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THE NATIONAL 

CYCLOPJIDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGEAPEY 



VOLUME III. 



1! 



I. 



THE NATIONAL 

CYCLOPJIDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



VOLUME III. 



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THE NATIONAL 



CYCLOPEDIA OF AMEEICAN 

BIOGEAPHY 



BEING THE 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 



AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE LIVES OP THE POUNDERS, BUILDERS, AND DEPENDERS 
OP THE REPUBLIC, AND OP THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO ARE 
DOING THE WORK AND MOULDING THE 
THOUGHT OP THE PRES- 
ENT TIME 



EDITED BT 



DISTINGUISHED BIOGRAPHERS, SELECTED PROM EACH STATE 
BEVISED AND APPROVED BY THE MOST EMINENT HISTORIANS. SCHOLARS. AND 

STATESMEN OP THE DAY 



VOLUME III. 









NEW YORK 

JAMES T. WHITE & COMPANT 

1893 



Copyright, 1891. 
By JAMES T. WHITE & COMPANY, 

[All rights reserved,] 



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FROM TBE PRK88 OF 

DANIEL G. p. CLASS. 

NEW YORK. 




33377 



Extract ftom a Letter of Thomas Carlyle, addressed to David Laing, of Edinburgh, 
on the proposed National Exhibition of Scottish Poitraite : 

First of all, then, I have to ttll you, as a fact of personal eJiperience, that in all my poor liistoiical 
iiivesli^tiDDu It has becD. and always is, udc of the moat primary wants to procure a bodily llkeneis of tlie 
personage inquired after; a good portrait, if aucti exists: failing tlial. even au iudifferent. If sincore 
oue. In short, ang representatloD, made by a faithful hutnou creature, of that face aud figure nhlcli h* 
saw with his eyes, and whicb I can never see with fuloe, Is now valuable to me. and much better than 
none at all. This, which is my own ilecp experience, I believe to be, in 
n dec-per ur less deep degree, the uoiversni one: and that every slitdent 
aiKl reader ot history, who strives eaniestly lu conceive fur biniscif what 
manlier of fact and man this or tlie other vague historical name can have 
been, will, as the first and diiiiciest indie»tion of all, search eagerly for a 
portruil. for all the reasonable portraits there are; and never rest till he 
have made out. if possible, what llie man's natural face was like. Cfflm 
I hitve found a portrait luperiar in real inttruetioa to Jia\f-a-dotea tarilten 
" Biograp/iie*," a» biograpliiea are written; or rather, Ut m* «ay, /Saw 
found that Oi£ portrait tmc at a muiU lighted candle by which the biegraphiei eouldfor the Jirtt timt 
be read, and tome human interpretation be made of Viem. 




"^ttli^VM^ CfU-t-U- 



It lias always struck mc that historical portrait-galleries far transcend iu worth all other kinds of 
national collections of pictures whatever; that, In fact, they ought to exist (for many i-eisous. ot nil 
degrees of weight) in every country, as among the most pi)pular apd, ftlit^Jied ;ia_',i(>'(pl_ posssssions; 
and it is not a joyful retlectiiiu, but an extreinely mournful one, thai ik •no cuuiitry ii> tiiertt at present 
such a thing to be found. 



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Iiq-TEODTJOTIOl^. 



The National CTCLOPiEDiA of American Biography has been undertaken to 
provide a biographical record of the United States worthy to rank with the great Nation- 
al Biographies of Europe. It embraces the biographical sketches of all persons prom- 
inently connected with the history of the nation. Not only do rulers, statesmen, soldiers, 
persons noteworthy in the church, at the bar, in literature, art, science, and the pro- 
fessions find place, but also those who have contributed to the industrial and commer- 
cial progress and growth of the country. The aim of the work is to exemplify and 
perpetuate, in the broadest sense, American civilization through its chief personalities. 

Such a work of historical biography has never before been attempted. Previous 
works have either excluded the living, or limited them to a well-known few in the cen- 
tres of activity. But this Cyclopaedia is unique. It has been prepared upon new lines 
which insure its being the biographical authority of the century. It is intended to 
make this Cyclopaedia National, representing the entire Kepublic, and reflecting the 
spirit, genius and life of each section. 

It is acknowledged that the great forces which to-day contribute most largely to 
the growth of the country are the men who have developed its industrial and com- 
mercial resources, and it is believed that, while literary workers should be accorded 
ample representation, those who contribute so much to the material and physical wel- 
fare of the country deserve and command fuller recognition than has before been ac- 
corded them in works of this character. Achievements in engineering, electricity, or 
architecture; improvements in locomotives, looms or ploughs, contribute as much to 
the advancement of civilization as an epic poem or an Oxford tract; and the factors 
in these achievements are to be sought out, and given to the world through the pages 
of this Cyclopaedia. 

In the United States there is neither a Nobility, nor an Aristocracy, nor is there 
a Landed Gentry, as these classes are understood in Europe. But there are, in the 
United States, numerous Families which have ancient lineage and records, and other 
families, founded in the soil, so to speak, destined to become the ancestry of the future. 
There is every reason why the genealogy and history of these families should be re- 
corded and perpetuated. No native of any other land has reason to be prouder of 
his country than an American whose family name represents either direct descent 
from the early colonists or Revolutionary ancestors, or marked prosperity and success 
through intelligent, arduous, and faithful labor for the benefit of his country and the 
advancement of his race. One of the objects of the National Cyclopaedia is to fulfill 
for the United States this purpose, and supply an invaluable and useful means for 
establishing identity, relationship, birth, death, official position, and other important 
data which are necessary to the making up of such family history. 

In the gathering of material for this work there has been inaugurated a system 



Viii INTEODUOTION. 

of local contributions from every section of the country, by which are secured the facts 
in reference to those persons who have heretofore been omitted from biographical 
notice. Our American annals are full of characters worthy of the emulation of pos- 
terity; but their story will perish, bearing no fruit, if it be not gathered up, and pre- 
served by some such method of extended research as has been adopted by the Pub- 
lishers of this work. 

The rapidity of the Nation's growth makes it impossible for each section to be 
acquainted with the other, and up to this time it is only the most conspicuous person- 
ages in any part of the country who are known beyond their locality. In the West 
there are men with rough exteriors who have done more for the prosperity and growth of 
their communities than has been done by many more noted personages in the East. It is 
one of the aims of the National Cyclopaedia to introduce to their fellow-men of the en- 
tire country these Nation-Builders, heretofore unknown to fame beyond the limits of 
their own neighborhood. And one will be surprised to discover how many, thought 
to be on lower pinnacles of fame than those whose deeds embellish the pages of fa- 
miliar history or biography, are shown by this record to be the peers of their more 
celebrated contemporaries. 

Instead of devoting large space to the men of pre-Revolutionary times, it is in- 
tended to make this a live Cyclopsedia, which, while it preserves all that is valuable in 
the past, will include the men and women who are doing the work and moulding the 
thought of the present time. The principal growth of this country really began with 
the invention at the telegraph in 1844, which placed in touch the states which were 
before but provinces, and made thought, sympathy, and patriotism national. It is the 
period beginning with 1850, therefore, which ought chiefly to be embraced in a work 
which is to cover the great development of the country. 

The history of the past has been the history of the. few, who, by reason of a spe- 
cial ability to plan, intr-igue, and make war, or by accident of birth, were lifted into 
prominence, and so became the objects of observation and the subjects of historical 
treatment. But the history of the present and the future must be a history of the 
many, who, by head and hand, or by force of character or high attainment, have made 
themselves the centres and sources of influence in their respective localities. 

As works of this magnitude can be published only once in a generation, it has 
been thought wise to include in the National Cyclopaedia some of the younger men, 
and others, possibly not yet known, who give promise of being notable and representa- 
tive in the future; so that when they suddenly spring into prominence, as is so frequently 
the case, this Cyclopaedia will contain information of their lives, which will show the 
groundwork of their characters and their claim upon the expectations of the future. 
The ideal of a biographical cyclopaedia is one which anticipates the information de- 
manded about new men as they come into prominence. 

It is aimed to have these biographies include all the facts worthy of mention, 
and, taken together, they make a complete history of the United States, political, 
social, commercial, and industrial. 

It is intended to make each character sketch a likeness which will be immediately 
recognized ; one which will give the underlying motive to individual endeavor, the se- 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

cret of success^ the method and means of progress^ the aim and aspiration of thought, 
and which, by the abandonment "of the usual abbreviated cyclopaedic style, becomes as 
readable as a tale of adventure or travel. It is aimed, moreover, to render the Cyclo- 
psBdia educational as well as entertaining, by making the lives of important men illus- 
trate noteworthy epochs of national history. 

A new feature in the National Cyclopaedia is the grouping of individuals with 
reference to their work and its results. Arranging the presidents of a college, the 
governors of a state, the bishops of a diocese, etc., so as to present a progressive narrative 
gives an historical character to the work, which is of unique and unusual value. 
Groupings are also made with reference to important events and prominent movements : 
for instance, the American Revolution, the Abolition Movement, the Geneva Arbitration, 
and the Pan-American Congress. Especially are they made in connection with great in- 
dustrial developments, as the telegraph, ironclads, cotton, steel, and petroleum; so that 
this work furnishes the means for the systematic study of the history and growth of 
the country, as well as for biographical reference. 

This grouping of biographies necessitates the abandonment of the alphabetical ar- 
rangement, which, though an innovation, is one of the most valuable and approved 
features of the work. In these days the utility of Indexes is becoming more and more 
acknowledged by scholars and literary workers ; and general Cyclopaedias, which are 
constructed in alphabetical order, are supplemented by an Index. With such an Index, 
however, the alphabetical order of arrangement becomes entirely unnecessary. More- 
over, in preparing this work, requiring such extensive research, it is manifestly impossi- 
ble to issue it in alphabetical order until the entire compilation is completed, and being 
laid aside during all these years of preparation, much of this information necessarily 
becomes old and unreliable. But biography embracing men of the time demands 
immediate publication. Upon the appearance of a recent biographical work it was 
found that there were over two thousand omissions, caused by the information com- 
ing to hand after the alphabetical place had been closed, which necessitated the 
addition of an Appendix. It is well known that every important biographical work 
heretofore published in successive volumes has at least one Appendix, which becomes 
80 much a necessity in order to include the omissions, as to compel its publication with 
the last volume of the work. This at once destroys any alphabetical arrangement, 
makes it of no value for reference, and compels a reliance upon the Index. 

In view of the grave disadvantages of the alphabetical method, the Publishers are 
convinced that in a work of the magnitude of the National Cyclopaedia, simple tradi- 
tional precedent for such an arrangement should not be allowed to destroy freslmess 
of material, or stand in the way of the manifest improvement, which grouping makes 
possible. They have, therefore, disregarded the alphabetical order in favor of grouping 
the biographies, and will place in each successive volume a full, analytical Index, cov- 
ering all the preceding volumes, which will make its vast information immediately and 
conveniently accessible, besides enabling its publication years before it would be possi- 
ble under the former conventional method. The. Publishers have been confirmed in their 
judgment by the approval and endorsement of the leading librarians, editors, and liter- 
ary workers of the country. 



X IKTRODUCTION. 

Pictures of home surroundings add so much interest to biography, that it has been 
deemed desirable to insert views of residences, which give to the work a new fea- 
ture — the portrayal of dwelling-places, which, in the future, will become the ancestral 
homes of America. 

As portraiture is the demand of the time and contributes so much to the under- 
standing of biography, it has been made a prominent feature of the National Cyclo- 
paedia to have every sketch, as far as possible, embellished with a portrait. Great 
pains have been taken to secure from the families or descendants the best likenesses, 
which are engraved under their superintendence and approval, and, in a large number of 
instances, are given to the world for the first time through the pages of this work. 

Never before has such a collection of authentic portraits been made. If done in 
oil and hung upon walls, they would constitute the Historical Portrait Gallery, which 
Carlyle insisted ought to have place in every country, as among the most popular and cher- 
ished National possessions. But these engraved portraits, gathered into the convenient and 
accessible form here presented, none the less realize Carlyle's idea of a National Gallery, 
for in this manner there is made accessible to the world, as could not be done in any 
other way, a collection so complete and representative, that it may be truly called the 
National Portrait Gallery of America. 

The Publishers. 



•1 



THE ]S"ATIONAL CTCLOP-^DIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



PROMINENT CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS. 



Abbott, Lyman, B. B., LL. B., 

Pastor of Plymouth Church, and Editor of "The 
Christian Union/^ 

Adams, Charles Follen, 

Author of '' Dialect Ballads/* 

Adams, Charles Kendall, LL. B., 

President of Cornell University. 

Alexander, Hon. E. P., 

Ex-General Southern Confederacy. 

Al^r, Rev. William Bounseville, 

Author. 

Andrews, Slisha B., B. B., LL. B., 

President of Brown university. 

Avery, Col. Isaac W. , 

Author ** History of Geor^a.** 

Ballantine, William Q., B. B., 

President Oberlin College. 
Baird, Henry Martyn, 

University City of New York. 

Bartlett, Samuel 0., B. B., LL. B,, 

President of Dartmouth College. 
Battle, Hon. Kemp P. , 

lAte President of University of N. C. 

Blake, Lillie Bevereaux, 

Author. 

Bolton, Sarah Knowles, 

Autlior. 

Bowker, B. B., 

Writer and Economist. 

Brainard, Ezra, LL. B., 

President of Middlebury College, Vt. 

Brean, Hon. Joseph A. , 

Supt. Public Instruction, Louisiana. 

Brooks, Noah, 

Journalist and Author. 

Brown, John Henry, 

Historical Writer. 

Brown, Col. John Mason, 

Author " History of Kentucky.*' 

Burr, A. E., 

Editor "■ Hartford Times." 

Burroughs, John, 

Author. 

Candler. W. A., B. B., 

President Emory College, Gku 

Capen, Elmer H., B. B., 

President Tufts College. 

Carter, Franklin, Ph. B., LL. B., 

President Williams College. 

Cattell, William C, B. B., LL. B., 

Ex-President Lafayette College. 

Clapp, W. W., 

Formerly Editor ** Boston Journal.** 

Clarke, Bichard H. , LL. B. , 

President New York Catholic Protectory. 

Coan, Titus Munson, M. B., 

Author. 

Cooley, Hon. Thomas M., LL. B., 

Flresident Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Cravath, E. M., B. B.y 

Ftesldent Fisk University. 

Crawford, Edward F., 

StaCr '' New York Tribune.** 



Curtis, Georffe Ticknor, LL. B., 

Author and Jurist. 

Beminff, Clarence, 

Author. 

Be Peyster, Oen. J. Watts, 

Historian. 

Biz, Mormn, B. B., LL. B., 

RectorTrinity Church. 

Breher, Julius B., Ph. B., 
President Roanoke College. 

Bonnelly, Hon. Ignatius, 

Author. 

Bouglass, Hon. Frederick W. 
Budley, Bichard M., B. B., 

President Georgetown Coli^;e, Ky. 

Bunlap, Joseph B., 

Editor '' Chicago Times.** 

Burrett, Col. B. T., 

Historian of the West. 

Bwight, Timothy, B. B., LL. B., 

President Yale University. 

Eagle, James P. , 

Governor of Arkansas. 

Eggleston, d-eorge Cary, 

Author and Editor. 

Eliot, Charles W., LL. B., 
President Harvard University. 

Fetterolf, A. H., LL. B., Ph. B,, 

President Oirard College. 

Field, Henry Martyn, B. B. , 
Editor "New York Evangelist.** 

Fisher, Prof. Oeorge P.. B. B., LL. D.^ 

Professor of Divinity, Yale University. 
Garrison, Wendell Phillips, 

" Evening Post.*' 

Gates, Merrill E., Ph. B., LL. B., 

President Amherst College. 

Gilman, Baniel C, LL. B., 

President Johns Hopkins College. 

Greeley, Qen. A. W., 

United States Signal Service and Explorer. 

Hadley, Arthur T., M. A., 
Professor Yale University. 

Hale, Edward Everett, S. T. B., 

Author. 

Hamm, Mile. Margherita A. , 

Journalist. 

Hammond, J. B., B. B., 

President Central College. 

Harding, W. G., 

Of the " Philadelphia Inquirer.** 

Harper, W. B., 

President University of Chicago. 

Harris, Joel Chandler (Uncle Remus), 

Author. 

Harris, Hon. William T., 

United States Commissioner of Education. 
Hart, Samuel, B. B., 

Professor Trinity College. 

Haskins, Charles H. , 

Profeassor University of Wisconsin. 

Higginson, Col. Thomas Wentworth, 

Author. 



FZOKUXZNT CONTRIBUTOBS AKD REYISEBS. 



Hurst, John F., B. D., 

Bishop of the M. E. Church. 



It 



Hutchins, StilBon, 

Of the '' Washington Post/ 

Hyde, William De Witt, B. B., 
President Bowdoin College. 

Irons, John B., B. B., 

President Muslcingum College. 

Jackson, James McCanley, 

Author and Editor. 

Johnson, Oliver, 

Author and Editor. 

Johnson, B. Underwood, 

Assistant Editor '* Century.** 

Sell, Thomas, 

President St. John CoU^pe. 
Sennan. Qeor^, 

Russian Traveler. 

Kimball, Bichard B., LL. B., 

Author. 



tgvley, William L., LL. B., 
Editor " New Englander and Yale Beyiew.** 

ip, Bt. Bev. William Ingraham, 
Bishop of California. 

Xirkland, M^jor Joseph, 

Literary Editor '* Chicago Tribune." 

Knox, Thomas W., 
Author and Traveler. 

Lamb, Hartha J. , 

Eaitor ** Magazine of American History.** 

Langford, Laura G. HoUoway, 

Editor and Historical Writer. 

Le Conte, Joseph, LL. B. , 

Professor in University of California. 

Lindsley, J. Berrien, M. B., 

State Board of Health of Tennessee. 

Lockwood, Mrs. Mary S. , 

Historical Writer. 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot, 

Author. 

Ijongfellow, Bev. Samuel, 

Author. 

MacCracken, H. M., B. B., LL. B., 

Chancellor of University of the City of New York. 

McGlure, Col. Alexander K., 

Editor " Philadelphia Times." 

McCray, B. O., 

Historical Writer. 

McElrov, Oeor^e B., B. B., Ph. B., F. S., 

President Adrian College. 

Mcllwaine, Bichard, B. B., 

President Hampden-Sidney College. 

McXnig^ht, H. W., B. B.. 

President Pennsylvania College. 

Morse, John T. , Jr. , 

Author *' Life of John Adams/^ etc. 

Newton, Bichard Heber, B. B., 

Clergyman and Author. 

Nicholls, Miss B. B. , 

Biographical and Historical Writer. 

Northrup, Cyrus, LL. B., 

President University of Minnesota. 

Olson, Julius E. , 

Professor University of Wisconsin. 

Packard, Alpheus S. , 

Professor Brown University. 

Page, Thomas Kelson, 

Author. 

Parton, James, 

Author. 

Patton, Francis L., B. B., LL. B., 

President Princeton College. 

Peabody, Andrew P., B. B., LL. B., 

Harvard University. 

Pepper, William, M. B., LL. B., 

Provost University of Pennsylvania. 



Porter, Noah, B. B., LL. B., 

Ex-president of Yale University. 

Potter, Eliphalet N., B. B., LL. B., 

President Hobart College. 

Powderly, T. V., 

Master Workman, Knights of Labor. 

Prime, Edward B. O., B. B., 

Editor " New York Observer." 

Prince, L. Bradford, 

Governor New Mexico. 
Prowell, Geor^ B., 

Historical Writer. 

'Byder, Bev. Charles J., 

Secretary of American Missionary Bodetj. 

Sanborn, Frank B., 
Author. 

SchafF, Philip, B. B.» LL. B., 

Author. 

Sharpless, Isaac, Sc. B., 

President Haverford College. 

Stott, W. T., B. B., 

President Franklin College. 

Shearer. Bev. J. B., B. B.. 

President Davidson College, N. O. 

Small, Albion W.. Ph. B., 

President Colby University. 

Smith, Charles H. (Bill Arp), 

Author. 

Smith, QeorjTO Williamson, B. B., LL. B*^ 

President Trinity College. 

Smith, William W., LL. B.. 

President Randolph-Macon College. 

Snow, Louis Fraxiklin, 

Professor Brown University. 

Stockton, Frank B., 

Author. 

Sumner, William G., 

Professor Political Economy, Yale. 

Super, Charles W., A. M., Ph. B., 

president Ohio University. 

Swank, James W., 

Secretary American Iron and Steel AssociatkMi. 

Tanner, Edward A., B. B., 

President I linois College. 

Taylor, James M., B. B.» 

President Vassar College. 

Thurston, Bobert H., 

Director Sibley College. 

Thwing, Charles F., B. B., 

President Western Reserve UniTersity. 

Tuttle, Herbert, LL. B., 

Professor Cornell University. 

Tyler, Lyon O. , 

President College of William and Mary. 

Venable, W. H., LL. B., 

Author. 

Walworth, Jeannette H., 

Author. 

Warren. William F.. S. T. B., LL. B., 

President Boston University. 

Watterson, Henry, 

Editor '•^ Louisville Courier-Journal."* 

Webb, Gen. Alexander S., LL. B., 

President College of the City of New York. 

Weidemeyer, John William, 

Historical Writer. 

Wheeler, Bavid H., B. B., 

President Alleghany College. 

Winchell, Alexander, 

Late Professor University of Michigan. 

Wise, Johns., 

Ex-Congressman from Virginia. 

Wright, Marcus J., 

Historian and Custodian of Confederate Records 
in United States War Department. 



Il^DOTlSEME]vrTS. 



Hebsrs. Jambs T. White & Co. 

Gentlemen : The proposition to abandon the stereotyped and traditional use of alphabetical arrange- 
ment in your forthcoming National Cyclopedia of American Biography, and to publish with each 
succeeding volume a full analytical index, covering all preceding volumes, meets our approval, as it will 
in no way, in our opinion, impair its value as a book of reference. 

Without the restriction of so arbitrary a rule, you can give the public the information as gathered, 
without destroying its freshness and value as contemporaneous information by awaiting its place in an 
alphabetical order. (Signed) 

JVed«rick Saonders, Librarian Astor Library. A. W. Whelpley, Librarian Public Library, CIncinnatL 

W. T. Peoplea, Librarian Mercantile Library. F. If . Cmndoxi, Librarian Public Library, St. Louia. 

W. A Bardwelli Librarian Brooklyn Library. Horaoo Xephart, Librarian Mercantile Library, St. Louis. 

0eOi H. Hepworth, Editor N. Y. " Herald.''— '' The change F. Wt Bioord, Librarian New Jersey Historical Society. 

proposed e»ems to me in every way admirable." K P. Duval, State Librarian, Annapolis. 

B. B. Poole, Librarian Y. M. C. A., New York. John C. Tnthill, State Librarian, Columbus. 

Lyman Abbott, Editor ^' Christian Union '* and Pastor of M. G. Calhoon, State Librarian, Lansing. 

Plymouth Church.—*' The Judgment of the Llbrari- K. M. Utley, Librarian Public Library, Detroit. 

ans which you have already obtained is far more Benben A. Guild, Librarian Brown University. 

weighty than mine could be, and outweighs mine." John MoElroy, Elditor " National Tribune," Washington. 

W. S. Bntler, Librarian N. Y. Society Library. Wm. Morton Payne, Editor '* Evening Journal," Chicago. 

W. T. Harris, U. S. Com. of Education, Washington. 8. K Morm, Editor Indianapolis '* Sentinel." 

Thomas Addiaon Emmett, Historical Writer, New York. J. L. Bodgeri, Editor Columbus " Dispatch." 

B. n. Johnaon, Editor of *' Century," New York. C. H. Jones, Editor St. Louis '' Republic." 

George William Curtis, Literary Writer. W. 8. Fnray, Editor '' Ohio State Journal." 

JjUMt B. Pennypaoker, Editor Philadelphia " Enquirer." Eugene H. Perdue, Manager Cleveland '' Leader.** 

Wm. H. Egle, State Librarian, Harrisburg, Pa. Alexander Black, Editor Brooklyn " Times." 

Prances E. Willard, Temperance Lecturer and Writer. Samuel G. Green, Librarian Public Library, Worcester. 

Alexander Burgess, Bishop of Quincy, m. Adolph 8. Ochs, Editor Chattanooga '* Times." 

Frederick Banoroft, Librarian Department of State, Wash- William Bice, Librarian City Library, Springfield, Mass. 

ington. W. B. Hoar, Manager Burlington " Free Press." 

Charles F. Deems, Pastor Church of the Strangera, New D. F. Seoomb, Librarian Public Library, Concord. 

York. J. M . Taylor, President Vassar College. 

IL J. Savage, Unitarian Divine, Boston, Mass. K H. Capen, President Tufts College. 

JL B. Hamilton, State Librarian, Trenton, N. J. K. L. Andrews, Dean Colgate University. 

H. E. Webster, President Union College. Edward H. Hagill, Ex-presIdent Swarthmore College. 

Francis A Nichols, Lltei arj Editor Boston " Olobe.** J. D. Mofbt, President Washington and Jefferson 061- 
& IL Watson, Librarian Portland Public Library. lege. 

John Vance Cheney, librarian Public Library, San Fran- E. 8. Frisbee, President Wells College. 

Cisco. E. M. Cravath, President Flsk University. 

A W. Greeley, Chief of Signal OfBce. Thomas Fell, President St. John's College. 

John Bussell Young, Late U. S. Minister to China. G. P. Putnam's 8oni, Publishers. 

8. 8. Knabenshue, Editor Toledo ** Blade." Albert B. Prescott, University of Michigan. 

M. IL Beardshear, President Iowa State Agricultural Col- B. B. Gelatt, Editor Detroit '' Tribune." 

lege, P. J, Quigley, Manager " Telegraph," Dubuque, Iowa. 

Koah Brooks, Editor Newark " Enquirer." J. 8. McLain, Editor Minneapolis " Journal." 

Thomas B. Pr^tan, New York ^* Herald." James E. Boyd, Omaha. 
C W. Fisk, Managing Editor Brooklyn " Citizen."— " The Chas. A. Edwards, Editor " Statesman," Austin, Texas. 

man in a hurry will bless you." W. W. Screws, Editor Montgomery " Advertiser.** 

Alex. 8. Webb, President College City of New York. M . H. de Young, San Francisco " Chronicle.'* 

Edwin Fleming, Editor Buffalo " Courier." Clarkson Bros., Iowa State " Register." 

David 8. Jordan, President Leland Stanford, Jr., University. Geo. Thompeon, Editor St. Paul '* Despatch.** 

J. H. Lamed, Superintendent Public Library, Buffalo. Dudley M. Holman, Editor Portland *' Evening Express.* 

H. G. Osbonif Editor New Haven " Register,** 8. J. Barrows, Editor " Christian Register,** Boston, 

AND HUKDREDS OF OTHERS. 



«• 



OV AKEKIOAS BIOORA.PHT. 




JBFFERSOK, Tbomaa, Ihtrd preeident of the 
Uniled SUtes, was liora in gitadwell, Albemarle 
C«.. Va.. Apr. 2, 1743. The family were of Welsh 
auceslrj, the first of tbe Dame in Virziuia beinx a 
member of the legislature of that colony id 1819. 
Thomas Jefferson wag the third son of 'Peter and 
Jane (Randolph) Jefferson, and his ediiCBtion, which 
was designed lo be of the besl quality attainable, 
bad been well advanced when he waa fourteen years 
of age. at which time (in 1757) liis father died at the 
■g:e of fifty, leavinft him practically without a mas- 
uide. In 1760 he entered the college of Wil- 
liam and Mary, at Williamsburg, 
Va., and being endowed with an 
ardent thirst for knowled^, and 
Kreat iodustiT and determination . 
he devoted himself to study with 
such eammtness and appMciition as 
lo even threaten his health. He 
was at this lime a tall, raw-boned, 
freckled, sandy -haired youth, pos- 
sessini; no features that could be 
considered attractive, and far from 
^TBceful in his manner or cnrringe; 
moreover, he was very shy; but, 
despite his countiy air, he still had 
' something in his mien that fnive 
evidence of the tHWsession of more 
mind limn would Fenerallv be an- 
yj ^^.^ ticipated in one of Viianeeuliar per- 
^'€^7j'^'/C-~, sonal appearance. Lite nearly all 
the nienibera of his family, he was 
an excellent miisicinn, and a very 
e«p«b1e pcrfonner on the violin. He had alrcaiiy 
made up his mind as to his profession in life, and 
chosen the law. and, althouf^h deeply interested in 
■clence, he pursued his studies in college mainly 
with n view to the legal profession as their practical 
■nilcome. After comjilcting his courfx; of study at 
Willinm and llary, Jefferson began to devote fiira- 
self lo law, and that wilh such energy that about the 
time of his twenty -fourth birthday he was admitted 
to the bar. He entered at once upon tlie pracliire of 
his profession, and business rapidly came to him. 
He had giNxl connections tliroiigh boEli sides of his 




bmlly, and there was no difficulty in his obtaiutog 
business, his conduct of which gamed high encomf 
urns from many who afterward became im|M>rtant in 
the history of the country. He was said to be al- 
ways on tlie right side, and, that being the case, the 
fact that he was not eloquent did not so much mat- 
ter in regard to hia success. Two years after he be- 
gan the practice of law, in 17S9, Jefferson was elect- 
ed a member of the house of burgesses, of which 
Washington was also a member. It was this session 
of the burgesses which introduced four resolutions 
practically revolutionary, to wit: that the colonics 
could not legally or in right be taxed by a body in 
which they were not represented, ana that they 
might in such cose unile in endeavoring lo obtain a 
of their grievances. These resolutions, in fad. 



tely, and with the Intention of following it as 
a pursuit. In fact, he said at one time: "When I first 
entered upon the stage of public life, I came to a res- 
olution never toengage. while in public office, in any 
kind of enterprise for the improvement of my for- 
tune, nor to wear any other character than that of a 
farmer. 1 have never departed from it in a single 
instance, and I have In multiplicil Instances found 
myself happy In lieing able to decide and to act as a 
public servant clear of all intcresla in the multiform 
questions that have ari»«ti, wherein I have seen oth- 
ers embarrassed and biased by having got themselves 
in a more interested situation. Thus! have thought 
myself richer in contentment than I should have been 
with any increase of foiHine. Certainly I should 
have been much wealthier had 1 remained in that 

firivate condition which rendered it lawful, and Aven 
Budable. lo use pniper efforts to l>etler it." Mean- 
while, Jeffereon admitted candidly that he desired 
greatly the rcsjiecl and cotisideralion of his fellows, 
and. long after, said to Madison, that In the earlier 
years of his public service tlie esteem of the world 
was perhnjia of hichcr value in his eyes than every- 
thing in It. Jefferson married. Jan. 1, 1772, Mrs. 
Martha Skellon. a childless young widow, said lo 
have been a very beautiful woman, 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP ,BDIA 



brilliant with color anil expreasioo, and wiih tuxuri- 
aDt auburn liair. Sbc wai the daughter of Ji^a 
W^Iea, who was practicing at tbe Willlnnwburg bar. 
Jetferaoa had juat then flnislied the new hnu»e he 
had been buildinj; at Monticello, on hts estate, and 
the coitple went to it to reside sbortly after Iticir 
marriage. Jefferson's estate was Dearlv doubled in 
the year after liis marriage, bj tlic dealU of bis wife's 
father, by which she received iieariy 50,IHX) acres of 
land and 1S5 slaves. Hure Jefferson began to lead 
the actual life of a farmer, wLtch he bad said was 
tlie one which he should denominale as his pursuit, 
still continuing, however, his practice, which in the 
year 17T4, although lucrative, had nut extended his 
name Iteyoiid his own immediate neigliborhood. By 
the close of that vcar, however, the imme of Jeffer- 
son was among tLe first of tlie patriotic leaders in 
the colonies. The Coulinental eomrrcsswas about 
to assemble at Philadelphia, and JelTcrson. bufore 
leaving to attend the meeting uf burgesses at Wil- 
liamsburg, which would elect tiie deputies of Vir- 
ginia, prepared a draft of such instniclions as he 
deemed should be given to tlie representatives of 
Virginia in the Continental congres.s. These instruc- 
tions amounted to a small pamplilet, the substance 
of which became practically the Doclnrntion of In- 
dependence. Jefferson row gave up bis law busi- 
De:js into the hands of his friend and kinsman, Ed- 




to be an immortal document. It is stated that the 
paper was written in a house where Jefferson lived, 
at the comer uf Market and Seventh streets, Phila- 
delphia, in a room on the second story, and upon a 
wntiug-desk which he made himself, and wbich is 
Btill in enLttence. While tlie document was under 
consideration by congress, the weather, it is said, was 
exceedingly hot. This discussion lasted through 
the 3d. 3d and 4th of July, and on the last day the 
session was a prolonged one, and everybody was fa- 
tigued and anxious to complete their task and iret 
away. Moreover, it is slated that swarms of flies 
from a neighboring stable annoyed the delegates 
and increaseil their anxiety to be through with the 
business fn hand. It was late on the afternoon of 
Thursday, July 4, 1778, that the Declaration was 
signed. One or two of the delegates indulged in 
humorous remarks on the occasion, John Hancock 
saying, as be wrote hissu|>erb sicnature: "There, 
John ItuU may read my name without speclacles 1 " 
and when the presidcnl of the congress told the 
members that ihey must now all hane together. Dr. 
Fi'anklinsuid: "\vs. we musl indeed all haugtogelb. 
er, orel.se we shall all hang se[«rately '." Meanwhile, 
Jefferson liad been re-elected a member of Ihe Vir 
ginia Icgislalure. and anxious to return to his home, 
the health of his wife being precarious and his es- 
tate conlinually neeiiing his care, he resicncd from 
ConcresH and went back to Monticello, and afterward 
to Williamsliurg, where he devolctl himself to a 
careful examination of the Virginia statutes, with a 
view of improving them on the basis of knowledge 
which he had acquire<l with regard to such fnalitu- 
llons during his residence in the North. In October 
he was appointed, witli Itcnjamin Pranklln and Silas 
Deane, a comniisHloner to represent Ibc new United 
ti>tatesnt Paiis, but his wife's condition was still un- 
satisfactory, and he detcrmineii to decline the ap- 
Coiulment, In January, 1778. .Jefferson was elected 
y the lejriNlalure successor to Palrick Henry as gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and be was rc-elecled in 1760. He 
had now become a power in the state. He succeeded 
in causing ibe removal of the capital to Richmond, 
and by his own influence obtained the passajj^ of 
■be most important legislative acts. As governor of 
'' " " >f Virginia it fell tojefferson to keep up 



mund Randolph, and withdrew from pmcticc. as It 
afterward proved, forever. The Williamsburg con- 
vention of 1774 appointed Thomas Jefferson as an 
alternate with John Randolph, in case the latter 
should be obliwd to leave the congress before its 
adjournment. The affair at Lexington precipitated 
evenlH, and the convention becoming convinced of 
the gravity of the situation, began to arm for the 
 A committee of thirteen, appointed to ar- 



range a plan of defence, included such 
George Wasliington, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry 
Lee and Thomas Jefferson. On Jiino 30, 1775, the 
vacancy haviuK occurred which made Jefferson a 
delegate, he took his seat in the congress at Philadel- 
phia, and on that same day be learned and apprised 
the congress of the news of the battle of Bunker 
Hill, having ubialoed it from the same messenger 
who gave the information to Gen. Wafhlngtou, then 
on his way to Join the army at ('ambridge. On May 
13, 17T6, Jefferson resumed his seat in congress, 
after an absence of four months and a half, during 
whidi period he had been obliged to look after mat- 
tem connected with his eslale. He was at once ap- 
pointed one of a committee to draft a deelarailon. 
The committee included, besides himself, Benjamin 
Pmnklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and R. R. 
Livingston. Already Mr. Jetferwin bad become 
noted for bis skill with the pen. and be was there- 
fore urged to prepare the rough draft of what was 



his southern canipaign. At the end of December, 
1780. a British fleet, having on board Benedict Ar- 
nold, the traitor, ascended Chesapeake bay, and Ar- 
nold, with something under a thousand men, reached 
and captured Itlehniund, which, however, lliey were 
able to bold less than a day, a large mass of militia 
being at once sent against Arnold, and his pursuit 
being so close as nearly to result in his capture. 
During the following spriug the cnemj| came so 
close utid were BO formidable that the legislature of 
Virginia bad to adjourn, while Monticello was cap- 
turwi by cavalry and Jefferson narrowly escaped. 
Indeed, for ten days Lord Oornwallis lived at the 
TCKulencc of the governor at Elk Hill, on Ihe James 
river. "Thougli there bad been some feeling in re- 
gard to the nd ministration of the slate government, 
an application by Jefferson for examination showed 
that there was no one lo make any charge against 
him, and a rcsoluiion of thanksfor hiscrmnuct while 
occupying the gul)ematorial chair was introduced 
and pasKcd l>oth council and assembly unanimous- 
ly. When tl)R French government Instructed its 
niinbter at Philadelphia to collect and send to 
Paris all information tliat could be obtained respect- 
ing the stales of the American confederacy, the sec- 
relary of the French lepiliou forwarded lo Mr. Jef- 
ferson a list of qucstiona to answer concerning 
Viri-inla in this eonnecUon. From this resulted bis 
" Notes on Virginia," a work still held in the high- 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



3 



est esteem for fts admirable structure and its cora- 
pletenesa, both as to ihoueht and det&il. In tliis 
work a chapter occurs wbicli was afterward used by 
the nortbern aboil tioQiBts duriuK Ilielr mnuj year^ at 
warfare with llie institution of slavery. One paasagw 
runs thus: "Tbe whole commerce between master 
and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boister- 
ous passions, the most unremittiug dcspolifim on the 
ODe pan and degraded aubmissioD on the otiier. Our 
cliildren see litis and learn to imitate it, for man is 
an imitative animal. This quality is the ^erm of all 
educations in him. From bis cradle to his grave he 
is learning to do what he sees others doing. The 
parent storms, the child looks on, catches the linea- 
ments of wratli, puts on the same airs in the circle 
of the smaller slaves, gives loose rein to the worst of 
passions, and this education in the daily exercise of 
tyranny cannot but be stamped by it with the most 
odious peculiarities. That man must be n prodigy 
who can restrain hismannersand morals uudepraved 
by such circumstances. I tremble for my country 
when I reflect that God is Just, that His justice can- 
not sleep forever; but considering numbers, nature 
and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of 
fortune, an exchange' of the situations, is among 
po«dble events. That it may become probnblcbythe 
eupematural interference, the Almighty has no at- 
tribute which can take sides with us in such a wm- 
tcst." Jefferson's wife dieil on Sept. 6. 1782, deeply 
regretted by her husband, to whom this loss was the 
greatest afiiiction of bis life. It aCfected his mind, 
and he fell into a seeming stupor from which he 
could be with difHculty aroused. Id the meantime, 
through the Virginia member? of congress, his name 
was suggested as a plenipotentiary to treat for pence, 
it being believed that he might bv this means be re- 
called lo the public service, which he had seemiuelv 
left forever — having, in fact, announced that n Is 
public life had ended. But the death of his wife bad 
changed hia views, and he occepted the ni)poiut- 
ment. Peace, however, was concluded before he 
sailed, and in 1783 he was elected to congress, and 
tooic his seat in November of that year at Annapo- 
lis, Md. On May 1, 1784, Congress asraln elected 
lilm plenipotentiary to France, where Franklin and 
Adams were engaged in negotiating commercial 
treaties with the different foreign powers. He ac- 
cepted, and sailed from Boeton July 5lh, and aftera 
voyage of a month, settled in Paris. On May 2, 
1T83. Jeffersim was appointed minister plenipoten- 
tiary to the king of Prance for three years, in place 
of Benjamin Franklin. The ycai-s that Jefferson 
£peut OB minister to the Frencb court, although he 
had important official duties, gave him more time 
than he had had before for the prosecution of the 
Bt\id\/ of science, which had so much interested him 

the ablcsj 

the great naturalist, who had a'theory that animals 
degenerated in America. In order to remove tliia 
prejudice Jefferson succeeded in obtaining the bones, 
skin and boms of some of the larger American ani- 
mals, such as the moose, the caribou, the elk, etc., 
And presented them lo Buffon, who, on examining 
tbem, admilted that be would have to reconstruct 
his theory on the subject of American animals. 
Among other duties which Mr. Jefferson successfully 
prosecuted while in Europe, was tliat of negotiating 
and arranging a satisfactory consular system between 
France and the United States. Mcnnwbile, his 
" Notes on Virginia " had been published in Eng- 
land, and translated into French, and primed in Pans, 
being universally admired. He traveled over differ- 
ent parts of Europe, and supplied the American col- 
leges and other institutions with books, accounts of 
new discoveries, inventions and seeds, roots and nuts 
indigenous in the different countries he visited, and 



which he thought might poealbly, and with advan- 
tage, be introduced into America. Meantime, his 
acquaintance with European courts had only the 
mure established himself in a sense of democracy, 
which afterward became the fountainbead of that 
sti'eam in his native laud. His investigation into the 
manner of living and the luequalities of condition 
existing abroad filled his mind and heart with deep 
compa«»Ion, especially for the people uf France, who 
seemed to be sufferinethe most. In November, 1789, 
Jefferson received a six months' leave of absence, and 
returned, with his two daughters, to And that he had 
been appointed by President Washington lo the of- 
fice of secretary of state. After some consideration, 
Jefferson accepted the appointment, and after wit- 
nessing at Monticello, Feb. 23, 1790, his eldest 
daughter's marriage to Thomas Mann Itamlolpb, be 
went to New York and entered upon his duties as a 
member of thecabiuet. It was a cabinet which soon 
displayed considerable personal animosity and oppo- 
sition, particularly between Hamilton and Jefferson, 
who, in fact, n:presented the two extremes of the dif- 
ferent parties. This feeling reaciied serious propor- 
tions. Jan. 1, 1704, Jefferson withdrew, although 
it was with difficulty that Washington was InduMd 
to accept his resignation. He returned lo hla home 
at Monticello, and now once more believed that he 




was wholly done with public life. At this time the 
republican party, as it was called, accepted the views 
of Jefferson, and as he openly accepted Tom Paine's 
" Rights of Man," It followed that the advanced 
views contained in that book grew to be held meas- 
urably as the party tenets of his followers. At the 
cU»e of the year 1794 Jefferson was requested by 
Washington to resume the oftlce of secretary of slate, 
but he declined positively, and said emphatically 



was elected, by only a few votes, and, according to 
the cnnstitullon, became vice-president. This office 
pleased Jefferson, as be had no practical part In the 
administration of the government, not being consult- 
ed by Mr. Adams on political matters, ana was able 
to follow out his tastes in study and research. It 
was at Ibis time that he prepared his now celebrated 
" Manual of Parliamentary Practice, " which has ever 
since been ihe guide in all our legislative txidies. 
The election of 1800 brought Mr. Jefferson again 
before the country as the candidate of his party for 
the presidency, and he received seventy-three votes, 
the precise number given for Aaron Burr, which 
threw it into the house, where, after seven days of 
balloting. Jefferson was elected president and Burr 
vice-president. The election of .Ti'lfersim was hailed 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-EDIA 



bj both pMtles as certain to bring about a peaceful 
CODditioa such as bad not been known during the pre- 
TiuuB administration. Party politics had run so high, 
and the divergence of opinion nas bo wide between 
the fedeiBlIsu and republicans, tliat probably no 
otiier man could have reconciled the existing coudi- 
tlous. Contrary to the general expectation, Jefferson 
resisted the powerful appeals that were made to him 
to remove from office those who had been inimical 
to him, holdingthat a difference of politics was not 
a reason to remove one who had proved himself 
competent and elflcient in ofBce. Jefferson intro* 
duced simplicity into the Wliite House and the ab- 
olition of the formal plan which had been copied 
from European court etiquette, abolishing the week- 
ly levees and the system ot precedence at ouce. Ho 
also introduced the message to congress, in place ot 
the speech which had been formally delivered, in 
imilailoQ of foreign potentates. He would not accept 
any special attentions while traveling or sojourning 
anywhere, different from what would be paid him 
as a private citizen. Indeed, in his whole course, 
and throughout his first admiuistratioD, Jefferson 
was consislent in conducting himself and conducting 
the government on nhat he believed to be true dem- 
ocratic principles. JclfersoQ owed bis democracy 
mainly to wliat lie had seen white residing inPrance, 
an experience which had entirely changed his own 
views on political subjects, and on the nghls of citi- 
zenship. Mr. JetTerson continued to administer the 
Boverument for eight years, during which period 
he showed himself a thoroughly qualifle<l statesman 
and a man of unusual ability, tact and decision of 
character. One instance of the possession of these 
qualities was his purchase from Napoleon of the ter- 
ritory of Louisiana. Another was the skill with 
whicn he kept the country from becoming involved 
In the long and bitter Eurojienn war. The beoeflts 
which he conferred tijion lita country were not only 
Immediate but lasting, yet rai Ilie4th of March, 1800, 
when he retired finally to private life, after the most 
n.i„..Ki.. ....hii^ on,.T.,n^^ extending over more Ihaa 

find himself Impoverished 

— practically bankrupt. 

The produce ot his ea- 
 had materially less- 
d.while, as he was a 

very lil)crul liver, he 





ferson s|>ent Ihe re- 
mainder of his days in 
the effort to establish 
in his state a complete 
system of education. It 
wae to Include a scries 
of common schools of 
different grades crown- 
e<l with the highest col- 
legiate Institution which could 1)e i)rgftni7.ea and es- 
tablisheil. This latter (the University of Virginia) he 
lived lung enough to see in working order, having 
personally superintended even the sthallest details of 
Its construction, and lieiiig present at its opening In 
March, 1825. In the meanlime, he had sold his li- 
brary to congress for aliout a quarier of iis value, 
and was nt length, Ihrongh the kindness which iu- 
dticed him to cndoi'sc largely for a friend, In danger 
of lotdng Montfcclln. but this mlsfonunc was averted 
through public sul>!i(TiptiouH in Ihc cities of New 
Turk and Pbilsdelphia. whirh raised moni-y enough 
to spare hitn this crowning Indigniiy. JefTe'rHcm died 
a few hount before John Adnms. a lialf-ceiilury after 
the signing of that I)«;larati<)n of Indepciidence 
which he had himself couiposcd, and which is still 



one of the marvels of the world as a public vrltinr. 
The sale of his estate after his death, and the appS- 
catlon of the proceeds toward the payment of his 
debts, resulted in these being discharged to the utter- 
most, and, though his daughter and her children lost 
their home, and were left without support, Jefferson 
died solvent. The legislatures of South Caro1iD& 
and Virginia voted to his daughter, Jlrs. Randolph, 
the sum of |I0,000, which enabled her to pass the 
ramainder of her life in comfort and secuntv Mon- 
ticello is now (1883) the property of Jeifcrsons 
grandson, Jefferson M. Levy, a prominent citizea 
and lawyer of New York. It was purchased 
by his uncle, Com. Uriah P. Levy, 
of the United States navy, and from 
bim descended to Its present owner. 
The mansion was built somewhat 
after tlie style ot the Petite Trian- 
on, at Versailles. Its public rooms 
included a grand salon, dlning-hall, 
library, Jefferson. Madison and 
Monrce rooms, ballroom and grand 
hall. It stands in a commanding 
position on a smnll plateau, elc- '" 
valed some 800 feet above the sur- 
rounding country, and 538 feel above the level ot the 
sea. The estate embraces 500 acres of park land, 
gardens and lawns. During Jefferson's life his su- 
perintendent at Monticello was John Holmes Free- 
man, who was constantly in the receipt of instruc- 
tions and directions of the most minute character in 
regard to the administration of the vast property and 
the improvemenls which were continually being 
made. From an original letter written by Jefferson, 
forming one in a bundle of old manuscripts, yellow, 
quaint and curious, exhibiting his remBrkab1|F neat 
and legible penmansliip. a tew quotations will not 
be without interest. One of these is a memorandum 
for his superintendent,- ■' The canal and dam are lo 
be completed in preference to all other work, while 
the season admits. Next, a fence is to'be built, and 
next, the garden to be leveled. The garden Is to be 
l.OOO feet long and eighty feet wide. From observa- 
tions on^iie small part done, I Judge it to be about 
three months' work for ten bands. It is to be done 
in breadtlis tour tect wide at a time: three hands 
and one wheelbarrow can work to advantage on a 
breadth." Thus, the whole work ot the year waa 
mapped out minutely, each negro's place assigned 
him, and even direciion given for the care of lie 
horses, each being called by name. This aflerwatd 
became the moat famous spot in the stale, being the 



Here came noblemen and foreigners of distinction 
from abroad, who carriitl back to their homes tl» 
name and fame ot Monticello. The view from the 
doorway of the house is extremely fine. At the foot 
of the peak flows the Itlvanna nver; Charlotteville 
and the University lie beyond; to the north stretches 
away the Blue Ridge, and cultivated fieldsaiid coun- 
try bomes are now seen in every direction. Of Mon- 
ticello, Jeffereon himself said: ""After much r 



of earth. This lent, whii-h is strong enough to keep 
out wind and waler, is set in the niiilst of a lofty 
mountain pinleau. Looking around. I find myself, 
to all seeming, in awi>rld ot my own. All around, 
in the far, shining, silvery distances, are cloud^iap- 
ped motmuin rHiigfs ot BuriiBssing grandeur, rising 
line alxive another until, apparently, the limits of 
Ihe world are reached." Despite the spirit of ro- 
mance in Jefferson's character, sli own In Ihisdescrip- 
lloii ot his Virginia home, he iMi-*i'ssed a vein of 
practiml common sense tmp(|unli'<i. jierhaps, by any- 
body of his time, unless It were Benjamin Franklin. 



OF AMEBICAH BIOQRAPHT. 5 

The following Un bits of prorerblal phllosophrhfiTe aoxietj. Sbe had much of the care of the slaves, 

p«8sed ciuTCDt under the name of " JeBeraon s Ten including their nursing when sick, and attention to 

Rules " : " 1. Never put uS till to-morrow what you their clolliing and general cooditiou. The strain 

can do to-day. 3. Never trouble another for what proved loo iiiuch for Mrs. Jeffereou and slie gnid- 

K'U can do youiself. 3. Never spend your money ually broke down, and died Sept. 6, 1782. 

fore you have it. 4. Never buy what you do not RANDOLPH, Martha Jefferson, daughter 

WBDt because it Is cheap; it will be dear to you. of President JeSerson and wife of Gov. Randolpb 

5. Pride coets us more than hunger, thirst and cold, of Virginia, was horn at Monticello in September, 

6. We never repent of having eaten too little. 7. 1772. She was tlie head of her father's household 
Nothiugistroublesomethatweaowillinglv. 8. How after the death of her mother, and while he was 
much pain have cost us the evils wliich nave never president woe the aclinowtedged mistress of the 
faftppcned. 9. Take things always by the smooth White House. Mr. Jefferson's edict against levees, 
handle. 10. When angry, count ten before you receptions, and his extreme rules of democratic sim- 
speak: if very angry, a hundred." Jeffersna died plicity, made the White House a domestic establish- 
at Monticello. Albemarle county. Va., July 4, 1826. ment. Mrs. Randolph devoted much of her life to 
He was buried in bis own graveyard at Monticello, her father's declining years, aotw ithstaudmg the 
and over him was placed a stone upon which was careof alarge family of children whom she care 
the inscription by himself: " Here was buried fully educated. She died Sept 27 1IJ36 
TtlOMAS JEFPERSON. author of the Declaration of BUHB, Aaron, vice president of the United 

- American Independence, of the Statui«s of Virginia States, was born in Newark, N J Feb 6 1756 
for Religious Freedom, and Father of the University His father was Aaron Burr, a clergj man who was 
of Virginia." This was afterward replaceii by a monu- pastor of a Presbyierian church m Nenark and 
ment provided by the government, a square, massive the founder of Princeton Col 
pillar of granite, and containing the same inscrip- lege, Aarcm Burr. Sr.. married 
Uon from the original stone. The latter has been Esther Edwards, the daughter of 
so chipped and battered hy the relic-seeker that cor- the great Jooalltan Edwards, one 
ners and edges have been entirely hewn away. A of the clearest logicians and most 
few years ago, all that remained of the original in- able tbeoloziaus known in the his 
scrip'tiou was; "Born, April 3 O. S., 1743; died tory of phuosophv and theology 
July 4. 1836." Tbey had two children, the fli-st, 
JXFFEBSON, Martha'\7aylea, wife of Prcti- a tlaughter, Sarah, bom in 1754 
dent Jefferson, was born in Charles City cimiity, the other, Aaron, the subject of 
Va., Oct. 19, 1748, the daughter of John Waytes, an this sketch; so it may he seen 
«nuneut Virginia Uwyer, from whom she inherited that this man, nho is set down in 
a large property. She married very young, her the encyclopiedias as a "stales- 
flret husband being Bathui'st Skclton, who died nian."Bud who is considered by 
when she was in her nineteenth year and from whom the general opinion of those who 
also she inherited considerable property. She wasa have heard of him to have been 
ladvof exiraordinar}' beauty, both inform an<l face, one of the most remarkable and 
and is described by her coutemporaries as being a one of tlie darkest specimens of 
womau singularly competent not only to adorn, but moral obliquity, came, on both 
to govern a household; in height she was a little sides, from a family noted for 
above the medium stature, and of slight but graceful purity of character as well m 
form; her complexion was fair, her eyes were large, for extraordinary intellectual endowment. Aaron 
dark, and expressive, and her aufium hair was Burr's father and mother died within a few days 
abundant in quantity. She was an accomplished of each otiier, when he and his sister were almost 
rider, played with taste and dlscriinlnntion, was a Infauls, Their father was wealthy and had he- 
graceful dancer, and a singer queathed to them a large fortune, so tliat on being 
possessing more than usual tasle sent to be put in charge of the Bcv. Timothy Ed- 
and effect. Moreover, sbc was wai'ds, of Elizabetlitowu, N. J., an uncle on the 
literary in her tastes, was a bril- motlier's side, tlicy were In nowise dependent upon 
liant conversationalist, and had any living relatives. They had private tutors, and 
a warm and affeclionntc disposi- one of these became the husband of. Sarah Burr. 
tion. With all thcEw graces and This was Judge Tapping Reeve, who became a jus^ 
virtues, it is not remarkable tbot tice of the supreme court of Connecticut, and found- 
is the belle of her section ed the first law school that existe<l in this country. 





of the country, and not the less Aaron was a troublesome boy and difficult to manage 
so when she became ayoung and from the time when he baa grown large enough to 
beautiful widow, wealthy in her run almut. He was fond of study, anil quick U 



1 right and residing in the similale what he studied, so that when only eleven 
jsion of a wealthy father, years of age he was prepared to enter Princeton Col- 
But besides graces and virtues, lege, but could not be admitted at that age under 
she had rncultien and qualities of the rules of the institution, and it was only as a spe- 
a more practical character. It Is clal favor that he was permitted to enter the sopho- 
-A *-T^ ,r."/ ,/ stated that some of her household more class two years later. He was graduated in 
* ' f3 ''O"/ , y account-books, which are still in 1772, and, curiously enough, the lirst bent of his mind 
^^-"^ "-^-i/tft /V'?^ existence, show that she had a was in the direction of theology, and he entered the 
neat handwriting and kept her family of a clergyman in Connecticut for the pur- 
accounts with accuracy. During the four years of pose of stud^, but to the astonishment of everybody, 
her widowhood, many sought her hand; Thomas after a considerable sojourn in this gentleman s fam- 
Jefferson was one of them. He wasalawvorat that ily. he announced his entire disbelief in the gospel. 
time In larse practice. He married Mrs. Skelton in and his intention of holding to inttdelity. which was 
1773, and for her he retained the most romantic de- then becoming the fashion lioth in this country and 
votlon during his life, illustrating this in one instance, in Europe. Hemade Lord Chesterfield blsmodel. and 
by refusing Important foreign appointments on ac- adopting the law as a profession, began study inl774. 

"" "' ' a planter's As soon as the war broke out be offered his services 

it labor and and Joined Benedict Arnold In the latter's memorable 



THE NATIOITAL CYCLOPEDIA 



expedition Inlo Canula, This expedilion cave AaroD 
Burr an opportunitj of showing the real ability be 
possessed Id the direction of' military life. He 
reached the rank of major and gained a great repu- 
tation as an olUccr, He became a member of Gen. 
Washington's stall, but left this position to become 
an aide to Gen. Putnam. The acquaintance between 
Washington and Burr did not result in producing 
any affection or mutual esteem. Burr bated Wash- 
jugton, and the latter distrusted the apparentlj bril- 
liant young ofllccr. In 1777 Burr was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel and distinguished himself at the 
tmttle of Monmouth, nhei'e he conimnnded a bri- 
gade Later be was m command at a point in Orange 
count> N It where he became acquainted with 
Mrs. TheodoMa Prevost the nidow of an English 
officer ten years older than he with a family of two 
sonb In March. 1779. 
1. , ^ I _ Burrs health was so 

. \_,'' ■^ I i\_ impaired that he 



^■. KiftlSS Jif V "^ I L\. impaired that he re- 
r> 2?# ir*-t'''~^ C»u ™P'«' »""'■ as Boon as 
\fyi M 3 n 11 1 P^r he could safely do so 
1-)|^- ||«— H-* - I. — resumed the study of 




law and in 1782 wus 
admitted to practice in 
Albany where betook 
an office and began 
practice In the mean- 
time he had continued 
bis acQuaiatnnce with 
Mrs Prevost. and lie 
now married her. In 
the following year his 
daughter. Tbeoilosia, 
was bom. During the 

e«r 1784 Burr settled 
New Y()rb, where 
be contmued to prac- 
tice during ten feat's. 
being twice a member 
of the New York legislature ana attorney-general 
in 1786 BurrrcbidedatRichmondHilland practically 
kept open bouBO receiving from time to lime all the 
distinguished pei-snnages of thc|)erioil andall visitors 
of distinction from abroad Itissaidtlialthe Ex-King 
Louis Philippe of France Talleyrand and Volney 
visited at his splendid mansion In 1791 Burr was 
elected to tbc U b senate as a republican, in oppo- 
sition to Gen. Philip Sciiuyler, federalist, whose 
daughter was the wife of Alexander Hamilton. Burr 
continued in the senate during a term of six years, 
and gained a reputation as a man of remarkable 
influence and general ability. In lt!)4 Burr lost bis 
wife, whom be placed on record ns "the best woman 
and fluest lady I have ever known." His daughter, 
Theoilosia. now became the object of his deepest af- 
fection, and fur all the lime that she lived tlie two 
were constant companions, her education being al- 
most entirely the work of her able and ciiltivaled 
father. Burr lost his seat in the senate in 1797, Gen. 
Schuyler being his successor. The presidential elec- 
tion of 1800 brought Burr forward as a candidate, 
and he wascliarged with having formed nn Intrigue to 
get himself choKen president instead of Jeffersou, the 
system at that time being to give the presidency to 
tne candidate receiving the highest number of elec- 
toral votes, and the vice-presidency to the one gain- 
ing the next Idghest number. Jefferson was made 
president and Burr vice-president. Thus, at middle 
life. Burr had reached almost the highest [H)silioa in 
the gift of the country. He was. liowever so gen- 
erally distrusted, and his character had been already 
BO b^mirched by rumor, that lie had bardly reached 
tbis high position when he fell from it. The blow 
which dcmoliaheii the fabric of his position was his 
duel with Alexander Hamilton, who was bis most 
powerful rival, and who, on several 



character The resultoftbiB si 

was that Burr challenged him, whereupon Hamilton 
entered into a ions correspondence, apparently with 
the desire toavoi»f tlieconclusionof a duel if n were 
possible. The slnte of public feeling at that lime ia 
regard to dueling, and the excitement of politics, 
rendered tliis impoesible. and in the early morniug 
of July T. 1804, Burr and Hamilton met on the 
hcigiits at Weehawken. N. J., and at the first fire 
Hamilton fell to the ground and died shortly after. 
The news of Hamilton's death aroused New York to 
a pitch of excitement so threatening that Burr was 
indicted for murder. In the meantime he fled to his 
daughter's home in South Carolina, where he re- 
mained until the trouble of the affair blew over, 
when be returned to Washington, where be remained 
until his period of service as vice-president was com- 
pleted. Burr knew well that it was forever impos- 
sible for him to hope fur anything in the field of pol- • 
ities, and now the reckless.grandeur of his ideas flrst 
began to manifest itself. He formed a curious proj- 
ect, the exact nature of which has never been pub- 
licly disclosed, but which seems to have been a pur- 
pose to found a separate republic or empire by gath- 
ering together a sufliciently large number of followers 
to make a military exiieaition into either Texas or 
Mexico, and there conquer for himself and bis fol- 
lowers a section of country large enough to afford 
him the opportunities for the magnificent self-ag- 
grundizement which be desired. It was during this 
undertakiug that Burr succeeded in accomplishing 
one of his most infamous acts. On bis way to the 
Southwest he visited wluit was known as Blenuer- 
hasselt Island, a small island in the Ohio river, two 
miles below P.irkersburg, where Hamian Blenner- 
hassett. a lonely cdiical^ Englishman, had estab- 



i prrvious. 






lished himself about s 

having purchased the island afterwanl I 

name. Here Blennerbassett and bis Ik'ii 

wife had set up a palatial eatablishnu'ii 

in a fine mansion, elegantly fumisbi-d, 

with paintings and statues, while anniinl. ii.s fiiraa 

the eye could reach, were beautifully cullivaled 

grounds, gardens, graperies, conservatorie.s, and 

groves of splendid trees. Burr 
ad undoubtedly acquainted him- 
self with the history and the enor- 
mous possessions of Blenoerbas- ^ 
sett, for no sooner had be been 
mode welcome to his hospitality 
than be began, so history says, to 
cany out two purposes: the one 
being to entangle his host in the 
meshes of his treasonable but fas- 
cinating enteri)rise. the other to 
achieve the seduction ot bis wife. 
The result of all this wa-i that Blen- 
nerbassett lost both wife and prop- 
erty. The latter was seized by the p 
the charge of Blennerbassett's'connei 
conspiracy, and was afterward burned, having l>eeii 
set Are to accidentally. His wife was a veiy bril- 
liant and beautiful woman, and a writer of merit: it 
appears that about 1825 ^le was with her huslmnd 
in Ii'eland, where be was trying to recover certain 
estates, in which he was unsuccessful. He died on 
tiie island of Guernsey. His wife's last appearance 
in the United States was about 1848. when site peti- 
tioned the U. 3. congress, through Henry Clay, for 
a grant of money to com)>ensate her for the loes of 
her property. She failed, liowever. in this effort, 
death came to her and she was buried by the Sisters 
of Charity of New York. The collapse of Burr's 
grand project under the influence of a proclamation 
by the president, Oct. 27. I80S, made Burr also a 
fugitive, but he was captured and conveyed to Rich' 




■J-..; 



(vith the 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Mond, Va., where he viaa tried for treaBoD. This 
trial, which wBs a caute eitibre, resulted in a verdict 
of "not guilty" on ihe indictment of treason. It 
wu particularly notable tor the presence and the 
fltlendid eloquence, in behalf of the priuiecutiuti, of 
William Wirt, well-known author of the "Life of 
Patrick Henry." Burrhadbylhistimeverynearlvde- 
stniyed his reputation in America and he sailea for 
England, which country, also, he whs soon obliged 
to leave, and he traveled through Sweden, Dcuntark, 
Germany and France, and in Paris became poveiiy- 
Urickeo to the last decree. He was refused permis- 
HOD to return to the Luited Slates, but he succeeded 
in reaching England, and sailed for Boston in May, 
1812, uniler a Bctilious name and fully disguiHcd. 
He landed at Boston, but went immcdialely to New 
York, arriving iu that city with lens than |10 iu his 
posBession, while I he commun ity poosessed an j num lie r 
of hiscreditorswithexocutionshangttigoverhis head 
and the old law in recard to the imprisonment of 
debtors still in force. He was, however, delermiued 
to replace himself, and one morning the newspapers 
contained a notice Chat "Aaron Burr has returned 



said that before uiglit he 
the retaining fees which he receiveil during his first 
twelve days in New York amounledlo #2,000. Col. 
Throop, who remembered some old favor done bim 
In- Burr, and who had retired from practice, lent 
Burr his extensive library, aud it was not long before 
he was once more one of the recognized l^ers of 
the profession, fur he was undoubtedly a magnificent 
lawyer. His legal knowledge has never ^n dis- 
puted, while his power as an *lvocale, his marvelous 
gift of sai't^asm and contempt, and his fund of illus- 
tration, deriveil fnim a course of wide rending, made 
bim an adversary whom no lawyer was anxious to 
encounter. But notwltlistanding bis professional 
success, tlie period between his return to America 
and his dealJi was one possessing elements of sucli 

Sinful scveritv as eventually to have broken his 
art. Often his character was attacked, even in 
court. Gentlemen wbodid not know him wei'e ad. 
vised to avoid him. Henry Clav once entered the 
court.room at the city hall, and when Burr, wbohad 
known him well, onered him his hand, the great 
Kentuckian did not notice bim. Through bis law 

Sracticelturr was brought into relations with Madam 
umel, wbo resided In the large old.fashloned man- 
sion with a pillareil wooden portico at Washington 
Heights, commanding a magnificent view of the 
Harlem river aud the upper part of Manhattan 
island, Jumel, a French mercliant of preat wealth, 
had settled here with his young wife, wbo had been 
bis housekeeper; an accident led to his death and he 
left Madam Jumel a large fortune. Some matter of 
litigation in reference to real estate, which was 
Burr's specialty, sent her to his office. Their busi- 
ness relaiicme tinally led to others of a more tender 
character, and be married ber at the age of scvenly- 
eight. The marriage was naturally very iuharnio- 
nious, and at length they separated. Burr left the 
Washington Heights mansion and retired to Fort 
Richmond, on the northwest shore of Statcn Island, 
and in a hotel there be passetl his last days, depeiid- 
CDtontbe charity of a former woman friend. He oc- 
cupied a room over wbal has been of late the bar-room 
at the house — a square room with little carved bits 
of woodwork about the chimney-piece , Here he 
was brought oa a titter from the steamboat, an old 
and helpless invalid. It was in June, and he lin- 
gered alone until September, His remains were 
carried to FriDceton and buried in the cemcterv there 
with those of bis father and grandfather. He died 
Sept. 14, 1886. 



was believ- 



Inlo pubTi 

capacities for a period of seven years. Previous to 
his election to the Massachusetts legislature, in 1801, 
he. associated wilb his three brothers, was in com- 
mand of vessels cngage<l in trade with India. He 
was a meniber of congress for two years; and iu 
1805 President Jefferson appointed him secretary of 
the navy. This honor, deserved at it was. he was 
never to enjoy. His health was delicate; consunip- 
tlou seized bim, and bis decline was painfully rapid, 
and be never entered upon his duties as secretary. 
One of bis brothers, Benjamin Williams, was also 
made secretary of the navy under Presidents Madi- 
Biin and Monroe; and two gmndsiins won distinction 
for themselves — one as a soldier and sailor, the other 
as student aud artist, Jacob C'rowninsliield died in 
Washington, D, C, Apr, 14, 1808, 

CLINTON, Oeor^, vice president of the Unit- 
ed Slates (1804-12), and governor of New York 
(1777-U5 and 1801-4), was bom at Litlle Britain, 
Ulster Co, (now Orange), N. Y., July 36, 173B, He 
Is said to have been named after Adni. George 
Clinton, son of the Earl of Lincoln, who was colo- 
nial governor of New York from ll 
and with wlioee family George Clinton 
ed to be remotely conuecled. The 
American ancestor of the Clintons, 
Charles Clinton, was bom in thccoun- 
ty of Longford, Ireland, and was the 
son of James Clinton, who in turn was 
the son of William Clinton, one of the 
most devoted adherents of (.'harles I. 
Charles Clinton married, and in 1729, 
with bis wife, his brother-in-law, two 
daughters and one sun. joined a party 
of colonists, ninety-four in number, 
who sailed for America, and landed 
on Cape Cud. In the following spring ^ 
they removed to Ulster county. New " 
York. Charles Cliutoa fought in the 
old French war. and was a justice of 
tlic peace and a judge of the common 
pleas of bis county. George ('linton 
was gifted wilb an ambitious disposi- 
tion, was active and enterprising, and 
though not averse tostudy, preferred a - 
life. In 1755 be ran away from home, a 
board a privateer to tight the French; returning, be 
entered tlie regiment commanded by his father, and 
accompanied the expedition against Fort Frontenac, 
in which be showed great daring and enterprise. 
On the termination of hostilities, he entered the office 
of Chief Justice William Smith, in the city of New 
York, to stud V law, and was in due time admitted 
to the bar, and liegan to practice law in his native 
county. Here for several years he held the office of 
clerk of common pleas, while he met wilb unusual 
success in general practice. In 1768 Mr. Clinton 
was elected a member of the New York assembly, 
and as tlie difficulty between the colonies and the 
mother-country t>ecnme serious, be grew lobe recog- 
nized as one of the stanchest of patriots, so that in 
tbu spring of 1775 he was eleclcdoneof the dele- 
gates to the second Continental congress. In this 
Wly he advocated all the warlike measures which 
were adopted, but on account of the invasion of 
New Y'ork. and the Internal strife and dissen.sion oc- 
curring there, he was appointed a general of brigade, 
and hastened home to assume the command ui the 
militia of Ulster county. On Apr. 20, 1777, the 
New York state constitution, dratted by John Jay, 
was didy adopted, and l[k the month of June follow- 
ing, Mr. Clinton was elected first governor of the 
statu. The lieulenant-uovernor was Pierre Van 




8 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-SDIA 



Cortlandt; Robert R. LMngstOD was chancellor of 
the eta(e; John Jar, chief justice, and Robert Yates 
and John 8I0M Hobart agsociate jiiatlcea of the su- 
preme court; John Morin Scott secretary of state; 
Robert Benson attorney-general, and Comfort Sands 
auditor-geueral. At this time a large proportion of 
Oie population of the state were either open and 
avowed loyalists, ur at heart unfrieadlf oriodlsptised 
to the cause of independence. This spirit uf disaf- 
fection tainted the entire colony, and it was on tliis 
account that the whole power of the British invader? 
duriug the campaigns of 1776 and 1777 was directed 
against the state of New York. It was indeed under 
contemplation, bv establishing a chain of communi- 
cations, or line of posts and fortiScalious extendirig 
from Sandy Hook to the St. Lawrence, to cut off 
New England, the hot-bed of sedition and rebellion, 
from the support of the southern provinces. This 
desigD was never Anally abandoned until the time 
when Arnold committed his treasonable act bnt 
failed to secure the key of the Hudson. It so hap- 
pened, therefore, tbatNew York, while engaged in 
defending her borders against Indians and tones, 
wasalsoDghting the battles of New Enelnnd. All 
the settlements within the interior of New York 
were couatautly agitated by scenes of bloodshed, 
devastation and murder. During the latter part of 
the year 1776, Oen. George Clinton had occupied 
" ja and forts of the Highlands of the Hudson 

with a considerable militia force, in 
order to prevent the British from as- 
cending tbe river. In the spring of 
1777 congress appointed him com- 
mander of all posts in that quarter. 
In September lie addressed the fiiat 
meeting of tbe legislature of New 
York, at Kingston. Meanwhile Gen. 
Bui^yne had advanced from tbe 
North with a large arniy, and was 
rapidly nearing Albany, Washington 
was in the South with a great body of 
the Continental army, and 8ir Henry 
Clinton, having received rcinforce- 
I ments, determined to lake advantage 
/7»i -^ of this Opportunity to ascend the river 

iiX^V*'*!' *°'' capture the posts in command 
of Gov. Clinton. He took 8,000 men 
with bim, and landed at Tarrytown, 
making a feint against Peekshill, while be rapid- 
ly conveyed iroofw across the river for the pur- 
pose of attacking Forts Clinton and Montgomery, 
where Gen. James Clinton, brother of the governor, 
was in command with only abotit 600 militia. On 
hearing of the British movement Gov. Clinton im- 
mediately prorogued the legislature at Kingston, and 
hastened to the assistance of his brother. But tbe 
numbers of the enemy were too great to be auceess- 
fully resisted by the small force at his command. 
Both forts were surrounded, but it was not until Ibe 
Americans had been completely overpowered by 
numbers that they fought their way out, and, favored 
by darkness, succeeded in escaping. It was a most 
brilliant defence, lasting from two o'clock In the 
afternoon until after dark, and against more than 
four times the number of the defendera, George 
Clinton managed lo cross the river in a boat, and 
James was severely wounded and pursued, hut 
eventually I'eaclied bis hoiise. sixteen miles distant 
from the forts, on the following morning. No per- 
manent advantage resulted to the British from their 
success on this occasion, Burgoyne and his army 
were defeated at Saratoga, and Sir Henry Clinton 
was obliged to satisfy liiniself with dismantling the 
forts he had captured, and on tlie approach of win- 
ter tbe British fell back to their lines In the neigh- 
borhood of New York. During the war Gov. Clin- 
ton was mainly occupied in providing for tbe public 



defence and security, and his time was cbiefly em- 
ployed in earring into effect tbe laws passed n- tbe 
legislature in this direction. In 1780 Gov. Clinton 

WHS re-elecled. and continued lo fill the governor's 
chair unti! 1795. In 1780, when tbe savages led by 
Brant and Cornplauter made a descent into the Mo- 
hawk valley. Gov. Clinton succeeded in preventing 
the success of their expedition. Peace with Great 
Britain was declared, and when Gen. Washington 
entered the city of New York on tbe occasion 01 its 
evacuation, Qov, Clinton rode beside him as chief 
magistrate of the atate. After tlic close of the war 
Gov. Clinton devoted much attention lo.tbe subjects 
of education and internal Improvements, and pro- 
cured the passage of important laws in this direction. 
He rr'commended the organization of a society for 
the promotion of agriculture, arts, and manufacturea, 
and alsoanact directing the exploration of Herkimer 
and Washington counties, with a view to canal c" 




open interior navigation and inland waler communi- 
cation, the culmination of which whs Ihc construc- 
tion, under the direction of Gov, Clinton's nephew, 
DeWitt Clinton, of tbe Erie Canal. One of the first 
acts of the fedcmliHts in the way of esiablishing a 
government iuclining toward cen(rali7.alion, was to 
obtain tbe passage of laws aiilhorizing the national 
government to collect and retain the import duties 
which might accrue at the port of New 1 ork. Gov. 
Clinton was opposed to this act as a surrender of the 
independent sovereignty of the stale, and one result 
was, IbaC a movement was put on foot by the feder- 
alists to prevent his re-election as governor of the 
state. In 1786 congress passed a resolution request- 
ing Gov. Clinton to call tlie legislatui'e together for 
an extra session to reconsider a state law witli which 
congress disagreed. Qov, Cllnion was sufficiently 
determined not to permit himself lo be dictated to 
by congress, and accordingly refused to summon 
the legislature In extra session. Gov, Clinton was 
one oY the foremost and most decided opponents of 
the Federal constitution as it was originally formed, 
but he presided at the slate convention in 1778, 
which ratified this instrument. In I78T Gov, Clin- 
ton marched at the head of Uie New York stale 
militia to assist tbe Massachusetts government In 
overcoming Sliays's rebellion. The political course 
of Gov. Clinton aroused serious opposition among 
the fedemliats, and from 1788 every effort was made 
to dethrone him. Especially at the election of 1793, 
when John Jny was the opposing candidate and re- 
ceived the majoritv of the votes, objections were 
raised on account of certain informalities, but Gov. 
Cliiiion was declared re-elected by a majority of 108. 
At the presidential election in 1792, tiie electors of 
the now republican party, of which Gov. Clinton 
might be considered the founder, Inseried his name 
in their ballots as their candidate for vice-president 
He received fifty votes and John Adams seventy- 
seven. At the ensuing election for governor, he de- 
clined to run, and diinng the next five yeare was re- 
tired from public life, except that bis name was 
again mentioned as a candidate for the vicepresf- 
dency. In 1801 be was once more induced to be- 
come a candidate for the governorship, and waa 
elected by nearly 4.000 majority over his federal 
opponent, Stephen Vau Rensselaer. On entering 
upon his new term. Gov. Clinton tound himself in 
opposition to his own party in regard to the matter 
of removals from oflice on account of politics, Thia 
had now become the custom, and though be resisted 
it in the council of appointment, he was overruled 
by his nephew, DeWItt Clinton, and Ambrose Spen- 
cer, who were membera of tbe council. On the re- 
election of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency for 
the second term, Gov. Clinton was chosen as the can- 



OF AMEBICAN BIOGBAPHT. 



didate of the republic&n partj for vice-pre«ldent, and 
WM dulj elected, the two csndidatea receiving 168of 
the 170 voles which were cast. As the presidinE of- 
ficer of the U. 8. senate. Mr. Cliuton was ooted for 
the impartiality' aod promptitude with wliichbegave 
his decisions, and fur the kindness and courtesy 
vhicb always distlngtdshed his manuer, as welt to- 
ward his political opponents as to his mnst attuchiKi 
friends. On the retirement of Mr. Jefferson, Mr. 
Clinton was coatinucd in the offlce of vice-president, 
u)d at the session of 1610-11, It fell lo him. ty his 
casting vote, to decide the question sa totlie proprie- 
ty of renewing the charterof the Bank of the Unit- 
ed States. The question being on the striking out of 
the enacting clause of the bilH Mr. Clinton voted in 
the affirmative, after a few brief, terse, and vigorous 
remarks setting forth his re>u>ons for this course. 
George Clinton was in many respects one of the moat 
remarkable men produced by tlie period In which he 
lived. He was a man of strong views, ojid possessed 
absolute personal courage in advauciuK them willi- 
oul regard lo the possibilities of their adverse recep- 
tion. He was one of the ablest of administrative of- 
ficers, and was as admirable in his civil as In his 
milita^ career. Mr. Clinton married Cornelia Tap- 

Sn, of Kingston, N. Y. He had one son and five 
ugbters, butonly twoof his children, both daugh- 
ters, lived to an advanced a^. One of his daugh- 
ters became the wife of Citizen Genet, the Frencli 
minister to the United States in 1703, who remained 
In this country after he iiad completed his mission, 
and settled in the stale of New York, where he died. 
In ills personal appearance Gov. Clinton was digni- 
fied, his countenance indicating tlie courage, energy 
and decision of cliarocter for which he was remark- 
able. Says one of his biographers, "Fewmcnhave 
ever occupied a larger space in the public estima- 
tion, and no one name is more conspicuous than his 
in the eariy annals of New York. Gov. Clinton 
dfed while holding the otfice of vice-president, Apr. 
ao, 1813. in the cily of Washington, and his remains 
were permanently deposited in the congressional 
cemetenr. 

KASISON, Jamea, secretary of state. <See In- 
dex.) 

BBECKENItrDQE, John, attorney-general, 
was bom in Autrusia county, Va., Dec. 2, 1760. 
"While yet a studeut in William and Mary College 
be was three times chosen a member of the legisla- 
ture, but was refused admission before the third 
election because ol his being under age. He was 
admitted lo the bar and began practice at Charlottes- 
ville in 17U5. He was chosen as representative to 
the third congress, but failed to lake his seat be- 
cause of his removal in 1793 to Kentucky, finally 
locating near Lexington, where he built up an c^ilea- 
rive practice through the conflict of land claims 
which resulted from the faulty surveys which had 
been made. He filled various judicial and legisla- 
tive offices in the new state of Kentucky, and was a 
CBndidat« for U. S. senator in 1794. but was beaten 
^ Humphrey Marshall. Ills claimed for Brecken- 
rid^ that he was the author of the Kentucky reso- 
lution of 1798, which in opposition to the doctrine of 
the alien and sedition laws asserted, although in 
Bomewhat equivocal terms, the right of any stale lo 
- Dutlify or hinder the action of any statute the pco- 

Cof the stale might think unconstitutional. 
ether he or Jefferson was the author,it is certain 
that Breckenridge was their introducer into the 
Kentucky legislature and their most earnest advo- 
cate. In December, 1801, he entered the U. 8, sen- 
ate, and for the next four years was the spokesman 
for the administration, introducing and advocating 
In the senate almost every distinctly admin iatration 
measure. He differed with Jefferson on tiie ques- 
tion of the acceptance of Louisiana, and refused to 



offer the constitutional amendment which Jeffervon 
thought necessary before the new territory could be 
acquired. It was on the motion of Mr. Brecken- 
ridge that the treaty was ratified and the president 
directed lo lake possession. He resigned his sen- 
atorehlp on I>ec. 25, 180B, and became a member of 
Jefferson's cabinet as attorney -gen end. but held the 
place less than a year, dying while in office, from an 
attack of typhus fever, Dec 14, 1806. 

GAU^TIN, Albert, secretary of the treasury, 
was born in Qeneva, Switzerland. Jan. 2S, 1761. 
The family name was one well known in Bwilzer- 
laod. though his father, Jean Gallatin, was a 
merchant and the family not distinguished for 
wealth. The mother of Albert Gallatin was Sophie 
Altiertine RolUz. The father died when young 
Albert was an infant and the mother when he was 
only nine years of age. Al the death of his father, 
Albert was taken in charge by Mademoiselle Pictet, 
a distant relative of his father, and his mother's in- 
timate friend. With her the lioy remained until he 
was twelve years of age, when he was sent to a 
boarding school, and two years later to the academy 
at Geneva, from which he was graduated in 1779. A. 
curious and interesting incident in regard to the 
bov's ancestry and his family 
life is the fact tiiat in 1609 a 
member of tlie family be- 
queathed a sum of money 
nhicli was placed In the hands 
of trustees, and called the 
Bourse Gallatin, the lucome 
of which was to be employed 




the education of Al- 
bert Gallatin was paid for, 
both at the boarding school 
and at the academy. His stud 
ies included more particular- 
ly languages, and he learned 
English, French, of course, 
that being the language in 
general use at Geneva, and ~ C^ 

also Latin and Greek. He was 

taught bistorybythedlstinguished historian, Muller. 
During his last year al the academy, young Gallatin 
waa employed as tutor for tlie nepljew of his bene- 
factress, Alademoiseile Fictet. Meanwhile, the sum 
to which he was entitled by inheritance would not 
be his until be reacheti his iwenty-fiflh year, and he 
was now desirous of planning for himself a career. 
For a lime he visited his crandfather, Abraham 
Gallatin, who lived near Femey, tlie home of 
Voltaire, and where young Qaliaiin frequenlly met 
the great philosopher. His grandmother, Madame 
Gallatiu-Baudlnct, was the controlling spirit in Ihe 
family, and had for a friend the Landgrave of 
Hesse, who waa at this time sending mercenaries to 
assist the British arm^ in its flgbt with the American 
colonies. The commission of lieutenant -colonel in 
one of tlie Hessian I'egiments wtis offered to young 
Gallatin, a proposition lo which he is said to have 
replied that "he would never serve a lyrant." In 
fact Gallatin with two friends had already amused 
themselves by planning an eniieralion to America, 
being lnleresle<i more particularly In their romantic 
ideas of the native American Indian, and In April, 
1780, young Gallatin with one of these friends left 
Geneva for Nantos. where the friendly offices of bis 
family followed him with money and letters of 
recommendation to distinguislien Americans, in- 
cluding one from Benjamin Franklin, at that time 
American minister at the Court of Versailles, to his 
son-iu-kw, Kichard Bache. The travelers sailed on 
May 27th. inan American vessel, investing a portion 
of their small capital in tea. They reached the 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



Americaa coast and landed at Cape Ann, on Ju)j 
14lli, and tlie following day rode to Bobton un liorse- 
bock. This wa« a time of staKiiatiun in ttie American 
revolution; there waa verj nttlc trade, and it was 
with difliculty that the venture in lea wa« brought 
to a Soanclal conclusioD, which was accomplished 
only by bartering it for other articles, JDcludiii^ 
lum, sugar and tobacco, with which tliey traveled 
betweeu Boatoa and Maine, selllug Ibeir goods or 
trading them as the caae might be. At Maclitas. 
Gallatip is said to hare advauced supplies to the 
value of $400 to the garrison, takiag in pay- 
ment a draft on the Stale treasury of Massa- 
chusetts, which he afterward sold at oue-fourlh 
of Its face value. Finally, in the autumn of 
1781, be settled in Boston, where hegavc instructions 
in the French latiguage, aud in the following sum- 
mer taught French to the studeuts of Harvard, 
for which he received ahoul three hundred dol- 
lars. He remained at CanibridKe for nearly a 
year, and in July, 1783, went to Boston and New 
York and concluded his fliuuicial rclalions with his 
travelins comiMnion, determined thereafter to suc- 
ceed or Tail entirely through his own efforts. Hear, 
ing of rich lands to be bought low on the banks of 
the Ohio, Oallalin went there and purchased a large 
territory between the Monougaliela and the Kanawha 
rivers and soon after succeeded in selling a small 
portion of this land for enough lo repay three-fourths 



of the 



of the witoleofit, Oallatin now 




settled in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, where he 
built a lor hut and opened acoimtrj store. In 1784 
Qallatin first met General Wasliington, who made 
bim a proposition to become bis land agent. That 
winter Mr. Qallatin settled in Richmond and from 
that time fonvard for several years he was engaged 
In locating lands, while suggesting to his friends In 
Switzerland a general emigration from that country, 
which was at this time much disturbed by revolu- 
tionary ideas. Qallatin now reached his twenty- 
flfth year, and bis family in Swititerland remitted 
him considerable sums through the banklne house 
of Robert Morris, this being the inheritance belong- 
ing lo him, with its increaw by the interest added. 
In May. 178B. Qallatin married tSophle AllOgre, of a 
French Proteatant family living nt Richmond. Her 
mother having refused her consent, the youtig lovers 
eloped, but within a. few months, which are said to 
bave heeo the happiest of Mr, Gallatin's life, be 
had the misfortune to lose bis wife, a fact wlilch 
seems to have broken up all his interest in affairs. 
The following year he waa elected lo the state legisla- 
ture from Payette county and re-elected until 1793. 
when he waselecled lo the United Stales senate. In 
the same year, on Nov. llih, Gallatin was marrietl for 
the second time to Miss Anna Nicholson, a yoimg 
lady whose acquaintance he had made during an 
excursion with some friends from Pennsylvania 
northward. This marriage was a most happy one 
and lasted almost throughout Gallatin's long and 
lionorable career, his separation from bis companion 
by death being only by a few months, Mrs. Galla- 



tin waa the daughter of Com. James Nicholson, 
who was captain of the Trumljull, the lirat 
American frinite. When Mr. Gallutiu took bis seat 
in the L'nitea States senate a petition was presented 
In that house staling that he had not been uine years 
a citizen of the Luited IStates and was therefore 
ineligible. As he had lauded in Massachusetts in 
1780, while still a minor, and bad ouly taken the 
oath of citizenship iu 1785, technically this petition 
aud this objecliou were well founded. The matter 
was placed before the general committee on ek-ctiona 
which had under consideration other cases besides 
this one. Mr. Gallatin conducted his own case aud 
the matter iKing brought to a vole, his election was 
declared to be void. This, although tir. Gallatin 
had been thirteen years a resident of the coimiry, 
was a large landholder in Virginia and had been for 
several terms a member of the Pennsylvania legis- 
lature. After this brief cxiierience in the United 
States senate, Mr. Gallatin took his wife lo his 
country home by the Monongahela. It was at thia 
time that the formidable whiskey insurrection, as it 
was called, broke out inPeunsyh'ania, adisturtuuice 
wiiich was caused by the action of the government 
in forcing the service of writs In excise cases. It is 
stated that to Mr.Gallatiu was due the peaceful sellle- 
mentof this outbreak, and Ihat be practically, through 
bis eloquence and Jnillcious conduct, saved the 
western counties of Pcnusylvania from anarchy aud 
civil war. Nevertheless the total expense of the lu- 
sutreclion to the gjovemmcnt was $800,000. At the 
sut^equent election, Mr, Gallatin was chosen to 
represent Payette in the Pennsylvania assembly, but 
his election was contested and was declared void on 
the petition of thirty-four citizens who declared that 
they luid been unable to cast tlieir voles on accuuni 
of me district having t>eeu in a state of insun«ction 
at the time of the elcciiuu. Another election was 
then held fn which Qallatin was victorious, but be 
only remained In the legislature from Feb, 14th 
to March 13th. when he asked and obtainc<l leave of 
absence. He was now elected to congress and en- 
tered the house Dec. 7, 1795, on the republicnn side, 
thus, in company with Edward Livingston of New 
York, makinga form id able addition to Ihe opposilion 
which was under the lead of James Madison, Mr. 
Gallatin's first measure in the house of representatives 
was tlie introduction of an act appointing aslanding 
committee of finance to superintend the general 
operations of the treasury department, and which 
waa the beginning of the ways and means committee, 
wluch siNin l)ccaine aud h-is ever since continued lo 
lie the most important committee in the house. A 
strong debater, and forming his ()pinions tboiieh 
rapidly under the infiuence of careful judgment, 3Ir, 
Qallatln's infiuence in the liouse soon began to be 
emphatic. In a general way. Mr, Qallatin was the 
" watcli-dog of the treasury'" of that day, and made 
that department Ihe object of frequently aggressive 
criticism. During his three terms in congress, Mr. 
Gallaliu easily iKcame the leader of his party on the 
fioor of llie house. In Ihe great debate on the treaty 
with England, Mr. Gallatin is said to have risen to 
the highest rank of statesmanship. Jefferson being 
eiecred president, tlie formation of the first republi- 
can cabinet was his tirst duty, and in tliat Mr. Gallatin 
became secretary of the treasury. Il was unfortu- 
nate that during the few days lliat Mr. Gallaliu bad 
t>een United States senator he had offended Hamilton, 
at that time secretary of the treasury, by a call for 
informalion as to the condition of tliat department; 
and again, as a member of congress in 1796, he had 
questioned Hamilton's jiolicy. Yet Hamilton had 
left the treasury depariment as a legacy to the 
Federalists, whose stronghold it was considered, and 
the senate, which had the confirming power, was 
still controlled by a Federalist majority. In order 



OP AMEBICAir BIOGRAPHY. 



11 




refusing 



to avoid collisioD. Hr. Gallatln'B Rppuintmeat vaa 
not gCDt to the senate during the sessiun, but on May 
14tb he entered the cabinet, tbe idea being that he 
would thus at least hold the ofllcc uutil the meeting 
of cougress in December. Aa a matter of fact he 
did hold the office until 1813. ntid his conduct of it 
tsnkB among the Snest illustrations of lluancial 
ability kuowD. During bis incuDibeucy. the public 
debt, which in 1802 wax mure than |86,(K)0.0DU, was 
reduced to leas than |46,000,000. The war of 1813, 
which theu occurred, brought it up to nearly Hfly 
per cent, more than it was when lie 
entered the department. Mr. Galla- 
tin's last financial success occurred in 
the spring of 1B13, wiieu he obtained 
the loan of $16,000,000, the greater 

{ortion of which was taken up by 
>avid Parish and Stephen Girard of 
Philadelphia and John Jacob Aator 
of New York and their friends, these 
three capitalists being perw)ual friends 
of Mr. Gallatin. A few weeks laler, 
Mr. Gallatin resigned from the treas- 
ury, and was appointed to the mis* 
sion of St. Petersburg for the pur- 
pose of securing the mediation of the 
Emperor of Russia between the United 
States and Great Britain. In this mis- 
sion he failed, the British government 
but he continued as con)- 
and Anally the treaty was signed on 
u Day, 1814. Gallatin was now appointed 
to Frauce. and remained abroad uutil 1838, 
when he returned to the United States. In 1820 he 
was sent by President Aaamsas envoy e.\traordinary 
to Great Britain, and on returning to the United 
States became president of the National Bank of 
New York, a position which he continued to hold 
from 1831 to 1839. Mr. Gallalin interested himself 
in the latter part of his life in a number of prominent 
public litcreiy and scientific institutions, and was 
the first president both ofthe American Ethnological 
Society and the New York Historical Society. Mr. 
Gallatin was the earliest public advocate In America 
of the principles of free trade, and, as his biographer, 
Mr. John Austin Stevens, says: " An experience of 
sixty vesTB confirmed him in his convictions. " In 
regard to fais literary work, Mr. Gallatin published 
"Synopsis of the Indian Tril)e8 wiihin the United 
States East of the Rocky Mountains and in the 
British and Russian Possessions in North America" 
(Cambridge, 1836), and " Notes on the Seml-Clvlllzed 
Nations of Mexico. Yucatan and Central America, 
with Conjectures on (lie Origin of Semi -Civilizations 
in America" (New York, 1845). His complete 
■worlis were published under the title "Wrilings of 
Albert Gallatin." by Henry Adams (Philadelphia, 
187B, three volumes). He died Aug. 13, 184lt. 
DEAABOKH, Hemy, secretary of war. (Sec 

8T0DDEBT, Benjamin, secretary of the navy. 
(See Index.) 

SHITB, Robert, secretary of the navy, was 
born in Lancaster, Pa., November, 1757, a brother 
of Oeneral Samuel Smith, He studied at the com- 
mon Beho<ils of the time and was sent to Princeton, 
where he was graduated in 1781. He volunteered his 
services during the revolution and was piissent at 
the tiattle of Ihc Brandywine. At llie close of the 
war he studied Ian. was admitted to the bar and set- 
tled In Baltimore, where he began practice, Mr. 
Smith was the last survivor of the electoral college 
of 1780, He was a slate senator from Maryland Tn 
1763 and a member of the bouse of delegates from 
1790 to 1800. during the same tieriod, front 1798 to 
1801, sitting in the upper branch of the Baltimore 
city coundT. On Jan. 26, 1B02, he assumed the po- 



sition of secretary of the navy, which he held until 
1805. when he was appointed U. S. attorney-general. 
This oflite he filled until he was made secretary of 
state in 1809, and held. that position until Nov. 25, 
1811. In the meantime, on ,Tan. 3S, 1806, he was 
appointed chancellor of Maryland and chief judge 
of the district of Baltimore, but declined. On 
resigning the office of secretary of slate in 1811 Mr. 
Smith was appoiuted ambassador to Russia, but thia 
pueiliou he also declined. He was interested in pub- 
lic alTaiis generally and was piesident of a branch 
of the American Bible Society in 1818. and also of 
the Marj'land Agricultural Society in 1818, In 1813 
he became provost of the University of Maryland. 
Mr. Smith died in Baltimore Nov. 2^ 1843. 

LINCOUT, I^vi, U. S. attorney-general and 
sixth governor of Massachusetts, was bom at Hing- 
ham, Mass., May 15, 1748, He was a descendant of 
Samuel Lincoln, of Hingham. whocametothiscoun- 
try from Hingham, Eug.. in 1887. Levi's fattier 
was a farmer, who gave his son such education as he 
could, and the sou, in his leisure time, succeeded In pre- 



Worcester, Mass., where he pincliced law and rose 
to distinction. During the exciting party cooHict ol 
John Adams's administration, Mr, Lincoln, as n zeal- 
ous anti-federalist, wrote a series of political papers 
called " Farmers' Letters, "which gave him a national 
reputation. On the election of Thomas JefTenwu to 
the presidency. Mr. Lincoln was appointed U. S. at- 
torney -general, having in the meantime served in Iho 
Masaachuselts legislature, and for a brief period in 
congress. On retiring fiom the atlomey-general- 
ship. he was elected a member of the Massachusetts 
council. He was lieutenant-governor of Massachu- 
setts in 1807-8, and during about six months of the 
latter year, owing to the death of Gov, James Sulli- 
van, was acting governor. In 1811 Gov. Lincoln 
was appointed by President Madison associate justice 
of the U, S. supreme court, but, being at this time 
threatened with total blindness, he declined the por- 
tion. He afterward recovered his sight sufficientlv 
to enable him to devote necessary attention to lib 
farm, and to indulge himself souiewhat in classical 
studies. He died in Worcester, Mass.. Apr. 14, 1820, 
His widow died in the same place, eight years later, 
and was followed to the grave by two sons, then 

fwernoTs — Levi, governor of Massachusetts, and 
uoch, gcivernor of Maine. 



..», graduated from the University of Pennsylvania 

In 1780, studied law. and in 1803 Wgan practice at 
Wilmington. Del. He was elected to cou- 
gress as an anti-Fetieralisr. and while 
there, 1803-7, was concerned in the Im- 
peachment of Judge a. Chase of the U. S. 
supreme court. He was U. S. attorney- 
general from ieOT-13. In the war of 
1813 he was captain of a company of ar- 
tillery, which operated on the Canadian 
border, and In 1815 a member of the Del- 
aware senate. In 1817 he was one of a 
commission sent to look into affairs in 
the newly formed republics of South 

America, and advise as to their recogni- 

tion, a course of action which he favored jt'lrfii ^ (^. ' 
in a " Report on tiic Present Stale of the fnSaiiS^ 

United Provinces " (1819). He was again * 

in conitre'w 1831-23, and in the U, S. sen. 
ate 1823-33. He was sent as first U. S. mhiister to 
the Argentine provinces in January, 1623. showing 
himselfdurlng his brief service there a friend to the 
young republic, being much honored for his services 
by the Argentines. He died at Buenos Ayres, Ar- 
gentine Republic, June 10, 1824. 




12 



TBE ITATIOHAL CYCLOP -EDIA 



""^L— ^*. 



WBBD, Thurlow, poUtldan sod jounuiliat.was 
bom at Caiw, Greene county, N. Y., Nov. 10, 1787. 
HU father was a migrsloiT person, whoee drcum- 
etBDCea In life cunflrmed tfic old adage " A rolling 
stone gathers no moss," and the Bon, at a very early 
Rge, was obliged to provide for lilmsetf. When but 
nine years old he made bis wuj to tbe adjoiuiug 
town of Calskill. and there hireil out as cahin boy 
upon a sloop plying upon [he Hudson river. This 
life was full of novel excitement to the half-grown 
boy, and even in liia old age he spoke of it as amoug 
liis most pleasumhle recollections* but lie abandoned 
It at the end of three years to enter the piiuting office 
of the "CaUkil! Record," where licmcl Edwin Cros- 
well, a son of the proprietor, only half a year his 
senior, wlio was tii be in afler years, as editor of the 
"Albany Argus," one of his most doughty political 
ontikgonlsta. Two years later a migratoiy spasm 
came upon his father, and lie was obliged to cmi- 
^le with him to the (own of Ciucinnatus, in 
Cortland county, now in the heart of the populous 
state of New \ork, but then on the very outskirts 
of civilized settlement. I^nd there could be " (akcn 
up " for a mere trifle ner acre, but the senior Weed 
bad QOt that trifle, ana hence was foi'ced to set about 
making improvements of which 
others should reap the benefit. 
The boy was sjieedily initialed 
into the mysteries of farming 
ill its wildest and rudest vari- 
ety, but he soon ™>w weary of 
the vocation, and while swmg- 
lug the nxe or plying the hoe 
his mind would often go bock 
lo bis life on the placid waters 
of the Hudson. His only rec- 
reation was reading, for which 
be early dcvehipcd nn intense 
pa-ision. The neighliois were 
niilcsapart.andbookswererare. 
ly seen among them, but when 
llicy were, they went the rounds 
as if they had been comnioD 
property. In his autobiography 
hetclts of the coming of a "His- 
tory of the French Ifevolution " 
into the ueighboriiood. It had been borrowed by a 
neighbor, living three miles away, of another neigh- 
bor whose house was at a still greater distance, and, 
bearing cif its advcut, the fourteen -year-old boy set 
out one winter morning, barcfoott^, through the 
SDOw, to obtain a loan of tbe treasure. "There 
were," he says, "spots of bare ground upon which I 
could stop to warm my feet, and there were also 
along the road occasional lengths of log.fencc from 
which the snow had melted and upon which it was 
a luxury to walk." Ho obtained the book, and re- 
turning home with llie prize was " too happy to 
think of the snow or of my naked feet." lie de- 
voured the bo(>k, after his day's work was over, by 
the light of a nine.knot, for even a " lallow diii 
was too great a luxury for the backwoods household. 
A boy with such tastes could not be contented nith 
so buindrinn a life, and consequently he was soon 
back again in a printlug ollice, where he remained 
until the outbreak of the war of 1812, not lone 
after which — he was then sixteen— he volunteered 
as a private with the New York contingent, and 
served on tile Canada frontier until the war was 
over. He was honorably discharged and received as 
bis bounty a government certificate for 160 acres of 
land. Tnls land-warrant, brown with age, but 
neatly framed and bung in a conspicuous position, 
was upon the walls of his library until the day of 
his death. His military service ended, he drifted lo 
New York city and again entered a printing office, 
'Where be remained until his nineteenth year, when 



he removed to Norwich, in Chenango county, and 
tUere established a weekly journal on his own ac- 
count. Of his life in New York he gives some 
interesting details in bis autobiography, the most 
noticeable being his distaste for beer and stimuiat- 
ing drinks and tiis repugnance to dissolute compan- 
ions. From Norwich he, in 1821, removed to 
Manlius, and there started the " Onondaga County 
Kepublican," which, after a successful career o( 
three years, was sold to enable him to establish in 
Kocbester the "Telegraph," one of the first daih' 
journals published west of Albany. His public life 
may be said to have now begun. He took an active 
part in politics, and in the following year was elected 
to the state legislature, but he served only one term 
and never again held any official position. In his 
extreme old age be said that this was what he looked 
back to with most satisfaction; adding, "I never bad 
a thirst for office. A great many offices have been 
within niy reach. Perhaps I am the only man who 
"""T declined three first-class foreign ni'-'^'""' 







by three presidents — Taylor, Fiilraore and Lincoln." 
He preferred being "the power behind the throne" 
to the oceu]mtion of the throne itself. Soon after bis 
removal to Rochester occurred the disappearance of 
William Morgan, which was the signal fur the form- 
ation of the anti-masindc party, Morgan had written 
and was said to bo about to publisli "an exposure of 
masonry," and soon afterward he disapijcarcd, hav- 
ing been, as was supposed, drowned iu Lake Ontario 
by the fralemity. Weed was one of those who be- 
lieved this, and he was decidedly outspoken in his 
denunciation of the masonic order. Finally a body 
was cast up by the lake, which was recogni7ed as 
that of Morgan by his family and friends. It was 
buried as such, but soon afterwaril was disinterred 
and claimed as the body of another man. Great ex- 
citement existed over the subject, and Wee<l -km 
present at the inquest when evidence, which he con- 
sidered of masonic nianufacture, n'as given that the 
body was not tliat of Morgan, " What arc vou giring 
to do for a Morgan now?'' was asked of him by tbe 
lawyer employed by the masons. " This man is a 
good enough Morgan," retorted Weed, "until you 
produce the man that was killed. " This remark was 
repeated to Henry O'Reilly and by him was distorted 
into the phrase, " He is n good enough Morgan until 
after election," and in that form it was published by 
him in the Rochester " Daily Advertiser," with the 
addition that Weed had disfigured the features of 
the corpse to make them resemble those of 3Iorgaii. 
Thence the fulaehood went overywhero, causing 
Weed yeara of pain and doing him incalculable in- 
jury. He could not disprove it, tor those who in- 
vented the He would sustain it. Speaking of it to a 
friend not long before his death he said : " I suffered 
untold distress and wa«, more or less, under l)an for 
twenty .five years. I was abhorred by tens of thous- 
ands ; old acquaintances avoided me ; I was pointed 
at on tlie street ; strangera would look a.skance at 
me ; I received Ihrealenmg anonymous letters : I was 
made to realize everywhere and every hour that I 
was a bi'anded man. Even my family was made to 
feel the disgrace as if I were a felon. It was cruel." 
To the same friend he gave the sequel of this sCoir, 
which, as O'Reilly is now dead, may be told with- 
out injury to his feelings. The latter engaged in 
extending (he magnetic telegraph westward and 



duced to dire poverty. In bis extremity he ap- 
plied repeatedly to Sir. Weed for loans of money 
and tliey were as often granted. Finally, about four 

:ears before Mr. Weed's death, he wrote to him thai 
e did not know what in the world he should do to 
keep himself alive if Weed did not get for him a sit- 
uation in the New York custom house. "I went 



OF AMEEIOAN BIOGRAPHY. 



home, " said Mr. Weed, ' ' and reflected od how much 
pain he had caused me through a tjuarter of it c«n- 
biTj; on the grief aud distress be bad brought upon 
my familj, and the mortification and bumiltatioii he 
had heaped upon my party aud my friunds, and 
then — why, thcD I went donu town and got Iiim a 
place iu the custom house." In 1881 Mr. Weed re- 
moved lo Albauy and there esCablislied tlie " Eren- 
ing Journal, "as the official organ of the anti-masonic 
movement. The party soon becameextinct, butlt waa 
Bucceede<l, three years later, by the whig party, and 
then began the life-long alliance, political and per- 
sonal, between Mr. Weed and William H. Seward. 
In 1JSI8 they employed Horace Greeley to edit the 
" JefFcraunian," a campaign paper, and thus was bc- 

Sm Ihe famous copartncrabip of Seward, Weed & 
rccley. which overthrew the Albany regency, and 
for many years was the dominant power in the poli- 
tics o( New York atat*. In 1838 the whig party 
achieved itsfirst triumph by the election of Sir. Sew- 
ard as ^iveruor, and from that time until its final 
diasulurion Mr, Weed was lis oracle, if not its dicta- 
tor ; and. what is more remarkable, he was at the 
same time the confidential friend and trusted adviser 
of Silas Wright during his term aa governor from 
1844 to 1847, and sustamcd the same relations with 
William L. Marcj while he held that office, hoth of 
those gentlemen being his political opponents and 
niemhers of the Albany regency, whose organ, the 
"Albany Argus," then edited by his boyhood com- 
panion, Edwin Croswell.visited him not infrequently 
with unstinted abuse. His influence in state affairs 
was so great and so long-continued tliat iu the pop- 
ular mind he came to oe regarded as the de fofto 
governor of New York, and it was also so potent in 
national politics as to enable him. except on one 
oc«tsiou, lo control the presidential Dominations of 
his parijf, the exception being when Mr. Lincoln was 
chosen in opposition to Mr, Seward, and on that 
occasion it again came to pass that ''the stars in 
tjieir courses fought against Sisera." In ISM Mr. 



out his aid in a most critical emergency. The 
" know nothing" organization was at that period 
absorbing the decomiiosing elements of the whig 
party, and it hod proscribed both Mr. Weed and Mr. 
Sewaril. Mr. Seward's re-election to the V. S. sen- 
ate was to be decided by the incoming legislature, 
and a majority of t'lat body would be oath-bound 
members of the order. His defeat, tliercfore, seemed 
a foregone conclusion. Never had Mr. Weed so 
difficult a task before him, but he accomplished it 
and Mr. Seward was Iriumphantly re-elected. Mr. 
Weed was one of the founders of tlie republican 
party. In 1856 he exerted himself to the utmost to 
elect John C. Fremont, and iu 1860, when his own 
CAndiduie had not been chosen, he gave a zealous 
support to Mr. Lincoln, becomiiig subsequently one 
of his most intimate friends and trusted counselors. 
By Mr. Lincoln he was soon employed, with Arch- 
bishop Hughes and Bishop McUvaiue, to proceed to 
Europe to mQuence governmental opinion in favor 
of the I'uiou. How well he succeede<l is told in his 
aulobiograpliy, wherein one of the pleasantest pas- 
sages is that in which he relates how, while he was 
on a visit to iSarl Itussell at his country home, his 
wife invited htm out to a walk in order to tell him 
that she knew nothing of state secrets, but that ladies 
had cars and occasionally heard things not intended 
for Ihem, and Ihat it would pnilmhly relieve his 
anxiety to know that in our ditUculties the sym- 
pathies of the queen were with our government He 
gave his undi^ded attention to the maititi-'nance of 
the Union until the close of the civil war, when he 
relinquished the editorial control of the " Albany 
EveuiDg Journal " and took up hla residence in the 



cit^ of New York. He was there, for a short time, 
editor of the " Commercial Advertiser." This posi- 
tion he soon resigned on account of failing strength, 
but continued lo be a close observer aud an influ- 
ential actor in public aSairs. In 1808 he directed 
measures which resulted in the acquittal of President 
Johnson from impeachment, and iu 1870 it was 
largely his infiueuce which prevented serious conse- 

Biences resulting from the contested election of 
ayes and Tilden. He also, until his death, took an 
active Interest in alt importiuit measures affecting 
the municipality of New York. It can be truthfully 
claimed for Mr. Weed tlial he was an honest poli- 
tician. For his faithful service of more than sixty 
years to his party and bis country he never received 
a dollar nor any other recognition except, it may be, 

 ' printing which, in 1°"" 

■- '"'eed& 

member. But 
. long and the profits 
upon it were strictly legitimate, and of these his 
portion was but a moiety. Like his democratic 
friend, Jeremiah G. Black, be could bohl out his 
hands and say, "They are clean— -they have never 
held a bribe." He was careless of moncv and, en- 
grossed with larger things, his mind could not be 
narrowed down to mere aecumulatiou. Once, in his 
old age, he said to the writerof this sketch: " I have 




not sought to be rich ; I have had opportunities 
enough, but it is a low pursuit, and I have been too 
busy. I havoiiad nomeretypursonal ambition. I 
liuvc wanted to lie influential, but it was in order to 
help the slate, to improve the quality of its public 
servauis and to serve the country to the extent of 
any one man's ability." His personal chamctcr was 
without stain. In a corrupt time he was incorrupt. 
He never handled a dishonest dollar. He was liberal 
and bountiful far beyond his means, and quickly 
moved by any appeal to his Eyinpatbics. He bad 
warm attaehnients, loving bis frietuls with almost 
womanly tenderness. Those critics who class him 
with the ordinary iwlilician, whose only idea of a 
piatfomi is a net lo catch votes, mistake him utterly; 
still he was a politician aud not a reformer. He did 
not inculcate principles to be cxeculiil iu the future; 
he organised men to execute principles already 
ailo[>te<i by sutHcient numbers lo justify Ihe hi)pe 
that they wHild be reduced to acilon. He was a har- 
vester, riot a scwl-sower. Few nien are seed-sowers, 
and such as are, we account to be prophets and uot 
polilicians. He was a prophet, but only in the fore- 
cnsling of political results. Having lived down the 
undesprvetl obloquy tluU clouded liis earlier life, he 
died, undfrstooil and honored, Nov. 22, 1884. ITia 
biography was interestingly writlcu by himself and 
his "grandson, and was iniblished by Houghton, 
Blifflin & Co, (BiMtoii) in 1K84. 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




^2_V^«>^iXL^_;J 



STEABire, Onslow, governor of New Hamp- 
slijre, wHsbomatBelleilcfi, MiddtvsexcountT, Ha»B., 

Aug. 80, 1810, Ihe son of John Bleama, and grand- 
sou of Isaac Steams, botb pnisperous farmers. On- 
slow worked on the farm, and attended the dislrict 
BChools and academy uutil 1827, -when he moved lo 
Boston, and accepted a situation as 
^•- "'^ clerk iu the house of Howe & Hol- 

broob. InlSSOho jotnedhisbrotb- 
er, John O. Stearus, in Vir^uin, 
and was engaged In tlie en^neer- 
ing dGpartntvut of constnictinu of 
llieChcaapcalteandOhiocHnal, In 
1833 he formed a partnership with 
liis brother Jobn, and they took 
contracla fur tlie construction of 
various railroads, among tbem the 
naliimore and Ohio raili'oad, the 
Philadelphia and Columbia, the 
*- OemiantowD, the Philadelphia and 
Trenton, and a number of other 
bnporlant lines then being built or 
extended. In I83T ho returned to 
New England, anil became inter- 
"«d in flie cunKtrurtion of vari- 
» rallroadH in the New England 
stales, lie was ajipoiiiled siijier- 
Intendcnt of the Nashua and Lowell railroad in 1838. 
resigning (be position In 184,5 to bei^ome agent of the 
Northern railroad of New Hampshire. In 1844 Mr. 
Btcnrnswas instruiiientul lu securing the passage of 
a bill in the New Hampshire legislatni'e, whereby 
railroad corpomiions wore allowed to secure a right 
of way bv lahiug land for tliat purpose, the state 
paying daniagea caused thereby from the state 
treasury, the niih'oad subsequently repaying the dam- 
ages that the state bad paid for the right of way. 
Mr. Stearns was manager of the Northern railroad 
until 1853. when he became its president, and held 
that position up to Ihe time of his death. The 
Northern railroad and Ihe branch from Franklin to 
Bristol were located and built entirely jjuiier his 
superintendence. Mr, Stearns was connected with 
various other railroads, and was so successful in their 
management and cotistruction that his seri-ices were 
constantly sought by largo railroad corporations. 
He. however, uniformly declined such oners until 
July, 1886, when he accepted the presidency of the 
Old Colonv and Newport railroad in Massachusetts. 
This lie resigned in 1887 tyn account of ill health. 
During this period the Old C^olony and Newport 
railroail and Cape Cod railroad were consolidated 
under the name of the Old Colony and Newport 
company, the Duxbury and Cohassett and South 



and purchased the stock of the Narragansett tSteam- 
boat company, thus establishing, in connection with 
the Olil Colony railiviad. the present Fall River line 
between Boston and New York, In politics Sir. 
Stearns was originally a whig, but afterward be- 
came a republican, and in 1803 was elected by this 
parly to the state senate. I'c-elecied in 1863, and 
chosen president of the senate. In 1864 he was a 
delegate and vice-presideut of the Republican Na- 
tional Convention at Baltimore. He was elected 
Lroveruor of New Hampshire in 1869, and on June 
3d of that year delivered his flrst message to the 
legislature, declining a renomination in 1870 on ac- 
count of ill health, and the pres^iig <lemauds of his 
business. The convention refuseii to accept his 
withdrawal, and Mr. Btearus was re elected by a 
large majority. During his gubernatorial terms he 
gave particular attention to the financial affairs of 
the stjtte, and reforms in the management of the 
state prison. The state debt was reduced nearly 
one-third during that time, while the stale tax was 



reduced more than one-half. The entire manage- 
meat of the state prison was changed by him. The 
result Justified his course, for the prison, which was 
before ill disciplined, expensively managed, and a 
constant charge to the state, soon became well 
managed, and produced a satisfactoiy revenue above 
its expctucs, while the care and condition of its in- 
mates was much improved. Gov, Stearns was the first 
republican governor of New Hampshire who bad 
the hardihood to appoint a democrat lo a position 
on the bench. He was exact in the pcrfonnance of 
his duties as a public ofllcial, as he was in his at- 
tention to his private affairs; nothing escaped his 
notice, and no depaitment of the state but received 
his careful inspection and supervision. His recom- 
mendation to the lejnslature showed the most ac- 
curate knowledge ol^ the affairs of the stale, Mr. 
Steams was oue of the originators and officers of the 
Soldiei's' Aid Society of New Hanipshire, and was 
one of its most nclivc and lilKiral supporters. He 
was marrietl on June 26, 1845, \x> Mary A. Hol- 
brook, daughter of Adin H<ilbroob. of Lowell, Mass. 
He died at Concord. N. H., Dec, 29, 1878. 

8UTB0, Tlieodore, lawyer, was bom at Aix-Is- 
Chapelle. Prussia, March 14, 1845. His father was 
the owner of a larce clolh factory there, and was a 
man of culture an<f literary and musical tastes. He 
died in 1847. His mother was a woman noted for 
her beauty, intelligence and noble character. Yoimg 
Theodore inherited tbe line traits for which his |mr- 
enls were distinguished. He was tbe roimgest of a 
family of eleven children, and came wilh his mother 
to America in 18M, settling at Baltimore, Md. 
He was given a good cduciilion in both English and 
Ocnnau scbisils, and thereafter was successively 
graduated with high honors 
from Baltimore city collejre, 
Phillips Exeter acaiiemj. Har- 
vard college, and Ciilumbia 
college lawtichool. Hewasad- 
mittcd to the New York bar in 
1874, and since then has resid- 
ed In the metrop<ilis. Al- 
tbougii a stranger in the great 
city, his marked ability was - 
recognized, and his practice 
proved remuDcrativo from the 
start. During his early career 
one of bis clients, whose tangled 
business atfolrs lie had success- , 
fully managed, died suddenly 
while traveling in Peru, and 
left Mr. Suiro quite a furlimc 

in recognition of his services, , 

Prom 1875-80 he was at inter- ^ 

vals employed as attorney for 

the Sutro tunnel company, which owned and oper- 
ated the well-known Sutro tiiimel in Nevada, and 
thus acquired considerable experience In special lines 
of practice l>erc)re the departmenls at Washington. 
Fr()m 1880-87 Mr. Sutro practiced uninterruptedly 
in New York city, and during the latter year became 
engaged in the work that has niade his name fa- 
mous. At that time several stockholders of tbe Sutro 
tunnel company consulted him concerning a foie- 
closui  -    - 

where alt chance for saving the property for the 
stockholders seemed hopcle»is. Themanagcmeutwas 
in control of the mortpii^ecs, no attempt had been 
made to establish a defence, all the testimony had 
been closed, and the cose was on the calendar ready 
for final hearing and judgment of sale against the 
company, and there was not a dollar in tbe treasury 
to meet the claim, which amounted to about $3,000,- 
000. The stockholders were ignorant of the value 
of the property and indiiferetit as to its fale. At 




OF AMEBICAN BIOGEAPHT. 15 

tliis critical juncture Mr. Sutro'e services were se- EKOZ, Xobn Jay, flnancier, was bom at Knoz- 

cured, and he waa succesflful In obtaininK control of boro, Oneida county, H. Y., March 19, 1828, son of 

tlie company for the stockholders, forcea Ihc murt- John J. Kuox. who was a prominetit meivliant, bank 

Rgees to make a reduction of about fl, 000,000 president, college tnistee, and hrieadier-genervl of 

>m their claim, raised another million dollitrs, re- militia In western New York, and for nliom Ibe 

orgnnixed tlic company, and, after almost incou- village of Kuuxburo was named. The son was 

ceivable difficulties, placed the property on a paying graduated from Hamilton college in 1849. Among his 

baaia. People had so completely lost faith in min- fellow-stiideDis were Joseph K. Uawley aad Cliarles 

ing ci]tcrpris(«, when his services were first enlisted, Dudley Warner of Hartford, 

tliBl his plans were looked upon as chimerical. Mr. Conn., and Thos. S. Hastings 

8utro, however, persevered, and succeeded agsinst and Emmons Clark of New 

tremendous odds. Hewas greatly aided in hiswork York, He was teller of the 

of raising the $1,000,000 additional capiul by the Bank of Vernon, of which his 

publication of his book. "The Sutro Tunnel Co., father was president, (or two 

And the Sutro Tunnel." This work lias been pro- years, at a salary of flllOO, and 

nounccd a model of literary composition, and the of the Burnet bunk, Syracuse, 

ablest and most iDterestiug report ever written about for four years. He was sub- 

a private business enterpnse. It coniplelcly revolu- sequentty, for a brief period, 

lionized public opinion on the subject of the value cashier of a Ijiank at Bingliam- 

of this great mining tunnel, aud the permanency of ton.N.Y.,and alsoalNorfolk. 

the Comstock gold and silver mines. Mr. Bulro or- Va., and was a private banker 

ganized tlie CoiUMtock tunnel compaoy as a successor at St. Paul for six years pre- 

4>f the Sutro tunnel company, developed a plan vious to 1802. In 1801 and '63 

■whereby he freed the company from all debt, except twocarefully prepared papere, 

a bonded obligation on which no interest is ])ayalile from his pen, were published 

unless earned, and as i>residenl of (bis company has fn Hunt's "Merchant's Mag- 

aucccedetl in paying this interest, besides redeeming azine " of New York, The 

a large number of outstanding bonds and carrying a essay in January. 1862, ad- 

subslantiat cash surplus and a reserve in the treasury vocatcd the estaDlisbment of 

of unsold bonds of the face value of over f 850,000. a National Banking System as recommended by 

His work in connection with this company is consid- Secretary Chase. The National Bank Act was 

ered a marvelous feat in legal and financial manage- passed on Feb. 25, 1668, and the secretary gave him 

ment. While engaged in this herculean task he did an appointment, and from 1866 to 18T3 he had 

Dot neglect his general legal business, and as pari- charge of the Mtut and (.'oinn^ Correspondence of 

ner of the firm of Salomon, Dulon & Sniro. has a the Treasury Department. His report upon the 

large clientage among tlie foremost German-Ameri- Mint Service in San Francisco, was published with 




bankers, and financial institutions and corpora- tlie Financinl liepon of 1H66, aud with a comnli- 
tions. as well as acting as counsel for Ihe Oerroan menlary paragraph by Secretary MtCulloch. The 
and Austrian govemraenis. He is a member of the same year he made an examination of the Mint at 
prominent clubs and charitable and benevolent or- New Orleans, and diseoveredadefalcAtionofll, 100- 
ganizations. Notwithstanding hli many affairs, he 000. in the ofUce of the treasurer of the Mint, the 
Das also found time to become a cultivated musician, largest defalcnllou in the history of the government, 
and to indulge his taste for poetry and literary work. On Apr. 85. 1870, Secretaiy Boutwcll trsusmitle«] to 
Hr. Sutro. on Oct. 1, 1884. married Florence Edith congress a bill prepared by Mr. Knox, who was then 
Clinton, a beautiful and charming young lady who deputy comptroller of the currency, codifying the 
ahares her husband's tastes and talents. Slie was Mint and Coinage Laws of the United States. This 
graduated from the women's law class of the Uni. bill, which discontinued the coinage of the silver dol- 
Tetslty of the city of New York in 1891, being the lar, was accompanied by an elaborate report which 
valadictorian of the class. This class was the first was followed by another report of June 2'>. 1870, of 
of its kind it) the world. Mrs. Sutro is also recog- 100 printed pages, both of which were printed by 
nized as one of the finest amateur pianists in the order of congress, and contained the views of the 
country, and is an artist whose work has been ac- principal mint officers, and of well-known scientific 
cepted and exhibited In the National academy of experts upon the various provisions of the bill, 
d^gu. Mr. and Mis, Sutro are very popular in This bill was subsequently pissed with a few amend- 
metropotilan society, and together enjoy the same ments. and Is known as tlie "Coinage Act of 1878." 
amusements, sports and recreations, and whether at An amendmend to the Act, in recoguitii'n of the 
■workonprohlemsof law, in actsof benevolence, or en- services of the author, made the comptroller of the 
Joying the highest attainments of art, music or litera- currency a member cx-offlcio of the Assay Commis- 
ture, th^ find a common companionship. The New sion, which meets annually at the Mint in Philadel- 
York "Mail aud Express, "in an extended article out- phla, tor the purpose of testing the weight and flue- 
lining his financial, professional and social life, said: ness of the coinage of the year. A rapid fall of 
"A distinguished- looking man. with a thoughtful, in- silver followed, and this Act, from that date until the 
telleclual face, hair prematurely blanched to snowy pansagcoftheact authorizing the purchase of 4.500,- 
'whitcnesB, and dark moustache, and a pair of keen, 000 ounces of silver on July 16, 1890, has been Ihe 

Siercing. flery eyes, is frequently encountered in the subject of more prolonged and acrimonious discus 
rawing-rooms of New York. This is Mr. Theodore sion than any financial act ever passed by congress 
Sutro. a graduate of Hai-vard university in 1871, and The original report gave the reason for 1 he discon- 
forsomeyearspast eminent in his profciiionasa mem- linuancc of the coinage of the silver dollar, and the 
bcr of the nldcst German law firm in this city, Mr. section of the bill containing that provision was dia 
Rudolph Dulon, brother-in-law of Gen. Siegel, and cussed by various exiwrts in the second report, and 
the ex-war governor of Wisconsin, are his t>artners. the [laragraphs refemnj; lo that subject were print- 
Mr. Sutro is attorney for the German eonsnlate, oud edwilh headings in capital letters, so that the charge 
also att«nds to the legal busincssof theAuKtriancon- so often made that there was some attem))! at con- 
sulate. HisfirmarethelcgaladvUersof theGermania cealmcnt of [his feature of the bill are conclusively 
savings bank and the Germania life insurance com- answered by the public documents which accom- 
pany. M r. Sutro Is de voted tomusic, and is the possess- panied the bill, as well as by the discussions in Con- 
or of a fine voice." gress. Mr. Knox served asdeputy comptroller from 



16 



THE NATIONAL OYCLOi'iBDIA 



1887 to 1872; five years aa comptroller of the cur- 
rency, from 1872 to 1877, appomied by President 
GrsQt, and Ave yeare Becond term, from 1877 to 1882, 
appointed by President Hayes. He was again ap- 
pointed by President Arthur In 1882, and resigned 
on May 1, 1884, to accept the preaidency of the 
National Bank of the liepublic in New York city. 
He hod a conthiuous service of seventeen years in 
the conipt roller's ofOce, and nearly twenty-two years 
in the treasury, and at tbe time of his resicnatioa 
was the oldest officer in term of service in that de- 
parttnenl. He took an active part in 1878 by the 
direction of Secretary Slierman, in perfecting the 
arrangement which first made the assislnnt treasurer 
in New York a member of the Clearing House, and 
in negotiating the Kale of $50,000,000 of four and a 
half i>cr cent, bonds, which was the first of a series 
of brilliant financial transaclions, preceding and 
following the gi-eat act of resumption of specie pay- 
ments on Jan. I, 1870. His twelve annual re- 
jHnts are a standard authority on the Snaucial ques- 
tions which were discussed during and immediately 
following the civil war. He has made various ad- 
dresses upOTi financial qiiesttous before the Chamber 
of Commerce In New York, and similar bodies in 
Boslon. Qaltimore, Pittsburg, Chicago, and before 
the American Bankers' associntiou, and the students 
of Yale, Harvard, and Johns Hopkins univer- 
sitieB. He has contiibuted to encyclopedias and 
magazines, and is the author of a monograph upon 
'■ Lniled States Notes; or a History of the Vari^ous 
Issnes of Paper Money by the Government of the 
United SUles." (Scribner, lliird edili<ra, 1887) which 
has been republished in London, On January 16. 
1800, he made an elaborate argument of twenty 
printed jiagcs before tlie Committee on Banking and 
Currency of the house of representatives for a " per- 
manent national bank circulation " based in part 
upon gold and silver coin and bullion, and upon a 
safety fund of from |20,000,000 1o $30,000,000, to 
accumulate from the semi-annual tax now levied 
upon the circulating notes of banks — thus secuiing 
the circulation without the use of United States 
bonds, and relieving the govemmeni from the pur- 
chase of such large amounts of silver bullion, as was 
afterward authorized under the act of July 14, 1860. 
Mr. Knox was a memlrer of the Union League, Cen- 
tury and University clubs. He died at his home iti 
New York city Feb. 8, 1893. 

HOE, Sobert, mechanical engineer and manu- 
faclurer of printing machinery, head of the firm of 
R, Hoe & Co., of New York and London, was bom 
in New York city March 10, 
- 1839, son of Roliert Hoe, and 

grandson o( Robert Hoe, of the 
Hamlei of Hoes, Ijcicestershire, 
Eng., who came lo New York 
in 1803 and conimeiiccd the 
manufacture of prlntingpresses, 
constructing and introducing 
into America the first iron and 
steel machines — the wooden 
plates and screw presses l>Hiig 
then till! only ones in use. Tlie 
faniily w of Saxou origin (the 
'. name "Hoe" being tint Anglo- 
 Saxou for ■■High '"^or -Hill"). 
On the mother's side, Mr. Hoe 
comes from Puritan slock. He 
bait btion idenrilied during Ibe 
last thirty years with Ihe pro- 
gress of tlie art of printing, and, 
Hsin tlie CAse of Ills pre<lecessorH 
s, spares neither cITort nor ex])ense to 
autly incrcuKing requirements of tlie 
piiiiter in all departments uf the art. With his part- 
ners, he has greatly enlarged what were ali'eady con- 




in the business, s 



aldeied ver^r extensive woriis. Those fronting on 
Grand, SherifT, Broume and Columbia streets. New 
York, have fioor-room equivalent lo five acres, and 
a plant of the highest onier. Tlie London 



ougb Road, and are being rapidly increased to meet 
the demands of Great Bnlain and the colonies. Fif- 
teen hundred skilled workmen are employed. The 
apprentices, avcmging 2O0 in number, are, in addition 
to regular mechanical training, instructed in the firm's 
night and day schools. Tlie "Hoe" machines are 
now in all the principal printing-offices of the United 
Slates, England. Scotland, Ireland, Australia and 
New York. Mr. Hoe has alwavs resided in New 
York, and identified himself with its intei'esla and 
prosperity. He has been actively interested in insii- 
luliuns and all matter? relating to the promotion of 
literature and the fine arts; was one of the foiinden 
of the Metrojiolitan Museum of Arts, and of the In- 
dustrial Art Schools connected with that institution. 
He has collected and possesses one of Ihe finest pri- 
vate libraries in the United Stales. Mr. Hoe conducts 
a model slock farm in Westchester counly.where he 
has his summer residence, and his choice herd is l>cing 
continually improved by the Importation of the finest 
examples of thoroughbred dairy stock from England 
and the Channel Islands. The prn<iuct of bis dairy 
is often exhibited at the country fairs and elicits the 
praise of connoisseurs, as well as the wonder of the 
count IT people. 

SWINQ, David, clergyman, was bom at Ctn- 
cinnali, 0., Aug. 23, 18:W. He lost his father at an 
early age. Until his eighteenth 
year he did the ordinarj- work 
of a boy on a farm during the 
summer, and attended school 
in the winter. At that age ho 
was prepared to enler Miami 
(O.) university, and was grad- 
uated there in 18,'>2. While he 
was studying theology, he act- 
ed us principal of the classical 
Sammar school of his Alma 
irter, and subsequently taught 
Latin and Greek there, preach- 



the Wcslmliislcr Presbyterian 
church in Chicago, III. The 
church edifice was destroyed 
in the great fire of 1871, but liis 
parishioners hired McVIckar's 
theatre in the same ciiy, and he pi'eaclicd in it until 
1874. when a new church building, the lar^t in 
Chicago, was built to accommodate his audiences. 
For some years after his settlement in Chicago he 
was looked upon as an independent thinker, but not 
as holding any views that would justify a charge of 
unsoundness m doctrine. In May, 1874, however, 
lie was arraigned liefore the Chicago Presbylery on 
the ground of heresy, with thirty s[>eciHcjitions on 
complniniof Rev. Francis L. Patton. He defended 
himselfwilhabllilyandeloquence.audwasiicijuilled, 
but. as the pnisecutitm ap])CHled llie case lo Synod, 
thus threatening bim willi further annoyance. Dr. 
Swing withdrew from tlie denomlnallon nud con- 
tinuetl Ills work asan independent minister. Il may 
be added Hint allhoiigh many of his former co- 
laborers in the Presbyterian chureh could uot give 
unqualified assent to Iiis theological views, tliey have 
continued toa<lmire,wtthoutsiiut, his zeal, bis ability 
as atliinkCT, and abovcall. the lieauty of hie personal 
character. He has published "Sermons" (Clilcsgo, 
1874); "Tnilhs for To-l)ay" (1874-78); "Motives 
of Lite" (187B); "Club Essays" (1881), and "Ser- 
mons" (IHW). 




7 N. 



Astor, Lrr..x ; 'd Ti.."cn 

n r 1 : : 







//^2U«U-jl^;zJ^ X-.^-«>«^^^ 



/T 



i 



OF AMERICAN BIOORAPHT. 



17 



r^ 




ZBYIH'O, Waabiagton, autbor, called "The 
Father of AmericaD Literalure," was bum In New 
York city Apr. 3, 1788. the bod of William Irving, 
 DatJTeof theOrknejlBlauds, and of Sarah Sanders, 
bis wife. William Irving vita a senfaiin^ man, who 
for a time had emptoyiDeut upon a Bntiiih vessel 
ruDDioK between Falmouth and New York, and 
married hia wife at the former port In 1761. Two 

?'ars later he settled ia New 
ork.wilh which ctiy he had 
become acquainted during his 
several voyages thereto, and 
started in business for him- 
self, as is staled, in William 
street, near Fulton. Hei'e 
were bom to these two, eleven 
children, of whom Washing. 
ton Irvine was the youngest. 
During the revolution, tlis 
family suffered from the trou- 
bles coQsequeut to such a 
conditiou. and at one time 
, were ohliired to flee to New 
Jersey, where they lived for a 
while, retummg to New York 
afterward, and residing io a 
comfortable old house with 
J'-rvtA.^^ many gables, not far from 
' -^ John street. It is said that. 
In his youth, young Wasb- 
loj^n made use of every opporlunliy he could ob- 
tain to attend the theatre of the town, altliougb 
this course was frowned upon by his father, who 
was a deacon in the church, and a severe disciplin- 
arian. The boy's first schooliog was obtained in 
Ann street, at a dame school, fnim which lie went 
to Fulton street, and atl4.'uded a school kept by an 
old revolutiouary soldier. Al this time Chambers 
street formed the upper frontier of the settled part 
of liie town, beyond which were meadows and farms. 
The lad continued at school until he was sixteen, 
acquiring the English brnnclics, a little Latin and 
less music, and such skill at dancing as he could pick 
up here and there. He was a voracious rea<U-r of 
the " Arabian Nights," " Gull I vet's Travels." " Rob- 
inson Crusoe," and such other works of fiction as 
afterward became classics. Altliojtgh two of hfa 
elder brotbeTswentthrough Columbia college, young 
Wa'ihington did nut have the advantage of an uni- 
versity education. He entered a law office at an 
early age, but does not seem to have devoted bim- 
aelf very strenuously to legal study, as he was occa- 
eionnlly able to take a trip up the Hudson, and de- 
Totei) much of his leisure time to original writing. 
He wn)le for the "Morning Chronicle," under the 
pseudonym of "Jonathan Oldstjlc." In 1804. his 
health requiring an absolute cti'an^ of scene, his 
elder brother, William, furnished hiin with the nec- 
essary means for a visit to Euro))e. He was supplied 
with all the requisite lettera of introduction, and 
visited France and Italy, having the good fortune to 
see the flftet of Lord Nelson at Me<»iiia. just before 
its start for the memorable Hght off Trafalgar. At 
Rome he was favored in niaKing the acquaintance 
of Washington Aliston. the great American artist. 
He visited Paris, remaining there for some months, 
and witnessing the impersonations of the great 
Talma. He had a run through Holland, and llicn 
a brief stay in London, where lie saw Mrs, Siddons. 
Mr. Irving returned to New York in 1808. when it 
would appear that his literary taste and capacity bad 
begun to gain a strong hold ujton him. Uniting 
him.self with his friend, James K. Paulding, and with 
his brother William, he began the publication of a 
periodical, which was designed to follow In Its style 
and intent Addison's "Spectator." The venture 
had only a short-lived existence, however. It con- 
III. —3. 



eisted of a series of genial and humorous essays, 
framed after the faslilon of the eighteenth century, 
but fail^ to catch the public taste. Mr. Irving now 
entered again upon the practice of law, but without 
any special interest. Possibly this may have been 
due in some degree to the fact that at this time he 
formed an attachment for Matilda Hoffman, daugh- 
ter of Judge Hoffman, with whom he studied law, 
and who was, moreover, his friend as well as his 
legal instructor. The death of this young lady, who 
was accomplished, gentle, and b^utiful. affected 
Hr. Irviiigs wliole life. In fact, his heart was 
buried in tlie tomb with Matilda Hoffman in Trinity 
churchyard. He never loved again, and mourned 
for his lost idol ever after. Mr. Irving was at this 
time engaged in writing the work which perhaps 
moi-e than all others was destined to immortalize 
him, Thiswas "TheHistoryof New York.by Die- 
drich Knickerliocker." After be had partially re- 
covered from the sad blow of the loss of Ins twlrotbcd. 
be returned lo bis work upon this book, aud com- 
pleted it for publication in 1809, It had an imme- 
diate and remarkable success, an<i at once placed him 
in rank with the best writers of his day. It Is said 
tliat he received for it the sum of $3,000, which at 
that time was considennl a very large amount to ob- 
tain from a literary venture. After tiiis he still in- 
terestevl himself to a certain limitod degree in law 
practice, until 1810, when his brothers, Peter and 
Elienezer, having established a commercial business 
witli a branch in London, he obtained a one-fifth 
interest in the house, and for several years was en- 
gageii in inercaollle transactions, which reluraeii lo 
him a fair income. During the next three or four 
years be wrote brief sketclies and essays, some of 
which appeared in the "Analectic Magazine," pub- 
lishml In Philadelphia. In 1816 be visited Europe 
again, wbere he met llie brilliant lights in literature 
and the drama, making the acquaintance of Camp- 




^^■i^-^,r-. 



bell, Disraeli, and Scott, and for the flnit time ex- 
periencing the joys of a literary reputntion In a great 
literaiy centre, Mr, Irving remained abroad until 
1813, when the firni conducted by his brothers imd 
himself unfortunately went Into bankniptcv. He 
was at once offered a position in the navy depart- 
ment In Washlnglon, which, however, he declined, 
preferring to devote himself to aulhorsiiip. [le was 
already enpiged on the "Sketch Bcsik." which ap- 
peared in numbers, and at once established ilself in 
the favor both of his American and bis English 
readai's. In 1820 thecomplelod book was published 
in London by John Murray, as were also "Brace- 
bridge Hall, and the "Taleaof a Traveller," which 
appeared between 1823 and 1824. Mr. Irving re- 
ceived for these three works from his Lcmdim pub- 
lisher, about $15,000, which was a considerable sum 



18 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPiEDIA 



for tbe time, and which made his life flQanciallf 
easy. Id the meantime Mr. Irviug lived fur a time 
in Paris, and aflenvanl in Madrid, where Alexander 
H. Everett, wIiq was then U. S. uiinisler to Spain, 
appointed liiiu an allaclie of the lecatiun. Wtiiic iu 
Spain he began Ills "Life of Columbus," which grew 
out of some studies which he meide at that time of 
tbe works of Spanish writers on the subject of the 
Toyaees of the American explorer. The book was 
completed u three volumes, and published in ItJ28 



■iiJ>»':^ 






ii} 



Jointly by Murray, In London, and by a publisher 
ID New York, netting for Mr. Irving the sum of 
$18,000. Other results of bis stay In Spain were his 
"Conquest of Qranoda," which appeared in 1839, 
and bis charming " Tales of the Alhambrn." whicli 
was published in 1832. This lust is one of the most 

E leasing of all of Irring's works. It is full of the 
[norisU atmo«pliere, a fact eK|)eciAlly due to the 
singular good fuitiiuc which Mr. Irvin;; enjoyed of 
actually retudin.cc within the precincts of the Xlham- 
bra, through the peruilssiou of the gi>vemor. In 
1839, while still a rewdent of Madnd, Irving re- 
ceived the appointment of secretary of legation at the 
court of St. James. Tie left Spain, having accepted 
tbe place, and settled In Loudon, where he remamed 
three years. In 1831 he received the lionorarv 
degree of LL.D. from the University of Oxford. 
In i 833 he returned to America, after seventeen years 
of absence. He was received by his fellow-eiliiteus 
in the wannest manner, a public dinner being given 
to him and all possible hospitality being exteDOcd to 
him on the part of tlie admirers of bis works. He 
now purchasctl. near Tarrylown, the property which 
haa ever since been known as "Sunnyside," altering 
and rebuilding the stone cottage on tbe estate to its 
present condition. He remained there, however, for 
only a brief period at that lime, having become inter- 
ested, through his acquaintance with John Jacob 
Airtor, in the lutlcr's investments in fur tniding, and 
the establishment of tbepost at Astoria. He traveled 
West, and wrote his "Tour on the PndrieB," which 
was published in 1835. His " Astoria " was pub- 
lished in the following year, and with regard to this 
it is said Ihnt be refused to receive from Mr. Astor 
any sum of money for his work in having compiled 
the volume, which was of course greatly" in the In- 
terest of tbe Astor enterprises. When Mr. Astor 
died, be appointed Wnxhington Irving one of his 
executors, and in that wav, it is said, repaid to the 
latter tbe debt which he felt be owed him, as Mr. 
Irving'a fee for acting in the camcity of executor ex- 
ceeded any sum which be bail received for any of 
bis works excepting bis "Life of Columbus." In 
183T Mr. Irving published his " Adventures of Cap- 
tain Bonneville." He had also eulertained for a 
time the Intention of writing a history of Mexico, 
hut he gave thia up on learning that William H. 
Prescott had adopted that theme for his own work. 



For a lime he was associated editorially with the 
"Knickerbocker Magazine," to which publication 
he contributed papers, which were afterward col- 
lected and published in book form under the title, 
"Wolfert's Hoosl." In 1843 Mr. Irving was ap- 

Eoiuted by President Tyler minister to Spain, an 
onor which he accepted, and for the next four 
years be resided in Madrid. During this period be 
was inactive in a literary way, although he had al- 
ready formed the design of writing a nfe of Wash- 
ington. In 1846 he relumed to America, and settled 
down at "Sunnyside," where, during the next two 
or three ^ears, he was engaged in ]>re]>arinK a uni- 
fom) edition of all his works, which was published 
by George P, Putnam, in liftecn volumes, between 
1848 and 1850. Mr. Irving then issued bis " Life of 
Mahoniel and his Successors," and his "Life of 
OolJsiniih." the last being iu all res|)ects one of the 
most delightful biograjihies ever published. It was 
about IBaSwhen Mr. Irving began to work seriously 
toward bis "Life of Washington." It was not, 
however, until 185,'), that the tim volume appeared, 
and it took from then until 18-59 for the five volumes 
to be completed. His "Life of Washington" did 
not docrdlit to Mr. Irving's power and judgment aa 
a hietoiian, or to his skill an<l elegance as a writer. 
He was past the allotted period of life, threescore 
and ten, when he began it, and it dragged from the 
beginning. While there were brilliant passages, 
picturraque descriptions of battles, and philosophical 
dediictiou.s. IbeetTccl of the whole work was unsatis- 
factory. I'his was 3Ir. Irviug's last effort in a liter- 
ary direction. He devoted the remainder of his life 
to exlendi[ig a liberal hospitality to his friends in hia 
beautiful home at "Sunnyside." while at the same 
time paying proi)er aiteuiion to all the duties which 
devolved up4in him as the paternal head of American 
liiemiure. He was an honorary member of a num- 
ber of literary societies, and president of the board 
of trustees of the Asioi- library, where much of bis 
work on the "Life of Washington" was done. An 
interesting occasion, during one of Mr. Irviug's later 
visits to Europe, occurred in London in 1843, when 
he was present at the Literary Fund In that city, 
which on tius occasion was presided over by Prince 
Albert. Among those present were Hallam and 
Lord Mahon, representing tbe historians: Campbell 
and Moore for poets; Sergeant Talfourd for the 
dramatists and the bar; G. P. R. Jamea for the nov- 
elists, with Edward Everett present as American 




minister. Mr. Irvingwas toasted, and bis speech in 
resp()nse numbered exactly nine words. In 1845 
Mr. Irving again made a short visit to London from 
his post at Madrid, when he met 8. C. Hall, Will- 
iam Howitt, Dr. Beatiie, and other of the prominent 
litcmiy lights of the day. In 1806 Mr. Irving's 
"Life and Letters," edited by his nephew. Pierre 
Monroe Irving, were tiublished, and his works, it la 
said, have been sold since bis deaUi at tbe rale 
of 30.000 volumes a year. During his lifetime 600,- 
000 Tolumes of his works were sold in the United 
States. Public respect has been shown to the mem- 



paint 
in 18< 



OP AUBBICAN BIOGRAPHT. 19 

017 of Ur. Trring by pladag bis buBt In Central BTOCKHAH, Charlea, wbo bas filled an ioi- 
Park. New York, and in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, portant position in tbi: lumber and genenl buaiueea 
Numerous portraits of him exist, from the one interests of Camden, N, J., was bom near Bristol, 
ainted of him b; the celebmted John VanderlTu Fa., in 1830. His grandfatlier, George Stockliatn, a 
1 1803, to that bv Charles Martin in 1851. A bust native of Bristol. Eng., came lu America in ITSG, 
of him by Ball Hughes exists at "Suniiyside." A and settled ou Penu's Manor near Philadelphia. 
Washington Irving a.s»ociation was formed at Tany- Going back to England the next year, he was mar- 
town, N7y.. near  Sunnyaide,"in 1S88, which com- ried to Elizabeth Biss, of his nalive town. In 1767 
memomted in that year the hundredth annivereary be returned 10 Pennsylvania 'niiU bis wife, and fol- 
of the author's birth. On that occasion flags were lowed the occupation of afarmer. He serred in Ibe 
displayed in Tarrytown, a few visitors went to revolutionary war in 1781 with Capt. Ilobt. Palter- 
"Sunnyside," and passed through tlic rooms which son's com|)Bny, 2d redment of font, in the service of 
were su long occupied by the gresit author, and in tiie United Slates. He died at the age of eighty- 
the evening memorial services were Jield in the four years. John, the youngest of his three sons. 
Second Reformed church of the town. In bi« letter married Alice Smith of Burlington, N. J., in 1816. 
of regret sent ou this occasion, the poet, John Q. KemovedtoIIarfonI county, Hd., where bebccnmea 
Whitiier, wrote: " It has long been a matter of re- successful farmer, owniug and ciiliivaling a targe 
gret that, while he was living, I did not feel myself tract of land, divide<l into three farms, and which are 
warranted in seeking the aequaiulaqce of one upon still held by the family. TheirtoursonswercGeorge, 
whom I could have no either claim than that of a a prominent lumber merchant of Pbilndelplita, and 
sincere admirer. Our literature has assume<t large member of the Pennsylvania State Hisloiical society, 
proportious since ho laid aside his pen, but his writ- Tliomas, a farmer of Maryland, John and ('barles, 
mgs have lost none of their attraction, aM<l tlic veil lumber dealers of Camden. Charles Stuckhnm was 
of romance which he has thrown over the Highlands four years old when bis parents moved to Maryland, 
of the Hudson still lingers there, and Crow's Nest where be attended the schools nnir bis home until 
and Dunderhurg will always loom through it." Mr. the age of eighteen years. In 1888 he went to live 
Charles Dudley Warner, speaking on this occasion, with his brother (George, 
ffave utterance, in the peroration of his address, to then in Ihe lumber busi- 
uiis beautiful expression of his idea of the author of ness in Philadelphia. He 
Knickerbocker's history: "It was Irving, not Hud- attended a Friends' school 
SOD, Who truly discovered this river and gave it to in that city for a time, and 
ns. The early navigators used to get aground in it. then becanie a saletman for 
Irving made it a highway of imagiuatiun. Travel- his brother. In 1856 heen- 
ers, who have never left their flre>ude. voyage up gaged in the lumber busi- 
&nd down on it. In the Indian summer thesii shores ness in Camden as a part- 
are golden, these hills are puiple, awl the stream ner with his brother John, 
flows on as in a dream. In all seasons, to all the For Iwenty-six years they 
world, this region wears the hues of romance that had an extensive trade In 
Irving gave it. His spirit abides here. Here is his selling large orders of wbite- 
wild cottage. Here is his grave." Irving said him- oak lumber to various ship- 
self of his work, or rather of its intention; " If, bow- builders in tbe large cities 
ever, I can by lucky chance, in these days of evil, along the coast of Maine, 
mb out one wrinkle from tbe brow of care, or l>e- HassachusettsandNewJer- 
eiiile the heavy heart of one moment of sadness; if sev. They purchased ves- 
I can, now .ind then, penetrate the gathering film of sels upon which entire car- 
misanthropy, prompt a benevolent view of human goes of lumber were sent 

nature, and make my reader more in good humor to the New England coast and elsewhere. The 
with his fellow-beings and himself, surely, surely, I pine lumber which they manufactured at their Cam- 
sball not then have written entirely in vain." In aen Mills, and supplied to tbe trade, was largely 
person. Mr. Irving, in the height of his powers, and obtained from the lumber regions of northern and 
in ripe age, was a man of about medium size, rather central Pennsylvania, and floated down the Susqiie- 
stoutly built, with a tendency to carry bis head a hatma In rafts to the bead of tide water at Port T)e- 
little on one side — a peculianly which has been ob- posit, Md., for half a century or more a great dis- 
served by artists who have mode p<irtrai(s of him. tributing point. Here the Stockhams pui'chased 
His nature was genial, kindly and affectionate. He rafts, se~parate<l them In parts, and brought them 
bad a moat pleasant manner of spiiech, which was through the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal up the 
giHced with llights of beautiful humor on the slight- Delaware to their mills at Camden, The Brm of J. 
eat suggestion of an opportunity. While not what & C. Stockham continued until 1882, when Charles 
would be termed a diligent or industrious literary Stockham purchased llie entire interest, and con- 
worker, he was thoroughly conscientious in the prep- tinned the business, increasing its vohmie and man- 
aration which he ma^^e for any of bis works that aging its complicated affairs. He bas been identified 
lequired atu<^ and reseai-ch. It is, therefore, a fact with the growth and development of ('amdeu, and 
iiiat hia " Life of Columbus " is quite the best stand- has long &en a director in the Flrat National hank. 
ard authority on the subject. And his " Life of He is a man of plain, imassuming manners, careful 
Washington." although faulty in some respects, is and judicious in all bis business relations, and high- 
nevertheless a much more satisfactory literary struct- 1y esteemed In h^ community. During tbe war be 
nre than either the work of Spark's or of that of Ormly supported the government ; aiid although 
Harshall. But, of course, Irving s literary reputation never cal leu upon to bear arms, he threw bis whole 
rests now, and will hereafter rest, not on his histori- moral and financial support in aid of bis coimtry's 
cal works, but on those charming, genial, teniter and flag. Through his native energy aud Individual B^ 

Bthetic writings, his "Knickerbocker's History," tentiontothe lntere«ils of bis business he bas bad a 

1 ■' Sketch-Book," " Bracebrirtge Hall," and " Life prosperous and succesxrul career in life. Mr. Stock- 

of Goldsmith." Mr. Irving died at "Siinnyslde" ham was married in 18.58 to Mair. Humes Tomb, a 

Nov. 38, 1659, and was buried ou Dec. 1st following. dcKcendant of a prominent Eiiglish family, of wbicb 

The grief over his death was general and sincere, nut tbe late Gen. Roliert Toombs, of Georgia and Jacob 

only m the village, where the shops were closed and Tome of Marvland,with slight changes in the name, 

draped in mour^ng, but throughout the country. are representatives. 




20 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



BIQELOW, Ersstus Bri^ham, was bom in 
West Boyleston, Mass., Apr. 2, 1B14. His father, 
Epbraim Bigelow, wag a farmer in West Boyleston 
who wicb difficulty earned enougb from bis farm to 
live upon, sail who made chaiis and worlied as a 
wheelwright in winter to eke out his scanty re- 
sourcca. Besides Erastua, be bad another son. bom 
alMUl a vear aud ahalf earlier, Horatio Nelson Bige- 
low. The two Ixiya attended the district school 
when there was anj, and lielped tbcir parents on 
the farm or in the shop at other 
times. In tlie mean time ilie 
father established a collou fnc- 
tory, and Horatio became the 




£-,^^*f't^:y? 



of a student, the tendency of 
his uiiud being particularly 
toward music. He became 

EroBcient on the violin and in 
Lter years both uf the brothers 
played in an orchestra. Eras- 
tu3 had to go to work in a cot- 
ton mill as soon as he was old 
^ nough, but, although he en- 
joyed studying macbinery, he 
did not like tlie labor. Desir- 
ing more schooling tlinn he 
had obtained, it was his habit 
to play the violia at dancing 
parties In order to earn the 
necessary funds. While alill 
a boy, he invented a baud loom for weaving sus- 
pender webbing, aud another for piping cord, from 
which he realized u little money. By 1830 be had 
BBve<l enough to enable him to enter Leicestor 
academy. He studied Latin and sliowed such prog- 
ress that his teacher rccimimcndeil a college course. 
But his father did uoi favor the idea and when 
the boy's means were cNhnustcd he had to go to 
work again. He would not return to the mill, 
however, but went into the dry-goods store of S. F. 
Mor^& Co., of Boston. He there became in lerestod 
in stenography and without any teacher, mastered 
the sublet. He publisbetl a small work, the " Self- 
taught Sleuographer,"and na it met with ready sale, 
he liiight have made some money out of It, but be 
took a partner and started In business with the result 
that he found himself heavily in debt. He then be- 
gau the manufacture of twine, and afterward estnb- 
bshed a cotton factory in Warebnm. Removing to 
New York, he studied penman^ihip and taught writ- 
ing for a few months, after which he began the study 
of medicine. His nlleulion was directw toward the 
manufacture of Marseilles quills and he invented a 
power loom which successfully wovo knotted coun- 
terpanes. A Boston bouse took the invention with 
an under'tanding that the inventor should receive 
oue-quarler of the profits, but the firm became in- 
solvent, aud again be was disappointed. He also 
invciit^^ a loom for weaving coach lare by power. 
Uniting with him his brollier, he tiHik a mill at 
Leicester; a coni|iany was formed and named the 
Clinton company, aud aa the calAbliahmcnt grew, 
the place became Cliutouvilletinil Anally the town of 
Clinton. This was in IIMI. The business done pre- 



100,000 quilts per annum, woilh );1.'>0,0<IO. In the 
meantime the coacli lace loom suggested to Mr. 
Bigelow the carjiet loom. In 1839 he Invented a 
power loom tor weaving two-ply Ingraiu carpets 
■whose ]u-oduclion was fifty per cent, more than the 
hand loom usc<l at that time. In 1845 he made his 
first application of the invention to the weaving of 
Jacquard Brussels carpets at Lowell. The patent 
was taken out in England in March. 1846, but not In 
the United States until later. In 1851 the loom had 



been brought to such perfection that the jury in the 
Crystal Palace exhibition in London declared his 
Brussels carpeting belter and more perfectly woven 
than any hand loom goods that had come tmder Its 
notice. Over fifty patents were taken out by Mr. 
Bigelow. Including inventions for weaving coach 
lace, counterpanes, ingralncarpetlug, ginghams, and 
other plsids, Brussels and Wilton carpeting, tapes- 
try carpeting, silk brocatel, and wire cloth. Mr. 
Bigelow WHS as skilled as an organizer as he was in 
his capacity for Invention. He constructed the in- 
dustriea at Clintonville aud Lowell connected with 
his inventions, and was one of the founders and or- 
ganizers of the National association of wool manu- 
facturers, of which he was also the first president. 
Later in his life he made a study of the tariff ques* 
tion and taxation In general, puhlisbing many im- 
portant articles on Ihe question, claiming that 
" There Is no pijnciple of universal application in- 
volved either m free trade or protection; they are 
questions of policy." He believed that protection 
was essential in tbts country and would be until the 
coat of labor, taxation, and capital should become 
nearly the same in Europe and America. Mr, Bige- 
low was a republican, but meddled' very little in 
politics. He was twice married; his first wife, Susan ' 
W. King, died in 1841; his second wife, Eliza 
Frances Means, was a daiigbier of Col. David 
Means of Amherst, N. H. Tney bad one child, a 
daughter, who afterward became the wife ot Rev. 
Dr. Daniel Merriman, pastor of the second Congre- 
gational church in Woivesler, Mass. About ten 
years before his death. Mr. Bigelow bought an estate 
at Norib Conway, N, H.,to which he gave the name 
ot Sioncburst. There hedelighted himself by forming 
a system of Irrigation, raising the waters of the Saco 
river to his estate through the power furnished by 
tbeir own descent. He (lied In Boston Dec. 6, 18Ttt. 
KBAUSEOPF, Joaeph, rabbi, lecturer, and 
author, was bom in Ostrowo. Prussia, Jan. 21. 1858. 
He received his elcmeutaiy education In Hebrew, 
religion, and secular branches, in the schools of his 
native place. When he was fourteen, he obeyed the 
call of one of Ilia brolhera. who bad established him- 
self in the United SlAU-a; 
and. leaving the parental 
roof, began his career in the 
new woi'ld (I8T2), at Fall 
River, Mass.. aa a clerk iu a 
tea-slurc. Business, how- 
ever, was not to his taste. 
He longed to studv, and 
even while clerking devoted 
every spare iwnny to books 
and spent every leisure hour 
with cultured associates. 
Mrs. M. B. Slade of Fall 
liiver, one of New Eng- ..--^ 
land's literary women, rec- ' 
ogulzed the natural abilities 
oftheyoung man.and resolv- 
ed that bi.'ttalentssbould not 
be buried in the oliscurity 
of the career to which fate 
seemed to have assigned 
him. Her efforts secured 
for her protrgc admittance 
Into the Hebrew Union college In Cincinnati, Oclo- 
l>er. 187.1. While sliulying diligently, bolii at this 
college and at the University of Cincitinsti, young 
Krauskupf was obligisl (o earn bis living by irksome 
lnl)ors as a tutor. While yet a student he contrib- 
uted articles to journals, and also published, with the 
assistance of a fellow-student, H. Berkowilz, the 
first and second Hebrew Readers, and "Bible 
Ethics," which are now widciv introduced as text- 
books In Jewish Sabbath -sell oola. He was graduated 




OF AMERICAN BIOOBAPHT. 21 

Itoto the lulvendtf ^th full degreea fn 1883. and tbeiatic bymns by Cbrietlan writers have beeu incor- 

tbe same year, also, as rabbi from Uie Hebrew Uniun porated. Dr. Knuskopf ekerdves more ihan a local 

college. Two years later the faculty of the Hebrew influeoce. The cause of reform, of which he ia the 

Union college conf srred upon him iLe decree of doc- foremost champion in Apierica, Is raiiidly spreading, 

tor of divinity, whicb was the first D. D. degree con- and must eventually have a vast inSuence upon mod- 

ierred by that institution upon an alumnus, and for ern Judaism. The rabbi is gifted with a Oae. physique 

tbe first tijne by a Jewish seminary In tlie United and a atroue constitutioo. He has earned his success 

States. Some lime before his graduation, the young through indondtahle energy, natural abilities, and 

rabbi received a call to the pulpit of iLe B'uai Ye- great moral courage. 

hudab congregation in Kansas city. Mo, He labored WHITE, John Blake, artist, was bom on his 
earnestly for reformed Judaism while in Kansas city, fallier's plantation at Eutaw Springs, S. C, Sept. 3, 
His lectures on "Jews and Mooi« in Spain," and on ITHl, son of Blake Leay While and Elizabeth ( Bour- 
"Evolution and Judaism," attracted great attention, quin) White. He received a thorough academic 
and were regularly published by the local secular «iucatiun, and began the study of law in the ofltce 
press, and largely reprinted by the religions press of of Judge Lewis Trezevnnl in Columbia. S. C. He 
tliecouotry. They were afterward published in book evinced early in liferemarkableialenlasanartist.aud 
form, and widely circulated. Henry Ward Beechcr in 1600 at the age of nineteen, he went to England 
praised tbe latter worli highly, and ordered 500 with ids friend and relative. WasbingtouAllstou, and 
copies for distribution anioog his congregation, studied art under Ben^min West, having constant 
Tl>e question of a Saturday and Sunday Sabbatli access also to the studios of Sir Thomas Lawrence 
was raised by the young rabbi, and in spite of the Trumbull, Fueelli, Copier, and others, until 1804, 
bitterest opposition by the orthodox element of Ju- when he returned to Charleston. In 1805 he married 
-daUm, his fearless advocacy gained for the Sunday- Eliza Altston of Qcorgetown, S. C. In the same 
Salibath a host of friends all over the United Slates, year he went to Boston intending to follow his pro- 
He became prominent in affairs of charity, advocated fcssion as an ailist. but not receiving sufllcienl en- 
and started a free labor bureau, and inauguraterl coiiragement, he returned to Charleston and again 
Bome needed reforms in the distribution of charity, took un tlie study of law, togellier with his friend, 
He was appointed by the governor of Missouri as a John C. Calhoun (who aftei-ward became a distin- 
life-member of the Board of National charities and gtiislicd statcsman)in tbeoftlccof Desos.'^ure&Ford. 
- Sir.  •■ 



In 1885 he was elected vice-president Mr. White achieved great 

ui [uc laniuus Pittsburg conference, with Dr. 1. M. as the law reports of his naiivc 

Wise, tlie president of the Hebrew Union college, as was repeatedly elected to the 

presideqt. In 1886 Dr. Krauskopf was invited by slate legislature, and effected 

the Young men's Hebrew association of New York important alterations and im- 

to deliver an anniversary address at Chickering Hall, provenients in the prosecution 

A year later a call was extended to him by the He- of civil cases. In tlie war of 

form Congregation Keneseth Israel of Phllotlelphia 1812 he raised and commanded 

to become their rabbi, successor to the eminent a company of infantry from 

rabbit Drs. Einhom and S. Ilirah. In Philadel- South Carolina. His wife died 

phia his activity has been marvelous. He delivers a in 1817, and in IHIB Ue married 

sermon eveir Saturday and a lecture every Sun- Anna ICachel 0'Driscoll,daugh- 

daT. The Sunday sei-vice has been veiy success- ter of Dr. Matthew O'Driscoll 

ful, the large synagogue being filled weekly to over- of Charleston. Mr. Wliite was 

flowing, necessitating the eretrtion of a new building the pioneer of literature and art 

with increased capacity. His lectures are printed in the South. Tuckcrman In 

fn pamphlet form regularly every week. They em- bis "Hisloir of Art" in this 

braceevery topic in the iield of science and sociology, country styles him "The Old 

as well as of religion. One of tlie first delivered was American Master." In 1840 

the cause of founding tbe Jcwisli publication society he received the gold medal 

of America. Dr. Krauskopf is eminently a reform- from the Soutli Carolina insti- 



-, and is giving the Jewish reform movement a di- tiite for " best historical paint- 
~',iou ana a force hitherto unthought of. Ulsviews ings:" and the same year the' 
very liberal. He Ignores most of the ceremonies AiHillo association of New York 




rectiou and a force hitherto unthought of. Ulsviews ings:" and the 

are very liberal. He Ignores most of the ceremonies AiHillo associatii . _ 

and traditions of old, accepting only that which ap- awarded him tbe first pri: 

peals to modem reasoning, and is borne out hy scicn- palnllng," and ordered to be engraven uin ihiiious 

tide research. His platform is as follows; He be- nistorical picture, "Gen. Marion Inviting thcBriti^ 

lieves In the worship of an all-wise and all-powerful to Dinner in the Pedee Swamp," and (Uslrlbuted it 

Qod ; in a future existence ; in morality as the high- among its menibers as the best historical picture of 

«at expression of religion ; in the supenority of deed Amcncan art. This picture, with some other noted 

over creed. He discards the Idea of a personal, man- ones. isnowlntheposscKsion of Ids son, Dr. Octavius 

magnided God. the direct Inspiration of the Bible, A. White, No. 1011 Maiiison avenue, New York, 

the supernatural account of miracles and prophecy, AmonghU famous paintings were: "Battleof Eutsw 

and Anally discards Elie Idea of tlie coming of a Mes- Springs," "Battle of p'ort Moultrie," " Mrs. Motte 

siah, believing that the Messianic age will liave dawu- Pn^uuting the Burning Arrows and Urging Slarion 

ed when all mankind shall be one brotherhood, ac- and I.ee lo Fire Her Own Residence lo Dislodge the 

knowlcdging the universal fatherliood of tlod. The British," "The Capture of Andre." One lif hts 

rabbi regartls Jesus asasincereJew, "akuT/Mnman finest works was "The Unfurling of the United 

tolto fitwf dieinetff. itot a divine man who lived liu- States Flag in the City of Mi-xico'* to quell a civil 

manly," inspired by the teachings of the Jewish law, riot. This was prcHcnted to President Jackson, who 

and iuni>cent of the dogmas and doctrines that have whs exceeilingly proud of It, and tiHik it with him to 

been fastened to his name by disciples and late prop- the ' ' Hermitage " where it reniaine<l until his death. 

B.ramlisls. Paul he regards as the true founder of lie having bequeathed it back to the stale of South 

<?hristianity. Dr. Krauskopf aims through his teach- Carolina, it aft«rward Imug in the cnpitol at Co- 

Ings to level tbe barrier of misunderstanding and lunibfa, S. C.. where it was destroyed by Sherman's 

Jrejudice which stands between Jew and Gentile, army. Mr. Whttewasthe aiithorof severaldiwiuts, 

1 his "Sunday Service Ritual," Hebrew prayers all of which were producctl on the American si age. 

iiave been reduced in length, and ethical and mono- During the troublous times of " nullificniton " In 



22 THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 

South Carolina, Mr. White was a stanch, fearless, nese in the Treatment of Tuberculosis." His suc^ 

and uncompromising ''Union man " and advocate, cessful treatment of tuberculosis b^ this method 

He took a conspicuous stand against capital* punish- attracted quite as much attention m the medical 

ment as early as the year 1820. Mr. White was the world as did Koch's lymph. In September, 1891, 

founder of the Literary Lyceum of South Carolina. Dr. White read before the American association 

He was selected to deliver orations before the Cin- of genito-uriuary surgeons of the national medical 

cinnati and Society of 76, and he delivered numer- congress at Washington, a paper on the *' Syphi- 

ous addresses before literary societies in South Caro- litic Cachexia." He invented a double nasal spray 

lina and other states in the Union. He was a man and vaporizer which he exhibited before the Laryn- 

of exceptional intellectual culture, of high courage, gological section of the New York academjr of medi- 

of personal attractiveness, and broad liberality of cine, Nov. 25, 1891. Dr. White is actively interested 

thought and action, that made up in him the truest in many of the leading medical societies throui^hout 

type of the old-sch(X)l gentleman. He died in the country. He served as president of the Lenox 

Charleston. S. C, Aug. 24, 1857, aged seventy-eight, medical and surgical society, also of the Yorkvill© 

WHITXS, John Blake, physician, was born in medical and surgical society; is a member of the 

Charleston, S. C, Oct. 9, 1850, son of Dr. Octavius New York academy of medicine. New York county 

A. White, and grandson of John Blake White of medical society. New York state medical association, 

Charleston, the eminent aitist and author. He was American association of genito-urinary surgeons, 

Srepared for college at Phillips' Exeter academy, Northwestern medical and surgical society, Manhat- 
few Hampshire, and was graduated from Harvard m tan medical ami surgical soeiety, and other oreaniza- 
1873, and the New York college of physicians and tions. He married, Oct. 25, 1877, Margaret Stuvve- 
surgeons in 1874. He served one year as house- sant Jackson, daughter of Geo. E. B.Jackson of Fort- 
surgeon in Brooklyn city hospital, and was then ap- land, Me., and granddaughter of Rev. Petrus Stuyve- 
poiuted sanitary inspector of the New York health santTenBroeck, a scion of the old Holland families of 
department. He was assigned special ser\ice in the Manhattan Island. 

examination of milk brought to the city, which had WHITE, Octavius Au^stus, physician, was 

been suspected to be largely adulterated. During bom in Charleston, S. C, Feb. 8, 1826, son of 

his ten years' service in this depuitment, which ex- John Blake White, the distinguished author and 

pired in 1882, he did much to break up the svstem artist (see sketch). His mother 

of shipping impure and adulterated milk, tie was was Anna O'Driscoll, daughter 

hospital surgeon of the New York dispensary for of Matthew O'Driscoll, LL.D., 

children for six years, and was appointed visiting phy- M. D. , who was descended from 

siciau of the Charity hospital (now known as the City one of the most honorable and 

hospital) in 1886, which position he still holds (1893). ancient families of Ireland, ed- 

He was lecturer at the Post-Graduate medical college ucated at the famous college of 

for two years, was appointed consulting surgeon at St. Omar, and came to this 

the House of Refuge, 1889, was for some time assist- country in 1784. In the line of 

ant to Prof. Fesseuden N. Otis on diseases of the his profession, as well as in the 

genitary and urinary organs. For several years walks of general science. Dr. 

gast he has made a specialty of the heart and lungs. O'Driscoll ranked among the 
[e has read a number of papers before medical so- first men of his day in South 
cieties, some of which have attracted wide-spread Carolina. The paternal great- 
attention and have been favorably noticed by various grandfather of Dr. White, Sir 
medical journals, and by the press generally. In John White of Kent, Eng. 
1887 he read a paper before the Yorkville medical (whose title was suppressed on 
ass(X!iation on "The Diagnosis and Treatment of account of his being a Quak- 
Uterine Flexions." He wrote " Trcatment of Phthi- er), came to America with Wil- 
sis by Intrapulmonary Injection of Carbolized liam Penn, and was conspicu- 
lodine. " He effected a number of important cures ous with him in the government 
by this system, some of which were considered of the colony. A wm of his, 
"hopeless cases." He invented a modification of Blake Leay White (father of John Blake White), 
Sinis's Vaginal Speculum, a great improvement over settled in houth Carolina previous to the revolution, 
those previously used. He also invented an inatru- became a planter in Upper St. John's parish, Berk- 
ment for the correction of uterine displacements ley, in the district of Charleston, and married the 
which he named "Metratrep" (metra, the womb, daughter of Abraham Bourquin, a Huguenot He 
and trepein, to guide). In 1888 he invented a new was a conspicuous patriot at the breaking out of the 
instrument callcS the ** Urethrotome " for operating revolutionary war, was early seized by the British, 
on strictures of the urethra; he wrote an article on and held on parole. The subject of this sketch was 
the *' Treatment of Spasmodic Stricture of the educated at Hudson's academy, Winsboro, and at 
Urethra." He read a p*|K:r before the Yorkville the academy of H. M. Bnins, LL.D., in Charleston, 
medical society, Feb. 4b 1888, entitled ** Remarks and entered the college of Charieston, and the South 
on Vesico- Urethral Erethism Peculiar to Locomotive Carolina medical collec:e, graduating A.B. from the 
Engineers." On Dec. 17, 1890, he i-ead a paper be- former in 1846, and JVf.D. from tlie latter in 1848. 
fore the Northwestern medical and surgical society. He soon after began practice in Charleston, where 
entitled " Remarks on the Intrapulmonary and Sub- he became a noted and successful physician. At 
cutaneous Treatment of Tubercuhxsis."*^ He also the breaking out of the civil war, he was commis- 
read a paper on ** A Case of Stricture Followed by sioned surgeon in the C. S. A., and served with dis- 
Rupture of the Urethra and Extravasation of Urine, tinction inhospitals and in the field. In 1862, dur- 
External Urethrotomy Recovery," before the Ameri- ing the yellow-fever epidemic at Wilmington, N. C, 
can association of genito-urinary surgeons, June 3, he was selected as an expert by the war authorities ta 
1890. In January, 1891, he invented and published goto the relief of yellow- fever sufferers. At the close 
a description of an " Antiseptic Syringe for Hypo- of the war in 1865, he removed to New York city, 
dermic Medication; " he retul before the New \ ork where he soon acquired a large practice, and became 
academy of medicine, Feb. 17, 1891, also bv special known as one of the most skillful and successful 
invitation before the New York medical union, phvsicians in the city. In 1876 he was selected and 
March 10, 1891, a paper upon the ** Value of the delegated by the academy of medicine to attend the 
Subcutaneous Administration of Gold and Manga- yellow-fever patients at Savannah* Ga.» during the 




C^/m^irAit 



OP AMERICAN BIOQRAPnT, 



preTRiling epidemic, and report upoD the cftus< 
the scourge. Id 1890 he removed from Second 
nuc to MadisoD avenue, wliere be purchased an ele- 



historv or philosophv, hut it ia in the two last-named 
fields that he has chosen to do the bullc of hia nioet 
work. lu pliilosoplij he lins ably e: 



giuit residence, whicii he enlarged and improved, the system of Herbert Spencer, snppleiiientmg it by 
Dr. While is a member of tlie New York Academy Opening up new vistas into a reverent llicUm. "It 



of mediciue. Connty Medical Bociety, New York 
Hisiorical soclutj, ttie American Pulillc Health uaso- 
ciation. the Lenox Medical and Siirfrioil sociily, the 
National Health aHsocifttiou, ond of St. Mark's "Kpis- 
copal churcb. He married, in 1849. Claudia Rebecca, 
eldest daughter of Prof. John Bellinger, M.D., of 
Chsrlestiin, S. C. She died In 1853, and in 1S08 lie 
manin) Elizabeth Winthrop, daugliler of Rev. JnhD 
While Cbanler of New York city, who was the son 
of Imac Clianlcr, a distinguished physician of 
Chartesinn. a surgeon In the Oontinenlal army, in 
the war uf the revolntion, and one of the ori^nal 
meniliers and first president of the Metlical society 
of Soiilh Onrolina. On her mol.her'a side Mrs. 
White i« a lineal descendant of the ot<) Dutch gov- 
ernor, Peler Stuyvesant. and John Wintlirop, the 
first governor of Massachusetts. Dr. Wliitu has 
fowr children. His eldest sod. John BInke While, 
1b a distinguished physician of New York cily. 

FIBKE, John, author, was bom at Hartford, 
Conn., March 30, 1843. His name was originally 
Edmund Piske Urecn, his father being an editor, 
whodied nl Panama in 1N53. After the second mar- 
riage of his mother in ISW he continued to live with 
biH grandmother al Middlctnnn. where most of his 
boyriooil had Intn spent, exchanging his name for 
that of bis great-grandfather, Jolio P^ske. His 
Toutli was marked by great precocity. Forinstancc, 
lie began Latin at six yearsof age and Oreck at nine. 
Before he was eiglit he had read through Shake- 
speare, and nt twelve he was In the midst of differ- 
ential calculus, having complele<l Euclid, plane and 
Sherical trignomelry. surveying and navigiition. 
i entered Harvard as a sophomore in 1800. al- 
though he had already advanced in every depart- 
ment farltier than the college course could takeiiiin. 
Here he became an eulhusiitstic iovestifmlor on bis 
own acoiHint in history, philosophy and compara- 
tive philology, averaging, it is said, fifteen hours of 
work daily. He was giraduated from the Harvard 
law school in 1885, and immediately opened an 
otBce In Boston, but closed it in eix months to engage 
in literary work. Since 1869 he has been more or 
less intimately associated with Harvard univer^'itv as 
letturer on philosophy (ie09-'71), 
Instnictor in hislorv (1870-71). as- 
sistant librarian ('1873-T9), and 
member of the Board of Over- 
seers since 1879. He has also 
filled a ncin-rt-sidcnl professorship 
of American historyal Washington 
universilv, St. Louis, since 1HH4. 
As a public Icrturer, be has achiev- 
ed gt^t popularity in this country 
and in Great Britain. His first im- 
portant book, "Myths and Myth- 
makers," was not pulillslied until 
18?.3. but for more than ten years 
previous he had Iwen allracting at- 
tention by bis contributions to the 
papers, magazines and reviews. 
-Outlines of Cosmic Phii.Honhy " 
appeared in London two years later. 
His subsequent books are: "The 
Idea o( God;" "The Destiny of Man;" "American 
Political Ideas:" "The Critical Period of American 
History:" "The Beginnings of New England," and 
three volumes of essays. Perhaps the most salient 
qualityof his geniusis its versatility. He seems to be 
»]ualfyat home in treating of laiiguBge,art. music, re- 
UgioD, natural science, modern literature, the classics, 




CZIj^^ 



^ti^jji^a 



opening 

is as a disciple and expounder of Spencer." says Ed- 
win D. Mead, "that Mr. Fiske has been chiefly 
thought of in most circles, perhaps, tor many years. 
His prominence in this capocity has. to some extent, 
been a liindrauce to his dewrvcd reputation of sin- 
gular original power. It is not too much to say [hat 
he shows an insight and comprehen.sion greater tlian 
Spencer's own, while Ills form of statement Is often 
much the more felicitous." In his trcnlment of his- 
tory he displays the same larji^c grasp, insight, and 
analytic power, and the same ingenuity In exiendlug 
the application of the evolutionary principle. "The 
government of the United States," he says, in the 
preface lo "American Political Ideas," "is not the 
result of sjycial creation, but of evolution." This 
sentence strikes the keynote of his historical method. 
In writing bistoiy, ho is still the philosopher, seeking 
before everything the why of preat movements and 
events. His' style is invariably rich, flexible and clear, 
"such a style,'' save the "Atlantic Monthly." "as 
was iierhaps never liefore brought to the Illustration 
of the topics with which Mr. Fiske habitually deals." 
It is to this happy gift of expression that he owes, in 
part at least, his success In popularising history and 
pliilosopliy in America, without compromising there- 
by either dignity or depth. 

DOWNBR, Ezra Fi«rce, was horn in the U 



did bis sfaai'e toward providing (or the needs of the 
stniggling family, and, at the 
age of fourteen, left home to 
make his way in the world, with 
little more than a stout heart and 
willing liands for capital. He 
proceeded to Buffalo, and ob- 
tained employment on Qrand 
Island, Bubscuuentty removing 
to Syracuse, N. T., where be en- 
tered the employ of Col. John 
Holland Johnson, one of the 
owners of the New York and J'' 
Oswego line of canal boats. At ' ' 
that time there were but few 
railroads In New York stale, 
and the Erie canal, with its lines 
of handsrmte packets and pass- 
enger boats, was the main high- 
way of travel and Iralllc between 
Albany and Buffalo. Mr. Down- 
er siHiu won tlie esteem and confidence of bis em- 
ployer, ainl at the age of nineteen was placed in 
cha'rgc of a boat. He followeil tliis business fursev- 
eral years, working on Col. Johnson's farm in win- 
ter. After tlie railroads were buiit In the iiitciior of 
the state Mr. Downer sought a wider field ou which 
to c\)H'ncl liis energy and iibility, an<l in 1843 became 
the agent fiT Charles M. Ri'eirs line of sleamers on 
thegnmt lake^. In 185!^ he was appointed gt'uerol 
ticket agi'nt for the Micliijxan Southern and North- 
ern Indiana railroails. having under his supervision 
a large number of ticket acents. His circuit covered 
the New England states. New York and Montreal, 
and his winters were passed in the South in tlie in- 
ti'rest of his companies. After several ^'cars of travel 
Mr. Downer severed bis connection with [be railroad 
and settled down in Syracuse, where, by the judi- 
cious investment of liis savings, he had accumulated 
a comfortable projierty. In politics, Mr, Downer 

" memlier of the whig party, but upon its dlsso- 

'  " ' ' "' — " "" tue democratic party, 




lutloD he attached himself ti 



24 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



and has always been a zealous advocate of lu prin- 
ciples. For more tban thirty yean he never missed 
a nalional or stale couveotiou, and lias lieeD actively 
Identitied with tnanv of the most stirring political 
events that preceded aud followed tlie civil war. His 
acquaintance witli Ibe leading men of the day^ has 
beenextenxive.aDdlichaseiiioyed tlie personal frioud- 
shipoftiltephen A. Douglas, Qo'v.Seymour.Dcan Rich- 
moud. Sauford E. Cliiirch, and many olher distiu- 
giiisbed men. With the exception of two terms as 
canal collector, in 1875 aud in 1676, Mr. Downer has 
not held political olilcc. 

TVISON, Henr7, publisher, was bom In Glas- 
gow. Scotland, Dec. 35. 1808. In 1820 he came to 
America with his father, who soon afterward re- 
turaed to Scotland, leaving the lad in the United 
Stales to leam the trade of bookhtnding, aud for 
that purpose apprenticed him to William Williams. 
of Ulica, N. v., then the largest boolisciler west of 
Altwny. Young Ivison was taken Inlo the family 
of his employer, where he was treated as one of the 
children. He remained with Mr. Williamstor nine 
years, and in 1829, after he had served his term of 
apprenliccsliip. said to his master. "Now I am out 
of my lime, I hardly know what is tlie best tiling 
for me lo do." Mr. Williams advised him to con- 
tinue In his employ, and the following vear saw an 
opening for him in Auburn, N. V., wnere the re- 
quirements of the people and the professors and 
students of the Auburn tlieological seminary de- 
manded a book-store. Mr. Ivison spent about six 
mouths preparing himself for this ousiness. Mr. 
Williams sent his son. Wells Williams, to Auburn 
with young Ivison. lo see him well started, and he 
remained there several months. Both young men 
were destined to become dis- 
tinguished in Iheir walks of 
life Rev. Dr. 8. Wells Wil- 
Iwms subsequenlly went to 
China as missionary printer, 
and became famous as an his- 
torian of thai country, and use- 
ful as a diplomat in negotia- 
tions made at various times 
iKiTCcea China and the United 
J ^ 'i^i States Henry Ivison built up 

l^tf^^^^^^k^^ a large business, not only in 
- Auburn but taking in the sur- 
rounding country. The small 
store at Auburn bad but one 
counter one ^de being com- 
pletely tilled with ImkiEs. In 
1846 Mr. Ivison rtnnoved lo 
Now "V ork cily, becoming a 
partner of Mark H. Newman, 
then a successful schtHil-book 
p\ibllsher. The style of the firm was Mark 11. New- 
man & Co. The most imiMirtsnt school-books pub- 
iishefl by them at that time were Sniiiiders's read- 
ers, the first consecutive set of school. readers pub- 
lished in America. lu IMI a new pannership was 
formed, the name of the firm bMNmiing Newman 
& Ivison. Mr. Newman living before tlie end of the 
first year, Itlr. Ivison bought out the entire Interest 
of the concern, reorgani^eil the business and look 
Into imrtnershi;) H. F. Phinncy, (if Coojierstown. 
N. ■^ ., au experienced bookseller and son-in-law of 
J. Fetiiinorc Coojicr. The firm then iH'came Ivi- 
son & Pliinney, and later. Ivison. Pbinney& Blake- 
man. One of the first acts of the new concern was 
to reduce the time of creilit to wholesale buyers; a 
movement Ibat has ainee been followed by most 
school-book buyers. Tlie firm publislieil more than 
801} dilTeTcnt scliuoMxKiks, and the sales Iherefrom 
reached majniificciit proportions. Successful scliool- 
book publishing repi'CHents immciisi- cnpiial. siigac- 
ity and busiucsa enterprise. Mr. Ivi.'^on altribiited 



r d 




his auccess to industry, ec my and s 
ence to the oue line o p b ca 
"Among the characteris cs M 
ness life the finest qualJI es ead d 

ever conspicuous. To h part rs a d 
he was like the head of a nd 

fluence iiervaded every d p n I 

It is said he never bad ah rah w rd w 
tliflt he never sued or was ed h 
no piece of his business p pe assed 

He died in New York c i j N «fl 8B4 

HALL, Benjamin H m« 
was bom at Troy, N. T N 4 8.fl 
nal ancestor, John Hall cam m E 

settled at Cbarlestown. ft ass 030 

nal ancestor, Thomas Fi n gra i 

ica from Bocking. Essex ci Eg 

1040, and settled at Norw k Tli 

the great-grntidson of Th as F h 
greal-gmudfather of the bjec 
vised and perfecteil a n w rt \ 

in 1745, and framed the an 
served that colony in a n mbe tH 

aud was its governor fro M-60 Be 
tei-nal grandtatherwasL H 
of Wcslminster, Vt., wh was 
engaged lu the U. S. na se 
vice during the revolu nary 
war, and was subseqiie n 

eminent Judge of the s prem 
court of Vermont. His h 
Daniel Hall, a lawyer o oca 
repute, was bom at Wet. m 
ster,Vt.,Julvl7.1787,wa. grad 
uated from Middlebury 
and in 1800 removed to In 
N.Y., where he resided and pra 
ticed his profession un I is 
death. Dec. 10. 18B8. Hi m h 
er. Anjiiielte Fitch, was bom n 
NewYorkcitvJnneai,1800 d 
diedalTroy,N.Y..Feb.!. 884. 
Benjamin was prefinred 
lege in the private sch 
his native city, and at Phillips 
academy, Andover, Mass.. and was graduated from 
Harvard in 18.'il. During his senior year he pub- 
lished anonymously a work entitled "A Collection 
of C'ollege Words atid Customs." Upon the author's 
name becoming known, he was given the three his- 
tories of Harvard then exiaat, in each of Ihe Tol- 
nnics the following Inscriplion being in xerted in Ihe 
handwriting of the president: "Presenled to Mr. 
Benj. H. iSill by the corporation of Harvard Unl- 
versliy. June 18, 1851. Jared Siuirks. president." 
A second edition of the work, revised and en- 
larged. ap|icared in I8ri0. Mr. Hall piililished 
in I8r>8, " A History of Easlem Vermont from its 
Selllenient to the Close of the Eigliteeuth ('entuij, 
Willi a Biographical Chapter and Appendixes." In 
1800 he published a deserinlive catalogue of bo«iks 
and pamphlets relating to Vermont, or portions of 
it. (his U-ing the ihlnl niimlM>r in ilie series known 
as " BiUlii^mphy of Ihe United Slales." Afler 
leaving college he studied law, was adnilttcd to the 
bar in I8r>0. and has since practiced at Troy. N. Y., 
making n s|)e<-ialty of Ihe branch of that science 
which treats of real esialc, its lilies, inciileiits, and 
the various complicnllons that often arise in ils trans- 
fer. He has served as citv clerk aud cliHinberlain 
for the city of Troy, and from April, 1878, lo Au- 
gnsl, 1880, he was'cdilor of the Troy "Morning 
Whig." Mr. Hall has done a great variety of liler- 
ary work, all of wliich stamps him as an author of 
high merit. Ho was married June 1, 1859, to Mar- 
gai'ct AlcCoren J.dine, the third daughter of Jacob 
L. Lane, late of Troy, N. Y. 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 




Z>£E, Heiir7, soldier and gOTemor of Virginia, 
wasbomin Westmoreland county. Vs., Jan. 28, 1758. 
He was educated at Princeton College, N, J., 
where he -wns graduated in 1774. Ou his return 
to Virginia tbe young man was intrusted with 
the maiugement of the private affairs of the 
faniily, as his father, wliu was a mem- 
ber of the house at burgeiises was en- 
gaged at the time in DCgolJHting a 
treaty with the Indian tribes. In 
1776 Henry Lee received an appoint- 
ment as captain of cavalry under Col. 
Theodoric Bland, but it was not until 



skill, his disciplineand his manly and 
soldier-like bearing attracted the no- 
tice of the cominander-iii-cliief, and 
he was soon promoted to the rank of 
major and given the command of a 



i horse and was known .. . 

Legion." It was from ibis command 
the brilliant and dasbiug young otticer received the 
name of "Lighlhoree Harry." Oneofliis most daring 
eipedilions was a successful attempt to surprise the 
Bntiah garrison at Pawlus Hook, where, with the loss 
of only Ave men, he captured more than 150 pris- 
oners, congress recognizmg this brilliant feat bj the 
gift of a gold medal. From 1780 to the end ol the 
war, Lee served under Gen. Qreeoe, for whom he 
did very important work in a number of actions, 



wallis. At Ouilford, Lee's Legion is said to have 
actually routed Tarlelou's dragoons. In June, 1781, 
Lee besieged llie city of Augusta for sixteen days, 
at the end of which it was surrendered to Lim. He 
was conspicuous also in the siege of Ninety-six and 
at the battle of Eutnw Springs. He was one of the 
most dasbing ofllcers ou the American side in the 
revolution and was greatly admired and highly 
esteemed by Washington. After the war, L(« 
married a cousin, Matilda Lee, who owned Stratford 
House, where lie thereafter resided. In 1780hewas 
appointed a delegate to congress from Virginia, and 
remained in that body until the constitution was 
adopted. He was a member of the Virginia legis- 
lature from 1789-91, succeeding, in the latter year, 
Beverly Itandolph as governor of the state of Vir- 
ginia, an office he held three years. In 1794 Washing- 
ton appointed him to command tlie forces sent lo 
suppress the whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania. 
Five years later, he was a member of congress, where 
be was chosen to pronounce a funeral oration on 
Wastiin^ton, and It was in this oration that Lee iLsed 
the wonis since so celebmle<l : ■' Firat in war. first 
in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." In 
1801 Col. Lee retired to private life, and unfortu- 
nately his last yeara were distressed by pecuniary 
troubles. About the year 1809, when lie is said to 
have been imnrisoned for debt, he wrote his "Me- 
moirs of ibe War in the Southern Department of 
the United States." In 1814 he chanced to be In 
Baltimore at the lime when a riot occurred in which 
the mob attacked the printing ofhce. He was carried 
for safety to the jail, which was attacked. Lee him- 
self being severely wounded. He then went to the 
West Indies for his health. He found no relief in a 
change of climate and remained but a short time, 
soon turning his face toward his old home, which, 
however, he never reached alive. Being in an en- 
feebled and disconsolate condition, he made the jour- 
ney by easy stages. Inlhesprincof 1818 lie reached 
the house of Mrs. Shaw, a daughtcrof his old friend 
and compatriot, Nathaniel Greene, where he died. 



Cumberland, 

Island, near St. Mary's. Oa., March 25. 1818. 

LAZABITS, Emma, author, was bom July 23, 
1849, in New York city. She was a aliy and im- 
pressible child, to whom it was easier and more 
natural to write than to talk. The outbreak of the 
civil war excited her first poetical expression, and 
three years later, when seventeen, her first book was 

Eublishcd, which was made up of poems and trans- 
itions. Classical and romantic subjects found, later, 
artistic treatment at her hands, aiid were followed 
by "Epochs,"apoem jiossessin^ subjective and bio- 
graphical value. Her early writings are marked by 
a profound melancholy, not only the melancholy so 
common to young wniers of sensitive natures, but 
with her it was the unconscious expression of the in- 
herited sorrow of her race — " the sympathy in the 
blood." In very young womanhood she l>ecame a 
student of Emeison's writings, which wercasliinulus 
to her. The Infiuence was sirength- 



ful in developing and dii'ecting her intellectual 
thought. In 1874 she wrote a romance, "Alide," 
founded on Goethe's ■' Autobiograpbv." which was 
the occasion for a commendatory letter from TnnfC- 
nieff, and In 1876 she publislied a tragedy, " The 
Spagnoietto," which sliowed a 
marked advance on previous 
work, site made a very ac- 
ceptable translation of Heine's 
poems, and also many transla- 
tions from the Hebrew poets 
of niediteval Spain. The terri- 
ble persecution of the Jews In 
KuHsia, in 1879, awakened her 
eiilliusiasm for the Jews, to 
which she had previously been 
indifferent. Hitherto slie had 
fi>und her ideals and inspira- 
tion in other nations and liter- 
atures; now was unfolded to 
her the unique hisioiy of her 
splendid race — homeless, and 
deprived of means of develop- 
ment, but always remaining a 
strong factor in the world's 

Krogress. With her answer to 
[me. Kagozin's defence of Russian atrocities, she 
began her work as defender of her faith and her 
race, which devejopetl the beat expression of her 
faculties. For years she wrote on the Jewish ques- 
tion, resolved, like Daniel Deronda, to " awaken a 
movement in other minds," and piibtisbcd in the 
"American Hebrew" a series of "Epistles lo the 
Hebrews," in which she sought to encourage a "re- 
turn to the varied pursuits and broad systems of 
physical and Intellectual education " of her ancestors; 
an orEaniJ^ed effort to relieve the sufferings of op- 
preswil Jews in other countries, and a ■■closer and 
wider study of Hebrew literature and history." Her 
efforts were not limited by her pen, but when the 
fugitives came pouring it"" ■''" ''"'''■^ a.o.oD ^k^ 
vUitwi them, learned llieii 



these efforts she wiote what has l)cen considered her 
best work, the " Itenculo Death," a drama of the 
persecution of the Jews in Thuringia in the twelfth 
centurj'. In 1883 she went abroad, and again in 
iSH5. after illness and bereiivemetit, which brought 
a loss of vigor and a di;pressioii from which she never 
rallied. Slie returned home in July, 1887, and died 
Nov. IS, 18H7, 




MikA^ <:^tAt^**^ 



THE NATIOKAL CYCLOP,BDIA 




•^^^l*-'!*' £>^^<^ 






DAVIE6, Chaxlea, nuttheTnalicisa, was bom 

In WaBhiDgtoD, Litchfield count;, Cunn., Jan. %%, 
1798. He wftB tlie secund son of Thomas John 
Davies. Until he was tiFteen years uf age lie al- 
tendeit the public schools in the neigh borboixl iif his 
home, Black Lake, N. Y., wberc his parents had 
settled when iie whs quite 
voung. During the war of 
1813 Geu. Swifi, cliief of en- 

Eneets of the L'. S. army, vis- 
id his father's hoiise. and be- 
came interested in the lud. 
Perceiving at once his evidviil 
talent and ambition, he urged 
that 1)6 should be sent to the 
at West 
himself 
^' in securing his appointment. 
f He entered the academy in 
' 1814, but did not complete the 
coiirae, as the necessities of Ibe 
war demanded an increase of 
officers, and I>ec. 11, 1815, he 
iduaiud and comniis- 
ind lieuten- 
ant of light artilleiy, and act- 
ed with this rank in gnrrison 
at the New England posts. Aug. 81. 1816, he u-as 
transferred to the engineer cor|B with rank of 
second lieutecianl, and in 1816 resigned this office 
to accept a position as instructor in the U. S. military 
academy, and for a period of twenty-one years con. 
tinued his connection with the inatitiilion. serving as 
assistant professor of mnthemalics, of natural and 
experimental pliiiosopliy, and as professor of niathe- 
matlcs. Duiing his ntay at West Point he married 
Mary Anne, daughter of Jarod ftlanslield, lieutenanl' 
colonel of U. S. engineers, and prufettsor at West 
Point, In 1838 he went to Europe on account of his 
health, and consequently resigned his position at 
West Point. In 1837 he relumed to America, and 
was appointed professor of mathematics at Trinity 
college, Hartford, Conn., whciv he remained four 
years. In 1841 he served as a member of the board 
of visitors to the Militarj' academy. West Point, and 
Nov. 17th, the same year, was reappointed in the 
»rmy ns pnvmaster. with rank of major, and re- 
mained at \V'esi Point until Sept. 30, 1848, when be 
resi!;ncd. and settled in New York city. In 1848-48 
he tilled the professorship of matheniatics and phil- 
usopiiy in the University of the city of New '\ork. 
In IS-IT he accepted the ehair of liigher inathcmatles 
In Columbia college, New York city, which position 
he ivtAine<I until 1865, when he retired from duty 
after an active career of forty years spent in tcacb- 
Ine and developing the scleuce of which he was an 
acknowlcilged master. Upon his retirement he was 
ap[Milnte(l emeritus professor. He. like the rest of 
his family, was an ardent Episcopalian, and took 

KrC in the founding of St. Luke's church, to which 
donated liberally, and wasameml)erof the vestry. 
He has written a series of nmthemuticul ie\(-lHNiks, 
which are remarkable for their lucidity. These 
books cover the entire ground from primary arith- 
metic to the highest mathematics, and arc'still in 
use as the atandanl of instruction in mathematics at 
the Mi liiarv academy. In 1840 he was awarde<l the 
degree of doctor of laws from Geneva college. New 
Yoiii. The portrait of Pnit. Davies is from an orig- 
inal furnished by A. 8. Barnes & Co. He died at 
Fishkill-on-Hudson Sept. 17, 1876. 

DAVIES, Henry Ebenezer, jurist, was born at 
Black Lake. Bi. Lawrence cotmlv, N. Y., Feb. 8,1805, 
the son of Thomas John and ttuth (Poole) Davies. 
At the age of fourteen he went to Canandaiguo, 
N. Y., to obtain broader educational facilities than 
those afforded by the district schools in the neigh- 



borhood. Here he became a member of the family 
of Judge Alfred Coukllug, and the judge particularly 
directed his attention to the legal education of the 
boy. In April, 1836, soon after he had completed 
bis twenty-nrHt year, he was admitted lo the bar in 
Albany county, and selected Buffalo, then a small 
town on the western frontier, as a place to begin hi» 
professional career. In the winier of 1829^, be 
removed to New York city, where he became a 
partner of his uncle, Samuel A. Foole. which con- 
nection he retained until 1848, when Mr. Foote re- 
tired from praclfce. He next formed a partnership 
with William Kent, which continued until he was 
elected to the bench. He was a whig in politics, and 
had much renown as a, platform oralor. and in 184l> 
was electwl a.'wistiint alderman of the city <)f New 
York, from the tifteentli ward, and the following 
year was made aldcrmaa. and was also apiwlnted 
chairman of the committee selected to celebrate the 
intn>ducIlon of C'roton water into the city of New 
York. In IS.'iO be was appointed corporation coun- 
sel, and retained the position three years. He was 
a warm personal friend and the cocittdential adviser 
of Millard Fillmore, and in 1855, after Mr. Filliiiore's 
retirement from office, accompanied him abroad. 
Upon bis return to Americji he was nominated for 
justice of the supreme court of the state of New 
York, to supply the vacancy f 

caused by the demise of Judge 
R. H. Morris, and was elected. ^ 

In the fall of 1850 be was elect- 
ed to the court of appeals for 
a term of eight years, during 
the last two of which he filled 
the position of chief justice. 
He declineil re election at Ihe 
completion of bis lerm and re- 
sumed the practice of law In 
New York cilv in partnership 
with Noali Davis He was 
counsel for the Mutual life in 
surance company and a mem 
ber of other largt citnioratlona ^_. 

but employed himself chiefly i ,- — ~^^ 

in chamber practice and as 
referee in imiioriant cosls for 
which he was |>artieularly flt 
ted through bis long exiieri 

ence on the bench On July 1 1835 he marned 
Rebecca Waldo Tappan a daughter of John Tap- 
pan, a well-known merchant of Boston Ma^s He 
was faithful to the chiireh of his ancestors, and a 
prominent member of bt Luke s Prolestant Lplsco- 

Kl church, Matteawati. Dutchess county, N. Y, 
: was for a long period a director of the Institution 
fur the inslruclion of the deaf and dumb, and was 
its president during Ihe last year of his life. In 
1870 he accepted the position of Dean of the law 
school of the University of New Yorli, which place 
he held luilil his death. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from the university and also from Amherst 
college. He died in New York cltv Dec. 17. 188L 
DAVIES, Thomaa Alft«d, soliiierand civil ea- 
eineer.was bom at Black Lake, St. Ijtwrence county, 
N.Y., Dec. 3,1800.tliefOun!n'st child of Thomas John 
and Ruth (Foote) Davies. His jyoiith, uptotheageof 
sixteen years, was passed on his father's farm. He 
then secured an ap]>ointinent as a cadet in the U. S. 
militarv academy at West Point, which insiiiiitlon be 
entered July 1. 1825. antl after completing Ihe full 
course, was graduated in 1828, and was at once com- 
missioned as brevet second lieutenant of the 1st regi- 
ment of infantiy, U. S. army. He served for one year 
with this rank at Fort Crawford, in what was then the 
territory of Wisconsin, at that time considered to be 
on the extreme western froniierof the United Slates, 
and was subsequently ordered to West Pdnt, wb«re 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



27 




he remained until 1831, filling the position of quar- 
termaster of the post most of the time. He then re- 
signed his commission in the army, and entered the 
mercantile house of Goodhue & Co., New York city, 
with which he was connected until the panic of 1837, 
when he accepted a position as civil engineer in the 

construction of the Croton aque- 
duct, and also took a leading 
Sart in the erection of the High 
Iridge across the Harlem river. 
Aug. 24, 1844, he married Mrs. 
Maria White of New York city. 
He was among the first to offer 
his services to the government 
at the outbreak of the civil 
w^ar, and May 13, 1861, was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 16th reg- 
iment of New York volunteers. 
He was subsequently assigned 
to the command of the 2d bri- 
gade of the 5th division of the 
army of the Potomac, and led 
the advance on the march to 
Centre ville. March?, 1862,. he 
was brevetted brigadier-general 
of volunteers, and ordered to the 
western armies under command 
of Gen. Halleck. June 11, 1865, he was commis- 
sioned brevet major-general of volunteers for " gal- 
lant and meritonous service," and the war havmg 
been successfully terminated, he resigned his com- 
mission and returned to his home in New York city, 
where be has since resided. He has invented and 
patente<l some ingenious improvements on the con- 
struction of railroads, and has also written a series 
of valuable books on subjects bearing upon the mys- 
teries of creation, in which he shows the harmony 
of the account as given in Genesis with the action 
of existing laws of nature. His other works are: 
"Adam and Ha- Adam," "Genesis Disclosed," and 
" An Answer to Hugh Miller." He has always been 
a consistent adherent of the Protestant Episcopal 
church, and one of the oldest and most influential 
members of St. Bartholmew's church, New York 
city, and has done much to advance the faith of his 
ancestors. 

DAVI£S, Heniy Eugene, soldier, was born in 
New York city July 2, 1836, the eldest son of 
Judge Heniy E. Davies, He received his prepara- 
tory education at private schools 
in New York, and subsequently 
attended Harvard and Williams 
colleges, and was graduated 
with distinction from Columbia 
law school, in the class of 1857, 
and in July of that year was 
admitted to the bar as attorney 
and counselor of the supreme 
court of the state of New York, 
and immediately commenced 
the practice of his profession 
in that city. He was married 
at Fishkill-on-Hudson Aug. 10, 
1858, to Julia, daughter of John 
*S. Rich and Julia \ an Voorhies. 
He entered the United States ser- 
vice at the commencement of 
the civil war. As captain of 
the 5th New York volunteer 
infantry, August, 1861, he was 
promoted a major of 2d New York cavalry, and 
served as major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel, un- 
tU September, 1863, when he was brevetted brigadier- 
general U. S, volunteers, and appointed to the com- 
mand of a brigade of cavalry in the army of the 
Potomac, and served in this capacity until the ter- 
mination of the war, after which he returned to New 




York city, and resumed his law practice. He waa 
Public Administrator of New York city for a period 
of three years, clasing his term Jan. 1, 1860. From 
1870 to 1873 he was assistant district attorney of the 
United States, after which he refused to hold oflice, 
and has devoted himself exclusively to the practice 
of his profession. He resides at Fishkill-on-Hudson, 
at the country-seat which previously belonged to liis 
father. 

DAVIES, Charles Frederick, soldier, was bom 
in the city of New York June 27, 1838, second son 
of Judge Henry E. Davies. He received an educa- 
tion intended to fit him for commercial pursuits, and 
at an early age entered the Australian Shipping 
House, of which Sir Roderick W. Cameron was then 
and is now the chief. In this business he continued 
for several yeai-s, and his energy and fidelity to duty 
gave him every promise of a successful business 
career, but at the breaking out of the civil war he 
felt it his duty to abandon these prospects and de- 
vote himself to the service of his country. He firet 
accepted a position as lieutenant in the 5th New 
York volunteers, the regiment in which his elder 
brother held a commission as captain, but his busi- 
ness experience aud ability as an accountant were 
soon recognized, and in July, 1861, he was appointed 
major and paymaster of U. S. volunteers. He serv- 
ed through the war, and not only performed the 
duties of his ofilce with such intelligence and fidelity 
as won the praise of his immediate superiors, but on 
occasions when opportunity afforded, was distin- 
guished by the personal gallantry which he display- 
ed in battle, when acting as volunteer aide to general 
officers, with whom he was at the time serving. 
For his excellent service during the war he received 
in June, 1865, the brevet of lieutenant-colonel, and 
in recognition of his marked ability he was assigned 
to the arduous duty of mustering out of service and 
making final payment to the great host of New York 
volunteei-s whom the close of the war had discharg- 
ed from service. For the period of four months he 
was actively engaged in this service at Albany, and 
obliged to labor so continuously that he had no op- 
portunity for rest or even sleep, and finally breaking 
down from exhaustion went home to his father's 
house, where after a short illness his life was closed. 
His lamented and untimely death was the immediate 
result of exposure in the field, and subseq^uent and 
exhausting labor in the discharge of his official 
duties, and his name is numbered among the many 
heroes who in those trjing days were required to 
give their lives to their country. He died at Fish- 
killon-Hudson, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1865. 

NIEDBINQHAUS, Frederick Q., representa- 
tive in congress, was bom in Suebbeckke, Westphalia, 
Germany, Oct. 21, 1837, received a school education, 
and was placed in his father's shop and trained in 
general mechanics, particularly in glazing, painting, 
and tinning. He emigrated to the Uniled States, 
reaching St. Louis, Mo., at the age of eighteen vears. 
Here he began woik at the tinner's bench, at $4 per 
week, of which he saved itil.50. .Joined by a brother 
the two worked for two years at the bench, and then 
started business for themselves, which was a success 
from the beginning, the addition of two branches 
being speedily called for. In 1862 they began the 
stami)ing of tinware; in 1866 their business was in- 
corporated un<ler the name of St. Louis Stamping 
company, of which Mr. Niedringhaus is president. 
In 1874 they entered upon the making of ** granite 
ironware." In 1881 they established extensive roll- 
ing mills, and in all their works they now employ 
about 1,200 people. He was elected as representa- 
tive to tlie fifty-first U. S. congress as a republican, 
receiving 14,210 votes against 13,020 for all others. 
He has made for himself in his congressional service, 
a good name, as a shrewd and practical legislator. 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



As B specimen of his coDgressloual oratoiy we m&y 
cite from a speech on "The World's Fsir in 1898, 
In wlilch he advocated the claims of hU adopted city 
to Lbe diHtlnction uf having 
that exiMisitlon held with- 
in her limiU, as follows ; 
" Now, lo speak of St. 
Louis. Being a fSt. Ixiuis- 
ian, whose cbBracleristic. 
as everybody knows, is 
modesty, to come here to 
^Dg our own praise is very 
unnatural. (Laughter.) St. 
Loiiisians are the most hos- 
pitable people on the globe: 
and we will prove it li) you 
in 18S2 when you come Lo 
visit the fair. Si. Louis 
people know bow to hold 
ft fi^r; they know how to 
make expositions a success. 
We have often been asked 
J" - - y^ here, ' Why haven't we 

// beard more about St. 

Louis i' We have often 
had to stand rebuked by visiting people. Last sum- 
mer we had the pleasure of havinir with us a commit- 
teeofo    ^ -■ 




7^^4^e2^^^I^SMy\ 



^ . le of its members, the 
gentleman from Mississippi, iu the early morning as- 
cended the dome of our court house (laughter and life. Her 
appiauBc). and there, tJr, from its top, viewed the 
city as it spread out nbout him on many hills, slopes, 
and over broad jilains. (Applause,) He saw two cities. 
(Laiighier.) "V"" ■"- -"■' ' '" •■ 



life-long fidelity to them, which meant a r 
tion of cherished hopes and plena. About this time 
she first met Ralph Waldo tmerson, with whom she 
was afterward on terms of intimate friendship, visit- 
ing him nt his home in Concord. She taught school 
In Boston and Providence; in Boston she was with 
A. Bronson Alcott, and gave, besides, private lessons 
In French, German, and Ilaliau. The Fuller family 
removed to Jamaica Plain, Mass., in 1839, Margaret 
having with her two private pupils. Soon after she 
fomi<3 what was known as a conversational club, 
gathering around her a circle of the brightest and 
most alert women in Boston. Among its membeia 
were Mrs. Lydia Maria Lamb. Mrs, Ellis Gray Lor- 
Ing, the wives of Emerson and Parker, and Maria 
White, afterward Mrs. Lowell. Margaret Fuller 
delighted in philosophical themes, and iu criticism 
of art and literature, and while the members look an 
active part, her habit of monologue rendered her 
manner disagreeable to some persons. In 1S40 she 
became principal editor of the "Dial" (afterward 
to be succeeded by Emerson), a journal devoted to 
transcendental philosophy, which met with a storm 
of. criticism at ilie very onlsct, the editors being des- 
ignated as "Zanies, Bedlamites, and considerably 
madder than the Mormous." Among its contribu- 
tors were Emerson, Parker. 
Hedge, Alcoll. Channing, and 
Clarke. This periodical died 
after four yeare of i 



with 



Oh:L ^ _ _ 

fore him a sea of houses, with streets north and south 
parallel with [he river, fifteen miles long, cut at right 
angles east and west eight or nine miles: and as he 
stood there in the morning hour (laughter and ap- 
plause), the sun sheddiug its golden beams upon 
roofs and steeples (applause), upon mighty bn^ness 
buildings, factories, and private houses, it came from 
the bosom of bis heart like spontaneous ctmibustion. 
(Great laughter and applau.tc.) Noticing, too, that 
the horizon was about equal distance in all directions 
(renewetl laughter and applause), he exclaimed, 
'This is the centre of the universe.' (Long-con- 
tinued laughter and applause.)," To this may be 
added his naive acknowledgment in the house of 
representatives that he ha<l himself written his biog- 
lapiiy for ttie cougressional directory. 

FUIiIiER, Barali Hitrg'aret, Marchioness Os- 

soli, authoress, was born at Cambridgepcrt, Mass,. 
May 3. 1810. She was the oldest of eight children 
l>orn to Timothy and Margaret (Crane) Fuller. 
Her father was an able and public-spirited man, 
holding high ofHcial position, but while mentally 
gifteil was opinionated and injudicious. Her mother 
was of good Puritan stock, and a woman of peculiar- 
ly winning and atli'active personality. The father 
took charge of Margaret's early cducnlion, l>eglnning 
when she was six vears of age to leacli her I^tiu, 
and ever after continued this forcing prot'ess. which 
finally undermined her physical constitulioii. At 
the age of fifteen she was a prcxligy of learning, be- 
ing proficient in Latin. Greek, FjvucIi, and Italian. 
as well as a deep student of litemlure. Her asso- 
ciates and friends during this peiiod of lier life — 
Holmes, William Henry Channing. James Freeman 
Clarke, Kichanl Henry Dana, and others, were such as 
towonderfullystimulateanddeveloplier. Her family 
removed to (iroton, Mass., In 1833. Two years later 
her father died, and Margaret, gathering the younger 
children together, knelt and pledged heritelf lo a 




Brook Farm " has been great- 
ly exaggerated. She never 
lived there, was not a stock- 
holder, and did not wholly en- 
dorse it, although she occasion- 
ally went there. Her literary 
work at this period consisted of 
translations from the German. 
"Sunimeron the Lakes" (which 

lour through what was then 
called "the far West") and 
"Woman in the Nineteenth 
Ceulun'." In Decern licr, 1844. ^^ tfl^...^^ 
what sfie called her " business "^ ' "-*--'^-- 

life" began when she went to 
New York to assume the position of literaiy critic 
on the "Tiibune." Her home was for a time with 
the Qrceleys, and we find her writing iu the " Tri- 
bune " about picture galleries, the theater, philhar- 
monic concerts. German opera, Ole Bull's perform- 
ance on the violin, and Mr. Hudson's lectures on 
Shakspere. The breadth of lier work on practical 
and philuuthropic topics was renmrkable. She visit- 
ed the reces.'«!a of "Five Points." and under the 
gitidancc of William Henry Channing became con- 
versant with all phases and conditions of life and so- 
ciety. This practical woi'k disproves what is otteu 
salcl of her, that she sought iiuthingbut self-cnl litre, 
and Mr. Greeley himself testifies "for every elTort 
to limit vice, igiiomnce. ami misery, she had a ready, 
eager ear and a willing hand." After nearly two 
years of this lalwr she saileil for Europe, Aiig, 18, 
1846, with Mr. and Mrs. Marcus Spriiig. Afler ex- 
tensive tniveling. meeting Carlyle. Wordsworth, 
DeQuiiicey, Harriet Martlneau (wnom she liad pre- 
viously seen In America), Ma;;zini, and most uf the 
foremost j>eople of the day. she established herself in 
Home iu the spring of 1847. Here she resided dur- 
ing the revolution of 1848, and throuch the siege br 
the French in the vear after. In December, 1847, 
she was niarried lo Giovanni Augclo. Marquis Os.snli, 
a gentlenian of rank. The story of her courtship 
and marriage is a verymmantic one. Sept. 5, 184^ 
her child, Angelo Philip Eugene Ossoli. was bom. 
During the siege of Home by the French, she took 



OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



an active part in caring for the wounded, and was 
in charge of tlie Hospital of the Trinit; to the Pil- 
grinis. "MaZKini, chief of the Triumviri, who, 
better than any mao in Rome knew her worth, often 
express^ hU aditiiratjun for lier high character." 
She wad loved with all the passionate fervor of the 
Italian nature, for her ministratioDS of devotioD. 
When Rome waa captured by the Freuch in June, 
1849. the liusband aod ^ife went to RiuCi, a village 
in the mountains of Abruzzi, where their child h«l 
been left. Tliey soon returned to Florence, apend- 
ing a short but delightful season there. May 17, 
IHoO. thev sailed from Leghorn on the merchant 
vessel "Elizabeth," having as fellow passengers 
Horace ii^umner, a younger brotiier of Charles Sum- 
ner, and Cclcslc Paollni, a ^ouog Italian gtrl. 
When the vessel was almost in port, their trunks 
bi'in^ packed for landing, after a severe storm, the 
vessel was driven on the shores of Fire Island, and 
father, luother, and child were drowned. Her biog- 
raphy has been written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
W illiam Heniy Channing, and James Freeman 
Clarke, all of theiu her intimate friends, aud each 
givin^^ a different view of her life. It in undoubt- 
edly true that she was a woman of genius, possess- 
ing brilliant gifts. There are passages of power and 
beauty in her prose worlta. but her poetry is of in- 
ferior quality. She was gifted as a critic, her arti- 
cles sbowiug great insight. She was considered the 
pioneer of the cause of the elevation of woman. She 
wrote much for magazines, besides publishing sev- 
eral books. The date of her death is July Id, 1850. 
CONWELL, SiiBsell H., clergyman aud lec- 
turer, was born at Worthington, Hampshire county, 
Mass.. Feb. 15, 1843, and spent his early years on a 
small farm in the most stente aud mountainous por- 
tion of that region. He kent along with his chiaaes 
Id the district school by studying in the evenings, as 
he was compelled much of the time to engage in 
manual labor during school hours. By hard work 
and rigid economy lie earned enough money to pay 
for his food, clothing and tuition while attending an 
academy at Wilbralum. Mass., and in 1S60 entered 
upon the law course at Yale college. To save time 
and expense, he employed a private tutor to instruct 
him in the academic course. But the war of the re- 
bellion interrupted his studies 
in 1863, and took him to the 
flcid as a captain of infantry. 
He afterward served as a staff 
officer in the artillery service. 
At the close of the war he went 
to Minnesota, and began tlie 
practioe of law tJiere, having 
completed his legal course by 
private study while in the 
army. In 18U7 he represented 
the state of Minnesota as its 
emigration agent to Germany. 
In 1868 he was engaged as for- 
eign correspondent to iJic New 
 York "Tribune," aud the year 
following as the traveling cur- 
' j^ ' ' "' respondent of the Boston 

1 fc^ -"v-K gp^( j,y ,i,g^ ^^^.^, juijnials to 

^ dilTerent countries of Asia, and 

made the entire circuit of the globe. He is a 
writer of singular brilliancy and imwer. In 18T0 
he publi.ihed his first Iwok. " Whv and How the 
Chinese Emigrate." It has been fitllowed by many 
others of a historical aud biographical character. 
He was the friend and traveling companion of 
Bayard Taylor, and his biography of that poet and 
traveler had an extended sale. After practicing law 
for a time in Boston he was ordained to the ministry 
in 18T9, and in 1881 became pastor of Orace Baptist 



church in Pliiladelphia. The church at once en- 
tered upon a career of great prosperity. His elo- 
quence, his marvelous descriptive powers, his great 
earnestness and devotion to the interests of his peo- 
ple, rapidly increased the memt>ership of the church 
aud hi» influence in Philadelphia. In 1891 the Tem- 
ple was completed on North Broad street, with a 
seating capacity of 4,000 people. In 1888 Dr. Con- 
well founded Temple college, an educational insti- 
tution now connected with his church, and largely 
supported by the income he derives from hta public 
lectures. Dr. Conwell has been remarkably success- 
ful as a public lecturer ever since 1870. His " Sil- 
ver Crown; or. Born a King," " Acres of Diamonds." 
" Lessons of Travel," " Heroism of a Private Life" 
are models of lyceum lectures, and have given him 
a national repuiaiion as a platform orator. They are 
unique, and are filled with good sense, brilliant with 





HETEBIH', Jannea Heniy, lawyer, was bom 
near Dover, Del., Apr. 31. 1844. He obtained bis 
early education at a school near bis home and at 



he entered the sophomore 
class at Princeton college, 
and was graduated in 1864. 
Both at school a"d colle^ 
he progressed rapidly in his 
studies, was an omnivorous 
reader of the best works in 
the libraries, and fn debate 
showed remarkable powera 
of oratory. Soon after grad- 
uation lie entered the middle 
class at Harvard law school, 
remained there one year, con- 
tinued Ilia legal studies in 
Boston, Mass., during auoth- /^' yC^'jiy 

er year, and was admitted to f^p^ff^ j^^ ,^^i^r^Lr. 
the baratDover.Del.in 1666. 
In the same year he married 

Ada Caior, daughter of Dr. H. C. Calor of Syracuse, 
N. Y. The following year he settled in Philadelphia. 
Pa., where his abilities were soon shown in the prac- 
tice of his profession, and he won success in almost 
every case in which he was engaged. In 1869 he 
was clioHcn assistant district attorney cif Philadelphia, 
and disp<»ed of 700 cases during the flist month in 
office, displaying great activity aud untiring energy. 
After serving two years in this position, he declined 
a reappointment. Mr. Heverin was elected delegate- 
at-large from Philadelphia to the convention which 
amended the stale constitution in 1873. Although 
the youngest member of the ctmvention, his ability 
as a puliTic speaker soon gained him prominence in 
that boll}-, and he look an active part m its delibera- 
tions. In 1882 he was appointed assistant U. 8. 
attorney-general in the court of Alabama Claims, a 
posiliiin which gave opportunity for tlie use of his 
wealth of legal learning. In his general practice lie 
has had a large clientage, covering nearly the whole 
range of the legal profession. He has l)eeu attorney 
for a numlier of the largest coniorations in the coun- 
try, and counsel for the leading newspapers and 
theatres of Philadelphia. As a speaker be holds ihe 



of judges, jury, and auditors, and ■^ 
pleading an important cause, he become bso bed 
m his subject, and pours fonh a conliin t a 

of eloquence. His studied speeches si ion ami I (le 
of thought and illustration, aud are mod I f 
rect composition. Mr. Heverin rank* am ng the 
foremost forensic advocates in his state. 



80 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP iEDIA 



WEBB, Samuel Blatchley, soldier, was bom 
at Wethersfleld, Conn., Dec. 15, 1758. He was de- 
scended from Richard Webb, of Gloucestershire, 
Eng., who was settled in Boston in 1032, and went 
with the Rev. Thomas Hooker to Hartford, Conn., 
in 1685. His mother had married Silas Deane, and as 
his private secretary Samuel was active in the dis- 
cussions that preceded the revolution. In the his- 
tory of Hartford county, by J. Hammond Trumbull, 
we find that S. B. Webb was first lieutenant of Capt. 
Chester's companv, and the services of that company 
are spoken of as follows: **This is the same com- 
pany that fought at Bunker Hill, and whose bril- 
liant i:)erfonnance there rendered glorious the part 
taken by Connecticut in that action. " In command 
of a company of light infantry Lieut. Webb march- 
ed to Boston directly after the engtigements at Con- 
cord and Lexington, and in the battle of Bunker 
Hill was wounded, and subsequently commended 
for his gallantry in general orders. X letter that he 
wrote to Silas Deane describing that battle is now in 
the possession of the Connecticut histori(^al society 
at Hartford. In 1775 he was appointed aide to Gen. 
Israel Putnam, and a year later he was made private 
secretary and aide-de-camp to Washington, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, and in that capacity he 
wrote the onier for making public the declaration 
of independence in New York city July 9, 1776. 
The following extracts from his private journal 
show to wliom credit is due for refusing to receive 
despatches directed to Mr. Washington: *' New 
York, July 14, 1776. A flag of truce api>eared; Col. 
Reid and myself went down to meet it. About half- 
way between Governor's and Staten islands Lieut. 
Brown, of the Eagle, offered a letter from Loixi 
Howe, din^cted * Mr. George Washington,' which, 
on account of its direction, we refused to receive, 
and parted with the usual compliments. New York, 
'July 17, 1776. A flag of truce from the enemy, with 
an answer from Gen. Howe about the resolves sent 
yesterday, directed * George Washington, Esq.,' 
which was refused." Col. Webb t<x)k p)art in the 
battles of Long Island, Princeton, White Plains and 
Trenton, iKjing wounded in the last two engage- 
ments. In 1777 he raised and organized the 8d 
Connecticut regiment, which he equipped mostly 
from his own resources. With it he took part in 
Gen. Parsons's disastrous expedition to Long Island, 
and there was captured, with his command, and not 
exchanged until three years later, when he was pro- 
moted to the brevet rank of brigadier-general, and 
given the command under Washington which had 
been held by Steuben. His house at Wethersfleld, 
Conn., is still standing, and there, in May, 1781, he 
entertained Gen. Washington and Count Rocham- 
beau in their important conference. He was one of 
the thirteen who met at Fishkill, in the Verplanck 
House, to prepare the constitution of the Society of 
the Cincinnati in 1793. When Washington took the 
oath of office as first president of the United States, 
Gen. Webb was the grand marshal. After 1789 
Oen. Webb resided at Claverack, (Columbia county, 
N. Y., where he died Dec. 8, 1807. 

WEBB, James Watson, journalist and diplo- 
matist, was bom in Claverack, N. Y., Feb. 8, 1802, the 
4Bon of Gen. Samuel Blatchley Webb of the revolu- 
tionary army, and the father of Alexander S. Webb, 
who took a prominent part in the civil war, and is 
now pi-esident of the College of the city of New York. 
He was privately educated, and at tlie age of seven- 
teen, an army career being opposed by his guardian, 
he ran away to Washington, first securing a letter of 
identification as the son of Gen. Samuel B. Webb, 
from Gov. Clint-on of New York. Reserving enough 
money to defray his expenses to Washington, he de- 
voted the remanider of his ready means to " seeing 
the sights " in New York city. Arriving at Wash- 




ington, he was very kindly received by John C. Cal- 
houn, then the secretary of war, who at first firmly 
refused to commission him, on account of the claims 
of West Point graduates, but was finally prevailed 
upon to do so by young Webb's writing a statement 
of his own claims as o])poBed to those of graduates 
of West Point. Mr. Cal- 
houn appointed him lieu- 
tenant m the 4th battalion 
of artillery, with orders to 
report at Governor's Isl- 
and, New York harbor. 
In after years, when Gen. 
Webb had become an im- 
portant factor in politics, 
his consideration for Cal- 
houn, though they differed 
widely in principles, was 
an illustration of his lead- 
ing characteristic, attach- 
ment to those who had 
done him a kindness. To 
show the continuance of 
this relationship, we re- 
call that he was invited to 
Washington by the leading 
whig sehatoi's, particular- 
ly Webster and Mangum, 
to oppose President Polk's war policy regarding the 
northwestern boundaiy question, partly because of 
his position on that question, and partly because of 
his personal relations with Calhoun. The satisfac- 
tory settlement of that momentous question wan due 
in no small measure to the direct action of Gen. 
Webb. At the reduction of the army in 1821, he 
was detailed to Chicago. In January, 1823, infor- 
mation was received of an intended Indian uprising, 
with a view to the ma.ssacre of Col. Snelling's regi- 
ment (located at St. Anthony's Falls, Minn.). In 
order to warn Col. Snelliug, it was necessary to send 
a messenger to Fort Annstrong on the Mississippi. 
Owing to the danger — it being winter, and all the 
surrounding Indians on the point of uprising — a vol- 
unteer was called for, as the weakness of Col. Mc- 
Neil's command forbade sending a party. Yoimg 
Webb, then twenty years old, undertook the duty, 
and with a picked companion and one Indian guide 
he set out to reach Fort Armstrong, in spite of hos- 
tile Indians, intense cold, and snow eight inches deep. 
On foot through the woods and over the prairies, 
acrass the entire state of Illinois, he struggled, and for 
the last two days and three nights, pur- 
sued by the fleet-footed Winnebagoes, he 
took no rest, until he flnallv made his way 
through an encircling banc) of hostile sav- 
ages who surroimded Fort Armstrong, 
into the fort itself. From there a courier 
was sent up the Mississippi to Fort Snell- 
ing, whose warning enabled the garrison 
to prevent the uprising. In 1825 he was 
appointed adjutant of" the 3d regiment, 
and in September. 1827, resigned his com- 
mission, becoming the proprietor and prin- 
cipal e<litor of the New ifork "Morning 
Courier." In 1829 he purchased the 
New York "Enquirer," and combined 
it with the "(\nirier." He revolution- 
ized the then system of news-gathering, 
building for this purpose the schooner 
Courier and Enquirer, unquestionably 
the strongest and fastest craft of her class that had 
ever been built at that day, and thereby gave a new 
impetus to the newspaj>er press, which has continued 
to this day. In 1849 he was appointed minister to 
Austria, but was not confirmed by the senate, chief- 
ly through the instnimentality of Mr. Clay, whose 
opposition sprang from Gen. Webb's advocacy of 




J 



OF AMEBIOAN BIOGEAPHY. 



31 



biiiliant mind governed Bolel; bj Impulses of right. 
He beliered in a tariff and aU. 8, bank, and when 
Qen. Jackson advocated them, Oen. Webb lent the 
aid of bis immense influence to their support. When 
Jackson abandoned the U. 8, bank, Gen. Webb still 
believed in and clung to it, and though otherwise in 
' full accord with the president, he si ran glj condemned 
him for striking certain otUccrs from the roll of the 
Bavj. lie aided in consolidating, and gave thi 



given only to his own principles, and those principles 
always Bounded the alarm for oppmition to any 
whose integrity he doubted, whether political or 
moral, and during the time when the slavocracy 
threatened the life of the nation, his great paper 
thundered for "freedom, liberty, union: fr^dom 
and liberiy, one and iuscparable. now and forever; 
and union, everlasting union among the stales, for 
our own benefit, and for the beucnt of mankind." 
In 1861 he was appointed and confirmed miniaier to 
Turkey, without his knowledge or consent. He de- 
clined by telegraph, and was immediately and unani- 
mously appointed and confirmed Envoy Exlraordi- 
naty and Minister Plenipotentiary to the empire of 
Br^il, which poet he accepted and filled for eight 
jeara. He Journeyed to Bra^til. via Fimtalnebleau, 
France, by request of President Lincoln, and there 
met Louis Xapoteon by appointment, and explained 
to him the cause of the secession, our determination 
to put it down, andourability to maintain the block- 
ade of the southern coast, if not Interfered with. 
Having been a highly prized personal friend and 
constant correspondent of Napoleon fur over a quar- 
ter of a century, this interview, as stated by our 
Miniaterto Paris, Mr. Dayton. Iiad a moxt important 
effect upon the then stale of affaim. Those years in 
Brazil were pregnant with constant successions of 
critical crises. His predecessors had traitorously 



;r enmity of England's Envoy. Conquering both 
by sheer force of chamcter, he secured from Brazil 
respectful treatment, and from Ihe English govern- 
ment the recall of its disgraced Envoy, doing the 
last at the risk of his own life. Through hie diplo- 
matic genius, his fearless defense of the ri^ht, which 
caused him to disregard all but considerations of jus- 
tice and principle, even at the risk of offending the 
great Napoleon in their private correspondence, he, 
Uirough his confidential intercourse with that empe- 
ror, secured the peaceful withdrawal of the French 
from Mexico in March, 1667, a fitting crown to his 
brilliant diplomatic career. After reiuminj! finally 
from Brazil, he passed the remainder of his life in 
M ew Y ork city, and died there June t, 1884. 

WXBB, Alexander Stewart, educator, was bom 
in New York city Feb. 15, 1885, a son of Gen. James 
Watson Webb, and was educated at private schools, 
and at West Point academy, where ho was graduated 
in Ids'}. He was then commissioned lieutenant in 
the 2d ariillery. and served in the Florida campaign, 
and on frontier duty in Minnesota during the pcnod 
fn>m 1659-ST. In the latter year he was appointed 
assistant professor of mathematics at West Point, 
and in February, 1861, was detailed to form a new 
battery from among the soldiers there. This battery, 
under Capt. (afterward General) Griflln, went to 
Washington during the same month, and look poet 
In Judiciaiy square. It was from this compaiiv that 
young Webb was detailed to guard, with soldiers in 
citizens' cI<Ahea, the headquarters of Gen. Scott, the 
old soldier refusing to allow any guard around his 
house. He was then detailed to light ballery A, 
and proceeded to Fort Pickens. Fla.. then in a state 



of siege. He left Fort Pickens to take part with this 
battery In the first Bull Run battle, remaining at 

Centerville to cover the retreat the night aflerMc- 
Dowcll's defeat; he was then made assistant chief of 
artillery of the army of the Potomac; was next ma- 
jor of the 1st Rhode Island volunteers, but never 
joined the regiment. He served with Ihe army of 
the Potomac during the summer of 1863; was' ap- 
pointed assistant inspector general, with llie rank of 
lieutenant -colonel, and shortly afterward chief of 
staff of the 5th army corps, on the special recom- 
mendation of Gen. McClellan. In November, 18M, 
he was appointed inspector of artillery, and assigned 
to duty at Camp Barry, Washington, where he re- 
mained till January, 1863, when he returned to the 
field, and served as assistant inspector-general. 5th 
corps, until June 29th, when he was commissioned 
brii^dicr-general of volunteers, and placed in com- 
mand of the 2d brigade, 3d division, of the Sd 
corps. He was present with his brigade at tlie bat- 
tle of Gettysburg, and in repulsing Pickett's famous 
charge on the third dav, was conspicuous for his 
bravery and military skill. Al the '■ angle " he met 
that diTifiion, and was mainly instrumental in its 
repulse, being wounded while leading his men. Sub- 
sequently he was awarded by Gen. Meade a bronze 
medal for " di.'jtinguished personal gallantry on that 
ever memorable field." Ho 
was brevetted ' major (U. S. 
army) for the part he took in 
that struggle. He was in com 
mand of the 2d division 2d 
corps for one year, and dur 
ing the Rapidan campai^ at 
Bristow Station, his d vision 
leading the 2d coqjs, received 
the attack of the wiole of 
Hill's corps. From this Con 
federate corps he took six 
guns, and more than 2 000 
prisoners. For this he was 
brevetted lieutenant colone 
(U. 8. army). When Gen 
Grant joined Geo. Meade h s 
division was consolida ed uto 

brigade, and this bnj 
.lie plank road, foug 
Field. Wiicox, and 1 
from half-past five in them 
ing until half-past one in tue 
afternoon, losing 9T6 men HcLaws states in I is 
report that the Confed rates could not force back 
this brigade. He was in the battles of the Wilder- 
ness and Spottsylvania, and was severely wounded 
during the last day's fight. May 12, 1864, and forced 
to relire from active service for the rest of the year, 
being brevetted colonel (U. 8, army) for i^llant and 
meritorious services at Spottsylvania, While on sick 
leave, Aug. 1, 1864, he was brevetted major-general 
United States volunteers for gallant and distinguish- 
ed conduct at Gettysburg, at Bristow Slalion, at the 
battles in the Wilderness, and at Spottsylvania. Jan. 
11, 1865, he returned to active service as chief-of- 
staff to Gen. George G. Meade, commanding the 
army of the Potomac in the operations befoi* Peters- 
burg, and 80 served during the campaign, which re- 
sulted In the surrender oi the ConfnieTatea under 
Gen. Lee, March 13, 1865; he was brevetted briga- 
dier-general (U. 8. army) for gallant and meritorious 
services in the campaign, which terminated with the 
surrender of Gen. Lee, and, at the same time, was 
brevetted major-general (U. 8. army) for gallant and 
meritorious services during the civft war. In June, 
1865, lie was assigned lo (Tuty by the president with 
the rank of major-cenenil (C. 8, army) lo act as in- 
spector-general of the military division of the Atlan- 
tic. Geu. Webb was mustered out of Ihe volunteer 




82 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-^JDIA 



service Jan. 15, 1866, and became principal assistant 
professor of geography, history, and ethics at West 
Foint. On the reorganization of the iCrmy he was 
appointed lieutenant - colonel 44th infantry, which 
regiment he commanded in the department of Wash- 
ington, then as major-general (U. S. army) com- 
mandeid Urst military district, April, 1869, and was, 
at his own request, discharged from the service, 
Dec. 3, 1870. In the reor^nization of the army 
Gen. Webb was made to suffer, during his absence 
from Washington, by the clause that i*equired that 
volunteer officers should be promoted in the new 
regiments to the exclusion of regular officers, and, 
after a consolidation was directed, it was found that 
his position as lieutenant-colonel would bring him 
under men who had served far below him in the field. 
Being entitled to retire as major-general, and suffer- 
ing from wounds received in action, he went to his 
home to await onlers. At this time he was elected 
president of the College of the City of New York, 
and took charge of that institution in August, 

1869. To finish his military career it is well to state 
that the retiring board, before which he appeared in 

1870, wanted evidence of Gen. Webb's disability, 
whicli he did not know it was necessaiy for him to 
furnish. Through this misunderstanding the board 
failed to recommend his retirement, and Gen. Webb 
resigned. The board has ever since this asked to be 
reconvened in order that it might correct its errors. 
A bill has been brought before congi'ess, the passage 
of which has been urged by nineteen different states, 
retiring Gen. Webb as major-general of the United 
States army for distinguished personal gallantry at 
Gettysburg, Bristow Station, and Spottsylvania 
Court House. The College of the City of New York 
had 447 students when Gen. Webb took charge of it, 
and it cost the city $125,000 a year. It h»is now 
1,400 students, and the cost to the city is $147,000 a 
year. His system of government is entirely unlike 
that which is found in any other college, and is alto- 
gether original with himself. After having been a 
successful instructor of mathematics, English, and 
law at West Point, he came to the college fully 
equipped as an instructor. He has overcome preju- 
dice and managed its affairs so as to command the re- 
spect of all citizens of all parties. He has saved the in- 
stitution, and given it'a position so high among the col- 
leges of the country, that its diploma is respected in 
all schools of law, medicine, and intellectual science 
throughout the Union. In 1870 the degree of LL. D. 
was conferred upon him by Hobart college. He 
has publishiKl "The Peninsula: McClellan's Cam- 
paign of 1862 " (New York, 1882). and articles on 
the civil war in the ** Century Magazine." 

HAIili, William Edward, soldier, was bom at 
Sparta, now Tarry town, N. Y., May 13, 1796. He 
early removed to Albany, N. Y., where he learned 
the business of making musical instruments. In 
1812 he was in New York city, and on the outbreak 
of the war joined the army, and served with distinc- 
tion until i)eace was declared. After the war he be- 
came a member of the state militia; was for several 
years colonel of the 8th (then 3ti) regiment; about 1846 
rose to the rank of brigadier - general, command- 
ing 2d brigade N. Y. state militia, and in this posi- 
tion won the esteem of his comrades and the general 
public. In 1821 he established a music-publishing 
business on Franklin square, New York city, with 
Mr. Firth , under the firm name of Firth & Hall, 
which was subsequently and for many years Wm. 
E, Hall & Son, and occupied a prominent position 
in the trade. In 1861-62 Gen. Hall was actively en- 
gaged in raising and forwarding troops to the seat 
of war, and in 1863 commanded a brigade of New 
York state militia sent to Pennsylvania during the 
Confederate raid in that state. He was active at 



the Astor place riots, commanding the brigade or- 
dered out by the governor. Although a brave and 
determined soldier, he possessed a kind heart, and on 
this occasion he ordered his men to '* fire high/* 
thereby saving many innocent lives, and successful- 
ly dispersing the rioters. His son and grandson 
served in the civil war at the same time with him* 
self. Gen. Hall retired from active service in 1863, 
and devoted himself to business. He was one of 
the first members of the American institute, and for 
several years was its president, and was also pres- 
ident of the society of Mechanics and Tradesmen; he 
was a member of the state senate and of the com- 
mon council, and was chairman of the whig general 
committee. In all these positions he discharged his 
political duties honestly, and commanded the affec- 
tion and respect of all good citizens. He was honor- 
able, genial, kindly and generous, and a devoted 
friend. Gen. Hall died May 3, 1874. 

HAIili, James Frederick, soldier, was bom in. 
New York city in Februaiy, 1824, the sou of Gen. 
William Edward Hall. At the early age of fourteen 
he left school and entered the music-publishing 
house of his father, aiding in conducting a prosper- 
ous business until the outbreak of the civil war. 
When the first call for troops 
was made in the summer of 
1861, Mr. Hall assisted Gen. 
Welch, commissary-general of 
ordnance of the state, to equip 
twenty-eight regiments for the 
field. As soon as this was done 
he set to work to fit out a regi- 
ment for himself, selecting his 
men for their physical ability 
and mechanical skill, and Mr. 
Parrot t of the West Point foun- 
dry, presented him with a full 
battery of field guns. It was 
known as the Parrott battery. 
This regiment was mustered 
into service Oct. 10, 1861, with 
James F. Hall as its major. He 
was s(M)n promoted to l)e lieuten- 
ant-colonel, subsequently rose to 
the rank of colonel, and in 18(W, for distinguished 
services was brevetted brigadier-general. Gen. Hall's 
services in the field were at tlie capture of Port 
Roval; he constructed the works on Ty bee Island, 
and distinguished himself at the capture of Fort 
Pulaski, for which services he received commenda- 
tion from several oflicers. He also took part in the 
battles of Pocotalizo and Olustee, was present at the 
capture of Morris Island and at tlie two attacks on 
Fort Wagner. He co-operated with Gen. Sherman 
against Savannah and Charleston, and when Lee had 
been driven out of Uichmond and the Federal troops 
w^ere encircling the Confederate forces, Gen. Grant 
selected Gen. Hall for important services. Gen. 
Hall was present at Appomattox on the occasion of 
Gen. Lee's surrender. For two years he acted as 
provost marshal general of the Department of the 
South, and performed the arduous duties of that 
ofilce most sjitisfaotorily. After the war his pnmio- 
tion as brevet brigadier-general was confirmed by 
the U. S. senate. At the close of the war his father 
urged him to return to his business, which had suf- 
fered by his absence, but he was appointed inspector 
of customs, and subseciueutly Jissistant appraiser of 
the port of New York, and was also a member of 
the staff of Gov. Fenton of New York. Gen. Hall 
was a deserving officer, and was possessed of brilliant 
courage and remarkable energy. His personal traits 
endeared him to a large circle of friends. He was a 
consistent Christian, an Episcopalian, a man of stroug 
attachments and of large heart. He died Jan. 9, 
1884, leaving a widow and two children. 





-^ /^/^IS^Z-l^^J^T,-^ 



OP AMERICAN BIOGBAPHY. 




EABBISON, WilliEUn Henry, ninth presi- 
dent of Ihe United States, was bom al Berkeley. 
Charles City Co.. Va.. Feb. 8. 1773. His father, 
Ben Harrison, was a direct descendant of the 
famous Col, Harrison, officer in tlie army of Oliver 
Cromwell of Kneland. Ho waa speaker of the Vir- 
ginia house of burgesses and afierward a zealous 
member of the Continental congress; and Ibe same 
BcD Harrison. June 10, 1776. as chairmaQ of the 
commitlGe of the whole in congress, reported to that 
bodv the resolution declaring the inayjondence of 
the britisli colonies, WiiKdm Henry Harrison was 
s studious lad; tlicro were books at Berkcly and be 
made good use of them. There U do record of the 

Beciae dates of his entry into or his graduation from 
unpden-Sidney College, biit after leaviug it he 
turned hia attention to the study of medicine. He 
was bill sixteen when Wasliiog- 
tou became president in 178B. hut 
it was a time when the few edu- 
cated young men of tiie republic 
matured early, and his future was 
to be cast in a way which made 
him no exception to the rule. It 
waa a period of nlarni and danger 
tipon the western frontier, from 
the incursions of Indiana incited 
more or less directly by English 
indiicnce, and soseilous baa the 
troubles come to be Ibal the tide 
of westward progress threatened 
to cease, or at least to be cheeked. 
At this time young Harris<in 
announced bis intention to en- 
ter the United Stales army. Rob- 
y ) £^ f^^ "^ '^^ Morris, the celebrated flnnn- 

■fc^ /7r/<'j»-»-t-^'ii--- cier, imcter whose guardinnsliip 
^ he had been placed, waa so op- 

posed to the ■4>rojcct that he 
went to President Washington to consult him as 
to the best means of counterncling it. But the 
president overruled the financier's objections, and in 
April, 1791, caused a commission to be issue<] to tiie 
young man as ensign of the 1st regiment, United 
Stales artillery, the regiment being at that lime in 
the heart of the Indian country, on the site of Ihe 
present city of Cincinnati. Ohio. Not long after he 
joined the command one of Gen. St. Clair's veterans 
wrote of him: "I would as soon have thought of 
putting my wife Into the army as this l)ov, but 1 have 
been out nith bira, and 1 dnd that those smooth 
cheeks are on a wise head, and tliat slight form is 

in.— 3. 



's weather-beaten carcass." 
«ae such as soon drew to 
, Anthony Wayne, who 




almost as lough as any oi 
His performance of (lutj 

bim the attention of Qen. Anthony Wayne, wl 
succeeded St. Clair after the disastrous defeat of tt. 
latter'a army by Indians, Nov. 19. 1761, and dur- 
ing the next year he was made a lieutenant. It is 
noted that he had already learned one lesson not 
always learned by military men. the value of perfect 
sobriotv in spite of nil temptation to the use of in- 
toxicating liquors. Dec. 23, 1793, a strong detach- 
ment of infantry and nrtilleiy occupied the ground 
where St. Clair had been defeated, and built a fort 
called Fort Recovery, In the general order of 
thanks for the excellent performance of a iierilous 
duty, Lieut. Harrison received especial mention. At 
the battle of the Miami, Aug. 30. 17B4, he was 
under constant and grent exposure, winning the 
marked approbation of Gen. Wayne, who said of 
him in despatches to the war department: "My 
faithful and gallant aide-de-camp, Lieut. Harrison, 
rendered the most essential service bv communicat- 
ing my orders in every direction, ana bv his conduct 
and bravery exciting troops to press {or victory." 
And at tlie close of the campaign of 1795 he waa 
made a captain of artillery, and placed in command 
of the Important post of Fort Washington (now 
Cincinnati), with orders to report and watch all 
movements In what was then Spanish Louisiana, 
tlie vast unknown Southwest and West. By the Jay 
treaty of 1794, Great Britain surrendered ils posses- 
sion of posts npon American soil and Ca|)t. Harrison 
received and occupied the several posts in his terri- 
torial limits for the United Stales government. And 
shorily after getting hie captain's commission, he 
married Aima. daugliter of J. C. Symmes, founder 
of the Miami settlement and one of the United 
States judges of the territoiy. thua allying himself 
by a new and permanent tie to the pioneers of tbe 
western border. In 1781 he resigned his military 
commission and was at once appointed a secretary 
of (be noilbwestem territory, being also ex-ollicio 
lieutenant-governor, and in tne frequent prolonged 
absences of his superior, acting governor. When 
the territory was declared (179i^) to be entitleil by 
Its population to a delegate in tlie United States con- 
gress, the almost unanimous choice of the voters fell 
(1799) uiwn young Harrison, and he took his seat in 
the boiiy at the age of twenty-six. Here he soon 
secure<l the passage of a resolution providing for a 
committee of investigation into the existing land 
laws for the public domain, and as chairman of the 
committee (a trust never before and perhaps never 



34 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



since conferred upon a territorial delegate) he re- 
ported a bill which when passed worked a revntiition 
ID tbe maoagement of the public lands of tlie United 
States, so that the entire country went of tlie Penn- 
sjtvaoia border to the shore of the Pucitlc Ocean 
owes its facility of settlement and the iMse dintnliu 
tlon of its area among many lustead of lU absorpiion 
by a smaller number of owners to the clearheaded 
statesmansliip of the young representative of tiie 
nortbweatem temloiy By the discuHsiona In con 
neclion with the passa)ce of this bill (sonienhat 
nKxtitled by the U 8 senate) his name Itecame more 
widely ana more favorably known than those of 
some men n ho had been long in conij^esii In 1800 
the north weateni tern lor\ uasdividedand he became 
by appointment of President John Adams the 
(jovernor of the new territory of Indiana including 
the present states of Indiana Illinois Michigan and 
Wisconsin, to which position he was subsequently 
reappointed under Presidents J<.lTersoD and Madison 
He entered upon the duties of the office (which 



His decision as to them was made final and his sig- 
nature upon a title was a cure of all defects. With 
reference to all the Indian tribes he was made the 
general agent and represeiitativeof the United States 
in change of treaties and treaty payments, and his 
correbpoudence with the government at Washington 
relating, to the vast mass of Indian affairs involved, 
liecame one of the onerous burdens of his position. 
Whiiu Louisiana was regained <!808), all of upper 
Louisiana with line boundaries, except upon the east. 
was added to his Jurisdiction. He had many op- 
portumtres for the acquisitions of wealth by judicious 
inie^tnients in land but in his whole administration 
he was so full of mtegnlj and so morbidly sensitive 
to public opinion ana criticism, that it seemed as if 
he feared to acquire properly lest it should be 
cliargc-d upon him that he had ^Iten it through ad- 
vantaice given him by his oRicial place and power. 
His discharge of duty now required long and peril- 
ous journeys from place to place, on horseback 
through the woods or In boats up and down rivers 




IS Invested 



carried with it the superintcodencv of Indian affairs) 
In IBOl Then there weie but thiee ciinsiderable 
settlements in all the (eiritory one Clark s grant 
very nearly opposite Louisville Ky one at \ m 
cennc« on the Walswh nier in what is now Indiana 
and the third aatring of French villacea along the 
Mississippi, from Kaskaskia (111 ), to Cohokia 
present Slissouri Here Gov. Harrison 
with one of the most exiraoniinary commissions in 
llie history of the country. The new republican in- 
atitutioiis'of the territory were to be fostered and 
dcve1ot)e<l. says his biographer, under his autocratic 

F<)wer The people had no voice whatever flen. 
larrison was commander of the territorial militia. 
He was Indian commissioner, land commissioner, 
solo lejrislator and law giver. He had the power 
given him to adopt from the laws upon the books of 
any of the states any and every law which in his 
jiidgnient applied to the nemls of the territory. He 
appointed all the madxtraies and all the other civil 
officers, and all the militia officers below the grade 
of general It was his duty and he was given 
authority to divide the country into counties and 
townships He held the pard<iiiing power, was 
made judge of the merits of existing land grants, of 
which many were technically worthless or defective. 



whuh rnm(d more Indian canoes than any other 
craft He had come to understand Indian character 
n.maihal)l7 well and to have great iriduence over 
many chiefsand warnors. He proved himself their 
true fnend but there was really no perfect peace 
with any trilie at that time, and his abililj' as a 
watchful military commander was all tlie while em- 
ployed to prevent the skirmish line, as the a<lvanced 
settlements might well be called, from becimiiiig a 
]!eneral battle ground. In 180.1 he obtained from 
congress a law for the on^nlzatlon of the territory, 
and provision was made ftr an election by the people, 
of a territorial legislature, which was to name the 
men from whom eiingress was to choose five to act 
as a council of the territory. In his first message 
to the legislature, the governor urged interference 
by law to prevent the sale of liquor to the Indians. 
In his personal dealingK with Ihem he was fearless 
and yet prudent, availing himself of his previous 
experience and increasing his knowledge as to their 
nature. Hairison did not neglect his duties in any 
part of the vast ai'ea entrusted to bis care. When In 
1805 upper Louisiana was separated from his juris- 
diction the citizens of St. Louis presented him vrith 
a formal vote of thanks for the manner in which be 
had served their interests. When offered what 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 35 

-would have been & third part of Ihe cHy of St. Northwegtemarmy.wiib extraordinary power, such 

IioaiB as an inducement for employine hia oRiciai as had been before given cmlv to Oen. Wnshingtou 

intlueDce lo build it tip, be did what ne could for and Uen. Uittciie. Forthwith joiuiiig the troo]H, 

the local welfare, but refused to lake the proflered who were Hlniosl in a state of mutiny, in part be- 

reward. By this time his name had become almost cause of [lisitatUfaclion with Uiclr commander, and 

indcDtlHed in the minds of his countrymen with ler- in part bc(«use of the wretched condillon of liie 

riioria] ^alrs and with the tangled story of Indian cummlsBurial. Harrison content rated liix army at 

diplomacy. During hialongHdministralion, indeed, the rapids of the Miami, and thence pnipnsed lo 

he ne<»>tiated no less than thirteen important treaties move on ftlalden, In Cauada. and uiHm Detroit, 

with the tribes. But as the conspiracy of Tecumseh Mich., which had been surrendered tothe British by 

and bis brother the prophet waxed stroneer, and the Gen. Hull. The campaign which followed is tntce«i 

natural rT?sults be^an to appear in attacks upon de- in detail in tlie life of Harrleou, by W. O. Slodilard 

fenceless settiere, the demand for war with England, (New York, IHBS). It included llie massacre of the 

■whichwasmoreorlessprevalent[lnl8n-12)lhrouph- Itaisin, so culled (Jan. 21, 1813), in which the 

out the United Slates, found etruni^est expression American trooiKt under Winchester were alm<«t 

among the people of the extreme western border, exlcrminated by Britisli and Indians, the fortiflcatlon 

who, with some truth, attributed Ihestlrring up of In- of Fort Meigs, and its suliseqiient relief when be- 

dian hostilitj to British influence. Early in Ihesum- sieged in the ensuing spring by the enemy. Har- 

nierof mil, news came to Vlncennes, the governor's rison'a urgent suggestionB to the United Slates gov- 

headquartcrs. that a thousand Indian warriors bad erument that armed vessels be constructed upon the 

eatbered at Tippecanoe, Ind., the prophet's town, lakes resulted In the outfit of a Heel by Com. O, 

Gen, Harrison sent them a messenger, and on the H. Perry, and Perry's famous naval victory over 

27th of July (1811). had a council with Ihem, which Great Britain with the consequent clearing of those 

Tvas followed by Harrison's advance upon them in waters of any foe, followed by Harrison's co-opera- 

October at the bead of l.OOO men. Ibis military lion with him, and tlie pursuit of the British forces 

movement having been authorized from Waslitngton, under Proctor, until they were overtaken in Canada 

D. C. Nov. Tth, at almost a mile and a half from and the battle fought (Oct. 5th) nlilcb ended in 

tbe Indian town, attheearly dawn Ibey were fiercely their defeat, the death of Tecumseh and the total 

attacked by the savages who hoped to surprise litem, dispersion oif the belligcrimt Indian-.;. 

but Harrison's vigilance prevented that, and in the Tbe 1ds.scs in this iniiiin witv i, 

battle which ensued the Indians were thoroughly nineteenkilledandflfiv wniijiilcil 

-worsted. The American commander escaped uu- on thesideof tbeBriii^li atiil the 

hurt, the nearest bullet passing through the rim of struggle was over 

his bat. The influence of the people who had pre- iu a few minutes, - -, 

announced a complete Indian victory was entirely but all the artil- ' '- 

shattered by this victory of the Amencan fctrces. and lery and stores of 

the legislatures of Kentucky and Indiana, as well as the British army 

President Madison iu his message to congress, ex- in upper Canada j 

pressed their thanks to tbe governor for his "masterly were now in ibe I 

conduct in the direction and man<Euvering of the hands of Gen. ; 

troops," end "for the collected firmDCSS which dis- Harrison and so 

tinguished the commander on an occasion requiring was tbe province - - - 

the utmost exertion of valor and discipline." June Itself, 'iei the real and great Talue of the vicloty 

18. 1913, war was declared between Oreat Britain was itsclTcct upon all the savage tribes of the Nonh- 

and the United States, and the savages rose iu mass west. It settled forever tbe vexed qneslion of the 

as fast as tbe news spread amont; tlioiii. At the in- boundary between Indians and the widles, clearing 

vitalion of the governor of Kentiickv. Gov. Harrison the way for the removal of the red man from all the 

proceeded to Frankfort and thence by suggpstinn of territory now included in the great slates of the 

public men, among them Henry Clay, sent his views Mississippi valley. The news spread fast through 

iipim military affairs lo President Madison. Mack- the United States. President Madison sent a mes- 

inac was even then in the hands of the British ; in a sage to congress eulogizing Harrtson and his men, 

few days more Gen. Hull had siirrenderetl Detroit, and it was declared upon the floor of Ibe U. S, senate 

and the entire border was open to any movement of that his " victory was such as could have secured 

Ihe British or of their savage allies. During this to a Itoman general in tbe best days of the republic, 

conference, HaiTison, althougli he was not a citizen the honor of a triumph." Harrisrm really went into 

of Kentucky, received the appointment of brevet Washington now in a kind of triumphal progress, 

niajor-geneml of Kentucky mihtia, and shortly after but tbe prejudice of Ihe then secretary of war. Gen. 

a commission from tbe U. S. war department as John Armstrong, threw unexpecteii oltstacle.'' in the 

bri^Iier-ireneral in the regular army, Tlie latter way of Ills further sen'lce and issued In Harrison's 

ofhce he did not accept until he coiikt inform the forwarding to Washington his resignation from tbe 

Washington authorities of steps already taken and army. In the president's absence from the citr, the 

learn if his new commission place<l him under the resignation was at once accepted l)y the secretary, 

order of Gen, Winchester of Ihe U. S. army, who President Madison upon his return was not equal to 

had been appointed to the command of Ihe force in the appropriate remedy of the wrong which had 

tbe Northwest. He was already at the head of been done, but straightway appointed Harrison to 

□early 8,000 volunteer troops froiii Renluckv, Ohio the head of an imi>r>rlant ['omtuission to (real with 

and Indiana, who were clamorous thai be and nonne the Indian trilws, his cosdjutom being Gov. Isaac 

else should lead them in the slnigple that was im- Shelby of Kentucky and Gen. Lewis Cass of Michi. 

minent, simply because they knew bis cnpacily as an gan. As such Indian commissioner, be CBrric<! on 

Indian fighter and did not think much of Winchester with wisdom and success what had already been tbe 

as such. Their determination was such that when great work of bis lahorions life. When in 1R16, 

Winchester arrived with his commission iu his Saving beconte a dti/.en of Ohio and the owner of a 

pocket, Harrison turned over the command to him good farm at North Bend, on the Ohio river, fifteen 

and at once left camp for bis home. Before he miles below Cincinnati. Hon. Jolin M<-I..ean, repre- 

reacbed it, however, new orders from Wnsliington sentativo in congress from that state resigned lo 

were placed in his hands (at Indianapolis) appoint- accept the Ju<lgi-sliip of tbe supreme court of the 

log him, instead of Winchester, commander of the state lo which Tic liod been elected and there were 




36 



THE NATIOI«^AL CYCLOPEDIA 



six candidates in' the field for the succession, Gen. 
Harrison was chosen by a majority of more than 
a thousand over all his competitors. It was at 
this time that the enemies which he had raised up 
by his rigid exactness with army contractors, 
struck a severe blow at him, one of them bring- 
ing forward a plausible accusation of improper con- 
duct on Harrison's part while he was on the field. 
An investi^tiou was demanded, but before its ter- 
mination his friends injudiciously offered a resolu- 
tion tendering him the thanks of congress for his 
services and ordering a gold medal to be struck in 
commemoration thereof. This was to be done in 
connection with a similar honor to Gov. Shelby of 
Kentucky. When a vote was reached on it in the 
senate his name was struck out of the resolution by 
a vote of 13 to 11. Two years later (March 30, 
1818) the resolution was unanimously adopted in 
the senate, and met with but one adverse voice in 
the house, and he received the medal; the report 
then made to congress wiped away all charges against 
him, and declared that "Gen. Harrison stands above 
suspicion." He was re-elected to conirress by the 
people of Ohio, took a suflicient part m all impor- 
tant discussions, gave especial attention to western 
lands, Indian affairs and the proper organization of 
the national militia, also voted against the proposition 
to restrict the people of Missouri ten-itory from or- 
ganizing as a state with a clause in their constitution 
permittiiig slavery. He declared his belief that they 
should be free to regulate their own domestic insti- 
tutions, but in 1822 this vote cost him a defeat when 
he was a candidate for re-election. He was a mem- 
ber of the Ohio state senate in 1819, and a presidential 
elector in 1820, voting then for »Tames Monroe for 
president. In 1824 he entered the U. 8. senate from 
his adopted stale, and was there accounted one of its 
useful members with personal popularity among his 
associates. He was made U. S. minister plenipo- 
tentiary to the new republic of Colombia, S. America, 
in 1828, by President John Quincy Adams, and re- 
signed his senatorial seat to accept the post. When 
Andrew Jackson became president (1829) he had 
hardly been sworn in before Harrison's recall wa« 
determined on. No suitable provision was made for 
his return to the United States, and fully three 
months went by before he came back at his own ex- 
pense. He noV retired to his farm near North 
Bend, and being in needy circumstances erected a 
distillery for the profitable consumption of his com 
crop, but before many months had passed, at a 
public meeting in Cincinnati of the Agricultural 
Society of Hamilton County, of which he was presi- 
dent, he pleaded, eloquently against the vice of 
drunkenness and the wickedness of manufacturing 
whiskey, saying that he could so speak of the evil 
of " turning the staff of life into an article which is 
so destnictive of health and happiness, because in 
that way I have mined myself, but in that way I 
shal 1 live no more. " There was no temperance sent i- 
ment or movement as that now exists, at the time, 
and the assimiption of .this position by a public man 
called for far more than ordinary devotion to moral 
principle. About this time he became clerk of the 
Cincinnr.ti court of cimimon pleas. In 1838 he re- 
ceived 73 electoral votes for president of the United 
States to 170 cast for Martin Van Buren; but the 
whig national convention at Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 
4, 1839, gave him the preference over all other 
competitors as its candidate for that oflice, and after 
the " log cabin "canvass which followed, he received 
240 electoral votes to 00 cast for Van Buren. March 
4, 1841, he was inaugurated as president at Wash- 
ington, but died of pneumonia, following a chill, just 
one month from that day (April 4th), liis life, as is 
now generally thought, literally worn away and de- 
stroyed by the hordes of applicants for public oflice 




to whose persecution he was subjected. His body 
was buried in the congressional cemetery at Wash- 
ington, but a few years later was removed to North 
Bend, O. The state of Ohio afterward took a deed 
of the land in which it reposes, and in ISSl voted to 
raise money by taxation for a suitable monument to 
his memory. Various *' lives" of this greatest and 
best of Indian commissioners, pioneer, governor of 
Indian Territory and president, have been written. 
That by W. O. Stoddard, already noted, has been 
followed in the preparation of this sketch. President 
Harrison died April 4, 1841. 

HARBISON, Anna Symmes, wife of Presi- 
dent W. H. Harrison, was bom near Morristown, 
N. J., July 25, 1775, thedaughter of Col. John Cleves 
Svmmes, of the Continental army, and of Miss Tut- 
hill of Southold, L. I. Her mother dying soon after 
her birth, Anna was brought up by her maternal 
grandparents ; attended school 
at £ast Hampton, L. I., and sub- 
sequently was placed in a school 
kept by Mrs. Isabella Graham 
in New York city. In 1794 she 
removed with her father and 
stepmother to Ohio, settling at 
North Bend. While visiting a 
married sister at Lexington, 
Ky., Anna met Capt. Harrison, 
and was married to him at North 
Bend, Nov. 22, 1795. Mi-s. Har- 
rison was described at this time 
as being very handsome, with 
an animated countenance, and a 
graceful figure. She accompa- 
nied her husband to Philadel- 
phia, Indiana, and Ohio, finally 
settling at North Bend; and dur- 
ing his many enforced absences, 
although in delicate health, she 
faithfiuly performed her household duties, took 
charge of her ten children, and employed a private 
tutor to instruct them. Mrs. Harrison was hospi- 
tably inclined, and always glad to receive her friends 
at her home, but she had no taste for fashionable 
life, and did not contemplate a residence at the 
White House with any pleasure. On account of 
delicate health, she did not accompany her husband 
to Washington, D. C, when he went on to be in- 
augurated, and after his death she remained at North 
Bend imtil 1855, when she removed to the home of 
her only surviving son, J. Scott Harrison, a few miles 
distant,' where she remained until her death. Mi*s. 
Harrison was modest and retiring, generous and 
benevolent, an extensive reader, a devout Christian, 
and during all her life took a deep intei'est in public 
affairs. She died Feb. 25, 1864. 

WEBSTER, Daniel, secretary of state, was 
born at Salisbury, N. H., Jan. M8, 1782. His 
father was a man of sterling character, but limited 
means, whoha^ served withcredit during the French 
war, and at its close settled in that portion of the 
newly formed town of Salisbury, which is now 
known as Franklin. The place was then on the ex- 
treme border of civilization, and in a state of natural 
wilduess; but by the labor of his own hands he soon 
converted it into a protluctive farm, capable of 
yielding a comfortable support to his family. On 
the breaking out of the revolutionary war he took 
service as a private, but soon rose to the rank of 
major, in which capacity he especiallv distinguished 
himself at the battle of Bennington. f)aniel Webster 
was his second son, and he was bom while his father 
was still away from home with the amiy. The 
early years of the i«on were spent upon his 'father's 
farm in that sparsely settled frontier settlement, 
where schools and competent teachers were as yet 
unknown. His earliest instruction was received 



I 




',!%!>«^ /#7*^22i- 



OP AMEBIOAN BIOGRAPHY. 97 

from hia mother, a woman of character and Intelll- someihlug, I could very eaaily talk, bo far as my 
gence, but, the lad Bhowiag apt parts, and an knowledge extended, and then I was very careful to 
avidity for knowledge, it was decided bj his father stop." Whileastudent he devoted more than twelve 
to aend him to college, and he accordingly un- boursa daj tostudv, and jetthecommonimpresalon 
derwent about a year a preparation at the Exeter ia that be was an idler in college. This coming to his 
Academy, and under the tuition of the Rev. Samuel earsin his mature life, he exclaimed: " What fools 
Wood in the adjoining town of Boscawen. Of peojile are to suppose that a man can make an^hing 
his life at Exeter, bis claasmate, the late James H. of biniself without hard studj-! " At a later time he 
Brigliam, once wrote in a piivate letter: "He was said; "I do not know experimentally what wealth 
then about fourteen; was attending to Engliah is, nor bow Ihe bread of idleneaa tastes." For at 
grammar, arithmetic, etc. ; always very prompt and least two of the winters that he spent in college he 
correct in hia recitations. He bad an independent taught school to eke out hia income; in I'nIT In 
manner, rather careless in his dress and appearance, Salisbury at |i4.00 a month, and in 1TQ8 at " Sliaw's 
with an intelligent look; did not join much in the Comers at ^6.00, "boarding round among the 
plays and amusements of the bovs of his age, but neighbors." On bis gtaduatiun in 1801, at the a^ 
paid close attention to hia studies. At the age of of niueleen, he l«gan the study of the law, but m 
ifleen he entered Dartmouth College, prepared b]>] a order toaid bis brother Ezekiel to go through college, 
lune months' course of the English branchesat Phil- he was soon Induced to take charge of an academy 
hps Academy, and half a years study of Latin and at Frycburg. Me. . then at a salary of 
Oreek under' the Rev. Samuel Wood, who gave him $350. His spare houra there be cm- 
bnard and tuition for the moderate cliarge of $1.00 ployed in copying deeds, and there- 
per week. Under this gentleman he made rapid bf paid his board, which enabled 
progress in Latin, reading with great delight Virgil, him to give efficient help to bis 
the entire ^neid and also the orations of Cicero, brother, who afterward proved 
Throughout his hfe these continued to be hia favorite worthy of the sacriflcea be had 
jiutbors, and the influence of their style and imagery made, and became an eminent law- 
is to be clearly traced in his published orations, yer. In 1804, reFuaing an offer of 
Hia outfit for college was of a somewhat meagre f 1,500 a year as clerk of the court 
-description. Though now a lay judge in one of the over which his father presided, he 
New Hampshire courts, his father bad to practice entered the olHce of Christopher 
the moat rigid economy to support his large family. Gore, in Boston, to complete the 
and to give this one son the benefit of a liberal law studies he bad prosecuted dur- 
«ducation. The consequence was that Daniel went ing all his leisure hours since his 
to college clad in homespun, aud this, witli his ruatic gmdnalion. In the aucceeding year 
manncra. brought upon him the ridicule of aome of hewasndmitted to the Boston bar, 
bis classmates who happened to have more in their and at onceretumingtoNewHamp- 
purses than in their h^s. But his perseverance, ahire, \i<: began the practice of the ^ ., 
punctuality and close attention to his studies soon law in bis native county, removing QL,,„-J? Jy.A O^' 
won him the respect of his Instructors. Frimi the twoyearsiatertoPortsmouth, where »«-»-* 
drat he stood high in his class, and one of Ids class- was a larger field for bis abilities, 
mates has written: "He was peculiarly induatrious; He soon acquired an exiensive practice, and one 
lie read more than any one of his classmates aud fiutScicully remunerative to allow him to marry, 
remembered all. He was good in every branch of which be did in the following year. 1808. He was 
Mudy. aud as a writer and speaker he had noequal." a member of the federalist party, and, becoming en- 
Anotherhas said: "He waa not confined to amall gaged in politics, he was. in 1813, elected to con- 
TiewB and technicalities, but seemed k> possess an gress, where he at once took a front rank, both as a 
intuitive knowledge of whatever stibtect be was debater and a practical statesman, among such men 
considering, and often, I used to thmk, a more as Langdon Cheves, William T. Lowndes, Henry 
<Mnnprehensive view than hia teacher." He aoon Clay and John C. Calhoun, Lowndes said of him 
developed remarkable power as an extemporaneous at this time; " The South baa not hia auperior nor 

raker, and such was hia reputation as an orator the North his equal." Finding hia practice at Porls- 
t in his eighteeotb year he was aelected by the mouib inadequate to tlie support of bis growing 
villagers of Hanover to make their annual Fourth of family, he, In 1816, removed to Boston, where, ig- 
Jidy oration. The speech was delivered without noring politics, he devoted himself exclusively tobis 
notes of any kind, and waa generally supposed to be profession. His reputation as a lawyer had gone 
extemporaneous, but his college-mates knew that ll before him, and he waa aoon employed in several 
had been carefully written and committed to mem- im|iortaat cases, among others that of Dartmouth 
ory. His memory was peculiarly retentive. A College, in which his argument before the U. S. 
-classmate says of him: "By reading twenty or more supreme court at Waabington made his fame as a 
pa^ of poetry twice over, I have heard him repeat lawyer national, and gave him rank among the most 
their contents almost verbatim.' His abihty as a distmgriished jurists of the country. lulBflOhewaa 
writer and debater gave rise to the opinion while he offered and declined the nomination of senator from 
was Biill in college, that ho was an omnivorous Massachuaetta, but, two years later, yielding to press- 
reader. But he was not. He read few auibots, but ing solicitations, lie consented to serve as the rcp- 
lie selected them with great care, and read with resentative of the city of Boston in the eighteenth 
fixed attention. He was no literary gourmand. Ho congress. He waa elected by a large majority, and 
devoted very little time to works of fiction: bis tasio in December of the same year he delivered at 
was for history, philosophy and general literature. Plymouth, on the anniversary of the landing of the 
In a letter to a fiienii, written just after his gradu- Pilgrims, the Urst of that remarkable series of dia- 
ation. he says: "So much as I read 1 make my courses, which gave liim the first rank among 
own. When a half hour, or an hour nt most, has American orators. He took his seat in congress in 
■expired, I close my book and think it all over. If December, 1823, and early in the session made a 
there is anything particularly interesting to me, speech on the Greek revolution, which at once ea- 
-either in sentiment or language, I endeavor to recall tablished his reputation as one of the first statesmen 
it and lay it up in my memory, and commonly can of the lime. In the same year he was again elected 
-effect my object. Then if, in debate or conversation as the Boston representative in congress, receiving 
afterward, any aubject came up on which Ihad read all but 10 of the 5,000 voles cast at the polls. In 




THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




1836 he was again a candidate, and again elected, 
with not a huodred votes agalDsl him. He sup- 
ported the administratton of John Quincy Adams, 
finil in tlie hotiBc of represenlatives and tuen in the 
senate, to which he was chosen in 1837, but he was 
a member ot the opposition durinc the sticceeding 
administrations of Jackson and Van Buren, wbea 
measures of ttie first moment were dlgcuss»j. and 
political events occurred of the most novel and ex- 
traordinary character. In all these debates Mr. 
Webster look a prominent part, and he is generally 
regarded as having risen to the height of his forensic 
ability in his two-days' speech in reply to Col. Hajne, 
of South Carolina, on the right of "nulliflcation." 
But Mr. Webster was a pa- 
triot and not a partisan, and 
tlierefore, though a leader of 
the opposition, he gave a 
cordial support to the meas- 
ures taken by President 
Jackson for the defence of 
the Union in 1832-38. The 
doctrines of the president's 
proclamation agniuat nulliU' 
cation by South Carolina 
were mainly drawn from his 
speeches, and on this issue 
he was the chief dependence 
of the administration on the 
floor of congress. But his 
support ended with Jack- 
son's defence of the Union. 
When the administration 
developed ila flnanclal sys- 
tem he strenuously opposed 
il, predicting accurately the general collapse ot 
busmess which occurred in the spring of 1837. 
He was in favor of a national bank, and ot a mixed 
currency ot specie and convertible paper, issued 
by slate banks. The latt«r kept within safe bounds 
by a law requiring payment on demand in specie, 
and regulated by the national institution. It was, 
doubtless, his advocacy of these principles, and 
the illuatrati<m of the opposite that was riven in 
the financial panic ot 1837, that led to the downfall 
of Mr. Van fiuren's administration. In 1839 Mr. 
Webster made a brief visit to Europe, passing Ids 
time principally in Englimd, but spending a few 
weeks on tlie continent. His fame had preceded 
him, and in the highest circles he was everywhere 
received with the attention due to one of the most 
distinguished citizens of the United StJites. On the 
accession of Oen. Harrison in 1841, he was placed 
at the head of his cabinet as secretary of state, and 
until 1843 he held the same position in the cabinet 
of bis successor, John Tyler. It was during his in- 
cumbency of that office that he settled with Oreat 
Britain the long-standing controversy in regard to 
the northeastern boundaiy of Maine, and other diltl- 
cult [(uestions which had arisen out of the detention 
of American vessels by British cruisers on the coast 
of Africa. While holding this office he al-so took 
steps that led to a recognition of the independence 
of the Sandwich Islands by the principal maritime 
powers, and prepared the instructions under which 
Caleb Gushing concluded a treaty with China. In 
1844 Mr. Webster aspired to a nominati<m to the 
presidency, but Mr. Clay was chosen, and defcateil 
hj; Mr. Polk, with the commencement of whose ad- 
ministration Mr. Webster returned to the senate of 
the Uniteil States, where he remained until thedeath 
of President Harrison and the accession of Mr, 
Fillmore. He opposed the Mexican war, because he 
clearly saw that it would lead to acquisitions of 
territory which would endanger (lie stability of the 
Union; but, the conflict once begun, he voted for 
Bucb supplies as were required for Its efficient prose- 



cution, and he gave t( 



It one of bis sons, who lost 
of tbe hardships of the ser- 
vice. As lie had feared, the acquisition of the new 
territory extorted from Mexico led to agitaltous on 
the subject of slavery, which, during the year» 
1849-50, seriouslycndangered tbe Union. California 
was then applying for admission as a stale. Her 
people had formed a constitution which prohibited 
slavery, and the southern leaders in congress opposed 
her admission under a free constitution. This 
aroused a clamor at the North for an extension of 
the Wilmot Proviso, to include not only California, 
but the new territories, about to be formed, of Utab, 
and New Mexico. This tbe southern leaders re- 
garded as an indignity, and because some of the 
northern states had pa^ed laws forbidding the ex- 
ecution of the existing fugitive slave law, they 
demanded a new lawmorestrenuousin its provisions 
than that of 1793. The differences between the two- 
sections seemed irreconcilable, and there were loud 
threats of disunion. In this emergency Mr. Clay 
conceived of a compromise which should concede to 
the North the admission of California as a free stale, 
and to the South such a fugitive slave law as was- 
demanded. Mr. Clay was then in feeble health, and 
fast approaching bis end, but, having matured tai» 
plan of compromise, he one evening in January, 
1850. in weather so inclement as to endanger hia 
life, called upon Mr. Webster at his dwelling, and 
laid it before him. Except In some minor details. 
the plan met Mr. Webster's full approval, and in a 
speech which he delivered in the senate on the 71h 
of March following, he advocated its adoption. 
For this speech he was bitterly denounced by the 
abolitionists. Mr. Whittier, in his poem of 
" Ichahod," likening him to a fallen spirit, and even 
Mr. Emerson saying ot him: "He l>ecame to me 
the type of decay. To gain his ambition, he gave 
ease, pleasure, happiness, wealth, and then adiled 
honor and truth. He had a wonderful intellect, but 
of what importance is that when the rest of the man 
is gone? He was oblivious of consequences, and 
consequently oblivious." This Is not the place to 
consider the ju.fticc of (Ids denunciation. It may, 
however, be remarked, that when he made that 
speech Mr. Webster could have had no hope of the 
presidency. He must have known that the nomina-' 
tion of his party lay between Mr. Fillmore and Gen. 
Scott; and the election of Franklin Pierce by 103 
electoral vote.s over his opponent indicated a atata 
of public feeling which he would have been a poor 
reader of the limes not to have 
recognized. The point of view of 
Mr. Emerson and Mr. Webster was 
totally different. Mr. Emerson re- 
garded public affairs in the li^ht 
of the " eternal verities." and with 
him there could be no compromise 
with wrong. Mr. Webster viewed 
things as a practical statesman, who 
sees that warring Interests can be harmonized only 
by mutual concession. To him the constitution 
was the palladium of our liberties. It recognized 
slavery, and hence slavery might be trealed vrith, 
and, if occjialon required, conciliated. He followed 
bis 7th of March speech by public addresses of un- 
surpassed ability, delivered in various parts of tbe 
Union, wherein he enforced the duty of forbearance 
and mutual concession by the two opposing sections. 
In the nature of things a conflict was inevitable; but 
there can be no question that it was postponed for a 
ilecade by the exertions of Mr. Webster and Heniy 
Clay, and in that period the North acquired a 
strength it had not at the time, and which enabled it 
to Anally suppress the rebellion. But for Ibis dis- 
interested act of duty to hia country Mr. Webat«r 
was covered with an opprobrium which followed 



E," 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 89 

him to his grave, Bnd even yet aurvives in the minds Ewing entered the cabinet of President Harrison as 

of a lar^ number of his countrymen. It is im- se<^retary of ttie treasury, a position wbicli he con- 

girti&l history only tliat ivill Judge him truly, tinned lo liold after tlic death of the presidi'Dt and 

erhsps no man bom in this country has ever im- until tLe reconsiniclion of tlie cabinet by Tyler, 

-ircssed his own generation ivilh a sense of perstmal wlien be was succeeded by Waller Forward Sepl. 18, 

itellcctiw] greatness as did Daniel Webster. Inllie 1841. In 1849 Mr. Ewing was appointed by President 

uommon phase of the people lie was the " Oodlilie Taylor secretary of the iulertor, that department 

Daniel," and cultivated men did not hesitate to style having been newly established and now organized 

himlhe "Olympian Jove," and a "descended god," by its Brst secretary. Mr. Ewing wasamong the flrst 

and one Englishman said of him: " be looked like a to recommend the tmusconlinenlal railroad, and 

cathedntl." This was partly the effect of his im- also the California mint. In IH.'KI Mr. Ewing ajiuin 

podng personal appearance, hut doubtless it was entered the senate, being appointed to succeed in 

more largely due to the universal impression that he that body Thomas Corwiu, wlio had been made sec- 

was one of the great*8t, if not the greatest, lawyer, relary of the treasury, lu this, which was his last 

orator, and statesman of his country and bis lime, term in the senate, Mr. Ewing opposed llic fugitive 

The last service bedid for his country was his work slave lawand Clay's compromise bill, and advocated 

in the crisis of 1850. At the close of Mr. Fillmore's the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia. 

administration, in which be served as secretary of At the close of bis term Mr. Ewing retired from llio 

state, he retired to bis home at Marshlleld, Mass. , senate and from public life, and went back to Lan- 

and there he breathed his last on the 24th of caster, where he resumed the practice of his profes- 

October, 1853, his last words being, " I still live." sion. He was considered the most eminent mcraber 

His collected writings and speeches were published of the Ohio bar, and ranketl in the supreme court of 

in six volumes, 8vo, in 1851, and his correspondence the Untied States with the foremost lawyers of the 

has appe ared in two volumes. 8vo, siuce his death. nation. In 1861 Mr. Ewing was a member of the 

SwUfG, Thomaa, secretary of the treasury, peace congress, but on tbe out- 
■was born near West Liberty, Ohio Co., Va., Dec. break of actual war he ranged 
28, 1T89. He was tbe son of George Ewing. a native himself on tbe side of the Uniou, 
of New Jersey and an officer in the revolutionary to which he proved a most val- 
var. He removed to Ohio in 1TS3, and tbe family re- uable adherent. Mr. Ewing was 
aided in Athens county in that state (hereafter, the guardian of Qen. William T. 
Youn^ Thomas was not yet nine years old when he Sherman, whom he adopted when 
mt his first glimpse of pioneer life on tbe frontier, tbe boy was nine rears old, and 
The boy had been taught to read, bLit excepting whom he sent to West Point as 
what tuition he obtained at home from an elder sister soon as he had reached a suitable 
he had to depend upon his own reading and reSection age, thus preparing for Ihe service 
for an education. He was. however, very fond of of bis country one of its very 
boohs, though there were few in bis neigliborhood, greatest generals. iSberman mar- 
theseincludinK"Watls'3PsalmaandHymns,""The ried, May 1. 1850, Ellen Boyle 
Vicar of Wakefield," the "Athenian Omele," a Ewing, tbe daughter of bis bene- 
translation of "Virgil," and "Morse's Geography," factor. In strength and mass- 
certainly a varied and notaltogetber an uninteresting iveness of Intellect Ewing Is con- 
library. After a time tbe community succeeded In sidered not to have had an equal 
obtaining teachers from the East, some of whom in the history of bis state. He 
were college graduates, and from these the boy was remarkable also for physi- 
gradually picked up a knowledge of English litera- cal power, being a man of large 
ture, something from the classics, and a smattering frame, and many stories are told of his c 
of mathematics. In 1809 young Ewing went to dinary strength. On one occasion when he was a 
Athens, where be passed three months in the acad- vouugman,heissaid toliavefordedaswullenstream 
emy, having saved enough money to pay liis way leading a horse, with Its rider, a missionary, landing 
during that length of time. He also accumulated both safely on the other side of the stream. At an- 
aome new books, and then, after a summer of hard other time.seeinganumherofstoutaientryingiu vain 
work, returned to Athens, where he entered as a tothrowacbopping-axeoverthe cupolaof thecourt- 
regular student at the Ohio University, and remained bouse in Lancaster, and observing iheir inabiliiv to 
until 1815. He now read "Blackstone's Commen- comenearsuccess.be stopped, took theaxehandle in 
taries" at home." and on July 15th went lo Lan- h is ha nd and liun gibe axe (isily Ave feet or more above 
caster, where be studied law with Oeu. Bcccher for tbe tower, and then passed on, Mr. Ewing was not 
fourteen months, being admitted to tbe bar In considered an eloquent orator, but bis great power 
August. 1816. He was successful in his very first lay in the fact that he could say more than any one 
case, and was congratulated by tbe members of the else in a few words. During the last years of Daniel 
bar on his admirable conduct of it. He soon gained Webster, that great statesman and advocate fre- 
a special reputation for hissuccess in handling crim- quently sought the aid of Mr. Ewing in weighty 
tnal cast.'s. Mr. Ewing continued to practice hiw in cases, and during the most of Ewing's later profes- 
Lancaslerfrom 1816 to 1881. His firet entrance Into sional life hisbusinesswaschleHy before the supreme 
political life was at (he point where many of our court at WsHbington. At the time of Ewing's death 
mml distinguished men have ended. In 18^ he was James G. Blaine wrote of him as follows; "He was 
elected to the United States senate, nnd serve<l until a grand and massive man, almost without peers. 
1837, his politics being whig, while bis views on the With no little famlllaHty and association with the 
tariff were those of Henry Clay. In the senate Mr. leading men of the day, I can truly say tliat I never 
Ewing was said to have wielded great power. He met with one who impressed me so profoundly." 
bitroifuced a number of important bills, advocated a Mr. Ewing had four sons, Huch, Philemon. Thomas 
Induction in tbe rates of postage, and the rccharter- and Charles, Mr. Ewing died in Lancaster. U,. 
ing of the United Stales Bank, opposing President Oct. 36, 1871. 

Jackson In bis views with regard to removing the BELIi, John, secretary of war, and candidate 

n>veniment deposits from that Inslitiitiou. Mr. for the presidency (1800). was bom near Nashville. 

Ewing's fltst term in the senate concludwl in 1837, Tenn. , Feb, 15, 1797. His parents were in moder- 

when be returned to Ohio and entered Industriously ate circumstances, but they were able to send him 

Into tbe practice of law. On Mareh 5. 1841, Mr. to Cumijcrlaud College, now Nashville University. 




40 THE NATIONAL CYCLOP^BDIA 

He was gnduated from that InMituttoD In 1614. be- the U. S. senate, he wm elected to the office, uid 
caD the study of law, and when only nlnelccn year? In 1853 was re-elected for the term which expired 
of age was admitted lo the bar, and Bcttlol at J'rank- March 4, IHTiS. Mr. Bell was a oinfisient oppon- 
)in, Tenn. He at ooco became popular amone the etit of annexation. He opposed Ihe KaDww-Ne- 
peoplc where he hved. anil having entered politics, bnuka liil] in 18''>4, and alMi the hill which would 
uiamUuencewaBrecognizedat a timeoriitewhcn the admit Kanaa* under the Lecompton conrtiliitlon. 
majority of joudk men are about commencing a col- He was in favor of the compromise measures of 
lececnurse. In 1817, whenhe wasonly twentyyears 18")0, ami finii;ht the repeal of these mcsRurea. 
old, he became a state senator. He was wise enough. All of this brought him into conflict more parlic- 
however, to discover that this compliment should ularlj with tienator Douglas, wlioee jiraitd territorial 
not be laken as a just judgment of his Intellectual views he iiandled without gloves. In the great I.ie- 
cajwcily, and at the close of his first term of service complon debate of March, ISSU. Senator Bell mode 
he declined a reelection and ivturocit in the practice a very eUboratc speech in which he opposed the 
of law, which he continued to follow for the next measure. He held that tlie rejection of the ].iecomp- 
nine years. In 1826. however, he was induced to ton constitution would not be a fit pretext for South- 
enter the Held against Felix Orundy, a man who was em nii-n to advocate disunion, while its acceptance 
not only exceedingly popular on hisown account, but would be an actual overturning of the peace prin- 
who was a friend and protC-y;''' of Andrew Jackson. «ples of our government. He was strongly in favor 
At the time Jackson was a candidate for tiie prest- of the Faciflc Itnilmnd. and sustained the right of 
dencf against the younger Aiiams, The canvass was congress lo donate lands for the purpose of founding 
a vcryexciting one, lasting for twelve months, but agncnitural cotlcges. In 1800, when all parties 
at the end of it Mr. Bell, In the face of the powerful were broken up, in the midst of the excitement pre- 
ciiids against him, was clecle<l to conin'NS in 182T by liminarj to the war of secession, the " Bcll-Ererett 
a majority uf one. From this time ilell held his po- ticket "'brmight Mr. Bell before the country as a 
aiiion for fourteen years, during which period his candidate for the uresideocy in the " Coiksiituiional 
name was prominently before the country in con- Union" party. Edward Everett being associated 
nection with the most important dfliates and meas- with him as vice-president. While this ticket had 
ores.' While in agreement both with Gen. JacksoD no chance of success it received the electoral vole* 
and John C. Calhoun in general politics.MT. Bell op- of Vii'ginla, Kentucky and Tennessee. The rel>el- 
posed the favorite schemes of both ; in the case of lion fotuid Mr. Bell opposinjr secession, but al.w op- 
the former, the removal of the ilcposits from the U. rosing coercion. In the beginning of the year 1861 
8. Bank, and with regard to the lie recommended for Tennessee an armed neutrality. 
— latter, his milllflcntion project, but less than a week later he spoke at Nashville. nil- 
While he WHS in favor of the vocatiug tlie sustaining of the southern slates. Mr. 
U. 8. Bank Mr. Ik'll voted against Ik'll dieil at Cumberland Iron Works. Tenn., Sept. 
iu rechartcr in 1832, partly be- 10, im». 

cause he believed that Jackstin BASOEB, Oeoree Edmund, secretary of the 
would veto the bill, and also be- navy, was born In Newbem, N. C. , Apt. 13, ITM. 
cause he cousiden'd the move- After studying at the common schools, he was sent 
mont as purely p()litical. In the to Yale ('ollcge, where be was graduated in 1818. 
matter of ttie tarilT Mr. Bell was He turned his attention to tlie law, aud entered an 
originally an opponent of the sya- oltlce In Kaleigh, where be completed his studies. 
teni of protection, and in 1833 be and was admitted to the bar. He was elected a mem- 
oppoeed it with a speech in the ber of the IcgislHtiire of Nonh Carolina, in which he 
house, but he afterward changed continued from 1816 lo 1820. During the next five 
his opinion on the subject and yearHheuccuplcd thepositionof judgeof Ihesiiperlor 
was on the side of the protec- court at Kaleigh. From this time until 1840 he de- 
lionists. He was cbnirman of voted himself lo Ihe practice of his profession, at Ihe 
Ihe judiciary conimillee of the same time interesting himself grealiy in politics on 
house for a time, and for ten the whig side, and was very earnest and iniiiislrioug 
years was chairman of the coni- during the Harrison campaign. Tiic latter was In- 
mittee on Indion affairs. Mr. ougurated president, March 4. 1841. and when the 
Bel] was one of the founders of the whig party. His Ann ounce nieiit of the members of his cabinet waa 
secession from the democrats began with his refusal maile on the following day it included the name of 
to vole for the removal of the de|>osIts from the U. George B. BadiaT, <if North Carolina, as secretary 
S. Bank. His election lo the speakership of tlie of the navy. !tlr. Badger continued in this oHice iin- 
boiise in 1834 against the democratic candidate. Jiis. til Sept. 13, 1841, when he retired from the cabinet 
K. Po1k, also marked this transition. Mr. Bell was on account of President Tyler liaving deserted the 
opposed to Van Buren in his policy with regard to whig |iarty. Mr. BadgiT was succeeded by .\bel P. 
removal from office, strongly disapproving of such UjisTiur. "On returning to North Carolina, Mr. Bad- 
removal for merely iHililical reasons. In 183.i. the ger was clccte<1 to the U. S, senate lo fill a vacancy. 
nipture between Bell and President Jackson culmi- In 1848 he was re-elected for a full term, at the ex- 
nateii, yet Mr. Bell was re-ele<-Ied to ctinfrrcss by as piratlon of wliicli he gave up public life, and once 
heavy a vote as ever. In regard to Ihe abolition of more settled down to law practice. In 18o3 Preu- 
slaverv in the district of Columbia he was in favor dent Fillmore sent iu Mr. Badger's name lo the sen- 
of siich a movement, and he opposed the gag law ate for justice of the U. S. supreme court, but lie 
In 1838. Throiiglioul his course he was supp()rled was n<Jt coiilimied. At the beginning of the civil 
by his constituents. In 1841 Mr, Bell went into the war. Mr. BwliriT rejiresented wake county in the 
cabinet of Oen. Harrison as secretary of war, hut convention whi<-li carried the state out of the Union. 
resigned iu the autumn uf that year. The follow- He simiigly iirp-d agniust Ihe policy of secesrion, 
ing Tennessee Icgi.ststure offered him the U. S. sen- but in favor of maiiitHlniiig the right of llie stale to 
atonthip, but this he decliiieii in favor of one who res-nlate iis loml alTnirs. Mr. Ba<lger died in Ra- 
he thought better deserved it at the hands of his leigh. N. I'., May II, 1806. 

party, and during the next six years he was not in OKANQEB, Francia, postmaster-general. (See 

politics. In 1847. at llie urgent rcijuest of cltixeus Index.) 

of his comity, he entered the stale senate, anil liur- CBITTENSBN, J. J. , attorney -general. (See 

Ing the same year, a vacancy having occui-red in Index.) 



ht 




OF AMERICAN BIOORAPHT. 




Ti i t«i Mill ^iiiiii I i I III I ii |, ^k"l 

A£. — . - . A t Ti , , . . , mplJjSi 




CLINTOH, Oeoree, governor of New York 
{1777-95 aod 1801-04) nnd vice-presirtcut ot llie 
UniWd Slates (1804-12), was bom at Little Britnin, 
Ulster Co. (dow Orange), N. Y., July 28. 1738. He 
is said to have been ntLinm] after Adm. Geor^ 
Clinton, son of tlic Earl of Lincoln, who was colo- 
Dial governor of New York from 1743 to 1753. 
and with whose family George Clintoii was believ- 
ed ro be remotely connected. The 
American ancestor of Ilie Clintons, 
Charles Clinton, was bom in the coun- 
ty of Longfonl, Ireland, and was the 
son of Janies Clinton, who in turn was 
the son of William Clinton, one of the 
most devoted adherents of Charles I. 
Charles Clinton married, and in 172B, 
with bis wife, bis brotiier-iti-law, two 
daughters and one son, joined a parly 
of colonials, ninety-four in number. 
who sailed for America, and landed 
on Cape Cod. In the following spring 
lliey removed to Ulster county, New 
York, Charles Clinton fought in the 
old French war, and was a jiiMlce of 
the peace and a judge of llic common 
pleas of his county. George Clinton 
was gifted with an ambitious disposi 
tlon, was active and enterprising, and 
though not averse to study, preferred a more exciimg 
life. Is nSSheranawavfrom lionie. and shipped on 
board a privateer to fignt the French: returning, he 
entered the regiment commanded by bis father, and 
accompanied the expedition acainst Fort Fronlcnac, 
in which he showra great daring and enterprise. 
On the termination of hostilities, be entered the olHce 




of Chief Justice William Smith, in the city of New 
York, to study law, and was in due time admitted 
to the bar, and liegan to practice law in his native 
county. Here for several veal's be held the office of 
clerk of common pleas, while he met with unusual 
success in general practice. In 1768 Mr. Clinton 
was elected a member of tlie New York assembly, 
and as the diftlculty between the colonies and the 
molher-counlrj became sei ious, he grew to be recog- 
niied as one of the slauchest of patriols, so Ibat In 
the spring ot 1775 he was elected one of the dele- 
eates to the second Continental congress. In this 
body he advocated all the warlike measures which 
were adopted, but on account of the invasion of 
New York, and the internal strife and dissension oc- 
curring there, he was appointed a general of brigade, 
and hastened home to assume the command of the 
militia of Ulster county. On Apr. 20, 1777, the 
New York state coiiKiiiulion, drafted bv John Jay, 
was duly adopted, and in tlie month of June follow- 
ing. Mr. Cliulon was elected first governor of the 
state. The lieutenant-governor was Pierre Vim 
Cortlandt; Itoliert R. Livinjislon was chnuccUor of 
tlic stale; John Jay chief justice, and Hoberl Yates 
and John Stuss Holiart associate justices of the su- 

fireme court; John Morin Scolt secretaiy of stale; 
iolx-rt Bcnsim Htlc)rney- general, and Comfort Sands 
auditor-general. At this time a large proportion of 
the population of tlie stale were either open and 
avowed loyalists, oral heart unfriendly or indisposed 
to the cause of independence. This spirit of disaf- 
fection taiuled the entire colony, and il was on this 
Account that the whole ijower of the British invaders 
during the camparnns of 177U and 1777 was directed 
against the state ofTiew York. It was indewi under 



42 THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 

coDtemplHtioa. by establiahine a chain of commuDJ- ton was mainlj occupied i'd proTiding for the public 
cations, or line of poxU and fonifications exIendiDg defence and securily, and hta time was cliiellf cni- 
from Handy IIoi)k to the St. Lawrence, to cut off ployed in carrying inw effect the laws passed bv the 
New England, the hot-bed of scdittuD and rebellion, legislature in thia direcliun. In 17H0 Gov. Clinton 
from tbe support of the Bomhern pruvinces. This was re-elected, and continued to fill the governor's 
de»ign was never finally abnndoned until the lime chair until 1795. In ITHO, when tbe savages led by 
when Arnold commilled hia treasonable act but Brant and Coruplanter made a descent into the Mo- 
failed to secure the key of the Hudson. It so hap. hawk valley, Gov. Clinton succeeiled in preventing- 
pencd, therefore, that Sew York, while engaged in the success of their expedition. Peace with Great 
defending her boTderB against Indians and lories, Britain was declared, and when Gen. Washington 
was also fighting the IwtllfM of New England. All entered the city of New York on the occasion of its 
the settlements within the interior of New York evacuation, Gov. Clinton nxie beside him as chief 
were constanllr agitated by scenes of bloodshed, magistrate of the stale. After the close of the war 
devastation and murder. During the latter part of Gov. Clinton devoted much attention to the subject* 
the year 1776, Gen. George Clinton had occupied of education and internal improvements, and pro- 
the passes and forts of the Highlands of the Hudson cured the passage of important lawain thisdireclion. 
with a considerable militia force, in order to prevent He recommended the cirgani/atiou of a sociely for 
the British from ascending the river. In the spring the promotion of agriculture, arls, and manufactures, 
of 1777 congress appointed him commander of all and alsoan act dii-ccting the exploration of Herkimer 
posts in that quarter. In September he addressed and ^Va.shinirton counties, with a view to canal cou- 
the first meeting of the legislature of New York, at stniclion. Furiher, the legislature provided for the 
Kingston. Meanwhile Gen. Burgojne had advanced formation of companies designed to improve and 
from the North with a large army, and was i-apidly open interior nnvignlion and inland waler communl- 
nearing Albany. Washington was in the South with cation, the culmination of which was llie conslruc- 
a ijreat body of the Continental army, and Sir Henry tion, under the direction of Gov. Clintiin's nephew, 
CImton, having received reinforcements, determined DeWill Clinton, of the Erie Canal. One of the first 
to take advanUge of this opportimily to ascend the acts of the federalists in the way of establishing a 
river and capture tbe posts in command of Gov. government inclining toward centralization, was lt> 
Clinton. He took 3,000 men with him, and landed obtain the passage of laws authorising the national 
BtTarrylown,makingafeintagainstPeeksklll, while government tocolleet and rewin the import duties 
fae rapidly conveyed troops across the river for the which might accnie at the port of New York. Gov, 
Clinton was opposed to this act as a surrender of the 
Independent sovereignty of the state, and one result 
was, that a movement was put on foot by the feder- 
alists to prevent his re-election as governor of the 
state. In 1786 congress passed a resolution request- 
ing Gov. Clinton to' call the legislature toother for 
an extra session to reconsider a slate law with which 
congress disagreed. Gov. Clinton was sufllciently 
determined not to permit himself to be dictated to 
I by congress, and accordingly refused to summon 
I the legislature in extra session. Gov. Clinton was 
. one of the foremost and most decided opponents of 
the Fedeml couHtltution as it was originally formed, 
but he presided at the state convention in 1778, 
which ratified this instrument. In 1787 Guv. Clin- 
ton marched at the head of the New York stale 
militia to assist the MsssachuselU government in 
overcoming Shays's rebellion. The political course 
of Gov. Clinton aroused serious opposition among 
the federalists, and from 17SB every effort was made 
to dethrone him. Especially at the election of 1792, 
when John Jay was the opposing candidate and re- 
was in command with only abiHit 600 militia. On ceived the niajoritv of the vcrtes, objections were 
hearing of the British movement Gov. Clinton im- raised on account ut certain informalities, but Gov. 
mediately prorogued the legislature at Kingston, and Clinton was declai-cd re-elected by a majority of 108. 
hastened to the assistance of his brother. But the At ihe presidential election in 1793. the electors of 
numbers of the enemy were too great to be success- the new republican partv, of which Gov. Clinton 
fully resisted by the small force at his conimand. might be considered Iho founder, inserted his name 
Both forts were surrounded, but it was not until the in their ballots as their candidate for vice-prc«denL 
Americans had been completely overpowered by He received fifty votes and John Adams seventy- 
numbers that they toiiglil their way out, and. favorc<l seven. At the ensuing electiou for governor, he de- 
by darkness, succeeded in escaping. It was a most clined to run, and during the next five years was re- 
brilllant defence, lasting from two o'clock in the tired from public life, except that his name was 
afternoon until after dark, and against more than again mentioned as a candidate for the vicc-presi- 
foiir times the number of the defenders. George dency. In 1801 he was once more induced to bc- 
Clinton managed to cross tiie river in a boat, and come a candidate for the goveniorahip, and was 
James was severely wounded and pursued, but elected by nearly 4,000 majority over his federal 
eventually reached his house, sixteen miles distant opponent, Stephen Van Rensselaer. On entering 
from the forts, on the following momhig. No per- npon his new term. Gov. Clinton found himself in 
niancnt advHntagc resulted to the BritiKh from their opposition to his own party In regard U> the matter 
success on this occasion. Burgoyne and his army of removals from otllce on account of politics. This 
were defeated at Saratoga, and Sir Henry Clinton had now become thecustom. and though he resisted 
was obliged to satisfy himself with di.imantling the it in the council of appointment, he was overruled 
forts he had captured, and on the approach of win- by his nephew^. DeWilt CliDton, and Ambrose Spen- 
tcr the British fell back to their lines in the neigh- cer, who were members of the council. On the re- 
borhood of New Y'ork. During the war Gov. Clin- election of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency for 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHT. 



the second term, Got. ClintoU was cboseo aa tha 

candidate of the republican party for Tice-president, 
and was duly elected, tlie two candidates receivinc 
ISSoflhe no votes which were cast. As the presid- 
ing officer of the U. S. aeiiate, Mr. Clinton v/ae 
noted for the impanlality and proraptiiude with 
which be gave bis decisions, and for the ktndne^ 
and courtesy wliieh aiivaya distinguished his manner, 
as well toward bis piilitical oppoiienla as to his most 
attached friends. On tlie relirement of Mr. JeHcr- 
Bon, Mr. Clinton was conliiiucd in the olHce of vice- 
president, and Bl the session of 1610-1611, it full to 
him, by his casting vote, to decide the question as 
to the propriety of renewing tlie charter of the Bank 
of the United States. The question being on the 
Striking out of the enacting clause of the hill. Mr. 
Clintoa voted in the afHrmative, after a few brief, 
terse, and vigorous remarks setting forth his reasoua 
for this course. George Clinton was in many re- 
spects one of the mnat remarkable reeu produced liy 
the period in wbicb be lived. Re was a man of 
strong views, and possessed absolute personal cour- 
age in advancing thera without regattf to the poisi- 
btlitiea of their adverse reception. lie w.is one of 
the ablest of administrative odicers, and was as ad- 
mirable in his civi! as in bis military career. Mr. 
Clinton married Cornelia Tappan, of Kingston, 
N. Y. He had one son and five daugliters, but only 
two of Lis children, both daughters, lived to an ad- 
vanced age. One of bis daiigliters became the wife 
of Citizen Genet, the French minister to the United 
States in 1"B3, wlio remained in this country after 
he had completed his mis^on, and settled In the 
state of New York, where be died. In his per- 
sonal appearance Gov. Clinton was dignifled, bis 
countenance indicating the courage, energy and 
decision of character for wliich he waa remark- 
able. Says one of his biographers, "Few men have 
erer occupied a lar^jer space in the public estimation, 
and no one name is more conspicuous than bis in 
ttw early annals of New York." Gov. Clinton died 
while holding the office of vice-president, Apr. 20, 
1812, in the city of Washington, and his remaina 
-were permanently deposited ia the Congreasional 
Cemetery. 

JAT, John, governor of New York (1795-1801). 
(See Inde*.) 

IiBWIS, HoTffan, soldier, and covemor of New 
York (1804-7), was bom in New York city Oct. 18, 
1754, the son of Francis Lewis, 
one of the signers of the declara- 
tion of independence. He was 
graduated from Princeton Col- 
lege, in 1773, when he began the 
study of law in the office of John 
Jay, afterward chief justice of 
the U. S. supreme court. On the 
breaking out of the revolutionary 
war, he volunteered his services. 
Joining the Ametican army under 
Qen. Washington, before Button. 
He was elected captain of a regi- 
ment of New York militia, was 
afterward commissioned as ma- 
jor, and is mentioned In Gen. 
Stephen's despatches as having 
behaved gallantly at the battle 
of Germantown. In 1776 he 
was quartermaster-general, with 
the rank of coloner under Gen. 
Gates at Saratoga; in the action 
at Bemis's Heights he shared the perils and honors 
of the day with Arnold, Morgan and the other 
officers, and after the surrender of Burgoyne he 
was engaged in the operations undertaken by Gen. 
Clinton against the mixed force of British reculais 
and savages in the northern part of New York. 




Resuming his i>rofes^on of the law in New York 
city in 1783, be was soon elected a member of the 
state legislature. He afterward removed to Dutch- 
ess county, and was appointed successively a Judge 
of the court of common pleas, attorney-general of 
the state, a Judge of the supreme court, and, in IBOl, 
chief ju-stice of the same court. In 1804 he 
was elected governor of the state of New York. 
In bis office he did much to advance the cause 
of education and to strengthen the state militia. 
In 1310 he was a member of the state sen 
ate; two years later he was appointed quarter- 
master-general of the U. S. army, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, and in March, 1818, he was 
made major-general. During Elie campaign of that 
year Gen. Lewis was with Gen. Dearborn on the 
Niagara frontier. He captured Fort Gcoree, and 
was in command for some time at Sacketl's Harbor 
and French creek. In the latter part of 1818 he 
aeeompanied Gen. Wilkinson in his expedition 
ablest Montreal, and in 1814 he had command 
of the forces held for the defence of the city and 
harbor of New York. From 1815 to the time of his 
death, helived in retirement. In 1821 hewaselected 
grand master of the order of Freemasons In the 
United States. He was also president of the New 
York Historical Society and of the New York sec- 
tion of the Order of the Cincinnati. He was noted 
for bis generosity. He remitted the arrears of rent 
due him fromsuch of his tenants in Delaware county 
as had cither gone themselves or sent a son to the war, 
and during the anti-rent disturbance in New York 
state, he experienced no difficulty, owing to bis Judi- 
cious and generous dealings. Feb. 22, 1832, by 
tiie request of the city of New York, Gen. Lewis, 
then in his seventy-eiphlh year, delivered the oration 
at the Centennial anniversair of the birth of George 
Washington. Qen. Lewis died in New York city 
Apr. 7, 1844. 

TOKPKINS, D. D., governor of New York 
(1807-16). (See Indcjt.) 

CLIMTOH, DeWitt, governor of New York 
(1817-22 and 1824-27), was bora at Little Britata, 
N. Y., March 2, 1769. He was 
instructed by the pastor of the 
Presbyterian church in bis 
native village and at Kingston 
(N. Y.) Academy, and In 1784 
accompanied his father to New 
York city on his way to enter 
Princeton College ; but his 
stoppage ia New York was 
the direct means of reviving 
Kings (now Columbia) Col- 
lege, which had become al- 
most obliterated during the 
war of the revolution, and 
young Clinton was the first 
matriculated student after Its 
lehabilitation, being admitted 
to the junior class, and being 
graduated in 1786. One of his 
college teachers declared of 
him: "I found Mr. Clinton apt 
to leara anything that was required of him. He was 
clear in malbematias, and correct in classical knowl. 
edge. He did everything well." After graduation 
he began the study of law in New York citv with 
Samuel Jones, and was admitted lo the bar in 
1789. But he did not practice his profession, being 
at once called to the position of private secretary to 
his tincle, George Clinton, then governor of New 
York. He had already taken part in the dJscu»islon 
over the ratification of the Feicral constitution b^ 
the state of New York, coulributing to the public 
prcas a series of letters, signed "A Countryman." in 
which the most pertinent of the considerations 




c^i**'-^i_ 



44 



THE IfATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



against Its adoption were slated with greater force 
tban by anj otuer writer, aad carried coDvicLiuD to 
a large proportion of the voters of the state. He 
also reported for a New York paper the proceedings 
of the New York conTeutioa which adopted tbe 
constitution, over ^^'hich his UDcle, the governor, 

f resided, and of which bis father was a member. 
a the subsequent discu^sioos between tbe friends 
and opponents of Gov. Clinton the nephew bore a 
prominent part, and gained reputation ta a powerful 
and efDcieut writer. In 1T94, antici paling war with 
Great Britain or France, he with others or^tiized a 
company of artillery, and was chosen lieuicciant and 
afterward captain, rising subsequently to tbe rank 
of major. At the same time he wasseeretary to the re- 
gentsof theNewYorkUniversllj, and one of aboard 
of commissioners who had charge of the fortification 
of the harbor of New York cityat the expense of the 
state, all of these appointments being lost when his 
uncle was succeeded in the governorship by John 
Jay. DeWitt ClinlOQ Ihcn retired to private life, 
and formed a law partnership with John Niekerson, 
devotin? also much lime to the study of natural his- 
tory. About this time he married Maria Franklin, 
of New York city. In 1797 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the stale legislature, and the next year be- 
came state senator, beginning thus his long career 
in (lie polities of the empire state. In 1800 Ee was a 
meml>er at the coimcil of appointment, and eneaged 
iu a dispute with Gov. Jay over the naming oi can- 



ganization of tbe kind In New York. His report 
on the defences of New York harbor led to the pas- 
sage, in 1S08, of an appropriation of |100,000 for its 
fortification. Cliutoa was also a patron of the fine 
arts, and president of tbe New ^ork academy for 
their encouragement. Tbe charier of the American 
Fur Co., of which John Jacob Aalor was president, 
was drawn by Clinton, and through his exertions 
became law. In IHll he was chosen lieulenanl- 
governor of the state, and was instrumental in 
securing the enactment of many laws of tbe 
greatest praclical Import for 
the furtherance of literary 
aud scientific objects. Hebore 




didates for state offleere and tbe removal of ofBce- 
holdets, A stale convention, culled to settle tbe 
question at issue, favored the views of Clinton. He 
was now the acknowledged leader of the democrniic 

Cty Id tbe state. While in tlie legislature he liad 
n instrumental in securing the pas-tage of an act 
providing for the gradual abulilien of slavery. In 
1802 be was elected U. 6. scuatiir, and was the 

C ingest man who had ever taken a scat in that 
ly up to that time. Here he spoke on the navi- 
gation of the Mississippi river in opposition to the 
claims of Spain, which bad withdrawn tbe treaty 
rii^lits of the United States In tbe premises, hut op- 

fiosiug a declaration of war. In 1803 be resicned 
lis senatorsliip to accept tbe mayoralty of New 
York, under an appointment from his uncle, ^*lio 
was again governor, and, withiliecxccplionof tbn'e 
years, held tbe otTIre until ISlTi. His performance 
of the duties of this office was higlily to his credit 
and to tbe advantage of the eommunily, tbe oflico 
being then of much greater imporlnnee tban in later 
ycmra. He took an active part in cslahliMliing free 
schools, and In maintaining tbe Rocietv established 
for their support. While a memberoftbe leirislnt- 
ure he was tbe author of letrlKlalion which validated 
the will of Cnpl. R. K. Itandall establishing the 
Snilois' Snug Harbor on Slaten Island. He also se- 
cured the repeal of portions of the statute which 
prevented It<iman Catholics voting nt elections. He 
secured the appropriation bv which the insane asy- 
lum was built at Bloomingdaie. and prm^ired the 
ctiarter of the Eagle Fire Insurance Co,, the lirst or- 



in the court of errors, the tri- 
bunal of last resort.which was 
made up of the state senate, 
with tbe chancellor and the 
Judges of tbe supreme court. 



d parliamentary eloquence," and said they all re- 
lated lo" important quest ions of constitutional rights, 
and civil liberty." In 1813 Clmlon was a candidate 
for pre-iidcnt of tbe United Slates against James Mad- 
ison, his candidacy being tlie first atlempt to put 
down tbe system of making nominations for the 
presidency ijy a caucus of members of congress. 
Clinton was nominated bv a party convention held 
in New York stale, and 6v lua candidacy raised up 
for hiniKcIf numerous and powerful enemies. An 
early as 1809 he had advocated the development of 
the water communication of the stale, wbi<'ii he pros- 
ecuted until the ci>mpletion of tbe Erie canal. The 
war of 1812-15 put an end to active lalxir on this 
work for a liroe, but when the war ended, Clinton, 
removed from all official station, saw that tbe mo- 
ment had oomefora renewal of bis exertions for the 
canals, and in tbe full of IS15, summoning to his aid 
Judge Piatt, of western New York, William Bay- 
ard, Thomas Ed<ly, John Swartwout, Cadwallsder 
Colden and others, liad a public meeting called at 
the City hotel in New York, where a memorial, 
praying that tbe legislature enter upon tbe canal 
work was adopted and sent broadcast threugbout 
tbe state for signatures. At Albany Mr, Clinton en- 
forced the memorial by his personal and political In- 
fluence, and on Apr. 17, 1818, an act was passed 
which provided for the improvement of the iniernal 
waterways of tlie state, and named as commission- 
ers: Stephen Van llcnssclaer, De Wilt Clinton, Sam- 
uel Young, Mvron Ilolley and Joscnh 
Elliott. During the recess of the legisla- 
ture Clinton devoted his attention to tbe 
consideration of a scheme of finance, which 
resulted in tlie establlsbment of a sink- 
ing fund, which aceumutaled to the full 
aiiiount of tbe original debt, and raised 
not only the credtt'of the state in foreign 
capitals, but the credit of tlie nation as 
well. The plans prepared by tbe com- 
mls'^on paised succe^ully tlirough the 
various slages of legislation, being saved 
in the Iben existing " Council of Revision " 
by the casting vole of Cbaneetlor Kent. 
O'ppiwilion lo Ibe canal policy having i)oen 
made aqupstion of party politics, Cliulon's 
determined advocarr of It naturally as- 
Biinied the same efinracler, and in 1S17 he was 
clKiseii governor of the slate by a large majority 
over liis opponent. In the next pibematorial con- 
test be was re-elected, but entered upon his term 
of office with a hostile legislature. Strife between 
that bcKly and tbe e.iecutlve ensued, but during the 
year the great canal, or "Clinton's big ditch." as 
some prefL-rred to call it, was steadily progressing. 






OF AMERICAN BIOOBAPHY. 45 

Ground iraB broken by Gov. Cliolon July 4, 1817, state scoate, aiid la 1608 was appointed one of the 

and Id 1619 the ceotral portion of the canal was fin- judges of the supreme court of ihe stale, a position 

iehed. In 1822 he (techned to be a candidate for a which he continued to hold fur fourteen years. As 

third term, aud in Ibe closing dnjs of the legislature a judge he was distin^nished for his plain and practi- 

of 1821 his opponenis secured liis removal from Che cal common sense, bis uprightness and impartiality, 

office of canal commissioner. But Ihey had miscal- and his courtesy of manner. While not a rapid 

culaied his popularity ami influence witii the people, thinker, he was clear and accurate in bis Judgment, 

and at meetings held' in all partf of the state the pop- and he is said to bave mode very few mistakes. la 

ular indi$piation found voice, aud at the next dec- 1813 Judge Yates was appointed one of the regents 

tioa for (fovenior he was sent back lo the cbair by of tbe Uiii'-ersity. In 1817 bis name was mentioned 

16,000, alarcer majority than had ever been given as a candidate for the governorship, hut he declined 

to any candioale. His first wife having died in 1818, to run. In 1423, liowever, be coust-nted to permit 

he now married Cnthnrine, (he daughter of Dr. his name to be used for Ibis position, when his elec- 

Tbomas Jones, of New York cily. In his first mes- tioD was praclicullj unanimous. He began his offl- 

Bage lo the legi^tatUTe he had tbe salisfaclion of an- cial duties under the new con- 

nouncinglhatalthoughtbecaualwasnut completed, stitution, adopted in 1821, and 

Ibc income from tlie sinkinj^ fund, and the tolls from the first difllculty which met 

freiirht, more than paid il)e interest on the cost of the him was the necessity for the 

work. When John Quincy Adams became presi- appointment of a great many 

dent, he ofl!cred llie poet of minister to England to officers whose tenure of office 

Gov. Clinton, but it was declined. On Oct. 20. 1820, had become changed by this 

be nwcbed the crowning triumph of his life, when, tnsrrumetit, Tbe result was that 

with impcHing ceremonies, the waters of Lake Erie the city of Albany was thronged 

were a<lmiiled lo tbe canal, and the labor of nine bv place-hunters, and the matter 

years brougiit lo a successful close. The success of of these appointments became a 

iliis canal killed all opposition to his plans, and he serious trouble to tbe new guv- 

briiugbl into operaliou several branches of the main emor. On this account, and for 

canal, aud his influence was successfully exerted to other reasons, he liecame unpop- 

carry the canal system into operation in other stales, ular; and there being a proposl- 

In youlb and ^rly manhood be had been noted tion to change the electOTal law 

for his masculine beauty, and as the years advanced of the state,whicb brought about 

its majestic character became mure marked. He a healed and angry debate in 

was Ihen upward of six feet in stature, straight, and the legislature, Gov. Yates fell 

flnel^r proportioned. Material fur an exlende<l study into disfavur in regard to his 

of his life may lie found in llosat-k's " Memoir of opinions and actions on this im- 

DeWiit Clinton" (182B); lienwick's "Life of De portant question. Eventually 

Witt Clinton" (1840); and Camphell's "Life aud lie had to call an extra session 

Writings of DeWilt Clinton" (1849). An accident, of tlie legislature, a movement wbicb not only es- 

which shattered a leg In 1818. impaired bis health, tranged many of his political friends from him, but 

and he was an invalid during Ibe later years of his was produclfve of no good, as tbe legislature, wliich 

life, and died suddenly Feb. 11. 1828, assembled in accnrdance with the governor's proc- 

TATEB, Joseph. Christopher, governor of lamation, refused by a large majority to transact any 

New York (1823-34), was bom in Scheneciady, business, and, after a session of four days, agidu ad- 

N. v.. Nov. 0. 1768. The family came from Leeds, joumed. At the expiration of his lerm of office 

in Yorkshire, Eng., and emigrated to New York at Gov. Y^ates retired to private life, aud continued to 

the time of Charles I. The first of the family in reside at Scbeneclady. Gov. Ynies was married 

America was Joseph Y'ates. Kobert Yales, a dc- three times. His first wife was Mrs. Ann El- 

sccndant, was subsequently chief justice of the su- lice, of Scheneclaily, by whom he had no children, 

premc court of (he state; Abraham Y'ales, Jr., was His second wife was Maria Kane, of Albanv. By 

niaj or of Albany, and Christopher Yates, Ibe father her he hod one daiighler; and by his third wife, Ann 

of JosephCwas one of thepilucipal men of Schcu- Elizabeth Dclancy, he had two daughters. In all 

ecindy before the revolution. During the French his privale relntiunK Gov. Yates was an estimable 

and Indian war be was acaptnin uf provincial troops, man and highly respected. But as a politician and 

and was wounded in the attack on Ticonderoga in a public manhe was noCsuccessful, He lacked bold- 

1758. In the following year he was present at 1' ' ' ' ' ' ' ..-,.. 
capiiire of Fort Niagara. At the time of llie o 
brenk of Ibe revoluiioiiar^war he offered hisscrvti 
and received a conimissiou ; afterward he wai 

colonel of New York troops. He was at the battle lie was in IS-*^, when he presided o 
of Saratoga, and was a man highly rcspccled by his mecling. He died March 19. 1837. 
Hiiperiors and by those under his command. Col. PITCHER, Nathuilel, governor of New 
Yates married Jane Bmdt, a desceiulaut of an old York (183S-39). was bom in Litchfleld, Conn., in 
and respected Dutch family. Yoimg Joseph's early 1777, but early In life removed to Sandy Hill, N. Y. 
education was received from a private tutor, who Very little is known of his life, citlier public or pri- 
live<i in hli father's family. Aflerwaitl he was sent vnte. He was a member of the stat« legislature in 
to an academy, and completed bis education in' 1808, and again In 1815 lo 1817. He was also a 
Schenectady. He then entered Ihe law office of his member of [he stale constitutional convention, 
fat hi-r'.s cousin, Peter Y". Yates, in Albany, and slud- wliich was held In 1821. He was a democrat in pol- 
led law, being finally admitted to practice, when lie lli<», and was clectol lo congress, serving from 1919 
opene<l an uttice in his native town. He became a lo 1823. In the siato election of 1826 he was what 
shrewd and able lawyer and a public-spirited citixen, was known as a "bucktail." and was nominated by 
and was one of those who founded Lniun College, that party for lieiileuanl-governor. He was a Jack- 
In 1798 Scheneciady was incorporated as a citv. and sim man and opposed lo De Witt Clinton, the oppo- 
Mr. Yates was selected as the first mayor. He be- siliou candi<tnle for governor. Clinton was elected 
lonse<l to the republican party of the time, but governor, and Pilcherlieuteuant-Kiivenior, and when 
chiefly occupied himself with the practice of bis pro- Gov. IX'Wilt Clinton died, 1828, I>ieut.-G«v. Pileh- 
tession. In 1805, however, he was elmtcd to the er become governor, serving in that piwllion from 



46 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



rebniary, 1828, to JaDuair, 1839. From 1881 to 
1833, be was a member of coagress. He died at 
Sandy Hill May 35, 1836. 

VAN BUREN, Martin, goremor of New 
York (1839-30). (See lodex.) 

THROOF, EnoB Thompson, governor of New 
'^ork(1831-83), waabomin JohastowD, Moutgoniery 



so much ilt-reeling in llic prov- 
inces a^inst the whigs that they 
weredrivenouiof the country by 
the toriea. George Throop mar- 
ried Abiab Thumpson. daughter 
of Booa Thonpaon. after whom 
tbeparentanamedlheirboy. Im- 
mediately after his marriage Mr, 
Throop removed to JohnstowD, 
where he purchaaed land and 
settled. Here be practiced law 
and tauRht school forsome years, 
whenaserioiisaccidentd est roved 
his liealth. and he died in 1 .04. 
leaving his wife and family wiili- 
-itothernropertylhanthedwelt- 




<^sr: 



again. Youdr Enos received an 
ordinary village school educa- 
tion and was adopted into the family of a Mr. 
Metcalfe, of Albany, in 1798, where he took a clerk- 
ship and t>egan to study law. He showed unusual 
ability and industry and was rapidly pushed for- 
ward, being specially favored, moreover, by hav- 
ing the opportunity of listening to tiie eloquence of 
such orators as Hamilton, Burr, Oouverneur Mi>rris 
and nrockholat Livingston. In the spring of 1801 
Mr. Throop returned to Johnstown, where be passed 
a year in a local law offlce, and then for three years 
held a clerkship, and in 1806 was admitted to prac- 
ttee at the bar. From 1807 to 1811 Mr. Throop was 
in partnetship at Auburn with Joseph L. Ittchard- 
son. He was then appointed county clerk of Cayuga 
county- In July, 1814, Mr. Throop was married to 
Eve linaVreden burgh, of 8kaneatclcs, N. Y., whose 
father was of Dutch (Icscent and a large landowner. 
At the congressional election in the same year, Mr. 
Throop was elected a member of the fourteenth con- 
gress, and soon acquired in Wasliinglon a thorough 
knowledge of legislation, and by his talents and in- 
dustry and his elevated character gained a promi- 
nent portion; but bis action in regard to what was 
known as "The Compensation Act," which he ad- 
vocated, irritated his constituents, and he resigned 
from congress in consequence. The compensation 
act chan^ the per diem allowance of memlieiA of 
congress to an annual salary of $1,500, which was 
practically a very small increase from the former 
pay. For some years Mr. Throop now confined 
himself to his pnvate business, but in 1833 he was 
apjiointcd by Gov. Yates to the office of circuit judge. 
In this pi>sitlon he made a most favorable impression 
on all who hod dealings with him. In .lannarv. 
1887, it fell to Judge Throop to have the alleged 
kidnappers of William Morgan brought before him 
for trial. Morgan was preparing a book to dtvulire 
the secrets of the Masonic onler. He was forcibly 
abducted, in September, 1830, from Canandaigiia 
and taken to Fort Niagara, wliere he was confine<i 
for several days, when he disapttcared. The occur- 
rence created great excitement, and tlie feeling be- 
tween Masons and anli-Mawins In tlic state beoinie 
very bitter and intense and was mrried into polilicj). 
A hody. alleged to have been that of Morgan, was 
produced, but It was denied that it was Mor- 



gan's, which brought from Thurlow Weed a remark, 
Oiat afterward became proverbial, that it was "A 
good enough Morgan until after election." In 1828 
Judge Throop consented to run for lieulenani-gov- 
eruor of the state with Martin Van Buren, when tliey 
were elected, but the governor receiving the ap- 
pointment of secretary of stale, Mr. Throop became 
BCtiug governor. He opposed the project of a Che- 
nango canal; but, as it passed with certain conditions 
in harmony with bis views, he wgned tlie bill. Gov. 
Throop's messages to the legislature have been pro- 
nounced to be remarkably able public documents. 
In 1 830 he was nominated for governor and later was 
re-elected by alarge majority. His second term was 
uneventful, and he refused a third nomination. He 
discharged all the duties of his ofHce with ability, 
and on rcliring left the state with its finances nros- 

Krous, and with his party firmly in the ascennant. 
1833 Gov. Throop was appointed by President 
Jackson naval otllcer at the port of New York, a 
position which he continued to hold until 1888, 
when President Van Buren appointed him eharge 
^affaire* to the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. He 
creditably performed the duties of this position until 
theelecticwi of Gen. Harrison to the presidency, when 
he returned home and retired to private life. For 
some lime he resided at his estate near Auburn, but 
in 1847 purchased a large farm near Kalamazoo, in 
Michigan, where he devoted himself to agriculliire 
until 18-^7, when he reliuquisbed all employment on 
accoimt of his age, and returned to his old home 
near Auburn, N. Y., where he died Nov. I, 1874. 

HABCY, W. L., governor of New York (1883- 
89)- (See Index.) 

8EWABD, W. H., governor of New York 
(1839-43). (See Index.) 

BOTICK, William C., governor of New York 
(1843-45) was born in what is now Fulton, Schoharie 
Co., N. Y., Jan. 7. 1786. He came of German 
Slock, his great-grandfather having emigrated to 
this country and settled in the valley of the Scho- 
harie, his son being the first male child bom there 
of white parents. This son |>al- 
ented from George II., In 1755, 
3,000 acres of land, in connection 
with other parlies, and mueli of 
this land was afterward inheriv 
ed by the subject of this sketch. 
The family suffered much from 
the ini-oads of the savages dur 
ing the Fi'ench and Indian war. 
Christian Bouck, the father of 
the governor, was a patriot in 
the colonial service during the 
revolutionary war. William C. 
Ronck was trained as a farmer, 
and lie r('ceive<l only a common- ! 
school education. In his earliest 

f'oiitli, however, he was deeply 
nteresied in polities, and in 18OT 
was chosen clerk of his native 
town and for the two follow- 
ing years was elected supervisor. 
He was marrie<l In 1807 to 
('atharine Lawyer, by whom 
he had eleven cliildi'en. In 
1812 he was appointed sheriff by Gov. Tompkins 
and held the position a vear. Mr. Bouck had 
now lipcome a leading politician in his section, and 
in 1813 was elected a member of the assembly; 
he was re-elected in 1814. 1815 and again in 1817. 
In the legislature Mr. Bouck was not noted as a 
debater, but was found most useful in committee 
work, to which he devotcti himself with earnest- 
ness and fidelity. In 1831 he was appointed a canal 
eomtui>isioner, and was assigned 1o the western sec- 
tion, where he superinlenifed the construction of 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



47 



the Erie Cans] from Lockport to <ta termlDus at 
l^ike Erie. He was faitUful and ludcfatigable in 
the discharge of bis duiies, whicli were not per- 
formed w[thout danger, as miicli of his work lay In 
the midsE of the unbroken forest, which Mr. Rouck 
had to traverse ou horseback, frequently carryiug 
with him large sums of money, as bis monthly pay- 
ments to coutractore sferagcd as much as $1(10,000. 
It fell to him also to break through the Snal barrier, 
the only obstacle in [he way of communication be- 
tween the Hudson and Lake Erie. This he accom- 
pliabed, and on the 29th of October, 1S25. the entire 
canat from Albany lo Buffalo was navigable and on 
the following da; Ihe Sr« boats passed through It. 
The Qrst bc»t to pass the locks at Lockport was 
named in honor of tlie commissioner, tiiu William 
C. Bouck. Besides his work on the western section 
of the Erie Canal, Mr. Bouck was also selecled to 
take cliarge of the work on the Cayuga and ticneca, 
the Crooked Lake and the Chenango cjinals, all of 
which were constructed imder his auperiiitendence 
and supervision. In 18311 Mr. Bouck was offered 
the poBition of commisaioner to superintend the 
building of the Utiea and Schenectady railroad, 
but Ihts pnaltion he declined. He remained for 
nineteen years in tlie offlec of canal commission- 
er, during which time he expended and accounted 
for upwards of ^.000,000. Political couslderalions 
caua^ hia removal in 1840. In the same year, at the 
democratic state convention, hia name was brought 
forward as a candidate for the governorship, but 
be failed of election. !n 1842 he was again nomin- 
ated and was elected by 22,000 mnjoritv. He came 
inia power when there was a great deal of factional 
trouble in the State, and as he was the first demo- 
cratic executive after a whig admiuiatralion of four 
J 'ears, he was obliged to largely exercise the appoint- 
ng power — a fact which neceasarily made him a 
great many enemies. His course in regard to ap 
poinlmeuts, while very impartial, was im)H>litie, in 
that he failed to strengthen himself. During the 
two years of bis admiiiisiration the democrats had 
the control of both parts of the legislature, but their 
factional contests interfered very much with the 
proper business of the legislature. Shortly before 
the close of his administration, what was known as 
the anti-rent struggle broke out, on the manorial 
lands, when bands of tenants, antl-reniers, disguised 
Ihemaelves as Indians and seized the olllciat papers 
of the sheriff of Columbia county and burned them; 
-while at one of tbidr meetings in that cuimty a 
young man was shot dead. Similar disturbances 
occurred in the county of Kcn8)*laer. An armed 
force was ordered out, which assisted the authorities 
in Columbia county in enforcing the laws, and the 
offenders were arrested, tried and punished. In 
June, 1646, Gov. Bouck was appointed by President 
Polk to the office of assistant treasui-cr in the city of 
New York, and he continued to hold that position 
until he was removed by President Taylor, m May, 
184!). He then retired to his farm in Schohane 
county, where he passed the last ten years of his 
Hfe. Gov. Bouck died on hU farm Apr. 19, laW. 
WBIGHT, SQaa, governor of New Yc)rk (1845- 
47), was born at Amherst. Mass., May 24, 1795, a 
descendant of Samuel Wright, who came to Boston 
in 1030 and to Northampton in 1654. His fatlier, 
Silas, a farmer, tanner, and shoemaker, removed in 
17BC to Weybridge, Addison Co., Vt., and was later 
in the legislature. At fonrteen the boy entered an 
academy at Midiilebury, Vi., and by t hi g ' th 
winter? made his way throush the II ^ tt re 
graduating in 1615, He read law at Sa dy H 11 
Washmgton Co., Vt., was admitted 1 tl b n 
January, 1819, and in October settled at C tt 

Lawrence Co.. N. Y., which he uev 1 ft cept 




for Us offldal duties. He v 






February, 1831, and went through all the militia 
grades up to bri^adlcr-^neral in 1837. Hia rise in 
politics was equally rapid. t>cginning with the stale 
senate in 18^27, where he gained much repute as 
a debater and financier, but opposed DeWitt Clin- 
ton and helped to remove him from his Important 
post as canal comniissiouer. In congress, 1637-29, 
he favored a commillee looking toward rhe abolition 
of slavery in Ihe dislricl, and was a member of that 
which framed the tariff of 1838, which in later life 
he considered too high. He was re-elecled, but re- 
signed in 1829 to succeed W. L. Marcy as comptrol- 
ler of Ihe state. During his four 
years' tenure of this posl he was 
amemberof the democrallc state 
convcntlonsof 1830and I883,and 
of the national convention which 
uoininated .lackson and Van 
Buren. Jan. 4, 1838, he was elect- 
ed to the U. 8. senate to Btl Gov. 
Marcy's unexpired term. Here 
he supported Clay's compromise 
bill, defended the removal of the 
deposits and most of President 
Jackson's measures, and opposed 
the rechartering of the t 3 
Bank. Webster complimented 
him, and Benton called him 
"the Cato of the Senate In 
1635 lie ser\ed ou tlic flnaace 
committee and in convention 

Sromoted the nomination of his 
riend Van Bnren, who was 
largely guided by his advice. He strove to pre- 
pare the minds of his eousiilueuta for the indepen- 
dent treasury scheme by two notable articles in the 
" St. Lawrence Beijublican," and steadily aupporied 
it after his re-election to the senate in 1887. His 
position with regard to slavery was defined in an 
oration at Canton, July 4, 18itt). He sustained the 
bankrupt bill urged by Van Buren, and opposed 
that favored by President Tyler, as also the handing 
over of surplus federal revenue to the states, and the 
annexation of Texas in 1886 and in 1644. He voted 
for the tariff of 1843; kept a suspicious attitude tow- 
ard Tyler, though approving the bank vetoes, and 
withstood Calhoun's efforts to cicee the mails to 
"incendiary matter" and to disregard petitions 
against slavery in the district. In 1848 lie was again 
re-elected; in December, 1844, hei^eaigned to become 
governor of New York, after declining a nomination 
for the vice-presidency, and a seal on the bench of 
the U. S. supreme court. During his stormy term 
as governor, 1845-48, he must have been moved to 
regret the comparative peace of Ihe senate, which 
was his proper field. His party was torn by fac- 
tional discussions, and the stale distracted by the 
anti-rent troubles. The latter he suppressed manful- 
ly, quelling an insurrection in Delaware county, and 
refusing to pardon offenders against Ihe law. But 
be was unequal to the meaner task of harmonizing 
and reorganizing the party, as Van Bureu had done 
in 1620. According to one of his biographers, "he 
understood men, but nut how to use them; he was a 
statesman, not a managing politic ian-^alo, not 
C«sar." The middle course which he pursued 
satisfied neither faction; his opposition to a constitu- 
tional convention was in the interest of the "tiunk- 
ers " or conservatives, and his velo of the appropri- 
ation for canals in that of the "barnburners." 
Tliough lie sicmly put down and pimislied the anti- 
reut nols, his message of 1848 advisctl the omis-sion 
from future leases of distress for rent, and suggested 

tticr nicnsurcs of relief. He was rentiminatcd hut 
defeated, and at the end of 1846 found himwlf out 

f office for Ihe first time since the oulsel of his ca- 
reer. He had declined foreign missions and seals in 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-«a>IA 



the cabinet wben offered by three succesrive pred- 
deats; be now retired to his farm and look the part 
of CiDciDnatus. In the spring of 184T lie put him- 
self on record as in symi»Ihy wilh the Wilinot pro- 
viso and in favor of harbor Improvements on the 
takes. He died of hcarl di)«(iM at Canton Aug. 2T, 
1847. His lite bas been wriilen by J. D. Hammond 
(1848), and J. S. Jenkhis (It^S). 

TOTTWa, John, governor of New York (1847- 
48), was bom in Chelsea. Vt., June 13, 1B03. His 
father, Thomas Young, emigrated from Vermont 
and settled iu the town of Conecus, Livingston Co., 
N. Y., where, for a time, he kept a public house, 
but in the latter part of Ills life owned and cultiva- 
ted a fann. He was not able to afford his son a 
college education, and the boy gained what learning 
he had from the common schoots of his neighbor- 
hood. He worked on his father's farm until he was 
of nge, when he began the study of law in the office 
of Augustus A. Bennett, at East Avon, Liviugstc 



the supreme court in 1829. His profe 

quite remarkable and very flatCeriug 

both to his talents and his char- 
acter. He was shrewd and per- 
severing, very indnstrious and 
faithful to the interests of his 
clients, and It was not long be- 
fore he was placed at the head 
of his profession in Livingston 
county. He entered Into poli- 
tics at an early age; supported 
Jackson & Van Buren in 1836. 
and at that election ran as the 
democratic candidate for roiinty 
clerk, hut was defeated by the 
anti-Masons. In tlie followinti; 
year he connected himself with 
this parly, however, on princi- 
ple, believing the Masonic order 
to be dangerous to the state. 
From 183810 1837 he held sev- 
eral minor town oftlces, and in 
1881 waa elected to the assem- 
bly. He was a member of the 
Judiciary committee and ac- 

aiiitted himself creditably as a 
ehaier. In 1840 Mr. Young 
. . whig candulate for member of congress 
from the thirtieth district and obtained the elei'iion 
by about 3,000 majority. While in the house of 
representatives heprovedhimscif of greater value as 
&n adviser and a working member than in debate. 
In 1S44 he was araiin elected to the legislature and 
led his party iu the important debate on the consti- 
tutional convention bill, whicit passed both houses. 
Mr. Young was again returned to the assembly in 
1S46. In the next session he voted forthe law abol- 
ishing distress for rent, as be strongly disapproved 
of the tenures by which the manorial lands were 
held by the tenants. In 1846 Mr. Young was Domi- 
nated and elected governor of the state on the whig 
ticket. He condemned the Mexican War in liis first 
messaize. Hisadminislration was in the main success- 
ful. He pursued an indciicndcnt course in the niat- 
terot appointments, of which lie made very few. He 
pardoned the leading an ti-renter«, who hadbeen tried 
and convicted during the previous administration, 
on the ground that their offences were political. 
After his retirement from the office of governor, he 
supported Gen. Taylor in the election of 1848 and 
WHS ap|)ointed by him assistant irensurer in the city 
of New York in place of Ex-Gov, Bouck. lie 
was manied in 1833 to Ellen Harris, a daughter of 





'Uj'"Uun/ 



•. Hunt admi 



Campbell Harris, of Livingston county, and had 
four children. Gov. Young died in New York city 
Apr. 33, 1853, 

FISH, Hamilton, governor of New York (1849- 
61)^See Indei.) 

HUNT, Waatuntrton, governor of New Yoitt 
(1831-53), was bom in Windham, N. Y.. Aug. 6, 

1811. Having received only the ordinaij ci 

school eduoition, but being am- 
bitious and determined to follow 
a profession, he began to sludv 
law at an early age anil was ad- 
milted to the bar when he was 
twenty-three years old. He set- 
tled at Lockport, and after prac- 
ticing two year* was appointed 
first judge in Niagara coimty. 
He tuterested himself greatly in 
politics, being a member of the 
whig party; and in 1842 was 
elected to congress. He served 
continuously from 1843 to 1849, 
when he was elected comptroller 
of the state of New York. In 
1830 he waa nominated for the 
governorship of the state, in 
opposition to Horatio Seymour, 
whom he defeated. But in 
18,'i3. when both were again can- 
didates, Seymour was elected. G 
istered the office faithfully, but without achieving 
any great distinction. At the close of his term he 
retired to private life. He was temporary chair- 
man of the last whig convention ever held. but. on 
the breaking up of that party, he became a demo- 
crat; and iu 1860 he was offered the nomination for 
vice-president of the United States on the democrat- 
ic ticket, but decllne<l it. Gov. Hunt was a dele- 
gate to the democratic convention at Ciiicngo in 
1864. He was prominent In the state in religious 
circles, being a frequent delegate to the Protestant 
^Isco^l conventioiv Gov. Hunt died In Kev 



MaJ. Moses Seymour, being captain of a troop of 
horse during the war of the revolution and having 
distinguished himself at the surrender of Burgoyne. 
HaJ. Seymour had five sons and a daughter. Of his 
sons, one became dislinguishod as a financier and 
bank president, two were high sherilTs, one was a 
representative and senatorin the stale of New York, 
and one was for twelve yearaU. 8. senatorfrom Ver- 
mont. Horatio Seymour's grandfatheronhis moth- 
er's side was Lieui.-Cot. Forman of the 1st New 
Jersev regiment in the revolutionary army. His 
grandmotiier was a niece of Col. William Ledyaid, 
who conimanded at Oroton. Conn., when that place 



soiiaofMaj. Seymour, Henry, the father of Horatio. 
settled in Ononduga county in the beginning of this 
century and there iu the midst of the wilderness was 
horn the future governor of the state. About nine 
veais later the family removed to t'tlca. Henry 
Seymour was a colleague of DeWltt Clinton. Like 
miHtof theearlvsettlersof Onondaga county, he waa 
a man of a high order of merit and ability. One of 
the first things done by the pioneer settlers in this 
country was to rBi.«e money by mortgaging their 
lands in order to build and endow an aoidemy. and 
in this academy Horatio Sevmour received the rudi- 
ments of his eilucatiOn. When he was ten years old 
he was sent to the Oxford Academy, at the time one 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



49 



of the foremost educational institutions of the state, 
where he remained for ahout two years, eoing thence 
to Geneva (now Hobart) College, where ne remained 
two years longer. From Geneva he went to Capt. 
Partridge's celebrated military academy at Middle- 
town, Conn., where he was graduated. Returning 
to Utica, young Seymour began to study law under 
the two noted jurists, Greene C. Bronsou and Samuel 
Beardsley, and in 1882 was admitted to practice as an 
attorney and counselor of the supreme court of the 
state of New York and a member of the Oneida 
county bar. It was about this time that Mr. Sey- 
mour 'married Mary Bleeker, daughter of John ft. 
Bleeker of Albany. Although Mr. Seymour was 
thoroughly versed in the law, he never practised, 
from the fact that he was almost immediately obliged 
to devote his whole time and attention to the large 
estate which he inherited. He made many acquaint- 
ances, however, among the best men in the state, and 
wiien Martin Van Burcn became president, having 
found in Mr. Seymour, as he believed, the elements 
of a popular leader, he recommended Gov. Marcy to 
make him his military secretary, which he did. 
This appointment assisted in bringing about intimate 
personal relations between Mr. Seymour and the 
great democratic leaders in the stiite, and he con- 
tinued to hold his confidential position near Gov. 
Marcy until 1839. In 1841 he accepted the nomina- 
tion for the assembly from the county of Oneida and 

was elected by one of the largest 
majorities ever received by a dem- 
ocratic candidate in that county, 
and thus at the age of twenty- 
seven years he actually began 
his public career. In the assem- 
bly Mr. Seymour at once took 
rank as a prominent and lending 
member, and during his first term 
made a most satisfactor}' impres- 
sion. In 1842 he was elected mayor 
of Utica. He was renominated 
for that position in 1843, b\it was 
beaten by si .x teen votes, and in 
the autumn of the same year, was 
re-elected a member of the leg- 
islature, where lie remained until 
the close of 1845, at which ses- 
sion he was elected speaker. In 
1850 Mr. Seymour received the 
nomination from the democratic 
party for governor of the state; he was defeated, 
however, by Washington Hunt, the whig candi- 
date, but although the latter was assisted by the 
**anli rent " vote, he only gained his election by 262 
majority in a total poll of 429,000. In 1852 Mr. 
Seymour was a delegate to the democnilic national 
convention held at Baltimore, and worked in the in- 
terest of William L. Marcy for pre.si(lent. In the 
same year he was again nominated by the democrats 
for the governorship of the state of New York, 
against his old competitor, Washington Hunt, whom 
he this time defeiUed by a majority of 22,906. The 
aclministnition of Gov. Seymour was eminently suc- 
cessful, although it occurred at a pericxl of general 
partv disturbance. The temperance agitators were 
particularly active, and the legislature pa^wed a pro- 
hibitory law, which w^as vetoed by Gov. Seymour. 
Meanwhile the repeal of the Missouri compromise 
had thoroughly shaken the democratic party of the 
North, while the whig party was abandoned by its 
leaders and was already making way for the repub- 
lican party of the future. All of these discordant 
and even dangerous elements had to be encountered 
in the course of Gov. Seymour's administration and 
were met with the courage and fidelity of a states- 
man and a patriot. In 1854 Gov. Seymour was re- 
nominated, there being four tickets in tlie field. He 
1II.-4. 







r^. 



was defeated by Myron H. Clark, the whig and 
temperance candidate, by a plurality of 309 votes in 
a grand total of 469,431. in 1856 Gov. Seymour 
went to Cincinnati as a delegate to the democratic 
national convention, and gave his support to Bu- 
chanan and Breckenridge in the succeeding cam- 
paign. His views on the conditions and elements of 
the existing political .situation were deemed to be of 
so much importance that he was requested to give 
public expression to them. Accordingly, at Spnng- 
lield, Mass., on July 4, 1856, before an assemblage 
numbering many thousands, he delivered an address 
on "The Democratic Theory of Government," which 
was published throughout the country and circulat- 
ed widely as a campaign document, contributing in 
no small degree to the democratic victory of that 
year. He argued against centralization, and for 
local authority, claiming that imder such conditions 
the slavery question would settle itself by all the 
states becoming free, for the tendency of events was 
such that power w^as pa.ssing to the free states, and 
ultimately the ideas which controlled these states 
w^ould control the Union. On the accession of James 
Buchanan to the presidential chair, he tendered to 
Gov. Seymour a first -class mission to one of the 
European courts, but this oflfer was gracefully de- 
clined, and Gov. Seymour returned to his farm 
where he always showed great interest in agri- 
cultural pursuits. At the beginning of the civil 
war Gov. Seymour, like many other loyal men, 
sought earnestly to avert the ditflculties and dan- 
gers which he saw were threatening the stability of 
the Union. Possibly misunderstanding the relations 
of the two sections of the country with regard to 
their strength and ability to sustain an armed conflict, 
he was nevertheless certainly right in the effort to 
avoid a sanguinary and bitter stnfe as to the possible 
result of which no mind, however far-seeing, could 
decide. Gov. Seymour addressed meetings in his 
own and other states at which he sought to do away 
with the false impression then prevalent throughout 
the North with regard to the staying power of the 
Southern people. "Ninety days" was the limit 
generally fixed for the war which was obviously to 
take place, and no effort on the part of such states- 
men as were unwilling to swim with the tide against 
their own convictions had any effect in changing 
this impi-ession. Gov. Seymour had opposed the re- 
publicans during the campaign, but he actively 
supportetl the administration after President Lin- 
coln took ofi[lce. At a democratic ratification 
meeting held in Utica in 1862, he announced in the 
most spirited manner the intention of Northern 
democrats to lose no opportunity of showing their 
loyalty to the Union. He contributed largely in 
Oneida county to the funds raised for the purpose 
of enlisting soldiers, and while attending a meeting 
of the state military association in 1862, at Albany, 
he began his address by saying, ** We denounce 
the rebellion as most wicked, because it wages war 
against the best government the world has ever 
seen." In Septeniber of that year Gov. Seymour 
wjis enthusiastically renominate<l as a candidate for 
the executive chair of the state of New York. Upon 
receiving this nomination Gov. Seymour adopted a 
course at that time unusual in the political history 
of the state, which was to imdertake a personal cam- 
paign, by traversing the state and addressing meet- 
ings. He spoke at outdoor gatherings as many as 
nine times a week during the campaign, of course a 
most trving and fatiguing undertaking, but which 
resulted in his being elected by a majority of 10,752 
votes. In his message to the senate after his election. 
Gov. Seymour put on record his declaration that 
under no circumstances could the division of the 
Union be conceded, and in the strongest manner an- 
nounced his intention to aid in upholding the govern- 



50 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



ment, and showing respect to the authority of its 
rulers. He protested against arbitrary arrests and 
the suppressing of journals and imprisonment of 
persons without due process of law, holding that the 
fact of an existing rebellion could not suspend a 
single right of the citizens of loyal states. Through- 
out his £jlministration Gov. Seymour was conspicu- 
ous by his energy and ability in raising troops. 
Within three days after the special demand which 
was made on the occasion of the invasion of Penn- 
sylvania, 12,000 state militia, thoroughly equipped, 
were on their way to Harrisburg. It was wliile the 
New York militia were absent from the city in 
Pennsylvania that the series of outbreaks known as 
the " araft riots " took place. A more unfortunate 
time could not have been even accidentally appointed 
for the announcement in New York of the names of 
those who were drafted. It has never, however, 
been satisfactorily shown that this particular peritxi 
was not chosen designedly by the war department. 
Two points with regard to the draft were especially 
obnoxious: one was that while the poor must ^o to 
the war, "willy-nilly," the rich could avoid it by 
paying i|;300 to buy a substitute; the other was that 
the quota demanded from New York was inaccurate 
and unjust, so excessive in fact that the general 
government was forced afterward to correct it. 
Gov. Seymour endeavored to have the quota correct- 
ed, and the draft postponed, but the latter began on 
Saturday, July 11, 1868, the names being published 
on Sunday. From that time until Thursday even- 
ing the city was in the hands of the rioters; about a 
thousand lives were lost, and property amounting to 
several million dollars was destroyed. As soon as 
the riots began, Gov. Seymour went at once to the 
metropolis, where he issued proclamations declaring 
the city to be in a state of insurrection, ordering all 
persons engaged in riotous proceedings to return to 
their homes and employments, and declaring that he 
should use all the power necessary to restore the 
peace and order of the city. He made public ad- 
dresses urging the mob to disperse and insisting 
upon the obedience of the law, while at the same 
time he used every effort to obtain troops and en- 
roll volunteers. By judiciously refraining from 
stirring up the already excited passions of the riot- 
ers, and, aided by the few soldiers in the forts un- 
der the command of Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool, Gov. 
Seymour did much toward allaying the excitement 
which ended on Thursday evening, July 16th. On 
Apr. 16, 1864, the state legislature, which was re- 
publican, passed a resolution thanking Gov. Sey- 
mour for having procured the correction of the 
errors committea in regard to the draft by the 
authorities at Washington. In the same year Gov. 
Seymour was a candidate for the governorship of the 
state, but was defeated by Reuben E. Fentou, by a 
majority of 8,293. After the war was ended Gov. 
Seymour continued to be prominent in politics. He 
strongly opposed the republican party, as was 
naturaffrom a democratic standpoint, and after pre- 
siding over state conventions in 1867 and 1868. he 
was elected permanent chairman of the national con- 
vention, which met in New York city July 4, 1868, 
when Seymour and Blair were nominated as the 
candidates of the denuxiratic party for the offices of 
president and vice-president respectively, At the 
election Gov. Seymour was defeated by Gen. Grant, 
the popular vote being 3,015,071 for Grant, and 
2,709, 313 for Seymour. From this time forward, 
Mr. Seymour refused to let his name be used as a 
candidate for any public office. In 1864 he had 
built on the Deerfield Hills, near Utica, a plain frame 
cottage, spacious and hospitable, located on the high- 
est point on his farm. Here he devoted himself to 
reading and agricultural pursuits, up to the time of 
his death, which occurred Feb. 12, 1886. 




CLABEy Myron HoUey, governor of New- 
York (1855-57), was bom in Naples, Ontario Co., 
N. Y., Oct. 23, 1806. His family came from west- 
ern Massachusetts, his grandfather having emigrated 
from Berkshire county to New 
York state in the latter part of 
the last century. Young My- 
ron had the ordinary district- 
school education, but became 
popular and was elected to sev- 
eral local offices, and was for 
two years sheriff of Ontario 
county. He removed to Can- 
andaigua, of which village he 
was elected pi^dent in 1850. 
In 1852 he was elected state 
senator. In the senate he in- 
terested himself greatly in the 
subject of temperance and aid- 
ed in securing the passage of a 
prohibitoiy liquor law; but it 
was vetoed by Gov. Seymour. 
In 1854, the two parties having 
split on the question of slavery, 
a combination of anti -slavery 
adherents, prohibitionists, and others, nominated 
Mr. Clark for governor and succeeded in electing 
him by a majority of 305 votes in a total vote of 
370,000, the smallest majority ever given to a gov- 
ernor of New York. His party called itself republi 
can, and he was practically the first republican state 
candidate. While in office he succeeded in obtain- 
ing the passage of a prohibitory liquor bill, which 
was his pet hobby, but it was in force for less than 
a year, when it was set aside as unconstitutional. In 
1874 he was a candidate for governor on the pro- 
hibition ticket. Gov. Clark died Aug. 28, 1892. 

KING, John Alsop, governor of New York 
(1857-59), was born in New York city. Jan. 3. 1788, 
the eldest son of Rufus and Mary King. He 
attended school at Harrow, 
Eng., and upon his return to 
New York studied law and 
was admitted to the bar. He 
was a lieutenant of cavalry in 
the U. S. army during the war 
of 1812. At the close of the 
war he engaged in fanning at 
Jamaica, N.Y. He was elected 
to the New York legislature in 
1819 and subsequently re-elect- 
ed a number of times. He op- 
posed most of the measures ad- 
vanced by DeWitt Clinton but 
favored the canal and was sub- 
sequently elected to the state 
senate. He resigned his place in 
the senate to accompany his fa- 
ther to the court of bt. James as 
secretary of legation. When 
on account of ill health his fa- 
ther was compelled to return to the United States, he 
remained in England as charge d'affaires until the 
new minister arrived. In 1838 he was again returned 
to the legislature, and in 1849 was elected to congress 
by the whig party. He opposed all compromise meas- 
ures, particularly the fu«jitive slave law, and advoca- 
ted the admission of California as a free state. He was 
prominent at several whig nominating conventions 
and ])re.sided at the convention held at Syracuse, 
N. Y., in 1855, when the republican party was 
formed, and in 1850 at the Philadelphia convention 
he was a warm supporter of Gen. Fremont. Mr. 
King was elected governor of New York in 1856 
and gave particular attention to educational matters 
and internal improvements. He declined a renom- 
ination, and on account of advanced years retired 



:.-^:^v 




^ly^*i»:/^ ,c^2i^ 



OF AMERICAN BIOGKAPHY. 



from public life. In 1861 U the request of Gov. 
Morgain be once more consented to come before the 
public as a member of the peace convention. He 
was a prominent member of tlie Episcopal church 
BDd look a conspicuous part in its aiiwesan conven- 
tions. He died ut Jamaica, N. Y., July 7, 1867. 

MOKQAN, Edwin Sennisoii, governor of 
New York (1859-83). was bora in Washington, Berk- 
shire Co,, Mass., Feb. 8, 1811. After passing through 



the 




schools he went to Harltord, Conn., 
1828, where bis uncle, Nathan Mor- 
gan, was engaged in business, and 
entered bis store as a clerk on a 
small salary. At the end uf three 
fears he had shown Ibe possession 
of such business qiiatities and bad 
become so impurtaut to his uncle, 
that the latter look him into part- 
nership. While in Hartford he 
was elected a member of the city 
council and was acquiring a per- 
sona! as well as business reputation 
when be decided to remove from 
Connecticut and establish himself 
in New York. ThU he did in 1836. 
and founded a mercantile bouse 
which was rapidly successful. Mr. 
Morpin waa already noted for the 
^t^Cit* — • chanty and benevolence of his dis- 
f position, and when tbe chiilera broke 

out in New York in IS49. instead 
of fleeing from the city as most of those did who 
could eet away, he remained in the midst of the 
contagion and per^innlly assisted those who were 
sick or poor. In 1850 Mr. Morgan was elected a 
member of the stale senate and continued to serve in 
that body until he was elected governor of the slate 
in 1858. It thus fell to him to become one of the 
"war governors." that splendid body of executive 
offlcem whose personal efforts had so much to do 
■with the SUCCPS8 of the Union during the civil war. 
During Gov. Morgan's first two years in that posi- 
tion he was preparing, as every one was more or 
less, for (he "impeoding crisis. He succeeded in 
ralucing the state debt and in increasing the rev- 
enue from canal tolls, and this at a period when 
there was the greatest necessity for economizing and 
accumuUtlng money in view of tiie tremendous ex- 
penditures which were presently to lake place. 
The part taken by Ibe state of New York m the 
civil war, lltat bemg tbe first state in the Union in 
we&lth and population, was necessarily foremost. 
Every county furnished its quota of volunteers; its 
we II -organized and thoroughly drilled militia regi- 
ments supplied capable officers to the inexperienced 
army, which was so rapidly formed; and the many 
factories of the state were kept busy nigbt and day 
in supplying arms, clothing and equipments; at tlie 
Walcrvliet arsenal alone, 1,500 men were employed 
durioK the war. The wealth of New York was 
poured out like water to sustain the Union cause. 
The first dollar voted by any city for tbe equipment 
of tmops came from New York, and that city con- 
tributed to the Union araiies IIS.ODO men at an ex- 
pense of lU.'WO.Om, while the enrire state supplied 
to the army 475,000 men, more than one-sixth of tlie 
entire national force. Of course the extraordinary 
duties devolving upon the executive made a con- 
ttsnt and severe demand and strain upon all his fac- 
ulties. Fortunately Gov. Morgan was physically 
and mentally thoroughly equipped. for such an 
emer^ncy. Of the entire number of troops sent by 
tbe state of New York to tbe war, 223,000 were or- 
ennized and mustered in during his term of olllce. 
When the state was made a muitary dL'ijartniont in 
1861 he was commissioned a major-general of vol- 
unteers and placed over it as commander, but it is 



highly to his credit and honor that he refused any 
compensation connected with this commission. In 
1802 when Guv. Morgan retired from olQcc, he was 
elected by the republican party in the state legislat- 
ure a member of the U. S. senate, where he served 
until March 3, 1869. In the meantime, he was lem- 
porarT chairman of the convention which was held 
at lialtlmore in 18S4 and a delegate to that of Pliila- 
delphia in 1866. In 1865 President Lincoln offered 
him a place in his cabinet as secretary of the treas- 
ury, but he declined it. In 1872, occupying the 
re-spoDsible position of chairman of the national re- 
publican committee, he conducted the campaign 
successfully and Gen. Grant was elected president 
for his second term. In 1875 Mr. Morgan was can- 
didate for U. S. senator and tbe following year for 
governor of New York, but was defeated. Wiien 
Gen. Arthur succeeded to the presidential chair in 
1881, he offered to Gov. Morgan the position of sec- 
retary of the treasury, but the governor for tbe sec- 
ond time declined it, on this occasion on account of 
his age. Throughout his life Gov. Morgan was es- 
teemed as one of ll)e most prominent citizens of the 
state, while bis name was well known through- 
out tbe country as tbe synonym for loyalty, 
personal integrity and business ability. He poe- 
sessed a very generous nature and gave largely to 
charitable institutions and inslilutions of learning. 
The New York Theological Seminary received from 
him as a gift nearly three quarters of a million dol- 
lars, and ue gave half as much more to Williams 
College library for the erection of buitable buildings. 
In his will he bequeathed more than three quarters 
of a million dollars for the purpose of carrying out 
his charitable and religious designs. Gov. Morgan 
died in New York city Feb. 14, 1883. 

FENTON, Beuben Saton, governor of New 
York (1665-69), was bora in Carroll, Chautauqua 
Co., N. Y., July 4, 1819, the voungest son of the 
late George W. Fenton, one of the pioneer settlers 
of Chautauqua county, N. Y. He 
attended the pioneer school in his , ._ - -j 

native place until he was fifteen ■. ^ 

years of age, after which he spent 
two years at Cary's Academy near 
Cincinnati and completed his edu- 
cational course at the Predonla 
Academy in Chautauqua. It was 
intended that he should be fitted 
for tbe profession of law, and for 
that purpose he studied for a year 
or two in the law office of the . 
Waite brothers in Jamestown, but ^ 
ill health forced him to abandon ', 
bis studies and at the age of twenty 
he began business as a country 
merchant and became almost i~ 
mediately successful. In the mei 
time he had become popular and 
prominent amons; his fellow -cit- 
izens and was elected colonel of tbe 1G3d regi- 
ment New York slate militia. His profits accum- 
ulated and he Invested his savings in the lumber 
trade and personally conducted his tlrst raft of 
timber which cost nim bis first thousand dollars, 
down the Ohio to Majsville, Ky., where be sold it 
at a large profit. He soon bad the reputation of be- 
ing one of the most successful ojierators In lumber 
in his region. He made considerable money and be- 
gan to take rank among the brightest and most))ros- 
perous of his neighbors. From 1846 to 1853 inclus- 
ive, he was annually elected supervisor of Carroll. 
Ho acted with the democratic party of tiiat day 
and in 1849 was nominated by it for the a>4H;mbIy 
and won the clecticm. In 1852 he was nomina- 
ted by tlie deiiKKrmts for eongi-ess and was 
elected by a small majority in a district which 




 -'''f^^^^.V^t.../^ 



42 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



contemplation, hv establitihinK a chnin of communi- 
calioDS, or line of posts and fiirlifications exlendiug 
from Saiiilj' Hook to ilio St. Lawrence, lo cut off 
New England, tlie hot-bed of sedition and rebellion, 
from tlie support of the southern provinces. Tliis 
desIgD wa8 never finally abandoned uutil the lime 
when Arnold committed bis Irensonable act but 
failed lo secure the Itev of the Hudson. It so liap- 

SBned, therefore, that Nei\ York, while engaged In 
efending her borderi against Indians and tones, 
WRB also fighting the battles of New England. AH 
the settlements witUia the interior of New York 
were constantly agitated by scenes of bloodshed, 
devastation and murder. During the latter part of 



with a considerable militia force, in order to prevent 
the British from ascending ilie river. In the sprinc 
of 1TT7 congress appointed him conunander of all 
posts in that quarter. In September be addressed 
the first meeting of the legislature of New York, at 
Kingstou. MeanwbileQen. Burgoyne had advanced 
from the North wiili a large army, and was rapidly 
nearitig Albany. Washington was in the South with 
a greiil body of the Continental onny, and Sir Henry 
Clmlon, having received reinforcements, determined 
to lAke advantage of this opportunity to ascend the 
river and cnpture the posts in command of Oov. 
Clinton. He took 3,000 men with him, and landed 
at Tarrytown, making a feint against Pcekskill, while 
be mpidly conveyed troops across the river for the 




ton was mainly occupied in providing for the public- 
defence and secnrily, and his time was chietlj eni- 
iiloyed iu cnnyiug into effect the laws passed by the 
egislature in this direction. In 1T80 Gov, Clmton 
was re-elected, and continued to fill the governor's 
chair until 1799. In ITt^O. when the savages led by 
Brant and Complantei made a descent into the Mo- 
hawk valley, Oov. Clinton succeeded in preventing^ 
tlie success of their expedltiuu. Peace with Great 
Britain was declared, and when Gen. Washington 
entered the city of New York on the occasion of its 
evacuation. Gov, Clinton rode beside him as chief 
magistrate of the stale. After the close of the war 
Gov. Clinton devoted much attouiion lo the subjects 
of education acid internal improvements, and pro- 
cured llic passage of important lawsin thisdirection. 
He recommended the (irgani/atiun of a society for 
the promotion of agriculture, arts, and manufactures, 
and also an act directing the exploration of Herkimer 
and Wosliinglou counties, with a view to canal cou- 
stmclion. Further, the legislature provided tor the 
formation of companies designed to improve and 
open Interior nnvigHlion and Inland water communi- 
cation, the culmination of which was the construc- 
lion, under the direction of Gov. Clint<m's nephew, 
DeWllt Clinton, of the Erie Canal. One of the first 
acts of Uie federalists in the way of cstablisliing a 
government Inclining toward centralization, was to 
obtain the passage of laws authorizing the national 
government to collect and retain the import duiiea 
which might accrae at the port of New York. Gov, 
Clinton was op[iosed to tim act as a surrender of the 
independent soverelgiity of the state, and one result 
was, that a movement was put on foot by the fcder- 
alista to prevent bis re-election as governor of the 
state In 1780 congress passed a resolution request- 
ing Go* Clinton to call the legislature togeilier for 
. .. jipeousider a stale law with which 



by congress and accordingly refused t 
the legislature Iu entra session Gov. Clinton was 
one of the foremost and most decided opponents of 
the Faleral constitution as it was originally formed, 
but he presided at the stale convention in 1778, 
which ratified tbi<< instnimenl In 17B7 Gov. Clin- 
ton mareheil at the bead of the New Y'ork stale 
militia to a.s8i4t the MHSsnchusetts government in 
overeominc sbays  rebellion The political course 
of Gov cTmton aroused <<erious opposition among 
the federalists and from 17B9 every effort was made 



where Gen. James Clinton, brother of the en 
was in command with only about SOO militia. On 
hearing of the British movement Gov. Clinton im- 
mediately prorogued the legislature at Kingston, and 
hastened to the assistance of his brother. But the 
numbers of the enemy were too great to be success- 
fully resisted by the small force at his command. 
Boln forta were snrrounded, hut it was not until the 
Americans bad been completely overpowered by 
numbersthattbey fought their way out. and, favored 
by darkness, succeeded in escaping. It was a most 
brilliant defence, lasting from two o'clock in tlie 
afternoon until after dark, and against more than 
four times the number of the defenders. George 
Clinton managed lo cross the river in a boat, and 
James was severely wounded and puisued, but 
eventually reached his house, sixteen miles distant 
from the forts, on the following morning. No per- 
manent advantage resulted to the British from their 
success on Ibis occasion, Biirgoyne and bis army 
were defeated al Saratoga, and Bir Henry Clinton 
was obliged to satisfy himself with dismantling the 
forts he bad captiirea, and on the approach of win- 
ter the Britlsli fell back to their lines in the neigh- 
borhood of New York, During the war Gov. Clin- 



Clinlon was declared re-electeil by a majority of II . 
At the presidential election in 1703. the electors of 
the new republican pariy. of which Gov. Clinton 
might be considered the founder, inserted bis name 
in their ballots as their candidate for vice-president. 
He received fifty votes and John Adams seventy- 
seven. At the ensuing election for governor, be de- 
clined to run, and dunng the uext five years was re- 
tired from public life, except that his name was 
again mentioned as a candidate for the vice-presi- 
dency. In 1801 he was once more induced to be- 
come a candidate for the governorsliip, and was 
elected by nearly 4,000 majority over bis federal 
opponent, Stephen Van Benssefaer. On entering 
npuu his new term, Guv. Clinton found himself in 
opposition to hia own party in regard to the matter 
of removals from oftice on account of politics. This 
bad now become the custom, and though he resisted 
it iu the council of appointmenl. he was overruled 
by his nephew, DeWitt Clinton, and Ambrose Spen- 
cer, who were members of the council. On the re- 
election of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency for 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



43 



the second tenn, Got. Clintob vas chosen aa tbe 
candidate of the republican party for vice-preHJdcDt, 
and waa duly elected, the two candidates receiving 
162 of the ITOvotefi which were cti&t. As Uiepresul- 
fng oRlcer of the U. S. senate, Mr. Clinlon was 
noted for the impartiality and promptitude with 
'Which he gave his decisions, and for tlte kindness 
and courtesy which always diiitinguished his manner, 
as well toward his political oppuuents oa to bis most 
attached friends. On the retirement of Mr. Jefti-r- 
Boo, Jlr. Clinton waa continuijd in the oHlce of vice- 

g resident, and at the session of ISKUlSll, it fell to 
im, by his casting vote, to decide the question as 
to the propriety of renewing the cliarterof the Bank 
of the United' Slates. The question belne on the 
striking out of the enacting clause of the Dili. Mr. 
Clinton vnled In the afflrmative, after a tew brief, 
terse, and vigorous remarks setting forth his reasons 
for this course. George Clinton was in many re- 
spects one of the most remarkable men produced by 
the period in which he lived. He waa a man of 
strong views, and possessed absolute personal cour- 
aee Id advancing them wiihoul regard to Ihe possi- 
bilities of their adverse reception. He wns one of 
the ablest of administrative officers, and was as ad- 
mirable in bis civil as in bis militarj career. Mr. 
Clinton married Cornelia Tappan, of Kingston, 
N. Y. He had one son and five daughters, but onlv 
two of his children, both daughters, lived to an ad- 
Tanced age. One of bis daughters became the wife 
of Citizen Genet, the French minister to the United 
Stales in 1T03, who t«mained in this country after 
he had completed bis mission, and settled m the 
state of New York, where he died. In his per- 
Bonal appearance Gov. Clinlon was dignified, his 
countenance indicating the courage, energy and 
decision of character for which be was remark- 
able. Says one of his biographers, " Few men have 
ever occupied a lar^rspace In the public estimation, 
and no one name is more conspicuous than bis in 
the early annals of New York." Gov, Clinton died 
while holding the office of vice-president, Apr. 30, 
1813, in the city of Washington, and bis remains 
were permanently depoailed in the Congressional 
Cemetery. 

JAT, John, governor of New York (1795-1801). 
(See Index.) 

ZiEWIS, Korgfts, soldier, and governor of Kew 
York (1804-7), was bom in New York city Oct. 16, 
_ 1754, the son of Francis Lewis, 

one of the signers ot the declare- 
tioD of independence. He was 
graduated from Princeton Col- 
lege, In 1773, when he began the 
study of law in the olllce of John 
Jay, afterward chief justice of 
the U. S. supreme court. On the 
breakingout of the revolutionary 
war, he volunteered his ser^-ices, 
Joiningthe American army under 
Gen. Washington, before Boston. 
He waa elect«l captain of a regi- 
ment of New York militia, was 
afterward commissioned as ma- 
jor, and is mentioned in Gen. 
Stephen's despatches as having 
behaved gallantly at the battle 
of (lermantown. In 1779 he 
waa quartermaater-gcnerat, with 
the rank of colonel under Gen. 
Gates at Saratoga; in the action 
at Bemix's Ilelghta he shared the perils and honors 
of the day with Arnold, Morgan and the otber 
officers, and after the surrender of Bnrgoyne he 
was engaged in the operations undertaken by Gen. 
Clinton against Ihe mixed force of British regulars 
and savages In the northern part of New York. 




Resuming his profession of the law In New York 
city in 1783, he was soon elected a member of the 
state legislature. He afterward removed to Dutch- 
ess county, and was appointed successively a judge 
of the court of common pleas, attorney-general of 
the state, a judge of the supreme court, and, in 1801, 
chief justice of the same court. In 1804 he 
was elected governor ot the state of New York. 
In his office be did much to advance the cause 
of education and to strengthen the state militia. 
In 1810 he was a member of the state sen 
ate; two years later he was appointed quaner- 
master-general of the U. 8. army, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, and in March, 1813, he was 
made major-general. During the campaign of that 
year Gen, Lewis was with Gen. Dearborn on the 
Niagara frontier. He captured Fort George, and 
was m command for some time at Sackett's Harbor 
and French creek. In the tatter part of 1813 he 
accompanied Gen. Wilkinson in his expedition 
against Montreal, and in 1814 he hod command 
of the forces held for the defence of the city and 
harl>or of New York. From 1815 to the time of his 
death, he lived in retirement. In 1821hewaselccted 
grand master of the order ot Freemasons in the 
United Stales. He was also president ot the New 
York Historical Society and of the New York sec- 
tion of the Onler of the Cincinnati. He was noted 
for his generosity. He remitted the arrears of rent 
due him fromsuch of his tenants in Delaware county 
as had either gone themselves or sent a son to the war, 
and during the anti-rent disturbance in New York 
stale, he experienced no difficulty, owing to his judi- 
cious and generoua dealings. Feb. 22, 1833, by 
the request of the city of New York, Gen. Lewis, 
then in his 8eventy-eli;lith year, delivered the oration 
at the Centennial anniversarr of the birth ot George 
Washington, Oen. Lewis died in New York city 
Apr, 7 1844. 

TOMFKIKB, D. J}., governor ot New York 
(1807-16). (See Index.) 

CLINTON, DeWitt, governor of New York 
(1817-33 and 1834-37), was bom at Little Britain, 
N. Y., March 3, 1788. He was 
Instructed by the pastor of the 
Presbyterian church in hia 
native village and at Kingston 
(N. Y.) Academy, and In 1784 
accompanied his fatherto New 
York city on his way to enter 
Princeton College ; but his 
stoppage in New York waa 
the direct means of reviving 
Kings (now Columbia) Col- 
lege, which had become al- 
most obliterated during the 
war of the revolution, and 
youn^ Clinton was the Hrst 
malnculated student after its 
rebabililation, being admitted 
to the junior class, and l)eing 
grailuated in 1788. One ot bis 
college teachers declared of 
him: "I found Mr. Clinton apt 
to learn anything that was required of him. He was 
clear in mathematics, and correct in classical knowl- 
edge. He did everytidng well." After graduation 
he began the study of law in New York city with 
Samuel Jones, and was admitted to the bar in 
1789. But he did not practice bis profession, being 
at once culled to the position of private secretary to 
his uncle, George Clinton, then governor of New 
York. lie had already taken part in the discussion 
over the ralillcation of the Federal constitution by 
the state of New York, contributing to the public 
press a series of letters, signed "A Countryman." In 
which the most pertinent of the considerations 




Z^^^^ ^S^-t'-^^ 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



exclusive business tor sixteen moiilha. His friends 
estinialed tlial llie neglect of lijs professional and 
private affairs during iliix timecost him "enough lo 
endows puhlic cliaiity." The sura was quite as 
well spent in furthering public justice; the nng was 
broken, and its members prisonerB or fugitives. <8ee 
"The New York City Ring: Its Oririn, Maturity, 
and Fall," 18T3.) In 1874 he was elected governor. 
with 60,000 majority, over Gen. Dix. Among the 
more notable deliverances of his adminlslraliou were 
his messages of Jan. 5. Jan. 12, March 19 (afraiust 
the canal ring), and May II. 18T5; June i. March 
24. 1876. anil his s|teeches at BiilfuUi and Utica Aug. 
10 and Sept. 30, 1875. During bis term the present 
capitol building at Albany was begun. The national 
democralic convention, meeting at St. Louis in June, 
1876. nominated him for president on the second 
ballot. The election was unusually close, and its 
result long doubtful. Mr. Tildcn had a popular ma- 
jority over Mr. Hayes of nearly 251,000, anil over 
ait nvalsof near 160,000, but the votes of Louisiana, 
Soulli Carolina and Florida were claimed by both 
parties; intimidation was charged against the demo- 
crats, and false returns aeaiuat the republican can- 
vassing boards. The excited passions of that anx' 
ious time, and the unprecedented embarrassment of 
the Mtualion. live in the memory of all mature Amer- 
icans. To avoid a deadlock in congress, the senate 
being republican and the house democratic, it was 
agreed to leave the decision lo an electoral commia 
sion of fifteen, and this, by a strict party vote uf 
eight lo seven, accepted the returns of ''- 




i3^ /c^an^^t.^FU^ 




B never to have 



in the three doubtful states, and reported, March 8. 
1877. the majority of a single vote for Mr. Haye& 
Though some counseled violence, the decision was 
of neces-sily actiuiesced in. But half the nation re- 
garded Mr. Tilden as president de leqt. He retained 
the re.«|)eetandconndencci)f his party in an enlarged 
degree, but refused to allow the use of his name in 
\%m and 1884. During the latter years of bis life 
Mr. Tildcn was probably the cliief figure in the 
democmtic party, and his opinion was sought on all 
quiMtions of state or tiational p>litics. His last im- 

Eirtant expression of opinion was in a letter to J. O. 
arli^le, then .tpeaker of the house, urging the ne- 
ceiwily of liberal appropriations forasystem of coast 
defences, that tlie seaboard of the cou'niry might be 
secured against naval attacks. He diul at his coun- 
try house. Qreyslone. near Yonkers. N. Y.. Aug. 4. 
IIMO. leaving a large part of his fortune of #5.000,000 
to found a free library in New York; but his heirs 
(he was a bachelor) contested the will, which was 
br[>ken. after which the heir^ contributed a much 
smaller sum to endow the library. Probably Mr. 
Tilden drew more wills disposing of large estates, 
than any man in the legal profession, hut when mak- 
ing his own, he did not succeed in avoiding legal ob- 
atructioDB, which invalidated the instrument. A 



BOBINBON, Luciua, governor nf New York 
(1877-80), was bom in Windham, Greene Co., N. Y., 
Nov. 4, 1810. After receiving a coram ou-scliool ed- 
ucation, he was sent to the academy in Delhi, Dela- 
ware Co., N. Y., where he completed bia education. 
He began to study law, passed through an ofllce, and 
in 1H33 was admitted to the bar. Receiving the ap- 
pointment of district attorney was liie fii'st honor 
which fell to bim, and in 1843 be waa made n 
in chancery for New York city, 
and continued to bold the posi- 
tion for four years. In the mean- 
time be had become somewhat 
prominent in politics as a mem- 
ber of the democratic parly, but 
in ISIiO, when the republican 

Earty completed its organization 
y nominating a candidate for 
the presidency, Mr. Kobinson 
threw in bis fortunes with the 
new movement. He was elected 
a member of the assembly of 
New York in 18.W, and two 
Tears later was made comptrol- 
ler of the Slate, a position which 
heheld until 1865, when the dem- 
ocrats nominated him for the 
same olHcc and he was defeated, 
but ten years later they again 
elected him comptroller. Indeed, 
his action in leaving the pany seen 
made much difl'erencc in his poliii 
democrat, and in 1876 he was elected g()vemor on 
the democratic ticket. In 1879 he again received the 
nomination at the hands of the same party and was 
defeated During liis administration as governor of 
the state Mr. Robinson made no very marked im- 
pression on public affairs. 

OOBNELL, AloDZO B. , governor of New York 
(1880-83) was bora at Ithaca, N, Y., Jan. 22, 1832. 
He n.cched an academic education, and at an curly 
age engaged in the telegraph business. Uis Hr^t 
employment was at Troy. N. Y. ; and from his first 
connection with thai offlcc Mr. Cornell was conlinu- 
ouily occupied, either as ojierator. manager, super- 
intendent director, vice-president, or acting presi- 
dent of tlie Western Union Tele^ph Company, or 
Its predecessor companies. His lather, the late 
Ezra Ccirndl. founder of the Cornell University, waa 
associated witii Prof. Morse in the early develop- 
ment of the electric telegraph, and In 1843 was ni>- 
pointcd by the secretarvof the treasury nsthesuper- 
mtendent of construction of the first line of tele- 
graph in America, hi-lween Baltimore and Washitig- 
lon. The Western Union Telegraph Company wiW 
oreanizxid in IK.'Uby tbeunionof several of the origi- 
nal telegraph companies, located chieflv in Ohio, In- 
diana, and Miciilgan. Ezra Cornell. Hiram Sibley. 
of Rochester, and Jephtlia H. Wade, of Cleveland. 
O., were llic practical founders of the companr. On 
his acceaiion to the iire.iidency, in 1869. Qen. Qraut 
apiToinieil Mr. Cornell as surveyor of customs for the 
part of New York. He performed the duties of thaV 
olUce with such satl.'tfactlon that Pre^denC Grant, ia 
1870, nominated him assistant treasurer of the Unit- 
ed Slates at New York, to succeed Charles J. Fol- 
ger. who had been elected to the court of appeals. 
Sir. Cornell preferred the customs service, and de- 
clined to accept the treasurership, whereupon Thom- 
as HillhoiiKc was appoinled to that olHee. In the 
performance of duty as surveyor of custoiM, Mr. 
Cornell was a.ssociated with Moses H. Grinnell, 
Thomas Murphy, and Chester A. Arthur, collectors, 
successively, of the port of New York. Mr. Cornell 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



55 




resigned in the autumn of 1872 to accept an elec- 
tion to the legislative assembly of the state of New 
York; and, despite the fact that it was his first par- 
liamentary service, he was chosen speaker of tiiat 
body by the unanimous action of the republican 
caucus, Vhich that year consisted of ninety-six mem- 
bers. The assembly contained a large number of 
prominent men of great legislative experience, and 
the choice of Mr. Cornell Jis speaker, without even 
the pretence of a canvass for the position, was an un- 
usual compliment. As a presid- 
ing officer he was remarkably suc- 
cessful, but declined a proffered 
renomination to the assembly, al- 
though his district was over- 
whelmingly republican. He pre- 
ferred to resume his t)osition as 
vice-president of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, in 
which he continued until the 
close of 1876, when he accept etl 
from President Grant the appoint- 
ment as naval officer of customs 
for the port of New York. In 
the year 1875 Mr. ('omellwas act- 
ing president of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company during the 
prolonged absence m Europe of 
the late William Orton, then presi- 
dent of the company. Factional 
strife induced President Hayes to 
suspend Collector Arthur and 
Naval Officer Cornell from their positions in July, 
1878; It was universally recognized that this action 
was founded wholly in political motive. Tlie fact 
that at the succeeding election Mr. Cornell was 
elected governor of New York, and Gen. Arthur 
vice-president of the Uniteil States, served to vindi- 
cate their side of the controversy. Gov. Cornell was 
inaugurated Jan. 1, 1880, and served three years. 
His aiiministration was distinguished for its econom- 
ical results, its freedom from official scandal, and the 
gv,*neral excellence of his appointments. He exer- 
cised the veto-power with firmness, and to the great 
satisfaction of the people. Among the prominent 
measures vetoed by Gov. Cornell were the code of 
criminal procedure'of 1880, the Croton aqueduct bill, 
and the new capitol appropriation bill of 1881, the 
general street-railwaj bill of 1882, the bill providing 
a public restaurant m Central Park, and many oth- 
ers. His vetoes of the supply bills were unprece- 
dented in their magnitude, and were conlially ap- 
proved by the masses. No governor since then has 
deemed it necessary to apply such radical remedies 
to the correction of scandalous legislation. Many 
meritorious measures tending to genuine reforma- 
ticm in the public service were enacted during Gov. 
Cornell's term. The act making women eligible as 
Bchool-electors and sch (Mil-officers was rt»commended 
in his fii-st annual message and approved by him. 
The amendment of the usury laws enacted in 1882, 
as recommended in his annual mes.sage of that year, 
has proved to be the most important financial meas- 
ure adopted by the state since the close of the war 
for the restoration of the Union. It Inis ac- 
complished more to equalize New York and Lon- 
don as the chief financial centres of the world than 
any other act of state legislation. Gov. (Cornell 
strongly urged the creation of the state railway com- 
mission which was provided for during his' term, 
but a democratic legislature factiously denie<i him 
the satisfaction of appointing the ciimmissioners. 
The Woman's Reformatory at Hudson was the only 
new state institution he permitted to be projected by 
legislative enactment. Under commissioners ap- 
pointed by him. that admirable institution was com- 
pleted and put into successful openitiou at a cost of 



less than $125,000. It has capacity for 250 inmates, 
and is by far the best and cheapest public institution 
erected by the state since the completion of the Erie 
canal enlargement. The corporation state tiix law 
was enacted under Gov. Cornell's administration, 
and was designed to relieve overbunlened landown- 
ers from onerous ta.xation; but although it has al- 
ready produced more than ten millions of revenue 
for the state treasury, it has failed to accomplish its 
intended purpose, owing to the continuous enact- 
ment of extravagant tax-levies. Gov. Cornell's last 
annual messaire was an admirable statement of the 
condition and neces.sities of the state. Contrary to 
the practice of some of his predecessors, he confined 
his messages to subjects of state jurisdiction and in- 
terest. Gov. Cornell was a candidate for renomin- 
ation in 1883, but as he was not acc<^table to the 
politicians of the party, he was set asule under cir- 
cumstances which created great dissatisfaction 
among the people, who elected Grover Cleveland, the 
democratic nominee, Oy nearly 200,000 majority. 
Mr. Cornell then retired from political life, and took 
up his residence in New York city. 

CLEVELAND, Grover, governor of New York 
(1883-84). (See Inde.x.) 

HILL, D. B., governor of New York (1884-92). 
(See Index.) 

FLO WEB, B. P., governor of New York (1892- 
— ). (See Index.) 

8ANFOBD, Nathan, chancellor, was bom in 
Bridgehampton, Suffolk Co., N. Y., Nov. 5, 1777. 
He received his education at Yale College, and after 
graduating, chose the profession of the law, was 
admitted to practice at the a^e of twenty-two years 
and settled in New York city, where his abilities 
soon brought him into public notice. After filling 
a number of local offices, he was appointed by Jeffer- 
son U. S. commissioner in bankruptcy, and for 
thirteen years, including the war of 1812, was U. S. 
district attorney. He was a member of the New 
York state assembly during two terms and speaker 
in 1811, and for three years was state senator. In 
1815 he went to Washmgton as U. y. senator from 
New York and .served six years. In 1821 he was a 
member of the state constitutional convention, and 
was appointed chancellor under the new constitu- 
tion. From 1826 to 1831 he was again in the U. 8. 
senate, where he became chiefiy known for his earnest 
efforts in connei'tion with the currency of the coun- 
try. In 1831 3Ir. Sanford retired from public life 
and settled down at Flushing, L. I. Mr. Sanford 
was marri(»d three times, his third wedding being a 
notable affair. He married on this occasi(m a grand- 
daughter of Thomas M'Kean of Delaware, one of the 
signers of the declaration of indej)endence, and the 
wedding took place in the White House, the bride 
being given away by President John Quincy Adams. 
Mr. Sanford died in Flushing, N. Y., leaving a son, 
Edward, who became well-known as a contributor 
of prose and verse to the magazines of his time and 
as an editorial writer on the staffs of New York and 
Brooklyn papers. He died in 1876. Mr. Sanford 
died Oct. 17, 1838. 

KENT, James, chancellor of the state of New 
York, was born at Fredericks, Putnam Co., N. Y., 
July 31, 1763. His grandfather, Elisha Kent, was a 
gHKluate of Yale, and a Presbyterian minister at 
Philippi. N. Y., where he died in 1776, and his 
father, Moses Kent, also a graduate of Yale, was a 
lawyer and surrogate of liensstOaer county, James 
was* one of the founders of the Phi Beta iCappa So- 
ciety at Yale College, from which he was graduated 
in 1781. Having decided upon the law, he entered the 
office of Eirbert Benson, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1785. He practiced law in Poughkeepsie, where 
he rose early in the morning and devoted his leisure 



56 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



time to the stud^ of the clssdca and modern lan- 
guA)^. He was sent to the New York aasemblT in 
1790 and 1793, aud, having meanwhile removed to 
New York i^ity, was again elected in 1796. He was 
nominated for congrexs in 1793 as a federalist, hut 
was defaal«d. Shortly afier settling in New York 
city he was appointed professor of law at Columbia 
College, a position wliicli he held until 1798. Hia 
ability was recognized by such men as Hamilton and 
Jay, with whose political priociples Kent was in full 
sympathy, and in 1798 Jay. then 
governor of New York, appoint- 
ed him a justice of the supreme 
court of the state. From 1»04 to 
1814 be was chief justice of this 
cotirt. He made a deep study of 
the principles of civil law, and 
in 1794 lectured before Columbia 
College on this subject, and after- 
ward upon constitutional histoiy 
of the United Stales and Hie iiiw 
of nations. Although he thereby 
^ned a high reputation for learn- 
mg. his mind did not the less iu- 
lerest itself in matters of practi- 
cal importance. Thus ho lec- 
tured before state societies, and 
as recorder of the city of New 
York in 1797 was a u.scful fac- 
tor in municipal government. 
Judge Kent resided for a time 
In Pougiiheepaie, after his appointment to the su- 
preme court, and later in Albany, and in 1802 he 
assisted in bringing out an edition of the revised 
Statutes of the stale of New York. When Judge 
Kent became chief justice of the supreme court 
of the state he introduced the custom of sub- 
mitting opinions in writing upon all importaut 
cases. He was earnest and industrious in sim- 
plifying the law and determining unsettled prin- 
ciples. He succeeded in defining the limitations 
of the English common law In Its application to the 
United States, and also did much toward theinterpre- 
tation of the constitution and the construction of 
Statutes and the settlement of forms of procedure 
and qucBtionsof practice— all mattersof the greatest 
Importance. Judge Kent was appointed chancellor 
of New York Feb. 2.5. 1814. He a-isumed the posi- 
tion at the licne when the court of chancery had be- 
came obnoxious to the bar in general and to litigants, 
on account of the dilatorinesa of its procedure and 
the great expense involved in the conduct of cases 
before it. Through his original and intelligent 




thods of applying chancery doctrines. Chancellor 
Kent succeeded in laying the foun ' ' 
Jurispnidence In the United States. 



lying the foundations of equity in 1829. 



his printed decisions in the New York reports. . ... 
administered law with all the learning of the liooks, 
and at the same time with a regard to the needs of a 
new communily, in which matters not previously 
paBScil u[>on were being constautly brought up for 
adjudication. At the age of sixty he was retired, 
under the statutes, althoughot that lime in possession 
of the fullest physical and mental vigor. His name 
was prominently mcniioncd for a vacancy in the 
v. S. .supreme court, but President Monnn; made 
another choice. On relinquishing his ofllcial duties 
as chancellor, Mr. Kent returned to New York city 
and resumed his ehairin Columbia College, He pub- 
lished a summary of his llrst ten lectures before that 
institution In 18^. and later his " Ciimmeuiaries on 
American Law " (four volumes. New York, 1^26^), 
a work covering the entire field of American juris- 
pnidence, including the common law anil the statu- 
tory law of the states, and the great truths of inter- 
national law. These commentaries have ever since 



been an authority in the United Slates. Judge Kent 
retired from his professorshiji In 1825, and from that 
time devoted himself to the improvement of his great 
work. 8u editions of the "Commentaries," ail re- 
vised by the author, were published prioi' to his 
death. Otheroditious succeeded these, the thirteenlh 
being published in 1884. A portionof the work was 
reputiliahed in Edinburgh under the title, "A Treats 
ise on Commercial and Maritime Law" (1887). In 
1828 Judge Kent was president of the New York 
Historical Society, and delivered an anniversary ad- 
dress before that body. Three years later he spoke 
before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Yale, and 
in 1836 he spoke before the New York Bar Associa- 
tion. In 1840 he prepared for the Mercantile Li- 
brary Association of New York his "Course of 
Reading, " w hich has gone generally into use. He 
died in New York city Dec. 12. 1847. 

WALWOBTH, Beuben Hyde, chancellor of 
New York, was bom at Bo^rab, New London Co., 
Conn., Oct. 26, 1789, the great-grandson of William 
Walworth, who came from Loudon with Fitzjobn 
Winthrop, and settled at Oroton, Conn. His father, 
an officer of the revolution, removed In 1793 to 
Hoosick, Hensselaer Co., N. Y. At twelve the boy 
left home, and worked liis way through a school of 

and gained a little Latin. At 
seventeen, disabled for farm 
labor by an accident, he turned 
to legal studies, supporting him- 
self by a rural clerkship. At 
twenty he was admitted to the 
bar, and opened an ofSce at 
Plattsburgh. He was a major 
and adjutant-general of' militia 
in the war of 1813, and, as aide 
to Gen. Mooers. obser^-ed and 
reported the battle of Platts- 
burgh ; later he was division 
judge-advocate and colonel. He 
was in congress 1S21-2S, and 
judge ot the fourth district of 
New Y<)rk from 1828-28, when 
he became chancellor. P*rom 
1823 his residence w-as at Sara- 
toga, except in 1828-38 when he lived at Albany. In 
the chancellorship, which he held for twenty years, 
he won a great reputation, and was pronounced by 
Story " the grcalest equity jurist living." He did a 
work parallel with that of Bentham In England, 
simplifying and reforming the equity laws, and 
bringing tlie procedure of nis court under a definite 
system of " Itules and Orders," which he published 
in 1829. His diligence is attested by the thirty-nine 
folio volumesof his adjudications in MS.; many of 
these were printed in Ihe fourteen volumes of Paige 
and Barbour's "Reports "<1830-48), and in the thirty- 
eight of Wendell. Hill, and Denio (conrt of errors) 
(1829-50). In IH33 Walwortli,with Dr. Nott and B. F. 
Butler, adjusted a dispute between GoorRia and the 
U. S. supreme court. In 1885 he received the de- 
gree of LL.D. from Princeton. In 1M4 hia name 
was urged fc)r the supreme court, and sent in by 
President Tvler, but not confirmed. He was twice 
appointed eliairman of a committee to codily the 
state laws, In 1847 and 1849, but declined. After 
the abolition of his court in 1848 be gave his allen- 
tioii only to chamber practice. His house, "Pine 
Grove," was for many years the frequent resort of 
the most eminent men of the slate, and of not a few 
from greater distances. The chancellor wasa Presby- 
terian elder, long president of the state and national 
temperance societies, a vice-president of the Bible 
and Tract societies, and a member of the A. B. C. 
F. M. He published In 1864 the "Hyde Genealogy," 
two volumes. He died at Saratoga Nov. 21, 186*. 





OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 67 

RAITDAZX, S&muel Jackeon, stateaman, aDd showed tbe floest capadtT as a party leader, 

member of coDgfesaaudspeaherof the house of rep- He was on the agKreasive at all times, keeping the 

resenlalives, was bom iu Philadelphia Oct. 10, 1828. floor day and night, and exhausliug every device 

He was the eldest son of Josiah Itandall, a noted poHsiblc to prevent the passage of the force bill as a 

lander of that city, and of Ann Worrell, dauebter law. Having won Ibis battle, Mr. Randall was 

of Joaeph Worrell, a prominent democratic pofitical unanimously giveu the leadership of his parly in the 

leader in the da^s of Jefferson. Young Randall ob- bouse of repre.'sentatives. tn 1875, when a demo- 

taiued his preliminary education in the common cralic house bad been returned, it was supposed that 

schools and in the University Academy in Philadel- Mr. Katidall would be made the speaker, a dignity 

Ehia, where he completed his education. Prom there which be had richly earned by his splendid tactics 

e went to tbe business e^lablishment of Hallowell in opposition to the force bill, but the South and 

& Co., sillc merchants, and became a clerk in their West were determined to liave Michael C. Kerr for 

couDting-TOoni, where he obtained a good idea of speaker, and Mr, Randall cheerfully supported him. 

business methods. After leaving this house he be- The new sptnkcr made Randall 

came a partner in tbe ii'on firm of £arp & Randall, chairman of the committee on 

which eventually established a lar^wholesaletrade. appropriations with the result 

Randall, however, was not thoroughly pleased with that lliere was an immediate de- 

a business life, and devoted much of his time and maud for retreiichnicnt and econ- 

thought to politics, naturalljr enough inheriting the omy in the national expenditure. 

family trait. His first ofUcial experience was as a Mr. Kerr dying while in office, 

member of the city council, where he served tor four Mr. Randall was eleelcd spcak- 

years in succession as an old-line whig. In 1858 he er, and look hisseat at the second 

became a member of the state senate, having aban- session of the forty-fourth con. 

doned tbe whig party only when it went to pieces eress. He was re-elected by the 

and the reiiublican party was formed ou its ruins lurty-llftb and forty-sixth con- 

Id 1856. He became a democrat at the same time gresses, and so It fell to him to ,■ 

tbat bis father left the whigs and joined that parly, preside over the house during 

Father and son were in Cincinnati together at the tbe controversy about the pres- \ 

convcDliou in the interests of Buchanan's cnnvass, idency In IST'e and 187T. He 

Tbe civil war broke out while Samuel J. Randall went to New Orleans to walch 

was in the slate senate, and as he was a private in tbe coimt for tbe state of Loiiisi- 

the First City troop of Philadelphia, he joined bis ana,andhewasnotinfavorof the ^ 

company and went to tbe front, being attached to electoral comraiaaioQ as a mode "i'-»~*'-r 

the command of Col., afterward Gen. Qeorge H. of settling tbe dilliculty, but his 

Thomas of the 2d U. S. cavalry, Mr. Bandall en- judgment vmn not accepted. Mr. Randall, althougli 

listed for a term of uinety days, and before the period a democmt, was one of the strongest protectionists 

expired be had risen from the ranks to be orderly In tbe country, a fact which eventually alienated 

aei^eant. Going into the field again, be was pro- from him very many of his followers and friends. 

moted to the rank of quaitennaster of his company, Not unnaturally, Mr. Randall was for this reason 

of which be afterward became captain. This was counted as a republican by many of the democrats. 

in 1803, at the time of Gen. iice's invasion of Penn- but as a democral by most of tbe republicans. As 

SIvania, and Capt. Randall's conipany was among a matter of fact ho owed his seat neither to the dem- 
e troops ailvanced to Harrisburg to assist in repell- ocratic nor republican party, and it was a recognized 
ing this jnvasion. In the summer of that year he fact that it there had been any danger of his being de- 
made a brilliant reconnoissance. in which be cap- fealed, the republican business men of Philadelphia 
ttired several prisoners, while also making Ibe Im- would have seen to it that ho was elected, no mailer 

Cint discovery that a large body of Confederates what amount of money or influence might have 
eslabliabed themselves between Cliambersburgh been required. And yet no one ever thought foramo- 
and Williamsport, Pa, During the battle of Oettys- ment of charging Samuel J. Randall with disloyalty 
burg Capt. Raudall was made provtwl -marshal. On to his party, or of tbe slightest tendency in any di- 
his return to Philadelphia be was nominated on the rcction away from absolute integiity, although be 
democratic tkiket for congress fnitn the first Pennsjl- never permitted party restraint or anything else to 
TauU district and took his seat in the Ihirty-eighlh interfere with principles in his action. His entire 
congress. From 1882 up to the time of his death life was devoted to the public service, and while, as 
Mr. Randall was elected to each succeeding congress, a democrat he sustained the severest war measures 
and for twenty-eight jeareserved hisstate faithfully for tbe defence of the Union, when the South be- 
as a representative. Tb-i llrst part of his congres- came again a part of Ibe Union, he was a leader in 
wonal careerwas chiefly notable for the success whh the direction of fraternity and reconciliation, al- 
Tvbicb he kept himself in the background, giving all tliough he had struck some of the haitlest blows at 
his time ano attention to studying the methods of the Confederacy. Personally Mr. Itaudall refused 
handling questions by the members of the house and to accept money to aid in his election as champion 
tborouglily familiarizing himself with bis new du- of the protective tariff, while in his own district he 
ties, fi was in the torty.llrst congress that Mr, Ran- more than once antagonized the powerful liquor in- 
dall lirst began to make an impression both on tlie teres!. It is stated, also, that when he was a candi- 
minds of his associates and on the country- as a hard- date of his parly for speaker against Michael C, 
■working and clear-headed member of committees. Kerr, his defeat was mainly biuught about by bis re- 
On the Qoor of tbe house he began to be recognized fusing to |>erinil a prominent railroad millionaire to 
as a ready debater and a shrewd parliamentarian, name the chairman of the railroad c<mimil1ee. Mr. 
In the forty-third congress he was placed on the Randall was a dominant force iu American politics, 
committee on rules, in company with such prominent while ho was personally a most striking-looking man. 
men as James G. Blaine, Nathaniel F. Banks. James He was of lofty stalure, being more than six feet 
A. Oarlield and Samuel 8. Cox. During this con- high, and weighing over 300 pounds. He stooped a 
ffress there was a strong, fighting republican major- little, but earned himself with dignity and impres- 
ity, and tbe force bill was introduced and brought sively. One of thestrongest features of his charac- 
aboul a great struggle. In this fight, Randall, terasastalesmanand apublic ~. i.i- i.,=!o...„~. 



through his perfect knowledge of parliamentary upon economy and absolute purity in tbe inanage- 
proccdure, was able to hold Uie opposition at bay Dieutofpublicaftairs. It bos bceu stated that his influ- 




58 THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 

encesaved thelrensurymillions. HispeTsonalUfcwas Clevelaad AdmlDistraiioii Mr. Lamonl formed ini- 

thatof acompnratively poor man. anilbeingrigorous portaul btisioesa relations with a syodicftle of capi- 

inhisowuectiDnniie3.heiDsi»ted.and witbctTi'Cl. lliAt talJsU. and liax cuntiiiued ever since to be eiigajied 

Uie sUli! sboiitd fullotv liis example. At the same In tlie management of valuable inlereats. Mr, La,- 

time lie iwsseBsed a generous and noble disposition, monl married a Miss Kinney of his native town, and 

and wlien the mutter nf pensions to Gens. Grant and has two dau;rbicrs. Ii was 'Mr. Lament, who, when 

Hancock was in debate his course sliowed magnan- private secretary to Oov. Cleveland, origiuaied tbe 

imity and patriotism. He was only perverse iu his phra-se "Public ollice a public trust." He used this 

Bpccial loyally to Pennsylvania. In thia character- oa a headline in compiling a paniplilet of Mr. Cleve- 

istic he was iu line with Calhoun in l^mtb ('arollna, land's speeehes and addre»'«!S. The expressinu used 

Harcy in New York, and Sumner in Mnssacbuselts. by Mr. Cleveland was, "Public olHcials are the 

Like them he was even willinc lliat tbe larger Inter- trustees nf the people," and it wa.s employed in his 

ests of tbe Union should \te subordiuuled to those of Iclleraccepling tbe nomination for theotUce of mayor 

his stale. Mr. Kundalt married a daughter of Gen. of Buffalo. 

Aaron Ward, of Sing Sing, N. Y.. wlio was a mem- OAKUAN, Walter 6eorg«, railroad manager, 

ber of conirreas between 1H37 and 1843. They bad was bom In PLiladeiphia. Pa., May 10. 1845. the 

three chiUlren, all of whom lived to adult age. one sou of John Oakman. a prominent mercbant of that 

of tbeui being a daujjhter, who was his grwitesl help city. He was prepared for ciil- 

anil siii'est resource lu questions of legislation. She lege in the private schools of bis 

married a Mr. Lancaster, but after tbat event eon- native place, and siibscqueully 

tinued to aid Mr. liandall in his work just as before, entered the University of Penn- 

Sbe grew to be considered a perfect encyclopiedia of sylvanla. from wbieh he was 

congressional legislation aud general information, graduated in 1804. Soon after 

and was always proud of her oppon.iinilies to assist gi-aduating Mr. Oakman accept- 

her able and dtslingulshed father. Mr. Randall died ed aposili<in intbeltogCTsLocu- 

!n Washington Apr. 13. 1890. motive Works, later going to 

IiAHONT, Daniel Bcott, iouinallst and sccre- New York city, where he looh 

taiT, was bom at McQrawville, Cortland Co., N. Y., employment inabankitigotflce. 

Feb. 9, 1851. He came of Scotch-Irish ancestry, He subsequently became Inler- 

who emigrated to this country and devoted tlicm- esled in various railroad enter- 
/selves to farming. From such lineage spmng An-j. prises, and afterward devoted 

■drew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Horace Gi'eeley, the principal part of his time to 

andmanyoiliersof the most eminent men of America, these interests. He was at one 

Young Lament's father wasa well-to-do farmer, and time division superintendent of , | > n^ t 

tbe boy, after having studied the Delaware, Lackawanna and C/'hy,/'^ /" ^ JF7 

in the Cortland Normal Col- Western railroad, vice-presidenl ^^^-^^^f-^/ f'-^-A^'--*. 

lege, was sent to Union College, of the Central railroad of New 

Sciienectady, N.Y.. bill did not Jersey, and later was president of the Richmond and 

Cduate. He left college be- Danville Railroad Co., and i>f tbe East Tennessee, 

e llie end of tlic course in Virgiuiaand Georgia Railroad Co. Mr. Oakman was 

order lo enter the profession of married in 1879 Co Miss E. C. Conkling, a daugbier 

Journalism, for which lie pos- of Hoscoe Conkling. 
sessed both tasle and predilec- 
tion. He purchased an inter- PAGE, Walter Hinea, editor, was bom at 

est in tbe " Dcmcwrat," a paper Gary. N. C, Aug. 15, 1855, the son of A.F. Page, 

Eiiblxhcd at the coiiniy-seat of a well-known business man of North Carolina, w'ho 
is natiie coiinly. an<l became was descended from tbe large and illuslrious family 
Its editor at llie same time in- of Pacesin Virginia. WalterPagcgaincdhiseleinent- 
teresting himself warmly in ary eaiicatiou at the Biugbam Military School, N.C., 
polilic8 In INTO be was ap- one of the tirst preparatory schools eslablished in the 
poinleil engrossing clerk to the southern slates; and afterward attended Raudoliib- 
New ^ ork sl^ie assembly, and Macon College, Va., from wiiicli he was graditaica in 
was chief clerk In the secre- 1HT6. He nexlattended Ihe.lohns Hopkins I'niver- 
tary of state's department with sity, aa a fellow in Greek under tbe famous Dr. Gil- 
John Bigelow. For a time dersleeve(l8"fr-78), after which he accepWd a posi- 
the young man held a position on the staff of tbe tion as teacher, for a year, at the Luui.tvillc Boys' 
Albany "Argus." and he thus became known to HighSchoid, He began bin literary career at thi» 
many of the most influential politicians of the time by sending an es.saylo the " Allanlic MoDth- 
atate. When Grover Cleveland was elected gov- ly," which was accepted. Encouraged by this H ret 
emor of New York, he met young Lamonl; aud, nllemjjt, which won liim some uol.ice, he began writ- 
baving had occasion lo make use of his knowl- ingwiih considerahiesucccss for various newspapers 
edge and ability in the prei>aralion of his tlrst and periodicals. In 1«B0 heaccepled the edilorsbip 
message, offered' him an honorary position on bis of the St. Joseph (Mo.)" Daily Gaxelle," which he 
niilit;irv staff, which gave him tJie title of colonel, conducted successfully fur two years. In 18H1 he 
by wbkh he has ever since licen known. Gov. madeaslowjounieytbroughthesoulhem slates, and 
Cleveland next ap|Miinted Lamont his private secre- wrote an interesling series uf lellers to the l^pring- 
tary, in whicii position the latlJ^-r made himself so Geld (Mass.) " itenublican," tbe Boston " Posl," tbe 
useful and valuable, that when Mr. Cleveland Iw- New York "World," and other leading news[>a[)era. 
came president he took Lamont with him to the These letters on Ibe reconstruct wl South won hira a 
White House. As private secretary lo the president, position on the New York " World " as a book re- 
Mr. Lamont gainoil Ibe reputation of smoothing the viewer and edilorial writer. At the change of man- 
patlis of those who visited the executive mansion, agement in the " World " he resigned Ids positron, 
while lightening the burden of Mr. Cleveland as aud went SouEb, At this time North Carolina, and 
proWbly no other man could possibly have done. It Indeed the South generally, bad few papers able to 
foUowea that he became universally popular, while make themselves felt beyond the limits of their own 
winning the highest encomiums for his judgmeiil. domain. This want was keenly felt by tbe more in- 
;ss, serenity, and loyally. At the close of the tclligent North Carolinians, and they eagerly wel- 




"X 



OF AMERICAN BIOOKAPHY. 



coined Mr. Page, whose reputniion had become 
estnblishcti anuiDL' them. A newspaper, llie ■' State 
Chrouicle, " was founded at Kaleigh under his diree- 
tioD, and be threw himself heart anil soul into the 
work of making the resources of North Carolina 
known (o the world. In two years the " State Chron- 
icle" became one of the most important newspapers 
in the Southeast, and its circulation grew exlensive- 

S. But the metropolis bad too manv attractions for 
e ambilioua young Southerner, so he resigned, and 
went back to New York, leaving his pai)er fully 
established in new hands. He took a poKitiun ou 
the "Evening Post," which be held uutil 1887. when 
he became tne manager and a stockholder of the 
*'Porum," one of the most important high-class 
periodicaU in the United Stales. In 18S1 he be- 
came editor, succeeding Mr. Lorretus S. Meicalf. 
Mr. Page is a charter-member of the New York 
Beform"^ Club, and was for three years one of the 
must untiring of ila executive committee. 

TH0HF80N, Robert Heans, president of Ihe 
Orford Copper Co., was horn at Corsica, Jefferson 
Co., Pa.. March 2, 1849, the son of John J. Y. and 
Agni's (Kennedy) Thompson, and is of Scotch acid 
IriHh de.'<cciit. His father was of Scotch descent, 
and one of the fiKt settlers in Jefferson county, while 
bis ^[Teat-grandfather, Rev, John JamiesoD, vas a 
missionary to the Indians, holding service under the 
form known as the Secede r church. It Isa tradition 
In Mr. Thompson's family that they arc descended, 
on the father's side, from the Wallace of Scotland. 
On his maternal side. Mr. Thompson is descended 
from the Scotch-Irish HcClures, the first who came 
to this country having been John McClure, who ob- 
tained a grant of land in Uwchlaud township, Pa., 
from the heirs of William Penn, the land being still 
in the possession of the McCture 
family. Mr. Thompson received 
his early education m the common 
schools of Jelferson coimlv, and at 
the academy of Elder's Ridge. Indi- 
ana Co.. Pa. At tlic age oi fifteen 
lie recelvedan appointment as mid- 
shipman in Ihe navy, and entered 
the naval academy, then at New- 
port, R. I., in IttiM. Uiiriug his 
course there he niaintained a high 
stnndingin his class, andwasgrad- 
.^ uate^l with honors in 1868. being 
number ten in a class of eighty. 
He was immediately ordered iuto 
active service, and served on hoard 
the Contoocook, in the West Indian 
Si^uadron, and on the Franklin. 
Richmond and Guard, in the Med- 
ilertanean squadron, until Septem- 
ber, 1869. He was commissioned 
as ensign tliat year, and ordered to duty at the 
torpedo station. Newport, R. I., being one of the 
first otllcers selected for this duty; received his com- 
mission as a master in July, 18T0; Joined the Wachu- 
iett at New York in 1871, and served on board that 
Bliip in the Metltterranean until December of that 
year, when his resignation from the navy was ac- 
cepted, and he returned to privale life. He entered 
the law office of Geo. A. Jenks, at Brookville, 
Fa., and was admitted to the bar in 18TS, In the 
same year he entered Ihe Harvard Law School, and 
was graduated in 1874 with the degree of J^Ij.B. 
He was appointed assistant reporter of the supreme 

I'udicial court of Massachusetts, and itisistcd in mak- 
□g up volumes 115 and 116 of the Mas.sucbuselts 
Law Reports. In 1875 he o[)ened a law oWcc in Bos- 
ton : was elected a member of the common council of 
Boston in 1870, and again in the following year. Mr. 
Thompson argued a number of important ca^es. and 




caused the precedent to be established, by a decision 
of the supreme court of thesiate. that a few pile* 
driven into the ground, with good intenllons, consti- 
tuted a house of religious worship. This decision 
saved the society of Trinity church several thousands 
of dollars that would have otherwise gone to pay 
taxes. In 1879 Mr. Thompson took charge of the 
Orford Nickel and CoptHT Co., now one of the largest 
producers of nickel in the world, and sul>sequentlj 
became its president. It is in part due to him that 
the economical smelting of copper ore in large rec- 
tangular brick cupolss has become an established 
fact; and under his direction, and largely on his 
suggestion, a new process for the separation of nickel 
from copper and mm has been perfected, and its in- 
ception and successful working place Mr. Thompson 
in (lie front rank of metallurgists. Mr. Thompson 
is a member of the Manhattan Athlelic. New York 



United Service, Reform, Engineers' and Fulton 
Clubs, tlie Military Order of the Loyal Iicgion. and 
the Downtown A^icialion, and is the first hfe-meni- 
ber of the Naval Academy Auxiliary Athlelic Asso- 
ciation. On Apr. 30. 1873. Mr. Thompson married 
Sarah, daughter of Gov. Wm. C. Gibbs, of New- 
port, H. I., by wbom he has one child. 

SftUIBE, Watson Carvosio, senator, was 
bom at Cape Vincent, N, Y,, May IB ""^ 
father was a Methodist minister who 
pulpit work and went into business in 
son C. Squire, the son, earned funds 
by teaching and working on a farm 
In vacation, and thus assisted him- 
self inhiscducatlon andnas^rad 
uated from Wesleyan Univeraity 
(Middletown Conn ) in 1869 He 
first studied law for awhile but 
subsoqiiendy became pnnci|ml of 
the Mora\ la Institute Moravia 
N 'i where hi, c inlinued until 
the outbreak of the (nil war He 
served in the 19th New York in 
fantry In which he rose from pn 
vate t( first lieutenant of Lompany 
P He was mustered out honor 
ahlv after SLrving on the up|>er 
Potomac unlil the fall of 1861 
for a jear Mr Squire studied ^O/^^Z^^ 
law m the office of Judge Rufus ^^^___^ , 

P Rannev at tleveland O and 
was admitted to practice in the supreme court of 
Ohio. In the fall of 1862, in response to President 
Lincoln's call for more troops, he raised a company 
of sharpshooters, and afterward was placed in com- 
mand of the first battalion of Ohio sharpshooters. 
He took part in all the battles of the army of the 
Cumberland. At the close of the war he was em- 
ployed by the Remington Arms Co., and visited the 
cap'itals of Russia, Spain, Turkey, Mexico and other 
countries to make contracts for supplying arms. 
He subscqucnily became the manager of the com- 
pany. Haviug exchanged his lutereKt in the con- 
cern for land in Wasliington territory in 167& he 
retired from the company, and in the same year 
settled at Seattle, Wasii. He was appointed gov- 
ernor of the territory by Pre^deut Arthur in 1884, and 
made three annual reports that showed its resimives 
and drew immigration. He was in 1889 cliaimiaa 
of the statehood convention in Bllensburgh aiKl was 
elircted first U. S. senator on the admission of Wash- 
ington territory as a stale. During the anIi-Chinesc 
agitation in Washiuglon territory he fearlessly and 
ably advocated a pi-oper check to' Injurious immigni- 
tioii, yet opiMMcd all violence. Senator Squire was 
re-elected in 1891. 




m 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPJEDIA 



until ihe Bi 



HcA'USIiAN', John, merchaur, was boni in 

Arf^flesliire, Sci>tlaDd, Aug. 10. 1335, tlie son of 
Alexander and Mur^ret Wardcu McAusko Aod the 
youngest of cielit cliildren. He received his ediica- 
tiuQ at a gchool In the Si^otch higlilauds, and at tlie 
age of fifteen became clerk iii a dry-g<KKlH store at 
Greenock ou the Clyde river, wliere he reraniDed 
.umu of 18S8, when he sailed for Ameri- 
ca, landing at Boston. He inime- 
diaielyentered the employ of H<)gg, 
Browu&Taylorof Boston, reinuiti- 
ing will) them until 180S, wlieu lie 
removed to Providcoce, R. I., and 
with Walter Callender and John 
E. Troup, eslablisLed the "Boston 
Store," which has been a success 
from the elart. Mr. McAuslan was 
for two yeare a. member <>t the com- 
mon council ot Ibe city ot Provi- 
dence. Having; from an early nge 
 been deeply impressed with a sense 
of religious duty he, at the a^ic o[ 
nineteen, joined the Free middle 
church of Orecnock, Scotland, aud 
carried a letter from there to Amer- 
ica, presenting it on his arrival in 
Biwton lo the First Prenbyterian 
church, uuiting Inter with the High Street Concrega- 
tioual cliiirch In Providence, wliich afterward was 
known as tlie Uuion Congregational church, located 
on Bond street. In this society he became an active 
and helpful member. He married Amelia B. Rob- 
inson, a lineal descendant in tlie ninth feneration of 
llev. .lohn Itobinson who preachetl the farewell ser- 
mon lo the pilgrims iu Holland, on ihuir departure 
fur the new world. 

TRABUE, Isaac Hodg^an, city founder, was 
brirn in Itiissell county, Ky., Mai-ch 35, 1839. His 
gi-audfatlier, Gen. James Trabue, was born In Vir- 
^nia in 1750, was seven years a commissary-general 
in Ibe Virginia line in the revolution, aud two 
years a |irisoner at Quebec, Canada, and was a Keii' 
lucky pioneer after the revolution, dying in IH04, 
having married in 1774 Elizabeth Porter, a cousin 
of the authoress of the "Scottish Chiefs." Isaac 
Hudgeu WII3 the son of Chasleen H. Trabue, a Chris- 




He V 



i e<lu- 



catcd at Georgetown, Ky., 
being for a liuic a pupil of 
James O. Blaine, and was 
gradiMted in law from the 
Transylvania university in 
18M. In IS^a he was aide 
to Gov. Magoffin of Ken- 
tucky. In the beginning of 
the late war he was a colonel 
in the Federal army under 
(icnerals Anderson andShcr- 
uum The United Stales be- 
ing crippled fur supplies, he 
uent to furnishing coal, a 
sinew of Tsar, to the United 
Stiites steamers on t)ie lower 
Ohio ri\er mining millions 
of bushelt with guerrillas, 
rcfiiicees, and negroes, that 
could not have lH«n oblain- 



litical leader in Kemi , ....... 

can banner as candidate for congre*i in the Jirst 
Kentucky district in 1S73; wns elector for the state 
at large for Peter Cooper in 1876; whs the greenback 
candidate for ireasurerof Kentucky in 1877. and ran 
for attorney general of Kentucky on the greenback 
ticket in 1879; was elector for the stnte at targe for 
Gen. Bun. F. Butler iu 1884, winning these diHlInc- 







tions as an able champion of the great greenback 
financial theory. Col. Trabue baslieen an ardent 
and distinguished lover aud mitster of chess, beating 
in 1883 Zuliertort, tlie then champion of the world, 
and endowing a chess tournament at Trabue, Fla., 
in 1885. He founded the southern city of Trabue, 
De Soto county. Fla., In 1885. His family bas been 
conspicuous. His brother, S. F. G. Trabue. was 
the father of the knon-uotbing party in Ken- 
tucky, and one of the most eloquent attorneys and 
stump speakers of tiis tinic. He married, in 1805, at 
Savannah, Go., Miss Vir^nia Taylor, duusliter of 
the only lady-cutomologist ui the countrv. niifl grand- 
daughter of the gi'cat niercbani prince, William Scar- 
borough, who, Iu 1819, built and sent the first steam- 
sfiip, called the Savannah, from Savannah, Qa., that 
ever crossed the Atlantic ocean. 

FOSTEB, Jamea Peera, lawyer, was bom at 
Flushing, N.Y., Aug. 31. 1848. Hel.iilescended from 
dl»ttuguishe<l ancestors who fought in the war of 1813 
and with Mexico, his maternal grandfather having 
died from tlie cITecls of a wonu<t received ou the 
battlefield. Mr. Foster received Ills early education 
in the public schools of the city of New York, and 
subsequently was graduated from the Columbia col- 
lege law school in 1873, with the degree of LL.B. 
While still a student be married 
Sara M. Haight, of New York 
city, and two weeks after leav- 
ing the law school sailed for 
German V, settling in Berlin, 
where he eutetvd the Beriin 
universitv. After four years of 
study, Sfr. Foster was required 
to write a dissertation ou some 
legal subject before proceeding 
to the regular examinations. His 
theme was "The Public Lands 
of America," in German, aud 
which, at that time, was con- 
sidered the best authority in that 
language, and had a large sale. 
In 1877 Mr. Foster passed his ex- 
aminations successfully, receiv- ^ ■.■:^^-- -   
ing the degree of LL.I)., and in ^IJ /3 J£ ?=v._ 

Ihl same year be returned to <C/.*«<«-^t?W^:> 
America and began the practice 
ot law in New York city. At the request of Prof. 
Daniboch, of the Berlin university, Mr. Fostermadea 
special study of the patent laws of the United States, 
and drafted a law for Germ any similar to the American 
law. which,at the suggestion of Bismarck, was iiicor- 
porattillnablllaudmade the patent law of Germany. 
In 1865 Mr. Foster became a member of the Hamil- 
ton literary socielv of Brooklyn, occupying every 
otHce. and was sllll a member when it became the 
Hamilton club. Mr, Foster afterwanl changed his 
residence from Brooklyn to New York city, where 
be at once took a prominent position In business, 
political and social circles. His wealth, education 
and sterling qualities of heart and mind made him 
conspicuous among his associates. He bas always 
ixK-u a republican in politics, aud for several years 
has taken an active part in every cam|)aign. In 
1881 he became a meinlier of the republican club 
of New York city, and lias done much lo slrength- 
en Ihe organ litatiou. In 1886 lie obtaluetl |>crma- 
nent hcHilijuarlers for the club, and pemonally as- 
sumed all liability for tlie rent of the club house, 
and In the folUiwiug year he was elected lis pres- 
ident. In 1887 he suggcsled a natiimal organisa- 
tion of republican clubs aud delivered an aildress 
at Pillsburg, Pa., In April, which attracted such 
general alteulion that some of the daily press called 
the scheme '" Fosters Misjtlon." Mr. Foster was 
chosen the first president of what is now the repub- 




OP AMERICAN BIOORAPHT. 



61 




llcan Icngue of the Uniled SlAtes, and Id 1888 de- 
voted bis entire lime aud uDer^ to ita work. Dur- 
ing Ills presidency he waa urged to make iise of his 
SwtltioD for offlcml prefernieul, but repeaiudlj re- 
s«d, deckling Ibat he would never use his office 
to secure pergonal promolioD. Iiis iiulf object bcmg 
the adviincenient of tbe republican party. Mr. Fos- 
ter is a member of tlie L'dIod League and of several 
otiier cliihs. and is a trustee and director iu various 
corporations and iDStJliillons bolli flnaucial aud 
cUarilHlile. 

BAVLE, Francis, lawyer, was bom at tlie Free- 
dom Iron Works. Mifflin Co.. Pa., Aiic. 7, 1846. He 
is descended from a family thai has HIM a prominent 
place in tbe bislory of PennsylvauiJ, especially in 
tbe law. His ancestors, Francis Kawie and Francis 
Bawle. Jr., of Cornwall, Eng., 
settled in Philadelpbia in 1664. 
His father, Francis W. Itawle. 
who was born in Pliiladulpbia in 
1796, was a soldier in the war of 
1812 and whs one of the earliest 
civil enjrineers of tbe Pennsyl- 
vania Knilrtmd Co. Hfs grand- 
fal her, William Rawle.wnsa lead- 
er of tbe Philadclpliia Bar; was 
appointetl by Washington the first 
district attorney for Pennsylvania; 
was offered the attorney-jreneral- 
sbip of the United States Ibrec 
times, and also ibe Unilc<l States 
dlstriet judgeHbip; was counsel 
for the Imutc of the United States; 
first president of the Pennsyl- 
vania Illslorical society; aulbor 
of the wcll-kiiowD work on tlie 
1 of tbe United States, and the prlncl- 
piil author of the commission that revised tbe civil 
cmle of Pennsylvania In 1830-83, and was a class- 
i<»l scholar. Tlie early years of Fraiieis Itawte 
were s|icnt in Pliiladelphia, where he was dtted to 
enter Exeler Academy, New Hampstiire. After 
ciimpleling his prepariitory cducniioii tliere. he en- 
tereil Harvard, from which he was graihiHteil in 
18(il) in the classical depanment. and fniin the Hnr- 
vuni law school in 18T1. He then entered tbe 
utfiit; of William Henry Itanle in Phllatlelpliia and 
was admitted lo the Philadelphia tmr in November 
of thesame year. He immeiliHtcly entered upon tlie 
praetiec of bis profession in that city, and soon rose 
to prtiniliiencc at the bar. Ilis praoricc lias been of 
n iliversiHed cbaracler. coverlnjc a wide Held, includ- 
ing rorporatiou and rnllroad business, an<l important 
patent cases. Ho has condiicled niiniennis cases in 
tbe feileral conns. Since 18T6 Mr. Kawle has been 
1i))nirian of (lie Law Associnlion of Phitadelpbia (a 
piKitlon formerly filled bv many di»tinKiiislied law- 
yers), whose extensive collectlou of law hooks he has 
brought up to probably the Ibird in importance and 
value in America. His liieniry work In the pnifes- 
■iou has cousistnl cliielly in tbe pR!|>anLtiou in 1883 
of the last editiim of Boiivicr's " Law Dit-lionarv." 
s standard work upon wliich lie spent nearly Ave 
yearK of dilli^nt labor as editor. He hasliecn'a fre- 
quent contributor to the law jxtriodicBls, and in 1885 
rnul a pajsir on the then novel topic of " Car Trust 
Sci'urilies " liefore tlie American liar A>«iicia1ioii of 
which he has lieen treasurer since 1878. He is a 
member of various lite rarv and learned societies, and 
in 1890 was elected one o'f the overseers of Harvard 
University for the term of six yeiirs. Mr. Knwle 
was married In 18T3 to Mnrgaretta C Aertsttn. a 
daughter of James M. Acrtseii. a well-known Phita- 
delpbia banker, and eranddaiiglilcr of -Toiiathan 
Smitb, cashier of the oaiik of the United Slates. 
They have three sons. Their homo Is tbe centre of 
a generous hospitality. 




: ^i^-a^o.-r^ 



TIFFANT, Nelson Otis, underwriter, was 
bom in the town of Lancaster, Erie county. N. Y., 
Feb. 1, 1843. the son of Nelson Arnold aud Hartba 
Eliza (Whitney) Tiffany. His fallier was a com- 
mercial traveler, bom at Sbaron, Vt,, in 1812. His 
grandfather. Benjamin Tiffany, was also of Ver- 
mont, and bis great -erandfalber, Dr. Benjamin Tif- 
fany, a surgeon in the revolutionary army. Their 
ancfslors sellleti in Connecticut in 1664, and canio 
from England. His inalemal ancestors trace tbetr 
lineajie to Heniy Whitney of Connecticut, tbe found- 
er of tbe numerous Whitney family, of which there 
is a full genealogical history, said lo contain about 
S0,0INI names, the majority of whom trace Ibeir line 
to Henry Whitney, wbo was descends! from. Sir 
Roger de Whitney of Eneland, whose history is 
traced to about the year 800 
A. D. Young Tiffany was de- 
prived of a mollier's care 
when Hvo years old, and re- 
ceived such help, love and 
sympathy as a homeless lialf- 
orpban might expect at the 
hands of an uncle, who bad 
biniself a stnig^le for exis- 
tence, carrying on a farm, 
fumilnrc manufacture and 
odd jobs as a conlniclor in 
Ontario, Catiwla. Young Tif- 
fany's sebiMil advantages were 
small, and earned bv early ris- 
ing and hard work. Iiotb in 
the factory, and on the farm , 
nine months of each year, with 
the almost endless chores of 
tbe place morning and night 
during tbe remaining three months. At the age of 
eevenleen he left bis uncle's liome. Iteing up to this 
age tbe possessor of less than twenty-five cents in 
money he could call bis own. Three months' farm 
labor gave him ^31. Work in a lumber camp as a 
roustabout gave him more experience of lianlship, 
and a little more money. Investing his eai'iiings in 
decent clothing, be returned to his native state, but 
not flnding sal is factory em ploy men I, he rcturnetl to 
Canada, wliere be enlen>d a grammar school, woi^- 
iniE nights, mornings and Saiunlaysio|my boani and 
tiiilion. Aflerayear of hard stmly, and notaidngle 
imperfecl lesson agt'i'st bis record, lie weni lo Buf- 
falo, and thence lu Hnliimore, Md., where he work- 
e<l at tlie printer's trade for one year, returning lo 
ButTalo in 18(1.'), and engaging to work in a scboul 
furniture factorv. He mniii became foreman, and 
then superinti'n<Ient. In 1868 be married the daugh- 
ter of Mr. ('base, his employer, and immedialely re- 
move<l toC'hicago, to take the position of mechanical 
superintendent in the establishment of A. 11. An- 
drews &Co., the lai^st manufacturers of church, 
olHce and school fiiniiture in the worhl. After two 
years of hard work. 111 lieallb forced bim to return 
to Buffalo, and for twelve years be was engaire<l in 
tbe sewing machine business an siiiierinteiident of 
agencies, latterly as a gi-neral manager In New York 
city. He then took a seliolan^iip in the medical de- 
partment of tbe University of Buffalo, studying one 
year. While in college he acceplwl Ibe position of 
sM-relary ami general manager of the MBsonlc Life 
a.'t-iiiclatliH) of Western New York, tlien in a declin- 
ing condition. In eight ^is Mr. Tiffany reinstated 
it, raising its mcmliersbip to 7,000, with over filS,* 
000,000 bisiiraiira in fon:e. At the National con- 
vention of the Mutual iVid and Accident Underwrit- 
ers held in Buffalo, June, 1803, be was eteclcd secre- 
tary. Mr, Tiffany ;pkincd eiinslilerable notoriety by 
capturiug the insuniuee swindler, Craudall, after sis 
years' senrcb, and after apparent death and the pay* 
meut of large iiisunmce benefits by several coiupnnics. 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




S,^ 13 



LAWBENCE, AmoB, merchant, was born at 
Orolon, Mass., Apr. 23, 1786. Tbe progenitor of 
tbe family in this country, John Lawrence, emi- 
grated to America from WUiiett, Eng., about 1S30, 
— 'is supposed to linvebeenoueof Gov, Wiulhrop'a 
oue of tlie original proprietors 
of Groton, and from him are 
descended Ihc numerous fam- 
ilies of Lawrences that are now 
distributed throu^out tbe 
United States. Tlie Law- 
rences may be justly proud 
of their lineage, that can be 
traced in America for six gen- 
erations and for siiteen more 
in England, Cooper has aptly 
said "that the American liasa 
better gculilil^ than common, 
as, besklcs his own, he may 
take root in tliat of Europe. 
Amos Lawrence was the son 
of Samuel Lawrence, a liero of 
llie revolution, and Susanua 
Parker. The educational faeil- 
ftiea at Grolonwcre then limit- 
ed, and Anio«, nflcr altendinr 
the district schools, entered 
the Groton academy, where lie only remained a 
short time, and in 179B engaged as clerk in a coun- 
try store in liis native town. At the age of twenty- 
one he went to Boston, and so<in after his arrival 
there accepted a clerkship in a prominent busii>ess 
house. The Arm soon afterward went into liquida- 
tion, and Mr. Ijawrence wau appointed by tEie cred- 
itors to settle the aHniin of the concern. This he 
aatisfactorily accoroplislied, and soon afterward en- 
gaged in business on his own account, and on Dec. 
IT, 180T, opened a shop on Conihill; the following 
year Abbott Lawrence became his brother's appren- 
tice. The two brothers conducted the business of 
the firm on an honorable and successful basis, that 
not only laid the foundatI<m of their own fortunes, 
but that of many members of the Lawrence family. 
They did much toward the advancement of the man- 
ufacturing interests of New England, and in 1830 
establish^ a cotton factory at Lowell. In 1881 
Amos Lawrence retired from active business, and 
devoted the remainder of hia life to philanthropic 
works. Between 1839 and l^.'^S his books show that 
he expended (039.000 in cliarity. He gave about 
$40,000 to Williams college: to Groton academy he 
gave liberally, founded the library, donated a valu- 
able telescope, willed it ail of his works of art, and 
made ailditions to its landed property, and at the 
time of his death was engaged in raising the sum of 
(50,000 for the college. In 1846 the name of Gro- 
ton academy was changed to the Lawrence academy 
at Groton, on accouht of his numerous munificent 
gifts. He also gave to Kenyon college, Wabash col- 
lege, the theological seminary at Bangor, Me., and 
oilier institutions. lie established, and for a time 
maintained the children's inlinnary at Biwton, rave 
a building to the Boston society of natural hi.tlory. 
and (10,000 toward the completion of Bunker Hill 
monument. Mr. Lawrence had a fancy for dis- 
tributing such books as he considered good litera- 
ture. When he went to drive, his cjirriage was 
filled with iHioks, that he gave away soinelimes to 
fricn<ls, oftener to strangers. He di«lribuled books 
in entire libraries, and large ccillecliona were sent to 
literary institutions. A Iiarrel of hooks wa^ no un- 
common item found in his record of articles almost 
daily forwinilcd lo one and annllier of his distant 
beneficiaries. lie was equally active in hit pri vale 
charities, and several rooms m his house were kept 
filled with useful nrtickti tor dislrihution lo (he poor. 
ih. Lawrence was twice married: to hia first wife. 



Sarah Richarda, on June 6. 1811. and on Apr. 11, 
1831, to Mrs. Nancy Ellis, widow of Judge Ellis of 
Claremont, N. H., and daughter of Roltert Means of 
Amherst, N. H. He was a sagacious, liberal-minded 
man, prominent In commerce and manufacture for 
upward of forty-four years; be would doublless have 
risen to equal eminence in any calling he chose to 
adopt. He died at Boston. Jlass,, Dec. 31, 1852. 

LAWHENCE, Abbott, mcrclmut. was bom at 
Groton, Mass., Dec. 18. 1793. the fifth son of Deacon 
Samuel Lawrence, a farmer, who was a major in 
the revolutionary war, a descendant of John Iiaw- 
rence. one of the flwt Puritan cmigninta who sellled 
at Wateriown about 163S, and in 1660 removed lo 
Groton. The family traces ila descent lolhclwclftb 
generation, their ancestor, Sir Robert I-awrence, 
having been knighted by Richard Cojur de Lion lu 
llBl, for bravery in sealing the walls of Acre. 
Abbott Lawrence attended the district school during 
the winter, and worke<l on Ihe farm in summer, aa 
the New England boy of that period was wont to do, 
and after attending the Grolon academy for a few 
months, he went to Boston, where he apjircnticed 
himself to his brother Amoa, who was well estab- 
lished in business. He devoted himself assiduously 
to his business, and »|)ent his evenings in repairing 
the deficiencies of his cduculion. When he came of 
age in 1814, (he two brothci-a fonned a copaitncrBliip 
which was only severed by death. The firm en- 
gaged in the imiiortation and sale of foreign manu- 
factures, and Blood at the head of its deimrtment of 
trade. They engaged largely in the sale of cottons 
and woolens ou commission, and in 1830 became 
actively interested in the cotton mills at Lowell. 
When the Suffolk, Tremont and Lawrence compan- 
ies were established, they became large owners, and 
were afterward interested in other corjiorolions, and 
from that time forward their business was conducted 
on a gigantic scale, and the in- 
come derived therefrom was pro- 
Krtionalely larger. Mr. Abbott 
wreuce waa for a number of 
years successfully engaged la 
the Chinese trade. He took an 
active inlei>est in politics and all 
public matters, and in 1834 waa 
elected to the twenty-fourth 
congress from the Suffolk dis- 
trict, by the whig party; heserv- 
ed on the committee of Waj;8 
and Means, and at the cud of his 
term declined re-election, but 
was again elected to the twenty- 
sixth congress in 1839-40. but re- 
signed alter filling the office but 
ashorttenn. In 1843hewasap- 
pointed a commissioner by the 
state of Massachusetts, to settle 
the question of the northeastern 
boundary of the state. Mr. I^wrence settled this 
ditflcult quealion with Lord Asliburton. the repre- 
sentative of Great Britain, ou a basis that was satis- 
factory to both governments. In 1844 he was dele- 
gated to the whig cimveiilion, and one of the electors- 
at-largc for the stale, and his name was jiromlnently 
put forward for rice-president, on Ihe ticket with 
Gen. Taylor, and he only lacked six votes of being 
nominiiled for the olHcc. He declined a )ionfoHo in 
President Tnvlor's cabinet, but accepted Ihe po^lioa 
of U. S. minister lo Great Britain, and in 1849 sailed 
for Em; land. He resumiil ihe negotiations regard- 
ing tbe Nicaragua canal. Ilini liad been brought for- 
ward by his piedei'ewor. Mr Bancroft, and found 
documents in the archivi's that illegalized England's 
territorial claims in (.'eiitml America. He was ar- 
ranirini; this pa[ier into a li'gal argument and histori- 
cal document, when, much lo hia regret, he received 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 63 

word in 1850, from the secreUiy of state. Mr. Clay- id America; to atrip the Jewish dmue seryice from 

toD, that "these Degotiations were eotirelj trans- heaiheuish and idolatrous customs ; to weed out 

ferrcit to Wasbingloa, and that he was to cease al- seoselesa and uselcBs pmyers, aud to establish a uni- 

toj^-lher t« press them in Londoii." Mr. Lawrence form divineservicHIhrouKhouttho laud." A ritual and 

personally held " that whenever the history of the common-praycrbook, cnUed"MiuhngAnieric«."wa3 

coiKluct of Great Britain shall be puhtished to the adopted, which soon came iulu geuenil use in the 

vorld, It will not siand one hour before the bar of synagogues throughout this counlry. Dr. Kalisch 

public opluion, without universal coademaalion." wasrequcsled to do the principal pun of the editorial 

*._ . ., J ._,___^,_ _.._..,._ ._ _._._ .. =_ _ , (ji „. ,. . 



Lawrence devoted considerable attention to work upon this mauual. In 1856 Italibi Kslisch 
auolher matter left unsettled by Mr. Bancroft, rela- was called li> the Ahabaili Achim cougregaiioD 
tive to the postal rates on the ttunsil of letters across at Cincinnati, O., resigniug the following year to 
England. He also did Important service in the ad- take charge of the cougrenlioD Ben^ Jcshuriin of 
ju^lmentof the fisheries question, which threatened Milwaukee, Wis. While tliere be plat^ the con- 
to assume an attitude of importance. In !&52 Mr. gregation on a nourishing basis, a straidy increase of 
Lawrence requested to be relt'ased, and returned to memhersliip was cffcclcd^ and a handsome new syn- 
America. aud henceforth devoted himself to his aeoguo was built, and a benevolent society, called 
private affairs. It is probable that with the excep- "Die Treiie Schwestern," established. After labor- 
lion of Dr. Franklin, no mmlster from the United iog in Milwaukee for three years with prouoimced 
States ever attained the same diplomatic success success, Ilabbi Kalisch, anxious to furljier dissem- 
that Mr. Lawrence did, which was due to his pccul- inale his religions views, resigned his charge at Mil- 
iar talents and adaplahility of fathoming the founda- waukec and entered the lecture field, delivering lec- 
tion of facts, quick comprehension of the matter, turea and sermons in the principal cities of the 
combined with wisdom, a ready tact, and perfect United States. After a year iu the lecture field he 
truthfulness. He always took a warm interest in all assumed char^ of the Hebrew congregation at In- 
matters pertaining to the progress of America, was dianapolis, lua. From there, in August, 1864, he 
a liberal subscriber to the various railroads, and went to Detroit, Mich., where, for the following 
munificent in his public charities. In 1847 he gave three years, he was rabbi and 
$50,000 for the establishment ot the scientific school preachcrof the Beth El'congre- 
at Harvard, whicli bears his name, and left an addi- gation. In 1866 he took charge 
tional donation to the institution at his death, and a of the Hebrew congregation of 
further sum of (50,000 for the building of model Leavenworth, Kan., resigning 
hilginE houses, the income derived therefrom to be iu 1868 to go to New York city, 
devotM loccrtaiupubliccharities. Hewasawarded for the purpose of publishing 
the degree of LL.D. by Harvard, in 1854. Mr. Law- his translation of " Nathan der 
rence's domestic relations were particularly happy; Weise," and also to open an ed- 
he was married early in life to Katherine Bigelow, ucatioual institution. The latter, 
daughter of Timothy Bigelow, the distinguished not proving a success, was aban- 
speaker of, the Massachusetts house of representa- doued at the close of the first 
tive«. His eldest son married a daughte'rof William year, and Itabbi Kalisch aratin 
II. Prescott, the historian. Mr. Lawrence was took the platform. He suuse- 
slricken with his fatal illness in June, and lingered quently was rabbi and preacher 
until August. It is not often that a man filling no to the Beoai Abraham congrega- 
public position is so universuUy lamented. A meet- tion of Newark, N. J., and to the 
Ing was held in Fanueil hall, to pass resolutions Ohavey Scholom congregation ^y ,(h ,y 
upon his death; the government of Harvard and of Nashville, Tenn. In 1875 ^^-rOtf^ t/Cnilr-./tA, 
a nuiaber of socictiesafso held special meelinjjs, and he severed his connection with 
adopted resolutions to attend tiie funeral. He died the Nashville congregation and 
at, Boston. Mass., Aug, 16, 1855. returned to Newark, and thenceforth devoted him- 

KAI.I8CH, iBidor, Jewish rabbi, was bom at self principally to the lecture field and literary 
EnHoechin, in the duchy of Poseu, Prussia, Nov. 15, work. The immense amount of valuable and pro- 
1816. the son of the Kev. Btimham Kalisch and Sa- found literary work performed by Dr. Kalisch, In 
rah Kalisch. His father was widely known through- view of the engrossing demands of his other duties, 
out the duchy for his learning, piely and profound was something marvelous. Outside of his more pre- 
knowledge of Hebrew. Isidor was the eldest of tcntious productions, the Jewish new8pa[)erB and 
aeven children, and at an early age showed a thirst periodicals, published from 1853 to 1861, were full 
for knowledge and a deep interest iu abstruse sub- of learned controver^es on biblical, talmudical, 
lecta. ilewaseducatedat the L'nlvctsitiesof Berlin, ceremonial and ritualistic questions, upheld by Dr. 
Brenlau, and Prague, and while pursuing his studies Kaliscli with a research and exhaustiveness that 
al these universities vnts a contributor to leading showed incessant toil and hibor and the profundity 
German periodicals, winning an enviable literary of his knowledge, His health began to fail in 1885, 
reputation before he had attained his majority. In and, though warned by his phvsicians to de,*ist from 
1643 Rabbi Kalisch delivered the first German ser- mental lalior, his nature would not brook idleness, 
mon ever preached in his native town. In 1848 he and he continued his work until he was strii-ken 
was compelled to leave Germany on account of cer- with ajioplexy, from which he died. Dr. Kalisch 
faun articles and poems of a liberal cliaracler con- took a foremost place as a polemic writer, aud his 
tributed to the newspapers, which were condemned celebrated conir[>vers^ with Kev. Isaac Leeser be- 
hv the authorities as seditious. He first went to Lon- came famous in Jewish history. He was a man of 
don, going thence to the United Stales, arriving in origtual thought; tenacious of bis opinions, though 
New York on Aug. 28, 1849. The following July ever open to conviction, the sense of right and ins- 
he received a call from the Tifirelh Israel congre- tice being a prominent ti'alt of his character. Char- 
gntionat Cleveland, O. Heatonceplanted the banner itable coa fault, he deemed no exertion or fatigue 
of reformed Judaism in the mitlst of his congre- too great to excuse him from a mission of mercy or 
gation, which soon became infected with the spirit charity. He was always deeply inten'stcd iu the 
of reform. This movement resulted in llie assem- sciences, and never ceased to be a student, and at 
bllng at Cleveland, O., in 1855. of llic first confer- his death left a number of valuable original mnnu- 
encc of rabbis ever held in the United Stati's. its ob- scripts and translations. His death occuried at 
Jectbeing"tobetterthe8piritualconditionoflheJewB Newark, N. J., May 11, 1886. 




64 



THE NATIONAL CTCLOP-«DIA 



HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel, author, was bom 
at Snlem. Mass., July 4, 1604, son of Natlianiel 
Hanthonie, caplaln oiatiBding vessel. The familj 
Beat of his ancestors in England is supposed to have 
been In Wiltshire. The father of the first emigrant 
to America from among his ancestors was boni about 
1570. William, his second son, was born in 1«07. 
and was a passenfrer with Ouv. Jolin Winthrop, of 
Massachusetts, in the Arbelta. rcachiii):; Boston when 
be was twenty-three years of age, and settling at 
Dorchester, Mass. In 1637 he removed to Salem, in 
that colony, and wbilc at Dorchester be had twice 
serveil as representative. In 1644 and thence on un- 
til 1661, he was speaker and deputy fnim Salem. 
He was a man of restless activity, cleared the woods, 
fought Indians, laid plans for the creation of a fur 
companv. persecuted Quakers, and, it is said, at times 

S reached. He died in 1681. William's sou, John, 
fth of eight children, has special note as having 
been the "Justice" Hawthorne, who presided at the 
trials in connection with the Salem witchcraft. In 
1691-02 he also was a representative from his town, 
and finally judge of the supreme court, dying in 
1717. Joseph, his third son, carried on the family 
name. He was a quiet, home-keeping personage, 
and established hijnself upon a farm in Salem town- 
ship. Joseph's fifth son was Daniel, bom iti 17S1. 
and be made a figure in the 
American revolution. Bred 
to the sea, he commanded a 
privateer, The Fair Ameiican, 
which did more or lets dam 
a^ to the British He mar 
ned Itachel Phtlps and had 
for his third stm Nathaniel 
who was bom in 1''75 anil 
about the year 1800 mnrned 
Elizabeth C larkc Manning 
This Haw throne wasasiluit 
reserved man of an athletic 
but rather sUnder build and 
habitually of a somewhat 
melancholy ca^t of ihoight 
He was a sea caplam and 
died at Surmam at Ibe age 
of thiriy three HU wife was 
from a family which a| pears 
lore of the Hawthorne sever 
ity without sbaiing the tatter's Puritan sternness 
and bodily strength, descendants of Kicbard Man- 
ning of Dartmouth, Eng., who sailed for the new 
world in 1679. Natliatiiel. the great American 
nimanccr. was thiHr only son. His two sisters were 
Elizabeth M. and M. Louisa, the latter being lost in 
the burning of the steamboat, Henry Clay, on the 
Hudson river, July 37. 1854, the former surviving 
lier distiuguished' brother. It is stated in the biog- 
raphy of Hawthorne by his son Julian, that "what 
is most noticeable in his Juvenile days, is, one would 
say, the wholesome absence of any premonitions of 
what lie was afterward to become." "One of the 
peculiarities from my boyhood," wrote Hawthorne, 
bimscir, " was a grievous disinclination to go to 
scIkioI." When he was eight or nine years old his 
mother took u]> her residence on the banks of Lake 
Subago. in Maine, where the family owned land, 
and here, for a season, Hawthorne ran quite wild, 
reading at odd limes, however, <m rainy days, in 
8liakeNt>eaTe, Buuyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and other 
poetical or light books within reach. A private in- 
ati'uctor fitted him for Bowdoln college upon his re- 
turn lo Salem, Mass.. and he entered that institution 
In 1821. Here, he declares, be was an idle student, 
negligent of colleire rules, and "nursing his own 
fancies." Henry W. Longfellow, John S. C. Ab- 
bott, George B. Cheever and Horatio Bridge were 
his classmates, and Franklin Pierce, afterwaS presi- 




dent of the United SUtes, was in the chisB of 1824. 
the year before the graduation of HawUiome and 
his friends. When bo left college, having, as he 
says, some slender means of support, the future 
novelist set himself down for some years in a room 
at his mother's liouse in Salem to consider what pur- 
_..!. -_ jjjj, ||g ^^ j^^j filled for. At this time, and. 



except at twilight, or to take the nearest wav to the 
most convenient solitude. He says that he doubted 
whether so much as twenty people in the town were 
aware of his existence for nine or ten years, " In thia 
retreat," he says, "I read endlessly all sorts of 
good and good-for-nothing l>ooks, and had begun 
to scribble sketches and stories, most of which I 
burned." Some of thcH.', however, found their way 
into magazines and annuals, but as Ihcy were print- 
ed anonymously, or under different signatures, 
did not concentrate attention upon their author. 
Samuel G, Goodrich (Peter Parley), book publislier 
at Hartford, Conn., then at Boston, Mass., did how- 
me interested in lii.s work, and portions of 
d in the " The Token," one of Mr. Good- 
ricli's annuals, " Faushaw " was his first work, 
and was printed In 1828 at his own expense. Short- 
ly after be endeavoreil to suppress it, bnt it is in- 
cluded In the complete edition of ids writings. In 
the manuscripts which Mr. Goodrich pubUiibed sev- 




-■^ihX^' /fcUJi^^',^^ 



< have pos3es.sed i 



eral of the Twice told Tale? were included. 
These boik^ appeared m 183R from the press of 
Monroe & C o at Boat )n and in a way their author 
had then l>ccome knowu as a new force in American 
letters. But his work was illy c<im|>ensaled, and in 
some cases he failed to receive the twyments stipu- 
lated. Indeed it was his friend Bridge who assum- 
ed the pecunmry risk in publishing " Twice-told 
Tales." It is worth while to any that he sent a copy 
of it to Prof. Longfellow, who wnite a very favor- 
able notice in the " North American Review." And 
it maybea<lded that the friendship of these two emi- 
nent lillernleur* was always cordial fri)m this dale. 
It was Hawthorne who suggested the writing of 
"Evangeline" by the Cambridge professor. la 
1836 Mr. Ooodrich engaged flawthome lo edit the 
"American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining 
Knowledge," at a salary of $500 per year, which. 
however, was not fully paid; and Hawthorne also 
wrote for the companv which Mr. Goodrich man- 
aged a "Universal History," for flOO. This be- 
came the basis of Peier Parley's famous series of 
historical and other bn<iks. In 1838 Hawthorne be- 
came engaged lo Sophia Amelia Peabody, of Sa- 
lem, of whom, in writing to her sister, he saya : 
"She is a fiower to be worn in no man's bosom, 
but was lent from heaven lo show tlie possibili- 
ties of the human soul;" and to whom he was mar- 
ried July 9, 1842, at Boston, Mass. At this period 
he naturally t>egan to feel that bis experiment of 
seclusion from the world bad gone forwanl lone- 
enough. Martin Van Buren was in the preaidentiw 




PUiL,:: LID A^,y, 

Aster, Lrrox ..:d T,J^.gp 



CUP 



:•'. rs. 



IbU-* 



OF AMERICAN BIOORAPHY. 




chair, and Qeorge Bancroft was colleclor of U. 8. 
custoTns al BoalOD. Hawthorne's father had been 
a democrat, and the M>n had adopted liU palilics. 
The Boston collector learned that Hawthorne stood 
ready to take up any respectable and arduous em- 
ployment. He therefore had him appoJDtcd as 
weigher and gau^r in the Boston 
custom-house at an annual salary 
of $1,300. This was in Januitry, 
' IS36, and for the two years dur- 
ing wliicb the gaugerKliip lasted, 
he is said to have enjoyed the so- 
ciety of sailoi'3, whi) knew bim 
merely as a government officer, 
literary wurb beinfc suspended. 
In 1841 he waatum^ out of office 
by the whig atlministration of 
President William H. Harrison, 
and ia April of that year unitetl 
with certain Boston scholars and 
_, ,. educated men and women in the 

*^ '^ ''" effort to establish "Brook Farm," 

upon a tract of 200 acres at West 
Roxburv, Mass. Every member of the community 
was to do his share of all necessary manual labor, 
and Hawthorne i)erformed his to the full. He has 
Bpokcu of life there in these words: " I went to live 
in Arcndy, and fonnd myself up to the chin in a 
barnyard. " Sometimes he worked this way for sii- 
teen houra each daf. putting Into the experiment 
f 1.000 anved from his custom-house salary, and hop- 
ing for a home there with bis future wife. He was 
elected to certain responsible offices in the board of 
management, but shortly had done with this matter, 
losing his tl.OOO, but gaining an invaluable back- 
ground for the "BlitheaaleBamance,"wriltcn about 
ten years afterward, which is the only permanent 
memorial of that noted and nebulous effort after a 
high form of human society. When he was married 
(1842) he settled at Concord, Ma^. and from this 
onward, with the exception oF his Salem townsliip 
and bis Liverpool consulate, devoted the remainder 
of his days to literature and to travel. Hawthorne 
and his wife here entered for residence " The Old 
Hanse " (in New England nomenclature, "parson- 
age"), which was the dwelling from whose study 
wmdows on the second floor Rev. William Emerson, 
grandfather of Ralph Waldo Emci'son. had seen the 
fight between British regulars and the Lexington and 
Concord farmers, Apr. 19. 177.'>. He now resumed 
bis solitary habits, and was only seen by his neigh- 
"" — in his daily walks to the village post-office. E^w 
niu<le or received. This year he got a 
letter from James Russell Lowell, in 
which was a proposal fn>ni Edgar A. 
Poe, that Hawthorne should write for his 
new magazine, and be engraved to adorn 
the fiist number. March S. 1844. HU flrst 
child, Una, who died in England in 1H7T, 
was bom at Concord, Mass. His only 
son, Julian, was horn at Boston, Mass., 
June 32, 1846, and his only other daugh. 
ter. Rose, at Lenox, Alass., May 30, 18ST. 
He was now writing stories for the "Dem- 
ocratic Review." at Washington, D. C, 
forcomparatively small remuneration, and 
that not always promptly made. These 
stories were collected and published in 
■-MossesfromanU1dManse"inl84S. He 
had also edited (1S44) the "African Journal" of his 
friend and college classmate. Bridge, of the U. S. 
navy, and " Papere of an Old Dartmoor Piisoner," 
for the " Democratic Review." In 1848 he received 
tiie appointment of surveyor of customs at Sulem, 
from the administration of President Polk, and in 
bis introduction to "The Scarlet Letter," gave the 
story of bis life there from that year to 1!J49. His 
III.— 5. 



salary was. as when be was in the public service be- 
fore, only $1,200 per year, but he now did a Kood 
deal of writing, chief of which was the first draft of 
that remarkable romance which was finished at Len- 
ox, Mass., and published in 1850. The success of 
the book was pronoimced in every respect, 5,000 
copies being sold in two weeks in America, the 
tbievingpropensitiesof several booksellers in England 
being stimulated by it: they brought out rival edi- 
tions, and its issue prove*! tne favorable literary and 
financial turning-point in the career of its author. 
Singularly. Mr. James T, Fields, of the Boston Arm 
of Ticknor & Co., its publisher, who had counseled 
Hawthorne to complete and issue it, had so little fore- 
cast of its popularity that the type was distributed 
as soon as 5.000 copies had been printed. But en- 
thusiasm over It on both sides of the walerwassuch 
that it was at once resetand stereotyped. This book, 

Erhapg more than any others of thiisecoming from 
) pen, made Hawthorne one of the ^reat authors 
of his country, and of the English -speaking race. The 
removal (ll^w) of his family from Salem to Lenox, 
Mass., came about in consequence of bis being ousted 
from the custom-house at Salem by a manccuvre not 
infrequently met with in political life. The two ot 
three years next following were his period of great- 
est literary activity. In them he produced five books, 
four of which are pronounced "masterpieces in 





tbeir several w 
Seven Gables, 
dren), "The Snow Image, and Other Twice-told 
Tales." and the "Blitiicaalc Romance." the latter 
being published after the next family migration — 
this change being to West Newton, Mass., near Bos- 
ton. In June, 1853, be made bis final transfer of 
residence in America to Concord, Mass., where be 
bought Mr. Bronson Alcoit's house, and about 
twenty acres of hind, and named bis place "The 
Wayside. " ' ' Tanglewood Tales," a second volume of 
" Wonder" SloriestlS-W), appeared after I he "Life 
ot Franklin Pierce"' (18.13)— the latter beinc written at 
Mr. Pierce's special request. When his friend had 
taken his presidential seat (1S53), Hawthorne was 
apjioinlcd U. S. consul to Liverpool, Eug., an office 
which was regarded as the most lucrative in the gift 
of the government. The Hawthornes sailed forthut 

fort in June of that year, and for four years hcper- 
urmcd the duties cif'ihe consulate with ci'edit. Hia 
book, "Our Old Home." written in 1860. at Con- 
cord. Mass.. describes those duties and his experi- 
rieiice in their discharge. He became very much 
Interested at Liverpool in tbealleged cruel treatment 
of seamen by American shipmasters, and en^ged, 
to some extent. In the discussions connected with an 
invcsttgalion which was umlertaken by the English 
parliament. Here with his family he mode such ez- 
'ere practicable over the United King- 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



dom, extending his &cqu^utaDce and -widening bis 
life by Ihe kind and hearty reception wliicS he 
everywhere met with; but there is no record o( any 
literary labor in this period. The perquisites of the 
consulate were materially abridged daring his in- 
cumbency, but it is uuderBlood thai they remained 
nucii 03 lu enable bim, with current and subsequent 
receipts from his books, to pass llie real of hix daya 
without pecuniary solicitude. The year lHHS and 
a part of 1H59, succeeding bis voluntary retirement 
from the consulate, were apent by tlie Hawliiome 
lamily in France, Switzerland and Italy, and bia 
" French and Italian Note Books," witb the "lio- 
mance U Monte-Benl," the latter peiliaps the most 
widely read of all Hawiliorne's works, nmde tbe 
public better acquainted wilh tbia part of his life 
than with any other. It was early during his first 
Stay at Rome thai tbe conception of "The Marble 
Faua,"the most elaborate and tbe longest of his 
tales, began to takesbape iu hismiud. Its f) ret sketch 
was produced at the Villa of Montanto, near the city 
of Florence, but this was rewritten and elaborated 
at Kedcar on the northeastern coast of England, and 
then published simultaneously (1H80}' in Boston, 
Uaas., and at London, the book appearing in Eug- 
laitd with the litieof "Transformation. " 'file Becou<l 



period, with " The Dolliver Romance," and " Septi- 
mus Sellon " was a part of his last work on eartb. 
"Our Old Home," as publislu'il in ihe maonmne. 
brought toils author foreacb moulbly imptrilie sura 
of fSOO. Wlien issued in book form, his piiblisUer 
objected to Hawthorne ded- 
icatingitloFranklin Pierce; 
bur the author insisted and 
wrote: "If he is so exceed- 
ingly uu|>opular that bia 
name Is enough to sink the 
volume, there is so much 
the more need tbat an old 
frieud should stand by him 
Aa foi the public il must 
accept my work precisely 



I 1 I 



. fit t 





stay in England lasted for a year from the middle of 
]8o9. In June, 1860. he was again at "The Way- 
side," in Concord, Mass., wilh his family, which 
place be proceeded to partially reconstruct, and ma- 
terially to beautify. In the agitations preceding the 
OHlbnmk of the civil war, be took Utile or nn part, 

Eublicly, but his position when war came, whenever 
was known, was a wcll-bnown one of decided 
eympatby with the government of his country. In 
a letter dated May 26, 1861. he said: "One thing as 
regards this matter I refcret, and one thing I am glad 
of. Tbe regrettable thing is, that I am too old to 
shoulder a musket myself, and tbe joyful thing is, 
thai Julian is too young." But his physical energies 
were now on tbe wane, and he lost Uesti rapidly. 
He took few or no long walks after his return to 
America. He wrote more or less, however, for the 
" Atlantic Monlbly." at Boston, and tlie papers, col- 
lected and issued in book form, made "Our Old 
Home," before referred to. In the spring of 1862 he 
visited Washington, and saw something of the 
"pomp and drcumslance," with the sod reality, as 
well, of war. This led to a paper in the "Allantic," 
from bis pen, " Chiefly About War-Maltera." Tlie 
situation at Washington harassed and annoyed aa well 
as pained Hawthorne, and tbe lone of Ibis paper re- 
flected his feeling!), and was written half In earnest, 
half in banter. In fact, at this time he almost 
despaired of the re.'itoraiion of the Union. "Dr. 
Grimshawe'a Secret," was pubtlshcil within this 



alone In point of 
fact, tbe work was accepted 
very c irdially in the I nit 
ed Stales In England it 
aroused a guod deal of 
what the English them 

selves called indignation During tbe spring and 
summer of 1863 lii, j.rcw thinner and paler day bv 
day. No impiovcment came wiih winter and 
early in 1864 under charge if 'ftilliam D Tick 
nor. his publisher and fnend Hawliiome under 
took a journey toward the boutb but at Phila 
de1[.hiahis curat r suddenly died and Hawthorne 
never recovered from the sliock of Chat event, and 
the strain that came upon him with it. He wasable 
to return to Concord, but left it under care of ex- 
Preaident Pierce about the middle of May, 1864, and 

ioumeved leisurely toward the White Mountains In 
Jew Hampshire. Al the bold in Plymouth in that 
state, he quietly died during the night, bis friend 
finding him wiiliout breath, lymg In the same posi- 
tion as when be had fallen asleep. On May 33d, the 
funeral services were couducied at Concord, Maas., 
by James Freeman Clarke of Boston, who had per- 
formed Hawthorne's marriage service Iwenty-lwo 
yeaifl before, and had not methim since the wedding 
day. Al the gates of the cemeteir, on either side 
tbe path, as the carriage containing Mrs. Hawtbome 
left the grounds, stood H. W. Longfellow, O. W. 
Holmes, J. O. Whiuier, J. E. Lowell, Franklin 
Pierce, and Ralph Waldo Emerson wilh uncovered 
heads in sympathy and In honor. Mrs. Hawlhome 
died in London, Eng.. Feb. 2«, 1871, having edited 
her bustiand's "Nole Booka " and published a vol- 
1 of her own, " Notes in England and In Italy " 



In person Hawlhome' was a model of 
physical beauty and manlineaa, 
with manners of great reserve. He 
indeed lived largely within him- 
self, but tbe name of no man of 
letters has slied brighter luster up- 
on the land from which be sprung, 
or more sigually enriched the guild 
of romance writers to which he be- 
longed. His best likeness is the 
Bennock portrait, so called because 
tbe photograph from which it 
comes was jiroiluced by his friend, 
Francis Bennock of England. 
His bust, modeled at Rome by 
Miss Lander, is in the public li- 
brary al Concord, Mass. The best 
complete eiiilion of his works is " The Kverside " 
(13 v., Boston, 1891), This sketch has been made, 
in the main, from " Hawlhome and His Wife," by 
Julian Hawtliorne (8 v., Boston, 1885), but a few 
facts have been taken from tbe admirable article 
by George William Curtis, iu "Amileton's Cyclo- 

■^.l!» ..f J ™...-inn™ Tll..n.nnhTr " Mi._ HaWtbom6 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



67 



XiASBON, Lara Moore, educator, was bora 
in Vernon county. Wis., Aug. 20, 1858, tlie second 
cbild of a well-uionn fanner, Micbnel LargoD aud 
Rachel Larson, of Norwe!;iaD descent, who emi- 
CTated to this counliy In 1851. The family traces its 
Gotliic ancestry back to the early emigration into 
Kurope from Asia. Lars lost his heanoe through 
ackDCss when he was but a year and a lialf old, aud 

S-ew up to boyhood with healthful altcmatioDS of 
bor and recreation on his fatlicr's prairie farm. 
At the age of thirteen he was sent to the Wisconsin 
school fur the deaf, at Delavan, where, in 1870, he 
was graduated with honors, the valedictorian of his 
class. Being ambitious of a higher educstiou. In 
the following fall be entered the National colle^ 
for tlic deaf at Washington, It. C. and piirsuisi the 
full course, graduating with the degree of bachelor 
of arts in 181w. At the same time he was valedicto- 
rian of the students' literary society of the college. 
Hr. Larson, being an enthusiastic student and nne 
debater, look a prominent part in literary and relig- 
es. lie organized a young men's Cliris- 




wUlch he represeniej at the Inleruatioiial ._. 

tiou of the Youne Men's Christian associations held 
at Baltimore, MC, in 1879. and at Cleveland. O., in 
1881, aud also represented the 
Chicago Y. M. C. A. as special 
delegate, on tlie deaf-mute mem- 
bers' part, in the general conven- 
tion at Milwaukee, Wis., in lt<83. 



day-scbools. While there be ... 
al»> a lecturer on popular and 
religious subjects to the adult 
deaf of Chicago. In December, 
1883, he married Belle E. Por 
tcr, an' accomplished young lady, 
' and a graduate of the Clarke in- 
stitute at Northampton, Mass, 
Three children, all gifted with 
Bpeaking and bearing, were the 
result of the marria^. Mrs. Lar- 
son died in 1893. Mr. Lamon's 
warm sympathies forbis brethren 
whowerewitboutthemeans of education led him, in 
1884. lo resign his place in Chicago, and to undertake 
the laborious work of a pioneer in deaf-mute instruc- 
tion in New Mexico. He opened bis school with live 
pupils at Santa Fe, in November, 188.'>. His enterprise 



February, 1887. bis infant school incorporated by 
act of the legislature and put on an equal footing 
with like institutions In the United Slates, being 
placed under the management of a committee con- 
sUting of the attorney-general. Ibe auditor, and the 
treasurer of the territory, with its founder as super- 
intendent and instructor. Through his energy and 
patience Hr. Larson baa succeeded in placing the 
school on a sound financial basis. The old accom 
modations beiug loo small, in the sprini* of 1801 
Mr. Larson erecte<l. at his own expense, a handsonie 
brick structure, costing $5,000, surrounded by am- 
ple grounds, and within sight of tbc Indian Indus- 
trial school, the Ramona Indian school, the state 



penitentiary, and other public buildings, 
building, rented by the territory, was formniij- o|ieneu 
n of 1891. He uses the coinhnied sys 



1 in Uis school, making the signs 
subservient to the use of the manual aljtliabct and 
writing. Mr. Larson maintains an active mtcrest not 
only in the welfare of the deaf and the bllitd in tlio 
territory, but in the current topics anil business of 
the day. He is an extensive reader, aud has laid the 
foundation for a valuable library. 



HUET, Samuel Baird, lawyer, was bom in 
Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 7, 1842. The following year 
his parents removed to Philadelphia where bis father 
for many years aud up to tlie date of his death, in 
1886, was president of the Peun Mutual life insur- 
ance company. His mother was Mary A. Baiid 
of Charleston. 8. C. He was graduated from the 
Central high school as the valeilictorian of his 
class in 18.'iS, and then entered Princeton college 
where he completed the course in 1833. winning 
prizes for oratory and delmtc. From college he 
went into the U. S. navy, and was attached to the 
San Jacinto and Yantic willi an interval of service 
on tbestaffofltenr-Admiral Bailey. He participated 
in the attacks on Fort Fisher aud Wilmington, re- 
ceiving honorable mention for bravery, and then 
served on blockade duty until December. 1865, when 
he resigned his commission and commence*! the 
study of law in the office of John C. Bullitt and the 
law depaitment iif the University of Pennsylvania. 
About the same lime he joined the National guard 
of Pennsylvania, and in turn became captain, major, 
and adjutant -general on the slafTof the commanding 
general of tlie Philadelphia troops, until 1878, when 
he resigned. After his admission to the bar in 18G8 
he s])eiit the first four years of his profesdonal career 
assixriated with bis preceptor, Mr. 
Bullitt. Since 1872 he has con- 
ducted an independent practice. 
Natural ability, careful menial 
training, a determined purpose to 
succeed.andageniusfor ban) work 
wonhimsuccessfromthefirst. At 
home in the practice of every de- 
partment of the law, except the 
criminal, he has proved himself a 
valuable colleague and a detcnnin- 
ed opponent in man vbotly contest- 
ed legal battles. lie has secured 
an important and lucrative prac- 
tice, and is surrounded by enthus- 
iastic assistants and students, In 
1870 he was a<Imitled to the su- 
preme court of Pennsylvania, 
and in 1880, on motion of Qen. 
B. F. Butler, to the U. S. supreme 
court. He is counsel for the Penn Mutual life 



, —_,. - . .. Electric light company, the BcU 
Telephone company, and the Security Trust com- 
pany of Philadelphia, while his clientage of banking 
firms and of business housesio New York and Phila- 
delphia ts very large. He has frequently acted as 
counsel for reorganization committees, was concerned 
In Reading receiversbip, and in 1893 received a 
special retainer from the Philadelphia & Reading 
railroad, in its controversy with the state of Pennsyl- 
vania. Mr. Huey has been a governor of the Lnl- 
veraity club and a director of the Art club, aud Is 
also u member of Ihc United Service and Country 
clubs. He is a meml>er of the National bar associa- 
tion, a tnisiee of the Williamson free school of me- 
chanical trades, a trustee of the Presbyterian hospital, 
and a meml>er of the Board of eiliicalion of Phila- 
delphia. Mr. Huey was chosen a member of the 
Union League in 1888. He was a director and secre- 
tary of tliiil organization from 1878 to 1889, and 
since the lallcr date, has been its vice-president. 
When the Union League was losing grounii in 1877 
and its membership rapidly decreasing, Mr. Huey 
and other influential members determined lo infui^e 
new lifcinloit. As its secretarr, with bulb pen and 
Toicehe labored for lliederdrcil ndvflneemeut. and 
aflerten yea rsof active service, resigned the secretarv- 
ship of llie organization vrhicli tlieii bad a niemlx'rship 
ori.400. In recognition ofhisetTons.tbe league voted 
bim a gold nicda! and clecteil him vicc-|>resideul. 




\'4i? 



■.^;r. 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




FOOTB, Edward BUm, phraician and jnurnal- 
bt, WM bom in Cltvelainl, 0.,'Feb. 20, laid. He 
is seveDtb in descent from Nntiianiul Fitote. uuc of tlie 
early settlers of Wetliers&uld. ('odd., aail liix grenl- 
great-graniiralher. Cnpt. Jolin Foote, served iu the 
war of tLe revolulioii. Ilis carlj- ediicalioDal advaO' 
lagcs were vciy limited, and at tbc ajn^ nf flfleea he 
was apprenticed to n printer. Aequirinj; a practical 
IcnowU-itirc of tliu printing; biisi- 
Qcss, anil bccominf; proHcicnt 
as a writer, at the upe nf nine- 
teen he removed tii Coniieeliciil, 
where he cngnK«l a* wiitor <m 
a wccldy newspajwr, which, 
tiirougli his c'ITi)ns. sooa l>ociin)c 
tlie largest and most siieee»:ful 
weekly in the state. At the age 
of twenty-two lie accejilcd a po- 
sition OS associate editor of a 
leadinf; New York weeiily jour- 
nal. Soon after, having made 
tlie acquaintance of a itiicci'K.sfiil 
Imtanical physician, he devot- 
ed all his leisure time to the 
study of medicine, lie next 
became one of the editors of the 
' Brooklyn "Morolng Journal," 
the Stst morning paper ever 

[iriuted on Long Island, and contribitted largely to 
Is success, llusignlng at the end of two years, be 
join»i his old preceptor, the botanical physician, 
and devoted hiniiielf entirely to the sindy atiil prac- 
tice of medicine, displaying exceptional cleHmcsg of 
menial vision as to the cause and cure of disease. 
In 18flO be was graduated from the Pcun medical 
univeruity, where he successfully treated a professor 
alTeeied wiili lung trouble that had baffled the skill 
of the best physicians. In fuel, he has, during his 
entire profeH.-ic)nal career, deniiiiisiral<il the ciimbll. 
ity of cousumplioa. In 1H.'iT^> he piiblislied a work 
entitled "Meilleai Common Sense," which reached 
a sale of over SW.OOO copies, bringing his name 
promioeutly before the world as a student, thinker, 
and aiUh[>r, and securing for hiui a lariie and liicnt- 
tive practice. Of this work N. P. Willis wrote: 
" 'Medicfl] ('ommon Sense ' is wisdom cut and dricil." 
Tliis work was followed a few years later by " Plain 
Home Talk, embracing Medical (Common Sense," 
which reached a circulation of over lialf a million. 
In lUT.t Dr. FiHite complelMl a serial for the yoiini:, 
of Ave volumes, entitled "Science in Story," in 
which lie blended the princi)ial facU of ana'lomy, 
physiology, and hygiene, with the stining iiiei<leiils 
of a comic stnry. He Is e<litor of " Dr. Foote's 
Health Monthly." In his practice lie hns made a 
apt-eialty of chronic diseases, and has effec-led many 
remarkable cures where the "old nehool" system 
has failed. A large part of bts work hns l)c<'n done 
through correspondence. Tlioiisands of leilers have 
been received by him from |)atients In all (uirts of 
tills country and Kiimpe. who have been 1>enef)te<l 
by his treatment. They sttest the value of his serv- 
ices and liis .skill as a physician. 

FOOTE, Edward Bond, phrsician and editor, 
wns born nt Fjist Cleveland, (>., Aug. ITi, IM4, the 
sou of Dr. Etiward Bliss aiul (-atharfnc G. Foote. 
He took his prejurntory studies at the Ctiarlier iiisti- 
tule of New York, from which lie went to Columbia 
college, where he gave stteiitlon pxcliislveir to such 
BludioH in the scientific deimrtnient as woufd liest Hi 
bim for a medical course. He then entei'cd the col. 
lege of physicians and surgeons, from wliicb li« was 

graduated in IHlti, receiving tlie Segnfn prize for 
le best report of lectures <in diseases iif the nervous 
system. He immediately became associated with his 
fatlicr, and has since acquired a reputation bb a skill- 




ful practitioner. He has been a freqneni contributor 
to medical literature, being the authorof" Health In 
IheSunlieam," "Bacteria in its Kelation to Disease." 
'■ Dr. Foote's Health Hints," " An Illustrated Treat- 
ise on GvniBcology, or Diseases of Women;" '" The 
llailical Itemciiy m Social Science;" "Food; What 
is Best to Eat," and of a variety of eMays relstingto 
medicine and hygiene. He is also asBocialed with 
his father in the management of 
the "Health Mouthly,"a widely 
circulated pcrioillcaf embracing 
subjects relating to human devel- 
opment, and strongly advocating 
scientific propagation In the human 
family. In Jaiiuarj', 18«0. be in- 
ventnl anil patented a wonder 
camera, which lias become widely 
known under the name of thcpoiy- 
opticon, and which is an improve- 
ment on lite magic lantern, as it 
can be used without glass slides. 
The "Photographic Times," of 
December, 1HH3, says of it: "It 
has certain features of a scientific 
nature that we do not remember to 
have met with before in any lan- 
terns having a siiuilar intention. 
It is in the illumination of ot»iqiie 
pictures where the ingenuity is found. A lamp hav- 
ing an argand burner is placed in one focus of an 
elliptical rcficctor, the small pictures to be shown 
Iwing in or near its other focus. To effect this the 
retiecior may l>c compared to a bugc egg, having 
one half sliced off obliquely, against which the pict- 
ure is placed. The reflector is pierced for theobject 
glass. As the result of this Invention polroptkiHi 
parties became quite common in various sections of 
the country, especially on the Pacific coasl. 

ATKINSON, B7TOD A., business man, was 
lM<m Ht Suekville, N. B., In 1854. His paternal an- 
cestors were all nalives of New Brunswict. his grand- 
father liaving l)cen a shipbuilder of considerable ce- 
lebrity. Od the maternal siilc. he is a descendant in 
a direct line of Sir Robert Funis of Stowe, Scotland, 
whose enormous fortune was the cause of prolonged 
lltigiilion. Mr. Atkinson's grandfather spent a ' ~ 
fortune iu pn^ivnting his claims 
^) the esinle, but was eventually 
defeated, the pro|wrty reverting 
to Lord Hay. Ills father was a 
Hhipmatter, princi[>uily engaged 
in the Australian and South 
Anicrican trade, who, during the 
thirtv-flve years of his iifc'as a 
manner, cominanded simic of the 
Aiiest vcssi'ls sailing out of Lon- 
don au<l LlveriHM)!, and visited 
almost ever}- (jiinrlerof the glolie. 
Ityron A. was eilucated at the 
Alount AllisiHi Wesleyan acad- 
emy, but having inherfu.'d his fa- 
tlieV's niariiie tastes, he followed 
IheseaforKome years. In 1870 he 
alNiiKloned Ibis 'life, and entered 
Ihe niiichlne shop of S. A. WikmIs 
&, Co., at South Boston. After 
Ihree years sjient at this trade, 
Mr. Atkinson licgan busineKs for 
liimself at the age of eighteen, making 
and reiHilring fumiiure in a small way. Theou^ 
IiH>k was at first discouraging, and would have been 
completely disheartening to a less ambitious and 
iwrscvcring youth. His energy was untiring, and 
lie fretgueiitly worked eighteen houra out of the 
twenty-four. In 18T9 he did away with his hiiaincM 
of repairing furniture, and opcneo a small, complete 




OF AKEBICAN BIOGRAFHT. 



«ockof r 

soon grew so large thai he had to remove to more 
<M>nimodiou8 quarters, and in 188S rented tbe Nassau 
Hall building, six stories high, and baViog a tloor 
space of 100/000 square feet. His business at this 
tune amounted to (350,000 annimll]?, and it subse- 
qiienlly increased so as to necessitate large accom- 
modations, and in 1886 the adjoining Turn Hal! 
building was added. In 1887 further additions 
were cmtde. and he found himself in possession of 
the largest house-furuistiing esiablisbmeal in the 
United States, To his progressive ideas may large- 
ly be attributed his success in business. He baa 
a happy faculty of anticipating the needs of the 
public, and providing for Ihem in advance of his 
competitors. He intrrSuced the idea of free deliveir 
to any portion of New England, and of paying rail- 
road fare to purehnsers from out of town, tic was 
al.'u) A warm advocate of purchasing goods by install- 
inenis, and did much to elevate the system In the 

Eublic mind. He gives his personal attention to the 
UNiness, and to his tireless efforts and example the 
Siiscnt standard of the installment business is due, 
y dealing justly with his cuatomers. and never re- 
fusing further accommodation in cases of honest In- 
ability to meet a contract, be has secured that stand- 
ard for tbe trade, 

HcCOmrXIX, Biclmrd Brumby, was bom 
at Ocala, Marion county, Fla.. in 1887. His father, 
Jfbo was a native of Georgia, was the first mayor of 
Ocala. and commander of the Ocala riBes iluring 
the civil war. He died in 1886 a highly respected 
citizen, and one of the most prom- 
inent members ot the Florida imr. 
Mr. R. B. McConncirs uncle, MaJ. 
Thomas Rush McConnell. was also 
a distinguisbed officer. Aflcrgiad- 
uating from West Point in HMC, in 
the class with George B. McClellan, 
Jesse L. Reno, George Sloneman, 
Thomas J. Jackson, Dabuey H. 
Mauit. Geo. E. Picbelt, and oth- 
ers, be was Assigned to the 4th 
infantry, then m Mexico, and 
fougbt'at Molino del Rey, Cberu- 
busco and Chapultepec, He re- 
signed from tlie army in 1855: was 
appointed commandant of the Oeor- 
,^a military institute, At Marietia, 
Ga. When Georgia seceded be 
offered his services to bis native 
state, and was assigned to duty at 
Mobile, with the rank of major, 
where he died in 1861. R. B. McConnell was edu- 
cated at Atlanta, Ga., and after leaving school en- 
tered the Ocala banh as Junior clerk, and became 
cashier in 1885 through a special act of the legisla- 
ture, which gave bim permission to assume the du- 
ties of that position, he being at tliat time only 
dghteen years of age. When tbe MerchanlJi' na- 
tional bank was organized in 1887 by John P. Dunn, 
he was offered and accepted the position of cashier. 
He is also president of the Brooksviilc (Florida) 
slate iNink. and is probably tbe youngest bank presi- 
dent in tbe L'niled Slates. Mr, McConnell is alder- 
man of tbe city of Ocala: captain of tbe " Ocala 
Rifles;"' secretary and treasurer of the Witblacoochce 
river phosphate company: assistant treasurer of the 
Dunnellon phosphate company: treasurer of the La 
Criolla dgnr manufacturing company : »ecrclary 
and treasurer of tbe Florida bankers aswiciation, 
and treasurer of the Baulder phosphate company. 
In 1888 be married Bessie Finch, daughter of Capt. 
O. G. Finch, superintendent of S. 8. O. & G. R. R., an 
accomplishes! woman, who is prominent in many 
good works carried on in Ocala. 




OUMTUBB, Charlea Oodfrer, mayor of New 
York, was born in New York city Feb. 7, 1823. 
His parents were natives of Germany, who came 
to this country when tbcy were young. His father 
was Christian G. Guntber, who was for upward 
of fifty years tbe leading fur merchant of New 
York. He had four sons, of whom the deceased was 
the eldest. Young Charles Ountber received his 
earlv education at the Moravian institute at Naz- 
aretn, Pa., and on returning to New York entered 
Columbia college grammar school, where he com- 
pletc<l his studies. At an early age be was taken into 
business br bis father, and some time later the firm 
of C, Q. Ountber it Co., fur dealers, was established 
in itiaiden I^nc, comprising his father and brothers 
and himself. Taking an active Interest in politics 
he was early in life one of the hardest workers in 
his party in the city. He became a member of the 
Young Men's Democratic general committee, and 
'lis vote was cast for Polk and Dallas in 1844. Mr. 
Gimtbcr was one of tbe founders of tbe Democratic 
union club, and in tbe autumn of 1852, having 
made a visit to Europe, returned in time to enter 
vigorously into the presidential ciim]>aign, which re- 
sulted in tbe election of Franklin Pierce, In 1856 
tbe Democratic young men's national club was 
formed with James T. Brady as president, and Mr, 
Ountber recelvetl its nomination as one of tbe gov- 
ernors of the Almshouse. He was elected, lending 
his ticket by more than G,000 votes, a fact that was 
significant of bis popularity, and was uot lost upon 
the democratic organization. He afterward became 
president of tbe board of governors. In the spring 
of 1856 he was elected a sacbein of Tammany IlnlL 
In the contest of 1801 Mr. Oun- 
tber was a dem(«ralic candidate 
for the mayoralty, but was de- 
feated on that occasion by George 
Opdyke. the republican candi- 
date. In tbe fall of 1863 be ran 
again in a three-cornered cam- 
paign, and was elected by a ma- 
jority of over 7,000. Ho look bis 
scat as mayor on Jan. 1, 1884, 
having the reputation of being a 
bigh-loned and honorable mr 
chant, highly respected by t 
citizens. As mayor, Mr, Guulber f 
was economical in the expendi- 
ture of public moneys to that ex-  
tent that, being Invitc<l to preside 
over tbe festival of the city council 
of New Yorklnhonorof tbe anni- 
versary of Washington's birthday, 
Feb. 23, 1864, be declined tbe invi- 
tation, "In order to discounten- 
ance so far as Is in mv power the reckless extravagance 
of tbe times." Mr, Ountber was a member of the old 
New York Are department, and after its dishand- 
ment became president of the Veteran ussociation. 
After his retirement from bis term in tbe mayoralty, 
3Ir, Ountber attended strictly to his private busi- 
ness. He was one of those who recognize<l the possi- 
ble future of Coney Island, and he built tbe first 
steam road to the bcacb, meeting willi great opposi- 
tion from the old Dutch farmers of ^ew Utrecht 
and Gravesend. He also erected a hotel at Coney 
Island, but It was not profitable. He huilt a large 
hotel at Locust Grove on Gravesend Bay. This waa 
deslniyed by fire s<inie venrs later. In 1878 Mr. 
Guntber was once more <fniwn into politics, and ran 
for state senator in tbe seventh senatorial district, 
but was defeated. He left a widow, two sons. 
Christian O. Ounthcr and George A. Gunther, also 
two daughters, Mrs, James Miller and Miss Amelia 
B. Onntlier. He died at his residence tn Knsi Four- 
teenth street, New York city, Jan. 32, 1885. 




70 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



CTTTLEB, Hanacaeh, clergyman and congress- 
man, was born At Killiugly, Conn., Miiy 13, 1743. 
HU falher wax Hczekiali.ilegoeudaDtufJam(« Cul- 
ler, who left Norfolksliire, Eul'., settled ut Water- 
town, MaHS. .Jul S34, and marrieir Anua. sislcr of Capt. 
John Grout's wife, a woman of wonderful dccisjou, 
energy and enter|)rise. Tlie mother of Mauasseli 
was Susannah Clark Cutler, daughter of one of Ihe 
early surveyors of Windham county. Conn., a lady 
of great |)ersona1 beauty and Htrengtli of mind, with 
Bii cducatio[i in advance of her tiines. He grew up 
on a farm, and was prepared for Yale college, whence 
he was graduated iu 1765 by Rev. Aaron iJrown. of 
Killingly. In college lie was distlnguiidietl for dili- 

Ence and proficiency, and waa graduated with high 
nor. Teaching for a lime at Dcdiiam. Maw,, 
Bept, 7, 1T60, he waa married to Itlary, daughter 
of liev. Thomas Balch, jHiator in Ihat luwn, and at 
once aeltlcd in Martha's Vineyard, Mass.. establish- 
ing himself as a niercliant al Edgartown. Early in 
1707 he WAS admitted to the bar. and began to prac- 
tice iu that place, but in November of the same year 
commenced the studv of tlieolugv. As earlv as 
June, 1769, his joumala record an observation of the 
transit of Venus, the first of a long series of scien- 
tific records from his pen. Sept. 11, ITTl, he was 
ordained and installed pastor of ilie Congregational 
churcli at Ipswich hauilet, Mass., 
which became the town of Hamil- 
ton. Mods., in 17»3. His journal, 
althongh brief and somewhat frng- 
luentary, conveys a vivid impres- 
sion of the feeling created in the 
province of Maaaachnsetts by the 
measures of the British government 
which culminated in the outbreak 
of ijie American revolution, and 
of the excitement cause<l by the 
battle of Ijcxiuglou (Miuis.) Apr. 
19, 1775. His entry made on the 
8th of May says Ihst forty Ameri- 
cans were billeti and tnentv wound- 
ed; that there were 3,00d British 
regulars at Lexington, a force of 
I.SUO having Joined one of 800. 
and that SK) of these were killed 
and wounded and taken prisoners, 
about 300 colonials being engaged. He slates also 
that the Euglish "took only two prisoners, but 
wliat they killed or let go agam." The same jour- 
nal provus the forces engageii in the Bunker Hill 
battle at 5,000 British, and 2.000 to 3.000 Americans, 
and the American loss at fifty killed, with twenty to 
thirty taken priaonersi tlie English loss, 1.4O0 privates 
killed and wounded and eighty-four oftlceis. Jan. 
a. 1776, Mr. Cutler entered tlic following: "Mr. 
Whipple and I made some prcpitrations to make 
Baltpetrc." "Feb. 1st wenttoSali-m.andboughtket- 
lles for saltpetre works." Auc. aSlh he received a 
message to go to Dorchester, Ma.'w., and Bunpl,\ 
regiment of Cot. Ebenezer Francis as its cliapl 
to whicli his church agreed. H 
dated Sept. 5, 1776, and sicned "by order of Ihe 
major part of the Mossiichusetts council." This 
chaplaincy was cloaed by Jan. 1, 1777. and be re- 
sumed his duties at Ipswich, where his pastoral 
relations were continuous thence onward until his 
death. In 1778 he was chaplain to Ocn. Titcomb's 
brigade in the unsuccessful campaign of Gen. Sulli- 
van, undertaken to dislodge the British from New- 
port, R. I. In the latter ^rt of this year he began 
tlie study of medicine, which he prosecuted success- 
fully, and ultimately secured nnioug Ihe medical 
profession of his d^ the reputation of a safe and 
akillful phyMcian. In May and June, 1779, he had 
no less than forly small-poic patients under his care 
at Wenbam, Mass. Lord's Day, Sept. 12, 1779, he 




journalized : " Col. Jackson's regiinent passed 
through town on their way to the Eastward, and 
came as far as here. They encamped in the meeting- 
house. The field officers. Col. Cobb and Maj. Pica- 
cott. putupwithme. Wo lodged four commissioned 
ottlcers, and supplied the soldiers with sauce, milk, 
wood, etc., without pay." In 1783 he opened hiajHip- 
uiar and successful private reading-school, which was 
continued for more than tweuty-tive years. lie also 
taujlit seamen the art of navigation, lustnicling par- 
ticularly in lunar observations. Meanwhile he was 
botanizing steadily, being the first to examine the 
flora of hew England, and holding correi^pondence 
with scientitic cilMcrvers in various parts of the United 
Slates and Euro])c. His astronomical olHcrvationa 
were also <airriod forward. In 1784, wiih othera, he 
made the first ascent lo the summit of Mount Wash- 
ington in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, 
and estimated the height of the summit above sea-level 
at 9.000 feet, an area in excess of 3,707 feci. Early 
in 1787 he, with olherB, formed "The Ohio com- 

a." an organization to promote the scttlemeDl of 
1 owned by the United Statea eovemment on 
the Ohio river, mainly by New Englandere and 
largely by olHcers who hail' served in the revolution, 
and their families, through the purchase of 1.000,000 
acres of lands from congrtas. Iu which 500,000 acres 
were added for bad lands and incidental charges. 
This arrangement waa finally brought about by the 
personal visit of Rev. Mr. Cutler to the federal con- 
gress in New York, and the first location of these 
settlers, who became tlie pioneers in the develop- 
ment of the stale of Ohio, was at the present Marielta 
In that commonwealth. Simple details are lo l>e 
found in tlie "Life. Journals and Correspondence 
of the Rev. Manas.'ich Cutler, LL.D., " by W. P. and 
J. F. Cutler (3 vols., Cincinnati, O., 188H). The 
original party of settlers, in which was one of his 
own sons, aged nineteen, left Dr. Cutler's house in 
Ipswich. Mass., Dec. 3, 1787. The wagon, which 
he had made ready as a protection from cold and 
storm, and which preceded the comjwny and their 
bag^gc, waa covered with black canvas, and on 
its sides was the inscription in while letters, "For 
the Oliio at the Muskingum." Rev. Mr. Culler af- 
terward visiteil Marietta, where this party took up 
their habitation Apr. 7, 1788. traveling in a sulky 
750 miles in tweoty-nine days. His greatest service 



cliaplain, 




T: QrlL/tler'sdv-"''^'^ 



to this colony, however, and as well to the United 
States, was the celebrated ordinance of 1787 framed 
by Nathan Dane, of Massachusetts, but drafted by 
Mr. Cutler for Dane's presentation and advocacy in 
conirress, the title of the bill being "An Ordinance for 
tlie Government of the Territorj' of the United State* 
Northwest of the River Ohio," and its sixth arti- 
cle, as finally adopted, reads: "There shall be 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



tcriiturv, oiberwise tbim in iiuaishnieQt of cnmes 
whereof ilie party shaW liuve been duly cunvittLtl 
tb LIS excluding liunmu slaveiy from tbis vastdomuu 
The date of me passage of UiU onlitiance vvas July 
13. 1787. lu Uie yenr 1T91 be received the degree 
of LL. D. from Yale college. lu 17»5 he declined a 
commission as judjipe of the Buprenio court of Ibe 
Ohio terrilory. But be always had the carea of liie 
early selllerii more or less lu charge, and perKistcntlj 
advanced their interests, preparing for tlieni, nniou^ 
bis other services, tiie charter of what became Man 
etta college. In May, IHOO, he was chosen to the Alaa 
sachuitetis legislature. In 1801 he was elected as 
represeutaiive lo the Uiiiled States congress as an 
active federalist, where he continued fouryeara but 
declined a second term on account of ill health He 
wasaraemberof the American Phi lutiophical society 
and other scienliHc societies, and his paper, contrib- 
uted to their "Proceedings," bad gocli repule. He 
died at Hamilton, Essex countv. Mass., July 28, 1823. 
HcPHEBSOir John ftliaderick, senator, 
wasborn at York, Livingston county, N.Y., May 9, 
le of thesturdyScoltisli stock Ibat has 
made Scotland illustrious, and has 
vitalized republican liberty iu 
America, and received a common 
school and acatlendc education. 
Iu 1839, at twenty-six years of age, 
he settled in Jersey City, his pres- 
ent home. He was aldeinian for 
dx years, from 1864. and three 

earspresidentof the board; pres- 
ent of Ibe People's Gas Light 
company, 1888-^; state senator, 
1871-78,and Tildenand Hendricks 
, elector in 18T6. He was elected 
U. S. senator three times, in 1877, 
1888, and 1889. Mr. McPheison 
fs well known throughout Ihe 
whole country, and is an acknowl- 
edged leader in the U. ti. senate. 
Perhaps no better proof of his 
worth could be given than the 
^ fact that In eighleen years from 
* the time he cnme, a stranger, to 
the commonwealth of New Jer- 
sey, he waa chosen to represent her in the nation- 
al councils, while through all the changes of poli- 
tics and the rivalries of ambitious men, he has at- 
tained Buch a hold upon the affection and contl- 
dence of his people that he has been twice rc-eleclcd. 
Not only has he been distinguished in public life, 
but also iu business, his energy and capacity coupled 
with Ills aiimirable integrity and judgment having 
made him a fortune in cattle dcnliug on a large 
scale. In all business enterprises be baa been a type 
of honor and practical sagacity. In the senate lie 
has taken the highest rank as an exhaustive and 
philosophical student, and a broad and conservative 
■talesman, his mastery of finaucial and economical 
questions licing pre-eminent. He has made lofty 
and powerful speeches on finance, silver, and the 
tariS. showing profound research, a rare faculty for 
argument, and the largest cntholicity of spirit. In 
ihe great senate tariff debate of the liuy-flrst con press 
he bore mainly liie heAvy burden of pa'rly leadership, 
demonstrHlinc himself a loaded dc[)ository of tanS 
knowledte which he showed remnrkable skill in us- 
ing readily and effectively. He also made one of 
the ablest democratic speeches on the election bill. 
He married Miss Gregory at BufTalo, N. Y., iu 1867. 
The social side of his cbaractor is as pleasant as his 
public life is marked. 

HOWARD, John Eager, soldier, was bom in 
Baltimore county, Md., June 4, 1753. He was care- 
fully educated, and, at the death of his father, 
became heir to extensive estates. He entered the 





patriot a 

of White ri 

ber 1776 uas made majir of the 4th Maryland 

regiment Ontng to hts conspicuous 

Riillantry in baiiles at Germaniown 

Monmouth Camden andotberplaces 

be was promoted m 17t<0 to be lieu 

tenant-colonel of the rth Maryland 

n.giment In Ibeautumn of that year 

he was transferred lo the southern 

army under Oeii Greene U the 

battle of Conpens Jan 17 1781 he 

headed a charge that secured a victory 

for the |>alnut forces receiving in 

|)trion at thLt battle the surrender of " 

sei en Itntisb oltli.ei s For his services 

he was subsequently voted a gold 

medalbycongress. He rendered great 

aid toGeii. Greene, intheretreatlrom /> P Sf>' _v 

Guilfoid Court-Hoiise, in March, 1781. " T^ e^-J^^^^^- C 

At the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, in 

April, 1781, he commanded the 2d Maryland regi- 
ment, and at Eutaw Springs he was badly wounded 
while leading a charge. In 1789 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Maryland, serving until 1792, and from 1790 
until 1803 he sat in the U. 8. senate. In 1788, when 
war with France threatened, he was appointed a 
major-general by Washington. In 1818 he was a 
candidate for vice-president, but was not elected. 
He died at Belvedere, Md., Oct. 13, 1837. 

WELLAVEB, Jacob, merchant and importer, 
was bom in Cabton Thurgan, Switzerland, Nov. 6, 
1840, son of Heur)- and Anna Wellauer. who emi- 
grated lo America in 1849, lived in Buffalo, N. Y., 
about si^ months, then removed to Milwaukee, Wis. 
Jacob Wellauer received Ins education a' 



county. In 1861 he removed to Oshkosh, and there 
learned to manufacture Swiss cheese. In 1863 he 
returned to Milwaukee, estab- 
li^ied a wholesale an<1 retail 



porting cheese and other del- 
icacies. In 18T3 he sold out 
the relHll business, and started 
exclusively in wholesale gro- 
ceries. His stock in 1863 was 
bought with loaned money, ex- 
cepting about #150, which he 
could call his own. The sales 
at tlinl time were small, but in- 
creased slendily until he had 
one of the largest businesses in 
that line in the Northwest. On 
Nov. 8, 1888, he was married to 
Anna Hahti, a native of Ger- 
many. In 1876, in connectio 
with his business as import! 
and manufacturer of cheese, * 
engaged extensively 
factoring Bologna sausHge. 
which proved prul1lable,and added largely lo his busi- 
ness. In 18HB he became interested in the Northwest 
ern Woolen aiills, now Milwaukee Worsted Mills, of 
which enterprise he is a large stockholder and an 
officer. He has large mining and farming interests 
throughout the West, to which he devotes the same 
careful attention and personal oversight given to his 
manufacturing intercMts. Tile result oE this close 
supervision has resulted in the deveiojiment of his 
enterprises nnlll they have all become money-making 
properties. Mr. Wellauer conducts an extensive stock 
farm three miles west of Milwaukee, finding in the sur- 
roundings rest from the cares of business and ample 
opportunity to exercise his taste for rural life, 




ion f^ 

hi V^^l^*-^^^';"*!^ 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



^' 



PACKAKD, Bilas B&dler, educator, was bom 
In CummiDgton, Mass., Apr, 28, 1824, the fourth aoo 
of Cheater Packard, whose father, Abel Packard, 
was oticof the earliest settlers of CummiDgtun, having 
removed tliere in 1774, live years before the town 
was founded. He is a direct descendant of Samuel 
Packard, who came from Hinghani, EEg,. and set- 
tled in what is now West Bnitgewatcr, Mass., in 
1638. lu 1838 Chester Packard went to Predonia, 
Licking county, 0,, with his family, traveling Ibe 
entire diaraucc from Troy, N. Y.. by water. The 
boy, Silas, had the ordinary advantages of tlie dis. 
trict school until the age of fifteen, when he weat 
for twu terms to the Granville academy. The youth 
bad a natuml taste for grammar and mathematics, 
and was always the liest penman in schiHil, having 
shown an aptitude for wnting at a very early age. 
At the age of sixieeu he commenced to leach, tabmg 
At first classes in penmanship, after the then faaliion 
of peripatetic wnting-scliools. "boarding round," in 
the mode of the times. In 1845 he went to Ken- 
tucky, and remained there over two years, teaching 
school and painting portraits. He removed to Cin- 
cinnati in 1848, and was employed as a teacher of 
Penmanship in Bartlett's commercial college. In 
H50 be married Marion Crocker, daughter of Capt. 
Daniel Crocker, of New York, ana removed to 
Adrian, Mich., where he also taught writing for 
more than ayear. when, in the autuam of la.ll, lie 
went to Lockport, N. Y.. to teach writing, book- 
keeping and drawing in the Lockport uniou school, 
and two years later removed to Tonawauda, N. Y. 
Here he established the "Niagara Hiver Pilot," 
which he conducted with energy and success imtil 
1856, wlien lie became associated with IJryaut >& 
Siratton in the management of their Buffalo college, 
entering upon the real work of iiis life. From Buf- 
falo he went to Chicago, and ealablistied, in connec- 
tion with Mr. Strattou, the Bryant & Siratton col- 
lege. In May, 1858, Mr. Packard began his work 
In New York city by establishing, in connccIioD 
with Bryant & Stralton. his business college. This 
institution was the first tenant of Ibe Cooper Insti- 
tute building. In 1863 it was removed to the Mor- 
timer building, comer of Twenty-Second street and 
Broadway, and In 1870 to the Methodist building, 
of^ Eleventh street and Broadway. It took 
of lis presenl ample quarters, corner of 
Fourth avenue and Twenty - 
third street. In 1887. Mr. Pack- 
ard's chief distinction is as an 
author of commercial text-books. 
In 1859-^ he prepared the Bry- 
ant & Siralton bookkeeping scr- 
ies, wliich were the lending text- 
bix»ks on that subject, and more 
recently the Packard manual of 
bookkeeping and the Packard 
nrithmeiic. He is the oldest in 
continuous servlre. and the best 
known liiisiness-collefR- man in 
the United Stales, and his suc- 
cessful efforts in promoting tbe 
business educators extiibit at the 
World's Fair is worthy of all 
praise. In the creation, develop- 
ment and manaiiement of his suc- 
cessful college, Sir. Packnnl seems 
to have been governed by two 
leading ideas: first, to meet the real wauls of the 
business communily in the matter of wetl-traine<l 
clerks, and next, to render his inslilulion woniiy the 
name of "college." Not only Is his inHuence felt 
tn his own country, but much that lie has done and 
is doing has been fltly rtcogni/ed abroad. The 
business schools of France, particularly those at 
Paris and Iloucu, under the management of llie 



!t Htiiving to make 




chamber of commerce at Paris, were founded od 
Hr. Packard's model, and afier a careful personal 

examination of bis methods; and the Bureau com- 
mercial of the Antwerp school baa taken some of its 
features from Mr. Packard's scheme of "business 
practice." He is recognized from one end of tlie land 
to the oilier as an educator wbu has nobly served his 
day and generation, and who is yet "•■"—-■- 
tbe world better by increasing the si 
knowledge. 

MacCHESNET, Chorlea Eu^na, educator, 
was born in Greenwich, N. Y.. Dec. 7. 1861, son of 
Wra. N. and Mary (Miller) MacChesney, Tbe family 
which bears that name is of ancient lineage, dating 
back to the seventeenth century. In the year 1081 
in llie ivcords of New Amsterdam do we find first 
meiiiLon of il. The syllable Mac. Mc or M re- 
veals the ewlv Scottish migration of one branch of 
the family. It is to this brancii, tbe fighting stock 
of tlie family, that the subject of this sketch. Dr. C. 
Eugene MacChesney, belongs. H is great-gnind father 
was at Yorktown at the surrender of Cornwallis. 
His great-uncle took part in tbe battle of Bunker 
Hill. His great-grandfather, on Ibe matenuil side, 
was in charge ol a regiment in the war of 1812. 
Dr. MacCliemiev. inheriting these characlei'isiic 
qualitities of a bold and brave ancestry, is a man 
of aggressive character and determined mind. AYith 
him, to meet an obstacle is to 
surmount it. Dr, MacChesney, 
though a young man, is rec- 
ognized authority on education- 
al topics. He took the degree 
of Ph.D. at the University 
School of Pedago^ in New 
York. Tills is the first school 
of its kind in the history of the 
world. He completed the four 
years' course in two, and was 
graduated the youngest man 
to complete the full pedagog- 
ical course. He is a graduate 
of the University of Vermont, 
receiving from that conserv- 
ative institution the degrees - , —'■%/^ ,■ ' 
of A.B. and AM. He has C.Su^j^M^'CtL^ 
also received the degrees of •J ^j 
LL.B. and LL.M. from the 

University of the City of New York. While liv- 
ing at Burlington lie enjoyed the social life and 
cultivating innuence of the families of Senator 
Geo. F. Edmunds, Edwanl T. Phelps, minister 
to the court of St, JamcK. President Buckham, 
and those of the faculty. Being fond of oratoi^ 
and public speaking, before sitting down to his lite 
work of teaching, he became a memlier of the 
National school of oraton' at Philadelphia. Here 
he obtained the careful drill that, added to natural 
gifts, made him a talented speaker and magnetic 
elocutionist. He cari'fully prepared himself lo be- 
come a tboroiighly practical instnictor iti his profes- 
sion. Invited by intliieiitinl citi/.eus of the city of 
Patersou. N. J., he founded a college pivparatory 
sciiool that, from a small inslltuiioii, (frew lo m 
a nourishing school, ranking with the best in the 
stale. Tbe students from ibis school are in Yale, 
(,'olumbia. Princi;lon, llulgei-s colleges, and the Uni- 
versity of New York. Dr. MacChesney. lonvoid the 
narroivneSH that often befalls ])roressiuUHl men. trav- 
els extensively during the summer monlbs. In ad- 
dition 10 crossing the conllneiit ho is very familiar 
with the greater jmrt of Western Europe. His tniT- 
els south luivc extended to Rome and Pompeii. Hia 
last trip made him familiar with the life and cus- 
toms of Egypt, Greece. Asia Minor, Turkey, Servia, 
Boiiniania, and Austria. He is thus able lo give b' 




studeuts the benefit of his experien 



eliug up 




OF AMERICAN BIOQEAPHT. 73 

the Nne, Bscendlog the pjramlds and exploring the and Kentucky campaigns. Wben peace was re- 
niins of the Panbeuon. Hia vi«t to Emg George stored, the disorganized churches and the desolated 
III. of Oteece. and his dcacripticins of the eInboraM couolry made extreme poverty the iuevilable lot of 
ceremony attending the weekly prayers of Ihe Sul- those who, previous to tlie war, hnd depended upon 
tan. and the brilliaul apeclacle of the aunusl review ministerial ciiarges for support. Dr. Pope at once 
of the army by llie German emperor serve to make began tcachinii and preaching, and, by arduous 
him an interesting instructor. }le is a member of labor with rigid economy, fltteu up a home to wliich 
the Phi Delta Plii, Ihe Sigma Phi, and the masonic he hoped to retire as country parson. Three years 
fraternities, and is a communicant of the Church of of successful work followed at Jefierson High school, 
the Kedeemer. As a mere pastime, Dr. MacChesuey and in 1!J74 he accepted a call as pastor to a church 
'Was able in eighteen months' stud^ to obtain admis- in Morri»town. His editorial skill came to light in 
sion to the bar of New York, wlucli entitled him to the publication of the " Baptist Redector," and fl- 
practicc in any court in the Empire state. His fond- naucial success souii foil owed. In 
ness for law, coupled with a natural desire for BchO' 1877 he became pastor of the Ceu- 
laatic attainment, made this an easy task for him. tral Baptist church, Nashville. 
Had he not been a successful pedagogue it is safe to After a short interval he was bust- 
predict he would have become an able Jurist. ly at work in his favorite pursuits, 
as managing editor of the Texas 
HcEIJJQOTT, Jamea N., educator, was bom "fiaptist Herald," a paper that 
in RIctimond, Va., Oct. 13, 1812. His ancestors were has attained a position of marked 
natives of the north of Ireland, where the family influence in the West. His re- 
name is still localized in the settlement of Bally- moval to New York in 188.1 fol- 
HcElligott. Coining to New York at an early age, lowed his election to the ofUce of 
he entered in due course the New York university, superintendent of the Church ed- 
'which lie left to become Insinictor. later vice-princi- IHce depariment of the American 

Kl, and finally principal of the Mechanics' society Baptist home mission society, 
itilute. In 1853, at the solicitation of many promi- His duties in this line extend 
Dent gentlemen, he opened a classical school, which over the American continent, 
be conducted with si^al success till his dcatii. In embracing Mexico and Alaska. 
1845 he published " McElligotl's Manual, Analytical Prospenms under his manage- 
and Synthetical, of Orthography and Definitiim," ment the department has con- //p j-; i^yrAjr 
which was followed by "The Young Analyzer" in stnicted about seventy - live ' ^- ^ ^7 
1849, by "The Humorous Speaker" m J85B, and by churches a year. He has gone 
" The American Debater" in 1855. During this time over, personally, the entire field east of the Rocky 
he was also editor of " The Teacher's Advocate " (in mountains, made fifteen trips into Mexico, and 
1848). Theseriesknownas"Profefisor 8anders's"alao visited tlie chief European cities. The society over 
owes largely its success to his well-known partici- which he presides is composed of 3,1X10,000 mem- 
pation in tbeir preparation. His last literary work hers, who contribute about {600,000 for varied 
given to the public was an introduction to "Hail- missiona^ labor. He writes for denominational 
man's Object Teaching." At the time of his death papers of the best standing, and gives the church 
he was engaged upon a Latin grammar, wliicli he the l)enefit of his commercial skilH In 1880 he re- 
had arcangcd to follow up with a similar work on ceived the degree of D.D. from Baylor university. 
Greek. His exceptional fondness for the languages Dr. Pope is a mcml>erof the Calvary Baptist cluirch. 
had led him to acquire French and German, both of New 1 ork city. In business he is thoroughly effl- 
which he spoke with duency. He had also made cieiit, steadily accumulating capital. In ttie pulpit 
deep researches in Sanskrit lore. In 1840 Y'ale he is ready and foreible; his writings exhibit concise 
conferred upon him the decree of M.A., in rec- presentation of his thought. His powers of endur- 
ognition of his " Manual," and in 1853 Harrodsburg ance, sanguine tcmperameut, and genial disposition, 
college (Ky.) conferred LL.D. for his '■ Analyzer. added to his mental skill, are trails well adapted to 
In 1^ he became a candidate for orders in the ensure success. 
Protestant Episcopal cburcb. but was not ordained. 

lie labored actively among the poor, and was Inter- BICE, Willard Hartis, cler_gyman, was bom 

cstcd in the Epiphany mission church, raising a fund in Lowville. Lewis county. N. \., Apr. 30, 1817. 

for its future support. He was president of the State He was graduated from Wealeyan university in 1837, 

teachers' association. In the highest sense a Chris- was tutor there for three years, and tlien established 

tian Kentleman, he was courtly, but courteous: dig- a classical scliool in Philadelphia. Having studied 

nifled. but affable; learned, but unostentatiims; of theology privately, he was, in October. 1858, or- 

exceeding firmness, but of rare gentleness. He died dalned pastor of the Moyatneiising church. In 1863 

In New York city Oct. 22, 1866. hewastransferreiitolheFounh Presbyterian church, 

POPE, O. C, was bom in Washington county, and in 1874 to Berwyn, Chester county. Pa. This 

Oh.. Feb. 15, 1842. He is of remote 1\elsh descent, charge he resigned in October, 1870, and has since 

When Charles II. became king of England, the es- livedin Philadelphia, devoting himself to the work 



tate uf his ancestors was confiscated, owing to their of (he Presbyterian board of publication, of which 

having been strong adherents of Cromwell, and he had been a member from 18(10. and rcconlitig 

thcv came to this country to repair their losses; set- clerk from 1862. He has prepared the " Westmln- 

lled in Virginia, then in "North Carolina, and finally ster Question Book " (17 vols., 1875-Bl): "Lesson 

in Georgia. Dr. Pope's early education was con- Leaf '^(1878-91), and "Quarterly" <1880-9I). which 

ducted at schools of the b^t standing, supplemented are in general use in the Suiiday-schuols of the de- 

In his sixteenth year by entrance into Mereer uni. nomiimtioti throughout the land, and the " History 

Tersily. from which he was graduated a B.D. in of the Presbyterian Board and Sabbath-School 

1860. Immediately following this event came the Work" (1888). Ho has also done much other edi- 

charge of a chureh in Louisville, Ga., and l>cfore torlal work. Ifcaidcs writing for the press. He has 

he WHS nineteen he married a Mi.is Siuquefleld of Jef- been repeatedly a member of the general assembly; 

ferson couuty. When the fact of secession was an- was clerk of the synod of Philadelphia, 1870-81. and 



nounced in 1661 he resigned his clerical duties, and of its presbytery 1858-74 and 1878-01. In 1866 he 
enlisted as a private. He rendered military service received the degree of D.D. from Wealeyr- — ' 
onthcstalf of Gen. W. G. M. Davis, in the 'Tennessee vetsity. 



74 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-EDIA 



OBB,WiUiain, maou fact urer and , 

born at Belfast, Ireland. March IS, 1S08, and, with 
his pareDls, came to this country in IHll. For a 
time llie family lived iu New York. Subsequeully 
Ur. Orr's parents lived iu Columbiavillc, and afi«r a 
ahort residence removed to Troy, N. Y. In 1826 he 
became an apprentice to a fur- 
nituremanufacturerand served 
bis time. Subsequently be 
bought out bis employe)-. In 
1835 be formed a copartner- 
ship with his brother Alexan- 
der, and engaged in the print- 
ing of wair paper, under the 
firm name of A. & W. Orr. In 
18S8 the buijinesa plai-e of the 
flrm was burned out and Mr. 
Orr nearly lost bis life trying 
to save bis property. One M 
his eniplovees was burned to 
death. The firat machinerr 
ever used to print paper by cyl- 
inders, on which the designs 
T patterns for paper-hangines 
Fere engraved or disposed, 
William Orr ctaimeii was in- 
vented and constructed liy bim. 
The principle Involved was that ui«d in cyliudrica] 
printing presses. His invention consisted in engrav- 
ing and disposing Ibe designs or patterns on a cylin- 
der, with varioua other features for receiving and 
disposing of the impressed slieet. In 1853 he began 
the manufacture of wall and printing papers at Troy, 
N. Y. He claimed to be the flrat to manufacture 
merchantable printing paper with wood fibre iu it; 
and in 1854 made paper containing one-fourth 
baaswood fibre and three-fourths rags. This claim 
was never disputed. Sir. Orr also invented the 
wooden bead with tube and rod to protect paper 
when transported in rolls. He also was the inventor 
of a method of using water power to advantage, for 
which he obtained letters patent in 1890. A similar 
plan was adopteil and used in the work of utilizing 
the Falls of Niagara. Mr. Orr was very ingenious, 
possessing qualities of mind of a superior orde 




/fe&^^i-^ (S^\ 



vented by him for the use of turbine water-wheels 
and the utilization of power produced by them. His 
inventions were the result of many years of practical 
experience in hydraulics. For more than flfty years 
he was engaged In meclianical and manufacturing 
industries m Troy. During his business career he 
traveled extensively both In America and Europe, 
and through his powers of observation remembered 
many things that others would not care abimt. His 
brain was a storehouse of valuable information, and 
often the public, through tlie newspapers, was given 
the iKiicSt of his large exi>erience. Wherever he 
went comparisons wero matte by bim between Troy 
and other localities in rcst>ect to manufacturing aa 
vantages and facilities for business, and be was al- 
ways enthusiast ically in favor of his own city and 
country, always claiming that he never saw or found 
any place with better advantages. Mr. Orr was an 
advocate of the Troy and New England {or Boston) 
railroad, and attached much importance to the rail 
road connections wliich would result. During the 
early part of his business career he found it impossi- 
ble to obtain In the section of the country where his 
wall-paper factory was situated the quality of paper 
he desired. He accoi-dingly built a mill at Benning- 
ton, Vt., in 1838. He was obliged tocart his goodsio 
Troy, and accordingly when tlie Troy & Boston rail- 
road was projected be labored eameslly in its interest, 
and for several years was a director of the company. 
Mr. Orr was in every sense of the word a self-made 



man. By virtue of his active and ingenious mind, 
bis industrious habits, integrity of character and en- 
ergy, he made his way uuaid^ to an enviable posi- 
tion, not only in his bu.siness, but as a citizen. Ue 
was a representative niau. an honor to the city In 
which he lived and worked. While active in puDlic 
affairs, be was in no sense a politician. Personally 
he was a man of decisive speech. His heart was 
warm. He twlieved iu helping others by affording 
them opportunities to help themselves. He waa 
devoted to his family, active and conscientious in 
business, and proud of his citizenship. He favored 
all public improvements, and believed in progres- 
siveness and timely work. He was twice married, 
and at bis death, nineteen years after the death of 
bis second wife, one sou, Sctli Alexander Orr, and a 
daugbler, Mrs. Lc Itov McLean, survived him. He 
died Oct. 23. 1891. 

HACKETT, James Henr-', comedian, wa« 
born in New York city Mf..tu 15, IWW. He came 
of distinguished and well -to-do ancestry, and received 
a careful education at an academy at Jamaicn, L. L, 
and at Columbia college, after which be became a 
clerk in the counting-house of a relative. Iu 1019 
»rried to Katl ' ' '' 
He settled \ 

time engaged successfully in trade as a merchant in 
that city. Returning to New York he entered the 
mercantile woild on a more ambitious scale, only to 
meet with disaster. His failure caused his wife to 
return to the stage, and also led him to believe that 
the mimetic qualities which he bad long displayed 
might be turned to account as an actor. He made 
bis Hrst public appearance at the Park theatre. New 
York, as Justus Woodcock, on March 1, 182S. His 
debut was a comparative failure, but when he ap- 
peared as Sylvester Daggerwood. a couple of weeks 
later, bis clever imitations of the leading aclois of 
the time were received with so much favor that he 
definitely resolved to aiiopt the stage as a profession. 
On October, 1826. as one of " the Dromios " in the 
" Comedy of Errors," he made the first pronounced 
hit of his new career, and was favored with large 
Iu HB7 
t Co- 
vent Garden in April of that year. His reception 
was not as cordial as he had 
hoped for, and he shortly after 
returned to America. Until 
1841 he was seen principally in 
" The Two Dromios," his im- 
itAliou of tlie voice and man- 
nerism of John Barnes, who 
appeared as his twin brother, 
being almost perfect. He was 
first seen as Sir John FalstalT 
on May 13, 1828. During this 
period he also appeared as Sol- 
omon Swop, in "Jonathan in 
England," as Sir Archie Mac- 
Sarcasm in " Love i\ la Mode," 
as Nimrod Wildfire, and as 
Uip Van Wiukle, which lat- 
ter part be played for the 
first time in April, 1830, and 
which eventually proved to 
be one of Ins strongest and 
finest creations. Mr. Ilackelt managed several New- 
York theatres at different times with different suc- 
cess. He was the manager of the Astor Place opcni 
house at the time of the Macready riot, and Orisi 
and Mario made their first appearance in America 
under his auspices, at Castle Garden, in 1854. He 
early achieved a comj^iciency from bis professional 
earnings, and before his death be became one of the 
richest actors of bis time. He paid several vtaita to 
England, where his "Falslaff" waa pronounced by 




OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



75 



diacriiiiitiating critics to be of unusiiul excelleDce. 
In this cliaractiT iu America, Mr. Il&i'kett never 
during liU lifviiDie bail tt serious rival. Tbouglin 
bom comedian, be Nevcrul times essayed tbe roles of 
Lear and Huinlei, ii is said, wjib mure sutbfaciioD 
to himself than lo Ibc public. He wa« a remarkably 
handsome man, with a strong, cican-cul and siugu. 
larl V exprcs-sive face, uf scholarly tastes and supenor 
Intcllecl. His refined and courteous manners brought 
him into close aud appreciative intercourse with tbc 
hesl, minds of England and America. He was the 
father of several children. One of his sous, J. K. 
Uackeii, nas for a number uf ycarH recorder of 
the ciiy of New York. As an actor Mr. Hackelt 
ivas geni-ralty original in wliat he undertook, 
and nearly alnays true tu nature. HU " Rip 
Van Winkle " was admirable in ils conception 
and fini^, and artistic in ils rendition ; In nat- 
uralness it perhaps was superior to that of Mr. 
Jefferson. He died in Jamaica, L. I., N. Y., Dec. 
28. 1871. 

KICE, Luther, author, and agent of American 
Baptist, tnissIons,was born inNorthboroiigh, Worces- 
ter county, 3Iass., March 25, 1783. He gained an 
education by labor, passed from an academy at 
Leicester. Inass., to Williams college, and before 
faia graduation in 1)310 started a missionary soci* 
ety among tbe sludculs. S. J. Mills, who was in the 
class above him, preceded bim lo Andover, and began 
agitating the subject there. In Jimc. 1810, a few uf 
these young men ui^ed the clainis of tbe foreign field 
on the Msssaihuselts general association in a memo. 
Table paper, and tbc A. B. C. F. M. was the result. 
Too eager to wait for the completion of his course 
at the seminary. Hic'O was onlained with Jndson. 
Kewell. Hall nud Xott at Salem Feb. 6, 1812, and 
twelve days later sailed for India, having raised the 
cost of bis passage. While at sea he adopted Bap- 
tist views, as did Judson, who went by another ves- 
sel. Receiving tmmetsion at Calcutta, they agreed 
OD B dlvi^on of tabor, Judson remaining, while Itice 
returned to interest the Baptists in the work. Reach- 
ing Boston in September, 1813, be entered into new 
ecclesiastical relations and begsn an itinerant agency, 
vbich, in May, 1814. resulted in the Baptist miction- 
Ky society. In its behalf aud employ be continued 
to labor with unresting :teal, declitiing tbe presidency 
of Transvlvania university, and that uf Georgetown 
college, Kentucky. In tie Interest of clcricnl edu- 
cation he procured the founding, in 1831, of Colum- 
bian university at Washington, of which he was for 
•ome years the treasurer and a^nt. He never re- 
turnecl to the foi'eigii field, finding enough to do at 
home. He died iu Edgefield county, S. C, Oct. 25, 
See bis memoir in the "Christian lleview," 



bom in Detroit. Sfich., Oct. 7. 1842. He received 
his education at Gen. Russell's institute in New 
Haven, and also studied under Prof. Bailey bu<1 other 
Yale professors. After leaving scliool, lie entered 
jourualistn. He flrst found emjiioyi  '" "- ^'- — 



doubtful at the outset, but Mr. Howard carefully re- 
vised it, aud pcchrisleued it "The Banker's Daugh- 
ter." and when it was produced at tlie Union Square 
theatre, New York, on Nov. 80. 1878, under llie 
management of A. M. Palmer, the receptio 
it was most euthusiastic. and it ran for over u 



Ltr 



lU the New 



York. "Mail," 

began tbe writing of plays while still on active new 
paper work, and a comedy enlhled " Saratosa " was 
Bubmiiled to Aiigusiln Da\y, who accepted it, and 
eave it an elabomte production on Dec. 27. 1870. 
Among the cast which gave it interprelaliou were 
such excellent players as James Lewis. Daniel H. 
Hoskins, Fanny Davenport, and Kale CI ax ton. 
"Saratoga" proved successful, and enjoye<l a long 
run. It was revived by Mr. Daly Jan. 10, 1874. En- 
couraged by his flrst success, Mr, Howard wrote in 
quick succession " Diamonds. " which was a failure, 
and "Lillian's Lost Love," which was produced In 
Chicago, 1878. The fate of the latter play was also 



cemberwerecqually flattering. Mr. Howard first dis- 
played his real powers ia " Old Love Letters," a de- 
licious, tear-compel ling, une-act comedy, which waa 
produceii at the Park theatre. New York, Aug. 31, 
1878. This little comedy is a veritable classic, anil 
coupled with the refine*! and delightful acting of 
Agnes Boutb and Jueseph Whiting still remains fra- 
grant in the memories of those who witnessed it. It 
is still frequently revived, and always with delight 
" Fun in a Green Room " was written for Edward 
£. Itice in 1870. and is seen occasionally at the pres- 
__. .i___ ,,ono. _.. . .. ..r...._. .. aj^niedy adapted by 



dolph," written for George L. KnUht In 1880. was 
used by that popular German comedian until his re- 
tirement from the stage. Carefully revised by Hi. 
Howard, it was given a notable 
production at the Fourteenth -^'^T^ 

street theatre. New Y'ork. Oct, ' '" 

34.1887. Following "The Bank 
er's Daughter." Mr. Howard's 
next great success, considered 
both in an artistic and financial 
sense, was " Young Mrs. Win- 
throp," which was tii'st produced 
at the Union Square thCHtre. New 
York, Oct. 9. 1883. aud ran for 
many months. "One of Our 
Girts," which was written for js 
Miss Helen Dauvray, and which i^^ 
served to give Edwin H. Sothem ; 
fitting iniroductiun lo the Amer- 
ican uublic, was played for the 
flrst lime at the Lyceum theatre. 
New York. Nov. 10, 1885, and 
also enjoyed an extended run. 
' ' Met by Chance, " produced 
at the same play-liouse, Jan. 11, 1887, proved a com- 
parative success. "The Heurieila,"asatireon Wall 
street, strong, humorous, well sustained, and ahuund- 
ing in brilliant repartee, was wriiteu by Mr. Howard 
for Stuart Robsou and WiUian) H, Crane, aud when 
produced by those two comedians iu tlie Union 
Sciuare theatre. New York, Sept. 33, 1887, it leaped 
at once into a career uf great prosperity, Riibsoa 
and Cnme were seen in it together until April. 18H8, 
and Mr. Kobsiin has appeared in it almost uninter- 
ruptedly since that <late. It has also been produced 
wilhsucce3satI..oudou, "Shenandoah," producedat 
Proctor's theatre. New Y'ork city, in 1889, a strong 
and impressive drama, dealing with characters and 
incideuts of the civil war, is BIr. Howard's must 
pretentious work, aud has proved lo be very proHt- 
able. It has sustained long runs In New York 
and the other larger American cities, as well as 
in London, and is still being produced by travel- 
ing companies in variuus paris of the United States. 
"A-ristocracj-," produced at Palmer's tlieatre. New 
Y'ork, iu 1BU3, cleverly satirizes the subservience 
to British standards of American "society peo- 
ple, " He stands above other American playwrights 
in tbe ability to construct strong and cuusisteut 
plavs from native materials. Mr. Howard is mar- 
ried to a sister of Charles Wyudbam, the English 
comedian. Ills fortune is ample, and he has two 
homes— at New Rothelle, N. \ ,, and in St. John's 
Wood, Loudon — between which he divides his 




76 THE NATIONAL OYCLOPJEDIA 

80HAFF, Philip, church hEslorian, was bom from 1863 IJll 1866. Re was chairman of the nro 

at Cliur (Coire), the capital of the CHUton of OriS' committeea of bia ileDotnination which prepared s 

ODS, Eastern Switzerland. Jan. 1, 1819. He received new litiirgj^forttieOemiaii Iteformed cliurcb (18S7), 

his earlif education In his native town, entered the and a GerniBD hjnin boolc (ISoO). In 1854 he repro- 

gymnasium at Stuttgart in 183S, early decided upon aentud the Qerman churches in the ecclesiastical diet 

a theological career, and attended tlie universities of at Frankfort, and at the Swiss pastoral conference at 

Tuebluzen, Halle, and Berlin <1&ST^1). In 1841 he Basel. In 1862 he lecture<l on church history at Aa- 

t rave led through Italy and other Euro))caD counlries dover, Mass., and later at Hartford, Conn. In 1865 

as tutor to a Prtissian aoblenian. In the same year he visited Europe in the interest of Sunday obser- 

he took Ihe degreeof licenliate(ba<:helor)intheology vance and Sunday -schools. He was one of the 

in Berlin, and there began to lecture on exegesis and foundera and honorary secretaries of the American 

church historv in the university as prieal-doeenl branch of the Evangelical Alliance, and in Ilj6fl, 

(tutor), in 1842. But whatever plaus he may have 1872, aud 1878 visiled Europeto make arrangements 

formedforacareerinOermany werequicklychanged forthe.iixlh general cunferenceofihe Alliance which, 

S unexpected events. The German Reformed after delays on account of the Franco-Prussian war, 

urch of the Uuilod Slates, after the death of Rev. was held m New York city, 1873. Heediiedii« pro- 

Dr. F. A. Ruuch in 1841. called the famous pulpit cecdings. In 18T1 he was one of the delegation at 

orator, Frie<lrich WIthetm Krummacher. Ihen of the Alliance sent to St, Felersburg to Intercede with 

Eli)erfeld. to be professor in Its theological seminary the Czar of Russia .in behalf of his Lutheran subjects 

~t Mercersburg, twenty miles southwest of Cham- in Ihe Baltic provinces, who were oppressed liy the 




bcraburg. Pa., hut he declined to come. On the Russian go vemment. He was a delegate to the gen- 
recommendation of Tholuck. Neander, and otiier eralcoufcrencesofthe al1ianccatBaselinl8i9.andat 
Qerman professors, young Schafl was elected by the Copenhagen in J884, and sent a paper on "Renais- 
German lieformed synod, and in 1814 was installed sance and Reformation " to the ninth general confer- 

Erofessor of church history and hihiical literature, ence at Florence in 18T1. In the alliance of the Re- 
is inaugural address in German, Das Prindp det formed churches holding the Presbyterian system — 
ProlentanumM, delivered at Reading, Pa., Oct. commonly called the " Pan-Presbvlerian Alliance!," 
25, 1844, expanded into a vol- he has been similarly prominent, being chairman of 
umc. was translated by his col- the program committee for its second general couo- 
league. the lale Itev. Dr. J. W. cil held in Philadelphia in 1880. He was organizer 
Ncvjn, under the title of " The and president of the American Bible revision corn- 
Principle of Protestantism as niitlee (1871). bv rci^uest of the British committee, 
Rehkled to the Present State of and which jointly with the former produced the re- 
the Church." It attracted wide vised version of 1881-85. In 1875. being in Europe 
attention, and drew upon him toarrange forthepubllcatlonof tbeAnglo-American 
the charge of heresy, because revision, he attended the conferences of the Old 
he liad spoken kindly of the Ro- Catholics. Greeks, and Protestants at Bonn. He 
nuui- Catholic church, and siiow- attended, as a delegate, the fifth centenary of Heidel- 
cd that Protestantism was itself berg university, 1886, and the eighth centenary of 
only a link in the chain of de- Bologna nniversity, 1888. In thespriogof that year 
Telopment, and not the final (March 23, 1888), he founded the American society 
form of the Christian failh. Pub- of church history, of which he was the first president- 
llsheii in ilie same volume was He has received many honors, academic, literary, 
^1 , ^1 . ascrmonbyDr. Nevin on "Cath- and social. He is a member of the l*ipzig. the 
%i^ C?>^i^i^ olic Unily." The appearance Nelherland, and otherhislorical societies of Europe. 
/ '^^~) ^ "■'* ''•x'k ^^ the occasion In 1854 Berlin university conferred upon him the 
of the "Mercersburg Conlro- honorary decree of D.D,, and 8t, Andrew's univer- 
Tersy," which lasted until 1881, when the " Peace aity, Scotland, gave him the same in 1887. In 1876 
Commission" was adopted. Prof. Schalf n-as tried Amherst colli'gc made him an LL.D. Although he 
for heresy by the synod at Yorii, Pa., in 1845, but has a foreign nameand lineage, there Is no American 
triumphantly acquitted. In 1851 he was again tried in the theological world more familiar. He has been 
for alleged erroneous leaching rcspecling the middle a voluminous and versatile author, and has written 
state, and again sustained. During 1854 he traveled in German and English, but his fame rests «])on liia 
in Europe and in Berlin, delivering lectures on church-historical works, although to it his editorship 
America. In 1863 he received leave of alraencc, of " Lnnge's Commenlaiy " greatly conlrihuled ; 
without salar}', from the seminary for two years, but while his )ileasant manners, wide sympathies and 
circumstances made the separation permanent. He irctiicnl spirit have made him very popular in all 
took up his resilience in New York, city and was branches of American Christianity, and those who 
there secretary of the Sabbath committee from 1864 may differ most widely from him speak of him with 
to 186&. In 1869 he taught church history in the respect. His great repute ia desci-ved. His works 
Uuiim theological seminary and has ever since l>een have all cost him severe toil. Of them, by far the 
connected with that ingtitutlon, becomingsucccssivc- most valuable is his "History of the Christian 
ly professor of theological cyclopaedia and Christian Church." l)egiin, strict I v speaking, with his "History 
symbolism (1870); professor of Hebrew and the co^- of the AposiolicOhurch," which was written in Ger- 
nntc languages (1878); professor of Greek exegesis man, ami apjicarcd in Mercersburg, Pa., in 1851, and 
(1874). and in 1887, after the death of Roswell D. In English in New York In IS.'iS (several editions 
Hitchcock, professor of church hisiory. The differ- without change). His "History of the Christian 
ent positions, thus mentioned, give an inadcijuatc Church " was also begun in German, and skillfully 
idea of Dr. Schaff's energy and versatility. He has translated by the late' Rev. Dr. Edward Dorr Yeo- 
neverl>een content 10 do only one thing. Thus he mans (vol. I., New York, 1858). but after volume 
lectured at Mercersburg in nearly all departments of TI. (1867), he was able to disj)cnsc with this assia- 
theology, being at one time the only profi'ssor. He lance. The history has paased through several edi- 
cditeii the monthly " Deutcher Klrchenfreuiid." the tious, and appeared in German (Leipzig, 1867, S 
first German theological periodical established In vols. ; second edition, 186)1). In English the latest 
America, which he founded in 1W8, until 18.")5; the edition apjicaredinNew York, 18B2, 5 vols. (vol. I., 
•■ Mcrcemburg Review" from 185T until 1863; and third revision; vol. II., fifth revision; vol. III., third 
then "Evangelische Zeuguisae," Philadelphia, Pa., revision; vol. IV., unchanged; vol. VI., second 



OF AMERICAN BIOGKAPnT. 



revisiou; vol. VII. appeared in 1893; vols. V. and 
VII. ID prepararioD). The history now ^oesdowa 
partly through the reformation period, with the ex- 
ceptioD of the close of the middle age. It is the most 
comprehensive and learned work in Englisli in its 
field, aud is accepted on t>oth sides of the sea as au 
authority. Pan of his " History " has been transtaled 
Into Japanese. He haa also written several minor 
historical moDograplis on "Church and Stale in the 
Uuilcd States " (1888). on the ■' Progress of Iteligous 
Freedom  (J889); on the " Renaissance "(1661). etc. 
Another great work is Ills " Creeds of Cliristendom, 
■with a Hislory aud Critical Notes "(1887, 3 vols.; 
vol. I., sixth revision, 18B0); a collection in two 
Tolumes of the princii>al creeds of the different aees 
and churches in tlie originals, with English transla- 
tions; preceded by an account in one volume of 
their origins, hislory. anil uses, and an analysis of 
their conicuts. No one of his works has been more 
useful, and its position iu English [heiilagi<»l litera- 
ture is nearly unique. Shortly after the revised 
New Testament appeared he prepared "A Comttan- 
loD lo the Greek Testamentand the English Version " 
(1883), which has been adopted as a text-book iu 
theological seminaries, and widely sold (fourth edi- 
tion. 1891). His edition of the Didatlit, entitled 
"The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; or, The 
Oldest Church Alanual " (1885. third ediliim, 1880), 
la acknowledged to be the best edition in English of 
this precious document. But the book which has 
had the widest sale by far Ishis " Person of Christ " 
{Boston, 1865; twetfiu edition. New York and Lon- 
don. 1883). in which a feature Is the collection of 
teiitimonles of unhclievera to the moral excellence of 
Christ. It has been translated into German, French, 
Dutch, Modem Greek, Russian, Japanese, and other 
langua^res. His collection of classic hymns in praise 
of the Saviour, entitled "Christ in Song" (1869), is 
deservedly popular. '• Through Bible Lands " 
(1878, new edition. 1889). a record of his lour, with 
a valuable appendix b^ Edouard NavlUe. on the 
Bible and Ei;yp(olocy, is frequently quoial as an 
authority. Oollecleu essays of his bear the titles. 
** Christ and Christianity '^ (1885), and " Literature 
and Poctrj- " (1890). He mafle a great aiiccess out 
of his edition of " Langu's Commentary " (181(4-80, 
25 vols.), organizing the company of translati>rs and 
editoTs, and contributing to the work himself. He 
brought out an original " Popular Illustrated Coin- 
meutarf on the New Testjiment " (1878-83. 4 vols 
new e<tition of the portion on the Gospels, Acl.t and 
Itumans. 1883-83, 6 vols.), prc|Mirc<l by scholars of 
America aud Great Britain under his supervision and 
with his co-operation. In 1880hee<li1ed the "Bible 
Dictionary " for the American Sunday-school union 
(Philadelphia, Pa.), securing the services of setend 
persons in the different de[>artmeiits. This diction 
a^- lias been translated into Italian. Arabic au<) 
Hmdustanee. Asedilor he has also brought out A 
RellsinUB Encyclopedia" (1883-84. 3 vols.), based 
on Herzog, and so appropriately named by the pub 
lislicr*. and known to the public as "The Sihaff 
Herzog Encyclopiedia " (Ihiixl revised edition, 1891. 
4 vols.. Incorporating the " EncvclojHEdia of Living 
Divines anil Christian Workers, compiled under his 
general su|)ervision by Rev. Samuel Maeauley Jack- 
•on, associate editor of the "Religious Encyclopie- 
dia," and which had been sc|«ratcly Issued iu 1887). 
He is now editing the " Select Lib rnry of the Nicene 
anil Post-Nicene Fathers" (First Senes, 1886-80, 14 
tfU.; Second Series, in conjunction with Rev. Dr. 
Henry Wace. D.I)., principal of Kings college, Lon- 
don. 1890, sqq., 13 vols.). Dr. SchafT married, in 
184.1. Mary E. Schley of Frederick. Md. His sou. 
David Schley SchatI, is associate editor of the 




BICE, Nathan Lewia, clerical debater, was 
boni in Ganard county, Ky., Dec. 29. 1807. He 
studied at Center college, Danville, Ky., and at 
Princeton seminary, and became Presbyterian pastor 
at Bardstown, Ky., in June. 1838; here he started 
schools and a paper, the " Weatem Protestant," 
which was Anally merged in 
the '■ Presbyterian Herald " of 
Ijouisville. While acting aa 
stated supply at Paris. Ky.. 
1841-44, he lield a noUble dis- 
cussion on baptism (at Lexing- 
ton, Ky., in 1843). with Alex. 
Campbell, D.D., founder of 
the Disciples. Three more de- 
bates fullowe^l during his pas- 
torate in Cincinnati, 1844-53, 
with J. A. blanchanl, on slav. 
ery, in 1845: with E. Pringen 
on the doctrine of the Univer- 
salisls, in 1845; and with J. B. 
Purcell. afterward archbishop, 
on Romanism, in 1851. He 
held a charge in St. Louis. 
1853-57, and edited the St. 
Louia " Prcshylerian." In 
1855 he was miiderator of the 

U. S. (general Assembly. He w . _. 

cago, 1857-61. and from 1859 professor of didactic 
theology in the seminarv of the Northwest, then 
newly o|>ened: pastor of the PMfth avenue church in 
New York 1801-67; president of Westminster col- 
lege, Fulton, Mo., 1868-74; and professor of didac- 
tic and polemic theologv in the seminary at Dan- 
ville, Ky., from 1874. He wascminent in the pulpit. 
In controveray, and in the councils of his denomina- 
tion. Besides his thive earlier debates, he published 
two books on "Romanism " (1847-51); "Baptism" 
(1855); "Signsot the Times "(1855); "The Pulpit" 
(1803); and various sermons and tracts. He died at 
Chatham, Bracken county, Ky., June 11, 1877. 

BKOWlf, James Harv«y, cler^mon. was bom 
at Johnstown. N. Y., Feb. 4, 1836, the son of David 
D. Brown. He was educated in the academy at 
Amstcnlatn, N. Y.^ and in 1855 commenced the 



try in connection with the 
Newark conference and served 
in the rtgulnr pastorate in New 
Jersey aud PLUusvlvania Mr 
Brown was stationed at Mil 
ford Pa from 1862-63 aud 
while there encountered much 
opposition on account of his 
Lnion sentiments notwilh 
standing the support of his 
entire church and the loyal 
portions of the community 
Towanl Hit. latter part of 186} 
PrLsident Lincoln appomled 
him hmpital chaplain at Beau 
fort. S. C. He retained this 
position until after the war was 
ended, July, 18U5. He sub- 
se<]iientty removed to Illinois, 
and was transferred lo the Rock River conference. 
After serving three pastorates in northern Illi- 
nois Mr. Brown removed to New York state, and 
was then transferred to the Troy conference, and 
from 1873 to 1891 was appointed to Bethlehem, New- 
lonville, Fort Plain, CJrccnwich, Mechanicsville, 
Jolmstown and Colioes. N. Y. Mr. Brown lias 
been instrumental in the erection of an unusually 
large number of church edifices and parsonages, and 
in promoting the Inleresta of the churches of which 
he lias bad charge. 




78 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-«DIA 







HANN, Horac«, educator, .. 

thor, was born in Franklin. Norfulk county. 
May 4, 1796. His fallier, Tliomas Mann, supported 
liig faiuilj[ by cuUivating a, small farm, but died of 
consumption wlien Horace was about thirteen years 
of age. Thu opiKirtuDities for the lad's schooling 
were exiremely meagre. Tlie locality enjoyed tbe 
reputation of being tlie smallest school' dlstiict. with 
the poorest school-house and the cheapest t«acher in 
the state. Yet an obscure boy in thia olwicurescliool 
became afterward secretary of the 
Massachusells hoard uf education. 
The lad inherited his fatbci's phys- 
ical weakness, and from the age of 
twentyto thirty years, was encaged 
>v _ ■^H ■» ^ stnifTgle with the same disease 
|£W|k tjaj t'l"^ deprived him of a father. Tlie 
W ^"*^ UbrV poverty of his parents made his 

boyhood a life of toil. UuttI the 
age of flfleen he had never been to 
school more than eight or ten weeks 
in a year, and sometimes less than 
six. The town had been named in 
honor of the celebrated Dr. Ben. 
Franklin, and in return for the 
compliment he had presented the 
incorporators with a library con- 
sisting of old histories and theol- 
ogies. Horace studied all these as 
opportunity afforded, and, as he expressed it iu after 
life, wasted his youthful ardor upon the "martial 
pages," and suffered untold agonies regarding the 
predestination of ci'cated souls toeternal torment by 
a loving and merciful God. Horace remained with 
his mother on the homestead until he was twecity. 
At about this time an Itinerant schoolmaster, Sam. 
uel Barrett, a man eccentric and abnormal, both in 
appetites and faculties, came into the neighborhood 
and opened a school. He was a rare scholar in Eng- 
lish, Latin and Greek, never takiug a hook In his 
hand when hearing a rwitation, but seeming to have 
committed the whole to memory. The -Eneid, the 
Orations of Cicero, the Odyssey, and other classics, 
with the New Testament, seemed to be a very part 
of his being. But Barrett was learned in the lan- 
guages alone. In arithmetic he was an idiot. He 
could not recite the multipli-^tion table, and could 
not tell the time of day by tlie clock. Hix mouths 
of the year he was an earnest and reliable teacher, 
tasting nothing stronger than tea; then for another 
six months he gave himself up to a state uf beastly 
drunkenness, steeping in barns or styes or " wher- 
e'er the sleeping fito'ertookliim." In tbe possession 
of tliis peculiar ^ni us Horace Mann first sawa Latin 
grammar; but it was the Dent, vidi, viei of Ciesar. 
In the six months of his teacher's state of sobriety 
Horace mastered the grammar, read jEsop's Fables, 
the j^neid, parts of the Georgics and Bucoli— '''" 



i; and when bis teacher departed on his peri- 
odic spree, Horace went to Providence and entered 
the sophomore class of Brown vmiversity. Under 
the burning stimulus which enteringujion new Gelds 
of knowledge supplied, be forgot all idea of br)dilv 
limitations to mental ciTort, and the end uf the col- 
legiate year found him almost a physical wreck. The 
following winter was spent in teaching school, when 
he again sought the clns.s!c halls of tlic university. 
His class was graduated in 1819, and, with the unani- 
mous approval of faculty and classmates, the hon- 
or in tlie commencement exercises was awanled to 
Horace Mann. Young Mann «ni«red imniediately 
after graduation on the study uf law, but Id b few 
months went back (o bis college as a tutor in I^^iin 
and Greek, resigning the i^isition in 1831 thnt he 
udght complete his course in law. lie wasadndtted 



to the bar in December, 1823, and continued prac- 
tice until 1837. Four yeara after his admission to 
the bar he was elected to the legislature by (he town 
of Dedham. His first speech in the house of repre- 
sentatives was in favor of religious liberty. A scheme 
had been projected for the creation of estates in a 
kind of mortmain, vesting them in a corporate body 
of trustees, perpetually renewable by Itself, aud lim- 
iting tlie income of the property forever to the sup- 
Sirt of a particular creed, or set of doctrines. Mr. 
ann was one of the youngest membera of the house, 
and this was bis firet term. Conscious of the recti- 
tude of his |>osition, be electriflccl the membere of 
the general court by unexiiectedly rising and oppos- 
ing the bill in the face of overwhelming nuniliera. 
He gave them a chapter of religious history that not 
only caused the rejection of the bill, but produced 
such an effect that no similar attempt has since at 
any lime been mode in Massachusetts. He was the 
originator aud principal mover In tbe eslAblishment 
of the i^tate lunatic hospital at Worcester, and did 
more than any other one man lowani Ibe allevialiua 
of the woes of the insane. In 1833 Mr. Mann removed 
to Boston, and entered into partnership with Edward 
O. Loring. In the same year he was elected to (he 
senate, and continued, by re-election, for four years, 
being iu 1836-37 president of the senate, afier which 
he rctire<l for several years from |iolitical life. Asa 
patron of education he stauds pre-eminent. He called 
a meeting of his friends at his own house in the early 
pan of 1637 to consider the subiect of a board of 
education forthc slate. Apr. 20tb of the same year 
witnesseil the passage of the act by which tbe board 
was created. Mr. Mann was elected secretary June 
29, 1837, at a salary of ^1,000 a year, and immedi- 
ately withdrew from all other pnife-ssional and busi- 
ness engagements. He transferred his law business, 
declined a' re-election to the senate, abstracted him- 
self entirely from political parties, and for twelve 
years never attended a political caucus or conven- 
tion of any kind, iu order to devote himself exclu- 
sively to ediicalional work. His Brst report, and his 
first address or lecture, both written within the first 
six mouths after the organization of the board, fore- 
shadowed evervthlng that was afterwaid accom- 
plished. He laid his hand upon everything at once: 
abuses to be corrected, deficiencies lo be supplied, 
and reforms to be begun. He touch- 
ed a chord of the public heart, and, 
without an instant's wailing, fol- 
lowed up the victory. His object 
was to commit the state lo great 
measures of reform aud progress 
before the day of reaction came. 
Extensive changes In the law were 
proposed and carried: union schools 
were provided for; school commit- 
tees [Mid; county educational con- 
ventions instituted; "schcxil regis- 
ters " of a far-reaching plan adopt- — -  - -- 
ed; detailed reports Kqiilred; nor- 
mal schools established: and an educational ma- 
chinery put in motion that completely revolulion- 
iKcd the school system of the stale. In 1843, under 
the auspices of the board uf education, Mr. Mann 
visited Europe, to examine schools and obtain such 
infonnation lis could be made availableat home. His 
seventh annual report embodied the results of hla 
loumey. Scores of editions were printed, not only 
111 his own state, but in diJTereiit stales of the Union, 
SDineiimes by order of state legislatures, sometimes 
by private individuals. Several editions were printed 
in England. It was largely copied into newspapers 
everywhere, and createn a most profound sensation. 
The only inimical criticism mode appeared in Boston 
in the autumn of 1844, in a pamphlet of 144 pages, 
* ual Report 




entitled, " Itemarks ou the Seventh Annual T 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



of the Hon. Hnnice Hanii," and bearing the names 
of tfaiity-oue of the BohIod schoolmasters, atlackinc 
him for his advocacy of Ibc abandoninent of corporal 
puatsbmeul in school discipline. Mr. Mann replied 
tuapamphietof 176 pages. A few mouths elajised, 
and ID Jlay following a portion only of hU '■ thirty- 
ooe schoolmasters" rejoined with anolher inmphlet, 
this time of 315 pases. He struck back will) a sec- 
oad pamphlet of 124 pages, and the controversy was 
ended, subsequent events proving llic impregnabil- 
ilrof liis pottiiion. For twelve years Mr. Maun was 
the secretary of the boani, and the originalor and 
tanier-out of its work. He wrote twelve long an- 
nual reports, of one of which — the tenth— the "Edlu- 
bureh Iteview" said: "This volume is indeed a 
Di*Tf monnmenl of a civilized people; and if Amer- 
ica were hunkl)encatb the naves, would remain the 
fairest picture on record of an ideal commonwealth. " 
Id lUS Mr. Slann was elected to congress as a whig, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John 
Quincy AdaiQs. As soon ait elected he tCDdered 
bl> n^iiTDation as secrelary of the board, but It was 
declined, and he consented to remain for the residue 



of congress lo legislate for ilie territories of the 
Vnited States, and iis duly lo exclude slavery there- 
from." During the first session he voluuu-ercd as 
counsel for Drayton and Sayre. twomen indicted for 
ilfaling sevcuty-six slaves in the District of Coliim- 
Ilia, and at the trial in the court below was engaged 
fur tnentv-one days in Ihelr defence; and be after- 
wanl argiied their case in the appellate court, where 
the false rulings of the judge below were signally 
overtEirown. In 1^50 Daniel Webster, in a speech in 
COTigress, changed his attitude on the slavery ques- 
tion. In military ]anguage,he "faced right about." 
Sir. Mann was the first to see and pretllct the con- 
sequences of the step, so dlsasirousto the great ques- 
tion of human freedom then pending before the 
country. The two giant intellects became Involved 
in a c(Hitr<)versy that the entire country felt would 
afiect the destinies of the nation. At the ensuing nom- 
inating convention Mr. Mann was defeated as a 
ondidate for congress by a single vole — the con- 
veniiou having been packed by Mr. Webster's adhe- 
rcniB, He entered the field as an independenl anti- 
slavery candidate, and when Mr. Webster, who was 
■t the time secretary of state, personallv entered the 
caDTass, or, in political language. " tookthestump," 
Mr Mann was quick in following. There was no 
ptrartc, no noise in the Massachusetts canvass of 
1850. There was stem, silent soberness instead. 
Mr. Mann was re-elected bj- a triumphant majority 
over both the opposing parlies, remaining in congress 
uniilMarch, 1B53. In September, 1S52, hewasnom- 
ioaled fur governor of Massachusetts by the free-soil 
party, and the same day chosen president of Antioch 
college, a new Institution at Yellow Springs, O. The 
party nominating bim for gubematorm! honors was 
numerically the weakest in the state, and he was not 
elected. He accepted the proffered college presi- 
Idcncy. carried the institution through many pecu- 
niary and other difflculties. and devoied the remain- 
der of his life to its advancement. Mr. Mann was 
twice married. His tirst wife was llic youngest 
daughter of Rev. Dr. Messer. for many years pres- 
ident of Brown university. She lived hattily a year, 
«nd for len years he wore the emblems of mourning. 
His second wife was Mary Peabody, whom he mar- 
ried in 1443. She was eminently qualified to share 
in all bis l)enevolenl and educational work. Gifted 
with a thorough familiarity with the modem lan- 
guages, she was able to assist him very maleriallyin 
his studies of foreign reforms. She died in iaH7, 



liahed: "AFew Thougbtafora Young Man" (Bob- 

ton 1850); " Slavery : Leitersand Speeclies " (18i51); 
-Powera and Duties of Woman'' (1B53); " Ser- 
mons"(1861); ■■Life and Complete Works of Hor- 
ace Mann" (3 vols., Cambridge, 1868): and •■Thotighta 
Selected from the Wrilingsof Horace Mann " (1S69). 
His lectures on education were translated into French 
by Eug<?ue de Guer, under the title of " De llmpor- 
tance de I'&lucation dans une Itepublique " (Paris, 
1873). He died Aug. 2. IBSB, at Yellow Springs, 
O., the scene of his later educational labors. 

CHIIiDS, Orville Wbitmore, engineer, was 
bom iu Saratoga Springs. N.Y., in the year 1803. He 
was the second sou of Ephraim Childs, an eminent 
physician. At the age of seventeen he set out for 
himself as a chainman for an engineer, beginning in 
this way his successful career. He was engaged 
upon the conslruclion of the Champluu and Oswego 
canals- He was permaully engaged upon the con- 
struction of the enlargement of the Erie canal, from 
the commencement to nearly the close of Ihal work. 
except during a few intervening years when be was 
engaged in another gigantic enterprise, the survey of 
a ship canal across the islbmus of Nicaragua. He 
was theadviserand trusted friend 
of Wm. C. Bouck, Henry Sey- 
mour, Jonas Earll. Jr., Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, and their con- 
lempomriea, and was the chief 
engineer of the stale works from 
1840 to 1847. In 1848 he was the 
democratic candidate for state 
engineer, but was defeateil with 
the rest of the ticket. His later 
companions in the engineering 
profession were Van R. Rich- 
mond, stale engineer; 8. W. 
Sweet, depiily state engineer; 
and John D. Fay, canal commis- 
sioner. He was connected with 
the public works of the stale for 
nearly twenty years. In the year 
1801 be removed from Syracuse to 
Phil adelpliia, and became engaged 
in the building of sleeping cars. 
Soon after be was elected to the 
presidency of the Central Transportation railway 
company, holding the position up to the time of hfs 
deatli. The labors of his pen will be found scattered 
through the public documents and in the statute 
books during a period of forty years. He died in 
East Philadelpliia Sept. 6, 1870. 

WATTBVILLE, Joliii, Bsfon de, Moravian 
bishop, was bom at Walsobtcben in Thurincia Oct. 
18, I71S, While studying at Jena he met a kindred 
spirit in Count Zinzendorf. whose daughter he mar- 
ned in 1T48, a year after reaching his rank and title. 
He became pastor at Herrahaag in 1739, chief as- 
sistant to Zinzendorf in 1744, and a bishop in 1747, 
when but twenty-nine. His first episcopal labors 
were in America, where he visited the Indians at 
Shamokin and elsevcbcre, and disclmrged an imiiort- 
ant mission at Bethlehem in layine down the doctrine 
and discipline of the church. In 1749. after being 
adopted by the Onondagas, he rettimed lo Europe, 
whore he was a lending member of the Supreme ex- 
ecutive board. He made nine visits to the British 
Isles, as many to Holland, and one to Greenland, 
where the tuitives called bim, " John the loving 
one." He was again tn America in 1784-87, where 
he consecrated J. Ettweiu (q.v.), and a bishop for 
the West Indies. Of his two daughters, one be- 
came the mother of Ij. D. von Schwcinitz.; the other 
was the reigning countess of Heni. (Sec the " Tran- 
sactions "of the Moravian Historical Societv, Series 
11.. pp. 184-1S3,) He died at Gnadenfrei in Silesia, 
Oct. 7, 1788, after lialf a century of sealoua service. 




80 THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 

M>DT,lCRry BakerG-jdiscovererandfounder Eddy labored conslaotly for twentj-six yenra un- 
of "ChristiaD Science." wasbomin the (own of Bow, aided, and much of this lime bealiug people of all 
N.H,,lhudHiighterof Markand Abignil B.(AmbroKe) manner uf diseases. For awhile bIic was malipied 
Baker, among wUiwe ancestors were Gen. John Mac- and persecuted aud her work was little appreciat"!, 
DciloC Luudy's Lane fame, Oeu. HenrrKnox, of rev- but bcr faith thai she was doing God's work ncTer 
olutiouary fame, Capl. John Lovewell, active in In- faltered. To perform gratuitous tasks, she has de- 
dianlroubtes, and Sir John Macnelll, a Scotch knight, ferred remuuerativu work for montlis at a lime, and 
prominent in British politics, and ambassador to in her classes has taken many free studentB. Mis. 
Persia. Mrs. Eddy is the only survivor of her fa- Eddy was the first bealer in Christian Science, ihe 
ther's familv, which bore tbo coal of arms of the llrat writer, teacher, and preacher of this Science, 
ancient family of the MacNciU under the various and the author of "Science and Health." the stand- 
spelliuge of the name, no less than seven renderings ard ICJit-book on Christian Science. This boi)k gives 
being recorded. The crest and family coat of arms a comprehensive and clear statement of the Science, 
as i^itlicre<l from the works on heraldry, were per and many have been healed by reading its pagrs. 
less gulei and &r; in chief three mullets of the sec- It has already (18B2) nin through seveutv-onc edi- 
oud; in base a lymphad withsaiU furled and oars of tiunsof a thousand copies each. Her smaller worts 
the first; dexter, a lion rampant; of the last sinister, and pamphlets are: " Unity of Good," "Retrospec- 
a dext«r hand fess way. and in iHueasalmon nafont tion and Inlros]>e4'tion," '''No and Yes," " Rudi- 
ia the sea. Crett, a dexter arm embowed In armor; menls aud Rules of Divine Science," " Christian 
in the hand a (1 agger. The motto is Vtnure aut Healing," "People's Idea of God," "Pond and 
mori. Surrounding the shield, and enclosed in a Purpose." In her writings she kindles her subjecu 
heavy wreath is the motto of the Order of the Bath: with a steady Mglit, tiashett luminous rays, and fends 
" Triajuneta in nno." The supporters are two Per- out volumes'ln a paragraph. Their exalted tone is 
sian lions, manelesa. rampant, and in some of the the reflection of her conversation and example. In 
escutcheons, two highland hounds, rampant. From 1081 she received a charter from the stale of Massa- 
Infancy Mrs. Eddy s life was a marked one. She chusetla for Ihe Massachusetts metaphvsicul college, 
was in advance of others of her founded in Boston, and of which she oecanie presi- 
age. At ten years she delighted dent. An emiiient critic wrote : " Pron) hexring 
In studying books, abstruse, met- Hrs. Eddy preach, from reading her hooks, from 
aphysical, aud difficult, even for talking with her. one does not get an adequate idea 
her elders. Her favorite studies of her mental powers, unless one hears her also In 
wers natural philosophy, logic her classes. Not only is she glowingly earnest in 
atid moral science, A private presenting her convictions, but her language and 
V tutor declared she had mastered) illustrations are remarkable. She is quick in repartee, 
"^ ' studies that as a fact she had and keenly turns a je.vt upon her questiouer, but not 
■*• " ^ t'- never entered upon, so quick offensively or unkindly. She reads faces rapidly. 
^' was she in comprehension. The A brief exposition of the Book of Job, which one 
■^^■S* Bible, .tlillon, Shakespcure, Mrs. Atiy entered incidentally Into her slatemeut of how 
^■ikl? Hemaus, and " Young's Night G<xl is found, would havedone honor to any eccle- 
Tbought-s " did much toward elastic. Critical listeners are often astonisbcd at the 
forming her style of writing and strength of her argunieni, and clearness of her stale- 
speaking. At twelve years, af- roenis. even when they cannot agree with her. 
- , -- , - Icr disputing on doctrinal points While she Is quick to det'ect variations from her own 
.,4^i^,jgS-&fC^^ "^ foreordination aud prcdesli- views, and to argue the point, she maintains the ut- 
■-■^iep^£7:c^CP^Ctp^ nation, concerning which she nHwt repose In every debate. In fact, she is a ual- 
^ ^ would not yield her views, she iiral class leader, and three hours pass quicklv awny 
wasreceivci) into the Oungrega- iulierles-iiins." Thi'Metaphysicalcollegeisiueonly 
tional church. She remained devoted to this church one chartered for teaching the theology and [ialli"l- 
until she organized her own. Mrs, Eildy's bearing ogy of spiritual power, or the Science of Mind heal- 
is di^niticd, suggeHtiug su|>erior spiritual qualities, ing. though many of Mrs. Eddy's students have in- 
She M of medium height, slender In form, of perfect stltutes where the Science is taught. Her students 
Oreeinu model, Urge, luminous gray eyes, and her are instructed "to pursue their mental ministrations 
hair, once dark auburn and curly, now encircles the very sacredly: never to touch the human thought 
brow with a crown uf silken gray. At the age of save to issues of truth; never to trespass mentally on 
sixteen she began Iter lileraiy career, developing individual rigliiH; never to lake away the rights.' but 
rare talents nut only a.s a priMe writc-r, but in poetry oidy the wnmgs of mankind. Otherwise they for- 
as well, anil has a store of .unpublished poems. Her fitit their ability to heal in Science," The studenla 
miMlesty and reluctiiuee to ap|)cnr before the public of the college are nunilwred by thousands. Mrs. 
CHUscil her to write under different noiM du plume. Eddy has ci)ustructed an educational s,>'slcra in 
She shunnetl society, seldom visited places of amuse- Christian Science iniendetl to enhance the' voliie ot 
ment, and sought quiet homejuys; wiis constant and religion, medicine, iherapcutlcs, ethics, and temper- 
devoleil in her friendshi[is. In rellKlon a devotee, and anee. She was ordained a minister of the gospel in 
never so happy aa when with her books, or alone 1879, received a cliarter for tlie Cliureh of Cbrist, 
with the grandeur of nature, communing wllli its Scientist, the same year, organized it in Boston, and 
living oracles. A noted clergyman said of her when became its ptutor. Previously she ivcelvcd a call to 
she was about seven years old: "This child was a Boston pulpit, filling it w'ith great acceptance. 
Bauclified before she had birth." And yet she was As an extem|K>runeous H]>caker she is eloipient. her 
always doubling her own goodness, and praying for sermons affecting her hearers, and often healine the 
deliveranee from the bondage of siu. Her influence sick. Her explHiiation of the Scripiurea elucidates 
on all who come in contact with her thought ia the divine Principle aud science of health, holiness, 
marked. Her spiritual Ideal is Inseparable from her and etenial life, awakening attention to the life of 
life, and reflects the true diviuitr, not in creeds or Jesus of Nazareth, his divine humanity, humility, 
codcM, but facts and qualities Inherent in her own and healing ])uwer. and calls the age to contemplate 
character. Her life is one of tenderness, toil, and and imitate the Christ cliaracter. Her aim is. to put 
f rebukes 

jcience to . __. ._ 

work of Ood, and desiring to aid mankind, Mrs. has increased so npldly that moat of the prominent 




OF AHEBIOAV BIOOBAPHT. 81 

dtks and towni Id the United State* have a ChriBtun JACKSON, Jamw 0»l«b, phjaldan and ati- 
Sdence societjr. or one or two Christian Science thor, wagboro in Hanliua. OnoodagscouDtj, N.Y.. 
cburclies holding religlmu services, and the move- March 28, 1811, the son of Dr. James Jacltson. His 
men t has spreacTlo other countries. In 1893 Mrs. grandfatlier, Col. Giles Jackson of Tj'ringham, 
Kddj-dunated a lot of taiidinltoettiD valued at {20.- B«rk.'<hire county. Mass., was chief of etalT of Gen. 
000, to an incorporated body called " Cliristian Gates, was present at the battle of Saratoga, and 
Bcience Board oi Directors," on wUicii to build a chosen to prfoare tlio articles of capitulation of Geu. 
church edifice for tlie First Church of Christ. Scien- Burgoyne. lie was also a member of the fltat Con- 
list. In the same year she oriKinated a form of tinenial cougress. Young Jackson early showed 
church goverameDt witliout creed, liberal, and aim- temarluble abilities in the study of the classics, be- 
ing lo be univeraal, to promote the brotherhood of Ing skilled at the age of twelve in Latin and Greek 
roan, lo have one God (one Mind), oac faith, one to a degree far beyond one of bis age. His father, 
bapiism. The tenets of thia church are: " Firtt; becoming an invalid, won ol>liged to retire lo a farm. 
As adherents of Truth we lake the Scriptures for our and the lad's opportunities for a sclioiasUc education 
guide to demal Life. Steond: We acknowledge and were at an end. Wbatever successes lie subsequent- 
adore one supreme God. We acknowledge His son, ly achieved were the result of bis own genius, urged 
Ihe Holy Gbuet, and man in His image and likeness, on by an indomitable will. At sixteen lie became a 
We acknowledge God's forgiveness of sin in the de- lecturer on temperance, at seventeen his father died; 
Rnit^lon of sin, and His present and future punish- at nineieen he married Lucretia E. Brewster, a de- 
meatof ' whataoeverworketbabominationorinaketh sccndant of Mayflower stock, and returned to his 
a lie.' We acknowledge the atonement of Christ as farm, where he remained until 1838. At or about 
the efficacy of Truth and Love, and the way of sal- the year 1835 the subject of anii slavery began to be 
' vatinaas (icmonstiated by JesiLs; casting out eviht, generally agitated, and Mr Jackson became Its 
healing the sick and raising the dead— resurrecting champion, entering Ihe lltid as a lecturer for the 
adeaiffaitb to seize the great possibilities and living Massacliusella auti-slavery society m lg3» In lti40 
eocrgiea of the divine Life. Third : Wc solemnly be became correspoDdiog secretary of the American 
promise to strive.watch, and pray for that Mind to be anti-slavery society. In 1B42 he became editor of 
ID us which was also In Christ Jeaus; tolovetliebretli- the "Madiion County Abcilitiou 
fen, and up to our highest understanding to l>c meek, ist." published In Cazenoria, 
merciful, and just, and live peaceably with all men." N. Y.. which afterward was re 
Mra. Eddy writes in "Science and Health": " No moved to Ulica. N. Y. where its 
analogy exists between the hypotbevs of agnostic- publication was continued under 
ism, pantbeism, theosophy, or spiritualism, and the tbe name of the ''Liberty Press 
demonstrable truths of Clinstian Science. Electro- In 1844, he formed a partnership 
magnetism, hypnotism, and mesmerism are llic antip- with Abel Brown, and purchased 
odes of Christian Science. As a result of Christian tho^Albany Patriot," which he 
Science, ethics and temperance have received an im- edited and managed until 1847 
pulse, health has been restored, and lon^viiy In- when failing health compelled 
creased. If such arc the present fruits, what may him to retire from journalism 
not the harvest be. when this Science is better under- He then founded a hydropathic 
BUiodT MedicallhcoriesvirtualtyadmitElienotblng- institute at the head of Sbane 
nes9 of hallucinations, even while treating tliem as at«1cs Lake. N. Y,. managing it 
disease. Ought we not, then, lo approve any cure successfully until the autumn of 
effected by making the disease appear a delusion or 1856, when he sold out and 
error? It is nol generally understood how one dia- founded "Our Home Hygienic 
ease is as much a delusion as another. But Jesus Institute," at Dousviile I iviugs Q ,. , , Q 
eaiablished tills foundational fact, when Truth casl toil county. N. Y. Prosperity *^«*rw-*«£* >xc 
oui devils and the dumb spake." Mrs. Eddy estab- attended the venture, and il be 
liahed the first periodical in Christian Science. "The came known as one of the largest instilutlons of 
Christian Science Journal," In 1883, and gave it lo tbe kind in the world. One of the special fealures 
the Naliotial Cbriulian Science Association in 1889, of the sanat^riimi was thai tlie sick were treated 
whose offlcial organ it became. She has founded wilhoul medicine. Lp to 1880. Dr. Jackson had 
evei7 leailing organization of the movement in the treated llioiisands of patients. In that year he gave 
last quaiter-centuiy of Ihe history of Christian the institution into the nwuagcmcnt of liis sou. who 
Science. The National Christian Scientists' Associa- changed Hie name to "The Jackson Sanatorium." 
tion has a large membership. In 1889 Mrs. Eddy For more than fifty years he was a contributor to po- 
waa invited to become a member of the Victoria lilical, religi<ius, and aKrieultural journals. He also 
PhilOHophical Institute of London, E tig., and was published "The Sexual Organism, and its Healthful 
made a life member. Mrs. Eddv baa a home on Management " (Dansville, 18H1); "Consumption: 
Commonwealth avenue, Boston, Mass., and also at How lo Prevent II, and How lo Cure It" (1862); 
Pleasant View, Concord, N. H. She is nn excei-d- " How to Treat the Sick wilhoul Medicine" (1870); 
bfflv busr woman, the moat of her lime belngde- "American Womanhood: lis Peculiarities and lu 
voted to fbe good ot hunianilv, which feels tlie 1>e- Necessities" (1870): "The Training of Children" 
nign inHuence of the divine Science established by (1873): "The Debiliiics of Our Boys" (1873); 
her. Many people of the thinking class are turning "Ohristasa Physician "(1878); '"Moruing Watches" 
to this Science and adopting it. bi>cAU9e in it they (1882). and several monographs. He was also Ihe 
Slid a solid foundation, a sure abiding peace, the founder, in 1859, and for a long time the edilur of 
verilication of the promises of Jeaus and a demon- a health journal, "The Laws of Life," the oldest 
Mrable Christianity. Mrs. Eddy, in " Science and paper of lis class in the world, and although Dr. 
Health," says; "I have set forth Christian science, Jacksim is In the eighty -third year of his life, he is 
--"'- ipMce' -   - "----'■"' 




and its application to the treatment of disease, only sliU a contributor to its columns. Politically he w 

as I have discovered them. I have demonslralcd tbe a Jacksuniao ilcmocrat anil casl his first vole f.,. 

effecla of Tmlh on the health, longevity, and morals Gen. Andrew Jackson in 1882: hut the following 

of men, through Mind: and I have found nothing in yearheseveredhisconuectiou with the party because 

ancient or in modern systems on which to fouud my of ilaatlitude on tbeslavery question, lie has always 

own except Ibe teachings and demonstrations of our been an advocate for woman suffrage and a worker 

great Master and the lives of prophets and apostles.' both on the platform and with his pen, in Its behalf. 
HI.— C. 



THE NATIONAL CTCLOPJEDIA 




SIiAVEN, Henry Bartholomew, was bom 
Dear PictoD, Ontario. Oct. IS, 1653, aoa of Patrick 
SlHvea, a farmer and stock raiser, dcsceuded from 
anceslors who were members uf llie learned profes- 
sions, slatesmeii aud business men. Henry's early 
education was obtained at tlie common scbools. At 
tlie age o[ thirteen he left the farm, obtaining a sit- 
uation as druggist's assistant, wurking iu tlio day- 
time, and attending school at 
wf ~ Dight. At tbe aee of seventeen 

*.JI^k^ lie was gradaated from the On- 

'!^^ lario coHege of pharmacy, and 

_ mk went to Philadelpliia to sltidy 

^^^ Wf. medicine, attending the univer- 

'•^' sity for nearly two years, but be- 

ing too young to graduate, ac- 
cepted a situation jn alargewliole- 
sale drug establishment. In 1873 
he took the sole mauugcmciil of 
a large wholesale and retail drug 
house in Canada. Early iu IIJTS 
lie was with a parly of engineers 
to the British Nortli west, going by 
way of the lalies to wbat is now 
Port Arthur, and thence to Win- 
' / \ii^y^<*-, (, nipeg. Manitoba. This long and 

r T-i^-' - hazardous voyage over an unex- 

plored region, inliabited only by 
hostile tribes of Indians, Mr. Slaven succeeded in 
making successtully,bringiDg his parly of twenty -five 
men tlirough in safety. Afteraehort stayin Winni- 
peg. Mr. Slaven went west tliroueh Manitoba and 
Bntish Northwest as far as the llockies. reluming 
again to Winnipeg, then to St. Paul, and thence to San 
Francisco, arriving there in the tall of 1876. Here 
he embarked in the wholesale aud relAi! drug and 
maiuitaclurlng business, which grew rapidly in a 
few years; his establishment was the best known 
wesl of the Rockies. In 1878 Mr. Slaven became a 
special partner with his brother, M. A. Slaven. wlio 
was n successful general contractor In ilie far west. 
About that time De Lesseps visited San Francisco in 
the intereat of the Panama Canal, and hearing of tlie 
success of the Slaven brothersas coulractora, sought 
theii aid in carrying out tbe dilllcult work. They 
took entire charge of tlie American Pacific coast 
business, as well as a contract for millions of dollars' 
worth of buildings and otber preliminary works on 
the Isthmus. InlSSOH, n. Slaven visited Panama to 
inaugurate this work, taking with him a large num- 
bei of men and two large steamer loads of supplies 
and materials. Work was at once commenced on the 
line of the canal. The men suffered greatly from 
malaria: many died, and othere sickened and re- 
turned to thestates, Mr. Slaven engaged native labor, 
the work prospered, and in 188'j the Slaven broth- 
ers signed a contract for tbe actual construction of 
tlie Atlantic division of the canal from Colon or AS' 
pinwall to Bohio Soldado, adistauce of sixteen miles, 
as well as for changing the course of the great Chagres 
River for a similar distance. Tlie acceptance of this 
coniracl made it nece-ssary for the cmitractors to 
move their lieadquarters to New York city, where 
In September of the same year they ori^uized tlie 
American Contracting aud Dredging company, and 
associated with them in the enterprise Eugene 
Kelly. H. B. Slaven was made president, Eugene 
Kelly, treasurer, and M. A. Slaven, general manager. 
Work on the conslructi'in of the necessary plant to 
carry out the new contract was immediately com- 
menced, the principal piece of machinery being 
what is known as the Slaven dredge, the largest, 
most effective and costly dredge ever constnitled. 
In a few mouths the machinery was built, and on 
tlie Isthmus, and the actual digirtng of the Panania 
Canal hod begun by an American company. Mr. 
Slaven from 1883 lo 1889 spent most of bis lime on 



the Isthmus, the result of bis i^ralions constitut- 
ing the greatest industrial and financial success of 
modern times. When the Panama Canal company 
failed in December, 1889, Mr. Slaven had success- 
fully finished bis contract, and bad been paid about 
$21)^000,000 fur actual work done, aud was about to 
be awarded a contract for finiabinc tlie canal. After 
the failure, Mr. Slaven removed liis plant to the 
Nicaragua works, and has been made treasurer of 
that company. Mr, Slaven is largely interested in 
American railroads; is a director in Bcveral railroad, 
baukiug and financial enterprises. Uis fortune ia 
estimated at ^5,000,000. 

LIVBBHOBE, Hiuy Aabton Bice, reformer, 
was born in Bustcn, Mass., Dec. 19, 1831. She waa 
educated at tlie Hancock school. Boston, and tbe 
Cliarlestuwn female seminary, where she remained 
for three years after graduation as instructor in 
Latin, Italian, and French. Having received the 
necessary scholastic prejiaration, she with a few 
other young women applied for admission lo Har- 
vard, but received an unqualified refusal from Presi- 
dent Quincy. After two years spent in Virginia as a 
governess, she returned to the North a confirmed 
anti-slavery woman. She was at the head of the 
high school at Duxbury. Alass., until her marriage to 
the Rev. D. P. Livemiore in 1843. Her home waa 
then in Chicago, where Mr, Livermore was editor 
and proprietor of the Universalist publication, " The 
New Covenant." Mrs, Livermore became associate 
editor, and divided her time and energies for many 
years between her familj;. her 
editorial work, and pulpit du- 
ties. She is descended from a 
long line of Welsh preachers, 
anil possesses by right of in- 
heritance, marked auililies as 
a public speaker, being humor- 
ous and (mlhetic by (urns. It 
is. Iiowever, by her work In 
connection with the Sanitary 
commission that she is best 
known. With Mrs. Hoyt she 
was appointed, by the com- 
mission, agent of the Chicago 
branch assuciatioD. and in ISfia 
she traveled widely through tiie 
northwestern states, organizing 
Soldiers'aidsocieties, Sbevlsit- .^ 

ed constantly tbe camps and 
hospitAls of the Soutliwest, and secured proper food 
for the soldiers and the sick, and overcame, largely 
by her personal efforts and service, the oppoeition 
made lo the employment of woman nurses at tbe 
front. She was ordered to make a tour of the mili- 
tary posts and hospitals on tbe Mississippi river, 
wliicli resulted in an organized attack on the scurvy 
that threatened to decimate the ranks of the anny. 
At her solicitation immenscqunntitiesof fresh vegeta- 
bles were sent to the post, Ihe prompt distribution of 
which averted the danger, Wlien money and sup- 
plies became more and more dlfHcnlt to obtain, she 
organized the great Northwestern fair at Chicago in 
1863, the first of the sanitary fairs held thrnighout 
Ibecounti^. TheChicagofair netted neariy flOO.OOO 
to tbe Sanitary commission. She afterward organized 
ten other sanitary fairs, which fumishcd large sums 
of money for the army. When the war cl(^ed she 
begau a most successful career as a lecturer, which 
brouglit her in contact with the best literary minds 
of the country, aud made for her many friends. She 
has labored incesnantly for the advancement of 
women ami their civil rights, and bos been a tireless 
worker in the cause of temperance. Of late yeare 
her home has been at Melrose, Mass. Mis. Liver- 
more has published several books. 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



83 




^ , , . . ..sined liii 

prelimiuaiy education in llie public scbools, Clnrk- 
soo Tuyloi^B academy, aud St. Mary's college in liis 
nftlive city. Id 1687 lie entered La Salle c(3lege la 
FbiladelpliJa, and was grodualed, in 18T0, with the 
flrst honoiB of his class. For a 
year thereafter he waa tutor of 
LatiD aud mathemHtics in the 
same institution, and in 1871 re- 
ceived tbe degree of master of 
arts. lu Janunrv. 18T2, he be- 

rthe study of law willi Lewis 
Cassidy and Pierce Archer 
of Philadelphia, and was admit- 
ted to Ibe bur Dec. 27. 1873. He 
remained with bis preceptors as 
their assistant until Jau. 1, 1880, 
when, his own practice requiring 
. his undivided atleulion. lie sev- 
 eredhiabusincssconiiectionwith 
tbem, and from 188(MM he was 
the law partner of James Gay 
Gordon. He devoted himself 
to his profession with unremit- 
ting energy aud tlie most pru- 
Douncod success. Couflnlng bia 
atlenlioD almost exclusively to the management of 
estates and mercantile and orphans' court practice, 
he applied himself closely to his profession. Mr. 
Hamiy did not ne$rlect the social, religious, and po- 
litical interests of Philadelphia. Ever since he at- 
tained bis majority he had been identified with the 
democratic parly, and in 1882, when the city organi- 
zation had been divided into hostile factions for some 
yeara, he was called on to harmonize the discordant 
elements. He accepted the chairmanship of the 
democratic city executive committee of Philadelphia, 
and it was largely due to his prudence, enerpr, lact, 
aad skillful mRnag:ement that Robert E. Pattison 
was elected governor of Pennsylvania alooR with 
the remainder of llie democratic ticket. At tbe close 
of the campaign, Mr. Harrity gave up otncial con- 
nection with the democratic city committee of Phila- 
delphia, but diirine several succeeding years was a 
veiy at^ve and influential member of tbe democratic 
Mate executive committee. He was elected a dele- 

re-at-large to the democratic national convention 
1884 by a larger vote than was received by any 
Pennsylvania candidate, and it is clnimed that ho 
WM the youngest man ever sent by Pennavlvania to 
a national convention in that capacity, ^be work 
of Mr. Rarrity in tbe campaign of that year was re- 
warded by hia appointmeul as postmaster of Phila- 
delphia, which poaition he held from Dec. 1, ltW5, 
to Dec. 1, 1889, when he retired to become president 
of the Equitable trust company of Philadelphia. He 
was pemianent chairman of ttie democratic state 
convention held at Scranlon, Pa., in 1880, which 
nominated Robert E. Paitisou for a second term as 
governor, and on July 2, 1800, was unanimously 
elected chairman of the democratic state central 
committee, but on account of business engagements 
be resigned the position. When Gov. Pattison assum- 
ed bis office in January. 1891, he appointed Mr. Har- 
rity Bccrelary of slate. He exerted a strong influence 
in favor of tbe nomination of Grover Cleveland by 
the democratic national convention assembled at 
Chicago in 1892. Having succeeiled the late Wil- 
liam H, Scott as the Peonaylvania member of the 
democratic national committee, he was Julv 31, 1893, 
chosen its cbairman, with headquarters in New York 
city. Mr. Harriiv is a shrewd political manager, 
aggressive, full ot tact, clean in his methods, and 
pnysically strong enough to bear the great strain put 
upon the chairman of a national committee in a 
presklential campaigIL He is a conscientious worker. 




intelligent, polite, courteous, and energetic. His con- 
duct of the campaign waa masterly, and bis defeated 
opponents accredited their misfortune largely to hia 
superior manage tiicnt. 

BABTON, Clara, humanitarian, was bom at 
North Oxford, Mass., about 1836, of Puritan ances. 
try, her father having served in the revolutionary 
army under Gen. Anthony Wayne. She received a 
careful etiucalion, aud when quite young founded a 
seminary for ^rls at Elizaljeth, N. J. Later she be- 
came a clerk in the patent oltlce at Washington, I>e- 
ingthellrst woman to liold a regular clerical position 
iu a government department. At the outbreak of the 
rebellion, slie gave her time and energies to caring 
for the sick and wounded, and led in organizing the 
Sanitary coinmisaiou. She serve*) iu the army of tlie 
Potomac ; was present at the iNitllesof Cedar Moun- 
tain, second Bull Hun, <;ijantjlly, Autletam, and 
Fredericksburg, the alegc of 
Charleston, and the storming 
of Fort Wagner, the battlea of 
Spottsylvania and tbe Wilder- 
nesa, and in front of Pelers- 
burgduringButler'scampalgn. 
She aided the Andeisonvllle 
prisoners upon tiieir release, 
and after the war ended organ- 
ized at Washington the Bureau 
of records of mis.<ring men. and 
traced out the fate of 30,000 
men. Iu ISO? she visited 
Europe for the bcueUt of her 
health, and was at Geneva 
when the Franco-Prussian war 
opened. She joined at once 
in the work of'^ the Ited cross 
society, founded iu 18G4 ; 
helped to organize the Ger- 
man hospital service, and 
nursed tbe sick and wounded at Slrasburg and Metz. 
When Strasbiirg capilulnled, aud 20,000 people were 
renders! homeless and starving, she provided ma- 
terials for 80,000 garments to be made by women 
who, but for that work, would have been without 
food. Entering Paris on foot, during tlie days of 
the Commune, she distributed food and clothing to 
the needy. Once, when the mob were clamoring for 
food and had overcome Ihe police, she came to the 
door of her lodgings and spoke to them. " Mon 
Dieu, it is an angel I " they aaid, and dispersed 
quietly and in order. Upon her relum to this coun- 
try, in 1873, she inaugurated a movement to secure 
recognition of the Red cross society by the United 
Slates government, and Anally, during the admini»- 
iratioii of President Anhur, saw her labors reward- 
ed, she naturally becoming president of the Ameri- 
can brsDch ot the society when it was founded In 
1882. In the great fires in Michigan she superin- 
leD<led the work of succoiing the afflicted. The 
telegrapliic tidings of the Charleston earthquake were 
no sooner received than she was on ber way with 



prison at Sberborn, Mass., and a lady relates that, 
white one day passing with her throtigh the wards, 
a girl convict gazed Hxedly out from her cot at Miss 
Barton. "What is it?" slie asked. "Notbiug," 
was the response ; " I beard you coming, and Just 
wanted to look at you." She was at the head of the 
disbursement of vast sums of money and other aid 
to the sufferers hv tiie Hoods on the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi rircra in 1884, and at Johnftown. Pa., in 1889. 
In 1883 the senate committee on foreign relations re- 
quested her to prepare a history of the Red cniss 
association, which has since been published by ttie 
government. Slie has devoted her income for many 
years to furthering Ihe aims of the society. 



84 



THfc NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



8TANT0K, Sliz&betli Oady, reformer, was 

bom St Johnstowu, N. T., Nov. 12, 1815, the daugh- 
ter of Judge Dauiel Cady Rod Marj^ret LivingstoQ. 
Prom lier mother she Inherited the spirit and vivacity 
which has distinguished her through a long life oc- 
cupied with puhlic apenkiiig nnd a vast amount of 
literary work in promoting the movement for woman 
suffrage, in which she hua tieen a Icuder. She says 
of her father tliat he was sober aod tacitam in man- 
ner, and with his great sense of justice was woni to 
modifythesoniewhat military rule which hermotlier 
insisted sliould prevail in ttie household. She owed 
much in her early gjrlliood to ttie friendship and 
guidiuice of Rev. ^imon Hoeack, who was the pastor 
of tiie Scotch Presbyterian church which her family 
attended. Johnstown was a Scotch settlement, in 
which the old feudal ideas reganling women and 
property were maintained, and as she spent much 
time in her fatiier's olDce slie there, through the 
complaints of unhappy and dependent women, be- 
came acquainted with tlie injustice of the common 
law, and resolved, if she lived, to do eomctliing to 
free her sex from the disabilities under which they 
were tlien living. In her cliildish indignation, think- 
ing tliat her father and his books were tlie begin- 
ning and end of the law, she marked the obnoxious 
laws with a pencil, and proposed to cut tliem out. 
When siie was ten years old 
her only brother, who hart 
just been graduated from 
Union college, died and left 
her father inconsolable: for, 
like hia neighbors, he upheld 
the law of piimogeuiture, 
and the loss of his only son 
was a terrible blow to his 
. hopes. Ellznlietli, hoping 
^ \ ,to console her father, re- 
^'solved to do nil that her 
\ brother did, and the next 

, .' morning began, with Dr. 

.^^\ Hosack, the study of Greek, 
■^ which she continue<l at the 
academy willi such success 
tliat slie sccurctl one of tlie 
two prizes offered for pro- 
tieiency in tliat language. 
She c*rric<l her prize lo her 
Dnce, expecting to hear him say that a 
gin was as giXKl as a boy, but she reconis pathet- 
fcally that ho never said it. This was a bitter dis- 
appointment to the ambitious girl. and. mortified by 
ttie inequality in condition and treatment of txiys 
and girls, stie determined to make lierscK the equal 
of man in courage and ability. Slie l)ecame pro- 
ficient in mathematics, Latin and Greek. On lietng 
frartiiated from the acatleniy. she was grieved to 
nd tliat the hope of study at Union colege. wiiich 
she bad secretly clierislied, in order to fill lier broth- 
er's place, could not be fulfilled. Great was tier 
grief at this discriniiiialiou on account of tier sex, 
wtiicli was intensifletl by beinjc sent lo Mrs. Wll- 
lard'a seminary at Trov, where slie spent two of tlie 
dreariest years of her life. Tlie next seven years slie 
passed at home, reatling widely, and devoting es- 

Cial attention to law under lier father's direction. 
this way she 1>ecamc familiar witii the laws of her 
country, and fitted herself to become the opponiint 
of oppressive Icfrislation reganlinj; women. In 1840 
she married Henry B. Stanton, already well kni 
as a leader and lecturer in liie ami-slavery mi 
went. Mr, Stanton biing a delegate to the "World's 
Anti-Slavery convention" held in Loudon in June, 
1840, they went to that city on their wedding trip. 
Here her indignation was stirred anew by the im- 
puution of inferi<irity cast upon women by the 
refusaltoadmit Mrs. Mott and other Americanwomen 




^7-*^- -"^--^t^^^D- 






thinker among her own sex, and the friendship thus 
Itegun continued through forty yeani, and assisted 
in determining Mrs. Stanton to devote her life and 
energies to ttie social, political and moral elevation 
of women. For six years following her return home 
she lived in Boston, during whicti time she made a 
thorough and historical study of the position of 
women, the result of which was that, in addition to 
the riglits claimed by Mrs. Mott— lo more remuner- 
ative work, to hold property after marriage, to ad- 
vanced education, and to independent judgment in 
religion — Mrs. Stanton demanded the removal of 
women's civil disabilities, by making their political 
status thesameas that of men. InH^ftshe removed 
to Seneca Falls, and, with Mrs. Mott and others, 
issued the call for tlie Srst Woman's Rights conven- 
tion. IC was held st Seneca Palls Juty 19 and 30, 
1848, and inaugurated tiie womsn'SuBrage move- 
ment. Though in her call she deliued the object of 
the convention to l>e the discussion of the social, 
ciyii and religious rigtits of women, and made no 
allusion to women's political rights, yet in her dec- 
laration of sentiments, which she prepared as a basis 
for discussion, she declared it to be the duly of 
"women of this country to secure to themselves 
their sacred right to the elective franchise," which 
has ever since been tlie keynote of the movement. 
Neither her husband, who had prepared for the 
conveiiti<in an abstract of the laws bearing unjustly 
aKsinst the property interests of women, nor Mis. 
Moll, who was the ruling spirit of the occasion, ap. 
proved of Mrs. Stanton's demand for the ballot, and 
argued that it would only bring ridiculeon the cause. 
Mis. Stanton persisted, however, and spoke vigor- 
ously and eloquently in defence of her course, with 
the result that her declaration and resolutions in detail 
were 8dopIe<l by the convention. This new de- 
parture of tlie movement had no sympalliizers out- 
side the convention, and of those memtiers who 
signed, many requested later to iiave their names 
withdrawn. Judge Cody, alarmed at his daugh- 
ter's radicalism, hastened to her home, where he^a- 
bored anxiously with her, but in vain, to cliange her 
convictions. In 1850 Miss Antliony became Mrs. 
Stanton's aasix;iate laborer in reform — the former 
managing aSaii's, tlie latter writinc — each supple- 
menling tlie work of the other, and both laboring 
with unscltisli ambition and enthusiasm for the 
cause of woman's riglits. Whatever may have 
been irapnident in Iheir utlcrances, or impolitic in 
their methods, their motives have always been the 
result of the highest moral repird for woman's ad- 
Tsucemenl socially and morally. For forty years 
liiey liave been co-workers and cievoted friends, and 
likened to Ihe Iwo sticks of a dnim in keeping up 
the "mli-R-dub of agitation." Mi's. Blauton baa lec- 
tured widely lo secure the atwlitioii of laws unjust 
to tier >K\i slie lias also frequently addressed state 
legislatures, asking for changes in the laws rehiting 
to intemperance, education, divorce, slavery and 
BufTnii.'e. Her declaration was modeled after Jeffer- 
son's declaration of Independence, and constituted 
tiie first public demand on record for woman suf- 
frage, and she mav !» considered the originator of 
tlie moveniciit. In 1866, twlieving women to l>e eli- 

?ible lo public otbce. though denied the elective 
rancliise, she offered hersclias a candidate for con- 
fifim the eighth New York district. In ber 
incement she said: "Belonging lo a disfran- 
chiiieil class, I have no political antecrfents lo recom- 
mend me to your support ; but my creed is free 
siM'ech, free pn«s. free men, and free trade — the 
canllnal points of democracy." She received twenty- 
fonr voles. With Miss Antliony and Parker Pilfe- 
bury she established and ©dit«d in New York the 



OP AUSBICAN BIOGBAPHT. 



8S 



-woman'arightsjoumal.callMl tbe"Revolutluii."TbU 
venture, tbough brillUnllj supporied, came to flnao- 
da) ruio. and wa» »ubsequentty merged in the " Lib- 
eral Cliristian," edited by Dr. Bellows, thus finding, 
Mrs. SunloD said, "Christian burial in consecral^ 
cruuud." Slie bas resided fur mau; yenrs at Tena- 
iy. N. J., where her borne has been an attractive 
social centre. Her ready wit and good nature, ber 
sympathy witli the oppressed, her scorn of wrong, 
ber chanty, her love for luslice and liberty, her In- 
tellectual ability and moral energy, give this woman. 
admirable In character and life, a unique place in 
the history of American women. Like Daniel O'Cou- 
nell, it baa been her cuatom to claim eveiytbhig for 
ber sex. In order to obtain eometbing; ana in devot- 
incber life to securing for women the elective fran- 
chise, she has sought to preserve to [hem al) their 
womanliness, the possibility of which a best illus- 
tiaied in ber own life. 

HIOKHAK, 'William Hovftrd, president of 
Clark uoiveniily, Atlanta, Ga., was boru in Crab 
Orchard. Ky.. Oct. 15, 1844. His grand fat her, Col. 
Hike Hickman, was a gallant otHcer of Virginia in 
the revolutionary war, and alationed at Norfolk. 
His father, John Hickman, and mother, Sarah Pitts, 
both of tbe larger and older families of Virginia, 
removeii from tbe old family 
homestead west of Abingdon. 
Va., to Kentucky. His uncle, 
Peter Hickman, wa« a wealthy 
planter and merchant, and re- 
mained on the homestead In 
Virginia, though spending 
much time on his plantation in 
Mississippi. Gen. James Hick- 
man, of Nasbville, Tenn., be- 
lou^d to this Hicknmn fam- 
ily. William Howard was an 
orphan in 1^46. His brother 
Jamea took him in 1S49 to 
Crawfordsville, Ind., to grow 
. - -' , upoff of slave soil. He enlist- 

A , , ^_, ed in tbe lOtb Indiana 

'^^::^^/~:^-i.^C..^^::l^-**.^'*t^ Infantry and then the 
39th, and served gallant- 
ly lotheclose of tlie war. 
He studied medicine, but fell railed lo the Christian 
ministry, joined the Methodist Episcopal church, was 
^aduatetl from the classical cuiirac at Asbury (now 
De Pauw) university, Ind., in 1873. He spcntsome 
time in Evanslon theological school, and also in the 
Scho«l of oratory of Boston. He joined the North- 
west Indiana conference In 1873, was stationed at 
West Lafayette. Attica, Delphi, Frankfort, and the 
First church. South Beuiliwas made presiding elder 
of Crawfordsville district in 1887, and waa elected 
in 1888 delegate to tbe general conference in New 
Tork: was offereil in 1880 the presidency of tbe 
Montana Weslcyan university; was tendered also, 
and accepted tbe presidency oi Clark uuiveraily. at 
Atlanta, Ga. A deep sense of duly arising from 
bi* study of. and sympathy with, tlie colored poo 
pie, bis earnest desire to do them good, growing out 
of his experience among them ana his birtli in the 
South, together with bis experience on tbe board of 
control of tbe southern e<iiicution work of hiscburch 
led him to Ibis work. He became llie head of this 
important university September, 188B, an<l is now in 
Chai^- In 1888 he was made doctor of divinity by 
Dc Pauw university, and in 1891 was elected by lib 
conference allcmale delegate to the general confer 
ence of 1892 in Omaha, Neb. He married, in 1875, 
the only daughter of Prof, J. S. Houghani of Per 
due university. Dr. Hickman was a brave si>ldier, 
IS of the army 
s changed to 




cavalry after the battle of Stone river. He served 
under the famous Kilpatrick; was wounded at Nick- 
ajack Gap, Ga.; taken prisoner at Richmond, Ky., 
and again at Solemn Grove, in the south of Georgia, 
and lay iu Libby prison when Grant took Richmond. 
Dr. Hickman is a magnetic preaclier. an aggress- 
ive probibillouiat, a w&e financier and a clear-head- 
ed business man ; liberal and just in politics, fearless 
in his deliverances; of broad charity, broad informa- 
tion and cimsummate tact. He is winning friendsto 
colored education, nud is known as an ^ucator of 
decided strength. He is patriotic, loves harmony, 
has a deep desire for the North and South to become 
one. He toils for the day when the golden rule shall 
prevail in tbe whole land, and his country become 
the Light of the World. 

EDDT, Luther Devotioiit surveyor, was bom 
In Center Brunswick, N. Y,, Sept. 24, 1810, son of 
John Eddy, a well-to-do farmer, descended from 
John and Samuel Eddy, who sailed from England 
ou tbe sbip Handmaid, and landed in Plymouth in 
1G30. Of the descendanU, Obadiab Eddy mar- 
ried Abigail Devotion — and the name Devotion has 
been rctidned In tlie family for 250 years. Luther 
worked on his father's farm, attending Ihe district 
school and the Cox sackie academy. He was a school- 
teacher in Ills native town, and 
in his leisure moments studied 
the art of surveying. With a 
practical, analytical mind, and 
by close application he soon mas- 
tered tbe details of his chosen 
profession, and after a course 
of private study in engineering 
at tbe Rensselaer pdylechnic 
Institute, under Prof, f^lon, he 
located in Troy, N. Y., in 1853, 
and commenced business as a 
surveyor. His business grew, 
rapidly, and for half a century 
he represented some of the larg- 
est landholders in that section. 
He was not only an authority on 
land surveying, but as well on 
laud titles. In his fifty years' 
experience be bad but one law- 
suit decided against his testimony. This was early 
iu his career; tbe case was appealed to a higher 
court, and the judgment reversed. Thiscase became 
historical in tbe ndgbborhood. being a long 



,.g5^ 




--^ZiX-^^^-i^U^ 






ever after by bolh families. He was city surveyor 
of Troy from 1953 to 1850. He was at various times 
village surveyor of Lansineburg. West Troy, Green- 
buab and Green Island. He was surveyor and en- 
gineer of llic Burden iron works, and was employed 
by the cities of Whitehall. Montreal and other places. 
Jlr. E<ldy was a communicant of St. John's P. E. 
church for more than thirty ycar^i, and was a mason 
of high order. He died at bis borne iu Troy Sept. 
8, 18B3. 

BROOH, Jacob, stntesman. was bom in 1752, 
and was the familiar associate of all the public men 
of bis day. He was a niemlier of the Annapolis 
(Md.) convention <IT86) and a delegate from Dela- 
ware to the convention to frame the federal cimsti- 
tution. together with Ge<irgc Read. Gunuinj: Bed- 
ford. Jr., John Dickinson, and Richard Bassclt. 
His signature appears among tliose who subscribed 
to that document on Sept. 17, 1787. Mr. Broom flilcd 
many oHlces of trust in Delaware. An address 
to den. Washington. Doc. 17, 1783. was written 
by him and has been pronounced unrivRled as a 
composition. He died iu Philadelphia, Pa., Apr. 
25, 1810. 



THE NATIONAL CTCLOP,BDIA 



aOODTEAB, OharleB, inventor, wsa bom at 
New Haven, Conn., Dec 39. 1800. His faUierwaa 
AmasB Qoodycar, a pioneer in tlie manufacture of 
American liardwarc. who bad mucli of the inventive 
geniuswhicli made liis sod a noted man. His mother 
was Cynlbia Batemau. The son's education was 
malDly secured in ttie public schools of New Haven, 
but while iic was a boy bis father removed to Nau- 
gatucb, in llie same county, acentre of manufactures, 
lyins upon a small river of the same nanie. In 1807 
the latber tiegan the manufacture of tlie first pearl 
buttons made in America, and in the war of 1813-15 
supplied the U. S. government with metal buttons. 
He also looii out patents for the malting of hay and 
manure forlis from steel, which prov^ pronlable 
pecuniarily. The son spent much of his lime u|ian 
a farm and in the factory, but developed a decided 
taste for reading, mostly in the Bible and religious 
works. The inventive talent of young Goodyear 
was flmt exercised in the improvement of articles 
used on his father's farm. On one occasion he 
tooit up a tliin scale of India-nibber that had been 
peeled from a bottle, and conceived the notion 
that it would become a very serviceable fabric if it 
could be made uniformly thin, and prepared in such a 
way as to prevent its melting and sticking together 
in a solid mass. Desinn^ to 
study for the Christian ministry 
after liis union with the church, 
be found bis way hedged np, 
and his mind turned toward 
the conviction which employed 
his powers for the greater 
part of his life, "that an ol>- 
ject so desirable, so impor- 
tant, and so necessary to man's 
comfort as tbe making gum- 
elastic available for Ins use, 
was most certainly placed with- 
in his reach." In 1816 he lie- 
came an apprentice with the 
Ann of Rogers Bros., at Pliii- 
yf^".^ ' ..^ ' adelpliia. Pa., to learn the 

{ ,- ' - .^•''''^?^, , , y , J, hardware business. When he 
*-^'^^^ ^.J■B^^^ ^^ reached hU majority he 
-^ -^ relumed to Connecticut and 
entered into pnrtnorsbip with 
his father in tiiat Irade. In 
1886 he removed to Philadelphia lo manage the store 
opened in that city for the sale of gixids manufac- 
tured by his firm, and for a time was successful; but 
in 1830 inability lo realize their Southern (U. 8.) 
payments caused the closing up of the concern. Por 
ten years after the failure Mr. Qnodyear was repeat- 
edly imprisoned fordeU, while seekmg so todevelop 
uuDnished Inventions that his creditors might be 

ejd. Within Jail limits he at one time perfected an 
vention.from the sale of which he derived tbemeans 
of subsistence for himself and family. About this 
period (1831 or 1833) Che manufacture of gum -elastic, 
commonly called IndU-rubber, was begun in the 
United States, and he Iwcameanew and more strongly 
Interested in developing it for varied and practical 
uses. The special otistacle he had to contend with 
was the diHiculty in treoting the rubber, wliicli was so 
affected by extremes of heat and cold, that it melted 
in the one case and stiffened in the other. One com- 
pany had made large quantities of shoes and other 
goods, in the fall and winter of 1833-34. ond had 
sold them at good prices, but in the succeeding sum- 
mer tbcgreatcr part Lad melted, and (20.000 worth of 
goods had been returned to them decomposed, and 
emitting so offensive an odor as to render it neces- 
sary to have them buried in the earth. Strenuous 
effort had been put forth to obviate this dillleulty, 
but without success. To that object Mr. Goodyear 
now gave his life, and the story of his career is one 




mouth, and more than once upon what was rirtunlly 
the charity of friends, sometimes selling the chil- 
dren's booiis and pieces of household uimiture to 
meet the calls of hunger. He met with no real en- 
couragement of success for the first four years of 
his investigations, which were not seldom carried on 
in prison. Then came the disappointment of hopes 
which had been excited, with the work apparently 
to be all done over again. He became at last tliB 
butt ofthose who could not share his faitb — anon pro- 
ducing fabrics which excited attentitm and even ad- 
miration, only to tie found subject to tlie same af- 
fections in varj-ing temperatures as those which bad 
gone before them. He remained calm, patient, as- 
sured of ultimate and lasting success amid these ex- 
periences; bore bis privations and sufferings with he- 
roic fortitude, and after more than one vicissitude 
of appartnlij assured prosperity and abject poverty 
succeeding each other, in tiie early months of 1839 
relief came in his discovery of a process by which 
high degrees of heat, applied to rubber wliich had 



in all temperatures. But it was two years before be 
could convince one person, out of bis immediate 
family circle, that he had made the valuable discov- 
ery. William Rider of New York city finally fur- 
nished sufficient capital to carry on the manufacture 
of goods for tlie joint benefit of Mr. Goodyear and liim- 
sell. Gnodyear's first patent was taken out in 1844, 
and about this time he had his last experience of a, 
debtor's prison Id the United States at Springfield, 
Mass. He had not availed himself of the bankrupt 
law to cover himself from bis creditors, but was now 
induced to do so that he might be abielded from 
malicious prosecutions, and nave time to secure 
funds to repay his Just creditors. It was but a few 
years from this date that he had done this to the 
amount of fSo.OOO. And by bis discovery "he had 
added to the arts." says Mr. Parton. "not a new 
material, merely, but a new class of materials appli- 
cable to a thousand diverse uses." His brother-in- 
law, William De Forrest, aided bim largely l>eforo 
his first patent wss obtained. At tiiis lime the 
health of Mr. Goodyear t>egan to break. He sought 
to obtain patents for his process in Great Britain and 
in France, but was unsuccessful, and In the latter 
country had his final experience in the way of iall 
confinement for debt. During this period of his life 
his troubles came, in the majority of coses, from 
men who endeavored to infringe upon bis rights, 
and, in the words of the U. S. commissioner of pat- 
ents. " No inventor, probably, lias ever been so 
harassed, so trampled upon, so plundered by pirates 
as he — tlieir s|)oliations upon him tiaving unquestion- 
ably amounted to millions of dollare." In six ycais 
fromthetimeMr. Goodyear discovered the processor 
curing rublier, Che companies which held the right 
of manufacturing shoes alone under his patent paid 
Daniel Webster a fee of $35,000 tor his triumphant 
argument in the trial which estaiilished Mr. Good- 
year's title lo the honor and emoluments of his in- 
ventlon. Before bis death he saw vulcanized rubber 
applied to neariy 500 different uses, and 80,000 peo- 
ple engaged in making the articles into which it had 
been fashioned. Mr, Goodyear received medals at 
Ix>ndou in 1851, in Paris in 185.5; also the cross of 
the legion of honor. "Trials of an Inventor," by 
B. K. Pierce, was published in New York in 1860. 
and a further notice of his life and work may be 
found in James Parton's "Famous Americans of 
Recent Times" (Boston, 1867). He died in New 
York city July 1, 1860. 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 




ti^p^^ic^e^^^^^ ! 



FELDBTEIN, Thaodore, was born in Ger- 
many (n 1(«MJ, and canin to the United Slalea in 
1856. He worked on a fami in Bocblnnd coniily, 
S. T., in 18o0-57, and on (he N. Y. " Hiimorist," 
a <jermaQ weekly pa|)cr. In ia.'W-59, »iid as a liatter 
ill Danbiiry. Ccmn., to tlie Hpringot Wil. He re- 
Bponiled ia President Lin- 
coln's Uret cull for troops to 
aiippress the rcbclllun in 
1861. He enlisted aa a pri- 
vate in i)io Isl Connecticut 
^^_ ^ voiunteers on llie 19th uf 

^1^ W April, ItWl, and was mus- 

tered out on the 31st of 
July, 1801. He re-enlisled 
in company G, 68)li New 
York volunteers, Aug. 14, 
1861. as a ««r^nnC, and for 
meritorious conduct waa com- 
missioned a second liculenant 
June. 1863, a first liemcnaut 
May, 1868, and captain July, 
1863. and was musiored out 
at Fort Pulaski, Ga., Nov- 
ember, 1865, attera service of 
four yearaaud seven mouths. 
He took part in the Sist 
and second battles of Bull 
Run. also the battles ut Cross Keys, Waterloo 
Bridtre. Clinncellorsville. Gettysburg, Booualwro", 
Lookout Mciuniain and Decatur. He ioiued Koltca 
Post. Si). 82, Q. A. R,. of New York, in 1867, and 
has represented the iKist at every ilepartinent en- 
rampment for the past twenty years; he has also 
represented the department as aide-de-camp on the 
siafi of corn inanders- In chief Bunieit, Paircliild and 
Warner. He waa also assistant qiiartermastcr-cen- 
eral of the departnicnt of New York under Col. 
Floyd Clarbsou. Capt. Feldslein'a charities for 
veterans of the lale war are numerous, his name 
bang a syuonym of patriotism, fraternity, charity 
and lovalty lo the survivors of the late war; mem- 
ber of Jolin Hancock F. and A. M., No. TO, since 
1856: al<ui of the German society. German dispen- 
sary of the city of New York, German hospital aid 
society, Moiini I^lnal hospital. New York, and sev- 
eral other charitable organ iuitions. 

WAAREK , Orris Hubert, editor and clergy- 
man, wna bom at Stockbridge, JIadtsou county, 
S. Y.. Jan. 3. 1B33, the son of a prosjjeroua farmer 
and descendant of a prominent 
New England family. He waa 
educated at Cazenovia seminary 
in his native county, and at Ober- 
)in college. He entered the min- 
istry of the Metliu«list Episcopal 
church in 1863, in connection 
with the Oneida conference. Af- 
ter twelve years in tiie imKtoratc, 
servinK prominent churches in 
central New York, Mr. Warren 
was appointed assistant etlilor of 
the " Northern Christian Advo- 
cate," an oltlcial MetlnidiNt jour- 
nal published in Syracuse. N.Y., 
and on the death of the cdilor- 
in-cliief, in May, 1875, he wna 
appointed acting editor. In 
May, 1876, he waa elected to 
tlie edilorship of (he "Advo- 
cate " by the general conference, 
wliii'li pip-iiiiiii he continued to bold by subsequent 
re-i'leciion.-i iialil Jiuie 1, 1893. His retirement was 
at his own request, and for the purpose of inde- 
pendent literary work. During his eighteen years 
of editorial service the paper under bis charge 



on his retirement, that "Dr. O. H. Warren c 

will) him the rest^ect and love of his readers. His 
editorials were literary classics. Force was never 
sacridced for beauty; imder his pen tlie twain be- 
came one." Tlie "Christian Advocate" on the 
same occasion spoke of him as "A man of unusual 
ability, of unniislakable ciiiirage, of remarkable in- 
dustry and of diversified accomplislunenls." Olwr- 
lin college cutiferred upon Dr. Warren the degree 
of A.M., and Syracuse university tliat of D.D. In 
I8T7 Dr. Warren was elected to the legislature of 
bis Btale, a regent of the University of liie state of 
New Y'ork, which posilion he si ill holds. In 1880 
he wns a member of llie general conference, and in 
1881 he served aa a delegate in the CEcumeuicai con- 
ference in London, £ng. 

HALL, Alexander Wilford, pbilnsopber, waa 
born at Balh, N. Y., Aug. 18, 1819. After several 
yeara of preparation in elementary studies, he enier- 
eil tlie Chiislian ministry as an itinerant evangelist. 
His extensive knowlnigc of llie Bible, combined 
with tiis skill as a debater, soon brought him Into 
prominence, and gave him great power over his an- 
tagimisla in the discussion of scriptural topics. His 
most noted discussions were 
with the UniversalistB, which he ^ 

subsequently published, at the 
age of twenty -four, in booli 
form, under the title of "Uni- 
versalism Against Itself," and 
which reached a sale of 50,000 
copies. After more tlian thirty 
years of comparative retire 
meut, during which time lie 



//i^fir4Wu 




" Problem of Human Lite, 
overthe pen name of "Wilford," 
which called into question some 
of tlie most popular theories in 
science. Its app^rance was, 

K radically, the beginning of 
is life as a philosopher and 
a pliysicist. Taking his revo- 
lutionary ])i»ition u]Min the paradoxical ground tiial 
nature coniiiins immiiterial as well as material sub- 
stanceii, he iissuiled the different theories of evolution, 
as advanced and advocated by Darwin. Huxley, and 
Haeckel. The peculiar force of bis attacks was de- 
rive<i largely from tlie well-established pro)>osiliou 
of his KylUiglsin that all living beings, wlietlicr ani- 
mals or men. have an immaterial inward organism, 
no less real and substanlial than tiie physical hodv 
in which they tabernacle, and in union with whicli 
encli organic being is constiinlcd a dual sinicture. 
In the same volume, the current or wave theory of 
sound wns also attacked, and the new or snbstantial 
theory advanced, as moi-e in harmony with the ob- 
vious forces, facts, and laws of nature. Tills theory 
was bnse<l upon the general posilion Ihat every force 
of nature, whetlier physical, vital, mental, or spirit- 
ual, is a substantial entity. Sound, like oilier forms 
of pliysical force. «. g. light, heat, and electricity, 
Birictly Kiicaking, is not mwle, lint lilieraled. Such 
liberation is the etlcct of the sudden sto[w and starts 
of the material substance of the fork, siring, or any 



but their eonilucling medium — any n 
medium caused at Ihe tinie by the vibration of such 
liberating bixly being but incidental. Consistent 
with these views, lie maintains that motion, per m. 



THE NATIONAL CTCLOPiEDIA 



is absolutely uothlDg, being the mere poeitioD of any 
substantial thing in space changing from one place 
to aDOllier. In selling fortli his substantial theory 
of sound, he assailed the writings of Tyndall, Helm- 
holtz, aud Mayer, the leading acousliciatis itf the 
world. In 1881 Mr. Ilail established the "Micro- 
cosm," which he made the organ of subslantialism, 
which in modern metaphysics is the antithesis of 
speculative idealism. lu 1882 Lebanon Valley col- 
lege. Pa., conferred upon him the degree of Ph.D. 
In 1885 he received that of LL.D. fiom the Florida 
Slate university, and in 1891 he was unanimously 
elected fellow nf the Victoria institute and philo- 
sophical society of Great Britain. Mr. Halt's otiier 
published works are; " Immortality of the Soul," 
"Hygiene Secret of Health," ten volumes of the 
"Micnwosm," and two volumes of the "ScieutiBc 



their truest notes are like the heart-music of Whlt- 
tier. Many of his hymns are in the standard hymn- 
books, and some of Ihem will doubtless conliniie in 
permanent use, Mr. MacKellar has lived a life of 
great usefulness. Alllioiigh since early maubood 
actively engaged in the conduct of a great business, 
lo which lie filill gives some allention as president of 
the company, vet he has also accomplished a great 
amount of relirious work. Few men have reached 
a higher place m the reverence and esteem of their 
associates. He Is a member of the Historical society 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia academy of natural 
sciences, Pennsylvania museum of art, Franklin in- 
stitute, and vanous finaucial and 1>eneviilent inslilu- 
tioRS. On Sept. 27, 1S34, be married Elvira Rtno, 
of Bcotch-Iriah descent, by whom he had ten chil- 
dren. The death of his wife and five of his chil- 



dren may have influenced the tenor of his bymiw. 
Several yeara uco the Woosler univeniily of Ohio 
conferred on him the honorary degree of doctor 



18i3. His father emigrated from Greenock (Scot- 
laud), to New York early in this century. Hia 
mother was a lineal descendant of Henry Bresier, 
who received from William Kieft, diieclor-general 
ofNewYork, a patent dated Sept. 4, lftl5, for thirty- 
three acres of land in the lower section of the city. 
Compelled by circumstances lo quit the classical 
academy in bis thiriecnlb year, in May. 18211, he 
entered ihe printing offlce of the New York "Soy," 
and two years later he became an apprentice ti> J. 
& J. Harper, With this Itrm he became so noted 
for his mechanical skill with types, his literary accu- 
racy, and hU taste for letters, that he was promoted, 
at the age of seventeen, to the post of proof reader. 
Apr, 37, 1833, he accepted the position of foreman 
and proof reader in L. Johnson's type and sloieotype 
foundry in Philadelphia. Here lie toiled so hard 
and acceptably that in 1845 L. Johnson sold him an 
interest in the buriness, and iu 1880 he liccame the 
head of tlie Arm. The great prosperity and the 
world-wide fame of this type foun dins house is 
largely due to Mr. MacKellar's 
unique and enlerprising meth- 
ods of Impressing the craft witb 
the ability and re.;oiirces of the 
house in every branch of the 
typographic art. One edition 
of a book disjjlaying the type 
and ornaments made by llie nrrn 
cost nearly |40,000. and book 
fanciers are beginning to look 
for it. In its peculiar line it 
slandsalonein the world. From 
^,? 18.')5 lo 1885 he edited the " Ty- 
pographic Advertiser," a peri- 
odical founded by him, and 
well known by printers in most 
parts of the woild. It Is now 
, ].,'■■'■ nnder the dircclioii of his son, 

tijSai-/'m4^i>^U-*^ William B. MncKellar, His 
^^K4^f m^^AJ^^'^'^-*^ ^^^^ g„,[,le,, ji,g ..American 

Printer," has reached its sev- 
oiteentb edition, and is u.ted by publishers and au- 
thors, as well as proof re;ide'rs and compositors. 
3[r. MacKellar gave early signs of poetic p^<x^livi- 
ties. He has given to the world: " Droppings from 
the Heart," "Liuei fur the Gentle and Lovine," 
"Khynies At wei-n -Times," and "Hymns and Met- 
rical Psalms," While many of these i)oenin display 
a good deal of descriptive power and cotislrlerable 
humor, those that are likely lo live are icivariablir 
such as have homely themes, and appeal lo the sensi- 
bilities of the human heart. These are marked by 
simplicity of form and tenderness of feeling, and 





cyj'Ui^^' 



Several yeara u^o the Woosler univeraily of Ohio 

of philosophy. 

BVBB, Oamer Sherwood, manufacturer, was 
born In Sullivan county, N. Y„ Apr. 23. 1K4». His 
paternal ancestor, Daniel Burr, was one of Ibe early 
settlers of the New Haven colony, in what is now 
Fairlield, Conn. On llie mater- 
nal side he is descended from 
the Gregorys, whose ancestry is 
traced from Ralph Gregory, liv- 
ing In 12G3, son and hen' of Bir 
Francis Gregory, dispensator to 
Bimon de Moutfort. Both the 
paternal and malcrnal ancestors 
served in the" Connecticut Line " 
duringibe war of the revolution, 
and his maternal grandfather, 
Stephen Gregory, was an oltlcer 
of the U. S. frisBie Confederacy, 
captured by a Biitish frigate in 
1781. Ttie grandfaiber of Mr. , 
Burr removed to Sullivan coun- 
ty, N. Y., soon after the war of 
the revolution. Mr. Burr was 
graduated from the Stale nor- 
mal institute at Liberty. N. ¥., 
in 186.1. He decided on a mer- 
cantile career, and removed to Newburg, N. T., 
where be opened a music slore, which he car- 
ried on successfully for some years. He subse- 
qtionlly commeucea the manufacture of cabinet 
organs in Worci'ster, Mass,, with an offlce in New 
York. The active and not always honesi competi- 
tion in this business nt the lime, aud Ihe inferior 
instriimenis put upon the market, resulted in its 
not proving sufllciently remunemtive to justify his 
continuing the business, and in 1881 he en^ged 
in the oil reflniug business, the reOneries Ixiug lo- 
cated at Oil City, Pa,, which he carried on suc- 
cessfully for some yeare. In 1888 he orgeniKed ihe 
American railway equipment companv, associat- 
ing with him H, rt. Craiy. William Fullerion. A. S. 
Hatch, and other prominent men. AspreaideDt and 
mRimser of this company he has introduced many 
valnalile Inventions to railroad companies, and thus 
pnivcd himself a bcnefacl.or to the inventor as well 
as benefiting llie companies and Ihe Iraveling pub- 
lic. He Is a man of stron" will, energetic and per- 
severing in his elforls. and capable of grent nnder- 
lakinas. All his transactions with railroad cumjia- 
nies have been open nnd above board, affording 
equal advantages aud facilities lo alt in ado])tiug or 
rejecting llie improvements and inventions he con- 
trols. By this means he secures the confidence of 
the rallriivd companies as well as inventors and man- 
ufacturers, and has achieved success where oUiers 
have failed. 



OF AHEKICAN BIOOBAPHT. 



TANHEB, Beqjunin Tncker, bishop of the 
A. M. E. cliureb, was bom in Pittsburg. Pa., Dec. 
25, 1835. When quite youni; he was self-iodentured 
U> a trade, and soon earDed suttlclent means to Bup- 
purt himself. Haviag ai;quired a good preparuloiy 
education in the public schiiols. be eutered Avery 
college and completed the ciass- 




icaUi 



tt tlwt 



studied theology at the Western 
theological seminary. AllcgbaDj 
city. Pa. During a brief itin- 
erant career he was assigned to 
leading charges, including Bethel 
Cliiirch. Baltimore. lu 1867 he 
wrote and publislicd " Au Apol- 
ogy for African Methodism," a 
work showing diligent research 
regarding the aim and purpose of 
the African MethMliBl polity. On 
^ account of its incisive Blateraent 
nad liieniry merit this book gained 
i'lir its author wide rccognitjoo 
fur scholarship. The same year 
he was chosen by the general 
conference editor of the "Chris- 
tina Recorder," the ofUcial organ 
of the A. M. E. cliurch. He held 
that posilioD and dLtchargcd its 
duties with remarkable ability during the succeed- 
ing Bixleen years. lu 1H84 he was selected to edit 
tlie "African Metho<list Quarterly Review." a pub- 
lication founded that year by the general confer- 
ence. Under liis wise direction it succeeded, and 
*oon became recognized as an authority on all ques- 
tinns relating to the negro race. The articles from 
negro contribulurs which filled its columns covered 
a wide range of subjects, and the magazine rose to 



1 this c 



'^}n- 



ion of Ilia ability and leadership, 
evated to the bishopric, and assigned to 
the supervision of ilie work of bis church in Canada. 
Bermuda and the West Indies. During the succeed- 
ing fonr years he was engaged in episcopal vjaita- 
tions throughout his district, and also discharged the 
duties belonging to a vacant episcopal district in the 
United States. The general conference held in Phil- 
adflpliia in May. 1893. in conformity to its itinerant 
policy, reapportioned its episcopal assignments, and 
designated Bishop Tanner the resident and presiding 
bi.-'hop of the Fir^t district of Uie church, embracing 
the New En^and states. New York, New Jersey 
and Eastern Pennsylvania — a pueltlou in many re- 
spects tbe most important in sco|>e and character 
among llie negroes in the United Stales. In adilition 
to his episcopal duties Bishop Tanner is a frequent 
contributor to the leading loumals, notably the 
Kew York "Independent." He is terse iu his dic- 
tion, forceful in expression, keen and logical in ar- 
gument, and in his writing illustrates a comprehen- 
sive grasp of tbe subject under consideration. He 
is the author of "The Origin of the Negro," "Is 
the Negro (Cursed?" "Outlines of History," and 
other works of merit, besides having contributed 
niimcTous poems of rare beaiily of sentiment to va- 
rious publications. Tbe Wilbcrforce university 
gave bim the degree of D.D. in 16T8. He has been 
a member of different (Ecumenical councils. 

TANVEK, Heary Osaawa, son of Bishop Tan- 
ner, was bom in Pittsburg. Pa., June 21, 1859, and 
is au ariist of recognizi-il ability. He has been a very 
Euccessfut student of Benjamin Ciinstant, in Paris, 
France, where he on several occasions carried otTthe 
honors of his class. 

DILLON, Hall« Tanner, daughter of Bishop 
Taaner, was bom in Pittsburg, Oct. 17, 1804. She 
was graduated from the Woman's medical college of 



Philadelphia In 1891, and Immediately thereafter was 
called to Alabama as resident physician at Tuskeg«e 
Normal school. She is the first of her sex to suc- 
ceed in passing tbe examination before the Stale 
medical board. 

BABNET, Everett Hosmer, inventor, was 
born in Framingham. Mass., Dec. 7. 1835, the son 
of Jaries S. and Harriet (Hosmer) Barney. His fa- 
ther, who was a native of Taunton, Mass. was born 
Feb. 4. 1789, and died Dec. 27, 1859. He was a 
manufacturer of machinery tor woolen mills at 
Saxonville, Framingham, Mass., and made several 
important improvements in looms and spinning ma- 
chlnety, which are still used in some of tlie largest 
mills in the country. His mother, bom in Acton, 
Mass., Feb. 5. 1H05, died Aug. 16, 1847, was de- 
scended fi-om the Hosmers of that place, some of 
whom fought in the battle at Lexington. The 
union resulted in nine children. Everett Hosmer, 
the Hftb child, was educated at the public schools, 
and at the academy at Framingham. followed his 
father's business until. 1851, when he engnged as a 
contractor on locomotive work for Hinkley it Drewer 
nf Boston. Moss. Ilwaswhileworkingforlhem that 
Mr. Barney conceived the idea of fastening skates 
by a metal clamp, dispensing entirely with the old 
method of straps and buckles, and took out bis first 
patent in 1864, followed by a scries of patents. In 
the same year James 0. Warner of 
Springfield, Mass.. having a large 
government contract for guns, en- 
gaged Mr. Barney to complete this 
cimtract. At the close of the war 
Mr. Barney turned his ntleiiCion to 
bis o»'n inventions, and to the man- 
ufacturing of Ibesanie. and formed 
a parinership with Mr. Berry, an 
old frieud who liad worked with 
him for several years. They hired 




ner. and at tbe end of two years 
Mr. Barney bought out Mr. Berry's 
interest, but retained tbe firm name 
of Barney & Berry. The business 
grew rapidly, and Mr. Barney 
erected the present mill, which is 
equipped with every modem im- 
provement. The Bamev & Beny 
skates have a world-wi<5e reputa- 
tion. In 1868 Mr. Barney invented a perforating 
mnchine for stamping out the amount payable on 
bank checks, and took out a patent for it. This 
macbiue stamps out any amount from $1 to $1,000,- 
000; also such woida as "cancelled," "paid,"elc. 
Through talent, ability, and strict attention to busi- 
ness. Mr. Barney acquired a larga fortune, and in 
1883 purchased 110 acres of laud in the southem 
rart of Springlickl. adjoining what is known as 
Forest Park, and built a handsome residence on a 
site commanding a superb view of (he Connecticut 
river and valley. The grouuds hare been laid out 
with great care, and contain many rare and valuable 
plaiils lmporic4l from Europe. Egypt. China, Japan, 
and India. His lotus and lily poiids contain many 
choice and bonuliful specimens, Mr. Barney in- 
tended bis beautiful home to pass to his only child, 
Oeoi'gc Murray, h<im on March 27, 18S;t, but his 
death in 1889 decided Mr. Barney to present the 
place to the city of Springfield, as a memorial of bis 
son, reserving tbe right to occupv it as a home dur- 
ing his life and that of his wife. By this gift Spring- 
field acquires one of tbe most bcHUtiful parks in tbe 
country, unsurpassed for rustic scenery, rare trees 
and plants, numerous ponds, brooks, rivulets, and 
drives, and which is being continually improved and 
beautified by its generous donor, to whom it will be 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



DENISON, Henry Delmater, whs bom at 

Pompey. N. Y., Mnrcb 33, 1832, t lie eldest son of 
Dr. Dauiel Dcnisou, and elglitli in de.scent from 
■Willinin Denison, wlio was boru in England about 
1580 and tmigruted tu America ill 16.11, settling at 
Roxbuif Moss accompanied bj liis wife, Marga- 
ret, and their tliree sous — 
Daniel. Edward ant! George. 
Daniel was born iu 1613. ninr- 
ricdadangblerof Qov.Tliomaa 
Dudley, and bad two cliildrcn 
— John.who marned a datitfh- 
ler of Deputy Gov. Jobn Sy- 
tnoiids, and EliKaliulU, who 
married Jobn lltijrerK, presi- 
dent of Harvart). About 1658 
some of tbc Deuisous built a 
bouse at Mystic. Coiin.. and 
surrounded it by a stockade 
to protect It from tlic assaults 
^ of tlic Indians. Tlie stix^kadc 
has siDce been removed, but 
the bouse is still slandlag, and 
is occupied by members of the 




»~^ 



1614, was tlie father of twelve 
children, and was a niaa of 
mark in Kosbury, where he died in 1668. Geor^. 
William's third sou. was born in 1018, and was twice 
married. After tbe death of his first wife iu 1643 
be returned to England, served under Cromwell in 
the army of Parliament, won distiuction, was 
woimded, and nursed at the house of a gentleman, 
whose daughter lie married. He returned to Kiix- 
bury, tinally settled at Stonington, Conn., and died 
in 1M4, He held a prominent place iu Stonington, 
and both he and hie wire are said to have been re- 
markably handsome In appenrance. and loliave had 
Sreai force of mind and character. He has been 
escribed as the " Miles Stan dish of tbc Settlement." 
but his biographer considers )iim to have been a 
greater and more brilliant soldier than Staudish, 
and that "He had no eijual in any of the colonies 
for conducting a war against Ihe Indians, exeepting 
perhaps Capt. John Alasou." Another authority 
says: " Our early history presents no character of 
bolder and more active spirit than Capt. Ocorge 
Denison ; he reminds us of the border men of Scot- 
land." He had nine children — John, the third child, 
was bom Julv 14, 1046, liad nine children and died 
in 1G»9; Daniel, liis flnh child, was bom March 28, 
1680, was a deocon in the First Congregational 
church at Slouington, was ihn^ times married, and 
died Oct. 13. IT47. His son. Daniel, Jr., was bom 
March 33, 1731. and died at Stonington May 9, 1776. 
His sixth child, Henry, was honi Nov. 36, 1753. 
marrietl in 1778, and died at Stonington in 1836. 
His fourth child, Daniel, was born Mareli 31 """* 
.and became aphvsii . . 

setlle<i and spent the remainder of his life, esteemed 
by all who knew him, and die<l iu 1854. He was the 
father of Henry Delmater, wlio. u])on the conipletlon 
of his education, spent two years in llie Medical 
school at Castleton, Vt. and suljseqiienlly was grad- 
uated from Columbia college. He returned InPoni- 
pey, entered into practice with his father, meeting 
Willi success, but his nature proved to be too sym- 

Bthctic. and at the end of two years he abandoned 
) profession. He married Melissa M. Souther- 
land, of Poinpey, and iu 1850 they removed to Syra- 
cuse, N. Y.. anil he spent the remainder of his life 
actively en^gcd in buslnessatfairs, chiefly in the con- 
struction of railroads and various important public 
works. They hod three sons, Lucius Soulherland, 
Franklin Pierce and Charles Anson. Dr. Denison 



was ademocrat, and liberally gave money and efforts 
in support of llic L'nion cause. He wiis giiid-heart- 
eil and generous, a man of excellent judgment, pru- 
dent and clear sighted. Fmnk. courteous and gen- 
erous iu Ilia intercourse, he well sustained the motto 
of the DeiiistHi cuat-of-aruis, Domaa Grnln (hospita- 
ble house). He was public-spirilwi and progressive 
in his ideas of govevmncnl, and a (irm aiivocate of 
education as a menus of relief from many evils. He 
died Dec. 34, 1883. 

DALET, Oeorge Heiir^, was bora in Albany, 
N. Y., Nov. 1, l»i4. He is probably descendwi 
from Nicholas Dailey, who was made a freeman in 
Connecticut In 1I1G3. Joseph, supposed to be a sou 
of Niciiolas. was a resident of Colchester, Cudd., 

Erevi<iU3 to 1709. He died In Midilletown, Conn. 
1 Burke's "Landed Gentry" it is stated that "The 
I^leys, the senior line of whom obtained at a veiy 
early period a grant of castle and estate of Killymar 
county, Gallaway. have been for centuries a family 
of the flret distinction." There is no ileBciite record 
of the date when Nicholas, the emigrant, landed in 
this country. Solomon Daley, of Rhode Island, the 
great-great-graud father of George H., was a revolu- 



Tiie grandmother of George H. Daley was Ihc 
daughter of Elijah Stone of Guilford, Conn., also a 
revolutionary soldier. She was descended from 
Andrew Ward of Waterlown, 
Mass., and George Hubbard of 
Guilford. Conn., both of whom 
came to America in 1630. Lieut. 
Daniel Hubbard, a great-great- 
grandson of George Hublmrd, 
was also a soldier of the revolu' 
tion. Id the late civil war. Mr. 
Daley's father, George William 
Daley, was a Federal soldier, 
who rose from the rank of pri* 
vale to that of lieutenant, and 
was dischargeii with broken 
health after a service of two 
years. George H. Daley, the — - 

son, removed ivilb his parents to 
New York city in 1851. and two y^''-^ „i<£ 

Siars afterward to Staten Island. Cf • ' >i* -p. j 
e attended public school, and "^^^^ '•^ AJ<U*. 
completed his educati<m under 
the privatcinstnictionof Rev. J. 
H.Sinclair. InJune,1883, becommenced his mercan- 
tile careerosclerk in the office of Devlin i& Co., one of 
tlie leading clothing houses of New York, rising to a 
partnership in the Hrm. In 1883 he became trustee 
of the large estate of the lale Allicrt Ward. He 
is a director in the Staten Island Savings bank, 
a stockholder In the First National bank of Slaten 
Island, and in the Staien Island academy, and was 
one of tlie fouudera of the Brighton Heights semi- 
nary. He was for several years a prominent stock- 
holder in the Staten Island Publishing comiwny. and 
president of the corporation issuing the"Ga»*lle 
and Sentinel." He was active in procuring the "Five 
Ward Amendment " to the charier of the village of 
Edgewater, and at the ensuing election in 1884 was 
chosen to represent Ihe First Ward as trustee of the 
village. He held the office for two yearn, and was 
for a time president of the village. 'I'hroughout his 
entire busiuess career he has been noted for his high 
sense of probity and honor, and has preserved un- 
spotted Ihe bright escutcheon betfuealhed to him by 
his ilhislrious ancestors. His residence is in Ihe old 
Vanderbilt mansion. which he purchased in 1881. Ihe 
spacious and imixising old stracture forming a strik 
iug example of a later type of colonial architecture. 




OF AMERICAN BIOGBAPIIY. 




U Tentti and Market si 



KABTINSALE, Thorn aa, mcrcham, nas 
born At Liti.^ Kipgs, Weanluli^ County Durham, 
Ede.. Dec. 15. 1M5; spcul uiie yearinCanandaigua, 
N. Y., and in 1854 removed to London, Can., where 
hia father, a man of great inihistr; and persever- 
ance. WB8 killed by a hniler exploition in 1874. His 
miiclier. bom in 1)438, ts a resincnt of that city, Tbe 
educational advantages affonled Mr. Hartiudalc in 
his boyhood were limited to 
_ two yeare' regular alleadance 

at 8C-l>oiil. After he enieretl 
upon hia mercantile career he 
apent his leisure tiuie in dili- 
gent study and reading. He 
also went lo niKht-schools and 
to commercial achnoU, and 
took an active part In debat- 
ing fliicieties, thus early in life 
acquiring considerable ability 
In public speaking. In 1859 
he enga^rcd in tbe drj'-giHxls 
business iu London, where he 
remained seven years, and be- 
fore he was twenty had a su- 
perintend ingcbargeof the larg- 
est mercaulile establishment 
.^ of that kind in Canada, and 
president of the Dry- 
goods Salesmen's association 
of Toronto. After spending two years in the same 
business in Toronto, one in Boslou, and six as pro- 
prietor of a grocery store in Oil City, Pa., he settled 
tnPMladelpbiain 1875. where he baa since conduct- 
'' ' ery estensive and prosperous grocery business 
..1. — 1 m.__i._. ^__,jg^ having there one of the 
most complete stores of its kind in tbe country. In 
1882 Mr. hlartiodale took a deep interest in the Irisli 
relief movement, and was chairman of a cotnmittee 
whose object was to furnish supplies to the poor of 
Iieiand, and in 181IS he look a prominent part in 
sending tbe steamslnps Indiana and Cunemaugh 
from Philadelphin. wllb cargoes of flour, rice and 
provisiuns, to the famiue-stricben flistricCsof Russia. 
Be b an influential member of tlie Trades League, 
an organization representing leading business houses, 
whose object is to protect and promote (he business 
interest of Philadelphia. Through his efforts in 
1881, while on a visit to bis native country, the con- 
RruclioDof a railwav through the valley ofibe Wear, 
from Stanhope to Wear's Head, was materially ad- 
vanced. He is a sturdy advocate of a ship canal 
sj'stem to extend from New York city to the Gulf of 
Menico, and in February. 1893, Prof. Haupt, Walter 
Wooii. Emstus Winian and himself were sent to 
Washington to interest congress in the passage of a 
UU ^iting an appropriation sutScient to make a 
preliminary survey of the first link of the proin>sed 
canal lo extend from Raritnn bay to Philadelphia. 
In March of the same year he delivered an address 
before the l>oard of trade of London, Csu., advocat- 
ing important improvements in that city, and result- 
ing in many of his recommendations going into 
effect Early in life Mr. Martindaie devoted constd- 
ersble time to the study of music. He sang iu sev- 
eral cathedral choirs, and whs frequently called upon 
to take a leading \ian in prominent opeiiis. In 1870 
he was marrieil lo Rosie Crum, of Oil City, Pa., an 
eminent vocalist, and a charming lady. Tbey have 
two sons, Thomas C. and James Joseph, who are 
CQEaged with their father iu hiisiuess. 

OBAHT, Charlea S., physician and surgeon, 
*B»boniat Hobart, Delaware county, N. Y., Nov. 
39, 1845, son of Charles Grant, a farmer, who was 
bom in Delaware county, N. Y., early in the cen- 
^7, and married Amanda M. Qreene, a niece of 
Oen. Nathanael Greene, the revolutionary hero. 



The Grants descended from the Grant clan of Scot- 
land, and inherited minds of great strength and 
bodies of unusual size. The paternal grandfather 
of Chas. 8. Grant came with his family to America 
in the eighteenth century. As a bov young Oraiit 
worked upon his father's farm, and attended the 
district sciiool until ten years of age, when his fa- 
ther's family removed to Hobart, N. Y., where 
they eni;agea iu the business of milling, having ex- 
changed tlie farm for a grist mill, and the district 
scbofl was exchanged for tbe village high scliool, 
aud from that Uie Ashland collegiate institute and 
business c[>lle^e. followed by a course at the Foit 
Edward institute, prepareif him to take up Uie 
study of medicine, to which be then applied him- 
self, studying in the olHce of his uncle. Dr. Solo- 
mon Greene of Saratoga Spring, N. Y., and from 
tbei-e entering the AllMiny medical college. While 
in Albany he was for two years a student in the of- 
fice of Dr. Alden March, one of America's most 
noted surgeons. Before graduating he served two 
years as assistant and bouse physician of the Albany 
city hospital, and a term as house physician of the 
Albany almshouse and insane asylum hospitals. In 
December, 1866, he received his degree in medicine, 
and was graduated with tbe highest honors, being 
valedictonan of his class. He went to Weedsport, 




N. Y., but soon after removed to Saratoga Springs. 
His study after graduation with specialists rendered 
him prollcieut in gynecology, obstetrics, microscopy, 
clccti'o- therapeutics, and in the treatment of the eye 
and ear. In obstetrics he had a remarkable success, 
attending over 1,300 cases in the first twenty years 
of his practice, and was one of the first jiraclitioners 
outside the large cities to employ chloroform and 
foreeps system aticall v. His practice extended far 
beyond bis neighborhood into the adjacent slates. 
As a gynecologist lie was eminently successful, and 
the president of the American niMical association 
referred to him as "the wizard of Saratoga." In 
surgery he has performed operations regarded by 
the profession as phenomenal, and his first ten ovaii- 
otomtes show nine recoveries. Dr. Grant was one 
of the founilers of the state medical association, and 
is a member of all the local and state associations. 
In 1885 he erected at Saratoga Springs a sanitarium, 
which was opened Apr. 1, 188H. It was modeled 
after the famous sanitariums of Europe, and proved 
a great success. Dr. Grant, on account of the pros- 
sure of his private practice was obliged lo relinquish 
personal coutrol afl«r it became eslablislied. He 
built a palatial private residence, one of the finest In 
America, which has become one of the objects of 
interest to visitors at Saratoga Springs. 



THE NATIONAL CTCLOPJIDIA 



JITDBOK, Adonirftm, tnisBionaTy, was born at 
UalrtcD, Mass., Aug^ 9, 1788. Of hisjouth tbere ia 
but little known. His falter was a Congregational 
minister, but instead of responding to the advantage! 
of religious culture, voung Judson grew to manliood 
entertaining skeptical views of Cliristianity. He wag 
graduated from Brown university in 1807. Tlie next 
year was spent in traveling and in school -teucbiug, 
and it was at tliis lime that lie published ' Elemeuts 
of Euglish Grammar," and "Young Liidies' Aritb- 
nielic. His tlieological convictions beconung radi- 
cally chaiiged, be returned to PlymoiitU, where hia 
father resided, and determined to seek admission to 
Andover theological seminary, whicb had been ea- 
tablished about that time. He entered in 1808. not 
being a professor of religion, but desirous of knowing 
and learning the truth; and witliiu a short time waa 
happil)^ converted. The reading of Biicbanau's 
" Star in the East," and the influence of bis associ- 
Bte9, Mills, Richards, and Hall, deciiled him to be- 
come a foreign misdooary. The American board of 
commissioners for foreign missions, which had been 
formed in 1810, was not in a position, financially, to 
assume the support of its pioneer missionaries, and 
Mr, Judson went to England toobiainibe aid of the 
London missionary society. He sailed in January, 
1811, and while on tbe voyage, the English ship waa 
captured by a Frencb priva- 
teer, and Mr. Judson was kept 
a prisoner at Bayonno for some 
time. Obtaining a passp<irt, 
after bis release, he visited 
London to find his plan Im- 
practicable, and on liis return 
io America, the American 
board decided to assume the re- 
spoDsibilitv of sending Messrs. 
■fudson. Hall, Newell, and 
Nott as its missionaries toBur- 
mah. Feb. B, 1813, Judson 
waa married to Ann Uasscltiue 
of Brndfonl, Mass., and the 
same montii they sailed for Cal- 
cutta, reaching there June I81I1. 
The cbatige in Judson's be- 
lief concerning baptism forced 
him to sever bis connection 
with Itie American board, and 
neer in a new denominational 
effort for the evangelization of Asia. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Judson were baptized by immersion on reach- 
ing Calcutta, Tbe strained relations between Eng- 
land and America, England and Burmati. made 
tlielr stay in Calcutta inadvisable, and Ihey sailed 10 
Mauritius, where they remained four months, doing 
mi^onaiy work among the English sailors of the 
garrison, and afterward ilepartetl for Madras. On 
reaching their destination tliey learned of the order 
forthe transportation of the American missionaries 
from Bombay to England, and fearing a like dispo- 
sition they sailed at once for Rangoon, tbe principal 
Krt of the Burman empire, arriving tbere July. 
13. More iban a year passe<lt)ef ore Judson learned 
of the formalioD of the Baptist general convention, 
and that it bad taken him under its care. For three 

Stars he devoted himself to the study of tlie difficult 
urmese language, and mastered it so thoroughly 
that he smike with the freedom of a native: having 
practically abandoned the use of the English lan- 
guage, he both thought and spoke in Burmese, only 
allowing himself one English newB|)aper. After six 
years of labor his first convert was liaptized. During 
this period he published tracts, translated the gospel 
of Matthew and the Epislle 10 tbe Ephesians, am- 
ducted public preaching, and labored indefatigablr 
for the lurtlierance of bis work, despite the unfriena- 
ly attitude of the Burmese monarch. In 1624 be re- 




made him the plor 



moved to Ava where be preadied for a ^ort dme 
until war between the Engtlah and the Burmese 
broke out, which placed the misaouaries in great 
peril and resulted in extreme hardships and suSering. 
Mr. Judson waa imprisoned for two years at Ava, 
confined in tbe "aeatli-prisou." and subjected to 
tbe moat extreme cruelty, being bound with either 
three or five pairs of letters. In these straits be 
was only saved from actual starvation by tlie un- 
wearying attentions of his faithful wife; for the pris- 
oners were not supplied with food by the Jailers. 
Mrs. Judson l>esought the officials to release and 
assist tbe missionaries; with her batie {Iwm at this 
trying time), and a faithful Bengalese servant, fol- 
lowed her husband who had been driven with tbe 
olJiei's, under the fierce sun, from one prison to an- 
other. Through the intluence of Sir Archibald 
Campbell, at tbe end of two years Mr. Judson was 
finally relei^ed, and with bis wife k-ft Ava for Am- 
herst, the capital of tbe Provinces. Mr. Judson at 
this lime yielded to tbe solicitation of the British 
East India government and I'ctumed as interpreter 
with an emba^ to Ava, to negotiate a new treaty 
between the English and the Burmese. A short 
time after bis depaiturc Mrs. Judson died, in the 
year 183fl, having become so weakened by her bard- 
sliips and sufferings that she was unable Co resist the 
fever which attacked her. Her child died soon after, 
leaving the missionary indeed alone. Tbe record of 
Mrs. Juilson's life and sufferings is well known and 
has hardly a parallel in female missionary annals. 
In 1629 Judson iuined the Boardmans at Maulmain, 
whicli became the chief seat of the Baptist missioa 
in Burmab. Here schools and a bouse of wor^ip 
were built (the missionaries being geuerqusly aided 
by Sir Archilmld Campbell), and a number of con- 
veita were added to tbe church. About this time 
Juilson thoroughly revised the New Testament in 
Burmese, and preimred twelve smaller works in the 
same tongue. In 1830 he visited central Burmab and 
gave away bui^dreds of tracts, besides making tnany 
converts, bis iwat at evei7 landing being visited by 
natives anxious for books, and converts of years be- 
fore greeted him. It waa at this time also that he 
visited the Karen Jungles, where his labors were so 
fruitful that it has been stated that the next twenty- 
five years yielded 20,000 Karen converts to Chris- 
tianity. Before returning to Maulmain he spent a 
year at Kangoon, and devoted himself to the work 
of tbe translation of the Scriptures into Burmese, 
whicb be completed in 18S4, when he at once began 
the revision of tlio Scriptures, and completed this 
great labor in 1840. While in Kangoon hesbut him- 
self in an upjier room and surrendered himself en- 
tirely to the artiiious work of translation, yet in spite 
of all his efforts at seclusion and tlie known displeas- 
ure of tbe king, nearly half his time was taken up 
with intei-views. "During the great festival in 
honor of Oautama held near tlie close of the follow- 
ing winter there were nearly 8,000 applicants at bis 
house fortracls." " Some, ' he says, "comelwoor 
three months' journey from tbe borders of Siam and 
China. ' Sir. we hear that there is an eternal bell ; 
we arc afraid of it; do give us a writing that will tell 
us bow to escape it.' Others came from the frontiers 
of Cathay. 100 miles north of Ava. 'Sir. we have 
seen a wiitingtbat tellsof an eternal Ood. Are you 
the man who ^ves away sucli writing ! If so, pray 
give lis one, for we want to know the truth before we 
die.'" In 1634 he married Sarah Hall Boardman, 
a missionary who had laltored in Iturmah for years. 
Five years later he visited Bengal, compelled by 
lack of health to seek a change of air, and after a 
stay of a few months returned to Maulmain much 
benefited, and began subsequently the preparatioa 
of the Burmese Dictionary, with two complete vo- 
cabularies. English and Burmese, Burmese and Eng- 



OF AMERIOAK BIOGRAPHY. 93 

lish. This work was interrupted by the illness of guarded in the mission-house, which had been strip- 
Mrs. Judson, and in 1845 it seemed best that she ped of furniture; her clothing being also taken, and 
should return to the United States. On the voyage she subjected to the brutality of her rough ^ard- 
she died and was buried at St. Helena, and Dr. Jud- ians. At last she succeeded m getting a petition to 
son with his motherless children continued the jour- the goveraor of the city, and by this means and by 
ney homeward. Arriving in America he warned bril]^ to inferior officers, she succeeded in mitieating, 
the Board that they must not expect him to make in some degree, the horrors of her husband s con- 
public addresses, for, he said, "in order to become linement. Later, he was removed to another town. 
an acceptable and eloquent preacher in a foreign and arrangements made for his sacrifice in honor of 
language, I deliberately abandoned my own. Prom a general who was to take command of a fresh army, 
long desuetude I can scarcely put three sentences The general was suspected of treason and execut- 
together in the English language." Judson was at ed, and Mr. Judson's life saved. For a year and a 
this time in very poor health but he addressed lar^e half Mrs. Judson, with her baby in her arms, follow- 
audiences through an interpreter. In 1846 he agam ed her husband from prison to prison, supplying 
sailed for Maulmain, having been married, before his him with food, for it was not provided by govern- 
departure, to Emily Chubbuck of Utica, N. Y., who ment, and working in every way to secure his re- 
was noted not only for her devoted missionary lease. She exercised such influence over the mind 
spirit, but for her literary ability, having consider- of the governor, that though her husband was several 
able reputation as a writer of both prose and verse, times condemned to death with others, he was pre- 
After a brief time they removed to liangoon where served though the rest were executed. Of her des- 
Dr. Judson continued his work on the dictionary titution ana sufferings during this period she has 
which he was never to tinish. Returning to Maul- recoi-ded the harrowing histoiy, and her heroic 
main, in addition to his literary work he assumed endurance shows the strength and greatness of her 
the care of a Burman church. His health, which character. So great was her absorption in the trials 
had been failing for some time, was further under- and anxieties at the time, that she *' seldom reflected 
mined by a fever, and he took a sea-voyage to the on a single occurrence of her former life, or recol- 
Isle of France in hope of its being permanently re- lected that she had a friend in existence out of Ava." 
stored. His wife was unable to "accompany him on When, at last, peace was declared between the two 
account of her own feeble health, and he departed powers her husband was released, and together they 
aceompanied only by an attendant. The title of D.D. established a mission at Amherst, where she sought 
was pven to Judson by Brown university in 1828. a restoration to health of body, and peace to a mind 
His literary works were a Burman dictionary, a Pali long distracted by agonizing anxieties. Her consti- 
dictionarj'. a Burman grammar, and a complete tution was, however, so weakened by disease and 
Burman Bible. He was well known throughout suffering, that she died two months after, Oct. 24, 
India, being honored by English and native digni- 1826; and thus ended the life of one whose "name 
tarien alike, and the converts of his thirty-seven years will be remembered in the churches of Burmah, 
of missionary labor deeply loved and revered him. when the pagodas of Gautama shall have fallen." 
He died Apr. 12, 1850, three days out from Burmah, Besides her history of the Burman mission, Mrs. 
a nd wa s buried at sea. Judson translated the Burman catechism, and the 
JUDSON, Ann Hasseltine, missionary, was bom Gospel of Matthew into Siamese, aided by a native 
in Bradford, Mass., Dec. 22, 1789. She received a thor- teacher; assisted in the preparation of a Burmese 
ough education, and early in life became deeply inter- grammar, and made some translations for the use of 
estetl in religious matters. ' She met Rev. Adoniram the Burmese. Her life was written by Mrs. Emily 
Judson in 1810, when hewas preparing himself for mis- C. Judson, and published in New York in 1850. 
siomiry work at Andover Theological seminary, and in JUDSON, SaraJi Hall Boardman, mlssionaiy, 
1812 she married and went with him to India, being was born at Alstead, N. H., Nov. 4, 1803. She mar- 
the firat woman to go to foreign lands as a mission- ried George Dana Boardman in 1825, and in the 
ary. They were permitted to'remain at Serampore same year went out to India with him as a mission- 

onlv a short time, as the East ary. At their mission at Tavoy they encountered 

Incfia company was bitterly great difticulties and discourage- 

opposed to the introduction of ments, and for six years she he- 

the Christian religion into the roically endured hardships and 

province; then they went to sufferings. In 1831, on the 

hang(X)n where she bravely death or her husband, she was 

endured the privations and in- left alone in a strange and unfriendly country. Of 

conveniences of living under her three children only one survived, and with hira 

very trying conditions. She she decided to remain and continue the work of the 

was of the greatest assistance station. Four years later she married Dr. Judson, 

in the missionarv work; but and for nearly ten years was able to render iuval- 

the severity of her labors, and uable service to the missionary cause in India. Her 

the exhausting effect of the health failing her at last, she, with her husband and 

climate oblitred her to come children took passage for home. AVhen near the 

home for a long rest. During Isle of France, Mrs. Judson grew rapidly worse, and 

this period she was not idle, died at sea Sept. 3, 1845, and was buried on the 

however, but lectured exten- island of St. Helena. 

sively in the cause of missions. JUDSON, Emily Chubbuck ( * ' Fanny Forres- 

and also wrote a history of ter"), author. was born at Morrisville,N. Y., Aug. 22, 

^^ >9^- V— •• the Burman mission which re- 1817. Her parents were in poor circumstances, and 

^ ceived high praise, not only before she was twelve years old, she worked in a 

in this countrv, but abroad. She returned to Bur- woolen mill in the summer, and attended the district 

mah in 1823. *to find missionary affairs prospering; school in the winter. She rose up early to work and 

but the next vear war broke out between the English sat up late to study, and when only fifteen became a 

at Bengal and the Bui-man government, and the teacher in the Utica female seminary. She had al- 

lives of the missionaries were in danger, as they were ready begun to write both prose and verae. *^or her 

looke<i on as spies. Her husband was seized in his first book, "Charies Linn," she received only f51 

own house and hurried away to what was known as She wrote a number of books for children, wnicn 

the "death prison." Mra. Judson was strictly were published by the Baptist publishing house, ana 





94 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




Id four years, ahe was able, from the proceeds of her 
iDdustry, to settle bcr pureuts in n comfortable home, 
lo June, 1844, while on a visit to New York, ahe 
wrotea llgbt sketch for the "New York Mirror," 
under the name of "Fannj 
Forrester." which at once a^ 
tract«d atteDtion; and eucour' 
aged by the praise of the edi- 
tor, slie contributed lo the 
magazine a series of brilliant 
sketches, which were after- 
ward collected and piiblislied 
in the two volumes bearing 
the title of ■' Alderbrook." 
This was her name for Mor- 
lieville, licr beaiitifiil native 

5 lace. On the return of Dr. 
udson iu 1846. Miss Chub- 
buck, at his request, wrol« a 
"Biograpliical ISkclcii of Mrs. 
Sarah I). .ludBon,"aud In the 
same year they were marriiid, 
aud in June they went out to 
Bunnah together. Soon after 
Dr. Judson's death in 1850. 
she returned to the United States, and the rest of 
her brief life was filled with literary work. Her 
benltb soon began to fail, and she died June 1, 1804, 
at Hamilton, Madison county, N. Y. 

LAW, George, of New York city, projector and 
promoter of puDlic works, was bom in Jackson, 
Washingliin county. N. Y.. Oct, 3S, 1806, sou of 
John Imw. a poor Irishman, a native of County 
Down, Ireland, who eniicrated to America in 1784, 
and became a farmer in Jackson. He had four chil- 
dren, two boys and two girls, George being the 
younger son. The farm iucludea about 100 
acres ; the homestead being an old-fashioned plank 
building standing on the Troy road. John Law was, 
strange lo say, a skillful, thorough, and ambitious 
farmer. He Knew all about the character and im- 
provement of pasturage and stuck, and the product 
of his dairy became celebrated throuehoul that 
neighborhood. His farm grew until it became one 
of 500 acres, and, when young Oeorre was Ing 
enough, he was put to work attending the cows, and 
gave occasioual assistance at the clmro, and as he 
ercw older he learned all the details of farm work. 
It he had no sympathy for the business, being fond 
~"B a good deal of a student when be 
had an opportunity of study- 
ing at the district schools or 
uight BCbools, and learned to 
read and write and enoiieb of 
arithmetic to execute ordinaiy 
business calculations. He was 
strengthened iu his determina- 
tion lo go out into the world 
and eniii his living, by read- 
inga biographical work called 
"The Life of William Ray." 
In 1824, at the age of eighteen, 
having t^O in money in his pos- 
sesion, he went to his fattier, 
and objecting that farm work 
was not for htm, asked permis- 
sion Ui go out and push his owd 
way in the world. His fa- 
^^^^^ ther granted the permission, 

^ and llio boy siAr<e<l for Troy. 

making (he journey of Ihirty- 
six miles on foot. Rls first job was as a lioil-carricr. 
at which he worked for about a month at ti a day. 
Afterward he went to Hoosic, where he worked as a 
mason and stonecutter, and then was dismissi'd 
without any pay. He returned to Troy, where lie 
picked up work enough to live by, and was able to 



buy a few hooks, which he spent his leisure time 
in reading and studying. In 1837 be went to Kings- 
ton, Ulster county, and worked on the Delaware and 
Hudson canal. He also did some work as a quarry- 
man in Pennsylvania, and afterward took a stiM>p- 
load of stotie to Norfolk, wliere he worked on a 
canal. In 1838 George Law came to New York, 
being employed upon the Harlem canal, but the next 
year went to Pennsylvania again, and began to lake 
coniracis for canal work, and by 1830 was worth 
nearly |3,000. In 18:14 he riiarrie<I a Miss Andersoa 
of Philadelphia, anil at this time ids fortune had in- 
creased from t3.OO0 lo nearly $30,000. Visiting iiis 
father at the old homestead, he found that the laller's 
ambition to increase his estate had embarrassed him. 
and that the farm was heavily mortgage<l and danger 
of a foreclosure threatened. Georjje paid oft all the 
claims upon the land, and placed it in possession of 
bis father imcucumbered by debt of any kind. By 
this time the young man had become a good engineer 
and draughtsman, while his reputation as a con- 
tractor ou public works was remarkably high, and 
he was known to have at his command any capital 
for any work, however extensive, and if he bid for 
a contract be was almost certain to obtain it. In 
1887 he entered bids for three sections of the Croton 
aqueduct, two of which were awarded to him. and 
in 1839 he was given the coulraci for building the 




of reading, i 




High bridge. While doing tliis great work he lost 
his health, and was obliged to go abroad, where be 
remt^ned a year, traveling through Great Britain and 
the continent. In 1841 be returned to AmericH, and 
resumed his personal connection with the High bridge 
enterprise, which remains one of the most distin- 
guisbed memorials of his engineering ability and en- 
ergy. In 1843 Mr. Law was elected president of tbe 
Dry dock hank, which was at this time on the verge 
of insolveucy. through having fallen into tbe dulchea 
of arinKoi irresponsible operators. He extricated 
the bank from its ditticulties. and hts attention was 
next directed to tbe Harlem railroad. He extended 
it from Williams Brid^ to White Plains, and raised 
the slock to sevenly-bve per cent. He look other 
railroads in the same way in different parts of tbe 
stale, and carried them Hucccssfully to great increase 
in their stock value. From 1848, tor ten years, he 
was immersed in the sCeamsliip busincsH, He started 
a line to the Islhmus of Panama, purchasing the 
stcamsliip Falcon, which ran to Chagrea. and after- 
ward built two steamships — the Ohio and Geor^a — 
for the same line. In 1850 the Pacific mail sleam- 
sliip com|)any started an opposition to Mr, Law's 
line of slcamera between New York and Chagre*. 
He at once placed an opposition of four steamers on 
ihe I'acitlc, to run from Piinama to San Francisco. 
thus making a through line from New Y'ork and 
New Orleans via Panama to San Francisco. In the 
next year, however, be sold out his Pacific line of 



OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



95 



Mlhe Pacific miiil stewnship corapaaj. and 
purchased their Atlantic liue, iDcludinr llic Empire 
Cily, Uiwceiit City, Philadelphia, El Dorado, Illi- 
Dtiis, and Cherokee, aud immediately began the cou- 
smicticiu of a railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, 
building piers and freight hnuses at Aspiowail, the 
iirsl accommodations for commerce ever put up on the 
islhmus. Meanwhile Mr. Lav had been running a 
aleam line via Havana, aud got into diflicully with 
the Spanish authorities in Cuba on account of his 
pureer, wlio was also correspondent of the New Yorli 
"Herald," having written something inimical to the 
government, which issued an order forbidding any 
ship having this person on board to enter the port of 
Havana. Mr. liw appealed to llie government at 
Wasliington, but the administration temporized, and 
advised him to get rid of the obnoxious person. 
Thereupon Mr. I4iw replied, with much spint, that 
if the government could not protect its own citizens 
io tbetr rights, the fact ought to be known. The 
captain -general of Cuba threatened to sink the Cres- 
cent City if she passed the Morro castle with Smith, 
the obnoxious purser, on board. But, nevertheless 
he was retained, the vessel continued her trips, and 
tbc order was finally withdrawn. About IS^ Mr. 
Luw learned that the Eighth avenue railroad com- 
pany of New York was in ilnancial dilflcultiea and 
UDablc to complete the work of laying theii' line 
within the specified period, so that if default were 
made their charter would lapse. He accordingly ad- 
vanced $800,000 to the company, hastened forward 
the construction, and saved the franchise. He was 

E resident of the Eighth avenue liue at the time of 
is death, aud also built and was a large owner in 
the Ninth avenue railroad. He was also greatly in- 
terested in river communication, owning the Grand 
■rtd Rooeevelt ferries, and the Staten Island ferry 
and railroad. The principal political characteristic 
of Mr, Law was his pronounced Americanism. He 
was a conspicuous object of discussion as a possible 
candidate for the presidency in 1856, and his name 
was offered in Uie convention which nominated Mr. 
Jlllraore. He died in New York city Nov. 18, 
1881. 



JIT, William H., lawyer and poli- 
tician, was bom in Westchester county, N. Y., in 
1823. He received an academic education, studied 
law and was admitted to the bar. He commenced 
practice in his native county and soon became a 
leader at the bar and influential in politics. In 1849 
he was elected, as a whig, a member of the lower 
branch of the New York legislature. He joined the 
republican party upon its formation, and as a mem- 
ber of it served fourteen years in the New York sen- 
ate, being for eight years president pro tempore of 
that body. He was a member of consress in I860, 
la 1872 ho was the choice of the republican leaders 
of New York as their candidate for governor, but 
the nomination was given to Qen. John A. Dix. In 
1876 he helped to secure the Jiominatiou of Gen. R. 
B. Hayes by the republican national convention at 
Cincinnati, and when tlie electoral count ol that year 
was disputed by Samuel J. Tiiden, he was one of the 
three republicans who visited Florida at President 
Grant's request to see that the vote of that state was 
correctly counted. In 1881 he was appointed by 
Prewdenl Garfield collector of the port of New 
York, and as the consent of Senators Piatt and 
Conkling was not previously obtained, Coukling 
bitterly but unsuccessfully opposed his confirma- 
tion by the U. S. senate, and in consequence re- 
igned his seat in that bod^, Mr. Robertson or- 
ganized In the New York legislature the opposition 
to Conkiing's re-electfon, and triumphed. From 1881 
to 1885 he filled the office of collector, and ur 



Inl88 



upon 
n of his term resumed his lawpractice. 
again elected to the N«w York sen- 



ate. He is a member of the law firm of Close & 
Robertson, of White Plains, N. Y., which enjoys an 
extensive and lucrative practice. He is a man of 
great ability and sound learning, and noted for the 
independence and firmness witli which he maintains 
his convictions on all subjects. He resides at Kato- 
nah, N. Y. 

DTER, Oliver, journalist and author, was bom 
in the town of Porter, Niagara county, N. Y., Apr. 
26, 1824. His fatlier was a farmer who had hewn a 
farm out of the heavy forest which then covereii all 
the western portion of thestate of New York. When 
Oliver was tive years old his parents removed to the 
village of Lockporl, where he was sent to school. 
He was a studious lad aud made rapid progress. At 
the age of seventeen he was elected pnnciml of the 
school where he had been a scholar, and assumed 
the mastership of young men older than himself. 
There were several nillfans among them who at- 
tempted to flog the principal and break up the insti- 
tution. Young Dyer nearly brained bis assailants 
with a heavy ironwood poker, and subdued them so 
completely that harmony from thenceforth reigned 
in the school. He taught three years, when, having 
saved money enough to take him through college, he 
resigned. But he was deflected from his college 
course by a determination to reform the orthography 
of the English language. His efforts in that line 
led him to study Isaac Pitman's system of phonog- 
raphy.and by lecturing upon 
that subject aud teaching it, 
he became an expert In its 
use, and went to Washington 
in 1848 as a reporter in ttie 
IT. S. senate. Subsequently, 
in reporting important law 
cases, he became acquainted 
with distinguished lawyere, 
who were so impressed with 
his aptitude for acquiring 
legal knowledge, that they 
persuaded hiin to study law. 
Ill three months after he be- 
gan the study he was admit- 
ted to the bar. but he did 
not entirely abandon jour- 
nalism. In 1868 he wrote 
his sketch of "The Wick- 
edest Man in New York," 
which had such extraordi- 
uary success that it finally 

resulted in his abandoning the practice of the law to 
devote himself exclusively to journalism. He be- 
came connected with the editorial staff of the New 
York "Sun," and wrote for many other publica- 
tions. In the latter part of 1871 he was engaged to 
write exclusively for the New York " ledger,' with 
which he had long been connected, and that engage- 
ment is still in ftrce (1883), In May. 1876, Mr. 
Dyer was ordained a minister of the New church 
(Swedenborgian) and became pastor of the New 
church soiiiety in Mount Vernon, N. Y. He still 
resides In Mount Vernon, but failing health has com- 
pelled him to relinquisii his pastorate. He never 
accepted pay for his ministerial services. Many of 
his sennons were issued in tracts and in pamplilets. 
In 1889 Robert Bonner's Sons publislied Mr. I)yer's 
"Great Senators of the United States Forty 1 ears 
Ago." The book contains vivid sketches of Cal- 
houn, Benton, Clay, Webster, Gen. Houston, Jefl'er. 
son Davis, and other statesmen who were in the sen- 
ate when Mr. Dyer was reporting there in 1848 
and '49. "Great Senators" received a welcome 
from the critics and the public which established It 
as a standard authority upon the subjects of which 
it treats. In 1892 the same firm published a pop- 
ular "Life of Andrew Jackson," by Mr. Dyer. 




(0^(p. 



THE NATIONAI. CYCLOPEDIA 




WE^ 1 



OVBTIS, Oeorre William, author and joumsl- 
bt, wu bom in Proyidence, R. I., Feb. 24. 1824, 
Bon of Oeorge Curtis, a busfuess mati, who nas de- 
scended from Ephroim Curtis, ihe flrat settler of 
Worcester, Mass. On bis mother's side George Wil- 
liam came from a family devoted lo public affairs, 
bis maternal prandfatbcr, James Burnll, Jr., baviuK 
been a U. B. Senator from Kbode Island and chief 
justice of that state. After ac- 
quiring the rudiments of an ed- 
ucation iu his native city lie was 
sent to a private school at Ja- 
maica Plam. Moss. In 1838 his 
father removed to New York 
city, and bought the residence 
in Washington Place which was 
afterward occupied by bis tiaif- 
brother, Dr. Eldward Curtis, and 
0«or^ William entered the 
counting-room of a New York 
commercial house to fit himself 
for a business career. Commer- 
cial pursuits proving uuBuit«d to 
his tastes, after a year or more he 
withdrew from them, and in 
; 1842, iu company with his elder 
' brother, joined the noted Brook 
Farm Associai ion, at West Rux- 
bury, Mass., aud came into friendly relations with 
Thoreau, Hawthorne, George Ripley, Margaret Fuller 
and Italph Waldo Emerson. Aft«rremaini[igat Brook 
Farm about a year and a half he went lo Concord, 
Mass, and spent an equal time in the family of a 
farmer, tilling the soil and passing his spare hours 
in the companionship of Hawthorne and Emerson, 
and the cultivated people whom their presence 
brouglit to the quiet community. In 1846 he visited 
Europe, and after paRsliig a year in Italy, entered 
the University of Berlin, while there witnessing tlie 
revolutionBry scenes of 1848. The two following 
years he B|>ent in travel, partly in Einpl and Syria, 
and In ISM returned lo America, ana joined tbe ed- 
itorial staff of the New York "Tribune," of which 
journal bis friend, George Hipley, was then the lit- 
erary editor. He bad written the " Nile Notes of a 
Howadji" in Egypt; and now, while connecied with 
tbe ■• Tribune, '*he flnislied "Tbe Howatljlin Syria," 
both books being notes of bis travels in the'East. 
At this time, alsti, he collected, under the title of 
" Loliis-EatInK," a series of letters he bad written lo 
the " Tribune from various summer resorts. The 
publicalitm of these books gave him so much repu- 
tation tliHl he was invite<l in 1853, wlien " Pulnani's 
Muutbly Magazine " was nrsl iMsucd. to become asso- 
tialeil with Btrke Godwin and Charles F. Briggs in 
its cdilorsbip. For the earlv numlvrs of this tnaga- 
wne he wmie a series of articles satiriztnu; "our best 
80<nety," wbii'li comributol largely to its success, 
and. I>eing published in book form under the name 
of " Potipliar Papers," aihied materially to bis own 
reputation. In Jauuaiy, 18.i3, after a successful ca- 
reer of two years, " Piitnnm's Mi>nllilv Magazine " 
was sold by Mr. Putnam lo tbe firm of DIk. Ed- 
wards & Co., with whom Mr. Curtis sssocinted 
himself as a special tiartner, contributing a cer- 
tain amount of capital, but laking no part in the 
mHiiag<!me[it of the busincKs. "Putnam's Month 
ly" continued to he pros[ieroiiB. but tbe Hrm, hav- 
ing embarked beyond its means in liook publica- 
tion, was obliged to suspend in Januniy. ISoT, with 
larj^ liabilities. Being merely a sf>ecial partner. 
Mr. Curtis was not liable for the debu of the firm 
beyond llie capital be had invested, but he declined 
to avail himself of this legal immunity. Ue felt 
a moral obligation as a partner, and, turning over 
to the creditors at once wliat private property he 
possessed, he assumed the entire remainder of the 



work paid it to the very last dollar, liis IkwIc 
had been published by Harper & BrotJiers. and ii 
his " Fifty Years Aniong Authors " Mr. James C. 
Derby relates an incident connected with his first in- 
terview with that Hnu which is so characteristic of 
both Mr. John Harper and Mr. Curtis that it will 
bear repeating. It was in 1850 and Mr. Curtis hud 
just returned from bis travels in the East, wbeo, 
with tbe MS. of the "Nile Notes of a Howadji"in 
his hand, and without any introduction, he called 
upon the great publishei-s. Mr. John Harper, one 
of the senior members of the firm, was seated at his 
desk in the dingy Cliff street counting-room, and 
witliout any formality the young man accosted him, 
saying that be desired a publisher for a book of 
travels in Egypt. " The colonel," says Mr. Derby, 
" looked up at the spruce young fellow, and said, 
'We have just published a l>ook onEgypt.' 'Then,* 
said the embryo author. ' you will no't need mine,' 
and turned to go. The colonel then said, 'Stop, 
young man; don't be in such a hurry. Let me look 
at your manuscript.' Afrer looking over a few of 
the neatly written chaptere, Mr, Hafjjer said: ' We 
wilt publish the book, anil you may bring us all the 
manuscript on Egypt you choose. If written as well 
as this. ' " In the following year Harper <& Brotbere 
publislied the two other tooks that Mr, Cuitis had 
then written, and in 1853 they employed liim to write 
for their msgaziuc the "Easy Chair" papera. which 
became a fcnture of the publication. In 18.17 the 
firm established "Harper's Weekly," and the failure 
of Dix, Edwards & Co. haviug tlien lilieratcd Sir. 
Curtis from his duties in connection with " Putnam's 
Mn^zlne," he contributed regularly to the new 

B nodical, of which he was soon made editor-in-chief. 
Is connection with Harper & Brothcra was further 
cxlendol, ten ycais later, by his contributing weekly 
to the "Bazar," which was then established. The 
combined circulation of these three iwriodicals is 
probably not less than 350,000 copies, and it is 
supposed tliat every copy of each journal lias 
five readers; if this be correct, nearly two millions 
of people were weekly and monthly addressed by 
Mr. Curtis. That be whs able to bold this vast 
audience, week after week and month after month, 
for more than thirty-seven years, shows in bim a 
fertility of Intellect as well as a range of culture and 
oliservatioi) possessc<l by very few authors, Tiie 
" Eiksy Chair " |>upera alone, 
if collected together, would 
Sll more than a score of 
bulky octavo volumes. And 
yet they willcver be as fresh, 
as delicate In humor, as pure 
in style and sentiment, as . 
delightfully entertaining to 
holb young and okl. as tliey 
were wben Ihe hrat num- 
bers were published in 1853, 
But the rending public lias 
not comprised tbe whole of 
Mr. Curlis's audience. For 
twenty ycare prior to 1873 he 
was one of the most popular 
lyceum le<'turers in the coun- 
try, and after 18,18 — when he 
aiivocated Mr, Frrmont'a 
election to the presidency — 
be often apiicnrcd as a political orator. In IRSti In- 
married Anna Shaw, daughter of Oeorgc Franc i^ 
Shaw, of strong anti-slavery stock, and this marriage 
cxhibitcil its imluence on his mind iu his zeal in be- 
half of Ihe slave, and bis public speeches were maiu- 
ly directed against the crime of slavery. This also 
manifested itself in his editorial wriiiiigs. He t<xik 
an active interest in local polilics iu hii, county, and 





'^=^..>^2^>-<*o <^**z^ 



OF AHESIOAN BIOQRAPHT. 



97 



held for seTerel years the office of cbainmui of the 
TBpublicau countj (Mntmitlee. In 1860 he was a det- 
ente to Ibe Daliooal republican coDTenlion, which 
comiuaied Abraham Lincoln for presideot. Id 1604 
he WHS again a delegate to the Qatiooal republican 
coDTenliuQ and the same year the defeated candi- 
date for congress from his district. In 1R68 he was 
a repuhltcau presideDtial elector. Iq 1869, upon the 
death of Mr. Kapnood, he was invited to become 
editor of the New York "Times," but declined, 
greatly to the disappoiotinent of liis friends. Though 
the editor of a political journal, Mr. Curtis never 
sought political office. He was tendered by President 
Lincoln the post of consul-general in Egypt; by 
President Hayes, that of minister to England ; and 
then bis choice of any foreign appointment in the 
gift ot the executive; but all these po«ttions be de- 
clined, preferring to adhere to the weekly and month- 
ly pialfonn from which he so long addressed the 
public. From President Grant be accepted a place 
ujKin the commission to draw up rules for the regu- 
lation of the civil eervice. Under his guidance Uie 
national civil service reform league whs formed in 
1881. Mr. Curtis supported Qen, Grant in 1873, and 
Mr. Hayes before the New Yorit state convention in 
18TT, which drew upon him an attack by Senator 
Conkliug. He supported Mr. Cleveland in 1884 and 
spin m 1888. In 1864 he was elected one of the re- 
gents of the Univeraity of the slate of New York, 
tuid on the death of Chancellor Pierson was elected 
chancellor, a position regarded as the highest honor 
thai can be conferred on a litemry man by the state 
of New York. As president of the Metropolitan 
museum of art Mr. Curtis labored for the enlarge- 
ment of the collections and their free use by the peo- 
pie. He was president of the national conference 
of Unitarian churches and vice^resident of the na- 
tional Unitarian aasocUtion. Mr. Curtis was able to 
Serform the lar^ amount of literary work which 
evolved upon bim, every week and month, by rea- 
lon of hifl methodical habits, and the fact of bis liv- 
ing in the country, where he was free froin interrup- 
IfoQs and the excitements of city life. He spent the 
greater part of the year at his home on f^taten Isl- 



America with Lafayette during the revolutionary 
war. He went to the village schools and later to the 
Stockbridge academy in an adjoining village, in the 
county of Berkshire. Having completed hia educa- 
tion, he settled in Brooklyn and obtained a position 
as clerk in a grocery store, and In a short ti 
engaged in the provision busineas 
on his own account, but failing 
health obliged bim to seek other 
employment. He then became 
private secretary of Wm. J, Me- 
Alpine, civil engineer, who was 
at that limeconstructiiig the great 
stone d^-dock. Brooklyn navy- 
yard. In 1848 he resigned this 
position and waa largely engaged 
in furnishing building materials- 
He was appointed member of the 
Board of Education. He served 
as alderman under the adminis- 
tratio[i of mayors Brush and 
Lamliurt. He was a strong ad- 
vocate of the introduction oi sur- 
face railroads and the present 
water supply in Brooklyn, which 
subjects were then being agitat- 
ed; be devoted much of nis time 
to the purpose of utilizing the low lands at Wall- 
about, thereby affoiiliug the city superior ship- 
ping facilities; he prepared plans and visited the 
authorities at Washington for this purpose, but it 
was not until 1868 that the bill was Anally passed 
by the legislature. He was first president of a 
newly organized nssociation of mechanics and trad- 
ers of the city of Brooklyn, and after tilling a second 
term retired from office. In 1886 he, as Park com- 
missioner, introduced a number of improvements in 
Brooklyn parksand driveways. Mr, HarteauisaJef- 
fcrsonuin democrat and member of the following in- 
stitutions in Brooklyn: New England society, His- 
torical society, and Society of old Brook lynites, and 
president of the Metropolitan Plate Glass iD""™""" 
company of New York city. 




Ibc in 



r uutil about three in the afternoon, in- 



s otHce in 

Ihe Harper building. New York, and passed Ihe day 
there, receiving visitors and attending to such busi- 
ness as was incidental to his editorial position. The 
irear and tear of this constant work he neutralized 
*o a degree by a free indulgence in daily out-door ci- 

liarly attractive. He was not fieij- and not iiiipus- 
linncd; he was rather more graceful and winning. 
His voice was musical and pleasing. His sentences 
moved with ease and a rare charm of fluency, and 
be was always dignified in his bearing before an 
audience. He has often been heard with rare pleas- 

.■d' ^ 

n friend 



._ „ _ he 

will long be remembered by his hearers for his charm 
of manner, bis grace of speech and bis harmony of 
ideas fitting his subject. His satirical touches of 
humor in his magazine writings, bis variations from 
levity and l)rightness to seriousness and thoughtful 
gravity, his earnestness of purpose and sincerity, are 
well known. He became a victim to cancer of the 
stomach and died at bis home on Stalen Island Aug. 
31, I8S3. 

HABTEATT, H«iU7, was bom in South Lee, 
Mass., Jan. 8, 1810. His parents were natives of 
MuMchusetts ; his paternal grandfather came to 
HI -7. 



May 30, 1820, son of Chaueellor K. H. Walworth. 
He WON graduated from Union college in 18:^6, and 
from the Episcopal general seminary in 1845. hav- 
ing in the interval studied law and practiced for a 
year at Kochesier. Becoming a 
Roman Catholic, he spent three 
years in Belgium and Germany; 
was ordained priest in 1848, and 
did clerical duty in England. He- 
tuminglo America in 1850, he was 
a missionary in various parts of 
the counlrv till 1864, and in 1858 
joined I. T. Hecker and others in 
founding the order of Paulists. 
For twenty -five years, beginning 
in September, 1866, he has been 
rector of St. Mary's parish, Al- 
bany. He has been active iu tein- 
peranec, frequently appearing be- 
fore legislative committees in that 
cause. He is known also as a lec- 
turer and a contributor to the 
"Catholic World." and other 
chureh publications. In July, 
1887, ho received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from the regents of the Univeraity 
of the state of New York. His firet book, "The 
Gentle Sceptic," was a reply to Bishop Coleuso. A 
discussion with W. H, Burr appeared in 1874 as 
"The Doctrine of Hell." " Andiatorocte," etc. 
(1888), is a volume of verse. 




c .Jt .-ur«ic*Jifc 



98 THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 

JACESOK, CharlM Thomas, scientisi, waa vlsli«d Vienoa during tbe cholera epidemic, and as- 
born at Plymouth, Mass.. June 21, 1805. He first aiated in the dissection of 200 bodies, vjctiniB of that 
studied medicine under Dtb. James Jack«OQ and disease. He wan appointed slate geologist of Maine, 
WaltcrChaiining, and subsequently entered tbe Har- and surveyor of the public lands of Massachusetts 
yard university medical school, from which he re- lying in Maine in 1836, and was occupied three years 
ceiTcd the degree of doctor of medicine (1820). Soon in the execution of this work, nhich required the 
after his graduation he went abroad, where he re- publication of three annual " Reports on the Geol- 
mained three ^ears. pursuing both his medical and ogy of the State of Maine." and two " Reports on 
scientiBc studies in Paris, wbere lie bad tbe pleasure the Geology of the Public Lands Belongios to tbe 
of being thrown in contact with the foremost scien- Two States of Masaachusetls and Maine. ' In 1889 
tists of the times, and with some of whom he con- he surveyed Rhode Island as state ^logist, and then 
traded life-long friendships. He is considered to be bej^n the geological survey of New Hampshire, 
the discoverer of the ansstbetic properties of ether, which occupied three yeare. He waa elected a mem- 
though his claims have been dispute by Drs, Wm. ber of the Boston society of natuml liistory soon 
T. Q. Morton and Horace Wells, two physicians after its foundation, and in 1833 was made one of its 
who studied with biin. His clairus for tbe first dis- curators, and was subsenueutly one of its vice-presi- 
covery are based upon the following ground: He dents, which office he held "Dtll 1874, when ill health 
had previously made some experiments on the antes- obliged him to resign. In 1840 he drew up the plan 
thctic properties of chloroform and of nitrous oxide which was adopted for the geological survey of New 
gas, and obtaining some perfectly pure ether ho re- York, and in 1844 explored the souihem shores 
solved to experiment with it upon himself: lie ad- of Lake Superior, and was the first to reveal tbe 
minislevert it with a portion of atmosplioric air, vast mineral resources of that country. The follow- 
inbaled it sufficiently to lose consciousness, but ex- ing year he returned to that region, and opened cop- 
perienced none of tbe disagreeable or dangerous con- per mines, and discovered iron mines. He was apt- 
aequences that had before followed tbe inhalation pointed, in 1847, to superintend the geological survey 
of impure sulphuric ether alone. In 1841-43 he first of the mineral landsof the United Statesin Michigan. 
Inhaled ether for relief from acute pain with such Hewastbefiist peisonin tliiscountryloinauguratea 
success that he decided, "a chemical laboratory for the use of students, and his 
surgical operation could be per- geological surveys above meurioned were among Ihe 
formed on a patient, under the first ever made in the United Stales. He made nu- 
full influence of sulphuric nierous scientific discoveries, among others a power- 
etber, without giving him auy ful blast-lamp for alkaline fusions, which did much 
pain." lis discovery was first service before illuminating gas was introduced into 
practically applied in 1848, laljoratories. He first demonstrated, by his analysia 
when ether was administered of tbe meteoric iron of Alabama, the presence of 
to a patient, from whine jaw chlorine in tliat class of bodies, and also discovered 
a tumor waa removed, by Dr. the deposits of emery in Chester, Mass. His writings 
.lohn C. Warren at the Mas- have been iMrth numerous, interesting, and impor- 
sachusetts general hospital, tant, his separate papers nunibering nearly 100 
' About this tune, a number of titles; and among bis more elaborate works mar be 
? Boston physicians presented to mentioned his "Reports on tbe Mineral Lands of 
congress a memorial giving the United t*!ates in Michigan ;" "Reports on the 
Dr. Jackson the full and ex- Qeology of New Hampshire ; " "Manual of Etheri- 
clusive credit of the discovery, zation. with a History of its Discovery," etc. Dr. 
The question waa also inves- Jackson published the results of cliemical investiga- 
j^^ c^y , tigated by the French acad- tions relating to the cotton and loliacco plants, 
■^ A<LJ. t/^^^*^e*. emyof sciences, which decreed thirty-eight varieties of American grapes, arid Indian 
one of the Montyon prizes of com. He received various orders of decorations 
2,600 franca to l>r, Jackson for tbe discovery of from the governments of Sardinia, Sweden, France, 
etherization, and another of 2.500 francs to Dr. and Turkey, and from the king of Prussia by rec- 
Mnrton for the application of this discover to sur- ommeudation of Humboldt, that of tlie "red eagle," 
glcal operations. Before the subject of this sketch He was a man of great genius, and wonderful intui- 
fuily completed his medical course, he became deep- tlve faculties, but lacked a certain decision and 
ly interested in chemistry, geology, and mineralogy, force : he was willing to enunciate what he recog- 
and before receiving bis degree had already. In com- nized as a fact without taking the trouble tosubslan- 
pany with Francis Alger, explored a large part of tiate it. In 1S73 constant worry and anxiety caused a 
the province of Nova Scotia, where lie mnde a large mental derangement, from which he never recover- 
collection of minerals, which he exchanged with for- ed. Dr. Jackson died Aug. 39, 1880. 
eign cabinets, and soon had a valuable collection of AOASSIZ, Alexander, pupil of Louis Agassiz, 
hisown. In laSlbemadeatourof the greater part of was bom Dec, 17. 1885, in Neucbatel, Swil/erland, 
centralEuropeonfoot, visited thechiefciliesofltaly, the only son of Louis Agassiz by his first wife. 
and made geological researches In Sicily, and Au- Bom on tbe scene of bis father's early triumphs, be 
vergne, France, During his return from Europe, became in after years his father's successor in one of 
when he had with him galvanic, eleciro-magiielic. the greatest undertakings created in the western 
and other philosophical Inslrumcnls, he met with hemispliere. When the elder Agassiz came to the 
Prof, Morse, and with him bad conversations, which, United Stales, in 1848, he left his family behind, 
he always maintained, planted in that inventor's Tbe boy, Alexander, pursiietl bis studies in the 
mind the germs of the electromagnetic telegraph, schools of his native town, but having inherited bis 
In 1B34 be himself constructed, exhibited, andworkeil father's wonderful persistence in accurate study and 
with success a telegraph apparatus, similar in design research, he devoted himself assiduously to studies 
to the one he claimed to have descrilied to Prof, In nature, to which the books available rendered lii- 
Morse. In 1833 he settled in Boston, and commenced tie aid. On tbe death of his mother. Cecile Braun, 
the practice of his profession : this, however, he in 1849, ho came to the United States: prepared for 
abandoned shortly to eive his entire attention to the and entered Harvard, and was graduated in 1855. 
more congenial pursuit of chemical, geological, anil Tlie following four years were devoted to the study 
mineralo^cal investigations, and he was soon one of of civil enpneering and chemistry at tbe Lawrence 
tbe foiemoat men of science in America. In 1831 he Bcientiflcschool,hemeanwhileteacliing at his father's 




OF AHEBICAN BIOOBAPHT. 



QQ 



Khool tor young ladiea. He received the degree ol 
B.3. from Lawrence in lUST ; thcD took a further 
course of study io the chemical department, lasting 
two jeara. Leaving Cambridge, in 1859, lie entered 
tbe service of llie coast survey, taking part in the ex- 
pedition lo California, and renderine valuable aid in 
labors conneclea with the uoHh- 
vest boundary. Preferring to fol- 
low in his father's footsteps, he 
devoted himself to the collecting 
of specimens for the muaeum 
of comparative zoology at Cam- 
bridge. Having been constituted 
tbe accredited agent of the mu- 
seum, in 18S0 he visited, as an 



Cambridge, became assistant, 
and, in 1S65, acting curator, and 
was place<l in charge of tlie mu- 
seum during the absence of the 
elder Agnssiz in Brazil. Tn tlie 
same year he engaged in coal 
mining in Pennsylvania, and in 
I87flwent to the Lake Superior 
copper mines, becoming treasurer 
of the Calumet mine, developing 




^,C^j»'»a*vy. 



tbe Hecla, which adjoined the Calumet, and ii 
becoming superintendent of the combined properties. 
He developed these mines untEl they provixi to be 



tlie largest and richest copper deposits i[i the world. 
He worked incessantly, averaging fourteen and a 
half hours a day, but the result enabled him to make 
gifls to Harvard aggregating more than half a mii- 
uon dollars, Mr. Agassiz showed unusual ability as 
a mining engineer, and solved dif&culttes that were 
wilbout precedent. On one occasion llie Calumet 
caught tire, and for four months the tlames of the 
great underground confla(?ration prevented nl) work. 
When the flooding of the shafts was proposed, Agas- 
az stepped to the front with a belter and less expen- 
sive plan for subduing the tlanies. His knowledge 
of chemistry suggested the introduction of carbonic 
acid gas. It was used, further combustion stopped, 
and uie mines were soon again ready for the work- 
men. During 1880 and part of 1870 be visited and 
examined the museums and collection.^ of England, 
France, Qermany, Italy, and Scandinavia, then, re- 
turning to Cambridge, accepted the position of assist- 
ant curator of the museum. His lather, the elder 
Agassis, dying in 1874. the son was elected his suc- 
cessor, rematniDg in that office until 1685, when ill 
health necessitated his resignation. During the time 
of his connection with the museum, he tilled many 
important positions, and traveled extensively. In the 
summer of 1873 he acle<l aa director of the Anderson 
school of natural history ; visited, in 1875, the west- 
ern coast of South America ; examined tbe copper 
mines of Peru and Chili ; made an extended survey 
of Lake Titicaca, and collected for tbe Peabody mu- 
seum an immense number of Peruvian antiquities. 
He also went to Scotland to assist Sir Wyvitle 
Thomson in arranging the collections gatiiered in 
tbe exploring expedition of the Challenger, a part of 
which he secured, and brought to the Unite<l States, 
From 1876-81 he devoted his winters to expeditions in 
deep-sea dredging in connection with the coast survey, 
the steamer Blake having been specialty placed at bis 
disposal for the purpose. The value of his scientiflc 
work is recognized m all parts of the globe, and he 
Is Justly regarded as the best authority in the world 
on certain forms of marine life. Mr. Agassiz is a 
member of many scientiflc societies, among them 
the National academy of sciences ; tbe Amencan as- 
Mdation for the advancement of science, of which 
he was vice-president during the Boston meeting in 
18W ; of Uie American academy of sciences, and the 



Boston society of natural history. His publications 
are very numerous, embracing pamphlets, reports, 
contributions to scientific periodicals, and proceedings 
of societies, his writings beingprincipally on subjects 
connected with marine zoology. Heisalsotheaullior, 
with Mrs. Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, of "SeasideStudies 
in Natural Hislorr " (Boston, 1885). Among his other 
works are : " Marine Animals of Massachusetts 
Bay " <I871) ; and the dfth volume of " Conlribulitina 
to the Natural Histoir of the United States," the 
work having been left incomplete by his father. 
One of the most learned and important papers from 
his pen was tbe report on the sea-urchms collected 
by tbe Challenger expedition, ii having been made 
at the special request of Sir Wyville Thomson, 
previously menlioucd. His expenenccs during his 
deep-sea dredging expeditions were published under 
tbe title, "Three Cruises of the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey Steamer Blake, in Ihe Oulf of 
Mexico, in the Caribbean Sea. and along the Allantic 
Coast of the United Slates." The honors conferred 
upon him have been many and valuable. Cambridge 
gave him the degree of doctor of sciences. Bologna 
university, on tue occa-sion of its eight-hundi'edth 
anniversary, gave him a doctor's dcgi-ee ; Harvard 
made him an LL.D, : tlie PVench academy placed 
bis name on tbelr rolls as a corresponding member ; 
the National academy of sciences in the United Stales 
made him a member in 1866. Added to these were 
many others, uotnhty the bestowal upon bim of the 
Walker i>rize of (il,OM by the Boetou society of 
natural history, tor bis researches on echinoderms. 
In 1878 he was the recipient of the Prix Strre*, con- 
ferred by the French academy of sciences. Mr. 
Agassiz was Ibe first foreigner to receive this prize, 
which is given only once in ten veais. He is follow- 
ing out, in a very able manner, tlie policy eslnblished 
by bis father, and it Is the universal vcniiet that 
upon no worthier shoulders could the mantle of the 
elder Agassiz fall than iitwn those of his son. It was 
said of the father by President Eliot, "He has a 
peculiar way of giving. If he sees a need in any of 
tbe departments of the university, he goes end sup- 
plies it, pays the bill, and says nothing moi'e about 
the transaction," It is estimated that since 1871 his 
contributions to Hui-vanl have been in excess of 
tbree-quaiters of a million dollars. 

BCTTDDXB, Bamuel Hubbard, pupil of Louis 
Agassiz, was born in Boston, Mass., Apr. 13, 1887. 
He is a brother of Rev. David Coit Scudder, a Con. 
gregational minister who died a missionary in India, 
and of Horace Elisha Scudder, a well-known author 
and one of the editors of the " Atlantic Monthly." 
He was graduated from Williamscollegein 1857, and 
from the Lawrence Sclenlllic school (Harvaid), 18(i2. 
He was stnmgly attracted to the 
work done in the museum of com- 
parative zoOlo^, and became an 
assistant to Louis Agassiz, remain- 
ing in that position until 1864. 
During the years from 1862 lo 
1870, he was also secretary of the 
Boston society of natural histoiy; 
its custodian from 1864 to 1870, 
and its president from 1880 to 1887. 
In 1879 he wa.s appointed n.'^sistaut 
librarian of Harvard, remaining 
until 1885. The following year 
he becjime paleontologist of the 
United States geolo^cal survey in 
tbe division of fossil insects. He is a member of 
many scientiflc societies; was chairman of tiie sec- 
tion on natural history of the American Association 
for the advancement of science in 18T4; elected gen- 
eral secretary of the association in 187S; accepted 
the oRlce of librarian of the American Academy of ' 




33377 



100 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



&rt and sciences In 1877. retnaining until 1885:inIS77 
WBB elected & member of the Natiunal Academy of 
aciences. Mr. Scuddcr baa made a specialty of ento- 
mology, aDd as an autboritv on bulterDies and fossil 
Insects baa no superior Tbe insectsof New Hamp- 
shire were also reported on by liim, officially. Tbe 
specimens collected by tbe Yellowstone expedition 
In 1873 were submittM to him. He also examined 
and reported on tbe material catbercd by tbe nalional 
geological survey made by Lieut. Wbeeler and Dr. 
Ferdiuand V. Hayden, and likewise Ibst of the 
British North Americaa bouudary cotnmiiiBion, and 
the Canadian Geolo^cal Hiiivey. Durios 1883-S5 
Mr. Scudder was editor of "Science." published in 
Cambridge under tbe shadow of Harvard. His re- 
ports on various subjects would easily form a libraiy 
by themselves, as indicated by his bibliography col- 
lected by George Dimmock which, down to 1880, 
included more than 800 titles. A list of bis most 
Important works embraces: "Catalogiie of the Or- 
Ibopleraof North America "(1868|; "Entomological 
Corres|)ondence of Thaddeus William Harris" (Bos- 
ton, 1869) ; '■ Fossil ButlerDies " (Salem, 1875) ; 
" Catalogue of Scientific Serials of all Countries, in- 
cluding the TransactiouH of Learned Societies in the 
Natural, Physical, and Matbcniatical tSciences, 1683- 
IBifl " (Cambridge, 1879): '■ Buttertlies: Their Struc- 
ture, Changes, and Lite Histories " (New York, 1882); 
" Nomenclator ZoOlogicus: An Alphabetical List of 
all Generic Names that have been employed by 
Naturalistsfor Iteccnt and Fossil Animals "(Wash- 
ington. 1883); " Systematic Review of Our Prcaeut 
Knowledge of Fossil Insects" (1886); the '■ Winni- 

RgCountry;or. Rougbingit withau Eclipse Party, 
A Itochester Fellow^' (Boston. 1886); "Tbe 
F'ossil Insects of North America, with Notes on 
Some European Species" (1890), in two larce quarto 
volumes with aixty-three plates. The edition was 
limited to 100 copies, and judged to be tlie must ex- 
tensive work on fossil insects ever publialied. 

ALLSN, Joel Aaapb, pupil of Louis Agassiz. 
was bom in Springfield, Mass., July 19, 1838. His 
earlier studies were in the Wll- 
braham academy, after which he 
went to Cambridge, and was ad- 
mitted to tbe Lawrence scientific 
school under tbe elder Agassiz. 
He devoted special atlentiun to 
zoology, and was one of the corps 
of assistants that accompanie<l 
Agassiz when be visited Brazil in 
18e.'>. Subseouently. In 1869, Dr. 
Allen entered upon au exploring 
expedition in Florida, and again.' 
inl6Tl,wasattbcbea<l of a scien- 
tific exploring party in the llocky 
SIouutAln region. Two years later 
(1ST3) the Northern PMcilic rail- 
way secured hU services as leader 
of an expedition through the re- 
gion traversed by tbe nmd. Mean- 
while, in 1870, he had been chosen 
assistant in ornithology at the niu- 
sciitn in Cambridge. continuing in that othce for Hfieen 
years. In 1885 Dr. Allen wna called to the American 
museum of natural history, then recently estublislied 
in Manhattan square. New York city, and was made 
curator of the departments of omltbulogy, mam- 
malogy, fishes aud reptiles. In addition to the du- 
ties required of him by this appoiutmeoi. he look 
temporary charge of mvertebrate zoClogy. The 
work of identifying, cnialogiiing and labeltog the 
rapidly accumulating treasures of the museum occu- 
pied the greater part of his time; nevertheless he was 
able to contribute to the museum bulletins, largely 
the results of his valuable researches. HU writings 



include several hundred titles, among tbe more im- 
portant of which, as showing the nature of work 
conducted by him, are: "On Cyclorhia ViridiS' 
(Vieill) and its near Allies, with remarks on other 
species of the Genua Cyclorhis;" " Descriptions of 
new species of South American Birds, with remarfcft 
on various other little-known Species ; " " Kemarks 
on Individual and Seasonable Variation In a large 
Series of Elainea from Chapoda. Matto Grosso, Bra- 
zil, with a Revision of the Species of the Restricted 
Genus Elainea;" "On the Mammalian Types of 
South American Birds in the American Museum of 
Natural History;" "On Seasonal Variations in 
Color in Sciurus Hudsonlus;" " A Review of some 
of the North American Ground Squirrels of tbe 
Genus Tamias;" "Foray of a Colony of Formica 
Sanguinea upon a Colony of Black Ants " (Salem, 
1868); "Catalogue of tbe Mammals of Massachu- 
setts" (Cambridge, 1869); "On the Eared Seals" 
(1870); "Mammals and Winter Birds in Kast Flor- 
ida" (Cambridge, 1871); "The American Bison, 
Living and Extinct " (1872) ; " On Geographical 
Variation In Color among North American Squir- 
rels" (1874); "Nolea on tlie Mammals of Por- 
tions of Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming and Utah" 
(1874): " Geographical Variation in North Ameri- 
can Birds " (1874); "Notes on the Natural History 
of Portions of Montana and Dakota" (IS?-"!); "Mon- 



of North American Riidenlia. " with J)r, 

ipeds. aMnnographof the Walruses, Sea-Lions, Sea- 



ograi 
Ellio 



iliol Col 



"History of North American Pin- 




Bears and Seals of North America "(1880). etc. From 
1876 to 1883 be edited the " Bulletin of tbe Nuttall 
omilhological club." and afterward took charge of 
tbe "Auk, "a quarterly journal devoted to ornithol- 
ogy. While In Cambridge, in 1871, the Humboldt 
scholarship was conferred upon hiin, and in 1886 
the Indiana university gave him the degreeof doctor 
of philosophy. Dr. Allen is a meml«r of various 
scientific societies, among them the American acad- 
emy of aria aud sciences since 1871, and the Ameri- 
can philosophical society. During 1883-86 he was 
prcsiilent of tbe American ornithologists' union, and 
has been since 18768 Fellow of the Nalionalacademy 
of sciences. He is also a member of tbe American 
association for the advancement of science, aod of 
the American philosophical society. 

VEBRILIi, Addiaon Emory, pupil of Louis 
Agassiz, was born In Greenwood, Me., Feb. 9, 1830. 
M Idle vet a young man be went to Cambridge, and 
entered the Lawrence Scientific school, graduating 
in 1862. As a student he tlevoted hiiuself specially 
to natural history, principallv marine fauna. So 
deeply was he Interested in the study that nearly 
every summer since 1860 he has given bis time to 

"  G marine animals of the 

was given charge of the 
deep-sea dredgings and investigations of marine in- 
vertebrates conducted under the auspices of the 
U, S. fish commission, a labor entered upon au- 
niially, the results of which are emboilied in tbe re- 
ports made by variouscxneditions. Among these arc: 
"Keporton the Cephalopids of the Blake Ex pedi- 



during the summer of 1880;" "Notice of Re- 
cent Additions to the Marine Inverlebrata of the 
norlheastern coast of America, with a Description of 
a new Genera and Species; " " Report on the An- 
thozoa, and some Additional Species dredged by the 
Blake in 1877-7S; " "Catalogue of Marine Mollusca 
addeillothe Fauna of New England during the past 
ten years," with two supplements, bringing the 
work down to 1S85; and " Results of the Explora- 
tions modeby theSleamer Albatross off the Northern 
coast of the United States In 1883." In 1864 Prof. 



OF AMEBICAN BIOGRAPHY. 




J e.% 



Teirill was called to the chair of EoGlogj' in Yale 
college, which he blIU (1898) retains. He is also 
inatniclor OQ geology in the Sbettlcid Scieatiflc 
School of Yale. Since 1867 he has been curator of 
tofilogy in the Peabody museum in New Haven, 



that ranlu amon^ the first 
in thccouotry. While fllUug these 
^eitions in the eastern stales, 
Prof. Verrill was made professor 
of entomotoey and comparative 
anatomy in the University of Wis- 
coDsin. In coDDectiOD with bis 
work in the Peabody museum, he 
issued Dearly seventy " Brief Con- 
tributiona to ZoSlos]' from the 
museum at Yale college," papers 
varyiDC from ihree or four pages, 
to twelve or Qfleen pages each. 
His orieinal iovcstigaiioDS cover a 
large Beld.aod Include corals, mol- 
luscs, anellids, ecliinoderms, ao' 
tbozoa, tuDlcBta and bryozoa, also 
Uie gigantic cephalopods of the 
coast of Newfoundland, which be 
described and illustrated in his 
"Cepbalopoda of North America,"a work issued in 
two parts: Part I. is devoted to "The Gigantic 
Squids, with Observations on similar large species 
from Foreign Localities;" and Part II,, "The small- 
er Cephalopods, Including tbe Squids and the OC' 
topi, with other Allied Forms. The two parts 
coDiiia more than forty plates. In addiiiou to his 
labors as a naturalist. Prof, Verrill has devoted 
much time to the revision of Webster's Unabridged 
Dictionary, taking entire charge of the departments 
of zoology and invertebrate palmtntology, and super- 
utending the engravingof tlie greater portion of the 
engravings. He is the autlior of a " Text-book on 
Zoology, written conjointly with Prof, Wm. N. 
Rice, ol Wesleyan university. In addition to tlie de- 
greeot A.M conferred upon him by Yale, Mr, Verrill 
received election to the Boston society of natural 
bisiory, tbe Connecticut academy of arts, and in 
1ST3 became a member of the National academy of 
Bcieuct», HLh bibliography is large, and includes 
many scientific papers, published in the " American 
Journal of Science," and the proceedings of various 
societies of which he is a member. 

HYATT, AlpheuB, pupil of Louis Agsssiz, was 
bom in Washington, D, C., Apr. 5, 1838, Heattend- 
«1 different schools, among the number the Mary- 



land military academv, under the direction of C'apt. 
Allen, an ex -officer of the regular army, and i 
thing of a naturalist. He entered the class of 



J, and some- 



Tatc cuUcEe, but after completing the freshman 

J ear there, left for a year of travel in Europe. Upon 
is return lie entered the Lawrence scientific school, 
where he took the highest degree under Prof. Agas- 
liz in 1863. His parents desired that he should 
adopt a niercauttle career; but that being thorough- 
ly uncongenial, they next advised the study of law, 
which he pursued for two yeikra, and finding it 
equally <listasteful. alHindoned'^it, and again went to 
Europe, He served in the 4Tth Massachusetts regi- 
ment during the civil war, retiring with the rank of 
capiain. He resumed his scientific studies under 
Louis Agassiz in the class which contained such em- 
ident naturalists as F. W, Putnam. E, 8, Morse. A. 
8. Packard, A, Agassiz and others. He subsequent- 
'" went to Salem, where Putnam was curator in 
Kisex institute. Morse and Packard afterward 
retired, and toeether they founded, and for a term 
-' years edited, the "American Naturalist," now 
K) published Id Philadelphia. In 18ST he was 



S, 



appointed one of the curators of the Essex Institute. 
In 1871 be was elected custodian of the Boston sode- 

gof natural history, and the following year went to 
urope to complete bis studies of ammonites, begUD 
in 18B1 at the Museum of comparative zoology. In 
1881 he was appointed curator of the Boston society, 
and was also unofficially in charge of the fossil ceph- 
alopods of the Museum of comparative zoology at 
Cambridge, and was professor of zoology and 
paleontoUigy in tbe Massachusetts insliiulo of tech- 
nology. Conjointly with Alpheus B, Packard, Fred- 
erick W. Putnam and Edward S, Morse, and the 
olHcers of the Essex institute, he founded the Pea- 
body academy of sciences at Salem, and together 
they formed the first scientific staff and planued the 
museum, of which lie was appointed \he curator In 
1869, In connection with the Boston society he la 
manager of the Teachers' school of science, estab- 
lished in 1870-71 for the purpose of giving lectures 
to teachers in Boston and Its vicinity, and has, be- 
sides, a class in tbe Boston university. His idea that 
tiiere should be a socielv representing tbe practical 
side of natural history led to the eslablishraent of 
the Society of naturalists in the eastern part of the 
United States, which was founded in 1888. To him 
is also due the foundation of the General lahoratoiy 
of natural history at Annisquam, Mass,, which at hU 
suggestion was established, and is supported by the 
Woman's educational society of Boston, He hiu 
charge of tbe enterprise, which 
is open to both sexes — prefer- 
ence being given to teachers 
and investigators. He has 
given particular attention to 
the lower forms of animal life. 
Among the results of his re- 

ory of Celliilar Tissues," which 
is one of the most impoitant 
works he has over publislied. 
Among his other valuable re- 
searches may be mentioned: 
"Genesis of Tertiary Species 
of Planorbis at Sleiuheim," 
" Fossil Cephalopixis of the 
Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology," "Revision of North 
American Perofene." "Gen- 
era of Fossil Cepbalopoda" 
contains important contribu- 
tions to the theory of evolution. He has also edited 
a series of guides for science teaching, and is the 
author of several of the series, including " Commer- 
cial and other Sponges," " The Oyster, Clam and 
Other Common Mollusks." etc. The most useful 
work he has accomplished Is in connecti<m witli pop- 
tdar science teaching, in which be is quite origind. 
He uses books as little as possible, and bis lectures, 
and those which he supervises before tbe Teachers' 
school of science are decidedly novel. The object 
of the course is to fit teachers for leaching element- 
ary sciences in the public schools. In 18119 he was 
elected a Fellow of the American academy of arts 
and sciences, and In 1875 was nominalwl a member 
of the National academy of science. He ranks high 
among naturalists, and is a scientist In the strictest 
sense of the word. 

U0B8E, Edward Sylveater, pupil of Louis 
Agassiz. was born at Portland, Me,, June 18.1838. He 
eorty showed an aptitude for science, beginning a col- 
lection of shells and minerals at thirieeu years of age, 
which the Bivsion society of natural history considered 
itself fortunate to secure six years later. After receiv- 
ingafair education in the aiidemy at Bethel, Me., he 
worked for a short time as mechanical draughtsman 
in the Portland locomotive works, and then as a 
drawer on wood In a Boston engraving house, devol- 




y^^^-^ 



102 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




iug bU spare time to zoology. Hbfondiieaa for this 
study, however, became so great tliat lie dt.-cjde<l to 
give his whole atleiitioD to it. aoil he became a pupil 
of Agajufii! at Cai»brid},'e, wIiltc lie remuhied till 
m63. acting a portion ot the time as an awiistant io 
the Laivrence sciuntillc scliool. The results of his 
original researches into tlic subject of brachiopuda, 
wliicbliediscovcred to be worms instead of moMnaks, 
Heuuretl him rccoguiliuu from Uar- 
wiu aod from the prominent sci- 
eutims of Europe. With the ex- 
ception of three years (1871-74), 
when he filled the chair ot com- 
parative anatomy and loOlogy at 
Bowduin college. Maine, be luade 
bis home at ^nlcm, Mass., fur Uie 
eleven yearw succeediug 1866, es- 
labliBhiiig there, in oouDection 
with Prof. Packard, the "Amer- 
ican Naturalist Magazine' and 
the "Peabody Academy of Sci- 

of a coast -d red ping tour lo Japan, 
' he became professor of zoillugy 
in the Imperial university at To- 
kio. He put his department on 
a firm basis and Kot Kigether 
the nucleus of the Imperial mu- 
seum. In 1880 he relumed to 
tbc United States, wJiere he has since remained, 
with the exception of a short trip to Japan in IMSa. 
to settle sonie doubtful points in connection with 
bis specialty. He is a representative American 
evolutionist, who has faciliutcd tbo acceptance by 
his countrymen of the Darwinian theory, both by an 
able advocacy and by the collection of a large body 
of confirmatory facts. Id ethnology and arcbteology 
as well as zonloey. he may be reganled aa an expert, 
ina-imuch as in both these departments he has made 
extended iovestigalions and published valuable re- 
sults. He is also a popular lecturer and a successful 
inventor. His scientific attainments have been rec- 
ognized by the conferring of numerous honors. In 
1668 hew-as maitc aFellowof the American academy 
of arts and sciences; In 1871 Doctorof philosophy by 
Bowdoiu coltece; in 1874 lecturer to Harvard uoiver- 
wty; la 1876 Fellow of the National academy of 
science, and vice-president of tlie American associa- 
tion for the advaucemenl of science, and in 1885 
firesident of the last-named association. His piib- 
Ished worlis include "Japanese Homes and their 
Surrounilings " and "Ancient Methods of Arrow 



the son of AJpheusSprine Packard, the eminent prn^ 
fessor of Latin and Greek, who for sixty years waa 
t member of the faculty of Iluwdoin college. In 



appointed entomoioglHt on tlie corps of the Maine 
geological survey. His " How to Observe and Col- 
lect Insects " attracted the attention of Agassiz, and 
Packard was sent for. and for three years studied 
natural history at Cambridge, and was for a time 
Agassiz's private assistant. At this time his essay 
on the " Army Wurm," the first of his scientific 
articles, afterward so numerous, was written. He 
studied medicine and zoOlogv at the same lime, and 
in 1894 received his M,I>. He serve<l ten months in 
the civil war, and in 1885 returned to Boston and 
accepted a position as libmrian and custoilian at the 
Bo«lon society of natural history. In 1866 he was 
called to a professorship in tlie Essex institule. Sa- 
lem, Mass., and latertoachair in the PcalHxly acad- 
emy of science, which ho bad aided in founding, and 
was one of its curators. He resigned the chair at 



PealKtdy academy in 1876 to accept the chair of 
zoology and geology in Brown i "" 

founded a summer school ot biolog; 



i Penikcse ii 



«8-74. 




^. //*U«^ 



to his efforts. He waa ils editur-in-cbiel 
tinned in Salem for eleven years, duringwhich ti 
be lectured at the MasHachiisetts 
Bgriciilturul college and at Ikiw- 
duin, besides liaving charge of the 
entomology ot the U. S. geological 
and gcogniphical survey under 
Hayden. In 1871-73-73 he was 
state entomologist of Massachu- 
setts, and a member of the U. 8. 
entomological commission during 
its existence, contributing largely 
to the three volumes of its reports. 
He was a prominent advocate of 
the evolution theory, acceptin, 
the views both of Lamarck ana 
Darwin, but not lo the exclusion 
ot either. His modified theory 
of evolution has received the 
support of some ot the l)est nat- 
uralists of Europe, and a larspe 
followiug in this country. In 
18T4 he was ap]ioinle<l assistant 
on the Kentucky geological survey. In 1875-76 he 
was assistant zoologist on the U, 6. geological and 
geogmpliical survey of the territories. Ills pub- 
lished writings are very numerous, and a bibli- 
ography of about 400 titles, published by him, has 
been compiled by Samuel Henshaw. He is a mem- 
l>er of many »cientific si«ietica both at home and 
abned. At the Zoological congress, held in Paris 
In 1889, he was one of eight honorary presidents; 
was also honorary president ot the section ot zo5l- 
ogyofthe French association for the advancement 
ofscicnce. Tbc British association for the advance- 
ment of science elected him corrraponding member 
In 1890. 

FXTTITAIE, Frederick Ward, pupil of Louia 
Agassiz, was bom at Salem, Mass., Apr. 16, 1839. 
He is a lineal descendant of John Putnam, who emi- 



among them the Fiakcs, Pal' 
freys, Hathomes. etc. His 
mother's family, the Apple- 
tons, were of equally cele- 
brated antecedents, Tlie great 
majority of the male members 
of the family were graduated 
from Harvard, and some fig- 
ured conspicuously at Salem 
during the witchcraft period. 
The subject of this sketch was 
always fond of natural history, 
which tasle his'parents culti- 
vated and fostered in every 
possible way. anil which waa 
also furthered by havlug access 
to a large zoological museum, 
which was in Ibe town, Tbe 
commencement of his active 
scientific career dates from his 
election to a membership in 

the E9.SCX Institute, 1855. Id 1856 be waa made 
curator of ornltholo^, and cabinet keeper. For 
thirtr years he continuously held important offices 
In tfiia inatituli(,u, and in 1871 waa elected vico- 

6 resident. In 1856 he was elected a member of the 
oston Society of Natural History, and in 1880 was 
nominated vice-president of the society. In 1856 ho 
entered Lawrence Scientific school asaspecial pupil. 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



103 



under Agassiz. In a few weeks the professor ap- 
pointed lum assistant at the Museum of comparative 
zoology in charge of the collection of fishes. He 
retained this position until 1864, when he removed 
to Salem to assume charge of the museum of the Es- 
sex Institute, and this same year he was married. 
In 1856 he became a member of the American as- 
sociation for the advancement of science, and while 
Prof. Lovering was abroad in 1869, he served in his 
place as permanent secretary, and at the same time 
was also local secretaiy of the Salem meetings. On 
the resignation of Proi. Lovering, he was elected to 
fill his place, and subsequently re-elected three times, 
holding the office for thirteen years consecutively. 
At the time of his election, the membership barely 
reached 500, and to his personal infiuence is largely 
due the increase in membership, which in a period 
of thirteen years was augmented to 2,000. He was 
director of the Museum of the Peabody academy of 
science. In 1874 he filled the position of instructor 
in the School of natural history, Penikese Island, 
and also had charge of the School of mines of 
Alexander Agassiz. The same year he was appoint- 
ed assistant on the geological survey of Kentucky, 
where he spent several months in the exploration of 
caves. Salt and Saunder's caves were discovered at 
this time, and much of archaeological import dis- 
closed. He also obtained important zoOlodcal re- 
sults from these various caves, reports of which 
were published by him in conjunction with A. S. 
Packard, Jr. In 1874 he resumed temporary charge 
of the collections of the Peabody museum of Ameri- 
can archseoloey and ethnology, Cambridge, Mass., 
and in accordance with the object of George Pea- 
body's trust, was appointed professor of American 
archaeology and ethnology at Harvard, and in 1875 
was appointed curator of the museum. From 1876- 
78, he was assistant in the Museum of comparative 
zoology in charge of the collection of fishes, and in 
1876 lie was appointed by the engineer department 
of the United States, to report upon and take charge 
of the archaeological collections gathered by the at- 
taches of the geological survey west of the hun- 
dredth meridian. In the preparation of this work, 
Vol. VI. of the quarto publications of the survey by 
the eminent specialists, his masterly hand is evident 
throughout, and his article ou perforated stones is 
one of the most thorough and valuable contributions 
to prehistoric archaeolo&^y by an American writer. 
From 1858-86 he was made a correspondent of twenty- 
seven learned societies in America, and five in Eu- 
rope. He is a member of the National academv of 
sciences, was awarded the degree of A.M. by Wil- 
liams college, 1868, and has given many and valuable 
contributions to scientific literature, and also to 
arclueological literature, among them a catalogue of 
the birds of Essex county, Mass. ; " Proceedings of the 
Essex county Institute;" "An Indian Grave and its 
Contents on* Winter Island," and a vast number of 
miscellaneous papers, besides his onerous duties as 
editor of the "Proceedings of the Essex Institute," 
"The Annual Reports of the Trustees of the Pea- 
body Academy of Science," and of the "Annual 
Volumes of the American association for the ad- 
vancement of science." He was also one of the 
origmal editors of " The American Naturalist." His 
knowledge of natural history in general is only 
equaled by his archteological knowledge, and he 
worthily wears the mantle of his predecessor, the 
late Jeffries Wyman. 

HATNE, Robert Toung, statesman, was bom 
in Colleton District (St. Paul's parish), 8. C, Nov. 
10, 1791. He was a grand-nephew of Col. Isaac 
Hayne, the revolutionary patriot, executed at 
Charleston, S. C, by the English Lord Rawdon's 
orders, Aug. 4, 1781. With but a limited education, 
aoquiied in Charleston, he studied law with Lang- 



don Cheves, was admitted to the bar in 1812, and 
when Mr. Cheves was chosen to the U. S. congress, 
Mr. Hayne succeeded to his large practice. During 
the war of 1812 he served in the 3d Sputh Carolina 
regiment. In October, 1814, he was chosen to the 
state legislature, and distinguished himself as a de- 
bater. In 1818 he became its speaker, and shortly 
after attorney-general of the state (1818-22), and en- 
tered the U. S. senate from his native state in 1823. 
In the tariff discussions which arose in that body, 
he was the uncompromising opponent of any policy 
of protection to American industry, and, as chairman 
of the standing committee on naval affairs, is also de- 
clared to have manifested abilities of a high order. In 
one of his speeches against a tariff (1824) he laid down 
the doctrine that the U. S. congress had no constitu- 
tional power to impose duties ou imports for the pro- 
tection of domestic manufactures. In another speech 
he was 'the first, at least in congress, to declare and 
defend the doctrine that under the federal compact 
between the states, any state had the right to arrest 
the operation of a law which she considered uncon- 
stitutional. This ground was taken by Senator 
Hayne in addressing the senate (1832) upon a resolu- 
tion offered by Henry Clay, which declared the ex- 
pediency of repealing at once the U. S. duty on any 
and all imported articles which did not come into 
competition with American 
manufactures, Hayne submit- 
ting an amendment that all 
existing duties should be so 
reduced as simply to afford 
the revenue necessary to de- 
fray the actual expenses of 
the government. The amend' 
ment was defeated and Mr. 
Clan's resolution was adopted. 
This led, by its connections, to 
the famous debate in the sen- 
ate between Mr. Hayne and 
Daniel Webster of M!assachu- 
setts, Senator S. A. Foot of Con- 
necticut having offered a reso- 
lution concerning the sale of the 
public lands, which was its im- 
mediate occasion. The ground 
traversed included alike the 
principles of the constitution, 
the authority of the general government, and the 
rights of the separate states, and when the debate 
ended, Mf. Hayne's career in the senate had practi- 
cally closed. His course had, however, rendered him 
exceedingly popular at home, and he was a member 
of the convention convoked by the South Carolina 
legislature (Nov. 24, 1832) for the purpose of review- 
ing the obnoxious tariff acts of congress. The cele- 
brated ordinance of nullification, the result of their 
labors, was reported to that body b}' Mr. Hayne, as 
chairman of the committee to whom the subject had 
been referred. The next month he was chosen gov- 
ernor of the state, resigning his seat in the senate of 
the United States. President Andrew Jackson issued 
his proclamation denouncing the proceedings in 
South Carolina; but Gov. ftayne stood firm, and 
South Carolina prepared for armed resistance, af- 
ter a counter-proclamation had been issued by her 
executive. A compromise act, passed by congress, 
finally ad justetl the revenue, and lowered the import 
duties on certain articles of necessity and conveni- 
ence. Then another South Carolina state convention 
repealed the ordinance of secession, Gov. Hayne pre- 
siding over its deliberations. In 1834 he was elected 
mayor of Charleston, S. C. He published papers 
in the * Southern Review " on the improvement of 
the U. S. navy, and in vindication of his grandfather, 
Col. Isaac Hayne. He died at Asheville, N. C, 
Sept. 24, 1889. 




104 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




HTLTOK, Bobert, civil eDgineer, was bom at 
Little Brilain, Pa., id 1T6S. His father and mother 
were of Irish origin. When be was tliree yeara of 
age liis fatiier ciiLd. anii he wna obliged in bis early 
years to depcud upon his own exertiunsfor subsist- 
eDce. His tastes incljuinji; in that direction, he cul- 
tivated the art of di-awing in 
the hope of qualifying him- 
self for the profcsiion of a 
painter. Bennmin West, with 
advauta^ of education and 
connection little superior to 
his own, had raised himself U) 
the fli'st rank, not only among 
tlie painter? of England, but 
uf the civilized world. At the 
aee of seventeen be went to 
PliEladelphia to practice as a 
painter of portrails and land- 
scapes, and was successful 
enough to support himself 
aud lay up a small amount 
of money. His first savinj^ 
were devoled to the comfort 
^ of his widowed motber, and 
when bis twenty -first year 
arrived he had, by economy 
and perseverance, acquired 
fundx with which bepurciiased 
a small farm in WHshiiigtoii county. Pa. Shortly 
after locating her upon it, he formed acquaiut- 
ances who. appreciating his promise as an artist, ad- 
vised him to BO to England and visit Mr. West. 
This he did and was at onceinvited to become an in- 
mate of his house, where he remained, as guest and 
pupil, for several years. When he left it, it waa 
with iutroductiims to stewards and to agents for 
members of the English nobility who had llie finest 
picture galleries in the kingdom. He copied pictures 
at Puwderham Castle in the county of Devon, the 
chief seat of the Courtenay family. He was thus 
lor two years in the vicinity of Exeter. Among the 
useful acquaintances which he here made, were the 
Duke of Bridgcwater and Earl Stanhope, the former 
the father of llie vast system of inland navigation, 
which spremlaiis ramiflcaiionsover every accessible 
part of En^rlnnd. At his suggestion it was, that 

iL 

and naturally, a subonlinate station. His entry 
upon tills calling waa also due to advice from the 
earl of Stanhope. This gentleman had already en- 
tertainetl the hope of being able to apply the steam 
engine to navigation, his plan involving tlie use of a 
pecidlar apparatus modeled after the font of an 
aquatic fowl. Fulton suggested to the earl in writ- 
ing, certain objections to this, and brought forward, 
as well, the very ideas which were afterward success- 
fullv worked out upon the Hudson river in New 
York. The date of Fulton's letter to the ear) was 
1TB3, Immediately after he had located at Birming- 
ham. It was here that Fulton was bninght into 
cummunlcaliou witli James Watt(r^irutnef Tunemb- 
iU nomen), who bad just succeeded In giving to his 
steam engine the form which fitti'd it for univci-sal 
application as a prime mover. Siibacquemly Pul- 
ton is found in co-operation with Walt, actually 
superintcudin; the cunstniclion of an engine in a 
place where no aid was to he obtained. Iluriiig liis 
residence In Blnuingham lie patentcii several inven- 
tions, and issued several boiiks. In a work on in- 
land niivigation, published in 1786, he embiHlied a 
filan for the use of an inclined phine in raising and 
owerlng canal boats, whii-h he had patented fn 
1793. It Is said that this displayed a high <legree 

at. altluHig'  

Sharing 



hostility to Qreat Britain which was felt by his 
fellow-countrymen in consequence of her high- 
handed aggressions upon American ocean coin nicrce 
in the opening year of this century, his thoughts 
were next turned to the production of an implement 
by which her vessels of war might be destroyed, aud 
to the instrument which he mtidc he gave tlie uame 
of " torpedo." It was an oval copper case, charsed 
with gunpowder. To this he prupuaed to attach a 
lock Tcgulated by clock>work, which at any required 
time might cause the lock to spring and the charge 
to be fired. To secure the atloption of this instru- 
ment lie first solicited the patronage of the govern- 
ment of France, aud when he was dismissed by 
Napoleon, applied to the English government. But 
nolhing came of these endeavors. He aiio trans- 
mltiud a copy of his work uu inland navigation to 
George Washington, then president of the United 
Stales. Fulton returned to France and continued 
experimenting witli his torpedo boat, but the time 
was ripe for his life work — the application of steam 
to navigation. Inlhecontcst which went forward at 
one time, in re«|>cct to the validity of Fulton's claim 
to priority in this discovery, or rather in the applica- 
tion of the steam engine to these puri>caes, it is pretty 
clear to an investigator that the only competitor who 
could have Iwen broucht forward with a shadow of 
plausibility among Kurupeans, was James Watt 
himself. But although Watt may liave cimccived 
the idea, he had laid it aside as uulikely to be of 
any practical value. Numerous Auiencans have 
also sought to contest the palm with Fu:ton In Ibis 
great matter, but on the whole without success. 
Among these, John Fitch and James Itumsey were 
indcLHl autbors of plans, which, if their engines bad 
not been capalile of furtlier improvement, might have 
bad a partial and limited success. When the im- 
provement of tlie steam engine by Watt became 
familiarly known, the first person, moreover, who 
entered upon inquiry as to the proper mode of ap- 

Siying it in navigation, was John Stevens of Hoboken, 
I. J., who began his researches In 1761. Afternine 
{ears' study lie became the associate of ChHucellor 
tobert R. Livingston and Nicholas Roosevelt, and 
among the persons whom they employed was the 
celebrated European engineer, Brunei. But they, 
too, were unsuccessful, aud only secured exclusive 
privileges on the waters of the slate of New York, 
which grant of power was given ihem without any 
ditttculty. it being believed that ilictr scheme was 




little short of madness. In 1801 Livincston became 
U. S. amlMttwndor to Franw. and on his arrival out, 
found Fulton domiciled with Joel Barlow. Fulton 
forthwith coinmuuicated to him the scheme which 
be bad laid before Earl Stanhope in 1793. and Liv- 
ingston olTered to provide the funds necessary for 
new cv|)criments. and to enter Into a contract for 
Fulton's aid In introducing the new method of travel 
into the United Stales, provided tlie experiments 
were successful. Tlie cxiierimenls were made at 
Plombipres, a French watering place, in 1803. It 



OF AHERIOAN BIOGRAPHY. 



105 



bad occurred to Fulton to make hfs nheels with a 
set of paddles revolving upon an endless cliaiu, ex- 
tending from the stern to the stem of his boat. And 
in Ibis conception he had the germ of the ateamer of 
to-day. In 1803 he made a working model of Ilia in- 
tenil^ boat, which he deposited with a commission 
of French tavajt*. At the same time he began to 
build a vessel dxty-six feet long and eight feet wide 
to wbicb an eninne was adapted, and 
the trials with it were so satisfactory 
as to leave little doubt of final suc- 
cess. Measures were immediately 
taken to constnict a steamboat on a 
large scnte in Ibe United States, and 
at Ibe proper engine could not be 
gotten from the workshops of that 
country, or of France, an order for 
one was lodged with Watt & Boulton 
of England, without specifying the 
object to which It was to be applied, 
sketches, etc., bein^ funiislied by 




Fulton; and tlie 

ed was the type of many of those 
DOW used io Ibe steam navigation 
of both Europe and America. Livingston, with full 
faith in the enterprise in hand, now (1803) secured 

r'n from the New York state legislature an ex- 
Ive privilege of navigating the waters of that 
state by Meam, that formerly obtained having ex- 
pired. It was grauted without opposition, the only 
condition made being that a vessel should be pro- 
pelled by steam al tne rate of four miles an hour 
within a prescril>ed space of time. It is to he said 
herethalthe procurement of this privilege from a 
state, rather than from the general government of 
the United States, proved, in the long run, a fruitful 
source of trouble to Livingston and Fulton, and re- 
duced the fandly of the latter to penury. About 
this time he revisited England, at the request of Earl 
Stanhope, and treateil with the British government 
for Ihe adoption of bis torpedo, but when the ofti- 
dala endeavored to exact a pledge that the invention 
should be communicated to no other nation, be re- 
fused to agree to tbe demand. The engine from 
Watt &, Boulton reached New York in 1806, and the 
vesKi to receive it was finished and fitted with her 
machinery In August, 1807. On Aug. 11, 1807, the 
" Clermont, " for so she was ultimately named, made 
the first passa^ by steam from New York city to 
Albanv, in tbirty-two houra, a distance of rather less 
Ihaa IS) miles. The passage by sloops between the 
two cities, up to this time, bad always taken, on the 
average, about four davs. The public at once 
crowded the new vessel, and regular trips were 
made at stated times until tbe end of the season. 
The '■ Clermont " was remodeled and rebuilt in tbe 
winter of 1807-8, with such accommodations for 
pasiengers as, in convenience, and even in splendor, 
bad Dul before been approached in vessels intended 
for the transportation of travelers. She began her 
tri|H for her second season in April. 1808. A boiler 
nhich Livingston had Insisted onusingproved. huw- 
erer. lo be unfitted for its work, and trips were sus- 
pended until June, when with a Iroiler of Fulton's 
const ruction, which did Its work, they were resumed. 
A new feature was iutrodueed with the new means 
of locomotion. Fulton started his boat on iluic, pre- 
cisely. It was an innovation, but it was persevered 
in, snd wasfinallymuchapproved. Local jealousies 
were now excited, and some citizens of AUniny at- 
tempted to construct two other steamboats, but with- 
out accomplishing their purpose. Foiled In this, 
they sought to test the constitutionality of the exclu- 
sive giant for navigation which bad been made to 
Livingston and Fulton. The courts of Ihe state sus- 
tained the grant, but tbeir proceedings and the build- 
ing of other boats brought Fulton lieavilj in debt. 



In the spring of 1808 he was married to Harriet, 
daughter of Walter Livingston. In the further 

Erosecution of the navigation of the Hudson river, 
ivingston and Fulton were opposed by parties who 
sought to deprive the latter of the honor of liis great 
Invention, in favor of John Fitch of New York, but 
tbe sum of tbeir success was merely his constant 
annoyance in business as well as in a due care for 
bis scientific reputation, and bis claims to priority of 
achievement in steam navigation are now ordinarily 
conceded throughout this countiy and in Europe. 
He devised in the closing years of his life a system 
of ferriiiges between New York and adjacent river- 
hanks, tbe first of which was established from New 
York to Brooklyn. L. I. Before he died the steam- 
boats on the Hudson bad lieen increased to five. At 
the time of his death he was engaged in the construe- 
tiim of an improved form of a sub-marine vessel 
which he liad employed in France. The construc- 
tion of a vessel of war, to be propelled by steam, 
had Just previously occupied his energies. Fulton's 
life was written by Cadwallader C. Colden (N. Y., 
1817). and bv James Benwick. ihe latter in Sparks'a 
"American Biography." He died in New York city 
Feb. 24, 1815. 

BABBOWS, CharUa Clifford, physician, was 
bom in Jackson. Miss,, June 5, 1857. He is de- 
scended from John and Ann Barrows {or Barrowe), 
who came from Yarmouth, Eng., in the ship Mary 
Ann. and settled in Salem. Kfass.. in 1637. John 
Barrows was a descendant of Thomas Barrows, mas- 
ter of the rolls, London, 1483, and 
of Richard, whoso bronze tablet 
is in the church at Winthrop, 
Eng. (1«05), and also of Henry 
the Martyr (1592), George Bar- 
rows, grandson of John and Ann. 
for services to tbe Massacbusetts 
colony, mas granted a tract of 
land at Carver, Mass., and upon 
this land some of his descendants 
still live. Dr. Barrows's paternal 
great-grandfather, Capl. David 
Nye, was a member of the great 
and general court of Massachu- 
setts, and commanded a com- 




revolution, being distingiushed Unt^C^, 
for his valor at the battle of / 

Fair Haven, 8ept. 17, 1778, in 
which the British were defeated. Dr. Barrows was 
graduated In arts and medicine from the Univer- 
sity of Virginia in 1879, and from the Unlveraity 
of New York in 1880. He served as bouse physi- 
cian In Bellevue hospital for eighteen months, and 
joined the U. S. army as assistant surgeon, with rank 
of first lieutenant, serving for five years ill the Indian 
campaigns of the West against the Apaches under 
Gen. Crook, and was with Ihe detachment that cap- 
tured the famous Geronimo. He was medical officer 
on Gen. Crook's staff. He came Ensi, anil had 
charge of 500 Indiana, prisoners of war, a part of 
Gcronimo's Imnd, at Fort Marion. St. Aiigustine, 
Fla., Geronimo having been sent to Fort Pickens. 
He resigned in 1887, and soon after commenced prac- 
tice in New York as an associate of Dr. William 
M. Polk, a son of the famous bishop and general, 
I^onidas Polk, his specially being gynecology and 
obstetrics. Dr. Barrows, besidesatteiidingtoalarge 
private practice, is assistant obstetric physician and 
gynecologist to Bellevue hospital. Fellow of the New 
York Academy of medicine. Fellow of tbe Obstetri- 
cal society, member of the Clinical society and of 
tbe society of the Sons of the Revolution, member 
of the Countv medical socielv and of tbe Alumni as- 
of Bellevue hospilal. 



-.^t^™^,?' 



106 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




BEROE, Henr;, philuithropiat and founder of 
the American socieij for tbe preventiou of cnieltr 
to aulmuls, was bom ia New York cily JD 1823, of 
GemiaD nnceatry. HU father, Cbrisliaa Bergh, was 
a slilpltiiilili-r. HDd for mnnv fears Id tlie service of 
the goveiiiiuem. He diea m 1843, leaving three 
childreu, amply provideii for. 
Henrr enlerai Columbia college, 
but before Ills course was fla- 
ished, determined on an extend- 
ed foreign tour, and spent five 
Tears iu Europe. In 1K63 he 
became secretary of legaiioo to 
Russia, and afterward acting vice- 
consul. The severity of the cli- 
mate obliged him to resign his 
position, and he again devoted 
ilia means and leisure to travel, 
seeking more temperate regions 
both in Europe and the East. 
Cruelties to animals, witnessed by 
him in his travels, and es|>ecially 
during his residence at St. Pe- 
tersburg, first suggested his pbil- 
. anthropic mission on behalf of 
the dumb brute. He visited Eng- 
land, and sought the acquaint- 
ance and assistance ol Lord Harruwby, at that time 
president of the Royal society for the prevention of 
crueltj to animals. On hJH return to the United 
Slates he determined on devoting the remainder of 
his life to the interests of the dumb creation, and on 
his labors in behalf of that part of created life 
obliged to yield to man's superior rule, resla his hon- 
ored^ repulation. He was alone, but in the face of 
Indifference, and comlmted by opposition and rid- 
icule, he l>egan the organization of the society which 
has since lieen recognized as one of the must benefi- 
cent movements of the age. He devoted iiis talents 
as a speaker and a lecturer to the cause he had ea- 

giUBed, and as a worker, whether in the street, de- 
nding from inhuman treatment: Ihe court-room, 
invoking the aid of the law ; or before the legislature, 
seeking legal enactments, he stood withoutan equal. 
An act of incorporation was secured Ajir. 10, 1866, 
in the legislature of New York, 
and Mr. Beri;h became the first 
president of the new aocielj. 
The association liegau i(s work 
of development, and in a few 
months was in a Dourishing 
condition flnanclally, its firat 
valuable property beiug re- 
ceived from Mr. and Mrs. 
Bergh. Branches of the so> 
ciety were established and 
exist in every part of the 
United States and Canada, 
In many cities its officers are 
constituted special policemen, 
with authonty to arrest any 
person found practicing cruelly of any kind toward 
any rocmber of the brute creation. Every moral 
agency — social, legislative and personal— ia em- 
ployed; points of vital concern to liealth as well 
as to humanity are touched; the transportation of 
cattle, the purity of milk, the times and manner of 
si au filtering, the care of horses and other beasts of 
burden, the abolition of live birds from shooting- 
matches, the breaking up of cock-flghts and doir- 
flghts. By an ingenious invention Mr. Bergh sub- 
stituted an artificial for a live pigeon as a mark for 
the sportsman's gun. It is a thin, hollow disc of 
clay sprunt; from a trap, and in its passage through 
tbe air imitates tlic flight of a bird. In 1t<71 Louis 
Bonard, a Parisian, and a typical miser, who occu- 
pied, in squalor and wretchednesa, an obscure room. 




sent for Mr. Bergh. The old man made his will, 
when it was revealed that he had property li> 
the value of ^150,00(1, all of which was devised to 
Mr. Bergh's society. A sliabby and dusty trunk 
was filled with gold and silver watches in alteroale 
layer*, together with a large qiianiiiy of jewelry and 
diamonds. This singular bequest enabliil the soci- 
ety to greatly enlarge its work. During 1873 31r, 
IJcrgh made a lecturing tour through the west, spoke 
before the Evangelical alliance and Episcopal cun- 
venllou, and was the means of having a new canon 
confirmed, giving clergymen of the Episco|)al church 
autiiority to preach a sermon at least once a year on 
cmeltv and mercy to animals. Mr, Bergh r(K:eived 
no salary. His private income being ample for his 
needs, he gave his whole time and energies to the 
work of "speaking for those who could not speak 
for themselves." His work did not slop in carine 
for dumb beasts; in 1874 he rescued a little girt 
from inhuman treatment, and the act led to the 



oral plays, and publislied "The Streets of New 
York,"a volume of tales and sketches; "Tlie Por- 
tentous Telegram." "The Ocean Paragon," and 
" Married OB." He died in New York city March 



Qermany, in 18S3, and attended until fourteen years 
of age the schools of his native place. In 1866, in 
company with an elder brother, he came to Amer- 
ica, and settled in Chicago, where be attended col- 
lege until sixteen years of age, Ixmktng about him 
for a vocation he, from 1868-71, studied tbe art of 
electrotypiiig and stereotvping with Alexander Zcese, 
who had a large estahli^'itncnt of (his kind on Dear- 
bom street, Chicago. The great fire in Chicago oc- 
curring at this time sent young Ringlcr to New 
York city, where, in 1872, he secured the i>OAition 
of superintendent with Hurst & Cm ' ' ' 
ognized great ability In his produc 
his exceptional knowledge soon 
became so apparent that after the 
lapse of six months he was made 
a junior member of the Arm. He 
conducted this business with In- 
creasine success until 1878, tbe 
style of the firm beins Crum & 
Ringler. In tliat year he iKjught 
out the interests of his two former 
partners, changed the firm name 
to F. A, Ringler & Co,, and by 
industry, energy, diligence and 
circumspection, made the busi- 
ness the largest of its kind in 
America, over 200 men being 
employed in his establishment. 
His productions have been award- 
ed the first prize wherever they 
have been exhibited, so that Mr. 
Ringler is in possession of eight 
Brst-ctasB medals, granted in rec- 
ognition of his achievements. His native talent 
for the fine arts, and his unusual technical and 

Eractical knowledge have combined to open to 
im fields before unknown to the profession; these 
he has cultivated with favorable resulis. His iutm- 
diiction of the gal vano plastic procu.si!, which It was 
formerly suppiised could not be used in this line of 
work, is worthy of mention, inasmticli lu* It lias pro- 
duce<l a thousand and one artistic art'  '  - 
decoration, which are offered at a 
even the poorer classes lo possess il 
larly worthy of mention is the fan thai 
lishmcnl of Mr. Kingler ia the only o 



In fact. 




iH for home 

it the eslsh- 
__..,_ „ .!■ in Ameriot 

which plates with steel, thus obtaining an unusuallj 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



107 



liard surface, anil enabliug many thouaand impres- 
BioDs to be taken therefrom without a renewal of the 
plate. The important position which Mr. Riugler 
occupiea ta rclaiioa (o the book irade is apparent 
from the large number of illustrated works which 
have been printed from his plates. Among tbein 
are: " Maalerpiecea of German Art," " Masterpieces 
of Ilalian An," "Women and French Art," and 
" AmericaQ Art." Newspaper readers have won- 
dered, no doubt, how it is possible for the dally press 
to illustrate facts which are Dot twelve hours old; 
the eveniug journal frequently pictures an event 
which happened as late as uoon. Since t»84 (his has 
been accomplished through the restoration of cliehei 
bya ligbtniog process. By combining photography 
With the galvano-pla.sltc art. Mr, Hingler is able to 
deliver such eliehm to the newspapers in throe hours. 
That he has aimed at technical advancement is fur- 
ther t«8tltieil by his many typographical produc- 
tions, among which may be mentioned: " The Naval 
History of the United Slates;" "The Great Con- 
«pirBcy," by Qen. Logan ; "Charles Dickens's 
Works" (illustrated): "Robert Bnms's Works;" 
"Shakespeare's Woriis" (jllustraled); "Tennyson's 
Poems;" "Lord Byron's Works ;" "Dantes In- 
ferno " (illustrated); " Miltcm's Paradise Lost " (Illus- 
trated); "The Ancient MBriner"lillustraled); "Swonl 
sod Scymetar" (illustrated); "The Aute-Nicene 
Fathers;" "Pilgrim's Progress," and "Zahner's 



portant and hiebly respected position in New York 
dty. He has been for a number of years president 
of the New York "SHnKerrunde," a society which 
celebrated its forty-third anniversary, which lakes 
tbe lead in all German enterprises, and which pre- 
serrea the observance of German festivals. Mr. Max 
Mansfield very fittingly said in tbe New York " Kg' 
iro," referring to Mr. Kinkier: " It is no secret that 
the ' SHnjrerrunde ' owes its acknowledged promi- 
nent position to the energetic initiative and the true 
(3erraan spirit of its president." Mr. Rinder la also 
president of tbe Centennial bowling club, and is a 
member of the German Liederkranz, the German 
■BBociatioti, tbe Oerman hospital, etc. His business 
veraatilitv is evidenced by tbe successful mamier in 
which, since the death of his brother George, tbe 
well-known head of the George Ringler « Co. 
brewing concern, he has conducted the business in 
bis stead. His elasticity and energy are so pro- 
nooncetl Ibat he does not allow the duties of one 
business to interfere with the other. The best evi- 
dence that he fills both positions with equal faith- 
fulness, equal energy and equal success, is lo be 
found in the fact that both establisfamenls are Qour- 
ishlng. In fact, since the entrance of F. A. Ring- 
leras an active member of tlie brewing company, 
the company has increased its business twenty-five 
per cent, yearly. A genuine German spirit, a joy- 
ous love of life, a fondness for work, liberal views, 
energy and business ability, are tbe ingredienta 
which form tbe character of this man and have 
made bim wliat he is. 

LYNCH, John Boy, fourth auditor of the 
treasury, was bom In Concordia Parish, La., Sept. 
10| 1847. He was deprived of the advantages of an 
early education by the death of his father. He lived 
sitemalely In Louisiana and Mississippi until 1863; 
since then he baa resided permanently at Natchez, 
Miss. While engaged in the business of photography 
there he attended eveningschool, and thus laid the 
foundation for a good English education, which, 
through hts energy and ambition, be determined to 
acquire. In 1866 Gen. Ames, military governor of 
Miawasippi, appointed him justice of the peace. In 
Norember of ' 



ber of the state legislature, and was re-elected in 

ISTl. He displays fine ability as a legislator, and 
showed a careful knowledge of parliamentary law 
during bis first session. Lpon the organization of 
the house of representatives in 1873 he was chosen 
speaker. When the session closed in 1873 he was 
presented a handsome gold watch and chain, « 
gift from the members of the house, of both parties 
and races, in acknowledgment of the able manner in 
wbicb he presided. Mr. Lynch was elected to con- 

Sress from the sixth district of Mississippi in 1873. 
efeating Judge Hiram Cassidy by a majority of 
S,000 votes. The election that should have been 
held in 1874 was, by act of legislature, postponed 
twelve months. Even though Oio party to which 
Mr. Lynch belonged had sustained serious reverses 
throughout the country, especially in Hisaisaippi, be 
was re-electai, defeating Frederick Scale. In 1878 ho 
was the candidate of his parly in what was called the 
"Shoe-string" district, against Gen. J. R. Chalmers, 
who was declared elected. He ran against Gen. 
Cbalmera again in 1880. Although tne election 
olUcers returned bim as defeated, Le made a siic- 
cesaful contest for the seat. In this case he pre- 
pared one of the briefs, which his attorneys, Shella- 
barger & Wilson, declared the leading brief in the 
case. At the conclusion of the argument before the 
committee be was compliment- 
ed by Casey Young, the lead- 
ing counsel on the other s'~'~ 



for the lepl knowledge 
displayed. In c ' ' 



be 




f-^-^/^.^^y^^.^^. 






i elected a 



: he took 
part in debate. His 
speecheswhich attracted most 
attention were those In defence 
of bis right to a seat in the 
forty-sevenlh congress; a le- 
gal argument in support of 
the constitutionality of the 
Civil Rights bill : an argument 
against tbe passage of the Elec- 
toral count bill, and a reply to 
Mr. Lamar on tbe Southern 
situation. Mr. Lynch was a 
delegate lo the national repub- 
lican convention at Philadel- 
Ehia in 1873, and at Chicago 
I 1884 and in 1888; be was 
a member of tbe committee ' 
on platform and resolutions 
in 1873. At the convention of 1884 he was made tem- 
porary chairman. When the plan to reduce the repre- 
sentation from the Southern states in fut\ire conven- 
tions, on account of thesuppression of the republican 
vote in those states, was under consideration he made 
an earnest and effective s|)ecch in opposition to lis 
adoption, at the conclusion of which the proposition 
was withdrawn. He made a speech seconning the 
nomination of President Arthur, and was a member 
of the committee to ofUciallv notify Mr. Blaine of his 
nomination. At the convention of 1888 he was a 
member of the committee on platform and resolu- 
tions, and of tbe subcommittee that prepared the 
platform. He made a speech favorine the nomina- 
tion of Judge Gresham for the presidency, and in 
favor of the adoption of the resolution making the 
nomination of Gen. Harrison nnanimoua. During 
tbeadnduistrationof President Cleveland Mr. Lynch 
retired to his plantation in Adams county, Miss. 
He has been a speaker in behalf of the republican 
party in every presidential campaign since 1868. He 
was a member of the national republican committee 
from 1884 to 1888, and chairman of the republican 
executive committee of Mississippi from 1881 to 
1889. In May, 1889, President Harrison appointed 
him fourth auditor of the treasury, to succeed C. M. 
Shelley, of Alabama. 



108 THE NATIONAL OTCLOP^DIA 

WILLIS, Natliani*! Parker, poet aod jour- Theodore S. Pay as edilom. This Journal was de- 

iialiBt, was bora la Portland, Me., Jan. 20, 1806. voted to literature, the fine arts and society. In 1881 

His father and grandfather were Jourualisla, and Willis went abroad as foreign correBponaciit for the 

during the revolutionary war his graudfather pub- paper, under agreement to write weekly letters at 

lished in Boston, Mass., a whig newspaper, called $10 a letter. The result of (his European trip was 

tlie "Independent Chronicle." He subsequently re- most foriuniite, as far as his literary success was 

moved to the West, and edited a number of journals concerned, for it furnished him with the stimulus 

in different places. Willis's father, bom in Boston and siippl^ upon which be was always most depeud- 

lu 1780, assisleil his grandfather in newspaper work, ent. Having many letters of intro<luctbn, he had 

actlug as a practical printer, a trade at which N. P. the fortune to meet notable and desirable people in a 

Willis himself served a year's apprenticeship. In familiar and cordial way, whtcli resulted in his be- 

1816 tlie Boston "Recorder," now the "Congresa- ing torraally attached to thoembnssy of William C. 

tionalist and Boston liecorder," was established by Rives, then U. 8. minister to the court of France. 

his father, who alsofouuded tlie " Youth's Compan- This gaves Willis the «n(rfe to the court circle of 

Ion " in W2T. The family removed from Portland whatever country he vidled and whs of the greatest 

to Boston when Willis was but six years old, and his service to him. He traveled through Europe and 

birthplace seems to have had but little room in his Asia Minor, and bis "Pencillngs by the Way," as 

memory. His home life was that of the usual Puri- he aptly called them, were fiiTly rccoixled in the 

tan family, although unusually rich in domestic "Mirror,"and were very populartn America, partly 

atlection. His father was for twenty years a deacon owinjr to the fact that at that lime Euii)|>g was much 

in Park street church (Congregational), otherwise further off Ihan it is loniay. In London he became 

known Ha "Brimstone Coraer." His mother, Han- a sort of social lion, and there, as well as during his 

nail Parker, was bom at Hollislon, Mass., in 1T7S, entire life, was noted as a man of elee:ant manners 

and for her Willis cherished an unusually deep and and extreme fashion in dress. His descnpiions of 

devoted affection; from her he inherit!^ his emo- "dinners, balls, soirees, garden-paniesaudtheo|>era" 

tional and bright nature, for he himself said, " My were largely read. In 1837 he married Mary Slace, 

veins are teeming with the quicksilver spirit my daugbterofOcn. William Slace,who was the Royal 

mother gave me." There were Ordnance Storekeeper at Woolwich Arsenal, and 

nine of the Willis children, soon after they sailed for America. While in Eng- 

Natlianiel being the second, land Williscontributed to "Blackwood's"and other 

and A sifter. Snmh Pnvson. TnAimzines. hesidpn niiblisbinff " hlelnnie " nnd iillior 




gained considerable reputation etry he failed, but his lyrical poems are graceful and 
as a successful writer of chil- sweet. He was severely criticised for abiisini^ the 
drcn's stories. Richard Storrs hospll&lity of his friends in making merchandise of 
Willis, his youngest brother, is the private conversations and opinions he had heard, 
known as poet and musical and much unpleasantness resulled from this indis- 
compnser. Willis attended the cretion. The "Slingsby Papers; or. Inklings of Ad- 
Boston Latin school, and fitted venture," which he published in 1838, were yety 
for Yale at Andover academy, clever. Willis and his wife, in IS87, made their home 
from which college ho was at "GlenmHry,"near Owego, N, V., and the "Let- 
graduated In 1827. It has just- ters from under a Bridge," which were written at 
ly tfcen said that "college life this time, are cousldei'ed his best work. After this, 
left a more enduring impress he wrote a number of plays, which met with some 
upon Willis tliBU upon almost success. In 1839 Willis visited England on business, 
^^^''^S^^7~^yy^ any other American writer." where he met Thackeray and engaged him as a con- 
"^^ '1^^'' During his college course he tributor to the "Corsair, "a weekly journal in which 
contributed verses to the " Re- he was interested at that time. In 1840, on his re- 
Corder,"the" Youth's Companion. "the "New York turn to America, he found a ready market for his 
Review and Athenteum Magazine" (Bryant's new writings, being at this time "beyond a doubt the 
mn^zine), Goodrich's "Token,"and many other per- most popular, Ihe best paid, and in every wav Uie 
iodicals. It was at this time thai his scriptural poems most successful magaziuist that America had yet 
'n tlie Boston seen." He commanded the sympathy of his readera 

.... i)y." These more than any other periodical writer of his day, yrt 

..^.-e greatly admired, and have done more than any it has been truly said of him that "his geuiiis, such 
of his other writings to make his memory lasting, as it was. was frankly external." In 1844, after the 
His literary success gave him the tntrft to the best death of his wife, he again sailed for England in 
society in New Haven, and his natural social gifts search of change and nealth, where he did some 
soon made him a general favorite, Willis was some- traveling and a good deal of writing. In lS4(i. while 
tfahiir of a dandy, besides being a great admii'er of abroad, he married Cornelia Onnnell, the niece 
pretty women, and devoted himself more largely to and adopted daughter of Joseph Grinnell, congress- 
society life in that city than to college alTairs. In man from New Bedford, Mass. On their return to 
after years he found the background fur many of his America they made their home at "Idlewild," near 
best stories In this early social experience. After Cornwall on the- Hudson. Willis still kept up bis 
graduation he naturally adopted the profexsion of connection with the "Mirror," which he and Morris 
letters, for which he was eminently titled. He went under various names had managed for over twenty 
flrat to Boston, and shortly after entered into an ed- yi-ars. Tlie name it then bore was the "Home Jour- 
Itorial engagement with Samuel O. Goodrich, "Pe- nal," and it Is at the present lime asucce.'sful paper, 
ter Parley, who published the " Legendary," and For some ten years vVillis was a well known figure 
the "'Token," two tllustraled annuals, Giiodrich in New York, where he wbs much sought after. 
had already published Willis's " Skctclieit" in 182T, His unfoi-tunale connection with the famous Forrest 
and had said of him that, " before be was twenty- divorce suit, and his reputed admiration for the fair 
five he was more read than any other poet of his sex, gave color lo the repori that he was something 
time." In 1829 Willis started the " American of a profligale, but there was not the slightest proof 
Monthly Maga):ine,"which lived forlwo years anda of such an accusation. His health failing during 
half, and was ihen^ merged into the New York these years be took a southern trip, writing continu- 
s, George P, Morris, and ally for his paper. In 1861, at the outbreak of thfl 



"Mirror," with N. P. Willis, G 



OF AHEBICAN BIOORAPHT. 



109 



o WashiDgtoD 
L Iftge number of subscribers t 



e LoDgfcl- 



dTilwar, he 
■pnodent. A 

"Home Journal fell oS after the war, so that 
Willis found himself much straiteued, aiid his last 
yeare were soniethioK of a fluancial struggle. The 
best estimate of Willis is to be found iii Lowell's 
"Fable forCritica." It has been said of him hj his 
kinsnian, the llcv. Dr. Iticbard S. Stan's, "he will 
be remembered as a man eminently human, with 
almost unl<(ue eudowments; devoting rare powera 
to innigniticant purposes, and curiously illustratiug 
the flue iruny of nature, by which sbe often laviitlies 
one of ber choice productions on comparatively in- 
ferior ends." He died at "Idlcwild," near Oora- 
wall-oti-the-Hudson, Jan. 20, 1867, od his siity-flrst 
birthday, and was buried at Mt. Aubum, 
ton, Slass. Among his pall-bcaiers we^ 
low. I^)wel1 ami Holniea. 

DICKINSON, Anna Elizabetii, lecturer and 
author, was born In Philadelphia, Fa., Oct. 28, 1B43, 
daughterof John Dickinson, a merchant of that city, 
and an active abolitionist. She was of Quaker de- 
Kent, and brought up In the faith of the orthodox 
Friends. She was a restless 
child and impatient of re- 
Btrainl, and early developed a 
keen love of justice, fostered 
and Lonflrmed by listening to 
tbe recitals of the horrors of 
slavtrv in the anti-slavery oiB- 
ces of that city. She was edu- 
cated in the Friends' schools, 
and industriously assisted her 
mother in the support of the 
family She was passionately 
fond ut oratory, and she scrub- 
be<l the sidewalk to obtain the 
price of admission to hear Wen- 
dell Phillips deliver "The Lost 
Arts She made her first pub- 
he speech In January, 1860, at a 
meet I n g of Progressive Friends, 
when the question of "Wo- 
man s Rights and Wrongs " 
nil ii>[ iiv«j-il <)he spoke with apower and elo- 
qLienrc whiHi secured this unknown girl faitlifiil 
fnend-t- ami nd%l<(ers In April, 1860, slie lectured 
in New lersej on Woman's Work," Teaching 
and public ipeaking occupied her time, and she 
mainliined the right of tbe slave to resist oppression 
as obedience to God Tn the fall of 1861 she ob- 
tained empi )vmcnl in the U. 8. mint, but though 
she ]>erformcd her duties with fidelity she was dis- 
mitW from the service on account of aspeech made 
at Westchester, in which she attributed tbe defeat 
at Ball's Bluff to Gen. McClellan's treason. She 
then entered upon her lecture career, speaking on 
the poliiical aspectJi of war, the causes of revolution, 
and the Irtie batils of government. Her views were 
daring and popular, and her services were at once 
itisde useful in party politics. She delivered hi 
Tbeoilorc Parker's pulpit in Boston, Ihroueh Mr. 
Garrison's influence, an address on the "National 
Crixla," when Wen<lell Pliillipa said that " She was 
the young elephant sent forward to try the bridges 
to nee if they were sate for the older ones to cross." 
The next summer she continued iier hospital work, 
and from close study of the soldiers — their lives, ex- 
pericnces and belieft — pithered the materials for the 
lecture on " Hospital Life," which was the turning 
point in ber affairs. She delivered this lecture in 
tbe fall of 1862, at Concord, N. H., with such suc- 
cess, that she was iuvil«d by the Republican state 
committee to canvass the state. One district alone 
refused to receive her, and that was the only one 
lust, and bjalarge majority. The republican party 
of Connecticut then invited her to help them turn 




[^(L,jt £-A«-4™,j„ja 



the gubernatorial tide ot war, which was heavily 
against them. Democrats as well as republicana 
crowded the meetine, and the entliusiasra excited 
by her youth and eloquence contributed to the de- 
sired result. The state was saved by a few hundred 
votes, and substantia! acknowledgment was made to 
Mfes Dickinson for her " lawyer-like comprehension 
of the case, her earnestness, enthusiasm and personal 
magnetism. She spoke next in New York and Phil- 
adelpiiia, by invitation of the "Union leagues,'" 
winning always respect and devotion, and took a 
vigorous part in tlie movement to enlist colored 
troops in Pennsylvania. In the fall of 1883 she was 
employed by the state committee to canvass the 
mining dlslncts, which were then in a very unsettled 
and unsafe condition from recent draft riots. In 
January, 1867, she was invited by Sitmnor, Wilson, 
Stevens and others, who wished to confirm their ap- 
preciation ot her campaign services, to speak in Waah- 
lugtOD, She lectured In the hall of thebouseof repre- 
sentatives, and it was considered a splendid personal 
triumph. Her reputation was then established, and 
for several years she devoted herself to lecturing, 
until in 187^, when she appeared on the stage, rac- 
ing her drbul in a play of lier own, "A Crown of 
Thorns." She afterward acted in some of Sliakea- 
peare's tragedies, but received slight encouragement. 
She has written two other dramas, " Aurelian " and 
"An American Girl," which was successfully played 
by Fanny Davenport. She has also published 
three books, " A Paying Investment," " A Ragged 
Register of PeoplOiPfaces and Opiniona," and anovel, 
" What Answer T" Finally she gave up the profes- 
sion and returned to tbe lecture platform, writing 
occasionally for the current periodicals. 

ICcEESSOV, John, business man. was bom in 
New York city Feb. 22, 1807. His ancestors were 
of the Scotch family of Campbells, and some of them 
served with distinction under the Duke of Argyle. 
Others subsequently settled in Londonderry, Ireland, 
and partici[>ated in the famous siege of Derry. 
Fifty years before the war of the American revolu- 
tion. Mr. McKesson's great-grandfather, Alcxantler, 
aettlcd in Adams county. Pa., as a farmer. His 
great-uncle was John McKes- 
son, king's counsel in New 
York city before the revo 
lulion, who was an especial 
friend of Gov. George Clin 
ton, of New York. Mr Mc 
Kesson'a father was John Mc 
Kesson 4lh; his mother was 
the daughter of Gov. William 
Hull, of Michigan. The fa 
Iber died when the son was 
fourteen years of age. and he 
enteredawhulcsaledrug house 
In New York city, where he 
remained for fifteen years be 
comingexecutorofhisemploy 
er's estate, and guardian of his 
children and grandchildren at 
his decease. In January 1833 
he became associated with 
Charles M. OtcotC in Maiden 
Lane, New York, in tbe wholesale dnig business 
D. C. Robbing was subsequentlv admilliKi to the 
firm, which In 1853, lij the death of Mr Olcott 
became McKesson & Robbins long and well known 
as among the heaviest dealers in drugs and ' drug 
gists' sundries " in the United States, their an- 
nual sales aggregating more than 13.000,000. with 
a force of over 350 employees, years since. Mr. 
McKesson retired from active labor in 1884. His 
standing as a man of business, and bis character 
as a man, have long been recognized as exception- 
ally high. 




110 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPiEDIA 




cy,.^/}„ 



BOONE, Duiiel, ptoneer, waa bom in Bucks 
county, Ph., Feb. 11, 17S5, the wn of Sciuire Biione 
aud Sarah Morgnn, wbo came lo tliis country from 
England. His father was one of the nine soiiB uf 
Qeiirgc Bimne aud Mary, liix wife, wlio emigrated 
to Ameri<:a with tiieir family of eleven ctiildreii. and 
arrived hi PliiladeiiibU Oct 10, 
_..-_:._. 1717. Thej'wcreualivcMdtBrad- 

wich. near tlic city of Exeter ia 
Dev'iiiHliirc, En^.. anil Muun after 
he lawled in AmerifS, Ue»r^ 
Boone, the ^randfallier uf Uauiel 
Boone, ixii-cliiiHed a lar^re tract of 
land in what is now HerkH county. 
Fa., which he xcttliKl anil named 
Exeler. He HUliKeqiienlly pur- 
chaxed other tracts of laud situ- 
aled in MarylaiKl and Virjiniiia; 
among tlicm the gnnind upon 
which Georgelown, DiBtricf of 
Coliitnl)ia, now xlandH, which 
' place he laid out and named 
after himself. He was a mem- 
ber of Mie Socii'ly of Friends. 
About 1748, wlit-n Daniel was in 
Ills fourlecnlli year, his father. 
S(|uirc BiHitie. ri^nioveil to North 
Carolina, where he Kettkil at Holman's FonI on the 
Yadkin, aud engngeti in farming, in which lie was 
assisted by hU kou Daniel, who was able to ob- 
tain but a minirre education — learned to reail and 
write, outside of which hia kniiwlcdgc was confined 
almoHt exclusively to the lleIdH and woods, himling 
and tishing. and the use of l)ie rille. In which he was 
an cx|«rt. About 1755 lie was married Id Kelwcca 
Bryan of South ('arulina. and tx'gan life in his own 
lo^ cabin. His real nature was tlie exact opposite 
to the cliaracler ascribed xa litm by some of bis biog- 
raphers; there was nothing ferocious in his nature, 
lie WHS fond of domestic life, had a genile, charitable 
diHrKwItion. pleasing addi'ess, and luiHsesHed a hospi- 
table and genen)us heart, while Hie predominant 
traits of Ills character were unshaken fortitude and 
aelf-conimauil. He had an innate sense of justice 
and equity iH'twecn man and man, and a great re- 
pugnance lo the technical forms of law and the con- 
TenliuaalillFs of society. His ruling passions were 
loTeof adventure, and tondncss forthchunt. These 
dominated bis life, and at the age of eighty-two he 
went on a long hunting excursion lo the mouth of tlie 
Kansas river. He bt'caine so disciisted with the 
growing fashions and oppressions of the rich in Soutb 
Carolina, and the eneniachments of civiliEation, 
that John Pinley found in him a ready listener to 
ills descriptions of an expe<liti<m he had made to 
KeDtuckviQ 1767. Boone resiilved to visit ilie terri- 
tory and was chosen the leader of a party of six 
which was organized for this purpose and left the 
"ladkinMay 1 170S Boone was vigorous courage 
ous inured to hardships and quick as an Indian id 
detecting Ihe hiding placen of deer bear wolf or 
panllxr an B<lept in trucking Ihe footKtepsof the 
red man and eminently siiue)! for Ibe lendcrsliip of 
the baud and to contend witli the hiisille Indiana 
with nliom they had numerous ad^ciilures of % 
tbnilmg nature Boone and Ins romimnion siewart 
were taken laptltes by Ihe ludians who treated 
them with much consideralion \fti:ri.t\pral dajs 
of capttilty they made tluir esciiiie hut shortly 
afterward they were again attachol and bttwart 
was scalped aud shot by the Indian" nhile Bis>ne 
sucuedcd in gilting away He and his brother 
Squire were then left b\ Ibemseltes in the vast 
wilderness and finding tbems< Ives in want of much 
in the way of food and clothing, Squire was dis- 
patched to South Carolina to obtain the neces.sary 
supplies, while Daniel Boone remained entirely alone 



in the great forests, without even the companionship 
of a dog or a horse. He made long loura uf olMerva- 
lion, becoming thoroughly acquainted with Ihe 
character of the couutry, and was al this periud two 
years away from his home, during which he neither 
tasted bread nor salt, nor saw any human beings 
but his traveling conijianions and the Indians. &« 
sold his farm at Yadkin, and Sejit. 35. 1773. be and 
his brother Squire left Yadkfn, with their fumilles, 
for the hunting grounds of Kentucky. At PoweH's 
valley they were joinwl by five families and forty 
men. all well armeil. Tlie party was attacked bj 
the Indians, and the numbera depleted to such an 
extent that the emigrants were so discouiagc-il that 
for the lime being they abandoned the expediiioo 
and ntniuved to the sett lei iieiits on Clinch river, in 
the Mmthweslcrn part of Virginia. Boimc retnuined 
here until 1774, and established an enviable reputa- 
tion for wisdom and uprightness, and was dispatched 
by Gov. Dimmore on an importaut mission to rescue 
a party of surveyors wbo were In Ihe wildeme^ of 
Kentucky, and suiiposed to be in danger from the 
hoslitities of the Indians. The engage iiienis wiiirii 
followed were afterward known as Lord Diinmore's 
war. Boone was absent sixty-two days. March 23, 
1775. he arrived with a party within llfleen miles of 
the site which they afterward selc<;leii for Boontv- 
borougli, on the liaoks of the Kentucky river, and 
where they erected a slockade fori, lo which Boone 
Bubscqueully moved his family. The Inhabitants of 
the settlement having sufferetf seriously for Ihe want 
of salt, Capl. Boone, with a pailv of tliiriv men, 
slaricd for the lower Blue Licks, on Licking river, 
Jan. 1. 1778. to engage In the manufacture of salt, 
in which they were successful. Bimiie was captured 
with twenty-seven of his men during this expedition. 




being surprised nhile hunting b^ a part> of 100 
Indians commanded by two Canadians who took 
them as prisonirs first to the principal Indian town 
on the Lillle Miami old Chilllcothe and afterward 
to Detroit, where all the prisoners were ransomed, 
except Boone, with whom tbe Indians refused to part. 
They took bim back to Chilllcothe, where he was 



OF AKERICAN BIOGRAPHY, 
adopted after the Indian faahloD bj Black Fish, a of Napoleon, who Bold them to the United States. 



was painful, yet wilbal ludicrous. Tbe bair of his through his appeal to the Kc^otMcky lej^lature sod 
bead was plucked out by a long opcialion, a tuft pctilion to cougress, he rereivt-d Ihe grant of 850 
behig left some three or four inches in diameter on acres in Ihe Feiume Osage dislritt, the title of which 
the crown for a scslplock, whicli waa cut and dressed was oonSrmed Feb. 10, 1814. At tliis advanced ace 
up with ribbons and feathers. Ho waa then taken he was still vijcoroua in mind and body. Id March, 
to tbe river in a nude slate, and thoroughly washed 1813, his wife died, and waa buried on tbe suniniit 
and rubbed "to take all bis while blood out," and of a ridge ovcrlookiog the Miiotouri river, al a spot 
Eubsfquently conducted to the council bouse, where which he had selcclm. He subHcquently had a 
Black Fish completed the ceremonies, and aifLer bis colfin made for bimxclf, which he kept under bis 
head and face were painted in the most approved bed until be died, when bis remains were placed in it. 
style, tiie ceremonials concluded with a grand feast On Sept. 13, 184.'>, his remains and those of bis wife 
aod smoke. He soon came to be biilh honored were removed to Frankfort, Ky.. and inlerred in 
and beloved by tbe tribe, and was treated with the celebratetl cemcleiy near that city, a few miles 
erery consideration during bis long residence among from the fort of Uoonesborougb. This nns done by 
Ibem. The time was full of anxiety, and be waa the concurrent action of the legislature of Kentucky 
constantly planning meaos of escape. Discovering and the citizens of Frankfort. Col. BoiiDe devoted 
that tbe tnt>e was meditatmg a descent upon Booncs- his declining years to the bunt, and Ibc society of 
borough. Id the face of certain death were be re- bis children. He was tbe father of uine children, 
captured he resolved to risk an escui*, pursued by Ave sons and four daughters. His aia Enoch was 
450 ludiuDs; in less Ibau live days he reached Bnouea- tbe first white male child bom in KcutnrttT.' He 
borough, having traveled ou foot the distance nf waa born at his father's palisaded fort at Boones- 
over 160 miles, and having bad but one meal on the borough, in 1777, and died March 18, 1863. The 
nay. HIh appearance be^re Ihe garrison at tbe fort Boune family has been noled for its loiigevity. 
was hke an apparition from tbe dead; his wife, nbau- Daniel Boone was not a member of any cLurch, 
donbg the idea of his return to Kentucky, had taken but a believer in Christiatiity, and a strictly moral, 
some of the children aud proceeded on packhorsea temperate man. He died In MlBsouri Sept. 26, 1B20. 
to her father's house in Houili Carolina, where in VAUX, Richard, lawyer, congressman, and 
1T78, after Booneaburoiigb was safe, Boune rejoined penologist, was boru in Philadelphia, Pa.. Dec. 19, 
tliem, and wilh them returned lo Kentucky in 1780. 1816. His father, Robert Vaux, was a prominent 
The men who bad occupied the fort werescattered citizen, wbowasdialiuguished for 
through the neighborhood engaged in their ordinary public spirit, literary acquire- ^n^a 
work; iliey were summoned U)gether at the inlclli- menls, and interest in education, J^SJ^T - 
pepce brought by Boone, aud, i[iBpired by his acliv- and the reformation of criminals, ■alEML'itA^:^ 
nj and ieMership, the fort wus repaired, the men and who, at his death, in 1836, 
biiided together, and when tbe Indians attacked the was a judge of the court of com- 
fort (bey were repulsed with loss, and retreated, mon pleas. He was for fourteen 
In Oct(K>er. 1780, when on a irip to tbe Blue Licks yearscoiitrollcruf public schools, 
in company with bis brother Squire, they were sur- and Inspector of tlie Eastern pen- 
priied by Indians lying iu ambuscade. His brother itentiary, and an originator of the 
waa killed and scalped, and he narrowly made bis public-echool system, and tbe plan 
CMapeby dexterously shootingan Indian dog, which of separate imprisonment for 
was pursuing him by his scent. He was always criminals. His sou, Richard, eu- 
rcady for an emergency, and on one occasion eluded tered tbelawofllceof William M. 



four armed Indians by blinding them with totiacco- Meredith, secretary of Ihe I 
dust. Id 1782, in the engagement called "tbe battle sury under President Fillmore, 
of Blue Licks." one of his sons was killed, and an- and was admitted to the bar be- 




lAber Heriously wounded, and he himself uarrowly fore his majority. 

escaped wilh bis life; the loss to Kentucky was relary of legation at the court 

greater than in any preceding engagement. Had of St. James for one year. De- 

Boone's advice been followed, the fate of the day dining a similar position at St. 

would probably havebeenchangcd, and thedisaslers Petersburg, be assisted Mr. Maxey In completing 

turned on tbe enemy. He afterward, for a time, re- tbe organization of tbe American legation at Bnis- 

tumed to his farm life, and in 1783, when Kentucky sels; iraveled on the Coutinent, and. reluming to 

was admitted to the Union as a sovereign slate, bo Litndon, became private secretary to the U. S. min- 

with hundreds of others lost his lands from defective isler, Andrew Stevenson. Upon bis arrival at 

titles, which increased hia natural antipathy to Ihe home, in 1839, he was nominated to the Pennsyl- 

technical forms of law, and induced him to seek a vania house of representatives : In March, 1840, was 

home elsewhere. In a memorial to the lej^lature a <lelegate to the democratic stale convention, and 

of Kenlucky in 1813, he says, " Unacquainled wilh from 1842-47 was recorder of Philadelphia, with the 

tlie nie«ies of the law, tbe few lands I was enabled record that no decision of his was ever reversed. A 

to locate were, through my ignorance, generally volume of them is high authority. In 1842 be was 

swallowed up by better claims." He left Kentucky nominated for mayor of Philailelpbia by Ihe denioc- 

eoon afler it IxK^me a state, and settled within tbe racy, with which party be has always been identi- 

vicinity of Point Plea.'tant, Va.. on Ihe Kanawlia ficd, and. though defealcd, the whig majority was 

river, and in 1795 removed to Missouri, at that lime reiluced from 5,000 lo 400. In the same jear he 

a Spanish poasessiou; his fame had preceded him was made inspector of the State penitentiary, and 

even in Ibis remote region, and on July 11, 1800. he soon afler controller of public schools, holding thus 

was appointed commandant of Ibe Femme Osngc three important offices at the same time. In 18.'i6 he 

district, an olUce which included both civil and wns elected mayor, after three defeats, and perform- 

military power. He discharged those duties with eil valuable work of organizalion after the consolida- 

credit to himself and satisfaction to the autborilies, lioii of the districts with tbe city ; the system inau- 

until the government was transferred to the United giirated by him continuing until Ihe new charter 

States. He was also given a grant of 8,000 acres of was secured in 1885, which he helped lo frame, and 

land. The Spanish poeaesslons passed into the bands "which be outlined iu 1857. As pre^dent of the board 



112 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



:;r>^Dized in Europe and 



of directors of Girard college, in 1859, he Introduced 
tecliDologtca] instruction, and now ia a member of 
tbe board of city trusts, including the management 
of the same college. During tbe war he was at the 
head of the stale electoral ticket in tiie McClellan, 
Douglas and Lincoln campaigns. In 1872 Mr. Vaui 
was cougrcssQinn-at-Iarge to the forty-thii'd congress, 
and on May 2fl, 1891), was elected to All the ud- 
explreil term of Samiifcl 3. Randall, deceased, in the 
flfij-rirst congress. Mr. Vaux lias been president of 
the hoard of inspectors ot the Eastern penitentiary 
for forty-seven years, and an inspector for fifty- - - 
and has written numerf " " " " " 

causes and punishment, 
ilfiy viihiines of reports i 
An authority on penology, 

America, and ia also a prominent member ot the 
American philosoplii(«l society and tlie Historical 
society of Pennsylvania, to which he has contributed 
many esways. In masonry, ho ia Grand Master of 
Pennsylvania. His individunlily ia strongly marked, 
and he is at once original in thoucht, mtnd, expres- 
sion, and appearance. As a thinker lie lias led the 
way. and, likeall independent thinkers, is indiSerent 
to the criticUms of others. 

FBEU88EB, Cbristiao, merchant, was horn 
in Idstein. dukedom of Nassau, OermHnv. in 1826. 
After graduating from school, he learuetf the trade 
ot watchmaker and jeweler. 
He eini^raleil to America in 
July, 1844. and settled in Mil- 
waukee I he became iriierestjrf 
in the Jeweliy business, and 
opened a store on tlie site of 
tiie Kirby house. Beginning 
with a small stock and little 
encouragement in so small and 
poor a place as Milwaukee was 
then, the growth of the busi- 
nesa was at flrNi slow, but under 
careful management trade in- 
creased. In 1855 heereclcd the 
brick building 




Herman of Dietz, dukedom of Nassau, Oermaay, by 
whom he bad four cbildreu. two ot whom are yet 
(1893) living. A daughter ts Mrs. Schneider, the 
wife of an eminent oculist, resident in Milwaukee. 
His SOD Is associated in business with bim, and is 
treasurer of the company. Few if any of the earlier 
settlers of Milwaukee have met with greater success 
than Mr. Preusscr. From small beginnings there 
has been, in his case, steady and unintcmipled prog- 
ress in all the material interests io which he has en- 
gaged. Each year of energetic effort secured its 
legitimate reward, and his labors in the acquiremeut 
of wealth and prosperity have been uniformly suc- 
cessful. His reputation as a business man is one of 
the highest, and bis word is his bond. He is an 
industrious man. of i>owerful will, which subordi' 
nates circumstances to its own ends. He is richly 
endowed with common sense; attachment to and lib- 
erality in the cause of education have marked the 
whole course of his life. He is possessed of One cul- 
ture. broadened by extensive travel in this and other 
countries. His fastidious tastes have been given free 
scope in his elegant home belongings. He has al- 
ways been active in advancing the mtercsts of hu- 



added to the glory of tbe commonwealth of Wis- 
consin. 

UcCBEABT, Jfunea Bennett, congressman, 
was bom in Madison county, Ky.. July 8, 1838. 
His family went from Virginia to Kentucky. One 
grandmolbcr, when a child, lived in Boonesb'orough, 
where the first fort in tbe state was erected, and 
many of his ancestors were citizens of the " Dark 
and Bloody Ground." His grandfather McCreaiy 
served in the war of 1813; a McOreary w ""-^ 



^■-^iy. /€<^i.i-*jAr,i.^ apartner. SincetlienthegTf 



„ vth 
the business has been rapid, 
until to-day the C. Preusser 
JeweliT company Is one of the largest wholesale and 
retail jewelry houses in the Northwest. At the time 
of bis settlerocut in the place, Milwaukee was a mere 
overgrown country village, and Wisconsiu^a terri- 
tory. His ability, integrity, and sound business judg- 
ment, were traits of character which his fellow- 
citi/ens were not slow to recognize, and Mr. Preusser 
was soon called upon to take a leading part during 
the formative period of his odopred city and state. 
I(q helited organize the volunteer fire department of 
the city, and wus its treasurer for many years. He 
was one of the founders, and for over twenty years 
president of the Natural history association of Wis- 
consin. When its collections were presented to the 
city of Milwaukee, in 18S3, he was appointed one of 
the tnisieus of the Public museum, and was active 
in procuring the valuable Ward museum. Mr. Preus- 
ser was also treasurer of the German .English acad- 
emy, from the time of its founding in 18fla, and 
also of the National German - American teachers' 
seminary until 1886, when on account of ill health 
he was compelled to resign both positions. Mr. 
Preusser became the president of the Mechanics in- 
surance company in 1854, a position he has held 
now for thirty-eight years. He has had tlie satisfac- 
tion of seeing the company so prosper, under hiscare- 
ful management, that it holds nearly two millions 
of assets, with a cash surplus of over one million. 
Mr, Preusser was married, in 1351, to Louise 



a Ken- 
He bad a scieotilic and 
classical education, and was graduated in 185T, at 
eigbleeu years of age, from Centre college, Danville, 
Ky. He was graduated, with tlrst honor In law. in 
1859 in a class of forty-seven, from the Cumberland 
university, Tennessee, and began practice at Rich- 
mond, Ky. He served in the war from 180S until 
its close as major and lieiilenant-ColoneLof cavalry 
under Morgan and Brcckeii ridge. He declined to 
be presidential elector in 1868, and 
was elected delegate to the nation- 
al democratic convention In 18G8: 
state representative in 1869, 1871 
and 1873, and speaker of the bouse 
in 1871 aud 1873; governor of Ken- 
tucky from 1875 to 1878. and na- 
tional representative in 1884, 1886, 
1888 and 1890 in the forty-ninth. 
fiftieth, fltty.flrst and fifty-second 
congresses. Gov. McCi'eary is one 
of the well-rounded public men of 
this country, and to the graces of 
the gentleman odds the (|ualities of 
statesmanship. As legislator, pre- 
siding officer in his slate assembly, £Z"^ 
executive of his commonwcaltli, ^/^~~- 
aud congressman, he has met 
every requirement and adorned cveiysinlini.. 
courteous, and able, he has Hllcd everv place fitly. 
As s[>eaker he never had an appeal friim his de- 
cisions, and in congress, during Mr. Carlisle's speak- 
ership, he was often in the chair. As ^'ovcnior his 
administration was strong and just. He suppi 










r of factioDs m the mountaina. 



OF AMERICAJf BIOGRAPHY. 



He hu niftde powerful and eloquent speeches on ag- 
licuUure, free coinage, tbe tariO. reciprocitj, the 

election bill, foreign relations and other important 
subJecW. and be was tbe aulbor and pressed tbe 
enactment of the great measure which secured the 
International Araericau conference. He has been a 
national man, pleading for fraternization, and a<lvo- 
catinj; filing away forever the records of ! ' 






Hell 



aagcdai 




cessfiillj large farms In Kentucky and Alabama. 
He married, in 1867, Kate Hughes, who has helped 
him lo grace his honors. They Lave one sod, Ffob- 
ert H. McCreai?. 

VALENTINE, Jolm J., the president of Wells. 
p^rgo & Co.'s express, was bom at Bowling Green, 
Ky., Nov. 12, 1840. The Valentino family from 
whom all in tins coun- 
try are descended, bad 
Its estate. Beudille Hall, 
in the parish of Ecclcs, 
county of Lancaster. 
Eng. Tbe first of tbe 
name in America was 
John Valentine, of Isle 
of Wight county, Vs., 
who came from England 
about 1S40, aud died in 
lem. The ancestors of 
John J. Valentine settled 
in Virginia; bis crcat- 
grand f a tlie r ser ved In the 
waroflberevolulion.and 
hU father,Wil]iam Cren- 
^>, slinw Valentine, remov- 
- '^' ed to KeutMchy in early 
life, where he manned 
Elixa Yates Cunning- 
haro. .Tobn J. received a conimon-scliool education. 
and Id 1851 began Ids business career with Younglove 
Brothers, dnig^sls and agents for Carter. Thomas & 
Co.'sstage & express line in Bowling Green. About 
the came year the construction of railroads was be- 
gun in that section of the country, and as it pro- 
pessed express facilities were secured by O'Bannoti, 
Kean & Co., of Ijouisville, Ky., who occupied 
both stage and railroad lines, but tbe Adams ex- 
press company obtained similar rights, and Mr. Vul- 
emine became identified with that company, con- 
linuini; in its service until the winter of 1801, when 
he rewgned, and in the following spring removed to 
Cslifoniia, where be was soon appoi^t(^l ^oint agent 
fur Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express, the Pioneer stage 
company, and the California state telegraph com- 
pany, at Strawberry Valley, El Dorado county, but 
was shortly afterward transferred to Virginia City, 
Nev.. as a^nt there for tbe Overland mail company 
and ilie Pioneer stage company. Continuing to de- 
velop qualities adapted to transportation business, 
Mr. Valentine was next appointed superintendent of 
the Pacific Division iit the Wells, Fargo & Co.'s 
express. He was advanced from time to lime, and 
ia 1868 was ofTered a manager's position at New 
Ynrk headquaners, but declined. In 1869. how- 
eier. he accepted the position of general superin- 
tendent of Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express liea<lquar- 
Icrs in that city ; but the business of the company 
at (bal time being chiefly on the Pacific coast, the 
general office was transferred to San Francisco, 
where Mr. Valentine has resided since 1870. In 

1883 he was elected a director of the company, and 
vice-president, continuing at tbe same time as gen- 
eral superintendent. It having become necessary in 

1884 to create a new offlce. that of general manager, 
Mr Valentine was unanimously elected tofill it. In 
1893 he was elected president by a unanimous vote 
of tbe board, and is Ailing the office without re- 
linquishing bis thorougli OTcrwght of the practical 

III.-6. 



lis 

details of the business. Notwithstanding his busi- 
ness career Mr, Valentine finds time each year to pre- 
pare and publish a summary of tbe produce of gold 
and silver of tbe entire country, whicii is compre- 
hensive in its research, and is generally recognized 
as B reliable and leading authority on the subject. 
In 1891 his contributions to the press on the question 
of free coinage of silver were remarkable for close 
, careful research, and formidable array of 
The 

ey, an absolute parity of valua 
wl b" -" -"■ -■' ^ 



t> this 



subject is that, to pre- 



gisi of bis c 
serve honest i . 

must be mainlainetl between gold and silver, and 
that this can not be effected by removing all re- 
strictions whatever to the coinage of silver, the 
inevitable effect of which would he to create a glut 
in the home market, and depreciate its value. Mr. 
Valentine has been an extensive reader, has identi- 
fied himself with the great charitable movements 
of the age in seasons of public calamity, and baa 
always been actively interested in the religious 
and educational institutions of the community ia 
which he resides. He is a member of the Advent 
Episcopal chiir<:h of Oakland, CaL, vice-president 
of the Voung men's Christian association. Is an ef- 
ficient ofiicer, a public-spirited man. and one whose 
presence and intluence are constantly felt and grate- 
fully appreciated. 

RUSK, ThomaaJeffeTBOn, general. WAS bom in 
Peudletondistrict.S.C, Dec. 5,1803. His father waa 
an Irish stonemason. Hlseducntlon and law studies 
were superintended by John C. Calhoun. He re> 
moved to Georgia, at once became a prominent law- 
yer, married a daughter of Ocn, Cleveland, and in 
the winter of 1834-35 removed to Nacogdoches, 
Tex. In 1836 he was a delegate at the oniventioQ 

bich declareil Texas an independent republic, and 



from that 1 



e devoted t 



his energieJi v 
cause, riewas appointed succes- 
sively to the positions of secretary 
of war, commander-in-chief of 
the army, brigadier-general of 
the republic, and chief justice of 
the sttpreme court of the rcpub- 
Uc. 'This last office he held for a 
time, then resigiuil, and for a few 
years practiced law. In 1845 he 
was elected a delegate from Na- 
cogdoches lo the convention as- 
sembled to frame a constitutiou 
for the proposed stale of Texas; 
on the 4th of July was elected 
pi^ident, and in 1846 took his 
seat in congress as one of the 
firet two senators from the state 
of Texas, the other being Gen. 
Sam Houston. He lllle<t this 
position for eleven years, and for 
gome time hehl the office of pres- 
ident pro tern, of the U. 8. senate. He was a man 
of tall and commanding presence, had deep-set 
eyes and a benevolent cuuulenance, and was hon- 
ored and loved by all who knew bim, both in jiub- 
lie and private life. He sustained the relatiouK of 
' — with equal nobility. 




9/i(^ ^(Mc^itj 



tbeei 



soldier and 

and his deuth was mourned b 
of Texas. Temporary aberrati 
his dentil by his own hand i 
July 29, 1857. 

UOBRIS, Lewii, 
York city in 1871. His father wa-i an cirticer i 
army of Oliver Cromwell, and went lo New 
from the West Indies, and purchased 3,000 ac 
laud near the city, in what Is now known as 
risauia. The son, a lawyer, was appointed t 
bench of the supreme court of New Jersey in 
and he did much topromotc its separation from 



114 



THE NATIONAL OYCLOP^DIA 




York. In the New York aasemblj he was an in- 
tense opponeot of ttie Encluh Gov. Cornburj, He 
served as cbief iuslice both of New York and New 
Jersey from 1710 lo 1788; was Now York state coun- 
cilor, New Jersey's first governor (1738), which oltlce 
he held until his death. He died at Kingsbury, 
N. J., May 3i, 1746. 

OOOFEB, P«ter, pbilanthropiat. was tiorn In 
the city of New Yurit Feb. 13, 1791. Hia birthplace 
was a house which stood not far from L'oentiea slip. 
Hia grandfatlier, on his mother's aide, was John 
Campbell, an aldemiun of ihe city, 
and a deputy quBrtermaster-gGo- 
eral during the revolutionary war, 
who expended a large private for- 
tune in that cause. Mr, Cooper's 
father was a lieuieoant in the pa- 
triot army. After the war was 
ended lie settled in New York for 
a time, where lie had a hat factory, 
and the earliest recollections of 
Peter Cooper went back to the 
time when hia head was just about 
the height of au ordinary table, 
and wheu he did hia share of the 
hat -making by pulling hairs out of 
rabbit-skins. From this preliminaiv 
work he progressed through thedif- 
erent departments, until he waasble 
to make every part of a hat. The 
elder Cooper did a fairly SLiccessful 
business, but be had a large family, 
and for a time he gave up hat-mak- 
o Peekskill. N. Y., where be carried 

._ _ _ store, combiniug with this business 

that of brewing. Afterward the family liied at Cat 
skill, and later in Brooklyn, N, Y. ; thence removed 
to Newburgh, while Che business which supported 
the family was sometimes hat-making somelimea 
brick-making, and, again, brewing. In all these differ 
ent trades ^oung Peter assisted his father industrious- 
ly and assiduously, with the result, however that up 
to his seventeenth year be bad but little opportunity 
for education, only attending school dunng one year 
and that only fur half-day sessions. Eventually the 
hard work and little achievement palled upon him 
and he determined to start out for himself He went 
to New York, and apprenticed biuiself to a coach 
maker for four years. His graodmotbei who owned 



her, and tliere yoiinc Cooper began to develop bis 
natural ingenuity and mechanical capacity : at ftml. 
by carving imrts used in coach-mc^ng, which he 
sold to his employer, and then by such outside work 
as he could get, and at this time he gave the first 
evidence of his inventive capacity by making a ma- 
chine for mortising the hubs of carriage- wheels. 
On completing his apprenticeship, :it the age of 
tweuty-oue years, bis employer offert^l lo lend him 
capital enough tostartastiiipaud set him up m busi- 
ness. This proposition was rejected becaitse of Mr. 
Cooper's invincible repugnance to ninniiig in debt. 
While on a visit to his brother at Hempstead. L, I., 
he obtained a situation wiib a man who manufactur- 
ed machines for shearing cloth, and here he ninained 
for three years. At the cnil of that liine he liought 
the right to manufacture shearing machines for the 
state of New York ou his own account. In this busi- 
ness be was very HUcecMsful, ainl bud snveil up about 
t-'WO, when, hisYatbcr being oppres.wd willi ilelH, Mr. 
Coo^r gave up the entire kuiii for bis relief. Ite- 
turumg to the manufacture nf his slicaring machines, 
Mr. Cooper made an Improvement which larjp'ly in- 
creased his business, pnrtteulnrly diirini; ilic wiir of 
1813. when these machines were In 2rf:it demnnd. 
At tlie close o( the war the business fell oil, and -Mr, 



Cooper gave tt up. He had, however, saved a con- 

aidei-able sum of money out of his machine manu- 
facture, and now purchased a twenty-years' lease of 
two bouses and six lot« of ground where the Bible 
house was afterward erected, directly opposite the 
Cooper Union, l>etween Eighth and Ninth streets, 
and Third and Fourth avenuee, New York. Here 
he put up four wooden dwelling-houses, in one of 
which he carried on the grocery business for three 
years. He then purchased a glue factory, with Its 
stock and buildings, on a lease of tweulT-one years, 
located betweeti Thirty-first and Tnirty-tourth 
streets, covering three acres of ground, for which he 
paid $2,000, and where he stai^ the manufacture 
uf glue, oil, whiting, prepared chalk, and iainglass. 
He continued to carry ou tliis business, soon obtain- 
ing the reputation of making the best glue in the 
market, and at the same time supporting his aged 
parents and two maiden sisters, ttesides paying for 
the medical education of one of liis brotliets. After 
his twenty-one-year lease expired, Mr. Cooper pur- 
chased ten acres of ground on JIaspeth avenue, Wil- 
liainaburgh, to which place lie removed his buslneaa, 
and where il was from that time forward continued. 
By tiie year IS'iS, wiien Mr, Cooperwas thirty-seven 
years old, be was quite a rich man, and able, with 
two partners, whom be sliorlly after bought out, to 
purchase 3.000 acres of land within the limits of the 
cityof Baltimore at a cost of |105,000. Here he set up 
the great Canton iron works, and some time later a 




rollinfr-mill, the entire establishment proving to be a 
most hierative investment. Some time in 1830 Mr. 
Cooper built the locomotive engine called the " Tom 
Thumb." which was tried on the Italtiinore and Ohio 
railnmd, and successfully demonstrated the practi- 
cability of iisini: locomotives on the road, although 
it wn-i' loo small to be of much service. This was 
followi-d, however, a few months later by the coa- 



OF AHEBIOAN BIOGBAPHT. 



•tnictiOD at the West Point foundry, N. Y., of th« 
locomotive "Best Friend," wliich was the first one 
built in the Unit«d States for actual serrice. Mr. 
Cooper eveutuall; sold out his Interest in the iron 
works, making a very considerable sum by the opera- 
tiun, but he afterword built sd Iroo loundry in 
Thirty third street, near Third avenue. New York ; 
also eDormous iroa works at Trenton, N. J., and 
three large blast furnaces at Phillipsburgh, Pa., be- 
ndcs buying the Durham furnaces, twenty-five miles 
from TrenloD, for which he paid |;260,000. In his 
glue factury, his iron works, and his mining opera- 
tions Mr. Cooper employed over 2,500 workmen. 
Ue became one of the heaviest iron maDufacturers 
in the country, at length funning the company called 
tlie Trenton iron works, including rolling-mills, 
blast furnaces, a wire factoi?, and 11,000 acres of 
land known aa the Kingwood property. Mr. Coop- 
er's inventive genius was coutinuaily employed while 
lie was busy conducting his various operations, and 
among his invenlions was a machine for grinding 
plate of any siie to a perfect plane ; another was a 
cylindrical machine for puddling iron and reducing 
ore and pig metals to wrought iron, and still another 
was a process by which he employed condensed air 
SI a propelliug power. When Cyrus W. PHeid con- 
ceived tbe idea of the first Atlantic cable, Mr. Cooper 
was president of the North American telegraph com- 
pany, which at that time controlled more than half 
of all tbe telegraph lines in Ihe country. He was 
also president or the New York, .Newfoundland and 
LoDcInn telegraph company. In company wilh Cy- 
rus W. Fielil, Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Itoberts, 
•od Wi!»oa G. Hunt, Peter Cooper completed the 
work of laying a line of telegraph across Newfound- 
land, and a cable across tbe gulf of St. Lawrence. 
tbe whole designed as a psrt of a line to connect 
Europe with America by tele^ph ; and the flusi 
iuccessful laying of the Atlantic cable, which com- 
plet«d this vast «cheme. was in a very great degree 
due to the unflagging efforts of Mr. Cooper in behalf 
of the cnierprise. At a very early period, after his 
success in business was established, Mr. Cooper con- 
ceived the idea, which was eventually prixluced to 
the world in the Cooper institute, designed "lobe 
forever devoted to the advsncemenl of science and 
an in their application to Ihc varieil and useful pur- 
poses of life.' He purchased the necessary land, 
and, as early as 1853, be^an to build the magnificent 
structure, completed in dve years, which cost tliree- 
4juartei8 of a million dollars, and which became 
known throughout the coimtry as the Cooper union. 
On Apr. 20, 1839, Mr. Cooper gave a deed of the 
property to the trustees named iu tiie act of incor- 
poration passed by the state lei,dslature. The prop- 
erty included the building, constnielcd of brown 
none, sunding 195 feet 0[i Third avcuue, 140 feet 
on Eighth street. 165 feet en Fourth avenue, and 
seventy feet on Seventh street, New York. Tlie 
purfKne of the Cooper institute was practically to 
fumish a series of free schools of iiisiruciiou in art 
and science, a free reading-room, and fn« cour^ies 
of popular lectures on subjects scientific, artistic, and 
mcial. An endowment of |ISO,0<N), designed for 
the sustenance of the reading-n>ora and the increase 
of the tlbniry ; and the rent of stores, olflccs, and 
lir(;e an<l small balls in the building supported the 
institiitiijn. While much of Mr. Cooper's life was 
devoted to Ihe successful carrring on of his great 
buwness projects and of his noble bciicficciit under- 
takings, he found time also for the considcmtion of 
great public questions of politics and (xilitical econ- 
omy. Uuiveraally respected and admired for his 
ntany noble qiialitities, and the general beauty and 
Bymmetry of his character, any enunciation of bis 
on important public topics was certain to find ear- 
■KStatid thougutful hearers or readers. In liJTCanin- 



116 

dependent party nominated Mr. Cooper as Its candi- 
date for the presidency, and he received nearly 100,- 
000 votes. Mr. Cooper married, in 1814, Miss Bedell 
of Hempstead, L. I., with whom be lived fifty-sis 
years in complete domestic happiness and concord. 
Mrs. Cooper died iu December, 1809, on tlie fifty-sixth 
anniversary of their wedding-day. They had six 
children— two sons and four daughters, of whom 
only a daughter and son survived. Mr. Cooper died 
in New York city Apr. 4, 1S83. 
COOFEB, Edward, mayor of New York city, and 



York citj Apr. 4, 1S83. 
rardimayorof 

of tbe well-known philanthropist, Peter Cuotwr, 




 < ' T-^Lf 



born in New York city Oct. 26, 1824. After n 
ceiving a public-school education he went to Colum- 
bia college, where he did not remain long enough to 
f;raduale. He received, however, iu 1845, from this 
nstitution, the honorary degree of A. M. After he 
had passed some time on the Continent, Mr. Cooper 
returned to New York and became a member of tbe 
firm of Cooper, Hewitt & Co., 
which has furnished two may- 
ors of New York city and a 
candidate for the presidency of 
the United States. As Peter 
Cooper advanced in years he 
left very much of his business 
in the hands of his son and of 
Abram 8. Hewitt, his son-in- 
law. Edward Coo|)er made a 
special study of the manufac- 
tuie of iron and steel, and took 
special charge of the great iron 
and steel works in New Jer- 
sey, which were maiuiged by 
the firm. Mr. Cooper has al- 
ways been a democrat. He 
was an active member of the 
committee of seventy, through 
whose efforts, in the main, the 
dislionestTweed ring was over- 
thrown. Mr, Cooper was elected mayor of New 
York in 1879, ana proved an active, euvrgetic and 
efficient magistrate. He was a delegate to the 
(Charleston convention of 1S0O. and to most of the 
democratic national conventions held since that date. 
He is a trustee of the Coojier union and of several 
other corporations. 

TBAMMELL, Leaad«r Newton, chairman 
of the Georgia railroad commission, was bom in 
Haliersbam county, Ga., June 5, 1B30. His grand- 
father, William Trammell, of Scotch-Irish descent, 
was a gallant revolutionarr sol- 
dier, who fought in the battles of 
Cowpens and Savannah, and lost 
an arm at Kini;'s Mountain. His 
father, Jehu Trammell, was bom 
in Union District. S. C; settled 
in Haberidiam county, Ga.. in 
1818, and was twice stale senator. 
His motlier, Elizabeth Fain, was 
French, and a gmnduiece of Ba- 
ron Fain of Bonaparte's staff. 
The Fains came from France to 
R'nnsylvania, and moved to East -. 
Tenne'wee during the revolution, 
Leander went to c<nmtry schools, 
and worked on the farm until niue- 
teen years of age, when he studied 
for fl'fteen months on Batt Creek, ' 
Teiin.. at a boardinii schcMjl, now 
Hiwn-Hsee college. After teaching 
school, he attended the law school at Lebanon. Tenn., 
and in Octolwr, 1857, settled at Ringgold, Ga. He 
was elected representaiive to the legislature in 1861 
and 1863 ; was a mcmtwr of the reconstruction con- 
Btitutioual convention in ]H6T-nM; declined a nomi- 
nulion to the stale senate in 1808 ; was president of 




lie 

the senate in 1870. 1871, 1873. and 1B73 ; a Tilden 
elector in 1878 ; a member of Uie committee of revi- 
sioD iD Ibe stats coustitutional coDveotiuD of 1»87 ; 
president of tbe slate democratic convention of 1881, 
and cliairman of tfac slate democratic executive com- 
mittee in 1881-83. He was appointed railroad com- 
niU-stoner by Gov. Colijuitt m October, 1881 ; was 
reappoinletl bj Oov. Uonlon in 1887, and made 
Cbairman of tlie commtsstuu iu 1890. Hr. Trammell 
lias been one of the must far-seeing public men of 
bis slate, a wise leader, aud na unerring judge of 
public sentiment. His practical ability aud cunserv- 
atism liave given him a strong influence in the legis- 
lation and politics of Georgia. He bas dfsplajcd 
marked ability and fidclit;r ''" all bis posts of bonor. 
He was aii adcnirablc presiding olUcer in tlie senate ; 
fougtil for the people's interest against every bail 
measure In ttie reconstruct ion convention, and as 
chairman of the democralic executive committee, 
secured tbe abolition of the objectionable iwo-tJiirds 
rule. He married, in 1850, at Biairsvllte, Ga., Zcno- 
bia J., daughter of Eiibu S. Barclay of Virginia. 

COLLINS, Fredarick W., V. 8. marshal for 
tbe southern district of Mississippi, was bom in Pike 
county uf Ihat stale Sept. 14. 1841!. He is the oldest 
of six sons of ChauDcey Collins, a native of Con- 
necticut, who left h!a home when 
~ a vouub; man, aud after extensive 
travel m the soulhern states mar- 
tied Amelia WoodruS, an amiable 
Mississippi woman, and settled in 
Pike county in 1842, where he es- 
tablished a tannery. During the 
civil war his father was a stanch 
Union man, and Frederick was early 
iinbue<l with Union principles. 
Though environed by secession 
neighbors and harassed by diufi-il- 
erate conscript ofttcers he petxist- 
entiy refused to enter theConfeder- 
ate service and declared that he 
would not Are upon the flag of his 
own coiintiy. The avowal of tliesc 
principles placed him under sur- 
veillance, but his unwavering ail- 
hereuce to them, coupled with 
S strong force of cliaracter for one of his years, 
aided in building up in lliat section a strong Union 
sentiment, thus rendering it possible fur hiin to 
escape the vengeance of the storm created by the 
secewtiou movement. After the civil war ended, 
having but limited opportunities aud me«ns, and not 
haviiii; reached bla majority, he llnishe<l a commoii- 
school education and taught school two retire with 
remarkable success. Beln^ a known Union man 
and republican he was appumted clerk of Ihc circuit 
court of bis county by Oov. James L. Aleom in 1870; 
WAS elected in 1871 and re-elecled in 1873 to the same 
office, cuminandlag the solid supiHirt of his own 
party and tbe conservative element of the opposing 
party. Being defeali-il in what is known there as 
the "poliiicar revolution" of 1875, heentcml a mer- 
cantile cstablMiment us bnokkuep<.-r, serving! at Ibe 
same lime as mayor of the comity lown. to which 
office iic was elected without his solicilHlluu. He 
removed to Summit, in Ihc same conniy, in 18T8, 
was appointed |M>slmaster there aiul served in tliat 
ciiptUTitT for about seven years, carrying on a mer- 
Ctmtile bu«ness also. His sucwwsorwuH appohited 
under President Cleveland's adminiHtratiun, and Mr. 
Collins was for neaily five years the southern travel- 
ing agent for the Collins Bros, druff company, of St. 
Luuis, Mo. Dunne these years, 'however, he was 
prominently idenlificd with the politics of Ills Blatc, 
serving asa member of the state republican executive 
■— —  -a a candidate for represcntadve to 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




the le^slaturewas defeated hywbat is known as tha 
"Mississippi plan." In May, 1890, upon the nooii- 
nalion uf the governor of his state, he was appointed 
by President Harrison as alternate commissioner to 
the International exhibition at Chicago, aud in De- 
cember of the same year was appoiniod by the presi- 
dent to the office of marshal of the United States for 
tbe soutliem district of Mississippi, which position 
he now holds. He is married and has four sons and 
four daughters ; is a ^ntleman of high social stand- 
ing, and by his efficiency and probity of character 
commands the confidence and esteem of bis politick 
adversaries, as evidenced by the warm support he 
received as a candidate for the marshalship from 
the member of congress from bis dislrict, the cir- 
cuit judge, the secretary of state, and both the Mis- 
sissippi senators ; his cause being espoused on tbe 
republican side at Washington uy John R. Lynch 
and B. K. Bruce. During his candi<lacy for this 
office the Summit "Sentinel," a local newspaper, 
contained the following editorial: "Though he i» 
an uncompromising republican we are bound U> ad- 
mit that Mr. Collins possesses in an eminent degre» 
llie peculiar Qualities necessary to make a succcse- 
ful and satisfactory U. S. marshal. He is broad- 
gauge in evervlhing : he is keen In perception and 
heroic In execution ; be is always courteous, and is 
without the arrogance that so often deforms good 
executive abilitv.^' 

B.OBINSON, William Brians, journalist, 
was born in county Tyrone. Ireland. May 6, 1814. 
At the age of twelve he entered the classical school 
at Cookstown, and afterward l>ecame a student ia 
Belfast academy. In 1838 he emigrated to America, 
and subseqeutly matriculated at Yale college, p^d- 
uating in 1841 from this institution. While at Yale 
be founded tbe Yale "Banner." He afterward be- 
came distinguished as an editor, beine editoriallr 
connecled with the New Haveu "Dany Courier, 
the Buffalo "Express," the "Irish World." and 
other jouruiils. During the early days of tbe New 
York "Tribune" Mr, Robinson was its Washington 
correspondent, and white engaged on Uiat paper 
wrote under the turn de plume of " Richelieu," ob- 
taining quite a reputation for the pungent cliaracter 
of his artidea. In 1863 President Lincoln ap^ioin led 
him colleclor of internal revenue for the flrst dis- 
trict. He served four years, and in 1806 was elected 
to congressfromthesecoud dislrict of Kings count;. 
In 1880 and 1882 he was again elected, aud by bi» 
warm advocacy of the cause of imprisoned Irish* 
American Fenian prisoners, obtained the soubriquet 
of"Pat Maltoy" Robinson. His coniseat Ibis time 
was marked by a sturdy purity of purpose that no 
criticism, however hostile, affected. He later be- 
came an Independent candidate, with a republican 
indorsement, for congress, and In 1884 was an iud&- 
pendent candidate, but was defeated. In 1847 Mr. 
liobinson organized a movement for the relief of 
Ireland, and secured tbe authorization from congress 
fnr sending the U. 3. frigate Macedonian with pro- 
visions to his native land. He was an active mem- 
ber of the land league, always midntatuing. how- 
ever, that force alone would brin^ the British to 
grant freedom tn Ireland. Mr. Robinson was a man 
of comniaiKling pi'csence — above the average height, 
with curling gray locks, strougly marked features, 
and well-knil frame, he was a ajstinguished ligure 
wherever lie went. He was married, in 1858, to 
Helen A. Dougherty, a daughter of George Dougb* 
erty, of Ncwaflt, N. J. His son, John E. Robinson, 
is a well-known newspaper man. Mr. Robinson 
dieil at Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 23, 18B3. Dr. Tal- 
muge, in delivering his funeral oration, in speaking 
of his Journalistic work, said: "Among all therelica 
by his sons and daughters kept sacred, keep moat 
sacred your father's pen. It was a graceful iDStiu- 



OF AMERICAN BIOOBAPHT. 



117 



Bent, AQd from it dropped wbat ThjtbmB. what wit, 
vbat sadnesB. what grapbic description of men aiid 
things, and, when they were demanded, whnt satire 
tnd righteous NCom ! Yes, keep that pen; for llicre 
tra nut inan; lilie it — bo fertile and so multi-potent. 
Burn of Ibitt pen were whole libraries. His work, 
like thousands of those for^tten. bas been built up 
ioti) the grandeur and intelligence of the American 



Benjamin Hamilton, a member of the governor's 
Gouucil under the old constitution, and occupying 
Ibe same honorable position in 
the senate and assembly under 
thenew. HismntlicrwasSarah 
Edsall, daughter of James and 
Mary (Simpson) Edsall. .lames 
Ed!iall seltle«l in V^cmon town- 
ship, Sussex county. N. J.. 
about 1770. and wits a farmer 
and a soldier in the revolution- 
ary war, Tlie first of tEie fam- 
ily in America was Samuel Eil- 
sall, who came fn>m Berkshire 
county, Eng,, and located in 
New AiDslenlaiu (now New 
York), in Uie year IftW. He 
woe a member of tlie council i>f 
Philip Cartercl, Iho first pi 




iif.-AC,:.. 



c/Su^U, 



Jersey, JamcsHamilion.graud- 

father of Robert, sellli'd in 
Frankfort townsliip. iSussex 
county, about tbe n)i<Idle of 
the eighteenth century, and was a contractor and 
builder. He fougbt wilb the troops from Sussex 
county in the revohiiion. Robert's grandmother was 
Sarah Price, daughter of Francis Price, an olticcr in 
the revolutionaiy army, and a ^eat-uncle of R<m1- 
nwn M. Price, governor of Now Jersey. i{[>bert re- 
cetred a good academic education in the schools of 
his native county, and as a yoLith was employed in 
tbe ottice of tbe clerk of the county court, at the 
same time pursuing bis law studies. He was admit- 
lal to the bar in t£30. and soon rose to a command- 
JDK position ID the profes^on. He was a perfect 
master of tbe science of pleading, very skillful in the 
trial uf cauHes, and an able and eloquent advocate. 
While he filled many positions of trust aod honor, 
iod was a man of lar>^ business affairs, be kept act- 
ively in the line uf his profession, and witb scru- 
pulous fitlelity discharged evcrv duty be owed to bis 
clietiis. He was married In l^tt to his cousin, Sarab 
A. Edsal). daughter of Joseph E. Edsall, a citizen 
of Hamburg. Sussex county, occupying a distin- 
^iibed position, possessed of wealth, a large owucr 
of agricultural and mineral lands, and extensively 
engaged in milling and blast-furnace industries. 
He was, during his lifetime, clerk of tlic court, mem- 
ber of tbe assembly and of the ctnincil, judge of 
the county court, and democratic representative In 
the U. 8. couKress frem 1S45 to 1849. Mr. Ham- 
illon was a delegate to the democratic national cim- 
ventiiins lield in Charleston, S. C, and Baltimore. 
Md., in 186], and supiwrlcd the nomination of 
Blephen A. Douglas. He was member of the nsscm- 
bly of New Jersey, and speaker of iliat body in 
1863-M. He served aa representative from his dis- 
trict In the U. 8. congress from 1B73 to 1877. He 
was prosecutor of tlie pleas of Sussex county for 
icvpral successive lenns. was director of Ibe Morris 
and Essex railroad, president of the Merclianls' na- 
tional bank from its urganixation In 18Si'i to thcdate 
uf his death, and also president uf the Dennis IJbrarv. 
Mr. Hamilton was a prominent member of the P. k. 
church, and for many years senior warden of Christ 



church, Newton, aa well as delegate to the annual 
convention of llie diocese of New Jersey for over 
forty years. In bis charities be was liberal, and in 
the management of cburcb affairs always active. 
His law practice made bim a familiar figure in all 
the courts of the stale. Mr. Hamilton died at New- 
ton, N. J., March 14, 1878. leaving a wife and a. 
daughter, Virginia, wife of M. I. Soittliard. 

SOUIifi, Pierre, IT. S. senator and minister to 
Spain, was born at Caslillou, in the department of 
Giroude. twenty -Mix miles east of Bordeaux, in Sep- 
tember, 1802, son of a judge and lieutenant general 
in the iiimy of the French republic. He was edu- 
cated in the Jesuits' college at TuuloUse and at Bor- 
deaux, but at fifteen was involved iu a conspiracy 
against the Bourlions and obliged to seek refuge in 
the Pyrenees, and to live as a shepherd for a year. 
After this tie (aught and studied In Paris, became a 
journalist there, was brought to trial in 183.'> for an 
attack on tbe governnient, defended his conduct in 
a tone of lofty independence, and was sentenced to 
a fine and imprisonment in St. Felagie. Hecscaped 
to England, went to Hayti iu the fall of 11426, and 
tbence wawlereil to Baltimore, to New Orleans, to 
Tennessee, where he was eolertaincd for a time by 
President Jackson, and to Bardstown, Ky., where 
he labored as a gardener and learned the Engllsb 
language. After severe ex|>ericuce9 uf poverty and 
varied hardship, be was admitted to the bar and to 
partnership in a legal firm at New Orleans, and rose 
to great eminencit oh a pleader. Entering politics aa 
a states' rights democrat, he was sent to the Louia- 
iana senate In 184.1. and two years later ' ' ' '"' " 
United Stales to complete a vacant 
remained till 1858. and was noted 
for bis oratuncal powers and his 
wlvanced opinions. He speedily 
became a leader uf tlie extreme 
southern faction, op]M>sed the com- 
promise measures of 18.')0,Bndwas 
often pitted aeainst ('lay and Web- 
ster, who tosiiHcd to his ability in 
debate. His career aa minister to 
Spain, 18r>S-55, to wliicb President 
Inerce scut him with a view to Ibe 
annexation of Cuba, was rather 
sensational than successful. He 
severely wounded Turgol, the 
French ambassador, iu a duel. 
was accused, tbou^b without 
proof, of complicity m the Mad- 
rid revolt of Aug. 28, 18.14: with- 
held a treaty for reciprocity of 
trade with (j'uba, wliicli had oeen 
negotiated by tbe U. S, secretary of legation, and 
with James Buchanan and J. Y. Mason met In con- 
ference at Ostend and Aix in tbe fall of 1854, and 
put forth the famous manifesto wbicli proposed the 
acquisition of Cuba bv force in tbe event of Spain's 
continued refusal to sell the Island. Disgusted with tbe 
failure of tills plan, and scarcely a pemona grata at 
the Spanish court, he gave up bis post the following 
summer. rcsuiiK-<) his practice at homcand promotea 
the project of a Teluwnlcpcc canal in Mexico. In 
1860-61 he had ceasisl to Iw a " fire-eater." and op- 
posed tbe secession of bis stale, foreseeing and pre* 
dieting tbe sad results of a civil war. He went to 
Europe as an agent of the Confederacy, but soon 
cameback, was arresleilafter the capture of New Or- 
leans ill 1863, and contliie^i for some months in Fort 
Ijofayette; served on Gen. Heaureganl's slaff in tbe 
defence of Charleston, and was imide a brigadier for 
a special service, but acciniipiisheil nothing. He re- 
tired to Havana, look part in 1864 in Dr. W. M. 
Qwin's abortive plan to coloni/c Sonora in Mexico, 
returned to New Orleans after the v 
there March 16, 1870. 




1 died 



THE NATIONAL OTCLOPJBDIA 



American doscent. 




HSUBHANS, OharlM Abram, lawyer, wu 
boro at Scraoton, Pa., March 10, 1848, His father, 
SylvanuB Heennaoa. was bom at Wilkes-Barre in 
1810; hia mother, Martha H. Thorp, was born in 
Oswego countj, N, Y., In 1817, and both were of 

1 — J/ — J rpji^ family moved to Preston 

county, W. Va.. when Charles 
was but four years old. His 
father was on active politician, 
and represented his county in 
tlie nalional whi^ coDveulion 
that nominated Oeu. Scott. In 
1854 the family was broken up, 
and Charles was " put out " to 
livewitii a family in Alleghany 
county, Md., where he stayed 
eighteen months. In 1855 be 
was taken by his mot tier to Rich- 
mond, where he worked In a 
clothing store as errand boy for 
eighteen months; then became 
a newsboy, and was the first to 
serve in titat capacity on a rail- 
^ Toad — the Chesapeake and 

&,j-^:7^y^^-»-»*,a^-*.^ **'■''*■ tlien the Virginia Cen- 
*"^^^'-^*^^"*^'^ tral. When the civil war broke 
out he volunteered in one of 
the first companies from Richmond. He served 
through the war as a private in the Army of 
Korthem Virginia, and was at one time a prisoner, 
•pending five montlia in Point Lookout. While 
a newsboy he acquired the habit of reading care- 
fully his papers, and was always pwied on current 
events. Durintj the war his Icnansack was seldom 
without a speliing.book, arithmelic and grammar. 
At the close of the war he was dropj^, bo to 
speak, homeless in Pulaski county, Va., but imme- 
diately went to work as a farm laborer; two years 
after, learned the sboeinaking trade, and followed 
this four years. The last year of hia trade he kept 
a law-book ou his bench and studied it at intervals, 
his health having become impaired. At Ibis time 
be conceived the idea of storting a newspaper. In 
August, 1872, be issued the ■'Virginia People," the 
first paper ever published in Pulaski county, which 
at once took rank as a first-class local paper. He 
remained in the editorial harness for thirteen years, 
bavingin that time established and edited the "Vir- 

enia People," the ''Scott Banner." the " Blacks- 
irg News."and the "Southwest Itcpublican,"and 
gained the reputation of being one ot the ablest and 
strongest political writers in the state. In these years 
be was frequently a delegate to couvcntions, in all 
of which he Cook an active part. In 18T.1 he was a 
candidate for the IcglHlnture, but was defeated. In 
1877 he WHS adcniticd to the bar. In 1881 he re- 
moved to Montgomery county, and was elected trea- 
surer of the Virginia agricultural and mechanical 
college, which position ho flllcd with credit to the 
end of Ills term — three years. In 18HT hewas elected 
commonwealth's attorney for his county, which po- 
sition he filled for hia full term — four years. He was 
delegaie-at-lara^ for his state to tin- Chicago conven- 
tion which nominated President Harrison, and was 
the first man east of the Uliio to pulilicly advocate 
bis nomlnatiotL He was tendered the appointment 
of asHistanC U. 8, district attorney for the western 
district of Vii^nia, but declined on account of 
party fends. The governor of Virginia nominated 
and Prc^dent Harrison aprxdutod him alternate com- 
missioner to the World's Columbian exposition. Mr. 
Heermans has been twice married : first to Corley M. 
Haney, who died In 1878, and then to Corialhia 
Roberts, both of Pulaski county. Surrounded by 
bis wife and six children, he lives happily at Chris- 
tiansburg. and Is nowin the full and successful prac- 
tice of the Uw. 



THOUAB, Beth, manufacturer, was bom at 
Wolcott, Conn., Au^. 18, 1780, the son of James and 
HarUia 'Thomas. His advantages for education were 
very meagre, consisting of a very few days' attend- 
ance at a distant pnbuc school. He served an ap- 
prenticeship to the trade of carpenter and joiner; 
a considerable portion of the time being spent in the 
construction of Long wharf, in New Ilaven. Leav- 
ing at his majority, with a small kit of tools and a 
very small amount of money, he was strongly in- 
cliiied to avail himself of water-power to faciutate 
his business, and entered into negotiation for a site 
on Mod river, Wolcott, Conn. Needing a short piece 
of road the better to get to the site, he petitioned the 
town to lay out and construct the same, but the peti- 
tion was defeated in town-meeting, ujion which he 
abandoned the project and went to Plymouth. In 
asaociatiou wi(b £!i Terry and Silas Houdley, under 
the Arm name ot Terry, Tliomas & Hoadley, he 
commenced the manufacture of clocks in the south- 
east part of llietown, now known as Haucockstation, 
on the New York and New England railroad. After 
one year, in 1810, Mr, Terry sold hia interest, and the 
firm continued two years, viz., 1811 and 1812, as 
Thomas & Hoadley, Mr. Tliomas then sold bis in- 
terest to Mr. Hoadley, removed to Plymouth Hol- 
low (now Thomaslon). and, having 
purchased the site where the case 
shop was afterward located, began 
tlie manufacture of clocks on hia 
own account. The business at that 
time was small, employing about 
twenty operatives, but it steadily 
increased until the corporation em- 
ployed about nine hundred, with a 
monthly pay-roll of over thirty 
thousand dollars, and a yearly 

Eruduct valued at one million dol- 
ors. In 1853, feeling the infirmi- 
ties of years coming upon him, in 
onler to avoid the stoppage of the 
work consequent upon Ills decease 
he organized the Selh Thomas 
clock company, under the Joint- / t^-^-'^^ a ' 

stock Uws of^ Connecticut. He J^-'*^ ^1,^i^ 
built during these years a cotton 
mill and brass rolling and wire mills. The building 
now used for the manufacture of pendulum move- 
ments was originally built for cotton sheetings, and 
parts of the brass rolling and wire mills, now occu- 
pied by the Plume and Atwood manufacturing com- 
pany, were built by him. The village, which con- 
tained thirteen dwellings, has grown to be a good 
sized town consequent upon the business fouuded 
by the tact and energy of Seth Thomas. Politically 
he favored the whig party; religiously be was a 
Congregational iat and contributed largely to the 
building of the present Congregational church edi- 
fice of 'Thomaston. He was twice married: first to 
Pbilena Tuttic, daughter of Lemuel and Lydia Tut- 
tle, Apr. 20. 1808. She died March 12, 1810. He 
was married on Apr, 14, 1811, to Laura Andrews, 
daughter of William and Submit Andrews. She 
died July 13, 1871, He was the father of nine chil- 
dren, three ot whom died in September, 1815, in the 
S:ar memorable as that of the dysentery scourge. 
e died Jan. 29, 1859. 

THOKAS, Seth, manufacturer, was bom at Ply- 
mouth Hollow, Conn.. Dec. 81, 1816. son of Setb 
Thomas. He enlarged and made great Improve- 
ments Id his father s factory, and Introduced the 
Selh Thomas clocks into all parts of the world, in- 
countriea of China and Japan. 




eluding the 

He prided himself 

S'eoe from tha mt 
edied 



having madeevery kind of timo- 
delicale watch to a town clock. 
Thomaston, Conn., Apt. 



OF AMERICAN BIOGBAPHT. 



119 



BXOUTKL, George, brewer and presidential 
elector, vas born io Germany Iti 1840, and duriug 
bis inrancy via brought to America. la isni he 
eolered the jfrftintnar scbiml ot Columbia colleee, 
and after completing his education nt that institutioD 
began an apprenticeship in the brewery wlilcli Ills 
father had eslablislied at Sta- 
pleton, S. I., ia 185S. He was 
superintendent from 18(MMJ5, 
and wliile occupying ihat ^ 
allion establisiied tlie tlrst ice 
hoiiHC in the Eiist. In IH63 he 
rented the property from his 
father, and m I8T0 became the 

Eiruprielor. Tlie original build- 
ng soon became loo small for 
tho rapidly growing business, 
. and it was turn down and the 




received the centennial exhi- 
bition medal and in 18T7 the 
medal of the Gambnniis 



-^yij.,..^^^ ^j,~j in I8~8 one from the Pans e 
•^€:y-^*^£.^^.^;^ hibition, and in IB79 he w; 



awarded the pnze al the 'Sydney 
(air in New South Wales. During the negro riots 
In 1S6I he sheltered a number of (he houseless 



the colored people of 8taten Island have always 
grsteftilly remembered. He was elected trustee of 
the third ward of the villa^ of Edgewater, and in 
1878 received the joint Domination of the republican 
and democratic parlies for supervisor, and was 
elected by a large majority, subsequently re-elected 
for ten consecutive years, and for one year served as 
chairman of the board. From 187» to 1888 be was 
trustee of the village from the first ward. Through 
hifl efforts B debt of $135,000 incurred by the village 
ot Edgewnter was paid, the tanes were reduced to 
two from eight per ceni. , and the bonds increased in 
nlue from 80 to 113. In 1870 he was the firat dele- 
gsie ever elected from Itichmond county to the state 
ciHivention, was le-elected three limes, and served 
twice as its first vice-president. He was appointed 
by the first congressional delegation, comprising 
Queens, Siiffoll:, an<l Itichmond counties, as member 
of the state executive committee, and in 1HK8 was 
one of the presidential electors. In 1879 the Japan- 
ese embnasy, in company with the secretary of state, 
visited Mr. Bechtel's brewery, ordered 100,000 bot- 
tles of beer sent to Japan, and upon their return 
to their native country sent him several very flatter. 
Ing Ictteni and a pair of coatly vases. He was one 
of the largest tax- MtyerH on Slatea island, owning a 
water front of about 1,800 feet, with an average 
water depth of thirty feet at low tide. In 186.') be 
married EvaSchoenof New York city. He was ex- 
tremely charitable, and foremost in all benevolent 
works on the island. He ended his successful ca- 
reer on July 16. 1889. when he expired suddenly, 
after a lingering illness, of heart failure. Shortly 
before his death he erected Bechtel's hospital on 
Btaten Island, which his widow subsequently donated 
to the Smith's infirmary. He left an estate wortli 
$2,000,000. 

BIGOS, Btepli«n Return, missionarv to the 
Dakotas, was bom in Sleubenvilte, O., March 23, 
1813. He was graduated from Jefferson college, 
Pennsylvania, in 1834; took a partial course at tlie 
Western seminary, Allegheny, Pa. ; entered the 
Presbyterian ministry, and was sent by the Ameri- 
can board, in 18S7, to a mission Dear Fort Hnelling, 
Hinn. Having learned the language of the Indians, 
he labored for several years nt Lac-qui-parlci here 
J. N, Nicollet and J, C, Fremont, who were ex- 



amining that region in behalf of the war depart- 
ment, were his guesis in 1839. This was his field 
until 1854, except 1843-40, when he was caring 
for a new mission al Traverac des Sioux. In 18fil 
be founded a school for native children at Hazel- 
wood on the Yellow Medicine, near its moulh. In. 
August. I8G3. he was driven away by the Sioux war, 
barely escaping with his life, and acted as chap- 
lain to the Miiinesola troops sent against the liosiile 
Indians. Ills later years were given largely lo a Da- 
kota version of the Bible, which appearea in 18TB; 
In Ibis he had the aid of Dr. J. S. n illianison. Be- 



hymn-book, a vocabulary, and a "Gratninnr and 
Dictionary;" the latter was published by the Smith- 
sonian institute in 18,'i2. In English he wnite "Tah- 
koo Wakan; or. The Gospel Among Ihe Dakotas" 
(18G»), and "Forty Years Among the Sioui" (1880). 
fieloit college gave him Ihe degree of D.D. in 18T8, 
and Jefferson that of LL.D. He continued to visit 
his missions during part of each year until bis death 
atBeloit. Wis., Aug. 24, 1888. 

BBAST, JohnB., lawyer and judge, was bom 
In New York city in 1821, oif Irish paretils, who em- 
igrated to America in 1812, first settling in Newark, 
N. J. In 1814 they removed to New York city, 
where they afterward resided. His father, Thomas 
J. Brady, was a man of culture and refinement, and 
was noted fur his varied intellectual acqiiiremenla. 
He spoke French and Spanish fluently, and upon 
the completion of his education decided to become 
a lawyer, but did not begin his studies until after 
he came lo New York city. His accomplishments 
were so higlily appreciated that he was persuaded 
to prepare a limited number of young men for col- 
le^. His efforts In that direction were eminently 
successful, and he subsequently educated bis Iwo 
sons to be ornaments to the legal profession. John 
Brady, upon beiiic admitled to the bar, formed a 
partnership with his brother, James T., and Mr. 
Maurice, tbe style of the firm being Braiir, Maurice 
& Brady. Mr. Maurice afterwaid wllfidrew, and 
the twoDrothers continued the busiuessalone. John 
H. Brady hud hardly become 
established in Ms professional .^__ 

career when he was called to 
the bench, receiving in ISTiS 
the nomination of the Tam- 
many hall wiug of the democ- 
racy for Judge of the court of 
common pleas. He was elect- 
ed by a handsome majority, 
and re-elected in 18fl9, and be- 
fore his second term had ex- 
pired he was elected to the 
supreme bench. At his second 
election to the common pleas 
bench he was the candidate 
not only of Tommany hall, 
but of the Moiuirt hall wing 
of the democrats, and ot the 
Uniteil republicans, and waa 
alone in the field, and placed oa 
the bench by an immense vote. 
His first lertn on the supreme court bench expired 
in 18T7, and he was again the candlilate for the re- 
publicans and both branches of Ihe democracy. In 
1872 he was assigned to be a general term judge, 
and up to the time of liisdeath was a member of the 
general term of the first department of the supreme 
court, and had he livml but a few months lon^r, 
would have retired, having reuchetl the constitu- 
tional age of seventy, and would also have completed 
the last term of fourteen years, for which he was 
electeil to the supreme court. His career on the 
bench covered a period of over thirty-five years. 




120 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




\Jrf4-^ 



Maaj of hiB opinions iu Important case* attracled 
'widesprta'i atbiiilioii ; he tempered justice with met- 
cj. aud liis tipioious were founded on coniniun seuse 
and tmtiiral juMice rather tlian on fine technical 
points, tlioueh he uever allowed Ills feelings to in- 
niience him m the duty that lie owed the slate in the 
proper punishment of criminals. In 1863 he mar- 
riea Katherine Lydig, daughter of the iHte Philip 
M. Ly<l[^. Judge Brady was one of the founders 
of the Manhattan club, and a member of several 
other social organixalious. among them the Lambs. 
He died in New York city March 16, 1861. 

STBAITON, John, manufacturer, was born 
In Scotland May 6, 18S0, aud traces his descent 
from Alexander Straiton, first baron of liauriston. 
1296. whose earliest kuown ancestor, ci'nvi 1124, was 
Robert Straiton of that ilk. He 
was tiiorouglily e<Iucalcd in the 
schools of Edinburgh, and at the 
aee of twenty emigrated to the 
United States, arrivinir In New 
York in the month of October, 
IH50. He became an assistant to 
his uncle In the cigar bMsiness, 
but two years later. In 18S3, Mr. 
Straiton began the importation 
of cigars, which he conducted 
with success, and in 1800 lie 
formed the now well-known Ann 
of Straiton & Storm, which grew 
with unexampled rapidity as a 
manufacturing house engaged 
in the making of domestic ci- 
gars, imtil it became the largest 
j/j / establishment of the kind in the 

•«^-*-^!^ world. In 1884 the output of 
m . ^ the Straiton & Storm manufac- 

tory was 71,393,375 cigars, or 
twenty-five millions more than 
tne whole numlier of cigars imported Into the 
United States during that year. During this peri- 
od the tirm of Straiton &, Storm had in their 
employ more thau 3,000 men aud women, and 
their weekly pay-roll was more than $20,000. Mr. 
Straiton retired from active interest in the business 
of the manufactory In 1885. He lias interested 
himself iu the cause of education, to which he de- 
voted much thought and attention during tlie num- 
ber of years in which he was an active member of 
the school board of the twelfth ward of the city of 
New York. Mr. Straiton has been a director of the 
St. Nicholas bank since 18T8, aud of the Lincoln 
national bank since 1885, He possesses large prop- 
erty interests in the upper part of the city and also 
at Arverue-by-the-Sea. 

RI008, Elias, misiinnarv, was bom at New 
Providence, N. J., Nov. 19, iSlO. At eleven years 
of age lie coiitmcuccd the study of Hebrew without 
an iustnii'tor. and in spite of the fat^t that the only 
Hebrew text-book within liis reach was without 
vowel points. He entered Amherst college In 11435, 
before he was fifteen years of age, and while there 
took up, in addition to the regnlar studies of 
the curriculum. ChnUlec and Syriac. The gram- 
mar »sai by him in hlx work upon the latter lan- 
!;uagc he himself translated from Lntln into Uiig- 
isli. After tM'tng graduated in 1829 he enl<-red the 
Audovcr theological seminary, and was orrlained to 
the Christian minist^ three years later. The same 
year he sailed for Greece as a missionary. He la- 



key, for five years, after wlileli he devoted himself 
t<i the Armenians; then went to la)>or at Con- 
stantinople. Eariy in his career he translnte<l the 
Bible into Armeoiau and Bulgarian, and assisted iu 




the joint translatioo into the Turkish language, 
which appeared in 1878. While on a visit to this 
country, ll:M>6-58, he taught Hebrew for a shoit time 
in the t'nion theolugicaf seminary. The degree of 
D.D. was conferred upon him by Hanover college. 
Indiana, in 1853, and that of LL.D. from Amherst 
In 1871. Besides numerous religious works, and 
those mentioned above, he has publisiicd graniniara 
of tbe C'haldee, Jiulgarian. Modem ArmouJan and 
Turkish languages. 

HAXE, John Pwker, U. 8. senator and min- 
ister tu Simin, was born at Itochester. Strafford county, 
N. H.. March 31. 1806. He prepared forcollegeat 
Phillips academy, Exeter. N. H,; was graduated 
from llowdoiu in 1837; l)cgan the practice of law at 
Dover. In his native county, in 1830, and entered 
tlic legislature in 1893 as a democrat. From 1834 
to 1841 he was U. S. attorney 
for his district. While In con. 
grcHS, 1843^5. lie defended 
tlie right of petition, and In 
a letter of Jan. 7, 1845, re- 
fused to vote for tbe annex- 
ation of Texas, as the New 
Hampshire legislature had di- 
rected their representatives to 
do. This bold action tost him 
Ills seat, but won him popular 
favor, which was increased 
by his canvass of the stale as 
a free-soil candidate, and his 
debate with Franklin Pierce 
in June. A year later he 
was again in the legislature; 
was made speaker June 8d, 
and six days after was elected 
to the senate. There he was < 
the first, and for two yeara 
(1847-48) the only, avowed opponent of the slave 
system, acting with neitlier partv. and avowing his 
creed as freely as if it were tbat of a majority. 
His eloquence, wil, good humor, and fine presence 
made his doctrines Toss olTensive to his collenguea 
than was tbe case with Sumner, who look his 
seat four years later. Turning his reforming zeal 
lowani abuses wliich had fewer oppoiient-t. he, in 
1850 and 1853. secured laws to abolish dogging 
and grog-ralions in the navy. In 1851 he dc; 
fendi^ tlie rescuers of the slave Shadrach in 
Bostoti. He bad declined a presidential nomina- 
tion from the liberty pariv in 1847; in 1853 he ac- 
cepted that of the froe-soilers, and received 157,680 
votes. In 1853, disgusted at the spectacle of a pro- 
slavery president and senator from bis own" state, 
both his p<ititical foes, and the latter his successor, 
he removed to New York; hut, the tide soon turn- 
ing, he was sent back to the senate in 18-'>5 to take 
tlie place of C. G. Atherton, who had died in the sec- 
ond vear of his term. By re-election in 18i)8 he kept 
his seat until March, 1865. In Iliis later service he 
was mueh less alone; the North came over by de- 
grees to his po«iti()n, and he witnessed the triumph 
of his principles nt the polls and In the lield. He 
had liet^n one of the many suSerent from the Na- 
tional hotel poisoning in ltS57, and never entirely re- 
covered from its effects. His career attlie court of 
SiHlin, 1865~6S, was stained by disagreements with 
the se(;retary of his legation, and charges of illicit 
profits from the i>rivileges of his oHIce; the scandal 
made tuore noise than its cause would justify. Dur- 
ing bis Inst years he suffered fn>m mental and bodily 
disorders, tbe latter aggravaleil bv two serious acci- 
dents. He died at Dover. N. H.. Nov. 19, 1873. 

BAMBLIN, Thomoa Bowerby, actor and the- 
atrical manager, was bom in London. Eiig.. May 14. 
1800, and made his first appearance on the stage at 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHT. 



121 



Sadler's Wells thmtre, id 1819. Soon after he ap- 
peared at Druiy Lane, aod hia native inlelligeuce. 
fine fixtures anu distinguished beariuK, broiigbi bim 
rapid advancenieot, his persouatbn of Hamlet being 
most favorablv received by the London public. He 
came to Ihe United Slat«a ia 18£J, and mode bis 
American debut at tiie Park lliealre. New York, as 
Hamlet. Following Ibis, he traveled througli the 
country as a Htar foi' five years. In August. 1830, 
he l)ecame manager of tlie Bowerr thestrc, New 
York, and save for one or two brief periods, lie re- 
tained the directiou of a New York play-bouse until 
the lime of his death, himself frequently appearing 
asa star. His repertoire was a very eitended one, 
bat Hamlet, Rolhi, Pierre. Macbeth, and Othello 
were the cbaraclcrs iu which ho was seen most fre- 
quently and in which he is best renienibcred. Kb 
an actor he was given to noise and bustle, and never 
fulfllled the promise of his youth. He was upright 
atid honorable in his business transactions, but iu Ida 
relations with women he whs notorioiislr loose. He 
was four times married. His flnit wire. Elizabeth 
Blsncliard. from whom he was divorced, was an 
actress long promineut on the stage iu England and 
America. She died in 1846. His second wife, Na- 
omi Vincent, and bts third wife, MiH.s Medina, each 
died soon after marriage. His fourth nud last wife, 
Mrs. Sliaw, was a g^ted actress and a beautiful 
woman, and fulfilled many engagements with her 
husband. Hamblin died in New York Jan. 8. 1858. 
LUHPKIN, Samuel, associate justice of the 
supreme court of Georgia, was bom In Oglethorpe 
county Dec. 13. 1848. His great-grandfather, John 
Lumpkin, founded a distinguished family. His 
sons were Wilson, governor of. and U. 3. senator 
from, Georgia: Joseph Henry, chief justice of 
Georpa. ana Samuel, grandfather of the present 
■sociute justice of Georgia, whose father, Joseph 
Henry, Jr., died at the age of iweutv-six. after at- 
taining dintinclion as a lawyer. He feft Samuel to 
the care uf bis noble Chnslian mother, who was, 
before marriage, Sarab E. Johnson. Justice Lump- 
kiti attended the state university at Athens, Ga., and 
Mercer university at Penlleld, graduating Uom the 
formerin July, 1866, with flrst honor, when seventeen 
and a half years old. He taught school in Georgia 
inlSae, and in Mississippi through 18ST; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in April, 
1868. at Lexington, Ga., and 
begau practice at Elberton 
with Col. Robert Hester. He 
practiced iu Americus, Ga., 
with Col. C. T. Goode. in 
1870-71. then rctunicd to 
make Lexington his home. 
He was, in 1871. appotolcd 
clerk of the bouse of repre- 
sentatives, was appointed so- 
licitor-general, uorthem cir- 
cuit, by Gov. Smith in 1873, 
and reappointed in 1873 for 
four years; was piwtmasier at 
Lexington in 1877, aud was 
, ^ elected state senator the same 

d ./ CJP ,^ year. Hewos elected in 1884. 
latu^ C*..«j.»<j)&«i*t/. \,j the legislalur^, judge of 
-■ ' , the supenor court of the 

1 uorthem circuit, unanimous- 
ly re-elected in 18M8, was 
elected in 1890 associa'te justice of the supremo 
court of Georgia, again unanimously, and in 18ill 
was maile LL-D. by the Soutliwestcm Baptist uni- 
vermty ot Jackson, Tenn, Justice Lumpkin comes 
of a family of lawyers. Jurists and statesmen re- 
nowned in the annals of Georgia. He is the second 
of his family to grace the supreme bench ot his 
state. An able and useful legislator, he was on the 




judiciary committee, and as chairman of the railroad 
committee was largely instrumental in creating the 
railroad ommissiou. As a prosecuting officer and 
judge he kept up the legal repute he won aa a law- 
yer hi large practice, being always accurate and 
painstaking, and dispatching business rapitlly, im- 
partially and wisely. Few of his judgnients were 
reversed by the supreme court, and in that, the high- 
est tribunal of Georgia, he now pcrfomia bis duties 
ably. Aa a citizeu he is genial, gencnius and chari- 
table, and noted for lioucsiy. truthfulness and loyalty 
to obligation. He married, in 1878. Kale, daughter 
of Walker Hiclianlsou, and grand daughter of Col. 
A. M. Sanford. distinguished citizens of Alabama. 

FSENTICB, Oeoi^« Deniaon, journalist, was 
born at Preston, Conn., Dec. 18, 1M)3. He was 
graduated from Brown university hi 1623. then stud- 
ied law and was admitted to the bar in 1830, but did 
not practice. He became editor 
ot the "Connecticut Mirror" in 
1H25. and in 1638 of the "New 
England Weekly Keview." an 
an II- federal sheet published in 
Hartford. Conn., to which he 
cimtributed many poems, aud 
which, under him, gained a na- 
tional reputation tor the excel- 
lence of its literary deparimeut. 
John G. Wbitlier published 
some ot Ids earliest poems in 
the "Keview," and succeeded 
Mr. Prentice as its editor. Id 
1630 Mr. Prentice went to Ken- 
lucky to collect malerial for a 
campaign life of Henry Clay, 
which was published at Hart- 
ford iu 1881, and became editor 
of the Louisville "Journal." a 
whig newspaper, the first num- 
ber of which appeared Nov. 34, 1830. He edited 
this for a number of years, becoming known by bis 
coiilribulious to it and its successor, the "Courier 
Journal," aawell as lothe New York "I^ger," as 
the leading humorist of the country. Hia «litorials 
were ably written and exerted a powerful influence 
in behalf of the Union during the civil war. A col- 
lection of Mr. Prentice's poems was published at 
Cincinnati in 1876, and a volume of selections from 
bis writings, enlilled- Prenliceana," at New York in 
1859 (rev. ed., 1870). Mr. Prentice died at Louis- 
ville Jan. 23, 1870. A memorial address was deliy- 
ered at his fimeral by Henry Wattcrson. 

BIFI.BT, Henry Jonea, clerical educator and 
author, was born in Boston Jan. 38. 1798. Hewas 
prepared tor college at the Latin school; was gradu- 
ated from Harvard in 1816, and at Andover in 1819; 
entered the Baptist minisiry. and for some years did 
missionary work among the Southern negroe8._ Most 
of his life was spent at Newton theolopcul institu- 
tion, where he held the chair of Biblical hlemturc and 
pastoral duties from 1826 to 1833. then thai of the 
former alone until 1839. and that of sacred rln-torio 
and pastoral duties. 183»-«0. After i-enewed niiuis- 
Irations to the frecduicn iu Georgia, he returned to 
Newton as lilirarian in 1665, and was nswociule pro- 
fessor of llihtical literature there 1873-T.i. His de- 
gree ot D.D. was conferred by Ihe Unlversilvof Ala- 
bama in 1844. and by Harvard in 1845. He wrote 
much for the religious [iress, and published: a " Me- 
moir ot T. S, Winn" (1834); "Christian Baptism" 
(1833); "Notes" on the Gospels. 3 vols. (1837-38); 
on the Acts (1844), on Romans (I'*ri7). aud on He- 
brews (1868); "Hacred Rhetoric" (184B1: "Exclu- 
 cness ot the Baptists" (165T), and "Church Pol- 
■' (1867). He died at Newton Centre, Slass., May 




itT" (186 
31, 1875. 



THE HATIONAL CTCLOP.fiDIA 




OABROIX, Alftsd Ladlow, physldmi. was 
bora in New York cfty Aug. 4, 1633. The name of 
the family from wUicu be is descended is one of the 
oldest eumamea in existence, and Charles CbitoII of 
CarrolltoD, one of tbe signers of the declaration of 
independeLce, waa ill llie re|pilar liue of descent 
from the founder of this family. Tbe name of Car- 
roll was gireu to this ancient family by the pious 
Bryen Boiroimhe. monarch of Ire- 
land, anno 1022. It waa tliis mon- 
arch wlio f^ve surnames to all 
tbe Irish families, and iu imita- 
tion thereof tbe ciiHtom wax adopt- 
ed by tbe Germans, French and 
Italians: it was from tliis Carroll 
that El7 the royal was called Ely 
O'CarroU to distinguish it from 
all others. The name 3ig:nillc8 
bravery, conrage, etc. Florence 
(Fionii) O'CarroIl, King of Ely, 
died A.D. 1205. Talbeus (Teige) 
O'Carroll is tbe chief wliose name 
is inscribed on the caslcet of the 
celebrated relic known as tlie 
"Bookof Dimma," acopy of the 
gospels written for St. Cronan. 
From bini llie Carrolls of tliU 
country are descended, and Dr, 
Alfred L. Carroll's line of descent 
Is continuous and unbroken through IDaniel, son of 
Tatheua, Donough, William, Donoujrh (13T7), Rod- 
eric, Daniel, Roderic, Donough, Teige, Douough, 
Daniel, Anthony, Daniel. This Daniel had two sons, 
Anthony and Charles. Tbe latter emigrated to this 
country and settled in Maryland in 1688, and Iwcame 
tbe progenitor of the " Charles Carroll of CarrolUon" 
branch. Anthony, theeIdeslsou,reniaiued in Ireland. 
Hia son, James, was a captain in Lord Doogan's dra- 
goons. Hla son, Anthony, the grandfather of Al- 
fred, was an officer in tlie garde Toyait, known as 
Marie Antoinette's guard. After serving through 
tbe French revolution, he came to this country in 
1798, end became a prost>eroua merchant in New 
York city. His son, Anthony, the father of AIfre<l. 
was a prominent lawyer of New York. He mar- 
ried Frances Ludlow, daughter of Qidian Ludlow, 
whose descent is traced from William Ludlow Ump. 
Edward III. a.d. 1330. Qabriel, the American an- 
cestor, bora at Castle Gary, Eng., came to America 
in 1684, settled in New 'iork city, and married, in 
1697, ^arah Hanmer, daughter of Rev, Joseph Hau- 
nier, D.D. The descendants of tbe Ludlows mar- 
ried into the families of the Schuylers, HoSmatis, 
Beekmans, Livingstons, Bleeckers, Quelcts, Ogdens, 
and other old and distinguished families of New 
York. Dr. Carroll, the subject of this sketch, hav- 
ing been a pupil of Dr. Valentine Mott, was gradu- 
ated from the medical department of the University 
of New York in 185.1. Owing to the warm personal 
friendship of Dr. Mott, he continued to assist him, 
and was more or less associated with him up to the 
timeof hisdcatbinl865. For some years past he has 
virtually conflned himself to the dniies of consulting 
physician. He has been for many years prominently 
identified with the state health organization. He 
organized the first board of beallb in the stale at 
Btateu Island in 1872. Under the act of the legisla- 
ture in 1880 he organized tbe board of health at New 
Brighton, S, I., and was for some time iti president, 
afterward becoming secretary and executive officer 
of the t^tate Board of health. He was one of the 
founders of tbe State Medical association, and has 
been a member of tlie council since tbe second year 



of 



He h 



iirib- 



r to the medical journals of the country, and - 
the author of numerous monographs, some of which 
have attracted widespread attention. Among them 



are: "HelatloDS of Hygiene to Therapeutics," and 
"Question of Quarantine, "his treatmeniof thelatt«r 
subject being widely different from former methods. 
He is a member ot tbe American Medical associa- 
tion. State and CouD;y medical associations, and 
British Medical association. Dr. Carroll inherits 
from his ancestors that high sense of honor, un- 
flinching courage, and unimpeachal)le integrity 
and honesty, that have distinguisljed them in every 
age; and ot all of them, down to the present gen- 
eration, it may be truly said they have been saiu 
peuT el mm reprociie. Dr. Carroll married, ju 
1862, Lucy Johnson, daughter of Bradisb John- 
son, of New York city. Two sons are the issue 
of tills marriage, one of whom, Bradish Carroll, is 
a graduate of the New York university, and is 
associated with bis father in bis practice, giving 
bright promise for the future. 

BROOKFIULD, William, manufacturer, was 
bom at Oreenbank, N. J., May 24, 1844. His father, 
James M. Brookfleld, waa born in New Jersey in 
1813. His great-grandfather, Wm. Brookfield, waa 
also born in New Jersey in 1794. They are the de- 
scendants of Norwegian and Irish stock. His pa- 
ternal grandfather was a sea captain, and his ma- 
ternal grandfather was a commissioned offlcer in 
the revolutionary war. His father was educated in 
the district schools, and set to work to carve out his 
own fortune at tbe age of flfteen. learning ibe glaes- 
cutting business, and marrying Catharine A. firan- 
diff. William was educated at the Csyuga Lake 
academy, leaving there in 1863. In 18ft4 he, with 
his father, established the Bushwick glass works, 
which with a small beginning increased until their 
extensive works coverMl three and one-half acres 
of ground. Nine-tenths of ail tbe insulators used 
throughout the country are manufactured at these 
works; in fact, they control this great and important 
field, togetlier with the large number of battery jars 
that are used in the different electrical concerns of 
the country. He Is a regular attendant and pew- 
holder in Dr. Hall's church, a member of the Union 
League club. Lawyera' club, Down-town association, 
Manhattan and New York Ath- 
letic clubs, froduce. Consoli- 
dated, Mining and Stock ex- 
changes, member of tbe com- 
mittee on admiasions to tbe 
Union League club, director in 
Klucs coimty and Greenwich 
Firelnsurance companies, treas- 
urer of Ciglmora Manganese 
company, director in the Shel- 
don Axle company, vice-presi- 
dent of the Ad<lison and Penn- 
sylvania railroad, also vice-pres- 
ident of the Fulton club. Being 
recognized as an active mem- 
ber and a strong believer In 
the principles of the republi- 
can party, as well also as an 
organizer of superior abilities, 
he was elected president of tlie '' 

republican club, as well also as president of tbe re- 
publican county committee, and being considered 
the most available and best qualified member of thiu 
committee, he was elected to the important position 
of chairman of the rwiublican stale committee, an 
honor which few could hope to attain. He married 
Kate Morgan, daughlerof Henry Morgan of Aurora, 
N. Y. His wife, who is a woman of superior cul- 
ture and high social standing. U the niece of EMwin 
B. Morgan, one of the founders of the New York 
"Times." also of Christopher Morgan, who held the 
office of N. Y, secretary of state when William H. 
Seward was governor. 




/^^T^p^MC^ 



OF AHEBIOAN BIOGRAPHY. 



133 




JOHNSON, David Bancroft, educator, woa 
bora in La Grange (West Tenn.), Jan. 10. 185fl. 
where his father founded, and until bia death, vaa 

Sreaidenl of the La Grange Female college. Iii a 
irect line he U descended Irom John JohnsoD who 
came to America from England ,vith Wintiirop, the 
fliat governor of the colony of Miv«achiiS(.'1ts. Ho 
worked his waj through the Unirersity uf Tennessee 
at Knoxville. from wbich he 
was graduated with the high- 
est honors of a large class in 
18T7. aod immediulely took 
up the profession of teaching 
as flrst assistant of the bora' 
higb school at Knoxville. 
After some service in the 
Univeraity of Tennessee, as 
assistant professor of ninth- 
ematics. and having devel- 
oped qualjlies which de- 
rnanded a larger sphere for 
their full exercise, he entered 
upon bis life work. His rare 
talent, as an organizer, was 
recognized, and by bis mas- 
terful application of the true 
?'riiicipfcs of teaching, he in- 
used new life into the nyatem 
of public instmcttoD. aad a spirit and enthusiasm 
amoDK t be teachers, which prepared Ibc way for his re- 
markable Bucrcss. He organized grade^l schools at 
New Berne, N. C., and so marked was their success 
as to attract the attention of educators In that and ad- 
Joining stales. HavinR demonstrated his executive 
ability and his thorough grasp of school organiza- 
tion and management when the system was adopted 
by the city of Columbia. S, C. in 1883, Prof. Jolm- 
son was called to organize it. and in the course uf a 
few years, under his superioteudence, out of the 
crude material of the old common school, a system 
of public instnictum has been evolved, which is an 
bonor to the state, and has become an example after 
which many of tiie larger towns and cities of the 
stale have hastened to model theirschouk. To meet 
this requirement for better teachers to introduce 
thene litter methods. Prof. Johnson, aided by the 
Peabodj hnrd, established in 1886 the Winthrop 
Training school for teachers. The legislature of 
South Carolina prorideil a permanent appropriation 
for Ibc maintenance of one beiicticiary in the institu- 
tion from eecb county in the stale at a cofit of 4;1S0 
each per session, and afterwanis made it a full stale 
institution tinder the name of Winthrop Normal 
colieee of which Pn)f. Johnson is president. This 
trainmg school was at the lime the only one for white 
teachers in that section embracing the slate^of South 
Carolina. Georgia. North Carolina, and Florida. Its 
fraduales are teachini; successfully throughout 
Bouth Carolina and adjoining slates. Prof. Johnson 
has served as an Instructor in successive State Nor- 
mal inslitulea, and was president for several years of 
the State teachers' aiiociation, which he reorminized 
and placed on its present satisfactory basis In 1888, 
He organized in 1889 the Stale Association of school 
snperiulcndenls, of whi^h be is president. He or- 
ganized the Columbia (8.0,)braneh of theY.M.C. A., 
and is president and also chairman of the slate 
executive commiltee of the organization. The gov- 
ernor of the stale, in recognition of his ability and his 
Idgh educational record, appointed him a member of 
the State Bonrd of examiners, and also a member 
and clioirman of the special commission of three to 
make an Investigation and report to the next legisla- 
ture for action, on the subject of the establishment 
\yy the state of a normal and Industrial college for 
■yroiaea for South Carolina. Upon the admirable 
report of itiiscommlaBlon, the legislature founded the 



South Carolina Industrial and Winthrop Normal 
college which bids fair to equal any institution of ita 
kind in the country. Much of the honor of the 
general adoption nnd success of the graded-school 
system in South Carohna may be justly accorded to 
Prof. .lohnson. 

HILIi, John Lindaay, lawyer, was bom in 
Florida. Montgomery county. N. Y., Oct. 31, 1840, 
son of tjergeant Nicholas Hill, wbo served for some 
years in the war of the revolution, enlisting asdrum- 
mer boy at ten years of age, and discharged as 
sergeant. John L. Hill's mother was Sarah Hege- 
man. a descendant of one of the prominent Holland 
famitlesof New York. Her moiier was Batlislieba 
Palmer, descended frran a well-known New England 
family. Mr. Hill was prepared for college at the 
Joncsville and the Amsteraam academies, and was 
graduated from Union college in the class of '61. 
While a student at college he studied law with Cor- 
nelius A. Waldron, of Saratoga county, and subso- 
qiienlly with Judge Sleplten il. Johnson, of Schenec- 
tady. He was admltlet) to the bar in 1862, and soon 
after commenced practice in partnership with Judge 
Johnson, at Schenectady. He rose rapidlyinhis pro- 
fe8Kion,andinl8a4 was elected district attorney, hold- 
ing the position for five years. He was also appointed 
counsel for the stale commissioner of canals for the 
eastern district. Ho removed to New York city in 
1868, and became associated with Guy R. and T. D. 
Pelton, which continued until 1873. when he formed 
a new copartnership under the name of Barrett, Red- 
field & Hill, which continued until 18T6, succeeded 
by Redfleld & Hill until 1883, and 
then hy Redfleld, Hill & Lvdeck- 
er. From 1884 to 1887 lie whb 
alone, and in the latter year he 
formed a new copartnership un- 
der the name of Lockwood & 
Hill. During his long term of 
practice he has been cotmecled 
with many important cases, one 
of the most notable being that of 
the celebrated Baecher trial, in 
which he was associated with 
Mr. Evarts, Jud^ Porter, Gen. 
Tracy, and Austin Abbott, Esq., 
in the defence of Mr. Beecher. 
In his trial of cases he is earnest, 
forcible and impressive. The 
prominent traits of his mind are 
strength, sagacity and penetra- 
tion. To these he united great 
industiT and habits of laborious 
research, which are sustained by a powerful | 
cal organization. His inHuence with courts and 
juries IS increased by the purity of his life, a charac- 
ter of the highest integrity, and a keen love of justice. 
Id politics he was brought up a democrat, worked 
with the Union party through the war, a liberal re- 
publican thereafter. In 1872 he was identified with 
the party which nominated Horace Greeley for 
president. He was a candidate for the assembly, 
and though defeated, ran several hundred ahead of 
his ticket. He has been well known in social life in 
Brooklyn for many years, and assisted in founding 
tlie Oxford, Montauk, and Brooklyn Gun clubs, and 
was vlce-pres-ident of the latter. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Hamilton club, Brooklyn dub, Carlton 
club of Brooklyn, of the Lawycre' club of New 
York, the New Yiwk Law Institution, Brooklyn Bar 
association. Phi Beta Kappa. Alpha Dclu Phi clubs 
of New Y()rk, and of several other college societies, 
and of the society of the Sons of the Revolution, be- 
ing one one of Ilie few real living sons of revolution- 
ary soldiers. He married, In 1883, Adelaide Eddy, 
daugh(«r of Geo, W. F^ldy. of Watertord. N. Y„ ado- 
sceudant of one of the early New England families. 




134 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



THOHAB, John, Iron manufftclurcr, second son 
of David Tbomas. fouuder of the autbracite pig iroD 
JDduBtry uf this country, v/ae born at YnisceSwin, 
South Wales, Sept. 10, 1829, and at the age of ten 
years came with his parenta to Calasanqua, Pa., 
where tiis youth was spent. He obtained his educa- 
tion at the Allentowii academy, and at Naxaretli 
hall, a noted institntion 6f learning at Nazaitlb, Pa. 
Determiued to acquire a ihorougli 
kDowledReof the manufacture of 
iron in all its details, he first en- 
gaged in tiie business as an eiu- 
pluyee In the blacksndth sliop 
connected with the Crane iron 
works, of which his father was 
then superiuteudent. Having hc- 
conie familiar with tlial de|>art- 
meut. be passed on to the ma- 
chine shops and the furnaces, and 
after several years of faithful ser- 
vice in these departnienla. the 
practical information he thus ob- 
tained admirably fitted him to be- 
come superintendent of the Cmne 
iron works in 18M, wlien hisfather 

f---' , withdrew from that position toor- 

' •—' ^iiiKC the Thomas iron company. 

During the sncceedinc thirteen 
years Mr. Thomas supenntended the worts at Cat- 
asauqua with exceptional ability and marked suc- 
cess. In 1867 he resigned the position to accept the 
appointment of general superintendent of the exten- 
sive works of the Tliomas iron company at Hoken- 
dauqiia, Pa., of which his father was one of the di- 
rectors from the lime of the organisation of the 
company. The history of Mr. Thomas is really the 
history of Ebis great iron company, and of the rise 
and growth of anthracite pig iron in this country. 
There has probably been no iron manufacturing com- 
pany that has done so much for the advancement of 
this great industry as has this company. It has al- 
ways been splendidly managed, both In its financial 
and in its selling departments. These have not been 
under the direct charge of Hr. Thomas, but they 
— ij !..._ - cuniplished but very little bad they 




could have a 



charge of the works in 1867 tlie company owned but 
four furnaces, making about 50.000 tons' per annum. 
They have increases! the number of their furnaces to 
eleven, and are now producing about 200,000 tons 
per annum. The works themselves are a model of 
neatness and of efhciency. Notwithstanding the keen 
competition and the exceptional advantages of the 
southern states for pnxlucing cheap pig iron, Mr. 
Thomas has always been able to meet the competi- 
tion, and still make iron at a profit. He is also 
largely identified with other business interests, ns 
vice-president of Catoaauqiia and Fogelsville rail- 
road, president for some years of the CatnHauqna 
manufacturing com|)any, manager of the Irontim 
railroad, diiectt)r <)f the Upjicr T.chigb and Dodson 
coal companies, bcsidw l>emg iniercsted in many 
other mining and manufacturing industries. Not 
only has be been most successful In the manufacture 
of Iron and all enterprises in which lie has Iwcn en- 

fnged, hut as a manager of men he has attaiiieil a 
igh pi>sitioD. Coming up from tlie ranks himself, 
and having a warm heart for his [wople, he boa al- 
ways encouro^l thrift and enien'risc among bis 
workmen, taking a ereat Interest in the education 
of their children, and the welfare of their families. 
The social and moral infinence of his presence, and 
that of his Immediate family hoe been exceedingly 
salutary, as is well evidenced by the high cbaructer 
of the inhabitants of Hokendaiiqua, a town compcis- 
*■& of the workmen of the Thomas iron company 



and their families. Here every good cause has flour- 
ished, and this is largely owing to the helpful hand 
and advice of Mt. Thomas. In religion lie is a Pres- 
byterian, and in politics a republican. Mr. Tbomaa 
was married May 7, 1855, lo Helen, daughter of 
Hopkio Tbomas of Catasauqua, also a native of 
Wales. Their surviving children are David H., now 
superintendent of the furnaces of tbc Thtimas iron 
companv: Miriam (Mrs. Perrr Harrison of Minne- 
apolis, Minn.): Bessie; Samuel R., a graduate of the 
Kensselaer tKilvtechnic institute, of Troy ; Kath- 
eriiie (Mrs. E. "P. Wilbur, Jr., of South Bethlehem, 
Pa.), and John W., a student in Lehigh University. 

HAMMOND, Henry B., lawyer and railroad 

president, was bom at Douglas. Mass.. Feb. 18, 
1840, the son of Parley Hammond, a Imnkcr, and 
Elir-abcth Buffom Mansfield. His parents removed 
to Worcester, where he received his early education 
and prepamilon for college. He chose law as his 

Brofession, and in 1861 1o<ik bis degree of LL.B. at 
larvard law school. He then entered the ofilce of 
Judce Francis H. Dewey, but at the outbreak of the 
civil war went to Washington as aide and private 
secretary to his uncle. Gen. Mansfield, al that time 
in command of the forces protecting the ('apitol. 
In 1861 he accepted the position of consul to Dub- 
lin, Ireland, which ofHce he conducteil with such 
lact and ability that he not only was able to give his 
country valuable ioforniation. but also relaiaed the 
most cordial and frien<lly relations with the people 
resident in his consulate. He did much to stimulate 
emigration to America, and 
was instrumental in establish- 
ing the money-order system 
at present existing In the |Mist- 
oftice. Upon his rcaignatioo 
tlie people of Dublin present- 
ed him with a silver service 
and a complimentary address, 
signed by such men as Sir 
John Grar, Charles Stuart 
Paraell, Ctiarles Edward Tis- 
dell, D.D., Prof. Thomas T. 
Gray, F.F.C.D., W. Nelson 
Hancock, V. O. B. O'Connor, 
Joseph T. Price. William 
Frey. J. Godkin, and others. 
He relumed lo America and 
began the practice of law in 
New York city. This he cod 
tinued until 1881 when the evacting demands of his 
various railroad interests obliged him lo retire from 
active practice. As a railroad manager and organis- 
er, he stands pre-eminent and in this career he has 
achieved his chief success Ho was secrefary of the 
Union Pacific railroad from 1867 to 1870-^73, and 
was attorney for the same road. In 1871 lie be- 
came president of the Indiana and Illinois Central 
railroad, then only an organization with a franchise 
to build a railroad. He pushed it forward to com- 
pletion, and from that time lo the present he has 
been identified with its history. He ha* acled aa 
president, receiver, etc., for various other important 
corporations at different times, and the succeiw he 
made of the practically worthless Boston and New 
York air line, when he was appointed president and 
manager. Is not the least of his achievements. He 
was pn'Kident of the Continental Construction com- 
pany, 1881, director of the Atlanlic and Pacific 
telegraph company, 1883-83. He is a recognized 
authonty on all matters of railroad history and con- 
struction, and possesses one of the most complete 
railroad libraries in the Unitcil Stales. He is known 
, energy and per- 
3 gift of being » 




t ^M.c^^ 



OP AMEBICAN BIOGRAPHY, 



125 



KVEBHABT, William, coDgrcsBinan, was 
born in Chester county, Pa., May 17, 178S, the eldest 
Bon of Janiea Ererliart, a so1<Iier of the revolutionary 
war. He tatiglit scbool. and practiced surveying 
with success, and at twenty-one began a mercantile 
career in hi^ native county. In the war of 1813 lie 
commanded acompany of riflemen. In 1832 lie sailed 



for Europe iu ihe packet shii> Albion, which waa 
wrecked on the coast of Ireland, and he was the only 
cabin passen^r saved, lie lost !tlO,000 in gold, 



wbicb lie had taken with him to buy merchanclise. 
Some lime afterward a partofthiasum was tendered 
him, the money having been recovered from the 
wreck, but not being able to identily it aa his own 
money he declined to receive it. In 1834 Mr. Ever- 
bsrt purchased a farm on thesuburbsof West Ches- 
ter. Pa., upon which he erected a lai^ number ot 
houses. He turnevl his attention to developing the 
eroivth aud prosperity of the town, and soon became 
Its mOHt lomieutial citizen. In 1&52 he was elected 
to the lower house of congress, and while a member 
of thai body delivered a vigorous snd forcible speech 
on the Kansas- Nebraska bill, and foretold thedireful 
rexulls Hint followed its passage. He declined a re- 
election in 1854. and continued in Uie mercantile 
business until I86T. when he retired. He married 
Hannah Matlack. daughter of Benjamin Hatlack, a 
revolutionary soldier. William Evcrhart died Oct. 
30, 1887. 

EVEBHAJIT, Jamea Bowen, lawyer and 
congressman, was born near W^est Chester, Pa., 
July 26, 1831, son of William Everhart. He obtain- 
ed his preliminary education at 
the Bolmar academy, and then 
entered Princeton college, where 
lie was gniduatcd in 1843. He 
began the study ot law with Jna- 
eph J. Lewis of West Chester, 
then spent one year at Harvard 
law school, and another year in 
the office of William M. Mere- 
dith of Philadelphia. After bis 
admission to the bar he practiced 
law three juars and then maile 
. an extended lour of Fiirope Abia, 
and a part uf Afnca visiting a 
large mmiberofplncesof historic 
uteresi He spent nearly one 
year at the Lnnersily of lltrlm, 
also sevtral months at the t ul 
veniit\ ot Edinburgh Scotland, 
and after an absence ot three 
years relumed to Wist Clidttr 
where he resumed the praiti<e ot law whuhhtre 
linquished in 18IM In lttt(2 he commanded a Lom 
pani dunng Lees first iiorllieru invasmn and in 
18i>J at tlie tinib of the Confederate invosiuu of 
Pcnnsvlvania lie raised a company of emergtucy 
men remaiDMl in the service scveial luoutiis and 
was promoleii lo major of hia regiment He mas 
elected lo tht senate of Pennsylvania m 18T6, and 
re-clecied in 1880. He was Ihe only republican mem- 
ber ot (hat body who voted iu favor <)f the electoral 
commiiwion. Hesuon became prominent and influen- 
tial in all the deliberations ot llic senate, and opposed 
spcdal legislation by interposing constjlutioniil objec- 
tiiitis. but advocated the patwiige of the bill giving 
criminals Iho right to teslify in their own behalf, aup- 
poneil legislation tor a geofletic survey of the state, 
and delivered eulogies before the senate on the death of 
BayardTaylorandGoy. Bigler. In 1882hewBsclios. 
en a member of congress from the sixth Pennsylvania 
disltict. and in 1884 waa re-elected by the largest 
majority ever given a candidate in that district, lie 
was an influential member of the committees on com- 
merce, weighls and measures, and war claims, and 
never miased a final vote on any measure before the 




^sC/w 



house while he was a repTesentative. Mr. Everhart 
spent his leisure time in diligent studv of the best 
works of literature. He published, iu 1862. a volume 
ot "Miscellanies," containing iuleresliog accouuia 
of the people and places he visited abroail In 186T 
he issued a collection of poems, also his speecbes in 
book form, aud in ia"5 he published "The Fox 
Cliase," a lively and spirilwi poem, conveying » 
splendid idea of the noble chose, the scene laid in 
Chester county. Pa., along the historic Brandywine. 
He died Aug. 33, 1888. 

EVERHART, John Roskell, surgeon, was 
born in West Chester. Pa., in 1828. son of William 
Everhart. He was graduated from Princeton college 
in 1850, and received his medical degree after com- 
pleting the course at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 185S. He then went to Paris lo continue bis 
studies in medicine and surgery, and upon bis return 
entered upon an active practice. In 1861 he was 
appointed surgeon lotheOTlli Pennsylvania regiment, 
and during his three and one-fourth years of service 
earned the approbation of oflicers and men for his 
diligence ana courage in attending the wounded on 
the field, aud the sick in boepitats, especially during 
the prevalence of the yellow' fever among the troops 
atHilionllead.S. C, in 1863, where. owing to hisskill 
iu treatment and efficacious sanitary regulations, he 
kept tlie disease under control, and it 8in>n disappear- 
ed within his command. He was appointed bricwle 
surgeon, aud also a member of the board of medical 
examiners for the department of the South under 
Gen. Hunter, and continued in the service until after 
the close of the war, retiring with the rank of brevet 
lieutenant- colonel. Dr. Everhart has traveled ex- 
tensively since the war. and in 1898 publislied " By 
Boat and Rail." an inlerestiti<{ work, attractive in 



HAWKINS, Richard Fenner, iron manufac- 
turer, was bom at Lowell, Mass., March 9, 1887, 
the son of Alpheiis and Celia A. (Ithodes) Haw- 
kins. He received his educa- 
tion at tlic common schools 
and the high school In Spring 
field Mass and at the ace of 
sixteen he was employe<l aa 
an olhce boy by Stone & Har 
ns railroad aud bridge build- 
ers In 1862 he becaniea part 
nerof D L Hams in the same 
business succeeding to the en 
tire control of It in 1867 wliK h 
he still conducts under the 
name of R F Hawkins Inm 
Works the products being 
steam boilers iron castings 
iron bridge* machinery tic 
On Sept i 1863 In New "i ork 
citv Mr HawkiiismamedCor 
neiia Morgan daughter of A 
B. and Sarah (("adwell) Howe, 
and has several children. For 
many years Mr. Hawkins has 
been Identified with all current n 
tani-einSiiringfleld. but he lias never sougiii to enter 
politi<'aI life, preferring to devote himself to the 
more ctingenial details of his prosperous business. 
He held tlie oftlce of alderman three years, but has 
invariably declined to accept various other import- 
ant positions offered him until 1893, when he waa 
prevailed on to aeeejit the position ot water commis- 
sioner. Mr. Hawkins is highly esleemed In the 
community, and both ho and Mrs. Hawkins are 
liberal but unostentatious in their donations to 
charitable institutions, and to individuals who are 
in need. 




■fS-cAtt'^ '^'nftiv.rtt^^ 



8 of impor- 



126 

BBBCHEB, Lymui, clereTinan. wu bom at 
New Haven, Conn., Oct. 3. ITTS. Hia Micedtora 
came with Rev. Jobn Daveoport and with Tbeophi- 
)us EatoQ, from England to BoHlon, Mass,, io 1638. 
In lliat company was one. Hannali Buccher, a widow, 
■whose husband liad died just before ihe party sailed, 
and lier son John. She was about to leave the enter- 
prise on ber husband's death, but was iiidiiced to 
continue with tlie company by a promise that she 
should have her biiahaiid's sliare in the town plot. 
Anxiety to aecure her coming arose from the fact 
that she was a midwife. The promise made to her 
was kept, and it was under a large oak which grew 
upon ber land that the settlera observed Iheir Urst 
Sabbath, Apr. 15, 1638. and that Davenport preached 
their first sermon from Matt. iv. 1. The inventory of 
Mrs. Beecher'a estate at her death (1650) amounted 
to £50 &s. Bd. Joseph Beccher. John Beecher'a son. 
had a sou Nathaniel, six feet high, and a blacksmith 
by trade, bis anvil Klandlng on the stump of the ouk 
tree under which Davenport preached. He married 
^rah, a descendant of Uicliard Sperry. one of llie 
original aetilers of New Haven, in 1638-45. Her 
mother was the daughter of a full-blooded Welsh- 
man. Lyman Beecher's grandmother was a woman 
ol dedded piety. His father was David, a black- 
smith in New Haven. He is 
reported as "living well, accord- 
ing to the times," andasbaTinc 
laid up I4.0O0 to |d,000. He 
was a tvell-read man, versed in 
astronomy, geography, and his- 
tory, and in the records of Ibe 
Protestant le formation in Eu- 
rope. He was also an active 
politician. RcM^rSliermanuscd 
to saj that he always calculated 
to see Mr. Beecher en soon as he 
gut home from congress, to 
■'talk oveTthepartlcnhirM." He 
WHS five times married. Lyman 
Beecher being the only child of 
bis third wife, Esther, {laughter 
of John Lyman of Mid<lleli>wn, 
Conn., whose father came from 
Scotland to Boston. Mass. The 
mother died two days after the 
child was bom, and he was forthwith removed to 
North Guilford, Conn., to be cared for by Mrs. Ben- 
ton, a maternal aunt. As be grew up and seemed diS' 
inclined to the life of a farmer, an arrangenient was 
made by which his uncle Benton at Guilford, and bis 
father at New Haven should bcarthe expenses of his 
college education, the uncle clothing him and the pa- 
rent doing the rest. When tlie uncle died he left lo 
Lyman Beecher a hou.'te in Guilford, and land worth 
about $3,000. He was graduatetl from Yale college 
in 1797. During his junior yrar he was xtirrcd to 
sorioos thought upon perwrnal religion. His aulo- 
blogmphy gives a brief bul clear record of bis ex- 

rrience in this respect, saying that one result of 
was that ho had a severe conflict wliether be 
should preach, which extendMl Into his divinity year. 
He had no part in t)ie pulilic exercises at ills gradu- 
ation, those being given on malheniatiml pxc<-llence 
cliiefiy, as to which he was dellrieiil. but he gave 
the VHle<lictorv address at the class presentation day, 
six weeks before commencement. He then stiidiol 
llii-ology under Dr. Timothy Dwight, prcsidctit of 
Tale college, and twice a wci^k walked over lo West 
Haven, Conn., and spoke in evening meetings. 
" The people turned ont to liear us," be »a;rsi, " anil 
there were some cnnversioiiK. . . . The fact is. I 
made the application of my scrmomi alMiul as pun- 
gent then iiH I'Vcr afterward," He was Ihvnsiil to 
preiich by the We-I Haven as«iK'iiiticiii of (VmL'rcgii- 
lioual mil listers, in ITUa, and preached his first "regii- 



THE RATIONAL OyOLOP.a:DIA 




iS^-C--. 



lar" sermon at Guilford, Conn. Having been in- 
vited to the pastorale of the Presbyterian church at 
Easthampton, L. I., he appeared before the presbj- 
tery to which the cliurch belonged, for examination, 
Aug. 19, 1799, and was examined for six hours as 
to bis religious and theological opinions and faith. 
Sept. 6, 1T99, he was ordained to the ministry and 
to the charge of that church. Sept. 19th of the 
same year, he was married to Koxana Foote of Guil- 
ford, Conn. When he had been at Eaathampton for 
four or five years, and approved himself as a hard 
worker and a spiritual minister, his family and ex- 
penses had so increased that extra income was need- 
ful, his sftlaiT, originally $300, and then but $400 
per anmtm, being inadequalc lo meet his outgoes, 
and accordiugly Mrs. Beecher opened a pnvat^ 
school, in which lier husband also gave some instruc- 
tion, and they received some of lis young lady pupils 
into their family. HislJrst sennon that, as be said, 
"was much known," was that upon dueling, preach- 
ed to his congregation on New Year's day, 1806, in 
reference to tlie duel in which Aaron Burr ^ot 
Alexander Hamilton. This was printed, and found 
its way to New York. There It was reviewed by 
Kev. Dr. John M. Mason, and as a result anti-duel- 
ing societies were started in New York and vicinity. 
Not long after this the Presbyterian synod met irt 
Newark, N. J., and strong opposition lo these socie- 
ties was developed, led by a reverend doctor, who 
bad lieen told by individuals In his faith, jiolltically 
afflllated with men of dueling principles, that " this 
thing must be stopped." This was just an occ&slon 
to rouse Beecher. who was a member of synod. 
"When my time came," he wrote, "I rose and 
knocked away their arguments, and made them lu- 
dicrous. I never made au argument so short, strong, 

and pointed In my life Oh, I declare if I 

did not switch 'cm. and scorch 'em, and stamp on 
'em. It swept all before it. The reverend doctor 
made no reply. It was the center of old fogjism. 
but I mowed It down and carried the vote of the 
house," An impression was indeed made that never 
died out. The sermon and discussion started a aeries 
of efforts that affected the whole northern mind, and 
led to action by the U. 8. congress disfranchising a 
duelist. When Henry Clay was a candidate for the 
U. S. presidency, his opponents printed an edition 
of the sermon, of 40,000 copies, and scattered them 
all over the northern stales. In 1810 Mr. Beccber 
resigned his charge of the church at Easthampton, 
and during the same year was settled over the Con- 
gretmtional church at Litchfield. Conn., on a salary 
of $tl00 per annum. Here he continued for sixteen 
years, taking nmk among the leading clergj'men of 
that denominalitin. Not long after going lo Lilch- 
fleld he was called to Plymouth, Conn., a few milefl 
distant, to attend Ihe ordination of a pastor over the 
Congregational church in that town, and found lhei« 
a broad slileboard set out for the ministers in the 
new pastor's bouse, covered with dccanlcn; and bot- 
tles of llgiior, sugar, and pitchers of water. The 
drinking, lie ntited, was Hiijiarently universal, and 
this prejMinitiou for their clerical gnests by Ihe Ply- 
nioulh iieriple was made as a matter of course. 
"When the ministers cnme together they always 
look Htimethius to drink round; also before public 
services, and niA'ars on Iheir return from Ihem. As 
tbcy could not alf drink at once, they were obliged 
ti> sland and wait, as jwople do when they go to 
mill, lliere was a decanter of s]>irits, too. on the 
table, lo help digestion, and gentlemen partook of it 
through the iirierncHin and evening, as they felt the 
niHil, some more 8n<) some less; aud tlie sidelioard. 
with Ihe spilliri^ iif water and sugar and liquor, 
](H>ked anil smelled like the bar of n very active grog 
Khoji, Niiiie of the conventi{m {associated body of 
churches and minisiers) were drunk; but that there 



OF AHEBIOAN BIOGBAFHT. 



127 



yna not &t times a considerable smount of exbilara- 
tfoii,IcumotBfflnii." He mw more of this not long 
after, and heard murmurineB from the people at the 

3uaDtit<r and expense of liquors consumed. "H7 
lanu anil shame and iodigDation," be said, "were 
intense. 'Twas that tiiat woke me up for the war, 
Bad silently 1 tuck an oaih before Ooa that 1 would 
never attend another ordination of that kind. I was 
full. Mylieart kindles up at thethought of it now." 
These were some of his iitteranceH ;uar^ afterward. 
The general association (Congregulional) of the state 
had alrendy appointed a committee to get the facts 
■a to the consumption of liquor, and make report, 
u had the kindred body in MaasachuseltB, When 
the Connecticut body met at Sharon in 1813, their 
committae reported that they did not perceive that 
anything could be done to stop this evil of intcm- 
peinDce,the wide-spread existence of which they ad- 
mitted and deploiw). Instantly Mr. Beeclier was on 
his feet, with a motion that a committee lie raised 
to repoil at that meeting what measures could be 
taken to stem this tide of evil. He was made its 
chairman, and reported, the next day, what inhia old 
age he styled "the moat important paper that ever 
I wrote. The practical steps which his report rec- 
ommended bad. as the first of their number, that 
Ifipropriate discourses on the subject should be 
preached by all miuisters of the association. The 



ing his ministry here he mode great efforts to uphold 
the union of the Congregational churches and the 
state in that commonwealth, which existed under the 
name of the " standing order," and was correspond- 
ingly depressed when it was overthrown by the tri- 
umph of the democratic party, so called, in 1817. 
In after life ite declared, " For several days I suffered 
what no tongue can tell, for the best thing that ever 
happened to the state of Connecticut. " He preached 
his renowned sermon, "TiieBiblea Code of Laws," 
which was the reproduction of bis farewell senuon 




report was adopted, and 1,000 copies ordered to be 
printed. By the next year it was seen that the effect 
of this action had been salutary in Connecticut. It 
was in support of this reform that, about 1814, be 
delivered and published the famous "Six Sermons 
on Intemperance." which have been declared to con- 
laia eloquent passages hardly exceeded by anything 
in the English language. Tkey went all over the 
I'nited Slates, went through many editions in Eng. 
land, were translated into many languages in Europe, 
and have had large sale, even after the lapse of fifty 
years. He also agitated (1812) a "reformation so- 
cielv" for the stale. He set on foot in the ecclesias- 
tical circles of Connecticut a movement which issued 
In numerous petitions to the congress of the United 
States, against " Sunday mails." He also preached 
on "The building o( waste places," and his sermon 
tesatted in the institution of Che DomcHlic missionary 
society for the work of home evangelization In Con- 
iKctJcut. He corresponded with others in and out 
of the stale upon the subject of forming a national 
Bible society, and lived to be among the last sur- 
vivors, if not the last, of the convention of delegates 
by which the American Bible society was instituted 
in 1818, of which convention be was secretary. Re- 
turning full of zeal from the llrst corporate meeting 
of the American lioard of commissioners for foreign 
tniesioDs (1813), be called together clergymen and 
laymen from different parts of the country, who or- 
ganized the Litchfield county foi'elgn mis.>(ionaiy so- 
ciety, the first auxiliary of the Atnericnn board. 
Sept 23, 1816, his first wife died at LItcbtield. Dur- 



installation of'Kev. S. E. Dwight as pastor of its 
Park street Congregational church, Sept. 3, 1817, 
and its after consequences were momentous. It was 
on this first visit to Boston that be met his second 
wife, a Miss Harriet Porter, to whom be was married 
at Portland, Me., in the fall of the same year. His 
sermon on "The Design, Rights, and Duties of Local 
Cliurcbes" was intended by him as the opening of 
what he regarded as both a war of defense and of 
attack against the rising Unitarianlam in the eastern 
elate of Massachusetts, It was followed by others, 
notably that on " The Faith Once Delivered to the 
Saints," preached at Worcester, Mass., in 1838, uid 
after full correspondence with leading Congregation- 
slists in Massachusetts, he became the pastor of the 
Hanover street church in Boston in 1826. His min- 
istry at Litchfield bad been marked by more than 
one revival of religion ; that at Boston was to be 
more controversial, but the same aspect of revival 
labor and revival success characterize it. His Boa- 
ton ministry closed in 1832, that he might then ac- 
cept the presidency of the new Lane theological 
seminary (Presbyterian), at Walnut Hills, near Cin- 
dnnBtl, O., which he retained for twenty years, 
serving also, during their first half, as pastor of the 
second Presbyterian church at Cincinnali, His 
name, moreover, was continued in the catalogue of 
this seminary until his death. Three years after bis 
removal to Uliio. he was obliged to defend him- 
self in an ecclesiastical trial for heresy in religious 
doctrine, the prosecution coming in llie appointment 
of a commillee by the Presbytery of Cincinnati to 
investigate reports of Mr, Beeclier's unsoundness of 
faith. Tills he did successfully, and his opponenta 
apiwaling to the Synod, Dr, Beccher was a second 
time sustained. Appeal was taken to general assem- 
bly, but unsuccessfully. The labors of Dr. Beccher 
during this period of his career were extraordinary 
in magnitude and in variety. The danger of Roman 
Catholic supremacy in the western United Stales 
was made the subject of one of his most elaborate 
and earnest appeals to the Protestant ivligiotis public 
at the East. The rising wave of auti-slavery agita- 
tion in the country reached the seminary, and by tlie 
exertions of the gifted Theodore D. Weld fierce dis- 
cussion sprangun among the students which resulted 
in the trustees forbidding any public meetings or 
addresses among them without the approbation of 
the faculty, and requiring that the anti-slavery so- 
ciety and the colonization society of the institiilion 
should be abolinhed — providing, also, that students 
not complying wllli tliem as with other rules, should 
bo dismissed. This was done in the absence of Dr. 
Beecber on his summer vacation, and then the stu- 
denlH, almost with one consent, willidrew from the 
seminary. Their withdrawal was followed by the 
establishment of a new college at Oberiin, 0. Mr. 
Beeclier was given the degree of A.M. by Yale 
college in 1809, and of D.D. by Middlcbury college 
in 1818. His autobiography correspondence, etc., 
was edited by bis eon, Charles Beccher, and pub- 
lished In two volumes in New York in 1863. " Life 
and Services of Lyman lieecher," by Itev. D. H. 
Allen, was published at Cincinnati, O,, in ihs same 



THE NATIONAIi CYCLOPEDIA 



year. Hia waa ono of the most marked, impreaaive 
and intliieiitial figurea which have as yet adorned 
the American pulpit. He died in Brooklyn. N. Y., 
at the liome of his son, Henry Ward Beceher, Jan. 
10. 18«3. 

BEECHES, Oathariii« Esther, educator, waa 
born at Eaat Hampton, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1800, the 
first daughter and eldest of thirteen children of 
Lyman Bt-echer, who removed to Litchfield. Conn., 
triien she was about ten yeara old. By the death 
of her mother, the care of her father's household 
devolved upon her when she was but sixteen years 
of age. She was educated at the aeminarf in 
liitchHeld, and when about twenty years old be- 
came enESged to Pr<)f. Fisher, who waa lost in the 
Albion while on a voyage to England. Her whole 
religious faith, very strange to say, was unsettled by 
this alQiction, and she found no relief in the religious 
counsels offered by her father and friends. Then 
she detcmiined to give her life for others. In 18^, 
with her sister, alie opened a select school for youne 
ladies at Hartford. Conn. At this time she prepared 
an arithmetic for the use of her pupils. Four years 
later she planned, and with the help of generous 
friends l)uilt and equipped the Hartford female 
sciuiuary, which gave girls a better opportunity for 
education, and was an attempted approach to the in- 
struction given young men at thai period. At this 
time she published a pamphlet. "Suggestions on 
Education, which excited much alteiitlon. She 
wrote a "Mental and Moral Philosophy" for the 
use of her school, which like Iho Anlhmelic. was 
printed but never published. At the end of seven 
years her health failed in consequence of incessant 
activity, and in 1832 she went to Ohio with her 
father, when be was elected president of Lane 
theolo^cal seminary. She opened a scliool fur young 
women in Cincinnati, but m two yeara ill health 
compelled her to ^ve it up, and for tlie rest of lier 
life she was occupied in writing on eilucatioiial and 
domestic topics. With other ladiei she formed an 
association called " The National Boani of Popular 
Education." the aim of wliich was to supply the 
West with educated teachera. Ex-Qov. Sliule of 
Vermont lectured widely as the agent of this Kociely 
to raise funds, and several schools were foimded and 
a number of teachers were obtained. Miss Beceher 
died at Flmini, N. Y., May 13, 1)J78. 

BKBCHEB, William Henry, clergyimin, was 
bora at Saal Hampton. N. Y., Jan. 15. 1)^3. tite eld- 
eat son of Lyman niid Kuxana 
^^^ta^ (Poote) Beecher, He was ed- 

^^^Hp& ucated at his father's fircHide 

^^^^^^^\ and studied theology under his 

^^^r \ direction and afliruardat Vn 

^W ^J^^k. dover He lK,cnme a ckrgy 

T W man of the ( mgregalional de 

^4 --ijf nominatii n and l<K>k charge 

f * -"*li. of a cou^n gallon at Newp )rt 

'K K T In 1837 he removed to 

' Ohio where his falh< r with 

his family had prei edetl him 
"I ia)3 Here he settled in 






\ 




7 life In a new i.oun 
him to return to the 
east and he accipted a pasi<ir 
ate at Batavia Niw "i ork He 
sKin dnfted ba< k to Ohio 
where he preaehed at Toledo and Euchd. Again he 
wcui east, locating at liending. and afterward at North 
Brookfield, Mass, While at the latter place he served 
as postmaster. Upon the death of bis wife he took 
up his residence with his two daughters, Mary aud 
Roxana, in Chicago, HI., which he made the home 
of his old age. He died there June 23, 18S9. 



BEEOHBB, Edward, clergyman, waa bom at 
East Hampton. N. Y., Aug. 3T; 1803, the second 
son of Lyman and Roxana (Foole) Beecher. Hiscarly 
education was acquired at home, both his father and 
mother being hia teachers. He was there prc))arcd 
for college, entered at Yale, and was graduated in 
1822. Destined for a preacher, 
he studied theology at Andover '' ~ 

and at New Haven, where he 
afterward was a tutor at Yale 
until in 1!^35 be removed to Bos- 
tun to take charge of the Con- 
gregational church on Park 
street. He served this congre- 
gation for five years, when he 
was elected president of Illinois 
college. Jacksonville. Here he 
continued for fourteen years, 
during which the college in- 
creascil wonderfully, and the 
graduates who went from its 
doors during Dr. Beecher's pres- 
idency became prominent as pio- 
neers in the development of the 
new " West." In 1844 he return- ^, _^ 
ed to Boston and look charge of C<*i<^^^>;'^£^«a.04 
the Salem street church, wlicre 
he remained until 1855, when the Oongrcgationalisia 
at Gatesbnrc, 111.. gave himBCBll,whicliheaceepted. 
He preached to them unlil 1870. TheChicago theo- 
logical Kemiuary had Dr. Beecher as their pro^9«or of 
exegesis during pari of this time. He retired from the 
ministry and removed to Brooklyn. N. Y., in 1873. 
He received the title of D.D. from Marietta college 
in 1841. He has licen a conlinuoiis and aceeploible 
contributor to periodical literature: waa, for the flrsl 
six years after the establishment of the "Congrega- 
tionalist." its editor, and after his removal to Brook- 
lyn a regular contributor lo the "Christian I'nion." 
His published works have been subjects of much 
controversial criticism. In "TheConfiict of Ages" 
he presented man's life upon earth as the outgrowth 
of a former as well as the prelude to a future life, 
this contlicl between g(H>d and evil to go on until it 
results in an everlasting conconl. His last work, on 
hell, entitled "History ot Opinions: or. The Scrip 
tural Doctrine of Retribution" (1878), was largely 
read and criticised. 

BEECHEIl, George, clergyman, was born at 
Eaat Hampton, N. Y.. May6, 1809, third son of Ly- 
man and noxana(Fo()te)Beecber. 
He entered Yale college in his 
flfieenihyear, and was™duatcd 
in the class of 1838 lie studied 
for the mmistry m the "Vale di 
vlnitv '*clii>i)l under the instruc 
tion of I)r Nalhaiiitl W Tay 
lor of whom he was an ardent 
admirer and devoted fnind In 
1833 he went with his father 
Dr Lvman Boither then Jii-t 
elerte<t the president of Lane 
theological seminary to Cincin 
nail O A little later after an 
excitmg contest over his case 
between Lhe advocates of the 
old and liit, new scIkhiI mcws 
in theology he was licensed lo 
preach the ir i8i>el by the Pres 
bjiory of Cincinnati His Aral 
charge was at Batavia, O., liU second in Rochester, 
N. Y-.and his thinl In Chlllicothe. O. He was an 
enthusiastic lover of music, poelry. and the natural 
sciences, a devoted pastor and an Inspiring preacher. 
He married Sarah Slurges Buckingham, of Zanea- 
ville, O., July 18. 1837. He died by the accidental 
discharge of a gun on the 1st of July, 1848. 




OF AMEBICAN BIOCIRAPHT. 



129 



BEECHEB, Henry Ward, clercjiiian, was 
bom in Lilchtleld, Codd., Juue Hi, 1)^1^. tlie fourth 
BOO of Lyman and Roxaoa (Foote) BuvcUer. HU 
molber died when he was but three years old; 
ha stepmolher, under wlioee guardianship his 
clij Id hood's days were spent, was an KpJKopul- 
ian. Botli parents were devoted CliriHliauK, liis 
father ooe of the most iuflnentiai of New Eng- 
land pastors in an importHnt transition pcriiid of 
her history. Ilia home training was of the severe 
Hew Enifland type, alleviated, however, by an ir- 
repressible acnse of Iiumor In liis father, and a 
poetic and mystical spirit in his stepmother. He 
was gmduated from Amiierst college in 1834, in Ids 
twonly-flrst year. He did not stand high in col- 
legiate studies: was charactcriEed there, as tl)ron);ti- 
out his life.by following the bent of Lis own incllua- 
linn rather than any course marked out for him by 
olhera. But that coiinte he followed with diligence, 
energy, and a patient assiduity. He made a careful 
Rudy'of English literature, submitted himself to a 
Tery thorough training in eli«utioD, took hold of 
phrenology — not of course a college study — with 
great zeal, gave lectures upon phrenology and tem- 
peisnce, and participated In prayer-meet Ings and re- 
ligious labors in ncighlioring country towns with 
chsracterisiic fervor anil aelrabandon. His father 
iTttstui intense and polemical, but for his lime liberal 
evangelical divinei taking 
_^-- an active part In the theo- 

logical controversies of his 
age. as against the old 
school or extreme Calvin- 
istic party in the ortho- 
dox church, laying stress 
on human liberty and re- 
sponsibility; as agnitist the 
Unitarian denomination, 
then just coming into 

[irominence in New Eng- 
itnd. urging tlie doctrine 
of the depravity of the 
race, the divinily of Jenus 
Christ, the vicanous atone- 
meiit. regeneration, and the 
/, jp\ Inspiration and authority 

<7n-^ fniT^-xyot_z^iCM^^^ of the Scritinires. On 
these diwlrines Hetiiy 
Ward was reared ; with 
them he was familiar from his bo^hiKxi. and he never 
to the day of his death lost the impression (licy put 
upon hLs characlerand method of thought. But at a 
Teiy early period they passed with hini from a dogma 
loa vital'spiriiual experience iu which, through a con- 
MiiHis realization of Chiisl as the manifestation of a 
Gixl of inlliiile mercy, coming into the worid not to 
judge.but to redeem and educate, Mr. lleecher himself 
etiteretl into a new spiritual consciousness, in which 
love look the place of duty In the law of life, atid the 
place of Justice iu the Interpretation of Goil. He has 
dcicribed with cliaracteristically simple eloquence the 
" blesse<l morning of May." when this thought fli-st 
took possession of him, and It never left him. Hence- 
forth, with no other change than that of increasing 
clearness of perception, strength of convlclion, and 
depth of expi^rience, theolo);^ look on this form: the 
depravity of the race was sumshnessi the dlvlultv of 
Jesus Christ, the personal disclosure of a Qod of 
love set forth clearly to human apprehension in the 
life of Jesus of Nazareth; the alonemeut, a moral 
and spiritual access to God the Father, through the 
levclnlion of Him in Jesus Christ; ref;i-ncrHtion, a 
new life born of God, manifesting itself in practical 
fruits of love; and the Scriptures, a t>ook infallible 
arid Biithoritatlve only in so far as It revealed through 
the woids and experience of holj; men of old the^ 
tnuiscendeot trtubs. Tbls experience settled what 
III. -ft. 




was to be his lifc*work. He devoted himself to the 
Christian ministry; upon graduating from Amherst 
college, be enterM Lane IheologicaT seminary (Cin- 
cinnati), where at this time his father had become 
professor of systematic theology, and pursued his 
studies there, receiving probably quite as much 
from the spiritual life and keen dialectic conversa- 
tions at lionie, as from the more formal Instructions of 
llieseminary. At the same time he engaged in Chris- 
tian work as a Bible-class icaeher, and Td journalis- 
tic work in connection with a Cincinnati paper in 
which he took an active pan as an ardent abolitlon- 
iat in the aiili-slavcry campaign then fairly begun. 
His first parish was tlio Presbyterian church at 
Launmceburg, Indiana, a small settlement on the 
Ohio river. Twenty ix'rs()ns, nlneleen women and 
one man, constituted his entire church. He was 
both sexton and preacher, lighted the lamps, swept 
the chiii'ch, rang the bell, and took general charge 
of Ihe edillce. After a year or two of service here 
lie was called to a Presbyterian church in Indianap- 
olis, the then growing capital of the stale. His re- 
markable gifts as an orator gave him almost from 
the first a crowded church. His inHuencc was felt 
thitiughout the state in Intellectual and moral im- 

{Hilses given to members of the legislature, and topub- 
Ic men, who, attracted by his 
originality, earnestness, prac- 
ticality and courage, came In 
fi-eat number? to hear him. 
lis pulpit did not, however, 
absorb either his thought 
or his time. He preached 
through the stale iu itinerant 
revival labors; lectured fre- 
quently, ^nerally without 
compensation, for Impecun- 
ious charilies. and edited 
weekly the agricultural de- 

farlmcnt of the "Indiana 
ournal. " After eight years 
of increasingly successful 
ministry in Indiaua, Mr. 
Beccher rcceli'cd and ac- 
cepted a call to the then 
newly organised Plymouth 
church of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
entering upon the duties of ^ 
his pastorale Oct. 10, 1847. 
With this church lie remains 
ed until his death, March 8, 1887. The liistori- of 
these forty years is the history of the theological 
and polemical progress of this country during that 
time. There was no theological question in which 
he did not take an interest, no problem having any 
recognized bearing on the moral well-being of the 
country which heilid not study, and tip"" the practi- 
cal aspects of which he did not express liimscif, and 
no moral or political reform in which he did not take 
an active part. His fertility of thought was amazing. 
He rarely exchanged ; preached twice every Sabbath, 
usually to houses crowded to overflowing; lectured 
through llie week s<) that there is scarcely aiiv city 
and few towns of any considerable size anil any 
pretension to literary character in the counlry, in 
which he has not spokeniand wrote extensively asa 
contributor of occasional aiticles, or as an editor, at 
one time of the New York "Independent," and sub- 
sequently of the "Christian Union," which he 
founded, and of which he was cdilor-in-chief until 
within a few years of his death, when the necessary 
demands upon him aa a lecturer led him to resign 
the charge of the paper to other hands, A career 
such as his, so Immersed in conflict, in which hard 
blows were both given and taken, could not be 
passed without arousing bitter enmities, but of all 
the numerous assaults upon hla memoij only one 




130 THE KATIOKAL CYCLOPEDIA 

was sufficiently significant to pass into history; and father; from one which regarded atonement and re- 
that has already, ^r the most part, faded from men's veneration as an inexorable, but too frequently 
minds, leaving' his name unsullied; and it is safe to dreaded necessity, to one that welcomes them as the 
say that no man, unless it be George Washington, incoming of Gkxi in the soul, from one which yielded 
has ever died in America, more widely honored, a blind intellectual submission to the Bible as a b<K>k 
more deeply loved, or more universally regretted, of divine decrees, to one which accepts it in a spirit 
Mr. Beecher's great work in life was that of a pul- of ^lad vet free allegiance, as a reflection of the 
pit and platform orator; and the effects of such an divine character and purposes in the minds and 
one are necessarily transient; yet he wrote enough to hearts of his enlightened children. Mr. Beecber 
prove himself master of the pen as well as of the was married in 1887 to Eunice Bui lard, who survives 
voice. His principal works, apart from his published him; he has leftr also four children, three sons who 
sennons, are his " Lectures to Young Men," delivered are engaged in business pursuits, and one daughter, 
during his Indiana ministry; "Yale Lectures on married to Samuel Scoville, a Congregational clergy- 
Preaching," delivered on the Henry Wartl Beecher man of New England. Oa Jan. 13, 1898, a tablet 
foundation at Yale Theological seminary; "Nor- in honor of its famous preacher was dedicated and 
wood: A Tale of New England Life," a novel, first unveiled in the vestibule of Plymouth Church. The 
published in serial form in the " New York Ledger; " tablet is of brass and enamel, mounted on a panel of 
"Star Papers" and "Flowers, Fruits, and Farm- antique oak, 64 x 47 inches in size. A Iwrder of in- 
ing " (one vol. each), made up from occasional con- terlaced oak leaves surrounds the tablet, upon which 
tributions to various journals; and the "Life of Jesus appears a medallion bust in bronze. The inscription 
the Christ," left unflnished at his death, but sub- is in b(is relief: ** f n mcmoriam 1>enri? XSUard 
sequently completed by his son with extracts from J3eecl>cr, tiVBt padtor Ot plsmOUtb Cburcb* 
sermons. As an orator, Mr. Beecher has had no 1847s!l887* '1 bfiVC not COt\CC^lCt> Xlb^ iOV^ 
superior, if any equal, in the American pulpit, and in0 llfnOnedd ailD tTb^ ttUtb ttom tbC fltcat 
probably none in thehistoiy of the Christian church. COItflrcaation.' '* Mr. Beecher died at his home 
His themes were extraordmarily varied, everything in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 8, 1887. 
that concerned the moral well-being of men being BEECfCEB, Eunice White Bullard, wife of 
treated by him as legitimate subjects for the pulpit. Henry Ward Beecher, was bom in West Sutton, 
He had all the qualities which art endeavors to cul- Mass., Aug. 26, 1812, the daughter of Dr. Ailemas 
tivate in the orator; a fine physique, rich and full Bullard, a Congregational min- 
blood currents, that overmastering nervous fire ister. She was educated at Had- 
which we call magnetism, a voice equally remark- ley, Mass., and at the time of 
able for its fervor and flexibility — a true organ of her engagement to young Beech- 
speech, with many and varied stops — and a natural er, who was a classmate at Am- 
gift of mimicry in action, tongue, and facial ex- herst of her brother, was en- 
pression. Training would have made him one of gaged in school teaching. She 
the first actors of dramatic history. Yet he was not was then eighteen, and a year 
an actor; for he never simulated the passion he did older than her future husband, 
not feel. Genuineness and simplicity were the In 1837 he came East, from 
foundation on which he built his oratorical success; Lawrenceburg, Ind., his first 
and he never hesitated to disappoint an expectant parish, and on Aug. 3d the 
audience by speaking colloquially, and even tamely, young couple were married on 
if the passion was not in him. lienc* he was equally Bullard 's Hill, West Sutton, by 
liable to disappoint on special occasions when much Rev. Dr. Tracy. The wedding 
wtis expected of him, and to surprise on an occasion ring was bought by the youthful 
when no expectation had been aroused. To these preacherwithapartof the money 
natural qualities he added, as the fruit of long and recti ved for his first public aa- 
patient training, perfect elocutionary art become a' dress. The salary at Lawrence- 
second nature, an overwhelming moral and spiritual burg, though nominally $600, 
earnestness which took complete mastery of him, really amounted to little more 
and a singularly combined self control and self- than $300, and part of it was paid in farm produce, 
abandon, so that in his more irapassiontd moments The sensible young bride began her housekeep- 
he seemed utterly to forget himself, and yet rarely ing in two rooms, was obliged to sell her cloak 
failed to perceive instinctively what could serve his to make ends meet, and even to do sewing, but was 
purp(xse of immediate persuasion. He was always aided in her household duties by her husband, who, 
en rapport with his audience, but never robbed his as she declared, did evervthing except to wash dishes 
humor of its spontaneity by the self-conscious smile, and sweep. In 1839 Mr. Beecher was called to 
or his pathos of its power by breaking down himself Indianapolis, and here Mre. Beecher continued to 
in eye or voicci. His five great orations delivered in keep house for a time m two rooms, although her 
England during the civil war in 1863, the most po- husband's salary was slightly increased. As her 





orator encountered, his self-poise and self-control, call to Plymouth church, Brooklyn, in 1847. After 



his abundant and varied resources, his final victory, their removal to the East, the care and educati<m of 
and the ijnniediate results ])roduce(l, unparalleled m their children devolveti largely on Mrs. Beecher, 
the world's history of oratory. There is no space in who, in addition, took a deep interest in her bus- 
so brief a notice is this for any critical analysis of band's public life, and counseled and aide<l him. 
either the man or his teaching. It must suflice to Her reminiscences of her early married life ap- 
say that the excellencies and the defects of both be- peared in 1859, under the title, "From Dawn to 
longed to a man, who, living himself by the power of Daylight: A Simple Story of a Western Home." 
spontaneous life wit bin, sought to develop a like life in In addition, she published : ** Motherly Talks with 
others. More than any other man of his time he led Young Housekeepei-s " (1875); "Letters from Flor- 
the church and the community from a religion of ida" (1878); "All Around the House" (1878); 
obedience under external law, to a life of spontan- "Home" (1883), and many papers in periodicals, 
eous spirituality, from a religion which feared God including a series entitled, "Mr. Beecher as I Knew 
as a moral governor, to one which loves him as a Him," in the "Ladies* Home Journal" (1891-92). 



OF AHERIOAIf BIOQBAPHT. 



131 



^ 



I 



■'V, 



%^ 



>, Charles, clergymui, was bom at 
liitclifieUI. CoDQ., Oct. 7, 1816, the fifth sod of Ly- 
inaaaDd RoxHoa (Foote) Beeclier. He was educated 
U lUe Biist'io IJitio ecbool, and at tLe LawreQce 
Bcademr in GrotoD, H&ss. ; entered Bowduio college, 
frum which he was graduated in 1884. At the time 
of Ilia graduation his father 
was the president of Lane scm- 

Inary, Cincinnati, and here he 

■f 'v, studied theology, and was or. 

dained pastor of a Presbyte- 
rian church at Fort Wayne, 
lud., in 1844. Od account of 
his liberal views be was dis- 
missed in 1851, and became 
pastor of a Congregational 
church in Newark, H. J. He 
remained with this people for 
three yeure. Tbe Congrega- 
tional church St Georgetown, 
Mass., was his next charge. 
He changed his rcHidence to 
Florida in INTO, and remained 
■\ there for seven years. While 

tlicre he servwl two years as 
stale superintendent of public 
instruction. He was a super- 
ior musician, and selected and 
armnged the "Plymouth Collection." Like his 
hmthcrs, he bas ttcen author of several works, in- 
cluding llic autobiography and correspondence of 
his father. 

BEBCHEB, Thomaa Kinnicut, clerjrfnian, 
was born at Litchfield, Conn,, Feb. 10, 1S24, the 
«>th son of Lyman Qeccher. bis mother being 
lUrriM (P'lrter) Beecher, whom his father mar- 
lii'd at Portliuul, Uc.. in 1817. He was graduated 
from llliuiHB college in IMS, 
during tbe time his brother Ed- 
ward was its president. After 
several years of teachine in Pbil- 
odelpliia and Haitford, Conn., 
he founded and took charge of 
the Ciingrcgatioimi church at 
Williamsburg, L.L. N. Y.,where 
he remained two yeara. From 
18.'>4 he was pastor of the Inde- 
pendent Congresiitional cliurch 
of Eluiira, N. ^ . Duiiug the 
civil war he was, for a short 
time, cliaplain of the 141st New 
York volunteers, and he has 
traveled In this country, Eu- 
rope, and South America. He 
has lectured extensively on sec- 
ular as well on religious sul>- 
jecls, and Is the author of wv- 
eral volumes, including "Our 
Seven Churcbes," and " A Well 
Considered Estimate of the 
Episcopal Church." He bas introduced many novel 
anil successful methods of church work. He e<tlred 
a department known as "Miscellany," first in the 
Elmita ".Idverttser" and afterward in the "Ga- 
znto " uf the same city. Id these papcn he discuss- 
ed curreut questions of tbe day, and took advanced 
views on many subjects which were largely quolcii. 
He bas licen, njiaiust bis will, nominatetl for public 
nfBce lij each of Uie several political parlies, but al- 
'■itja hv the minor! ly. 

BEtiCHEB, JamM Chaplin, cleru'vman. was 
bnm in Itosion. Mass.. Jan. 8, 1838, the seventh sou 
of Lyman Bis'clier. He was educated in Lane sem- 
inary. Walnut Hills, near Cincinnati, O., of which 
inaiilulion his father was president. He entered 
Ihirtmoutb college, from which he was craduated iu 
1^1 and at once took up the study of theology at 




work and 
f. While 

wn hand Aug, 




A^/^ 



Andover, and m May 1856 was ordained a minister 
of the Congregational church He wcul as a mis- 
sionary to China and up to 1861 was (.liaplam of 
the Seamen's Bethel In Canton and Hong Kong. 
Coming home at the outbreak of tbe civil war be at 
once eolisled as chaplain of 
the iBt N. ^ infantry As 
tbe war progressed he deter 
mined on a more actnc part 
than tbe chaplaincy and was 
offered and aL(A.pled the lieu 
tenant-col onehy of the 141at 
N. Y. infantry serving until 
1668, wlieu he was pnimoied 
to a colonelcy and git en com 
mand of UieB5lb L b colored 
troops, and was mustered out 
of the sei-vlce in 1866 nub 
the rank of bngaditr general 
by brevet, He re entered tbe 
minislry and iiaii cbarce of '' 
three churches one at Owe 
go, N. Y., until 1870 remov 
e<l to PougUkecpsie N \ , 
where be remained Ibreeyears, 
and then to Brooklyn N Y 
where lie preached two years. 
His mind for a long time hod 
been diseased, and he was obliged tf 
seek, at a water-cure in EIniira, sonii 
under treatment here he died by his o' 
35, 1886. 

HVTCHICOBE, Samuel Alexander, clergy- 
man, was born iu Ohio. His ancc'stoii* came fnun 
Irclan<l and the north of Scotland in their own ship, 
landed near the mouth of (he Delaware, and thence 
went totlieCumlH.'rland Valley, HI" maienial grand- 
father, C<il. Thomas McCuiie, served in Ihe revolu- 
tionary war. After gradiialing from Centre college, 
Danville, Ky., ia'>4, and at Ihe 
Danville theological seminary, 
1858, he entered tlie Presbyterian 
ministry, and after sboit service 
OS a home missionary iu southern 
Kentucky, held pastorates at Co- 
lumbia and Fulton, Mo. From 
the Carondclet church in St. 
Louis, which he built, be was 
called in 1866 to the (^obock- 
siuk church In Philoilelphia, 
where bis labors bore fniit in a 
new edifice, and an increase of 
over 500 niembers, in seven yeara. 
Ill 1873 be became poaior of , 

the Alexander church, for which y V /2 
he paid a debt of $36,000, im- '^ ^^M,t4JS§t^KaUR 
proved the building, and great- 
1v increased the membership. 
While liete, to redeem a ppjmise to a little eirl, whi^ 
on her death-bc<l gave him her missionary box. con- 
taining $4.31, heliegan in 1876 a mission which soon 
grew more vigorous thau the parent congregation, 
and demanilt^ his entire service. Since 1882 be 
has been piistor of ilie Memorial church, with a 
reading-room and llbrarv of his founding. He 
built a collegiate churcn comer 19tb and Y'ork 
sti'eets. In 1874 he iK-came chief propriel<jrof the 
"Presbyterian."' He has been able and successful 
as a preacher, active ami iulliieniial iu ecclusiasilcal 
affairs, and posse.'i.'ies marked metaphysical allnin- 
mi-uls and unusual executive ability. His letters 
written during a journey around the world in 1887, 
have lieen in part repiinled in three volumes: first, 
"A Visitof JnphelhloSliem and Ham;" second and 
third, " The Alogul, the Mongol, the Mikado and Ihe 
Missionary." Hereceivcdthcdegreeof.VM. from Cen- 
tre college, aud that of D.D. froia Lafayette college. 




133 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



mrBBAT, Orlando Dana, nas bom io Hart- 
land. Vl.. March 12, IBIS, son of David and Mar- 
garet (Fontylh) Mui-raj. Tlic flret American ances- 
tor of llils branch of the family was Isaac Murray, 
who came from Scotland, and located at Londua- 
derry (uow Deny), N. H. He married Elizabeili. 
daughter of John Durham, and 



/**^ 



shortly afterward removed ii 
fast, ] 




lives. Their bod, David, 
whcD a Tuune uiau, to Cliester, 
N. H., wlierelie cngBBcd in the 
busjuess of carpenter and builder. 
He served In Che war of 181S in a 
cavnlry troop, and for his service 
received a grant of land, and his 
widow a peusion. David married 
Margaret Forayth of Chester, N. 
H., fn December, 1807. Sbe was 
a daughter of Lieut. Itobert For- 
syth, and granditaMghter of Dea- 
con Muttliew Forsytb, who was 
bom in Edinburgh, Sk'Ollund,wns 
V tli, graduated from Ihe University 

i. mWAXup. (,f Edinburgh, aud emigrated lo 

n America in 1730. settling at Clies- 

" tcr, N. H. Orlando Dana Murray 

was the youngest cliild. and in 1820 wan taken to 
Nashua, N. H.,wlierehisfatlier found employment in 
the then growing village. He was educated at Nashua 
academy, later at Pinkcrton academy, Durrv, N. H,, 
and siibHWjuently fitted for college uuilcr ilie tutor- 
ship of ('ol. Isaac KiiiHiiian, a coii-sin, who had been 
priuciiml of Pembroke academy. Instead of going 
to ci)llege, however, at the age of sixtw^n years he 
entere<l the ofHce of the "Nashua Gazelle" as an 
apprentice to the "Itlaek An," where he remained 
seven years, serving during that time also osassistant 
postmaster. In 1S41 he [turchased a half inlercst iu 
the " Manchester Memorial." and became its editor, 
publisliin<r at the same time an octavo moulhly, 
the "Iris," In the hitler part ot 1843 he sold, aiid 
In connection with A. 1. Sawtell, cstablixheil the 
'■ Oasis," in January, 1843. at Nashua, of wiiich he 
became editor. In Ihis he continued till Septenit)er, 
1840, when he sold, and in conjuuclion witli others 
commenccMl the manufacture of cardlNianl, glazed 
and enameled papers. This proved a verj- prosper- 
ous aud remunerative business, and when, in 18(iS, 
It became an incoriMiratcd company under the stvle 
of the Nashua Card and Glazed Paper company, l([r. 
Murray was elected its president, and so coniiniied 
till Ilw3, when he sold, and retired from biishicss. 
Iu bis polllical life Mr. Murray was often favored 
by his fellow citizens. In ItMfr-.'Hl-lil. before Nashua 
became a city, he was thriix elected town clerk. 
After the city charter was granted Nashua in IH.'i.l. 
he was elceteil represcnlative lo the legislaliire, and 
re-elected in 1956. In l^'tH he was electiHl alderman, 
and again in 1850; anil he was on Iho board of edu- 
cation many years. He was relumed as sldermsn 
in 186S. In 1881) he was elected as representative 
for Iwo years, and in 1888 made the run for Ihc slate 
senate. Mr. Murray was a charter member of the 
first lodge of Gild Fellows established in New Kamp- 
Bh ire (Granite Lodge No. 1.), and has several times 
been a delegate to the Grand Lodge and Grand En- 
campment. As a Mason since 18U7 he is a Knight 
Templar and a thirty-second desree memlier of the 
consistory. Mr. Murray on July 7. 1843, united in 
marriage with Mair Jane, daughter of Solomon and 
Sarah (Welherl)ee) Wethcrbee of Cimcord, Mass. 
Their golilen wedding aiiniversarj consequently oc- 
curred in 1893. Of their children a son, George Dana 
Murray, was in the commissary depirtnient of the 
army of the Potomac during the civil war, and with 
the advance troops which entered Richmond ai the 



surrender of thai cily. Their other children were 
Sarah Elizabeth. Levi Edwin, Albert Clarence (de- 
ceased in infancy), Clarence Adelbert, and Charles 
Orlando; the latter two and the daughter now liv- 
ing. Mr. Murray has riven financial aid lo numer- 
ous enterprises, railroads, banks, manufactures, pub- 
lie buildings, and public works. 

COOPEB, Hra. Sarah B., educator, was boni 
at Caienovia, N. Y.. Dec. 12, 1836, and was erad- 
ualed from Cazenovia seminary in 1853. At lour- 
leeu years of age she taught herflrst school in Eagle 
Village, eight miles from lier home. "My drsi was 
the best leaching I ever did,"' slie is often beard to 
Bay. She organised a Suuday-school in the village 
school-house, and it was attended by children and 
adults in largenumbers. Sbc spent some time at Mrs. 
Willard's Female seminary, at Troy, N. Y., and ihea 
went to Augusta. Ga., as governess in the family of 
Judge Schley. Here she groupnl the slaves on a 
targe plantation eveiy Sunday, giving them religious 
insimetion. She was married lo Mr. H. F. Cooper, 
while in Augusta, who bcccame survevor of cu»- 
t^ims al CliallaniMiga, Tenn. Xicaviiig t!ie South at 
the outbreak of the civil war. Mr. Cisiper was sp- 

E Dinted assessor of Internal revenue by President 
lincoln, and sialioned at Memphis, Tenn. True to 
her religious instinct and training. 
Mrs. Cooperwent forthwith In ac- 
tive benevolent work for the Fed- 
eral soldiers, having a Bible class 
of from one lo 300 members ac- 
cording lo the number of regi- 
ments stationed in and around the 
city. She also organized here a 
"Society for the Pnitection of 
Refugees " ot which abe was the 
presideut. In 1800 Ihe family re- 
moved lo San Francisco, CaL.aud 
Mrs. Cooper entered uiMm Bible- 
class work in the Howard Presby 
tcrlan church, and subsequently 
in Calvary Presbyterian church. 
During her leadersbipofthisclass, 
her trial for heresy occurred, , 
which aroused deep feeling. It 
was charged, among oilier things, 
thai she did not believe in the doctrine of eternal pun- 
ishmenl, and that she was caring forward a godless 
work among Ihe children of the city. The latter 
charge refeired lo the establishment of kindergsrlenB 
by Sirs. Cooper. The trial was follownl hyabreadlb 
of acquaintance and sympathetic inlerest In Mra. 
Cooper's work, on the part ofmany persons in the San 
Francisco community, which resulted in 1801 in the 
contribution, lo Mrs. 'Cooper, of over |3«.000 for tiie 
establishment of her kinilcrgarlens. In these over 
8,000 children from two to six years of ape have 
been trained, and the "Golden Gale Kimlcrgartea 
Association " has been formed, of whicli Mrs. Coop- 
er Is president. It Is the nde ul Ihe schools to pre- 
pare Iheir pupils for the arts and trades, by laying a 
Ci foimilatlon for industrial education. Her Sun- 
Hible classes were taught iu Ihc audilommof the 
First Congregational church at San Francisco, with 
an enrollment of several hundred members, including 
men and a-omen of every denomination, even Iboee 
of the Jewish faith. Mrs. Cooper has contributed 
articles to many of the religious publications of the 
counlry. and was for years a recular writer for 
the " Overland Monthly. " Her addresses before Ihe 
National Education Association, the National Con- 
yeution of Charities and Correction, Ihe National 
Council ot Women, and the Chautauqua Associa- 
tions, have been ve^ attractive, and an address on 
" Motherhood " at Nashville, Tenn., was widely cir- 
culated. 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 




y^-a.^* 



father. Dr. Sninuel Gale, was tlie first pbjajcian 
Troy lo reduce the theory of treating smallpox by 
inocitlalion to practice. He inoculat^ many of the 
iabalritauls, who had the smallpox Id IIb VHCcinaicd 
form as the result. The thriv- 
ine village was soon beallhy 
and free from all danger of 
any sudden aod severe visila- 
tioD of the dreaded disease. 
Dr. <3ale was a mau far be- 
yond Ills time, and this mas- 
ter-stroke by him brought 
him into great public favor 
and estimation. The early ed- 
ucation of the son. E. Thomp- 
son Oale, was received in the 
select schools uf Che towu and 
village, he afterward entering 
the Iteiisselaer polytechnic in- 
stitute when that school was 
in its infancy. His studies 
at the iustitute compIele<l, he 
.^ traveled widely throughout 
the United States, and return- 
ing to Troy eutercd a mer- 
cantile esliilili slim tilt as clerk, and in 1840 became 
one of tiic Bna of UrlnkerholT, CattJn & Gale, hard- 
ware merchants. In August, 1841, he went to Eu- 
rope, not for the purpose of pleasure, but for the 
purpose of adding to his knowledge. Among the 
many business interests with which his name was 
coupled were many of prime importance, that de- 
acrvc mure than passins mention. He was one of 
the earliest and most ardent promoters of the Renss- 
ekterand Suratoea railroad company. Asafluancier 
he look bij;h ntuk among Che successful men of llie 
country. In the Troy gaBligbt companj he was 
inleresled from the beginning, and was For a long 
time president of the organization. He was vice- 
preaiclent of the Troy savinsB bank, and on one oc- 
casion, in a time of panic, uced the mob of deposit- 
ors who bad Inaugurated a run ou the bank, and 
catmed tbeir fears. His manner and bearing liad Its 
effect, and the runwasavoided. In 1850 he became 
a director of the Farmers' bank— a position occupied 
some rencB before bv his father. In 1850 he was 
elected presideut of tlie bank, and held the position 
nntil leWt, when the bank was consolidated with the 
Bank of Troy, undertbenameof the United national 
bsok of Troy, He was chosen president of the new 
iustitutioD, and so remained until 1B80, when ad- 
vancing ape caused him to pass the title lo the care 
and becpiQg of otber men. Mr, Gale was a stanch 
friend of the Young Men's association, and as 
prwidcni of the boanf of trustees siicee»»riilly pro- 
moted its interests. The Gale alcove in the free 
reading-room is one of his substantial gifts. The 
chapel at tlio Day home was erected by him In 1879, 
uhI dnnatetl to the institution in memory of his de- 
ccaaeii son, Alfred de Forest Gale. Mr. Gnle was a 
mnn of large charities. His gifts were made with- 
out parade, and very many were directlv benefited 
by his giving. His liberality was practlcni. and it 
aimed lo l)e effective. Wiien the Younc Men'sosso- 
ciiiiion needed books, lie gave them. When he sent 
a Christmas dinner to the home of the Little Sisters 
ot the Poor be did not forget that some of the old 
men in that home liked tobacco. In 18T4 lie be- 
came interested in the Tniy female seminary, and 
with a number of others be purchased the property 
on which the buildings were erected, in order tliat 
the school of Mrs, Emma Willard might become a 
fixture in Tror; so laying the foundations of one of 
the leading educational institutions of the land. In 
January, 1844, Mr. Gale married Caroline de Forest, 



.'U 



Houser, life insiininee man- 
ager, was bom at I'iqua, O., Sept. 23. 1847, a direct 
descendant from Isauc Gray, a native of the south 
of Scotland. His grandfather, Amos Gray, settled 
below Dayton. O., m 1803, marryinK Sophia Cliriat- 
man, of the well-known family of that name in 
soiicliwestern Ohio. His father, Jacob Christman 
Gray, was a man of keen iniellecl and sterling iutex- 
rity. known throughout ObioaHDem^on Gray, prouil. 
ncnt in the Baptist ebureh in that capacity for more 
than flflv year*, and in bustueas was a contractor 
and builaer. William H. was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of bis native town, graduating from the 
Fiqiia high school in 18S0, lo enter Deuison uni- 
versity, where be remained two rears. At the age 
of fifteen he visited the Itttb Indiana baltery_ with 
the army, doing messenger and hospital service at 
West's lioBpItal at Murfreesboro, Tcnn., afterward 
enlisting in company H, 131st Ohio vol un leer infan- 
try, serving with the regiment till the close of the war. 
In 186H he engaged in the lumber trade in Piquo, 
C, continuing clil the Chicago fire enabled bim to 
sell bis business at an advance, when he took up the 
life insurance work as special agent in Ohio and 
Indiana : during which time be conceived the idea 
that equally secure insurance 
could be done on Ihe advancing 
assessment plan — charging each 
one the exact cost of insurance, 
accordingtoadvancingage. Re- 
signing his position, be organ- 
ised, in 1877, the Knights Tem. 
plnra and Masonic mutual aid 
association of Cincinnati, O.; 
was chosen one of its directors 
and made secretary and man- 
ager. Iniisorgaaiitati " ' 



combine policies of various 

doin^ away with classes, and 

firoviding for the increasing 
labilities by the proper amount 
of advancing premium. This 

filao was more equilabte than any before adopted in 
Ifeinsuranceon the assessment plan, and at once met 
the demand for cheap and yet permanent insurance, 
and under Mr. Gray's active mauagemeui the com- 
pany was successful, and the new plan was received 
with great favor. On May 5, 1B84. lie organized the 
Koiglits Templars and Masons lite indemnity com- 
pany of Chicago, of which ho became and is still tba 
manager. Air. Qray is the invenl^ir of the plan of 
advancing the premium in asaessment insurance, 
holding copyright of the same as evidence. It lias 
beeii adopted, m substance, by nearly every com- 
pany organized since, and the merit uf the plan is 
recognized by all leading insurance men. Mr. Gray 
was the first to conceive the idea of removing Libby 
prison fitim Richmond, Va.. to Chicago, and con- 
verting it into a war museum, thiu centering and 
preserving this memorable relic of the war. He 
became its first treasurer, and an active director. 
Mr. Gray is tlie owner of more than 6,S00 acres of 
land in Indiana, Illinois, and Texas. He was one of 
the first to aid in developing the gas fields in Indi- 
ana, lu 1881 he married Orpba Ella, daughter of 
William Buckingham of central Illinois, who is in a 
direct line descended from the old Buckingham fam- , 
ily of England. Mr. Gray is an active member of 
the Union league club and Marquette club of Chi- 
cago, as well as of St. Bernard cuuimandery of 
Chicago, 




THE NATIONAL CTCLOPJJDIA 




He received his early education at ttie scliouls in bis 
native Wwn, and prepared himself for admission to 
Yale co]lej,'e. He was passing through Chicago 
after visttiu^ a brother id Wiscouain, when the civil 
war broke out, and without hesilatiou he enlisted 
in the Hrst regiment lliat ofTcred, this being Ihc 88th 
Illinois infuiilrj. Enlisting as a private, he was 
elected captain as hood as the organization was 
completed. In this capacity lie went ro the front. 
and saw considerable service, passing through bat- 
tle after battle unscathed, until he was wounded at 
Cbickatnauga so seriously ihat his career na a sol- 
dier cnnie to an abrupt end, and he was invalided 
during the remainder of the war. Soon after hostili- 
ties ceased he removed to Ijouisiana, where his 
oratorical gifts and hie natural leaning toward pub- 
lic life soon mode him prominent in tlie republican 
party of that slate, and lie was appointed adiulant- 
ceJieral of Louisiana. When the eleelions for the 
forty-third cougress look place, Sheridan was one of 
the republican noniinees-at-targc, 
and was duly elected, but re- 
frained from taking his seat in 
consequence of a contest by 
ex-Oov. Pinchback. The con- 
test was finally decided in Sher- 
idan's favor, but his active career 
as a congressman was confined to 
the closing hours of the session. 
Though widely known through 
hisofticial and political relations 
Sheridan did not become a na- 
tional figure until hetindcrtook to 
reply to Robert Q. Ingersoll's at- 
tacks on Christianity. Although 
Sheridan had never been prom- 
inent in church mailers, fie vet 
liad the stem Impress of that Pu- 
ritan faith, which has always 
proved equal to any occasion, 
and this quality, coupled with his intellectual gifts, 
united to the opportunity that was exactly suited to 
his taste, made his " Answer to IngcrsotI " famous 
throughout the country. His flrst oildrcss was deliv- 
ered in Waaliiugion, D. C, wben Senator John Slier- 
man introduced bim lohis audience. The leclure en- 
titled "The Ho<lern Pagan" was an inNtantaneoua 
success, and was widely reproduced by the presslo all 
directions. It aroused so much interest that it was re- 
peated in tliesamecity,8nd was many times repeated 
with the same entliusiaaiicsuccesson his various lec- 
turing tour^. He brought to Ihe contcsl an intellect 
and a diplomacy equal to tluiae of Ills antagonist, and 
bad like himabroad and deep knowledge of human 
nature. His Sow of language, fertile imagination, 
abundance of facta, and sympathy for humanity, 
made hie discourse vigorous, Incisive and emphatic, 
and made hfs arraignment of Ingcrsoll, and hie de- 
fense of Ihe eternal truths, a brilliant and noble 
triumph which will alwayssbedtusterupon bis name. 

FOWLER, William Miles, merchant, was 

born at Milford, Conn., June 5, 1843, descendod 
from the Normans, tradition recording that Sir 
Bicbard Fowler of Foxley, county Bucks, time of 
C(Bur de Lion (1189-90), held large estates, and ac- 
companied Iticliard to the Holy Land. During the 
war lie maintained a body of British bowmen, all 
his own servants. For his services he was knighted 
by the king on the field of battle, and ordetvd to 
wear another crest. From Richard was descended 
Henry Fowler, who fought as an esquire under tlie 
reign of Henry V. In 1415. The large esiale pos- 
sessed by hia progenilots in Onfordahire and Bed- 
fordshire, Eng.. had, by tbe seventeenth century. 




£LrM:^SU 



mostly passed out of the family. Aylesbury ia 
Buckmgh amah ire ie where tbe original Fowlera of 
Hilford. Conn,, emigrated from, landing in Bostua 
June 36. 1687. William Fowler was the fintt paUin- 
tee of Milford, and one of the first magistrates of 
the New Haven colony in 1639. He bought Ihe 
original settlement of Milford in trust, for six coats. 
ten blankets, one kettle, twelve halchets, twelve 
boes. two dozeii knives and one dozen small band 
min-OTS. In 1839 he built a mill, the tirsi erected in 
tbe New Haven colony. Since Ihal lime eight gen- 
eraliona of the Fowlers have superintended lis oper- 
ations, the present William Fowler having built Ihe 
flflh mill on the precise spot, continning Ihi- windom 
of his honored ancestor; the original millaloi,e being 
used as a stepping-stone to tbe building, being the 
oldest establishea milling business in the stale. 
The original division of the homestead sites of seven 
acres and Iwo roods (lot No. 41). is now owned by 
the present William Fowler. iJie pn)|ierty never 
having passed out of the Fowler family. William 
Fowler, .Tr., first married, in 1645, Maiy Tapp (idster 
of tbe wife of Gov, Robert Treat), hv 
whom were bom to him all his chil- 
dren. He married bis second wife in 
1670. who was the widow of Rtebard 
Baldwin. William Fowler, son of 
William and Jane, married Anna 
Beard, daughter of Capt. John Beard, 
an officer prominent iu tbe King Philip 
war. John Fowler raised troops, ana 
served in Ihe Continental army, re- 
ceiving a commission from Ihe gen- 
eral assembly. He was born 1717. and 
died 1781. His son, John, was bom 
1748, married Marv Ann Harpin, and 
died 1787. Tlie eighth William, WH- 
tiani M. Fowler, married Sophia Bar- 
nett, 1866, by whom he had bom to 
him five sons and three daughters, _,, . ?L j 

He came to New York in 1857, at U^y^^c^^u*^ 
Ihe age of thirteen years, and learned 
the gun business, continning therein until the tm\- 
break of the civil war, when he reciuite.'] a ctnn- 
pany of the 1st Lincoln cavalry. On account of 
his extreme youth, being scarcely cighleeu yeaie 
old. he was not permitted to go to the front with his 
company, altbougb in appearauee. in patriotic, en- 
tbustosm, and In tbe characteristics that make up 
the soldier, especially tbe regard entertained by 
the men he ha<l enlisted, he was qualified for the 
command. He therefore went back lo Connecticut 
and enlisted from there as a private in the Isl Con- 
necticut light battery, serving lliree years, during 
wtiicti time be was in over twenty battles, bis re^- 
ment returning liome with but a handful of its ong- 
iual members. On his return to civil life he again 
entered the gun business, when in 1870 he bought 
out the celebrated gun manufactory of W. J, Siina 
& Bro., continuing the same until 1885. In 1878 he 
established the American Pbolo engraving company, 
devoting hia entire time to tbe building up ana per- 
fecting of this business, of which he is the president. 
He is also the inventor of several valuable [raients 
that will ahoitly be brought before the public in this 
country and Europe. In 1889 a reunion of the de- 
Bcciidanla of the first William Fowler was held at 
Milford. Conn,, it being the 350th anniversary of the 
settlement of tbe town, on which occasion a memo- 
rial stone bridge and tower were built over the mill 
stream, dedicated to the founders, each cap stone of 
whicli bears the name of one of tbe original settlera 
of this township. The first ceremony of the day of 
celebration was tbe baptism of a grandson of Will- 
iam M. Fowler (the tenth), on the banks of the mill 
stream, by the pastor of tbe cburcli of which tbe flrtt 
William was a leader and one of the seven pillars. 



OF AKEBIOAN BIOOBAPHT. 



135 




KABSH, Latber Rawsou, was born at Pom- 
pey, Onoudaptcotmty. N. Y.. Apr. 4.1818. Hista- 
Iber, Lutber Marsh, wuanativeuf Walpole. N. H., 
and died ut Cbicngo. at the age of sevenlv-seven, 
bi l&'iS. Hia motlier was Enimn Raweon, aaiicbter 
of Dr. Thunitts Hooper RawsoD, of CanntMlaVuB. 
Luiber Mai'sh was llie bfili, 
in <lircct Hue, rrotn Jobn 
Marab. one of tlie lirst set- 
tlers of Hadlcy, Mass., and 
afterward of Hartford, 
wbere he married Anne, 
daiigbtcr of John Wel)Sti:r, 

fivernor of Couneclicut, 
mma Rawsou was the 
fourth from Rev. Griudal 
Itawsou, the friend aud 
classmate of Cotton Math- 
er; auU was the sixth from 
Charles Channcy. the suir- 
ond president uf Hnrvanl. 
Luther R. was cdiicaled, 
in his boyhood, al Ibe then 
famous academy of Pom- 
ȣt.4lC,^tJ^ .^ ^ P^y- ""^ completed liis 
"'—'''^^e^C- -<C»«.«C; gciioolintf at Capl. Parl- 
^.—.^ V ridjje's Military Inslittition, 
y^ a tMiildietown, 'Conn., wbere 

were gathered some 2.")0 ca- 
dets from all parts of the Union. At tblt academy he 
took (be gold nud silver medal for Ibe best original 
speech by Ibe cadets under fifteen years of ajje. Af- 
ter this, lie was graduated fromalai^couulry store at 
Onondaga Hill; and then, at Skaneateles, entered the 
law ofBce of Freeborn Q. Jeweti, afterward judge 
c^ tbe court of appeals. This was in 1830, at seven- 
teen years of ajre, «nd for a sin yeare" course of 
■tudr. He finished his clerkship in Ibe oRlce of 
Samuel Beardsley, at Utica. Admitted to the bar 
in 1838, he commenced practice in New York city, 
assuciated with Henry R. Storrs, then the eloquent 
and acknowledged bend of the state bar. After the 
dealli of Mr. Storrs he returned to Uttca and prac- 
ticedln rartnership with Justus H. Itatlibone aud 
Samuel P. Lyman, which firm conducted the pro- 
ceedings on t>ehatf of the New York aiid Erie rail- 
nsd eoinimny. to acquire title to its roadbed from 
Binglumion to Lake Eric; and Mr. Marsh spent 
two winters along the line in examiuing and makiug 
abMracts of the titles, aud in trying the contested 
cases. In 1841 he permanently settled in New York 
ciiy. He was a member of several law firms, first, 
Marsh k, Sturtevant, with whom, for a time, Daniel 
Webster was associated as counsel; tlien as Marsh, 
LetiDnrd & Huffman, the partners being Jud;^ Wil- 
liam H. Leunanl and John T. HolTman, and after that 
•3 Ibe finn of Marsh, Coe & Wallis, a firm fur many 
years extensively known. He was in industrioua 
practice from 1836 to 1688, fifty-two yearn ; and dur- 
ing all that periixl has been a conspicuous ligiirc at 
the liar. He has been a verv succcHsful advocate, 
winning ditithictiun in many <^vil andfn some ciiml- 
nal ca.ies. He is represcnteii in the law rep<trt« of 
the higher courls by cases argued liy himself from 
llMO to 1888 inclusive, forty«iglit yeara. He retired 
from the Imr in 18H8, rcsifniing an extensive prac- 
tice in order to devole hiiiiself to sjiirltual studies. 
For several yeara he was (me of tbe viee-ii residents 
of the Union League club of New York, bavine 
been a member since 1668. He has been associiiled 
»"ilh the repnlilitan party from ila l)eginning Being 
■n able and popular oralor be liiw beeii nuich solicit- 
ed, for many years, as a speaker on iiolilical, con- 
viTial and otiier pui)ltc occasions. He edited, in 
1860. a volume of the anti-slavery 8)icecbes of lifs 
fMherin-law, Alvan Stewart. He was always reaily 
to cdiii in enterprises for tbe public benefit. It was 



mainly through his efforts that the intolerable and 
dangerous nuisance of burying the dead of tbe city 
within the citT was abolished, be drawing and ad- 
Tocaling. in the presa and before the legislalurc, tha 
act of ISoO; and drawing, also, tbe New York dly 
ordinance of 18-11, accomplishing that benign result. 
The city of New York ia indebted to Mr. Marsh 
and John MuUaly ntore than to any others, for tbe 
system of new tmrks. by which 3.t<40 acres were 
added to tbe pleasure groundsof that city. Hedivw 
the net of 1883. appointing the commissioner to lay 
out the grounds, und was inHueulial in its a<iop(ioii; 
and, as tite president of tbe commission, selected uod 
laid out the lands for the proposed parks. The re- 
port of such commission — a volume of 217 pucea, 
was the joint production of Mr. Miillaly ana him- 
self, which was aitopted in 1884, aud is a dowlug 
and elaborate si>e<;imen of park literalure. lie waa 
president of tbe commission to Bpj)rnise the value of 
the property to he taken, amounting nearly to %Vi.- 
000,000, and which property, at ibis lime, is probab- 
ly double that value, Hewas also chairman of the 
commission appointed to estimate the damages to 
the proprietors of tbelands taken by the staUt far the 
International Park al Niagara Falls. Ml'. Mai'sh's 
lastesare rather toward literalure Iban law. For many 

KITS a diligent student of the writings of Sweden- 
rg, he invesligalbd tlie facts and philosophy of 
modern spiritualism, as he would — as he used to say 
— tbe facts and principles of a law suit entnisled lo 
him. He became convinced of the realiiy <if the 
phenomena, and, nminiaining the verity of tne Bible, 
the miracles therein reconled, and the diviuily of 
the Saviour, against many spiritualists, he is a uold 
aud earnest advocate of the reality of its manifesla- 

ELLIS, John, physician and writer, was bom in 
AshHeld. Mass., Nov. 26, 1815. His creat-grand- 
fatlier was Rtchai-d Ellis, bom In Dublin, Ireland, 
in 1704, who emigrated to America at the age of 
twelve yeara, and was sold, until he became oi age, 
ostensibly to pay for his jMssage. 
He afterward became the first set- 
tler of Ashtleld, Mass. John Ellis 
received an academic education, 
and learning dencistrv practiced it 
in order lo earn suHlclent funds to 
enable him lo enter a niedical col- 
lege. He was graduated from the 
Medical ci>llege, PittsSeld, Mass., 
in 1843. and afterward attended the 
Medical college at Albany, N. Y. 
Heremove<llciOrendRapi<Is.Micb., 
and remained there for about two 
years. Sulwequeutly he spenl a 
winter in New York, attending lec- 
tures and vlsitfns pliysictans. He 
located in Detroit, Mich., in 1846, 
where he pmcticed until 1861, when 
he removeii to New York city. He 
had already acquii«l a reputation us a surgeon. In 
IM^ he made the Aral successful operation on re- 
cord, of tying both carotid arteries, al an lutervsl of 
only four and oiie-lialf day.t, In tlie neck of a jm- 
tient slowlv blcoling to death from a gun-shot 
wound, ife leetureil six yenrs in the Horn ceo pal liic 
Medical C()lleire in Cleveland, C. where his wife, 
Sarah M. Ellis, M.D., was gradunteij. He was 



Medieal college. He invented a pn>cess, covered by 
letlem imlent, for rcflnuif! |>etrolenm, and in 1881, 
Willi Ills Bini, W. D. Ellis iind T. M. Leonard pur- 
chase<l a tract of land at Edgewater, N. J., where 
he constructed ime of the most complete oil refiner- 
ies in the worlil. His success in business lias en- 
abled him lo can; out his philanthropic views. 




136 THE NATIONAL CYCIXIP^DIA 

8TEDKAN,EdmnndClareiice,poct,washorn master. Hia articles on Tennyson nnd Tlieocriius 

at Hnrlford, Conn.. Oct. 8, 1833. His [utlicr was Ed- and " Tlie Vtctorian Poets," appouriuij respectively 

iiiun<l Stedmun, a Hnrtford merchant, and Ilia moth- In the " Atlantic Monthly " and "Scnbner'a Maga- 

er, Elizabeib U. Dixige, the yoeloas, a sister »f Wil- zine," were the precui'sorsof hia " Victorian Poets " 

liam E. Dodge. This lady, after Mr. Stedman's and"PoeiBof America," thebe^siandard works oa 

dealli. roarrict) William B. Kinney, editor of the this period of EngliKh poeiiy. The criticisms are 

Newarli, (N.J.) " Advertiser." Through bis mother not distinctively original in Ireatmeui, hut ace 

Mr. S^tedman is rchited to William Eileiy Clianning learned, judicial, dlscrlmin sling, and guided by an 

and to Bishup Aithur Cleveland Coxe, and is also a almost unerring taste. Mr. Siedman has been long 

deacendantof tlie llev. Aaron Cleveland, the colonial engaged in a translation ot Tlieocritiis into En<:lisa 

poet. His tatlierdied ljeforeE<lmuQdwas two years hexameters, a work which will probably be ou'eof 

old, and at an early age the boy was sent to bis his greatest literary successes. In 18»8 he edii«d, 

§reat-uncle, James bledtnsn. at Norwich. Conn., to with Miss Ellen Hacltay Hutchinson, " The Library 

e educated. In 1849, in his sixteenth year, he ea- ot American Literature," a la^ and serviceable 

tered Yale college, almost the youngest member of worii in eleven folio volumes which has bod an enor- 

his class. He there distinguished himself iu Greek mous sale. In J889 he was I'cquested, alter the dec- 

and English cumpusilion, and received, in 18S1, a linathiu of James Russell Lowell, to give at Johns 

first prize for a poem on Westniinaler Abbey, pub- Hopkiua university a couree of seven lectures on the 

lisbird in the " Yale Literary Magazine." Owing to " Nature and Elements of Poetry," the Brat leciures 

some breaches of discipline he di'd not graduate, but of the first chair of poetry cslabliBhed in America. 

In 1871 Ihe university restored him to fiis class and He has since J^iteated lliem before Columbia college, 

also conferred upon him the degree of A.M. After New York, mid the L'uiversiiv of PenosyivaDia, 

some private study at Northampton. Mass., he be- and they have been published In the " Ceuluiv 

came, at nineteen, tlie editor of the " Norwich Tri- Magazine "and in boot form, " Tlic Nature and 

bune" (1853), and later, of the " Winsted Herald" Elements of Poetiy" (New York, 1883). Oliieisof 

(1854). In 1856 he went to New York and contrib- his publications are; "RipVan Winkleandhis Won- 

uted to such journals OS " Vanity Fair," " Putnam's derful Nap" (Boston, 1876); " Octaviiis Brooks 

Monthly," "llarper's Magazine," Frothingham and the New Faith" (New Y'ork, 1876); 

— the New York "Tributie," and "HawtborneandOlber PoemB"(1877);"Lyricsand 

" World." After a hard struggle Idyls with Other Poems " (London, 1879); '■ The Ra- 

■with poverty, he attracteil attea- ven with commenls ontbe P<iem " {Boston. 1882); a 

tioD by publishing, iu rapid sue- " Houseliold Edition " of bis poenis (1884). One of 

cession, "The Diamond Wed- hia beat ballads, "Morgan the Buccaneer," illustialed 

ding." asatirical broehure,"The by Howard Pyle, appeared In the ChristnidS oum- 

Balladof IjigerBieT,"and"How berof "Harper's Magazine ' for 1888. Mr Sted- 

Old John Brown Took Harper's mao has served on many committees in behalf of 

Ferry the last a strong and dis- art and literature and was vice-president under Mr. 

f. ^ tinctively American baiwd Tliese Lowell of the American copyright league, and aller 

^ poems led to an engagement on Mr. Lowell's resignation became hiniseli' its pie^- 

the Tribune and to Ihdr in- dent. Tlie success of the league in gelling ibe new 

ehistonmavolumeof virsccalled copyright law passed by congress waf - - '- - 




Poems Lyricand Idyllic (New measure owing to Mr. Stcdmnn's untiring elTortE In 
York 1860) In that year he Its behalf. Mr. btedman has accomplished his en- 
joined the staff of the World," ceilent work iHiih as poet and critic iu the hours 



and dunng Ihe fiist two years which otiier men devol« to leisure or recrealiott. 
of the war was the 'World's" And he lias also fonud time for many woidsof co- 
correspondent ai Hasbineton, couragemeut and mauv acts of kindness and geacr- 
si tudinipart of tlie lime at the headquarttrs of osity to younger members of the llteraiy cralt. It 
Gens Imn McDontll and George B MtClillaD. is perhaps too soon to predict his ultimate position 
}Iis health failing he accepted a confidential poei- in American letters, particularly as his poweis of 
tion in the office of Att y Gen Bates but resigned mind and ability for work are unabated. He bas a 
It in 1864 and returned to Ntw '\ ork Not finding delicate faucy, which lias found expression in many 
the hard, daily round of journalism conducive to airy and graceful poems, and a rettncment of art 
high literary eSort, he adopted a mercantile career, which never betrays him into turgid or hackneyed 
that he might devote his leisure to flnished composi- expression. As a tialtudiat he will rank among iho 
tion. He purchased a scat in the New York stock best in English literature, and as a critic of poetry 
exciiang^ and became a broker. He publislied at he stands in the front rank. He is, since Ihe death 
this ])enod; " Alice of Monmouth, an Idyl of Ihe I^ate of Jauics Russell Lowell, the most prominent man 
War, and Other Poems"(New York, 1894): "Tlie of American letters, and his position has l)een won 
BlaiiielcNS Prince, and Other Pi«ms " (Bosl<in. 1869). worthily, and rests on no whim of |)opiilar favor, 
and. in 1878, a collective oiition of his " Puelieal Tiie Euglish writer, William Sharp, iu speaking of 
Works." containing the well-known poems. "Pan bim de<:lareB. "There is none among ourselves who 
In Wall Street." " Toujours Amour." " The Door- equals him in breadth of sympathy or in ability lo 
aiep."elc. In 1871 he read his Gollyslmrg Ode he- resist allurement by the wiil-o'the-wisp of mere 
fore the reunhm of O. A. R. in Cleveland, O.; his form "; and Edmund W. Gosse cliaraclerizcs linn as 
" Dartmouth Ode " before Dartmouth college: his a lyrist of lilgh order, saying. " Hia poelry is fitsh 
" Monument of Greeley " nt the dedicttii<in In Green- and buoyant, full of memories of great deeds and 
wood cemetery of the printers' monument lo Horace joyous experiences, and seems to contain the ele- 
Grecley, and his "Death of Bryant" Iw-foi-e Hie menisof alaxilngjiiipularily." Mr. Stedman contem- 
Century club. With Thomas fi. Aldrich he edited plates soon giviiig up bis liu^ess life and devoting 
" Cameos, " a selection of choice pn.*«agns from the his remaining years lo literary work. Being a man 
works of Walter Savage Landor (Boston, 1874). of very active temperament and a hard woraer, pei^ 
He also edited " Poems of Austin Dotisiin " (New ha|is the most important of his contributions lo lit- 
York, 1880), prefaced by anadmirablecritical Intro- eraturo are yet to lie published. He bas (ixed hia 
duction. During the last ten or fifti'eii yeain Mr. home permanently in New York, only spending hia 
Stedman has devoted his literary Intents mainly to summers on Ihe sen-coast of New England. He is a 
the field of criticism, in which he is an acknowledged ineiiiber ot many literary and social organizations. 



OF AMEBIOAH BIOOBAPHT. 




TI7FIK, Edward, first govenior of Ohio under 
the stale constituiion (1803-7), wa* bora Id Carlisle. 
Bng., June 19, 1766. The family emigrated ti> America 
when lie vaa about elKhteen years old. He studied 
me«licltie at the Univereity of Pennsylvania, and 
then went to Charleston, Va. , where bis father bad 
settled, and began pnicllce in 1786. 
Ten years later he crossed the Ohio 
and settled at Clilllicollie, then the 
home of wild beasts. Settlers were 
few and far between. In 17)10 be 
was one of Iho di'legalcs from Ross 
county in the territorial legislature. 
which met at CiQcinnati. Dr. Tif- 
fin was unanimously chosen speak- 
er Id 1802 he represented bis 
county in ttie constituiional con- 
vention of which he became prcsi- 
ilenl and on tlie conclusion of their 
^^__ ])roceedings was elected governor 
^^_,-i. in 1803 without oppiwition. He was 
' "■ re elected two years later, and was 
mUuential in accomplishing the de- 
struction of the Burr-Qlennerhasset 
ex ped ition,bclnghielilycumpliment- 
ed by Presideiit Jefferaon for his ac- 
tion He was elected to the United 
btates Hcnnte in 1807, but resigned, 
and the next year was again chown memtjer of the 
Ohio 1ei;islature, President Madison nmdc him land 
immini^ioner. and afterward surveyor-general of Iho 
Woit. In 178a he married Mary, ilaugliter of Col. 
Robert Worthiuglon. who died in 1808. Aflerwaitl 
be married Mary Porter, of Delaware, who survived 
him. He had one son, who died in 18,13, and three 
daiightcrs. He died Aug. 9, 1829. 

HTINTINOTON, Samuel, governor of Ohio 
(I8rw-I0). was bom in Coventry, t^onn.. Oct. -I, 
1765. He was the son of Joseph HuuIitiKlou, I).D., 
a well-known clergyman of Coventir, Conn., and a 
grailuale of Yale College, who dieit in 17H.">. It Is 
aaid of bim rhal he was a very lil«Tal -minded miiiis- 
l«r. disbelieving the Calvinisticdoclriuesof the dav, 
and lending rather to the acceptance of a belief in 
univurHai salvation. Young Samuel was adopted 
and eduraied bv his uncle Samuel, who was one of 
the ^gners of tlie declaration of independence and 
who lii-ed in Norwich, Conn., where he was king's 
attorney at the time when his nephew and nami'siike 
iffai bom, and governor of Connecticut in 1786. As 




a matter of fact the boy became his adopted son. 
and having receive*! a suitable preparatory educa- 
tion, was sent to Yale, where he was graduated in 
1785. Returning to Norwich, he studied law and 
was admitted to the bar in I7SS. For tbe next sev- 
en or ei^lit year? he remained in Connecticut, prac- 
ticing his profession, but perceivingthe rapid growth 
of the West, he removed to Cleveland. 0., in 1801, 
and four years later to Painesvillc. In the mean- 
time be had already become judge of the court of 
common pleas and of the superior court, and he was 
aflcrwar<t chief justice of the state. He wasa mem- 
ber of the Ohio state constitutional convention of 
1802, and wiia in bolh bouses of tbe state legislature. 
In 1808 he was elei:ted governor of Ohio and served 
until 1810. As an illustration of the condition of 
Ohio at the time when Gov. Huntington emigrated 
thither, it is stated that while residing in Clnvelaod, 
being on one occasion on horseback on bis way 
borne, he was attacked within two miles of the town 
by a pack of wolves, which he fought off wilh his 
umbrella, and by pushing bis horse to full speed 
managed to escape. Gov.HuntingiODdiedinPaiues- 
ville. O., Junes. 1878. 

UBiaS, Betum Jonathan, governor of Ohio 



I born in Middle- 



(1810-14), second of the ; 
town. Conn., iii 1766. lie was 
well educated, being sent to 
Yale College, where he was 
gradiialed at the age of twenty, 
and tlii!n entered a law olHce as 
a student and studied law. In 
1788 his father sclUcd in Mari- 
etta. 0. .where the youn,;( r Meigs 
practictd law, and in 1807 and 
1808 was judce of tht. L 8 dis- 
trict court of Michigan lemtory 
having been alreaily m ISO'j 
chief jusiice of ilie supreme 
court of the slate of Ohio In 
1807 he was a candidate for gov 
emor of his sinle. and was elect 
ed. in a spirited rampai^u o\er 
bis comiwiitor, (>eD. Ma«°ie but 
not having had the uonstituiioTial 

aualiflcatioD of four rears Te«i 
ence in tbe slate, hi^ election 
wa.« conlpsled and decided against him Hi' waa ap- 
pointed U. S. wnntor in I'^ir but n-sigiipil lo enicr 
upon his second campaign for the governorship H« 




THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




i-cr^:^?Z5^ 



was elecidd governor of Oliio tn 1810, sdi) coDiinued 
to hul(i thai office udUI 1H14. During ihe war witli 
Great BrJlain it ia siiid tbtit he outstripped all the 
otbcT governors in the countiy by Ilia promptness and 
energy and tlie generst etHciency which hedisplayii) 
InorgHDiziDg the militia. Id March. 1814, Mr. Meigs 
WOK appointed by Prexitlent MadiiHiD pustmasier- 
general, aud lK.'iiig continued in Iliat oHJce by Freni- 
denl Monroe, remained in tlie cabinet until the end 
of 182!), when he retired from public life. He died 
March 39, IH3.f. 

WORTHINQTOK, Tbomaa, governor of Ohio 
(1814-18), was born in Jcffemm oinnty, Va., Ftb. 
10, 1789. His imrciits were wealilij, and after re- 
ceiving an excullcnt ednration. in 1790 he ^incd 
with F.dward Tiflin and a party 
of explorcrf, vlKiicd Marietta, 
. Cin<;innnli. and iilhentettlcmenis 
alonit the Dlito. finally locating 
In the Scioto Valley, lie sold 
bis pro])erly in Vi'rixinia, freed 
hiH Hlave«, and removed to Cliil- 
licolhe, where he purchased a 
)nrt!(> tract of land and erected 
the ttrsi frame houw in the Til- 
lage. He built Ibe flrst sawmill 
In the Tsllej- of the Scioto. He 
became surveyor of public lands, 
member of the conMitutional 
convention, and sulvicqucnily 
U. 8. senator from the new slate 
of Ohio. It is largely due to bis 
efforts tliat Ibe present boundaries 
of tlie state were Jlxeil when it was 
organized from the Northwestern 
territory. He introduti.'d Ibe bill 
by which the public taiida wero 
sold in quarter fiectfons. instead of tracts two miles 
square, as at first prouoHcd, thus Indiicfng vast liumi- 
gralion to the West. Hewasemploycdaslndianconi- 
mi»ilouer to negotiate treaties with Tccumseb and 
other hostile leaders, in wliich he was eminently suc- 
cessful. In 1814 he resigned bis scat in Ihe senate and 
was elected governor o? Ohio, being re-elected two 
years later. Ohio owes its system of collejn^s and 
public scliuols aud its slate Itiirary to his exertions. 
In 1832 he was a nieniber of asxembly and a promi- 
nent advocalo of the construction of canals, to 
wliich the state owes so much of Its subxcquent 
prospcritv. He died in New York citv June 20, I82T. 
BBO\^K, Eth&n AUen, governor of Ohio 
(1818-23), was bom in Fairfield county, Conn.. July 
4, IT06. He was educated by 
a private tutor and be^n tlie 
study of law at home, at the 
same time working on bis fs- 
thers farm. Ho went to New 
York city and entered the law 
office of'Alexander Hninlllon, 
who at Ihat tinie had a national 
reputation. But he was poor 
and wnt obliiri-d to give up bis 
business, until he could earn 
sufficient money In other pur- 
suits, when he resumed the study 
of Uw, and in 18112 was nilniil 
led to the bar, stariing for the 
It- . West in the same year with a 
cousin, passing through the 
wilds of Pennsylvania to the 
Monongahcia river. Here Ihey 
boushl some Bat-bottoni iMiats. 
loaded them with flour, and 
sailed down to New Orleans, 
whence, being unable to sell their cargo, they 
ihlpped the flour to Liverpool and took pas.siige on 
the same vessel. On his return he landed at Balti- 



more and purchased for his father a tract of land 
near the town of Rising Sun, Ind. He then prac- 
ticed law in Cincinnati, and in 1810 was chimin judge 
of the supreme court, which piieition he held for 
eight years, and in 1818 was elected governor of the 
alalc. His admlnlstratiiin was devoted to Ihe inter- 
nal improvements of the state, especially the canals. 
In 1820 he was re-elected governor, and one year 
hiter was elected to the U. S. senate. In 183(1 he 
appointed minister to Brazil, where he remained 



I public lands. Most 
vey of Ihe public do- 
On [he cloxe of his 




two years and finally retired from public life. Mr. 
Brown was never married, and diert suddenly while 
attending a democratic convention at Indianapolis, 
Nov. 24, 1M2. 

HO&BOW, Jeremiah, governor of Ohio (1822- 
2fl), wns bora at Geltvsburg, Fa., Oct. 6. 1770. He 
workeil on his father's fann during the summer and 
attended school in winter. In I79-> he went to Ihe 
settlement of Colunihin, near Cincinnati. He saved 
a little nioney with which be purchased a farm In 
Warren coiinty, where he went in the spring of 
1709. having married Mary Packhill. and bi^gan the 
pioneer farmer's life. In 1801 he was elected to 
the territorial legislature, and was sent to the state 
senate two _years later. He was neit chosen rep- 
resentative in congress and served until 1814, be- 
ing for ten yeais the sole representative to which 
Ohio wns entitled. During most of this time he was 
chalnnan of the committee on public lands. Is 
1813 he was elected to the U. S. senate, and became 
chairman of the committee 
of the laws for the public s 
main were drawn up by him. 

term he retired lo private life, hut in 1822 was elect- 
ed governor, and two years later re-elected, and 
July 4, 1839, he laid the cornerstone of the new 
state capitol at Columbus. In 1840 he was agtuo 
electcil to congress and served for one term. Of a 
family of six children only his eldest son stirvived 
him. He died March 22, 1852, 

TBIMBLE, Allen, governor of Ohio (IB2S-30). 
was bom in Augusta county, Va., Nov. 34, 1783, 
liie scm of Capt. James Trimble, who settled In Lex- 
ington, Ky., in 1784. aud died there some thirty 
years later. The son removed to Highland couDtv, 
Ohio, and entering politics became clerk nf tfie 
court and recorder from 1809 to 1818. During the 
war of 1M13 he cominandala troopof cavalrr under 
Gen. Harrison, and saw active service during two 
years of the war in campaigns against the Po^Uwa^ 
tamie Indians. In 1816 he en- 
tered the legislature, and serv- 
ed tlie state as representative, 
speaker of the bouse, and sen- 
ator until I82<t, having bnn act- 
ing governor in 1821-22. In 
1828 he was elected governor 
by nearly five-sixths of the en- 
lire vote, and was re-elected in 
1H2H. During his term he did 
nuich lo improve the condition 
of the public-schiMil system, en- 
couraged the establishment of 
manufacturing concerns, and_ 
slarlftl the reforms in the meth- 
oils of penitentiary coutnil which 
made the institution at Colum- 
bus a model. He was an ardent 
whig and did much to keep his 
party in power. Inl8;t2hei'etir- 
ed tii his fami and devoted him- 
self to agriculture, <3iUblishlng 
and becrmiiiig the llrst president of the Slate Agrl- 
cidtural Societv. In 1808 he married Margaret So- 
Dowcll, who died three years later, leaving him two 




^^d^ 



OF. AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 




^'•'J4<i^^k^ 



diUdren. Ho then laanied Rachel Woodrow who 
aurvived her husband Dearly a year. His youn^r 
brother WilliaiD, bom in 1786. was a Kallaot soldier 
In the war of 1812, and afler resigning from the re^- 
Ur army in 1819. became a U. S. senator from Ohio, 
and reriiaiued in the senate until his death in 1821. 
Gov. Trimble dipd at Hillaboro, 0., Feb. 3. 1870. 

HcABTUUK, Duacan, governor of Ohio 
{1830-32). waa boru in Dutchens county, N. Y., in 
1773. His parents emiBnited to the wilderness of 
Pennsylvania, and he served in several campaigns 
ai;!ainHt llie ludjaos, and later 
became chain - hearer to assist 
Gen. Mftssie in the survey of 
the Scioto valley. He assisted 
in platting the town ot Chilli- 
cothe, and curcbased a large 
tract of land near that place, 
which subsequently became 
very valuable, and was owned 
and occupied by his son-in-law, 
Gov. Wiljam Allen. In 1805 
he was elected a member of the 
state legislature, aftei-ward serv- 
ed in the war of 1812-15, was 
captured by the British near 
Detroit, but was released on pa- 
role. He returned to Ohio and 
was elected a member of con- 
gress. Being released by ex- 
change from his parole, he re-en- 
tered the army, and served under Gen. Harrison, suc- 
ceeding him in command of the northwestern army. 
He formed a plan for tbe conquest of Canada, and 
creased the St. Clair river, driving the militia before 
him, until he met a force of regulars with cannon 
loo great for him to cope with, when he heard that 
Gen. Geo. Izard, who was to support him, had with- 
drawn his troops to American soil, so he hastened 
back hj way of Detroit and disbanded his troops. 
After ailing several state offices he was sent to con- 
gress, in 1823, from the Chillicolhe district, and served 
one term, declining re-election. He invested largely 
In iron furnaces, mills and real eslale, and became 
very wealthy. In 18 hewas elected governor, and 
■t the end of his term retired to his beautiful farm, 
called Fruit Hill, near Chilllcothe, where be died in 
1840. 

LTIOAB, Robert, governor of Ohio (1832-80). 
— ■- — -it Shepherdstown, Va., Apr. 1, 1781. He 
received a good education, espe- 
cially In mathematics and sur- 
veying, and in 1S04 was made 
county surveyor of Scioto county. 
and two years later was commis- 
Bioned Justice of the peace for 
Union township. He accompan- 
ied Hull's army in the invasion 
of Canada, escaped from capture, 
and subsequently rose to llie ran^ 
of colonel. In f816 he was elect- 
ed member of the Ohio legisla- 
ture, and served for nineteen 
. years in the house and senate. In 
' 1883he was elected governor and 
re-elected tlie nejtt year. Thedif- 
licultica between Ohio and Mich- 
igan, which at one time threat- 
ened civil war, were averted by 
his efforts. Hewas appointed by 
President Van Buren territorial 
governor of Iowa, where he organized the common- 
school gj^m. To him Iowa is indebted for the 
Uw9 against the sale of Intoxicating liquors. Mr. 
Lucas married, in 1810, Elizabeth Brown, who died 
two yeaiB afterward. In 1817 he married Miss 
oDmnei, who, with her parents, had emigrated from 





England a year or two previously. He died in Iowa 
Feb. 7, 1853. 

TANCS, Joseph, governor of Ohio <183»-S8), 
was born in Washington county. Pa.. March 21. 
1780. His father emigrated to the Northwestern ter- 
ritory, locating on the southern bank of tbe Ohio 
river. When Joseph was twenty years old he re- 
moved north of the river and settled at Vrbana. He 
invested his wages from farm worli in a yoke of 
oxen and several barrels of sail, traveling through 
the setllemeuts selling salt to 
the fanners. In 1802 he mar- 
ried Miss Lcinen, of Urbana. _. .- 
During the war of 1812 be 
fought In Hull's army in the 
campaign against Canada, and 
after its conclusion obialned a 
contract to supply the northern 
arrav with provisions. He drove 
cattle and swine scores of miles 
through the forests on foot, 
bringing bread and other pro- 
visious on sleds and wagons. 
He was a raemher of the legis- 
lature for four years. He pur- 
chased a large Iraet of land on 
Blanc hard's Fork, and laid out 
the town of Rndlay. He was 
elected lo congress, and served 
there fifteen years. In 1836 he 
was elected governor of Ohio, 
and at the end of his term re- 
tired to his farm, but in 1843 was again elected to 
congress, serving one term. As a speaker he had a 
strong, rich voice, speaking with earnestness and 
force, but without the arts of a practised debater. 
While attending Iheconatilulional convention of 1800 
be was stricken with paralysis, and never recovered 
from its effects, dying at h& borne, after two years' 
illness, Aug. 24, 1852. 

SHANNON, Wilson, governor of Ohio (1688-40 
and 1842-44). was bom in Belmont county, O., Feb. 
24, 1803. His parents emigrated to Ohio fromPenu- 
sylvanla in 1802. He was educateil at the Ohio 
University at Athens, and afterward at the TranHvl 
vania L'mversity, at Lexington Ky after which be 
studied law and was admitted to 
liis practice iu Belmont county 
In 1833 he ran for congress on 
the democratic ticket, out was 
defeated by tliewhig candidate 
In 1884 he was elected county 
attorney, and in 1838 was elect 
ed governor of the state. Two 
years later he was renominated 
but was defeated by lliomas 
Corwin. In 1842 the same can 
didales were before tbe people 
and Mr. Shannon was elected 
governor. In the following 
spring he resigned his office to 
accept the mission to Mexico 
He returned on the annexation 
of Texas, and resumed tlie prac 
tice of law. In 1853 he was 
elected to congress from the 
Belmont district, and was later 
appointed by President Pierce 
territorial ccvernor of Kansas 
He resigned after serving fourteen months and be 
gan the practice of law in Ijcconipton 'W hen the 
capital was removed from that city to Topeka Kan 
saa having been admitted as a state Gov Shannon 
removed liis office and residence to the city of Law 
rence.wliere be resided until his death there In 1877. 

CORWIN, Thos., governor ot Ohio (1840-42). 
(See Index.) 



a bar beginning 




140 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



reaclied the age ol 




BABTLET, Uordecai, govenior of Ohio 
(1844-^6), was bora In Fayelte counly, Pa., Dec. 16, 
1TH3. Hia father was a farmer, and uuiil he bad 
~ Bixt«eu the boj lielped farm the 
paternal acres, obtaining his 
schooling afierthe usual fa»hioD 
of country boys at that time — 
at the ueareMl dislrict school 
and in the intervals of farm 
labor. In 180» he went to Jef- 
ferson county,0.,neor the mouth 
of Cross creek, where he settled 
as a fanner on his own account. 
On the breaking out of the war 
of 1813 with Qrent lirilnin he 
raised a company of volunteers, 
and viaa with Gen. Harrison in 
command of his company with 
the rank of captain. After the 
■war was over he removed to 
Richland county and opened 
, up a farm in the wilderness of 
that neighborhood. In the 
roeantime^he had saved money, 
' ' and this he iovested in a stock 

of mei'chandiEe and started a 
Store In Mansfield. Mr. Banley was in the state 
senate in I61T. and from 1818 to 182S was reg- 
istrar of the land office. In the latter year he was 
elected a member of congress, where he served four 
terms. He was the llrst meml)er of the house of 
representatives to pn>pose conversion of the land 
grants of Ohio into a permanent fund for the sup- 
port of common schools. In 1844 Mr. Bartley, who 
was a whig in politics, was elected governor of Ohio. 
He (lisplaved In the preparation of his state papers 
marked ability, and although he was not in favor of 
the Mexican war, yet he did not fail to do his ut- 
most In providing troops at the call of the president. 
Id 1846 QoT. Bartley declined a second noniiua' 
tlon and retired from public life. He passed the re- 
mainder of his days in the practice of law and in 
farming. He died in Mansfield, O,, Oct. 10, 18T0. 

BBBB, William, governor of Ohio (1846-^), 
was bom in Hamilton counly, O,. in 1)502. His fa- 
ther came from Wales and settled in the Miami val- 
ley. William was taUKht his 
letters at home, and learned 
English, Latin and mathemat- 
ics from a traveling schoolnus- 
ter. When he was twenty years 
old he opened a school at North 
llend, and taught for several 
years. In 182S he married Miss 
Shuck, daughter of a wealthy 
German resident of the vil- 
lage, Hia HChool became famous 
throughout the state. White he 
was teaching he studied law, 
and in 1881 was admitted to the 
bar and opened an oillce In 
Hamilton. He was es|iecially 
strong as a jury lawyer, his 
appeals being very tniichlnR 
aud aecoinpanic<l by learswhich 
:,-,..■ he could Rh,<d at aiiy time. He 

was an anient wiiig, and In 
1840 WHS prominent In helping 
the election of Qen. Harrison. Six years later 
he was elected governor. After the dose of his 
term he visited Wales and induce*! a large num- 
ber of Ills father's coiintrFinen to come to America 
and settle upon a tract of land which he had pur- 
chased In easiem TeiincsHcc, whither he also re- 
moved himself and remained until the outbreak of 
the war. He had purchased a large estate In Itock 
River county, III., to which he then retired. Presi- 



dent Lincoln appointed him emuiner of pensioD^ 
and later on he took an active part in the cation of 
Qen, Qrant. His health broke down, and feeling no 
longer able to superintend his farm he purchased a 
residence at Itockford, where he hved until his 
death. (Jet, 33, 1873. 

FOBD, 8eabtir7, governor of Ohio <1848-50), 
was born in Cheshire, Conn., in 1801, and removed 
to Ohio when a child, his father settling at Burton, 
where the boy was educated in the local academy. 
In 1830 he traveled through thealmost unbroken wil- 
derness to enter Yale College, and was graduated in 
1824. being, with Mr. 8, Witter, who entere<l with 
him. tlie first student from the new state of Ohio to 
graduate from Yale, While in New Haven he was 
elected the college " bully," an 
honor conferred only on one who 
was noted forstrength and daring. 
Retumiug home, he began the 
study of taw, and completed It in 
the office of Judge Peter Hitch- 
cock, the first chief justice of 
Ohio, who was his uncle. In 1837 
be was admitted to the bar. He 
took an interest in military affairs. 






i for s< 



iajor 




■m. Mr. 




general of militia, (n 1835 he was 
elected by the whigs their repre- 
sentative in the legislature from 
Qeauga county. He was twice 
re-elected and was spewkerin 1840. 
The next year he was elected to 
the senate, and served in the sen- 
ate aud assembly until 1848. when 
he WHS elected governor, retiring 
to his home at iTurton at the end of bis t< 
Ford was one of the moat efficient men know 
iegislatlve history of the state. He married, Sept. 
10, 1838. Harriet E. Cook, daughter of John Cook, 
of Burton. Gov. Ford died May 8. I8'>.^». 

WOOD, Beuben, governor of Ohio (1850-53), 
was bom at Middletown, Vt., In 1T93. His father 
was a chaplain in the revolutionary army. He ob- 
tained a good education In Canada, and while there 
in 1813 was drafted by the Canadians In fight against 
his own country. He escaped in the night with one 
companion, and In a birch-bark 
canoe crossed Lake Ontario, 
suffering many hardships until 
he reached Sackett's Harbor, 
N. Y., three days later. After 
serving in the army he catered 
the law office of Gen. Jones 
Clark, of Middletown, Vt, Id 
1818 he went to Cleveland, O., 
with only a silver quarter of a 
dollar in his pocket, and began 
law practice. In 182-^ he was 
elected to the state scnate.whlch 
office he filled for three terms. 
and was then appointed presid- 
ing judge of the court ol com- 
mon pleas of his district, and 
subsequently promoted to the 
supreme cinirt bench, serving 
as chief Justice during the lat- 
ter part of his term. In 1850 
he was noniinale<l for coventor 
by the democrats end elected. He was re-elect- 
ed in 18!)3, but becoming financially embarmsAed, 
resigned the governorship, and was appointed U. S. 
consul to VHipamiso, which office was supposed to 
l>e very remunerative. After about a year he re- 
turned and n>.sumed the practice of law for a short 
time, after which he retired to his farm, called "Ev- 
ergreen Place." about eight miles from Cleveland, 
where he died Oct. 1. 18W. 




OF AUESIOAN BIOGBAFHT. 




WTT^T T-T., William, governor ot Ohio (1858- 
96), was bora in Newcastle couDtj. Del., Id IHUl. 
He was graduated from Delaware College in 1H25, 
Bud stucued Uw, removing in ISBO to Lancaster, O., 
where he entered llie law office 
of PhilemoD Beectier, and was 
admilted to the bar Id 1832. 
Three years later lie was elected 
lo the legislature and served sev- 
eral years, beiOK twice chosen 
speaker of the house. In liSSS 
he was elected to congress and 
re-elected in 1840. lu 1845 he 
was apixiinled by President Polk 
second assislant postmaster-gen- 
eral. aud also commissioner of 
Indian afTairs. He was a man of 
superior ability and character. 
, In his administration of the In- 
dian department, he inaugurated 
many ueieded reforms, and won 
the regard of the Indians by his 
just and kind treatment. At the 



practice of law. In 184(1 he 
member of the constitutional convention and was cho- 
sen president at that body. In 18S1 he was elected 
lieutenant -go\-ernor, and id 1853, governor. Presi- 
dent. BiK^batian appointed htm, in 1657, first comp- 
troller of the U, S. treasure, a position which he 
held imtil the close of Buchanan's term, when he 
flnallv retired from politics. He never ma rrie.i, and 
at h'M denth. Sept. 3. 1865, left a large estate. 

CHASE, Salmon P., governor of Ohio {1854- 
60). (See Index.) 

SENHISON, WiUiam, govemorofOhio(18aO- 
63). H'ld L'. S. post master- general, was bom at Cin- 
cinnali. Nov. 23, 181.1. He was graduated from 
Jliaini University In 183.7, was adiiiiiteii to the liar 
in 1840. and settled at Columbus, O., where, after 
some veftrs of legal practice, he became president of 
a hank and of a rallroul. and was sent to the legis' 
laturc in 1848-50. In I8.16 he was a member of the 
Pittdliurg convention which organized the republi- 
can party, and ot that which met at Philadelphia, 
Jime 17th. and nominated J. C. Fremont. As gov- 
ernor in 18B0-83, he was very active in supixirting 
the war by raising troops and supplies, as well as in 
protecting the horaer: some of his measures at this 
time were thought to be at least extra-constitutional. 
In the confusion and excitement caused by the oul- 
bteak of the war, almost every citizen felt that lie 
knew just what ought to be done. Troops should 
be raised and sent M the front, and because it was 
not done on the instant, the governor was blamed 
for incNIciency. Every step he look brought a tor. 
rent of abuse from eveiy quarter. Deunison bore it 
silently and nobly. Not a word of reproach or 
complnint esca|)ed him, even when Ibe newspapers 
of the stale abused him for months for mismanage- 
ment at Camp Dennlson, and he had uothiug what- 
ever to do with Camp Deunison, It being under con- 
trol of tlie national pivemment. A word from the 
otHcer in command at the camp would have sliown 
the injustice of ibui abuse. In his comprehensive 
and valuable work on " Ohio in the War, " Whitelaw 
Reidsaj-sin reference to this unjust criticism: "To 
a man of his sensitive temper and desire for the 
good opinion of others, the unjust and measureless 
abuse to which bis earnest efforts had subjected him 
was agonizing. But he suffered no sign to esca^ 
him, and with a single-hearted devotion and an abil- 
ity for which the state had not credited him he pro- 
ceeded to the measures most necessary in the crisis." 
He was successful in favorably placing the loan au- 
thorized by the Million war bflt, and having secured 



141 



i, of which Ohio 




l„5°io •^'■^iX'-'^-^m. 



money he looked around for a 

 ' ppiy " 

ing all the troops of the Mississippi valley under 
one major-general. It was through Gov Denuison'a 
efforts that West Vircinia was 
saved to the Union. lie assured 
the Unionists of that state that 
if they would break off from old 
Virginia and adhere to the Union, 
he would send the necessary mih 
tary force to protect them W hen 
it oecame necessary to redeem 
this pledge, Gov. Itennlson sent 
Ohio nillitia, who, uniting with 
the loyal citizens, drove the Con- 
federates out of West Virginia 
At the beginning of the war his 
course in dealing with Kentucky, 
though afterward pnived to be a 
mist^en one. was the same as that 
adopted bv the general govern- 
ment. When the general gov 
emmcnt was about to refund to 
Ohio money used for niililary 

Snrposes, the state auditor and the attorney general 
ecided tliat Hits money could not legally be used 
again for military puiposes Gov Deunison, there- 
fore, through his personal agents, caused it to be 
collected from the U S go>emmeut and used it 
for military purposes insteaa of turning it into the 
Ohio state treasury. It was again refunded to Ohio, 
again collected by his agents, and was thus used 
over and over again so that he intercepted in all 
$1,077,600. It was a high handed measure, but jus- 
tiHable on ibe ground ofpublic necessity He pre- 
sented satisfactoiy accounts, and vouchers to the 
legislature for evur^ dollar, and no shadow was ever 
cast upon him or his ofticers who disbursed it. In 
1864 he presided over the national convention of his 

Eartv, at Baltimore, and was called into the cabinet 
y President Lincoln in October, 1864. as postmaster- 
general. ThiBposlhehelduntilJulr,186e. Aftersome 
years of comparative retirement and devotion to his 
piivate business, he reappeare<l in tbe political field 
as a member of the nationftl convention of 1880, and 
a candidate for the U. S. senatorship. but was not 
elected. He was a benefactor of Dennison Univer- 
sity, founded in 18,<tl at Granville. O. Gov. Deunison 
died June 15, 1882. 

TOD, David, governor of Ohio (1863-94), was 
bom at Youngstown, O., Feb. 31, 1805. His father 
had removed to the Western 
Keservein 1800. and David was 
sent to the common schools of 
the neighborhoiKi and after- 
ward lo the Burton Academy. 
He then studied law In the 
office of Col. Roswell Stone at 
Warren, and was admitted to 
the bar In 1827, being then in 
debt about (ll.OOO for boaid 
and tuition. His remarkable 
ability soon altrticted attention 
and he obLiined a large prac- 
tice, paid his debts, and saved 
the family home from fore- 
closure. President Jackson 
appointed him postmaster of 



War 







elected slate senator as a dem- yy 
ocrat. He pracliced law until i>C<. fi 

1844, when lie devoted himself '  1 

to developing the coal interests 
of the Mahoning Valley. The Pennsylvania canal w 
built largely through Ids efforts. He was interested 
the Cleveland and Mahoning railroad, of which coi 



142 



THE NATIOMAL CYCLOPEDIA 






psD^ he was the eecoud president. In 1844 he was 
ODioiualed for governor, but failed of election. Three 
joars later he was appointed minister to Brazil, 
where he reoiained nearly live years, when he re- 
turned home and devoted hi mseli to hlB coal-miniiie 
iuteresla. Id 1860 he was a delegate to the nalloual 
deiuocraiic conveDtiou, and was a supporter of Ste- 
phen A. Douglas, hut after Lincoln's election and 
the firing ou Fort Sumter, he became a republican, 
and in 1881 was elected governor. He waa a presi- 
dential elector in 186U, hut died before the electors 
met, Nov. 18, 1868. 

BBOUOH, Jolia, governor of Ohio (1864^5). 
and founder of the Cinciunali "Enquirer," waa 
bom at Marietta, 0.. Sept. 17, 1811. He was the 
son of an Englishman, who came over with Blennei- 
hasset in 1806,and his inotherwosa Pennsjivania ladj. 
from whuui bis characteriatio traits were inherited. 
At the age of fourteen he eutered a priniiug ofUce. 
and soon after l>e^n to siidjat the Ohio Univetsity, 
setting type moruiugs and evenings in order to sup- 
port himself, and studying during the day. At the 
close of Ills university term he began to read law, 
and went to Petersburg, Va., where for n short time 
he edited a newspaper. In 1881 ha returned lo 
Marietta, and became editor and proprietor of the 
"Washington County Republican," a democratic 
newspaper which he coochicled for two years, when 
he sold out, and with his brother purchased the 
"Ohio Eagle," published at 
Lancu»!ter. He was a vigor- 
ous political writer an<l soou 
comniaudcd attention. In 
I i< li 1835 be was elected clerk of 

BP-'^^ '^ ^''^ '■^^''^ senate, and in 1838 

f^! -w*. ,,. 1 ^^ chosen a member of the 

*;' " general assembly. He was 

, ^-~ ,  next elected auditor of state. 

and re-elected for a term of 
three years. In 1845 Mr. 
B rough purchased the "Phie- 
Di;(." a newspaper of Cincin- 
natj. and changed its name 
to the "Enquirer." He re- 
moved to Oiudnnatl and 
opened a law ofllce there, at 
the same time writing editor- 
ials for the paper. He retir- 
ed from politics in 1848, and 
sold half of his interest in the paper, in order to en- 
ter into railroad business. He became president of 
the Madison and Indianapolis Railway, and of the 
Bellefonlaine line, and in 18S1 removed to Cleve- 
land, whence he directed the aftairs of the line. He 
was urged at this tinie lo become candidate for gov- 
ernor on tl>e " Itepublicsn-Union " ticket, but he 
declined the honor. In 1863 the condition was quite 
ditTerent, and he accepted a nomination. The civil 
war was at its height; many of the lityal voters were 
ill the army, and the Southern symimthizers, under 
the lead of Mr. Vallandigham were openly defiant. 
Mr. VHllandighain was arrested and sent witliin 
the (.'oufederate lines, and (hiring his absence was 
nominated by the democmla for the governor, tliere 
eecnied a possibility that tlie "peace fnclion In the 
state might elect him. At tiiis time, Mr. Brough 
dcelarnl in a speech that the war had ended slaverv, 
and called on all tnic patriots to iiniic and mive tde 
Uuion. He received the republican nomination, and 
wasre-cleclcd by the overwhelming majority of lO.OlW 
votes. His ndministratioQ of tlie oDice hiaile him 
distinctively the "war governor" of Ohio, ultiioiigh 
there are three who ere sonietimcs ko called. He 
gathered 38.000 trooi>s for Gen. Grant in ten days, 
and worked with nothing else in view but the suc- 
cess of the Union cause, and the welfare of the sol- 
dier, whom he defended with llie unselfish loyalty 




S'„Ctr*„J. ^ ^*y4 



In 1889 he n 




and devotion of % knight of chivalry. Mr. Brough 
was an orator of much more than ordinary ability, 
and waa a clear, fluent and impassioned sp^her. his 
gifts in this line being always H8«l for the welfare 
of his state, and the success of some good cause. 
Mr. Brough was twice married, first in 1832 to 
Aclisah Prudeu, who died In 1838, and afterward in 
1843 to Caroline Nelson, bv whom he had two soni 
and two daughters. He died Aug. 34, 1865. 

COX, Jacob D., governor of Ohio (1866-68). 
(See Index.) 

HATES, Butherford Bircli&rd, governor of 
Ohio (1868-72). (Scu Index.) 

NOTES, Edward FoIlenBbee,governor of Ohio 
(1873-74), was horn at Haverhill, Moss, Oct. 8. 1832, 
After serving for five years in a 
printing oince, he worked his 
way tUrongh college, and was 
gtiidualed from Dartmouth in 
1857, and from the Cincinnati 
Law School in 1858. engaging 
then in the practice of the law in 
that city. Injuly, 1861, he en- 
tered the army as major of the 
39th Oliio regiment of infantry. 
and soon after was promoted to 
be its colonel. Ou July 4, 1864, 
at Ituff's Mills. Oa., in a cliarge 
upon the enemy's earthworks. 
be lost a leg. Ho left the army 
a brevet brigadier-general. On 
his recovery he commanded 
Camp Dennisou. Since the war 
he served as city solicitor of Cin- 
cinnati, as proliate judge of Ham- 
ilton connty.asgovemor of Ohio, 
and as minister to France under 
appoiutraetit of President Hayes, 
elected lo the office of judge of the su[>erior court of 
Cincinnati for a term of five years. He was widely 
known as a public speaker of more than i>rdinary 
power, and in nearly every political campaign since 
the war he waa active, not onlv In Ohio, but in other 
slates. He died suddenly on 'Sept. 7. 18W). 

ALLEK, William, governor of Ohio (1874-76), 
was bom at Edenton. N. C. in 1806. His early life 
was spent at Lynchburg, Va., wlicnre he walked 
to Cliillicothe, O.. where lie studied fin \\\i> vim- ;it 
an academy, and then read law, 
and was admitted lo the Ohio 
bar at the age of twenty-one. 
Having formed a partnership 
with a Col. King, Allen soon be- 
came widely known aa a labor- 
ious and successful practitioner. 
He tfiumpbanlly defended a pris- 
oner charged with murder, and 
was made the democratic candi- 
date for the Twenty-third U. S. 
congress in 1833, io whicli he 
was elected by a majority of one , 
vcrte. lu the house of represent- 
alivea Mr. Allen became the fore- 
mo^ deniocralic orator, signal- 
izing liiniself by a speech ujwn 
Ibe Ohio boundary line question, jCr^' ^.^^ ' ^ 
in which he anlugoni/J^ Jolin ^^^ i_--^%i£^*-*-i 
Quincy Adams. He refused to 
accept any office except such aa 
was conferred ujjon him by an electinn itP liie people. 
and beiieveil in and advocated whal lir Iwlieved to 
be <lcmocratic principles. In the pri'si 
paign of 1838, which resulted in I hi 
Martin Van Buren. he waa especially \ 
Mareb. 1837. entered the U. S. senali' 
an age youneer than that of any oIIkt nicuil«T n ho 
had ever belonged to that body. He was re-elected 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHT. 



143 



fn 184S. h&Tin^ bv hie own efforts secured the choice 
of a democratic legislature in Ohio pledged to vote 
for bim. In the democralic coDveotion of It^, 
wheD there was a deadlock between tlie friends of 
Cass and Van Buren, a committee composed of the 
supporters of both wailed upon Mr. Allen and urged 
him in the interests of harmon; to ucix'pt the Quin- 
ination. This he positifely refused because of hia 
relations with Caas, who afterwards received the 
nomination. During the campaign he acconipanied 
Cass in a tour through the sintea of New York and 
Penusjlvania. and when Mr. Caas was defeated, and 
Mb own term in the senate bad ended, withdrew from 
public affaira. In 1873 he was urged to stand as 
democratic candidate for the governorship of Ohio, 
and was elected, but in 18T5, in a candidacy for re- 
election, he accepted the aid of the greenback party 
and made thai issue the foremost in the canvass. He 
was not followed by hia party, a large minibcr of 
whom refused to afSlinte with the grceubnckers, and 
be was badly defeated, the successful candidate be- 
ing Kutherfurd B. Hayes, who made a brilliant can- 
vass, and gained by reason of it n national reputation 
which made him an available and successful candi- 
date for the presidency in 1H~8. Gov. Alien was 
strong in his convictions, and when be esjMiused the 
cause of an irredeemable paper currency he became 
its most prominent representative anu one of its 
moat earnest and eloquent advocates. In 1844 he was 
equally earnest in the matter of a dispuie between 
Great Britain and the United States, and is reckoned 
as the originator of the political war-crv, " Fifty -four 
forty or flffht.*' in the connection with the line of 
bouudarv for Oregon. He died July 11,1879. 

TOnNO, Thomaa IiOwry, governor of Ohio 
(1877-78), was bom in Killyleagli, on the estate of 
Lord DufTerin. in the North of Ireland, Dec. 14, 
1832. He came to the United dilates at the age of 
fifteen years and enlisted in the United Slates army, 
servinK as private for ten years, beginning during 
the last year of the Mexican war. In 1859 he left 
the service and went to Cincinmiti, where he studied 
Bl the Ian' school and was graduated. At the time 
of the breaking out of the civil war. he was assistant 
superintendent of the House of Refuge Reform 
School, and as he personally knew 
Gen. Winfield Scott, he wrote to 
him. under date March 18, 1861. 
volunteering hia services for the 
war. He entered the army and 
was commissioned colonef, and 
after displaying extraordinary 
gallantry at the battle of Itesaca 
he waa brevetled brigadier-gen- 
eral of vohinteeis. His health 




•feJUJ-A-tW^ 




honorable discharge September, 
1804. Returning to Ohio, he was 
elected a member of the legislature 
in 1886: the following year he be- 
came recorder of Hamilton coun- 
ty, and internal revenue BU|>er' 
visor in 1868. In 1873 he served 
as a state senator and in 1875 
was elected lieiilenant-govenior 
of Ohio, becomi