : 
He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in 
his mouth. Is. liii. 9. 

May our mind and whole hehaviour 
Bear resemblance to our Saviour 
And his sanctifying merit 
Hallow body, soul, and spirit. 

Among some other papers preserved iu the 
corner-stone is also a list of all the little girls 
belonging to the Salem congregation under 12 
years of age. They were 42 in number, 23 at- 
tending school. Of these 42 girls and infants, 
12 have, in the course of time, become teachers 
in the academy, and one of them is teaching to 
this day, and well remembers how she and her 
companions were standing by and watching fa- 
ther Reichel, Benzien and Kramsch, each in turn, 
strike three times with a mallet the stone in 
which the copper case was inclosed, where also 
her name was recorded,- how Brother Reichel, 
standing upon the corner-stone, implored the 
blessing from on high upon the building under- 
taken in the name of the Lord for the promotion 
of His glory and the spiritual and eternal well- 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 119 

being of many immortal souls. Among the 
strangers attending these impressive ceremonies 
was a gentleman from Georgia with his little 
daughter, who two years after entered as the first 
pupil from that State. 

Before the house could be finished, on May 
16th, 1804, four pupils were brought from Hills- 
borough, and, for the present, received in some 
rooms of the " Congregation-house," tempora- 
rily arranged for the purpose. These were, 
Misses Elizabeth Strudwick, Ann and Elizabeth 
Kirkland, and Mary Philips. Soon after four 
others came, Anna and Felicia Norfleet from 
Halifax, Anna Steirs from Fayetteville, and Re- 
becca Carter from Caswell Count}^, all from this 
State. To these were added Anna Pauline Sho- 
ber and Mary Steiner from Salem, of which the 
former, Mrs. Herman, is still living here, and the 
latter, Mrs. Dencke, still teaches in the academy. 

The first teachers, Sophia Dorothea Reichel 
(Mrs. Seidel), Maria Salome Meinung (Mrs. 
Ebbeke), and Johanna Elizab. Praezel (Mrs. 
Meinung), are still living, the two former in 
Bethlehem, Pa., and the latter in Salem. 



120 MORAVIANS IN NORTH t!AROLINA. 

The new bouse having been finished in a year 
and nine months, the 16th of July, 1805, was set 
apart as the day of its solemn consecration. The 
boarders, village girls, and the ministers of the 
different congregations having assembled at one 
o'clock in the prayer-hall of the congregation- 
house, a procession was formed by the scholars, 
headed by the clergy, and followed by the teach- 
ers. When leaving the house, a choir of trom- 
bones performed a solemn tune, and, entering the 
new house, another choir of trombones received 
them in a similar manner. The whole company 
assembled in the sleeping-hall (being the largest 
room in the house), in two large semicircles, the 
pupils all being dressed in white, and the musical 
choir, accompanied by a pianoforte and other in- 
struments, sang — 

Peace be to this habitation, 
Peace to every soul therein ; 

Peace which flows from Christ's salvation, 
Peace, the seal of cancelled sin ; 

Peace that speaks its heavenly giver, 
Peace to earthly minds unknown ; 

Peace divine, that lasts forever, 
Here erect its glorious throne. 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 121 

To which all assembled there responded — 

This habitation, 

And all who dwell therein, 

Fill with salvation ; 
0, may in each be seen 

True grace 

And lovely childlikeness. 

After a fervent dedicatory prayer by Br. Rei- 
chel, a love-feast was held, according to the well- 
known and time-honored custom of the Brethren, 
in which also participated some strangers from 
Camden, S. C, who on that day brought their 
two daughters, the first pupils from South Caro- 
lina, which, next to our own State, has sent the 
most scholars to our academy. 

The first inmates of the new house were Br. 
and Sr. Kramsch and their two daughters (still 
living), twenty boarders, and four teachers. After 
the usual evening meeting of the congregation, 
the scholars assembled once more before the 
house, surrounded by the whole congregation, to 
offer hymns of thanksgiving, praise, and prayer. 

In 1806 the first printed circular was issued, 
11 



122 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

containing the "Terms and Conditions of tlie 
Boarding-School for Female Education in Salem, 
N. C," from which it appears that the age of 
admittance was between eight and twelve years, 
and the age of fifteen terminated the stay of pu- 
pils at school. The yearly expenses were calcu- 
lated at about $160; entrance-money, $5. 

The branches taught were : Reading ; gram- 
mar; writing; arithmetic; history; geography; 
German, if desired ; plain needlework. Extra 
branches : Music, drawing, and ornamental nee- 
dlework. 

In 1806, Br. Sam. G. Kramsch was succeeded 
by Br. Abraham G. Steiner, who for ten years 
presided over the institution as its inspector or 
principal. The number of scholars increasing, 
a third room had to be arranged in 180t, and 
a fourth in 1811 ; when a new building was 
erected, as the dwelling-house for the principal 
and his family, and thus some room gained in the 
academy building. This, however, not proving 
sufficient, a number of boarders had to lodge in 
private families, which was continued for some 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 123 

years, until, by additions to the old building, 
more house-room could be gained. In 1814, 
seventy-four of the pupils were ill of the measles, 
which then was extensively prevalent in the place, 
in no case, however, proving fatal. 

In 1816, Br. Steiner was compelled, by the 
failure of his health, to resign his charge, and 
Br. G. Benjamin Reichel, son of Bishop lleichel, 
entered as the third principal, and served the in- 
stitution faithfully till his death, in December, 
1833. During his term an addition was made to 
the academy building in 1824, containing, besides 
some school-rooms, a chapel, which was solemnly 
consecrated on September 24th, and gave rise to 
the so-called "chapel festival," which no doubt 
many scholars remember as a time of rich and 
lasting spiritual blessings. In 1826 the number 
of room companies had increased to six, repre- 
senting six of the Southern States of the Union. 
A few years later the number had considerably 
decreased, partly owing to the great money pres- 
sure at the South, the erection of other boarding- 
schools, and the failing health of the principal. 



124 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Br. Iveichel breathed liis last December 20th, 
1833, having beeu shice 1816 inspector of the 
academy, and since 1829 also pastor of the Salem 
congregation. 

In 1834, Br. J. C. Jacohson, minister at Betha- 
nia, was appointed principal of the academy, and 
filled the station for ten years. During his time 
the number of boarders again increased, and 
reached in 1838 one hundred and eighty, in- 
structed by nineteen teachers. To make more 
house-room, a new chapel was built in 1835, and 
gradually one room after the other taken pos- 
session of in the old " congregation-house," until 
in 1841, after a new chapel for the congregation 
and a minister's dwelling had been built, the 
whole house, with its premises, was appropriated 
to the purposes of the school. 

In 1844, Br. Jacobson accepted an appoint- 
ment as principal of the Boarding- School for 
Boys at Nazareth Hall, Pa., and Br. Charles A. 
Blech entered as the fifth principal. 

He was succeeded, in December, 1848, by Br. 
Emil A. de Schweinitz as the sixth, and in Feb- 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 125 

ruary, 1853, by his brother, tlie present well- 
known principal, Br. Robert de Schweinitz. It 
will hardly be necessary to say anything abont 
the present state of this institution, so exten- 
sively and so favorably known in the Southera 
States, and so fully patronized by the daughters 
and granddaughters of former pupils. But, for 
future reference, we will mention two dates, viz., 
August 9th, 1854, on which day the corner-stone 
of the neiu academy huilding^ was laid with ap- 
propriate religious ceremonies, and March 24th, 
1856, on which day the beginning was made of 
removing from the old to the new house. As the 
old building required extensive repairs, all the 
scholars, 216 in number, lived within the walls 
of the new building, besides which about 75 day 
scholars attended the school. 

' For a description of the new academy building, 
see Appendix — Public Buildings. 



11* 



126 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



The following is a list of the 

RESIDENT TEACHERS OF THE SALEM FEMALE 
ACADEMY; 

including the teachers of the village girls' school, 
with the time of their service. Those marked 
thus (f ) have since departed this life. Those in 
Italics are still in service. 







Enter- 
ed. 


Left. 


Remarks. 


1. 


Sophia Dorothea Reichel 


1804 


1809 


Mrs. Seidel. 


2. 


Maria Salome Meinung . 


1804 


1807 


Mrs. Ebbeke. 


3. 


Johanna Elizabeth Praezel . 


1804 


1808 


Mrs. Meinung. 


4. 


fJoh. Sophia Shober 


1805 


1806 






Re-entered 


1807 


1809 


Mrs. Zevely. 


5. 


tJoh. Elizabeth Reuz . 


1805 


1816 






Ee-entered 


1811 


1814 






" 


1816 


1820 


Mrs. Ochmao. 


6. 


fAgnes Susanna Praezel 


1805 


1816 


Mrs. Petersen. 


7. 


tMr.s. M. E. Praezel, assisting 
in town school 


1805 


1813 




8. 


tBarbara Leiubach 


1806 


1807 




9. 


fPhilipina Christman . 


1806 


1820 


Mrs. Summers. 


10. 


tKebecca Hartman 


1806 


1812 




11. 


Mary Walk . . . . 


1806 


1809 


Mrs. Curtis, 
Norfolk. 


12. 


Susanna Elizabeth Peter 


1807 


1827 


Mrs. Zevely. 


13. 


fElizabeth Danz 


1807 


1807 


Mrs. Winkler. 


14. 


Johanna Elizabeth Nissen 


1808 


1811 


Mrs. Fries. 


15. 


Salome Fetter .... 


1809 


1814 






Re-entered 


1815 


1817 






" . . . 


1818 


1819 


Mrs. Friday. 


16. 


Maria Steiner .... 


1811 


1820 






Re-entered 


1824 


1828 


3Trs. Denke. 


17. 


fHenrietta Fried. Fierling . 


18U 


1814 


Mrs. Reichel. 


18. 


Anna Paulina Shober . 


1812 


1817 






Re-entered 


1819 


1820 


Mrs. Herman. 


19. 


jMaria Eliz. Kummer, assist- 
ing in town school 


1814 


1814 




20. 


tAnna Rebecca Holder . 


1814 


1815 






Re-entered town school 


1821 


1822 


Mrs. Zevely. 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 



121 







Enter- 
ed. 


Left. 


Remarks. 


21. 


Charlotte Louisa Kramsclx . 


1814 


1831 






Re-entered 


1833 


1837 


Mr.s. Blickens- 
dorfer, Ohio. 


22. 


Christina Christman, town 










school 


1814 


1820 




23. 


tElizahpth Transou 


1814 


1816 


Mrs. Sen.seman. 


24. 


"fJoh. Salome Christman 


1816 


1820 


Mrs. Wohlfarth. 


25. 


Christina Caritas Schneider . 


1817 


1824 


3frs. Benzien. 


26. 


fMaria Theresia Shober 


1817 


1819 


Mrs. Wolle. 


27. 


•j-Maria Cath. Transou . 


1817 


1818 




28. 


tMaria Fetter .... 


1817 


1818 


Died in the Aca- 
demy. 


29. 


Ruth Montgomery Rhea 


1818 


1820 


Mrs. Levering. 


30. 


Susanna Elizabeth Loesh 


1819 


1820 


Mrs. Crause. 


31. 


Henrietta Kluge 


1819 


1821 


Mrs. Moore. 


32. 


fMaria Belling 


1820 


1821 




33. 


fMaria Gambold . 


1820 


1824 


Mrs. Copeland. 


34. 


fCaroliue Eberhard 


1820 


1828 


Mrs. Eder. 


35. 


fMary Towle .... 


1820 


1823 


Mrs. Wellfare. 


36. 


fSarah Louisa Towle . 


1820 


1825 


Mrs. Vierling. 


37. 


fWilhelmina Boehler . 


1820 


1823 


Mrs. Lash. 


38. 


Sibylla Dull .... 


1820 


1824 


Mrs. Reich. 


39. 


fCathar. Reich 


1821 


1827 


Mrs. Clewell. 


40. 


Johanna Eliz. Schulz, town 
school 


1822 


1824 




41. 


Caroline Schulz 


1822 


1823 


Mrs. Steiner. 


42. 


Lydia Stauber 


1824 






43. 


Regina Lcinbach . 


1824 


1827 






Re-entered 


1829 


1842 




44. 


fEliza Bagge .... 


1824 


1827 




45. 


Mariam Erenstine Benade 


1825 


1829 




46. 


fSophia Christ. Kitschelt 


1825 


1827 




47. 


Charlotte Friedrica F/ohl 
Re-entered 


1826 
1854 


1852 




48! 


f Henriette Boelow . 


1826 


1827 


Mrs. Christman. 


49. 


Eliza Wilhelm. Vierling 


1826 


1829 






Re-entered 


1831 


1832 


Mrs. Kremer. 


50". 


Anna Abig. Leinbach . 


1826 


1827 






Re-entered town school 


1829 


1844 






" academy . 


1844 


1844 






" town school 


1845 






51. 


Anna Elizabeth Christ . 


1827 


1839 


Mrs. Boner. 


52. 


Gertraut Spach 


1827 


1829 


Mrs. Mflcke. 


63. 


Lucia Theophila Benade 


1827 


1829 




54. 


Sophia Dorothea Bvliaa 


1827 


1830 


Mrs. Boner. 


65. 


Doroth. Sophia Ruede . 


1827 


1832 






Re-entered 


1834 


1839 


Mrs. Vogler, 


56. 


Lisette Schulz 


1828 


1839 




57. 


M. Louisa Reich 


1829 


1835 


Mrs. Vogler. 


58. 


fLisette Meinung . 


18.30 


1836 






Re-entered 


1837 


1844 





128 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 







Enter- 
ed. 


Left. 


Remarks. 


59. 


Martha Blum . . . . 


1830 


1832 


Mrs. Griflin. 


60. 


Clara C. Reichel . 


1833 


1834 






Re-entered 


1836 


1841 


Mrs. Hagen. 


61. 


Theresia Willi. Biilow . 


1831 


1810 


Mrs. Siddal. 


62. 


tMaria Lavinia Blum . 


1835 


1841 


Died in the Aca- 
demy. 


63. 


Dorothea Matilda Schulz 


18.35 


1836 


Mrs. Clewell. 


64. 


Henriette Schnall . 


1835 






65. 


Louisa Hagen . . . . 


1836 


1839 


Mrs. Susdorf. 


66. 


Henriette Shober 


1837 


1838 




67. 


Louisa Bulnw .... 


1837 






68. 


Louisa Riide . . . . 


1837 


1840 


Mrs. Rogers. 


6f>. 


Rahel Byhan. 


1838 


1839 


Mrs. Lineback. 


70. 


Theresa Petersen . 


18.38 


1843 




71. 


Luciuda Paulino Blum . 


1839 


1840 


Mrs. Zevely. 


72. 


Henriette Reich 


1839 


1844 


Mrs. Biilow. 


73. 


Melinda Senseman . 


18.39 


1847 


Mrs. Hewitt. 


71. 


Susan Rights .... 


1839 


1842 






Re-entered 


1813 


1816 


Mrs. Keehln, 


75. 


Joh. Sophia Zevely 


1839 


1844 






Re-entered 


1815 
1851 


1850 
1856 




76. 


Anna Aurelia Herbst 


1810 


1841 


Mrs. Reich. 


77. 


Miranda Rosalia Keehln 


1810 


1845 


Mrs. Christ. 


78. 


fLouisa Lauretta Vogler 


1811 


1844 


Mrs. Senseman. 


79. 


Sarah Ann Elvira Lineback . 


1841 


1843 






Re-entered 


1844 


1845 


Mrs. Fulkerson. 


80. 


fAntoinette Bagge . 


1841 


1812 


Mrs. Brietz. 


82. 


tHonriette L. Petersen . 


1812 


1843 


Mrs. Friebele. 


S3. 


Emma Aurelia Senseman 


1842 


1843 


Mrs. Steward. 


81. 


Lucinda Bagge 


1842 


1843 






Re-entered 


1844 


1814 




8.5. 


Liseite, Brietz 


1843 






86. 


Caroline M. Levering 


1843 


1845 


Mrs. Riide. 


87. 


Julia Blum .... 


1843 


1844 


Mrs. Boner. 


88. 


Paulina E. Vogler, town school 


1844 


1844 




89. 


Caroline B. Burkhard . 


1844 


1845 


Mrs. Rude. 


00. 


Charlotte Smith 


1844 


1850 


Mrs. Reinke. 


91. 


Angelica Reichel 


1844 


1819 




92. 


Olivia S. AVarner . 


1844 


1844 






Re-entered 


1845 
1850 
1852 


1849 
1851 

1856 




93. 


Emma Lineback 
Re-entered 


1814 
1856 


1852 




91. 


Augusta M. Hagen . 


1815 


1847 




95. 


Maria L. Haman . 


1845 


1848 


Mrs. Christ. 


96. 


Francisca Benzien . 


1846 


1848 






Re-entered 


1851 


1854 


Mrs. Fisher. 


97. 


Amelia C. Reichel . 


1847 


1847 


Mrs. Kummer. 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 



129 







Enter- 
ed. 


Left. 


Remarks. 


9S. 


Eliza Senseraan 


1847 


1847 


Mrs. Senseman. 




Re-entprcd 


1855 


18.56 




99. 


Augusta Hall . . . . 


1847 


1852 


Mrs. Swink. 


100. 


Clementina I'fohl . 


1847 


1849 


Mrs. Meiuuug. 


101. 


Harriet Buttuor 


1847 


1848 




102. 


Sophia Foltz . . . . 


1847 


18.55 




103. 


Ernestine T. Reicliel 


1848 






104. 


Elizabeth Haiues . 


1848 


18.52 


Mrs. Rights. 


10.i. 


tEllen Welltare 


1848 


1849 




106. 


Jane Well/are 


1849 






107. 


Hermina Benzien . 


1849 






lOS. 


Emma Pfohl . . . . 


1849 


1851 


Mrs. Grunert. 


109. 


Louisa Herman 
Re-eutered 


1849 
1856 


18.1 




no. 


Adelaide Herman . 


1850 






111. 


Sophia Krenier 
Ke-entered 


1851 
1854 


1853 




112. 


Emma Sensemaa . 


1851 


1852 




113. 


Adelaide Banner 


1851 


1852 


Mrs. Everhart. 


lU. 


JIargaret Jlorrow , 


1852 


1852 




115. 


Theophila Well fare 


1852 






116. 


Lisette Van Vleck . 


1852 


1854 




117. 


Caroline Viewers . 


1853 






118. 


Ellen Blickensdorfer 


1852 


1855 


Mrs. Starbuck. 


119. 
120. 


Louisa Van Vleck . 

Maria Yogler . . . . 


1851 
1854 


1851 




121. 


Anna Deniuth 


1855 


1855 


Mrs. Regenass. 


122. 


Elizabeth Sieioers . 


1855 






123. 


Elizah. Chitiy . . . . 


1856 






124. 


Gertrude Fant 


1856 







Of these 124 teachers, two have died in the Aca- 
demy. Of the 3,470 scholars who entered the Institu- 
tion, according to the following tables, only 12 have 
departed this life while at school. 

In reference to the fourth column, showing the num- 
ber at the close of the year, it is to be remarked that 
this is near the highest number of the year, as always 
more or less left the school at that time. The highest 
number of boarders, at one time in the house, was 230. 
The whole number of scholars during the year 1856, 
was 315, instructed by eighteen resident, and eleven 
non-resident teachers. 



130 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



w 
g 
<i 
u 

« 

H 
W 

o 
'A 

W 
K 

■< 


•mnjojiiT^o 




•sionini 




•stixej, 




■otqo 




•'Bu^npuI 




•s^'su'BJI.lv 




•uonT3A[ 
89ilojatio 




•unoss]i\[ 


rH 


•X 31011 J 


-- --- 


•99S 

-S9nn9i, 


1-1 Tj<f0iOl>^Ol'X>(M^eCI>Ot:->Ot-t- 


-ismoi 




•^puoij 




•iddts 
-sissi'm 


^ 


■'emvqviY 


rM r-<r-t CO 


•1313.1099 


r-l!MrHr-l(Mt>COeOr-HCO<r>t^O^-4<COC5<r>01>«) 


•■BUtp.I'BQ 

q^nog 


lOCC01:-eOr-l050:C5(Mt--+ICO'-^GClO<3lC01r-CO 


•■EunoaiJO 
^UOH 


S&5Sg5S°^^?^S^S^°=SSS52a^;^5^S 


■■BmiS.nA 


CO'0'*"»r-(CCCOOCO»COI:^CO-t<a:ao,-il:^C''M 


In 

school 
at the 

close 
of the 

year. 


S5!§5i^?;;§?2S3^^g^|s^S|2SS 


No. 
left 
during 
the 
year. 




No, 
entered 
during 

the 
year. 


S?;5g5E;;^ss?2SSSgSj^s^S5S£2§ 




c3 
{2 


aOQOc«ooooc»cocoacoooo<»ooco(»coascococoQO 



SALEM FEMALE ACADEMY. — 1804. 



131 



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CI 


(N CI 


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CIrH ^ C? 


Oi 


C^ 


CJ 


^ 


d 


CO CI rl r-l 


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CI 


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cq r-C 


CO 


(O-Tr-* COi-lCCCO-t«5'--;t^COr-i^COiair-OOCli-li-lrHrJ<0 C1>0 


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ci 


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rH rHCl ClC^i-lrH rHC^rHCJ CqC0Ir^-+'t-.C1r}< 


§ 


Tt<rHO-* -^rHdrHCOCIvOCOrHOOODODtDCOrHrHCOC^-^Cqint^CDOCOt^ 


c- 


COCOrHCOCOCOCOrHCq 01CO«C^O^--0'*t^C^eONtOCOOCq-f<001 OCI 


1 


00C0OO^C0<«0.O3^«OOOrHrHC,r^2jH^g5j-Jg,C,O:iJ^OO3 


i 


^S'°M3M'"52*'c5jS§2^^^c5d^?555«Sc5«?5c5S?«M^^^M 


CI 


rHOt-C0l-«>I:^ C<JaO>CCOCOt^COCO>00 t^rHCOOlt^-OOONOSOOOiCO 




5gSS§S^g;l§E:gg|Kg|g^||gS||g|g||S|^ 




SS^§§55^§;S2:S§8S^c;S3SS^?2S3S53^^22|3g 




tt;S^5;^:SS§g22§Ss2S5S£§SgS?3SgSSg|^f3g| 


co" 


1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 





132 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



XIIL 

INDIAN MISSION.— 1801. 

From the very commencement of the settle- 
ment of the Moravian Brethren in North Caro- 
lina, it was their desire to resume the missionary 
labors among the Indian tribes of the South, for 
which in 1734 the first, though unsuccessful, at- 
tempts had been made in Georgia. During the 
Indian wars, when detached companies of Che- 
rokee warriors enjoyed the hospitality of the 
" Dutch Fort," several chiefs expressed a de- 
sire of receiving teachers from the Moravians. 
Among the latter, Br. Ettwein especially took a 
deep interest in the spiritual welfare of these 
wild sons of the forest; and when taking his 
daily ride from Bethabara to Bethania, fraught 
with peril for life and limb, he in his silent medi- 
tations and communions with his Heavenly Mas- 



INDIAN MISSION. — 1801. 133 

tcr dedicated himself anew to His service, wher- 
ever it might be ; and would have felt quite 
resigned to the will of the Lord, if through his 
Ijeing taken prisoner by the Indians he could 
have been enabled to proclaim to them the glad 
tidings of salvation. Nothing, however, could 
be done at that time. In 1775, a Cherokee chief, 
passing through Salem, assured the Brethren 
that they would be welcome amongst his nation, 
if they would instruct their children. After the 
close of the war, in 1784, Br. Martin Schneider 
paid a visit to the towns of the Cherokees on the 
Tennessee River. War, however, breaking out 
again soon after, for fifteen years nothing was 
heard directly from the Indians. 

Meanwhile, a missionary society had been 
formed in Bethlehem in 1787, for propagating 
the Gospel among the heathen, and more espe- 
cially the Indians of this continent. This so- 
ciety was joined by many Brethren in Salem, and 
thus the missionary spirit kept alive and fostered 
for more favorable times.^ 

• In the shadj grove of the Bethabara graveyard is 
to be found the grave of one of tjie first missionaries 
12 



134 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

In October, It 99, at a meeting of the mem- 
bers of this society, several Brethren, and among 
them especially Br. Abraham Steiner, spoke very 
warmly for the so long neglected Indians. It 
was thereupon determined to visit them again, 
and the Brethren Abraham Steiner and F. C. de 
Schweinitz went in November to Tillico, a mili- 
tary station on the Tennessee, to have a talk 
with their red brethren in tliat vicinity. This 
visit was repeated in August, 1800, and, after 
many difficulties, the chiefs of the Cherokees 
gave a formal consent to the establishment of a 
school and mission station. 

In 1801 this mission was commenced by Br. 
A. Steiner, assisted by G. Byhan, who, settling 

of the Brethren's cliurcli, Mattheio Stack, wlio liad gone 
^ to Greenland in 1733, and commenced tlie mission 
there. He came to Bethabara in 1772, spending there 
in retirement his last years. January 19tli, 1783, lie 
was invited to Salem, to participate in the semi-cent- 
enary jubilee celebration of the Greenland mission, 
and in the love-feast gave an animated account of his 
experiences and trials in the missionary service. He 
died in 1787. 



INDIAN MISSION. — 1801. 135 

in July at a place called "The Springs," named 
this first missionary station Springplacc. In 
1802, Br. Steiner was succeeded by Br. Jacob 
Wohlfahrt as missionary, who remained till 1805, 
Br. Byhan serving as assistant till 1812. 

In 1805, Br. John Gambold entered the Che- 
rokee country as missionary, and served there 
with great fidelity for twenty-two years, closing 
his labors in Oo-yu-ge-lo-gee, the second mission 
station, commenced in 1821, where he departed 
this life, January 20th, 182T. His first wife, 
Anna Bosina Kliest (who died in 1821), had 
been sixteen years teacher in the Female Acade- 
my at Bethlehem, and was a very efficient help 
in the missionary labors of Br. Gambold. "When 
they came to the Cherokee country (within the 
borders of Georgia, North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee), they found the prospects not very en- 
couraging. The Cherokees, though taking the 
first steps towards civilization, seemed utterly 
averse to accepting the Gospel message ; and 
though they could not but esteem the white 
stranger and his devoted wife, yet five years 
more elapsed until the widowed Cherokee Sister, 



136 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Margaret Yaun, on August 13tb, 1810, by holy 
baptism, was received into the communion of 
the Christian church, as the first visible fruit of 
nearly ten years' anxiety and toil. She was fol- 
lowed, in 1813, by Charles Hicks (by his bap- 
tismal name called Renatus), a man of influence 
among his nation. Gradually the number of 
believers increased, and in 1819 a meeting-house 
was built in Springplace. 

In 1830 there were thirty-one baptized Indians 
belonging to the congregation of Springplace, 
and twenty at Ooyugelogee. At the former place 
Br. G. Byhan was stationed ; at the latter, Br. H. 
G. Clauder. Both, however, were obliged soon 
after to leave the country, as they would not take 
the part of the Georgians against the Cherokees. 
Springplace and Ooyugelogee were abandoned in 
1838. The Cherokee nation, and, with them, the 
Christian Indians, were compelled to emigrate. 
The Brethren J. K Smith (who had served as 
missionary), Miles Yogler, and Herman Riide 
accompanied them westward. On September 
16th, 1838, the Mississippi River was reached, 
and there, in a solemn manner, the teachers of 



INDIAN MISSION. — 1801. 13T 

their flock closed with prayer their labors this 
side of the Father of Rivers. In the far West, 
in Arkansas Territory, the scattered remains of 
this mission were gradually collected again, and. 
Ne^o Springplace and Canaan are the places 
where the mission work of the Moravians among 
the Chcrokees is continued to this day. 

The following Brethren have served success- 
ively as missionaries among the Cherokees: — 

Abraham Steiner, 1801. 

Gottl. Byhan, 1801—1812; 182t— 1832. 

Jacob Wohlfahrt, 1802—1805. 

John Gambold, 1825—1827 ; 182t. 

John Ren. Schmidt, 1820—1828; 1838—1839. 

George Proske, 1822—1826. 

Francis Eder, 1828—1829. 

H. G. Clauder, 1828—1837. 

Miles Yogler, 1837—1844; 1852— '54; 1854. 

Gilbert Bishop, 1841. 

D. Z. Smith, 1841—1849. 

Ediuard MocJc, 1847. 

Alanson Wellfare, 1847—1855. 

Samuel Warner. 

12* 



138 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

In 1807 an attempt was made to carry the 
Gospel to the Creek nation, the Brethren Peter- 
sen and Burkhardt having been sent from Eu- 
rope for this purpose. They, however, met with 
many obstacles, and some severe trials, amidst 
which Col. Hawkins, then the government agent, 
showed them much friendly aid. Suffering se- 
verely from fever, they were visited in 1810 by 
two Brethren from Salem, one of them. Dr. Shu- 
man, affording them medical aid. Though the 
Indians along the Flint River received them 
kindly, still the main object of their mission was 
not attained ; and the breaking out of the war 
obliged them to return to Salem, without having 
seen any fruit of their spiritual labor. Br. C. 
Petersen is still living in Salem, well stricken in 
years. 



NEGRO MISSION. — 1822. 139 



xiy. 
NEGHO MISSION.— 1822. 

In February, 1822, a missionary society was 
organized among the Sisters of the Salem con- 
gregation, called " The Salem Female Missionary 
Society," for the purpose of aiding the missions 
of the United Brethren, and also to provide for 
the spiritual instruction of the Africans among 
and around us. The first officers of this Society 
were : — 

Mrs. Susannah Elizab. Kramsch, President. 
Sister Mary Steiner, Treasurer. 
" Louisa E. Kramsch, Secretary. 
" Susan E. Peter, Collector. 
" Hedwig E. Shober, " 
" Rebecca Holder, '' 
" Sarah Steiner, " 

The formation of this society led to a resolu- 



140 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

tion on the part of the Provincial Board to insti- 
tute regular preaching for the colored people in 
and around Salem, and to form from amongst 
them a separate congregation. Br. Abr. Steiner 
kept the first service on March 24th, attended by 
about sixty hearers ; ten of these formed the nu- 
cleus of the new congregation. Among these 
vf^ere four communicants. In 1823, a separate 
place of worship for the negroes was built near 
the old parish burial ground, and solemnly con- 
secrated on the 28th of December. Here, all 
people of color have an opportunity of regularly 
hearing the preaching of the Gospel on the Lord's 
day ; and the sacraments are also administered 
from time to time. 

From the " Church Book for the people of 
color, in and about Salem, commenced 24th 
March, 1822, as the day on which it was first 
essayed to form them into a separate Christian 
Church," we have gleaned the following statis- 
tics : — 

From 1822—1856, lU children have been 
baptized, and 14 adults ; ^9 persons were buried, 
among these, 3 negroes above 80, 2 above 90, 



NEGRO MISSION. — 1822. 141 

and 1 above 100 years of age ; 10 marriages 
took place with the consent of the owners. The 
present number of communicant-members is 15. 
The following brethren have had the pastoral 
charge of this small congregation : — 
Brother Abr. Steiner, 1822—1832. 

J. R. Smith, 1832—1838. 

S. Th. Pfohl, 1838—1841. 

G. Byhan, 1842—1852. 

J. A. Friebele, 1853. 
In December, 184Y, Br. Jacob F. Siewers, of 
the Salem congregation, accompanied by his wife, 
set out on a new field of labor which seemed to 
open in East Florida at Mr. Alberti's^i^lantation 
on the St. Mary's River, called Woodstock Mills. 
Though received with great kindness and libe- 
rality, supported by Mr. Alberti, still he soon 
found his position a very trying one, and that 
freedom of action was impeded by many obsta- 
cles. Not able to overcome these, he left in the 
fall of 1850, and Br. J. A. Friebele, who, at Mr. 
Alberti's urgent desire, had been sent there in 
1851, also returned after remaining not quite two 
years. 



142 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



XY. 

HOME MISSION.— 1835. 

Would to God that all the Lord's people 
were prophets, and that the Lord would put his 
Spirit upon them ! (Numb. xi. 29), was the an- 
swer of Moses, the man of God, when his ser- 
vant Joshua in a complaining spirit told him that 
Eldad and Medad were prophesying in the camp. 
The Spirit of God had come upon them and 
they could not and would not resist. In a simi- 
lar manner the Spirit of God came upon one of 
the working-men of Salem, a cabinet-maker by 
trade, who, in 1^98, had assisted in the building 
of the Salem church. He felt an irresistible de- 
sire to go out of the camp, to seek the destitute 
and neglected, to go to the haunts of the intem- 
perate and profane, to visit the hovels and cabins 
of those for whose souls' salvation no one seemed 
to care. A more destitute and forsaken reo:ion 



HOME MISSION. — 1835. 143 

could hardly be imagined than was to be found 
in the Blue Ridge on the northern border of our 
State, twenty-five years ago. Drunkenness and 
gambling, sabbath-breaking and swearing, igno- 
rance and vice reigned there supreme. No church, 
no schoolhouse was to be found far or near. 
Thither, following the divine impulse, and trust- 
ing to the guiding care of his Ijord and Mas- 
ter—but still, with fear and trembling, Br. Yan 
X. Zevely bent his steps in 1839. He was re- 
ceived with open arms by some, but on the ma- 
jority his simple Gospel message seemed to make 
no impression ; he was ridiculed and hooted at 
by the ignorant and vicious, and if he had gone 
to seek his own glory, he would have never gone 
again. But his heavenly Master had sent him, 
and in his own time he opened the hearts of those 
so long neglected mountaineers, and gradually 
the object of his visit was understood and appre- 
ciated. 

Meanwhile, these missionary visits were exert- 
ing a silent but steady influence at home. A 
number of brethren and sisters, already inclined 
to do something in the cause of the Lord, readily 



144 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

responded to the call of forming a Home Mis- 
sionary Society, and on Nov. 11th, 1835, this 
society was organized by the adoption of a con- 
stitution, of which the following is the pream- 
ble :— 

" Whereas we, as members of the TJnitas Fra- 
trum, or Church of the United Brethren, in con- 
formity with the spirit and purposes of our bre- 
thren, generally, throughout the world, feel it 
both as a duty and a warm desire of our hearts, 
to exert ourselves in promoting the spread of the 
saving knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Je- 
sus Christ amongst our fellow-men, especially in 
such places as appear to be more destitute of 
Christian instruction than others ; and 

" Whereas, we feel ourselves encouraged by 
the abundant success which has crowned the 
endeavors of our brethren in other parts of the 
world, in attempting to benefit our Christian 
fellow-sinners, by sending unto them devoted 
and experienced men, in order to instruct and 
exhort, advise, and direct them ; that, by the in- 
strumentality of such friendly messengers of sal- 
vation, under the blessing of God, the ignorant 



HOME MISSION. — 1835. H5 

may be tauglit, the careless roused, inquirers 
directed, the wavering established and strength- 
ened, the thriving encouraged and confirmed ; 
and all this in the simplest, plainest, most un- 
obtrusive, but, at the same time, most affection- 
ate and fervent manner — in imitation of Ilim, 
who went about doing good, and seeking to 
save that which is lost; 

" Therefore, we the subscribers have resolved, 
in the name of God, to form ourselves for the 
attainment of the above-mentioned words, into 
a Society, under the name of the ' United Bre- 
thren's Home Missionary Society of North Ca- 
rolina.'" 

This society numbers at present about 200 
members. 

At the first meeting of the Board, of which 
Bishop Bechler was President, Br. Zevely was 
regularly commissioned as Home Missionary of 
this society both for the mountain region of Yir- 
ginia and some counties of North Carolina, 
south of Salem. He continued his visits from 
year to year. Especially along the road to the 
Volunteer Gap, a work of God became manifest. 
13 



146 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

A meeting-house was erected by the mountain- 
eers, which, though destitute of architectural 
beauty, still answered all the purposes intended, 
and showed their willingness to receive the mes- 
sage of the Gospel. A number even applied 
for closer church-fellowship in 1838, which, how- 
ever, was denied at the time, the German Dias- 
pora* ideas still prevailing, and the consequence 
was, that others reaped where the Moravians had 
sown. 

Meanwhile, Br. Zevely continued his labors, 
partly alone, partly in company of other Bre- 
thren, among which we name Br. John Yogler, 
and persevered, amidst no small occasional ob- 
stacles, until the infirmities of advanced age ad- 
monished him to intrust the main burden of the 
work to younger shoulders. Still, he continued 
to visit his children from time to time till 1856, 
when he, nearly seventy-six years old, bade them 

1 In Germany, the Diaspora laborers visit numbers 
of the established churches, not to proselytize, but to 
evangelize. In the United States, one cannot be sepa- 
rated from the other. 



HOME MISSION. — 1835. 14T 

an affectionate adieu. About this time there 
were several of the families heretofore visited by 
Br. Zevely who desired to have their children 
baptized. As Br. Zevely was not an ordained 
minister, Bishop W. H. Yan Yleck, at his solicita- 
tion, visited the mountain field, accompanied and 
conveyed thither by the before-mentioned Br. 
John Yogler. These three Brethren spent seve- 
ral weeks in the mountain trip, Br. Yan Yleck 
preaching and baptizing, and all exhorting, en- 
couraging, distributing religious tracts, &c. They 
were everywhere kindly received, even roads were 
especially opened for their carriage to pass, and 
many precious meetings held, to the edification 
of both parties. 

Since 1845, the Brethren Rights, Riide, and 
Hagen successively attended to this work, preach- 
ing partly in meeting-houses, partly in private 
dwellings, and also administering the holy sacra- 
ments to such as had become members of the 
church by baptism or confirmation. 

It now became desirable to have a permanent 
station, where regular service might be held, and 
the holy sacraments be administered. After 



148 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

several attempts, a suitable locality, on ''Ward's 
Gap," about nine miles north of Mt. Airy (fifty 
miles from Salem), was found ; and, by the kind 
aid from Salem and the neighborhood of the 
place, means were raised for building a conve- 
nient church, which was solemnly consecrated to 
the Lord, by Bishop Herman, on November 24th 
and 25th, 1852. On the second day the mem- 
bers of the congregation now formed at this 
station, called Mount Bethel, partook, for the 
first time in the new church, of the holy com- 
munion. 

In the spring of 1854, the missionary, Br. Jacob 
Siewers, removed to this station with his family, 
and found a temporary dwelling in the church, 
until, in June, 1855, the log house at the foot of 
the hill was so far completed that it could be 
occupied. Since then, a Sunday-school has been 
opened, and there is reason to hope that this 
work of the Lord will bear blessed fruits for 
eternity. The number of members at the close 
of 1856 was thirty-seven, of which twenty-seven 
are communicants. 



NEW CONGREGATIONS. — 1830. 149 



XYI. 

NEW CONGREGATIONS.— 1830. 

Previous to 1830, the "Western fever" had 
spread among many of the settlers on the Wa- 
chovia tract. Hearing of the rich soil of the 
far West, and looking upon their own poor, 
worn-out fields, and the innumerable gullies, 
washed out by the rains, gradually overspread- 
ing the arable land, many desired to better their 
temporal condition, and, forgetting for a while 
the higher wants of the soul, sold their planta- 
tions, and bent their steps to the untrodden 
wilderness of the far West. Thus especially the 
congregations of Hope and Friedland were con- 
siderably reduced in number. Among the wan- 
derers was Br. Martin Hauser, a descendant of 
the first settlers of Bethania, hence often called 
Hausertown. After five weeks' toilsome journey, 
13* 



150 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

he reached Bartholomew County, in Indiana, in 
1829, and found there some of his former neigh- 
bors, who, settling near each other, naturally de- 
sired to hear the preaching of the Gospel again, 
now more valuable to them than formerly, when 
within the sound of a church-bell. After some 
correspondence with the Provincial Helpers' Con- 
ference at Salem, Br. Hauser was appointed to 
hold meetings for the settlers. In 1830 a tract 
of two hundred and forty acres was bought, and 
the town Hope laid out. Br. L. D. de Schwei- 
nitz, then living at Bethlehem, visited the settlers 
in the same year, and on June ITth organized 
them into a Moravian congregation. In 1832 
they were cheered by a visit of Br. Bechler, from 
Salem, and in 1838 the church erected there was 
solemnly consecrated by Bishop A. Benade, the 
President of the Northern Conference, and this 
congregation has ever since remained in connec- 
tion with the northern section of the American 
Brethren's Church. 

A similar settlement was commenced, about 
ten years later, in Edwards County, Illinois, whi- 
ther some families from this neighborhood had 



NEW CONGREGATIONS. — 1830. 151 

emigrated. A year after its commencement, in 
1846, Br. M. Hauser took charge of the gradu- 
ally increasing congregation, as their minister ; 
the place being now constituted as a separate 
Moravian congregation, by the name of New 
Salem, which, however, has since then been 
changed into West Salem, there being another 
New Salem in that State. In 1849 this congre- 
gation gained considerable accessions in numbers 
by a company of emigrants, who, having been in 
connection with the church in Germany, sought 
and found a welcome reception among their Bre- 
thren in this country. 

This congregation, since 1851 under the pas- 
toral care of Br. E. T. Senseman, remained in 
connection with the North Carolina section of 
the church till 1855, when, with the consent of 
all parties, it was transferred to the charge of 
the Northern Conference, and, with it, the home 
missionary work at Olney and other places. 

Some members of the Bethania and other con- 
gregations had settled, twelve or fifteen years 
ago, and some even longer, in the neighborhood 
of a school-house six miles west of Salem. Dif- 



152 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA, 

ferent Brethren kept occasional services there 
until 1846, when a separate congregation was 
organized, called New Philadelphia, under the 
pastoral charge of Br. S. B. Hiibner, of Salem. 
After the call of Br. Oerter to Bethabara, the 
care of this little flock devolved upon him for 
some time. Subsequently, steps were taken to 
erect a separate place of worship, with a burial- 
ground attached to it ; and a convenient frame 
building was constructed during the year 1851. 
On the 31st of October and 1st of November of 
the same year, this building was solemnly dedi- 
cated as a house of God. Br. Siewers, after his 
return from Florida, served as pastor of this 
congregation until he removed to Mt. Bethel. 
Br. Bights, of Friedland, then attended to the 
spiritual wants of this small flock till the fall of 
1854, since which time several Brethren at Salem 
have been preaching there at stated times, and 
administering the holy sacraments. 

Within the last few years two new stations 
have been commenced by the pastor of the 
Friedberg congregation, at Muddy Creek and 
Macedonia. The former is situated west of 



NEW CONGREGATIONS. — 1830. 153 

Friedberg, two or three miles on this side of 
the Yadkin River, and the latter in Davis Coun- 
ty, the same distance on the other side, having 
received its name from the circumstance that a 
Macedonian cry came thence to the minister at 
Friedberg : Come over and help us. This cry 
was responded to by Br. Hagen, and his suc- 
cessor continues the work commenced by him at 
both places. At the old school-house. Muddy 
Creek, a congregation was organized in 1853, 
with seventeen communicant members, and in 
1856 fifteen communicants were added to the 
Brethren's church at Macedonia, after the newly- 
erected log meeting-house had been solemnly 
dedicated to the service of the Triune God on 
May 25th and 26th of the same year. 



154 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



XYII. 

THE OLDER CONGREGATIONS. 
1806—1856. 

Concerning these last fifty years not mucli 
need be said, as many of the older members of 
the different congregations well remember the 
transactions in which they took part. But as 
dates are easily forgotten or misplaced, we add 
a short sketch. 

In 1806 and 180Y a visit on the part of the 
Unity's Elders' Conference in Germany took 
place in our congregations, the Brethren J. R. 
Yerbeek and Charles de Forestier, members of 
that Board, accompanied by their wives, having 
arrived for that purpose. These were present 
at the anniversary celebration of the congrega- 
tion at Bethahara, N'ovember Itth, 1806, on 
which occasion a memorial-stone was placed, 



THE OLDER CONGREGATIONS. — 180G — 1856. 155 

with solemn ceremonies, on the spot where the 
first twelve Brethren had found the cabin which 
afiforded them shelter on their arrival. The in- 
scription, "Wachovia settlement, begun lYth 
November, 1*753," was cut upon this stone, which 
has since then been set up at the southeast cor- 
ner of the Bethabara church. 

In October of the same year, the corner-stone 
was laid for a new church at Bethania, and the 
building advanced, under the blessing of God, 
in the course of the two following years, so that 
the solemn consecration of it could take place 
on the 19th of March, 1809 ; the following day 
(20th) being set apart for the celebration of a 
semi-centenary jubilee in memory of the com- 
mencement of this congregation fifty years ago. 
Many Brethren and Sisters from the other con- 
gregations, as well as many persons from the 
neighborhood, shared in the solemnities of these 
days, which were principally conducted by Bishop 
Reichel, from Salem. It is worthy of remark, 
that of the original settlers six were present : 
Henry and Barbara Shorr, G. Michael and Eli- 
zabeth Ranke, and John and Catharine Beroth. 



156 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

For several years, Brethren from Salem had 
preached occasionally in Germantown and Lex- 
ington, in the German and English languages, as 
also in Surrey County, in a Baptist church. In 
1810, Br. Gottlieb Shober, since 17tO a member 
of the congregation at Salem, formally entered 
into the service of the Lutheran Church, as or- 
dained pastor of several Lutheran congregations 
in the vicinity, and, for a time, also as president 
of the Lutheran Synod of North Carolina, still 
retaining his membership as a communicant of 
the Moravian Church. 

In 1811, Bishop Loskiel, in Bethlehem, having 
been recalled to Europe, Bishop C. G. Beichel, 
of Salem, was appointed his successor by the Su- 
preme Board of the Unity, and Br. Jolm Herhst, 
of Litiz, Pa., received the pastoral charge of the 
Salem congregation. Having been ordained a 
bishop of the Brethren's church, he arrived in 
Salem in June, 1811 ; but in January, 1812, he 
was called home by his Heavenly Master, in the 
seventy-sixth year of his age. Though his min- 
istration had been short, the sermons of the 
venerable bishop made a lasting impression on 



THE OLDER CONGREGATIONS. — 180G — 185G. 157 

many. Br. Benzieu had departed this life the 
November preceding, so that for a while Br. 
Simon Peter attended to the spiritual concerns 
of the Salem congregation. 

In the fall of 1812 the vacancies were filled 
again, Br. Jacob Van Vleck, from Bethlehem, en- 
tering as president of the Provincial Board and 
pastor of the Salem congregation, and Br. L. D. 
de Schweinitz, who had resided some years in 
Germany, took the management of the financial 
affairs of the province. In 1815, Br. Yan Yleck 
was ordained a bishop of the Brethren's church 
by Bishop Reichel. 

In 1816 the congregation in Salem celebrated 
the semi-centenary jubilee of the commencement 
of this congregation, which at that time counted 
374 members. 

Towards the end of 1817, and more especially 
in the course of 1818, our settlements were visit- 
ed by fevers, Salem and those south of it suffer- 
ing most; in the former place, those attacked by 
the disease amounted to 160, several of whom on 
this occasion finished their course through time. 
This was also the case in Friedland, whereas Be- 
U 



158 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

.thabara and Bethania continued almost free from 
.the epidemic. 

In 1822, Bishop Van Yleck resigned his offices, 
,and retired from active service, and Br. A. Be- 
nade,^ of Litiz, was appointed his successor, and 
consecrated a bishop of the Brethren's church. 
A boarding-school for boys was commenced at 
■Salem in 1826, the former single Brethren's 
house being used for that purpose, but, how- 
ever, for want of scholars, it was maintained 
less than two years. 

On June 21st, 1828, the Stokes County Sim- 
day- School Union was organized in Salem, under 
the presidency of Pastor Shober, and established 
;Sunday-schools at Brushy Fork, Pleasant Hill, 
and elsewhere, which were numerously attended. 
In the following year, on March 29th, a great 
Sunday-school celebration took place in Salem, 
about six hundred children having assembled 
there from the neighborhood, with their teachers. 
The church being too small for the assembled 

• Bishop Benade still resides at Betlilelicm, aged 
Dearly ninety. 



THE OLDER CONGREGATIONS. — 1806 — 1850. 159 

multitude, the love-feast, prepared for the child- 
ren, was held in the square. Since then, an an- 
nual sermon has been preached in reference to 
the Sunday-school cause, either in Salem or in 
one of the other congregations. 

About the same time, the Salem Tract Society 
was formed, auxiliary to the American Tract 
Society. In 1829, also, the first sermon was 
preached in Salem in the temperance cause, and 
ten years later the Stokes County Bible Society 
was organized. 

Bishop Benade having returned to Pennsylva- 
nia in 1828, was succeeded by Br. J. C. BecHer, 
from Litiz, as president of the Provincial Board. 
After the death of Br. G. B. Reichel, the pastor 
of the congregation, in 1834, Br. Beckler also 
served as minister of Salem. In 1835 he was 
ordained a bishop of the Brethren's church, and, 
as such, attended the General Synod of the 
church, held in Herrnhut, Germany, in 1836. 

In the fall of 1836, Bishop W. H. Van Vlech 
entered here as president of the Wachovia Pro- 
vincial Helpers' Conference, and pastor of the 
Salem congregation, faithfully discharging his 



IGO ^lORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

manifold duties until failing strength compelled 
him to apply for assistants. During his term, a 
pulpit was erected in the Salem church in 1838, 
and used for the first time on Palm-Sunday; and 
in 1841, December 12th, the new chapel was con- 
secrated, the last meeting in the old "congrega- 
tion-house" having been held on December 9th. 
The Young 3fen^s 3Iissionary Society was also 
organized in that year. 

The year 1843 was remarkable on account of 
the many cases of sickness. In the spring, 114 
children in Salem (including about tO boarders 
in the Female Academy) lay ill of the measles. 
In the fall, about 100 persons suffered from inter- 
mittent fevers ; in the Friedberg neighborhood, 
about 350 cases of this sickness were counted ; 
and afterwards the influenza prevailed to a consi- 
derable extent. Twenty-four funerals took place 
in Salem in that year. 

After the General Synod of 1848, which Br. 
Yan Yleck had attended, infirm health compelled 
him to resign his offices. They were divided 
between Bishop /. G. Herman, from Germany, 
and Br. G. F. Bahnson, from Lancaster, both 



THE OLDER CONGREGATIONS. — 180G — 185G. IGl 

entering in 1849, the former as president of the 
Provincial Board, the latter as pastor of the Sa- 
lem congregation. 

In the year 1849 important changes were com- 
menced in the outward concerns of the Salem 
congregation. By a resolution of the Congre- 
gation Council, the monopolies existing hitherto 
were abolished, and free trade established. In 
the same year, the division of Stokes County was 
resolved upon by the inhabitants of the county, 
and, with the permission of the church authori- 
ties, fifty-one acres of Moravian lands were sold 
to the new county of Forsythe, and the new 
county-town of Winston took in a few years the 
place of the woods north of Salem, and the latter 
increased rapidly, till the boundary-line of Win- 
ston was reached. 

In the course of time it became more and more 
evident that the former so-called "lease system" 
could not be longer maintained, according to 
which only members of the Moravian Church 
could be holders of real estate in the town of 
Salem, and, after mature deliberation, it was 
abolished on November ITth, 1856. By legis- 
14* 



1G2 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

lative enactment, soon after, a charter was ob- 
tained for the now incorporated borough of Sa- 
lem, by which it has, outwardly, fully entered 
the ranks of other American towns, without, 
however, changing in the least the ecclesiastical 
connections of the congregation. 

In 1853, on November l*7th, the Centenary 
Jubilee of the Wachovia congregations was cele- 
brated at Bethahara. Many Brethren and Sis- 
ters from the congregations of Salem, Bethania, 
Friedberg, Friedland, Hope, and Philadelphia 
having assembled, as well as a large number of 
friends and neighbors, the services of the day 
had to be conducted in the open air, for which 
the weather proved very favorable. In the eve- 
ning a large number of persons marched, in 
solemn procession, by torchlight, preceded by 
the choir of trombones, up the adjacent hill, to 
the hurial- ground, around which one hundred 
torches had been placed, which, surrounded by 
the forest-trees, afforded an impressive view. 
Here, in the stillness of a calm night, solemn 
hymns were sung, expressive of the happiness to 
be at home with the Lord, and in remembrance 



THE OLDER CONGREGATIONS. — 1806 — 1850. 103 

of those who, within the eenturj past, had fallen 
asleep in Jesus, and whose mortal remains were 
here deposited ; after which, all returned to the 
church, where, as the closing solemnity of the 
day, prayers were offered up and praise rendered 
once more unto Him whose mercies had been 
unfailing during the century past. 

On the second day of this jubilee, besides other 
meetings, a solemn love-feast was kept in which 
about 1200 persons participated. 

In 1854, soon after Easter, Bishop Herman 
left his home and family in Salem to make an 
oflScial visitation to our mission among the Che- 
rokee Indians in the Indian Territory. Having 
accomplished the object of his mission, he had 
gone several days on his homeward way when he 
was arrested by the hand of the Lord. A ma- 
lignant fever, after a few days' illness, terminated 
his pilgrimage here below, and his services in the 
church militant. He departed this life on the 
20th of July, about 1100 miles from his home, 
in Greene County, State of Missouri, in the 66th 
year of his age. 

In December of the same year, his office, as 



164 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



President of the Provincial Board, was filled 
again by the writer of this historical sketch, 
Levin T. Reichel, formerly stationed as pastor in 
Litiz, Pa. 

SUMMARY AT THE CLOSE OF 1856. 







Communi- 
cants. 


Non-com- 
muuicauts. 


Children. 


Total. 


1. 


Salem . 


430 


59 


209 


698 




Betliabara . 


36 


32 


31 


99 


8. 


Bethimia 


137 


62 


108 


307 


4. 


Friedberg 


164 


114 


151 


429 


.'). 


Muddy Creek 


23 


2 


9 


34 


6. 


Macedonia 


lo 






15 


7. 


Hope 


33 


10 


18 


61 


S. 


Friedlaud 


47 


5S 


66 


171 


9. 


Philadelphia 


17 


8 


24 


49 






902 


345 


616 


1863 



MINISTERS OF SALEM CONGREGATION. 



1G5 



XYIIL 

MINISTERS AND OTHER BRETHREN IN THE SER- 
VICE OF THE PROVINCE IN GENERAL, AND OP 
THE SALEM CONGREGATION IN PARTICULAR. 



1. DUEING THE TIME OF THE BETHABARA ECONOaiY. 



1 


From 


To 




1. 


Bcruh. A. Grube . 


1753 


1754 






2. 


Jacob Loesh, superintendent 












of plantations 


1753 


1769 






3. 


John Jacob Fries . 


1754 


1755 






4. 


Gottlob Hoffman . 


1755 


1764 






5. 


Christ. H. Kauch . 


1755 


17.56 






6. 


David Bishop .... 


1756 


1760 






7. 


Christian Seidel, German min- 












ister 


1756 


1759 


Died 


in office. 


8. 


J. M. Sauter . , . ; 


1757 


1760 


Died 


in office. 


9. 


Jacob Rogers, English minis- 












ter of Dobbs' Parish . 


1758 


1762 






10. 


John Ettwein, German minister 


1759 


1766 






11. 


John Mich. Graff . 


1762 


1773 






12. 


Abrah. de Gammern 


1762 


1765 


Died 


in office. 


13. 


Lawrence Bagge 


1764 


1769 






14. 


Matthew Schropp . 


1766 


1767 


Died 


in office. 


15. 


Richard Utley, English minis- 












ter of Dobbs' Parish . 


1766 


1770 






16. 


F. W. de Marshall . 











166 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



2. BISHOPS AND MEMBERS OF THE PROVINCIAL HELPERS 

CONFERENCE. 

(The Provincial Board. Nearly all living in Salem.) 







'From 


To 


. 




1. 


Fred. Will, de Marshall, S. C. 












Pi'esideut .... 


1772 


1802 


Died 


in office. 


2. 


John M. Graff, Bishop, 1773 . 


1772 


1782 


Died 


in offlce. 


3. 


PaulTiersch .... 


1772 


1774 


Died 


in office. 


4. 


Rich. Utley .... 


1772 


1775 


Died 


in office. 


5. 


John Daniel Koehler, Bishop, 












1790 


1785 


1800 






6. 


Gottfried Praezel . 


1785 


1788 


Died 


in office. 


7. 


Christ. Lewis Benzien . 


1785 


1811 


Died 


in office. 


8. 


Charles G. Eeichel, Bishop, 












President .... 


1802 


1811 






9. 


Simon Peter, Bethabara . 


1803 


1819 


Died 


in office. 


10. 


JohriHerbst, Bishop, President 


1811 


1812 


Died 


in office. 


11. 


Lewis D. de Schweiuitz . 


1812 


1821 






12. 


Jacob Va7i Vleck, President, 












Bishop in 1815 


1812 


1822 






13. 


Christ. Fr. Schaaf . 


1819 


1841 


Died 


in office. 


14. 


Theodor Shultz 


1821 


1849 






15. 


Andr. Benade, Bishop, Presi- 












dent ..... 


1822 


1829 






16. 


John 0. Beckler, President, 












Bishop in 1835 . 


1829 


1836 






17. 


Will. H. Van Vleck, Bishop, 












President .... 


1836 


1849 






18. 


John C. Jacohson . 


1841 


1844 






19. 


Charles F. Kluge . 


1844 


1853 






20. 


John G. Herman, Bishop, Pre- 












sident 


1849 


1854 


Died 


in office. 


21. 


George F. Balmson . 


1849 








22. 


Emil. A. de Schweinitz . 


1853 








23. 


Lewis T. Beichel, President . 


1854 









3. MINISTERS OF SALEM. 



1. 


PaulFiersch . 


1771 


1774 


Died in office. 


2. 


John M. Graff, Epis. 




1774 


1782 


Died in office. 


3. 


John Fr. Peter 




1782 


1784 




4. 


John Dan. Koehler, Epis 




1784 


1800 




5. 


Chr. Benzien . 




1800 


1802 




6. 


Charles G. Reichel, Epis 




1802 


1811 




7. 


John Herbst, Epis. . 




1811 


1812 


Died in offlce. 


8. 


Simon Peter . 




1812 


1812 




9. 


Jacob Van Vleck, Epis. 




1812 


1822 






G. Ben]. Reichel, assistan 


; 1819 


1829 




10. 


Andr. Benade, Epis. 




1822 


1829 





MINISTERS OF SALEM CONGREGATION. IGT 



MINISTERS OF SALI,M— Continued. 







From 


To 




11. 


G. Bouj. Keich.'l, minister . 


1829 


18.33 


Died 


in oflico. 


12. 


John C. Becklcr, Epis. . 


183.3 


1836 






14. 


Will.' H. Van Vleck, Epis. . 


1836 


1849 








Henry A. Shultz, a.ssistant 


1839 


1842 








Charles A. Bleck, " 


1842 


1844 








Saial R. Iluebner, " 


1844 


1849 


Died 


in office. 




A. A. Reinke . " 


1848 


1849 






1.5. 


George F. Bahuson . 


1S49 









4. WARDENS OF SALEM CONGREGATION. 



(Having the management of the outward 
ordained brethren. 



Not all of them 



1 


John Klein .... 


1770 


1770 


Died in office. 


2. 


Richard Utley .... 


1771 


1774 




8. 


J. G. Wallis .... 


1774 


1776 




4, 


C. G. Renter, surveyor . 


1776 


1777 


Died in office. 


o. 


J. H. Herbst .... 


177S 


1780 




6. 


Jeppe Wiclsen (two weeks) . 


1780 


1780 


Died in office. 


•7 


G. Praezel .... 


17S1 


1788 


Died in office. 


s, 


J. H. Herbst .... 


1788 


1790 




ft. 


Abrh. Hessler .... 


1790 


1791 




10. 


Samuel Stotz .... 


1791 


1820 


Died in office. 




John Gambold, assistant . 


1802 


1804 






Mast. Schneider, " 


1804 


1806 




11. 


G. Byhan .... 


1820 


1827 




12. 


WiU. L. Benzien . 
Vacancy. 


1827 


1832 


Died in office. 


13. 


S. Thomas Pfohl . 


1837 







Besides these brethren (and the administrators 
and principals of Female Academy mentioned, 
ch. II. and XII.), there have been a number of 
Brethren, some of them ordained as Deacons 
of the Brethren's Church, who, from ltG9 to 
1823, attended more especially to the spiritual 



168 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

and temporal concerns of the single Bretbreu's 
establishment. In a similar manner Sisters have 
been in the service of the church as superintend- 
ents of the choir house of the single Sisters. 

There were brethren, also, occasionally ap- 
pointed as superintendents of the Salem boy- 
school, among whom we name, because he has 
not been mentioned elsewhere, C. Th. Pfohl, who 
served in that capacity from 1^91 to 1802. 

Since 1849, the boys' school has been placed 
under a committee consisting of the ministers 
and wardens of the congregation, and three bre- 
thren elected by the congregation council. 

The number of scholars at the close of 1856 
was fifty. 

There is also, since 1836, an infant school esta- 
blished in the now so-called "Widows' House," 
managed by a Sister, averaging about thirty 
children. 



MINISTERS OF COUNTRY CONGREGATIONS. 169 



XIX. 



MINISTERS OF THE COUNTRY CONGREGATIONS. 
(Only the resident ministers are mentioned in the following lists.) 

1. BETHABARA. 



f iFrom 


To 1 


1. 


; Lawrence Bagge 


1773 


1784 




2. 


, John Jacob Ernst . 


1784 


1791 




3. 


Abraham Hessler . 


1791 


1800 


Died in office. 


4. 


i John Jacob Ernst . 


1800 


1S02 




5. 


C. D. Buchholz. June to Oct. 


]802 


1802 




6. 


Simon Teter . . . '. 


1802 


1811 




7. 


j J. P. Kluge, assistant in 1S07 


1811 


1813 




S. 


! J. L. Strohle .... 
Vacant. 


1813 


1827 


Died in office. 


9. 


G. Byhan .... 
Vacant. 


1832 


1837 




10. 


J. R. Schmidt .... 
Vacant. 


1839 


1847 




11. 


L. T. Oerter .... 
Attended to by the minister 
of Bethania. 


1849 


1854 




2. BETHANIA. 


1. 


David Bishop .... 


1760 


1763 


Died in office. 


2. 


L. G. Bachhof . 




1761 


1770 




3. 


John J. Ernst . 




1770 


1784 




4. 


Valentin Beck 




1784 


1791 


Died in office. 


>') 


Simon Peter . 




1791 


1802 




6." 


Christ. Th. Pfohl . 




1802 


1823 




7. 


J. P. Kluge, assistant 




1813 


1819 




8. 


Peter WoUe, " 




1819 


1822 




9. 


Charles A. Van Vleck 




1822 


1826 




10. 


J. C. Jacobsou 




1820 


18.34 




11. 


G. F. Bahnson 




1834 


1838 




12. 


Julius T. Beckler . 




1838 


1844 




1.?. 


F. F. Hagen . 




1S44 


IS.jl 




14. 


E. M. Grunert . 




1851 







15 



no 



MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



For a time two ordained Brethren were sta- 
tioned at Bethania, and Brother C. Lash had the 
management of the temporal affairs of the con- 
gregation, which was to be placed on the same 
footing as Salem, as a so-called "Place Congre- 
gation," with lease system, etc. The place was 
finally abandoned in 1822. 



3. FRIEDBERG. 





From 


To 1 


1. 


L. G. Bachhotf 


1770 


1776 


Died in oflice. 


2. 


Valent. Beck . 








1776 


1784 




3. 


Simon Peter . 








17S1 


1791 




4. 


Martin Schneider 








1791 


1804 




5. 


John Gambold 








1804 


1805 




6. 


C. D. Buchholz 








1805 


1806 




7. 


C. H. Rude . 








1807 


1822 




8. 


C. F. Denke 








1822 


1S32 




9. 


H. A. Schultz . 








1832 


1839 




10. 


S. R. HLibner , 








1839 


1844 




11. 


E. T. Senseman 








1844 


1851 




12. 


F. F. Hagen . 








1851 


1854 




13. 


Lewis Rights . 








1854 







4. iiorE. 



J. Chr. Fritz . 

J. Jac. Wohlfert . 

Samuel G. Kramsch 

Abrah. Steiner 

J. Jac. Wohlfert 

J. L. Strohle . 

Samnel G. Kramsch 

C. F. Deuke . 
The place -was considered 
too unhealthy, and no 
minister resided there till 
1838. In 18.39 a new min- 
ister's house was built, but 
abandoned in 1841. 



1780 


1787 


1787 


1792 


1792 


1802 


1802 


1806 


1807 


1807 


1807 


1813 


1813 


1819 


1820 


1821 



Died in office. 



MINISTERS OF COUNTRY CONGREGATIONS. 17 1 



B.OV'Er-Conti7iued. 



H G. Glau.lor .... 

Adam llamaa .... 
This congregation is at pre- 
sent under the pastoral 
cliargo of the ministers at 
Friedberg. 



1838 
1839 



1839 
18il 



FKIEDLAXD. 



1. 


Toego Xisscn . 


. 


o 


John Casper Heinzman . 


3. 


Fetor Goetje . 




4. 


J. Martin Schneider 




;'). 


J. J. Ernst 




6. 


J. Jacob Wohlfert . 






C. D. Bnchholz 




8. 


J. J. Wohlfert . . 




9 


C. D. Buchholz 




10. 


S. R. Hiibner . 




11. 


S. Thomas Pfohl . 




12. 


G. Bvhan 




13. 


Adam Haman . 






Jfon-resident minister, at- 




tended by S. R. 


Hiibner, 




from Salem. 




14. 


Lewis Rights, assistant in 1846 


l;j. 


F. F. Hagen . 




16. 


Lewis Rights . 
Vacant. 




17. 


J. C. Cooke 





177.5 


1780 


1780 


1783 


178.5 


1786 


1786 


1791 


1791 


1800 


1801 


1802 


1802 


180.) 


1805 


1806 


1807 


1823 


1823 


1827 


1827 


1837 


1837 


1841 


1841 


1843 


1847 


ISol 


1351 


1851 


1851 


1854 


1856 





Died in office. 
Died in office. 



1V2 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



XX. 
THE BRETHREN'S UNITY. 

Before closing this historical sketch, it wiL 
be necessary to make a few remarks iu reference 
to the ecclesiastical connection of the Wachovia 
Moravian Congregations with the other congre- 
gations of the Brethren's Unity. By capital 
from abroad the land was bought, the forests 
cleared; by emigrants and colonists from Europe 
and Pennsylvania the settlements were com- 
menced, and though their descendants are now 
fully able, by native talent and their own re- 
sources, to maintain what their self-denying 
grandsires have established for them, still not 
only they are gratefully remembered by every 
upright Moravian, but the connection hitherto 
existing with the other parts of the Unitas Fra- 
trum, is cheerfully maintained, with such modifi- 



THE brethren's UNITY. ITS 

cations as altered circumstances necessarily re- 
quire. 

Whilst formerly ofTicial visitations on tlie part 
of the governing Board of the Unity were deemed 
indispensable to maintain the connection, in mo- 
dern times this object has been gained by the 
occasional visit of Brethren from our parts as 
deputies to the General Synods, hitherto always 
held in Germany. These delegates were, on for- 
mer occasions, elected or appointed by the Pro- 
vincial Board or the Congregations of the Pro- 
vince. By the last General Synod of 1848, an 
alteration has been resolved upon, according to . 
which two brethren, elected by the Province itself 
through its representation assembled at a Pro- 
vincial Synod in 1856,* are to go to the General 
Synod of the Unity to be convened in Herrnhut, 
June 8th, of this year, with the following decla- 
ration : — 

" Whereas, the Brethren's Unihj is composed 
of very different parts, which, however, all be- 

^ Vide Digest of tlie Provincial Synod at Salem, lield 
April 28th to May 13th, 1856. 
15* 



174 MORAVIANS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

long either to the Brethren's Church or to the 
Brethren's Congregation ; and 

"Whereas, we are, nevertheless, all built on 
the same foundation, that of the apostles and 
prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief 
corner-stone; 

'' Therefore resolved, that, though belonging to 
different nationalities, speaking different lan- 
guages, living under different forms of govern- 
ment, cherishing different political views, and hav- 
ing different social habits, still a Bond of Union, 
connecting the different branches of the Unitas 
Fratrum, can be, and we hope and pray may be 
maintained also in future years, and we continue 
to be 'the Brethren'' s Unity, even without uni- 
formity.' " 

This union feeling has been strengthened and 
nourished by the celebration of our memorial 
days, both annually and centenary. Thus, in 
June, 1822, the several congregations of this 
province, in spiritual union with our other con- 
gregations in the four parts of the globe, cele- 
brated the Centenary Jubilee of the Reneiced 
Church of the Brethren ; the Itth of June, 1722, 



THE brethren's UNITY. 175 

being the day, from which dates the beginning of 
Ilerrnhut, the mother congregation of the re- 
newed church. Ten years later, in 1732, a simi- 
lar festive commemoration was held of the first 
attempt of the church in August, 1732, to go 
forth in the faith and strength of the Lord, to 
proclaim the glad tidings of salvation to the be- 
nighted heathen. 

And being descendants of the old church of 
martyrs, which was established in the mountains 
of Bohemia in 1457, the oldest of the protestant 
churches, we this year celebrate, with fervent 
gratitude to the Lord, the Fourth Centenary of 
the Unitas Fratrum. 

March 1st, 1857. 



APPENDIX 



APPEXDIX Xo. I. 

FIRST SETTLEPvS AND HEADS OF 
FAMILIES. 

Tuis list lias been carefully extracted from the 
church records of the different Moravian congregations 
in North Carolina ; and many of the present members 
of the church will, no doubt, be gratified to find on 
record here, when their ancestors arrived in this coun- 
try, and where their burial places may be found. 

AcKERMAN, John, bom in 1756, near Eisenach, Germany ; 

came to North Carolina in 1785; died in 

1791 in Bethabara. 
Bagge, Traugott, born in 1729 in Gottenburg, Sweden ; 

came to North Carolina in 1768 ; died in 

1800 in Salem. 
Bacmgakten, John George, born in 1722 in Hesse Cas- 

sel ; came to North Carolina in 1755 ; died 

in 1779 in Salem. 
Beroth, Jacob, born in 1740 in York Co., Pa. ; came to 

North Carolina in 1772 ; died in 1801 in 

Salem. 
Beroth, John, bom in 1725 in Oppen. Palatinate, one 



180 APPENDIX. 

of the first settlers of Betliabara in 1753, 

and of Betliania in 1759; died in 1817 in 

Friedland. 
Blum, Jacob, born in 1739 in Saucon, Northampton, Pa. ; 

came to North Carolina in 1768 ; died in 

1802 in Salem. 
Blum, John Henry, born in 1752 in Bethlehem, Pa. ; 

came to North Carolina in 1766 ; died in 

1824 in Salem. 
BcECKEL, John Nicolaus, born in 1741 in Heidelberg, 

Pa. ; came to North Carolina in 1767 ; died 

in 1822 in Bethania. 
BoECKEL, Fred., born in 1742 in Pennsylvania ; came to 

North Carolina in 1765 ; died in 1802 in 

Friedberg. 
BuLow (Belo), John Fred., born in 1780 in Herrnhut, 

Saxony; came to North Carolina ii; 1806; 

died in 1827 in Salem. 
Boxer. Joseph William, born in 1747 in Pennsylvania ; 

came to North Carolina in 1769 ; died in 

1785 in Hope. 
Briez, Christian, born in 1772 in Lower Lusatia, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina in 1806 ; 

died in 1845 in Salem. 
BuKKHAKDT, John Christian, born in 1771 in Tanger- 

miinde, Alt Mark, Prussia ; came to North 

Carolina in 1806 ; died in 1846 in Salem. 



APPENDIX. 181 

BuTTNER, Thomas, bora in 1741 in Monocasy, Maryland ; 

came to North Carolina in 17G8 ; died in 

1780 in Hope. 
Byhan, Gottlieb, bora in 1777 near Herrahut, Saxony ; 

came to North Carolina in 1796. 
Chitty, John, bora in 1766 in Maryland ; died in 1825 

in Bethabara. 
Christ, Rudolph, born in 1750 in Wurtemberg ; came 

to North Carolina in 1765 ; died in 1833 in 

Salem. 
Christian, Balthasar, born in 1760 in York Co., Pa. ; 

came to North Carolina in 1780 ; died in 

1797 in Bethabara. 
Clauder, Charles Gottlieb, born in 1765 in Zwickau, 

Saxony ; came to North Carolina in 1797 ; 

died in 1843 in Salem. 
Conrad, Christian, born in 1744 in Pennsylvania ; came 

to North Carolina in 1768 ; died in 1800 in 

Bethania. 
Cook (Koch), George, born in 1771 in Lancaster, Pa. ; 

came to North Carolina in 1806 ; died in 

1822 in Friedberg. 
DouTiiiD, John, born in 1709 in Coleraine, Ireland ; came 

to North Carolina in 1750 ; died in 1784 in 

Hope. 
Eberhardt, John Lewis, born in 175S in Thuriugia, 
16 



182 APPENDIX. 

Germany ; came to North Carolina in 1799 ; 
died in 1839 in Salem. 
Ebert, Jolin Martin, born in 1727 in Anspacli, Germany ; 
came to North Carolina in 1774; died in 

1792 in Friedberg. 

Elrod, Christian, born in 1721 in Pennsylvania ; came 
to North Carolina in 1751 ; died in 1785 in 
Hope. 

Fetter, Jacob, born in 1781 in Lancaster, Pa. ; died in 
1856 in Salem. 

FiscHELL, John Adam, born in 1730 in Palatinate, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina in 1779 ; died 
in 1802 in Friedberg. 

Fisher, Melchior, born in 1726 in Heilbron, Wurtem- 
berg ; came to North Carolina about 1770 ; 
died in 1798 in Friedberg. 

FocKEL, Gottlieb, born in 1724 in Peilau, Silesia, Ger- 
many; came to North Carolina in 1755; 
died in 1778 in Bethabai-a. 

Frey, Peter, born in 1689 in Alsace, Germany ; came to 
North Carolina in 1765 ; died in 1766 in 
Friedberg. 

Fries, John Christ William, born in 1775 in Barby, 
Germany ; came to North Carolina in 1809. 

Grabs, Gottfried, born in 1716 in Silesia, Germany; 
came to North Carolina in 1756 ; died in 

1793 in Bethania. 



APPENDIX. 183 

Greter, Jacob, born in 1708 in Alsace, Germany ; came 

to North Carolina in 17G8 ; died in 1788 in 

Friedberg. 
Hagex, John Joachim, born in 1771 in Brandenburg ; 

came to North Carolina in 1814 ; died in 

1844 in Salem. 
Ha>'ke, John, born in 1750 in Nazareth, Pa. ; died in 

1823 in Bethania. 
Hamilton, Horatio, born in 1756 in Frederick Co., Mary- 
land ; came to North Carolina in 1775 ; died 

in 1840 in Hope. 
Hartman, George Fred., born in 1724 in Palatinate; 

came to North Carolina in 1755 ; died in 

1788 in Friedberg. 
Hauser, Martin, born in 1696 in Miimpolgard, Switzer- 
land ; came to North Carolina in 1753 ; died 

in 1761 in Bethania. 
Hege, John Balthasar, born in 1714 in "Wurtemberg ; 

came to North Carolina in 1757 ; died in 

1785 in Bethania. 
Heix, John Jacob, born in 1713 in Dilleburg, Germany ; 

died in 1795 in Friedland. 
Heix, John, born in 1749 near Dilleburg, Germany ; 

died in 1806 in Bethabara. 
Herbst, John Henry, born in 1727 in Hanover ; came to 

North Carolina in 1762; died in 1821 in 

Salem. 



184 APPENDIX. 

HcEHN, Marcus, born in 1719 in Zweibriicken, Germany; 
came to Nortli Carolina in 1774 ; died in 
1797 in Friedberg. 
Holder, Greorge, born in 1729 in Oley, Pa. ; came to 
Nortli Carolina in 1755 ; died in 1804 in 
Bethabara. 
Holland, John, born in 1743 in Cliesliire, England; 
came to Nortli Carolina in 1773 ; died in 
1811 in Salem. 
Kapp, John Jacob, born in 1729 in Switzerland ; came 
to Nortli Carolina in 1754; died in 1807 in 
• Betbabara. 
KoRNER, Joseph, born in 1769 in Black Forest, Germa- 
ny ; died in 1830 in Friedland. 
Krause, Matthew, born in 1720 in Upper Silesia, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina in 1755 ; 
died in 1762 in Bethabara. 
Kr(en, Peter, born in 1722 in Eichfeld, Franconia ; died 

in 1798 in Friedland. 
Keehln, Christian David, born in 1793 in Niesky, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina in 1818. 
KiiNZEL, John Fred., born in 1737 in Konigsbach, Ger- 
many ; died in 1802 in Friedland. 
Lagenour, Jacob Fred., born in 1751 in Duiiach, Ger- 
many ; died in 1843 in Friedland. 
Lehman, John Christian, born in 1770 in Lnsatia, Ger- 
many. 



APPENDIX. 185 

Leinbach, Lewis, born iu 1743 in Oley, Pa. ; came to 

Nortli Carolina in 1765 ; died in 1800 in 

Betliabara. 
Leinbach, Frederick, bom in 1737 in Oley, Pa. ; died in 

1821 in Salem. 
Lick, Martin, born in 1726 in Neuwied, Germany ; came 

to North Carolina in 1758 ; died in 1760 in 

Bethabara. 
LoEsn (Lasli), John Jacob, bom in 1722 in Scbobarie, 

N. Y. ; came to Nortli Carolina in 1753 ; 

died in 1782 in Hope, N. J. 
Mack, Jacob, born in 1753 in Reading, Pa. ; died in 

1836 in Davidson County. 
Meinung, Charles Lewis, bom in 1743 in Oley, Pa. ; 

came to North Carolina in 1771; died in 

1817 in Salem. 
MlicKE, John, born in 1749 near Philadelphia ; died in 

1807 in Bethabara. 
MiiLLER; Jacob, born in 1721 in Zweibriicken, Germa- 
ny ; died in 1798 in Bethania. 
Moss, Henry, born in 1751 in Maryland ; came to North 

Carolina in 1775 ; died in 1822 in Fried- 
berg. 
Noll, Jacob, born in 1740 near Philadelphia ; died in 

1811 in Bethabara. 
NoTHixo, Matthew, born in 1756 in Halifax; died in 

1807 in Salem. 

16* 



18G APPENDIX. 

Oehman, John Gottfried, born in 1781 in Weissenstein, 
Livonia, Russia ; came to North. Carolina in 
1819. 

Opiz, Charles, born in 1719 in Silesia, Germany ; came 
to North Carolina in 1755 ; died in 1763 in 
Bethania. 

Padget, John, born in 1723 in Charles County, Mary- 
land ; came to North Carolina in 1775 ; died 
in 1811 in Hope. 

Padget, Thomas, born in 1752 in Carrol's Manor, Mary- 
land ; came to North Carolina in 1775 ; died 
in 1831. 

Petersen, Carsten, born in 1776 near Flensburg, Den- 
mark ; came to North Carolina in 1806. 

Peddicoart, William Barton, born in 1739 in Prince 
George's County, Maryland ; came to North 
Carolina in 1775 ; died in 1807 in Hope. 

Pfaff, Peter, born in 1727 in Palatinate, Germany ; 
came to North Carolina in 1771 ; died in 
1804 in Bethania. 

Philipps, John Samuel, born in 1776 in Pennsylvania. 

Ranke, John, born in 1737 in Lancaster County, Pa. ; 
came to North Carolina in 1754 ; died in 
1798 in Bethabara. 

Reich, John Christoph, born in 1763 in Berks County, 
Pa. ; died in 1824 in Salem. 



APPENDIX. IST 

Reich, Matthew, born in 1764 in Berks County, Pa. ; 

died in 1829 in Salem. 
Reich, Jacob, born in 1770 in Orange County, N. C. ; 

died in 1827 in Friedberg. 
Reuz (Rights), John, born in 1752 in Bethlehem, Pa. ; 

came to North Carolina in 1764 ; died in 

1810 in Salem. 
RiED, Jacob, bom in 1735 in Baden Durlach; came to 

North Carolina in 1770, from Broad Bay, 

Maine ; died in 1819 in Friedland. 
RoMiNGER, David, born in 1716 in Wurtemberg ; came 

to North Carolina, from Broad Bay, Maine, 

in 1769 ; died in 1777 in Bethabara. 
RoMiNGEE, Michael, born in 1709 in Wurtemberg ; came 

to North Carolina, from Broad Bay, in 1770 ; 

died in 1803 in Friedland. 
RoTHKOCK, Philip, born in 1746 in York County , - a- ; 

died in 1825 in Friedberg. 
RoTHROCK, Peter, born in 1746 in York County, Pa. ; 

died in 1829 in Friedberg. 
RoTHKOCK, Jacob, born in 1770 in York County, Pa. ; 

died in 1807 in Friedberg. 
ScHAFFNER, John, bom in 1773 in Switzerland ; came 

to North Carolina in 1818 ; died in 1854 in 

Salem. 
ScHAUB, John Fred., born in 1717 in Switzerland ; came 



188 APPENDIX. 

to North Carolina in 1755 ; died in 1801 in 
Betliania. 

Schneider, Melchior, born in 1717 in Durlacli, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina, from Broad 
Bay, Maine, in 1770 ; died in 1790 in Fried- 
land. 

Schorr, Henry, born in 1735 in Switzerland ; came to 
North Carolina in 1756 ; died in 1819 in 
Betliania. 

ScHULz, John, born in 1703 in Basle, Switzerland ; came 
to North Carolina in 1769 ; died in 1788 in 
Betliania. 

ScHUJiAN, Fred. Henry, born in 1777 in Gnadau, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina in 1808. 

Seiz, John Michael, born in 1737 in Wurtemberg ; came 
to Broad Bay, Maine, in 1759, and to North 
Carolina in 1770 ; died in 1817 in Friedland. 

Senseman, John Henry, born in 1786 in Heidelberg, 
Pa. ; died in 1854 in Salem. 

Shober, Gottlieb, born in 1756 in Bethlehem, Pa. ; came 
to North Carolina in 1768 ; died in 1838 in 
Salem. 

Spach, Adam, born in 1720 in Alsace, Germany ; came 
to North Carolina in 1756 ; died in 1801 in 
Friedberg. 

Spoenhauer, John Henry, born in 1716 in Switzerland ; 



APPENDIX, 189 

came to North Carolina in 1755 ; died in 

1788 in Bethania. 

Stauber, Paul Christian, born in 1726 in Frankfurt, 

Germany ; came to North Carolina in 1767 ; 

died in 1793 in Bethania. 
Stockburger, John George, born in 1731 in Wurtem- 

berg ; came to North Carolina in 1766 ; died 

in 1803 in Salem. 
Stolz, Caspar, born in 1753 in Pennsylvania ; died in 

1834 in Bethania. 
Strup, John Francis, born in 1716 in Nassau, Germany ; 

came to North Carolina in 1766; died in 

1782 in Bethabara. 
Strup, John, born in 1719 in Lauffelfingen, Germany ; 

came to North Carolina in 1760 ; died in 

1789 in Bethania. 

Tesch, Henry, born in 1733 in Palatinate ; came to 
North Carolina in 1771 ; died in 1804 in 
Friedberg. 

Traxson, Philip, born in 1724 in Palatinate ; came to 
North Carolina in 1762; died in 1792 in 
Bethania. 

ViERLiNG, Samuel Benjamin, born in 1765 in Rudol- 
stadt, Silesia, Germany ; came to North Caro- 
lina in 1790 ; died in 1817 in Salem. 

Vogler, Philip Christopher, born in 1725 in Palatinate ; 



190 APPENDIX, 

came to North Carolina, from Broad Bay, 

Maine, in 1770 ; died in 1790 in Betliania. 
VoLZ, Peter, born in 1726 in Alsace, Germany ; came 

to North Carolina in 1768 ; died in 1806 in 

Friedberg. 
"Wageman, Andrew, born in 1758 in South Carolina ; 

came to North Carolina in 1766; died in 

1779 in Salem. 
Wernek, Christian Andrew, born in 1768 in Randolph 

County, N. C. ; died in 1814 in Betliania. 
Wesnek, Matthew, born in 1730 in Stuttgart, Wurtem- 

berg ; came to North Carolina in 1772 ; 

died in 1806 in Friedberg. 
Winkler, Christian, born in 1766 in Switzerland ; came 

to North Carolina in 1807 ; died in 1839 in 

Salem. 
Zevely, Van Naman, born in 1780 in North Carolina ; 

came to Salem in 1798. 
Zimmerman, Christian, born in 1726 in Nassau, Ger- 
many ; came to North Carolina in 1758 ; 

died in 1793 in Friedberg. 



APPENDIX. 



191 



No. II. 
CHURCHES AND OTHER PUBLIC 

BUILDINGS. 

Salem. 

First meeting liall in Congregation House conse- 
crated 13th Nov. 1771. 
The house removed in 1854 to make room for the 

new academy building. 
Church of Salem consecrated 9th Nov. 1800 

Chapel built in 1841 

Old academy finished . . . 1805 

Boys' school-house .... 1794 
Single sister's house . . . .1786 
Brethren's house .... 1769 

Bethabaka. 

First meeting house, consecrated 1st Feb. 175G. 



Present church, 
Bethania. 

First meeting house, 

Present church 
Friedland. 

First meeting house. 

Second " 
Friedberg. 

First " " 

Second " 

Third " " 



26th Nov. 1788. 

23d June, 1771. 
22d Oct. 1806. 

18th Feb. 1775. 
31st Oct. 1847. 

11th March, 1769. 

12th March, 1788. 

28th July, 1827. 



192 APPENDIX. 

Hope meeting liouse, consecrated 28th Marcli, 1780. 
Philadelphia meeting house, " 31st Oct. 1851. 

Macedonia " " " 25th May, 1856. 

NEW ACADEMY BUILDINGS. 

For future reference, we insert here a full description 
of the New Female Academy at Salem, which was pre- 
pared for the " Iloravian,^' vol. i. 4, the official organ of 
the American Moravian Church. 

" The new house occupies the site of the old church 
and parsonage (formerly called the ' Congregation 
House'), immediately joining the original school build- 
ing. 

"The dimensions of the main building are 100 feet 
front by 52 feet deep, with a wing at the north 70| feet 
in length and 34| feet in depth, and another one at the 
south 77 by 44 feet. The main building, as well as the 
north wing, is four stories on the front, and at the rear 
(on account of the descent of the ground) five stories, 
including the basement. The fronts of the houses are 
of pressed brick, expressly manufactured for our build- 
ing, angl are probably some of the first of the kind made 
in our State. 

" The front is ornamented by a large Doric portico, 50 
feet in length and 13 feet in width. It has four Doric 
columns, with two pilasters resting against the house. 
The height of the whole, including bases, columns, and 



APPENDIX. 103 

entablatures, is between 30 and 40 feet — the cornice of 
the entablature extending three feet above the sills of 
the- third story windows. The whole is built strictly 
in accordance with the classical Doric order of archi- 
tecture. The columns are of brick, stuccoed with hy- 
draulic cement in imitation of brown sandstone, as is 
also the rest of the portico, excepting the bases and 
steps, which are of hewn granite. 

"The roof oi the house has but one inclination, from 
front to rear, and is covered with tin. The front eleva- 
tion is formed and crowned by a very heavy cornice of 
blockwork, over six feet in height. In the centre, there 
rises above this, a pediment of over fifty feet in length 
of base, by about eighteen feet elevation. 

" The first and second stories of the main house are 
divided into eighteen dwelling and school rooms, with 
smaller side rooms attached to each. These side rooms 
are fitted up with small closets, wardrobes, &c. All 
the rooms are lined, to a height of three feet from the 
floor, with panel-work, grained in imitation of walnut. 
Passages of 12 feet wide extend through the whole 
length of the house in each story, and wide, staircases 
run up on both ends of the main house, from the base- 
ment to the fourth story. The entrance-hall, on the 
first floor, into which the large front door opens, is 
about 20 feet square, connecting with the main passage 
by an elliptical archway of about 20 feet span. On the 

17 



194 APPENDIX. 

south end the passage connects by a closed and covered 
way with the old buildings. 

" The whole third floor forms one dormitory. This is 
a very large room, extending over the entire house from 
wall to wall, without any partitions, the ceiling and 
fourth floor being supported by a colonnade of sixteen 
pillars. 

" ^\\e fourth story is divided into ten rooms ; those on 
the front being fine and airy, intended for smaller 
classes and music rooms. Those on the rear are 
roughly finished, and only intended for trunk and 
store rooms. 

" The north wing is divided into a large number of 
rooms, to be used for various purposes. The whole of 
the second story of this wing is devoted to the so-called 
' sick-rooms,' with every convenience attached. From 
this wing there is also a covered and closed way, lead- 
ing directly into our church, and by this passage our 
scholars can enter the church under cover at all times. 

" The whole rear part of the basement story is taken 
up by ' wash' or ' dressing-rooms.' There are eighteen 
such wash-rooms, each being furnished with three sta- 
tionary basins. Through all these apartments the 
water, both hot and cold, is conducted in pipes, with 
cocks over each basin. In addition to these rooms 
thei-e are a number of bath-rooms, with tub and shower 
baths. The head of water is obtained from large water 



APPENDIX. 195 

tanks, located in the building at the end of the north 
wing. The supply of water is procured from a well 
and spring at the foot of the hill upon which the build- 
ing stands, being driven up to an elevation of some 140 
feet by forcing-pumps, which are worked by water- 
power. Tlie hot water is generated in a large circulat- 
ing boiler, located in the cellar of the front house. 
This boiler was made expressly for our establishment 
in Auburn, New York. 

" There are porches of 12 feet width, extending along 
the rear of the house, two stories high on the main 
house, and three on the north wing. 

*' We have introduced a very complete system of ven- 
tilation throughout the whole building. Four main 
trunk ventilators run up from the lower floor, extend- 
ing above the roof. With these main trunks, the dif- 
ferent rooms are connected by branches. 

" The south wing is not yet quite completed. The 
lower floor of this wing will contain a dining-room, 
large enough to seat some 250 persons. On the second 
floor, whicbwill be supported by iron pillars, our chapel 
will be located." 

R. DE. S. 



196 APPENDIX, 

No. III. 

HOUSES BUILT IN SALEM. 

1706—1816. 
1786. Feb., first house, at present, Schaffner's shop. 
Ang., second house, owned by Fries. 

** third house, two-story building, since re- 
moved, site of Fries's store. 
Contained first meeting-hall. 
17G7. Fourth house, inhabited by W. Leibech. 
Fifth '* inhabited by Hughes. 
Sixth " owned by Ebert. 

1768. Pottery, inhabited by J. Chitty. 
Blacksmith-shop, at present, L. Belo. 
Single Brethren's house. 

1769. Single Brethren's house, finished in part, 

at present, widows' house. 
Tannery, at present, Brietz. 

1770. Congregation-house, finished in 1771, removed in 

1854. 
Seventh house, at present, Fischer. 

1771. House for skins, at present, Belo's store. 
Tavern, burnt in 1784, rebuilt in 1784, 

at present, Buttner. 

1772. Renter's house, °' J. Vogler. 
1774. Store of congregation, " E. A. Vogler. 

Triebel's house, rebuilt in 1756. W. H. Hall. 



APPENDIX. ISY 

1775. Family house. 

1783. Family house, afterwards widows' house, since 
removed, at present, bank building. 

1785. Single Sisters' house. 

Family house, at present, Shober's. 

3 786. Family house, formerly Huesler's. 

Addition to Brethren's house. 

1787. Family house, at present, Thos. Boner. 

" " inhabited by Mitchel. 

1788. " " " " Banner. 

1789. Fulling-mill, at present, N. Vogler. 
1791. Family house, at present. Boner & Crist's store. 
1794. Boys' school-house. 

1797. House for warden of congregation, S. Stotz, 

at present, S. Th. Pfohl. 

C. Vogler's house, " R. Crist. 

1800. Dr. Vierling's house, " land-office. 

Bakery, " Winkler. 

1803. Girls' school-house. 

Market-house on the square. 

Corpse-house. 
1805. SchriJter's house, at present, Fulkerson. 

1810. Inspector's house. 

1814. Eberhardt's house. 

C. Schulz's " at present, Schajafner. 

1815. Chr. Reich (copper-smith). 



198 APPENDIX. 

The above list is not quite complete, for in 1816 
there were counted, besides the church, the congrega- 
tion-house, the two school and two choir-houses, thirty- 
six family houses in Salem, probably including those 
built in that year by A. Steiner, Foltz, and Hagen. 

In the following years, not all the new buildings 
seem to have been recorded in the Memorabilia ; hence 
the list is incomplete, but still not without local in- 
terest. 

1817—1851. 

1817. Senseman. 

1819. Addition to the Sisters' house, on the south. 
John Vogler and Sam. Schulz. 

1820. Thomas Wohlfahrt, Charles Levering, and Henry 

Herbst. 

1821. New grist-mill near Salem. 

1822. H. Lienbach, Schaffner, S. Lick, and Ackerman. 

1823. A. Steiner, Jr. Cistern in the square. 

1824. Philip Reich, Traug. Lienbach, Sam. Schulz. 

1826. Three new houses. 

1827. Two new houses. Printing-office. 

1828. One new house. 

1829. " " " 

1831. L. Eberhardt, Denke, and Jos. Stauber. 

1832. Timothy Vogler. 
1834. Jos. Stauber. 



APPENDIX. 199 

1839. Clewell and Sussdorf. 

1840. Wm. Houser, Theopli. Vierling, Clias. Cooper. 
18-41. Kramer, F. Fries, Beitel, A. Fishel, second story 

on Jac. Blum's store, chapel, minister's liouse 
for Bishop Van Vleck, corpse-house. 

1842. Theod. Schultz, H. Meinung, A. Steiner, H. Wink- 

ler, John Chitty, Traug. Cliittj. 

1843. David Blum. 

1844. Joshua Boner, J. D. Siewers, F. C. Meinung ; con- 

cert hall. 

1847. Edwin Beitel; bank building. 

1848. Edwin Meinung ; Fries, factory building. 

1849. Antoinette Blum, Ed. Belo ; hall of Young Men's 

Missionary Society and Sons of Temperance — 
the former in 1856 occupied by the post-office. 
1851. Wm. F. Schulz. 



200 APPENDIX. 

No. lY. 
ADDITIONS AND NOTES. 

1753. The following are the names of the nine Breth- 
ren, who arrived as first settlers : — 

John Beroth, farmer, from the Susquehanna, Pa. 

John Lisher,' farmer. 

Herman Loesh, miller, from Pennsylvania. 

Jacob Lung, gardener, from Wurtemberg. 

Christopher Merkle, baker. 

Erich Ingebresten, carpenter, from Norway. 

Henry Feldhausen, carpenter and hunter. 

Hans Peterson, tailor from Denmark. 

Jacob Pfeil, shoemaker, from Wurtemberg. 
1757. Among those coming to the Bethabara mill, are 

mentioned Mr. Shephard and Mr. Banner. 
17G0. Two hives of bees were brought from Tar River, 
120 miles, which increased very fast ; in con- 
sequence, many bears made their appearance 
in the fall. 

In December, immense quantities of wild pigeons 
made their appearance and roosted near by for 
nearly a month. When together, at night, 
they covered only a small tract of woods, but 
were clustered so thick upon the trees as to 
break down the largest limbs by their weight. 
The noise made by them in coming to their 
camp at night, as well as the fluttering, &c. 



APPENDIX. 201 

during the night, and thus breaking up in the 
morning, was heard at a considerable distance. 
The spot was marked for many years. 

1761. Jan. very cold, and thick ice on'the mill-pond, 
strong enough to drag heavy logs over it to 
the saw-mill. 

1763. In Bethabara and Bethania wells were dug, and 
the first pumps introduced into this part of the 
country. 

1765. John Leinbach, with his family of seven chil- 
dren, arrived from Oley, Pa., and bought lot 
No. 1, the so-called "Lineback tract." 

1767. The County Court in Salisbury gave permits for 
three public roads, one leading from Salem to 
the Townfork and Dan River, another to Be- 
lo's Creek and the Cape Fear Road, and the 
third southward to the Uwharee. 

1769. Great abundance of wild grapes ; nineteen hogs- 

heads of wine were made in the three settle- 
ments. 

1770. Abundance of caterpillars, which destroyed much 

of the grass and grain. The place for the 
burial-ground of Salem was cleared and fenced 
in. Roads opened to Salisbury and Cross 
Creek. 

1771. Much harm done to the com by the squirrels, 

also many bears in the woods. 
18 



S02 APPENDIX. 

.1772. A bell of 2758 lbs. weiglit arrived from Pennsyl- 
vania ; tbe largest in the neigbborbood ; was 
used in Salem for meetings, and also served 
for tbe town-clock, to announce tbe bours. 
In Oct., Br. Beelitscber finisbed an organ of two 
stops for Salem. Trombones bad been pro- 
cured from Europe in 1765. 
A road was laid out from Salem to tbe Sballow 
Ford, wbicb opened communication witb Dou- 
tbid's settlement ; an old road to Belo's Creek 
was re-opened. 

1778. Dobb's Parisb abolisbed by law ; no distinction 
of religious denominations bencefortb. Salem 
waterworks ; erected by J. Krause. 

1780. Coffee tbree sbillings per pound ; sugar four 

sbillings. 

1781. First inoculation of smallpox in Salem. 

1784. One bundred and one persons in Salem bad tbe 

measles, only one cbild died ; very bot sum 
mer ; severe fresbets ; many sick of fever and 
sore tbroats. 

1785. Fire engines for Salem brought from Europe. 

1786. Wbile digging tbe cellar for addition to tbe Bre- 

tbrens' bouse, Br. A. Kremser was covered and 
killed by tbe falling ground. 

1787. Introduction of ligbtning-rods in Salem. 

1789. In Betbabara, English preaching every fourth 
Sunday. 



APPENDIX. 208 

1791. Paper-mill near Salem finished ; town clock in 

Salem. 

1792. Fourteen persons died in Salem in February and 

March of an epidemic scarlet rash. 
The mail from Halifax to Salisbury passes 

through Salem once in two weeks : G. Shoher, 

postmaster. 
A double row of sycamores was planted from the 

tavern to the bridge on the beach ; still noble 

trees. 

1795. Great freshet ; the lower part of the mill under 

water. Wlieat cost six shillings, corn four 
shillings — double price. 

1796. Great freshet in January. Will. Hall, whilst 

riding to the mill, was drowned. 

1797. Preaching places at the Muddy Creek, ten miles, 

and at Beaver Dam, thirteen miles from Sa- 
lem. 
1799. Br. Van Zevely worked a year with Br. Bach- 
man, of Litiz, at the organ of the Salem church, 
building the outer organ case. 

1802. Eighty persons in Salem inoculated with the 

cowpox. 

1803. One hundred and twenty-five persons in Salem 

sick of the measles. 
1806. The town-clock improved by Eberhard to strike 
the quarters. 



20i APPENDIX. 

Charles P. Bagge built a storehouse on the road 
to Friedlaud, the first house in Charlestown or 
Waughtoivn. 
1811. March. Consecration of Rippel's church ; cu- 
pola and bell on Bethabara church. 

1814. One hundred and twenty persons in Salem sick 

with the measles. 

1815. Mill on the Brushy Fork. 

Wool-carding machinery of Br. Zevely, the first 
in this State. 
1817. Great abundance of peaches and apples. 
1828. Improvements in the water-works of Salem. 

1831. By legislative enactment, the freedom from mili- 

tary service rescinded, which was formerly 
granted to the Moravians. 
July 4th. Salem volunteer company. 

1832. New fire engine from Philadelphia. 

1833. Aug. 28th. Very destructive hail-storm ; about 

four thousand window-panes broken. 

1837. Salem cotton factory commenced operations in 
fall. 

1840. Woollen factory of P. Fries. 

1846. Union meetings in Liberty or Burchrentown. 

1849. Emigration to Iowa. 

Fifty-one acres of Salem land sold to the county 
of Porsythe, for $5 per acre, for the new coun- 
ty-town of Winston. 



APPENDIX. 205 

1850. Aug. 25th. Great freshet ; bridge over the Middle 

Fork destroyed. 
Court-house in Winston finished. 
1854. Plank-road from Fayetteville to Bethauia ; 

church in Salem repaired ; third gallery for 

boarders of academy. 
1857. Jan. 18th. Severe snow-storm and intense cold ; 

no mail from the North for nearly two weeks. 
Separation of town and church officers in Salem, 

and election of the first municipal officers, 

January 5th. 

At the commencement of the year 1857, the govern- 
ing Boards in the various departments (both Church 
and State) in Salem were composed as follows : — 

Rev. L. T. Reichel, Pres't, ■) 
Rev. G. F. Bahnson, I Provincial Board. 

E. A. de Schweinitz, J 

Rev. G. F. Bahnson, Minister at Salem. 
S. Til. Pfohl, Warden of Congregation. 
E. A. de Schweinitz, Administrator of Land-Office. 
Rev. R. de Schweinitz, Principal of Salem Female Aca- 
demy. 
Rev. L. T. Reichel, "l 

Rev. G. F. Bahnson, '^^^^^^^ °^ ^^^'''^ ^^^^^^^ 
E. A. de Schweinitz, J Academy. 



206 



APPENDIX. 



E. A. de Schweinitz, Pres't, " 

S. Th. Pfolil, Secretary, 

H. Leinbach, 

Fr. Fries, 

E. A. Vogler, j- 

C. Cooper, 

T. F. Keehln, 



Board of Overseers of 
tlie Congregation and 
Church Property. 



W. Petersen, 

Rev. G. F. Bahnson, President of Salem Boys' School. 

S. Th. Pfohl, 1 

Fr. Fries, 

} Committee of Salem Boys' School. 

E. A. Vogler, 

L. Belo, 

Charles Brietz, Mayor. 

R. L. Patterson, "] 

F. Fries, 
A. Butner, 
J. R. Crist, 
E. Belo, I 
T. F. Keehln, 
S. Mickey, J 



[ Town Commissioners. 



THE END. 



9 66 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 




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