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The New 

Building Estimator 



A Practical Guide to Estimating 
the Cost of Labor and Material in 
Building Construction, from Exca- 
vation to Finish; with Various 
Practical Examples of Work Pre- 
sented in Detail, and with Labor 
Figured Chiefly in Hours and 
Quantities. A Handbook for 
Architects, Builders, Contrac- 
tors, Appraisers, Engineers, 
Superintendents and Draftsmen. 

Eleventh Edition, Revised and Enlarged 
BY 

WILLIAM ARTHUR 



NEW YORK 
DAVID WILLIAMS COMPANY 

231-241 WEST 39th STREET 
1914 



COPYRIGHTED 1909 
By DAVID WILLIAMS CO. 

COPYRIGHTED 1910 
By DAVID WILLIAMS CO. 

COPYRIGHT, 1913. 
3y DAVID WILLIAMS CO, 



dP. 



PREFACE TO THE TENTH EDITION 

"The Building Estimator," of which the present book is an 
outgrowth, had only 150 pages, and an Index of two; this 
edition contains 732 pages and an Index of seventeen. In 
such a large work as this now is, a good Index is of great 
value, and it is suggested that it be frequently consulted. 

The belief is that the increase in value has more than kept 
pace with the bulk. An endeavor to keep down the thick- 
ness has been made by using a thinner paper than in for- 
mer editions. 

The field of building is always expanding, and the author 
and publishers try to keep the "New Building Estimator" 
abreast of every progressive development. Therefore, in 
addition to the main part of the book dealing with the stand- 
ard construction, there are detailed figures on reinforced 
concrete, and many chapters on Square, Cubic Foot, and 
Comparative Costs, on Physical Valuation, and Depreciation 
that serve alike for architects, contractors, insurance and 
other appraisers, and railroad engineers. Many states have 
already valued their railroads, and the same work has been 
recommended by high authority for the nation at large, 
while all the buildings of great cities like Philadelphia, 
Cleveland, St. Paul, Denver, etc., have been assessed on a 
square foot basis. The figures are here put in compact form 
for the use of all. 

The ordinary tabulated matter is given, but there are also 
special tables for quick calculation, including a series for es- 
timating plaster. An hourly Wage Table has been prepared 
for this edition in order to save weekly calculations. The 
ordinary wage table is of no use to builders who pay by the 
hour only. 

The book has from the first been received with favor by 
the trade press, by architects, railroad engineers, contrac- 
tors, appraisers, assessors, students, and others. It is not 



without faults, and some errors are naturally to be found in 
such a large work; yet it is gratifying to know that it serves 
as a useful tool over all the North American continent and 
beyond. Faults can sometimes be cured, and errors cor- 
rected, when they are pointed out, and the publishers invite 
criticisms and suggestions. 

The thanks of the author and the publishers are given to 
those who have helped to make the book better than it would 
have been without such assistance. We live in an age when 
men and not man alone do the best work. Both author and 
publishers hope to keep "The New Building Estimator" up 
to date in such a way as will make it universally recognized 
as not only the standard book on builders' cost data, but as 
an indispensable companion of all who make appraisements 
and physical valuations on farms, in cities, on railroads, or 
elsewhere. 

November, 1912. 



PREFACE TO THE TWELTH EDITION 

The rapid sale of the Tenth and Eleventh editions shows 
that "The New Building Estimator" in its enlarged form 
serves the needs of all connected with building in a more 
satisfactory manner than ever. Since the preface to the 
Tenth edition 'was written, a national law has been passed 
providing for the physical valuation of all the railroads of 
the United States. The book is specially adapted for this 
work with illustrations of values that apply to all kinds 
of railroad structures, and methods of estimating them. 
The expectation was that such a law would be passed by 
Congress, and in this field, as in others, the endeavor is to 
keep "The New Building Estimator" abreast of the times. 
August, 1913 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Part One 

APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING PAGE 
Excavating, Wood Piling, Concrete, Rubble, Cut Stone, Brick- 
work 11 

Brickwork, Steel and Iron, Carpentry 12 

Carpentry 13 

Tin and Galv. Iron, Plaster, Mill work '. 31 

Millwork 31 

Paint, Percentages 33 

Percentages of Various Kinds of Buildings 33 

Relative Cost of Brick and Glass 39 

Relative Cost of Brick and Frame Buildings 39 

Part Two 
CHAPTEE DETAILED ESTIMATING 

I Excavation and Filling 40 

II Piling 43 

III Concrete 45 

IV Stonework 61 

V Brickwork 74 

VI Municipal Work 97 

VII Fireproofing: Tile: Reinforced Concrete 112 

VIII Cement Stone 129 

IX Plaster 134 

X Carpenter and Joiner Work 150 

XI Millwork and Glass 180 

XII Glass . 205 

XIII Structural Steel and Iron 210 

XIV Hardware 223 

XV Sheet metal Work 235 

XVI Roofing 245 

XVII Painting 259 

XVIII Plumbing and Gas Fitting 278 



CHAPTER PAGE 

XIX Heating and Lighting 287 

XX Tiling 295 

XXI Cost of Buildings per Sq and Cu Ft 300 

XXII Eailroad Buildings per Sq and Cu Ft 314 

XXIII Standard Engine Houses 338 

XXIV Standard Sizes and Grades 345 

XXV Odds and Ends 354 

XXVI Hints on House Building 360 

XXVII Cottages in Spain 384 

XXVIII Weights and Measures 393 

XXIX Counting the Cost 413 

XXX Actual Cost of Reinforced Concrete . . 436 

XXXI Measurement of Building Work 485 

XXXII Comparative Costs 510 

XXXIII Cornices and Canvas Roofs 522 

XXXIV Sprinkler System 528 

XXXV Silos 535 

XXXVI Depreciation 556 

XXXVII Physical Valuation General Principles 571 

XXXVIII Physical Valuation Details ! 583 

XXXIX Railroad Figures 600 

XL Grain Elevators 625 

XLI Square Foot Costs 629 

XLH Approximate Cost of Wood Trusses 648 

XLIII Short Cuts 653 

XLIV Equipment of Buildings 659 

XLV Apartment Houses 667 

XLVI Wage Table 673 

XLVII Ornamental Iron Work 685 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



aver average 

bldg building 

bm board measure 

c i cast iron 

col column 

c p candle power 

cu ft, cf cubic foot or feet 

cu in, ci cubic inch or inches 

cu yd, cy, cubic yard or yards 

diam diameter 

dbl double 

d s double strength 

d and m dressed and matched 

d m and b dressed, matched 

and beaded 

est, estg estimate, estimating 
ex met expanded metal 
fob free on board, i, e, freight 

paid 

galv i galvanized iron 
h p horse power 
lab labor 

lin ft, if lineal foot or feet 
matl material 
M 1,000 
'm measure 
mult multiply or plied 



N P Norway pine 

o c on center 

O F Oregon fir 

O G style of door moulding 

P G style of door moulding 

pcs pieces 

q s quarter sawed 

r c red cedar 

r o red oak 

r w red wood 

s s single strength (glass) 

sq square, squares, 100 sq ft 

sq ft, s f square foot or feet 

s g straight grained 

surf surface 

T and G tongued and grooved 

v g vertical grained 

wt weight 

w o white oak 

w p white pine 

win window 

wrot wrought 

yd yard 

y p yellow pine 

" foot or feet; inch or 
inches 



INTRODUCTORY. 

(Reprinted from Earlier Editions.) 



" For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not 
down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have suf- 
ficient to finish it? Lest haply, after he hath laid the founda- 
tion, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin 'to 
mock him, saying, This man began to build and was not 
able to finish." 

" The house is never built for less than the builder counted 
on." " The Cloister and the Hearth." 

This is an age of machinery, and " The Building Estimator " 
is put forth as another labor-saving machine. 

A book of this kind is necessary for estimators and con- 
tractors as much as special books are for men in other callings. 
It is impossible to remember everything hard to keep many 
figures in the mind without an occasional reference to tabu- 
lated results gained from experience. It would be better to 
say average experience, for I once asked three brick con- 
tractors how much lime was required for a thousand brick, 
and the first said half a barrel, the next a barrel and a half, 
and the last a barrel. They did their work close to the supply 
yards, and probably had never taken the pains to get accurate 
figures, or they perhaps believed in different proportions of 
sand. 

About two years ago I wanted more precise information than 
I possessed on certain points, but I did not want to compile it 
myself. Willing to profit by the labor of others I looked into 
the estimating parts -of several standard books, such as Traut- 
wine's and Kidder's, only to find that they had too little 
space devoted to this branch for my particular purpose, and 
too much to what did not concern me. Then I procured half 
a dozen other books, and after examining them concluded that 
with patience I could, for my own requirements, at least, do 
better than had yet been done. 



2 THE ^ NE W ' BUIDING ESTIMATOR 



too 'i&uch experience to be satisfied with 
what was presented by several writers who have worked in 
this field. Before then $7,000,000 of estimates and bids had 
passed through my hands, and $500,000 worth of completed 
buildings, and since then I have made estimates amounting 
to $3,000,000 or $4,000,000. Only on one a $40,000 building- 
had there been any loss, and that of not more than two or 
three hundred dollars. On all others the profit was always 
at least a little more than was estimated. 

Of what use, then, is such a book as this to an estimator 
who has certainly had a fair amount of experience in working 
without one? Much in every way. It saves time, it saves the 
memory, it gives certainty instead of guesswork, for what 
has been once done can be done again, it preserves the old 
and gathers the new. There are many new things under the 
sun for each succeeding generation. It is better to keep a 
record than to lose the old that is useful or the new that we 
continually meet and welcome. 

Doctors and bricklayers are not the only ones who disagree. 
Some years ago I was estimating a large warehouse in Omaha. 
There was a floor of a special kind used. I met a few 
experienced contractors who were not estimating on the work, 
and asked them how much it was worth per square. The 
first figure was $1.50, the second $3, and the third $4. I felt 
safe at $3, and have since found that the half would have 
been sufficient. I feel sure that the labor figures will be of 
value to the old contractor as well as to the beginner; and 
something will be found that the wisest does not know, for 
no man knows everything. 

"When a friend asked Dr. Johnson how he came to define 
"pastern" in a wrong way, he bravely answered: "Sheer 
ignorance, sir." I am convinced that many low bids arise 
as much from sheer ignorance as from any desire to prove 
in the face of common experience that two and two equal five. 

There are likely to be some mistakes in "The Building 
Estimator," and he who seeks shall find. I have estimated 
and corrected all by myself, and one misses what two see. 
I had no idea when I began to hunt through estimate books 
and labor reports years old that there would be so much work 



INTRODUCTORY 3 

connected with the task I had laid down, or it is likely that 
I should have let it pass to a more earnest brother. 

" The Building Estimator " will be of value in several ways: 

1: It will give weights and measures we understand. We 
live in a new century, and we have new names; the West is 
not the East, and some of the measures we use are different 
from those adhered to in other sections of the country. I do 
not know what a " toise " is, and neither do nine-tenths of our 
builders. We do not buy or measure sand by the " cask," but 
by the car or yard; and we have finally and forevermore taken 
leave of the cord and the perch. The perch may be 16$, 22, 
24 or 25 cf. If one takes the wrong choice he is apt to 
lose his money. I have heard of a contractor who was not 
any too well pleased when he found that the perch he thought 
he bought for a large contract and the one he received were 
not quite the same. We use the cubic foot or yard. Some 
day when we become really progressive we shall turn to the 
metric system. 

2: Only a few years ago there were no stone molders. A 
straight molded sill cost from four to fifteen times as much 
as a plain one. Now with the aid of the machine the difference 
is largely done away with. Then the estimator had to be 
cautious about taking work by the cubic foot; now, if it is 
straight, that is the most reasonable way to estimate it. The 
books of the last century still have the old figures and rules. 

3: In the 19th century lime plaster was fashionable; now 
cement takes the place of lime. I met a plasterer the other 
day, and he told me that for the first time in nine years he 
was plastering a small building with the old brand. The 
tables for allowances in the standard books have not a word 
to say about the quantities for cement plaster, and the allow- 
ances in this book deal chiefly with the new kind. 

The astonishing developments in metal lath, expanding metal 
and concrete, have turned our old figures and ideas upside 
down. The walls of immense manufacturing buildings are 
now put up only two or three inches thick. It is time to 
recognize this new method of construction in a new book. 

When the walls are up they are covered with cold-water 
paint, put on with compressed air with either steam or hand 



4 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

power behind it. Our grandfathers never heard of this paint 
and this brush. 

4: After all the inevitable corrections are made "The 
Building Estimator " may serve as a kind of a standard. 
Those who refer to it will not, of course, bring in bids vary- 
ing only one or two per cent, but the present differences ought 
to be done away with. They are sometimes large enough to 
make one wonder if all contractors use the same multiplication 
table. Occasionally, however, there are factors that enter into 
a complete bid and make a larger difference than seems 
warranted by the price of material and labor. There are often 
cases where B is sure that C, the successful contractor, is 
going to lose money, while C has a subbid or a favorable price 
of material that keeps him safe. Or, again, C may know a 
better way of doing the work. 

With experienced contractors, one would think, bids ought 
to come within five per cent of difference, but they sometimes 
stretch to thirty, and on new kinds of work even to fifty. I 
recently saw something akin to what every contractor sees 
many times in the course of a year: On some plain mill work 
that I had estimated at $3,400, the bids from men who did 
nothing else than supply this material ranged from $3,100 to 
$4,800. The highest wanted half as much again as the lowest. 
One mill might have plenty of work and put in a high figure; 
another might be short of work and cut prices. When this 
happens with millmen who spend their lives at one specialty 
what can be expected from general contractors who sometimes 
estimate a complete building themselves? On a U. S. contract 
let for South Dakota the lowest bid was $376,000, and the 
highest $490,000, and both bidders were experienced con- 
tractors. 

And while we desire to see greater uniformity, it is well 
to remember that it is not only actual cost which affects the 
result, but the percentage added for risk and profit. Three 
per cent on $100,000 makes a total of $103,000; ten, $110,000; 
and twenty-five, which I have seen recommended by a kind- 
hearted parlor estimator, $125,000. 

Another recommends three per cent for office expenses, and 
ten per cent for the pocket. Would that it could be so 



INTRODUCTORY 5 

arranged! But there are difficulties in the way. The "Cost 
Plus a Fixed Sum " system is a good one. 

But, again, the two lowest bids sometimes come surprisingly 
near each other. On No. 3 the contractor whose bid was next 
to our accepted one, came within $400 of $125,000; on the 
Omaha Public Library running about $80,000, I think we 
came next to him, but about $350 higher. 

And as a final word on uniform bids, unreliable estimates, 
and so forth, it is often necessary to look at the date when 
they were made. Prices sometimes soar or fall in a month or 
even less. An architect or contractor can not control markets, 
monopolies, or unions. 



Perhaps I should say a few words as to how estimating is 
done and trouble avoided. It might be as well to pass on 
without doing so, as experience is the best teacher, but some 
counsel may be ventured: 

A: In the first place there is no such thing as time in 
proportion to cost in estimating. On some buildings an 
estimator might spend three or four days in figuring millwork 
alone, and on others a few hours might be sufficient; while 
$1,000 of hardware might take as long as ten times that 
amount of plain brickwork. Examine a plan before you 
promise an architect to take it back with your bid in a few 
hours. 

B: In making up an estimate it is better and safer to keep 
each factor of a complete bid separate, to finish and double- 
line it, and to make a summary of all the items at the end. 
By this method any error or change in plan, in brickwork, 
suppose, can be added under its proper heading without 
affecting plaster or hardware; while if the total is carried 
from page to page it is impossible to change a figure without 
making a risky change necessary clear through. 

And the same system should be followed under all sub- 
headings. Suppose, for example, that there are twenty to forty 
different items of concrete in a foundation: If the whole 
amount is set down as so many cy there is no way of making 



6 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

a separation in case of a change. If a change is made the 
whole laborious work has to be gone over again; while if set 
down in detail probably three-fourths of the figures have only 
to be copied. 

C: Get the exact cost and add whatever profits you think 
possible. You will not get anything extra in these latter days. 
Some contractors add the profit on each article as they go 
along and can never tell exactly what they have apart from 
the cost. It is not a good practice. 

D: " Order is heaven's first law." As far as possible make 
out an estimate in its natural order. Some specifications put 
on the finals before the rafters are in place. Excavation 
usually comes first and painting or shelf hardware last. 

E: Make out your estimates in a book and keep it, and 
correct " The Building Estimator " or any other estimator by 
your own experience. " Keep a thing seven years and you 
are sure to find a use for it." It may be that the building 
burns and the owner needs your help, or that you want to 
buy it with your surplus profits, or that you are even elected 
assessor. 

Keep a record of time on each building and make com- 
parisons. Why should the labor on one building take ten to 
forty per cent more time than that of another? 

F: It is, of course, a matter of choice, but I never like to 
hear a bid read out for $40,000.11. I always think that for 
mere good luck the few cents ought to be given the owner. 
Estimating is not an exact science like mathematics. In 
general I prefer to add or deduct either two or three cents 
if necessary so that the cent column will end in or 5. By 
the time the end is reached a fair average is made, and this 
method makes the adding easier. 

G: In making an approximate estimate for an owner or 
architect be liberal. There are many different ways of in- 
creasing the cost of a building by the addition of a few words 
to the specifications. Brick properly shoved means at least 
fifty cents a thousand extra. It is seldom properly shoved 
although specified. A change to a better pressed brick may 
be worth $10 or $20 a thousand. Cement Is more expensive 
than lime, and Portland cement is more expensive than 



INTRODUCTORY 7 

natural. Hardwood finish cost more than cypress, and oil 
finish rubbed down costs more than two coats of cheap paint. 

H: Do not be afraid of an extra. It has its advantages. 
Architects do not, as a rule, like extras, and owners who order 
them groan when the bill is presented, but why should they? 
The proper way is to settle for an extra before a tool is lifted, 
but whether this is done or another method followed, the 
matter ought to be cleared up at the end of each month. 
" Short accounts make long friends." 

Any architect who is worth houseroom will give a written* 
order for an extra so that the contractor may have authority 
to go ahead. If an architect asserts that the work belongs to 
the original contract, the time to settle the matter is when 
both parties are familiar with the conditions. 

It is rather a risky thing to sign a contract which gives one 
party the sole right to settle all disputes. 

If possible, use the " Uniform Contract." It may be safely 
signed without examination. For many years it has been 
under the eyes of builders, architects and lawyers in all sec- 
tions of the country, and the general conclusion is that for 
contractors and owners alike it is the best contract ever 
devised. Of course, if an owner has the power he will use 
another and more one-sided instrument. That is human 
nature. 

I: Get subbids made out "according to plans and specifi- 
cations," and do not accept a list. Material men and sub- 
contractors are sometimes a little unreasonable. A general 
contractor has to take chances of all mistakes, while a sub- 
contractor in following the list method refuses to take chances 
on even his small proportion. 

J: If you are so fortunate as to proceed from estimating 
to construction, insure against fire, lightning, tornadoes, and 
accident to person or building. " Then," you say, " the insur- 
ance men would get all the profits." It is a sad state of 
affairs, but can you risk losing all you have? Suppose two 
or three men are killed? Suppose a fire gets the upper hand? 
Most Omaha contractors remember a firm that finished a 
schoolhouse ready to turn over. Their insurance lapsed, and 
the building was destroyed by fire before it was accepted. 



8 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

That ended their career in the building line. Another Omaha 
contractor with lapsed insurance had to pay $1,300 for a 
fatal accident. On No. 5 one partition was burned out, and 
the building might easily have followed. On No. 3 a man was 
killed. It is far too dangerous to risk fire loss and damage 
suits without insurance. 

Allow building permits according to local rate, which ought 
to be about ten cents per $100. 

K: Do not accept any contract where the reserve is more 
than fifteen per cent, unless you have plenty of money, and 
if you have why be a contractor? Do not give a bond for 
more than one-third of the contract, and fight for one-fourth, 
which is enough. If the owner is afraid of a ten per cent 
reserve and a bond for even one-fifth, he ought to hunt up 
another contractor, for he is clearly dealing with the wrong 
man. 

It is but right that a contractor should be paid for material 
delivered on the ground. Many states do this, and so does the 
United States. But a contractor, no matter what his financial 
standing, should be obliged to show receipts for material em- 
braced under his previous payment before another is given, 
or else show a waiver from his material men. Wages in 
cities are paid on the building, and the owner or his repre- 
sentative may see to this for himself, so that there will not 
be any danger of liens. Personally, I never lost even a single 
dollar through an owner, and no material man or subcontractor 
ever lost one through work done for me, but trouble of that 
kind sometimes comes like lightning. A certain amount of 
capital is necessary. Do not attempt to bite off more than 
you can chew. 

L: Finally, my brethren, if you really put your foot in it, 
back out. It is rather an unpleasant thing to do, and I have 
had to do it only once when the carpenter labor was carefully 
estimated and not put in the total. But it is sometimes better 
to sacrifice pride than dollars. Most blunders are caught in 
time, but some are not caught until too late a time. The 
best will make a mistake but do not get scared into the 
baclfcing-out habit. 



INTRODUCTORY 9 

"We have all heard tales of woe without number, cornices 
forgotten, roofs left off, cut stone omitted, and so on to the 
end of the dismal chapter. Add a percentage. It is unsafe 
to be without it. A percentage is an excellent thing to have 
around a finished house, or one that merely shines on paper. 
They all say so, but the trouble is that when the percentage 
is added in its proper place, some one who forgot it gets the 
contract. Two of the parlor estimators' books which I sighed 
over, say that it should never be less than five per cent and 
never more than twenty-five or thirty per cent: ten is said 
to be fair. Well, rather. Fair to middlin', most contractors 
would say. On a general contract six per cent is very ac- 
ceptable, while more is very desirable. 

This book is chiefly designed for estimating, and need not 
be examined for much else. An estimator needs a book of 
his own. When one considers the variety of buildings, rang- 
ing from three-roomed cottages to five and ten-story fire- 
proof structures, to say nothing of forty-story ones, and that 
a general contractor has to have a fair acquaintance with 
each branch, there seems to be quite enough in this field to 
engage the attention of any one man. " How much will it 
cost?" is an important question that has to be decided before 
the final word is given to go ahead. And herein lies the 
responsibility of the estimator. He must do his work care- 
fully enough to keep his employer out of the bankruptcy; 
court. An owner is sometimes swamped with a heavy bill 
of extras. 

I thought it a good idea to give pictures of some of the 
buildings from which my figures have been drawn. In a 
book of this kind an illustration is worth many pages of 
writing, and yet, curiously enough, I never saw one of the 
right kind in the books I looked through. When actual 
results are given on typical buildings a raw estimator can 
proceed with confidence. 

Figures are used in all cases. In technical works this is 
a better system than spelling out words which remain half 
buried in the page instead of standing out clear. 

No allowance is made for profit: actual cost is given 
straight through, unless otherwise stated. In measurement, 



10 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

actual quantities only are taken: trade rules for doubling 
corners, including openings, taking attic plaster on the 
square, etc., are not recognized in this book; but brickwork 
is allowed in " wall measure," or 22 bricks to the cf. 



PART ONE 

APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 

EXCAVATION 

Excavation may cost all the way from 15c to $1 per cy, 
according to the wages paid, the thermometer, the character 
of the soil, length of the haul and other local conditions. But 
in cities 40c may be taken as an average price, while half 
of that is often enough in small towns. 

WOOD PILING 

From 30c to 50c per If, driven and cut. See Chap. II. 

CONCRETE 

Ordinary concrete with natural cement, such as Milwaukee 
or Louisville, at $1.00 a bbl, $4.95 per cy. With American 
Portland at $1.60, $5.75. If there are forms add 75c. 

RUBBLE 

From $5 to $6.50 per cy depending upon the character and 
amount of the work. 

CUT STONE 

Bedford is a standard. For a building with a fair allowance 
of straight moldings, $1.60 per cf all through. If carving 
is used each piece must be priced separately. For water- 
table, sills and plain work, $1.50. On a large bill add 10 to 
15% for setting. 

BRICKWORK 

As this first part of the book may be used by those who 
are not accustomed to the trade method of estimating, the 
following rule is given, but it must be remembered that 
although walls are marked 13" they count as 12": Find the 
cf after deducting all openings, and then mult by 22$ for 

11 



12 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

the number of brick, and mult the product by the price 
of the brick per 1,000 laid down on the ground, plus $4 for 
labor and mortar. Thus brick delivered at $6.50 would be 
estimated at $10.50. Hard brick for work below ground are 
a trifle smaller and cost from 50c to $1 per 1,000 extra. If 
work is laid in cement, add $1 per 1,000 wall measure. 

The foregoing rule applies to common work. On buildings 
with pilasters, offsets, cornices, etc, an extra allowance must 
be made according to judgment. On a building on South 
13th Street, Omaha, a bricklayer paid $1,800 for a lesson in 
laying a " gingerbread " front, and a few more thousands for 
another lesson in a mud-hole 20 feet below grade. 

If pressed brick are used get the exact number of sq ft and 
mult by 7. Mult the result thus obtained by the price 
per 1,000 delivered, and add to former estimate without 
deducting any common brick. The price of the pressed brick 
is thus added to make up for the extra time spent in laying. 
On some fine fronts another extra allowance of from $10 to 
$20 per 1,000 is made. 

STEEL AND IRON 

Put steel beams at $80 to $90 a ton set, and plain cast iron 
at $45 to $60. 

CARPENTRY FLOORS, CEILINGS, AND ROOFS 

As a basis of calculation a space 22'xlOO' in the clear has 
been taken, and quantities made out for 22 sq. Different 
classes of buildings require bills of material that vary ac- 
cording to the number of partitions, stairs, chimneys, ele- 
vators, etc, and it is, of course, impossible to give one rule 
for all, but as an average 7 extra joists have been allowed. 

By dividing the quantity by the number of pieces, the cost 
of material and labor for one joist can be readily found and 
additions or deductions made to suit. The shorter lengths 
required for the tail-joists at, stair make up for the double- 
header. 

All joists are estimated 22' long, not 24; but number of 
feet is given in bm so that price can be easily changed for 
shorter or longer lengths, and thus also for increase or de- 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 13 

crease of the unit used as a basis. The labor can be regu- 
lated in the same way according to the local standard. Thus 
2x14 joists, 12" centers, require 5,544'. At a decrease of $3 
per 1,000 the cost is reduced $16.63 on 22 sq, or 75c for 
a square. So with sheeting or flooring according to price. 
If labor is 30c instead of 40c, the cost of that item apart 
from lumber will be as 4 to 3 on the number of feet; if 50, 
increase in proportion of 4 to 5. 

Thus, to illustrate, the joists are put at $8 per 1,000 for 
labor on a 40c basis. If labor is only 30c the rate will be 
$6; if 50c, $10. There being in 22 sqs, 5544' for the 2x14 
joists at centers given, the decreased cost per sq Will be 
50c for the $6 rate; and the increased cost on the $10 basis 
50c also. For an 8-hour day the amounts of sheeting, lap, 
flooring, etc., are stated under " Labor." Leave the quantities 
as they are, and change to suit local rate. 

In the 4th column of the following tables the cost per sq 
of joists and bridging only is given no sheeting, paper or 
flooring being allowed. The estimator is thus enabled to 
cover the bare joists of floors, ceilings or flat roofs to suit any 
specifications by using the prices given. 

The usual number of anchors are allowed at sides and 
ends. As they are figured for a 22' span the number required 
for a building of, say, 3 spans would be a trifle less, as strap- 
anchor at joint would take the place of 2 tees, but this does 
not materially affect the cost. The allowance is from 80c 
to $1.25 for material per sq the labor goes in with the 
lumber. 

BRIDGING: The number of If for 2 rows has been given. 
The gain on the bevel makes up for the waste, especially on 
the narrow spaces. On the different sizes and centers of 
joists the number of If runs from 430 to 620. A price per 
sq is taken of 70c on the wide and shallow spaces to $1 on 
the narrow and deep for 2x4; less will do for 1x4. See 
table this chapter for proportionate cost of unnailed material. 
NAILS: Sufficient nails at $2.60 a keg have been allowed. 
Nails and labor are, of course, more for bridging, sheeting 
and flooring on narrow spaces, but only an average can be 
given. 



14 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LABOR: The standard taken is 8 hours at 40c an hour, and 
the estimate is safe enough anywhere if freight, hauling, etc, 
are watched. On heavy joists an average of 800' bm, or $8 
per 1,000 has been used for 2 men in a day. They will do much 
more on lower floors of a building, but this is for approximate 
estimating, and is safe from cellar to roof of a building of 4 
to 5 stories. Less is allowed on 2x4 and 2x6; sheeting is put 
at 1,000 ft; shiplap at 1,000; 6" flooring at 4* sq; 4", 
usually for the top floor, at 3 sq. Sometimes about twice 
as much might be laid, depending on the building. Plain 
maple and oak flooring, 2 face, at 1 sq. 

Does it all mean for a large warehouse or for a dwelling 
divided into small rooms? A little judgment must be 
exercised and changes made to suit the building. Some oak 
floors, for example, cost from $10 to $16 per sq for laying 
alone, on a 40c basis, in a fine house built in 1904. For 
special work of this kind reference must be made to " De- 
tailed Estimating " in Part Two. 

In the 5th column of the following table, the difference in 
cost for each dollar of difference in the price of joist and 
bridging lumber alone is given in cents. The highest 
quantity of bridging is 620 If, and allowing 2x4 the differ- 
ence per sq for each dollar may be taken as 3c on a basis of 
$24 lumber. 

NUMBER OF PIECES REQUIRED 

108 at 12 centers 75 at 18 centers 63 at 22 centers 

94 at 14 centers 68 at 20 centers 58 at 24 centers 

83 at 16 centers 

QUANTITIES REQUIRED 

Sheeting 8" 2550' bm Flooring 4" 2850' bm 

Shiplap 8" 2650' bm Flooring 2x6 5200' bm 

Flooring 6" 2650' bm Flooring maple, 2| 2950' bra 

PRICE PER SQ OF JOISTS LAID 

(Deduct bridging if not required. Deduct anchors on a frame building.) 

, ,, 2x4 list: Lumber, $24 T 

Li.r . J-i.r . 

Centers Quantity Bridg Price Diff Centers Quantity Bridg Price Diff 

12" 1584 $2.90 8c 20" 998 $1.85 5c 

14" 1379 .... 2.50 7c 22" 924 1.70 5c 

16" 1217 2.15 6c 24" 851 1.60 4c 

18" 1100 .... 2.00 5c 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 



15 



Price pet* Sq of Joists Laid Continued 



2x6 list: 


Lumber, $24 


12" 


2376 


430 


5.30 


13c 


20" 


1496 


430 


3 


.75 


9c 


14" 


2068 


430 


4.75 


12c 


22" 


1386 ' 


430 


3 


.50 


9c 


16" 


1826 


430 


4.35 


lie 


24" 


1276 


430 


3 


.30 


8c 


18" 


1650 


430 


4.00 


lOc 














2x8 list: 


Lumber, $26 


12" 


3168 


450 


6.70 


17c 


20" 


1995 


430 


4.75 


lie 


14" 


2757 


450 


6.05 


15c 


22" 


1848 


430 


4 


.45 


lie 


16" 


2435 


450 


5.50 


13c 


24" 


1701 


430 


4 


.20 


lOc 


18" 


2200 


450 


5.10 


12c 




















2x10 


list: 


Lumber, 


$28 










12" 


3960 


490 


8.40 


20c 


20" 


2494 


440 


5 


.85 


14e 


14" 


3446 


490 


7.50 


18c 


22" 


2310 


440 


5 


.50 


13c 


16" 


3044 


490 


6.80 


16c 


24" 


2126 


440 


5 


.15 


12c 


18" 


2750 


490 


6.30 


15c 




















2x12 


list: 


Lumber, 


$29 










12" 


4752 


560 


10.10 


24c 


20" 


2992 


470 


6 


.95 


16c 


14" 


4136 


560 


9.00 


21c 


22" 


2772 


470 


6 


.50 


15c 


16" 


3652 


560 


8.15 


19c 


24" 


2552 


470 


6 


.10 


13c 


18" 


3300 


560 


7.50 


17c 




















2x14 


list: 


Lumber, 


$30 










12" 


5544 


620 


11.75 


28c 


20" 


3491 


500 


8 


.00 


18c 


14" 


4825 


620 


10.50 


24c 


22" 


3234 


500 


7 


.50 


17c 


16" 


4261 


620 


9.55 


22c 


24" 


2977 


500 


7 


.05 


16c 


18" 


3850 


620 


8.70 


20c 















3x10 list: Lumber, $30 

12" 5940 470 12.50 30c 20" 3740 

14" 5170 470 11.10 26c 22" 3465 

16" 4565 470 10.00 23c 24" 3190 
18" 4125 470 9.20 21c 

3x12 list: Lumber, $30 

7128 550 14.55 35c 20" 4488 

6204 550 12.90 31c 22" 4158 

5478 550 11.60 27c 24" 3828 
4950 550 10.65 25c 

3x14 list: Lumber, $30 

8316 590 16.65 41c 20" 5236 

7238 590 14.75 36c 22" 4851 

6391 590 13.20 32c 24" 4466 
5775 590 12.10 29c 



12" 
14" 
16" 
18" 



12* 
14" 
16" 

18" 



420 
420 
420 



8.50 19c 
'7.95 18c 
7.45 17c 



500 9.80 23c 
500 9.15 21c 
500 8.55 20c 



530 11.10 26e 
530 10.40 24c 
530 9.65 23c 



NOTE: The price of lumber as grven is too low in some parts, and too higfr 
for Oregon, Washington, and the South. Add or deduct as necessary. The 
tables remain " constants," and the rate varies to suit the local price. Thus, 



16 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



2x10 at 20* and lumber at $18, would be only $4.15; 3x14, 18*, with $36 lum- 
ber would be $13.34, at the same rate for labor, anchors, etc. 

As noted, the joists on the assumed space, 22'xlOO', are 
taken only 22' long, for in large warehouses with several 
spans the length from girder to girder is all a part of floor; 
but on outside walls, depending on distance, there is a loss 
of from 1 to 2 If of lumber, unless, as often happens now, 
wall hangers are used. If end goes in wall, and 2 If of 
lumber is lost on each joist, add to that span of joists, per 
sq, with price of lumber as listed: 

For 2x 8 16 centers $0.33 

, 20 centers .27 

73 

56 

87 

67 

centers . . . 1.30 



For 2x 8 ... 

For . 2x12 12 centers . 

For 2x12 16 centers , 

For 2x14 12 centers. 

For 2x14 16 centers , 

For 3x14 12 



For 3x14 16 centers 1.00 



For 3x14 



, 20 centers 83 



THE ROTHROCK METAL BRIDGING 

A new bridging that may be used in place of wood is made 
of galv iron. The lengths as given in the manufacturer's 
table are too short for wood which is put clear to edge of 
joists. 

SPACING OF TIMBER 

12 in Centers 14 in Centers 16 in Centers 20 in Centers 
Length of Bridging 

124" 144' 



Size of 
Timber 
2"x 6" 
2"x 8" 
2"xlO" 
2"xl2" 
3"x 6" 
3"x 8" 
3"x 9" 
3"xlO" 
3"xl2" 
3"xl4" 
3"xl6" 
4"x 8* 

4"xio" 

4"xl2" 
4"xl4" 
4"xl6" 



104" 

114" 

124" 
134" 

94" 

104" 

10" 



14" 
15" 

IP 



14" 
154" 
94" 
104" 



14" 

154* 

17" 

114" 

124" 

134" 

144 

154" 



15" 
154 
17" 



14" 

144" 

15" 

154" 

17" 



13" 

14" 

15" 

154" 

17" 



18f 
194" 
20i" 
17" 

18 



18; 



20}" 

214" 

17" 
17" 

18}" 
194" 
20i" 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 17 

PRICE LIST AT MILES, OHIO 
DISCOUNT, FIFTY AND TEN PER CENT 

No. 5 length 9J inches, per thousand pieces $27.00 

No. 10 length 10 inches, per thousand pieces 27.00 

No. 15 length 11| inches, per thousand pieces. 27.00 

No. 20 length 13 inches, per thousand pieces 28.00 

No. 25 length 13^ inches, per thousand pieces 29.00 

No. 30 length 14 inches, per thousand pieces 29.00 

No. 35 length 14* inches, per thousand pieces 30.00 

No. 40 length 15 inches, per thousand pieces 31.00 

No. 45 length 151 inches, per thousand pieces 32.00 

No. 50 length 17 inches, per thousand pieces 34.00 

No. 55 length 18 J inches, per thousand pieces 35.00 

The above price is for the light bridging; the heavy costs 
about 50% more. 

The standard length is No. 45. The weight of 1,000 pcs is 
400 Ibs gross. The bridging is satisfactory, and only the 
question of comparative cost has to be considered. 

1000 pcs No. 45, metal $14.40 

1000 pcs wood, 1x3 11 .50 

1000 pcs wood, 1x4 or 2x2 14 . 50 

1000 pcs wood, 2x4 26. 75 

The mills cut 1x3 and 4 for 30c per 100 pcs; and 2x4 for 
40c. For 1x4, 17" long, 1,000 pcs require 473' bm, at $24, 
equals $11.35, and cutting $3, a total of $14.35. The 2x4 
requires 947' bm, which, at $24, comes to $22.73, and cutting 
$4, a total of $26.73. Nailing is same for both metal and 
wood, and is not included. Freight is not allowed on metal. 
The metal is cheaper than the 2x4's, and the same as the 
1x4. 

With high-priced hand labor and no mill, the metal is to be 
preferred. 

BASEMENT SLEEPERS: The joists or sleepers referred to 
here are those that are laid on the earth, on cinders or on 
concrete, and staked down or nailed with cleats. The number 
of ft in a day is given in each size. Stakes are included. 
In some cases, as when concrete is used, they may not be 
necessary at all except to hold sleepers in place until it 
hardens, and 1x2 strips are often sufficient; while in other 
cases 2x4 's driven several ft into the ground would be re- 
quired. 



18 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

THE STAKE ALLOWANCE BM IS AS FOLLOWS 

16" centers.. ..300' 36" centers .. ..160' 

20" centers 250' 48" centers 120' 

24" centers 220' 

Stakes may be deducted, if not required, at rate given in 
table for lumber and labor. 

There are 5 extra sleepers allowed in the 22 sqs. Covering 
is not included. Only a few nails are required, say, 3c per 



NUMBER OF PIECES 

81 at 16" centers 40 at 36" centers 

66 at 20" centers 31 at 48" centers 

56 at 24" centers 

PRICE PER SQ OF BASEMENT SLEEPERS 

Price Cts for each $1 Price Cts for each $1 

Centers Quan'y Per sq diff in lumber Centers Quan'y Per sq diff in lumber 

2x4 list: $24: 400 bm per day or $16 per M 
16" 1500 $2.75 7c 24" 1050 $1.95 5 

20" 1220 2.25 6c 

4x4 list: $26, 700', or $9.15 per M. 

16" 2676 4.30 12c 24" 1860 3.00 9 

20" 2186 3.55 lOc 

4x6 list: $26, 800', or $8 per M. 

24" 2684 4.20 12c 48" 1484 2.35 7 

36" 1920 3.00 9c 

4x8 list: $27, 900', or $7. 12 per M. 

24" 3506 5.50 16c 48" 1820 2.85 9 

36" 2507 3.95 12c 

6x6 list: $27, 900', or $7.12 per M. 

24" 3916 6.10 18c 48" 2170 3.40 10 

36" 2800 4.40 13c 

6x8 list: $27, 1000', or $6.40 per M. 

24" 5148 7.85 24c 48" 2848 4.40 13 

36" 3680 5.65 17c 

LABOR: On the lists of joists already given 800' is the 
quantity taken all through, while on this basement list the 
allowances run from 400' to l',000'. Hoisting is not required 
in the basement, and it is easier to handle lumber with a 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 19 

solid floor to walk on. A 2x4 takes more time than a 6x8 in 
proportion to its size, for each joist or sleeper, large or small, 
has to be leveled. 

SLEEPERS: The floor of No. 7 is laid on 6x8, 48" centers, 
and 2 men handled from 1,500 to 1,600', instead of 1,000 as 
in the table, but there were nearly 600 sq, while the table 
might be used for 20. 

Some sizes not given may be found by taking multiples of 
those listed. Thus 8x8 would be twice as much as. 4x8, 
although there is some little difference on account of the 
number of ft per day. 

WAREHOUSE, STORE, AND MILL CONSTRUCTION: Posts 
and girders are not included in the following lists: allow 
them at $30 for lumber and $12 for labor, which add to 
joists. Joist lumber, $28; labor, $8, or 800' per day. It is 
worth while to remember that the cost of a floor at 6' centers 
is not exactly twice that of one at 3', for the extra joists come 
in both, and the wider the space the higher the proportion. 
Joists only are given; allow stirrups, anchors, cast-iron caps 
and shoes as may be required. 

For this heavy anchoring allow about $2.50 per sq, 
labor being included in lumber. Only a few nails are re- 
quired. 

Common wrought iron stirrups, f"x3", 5$c per Ib. Double 
ones are used on beams; single are often used, as at stair 
wells, etc. For an approximate price, differing according to 
size of beam and length of iron, $2 for dbl, and $1.10 for 
single. For V'x3", $2.60 dbl, and $1.60 single. For "x4", for 
8x16, $2.25 single. 

As a 22' span is more than the average for this heavy 
work, the stirrups are estimated on a basis of 14' span, so as 
to allow enough. 

Duplex, and other hangers, are often used at wall as well 
as at girders. See Chap. XIII. 

See pages 20, 21, for Post Caps and Bases. 

NOTE : So much lumber is used in this form of construction that it is well 
to remember the addition or deduction of cents for each dollar of difference ID 
local price as compared with that listed. For the beams, $28 is the assumed 
price. On the Pacific coast, $16 is enough, in some sections; but to Omaha, 



20 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



for example, the freight is $16. Add or deduct, therefore, according to price 
of lumber. 

Lest anyone should think that a 6xl2s set 24" centers, is a waste of lumber, 
I may remark here that I know of several buildings where 8x1 6s are so placed. 

MILL CONSTRUCTION TABLE 

Amt f9t Price Stirrups Diff in Amt for Price Stirrups Diff in 

Centers 22 sq in per per sq lumber Centers 22 sq in per per sq lumber 



2 
3 

4 

2 
3 

4 

For 8x14 and 8x16, stirrups are allowed at i"x4". 

Labor is allowed as usual 40c per hour. An hour more 
or less for 2 men means 16c a day. On the 8x16 list, at 800' 
bm per day, for example, at 2' centers this equals $2.49, or 
about lie per sq; at 8', 75c, or about 3c. But if such exact 
figures are necessary it is better to refer to Part Two. 

Only 2 extras are allowed in the 22 squares. 

DUPLEX POST CAPS 

For 3 way, add 25%; 4 way, 50% 

6x 6 two ways $2.00 

8x 8 two ways 2.75 

10x10 two ways 3.50 

12x12 two ways 4.00 

14x14 two ways 5.50 

16x16 two ways 6.75 



bm. 


sq; |x3 


of $1 
6x12 


list 


bm. 


sq 


I . 


1x3 


of $1 


6996 


$11 


.60 


$7 


.60 


32c 


5 


3036 


$5. 


15 $3. 15 


14c 


4752 


7 


.90 


5. 


10 


22c 


6 


2640 


4. 


50 


2.60 


12c 


3696 


6. 


20 


3. 


90 


17c 


8 


2112 


3. 


75 


2.00 


lOc 


6x14 list 


8162 


13 


.50 


8 


.00 


37c 


5 


3542 


6. 


00 


3.30 


16c 


5544 


9 


.25 


5 


.40 


25c 


6 


3080 


5. 


20 


2.75 


14c 


4312 


7 


.20 


4 


.10 


20c 


8 


2464 


4. 


20 


2.20 


12c 


6x16 and 


8x12 


list 










9328 


15 


.40 


8 


.75 


43c 


5 


4048 


6. 


80 


3.60 


19c 


6336 


10 


.55 


6. 


00 


29c 


6 


3520 


5. 


90 


3.00 


16c 


4928 


8 


.25 


4. 


50 


23c 


8 


2816 


4. 


75 


2.40 


13c 












8x14 


list 












10893 


18 


.00 


15. 


00 


50c 


5 


4554 


7. 


60 


6.15 


22c 


7392 


12 


25 


10. 


10 


34c 


6 


4107 


6. 


85 


5.15 


19c 


5750 


9 


.55 


7. 


60 


26c 


8 


3286 


5. 


55 


4.00 


15c 












8x16 


list 












12438 


20 


.50 


16 


.40 


57c 


5 


5398 


9. 


00 


6.75 


25c 


8448 


14 


.00 


11 


10 


39c 


6 


4694 


, 7. 


85 


5.65 


21c 


6571 


10 


.75 


8, 


35 


30c 


8 


3755 


6. 


30 


4.35 


17c 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 21 

These prices are for girders same depth as size of posts: 
thus a 10x10 post cap is priced for a 10" girder: for each 
2" of extra depth of girder add 10% to price, making a 10x10 
cap for a 14" deep girder, $4.20. Duplex post bases are 
about the same price. 

Cast Iron Caps, Size 8x 8 inches 50 Ibs at 3c. 
Cast Iron Caps, Size 10x10 inches 60 Ibs at 3c. 
Cast Iron Caps, Size 12x12 inches 80 Ibs at 3c. 

Weight depends upon load, so that these figures are only 
approximate. 

Mr. Tyrrell in "Architects and Builders Magazine," New 
York, gives weights of heavy iron col bases for high build- 
ings: 

22x22 600 Ibs 32x32 1340 Ibs 

24x24 750 Ibs 34x34 1450 Ibs 

26x26 880 Ibs 36x36 1600 Ibs 

28x28 1020 Ibs 38x38 1720 Ibs 

30x30 ...1180 Ibs 40x40 1850 Ibs 

COVERING: The cost of the various kinds of covering for 
joists, above and below, is now to be considered, and also 
cents per sq for difference of $1 in price of lumber. 

COST PER SQ 

Grade Description Price per Quantity laid Cost per Cts 

1000 per day sq 

No. 1 YP Sheeting $27 1000' bm $3.93 12 

No. 2 YP Sheeting 25 950' bm 3.74 12 

No. 1 YP Shiplap 27 1000' bm 4.05 12 

No. 2 YP Shiplap 25 950' bm 3.83 12 

No. 1 YP Shiplap on angle 27 850' bm 4.43 13 

No. 2 YP Shiplap on angle 25 800' bm 4.25 13 

No. 1 YP Sheeting on angle 27 850' bm 4.34 12 

No. 2 YP Sheeting on angle 25 800' bm 4.15 12 

No. 1 WP Sheeting 40 1100' bm 5.35 12 

No. 2 WP Sheeting 35 1100' bm 4.78 12 

No. 3 WP Sheeting 29 1000' bm 4.16 12 

No. 1 WP Shiplap 40 1100' bm 5.48 12 

No. 2 WP Shiplap 35 1100' bm 4.90 12 

No. 3 WP Shiplap 29 1000' bm 4.28 12 

WP on angle add extra 30 to 50c 13 

No. 1 YP plank, 2x6, 2x8, 2x10, 

S.IS.2E 26 1200' bm 7. 15 22 

No. 1 YP plank, 3x6, 3x8, 3x10, 

S.IS.2E 30 1400' bm 12.00 33 

No. 1 YP flooring, 2x6, T and G 26 1000' bm 7.85 24 



22 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Cost per Sq Continued 

Grade Description Price per Quantity laid Cost per Cts 

1000 per day sq 

No. 1 YP flooring, 2x6, on angle 26 875' bm 8.63 25 
No. 1 YP plank, 2x6, to 10 on an. 26 1100' bm 7.64 24 
No. 1 YP plank, 3x6, to 10 on an. 30 1300' bm 13 . 00 36 

y FLOORING: 



A 
B 
C 
A 
A 
B 
C 
A 
B 
C 

B 
C 
D 
No. 1 
No. 1 


4" Edge grain, YP, 3| face. . 
4" Edge grain, YP, 3 face. . 
4" Edge grain, YP, 3 face. . 
3" Edge grain, YP, 2J face . . 
4" Flat grain, YP, 3J face. . 
4" Flat grain, YP, 3 face. . 
4" Flat grain, YP, 3 face. . 
6" Flat grain, YP, 5| face. . 
6" Flat grain. YP, 5| face. . 
6" Flat grain, YP, 5 J face . . 

(But for 6" floors 
WP, "x4" 3 face 


46 3 sqs 
42 3 sqs 
38 3 sqs 
47 2J sqs 
35 3 sqs 
33 3 sqs 
30 3 sqs 
35 5 sqs 
33 5 sqs 
30 5 sqs 

, see Chap. X.) 

65 3^ sqs 
60 3i sqs 
50 3i sqs 
40 4 sqs 
55 2 sqs 

30 1\ sqs 
38 2 sqs 
39 2J sqs 
39 2 sqs 


$8.30 
7.80 
7.27 
9.57 
6.88 
6.62 
6.23 
5.70 
5.46 
5.10 

10.48 
9.83 
8.53 
7.00 
11.75 

6.71 

7.75 
7.88 
8.70 
. 2.00 


13 
13 
13 
14 
13 
13 
13 
12 
12 
12 

13 
13 
13 
13 

17 

13 
13 
13 
13 

14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 
13 


WP, "x4", 3i face 


WP, "x4", 3| face 


WP, $"x4" fencing 


O F (porch) 1^x4. 


Ceiling YP 
f x3 face 


f x3 face 


fx3|^ corrugated 


f x3J 2J face 


For ordinary paint or oil, add 

For nil finish nn floors a.HH 






. 3.30 


HARDWOOD FLOORING $x2 
Clear Maole ^' 


$50 

62 
44 
62 
48 
100 
110 
75 

170 
40 


1 sq 

\ sq 
1 sq 
1 sq 
1 sq 
i sq 
i sq 
| sq 

\ sq 
4 sqs 


$13.20 

21.00 
12.27 
14.60 
12.80 
26.00 
27.25 
18.43 
23.00 
35.05 
4.40 

6.70 


No. 1 
No. 1 


Strictly Clear Maple, (best 
work) 


Select Maple 


Clear plain Red or White Oak 
Select Red or White Oak . . 
Clear q s Red Oak (best work) 
Clear q s W Oak (best work) 
Select q s Red or White Oak 
Thin Oak Floors, varnished . 
Cherrv (best work) 


For Oiling, etc., add 
Square edged 4" Maple for 
plain factory work, un- 
smoothed . . 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 23 

Cost per Sq Continued 

Grade Description Price per Quantity laid Cost per Cts 

1000 per day sq 

T and G 4" Maple, in long 

rooms, smoothed 50 2^ sqs 9.25 13 

Tiling, see Chapter XX. 

Composition Floors, see Chapter XX. 

Rubber Floors, see Chapter XX. 

See "Shop Floors," Chapter XXII. 

Building paper, tar felt, etc 25 to 50c 

Plaster with wood lath $3 . 85 

Plaster with metal lath 6. 82 

Metal ceiling, wood furring, and painting 13.00 

Gravel Roof 4.50 

See also "Roof Covering." 
Painting 2 . 00 

A FEW COMBINATIONS 

The tables are arranged so that each one may make his 
own combinations. Here are a few only: 

2x10 joists, 16 centers, brick bldg $6.80 

Loss of 2 If to go in walls, average between 2x8 and 

2x12 4,5 

No. 1 Shiplap under floor, yp 4.05 

Paper 50 

Clear q s W O, f top floor best 27.25 

Varnishing t 4.40 

ACTUAL COST $43.45 



It is best not to add profit on each item, but at end of 
complete estimate. 

3x14 joists, girder to girder, 24" o c $9.15 

2x6 yp flooring on angle 8.63 

Paper 50 

Sq edge factory Maple 4" floor 6.70 



$24.98 



BASEMENT OR GROUND FLOOR 



6x8 Sleepers, 48" o c . $4.40 

3" Plank, laid straight 12.00 

$16.40 



24 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

MILL CONSTRUCTION 

8x14, 4' o c on girders $9.55 

Stirrups 7.60 

Anchors 2.50 

3" plank floor on angle 13.00 

Paper 50 

Factory Maple floor 6.70 

$39.85 

8x12, 6' o c, girder and wall $5.90 

Loss of 2 If, one end (get 2x12, 12 o c 73c x 4 times 
for thickness 2.92 divided by 6, as the 8x12 is 6 cen- 
ters instead of 12") = 49 

Stirrups 3.00 

Anchors 2.50 

3" plank, straight 12.00 

Asbestos, i, (fireproofing chap), and labor 4.30 

Factory Maple Floor 6.70 



$34.89 

OUTSIDE WALLS, GABLES AND PARTITIONS: A space 
22x100 has been taken as a basis of calculation. Allowance 
of studs: 

At 12" centers 1 to 10". At 20" centers 1 to 16" 

At 16" centers 1 to 12". At 24" centers 1 to 20" 

At 18" centers 1 to 14" 

If work is properly done this is not too much material; on 
some buildings with angles and projections it might not be 
enough; on others again it would be too much. Bare studs 
are given. A day's labor for 2 men is taken at 640' bm, which 
at 40c an hour is $10 per 1,000. For difficult gables add from 
25 to 50% to regular price. For each dollar above or below 
$24 in price of lumber, add or deduct the cents in the last 
col per sq. 

Thus, 2x8 with lumber at $26 would be at 16" centers, $5.52. 
BRIDGING: For single 2x4 bridging, if used, allow per sq: 

Centers Level Angle Centers Level Angle 

12" 40c 50c 20" 28c 35c 

16" 35c 45c 24" 26c 33c 

18" 32c 37c 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 25 

2x4 list: Lumber, $24 

Centers Quantity Cost per sq Cents Centers Quantity Cost per sq Cents 
12" 1961 $3.00 9 20" 1300- $2.00 6 

16" 1667 2.60 8 24" 1080 1.70 5 

18" 1450 2.25 7 

Bridging is not included in the table. 
For 2x6 add 50% to the 2x4 list. 

For 2x8 dble the 2x4 list, and add the increased rate of 
about $2 per M for lumber. 

CEILED PARTITIONS: For partitions ceiled both sides 
with yp on a 2x4 framework and painted, allow 19c per sq ft 
With oak ceiling, 34c. 

For partitions as above, but ceiled up with yp to a height 
Of about 4' only with glass door, and plain sash above, allow 
25c per sq ft. 

For yp ceiling partitions without framework, allow 18c per 
sq ft, painted on both sides. Allow 25% more for bath room 
partitions with short runs, etc. 

ROLLING PARTITIONS: For yp horizontal rolling parti- 
tions delivered at building, 58c per sq ft; after oiling both 
sides, 62c; in place with hardware, 75c. 

For some kinds $1 would be too low. 

For larger horizontals, yp, 50c fob Mass. 

For larger horizontals, plain oak, 60c fob Mass. 

For larger horizontals, white q s oak, 65c fob Mass, 
PLEXIFOLD PARTITIONS: For Flexifold apright parti- 
tions: 

In yp, 65c fob Mass. 

In plain oak, ash, 75c fob Mass. 

In q s w oak, 80c fob Mass. 

These Massachusetts partitions include all hardware and 
are oil finished. Labor erecting from $15 to $25 per opening. 
Add freight, hauling, etc. 

COVERING OF STUDS: Nails are included. If sheeting, 
shiplap or flooring is put on at an angle from sill to wall- 
plate instead of level, add as noted per sq. For figures on 
other material, metal lath, flooring, shingles, etc, see Part Two. 



26 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



Grade 


Description Per 1000 


Quantity 
laid per day 


Cost 
per sq 


Cents 


No. 


1 


WP Sheeting.. . = 


$40 


1000 


.$5.45 


12 


No. 


2 


WP Sheeting 


35 


1000 


4.85 


12 


No. 


3 


WP Sheeting 


29 


1000 


4.17 


12 


No. 


1 


WPShiplap.. 


40 


1000 


5.63 


12 


No. 


2 WPShiplap 


35 


1000 


5.03 


12 


No. 


3 


WPShiplap 


29 


1000 


4.32 


12 


No. 


1 


YP Sheeting 


27 


950 


4.00 


12 


No. 


2 


YP Sheeting 


25 


900 


3.80 


12 


No. 


1 


YP Shiplap 


27 


900 


4.10 


12 


No. 


2 


YP Shiplap 


25 


900 


3.87 


12 






For WP on angle add 




600 


1.20 








YP on angle add 




550 


1.30 




A 




YP 1x6", 51 face, T and G . . 


35 


3 sqs 


6.53 


12 


B 
C 




YP fx6", 51 face, T and G. . 
YP x6", face, T and G .... 


33 
30 


3 sqs 
3 sqs 


6.29 
5.93 


12 
12 






For I"x6" YP on angle add . 




2 sqs 


1.50 


12 


C 




Flat grain YP "x4" T and G 


30 


2^ sqs 


6.65 


13 


No. 


1 


WP siding 6"... 


36 


4 sqs 


6.50 


14 


No. 


2 


WP siding 6" 


34 


4 sqs 


6.22 


14 


No. 


1 


WP siding 4" 


36 


2 sqs 


8.80 


15 


No. 


2 


WP siding 4" 


34 


2 sqs 


8.50 


15 


A 




YP Siding 4" 


22 


2 sqs 


6.60 


15 


No. 




RCsiding 4" 


32 


2 sqs 


8.10 


15 


No. 




RW siding 4" 


32 


2 sqs 


8.10 


15 


No. 




OF siding 


28 


2 sqs 


7.50 


15 


No. 




NP4" 


26 


2 sqs 


7.50 


15 


No. 




Drop siding YP, 51 face. . 


32 


900 


4.86 


12 






Shingles, 6 to 2" (900 to sq) 


3.75 


2 sqs 


6.77 


90 






Shingles, 5 to 2" (900 to sq) 


4.25 


2 sqs 


7.22 


90 






Shingles, fancy cut (900 














to sq) 


5.00 


2 sqs 


7.90 


90 






Shingles Dipped, add extra 






3.00 








Ceiling (one side) YP f x4". . 


38 


3 sqs 


7.15 


13 






Paper 






25 to 50 








Plaster on wood lath, 1 side . 


35 




3.85 








Plaster on wood lath, 2 sides 


35 




7.70 








Plaster on metal lath, 1 side 


62 




6.85 








Plaster on metal lath,2 sides 


62 




13.70 








Back Plaster, on wood lath 


. . . 





2.65 








Ordinary 3-coat paint, one 














side 






2.00 








Ordinary 2-coat paint, one 














side 






1.65 








For each 1 cent of difference 














in price of plaster or paint, 
per yd, one side, add. . . . 






0.11 





APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 27 

See Plaster Chapter for Portland Cement Covering. Combi- 
nations can be made from these wall and partition tables as with 
the other. 

PITCHED ROOFS: We now come to trouble, and plenty of 
it. This is the region of " turrets, towers and minarets." It 
is all well enough to draw them and write about them, but 
the question that confronts the estimator is not how well 
or how ill do they look, but how much do they cost. 

Let us take a plain roof for a standard and leave the com- 
plicated ones for discussion further on. A roof 22x100' has 
been taken as a basis for the following figures. A day's work 
is 500' bm. The figures are for rafters only. If ties and braces 
are used add $1.25 for light roofs per sq. The allowance at 12" 
centers is 1 to each 10"; 16, 1 to 12; 18, 1 to 14; 20, 1 to 16; 
24, 1 to 20. A liberal allowance is made for lumber. A roof- 
does not require as much as a partition although the figures 
used are the same or equal centers. 

CEILING JOISTS are not included. 

COST OF ROOFS PER SQ 

2x4 list: Lumber, $24 

Amount Cost Amount Cost 

Centers Quantity per day persq Cents Centers Quantity per day persq/Cent 

12" 1775 500 S3. 00 9 20" 1115 500 $1.90 5 

16" 1482 500 2.51 7 24" 895 500 1.52 4 

18" 1276 500 2.16 6 

For 2x6, add 50% to the price of 2x4; for 2x8, dble 2x4, 
and add at rate of about $2 extra on the lumber price; for 
2x10 take 2^ times the cost of a 2x4, and add cents in last 
col for difference in lumber. 

Thus, a 2x4, 16" centers, is $2.51; a 2x6, $3.77; a 2x8, at 
$26 lumber $2.51 plus 14cx2=$5.30; a 2x10 with lumber 
at $28 =, for 16" centers, $2.51 plus 4 (for the $4 difference in 
price) x7cx2i^$6.98. 

If list is used on a brick building add wall plate at $2 per sq. 

I recently made out some bills of material for small pas- 
senger-stations with the usual hips and valleys. At the same 
rate for labor, and material at $20, No. 1 was 3.70; 2, $4; 3, 
$4.56; while the plain list on same size and distance 2x6, 



28 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

16" centers is $3.77. Another at 2x4, 16", was $2.63; the 
plain list is $2.51. This is an illustration of the difference 
between a plain roof and one with hips and valleys, although 
by no means complicated. One of the worst roofs I have 
ever seen No. 11 ran to $6 for 2x6, 16" centers. No covering 
included. 

As to the " gingerbread " kind, there is only one exact, 
theoretical way to estimate them, and that is to take off each 
piece of lumber in a building where no two pieces are the 
same length, and make a liberal allowance for waste, labor, 
and mistakes. I have done it in this manner so often that 
it is a familiar process, and a rather discouraging way of 
working. There is something wrong with the whole system of 
contracting when such a method is necessary. The square 
method ought to be sufficient, and the profit should be large 
enough to cover any errors that are not serious. 

Another way is described in Chapter X. Using the quantities 
given in the 2x4 list we have to each sq in bm as follows: 

A 2X4 LIST FOR BM TO SQ OF ROOF 

12 centers 81 bm 20 centers '.51 bm 

16 centers 68 bm 24 centers 41 bm 

18 centers 58 bm 

The above table includes rafters only, at such an allowance 
of extras as is sufficient for all but the worst roofs, for hips, 
valleys, etc. But no ties are allowed. 

For 2x6 mult by 1|; for 2x8, by 2, etc. Note that No. 11 
ran to $6. 

COVERING OF AVERAGE ROOFS PER SQ 

Sheeting and Shiplap, $27 . $4 . 30 Slate, Peach Bottom , Pa . $12 . 50 

2" plank S.IS. IE, $26 7 . 85 Slate, Black Bangor, Pa. . 1 1 . 00 

2" YP flooring, $26 8.40 Slate, Sea Green 9.50 

|x6" Y.P flooring, $35 .... 6 . 08 Slate, Unfading Green. . . 10 . 50 

f x6" YP flooring, $30 5 . 50 Slate, Slatington, Pa 9.00 

Shingles 6 to 2, $3.75 5.65 Slate, Purple 11.00 

Shingles 5 to 2, $4.25 6.11 Slate, Red 16.00 

Shingles, dipping, extra ... 3 . 00 Interlocking Tile 22 . 00 

Shingles, Asbestos, plain . . 1 1 . 00 Shingle Tile 17 . 00 

Slate, Brownville, Me 14 . 50 Copper 30 to 35 .00 

Slate, Monson, Me 14 . 50 I. C. Old Style Tin 10 .00 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 29 

Covering of Average Roofs per Sq Continued 

I X Old Style Tin $12.00 Gravel Roof $4.50 

I C Common Tin 8.00 Ready Roofing 3.75 

I X Common Tin 9.00 Carey Roofing. 4.00 

No. 26 Galv. Iron 9 . 00 Elaterite Roofing 4 . 00 

Ruberoid Rooting 3 . 50 

PROFIT: Slate, tile, tin, and gravel include profit. 
Slate and tile include paper; tile includes strips. 
INCREASE. On small cut up roofs the price of slate or tile 
may be increased 10 to 20%. 

FOR SHOP ROOFS, as on No. 7, etc., 6"xl4" purlins about 
5'-0" centers, 2" T and G yp flooring, 16c per sq ft complete, 
but no steel trusses or gravel roof. 

SHOP LANTERNS, steel construction, glass roofs, sash on 
sides, as shown on Nos. 7, 8, 13, 14, $20 per If extra as com- 
pared with flat roofs. 

TRUSSES 

The Howe Truss described in Chap. X, 60' long by 6' or 
7' high, cost $275, set in place. 

Another dbl slope, pitched roof, 80' span, 24' rise, wood, 
$350, set. -^ 

A dbl slope, pitched roof, 50' span, 16' high, extra heavy 
steel to support floor and roof, $550, not set; setting, $60. 

For 53' span, steel, shop, 4 to 7' deep, $300 set. 

For 175' span, steel, shop, 4 to T deep, $875 set. 

For 80' span, steel, shop, 4 to 7' deep, $550 set. 

For 105' span, steel, shop, 4 to 7' deep, $765 set. 

For 125' span, steel, high pitch, heavy load, $1,870 set. 
DORMERS: For dbl dormer window, without balcony, 
with single slope shingle roof, $100 extra. With pitched roof 
and gable, $125. For a common single dormer, shingle roof, 
$75. 

FURRING PER SQ 
Centers Size Place Price Centers Size Place Price 

16" 1x2 Walls $2.00 12" 1x2 Walls $2.60 

16" 1x2 Ceilings .90 12" 1x2 Ceilings 1.10 

13" 1x2 Interlocking tile 1.00 16" 2x2 Ceilings 1.30 

12' ; 2x2 Ceilings 1.70 16" 2x2 Walls 2.70 

12" 2x2 Walls 3.40 



30 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

PLATFORMS: Warehouses of all kinds and depots usually 
have platforms about 4'-6" above grade. For plank footings, 
12"xl2" uprights and girders, braces, nails and bolts, allow 
$18.50 per sq. For 3x12 joists, 12" centers, $8 per sq; for 3" 
plank on top and 2" to enclose front, $11. per sq. With 
lumber at $20 make the complete figure at 39c per sq ft, the 
extra allowance being for bridging, inclines, stairs, etc. For 
each dollar extra on the price of lumber, allow lc per sq ft. 
Thus, at $24, the complete cost would be 45c for the heaviest 
style of platform. But sufficiently strong platform of lighter 
construction can be built for 25c say 3x10 joists 24" centers, 
and 2" top: and for cedar pile heads, 6' centers, 8x10 sills 8' 
c to c 3x10 joists 16" c 3x10 covering with lumber at $19, 
a western engineer gives me his cost at 26c. 

On ground at $23 with 6x8 sleepers 4' centers, 3" covering, 
14c; 2" covering, lOc. For other sizes, spacing of joists and 
covering, see under " Basement Sleepers and Covering." 
Platform may require more labor than basement floors, owing 
to frost, grade, etc, and extra allowance must be made if 
required. The foregoing figures cover average work. 

ROOF: A plain roof covered with gravel may be put over 
platforms for 30c per sq ft. Long, plain umbrella-sheds with 
wood posts, wood framework, gravel roof, gutters, but no 
paving, 48c per sq ft. 

WOOD FENCES: In most cities they are limited to 8' high, 
for in the old days " spite fences " sometimes soared higher 
than the shingles. 

With 8" cedar posts, 10' long, about 6c per If, 4 rails in 
height, close-sheeted, without paint or gates they are worth 
45 to 50c per If. Mineral paint at 5c to 6c per sq yd per coat 
Is close enough. With 1 coat of paint 55 to 60c. Large dbl 
wagon gates for such fences run from $30 to $40 hung. The 
cost of boring post holes for lower fences is the same. For 
a 4' fence, unpainted, 25 to 30c per If. It is well to remember 
that paint sometimes goes on 1 side, sometimes on both. 
PICKET FENCES: There are so many different kinds that 
we must be content with the fair average of 65c per If, 
painted, for a reasonable number of ft; a short fence might 
cost twice as much., 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 31 

TIN AND GALVANIZED IRON 

Cornices of average design, 2c per in of width per ft, and 
dentils, brackets, etc, extra. Gutters, 15 to 35c; downspouts, 
20 to 30c; 7" flashing, 8c; 14", 16c; 14" valleys, 12c; 20", 15c. 

Tin roofing, IX, $10 per sq; skylights, 60c per sq ft; large 
skylights like those on No. 7, of many styles, 50c per sq ft 
if copper caps; if all galv. iron, 32c, unpainted. 

PLASTER 

Allow for metal lath and 3-coat, white finish 62c; for wood 
lath and same finish 35c; sand finish is worth from 3 to 5c 
more than white coat. 

MILLWORK 

After the walls are up, the roof on and the building 
plastered, we come to millwork. Only a general idea can 
be given here of this; and for an approximate figure it is 
better to give openings complete than millwork alone. Labor, 
paint, hardware, glass, stone sill and lintel, are therefore in- 
cluded. 

DOORS: Outside common glass door, 3x7xlf for brick, $25; 
for frame, $19. Inside door, 2-8x7xlf, $13. Add $6 if a tran- 
som is used in any of these doors. The price of an outside 
door may run up to $100, and beyond. A w p door at $8 with 
hardware at $3 is allowed. An ordinary sliding door painted, 
$35; hardwood, $50 to $100. 

A better way to get the cost of a door is to turn to the 
Chicago list in chapter on " Millwork," pick out such a door 
as you think fitted for your purpose front or inside, hard- 
wood or pine and then add jambs as listed, according to 
style and kind of wood, allow hardware at $1.50 for an in- 
side door, and $5 for an outside, and $10 is too little on 
some kinds labor, $3 inside, $6 outside, paint, $2 and $4, 
and add transom if any. 

WINDOWS: There is no deduction made for brick or 
plaster, as these are attended to in the mason's part. Sash 
are If thick with D S glass; 3 coats of paint; stone sills; a 
fair quantity of hardware. 



32 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

For an opening about 3x7-6, brick, $16.50; frame, $12.50; 
opening, 2-6x6-6, brick, $14.50; frame, $10.50. No allowance 
is made for blinds. 

This price might have to be raised 50% for some kinds of 
windows, and that without going into fine work. See "Mill- 
work " for price by sq ft, etc. 

BASE: For yp, 20c per If with grounds and paint; for hard- 
wood, 30c. 

WAINSCOTING: Paneled and painted yp with grounds, 35c 

per sq ft; f m and b, 14c; pan and hard oil finished oak with 

grounds, 50c; m and b, 17c. 

CHAIR RAIL: Oak, 15c; pine, 9c per If. 

PICTURE MOLD: Oak, 7; pine, 5c. 

STAIRS: Pine, set complete, $3.50 per step; oak, $6. For 

special work these prices might be doubled. Basement plank, 

with risers, $2. 

STORE FRONTS: On ordinary fronts filled with plate glass, 

with dbl doors and transoms, sash below window for cellar, 

counter-shelf, paint, hardware, and labor complete, $1.50 per 

sq ft. No iron or steel included. From this price we might 

easily go to $5. 

CASES: An approximate figure may sometimes be of value: 

For a case divided into holes 18" sq allow 20c per sq ft 

at 12" deep; and 33c at 24" deep. With holes 3 ft sq, 15c for 

12", and 22c for 24". A back of f ceiling is allowed in both 

cases; if left off, deduct 7c per sq ft. Lumber is put at $40, 

labor, $50. Less than this may often be sufficient, but 25% 

more might be wasted on labor. Face measure, not shelf 

measure, is taken. Thus, a case to fill the end of a room 

10'x20', or 200 sq ft, would cost, at 18" holes 12" deep, $40. 

Add profit or percentage required. No paint. 

The above figures may be supplemented by the following 
from actual work done: 

A case 18'xl3'-6" high, 33" deep below counter shelf, and 
16" above was set in building, but not oiled for $165, or 68c 
per sq ft of frontage. 

All the front was covered with sliding doors, one below 
countershelf, two in hight above. On a 1" basis there were 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 33 

about 1,400 of lumber including back. Below counter were 
shelves about 12" apart; above were pigeon holes 6"xll". 

Another 9'-8"x9'-6"x3'-2" deep, divided into 420 pigeon holes, 
was set in place for $197, 47c per hole, or $2.15 per sq ft. The 
smallness of the holes and the extra depth account for high 
price, even although doors were not used. 

SLIDING LADDERS for such high cases cost about $15 with 
track. 

CASES of material from 12 to 16" deep with doors, 60c per 
sq ft of face surface; of | stuff with pigeon holes about 4x8", 
as in ticket-cases, etc, 25c per opening. 

A case 2'-9" by 7-9x18-0, filled with drawers, cost $300,, or 
$2.15 per sq ft. 

REVOLVING DOORS: Front doors from $300 up; pantry 
windows, $85 up; both fob New York. 

CORNICE ON FRAME BUILDINGS: A plain cornice with- 
out brackets, painted, and finished, runs to 50c per If. From 
that we might go to $1.50, and still not be so very extrava- 
gant. For 30" projection, $1.20 or 4c per inch. Brackets cost 
from 15c to $2. 

Cornice boards, ridges and plain lumber may at this writ- 
ing be put in, if of pine, at $100 per M B. M. in place. 

PAINT 

For plain 2-coat work, allow 15c; 3-coat, 20c; for pine, plain 
oil finish, 25c; rubbed down, 35c; hardwood, 35c; rubbed 
down, 50c. Sometimes $1 is not enough for hardwood per yd. 

PERCENTAGES 

I have taken 22 frame buildings of all sizes and styles, and 
from actual bids put in or work done, have made out the 
following average percentages. I meant to take more as a 
basis, but found that the result would have been practically 
the same with 44 as with 22. Some of the buildings were 
let when prices were high, and some when they were low, 
so that a fair average is obtained. Of course, a little judg- 
ment is required to get good results from the tables for an 
approximate estimate, on a church, for example, the brick- 



34 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

work is 23 and the millwork 16; on certain flats with hard- 
wood finish, the figures are reversed. Coal-sheds, fences, side- 
walks, furnaces, mantels, and such extra items are not in- 
cluded. The average in the brick buildings have been taken 
from a list of 36. They range in price from $5,000 to 
$50,000. All kinds are listed private residences, stores, 
flats, warehouses, schools, hospitals, railway stations and 
stables. Heating is not included. 

It is not always easy for architects, engineers, and others, 
who have to figure carpenter work to get at the labor. The 
lumber and plain millwork are often estimated fairly well, 
and then anywhere from 25 to 60% of the total taken for 
labor. The following lists of different classes of buildings 
will give a better idea of what the figures should be. 



Class of Work 

Excavation, brick and cut stone 
Plaster 


Frame 
Buildings 

15.8 
8 3 


Brick 
Buildings 
41.0 
5 6 


Lumber 


19 3 


11 


Millwork and Glass . ... 


20 6 


12 


Carpenter Labor 


17 9 


9 


Hardware 


3 5 


2 5 


Tin and Galvanized Iron .... 


23 


3 


Plumbing and Gas-fitting . . 


6 8 


4 3 


Paint 


5 5 


3 4 


Iron and Steel 




5 6 


Roofing . 




2.6 



100.0 100.0 

It will be observed that some of the items under "brick** 
are lower than the same items under " frame." Of course, 
the high percentage of mason work necessarily reduces the 
other figures, but part of the difference is due to the fact that 
warehouses are listed, and the inside finish is thus reduced. 
The other lists will give a better percentage, but it is well 
to take a general average of all kinds of buildings, and let 
the architect or contractor make an allowance for any 
departure from a normal type. 

The tables may be used to estimate the cost of enclosing a 
building. By leaving out part of the millwork, paint, labor, 
hardware, etc, a fair idea may be obtained; and a certain 
item being known the value of the complete building may be 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 35 

found. Hardware at $350 means a $10,000 frame house, al- 
though this is figuring the wrong way from the small to 
the large. 'j, '. 

UNIFORMITY: In the brick list there are 17 buildings, or 
about half, with iron and steel for columns, beams, etc. 
The percentage varies more in this item than in any other: 
2, 7, 12, 3, 6.5, 5, 9, 7, 7, 4, 2.5, 1.5, 8, 4, 2, 7, 8. Brick and 
stone run steadily from 38 to 50 with most buildings about 
44; but one house is only 25, as the inside finish, plumbing, 
etc, is of a superior quality. The millwork on the same 
building is 25. Carpenter labor, paint, hardware, plumbing, 
plaster, and tin, do not vary much, and when they do take a 
bound the reason is generally clear, so that in making an 
approximate estimate variations from what may be taken 
as a standard can easily be noted. 

There is even less variation on frame than on brick build- 
ings. Lumber, millwork, and brick, keep remarkably steady 
in the same class. 

A PLAIN BUILDING: When selecting the frame buildings 
I ran across one that could not be listed as there was no 
foundation or inside finish except that the walls and ceilings 
were sheeted and a floor laid. It may be taken as a type of 
plain construction. It is 30'-6" by 150', 2 stories high, with 
2x6 studs and rafters covered respectively with drop siding, 
sheeting and shingles. The percentages are: Lumber, 56; 
millwork, 10.5; iron and hardware, 4.5; carpenter labor, 21; 
tin, 3.5; paint, 4.5. 

ON No. 3: Another building not listed owing to partial fire- 
proofing is No. 3. The 2 fronts are built of a hard Wyo. 
pink stone. The stone is backed with brick, and the rear 
walls are of brick. Joists 3x14 rest on 2 lines of iron cols and 
steel I beams. The walls and ceilings are lined with fire- 
proofing, and the partitions are built of hollow tile. Half the 
finish is oak, and the other half yp. Without marble, ele- 
vators, heating, plumbing, electric work, and architect's per- 
centage, the cost was $125,000. The bids were read in the 
presence of the contractors so that the cost is well enough 
known, as indeed that of most buildings is among the elect. 
The building was publicly sold and the daily newspapers. 



36 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



gave the price but not the percentages, 
tract, and here are the figures: 



We got the con- 



Excavation and Brick. . 28 . 15 

Stone 18.34 

Steel and Iron 14 . 56 

Lumber 4.22 

Carpenter Labor 4 . 55 

Mill work and Glass ... 1 1 . 63 

Fire-Proofing 9 . 02 



Plaster 3.36 

Tin and Copper 1 .65 

Gas-fitting 

Gravel Roof 

Hardware .... 



.60 
.20 
1.52 
Painting 2 . 20 



100.00 



BRICK BUILDINGS 



The following list is taken from 5 good brick houses. 
4 has gas but not plumbing: 



No. 























a 








3 
I 




*8 




i 




2 


d 


fl 03 


H- 1 

r^ 




a 


1 




>*} 
gj* 


8 


u 


1 


^ 


d 


& 




|o 


1 


e 


> 


1 


K 




^"rt 







3 


a 


9 "^ 


^"d 


s 


J 


2 





WPQ 


PH 


S 03 


h5 


O>-3 


PH 


W 


HM 


S cS 


o 


GCM 




RESIDENCES 


$38,000 


51.8 


8.3 


13.0 


7.1 


8.3 


3 


3 


5 5 










18,600 


36.5 


6 


21.8 


13 


10 


4 7 


3 


5 










19,500 


35.2 


5 ?, 


19.1 


12 


11.3 


P 2 


3 5 


4 5 










8,200 


25 


5 


25 


14 


10 


6 


2.5 


2.5 


5 








24400 


34.4 


5 4 


19.5 


12 7 


10 


5 


3 ^ 


5 'i 


1 


s 






Average 


36.58 


5.98 


19.68 


11.76 


9.92 


5.58 


3.1 


4.6 











WAREHOUSES 



$34,000 
14,000 
17,000 
26,000 
12,000 
Average 
$15,000 
without i 


53.3 
50 
44.9 
51.5 
50 
50 

nason 


ry 


4.1 
5 
12.5 
6.5 
8 
7.2 
19.5 


21.9 
21.1 
17.5 
17 
14.5 
18.4 
22.4 


9.2 
10 
10 
9 
8.5 
9.3 
19 


1 
2.5 
2.3 
2.5 
3 
2.3 
2.4 


2 
2 
2.8 
2.5 
2.5 
2.4 
3.7 


.3 
3 
1.2 
2 
2.5 
1.8 
3.6 






7.2 
2 
6 8 


1 
4.4 
2 
1 
1 
1.9 


1.5 
3 

16.4 





6.5 
7 
5.9 
19 



STORES AND FLATS 



$36,000 


36.9 


6 


15 


13.8 


10.2 


3.5 


2.8 


5.8 




. . 


4 


2 


34,000 


40.1 


6.5 


18.8 


1 .2 


9.7 


5.9 


2.2 


2.3 


. . . 


. . 


1.3 


1 


44,500 


32.2 


6.6 


20 


14.1 


12 


6 


3 


5.1 


. . 


. 


. . . 


1 


29,000 


36 


8 


20 


7.5 


9 


3.5 


3 


5.5 


4.5 




3 


. . . 


11,000 


25 


6 


20 


12.5 


9 


4 


2 


3 


4.5 




12 


2 


12,500 J38 


7 


12 


10 


9 


6.5 


2.5 


4 


4 




7 


. . . 


12,000 |40 


5 


13 


10 


10 


3 


2 


8 


4 




5 




Average 135.4 


6.4 


17 


11.4 


9.8 


4.6 2.5 


4.8 


4.2 


'.'. 5.4 


1.5 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 



37 



BRICK BUILDINGS Continued 



j 


Excavation 1 

Br'k& Stone 


I 


Millwork 
and Glass 


Lumber 


Carpenter 
Labor 


43 

d 
'3 

OH 


Hardware 

Tin and 

Slate 


to 

s.s 

^ 

11 


d 
2 

H- 1 

1 


1 

"oJ 

-22 

00 H? 


iGravelRoof II 

I 3 



SCHOOLS 



Cost ran 
from 
15,000 to 
45,000; 
most 
from 
22,000 to 
45,000 
8 and 16 
rooms 

Average 


46 
48 
41 
45 
49 
45 
45 
42 
49 
50.4 
54.6 
46.8 


6 
6 
7 
6 
6.5 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5.8 
4.8 
5.9 


12 
9 
11 
11 
11.6 
10 
10 
12 
9.5 
12 
9.2 
10.7 


10.5 
10 
15 
10.5 
11.6 
11 
11 
12 
11 
10.3 
12.4 
11.4 


9 
9.5 
13 
10 
9.7 
10 
10 
11 
8 
9.6 
11 
10.1 


4.5 
3.5 
5 
4 
4.6 
3 
3 
5 
3 
4.3 
3.8 
4 


2.5 
2.5 
3 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2.2 
2.1 
2.5 


4.5 
3 
2 
4.5 
5 
3 
3 
2 
5 
5.4 
2.1 
3.6 


5 
3.5 
3 
4 






Slate 
5 














4 
4 
7 
2.5 






5 
5 










+ 


2 


3 










4.1 









REMARKS: In No. 3 of the "Warehouse" list a large plate- 
glass front raises the millwork and reduces the masonry; in 
No. 2 the gravel roof has a high percentage, hut the building 
is low, and the cost of a roof one story from the ground is, 
for our purpose, the same as for ten. In one building the 
percentage is given without masonry. 

VARIATION: Under "Stores and Flats" it will be observed 
that the average line foots up 103 instead of 100. This is 
owing to dividing steel and iron, gravel roof, and plumbing 
by the number of buildings instead of by 7. It is interesting 
to notice how closely the percentages run. A reasonable 
profit being allowed, one might almost be safe in estimating 
the hardware in a building and signing a contract based 
upon the proportions in a table. Judging from bids I have 
heard of and read, there be those who do not build upon SO 
sure a foundation. 



MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS 

We live in an age of machinery; and the house that held 
the old anvil under that spreading chestnut tree is far too 
small for our requirements. A class of buildings has arisen 



38 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

tnat belong, like the skyscraper, to the American style of 
architecture.. Like the skyscraper also they belong rather to 
the engineer than to the architect. The latter is merely called 
to hang a curtain over the framework to keep the cold and 
rain out and the curtain in some of them is of ex 
metal and concrete only 2" thick. In 1901-2 I had the pleasure 
of making the estimates for three of the latest and best 
specimens, Nos. 7, 8, and 14. Since then I have made 
estimates on many others. 

These buildings are now to be found all over the country 
for electric-light works, locomotive-shops, machine-shops, 
foundries, steel works, and rolling-mills, tin-plate works, 
boiler-shops, bridge-building, and ship-building establishments, 
pipe-foundries, and manufacturing plants of all kinds, which 
are equipped with electric traveling-cranes that lift anything 
from 120 Ibs to 120 tons. 

PERCENTAGES: The following percentages are from the 
under side of the water-table. Floors are included. It is 
seldom that two foundations are alike, and the only safe 
criterion is from the floor line up. Skylights cover from to 
$ of the roof surf. No. 8 is 150x500; No. 7, 150x400, No. 14, 
150x310. Machine foundations, tracks, heating, and light- 
ing are not included. Extra cross walls account for the high 
rate of the brickwork in No. 8, and the cheap lumber and less 
of it in proportion, on account of leaving out gallery, etc, 
makes the difference in that item. 

No. 8 No. 7 No. 14 

Brick 16.4 10.2 13.3 

Cut Stone 1.2 1.1 1.5 

Lumber 6.2 10.0 6.4 

Millwork and Glass 5.5 6.0 6.0 

Carpenter Labor 4.1 5.3 4.0 

Gravel Roof 1.7 1.4 1.7 

Skylights and Glass 8.0 9.5 10.6 

Tin, Copper. Gal. Iron 1.1 1.1 1.5 

Steel Lintels for Doors and 
Windows, and Hardware. 5.2 5.0 7.0 

Painting 2.4 2.3 1.9 

Steam, Water, and Power 

Piping 3.2 3.1 2.0 

Structural Steel 45.0 45.0 44.1 

100.0 100.0 100.0 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATING 39 

COLD-WATER PAINTING is not included: see Chap. XVII. 

RELATIVE COST OF BRICK AND GLASS 

In general glass costs twice as much as brick. In the pre- 
liminary study of a building it is often desirable to know 
how the total cost is affected by putting in or leaving out 
windows or doors. 

In large manufacturing buildings with unplastered walls, 
where dbl and trpl windows or wide doors take up from 
to | the space, such as No. 7, common brick is to glass as 
6 to 15 in 13" walls; and as 1 to 2 in 17". In the one case we 
have only the brick to consider; in the other, frames, sash, 
glass, labor, paint, hardware, stone sills, and steel lintels. 

For the average single window with sills and lintels in a 
13" wall, 11 to 25; in 17", 3 to 5. 

In ordinary buildings with openings about 3x7, glass costs 
twice as much, and not only so, but the mason often forgets 
to deduct the brick and both prices go in. Here, in addition 
to the other items, we have jamb linings and inside finish. 
Allow 11 to 28 in 13", and 1 to 2 in 17". 

Sash are estimated If, glass, D. S., paint 20c which allows 
3 coats, brick at $11 wall measure, steel lintels in place, $85 
a ton, which is enough in ordinary times. 

In frame buildings there is practically no deduction made 
for studs, sheeting, and siding, so that glass is an extra. 

RELATIVE COST OF BRICK AND FRAME 

On one small office building, 30x70, two stories, brick was 
19% more than frame. On a house 24x30, brick to top of 
second story but gables of frame, 8% extra. This figure 
might be easily increased to 15 by using a fine pressed brick, 
and ornamental work. 

There is bound to be an increase in the price of lumber in 
the future, so that the difference between the two will be 
lowered. See Chap. XXVI. 

The Bureau of Buildings, Borough of the Bronx, New York, 
estimates the difference in ordinary sized buildings at 18 per 
cent. 



PAET TWO 

DETAILED ESTIMATING 
CHAPTEE I 

EXCAVATION AND FILLING 

The clearing of the site comes first. In a prairie country 
this is an item that does not, as a rule, confront the estimator. 
Trees are seldom seen, and if there are any, they are so small 
as to be negligible. But for a tree of, say, 16" diam, allow 2 
men 1 days to cut down, trim, and take out the root. One 
day often suffices for the ordinary tree. In Wash, and Ore. 
with trees 300' high the problem is different. 

Another day for a couple of men should ordinarily be 
enough to clean off underwood on a lot. 

MEASUREMENT: Excavation is measured by amount of 

material displaced in cy. 

COST: The approx allowance was from 15c to $1 per cy with 

an average of 40 and 20c. It is not easy to add more without 

knowing the local surroundings. Actual figures on a few 

buildings may be given, however, to illustrate the different 

conditions. 

On a store, erected in 1901 in the center of Omaha, with 
good, hard soil, the cost of excavating 4,000 cy was 25c, the 
haul was about \ mile. The 1913 price was 70c. 

On another, near the first, the bids in 1906 were 45 to 55c 
for 30,000 cy, with teams at $4 per day. 

On a building where 12,000 yards were excavated and 
loaded on cars the cost was 41c. 

On a large amount of building excavation in Idaho six bids 
ran from 30c to $1 without hauling, so that even experts 
differ. In another western state witb. hard soil the cost of 
excavation in winter was $2.75 per yd. 

On No. 2 bids were received for 15c, but there was no haul 
and wages were lower. This figure will often cover work 
done outside of cities. 

40 



EXCAVATION AND FILLING 41 

WINTER: On No. 7 the average for many thousands of 
yds was 77c, but water was struck a little below the surf 
and the work was done in winter. The difference between 
winter and summer was shown near the same building when 
more than 1,500 cy were excavated for 45c. A contractor 
has to watch the thermometer and he is sometimes justified 
when he refuses to stand by his summer estimate. 
MACHINE FOUNDATIONS: On a large number the average 
cost was $1 per cy. 

WATER: On one Omaha building where the contractor 
struck water, the cost of excavation was $1.50. This is 10 
times as much as on No. 2, and shows how impossible it is to 
give figures without examining the ground. There is danger 
below ground. On an Omaha hotel, built in the nineties, the 
contractor had to pay a ruinous price for his excavation in 
wet ground. 

ROCK: For average rock, $1 per cy; on large work with 
steam drills, 75c. We have not the same soil here as in New 
York, where the foundations for whole streets of houses are 
blasted out of the solid. But in cities the work is sometimes 
more expensive on account of the cost of necessary pre- 
cautions, etc. For 400 cy rock excavated above grade in 
Boston in 1903, the average of 11 bids was $3.60 per yd, the 
lowest $3, the highest $4.50. 

LABOR: With ordinary soil two men will shovel and wheel 
12 cy to a distance of 200 ft in a day of nine hours. Sand 
is easily moved by a pick; loam is more difficult; stiff clay 
Is worse. Put them in the proportion of one, two, and three. 

AVERAGE COST: For an average, approximate estimate of 
the price per yd of ordinary work with earth spread near the 
building, divide the total of a laborer's wage per day by five, 
and a man and team's cost by twelve. Thus, $1.75 divided 
would be 35c; and $4.50 would give 37c. But with other 
work, in deep excavations, and a long haul, $2 per yd might 
be required. 

See chapter on " Municipal Work " for description of ex- 
cavating machine. 
LOAD: A load for a two horse wagon is from 1| to 1$ cy e 



42 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

EXCAVATING TABLE PER CY 

Ordinary Trenches $0.35 

For each 4' deep beyond the first 4' add. . . .15 

Backfilling 15 

Spreading on lot 06 

Wheeling about 25 yds .15 

Carting away old bldg material 1.50 

SEWER DITCH 

For a large one about 20' wide, $8 per If, or $1.25 per yd. 

FILLING 

For filling and tamping several thousand yds of sand in- 
side of No. 7 the labor alone was 27c. 

Sometimes filling is done at a very reasonable price if a 
contractor wants to get rid of excavated material. He will 
rather take 5c per yd for it than dump it elsewhere for 
nothing. 

DREDGE: To fill a large area the best method is that 
adopted at Galveston behind the sea-wall; and by a man who 
is filling up a N. J. swamp for the location of a city i. e. 
the dredge. In a day of twenty-four hours one will remove 
from 2,500 to 3,000 cy at a cost of about 16c per yd. 

SLOPE: In case an embankment or slope has to be made, 
allow what a stair-builder would call 18 run to 12 rise, and 
the earth will stand. Sometimes 1 to 1 is enough. 

SHEET PILING 

Sheet-piling is hard to estimate without seeing the ground. 
A fair allowance is 20c per cy for shoring pieces put in about 
4' centers in reasonably good ground to a depth of, say, 8'; 
with continuous planking in bad ground, $1; for the worst 
soil to a depth of 12', $3 ought to be enough. These figures 
are to be added to the regular cost of excavation. 



CHAPTER II 

PILING 

COST OP AVERAGE: In the softest ground, with wages 
from 17c to 20c an hour, it costs 5c per if to drive ordinary 
piles in the ordinary way. The highest figure, where the 
conditions are not so favorable, should not be more than lOc 
at the same rate of wages. Pointing and cutting off the top 
included. No. 7 and other buildings of the plant are set upon 
pile foundations, and 5c to 6c covered all work, except one 
lot which cost 8c. There are more than 250,000 If. But these 
prices would not apply in all places, or in any place with few 
piles. Piles for abutments cost about 20c for labor; for pile 
bridges, from 7 to 12c, depending upon interruptions from 
trains, etc. On an Omaha building, erected in 1903, the con- 
tract price for labor was $1 per pile. The piles averaged 
about 20' long. On another, in 1907, with 12,000 If, 12c. 

One of the blocks shown in No. 6 is piled, but comparatively 
few buildings are in Omaha or Lincoln. Nevertheless there 
are quite a number which have cracked and sunk so much 
that a few piles, in the right place would have been of wonder- 
ful value, or at least wider footings. 

PRICE: Oak piles with a 10" head are worth from 16 to 21c 
per If, according to length; white cedar (which outlast oak if 
above ground) are about the same price. In yp creosoted, 
35c; cedar 30', 41c. 

DRIVING: On a New York contract the average cost of 
driving 750 piles, 70' long, was $2 each, or about 3c per If. 
The piles on No. 7 were from 25 to 30' long. With a pile 
nearly three times as long, a better record can be made, for 
the driver does not need to be changed. 

In New York 1800 piles were driven 24' into gravel for 
80c each. " The American Architect " gives a record of piles 
driven in Chicago for about a cent and a quarter a foot. 

Records like there are, however, dangerous to bid by. From 
5 to lOc is a fair price for an approximate estimate, until 
soil is examined. 

43 



44 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

CUTTING: Cutting off the head is included in the prices 
given for the 250,000'. It is worth about 25c, or Ic per If on a 
25' pile, and l-2c on a 50'. 

PRICE: In Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1898, 100,000 If cost in 
place 28c. 

CONCRETE PILES. 

Corrugated or "fluted" concrete piles, are made above 
ground and dried before being jetted and driven.. They are 
built up with steel rods and concrete, and run from 60c to 
$1 per If in the ground. 

Raymond concrete piles cost from $1 to $1.50 per If. A 
sheet iron mould is driven and filled with concrete. The 
mould is not withdrawn. 

"Often concrete pile foundation will be found cheaper than 
wooden ones, where the permanent water level is very deep. 
Concrete pile foundations may also be cheaper than mass 
concrete ones where the top layer of soil is poor. Sometimes 
however, under such circumstances large footings of poor 
grade concrete may be more economical, or largely spread 
reinforced footings." 

In "Carpentry and Building," Mar., '09, there is an interesting ar- 
ticle on Concrete Piles. The cost is given in the table : 

COST OF CONCRETE PILES. 

The cost of driving piles on the Boston Woven Hose & 
Rubber Company job was as follows: Cost per 

Platform and forms : lin. ft. 

Material $.051 

Labor 092 

Making and placing concrete : 

Material 150 

Labor .088 

Reinforcement, pipes, &c. : 

Material 372 

Labor 096 

Pile driving : 

Miscellaneous costs 088 

Labor 28,5 

Teaming and getting ready 068 

$1.290 
Add 30 per cent, for pumping, miscellaneous items 

and contingencies 360 



Total per linear foot of pile $1.650 

The total cost per linear foot of pile, as shown above, was about 
$1.65 ; but this amount will vary with the number and length of 
piles made. By making a study of the detail times taken, various 
items will be suggested where the costs on other jobs may be altered. 
The total cost of labor on the concrete on this job per linear foot 
of pile was $0.088, which amount appears large, and on another sim- 
ilar job might be reduced to $0.058. This assumption is based on 
the fact that while on the average only six piles per day were made, 
toward the latter part of the making nine piles were made one day 
and 10 piles on another, so that an average of eight piles should be 
possible with a given gang. This is especially probable because the 
cost of making and placing the concrete was $2.25 per cubic yard, 
whereas the writer's data on hand mixing indicate that the cost 
should not have exceeded $1.50 per yard. 

The writer of the article estimates that under other conditions, 
and with more than 48 piles as above, the total cost would not ex- 



/y CHAPTER III 

CONCRETE* 

Per Yd 

With Portland Cement @ $1.60 $5.75 

With Portland Cement and Forms 6.50 

With Natural Cement, 4.95 

With Natural Cement and Forms 5.70 

Forms 50c to 1.75 

LABOR: On No. 2 the price by piece-work was 50c per cy 
The work was really worth 75c. The rate of v/ages in the 
neighborhood was $1.50 for 9 hours. 

By taking 65% of the wages paid to 1 laborer for 10 hours, 
a safe figure or mixing average concrete may be found. A 
recent engineering table gives 90%, but that is too much 
unless some special reasons exist which make the work diffi- 
cult. 

LABOR AND FORMS: On No. 7 the average cost of several 
thousand yards was 95c, but this was for concrete only. The 
average labor on forms was 28c per yd additional. Of course, 
small foundations cost more than large ones. Forms are 
necessary when ground is wet, when piers have a special 
shape, or rise above the level. The engineering table referred 
to above sets the cost of forms at 35c to 85c. 

MACHINE FOUNDATIONS: But while 95c was the average 
on the main buildings, on the machine foundations where 
special and complicated forms had to be made, the cost of 
concrete mixing ran from $1.50 to more than $3, with an 
average for several hundred yards of $2.05. In addition to 
this the labor on forms per cy was $1.42. The quantities are 
small on such work, the angles are many, bolts are to set, 
and the work has to be carefully leveled and smoothed on 
top. The excavation for the same foundations ran to $1. 
UNLOADING: The unloading of sand and stone from cars 
to ground only for the work on No. 7 ran to 12c per cy of 
concrete in wall. This figure has to be added to mixing if 
material is not delivered with teams. 

*Chap. 30. Actual Cost of Reinforced Concrete covers the 

latest types of connstruction. 

4o 



4G THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LUMBER: The average cost of lumber and nails for forms 
was lOc per cy of material in wall. Of course the same forms 
and lumber can be used several times. If instead of piers 
there is a continuous foundation, the forms cost only about 
half as much for labor, and there is less lumber used. With 
piers, No. 7 required 7,000' bm and 3 kegs of spikes to each 
1,000 yds. For continuous basement walls allow studs, shores 
and planking full height around about of building and 
change when work is dry. Put labor at $10 per 1,000. Of 
course, the walls are at once put all around to a certain 
height, and the planking raised, but allowance may be figured 
as stated. 

"COST OF FORMS FOR CONCRETE: For estimating the 
cost of forms for retaining walls and piers, " Engineering- 
Contracting" gives the following rule: 

Mult the number of sq ft of surface area of the sides and 
ends of the wall or piers by 2.8, and the product will be the 
number of ft bm required for sheet plank and studs for the 
forms. 

If the form lumber can be used more than once, divide the 
number of ft bm by the number of times that it can be used, 
to ascertain the amount to be charged to each pier. 

The foregoing rule is based on the assumption that the 
sheeting plank will be 2" thick, and that the upright studs 
will be 4x6", spaced 2' center to center, or 3x6" studs spaced 
2' center to center. No allowance is included for timber to 
brace the studs, since it is customary to hold the forms to- 
gether either with bolts or with ordinary No. 9 telegraph 
wire which weighs 0.06 Ib per ft. 

Where carpenters' wages are $3.00 a day, forms can be 
erected and taken down for about $8.00 per 1,000' bm. Since 
there are 2.8' bm of forms per sq ft of surface area of con- 
crete to be sheeted, it costs $8.00 x 2.8, or 2i cents per sq ft 
for the labor of carpenters erecting and taking down the 
forms. If lumber is worth $24.00 per 1,000' bm, then the 
lumber itself cost $24.00 x 28. or 6fc per sq ft of concrete 
surface; but if the lumber can be used 3 times, we have J 
of 6f, or 2i cents per sq ft of concrete as the cost of the 
lumber, to which must be added the 2i cents per sq ft for 



CONCRETE 47 

the carpenters' labor, making a total of 4c per sq ft of 
concrete surface. 

By dividing the total number of cy of concrete into the total 
number of sq ft to be sheeted with forms, the number of 
sq ft per cy is obtained. Mult this number of sq ft by 4c> 
and the product is the cost per cy for material and labor i 
the forms, assuming the material to be used three times. 

To illustrate: Suppose wo have a concrete pier averaging 
18' high, 6' thick and 12' long, what will the forms cost per cy, 
assuming that the lumber in the forms can be used over 
3 times? The surface area of the two ends of the pier is 6x18. 
or 108 sq ft for each end, or 216 sq ft for the two ends. The 
surface area of the two sides is 2xl2xl8,or 432 sq ft. Hence 
the total area to be sheeted with forms is 216 -f 432, or 648 
sq ft. Now, the total number of cy is 6x12x18 -4- 27, or 48 cy. 
Hence there are 648 -r- 48, or 13 sq ft of form per cy of con- 
crete. Since the forms will cost 4^x131, or 60f cents, prac- 
tically 60c per cy of concrete to be paid for the labor and 
material in the forms. 

Each job should be figured in this manner, for it is evident 
that if a wall is thin, the cost of the forms per cy of wall will 
be high. If the wall is thick, it will be low. 

It is often possible to make the forms in panels, or sections, 
which are not knocked to pieces each time they are moved, but 
are moved bodily. Then they may be used again and again, 
not only affecting a saving in lumber but in labor. But in 
calculating the number of panels that will be needed, and the 
number of times that they can be used* it must be remembered 
that it is not safe to strip the forms from the concrete inside 
24 hours even of retaining walls, and that where the con- 
crete must act as an arch or beam, as in bridges and floors, 
the forms must usually be left in place at least 2 weeks to 
give the concrete time to gain enough strength to carry its 
own weight and any construction loads that may come upon 
it. On the other hand, centers and forms for small con- 
crete sewers, up to 5 or 6' diam, are usually moved with safety 
within 24 to 36 hours, provided the work Is not done in 
freezing weather. In cold weather concrete takes longer to 
set or harden, and in very cold weather it will not set at all" 
unless protected from the cold." 



48 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

HEATING AND HOISTING: If material for concrete has to 
be heated, allow $1 per yd extra. If it has to be hoisted, allow 
50c per cy extra for the first story for an ordinary amount, 
but less for a large job; and 30c for each additional story. 

EXAMPLE: On another building with about 700 yds, the 
complete cost of unloading, making forms and finishing con- 
crete was $2. A day's work for 2 men may be averaged at 
3 to 4 cy. This does not mean 50' below the surf of the 
ground. The average foundation is seldom more than 10 to 
15' below the street level. 

MACHINE MIXING AND FORMS: All the heavy founda- 
tions for No. 8 were mixed with machines at a cost of 75c: 
forms about 50c extra. No. 7 was hand-mixed. 

While writing this part a Chicago contractor, who allows 
$1 to $1.35 per cy, informed me that on a certain contract 
for 4,000 yds in Louisiana, a gang of 30 men with a concrete- 
mixer put in 105 cy per day. The difference is not so great 
as one might expect, but with a machine there is a better 
assurance of good mixing if work is done by contract; and 
even the best cement is wasted unless the mixing is well done. 
This was in New Orleans where the negroes do not work so 
hard or effectively as whites do elsewhere. On another large 
contract in Chicago 20 men with a mixer put in 100 yds a 
day. In both cases the engine man is included. One maker's 
machines cost from $450 to $800 without engine; others are 
in the market complete with 3 h.p. gas engine, for $450; for 
horse, $150. Engines, gasoline, 6 h.p. $400; 8, $450; 10, $500. 

MACHINES: Different sizes of another, and a popular ma- 
chine run in price from $300 with nothing but the skids and 
pulley, to $1,600 mounted on a truck with steam-engine and. 
hotter. The reports from more than a score of users give 
results ranging from 60 to 350 cy in a day according to the 
size of the machine. The cost is set down by some as half 
that of hand labor. An allowance of from 5 to 8 yds per day, 
per man is given. 

LABOR: A correspondent in the "Engineering News" of 
New York, N. Y., describes his experience in mixing 20,000 
yds in the north of England. Part was mixed with machine, 



CONCRETE 4i) 

part with hand labor. With the machine 13 men averaged 
60 cy per day; with hand labor, 11 men, 30. 
HAND AND MACHINE: On railway shops with walls and 
roof of concrete, erected in New Jersey, a power mixer was 
found to be economical when the concrete was 18" thick. 
Below that hand mixing was cheaper. The concrete was 
mixed with the machine and put in place for 50c per cy. 

COSTS: On a government breakwater at Buffalo the labor on 
concrete was $2.41 per cy. On the New York storage reservoir, 
.574 days for 1 man was time required per cy for work from 
27 to 10' below the surf; and .485 days from 10 to 6' below. 
In both cases the concrete was wheeled into place. A St. Louis 
engineer mixes concrete for street paving at 30 to 40c with 
machine, and common labor at $1.75, teams $4, engine at $5 
for a 10-hour day. But street work is easier reached than 
a deep foundation, and the surface is larger. 

MEASUREMENT: Only actual measurement is allowed in 
this book corners are not doubled, openings, etc, not included. 

PRICE: 

Crushed Stone, $1.50 ton, 2250 Ibs $1.69 

Portland Cement, $1.60 bbl, 1 T V 1.76 

San'd, $1 per yd, T % 60 

Labor 1.50 

Water 15 

$5.70 

On a large warehouse foundation work, near Omaha, the 
contractor put in the concrete for a trifle less than $6, and 
this included his profit, but the cars ran to the ground, so that 
there was no hauling, which may cost 30c or $1, according to 
distance, and wages and material were lower than now. 
NATURAL CEMENT: If natural cement is used, a deduction 
of 80c a, yd may be made; if imported Portland, at $3.50, the 
price must be raised to suit. If there is no hauling to be 
done, deduct that item. Sand at river is 15c; on cars Omaha, 
55 to 60c; at building, 70c to $1.25. 

QUANTITIES OP MATERIAL: The Engineering Dep't of 
the B. & M. R. R. allows for average concrete as follows: 



50 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

2,300 Ibs of crushed stone; \ cy of sand; 1 bbl of cement; $1 
to mix. 

From 2,300 to 2,350 Ibs of stone is a fair allowance. From 
a number of cars weighed by the U. P. R. R. for the viaducts 
at 16th and 24th Sts., Omaha, it was found that 2,260 Ibs were 
sufficient for a yd of concrete; but on small work on the line 
where there is more chance of waste, 2,.500 are allowed and 
the excess used for filling. For the foundations of No. 7, 
2,300 were allowed and 2,200 used, along with 6-10 of a yd of 
sand. 

MEASURE OR WEIGHT: Stone and sand would be bought 
by the cy if contractors had their way; but the dealers prefer 
to sell by weight on account of freight charges. If they 
come wet it does not take so much to make a ton as when 
dry; and granite weighs more than lava although a cy of 
the one does not fill any more space than a cy of the other. 
Of course, concrete can be made more expensive by increasing 
the quantity of cement. Two barrels are given to the cy in 
a rule before me; 1J to \\ is a quantity often used. On No. 7, 
lik of Am. Portland was the unit. But there is a certain 
point beyond which more cement means waste, and it is the 
province of the architect or engineer to discover it and stop. 
The contractor is apt to make the discovery ahead of either. 

But as the business of an estimator or contractor is largely 
to follow the specifications and ask no questions, it is well 
to give a rule for quantities based upon different proportions. 
Take four for an illustration: Cement, 1; sand, 2; stone, 4 to 5 
is considered the best, but an excellent concrete can be made 
with more stone. 

No. 11, 2, 6; No. 21, 2, 4; 31, 2, 2; 41, 4, 10. (The 
large mill of an eastern cement factory is built to the roof 
on this last proportion though it seems rather weak.) 

1: 2: 6 

Let us consider No. 1: There are 27 cf in a cy. 
On a 1, 2, 6 basis this means 3 cf of cement, 6 of sand, and 
18 of solid stone. But it has been found by experience and 
experiment that about * more material is needed to fill the 
spaces between the crushed stone, and again 35-100 of ma- 



CONCRETE 51 

terial to fill the voids between the grains of sand, so that 
using 4 for sand voids gives a large enough extra cement 
allowance. Stone then being 18 gives 9 cf of space, and the 
sand being 6, gives 2.4 cf of space, or altogether 11.4 cf we 
are short owing to the voids. Adding 1, 2, 6 we have 9 
parts; dividing the 11.4 cf by 9 we have 1,267 cf for a unit 
To keep the materials in the same proportion add 1.267 tc 
3, making 4.267 cf of cement; 2.534 to 6, making 8.534 of 
sand; and 7.6, or 6 times 1.267, to 18, making 25.6 cf of 
crushed stone, a total of 38.4 cf. 

VOIDS: Trautwine gives us the exact proportion between 
uniform crushed stone and voids as .53 stone and .47 space, 
but the half is exact enough for practical purposes: sand 
runs about .65 solid to .35 void, U. S. experiments .349. " It 
is advisable that the voids be filled or more than filled," and 
this puts a stop to using too much stone, but leaves room 
for sand. For 1 cy in place the foregoing figures allow 1.43 
of loose material; at the Mississippi jetties where blocks of 
25 to 72 tons were used, the allowance was 1.66, as the con- 
crete below water stood only 60% of the loose material. There 
the proportions were: Portland cement, 0.16; sand, 0.45; 
clean gravel, 0.24; broken stone, 0.81, a total of 1.66. Con- 
crete at 1, 2, 6 stands: .16, .32, and .95, a total of 1.43. 

1: 2: 4 

So much for 1, 2, 6 ; let us now try 1, -2, 4. ' There are 7 
parts in this proportion, and 27 divided by 7 gives 3.857. 
This makes 3.857, 7.714, 15.428. Taking the half of stone 
and 4-10 of sand for voids, we are short 10.8 cf. The 7th part 
is 1.543. This added in the proportion of 1, 2, 4, gives 5.4 
cement, 10.8 sand, 21.6 crushed stone, a total of 37.8 cf. 
Here sand is half of stone, and the voids will not only be 
filled but the stone will not touch; and this is consequently a 
better concrete than 1, 2, 6. 

1: 2: 2 

But take 1, 2, 2: Worked out in the same way this is 
7.34 cement and 14.69 for both sand and stone, a total of 
36.72. There is less waste through voids in this proportion, 



52 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

and consequently the total is smaller. It is too rich, but is 
introduced to show that by this method the quantities regu- 
late themselves. Theoretically sand should be half of stone, 
for with .47 void .5 insures enough material to keep stone 
from touching, but if the quantity of stone is fixed by the 
proportion chosen, enough sand and cement have to be added 
to make up the yard. It is often said that a cy of concrete 
requires a cy of crushed stone, a bbl of cement, and half a 
yd of sand, but that depends upon the proportion. Here we 
require nearly 2 bbls of cement and only a little more than 
half a yd of stone. 

Having found the cf it is necessary to mult stone and sand 
by weight if tons are desired; and divide the cf of cement 
by 4.4 to get loose bbls, or 3.8 to get packed. 

1: 4: 10 

No. 4 is 1, 4, 10: 27-f-15 1.8x1=1.8; x4, 7.2; xlO, 18. The 
voids=11.88-f-15=.793, which added in the proportion of 1, 
4, 10 equals 2.59, 10.37, 25.93, a total of 38.89. So may any 
proportion be worked out. 

ST. JOHN 

In the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, the proportions 
are: 1 Portland cement, 2 sand, 3 quartz gravel; and 11,000 
cy took 17,000 bbls. 

The rule comes close enough to actual figures to be satis- 
factory. The quantities are 6.225, 12.45, 18.675, a total of 
37.35. At the cathedral a cy took 1.545 bbls of cement. At 
3.8 cf of packed Portland cement to a bbl our rule gives 1.68; 
at 4 of Western Rosendale, 1,556. " A bbl of Rosendale is so 
packed at the factory that loose it will measure 1.25 to 1.40; 
Western Rosendale 1.1; Portland 1.2." 

MAINTENANCE OF WAY 

After I had worked out the foregoing method, I read the 
following one from the report of The American Railway, 
Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association made by 
its committee. They give the stone voids at .47 and the sand 
voids at 32.3. On this basis "we have theoretically cement 1; 
sand, 3.1; broken stone, 6.5. Adding 5% of cement and re- 



CONCRETE 53 

ducing to the basis of cement 1, we have cement, 1; sand, 
2.96; stone, 6.2, or nearly 1, 3, 6." Although they do not 
give the method of working out the proportion, which is not 
seen at first glance, we can get it by setting 100 of stone as 
the unit instead of 1 of cement: 100 of stone gives 47 of 
voids; 32.3% of 47 equals 15.181, and these figures stand in 
the proportion of 6.5, 3.1, 1. Their recommendation is to 
add 5% of cement, making 1.05. Turning this 1.05 into 1 for 
a unit of cement, sand is 2.96 and stone 6.2. 

VOIDS: "Various writers place broken stone and gravel 
voids at from 41 to 50 %. Experiments show that with 
ordinary sand, voids will vary from 31 to 38%." 

In the example they gave 5% extra of cement is used, and 
they go from that to 10%. With the sand voids averaging 
.35 the method I worked out allowing .4 gives enough cement. 
LIMESTONE: This committee also made some interesting 
experiments with blue limestone and found the following 
results : 

Weight % of 
per cf voids 

Crushed Rock with dust screened out 89.22 45.16 

Stone passed through 2" ring and retained 

in 1" 86.74 47,70 

Stone passed through 2" and retained in .. 77.70 50.66 

Pea size 75.44 49.63 

WEIGHTS: For western natural cement they set 1 bbl at 
265 Ibs, with 3 paper sacks as the equivalent, or 2 jute sacks 
with 133 Ibs each; Eastern cement runs to 300 Ibs. "Port- 
land cement shall not contain less than 376 Ibs, and 4 sacks 
shall equal 1 bbl." A bbl of Portland weighs about 400 Ibs 
gross, 380 net. 

APPROXIMATE: An approximate way of finding the bbls 
of cement for any proportion is to divide 11 by the sum of 
all the parts: No. 1 by 9; 2 by 7; 3 by 5; and 4 by 15, giving 
1.23, 1.57, 2.2 and .74 bbls of cement then mult by the 
parts of sand and stone to get bbls, which mult by 3.8 for 
cf. No. 1, for example, would have 2.46 bbls of sand, and 
7.38 of stone. 

The following tables save the trouble of calculation. They are supplied by the 
CONTRACTORS PLANT CO., BOSTON 



54 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



CONCRETE WITH 2 INCH STONE. 


CONCRETE WITH GRAVEL INCH 
AND UNDER 


Proportions of 
Mixture 


Req'd for 1 cy 


Proportions of 
Mixture 


Req'd for 1 cy 


a 
1 


T3 

1 


V 

d 
5 
m 


J2 

jl 


13 
J>> 



a> 

!& 

03 


1 


I 


1 
o 


c3 
j 


Ife 

c* o 

cc 


"Q> 

g& 

a 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 


2.0 
2.5 
3.0 


2.72 
2.41 
2.16 


0.41 
0.37 
0.33 


0.83 
0.92 
0.98 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 


2.5 
3.0 
3.5 
4.0 
3.0 
3.5 
4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
3.5 
4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
6.0 
4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
5.5 
6.0 
7.0 
5.0 
5.5 
6.0 
6.5 
7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
6.0 
6.5 
7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
8.5 
9.0 
7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
8.5 
9.0 
9.5 
10.0 


2.10 
1.89 
1.71 
1.55 
1.71 
1.57 
1.46 
.34 
.24 
.44 
.34 
.26 
.17 
1 .03 
.24 
.16 
.10 
.03 
0.98 
0.88 
1.03 
0.97 
0.92 
0.88 
0.84 
0.80 
0.76 
0.88 
0.83 
0.80 
0.76 
0.73 
0.71 
0.68 
0.77 
0.73 
0.71 
0.68 
0.65 
0.63 
0.61 


0.32 
0.29 
0.26 
0.24 
0.39 
0.36 
0.33 
0.31 
0.28 
0.44 
0.41 
0.38 
0.36 
0.31 
0.47 
0.44 
0.42 
0.39 
0.37 
0.33 
0.47 
0.44 
0.42 
0.40 
0.38 
0.37 
0.35 
0.46 
0.44 
0.43 
0.41 
0.39 
0.38 
0.36 
0.47 
0.44 
0.43 
0.42 
0.40 
0.38 
0.37 


0.80 
0.86 
0.91 
0.94 
0.78 
0.83 
0.88 
0.91 
0.94 
0.77 
0.81 
0.86 
0.89 
0.94 
0.75 
0.80 
0.83 
0.86 
0.89 
0.93 
0.78 
0.81 
0.84 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.93 
0.80 
0.82 
0.85 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.92 
0.81 
0.83 
0.86 
0.88 
0.89 
0.91 
0.93 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 


2.5 
3.0 
3.5 
4.0 


2.16 
1.96 
1.79 
1.64 


0.49 
0.45 
0.41 
0.38 


0.82 
0.89 
0.96 
1.00 




2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 


3.0 
3.5 
4.0 
4.5 


1.78 
1.66 
1.53 
1.43 


0.54 
0.50 
0.47 
0.43 


0.81 
0.88 
0.93 
0.98 


1 
1 


2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
2.5 


3.5 
4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
5.5 


.51 
.42 
.33 
.26 
.18 


0.58 
0.54 
0.51 
0.48 
0.44 


0.81 
0.87 
0.91 
0.96 
0.99 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 
3.0 


4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
5.5 
6.0 


.32 
.24 
.17 
.11 
1.06 


0.60 
0.57 
0.54 
0.51 
0.48 


0.80 
0.85 
0.89 
0.93 
0.97 














1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 


5.0 
5.5 
6.0 
6.5 
7.0 


1.11 
1.06 
1.00 
0.96 
0.91 


0.59 
0.56 
0.53 
0.51 
0.49 


0.85 
0.89 
0.92 
0.95 
0.98 














i 
i 
i 
i 
i 


4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 


6.0 
6.5 
7.0 
7.5 
8.0 


0.95 
0.91 
0.87 
0.84 
0.81 


0.58 
0.55 
0.53 
0.51 
0.49 


0.87 
0.90 
0.93 
0.96 
0.98 















CONCRETE 



55 



CONCRETE WITH STONE 1 INCH 

AND UNDER 


CONCRETE WITH STONE 2J INCH 

AND UNDER 


Proportions of 
Mixture 


Req'd for 1 cy 


Proportions of 
Mixture 


Req'd for 1 cy 


a 


oc 


<0 

1 


P 



ci w 


0> 

!& 

02 


-^ 
d 


T3 


s 

1 


P 




I&fJfe 

02 02 




1 


2.0 


2.57 0.39 


0.78 


1 




2.0 


2.63 


0.40 


0.80 




1 


2.5 


2.29 


0.35 


0.70 


1 




2.5 


2.34 


0.36 


0.89 




1 


3.0 


2.06 


0.31 


0.94 


1 




3.0 


2.10 


0.32 


0.96 






3.5 


1.84 


0.28 


0.98 


1 




3.5 


1.88 


0.29 


1.00 




: .5 


2.5 


2.05 


0.47 


0.78 


1 


.5 


2.5 


2.09 


0.48 


0.80 




.5 


3.0 


1.85 


0.42 


0.84 


1 


.5 


3.0 


1.90 


0.43 


0.87 




.5 


3.5 


1.72 


0.39 


0.91 


1 


.5 


3.5 


1.74 


0.40 


0.93 




.5 


4.0 


1.57 


0.36 


0.96 


1 


.5 


4.0 


1.61 


0.37 


0.98 




.5 


4.5, 


1.43 


0.33 


0.98 


1 


1.5 


4.5 


1.46 


0.33 


1.00 




2.0 


3.0 


1.70 


0.52 


0.77 


1 


2.0 


3.0 


1.73 


0.53 


0.79 




2.0 


3.5 


1.57 


0.48 


0.83 


1 


2.0 


3.5 


1.61 


0.49 


0.85 




2.0 


4.0 


1.46 


0.44 


0.89 


1 


2.0 


4.0 


.48 


0.45 


0.90 




2.0 


4.5 


1.36 


0.42 


0.93 


1 


2.0 


4.5 


.38 


0.42 


0.95 




2.0 


5.0 


1.27 


0.39 


0.97 


1 


2.0 


5.0 


.29 


0.39 


0.98 




2.5 


3.5 


1.45 


0.55 


0.77 


1 


2.5 


3.5 


.48 


0.56 


0.79 




2.5 


4.0 


1.35 


0.52 


0.82 


1 


2.5 


4.0 


.38 


0.53 


0.84 




2.5 


4.5 


1.27 


0.48 


0.87 


1 


2.5 


4.5 


.29 


0.49 


0.88 




2.5 


5.0 


1.19 


0.46 


0.91 


1 


2.5 


5.0 


.21 


0.46 


0.92 




2.5 


5.5 


1.13 


0.43 


0.94 


1 


2.5 


5.5 


.15 


0.44 


0.96 




2.5 


6.0 


1.07 


0.41 


0.97 


1 


2.5 


6.0 


.07 


0.41 


0.98 


1 


3.0 


4.0 


1.26 


0.58 


0.77 


1 


3.0 


4.0 


.28 


0.58 


0.78 


1 


3.0 


4.5 


1.18 


0.54 


0.81 


1 


3.0 


4.5 


.20 


0.55 


0.82 


1 


3.0 


5.0 


1.11 


0.51 


0.85 


1 


3.0 


5.0 


.14 


0.52 


0.87 


1 


3.0 


5.5 


1.06 


0.48 


0.89 


1 


3.0 


5.5 


.07 


0.49 


0.90 


1 


3.0 


6.0 


1.01 


0.46 


0.92 


1 


3.0 


6.0 


.02 


0.47 


0.93 


1 


3.0 


6.5 


0.96 


0.44 


0.95 


1 


3.0 


6.5 


0.98 


0.44 


0.96 


1 


3.0 


7.0 


0.91 


0.42 


0.97 




3.0 


7.0 


0.92 


0.42 


0.98 




3.0 


5.0 


1.05 


0.56 


0.80 




3.5 


5.0 


1.07 


0.57 


0.82 




3.5 


5.5 


1.00 


0.53 


0.84 




3.5 


5.5 


1.02 


0.54 


0.85 




3.5 


6.0 


0.95 


0.50 


0.87 




3.5 


6.0 


0.97 


0.51 


0.89 




3.5 


6.5 


0.92 


0.49 


0.91 




3.5 


6.5 


0.93 


0.49 


0.92 




3.5 


7.0 


0.87 


0.47 


0.93 




3.5 


7.0 


0.89 


0.47 


0.95 




3.5 


7.5 


0.84 


0.45 


0.96 




3.5 


7.5 


0.85 


0.45 


0.98 


1 


3.5 


8.0 


0.80 


0.42 


0.97 














1 


4.0 


6.0 


0.90 


0.55 


0.82 




4.0 


6.0 


0.92 


0.56 


0.84 


1 


4.0 


6.5 


0.87 


0.53 


0.85 




4.0 


6.5 


0.88 


0.53 


0.87 


1 


4.0 


7.0 


0.83 


0.51 


0.89 




4.0 


7.0 


0.84 


0.51 


0.90 


1 


4.0 


7.5 


0.80 


0.49 


0.91 




4.0 


7.5 


0.81 


0.50 


0.93 


1 


4.0 


8.0 


0.77 


0.47 


0.93 




4.0 


8.0 


0.78 


0.48 


0.95 


1 


4.0 


8.5 


0.74 


0.43 


0.95 


1 


4.0 


8.5 


0.76 


0.46 


0.98 


1 


4.0 | 9.0 


0.71 


0.43 


0.97 















56 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



CONCRETE WITH STONE DUST FOR ARTIFICIAL, STONE 



Proportions of 
Mixture 


Req'd for 1 cy 


Proportions of 
Mixture 


Req'd for 1 cy 


g 


1 

02 


OQ 


II 


02 


0> 

02 


+3 
1 


1 


0> 

. fl 

02 


a w 
o> ~ 


02 


0) 
02 


1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


1.0 
1.0 
1.5 
1.5 
2.0 


2.0 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
3.0 


2.51 
2.27 
2.00 
1.83 
1.65 


0.38 
0.35 
0.46 
0.42 
0.50 


0.76 
0.86 
0.76 
0.84 
0.75 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


2.0 
2.5 
2.5 
3.0 
3.0 


4.0 
4.0 
5.0 
4.0 
5.0 


1.44 
.33 
.18 
.23 
1.10 


0.44 
0.50 
0.45 
0.56 
0.50 


0.88 
0.81 
0.90 
0.75 
.084 



WEIGHT: The weight of dry concrete is from 130 to 160 
Ibs to cf. A fair average is 140. 

CRUSHER AND CAR LOAD: A stone crusher costs from 
$700 to $2,000 and crushes 6 to 7 cy per hour with 10 to 12 
men, and an engine of 8 to 10 hp. A carload of cement runs 
about 170 bbls. 

EXPERIMENTS 

The results of some interesting experiments were published 
In "The Railroad Gazette" for engineers, etc. They may be 
of use to those who want accurate figures for the propor- 
tions and weight of concrete: 



Sand, 25; gravel, 32; stone,44. 
sand, 102; gravel, 98; crushed 



DATA: Per cent of voids: 
Weight of material per cf: 
stone, 84; cement, 88. 

PACKED OR LOOSE: In these experiments 4 sacks of 
cement measured loose 4.42, or practically 4.5 cf. The packed 
bbl does not have so many cf from 3.5 to 3.8 as the loose, 
and herein lies a basis of dispute between the men of theory 
and the contractors. The theorists want the proportions to 
be taken from the measurement of the packed bbl, and the 
contractors naturally want the cement to be measured loose 
like sand and stone. Good cement is saved by this method; 
why waste it? The U. S. Courts have sometimes had to 
decide the matter. Sand, we are told, shrinks from 7 to 10% 
when wet, but we hear no cry for packed sand. If one why 
not another? The committee already quoted was content with 
at most, but some authorities tell us that owing to this 



CONCRETE 57 

shrinkage the cement paste should be about 50% in excess 
of the voids of the sand, and that the mortar of cement and 
sand should be about 50% in excess of the void? of the stone. 
If the " Gazette's " figure of 25% void is correct, the allowance 
of .4 which is given in the examples worked out is sufficient, 
and the rest may be filled with pure sand until the theorists 
give us a figure upon which they all agree, 
PROPORTIONS: Another part of the same number dealing 
with proportions says that cement 1, sand 1, and stone 2 
make as good a concrete as can be made with natural cement; 
while 1, 2, 4 to 4 is as poor as good practice will permit. 
Portland at 1, 3, 6 " is sufficiently good for ordinary con- 
struction;" 1, 4, 8 for plain work. 

CINDER CONCRETE is sometimes used for basements; and 
reinforced floors are made of it on account of lightness, but 
nowhere is it as good as stone. 

PRODUCTION: The cement mills could not turn out enough 
material to supply the demands of 1902, and the future is 
likely to witness even a more extensive use of concrete. In 
the U. S. the production of natural cement was from 8,000,000 
to 9,000,000 bbls, in 1902, about 9,600,000. In 1906, 4,055,797. 
The Portland is rapidly displacing it. The following figures 
showing the production of Am. Portland only are worthy of 
note: 
Year Bbl Year Bbls Year Bbls 

1882 85,000 1892 547,440 1901 12,711,225 

1884 100,090 1894 798,757 1902 20,864,078 

1886 150,000 1896 1,543,023 1905 35,246,812 

1888 250,000 1898 3,692,284 1906 46,463,424 

1890 335,000 1900 8,482,020 1912 82,000,000 

DRILLING HOLES: A large number of \\" holes were 
drilled in the hardened concrete of No. 7 to hold steel cols. 
They are 29" deep, and 2 men with a hand drill cut 7 in a 
day. Some at 23" were cut at the rate of 10 per day. 

COST OP TABLE: The water-table of No. 7 and the other 
buildings of the plant is made of concrete cast in a form. It 
costs about 40c per cf. Stone costs $1.25 and upwards. The 
concrete runs clear through the wall and takes the place of 
the brick, while stone is usually only 8" wide. The setting cost 



58 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

about 13c per cf, but stone also requires to be set. Labor was 
.20, sand .01, stone .05, cement .10, or a total of 36c, but a 
leeway of a few cents is desirable. Of course, a small quantity 
would cost more, as the same forms are required for 100 ft 
as for 1,000; and angles require more labor than long straight 
walls. 

The water-table was a complete success, hard as a rock and 
as smooth as the boards on the inside of the forms. 

AULD LANG SYNE: We have republican and democratic 
waves, conservative successes and liberal triumphs in the 
political field; and it sometimes seems that waves come in 
building as well as in other spheres. One of the first jobs I 
got as an apprentice was to put up 2 long lines of studs 
covered on the inside with boards about a foot apart. Then 
the concrete was poured in and the finished wall appeared 
after the boarding was taken away. About the same time, in 
the same place, a stone contractor became tired of stone and 
took to concrete for everything, door and window sills, 
,mouldings, and the walls of his buildings clear to the roof. 
But stone still survives. 

Now we are in the midst of another revival. Stone, in 
spite 'of machinery, nas risen to a high price, and builders 
begin to look around for a substitute. They find in concrete 
and terra-cotta. and if properly used both serve as a check 
on the stone mason. The danger is that concrete will be put 
to unwarranted uses. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE buildings are now so common as 
to attract little attention. 

CONCRETE FLOORS 

On No. 2 there were 1,150 sq yds of floor with a 2" concrete 
base and a \" top-dressing. The base was 1, 2, 5. Without 
the top-dressing there were 64 cy. A 6" bed of cinders was 
first laid down, watered and tamped. 

MATERIAL: 100 bbls American and Imported Portland. I 
did not keep an exact account of the stone, but the ordinary 
rules for concrete will give the quantity closely enough, say, 
75 tons. Sand about 32 cy. Labor was 35c an hour for 1 mai\ 
and ordinary wages of $1.50 to $1.75 for laborers. The labor 



CONCRETE 59 

ran to $300: cement, $345; stone, $82.50; sand, $22, a total of 
$748.50, or close to 66c per sq yd. There is nothing allowed 
for tools, hose, etc, in this or the other concrete figures. 

PRICE: By the sq yd, sand and stone were lOc; cement, 30c; 
labor 26c. This price is too close to figure on with safety, 
as accidents sometimes happen. Of course, 2" thick does 
not take so much material as 4. 

For a floor of this kind 5" thick, the usual allowance is 
$1 to $1.25, depending upon wages, price of cement, etc. All 
the cement walks around No. 9 were laid for $1.35, and the 
price was low as cement was $2.75 per bbl. In spite of the 
high price of the imported cement the floors of No. 2 went 
down reasonably cheap. The labor included the wheeling of 
rubbish and the tamping of cinders. One bbl of cement laid 
100 sq ft; but that was for only 2" thick. A trade publica- 
tion at hand gives 1 bbl to 75 sq ft. 

GUTTERS: But again I know of a small building erected 
for a cow-stable where 6" floors cost about $1.70 per sq. yd. 
Gutters had to be formed in several places, and special work 
of that kind soon runs into extra time. Allow from 15 to 20c 
per If for these. 

BASEMENTS with a large surface are easier to put down 
than sidewalks, say, about 25c less per sq yd for them. 

QUANTITY: It is easy enough to estimate floors, sidewalks, 
etc, for a special thickness, as we have only to get the number 
of cy and add the top-dressing. The dressing is sometimes 
1 of cement to 1 of sand in the specification, but seldom in 
the floor. It is easy enough to get at the number of cy in the 
dressing, and the quantity of cement can be found at 3.8 cf 
in a bbl. The labor on dressing will run to about 14c per sq 
yd at the rate of wages given for No. 2. Of course, the labor 
on a thin floor of 2", for example, is more in proportion than 
for 4 or 6. The same leveling and top-dressing have to be 
done in both cases. 

THICKNESS: For each additional 1" in thickness add 18c 
per sq yd to a concrete floor. 

FOR HOISTING to an upper floor or roof, take the figure 
given on page 48, divide by 36, for inches in a cy, then mult 



60 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



the quotient by the thickness of floor in inches. Thus, a 
floor on the fourth story 4" thick, put at $1.35 on the ground 
would be $1.51: 

A cu yd on first floor 50c extra 

On the next 3 floors 90c extra 



$1.40 

Dividing by 36 to get the cost per inch of a sq yd we have 
4c, or a total of 16c extra per sq yd for a 4" floor. 

SURFACING OF FLOORS, ETC 

Allow concrete material as per list, and add for top of floor. 

Sqyds 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

No contractor would exceed the quantities of cement given, 
but the exact sand allowance given should be increased about 
5 for waste, etc. Packed bbl.=4 bags Portland, allowed. 
CEMENT BASE: A cement base about fxlO" was formed 
all through the basement of No. 2. The price ran to about 
12c per If, I think, although no record of the time was kept. 
But a contractor would not take such a base for less than 
18c, including his profit, and on small rooms 20c would not 
be too much. 

SPREADING STONE : For spreading stone or gravel allow 
6 to 8c. by hand and 2c by machine per cu yd with labor at 
;. per hour. 



Proportion Thickness Cement bbls 


Sand yds 


1 to 1 J 


v 6.6 


.9 


1 to 1J 


r 5.5 


1.2 


to 2 I" 4.6 


1.3 


: to 2j 


r 4.0 


1.4 


to 1 


10.0 


1.4 


to 1 


8.1 


1.7 


to 2 


7.0 


2.0 


to2J 


.6.0 


2.1 


to 1 ] 


13.0 


1.8 


to 1^ 


I" 10.8 


2.3 


to 2 ] 


9.2 


2.6 


to 2$ 


L" 8.0 


2.8 



CHAPTEE IV 

STONEWORK 

RUBBLE 

MEASUREMENT: Measurement is taken only by the cf or 
cy. Perches and cords are out of date. Beware of perches. 
Some of them contain 164 and others 25 cf. 

Rubble is often measured by counting the corners twice, 
and making no deduction for openings, just as with brick- 
work. Here we shall abide by net measurement so that an 
accurate bill of material can be taken directly from the 
original estimate, no matter how many or varied the openings 
or corners may be. It naturally takes a little more raw ma- 
terial for angles than for straight work, but this does not 
count enough to justify the old style of measurement. Even 
when a wall is less than 16" thick it is best to take the 
actual contents and allow extra for labor. 
QUANTITY: Allow 2,900 Ibs of stone to the cy of masonry 
in the wall. The owner of a Nebraska quarry writes me 
that his railroad customers say that it takes from 3,000 to 
3,200 Ibs. An Omaha mason gives the same figure. Some- 
thing depends upon the stone. Thin stone with more joints 
make up in mortar for less weight required. " On small 
stones about one-third of the mass will be mortar; large 
stones one-fifth to one-fourth." The C. & N. W. R. R. finds 
2,700 Ibs enough for a yd in the wall, but the stone is of good 
quality. The ordinary Chicago allowance is 13,000 Ibs to 128 
cf, or 2,742 Ibs to the cy of finished wall. 

Good work requires what is colloquially known as " two- 
man rubble," that is, stone too heavy for one man to lift 
" one-man rubble " is fit only for cheap work. It would not 
be accepted on government buildings. The raw material is 
worth about 50c per cy less than the other. 
WEIGHT: As with sand and crushed stone it is almost 
obligatory for a contractor to take rubble by weight instead 
of measurement on account of freight and hauling charges; 

61 



62 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

and it is therefore worth remembering in case a specification 
calls for granite or some specially heavy stone that an extra 
allowance would be necessary. Granite or limestone runs at 
least 20 Ibs heavier to the cf than sandstone, but granite is 
seldom used for rubble, at least in prairie states. 
MORTAR: The proportion of mortar given by one writer is 
to coarse rubble not dressed, 33 to 40%; roughly dressed, 25 
to 30%; well dressed and coursed, 15 to 20%. With stone at 
150 Ibs to the cf, allow 2,700 Ibs in the first case, 3,040 in the 
second, and 3,440 in the third. 

QUANTITY: For ordinary work Trautwine allows 6 at the 
quarry to 5 in the wall. The proportion of 128 in the quarry 
to 100 in the wall is often used, and on 400 or 500 cy was 
recently tested in Omaha with satisfactory results. In case 
stone is not bought by weight this will serve as a measure of 
quantities. According to the same authority 1 cy of stone 
when broken occupies 1.9 cy when perfectly loose, or 1.75 
when piled up. 

PRICE: From $5 to $6.50 per cy. Midway is a fair price 
for ordinary work in Am. Portland with wages at 55c to 60c. 
The heavy wall that runs around the west side of the Omaha 
post-office was let to the contractor at a rate of $6, but this 
included his profit. It is laid in cement and is an excellent 
piece of work. There are no angles to speak of, and no 
openings, but a straight wall about 2' thick. 
BEST WORK: The higher price, listed at $6.50, is for first 
class work laid in Portland cement. A thick wall does not 
cost quite so much as a thin one, as the face work is the same 
for both. Allow a difference of 50c per cy. If wall has two 
faces add 50c per cy. 

ENGINEERING WORK of a certain class costs more. Em- 
bankment and abutment walls faced with squared limestone 
filled in behind with dimension stone undressed, run here, 
hauling included, from $10 to $12 per cy all through. But 
the face stone, if taken alone, is worth per cf close to 75c. 
Small piers squared all around run to 80c per cf. Some 
local work of both classes has recently been done at these 
figures with Nebraska stone which costs 25c on cars, but 
profit included. If Bedford or Kasota stone is used the price 



STONEWORK 63 

is increased, as the raw material is worth 50c. " A cheaper 
Bedford stone can be used for this work than for buildings. 
Heavy limestone caps and bases roughly squared up with a 
hammer, 65c per cf in place with profit. 

BRIDGE: The limestone masonry in the piers of the bridge 
across the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, Nebr. 1879-80 
cost the R. R. Co. $18.60 per cy exclusive of freight, engineer- 
ing expenses and tools. The small piers ran from $12 to $14. 
Work of this kind would be better classed under cut stone 
than rubble. 

PRICE: "One-man" rubble fob Omaha or Lincoln about 
$1.10; "two-man," $1.20 per ton. 

PRAIRIE WORK: There is little rubble used in this terri- 
tory. It is safe to say that for one foundation of stone there 
are ninety-nine of brick, usually with a concrete footing. 
Thus it is that our surroundings change. During a long 
apprenticeship of five years and for one year afterwards as 
a journeyman I worked on and saw all kinds of buildings and 
never, so far as I remember, lifted a hammer on a brick one. 
Everything, except inside partitions and a few factories, is 
of stone in the town of Kirkcaldy, with a population of 20,000 
people, and there are no anchors on the joists. The walls 
are built thick enough to stand. The walls of the one-story 
cottage I lived in near that place are 30" thick for an 8' 
ceiling. 

SLOPES: It is seldom that a building contractor has to 
line a slope with stone, but the following figures from " The 
Engineering News," New York, N. Y., will be of interest. They 
are taken from actual records. The maximum thickness of 
this kind of work is 10" to 12"; minimum, 3" to 4". Stones 
must be 12" long. Average joints are 1"; if ", the labor 
costs twice as much. Mortar is not used. With U" joints, 750 
cy of 12" were laid, each laborer laying 2 cy per day at the 
beginning, and 3 later on. Skilled men were then employed 
and laid 5 cy with 1 laborer to 4 tradesmen. Part of the work 
was then sublet at 50c per cy to men who had been laying 
5 cy; from that time on they laid 7. On rougher work skilled 
men sometimes lay 10 to 12. 



64 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

SLOPES: On another contract four masons and four laborers 
averaged 60 cy in 10 hours. With material delivered at $1.25 
to $1.50 the finished work is worth $1.75 to $2. The time at 
quarry for 280 yds was 1,000 hours to quarry and load; this 
made 220 cy in the wall. The teamsters hauled four to five 
loads in a day, a distance of 2 miles. Team traveled at 
rate of 2 miles per hour. 

On another contract with 750 cy six trips were made a 
distance of If miles. 

CEMENT MORTAR: The quantity of mortar required de- 
pends upon the quality of the work and the size of the stone. 
Thin stone naturally require more than large blocks 
Taking the figures already given, 33, 25, 15% of mortar, we 
may easily arrive at the quantities for the various propor- 
tions. Taking cement packed we have in Am. Portland about 
7 bbls to the cy. For a cy of cement mortar allow as follows, 
the figures for cement being in bbls, and for sand in yds: 

1 to 1, 4.2 cement to .6 sand; 1 to 2, 2.7, .8; 1 to 3, 2, .9; 
1 to 4, 1.7, .95; 1 to 5, 1.3. .97; 1 to 6. 1.2, .98. But it 
must be remembered that when cement reaches a certain 
point of weakness it will not work, and what is gained in 
material is more than lost in wages. But again, a mortar of 
1 to 3 is about as strong as we ever made, no matter what 
is specified; 1 to 1 is rather too strong, and except for coping 
of walls and such work it is not really necessary. 

Let us chose for illustration a coarse undressed rubble 
with 33% of mortar and if filling is not properly done with 
small stones a careless mason can easily throw in one-third 
of the mass in mortar. Taking 30 cy we require 10 cy of 
mortar. At the proportion of 1 to 3 this means 20 bbls of 
cement and 9 yds of sand to 30 cy of masonry. 

At 1 to 5 for the same quantity of masonry 13 bbls and 
9.7, or practically 10 cy of sand. 

AVERAGE ALLOWANCE: Or taking the second class of 
masonry which is better than the average, we have 25% or 
one-fourth of the total in mortar. For 4 yds of wall we there- 
fore require 1 yd of mortar. At the proportion of 1 to 4, 
which is of fair quality, 1.7 bbls of cement require close to 
1 yd of sand. In 4 cy we have 108 cf, so that for aver 



STONEWORK 65 

work allow If bbls and 1 yd to every 100 cf of finished wall. 
A yd of sand to 3| cy is an Omaha allowance; and one-half 
bbl of cement to i yd of rubble. 

LIME MORTAR: Lime makes one-fourth to one-fifth more 
mortar than cement as it swells when slacked; for this reason 
the cement quantities require to be cut down. Some allow 
one-fourth bbl to cy, one-third is safer. Trautwine gives 2 
bbls to 100 cf, but this is too much unless the stone is thin 
and small. But again, we run across lime that does not seem 
to make more than three-fourths of the mortar produced from 
the best brands. On several buildings a careful account of 
mortar was kept, and at our prices cement was 65c and lime 
55c per cy of wall. 

MORTAR FOR AVERAGE RUBBLE 

One and three-quarter bbls Portland and 1 yd sand to 100 
cf of finished wall. 

One and one-half bbls good lime and 1 yd sand to 100 cf 
of finished wall. 

WATER: For making rubble mortar the Omaha Water- 
Works charges 8c per cy for water; for tempering only, 3c. 
The m'eter rate is 35c per 1,000 gall which is far cheaper, say 
one-third the price. The Chicago rate is 6c for 128 cf. 

LABOR: A mason and laborer will lay 3 cy of ordinary 
rubble in an 8-hour day; and on some kinds of walls below 
ground, 5 to 6. One laborer can attend 2 masons if every- 
thing is handy, but if wheeling is required it takes about 
man to man. In the stone-cutting yard 2 men can attend 10 
cutters. 

EXAMPLE: On a building recently erected 500 cy of rubble 
cost about $1,000 for labor. Most of the stones had to be 
handled with a derrick, and although the walls were thick 
and straight this cost probably 25c extra. On another build- 
ing with 120 yds the walls were short and the cost ran to 
$2.50, but extra time was required on the angles. Good time 
can be made with a derrick if all the stones are large, but 
if work is so far away from ground that large and small have 



66 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

to be handled this way it costs more. A fair price for 18 to 
20" ordinary work is $1.50. Thick, straight walls can be 
done for less. The labor is not exactly in proportion to the 
number of cy, as a 16" wall requires 2 faces just as a 24" 
does; and the filling goes in faster than the outside work. 
Scaffolding has sometimes to be allowed if walls are high. 

CUTTING: In 8 hours one man will cut and square about 
40 cf of large limestone blocks for bridge and pier work, and 
25 of small blocks. Sandstone costs more to cut than lime- 
stone, as it wears out the tools sooner. Unless very soft it is 
worth 10% more to square up. There is no sandstone in 
Bedford, Ind.; "Bedford" is a limestone. 

GRANITE: Granite rubble would cost about three or four 
times as much as limestone here, and is consequently seldom 
seen. The following figures are culled from the appendix of 
Baker's work on Masonry and he culled them from the 
official reports. In case of emergency they will give a fair 
idea cf the labor on granite. For trimmings, about 25% of 
the cost of cut stone is enough to set in wall. 

QUARRYING: In quarrying rough stone allow for one man 
eight-tenths of a day per cy; stone to be cut for facework, 
2.6 days. 

CUTTING: On more than 2,000 cy near New York it was 
found that the average time of a cutter for one cy was 36 
hours. The work was all cut into headers and stretchers 
2'x3', and 2'x6' with a rise of from 20" to 26". Round coping 
required more work; the average per cy was 50 hours for 
one man. Keystones, springers, etc, 56 hours. But these 
figures include moving stone, sharpening tools, superintend- 
ence, etc. Superintendence was 5%; sharpening tools, 15; 
interest on sheds, derricks, etc, 1%; new tools and timber, 
1%; handling stone,, 30% or 52% in all, which added to the 
total wages gives the complete cost. It is thus seen that 
half the cost is outside of cutting proper. 
CUTTING: On another contract a minimum day's work was 
set at 12 superficial ft on a total of 118,383 cf ; but the average 
for beds and joints reached 13.6' per man per day. The 
average ran as follows: 



STONEWORK 67 

Super ft 

Beds and joints 13.6 

Pointed work with margins : . 8.5 

Peen-hammered 6.15 

6-cut patent-hammered 5.22 

8-cut patent-hammered 4.24 

On the Croton reservoir a minimum day's work of joints 
was fixed at 15 sq ft for one man, but with draft around the 
edges this is equal to 17.7 sq ft. 

The average day's work in cutting beds to lay a f " joint was 
18.7 sq ft. In these last 2 items add for superintendence, 8%; 
sheds and tools, 7%; sharpening tools, 11%; labor moving 
stone, 10%; drilling off rough face, 4%; making a total of 
40% to be added to cutting. 

POST OFFICE: The finished work of the new Omaha post- 
office, mouldings included, is said to cost $3 per cf fob, cars. 

A RED MONUMENT GRANITE is sold at $1.25, and a pink, 
$1.35, Clayton, N. Y., is sizes up to 20 cf. From these prices 
for building blocks allow up to $2 for blocks from 20 cf to 75. 
SETTING : Add 20 to 25 to cost or cut granite. 
MARBLE: A good grade of building white stock is $1.50, 
Phila. The finished work is from $3 to $5, unset, per cf. 
Hauling and setting about 50c extra. Mausoleum work, $4.50 
to $8.00 per cf. 

ASHLAR AND CUT STONE 

MEASUREMENT: Take the exact cubic contents of a wall 
and order the stone from the quarry on this basis. The 
quarryman allows for waste in cutting. If 100 cf are ordered 
the block is sent large enough to be squared to this size. With 
such a stone as Bedford there is little chance of waste if 
sizes cut to advantage. The ordinary method of measurement 
allows openings under a certain size, doubles angles and so 
forth, but " The Building Estimator " in general is not based 
upon this old system. In rock-faced work allow 2" fextra for 
projections beyond the face of the wall; if the stone rests 
8" on the wall this means 10" material. Projections are 
usually about 1", but a margin has to be allowed for safety. 
PRICE: Bedford is delivered fob Omaha for 68 to 70c per 
cf. Blue and buff are commonly used. Blue is better than 



68 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

buff. There is a hard Royal Blue which costs the same, or a 
trifle extra, but is about 20% more expensive to cut. It is 
used for long lintels, steps, etc, as the common Bedford is 
too soft. 

The cut stone over an average building may be taken as 
$1.50 per cf, but something depends upon the state of the 
yards. In busy times $1.60 is asked. These figures include 
the contractor's profit, but not setting, which is worth about 
25c extra, and 5c for pointing, or 30c per cf. 

On an Omaha house finished complete, with about 16,000 cf 
of broken ashlar from Silverdale, Kan., including mouldings, 
battlements, turrets, and all stonecutting, 3 contractors 
allowed from $1.45 to $1.50 per cf set, but another got the 
contract, so that his price was lower. The raw material fob 
Omaha cost about 50c per cf. 

LIBRARY: On a library built in an eastern Iowa town, 
there were 16,000 cf of Bedford stone estimated by the suc- 
cessful contractor at $25,000 set in the wall. After deduct- 
ing about $4,000 for carving, the complete job was only 
$1.31 per cf which is too low. Freight is, of course, lower 
at that point than here. 

Another library in South Omaha was estimated at about 
$1.90 per cf. 

The Bedford stone Commercial Nat'l Bank, Omaha, was 
estimated set at $2.25 by an unsuccessful bidder; it was prob- 
ably done for about $2, in place. But better prices were ob- 
tained when it was built. As it is polished, the rate would 
now be lower on account of saws. But rubbed work is worth 
about 20c per sq ft extra if straight; and 35c if circular. If 
more than one side is finished the cost is naturally increased. 
If coursed or range work is used instead of broken or random 
ashlar, 20c per cf may be deducted. The setting is much 
easier. 

MEASUREMENT: But ashlar is usually taken by the sq ft 
instead* of by the cf. The price depends upon the number of 
openings and the size of the reveals. If they are 8" the stone 
must be much thicker than if 4; and if openings are close 
together a thinner stone can not be much used between. Rock- 
faced of average thickness is worth $1 to $1.25 broken in 



STONEWORK 69 

"Crazy Quilt" fashion; 90c broken but squared; and 80c 
coursed from 8 to 12" high in 4 and 8". 

All of the foregoing figures are based on Bedford stone. 
The setting and pointing are not included. The setting of 
broken ashlar costs about 15c per sq ft. On a large, straight 
job without delay lOc is enough, but residences with waiting 
on bricklayers, etc, are worth about 20c. 

SETTING: For heavy fine fronts allow 18% of cost of stone 
for setting. 

LOCAL STONE: For local stone the Bedford figures may 
be cut from 25 to 30% according to the hammerwork, but the 
setting remains the same. 

CUT STONE 

For Bedford water-table, door and window sills, courses, 
bands, and in general the whole of the cut-stone bill on an 
average brick building, allow as per table, delivered either on 
the cars or at the building in cities like Omaha and Lincoln. 
But when there is an excess of mouldings, pediments, carving, 
and so forth, care must be taken to make a due allowance. 
Setting is about 10% of the cost of the stone cut and delivered. 
COLUMNS: For circular cols up to 20" diam, or so, 
find the cubical contents at the widest part, square before 
turning is done, and mult by $1.50 per cf, not set. Setting 
about 75c per cf. Thus a col 18"xl8"xlO', square, would con- 
tain 22 cf at $1.50, or $33.75 turned. Add freight. 
PAVING: The large 4" flagstones around No. 3 were laid 
complete for 37c per sq ft; 4" is now worth 35c laid; 6", 60c. 
Saws now reduce the price although wages are higher. If 
laid on I beams allow 8 to lOc extra per sq ft, as laying is more 
difficult. No. 2 stone is used. 

BEDFORD STONE LF PRICES 

Description Size Rate cu ft CostTwith profit 

Window Sills 5"x 7" $1 .75 $0.43 

Window Sills 5"xll" .70 .65 

Window Sills 7"x 1" .70 .58 

Window Sills 7"xll" .65 .89 

Window Sills 8"x 8" .60 .72 

Door Sills.. 8"xll" .50 .92 



70 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Bedford Stone LF Prices Continued 

Description Size Rate cu ft Cost with profit 

Door Sills 8"xl5" $1.45 $1.21 ' 

Door Sills 8"xl9" 1.40 1.48 

Lintels 4"xlO" 1 .65 .46 

Lintels 8"xl2" 1.50 1.00 

Water Table 6"xlO" 1.55 .65 

Water Table 8"xl2" 1 . 50 1 .00 

Coping 4"xll" 1 . 70 .52 

Coping 4"xl5" 1 . 55 .65 

Coping 4"xl9" 1 .50 .80 

Coping 8"xl5" 1.45 1.21 

Coping 8"xl9" 1.40 1.48 

Steps 7"xl4" 1.50 1.02 

Curbing (See Chap. VI). 

MORTAR: The backing of ashlar, whether brick or rubble, 
requires the common allowance of material given under these 
headings. With courses 8" high less mortar is necessary than 
with common brick; and when the courses are 18" and of a 
proportionate length it is clear that the quantity of mortar is 
decreased. In such a case make a reasonable deduction from 
the allowance. 

" With f to *" joints," says Baker, " and 12" to 20" courses 
there will be about 2 cf per cy; with larger blocks and closer 
joints 1 cf of mortar to 1 cy of masonry. Laid in 1 to 2 
mortar ordinary ashlar requires to of a bbl of cement per 
cy of masonry." A given number of cf of mortar being 
determined for a yd of finished work it is easy by referring to 
the rubble table to allow cement, lime, and sand, according to 
the proportion desired; and lime, it will be remembered, makes 
more mortar than cement. 

Another authority says that ashlar in courses of 20 to 32", 
and joints of 1 to f, will have from 5 to 6% of mortar. With 
ordinary rubble running from 25 to 33% of mortar it is 
-evident that the outside facing of the wall requires less than 
the backing, and deductions should be made where nicety is 
required. Nicety is not usually required, but the advantage 
of remembering the decreased quantity for the facework is 
that when the general bill of material is made out the usual 
.allowance is cut. 

LABOR: Since the introduction of saws rock-faced work 
costs about 10% more than plain-faced. With hand labor it 



STONEWORK 71 

it cheaper to make rock-faced sills, water-tables, etc. But be- 
fore a tool is lifted rock-faced work requires 2" more in 
thickness, and stone has to be paid for. Other things being 
equal, in the neighborhood of saws use plain work; in the 
country make it rock-faced. 

With saws and moulders labor is reduced to one-half, and in 
some classes of work to one-fifth, of its former price. By 
hand a mason will cut about 20 sq ft of broken ashlar in 8 
hours, and 25 of coursed; but when saws are used it is cut to 
thickness and then merely pitched by hand, so that 100' can 
be done. Polished stone is even cheaper, and a man can 
joint and prepare 125 sq ft. For plain cut stone allow 25 to 
35c per cf for labor. Finials, capitals, carving and such work 
must be allowed separately in addition to the regular price. 
There is no set rule for estimating special work, as no two 
pieces are alike. The amount of labor must be judged and 
added to price of stone. And accidents happen: I once saw 
a splendid finial cut for a Gothic church. It was about 6' 
long, and the foreman did all the work himself as he could 
not trust the best of his men. After the carving was done 
he mounted a trestle and started to drill a hole for an iron 
rod. When he got down about 2' the drill came out at the 
side. 

ACCIDENTS HAPPEN: That is one danger of estimators 
and all calculators. A great man designed a fine yacht for 
Queen Victoria. He made out his elaborate calculations, and 
then in a moment of absent-mindedness added the year 184S, 
or whatever it was. The yacht was built, but it rolled like a 
tub in a storm. 
TRACERY has to be estimated from details. 

LETTERS AND HOLES: Sunk letters from 4 to 6" high 
are worth from 50c to 70c each; raised 75c to 85c. Holes for 
iron railings, 10c: leaded, 5c to 6c per Ib for lead. 
HAULING: Hauling from cars, say 1 mile, 50c per ton. As 
a full load is 2 tons this means $1 per load, which is the al- 
lowance under ordinary circumstances. But loading and un- 
loading are the same for any given haul. 

WASHING AND POINTING all the smooth surf of No. 3, 
laid in a hard Wyoming stone, cost 1.6c per sq ft, but the 



72 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

blocks were large. This is too low a figure to use for work 
now, especially with broken ashlar and short runs. Bids were 
recently made to wash and point a building for 24c, and an- 
other building was figured at 3c. The joints have to be raked 
out, pointed, and then the whole surf washed. A fair 
price is 3c after openings are deducted. The openings of 
No. 3 are included in the surf. 

FOR DIAMOND SAND BLASTING to clean the brownstone, 
granite, marble, limestone fronts of old bldgs, allow 6 to 7c 
per sq ft. 

LA FARGE CEMENT is often specified for stone-setting as 
it does not stain the stone. It costs about $5 a bbl. 

The following useful figures are taken from "-Engineering 
Contracting," 

DATA ON CUT STONE WORK 

" The walls for the building of the Government Printing 
Office at Washington, D. C., standard U. S. work, were built 
of red bricks trimmed with red sandstone from a quarry 
near Longmeadow, Mass. The cost of this stone, ready to 

set, was as follows: 

Per cu ft 

Plain Ashlar $1.80-$2.00 

Moulded courses 2.00- 2.40 

Sills 2.00- 2.40 

Lintels 1.95- 2.15 

Cols 3.00 

In computing these prices, all molded and curved or ir- 
regular pieces were squared out to the minimum containing 
rectangular sides. The cost of setting etc., aver for all 
classes, was as follows: p er cu ^ 

Handling $0.133 

Setting 179 

Cutting (corrections, etc) 018 

Pointing 041 

Mortar 012 

Miscellaneous materials . 026 



Total $0.409 



STONEWORK 73 

The rather high cost is due to the care with which the 
joints were caulked, and to the fact that there was not enough 
stone to be placed to justify the purchase of a special plant 
to handle it. Some of the wages paid for 8 hour day on 
this job were as follows. Laborers, $1.50; stone masons, 
$4; stone cutters, $4." 

Figuring up the contents of stone either by the decimal 
or duodecimal system is rather tedious work. David Wil- 
liams Co. sells for $2.00 " The Expeditious Measurer," with 
all sizes given in cubic feet. 

COST OF BEDFORD STONE. 

At Indiana quarries the cost of the blocks is about 30 
cents per cu ft. Add freight to point desired. The rate to 
Omaha, for example, is 40 cents per cu ft. For the plainest 
work add 20 to 25 cents for sawing to get cost price. 

In general, plain work set in building should be figured at 
$1.75 where the freight amounts to 40 cents; and molded 
work $2.00 including profit. This is for the ordinary stone. 
For the hardest Bedford add an extra allowance of 25 per 
cent. 

GRANITE COLUMNS. 

On page 425 there is a note about some unpolished gran- 
ite cols. To estimate them square at the widest part, mul- 
tiply by the height to get the cu ft, and allow $4.00 per cu it 
unset. In the case noted the cols, were 3 x 3 x 20=180 cu 
ft x $4.00=$720 each, plus $100 for taking off the cars and 
setting where the derrick is close to the tracks. Over a 
score of columns at $820 each made up a total that was not 
hard to figure; yet half that amount in separate, detailed 
pieces of ornamental iron might easily have taken a_week. 



CHAPTER Y 

BRICKWORK 

MEASUREMENT: Some years ago the Omaha masons issued 
their rules of measurement which are practically the same as 
those of St, Louis and Chicago. They are excellent rules in 
their way, but I should not like to be an owner and let my 
work to a contractor by the 1,000 at a high price, especially 
if it consisted of angles, pilasters, ledgings and so forth. 
"When estimating a building few brick-masons pay any atten- 
tion to printed rules. They are kept for railroad engineers 
and other innocents. It would merely fill up space to print 
them over again. The system followed in this book is the 
same as for stonework, take the exact cubical contents, but 
allow " wall measure," or 22* bricks to the cf. 

EXPLANATION: In the Chicago building code there is an 
explanation of the rules to reassure the public. Cornices, 
pilasters, projections, and so forth cost much more than plain 
work, and instead of charging a higher price for each piece 
separately the charge is simply made in the measurement. It 
is easier to estimate a building on this basis and it is just 
as fair, for the rate per 1,000 would be greater if openings 
were deducted and cornices measured as plain work. But 
while this is true in theory most contractors now cut out 
openings and take actual contents. Competition is toe keen 
to do otherwise. I prefer this method because the bill of 
material can be taken directly from the original figures with- 
out a new calculation to see how many feet, windows, corners, 
cornices, etc, make up. Buildings differ so much in their 
openings and other features that it is best to take only the 
actual contents of the wall and allow so much more per 1,000 
lor difficult work. 

TRADE RULE 

If there are many belts of cut stone, terra-cotta, etc, they 
should be deducted, or too many actual brick may be sent 

to building. 

74 



BRICKWORK 75 

But there is a trade way of estimating the brick in a wall 
that all contractors use, and it requires a word of explana- 
tion: The method does not give the number of actual brick 
required, but the number in "wall measure," which is differ- 
ent from actual or " kiln count." It Is merely a trade rule, 
a short cut, a labor-saving device. 

The Omaha rule is the same as that of Chicago: 

Every superficial ft of \ brick thick or 4J" shall count 1\ brick 
Every superficial ft of 1 brick thick or 9" shall count 15 brick 
Every superficial ft of 1$ brick thick or 13" shall count 22 brick 
Every superficial ft of 2 brick thick or 17" shall count 30 brick 
Every superficial ft of 1\ brick thick or 21" shall count 37$ brick 
Every superficial ft of 3 brick thick or 25" shall count 45 brick 

It all depends upon the size of the brick. It is possible to 
make them to fit the foregoing table, but it is not done, and 
thus the rule is a rule of thumb and not a rule of science. 
But it works, and it is hardly worth while trying to change it. 



RULE FOR GETTING NUMBER OF BRICK 

Find the number of actual sq ft in a wall, and mult 
by the number in table for a wall of that thickness. 
THICKNESS: The building ordinances now get the thick- 
ness of a brick wall mixed up. Sometimes it is even and 
sometimes odd 8, 12, 16, 30, 24, and so on, adding 4" at each 
advance. Again it is 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, adding as before 
but starting on another basis, which, after all, is nearer the 
exact thickness. A 9" wall is one brick thick, has two brick 
in width, and 15 to the sq ft in wall measure. 

ACTUAL QUANTITY: According to the table, 22 brick are 
required for a cf. As a matter of fact 17, with large joints, are 
enough of the national size, which is becoming the standard, 
2^x4x8 J. The contractor is not paid for the larger number, 
for competition is keen enough to prevent this. When mak- 
ing up his bid he does not estimate the full labor and mortar 
separate from the brick, and the difference between wall 
measure and kiln count goes for these items, along with a 
certain allowance of money. 

In some localities the advance is made by 7 instead of 7*, 
but what is the advantage? A cf of wall does not require 21, 



76 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

so that kiln count is not found. Even 6 are usually too many, 
and besides, a new calculation would have to be made for 
mortar which would mean extra labor. An estimator never 
troubles about mortar until the contract is signed. And if 
the method of the outsider were followed, if the exact number 
had to be obtained, how would he proceed when the brick 
were 2f" thick instead of 2"? He would have to obtain the 
number to the cf. The trade rule is safe with any size. 

A convenient multiple is also found in 7$, because with 15 
and 30 and the ease with which the intermediate figures are 
turned to decimals, it is better than either 7 or 6. 

"WALLS OF 9": Most of the short cuts in arithmetic we 
learned at school are forgotten because we never use them, 
one I remember because I always use it in estimating brick- 
work. Take a 9" wall, or 1 brick thick, 100' long, 12 high. 
This means 1,200 sq ft, which at 15 brick equals 18,000 in 
wall measure. Instead of multiplying by 15 it is easier to add 
a cipher to the 1,200, or any number of sq ft, put the half 
below and add the two together. It is easier to mult by 30 
than by either 24 or 28, multiples of 6 and 7. 

EXAMPLES: A few examples may give a little more con- 
fidence to those who have never figured brickwork: A wall 
200'x20 high, 2 brick or 17" thick, contains 120,000 brick wall 
measure; 130x13x9", 25,350; 40x18x3 brick, or 25", 32,400. 

ESTIMATING BRICK IN A BASEMENT 
Or taking the accompanying symmetrical basement plan 
for an illustration, we have around the walls 110' in even 
figures. The footings are 15" high two bottom courses 29", 
the next course 25", the next 21", and the top course 17". 
The two bottom courses contain 110x6"x29", or 55 sq ft of a 
wall 29" thick. In this thickness there are 52 to the sq ft, 
which gives 2,888; the average of the three upper courses is 
110'x9"x21", or 82 sq ft of 21" wall which at 37 brick equals 
3,094. 

The cross wall with two courses at 21", one at 17", and the 
top course at 13" equals, for the lower two, 22'x6"x37i, or 413: 
for the 17", 22'x3"x30, or 165; for the 13", 22"x3"x22, or 128 
a total for all footings of 6688. A bricklayer, not figuring so 
closely, might call it an even 7,000. 



BRICKWORK 



77 



= 22-0 




Above the footings, 110, x 9'-6" equals 1,045 sq ft of 13" 
wall. Assuming windows to be 3' high, and the seven of 
them 18' wide, we have a deduction of 54 sq ft, leaving 991x 
22$, equals 22,297 brick. 

The inside wall above the footing is 22'x9'-6", less a door- 
way 3'x7', or 188 sq ft at 15 brick which gives 2,820. 



78 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

The total number in wall measure is 31,805, or 22,250 actual 
brick required on a basis of 17 to the cf. 

A MACHINE SHOP 

From 1901 to 1908 I made complete estimates on a score or 
more of such buildings at Nos. 7, 8, and 14. The brickwork 
is easily got at. Suppose a building 150'x500'. The length 
around the walls, not counting corners, is 1,000' for the two 
sides, and deducting twice 21" for each gable, 293' for the 
ends, a total of 1,293' at 40' high from top of concrete water- 
table to wall plate, we have 51,720 sq ft. Allowing 10 doors 
for ends, 12'xl8', 60 windows, 16'xl6', on the two sides, both 
lower and upper, 3 doors, 5'xl8', 12 gable windows, 12'xl6', the 
deductions make 20,100 sq ft, leaving only 31,622. This illus- 
tration, where 40% of a building is openings, shows the folly 
of some trade rules. 

For both gables there are 150'x6'-3", or 938 sq ft, a total of 
32,560 of 17" wall x30 gives 976,800 brick in wall measure. 
At each division of 20' or 22' there is a steel col built in the 
wall to hold the truss. Nothing is deducted for these- cols. 
Outside of each, and at all corners, is a pilaster, 2'x37'-6"x4i"x 
32 times for sides; and on gables, 2x40 ( average )x4x!4 times, 
giving 3,520 sq ft at 7* or 26,400 in wall measure. Parapet 
wall above roof, 304'xl8"xl3" at 22$, 10,260. Under cornice 
on sides, flush with pilasters, 600'x2'-6"x4$"; upper, 600'xl'-6"x 
4$"; gable cornice below roof line, 304x2x 4$", or 3,008 sq ft 
at 7$, 22,560 in wall measure. 

Main Walls 976,800 

Pilasters 26,400 

Parapets 10,260 

Cornices 22,560 



1,036,020 in wall measure 

Or, on the basis of 16$ to 22$, 760,000 actual brick, no cross 
walls or inside work included. Actual contents only are 
taken, and all openings deducted, no matter what size. 

ACTUAL COST 

On several large buildings of the same style as the Machine 
Shop just estimated, but about 20' lower, erected in 1907, 



BRICKWORK 79 

the contract price for any extra brickwork was $6 per 1,000, 
wall measure. This figure did not, of course, include any 
brick, but only labor, mortar, scaffolding and profit. 

With mortar allowed at $1.30, wall measure, that leaves a 
balance of $4.70, or $6.41 in kiln, or actual count, per M, for 
labor, high scaffolding (25'), and profit, with wages at 62c 
per hour for masons. 

PILASTERS, CORNICES, OFFSETS: Straight walls are 
easy enough to estimate, but pilasters, cornices, chimneys, 
and such work require more care. A pilaster with 4J" of 
projection is really a wall with 1\ brick to the sq ft; and all 
other projections are taken in the same way. A cornice is 
often as simple, and when there are many offsets, a fair 
average section can be taken. No contractor would think of 
deducting the hole of a small chimney, even if he followed 
the system of taking only the actual contents of a building. 
Special work of this kind is like fitting the last board of a 
floor to the wall: it takes ten times longer than a board in 
the middle of the room, but the general average must be made 
high enough to provide for it. 

THEORY: Of course, it is necessary to remember that too- 
much nicety is out of place when estimating a large building. 
A cornice or footing is not to be taken by little 2" offsets and 
the exact contents found; a fair average is all that can be 
expected. It is often easier to estimate a footing by standing 
it on edge, as it were, and treating it as a wall of a certain 
thickness. If this will not work take the number of cf and 
mult by 22.5. But it may be worth while observing here that 
a wall marked 13" on the plan counts only as a ft. Some 
architects mark their walls 12, others 13. It is, of course, 
only odd work that we need to reduce to cf, because the 
number is given for all standard thicknesses in the regular 
table. 

BRICK IN No. 2: Following the illustrative method of this 
book we shall now take a glance at No. 2. The actual wall 
measurement with openings deducted, corners and half inter- 
sections not counted, pilasters taken on face only, and so 
forth, was exactly 1,000,000 brick. The actual quantity re- 
quired was 750,000. The brick were of the national size. The 



80 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

proportion stands at 4 to 3, so that a cf at 22.5 wall measure 
all through that building required practically 17 brick. This 
is a better guide than any theoretical tabulation. With a 
larger brick 16 would be enough; and a building recently put 
up with 76,000 kiln count, at 2" thick, required only this 
number. In engineering work with large brick and heavy 
joints, 15i are sometimes sufficient, but this is at the danger 
limit. On No. 8, and other buildings of the plant, there were 
2,300,000 in wall measure, and the contractor used 1,650,000, 
or a trifle less than 161. This included waste. 

The number of brick on my original estimate of No. 2 with 
half the openings deducted was 1,099,000. If estimated ac- 
cording to the standard rules of Omaha and Chicago, with 
large chimneys solid, the number would be about 1,190,000. 

HEAVY PIERS, ETC. 

By the cy for massive work, on a basis of 16, allow 432 
actual brick; of 17, 459; of 18, 486. 

The exact number can not be estimated on account of size, 
waste, etc, but we can get close to it. 

SIZE: The size of the brick has to ,be watched both on 
account of quantity and labor. Small brick are not much 
loved by contractors. The national size is making its way, 
but some manufacturers still adhere to the old large sizes in 
spite of building ordinances, which forbid under penalty of 
fine, anything larger than 2ix4x8^. The size listed in the 
Chicago ordinance is 2x4x8, requiring 18 to the cf. 

WASTE: The question of waste requires to be noted. It is 
placed from 2 to 5% by the authorities. With fair brick, 2 
is sufficient; only the poorest material should run to 5. But 
the waste in Nos. 2 and 8 is included in the number used, so 
that the proportion stands. 

HOLLOW WALLS: Estimate hollow walls the same as solid 
walls of equal thickness, and allow $1.50 per 1,000 extra when 
both walls are 9"; $1, when both are 13. 

BACKING: Deduct the thickness of ashlar and figure brick 
backing by the ordinary rules. Sometimes a little fitting has 
to be done against the stone, but there is no exposed work or 



BRICKWORK 81 

plumbing of corners. Brick nogging in between partition 
studs takes about one-half more time than straight work. 

SHOVED WORK: Nos. 2, 7, 8, and 14 are laid in shoved 
work, with a selected common face-brick and a | joint, 
which occasionally stretches to f without any harm being 
done. Work of this kind, if well laid, is worth $1 per 1,000 
more than the usual quality. 

CHEAP BRICK: It may be well to point out here a trap 
that snared at least one contractor. Cheap brick have to be 
watched. Times were dull and he got his brick for $5 per 
1,000, but he forgot something. 

Take as an illustration a building with 1,000,000 brick, wall 
measure. Allow 750,000 kiln count and put the price for 
laying and mortar, say $3. per 1,000 wall measure extra. 
No matter what the price of brick, this cost is a fixed quantity. 
If you got brick for nothing the laying and the mortar would 
cost the same as if they were $20 per 1,000. With brick at $5 
the contract runs to $8,000; at $7, $10,000. In both cases 
750,000 kiln count are required, leaving a balance of 250,000. 
This quantity in wall measure is not required, and the allow- 
ance goes for mortar, laying and profit, coupled with the $3 
extra on the 750,000. After buying brick at $5 the balance 
is $4.250; at $7, $6,250, or on the basis of the 250,000 at $7 
we get $1,750, while at $5 the amount is only $1,250, leaving 
a shortage of $500 for laying, mortar, and profit, which are 
the same regardless of the price of the brick. With dear brick 
and wall measure there is a sure margin if the same $3 is 
added. 

PRICE: A common figure for ordinary brickwork is $11 to 
$12 per 1,000, wall measure, when brick cost $7 laid down; 
but a good deal depends upon the size of the building and the 
character of the work. A small Omaha building laid in' 
Portland cement cost $12.50 per 1,000, wall measure, with 
hour wages of 55c. Even large ones have been known to run 
to $16. 

UNDERPINNING : Underpinning and such work costs a good 
deal more than plain walls. On one building the cost of labor 



82 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

on 180,000 brick, kiln count, was $9. All the work went under 
a raised roof and in openings and required extra labor outside 
and inside. But work at that price is worth watching. Some 
small basements have run as high as $25. 

PATCHING: Patching takes twice as long as new work; and 
some kinds even longer. 

HOLLOW BUILDING TILE: This material is rapidly becom- 
ing more popular. It is used on the inside' of walls to keep 
out dampness, and also for partitions. It is of various sizes. 
On the cars here the rate is $6.50 for as many as will displace 
1,000 brick, so that the cost is about the same. One advantage 
is that when the large blocks are used the laying goes on 
faster than with brick. Blocks 4x8x16 and 8x8x16 are the 
common sizes. Partition blocks are made from 1 thick up. 

THICKNESS: Brick walls 4" thick are seldom built here; 
in Scotland I saw them in almost every house. They are used 
for partitions on the first floor, and if properly built and 
plastered they last for a lifetime and beyond. But the labor 
costs at least 10% more than if the walls were thicker. If 
built here by the average bricklayer I should be afraid to 
lean against them. The Arabian proverb says that hurry is 
the devil, but again, what can be more leisurely than $9 to 
$25 per 1,000 for labor? Two new brick schools have been 
torn down in Omaha in recent years; several more are fall- 
ing to pieces. There is plenty of brickwork in Europe hun- 
dreds of years old, but it was laid by men who understood 
their business, just as the old-style American carpenter under- 
stood his a century ago and built frame houses that still 
endure. 

SEWERS: See Chap 6. 

CISTERNS: Cisterns are often taken by the bbl at about 
90c. This includes excavation, 4" brick lining on bottom and 
around arch only, a finish coat of Portland cement, and an 
iron cover. 

Or the work may be estimated in the ordinary way; mult 
the internal diam by 3f, the product by the height, and 
the number of sq ft by 7* for wall measure. Add floor, arch 



BRICKWORK 83 

and ring. If walls are thicker than half a brick proceed as 
explained under sewers. The labor of laying brick against 
earth is about same as on an ordinary wall for there is no 
plumbing. The turning of the arch takes some extra time. 
For an 8' span, half a brick thick, allow one man 5 hours at 
most; for 10', 6 to 7. 

For a 3,000 gall cistern, 8'x8', 9" walls, $100, 3c per gall, or 
$1.06 per bbl. Walls are 9"; 4" walls are heavy enough. 

For 100,000 gall 24' diam, 30' deep, 12" concrete bottom, 9" 
walls, $1,131, 1.131c per gall, or 43c per bbl of 3U gals. 

CESSPOOLS: Cesspools cost more for labor as they are 
deeper, and both excavation and scaffolding are more expen- 
sive. Cisterns are usually about 10' deep, cesspools may be 
20. Add 25% for labor. 

Cost price of cesspools lined with 4" of brick in cement, 
and plastered with Portland may be approximated as follows: 
4' inside diam $3.25 per ft deep down to 12'; to 20', $3.75; 
5' diam, $4 and $4.75 for 12 and 20'; 6', $5 and $6. Or roughly, 
$1 per ft of internal diam per ft deep 4'-6" diam, $4.50 per 
ft deep. When deeper than 20' allow $1.50 and soil may be 
such as to make $2 necessary. One 8' diam rubble cost $1.10, 
or $105.60 for 12'. 

CHIMNEY-STACKS: Get the cubical contents of walls, then 
actual number of brick required, and estimate $12 per 1,000, 
at 55c per hour basis, for labor. Above 100', $14 up to 125. 
Allow sand and cement or lime in ordinary way. If core is 
too small for men add scaffold. Allow extra for fire-brick if 
used. When bricklayers get 75' above the ground they usually 
demand higher wages, and often reach $1 per hour when 100' 
high. But on a basis of 55c I know of a square stack 150' 
high which cost less than $7 per 1,000, kiln count for labor 
at 50c per hour for masons. It contained 250,000 actual brick. 

SMALL CHIMNEYS: When the walls are 9" and 13" thick 
they may be estimated in the ordinary way, but it takes two 
or three times as long to lay work as on straight walls. For 
small flues with 4" and 8" walls the following table will be 
useful to get the number of brick required to the If. The 
national size is figured with 4 courses to 11". 



84 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

CHIMNEY TABLE 

No. of Cost per ft with flue 
No. of flues Size of flues Size of chimney bricks to ft linings and profit 

1 8Jx8i 17x17 29 $1.15 

2 8ix8^ 17x29 49 1.60 

3 8x8i 17x37 66 2.00 

1 8^x13 17x21 34 1.40 

2 8x8i and 8xl3 17x33 54 1.85 

2 8^x13 17x37 59 2.05 

3 8^x13 17x54 86 2.75 
1 8^x16 17x25 38 1.70 

1 13x13 21x21 38 1.60 

2 13x13, 8" and 4" 29x37 108 2.50 
1 13x16 21x25 44 1.85 
1 16x16, 8" wall 33x33 115 2.70 

LABOR on 8"x8i" flue chimneys, 35 to 40c; 8" double, 50c. 
CHIMNEY-BREASTS wide enough for mantels may be esti- 
mated by the ordinary rules. They are occasionally taken at 
$3 per ft of height, but this depends upon size, and is for 
common brick. With ornamental pressed brick, twice that 
figure is sometimes too low. 

FLUE LININGS: In most cities they must be used. The 
smallest size for an ordinary flue should not be less than 
Discount the table 60%. 

FLUE LININGS 



Round Corners. In 2 feet lengths. Outside measure. 
Inches Per ft Inches Per ft 
4x 8$ ....ISO 30 12 x!6 $1.00 


4xl3 


45 


13 x!3 


85 


4^x18 


1.00 


13 x!8 


1.20 


6 x!2 


50 


14 x!6 


1.10 


7x7 


35 


16 x!6 


1 . 60 


8Jx 8J 


45 


16 x20 


2.00 


8^x13 


65 


'18 x!8 


2.00 


8ixl8 . 


.90 







For Round and Register openings add 50%. 

CHIMNEY TOP: To rebuild one on a pitched roof, $10 for 
8x8 to 12x12 flue; $12 for a double flue, profit not included. 
They should always be built in Portland cement, and never 
with any projections. A straight line chimney lasts longest, 
and looks well. 



BRICKWORK 



85 



MEASUREMENTS AND BRICK REQUIRED FOR SETTING 
TUBULAR BOILERS WITH FULL FRONTS 



Diameter 
Inches 


F 


11 


;SS 

M 

3 


Fire Wall 
Inches 


111 

tH^ 

|l 

^02 


Side Walls 
at Front 
Inches 


Width over 
all 
Ft -In 


Length 
over all 
Ft -In 


Common 
Brick 


Firebrick 


30 


8 


124 


~80 


18 


"13" 


16 


5- 2 


n-74 


5200 


320 


30 


10 


12J 


80 


18 


13 


16 


5- 2 


13-74 


5800 


320 


36 


s 


124 


80 


18 


13 


16 


5- 8 


11-74 


6200 


480 


36 


10 


12J 




80 


18 


13 


16 


5- 8 


13-74 


7000 


480 


40 


10 


14; 




92 


21 


18 


21 


6-10 


14-2J 


7700 


600 


40 


12 


14? 




92 


21 


18 


21 


6-10 


16-2| 


8800 


600 


42 


10 


14; 




92 


21 


18 


21 


7- 


14-4| 


10000 


720 


42 


12 


14? 




92 


21 


18 


21 


7- 


16-4f 


10800 


720 


42 


14 


14i 




92 


21 


18 


21 


7- 


18-4| 


11600 


720 


48 


12 


14> 




100 


24 


18 


21 


7- 6 


16-4| 


13200 


980 


48 


14 


14> 




100 


24 


18 


21 


7- 6 


18-4| 


14200 


980 


48 


16 


14> 




100 


24 


18 


21 


7- 6 


20-4| 


15200 


980 


54 


14 


16J 




110 


24 


22 


25 


8- 8 


19-24 


14900 


1154 


54 


16 


16J 




110 


24 


22 


25 


8- 8 


21-24 


16000 


1154 


60 


14 


16^ 




118 


24 


22 


25 


9- 2 


19-24 


16100 


1280 


60 


16 


16^ 




118 


24 


22 


25 


9- 2 


21-24 


17400 


1280 


60 


18 


104 


118 


24 


22 


25 


9- 2 


23-24 


18700 


1280 


66 


16 


17J 


118 


24 


22 


25 


9- 8 


21-34 


19700 


1400 


66 


18 


174 


118 


24 


22 


25 


9- 8 


23-34 


21000 


1400 


72 


16 


194 


133 


30 


22 


25 


10- 2 


21-94 


20800 


1550 


72 


18 


194 


133 


30 


22 


25 


10- 2 


23-94 


22000 


1550 



NOTE: To get length over all, add 2nd and 3rd cols. 

BOILERS: There are so many kinds that it is hard to set 
a price for setting. Get the number of cf, mult by $12 per 
1,000, in wall measure, and allow from 25 to 50% for extra 
labor. But if set upon large foundations without other 
masonry the unit price need not be greater than for ordinary 
work. Cost may run from $150 to $600. 

BRICK ARCHES: Measure brick arches for sidewalks, fire- 
proofing, etc, in the ordinary way and allowed the centering 
extra. In both walks and firepoofing it is usually possible 
to hang centers to the steel beams. Brick are very seldom 
used for fireproofing now, and the centering for terra cotta 
is of plank which does not require any labor except the 
preliminary bolting of hangers which are changed from span 



86 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

to span. For sidewalk centering allow 8c per sq ft. Usually 
only a couple of centers are required, as they are moved. 

CENTERS: For nearly two months of my apprenticeship I 
worked on a large Gothic church making, setting and remov- 
ing centers, but unfortunately I kept no time as the most 
interesting time then was the time to quit. I have never 
since kept time on centers. Like tool-houses, temporary 
fences, engineer to set stakes, etc, they are a necessary evil 
which runs away with honest money. (See Chap X) 

STACKING: Here is something most contractors have read 
before: " 1,000 brick closely stacked occupy about 56 cf ; 1,000 
old brick cleaned and closely stacked occupy about 72 cf." In 
the first case the actual room required for the solid mass 
would be about 45 cf at national size, and the 11 cf are needed 
for voids. 

CLEANING: Many thousands of old brick were lately 
cleaned for $2 per 1,000, which is a high price. Cleaning is 
sometimes done by piece-work for $1. (See Index.) 

PRESSED BRICK: Get the exact number of sq ft and mult 
by 6 to 7 for the number of brick. More brick are required 
than for common work because the joints are smaller, and 
4 courses make only 10" instead of 11 or even 12 with good 
sized common brick. Reveals if more than 4" deep have to 
be figured. The size of pressed brick varies, as well as the 
size of the joint, but 6 of the average brick with neat joint 
will cover a space 10"xl3". With some brick and a large 
joint 6 are sufficient to the sq ft. It is possible to make the 
joints too small. 

Sometimes brick are laid in a bond that shows many 
headers, and thus a brick covers but half the surface it does 
when used as a stretcher. This means an extra allowance of 
material if architect does not permit headers to be cut. 
Moulded brick running around doors, windows, arches, pro- 
jections, etc, take up much of an estimator's time when pre- 
paring a bid. They are often of a dozen different kinds with 
as many different prices. With brick at 3c to 15 one can not 
afford to be careless. Deduct the number from the plain brick 
-if the whole surf has been included. Do not order too 



BRICKWORK 87 

many as they will not be taken back; Do not estimate too 
few as each brick may cost 20c. 

There ought not to be much waste if brick are good* but 
there are architects who expect a $30 front for $14, and some- 
times steal from a contractor by rejecting brick which are up 
to the specification. To get at the number of Roman or any 
other special brick find the number of sq in. in a sample, 
allowing $" on 1 side and 1 end for mortar. Five courses fo 
the average Roman make 9" in height; their length is 11| to 
llf, so that 7 are required to the sq ft. 

ENAMELED 'BRICK: Enameled brick may be estimated in 
the same way as pressed brick. They run from $90 to $100 
per 1,000 kiln count in the wall. 

There are so many kinds of pressed brick that one descrip- 
tive catalog and price-list has 130 pages. Why attempt to 
give prices here? A fair brick may be had for $15, a better 
one for $25, and a beauty for $40 per 1,000. All colors are 
now at our service, and color cuts some figure in the price. 
The standard is red, and the prices on the various colors run 
from 30 to 50% more. The packing on a small order costs 
$7 per 1,000. Moulded brick are sold only with straight brick 
unless in exceptional cases. A car-load is 8,000. 

SIZE: "Owing to different shrinkage of the various clays 
required to produce different colors, exact sizes can not be 
given. The following are approximate:" 

Standard size 8x2x4 Roman size llxl}Jx4 

Impervious white or gray face: 
Standard 8^x21x4 Roman Ilxlfx4 

Enameled sizes are about the same. Roman tile is enameled 

size set on edge. English enameled is 9x3. Care must be 

taken when estimating headers as end only is enameled. 

Enamels may be had in white, buff, brown, blue, and green. 

In the East a white standard sized enameled brick costs $75 

per 1,000, and a gray porcelain faced, $45. 

ARCHES: It is necessary to watch arches. If brick have to 
be ground to fit the radius they cost from 5c to 25c each. 
Sometimes they can be laid without grinding, and there are 
contractors who prefer to chip them, which seems to show 



88 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

that the manufacturers charge too high a price for grinding. 
To chip and lay a jack-arch 17" high, 13" reveal, allow $10. 
There are 300 different kinds of moulded brick, and about as 
many different prices. 

PRESSED BRICK LIST: The Omaha list seldom changes. 
For the ordinary face brick the 1913 prices are as follows: 



STANDARD SIZE 

PerM 

Shade Nos. 1 to 8, red; 1st grade (any shade) $16.00 

Second grade red (any shade) 14.00 

Shade Nos. 551 to 559, inclusive, Buff 21.00 

Shade No. 550, Iron Spot, Light, Medium and Dark. . 21.00 

Shade No. 580, Buff Spotted (kiln run, fire marked) . 21.00 

Shade Nos. 582 to 589, inclusive, Buff Spotted 25.00 

Shade No. 570 Gray (kiln run, fire marked) 21.00 

Shade Nos. 572 to 579, inclusive, Gray 25.00 

Shade No. 540 Bronze mixed. . 19.00 



ROMAN SIZE 



Buff 22.00 

Iron Spot : 25.00 

Buff Spotted 29.00 

Gray 29.00 

CORNICES: Standard brick cornices are also supplied, cost- 
ing from $1.50 to $3.50 per If on cars. They are from 2'-6" to 
5' 0" high. Allow extra for labor and mortar from $1 to $2 per 
If. Prices are for red; other colors are 50% higher. 
WALL COPING: Salt-glazed, terra-cotta wall-coping is made 
in 24 and 18" lengths, and for 9, 13, and 17" walls. Angles, 
starters and tee branches are made: Straight, 15, 20, 35c per 
ft. Corners, angles, returns, ends, starters, etc, cost four 
times the price of one ft of straight coping. 
TERRA-COTTA is of special design and has to be priced ac- 
cordingly. 

BRICK PAVING: See Chap VI. 

MORTAR: Before we plunge into a discussion of quantities 
we may profitably look back at No. 2. In that building there 



BRICKWORK 89 

were 750,000 brick, kiln count, and it took 720 bbls of lime 
and cement to lay them. This is close to a bbl per 1,000. But 
at least 200,000 were laid in cement at 11 bbl to the 1,000. 
This leaves 470 bbls of lime tempered with cement to 650,000 
brick, or practically .85 of a bbl to the 1,000. This is 17-20, 
and with good lime it is sufficient. But some kinds of lime 
require more. It is impossible to get mathematical figures on 
all work. Lime may be spoiled, and more required, or it may 
be of an inferior quality. There was something said about 
this in the introductory part. One contractor wanted a bbl, 
another bbl, or at most |, and the largest allowance was 
1 bbls. " From time immemorial 1 bbl of lime and f yd of 
sand to 1,000 brick." It is a safe allowance. Something de- 
pends upon the thickness of joints, richness of mortar, and 
so forth. A good proportion is 1 of lime to 3 of sand. Ex- 
periments by U. S. engineers soows that the best mortar is 
composed of 1 part lime paste to 2 parts of sand. Some 
bricklayers make a bbl of goo 3 lime lay 1,600 brick, but this 
draws a little heavy on the sai^.d pile. A fair average is bbl. 
Ordinary mortar is worth about $1.75 kiln count; with pressed 
brick, $1.90. 

Lime goes much further than cement. In the basement of 
an Omaha warehouse built solidly, 1,000 brick, wall measure, 
took 1.25 bbls of cement. As there are only about 750 actual 
brick, this means 1.66 bbls to the 1,000. It does not pay to 
make mortar too short, as it is harder to handle than if made 
in the proper proportions, and what is gained in cement is 
lost in labor, which at 62|c an hour soon counts. 

On another Omaha basement built solidly, and containing 
about 250,000 brick, kiln count, 400 bbls of cement were used, 
or 1.6 to the 1,000. 

A publication at hand advertising an excellent brand of 
Am. Portland cement says that 1 bbl should be sufficient to 
make enough mortar to lay 2,000 brick with i" joints. That 
is only $ bbl to the 1,000 actual count. Joints of this size do 
not require as much mortar as ordinary ones, but they can 
not be made with common brick in cement, and if they could 
the extra cost of labor would run away with the saving in 
cement ten times over. Besides, the allowance is far too 
small. 



90 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

For ordinary masonry I read in an excellent publication that 
1,000 brick require H bbls of cement and the same quantity 
of lime at a proportion of 1 to 3. In another work I find that 
a bbl of lime will lay 1,000 brick, and that is near enough 
the mark for good lime, although No. 2 took less. In still 
another book f of a bbl is the allowance. One authority says 
1 bbl of cement, another 11 bbls, or three times as much, and 
the actual quantity on the basement of 3 large buildings takes 
li to 11 bbls to the 1,000, kiln count; and 17-20 of lime. There 
is the choice between actual work and theory. 

For pressed brick 1 bbl is sufficient, so that a building with 
pressed brick fronts and thin walls lowers the average. 

"With joints 1 to f and brick 2|, allow for ready mixed 
mortar .8 cy per 1,000; i to f joints, .45 cy." 

ALLOWANCES FOR MORTAR PER M ACTUAL BRICK 

Portland Cement, H to U bbls. 

Good Lime, | bbl. x 

Mortar Color, Red, f to 1 joints, 1 bbl to 6,000 (See under 
"M. Color"). 

Mortar Color, Red, 1 joints, 1 bbl to 8,000. 

Fire Clay, 1 ton to 7,000 or 8,000. 

For Pressed Brick, 1 bbl lime. 

SAND: This material is so cheap that an accurate account 
is seldom kept of how much goes to concrete, how much to 
brick, plaster, filling and so forth. In general, 1 to f cy of 
sand is allowed to the 1,000 brick, kiln count. As nearly as I 
can separate the total amount under the various headings on 
No. 2, 640 tons were used for 750,000 brick. At 3,000 lbs to 
the cy this makes 420 cy, or .56 to the 1,000, kiln count. 
An allowance of f yd is often made; on this building it runs 
to 11-25 or a trifle less. Again you will find men who use too 
much sand as it mixes well with lime. Pressed brick does not 
take half of the foregoing allowance. Sand for paving, filling, 
etc, can be easily estimated in cy. 

WATER: Water has to be paid for in most cases. The Omaha 
rate is 7c per 1,000, kiln count, for tempering mortar and 
wetting brick; tempering mortar only, 2c; making mortar, 
7c. In the first case mortar might be delivered from a mix- 



BRICKWORK 91 

ing yard and require to be tempered only at building and in 
hot weather brick might have to be wet. For making mortar 
and wetting brick the rate is therefore 14c, which is too much. 
Contractors prefer a meter, which keeps the cost down to 4c. 
The Chicago rate is 5c per 1,000. 

PER CENT: Per cent of mortar in a cy of masonry: " Coarse 
brickwork, joints i to f, 35 to 40; ordinary, i to f, 25 to 30; 
pressed brick, , 10 to 15." 

As there are about 4.4 cf in a loose bbl of cement, and 27 
cf in a cy of sand, it is easy to get the amount required for 
any given proportion of mortar. Thus 1 to 3 means 1 bbl of 
cement and 13 cf of sand. 

CARLOAD: A carload of lime in bulk may run from 130 to 
230 bbls. 

MORTAR COLOR: On No. 2 with joints not less than f" 
22 bbls were used for a surf of about 20,000 sq ft, openings 
being deducted. As face mortar is required only on the out- 
side course this means 1 bbl to 5,000 brick. With smaller 
joints a bbl will easily lay 6,000. This rate was recently used 
on 30,000 pressed brick. On a building recently erected 5,100' 
Ibs of red color was the quantity required for 80,000 brick, laid 
in the same size of joint at No. 2. This is on basis of 8,000 
tc-Jbbl. For fine joints, the allowance to 5,000 is too large. 
For red, brown, and buff, one maker allows in his catalog 
50 Ibs to the 1,000 for spread joints; for buttered joints, 45 
Ibs. For black, 40 to 45 Ibs; and 25 to 35 buttered. A bbl of 
red contains 500 Ibs; brown, 450; buff, 425; black, 300 to 
500. Red is about l^c per Ib; brown and buff, 2c; black, 3c. 

The weights are those of only one manufacturer. His allow- 
ances are too close ; but a good deal depends upon the shade. 
Half the proper quantity may be made to serve. Some con- 
tractors find that 1 bbl is sufficient for 8,000 brick. A good 
deal depends upon the mixer. A raw hand wastes material 
without improving the mortar. 

LABOR: The cost of laying the brick in No. 2 was too much,. 
but a common brick front was made to look as if it were 
pressed brick. 

In wall measure, openings deducted, and only actual contents 
taken, the cost throughout with laborers' wages included, waa 



"02 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

$4.20 per 1,000; in kiln count, $5.60. Wages wer? 45c and 17 
to 18c per hour. This was at the rate of 1,150 brick far 1 
man in a 9-hour day after laborers' wages were deducted. 
TRADESMEN AND LABORERS: Different buildings give 
different proportions of time for bricklayers and laborers, as 
some require much more scaffolding and hoisting than others; 
on this one, as far as figured, 5,350 hours of bricklayers took 
8,280 hours of laborers, or about 2 of the one to 3 of the 
other. Sometimes 4 to 5 is the proportion. On a 1-story 
building with many angles, a recent proportion was 1,450 brick- 
layers' to 1,650 laborers' hours. 

DETAILS: There were special reasons for the high price of 
No. 2. All arches were of chipped brick, the soffits as well 
as the face, a good deal of fitting was necessary, and brick 
had often to be rechipped. Deep flat arches around the base- 
ment openings took up a good deal of time; rowlock arches 
over all other openings kept the men a long while, for it is 
far easier to lay brick upon a stone or steel lintel than to 
turn an arch and chip to suit; a large triple-arched, four-faced 
corridor not shown on the illustration took long enough to 
build a house; and the dentil cornice and tower ran the 
average much lower than it would have been on a plain build- 
ing. Extra time was taken in using two colors of mortar 
throughout. 

NUMBER LAID: But I once knew of buildings having alto- 
gether about 1,000,000 actual brick where the No. 2 average 
was not nearly reached. They were plain, with thick walls, 
without arches, towers, or heavy cornice, and with only one 
color of mortar, and yet on one the average for 8 hours was 
50; on another, 750; on the best, 825. It ought to have been 
at least half as much more, for the buildings were low. It 
is as well to speak of one risk in an estimate that which 
comes from lazy bricklayers. There is a happy medium be- 
tween slave-driving and loafing. At the rate of even 800 brick 
per day this is only 100 per hour, or close to I T T TT per minute 
with a laborer and a quarter to assist. It seems that a trained 
bricklayer ought to be able to double this on plain work. 
PRICE: While at this part I asked a contractor who had 
done a great deal of warehouse work, " How much is it worth 



BRICKWORK 93 

to lay 1,000 brick, kiln count, on warehouses at the 55c per 
hour rate?" "About $3.75." I asked another with large ex- 
perience and he allowed $4. On 1 building referred to, if put 
on a 55c basis, the rate was $7.90; on the other, $8.80; on 
the worst, $10.50. 

PRESSED AND COMMON BRICK: Although the price of lay- 
ing pressed brick is given further on it is next to impossible to 
get the two kinds separated. A better way is to lump all brick 
together and get the average. I know of several large build- 
ings with $ to \ of pressed brick; and the average of the 
first flats was 1,200; the second, heavy walls practically 
on ground level, was 1,450, the third, with 4 fronts, 4 stories, 
of pressed brick, 1,240. This means from $4.75 to $5.75 per 
1,000, kiln count, and $2.90 to $3.90 wall measure. With- 
out pressed brick $4 would have been sufficient. 

PRICE: It was said in another part of this book that $3 per 
1,000, wall measure, was a reasonable amount to allow on 
plain work in addition to the cost of the brick laid down. 
This seems small after the 800 rate is thought of; but a good 
deal of extra cement work on the basement of No. 9 was 
done at this figure. But $3.50 to $5 extra is not unreasonable 
after openings and corners are deducted. 

On No. 2 there are 750,000 brick. At $6.50 for brick, and, 
at the 45c rate, $2.50 for laying we have $9,000, there being 
1,000,000 kiln count. Brick, $4,775, lime, say, 700 bbls at 90c, 
$6.30; sand, 400 yds at 70c, $2.80; leaving for labor $3,315, or 
$4.42 per 1,000, kiln count. The work was figured at a higher 
rate for arches, cornices, etc, and for laying the basement in 
natural cement which is worth at least 50c per 1,000 extra. 

ON FLATS AND SHOPS: On flats, stores, dwellings, halls, 
etc, the price must be set to suit the class of work with an 
average basis of 750. There are the extremes of $3.75 and 
$10.50 on common brick. Before establishing your price in all 
cases consult the bricklayers. The average on No. 7 was not 
more than 1,000. On some days 600 was nearer the mark. 
QUICK WORK: But if we have looked at them while they 
were playing do not let us forget that they can also work. 
On the heavy footings and basement walls of a warehouse 



94 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

built in the best way, each bricklayer laid 3,200 brick in an 
8-hour day; and on another basement this figure was exceeded. 
No one expects this rate clear to the roof, for above the heavy 
footings it means poor workmanship, but play at 62c per hour 
is unbecoming. 

WAREHOUSES: In heavy warehouse work with common 
brick fronts 1,800 ought to be laid; and, if not too far from 
ground, 2,000 need not be considered miraculous. With 9" 
walls 1,000 is enough. About 1,200 for ordinary plain work 
is a fair allowance. The higher the building the more ex- 
pensive do scaffolding, hoisting and tending become. 

ENGINEERING: In engineering with heavy piers and walls, 
1,800 ought to be laid in cement and shoved. Work properly 
shoved is worth not only 50c per 1,000 extra, but a good deal 
more to the owner. A brick is laid down in a full bed of 
mortar a few inches from the last one in place and shoved 
close. The joint is necessarily full nearly to the top and 
the small space is filled with the next bed if not before. Al- 
though specified the work is sometimes not done.. 

PASSENGER STATIONS: A passenger station with 76,500 
extra large brick was recently laid at the rate of 56 per hour 
per man throughout. This included a fairly good pressed 
front of the same brick selected. With short, thin walls, 
angles, corners, arches, etc, this was a fair rate, which might 
have been better. But there is a difference between a building 
of this kind and a warehouse. 

I know of 2 other passenger stations where each man in 10 
tours laid 250 to 270 pressed brick as an average, and also 
backed up with a 9" wall. With short runs, jambs, and arches, 
this was a fair day's work, for it averaged about 650 brick. 
With long, straight, thick walls the number would have been 
increased 50%. 

I know of a small freight depot, however, which cost for 
labor alone, $29 per 1,000, kiln count, where the small cement 
shed cost $375, and the " engineering," $350. 

MACHINES: Bricklaying machines are on the market, but 
the perfect one is not yet so far west as Nebraska, and there 
are no figures at hand. 



BRICKWORK 95 

SIZE: In Scotland brick contain about 50% more ci than 
here. In making comparisons as to number laid per day this 
is sometimes forgotten. But few brick are used there. In 
the north of England brick buildings are the rule. 

PRESSED BRICK FRONTS: A common way to estimate 
this work for a fair quantity of material is to get the price of 
the common brick in the regular way without making any 
deduction for the outside course, and then to add the cost of 
the pressed brick laid down at the building. It may be said 
that to lay brick worth $15 does not require more work than 
at $25, and that therefore the rule is not fair; but in general 
the higher price of the pressed brick the finer the quality of 
the work has to be to suit the architect, who puts on ornament 
enough to correspond with the value of the material. 

FINE FRONTS: Fine residences with ornamental pressed 
brick fronts should be allowed at the full thickness of common 
brick, then the price of the pressed brick added, and finally 
$20 per 1,000 extra on the pressed brick for labor. It is well 
for those who estimate on ornamental work to understand that 
it is worth this price, which seems excessive, but which has 
been proved by results to be reasonable and sometimes risky. 
Sunk panels, projecting brick, corbels, etc, are very costly. 
With jambs, corners, moulded arches, buttresses with bases 
and caps to dream about, with' chimney-caps when they are 
reached after a long delay and trouble without end there is 
no money in this kind of work unless it is done on a per- 
centage, which is about the only proper way to do it, and 
then the chief sufferer is the owner who deserves to be 
punished for his folly. Between the extremes of $12 for 
" culls," and $50 extra for the brick on a house where a dreary 
architect constructs decoration instead of decorating construc- 
tion you have your choice. Between lazy bricklayers and 
artistic architects the lot of a contractor is not a happy one. 

FIRE-BRICK: Fire-brick and enameled brick are estimated 
in the same way. Enameled brick take a little more time than 
pressed brick. 

DOUBLE FACE WORK: When a wall has fine face-brick on 
both sides allow 10% extra after the other allowances are 



96 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

made. On one of the heaviest buildings in Omaha the 
Burlington station the contractor paid a proportionate price 
for work of this kind. Do not look for mercy after a contract 
is signed. " Business is business." 

NUMBER LAID: A bricklayer ought to lay from 400 to 500 
common pressed brick in an 8-hour day but if he sometimes 
lays only 650 ordinary brick in a long, thick wall, why expect 
too much when he goes to the front? The best system is to 
include pressed brick with common and take the average. 
Some figures on large work have already been given. 

FLEMISH BOND: It is worth from $3 to $4 per 1,000 extra 
to lay brick in Flemish bond. 

VENEERING: Allow 400 for one man in a day. The 1st 
story of No. 10 is veneered. 

WASHING: To properly wash a building and point the joints 
is worth 3c per sq ft. Allow 1 gall of muriatic acid to 500 
sq ft, and dilute with rain water. 

CHIPPED BRICK: In some parts there is a liking for 
chipped brick. It looks well on a basement, on arches, bands, 
etc, but not all over the face of a building. The cost of 
chipping is $2 for a reasonable quantity. Sometimes the price 
is $2.50; it was once $3. All reveals, corners, soffits of arches, 
etc, have to be returned, and it is necessary, to have this under- 
standing with the chipper if the work is done by the piece. 
The basement and other parts of No. 2 are covered with the 
triumph. It takes about as much time to lay it as it does for 
a cheap pressed brick. 

NUMBER OF ACTUAL BRICK LAID PER HOUR BY (1) 
BRICKLAYER AND (1%) LABORER : 

Plain heaviest work in cement 400 

Engineering work (heavy piers)" 300 

Warehouse, above grade, lime and cement .. ..220 to 160 

Railroad shops and m'f'g b'ld'gs (high walls) 120 

Stores and flats, common pressed brick 130 

Stores and flats, common brick only 190 

Heavy walls, pressed brick, 1 story 160 

Small passenger stations, fair pressed brick 60 

Veneering 40 

Best pressed brick panel work, etc 40 



CHAPTER VI 

MUNICIPAL WORK 

A building contractor is sometimes obliged to put in a bid 
on a class of work that does not properly belong to bis de- 
partment. The following figures will be of some use as a 
check on his own estimate. They are mostly prices paid by 
the city of Omaha at various periods. Of course a mile of 
paving can be done at a cheaper rate than 100 sq yds. In 
this city awards were made as follows: 

PAVING TABLE 

Sheet asphaltum, 5 yrs guarantee $1.59 sq yd 

Vitrified brick, 1 yr guarantee, (concrete base) . . 1.97 

Disintegrated granite, 3 yrs 1.20 

Bedford limestone, curbing 65 If 

Colorado sandstone, curbing 70 

Berea sandstone, curbing 61 

Asphaltic curbing 60 

Artificial stone curbing 45 

Artificial stone combined curb and gutter 57 

In this city, as the result of a fight, some low bids were 
received. The specifications were as follows: Asphalt, class 
B, 5" concrete, 1* binder, 1J asphalt; class E, repaying with 
1$" of binder and 1^ of asphalt on broken stone. 
VITRIFIED BRICK: Class C, repaving on broken stone. 
STONE: Class A, blocks 8 to 12" long, 3 to 5 wide, 6 to 6* 
deep, laid on 6" of concrete; class C, repaving. 

Disintegrated granite, 6" deep. 

The lowest bids were: Asphalt, class B, 5 yrs, $1.59; class 
E, 5 yrs, $1.47 to $1.55. One company asked 20c per yd extra 
for a 10 yr guarantee. But in Aug., 1902, new bids were 
received for No. 1 asphalt, $2.25; No. 2, $1.99; and for vit 
brick, $1.98, or with cement grouting, $2.08. 
BRICK: Class C, 1 yr, $1.16 to $1.24 vit block Purington 
or Galesburg class C, 1 yr, $1.24 to $1.50. 

STONE: Class A, 1 yr, $2.20 to $2.35; class C, 1 yr $1.70. 

97 



98 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

DISINTEGRATED GRANITE: $1.43 to $1.46 for 1 yr. 

The following table is compiled from an " Abstract of Pav- 
ing," for city. Labor might be higher or lower in other cities 
than Omaha. The " District " price is taken, as the " Inter- 
section " is practically the same. The quantities run from 
3,000 to 17,000 yds. 

PAVING TABLE 



Material Deptl 
Vit paving block 4" 


i Foundation 

old 


Depth 


Price 
peryd 

$1.36 


Guar 
Yrs 
1 


Vit paving block 4" 
Vit paving block 4" 


sand and concrete . . 
old 


1 and 6 


1.86 
1.65 


1 
1 


Vit paving block 4" 
Sheet- asphaltum. 1J 


sand and concrete . . 
old 


1 and 6 


2.08 
1.50 


5 

5 


Sheet asphaltum. 2 


concrete 


6 


1.60 


5 


Sheet asphaltum li 


concrete 


5 


1.67 


5 


Sheet asphaltum 2 


concrete 


6 


2.05 


5 


Sheet asphaltum. 1J 
Sheet asohaltum. 2 


binder and concrete 
concrete.. 


li and 6 
6 


1.59 
1.95 


5 
5 



AVERAGE 

A fair average is found by taking in a period of several 
years, and the following figures from contracts may be 
compared with those already given: 

PAVING AND CURBING TABLE 

Asphalt on 5" concrete, $1.85 to $1.91. 
Purington Block on 5" concrete, li" sand, $2.12 to $2.17. 
Grouting. All bids lOc per sq yd. 
365 Cy concrete base, $5 to $6. 

Artificial Curb, 120 sq inches of section, 48 to 60c If. 
Artificial Curb, 90 sq inches of section, 40 to 55c If. 
Gutter and Artificial Curb, 138 sq inches of section, 65 to 
75c If. 

Bedford Curb, 75 to SOc If. 

Resetting of Curb, 15 to 25c If. 

Artificial Curved Curb, $1.05 to $1.35 If. 

Grading, per cy, 25 to 40c. 

New Gutter, $2.20 to $2.60. 

New Gutter, relaying, $1.25 to $2.00. 



MUNICIPAL WORK 99 

BRICK PAVING 

Brick paving is becoming more popular every year; and 
contractors often lay it themselves instead of subletting it, 
as they are likely to do with asphalt and stone. It is there- 
fore worth while to set down a few figures for use in making 
out bills of material. 

SIZE: The No. of brick varies according to size. Out of 14 
specimens received in an Eastern city from different yards, 
took 59 to sq yd; 2, 55; and the others, 46, 48, 51, 58, 60,. 
65, 68, 69, and 75. The average is 59; but of course an average 
is useless with such variation in. size. 

No. TO YDS: As there are so manv sizes it is necessary to 
get the number to the sq yd for each size separately. Perhaps 
the best way is to take a large space, say, 100 brick long and 
50 wide and by dividing by the No. of sq yds, obtain the 
average. The disadvantage of taking an exact sq yd is that 
even figures may not cover the space. Allow \" for sand or 
other joint filler in 1 side and end before estimating. The 
joints are likely to be as much larger than as to make up 
for waste which is small with good material. Paving brick 
are laid on edge on most streets. For brick of the national 
size allow on edge; 62; on flat, 36. The -Purington Block 
Galesburg brick used for street paving takes 45. The price 
is about $22; the size, 3 to 3J thick, 8 to 8| long, and 4" deep. 
Good sidewalk brick may be bought for $13, or even $10 in 
some localities. 

PAVING PRICES: In "The Engineering News," of New 
York, N. Y., some interesting figures are given for 38,504 yc 5 
of brick paving in Champaign, 111. Concrete base was 6" in 
the proportion of 1, 3, 3 with H" of sand on top and then 
brick paving blocks, 1,000 of which laid 25 yds. The contract 
price was $1.29. The actual cost for 1 sq yd was:- grading, 
.10; concrete base, .3985; brick, .7587, a total of $1.2572, or 
about $1.26. The labor on base was 5.8c; on brick 8.87c. 
Concrete curbing and gutter contract was 46c; actual cost of 
labor and material, 39c; labor, 26.17c. 

PLATFORMS: The following figures have been tested on 
large platforms by the Northwestern Railroad Company: 



100 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

The size of brick varies from 2i" to 2f " thick, 4" to 4i" wide 
and 8" to 8|" long. No. to yd, 38$ to 39 on flat; 55$ and 60 
to 73 on edge. 
COST: Cost is from $7.50 to $10 per 1,000 without freight. 

LABOR: The cost of laying on flat was less than 8c per yd; 
on edge, from lie to 15c. But this is merely the laying, no 
filling being allowed, as the depth varies. From 20c to 30c 
per cy ought to do the filling. 

PILLING: Approx for grading and filling 20c per sq yd. 
LABOR: On a surf of 742 sq 'yds laid with Purington the 
labor ran to IOC per yd for unloading from cars, and 25c for 
laying. On street paving the allowance for Purington is 
3,000 per day for 1 man. 

CELLARS: Cellars run to about 5c per sq yd for labor on 
flat. On cinder base 6", and sand 1", brick floors are often 
averaged at 10 to 14c per sq ft. 

OROUTING: If brick are grouted with cement add lOc per 
yd; bids are received at this figure. 

SIDEWALKS: The lowest bids ever received by the city for 
permanent sidewalks ran to 10. 4c for hard brick, but not such 
material as is used on roadway; and 14.75c for cement per 
sq ft. This was in competition; but by referring to concrete 
floors, end of Chap. Ill, it will be seen that cement walks 
were laid at practically the same figure, although cement 
has risen $1 a bbl. Ordinary walks were 14c for cement, and 
10. 7c for brick. Minneapolis had a Purington bid for pressed 
brick paving at $1 per yd. 

On sidewalk work one man and a helper should lay about 
3,000 brick; but a good deal depends upon the state of the 
ground, as preparation is often half the battle. 
NEW YORK PRICES: Of course prices vary in different 
sections of the country. A technical journal of New York 
states that in a fair competition bids were received in that 
city for $250,000 worth of asphalt paving. They ran from 
$1.08 to $1.12 per sq yd. In former years the figure was $1.76 
under Tammany, $3.80 to $5.86. Possibly the writer was paint- 
ing Tammany too black. The above prices were said to be 



MUNICIP/U, /$r(RK ; J 101 

the lowest ever received in New York perhaps in the whole 
country. A New York average for granite block, tar and 
gravel joints, and also for sandstone, cement joints, was $2.80; 
3" wood block, $1.75; 4", $2.20. Granite block sometimes runs 
to $3.25. 

CEDAR BLOCK: In the boom days Omaha laid 25 miles of 
cedar block paving on a plank or concrete base It served for 
about 5 years and then went to wreck. Repaving not with 
cedar block has been done on 19 miles, and the other 6 are 
in a state of noxious desuetude. The original price was 
$1.7u per yd. Asphalt at that time was about $3. Cedar block 
on plank and. gravel is now worth about $1 per yd. On gravel 
alone 75c. 

BRICK SEWERS: The material can be easily estimated if 
they are circular. Mult the average diam by 3.1416 or 3f, and 
treat the result as a straight brick wall of 9, 13, 17", or what- 
ever thickness it may be. To get the number of brick the 
inside diam of each ring should be taken, for the brick joint 
is of the average size there, while on the outer margin of the 
4$" ring it has to be increased owing to the radial line. 

Suppose a sewer 300' long, 3' inside diam, with 3 rings or 
13" thick. The average diam is 3'-9", for this is the inside 
diam of the middle ring. Mult by 3.1416 we have a wall fully 
ll'-9" high, which contains in wall measure, 79,515 brick. 
By the separate ring process the 3' diam at 4$" thick equals 
7 brick or 21,206; the inside diam of next ring is 3'-9" or 
26,507; inside diam of outside ring is 4'-6" or 31,807; a total of 
79,520 in wall measure. See Chap V for actual number re- 
quired. Better brick are used for sewer than for ordinary 
building work. They are usually $1 per 1,000 more. For about 
half of the height on the inside ring where the water flows the 
brick should be extra hard. More cement is needed for sewers 
than for a straight wall. The joints are wider on the outer 
diam, and the inside has to be plastered. 

Whatever section is used, circular or elliptical, it is only 
necessary to get the distance around the inside and then pro- 
ceed as for a common brick wall. Bricklayers' wages are $1 
per hour for work of this kind. They often have to work in 
water. A man will lay on an average 2,500 brick in a day. 



102 I c/c V tTTIE ' JNEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

SEWER PRICES 

An Omaha price for city sewers, 2 ring, 15' deep was: 36", 
per If, $3.55; 42, $4.35; 54, $4.60; 66, $5.60. The manholes 
are extra at same price at those for pipe sewers. 

The brick bids from 6 contractors ran as follows and, as 
with all bids for city work, profit is included: 

2-ring, 4'-8" diam, 900', natural cement, from $4.80 to $6.20 
per If, average, $5.39; Port, from $5.20 to $6.65, aver, $5.83. 

2-ring, 5'-10", 620', nat, $5.95 to $7, average, $6.56; Port, 
$6.30 to $8.40, aver, $7.23. 

2-ring, 6', 480', nat, $6.05 to $7.25, aver, $6.59; Port, $6.60 
to $8.40, aver, $7.29. 

2-ring, 6'-2", 381', nat, $6.25 to $7.43, aver, $6.82; Port, $6.95 
to $9, aver, $7.73. 

3-ring, 6'-4", 330', nat, $8.20 to $11, aver, $9.37; Port, $9 to 
$11.50, aver, $10.11. 

3-ring, 6'-6", 480', nat, $8.50 to $11.25, aver, $9.56; Port, $9.58 
to $12, aver, $10.42. 

Manholes to 10' high ran in nat from $1.80 per If to $3.50, 
aver, $2.89; Port, $2 to $3.70, aver, $3.20. 

MACHINE EXCAVATION: Excavation for large sewers is 
worth from 50 to 60c per cy in dry soil. But the most progress- 
ive people now do such excavating with a machine. " The 
Scientific American " recently gave some illustrations of one 
at work in Moorestown, N. J., trenching for a sewer system. 
With the new machine 5 men can dig a ditch 4' deep and 60' 
long every hour. It is not necessary to cut the trench as wide 
as with hand labor it is cut to suit the size of the pipe; and it 
can cut 6" deep to 12'. The earth has not to be handled several 
times over. One illustration shows the pipe in place ready 
for backfilling; another shows a man in uniform standing on 
the bridge like the captain of an Atlantic liner. 

Some machines do work for 5c per cu yd, in trenches, base- 
ments, etc. 

Now the United States Government is using an excavating 
machine in the reclamation of swamp lands. It digs ditches 
at the rate of 1400 cy per day with only two men in charge. 



MUNICIPAL WORK 103 

SEWER PIPE: The following table gives the "Abstract." 
prices on sewer pipe laid. The various contracts ran from 
300 to about 4,000 ft. The totals were 1,486' of 10" inlet pipe, 
which is in general a trifle lower in price than the straight 
work; 8,500' of 8"; 11,493 of 10"; 5,332, 12; 2,238, 15; 291, 18; 
963, 20; 1,071, 21. 

Two contracts were let for 15" 70c per ft for 7.55' deep, 
and 91c for 7.5. One contract for 18" was $1.21 at 7.5' deep. 
One contract for 20", $1.44 at 13.75' deep. One for 21", $1.52 
at 10' deep. For 24", $1.96; 30", $3.17. 

The tile bids for 15" ran from $1.04 to $1.38 in nat; and 
$1.12 to $1.40 in Port for 1,554'; for 18", 165', nat, $1,78 to 
$2.50; Port, $1.84 to $2.53; 21", 825', $1.98 to $2.25; and $2.05 
to $2.30. 



8-in Price 
in cents 


Average 
depth in ft 


10-in Price 
in cents 


Average 
depth in ft 


12-in Price 
in cents 


Average 
depth in ft 


51 


11.5 


60 


12 


70 


12 


53 


12.5 


69 


16 


99 


14.75 


89 


12.25 


60 


11.25 


65 


*7 


52 


11.55 


60 


10.2 


69 


12.9 


51 


9.37 


59 


8.85 


54 


8.25 


55 


13.3 


63 


13.5 


66 


10.4 


67 


12 


57 


12.4 


62 


11 


47 


11 


61 


12.5 






52 


9.7 


63 


13.2 






46 


11 










49 


12 











The average is not reliable owing to variations in depth, 
but it is interesting. On the 8" the aver on 11 contracts was 
55.46c for a depth of 11.47'; on 10, 61.33c for 12.21 deep; 
on 12, 69.3c for 10.9 deep. 

MANHOLES: In connection with the sewers there were 503 
vertical ft of manholes. The lowest price per ft was $3.15; 
the aver, $3.38; the highest, $3.81. 

FLUSH TANK: There were also 226 vert ft of flush tank 
with an average price of $5.43; the highest price was $9; the 
lowest, $4.35. On one contract for 12.7 ft the price was $9; 
eliminating this the general aver was $5.21. 
LEAD AND IRON: From 75 to 80c was charged for 463 ft 
of lead pipe; 43,619 Ibs of cast iron ran from 3 to 4c. 



104 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

CONCRETE SEWER: On a 13'-6" concrete sewer, built in 
Cleveland, Ohio, it was found that a gang of eight men put 
13 cy in place per day. 

LARGE BRICK SEWERS: In Omaha, Neb., some large 
4-ring brick sewers were let: 

lO'-O" diam, per foot $21. 

ll'-3" diam, per foot $26.70. 

12'-0" diam, per foot $26.43. 
7'-6"xl6' (I bins and masonry), $58 to $76. 

Concrete per cy, $7 to $8. 

REINFORCED SEWERS, ETC. 

So much reinforced and brick sewer work is now done that 
the following prices will be very serviceable for approximate 
estimating. They are from " The Engineering News." 

BIDS RECEIVED AT DENVER, COLO., FOR VARIOUS SEWERS 

325 If 4'x6' reinforced concrete sewer, per ft $6.50 

702 If 4'x5' reinforced concrete sewer, per ft 6.00 

11 If 4'x5' reinforced concrete sewer, under tracks, per ft. . 15.50 
20 If 4' 6" brick in concrete sewer under tracks, per ft 14.00 

12 If 4' c-i pipe in concrete sewer under tracks, per ft 21.00 

25 If 24" vit pipe in concrete sewer under tracks, per ft. ... 6.00 

10 If 21" vit pipe in concrete sewer under tracks, per ft. ... 5.80 

1,139 If 4' 6" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft. 4.80 

985 If 4' 4" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 4.70 

863 If 4' 2" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 4.60 

566 If 4' 0" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 4.35 

3,827 If 3' 8" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft . . . 3.80 

1,213 If 3' 6" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 3.65 

1,768 If 3' 4" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 3.50 

3,482 If 3' 2" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 3.40 

3,557 If 3' 0" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 3.35 

773 If 2' 10" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 2.90 

3,470 If 2' 8" circular 2-ring brick sewer, per ft 2.80 

2,670 If 30" vit pipe sewer, per ft 2.90 

4,362 If 27" vit pipe sewer, per ft 2.30 

24" vit pipe sewer 1.75 

10,109 If 21" vit pipe sewer, per ft 1.50 

18,944 If 18" vit pipe sewer, per ft 1.10 

23,057 If 15" vit pipe sewer, per ft 83 

130 If 12" vit pipe sewer, per ft .65 

15,655 If 10" vit pipe sewer, per ft 60 

1,165 If 8" vit pipe sewer, per ft 51 



MUNICIPAL WORK 105 

378 brick manholes, each $32.50 

112 sq yd sandstone block pavement (relay), per yd 2.00 

270 sq yd macadam pavement, per yd 1.50 

2,334 sq yd disintegrated granite pavement, per yd .60 

TOTALS $220,596 

SHEETING AND BRACING: A sewer 4,000' long was built 
in soft soil at Gary, Ind., in 1908. Depth ran from 18' to 30'. 
An interesting and useful item is the cost of sheeting and 
bracing the trench. This was 63c per If. 

The total cost per If of sewer was as follows: Excavation 
by machine, $0.58; excavation by hand, $3.15; sheeting, $0.63; 
pumping, $1.84; hauling materials, $0.87; laying, $2.61; back- 
filling by hand, $0.18; backfilling by machine, $0.44; materials, 
$3.53; organization and general, $0.68; depreciation, repairs, 
cost of setting up machines, etc (estimated), $1.50; cost of 
making 3 railroad crossing, $2,500 (estimated), $0.58; total, 
$16.59. 

Aver size 7'-0" circular, 2 ring, and 6'-9"x9'-0' oval. 

Price of sewer-pipe: 

3-inch 6c 10-inch 25c 20-inch $1.00 

4-inch 8c 12-inch 32c 24-inch 1 . 35 

6-inch 12c 15-inch 50c 30-inch 2.40 

8-inch 18c 18-inch 70c 

Ells and bands run about 3 to 4 times more than straight 
pipe. 

CURBING: More than 3 miles of curbing were laid in 8 
contracts. Colorado sandstone ran from 65 to 70c; Bedford 
limestone, 67c; artificial stone curb, 75c; art stone curb and 
gutter, 47c, 50, 57. 

STEEL CORNER BARS: More than a million feet of galv 
steel corner bars have been used for protecting the edges of 
concrete curbs. The cost of the bar, and the necessary ties 
to hold it in place, is about 20c per If. 

CREOSOTED BLOCK PAVING: Minneapolis has recently 
laid a good deal of creosoted block paving. The price on a 
6" concrete base is from $2.50 to $2.90. This paving has been 
much used in some European cities. It is made of tamarack, 



106 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Norway or Southern pine, and is far superior to the cedar 
block paving. 

A NEBRASKA VIADUCT was paved with this material but 
the base was not included. 

Material, $1.46 
Labor, .44 



$1.90 
Contractor's profit included. 

CULVERTS: At Pittsburg a culvert of 26' span was built as 
below. The exact cost was published in the "Engineering 
Record," of New York, N. Y. The cost of 1,439 yds was $7,- 
243.24, or $5.04 per yd. The detailed figures are a trifle less. 

MATERIAL 

Coarse gravel, 19c per ton, 1 .03 tons $0.19$ 

Fine era vel, 21c per ton, 0.40 tons .08$ 

Sand, 36c per ton, . 32 tons 11$ 

Cement, $1.60 per bbl 1.53$ 

Lumber 43 

Tools and expenses 07| 

LABOR 2 - 43 * 

Preparing site and cleaning up $0.21 

Porms 28 

Platforms and bldgs 05 

Changing trestle work, train, and derrick 08$ 

Excavation 31 

.Handling material 03| 

.Mixing and laying concrete 1.44 

2.41J 
$4.85 

Laborers, 15$c per hour; carpenters, 22$ to 25c; foreman 
mason, 40c. Hand mixing, 1 to 8 and 1 to 10. 

The cost of some Ohio city work in detail is given for use 
.as follows: 



MUNICIPAL WORK 107 

No. 1: AN ABUTMENT and 6 piers for a bridge. Coffer 
dams, sand, and stone close to site. Concrete, 1,542 yds, cost 
$6.45 at the following rates: 

Cement ($2.10) $1.58 

Sand 35 

Stone 75 

Lumber 64 

Tools 20 

Pumping .15 

Labor ($1.75) 2.78 

$6.45 

No. 2: TWO ABUTMENTS, 434 YDS, $6.08. 

Cement ($1.70) $1.48 

Sand 64 

Stone 1.00 

Lumber 40 

Tools 06 

Mixing and placing 1.13 

Forms 25 

$4.96 

Excavating in rock or shale, not really to 

be charged to concrete 1.12 

$6.08 

No. 3: VIADUCT PEDESTALS 8' to 20' HIGH, 570 YDS, 
$7.16. 

Cement ($1.60) $1.40 

Sand 53 

Stone 1.84 

Lumber 38 

Tools 05 

Labor 2.96 

$7.16 

No. 4: PIER 56' HIGH, ABUTMENTS AND PEDESTALS, 

2,111 YDS, $7.23. 

Cement ($1.60) $1.44 

Sand 60 

Stone 1.03 

Lumber 54 

Tools .25 

Water 03 

Labor 3.44 

$7.23 

The following tables are taken from "Reinforced Concrete 
Construction," by Carver, David Williams Co., 50c. 



108 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

ITEMIZED COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE ARCHES 
TO CARRY 55-TON INTERURBAN CARS 

Cost of 50' Span 28' Wide, Reinforced Concrete Arch 

Steel, 27,700 Ibs at 2c $692.50 

Steel Placing, 27,700 at Ic 277.00 

Formwork at $1.00 per cy of concrete.. 370.00 

Cement, 481 bbls at $2.00 962.00 

Sand, 185 cy at $1.00 185.00 

Stone, 370 cy at $2.00 740.00 

Mixing and placing 370 cy at $1.50 555.00 

$3,781.50 
Incidentals add 15% 567.22 

$4,348.72 
Profits add 10% 434.87 

$4,783.59 
Cost of Reinforced Concrete Arch, 75' Span 28' Wide 

Steel, 38,800 Ibs at 2c 970.00 

Placing Steel, 38,800 at Ic 388.00 

Formwork at $1.00 per cy of concrete.. 740.00 

Cement, 962 bbls at $2.00 1,924.00 

Sand, 370 cy at $1.00 370.00 

Stone, 740 cy at $2.00 1,480.00 

Mixing and placing 740 cy at $1.50 1,110.00 

$6,982.00 
Incidentals add 15% 1,047.30 

$8,029.30 
Profit add 10% 802.93 

"$8,832.23 
Cost of Reinforced Arch, 100' Span 28' Wide 

Steel, 55,650 Ibs at 2c $1,391.25 

Placing Steel, 55,650 Ibs at Ic 556.50 

Formwork at $1.00 per cy 1,008.00 

Cement, 1,310 bbls at $2.00 2,620.00 

Sand, 504 cy at $1.00 504.00 

Stone, 1,008 cy at $2.00 2,016.00 

Mixing and placing 1,008 cy at $1.50 1,512.00 

$9,607.75 
Incidentals add 15% , 1,441.16 

$11,048.91 
Profit add 10% 1,104.89 

$12,153.80 



MUNICIPAL WORK 



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THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



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CHAPTEE VII 

FIREPROOFING: TILE: REINFORCED CONCRETE 

" Few probably realize that during the first quarter of 1908 
the value of buildings destroyed by fire practically equaled 
the contemplated new construction during these three months, 
and these figures do not, of course, include the Chelsea fire 
in Boston on April 12. A careful compilation of fire losses 
published month by month estimates the total losses for the 
first three months of 1908 at $64,795,600. During the same 
time the estimated cost of new buildings, according to plans 
filed in the larger cities of this country, which represents prob- 
ably between 80 and 90% of the total construction, aggregated 
$64,796,850." 

We shall have to leave the experts to quarrel over what is 
and what is not fireproofing. We have tile men who declare 
that a wall or floor of ex-metal and concrete is a delusion and 
a snare; and they furnish photographs of building wrecks to 
support their theory; and on the side of systems other than 
terra-cotta, porous tile, etc, there are those who tell us that 
the days of the hollow tile arch are gone and point to many 
fine modern buildings put up with ex metal construction. 

One thing is certain; we ought to build more fireproof 
buildings. While No. 2, which is fireproofed, was under con- 
struction a large portion of the state penitentiary was 
destroyed by fire: and shortly after that a state building at 
Norfolk went up in flames and came down in ashes. Both 
were of wood construction; and the loss on these two alone 
would have nearly fireproofed all the non-fireproof buildings 
belonging to the state of Nebraska. 

In a great fire at Council Bluffs, Iowa, a large school for 
the deaf and dumb was burnt to the ground. About the 
satne time another expensive Iowa building was destroyed. 
In another $300,000 damage was done to the state capitol. 

These are only a few instances taken from this one 
neighborhood in a short period, but they show the folly and 
danger of erecting certain classes of buildings in the old 
style. The Irpquois theater horror may easily be duplicated 

any day. 

112 



FIREPROOFING : TILE I REINFORCED CONCRETE 113 

One of the most reckless ways of investing money now is 
to put it into an office building of wood construction; one of 
the most risky things from the business point of view is to 
fill such a building with valuable records. 
FIRE LOSS: The annual property losses in the U. S. run 
to $180,000,000. Albany, N. Y., with less than 100,000 popu- 
lation burns more than Berlin with 1,800,000 but Berlin 
does her own fire insurance and has strict building laws. 
Baltimore burned up $100,000,000 in a day and night. San 
Francisco lost far more by fire than by earthquake. In 1905 
the loss in the U. S. was about $185,000,000; in 1906, $459,710, 
000, but San Francisco lost $280,000,000 of this. This is a 
per capita loss of $5 for the U. S. and Canada; Germany is 
49c; Switzerland, 30c; France, 30c; Austria, 29c; Denmark, 
26c; Italy. 12c. 

CF COST: No. 2, which is only a $40,000 shell, cost with tile 
fireproofing about 14c per cf. 

COMPARATIVE COST: It may be said that approximately 
fireproofing costs from 10 to 25% more than the regular con- 
struction. It is worth 50% more in safety, durability, and 
lower insurance rates. The cost of ex metal fireproofing as 
compared with wood construction is given by the official pub- 
lication of the companies as from 8 to 20% more. 

In 1905 "Fireproof Magazine," Chicago, published some 
valuable statistics comparing the two systems, which I include 
here by courtesy. The Keeley Company had put up some 
buildings at Dwight, 111. They cost $150,000, and were de- 
stroyed by a great fire. The architect (Mr. Fitzpatrick) 
suggested strictly fireproof structures. The hotel was to be 
137x138, three stories and basement. The detailed estimates 
are as follows: 

ORDINARY CONSTRUCTION 

Excavating 3,000 yds at 25c per yd $750.00 

Concrete Foundations and Walls, 21,000' at 20c 

per cf 4,200.00 

Concrete Porch Cols, 18, at $100 each 1,800.00 

Concrete Floors in Basement, 10,000' at 15c per ft.. 1,500.00 

Concrete Floor Deadening, 26,000' at 3c per ft 780.00 

Common Brick, 500,000 at $12.00 per M 6,000.00 

Pressed Brick, 15.000 at $50.00 per M 750.00 

Paving Brick, 125,000 at $23.00 per M 2,875.00 

Terra Cotta Work 4,800.00 



114 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Ordinary Construction Continued 

Cleaning Brick and Terra Gotta Work 500.00 

Iron Cols, Interior Building 3,500.00 

ut Stone 2,700.00 

Rough Carpentry, 250,000' of Framing at $30.00 

per M 7,500.00 

Mill Work Complete, Including Trim, Stairs, and 

Finished Floors, Glazing, Painting, and Oiling, 

Complete 24,200.00 

Hardware 1,800.00 

Roofing and Flashing 1,185.00 

Sheet Metal Work 2,100.00 

Plastering on Lath, 17,500 yds at 30c per yd 5,250.00 

Mosaic Floors, 8,333' at 60c per ft 5,000.00 

Marble Work 1,335.40 

Scagliola 1,950.00 

Steam Cooking Apparatus 1,250.00 

Refrigeration 785.00 

Steam Heating (Exclusive of Boilers) 5,700.00 

Electric Wiring and Telephones 3,450.00 

Plumbing 7,500.00 

Window and Door Screens 1,200.00 

Electric Light Fixtures 2,500.00 

Total $102,860.40 

Architect's Fees and Superintendence 10,286.04 

Grand Total $113,146.44 

This is about 12c per cf, or $6 per sq ft of ground area. 

FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 

Excavating 3,000 yds at 25c per yd $750.00 

Concrete Foundations and Walls, 21,000' at 20c 

per ft 4,200.00 

Concrete Porch Cols, 18, at $100 each 1,800.00 

Concrete Floors in Basement, 10,000' at 15c per ft. . 1,500.00 
Concrete Filling over Floor Arches, 26,000' at 

5c per ft 1,300.00 

Common Brick, 500,000 at $12.00 per M 6,000.00 

Pressed Brick, 15,000 at $50.00 per M 750.00 

Paving Brick, 125,000 at $23.00 per M 2,875.00 

Terra Cotta Work 4,800.00 

Cleaning Brick and Terra Cotta Work 500.00 

Structural Steel and Iron Work 19,721.51 

Iron Stairs and Ornamental Work 8,900.00 

Rough Carpentry 2,500.00 

Mill Work Complete, Including Trim, Glazing, and 

Painting, all Complete, (Exclusive of Finished 

Floors and Base) 16,500.00 

Hardware 1,800.00 

Roofing and Flashing 1,180.00 

Sheet Metal Work 2,100.00 



FIREPROOFING : TILE: REINFORCED CONCRETE 115 

Plastering, 17,500 yds on tile at 22c per yd 3,850.00 

Cut Stone 2,705.00 

Mosaic Floors, 8,333' at 60c per ft 5,000.00 

Marble Work 1,335.40 

Scagliola 1,950.00 

Steam Cooking Apparatus 1,250.00 

Refrigeration 785.00 

Fireproof Floor Arches, Partitions, Etc 16,500.00 

Steam Heating (Exclusive of Boilers) 5,700.00 

Electric Wiring and Telephones 3,450.00 

Plumbing 7,500.00 

Window and Door Screens 1,200.00 

Electric Light Fixures 2,500.00 

Monolith Floors, 29,000' at 18c per ft 5,220.00 

Monolith Base, 8,524' at 25c per ft 2,131.00 

Total $138,252.91 

Architect's Fees and Superintendence 13,825.29 

Grand Total $152,078.20 

This is about 16c per cf, or $8.05 per sq ft of ground area. 

The architect says : " This shows an apparent difference be- 
tween the cost of the different modes of construction of 
$38,931.76, but it must be borne in mind that the building con- 
structed after the ordinary methods should carry insurance 
for an amount equal to 75% of its cost, while if constructed 
from fireproof materials, being an isolated building, it will 
not be necessary to have it insured at all, except as to its 
contents, as there are absolutely no combustible materials in 
its makeup, except the doors and trim, all of its structural 
parts, including all of the floors, being absolutely non-com- 
"bustible. 

The rate of insurance upon this building , if erected 
with ordinary construciton, will be $1.50 per $100 insurance 
per annum; 75% of $113,146.44 is $84,859.83; 1*% of this 
amount, the annual premium, is $1,272.90. To produce this 
premium at the present value of money it would be neces- 
sary to invest $25,458 at 5% per annum. This amount added 
to $113,146.44 equals $138,604.44, so that the real difference of 
.the cost of the building, if constructed of fireproof materials, 
over the cost of construction by ordinary methods is only 
$13,473.76, or in other words, 9.72%." 

The fireproof system was wisely chosen. 

Another table for a good second class building in a big 
city is this one with percentages: 



116 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



I 








fe 






FIREPROOFING : TILE: REINFORCED CONCRETE 117 

OTHER INSTANCES CITED ARE: 

Fireproof Ordinary 

2 Apartment Houses 23ic 21|c 

Fine Residence 26c 28c 

Warehouse, Slow Burning, 13c; 16c ll^c 

Theater 33c 30 T 3 T c 

Church 23|c 22c 

Car Barn .' lOc 9c 

Apartment house, 16% difference. 

Warehouse, slow burning, $81,600; concrete fireproofing, 
$83,810; tile fireproofing, $85,400; ordinary, $78,340. 

Colorado court-house, fireproof, $90,500; ordinary, $84,6.30. 

Boston factory, fireproof, $35,000; ordinary, $33,000. 

Apartment house, Washington, D. C.: fireproof, $20,864; 
ordinary, $18,800. 

Warehouse, fireproof, $166,000; slow burning, $158,000; 
ordinary, $150,000. 

Retail store, Los Angeles, fireproof, $47,500; ordinary, 
$43,680. 

Store and office, Boston, fireproof, $30,320; ordinary, $26,170. 

Quite a number more of instances of the difference in cost 
are given. The highest is 16%. 

COMPARATIVE COST: "So much has been said about the 
relative cost of frame, brick, and hollow block houses, that a 
builder in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., recently decided to practically 
determine the question, and to that end he erected in the 
same locality three houses of the same size and arrangement. 
One house was built entirely of wood, the second was of con- 
crete with wooden floors, and the third was of hollow tile 
blocks and concrete. When the experiment had been com- 
pleted it was found that the cost of the wooden structure was 
$6,000, the one of tile and concrete was $6,500, and the one 
of concrete $8,900. The builder regarded the tile and concrete 
house as the cheapest, so far as durability was concerned. 
He also regarded it as likely to be warmer in winter and 
cooler in summer by reason of the air spaces in the hollow 
blocks being poor conductors of heat and cold." "Carpentry 
and Building." 

COMPARATIVE COST: A concrete specialist says, ("Sweet's 
Index," page 136) "Reinforced concrete construction costs 



118 . THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

from 10 to 15% more than wood, and from 20 to 25% less than 
structural steel fireproofing with terra cotta." 

Setting ordinary construction at 100, reinforced at 113, this 
would put the steel and terra cotta system, allowing 22% at 
145, which is far too high. 

COST: Reinforced fireproofing has been greatly reduced in 
cost since the end of the century. Such improvements have 
been made in the machinery for manufacturing Port cement, 
and the methods of handling the work, that systems are 
better built and also cheaper. 

HOLLOW TILE 

Prices 

8, 9, 10" Floor or RoofArches set 24c per sqft 

12, 14" 24 to 28c 

16, 18" 25 to 35c 

4" Partitions 14c per sq f 

6" 17c per sq ft 

8" 21c per sqft 

3" Roof Tile, 13c; 3" Book Tile, 12x17 7c per sqft 

2" Furring Tile 7c per sqft 

i" Ceiling Tile 6c per sqft 

Girder Covering 15 to 25c per If 

Col Covering 30 to $1.00 perlf 

These prices are for work set in place. Of course they are 
for straight work. Floor tile might run to 50c instead of 28; 
and wages instead of being 45 to 55c per hour might be 60 to 
65c for bricklayers who have, as a rule, to be broken into the 
work. Roof tile is usually thinner than floor tile and easier 
laid, but the hoisting costs more, so that for an ordinary job 
it is not worth while to make any deduction. 

The raw material fob Omaha runs about as follows: 

8, 9, 10" Arch Tile 15c per sq ft 

16 to 18" 17c per sq ft 

4" Partition, 8c; 6, lie; 8 14c per sq ft 

3" Roof Tile 9c per sq ft 

2" furring Tile 4c per sq ft 

Ceiling Tile 5c per sq ft 

Girder Covering 10 to 20c per If 

Col Covering 25 to 50c per If 

But of course better prices are given on a lump job, 
especially if the mackolite, monolith, concrete men are in 



\ FIREPROOFING I TILE: REINFORCED CONCRETE 110 

attendance. Competition is the death of prices. When near 
the factory a cut can be made. The freight on No. 2 for ex- 
ample, was $1,500, or about J of the total cost. 

The Floor and Roof Tile about $0.15 per sq ft 

Lumber on No. 2 cost nearly 01 per sq ft 

Lime Mortar 025 

Labor. , 05 

Incidentals .005 

$0.24 

But this is on the basis of 45c per hour, the rate at which 
the work was done. For 62c the total should be 26c; for 
rise in lumber allowance to 1913; and using cement in place 
of lime the cost should be 28c. 

BID IN PLACE: It is in general safer for a contractor to 
get a bid from the tile company for the work set in place 
not delivered on the cars. There is sometimes a good deal 
of breakage. If bid is taken for material it is better to have 
it understood that enough is to be furnished to complete the 
job, and not a certain number of sq ft. The manufacturer 
does not like this as it throws the breakage on him, but while 
a contractor is careful and conscientious he does not like to- 
run against a shortage. A sufficient guarantee for the manu- 
facturer is that the contractor, if he hauls and sets the tile, 
does not care to pay for handling it any oftener than possible, 
and thus guards against breakage. 

STEEL: Steel is not estimated in any of the systems. Some- 
times a company puts in a bid on the basis of its own steel 
plans, using lighter construction than the architect. In put- 
ting in a bid on a complete building with a certified check it 
is necessary to mention any departure from the weights, or 
else the contractor may be held to the cheap fireproofing 
coupled with the heavy beams. 

MEASUREMENT: Except for beams, cols, etc, which are 
taken by the If, all work is measured by the sq ft. Floor and 
roof tile are of various shapes to suit the part of the arch to 
which they belong. 

QUANTITY: Waste ought to be within 3%, but sometimes 
tile are smashed in cars. Mortar, which has to be much 
richer than for ordinary brickwork, may be estimated on 



120 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

basis of 175 bbls for the fireproofing on No. 2, as noted under 
" Labor." The necessary lumber for hanging centering below 
I beams cost $140. Half a yd of sand to a bbl of lime is more 
than ought to be used. 

LABOR: On No. 2 16,500 sq ft of 12" floor tile; 5,,500 of 10" 
roof tile; 5,500 of ceiling tile; 4,200 of 4" partition; 15 cols; 
351 If of I beams took for labor and hoisting $1,700, with 
bricklayers' wages at 45c. But the subcontractor who did 
the work had unfavorable conditions to contend with. Haul- 
ing is not included. A haul of a mile costs about 50c per ton. 

A fair price for labor on the tile fireproofing per sq ft is 
about as follows: Floor and roof arches, 4J to 5c; ceilings, 
1 to lie; partitions, 3 to 4c; beams and cols, 4c. If every- 
thing goes well this will cover the cost at 45c per hour. These 
prices would have run No. 2 to about $1,400. 

No. 3 is fireproofed throughout on wood for ceilings, but 
with tile partitions and wall linings. The prices are practi- 
cally the same as for No. 2. Bricklayers' wages in several 
cities are now 62*c, and an extra allowance has to be made 
from the 45c basis. 

DAY'S WORK: A mason with 2 laborers should lay about 
250 sq ft of floor tile in a 9-hour day, with a boy and a horse 
for hoisting. On No. 2 this meant at 45c and 20c, $4.05 and 
twice $1.80, with $3.50 for horse and boy, $11.15 per day, or 
about 4c per ft. 

About as much, or a larger amount of partitions, if straight 
work, should be done with the same gang. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE FIREPROOFING 

Readers of the hollow tile and stone journals know that 
they seldom miss a chance to score against fireproofing 
with metal and concrete, and to publish photographs of 
any wrecks. It is the fight of the ancient and the accepted 
against the newcomer. One wreck hurts a system that is, 
in the main, successful. The trouble is often due to the 
removal of forms too soon, to poor concrete, or design. 

A tunnel 260 ft long on No t 2 is roofed with expanded 
metal and concrete. Nos. 7 and 14 have large lavatories 



FIREPROOFING : TILE! REINFORCED CONCRETE 121 

on the same kind of base. The weight of 3" mesh is from 0.2 to 
1.36 Ibs. to thesq. ft. 

PRICE: Their prices vary according to load and span. A 
span of 8 ft with 3" of concrete from 17 to 20c per sq ft, 
depending upon locality and cost of material. From 8 to 20' 
spans, 25 to 28c. " These prices are for wood floors, 5c per 
sq ft to be added for finished concrete floors, taking the 
piece of wood." There is also an addition of 5c per sq ft for 
heavy warehouse floors, up to 600 and 800 Ibs per sq ft; or for 
top dressing and warehouse floors 90c a sq yd, which added 
to the base touches $3 per sq yd. 

The actual cost of the work on No. 2 was $1.50 per sq. yd. 
at 3" thick, and it was strong enough to carry loaded wagons. 
But there was no profit at this figure, and wages were lower 
than in large cities. If well built the system is an undoubted 
success. 

WALLS: For walls of ex metal and concrete 2" thick, not 
too far from ground, allow $2 to $3 per sq yd. 

MEASUREMENT: Unless of a special nature all work is 
measured by the sq ft. 

PROGRESS: The developments in ex metal and concrete are 
astonishing. Sewers, culverts, tanks, bridges, and a hundred 
other structures are now built of the combined materials; and 
if we include ex metal lath there is no end to the decorative 
possibilities of our latest triumph. The work already done 
speaks for itself. There is room for both tile and concrete 
construction. In the United States alone, thousands of build- 
ings, costing from several millions of dollars down to a few 
hundreds, have been erected according to this modern style. 
As may be noted on page 470 one company alone had put up 
22,000 before 1913. Some of the more enthusiastic believers 
in the system assert that reinforced work will ultimately 
displace stone and brickwork, but these have lasted too long 
in the history of the world to be now set aside. Besides, 
they have qualities that the newer combination lacks. 
QUANTITY: The metal costs from 5c to 6c per sq ft. The 
concrete may be estimated from the quantities given in Chap 
III. Temporary boards or planks have to be used under the 
complete space to be covered. They should be smooth on the 



122 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

finished side. So closely does the cement take on the face 
of the board that one sees a clearly photographed inverted re- 
production of the most delicate grain of the wood. 

SPAN: Panels are made as large as 20x20' without a support 
and a New Orleans drainage canal is 13' wide in the clear 
by hundreds of ft long. A span of 4 to 8' is usual. The 
material comes 8' long, and in 3', 3'-6", 4', and 5' widths. 
Ends of metal should be lapped 2" but not laced or nailed 
even if wood joists are used, for the concrete slab ties the 
whole together. 

SIZES: "We usually use in our concrete work No. 16 gage, 
2" mesh, and would recommend that for floors of 5' or 6' 
spans, or even up to 8' spans. For metal lath, we use C 16", 
"We never fasten the sheets of our floor material, excepting to 
take some of the straight ends of the sheets and turn them 
up over the diamonds of the other sheets." 
FORMS: For a wall a plank lining has to be put on both 
sides the required thickness apart, say 2", and then the metal 
being fastened in position the concrete is poured in to the 
top. More plank is then put on top and shored plumb; and 
so on to the roof. For a low building the system works well, 
but it is rather expensive. But lighter foundations can be 
used than for ordinary masonry. 

CINDER CONCRETE: Cinders are often used for stone, as 
the floor is lighter, and they have had a preliminary burning 
to prepare them for the test. Cinder concrete averages 95.1bs 
to cf, while stone runs to 140. 

PRONG STUD PARTITIONS: Partitions are made of | or 
fxf iron studs set same as wood, and secured to floor and 
ceiling. Each sheet of lath is tied about 4 times to studs, and 
a lap is made. For ordinary work the lath goes on only one 
side, and the 1 or 2" thickness of plaster covers all iron. 
Where room for pipes, etc, is required, wider studs are used 
and lath is put on both sides. Studs with prongs to hook on 
lath are also used. (See "Structural Steel.") 

LABOR: The metal is easily laid if there are no obstructions, 
and if the ordinary system is followed. Sometimes beams are 
to be surrounded. See " Cost Data " in this Chap. 



FIREPROOFING : TILE: REINFORCED CONCRETE 123 

VARIOUS SYSTEMS AND COST 

Ex metal came first, but there are now (1913) so many 
systems of concrete fireproofing, and such differences in 
loads, spans, etc, that a detailed plan is necessary before 
an estimate can be made; even approximate figures are of 
much service, however. 

COST: The cost of cols per cf varies a good deal. One col 
might be so constructed as to cary a given load at 16x16"; 
while another plan might call for a 20x20" col for the same 
load and span. The stronger steel reinforcement necessary in 
the smaller col would make the cf cost far higher than in the 
other. The only method of making an estimate is to get the 
weight of the reinforcement, and allow the concrete sep- 
arately. 

COSTS: The following prices are taken from the work of 
Buel & Hill: 

"A building of the factory type of reinforced concrete 
throughout, includings footings, outside and inside cols, walls, 
girders, beams, and floor plates, roofs and stairs, will cost the 
contractor seldom less than $20 per cy of concrete in place,, 
and of this cost from 25 to 35% will be for forms, including 
materials, erection and removal." (This figure is far too* 
high.) 

But there is much difference in buildings. 

" For example, the cost of the Ingalls Building at Cincinnati, 
including foundations, cols, walls, floors, stairs, etc, was $5.85 
per cy of concrete in place, whereas in constructing a 4 story 
shoe factory in the same city, including only footings, beams, 
and floor plates, the forms cost the same contractor $6.25 per 
cy of concrete in place. 

" For floor slabs of ex metal construction, forms may bo 
as low as $2.20 per cy on a 16' span with a 400 Ib load, and as 
high as $3.25 on a 16' span with a 100 Ib load. 

"For beam and plate construction forms run from $5.50 on 
a 16' span and 500 Ib load, to $10.50 on the same span and 100' 
Ib load. 

" The forms for concrete steel floors will cost from 4 to 6c 
per sq ft including everything. 



124 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

"The forms for a concrete wall 4" thick will cost from 8 
to lie per sq ft, measured on one side only. 
" The forms for cols cost about 22c per If. 
" For floor work forms range from 10 to 20c per sq ft. 
"Experience on about 30 buildings shows that it is rarely 
possible to furnish centering and remove it for much less 
than $4 per cy. The cost should never exceed $6." 
CONDUITS: On a number of large conduits, forms, ex 
metal, and concrete, but no excavation, cost was $10.50 per 
cy. In another part of the book conduit work is priced at 
$6.20. 

On the $10.50 work the labor is given as follows: " On the 6' 
sewer the forms were made 8' long; and two sections, or 16 If 
were built in from 8 to 9 hours, including setting of forms, 
by one foreman, one carpenter and fifteen laborers. The total 
was 13 cy of concrete." This 6' sewer was not reinforced. 
The same gang built 14 If of 8'-6" sewer in 10 hours. 
The 9' conduit contained 20 cy of concrete, 1,200 sq ft ex 
metal, 125 bags of cement for section 13'-6" long. 

The forms were covered with No. 27 galv iron on the 
outside to leave a smooth surf on the finished work. 
^CLEANING: Cleaning bridges of concrete cost 60c per sq yd. 
On a plain part, not including mouldings, balusters, etc, the 
cost was only 20c. 

COST: For cols and floors taken together, the owner of one 
system allows, as an approximate estimate, 60c per sq ft; 
but under the best conditions this is sometimes cut down to 
40c. 

KAHN SYSTEM 

FORMS: For forms for the Kahn system, take the area of 
floor concrete only and allow 15c per sq ft. Of course the 
first floor costs a great deal more, possibly two to three times 
as much, but the lumber used there serves also for the upper 
floors. 

WASTE: The waste of lumber is from 12 to 15% per floor. 
COST OF CONCRETE: Allow for concrete $6.50 to $8.50 per 
cy, including profit. 



FIREPROOFING : TILE: REINFORCED CONCRETE 125 

STAIRS: For stairs allow $1.50 per If of steps; i. e., for a 
6' step complete, $9. 

TILE: Tile is used between the concrete to lighten the load. 
For 6", 8c each; 10", lOc. 

STEEL: Steel in place, $75 per ton. Allow steel extra. 
COST: The cost of the system runs from 35 to 40c per sq 
ft of floors, but the difference of spans, load allowances, etc, 
is so great that the best way is to figure tile, steel, and con- 
crete separately. 

A roof, several hundred ft long, with a span of 150', was 
estimated on the Kahn system for 30c per sq ft in place. 
The steel trusses were not included. 

Some approximate figures from the Kahn Co. Eng'r Dep't, 
are as follows: 

COST OF FLOORS PER SQ FT 

Small Slab and Roof Work, not including any 
Beams 20 to 30c 

Floor Slabs and Beams, supported by Walls, fair size 
Rooms 35 to 45c 

Complete Reinforced Concrete Skeleton Construction 
across Floor Slab, Girders, Cols and their Foot- 
ings, with Cols and Beams in the outside Walls, 
but no Walls included 50 to 65c 

No finished floors included. 

All form work included in above. 

COST OF FORMS PER SQ FT 

Simple Slabs, no Beams 5 to 7c 

For Beams and Cols, all Surf taken 8 to lOc 

No profit included in forms as given. 

COST OF CONCRETE 

LABOR mixing and placing, from $1 to $1.50 per cy. The 
cost of a yd, therefore, is about $5.75 without any profit or 
forms. 

" Two contractors doing the same kind of a job are apt to 
vary 100% in the cost of form work." 

Steel is not priced, but $75 per ton in the building is safe. 



126 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

" M " SYSTEM 

COST: For another Eastern system the following figures 
are supplied: 

" Steel in New York, 2c per Ib, not set." 

Concrete, 20c per cf. 

Forms (in which the saving is made) 4c to 5c a sq ft for 
floors, girders, and beams. This amounts to 10 to 12c of surf 
measure, as girders are then included. 

Concrete for cols about the same as for floors. 

Forms for cols, when used several times, about 4c per sq ft.'' 
Standard Concrete Steel Co., New York. 
RANSOME bars cost about 3c per Ib, New York. 

PROPORTIONS 

The proportions vary. One authority gives I, i*, 3 for 
light cols, thin roof beams, and ornamental work. 

For beams, floor slabs, and cols, 1, 2, 4 or 1, 2, 5 ifa about 
right. 

For non-bearing walls, reinforced piers and footings, 1, 3, 5. 
For heavy concrete, 1, 3, 6 to 1, 4, 8. 
For finishing floors, 1 to 2, to 1 to 3 cement and sand. 
STEEL: "Floors require from 2 to 6 Ibs of reinforcement 
per sq ft according to load, including slabs, beams, girders, 
cols, lintels, and footings." 

FORMS: "Forms may cost from 50c to $2 per cy of con- 
crete placed. On a small building the unit cost is larger, 
because the forms can not be so often used." 

FERRO INCLAVE 

SIZE OF SHEETS: The sheets are made from 10' long down, 

and 20" wide. 

COST: The cost in 1913 is about as follows, fob Cleveland: 

Less than car-load lots, $8.25 to $10.60, depending upon 
length. In car-load lots $7.75 to $10. If sheets are curved 
allow about 50c extra. 

These prices include clips and crossties. 
CAR-LOAD: A rnimimum car-load is 190 sq. 
WEIGHT: A sq (100 sq ft) with clips, etc, weighs abou*. 
163 Ibs. 



FIREPROOFING : TILE! REINFORCED CONCRETE 127 

COST: Work in place with concrete costs according to span 
and load. An average roof with waterproof covering is 
worth from $20 to $23 per sq. If plastered on the underside 
add plastering at 35c per sq yd. A floor averages about $31, 
plastered. Partitions and walls, both sides, from $2 to $4 
more than roofs. 

ASBESTOS 

COST OF ROLLS: For & thick, 4 Ibs to sq yd, and 4c per 
Ib delivered. 

For , 7 Ibs and 5c. 

For plain work, 14" blocks, 19c. 

ASBESTOS LUMBER is made of asbestos fibre and Port 
cement. " Perfectly fireproof, and not affected by moisture or 
frost." The following price list is subject to a discount of 
20% at the factory, Ambler, Pa.; and 10% at Omaha: 

Standard Size of Sheets, 42x48" and 42x96" 
Color, Newport Gray 



Thickness Price 
per sq ft per sq ft 


Prices to 

Approximate 
weight 


3 works 

Thickness 
per sq ft 


Price 
per sq ft 


Approximate 
weight 


i" .10 


if nil 


W 


.32* 


4Jlbs 


A; .12* 


If Ibs 


A* 


.35 


4lbs 




.15 


2 Ibs 


M" 


.37* 


5 Ibs 


1 


.17* 

.20 


2Jlbs 
2| Ibs 


1 


.40 
.42* 


5Jlbs 
5f Ibs 


$2 


.22* 


3 Ibs 


9 n 


.45 


6 Ibs 


A 


.25 


3Jlbs 


w 


47i 


6|lbs 


$ 


.27* 


3| Ibs 


f" 


.50 


6* Ibs 


I .30" 


4 Ibs 


// 


.00 


00 Ibs 



REINFORCED ASBESTOS CORRUGATED SHEATHING 

Employed for roofing, siding, awnings, elevators, train 
sheds, rolling mills, etc, on structures of medium cost. 

Corrugated Asbestos Sheathing is reinforced with |" mesh 
woven wire netting, thus insuring the greatest strength, both 
lineal and transverse. It is made 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10' long. 
Price per sq ft with 2J corrugations, 18c. 
Price per sq ft with 1 corrugations, 21c, 

Discounts as on lumber. 



128 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

ASBESTOS SHINGLES: These are of a great variety of 
sizes, styles, and prices. They are usually laid on the roof 
in the French, or diagonal fashion. The common size is 12 
x!2", 160 to the sq, | thick, $9.10 unlaid, Omaha; and $7.25 at 
Ambler, Pa. Laying, from two-thirds to one-half the time on 
wood shingles. No paint required. Hip and ridge rolls, lOc 
per ft. Starter course, 7c If extra. 

ASPHALT SHINGLES, $5.50 per square fob, Chicago. 
OCTAGON ASBESTOS SHINGLES, $12. 
FIRE DOORS: Ordinary flooring doors covered with tin, 
18c per sq ft, 2-ply; 27c, 3-ply without tin on both sides: with 
tin, 38c for 2-ply; and 47c for 3-ply. This does not include 
hanging. Allow $3 for hardware, $3 for labor on an ordinary 
size, and $1.50 for paint. Add wood jamb, $3, if any. 



CHAPTER VIII 

CEMENT STONE. 

Under various names this artificial stone is becoming very 
popular. There are some thousands of plants all over the 
country. Most of the stuff is hollow, some smooth, some 
" tooled," some rock faced. 

In various parts of Nebraska this really fine building mate- 
rial is sold for as low a price as 14c per cf, and laid for 4 to 
5c extra. Stone often costs ten times as much. 

In Kansas City the material is laid in the wall complete at 
32c per cf. 

As an average for various states an Indiana manufacturer 
quotes 12 to 20c per block, not laid. A block contains about 
1 cf. 

PRICES: An Omaha price for door sills, 8x15, is 40c per 
If; window, 30c; wall coping, 25c for 10x4|" through center; 
35c for 14x4; blocks, 8x16x8, 15c. Window caps, 1 to 2$' 
proportion, 4^x12", 35c. Set in wall complete the blocks are 
30c for a two story, and 25c for a one story building. The 
face of the blocks is made of 1 to 2 or so, and the back, 1 to 
4, cement and sand. 

A Wisconsin contractor gives me the following prices: "I 
manufacture stone 9x32x10" thick, or 2 sq ft, for 9c per sq 
ft of wall. I pay 2c each block for delivery. I retail blocks 
at 35c each, or 17c per sq ft. I put up wall complete, blocks, 
mortar, labor, and finishing joints above grade for 25c per 
sq ft." 

FACE WORK: When I was an apprentice I was once nailing 
a board with the worst side out, and the foreman made me 
change it. " Always put the best side to London," he said. 
The cement block men follow this excellent rule. By keeping 
this in mind the following table and instructions from one of 
them will be more valuable; for a margin will then be allowed 
that is probably forgotten. 

129 



130 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



CONCRETE. BLOCK TABLE. 

" Giving size and weight of blocks, the number one bbl 
of cement will make, the number to one cy of material, and 
the number per sq of 100 superficial ft. 



1 

& 


g 

Q 
| 



I 

3 


SOLID BLOCKS 


HOLLOW BLOCKS 


cr< 
10 o 1 



JK 


Weight 
of Block 


No, per 
Bbl of 
Cement 
at 1 to 5 


No. per 

cy 


Weight 
of Block 


No. per 
Bbl of 
Cement 
at 1 to 5 


No. per 
cy 


8x 8x16 
8x10x16 
8x12x16 
4x8 x!6 
4x10x16 
4x12x16 
8x 4x16 
8x 8x24 
8x10x24 
8x12x24 
4x 8x24 
4x10x24 
4x12x24 
8x 4x24 


73 
92 
109 
35 
44 
53 
37 
112 
140 
166 
54 
67 
79 
55 


34 

27 
22 
68 
54 
44 
68 
22 
18 
15 
46 
36 
30 
44 


48 
38 
32 
99 
79 
66 
95 
31 
25 
21 
65 
52 
44 
63 


50 
67 
80 
24 
32 
39 


49 
37 
31 
100 
76 
63 


71 
53 
44 
144 
109 
91 


112 
112 
112 
224 
224 
224 
112 
75 
75 
75 
150 
150 
150 
75 


77 
92 
112 
37 
46 
55 


32 
25 
21 
66 
52 
44 


45 

38 
31 
94 
76 

63 



EXPLANATION: To find the number of blocks for a build- 
ing, get the surf ft of the building by mult the length around 
the building by the height of the wall. Add to this the 
surf of gables, then deduct the surf ft of all the openings. 
Thus giving the actual surf to cover. 

RULE: Mult the number of sq to cover by the number in 
the last col for the size block you are to use, which will give 
the number of blocks for any building. 



HOW TO FIGURE THE COST OF BLOCKS 

One bbl contains 3f cf. 

One cy contains 7i bbls. 

One yd of sand and 3| bbls of cement equals 2 to 1 mix- 
ture. 

One yd of sand and gravel and 1 bbls of cement equals 
5 to 1 mixture. 



I * 

CEMENT STONE " 131 

In making blocks, we recommend a mixture for the facing 
of 1 part cement, 2 parts coarse, sharp, clean sand, and the 
body of the block 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, and 3 parts 
gravel or broken stone, the gravel or broken stone to range 
in size from i to f" in diam. 

For manufacturing 100 blocks 8x8x16" there are needed 
2.24 bbls of cement, 0.68 cy of sand, and 1.06 cy of gravel or 
broken stone, which at the following estimated cost of 
materials will amount to 

Example 

2.24 bbls of best Port cement at $2 per bbl $4.48" 

0.68 cy of sand at $1 per cy 68 

1.06 cy of gravel or broken stone at $1.50 per cy 1.59 

Cost for labor for 100 blocks 1.75 

Incidentals for safe margin per 100 blocks 50 



Total cost for 100 blocks 8x8x16" $9.00 

The above are approximate and conservative prices for 
materials and labor. These may vary, however, to a less or 
higher degree governed by locality. 

The cost of concrete blocks in any locality will be found 
to be much less than common brick and are a better and 
more lasting material." 

FACTORY PLANT 

A plant built in Michigan of " Ideal " blocks has a four 
story factory, warehouses, dry kilns, power house, office, 
oil house, etc. On the ground floors the area covered is 
93,000 sq ft. In all 183,000 blocks were used. They cost 
7c each, and, with masons at $3.50 per day, 2c to lay. This 
does not include mortar. Sand and gravel 7, to 1 of cement. 
Gravel 65c per cy, cement $1.60. Each ordinary laborer made 
300 blocks in a ten hour day. The owners estimated a 
saving of one-third in cost as compared with brick at $6.50. 
Each mason laid 250 blocks 8x8x16" on a plain wall, and 125 
on pilasters; aver all over, 175. Each block 8x8x16" dis- 
placed 14 brick. 



132 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

QUANTITIES 

The " displacement of brick " is usually given too high. An 
8" block corresponds to a brick wall of the same thickness. 
For illustration, allow a wall 100'xlO'xS". Even at 17 to the 
cf (See Chap V) the actual number required is 11,400, 
mortar joints, waste, etc, all being attended to. Each block 
with joint, one side, and edge, equals 8ixl6i or 134 sq inch. 
Without waste 1,075 blocks are required, and each block 
displaces fewer than 11 brick. As noted under " Brickwork," 
a cf of wall does not contain 22 brick, but from 16 to 17. 
A plain wall like this, with masons' wages 62c per hour, 
can be laid up for $11 per 1,000, wall measure, or a total 
cost of $165. In the table the cost of blocks is given at 9c; 
sand and stone cost more here, at least, than in the table, and 
lOc is the best figure that could be allowed, without profit to 
dealer. This would be for wall listed, $107.50 for blocks, 
and, at a 62c basis instead of 40c per hour, 4c for labor 
would be $43. The mortar for brick would be about $20; for 
blocks, say, $10, a total of $160.50, and this with brick at $7 
instead of $6.50. The cost seems to be about the same; here 
in Omaha the cement stone costs more than brick. A block 
8x8x16" costs 14 to 15c. 

FACE WORK: But if the wall were faced with a $20 pressed 
brick the difference would be in favor of the cement stone. 
About $75 extra would be required for labor, making the 
total $310. It then comes to be a question of looks and taste, 
unless we estimate the work on the Omaha basis already 
given of 30 and 25c for blocks in the wall, in which case we 
have $300 and $250, and once more balance. 

COMPARATIVE COSTS: In general it may be said that 
the cost of a fair pressed brick wall and a rock faced block 
one is about the same. A common brick wall is cheaper 
than a common block one in most parts of the country. 

But a hundred miles from a brickyard gives the blocks the 
advantage in every way. A supply of cheap sand and gravel 
also turns the scale. In some localities, especially in the 
country, the cement block is clearly ahead. 
(See index.) 



CEMENT STONE 133 

GRANITE FACING: A great deal of cement block and 
brick work is now faced with crushed granite sprinkled in 
the mold before the mixture is pounded in. In the vicinity 
of New York City the cost of the raw material is 40 cents 
per 100 Ibs. in less than ton lots; less than car lots in bags, 
$4.75 per ton; in bulk, $3.50 per ton. 

The cost is given by one manufacturer at a cent per square 
foot extra above the ordinary block. It is worth much more 
in appearance. 

Cement brick cost about $10. 

FANCY WORK 

Lawn vases, $18 to $20 each. 

Porch cols, including sq base, shaft, and cap complete, 
$1 per If. 

Spindles or balusters, $1 each. 

POSTS: Concrete posts 9' long, reinforced with 4. V John- 
son bars, 65c each on a lot of 1,000 made. 



CHAPTER IX 

PLASTER 

(See " Structural Steel " for cost of prong studs.) 
Plaster is often included in the mason work and is there- 
fore considered here, although the joists are not yet in place. 

MEASUREMENT: The ordinary rules do not deduct open- 
ings unless they are larger than the standard size; attics are 
measured sq without deduction for slope of roof, and so 
forth. But by following this method it is as with brickwork 
we can not make out a bill of material from original figures 
with any degree of certainty, for the openings in one building 
may be only half of what they are in another, and with such 
variations too much or too little is billed. It is better to 
change the method and charge the difference in the price. 
Here, then, we take only actual surf. But contractors and 
owners have to be careful in letting work by the yard. In 
the first cottage I built I paid for my attic lesson. 

The U. S. Gypsum Co., Minneapolis, distributes free a 
copyrighted booklet with the plaster all figured out for walls 
and ceilings of several thousand different sized rooms. It is 
printed at the end of this " Estimator." 

DESCRIPTION: What is known as two coat drawn work is 
a first coat with fibre or hair applied to the lath; a second, 
or brown coat, is then put on top of the first without leaving 
the work to let it dry; and after these two coats are dry 
the finish is put on top, making really three coats. On brick 
or tile the brown coat is put on usually without scratch 
coat, and then the white, or sand coat, making only two 
coats. 

With three coat dry work, each coat is allowed to dry be- 
fore the next is put on. The first coat is usually scratched 
so as to leave a rough surf for the brown coat. 

If a white or sand finish is to be put on, metal lath must 
have three dry coats, for the first coat has to be thin in 
order to stick and form a surface; then comes the brown 
coat, and last of all the finish. 

134 



PLASTER 135 

BRICK: The cost of plastering on brick is usually lower than 
on lath, if the walls are reasonably straight, but in some 
cases a contractor would prefer to lath crooked walls rather 
than straighten them with tons of mortar put on at 62^c 
per hour. 

COST OF 100 SOLID YDS 2-COAT PLASTER. NO PROFIT 

1450 Lath, 48" at $4.70 $6.82 

Labor on Lath . 3.25 

Nails 30 

1050 Ibs Hard Wall Plaster and White Finish 3.68 

Sand, 2 yds 1.80 

Labor on Plaster 13.00 

$28.85 
COST OF 100 YDS OF 3-COAT DRY WORK 

1450 Lath, 48", at $4.70 $6.82 

Labor on Lath 3.25 

Nails 30 

1600 Ibs Plaster and White Finish 5.60 

Sand 2.00 

Labor 15.00 

$32.97 
COST OF 100 YDS ON METAL LATH 

105 yds of Lath at 20c $21.00 

Labor on Lath. . 5.00 

Staples 63 

2200 Ibs Plaster and Finish 7.70 

Sand ! 3.00 

Labor 20.00 



$57.33 

These are cost prices, but contractors buy cheaper than 
the lists above, and handle the work to avoid loss. The 
cost, including profit, as shown in the following prices current 
in our cities, is just about the same as in the tables. But 
after allowing fire and liability insurance, scaffolding, tele- 
phone, water and some other little incidentals it seems a 
rather close margin, even if heating is not required. Some- 
times the innocent sand pile suffers. Competition, under 
present conditions, is the death of profits. 



136 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

PRICES AT 62ic PER HOUR, WITH PROFIT 

Per Yd 

Two-Coat Work (white finish) on Wood Lath $0.32 

Three-Coat Dry (white finish) on Wood Lath 36 

Three-Coat Dry (white finish) on Metal Lath 62 

Keene's Cemant (white finish) on Wood Lath 35 

Keene's Cement (white finish) on Metal Lath 67 

For Sand Finish add 03 

For Work on Brick or Tile deduct from Wood Lath Price .06 to .07 

Without Finish Coat deduct 07 

For Back Plaster on Wood Lath 24 

Sackett Board, brown and white Coats 37 to .40 

Pure or " Neat " Portland Cement Work, Metal Lath, on 

Gables (reasonable quantities) 1 .50 

Neat Portland on Plain Walls, Metal Lath 1.00 

Blocking to Represent Tile in Bath Rooms 1 .50 

Keene's Cement Base, 10" 15 

Portland Cement Base, 10" 18 

Plain Plaster of Paris Molds per in of girt. 06 

Metal Lath on Steel Prong Studs, Plaster If thick measured 

on one Side Only (No Studs) 1.80 

For Heating allow 03 

Rough Coat Behind Wainscot on Wood Lath 15 

Compo-Board .41 

Above prices are based on solid work, that is, openings 
deducted, but contractors' profit is included. 
ACTUAL: A large contract was finished in Omaha in 1907 
for 56c on metal lath, with lath at 18c, ^,nd 24c on brick walls. 
KEENE'S CEMENT: The cost of Keene's cement material 
is more than twice as much as that of the other hard plasters, 
but less of it is used, as common lime is merely gaged with 
the cement. 

BACK PLASTER does not seem to be so much used as 
formerly. It is worth about 22 to 24c per yd. The lathers 
charge double price for lathing in between studs. Heavy 
rough plastering behind wainscoting, 10 to 12c per yd, on 
brick; on wood lath, 14c. 

LATH: Wood lath is &xli". From 1,450 to 1,500 lath are 
sufficient for 100 yds. Some buildings require more than 
others, as angles, brackets, coves, etc, take more material; 
but 1,500 ought to cover the worst. It is necessary to re- 
member now, however, that a new lath is in the market. 



PLASTER 137 

It is only 32" long instead of the standard 48". An order 
for so many lath might bring the number, but not enough to 
cover the surf. About 2,200 are required. Taken on a 48" 
basis the price is from $1.75 to $"2 less per 1,000, so that this 
kind is gradually working in, although it costs about lie 
more per yd for labor and nails. Wood lath, with labor and 
nails, runs to about 12c per yd; metal lath etc, 23 to 26c. 

Take the actual No. of yds for metal lath and add 4 to 1% 
if there are many angles. There is little waste as it bends 
around all corners. There is 1 yd to a sheet, and sometimes 
a trifle more. Ex metal is the common kind; but many 
plasterers prefer sheet metal as it takes less mortar. Wire 
lath is also used, but the ex metal seems to be gaining the 
day. 

METAL CORNERS, 5c per ft delivered, 6c put on wood, 7c 
on brick. 

NAILS & STAPLES: Allow 9 to 10 Ibs of 3d fine nails for 
100 yds of wood lath at 16" centers; with 12", from 12 to 13. 
Short lath require an extra nail for each joint. Allow 9 Ibs 
of staples to 100 yds of metal lath. Somewhat less than 
this was sufficient on No. 9. The sheets do not require much 
fastening. Staples are about 7c per Ib. 

LABOR: The 48" wood lath is nailed on at 3Jc per yd, but 
this includes the openings under the old style of measure- 
ment. I read a short time ago that the Chicago lathers had 
set a day's work for 1 man at 25 bundles, but each man has 
to nail on the 1,250 lath which they contain. If he comes 
short of his number it is made up by the others of the gang. 
With about $ allowed for openings this is 100 yds in a day. 

Metal lath was formerly put on for 3c, but now lathers 
will not work on it except by the hour at 50c. The cost of 
6,800 yds on No. 9 was 4c per yd. It is now, in 1908, about 5c. 
On plain work a man ought to put on 100 yds; some can put 
on 150 to 200, but the average is less. With many angles, 
50 is enough. I know of nearly 300 yds which cost 8c. 
Elliptical work, groins, etc, should be allowed at two to three 
times the price of plain work. The figures given for lath 
Include scaffolding. 



138 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Lathing on prong studs, and steel studs in general, costs 
more. Sometimes it has to be tied to the studs with wire. 
Allow 8 to lOc for lathing. 

SAND: Ex metal lath takes a good deal of material, cement 
plaster as well as sand. No. 9 took 2.6 to 2.75 yds to the 100, 
but this included openings. But 1 to 2 yds are usually 
cnough for a building with wood lath, or brick walls without 
lath. If wood lath are used all through If yds are enough. 
On No. 2 with all work on brick or flreproofing 2 yds were 
required. But it is different with crooked brick walls and 
ex metal lath. One allowance by weight for metal lath is 
4 tons. 

SAND FINISH: A finer sand is sometimes used for sand 
finish. On some government work a ground rock is specified. 
On the Omaha post office the cost of this material was $7.50 
per cy. The quantity used for the last coat was about 1 yd 
to 150. Ordinarily a clean common sand is run through a 
:No. 18 sieve. 

QUANTITIES 

CEMENT PLASTER: On No. 2 with 6,600 yds actual surf 
the quantities were as follows: 600 sacks of hard plaster; 
191 of stucco; and 110 bbls of lime. The walls were straight 
and did not require as much as is sometimes used. The 
work was 2-coat white finish. 

The quantity of stucco is unusually large, but there were 
2,500 If of fxlO" base, and 500 of 6" chair rail plastered on 
the face of the wall, besides small cornices, capital, bases, 
etc. 

WHITE FINISH: For plain work about 65 bbls of lime and 
85 sacks of stucco are required for white finish on 6,600 yds. 
Some kinds of cement plaster can be used for a finish coat, 
but not the kind specified for No. 2. But by allowing 1 bbl 
of lime to 4 sacks of plaster we can get at the total quantity 
which would have been necessary if cement only had been 
used. We have then, 600 sacks of cement plaster, 90 of stucco, 
and 65 bbls of lime, or equal to 260 sacks of plaster, a total 
of 950 sacks for 6,600 actual yds, or 7,000 with openings. This 
is 14.4 sacks for the first, and 13.6 for the second measure- 



PLASTER 139 

'the 100 yds. For cement plaster alone 9 sacks were 
used on the 6,600 basis, and 8.6 on the 7,000. The difference 
is thus seen if cement is to be used for all work, or if 
required for first coat only. 

For ordinary finish allow 1 bushels of lime to 100 Ibs of 
plaster. Lime is about 90c per bbl in bulk, and $1.25 in bbls. 

On about 525 actual yds, or 600 with openings included, the 
quantities were 15.4 and 13.3; and there was no lime used for 
finishing coat. This was on the building whose roof is shown 
in No. 11. 

BEHIND WAINSCOT: Care must be taken to see just what 
surf is to be plastered. Some architects specify that all walls 
behind wainscoting shall be covered with a heavy coat of 
rough plaster. On certain buildings this might mean of 
the surf. Both for price and quantities it is necessary to 
know; and it is best to be sure before contract is signed. 

ON METAL LATH: The two buildings given are on basis 
of brick or wood lath; wire or metal lath requires more. I 
know one building that took close to 20 sacks, but it was 
all metal lath, and nothing was used except cement for all 
coats. At least 18 ought to be allowed on work of this kind, 
and that is often too close a figure, especially if plasterers 
are unacquainted with the material. Nowhere do good trades- 
men work so clearly for their wages as plasterers on metal 
lath. A new hand puts half the material on the floor; with 
him it will not stick to the wall and still less to the ceiling. 

ACTUAL: On No. 9 with more than 8,000 yds of 3-coat work 
on metal lath 18 sacks was the average, but openings are 
included. Cement only was used. 

CATALOG DANGERS: These actual results from large 
buildings show the danger of estimating work from manu- 
facturers' catalogs. I find from one that 8 sacks of white and 
10 of dark cement are sufficient for 100 yds of 2-coat work. 
With lime and stucco for a finish coat, this is about the same 
rate as was used on No. 2; but No. 11 without lime tells an- 
other story. Only the thinnest kind of work can be done with 
that quantity, and the walls have to be straight. It is not 
nearly enough for metal lath which, unlike other surfaces, 



140 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

requires a thin first coat before the heavy brown coat will 
stick. This accounts to some extent for the increase in the 
Quantity. White plaster does not require so many sacks as 
it takes more sand than dark. 

QUANTITIES USED BY ONE PLASTERER 

Two-coat drawn work on wood lath, 10 to 10 sacks* 

Three-coat on metal lath, 20 to 24 sacks. 

Three-coat on wood lath, 15 to 16 sacks. 

Brick, 3-coat, 14 to 15 sacks. 

In above the white finish of about 2 sacks is included. 

Dark plaster, wood lath, extra allowance, 1 to 2 sacks. 

Dark plaster, metal lath, extra allowance, 2 to 3 sacks. 

Openings deducted. 
Above quantities are for 100 yds. 

KEENE'S CEMENT 

Keene's cement, as already stated, is a lime plaster guaged 
with cement. On Keene's cement there is practically no waste. 
When the ordinary cement plasters get the initial set, the 
waste can not be remixed, so that any stuff left too long on the 
board or in the box is lost. With Keene's, remixing can be 
done. 

For ordinary plastering Keene's cement and lime putty 
are mixed together in equal parts and sanded. Sand, lath, 
nails, labor, etc, being about the same for all systems we may 
allow for Keene's per 100 yds. 

APPROXIMATE COST 

At St. Louis At Your City 

400 Ibs Best Bros. Keene's Cement at 80c $3.20 

4 bushels of Lime at 27c per bushel 1 .08 

2 bushels Hair tor Scratch Coat at 20c 40 

Cost per 100 sq yds $4.68 

Often more lime, putty, and less of the cement, is used for 
ordinary work. This is on the basis of wood lath; for metal 
lath, one-third to a half more material is a fair allowance. 

But for finishing coat lime should not be mixed with the 
cement. For wainscoting, a larger proportion than one-half 



PLASTER 141 

of Keene's is mixed with the lime for a base and second coat 
two to one is about right. 

APPROXIMATE COVERING CAPACITY PER 100 SQ YDS 
OF BEST BROS. KEENE'S CEMENT 

PLAIN PLASTERING 

BASE COAT on wood lath, terra-cotta, or brick. About 400 
Ibs, four bushels of lime, two bushels of hair for scratch 
coat, and the usual quanity of sand to mate a good mortar, 
provided lath keys are not made more than ", and brick walls 
are level. 

BASE COAT on metal lath. About 550 Ibs, five and one- 
half bushels of lime, two bushels of hair for scratch coat, 
and enough sand to make a good rich mortar. 
SMOOTH FINISH: About 300 Ibs. 

SMOOTH SAND FINISH: About 200 Ibs, and half as much 
sand in bulk. 

FLOAT FINISH: About 100 Ibs, and twice as much sand 
in bulk. 

WAINSCOTING 

BASE COAT on wood lath, terra-cotta, or brick. About 600 
Ibs, three bushels of lime, two bushels of hair for scratch 
coat, and the usual quantity of sand to make a good mortar, 
provided lath keys are not more than f " and brick walls are 
level. 

SMOOTH FINISH: About 300 Ibs of pure cement. 

One cement plaster manufacturer allows as follows for 
100 yds: 

"Estimate 800 Ibs of plaster for browning out lath work. 

" 100 Ibs of plaster of Paris, mixed with lime putty, will 
furnish ' hard finish ' for the same. 

" For sand finish, apply the finishing coat while the brown 
coat is green. 

" For hard finish, apply after brown coat is dry." 

Compare with actual quantities used, as already given. 

But it is hard to give exact quantities for different kinds 
of plasters, buildings, and work. No rule can be found for 



142 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

crooked walls. Reasonable quantities are based on ther theory 
that walls are to be straight. 

KINDS OF PLASTER: Sanded plasters are never used here. 
Some of the unsanded are: Flint, Ivory, Imperial; O. K., 
Laramie, Baker, Eureka, Mineral City, and KalTolTte. The 
last two are from Fort Dodge, Iowa. No. 2 is plastered with 
Kallolite. The B. & M. headquarters building, Omaha, with. 
O. K. from Okarche, Okla. Baker is white; O. K., Eureka, 
Peerless, Agatite are dark. 

WHITE FINISH PUTTY: No. 2 took If bbls: of lime to 
100 yds, but this was owing to the amount required for base, 
chair-rail, etc. No. 9 took less than a bbl. Three sacks of 
stucco were used to 100 yds on No. 2 on account of base, etc, 
while 100 yds required only 2 sacks of cement plaster on No. 
9. If lime is used allow A bbl to 100 yds. 
PLASTER OF PARIS: Plaster of Paris is sometimes sub- 
stituted for stucco as it sets slower. On common work 1 to* 
1| sacks to 100; on good work, 1*. Both p of p and stucco> 
are mixed with the lime which is run off to a pure white. 
HAIR: Hard plasters are supposed to be mixed with enough, 
hair to make the mortar stick; but metal lath sometimes 
requires a little more fibre than the manufacturers' allow- 
ance. At most allow 1 bushel to 100 yds, which is the old 
allowance for lime plaster, although there are those who 
call for twice as much lime. 

LIME PLASTER 

It is hardly worth while saying anything on the subject. 
Lime plaster is scarcely ever used now. Lathing, sand, and 
various finishes are same as for cement. For 2-coat work 
allow 3 bbls to 100 yds; for 3-coat, 3|. 

LIME PLASTER QUANTITIES 

For 100 yds of old style plaster on wood lath, this would 
be the allowance for 3-coat work: 

3$ bbls lime, 

1 to 2 yds of sand, 

2 bushels hair, 
100 Ibs plaster of Paris. 



PLASTER 143 

If finish is not wanted, deduct the plaster of Paris and half 
a bbl of lime. See under " Sand " for sand finish. 

On brick walls, for 2 coats allow only 3 bbls lime, if they 
are fairly straight. 

PATCHING: As we are dealing with old plaster, we might 
consider patching. Sometimes the easiest way to patch a 
ceiling is to put on a new one. 

On a number of rooms the cost of removing old plaster 
ceilings, furring, nailing on metal lath, and replastering was 
about $1 per yd. Leaving the old plaster on, by far the best 
way if it can be done, as it saves labor, dust, and handling, 
the cost was 75c. Some of the rooms were of ordinary size; 
some 100' long. 

A small patch might cost $1 to $2 per yd; a single yard 
patch might cost far more, as time is taken going to and 
from the work. 

PRICES: Cement plaster runs from $7 to $8 per ton, but 
sometimes it is as low as $5. Laramie fibered, for first coat, 
$10; unfibered, $6.50. , 

Keene's Cement, $17 to $18. 

There are usually 20 sacks to the ton of cement plaster. 

Metal lath from 16 to 22c per yd. 

Wood lath, 48", from $4.50 to $5.50 per M. 

WATER: The Omaha rate is 15c per 100 yds by meter the 
cost is only 8 to 9c. The Chicago rate is $1.50 per 1,000 yds. 

LABOR: On No. 2 the labor on 2-coat work ran to 15c 

throughout, but 14c if openings are included. This does not 
include base, chair-rail, cols, and the rounding of window 
jambs. Rounding jambs takes from f of an hour on small 
square windows to 2 hours on high segment openings. If 
white coat, they have to be run with a mould; if sand 
finish, they can be rounded with a trowel at a cheaper rate. 

On the metal lath of No. 9 the cost ran about 4, 7, 4c or 
loc in all for the 3 coats, but wages were 55c; now they are 
62c here, and 15% more is required. Some say that 20 to 
25c is right. The first coat is thin, the second takes far more 
material and labor, and the last, or white coat, is about the 
same as the first. All through the time runs about 9 hours of 



144 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

plasterer to 5 of laborer, but this depends a good deal upon 
the character of the work. The brown coat takes more 
laborers than the finish. Sometimes the proportion is man 
to man. 

Three men and two helpers put on 400 yds of 2-coat work, 
and 250 yds of finish. 

The labor on 2-coat work is taken as low as 12c, but not in 
cities where wages are high. 

HEATING AND SCREENS: If work is done in winter the 
question of heating has to be considered. In dwellings it is 
worth 3 to 4c per yd; on large buildings with steam heat, 2 to 
3c. If in summer, muslin screens may have to be put on all 
openings. Muslin is worth about 17c a yd. 
OLD BRICK WALL: For raking out the joints of an old 
brick wall before plastering, allow 15c if in lime, and 25c per 
yd if in cement. With compressed air, the work can be done 
for one-half as much. 

These rates at 60c per hour can be adjusted to suit the 
wages of any locality; but country tradesmen do not always 
cover as much ground as city ones, especially if metal lath 
is used. 

WEIGHT: A partition of 2x4 or 2x6, plastered both sides, 
weighs about 20 Ibs to the sq ft; lath and plaster alone 9 Ibs 
on one side. 

CORNICES AND ORNAMENTAL WORK: Almost every 
house I worked on in my apprenticeship had at least 1 room 
with a plaster cornice and centerpiece; houses costing $5,000 
had them in every room, and more expensive houses had 
plaster ornamentation in keeping with other features. It was 
the fashion, and in architecture as well as clothes that settles 
everything. The fashion is reversed in the west. Few houses 
have cornices, and they are better without them, although 
a smai; moulding looks well. A plasterer might write a book 
on the subject of cornices alone; for our purpose a few lines 
will do. Allow for straight cornices of 6" girt, 20c; 9, 30c; 
12, 35c per If; 16, 50c; 24, 75c. Allow the price of 3' extra 
for each miter. For cast stuff such as egg and dart moulding, 
30c. For circular cornices mult by 4; for elliptical, by 6. 



PLASTER 145 

Bases and capitals of cols can usually be bought cast if there 
are many of them, or the plasterer can cast them himself. 
For 12" cols they are worth about $8 a pair. Pilaster caps 
and bases are about the same. To finish a 12" round col with 
base and cap by hand allow 2 men 1* days for all work plain 
and ornamental. 

CENTERS: For plaster center flowers, 20" diam, $4; 30", $7. 
But with certain enrichments these prices might be doubled. 
Material for ornamental work may be calculated by taking 
the section and dividing in the proper proportion, if so much 
accuracy is desired. 

BLACKBOARDS: There are several expensive blackboard 
preparations, but a good cheap blackboard that will last 20 
yrs if well kept can be made as follows: $ lime, fine white 
sand from crushed stone gauged with J of plaster of Paris and 
sufficient lamp black to color. Put 1 package to 3 buckets 
of finished material. Apply the same as white coat. Black- 
boards of this kind are worth from 10 to 15c per yd extra 
above regular price. 

STAFF: Used on exposition buildings. This material is 
worth, for plain work, from $2.50 to $3 per sq yd. 

SACKETT PLASTEH BOARD is used for a good deal of 
work. It is made in sheets 32"x36", and is nailed directly to 
the studs by large headed li"xlO$" wire nails. " One keg of 
nails to 8,000 sq ft of board," says the catalog. The nails 
are set from 4 to 6" apart. Then on face of boards a J or 
| brown coat is put on, and the regular finish on top. 
The board is retailed from 11 to l|c per sq ft. 

COST OF 100 YDS OF SACKETT BOARD 

Board $14.00 

Nailing on Board 4.50 

Nails 50 

Plaster, Brown Coat and Finish 16.00 

$35.00 

But the ceiling should be furred at 12" centers, and this 
increases the cost. See Index for price of furring. 



146 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

COMPO-BOARD 

This is another substitute for plaster. Ceilings do not 
require to be furred when it is used. It runs on ceilings or 
walls without any end joints. All boards are 4' wide and 8, 
9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18' long. 

ESTIMATE FOR 100 YDS 

Board. $34.20 

Labor Nailing on 4.00 

Nails 60 

$38.80 

Actual cost, 39c per yd. 

The raw material, Omaha, is $38 per M sq ft. 

Unlike Sackett board this Compo does not require any 
plaster, but after covering joints with a strip of cheese cloth 
the wall paper may be put on. 

ELASTIC PULP PLASTER 

This is another wall covering. It is made in Napoleon, Ohio. 
The cost there is $7.50 per ton. The manufacturer's quanti- 
ties are as follows, openings presumably included: 

" On wood lath Elastic Pulp Plaster will cover from 160 to 
180 yds per ton. On brick, terra-cotta, or concrete wall, from 
125 to 150 yds per ton. On metal lath from 140 to 160 yds 
per ton. Its covering capacity depends grfeatly on the con- 
dition of the lath, lathing, walls, and especially the plasterers' 
economy." 

The grounds used are only f, which leaves the rather thin 
-coat of ". A skim coat may be put on as usual, but is not 
needed. No sand is used. Sacks of paper contain 80 Ibs. 

COST OF 100 YDS ON WOOD LATH 

1450 Lath at $5 per M $7.25 

Labor on 1450 Lath, 4c 4.00 

Nails .30 

1250 Ibs Pulp Plaster 4.70 

Labor on Plaster (1 coat Required) 10.00 

Actual Cost, without Freight $26.25 



PLASTER 147 

ON METAL LATH, 100 YDS 

105 yds Lath at 20c $21.00 

9 Ibs Staples 63 

Labor on Lath 5.00 

2500 Ibs Pulp Plaster 9.37 

Labor on Pulp Plaster. 20.00 



Actual Cost Without Freight $56.00 

WATERPROOFING 

Wall and floors are now successfully treated with several 
kinds of materials to prevent leakage. "ANTI-HYDRO " is 
a liquid that is mixed with the cement, and the mixture is 
plastered on in the usual way. The inside of the wall is pre- 
ferreJ to t:.e outside, as any break can be repaired in the 
future. One gall should cover 100 sq ft of " cement plaster. 
The price is $1.50 to $2.00 per gall. It must be extra well 
troweled on. 

After the walls are cleaned, roughened and dampened, put 
on the first coat of pure cement mixed with 1 Anti-Hydro 
to 10 water. Then comes the scratch coat, I" to |", 1 cement 
to 2 sand, with mixture as before. Then the last \" coat, 1 to 
1 with Anti Hydro as on other coats. 

The cost per yd varies under changing conditions. When 
fighting against leaking walls and floors it naturally runs high. 
Under the best conditions, with 3 coats, the actual cost will 
be for 100 yds: 

Labor $20.00 

Anti-Hydro 18.00 

Cement 18.00 

Sand . . 3.00 



$59.00 

" HYDROLITHIC COATINGS " is another preparation of the 
same nature as Anti-Hydro. Four sacks of 110 Ibs are used with 
8 gall of water for 20 sq ft, $" thick. Both of these prepara- 
tions are warranted to resist a strong force of water when 
well mixed, and carefully troweled on. 

Observe that Anti-Hydro is a liquid to be mixed with Port 
cement, while Hydrolithic is a substance to be mixed with 
water. 



148 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

ARTIFICIAL MARBLE: The cost varies so much according 
to special details that it is hard to give a unit price. Plain 
cols run about $1 per sq ft, with about 500'. In larger quanti- 
ties a smaller price can be given. Wainscoting, about 70c 
per sq ft. 

OUTSIDE PLASTER WORK 

One sometimes sees parts of a house covered with ex metal 
lath, plastered with cement, which is occasionally pebble- 
dashed. This work is worth $1.25 to $1.75 per yd, depending 
upon quantity and style, with scaffold already in place. It 
is usually in panels, and the plasterer does not get a chance 
of covering so much surf as on a plain wall. 

If complete, plain, half timbered house is plastered outside 
with Port cement on ex metal lath allow 85c to $1 per yd. 
Both north and south the old style is coming back, with ex 
metal for a new and better base. 

Profit is included in these prices. 

COST: A detailed estimate shows the cost better. A car- 
penter's scaffold is supposed to be in place. 

The first 2 coats are of the usual fibered and plain cement 
plaster, and the finish coat of 1 Port cement and 2 sand. The 
brown coat is better gauged with Port. 

FOR 100 YDS WOOD LATH 

1450 Lath $7.25 

10 Ibs Nails 35 

3 yds Sand 3.75 

500 Ibs. Fibered Plaster 2.50 

1100 Ibs Common Plaster 3.85 

2 bbls Portland Cement 4.00 , 

Labor on Lath 5.00 

Labor on Plaster. . 25.00 



ACTUAL COST $51.70 

All through No. 9 the plaster labor on wire lath took 4c 
for lath and 15c for plaster; but outside work is more difficult. 
Furring is not included. See first part of book for cost at 
16" centers for wood lath. 



PLASTER 149 

FOR METAL LATH 

105 yds at 20c $21.00 

18 Ibs Staples 1.25 

3 yds Sand 3.75 

600 Ibs Fibered Plaster 3.00 

1200 Ibs Common Plaster 4.20 

2 bbls Portland Cement 4.00 

Labor on Lath 8.00 

Labor on Plaster 30.00 



ACTUAL COST $75.20 

Furring is not allowed. It ought to be nailed on at not 
more than 10" centers, and staples and lathers' labor are so 
figured. 

PORTLAND CEMENT ONLY 

But some architects will not allow the use of anything but 
Portland cement. For such work, a detailed cost would be 
for 1 to 2. 

105 yds Metal Lath, 20c $21.00 

18 Ibs Staples 1.25 

3 yds Sand 3.75 

8 bbls Portland Cement (with fiber) 16.00 

Labor on Lath 8.00 

Labor on Plaster. . 30.00 



$80.00 

The price of cement is now (1913) about $1.60, and from 
there to $2 is the aver, although $2.25 is often paid. Sand 
may be bought for much less than is allowed. Railroads, for 
example, sometimes charge it out at 15c per ton, but such 
varieties in price can easily be adjusted to suit any locality. 
ROUGH COAT: For a rough J" coat of 1 to 2$ Port cement, 
on the face of brick, allow 23c per yd lOc material, and 13c 
labor. If floated allow 30c. Material for 100 yds, 3 bbls of 
cement, and 1J yds of sand. 

For a f" coat, 1 to 3, as on the sloping sides of hard earth 
cellars, 12c material, and 25c labor, floated. Material for 100 
yds, 4 bis, and 2J yds of sand. 

QUOINS: Corners, or quoins, 20"xl2"xl" with 12" return, 
beveled at edges, 55c each for labor, and 7c for material. 
SPECIAL WORK: For narrow plain work with many cor- 
ners iri Port, allow from $3 to $4 per yd. 



CHAPTER X 

CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 
SECTION ONE 

LABOR 

DIMENSION LUMBER: I have sometimes asked contrac- 
tors what system they followed when estimating the labor 
on dimension lumber, and their reply has been in line with 
my own experience: "Take off every piece of lumber and 
figure the labor at so much per 1,000' bm." It is a very simple 
rule, and most contractors abide by it, except that they may 
sometimes take work by the sq on a safe basis. The differ 
ehce between this rule and 10 different rules for lumber in 
as many positions is that the memory can easily carry 1 while 
it gets 10 mixed, and is sure of none. 

LABOR: The amounts are always given in bm or sq for 2 
men in an 8 hour day. 

SQ AND BM SYSTEMS: It ought to be safe enough to esti- 
mate any ordinary frame or brick building by the sq, for the 
profit should be large enough to cover slight omissions or 
changes in the price of material, but the percentage must 
be put so low that every stick has to be priced. It is a 
ridiculous system, in a way, to take off a lumber bill of a 
roof on a frame house, for example, as it is a kind of slavery, 
but the margin is so small that it is usually done. To follow 
another system, and imagine all joists, studs, rafters, etc, 
spread out to 1" thick, and reduce or increase in proportion to 
width, is but the old sq system after all. 

Suppose a room 20'x40' with joists 2"xlO" set 16 o c. Each 
joist spread out equals I"x20". The room has 800 sq ft. As 
16", then, is to 20, so is 800 to 1,000, the number of ft bm 
required. Allowing for double joists, etc, a fair idea can be 
had. But 22' joists would usually be necessary, and this 
would give 1,100. 

So with partition studs, walls, roofs, etc. A wall 20'x40', 
with 2"x4", set 16", would give 1x8, or exactly half the area 

150 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 151 

in bm. One to the foot is allowed in this book further on for 
doubling, waste, etc, and this would come to f of the area, 
in bm, without plates. 

The system has the advantage of keeping material and labor 
separate, which is best,, but otherwise, if squaring is to be 
done at all, it is best to finish the job with labor, material 
and nails as given in the tables of the " Estimator," and add: 
a good profit. 

But for cut-up roofs the bm system is a good one, as it 
saves drudgery. 

It takes much longer to cut a rafter to a double bevel on 
2 ends than merely to lay a joist on a wall, or nail on a 
sheeting board; a tower and a dormer window devour time, 
and a plank floor goes down fast enough to suit even a con- 
tractor; but while as a matter of theory each class of work 
should be figured separately, as a practical affair the whole 
bill of framing lumber, and usually sheeting also, is averaged 
with results sufficiently close to serve for 9 buildings out 
of 10. 

BM OR LF: Take the lumber by the 1,000' bm, and not by 
the If. I ran across an estimate book which put all dimension 
lumber from 2x4 to 2x14 on the same basis of so many If in 
a day. The writer had evidently never hoisted or laid timbers 
of the various sizes. I have sometimes heard it said that 
a 2x6 can be handled as easily as a 2x4. Upon that theory 
a 2x8 can be put in place as cheaply as a 2x6, and a 2x4 is- 
practically equal to 2x14. It will not work. The progression 
is made only 2" at a time, but if you try to hoist or lay a 
2x12 you will find it is about 3 times as heavy as a 2x4. On 
a ground floor the difference is not observed so much as on 
one 40' in the air; but the whole lumber bill is estimated, 
and there is only one fair way to do it. 

But on the different classes of buildings how shall we 
determine the number of ft? By observation and experience. 
If a building has 10 towers, and a dozen dormer windows, it 
does not require a sage to know that more time is required 
than if there is only a plain surf to cover. 
TIME ON No. 10: On some buildings I kept an exact account 
of time; on most I did not, as the one simply repeated th 



152 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

story of the other. No. 10 was kept. It is a block of 6 flats 
in Omaha. The first story is frame veneered with brick; all 
the rest of the building is frame covered with slate. The 
rear and alley walls are as plain as possible; floors, flat roof, 
and partitions, were easily handled; but the time taken on 
the towers and fronts ran into money. When built, 9 hours 
was a standard day, and the aver over the complete building 
was 550' bm for 2 men. Now wages are higher by lOc an 
hour, and the time is reduced to 8 hours, so that the advan- 
tage of keeping measure instead of money is seen. Such a 
building mijht now be estimated at 550' for 8 hours. With 
fewer hours a man can work harder, and with 45c an hour 
he has to. As with bricklayers so with carpenters higher 
pay has to gi^e more work. But if 600' were allowed I should 
want to be on the building myself, and the figure would 
have to be set subject to the thermometer, which can not 
safely be ignored. With a plain front, 750' is not an unreason- 
able figure. An illustration of such a building with the aver- 
age quantity given is worth a dozen pages of writing. 

TIME ON No. 4: On No. 4 we have a building of another 
class. One story has been removed since it was built. The 
3x12 joists all through averaged 800' for 9 hours. They were 
laid on walls and girders with little framing necessary. The 
oak posts and yp bolted girders dressed and set in place ran 
to only 270'. It was then customary to do such work by car- 
penters, but now, since their wages are 40c to 45c, common 
laborers are used, so that 1,000' of joists alone can safely 
be estimated on the carpenter wage basis for an 8 hour day, 
if the hoisting arrangements are favorable. 

TRUSSES: One occasionally has to estimate trusses, and 
it is not always easy to say what they are worth. This is 
the " 10th case " where the aver of the framing lumber is not 
reliable. On this building there were 6 Howe trusses, 6' high 
with a 60' span. The timbers were 10x12 for the lower chord 
in 4 pieces; 8x12 f r the top chord solid; 4x12, 3x10, and 2x6, 
for cross braces. The chords were bolted together with dbl 
rods fron 1" to 2" in diam. The story was 18' in the clear. 
Each truss contained 2,100' bm, and took 342 hours for 1 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 153 

man to make and set in place. All material came surfaced. 
No 2 trusses are alike, but this will serve for a guess at 
another. At 40c per hour that is close to $80 per 1,000' bin. 

This work was all done by carpenters, but the rules of the 
union now allow laborers to do the heaviest part of the work, 
and the figure may be reduced. But the style of the truss 
and the kind of wood have to be considered. This one was 
of the hardest yp, and the braces were all crossed X fashion, 
and notched. 

In " Carpentry and Building," December, 1908, A. W. Joslin, 
Boston, gives his experience with trusses. About a score of 
types are illustrated in Kidder's " Architect's and Builder's 
Pocket Book," Chapter XXV, 1905 edition. Carpenters' 
wages 44c; Laborers' 30c per hour. 

For light trusses the amount per M ft, bm, is $18 to $24 for 
trusses from Figure 1 to 21, not including Figure 12. 

For heavy trusses of the same type, $22 to $25, with plenty 
of rigging, etc. 

These figures are for unsmoothed work; if dressed, cham- 
fered, and all marks smoothed off, the allowance would be 
$30 for light, to $40 for heavy trusses. 

For scissor trusses, Figures 32, 33, 36, a figure of $50 is 
quoted per M ft, bm. 

Actual figures are given for four trusses, 63' span, with 
9,000', bm. The cost was $22 per M. The hoisting was done 
piece by piece with a steam derrick which is easier than 
pulling on a rope. 

These Boston figures are lower than could be used if the 
work was done by men not accustomed to it. A gang of 
railroad bridge builders handle such work better than 
carpenters. 

PHOTOS: On Nos. 4 and 10 the owners did part of the work 
and managed to fall behind on time and block the way. 
No. 4 was built in winter and the government reports were 
taken as to the quality of the sunshine and so forth, so that 
the penalty might be levied if the work was not completed 
on time. It is not pleasant to sign contracts of that kind, 
but one has to eat. A photograph was at once taken to guard 
against all danger of pains, penalties, and high displeasure 



154 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

that are so easily laid down in a contract, and there was no 
more trouble. Sometimes a little care is beneficial in other 
fields than estimating. 

ALL LUMBER: On No. 9 the framing, sheeting, shiplap, 
and the whole bill of plain lumber, except flooring, cost $8 
per M which was a little too much. It is only 800' per day 
of 8 hours. Delays accounted for some of it. 
SLEEPERS AND PLANK: On No. 7, at 40c per hour, the 
sleepers, 6x8 bedded in sand, cost $4.25 per M. The 3x6 floor 
on top cost $3, but some of it went down for $2.75. 
PURLINS AND 2" FLOORING: The purlins were put in 
place for $6, and they had to be hoisted about 60'; but some- 
times purlins cost 40% more. On No. 8, 150'x486', the 2" 
flooring on roof cost about $7 for labor, but nailings were 
about 6' apart. 

FRAMING: On No. 3 the girders were of steel, so that only 
joists and sheeting have to be considered. On basement and 
1st floor there were 22,350' of 3x14x22 joists, and 8,300' of 
sheeting. Taking both together, 2 men put 1,100' in place 
in 9 hours. 

On 2d and 3d floors, 44,850' of joists and sheeting ran to 
1,100' also, but this, like the material for the higher stories* 
was hoisted by a steam derrick at $2 per M extra. 

On 4th and 5th floors, 44,850' went down at the rate of only 
800, as there was much more framing to do; and as height 
makes no difference with a derrick, this shows that even on 
the same building it is necessary to look well over the plans 
before setting an average figure. 

All joists came sized, and there is no bridging allowed. 
DERRICKS: To rent a derrick for one's own use for car- 
pentry alone is apt to be expensive. With engineer, a fair 
rate is about $40 per week. Then coal has to be bought, say 
$15. But for a high building, it is the only proper system, 
and pays, especially when the cost is divided with mason. 
SIZING JOISTS: The sizing of joists is included in all the 
foregoing buildings except the last. On No. 9, 25,000' were 
sized, with an aver of 3,176' in 8 hours; but a good many 
joists needed to be done on 1 side only. On heavy joists, 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 15* 

2$" to 3$", well sized, 1,500 is a good aver. On a hot day It 
is too much. In some cities joists are sized at mill on both 
edges for $1.50 to $2.50 per M. 

WAREHOUSES: A good deal can sometimes be said in a 
paragraph; the largest buildings do not need so much space- 
as a cottage. On several of the largest Omaha warehouses 
recently built, the aver, without the top, finish floor, runs 
from 1,000 to 1,100'. The joists are merely dropped into 
stirrups, and they can be placed at 1,100 if taken alone. The 
heavy planking soon goes down if it has not to be hoisted too- 
far. But posts, girders, and joists, taken together, without 
plank floor, run from 800 to 900'. On one building, 200,000' 
framing cost $8 per M at 40c. 

POSTS themselves run from $12 to $15. The oak posts cm 
No. 4 dressed and chamfered, cost $22 per M bm. 
PLATFORMS: From figures already given, it may be- 
thought that the heavy platforms around such buildin-s; 
should go down at 1,400 to 1,500'; but I know of more than. 
100,000' which averaged only 700. I know of another with, 
nearly twice that amount of lumber that averaged 1,030'. 
This is after allowing enough for leveling ground. 
STOREHOUSE: On a plain 2 story building with heavy 
timbers, 2" flooring roof, plank under floors, ordinary upper 
floor, the complete aver on 244,000' was 770'. Upper floors, 
are included and reduce the aver somewhat, as they are worth 
more than dimension lumber. A good deal of the work was 
done by laborers. 

TRESTLE: Trestle work under 10' high should not run to 
more than $10 per 1,000'. Coal hoisting stations, towers of 
a reasonable height, and heavy timber work in general, should 
not cost more than $14 at 30c per hour. But there are so- 
many special designs of this kind of work that it is hard to 
set a figure without seeing the plan, and sometimes harder 
when the plan is seen, and a guess made at the quality of the- 
man behind the saw. Bridge falsework, $16. 
GRAIN ELEVATORS: On 2 large ones the timbers and 
heavy framing amounted to nearly 1,875,000' bm; the cribbing, 
of 2x6 to 2x12, to more than 4,000,000' bm. 



156 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LABOR: For the timbers, allow $13 per M; and the cribbing, 
$6, on a 35c basis. There is a good deal of hoisting required. 

MATERIAL: There is no trouble taking off material, as all 
work is plain. So with concrete, excavation, piling, corru- 
gated iron, plain windows, and roofing on elevators. 

SHEETING: Sheeting may be averaged at 1,000' on a frame 
building if taken alone, although 1,200 may be done on some. 
Shiplap about less. Much depends upon the style of the 
walls and roof. 

If sheeting and shiplap are nailed diagonally instead of level 
on side walls, allow $ more time. 

For floors, sheeting may be safely allowed at 1,500 to 1,800', 
unless more than 3 stories above the street level. On the 
roof of a 6 story building 1,000' is a good day's work. 
FENCE: I lately received the time on 1,750 If of close board 
fence, 8' high, strung with barbed wire for a top guard in 
the usual way. It took 420 hours, but posts were already set. 
Allow 15 minutes for 1 man to dig hole and set each post; 
but twice as long might be taken. Common 8" post holes, 
5 to 10 minutes to dig, and half as long to set. 

The foregoing buildings may be taken as typical, and esti- 
mates securely based upon the figures given. A small cottage 
will not require as much time in proportion as No. 10; and 
some large frame houses will not aver 550' as that did. An 
allowance must be made for a plainer or more ornate style. 
The figures can not be far astray at worst if the men work, 
for 550 is the aver of a large building, and not a matter of 
theory. 

So with the other buildings. Joists and sheeting cost 
practically the same on schools, flats, and all kinds of brick 
buildings. If extra framing is required, an allowance must 
be made. 

LAW OF AVERAGES: With plain joists] studs, and sheeting, 
it is as with brick in a basement wall, so much is done in a 
day with reasonable mechanics that one begins to blush over 
the prospective profits, but by the time the chimneys are 
capped, the saddles put in place, and the corners attended 
to, it is quite another story. Do not base any estimates on 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 157 

this kind of work, but take an aver all through. No. 11, for 
example, came to only 350' for 2 men in 8 hours, but few roofs 
are so complicated. This includes both rafters and shiplap. 
STATION LABOirt: The complete cost of carpenter labor 
on a passenger station, similar to No. 11, was $1,100. About 
24x140', slate roof, hardwood finish, and maple floors. Wages, 
35c. It is too much for such a building. 

AVERAGES: As a fair summary, allow as follows on an 8 
hour basis, but it is well to keep in mind slow saws and 
modern instances already given. 

On Average Frame Houses 600 ft 

On Wood Stores and Flats, Plain 1,000 ft 

On Brick Stores and Flats 800 ft 

On 3- or 4-Story Business Buildings... .900 to 1,000 ft 
On Heavy Warehouses, Mill Construction 1,100 ft 

BRIDGING: If taken separately, a close enough price may 
be found in Part One. If lumber is put in the regular bill, 
allow for labor 125 If of 2x4 nailed in place, and 170 of 1x3, 
1x4, or 2x2, for a day's work. In the first case, that is about 
250' bm. Of course joists at 12" centers require more cutting 
and nailing than at 20". It is often cheaper to buy bridging 
already cut from the mills. 

CORNICE: For a very plain cornice of 5 members I have 
always used 60' for a 9 hour day. This does not include 
lookouts or anything properly belonging to framing lumber. 
A cottage of 6 to 8 rooms has about 150 If. This gives 2 
men 2.5 days to finish it. At 40c an hour, and an 8 hour day, 
that is less than lie per If. There is no time for play. Extra 
members may be averaged at 2c. 

For wide ornamental cornices it is hard to set a basis, as 
no 2 are alike. With brackets, capitals, dormers, miters, etc, 
an estimate must be made in detail. If the soffit is ceiled, 
the ceiling may be taken at 1 sq for 2 men on plain work, 
and that part eliminated. A miter may be taken at 2 hours 
for 1 man. Some brackets can be nailed on in 10 minutes ; 
others, with mouldings carried around them, may take from 
5 to 10 times as long. Scaffold is not put in, as the one in 
place serves. If all joints have to be laid in white lead and 



158 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

oil, allow a little extra time. For a good cornice, 30' in a 
day is enough. 

PURRING: 1x2, 16" centers, 4 to 5 sq, making plugs 
Included. Openings are not deducted unless many and large. 
For 2x2, 16", 3$ to 4 sq; 1x2 on ceilings, 16", 15 sq; 2x2 on 
ceilings, 12", 12 sq. No. 9 was furred with 2x4. Put in at 
regular framing time, as it is easier to set than a partition. 
The amount given for 2x2 on ceilings is from the actual 
results all over No. 12. For different spacing, allow in pro- 
portion on the basis given. 

There is a patented " plug " now on the market. It is 
built in the joint of the brick, and the strip nailed in without 
any cutting. Possibly 1 sq more a day ought to be allowed 
when it is used. 

SHINGLES: I had seen and worked among slate, tile, lead 
and thatch, but the first shingle I ever handled was in Ver- 
mont. It seemed a curious thing to put on a roof, and I felt 
sure that it would not hold water. It must have been about 
3' long. The farmer cut his own timber, the carpenter 
squared it, pinned it, built a huge barn, and covered the 
roof with the strange, new wooden slate. We do not use that 
kind in the west; ours are 16" long, and sawed. 

When starting out as a contractor I kept a book, and 
entered the time on different classes of work. Under shingles 
is found: "On plain roofs, from 4 to 6 sq; on fancy roofs, 
from 3$ to 4; on plain side walls, about 3." This allowance 
can not be much improved. Then the standard day was 9 
hours; now it is 8, but we do more in an hour. (For number 
of shingles to sq, see Section Two.) 

On a plain roof, a couple of good carpenters may put on 
8 to 10 sq, but we stand by an aver day's carpenter work 
not butcher work as well as by an aver exposure of 4$" to 
the weather. It naturally takes more time to lay shingles 
at 4" than at 5". They should never be laid at more than 5". 
On some kinds of walls and roofs 2 sq make a day's work. 
The cutting around valleys, chimneys, dormers, bay windows, 
etc, takes a good deal of time. (See Chapter on "Painting" 
for dipping of shingles.) 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 159 

GUTTERS: Allow 100 If for aver standing gutters, with all 
finish got out at mill. With many hips and valleys, this figure 
is too high, 75 is enough. For wide cornice gutters, 60 If 
may be used as a basis, and the dimension lumber allowed in 
the regular bill. 

Water-Table and Base 160 If 

Bands and Belts 200 If 

Double Corner-Boards 150 If 

SIDING: On plain 6" work, 5 sq is the law for 2 men. On 
some buildings, with long blank walls, 8 may be done. On 
some particular corners, again, 2 is a big day's work. A fair 
aver is 4 sq. Possibly 6 may be done; possibly only 3 not 
more than 3 if mitered. 

On narrow siding, mitered at corners, allow as a basis 2 
sq, and go up or down according to the angles, dormers, sides, 
pilasters, hoods, gargoyles, pediments, or walls, as plain as 
a prairie. Unmitered, 3 sq. Scaffolding and tar paper are 
included; openings are" not counted, but exact surf taken. 
FLOORS: The usual flooring is 4" which finishes a trifle 
less than 31. On a 4-story block, where I was foreman, I 
kept the time on floors. Paper was laid on sheeting, and 
yp floor on top, with rough joints smoothed. The whole 
building everaged 4 sq for 9 hours, hoisting included. The 
rooms are of the usual office size, and stores are on the 
ground floor. 

On No. 3, which is also divided into offices, the aver for yp 
was 3i sq for 9 hours; but this work was carefully smoothed 
and sandpapered. It was done by the piece, and the men 
worked hard on it. They offered to do it at 80c, and ended 
at $1.25 a sq. Wages were then 30c. There is a wonderful 
difference between a long hall and a score of small offices. 
Once more we may take time to consider that an illustration 
of this kind is worth a dozen pages of theorizing. 

On joists, without an under floor, allow 6 sq of 4" flooring. 
The next sentence I find in my MS is: " On wp allow about a 
sq more." It might about as well be left out here, for the 
ruinous policy of the forest owners has at last practically 
cleared the northern part of the continent of what is by far 
the best wood for outside work and fine interior finish. In 



160 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

New York, to-day, (1913) the best wp is $97 to $114, and 
select, $80 to $100, wholesale. 

FLOORING 2": Flooring, 2" thick, tongued and grooved, 
may be averaged at 1,000'. On No. 4, 2 men laid 5 sq in 9 
hours, or nearly 1,200', but that was close to street level. 
Still, the figure is not unreasonable if conditions are favor- 
able. Is the thermometer not to be reckoned with? This 
flooring is usually 5i" finished width. I once knew, however, 
of 74,000' which averaged only 700; and about as much on 
another building which ran to 1,600, but this was for mill 
construction, with joists far apart. No. 8, 2" roof, 900. 

SQ EDGED MAPLE AND YP: On warehouses, 5 sq are 
enough, if hoisting is included, as it is in all figures given in 
this section. A common way of finishing warehouse floors 
now is with |x4" sq edged maple. Allow 4 to 5 sq unsmoothed. 
It has to be dbl nailed, and takes more labor than yp. The 
finished size is 3". Narrower boards take more time, which 
is about equal to saying that 2 and 2 are more than 2 and 1; 
but some of the hasty put 2" and 4" on the same basis. But 
an aver of 6 sq is sometimes reached for tongued material, 
which is nailed on only 1 edge. 

And now for the proof: On a 6-story building, one of the 
largest and newest warehouses in Omaha, the yp, sq edged 
floors averaged throughout 5 sq. On 2 others, also new and 
large, 1 the gallery of No. 7 the sq edged 4" maple ran 
on the first to 4, on the second to 5J. The same men laid 
both, but they had experience on the second. 

YP FLOORS: No. 9 is an interesting building, so far as the 
floors go, for it can be compared with No. 3. Both floors 
were smoothed and sandpapered, but this one was cut in 
between the base, and that takes a good deal of extra time, 
as both ends have to be carefully jointed. While aware that 
some of the best eastern business buildings and residences 
are so finished, 1 do not like the style. In course of time 
the joint opens, and the floor is in a worse condition than if 
a quarter round had been used, although that is not by any 
means an ideal finish. In my. apprenticeship, we tongued 
the board into a groove in the floor. The knees of the men 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 161 

were reddened before the floors of a house were smoothed 
and the grooves run. Now, machines are used. 
BENCH SMOOTHING: In the largest rooms of No. 9, on 
the ground floor, where there was no hoisting, 3.2 sq was the 
amount laid and smoothed. In large rooms the jointing is a 
simple matter, but not in small ones. In . small rooms above, 
the amount was 2.3 sq, and the general aver did not reach 
2.5. On the first 8 sq, the aver was only 1.6 for 2 men in 8 
hours. They were first class mechanics, and they worked 
hard. Much depends upon how a floor is finished. On most 
of one floor the experiment was tried of smoothing the boards 
before they were laid, and then merely smoothing the joints, 
but the work was largely thrown away, for although the 
flooring was good, and well matched, it was necessary to 
smooth nearly the whole surf again. The quantity smoothed 
on the bench was 1,000 in a day. With small rooms, cut in 
between, and properly smoothed, 2.25 is a large enough allow- 
ance, although it seems a low one for 2 men. 
MAPLE: D and m maple is harder to smooth than yp, which 
was used on No. 9. If unsmoothed, allow 4 sq of 2 face. Of 
course, more can be laid if on a warehouse, as it is all straight 
work. On a large surf 3J sq were recently laid and smoothed; 
and 6, without smoothing, on upper stories, 8 on ground level. 
In houses and offices, if well smoothed, 2 sq are a good day's 
work. With If face, 1.5 sq may have to pass if the smoothing 
is well done. 

I once helped to smooth an old maple floor, 18x9.0, and with 
hard work it averaged 2 sq for 2 men in 9 hours. 
OAK: In a dining room, with angle bay window, and border 
all around, the aver in 9 hours was only 50', or half a sq, but 
this was a fine, oak parquet floor. It was glued strip by strip, 
smoothed, scraped, and sandpapered, and there was no time 
wasted. 

In another finished the same way in oak, except for glue, 
If face, the cost was $9 per sq at 40c per hour. 

On still another house $15 was the figure for oak with a 
border, and this was over several rooms. 

A contractor recently told me that on a fine house, where 
all the floors were of hardwood, his aver was $12; and on 



162 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

some floors, $15. He watched the men closely, and there 
was no time lost. The larger the quantity, the higher the 
price, for the men became tired out with smoothing. The 
common carpenter touches such floors only to spoil them; 
they require the best tradesmen. 

MACHINE SMOOTHING: But floors are smoothed now by 
machines at a far lower cost than by hand. There are 2 main 
classes of machines motor driven sandpapering, and hand 
scraping or planing. The small planing machines cost about 
$50, and surface " from 6 to 10 sq each, per day, per man." 
The large sandpapering machines have done 35 sq in a long 
hall. They are run by a motor of 1 to 4 h p, and one make 
costs, without motor, about $550. Another machine costs, 
with motor, as follows, fob Chicago: 

Type "D" li H.P. Direct Current. . . $250.00 

Type " D " 2 H.P. Alternating Current 275.00 

Type " B" 2 H.P. Direct Current 300.00 

Type " B " 3 H.P. Alternating Current 325.00 

Edge Roller 20.00 

The edge roller runs close to the base. The motor machines 
run at 600 r p m. Smoothing Co.'s charge $2.25 to $3.00 per 
sq. 

One manufacturer claims that his machine cleans more 
than 15 to 20 men. " The cost of sandpaper and electric 
power is from $1 to $2 per day." They require, of course, 
electric power, and thus could not be used in some country 
districts, or in many parts of a city. 

Still another is fitted up with a small gasoline engine. 
The operator sits on top, just as on a bicycle, and guides 
the machine. " A room, 16x16, has been done in one hour 
and a half." The cost is $200, fob Springfield, 111. 

THIN FLOORS, PARQUET FLOORS: There is a thin oak 
floor that many are now using to make the old house look 
new. At first sight it seems to be much easier to lay than the 
|, but the difference is not so very great if stuff is grooved. 
The under floor should be carefully smoothed to a level surf, 
and there is more nailinar through the fact. With varnishing 
and profit included with carpenter labor these floors are 
worth about 23c per sq ft in this latitude. A f " floor of good 
design, 45c in place and oiled. Thin borders, 30c. Borders 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 163 

may run to $1. Eastern prices on ^ to f are 25 to 40c; on 
. 45 to 55c. For & material, 10 to 15c; for |, 20 to 40c. 
Quarter sawed white oak is used. 

A f " carpet " floor might be laid for half that amount in a 
sq room. In all floors the expense comes with angles and 
borders. Material of various woods, 1" to 1$ wide, $28 to $85 
per M, f" being counted as 1", and | as 1" wide before dress- 
ing, 1$ as 2, 2 as 2*. 

Fine floors cost money, and they are usually spoiled by 
being laid in a damp building. The best time to lay them 
is a year after the building is occupied. The impatient owner 
can not wait for style all that time any more than her children 
can wait for a new toy. In Europe you see floors generations 
old looking like a picture. In France especially the public 
buildings shine. Why spoil a lasting picture for the sake of 
a year? 

COST: Hardwood floors will never be cheaper than now. 
Since 1900 the wholesale price of hardwood has advanced 
from 25 to 65%. The cut of oak has fallen off 36%. The 
best forests of Indiana are about exhausted. 
THEORY: One eastern authority allows $1 per sq for labor 
on the best hardwood floors; and another, as an extreme 
figure, 83c. There was once a young man who told his pro- 
fessor that Solomon's proverbs were far behind this enlight- 
ened age, and that anybody could now make them. The pro- 
fessor instead of reasoning with him merely said, " Make 
a few." 

FLOORS, 6": So much for narrow flooring. Our next stock 
size is 6", or 5i face. 

For Pitched Roof Without too Many Angles. .3 to 4 sq 

For Side Walls on Level 3$ to 4 sq 

On Bare Joists 6 to 8 sq 

On Top of Under Floor 5 to 6 sq 

For wp allow 1 sq more. 

Of co-arse, on porch floors, the figures given for bare joists 
may have to be cut in 2. 

Much depends upon the matching of all kinds of flooring. 
It is sometimes so bad that men working hard do only J of 



164 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

a day's work. And again, how high has it to be hoisted? The 
New York method is to set men one above another at the 
window of each story, and make them hoist it board by board, 
hand over hand, for 20 stories in the air. It naturally costs 
more on the 20th than on the 2d. But average buildings 
seldom run above 6 stories. 

Some estimate floors by the sq, and some by the M. More 
from habit than from any merit in the system when applied 
to common floors, at all events I have always taken the sq 
as the unit. The usual allowance for waste and milling is 
about | extra for 4" flooring; a sq, therefore, means 125' bm, 
and thus, 8 times the price of a sq gives tnat of a 1,000'. As 
the sq system is almost obligatory on fine floors, it seems 
best to keep it for common as well. 

PORCHES: The best way appears to be to put framing 
lumber, sheeting, floors and ceilings in at the usual rate, and 
estimate the rest in a body. There is such a variation in 
style and finish, and usually such a short time given to make 
an estimate, that this is the easiest way out of the labor. Of 
course, the roof framing takes longer, but that does not count 
so much on a complete bill. 

As a kind of basis, a porch, 6x22, with plain sq posts and 
flooring roof, hand grooved to run off water, without rail, 
with aver cornice, took 2 men 5 days of 9 hours to make posts, 
joint cornice stuff and finish complete, the floor being already 
laid. Several were done at the same time. 

On another porch, 6x30, of far better style, to make all 
stuff 6 paneled posts, cornice, rail above roof, ceiled below, 
sheeted above, 7 days. 

With all millwork made ready, framing, flooring, etc, 
allowed in their place, 5 days extra work is a fair estimate 
for a good porch without shingles, which go with their own 
kind. But again, 2 men may work several times as long. 
How decide without a plan? 

GROUNDS: For wainscoting from 3 to 4 SQ. There is 
usually no scaffolding required, but they have to be straighter 
than furring. More can be done on wood partitions and on 
furring than on brick about 5 sq altogether. A rough way 
of estimating grounds is Ic per ft, but with labor at 40c, that 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 165 

is too low. On wood, 2c; on brick, 2 to 3c is a fair price. 
A brick opening, 1 side, will take a man 1 hour if he has to 
plug; on wood, half an hour is enough. 

STORE FRONTS: For fronts about the standard width of 
21', like those in Nos. 5 and 6, allow 5 days to finish com- 
plete with sash below, casings, and window shelf inside. 
With everything moving h&rmoniously, and a half dozen to 
do at a time, 4 days are enough, but if only 1 is to be done, 
more time is required in proportion. Hardware, transoms, 
swinging sash below, etc, are all to be considered. These 
plain fronts may be used as a standard. It sometimes hap- 
pens that a specially good one takes twice as long; and there 
are others that require only 2 days. 

But as with floors, there are great differences in fronts. 
It is possible to design one of standard width that would 
keep 2 men busy for a month. On such fronts, take all plain 
work on the regular basis, and estimate the rest in detail. 

WINDOWS: The time is given for 1 man. 

To put aver frames together, if stuff comes in the knock- 
down, 1| to 1$ hours. Planing mill price is only 20 to 40c. 
An ordinary pine window in a frame building, setting frame 
included, 5 hours. Hardwood, 6 to 7, If paneled below, 1 
extra. In brick buildings with jamb linings, setting frames 
included, 6 to 7. Hardwood, 8 to 10. If circle top inside, 
1 hour more on pine, 2 hours on hardwood. 

The 50 and 60 It windows in No. 7 were fitted at the rate 
of 2 in an 8 hour day for 1 man; but half of the work had 
to be done on a high scaffold. This is a little less than an 
hour to each sash. The glass was not set, and the work was 
therefore easier than if it had been. 

On more than 100 windows, 30 It, 10x14 like the fore- 
going the labor ran to 7 hours each. There was no inside 
finish except a quarter-round. Labor included setting frame, 
fitting and hanging sash, putting on stops and hardware. 

In high windows, i to $ of the time ought to be added; 
some require twice as long. For a fixed transom, 1 hour 
extra; if hung, to f of an hour more. Of course it is with 
windows as with other parts of a building a detail can be 



166 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

drawn that will put twice as much work on them as is made 
to serve for the ordinary structure. 

For windows hung on sash balances, allow about 1 hour 
less. One seldom sees balances in modern buildings. 

CEILINGS: The best building codes now forbid wood ceil- 
ings in stores and such places, on account of danger from fire, 
which is held back longer by metal, or plaster on ex metal 
lath. 

For plain store ceilings, allow 3 sq a day of 9 hours. This 
figure was taken from work done on F.everal stores, among 
others, those shown in Nos. 5 and 6. k^uietimes more might 
be done, but it is not safe to put an estimate up to the limit. 
A warehouse with a long stretch is easier to ceil than a 
store; and a small room takes more time. 

As to paneled ceilings it is hard to set a figure. Some have 
plain beams, 8" wide, and others, moulded and dbl moulded to 
a stretch of 3'; and panels may be only 1' sq, or they may 
be 6. How can we even guess without a plan and detail? 
And now that we are finally under roof, is it wp, cypress, or 
hardwood finish? The plain work of ceiling need not be hard 
to estimate from the base of 3 sq a day, for if it is cut in 
between beams, an allowance can be made for extra labor, 
which is likely to be twice as much, and for furring, etc, 
outside of the regular joist amount. A pine beam, a ft wide 
and deep, made of 5 boards 2 about 6" wide on ceiling, 2 
at 12" on sides, and 1 at 12" on soffit, 2 bed moulds, and 2 
moulds at lower edges, may be set at 35c per If, with scaffold- 
ing included, so far as labor on it is concerned. The wall 
beam needs to be fitted, and may be counted as the others. 

But if the panels are small, that means many miters. An 
extra allowance of 40c per miter, or $1.60 for the 4, ought 
to do this plain work. If of hardwood, add 5"0% to all figures, 
none of which includes framework. 

From this figure of 25c per If we may go to $10 on some 
houses. If we go from wood to mosaic we have the price set 
for the ceiling of the U. S. mint building, at Philadelphia, 
at $15 per sq ft. 

Plain lumber in pine beams larger than a sq ft of section 
may be allowed for labor at 4c per sq ft bm; and mouldings 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 167 

at l^c per sq inch of section; with extra allowance for miters. 
Hardwood, 50% more. 

CEILING: For plain ceiling on walls allow 3 sq without 
furring. If of hardwood, 2J. 

CORNICES: For cornices and overhangs, 1 to 1J sq. The 
wide overhang of No. 11 was done at the rate of 1 sq. 
WAINSCOTING: On No. 12, in 8 schoolrooms, through all 
halls, wardrobes, etc, two men in a 9 hour day cut, put up 
and finished with cap and quarter round 3 sq of yp, ranging 
in height from 2' 6" to 6'. On ordinary dwellings and tene- 
ments allow about 2* sq. All material was prepared, and 
furring is not included. If smoothing has to be done, allow 
6 hours per 1,000' for 2 men. They will not be idle but that 
aver was kept over a large ceiling. This is only 3 minutes to 
a 16' board, 3^ wide. Under " Floors," we have seen that the 
time on 1,000' of the same width was 8 hours. 

For plain hardwood allow about more time; if there are 
many angles, 1* sq for 8 hours. 

PANELING: For paneled work about 4' in height, with cap 
and base, allow 501f ; on hardwood, 35. Sometimes plain work 
of this kind is easier nailed up than tongued and grooved 
material, but generally the base and cap are of richer design. 
It is hard to give a figure on this work, as there is a great 
difference between a plain wall 30' long, and another broken 
into 6 to 8 pilasters, each with 4 miters for base and cap. An 
internal miter, if coped, as it ought to be, should not take 
more than 1 hour on pine, and 1 on hardwood; an external 
one should not take more than half as long; but much de- 
pends upon the design, and more upon the joiner. 

Furring is not allowed; doors are not counted. 

BASE: With opportunity enough, I never happened to keep 
the time on pine or hardwood wainscoting; but I watched 
base through 2 buildings. The first was a 4-story block, with 
an unusual number of pilasters, and they devoured time, as 
4 miters in a 3-membered base do. Yet all through 2 men 
put down 100 If in 9 hours. 

On No. 3 with plain rooms, 2 membered base, scribed to 
floor, 170 If. Second floor and basement had oak base, which 



168 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

is included in figure. Main floor base on oak, paneled 
wainscot not included. Doors were not included in either 
building. 

On No. 9, 200 If of a narrow birch base were laid, but 
fitting to floor was not necessary. 

For plain, quarter round base, and quarter round at floor, 
200 to 250 If. For hardwod, 3-membered, aver number of 
miters, 100 If; but it is well to remember that some of our 
friends from Poduc\ Creek, even with good intentions and 
an earnest heart, are practically helpless at hardwood work 
of all kinds. Nowhere are cheap carpenters so expensive or 
so exasperating. The old style Yankee carpenter was trained 
to the tips of his fingers; his successor is not, and manual 
training schools, excellent as they are, do not supply the want 
of slow, painstaking teaching and practice. 
DOORS: On sliding doors allow framing in regular bill, and 
2 days extra to finish complete with lining, jambs, casings, 
hardware, etc. This will serve for a good pine door well 
hung; on hardwood, about 3 days. I have known nearly 4 
days to be occupied on a pair of heavy hardwood doors. 

As the number of hours does not always divide prpoerly, 
the time on the following doors is taken for 1 man instead 
of 2: 

For a pair of outside doors, about 6'x8', door frame, casings, 
hardware, complete, 10 hours; if hardwood, 14. 

Vestibule doors about the same. Both sides have to be 
cased, while front doors have only 1 side, but the jambs, and 
often the doors are heavier, and sometimes a little more 
elaborate. If with sidelights, give 14 for pine, and 20 for 
hardwood; if transomed, 2 to 3 hours extra. Sometimes a 
good deal of trouble is caused by boring for flush bolts. 

For common pine doors complete, 4 to 5 hours, if If; 5 to 
6, for If. There are those who consume a day to a door, and 
think they do well. If 3 hinges are used, a little more time is 
necessary. Light closet doors reduce the aver, and make 
up for the heavy ones. Some men will hang and put locks 
on 12 doors in a day; I have often cased 20 sides, but we have 
to deal with averages. 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 169 

For hardwood, 7 to 10. Of course a casing of such design 
might be made as to give several hours extra work; but we 
are not writing about palaces, city halls, or court houses with 
high doors and paneled jambs. I could take any hardwood 
opening of aver size, set jambs, case, hang and finish door in 
10 hours, including transom. It is a reasonable allowance- 
On No. 9, the birch doors took about 7 hours. 

For aver pine swinging doors, 5 hours. There is no hard- 
wood after the hinges are on. 

PANELED JAMBS: But here we come to another kind of 
openings. For pine doors and finish of wide, paneled jambs, 
and transoms, 10 hours. On specially high doors, 15 to 16 
hours. For hardwood, about to $ more. The hard pine 
doors with paneled jambs, on No. 12, took about 11 hours. 

For an opening about 12x16, double swinging doors com- 
plete, 2 days for 2 men. They are sometimes used in 
churches, etc. 

For outside double doors, about 12'xl8', in manufacturing 
buildings like No. 7, 1 day for 4 men. For a sliding barn, 
door, about the same size, with iron track, 1 days for 2 men. 

Special doors may be estimated from the foregoing figures, 
which would be considered very liberal by a New York 
" lumper." While living in New York, I was told of some who 
steadily fitted 36 doors, and left the hanging of them to some 
brother in misfortune. On cheap buildings they certainly do 
far more work than western carpenters, but their work has 
2 drawbacks it is worthless in quality, requiring repairing 
almost from the time it is finished; and it is making white 
slaves. A good carpenter goes to lumping only as the last 
resort. 

Grounds are not included on either doors or windows. 

STAIRS: Setting only is allowed not millwork. But which 
style shall be selected? I have known 2 men to set a stair 
in a forenoon, and again, work on another for about 2 weeks. 

On No. 12, with regular school stair, double flight, ceiling 
rail, about 6' wide, 3 to 4 days for 2 men. 

On No. 2 it took 233 hours for 1 man to set and finish 3 
flights of oak stairs about 5' wide, with continuous rail. 



170 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

On No. 9, with oak stairs, of a better design, it took 300 
hours for 1 man to set 3 flights. Platforms allowed in fram- 
ing lumber. 

For a long box stair, without landing, 1 to 1* days for 2 
men. Box stair for cellar or attic, about the same if winders 
are used. For a plain 6 to 8 room house, 2 to 3 days. For 
a fine stair to a house of 8 to 10 rooms 6 days. 

Guess the rest; and remember that although the estimate 
may not be mathematically correct, you may add to or deduct 
from a reasonable percentage on complete bid enough to 
build the stair complete. While admitting that an estimate 
should be as nearly correct as possible, why insist on abso- 
lute accuracy on one small item, and then make a wild guess 
at the profit? 

Of course there are stairs that would keep 2 men working 
for a couple of months, or even a year. The Glasgow people 
have a fine stair in their new municipal buildings one of the 
best I have ever looked upon. But the best, the stair that 
once seen is never forgotten, is the " Stairway of Honor " 
in the Grand Opera House, Paris. It is wide enough for 
teams to drive up abreast. " The steps are of white marble, 
the balustrades of alabaster, the hand rail of African onyx. 
24 colored marble columns rise to the height of the 3d floor." 
And so on they describe the marvel in the $7,000,000 Opera 
House and that price too where wages are low. I did not 
even try to estimate the time required to build it. The house 
itself took 14 years and probably will last for centuries. 

The ornamental iron stair in Wanamaker's new store cost 
about $36,000. 

SIDEBOARDS: We have some that fill the end of a large 
room, and others not so great in size or style. One of ash, 
I remember, 8x8' with drawers, doors, brackets, shelves, 
mirrors, and hardware to match: 2 men took 8 days to com- 
plete it. Another of oak about the same size 6 days. The 
difference was a matter of detail. Millwork for both came 
in knockdown and here it may be worth while to say that 
there is a good deal of difference in the way millwork comes. 
The cheapest mill bid on stairs, sideboards, window frames, 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 171 

drawer cases, etc, may mean 10% more work when the stuff 
is delivered. 

A fairly good sideboard may be set in 4 days; none in 
Omaha, I judge, would require more than 10 to 12. 
CHINA CLOSETS: Allow from 2 to 6 days for 2 men. 
PANTRIES: From 1 to 4 days. 

CHINA CLOSETS: A china closet might come put together, 
leaving only the labor of pushing it into place and nailing a 
casing around the opening, all of which might be comfortably 
done in a day; but most of them come in the knockdown. 
There is a difference between one pantry with only half 
a dozen plain shelves and another with shelving all around, 
meal bins, drawers, etc; one may have only 20 sq ft while the 
other has 3 or 4 times as many. 1 to 3 days for a man. 
STOREROOMS: Put in shelving at 24 sq ft per hour for 2 
men. On No. 2 I kept time on 3,000' all dadoed by hand 
into compartments about 18" sq, and the aver was higher 
than this which seems safe. But I know of nearly 60,000' 
that did not aver 16' with far less dadoing. Pantries, closets, 
etc, may be figured by this method and an allowance made for 
extra labor, but 40 to 50' seems fair as there is no dadoing. 
BLINDS: Outside, for either brick or frame buildings if 
fitted before frames are set, 20 pr aver size; if after frames 
are set 14. Inside 4 to 5 sets a day for plain work; hard- 
wood, 3 sets. 

BORING: Large posts for warehouses, etc, are often bored 
from end to end with an 1" auger. One millman quotes a 
price of 6 to 7c per If; on a large building the work cost $2.50 
per 1,000' bm at the mill. Sometimes it is quoted at 15c per If. 

SECTION TWO 

MATERIAL. 

GIRDERS: It is not necessary to say anything about 
girders, for they can not well be missed unless through care- 
lessness. By reference to the chapter on " Standard Sizes " 
It will be seen that all dimension lumber must be ordered of 
even lengths; although a girder or joist is billed at 11', 12 
have to be paid for, so that there is no economy in putting 
down odd sizes. But it sometimes happens that 2 odd sizes 



172 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

are required of such lengths as may be taken out of an even 
size, and thus 2 If are saved. An 18', for example, will make 
11 and 7. 

JOISTS: It is of some importance to watch the spacing 
of joists and the ordering of lengths of flooring, etc, to suit. 
Many architects space to a partition, put in the dbl joists and 
then space from them. If this is repeated several times 
there is apt to be a good deal of trouble with lengths of sheet- 
ing, flooring, ceiling, lath, etc, for the joists might be so 
placed as to waste the even lengths of lumber clear across 
the room. It is best to space from 1 end of a building and 
stick to the regular spacing unless for some special reason. 
Allow extra joists for doubling where they are required on 
this basis. The dbl joist may come so near the regular spac- 
ing that a little variation will not be of much consequence. 

To get the number of joists required count them and add 
1 extra for main rooms and doubles wherever necessary. A 
carpenter does not often use an architect's scale for taking 
off quantities, although it is the best article for the purpose. 
If the joists are set 1 to the ft, and the plan drawn to J or J, 
by laying on the scale the number can be seen at once with- 
out any mental calculation. If centers are 14" or 16" a slip 
of paper can be laid off from the scale and moved from room 
to room adding the extra joist. 

Still for 16" centers a carpenter's rule is as good as a scale, 
for the even figures multiplied by 3, and 1 added, give the 
number. Suppose a room is 32' long at scale; the rule 
would show 8, which multiplied by 3 gives 24, and 1 at wall, 
25. A trifle over the even figure means an extra joist, for at 
16" centers 20" needs 2 just as much as 32. As there are 3 
to the inch the exact number can easily be seen although the 
even figure is not on the line. Each room divided in such 
shape that the floor stops, as at a brick wall, requires an 
extra joist. An extra ceiling joist is often needed where 
there is a partition sometimes 2 are insisted on; but there 
are architects who are satisfied with a strip to hold the end 
of the lath. 

STUDS: For walls and partitions allow 1 stud to the ft for 
16" centers. This seems too much; but after allowing plates 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 173 

in addition I have sometimes run short. A 2x4 can be used 
for a score of purposes apart altogether from partitions and 
walls; but if doors, windows, arches, etc, are all properly 
doubled and corners made solid so that lath can not pass 
through, and if proper base-blocks are nailed in, the allow- 
ance is not too much unless on very plain work. Of course 
a stable or shed does not require such doubling. The nature 
of the building must be considered. When ex metal lath 
is used doubling is not necessary as it bends to the shape of 
the corner and when plastered becomes as hard as a rock, 
but base-block are still needed. 

Much depends upon the times: one can miss a few pcs 
when prices are high, but not when they are cut to the bone. 
I remember accidentally leaving out a whole floor of parti- 
tions in a block of 3 flats one of No. 6. Had the stuff gone 
in, another contractor would have got what proved to be a 
nice little prize of more than $2,000, for the difference in 
the bids was only $60. This experience is introduced not to 
encourage such omissions on the chance of getting rich, but 
rather to emphasize the fact that several buildings or floors 
on the same plan are dangerous. One floor is estimated and 
the intention is to n ult by the number, but we switch off and forget. 

See bm system page 150. 

CREOSOTING: From $15 to $20 per m. 

BRIDGING: Joists are almost always bridged, and studs are 
occasionally. If bridging is taken separately a close enough 
price may be found in Part One. The lengths may be found 
there also. As a rough and ready way out of this small 
item which, however, can not be overlooked, I allow 3' to 
every If, and seldom find much left. Windows have to be 
braced, ladders made, and other matters attended to. 

See Metal Bridging. 

RAFTERS: On a plain roof it is simply a matter of count- 
ing them the same as joists and adding 1 extra. There is 
more trouble on a roof like No. 11 with angles, hips, valleys, 
and dormers. For such roofs see page 28, where cost is given 
at $6, or follow bm system. 

It is of some importance to get the right lengths of hips and 
valleys. They are better billed 3' too long than 6" too short, 



174 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

for the strength of a roof depends upon them. Before setting 
down the lengths it is safer to lay the plan of the rafter on a 
piece of paper if not sure of the ground. If there is a plan 
of the roof it is only necessary to sq up from the line of 
the hip or valley, set off the same height as the common rafter 
at any point desired, whether at the ridge or below it, if the 
hip or valley does not extend clear through, and then measure 
the distance between the 2 points. To use 3 common figures, 
well known to carpenters who square houses by them, if the 
line of the h. or v. on the plan measures 8, and the height 
or rise is 6, then the h. or v. is 10' long. This is the secret 
of taking off the lengths of lumber for any roof: Get the 
distance in from the wall-plate and the rise from the level, and 
measure the length between the 2 points. The same rule 
holds for jacks and cripples. A liberal allowance must be 
made for complicated roofs. For every 12" of common rafters 
on the plan a hip or valley at an angle of 45 has 17". 
SQUARE ROOT: A good method of testing the length of any 
rafter is to get the run and the rise, and extract the sq root. 
Lumber bills in thousands, and roofs by the acre, have been 
finished by those who never heard of a such a thing, who 
do not know that the useful 8, 6, 10; and 12, 12, 17, are hinged 
on the same principle. 

ROOF PITCH: The pitch of a roof is taken from the level 
of the walls to the ridge. A common way of building roofs 
is to use a standard pitch. A i pitch is i of the span over 
the walls; ^ is i of span, and so on. Thus a 24' span would 
on i pitch give a rise of 6'. I ran across one rule in a book 
which seems good enough to copy: "To get the length of 
rafter for i pitch, mult span by A; $ by ; f by f; by &\ 
f by f." The pitch rule would be 2" short on a 24' span; 
but in all cases the projections of rafters for cornice has to 
be allowed extra, and that would take care of this shortage. 
EXTRAS: Ties, wall-plates, ridges, lookouts, moulded rafters 
and other subordinate parts of a roof have to be attended to! 
It is not hard to overlook them. 

TRUSSES: Nothing need be said about the lumber on roof 
trusses, for it is easy to take off. Rods and bolts are as 
easily seen as lumber. 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 175 

SHEETING: Get exact surface to be covered after deduct- 
ing openings and allow $ more for floors, | for side walls, 
& to 1 for roofs. Sheeting like 2x4's covers a multitude of 
holes and corners. 

Sheeting and shiplap are sometimes nailed on an angle on 
side walls and floors: add 1% to previous figures for the 
waste, as each board has to be cut at both ends. Sheeting 
is sometimes left. 2" open on cheap roofs, and a deduction 
should be made accordingly. On plain roofs the quantity 
may not be more than for floors. 

SHIPLAP: Get exact surface and allow & for floors, for 
walls, i for roofs. Some roofs need more. See under 
" Floors " an illustration of how to get quantities. On pur- 
lins, and joists in mill construction, lengths must be watched 
owing to wide spacing. A roof with only a 40' slope might 
require 46' of lumber, or a waste of nearly 2' on the end of 
each board. 

CORNICE: With the detail that ought to accompany the 
main plans, but usually does not, there should not be any 
trouble taking off the cornice lumber. If it is wp be sure 
to get the price before estimating. The cornice for a com- 
mon frame building generally has a sectional area of about 
3'; some are less. Allowance must be made for miters at 
all corners. On cheap buildings the frieze is only I thick; 
on good buildings it is 1J, the same as the corner-bds. Base, 
corner-bds, bands and such trimmings are easily seen. 
SHINGLES: I recently estimated dimension shingles for 
61.6 sq of surf without a break, or even a chimney. At 4J 
exposure the actual number used was 53,500, or 868 per sq. 
This will serve as a basis. On another plain building with 
the same exposure, 860 were used. On some roofs, gables, 
and walls, 900 are necessary. 

At 4" allow 990; at 4, 880; at 5, 792, for the plainest surfaces. 

At 4" allow 1012; at 4$, 900; at 5, 810, for cut-up roofs. 

If 6 to 2" shingles are used about 3% more than 5 to 2 
are required. The 6 to 2" are not only thinner but narrower, 
and the waste is greater. 

We have many authorities on shingles. I have more than 
half a dozen at hand, and except one they are all the same 



176 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

with quantities. "To 5" exposure, 720; 4, 800; 4, 900." 
They have been copying one another. Now it is far better 
to copy what is right than to be original with what is wrong, 
but the quantities they give will not hold out. They make 
no allowance for narrow shingles, and the saw can not cut 
without waste here any more than with other lumber the 
bunch which should measure 20" is now only 19J and 19; 
and sometimes a shingle is lost or broken. The figures are 
mathematically correct, for at 4 exposure a shingle covers 
18 sq inches, 8 to the sq ft, 800 to the sq. But what about 
cutting for an angle What about the width of the saw-cut 
on each piece? What about the double course at the eave? 
With varying widths and qualities the exact quantity may 
not always be struck, but the mathematical process will not 
do. 

GUTTERS: The plain finish lumber Is easily seen in sec- 
tion, and the bottom is usually of sheeting. The millman 
attends to brackets and mouldings. 

SIDING: Deduct all openings and add $ to the surf in sq ft 
for 6" siding at 4 to 4f to the weather. If all boards were 
kept at 4$ and there were many gables with the usual waste 
this quantity would be a trifle short. For 4" siding allow i 
more than surf after deducting openings. 

By following the method explained under " Floors " we can 
arrive at the quantity for any exposure. Take for illustra- 
tion a space 100' long and 9' 9" high. For 6" siding at 4 
we have 26 bds in height and each bd is 100' long. This is 
2,600 If, or 1,300 bm, no waste being allowed for cutting on 
end. The space lost is exactly of the space exposed; but 
gains are made at corner bds, casing around openings, etc, 
sufficient to make up for cutting, although the quantity is 
a trifle close. Of course the exposure is sometimes stretched 
i". Take for narrow siding the same length with 9' 7", to 
allow for even spacing at 2. Forty bds are required 100' long, 
or 4,000 If, but each bd is only $ of a ft wide and the quantity 
is 1,334' bm, or the actual surf mult by 1.39, or a little less 
than 1$. At 2| exposure we have to use 1.46; at 2|, 1.53; 
at 2i, 1.6. 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 177 

DROP SIDING: For drop siding allow as for flooring of 
same width, or proceed as explained. 

PAPER: See Index for weight of tar paper, etc. I always 
remember one rule that is safe, and close enough for aver 
tar paper: Allow 1% Ibs to the sq yd. But this is too 
much for some papers. 

FURRING: Allow 1 to the ft when spaced at 16". Less may 
do, but a fire-stop is now obligatory in most cities, and there 
is sometimes a good deal of waste by breakage. Where 
2x2's are used the chance of breakage is reduced, and 1 to 
14" is enough for ordinary work. As with joists an extra 
piece is required for each room, for only on cheap houses 
is lath run through. The figures given in Part One are safe 
if taken by the sq. 

GROUNDS: It is easy enough to find the number of ft for 
doors, windows, wainscoting, etc. Grounds are so easily 
broken and there is so much waste that 7 to 10% extra should 
be added. It is well to remember that for wood lath they 
should be of stuff; for brick or fireproofing only f; and in 
both cases they must be surfaced 1 side. The thinner the 
ground the better will the plasterer like it. 

The hard wall plaster companies give the following: 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR APPLYING GROUNDS 

They should be " on wood lath; f" on Sackett plaster 
board; \" on brick or tile; |" over face on wire lath. 
FLOORS: On the floor of No. 7, 3" thick, I was a little 
curious to know how nxuch an old contractor, for whom I 
had worked several years, had allowed, and I asked him, 
"190,000"." My figure was 189,000. Owing to lengths of 
plank which did not suit the spacing of joists the quantity 
required was 190,000. 

PLANK FLOORS: It is a fairly easy matter to get at a 
plank floor. Unmatched lumber measures about \" less than 
the standard size; therefore, if the plank is 6" it is clear that 
T^ of it is lost, no matter what thickness; and this without 
making any allowance for waste the long way, owing to spac- 
ing of joists, bad ends, etc. An allowance of \ extra covers 
6" stuff. 



178 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

CHECKING: There is an excellent way to check plark. 
flooring, ceiling and material of this kind if the exact width 
is known. Take for illustration a floor 100x200, and suppose 
that joists are spaced to obviate any loss on end. There are 
219 planks required if 5J is the exact width. Each plank 
is 200' long. This makes 43,800 If at 2" thick, and as each 
ft in length makes a ft in bm, this is the quantity, 
nothing being allowed for waste on end. No extra measure 
has to be allowed as the waste in width is made up by the 
number of planks, for at exactly 6", only 200 are required. 
At extra, 44,500 is the amount. A 12" plank measures about 
11$, so that in proportion there is less waste than on 2 at 6, 
but the sidewalk, floor, or wall, is not so good. 

On a large surf with a thick floor I" less in width means 
a larger lumber bill. It would be more than 4,000' in No. 7. 
Thus we can not in all cases expect to get exact results. 
But one point should be remembered here. Take the exact 
surf of a room, say, 30x56, or 1,680 sq ft. Let flooring be 3" 
at the mill, finishing 2i face. An allowance of i seems to be 
enough, for the used in sawing and milling is only of 
the 3" rough lumber. But is required, even with no waste 
on end, because the f wasted is $ of the finished surface of 
2i, and there is that much loss. The quantity is 2,240 with- 
out loss on end. 

SQ-EDGED MAPLE: For 235 sq of sq-edged maple 29,000' 
of flooring were used. This is a trifle more than extra. 
As the boards were exactly 3, there was only \ of loss, 
but the end cutting and other waste makes up the difference. 

So much for plank and sq-edged material; what follows 
is for d and m stuff. 

YP: On No. 3 there were 262 sq of 4" flooring. The amount 
used was 31,616', or \ more. But there was a gain of 8" at 
each cross partition, and this counts in such a building, for 
in this case the area includes them. If there is any pros- 
pect of waste through bad spacing of joists, etc, a fair allow- 
ance is between \ and i, or /^. When there is a good under 
floor the waste is not so great, as the floor is sometimes 
nailed down regardless of the joist bearing, and this saves 
material. 



CARPENTER AND JOINER WORK 179 

On No, 2, where there was no gain on partitions and some 
waste on end, as there was no under floor, the amount for 3 
floors, 157.2 sq was 20850 ft, or a little more than /,. 
ALLOWANCES: For 6" flooring, J extra; 2J, fully ; If, &. 
There is always a floor below narrow stuff, and if it is of 
good quality the waste need not be much in excess of the 
milling allowance. 

If narrow matched stuff is used on an angle of 45 allow 
more. 

CEILING AND WAINSCOTING: Make same allowance as 
for flooring. Take off plain lumber in the usual way, always 
remembering that 2" more than 12', 14' 16', and even figures 
means a board 2' longer. 

LENGTHS: Some attention must be paid to the length of 
ceiling as it may cut to a good deal of waste. Occasionally 
one finds an architect who has never heard of standard sizes, 
and for the sake of 2" in height he wastes 2' of lumber. 
MOULDINGS, etc., go in millwork. 

PORCHES: The framing lumber, sheeting, shingles, floor- 
ing, ceiling, and plain finishing boards, are taken off as on 
other parts of a building. 

FINISH LUMBER: Shelving for storerooms, pantries, etc; 
steps and risers for stairs; door-jambs, jamb-linings, etc, if 
not included in millwork can be easily taken off. Millmen 
seldom take off plain lumber. 

CENTERS: It is hard to set a price, for one might be easily 
set and removed on the ground, and another high in the 
air and difficult to handle. As an approximate figure allow 
for a 13" brick wall: 

Cost set Cost set 

Span Height Per ft and removed Span Height Per ft and removed 

4' 2' $1.00 $4.00 8' 4' $1.25 $10.00 

6' 3' 1.00 6.00 12' & 1.60 19.20 

Or $1 per ft wide to $1.50. 

SCAFFOLDS: Allow $7 per m on all lumber for labor and 
nails. Lumber to be used again, and not included. If it can 
not be used, add to the $7. 



CHAPTER XI 

MILLWORK AND GLASS 

The following prices do not include putting work in place. 
Any one in the west engaged in building, may have for the 
asking a millbook. It is not necessary to reprint one here. All 
that will be attempted is to give a price on a few selected 
sizes, so that in case the millbook is not at hand a fair 
idea may be obtained of any size in proportion to that listed. 
Of course prices change from yr to yr, and at different sea- 
sons of the yr; but stock stuff remains close enough for our 
purpose, and a reasonable margin should be allowed on odd 
work as no 2 mills figure it at the same price any more 
than 2 contractors. 

The new " Universal Price List " of millwork took effect 
on February 10, 1908. 

There are two discounts, the first for regular stock work, 
and the second for " Other sizes and patterns." In August, 
1913, the discounts were: 

Special Other sizes 
Stock List and Patterns 

Doors, A and B 70% 60% 

Doors, YP Panels 69% 59% 

Doors, Painted 70% 60% 

Doors, Fir. All sizes 60% 

Doors, YP. All sizes 60% 

Doors, Cypress 59% 

Sash, Glazed 80% 75% 

Sash, Open. All sizes 65% 

Blinds, Outside. All sizes 51% 

Blinds, Inside 50% 

Mouldings, WP 55% 45% 

Mouldings, YP If" and under 65% 55% 

Mouldings, YP over If" 60% 50% 

Blocks, YP 50% 40% 

While these discounts vary the relative proportion remain* 
about the same; and the variation is not so great as to seri- 
ously affect an estimate. 

180 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 181 

Freight has to be watched on country work. Glass is 
included in lists, as it is usually supplied by the mills.. 
SASH: (See "Mouldings" for price of stiles and rails.) 

12 Lights: Check-rail, 8x12, glazed single strength, $1.20 
per window; 9x16, $1.75; 10x20, $2.40; 12x20, $2.8~0. 

8 Lights: 9x12, $1; 10x18, $1.65; 12x20, $2; 14x24, $2.85; ss. 

4 Lights: 10x30, $1.35; 12x40, $2.10; 14x32, $1.80; ss, $2.50 
dbl strength; 14x48, ss $3.30; ds, $4.40; 15x48, ds, $4.80. 

2 Lights: 16x32, ss, $1.30; ds, $1.85; 20x40, ss, $1.90; ds, 
$2.50; 24x48, ss, $3.50; ds, $4.40'; 28x40, ss, $2.30; ds, $3; 
30x50, ds, $4.90. 

The foregoing prices are for If thick; for If on the last 
and largest size given, add 50c; and from that down to 25c 
on the smaller sizes. Add 20c per window for oil finish. 
Glass is marked AA, A, and B; AA is selected from; A and 
is seldom used. A is common, and good enough for most 
purposes. B is often used in place of A. 

A 30 light window, 10xl4xlf, ss, is worth for sash, $5.25; 
for frame $3.50. When frames are bought it is necessary 
to see whether they are in the knockdown or nailed together. 

For sash veneered with oak allow 50% more than the 
prices given after deducting glass which is the same in both 
kinds. There is a list with nearly 100 sash extras in the 
millbook. 

FOR FANCY TRANSOM lights add Sc each if sq and 15c 
if on angle. 

STORM SASH: Storm sash 1J thick cost the same as If 
windows, they go with in size. 

SQ FT PRICES: For those who want a close approximate 
figure the following sq ft prices will be useful. Take the 
inside size of window frame, or glass size including sash. 
Sash If, primed, not for oil finish. For 12 light windows, ss, 
12c per sq ft. 

For 8 lights, ss, 11 to 12c. 

For 4 lights, ss, 12 to 14c; ds, 16 to 18c. 

For 2 lights, ss, 13 to 15c; ds, 18 to 19c. 

These prices are taken at present discounts, but Ic a ft 
on a window of fair size amount to only 21c, so that a little 



182 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

may be added by those who rely upon this sq ft base. Of 
course the list figure is cut on a large order. On the the 30- 
light window already given, for example, the cost of If sash 
was only 15c per sq ft. On several large factory orders of 
50 and 60-light windows, 10x14x2, ss, including box frame 
complete, but no finish, the cost was 22c per sq ft but a 
margin is desirable as conditions are not always the same. 
WEIGHT OP SPECIAL SASH: It is unnecessary to set 
down here the weight of standard sash, as the mill books 
have complete lists; but it is* sometimes difficult to ascertain 
the weight of odd sizes, and the following figures will serve 
as a guide: 

From a general aver taken over the mill lists of If wp stock, 
I find that a fair -allowance for the weight of wood is 1 Ib 
to the sq ft of glass. Sometimes the small sizes are a trifle 
more, the large ones a trifle less, say 1-10 of a Ib either way, 
but the variations in the wood or glass make 1 Ib a safe 
allowance. If If sash are used allow extra in the proportion 
of 11 to 14; if hardwood inside, allow weight as compared 
with wp. 

The glass varies a good deal; the average of the mill lists 
is li Ib for ss, and 1$ for ds to the sq ft; but on some sizes 
ss runs from 1 to 1.6 Ib, and ds as high as 2 Ibs. The proper 
method is to weigh all sash, but sometimes this is not done. 
Averages for the foregoing figures were taken over 1,500 
sq ft of glass. 

The following weights were obtained from a large number 
of sash put in place, the small sizes on No. 7; the large on 
No. 1: 

60-lt windows 10x14x2" ss 150 Ib 2-lt windows 28x50x1 ds 48 Ib 

50-lt windows 10x14x2" ss 134 Ib 2-lt windows 24x60x1 ds 52 Ib 

40-lt windows 10x14x2" ss 106 Ib 2-lt windows 28x60x1 f ds 64 Ib 

30-lt windows 10x14x2" ss 76 Ib 2-lt windows 30x60x1 f ds 76 Ib 

2-lt windows 28x40x1 f" ds 40 Ib 2-lt windows 40x60x1 f ds 80 Ib 

As in the regular lists the total has to be divided by 4 to 
get the sash weight. 

DOORS 

CUPBOARD DOORS: 16 to 20c per sq ft in yp; in oak, J 
more. 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 183 

OG 4-PANEL DOORS: A quality: B doors are about 10% 
less. For oil finish add 50c. The millbook has a list of 40 
"extras" in doors. Sq ft prices: 

OG, 4-pan, If, 17 to 18c; 20c for the largest sizes. 

OG, If, 26 to 28; largest sizes, 30 to 35c. 

OG, 5-pan, If, 16 to 18; largest sizes, 20 to 22c. 

OG, 5-pan, If, 26 to 27; largest sizes, 30 to 35c. 

Raised-moulded doors, 4-pan, If, 1 side, 35c; 2 sides, 40c. 
There are a hundred varieties of these common doors, and 
also of front doors which run from 50c to $1 per sq ft, de-. 
pending upon style. For front doors the glass has to be added 
extra. It may be made to any style or price. 

Best q s white oak and ash doors for inside run fromi 38c 
to 40c per sq ft from If to 2" thick. For each \" in thick- 
ness over 2" add 2c per sq ft. If more than 5-pan, add 15c 
for each pan extra. Unselected birch doors from 30 to 35c; 
if only If" thick, 25c. Unselected birch, $40 and even less; 
selected $50 to $60 per M. 

STORE FRONTS: Plain store fronts, 25c per sq ft taken 
over entire surf but no glass included. They should prop- 
erly be priced in detail. Stock store doors alone are worth 
from 30 to 40c per sq ft unglazed. 

FACTORY DOORS: Heavy sq doors for such buildings 
as No. 7 are worth from 28 to 30c per sq ft. Each half is 6' 
4"xl8'. At this price they are lined on one side on a frame- 
work of 3" material, and a large sash is put in each half. If 
circular top add 1-7 to price. Of course a single door would 
cost more than a large order. 

WAREHOUSE DOORS: For large warehouses doors cut 
horizontally in the center and hinged so that all door rises 
clear up to the lintel, 12"xl2' about, $100 with hardware. 
Installation, $18. 

BATTEN DOORS: 7 to lOc per sq ft, wp ceiling, 1 side. 
FRAMES: For windows about 3'x7', $3.25 to $3.5D, box. On 
frame buildings, 2x4" studding, put together, $2-,25. The 
price may run as high as $4, depending upon the style and 
size; and this without goirig into hardwood, which is 30% 
higher. Aver pulleys are included. 



184 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

OUTSIDE DOOR FRAMES are about the same price; with 
transom $3.50. From 25 to 40c is charged for nailing frames 
together in the mill; on the building they cost twice as much. 
If oak sills are used, add from 40c to 50c. Wp is by far the 
best wood for outside frames, but it can scarcely be obtained 
now, and the price is high. 

INSIDE DOOR JAMBS: Studs 2x4, door 3x7, wp, YOc; 
cypress, 80c; yp, 60c; oak and ash, $1; add from 30 to 50c 
for transom. These prices are for f jambs. For 1, add 15% 
For 6", add 25%. Add door and window stops to figures as 
they are not included. 

OAK THRESHOLDS, 6c each up to 3 ft. 

JAMB LININGS: Take door jambs as a basis, as labor and 
lumber are about the same for material. 

BLINDS: Outside, rolling slat, 1|, 9 to lOc per sq ft. In- 
side: (Pine) 2' wide, 45c; 3', 3-fold, 55c; 3', 4-fold, 70c; 
from 3 to 4', 4-fold, 75c; 3 to 4', 6-fold, $1. The sizes on 
inside blinds are for height and not by the sq ft. For hard- 
wood: 30% extra for oak, ash, birch, and maple; 50% for 
cherry and walnut. 

VENETIAN BLINDS: From 15 to 20c up per sq ft accord- 
ing to style and finish. 

BLOCKS: The varieties of base and corner blcoks are so 
many that a price can not be given. In yp 3 to 5c buys a 
fair corner block; in hardwood, 6 to 7c, but the cost may be 
5 times as much according to the pattern. Base blocks, yp, 
4 to 5c; and 6 to 8c for hardwood of common pattern. 

CORNER BEADS: Round corner beads for plaster, 10 to 
15c each in pine; 25 to 30c in common hardwood. Metal 
corners, 5c per ft, 

MOULDINGS: The millbook has about 400 different styles 
and each of these may be run in 20 different kinds of wood. 
However, we can give a few hints for an emergency: 

CASINGS: For all door and window casing allow in yp fc 
per inch of finished width; in birch, fc; in oak or ash, Ic 
This is on the basis of lumber thick. If casings are 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 185 

thicker, reduce to bin and estimate as before. In large quan- 
tities c is enough for yp and cypress, and | for oak. 

BASE: The same prices will cover base but this is a good 
place to remind all interested that these prices may be justly 
doubled and quadrupled if stock patterns are not used. If 
each room in a house has its own pattern special knives 
have to be made for its 50 ft just as for 5,000 of stock. 

Unsmoothed yp casing to 6" wide is listed at 2c per If; 
8" base at 3c; 10", 3i, so that the foregoing prices are safe 
for smoothed work. New mill-run casing 5 and 6", $33 per 
M ft bm; 8 and 10" base, $35. 

WINDOW STOOLS: These are usually 1| thick. At that 
thickness allow in wp Ic per inch of finished width; in w 
oak, 1J, Jx3" pine, 2c per If. 

WINDOW STILES AND RAILS: 1| wp, 4c per If; If, 5c. 
Checkrail is less, bottom more, but average holds. 
STOPS: Door and window stops run from % to- lie, depend- 
ing on width which is from f to 2. 
NOSINGS FOR STEPS: Prom 2c to 4c in pine. 
BOOR AND WINDOW SCREENS: 8c per sq ft; door, 8 to 
12c, with plain black wire, in pine, but not Michigan pine. 
The best wire costs about 2^c per sq ft extra. This is for 1 
thick, common work, unpainted, and not put up. Oak doors, 
:3'x7'xl, $4 to $5. 

For the aver house of 20 to 25 screens allow $1.50 per 
"window, and add $10 for two doors. This will supply a half 
screen f thick, 4-coat finish with ordinary black wire, Michi- 
gan pine, put in place. 

But there are large factories which make nothing else than 
screens and the variety is without end. For a real bronze 
grille for a front door, for example, one specimen costs $26, 
or $1.25 sq ft, if put all over door. All screens may be in- 
creased in price by using the higher qualities of materials, 
and extras. 

:LABOR: 2 oak front doors, 4 pines ones, and 30 window 
full screens, half of them hinged at top were put in place in 
about 60 hours on a 2-story building. 
BATTENS: x3 flat, 40c per 100 If; G, 2", 55c; 2, 65c. 



186 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LATTICE WORK: Below porches per sq ft, 13 to 15c. 
MEDICINE CABINETS: In pine, $3.50 to $4; in oak, $5 to 
$6. See " Odds and Ends " Chap for Brass Cabinets, See 
" Mirrors" to add to price of pine and oak cabinets. 

WOOD BRACKETS 

12x14, 1| 20 to 24c 

12x16, If 23 to 27c 

12x18, If 28 to33c 

10x12, If i to 18c 

10x16, If 18 to 22c 

Of 3-Ply if Material 

9x14 35 to 40c 

10x14 38 to 44c 

12x14 41 to 47c 

12x20 50 to 55c 

GABLE ENDS AS ON RAILROAD DEPOTS: Prom $4.50 
to $6.50. 

Gable Brackets as on Depot $3.50 

Side Brackets as on Depot 4.00 

FREIGHT DEPOT: The complete millwork on a building 
40x100, with heavy doors, and such work runs to about $800. 
No flooring included. 

PASSENGER STATIONS: Hardwood millwork complete, 
about $1,200 for a 26x140 ordinary brick building. 
MOULDINGS: With the exception of a few of deep cut 
all mouldings may be estimated at the prices given for cas- 
ings and base. 

PANELING: For yp, 20c per sq ft; birch, 30c; oak, 30c for 
plain red to 40c for q s white. However, the size of the 
panels and the style of the moulding have to be considered. 
Unselected birch is 10% cheaper than oak; cherry and walnut 
are 50% more expensive than plain oak. Paneled door jambs 
may be put in at the same rate if there are several sets. 

Add cap, base, shoe bands, etc, for wainscoting. 
MAHOGANY WAINSCOTING about 3' 6" high, of aver design, 
and good Tabasco material, $4.50 per If without oil finish, 
for which allow at least 75c per sq yd. 

Mahogany paneled partition, set and oiled, $12 per If. 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 187 

OFFICE PARTITIONS: For yp office partitions 7' to T 6" 
high with chipped or maze-glass panels above allow per If 
$3 to $3.50; in plain oak, $5 to $6; in mahogany, $8 and up. 

QUARTETTE TELEGRAPH desk, set up, $35. 

WAINSCOTING: Plain matched and b red oak wainscot- 
ing is worth $60 per M ft bm ; machine sandpapered, $5 extra. 
For plain oak finish allow $90 per M machine run and cleaned. 
The paneled oak wainscoting in No. 3 was put in at a trifle 
less than 50c per sq ft. It was 8' high. 

STAIRS: Box, average width, pine, housed, per step, $1.40; 
plain oak, $2.10. Open stair, pine, per step, $1.60; oak, $2.20; 
oak with paneled string, $2.85. And rail in yp, 15c; oak, 25c. 
Each crook in rail, $3.50. Paneling at regular price for sq 
work, and 20% more for work on rake. Winders in pine, 40c 
extra; in oak, 60c. For large, circle starting-step, $5. Newels 
and balusters to be added. 

These prices are for plain stairs; others have to be figured 
in detail. Cellar and plank stairs may be estimated by tak- 
ing off the plain lumber and allowing labor at $30 per M 
in addition. 

NEWELS AND BALUSTERS: Allow on If yp balusters, 
from 10 to 12c; oak, 12 to 14c. This is for stock and plain 
turning; spiral wok costs about twice as much. Stock 
newels run from $3.50 to $5; red oak is about 10% more than 
pine. 

HAND RAILS: In yp 12c for 2^x4; in red oak r 15c. The 
price of circular stairs may be put at 3 times that of plain 
ones; and there are stairs which easily cost 10 times more 
than what would be accepted as a reasonable standard. It 
all depends upon the detail. 

GRILLES: These run in yp from 75c to $2 per sq ft. For 
special patterns and work $5 may be required. As there is 
little material required the difference between pine and hard- 
wood is not so great as in other mill products. Allow 10% 
more for oak. 

PORCH POSTS: The lengths run from 9 to 10' with a slight 
difference in price for extra lumber: 4x4, 90c to $1,25, 5x5, 



188 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

$1.25 to $1.75; 6x6, $1.50 to $2.75. A fluted post, 75c extra. 
A colonial post, 10" diam, $4 to $5; fluted, $1 extra. 

HEAVY POSTS: A recent bid on 6 built-up fluted cols, 22" 
at bottom, 18" diam at top x 12' 6", no base, plain composition 
cap was $246, or $41 each. The Chicago price, given further 
on, is but a little more than half as much. 

PORCH NEWELS: 60c to $1 each. 

PORCH BALUSTERS: Allow from 6 to lOc apiece for 
ordinary turned stock. 

SPINDLES: In stock patterns, from 3 to 4c eacti. 
PORCH RAILS: From 4 to lOc per If in stock. 
BRACKETS: In stock, 10"xl2", 12 to 20c each at 1 thick; 
2f, 50c; 3i, $1.50. 

CRESTING, all kinds of fretwork, gable ornaments, gutter- 
ends, flnials, etc, are neither worth pricing nor putting on 
a building even if furnished for nothing. The heat and rain 
wreck them in a few years at longest. 

COUNTERS: Take off all material and estimate labor in 
detail. Ceiling, shelving, etc, come under ordinary rules. 
For all circular millwork in general allow 3 times the price 
of straight. Money drawers, $1.50 each. Common drawers, 
average size, $1.50 to $2. 

Plain pine counters with drawers, $2 to $3 per If at 30" 
wide, not set. Common oak counters for ticket offices, $5 
per If; good q s, $10 and up. Mahogany, $10 to $20, set in 
place. Lunch counters, oak, circle ends, $3.50 per If. With 
brass ft rail $1.25 more, set in place. 

ODDS AND ENDS: In general, millmen are like other 
tradesmen when estimating on special work they take off 
each item separately. It is a slow process to take off each 
piece of lumber, but it often has to be done as it is the on T v 
sure way with special work. The labor is a matter of judg- 
ment. 

SQUARE PICKETS are worth 2c each; flat, a trifle less. 
SURFACING: For timbers, $1.25 each side; boards, $1.50, 
and $2.50 for 2 sides. Hardwood, 60% more. These prices 
are per M ft bm. 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 189 

CROWNING JOISTS: $2.50 per M for two edges. 
CUTTING BRIDGING: $5 to $6 per M bm. 

OAK-FLOORING: Red, $60; white, $65; best q s, white, 
$100; quartered red, $95; all |x3; f q s white, $55. In some 
parts fxli plain red oak is sold for 80c per 100 If. 

MAPLE, |, $30 to $45; , $40. 

PARQUET FLOORS AND BORDERS : There are many pat- 
terns, and the prices differ. In my apprenticeship I worked 
so long among these floors that the look of them wearied me. 
They are made up of small pieces in an endless array. Then 
the only thickness was 1; but now a popular thickness is tfc. 
This thin floor can be laid without cutting doors in old 
houses, and this accounts in part for its popularity. Par- 
quet borders are often used and rugs placed in the center of 
the room. It is a better way of finishing a house than car- 
peting all over. 

All oak is white, quartered, in the following lists: Price 
per If for strip borders, 5-16. 

Oak Under 2" ', Ic 

Cherry li, 1.2c; 2, 1.8c 

Mahogany 1, 2.4c; 2, 4.2 

Walnut li, 1.2c; 2, 1.8c 

Oak and Mahogany l|, 3 c; 2, 4.8c 

Oak and Walnut 4, 3.6c; 6, 5.4c ;> 

Oak, Walnut, and Cherry 6, 7.2c; 8, 10 c 

Strip borders are not listed wider than 8", although they 
may be made of any width or of any combination of woods. 

Parquet bordes, 5-16, per If, not sq ft. 

In oak alone, 5" wide, lOc with 2 or 3 other woods, 12 to 15c. 

At a width of 8", oak only, 15c; with other woods, 15 to 25c. 

At 12" wide, 2 to 4 woods, 20 to 30c. 

At 16 to 18", 25 to 38c, but some woods of same width, 40 
to 50c. 

Some woods at 20" may be had as low as 30c and as high 
as $1. 

At 24 to 30, 75c to $1.25. 



190 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Corners for borders are about 50% more than straight 
material. 

Borders are made in 12' lengths; fields, 4'. 

Sizes are paid for before cutting, and waste has to be in- 
cluded in price. 

PARQUET FIELDS: The price of the field or "body" is 
given in sq ft: There is not so much difference between 
prices of fields as with those of borders. They are hidden by 
the rug and may be plainer. They run from 15 to 20c, but 
some are as high as 35c. These thin floors sometimes come 
rolled on a canvas back, carpet fashion, or grooved the same 
as the |" material, instead of being sq edged as above. 
QUANTITIES: One manufacturer gives an estimate of 
material for 100 sq ft as follows: 2J Ibs 1J" finishing brads; 
3 Ibs wood filler; 3 pts shellac % Ib floor wax. " If filled 
with varnish (instead of filler) 1 qt to 100 ft." For maple 
the filler is not required. The weight of f" flg is 1,000 Ibs 
to 1,000 ft; of I, 2,500. 

WAINSCOTING: Oak wainscoting, 36" high above base, is 
also standard. It runs from 45 to 75c per If, and is thus 
much cheaper than regular work. 

CHICAGO MILLWORK 

The millmen and dealers of Chicago sell about $10,000,000 
of millwork in a year. This city is a penter for the millwork 
of the States on the north and west, and for the glass fac- 
tories of Indiana. It has low freight rates and railroads to 
all sections. A few prices fob there will be of much value. 
FRONT DOORS: Size 3x7xlf, with beveled plate, 22x52, 
piano veneered, q s, white oak, $15.50. 

Same door with oval plate glass, $21. 

;Same, 3x7xl|, 24x44, beveled plate, $15. 

:Same, 3x7xlf, 24x36, beveled plate, $14. 

Same, 3x7xl, 24x36, 16-oz glass, $10.50. 

For several varieties of front doors, 3x7xlf, red oak, or 
Trirch, $10 to $14, in beveled plate; $8 to $10 in com D S glass. 
About $1 less on plate, and 30c on com glass for next size, 
2-10x6-10. 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



191 



For red oak or birch veneer, 3x7xl|, leaded with com. glass, 
22x58, $11.50; beveled plate leaded, $21.75. 
For leaded panel, 26x26, $8.75 and $14.50. 

GRAINED DOORS: These are inferior doors, but good 
enough for some purposes: 

For 3x7xlf, four or five panel, $1.65 to $1.85. For 2-6x6-6, 
$1.30 to $1.45. 

For sash doors, 3x7xl|, grained, $2.85 to $3.50; 2-8x6-8, $2.35 
to $2.90. 

For sash doors with flowered panels, inferior quality, 
grained 3x7xl|, $3.75 to $4.10. 

For same, better quality, not grained, If thick, $5.50 to 
$7.00; for If, plain glass, $4 to $5. 

INSIDE DOORS: Korelock veneered, two panel: 



2-Ox6-Oxlf 


Plain Red Oak 
$4.05 


Birch 
$3.25 


:2-6x6-6xlf 


4.05 


3.25 


2-8x6-8x1 f 


4 20 


3.40 


2-6x7 -Ox If 


' 485 


3.90 


2-6x7-0x1 1 


5.35 


4.40 


3-0x7-0x1 f.. 


5.70 


4.65 


3-Ox7-6xH. . 


7.00 


5.30 



SIX CROSS PANEL KORELOCK 



2-Ox6-Oxlf 


Plain Red Oak 
$3.45 


Birch 
$2.70 
2.80 
3.30 
3.80 
4.00 
4.20 
4.70 


2-8x6-8x1 { 
2-6x7-0x1 \ 
2-6x7-0x1 : 
2-10x7-0x1 
3-Ox7-Oxl| 
3-0x7-6x13 




3.60 




4.25 




. . . 4.75 


! 


5.05 




5 15 




5.90 



Best quality for oil finish in 39 sizes, 5 yp panels, western 
wp frame for If sizes on aver 20c per sq ft; for If, up to 
7-0 high 24c; for T 6", from 27 to 34, the 5x7-6 being 31c, 
and the 2-6x8, 34c. 

EXTRAS: For cypress doors allow from 40c to 50c extra 
s on a door; for yp 5-panel doors deduct from 15c to 25c per 
door, all from above list, 



192 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

CUPBOARD DOORS: 20c per sq ft in yp. 

CHINA CLOSET DOORS: Glazed with common glass, 25c 
per sq ft in yp. 

FACTORY WINDOWS 

Sq ft cost of 60 light windows on Nos. 7 and 8 has already 
been given, but these were from If to 2" thick and cost more 
on this account. So many buildings have been put up of late 
years with this class of windows that the mills now give a 
list on the common sizes: 

For 15 light windows, ss, If open, check rail, 5c per sq ft; 
glazed lie. 

For 18 light, as above, same price. 
For 20 light, as above, same price. 
For 24 light, as above, same price. 
For 30 light, as above, 5c and 12c. 
For 32 light, 5c and 13c. 

For windows If thick add to above, of the price of win- 
dows without glass to price of window wanted thus a win- 
dow with 32 sq ft at 5c would be $1.60 open, and of this 
being $1.20, the figure for If would be $2.80 open, $5.04 glazed. 

These prices are fob Chicago, and do not include frames. 

COTTAGE WINDOWS: From 3-8 to 5-2 wide and 5-2 to 6-2 
long. With bottom light plate glass, 70c per sq ft; 33c in 
plain ds glass. For If" thick add to window 75c to $1 net. 

GABLE OPENING: For a triple frame about 8 ft wide by 
3-9 high over all, but center margin light sash semi-circular 
and running up above this height, side sash divided 1& pop 
lar, frame $8.50, 3 sash, $8.50. 

SASH AND WINDOW PRICES FOR COMMON WORK 

A Chicago price is given on some standard size windows 
herewith. The list is not complete, but sufficiently so for 
most who will use it. For If" thick see rule page 196. 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



193 



TRANSOM 


SASH 1^ 


THICK 






ONE 


LIGHT 


Two LIGHT 


Size of 
Sash 

Ft In In 


Price per 
Sash Open 


Price Two 
Light 
Glazed 


Price One 
Light 
Glazed 


Price One 
Light Dbl 
Strength 


Size of 
Sash 

Ft In In 


Price per 
Sash Open 


Price Two 
Light 
Glazed 


|J 


2 


6x10 


$0.23 





$0.39 





4 


0x14 


$0.50 


$0.94 


$1.23 


2 


6x16 


.24 





.51 





4 


0x20 


.57 


1.22 


1.66 


2 


6x20 


.36 





.80 





4 


0x24 


.60 


1.48 


2.05 


2 


8x10 


.24 




.47 




4 


4x14 


.57 


1.05 


1.37 


2 


8x16 


.25 




.53 




4 


4x20 


.59 


1.40 


1.91 


2 


8x20 


.30 




.67 




4 


4x24 


.64 


1.59 


2.13 


2 


8x24 


.43 




.97 




4 


6x14 


.59 


.14 


1.57 


2 


10x14 


.25 




.50 




4 


6x20 


.60 


.45 


1.91 


2 


10x20 


.30 





.70 





4 


6x24 


.66 


.65 


2.47 


2 


10x24 


.43 




1.01 




5 


0x14 


.64 


.23 


1.77 


3 


0x14 


.28 





.57 





5 


0x20 


.66 


.57 


2.35 


3 


0x20 


.33 


.... 


.77 




5 


0x24 


.70 


.79 


2.84 


3 


0x24 


.40 





.95 





5 


0x26 


.74 


.90 


2.88 


3 


6x14 


.37 


$0.77 


.78 


$0.97 


5 


6x18 


.74 


1.68 


2.53 


3 


6x20 


.45 


1.04 


1.07 


1.35 


5 


6x24 


.78 


2.08 


2.95 


3 


6x24 


.49 


1.25 


1.25 


1.57 


5 


6x30 


.86 


2.49 


3.61 


3 


8x14 


.40 


.82 


.85 


1.04 


6 


0x20 


.82 


1.9.4 


2.82 


3 


8x20 


.51 


1.13 


1.23 


1.52 


6 


0x26 


.89 


2.41 


3.62 


3 


8x24 


.57 


1.37 


1.42 


1.80 


6 


0x34 


1.06 


3.35 


5.04 



CELLAR SASH: For cellar sash, attic sash, etc, the above 
prices are close enough if the outside measurement is the 
same, and at 1|. 

If", 1 LT SASH WITH PLAIN GLASS 







& 


jj 




M 


3 




GO 




-C M 


fl-,"^ ^0 -..^3 HI 




^ bo 


-,-C M 


-. *"C3 <D 


ij 


gg 


Sgg 


sSS 21 


W N 


o ^ 


.sSS 


Sg-S 




IS 


cj S 


gjj< Cjj 


ga 


o || 


EJJ 


'Za3 






od 


A 




02 


Q 




16x20 


$0.32 


$0.51 


$0.63 


36x36 


.72 


2.28 


5.80 


20x20 


.32 


.59 


.65 


36x44 


.72 


2.85 


8.62 


24x24 


.32 


.70 


.91 


38x42 


.96 


2.65 


8.90 


24x30 


.34 


.83 


1.09 


38x56 


1.07 


4.20 


11.65 


26x30 


.39 


.93 


1.20 


40x44 


1.00 


3.16 


10.50 


28x32 


.41 


1.09 


1.40 


40x60 


1.14 


4.82 


13.06 


30x38 


.47 


1.35 


1.74 


44x44 


1.15 


3.65 


11.85 


32x32 


.49 





1.79 


48x44 


1.27 


4.71 


12.75 


32x40 


.56 




2.34 


48x56 


1.36 


5.75 


14.70 


34x36 


.56 





2.11 











194 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



NO WINDOW FRAMES INCLUDED 
NET PRICES OF 8 LT CHECK RAIL 1f" WINDOWS 



ill 


ill 


m 


te 

I'5-S 
* 3 .a 


111 1 


II 


J.H1 


III 




AngO 


fe^O 


gS 


ii^jj ^ 


|o 


o 


g< 








K 








& 


9x12 


$0.44 


$0.84 


$1.26 


12x14 


.53 


1.12 


1.40 


9x16 


.64 


1.33 


1.56 


12x20 


.70 


1.66 


1.94 


10x12 


.46 


.85 


1.26 


14x16 


.63 


1.47 


1.66 


10x16 


.55 


1.12 


1.56 


14x20 


.74 


1.77 


2.10 


10x20 


.80 


1.75 


1.94 


14x24 1 


.20 


2.85 


2.50 


NET PRICES OF 12 LT 


8x10 


$0.45 


$0.85 


$1.16 


10x12 


.56 


1.18 


1.46 


8x14 


.64 


1.47 


1.40 


10x16. 


.66 


1.52 


1.76 


9x12 


.53 


1.08 


1.40 


10x20) 


.94 


2.40 


2.16 


9x14 


.58 


1.67 


1.50 


12x14 


.68 


1.72 


2.03 


9x16 


.76 


1.80 


1.66 


12x20 1 


.03 


2.78 


2.80 



NET PRICES OF 4 LT 



W 


Price 
Without 
Glass 




g-StJi 

e3 M C 


|| 


HI 


Price 
Without 
Glass 


J2 

Jif 


1 


or 


10x16 


$0.38 


$0.71 


$1.10 


1 14x20 


$0.49 


$1.04 




$1.40 


10x24 


.43 


.86 


1.26 


14x24 


.49 


1.14 




1.40 


10x30 


.50 


1.14 


1.50 


14x28 


.54 


1.32 




1.50 


10x36 


.70 


1.72 


1.76 


14x32 


.60 


1.53 


'2.24 


1.66; 


12x16 


.41 


.80 


1.10 


14x36 


.65 


1.70 


2.52 


1.94 


12x24 


.46 


1.03 


1.26 


14x40 


.72 


1.96 


2.78 


2.10) 


12x28 


.50 


1.14 


1.40 


14x44 


1.00 


2.83 


3.75 


2.33 


12x36 


.62 


1.48 


1.77 


14x48 


1.16 


3.31 


4.36 


2.50 


12x40 


.68 


1.75 


1.94 


15x20 


.62 


1.44 





1.54 


12x44 


.96 


2.55 


2.33 


15x24 


.62 


1.60 


' 2.09 


1.54 


12x48 


1.12 


2.80 


2.50 


15x30 


.72 


1.90 


2.69 


1.80 










15x34 


.79 


2.24 


3,02 


2.09, 










15x38 


.86 


2,47 


3.3.3 


2.26; 










15x42 


.95 


2,94 


3.93. 


2.46 










15x4.8 


U9 


&Q1 


4.?0j 


2,7.5 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



NET PRICES OF 2 LT 



fe 


65 


66 


.!. 




. 


66 


66 


go 


III 


Sli 


t>- "fl 
P" GJ TO 


"3.9 


|j| 


g o a 


||| 


E'fi 


'n!s-^j 
PM.2 fl 


figO 


1-* 


IP 


"Sow 


ji^J 


j^O 


^y 5 


II 3 


oS 




O 02 


00 


* 






0$ 


00 


rj 


$0.40 


$0.75 


$0.95 


$0.96 


28x40 


$0.67 


$1.98 


$2.56 


$2.10 


.42 


.93 


1.23 


1.07 . 


28x44 


.80 


2.65 


3.36 


2.33 


.47 


.98 


1.38 


1.11 


28x48 


1.10 


3.75 


4.75 


2.50 


.65 


1.44 


1.94 


1.42 


30x24 


.57 


1.40 


1.95 


1.46 


.40 


.80 


1.04 


1.10 


30x32 


.58 


1.90 


2.49 


1.76, 


.44 


.99 


1.42 


1.40 


30x40 


.70 


2.32 


3.04 


2.16 


.59 


1.28 


1.83 


1.56 


30x44 


.98 


3.20 


4.05 


2.57 


.65 


1,57 


2.17 


1.76 


30x50 


1.21 


3.82 


4.86 


2.94 


.73 


1.88 


2.42 


1.94 


32x24 


.71 


1.60 


2.03 


1.69 


.40 


.88 


1.18 


1.10 


32x30 


.73 


2.22 


2.88 


1.90 


.40 


.93 


.22 


1.26 


32x36 


.77 




3.28 


2.26 


.44 


1.04 


.36 


1.40 


32x40 


1.00 




4.56 


2.49 


.49 


1.22 


.61 


1.56 


32x44 


1.15 




5.36 


2.96 


.55 


1.38 


.79 


1.76 


32x50 


1.40 




5.64 


3.28 


.73 


1.91 


2.48 


1.94 


34x24 


.88 


2.18 


2.68 


1.69 


.41 


.94 


.23 


1.10 


34x28 


.89 


2.48 


3.16 


1.73. 


.44 


1.03 


1.36 


1.34 


34x32 


.89 


.... 


3.50 


2.04 


.49 


1.20 


.55 


1.50 


34x36 


.96 


.... 


4.25 


2 26- 


.54 


1.45 


.88 


1.66 


34x40 


1.04 




4.59 


2.5 


.75 


2.22 


2.88 


1.94 


34x44 


1.26 


.... 


7.25 


3.46- 


.89 


2.66 


3.45 


2.32 


34x50 


1.46 




6.75 


3.45 


1.04 


2.80 


3.58 


2.48 


36x24 


.84 


1.96 


2.46 


1.82' 


.43 


.93 


1.24 


1.10 


36x30 


.85 


2.41 


3.06 


2.12 


.43 


1.07 


1.42 


1.26 


36x34 


.90 




3.67 


2.46 


.48 


1.19 


1.58 


1.40 


36x38 


.95 




4.52 


2.68 


.52 


1.37 


1.77 


1.56 


36x44 


1.33 


.... 


5.60 


3.04 


.59 


1.50 


1.95 


1.76 


36x50 


1.60 




7.52 


3.46 


.65 
.91 
1.06 


1.86 
2.68 
3.42 


2.41 
3.46 
4.30 


1.94 
2.32 

2.48 


40x24 
! 40x34 
! 40x38 


.94 
1.00 
1.05 


.... 


2.86 
3.76 
4.62 


2.03 
2.7& 
2.99> 


.47 


1.05 


1.45 


1.26 


! 40x44 


1.45 




6.81 


3.38; 


.47 


1.24 


1.67 


1.46 


44x30 


1.05 




4.07 


2.62: 


.52 


1.45 


1.90 


1.64 


44x34 


1.10 




4.65 


3.0* 


.58 


1.74 


2.24 


1.90 


44x38 


1.40 




6.75 


3.30 


.64 


1.94 


2.53 


2.06 


44x42 


1.49 




7.72 


3.58 


.70 

1.08 


2.19 
3.43 


2.84 
4.33 


2.24 
2.50 


48x30 
48x36 


1.17 
1.23 




4.71 
5.70 


2.87 
3.40) 


.51 


1.28 


1.77 


1.40 


48x40 


1.55 




7.22 


3.68; 


.51 


1.45 


1.90 


1.50 


48x44 


1.71 




10.06 




.56 


1.72 


2.23 


1.69 












.62 


1.93 


2.52 


1.94 













196 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



NET PRICES OF 2 LT PANTRY WINDOWS 



1|! Ill 111 1! 

XZ g g3 (8 

12x20 $0.35 $0.72 $0.84 

12x28 .40 .91 .94 

12x32 .54 1.22 1.06 

12x36 .60 1.41 1.24 



Per 
dow 
n 



1 

s ll g s g l-2 
ffi ^ ;cgo g3 



Pric 
Wi 



Outside 
Blinds 



14x20 $0.36 $0.74 $0.94 

14x26 .38 .91 .96 

14x30 .44 .96 1.10 

14x36 .62 1.42 1.26 



RULE FOR 1f" ODD WINDOWS 

For odd size windows If" thick, open or glazed, add to 
price of next larger listed size, 25% of the open price. If 
glazed, add to total 10%. 

RULE FOR If" SASH AND WINDOWS 

For price of If" open window add to price of If" open 
window 75%. 

Example: A 2 light 12x28 If" window would take the If" 
open price of 40c as given above plus 75%, which is 30c, 
making the price of the If" open window 70c net. 

For price of If" glazed window add to 1|" glazed window 
price, single or dbl strength, 75% of the open window price, 
plus an extra 10% to the total. 

Example: Follow example above adding the 30c to the 
glazed price of 91c, which makes $1.21 then add 10% to this, 
making the price of the glazed window $1.33. 

For 2" or 2 sash the price is dbl that already given. 
HOT BED SASH 



Size of Sash 
Ft In Ft In 

3 0x6 0. 
3 4x6 



Price Per Price Per 

Thickness Sash Sash 

Inches Without Glass Glazed 

If $1.05 $1.95 

If 1.09 2.15 

SASH EXTRAS TO BE ADDED TO PRICE 

For half circle head inside and outside, $1.15. 
For half circle inside and outside, If, $1.65. 
For half circle head inside and outside, but between 3' 4" 
and 5' wide, $2.70. 

For Half Circle Outside, sq inside, If, between 3'-4" and 

5' wide $2.55 

For Same, If 3.75 

For Segment Head, If" 50 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



197 



For Segment Head, If" $0.75 

For Segment Head, If" from 3-4 to 5 90 

For Segment Head, If" from 3-4 to 5 1.40 

In addition to these figures add 20% to the total when they 
are combined with the window chosen. These prices are for 
the window or 2 sash, and do not include frame. 
OIL FINISH: For really good oil finish work add 20% to 
price. 

NET PRICES ON WINDOW FRAMES 

This table of prices can be used for 2 light, 4 light, 8 light, 
or 12 light windows, simply taking the exact size or the next 
largest window size. 



Open 



ing Siz< 
for If 



Size of Window 
Sash 



Plain Drip Moulded Window Box Window 



Cap 
No Pulleys 
Knock Down 



2-4x5-8 and under $1 . 40 

2-4|x6-8 and under 1 . 57 

2-4|x7-8 and under 1 . 73 

2-4f x8-8 and under 1 . 89 

2-8|x5-8 and under 1 . 40 

2-8^x6-8 and under 1 . 57 

2-8|x7-8 and under 1 . 73 

2-8|x8-8 and under 1 . 89 

3-0|x5~8 and under 1 . 57 

3-Ojx6-8 and under 1 . 73 

3-Ojx7-8 and under 1 . 89 

3-0|x8-8 and under 2 . 00 

3-6|x5-8 and under 1 . 57 

3-6|x6-8 and under 1 . 73 

3-6jx7-8 and under 1 . 89 

3-6|x8-8 and under 2 . 00 

4-2jx5-8 and under 1 . 73 

4-2|x6-8 and under 1 . 89 

4-2|x7-8 and under 2 . 00 

4-2jx8-8 and under 2 . 15 

4-8|x5-8 and under 1 . 80 

4-8|x6-8 and under 1 . 95 

4-8|x7-8 and under 2 . 10 

4-8|x8-8 and under 2 . 25 

5-0x5-8 and under 1 . 80 

5-0|x6-8 and under 1 . 95 

5-0|x7-8 and under 2 . 10 

5-0^x8-8 and under 2 . 25 

6-0|x5-8 and under 1 . 95 

6-0^x6-8 and under 2 . 10 

7.-0 x7-8 and under 2 . 25 

o-Oifcx8-8 and under 2 . 40 



Frame 
No Pulleys 
Knock Down 

$1.60 
1.89 
2.10 
2.25 
1.60 
1.89 
2.10 
2.25 
1.80 
2.10 
2.25 
2.42 
1.89 
2.10 
2.25 
2.42 
2.10 
2.25 
2.42 
2.63 
2.15 
2.34 
2.52 
2.70 
2.15 
2.34 
2.52 
2.70 
2.34 
2.52 
2.70 
2.89 



Frame 
No Pulleys 
Knock Down 

$2.10 
2.31 
2.52 
2.75 
2.10 
2.31 
2.52 
2.75 
2.21 
2.42 
2.63 
2.84 
2.21 
2.42 
2.63 
2.84 
2.52 
2.75 
3.00 
3.21 
2.63 
2.84 
3.10 
3.30 
2.63 
2.84 
3.10 
3.30 
2.84 
3.10 
3.30 
3.52 



198 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



PULLEYS: Aftove prices do not include pulleys, pulley holes' 
or pockets. If plain pulleys are wanted with pulley holes 
<and pockets add 25c to each frame. 

Moulded cap frames, add to price of plain drip cap, each 
frame, 20c. 

For Iix4| outside casings, add to each frame 15c. 

For nailing frames together add extra each frame 25c at 
mill: On building, 50e for frame building; 65c for box 
frames. 

For frames made for sash If thick add 15c each. 

INSIDE DOOR JAMBS 

Inside door jambs are furnished knock down in the white; 
carefully bundled for shipments. The jambs are x5" with 
sides dadoed for head. Prices do not include stops. 

PRICES OF INSIDE DOOR JAMBS. 



Size Width 


Clear YP 


ll 


>- 
gg 
oS 


Jlo 


O O-u 

||l 


Clear 
QWOak 


2- 6x6-8 and smaller 


$0.60 


$0.95 


$0.84 


$0.70 


$0.50 


$1.63 


2- 6x7-8 and smaller 


.63 


1.05 


.94 


.75 


.55 


1.83 


2-10x6-8 and smaller 


.60 


.95 


.84 


.70 


.50 


1.63 


2-10x7-8 and smaller 


.63 


1.05 


.94 


.75 


.55 


1.83 


2-10x8-8 and smaller 


.70 


1.15 


1.05 


.80 


.58 


1.93 


3-10x6-8 and smaller 


.60 


1.10 


.90 


.75 


.52 


1.70 


3-10x7-8 and smaller 


.70 


1.15 


1.05 


.80 


.58 


1.93 


3-10x8-8 and smaller 


.73 


1.25 


1.15 


.84 


.63 


2.11 


4-10x6-8 and smaller 


.63 


1.05 


.94 


.75 


.55 


1.83 


4-10x7-8 and smaller 


.73 


1.15 


1.10 


.80 


.60 


2.00 


4-10x8-8 and smaller 


.77 


1.26 


1.20 


.90 


.65 


2.21 


5-10x6-8 and smaller 


.70 


1.15 


1.05 


.80 


.58 


1.93 


5-10x7-8 and smaller 


.73 


1.26 


1.15 


.84 


.63 


2.11 


5-10x8-8 and smaller. . . . 


.80 


1.36 


1.30 


.90 


.69 


2.31 


6-10x6-8 and smaller. . . . 


.73 


1.15 


1.10 


.80 


.60 


2.00 


6-10x7-8 and smaller. . . . 


.77 


1.26 


1.20 


.90 


.65 


2.21 


6-10x8-8 and smaller 


.84 


1.40 


1.36 


1.00 


.70 


2.42 


7-10x6-8 and smaller 


.73 


1.26 


.15 


.84 


.63 


2.11 


7-10x7-8 and smaller. . . . 


.80 


1.36 


.30 


.90 


.67 


2.31 


7-10x8-8 and smaller 


.90 


1.47 


.40 


1.05 


.73 


2.52 


8-10x7-8 and smaller 


.84 


1.40 


.36 


1.00 


.70 


2.42 


8-10x8-8 and smaller 


.94 


1.50 


.47 


1.10 


.75 


2.57 


8-10x9-8 and smaller 


.96 


1.60 


1.57 


1.15 


.80 


2.75 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



199 



For plain white oak jambs add to plain red oak prices 10%. 

For quartered red oak jambs deduct for quartered white 
oak prices 25%, 

For jambs made IV' wide add to above prices 33%. 

For jambs made 1" thick add to above prices 66%. 

For jambs made If" thick add to above prices 100%. 

Stock is only yp and plain red oak jambs x5 wide. All 
other jambs are special. For transom head jambs add for 
bar 40c. Take price of jamb required to make opening height 
plus 2" for bar. 
Example: Door 3-0x7-0 



Transom 



3-0x1-2 
2 

84 



Take price inside door jamb 
size, 3-10x8-8 and add 
40c for bar 



CASING, HOOK STRIP, 

BASE AND MOULDINGS STANDARD PATTERNS 
NET PRICES PER 100 LF 







Size 


AH 
fe! 
h 


a 

'S^j 

3 

r 


2 

| 



u 


4 


111 

*&& 

|ls 


|o 

O^ 

a 


Size - 


$x? J 




$1 05 


$206 


$1.78 


$1.59 


$1 05 


$4 10 


Size ' 


-2r7 J 




320 


600 


5.26 


4.35 


300 


11 99 


Size - 


HH5 J 




240 


475 


3.78 


3.15 


230 


900 


Size 


+ Y 1 




30 


73 


.63 


.57 


40 


1 50 


Size j 
Size 


$a. 

y jj 





3.20 
30 


6.00 
73 


5.26 
.63 


4 .35 
.57 


3.00 
40 


11.90 
1.50 


Size 


Jylj 




80 


1 50 


1.40 


1.10 


.80 


3.00 


Size 


rV7J 


k. 


3 20 


600 


5.26 


4.35 


300 


11.90 


Size - 


-jjx4 J 


k.. 


1 84 


355 


3.00 


2.63 


1.80 


7.10 


Size i 


^Y4> 


f 


200 


395 


3.36 


294 


2.00 


7.90 


Size i 


rjfa-fi 




273 


530 


4.63 


3 90 


2.60 


9.75 


Size 


fx33 





1.60 


3.00 


2.80 


2.40 


1.60 


6.00 



Stock is only yp and plain red oak. All other woods are 
special and take longer to ship. 

For plain white oak add to plain red oak prices 10%. 

For quartered red oak deduct from quartered white oak 
prices 25%. 

Cut lengths or specified lengths add 10% extra. 



200 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 
WINDOW STOOLS, PER 100' 









a 




~ 






j 


So 


I 


ert ^ 

~ a 
* 


3 



KM 

03 


Ji 




o 


I 







O 


Of 


Hx3 


$2 36 


$4 95 


$4 21 


$3 68 


$2 52 


q on 


lfx4f 


2 66 


5 68 


4 70 


4 10 


2 84 


11 25 

















PLATE RAIL: 3 membered, 3$" level, 4 upright pcs, 5c in 
yp; 8c in red oak per ft. 

QUARTER ROUND: Size f, yp, 40c per 100; red oak, 80c; 
i, 42c and 85c. 

PICTURE MOULD: In yp Ic; red oak, 2c per ft. 



DOOR AND WINDOW STOPS PER 100' 







1 






Is* 


o 




oSCL( 


PMO 


sSfQ 


c3 * 


oj| 


rt^ 




~K* 




P-i 


JJ ft 




O "*" 






i 







-2S o 


<3 


*x2 


$060 


$1 60 


$1 20 


$1 10 


$080 


$3 00 


*xl.. 


.48 


1.20 


1.12 


88 


64 


2 40 


Axlg 


.36 


.90 


.84 


66 


48 


1 80 




.30 


.80 


.70 


.55 


.40 


1.50 



CAP TRIM PER 100' 







.a 




, a 


Las 







c3 PH 


PMO 


c3cq 


c iu 


O ^i *:IB 


Jp* 


Size 


s^ 


i* 


^ 


.S a 


8Ss 


1 













o 1 " 


o* 


x2A 


$2.11 


$4 10 


$3.80 


$300 


$200 


$821 


x4A 


2.00 


3 75 


3.50 


2.75 


1 90 


750 


xl 


.35 


84 


.80 


.33 


.44 


1 72 


X2 1 


1.68 


3 15 


2.90 


2.27 


1.57 


625 


| X 2| 


1 78 


4 00 


3 36 


2 63 


1 83 


7 20 


^x5J 


2 26 


5 00 


4 20 


3 30 


2 26 


9 00 


x J.. 


1 20 


1 30 


1 30 


1 30 


1 30 


1 50 




2.10 


2.75 


2.75 


2.75 


2.75 


3.00 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



201 



PLAIN BASE AND CORNER BLOCKS 



Carried 4J and 
5 wide 


FM 

>* 


a 

*3O 

pjw 


pq 


I 


Quartered 
WO 


l*xlO 
l|xlO 


$0.04 
.04* 


$0.08 
08 


$0.10 
10 


$0.06 
06 


$0.15 
15 


1| thick 


.02? 


.05 


06 


04 


07$ 


li thick 


.02^ 


.05 


.06 


.04 


.07* 



PLAIN COLONIAL PORCH COLS: Built up plain cap and 
base cols, 6" diam, 30 to 40c per If; 8", 6', 33 to 56; 8", 10', 27 
to 42c; 10", 10', 36 to 51c. With carved wood caps add about 
$1.40 each. 

WITH COMPOSITION CAPS add from $1.50 to $3.00 for aver 
work. Some styles and sizes run to $6 and $12. 



LARGE SPECIAL PORCH COLUMNS 



Ha 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
20 
20 
20 
22 
22 
22 



_T5 fl 






- 



3 



J 





CQ 


l|| 


cs cvtsPQ 
J 


||| 


.9 <~H 

aal 


8 


$5.32 


$6.82 


$7.97 


$6.47 


$7.82 


$9.32 


9 


5.95 


7.45 


8.60 


7.10 


8.45 


9.95 


10 


6.78 


8.28 


9.38 


7.93 


9.28 


10.78 


12 


8.48 


10.48 


11.63 


9.63 


10.98 


12.98 


14 


11.45 


13.95 


15.10 


12.60 


13.95 


16.45 


8 


13.70 


14.80 


17.80 


16.70 


17.70 


18.80 


10 


14.55 


15.80 


18.80 


17.55 


18.55 


19.80 


12 


16.25 


17.65 


20.65 


19.25 


20.25 


21.65 


14 


18.45 


20.00 


23.00 


21.45 


22.45 


24.00 


16 


20.90 


22.65 


25.65 


23.90 


24.90 


26.65 


18 


23.60 


25.60 


28.60 


26.60 


27.60 


29.60 


20 


26.50 


28.80 


31.80 


29.50 


30.00 


32.80 


12 


22.00 


24.00 


28.00 


26.00 


27.50 


29.50 


14 


24.00 


26.25 


29.25 


28.00 


30.00 


31.75 


16 


26.50 


28.10 


32.10 


30.50 


32.00 


34.60 


18 


29.25 


32.25 


36.25 


33.25 


34.75 


37.75 


20 


32.25 


35.75 


39.75 


36.25 


37.75 


41.25 


16 


33.00 


36.50 


41.50 


38.00 


40.00 


43.50 


18 


35.20 


39.20 


44.20 


41.20 


42.20 


46.20 


20 


38.00 


42.50 


47.50 


43.00 


45.00 


49.50 


16 


41.50 


46.00 


52.50 


46.50 


50.70 


55.20 


18 


44.10 


49.10 


55.60 


48.10 


53.30 


58.30 


20 


47.60 


53.10 


59.60 


52.60 


56.80 


62.33 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



Large Special Porch Columns Continued 

*+* ^ *^N ^ ^ d ^ fl ^ ^ C^ ^ 





If 


na% 

ll 

fi 


V 


Iff Jlf Jl 1 llf 


24 


18 


47. 


75 


53. 


25 


59. 


75 


53 


25 


59.25 


64.75 


24 


20 


51. 


50 


57 


50 


64. 


00 


58 


.00 


63.00 


69.00 


24 


22 


55. 


50 


62, 


00 


68. 


50 


62 


.00 


67.00 


73.50 


24 


24 


60. 


10 


67 


.10 


73 


60 


66 


.60 


71.60 


78.60 


26 


20 


57. 


50 


64 


50 


73. 


50 


66 


.50 


72.00 


79.00 


26 


22 


61. 


60 


69 


,10 


78, 


10 


70 


.60 


76.10 


83.60 


26 


24 


66. 


50 


74 


,50 


83. 


50 


75 


.50 


81.00 


89.00 


28 


24 


74. 


50 


82, 


,50 


92 


50 


84 


.50 


93.50 


101.50 


28 


26 


80. 


15 


.88 


,65 


98, 


65 


89 


.15 


99.15 


107.65 


28 


28 


86.50 


95 


50 


105. 


50 


95 


,50 


105.50 


115.00 


30 


26 


90. 


50 


95 


.50 


110 


,50 


101 


.50 


115.00 


124.00 


30 


30 


101. 


60 


111 


,60 


122, 


60 


112 


.60 


126.10 


136.10 



:PEDESTAL COLONIALS: From 50c to 85c per If, plain. 

:SOLID BORED COLONIALS AND NEWELS: 25c to 41c, 

plain. 

:PORCH RAIL: T-op :2ix3$, 9c; bottom, Ifx3$, 4c. Smaller 

top, IfxSi, 4c. 

PORCH BALUSTERS: Size, 2J sq x 24, 9c turned; If sq, 5c. 

,Sq Ifxl|x24, 3c. 

PANTRY DRAWER CASES: In yp, not oiled, 40c per sq ft, 

,and 55c in red oak. 

'CHINA CLOSETS: Drawers below, glazed doors above, no 

'hardware or oiling, 75c in yp and $1 in red oak per sq ft. 

STAIRS NOT SET 

Plain oak or birch, no paneling under, 3 to 4' wide, no rough 
carriages, $70. 

In q s Red>Oak $80.00 

In q s White Oak 90.00 

In yp 60.00 

For a fairly ^ood stair that figure is enough. If soffits 
or walls are paneled, rails with crooks and newels of better 
than ordinary design an extra allowance must be made. 

A stair with newels, walls, soffits, etc, paneled, runs in yp 
'to $210; and in q s white oak .to $260. T4*e .above figures do 
mot include ^w.ork Of -painter. 



MILLWORK AND GLASS 



203 



PARLOR COLS: In red oak, from $7 to $8 each. Fluted $1 
extra. About T 6" high. 

HARDWOOD FLOORING 



LENGTHS 2 FT 16 FT 


3! 

x a 

* 


i'i 


1 


EN 


$1 


|a 

32 


Clear Maple Flooring. . . . 
-Select No. 1 Maple Floor- 
ing 


$30.00 


$37.50 
31.00 
48.00 
34.00 
65.00 
67.00 


$46.25 
39.00 
60.00 

93.50 


$47.50 
41.00 
65.00 

95.00 
100.00 


$50.00 
44.00 
62.00 
48.00 
95.00 
100.00 

70.00 
160.00 


$50.00 
44.00 
62.00 
48.00 
95.00 
100.00 

70.00 
160.00 


'Clear Plain Red or White 
Oak Flooring 


45.50 
32.00 
63.00 
65.00 


Select No. 1 Red or White 
Oak Flooring 


Clear Quarter Sawed Red 
Oak Flooring 


Clear Quarter Sawed. . . . 
White Oak Flooring. . . 
^Select Quarter Sawed Red 
or White Oak Flooring 
Cherry 


ioo.66 


ios.oo 







Strictly clear maple $12 extra.. 

The supply of hardwood is being rapidly diminished. On 
these and all hardwood prices a gradual rise will take place. 
HARDWOOD LUMBER 



Priced Rough 
or Surfaced 


Pi 
H 


!o 

* 


.s-g 

<3 t 

S3 


1 


I 

s 


"d 

P 

OP 


1 x 4 8'to 16' 


$48.00 


$72.00 


$46.00 


$61.00 


$42.00 


$94.00 


x 6 8 to 16' 


52.00 


76.00 


57.00 


72.00 


45.00 


117.00 


x 8 8 to 16' 


52.00 


79.00 


60.00 


75.00 


57.00 


132.00 


xlO 8 to 16' 


55.20 


87.00 


72.00 


79.00 


61.00 


169.00 


x!2 8 to 16' 


57.60 


94.00 


76.00 


82.00 


64.00 


229.00 


x!4 8 to 16' 


60.80 


97.00 


87.00 


87.00 


72.00 


229.00 


lx 4 8 to 16' 


56.00 


75.00 


49.00 


64.00 


49.00 


94.00 


x 6 8 to 16' 


56.00 


82.00 


62.00 


76.00 


62.00 


120.00 


x 8 8 to 16' 


56.00 


87.00 


64.00 


79.00 


67.00 


136.00 


xlO 8 to 16 f 


56,00 


102.00 


72.00 


87.00 


72.00 


229.00 


x!2 8 to 16' 


59.20 


102.00 


72.00 


87.00 


76.00 


229.00 


lx 4 8 to 16' 


57.60 


82.00 


62.00 


76.00 


62.00 


120.00 


x 6 8 to 16' 


57.60 


87.00 


64.00 


79.00 


67.00 


136.00 


x 8 8 to 16' 


57.60 


102.00 


72.00 


87.00 


72.00 


229.00 


xlO 8 to 16' 


57.60 


102.00 


72.00 


87.00 


76.00 


229.00 



If less than 500 ft and more than 250 ft add $5.00 per M. 
If less than 250 ft add $10.00 per M. 



204 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

MAHOGANY: This wood is too expensive to be much used 
in ordinary buildings. At New York, fob, cars, or ship, the 
aver cost per 1,000' bm, is: 

$120 for Cuba. 

$150 for Mexican. 

$200 for San Domingo. 

$250 for East Indian. 

This is for rough lumber. 

GRADING OF OAK FLOORING. 

In 1911 the manufacturers concluded to change the names 
of the grades on account of misunderstanding among con- 
tractors. The names were, Clear, Sappy Clear, Select, No. 
1 Common and Factory. Select and Clear were often con- 
fused. The new names are: 
Quarter Sawed 

A Grade. 

Sap Clear. 
Plain Sawed 

A Grade. 

B Grade. 

Common. 

Factory. 
Under the rules each bundle is stamped with the grade. 



CHAPTER XII 

GLASS 

About a dozen yrs ago all glass in good buildings was put 
in by the painter; now the planing mills have monopolized 
most of the business. They usually do 'it cheaper, for they 
buy their glass by the car-load, and they have boys who do 
their work so fast that the ordinary painter has to stand 
aside and watch. But about 20,000 lights of 10x14 for No. 7 
and other buildings were put in by a local glazier at lc each 
and the millmen put in about as many more on the same 
plant. 

It is the less necessary to give prices here as they are in- 
cluded in millwork. Only a few selected sizes are priced as 
a basis of estimating when not within reach of the lists which 
are furnished by the dealers. Here it is well to caution the 
estimator about the discounts. A discount of 50, 10 and 5, 
for example, does not equal 65, but only 57|. First deduct 
50%, then 10% of the result, and finally 5% of the last figure. 
Thus if the list price is $100 a discount of 50% leave $50; 
10% of that is $5 to be deducted, leaving $45; 5% of that is 
$2.25 which deducted leaves the real price $42.75. It is not 
only in glass where this holds, but in every kind of material 
with more than 1 discount. A large Chicago house recently 
had to warn its customers against this wrong idea which 
seems to be prevalent. 

DISCOUNTS: The glass discounts now (1913) are on com- 
mon glass 88 unset; on plate glass, all sizes, 89, also unset. 
Get latest list from local dealer. The quality estimated is 
usually A not AA or B. (See "Sash" in Chap XI.) For 
fewer than 3 lights of plate boxing is charged at 6c per sq ft. 

PRICES: The price of a large order is naturally cut for 
ordinary purposes the following prices are unset at 90% dis- 
count from list for common; and plate 80: 75 and- 10. 

205 



206 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



Size S S 
10x14 6.5c 
12x18 10.9 
12x48 43.8 
16x36 40.7 
16x60 
20x72 



D S Size D S 
9.8c 24x48 $1.42 
16.1 30x36 1.17 
55.8 36x36 1.42 
54.5 42x72 5.52 
1.09 48x80 7.59 



Plate 

6x 6 $ .07 
lOx 24 .48 
lOx 72 2.70 

8x120 4.88 
24x 24 1.35 



Plate 

36x170 $30.40 
48x 48 10.40 
48x144 34.60 
48x218 80.00 
60x 96 32.60 



1.88 60x70 7.59 24x 84 9.10 72x138 49.60 
28x168 22.20 84x138 190.60 
36x 72 11.70 120x218 454.20 



Leaded ds glass, no color; price from 40 to 80c per sq ft. 
Leaded beveled plate: from $1.50 to $3 per sq ft. If set in 
copper instead of lead add 45c per sq ft. 



Sand-blast : 20 to 70c 

Wheel-cut: 75c. 

Chipped: single-process, 15c; 

dbl, 17c. 

Maze: |, 13c; 3-16, 18c. 
Enameled: clear, 15c; obscure, 

17c. 
Ground: 14c. 



Venetian: , 15c; 3-16, 17c 
Cathedral: 12c. 

Opalescent: 20c. 

Ribbed for skylights: 9 to 12c " 

Wire: 20 to 23c; polished wire, 

$1 to $1.50. 
Sidewalk: 20c and up. 



MIRRORS: The cost of a few sizes is given. Beveled plate, 
no frame: 

20x24 $2.75 

18x30 3 .00 

24x36 6.15 

36x36 8 . 55 

24x48.. .8.80 



PUTTY AND SETTING: The 10x14 lights in No. 7 were 
bedded and set for l^c each, but no material was furnished. 
Allow about Ifc per sq ft as an aver for a reasonable number 
of lights. Allow 1-25 Ib of putty per If around edge of glass. 
The 20,000 lights of No. 7 took 2,800 Ibs. With 80,000 If, this 
is 1-28 Ib. A smaller lot only 345 If took 1-23 Ib. Amount 
varies with depth of rabbet, bedding, etc. Thus on 1,900 
lights 10x14, 565 Ibs were used, or nearly twice as much. 
The putty might not be properly pressed; the rabbet was a. 
trifle deeper. Large lights require more glaziers' points than 
small allow 1 to every 6 to 9 inch. 



GLASS 207 

On 10,000 sq ft of galv iron skylight 2,400 Ibs of putty were 
used. 

Plate glass costs about 10% of price for setting. Skylight, 
glass, 8c per sq ft. Floor and sidewalk, 5c per sq ft. 
WEIGHT: Common glass, ss, 1.25 Ibs to sq ft; ds, 1.6; plate,, 
3 Ibs, but weight of all glass varies. Some lights of plate 011 
No. 9 were only half as heavy as others. To get weight of 
plate glass box mult sq ft of surf by 10 and the result is in 
Ibs. The complete work, including steel framework of sky- 
light in place on No. 7, weighs 8 Ibs. - 

The following weights are listed for roof glass the thick- 
ness is given in fractions of an inch, and the weight in Ibs: 
4, 2; &, 2i; i, 34; f, 5; 4, 7; f, 8*; f, 10; 1 inch, 12. 

TRANSLUCENT FABRIC: A substitute for skylight glass* 
15c sq ft. 

SALVAGE: For plate glass 90 and 20 from list. 

PRISM GLASS 

The following table is an approximate retail price list of 
3-way sheet prisms and vault-light construction, set complete: 

Per sq ft 

3 Way Sheet Prisms $0.30 

3 Way Sheet Prisms, Wired 50 

3 Way 4" or 5" Tiles Glazed, in Hard Metal 80 

3 Way 4" or 5" Tiles Glazed, in Hard Metal, Copper Plated. . .85 
3 Way 4" or 5" Tiles Glazed, in Hard Metal, Solid Copper. ... 1.00 
Vault Light Construction, Galvanized, 3 Way Lens (plain).. . 1.50 

Vault Light Construction, Galvanized, 3 Way Prism 1.60 

Vault Light Construction, Galvanized, 3 Way Lens (plain) 

Wired 1.90 

Vault-Light Construction, Galvanized Prism Wired. . . 2.00 

LUXFER PRISM: Sheet 30c sq ft; 3-way, 3,5,0; 4x4 sidewalk, 

unset, $1. Set complete, from $1.75 to $3.75, depending upgn 

kind. 

ACTUAL: For 40"x40" lights, unset, $4; 12 lights 20"x22\ 

30c each. 

The following table of Chicago prices saves the time of 
figuring, if one remembers that freight has to be allowed, and{ 
that dealers ask for larger prices, especially on small orders;- 



208 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



NET PRICES OF COMMON WINDOW GLASS 



SIZES 


X 

o 

i-fl 

03 
l| 


Price per Box 
Single Str'ngth 


|f 
I 


Price per Light 
Single Str'ngth 


It 

^g 
G02 

8-s 

3 


SIZES 


*& 

$* 

If 


* 
&$ 

'r- t* 
ftM 

<*> 
.2 Hi 

" a 
^ 


If 

Kg 

M 

o^ 
n,o 
*Q 


Price per Light 
Single Str'ngth 


It 

si 

O.02 

Is 


7x 9 


115 


$2.30 




S .02* 




18x30 


14 


82.85 


$4.45 


$ .26 


$ .42 


8x10 


90 


2.30 


. . . . 


.03} 


. . 


18x32 


13 


2.85 


4.45 


.28 


.44 


8x12 


75 


2.30 


. . . 


.04 


. 


18x48 


8 




5.10 




.81 


8x14 


64 


2.30 


. 


.04$ 


.'. 


18x56 


7 




5.65 




1.03 


9x12 


67 


2.30 


. 


.04* 


! '. .'. 


20x20 


18 


2^85 


4.45 


!20 


.32 


9x14 


57 


2.30 


_ 


.05$ 




20x22 


16 


2.85 


4.45 


.23 


.36 


10x12 


60 


2.30 




.05 




20x24 


15 


2.85 


4.45 


.24 


.38 


10x14 


52 


2.30 




.05f 




20x26 


14 


2.85 


4.45 


.26 


.41 


10x16 


45 


2.40 




.07 


'.'. .'. 


20x28 


13 


2.85 


4.45 


.28 


.44 


10x18 


40 


2.40 


. 


.08 




20x30 


12 


2.85 


4.45 


.30 


.48 


10x20 


36 


2.40 




08 




20x32 


11 


2.94 


4.55 


.34 


.53 


10x22 


33 


2.40 




.09* 




20x36 


10 


3.12 


4.70 


.40 


.54 


10x24 


30 


2.40 




.10 




22x22 


15 


2.85 


4.45 


.24 


.38 


10x26 


28 


2.52 . ... 


.Hi 




22x24 


14 


2.85 


4.45 


.26 


.41 


10x28 


26 


2.52 


. 


.12$ 


.'. '. . 


22x26 


A3 


2.85 


4.45 


.28 


.44 


10x30 


24 


2.52 


. . . 


.13* 


. . '. ! 


22x28 


12 


2.85 


4.45 


.30 


.48 


12x14 


43 


2.40 


. 


.07* 




22x30 


11 


2.94 


4.55 


.34 


.53 


12x16 


38 


2.40 


. . . 


.08 


'. '. 


22x32 


10 


2.94 


4.55 


.38 


.58 


12x18 


34 


2.40 


. 


.09 


. 


22x36 


9 


3.12 


4.70 


.44 


.67 


12x20 


30 


2.40 




.10* 




24x24 


12 


2.85 


4.45 


.30 


.48 


12x24 


25 


2.52 


'. '.'. . 


.13 


. ! '. '. 


24x26 


12 


2.85 


4.45 


.31 


.49 


12x26 


23 


2.52 


. . . . 


.14 




24x28 


11 


2.94 


4.55 


.34 


.53 


12x28 


22 


2.52 


. 


.15 




24x30 


10 


2.94 


4.55 


.38 


.58 


12x30 


20 


2.65 




.17 




24x32 


10 


3.12 


4.70 


.40 


.60 


12x32 


19 


2.65 


' ] ' ' 


.18 


.'. .'. 


24x36 


9 


3.12 


4.70 


.44 


.67 


12x34 


18 


2.65 




.19 




24x40 


8 


3.35 


5.05 


.55 


.81 


12x36 


17 


2.65 


* 


.20 




26x26 


11 


2.94 


4.55 


.34 


.53 


12x40 


15 


2.70 




.23 




26x28 


10 


2.94 


4.55 


.40 


.60 


14x16 


32 


2.40 


. 


.10 


. 


26x30 


9 


3.12 


4.70 


.44 


.67 


14x18 


29 


2.40 




.11 




26x32 


9 


3.12 


4.70 


.45 


.68 


14x20 


26 


2.40 


'. '.'.'. 


.12 


.'. .'. 


26x34 


8 


3.12 


4.70 


.55 


.80 


14x22 
14x24 


24 
22 


2.52 
2.52 





.13* 
.14* 




26x36 
26x38 


8 

7 


3.35 
3.35 


5.05 
5.05 


.56 
.63 


.81 
.92 


14x26 


20 


2.52 




.16 




26x40 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.64 


.93 


14x28 


19 


2.65 




.18 




28x28 


9 


3.12 


4.70 


.44 


.66 


14x30 


17 


2.65 




.20 




28x30 


9 


3.12 


4.70 


.45 


.67 


14x32 


16 


2.65 




.21 




28x32 


8 


3.12 


4.70 


.55 


.80 


14x34 


15 


2.65 




.23 




28x34 


8 


3.35 


5.05 


.56 


.81 


14x36 


14 


2.65 




.24 




28x36 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.63 


.92 


14x40 


13 


2.70 




.27 




28x38 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.64 


.93 


16x20 


23 


2.70 


$i!io 


.14 


$ 23 


28x40 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.65 


.94 


16x24 


19 


2.70 


4.10 


.17 


28 


30x30 


8 


3.35 


5.05 


.55 


.81 


16x26 


17 


2.86 


4.45 


.20 


34 


30x32 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.63 


.92 


16x28 


16 


2.86 


4.45 


.21 


36 


30x34 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.64 


.93 


16x30 


15 


2.85 


4.45 


.24 


38 


30x36 


7 


3.35 


5.05 


.65 


.94 


16x40 


11 




4.70 




54 


30x40 


6 




5.05 


.65 


1.07 


16x44 


10 




4.70 




60 


30x44 


6 




5.52 




1.18 


18x20 


20 


2!70 


4.10 


'.22 


26 


30x48 


5 


! ! ! 


5.52 




1.42 


18x22 


18 


2.85 


4.45 


.20 


32 


32x32 


7 




5.04 




.92 


18x24 


17 


2.85 


4.45 


.22 


34 


32x34 


7 




5.04 




.93 


18x26 


16 


2.85 


4.45 


.23 


36 


32x36 


6 




5.04 




1.07 


18x28 


14 


2.85 


4.45 


.26 


41 


32x40 


6 


... 


5.52 




1.18 



GLASS 



20<> 



Net Prices of Common Window Glass Continued 





_ o 


g 


J! 


ita 


|| 




S 8 


81, 


P 


If 


iS 




rM 


J3 


w a 


j. fl 






w 


JF^ 


w a 


3 $ 


i3 


SIZES 


Number 
Lights in 


.H"5b 




Price per '. 
Single Str 


23 


SIZES 


Numbei 
Lights in 


ft2 

a 




Price per ' 
Single Str 


.23 


32x44 


5 




$5.52 




$1.42 


40x46 


4 




$6.00 




$1.92 


32x48 


5 




5.52 




1.43 


40x48 


4 




6.00 




1.93 


34x40 


6 




5.52 




1.18 


40x50 


4 




6.00 




1.94 


34x44 


5 




5.52 




1.42 


44x44 


4 




6.60 




2,12 


34x48 


5 




5.64 




1.45 


44x46 


4 




6.60 




2.13 


36x36 


6 




5.52 




1.18 


44x48 


3 




6.75 




2.87 


36x40 


5 




5.52 




1.42 


44x50 


3 




6.75 




2.88 


36x44 


5 




5.52 




1.43 


46x48 


3 




6.75 




2.87 


36x48 


4 




5.64 




1.81 


48x48 


3 




7.90 




3.38 


40x40 


5 




5.52 




1.42 


48x50 


3 




7.90 




3.39 


40x44 


4 




5.64 




1.81 


50x56 


3 




9.60 




4.11 



CHAPTER XIII 

STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 

MEASUREMENT: The rule for estimating this work is very 
simple: It is, "Get the exact weight and mult by the exact 
price." The trouble is in getting both. 

CAST IRON: If the pattern is made an approx figure may 
be had by mult the weight of new wp of 16; of old wood by 
17; the quotient will be in Ibs. Or another and better way 
is to varnish the pattern, put in a tank of water, get the 
displacement in ci and mult by .26 for the weight in Ibs. 
Unfortunately architects have not yet been educated to the 
point of furnishing patterns with their specifications, and we 
have to follow the old rules of measurement which are not so 
sure as the dipping process. The bases and capitals of cast 
iron cols, lugs, straps, horns, bands, swells, and all odd work 
have to be measured or guessed as carefully as possible. 
we have only a few cols a slight error does not count so much, 
but with 100 it is different. 

And this brings us to an important point that has to be 
considered. Are there 100 cols or only 2? If they are not 
of stock patterns it means a good deal of difference in the 
price. In the first case the cost of the special pattern is di- 
vided among 100; in the last, between 2. Here, as elsewhere, 
it pays to use stock patterns. (See Chap XXIV on Standard 
Sizes.) Stock shafts are carried in foundries, and, if pos- 
sible, special caps and bases made to suit design. 

PATTERN: The only way for an estimator to get the value 
of a pattern is to take off the lumber wp at $80 per M in 
'Our day and then judge the amount of labor that is neces- 
sary to uaake it. Where there are many castings this is 
hardly necessary as the cost is divided. 

WEIGHTS: The weight of cast-iron is usually put at 450 Ibs 
to the cf, or a trifle more th.an ,26 per ci. This is I Ib added 

210 



STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 211 

to 1-100 lb for those who are so lazy as not to understand 
decimals. At a distance from tables the rule is easily re- 
membered: Get the ci and mult by .26 lb. A plate 44x68x|" 
weighs 583.44 Ibs. By using .26 the loss is only a little more 
than f Ibs to 450, and this is close enough for estimating. 

A column 12' long, 10" in diam outside, with 1" metal, 
weighs 1,059 Ibs without any base or cap. As the metal is 
1" thick the inside size is 8"; find the ci in a col of 10" diam 
and in one of 8"; subtract the difference and mult by .26. 
An easily remembered rule for all circles is that they are to 
each other as the sq of their diam. Thus 2 cisterns 8 and 
9' diam hold water in the proportion of 64 and 81; a pipe 
4' diam has 4 times as much sectional area as one 2'. To get 
the. area of a circle mult the sq of the diam by .7854. The sq 
of a 10" col is 100, which mult by .785478.54; mult by 144" 
the length gives 11,309.76 ci. The sq of the diam of 8 is 
64, mult by .7854=50,2656, which mult by 144 gives 7238,246 
ci, a difference of 4071.51 ci, which mult by .26=1,059 Ibs. 

The foregoing illustration will serve for odd work: the fol- 
lowing table will save the trouble of figuring regular sizes. 
Cap and base are not included. Outside diam and thickness 
of metal are given in inches: weight per ft in Ibs: 



WEIGHT OF COLUMNS 

Diam Thickness Weight Diam Thickness Weight Diam Thickness Weight 

6 \ 26.95 8 li 82.71 11 1 98.03 

6 | 38.59 9 | 60.65 11 H 119.46 

6 I 43.96 9 1 78.40 11 1J 139.68 

6 1 49.01 9 H 94.94 11 If 158.68 

6 1J 53.76 9 l\ 110.26 11 2 176.44 

7 I 45.96 9 If 124.36 12 1 107.51 
7 1 58.90 10 1 88.23 12 1J 131.41 

7 li 64.77 10 U 107.23 12 1J 154.10 

8 | 53.29 10 l\ 124.99 12 1| 175.53 
8 1 68.64 10 1| 141.65 12 2 195.75 



212 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

WEIGHT OF SQUARE CAST IRON COLS IN LBS PER LF 
(Birkmire) 



9 

2a + 
2b 


Thickness of Metal in In 


H 


H 


Vs 


1 


IX 


IK 


m 


1M 2 


*12 


18.6 


21.1 


23.3 


25.0 


26 A 


27.3 


28.1 






14 


22.5 


25.8 


28.7 


31.3 


33.4 


35.1 


37.5 






16 


26.4 


30.5 


34.2 


37.5 


40.4 


43.0 


46.9 


49.2 


50.0 


18 


30.3 


35.2 


39.7 


43.8 


47.4 


50.8 


56.3 


60.2 62.5 


20 


34.2 


39.8 


45.1 


50.0 


54.5 


58.6 


65.6 


71.1 75.0 


22 


38.1 


44.5 


50.6 


56.3 


61.5 


66.4 


75.0 


82.0 


87.5 


24 


42.0 


49.2 


56.1 


62.5 


68.5 


74.2 


84.4 


93.0 


100.0 


26 


45.9 


53.9 


61.5 


68.8 


75.6 


82.0 


93.8 


103.9 112.5 


28 


49.8 


58.6 


67.0 


75.0 


82.6 


89.8 


103.1 


114.8 125.0 


30 


53.7 


63.3 


72.5 


81.3 


89.6 


97.7 


112.5 


125.8 


137.5 


32 


57.6 


68.0 


77.9 


87.5 


96.7 


105.5 


121.9 136.7 


150.0 


34 


61.5 


72.7 


83.4 


93.8 


103.7 


113.3 


131.3 


147.7 ! 162.5 


36 


65.4 


77.3 


88.9 


100.0 


110.7 


121.1 


140.6 


158.6 j 175.0 


38 


69.3 


82.0 


94.3 


106.3 


117.8 


128.9 


150.0 


169.5 187.5 


40 


73.2 


86.7 


99.8 


112.5 


124.8 


136.7 


159.4 


180.5 200.0 


42 


77.1 


91.4 


105.3 


118.8 


131.8 


144.5 


168.8 


191.4 212.5 


44 


81.0 


96.1 


110.8 


125.0 


138.8 


152.3 


178.1 


202.3 ! 225.0 


46 


84.9 


100.8 


116.2 


131.3 


145.9 


160.2 


187.5 


213.3 


237.5 


48 


88.8 


105.5 


121.7 


137.5 


152.9 


168.0 


196.9 224.2 


250.0 


50 


92.8 


110.2 


127.2 


143.8 


159.9 


175.8 


206.3 


235.2 


262.5 


52 


96.7 


114.8 


132.6 


150.0 


167.0 


183.6 


215.6 


246.1 


275.0 


54 


100.6 


118.5 


138.1 


156.3 


174.0 


191.4 


225.0 


257.0 


287.5 


56 


104.5 


124.2 


143.6 


162.5 


181.0 


199.2 


234.4 


268.0 


300.0 


58 


108.4 


128.9 


149.0 


166.8 


188.1 


207.0 


243.8 


278.9 1 312.5 


60 


112.3 


133.6 


154.5 


175.0 


195.1 


214.9 


253.2 


289.8 1 325.0 


62 


116.2 


138.3 


160.0 


181.3 


202.1 


222.7 


262.5 


300.8 


337.5 


64 


120.1 


143.0 


165.4 


187.5 


209.2 


230.5 


271.9 


311.7 


350.0 


66 


124.0 


147.7 


170.9 


193.8 


216.2 


238.3 


281.3 


322.7 


362.5 


68 


127.9 


152.3 


176.4 


200.0 


223.2 


246.1 


290.6 


333.6 


375.0 


70 


131.8 


157.0 


181.8 


206.3 


230.3 


253.9 


300.0 


344.5 


387.5 


72 


135.7 


161.7 


187.3 


212.5 


237.3 


261.7 


309.4 


355.5 


400.0 


74 


139.6 


166.4 


192.8 


218.8 


244.3 


269.5 


318.8 


366.4 


412.5 


76 


143.5 


171.1 


198.3 


225.0 


251.3 


277.3 


328.1 


377.3 


425.0 


78 


147.4 


175.8 


203.7 


231.3 


258.4 


285.2 


337.5 


388.3 


437.5 


80 


151.3 


180.5 


207.2 


237.5 


265.4 


293.0 


346.9 


399.2 1 450.0 



* A and b = either side (outside measurement). 2a + 2b = number, 
ance has been made in above table for corners counted twice. 



Allow- 



EXAMPLE: What is the weight per If of a 12"xl6"xl" thick 
col? 



STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 213 

ANS : 2a + 2b = 24 -f 32 = 56. Opposite this number, 
under 1 inch thick metal, we find 162.5, which is weight per 
If in Ibs for a col of this size. 

WRT IRON: The weight of all structural iron and steel 
is marked on plans, so that there is no difficulty in 
getting the total. The weight of cast-iron separators, bolts, 
rosettes, etc, has to be allowed extra for I beams. Some sepa- 
rators have 2 bolts; others only 1. Beams under 5" have sepa- 
rators f thick; 6 to 15, ; 20 to 24, f. Weight is, of course, 
regulated by depth and spread of beams. Get ci and mult by 
.26 Ib if tables are not convenient. 

RIVETS: After getting the weights of the structural frame 
add the rivets, according to the number, and weight as 
given in the tables of the steel mill books. A shorter way is 
to allow 2% of aver work for rivets, when exactness is not 
necessary. 

Diam of rivet for plates less than \" thick = twice 
the thickness of the plate. 

Diam of rivets for plates \" thick and upwards = once 
and a half the thickness of the plate. 

Length of rivet measured before clinching = the thick 
ness of the plate -j- 2 times the diam of the rivet. 

WEIGHTS, BRASS, COPPER, LEAD: The weight of 
wrought iron is 480 Ibs to cf, or practically .28; while steel 
is 490 Ibs. Jones & Laughlin give .263 for cast iron; .281 for 
wrt; .283 for cast steel. 

Wrt iron and steel do not have to be reduced to ci so 
often as cast iron, because table of sheet, flat, round, sq and 
all shapes are ready at hand. Some find it convenient to re- 
member that a bar of iron 1" sq, 3' long weighs 10 Ibs. The 
weight of wrt iron mult by 1.082 gives brass; 1.444 copper; 
1.47 lead. 

THE TWO TONS: It is a hard matter for a building con- 
tractor to remember that the weight of steel rails is given 
by the yd not the ft and that the gross ton of 2,240 
Ibs is used instead of the short ton of 2,000. 



214 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LABOR SETTING IRON AND STEEL 

Contractors usually allow $5 per ton of 2,000 Ibs to set 
aver work. Sometimes it can be set for $3.50. On plain work 
close to ground $2.75 has been found to be enough on 100 tons. 
It depends upon the size of the material, height, etc. For 
store fronts $5 is a fair figure. The fronts of Nos. 5 and 6 
were set for about this price. On No. 2 with 70 tons the cost 
was $4.50, but the material was set all over the fireproof build- 
ing and clear to roof. Wages were $1.50 for common laborers 
who set it all. Hand derricks were used in both illustrations. 
With a steam derrick such work can be done for about $3.50. 
Both cast iron and steel are included in figures. But work 
done in a basement for alterations, or in the upper story of 
an occupied building at night, with extra pay, might run up 
to $50 per ton. Each case of this kind differs. 

All of the foregoing work was set with common labor 
and the rules of the union do not permit any laborer to 
handle steel. Of course the aver job does not require 
structural iron workers, but where they are used, the cost 
runs higher, although they handle more in proportion to their 
number than laborers. The wage is now 40c per hour for 
men and 47|c for foremen. On all large steel work they are 
cheaper in the long run than laborers; but it seems that they 
ought to have their due proportion of them as other trades 
do. Work like that shown on No. 13 would cost more if set 
by laborers only than by tradesmen. 

SHOP BUILDINGS: A fair figure for No. 13 which shows 
the framework of No. 7 is $8 per ton of 2,000 Ibs to set and 
do field riveting. It was done for $7. 

DRILLING CONCRETE: This does not include drilling 
holes in the concrete to hold rag-bolts. Drilling 7 holes 
U"x29" takes 2 laborers 1 day of 9 hours by hand, but the 
state of the concrete, soft or hard, has to be considered. Allow 
10 holes at 23" deep. Some contractors build in wood and with- 
draw it afterwards for bolts, and although this is not such 
an accurate method for centering it is so much cheaper that 
most prefer it. Or a bolt may be set in pipe with room to 



STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 215 

move far enough to catch the holes. If a template is used 
there is not much danger of missing connections. 
Merely for a rough approximate idea the following figures 

are useful: 



WEIGHT OF STEEL ON HIGH BUILDINGS 

On buildings up to 11 stories high, an approximate weight 
of steel is as follows, per sq ft of floor area, not ground area: 

Apartment Houses and Hotels with Outside Frames 14 Ibs 

Office Buildings as above 23 Ibs 

Warehouses as above 28 Ibs 

Apartment Houses and Houses without Outside Frames 9 Ibs 

Office Buildings as above. e 15 Ibs 

Warehouses as above 18 Ibs 

WEIGHT OF STEEL PER SQ FT OF GROUND AREA 

Machine and Erecting Shop, 25 Ibs Car Shops 10 lb& 

Blacksmith Shop 10 Ibs Paint Shops 10 Ibs 

Foundries 20 Ibs 

WEIGHT OF STEEL TRUSSES 

For 53' span 3. 5 tons For 105' span 9.0 tons 

For 175' span 10.3 tons For 125' span 22.0 tons 

For 80' span 6.5 tons 

Steel for roof trusses, I beams, plate girders, etc, is not 
bought by detailed parts, but in a lump for each class at the 
works. 

Trusses in the east or Chicago, about 3.3c per Ib; in Omaha 
about 3.8c; I beams, 2.7 and 3c. 

RIVETS: Approximately there are 10 field rivets to the ton. 
A safe figure is lOc each. An air riveter on straight work 
rivets about 400 to 500 in a day of 8 hours. This includes 
moving of scaffolds. The Omaha Auditorium, however, with 
500 tons of steel, had 11,000 field rivets, or 22 to the ton. 

HEAVY GIRDERS: Something has to be allowed for dif- 
ferent classes of work. On No. 13 there are 36 girders 3' 6" 
wide x 22' long. The setting of them soon counts in tonnage. 
With these were other heavy girders, in all about 2,100 If. 
But with train-sheds where light sections are used and where 
there are more changes of scaffolding the $8 price would run 



216 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

to at least $10. The lightest steel on No. 13 was the truss 
which was 5 tons. The Omaha Auditorium trusses are 10 
tons each. But the steel on this huilding took at least $12, 
as angle work of gallery, height of trusses, extra riveting, etc, 
made work more difficult. * x 

On No. 13 the steel was set and riveted for $6.50 but wages 
were lower than on No. 14, as laborers were used on former. 
Building is also lower. About i of total was required for 
riveting. The time on both buildings includes setting der- 
ricks, scaffolding, and unloading from cars. 

HIGH COSTS: Before leaving the erection of steel it is bet- 
ter to look at the other view, for, as with the laying of brick, 
there is another. No. 13 cost, with contractor's profit, $7; 
No. 14, actual, $6.50; No. 8, the largest building, for about 
800 tons, $7.90; at the outside $10 should be enough. In 
''Carpentry and Building," now "Building Age," there is an 
article on the erection of structural steel on high buildings. 
The article complains of the high cost of building in New 
York as compared with other cities, and says that with the 
same number of hours per day and the same rate of wages 
steel erection costs from 2^ to 3 times as much as elsewhere. 
"It is no wonder that structural erection costs $15 to $18 a 
ton in this city as compared with $6.50 to $8 in other cen- 
ters of building activity. A hand riveter who could easily 
aver from 250 to 300 rivets a day contents himself in this city 
with 80. In other cities on straight work a good man fin- 
ishes up 80 an hour. The pneumatic riveter in almost any 
other city will drive 1,500 to 2,000 rivets in a day against 250 
to 300 in New York." 

AVERAGES: "All extremes are wrong." Between 80 in a 
day and 80 in an hour, or 640 in a day, there are quite a 
few laps. On the one side we have the loafer who is a pest, 
on the other hand the theorist who makes us yawn. An aver 
day's work at shingling may be found elsewhere in this book 
there are men who do several times as much, but I would 
not allow them to lay a shingle on a house I meant to keep. 

RIVETING: I asked a man who has passed his life among 
steel put up in all sorts of places and fashions, " Could a 



STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 217 

pneumatic riveter finish 1,500 rivets in a day on a building?" 
"No, it could not," he answered; "and more than that, it 
could not be done even on a shop floor where there is no 
climbing among scaffolding. I have one in the shop and I 
know what it can do. A good aver is 500 on a building." 

RIVETING: After getting local authority I was handed a 
report of Mr. A. B. Manning of the M. K. & T. R. R. to the 
Annual Convention of the Railway Superintendents of Bridges 
and Buildings, in which he discussed riveting: "With pneu- 
matic riveting hammers I find that 2 men and 1 heater can 
aver in 10 hours 500 rivets, whereas by hand 250 rivets more 
often less was a good day's work for 3 men and 1 heater. 
One day we drove 700 rivets by using an additional man to 
take out firing up bolts, etc. This was the work of one air 
hammer only." He gives the cost of hand riveting at 3.68c 
per rivet, and air riveting at 1.62c. 

MACHINE RIVETING: On 93,480 rivets in the Chicago ship- 
yards the machine rate ran from 1 to 2c, depending upon 
size, etc; the hand rate, from 2$ to 4J. The machine aver 
was 1.5c each; hand, 3.19. 

In Cramp's shipyard on 1,300,000 rivets the hand price for 
1" was 7c; machine, 3c; for f by hand, 5.5c; by air, 3c. 
Cramp sets machine riveting 40% cheaper than hand; the 
Chicago yard, 47%. Small work can not be done at anything 
like the same rate; and of course latitude counts for some- 
thing: the London & Northwestern Railway, for example, re- 
ports 120 rivets per hour per riveter. 

LARGE WORK: The importance of reliable labor time is 
seen when we consider the size of such buildings as Nos. 7, 
8, and 14 all 150' wide, and from 310 to 486' long. The main 
building of the Rock Island plant at East Moline, 111., is 
276'-8"x860'. In "The Engineering News," New York, N. Y., 
there is a description of the plant and a summary of the 
amount of building material. Steel is 2,400 tons; and cast- 
iron, 150. The U. P. and O. S. L. plants, as far as built, have 
together somewhat less than this tonnage. It is important 
to know if it can be set for $7 or whether $12 is required as 
the difference amount to $12,000. Other items in the R. L 



218 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

total are 22,000 bbls Port cement; 6,000,000 brick; 5,000,000 
ft lumber; 64,000 sq ft factory ribbed glass; 4,200 sqs roofing. 
A labor difference of $1 per M in the brick makes a nice little 
sum. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe locomotive shop is 
154'x852'; the "Reading", 204'x750'. 

SKYSCRAPER RIVETING: On an 18-story building in St. 
Louis f" rivets cost 20 to 25c, and f", 13 to 17c, on col and 
beam work, with foremen's wages from 60 to 75c per hour. 

CRANES: For erecting large electric cranes allow $3 per 
ton. If they are not put directly in place from the cars but 
have to be unloaded, $1.50 extra. Much, however, depends 
upon facilities; 4 cranes of 143 tons have been recently set 
for $300. 

SHEET STEEL: To lay sheet steel over large surf, 2c per 
sq ft; on doors, 4c. 

TANKS: A common way of estimating the complete labor 
on tanks round or sq is to allow 4c per rivet, but this is on 
the basis of compressed air. A tank 9' diam x 12 high is 
worth about $200; 15' diam x 12, $375.00 complete. A 10,000 
gall galv tank, $800; 2,500 galv, $270, with equipment. 

PRICE: At present the price of steel is high; a few years 
from now it may be low. On cars, Omaha, it is $65 to $70 
per ton but a good deal depends upon quantity. Cast iron 
is now worth 2 1 /& to 3%c per Ib. Lintels and columns 2c per 
Ib. and up; sill and base plates, 3c and up. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

PRISM LIGHTS, COAL HOLE COVERS: Hyatt or Prismatic 
lights are worth about $1.50 per sq ft; Luxfer prisms com- 
plete, $1.75 to $3.75. Sidewalk or concrete lights in frame 
with glass, $1.75 to $2.50. Coal hole covers, prismatic, from 
$5 to $10 each, 20" to 24"; solid $1.50 to $4. With a coal hole 
cover the depth and weight are regulated by sidewalk; some- 
times it may be only 4", and again with a heavy brick arch 
it may be 13. (See also "Vault Lights," Chap XIIJ 
WICKETS: For ticket windows, from $5.60 to $25, of 30 
designs examined. 



STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 219 

WRT IRON GRATINGS: 75c per q ft; cast iron, 3c 
per lb, or 45 to 50c per sq ft. 

GAS PIPE RAIL: In place, dbl, 75c per ft; single 50c. 
Main 3x3 posts, $3.50 to $5 each. " Spike " or " Loafers 
Rail," 12 to 15c per ft. 
For ordinary 36" standards allow: 

For one rail, l\ $1.50 

For one rail, 2 2.00 

Corner one rail, 1$ 1 . 75 

Corner one rail, 2 2 . 25 

Tee, 2 2.50 

2-rail, 1 1.75 

2-rail corner, 2 3 . 00 

Rail, li, per ft 17 

Rail, 2, per ft 22 

FENCES AND SMALL WRT IRON GATES: Gates, lOc per 
lb. Wrt iron fence 5 to 6c. A long railing, about 4' high, 
f sq uprights, 6" centers, was recently set in place for $1.50.' 
per running ft. 

The iron work of 1,000 ft of fence, with several gates, unset,, 
ran to $3.20 per If; set $3.65. About 8' high, f sq pickets, 
6" centers. Concrete bases every 8'. 

RAILROAD FENCE: A hogtight fence costs about $300 per 
mile of track, both sides, or $150 for one side. Material, 67%; 
labor 33. 

WRT IRON SHUTTERS: Hinged, 45c. Sliding, 60c per sq 

ft in place, Omaha. Allow freight at 8 Ibs per sq ft if 

required. 

ROLLING STEEL SHUTTERS: These are 50c per sq ft in 

place. 

VAULT DOOR LININGS: From $65 up; 620 to 830 Ibs for 

aver. 

HOME SAFES: Many brick buildings are now equipped with 

small safes built in wall. They are put in when the wall is 

built. To cut old walls and put them in allow $8 to $5 extra. 



220 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

SIZE AND COST OF SAFES 

Size Door Inside Dimensions 

No. Diam Wide Deep High Weight Price 

40 4i" 5" 4f" 10i" 351bs. $17,00 

41 4i" 6" 1\" 6" 401bs. 18.00 
43 4|" 10" 7" 6" 521bs. 20.00 
68 6 " 11 * 7" 8 " 75lbs. 25.00 
66 6" 14" 10" 9" 160 Ibs. 30.00 

MOVING A SAFE: In New York for twenty years a Corliss 
safe has been on exhibition. The twin came to Omaha. The 
weight is 17 tons. It was moved from one story above 
street level in 1908 to make way for a battery of 8 safes with 
more space. 

It took 20 men 7 days to cut it out, shore up floors, and take 
down to street. 



PRICE OF ANCHORS PER LF AT 6c PER LB. 

Take extreme length, add head, if a T-anchor, and mult 
toy price per ft. 

T-anchor heads are figured same size as shank. 

Size of Iron Price Per Ft Size of Iron Price Per Ft 

lixl ...... ............. 7.7c 3 xi .................... 30. 6c 

2 xi .................... 10. 2c IJxf ..................... 11. 6c 

2ix} .................... 12. 8c 2 xf .................... 15. 3c 

2 JL\ .................... 20. 4c 2Jx| .................... 19. 2c 

25. 5c 



Thus, an anchor with shank 3' long, a head 1', made of 
2xi, would cost 82c. The 6c rate includes profit, and in some 
sections 5c is enough. 

WRT IRON: Special prices are given on patented 
hangers, etc, but in general for all anchors, stirrups, heavy 
hinges, and such work, get weight and mult x 5c per Ib. 
For rods 4c. 

The labor on aver wrt iron work is lc per Ib; a safe 
price for bar iron is 2c per Ib fob Omaha. 
DUPLEX JOIST-HANGERS: For 2x6 to 2x10, 14c each. 

2x12 to 2x16 .................................. 20c 

3 and 4x6 to 3 and 4x10 ........................ 28c 

6x14 to 6x16 .................................. 65c 

8x8 to 8x12 ................................... 65c 



STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON 221 

DUPLEX WALL-HANGERS: Are about 50% more. 
See page 20 for Duplex Post Caps and Bases. 

IRON LADDERS: 2"x sides, f sq rungs, set for 90c to $1 
per ft high. 

FIRE ESCAPES: U gas-pipe rail for sides, $1 per ft high 
set; platforms of ordinary width and length, $2.50 per If; 
21" stairs for fire escapes, $4 per ft long on rake; platforms, 
$4; or about $125 per story. 

STAIR: A large iron stair 3' wide for fire escape on No. 2 
cost $502 for 3 stories. For 2'-6" fire stairs with long plat- 
forms, outside pipe supports and railings on both sides, allow 
$18 to $20 per ft set in place and painted, the price being 
taken on the plumb and not on the rake. 

When taking bids on No. 2 I was offered a spiral chute that 
had been installed and approved at Louisville, Ky., and is now 
as far north as Boston where school children are shot 
through it. 

Of course there are many varieties of fire escapes at dif- 
ferent prices. 

STAIRS: 3' to 4' wide, with iron rail, set complete $8 to 
$10 per step. 

One ornamental iron stair in the east cost $36,000. 
COAL CHUTES: These chutes run from $10 to $15. They 
may be had with protected glass fronts. 

PORCH COL BASES: These are to keep large cols up 
from the floor and allow water to run through. 

For 6"x6" 50c each 

For 8"x8" 55c each 

For 10"xlO" 70c each 

For 12"xl2" 90c each 

SAFETY TREADS: One make with steel base plate and 

lead filling, $1.25 per sq ft, Chicago; with brass base plate, 

$2.25. 

MASON safety treads $l.bU per sq ft on wood not laid, $1.40. 

The cost on iron or stone is about $1.75, laid. 

STEEL STUDS: Wire lath is otten attached to prong studs, 

ceiling, and wall furring. The lath is laid on and the prong 



222 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

clinched over it with the tap of a hammer. A solid or hol- 
low wall is then plastered on. A tee stud is used for a solid 
wall, and a channel for a hollow. 

The solid walls are If" to 2" thick. 

Separate or continuous sockets can be used for fastenings 
at top and bottom. 

The cost of the material is as follows: 

For f" tee studs, Ifc per ft to 10'. 

For 2" channel studs, 2fc per ft to 10'. 

For 3" channel studs, 3c per ft to 10'. 

Tee stud socket strip f", 2c. 

Channel socket strip, 2", 3c. 

Channel socket strip, 3", 4c. 

Ceiling and wall furring, ", 2c. 

Allow same time for setting studs as for wood. 
STEEL STACK: The cost of taking down a corroded stack 
is given in Ryerson's Journal. 

Size, 6'xlOO'. Owing to surrounding buildings it had to 
be erected in sections. The top 56' was taken down. 

The scaffold took 1,400 ft bm of chestnut for corners at 
$20, and 1,600 ft hemlock at $19. Only 5% of this lumber 
was destroyed, and the rest was used elsewhere. The tower 
of scaffolding was Il'-6"x23' at base, and Il'-6"xl5' at top. 
An I beam with trolley was put across the top, and cable and 
windlass with air motor. 

The sections were cut off with a cold chisel and lowered. 
It required 3 minutes to lower or raise a section. 

To put up derrick, adjust tackle, arrange I beam and trol- 
ley, and connect motor, 26 hours. Removal and cleaning 
up, 19 hours. The total work of replacement was done for 
$110. Wages from $2 to $2.75 per man per day. The sec- 
tions were bolted together. 

See also Chap XXII. 

STEEL AND IRON COSTS PER LB: Cover plates, 4c; con- 
nections, 4c; face plates, |"xl8", 6c; stairs, 6 to 7c; wrought 
beams, plain, 2| to 2|c; trusses, 3-Jc; Dale lights, $2 per sq 
ft; cast iron, plain, 2^c; separators, 4c; large cols., 2|c; all 
unset, 1913. 



CHAPTER XIV 

HARDWARE 

CATALOG WEALTH: Simmons' old catalog has 367 pages 
7^x11, devoted to builders' hardware and they have given us 
a new one; Spencer & Bartlett's 118 pages, 6x8; and Lee- 
Glass-Andreesen's new book, which is a credit to Omaha and 
Nebraska, has 240 pages 7Jxll. These are only 3 out of 
many. They are all packed full of information about hard- 
ware, and more is to be found at the retail stores. And we 
are not only burdened with a hundred different kinds of 
hinges, but each has from a dozen to a score of different fin- 
ishes, and it is seldom that 1 price covers more than 1 article. 
The very hardware men, who are specialists, are wearied of 
the endless variety. It is with a sense of relief that a con- 
tractor reads in a model specification that shelf hardware is 
to be covered by a certain sum, or else supplied by the owner. 

QUANTITIES OF NAILS 

Wire nails are now used almost everywhere. I have heard, 
however, that the engineering department of the B. & M. R. R. 
still clings to the old kind which, according to the tests, take 
a firmer bite. 

I kept an account of nails on only 1 building No. 10. 
There it took 1 keg to 2,600 ft of lumber of all kinds. Prob- 
ably the proportion would run on such work of spikes and f of 
8D and 10D. The whole building is frame, although the 
lower story is veneered with brick; with less spiking a brick 
building would require a larger proportion of nails. 

If any one desires a close estimate of nails he may easily 
find it as the following table gives the number per pound, 
but different tables give different numbers. There are so 
many joists or studs; each board requires so many nails; 
5% allowed for extras and waste will give the number of kegs 
at 100 Ibs to keg. 

To illustrate by the floor of No. 7: There are 320, 5i" planks 
in width, and 101 sleepers to which they are nailed; but 

223 



224 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

plans run from 12 to 16' long, and it Is therefore safe to 
allow 29 extra nailings clear across the space, because each 
joint requires twice the number of spikes. Each plank has 
2 spikes, or 640 to a sleeper, a total of 83,200, with 5% addi- 
tional, 87,360. The table gives for 60D spikes, 12 to Ib, mak- 
ing a total of 73 kegs. Or, having the If of flooring, allow 
1 nail, or 2 nails, as the case may be, to every bearing. 

Matched flooring and ceiling, unless wider than 5 or thicker 
than have only 1 nail to each bearing. 



NAIL TABLE 

Of course the number of nails to Ib varies; 106, 74, 10, are 
given in another list instead of 132, 87, 12, as below. 

The price of nails changes as the days go by. At present 
the " base " is $2.50. From 60D to 20D is base. Add accord- 
ing to table for other kinds. 

WIRE NAILS: Size, length, number to pound, and rate: 

Size Kind Length In No. to Lb Advance on Rate Base 

60 Common 6 12 

50 Common 5J 15 

40 Common 5 21 

30 Common 4$ 27 

20 Common 4 35 

16 Common 3 51 $ .05 

12 Common 3 66 .05 

10 Common 3 87 .05 

8 Common 2$ 132 .10 

6 Common 2 252 .20 

.4 Common \\ 432 .30 

3 Common \\ 720 .45 

3 Fine ij 1140 .50 
10 Casing 3 121 .15 

8 Casing 2\ 170 .25 

6 Casing 2 310 .35 

4 Casing 1$ 584 .50 
10 Finish 3 137 .25 

8 Finish 1\ 190 .35 

6 Finish 2 350 .45 

4 Finish 1$ 760 .65 

GALV NAILS cost about $1.25 extra per keg. 



HARDWARE 



225 



NAIL ALLOWANCES 



Quantity 


Description 


Kind 


Quantity in Lbs 
Centers 
12" 16" 20" 36" 48" 60* 


1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 

1000' bm 

1000' bm 
1000' bm 

1000 pcs 
1000 pcs 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' lin. 
1000' lin 
1000 If 
1000 If 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000 pcs 
1000 pcs 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
100 sq ft 
1000' bm 
1000' bm 
100 If 
1 
1 
100 yds 
100 yds 
100 yds 
100 cy 
100 cy 

1 fin mr 


3"x6" Plank, 2 nailings .... 
3"x8" Plank, 2 nailings 
3"xlO" Plank, 2 nailings. . . 
3"xl2" Plank, 3 nailings. . . 
2"x6" Plank, 2 nailings. . . . 
2"x8" Plank, 2 nailings 
2"xlO" Plank, 2 nailings... 
(Use same allowance for 
Oak Plank, Bridges, Boat 
Spikes, allow 100 Ibs 
Joists on Frame Bldg 


60d 
60 
60d 
60d 
20d 
20d 
20d ; 
floorin 

|"x8" 
20d 
20d 
8d 
8d 
lOd 
20d 
lOd 
8d 
8d 
8d 
20d 
20d 
6d 
6d 
4d 
3d 
8d 
lOd 
8d 
lOd 
8d 


... 


... 





51 
39 

31 
39 
27 
20 
16 


40 
30 
24 
30 
21 
16 
13 


34 
26 
20 
26 
18 
13 
11 














g)' 


51 
39 
30 


42 
31 
25 


20 
12 


16 
10 


14 

8 








Joists on Brick Bldg 








For Bracing,add 2 Ibs perM 
Bridging l // x4" 35 Ibs 




















Bridging 2"x4" 50 Ibs 














Studs, Walls and Partitions 
Studs, Walls and Partitions 
Sheeting or Shiplap, 8" 
Furring, I"x2", Wall 


15 

e 

26 
6 
8 


12 
4 
20 
6 

7 


















17 
6 
6 















Furring, l // x2". Ceilings 
Furring, 2"x2", Wall . . . 














Furring, 2 // x2" Ceilings 
Siding 6" 


33 

I 

26 
26 
40 
36 
2i 
15 


25 
18 
25 

(any 

13 
20 
22 
32 
26 
Ibs 
11 
?0 


20 














Siding 4" 










Shingles 


cen 
11 

17 


ter) 






Shingles 






Flooring "x6" 






Flooring "x6" 








Flooring "x4" 








Flooring ^"x4 // 










Flooring "x3" 










Thin Oak Flooring 


li 


finis 


hug 


brda 


f "x4" Ceiling 


6d 

8d 
8&6d 
8&6d 
8&6d 
J" sta 
3d fine 
3d fine 
20d 
lOd 

OJ 


Finishing 










Base 




1 










Door, all kinds 




I 










Window, all kinds 














Metal Lath 


pie 

12 
104 

30 

^ 


s 9 
to 
to 

(ofc 










Wood Lath 48" 


13 
Hi 
one 


9 


to 


10 


Wood Lath 32" 


Concrete Forms 
Concrete Forms 


rete 


inw 


all) 




concrete r orms 


OU 


3 













Slate: See Chap. XVI. 



226 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

If it is necessary to change from one size of nail to another 
see how many Ibs are listed in above table; mult by number 
in a Ib, and divide by number in a Ib of the kind desired. 
Thus 3"x6", 48" centers, requires 40 Ib of 60d. At 12 to the 
Ib this equals 480 nails. If 40d are chosen, with 21 to the 
Ib, the quantity would be 23 Ibs, for the same number of nails 
are necessary. 

CEMENT COATED WIRE NAILS, CHICAGO PRICE 



Size No. Coated Nails in Keg Price per Keg 

40 Cement Coated, 1,800 $1.95 

30 Cement Coated, 2,400 1.95 

20 Cement Coated, 3,100 1.95 

16 Cement Coated, 4,900 2.00 

10 Cement Coated, 6,600 2.00 

9 Cement Coated, 8,900 2.05 

8 Cement Coated, 10,100 2.05 

7 Cement Coated. 15,300 2.15 

6 Cement Coated, 17,900 2.15 

5 Cement Coated, 25,500 2.25 

4 Cement Coated, 29,800 2.25 

3 Cement Coated, 54,300 2.40 

2 Cement Coated, 85,700 2.65 

Cement coated nails are sold by count and not by weight. 

Kegs vary in weight according to size of nails, but each 
keg of coated nails contains as many as there are in a 100 
pounds of common nails. 

They are about & inch shorter than the regular wire nail. 

MACHINE BOLTS: See Chap XXVII. 

BOLTS: Bolts are not measured between nut and head for 
length, but from under head to extreme end. Countersunk 
bolts are measured over the head. Rods threaded both ends 
are measured from point to point. Machine bolts, 2 .to 3c 
per Ib. Drift bolts, 2c Ib; boat spikes, 3c per Ib. 

LAG SCREWS: 2 to 5c per Ib. See tables for weight of 
round iron. 

EXPANSION BOLTS: |"x2" to 5", 8c each; x2 to 5, lie 
each; fx2 to 5, 15c each; both bolt and sheath included. 



HARDWARE 227 

CAST WASHERS 

Price: H to 2c per Ib. 

J inch Ib each 1| inch 6 Ibs each 

| inch f Ib each If inch 9J Ibs each 

I inch lj Ib each 2 inch V7\ Ibs each 

| inch l\ Ib each 2 inch 20 Ibs each 

1 inch 2i Ibs each 2| inch 11\ Ibs each 

li inch 3 Ibs each 2| inch 36 Ibs each 

l| inch 5f Ibs each 3 inch 46 Ibs each 

Weights are different: These are Jones & Laughlin's; the 
Union Pacific 3" washer, for example, is only Ib and so on 
in proportion to size. 

Manufacturers' Standard List of Wrt Washers. 

Price. 4 to 5c per Ib. 

Weight Weight 

\ 13,900 to 100 Ibs 1 625 to 100 Ibs 

| 6,800 to 100 Ibs \\ 520 to 100 Ibs 

\ 2,600 to 100 Ibs \\ 400 to 100 Ibs 

| 1,300 to 100 Ibs \\ 260 to 100 Ibs 

J 1,010 to 100 Ibs 2 175 to 100 Ibs 

1 860 to 100 Ibs 

Small washers cost from 30 to 50% more than large. 

SHOP DOORS: Hardware for large doors of No. 7 etc., from 
$30 to $36; for windows, $3. 

SASH WEIGHTS: The weights of cast iron carried in stock 
run from 3 to 24 Ibs. Price about lie. Standard weight is 
round. Sq" weights are special and cost about 1.75c per Ib, 
and round weights over 22 Ibs are same price. If few, allow 
2c. To get size of square weights find half the weight of 
sash and the extreme possible length of sash weight in inches. 
Divide an assumed weight of 48 Ibs by .26 and we have the 
number in ci necessary to balance 1 side of a 96 Ib sash. This 
is divided by 24, the assumed length, and the sectional area 
is found to be nearly 7f inches. We must now find a num- 
ber which mult by itself will produce 7.70 for a sq weight;, 
or if it has to be 2'' thick, it will be 3| wide. A sq weight, 
would be 2.78 inches or a trifle more than 2|. A knowledge; 
of sq root is useful for more than rafter lengths, for we can- 
not always carry a load of books around. The main windows 



228 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

of No. 3 weighed from 350 to 400 Ibs; and doors on No. 4 
weighed more. 



LEAD WEIGHTS 

Where boxes are small lead weights have sometimes to be 
used, but the price is 7c per Ib. Lead weighs about 50% 
more than wrt iron. 

The following table for lead will save the trouble of calcu- 
lating weights. 

Size in inches; weight in Ibs per If: 

Size Round Square Size Round Square 

1 3| 4.93 2 23 30.82 
It 6 7.68 2| 28.93 37.27 
li 8t 10.27 3 34.81 44.38 
1J 11| 15.08 3i 40.52 52.07 

2 15| 19.02 3i 47.26 60.82 
2t 18i 24 3| 54 69.33 

SECTIONAL SASH WEIGHTS link to each other till enough 
balance the sash or door. They give any weight from 14 Ibs 
up. They can be delivered without weighing sash. Cost, 
$33 per ton at New York. 

SASH CORD: There are many kinds, and each manufacturer 
says his is the best. The usual hank contains 100 ft, and 
weighs from 2 up to 3 Ibs. A & cord weighs 1^ Ibs to the 
100 ft; and a |, 5 Ibs. Aver price, 25 to 30c per Ib. 

Sash chain costs per ft 8c in genuine copper, for weight 
up to 125 Ibs. 

Sash chain, copper steeled, 3c. 

Steel retinned chain, 5c. 

Steel ribbon, 5c up to 125 Ibs. 

DUMBWAITERS: Without rope or car, to carry weights up 

to 100 Ibs, $15 to $20. Cars, $15 to $40. This is for a good, 

strong, ordinary installation, but $200 could be invested in 

some kinds. 

WALL PLUGS: $16 per M. 

INSIDE SLIDING DOOR HANGERS: An aver hanger is 

worth $4.50 with track and bolts complete; with some hangers 



HARDWARE 229 

a wide opening runs to $5.50. A Coburn, $2.60 for single 
door 4-6; $4.20 for 6' dbl door. 

COBURN BARN DOOR HANGERS are worth $2.25 without 
track; track, lOc per ft. 

A Wilcox, aver size, $2 pair; track 18c; brackets, 18c each. 
JAMB GUARDS: For 8' long, 3i" wide, with anchors, $1.50 
each. 

BARBED WIRE: For 4-point cattle, painted, H Ibs to 16* 
ft; galv, li Ibs. Hog, li to 14. For 2-point cattle, painted, 
1 Ib; galv, l^s. Hog, 1& to 1$. Price 3 to 4c per Ib. Staples 
of aver size 100 to Ib, 4c. 
POST HOLE DIGGERS: $1 each. 
COMMON WIRE: Price, $2.90 per 100 Ibs. 
WIRE PANELS^ For No. 10 x U" mesh, 22c sq ft. 

For No. 9, 1" mesh 22c 

For No. 8, 2" mesh 22c 

For No. 12, \Y mesh 20c 

Heavy Wire Window Guards 50c 

SHELF HARDWARE: "In making out bills of hardware 
take each room separately and indicate each door or window 
where special stuff is required, and the hardware will be 
packed to suit." 

" A door is left-handed if when viewed from the outside its 
hinges are on the left. The outside of a door is that side 
which is approached on entering a building or room. The 
outside of door between rooms is the side opposite to that 
from which the knuckles of the butt are visible. All doors 
opening out should be designated as reversed doors." A front 
door does not usually open out, but if it did it would be a 
reversed door. In ordering certain classes of hardware it 
is necessary to specify right or left. 

AVER PRICES: Since we can not read several thousand 
pages of descriptive matter, or explore as many sq ft of 
shelving, is there no way of getting some fair idea on the 
price of shelf hardware? 

The following figures embrace pretty much all that the con- 
tractor is apt to meet in a specification. For several years 



230 THE NEW BUILDING FSTIMATOR 

I used just such a list as is presented here, and found it to 
work satisfactorily. Changes can be noted on it as the 
days go by and prices rise or fall. With some the danger is 
to put bronze finish in place of real bronze. There is not 
so much difference between the various finishes of iron. Tak- 
ing bronze plated goods as a standard polished old copper 
runs about 5% more; sand old copper, 15 to 20, while Boston- 
finish and steel finish, are about the same as bronze plated. 
Real bronze goods belong to another class. Some have had to 
pay for this information, 

HINGES OR BUTTS 

4x 4 Jap'd, 20c per pr; 30c in Bronze Finish; $2.00 in Real Bronze 
4x4$ Jap'd, 25c per pr; 35c in Bronze Finish; 2.25 in Real Bronze 
5 x5 Jap'd, 35c per pr; 50c in Bronze Finish; 2.50 in Real Bronze 

Dbl-acting Chicago butts, jap, per pr, 1 door, $1.20; If to 
2", $3; bronze plated, etc, $3 for U; $5.75 for If to 2; old 
copper finish, unpolished, $2 and $4.30; antique finish, sand- 
blast, $3 and $5.60 for same thicknesses. But a blank is 
often used with a butt as 1 is strong enough for the door, 
and this reduces the price. Blanks are about half the price 
of butts. Real bronze butts of this kind are seldom used. 

The Chicago floor hinge is used with spring at bottom and 
plate at top. For thin doors, $1.40 for each door; for 2" doors, 
$1.75 japanned; in plated, antique copper, $1.75 and $2.10. 

These hinges must not be confused with screen door goods 
which are sold from $1 to $2 per dozen pairs. 

Sometimes smaller butts than 4x4 are used. On 4 lists 
running from 3^x3 \ to 5x5, the bronze plated goods are in 
cents; 13, 14, 15, 20, 24, 30c per pair; old copper finish, 13, 

15, 19, 23, 28, and 30c; polished and bronzed with ball tips, 
19, 23, 24, 28, 31, and 43c; old copper, sand finish, ball tips, 

16, 18, 20, 25, 30, and 34c. 

For wrt steel loose pin butts, used on ceiling doors, etc, 
the price is low; 2x2, 5c per pair; 4x4, 12c. In small quanti- 
ties a higher price may be charged. 

SURF BUTT: A new article is the Reversible Surf Door 
Butt. One side goes on the jamb in the ordinary way, and 



HARDWARE 231 

the other on the face of the door. It is easier to put on than 
the common butt. 

A LOOSE PIN BALL TIP REVERSIBLE BUTT 

Per Pair 
3" 3i" 4" 

Wrt Iron, Japanned Butts $0.15 $0.17 $0.22 

Steel, Old Copper, Finished Butts.. .S 21 .23 .28 

Steel, Sand Blast, Old Copper, Finish Butts . . .22 .24 ' .30 

Steel, Antique Brass, Finish Butts 21 .23 .28 

Steel, Sand Blast, Antique Brass, Finish Butts .23 .25 .31 

Above butts are carried in the following sizes, 3, 3$, and 4 
inches, packed with screws. 

LARGE SIZE: A price on some large common hinges may 
be of service. Steel, antique brass, sand finish,. 7"xlO", extra 
heavy, ball-bearing, $5.25 per pair. For 8"x8" real bronze, $28. 
-WRT BRASS BUTTS: Open hinge, get exact number 
of sq inches and mult by lie for price of each hinge not 
pair. These hinges are narrow, middle, broad and desk. 
Narrow, 1" long, 2c per pr; 2" long, 3c; 3" long, 8c. Middle, 
2" long, 3c pr; 3", IGc. Broad, 2", 4c; 3", 12c. 
LOCKS: A GOOD RIM LOCK with knobs and plain, jap 
trim, 20c. Inside good door lock, fit for any door, $1 with real 
bronze trim complete; a larger size, $1.50. Front door lock, 
$3.50; but a good one may be had for half that figure if real 
bronze is not desired. There are others that cost $5, and with- 
"out much searching of shelves $20 could be spent on a front 
.door. 

SLIDING DOOR: $1.50 to $3 and upwards. Sliding door 
latches are a trifle cheaper, just as they are for ordinary 
doors. 

It is not necessary to pay even $1 for a mortise lock. With 
jet knobs and bronze plated trimmings a lock good enough for 
cottages may be bought for 30 to 40c. 

UNIT: The Corbin "Unit" lock is something new. It is in 
1 piece, and is merely cut in the edge of the door and the long 
escutcheons screwed in place. It looks well, but a carpenter 
objects to weakening the framework of the door. The lock 
costs about $6 or $7. With complete trim, $8.50 to $10.50. 



232 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

A STORE DOOR LOCK with trimmings complete may be 
bought for $5 in bronze; but $8 is the least that should be 
estimated for a good building. From this price we may run 
to $11, $15, and as high as we choose. A bronzed lock com- 
plete may be bought for $1. Dead locks for stores, without 
trimmings, 85c each. 

THE MASTER KEYED LOCKS on No. 2 were $2.75 each witlr 
out trimmings. Common bronze face, $1.25. 
DRAWER LOCKS: A really good article is worth 60c; from 
that they are sold down to lOc. A good cupboard lock is 
worth 30c. 

Sometimes a combination of various goods is made; the 
following prices will be a help: 

ESCUTCHEONS: Real bronze for key only, 35c to 45c per 
doz; imitation, 25c; jap, 12c. For key and knob, real, 5 to 
6", $1.25 to $2; in various sizes with imitation finishes, 65 to 
75c per doz. 

PUSH PLATES: 3^x10, $7.20 to $8.40 per doz, real; imita- 
tion, $5. Persian bronzed, $2. Larger sizes run from 35c 
each in imitation to $1.75 in bronze metal. 

DOOR KNOBS: Mineral, porcelain, and jet knobs, with jap 
mountings, run from 75c to $1 a doz; wrt bronze metal, $4.25 
to $5.50; jet knobs with bronze mountings, $1.75; bronzed 
wrt iron knobs, $3. Better qualities of standard bronze metal 
knobs run to $8 per doz. 

DOOR SPRINGS AND CHECKS: Blount, $4 to $6.40, accord- 
ing to thickness of door. Corbin combined, $2.10 to $5.60; 
Eclipse check, $1.25 to $2.50; Eclipse springs 75c to $1.60. 
Eclipse spring and check go together. 

TRANSOM LIFTS: Bronze iron, 1x3' and 4', 20c each; 
5-16x4, 30c; x5, 50c each. With copper finish, add from 5 
to lOc each. 

FLUSH BOLTS: 50 to 75c each in imitation; $1 to $1.50 in 
real. There are smaller and cheaper flush bolts. 
CHAIN BOLTS: 30% cheaper than flush bolts. 
BARREL BOLTS: From 5 to 12c each. 
SASH LIFTS: Flush, imitation, 75c per doz; real, 75c to $3. 



HARDWARE 233 

BAR LIFTS: Imitation, $1.50 to $2.10; real, $3 to $4. 

Persian bronzed, $1.20 per doz. 

HOOK LIFTS: Imitation, Ic to 3c each; real, 5c to lOc each. 

SASH LOCKS: Imitation 60c to $1.50 per doz; real, $1.75 to 

$3.25. 

PULL DOWNS: 2c each. 

AXLE PULLEYS: $1.25 per dozen down to 25c. Large sizes 

should be used. 

SASH BALANCES: They rise according to weight of sash. 

For ordinary 20-lb sash, $1.25 to $1.75 per set for 1 window 

complete. They run as high as $12 for large sizes. 

SASH CENTERS: 15c per pair. 

DRAWER PULLS: Imitation, 50c doz; real, $1.25. But 

there are many kinds and prices. 

WARDROBE HOOKS: Wire, 15c per doz; cast iron, 40c. 

BRASS TRACK: 6c per ft; sheaves, lOc each. 

SCREWS: From \" to \\, 20c per gross; 11 to 3", 40c. These 

prices are for bright iron screws of aver weight the price 

of extra heavy screws may run up several times as much. 

Brass screws cost about twice as much as iron. 

HEAVY STRAP HINGES: Allow 4 to 5c per inch of length 

per pair for an approximate figure; light, 25% less. 

HEAVY TEE HINGES: 4 to 5c per inch of length. Take 

extreme length folded in each case. 

MORTAR HOES: 60 to 75c each. 

MORTAR WHEELBARROWS: $2.75; common brick, $2.50. 

PAILS: 35c to 75c. 

SHOVELS: 90c, upwards and downwards. 

BRICK HODS: 80c; mortar, 95c. 

ROPE: Manila, 15c per Ib; sisal, 13c. The relative strength 
of Manila and sisal is 7 to 5. Approximate weight of 1,200 
ft a full coil: 

3-16 i | * | | 1 1" U 11 II 2" 

18 Ib 25 45 100 160 200 300 360 570 800 1.200 1,500 

STEEL WIRE ROPE: For f, 8c per ft. 



234 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

HOSE: The cost is from 7c to 13c per ft according to 

quality. 

ASH PIT OR FLUE DOORS: For cast iron, japanned. 

8"x 8" ................. $ .55 10"xl4" ................. $1.05 

8"xlO" .................. 60 12 // xl5 // ................. 1 .35 

85 



SHELF BRACKETS: Light and heavy. 

Per Pair Doz Pairs Per Pair Doz Pairs 

4"x 5" .......... $ .05 $ .45 5"x 6" ......... $ .12 $1.25 

5"x 6" ........... 06 .56 5"x 7" ........... 15 1.50 

5"x 1" ........... 07 .60 6"x 8" .......... 22 2.10 

6"x 8" ........... 08 .75 7 // x9 // .... ...... 23 2.20 

7"x 9" ........... 09 .90 8"xlO" .......... 25 2.30 

8"xlO" ........... 10 1.00 10 // xl2 // .......... 30 3.00 

10"xl2" ........... 14 1.45 12 // xl4 // .......... 35 3.35 

12 // xl4 // ........... 23 2.15 

WALL VENTILATING GRATES: 

6"x 8" .................... lOc 10"xl2" .................... 25c 

8"xlO" .................... 15c 

STOVE PIPE PARTITION THIMBLE: For fire guard 
through partitions, 6", 40c. 

STOVE PIPE REGISTER: To go through floor, $1; includ- 
ing ceiling plate. 



CHAPTER XV 

SHEET METAL WORK 

Per Box 

20x28 1C Roofing Tin $10.00 

20x28 IX Roofing Tin 13.00 

20x28 1C Old Style Roofing Tin 14.00 

20x28 IX Old Style Roofing Tin 17.00 

Per 100 

5x 7 Shingle Tins $0.85 

7x10 Shingle Tins 1.50 

Tinners' Solder, per Ib 26 

No. 28, 1" Galv Corrugated Pipe 4c 

No. 28, 3" Galv Corrugated Pipe 5 c 

No. 28, 4" Galv Corrugated Pipe 6 c 

No. 28, 5" Galv Corrugated Pipe 8 c 

No. 28, 6" Galv Corrugated Pipe 9 c 

No. 28, 2" Galv Corrugated Elbows 7 c 

No. 28, 3" Galv Corrugated Elbows 8 c 

No. 28, 4" Galv Corrugated Elbows 10 c 

No. 28, 5" Galv Corrugated Elbows 18 c 

No. 28, 6* Galv Corrugated Elbows 22 c 

No. 28. 2" Galv Corrugated Cut-offs 22 c 

No. 28, 3" Galv Corrugated Cut-offs 24 c 

No. 28, 4" Galv Corrugated Cut-offs 35 c 

No. 28, 5" Galv Corrugated Cut-offs 60 c 

No. 28, 6* Galv Corrugated Cut-offs 75 c 

Rosin 7 to 8c per Ib 

ITEMIZED ACTUAL COST OF A SQUARE OF TIN 
ROOFING 

1C IX 1C IX 

Common Common Old Style Old Style 

29 Sheets, 20x28... $2.59 $3.37 $3.63 $4.41 

SlbsSolder 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 

Charcoal and Rosin 25 .25 .25 .25 

Nails 07 .07 .07 .07 

Labor 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 

Paint on under side, one coat 40 .40 .40 .40 

Drayage 15 .15 .15 .15 



Actual Cost $6.36 $7.14 $7.40 $8.18 

With Contractor's Profit, Shop 

Rent, Tools, Etc., 20 per cent.S7.C5 $8.57 $8.88 $9.82 

235 



236 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Itemized Actual Cost of a Sq of Tin Roofing Continued 

1C IX 1C IX 

Common Common Old Style Old Style 

63 Sheets, 14x20 2.77 3.60 3.87 4.70 

7lbsSolder 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 

Charcoal and Rosin 40 .40 .40 .40 

Nails , 10 .10 .10 .10 

Labor 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30 

Paint One Side 40 .40 .40 .40 

Drayage 15 .15 .15 .15 



Actual Cost $8.07 $8.90 $9.17 10.00 

With Contractor's Profit 9 . 68 10 . 68 1 1 . 00 12 . 00 

STANDING SEAM: Sheets 20x28. These standing seams do 
not require soldering, but more tin is used to make the lap. 
Deduct about 55c per sq from the 20x28 list. Quantity, 297 
sheets with seams on narrow edge, and 307 on long edge. 

TERNE PLATES 

No. of Shts Wt per Box No. of Shts Wt per Box 

Size In Mark in Box Lbs Size In Mark in Box Lbs 

10x20 1C 112 80 14x20 IX 112 140 

10x20 IX 112 100 20x28 1C 112 224 

14x20 1C 112 112 20x28 IX 112 280 



GALV IRON 

WEIGHT AND PRICE: See "Table," Chap. XXVII for 
weight of galv. sheets. Regulate the price according to the 
list below multiplied by the weight per sq. 

LABOR: The sheets are about 96" long, and less soldering 
is required than for tin. For No. 26 allow $1 per sq, or a little 
more than 1 cent per Ib. Allow from 1 to lc per Ib, as the 
weight of sheet increases. 

COST: The cost as far west as Omaha is $3.90 to $4.70 per 
100 Ibs; in Ohio it is naturally cheaper. 

As a good comparison of the cost of sheets of various num- 
bers the following from " The Iron Age " of July 23, 1908, will 
be of service: 

"Black Sheets from store: Blue Annealed, No. 10, 2.15c.; 
No. 12, 2.20c.; No. 14, 2.25c.; No. 16, 2.35c; Box Annealed, Nos. 



SHEET METAL WORK 237 

18 to 21, 2.60c.; Nos. 22 to 24, 2.65c.; No. 26, 2.70c.; No. 27, 
2.75c.; No. 28, 2.85c.; No. 30, 3.25c.; Galvanized from store: 
Nos. 10 to 16, 3c.; Nos. 18 to 20, 3.15c.; Nos. 22 to 24, 3.30c.; 
No. 26, 3.50c.; No. 27, 3.70c.; No. 28, 3.90c.; No. 30, 4.40c. to 
4.45c." 

FOR ONE SQUARE OF No. 26 

Galv Iron (Including Waste) .$4.00 

Solder 80 

Charcoal and Rosin 15 

Nails 05 

Paint on Under Side One Coat 40 

Drayage 15 

Labor 1.00 

ACTUAL COST $6.55 

With Profit, 20% 1.30 

$7.85 



On several hundred sq with paper below, laid in 1906, the 
contract price was $8.60, but board for men was included. 
No 22 is worth $1 per sq more than No. 26. 
No. 18 comes to about $15. 

FOR CORRUGATED galv. iron allow about same price, rather 
less than more. 

FOR BLACK SHEETS the cost is about $1 per 100 Ibs less 
than for galv. 



COST TABLE INCLUDING PROFIT 
WORK SET IN PLACE 

Flashing, gutters, downspouts, are now usually made of galv 
iron instead of tin, but in most cases the following prices will 
serve for both: 

FLASHING: For No. 26 galv iron 14" wide, 14c per If; 20", 
20c; 28", 25c; No. 24 same widths, 15c; 22, 27c. For counter- 
flashing 9" and 9" 25c. For wide long flashing of No. 26, lOc 
per sq ft; for No. 24, 12c. Copper flashing costs per sq ft 



238 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

about 25c to 30c, but copper often changes in price. No. 22 
galv iron costs about 5c; 24, 4c; 26, which is the kind usually 
specified, is about 4c per sq ft. Zinc, which is occasionally 
used, runs to 6c per sq ft. Copper, 17c. 

GUTTERS: Allow 2c per inch of girt per ft for gutters hung 
in place. For lined gutters, 10 to 12c per sq ft of material 
used. 

DOWNSPOUTS: For 2", lOc per ft; 3, 15c; 4, 20c; 5, 25c; 6 
30c; all corrugated. 

FINIALS: They may be had at $2 or $20, and even beyond. 
A plain one about 3 or 4 ft high costs $4. 

CRESTING: From 15 to 40c per If. 

VENTILATORS: 4", $1; 6, $2; 9, $3; 12, $4; 16, $10; 24, $20; 
54, $100. The price of ventilators depends upon the kind 
selected. Another list, for example, is the following: 



VENTILATOR LIST 

Size Price Size Price 

6" $1.35 20" $9.50 

9" 1.75 30" 18.00 

VI" 2.50 36" 28.00 

15" 5.00 60" 80.00 

LARGE SKYLIGHTS: For large skylights like those on No. 
7, steel channels and copper caps, in different styles of differ- 
ent makers, 50c is a safe figure in place. In the east the 
freight is less; in the west, more. The weight is 8 Ibs to the 
sq ft; setting 8c. 

On No. 7 and other buildings there were 67,000 sq ft; and 
about the same amount for later bldgs of the plant of an 
inferior make of No. 26 galv iron, 30c, set but not painted. 
With copper caps as on No. 7 the continual expense of paint- 
ing is avoided. 

No. 8 has about 23,000 sq ft with copper caps. 

The best skylights have no putty. On one with 10,000 sq ft, 
designed for putty, ribs 18" centers, 2400 Ibs were used. 



SHEET METAL WORK 23 c> 

i" GLAZED ORDINARY SKYLIHTS OF NO. 26 
GALV IRON SET 

Size of Ceiling Hole in Ft Gable Style Single Slope Hip or 4-Slope 

2x 4 $7.50 $5.60 $13.50 

2x 6 10.00 7.80 17.00 

3x 4 10.00 7.80 17.00 

4x 6 16.50 13.50 26.00 

5x 8 26.00 20.00 38.00 

6x 8 30.00 22.00 43.00 

8x10 45.00 35.40 70.00 

8x14 64.00 45.00 85.00 

10x12 67.00 48.00 105.00 

10x16 96.00 70.00 135.00 

For a copper skylight of aver size dbl pitch roof, $1.40 
per sq ft of area of roof curb; for single pitch, $1.10. 
SPEAKING TUBES are put in for about lOc per ft, including; 
mouthpieces. The raw material is worth about 3c, 

The contractors' profit is included in foregoing prices. 
MEASUREMENT: The size of tin sheets is 14x20 and 20x28, 
The large size is commonly used. A box contains 112 sheets. 
The wt of I C is about 8 oz per sq ft; I X, 10; but the sheets- 
vary a little. A box of 20x28 I. C. weighs 225 Ibs; of I. X., 285. 
No allowance is made by manufacturers for any lap of tin, 
galv iron, corrugated iron or copper. Lap on a 26J sheet takes 
2, leaving 24. There are many light-weight tins. The galv 
iron sheet varies from 24 to 30" wide x 96 long. 
QUANTITY: For a tin roof allow per sq 29 sheets of 20x28 ; 
for solder, 5 Ibs; charcoal, lOc per sq; rosin, 1 Ib to sq; roofing 
nails, 1 to li Ibs to sq. This number of sheets allows for a 
lap of 1 inch at joint. For 14x20 sheets, 62 to 63 to sq; allow 
about 50% more solder, etc. Tin roofing should be measured 
by the sq. As with plaster, etc, the trade rules do not deduct 
openings below a certain size, and they also provide for other 
exceptions which might trap the unwary if work were taken 
on a sq ft basis; but here these rules are not set down nor 
considered. 

To the sq of galv iron allow 3 Ibs of solder and other items 
as for tin. 

Standing seam tin takes 3" off 20 wide, instead of only 1 for 
lap and this loses 2; but as no solder is required the cost is 
about the same. 



240 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LABOR: For plain roofing allow 4 sq in a day for 2 men. If 
painted on under side, allow 1 hour extra for 1 man per sq. 
Two men will put 200 ft of ordinary hanging gutter in a day; 
and will line 150 sq ft of box gutter. 

Two men lay about 400 sq ft of valleys in a day; and finish 
400 If of ordinary flashing, or 150 sq ft of flashing and counter- 
flashing; will put 200 to 400 ft of down spout in place; and 100 
to 200 ft of ordinary ridge. But some judgment has to be used 
as to allowances, for one building might be near the ground 
and easily handled, while another might be high and broken 
into many angles. 

CORNICES 

A plain cornice 24" deep on the plumb and 15" projection, 
with complete girt of 72", including part under slate, cost 
$1.25 per If, set, in 1906. This is exactly Ifc per inch of girt 
of No. 26 galv iron for 450'. 

PRICE: For a general rule take the girt of a galv iron 
cornice and allow If to 2c per inch per ft long. Thus if the 
front measured 36" following the curve of all mouldings, and 
the distance back to the wall was 14" with an allowance of 6" 
into wall for top and bottom, the price would be 98c to $1.12 
per If. This includes the straight work only. Add end-trusses, 
dentils, brackets, and all extra work. There is an endless 
variety of ornamental work which has to be priced according 
to detail. The foregoing price includes setting. No. 26 iron is 
standard. The price of several sizes is here given without 
setting. The plumb height is taken, not the width of ihv 
metal. 

Height Projection Price per Ft Height Projection Price per Ft 

26 12 $ .40 24 10 $ .30 

24 12 .40 24 12 .35 

26 12 .75 28 14 .80 

28 15 .40 30 15 1.00 

36 15 .85 36 20 .75 

48 24 1.85 32 14 .60 

44 20 1.50 48 24 2.20 

40 24 1.35 48 26 1.85 

36 24 1.30 45 24 1.50 

60 30 3.25 60 26 2.35 

64 36 3.50 



SHEET METAL WORK 241 

These prices include brackets, dentils, etc, but no end 
trusses. Ends run from $2 to $7. Miters are extra, ranging 
from $1 to $3; a miter is usually put on same price as 12" of 
straight cornice. Pediments are extra and may run from $5 
to $20. Ordinary letters are extra at 25c to 50c each. If the 
girt system is taken and dentils, etc, added,the price has to be 
set for each item. A dentil may cost from 15 to 30c; egg and 
dart moulding, 15 to 30c per ft. A bracket according to size and 
detail, from 30c to $1; balusters 4x4x24, 85c; medallions, 50c 
per ft. Urns cost from $3 to $10. Crown and belt mouldings- 
run from 8 to 15c without setting, but it is possible to make 
them cost several times as much. In all cornice makers' work 
detail is of vital importance. 

LABOUR: Setting of cornices 15c to $1 per If. 

WINDOW AND DOOR CAPS: Of ordinary lengths, $2.50 to 

$4; with pediments, etc, $4 to $6. 

GABLE ORNAMENTS: $1 to $5. 

COPPER EAGLES: 5-ft spread, $75; 3-ft, $55; zinc eagles, 

30% less. 

HIP ROLLS: 10 to 12c per If. 

METAL CEILINGS. 

PRICE: Taking a general aver allow 8 to 12c per sq ft put in 
place but not painted, except with 1 light factory coat. There 
are more expensive patterns, but 9 out of 10 ceilings can be 
put on within these prices. 

The raw material for the plates or body costs from $4 to 
$4.50 per sq laid down in Omaha. Panels run from 25 to 40c 
per sq more. Centers are from 25 to 40c each. Corners, 
borders, and fillers, run to about the same price as the plates, 
but sometimes a special corner costs twice as much as the 
aver of the ceiling. Small mouldings are from 2 to 6c per If. 
Tees, crosses and ells to match, 5 to lOc each. Cornices, 
coves, and friezes, from 3 to 15c per If according to size and 
pattern. Miters, 5 to 20c each. 

A word of caution has to be added: Plates are priced at $4 
to $4.50, they can be bought of stock patterns for $7. Centers 



242 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

instead of being 25 to 40c each may be $5 and so on through 
the list. 

MEASUREMENT: The foregoing prices include an aver 
cornice around the wall, so that for this estimate the surf be- 
tween the walls is close enough. For an order the level part 
has to be taken, and cornices, coves, beams, corners, centers, 
etc, attended to by If measurement or separately. Furring is 
also included in the price from 80c to $1 per sq is enough. 
Strips are not furnished by manufacturers, but cornice brack- 
ets and ceiling nails are. Plates and panels are usually about 
24x24, but on cheap grades are also sent 96" long. 

LABOR: Allow from $1 to $1.50 per sq. A ceiling recently 
put up ran to $1.50 according to the time kept, and there was 
nothing very fine about it. The room was not large, and 
where there is a large space there is more progress made. On 
good ceilings a man and helper will not put on more than 3 or 
4 sqs with cornice, centers, etc, included. On large rooms with 
the plainest kind of work they may do from 6 to 8 sqs. On a 
roof a man and helper will lay from 12 to 15 sqs of corrugated 
iron but even the cheapest ceilings do not go on as fast as 
this. Wages of tradesmen are 40c per hour. 
WAINSCOTING: This stamped material is made from 24 to 
28" high, and is worth about the same as ceilings. It is made 
to follow rake of stair if necessary. Cap and base are not in- 
cluded and have to be allowed extra at the price of small 
mouldings. Generally a wood base is preferable. For setting 
allow 8 sqs of ordinary work per day for 2 men. 

ORNAMENTAL SHINGLES 

PRICE: The raw material runs from $4 to $9 per sq. There 
are so many varieties that the price can not be set to suit all. 
Another style of manufacture gives the shingles in a pressed 
sheet 8' long and another size is 20x28, so that there is no 
standard of price. 

MEASUREMENT: Some manufacturers send enough to lay 
a sq, just as the slate quarrymen do; others instruct the con- 
tractor to allow from 4 to 6 sq ft extra to the 100 for laps. 
Different sizes of shingles are made, so that the following 
figures will not always apply: 



SHEET METAL WORK 243 

14x20, 68 shingles to sq. 

10x14, 148 shingles to sq. 

7x10, 319 shingles to sq. 

Common tin shingles, used over wood, 5x7, $1.50 per 100. 

" 5x9, 2.00 per 100. 

LABOR: For separate shingles give same allowance as for 
wood in Chap X; for sheets, 8 to 12 sqs per day for 2 men. 
SIDING, ROOFING: Pressed steel brick siding and rock- 
faced siding, $3.25 for material; standing seam roofing and 
crimp roofing, $2.90 to $3.50. Such material comes in different 
sizes and prices. The labor runs on an aver from 9 to 12 sqs 
per day for 2 men. 

HEAVY PIPES: For heavy galv iron, about 16 to 18, 12" to 4' 
diam, allow from 8 to lOc per Ib in place, profit included. 
Labor is about 3c per Ib. In 1906, 60,000 Ibs were put in place 
for lOc, including profit. 

CHARCOAL IRON is a little better than the ordinary brand. 
FIRE-PROOF WINDOWS: At the end of Chap XIII the price 
of iron shutters is given. They are used with wood frames, 
sash, and common glass. The newest style of fireproofing is 
metal frames, sash, and wireglass, either ribbed for ware- 
houses or plate for business buildings. In one year in New 
York City alone 700,000 sq ft were put in place. Iron shutters 
are not required. The wireglass is of the usual thickness of 
or ". See Chap XII for price. 

The cost of frame and sash differs according to size, and 
can not well be given on sq ft basis, for the labor of riveting 
is the same for the 12 corners on all ordinary sizes. A frame 
and sash complete with pulleys costs about $18 for the aver 
size of 2' 6"x7'. 

The cost of a few standard sizes is given in galv iron un- 

painted: Double Hung Pivoted 

3x6 $18.00 $13.50 each 

3' 6"x6' 6" 22.75 17.00 each 

4x8 30.40 22.40 each 

2' 6''x6' 0" 15.00 11.25 each 

2' 6"x5' 0" 13.00 10.00 each 

All of the above prices include necessary hardware such as 

locks, lifts, weights, chains, etc, also sufficient i inch rough or 

ribbed wireglass for glazing. 



244 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

A New York price is $1.25 per sq ft, in quantities, for 
windows without glass or hardware, and also ordinary doors 
with jambs and casings on one side. These fireproof doors 
are finished to look like hardwood, and are seamless with 
panels pressed under 250 ton machine. Bronze, copper, grille, 
and special designs, are much more expensive. 

COPPER WINDOWS cost about 80c per sq ft more than galv 
iron. Polished wire glass is also $1 extra. 

COPPER 

The electrical demands of our time are so great that the 
copper market is never at rest. The high price of the one 
year is outshone by that of the next. But there was a drop in 
1907 that surprised some. Copper work is expensive, but it 
lasts. 

The cornices of Nos. 3, 5, and 6, are of copper, and the 
towers are covered with the same material; all the skylights 
of No. 7 are flashed with it. 

Store fronts are now made of oxidized copper. This adds 
about 40c to the sq ft of the raw material. 

Allow for copper flashing from 22 to 26c per sq ft. The 
material runs about as follows: 

16 oz soft, 16c per sq ft. 14 oz soft, 17c per sq ft. 

16 oz cold-rolled, 17c per sq ft. 14 oz cold-rolled, 18c per sq ft. 

For 20 oz copper on sinks, etc, 40c is a fair price. 
CORNICES: For copper cornices complete in place allow 
about 35c per sq ft of actual material on straight work, and 60 
to 65c on curved. Labor on straight work, about 14c per sq 
ft. Take actual surf as if mouldings, dentils, etc, were 
spread out flat. 

GUTTERS: For gutters allow 35c per sq ft in place on 
straight work. 

CONDUCTORS: For 4x6 sq, 60c per If in place. 
GOOSENECKS: Price at $4.25 each. 
CONDUCTOR HEADS: From $4.50 to $8. 

In November, 1907, copper was about 15c per Ib; at that 
price it is worth about 25c laid per sq ft. 



CHAPTER XVI 

ROOFING 

Benjamin Franklin said that a good roof is as important as 
a good foundation. 

Lead roofs which I have often helped to put on, are never 
used here and need not be considered. Shingle roofs are 
taken care of in Chap X. 

GRAVEL: So far as quality goes there are many kinds of 
gravel roofs. For a permanent building it pays to put on the 
best. The standard price for a first class roof used to be $5, but 
$4 is now looked upon as a good price, and some large 5-ply 
roofs (4 solid mopped sheets, 1 dry sheet) are put on for 
even less than $4. The danger line comes at $3.50, for such 
work is apt to be slighted at that price. These figures do not 
include the flashing of walls, which the tinner attends to. Of 
course gravel can be put on flat roofs only. Roofers prefer a 
pitch of not more than \" to the ft; it should never exceed 1", 
although gravel lies on 2" if well laid. Several years ago a 
roofer gave me \" as his ideal pitch. 

The price of screened gravel is from $2 to $2.25 per cy. 
Gravel per sq without labor therefore costs about 35c. Labor 
runs from 50c on low buildings with fairly large surf, to 
70c, 75 and 80c, when higher. On some buildings $1 is neces- 
sary, but this price is unusual and due to special requirements. 
A gang of 7 men lay on an aver 40 to 50 sqs in an 8 hour day. 
Wages for roofers, 35c; laborers, 20 to 25c. 
WEIGHT: The ordinary weight of gravel on a sq is 400 Ibs; 
on a better class of work 450. The finished roof with compo- 
sition and paper runs from 550 to 650 Ibs. A cy of gravel 
covers about 6 sq and weighs 2,700 Ibs. A good roof would 
run about as follows: 450, gravel; 80, composition; 75 felt, or 
a total of 605 Ibs for 4-ply and dry sheet. But 20 Ibs of compo- 
sition to the ply is used on better roofs, and if sheets are 
mopped all over instead of at joints only the wt runs to 125 
Ibs. Ordinary composition is tar and pitch. Sometimes i 

tar is all that can be used. 

245 



246 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

COST: Tar costs about $5 per bbl and pitch $22 per ton. 

COVERING: One gall of tar with 1 Ib of pitch applied hot 

will cover about 12 sq yds the first coat, and 17 the second. 

(See end of Chap XXII.) 

CALKING: For flooring joints allow 2 to 3c per ft. 

PITCH: A rough coat of pitch on brick is worth about 90c 

per sq. 

ASPHALT COATING: For two coats on brick allow $2.20 per sq. 

FLOORS: Sicilian Rock asphalt floors are worth about 18c 

per sq ft laid, but this does not include a concrete base under 

them, for cost of which see Chap III. 

TAR FELT: A dry sheet is often put down first, especially 

above finished ceilings to keep tar from running through. It 

weighs 7 Ibs to sq. A roof should not have less than 4 ply 

solid or 3 ply and dry sheet, and it is better to have 4. 

PAPER: Roofing paper runs from 12 to 15 Ibs to sq; building 
paper weighs about 15 Ibs but it is necessary to remember 
that red rosin and strawboard are sometimes used for build- 
ing paper. These two brands are not used on roofs, but are 
put here for convenience among other papers. Packers' in- 
sulated paper for refrigerator work, $1 per sq. A roll of 
strawboard contains from 250 to 300 sq ft, weighs approxi- 
mately 50 Ibs, and costs about $1.25. Red rosin costs $37 per 
ton; roofing paper, same price. Various kinds of red rosin 
run from 20 to 40 Ibs. The National brand of R. R., 40 Ibs to 
500 ft; Arctic, 35; Buckskin, 30; Columbia, 25 to 500. Nothing 
below 25 is worth using. The last brands 'are used as dry 
sheets. 

PATENT ROOFS: There are so many kinds of patent roof- 
ing materials that one does not know where to begin. They 
are as common as patent medicines, and except for temporary 
purposes, most of them are as worthless. There are some 
good ones among them, but the good have to bear the sins of 
the bad. The price of a few is given. They are cheaper than 
slate or even shingles, and they can be put on roofs with a 
pitch that forbids gravel. On steep roofs they are safer than 
on flat. 



ROOFING 247 

Elaterite $4 for 6 X per sq 

Actinolite $5 per sq 

Carey $3.75 to $4 

Ruberoid $3.25 

CAREY: Comes in rolls 29" wide. Sufficient is put in a roll 
to cover 1 sq. With each roll is sent 2 gall magnesia roof 
paint, gall lap cement, 2 Ibs nails. The manufacturers follow 
the old rule of measurement. Do not deduct openings unless- 
they are more than 50 sq ft; if more than 50 and not more 
than 100, deduct half; if more than 100, deduct full size. 
Sheets are lapped li" and nailed every 2". " One man can 
apply 10 sq of cement roofing in the same time It will take 
him to apply 2 sq of shingles. The standard weight is about 
90 Ibs to the sq; extra heavy, 115. This includes all mate- 
rials." 

Raw material costs $3 per sq fob Omaha. A carload con- 
tains 300 sq. Labor is about 50c per sq. 

ELATERITE: Comes in rolls 32" wide x 40' long, for 3X, 4X, 
5X, and 6X. Each roll contains 107', or sufficient to lay a sq 
after allowing a 2" lap. The weights differ : 3X, 33 Ibs per sq; 
4X, 45; 5X, 60, and 6X, 65. Each sq requires 5 Ibs of cement^ 
11 oz of I" tin caps, and 9 oz of 1" barbed roofing nails, which 
are sent with order. 

" On small buildings with 15 or 20 sq 1 man will lay about 8 
sq in a day; on ordinary buildings from 25 to 50 sq, flashing 
included, 10 sq per day; on large jobs of 100 sq or more, 20' 
sq." These quantities are too high if nailing is properly done. 
On such material as elaterite, rubberoid, etc, labor is worth 
about 35c per sq. This price was taken from actual work over 
large surfaces. If the higher figures are reached, so much 
the better, but the law of averages needs to be remembered. 

For shipping weight, add 6 Ibs per sq for the fastenings. 
Elaterite, fob Denver, Colo., costs $4.25 for 6X; $3.50 for 5X; 
$3 for 4X, and $2.50 for 3X. 

RUBEROID : This roofing comes in rolls 36" wide. Each 
roll contains 216 sq ft, or enough to cover 2 sq. The regular 
lap of 2" is allowed, and the nails are at 2" centers. The 
weights are as follows: \ ply, 27 Ibs to sq; 1 ply, 35; 2 ply, 



248 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

45; 3 ply, 56. Each sq requires % gall of ruberine; % Ib caps; 
1 Ib nails, all of which material is sent with ruberoid. The 
following prices are fob Omaha: 

In lot of less than In lots of 20 In lots of 50 In lots of 100 
20 sqs to 49 sqs to 99 sqs sqs and up 

| ply $1.79 per sq $1.71 $1.63 $1.54 

1 ply 2.29persq 2.18 2.07 1.96 

2 ply 3. 29 per sq 3.13 2.97 2.81 

3 ply 4.04persq 3.84 3.64 3.44 

Above prices are for complete roofing. 

Extra Ruberine Roof Coating $1.35 per gal 

Extra Nails 05 per Ib 

Extra Tin Caps 10 per Ib 

With patent roofs it is in general sufficient to order the 
number of sq and the necessary cement, nails, caps, etc, are 
sent but contractors should have a clear understanding with 
supply men that enough cement is to be sent to finish the 
work, as the listed quantities are usually too low. Theory and 
practice are different. 

BARRETT ROOF: " The Barrett Specification roof is simply 
a coal tar pitch, felt, and gravel roof , laid 5 plies of tarred 
felt, weighing not less than 14 Ibs each to the 100 sq ft, and 
not less than 120 Ibs of pitch. The cost is about same as a 
first class gravel roof $4.50 over boards, and $5 over con- 
crete." 

SLATE PRICES: The following prices fob quarry may be 
taken for a guide, although they sometimes change. They 
vary according to size of slate: 

Genuine No. 1 Bangor with certificate $4 . 50 to $6 .00 

No. 1 Bangor Ribbon, with certificate 4 . 00 

No. 2 Bangor Ribbon, without certificate 3 . 25 

No. 1 Pen-Argyle, Albion, Jackson 4 . 25 to 5 . 00 

No. 1 Lehigh and Pa. Black 4. 15 to 4.90 

No. 1 Chapman 4 . 25 to 5 .00 

No. 2 Chapman 3.25 

Chapman Boys 4 . 00 

No. 1 Peach Bottom 5.25 to 6.75 

No. 1 Peach Bottom, 3-16 thick, 25c per sq extra. 
No. 1 Peach Bottom, % thick, $7.50 per sq, all sizes. 

No. 1 Unfading Green 5 to 5.75 

For 3-16 add 75c per sq; for \, add $3 per sq; f , add $10. 



ROOFING 249 

No. 1 Purple $5.00 to $5.75 

Variegated purple 3 . 15 to 3 . 90 

No. 1 Sea green 3 . 00 to 3 . 90 

No. 1 Red 8.50 to 10.50 

For same 3-16, add $1; i, $5; f , $11. 

No. 1 Brownville or Monson, Maine 4 . 80 to 7 . 20 

No. 2 Brownville or Monson, Maine 5 .00 to 5 . 50 

For the 3 best sizes, 8x16, 10x16, 9x18, the following prices will 
be useful: 

No. 1 Gen. Bangor $5.00 to $5.25 

No. 1 Pen-Argyle, Albion, Jackson 4 . 75 to 5 . 00 

No. 1 Lehigh or Pa. Black 4.65 to 4.90 

No. 1 Chapman 5. 00 to 5.25 

No. 1 Peach Bottom 6 . 75 

No. 1 Unfading Green 5 . 75 

No. 1 Purple 5.75 

Variegated 3.60 to 3.90 

No. 1 Sea Green 3.60 to 3.90 

No. 1 Red 10.50 

Brownville or Monson 7. 10 to 7. 20 

FREIGHT ON SLATE: The freight from Pennsylvania to 
Omaha is $2.64 per sq; from Vermont, $2.55 to $2.75; this and 
hauling from cars to building must be added to material and 
labor for cost price. 

CEMENT: The price of roofing cement is 4c per Ib. The 
quantity required up hips, rakes, and finishing course at ridge, 
as per U. S. specifications, is about 1 Ib per sq of whole surf. 
Large valley slate are better not cemented; but small pcs 
ought to be. " Use Elastic Roof Cement up rake, under top 
courses, and wherever small pcs are used, and you will have 
no trouble with slates coming out." 

PRICE OF SLATE LAID: The price per sq, laid, is given 
under "Roof Covering," page 28. Large slates are cheaper 
both for material and labor than small; an 8x16, for example, 
is worth laid about $1.50 more than a 12x22. Bangor, Green 
and Red slate weigh about 650 Ibs to the sq; Peach Bottom, 
750; Monson, 800. 

LABOR: The wages of slaters are 40 to 45c per hour. Their 

transportation and board have to be paid for work in country. 

A 50 Ib roll of No. 3 paper will cover 400 sq ft. The cost of 

laying it runs from 15 to 20c per sq. The lap should be about 



250 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

3'*. When each slate is laid in elastic cement the labor costs 
from 40 to 50% more but although this is sometimes recom- 
mended, even government work calls for only hips, ridges, and 
other exposed parts in cement. In such case the usual labor 
figure is sufficient. 

, On the roof of No. 9 containing 82 sq 2 men put on the 
10x16 slate in 91 hours each. The punching took 26 hours ad- 
ditional for each. The punching took 2 laborers to attend the 
slaters; the 182 hours of slaters' labor took 102 of laborers'; 
total for slaters, 208; for laborers, 128 hours. This is at the 
rate of 6& sq per 8 hour day for 2 men with laborers in at- 
tendance on a plain roof. Patching afterwards took 12 hours. 
On some roofs, with many hips and valleys, a day's work of 
this size of slate is 4 sq. Five is passable on a roof with an 
aver amount of angles and shorter stretches than No. 9. This 
includes the laying of the paper. Sometimes the complete roof 
is covered with paper nailed down with laths to keep out rain 
before slate are laid. More time is required to do this than if 
it is put down with slate. Allow 1|. to 1 hours per sq. On 
plain straight work with gables a fair aver is 8 sq, and some- 
times 10. 

On No. 11, which is a type of the worst kind of roofs, 2 men 
in 8 hours laid paper and averaged 3.6 sq of 8x10 slate on a 
surf of 65 sqs. But laborers' time 100 hours has to be added 
to slaters' for the complete cost. A good illustration of the 
difference between a plain and a complicated roof is given in 
Nos. 9 and 11. 

On some towers 1 sq is enough for 1 man. 

The rear and side walls of No. 10 were slated allow $1 per 
sq extra for labor on plumb. 

PUNCHING: One manufacturers' listed price for punching 
at the quarry runs as follows: 22 and 24" slate, 10c per sq; 
18 and 20, 15c; 16" slate and under, 20c; slate are drilled and 
countersunk at dbl the foregoing prices. Government work is 
always D and C. When slate are full & thick the price is 50c; 
when full i, $1. Another list gives 30c as the lowest price, 
and for small and aver slate this price is regularly charged. 
Quarry punching is cheaper than punching by hand; the 82 sq 



ROOFING 25L 

of No. 9 cost about 45c and that was with. 1&" slate. But 
slaters often punch by hand for the following reasons : 

(1) Ordinary slate come in 3 thicknesses, and if the roof" 
is properly laid, each thickness is put by itself so that the 
slate in the next course will lie flat and not leave a space for 
wind and rain. They have thus to be selected in any case, 
and the punching is done at the same time. 

(2) If slate come punched there is no chance of reversing, 
them if the corner is broken off. The nail hole can not well 
be exposed. 

QUANTITY: Roofs are measured for slate in the same way 
as for shingles, but the projection of the slate over the eave 
ought to be allowed extra, and also the doubling of courses 
there which adds 1 exposure. But this under eave course, with, 
the 3" standard lap, need be only 1" longer than half the- 
length of the slate used. If work is done by the sq some trade- 
rules will be applied as with brick, plaster, painting, etc. 
Hips and valleys, for example, are allowed 6" on each side 
extra for waste; in contract work slaters usually omit this ft 
and depend upon stretching the course 4" to make up the loss, 
just as is often done with shingles. With both slate and: 
shingles courses have to be spaced to show the last course at 
ridge of about the same width as the rest of the roof, and a 
strict adherence to the letter of the specification; would spoil 
the spirit of the work. 

The actual surf and eave course give the quantity to be- 
ordered, but 1% extra is needed for waste unless the roof is 
very plain. 

Slate are ordered in sqs and a sq lays 100 sq ft at the stand- 
ard lap of 3". The smallest carload is 50 sq, and the largest. 
90. In less than carload lots the cost for freight is about dbl. 
It takes about 12 hours to unload a small ear on the ground. 
On some slate certificates are given, so that the owner may be- 
sure of what he is getting. 

Bangor slate must be loaded separately to secure certificate. 
Sea Green, Unfading Green, Red or Purple, can be loaded in. 
the same car. There are many grades of Bangor. 



252 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

DESCRIPTION. 

"Peach Bottom": A hard black slate of glossy appear- 
ance, strong, and of uniform color. 

" Brownville," Maine: A black slate of uniform color, 
smooth, glossy surf, and strong. 

" Monson, Maine: A slate of a dead black color, and 
strong. 

"Black Bangor," Pennsylvania: A strong, good slate. 

"Unfading Green": A gray-green slate of unfading color. 

"Sea Green": Does not fade equally. 

"Variegated": A slate composed of purple and green. 
Strong quality but will not hold its color. 

"Red": Excellent slate, but high priced. 

"Purple": A slate of that color. The present production 
is small. 

" Slatington or Lehigh": A blue slate produced along the 
Lehigh River in the vicinity of Slatington, Pennsylvania. 
Generally, a low-priced slate. 

All slates fade but good slates fade evenly. 

TABLE SHOWING THE SIZE OF SLATE 



Jcr PJS s g c o, pig s? 

= M &5^ a"? M - Scc 8-5^ .a "3 



o w^~ '30 8 d w-a-eo '30 

fc ^g ^^ 12 ^ ^a ^^ 

Lbs Ozs 
2 3 

2 7 
2 12 

2 9 

3 3 
3 11 

3 15 

4 8 

5 4 



For heavy slate allow 20% more of 4d nails. 

" To determine the number of pcs to a sq of any size slate 
not given, first deduct 3' from the length; divide this by 2; 
mult by the width of slate and divide the result into 14,400. 









Lbs 


Ozs 






24x14 


98 


10i" 


1 




16x10 


222 


24x12 


115 


ior 


1 


2 


16x 9 


247 


22x12 


127 


9i /r 


1 


4 


16x 8 


277 


22x11 


138 


9 // 


1 


6 


14x10 


262 


20x12 


142 


8|* 


1 


6 


14x 8 


328 


20x10 


170 


8|* 


1 


11 


14x 7 


374 


18x12 


160 


ry 


1 


9 


12x 8 


400 


18x10 


192 


i\" 


1 


14 


12x 7 


457 


18x 9 


214 


i\" 


2 


1 


12x 6 


534 


16x12 


185 


6$" 


1 


13 







ROOFING 25^ 

An example 20x10 would be calculated thus: 20 3=17 
divided by 2=S, 8xlO=85. 85 divided into 14,400169 41-100 
pcs." 

LAP: The standard lap is 3", but 2 is enough on towers, 
steep roofs, etc. This of course changes the number of slate 
required. More than 3" lap is seldom used, but where it is 
the slate must be watched at butt, as they may not lie close 
to lower course. The best sizes are 8x16, 10x16, 9x18, on 
ordinary roofs; smaller sizes are used on towers. 
NAILS: If copper nails are used allow 60c per sq extra. They 
run from 20 to 25c per Ib. Small slate, of course, require more 
nails than large. For some tile $1 is not too much. 

Ordinary tinned or galv slate nails cost from $4 to $5.50 per 
keg. 

HAULING: Hauling of slate and tile sometimes amounts to 
a sum worth watching. The distance from a railroad has to 
be considered; 50c per ton in the city might run to $2 in the 
country. 

FLASHING: Flashing is not included in the figures for slate 
and tile. 

SNOW GUARDS. 

The following prices are for Baird's patent. Pipe is not in- 
cluded. Use f " galv. (See price in Chap XVIII.) Three pipes 
are used in height. Standards for guards are placed about 5' 
apart. Allow Ic per ft for putting pipe in place. 

PRICE LIST 

The iron plate is made the size of roofing slate and of suit- 
able thickness to lie properly with regulation thickness (&"). 





Price of each GUARD 




Price of each GUARD 


Size of Slate 


complete 


Size of Slate 


complete 


14x 7 


$1.55 


20x10 


$2.10 


14x 8 


1.60 


20x12 


2.40 


16x 8 


1.70 


22x11 


2.40 


16x 9 


1.80 


22x12 


2.50 


16x10 


1.85 


24x12 


2.65 


18x 9 


1.85 


24x14 


3.10 


18x10 


2.00 







254 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

BLACKBOARDS. 

The standard widths of slate blackboards are 3', 3' 6", 4', 
IT. The thickness is i to \" . The price runs from 15c per sq 
ft on the narrowest to 18c on the widest. Add freight, 40c per 
cwt. Setting is worth 3c per sq ft. 

TILE. 

PRICE: Interlocking tile run to about $16 per sq laid. On 
smaller buildings allow about $19 to $20. Shingle tile, which 
does not interlock, $16 on large surfaces; $18 on small build- 
ings. Spanish tile run about $20. Something, of course, de- 
pends upon the style of the roof. With many angles and 
dormers, tke cost runs higher, and towers reach as high in the 
dollar col as they do in the air. For towers and domer 
windows allow approximately $30. Some will cost more, but 
the aver of the roof will bury the sorrow. These figures do 
not include strips to hold tile on roof. (See Part I, page 29 
for a fair price.) 

" Prices of tile vary from $6 to $30 at factory, and of ridge 
and hip rolls, from 15 to 50c per ft." Spanish tile cost about 
$50 per 1,000, Shingle tile about $10 per sq fob factory, St. 
Louis. Some interlocking tile can be bought at factory for $9 
per sq; hips, 25c per ft; ridging, 50c; finials for the standard 
of 2 hips, $3.50 each add 50c for each additional hip, as on 
octagons, dormers, etc, with more than 2 way terminals. 
Green tile cost $5 per sq extra. 

MATERIAL: For Ludowici tile, 1x2 strips are usually laid 
13g" centers. For Spanish tile 1x2 are also used. Shingle tile 
do not require strips, except a lath at eave the same as for 
slate. Some tiles are laid without strips, some are spaced at 
10}; the style selected must be examined before the bill of 
material is made out. If roof is without sheathing, heavier 
strips are necessary. 

Shingle tiles are made 6x12, 6}xl2, etc, the exact size de- 
pending upon the maker. A tile weighs from 900 to 1,000 
Ibs per sq; , 1,350. The first course is doubled like shingles 
and slate. Shorter tile are used for starters about 6Jx9. The 



ROOFING 255 

finishers, or ridge tile, are about the same size. Half tile are 
required at gables, chimneys, etc, to break courses. These are 
about 3x12, and must be rights and lefts if not of plain pattern. 
In general it is far better to send roof plan to factory and have 
order made out there. 

QUANTITY: About 440 shingle tile are required to the sq at 
an exposure of 5i with tile 12" long; at 5" with 12" tile, 480. 
Each tile requires 2 4d, or 1 galv wire nails, but sometimes 
copper nails are used. Roofing felt should be put on. Elastic 
slaters' cement is required for valleys. Connor's, Heltzell's or 
Pecora brands are recommended. Finials, crestings and hip 
rolls should be laid in Puzzolan Portland cement colored to 
match the tile. This cement does not saltpeter most roofers 
have never heard of it, and use the common brand. 

Shingle tile are made in a variety of colors and patterns. 
There is an endless variety of ridge rolls, hip rolls, starters, 
finials, etc. The prices are as various as the patterns. A mini- 
mum carload runs from 24,000 to 30,000 Ibs. Freight rates are 
more than dbl on less than carloads. Ludowici glass tile, 
9x13, 60c each. 

Interlocking tiles are of so many different sizes that the 
catalog must be consulted for number and weight. The aver 
weight is about 750 Ibs, but some run to 850. The number 
varies from 135 to 290. Tower tiles require from 400 to 600. 
Spanish tiles run to about 220, although catalog gives only 200. 

FELT: Roofing felt weighing 40 Ibs to sq is necessary. It 
should be nailed to roof with permanent laths spaced 24". 
Above lath 1x2 wood strips are nailed to suit spacing. Dbl at 
eave; run up valley, and also perpendicular walls. 
LABOR: Some interlocking tiles are not nailed down like 
slate or shingle tiles: "Every tile in the eave course, and 
every other tile in each course above, to be fastened to the 
sheathing with No. 20 copper wire through a staple nailed to 
sheathing and through a hole in the tile." This is not always 
done. If it is, a day's work for 2 men should not be set at 
more than 5 sq. 

On a roof of Spanish or interlocking tile 2 men can lay from 
8 to 10 sqs in an 8 hour day. With a complicated roof like 



256 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

No. 11, half of this is enough. This allowance is taken from 
a recent large contract. On shingle tile allow 6 to 8 sqs for 2 
men with laborers, as for slate. If like No. 11, 4 sq. For 
towers, dormers, etc, 2 sqs. On a long plain roof of Ludowici 
an allowance of $4.40 was made by experts for labor. The 
smaller the tile, as a rule, the longer time, as each piece has to 
be handled separately; and the greater the number of nails. 
(For tin, galv iron, and copper roofing, see Chap XV.) 

A WESTERN PRICE LIST OF PAPERS 

SHEATHING 

Per Roll 

X Red Rosin, 20 Ibs per Roll, 500 sq ft $0.38 

XX Red Rosin, 25 Ibs per Roll, 500 sq ft 48 

XXX Red Rosin, 30 Ibs per Roll, 500 sq ft 57 

XXXX Red Rosin, 35 Ibs per Roll, 500 sq ft 66 

XXXXX Red Rosin. 40 Ibs per Roll, 500 sq ft 76 

Black Waterproof, 3 ply, 500 sq ft . 95 

Cracker Jack, (white fibre sheet) 500 sq ft SO 

Blue Plaster Board, 500 sq ft 2.00 

Blue Plaster Board 250 sq ft 1.25 

Thread Felt, 500 sq ft 1.00 

Thread Felt, 250 sq ft 60 

No. 4 Manilla, 500 sq ft 1.00 

Perfection Waterproof fibre. 32" rolls, 500 sq ft 1.10 

Perfection Waterproof fibre, 32" rolls, 250 sq ft 60 

INSULATING 

Per Roll 

No. 1 Red Rope, 500 sq ft, 30 to 32 Ibs per roll $1.90 

XXX Red Rope, 500 sq ft, 40 to 42 Ibs per roll 2.50 

ASBESTOS 

(100 Lb Rolls) Per 100 Lbs 

10 Ibs per 100 sq ft $4.50 

12 Ibs per 100 sq ft 4.50 

14 Ibs per 100 sq ft 4.50 

20 Ibs per 100 sq ft 4.50 

DEADENING FELT 

Per 100 Lb s 

Square Brand, 1 Ib to sq yd, 450 sq ft to roll $2.60 

Square Brand, 1$ Ibs to sq yd, 450 sq ft to roll, 2.60 

Extra Heavy, 2 Ibs to sq yd, 450 sq ft to roll 2.60 



ROOFING 257 

CARPET LINING 

Per Roll 15 to 50 Rolls 

Plain Cedar, 50 yds to roll $0.55 $0.50 

Corrugated Cedar, 50 yds to roll 60 .55 

3 Ply Folded, 50 yds to roll 2.50 2.25 

ROOFING PAPERS 

Per Roll 

2 Ply Prepared, 108 sq ft fabric $0.90 

3 Ply Prepared, 108 sq ft fabric 1.25 

TARRED FELT 

Per 100 Lbs 

No. 1 Tarred Felt, 21 Ibs to sq $1.65 

No. 2 Tarred Felt, 16 Ibs to sq 1.65 

No. 3 Tarred Felt, 12 Ibs to sq 1.65 

OZOKERITE RUBBER ROOFING 

32 inches wide, 40' long, 108 sq ft. Fabric, nails, caps and 
cement for laps, and directions for applying packed inside 
each roll. 

Per Roll 

1 Ply, 34 Ibs to roll $1.30 

2 Ply, 44 Ibs to roll 1.65 

3 Ply, 54 Ibs to roll 2.00 

ROOFING MATERIAL 

Per Lb 

Roofing Tins 7c 

Roofing Nails 7c 

EASTERN NEPONSET PAPERS, ETC. 

Price Weight 

Neponset Red Waterproof $1.20 12 Ibs 

Neponset Black Waterproof 45 9 Ibs 

Florian Sound-Deadening Felt 70 9 Ibs 

Paroid Roofing, 1 Ply 2.50 35 Ibs 

Paroid Roofing, 2 Ply 3.25 45 Ibs 

Paroid Roofing, 3 Ply 4.00 55 Ibs 

Price and weight are per sq (unlaid). 

Neponset Red is sometimes used for a cheap roofing, and 
for this purpose is packed with nails, tin caps, etc. There are 



258 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



three sizes of rolls-500, 250, and 100 sq ft. It is also used for 
the best work on walls. 

The black is a cheaper paper to go under floors, siding etc 
500, and 250 sq ft. 

Both papers are made in 36" widths only. 



CHAPTEE XVII 

PAINTING. 

MEASUREMENT: Somewhere, years ago, I saw a rule to 
the following effect: "Painting is measured wherever the 
brush touches." That is the rule we follow. Glass, except 
small sizes is now deducted by the leading painters and the 
price raised accordingly. Actual surf only is taken so that 
quantities can be made out from first estimate. 

So far as taking off quantities is concerned, a carpenter can 
usually do this much easier and quicker than a regular 
painter, because he already has the number of sq ft of ceiling, 
wainscoting, and floors; the number of openings, the If of 
base, and a dozen other factors of the complete bill at his 
service, while the painter would have to go over the plan 
anew, and probably get mixed on the carpenter's specifica- 
tion. 

Windows and doors are easily measured. Deduct the glass 
from the wood surf, and do not be too exact. The aver door 
has about 6 yds for both sides; window, 2 to a side, as the 1 
may be oiled and the other painted. If glass is not deducted 1 
painters allow from 3 to 4 yds to each side of a window. Our 
method allows half and doubles the price. 

For porch cornices, rails, balusters, lattices, and such orna- 
mental work, it is hard to give a rule that will fit all cases. 
Get the surf roughly and raise the price to suit the work. The 
material does not cost much, but the time is anywhere from 
2 to 10 times longer than on plain work. The aver building 
does not have so very much ornamental work in proportion 
to the complete number of yds, and .a slight mistake on the 
front porch does not seriously affect the total. 

Of course, no one ever thinks of measuring each baluster 
or spindle separately exactness is not possible on grilles and 
such work; and a painter who stands by actual surf measure- 
ment will yet run his rule across a row of spindles and for- 

259 



260 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

get to make any deduction. It is on such work that time is 
consumed. 

SPHERES: A painter has sometimes to gild large balls with 
gold leaf, and it is important to get the exact surf. For the 
surf of a sphere mult the sq of the diam by 3.1416. Thus a 
sphere 10' in diam has 314 sq ft, for 10 mult by 10=100, 
which mult by 3.1416 gives 314.16 sq ft. Another 5' diam 
has 78.54 sq ft. 

GOLD LEAF: A pack of gold leaf contains 20 books, and 
each book has 24 leaves. A leaf is 3" sq. Allow 50% for 
waste. A pack costs $8. Allow $20 a pack for putting on leaf, 
Nos. 3 and 4 were not sublet, and I had exact figures for 
surf material, and labor, but do not now have all of them at 
hand. I have some data from No. 2. 

QUANTITY: There are 2,000 yds of 3 coat white paint out- 
side and inside on No. 2. Glass is not included, but only 
actual surf. Wages were 30c. The actual cost was 22c per 
yd. Labor was 13c; material, 9c per yd. The work should 
not have cost more than 20c, but country painters are slow. 
The proportions were: Labor, $260; lead, $100; oil, $29.25; 
turpentine, $10.45; tools, etc, $15; pigments, $5. 

PAINT QUANTITY TABLE FOR 100 ACTUAL YDS 

Kind of Work Lbs or Gall 

Lead and oil priming (own mixing) ;. 40 2 J 

Lead and oil prim ing, and 1 coat (own mixing) 56 to 80 3J to 5 
Lead and oil priming average 1 coat (own mix- 

ing) 72 4} 

Lead and oil priming, and 2 coats (own mixing) 100 6 
Allow 7 to 10% more for common brick 

work 

Size on plaster 1 glue 1 

Lead and oil on plaster, 2 coats 56 3$ 

Enamel on plaster, 1 coat 3 J 

Mineral on rough wood, 1 coat 21 

Mineral on smooth wood, 1 coat 15 . 7 1$ 

Mineral on tin, 1 coat 13 1| 

(For compressed air quantities, see page 275) 

Graphite 1J to 2$ 

Shingles (See page 269) 

Putty, 2 Ibs per house room, for new frame... 

Putty, 1 Ib per house room, for old frame... . 



PAINTING 261 

Kind of Work Lbs or Gall 

Putty, 1 lb per house room, brick, new 

Putty, \ Ib per house room, brick, old 

Putty, average from 1 to 2 Ibs to 100 yds new 

brick .... 

Putty, average from 2 to 3 Ibs to 100 yds, new 

frame .... .... 

Putty, see figure for 2200 yds, page 265. 
Steel painting (See page 265). 

INSIDE WORK 

Liquid filler 2 

Paste filler (reduced for last col.) 20 to 25 3 

Water stain, open wood .... 1 

Water stain, close hardwood .... 1 

Water stain, soft wood .... 2 

Spirit stain, as above 3 

Spirit stain, as above 2f 

Spirit stain, as above .... 4J 

Oil stain, all woods .... 1 

Varnish, etc, 1 coat 2 to 2$ 

Varnish, etc, 2 coats 4 

Varnish, etc, 3 coats 5 J 

Shellac, 1 coat 1 to ll 

Wax. . 7 .... 

Graining (color in oil) 4 .... 

Calsomine .... 6 

Varnish remover .... 6 

COLD WATER PAINT 

See allowances on page 275. 

WALL AND WATERPROOF PREPARATIONS 

See pages 110, 147, 276. 

Further on it will be noted that on No. 7 the amount of 
paint required was 100 Ibs to 100 yds for 2 coat work, instead 
of for 3 coat . This allowance is large enough for 3 ordinary 
coats, but special cases change the quantities. 

MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR 10 GALLS OF PAINT 

Mineral Lead Oil Turpentifcr 

Priming 33 Ibs 10 gall 

Priming 110 Ibs 7 gall 

Other coats (each) 120 Ibs 5 gall gall 

Pigments (colors) 3 to 5 Ibs , 

Do not use turpentine for outside work. 



262 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

ROOFING AND METAL WORK 

Dry red lead 128 

Pure boiled linseed oil 1.4 gall 

Pure raw linseed oil .... 2.8 gall 

Pure lampblack in oil 17 oz 

COST PER GALLON 

Mineral Lead and Oil 

33 Ibs mineral 3c $1.00 100 lead (priming) $7.70 

10 gall oil, 50c 5.00 7 gall oil 3.50 

Mixing .60 Mixing .60 

$6.60 $11.80 

Cost, 66c per gall, or 6c per Ib. Cost per gall, $1.18, or 7Jc per Ib. 
Mineral may sometimes be had for a cent per Ib. 

SECOND COAT LEAD AND OIL 

120 Ibs lead $8.40 

5 gall oil 2.50 

$ gall turpentine .35 

Mixing .60 

Pigments (if used), 3J Ibs at 20c .70 

$12.55 
Cost per gall, $1.26, or 8c per Ib. 

PRIMING: "The Painters' Magazine" says: By far the best 
priming is pure white lead and oil 100 Ibs of lead to 6 galls of 
pure raw linseed oil and one quart of pure oil and turpentine. 
Japan in addition. This is for soft wood. For yp the oil 
should be reduced to about 5$ galls, and turpentine used for 
the deficiency. 

Some say, again, that boiled oil should be used without 
turpentine. The boiled is generally used. 

ILLUSTRATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 

If you ask a score of different painters how much material 
is required for a certain surf you will have a score of differ- 
ent answers. It is the same with all figures given in trade 
publications. So much depends upon the lumber covered that 
it is hard to be exact. If it is undressed it takes about twice 
as much as when it is smooth; inside painting takes less than 
upon a cornice where it may be applied with a large brush. 



PAINTING 263 

LEAD PAINT: Two local agents allow 1 gall to 300 sq ft, 2 
coats. It is too little on rough wood. A painter who has 
dealt in unusually large quantities informs me that 1 Ib of 
lead covers 33 sq ft, and that each gall weighs 15 Ibs, thus 
allowing 1 gall to 495' for one coat, or practically the same 
as the agents for 2 coats, because the material goes further 
on the second. 

MINERAL PAINT: For mineral paint he estimates 675 sq ft 
on wood, and 900 on iron, 1 coat. These surfaces are at 
least 10% too large unless on very smooth wood or tin. Min- 
eral weighs about 10 Ibs. For varnish his allowance is 700 
sq ft, 1 coat. For varnish 500' at most is enough, although 

5 galls recently covered 350 yds. 

MIXED PAINT: A firm of mixed paint manufacturers sends 
me the following data: " A gall of our paint weighs from 12 
to 16 Ibs white being the heaviest and dark shades the light- 
est. A gall will cover about 375 sq ft, 1 coat; 225, 2 coats; 
and 150, 3 coats, varying according to surf. Our roof and 
barn paints weigh about 12 to 13 Ibs to gall, varying but 
slightly on account of shade. A bbl of mixed paint contains 
from 50 to 53 galls. A gall of our shingle stain is sufficient to 
dip about 400 shingles, or if used with a brush will cover 150 
sq ft, 1 coat, or 100, 2 coats." 

Their list contains more than 250 different colors. About 
% gall of oil for thinning is required for each 10 Ibs of ready- 
mixed paint. 

ROOFING PAINTS: Roofing paints are often adulterated. 
They should run about as high in price as linseed oil, which 
is usually from 50 to 55c per gall. 

AN EXPERT: An old painter makes the following contribu- 
tion to the sum of our knowledge : " Two coats require from 

6 to 9 Ibs to the 100 sq ft, 7 Ibs being about the aver. Add 
3 Ibs if 3d coat is put on. The weight is given for paint al- 
ready mixed. The first coat on new wood should have from 
6 to 7 galls of oil to 100 Ibs of lead; second coat about 5. A 
gall of linseed oil weighs about 7i Ibs, and estimating that the 
work will take 6 gall of oil to 100 Ibs of lead, every 100 Ibs of 



264 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

lead will make 145 Ibs of mixed paint, the ground pigments 
for tinting perhaps making it 150 Ibs, or about 10 galls. The 
labor for 1 man runs from 200' to 1,800, with an aver of 
1,000 in 10 hours." 

EXPERTS: That is from a printed article. The following is 
from one of the best firms in Omaha: " Allow 1 gall of paint 
to 45 yds, 1 coat; the other coats do not take so much. For 
an 8 hour day aver 35 yds for 1 man, but on certain classes of 
work he can do 100. On plaster with plain work he should do 
150" 

"Allow 1 Ib of glue at 20c for 100 yds of size; 2 galls of 
boileC linseed oil for 100 yds of maple floor, 2 coats ; 2 galls of 
varnish for 50 yds of inside finish, 2 coats; 1 gall of paste 
filler to 36 yds. Berry Bros, luxbery in bbls, $2 to $2.25 per 
gall; common wood alcohol shellac, $1.75 in bbls; grain 
alcohol, white shellac, $2.90. Radiator enamel is $2.25 per 
gall, so that if this work is included the price of the raw 
material must be taken into account. Shellac covers more 
surf than varnish allow J gall of the 1 to 1 gall of the other. 
It is put on in about half the time." 

COLORS: Allow from 3 to 5 Ibs of pigments for mixing 100 
Ibs of lead. The shade decides the quantity. 
FILLERS: A gall of liquid filler is enough for 50 yds; and in 
general 10 Ibs of paste filler will cover the same surf, al- 
though 1,500 yds of hardwood on No. 3 took 500 Ibs, but the 
glass was not deducted. Paste filler costs lOc per Ib. Do not 
use a liquid filler on oak, ash, or any wood with open grain. 

VARNISH for outside work costs $4.50 per gall. Aver varnish 
weighs about 8 per gall. 

HARDWOOD STAINS: From $1 to $2 per gall. 
VARIETY: One painter gives 1 gall to 45 yds, 1 coat; the 
other, who handles large quantities of lead paint, gives his al- 
lowance at 55 yds. The weight is 15 to 16 Ibs to gall, I find 
3 different authorities who publish the following allowance, 
which the one has probably copied from the other : " 1 Ib to 4 
sq yds for 1st coat; and 1 Ib to 6 sq yds for each additional 
coat." 



PAINTING 265 

PUTTY: All the authorities agree on putty 5 Ibs to 100 yds. 
This is too much. 

On No. 22 with 2,200 yds, without glass being included, only 
10 Ibs were used, but that is a brick building. 

A house of 6 to 8 rooms takes about 2 Ibs when new, and 
half that amount when repainted. 

Cost of putty is about 3c per Ib in small lots. 

RUBBING DOWN HARDWOOD: For rubbing down 100 yds: 

5 Ibs Petroleum Stock 3 Ibs powdered Pumice 

1 gall Kerosene 8 to 10 Ibs Waste 

See also "Steel Wool," page 272. 

PAINT* ON BRICK: New brickwork requires a little more 
than wood. The first coat takes more, but the second less 
than wood. Mineral paint is sometimes used on brick. As- 
phalt paint used on pipes, brick, etc, costs about 85c per 
gall. 

PAINT ON STEEL: For iron and steel allow per gall as 
follows, according to a popular work: 

SqFt 

1 Coat 2 Coats 

Pure Linseed Oil 875 

White Lead, Ground in Oil 500 300 

Graphite, Ground in Oil 360 215 

Black Asphalt 515 310 

Iron Oxide, Ground in Oil 630 375 

Red Lead, Powdered 630 375 

Approximately \ gall of paint per ton of metal for 1st 
coat and gall for 2d. For 1 galls of graphite paint allow 
5 Ibs of paste and 1 gall of oil. Paste costs about 13c per Ib. 
Steel mills charge about $1.50 per ton for 1 coat of paint. 
After erection, $2 to $4. For cleaning old steel and iron 
bridges, etc, allow 3c per sq ft of surf or approx from $1 to 
$1.75 per ton of metal. 

STEEL MILL DATA: A large eastern steel mill gives the 
following data: 



266 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Sq Ft 

Volume of Lbs of Vol and Wt of Paint 1 2 
Paint Oil, Gall Pigment Gall Lbs Coat Coats 

Iron oxide powdered 1 8.00 1.2 = 16.00 600 350 

Iron oxide, ground in oil.. 1 24.75 2.6 = 32.75 630 375 

Red lead, powdered 1 22 . 40 1 . 4 = 30 . 40 630 375 

White lead , ground in oil . 1 25 . 00 1 . 7 = 33 . 00 500 300 

Graphite, ground in oil.. . 1 12.50 2.0 = 20.50 360 215 

Black asphalt 1 turp 17.25 4.0 = 30.00 515 310 

Linseed oil (no pigment).. 875 

PER TON of metal, light structural work averages 250 sq ft, 
and heavy, 150 sq ft, of surf. Light work costs about 50 per 
cent, more to paint than heavy. 

PLASTER: Paint goes much further on plaster than on 
wood, especially when the latter is rough. On 700 yds only 
20 galls were used for 3 coats, but with a coat of size it is like 
painting on glass. This figure would not always hold out. 
QUANTITIES: With different surfaces it is impossible to 
.give certainty. It took 100 Ibs to 100 yds on the rough sur- 
faces of No. 7 for 2-coat painting owing to rough steel, 
waste on high trusses, etc. Wood should never have less than 
3 coats, although cottages are sometimes finished with 2. 
OCHRE: Yellow ochre, sometimes used for priming, costs 
3% to 4c per Ib. It is not so good as white lead. 

CALSOMINING: For 1 coat size and 1 calsomine, allow from 
60 to 80c per sq. To 150 sq ft, allow 1 gall calsomine. 

LABORONE MAN EIGHT HOURS 

MINERAL: With large plain surfaces and no scaffolding, 
150 yds. On small surfaces, angles, etc, 80 to 100 yds. On 
work hard to reach, and scaffolding required, 50 yds. 
LEAD AND OIL: On plain walls and surfaces, 80 yds; floors, 
135. For angle work, corners, porches, dormers, etc, 30 to 
40. On plaster, 130 yds. 

PLASTER: On 400 actual yds 74 hours were recently taken 
to size and give 3 coats of paint. Putting the 4 coats on the 
same basis that means 173 yds in 8 hours for 1 man. But 
again I saw 400 actual yds of plaster cleaned once and well 
painted 4 times and it took 176 hours, or at the rate of only 



* 

PAINTING 267 

73 yds instead of 173. About 14 galls of enamel were used for 
the last coat. 

TIME ON COATS: The priming coat is easier to put on 
than the following ones. Put the time about more for finish- 
ing coats. 

CLEANING: To carefully clean old work before repainting, 
40 to 50 yds on plain designs. See " Varnish Removing " 
under " Inside Work." 

INSIDE WORK FOR ONE MAN 8 HOURS 

Paste filling 20 yds fancy work 

Paste filling 60 yds plain work 

Liquid filling 100 to 125 yds plain work 

Liquid filling 40 to 50 yds fancy work 

Graining 20 to 30 yds 

Varnish 50 yds plain 

Varnish 30 yds balusters, etc 

Varnish 80 yds floor 

Varnish removing 8 yds on old oak 

Weather oak staining 28 yds on old oak 

Shellac 100 yds on old oak 

Varnish 37 yds on old oak 

Rubbing down 32 yds on old oak 

Staining sash 30 sash 

See also COLD WATER PAINT for LABOR with brush 
and compressed air. 

SASH: 190 windows, or 380 sash on No. 3 were stained in 
100 hours. Stain is worth practically the same as linseed oil. 

VARNISH REMOVING: The work done on the 8-yd basis 
ran to 40c per yd; a large hardwood floor firm allows to clean 
off old varnish from floors and refinishing 72c at most. 

ITEMIZED ACTUAL COST OF 100 YDS PAINTING 

PRIMING: 

2J gall at $1.18 $2.95 

Labor (100 yds) 3.20 $6.15 

SECOND COAT: 

4 gall at $1.26 5.04 

Labor (85 yds) 3.76 8.80 

THIRD COAT 8.80 

For 3 coat lead and oil work $23.75 



268 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

That amounts to 24c per yd, which is a high price, but all 
glass is deducted, and actual surf taken. Then, painters, by 
buying large quantities, get cheaper rates on lead and oil, and 
can cut the figures. If they add a good profit the amount is 
still higher. As a rule it is not on new work that painters 
make profits. 

MINERAL ON TIN 

li gall at 66c . $0.83 

Labor (150) 2.13 

$3.96 

Actual cost on plain work, 4c per yd, 45c per sq. 
On rough wood and a basis of 80 yds per day the figure 
would be 5 and 60c per sq. 



PRICES COMPLETE 

Cost price of ordinary painting is 8, 15, 22c, for 1, 2, 3 coat 
work, with wages at 40c. Plaster, 20% less. Sanding, 1 coat, 
15c. Painting in more than 2 colors is worth 15% more. 
Sizing, 2c per yd. Stippling is worth about 2c, but if there 
is a fair number of yds there is no extra charge made as the 
paint does not have to be so carefully spread. Plain painting 
is sometimes roughly figured at 8c per yd per coat. 
QUALITY: But there are many kinds of painting: In white 
color it can be easily made to cost as much as $1 per yd, but 
painting of this kind lasts for a generation. Painting is still a 
trade among the best mechanics, but it is merely a daub 
among others. There are so many worthless compounds that 
if an owner has a reasonably sized pocket book the best 
thing he can do is to go to a good painter and tell him to 
paint his building by day labor. 

LABOR AND MATERIAL: On aver brush work with mate- 
rial at 2, labor runs to 3 and 4. 

MINERAL: Mineral paint is cheaper than lead, but it is 
generally used only for the first coat on metal, or on large 
surfaces of undressed lumber. For 1 coat ,allow 5c; for 2 
coats, 9c. A good mixture is Prince's or Rawlins mineral 



PAINTING 269 

and boiled linseed oil. The mineral costs about 2 to 3c per 
Ib. Allow 3 to 3i Ibs to the gall. Another good mixture is 
Sherman-William's mineral paste 1 gall to 1 galls oil. 

READY MIXED: Ready-mixed lead paint from the factories 
costs about $1.10 per gall in reasonable quantities, but small 
orders are sold as high as $1.50. Mineral runs from 70 to 75c, 
but the price is increased to the small dealer. Railways 
charge out their mixed paints at about 5c per Ib. 

COLOR: Colored paint can be made of stock that goes 
further than white lead, jus't as mineral does. A fair extra 
allowance would be 15% more surf. 
White lead 7c per Ib. 

Graphite, Slate, Black or Red $1.00 per gall 

Graphite, Green 1.10 per gall 

Graphite, in Single Cans 1.25 

Red Lead 1.50 

GRAPHITE: Manufacturers say that graphite covers from 
600 to 800 sq ft per gall, 1 coat. Steel firm, quoted gives 360. 
SHINGLE STAINS: All the shingles on the roof of No. 12 
were dipped. It was a slow process, but I neglected to keep 
the time and can not say exactly how slow. It is not only 
the dipping, but the shingles are much harder to handle after 
they have been dipped. Instead of being carried to the roof 
in a bunch they are taken by the armful. Allow 8,000 in 8 
hours for 1 laborer. By bunch, loosened, 20,000, stain, not oil. 
One leading manufacturer asserts that his stain is 50% 
cheaper than paint. His quantities are as follows: 

1 brush coat, 1 gall to 150 sq ft of surf. 

2 brush coats, 1 gall to 100 sq ft. 

Dipping and applying 1 brush coat after shingles are laid, 
3 galls to 1,000 shingles. 

Dipping alone, 2 to 2| galls to 1,000 shingles. 

Only f of shingle is dipped. If applied with brush, 2 coats 
should be used. 

This manufacturer writes me : " These figures are as nearly 
accurate as it is possible to obtain. They have been proved 
by thousands of trials, and while, of course, the covering 
varies slightly owing to the variation in the roughness and 



270 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

porosity of the wood, the difference is not great." Still it is 
better to allow 10 to 15% extra on quantities. 

PRICES: Prices per gall run from 65 to 90c. Green is the 
dearest. The manufacturer's time is half the allowance given 
for paint on same surf. The kegs or bbls contain 11 galls or 
more. 

PER M: It is safe to allow $3 per M, depending upon price 
of stain, etc. This runs covering of roof to $7 or $7.50. A 
good slate is $11, but rafters have to be heavier. 

BRUSH COAT: Allow for this coat on shingles lOc per 
coat, per yd. 

BLINDS: Per pair outside, $1 to $1.25; inside, $3. 

INSIDE WORK 

INSIDE WORK: The figures already given are for a general 
aver. If inside painting is taken alone it is worth 10 to 15% 
more, for better work is necessary. The paint figures are for 
3 coats only; on inside work in white, 6 and 7 are not too 
many. Allow lOc extra for each coat. 

BARBERS' POLES: Striped work costs more than plain, 
but fortunately it is not nearly so popular as it used to be 
except on barbers' poles, where it still seems to hold its own. 
In this section of the country it is worth $12 to properly 
paint one, but a dozen can be done at half that figure. 

Before we set any prices it is well to remember that here, 
as elsewhere, unless otherwise stated, cost price is given, no 
profit being considered. Painters' wages are now (1913) 50c 
in Omaha. 

STANDARD FINISH: The standard inside finish for hard- 
wood is 1 coat filler; 1 shellac; 2 of varnish; rubbing down. 
If properly done it is worth 55c all through. It is often done 
for less, but neither material nor labor is first class. 

HIGH PRICE: The banking room of No. 3 ran to nearly a 
dollar per yd. It was finished with 1 coat water stain; 1 
filler; 3 white shellac; 2 rubbing varnish; rubbing down and 
re-touching afterwards. This is extra fine work with more 
coats than is usually put on. 



PAINTING 271 

But even when wages were lOc per hour lower than they 
are now $1.25 per yd which included a good profit has been 
charged all over interior work. First class work is expensive 
but it pays in the long run. All that glitters is not gold or 
even varnish. Some work may be made to cost $5 and up- 
wards. It all depends. 

FILLING AND RUBBING: On pine without filler the stand- 
ard inside finish as above is worth 35c. The allowance for 
filling hardwood is thus set at 20c, which is exactly what all 
hardwood on No. 3 cost; but 15c ought to be enough if every- 
thing goes well. If rubbing down is omitted deduct 8c. 

PRICES PER YD WITH PROFIT 

For 1 coat white shellao and 2 of Murphy varnish, 35c, with- 
out rubbing. 

For 3 coats, white shellac, which can not be rubbed, 35c. 

For rubbing to egg shell gloss, 10 to 20c; for slightly rub- 
bing, 6c. 

For 1 coat filler and 2 of varnish, 30 to 35c. 

For 3 coats varnish, 30 to 35c. 

For varnishing paint, 9c per coat. 

For 2 coats, floor finish, 20c. 

For graining, 25c to 30c. 

For enamel, 20c for 1st coat; 15c for 2d. 

For gold letters, 50c; silver, 50c; black, 20c, all per running 
ft. 

Thus, a window 3 ft wide, lettered clear across, would cost 
$1.50 for gold and 60c for plain lettering. 

Floors, ceiling, and such plain work can naturally be done 
cheaper than sash, grilles, etc. Rubbing down ornamental 
work costs 3 or 4 times as much as plain work. The fore- 
going prices are based on white shellac; common shellac is 
about half the price. 

WAX: I have applied wax to parquet floors in my time, but 
the rubbing is rather tiresome. We did not fill the wood, 
but used wax only. It is usually filled here. The price is 
about 60c per Ib; filler, 15c. From my recollections of the 
work, muscle is of more use than brains. 



272 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

As the prices given are based upon 40c per hour they can 
be regulated to suit any locality; or the number of yds can 
easily be found. 

CLEANING: Steel wool is sometimes used to rub down 
work by those who have little conscience or a low contract. 
It does not merely rub it down it grinds it down. But steel 
wool is not any too strong for some kinds of work. I recently 
saw 350 actual yds of oak cleaned down to the natural surf 
with a varnish remover. It works well unless thereMs shellac 
below the varnish, but it is a rather difficult matter to clean 
the wood. Each yd took an hour for 1 man. The work was 
done by contract and no time was wasted. Weather-oak stain 
after cleaning, 100 hours; giving 1 coat of shellac, 28; 1 of 
varnish, 76; rubbing down to a fairly smooth surf, 86. The 
design was reasonably plain. If there had been balusters, 
grilles, and such work, twice the time would not have been 
sufficient. 20 galls of varnish remover were used, 3 galls 
shellac, with $ gall alcohol to thin it ,and 5 galls of varnish. 

WALL PAPER: For plain wall paper lapped, allow for labor 
12 to 22c per roll; and for material, lOc and upwards. 

To get the number of single rolls required find the sq ft 
and divide by 30. Deduct openings. 

BURLAP: Burlap, often supplied by painters for inside 
finish, costs about 32c per yd colored; plain, 23c. This is for 
36" width. 

BRUSHES: Each painter is supposed to own a putty-knife 
and duster; the rest of his outfit is supplied by the em- 
ployer. Allow for each man for outside work: 

2 8 O round brushes. For inside work : 

2 flat, 4 to 4". ISO chisel varnish brush. 

1 No. 10 sash tool. 1 flat varnish, $". 

1 or 2 flat chisel sash, 1 J. 1 flat varnish. 2". 

MANUFACTURERS QUANTITIES 

One of the largest manufacturers in the United States gives 
the following list: 

" A gall of varnish will cover approximately 600 sq ft, 1 
coat. 



PAINTING 273 

A gall of shellac will cover from 700 to 750 sq ft. 

A gall of water stain covers about 650 sq ft on open-grained 
woods, and on close grained hardwoods 100 sq ft more. On 
soft woods a gall of water stain will cover from 400 to 500 
sq ft. 

A gall of spirit stain will only cover about half the area 
covered by the same quantity of water stain. 

A gall of oil stain will cover about 600 sq ft on all woods. 

A gall of paste filler reduced for use covers about 300 sq ft. 

A gall of shingle tint covers about 160 ft, 1 coat, if brushed 
on; 1* galls covers the same surf, 2 coats. From 2 to 2 
galls will dip 1,000 shingles, and another gall is enough for 
i brush coat in addition, after the shingles are laid." 

HARDWOOD FLOORS are becoming more popular every year. 
One dealer has prepared the following estimates for a floor 
15'xl8', or 30 yds. (See Chap. XXVI for Maple Floors) : 

For a New Floor, Hard or Soft, in Filler and Wax 

5 Ibs Paste Wood Filler, at 15c $0.75 

2 Ibs Prepared Wax, at 60c 1.20 

$1.95 
For a New Hardwood Floor with Dye, Filler, and Wax 

2 qts Wood Dye, the desired shade, at 85c $1.70 

5 Ibs Dark Paste Wood Filler, at 15c 75 

2 Ibs Prepared Wax, at 60c 1.20 

$3.65 
For a New Floor, Hard or Soft, in Varnish Finish 

2 qts Wood Dye, desired shade, at 85c $1.70 

i gall Floor Varnish 1.50 

1 Ib Prepared Wax . .60 

$3.80 

If filler shades are desired, substitute five Ibs of Paste Wood Filler 
for Wood Dye. 

For Refinishing a Pine Wood Floor with Dye and Wax 

1 gall Electric Solvo $2.50 

5 Ibs Crack Filler, at 20c 1.00 

2 qts Wood Dye, desired shade, at 85c 1.70 

} gall Under-Lac 1.50 

2 Ibs Prepared Wax, at 60c .^ 1.20 

$7.90 



274 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

For Refinishing a Hardwood Floor with Filler and Wax 

1 gall Electric Solve $2.50 

5 Ibs Paste Wood Filler, desired shade, at 15c 75 

2 Ibs Prepared Wax, at 60c 1.20 

$4.45 

For Kitchen, Store, Bath Room or Porch Floors, 
Hard or Soft 

5 Ibs Paste Wood Filler, at 15c $0.75 

\ gall Floor Finish, No. 1 1.20 

$1.95 

For the woodwork of a room this size we estimate three-fourths 
the quantity of material required for the floor. 

QUANTITIES 

Prepared Wax 1 Ib covers 250 sq ft. 

Powdered Wax Large size can covers 10,000 sq ft. 

Electric Solvo 1 gall softens 300 sq ft of old finish. 

Kleen Floor 1 gall cleans 700 sq ft. 

Wood Dye 1 gall covers 700 sq ft upon hardwood and 400 
sq ft on soft wood. 

Crack Filler 1 Ib ordinarily covers 30 sq ft. 

Paste Wood Filler 1 Ib fills 40 sq ft. 

Floor Finish No. 1 1 gall covers 600 sq ft. 

Under-Lac I gall covers 500 sq ft. 

Weather Proof Liquid 1 gall covers 500 sq ft. 

Floor Varnish 1 gall covers 500 sq ft. 

Interior Liquid 1 gall covers 500 sq ft. 
WEIGHTED BRUSH, 15 Ibs, $2.50; 25, $3. 
WAX may cover only 200 sq ft instead of 250. 

COLD WATER PAINT 

COMPRESSED AIR: It is usually put on with compressed air, 
but a brush has to be used where finished work is apt to be 
spoiled with waste material falling on it. 

COST: On a surf of more than 4,000 yds, the material 
ran to $113 and the labor to $190, or 7c per yd for 2 coats 
with compressed air; but this does not include the cost of 
air. On a building with more than 1,000 yds done with a hand 



PAINTING 275 

pump the cost was 9c per yd for 2 coats. The material costs 
from 6c to 7c per Ib, but large quantities can be bought 
cheaper. A safe figure is 5c for labor and 3 for stock. 

With some kinds of cold water paint mixing takes more 
time than painting. 

In the use of compressed air the labor depends a good deal 
upon the ease with which the work can be reached. On the 
building with 4,000 yds inside there were 1,200 yds of brick, 
actual measurement, outside. The labor for 2 coats of lead 
and oil was only $12, but 150 galls of mixed paint were used. 
The coat was about 12c per yd, or say, 13c with cost of air. 
The experience at the World's Fair in Chicago showed that 
for large, plain surfaces this method is far ahead of the old 
one, but it soils everything within reach. Of course buildings 
differ. On the same building, owing to considerations of ac- 
cessibility the outside cost is, as we have seen, Ic per yd, 
and the inside 4|c, but the men had to crawl among rafters. 
QUANTITIES: Quantities for large work may be estimated 
from the following data: On 16,000 yds 7,000 Ibs were used, 
or .44 to sq yd, brush. On 7,800 yds 4,200 Ibs were used, or 
.54 brush; on 5,700, 2,200, or .4 brush; on 4,000, 2,100 were 
used, or .525, compressed air. 

KIND OF WORK: All work was 2 coat on brick and lumber. 
Actual surf only is given openings being deducted. But 
joists have to be measured both sides, not merely taken with 
the surf of the ceiling. In some cases the one item is larger 
than the other. The largest quantity was used on No. 7 
and the other allowances on buildings close by. The differ- 
ence between quanties for compressed air and brush is not so 
great as is sometimes necessary. 

QUANTITY: On the 33,500 yds 15,500 Ibs were used, or a 
little less than J Ib to the yd. This is a safer figure than 
any of the 4, for while the total quantity was used for the 
total surf the distribution between the various buildings 
might not be exact. 

A manufacturer's catalog at hand gives the following data: 
" For smooth, hard boards allow 1 Ib for 50 to 75 sq ft, 1 coat; 
lor rough bds, stone and brick, 25 to 40 sq ft. Allow 2 parts 
powder to 1 cold water." 



276 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

According to these figures 1 Ib will do from 3 to 8 yds, 1 
coat; according to the actual results given for 2 coats, \ Ib 
covers 1 yd. But much depends upon the proportion of ma- 
terial. Suppose it is reversed and 2 parts cold water used 
to 1 part powder? 

Bbls weigh from 350 to 400 Ibs; kegs, 100. Half bbls and 
kegs are also standard, and smaller amounts are packed in 
wooden cases. 

LABOR: On one buildings the labor is already given. On No. 
7 it ran for 2 coats cold water, 4c per yd, but scaffolding 
was included for high roof. On another building, 4c; on still 
another, 6c. 2 coats lead, by hand on No. 7 ran to lOc, but ttie 
trusses were hard to reach, although several thousand yds of 
plain steel work reduced their high aver. Labor on lead and 
oil on another building with plain surf ran to 8c; but wages 
were not more than 30c on all work. 

ALABASTINE: "A 5 Ib package will cover from 33 to 50 
sq yds." White, 50; tints, 55c. 

CEMENT WATERPROOF STAIN 

Cabot manufactures a cement waterproof stain. " One gall 
will cover 200 sq ft, 2 coats on rough concrete, and 250 on 
smooth." It is sold for $1 to $1.25. This is applied on the 
outside of cement blocks. 

IRONITE 

Another preparation is " Ironite." It costs 25c per Ib, is 
mixed with water, and applied like paint. One Ib will cover 
about 25 sq ft. The cost is from $3 to $6 per sq." It is a 
filler, not a paint. 

DEHYDRATINE 

Dehydratine costs 80c per gall, or 3c per sq ft applied to 
inside of walls before plastering to keep out damp. This 
is No. 1. In small lots, $1.25. Two coats are used. 

No. 2 for exteriors, $1.50; small lots, $2.00. 

One gall is allowed by manufacturer for 50 to 70 sq ft, 2 
coats. 



PAINTING 277 

DAMP PROOFING 

An eastern damp proofing estimate of several methods of 
damp proofing is as follows: 

" After a thorough discussion of all the elements and prin- 
ciples involved a comparison of cost of the several methods 
considered showed up as follows: 

COST PER SQ YD 

Asphalt Film, Between Wall and Plaster $0.20 

Metal Furring, Between Wall and Plaster 30 

Hollow Tiles, Excluding Dampproofing 63 

Hollow Tiles, Including Dampproofing 75 

Outside Coating, Applied Under Pressure 30 

Cost of Preparing Concrete Surface for Plastering 55 

The amount of work to be done in case the outside coat- 
ing method was used was only 60% of what would have 
been required for interior damp proofing, as some of the 
walls were built directly against the adjoining property, and, 
therefore, not exposed; the total cost of the latter method was 
then about 60% of any of the others." 

The Toch R. I. W. or "Remember It's Waterproof" mix- 
tures are well known among builders, especially in the east. 
One kind is for inside walls before plastering; another for the 
outside; and others are cement fillers and floor paint. 

The Trussed Concrete Steel Co. of Detroit also has a full 
line of waterproof stains to be used on masonry, and espe- 
cially on concrete. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 

CATALOGS: Some plumbers and steam-fitters' catalogs have 
several hundred pages of descriptive matter and price lists. 
Why expect more here than a mere glance at a subject which 
requires so much space if treated exhaustively? We may, 
however, set down some things that are not found in the 
catalogs, which are full of an embarrassing wealth. 

COST OP SEWERAGE: About the smallest trench that can 
be used is 18" wide by the necessary depth. Digging and 
backfilling mean so much more than the laying of the pipe 
that if they are carefully figured the rest is easy. In fair 
ground with a depth of 5 ft, 50c per cy is enough, and 5c per 
If for the laying of the pipe. If sheet-piling is used allow as 
listed in Chap. I. But too much depends upon the character 
of the soil to set any hard and fast figures. 

LABOR: In soft ground an Omaha plumber allows lOc per 
If for 6 ft deep; and 30c to a depth of 14 ft. But these figures 
are too low, although for excavation only. Of course they 
are reasonable if plenty of tunneling can be done. On 1,000 
ft of pipe laid by another plumber to a depth of 5 ft, the time 
was 220 hours, or less than 6c. On 1,400 ft of pipe recently 
laid only 1 ft deep the cost of excavation and laying without 
cost of pipe, was lOc per If which is too high a figure. Laying 
of 12" pipe is worth 7 to lOc per ft; 4", 5c. 

Some work recently done in wet soil at a depth of from 4 
to 5 ft with 6 to 10" pipe cost for excavation and laying 28, 
31, and 43c, with more than 1,000 ft in each case. But sup- 
pose that rock has to be cut? Or that 100 ft of a sewer are 
only 4' felow the surf, while the next 100 have to go througll 
a deep bank? Each job has to be estimated to suit the local 
conditions. 

After a depth of 6 ft is reached the earth has to be handled 
twice, and a scaffold built in the trench to hold it. (See 
Chap VI, for prices of Omaha sewers.) 

278 



PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 279 

LABOR ON WATER PIPE: The time is practically the same 
as on sewer pipe of same depth. Some plumbers allow less 
for water than for sewer pipes. The pipes come in 12 ft 
lengths, and a good deal of boring can be done if the soil is" 
fair. For 5 ft deep 12c ought to be enough under ordinary 
conditions and digging the whole length. But this price is 
sometimes doubled and trebled owing to one cause and an- 
other. A long straight line can be laid cheaper than many 
short lengths. On several thousand of 6 and 10" recently laid, 
the labor ran to 35c per ft; and on 500 ft to 48c. This in- 
cluded, like the foregoing figures, excavation, laying, and 
backfilling. 

A fair idea of what laying alone is worth may be obtained 
fromi the following figures put in by 8 bidders for work in 
New Hampshire. Price is given in cents per ft: 3,100' of 12", 
aver 36c from 30 to 43c; 4,800' of 10", aver 33c, 27 to 41; 
2,800' of 8", aver 30c, 23 to 38; 10,000' of 6", 27c, 20 to 35; 
4,300' of 4", 24c, 19 to 32. 

On a contract in another part of the country the price ran, 
12", 33c; 10", 25c; 8", 22c; 6", 20c; 4", 19c. 

On 11 bids for 10,000 of 48", in Boston, the successful figure 
was $2.25; highest, was $3.53; aver, $2.73. 

For ordinary supply pipes to a building 8e per ft is a safe 
enough figure in fair soil; only about half the line is ex- 
cavated and the rest bored with an auger thus reducing the 
cost per ft. But paving may be extra. 

In August, 1908, I saw a man lay 300' of f" galv iron pipe, 
and the time taken was 36 hours, and 3 hours of a plumber 
to make connection. Wages of layer, 35c, and plumber, 62^c, 
$14.48, or 5c per ft. About i was dug, and the rest bored 
in good, firm soil that required no bracing. 

Inside of a building a man will lay 100' of supply pipe 
in a day. 

LABOR ON SOIL PIPE: It is hard to give a figure that will 
apply to all buildings. How many branches are there? 
How many bends and angles? Or is it in a straight line? 
Somtetimes a plumber will take a day to 40'; again he may 
do 100; a fair average is 50'. A good deal depends upon the 
s i z e 4 and 6" are given above. Soil pipe has to run a dis- 



280 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

tance of 4' outside of buildings in Omaha. Sewer pipe is not 
allowed inside a building. The weights for extra heavy pipe 
are : 2", 5.5 Ibs; 3", 9.5; 4", 13; 5", 17; 6", 20; 8", 33.5; 10", 
44; 12", 54. An 8" pipe is nearly 3 times as heavy as a 4", 
and this counts in the labor. 

VENT PIPES: When run singly they are from 1J to 2" diam. 
Allow 75' in a day for 1 man; 4", 45'; 6", 40'; 8", 35'. 
WASTE PIPES: For water closets, 4"; slop sinks, 2" and 3; 
other fixtures from 1^ to 1. The time on waste pipes is in- 
cluded in the fixture time. 

LABOR ON FXTURES: "Allow $8 for connecting up each 
fixture all supply and soil pipes being in place ready to con- 
nect." A fair aver is $5, but residence work costs a trifle 
more than warehouse. Wash basins in ranges should be con- 
nected at rate of 2 in 8 hours for 1 man. 

A water closet ought to be connected for $5. A plumber 
should do the work in half a day; of a day is ample. It 
should never take a whole day unless at a far distance from 
the shop, for plumbers usually report there in the morning 
instead of at the building. A day's work should be 3 closets, 
all rough pipes being in place. Not so long ago safes had 
to be put below water closets, and it took longer time to 
finish; but now open plumbing is universal, and usually com- 
pulsory. In ranges allow about same time. 

All pipes being ready, a bath tub should be set for $3. For 
a house with bath, water closet, and wash bowl in bath room; 
with sink and boiler in kitchen; and water closet and sink in 
cellar, allow 6 to 12 days for 1 man to rough in and finish 
complete; 9 is a good aver. 
SLATE: Setting per sq ft costs about lOc. 
DOORS: Hanging water closet doors, 8 of pine in a day for 
1 carpenter. Some men will do 10. 
TUBS: To set a range of 3 laundry tubs, 1 day. 
METER: To connect a small meter for house, $3; a large 
one for factory, $10. 

HYDRANT: To connect yard hydrant, $2. 
PUMPS: To connect a pitcher pump, $1.20. 



PLUMLING AND GAS FITTING 28l 

Plumbers' wages are now (1913) 6S|c per hour; helpers' 35 
to 40c. For an approx estimate, allow from 20 to 25% 
of the cost of material for labor but some bath tubs cost 
$30, some $150, while labor is about the same. Plumbing and 
heating run about 10% of cost of building. 

MATERIAL 
CAST IRON SOIL PIPE, SINGLE HUB 

Size in inches 23456 8 10 12 

Price per ft, standard lOc 12c 16c 22c 26c 65c $1.00 SI. 50 

Price per ft, extra heavy... lie 18c 23c 32c 36c 1.15 1.50 2.00 

Extra heavy is almost always used, so that the calking 
can be done without bursting the pipe. 

DOUBLE HUB 

Standard.. . .55c 65c 85c $1.25 $1.55 $3.65 $6.00 $8.75 
Ex heavy 65c 1.00 1.25 1.75 2.10 6.40 9.0011.50 

Both single and dbl-hub pipe comes in 5 ft lengths. On 
aver work allow 30% of straight pipe for all fittings; water 
pipe, from 38 to 40% vent, 45. 

SEWER PIPE 

Inside Diam Straight Pipe Curves Traps Weight per Ft 

3 6c 19c 65c 61bs 

4 8c 23c 80c 9 Ibs 

5 lOc 28c 95c 12 Ibs 

6 12c 38c $1.10 16 Ibs 
8 18c 65c 1.80 23 Ibs 

10 25c $1.00 2.40 33 Ibs 

Other fittings may be approximated from the foregoing list. 
Junctions are about 15% more than curves; dbl junctions, 50%; 
and increasers, decreasers, and slants, about the same. 

See also Chap VI. 

CAST IRON WATER AND GAS PIPE 
AVERAGE WT OF PIPE AND JOINTING MATERIAL 

Lead for Ea Joint Yarn in 

in Ibs oz 

34 6 

44 7 

8 9 

11 11 

15 13 



Inside Diam 
Inches 


W per Ft 

Water 


W per Ft 
Gas 


3 


15 Ibs 


13 Ibs 


4 


22 Ibs 


18 Ibs 


6 


32 Ibs 


30 Ibs 


8 


42 Ibs 


40 Ibs 


10 


60 Ibs 


50 Ibs 



282 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Weight of fittings for water pipe for the 5 sizes given: 
Elbows 40, 70, 102, 205, 260; bends 50, 80, 133, 201, 300; 
sleeves 24, 40, 70, 120, 150; plugs 8, 12, 20, 40, 60; tees 
3", 60; 4, 115; 4x3, 85; 6, 190; 6x4, 155; 6x3, 140; 8, 260; 8x6, 
250; 8x4, 235; 8x3, 190; 10, 430. Crosses 75, 120, 109, 225, 
200, 175, 325, 285, 255, 206, 565, to suit the 11 tees given. 

The weights for gas fittings are from 10 to 15% lighter than 
for water. 

LENGTH: Cast iron pipe comes in 12' lengths. The weights 
vary 5% either way. The price of pipe is about 2c per Ib; 
of fittings, 3. 

WRT IRON PIPE FOR STEAM, GAS, AND WATER 

BLACK AND GALV: The following are 1913 prices of galv 
pipe. 

Standard Extra Strong 

Wt per Ft Price per Wt per Ft Price~ per 

Inside Diam in Ibs Ft in Cts in Ibs Ft in Cts 

i 24 3.0 .29 7 

J .42 3.0 .54 7 

.56 3.0 0.74 7 

I .84 4.0 1.09 7 

| 1.12 4.7 1.39 7 

1 1.67 6.6 2.17 9 

H 2.24 9.0 3. 12 

li 2.68 11.0 3.63 15 

2 3.61 14.5 5.02 20 

2J 5.74 23.0 7.67 33 

3 7.54 30.0 10.25 42 

4 10.66 44.0 14.97 60 

6 18.76 76.0 28.58 1.20 

Dbl ex strong is about 100% more in price than ex strong. 

LENGTHS: From 16 to 20 ft; aver 18. 

CUTTING AND THREADING: Each cut and thread up to 
I, 3c; 1, 3^c; li, 3; 1|, 4c; 2, 6c; 3, 12c; 6, 32c. This thread- 
ing is done by a machine; when done by hand it is worth at 
least twice as much. Couplings are about 30% lower in price 
than 1 ft of straight pipe of same size; small ells are lower, 
large ones higher than straight pipe; small unions, about 
same large 50% higher; tees, about same, except in larger 
sizes which are higher; crosses, same in small pipe, twice as 
high in large. 



PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 283 

G-LOBE VALVES: 11, $1.25; 1$, $1.60; 2, $2.50; 2$, $5.60; 

3, $7.70; 4, $9. 

GATE VALVES: 1, $1.60; 2, $2.50; 2*, $3.65; 3, $4.40; 4, 

$6.25; 6, $9.75; 8, $16. 

SMALL LEAD PIPE: 8c per Ib. 

WATER CLOSETS: Which of more than 400 styles is to be 

taken as a standard? Siphon jet, wash down, and wash out are 

the 3 leading styles. A good siphon-jet closet with tank, 

pipes, etc, complete may be bought for $25; other styles may 

be had for $20; some people might find their ideal at $70. A 

wash out closet costs about $15. These prices do not include 

setting. Low tanks being almost noiseless are coming more 

into use. 

URINALS: Earthenware urinals are of different sizes and 

styles. They run from $4 to $6 each. If slate urinals are 

used the slate must be taken by the sq ft and the fittings 

allowed extra. 

SLATE: At the thickness of 1", 50c per sq ft; li, 60c; 2", 

80c. 

ITALIAN MARBLE: |, 80c; U, $1; 2, $1.50. 

PARTITIONS: Slate partitions are 4' high by various 

widths, from 14" to 4' 6". 

Allow lOc per sq ft to set slate; marble is used for basin 
tops and such trimmings. In general the cost of putting it 
in place is included in fixture allowance. 

DOORS: Water closet doors run to about $8 per pair, finished 
by painter. If hinges are of best quality nickel plated, allow 
$4.50 per door not per pair of doors. 

PARTITION FITTINGS: Nickel plated standards to keep 
slate up from floor, $2 each. They are 14" long. Rail on top 
of slate partitions, 40c ft. Angles and bolts to hold slate, 
30c each. 

BATHS: There is no limit to the cost of' baths. Enameled 
tubs may be had for $15 in 4'; $20 for 4' 6"; $24 for 5'; 
$25 for 5' 6" in lengths, with all necessary trimmings. Long 
baths are seldom used now. In porcelain the same sizes 
would cost about $150. 



284 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Shower baths are a trifle cheaper than tubs, and if a cement 
floor is put down they can be used where the space is limited. 
With a single pipe, $10 might buy a bath of this kind. In an 
excellent work, " Municipal Engineering & Sanitation," by M. 
N. Baker, associate editor of " The Engineering News," this 
style of bath is recommended on account of its cheapness. It 
would seem to be necessary in our summer climate if Mr. 
Baker's statistics are correct; for it appears that only 3 to 
5% of houses in such cities as Baltimore and Boston have 
baths. The building codes ought to be so amended that all 
new houses should have at least some cheap bath. St. Louis 
has set a good example in this way. 

LAVATORIES: Square, with marble slab and back, brackets, 
basin and all fittings, $15; corner, $18. With floor slab, etc, 
from $50 to $75. Porcelain is much dearer. Enameled iron, 
from $10 up. 

MEDICINE CABINETS: Size is about 26" wide x 30" high 
of different styles. 

.No. 1 $55.00 No. 4 $70.00 

No, 2 60.00 No. 5 75.00 

No. 3 64.00 

These prices include plate glass mirror, and two (2) |" 
plate glass shelves. 

Without mirror and shelves prices are: 



No. 1 $44.00 No. 4 $56.00 

No. 2 46.00 No. 5 65.00 

No. 3.. . 50.00 



These cabinets are made of brass and finished in heavy nickel 
plate. Each cabinet is supplied with (2) metal uprights, with 
slots to all of the shelves to be set at any desired height. 

For another make the cost is $38 for 21x25, mirror, 19x23; 
29x24, $50; 24x29, $50; 34x29, $81. 

BOILERS: For galv iron boilers used in kitchens with 
stands, couplings and tubes; 30 gals, $7.50; 40, $10; 52, $16; 
79, $24. The same sizes with coils are worth additional: 



PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 285 

$8.40, $9.60, $12.80, $14.40. These prices are for standard 
boilers; ex heavy cost 20% more. 

SINKS: For kitchen sinks, enameled iron, the usual size 

of 18x30, allow $2.40. There are many varieties, sizes, and 

prices. 

Roll rim sink with back, $10; with drain board and back, 

full length, $19. 

LAUNDRY TUBS: Price of 2 part, $17; 3 part, $25, includ- 
ing standard and all fittings. 

LEAD AND SOLDER: Sheet lead, 7c; solder, half and half, 
20c per Ib. Kidder gives 7 Ib lead to sq ft for roofs and 
gutters; 6 for ridges; 4 for flashing. 

WATER METERS: Small | meters for dwellings are sold at 
$11.50 each. See also page 336. 

GAS PIPE: For all pipe 1" and under allow 12 to 15c put 
in building complete. An aver day's work for 1 man is 80'; 
it was formerly set at 100, but now the day is shorter. 
Sometimes the gas piping is figured at $1.60 per outlet for a 
rough approx estimate. 

OAKUM: 4c per Ib; and 50 Ibs per bale. 

EJECTORS: When closets, etc., are below, the level of the 
street sewer, as in almost all skyscrapers now, an ejector 
plant is usually installed. For a 50 gall steam operated plant 
set in place, about $1,400; for a duplicate 50 gall 
plant, about $2,300. Electrically operated, about 30% more. 
No chamber included, so that brickwork, concrete, etc, would 
be additional; also piping to the ejector. 

Another duplex system " costs from $1,500 to $2,500, depend- 
ing upon requirements." 

A 50 gall plant, fob New York, with motor, $950; for steam 
air compressor, $900. 

For 100 gall, $1,200 and $1,150. 

These prices are based on a maximum 10' lift. The cost 
increases if the lift is higher. In the new Custom House, 
New York, the lift is 46'; in the St. Regis Hotel, 42 ft. 

There are at least 37 ejectors in the subway, New York. 



286 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

The standard sizes are 35, 50, 100, and 150 galls, but any 
desired size is made. 

An automatic syphon ejector for draining cellars may be 
had for $35 to $125, and capacity from 250 to 8,000 galls 
per hour. 

See Chap XXI for " Septic Tanks." 

LABOR ON GAS PIPES : They are put about 3'-6" in the 
ground. In winter allow 20' per man per day; in summer 
35' for complete labor. Joints of pipe are now made in 
cement at 5c. each. Lead was formerly used. The cost of a 
6" joint was 35c.; a 4", 25c. 

In a city of the size of Omaha, 125,000 in 1910, there are as 
many as 1200 old houses wired for electric lights in a year. 
The cost varies with the fixtures chosen. With an average 
quality of fixtures a seven room house can be equipped for 
$8 per room. 

The gas companies offer to install piping for a small price 
in order to get customers. For piping alone the charge is 
for a 5 : room house, $17.50; 6-room, $20.75; 7-room, $24.75; 
8-room, $27.00. Fixtures have to be added. 



CHAPTER XIX 

HEATING AND LIGHTING 

The heating systems in ordinary use are steam, hot water, 
hot blast, and furnace. Heating by electricity is a matter for 
experts to deal with. 

PRICE: The price of pipe is given under "Plumbing." 
Standard wrought iron pipe is used not extra Heavy. The 
number of ft of radiation being obtained an approximate price 
of work in place may be found by mult by 75c per ft, with- 
out boiler; 95c with boiler. Plain buildings do not quite 
reach these figures, but dwellings with hot water heat, often 
run to $1. Two recent steam heated depots with from 2,600 to 
3,000 sq ft of radiation ran to 65 and 80c without and with 
boilers. Hot water is higher than steam by 15 to 35% as 
more radiation is required. Boilers are sold at all prices. A 
sectional hot water boiler for 1,000 to 1,200' radiation can be 
furnished and set for $180 to $190. 

RADIATORS: They are of many kinds and sizes. The 
standard height is 38". In the catalogs the number of sq ft 
is given for each loop or section. Allow 25c per sq ft for 
radiator, without valves and fittings. Allow 2.3' of li" 
straight pipe as an equivalent of a sq ft, and price pipe 
radiators same as the newer style. 

Radiator valves run from 50c to $4. A fair valve may be 
bought for $1.50. Steam valves are the most expensive. Hot 
water, 1", 76c; 1}, $1.08; H, $1.50. Steam: 1, $1; li, $1.25; 
li, $1.70. 

Radiator pedestals or feet, are from 5 to 15c each. Pipe 
hangers from 8 to 15c each. 

EXPANSION JOINT: When a pipe is over a certain length 
an expansion joint is required. The expansion averages V in 
50'. The price is regulated to some extent by the expansion 
or "traverse." For 10" traverse allow the following prices: 
3" pipe, $12; 4, $20; 5, $25.50; 6, $32; 7, $40; 8, $48. But a 
10" traverse is longer than the standard which for a 3" pipe 

287 



288 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

is 2f; 4", 3i; 5", 4; 6", 5; 8", 7. The price of a 3" ex joint 
is about $6.50; 4, $10.50; 5, $17; 6, $19.50; 8, $39. All prices 
given are for iron body, brass sleeves and flanges screwed 
joints are from 10 to 50% cheaper. Brass expansion joints 
are sometimes used for the smaller sizes. They run about 
50% higher in price than iron. 

COILS: Allow 30c per sq ft for 1" coils of fair length, set 
in place. 

PIPE COVERING: The best has 85% magnesia coupled 
with 15% of other constituents. The price delivered in 
Omaha is from 12" pipe, 65c; 10, 56; 8, 50; 6, 40; 5, 36; 4, 28; 
3, 23; 2i, 19; 2, 17; 1$, 14; U, 12. A cheaper covering is 
asbestos and woolen felt: 2", 9c; 2$, 10; 3, 11; 3$, 13; 4, 14; 
4i, 15; 5, 16; 6, 18; 7, 22; 8, 24; 9, 26; 10, 32c. Wool felt is 
often used to cover cold water pipes. 

These prices include canvas covering and metal bands. 
An ell 'is worth about the same as a If of same size; a tee 
and valve about 30% more; a cross from 60 to 70 more than 
a straight ft; but for such angles the raw material is usually 
plastered on a bag of raw material costs about $4. Sec- 
tions of covering are made 3' long. Plain 1" lagging for 
boilers and such work is worth about 21c per sq ft put on. 
Magnesia and asbestos coverings are used above ground; for 
underground work Wyckoff covering is better. It is made of 
asbestos in a hexagonal wood duct from 8 to 12' long. For 
new work the pipe is put in on end for work in place the 
box is split. The box is, of course, larger as these sizes are 
for pipe. Sometimes asbestos is used below ground in a box, 
but Wyckoff is better. Allow lumber at regular price, and 
5c per If for carpenter labor alone if a box is used, but not 
for Wyckoff. 

The price given on Wycoff covering is for a 2", 3", and 4" 
thick shell. For 3" pipe, 26c, 38, 45; 4" pipe, 32c, 41, 50; 
5", 38c, 45, 57; 6", 43c, 53, 68; 1", 49c, 60, 77; 8", 57c, 72, 90; 
10", 75c; 90, $1.12. And if tin lined pipe is used add about 25% 
to these prices. 

For a 4" wrought iron pipe with Wycoff tin-lined covering 
and a 5" expansion joint 1,100' cost $1,251, laid at a depth of 
3'. Digging and backfilling, 15c per If, included. 



HEATING AND LIGHTING 289 

LABOR: For laying 3 or 4' pipe in a box several hundred 
ft long without a turn, allow from 3 to 6c per ft. The lengths 
are merely to be screwed together. No. 2 has about 300 ft 
of 6" hung to girders in a tunnel; allow about 12 to 15c. 
When such lengths are used an expansion joint is necessary. 

For inside of a building allow for risers, etc, from 8 to lOc 
per ft. The lengths are short and require extra labor. A 
radiator should be connected for $1.50 to $2 for steam, which 
is usually connected at. only 1 end; for hot water 50c more 
ought to be sufficient. 

Radiators weigh about 7 Ibs to sq ft; allow $5 per ton 
for hoisting. 

As with all kinds of work short material and angles take 
most labor. The estimator must make allowance for the 
character of the job. Approximately allow 25% of price of 
material for labor. Wages are 50c per hour for fitters, and 
25c for helpers. 

From 4 to 7c ought to cover digging and laying of box for 
pipe, or for Wyckoff covering, as trench does not require to 
be deep. Allow for pipe. Pipe covering ought to be put on 
at 3c for small pipe up to 8 or 10 for the largest sizes; but 
everything depends upon the number of angles. 

LARGE INSTALLATION: For the heaviest kind of work, 
with pipes from 2" to 16", allow 25% of total cost of material 
for labor. On a very large equipment with steam, water, and 
air pipes, this was exact figure. 



RADIATION 

There are various rules for obtaining the number of ft of 
radiation required. Each room is sometimes taken by itself 
on a different basis; again glass is considered, and its surf 
with respect to total wall exposure; and Baldwin sets a popu- 
lar rule. A building divided into small rooms requires more 
than a large hall or room. Halls and sleeping rooms are 
not heated so much as parlors. Some take the cf and divide 
by 60, and up to 100, or even 150 for large spaces; others go 
as low as 30 for a unit. The quotient gives the number of 
cf required for steam; hot water requires 20 to 25% more. 



290 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

RULE: A common rule for finding radiation is as follows: 
Get the cubical contents of the room in ft, and divide by 
100 for sq ft of radiation; get the sq ft of outside wall ex- 
posure, not deducting glass surf, and divide by 30 for sq ft 
of radiation; then get glass surf and divide by 3. Add the 
3 figures together for total. 

Thus a corner room 10x15x10 high would have 15 sq ft 
for contents; 8.3 for wall exposure; and 12 for glass, with 2 
windows each 3x6; or a total of 35.3 sq ft of radiation. The 
same room not on a corner, with 15' to the street, would 
have 32 sq ft. A room 12x20x10, 3 windows, would have 
53 and 49, for corner and inside with long side to street. 
Multiples are usually in 5, so the sq ft would be 55 and 50 in 
the last case. But supply pipes are usually included in the 
radiating surf. 

RULES FOR RADIATION: One large supply house sends 
out the following rules for 10 below zero. 

STEAM HEATING DIRECT RADIATION 

Frame Residences, down stairs 1 sq ft to 50 cf air 

Frame Residences, up stairs 1 sq ft to 60 cf air 

Brick Residences, down stairs 1 sq ft to 60 cf air 

Brick Residences, up stairs 1 sq f t to 70 cf air 

Office Buildings 1 sq ft to 60 cf air 

Factories 1 sq ft to 125 cf air 

Churches and Assembly Halls 1 sq ft to 200 cf air 

Indirect Radiation, 50% more surface. 

Direct-Indirect Radiation, 25% more surface. 

HOT WATER HEATING DIRECT RADIATION 

Frame Residences, down stairs 1 sq ft to 25 to 30 cf air 

Frame Residences, up stairs 1 sq ft to 30 to 40 cf air 

Brick Residences, down stairs 1 sq ft to 28 to 35 cf air 

Brick Residences, up stairs 1 sq ft to 40 to 45 cf air 

Office Buildings 1 sq ft to 40 cf air 

Factories 1 sq ft to 70 cf air 

Churches and Assembly Halls 1 sq ft to 100 cf air 

Indirect Radiation, 50% more surf 

Direct-Indirect Radiation, 25% more surf 

For ordinary buildings divide the cf by 45 and mult the 
sq ft of radiation thus obtained by $1 for the cost with; 



HEATING AND LIGHTING 291 

boiler. Plain buildings are sometimes heated with coils for 
as low as 1.4 to 2c per cf without boiler. An exact estimate 
can be had by making a piping plan and taking off the 
material and labor in the ordinary way. Both steam and hot 
water can be installed with either the single or dbl pipe sys- 
tem. The water may be returned to the boiler in the same 
pipe by which steam or hot water is supplied, but a heavier 
pipe is required, and many experts prefer the 2 pipe system. 

For steam, allow 35% of straight pipe for fittings, for hot 
water, 40. When there is little time to take off a bill in 
detail this will serve for an estimate. *--- ^s, 

The pipe radiator is not so much used now, as the others 
serve for both steam and water instead of steam only as it 
does. Each loop or section has from 5 to 10 sq ft of heating 
surf, varying with height and width, so that a price can not 
be set without size and number of loops if the work is 
taken in detail. 

HOT BLAST: I have had something of a prejudice against 
the fan system since No. 3 was built. There the hot air 
was pumped from the basement at such a rate that it went 
through the roof without having time to call on the offices. 
The tenants used to sit with their overcoats on while the 
fireman worked below throwing coal into the boilers. The 
coal and vacant office bills ran so high that the system was 
torn out and steam put in its place. I have been assured that 
office buildings are now successfully heated by this system 
the 13 story Builders' Exchange at Buffalo, for example. 

But for halls, schools, theatres, manufacturing buildings 
etc, the system is a success if carefully installed. Nos. 7, 8, 
and 14 are heated with it. As a rule the manufacturers put 
in the plant themselves. An aver figure for complete system 
is from ^ to &c per cf. But this does not include any boilers 
or supply pipes leading from them. There are various 
methods of installing the plant; sometimes ducts are used 
below the floor; sometimes pipes overhead. Prices vary ac- 
cording to plans. 

FURNACES: Approximately, allow $17 per room in houses 
for furnaces ready for lighting. Some may run more, some 
less 5 to 7 rooms about $19. The heating capacity is found 



292 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

by cubing the entire house if it is all to be heated. The figures 
in the first column of the following table give the outside 
diam of the furnace casing; in the second col the number of 
cf heating capacity; in the third col the price del'd at build- 
ing, but not set. There are, of course, a hundred different 
styles with as many different claims, so that some allowance 
has to be made for a departure from an aver type. 

36" 10,000 to 12,000 cf . . . $56 

40" 12,000 to 15,000 cf 67 

42" 15,000 to 18,000 cf 80 

44" 18,000 to 23,000 cf 94 

48" 23,000 to 30,000 cf 109 

50" 30,000 to 40,000 cf 120 

A margin of safety is allowed, however, as a furnace should 
not be driven to the limit. A 40" is usually put in a 5 to 
7 room cottage complete at $117. A soft coal furnace is a little 
cheaper than one for hard coal. 

Pipes of an aver size may be estimated in place at 25c 
all through. These are double; 6x22 single, lined with 
asbestos paper, 35c in place. An easier way is to allow $3.50 
to $4 per run for all pipes to first floor; and $8 to second, 
including box and shoe. 

Elbows run from $3 to $6 per doz; 8" and 9", about $3.50. 

After material is made ready it does not cost much to put 
it in place; aver 8 room houses run from $20 to $28 for all 
labor on furnace, pipes, and registers. One roll of asbestos 
paper is sufficient for the large pipes when they are used. 
The carpenter sometimes makes the fresh air duct from the 
nearest window. 

CARLOAD: There is about 35 furnaces to a carload. 
REGISTERS: There are many kinds of registers; but a fair 
idea of value may be had from this list: 

Size in Floor 

Inches Register Reg Face Border 

4x8.. $0.45 $0.30 $0.28 

7x10 50 .35 .32 

9x12 63 .50 .39 

10x12 72 .53 .41 

10x20 2.69 1.50 1.16 



HEATING AND LIGHTING 293 

Size in Floor 

Inches Register Reg Face Border 

10x24 $3.65 $1.75 $1.54 

12x20 2.70 1.55 1.20 

12x24 3.66 1.75 1.56 

16x30 8.00 3.80 3.60 

18x36 11.40 4.90 3.60 

30x30 15.00 5.60 4.85 

38x42 36.00 15.00 11.00 

These prices are for black japanned; white jap are 20 to 
30% higher; gold, silver, copper, nickel plated or bronzed 
finish registers are also about 30% more than black jap. 
There are many other finishes and designs with special 
prices. The ordinary wall frame is 2" deep; 4" costs about 
50% more. 

HOT WATER HEAT: For a house of 8 rooms allow $400 for 
hot water heat. 
GAS WATER HEATERS, $10 to $15 for an 8 room house. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING 

PRICE: Allow $2.50 on aver house work, for each It with 
wiring, switches, cut-outs, sockets, etc, complete. This is for 
open work, weatherproof wire. For concealed work with 
rubber covered wire, $3. For open work, wire only, $2 per It. 
These prices are per It, not outlet, as an outlet might have- 
a dozen Its. Push button switches, $1 extra. No. 14 wire 
is used for ordinary work. 

An arc It costs about $30. It is impossible to set a figure- 
on the large work for such buildings as Nos. 7 and 8; and 
the bids showed that even experts do not agree on values. 
CONDUIT WORK: For railroad work in pipes about half an 
inch in diam, allow from $5 to $6 per It. 
COST OF HOUSE: For a house of 8 rooms allow $40 to $50 
for wiring; and about the same for fixtures. But wiring 
might be dbl that figure; and fixtures 10 times as much. 
DUPLEX: For each lamp controlled^ duplex switch, add 
about $6. 

FACTORY: For factory Its with large number of drops 
to tables, benches, etc, $2.50 per lamp. 



294 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

PASSENGER STATION: For the aver passenger station, 
100 to 125' long, with fixtures, $140 to $200. 

FREIGHT DEPOTS: For freight depots 100' long, $80 to 
$125. 

For each It in such stations $4; but $6 is required on some 
buildings. 

ENGINE HOUSES: $70 per stall. 

PRICES: No. 14 rubber-covered wire, $12 per 1,000'. 
Green drop cord 5c per yd. 
Incandescent lamps, 16 c p 20c. 
Arc lamp (not set or wired) $12. 
Electro duct 8c per ft. 

LIGHTING 

ACETYLENE is conveyed in pipes the same as gas, so that 
that part of an estimate goes on the 12 to 15c a ft price as 
gas pipes do. The basis for usual illumination is 25 c p to 
each square the incandescent lamp is rated at 16 c p. A 
room 10x10 lighted with acetylene would therefore have more 
than 1 incandescent power. Burners are $4 per doz. Fix- 
tures are of all prices, like those for gas and electricity. 
The generators fob Omaha run about as follows: 

For 35 light $120 For 75 light $200 For 150 light . . . $360 

For 50 light 140 For 100 light 240 For 200 light ... 400 

The installation of the generator is merely a case of low- 
ering it into place and connecting it. It is easier set than 
a small furnace. 

Sometimes a dbl generator is used and this runs up the 
price, but makes a better plant. Then some manufacturers 
put in better material than others, or charge a higher per- 
centage for their work. With good fixtures complete I have 
seen bids for 150 Its, dbl generator at $784; 200, $822; 300, 
$894; 400, $1,000; and again a plant to run 75 to 100 Its, single 
generator, with fixtures complete for $425. 

The government has lighted Fort Meyer, Va., and many 
Indian schools with acetylene. 



CHAPTER XX 

TILING 

PRICE: Out of 18 designs at hand 17 run from 50 to 65c 
per sq ft of hearth tile fob Omaha. The exception is a white 
body and white and gold for a border. That runs to 80c. 
The sand and cement are to be added, and also the laying. 
Usually everything has to be prepared for the tilelayer up to 
within 1 inch of finished surf, so that there is only \" to f" 
of mortar. A layer and helper should finish a hearth in a 
day; with 2 in a house 14 days are usually sufficient. But time 
is taken up going from building to building as the work does 
not last long. The surf is small, so that profit can not bo 
made very large at best; expressage is to be paid both going 
and coming, and store rents are always collected. Allow 
from 75 to 90c per sq ft in place for the average hearth. 
All these hearth prices include border. 

FLOORS: Marble tile, black and white, about lOxlOxf, 45 
to 50c per sq ft laid with \" of cement. Tennessee marble, 
6x6, with concrete, 60 to 75c per sq ft. 

CEMENT TILE laid on 2" of concrete 28c for sq blocks 
about 10x10; for octagon, 2c less. Concrete from 2 to 3 inches 
deep is put from 7 to 8c per sq ft and included. 

Hexagon, white, vitreous tile, 3", with concrete, 70 to 
7f>c on a large piece of plain work 50 to 55c is enough even 
for 1|" and 1" hexagons, as in bath rooms. 

Hex, buff, unglazed. 3", with concrete, 40 to 45c. 

Encaustic tile, including 2" of concrete, 45 to 50c. 
TERRAZZO floors in the east run from 20 to 30c per sq ft. 

Contractor's profit is- included in the foregoing prices, which 
are for work done or from bids put in. 

SIZE: But the size of tile has to be considered. The fac- 
tory list has 4 divisions according to number of pcs in a sq 
ft; 4 to 65; 65 to 129; 129 to 513; 513 and more. The follow- 
ing vitreous list, fob Omaha, will give a fair idea of the dif- 
ference in price: 



296 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

White, Cream 36c 48c 60c 72c 

Silver Gray 37c 49c 61c 73c 

Celadon, Sage, Light Green, Light Blue.. 43c 55c 68c 80c 

Dark Blue, Dark Green 52c 54c 76c 91c 

Pink 58c 71c 83c 96c 

In plain colors, semi-vitreous, 7 varieties, 4 divisions; 24c, 
40c, 54c, 70c. 

THICK TILE: f, 30c; 1", 35c; unglazed in 7 plain colors. 
Glazed tiles are worth from 30 to 60% more than unglazed. 

Imitation mosaic tiles from 30 to 55c per sq ft. 

Inlaid tiles, unglazed, above l$xl$, from 70c to $1.50, de- 
pending upon the colors. Glazed, from 30 to 60% more. 

Round tile are sold at the same rate as sq tile of same size. 

Enameled tile in the 4 divisions run 50c, 65c, $1.30, $1.85. 
These prices are for various colors; ox-blood, red enamel is 
about 15c per sq ft extra in each division. 

For antique or dull-finish tiles on white body add 25c per 
sq ft to enamel prices. 

100 KINDS: Out of more than 100 floor designs with un- 
glazed tile the lowest price is 24c and the highest 65c. Most 
are between 25 to 35c. Borders are the same, or a little more 
or less, depending upon the pattern. 

Ceramics, \" thick, mounted on paper or twine, run to 35c 
per sq ft in several dozens of patterns. Borders are about 
the same. These tiles are usually about f to 1" round, sq, 
or hexagon. 

Ceramic, mosaic, enameled tile are about 3xxJ, and cost 
65c. 

For all kinds of floor tile add lOc per sq ft if less than 25 sq 
ft in order. Letters or numbers, lOc each. 
WAINSCOTING: With cap and base included from 55 to 65c 
per sq ft. Special designs are of course higher, but the fore- 
going prices fob give a beautiful piece of work in enameled and 
majolica. But white enameled 6x2 can be set complete on a 
good sized piece of work for 65c; white opalite about lOc less; 
and there are wall tiles at 40c set; 75c to $1 is safe. 
MANTEL FACINGS: Here we enter the region of high art 
with prices to correspond. For the 6x6 size 17 tiles are al- 



TILING 297 

lowed to a mantel; for the 4^x4^, 26. For the set, enameled, 
from $2 to $6; gold decorated, $8 to $12; Palissy decorated, 
$4; gold and Palissy, $12. But in renaissance the prices soar 
from $10 to $50. If special designs the cost is even more. 

DECORATED TILE: Palissy, embossed, from 80c to $1.75 
per sq ft; gold, $1.50 to $3; gold and Palissy, $2.15 to $3.75. 
Solid gold on plain tile, $4 to $5. Hand painted work is 
priced according to the reputation of the artist. 

BASE, CAPE, COVE, AND BEAD TILES: The prices run 
from 12 to 25c for each piece 6" long. Angles are 50% dearer. 
These prices are for glazed or enameled tile gold decorated 
work is from 2 to 3 times as much more. 

MARBLE BASE, $1.65 per ft in place. 
BRASS FOOT RAIL, $1.25, in place. 

BATH ROOM BASE with cove, 65c in place, profit included. 
If walls are tiled, 75c per sq ft. 

MEASUREMENT: An accurate plan should be sent to the 
factory. One plan is better than 10 letters. Tile should be 
measured by the sq ft; cap and base for wall tile may be 
taken by the If, each tile figured 6" long. Special care must 
be taken with all angles, stops and returns. 
QUANTITY: There is always waste in laying. The factory 
sends 2% more than enough to cover the surface unless 
special orders to the contrary are given, so that this extra 
must be included in the price. Tile, unlike pressed brick, 
may be returned. One bbl of Port cement will lay 100 ft 
of tile. Make mortar 1 to 1. Concrete should be 3" deep, 
of 1 to 3 if natural cement is used. (See Chap III.) Wood 
strips are required for guides. The " Tile Manufacturers of 
the U. S." specify Keene's imported cement for wall tile joints. 
"FACTS ABOUT TILE." Enameled and wall tiles when 
packed weigh about 5 Ibs to ft; plain unglazed floor tiles, 
about 6 Ibs; vitreous floor tiles, 6. Ceramic, mosaic, tiles, 
i" thick, 2J Ibs to ft; plain and vitreous floor, as well as 
enamel and wall tiles, are about i thick. A large bbl holds 
about 85' of wall or enamel tile; small bbl, 50 to 60'; lar&e 
bbl, 60' of plain unglazed tile; small bbl, 52. 



298 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



BASE: Concrete is often put down upon a rough wood floor; 
sometimes the floor or support is cut in between the joists; 
again, ex metal is used: the base must be estimated in its 
proper place separate from tile. All work is usually prepared 
to within 1" of finished surf for the tiler, unless a specially 
thick tile is used. Allow half an inch for mortar in all cases. 

LABOR: The prices already given, unless otherwise speci- 
fied are fob Omaha. Hauling, mortar, and labor are to be 
added. Ceramics are not much more difficult to lay than 
ordinary tile for they are all mounted on paper or cord. 
Number of pcs of different sized tile in a sq ft. 



Size 


In a 
Sq Ft 


Size 


6 x6 


4 


9 x3 


41 x41 


8 


71x3| 


3 x3 


16 


6 x4 


21 x2i 


32 


6 x3 


2 x2 


36 


6 x2 


14 xi4 


64 


6 x!4 




128 


6 xl 


1 xl 


144 


6 x | 


1 x | 


256 


6 x 4 


1 1 


576 




6 diag 


8 


41x14 


44 diag 


16 


41x1^ 


3 diag 


32 


41x | 


24 diag 


64 


4 x4 


2 diag 


72 


3 x!4 


14 diag 
1^ diag 


128 
256 


3 xl 
3 x | 


1 diag 


288 


3x4 


1 diag 


512 


3x1 


4 diag 


1152 





In a 




In a 


SqFt 


Size 


Sq Ft 


54 


2 xl 


72 


54 


21x1 }V 


64 


6 


I4x i 


128 


8 


6" oct 


4; 


12 


41" oct 


9. 


16 


3" oct 


i8i 


24 


6 x3 hex 


10^ 


32 


6" hex 


6J 


48 


3" hex 


24 


16 


2* hex 


54 


22f 


1" hex 


205 


32 


3" lozenge 


184 


45 
9 


3" triangle 
14" triangle 


37 

144 


32 


| Round 


250 


48 


Stars 


44 


64 


Cross 


63 


96 


14 Round 


814 


192 


Cusps 


298 



COMPARISON: As a comparison of cost a large contract 
was listed as follows: For tiling on tables, $1.15; on floors, 
$1.05; on walls, 95c. 

Labor should not be more than 35c per sq ft on tile alone, 
not including base of concrete. 

INTERLOCKING RUBBER TILE is laid preferably on a 
cement base. It is f" thick, waterproof, noiseless, lasting, 
and expensive. One brand costs 85c fob Philadelphia. With 



TILING 299 

base of concrete at 8c, laying of tile 8c, we have a price of 
$1.01 per sq ft without freight. 

Another maker lists his at $1.35. Still another price is $1 
fob New York; and a maker in Akron, O., gives $1 fob there. 

BASE: For a rubber baseboard, 2 members, 6|" high, $1.05 
per If, New York. Setting, about 6c per If. One maker allows 
3 to 5c. 

STEP NOSINGS, $1 per If 
Any colors are supplied. 

CORRUGATED floor rubber per yd, $1.30. 

AN ASBESTOS SANITARY COMPOSITION floor is one type 
of several. It takes 2* Ibs of dry material to the sq ft \" 
thick. For every 2$ bbls of dry material, or 750 Ibs, 1 bbl of 
liquid is supplied, 600 Ibs. In Philadelphia the price is 6c 
per Ib for the dry, but the liquid is included. For a floor 
18x50, or 100 sq yds, an estimate would be, without freight: 

2,250 Ibs of dry at 6c $146.25 

Labor of cement finisher and laborer 18.00 

Unloading, etc 10.00 

$174.25 

Or per sq $19.36. This is about 20c per sq ft without freight 
or profit. Quantities are usually given too small by manu- 
facturers. 

ASBESTOLITH, another floor of the same kind, is laid in St. 
Louis for 35c per sq ft, profit included, and base for 50c per If. 

" MONOLITH," another floor costs 25c, and base I8c. 

" MARBLEOID " costs about 85c sq ft laid; and " SANITAS " 

fireproof floor, 35c. 

CORKOLIN costs from 14 to 18c per sq ft laid. 
WOOD PULP floors, per sq ft, 28c. 



CHAPTER XXI 

COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 

Only approximate estimates can be taken from the follow- 
ing figures. Local conditions affect the result so much that 
one building might cost 25% more than another of the same 
size, in the same section of the country, and at the same 
rate for labor and material. In the one case the ground might 
be 12' below grade, and in the other as much above; piling 
might be required in the one and rock blasting in the other. 
Sometimes 25% of the total cost of a building is expended 
before foundations are up to grade. But for aver buildings 
approx figures are useful. 

SCHOOL HOUSES: No. 12 built about 15 yrs ago, of plain 
design, $75 per scholar; 8 rooms, 400 seats; brick and wood 
construction. Another Omaha school house erected later of 
the same size costs $115. Material and labor are higher, and 
the design is more ornate. In the country the cost might be 
reduced from 10 to 15%. 

An addition to the Omaha high school, finished in 1913, 
strictly fireproofed, Bedford stone on 3 fronts, 16c per cf. 
The complete cost was about $775,000. With 4 stone fronts 
the cost might have run to 18c. 

The H plan for school houses has been adopted in New 
York. "Upwards of eighty school buildings have been con- 
structed since 1896, and the aver cost of building has been 
only 18c per cf." They are fireproof. These 80 cost about 
$12,000,000. 

A high school erected in Boston, Mass., cost 22.39c; and 
another 24.98, both fireproof. 

A number of schools in St Louis, not fireproof, ran from 
14 to 17c per cf; and from $5,600 to $6,700 per room. 

A fireproof school in Palo Alto, Cal., cost 18c per cf. 

From lOc per cf up to 15c will build non-fireproof schools; 
and from 18c to 30c fireproof ones. 

300 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 301 

FIRE ENGINE HOUSES: At low cost an Omaha house was 
built for 6c per cf ; at high, the city paid $4.25 per sq ft for 
one; and lie per cf for another. 

WAREHOUSES: Three of the largest in Omaha, built when 
prices were low, cost from 6 to 8c per cf. They are of mill 
construction, and from 5 to 6 stories high. Bids on 2 others 
ran under 7c. One of cheaper construction cost 5c. One 
story 12' high, no basement, 1.80 per sq ft. 

Another building with 600,000 cf cost 16c, but this figure 
was reduced to 13c, if heavy retaining wall, not properly to 
be charged to structure, steel roof, and piling were omitted. 
Partly used for office. Tile roof. 

WAREHOUSE: "The Railroad Gazette," in a good article, 
gives the comparative cost of slow burning wood, and a steel 
frame factory building with brick walls. The floors are 
designed for load of 100 Ibs to sq ft. The size is 60'xlOO', 
7 stories high. Cost of slow burning construction, $35,000; 
fireproof, $57,000. Per cf 6.2c and 10.2c; per sq ft of entire 
area 83c and $1.36. Cost of floors and cols per sq ft 27c and 75c, 



SLOW BURNING FIREPROOF 

Excavation 1,800 cy 1,800 cy 

Cellar floor 6,000 sq ft 6,000 sq ft 

Foundation concrete. . 150 cy 150 cy 

Brick 39,000 cf 39.000 cf 

Windows, 4'x7' 238 238 

Roofing 60 sqs 60 sqs 

Timber, yp 116,000 ft bm, Steel Columns. . 105 tons 

Flooring, yp 73,000 ft bm, Steel Beams... . 252 tons 

Flooring, f" yp 46,000 ft bm, Concrete Floors 

Iron Work 46 tons and Roof 42,000 sq ft 



The building is very plain. Basement walls, 24"; 17" for 
next 4 stories; 13" for 2 top stories. 

For ordinary construction lOc is now (1912) a fair price 
in the up-to-date part of the continent; but 7c might be 
enough where material and wages are low. As to fireproof 
work it may run from 16c to 50c. A fine building erected in 



302 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

1904 in Atlanta, for example, cost 41c. The Letter Building, 
Chicago, wholesale and retail store, with granite on 3 sides, 
8 stories, cost in 1892, less than 20c. 

A very plain storehouse of 2 stories, no basement, brick 
walls, reinforced concrete floors, and galv iron frames in 1907 
ran to $6.34 per sq ft of ground area, and 161c per cf, but this 
included $5,000 for shelving. Size 49'-4" by SO', and 153,900 cf 
to under side of first floor. 

" CONCRETE BUILDINGS are practically the same in cost 
as similar ones of steel frame construction up to about 6 
stories in height in most parts of the United States. 

"For warehouses and manufacturing buildings, concrete is 
as reasonable as timber in first cost, unless the latter is com- 
paratively cheap. Late bids on 10 and more story loft and 
office buildings in New York City were approximately 10% 
higher than bids for steel frame buildings received at the 
same time. On the other hand, bids for manufacturing build- 
ings 6 stories high were the same percentage lower for con- 
crete than for steel frames. First costs for mill construc- 
tion warehouses up to 8 stories in height were slightly less 
than for similar buildings of concrete. One story structures can 
be erected with flat concrete roofs under favorable circum- 
stances as cheaply as in timber, unless the latter may be of 
open joist construction. 

In general, little can be saved by building in concrete, ex- 
cept in liability of loss by fire and its attendant inconveni- 
ences, delays, etc. 

In engine beds, col footings, etc, the old style unreinforced 
design, which has proved eminently satisfactory in the past, 
is often cheaper than the new style of reinforced work." 
Engineering Record. 

FACTORIES: Cotton mills are usually estimated by the sq 
ft taken on all floors. In New England the cost runs from 
85c to 1.25, while in some southern states 70c is a large 
enough figure. 
In 1884 Mr. Edward Atkinson gave the following estimates: 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 303 

MILL with 3 stories for machinery and a basement, 75 to 

80c. 

MILL with 2, as above, no basement, 65c. 

MILL with 1 story, about 1 acre of floor, and small basement, 
85c. 

The cf price is from lOc to 14c. 

" FACTORY BUILDINS of reinforced concrete," says one au- 
thority, " including windows, doors, and roofing, cost from 
8 to 16c per cf." 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM: For a system installed in a 7 story 
building with 56,000 sq ft of ceiling, the cost was $5,500, or 
practically lOc per sq ft. 

The following extracts of a letter from an Eastern Mutual 
Fire Ins Co., give some useful figures on sprinklers: 

COST: "In general the cost of automatic sprinkler system 
installed (wet pipe) is not less than $3 per sprinkler, this, 
however, including only the pipe inside the building. In 
large cities where cost of labor is heigher and hours shorter, 
this cost runs up to something over $4. If a dry pipe sys- 
tem is installed it will add about $1 for each sprinkler head 
installed. 

AREA: The aver area covered by 1 sprinkler is perhaps 75 
sq ft. Under light forms of construction the area is not over 
60 sq ft, whereas in the better types of fireproof and slow 
burning construction the area per sprinkler varies between 
90 and 100 sq ft. This will give some idea as to the approx 
cost of equipping the building. 

SUPPLY: To these figures there has to be added the cost of 
the water supplies. In some cases elevated tanks are needed 
in connection with fire pumps and in other cases public ser- 
vice connections are made with either tank or pump as may 
be deemed best to suit the conditions. 

The cost of tanks and pumps varies considerably from time 
to time." 

GRAIN 'ELEVATORS: To build an entire plant dryer 
house, power house, coal sheds, office, etc., allow $11.00 per 



304 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

sq ft of elevator proper taken on ground floor only. For 
elevator alone, $8.60. For equipment, allow about 30% of 
total cost of all buildings. This plant cost nearly $220,000. 
Minor buildings of brick, main one of wood. 

Another cost $11 on basis of sq ft of elevators proper on 
ground floor; and $7.50 for elevators alone. About $320,000. 
Brick and wood as on first. 

BRICK STORES AND FLATS ABOVE: I have put in bids 
for a large number of these buildings, but have let the sizes 
slip. A figure of 10 to 14c per cf seems about right. For 
frame buildings 7 to lOc. 

FLATS: For dbl 2-story and basement brick, hardwood fin- 
ish on first floor, $210 per If from front to back; 5 per sq ft 
on area of first flooor, or 16c per cf. 

I built a pair in 1907-8, and the assessor got the value cor- 
rectly enough much more so than on large business build- 
ings. This figure does not include any profit. 

For frame, 15% less. 

But what are known as flats in New York, with fine 
masonry, elevators, and strictly modern equipment run as 
high as 25 to 35c for fire resisting floors and wood con- 
struction. 

TENEMENTS: Allow from $375 to $450 per room. 
HOSPITALS: No. 2, strictly fireproofed, 14c per cf; No. 1, 
of wood construction, about half as much; but both are only 
shells with practically no partitions. For fireproofed build- 
ings fully equipped, 30 to 40c. General hospitals per bed, 
$550 to $800. Cottage, $1,100 to $1,200. Complete hospital 
"plant," per bed, $1,800 to $2,400. 

HOTELS: From 20c for brick with ordinary construction to 
50c per cf for fireproof work. 

Brown-Palace hotel, Denver, 30c; fireproof hotel, New York, 
44c. 

RESIDENCES: Anywhere from lOc per cf. One of the best 
houses in Omaha cost from 20c to 22c, brick; a better one of 
stone, about 37c, but neither is fireproofed. Chicago price 
for city dwellings, 17 to 20c. For frame houses without mod- 
ern improvements, with shingle roofs, $300 to $350 per room; 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SO AND CF 305 

with modern imps, and part or all hardwood finish, slate roofs, 
$450 to $700. Brick houses, 8 to 10 rooms, 16c, ordinary finish 
with hardwood on first floor. 

Two story flats as already given are $5 on ground area, or 
$2.50 if both floors are taken. Residences may run all the 
way from $1.50 per sq ft of floor space to $10, and this with- 
out dealing with palaces. 

VENEERED houses 15 to 20c. 

For a 2 story frame, brick basement, 27,x56', finished for 
family on each floor, heated and modern, pitched roof, $3.60 
per sq ft of ground floor, and 10*c per cf. 

COTTAGES: See Chap XXVII. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSES: Seventeen cents per cf. 

DRILL HALLS: Sixteen to 20c or $2 to $3. 

CHURCHES: Twenty to 50c; $5 to $14 per sq ft; per sitting 
$60 to $150. 

PUBLIC BATHS: From 35c to 45c. 

THEATRES: Per chair, $60 tc $120 per cf, 30c to 50c. 

ORDINARY CITY HALLS: From 25 to 40c. 

COURT HOUSE: Cook Co., Chicago, said to be the largest 
in the United States contains 12,000,000 cf, and the unit cost 
was 35c. Ordinary 25 to 30c. 

GARAGE: Of cement construction 16 to ISc per cf. 

STABLES: From 18 to 22c; $2.50 to $3.25; per animal $230 
to $100 on ordinary building. 

DAIRY BARNS: Large frame barns, $1.50 per sq ft, 5c to 
6c cf. Concrete basement. Brick, 7 to 8c. 

GREENHOUSES: Ordinary construction, 50c per sq ft; with 
brick foundations, 60. This is for the very cheapest style of 
construction, heated by supply from another building. 

The following figures are from the leading greenhouse 
builder in the United States. At best they are approximate, 
because each installation has its own details and environ- 
ments. Some require a temperature of 45 to 50 degrees; 



306 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



others, 65 to 70; there are all cypress wood benches; iron 
frame benches and with cypress sides and bottom; or cypress 
and porous tile or slate; and the same ground plan might 
have an elevation costing twice as much as another. 

The first col gives the cost of house proper, the " extras " 
col is for excavation, foundation, boiler, cellar, work room, 
and hauling. No grading included, as that item is uncer- 
tain, water supply not brought to. building, and no cement 
sidewalks included outside. 

Area of house proper only is taken for both cols: work 
room is about 12'x20'. 

THE COST is given within a hundred miles of New York. 

The construction is of iron frame ventilated, heated, water 
piped, galv iron plant bench with cypress sides and porous 
tile bottoms for greenhouses; and the same with slate tops 
for palmhouses. 



Description 


1| 
&& 


8 

2l 

p 


1 

X 

H 


Sq Ft Price 
Complete 


No. 1, 18'x33' 4", Shingles 3' 0" High on 
Studs and Boarding; above Straight 
Double Slope Roof 


$1,500 


$2.50 


$380 


$3.30 


No 2 18'x66' 8" as above 


2,700 


2.25 


460 


2.64 


No. 3, 1,167 sq ft, Curved Roof, Masonry 
Walls about 3' above ground 


3 100 


2.66 


900 


3.43 


No. 4, 1,000 sq ft, Curved and Straight 
Roofs Masonry a<s on No 3 


3 300 


3 30 


1100 


4 40 


No. 5, 1,465 sq ft, otherwise as No. 4... 
No. 6, 600 sq ft, Curved and Straight 
Roofs and Masonry as No 3 ... 


4,300 
2,000 


2.94 
3.34 


1100 
800 


3.68 
4.67 


No. 7, 2,000 sq ft Curved and Straight 
Roofs, High Palm house in Center, 
Masonry as No 3 


7 400 


3.70 


1400 


4.40 













OFFICE BUILDINGS: About 1897 to 1905 several fine 
Chicago office buildings, fireproofed, were erected for 20 to 22c 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 307 

per cf, but this is too low a figure now; 50c is about right 
Mr. Kidder gives a list of 20 fireproof buildings running from 
25 to 63c with an average of 40. For wood construction, 18 to 
25c. 

No. 3 taken at the level of the first floor cost complete $20 
per sq ft. It is of wood construction, but fireproofed with tile 
throughout. 

The following percentages are taken by permission from 
" Fireproof Magazine," Chicago. They relate to an office 
building: 



"The Foundation Cost Ifc per cf of building 

Steel Framing 2\ 

Granite and All Masonry ll\ 

Cornice, Roofs and Skylights f 

Fireproof Floors f 

Partitions (Tile) f 

All Plastering (Plain and Ornamental) 1 \ 

Elevator Fronts and all Ornamental Metal 
Work 2 

Marble Work 3 

Hardware 

Joiner Work 

Glass T 6 

Painting and Varnish -fa 

Electric Wiring $ 

Heating 1 

Plumbing | 

Elevators 1 

Stairs, scenic structural framing, "making 
ends meet," lamp fixtures, etc. What 
might be called a fair amount for "con- 
tingencies" in such a building, including 
lesser items not mentioned here but grouped 
together 4^ 

Architect's Fe6 If 

In all 34 T 5 cents a cf for a 

building of that character ready to have furniture moved in. 



To show that some of those figures remain pretty constant, 
in the same relation to total size, the Chicago Post Office, a 
building of 12,000,000 cf and of monumental character and 



308 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

finish, costs, in some of its items, pretty nearly the same as 
that office building. 



Its Foundation Cost Ifc a cf of entire building 

The Steel Framing 2| 

Granite and Masonry 13j 

Fireproof Floors 

Plaster, Plain and Ornamental I 1 , 

Ornamental Metal Work 

Marble 

Plumbing 
Heating 



PER SQ FT: An office building erected for a R.R. with 2 
stories, no basement, brick walls, tile roof, wood construc- 
tion, 8,500 sq ft, cost $7.50 per sq ft of ground area, which 
is a far too high figure for a plain building, especially when 
heated from a central plant. 

THE VENTILATING SYSTEM for above building cost, for 
pipes and ducts, $750; motor and fan, $850; registers, $75. 

FRAME OFFICES: Owing to the high cost of lumber in 
some sections of the country 1-story frame office buildings, 
with shingle roofs, now run from 8 to 12c per cf, or $1.40 to 
$1.60 per sq ft. 

VAULTS: Ordinary with hollow brick walls. One 10'xlO'x 
8'-9" with 13" and 9" walls, no shelving, but lining and door, 
$450. 
Steel shelving complete, $850. 

LIBRARIES: Allow for the fireproofed buildings 30 to 50c 
per cf; for wood construction, 18 to 25c. 

Y. M. C. A.'s: From 12 to 24c per cf in brick and wood. The 
Omaha building finished in 1907 is 132'xl57', and 76' above 
the ground in front. It contains 100,000 sq ft of floor space, 
and 1,768,000 cf. It cost $230,000 or $2.30 per sq ft; 13c per cf; 
about $11 on area of street floor. 

SEPTIC TANKS: On a style usefl by the U. S. Government, 
$675 for 40 families. No piping leading to building. 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 309 

A large manufacturer supplies the following prices for his 
system: 

Residences occupied by an average number of 8 people, 
$250.00; residences occupied by an average number or' 10 
people, $275; residences occupied by an average number of 12 
people, $300.00. 

School buildings occupied by 300 people, $600.00; school 
buildings occupied by 350 people, $650.00; school buildings oc- 
cupied by 400 people, $700.00; school buildings occupied by 
500 people, $800.00. 

Institutions occupied by an average number of 100 i-eople, 
$600.00. 

Another maker quotes $100 on steel tanks of 200 galls each, 
for 10 people. Freight, brickwork, excavation, etc, would be 
about $100 more. 

It has been proposed to put septic tanks in the basements 
of the skyscrapers. The United Gas Improvement Co. build- 
ing, Philadelphia, has had a satisfactory one since 1901. In 
these tanks the sewage is changed by bacteriological action, 
and nothing left but a comparatively pure water. Smaller 
sewers would serve under this system, and the disposal of the 
effluent be easier. Jerusalem was said to be a clean city be- 
cause each householder swept before his own door. In the 
future each building may be made to purify its own sewage. 

EXPOSITION BUILDINGS: At Chicago the Forestry Build- 
ing cost 75c per sq ft; the Administration, $9.18; 2 others 
$2.12 and $2.35; and the rest from $1.04 to $1.69. 

At St. Louis the Art Pavilions, $5.45; Government buildings, 
$2.43; agriculture, 58c; and the others from 77c to $1.38. 

POST OFFICES: They run from 21c up to $1.23 per cf. 



Omaha, Neb $0 . 71 per cf Fort Scott, Kans ...$0.31 per cf 

So. Omaha 25 per cf St. Louis, Mo 97 per cf 

Lincoln 43 per cf Kansas City, Mo 57 per cf 

Beatrice 31 per cf Chicago, 111 49 per cf 

Nebr. City 21 per cf Denver, Colo 50 per cf 

Co. Bluffs, Iowa 45 per cf St. Paul, Minn 65 per cf 

Sioux City, Iowa. . . .17 per cf New York 1 . 03 per cf 

Wichita, Kans 23 per cf Boston. 1 . 23 per cf 



310 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

INSURANCE ADJUSTERS ALLOWANCES AS COMPILED 
BY JAS. N. BROWN, ST. LOUIS, 1902 

FARM AND COUNTRY PROPERTY p er CF Cta 

Dwellings, Frame, Small Box House, no Cornice 4 

Dwellings, Frame, Shingle Roof, Small Cornice, plain 5 to 6 

Dwellings, Brick, Same Class 7 to 8 

Dwellings, Frame, Shingle Roof, Good Cornice, Sash 

Weights, Blinds, Good House 7 to 8 

Dwellings, Brick, Same Class, Good House 9 to 10 

Barns, Frame, Shingle Roof, not Painted, Plain Finish.. . 1$ to 2$ 

Barns, Frame, Shingle Roof, Painted, Good Foundation.. 2J to 3 

Stores, Frame, Shingle Roof, Painted, Plain Finish 5 to 7 

Stores, Brick, Shingle Roof, Painted, Good Cornice and 

Finish 7 to 9 

Ordinary Wood Churches and Schools 5 to 7 

Ordinary Brick Churches and Schools 8 to 10 

If Slate or Metal Roof Add c per ft. 

CITY AND VILLAGE PROPERTY 
Dwellings, Frame, Shingle Roof, Pine Floors and Finish, 

no Bath Room or Furnace, Good House 6 to 7 

Dwellings, Brick, Same Class 8 to 9 

Dwellings, Frame, Shingle Roof, Hardwood Floor in Hall 

and Parlor, Bath, Furnace and Fair Plumbing 8 to 9 

Dwellings, Brick, Same Class 8 to 10 

Dwellings, Frame, Shingle Roof, Hardwood First Floor, 

Good Plumbing, Furnace, Artistic Design, Interior 

Ornamentation, Well Painted 10 to 12 

Dwellings, Brick, Good Plumbing, Bath, Hot and Cold 

Water, Pine Finish, Well Painted, no Hardwood Finish,! 1 to 12 

Prices have risen since 1902 and the foregoing figures 
should be increased about 10 to 15%. 

DEPRECIATION 

Several buildings in Europe are more than a thousand years 
old, and from that down to a hundred the list is without end. 
Many frame houses in the United States are more than a 
century old, and will last for a long time to come. It is well 
to remember this in reading the following table: 

THE WEAR AND TEAR OF BUILDING MATERIALS 

At the tenth annual meeting of the Fire Underwriters' Asso- 
ciation of the Northwest, held at Chicago in September, 1879. 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 



311 



Mr. A. W. Spalding read a paper on the wear and tear of 
building materials, and tabulated the result of his investiga- 
tions in the following form: 



Material in 
Building 


Frame Dw'ng 


Brick Dw'ng 
(Sh'gle Roof) 


Frame Store 


Brick Store 
(Sh'gle Roof) 


B 

f 


1 


a. 

bo ^ 

f 












Per Cent o 
Depreciatio 
Per Annum 


Average Lif 
Years 


111 


r 


III 


Brick 






75 
30 
7 
7 
16 
40 

50 

20 
30 
30 
30 
40 
30 
20 
20 
16 

40 

75 


11 

14 
14 
6 
2i 

'2 

5 

P 

5 
5 
6 

if 


16 
5 
5 
16 
30 
30 
40 
13 
25 
25 
20 
30 
30 
13 
20 
16 

25 

40 


20 
20 
6 

8 
4 
4 
5 

8 
5 
6 

4 
2| 


66 
30 
6 
6 
16 
40 

50 
13 
30 
30 
20 
30 
30 
13 
20 
16 

30 
66 


16 
16 
6 
2i 

2 

8 

5 

3J 
8 
5 
6 

3i 

1* 


Plastering 
Painting, Outside 
Painting, Inside. . 
Shingles 


20 
5 
7 
16 
40 
30 
50 
20 
30 
30 
30 
40 
30 
20 
20 
16 

25 

50 


5 
20 
14 
6 

P 

5 
3* 
2 

I 1 

5 

6 

4 
2 


Cornice 


Weather-board'g . 
Sheathing . . 


Flooring 
Doors, Complete. 
Windows, Com'e 
Stairs and Newel. 
Base 


Inside Blinds 
Building Hard'e. 
Piazzas & Porches 
Outside Blinds. . . 
Sills and first-floor 
Joists 


Dimension Lum'r 



These figures represent the averages deduced from the re- 
plies made by eighty-three competent builders unconnected 
with fire insurance companies, in twenty-seven cities and 
towns of 11 Western states. 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ALLOWANCE 

The estimate used by the United States Government is as 
follows : 

Per Ct Per Year 

Brick, Occupied by Owner ................. 1 to 1 



Brick, Occupied by Tenant ................. U to 1 

Frame, Occupied by Owner ................. 2 to 2$ 

Frame, Occupied by Tenant ................ 2$ to 3 



312 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

According to that a frame house occupied by a tenant will 
not last more than 40 years, so that the rent should be high 
enough, not only to pay interest on the investment, but to es- 
tablish a sort of a sinking fund to replace the building. These 
figures allow for ordinary repairs. With care half of that de- 
preciation is enough. 

GRAIN ELEVATORS are allowed at about 3 per cent, per 
annum. 

RAILROAD: A Chicago railroad allows the following figures 
for taxation returns and the annual depreciation is made 
large enough to wipe the buildings off the slate in a few 
years for taxable purposes as they are not returned when 
down to 20% of their value. 

PILE AND TIMBER TRESTLES. 

Minimum condition 20% 

Annual depreciation 12% 

COALING STATIONS. 

Minimum condition 20% 

Annual depreciation 5% 

STEEL BRIDGES. 

Annual depreciation 2% 

STEEL TURNTABLES. 

Annual depreciation ,.... 5% 

BRIDGES. 

Howe Trusses, annual depreciation 6% 

Howe Trusses, minimum condition 20% 

BUILDINGS. 

Minimum condition 20% 

Frame, annual depreciation 7% 

Brick, annual depreciation 5% 

Stone, annual depreciation 2% 

In " Work and Wages " the late Prof. Rogers, of Oxford, 
says: " Now the quality of the work in the old times of which 
I have written is unquestionable. It stands to this day a proof 



COST OF BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 313 

of how excellent ancient masonry was . The building is 

still standing as it was left 4 centuries ago. I am per- 
suaded that such perfect masonry would have been incom- 
patible with a long hours' day. You may still see brickwork 
of the next century, which I venture on asserting no modern 
work would parallel; and within 5 minutes' w r alk of it 
Roman brickwork, probably 16 centuries old, which is as 
solid and substantial as when it was first erected. The arti- 
zan who is demanding at this time an 8-hour day in the 
building trades is simply striving to recover what his ances- 
tor worked by 4 or 5 centuries ago. It is only to be hoped 
that he will emulate the integrity and thoroughness of the 
work which his ancestor performed." 

By this it may be inferred that there is something seriously 
wrong when the life of aver brickwork is limited to 75 years. 

BARN: On page 158 reference is made to a large barn in Vt. 
Another of a similar nature and size is described in "Car- 
pentry and Building," July, '09, for Maine. 

This one is 40' x 104' with 18-ft posts above a 10-ft base- 
ment. The cost was less than $2 per sq ft of ground area; 
and 5c per cu ft of total capacity. (See cut at end.) 

The following tables of cost were made by the builder, A. W. Jos- 
lin of Boston. Carpenters' wages were from 31 to 44c per hour : 
Excavation, cost $0.2918 per cu- Nails, delivered 1.13 

bic yard. Labor 7.41 

Foundations, concrete, $7.202 

per cubic yard. Per M in place in building $30.54 

Spruce frame, per M feet: Cost per square, $3.279. 

Lumber, delivered at site $22.91 Above walls were boarded ver- 

Nails, delivered at site . . 1.00 tically. 

Labor 11.56 Windows, average total cost : 

. Sash, frame and hard- 

Per M feet in place in ware, etc $4.36 

building $35.47 Labor 1.32 

Spruce and hemlock plank under Cost of one window in- 

floor, planed one side, per M stalled $5.68 

T fee u' B> J VI ,'- : *oo Sliding doors; 2 3-4 in. thick 

Lumber delivered $ 2 ?-0 pine, hung on Coburn hangers. 

Nails, delivered 1.35 Total square f ee t of surface of 



Labor 2.05 



doors, 565. 
Lumber milled and deliv- 



Per M in place in building $25.40 e red .T.... ..... ..... $0.3326 

Cost per square (100 sq. Hangers and other hard- 

ft. surface) , $6.06. ware 097 

Matched spruce upper floor, laid Labor 0884 

diagonally : 

Lumber, delivered $22.00 Total cost per square foot 

Nails, delivered 1.10 of door $0.488 

Labor 8-30 Clapboards ; No. 2 pine, 4 in. to 

Per M in place in building $31.40 ClapbSuflV and nails deliv- 

Cost per square, $3.63. e*ed $47.00 

Matched Norway pine wall and Labor 12.60 

roof covering : 

Lumber, delivered $22.00 Per M in place on building $59.60 



CHAPTER XXII 

RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 
(SEE CHAP XXIII FOR ENGINE HOUSES.) 

STATIONS AND DEPOTS 

SqFt 

FRAME STATIONS with living rooms, pile foundations 1.70 
FRAME STATIONS with brick or stone foundations... 1.70 
PASSENGER AND FREIGHT DEPOTS, frame, pile 

foundations ;..... 1.50 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT DEPOTS, frame, brick 

or stone foundations $1.80 to 2.60 

If not a standard the cost might be increased from 10 to 50 
per cent. 

PASSENGER STATIONS, MODERN: Brick, stone, slate 
roof, hardwood finish, aver of 6 designs built, $3.60; running 
from $3.41 to $3.77. One of larger and better design cost 
$4.20. 

A western station, built about 20 yrs ago, with offices 
on 2d floor, cost $7.17 per sq ft of ground area. It is of 
stone with a slate roof. This includes area of baggage room, 
etc. 

BAGGAGE ROOMS, EXPRESS ROOMS, and such minor parts 
of the main structure run from $2 to $3 per sq ft if taken 
alone. 

FRAME STATION: A small frame station built in 1903 cost 
$2.50 per sq ft. The details of special work raised the cost. 
FREIGHT DEPOTS: Brick, $2.25 to $2.75 per sq ft with 
boiler room below. About 35c less without boiler room. 
SIGNAL TOWERS: These buildings are expensive when 
their small ground area is considered. For one 15'x25', con- 
crete basement, and 2 stories above, plate glass on 2d story, 
and furnace, but no equipment, $5.65 per sq ft, or 18c per cf. 

314 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 315 

Another of the same style ran to $7 and 23c. 

But these prices might be cut in 2 for some kinds of towers. 



SHOP PLANTS 

POWER HOUSES: From $4 to $5 per sq ft for shell of build- 
ing only, without any equipment. See " Power Plants." 
BRICK CHIMNEY STACKS: The cheapest one I know of is 
sq, 150' high, and cost without profit, $35 per ft, foundation in- 
cluded. One of large radial brick, 175', 10' to T core, $45; an- 
other 200, 11 to 9 core, $55; both circular, but foundations are 
not included. A stack of radial brick 100'xS', $2,200; 125x6, 
$3,200, without foundations but distance from yard, etc, 
affects price. 

FOUNDATIONS: On the 200' stack the foundation would 
run about as follows: 

Excavation $210 

Piling (if required) 600 

Concrete 1,900 

$2,710 

REINFORCED CONCRETE STACKS: For the following ap- 
prox figures I am indebted to the Weber Co., of Chicago, 
This company has built about 500 stacks. Under this system 
the foundation necessarily goes with the stack so that the re- 
inforcement can be anchored. 

Height Diam. Foundation Total Cost 

200 10 $400 $6,000 

175 8 300 5,000 

150 6 200 3,300 

125 5 200 2,500 

The foundations, on fair soil, go about 8' deep on a 200* 
stack on 6' on one of 175' high. 

One Reinforced Stack in Butte, is 350'xl8* 

One Reinforced Stack in Tacoma, is 300'xl8' 

One Reinforced Stack in Georgetown, is 275'xl7' 

One Reinforced Stack in New Orleans, is 250'xl5' 

One Reinforced Stack in London, Eng., is 250'x2(/ 



316 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

STEEL STACKS: Self-sustaining steel stacks 7' diam, 150 
ft high, without foundation, $29; 9' and 200', $33 set. For 
small guyed stacks allow per ft at factory as follows: 

24" 30" 36" 42" 48" 

No. 14iron $1.35 $1.71 $2.07 $2.43 $2.79 

No.l2iron 1.84 2.32 2.80 3.28 3.76 

No. 10 iron 2.38 2.92 3.46 4.00 4.54 

Allow setting extra at $15 to $40. Wire rope, f", 3c per ft; 
i", lc. For sizes not given allow 4 to 4c per Ib at factory. 
In 1904 a short 10'' stack cost 80c; 14", $1; 24", $1.15. 
See also Chap XIII, page 222. 

MACHINE AND ERECTING SHOPS: With areas of 50,000 
to 100,000 sq ft the aver of 5 built when prices were low, was 
$1.80. The figures ran from $1.27 to $2.40. The Rock Island 
shop 860 ft long, is given in " The Railway Age " of Feb. 26, 
at $1.50. But cost of shops is heavily affected by foundations, 
and by style of construction. Foundations to grade may 
easily cost 25% of the total; and the lean-to style of the R. I. 
shop is far cheaper than if the outside walls were carried to 
level of main roof.. Everything is ready for cranes but none 
included. Piling if required, 14c per sq ft of total area. The 
highest price per cf, heated, should not exceed 8c. 

A M. & E. shop erected in 1902 with piling and extra heavy 
concrete foundations cost $2.97 per sq ft and 5.7lc per cf. 
Area 60,000 sq ft. 

BOILER SHOPS: From $1.30 to $1.85 with aver of $1.56 on 
4 large ones built when prices were low. Piling about 9c if 
required per sq ft of total area. 

On one built in 1903 the sq ft cost was $2.67, and cf, 5.8c. 
Area 46,000 sq ft. 

BLACKSMITH SHOPS: The aver of 4 of large area in 
widely separately part of the country was $1.32 per sq ft 
when prices were low. The figures ran from $1.15 to $1.70. 
Piling if required, 6 to 7c. 

A shop built in 1906 cost $2.20 per sq ft. Area 34,000 sq ft. 
IRON HOUSE: Per sq ft, $2.00. 
COAL SHED: From $1.00 to $1.50. 

The following are the detailed percentages of a modern 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 317 

BLACKSMITH SHOP AND A FOUNDRY 

B 'smith Foundry 

Excavation 46 1.11 

Piling .... 1.98 2.55 

Concrete Foundations and Small Floors . . 5 . 70 8 . 09 

Concrete Water Table 60 .52 

Cut Stone Window Sills 60 .51 

Brickwork 13.70 14.81 

Lumber 3.25 2.94 

Millwork and Glass 3.62 3.29 

Carpenter Labor 2.31 2. 19 

Gravel Roof 1 .39 1 .43 

Skylights 7.20 3. 11 

Steel Lintels 2.58 3.58 

Floor Track 1 .40 .22 

Hardware, Ladders, Lantern Gearing 1 . 31 1 . 47 

Painting , . 2.67 1.40 

Galv Iron and Copper 1 .79 .80 

Lockers 1.15 .84 

Plumbing 4.10 2.66 

Plaster 24 .07 

Heating, Blast, Exhaust, Sump 3.34 7.73 

Structural Steel 12.55 28.28 

Structural Steel, Erecting 1 .54 3.41 

Piping for Air, Steam , Water, Oil 5 . 27 4 . 20 

Bins , Outside and Motor Platforms 3 . 70 4 . 79 

Machine Foundations 7.01 

Wiring, Lighting, Power 6.00 

Furnaces and Foundations 4 . 24 

Water Filter.., .40 



100.00 100.00 

SQ FT: Blacksmith shop, $2.20 per sq ft; foundry, $3.25. 
Add from 50 to 100% to cost of buildings proper for tools and 
equipment. No grading or filing. No fee or percentage. 
BINS: Outside foundry bins for coal, etc., 23c per sq ft on 
ground. 

LABOR: Carpenter labor on blacksmith shop, 5c per sq ft 
of area over building; car shop, 4$c; paint and wheel shop, 
5.4c; foundry, 5.6; mill, 6.6c; all at 40c per hour. 

SQ AND CF COST: A comparison of sq and cf prices on 
actual cost of buildings proper runs as follows: Machine 
and erecting shop, $2.964 sq, 5.71c, cu; Boiler Shop, $2.665, 



318 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

5.78c; Storehouse, $3.99, 12.2c; Pattern Shop, $2.863, 7.54c; 
Oil House, $2.03, 10.7c. 

STOREHOUSES: Of the heaviest construction, 2 stories, no 
basement, concrete, brick, steel, $3.80 sq ft. Without electric 
elevators, fireproof shutters, etc, $3.50. Deduct 25c if plat- 
forms are not required. A large storehouse, 2 stories and 
basement, was built for $3.05. But I know of another build- 
ing of the same nature and height with more and better out- 
side and inside finish, plumbing, elevators, electric wiring, 
etc, which ran to $5.25, or 13c per cf. For shelving and 
uprights allow about 2| ft for each sq ft of total net floor 
space. Piling, if required, 13c sq ft of ground floor. 

But the Rock Island storehouse at Moline, 111., is given in 
the " Railway Age " of Feb. 26, '04, at $1.50 per sq ft. It is 
a 3 story brick, wood construction inside, and the price is 
based on the ground area only. The total area is 5 times 
as large as that of the new Union Pacific storehouse, Omaha. 
The size is 500'xlOO'; and and 3.6 per cf matches the price 
given on the sq ft basis. It seems too low a figure; but the 
cost is not official. 

The storehouse for the Seaboard Air line at Portsmouth, 
Va., cost $1.17 per sq ft on ground floor; but it is brick only 
to the window sill, and unsheeted frame above covered with 
galv iron. It is 2 stories and a basement. 

The frame building described on page 35 is a kind of a 
storehouse. It is sheeted inside on first story, and has shelv- 
ing, refrigerator, and office in 1 end. Without any founda- 
tion, $1.16 per sq ft. 

OIL HOUSES AND PLATFORMS: From $2.50 to $3.50 per 
sq ft of building, but this included platforms. Platforms are 
about 50% more than buildings proper. Concrete and brick. 

But here it may be worth while to say that to get good 
results from either the sq or cf basis it is necessary to have 
a building of reasonable size. An oil house might be 150' 
long, or it might be 20, but in both cases 2 gables are required. 
The cost is distributed over a large area in the one case, and 
a small in the other. 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 319 

CAR SHOPS 

The detailed percentages of two large buildings will serve 
as a guide for an approx estimate. 

No. i No. 2 

Excavation 66 .23 

Concrete Foundations 7.40 5.38 

Concrete Coach Pits 3.73 1 

Concrete Floor in Coach Repair Shop 1 . 38 ( 7. 22 

Concrete Floors in Two Lavatories 23 J 

Concrete Water Table and Door Sills 38 

Stone Window Sills 28 

Brickwork 12.47 11.22 

Lumber 5.56 3.68 

Millwork and Glass 2.68 2.84 

Carpenter Labor 2.67 2.73 

Steel Lintels 2.05 1.84 

Structural Steel (450 tons) 20 . 08 23 . 02 

Unloading and Setting S. Steel 2 . 47 2 . 55 

Galv Iron and Copper 1.58 1.73 

Skylights 9.39 9.21 

Gravel Roof 1.58 1.93 

Floor Track 1.58 1.61 

Hardware, Ladders, Lantern Sash Device 1.41 1.68 

Lockers 74 1.10 

Painting 1.51 1.58 

Plumbing 3.51 2.10 

Heating 8.24 8.48 

Air, Steam and Water Pipe 8. 24 8. 52 

Plaster in Lavatories 18 .06 

100.00 100.00 

REMARKS: In No. 1 the total area over the walls was 
85,980 sq ft. The cost as above, without architect's fee or 
contractor's percentage, 6c per cf; $1.70 per sq ft. The 
height to eaves 25 ; 4". No grading or filling is allowed. 
Owing to nature of ground the foundations had to run deep 
one-half the amount might be sufficient for foundations and 
pits. If piling is required allow 7c per sq ft of total area. In 
some shops pits are not used. 

The total area of No. 2 was 84,113 sq ft. The cost as on 
No. 1, $1.68. The height to eaves 25' 4". No grading or fill- 
ing. Foundations were as deep as on No. 1, but did not have 
to be so far spread as there was no piling. 



320 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

In both the figures for heating and piping are approximate 
and safe. 

WOODWORKING: On 3 built, $1 to $1.40. 
CAR AND COACH SHOPS: From $1.25 to $2 on several. 
PAINT AND FREIGHT: From $1.25 to $2 on several. 
DRY KILN: From $1.60 to $3. 

LAVATORIES: Separate 1-story brick buildings, with the 
finest plumbing, ex metal lockers, etc, $3.70 to $4.25 per sq 
ft. The aver of 3 is $3.75. Inside of main building, $3. 
Approx, 12c per sq ft of complete ground floor area of main 
buildings. Ex metal lockers, $5 each. 

All figures given are for best construction of concrete, 
brick and steel. 

SAND HOUSES: On 2 the estimates were 78c and 80c per 
sq ft without crane. Size 14'x20' and 16'x20'. Crane com- 
plete with base and labor, $156.00. On house proper labor is 
50% of material. 

LUMBER SHEDS: Allow 48c per sq ft of actual ground 
surf, with deep concrete piers set 16' centers. With piers 
about 4' deep instead of 9', 40c. About 16' high, with second 
story floor over of area. 

BUNK HOUSES: From $1.05 on pile foundations to $1.25 
for stone or brick. 

ICE HOUSES: On 8 houses with floor space from 5,000 to 
11,000 sq ft the estimated cost was from 80 to 96c per sq 
ft, with an aver of 89c. Machinery, $600 to $900 each house 
extra. For dbl platforms $5.00 per If. 

On a house of later design, $1.30 per sq ft; 57c per sq ft 
of outside walls to level of wall plates, not including gables; 
5.4c per cf to level of wall plates. Material 63%; labor 37% 
of total. Size 24'xl60'x24' high to plates. No machinery or 
percentage. 

For houses 32' high $1.50 to $2. 

But sometimes the sq ft cost is doubled, and the labor 
instead of being reasonable is several times higher than it 
should be. 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 321 

AN ARTIFICIAL ICE plant costs about $1,000 per ton 

capacity. 

YIELD OF ICE: An acre of ice, 12" thick, yields about 1,000 

tons. It costs from 80c to $1 to put ice in house. The 

shrinkage from time of packing to August is about 12% in 

an unopened house. 

ICE HOUSES for private families, 8'x8'x8', are described in 

" Carpentry and Building," Aug., '07. They cost from $100 

to $200. 

STAND PIPE: Mansfield, 12", $320; 10, $220. Pit, $125. 

One of reinforced concrete, 40'xlOO', $34,000; in steel, 
$37,500 bid; Attleboro, Mass. 

SHELTER SHEDS: Wood posts, flooring and gravel roof, 
no floor, 2 coats mineral paint, 33 to 45c per sq ft of roof 
surf depending upon length, etc. 

COACH SHOP: The Seaboard Line Coach shop, brick to 
window sills, studs unsheeted, covered with galv iron, 68c; 
planing mill of same style, $1.29. 

The published figures of cost of the WABASH PLANT AT 
DECATUR: 

cf 

Power House 3.4c 

Blacksmith and Machine Shop 3.0c 

Car Shop 2.7c 

Store and Office 5.5c 

Wood Mill 2.9c 

Tin, Cabinet and Upholstery 4.5c 

Dry Kiln ll.lc 

Lavatory 5.4c 

Dry Lumber Sheds 2.3c 

Iron, Coal and Coke . 3.5c 



The buildings are of timber frames with No. 24 ex metal 
and plaster 1" thick outside, 1" inside, and an 8" air space. 

The following useful figures are taken from the Railroad 
Gazette of July 1, 1904. They are compiled by Master 
Mechanics: 



322 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

COST OF LOCOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOPS 

" In selecting units on which to base cost figures the sq ft 
and the cf have generally been used for buildings; in . power 
plants the engine h p, boiler h p and generator kilowatts 
have also been used;- in roundhouses the stall has been taken 
as the proper unit. In computing the sq ft of buildings, the 
outside dimensions have been used (giving the ground area 
covered) ; in computing the cf of buildings, the aver external 
height has been taken ( giving the total volume occupied). 

In the figures which follow, the different items are identi- 
fied by reference numbers only, with such explanatory notes 
added as will aid in interpreting the unit prices; shops built 
prior to 1895 are designated as " old," those built since 1895, 
as "modern;" in a few cases the notes are based on uncer- 
tain information and are followed by an interrogation 
mark (?). 

It is believed that in most cases the cost of a proposed 
shop will be asked for as soon as the layout plan has been 
completed, and that the following is the best basis for mak- 
ing an estimate: List up all the buildings, with their ground 
area in sq ft, all the miscellaneous structures, either on the 
sq ft, the If, or the unit basis (as may appear best), all the 
track on the If basis, the turnouts on the unit basis, etc; 
assign a unit price to each item, as determined by the special 
local conditions, carry out the cost extensions and totalize; 
to the total thus obtained add a percentage to cover inci- 
dentals and items not shown by the layout plan; this per- 
centage may vary from a minimum of 10% to a maximum of 
25%, according to the completeness of the layout plan and 
the degree of confidence which may be felt in the unit prices 
assumed; the grand total should represent the approx 
cost of the plant, exclusive of the cost of land and grading, 
which should be estimated separately, these two items not 
being susceptible of reduction in a unit basis. If the build- 
ings have been designed in detail their cost may be checked 
upon the cf basis. 

The report is signed by R. H. Soule, Chairman; L. R. 
Pomeroy, T. H. Curtis, S. F. Prince, Jr., A. E. Manchester. 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 323 

POWER PLANTS TOTAL COST 

Cost per Cost per 
Engine Generator Cost per Cost per 
Item HP K W Sq Ft CF Notes 

131 131.33 219.00 11.40 .40 Far West, modern; a sub- 

stantial effective plant 
devoid of ornamentation 
refinement; coal dumped 
from trestle and shoveled t 
ashes shoveled. 

132 140 . 27 210 .00 7 . 00 .18 Middle West modern; build- 

ing has considerable orna- 
mentation inside and out, 
but the equipment auxili- 
aries are simple; overhead 
crane in engine room. 

133 115.00 167.00 12.20 .28 East, modern; building has 

considerable ornamenta- 
tion alternating current 
apparatus inside and out; 
principally with auxiliary 
direct current equipment. 

134 185.06 278.00 11.50 .36 Middle West, modern; in- 

cludes (besides boilers, en- 
gine generators, and air 
compressors, induced 
draft apparatus, coal and 
ash handling apparatus, 
hydraulic plant, etc. 

135 129.28 210.60 14.62 .33 Middle West, modern; a 

very complete plant both 
mechanically and architec- 
turally. 

136 123.00 191.00 14.30 .36 Middle West, modern; large 

enough to allow for a one- 
third increase in capacity 
of plant. 

137 129.00 225.00 10.40 .58 East, modern; fireproof con- 

struction throughout. 

138 90.90 151.50 10.40 .24 West, modern; a simple 

but "effective plant limited 
to direct current, no coal 
or ash handling apparatus. 

139 128.60 211.00 10.55 .31 Middle West, modern; con- 

densing equipment. 



324 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

ERECTING AND MACHINE SHOPS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

140 3.50 1.08 .71 5.34 .076 .115 

141 1.03 2.49 .187 3.70 .034 .123 

142 .706 1.78 .... 029 

143 1.67 2.05 .086 3.79 .051 .118 

144 2.43 .81 .... 051 

145 1.65 2.69 .... 041 

146 1.80 1.65 .... 046 

147 1.82 .050 

148 3.08 1.65 .073 

140. East, modern; brick and steel transverse shop, erect- 
ing shop has both heavy and light cranes; machine shop 
has crane service throughout, saw tooth roof. 

141. Middle West, old; brick and wood, transverse shop 
in 2 parts, 1 part 1 story with slate roof, the other part 
2 stores with gravel roof. 

142. Middle West, old; stone and wood, transverse shop, 
gravel roof supported by posts. 

143. Middle West, old; brick with wood and iron roof 
trussing and shingle roof, longitudinal shop, machine shop on 
one side, traveling cranes in erecting shop. 

144. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, transverse 
shop, high for f of width with heavy crane, the remaining 
being low, with saw tooth roof. 

145. Middle West, 3 old, new, brick and steel, transverse 
shop, new part 2 stories; no traveling cranes. 

146. Pacific Northwest, modern; brick and steel, over- 
head crane. 

147. Pacific Southwest, modern; brick and steel, overhead 
crane. \ 

148. Far West, modern; brick and steel, overhead crane. 

MACHINE SHOP 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 
157 .952 .038 

157. Middle West, old; brick and wood, gravel roof sup 
ported by posts. 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 
BOILER AND TANK SHOPS 



325 



Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area 



Cost per CF 



Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 



158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 



2.98 
1.58 

.84 
1.66 

.99 
1.53 



.72 
.40 
.94 
.48 

'.96 



,84 

!676 
,083 



4.54 

i!87 
2.24 



.083 
.049 
.033 
.059 
.025 
.095 



.127 

'.075 
.080 



158. East, modern; brick and steel, cranes cover entire 
floor, saw tooth roof. 

159. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, one-half width 
high for crane service, the other half lower and without crane. 

160. Middle West, old; brick and wood with slate roof. 

161. Middle West, old; brick and wood, shingle roof, gal- 
lery along one side, cranes over part of floor space. 

162. Pacific Southwest, modern; brick and steel, overhead 
crane, smith shop in one end. 

163. Middle West, f old, new; brick and wood, new part 
2 stories, no overhead cranes. (?) 



SMITH SHOPS 



Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area 
Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. 

.110 

.171 



.050 



.348 



164 


.... 


.734 


165 


2.'63 


.982 


166 


1.79 


.144 


167 


.432 


2.26 


168 


1.06 


1.09 


169 


2.25 


t 


170 


1.43 


'.'665 


171 


1.50 


.... 


172 


2.37 


i.'96 


173 


1.21 


.... 


174 


1.38 




175 


.91 


.60 



3.78 

2.77 
2.22 



4.68 



Cost per CF 



Total Building only Total 



.080 
.049 
.019 
.035 

;642 

.'052 
.041 



.115 



.074 



.104 
.055 



164. Middle West, old. 

165. East, modern; brick and steel, high and light, 
thoroughly equipped. 

166. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, 100' wide, 
hip roof without posts. 



326 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

167. Middle West, old; brick and wood with slate roof. 

168. Middle West, old; brick and wood, shingle roof. 

169. Southeast, modern; brick and steel, unusually high 
(33' from floor to lower chord of roof truss.) (These figures 
should be used with caution, as they are not official, but 
were taken from a published statement.) 

170. Middle West, modern; brick and steel. 

171. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, tile and gravel 
roof. 

172. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, brass foundry 
and car machine shop under same roof, equipment very 
complete. 

173. East, modern; concrete and steel, 80' span, no posts. 

174. Northeast, modern; brick and wood, 60' span, no 
posts, simple construction. 

175. Middle West, old, J new; brick and wood (?). 

IRON FOUNDRY 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

176 3.18 .... 

176. Brick and steel, modern; U. S. Navy Yard, Bremer- 
ton, Wash. 

PATTERN AND UPHOLSTERY SHOP 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 
178 .857 .... .131 .988 .043 .050 

178. Middle West, old; modern building, 2 stories. 



PASSENGER CAR REPAIR SHOPS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

179 1.24 .016 1.25 .042 .043 

180 1.20 .... .... 

181 2.64 .044 .096 2.78 .099 .105 

182 1.34 .... .015 1.35 .056 .057 

183 .68 .003 .057 .74 .026 .028 

184 .83 .029 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 327 

179. Middle West, modern; longitudinal shop, brick and 
wood. 

180. Southeast, modern; transverse shop, brick and wood, 
has upholstery and cabinet shops under same roof. (These 
figures should be used with caution, as they are not official, 
but were taken from a published statement.) 

181. Middle West, modern; transverse shop, brick and 
steel, includes upholstery and trimming shop and hot air 
heating. 

182. East, modern; transverse shop, brick and steel, with 
cement foundation, saw tooth, wooden roof. 

183. Southeast, modern; transverse shop, brick up to 
window sills, corrugated galv iron sheathing on wooden 
frame above, gravel roof, granolithic floor, used also for 
painting and varnishing. (Identical with Passenger Car 
Paint Shop No. 193.) 

184. Middle West, old; brick and wood (?). 

PASSENGER CAR PAINT SHOPS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost'per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

185 1.24 .044 1.24 .04 .04 

186 1.94 .055 .092 2.09 .072 .178 

187 1.02 .... .... 033 

188 1 . 20 

189 1.01 .... .039 1.05 .035 .036 

190 .35 

191 2.36 .009 .056 2.43 .081 .084 

192 1.13 .... .009 1.14 .051 .052 

193 .68 .003 .057 .74 .026 .028 

194 .89 .... .... 032 

185. Middle West, modern; longitudinal shop, brick and 
wood. 

186. East, modern, longitudinal shop, brick and steel, 
saw tooth roof, hot air heating. 

187. Pacific Southwest, modern; transverse shop, brick 
and steel. 

188. Southeast, modern; transverse shop, brick and wood, 
has varnish room and pipe shop under same roof. (These 
figures should be used with caution, as they are not official, 
but were taken from a published statement.) 



328 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

189. Northeast, modern; longitudinal shop, brick and 
steel, includes small paint, varnish and boiler rooms at one end. 

190. South, old; wooden structure. 

191. Middle West, modern; transverse shop, brick and 
steel, includes cleaning room , varnish room and hot air 
heating. 

192. East, modern; transverse shop, brick and steel with 
cement foundations, saw tooth, wooden roof. 

193. Southeast, modern; transverse shop, brick up to win- 
dow sills, corrugated galv iron sheathing on wooden frame 
above; gravel roof, granolithic floor, used also for coach re- 
pairs. (Identical with Passenger Car Repair Shop No. 183.) 

194. Middle West, old; brick and wood (?). 

FREIGHT CAR REPAIR SHOPS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

195 .40 .... .016 .415 .022 .023 

196 2.12 .123 .047 2.29 .075 .080 

197 .29 .... .... .29 .015 .015 

195. Middle West, old; wooden building, longitudinal, 
entirely enclosed. 

196. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, longitudinal, 
includes cabinet shop and hot air heating. 

197. Middle West, old; large shop, longitudinal, construc- 
tion not known, but probably wood with partly open sides. 

CAR SMITH AND CAR MACHINE SHOPS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

199 .77 1.06 .... 028 

199. Middle West, old; brick and wood (?) 

WHEEL AND AXLE SHOP 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

200 4.03 2.16 .72 6.91 .16 .276 

200. West, modern; brick and steel, for car work only. 

CAR REPAIR SHOP AND PLANING MILL 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

201 .975 ,.031 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 329 

201. Pacific Southwest, modern; brick and steel, has inter- 
mediate 2-story section for sub departments. 

PLANING MILLS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

202 .487 .54 .010 1.04 .026 .056 

203 1.15 1.18 .25 2.58 .045 .102 

204 .76 1.21 .292 2.26 .033 .098 

205 1.85 .... .... 

206 .37 .... .... 

207 2.54 1.44 .082 4.06 .095 .153 

208 2.53 .558 .... 057 

209 .39 .50 .... 014 

210 .74 .485 .239 1.47 .037 .073 

202. Middle West, old; wooden building, tools and equip- 
ment very light. 

203. Southeast, modern; brick up to floor line, then cor- 
rugated galv iron on insulated wooden frame, basement and 
1 story, gravel roof, mechanical power in annex, cabinet shop 
in wing. 

204. Middle West, old; brick and wood, slate roof. 

205. Southeast, modern; steel and brick. (These figures 
should be used with caution, as they are not official, but were 
taken from a published statement.) 

206. South, old; wooden structure. 

207. Middle West, modern; brick and steel, does not in- 
clude cabinet shop, which is separate. 

208. Middle West, old; brick and wood, includes pattern 
shop (?). 

210. West, modern; wooden (?). 

STOREHOUSES. 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

211 1.142 .168 1.31 .044 .050 

212 3.60 

213 3.05 .67 3.72 .073 .089 

214 2.40 .... 2.72 .110 .124 

215 2.00 .... .... 050 

211. Southeast, modern; brick up to window sills, then 
corrugated galv iron on unsheathed wooden frame, 2 stories, 
gravel roof, platform, bins, shelves, etc., complete. 



330 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



212. Southeast, modern; brick and steel, 2 stories and 
basement, extensive offices in 1 end on both floors. (These 
figures should be used with caution, as they are not official, 
but were taken from a published statement.) 

213. Middle West, modern; brick and wood, 3 stories. 

214. East, modern; concrete construction, 1 end 2 stories, 
upper floor used for offices. 

215. Middle West, old; brick and wood, 2 stories (?). 



OIL HOUSES 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area 
Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. 



216 
217 
218 
219 
216. 



5.41 
3.52 
1.33 
2.15 



Cost per CF 

Total Building only Total 
1.43 6.84 .208 .263 

1.55 5.07 .196 .302 

089 

1.34 3.49 .097 .159 



Middle West, modern; brick and steel, basement and 



1 story, full equipment of tanks, etc. 

217. East, modern; concrete walls and roof, 1 story with 
deep basement. 

219. West, modern; brick and steel, tile roof, 2 stories. 



Item 

220 

221 

222 

223 

224 

225 

226 

227 

228 

229 

230 

231 

232 

233 

234 

235 

236 

237 

238 



ROUNDHOUSES 

Cost per Stall 
No. of Stalls Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. 



18 

46 

10 

10 

30 

13 

8 

7 

33 

44 
30 
25 
48 
25 
18 
23 
44 
40 



1,388.88 
1,155.00 
2,400.00 
1,757.70 

1,040 ! 66 
2,750.00 
1,033.00 



1,998.00 
4,150.00 
1,950.00 
2,480.00 
1,719.00 
1,011.00 
1,065.00 
1,740.00 
1,875.00 



133.00 



328.00 



87.50 



787.50 



Total 



2,090.00 
1,500.00 



2,200.00 
1,845.00 
2,459.00 

2,455! 66 



2,750.00 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 331 

220. Middle West, old; 63' span, brick and wood, slate roof, 
trussed (no posts). 

221. Pacific Southwest, modern; 80' span, brick and wood, 
roof supported by posts. 

222. Far West, modern; part 75' span, part 85' span, brick 
and wood, gravel roof, supported by posts. 

223. Far West, modern; 85' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

224. Middle West, old; 65' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

225. Middle West, old; 78' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

226. Middle West, modern; 89' span, brick and wood, 
gravel roof, supported by posts. 

227. Middle West, old; 80' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

228. East, modern; 81' span, brick and steel, gravel roof, 
supported by flat truss (no posts), rolling steel doors, cost 
does not include heating equipment. 

229. Northwest, modern; 84' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof supported by posts, cost does not include heating equip- 
ment. 

230. Northeast, modern; 80' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts, annex with boilers, heating appara- 
tus (hot air), and air compressor. 

231. East, modern; 90' span, brick and steel, slag roof, 
with crane runway covering outer half of span, has very 
heavy pile and stone foundation. 

232. East, modern; 80' span, concrete and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

233. Northeast, modern; 75' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

234. Northeast, modern; 75' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

235. Northeast, modern; 72' span, brick and wood, gravel 
roof, supported by posts. 

236. West, modern; 80' span, brick and wood, gravel roof, 
suppor.ted by posts. 



332 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

237. Middle West, part old, part modern; 70' and 85' spans, 
gravel roof, supported by posts ( ?) . 

LAVATORY 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 
Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 
239 .... 2.55 

239. Middle West, modern; aver of 3 large lavatories (in- 
cluding water closets, urinals, wash room and locker rooms) ; 
buildings of concrete and brick with tile roofs on wooden 
trusses; cement floors, complete with contents, ready to use. 



OFFICE BUILDINGS 

Cost per Sq Ft of Ground Area Cost per CF 

Item Building only Tools Misc. Eqpt. Total Building only Total 

240 .306 .030 

241 8.01 .557 .295 8.86 .167 .187 

242 1.04 .... .034 

240. Middle West, old; frame building with brick founda- 
tion, includes M. M. store department, steam heat. 

241. Middle West, modern; brick and wood, basement, 2 
stories and attic, ornamental architecture. 

242. Middle West, old; wooden, 2 stories and base- 
ment (?). 



TRACK 

Cost Add for 

Item per LF each Switch NOTES 

243 0.70 170.00 Based on use of " fit " (second hand) 67 Ib 

rail. 

244 1.00 180.00 Based on use of "fit" (second hand) 85 

Ib rail. 
fl.OO 75.00] 

245 \ to to \ Based on use of new rail, according to 
[1.25 125. 00 J weight. 

TURNABLES 

Item Diameter Cost NOTES 

246 70 ft $3,000 Exclusive of pit. 

247 70 ft 5,091 Including pit (?). 



Item 
248 

249 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 
TRANSFER PITS AND TABLES 



333 



Cost per Sq Ft of Pit 
Pit Table Total 
.31 .17 .48 



.43 



.16 



.59 



NOTES 

Far West, modern; to handle the 
heaviest class of engines. 

East, modern; pit of concrete through- 
out; capacity of table, 200 tons. 



Item 

250 

251 

252 

253 

254 

255 



MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES 

Name Cost 

Ash Pit $30.20 per If. 

Coal Chute 65 per sq ft. 

Water Tank 1,900 .00 total 



Water Pipe, Underground Laid. . . 
Sewer Pipe, Underground Laid 

Long lines of Wrt Iron Pipe 

(for Air, Gas or Water), with Usual 
Proportion of Valves, Fittings, etc., 
in Place. 

NOTES 



1.43 per If. 

2. 88 per If. 

25. 00 per 100 If I" diam. 

45. 00 per 100 If 2" diam. 

85. 00 per 100 If 3" diam. 

130. 00 per 100 If 4" diam. 



251. Two sided with trestle approach (?) 

252. Fifty thousand gall capacity on timber trestle (?) 
252. Large system, pipes from 12" down to 4". 

254. Large system, pipes from 24" down to 12". 

255. Given by large pipe contracting firm of PTttsburg. 

MINOR BUILDINGS 



Cost 

Item Name per SF 

256 Iron Storehouse 24 

257 Brass Foundry 1 . 96 

258 Upholstery Shop 58 

259 Paint Mixing Shop.. .58 

260 Paint Storehouse 1 . 75 

261 Freight Repair Shed . 11 

262 Dry Kiln 79 

263 Lumber Shed 21 

264 Storehouse Shed 31 

265 Coal Shed 24 

266 Coal Shed 25 

267 Charcoal shed 21 

268 Ice House 57 

269 Ice House 60 

270 Crematory 2.52 

271 Small Office Building .50 



Cost 
perCF 

.011 
.098 
.029 
.029 

.087 



NOTES 

Old, Wooden (?). 

Old, Brick and Wood (?). 

Old. Brick and Wood (?). 

Old, Brick and Wood (?). 

Old, Brick and Wood (?). 

New,Wooden,OpenSides(?). 

.039 Old, Wooden (?). 

Old Wooden ,OpenSides(?) 

Old. Wooden (?). 

Old, Wooden (?). 

Old, Wooden (?). 

Old, Wooden (?). 



.015 
.020 
.021 
.017 
.028 
.030 
.210 



Old, Wooden (?). 
Old, Wooden (?). 



. . Old, Wooden, One Story. 
(The Report of the Master Mechanics ends here.) 



334 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

SHOP EQUIPMENT 

FOUNDATIONS FOR STEAM HAMMERS: The following 
figures are approx, as depth, soil and manufacturers' ideas 
differ. On good soil piles are unnecessary. See page 45 for 
cost of concrete for machine foundations: 

800 Ib HAMMER: 

1,050' lumber $31.25 

15 yds excavation 7.50 

12 piles 72.00 

12 cy concrete 84.00 

Bolts 5.00 

$199.75 
1,100 Ib: 

1,650' lumber $49.50 

15 yds excavation 7.50 

12 piles 72.00 

12 cy concrete 84.00 

Bolts , 8.00 



$221.00 

2,500 Ib: 

2,150' lumber $64.50 

25 yds excavation 12.50 

16 piles 96.00 

25 cy concrete 175.00 

Bolts 12.00 

$360.00 

5,000 Ib: 

3.350' lumber $100.50 

30 yds excavation 15.00 

22 piles 132.00 

28 cy concrete 196.00 

$443.50 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 335 

CRANES: 

50 ton electric, 75' span $19,000 

25 ton electric, 75' span 12,000 

10 ton electric 6,200 

15 hand 1,000 

Motors included. Prices vary according to span, etc. 

15 ton electric, 50' span and 5 ton auxiliary hoist. . $4,800 

10 ton electric, 53' 3,750 

2 ton electric, 24' 2,000 

20 ton electric, 50 4,750 

60 ton stationary, electric 7,000 

2 ton jib, electric 450 

5 ton jib, electric 1,300 

1 ton wall, electric 150 

10 ton gantry, 53' 4,600 

No freight or erection. 

SAND CRANE installed, $175. 

CUPOLAS FOR FOUNDRIES: For 63", $975; 78", $1,380. 
CONDENSER for 2,000 h p, $10,000. 

BLUE PRINTING: Electric machines (large) from $230 to 
$400. 

BENCHES 

BRAZING with I" steel top, 3" plank, drawers and doors, 

$6.00 per If. 

CABINET MAKERS' BENCH fully equipped, to special 

design, $75. 

MACHINE BENCH, covered with |" steel top, 4 large 

drawers, 15 trays, both of steel, and doors, $8 per If. 

CARPENTER'S BENCH on average building, $4.10. 

BOILERS 

For 250 h p marine, $3,900, not set. 
For 100 h p, $1,100, not set. 
For 2 42"xl4' set up, $1,450. 



336 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

MOTORS 

For 12 h p, 185 r p m $700 

For 5 h p, 870 r p m 140 

For 5 h p, 1,100 r p m 180 

For 3 h p, 1,600 r p m 80 

For 3 h p, 1,100 r p m 105 

For 7 h p, 1,180 r p m 140 

For 7 h p, 1,456 r p m 185 

For 10 h p, 1.175 r p m 170 

For 2 h p, 1,200 r p m 80 

For 30 360 

FANS: 

For 60" $400 Chicago 

For 45" 330 

With 4 and 3 h p motors. 

For 36" with motor attached $180.00 net 

For 30" with motor attached 140.00 net 

For 24" with motor attached 110.00 net 

For 18" with motor attached 85.00 net 

WATER METERS 

2" $66 

3" 140 

Crown 4" 251 

Crown 6" 500 

See also Chap XVIII. 

WATER FILTERS: For 240 men, $300 in place, 7 to 14 galls 
per minute. For 15 to 30 galls, $400 set up; 24 to 48 galls, 
$630; 100 to 200 galls, $1,700. For domestic use from $10 up. 
TURNSTILES: From $40 to $200. 

TRANSFER TABLES AND PITS: Pits may cost from $25 
to $35 per If, depending upon depth and sections; for an 80' 
table $6,600; 90', $7,000 to $7,500. 

REFRIGERATORS:! 7'xlO'xl2', $225. 
1 9'xl9'xl2', $460. 

Or 27c and 23c per cf for common work of 3 thicknesses of 
flooring, 4 of paper, and 1" of mineral wool. 



RAILROAD BUILDINGS PER SQ AND CF 337 

HEATER BOX: One 12'xl4'x9'-6" high, ceiled both sides, and 
lined with No. 22 galv iron, heated by coils, $360, complete, 
or 23c per cf. Coils 40c per sq ft. 
SILVERING TABLE: Copper lined, $2 per sq ft. 
LIGHTNING RODS: They should weigh not less than C oz 
to the foot. They are worth in place for ordinary buildings 
45c per ft; and for chimney stacks, $1. 
WINDMILLS: For 12', $250; 20', $400; 25', $475. 
TRACK: Standard gauge $1.25 per ft; 2' gauge light rails, 
65c. Turntables $50. 

WATER PIPE: 

Laid, 6" $1.40 per ft 

Laid, 8" 1.60 per ft 

Laid, 10" 1.80 per ft 

Laid, 12" 2.20 per ft 

Laid, 18" 3.50 per "ft 

Laid, 24" 5.00 per ft 

Laid, 36" 8.75 per ft 

Laid, 48" 15.50 per ft 

LABOR on laying 18", 50c; 24, 75c; 36, $1; 48, $1.50, included 
in total. 

But cast iron pipe varies greatly in weight, according to 
use, pressure, etc. See table in Chap XXVIII. 
SEWERS: See under "Municipal Work." 
SHOP FLOORS: For a damp proof floor, 8 bbls cinders to 1 
of coal tar, laid 6" thick, allow 8c per sq ft; and for the 3"x4" 
bedded 16" on centers in the mixture, and covered wth 3" 
flooring, 16c making a total of 24c per sq ft. Various kinds 
of these floors run from 24c to 30c. 

COAL TAR costs more than water gas tar. Bids on a 
large quantity ran from $2.70 to $3.90 per bbl of 52 galls. 
Water gas, about $2.00 to $2.50. Coal tar is used on gravel 
roofs. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

STANDARD 10-STALL 79.5, 85, AND 90 ENGINE HOUSES 
ALSO A 50-STALL RECTANGULAR ENGINE HOUSE 

The standard engine house is now being increased from 
80 to 85 and 90' on main lines of railroad. 

Standards naturally differ on different roads, but a fair aver 
may be obtained from the following figures. As the 85 and 
90' houses are of recent growth the estimate will be of value, 
but a few remarks are necessary to remind the reader that 
all kinds of changes are possible and that local conditions 
might seriously affect the total. Length is over walls not 
inside: 

EXCAVATION: The allowance is about 4' below base of 
rail. Instead of excavation a fill might be necessary, or the 
natural surf might be several ft too high, perhaps adding 
hundreds of dollars to the cost. Then the pits might not 
require to be excavated in the center, but only for footings 
run down on each side in the firm soil. 

CONCRETE OR RUBBLE : Quantity depends upon the sec- 
tion used, and price upon locality. Footings are estimated 
3' wide. The bottom of pits might be of same thickness full 
length; or might have to be level on base and the slope of 
solid concrete. There is more labor required on pits and 
angles than on a straight wall. Am. Portland is estimated. 
CUT STONE: Water table and sills are estimated at 8x8; 
for ordinary work 5x7 is used. Door sills are est stone. 
Water table might be of concrete. Window caps might be of 
stone, and not old rail to be cut and set. Pier blocks might 
be iron and not stone as below. A local stone might be sup- 
plied for $1.20 per cf instead of $1.40 as estimated. Unload- 
ing and setting, 15%, total, $1.61. -Range work might have 

to be added. 

338 



ENGINE HOUSES 



339 



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340 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

BRICK: Walls ought to be 17", but in a fit of economy they 
might be cut to 13"; and height might be changed. Size and 
number of openings; price of brick, pilasters, and cornices 
are all subject to change. Pressed brick might be used. 
Number is given in wall measure. 

LUMBER: This material is of various prices in different 
sections of the country; millwork varies by 20 to 30% even 
in the same section; carpenters are paid 30c in one place and 
45 in another; and paving might be used in one house and 
left out in the next. An extra line of inside posts is used on 
the 90' house. 

There is no painting ets'd on brick, posts or ceiling. Smoke 
jacks and ventilators are of wood add $230 if steel is wanted. 
PITS: Pits are deducted from paving; and length is in- 
creased to correspond with house. 
PIPING is for air, steam and water. 

There is no gutter. 
Net prices are used. 
DROP PIT: If drop pit is used allow $400 extra. 

The aver contractor would take such buildings for a profit 
of 5%, or about $800 additional; and out of this pay insur- 
ance, etc. If thrown open to bidding a cut of 10 to }5% might 
be made and the usual crop of accidents, liens, lawsuits, 
etc, sprung up to vex the earth. 

On the basis of 17 used on No. 2 (See Chap V). 160,600, 
170,700, and 179,800 actual brick are required; at 17 to the 
cf, as with very small brick, 165,350, 175,800, 185,100; at 15$ 
for very large, 146,500, 155.700, and 164,000, or a difference 
of about 20,000. On the 16i basis used on No. 8 153,550, 
163,200, 171,900 for the 3 different houses in round numbers, 
with brick clear to grade. 

INSIDE STALLS 

For inside stalls on same basis: 

Excavation... 95 cy 103 113 $28.50 $30.90 $33.90 

Concrete 61 68 75 335.50 374.00 412.50 

Cut Stone 25 25 28 40.25 40.25 .45.10 

Brick 11,500 11,800 12,100 126.50 129.80 133.10 

Old Rail.. 12.00 12.00 12.00 



ENGINE HOUSES 341 

Lumber 10,20010,70011,500 183.60 192.60 207.00 

Millwork 80.00 80.00 80.00 

Carp Labor.... 87.00 95.00 105.00 

Gravel Roof. . . 63.00 67.95 72.90 

Hardware 30.00 30.00 30.00 

Painting 20.00 20.00 20.00 

Smoke- jack & vent 55.00 55.00 55.00 

Track 48.00 51.00 54.00 

Piping 160.00 165.00 170.00 

Paving 119.00 130.00 138.85 

Total $1,388.35 $1,473.50 $1,569.35 

Add whatever profit is considered possible to total cost price. 

For 8 inside Stalls $11,106.80 $11.788.00 $12,554.80 

For 2 Outside Stalls 4,785.20 5,099.40 5,387.85 

$15,892.00 $16,887.40 $17,942.65 

For 1 Outside Stall $2,392.60 $2,549.70 $2,693.95 

For 1 Inside Stall 1,388.35 1,473.50 1,569.35 

Difference $1,004.25 $1,076.20 $1,124^0 

At 17 brick to the cf an inside stall requires 8,700, 8,900, 
9,150. 

PIT: For the excavation of a standard pit allow 34 cf to 
each If full length of pit. and add 3 cy for the deep end. 

For concrete or rubble deduct the 2 ends, or 6' 2", from 
extreme length, and allow 184 cf for them; then multiply 
each If of straight pit by 21.07, and add 184 to the result 
for the total in cf. 

PILES: If piles are used, staggered about 4' centers, allow 
for walls and piers, 64 for the 2 end stalls, and 14 for each 
inside stall. For each pit, 36. At $5 per pile, $268 per stall 
on a 90', 10 stall house. 

If concrete is used instead of timbers, allow 2.5 cf to each 
If of pit, a total of 23.57 cf. 

RECTANGULAR ENGINE HOUSE: When finishing the 
foregoing estimates I saw a plan of a rectangular engine 
house in "The Engineering News," New York, N. Y. It is 
rather an interesting substitute for the ordinary roundhouse, 
and as the cost was not given among the other advantages 
or drawbacks I made an estimate, as nearly as possible with- 
out working plans, so that a comparison might be had with the 



342 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



85' radial house. To correspond with that the size of the 
plan was changed to 85' over walls instead of inside. The 
depth of footings and height of walls are the same; roof is 
est at i" rise to the ft; prices are same. Steel lintels are 
put over triple openings, and that increases the cost; but 
there would not be sufficient light with 2 ordinary windows. 
Skylight and lantern are extra, and none too large. 

The cost of a transfer pit recently erected was $21 per If; 
but in some cases with deep concrete this might run as high 
as $35; with end walls not necessary in " Eng News" plan, 
and with 1 wall fewer in center the cost is $18 on same sec- 
tions and depth. Pit is given separately, although enclosing 
walls necessarily go with building. Paving is not figured in 
pit. Traveling crane, drop pit, etc, are not estd, but both 
buildings kept on same basis. 

Summary of "Eng News" plan of a 50 stall, 85' rectangular 
engine house, 240'x471': 

Excavation . $1,590 Skylight $4,300 

Concrete 18,293 Hardware and Lantern 

Cut Stone 2,700 Gearing 1,200 

Brickwork 6,636 Painting 1,050 

Steel Lintels 2,590 Smoke- jacks and V's 2,750 

Lumber 12,384 Track 2,326 

Millwork 4,000 Piping 7,500 

Carpenter Labor 6,000 Paving 6,875 

Gravel Roof 4,644 Flashing 200 

Summary of Transfer Pit : $85,038 

Excavation $1,800 

Concrete 5,462 

Rail, Bolts, and Clips 908 

Transfer Table 6,600 

Side Coping Timber 240 

$15,010 

Summary of a 50-stall, 85 ft, radial engine-house: * ' 

2 Outside Stalls $5,100 

48 Inside Stalls 70,728 

1 Turntable 5,125 

50 New Frogs 1,000 

5000' Track bet Table and Doors 4,000 

$85,953 

Difference.. $14,095 



ENGINE HOUSES 343 

The roundhouse is 16% cheaper than the rectangular plan, 
The plain L. S. D., "dollars and cents," argument is against 
a change unless other reasons than cost carry the day. And 
Mr. Nichols admits that a turntable is still necessary in the 
yard. If the transfer table is cut out the walls can be ma- 
terially shortened and the cost reduced, but a new method of 
working is required. 

FIRE: Fire walls are not estimated on either plan. For 
a radial house, if used, allow $800 to $900 each, complete. 

HEATING: In these estimates the pipes are in place ready 
for steam heating: if the hot blast system is used instead, 
the supply has to be brought to the blower from which dis- 
tribution is made. The cost is about the same as with the 
pipe system. Of 6 engine houses in different parts of the 
country heated by the blast system the aver of the work was 
$191 per stall; the price ranged from $165 to $245. If the 
highest figure is eliminated the aver is $181. 

STANDARD: The standard house is, of course, different on 
railroads, but the one from which the detailed figures are 
given is heavy enough to serve as a safe building to estimate 
from an approx estimates. 

COST: On another plan an 8 stall 90' house cost $24,000 in 
one place, and $21,700 in another; and had 100,000 actual brick, 
with 15,000 for the two outside stalls. In the first case the 
cost per stall is $3,000, which is far too high. Careful esti- 
mates are as nothing in the face of incompetent management. 
A 90' FRAME HOUSE should not cost over $1,550 per stall. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE ENGINE HOUSES: At Gale- 
wood, 111., the estimated cost of 36 stalls was $80,000, or 
$2,200 per stall. This was for concrete up to the window 
sills and brick above. 

Another of the same design and 30 stalls was built at West 
Milwaukee for $65,000, $2,167 per stall. Both were 84' over 
all. 

SMOKEJACKS are of various styles and prices. A cast iron 
fixed one is $87 fob Chicago; another $100; 3 styles of asbestos 
building lumber are $90, $150, $165. Wood, from $40 to $75. 



344 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LIGHTING: Allow in addition to all foregoing estimates $70 
per stall for electric lighting, if required. 

TURNTABLES 

For a 72' table allow $2,300 fob Chicago wt, 31 tons; 1,000 
cy excavation; 127 cy concrete or rubble; 60 cy gravel for 
slope; 21 piles if any are used; $200 for ties, bolts, coping, 
and labor; $70 for 70 Ib pit rail; $30 for catch basin; and $300 
for bending rail, unloading and setting table, a total without 
the piles of $4,078.50, with excavation at 30c, concrete at $5.50, 
and gravel at $3. Piles, freight and percentage to be added 
if required. 

For a 75' table allow $2,650, Chicago, wt, 38 tons; 1,070 cy 
excavation; 136 cy concrete; 66 cy gravel; 21 piles; $225 
for ties, bolts, etc; $73 for pit rail; $30 for catch basin; and 
$330 for unloading, bending and setting, a total of $4,575. 
Add piles, etc, if necessary same as on 72' table. The 66' 
table is now out of date. 

For an 80' turntable and pit complete, allow $7,200. 

For an 8' table, plain top, weight, 5,800 Ibs, $200, at Chicago. 

STREET CAR BARNS : 

Per sq. ft. 

Timber barn, two-track bays, sides covered 

with corrugated iron $0.55 to $0.70 

Timber barn, three-track bays, brick or stone 

walls 1.10 to 1.30 

Fireproof concrete barn, three-track bays, con- 
crete or brick walls 1.25 to 1.50 

Clear span steel roof, eight to ten tracks, brick 

walls 1.40 to 2.00 



CHAPTER XXIV 

STANDARD SIZES AND GRADES 

The theory of standard sizes and shapes is correct. After 
the pattern is made it serves for many castings as easily 
as for one. Only one drawing has to he made, and this, too, is 
worth noting. 

CUT STONE: The sizes are marked on plans, for most of 
it is special; but if not specified, window sills are 5"x7" for 
ordinary walls, but always wide enough to reach about 2" 
under the wood. The lugs extend 4" on each side into the 
brickwork, unless slip sills are used. If thicker sills are 
wanted the size must be marked or specified. 

Door sills are 1\" thick and of width to suit the thickness 
of the wall 11", 15", 19". They extend about 1" outside of 
brick, and should always, unless for some special reason, 
join with the floor below the door so that joint can not be 
seen from outside or inside. They usually extend 4" in on 
each side like window sills and lintels. 

Lintels are 8" in height by thickness to reach to the face of 
frame, thus giving the mould for cover. 

Unless otherwise specified ashlar may be used all over 
only 4" thick. An ordinary front is laid in 4 and 8" blocks. 

BRICKWORK: In the majority of American cities the 
national size is now standard, although some makers still 
use their old sizes in spite of law which makes 2x4x8i com- 
pulsory for common brick. For the sizes of pressed brick, 
see Chap V. 

CEMENT AND LIME: A bbl of Port cement weighs 376 to 
380 Ibs net, and comes in 4 sacks of cloth or paper if not 
barreled. 

Natural cement weighs about 266 Ibs for western and 300 
for eastern brands, and is delivered in 2 cloth, or usually 
3 paper sacks. 

Lime weighs about 200 Ibs, and equals 2 bus. 

345 



346 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR _ 

LUMBER: There is so much trouble and confusion with' 
sizes and quality of lumber that it is worth while to clear up 
a few points but those who know how the lumbermen them- 
selves quarrel over grades will not expect much here. 

The subject is as wide as the continent; and the Forest 
Service, Washington, D. C., sells for 15c a book of 126 large 
pages, entitled, " Rules and Specifications for the Grading of 
Lumber." 

LENGTHS: It would, of course, be absurd to change the 
design of a building to suit the standard lengths of lumber; 
but sometimes without going so far a useless waste might be 
avoided if architects would only remember that it comes 
with a difference of 2' in length. It sometimes seems that 
it might be cut to the odd as well as to the even sizes; but 
lumber men know their own business best, and we have to 
accept what they give. 

But unless for a weighty reason why make a space 19' 8" 
instead of 19' 4"? In some cases there is no possibility of 
changing the width, and the material must be lost; in others 
it might just as well be made to suit 20' joists. It is not 
always best to space purlins exactly the same; sometimes by 
the change of a few inches 2' of lumber can be saved on both 
sides clear across a roof hundreds of ft long. This 24" dif- 
ference in length is worth some attention when dealing with 
flooring, ceiling, shelving, etc. The lengths upon which prices 
are based are 12, 14, 16; lumber 10' long usually costs more, 
because it has to be cut from 20' lengths. Above 16 the 
price rises, and the longer the timber the higher the price. 

For yp, the " Association " rules are : 

" The standard lengths are multiples of 2', 10 to 24', inclu- 
sive, for boards, strips, dimension, joists, and timbers. Longer 
or shorter lengths than those herein specified are special. Odd 
and fractional lengths shall be counted as of the next higher 
even length. 

On stock width shipments of No. 1 common and better lum- 
ber, either rough or dressed 1 or 2 sides, no piece shall be 
admissible that is more than ^" scant on 8" and under; |" 
scant on 10", or \" scant on 12" or wider. All 4" and wider, 
No. 2 common stock may go \" scant in width." 



STANDARD SIZES AND GRADES 347 

Flooring and ceiling are never more than 16' long; above 
that length is special, and more so than with dimension lum- 
ber. It is necessary for both architect and estimator to 
watch the spacing of the first joist at the wall, and especially 
if mill construction with centers of 4 to 8' is used. The floor- 
ing or ceiling has to reach the wall, past the center of the 
wall joist; and therefore the spacing must be from the wall 
or else the ceiling and flooring will only reach the edge of 
the further joist; and with wide centers this means waste. 

When ordering large quantities of flooring or ceiling it is 
safer to give the proportion of lengths that will be accepted, 
or the whole bill may come in 12's. 

The following sizes are from the lumbermen's printed list 
for yp; 95% of southern lumber is graded and classified ac- 
cording to these rules: 

STANDARD SIZES OF DRESSED LUMBER 

FINISHING: 1" SIS, or 2S to if, 1|" SIS or 2S to 1&, !$' 
SIS or 2S to 1J4, 2" SIS or 2S to If". 

MOULDED CASING AND BASE: }. 1x4 SIS shall be 3i" 
wide, finished; 1x6 S4S shall be 5i" wide finished. 
FLOORING: The standard of 1x3, 1x4 and 1x6" shall be 
}x2i, 3i and 5i; U" flooring shall be W thick. 
DROP SIDING: D and M |x3i and 5$". 
DROP SIDING: Shiplap, fx5" face, 5$ over all. 
PARTITION: |x3i and 5i". 

CEILING: f" ceiling, &"; \" ceiling, T V'; f" ceiling, &"; f" 
ceiling, }J". Same width as flooring. The bead on all ceil- 
ing and partition shall be depressed ^ of an inch below surf 
line of piece. 

BEVEL SIDING: To be made from stock S4S to }|x5 and 
resawed on a bevel. 

WINDOW AND DOOR JAMBS: Dressed, rabbeted, and 
plowed as ordered, worked i" scant of width. 
BOARDS AND FENCING:!" SIS or 2S to }|". 
SHIPLAP: 8, 10, and 12". }x7|, 9& and 11". 
D AND M: 8, 10, and 12". }|x7|, 9J, and 11 J". 



348 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

GROOVED ROOFING: 10 and 12" SIS and 2E to }|x9 and 
lli". 

DIMENSION: 2x4 D1S and IE to Ifx3f"; 2x6 D1S and IE to 
11x51"; 2x8 D1S and IE to Ifx74"; 2x10 D1S and IE to 
Ifx9"; 2x12 D1S and IE to Ifxlli"; 4x4 and 4x6 D1S and IE 
to f" off side and edge; S4S 1" off each side. 

Dimension lumber comes from f to \" less than the speci- 
fied size, for, in Omaha, at least, it is always surfaced on 
1 side and 1 edge. If wanted rough it has to be so ordered, 
and the price is $1 extra per M on account of freight charges. 
This applies to yp. With Oregon fir it is different, for it is 
never surfaced unless so ordered; but it is surfaced on 1 to 
4 sides as required. While yp loses to $" in surfacing 1 side, 
Oregon fir is surfaced 2 sides with a loss of only i". Thus yp 
8x12 would come about TixllJ, while Oregon fir would be 
Vfxllf. But again, the Oregon figures are not always reli- 
able; the price list calls for i extra on each side for sur- 
facing if exact dressed size is required. 

JOISTS: Years ago the Omaha architects made a fight 
against this surfacing, and specified that no joists would be 
accepted under 1|" thick; but they had to end by accept- 
ing market sizes which will be sustained by any court. The 
remedy is to place the thin joists closer together, or to 
specify 2i thick; and in either case the price is increased, 
the owner refuses to build, the architect is in danger of los- 
ing his percentage and eagerly accepts any thickness and 
iurns his eyes in the other direction. 

DROP SIDING AND SHIPLAP : Drop siding and shiplap 
come about the same as flooring of equal width. While 6" 
shiplap is a standard size it is never seen in this territory; 
8" is usual; 10" is seldom handled. 
SIDING: V siding is 5i" wide; 4", 3. 

SHEETING: Sheeting or common boards come about tfie 
same as dimension lumber i" narrower than the theoretical 
size. Here it is worth while to state that sheeting and 
sheathing are not the same, although often used for each 
other. Sheeting is sheathing; but sheathing may not be 
sheeting. According to the latest dictionary it may be 



STANDARD SIZES AND GRADES 349 

tongued and grooved bds, metallic shingles, paper, tile, or 
indeed anything that sheaths or encloses. A specification is 
not complete when it calls for sheathing unless it gives the 
kind. Whether specified or not all sheeting, Oregon fir in- 
cluded, is surfaced 1 side, but 1 side only. 
SHINGLES: There are 250 dimension shingles 4" wide in 
a bunch; in common, there are enough of varying widths to 
cover the same surf. The thinning process has gone so far 
with them too that architects now specify that the thickness 
of 5 at butts shall not be less than 2'.'. The thinner shingles 
6 to 2 are also narrower and require more to the sq. 
LATH: A bundle contains 50 pcs 4' long, which suit joists 
at either 16 or 12" centers. A shorter length 32 which 
does not suit 12" centers is now on the market. 
FINISH: Unlike joists and dimension lumber finish comes 
within a trifle of the thickness; and the rough size is never 
taken when making out a bill. All good finish comes sur- 
faced on 2 sides so that it is not necessary to specify sur- 
facing. A cheaper kind is SIS only; but when wanted, it 
must be specially mentioned. 

By referring back to the table it will be seen that the thick- 
ness is marked if, 1& and 1J$. Contractors never use these 
sizes, but J, 1$, 1, 1, If, and 2", for the various kinds. It 
is better to keep to the common usage which is understood 
by all who handle lumber. One sometimes sees |" finish speci- 
fied in 3 or 4 different ways- f, }|, f, and 1". It is not safe 
to use f for |, as there is a thin finish that is occasionally 
seen on the market. 

White pine is graded here as No. 1, 2, and 3 ; Chicago grades 
are A, B, and C. The price increases with the thickness. 
LENGTH: The longest length of finish in this market is 
16'; special lengths are seldom seen as standard sizes can 
easily be joined. 

STOCK BDS: Stock boards, which are cheaper than yp 
finish, are used for shelving. They are S2S, and never more 
than 12" wide. 

So far as the lumber yard is concerned, then, this prin- 
ciple is clear: all sawing and surfacing are done inside of the 



350 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

specified size. Even down to furring strips this holds good; 
for they come ifxlf instead of 1x2. 

FINISH: But the width on a drawing or order is preserved 
at the planing mill when finish is billed. Corner-bds come 
to the exact size, and so does all such work when both edges 
are exposed. But a frieze, or plancher may be a trifle nar- 
row as the bed moulding covers the joint. With corner bds, 
belt courses, etc, it is better to give the exact width, but 
with ridges, cornice lumber, etc, to send the boards and let 
the carpenter do the fitting. Sometimes a ridge may be 
better if put on wider than shown on drawing, owing to 
spacing of shingles; and this is just one illustration" 
BOARD MEASURE: Lumber or timber is estimated in 
" bm," or reduced to 1" thick. 

READY RECKONERS: Most of the lumber yards hand out 
measurement tables. To get the quantity in bm mult the 
section or end of the dimension lumber in inches and divide 
by 12, then mult the If by the product. Suppose we have 100 
pcs of 6"x6"xl6'; 6 mult by 6 equals 36, which divided by 12 
gives 3, which mult by 1,600 gives 4,800' in bm. If 2x4, the 
result would be 1,067, or of the If, for 8 is of 12. If 2x10, 
2,667, for 20 divided by 12 equals If. A timber 14x16x24 
has 444' bm, for 14 mult by 16 and divided by 12 equals 18, 
which mult by length is 444. The disadvantage of some 
tables is that each piece is figured by itself without fractions, 
and when many are required with a fractional ending there 
is apt to be a slip, while by reducing to If the fraction can 
come only once. Thus a 2x8x16 is sometimes listed at 21' 
bm; it really contains 21 '; and if this figure were used for 
100 pcs the total would be 33J' more. 

Flooring, ceiling, siding, shiplap, etc, are taken at standard 
width, and everything less than 1" thick is counted as 1". 
But the price per M sometimes differs. This rule applies to 
finish also 4" thick counts as 1". A flooring board 16' long 
by 4", contains of length in bm ; and so for any width the 
same rule applies: 5" would contain ^ of length, but unless 
for some special reason odd sizes are counted even. 
GRADES: White pine flooring is graded No. 1, 2, 3, 4, or A, 
B, C, D. The best quality of yp flooring is variously known 



STANDARD SIZES AND GRADES 351 

as rift sawed, q s, vertical grain, straight grain. There are 3 
grades of this flooring A, B, and C. The angle of the grain 
must not be more than 45 from the vertical; if more angle is 
shown the flooring is classed as flat grain. Flat grain is 
also classed as A, B, and C; and below are No. 1 and 2 fence. 

Yellow pine ceiling is graded as A, B, No. 1 and 2 common. 

Yellow pine drop siding, A, B, No. 1 common. Bevel sid- 
ing the same. 

Yellow pine partition: A, B, and No. 1 common. 

Yellow pine casing and base, A and B; window and door 
jambs the same. 

Yellow pine common boards, shiplap and barn siding; No. 
1, 2, 3, common; fencing the same. Yp finishing is graded 
1st, 2d, 3d, clear. 

Most people would naturally look upon No. 1 as being the 
best of its kind, but it is only the best common. A, B, and 
sometimes C, come before this grade. There have been 
quarrels enough over grading, but it would still seem that 
either the alphabet or figures might be chosen and grades 
based accordingly with less chance of confusion. 

MILLWORK: It is not always an evidence of genius to 
change from a stock pattern to- something new. It is not 
without reason that mill books have as an opening sentence, 
" It is economy to conform to regular sizes and styles as 
much as possible." 

One mill book charges everything less than 100' as 100 
for changing machine for odd work; another 60c extra for 
the same work; and 10% extra for all moulding if less than 
200' are taken. 

MOULDING: It is sometimes necessary to mark the size 
of a moulding on a drawing so that it may be examined and 
criticized; but not on a bill of material; take the advice of 
the mill man and order by number. The moulding book is 
universal. Nearly 500 pcs are listed. Sash, doors, blocks, 
gable ends, porch posts everything is listed by number. 

FLOORING: Fine flooring is usually supplied by the mill- 
man. Maple and other hardwood floors have to be watched, 
as 2 to 16' lengths are standard. Some architects specify 



352 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

long lengths, but this means an increase in price. There is 
a brand sold at only 9" to 20" long. It means a spoiled floor. 

MAPLE: No. 1, or clear maple, is the standard; and coloi 
must not be considered. Strictly clear is from $10 to $15 
per M more. No. 1, 4 to 16', and trimmed with matched ends 
to ft and half ft. Proportion of 4 to 5' long may be 10%. 

No. 2 small knots, sound, 2 to 16. 

No. 3, or factory, is inferior with some waste in cutting. 

The standard width of 2" is If face; 2f, 2 face; 3, 2 face; 
4, 3J. Maple, No. 1 grade is made from f to If thick; but 
I, i, f fig is made in If and 2 face only if maple; but i and f 
in other woods sometimes run to 2. The same lengths and 
widths apply to maple, oak, birch, cherry, and walnut. 

SASH: The listed thicknesses are 1&, If, and If: the actual 
are only a trifle less. Stables, coal sheds, and such buildings 
are fitted with 1$; and they are also used for storm sash. 
The If are for cottages with 4" studding; and most of them 
have that width. 

"Doors, blinds, and sash are often ordered 1, 1$, and 2" 
thick. Do not use these terms, as it only delays orders." 
An extra price is charged for thicknesses not listed. 

The width of a window is of course regulated by the glass. 
Add for 2 It windows 4&". This gives the size of the frame, 
as J" is allowed for play, and the wood is 2" beyond the 
glass on each side. All 2 It standard windows are 6" longer 
than glass, and this also gives frame. With sash and doors, 
the order is width, length, thickness. Thus a specimen order 
might be, " 10 win, 2 lit, 24x24xlf , SS " or DS as the thick- 
ness of glass, single or dbl strength. It is safer to specify 
check rail if wanted. The size of the frame would be 2' 
4i"x4' 6". 

The length of a 4 It window is the same; but 5" wood in- 
stead of 4, as center bar is f thick. The frame for a 15x24 
is 2' Il"x4' 6". For an 8 It window, 5" of wood; but length 
is same, as cross bars are not quite thick. An 8 It, 10x12 
frame is 2' I"x4' 6". 

For 12 It window cross bars are i. Frame for 10x12 is 
2 10*x4' 6". 



STANDARD SIZES AND GRADES 353 

It is sometimes desirable to use wider sills and thicker 
cross bars, and the frame has to be increased to suit. Store 
sash have 3 stiles and 4i bottom rail. 

DOORS: Standard thicknesses are 1|, If, if. There are 
doors H thick, but they are of small value. The mill book 
gives a long list of standard sizes, and it would be well if 
they were always followed. Doors may be sent open or 
glazed as ordered. Mill glazing is generally cheaper. 

BLINDS: They are listed at U, and If thick, both for out- 
side and inside. The thicker ones are seldom seen. Outside 
blinds are seldom used now. 

STAIR WORK: Balusters, If; newels, 5 and 6". But there 
is endless variety. 

PANELED WAINSCOTING: Thickness is usually 1J; but J 
is also made. 



CHAPTEE XXV 

ODDS AND ENDS 

MINERAL WOOL: This is a fibrous material of the nature 
of glass. Wood strips are sometimes used and must be in- 
cluded in estimate according to thickness of wool on floor. 
Sometimes strips are nailed on sides of joists and boards 
laid across to support the wool in the same way that almost 
all houses in the United Kingdom are deafened with cinders 
and mortar. Details should be seen before estimate is made. 
Floor is at least 1$" thick. Outside walls are often packed 
full width of studs. 

For ordinary wool allow 1 Ib per sq ft for each inch in thick- 
ness, but deduct all openings, chimneys, studs, joists, etc, and 
proceed on exact surf. For selected wool Ib is the allow- 
ance. The material is packed in 3 bushel bags, for which a 
price of lOc is charged, but as with hard plaster, etc, they 
are returnable at cost if freight is prepaid. The following 
table gives weight, price, etc: 

Cost per 100 Ibs 

Lbsper Sq Ft CF (in ton lots) Cost per CF at 

Average CF 1" thick to Ton at Fact 'y Fact'y in ton lots 

Ordinary Slag Wool 12 lib 166 $1.00 12c 

Selected Slag Wool 9 fib 223 1.67 15c 

Extra Slag Wool 6 \ Ib 333 4.00 24c 

Ordinary Rock Wool 12 lib 166 2.00 24c 

Selected Rock Wool 8 $ Ib 250 4.00 32c 

Extra Rock Wool 6 Jib 333 7.00 42c 

Note. In less than ton lots add 25c per 100 Ibs to factory 
prices. 

The wool usually put in buildings costs about $17 per ton 
fob Omaha in car load lots 30% more in small lots. A mini- 
mum car load is 10 tons. The labor of putting it in place 
varies according to thickness. It may be averaged at 12c 
per cf, although floors should not cost more than half. But 
both for labor and material it is necessary to watch ceil- 
ings as joists are sometimes stripped with a band of corru- 

354 



ODDS AND ENDS 355 

gated iron, stapled on edge with metal lath below and wool 
laid on top of lath. Strip is at least 1" wide, but sometimes 
2 for fire protection. Staples for lath may have to be 3" 
long. 

Brick walls are sometimes furred, dbl boarded with paper 
between, then lined with mineral wool between studs, and 
boarded on face before finishing. This to emphasize the 
necessity of seeing full details. The complete cost of pro- 
tecting a house is set at from $75 to $250 according to size. 
DEAFENING QUILT: This material is made 1 yd wide and 
bales contain 500 sq ft. Single ply bales occupy about 8 cf 
of space. 

Per Bale Half-Bale 

Single ply $4.50 $2.50 

Double ply 5 . 50 3 . 00 

Asbestos 9 . 00 4.75 

Delivered on board cars or boat at Boston. Freight as far 
as Omaha is $1 per bale. 

Agents and dealers should add freight. 

Bales containing 500 sq ft each; half bales 250 sq ft. 

Weights: Single ply, 85 Ibs; dbl ply, 140 Ibs; asbestos, 170 
Ibs per bale. 

REFRIGERATORS: In residences the best plan is to order 
refrigerators with door to feed the ice from the outside. 
They may be had of all styles and price from $40 up. 
AIR TIGHT DOORS: The Stevenson door has been installed 
in thousands of cases for refrigerators, smoke houses, lime 
houses, etc. 

Doors are of yp, no varnish. For 2'x7', about $23; for 
4x6, $26; if track above as in beef doors add $6. A 4x6 heavy 
special door $47. Lined on back as well as front, add $10. 
For bronze hardware, 2 hinges, add $11. Galv hardware is 
included in door price. Prices are fob Chester, Pa. 
UNLOADING: Given the proper place, car, and facilities, 
we are now assured that a car can be emptied for Ic. Build- 
ing contractors have neither place, car nor facilities for this 
kind of work. 

To unload crushed stone from cars allow from 20 to 25c 
per ton. More than 1,000 tons on No. 7 and other buildings 



356 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

were unloaded for 20c. Equal quantity of sand cost lOc. 
But sand costs more in winter. On some of the cars for 
No. 2 the sand froze in such shape that it cost twice as much 
to move it. At all times bank sand is easier handled than 
river saiid. The one is worth 5c per yd more to handle than 
the other. On railroad work earth and ballast are dumped 
from cars for 10 to 16c. Loading of gravel, 7 yds for 1 man 
in 10 hours. 

BRICK: Allow 25c per M to unload from car and put on 
wagon; loading at brickyard is worth from 25 to 40c. 

UNLOADING SLATE: See Chap XVI. 

LUMBER: Allow 50c per M for 2" lumber; f is worth about 

75c. 

WRECKING: Each building has its own environments 

only a hint can be given. Allow for brick basement and 

frame above, 3c per sq ft where everything is handy; twice 

that price might not be enough. For 2 and 3 story brick 

buildings, 5 to 8c. If work is laid in good cement more time 

is taken than if old, lime mortar falls out of joints. On a 

high wall the cost of carefully taking down 185,000 brick, 

wall measure, was $450. Then the inside might be full of 

well framed carpentry, or might be vacant. For 1 story brick 

S^ to 4c ought to be enough if there is no basement. In 

general the brick taken out of old walls do not more than half 

pay for wrecking and cleaning. 

RAISING ROOFS: For heavy roofs about 20 to 30' from 

ground allow 8 to 9c per sq ft of floor surf. 

BUILDING DIRECTORY: Complete with plain unlettered 

black cards. All quotations are fob Chicago. 

Space Size Tiers Spaces each Width-Height 

50 1 11 f "x26}" Single Door $15 . 00 

100 2 50 19i"x26i" Single Door 30 . 00 

150 3 50 26 "x26i" Single Door 45 . 00 

200 4 50 381"x26}" Double Door 60.00 

300 6 50 53f"x26i" Double Door 90 . 00 

75 1 12i"x361" Single Door 22.00 

150 2 75 19"x36F Single Door 44 00 

225 3 75 27 i"x36 J" Single Door 66 . 00 

300 4 75 39*"x36y Double Door 88 . 00 

450 6 75 54|"x361" Double Door 132 . 00 



ODDS AND ENDS 357 

ELEVATORS: For hand elevator 4x4 to 5x5 with 2,000 Ibs 
capacity, 1 story building, erected complete, $125 to $140. 
Allow $10 additional for each extra story. For 8x8, 5,000 Ibs 
capacity, electric, with motor, 1 story, $1,300 to $2,000. Safety 
gates extra, about $35 a floor. 

For passenger to 5 or 6 story building, $4,500, with shaft, 
doors, etc, all made ready for the elevator company. Less 
would do on some buildings and 50% more could be put on 
others. 

PUSH BUTTON AUTOMATIC, for 2 stories, $2,800, 4'x6'. 
GASOLINE ENGINES: For an approx price: 

6 HP.. ..$400 

8HP... 450 

10 H P 500 

32 H P 1,100 

40 H P 1,300 

50 H P 1,550 

BONDS AND INSURANCE: Something was said in the in- 
troductory part about insurance. It is now necessary to give 
the cost of fire, accident insurance, surety bonds, etc. As- 
soon as a building is enclosed it may be insured for the regu- 
lar rates and periods. An owner sometimes does this, and 
the contractor finishes his work without expense for insur- 
ance. Sometimes, again, insurance has to be taken out as 
payments are made on the work, and the owner puts this on 
the contractor's shoulders. Annual policies can be taken out 
by contractors as work goes along and cancelled at short 
rates when the job is safely accepted and paid for. In 
Omaha the charge is $"1 per $100 for 1 yr on all kinds of 
property for builders' risk. 

The short rate scale is the same as it was 15 yrs ago, 
as I find on referring to an old list, but the annual premium 
is now less. The rate is given for about 50 periods for our 
purpose a few are sufficient. 

For 5 days 7% of annual premium. 

For 10 days 10% of annual premium. 

For 15 days 14% of annual premium. 

For 20 days 17% of annual premium. 



358 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

For 30 days 20% of annual premium. 

For 40 days 26% of annual premium. 

For 50 days 28% of annual premium. 

For 60 days 30% of annual premium. 

For 70 days 36% of annual premium. 

For 80 days 38% of annual premium. 

For 90 days or 3 months, 40% of annual premium. 
For 120 days or 3 months, 50% of annual premium. 
For 150 days or 3 months, 60% of annual premium. 
For 180 days or 6 months, 70% of annual premium. 
For 240 days or 8 months, 80% of annual premium. 

But the $1 rate is on basis of houses distant from each 
other at least 25'; if between 25 and 15 add 5c more for each 
exposure; under 15 add. lOc. Thus a house under 15 on 2 
sides would be rated at an annual premium of $1.20 per $100. 

ACCIDENT INSURANCE: A guarantee is given to protect 
contractor from all damage suits and verdicts in return for 
a premium based upon wages paid during a year, which is 
usually taken as a unit. A policy may be taken out for 
$1,000 or $100,000 of wages. When the specified wages are 
paid a new policy has to be taken out, as the basis is for 
an amount of money and not for a period. On a small amount 
like $5,000, the rate is about 3$%; on a large amount, 2$. 

SURETY BONDS: For small bonds about 1% is charged; 
for large, of 1% on the amount of the contract. Thus on 
a bond for $3,000, $30 would be charged; on a $60,000 con- 
tract, $300. These are the top rates for the highest price 
company. A millionaire can naturally get a bond at a lower 
rate than a man with only $50 capital. Formerly the pre- 
mium for the bond covered the whole expense until the 
building was finished and accepted; now it is again collected 
at the end of a year. A careful understanding as to whether 
rate is annual, or for an accepted building should be seen 
to, and a receipt taken. But if the building is finished before 
the end of the second yr a proportion of the second pay- 
ment is returned. 

A lower priced company furnishes bonds for 25c per $100 
of the contract price. This would be $150 on a $60,000 con- 
tract. 



ODDS AND ENDS 359 

PRICE BOOK: Prices sometimes change in a week, and 
estimates must change with them.. An alphabetically in- 
dexed pocket price book is useful, as each change of price 
can be entered under the proper date. A book of this kind 
soon becomes valuable and should last for years. I recently 
saw a good one 10 yrs old. Under N comes nails, $2.25 to 
$2.60 as may be; C, cement, L, lime, etc. 

Cement, Am Portland, $1.50, 6-20-1912. 

Cement, Am Portland, $1.60, 6-18-1913. 

A card index system is also of great value. 

POLES: The total number of poles, more than 20 ft. long, 
purchased during 1906 by telegraph, telephone, electric com- 
panies, etc, according to a circular of the U. S. Forest Ser- 
vice, was 3,574,666, valued at $9,471,171 at the point of pur- 
chase. The average value per pole at point of purchase of 
the principal kind of round poles was as follows: 

Length 25ft. 30ft. 35ft. 40ft. 45ft. 

Cedar $1.19 $3.22 $4.94 $6.17 $9.08 

Chestnut 1.42 2.52 3.35 4.64 7.08 

Cypress 1.09 1.24 3.04 4.42 6.28 

Juniper ..,1.62 2.70 3.68 4.09 5.76 

Pine 1.68 3.18 4.84 5.13 12.41 

Oak 1.16 2.11 .... .... 2.44 

Fir 1.49 2.31 2.72 2.85 4.00 

These costs are "at the point of purchase," without freight, 
profit of retailer, etc. 

DIGGING: The cost of digging 600 holes for a trolley line 
is given in "Engineering-Contracting," March, '08. The holes 
ran from 6' to 12' deep, and had to be large enough for one 
3' cross brace underground. 

A comparison of the cost of each group is shown in the 
following table, also the average cost for the entire job: 

Total Cost per Cost per No. 

cost. hole. cu. yd. poles. 

Group I $123.15 $1.50 $0.60 82 

Group II . . . 106.10 1.21 1.16 



Group III 
Group IV 
Group V 
Average . 



427.15 1.33 0.81 320 

49.50 0.79 1.10 64 

66.00 0.96 0.72 69 

1.24 0.82 



It will be noticed that the cost per hole varied directly with 
the size of the hole Adding to the diameter and the depth 
increased the cost. The cost per cubic yard was high when 
the hole was small and low when the hole was large. 

CONCRETE POLES: For a 30', $7.50, 2000 Ibs; for a 45', 
$17.50, unset. 



CHAPTER XXVI 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 

This chapter and the following one were not written for archi- 
tects or builders, but for their " victims," and may be passed 
over, if desired, by those who are well enough acquainted 
with all the tricks of the trade. It is not the want of informa- 
tion that keeps us back there are libraries with a million 
volumes, and still we lag. 

There are only a few hints given here for plain people who 
build plain houses. The other kind can hire experts. There 
are figures enough elsewhere in this book; these two chapters 
are for the aver man and his wife, and are written in a popu- 
lar way. 

DESIGN 

As to general design I prefer the plain gable roof, because 
a fine attic is always possible, while the roof that pitches to 
the center has too small an enclosed space to be of much 
use. By pitching the roof to the center the only saving is 
the gables for the areas of the two kinds of roof are practically 
the same; and the extra cost of a hip roof about swallows up 
the saving by leaving the gables off, so that there is the loss 
of the attic space without any real gain in money. Of course 
there is also a loss of attic stair space on the second floor 
to be considered with the gable plan. 

Fashions come and go it used to be the "Dutch" roof, 
now it is the square hip roof, but as the gable plane was 
fashionable centuries ago so it will always be. It is not only 
safe, but useful. If there is a shortage of money the attic 
need not necessarily be floored and finished when the house 
is built. But it is ready at any time for an extra or storage 
room. 

As to the bungalow, now so fashionable, see Chap XXVII. 

360 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 361 

BRICK OR STONE VERSUS WOOD 

I never saw a wood house before I reached the shores of 
the United States, and one of the strangest and most beau- 
tiful panoramas that has never faded out of my memory in 
a score of years, was Staten Island and the white houses 
stretching 'over the land. They were not only interesting 
and strange in themselves, but had an added charm because 
I knew that the " Yankees " lived in them. 

The best architect is he who can put up fine buildings with 
the material at hand. In Greece he used marble, but in the 
Low Countries he was driven to brick; and the development 
of the frame house in the United States shows that the plenti- 
ful woods of the forests can be made attractive enough in 
design and treatment to take the place of any material used 
in the older countries. 

Which is best marble, stone, brick, concrete or wood? 
They are all best, but it often seems that the wood house 
is by far the most attractive, especially when newly painted. 
The aver European idea of a wood house is a shelter of logs 
with the bark on, a hole in the roof to let out the smoke, and a 
few pairs of wolves' eyes glaring in the darkness. We know 
that they are a very different character. 

The danger in a frame house is from fire, but when a fire 
breaks out the difference between brick and wood is not so 
very great after all. There is really no good reason why 
houses should be built within 2 ft of each other, as is often 
done. A visitor from Mars might inquire if there was a scar- 
city of land or wonder to see one-fourth of residence parts of a 
city lying vacant. A city law might be made compelling 
owners to leave 10 ft between the nearest cornices of adja- 
cent buildings, unless divided by a wall of fireproof construc- 
tion. For light, ventilation, and consequent good health, as 
well as fire protection, a law of this kind should be in force. 
But in Baltimore and San Francisco we had a lesson from 
a fire that went through all kinds of buildings. 

If the workmanship is good, if the timbers are of the right 
size, and the outside covering of the proper quality, a frame 
house can be built as near perfection, from all standpoints, 
as any dwelling inhabited by man. Of course, it must not be 



362 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

forgotten that there is now a new danger with frame houses 
that is a quicker decay. With good wp and cypress 
shingles a well built house ought to last for a century, with 
proper care; but wp siding is now scarcely ever seen, and 
cypress shingles are expensive. 

All joints where water is apt to go should be painted with 
white lead and oil when they are put together; nailed to- 
gether when they open; and the house should be painted 
every 4 or 5 yrs, and so on. By the time the original extra 
good work is paid for, and $1 to $1.50 per month allowed 
as a sure depreciation of painting on an 8 roomed house, 
one is apt to think that, what with high lumber and other con- 
siderations the era of cheap frame houses is gone with the 
age of chivalry. 

MOISTURE: A brick house absorbs moisture, but it can 
easily be protected by wood furring or by the inside lining 
of 4" hollow tile that is now becoming popular. The plaster 
is put on the rough tile, without furring strips, and the dan- 
ger from fire running behind the lath is obviated. 

COMPARATIVE COST: As compared with frame a reason- 
able brick house is about 15% extra; but $12 to $15 per 
annum is saved on paint on an 8 roomed house, and that is 
good interest on $200. 

The choice of material is largely a matter of taste, loca- 
tion, and purse, except in some rather dull looking cities 
which do not permit frame houses inside their limits. Of 
course it is reasonable that certain portions of a city should 
be protected from the danger of fire traps, but frame houses 
are an ornament to any residence district. 

EXCAVATION 

Digging a hole in the ground does not require much ex- 
planation almost any one can do that part of a contract. 
Sometimes a house is set upon posts to save expense, and if 
a cellar is afterwards required, the digging has to be done 
at a much increased cost. 

PLASTERING: Cellars are often plastered with cement on 
the hard natural earth. In some soils this system is satis- 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 363 

factory; in others it is merely a waste of money, as the earth 
crumbles away and leaves the broken surf. A lining of 
brick is better even for a cheap cellar. 

FOUNDATIONS 

THICKNESS: On page 63 the thickness of the walls of a 
1 story cottage is given at 2'. This is one extreme; the other 
is 9". Just about between the two is safe. For a basement 
of more than 6' high the walls should be 13", or 3 bricks in 
width. If of stone they are usually made 16", as that is 
about as cheap as 12". Concrete should not be less than 10". 
A 9" basement wall, even T high, is safe enough if really 
good brick are used, and if they are carefully laid in cement; 
but very often inferior brick are used, carelessly laid in lime 
mortar, and in the end there is trouble that far outruns the 
original saving. In cement stone an 8" or 9" wall, 7' is safe 
enough also if good work is done, and if not too deep in the 
ground so as to have a heavy earth pressure. A poor founda- 
tion is a luxury that few can afford. 

PLASTERING: The walls below the ground should be care- 
fully plastered on the outside with good Port cement not less 
than I" thick, in the proportion of 1 cement to 2, or even 3, 
of sand, if the 3 is not made 4. It is strange that this simple 
precaution against water going through the wall is often 
neglected. A trifling saving is made, but there is, at least in 
some locations, a spoiled wall to watch and repair. As a 
safeguard of health, cellars or basements should have cement 
floors, and walls should be plastered on the outside below 
grade. Port cement should be used for the \" top covering 
in the cellar, but the concrete below may be made of natural 
cement, although the other is better all through. The floor 
should be made about 3" or 4" thick, although 2" can be made 
to serve. No. 2 has only 2V'. 

HARD BRICK: The outside face brick ought to be hard. 4 
There is no cure for a soft brick in an outside wall but re- 
moval, and this is apt to be expensive. It is better to be 
careful at the start. 

While, of course, hard brick are to be preferred all through, 
there is not much risk in a soft brick in the center of the wall. 



364 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Unless of a very inferior nature a practical bricklayer would 
just about as soon as not use a soft brick in his own house, 
when concealed, but with face work it is different. Inside 
as well as outside it should be of good material with joints 
struck neatly with the edge of the trowel, and not with the 
flat in a plasterer's fashion. 

PORCH PIERS: Porch piers should not be less than 
12"xl2"; for good porches they should be 17x17. 

KIND OF MATERIAL: A first class foundation can be made 
of stone, brick, concrete, or the artificial stone now becom- 
ing so popular. The chief danger is poor workmanship, and 
too much sand. 

PRESSED BRICK: Many people prefer pressed brick for 
the outside walls. There are beautiful shades on the market, 
and it is a pleasure to look at a fine front, but first class 
work can be made with good, common, hard brick. Europe 
has brick buildings hundreds of yrs old, of good, plain ma- 
terial and they are among the most beautiful specimens of 
the brickmaivs art. Some of the American architects are 
getting back to the old style, the indispensable condition of 
successful work being brick made of good clay, well burnt 
and shapely. 

Many fine pressed brick fronts are spoiled after a rain 
storm by the alkali coming out; there is no danger of this 
with common brick, so that all things considered, no one 
should be depressed by the fact that purse or locality forbid 
the more stylish article. 

SIDEWALKS: It is best to put down permanent walks at 
first, and save trouble afterwards. Wood begins to rot as 
soon as laid. If it is used the stringers should be of wp. 
Yp rots in a very short time. 

Cement or brick pays in the long run. (See pages 18, 21, 
90, 110; for prices of plank and permanent sidewalks.) 
CHIMNEYS: Hard brick should be used for all exposed 
work, and more especially above the roof. To repair a chim- 
ney above the roof is rather expensive, as a scaffold is re- 
quired. Why not make it of first class labor and material 
and be done with it for 20 yrs? A stone or iron cap should 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 365 

be put on, as the brick loosen at the top if left unprotected; 
or a heavy coat of good Port cement may be used. It is bet- 
ter to lay all the chimney brick above- the roof in Port 
cement, and to make no projecting courses. 
FIRES: A startingly large proportion of fires are due to 
deflective flues. In most cities now, tile linings inside of the 
brick are obligatory. If they are not used the joints should 
be struck on the inside and all the surf afterwards plastered. 
In time the plaster burns out, and the fire gets through to 
the woodwork, Carpenters should not be allowed to drive 
plugs of wood into chimneys. 

A chimney should be as straight as possible, and be car- 
ried up above the highest point of the roof to draw well. 

ROOMS: Make them as large as you can, but not too large 
either. Why heat useless space? "A little house well filled, 
a little farm well tilled." In most houses with stoves only one 
room is really well heated in winter. The one selected should 
be made the largest. 

As a rule, make the second story rooms full height. There 
is not much economy in half story rooms with a part of the 
slope of the roof used, and they are hot in summer. 

I have followed this method of construction several times 
and regretted it. Rather than do so for a home one should 
leave off all the lath, plaster, and finish on the full height top 
story, and wait until money enough was at hand to finish 
a house that would always please and not sometimes provoke. 
Of course, some have to be content with this construction, 
but it is not desirable. 

DORMER WINDOWS: The half story house often make 
them necessary. If there is any place that requires care it 
is a dormer window. If they once begin to leak there often 
seems to be no cure but tearing down to find the trouble. 
The best tin, the best workmanship, the best paint are neces- 
say. See page 29 for cost. 

CLOSETS: In spite of the newspaper jokes, neither archi- 
tect nor contractor delights in small closets. There are, of 
course, some who waste money enough on useless ornamenta- 
tion to give plenty of closet space, but in general small 



366 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

closets are due to small pocket books. Many, in fact, most, 
women do not have any idea of sizes when marked on a 
plan, and are disappointed when the house is built. It often 
seems that a good idea would be to have a covered enclosure 
in a city where for a small fee 2"x4" plates would be laid 
down and moved to suit the actual sizes wanted. It is easy 
enough to make rooms and closets of any required size if 
the cost is not limited, but it is hard to supply a No. 1 article 
at a No. 4 price. 

CEILINGS: Some are made 11' high, others 9'. For the first 
floor 9' 6" is the lowest height that ought to be used, and 
10' 0" makes a better house. For the second floor 9' 0" is 
low enough, but 8' 6" is sometimes used. These heights are 
between finished floor and plaster. Allow for sheeting, if put 
on, top floor, and plaster, or 3" altogether. 

WOOD FRAMING 

SILLS: Some prefer a solid sill laid on the basement walls, 
and others use a " box " sill of 2 planks, the one flat, and the 
other of the same width as the joists standing on edge on 
top of it, and flush with the studs, which are set on a plate 
of their own width nailed to the planks. I like the box sill 
as the full strength of the joist is insured, but some cities 
make the solid sill obligatory. 

When a solid sill is used a notch has to be made for the 
joists which are then cut to fit. Usually they are cut about 
half way up, and the whole bearing comes on the upper half, 
while the lower is left to swing free instead of being blocked 
up on the foundation. We know that a good carpenter does 
not do such work we also know that in half the houses 
built the joists have their throats cut in just this fashion. 

Sills are sometimes 6x6 or 6x8 for ordinary houses. The 
joists are put flush at bottom line, and stand up above the 
sill. A piece should be nailed on top of the sill and even 
with the top of the joist, so that the floor would close the 
space to keep back cold air, fire, or mice. 

GIRDERS: Many cottages are spoiled for want of a central 
girder with posts set on wide foundations to support the 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 367 

joists. When the weight of the plaster is put on the floors 
begin to sag. 

JOISTS: The joists should be 2xlO's well bridged; 2x8's are 
strong enough if the span is not too great. Even for an 
attic floor not less than 2x8's should be used. The saving 
in using 2x6's is not very much, and if the span is wide the 
floor is spoiled and the plaster below cracks. On a 1-story 
cottage 22'x40' the difference in cost in 2" of width is only 
about $12, for joists set 16" centers. Why spoil a house for 
$12? All floor joists should be bridged when the span is 
more than 8'. Below partitions, joists should be doubled, or 
2x4's spiked in between the 2 bearing joists. 

WALLS AND PARTITIONS: The walls of the aver house- 
are usually built of 2x4's set 16" centers; 2x6's- are better, 
unless for small cottages, as, after surfacing, the 2x4's are 
only I|"x3f". Rough lumber costs about $1 per M more, 
owing to freight. All window and door openings should have 
dbl studs. All corners and doors should have nailing blocks- 
for base, as there is no nailing on the stud after the thick- 
ness of the plaster is deducted, in the corner, and after the 
door casing is put on. A 2" thick fire stop should be cut in 
behind the ribbon strip, between stories. There is a good 
deal of difference between a well built house and one of the 
other kind. 

HEATING: For furnace heating pipes all partition studs on 
first floor should be 2x6's. 

RAFTERS: In some cheap houses the rafters are set at 2' 
centers they should not be set more than 20" in any house; 
and 16" or even 12" is often used for long spans, slate or 
tile roofs, etc. For cottages, 2x4's are large enough, but 2x6's 
should be used for a really good house. Too many carpenters 
neglect to brace and tie ceiling joists and rafters together, 
and the roof sags. Many roofs are spoiled before the car- 
penter has time to finish his contract, for want of a little 
care and a slight expense. 

PITCH: The least pitch of a shingle roof should be $. A 
pitch of 4 is better, especially if attic is to be used. (See 
page 174.) For a gravel roof 1" rise to 12" is enough. 



368 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

BOARDS: Roof covering is best laid close in cold climates, 
but it is sometimes kept about 2" apart to save lumber. 
SHINGLES: The best on the market should be used. There 
are many places to economize, but the roof covering is not 
one. I have a cottage with cypress shingles put on about 19 
yrs ago. They have never been repaired, and are still in fair 
condition. Exactly 6 yrs ago, I shingled another cottage with 
a second grade quality of white pine shingles. They are 
already loose, the nails are rusted, the nail holes worn, and 
in about a couple of yrs a new roof covering will be required. 
That is a practical illustration of quality. As the labor on 
a poor shingle is often more than on the best, the advantage 
of putting on the best is easily seen. Galv nails should be 
used, as they do not rust like the common kind. Shingles 
should not be laid more than 4$" to the weather, unless on a 
very steep roof. Even on that, 5" is the limit. Cypress 
comes first, then redwood, then cedar. One table gives the 
life thus: 

Spruce 5 to 7 yrs 

Cedar 12 to 15 yps 

Sawed pine 16 to 20 yrs 

Cypress 30 to 50 yrs 

The asbestos shingles described under " Fireproofing " are 
called " Century " also, because, according to the makers, 
they are to last 100 yrs. 

There are some excellent stains on the market, and it 
pays to dip the shingles. For the cost se.e pages 269, 270. 
If stain is not at hand linseed oil may be used, as it is a 
good preservative. Common paint is not desirable , as it 
glazes over the the surf and ends, catches water, and induces 
dry rot, while the oil or stains go into the pores. Some 
roof paints are rather suspicious. Good linseed oil, the base, 
costs 50c to 60c per gall how can paint be sold for 40 to 
"50c if the requisite proportion of oil is used? 
BOARDING: Either common boards, shiplap, or flooring 
-will do for the outside covering. Usually the boards are 
mailed on horizontally, but sometimes on an angle of 45. 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 369- 

Waste and labor are greater, but the framework is better 
braced with angle boarding. Sometimes, again, men without 
a conscience nail the siding directly on the studs; in buy- 
ing a house built in a boom town it is advisable to see that 
there is sheathing between the siding and the framework. 
Paper must be used between boards and siding. 

BASE AND CORNER BOARDS: Good houses have a board 
around them at level of foundation. The sheeting should be 
flush with the masonry, and the base board set down about 
an inch to cover the joint. The water table is nailed on top- 
to receive the siding. Corner boards and frame casings 
should be !" thick. Sometimes the base board is not used, 
but the siding is put clear down. As a picture looks best 
inside of a frame, so does a house inside of a border. 

SIDING: White pine siding is the best, but it is not so com- 
mon now as formerly. A good substitute is California redwood 
or cypress. Siding looks well when mitered at the corners, 
but costs more than if corner boards are used. But unless 
the lumber is dry the corner board shrinks, and a bad joint 
is tfie result, clear from base to roof. With mitred siding 
the danger is that all the joints will open in time. 

Either 6" or 4" siding is standard, but the narrow kind is 
now used on the best houses. It costs more than the wide.. 
(See Siding in Index.) 

Sometimes the sides of a house are shingled. I do not like 
the style, but it is a matter of choice. Gables, bay windows, 
bands, etc, look well when treated in this way, but an entire- 
house covered with shingles is rather monotonous. 

PORCHES: Do not make the posts too large for a cottage. 
In former yrs they used to be about 4"x4" now they are 12" 
in diam. A 4 room cottage is not a Greek temple. Why put 
up such disproportionate cols for a little porch? Is there 
no fair medium between the spindle and the " monolith " ? 

The ordinary porch of a dozen yrs ago was spoiled bjr 
being made too narrow. The minimum width from house 
to outside edge or floor should be 6': 6" of that, at least, 
are lost by posts and railing. The wide veranda is becoming: 
popular: 10' is now common; 8' is about right. 



370 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

TOWERS: There is a difference between a cottage and a 
castle. Each may be a beauty, but what fits one may be 
out of place on the other. Be sparing of towers, drawbridges, 
moats and battlements on an ordinary house. After all, 
plain Mose Smith is a far better neighbor than Sir Brian de 
Bois Guilbert would be. 

THE LINE OF BEAUTY: For outside work in general, 
an architect of experience will not use much fancy scroll 
cut material, brackets, ridges, circles, curves, etc.. The ama- 
teur and the country carpenter delight in that kind of dis- 
play, but the owner of the house has to pay the bill in a very 
few yrs when the sun and rain do their work. Just as with 
marble, stone, brick or wood houses, the architects of all 
countries in the yrs behind us have had to adapt themselves 
to the materials at hand, and local environments, so their 
brothers of America might just as well accept the July sun 
as an established fact and stop fighting it. The contest is 
too unequal. 

There is a difference between the simple, beautiful, square 
house with the plain roof, and the one we built when Queen 
Anne was the reigning monarch. The bills for repairs have 
been coming since then. 

WINDOWS: In many ways the little details of American 
houses are more convenient than those of European ones 
but rattling sash are unknown in Europe, while they are 
everywhere here, and they are anything but a blessing. 
The trouble is with the outer sash. It is made to fit easy, 
and it fits loose. As the blind stop and the parting strip 
between which it slides can not be moved the rattling comes 
as soon as the wind rises. If the meeting rail were left 
wide enough to plane, and fitted hard against the one on the 
inner sash, the pressure would prevent rattling there espe- 
cially after the lock was in place; but machine made stuff 
must be ready to slide without planing and there is no mar- 
gin for a proper fit. 

The inner sash can easily be fixed right, as the stop can 
be moved in to suit. Stops should be screwed on, but they 
are usually nailed in ordinary houses. 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 371 

FLY SCREENS: They are most serviceable when they 
cover the entire window on the outside, as both sash can 
then be moved, but they cost more than half screens and rot 
sooner owing to exposure to the weather. Outside blinds 
can not be used with full screens. 

BLINDS: Neither outside nor inside blinds are so popular 
as they once were, especially for good houses. Heavier glass, 
sometimes plate, is used, and the danger of breaking from 
hail is ended. But, of course, the New York ruralists will 
cling to them for ages yet. As salt goes with egg, corned 
beef with cabbage, and butter with bread, so with them, 
green blinds go with white houses, one and inseparable now 
and for evermore. They are truly rural. 
GROUNDS: To keep the plaster straight it is better to use 
grounds all over the house. There are from f" to I" thick 
x 2" wide, planed smooth on one side, and are nailed around 
all openings, and under base, wainscoting, etc. In cheaper 
houses the window frames and finished door frames are used, 
so that the expense of grounds may be saved. (See pages 
164, 177.) But the plaster stains the wood, and if natural finish 
is used instead of paint the blemish is always seen. If 
grounds are not put around window openings care should be 
taken to keep lath clear of the frame which is often pushed 
in far past the straight line. 

Grounds may be left off under base if the plasterer is care- 
ful with his work. But if they are not used the position 
of the studs should be marked on the floor before the plaster- 
ing is done, so that the base may be nailed solidly, and 
not merely to the lath. 



FINISH 

FLOORS: Yellow pine flooring is not well adapted for out- 
side work, at least north of Mason and Dixon's line. When 
laid near the ground it rots in a few years. Wp is the best; 
Oregon fir is a fair substitute. 

UNDER FLOORS: If the expense is not too much, under 
floors of sheeting, shiplap, or cheap flooring should be put 
down all over the house. The plastering is then done before 



372 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

the finish floor is laid. On the first floor, at least, an under 
floor should be put down, and after the plastering is finished, 
building paper and the finish floor. It is better laid on an 
angle of 45, not merely for bracing, but because of a more 
equal surf than when the boards run parallel with the top 
floor. The inequalities of the under floor are not then repro- 
duced on the upper one. 

OAK FLOORS: The new and better style is to use rugs 
instead of carpets, and good floors, or at least, good borders 
are necessary for them. Good oak floors cost money. (See 
page 22.) But if |" material is used a hardwood border 
only may be put down, and the center of the room filled in 
with ordinary flooring. There is no real necessity of cover- 
ing the whole floor with hardwood, but it is, of course, better 
to do so. The thin material may be treated in the same way, 
but special flooring is required for the center, while any lum- 
ber yard carries |" material. 

When laid after plastering, and well smoothed and var- 
nished, good yp makes a beautiful floor, as fine a floor, indeed, 
as the aver man could desire. 'Tis the aver woman who 
sighs for the other. 

TWO KINDS: Quarter sawed or "rift" sawed, yp is 
by far the best material. There are several grades 
of this. The common flat sawed flooring becomes 
in time a source of trouble with slivers. There are 
several grades of this common stock. The difference 
between edge grain, or q s, and the common No. 1 
in a house 22'x40' is about $13 per story. If the q s 
is not used for the main part it should certainly be used for 
the kitchen, as there is no possibility of slivers arising from 
the edge grain, owing to the way the tree is sawed at the 
mill. The old flat grain is never used in a good house now. 
WIDTH: Flooring should not be wider than 4", or 3|" face, 
except for an attic store room. Narrower than that is bet- 
ter, but more expensive. Care should be taken to prevent 
the use of too many short lengths. (See page 352.) 
MAPLE: Narrow maple really makes the best kitchen floor, 
but it costs money to put it down. (See page 22.) Sq 
edged is not adapted for houses. 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 373 

OAK: Oak floors are used in the front rooms. They are 
even more expensive than maple, and require to be carefully 
laid. They ought to be q s to look well. The " are best, 
but the thin floor is often used. (See pages 22, 162.) White 
and red oak are used. White is harder and better than red 
and costs more. Plain red oak floors are really good enough 
for most purses. 

DAMP: It is a mistake to lay floors too soon, unless in sum- 
mer when the plaster soon dries. Neither architect nor con- 
tractor is to blame for dampness in a new house, as natural 
conditions can not be forced; but kiln dried flooring, doors, 
etc, immediately begin to swell when put in the building. 
The doors have to be stripped until they will close, and when 
they dry they are too narrow to look well. The floors shrink 
until they are spoiled. We are a very illustrious people here, 
as it were, but we have acquired the unfortunate habit of 
planting a bush at night and going out to pluck a rose next 
morning. 

Usually bath room floors are of tile, and also the base. 
JOINTS: 111 trained carpenters often make the joints of 
a floor all clustered together, owing to the length of boards, 
when they might as well be distributed; and they join mem- 
bers of base, cornice, etc, within too short a distance, 
thus spoiling the look of the finished work and weakening 
its strength. 

STAIRS: Make sq platforms, unless winders can not be 
avoided. See that steps and risers are grooved together 
and blocks glued in behind, or the stair will soon creak. Try 
to so arrange a plan, for even a cheap house, that there is 
a separate entrance to the kitchen from the stairway. This 
is often done by making one stair serve from the second 
floor to the first landing, but running two flights from there 
down to first floor, one to the back, another to the front part 
of the house. But there should always be a straight passage 
from the kitchen to the front door without going over steps, 
and this should be at side of stair so that the main rooms 
need not be used. 

DOORS: Narrow doors are a source of much trouble. Front, 
kitchen and cellar doors should not be less than 3' 0" 



374. THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

wide; main room, 2' 10"; bed room, 2' 8"; closet, 2' 4". A 
closet door may be 6' 0" high when below a stair, etc, but 
6' 8" is the least desirable height for any door, and 7' 0" is 
better. Doors ought to be on a level if possible. Transoms 
give light and ventilation to halls. Some do not like them. 
CASINGS AND BASE: Finish of all kinds is easiest treated 
when plain. The Japanese, among their other eminent quali- 
fications, have the knack of living in simple houses with 
simple furniture. We fill houses full of hard work, and scrub 
and fight and worry over useless mouldings, useless furni- 
ture, useless stair ornamentation, grilles like Chinese puzzles, 
and a score of other useless dust collectors. It is done to 
please " flub-dub " architects who talk of " Louis Quatorze, 
Quinze, Seize," or some other man or woman with a thou- 
sand servants. 

OPEN PLUMBING: Why were we so slow in discovering 
open plumbing? It seems strange that we should have used 
tEe old kind so long. Our descendants will say, "Why were 
they so long in discovering simplicity of style in houses and 
furniture? Why did they keep their shoulders below use- 
less loads?" Here, we are at least further advanced in tfie 
right direction than the British and Germans. They box 
everything, and make their furniture heavy enough to last 
for a thousand years. 

VENTILATION: The under side of the casings of a window 
should be within 6" of the ceiling, if we are to believe the 
sanitarians. This gives good ventilation, but spoils ttie 
border for paper and picture mould. Each builder must decide 
for herself whether esthetics or health is to have first place. 
HEAT: If house is to be heated by furnace, steam or hot 
water, be sure to let door jambs and plinth blocks, or casings, 
run clear down to the under floor, so that when the wood 
joists shrink the jambs will still be covered. On flats I 
put up in 1907 the joists shrunk nearly " in some places, 
but the jambs had been let down, so that no harm was done. 
On one large apartment house I know of, pieces had to be glued 
in below jambs, blocks, and base. The small moulding at 
floor on base can usually be left unchanged if it has been 
nailed to the floor and not to the base. 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 375 

WAINSCOTING: The walls of kitchens and bath rooms are 
seldom wainscoted now. They are either plastered with 
hard plaster or tiled. This style of finish is much better. 
Of course, paneled wainscoting is still used in fine houses. 

Dining rooms look well with paneled wainscoting. It gives 
a kind of a " baronial " flavor to the ordinary house, but it 
costs a good deal. (See Index.) A plate rail may be 
used if wainscoting is too expensive. 

WOODS: There are a score of woods to choose from. Wp 
or yp as we used to called it on the other side, our yp being 
know as "pitch " pine is better for paint and better than 
yp even for oil finish. The best grades are now so expensive, 
however, that some millmen would just as soon supply red 
oak, which, of course, requires more labor to put in place. 
The usual fashion for a house costing from $1,800 up, is to 
finish the main rooms on the first floor in oak, or some other 
hardwood, and make yp, cypress or a cheap wood serve for 
the kitchen and upstairs. White oak is more expensive than 
red; q s than plain, but the difference is seen in the finished 
work. 

GLASS: Beveled plate looks well, but again we come to the 
old trouble it costs more than common plate. Plate glass 
is far superior to common glass, AA, common to A, and A to 
B. Dbl thick is naturally stronger than single. (See page 205.) 
When good plate is put in it can scarcely be seen, if well 
cleaned. There are two qualities of plate. 
BENT GLASS: In general, it is a mistake to use circular 
or bent glass. If a light gets broken it is often necessary to 
wait for weeks before another comes from the factory, and 
the price is several times as much as for straight. 
BEDDING: The best work is bedded with putty before the 
glass is laid in the rabbet, then small galv angular brads, or 
points, are pressed in to hold the light in place. Common: 
work, mill glazed, is often left without back putty. 

TIN 

GUTTERS: Some prefer gutters built up on the roof rather 
than those which hang at the eave. The roof gutter looks 



376 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

a, little better, but costs more. Other gutters are concealed 
inside of the cornice, clear of the walls, just as the hanging 
ones are, so that there is no danger of water going through 
the boarding if a leak takes place. The roof gutter should 
also be clear of the main wall. 

DOWNSPOUTS: All downspouts should be connected to 
sewer or if there is no sewer, some means should be taken 
to lead the water away from foundation. They should be 
made of I X or galv iron. 

QUALITY: It it cheapest in the end to use the best tin, but 
even if the poorest material is used, with a hanging gutter 
there is no trouble in putting on a new one. It is otherwise 
with those that are built up. The tin goes under the shingles, 
and several courses have sometimes to be taken up where 
repairs become necessary, and the expense is considerable. 
The best material should be used when running under 
shingles, and it snould be painted two coats of mineral paint 
on the under side before being laid, to prevent rust, and 
two coats on the upper also when in place. 
VALLEYS: In valleys, especially, where two roofs meet, the 
one plane running north and the other east, for example, see 
that the best quality of tin is put down regardless of the cost. 
Economize on something else than tin in such a place, for if 
poor material is used and the shingles all cut to an angle 
at the bottom have to be lifted on both sides to get the 
new tin under, repairs are unusually expensive. The old 
proverb of penny wise, pound foolish applies here. 

The difference,. then, is clearly seen: one may use poor tin 
for Hanging gutters, or they may be left off altogether, for 
that matter, but flashing around chimneys, dormers, valleys, 
tin shingles on corners, and such work as can not be easily 
repaired without tearing up the roof should be of the best 
material carefully painted. 

BRANDS: Some of the best brands of tin are Taylor's Old 
Style, M. F., and Merchants Old Method. These brands are 
stamped in the sheet. I X of the various brands should 
be used for valley linings. It is the tinning and not the iron 
that makes for durability, but where rough usage is expected 
the stiffer brand should be used. 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 377 

Galv iron is now often substituted for tin, and it is bet- 
ter than the cheap brands, but not so good as the ones men- 
tioned above. (For prices, see Chap XV.) 

SIDING, ETC: Pressed brick siding, rock faced siding, tin 
shingles over entire roof, and such devices to imitate better 
material, are seldom seen in cities, but are much admired by 
those whom the New York Sun " The Impartial Shiner " 
calls " the ruralists." 

LATH AND PLASTER 

LATH: Metal lath is the best, but it is more expensive than 
wp, the next best. It is seldom used for ordinary dwellings, 
but both for clinching the mortar and for fire protection it 
is superior to wood. But for metal the joists or strips, espe- 
cially on ceilings, should not be more than 12" centers, as it 
sags at a wider distance When joists are wider they are 
usually furred with Ix2's. 

For wood the joints are broken every 15" or so to keep the 
plaster from cracking in a straight line from iloor to ceiling. 
Outside brick walls are now often lined with 4" hollow brick 
which take the place of the inside course and make the use 
of wood strips unnecessary. 

In Scotland split lath is used almost exclusively, and it ia 
much better than the sawn lath, as the surf is necessarily 
straight grained and not cut across, thus weakening the 
strength of the wood. 

Lathers should not crowd lath against window frames. 

MORTAR: Cement plasters have now taken the place of 
the old lime kind. (See page 3.) 

SAND: Sand for all plasters should be screened. It is pos- 
sible to spoil the plaster by using too much sand. 

COATS: The ordinary small house is finished in 2 coats, 
but all, except the very cheapest, should have 3. The first 
coat, the brown coat, usually put on at the same time as the 
first, and, after thorough drying, the white, or putty coat. 
Sand finish is not usually put on dwellings, but it is best for 
halls and large rooms where the surf is to be painted instead 



378 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

of papered. Three coats are necessary for metal lath, as the 
first has to be thin and dry before the next is put on. 
PROTECTION: The walls of kitchens, pantries, corridors, 
halls, stairs and bath rooms are now often finished to a 
height of 3 or 4' with the hardest of cement plasters, such 
as Best Brothers', Keene's Cement, and no wood wainscoting 
used. It is the cleanest and best finish short of enameled tile 
or such expensive material. At base, wood wainscoting, and 
around all openings where wood finish is to be nailed on, the 
plaster should be carefully straightened. 
METAL CORNERS: Use metal corners at angles. Then 
the plaster can not be broken. Wood corner beads or strips 
are not nearly so good. They are only 5c or less per ft. 
SCREENS: It is sometimes hard to keep even the best 
plaster from cracking. Muslin screens should be put over all 
openings to keep out the hot summer air which dries the 
mortar too soon. 

BURLAP: After a time, where paper is not used, burlap is 
put on the side walls and unbleached muslin on the ceiling 
and the surf painted, but ordinary houses are not usually 
treated in this way The burlap is either plain and painted 
after it is put on, which appears to be the more satisfactory 
way, or it can be bought already stained in various shades. 
The joints should of course be butted and not lapped like 
some cheap wall paper, as it is thick. It is too heavy for 
ceilings. 

SUBSTITUTES: There are several "Board" inventions to 
take the place of plaster. They are extra good when repair- 
ing a house where one does not care to spoil floors with 
plaster; but are not in general favor for new houses. 

HARDWARE 

See page 223, and buy according to your purse. Good, ser- 
viceable, and even beautiful hardware may be had at a very 
reasonable price. All the rest is leather and prunella, bow- 
ing in the house of Rimmon, and so forth but the hard- 
ware men are as much entitled to their share of the extrav- 
agance as other merchants, and they can supply a quality of 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 37 

goods which would have surprised the founders of this repub- 
lic. We excel in hardware on this side of the Atlantic. 
KINDS: Use loose pin surf or ordinary butts, so that doors 
can be removed without using a screw driver. Cast iron is 
cheap, and may serve for years, but may be broken in a day; 
wrt iron is safer. Put on mortise locks, not rim locks. Slid- 
ing doors should be hung from the top. Some run on tHe 
floor, other on side devices. Sash should be hung on weights, 
and not on any kind of balances. (See page 166.) If fly screens 
are to be put on the inside, flush sash lifts should be used, as 
the book or bar lifts project from the sash. 
PAINT: Under no circumstances should hardware be put 
on before the painter is finished. It is next to impossible to 
paint around it without smearing. With varnish the results 
are worse than with paint, for the one is seen, and the painter 
has to be careful, but the other is t not, and is run over the 
face of locks on doors and windows, clogging them and pre- 
venting working. The hardware man is often blamed when 
the painter is at fault. 

PAINTING 

SHINGLES should be dipped, but not painted. 
NO. O~F COATS: Houses are often painted with only 2 coats 
on the outside, but at least 3 are necessary to give a proper 
finish. White lead mixed with linseed oil is the best material 
for the first, and subsequent costs, with the coloring matter 
added. We live in an era of adulteration, when even food 
is poisoned, and baking powder partly made of ground rock, 
and why expect pure white lead? Ochre is not so good as 
lead, but it is cheaper, and is often used for the first coat. 
NO. OF COLORS: The former style of decorated painting 
is now out of date. Houses are often painted in only one color 
with the exception of the sash. Pure white looks well but 
it can not be produced with fewer than 3 coats, and 4 or even 
more, are better. A. shade of coloring matter hides many 
deficiencies at first, and much dust afterwards. 
PUTTY: A good painter will never do any puttying before 
the first coat is put on. The raw wood absorbs the oil 



380 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

from the putty, and it dries and falls out. For the same rea- 
son the rabbets of sash must be primed before the glass is 
put in. 

There is more opportunity for using poor material in paint- 
ing than almost any other branch of building. Architects 
usually specify that all materials must be brought to the job 
in original packages. Good paint lasts for a long while; poor 
paint fades in less than a year. 

INSIDE PAINTING: There is the choice between paint and 
finishing in the natural color, or staining and varnishing 
(See page 270 for standard finish.) 

FINE PAINT: White and gold make a fine combination, 
Si beautiful finish, but from five to eight coats are required 
to cover the raw wood and bring out the proper shade. Such 
work is expensive. It is not possible to get the white effect 
with 2 coats. A little color, inside even more than outside, 
covers all blemishes, and makes a cheaper finish than the 
pure article. Yp is not adapted for painting nearly so well 
as wp. or cypress. 

VARNISH: A cheaper finish than the pure white may be 
had with the usual hard oil treatment. Of course, this does 
not mean the first quality of work with the requisite number 
of coats, and rubbing down, but merely a presentable finish 
at a cheaper rate than for pure white paint. But with a little 
ground pumice stone and linseed oil any one can do the 
rubbing down to the much admired " egg shell gloss," and 
save that part of the painter's bill, or, indeed, buy the ma- 
terial and put on all the coats. (See page 267.) 
FLOORS: There are a hundred and one preparations for 
hardwood floors. Painters stand by the regular finish, and 
it is sure: Paste filler, 2 coats of grain alcohol not wood 
alcohol shellac, 1 coat of good varnish, sand papered be- 
tween coats and slightly rubbed down on the last. For all 
work sandpapering is essential, and it should be done with 
the grain of the wood, and not across. 

Another good finish is filler, and waxing 2 coats with a 
weighted brush. Still another is filler, 1 coat of shellac, and 
1 of wax. Or filling and 2 coats of floor varnish, or florene, 
but this is not so good as the shellac treatment. Floor var- 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 381 

nish costs about $1.75 per gall; white grain, and not wood 
alcohol, shellac, $3.50. 

An experienced painter gave me his choice for floors as 
follows: No. 1: Filler, 1 coat of shellac, 2 of varnish, and 
rubbing down. Cost, with profit included, 50c per sq yd. 
No. 2: Filler, 1 coat shellac, 1 of wax, 30c. Such woods as 
oak require to be filled owing to the pores; yp, wp, etc, do 
not require filling. 

MAPLE FLOORS: It is hard to say what is the best finish 
for maple floors. There are a dozen and one guaranteed 
finishes, and 11 of them are almost sure to fail. 

There is one good finish, and if it will not glisten, neither 
will it come off. Carpenters used to polish up their beech 
planes according to this one. Maple, is, of course, not so- 
porous as beech. 

Take a rag dipped in boiled linseed oil and rub the floor 
all over with it, then at once rub it off with a cloth to a dry 
surf. If the oil is not rubbed off the floor will be " oily, 5 ' 
and half spoiled. After the oil has had time to soak in apply 
another coat in the same way and dry thoroughly at once. 
Repeat the coat once a week and after a time once in two 
weeks, and always be ready, with a kind of pride, to give 
it a coat and a dry scrub just the same as a horseman gives 
his horse a currying. 

After a certain time a dull egg shell gloss wiTl be there 
" for keeps," because the oil will have soaked into the pores 
so deep and thoroughly that the boards would have to be 
planed down a quarter of an inch to get the original color 
of the wood. 

This takes patience, but I have often seen planes glisten- 
ing with this finish. It means a spoiled floor if the oil is 
not carefully rubbed off. 

On the other hand some painters say never to put lin-. 
seed oil on a floor, but they mean in the ordinary way. For 
a time quite a time linseed oil on any floor Is a disap- 
pointment. But once on, it can not be marred with casters 
or chair legs. 

If this system is followed it must be with the same 
patience that a smoker uses to color a meerchaum pipe. 



.382 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

The only reward is a sight of the finished article. Finis 
coronat opus! 

MAPLE FLOORS: The Painters' Magazine recommends 
what for most people will be a more satisfactory treatment 
-of the much discussed maple floors. It is as follows: 

Use 2, or better still, 3 coats of bleached grain alcohol 
shellac not wood alcohol when the natural color of the 
"wood is to fte preserved. After shellac is dry rub on a coat 
'of floor oil composed of 9 parts raw linseed oil and 1 part 
drier. This will give a smooth dull finish. Once a month 
or oftener go over with a floor oil, 8 pints of raw linseed, 
2 pints turpentine, and 1 pint white or orange grain shellac 
Tarnish. Apply with a brush, and rub in by wrapping a 
cloth around a weighted floor brush. Paraffine oil, pale and 
light, will also clean off floor and preserve shellac body 
PLASTER: If plaster is painted in ordinary fashion, it is 
often stippled to take off the brush marks and the gloss. But 
"bath rooms, etc, are often finished in enamel paint. A coat 
<of glue size is used on new plaster before painting. 

HEATING 

Stove heat is good, furnace heat is better, and hot water 
Tieat is ftest. In our foolish days they used to drill us on 
Positive, Comparative, and Superlative, and here they face 
us once more. The first cost of the hot water plant is often 
'35 to 100 per cent more than the furnace one. This 
makes it superlative in two senses. 

In the chapter on "Heating" the cost of furnaces is given 
at $19 per room for an aver. From a large number of plans 
examined I find that hot water heating, as set forth by the 
manufacturers of the system, costs about $30 per room. In 
a few cases it is as low as $25; in many it is as high as 
$50 anil <even $60. It is impossible to give a price per room, 
' as climate, glass surf, and distance from factory or supply 
houses must be reckoned with. Coal consumption is said to 
be less. But once the temperature is allowed to fall, it takes 
more time to reheat than with a furnace. There is danger 
of freezing if the fire should go out, and there is a loss of 
space -occupied toy radiators. 



HINTS ON HOUSE BUILDING 383 

The late W. B. Jenney of Chicago, the father of the sky- 
scraper, said that every architect should possess a copy of 
Kidder's "Architect's and Builder's Pocket Book." Kidder 
now dead also said, " For residences of 8 or 10 rooms, and 
covering not more than 1,200 sq ft the author would recom- 
mend hot air heating by means of a good furnace." 

Many architects, again, look upon hot water heating as the 
ideal system. " For residences of 1,400 sq ft," continues Mr. 
.Kidder, " a combination hot air and water system is recom- 
mended, or an entire hot water system. For still larger, a 
steam or hot water, , . , " 



CHAPTER XXVII 

COTTAGES IN SPAIN, OR THE BUILDING OF THE NEST 

Being an Idyllic and Popular Chapter 

PAYS DE COCAIGNE: We have all heard of castles in 
Spain, but our age runs to cottages built in the same delight- 
ful country. For a thousand dollars you may have one while 
you wait, if the illustrated magazines are to be believed, with 
seven rooms, modern plumbing, electric lights flashing from 
cellar to roof, and doors and windows made to let in filtered 
sunshine and keep out flies and burglars. It is magnificent, 
but jealous contractors say that it can't be done. The maga- 
zmes, they say, are serving up the strongest quality of 
fiction in their advertising pages. It does seem strange that 
people can be gulled so easily as to swallow the fables. It 
seems stranger still that reputable magazines will print the 
absurd advertisements. 

It may be accepted as a fact that good building costs a 
good strong price; it may also be accepted as a fact that 
contractors seldom make more than a close living if they 
spend their lives building small cottages in competition. 
They are cut to the bone. I have not built any for a dozen 
years, and so can give a fair chapter without bias. 

On page 304 an approximate figure is given for frame houses 
$300 to $350 per room without modern improvements; $450 
to $700 with the best finish. I built my last one in St. Louis. 
It cost, without modern improvements, $330 per room; I know 
of an Omaha house, solidly constructed, one like scores of 
the very best kind with everything modern, and the cost per 
room complete is far nearer $600 than $500. These are for 
cities at city prices; in the country, prices can be cut, but 
not quite 50%. 

The St. Louis cottage was 28' wide by 32' long, with no 
angles. It was made as plain as possible, and yet looked 
well. The ceilings were 9' 6" and 9' 0". A cellar with earth 
floor extended throughout the entire area. Walls were of 

384 



COTTAGES IN SPAIN 385 

stone which was supplied free of charge. There were 3 
rooms and hall on each floor. Attic has sheeting floor, but 
was unfinished. A plain front porch ran across one end, 
and there was a small balcony as second floor. Practically 
one partition ran each way dividing house into four spaces. 
There was a sliding door. The finish was all pine and 
painted. The people who are learning from the magazines 
how to make resplendent bookcases out of old soap boxes 
could build such a house for a few hundred dollars, but a 
contractor can not. It was well built. The walls were cov- 
ered with sheeting, paper and siding; the floors were of yp. 
Sometimes the sheeting is left off. 

The parlor was 14' 3"xl5' 4"; sitting room, 14' 3"xl4' 6"; 
kitchen, 12' 3"xl4' 3"; hall, 12' 3"xlO' 3"; bedrooms, 
14' 6"xl4' 3"; 14' 0"xl4' 3"; 12' 3"xl4' 3". There were 2 
closets on second floor, and a pantry on first. There were 
two chimneys. 

Cost Per Cent 

Excavation $30 1 . 6 

Basement, Chimneys and Pipe Drain. . 240 12.6 

Lumber 482 25.3 

Millwork and Glass 227 11.9 

Carpenter Labor at 40c per hour 475 24.9 

Plaster 148 7.8 

Hardware 60 3.1 

Tin and Kitchen Sink 60 3.1 

Electric Wiring 27 1.4 

Mantel and Hearth 36 1.9 

Paint 122 6.4 



$1,907 100.0 

That is actual cost; at $330 per room a small margin ia 
left for contractor's profit. Nothing is allowed for outhouses, 
sidewalks, clothes poles, fly screens, cistern, and broken 
glass. A cistern lined with brick is worth about $50. Over 
walls, deducting recess, there are 860 sq ft at $2.22. 

Labor and material are higher since then. Such a house 
is worth $2,300 in Omaha, St. Louis, Chicago, or a dozen of 
other cities which might be mentioned. If lumber can be 
bought for $9 instead of $18 or $24 that is another story; but 



386 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

no one should believe that magazine prices will pass In 
the aver city. 

(See page 36 for percentage of frame buildings.) 

LABOR: Carpenter labor is one of the largest items, and 
runs to about 1,200 hours; the first contract I had was for 
a 5 room house and with making much of the millwork by 
hand the hours were close .to 1,000. Another house of the 
same style, about 900, still another, 950. For a fine 8 room, 
hardwood finished house, including oak floors, the time was 
2,200 hours. Mitred siding, fine cornices, fancy roofs, and 
magazine half tones in general take a great many hours. 
(See page 160 for floors.) On the cheapest house I ever had, 
the v carpenter hours ran to 460 for 3 rooms, a pantry, a very 
plain front porch, and a chimney set in mid air, a building 
so plain as to be totally unfit for the pages of a magazine. 
The cost was about $500. On an 8 room dbl house to enclose, 
build porches and put in sash 2,500 hours. 

SOME POSSIBILITIES: In some parts of this wide con- 
tinent foundations need not go more than a foot in the 
ground; in other parts they ought to go 4' to clear the frost 
line. Dbl floors are used in the best houses; single are suf- 
ficient in warm climates. The best shingles are expensive; 
the kind sometimes used are scarcely fit for a stable. The 
workmanship is often of very poor quality; where studs 
should be dbl they are left single. (See " Studs" page 172.) 
And so on in a score of ways. But even with the cheapest 
material and labor, and the poorest workmanship it is im- 
possible tQ keep abreast of the magazine heroes. 

In Vermont, I once worked as a carpenter for $1.50 per 
day; in Oregon lumber sells for $10 per M; in the Southern 
states foundation walls do not require to go very deep; and 
in Iowa there is a settlement where the houses are left 
unpainted but the difficulty is to get all these various 
advantages " assembled; " and they are all required before 
the magazine cottages can be built at the given price. 

THE TEST: The other night a contractor and I looked over 
a model plan that might please any small family. It has 
appeared in several magazines, and is deservedly populaK 



COTTAGES IN SPAIN 387 

The perspective of the house is in keeping with the well 
designed floor plans. 

There are 3 rooms on each floor, and a large hall on the 
first floor. There is a bath room in the second floor hall. 
On the first floor there is a large pantry and coat closet; 
on the second, an alcove and 2 closets. The house stands 
high enough to show the cellar lights clear of the ground; 
and is crowned and ornamented with the popular Dutch roof. 
The St. Louis house was sq and without projections; this- 
one has corners and bays spread around, each one adding to 
the cost; and instead of one plain cornice there are two heavy 
ones. In proportion to size it is in every way a more expen- 
sive house to build. The area is about 675 sq ft as against 
860, but the cost of houses of nearly the same size is not 
in all ways reduced in proportion to area, for there are prac- 
tically the same number of openings to consider for mill- 
work, and stairs are the same. 

We made a rough estimate of the cost and agreed on, 
at the very least, $2,000 for Omaha, and other cities; and 
we made a cut rate for a cheap locality as follows : 

Cost Per Cent 

Excavation $25 1 . 5 

Masonry 220 13.0 

Lumber 320 19 . 

Millwork and Glass 230 13 . 5 

Carpenter Labor 350 20. 6 

Plaster, 600 yds at 22c (very cheap). . . 132 7.7 

Hardware 50 3.0 

Tin 40 2.3 

Mantel and Hearth 30 1.7 

Paint 100 5.9 

Plumbing 200 11.8 



$1.697 100.0 

Contractors are popularly supposed to make large profits* 
The usual allowance may be added for them. Electric wir- 
ing is not included, as the specifications were not at hand, 
but that and other extras may perhaps be specified also. 

As we looked at our figures and the published price there 
was a considerable difference. According to> the magazine 



388 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

advertisement the house has been built several hundred times 
for $1,125, presumably including a good profit for the con- 
tractor. No wonder the plans are selling. That is only 
$188 per room with plumbing thrown in. 
A CHEAP HOUSE: But for a "cheesebox " cottage the low 
figures will pass; and a plain house that is owned by the 
occupants is more to be desired than a stylish one owned 
by some one else. 

Take a 1-story house 18'x36', with no projections, 4'x9" 
foundation, 9' ceiling, 3 rooms and pantry, plain porch, 
chimney set on a bracket, and the cost at city prices, should 
not run over $648, or $1 per sq ft. If posts and sheeting 
are substituted for brick foundations, $600 is enough. Paint- 
ing, set at $50, might be done later on, and $550 taken as 
the figure. But this means a hole dug in the ground for 
a cellar, pine finished, no fancy angles outside or inside, no 
blinds, no sink, water supply, or cistern. In some localities 
half that figure would be enough. Omaha, Chicago, St. 
Louis, Salt Lake City, New York, represent the one extreme; 
the mountains of North Carolina, the forests of Washington 
and the pleasant climate of Florida make the other possible. 

The porch left off cuts the price down $50 more; and for 
those who prefer a home of their own without plaster to a 
plastered one belonging to some one else, for the course of 
the summer, a deduction of $75 may be made. But a con- 
tractor could not build such cottages and live. A good car- 
penter, just starting out, is willing to take such small con- 
tracts for the chance of making a little more than by work- 
ing by the day. 

But let the distinction be kept clear between such ordinary 
shelters and the miniature palaces shown in the magazines. 
ANOTHER: In looking through some recent trade journals, 
I found a house almost the same as the St. Louis one, and 
the trade publications have to present another kind of esti- 
mates than those in the illustrated magazines, for their 
* readers are acquainted with prices. 

The size is 28'x30' over all, there is a cellar throughout 
entire house. There is no hall, but 4 rooms and a pantry 
on first floor, and 4 rooms with closets above. The divi- 



COTTAGES IN SPAIN 389 

sion of the partitions is practically the same, but a box stair 
is used. There are only 4 corners, and the finish, outside 
and inside, is of the plainest. The ceilings are 9' 0" and 
8' 6". It is as plain a house as could be built, and yet the 
cost per room is $278, and the rooms are small. The cost 
and percentages are as follows: 

Cost Per Cent 

Excavation and Masonry $315 14 . 2 

Lumber 538 24.2 

Millwork and Glass 390 17 . 5 

Carpenter Work 420 18. 9 

Hardware and Tin 100 4.5 

Kitchen Sink 40 1.8 

Plaster 180 8.1 

Painting 140 6.3 

Incidentals.. 100 4.5 



$2,223 100.0 

There is no plumbing except the sink. 

On the St. Louis house some of the millwork was made 
by hand fhus reducing cost of this item and raising carpenter 
work; on the foregoing house the mill work is figured ready 
to put on. The rate per hour of carpenters is not given. 
But the two houses made a very close comparison. 

On the first the cost per sq ft is $2.22; on this one the 
cost is $2.65; on still another plan, originally made by a 
friend for competition in " The Ladies Home Journal," but 
never sent in, the cost is $4.14, the difference being due to 
furnace, plumbing, detail work and better finish. 

"Did you send in the plan?" I asked him, 

"No," he replied, "when I found that the cost ran to 
more than $4 per sq ft without contractors' prolt I let it 
go." 

His plan is sq, 29'x32' with a cemented basement all 
through; attic is floored but not finished; there are halls 
and 4 rooms on each floor besides 2 bath rooms, and plenty 
of closets with windows. Counting bath rooms, makes 10 
rooms at $384 each. The estimate made for him by a con- 
tractor is given below: 



390 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Cost Per Cent 

Excavation and Masonry $492 12 . 82 

Lumber 500 13.03 

Millwork and Glass 906 23 . 61 

Carpenter Labor 758 19 . 75 

Plastering 234 6 . 09 

Hardware 77 2 . 01 

Tin 65 1.70 

Painting 280 7 . 30 

Heating and Mantel 200 5 . 22 

Plumbing 325 8.47 



$3,837 100.0 

BUNGALOWS: The real American palace, we are told, is 
a bungalow. Like a palace, in one respect, the cost some- 
times runs higher than is expected. The bungalow fad is at 
present sweeping over the land in rather a strong way. 
The little nook and corner castle makes a pretty picture, 
but has weak points as well as strong ones. 

I have seen many of them in the beautiful semi-tropical 
country around Los Angeles, and there is their proper home. 
Often a structure of plain rough boards and battens, such as 
we use in other regions for a coal shed, is built, and what 
with stained walls, roses, palms, and luxuriant foliage, it 
makes a picture for an artist. But that style will not do in 
zero weather. 

In California, near the sea, no basement or cellar is re- 
quired, as meat hangs in the open air. Then, a founda- 
tion is not really necessary even on top of the ground, to 
say nothing of going below the frost line. A cheap shelter 
can easily be built there. 

From a Bungalow Book at hand I find that sq ft prices run 
from $1 to $2.10 for well finished, beautiful structures. What 
with foundations, cellars, the necessity of guarding against 
zero weather and high cost of special millwork, usually 
shown, these prices might easily be doubled. The founda- 
tion and roof area of a bungalow is necessarily much larger 
than those of a 2 story house; and a roof costs almost as 
much, even at the same area, on a 1-story house as on a 2. 

One bungalow put up in Omaha in 1908 cost $4,000. The 
size is 24'x36' on ground floor, so that the rate per sq ft is 



COTTAGES IN SPAIN 391 

$4.50. There is a cemented basement all through, oak finish 
on first floor, rooms in the attic, and everything finished in 
the best manner. Ceilings are only 8'-6" and 8'-0", which is 
too low. For general purposes a 2-story house is more to 
be desired. 

Two others cost $3; one with a single story, $2.50. 

Then, in a bungalow the bed rooms are usually on the first 
floor and if the door happens to be left open when the 
preacher calls at 4 P. M., and through some accident the 
work is left undone, there is soon apt to be a sermon on the 
ant, that marvel of industry. 

If foundations have to run down 3'-6" for frost, and floor 
is, say, 2'-6" above ground there is a brick walF 5'-0" deep 
around a space about 30x45 instead of one 24x28. In the 2 
story, you can excavate all the space, and have enough room 
if you do this in the bungalow you have far too much room, 
the work is too expensive, especially if you put in a concrete 
and cement floor, and if you excavate only a part, there is 
the rough earth to look at instead of a finished wall. 

A reinforced concrete bungalow was put up in 1907 at Fort 
Thomas, Ky. It cost about $3,800, or $3.90 per sq ft of ground 
area. Regular first floor rooms, and also attic. Red tile 
roof. 

The bungalow is an artistic and suitable building for the 
bungalow country, and, indeed, for any country if you can 
afford the expense. Of course a summer home can be built 
cheaply enough anywhere, but for a permanent winter home 
in a zero country, strictly well built, a bungalow is a high 
priced luxury. 

SOD: For sod around buildings the charge in Omaha is 12c 
per sq yd laid. In Chap VI we see bids were put in on 
230,000 yds for 2 and 3 cents. 



No matter how well you build your house it will not satisfy 
every one. There are many different tastes, and it is well 
that there are. In "The Canadian Architect and Builder," 
for instance, there is a pleasant little article which may be 
read with profit: 



392 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

MISTAKES IN HIS NEW HOUSE. 

O. M. Weand, a railroad contractor, of Reading, Pa., has 
just finished building a house for himself and to commemo- 
rate the event, has published an illustrated pamphlet of 50 
or more pages containing the criticisms of leading citizens. 
The title of the book is " The Mistakes I Made in Building a 
House." Following are some of the criticisms of his friends: 

" Of course, you are building the house, but if it were mine, 
I would run an open porch around the corner so as to con- 
nect the 2 porches." 

" I would prefer one large window in the second story front, 
instead of the dbl window." 

"You'll make a mistake if you don't pebble dash the 
exterior." 

"You better run the 13 inch walls all the way up. It 
gets pretty windy out here sometimes." 

" I think the ceilings are too low. 

" My! How small the rooms are." 

" You ought to be on the other side of the street." 

"If it were my house, I would prefer to have the cornice 
several inches higher." 

"By all means put a dbl line of boards on the first floor. 
It keeps the cellar dust from coming through." 

" Those chimney tops look like tombstones." 

" The lawn steps should have been immediately in front of 
the main entrance." 

"Why didn't you set the house in the middle of the lot? " 

" Personally, I prefer steam heat to the hot water system." 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
PROPERTIES OF THE CIRCLE 

Diam X 3. 14159 = circumference. 

Diam X .8862 = side of an equal sq. 

Diam X .7071 =side of an inscribed sq. 

Diam 2 X .7854 = area of a circle. 

Radius X 6.28318 = circumference. 

Circumference -r- 3 .1 41 59 = diam . 

1st. The circle contains a greater area than any plane figure, bounded by 
an equal perimeter or outline. 

2d. The areas of circles are to each other as the sq of their diam. 

3d. Any circle whose diam is double that of another contains four times 
the area of the other. 

4th. Area of a circle is equal to the area of a triangle whose base equals 
the circumference, and perpendicular equals the radius. 

TABLE OF DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS 
8THS 

1/8 equals 125 5/8 equals 625 

1/4 equals 250 3/4 equals 750 

3/8 equals 375 7/8 equals 875 

1/2 equals 500 

16THS 

1/16 equals 0625 9/16 equals 5625 

3/16 equals 1875 11/16 equals 6875 

5/16 equals 3125 13/16 equals 8125 

7/16 equals 4375 15/16 equals 9375 

32DS 

1/32 equals 03125 17/32 equals 53125 

3/32 equals 09375 19/32 eqpals. 59375 

5/32 equals 15625 21/32 equals 65625 

7/32 equals 21875 23/32 equals 71875 

9/32 equals 28125 25/32 equals 78125 

11/32 equals 34375 27/32 equals 84375 

13/32 equals 40625 29/32 equals 90625 

15/32 equals 46875 31Z32 equals 96875 

393 



394 , THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Table of Decimal Equivalents Continued 

64THS 

1/64 equals 015625 33/64 equals .515625 

3/64 equals 046875 35/64 equals 546875 

5/64 equals 078125 37/64 equals 578125 

7/64 equals 109375 39/64 equals 609375 

9/64 equals 140625 41/64 equals 640625 

11/64 equals 171875 43/64 equals 671875 

13/64 equals 203125 45/64 equals 703125 

15/64 equals 234375 47/64 equals 734375 

17764 equals 265625 49/64 equals 765625 

19/64 equals 296875 51/64 equals 796875 

21/64 equals 328125 53/64 equals 828125 

23/64 equals 359375 55/64 equals 859375 

25/64 equals 390625 57/64 equals 890625 

27/64 equals 421875 59/64 equals 921875 

29/64 equals 453124 61/64 equals. 953125 

31/64 equals 484375 63/64 equals 984375 

USEFUL MEMORANDA AND TABLES 

1 ci of Cast Iron weighs 0.26 Ibs 

1 ci of Wrought Iron weighs 0.28 Ibs 

1 ci of Water weighs 036 Ibs 

1 cf of Water weighs 62.321 Ibs 

1 United States gall weighs 8.33 Ibs 

1 Imperial gall weighs 10. Ibs 

1 United States gall equals 231. ci 

1 Imperial gall equals 277.274 ci 

1 cf of Water equals 7.48 U. S. gall 

CONVENIENT MULTIPLES 

For the side of an equal sq of a circle, mult diam by .8862. For the surf 
of a sphere, mult sq of diam by 3.1446. For the Solidity of a sphere, mult 
cube of diam by .5236. For the side of an inscribed cube, mult the radius 
of a sphere by 1.1547. The area of the base of a pyramid, or cone, whether 
round, sq or triangular, mult by one-third of its height, equals the solidity. 
The base of a triangle mult by half the height equals the area. 

RULE 

For finding the weight of castings or forgings by the weight 
of their patterns. 

Mult the weight of the wp pattern by 

16 for cast iron, 25 for lead, 

17.1 for wrt iron, 12.2 for tin, 

17.3 for steel, 13 for brass, 

18 for copper, 11.4 for zinc, 
and the product is the weight of the casting. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



395 



CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES 



Diam 


Circum 


Area 


Diam 


Circum 


Area 


1 


3.1416 


.7854 


64 


201.06 


3216.99 


2 


6.2832 


3.1416 


65 


204.20 


3318.31 


3 


9.4248 


7.0686 


66 


207.34 


3421.19 


4 


12.5664 


12.5664 


67 


210.49 


3525.65 


5 


15.7080 


19.635 


68 


213.63 


3631 .68 


6 


18.850 


28.274 


69 


216.77 


3739.28 


7 


21.991 


38.485 


70 


219.91 


3848.45 


8 


25.133 


50.266 


71 


223.05 


3959.19 


9 


28.274 


63.617 


72 


226.19 


4071 .50 


10 


31.416 


78.540 


73 


229.34 


4185.39 


11 


34.558 


95.033 


74 


232.48 


4300.84 


12 


37.699 


113.1 


75 


235.62 


4417.86 


13 


40.841 


132.73 


76 


238.76 


4536.46 


14 


43.982 


153.94 


77 


241.90 


4656.63 


15 


47.124 


176.71 


78 


245.04 


4778.36 


16 


50.265 


201.06 


79 


248.19 


4901.67 


17 


53.407 


226.98 


80 


251.33 


5026.55 


18 


56.549 


254.47 


81 


254.47 


5153. 


19 


59.690 


283.53 


82 


257.61 


5281.02 


20 


62.832 


314.16 


83 


260.75 


5410.61 


21 


65.973 


346.36 


84 


263.89 


5541.77 


22 


69.115 


380.13 


85 


267.04 


5674.50 


23 


72.257 


415.48 


86 


270.18 


5808.80 


24 


75.398 


452.39 


87 


273.32 


5944.68 


25 


78.540 


490.87 


88 


276.46 


6082.12 


26 


81.681 


530.93 


89 


279.60 


6221.14 


27 


84.823 


572.56 


90 


282.74 


6361.73 


28 


87.965 


615.75 


91 


285.88 


6503.88 


29 


91.106 


660.52 


92 


289.03 


6647.61 


30 


94.248 


706.86 


93 


292.17 


6792.91 


31 


97.389 


754.77 


94 


295.31 


6939.78 


32 


100.53 


804.25 


95 


298.45 


7088.22 


33 


103.67 


855.30 


96 


301.59 


7238.23 


34 


106.81 


907.92 


97 


304.73 


7339.81 


35 


109.96 


962.11 


98 


307.88 


7542.96 


36 


113.10 


1017.88 


99 


311.02 


7697.69 


37 


116.24 


1075.21 


100 


314.16 


7853.98 


38 


119.38 


1134.11 


101 


317.30 


8011.85 


39 


122.52 


1194.59 


102 


320.44 


8171.28 


40 


125.66 


1256.64 


103 


323.58 


8332.29 


41 


128.81 


1320.25 


104 


326.73 


8494.87 


42 


131.95 


1385.44 


105 


329.87 


8659.01 


43 


135.09 


1452.20 


106 


333.01 


8824.73 


44 


138.23 


1520.53 


107 


336.15 


8992.02 


45 


141.37 


1590.43 


108 


339.29 


9160.88 


46 


144.51 


1661.90 


109 


342.43 


9331.32 


47 


147.65 


1734.94 


110 


345.58 


9503.32 


48 


150.80 


1809.56 


111 


348.72 


9676.89 


49 


153.94 


1885.74 


112 


351.86 


9852.03 


50 


157.08 


1963.50 


113 


355. 


10028.75 


51 


160.22 


2042.82 


114 


358.14 


10207.03 


52 


163.36 


2123.72 


115 


361.28 


10386.89 


53 


166.50 


2206.18 


116 


364.42 


10568.32 


54 


169.65 


2290.22 


117 


367.57 


10751.32 


55 


172.79 


2375.83 


118 


370.71 


10935.88 


56 


175.93 


2463.01 


119 


373.85 


11122.02 


57 


179.07 


2551.76 


120 


376.99 


11309.73 


58 


182.21 


2642.08 


121 


380.13 


11499.01 


69 


185.35 


2733.97 


122 


383.27 


11689.87 


60 


188.50 


2827.43 


123 


386.42 


11882.29 


1 


191.64 


2922.47 


124 


389.56 


12076.28 


62 


194.78 


3019.07 


125 


392.70 


12271.85 


-63 


197192 


3117.25 


126 


395.84 


12468.98 



396 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



LEAD PIPE 

Weight per LP 



Inside 
Diam. 


Thickness in In 


A 


i 


A 


* 


1 


i 


1 


I 


in 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 






.427 


.97 


1 65 


2.44 


4.38 












.548 


1.21 


2.01 


2.93 


5.11 


7.79 










.670 


1.46 


2.38 


3.42 


5.85 


8.77 


i2'.2 








.791 


1.70 


2.74 


3.90 


6.58 


9.75 


13.4 


i7'.6 






.911 


1.95 


3.11 


4.39 


7.31 


10.7 


14.6 


19.1 


1 




1.03 


2.19 


3.47 


4.88 


8.04 


11.7 


15.8 


20.5 






1.28 


2.69 


4.21 


5.85 


9.5 


13.7 


18.3 


23.4 






1.52 


3.18 


4.94 


6.83 


11. 


15.6 


20.7 


26.3 






1.76 


3.67 


5.67 


7.81 


12.4 


17.6 


23.2 


29.3 


2 




2.01 


4.16 


6.40 


8.78 


13.9 


19.5 


25.6 


32.2 






2.25 


4.65 


7.13 


9.76 


15.4 


21.5 


28.1 


35.1 






2.49 


5.14 


7.86 


10.7 


16.8 


23.4 


30.5 


38. 






2.73 


5.63 


8.59 


11.7 


18.3 


25.4 


32.9 


41. 


3 


2.98 


6.12 


9.32 


12.7 


19.7 


27.3 


35.4 


43,9 - 


i 


3.46 


7.10 


10.8 


14.6 


22.7 


31.3 


40.3 


49.7 


4 


3.95 


8.08 


12.2 


16.6 


25.6 


35.2 


45.2 


55.6 



CAST IRON PIPES 
Weight of a LF 



gfi 


Thickness of Metal in In 


&s 


i 


1 


i 


i 


f 


1 


1 


H 


U 


11 




Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


2 


5.52 


8.74 


12.27 


16.11 


20.25 


24.70 


29.45 


34.52 


39.88 


51.54 


2i 


6.75 


10.58 


14.73 


19.18 


23.95 


28.99 


34.36 


40.04 


46.02 


58.91 


3 


7.93 


12.43 


17.18 


22.24 


27.61 


32.29 


39.27 


45.56 


52.16 


66.27 


3i 


9.20 


14.27 


19.64 


25.31 


31.29 


37.58 


44.18 


51.08 


58.29 


73.63 


4 


10.43 


16.11 


22.09 


28.38 


34.98 


41.88 


49.09 


56.60 


64.43 


80.99 


4i 


11.66 


17.95 


24.54 


31.45 


38.66 


46.18 


54.00 


62.13 


70.56 


88.36 


5 


12.89 


19.79 


27.00 


34.52 


42.34 


50.47 


58.91 


67.65 


76.70 


95.72 


5i 


14.11 


21.63 


29.45 


37.58 


46.02 


54.76 


63.81 


73.17 


82.84 


103.08 


6 


15.34 


23.47 


31.91 


40.65 


49.70 


59.06 


68.72 


78.69 


88.97 


110.45 


7 


17.79 


27.15 


36.82 


46.79 


57.06 


67.65 


78.54 


89.74 


101.24 


125.17 


8 


20.25 


30.83 


41.72 


52.92 


64.43 


76.24 


88.36 


100.78 


113.52 


139.90 


9 


22.70 


34.52 


46.63 


59.06 


71.79 


84.83 


98.18 


111.83 


125.79 


154.63 


10 


25 16 


38 20 


51 54 


65 19 


79 15 


93 42 


107 99 


122 87 


138.06 




11 


27.61 


41.88 


56.45 


71.33 


86.52 


102.01 


117.81 


133.92 


150.33 




12 


30.07 


45 56 


61 36 


77 47 


93 88 


110 60 


127.63 


144.96 


162.60 




13 


32.52 


49! 24 


66! 27 


83 .'60 


101 ! 24 


119il9 


137.45 


156.01 


174.87 




14 


34.98 


52.92 


71.18 


89.74 


108 . 61 


127.78 


147.26 


167.05 


187.15 




15 




56.60 


76.09 


95.87 


115.97 


136.37 


157.08 


178.10 


199.42 


..'!!! 


16 




60 29 


80.99 


102.01 


123.33 


144 96 


166.90 


189.14 


211.69 




18 




67.65 


90.81 


114.28 


138.06 


162!l4 


186.53 


211.23 


236.23 




20 






100 . 63 


126.55 


152.79 


179.32 


2Ofi 17 


233 32 


260 . 78 




22 






110.45 


138.83 


167.51 


196.50 225.8(1 


255.41 


285 . 32 




24 






120.26 


151.10 


182.24 


213.68 


245.44 


277.50 


309.87 









NOTE. For each joint add a ft in length of the pipe. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



397 



U. S. GALL IN ROUND TANKS 

For One Ft in Depth 



Diam 
of 
Tanks 


No. 
U. S. 
Gall 


CFand 
Area in 

SF 


Diam 
of 
Tanks 


No. 
U. S. 
Gall 


CF andl 
Area in 
SF 


Diam 
of 
Tanks 


No. 
U. S. 
Gall 


CF and 
A.rea in 
SF 


1' 


5.87 


.785 


5' 8" 


188.66 


25.22 


19' 


2120.90 


283.53 


1' 1" 


6.89 


.922 


5' 9" 


194.25 


25.97 


19' 3" 


2177.10 


291.04 


1' 2" 


8. 


1.069 


5' 10" 


199.92 


26.73 ' 


19' 6" 


2234. 


298:65 


1' 3" 


9.18 


1.227 


5' 11" 


205.67 


27.49 


19' 9" 


2291 .70 


306.35 


1' 4" 


10.44 


1.396 


6' 


211.51 


28.27 | 


20' 


2350.10 


314.16 


1' 5" 


11.79 


1.576 


6' 3" 


229.50 


30.68 


20' 3" 


2409.20 


322.06 


1 6" 


13.22 


1.767 


6' 6" 


248.23 


33.18 


20' 6" 


2469.10 


330.06 


1' 7" 


14.73 


1.969 


6' 9" 


267.69 


35.78 


20' 9" 


2529.60 


338.16 


1' 8" 


16.32 


2.182 


V 


287.88 


38.48 


21' 


2591. 


346.36 


1 9" 


17.99 


2.405 


r 3" 


308.81 


41.28 


21' 3" 


2653. 


354.66 


1' 10" 


19.75 


2.640 


7' 6" 


330.48 


44.18 


21' 6" 


2715.80 


363.05 


1' 11" 


21.58 


2.885 


r 9" 


352.88 


47.17 


21' 9" 


2779.30 


371.54 


2' 


23.50 


3.142 


8' 


376.01 


50.27 


22' 


2843.60 


380.13 


2' 1" 


25.50 


3.409 


8' 3" 


399'88 


53.46 


22' 3" 


2908.60 


388.82 


2' 2" 


27.58 


3.687 


S' 6" 


424.48 


56.75 


22' 6" 


2974.30 


397.61 


2' 3" 


29.74 


3.976 


8' 9" 


449.82 


60.13 


22' 9" 


3040.80 


406.49 


2' 4" 


31.99 


4.276 


9' 


475.89 


63.62 


23' 


3108. 


415.48 


2' 5" 


34.31 


4.587 


9' 3" 


502.70 


67.20 


23' 3" 


3175.90 


424.56 


2' 6" 


36.72 


4.909 


9' 6" 


530.24 


70.88 


23' 6" 


3244.60 


433.74 


2' 7" 


39.21 


5.241 


9' 9" 


558.51 


74.66 


23' 9" 


3314. 


443.01 


2' 8" 


41.78 


5.585 


10' 


587.52 


78.54 


24' 


3384.10 


452.39 


2' 9" 


44.43 


5.940 


10' 3" 


617.26 


82.52 


24' 3" 


3455. 


461.86 


2' 10" 


47.16 


6.305 


10' 6" 


640.74 


86.59 


24' 6" 


3526.60 


471.44 


2' 11" 


49.98 


6.681 


10' 9" 


678.95 


90.76 


24' 9" 


3598.90 


481.11 


3' 


52.88 


7.069 


11' 


710.90 


95.03 


25' 


3672. 


490.87 


3' 1" 


55.86 


7.467 


11' 3" 


743.58 


99.40 


25' 3" 


3745.80 


500.74 


3' 2" 


58.92 


7.876 


11' 6" 


776.99 


103.87 


25' 6" 


3820.30 


510.71 


3' 3" 


62.06 


8.296 


11' 9" 


811.14 


108.43 


25' 9" 


3895.60 


520.77 


3' 4" 


65.28 


8.727 


12' 


846.03 


113.10 


26' 


3971.60 


530.93 


3' 5" 


68.58 


9.168 


12' 3" 


881.65 


117.86 


26' 3" 


4048.40 


541.19 


3' 6" 


71.97 


9.621 


12' 6" 


918. 


122.72 


26' 6" 


4125.90 


551.55 


3' 7" 


75.44 


10.085 


12' 9" 


955.09 


127.68 


26' 9" 


4204.10 


562. 


3' 8" 


78.99 


10.559 


13' 


992.91 


132.73 


27' 


4283. 


572.66 


3' 9" 


82.62 


11.045 


13' 3" 


1031.50 


137.89 


27' 3" 


4362.70 


583.21 


3' 10" 


86.33 


11.541 


13' 6" 


1070.80 


143.14 


27' 6" 


4443.10 


593.96 


3' 11" 


90.13 


12.048 


13' 9" 


1110.80 


148.49 


27' 9" 


4524.30 


604.81 


4' 


94. 


12.566 


14' 


1151.50 


153.94 


28' 


4606.20 


615.75 


4' 1" 


97.96 


13.095 


14' 3" 


1193. 


159.48 


28' 3" 


4688.80 


626.80 


4' 2" 


102. 


13.635 


14' 6" 


1235.30 


165.13 


28' 6" 


4772.10 


637.94 


4' 3" 


106.12 


14.186 


14' 9" 


1278.20 


170.87 


28' 9" 


4856.20 


649.18 


4' 4" 


110.32 


14.748 


15' 


1321.90 


176.71 


29' 


4941. 


660.52 


4' 5" 


114.61 


15.321 


15' 3" 


1366.40 


182.65 


29' 3" 


5026.60 


671.96 


4' 6" 


118.97 


15.90 


15' 6" 


1411.50 


188.69 


29' 6" 


5112.90 


683.49 


4' 7" 


123.42 


16.50 


15' 9" 


1457.40 


194.83 


29' 9" 


5199.90 


695.13 


4' 8" 


127.95 


17.10 


16' 


1504.10 


201 .06 


30' 


5287.70 


706.86 


4 / g* 


132.56 


17.72 


16' 3" 


1551.40 


207.39 


30' 3" 


5376.20 


718.69 


4' 10* 


137.25 


18.35 


16' 6" 


1599.50 


213.82 


30' 6" 


5465.40 


730.62 


4' 11" 


142.02 


18.99 


16' 9" 


1648.40 


220.35 


30' 9" 


5555.40 


742.64 


5' 


146.88 


19.63 


17' 


1697.90 


226.98 


31' 


5646.10 


754.77 


5' 1" 


151.82 


20.29 


17' 3" 


1748.20 


233.71 


31' 3" 


5737.50 


766.99 


5' 2" 


156.83 


20.97 


17' 6" 


1799.30 


240.53 


31' 6" 


5829.70 


779.31 


5' 3" 


161.93 


21.65 


17' 9" 


1851.10 


247.45 


31' 9" 


5922.60 


791.73 


5' 4" 


167.12 


22.34 


18' 


1903.60 


254.47 


32' 


6016.20 


804.25 


5' 5" 


172.38 


23.04 


18' 3" 


1956.80 


261.59 


32' 3" 


6110.60 


816.86 


5' 6" 


177.72 


23.76 


18' 6" 


2010.80 


268.80 


32' 6" 


6205.70 


829.58 


5' 7" 


183.15 


24.48 


18' 9* 


2065.50 


276.12 


32' 9" 


6301 .50 


842.39 



31 i Gall to 1 Bbl 

To find the capacity of tanks greater than the largest given in the table, look 
in the table for a tank of one-half of the given size and mult its capacity by 
4, or one of one-third its size and mult its capacity by 9, etc. 



398 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



C3 

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U Q 

OC rt 



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u. 
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OQ 

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c c 

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t- 

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iiiliiiiilii 


W ?! ^H ? 
D t~ t- 00 C 


gl! 


1 C 

D C 

^ } 


IS ; 




52 S 


iiiigiliiiii; 


5 05 r4 ( 


i -* i 

1 to C 

00 C 


n 

I 


: 




.a - 

52 


illiiiSiiilii 


liiii 


' 








52 2 


ililiiiiiiiii 


( 00 (M_ O < 

6 10 w o' o 

*S CO t* TH ^ 

5 to 50 *- t 


6 

< 




i 




a - 


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52 


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S g 










52 * 


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a 

52 * 


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CO i-f 05 00 CO * ; . 


; i 












oo oo t- t- to ' ' : : 

os TJ< os <#' os : : : : 


! ; 










P 

52 - 

-^ e 
d 


to t- os ... 

( ) O IN ... 


























31 


nB 










* 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



399 



WEIGHT OF FLAT BAR IRON PER LF 



ridth 


Thickness in In. 


iln. 


A 


4 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


i 


i 


I 


I 


1 




Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 




.21 


.42 


.63 


.84 


1.05 


1.26 


1.47 


1.68 


2.11 


2.53 


2 95 


3.37 




.24 


.47 


.71 


.95 


.18 


1.42 


1.66 


1.90 


2.37 


2.84 


3.32 


3.79 




.26 


.53 


.79 


1.05 


.32 


1.58 


1.84 


2.11 


2 63 


3.16 


3.68 


4.21 




.29 


.58 


.87 


1.16 


.45 


1.74 


2.03 


2,32 


2.89 


3.47 


4.05 


4.63 




.32 


.63 


.95 


1.26 


.58 


1.90 


2.21 


2.53 


3.16 


3.79 


4.42 


5.05 




.34 


.68 


1.03 


1.37 


.71 


2.05 


2.39 


2.74 


3.42 


4.11 


4.79 


5.47 




.37 


.74 


1.11 


1.47 


.84 


2.21 


2.58 


2.95 


3.68 


4.42 


5.16 


5.89 


s 


.40 


.79 


1.18 


1.58 


.97 


2.37 


2.76 


3.16 


3.95 


4.74 


5.53 


6.32 




.42 


.84 


1.26 


1.68 


2.11 


2.53 


2.95 


3.37 


4.21 


5.05 


5.89 


6.74 




.45 


.90 


1.34 


1.79 


2.24 


2.68 


3.13 


3.58 


4.47 


5.37 


6.26 


7.16 




.47 


.95 


1.42 


1.90 


2.37 


2.84 


3.32 


3.79 


4.74 


5.68 


6.83 


7.58 




.50 


1.00 


1.50 


2,00 


2.50 


3.00 


3.50 


4.00 


5.00 


6.00 


7.00 


8.00 




.53 


1.05 


1.58 


2.11 


2.63 


3.16 


3.68 


4.21 


5.26 


6.32 


7.37 


8.42 




.55 


1.11 


1.66 


2.21 


2.76 


3.32 


3.87 


4.42 


5.53 


6.63 


7.74 


8.84 




.58 


1.16 


1.74 


2.32 


2.89 


3.47 


4.05 


4.63 


5.79 


6.95 


8.10 


9.26 




.63 


1.26 


1.90 


2.5 


3.16 


3.79 


4.42 


5.05 


6.32 


7.58 


8.84 


10.10 


!'' 


.68 


1.37 


2.05 


2.74 


3.42 


4.11 


4.79 


5.47 


6.84 


8.21 


9.58 


10.95 


i 


-74 


1.47 


2.21 


2.95 


3.68 


4.42 


5.16 


5.89 


7.37 


8.84 


10.32 


11.79 




.84 


1.68 


2.53 


3.37 


4.21 


5.05 


5.89 


6.74 


8.42 


10.10 


11.79 


13.47 


i!!!! 


,95 


1.90 


2.84 


3.79 


4.74 


5.68 


6.63 


7.58 


9.47 


11.38 


13.26 


15.16 




1.0 


2.11 


3.16 


4.21 


5.26 


6.32 


7.37 


8.42 


10.53 


12.63 


14.74 


16.84 


i"i! 


1.16 


2.32 


3.47 


4.63 


5.79 


6.95 


8.10 


9.26 


11.58 


13.8916.21 


18.52 




.26 


2.53 


3.79 


5.05 


6.32 


7.58 


8.84 


10.10 


12.63 


15.16 


17.68 


20.21 


i'.'..! 


.36 


2.73 


4. TO 


5.47 


6.84 


8.21 


9.58 


10.94 


13.68 


16.42 


19.16 


21.88 




.47 


2.94 


4.42 


5.90 


7.36 


8.84 


10.32 


11.79 


14.74 


17.68 


20.64 


23.58 


i"!! 


.58 


3.16 


4.74 


6.32 


7.90 


9.48 


11.06 


12.64 


15.78 


18.94 


21.11 


25.50 




.68 


3.36 


5.05 


6.74 


8.42 


10.10 


11.78 


13.48 


16.84 


20.20 


23.58 


26.34 


i"!! 


.79 


3.58 


5.36 


7.16 


8.94 


10.74 


12.52 


14.32 


17.90 


21.48 


25.06 


28.53 




1.90 


3.79 


5.68 


7.58 


9.48 


11.36 


13.26 


15.16 


18.95 


22.75 


26.52 


30.32 


i'.'.!'. 


2.00 


4.00 


6.00 


8.00 


10.0012.00 


14.00 


16.00 


20.00 


24.00 


28.00 


32.00 




2.10 


4.21 


6.32 


8.42 


10. 52 12. 64 14. 74116. 84 


21.05 


25.26 


29.48 


33.68 


i!!!l 


2.21 


4.41 


6.64 


8.84 


11.0513.26 


15.4817.68 


22.10 


26. 52;30.95 


35.36 


i".:: 


2.32 

2.42 
2.52 


4.64 
4.84 
5.05 


6.95 

7.26 
7.58 


9.2611.58113.90 
9. 68|12. 1014.52 
10.00'12.64il5.16 


16.2118.52 
16.9419.36 
17.68'20.20 


23.16 
24.20 
25.26 


27.7832.42 
29.0633.90 
30.32'35.36 


37.04 
38.74 
40.40 



WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS OF ROUND AND SQ BAR 
IRON PER RUNNING FT IN LBS 



am 


Wt per ft, Ibs 


Diam 


Wt per ft, Ibs 


Diam 


Wt per ft, Ibs 


Diam 


Wt per ft, Ibs 


In 


Rd 


SQ 


In 


Rd 


Sq 


In 


Rd Sq 


In 


JRd | Sq 


V- 


.01 


.0131 




2.975 


3.80 


2|... 


11 9 15.15 


4J .. 


44.85 57.2 




.0411 


.0525 


11*'.'. 


3.338 


4.25 


2 




13,3 17. 




f 


47.54 


60.75 


fr'. 


.0925 


.1182 


k*. 


3.725 


4.73 


2 




14.7518 5 


4; 




50.33 


64.35 




.1651 


.2103 


if!:: 


4.12 


5.25 


2 


! ! ! 


16.4120.5 






53.32 


68. 




.2573 


.3200 




4.545 


5.78 


2 




18.1 23,1 


4 




56.34 


72. 


.'. 


.371 


.4735 


i| 


5. 


6.35 


2 




19.8525-2 


4 




59.44 


75.65 


k' 


.505 
.657 


.6445 

.84 


if- 


5.455 
5.945 


6.95 
7.55 


2 
3 




21.5 27.5 
23.7 30.06 


5 1 




62.62 
65.88 


79.80 
83.8 


L 


.835 


1.063 




6.445 


8.2 




25.5532.75 


5i 


69.23 


88.25 


i: 


1.031 
1.235 


1.314 
1.59 


1: 


6 975 
7.52 


8.85 
9.57 


3$'.'.'. 


27.8135.5 
29.8538.25 


5} !! 

5f .. 


72.65 
76.18 


92.5 
97.15 




1.475 


1.891 


if . 


8.05 


10.30 


3i! 


32.2541.15 


5J 


79.75101. 


i! 


1.74 


2.221 


1 1 3 


8.65 111. 05 


3f 


34.4544.15 


5| .. 


83.45105.8 




2.015 


2.575 


1$ 


9.25 11.83 


3! ! ! ! 


37.1 47.20 


5f .. 


87.20110.5 


i'.'. 


2.317 


2.95 


i *4 


9.9 S 12.62 


ft*.. 


39 5 50.25 


5J 


91.50115.15 




2.625 


3.35 


2 1 .!! 


10.55 


13.4 


14 ... 


41.9553.75 


6 1! 


95. 1120.25 



For steel, mult tabular number above (for size) by 1-01. 



400 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



WEIGHT OF MACHINE BOLTS PER HUNDRED 



1, 








] 


)iamete 


r 








a 
3 


i 


A 


I 


A 


i 


1 


I 


1 


1 


li 


Ibs 
3.37 


Ibs 
6 00 


Ibs 
9.68 


Ibs 
13.81 


Ibs 
17 62 


Ibs 

33 87 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


i 


3.81 


6 50 


10.43 


14.68 


21.25 


35.81 








V 


4.12 


7 00 


11.18 


15.68 


22 43 


38 25 


59 3i 






21 

24 
2f 
3 

? 

J* 

? 




4.38 
4.85 
5.30 
5.80 
6.30 
7.25 
7.90 
8.80 
9.70 
10.60 


7.50 
8,00 
8.50 
9.00 
10.00 
11.00 
12.00 
13,00 
14.00 
15,00 


11.68 
12.25 
13.68 
14.06 
15.68 
17.20 
18.73 
20.26 
21.70 
23.20 
24.73 
26 26 


16.68 
17.68 
18.68 
19.68 
21.68 
23.68 
25.68 
27.68 
29.68 
31.68 
33.68 
35 68 


23.87 
25.37 
26.50 
27.80 
30.40 
33.00 
38.08 
35.48 
40.68 
43.28 
45.88 
48 48 


40.25 
42.25 
44.25 
46.25 
50.25 
54.25 
58.25 
62.25 
66.25 
70.25 
74.25 
78 25 


61.87 
65.00 
68.12 
70.62 
76.62 
82.62 
88.62 
94.62 
100.62 
106.62 
112.62 
118 62 


'io3.i2 

109.38 
115.00 
123.00 
131.00 
139.00 
147.00 
155.00 
163.00 
171.00 
179 00 


' i 77.50 
188.04 
198.58 
209.12 
219.66 
230.20 
240 74 


7i 






27.80 


37 68 


50.08 


82 25 


124 62 


187.00 


251.28 


8' 
9 








29.32 


39.68 
43 68 


52.68 

57.88 


86.25 
94 25 


130.62 
142 92 


195.00 
212 00 


261.82 
283.82 


10 








47 68 


63 08 


102 25 


155 22 


229 00 


305 82 


11 








51.68 


68.28 


110 25 


167 52 


246 00 


327.82 


12 








55 68 


73 88 


118 25 


179 82 


263 00 


349 82 


13 










79 48 


126 25 


192 12 


280 00 


371.82 


14 


. 








85 08 


134 25 


204 42 


297 00 


393 82 


15 










90.68 


142 25 


216 72 


314 00 


415.82 


16 










96 28 


150 25 


229 02 


331 00 


437 82 


17 










101.88 


158 25 


241 32 


348 00 


459 82 


18 










107 48 


166 25 


253 62 


365 00 


481 82 


19 










113.08 


174 25 


265 92 


382.00 


503.82 


20 










118 68 


182 25 


278 22 


399 00 


525 82 























WEIGHT OF LAG SCREWS PER HUNDRED 



"S 










Diamete 


r 








| 


A 


1 


A 


i 


& 


s 


1 


i 


1 


1 ^ 


Ibs 
4 75 


Ibs 
7 10 


Ibs 

9 88 


Ibs 
13 90 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


Ibs 


1J 


5.25 


7.60 


10.87 


14.95 












2 


5 75 


8 10 


11 63 


15 80 


24 


26 25 








01 


6 25 


8 70 


12 50 


16 90 


25 


27 75 








r 

3i 

4* 
5 
5* 
6 

7 


6.75 
7.75 
8.75 
9.75 
10.75 
11.75 
12.75 
13.75 


9.35 
10.65 
11.95 
13.30 
14.70 
16.10 
17.50 
18.90 


13.40 
15.10 
16.50 
18.60 
20.40 
22.10 
23.80 
25.50 
29.25 


17.90 
19.87 
22. 
24.30 
26.87 
29. 
31.50 
34. 
39. 


26. 
28. 
31. 
34. 
37. 
40. 
43. 
46. 
52. 


29.25 
33.50 
36.50 
39.50 
42.20 
46. 
49.40 
53. 
60. 


46.50 
51.50 
56.50 
61.50 
67. 
72.25 
78. 
83.50 
94. 


'73." 
79. 
85. 
91. 
97. 
103. 
110. 
125. 


ios. 

112. 
121. 
130. 
140. 
150. 
170. 


8 
9 







33.00 


44. 
49. 


58. 
64. 


67.50 
75. 


104.50 
115. 


140. 
156. 


190. 
210. 


10 








54. 


70. 


82.50 


126. 


172. 


230. 


11 










76. 


90. 


137. 


188. 


250. 


12 










82. 


98. 


148. 


204. 


270. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



401 



MACHINE BOLTS 

With Square Heads, Square Nuts and Finished Points 
List Aug. 1, 1912. Price per 100. Discount Aug., 1913, 75 per cent. 



g 












9 /ie 












fl"S 


% 


5 /16 


% 


7 /l6 


% 


and 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


1% 


^a 












% 












JtolJ 


$1.70 


$2.00 


$2.40 


$2.80 


$3.60 


$5.20 


$7.70 


$10.50 


$15.10 


$22.50 


$30.00 


2 


1.78 


2.12 


2.56 


3.00 


3.86 


5.58 


8.25 


11.20 


16.00 


23.70 


31.50 


2J 


1.86 


. 2.24 


2.72 


3.20 


4.12 


5.96 


8.80 


11.90 


16.90 


24.90 


33.00 


3 


1.94 


2.36 


2.88 


3.40 


4.38 


6.34 


9.35 


12.60 


17.80 


26.10 


34.50 


3* 


2.02 


2.48 


3.04 


3.60 


4.64 


6.72 


9.90 


13.30 


18.70 


27.30 


36.00 


4 


2.10 


2.60 


3.20 


3.80 


4.90 


7.10 


10.45 


14.00 


19.60 


28.50 


37.50 


41 


2.18 


2.72 


3.36 


4.00 


5.16 


7.48 


11.00 


14.70 


20.50 


29.70 


39.00 


5 


2.26 


2.84 


3.52 


4.20 


5.42 


7.86 


11.55 


15.40 


21.40 


30.90 


40.50 


5i 


2.34 


2.96 


3.68 


4.40 


5.68 


8.24 


12.10 


16.10 


22.30 


32.10 


42.00 


6" 


2.42 


3.08 


3.84 


4.60 


5.94 


8.62 


12.65 


16.80 


23.20 


33.30 


43.50 


6J 


2.50 


3.20 


4.00 


4.80 


6.20 


9.00 


13.20 


17.50 


24.10 


34.50 


45.00 


7 


2.58 


3.32 


4.16 


5.00 


6.46 


9.38 


13.75 


18.20 


25.00 


35.70 


46.50 


71 


2.66 


3.44 


4.32 


5.20 


6.72 


9.76 


14.30 


18.90 


25.90 


36.90 


48.00 


8 


2.74 


3.56 


4.48 


5.40 


6.98 


10.14 


14.85 


19.60 


26.80 


38.10 


49.50 


9 


2.90 


3.80 


4.80 


5.80 


7.50 


10.90 


15.95 


21.00 


28.60 


40.50 


52.50 


10 


3.06 


4.04 


5.12 


6.20 


8.02 


11.66 


17.05 


22.40 


30.40 


42.90 


55.50 


11 


3.22 


4.28 


5.44 


6.60 


8.54 


12.42 


18.15 


23.80 


32.20 


45.30 


58.50 


12 


3.38 


4.52 


5.76 


7.00 


9.06 


13.18 


19.25 


25.20 


34.00 


47.70 


61.50 


13 


3.54 


4.76 


6.08 


7.40 


9.58 


13.94 


20.35 


26.60 


35.80 


50.10 


64.50 


14 


3.70 


5.00 


6.40 


7.80 


10.10 


14.70 


21.45 


28.00 


37.60 


52.50 


67.50 


15 


3.86 


5.24 


6.72 


8.20 


10.62 


15.46 


22.55 


29.40 


39.40 


54.90 


70.50 


16 


4.02 


5.48 


7.04 


8.60 


11.14 


16.22 


23.65 


30.80 


41.20 


57.30 


73.50 


17 


4.18 


5.72 


7.36 


9.00 


11.66 


16.98 


24.75 


32.20 


43.00 


59.70 


76.50 


18 


4.34 


5.96 


7.68 


9.40 


12.18 


17.74 


25.85 


33.60 


.44.80 


62.10 


79.50 


19 


4.50 


6.20 


8.00 


9.80 


12.70 


18.50 


26.95 


35.00 


46.60 


64.50 


82.50 


20 


4.66 


6.44 


8.32 


10.20 


13.22 


19.26 


28.05 


36.40 


48.40 


66.90 


85.50 


21 














29.15 


37.80 


50.20 


69.30 


88.50 


22 














3025 


3920 


52.00 


71.70 


91.50 


23 














31.35 


40.60 


53.80 


74.10 


94.50 


24 
















42.00 


55.60 


76.50 


97.50 


25 ' 














33.55 


43.40 


57.40 


78.90 


100.50 


26 














34.65 


44.80 


59^20 


8L30 


103.'50 
















35.75 


46.20 


61.00 


83 70 


106.50 


28 














B6.85 


47.'60 


62.'80 


88.10 


109.50 


29 


.... 


.... 




.... 


.... 


!'. !! 


37.95 


49.00 


64.60 


88.50 


112.50 


30 














39.06 


50.40 


66.40 


90.90 


115.50 



























The following extras are to be understood as a part of the above list : 

Bolts with Hexagon Heads or Hexagon Nuts, 10 per cent, extra. 

If both Hexagon Heads and Hexagon Nuts, 20 per cent, extra. 

Joint Bolts with Oblong Nuts, 10 per cent, extra. 

Bolts with Tee Heads, Askew Heads and Eccentric Heads, 20 per cent, 
extra. 

Key Bolts, 20 per cent, extra. 

Bolts with Cotter Holes, 25 per cent, extra. 

Special bolts with irregular Threads and unusual dimensions of Heads 
or Nuts wil be charged extra, at the discretion of the manufacturer. 

Machine Bolts when fitted with U. S. Standard Square Nuts, add 5 
per cent. 

Machine Bolts when fitted with U. S. Standard Hexagon Nuts, add 15 
per cent. 

Machine bolts packed other than standard packing to be charged 
extra at discretion of manufacturer. 



402 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

NUMBER OF RIVETS IN 100 LBS 



3$ 

MO) 

& 


Diameter of Rivets 


i 


* ' 


i 


A 


I 


A 


i 


1 


H 


I 


{ 


1 


, 
| 

Ij 
1 

lj 
1 
Ij 
1^ 

1 

2 

3j 
2 

i 

2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3' 

1 

4- 

I 

5 

5 

1 
e 

6 
6 

7 
7 

7 
7 
8 


! 

1 
i 
i 
i 


17500 
16000 
14400 
13500 
12000 
11600 
10800 
10000 
9300 
8700 
8100 


15900 
13800 
12200 
10900 
9800 
9000 
8300 
7600 

7100; 

'6366 


8000 
7000 
6300 
5700 
5200 
4700 
4400 
4100 
4000 
3800 
3500 
3400 
3000 

'2800 


5100 
4500 
4100 
3700 
3400 
3100 
2900 
2700 
2500 
2300 
2200 
2000 
1900 

'isoo 


3200 
2900 
2373 
2190 
2034 
1898 
1780 
1675 
1582 
1498 
1424 
1356 
1295 
1238 
1187 
1139 
1095 
1052 
1017 
982 
949 
890 
837 
791 


1900 
1800 
1476 
1371 
1280 
1200 
1129 
1066 
1010 
960 
914 
872 
834 
800 
768 
738 
711 
687 
662 
636 
611 
581 
548 
519 


























1103 
1030 
968 
910 
862 
815 
776 
740 
707 
672 
648 
623 
599 
577 
556 
537 
519 
503 
487 
459 
433 
411 
395 
390 
372 
355 
339 
325 
312 
300 
289 
279 


642 
604 
571 
541 
514 
489 
462 
446 
428 
411 
395 
381 
367 
354 
343 
332 
321 
311 
302 
285 
270 
257 
250 
244 
233 
223 
214 
205 
197 
190 
183 
177 
171 
165 
160 
155 
150 
146 
142 
138 


















400 
382 
365 
350 
335 
324 
311 
302 
293 
285 
277 
269 
261 
253 
245 
237 
230 
218 
208 
198 
195 
189 
180 
172 
166 
160 
154 
149 
144 
139 
135 
131 
127 
123 
119 
116 
113 
110 


345 
322 
311 
295 
284 
275 
266 
257 
249 
240 
233 
226 
219 
212 
206 
201 
196 
186 
177 
168 
165 
161 
155 
149 
143 
136 
131 
127 
123 
118 
114 
110 
107 
104 
100 
97 
94 
92 


'208' 
206 
204 
201 
199 
192 
185 
178 
172 
167 
162 
157 
152 
148 
144 
140 
132 
126 
120 
119 
115 
110 
1-5 
101 
97 
94 
91 
88 
85 
82 
79 
77 
75 
73 
71 
69 
67 


'i32' 

128 
124 
120 
116 
112 
108 
104 
100 
96 
92 
88 
85 
82 
79 

"77" 
75 
73 
71 
69 
67 
65 
63 
61 
59 
57 
55 
53 
51 
49 
47 
45 


::;:: 


5600 
'5666 




4600! 


2500 


1700 




4200 


2300 


1500 


; \\ 


3900 
3600 
3400i 
3200 


2200 
2000 
1900 
1800 


1400 
1300 
1200 
1175 


'' 


3000i 


1700 
1600 
1500 
1475 
1400 
1350 
1300 
1250 
1200 


1100 
1050 
1000 
925 
900 
850 
825 
775 
750 


749 
700 
650 
625 
600 
575 
550 
525 
500 


400 


... 






























































































































The measure of countersunk head rivets is over all. All 
other styles are measured from under the head. Boiler 
rivets less than 1 inch long are cent per Ib extra. Tank 
rivets ^ inch in diam and less are sold at a list price and 
subject to discount. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 403 

ESTABLISHED WEIGHTS OF GALV SHEETS 



u. s. 

Stand 
Gauge 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


WITT 

per V 
sf Ibs \ 


5.781 


4.531 
72.5 


3.281 
52.5 


2.656 


2.156 
34.5 


1.656 


1.406 


1.156 
18.5 


1.031 


.9062 
14.5 


.8437 
13.5 


.7812 


.7187 


.6562 


Wgt. / 
per k 
sf oz i 


92.5 


42.5 


26.5 


22.5 


16.5 


12.5 


11.5 


10.5 


Size of 
Sheet 


WEIGHT OF SHEET POUNDS 


24x 72 


69 


54 


39 


32 


26 


20 


17 


14 


12 


11 


10 


9 


9 


8 


24x 84 


81 


63 


46 


37 


30 


23 


20 


16 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


24x 96 


93 


73 


53 


43 


35 


27 


23 


19 


17 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


24x120 


116 


91 


66 


53 


43 


33 


28 


23 


21 


18 


17 


16 


14 


13 


26x 72 


75 


59 


43 


35 


28 


22 


18 


15 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


9 


26x 84 
26x 96 
26x120 


88 
100 
125 


69 
79 
98 


50 
57 
71 


40 
46 
58 


33 
37 

47 


25 
29 
36 


21 
24 
30 


18 
20 
25 


16 
18 
22 


14 
16 
20 


13 
15 
18 


12 
14 
17 


11 
12 
16 


10 
11 
14 


28x 72 


81 


63 


46 


37 


30 


23 


20 


16 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


28x 84 


94 


74 


54 


43 


35 


27 


23 


19 


17 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


28x 96 


108 


85 


61 


50 


40 


31 


26 


22 


19 


17 


16 


15 


13 


12 


28x120 


135 


106 


77 


62 


50 


39 


33 


27 


24 


21 


20 


18 


17 


15 


30x 72 


87 


68 


49 


40 


32 


25 


21 


17 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


30x 84 


101 


79 


57 


46 


38 


29 


25 


20 


18 


16 


15 


14 


13 


11 


30x 96 


116 


91 


66 


53 


43 


33 


28 


23 


21 


18 


17 


16 


14 


13 


30x120 
36x 72 


145 
104 


113 
82 


82 
59 


66 

48 


54 
39 


41 
30 


35 


29 


26 


23 


21 


20 


18 


16 


25 


21 


19 


16 


15 


14 


13 


12 


36x 84 


121 


95 


69 


55 


45 


35 


30 


24 


22 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


36x 96 


139 


109 


79 


64 


52 


40 


34 


28 


25 


22 


20 


19 


17 


16 


36x120 


173 


136 


98 


80 


65 


50 


42 


35 


31 


27 


25 


23 


22 


20 


42x 72 


121 


95 


71 


56 


45 


34 


29 


24 


22 


19 


18 


16 


15 


14 


42x 84 
42x 96 


142 
162 


111 
127 


80 
92 


65 

74 


53 


41 


34 
39 


28 
32 


25 
29 


22 
25 


21 
24 


19 
22 


18 
20 


16 
18 


60 


46 


42x120 
48x 72 


202 


159 


115 


93 


75 
52 


58 
40 


49 
34 


41 
28 


36 
25 


33 
22 


29 

20 


27 
19 


25 
17 


23 
16 


139 


109 


79 


64 


48x 84 


162 


125 


92 


74 


60 


46 


39 


32 


29 


25 


24 


22 


20 


18 


48x 96 


185 


145 


105 


85 


69 


55 


45 


37 


33 


29 


27 


25 


23 


21 


48x120 


231 


181 


131 


106 


86 


66 


56 


46 


41 


36 


34 


31 


29 




Price 
perlb 


12c 


12c 


12c 


12c 


13c 


13c 


14c 


14c 


15c 


15c 


16c 


17c 


19c 


21c 



Discount prices 75%. See Chapter XV. for Chicago prices. 



404 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 
LARGE SIZES 



No. 18 and heavier. Extra 

Over 36" to 40" wide, inc $0.01 

Over 40" to 44" wide, inc 01 i 

Over 44" to 48" wide, inc 02J 



No. 19 and lighter. Extra 

Less than 24" wide to 12" 

Over 32" to 36" wide, inc 

Over 36" to 40" wide, inc 

Over 40" to 44" wide, inc 

Over 44" to 48" wide, inc 



$0.01 
.01 
.02 
.03 
.05 



WEIGHT OF CORRUGATED SHEETS 

Per Sq 



BLACK 



GALVANIZED 



Gauge 
No. 


2" 2J* 3' 
Corrug 


U" 

Corrug 


2" 21" 3" 
Corrug 


li" 
Corrug 


Sheets 25" and 26* 


16 


271 Ibs 




286 Ibs 




wide after corrugating 












cover 24" (approxi- 


18 


217 Ibs 




232 Ibs 






20 


163 Ibs 


170 


178 Ibs 


185 


mately). 2" corruga- 
tions furnished in No. 


21 


150 Ibs 


156 


165 Ibs 






22 
23 


136 Ibs 
123 Ibs 


142 
128 


151 Ibs 
138 Ibs 


157 


18 and lighter. f" 
corrugations furnished 


24 
25 


110 Ibs 
96 Ibs 


114 
100 


124 Ibs 
111 Ibs 


129 


in No. 24 and lighter. 
A" corrugations fur- 












nished in No. 26 and 


26 


83 Ibs 


86 


98 Ibs 


101 














lighter. 


27 


76 Ibs 


79 


91 Ibs 


94 




28 


68 Ibs 


72 


85 Ibs 


87 





NUMBER OF SHEETS IN 1 SQ 

100 Sq Ft 



CoTTUg 


Width 
Flat 


Width after 
Corrug 


LENGTH OF SHEET 


72" 


84" 


96" 


108" 


,120" 


2" 2J* 3" 


28" 


26" 


7.692 


6.593 


5.7<:9 


5.128 


4.616 


H" 


28* 


25" 


8.000 


6.857 


6.000 


5.333 


4,800 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 405 

ESTIMATED WEIGHTS OF BLACK SHEETS 

U. 8. Standard Gauge. Weight per Sheet in Lbs. 



U.S. 
Gauge 


10 


12 


14 


16 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


Lbs 
per SF 

TEkF 
T 


5.825 
A 


4375 


3.125 


2312 


2.50 


2.00 


1.50 


125 


1.00 


.75 


.6875 


.625 


.5625 


.50 


A 


A 


i*t 


A 


* 

32.00 
33.67 
36.00 
40.00 
46.00 
48.00 

34.67 

36.47 
39.00 
4333 
4933 
52.00 

3733 

39.28 
42.00 
46.67 

40.00 

42.08 
45.00 
50.00 
57.50 
60.00 

38.50 
48.00 
54.00 
60.00 
69.00 
72.00 

44.92 
56.00 
63.00 
70.00 
80.50 
84.00 

5133 
64.00 
72.00 
80.00 
92.00 
96.00 


A 

24.00 

2525 
27 .00 
30.00 
34.50 
36.00 

26.00 
27.35 
29.25 
32.50 
3738 
39.00 

28.00 
29.46 
31.50 
35.00 

30.00 
31.56 
33.75 
37.50 
43.13 
45.00 

2838 
36.00 
40.50 
45.00 
51.75 
54.00 

33.69 

42.00 
4725 
52.51 
60.38 
63.00 

38.50 
48,00 
54.00 
60.00 
69.00 
72.00 


A 

20.00 
21.04 
22.50 
25.00 
28.75 
30 XX) 

21.67 

22.79 
24.37 
27.08 
31.15 
32.50 

23.33 
24.55 
2625 
29.17 

25.00 

26.30 
29.12 
3125 
35.94 
37.50 

24.06 
30.00 
33.75 
37.50 
43.13 
45.00 

28.07 
35.00 
39.37 
43.75 
50.31 
52.50 


A 


Tin 


AS 


A 

10.00 

10.52 
1125 
12.50 
14.38 
15X0 

10.83, 
11.40 
12.19 
13.54 
15.57 
1625 

11.67 
1227 
13.13 

14.58 

12.50 
13.15 
14.06 
15.63 
17.97 
18.75 


I* 


A 


24x 06 
101 
108 
120 
138 
144 

26x 96 
101 
108 
120 
138 
144 

28x 96 
101 
108 
120 

30x 96 
101 
108 
120 
138 
144 

36x 77 
96 
108 
120 
138 
144 

42x 77 
96 
108 
120 
138 
144 

48* 77 
96 
108 
120 
138 
144 

54x 77 
96 
108 
120 
138 
144 

60x 77 
06 
108 
120 
138 
144 


90.00 
94.69 
101.25 
112.50 
129.38 
1350)0 

97.50 
102.58 
109.69 
121.88 
140.1& 
146.25 

105.00 
110.47 
118.13 
131.25 

112.50 
118.36 
126.56 
140.63 
161.72 
168.75 

108.28 
135.00 
151.88 
168.75 
194.06 
202.50 

12633 

157.50 
177.19 
19638 
226.41 
236.25 

14438 
180.00 
202.50 
225.00 
258.75 
270.00 

162.42 
201.50 
227.82 
253.13 
291.09 
303.75 


70.00 
73.65 
78.75 
87.50 
100.63 
105.00 

75.83 
79.78 
85.31 
94.79 
109.01 
113.75 

81.67 
85.92 

91.88 
102.08 

187.50 
92.06 
98.44 
109.38 
125.78 
131.25 

8422 
105.00 
118.13 
131.25 
145.47 
157.50 

9826 
122.50 
13731 
153.13 
176.09 
183.75 

11229 

140.00 
157.50 
175.00 
201 .25 
210.00 

12633 
1157.50 
17720 
19638 
21821 
23625 


50.00 
52,60 
5625 
62.50 
7138 
75.00 

54.17 
57.00 
60.94 
67.71 
7737 
8125 

5833 
6137 
65.63 

72.92 

62.50 
65.76 
7031 
78.13 
89.84 
93.75 

60.17 
75.00 
8438 
93.75 
10731 
112.50 

70.18 
87.50 
98.44 
10938 
125.78 
13125 

8021 

100.00 
112.50 
125.00 
143.75 
150.00 


45.00 
47.34 
50.68 
5625 
64.69 
67.50 

48.75 
5129 
5484 
60.94 
70.08 
73.13 

52.50 
5523 
59.06 
65.63 

5625 
59.18 
62.69 
7031 
8036 
8438 

54.14 
67.50 
75.94 
8438 
97.03 
10125 

63.16 

78.75 
88.59 
98.44 
113.20 
118.13 

72.19 
90.00 
10125 
112.50 
129.38 
135.00 


40.00 
42.08 
45.00 
50.00 
57.50 
60.00 

4333 

45.59 
48.75 
54.17 
6229 
65.00 

46.67 
49.09 
52.50 
5833 

50.00 

52.60 
5625 
62.50 
71.88 
75.00 

48.13 
60.00 
67.50 
75.00 
8625 

moo 

56.14 
70.00 
78.75 
87.50 
100.63 
105.00 

64.17 
80.00 
90.00 
100.00 
115.00 
120.00 


16.00 

1634 
18.00 
20.00 
23.00 
24 JOO 

17.34 

18.24 
19.50 
21.67 
24.92 
26.00 

18.67 
19.64 
21.00 
2333 

20.00 

21.04 
22.50 
25.00 
28.75 
30.00 


12.00 

12.63 
13.50 
15.00 
1725 
18.00 

13.00 
13.68 
14.63 
1625 
18.69 
19.50 

14.00 
14.73 
15.75 
17.50 

15X0 

15.78 
1638 
18.75 
21.56 
22.50 


11X0 
11.57 
12.38 
13.75 
1531 
16.50 

11.92 
12.54 
13.41 
14.90 
17.13 
1738 

12.83 
13.50 
14.44 
16J04 

13.75 

14.47 
15.47 
17.19 
19.77 
20.63 


0X0 

9.47 
10.13 
1125 


8.00 
8.42 
9X0 
10X0 


0.75 

10.26 
10.97 
12.19 


8.67 
9.12 

1033 






10.50 
11.05 
1131 
13.13 

1125 


933 
932 
10.50 
11.67 







..... 


. .-.. 


19.25 
24.00 
27.00 
30.00 
34.50 
36.00 

22.46 
28.00 
31 .5C 
35.00 
40.25 
42 00 


14.44 

18.00 
20.25 
22.50 
25.88 
27 XX) 

1634 

21.00 
23.63 
26.25 
30.19 
31.50 

1925 

24.00 
27.00 
30.00 
34.50 
36.00 


1323 
16.50 
18.56 
20.63 
23.72 
24.75 

15.44 
19.25 
21.66 
24.06 
27.67 
2838 

17.65 
22 JOO 
24.75 
27.50 
31.63 
33.00 


12X3 
15.00 
16.88 
18.75 
21.56 
22.50 

14X4 
17.50 
19.69 
21.88 
25.16 
2624 

16.04 

20X0 
22.50 
25.00 
28.75 
30.00 










. . ..^. 


l' X 

















. 


32.08 
40.00 
45.00 
60.00 
57.50 
60.00 


25.67 
32.00 
36.00 
40.00 
46.00 
48.00 






















9026 
112.50 
126.57 
140.63 
161.71 
168.75 


NOTE 
Above estimated weights are based on U. 8. standard 
gauge for Iron. For steel, add 2 %. These figures 
are given for convenience in estimating only, and may 
vary somewhat in actual practice. The sizes below the 
heavy black line will probably considerably exceed the 
weights given, and it is safe, therefore, to allow for an 
overweight of at least 10 %. 


180.48 
225.00 
253.12 
281.26 
328.44 
337.50 


14036 
175.00 
19638 
21936 

251.56 
262.50 





406 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



ROUND COPPER RODS 

Weight per Ft 



Wgt per ft 
iameter in length 
| 424 Ibs 


Diar 

H 
If 

I 5 


Wgt per ft 
neter in lengths 
4 71 Ibs 


755 Ibs. 


5 71 Ibs 


1 19 Ibs 


6 79 Ibs 


1 69 Ibs. 


7 94 Ibs 


.... 2 31 Ibs 


If 


9 21 Ibs 


3. 02 Ibs. 


H 


..10.61 Ibs. 



3. 82 Ibs. 2" 12.08 Ibs. 

METALS 
Weight per Sq Ft 



Thickness 


Wro't 
Iron 


Cast 
Iron 


Steel 


Copper 


Brass 


Lead 


Zinc 




Ibs 
2 51 


Ibs 
2 34 


Ibs 
2 55 


Ibs 
2 89 


Ibs 
2 67 


Ibs 
3 69 


Ibs 
2 34 


i" 


5.03 


4,69 


5.10 


5.78 


5.35 


7 38 


4 68 


1 // 


7 58 


7 03 


7 66 


8 67 


8 02 


11 07 


7 02 


** 


10.07 


9.38 


10.21 


11.56 


10.7 


14 76 


9 36 


5 // 


12.58 


11 73 


12 71 


14 45 


13 37 


18 45 


11 7 


f " 


15.10 


14.07 


15.31 


17.34 


16.05 


22.14 


14 04 


7 // 


17 62 


16 42 


17 87 


20 23 


18 72 


25 83 


16 34 


9* 


20.14 


18.77 


20.42 


23.12 


21.4 


29 53 


18 72 


9 // 


22 65 


21 11 


22 97 


26 01 


24 07 


33 22 


21 08 


f " 


25.17 


23.46 


25 52 


28 90 


26 75 


36 91 


23 44 


ll// 


27 69 


25 81 


28 08 


31 97 


29 42 


40 60 


25 80 


V/f 


30 21 


28.15 


30 63 


34 68 


32 1 


44 29 


28 13 


A" 


32 72 


30 50 


33 18 


37 57 


35 19 


47 93 


30 49 


* 


35.24 


32.85 


35 73 


40 69 


38 28 


51 67 


32 81 


44" 


37 76 


35 19 


28 28 


43 35 


41 37 


55 37 


35 17 


1" 


40.28 


37.54 


40.83 


46.25 


43.75 


59.06 


37.50 



BRICK: Common brick of the national size weigh from 4 
to 5 Ibs; pressed and paving, from 6 to 7, depending upon 
clay, burning and size. 

LIME: On the basis of 53 Ibs to the cf lime weighs about 
66 Ibs to the bushel, but in bulk it is often sold on the basis 
of 80 Ibs or 200 Ibs to the bbl of 21 bushels. 

WEIGHTS OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES PER CF 



Names of Substances 

Ash, American White, Dry 

Asphaltum . 



Average 
Wgt, Lbs 
38 

Brass (Copper and Zinc) Cast. ............. . ! 504 

Brass Rolled 524 

Brick, Best Pressed 150 

Brick, Common Hard 125 

Brick, Soft, Inferior 100 

Brick, Fire 137 



Brickwork, Pressed Brick. 
Brickwork, Ordinary 



140 
112 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 40T 

Average 

Names of Substances Wgt, Lba 

Cement, Hydraulic, Ground, Loose, American, Rosendale 56 

Cement, Hydraulic, Ground, Loose, American, Louisville 50 

Cement, Hydraulic, Ground, Loose, English, Portland 90 

Cherry, Dry 42 

Chestnut, Dry 41 

Concrete 140 

Copper, Cast 543 

Copper, Rolled 548 

Ebony, Dry ' 76 

Elm, Dry 35 

Flint 162 

Glass, Common Window .. . 157 

Gneiss. Common 168 

Granite 170 

Gravel, about the same as Sand, which see 

Hemlock, Dry 25 

Hickory, Dry 53 

Ice 50 to 58 

Iron, Cast 450 

Iron, Wrt, Purest 485 

Iron, Wrt, Average 480 

Lead. 711 

Lime, Quick, Ground, Loose, or in Small Lumps 

Lime, Quick, Ground, Loose, Thoroughly Shaken 75 

Lime, Quick, Ground, Loose, Per Struck Bushel 66 

Limestones and Marbles 168 j 

Limestones and Marbles, Loose, in Irregular Fragments 96 

Mahogany, Spanish, Dry 

Mahogany, Honduras, Dry I 35 

Maple, Dry 49 

Marbles, see Limestones. 

Masonry, of Granite or Limestone, well dressed 165 

Masonry, of Mortar Rubble 154 

Masonry, of Dry Rubble (well Scabbled) 138 

Masonry, of Sandstone, well dressed 144 

Mortar, Hardened 103 

Oak, Live, Dry 59 

Oak, White, Dry 52 

Oak, Other Kinds 32 to 45 

Pine, White, Dry 25 

Pine, Yellow, Northern 

Pine, Yellow, Southern 45 

Plaster of Paris , 

Quartz, Common, Pure 

Sand, of Pure Quartz, Dry, Loose 90 to 106 

Sand, Well Shaken 99 to 117 

Sand, Perfectly Wet 120 to 140 

Sandstones, Fit for Building 151 

Shales, Red or Black 162 

Slate 175 

Snow, freshly fallen 5 to 12 

Snow, Moistened and Compacted by Rain 15 to 50 

Spruce, Dry 2& 

Steel...... 490 

Sycamore, Dry jg 

T^cast.-.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 459 

Walnut, Black, Dry 38 

Water, Pure Rain or Distilled, at 60 Fahrenheit l 

Water, Sea 

Zinc or Spelter . 4 37 

Green Timbers usually weigh from one-fifth to one-half more than dry. 



408 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

WEIGHT OF WINDOWS 

There are so many scores of different sizes and thicknesses 
that it is best to refer to millbook for weight. A fair idea 
is given in chapter on niillwork. 

WEIGHTS OF FOUR PANEL PINE DOORS 

SIZE THICKNESS 

i" ii" IF ir 

2'0"x6'0" 17 22 33 45 

2'4"x6'4" 21 27 35 48 

2'6"x6'6" 23 29 - 36 53 

2'8"x6'8" 24 31 42 56 

2'10"x6'10" 33 44 53 

3'0"x7'0" 85 42 
3'0"x7'6" 
Fr moulded doors add to above five pounds for each side moulded. 

Approx weights of veneered hardwood doors. 
If thick, 3 Ibs to the sf 1 \" thick, 3i Ibs to the sf 21" thick, 4J Ibs to the sf 

SQUARE COLUMNS 

4x4 4x4 4x4 5x5 5x5 5x5 6x6 6x6 6x6 

8-0 9-0 10-0 8-0 9-0 10-0 8-0 9-0 10-0 

Poplar.... 18 24 27 38 44 52 50 70 79 

Fir 22 25 28 42 49 65 56 75 82 

BUILT UP COLS 

8x8 8x8 8x8 10x10 10x10 10x10 

8-0 9-0 10-0 8-0 9-0 10-0 

Poplar 65 73 80 70 88 100 

Fir 75 78 85 75 93 - 105 

PORCH NEWELS 

4x4 5x5 6x6 Balusters Poplar about 1 Ib each 

4-0 4-0 4-0 Spindles Poplar about \ Ib each. 

Poplar 6*lbs 11 Ibs 16 Ibs. 

Fir 7 Ibs Hi Ibs l^i Ibs. 

MANTELS 

The Woodwork for 1 Mantel will weigh about 300 Ibs. 
The Tile for 1 Mantel will weigh about 75 Ibs. 

The Grate for 1 Mantel will weigh about 75 Ibs. 

STAIRWORK 

6x6 Starting Newels about 30 Ibs. 5x5 Angle Newels about 25 Ibs. 

Stair Rail per ft about 2J Ibs. Stair Balusters each about 2 Ibs. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



409 



WEIGHT OF LUMBER 

Southern Lumber Manufacturers' Association 
WEIGHTS OF YELLOW PINE. The schedule marked "A" 
applies from short leaf pine district. The schedule marked 
"B" applies from long leaf district. Revised and adopted at 
Memphis, Jan. 15, 1902. 



"SCHEDULE "A" Lbs 

Flooring if .Plain Back 2,000 

Flooring if Hollow Back 1,900 

Ceiling, f" 1,000 

Ceiling, \" '. 



Ceiling, |". 
' \" 



1 ,300 

.1,500 

Ceiling, 1" 1,800 

Siding from 1" stock 1,000 

Siding from U" stock 1,250 

Drop Siding and Moulded Casing. 1,800 

Moulded Base 2,000 

Finish, inch, S 2 S 2,500 

Finish, H, li & 2", S 2 S . . .2,700 

Finish, 1, 1J, 1J and 2", Rough. .3,100 

Shiplap, D & M 2,300 

Grooved Roofing 2,400 

Com. Boards and Fencing, SIS 

or 2S 2,500 

Com. Boards, and Fencing,Rough 3,200 
2x4, 2x6 and 2x8, S 1 S 1 E, to If ...2,500 

2x4, 2x6 and 2x8, Rough 3,200 

2x10 and 2x12, S 1 S 1 E, to If . ...2.600 

2x10 and 2x12, Rough 3,200 

2x14 and 3x12, S 1 S 1 E 3,200 

2x14 and 3x12, Rough 3,700 

4x4 and 6x6, S 1 S 1 E 3,200 

4x4 and 6x8, Rough 4,000 

8x8 and Over, Rough 4,000 



SCHEDULE "B" Lbs 

Flooring, ifxSJ. . . .2,100 

Flooring, ifxSJ 2,300 

Ceiling, f" 1,000 

Ceiling, I" 1,300 

Ceiling, |" 1,600 

Ceiling, \" 1,900 

Bevel Siding, from 1" stock 1,000 

Bevel Siding, from \\" stock. . .1.400 

Drop Siding, |x5i" 2,000 

Moulded Casing, ifx4J to 5J". .2,000 
Moulded Base if* from 8, 10 and 

and 12", Stock 2,100 

Finish, inch S 2 S to H 2,600 

Finish, 11, 1 1, and 2", S 2 S to 

Standard Thickness 2,800 

Finish, Rough 3,400 

Shiplap, D.& M.. if 2.500 

Grooved roofing if* 2,600 

Common Boards, Si S or 2 S 

to if" 2,700 

Fencing, S 1 S to if" 2,700 

Common Boards and Fencing, 

Rough 3,400 

2x2, 2x6 and 2x8, S 1 S 1 E, 

to 1| 2,700 

2x4, 2x6 and 2x8, Rough 3,400 

2x10 and 2x12, S 1 S 1 E, to If ..,2,800 

2x10 and 2x12, Rough 3,400 

2x14 and 3x12, S and E, \ off 

g'n 3,600 

2x14 and 3x12 Rough, Green . .4,200 
4x4 and 6x6. S and E, Green . . . 3,600 
4x4 and 6x6. Rough, Green... .4,200 

6x8 and Over, Rough 4,300 

6x8 and Over, S 4 S, Green... .3,800 



NORTHERN WEIGHTS 



Pine and Hemlock 

Norway and Y P 

Oak and Walnut 

Ash and Maple 

Oregon and Wash. Fir. 



Dry Partly Seasoned 
2500 2700 
3000 4000 
4000 5000 
3500 4000 



2800 



3000 



Green 

3000 
5000 



3300 



WEIGHTS OF LUMBER, ETC, DRY 



Flooring, Dressed and Matched, per 1 000' ............. 1 ,800 Ibs 

Poplar Box Boards, per 1,000' .................................. 2,000 Ibs 

Siding, Dressed, per 1 ,000' 



Ceiling, f" Thick, per 1,000' 



800 Ibs 
800 Ibs 
900 Ibs 



Ceiling, \" Thick, per 1 ,000' ................. . 

Boards, Dressed, One Side, per 1,000 ............................ 2,000 Ibs 



410 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



Weights of Lumber, Etc., Dry Continued 

Boards, and Dimension, Rough, per 1,000'' 

Shingles, per 1,000 pcs 

Lath, per 1,000'pcs 

Pickets, Dressed, per 1,000 pcs 

Pickets, Rough, per 1,000 pcs 

Weight of Mouldings, 1x1", per 100 If, 15 Ibs. 

WEIGHTS OF HARDWOOD FLOORING 



Flooring Weighs, per 1,000'. 
Flooring Weighs, per 1,000'. 
Flooring Weighs, per 1,000'. 
Flooring Weighs, per 1,000'. 
and Thicker Weighs, 1,000'. 



2,400 Ibs 

240 Ibs 

500 Ibs 

1 ,800 Ibs 

2,400 Ibs 



1,000 Ibs 
1,200 Ibs 
1,500 Ibs 
2,000 Ibs 
2,500 Ibs 



LUMBER RECKONER 





Length in Feet 


Size in 


















1 






In 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 28 


30 


32 


2x4 


6* 


8 


95 


10* 


12 


134 


14* 


16 


174 18* 


20 


21| 


2x6 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 28 


30 


32 


2x8 
2 xlO 


134 

16* 


16 
20 


18$ 
234 


31 


24 
30 


26* 
334 


294 
36* 


32 

40 


34* 374 
434 46* 


40 
50 


42f 
681 


2 x!2 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 56 


60 


64 


2 x!4 
2 x!6 


234 
26* 


28 
32 


32* 
374 


374 
42* 


42 

48 


46* 
534 


514 
58* 


56 
64 


60* 654 
69i 74* 


70 
80 


ill 


24x12 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 70 


75 


80 


24x14 
24x16 


334 


35 
40 


40$ 
46* 


46* 
534 


524 
60 


584 
66* 


64* 
734 


70 
80 


III 


81* 
934 


874 
100 


93* 
106| 


3x6 


15 


18 


21 


24 


27 


30 


33 


36 


39 


42 


45 


48 


3x8 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


64 


3 xlO 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


80 


3 x!2 


30 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


78 


84 


90 


96 


3 x!4 


35 


42 


49 


56 


63 


70 


77 


84 


91 


98 


105 


112 


3 x!6 


40 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


120 


128 


4x4 


134 


16 


18* 


214 


24 


26* 


294 


32 


34* 


374 


40 


42f 


4x6 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


64 


4x8 


26* 


32 


374 


42* 


48 


534 


58* 


64 


694 74* 


80 


85* 


4 xlO 


334 


40 


46f 


534 


60 


66* 


734 


80 


86* 934 


100 


106f 


4 x!2 


40 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


120 


128 


4 x!4 


46* 


56 


654 


74* 


84 


934 


102* 


112 


1214 


130* 


140 


1494 


6x6 


30 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


78 


84 


90 


96 


6x8 


40 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


120 


128 


6 xlO 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


130 


140 


150 


160 


6 x!2 


60 


72 


84 


96 


108 


120 


132 


144 


156 


168 


180 


196 


6 x!4 


70 


84 


98 


112 


126 


140 


154 


168 


182 


196 


210 


224 


6 x!6 


80 


96 


112 


128 


144 


160 


176 


192 


208 224 


240 


256 


8x8 
8 xlO 


534 
663 


64 
80 


74| 
934 


854 
106* 


96 

120 


106* 
1334 


1174 
146* 


128 
160 


138* 1494 
1734 186* 


160 
200 


170* 
213* 


8 x!2 


80 


96 


112 


128 


144 


160 


176 


192 


208 224 


240 


256 


8 x!4 
10 xlO 


934 
83| 


112 
100 


130* 
116| 


11494 
1334 


168 
150 


lief 


2054 
1834 


224 
200 


242* 2614 
216* 2334 


280 
250 


298* 
266* 


10 x!2 


100 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


220 


240 


260 1 280 


300 


320 


lOx 14 
10 x!6 


1163 
133i 


1140 
160 


163J 
186| 


186* 
2134 


210 
240 


2334 
266* 


256* 
2934 


280 
320 


3034 
346* 


326* 
3734 


350 
400 


373i 

426* 


12 x!2 


120 


144 


168 


192 


216 


240 


264 


288 


312 


336 


360 


384 


12 x!4 


140 


168 


196 


224 


252 


280 


308 


336 


364 


392 


420 


448 


12 x!6 


160 


192 


224 


256 


288 


320 


352 


384 


416 I 448 


480 


512 


14 x!4 
14 x!6 


1634 
186^ 


196 
224 


228^ 
261 i 


2614 
2983 


294 
336 


326* 
3734 


3594 
410* 


392 
448 


424* 4574 
4854 522* 


490 
560 


522* 
597J 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



411* 



There are several books and devices which save the 
trouble of using the above table. I have used a little book 
sold by B. L. Jenks, Cleveland, O., for several years. 



TABLE OF BOARD MEASURE 



Width 


Length 




10 


12 


JM 


16 


18 


20 


4 .. 


3J 


4 




5J 


6 


6| 


5 


4J 


5 


5| 


6$ 


7i 


8} 


6 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


7 


55 


7 


8} 


w 


10J 


Hf 


s 


. . . 6$ 


8 


9\ 


10$ 


12 


13J 


9 


7i 


9 


10i 


12 


13i 


15 


10 


8J 


10 


11$ 


13J 


15 


16f 


11 . . 


9fc 


11 


125 


14$ 


16J 


18J 


12 


.10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


13 


10| 


13 


15J 


17i 


19J 


21$ 


14 


11$ 


14 


16J 


18$ 


21 


23 J 


15 


12i 


15 


11 i 


20 


22i 


25 


16 


13j 


16 


18$ 


21J 


24 


26f 


17 


14J 


17 


19! 


22$ 


25J 


28 J 


18... 


..15 


18 


21 


24 


27 


30 



FORM SHEET FOR BILLS OF MATERIAL 

Amount 



No. of 
Pieces 


Description 


Size 


Length 


Quan'y 


Rate 


Material 


Labor 


40 
200 
180 

100 
? 


Sills 
Joists 
Studs 

Bbls Portland 
Crushed Stone 
Sand 

White Lead 


6x8 
2 x 12 
2x6 


20 
16 
18 


3200 
3200 
3240 

9640 


$25 
23 
21 

8 

$1.80 
1.75 
1.00 

$0.07 


$81.00 
73.60 
68.05 


$77.15 


100 tons 
55 yds 

400 Ibs 


$221.65 


$77.15- 


$180.00 
175.00 
55.00 

$410.00 


$135.0O 


$28.00 





412 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



WAGES TABLE 

FOR TWENTY OR THIRTY AMERICAN CITIES 
(The rate is given in cents per hour.) 



Masons and Bricklayers 

Carpenters 

Structural Iron Setters 

Hoisting Engineers 

Sheet Metal Workers 

Roofers 

Plumbers, Steam and Gas Fitters 

Lathers 

Plasterers 

Stone and Marble Cutters and Setters 

Cement Finishers 

Tile Setters 

Painters 

Laborers and Hod Carriers 

Note: Stone masons' wages are usually from five to ten cents below brick- 
layers'. 

The wages in the high column are usually owing to special circumstances, 
such as the large amount of building in San Francisco. While, of course, they 
vary from year to year the table gives a fair average. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

LENGTH SURFACE 

12 inches = 1 foot 44 square inches = 1 sq. ft 

3 ft. =1 yd. 9 sq. ft. = 1 sq. yd. 

5i yds. = 1 rod 640 acres = 1 sq. mile 
40 rods = 1 furlong 
8 fur. = 1 mile 

SQUARE 

A square in the building trades is 100 sq. ft. 
CUBIC OR SOLID WEIGHT 

1728 cu. in. = 1 cu. ft. 16 ounces = 1 pound (Ib.) 

27 cu. ft. = 1 cu. yd. 2000 pounds (Ibs.) = 1 ton 



Average 


Highest 


Lowest 


65 


87 Yz 


50 


45 


62 y z 


30 


51 


62 y 2 


40 


51 


75 


40 


43 


62 y?. 


35 


42 


62 y* 


30 


58 


81 


'.0 


48 


62 H 


30 


61 


87 y 2 


50 


53 


70 


45 


48 


75 


35 


55 


75 


40 


41 


56 


30 


29 


50 


20 



128 cu. ft. 
2150.42 cu. in 



= 1 cord 
= 1 bushel 



2240 pounds 



1 long ton 



DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF INCHES, FEET, AND YARDS 



Frac. of 
an Inch 
1-16 = 

3-16 - 
5-16 - 

j-i. = 

9-16 = 
11-16 = 
13-16 = 



Dec. of 
an Inch 
: .0625 = 
= .125 = 
= .1875 = 
.25 
.3125 = 
.375 = 
.4375 = 
.5 

.5625 = 
.625 = 
.6875 = 
.75 

.8125 : 
.875 = 



Dec. of 
a Foot 
.00521 
.01041 
.01562 
.02083 
.02604 
.03125 
.03645 
.04166 
.04688 
.05208 
.05729 
.06250 
.06771 
.07291 



Ins. Feet Yards 



1 = .0833 = .0277 

2 = .1666 = .0555 

3 = .25 = .0833 

4 = .3333 = .1111 

5 = .4166 = .1389 

6 = .5 = .1666 

7 = .5833 = .1944 

8 = .666 = .2222 

9 = .75 = .25 

10 = .8333 = .2778 

11 = .9166 = .3055 
12-1. - .3333 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



413 



SQUARE FEET OF RADIATING SURFACE OF PIPE 
PER LINEAL FOOT 

On all lengths over one foot, fractions less than tenths are added 
to or dropped. 



Size of Pipe 



COn 

3* 


3 


1 


H 


H 


2 


2* 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


.3 


i 


.275 


.346 


.434 


.494 


.622 


.753 


.916 


1.175 


1.455 


1.739 


1.996 


2.257 


2 


.5 


.7 


.9 


1. 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2.4 


2.9 


3.5 


4. 


4.5 


3 


.8 


1. 


1.3 


1.5 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.5 


4.4 


5.2 


6. 


6.8 


4 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


2. 


2.5 


3. 


3.6 


4.7 


5.8 


7. 


8. 


9. 


5 


1.4 


1.7 


2.2 


2.4 


3.1 


3.8 


4.6 


5.8 


7.3 


7.7 


10. 


11.3 


6 


1.6 


2.1 


2.6 


2.9 


3.7 


4.5 


5.5 


7. 


8.7 


10.5 


12. 


13.5 


7 


1.9 


2.4 


3. 


3.4 


4.4 


5.3 


6.4 


8.2 


10.2 


12.1 


14. 


15.8 


8 


2.2 


2.8 


3.5 


3.9 


5. 


6. 


7.3 


9.4 


11.6 


13.9 


16. 


18. 


9 


2.5 


3.1 


3.9 


4.4 


5.6 


6.8 


8.2 


10.6 


13.1 


15.7 


18. 


20.3 


10 


2.7 


3.5 


4.3 


4.9 


6.2 


7.5 


9.1 


11.8 


14.6 


17.4 


20. 


22.61 


11 


3. 


3.8 


4.8 


5.4 


6.8 


8.3 


10. 


12.9 


16. 


19.1 


22. 


24.9 


12 


3.3 


4.1 


5.2 


5.9 


7.5 


9. 


11. 


14.1 


17.4 


20.9 


24. 


27.1 


13 


3.6 


4.5 


5.6 


6.4 


8.1 


9.8 


11.9 


15.3 


18.9 


22.6 


26. 


29.4 


14 


3.8 


4.8 


6.1 


6.9 


8.7 


10.5 


12.8 


16.5 


20.3 


24.3 


28. 


31.6 


15 


4.1 


5.2 


6.5 


7.4 


9.3 


11.3 


13.7 


17.6 


21.8 


26.1 


30. 


33.9 


16 


4.4 


5.5 


6.9 


7.9 


10. 


12. 


14.6 


18.8 


23.2 


27.8 


32. 


36.1 


17 


4.7 


5.9 


7.4 


8.4 


10.6 


12.8 


15.5 


20. 


24.7 


29.5 


34. 


38.4 


18 


5. 


6.2 


7.8 


8.9 


11.2 


13.5 


16.5 


21.2 


26.2 


31.3 


36. 


40.6 


19 


5.2 


6.6 


8.3 


9.4 


11.8 


14.3 


17.4 


22.3 


27.6 


33.1 


38. 


42.9 


20 


5.5 


6.9 


8.7 


9.9 


12.5 


15. 


18.3 


23.5 


29.1 


34.8 


40. 


45.2 


21 


5.8 


7.3 


9.1 


10.4 


13. 


15.8 


19.2 


24.7 


30.5 


36.5 


42. 


47.4 


22 


6. 


7.6 


9.6 


10.9 


13.7 


16.5 


20.2 


25.9 


32. 


38.3 


44. 


49.7 


23 


6.3 


8. 


10. 


11.3 


14.3 


17.3 


21.1 


27. 


33.5 


40. 


46. 


52. 


24 


6.6 


8.3 


10.4 


11.9 


14.9 


18. 


22. 


28.2 


34.9 


41.7 


48. 


54.2 


25 


6.9 


8.6 


10.9 


12.3 


15.6 


18.8 


22.9 


29.3 


36.3 


43.5 


50. 


56.4 


26 


7.1 


9. 


11.3 


12.8 


16.2 


19.5 


23.8 


30.5 


37.8 


45.2 


52. 


58.6 


27 


7.4 


9.4 


11.7 


13.3 


16.8 


20.3 


24.7 


31.7 


39.3 


47. 


54. 


61. 


28 


7.7 


9.7 


12.2 


13.8 


17.4 


21. 


25.6 


32.9 


40.7 


48.7 


56. 


63.2 


29 


8. 


10. 


12.6 


14.3 


18. 


21.8 


26.6 


34.1 


42.2 


50,4 


58. 


65.5 


30 


8.3 


10.4 


13. 


14.8 


18.7 


22.5 


27.5 


35.3 


43.6 


52.1 


60. 


67.7 


31 


8.5 


10.7 


13.5 


15.3 


19.3 


23.3 


28.4 


36.4 


45.1 


53.9 


62. 


70. 


32 


8.8 


11.1 


13.9 


15.8 


19.9 


24.1 


29.3 


37.6 


46.5 


55.6 


64. 


72.2 


33 


9.1 


11.4 


14.3 


16.3 


20.5 


24.8 


30.2 


38.8 


48. 


57.4 


66. 


74.4 


34 


9.4 


11.7 


14.7 


16.8 


21.2 


25.6 


31.1 


40. 


49.5 


59.1 


68. 


76.7 


35 


9.6 


12.1 


15.2 


17.3 


21.8 


26.3 


32. 


41.1 


50.9 


60.8 


70. 


79. 


36 


9.9 


12.5 


15.6 


17.8 


22.4 


27. 


33. 


42.3 


52.4 


62.6 


72. 


81.3 


37 


10.2 


12.8 


16.1 


18.3 


23. 


27.8 


33.9 


43.5 


53.8 


64.3 


74. 


83.5 


38 


10.5 


13.2 


16.5 


18.8 


23.7 


28.5 


34.8 


44.6 


55.2 


66. 


76. 


85.8 


39 


10.7 


13.5 


16.9 


19.3 


24.3 


29.3 


35.7 


45.8 


56.7 


67.8 


78. 


88, 


40 


11. 


13.8 


17.4 


19.8 


24.9 


30.1 


36.6 


47. 


58.2 


69.5 


80. 


90.2 


41 


11.3 


14.2 


17.8 


20.3 


25.5 


30.8 


37.6 


48.2 


59.6 


71.3 


82. 


92.5 


42 


11.5 


14.5 


18.2 


20.8 


26.1 


31.6 


38.5 


49.4 


61.1 


73. 


84. 


94.8 


43 


11.8 


14.9 


18.7 


21.3 


26.8 


32.3 


39.4 


50.6 


62.5 


74.8 


86. 


97. 


44 


12.1 


15.2 


19.1 


21.8 


27.4 


33.1 


40.3 


51.7 


64. 


76.5 


88. 


99.3 


45 


12.4 


15.6 


19.5 


22.2 


28. 


33.8 


41.2 


52.9 


65.5 


78.2 


90. 


101.6 


46 


12.7 


15.9 


20. 


22.7 


28.6 


34.6 


42.2 


54. 


67. 


80. 


92. 


103.8 


47 


12.9 


16.3 


20.4 


23.2 


29.2 


35.3 


43. 


55.2 


68.4 


81.7 


94. 


106. 


48 


13.2 


16.6 


20.8 


23.7 


29.9 


36.1 


43.9 


56.4 


69.8 


83.5 


96. 


108.4 


49 


13.5 


17. 


21.3 


24.2 


30.5 


36.8 


44.8 


57.6 


71.2 


85.1 


98. 


110.5 


50 


13.8 


17.3 


21.7 


24.7 


31.1 


37.6 


45.8 


58.7 


72.7 


87. 


100. 


112.8 



NOTE: The figure piven after the decimal point represents so many inches and 
Dot the decimal part ol feet. 



PLASTER TABLES 

DIRECTIONS 

FOR USING THE FOLLOWING TABLES, WHICH ANY BUILDER 

AND CONTRACTOR WILL FIND VERY VALUABLE 

AS EACH TABLE HAS BEEN VERIFIED AND 

CAN BE RELIED UPON AS CORRECT 

8^" These tables give the number of square yards and feet in 
several thousand sized rooms. 

EXAMPLE 

To obtain the number of square yards in a room 12X15X7. 
Turn to the table giving measurement of rooms with 7-foot ceil- 
ing; follow down the column of figures on the left until you come 
to 12, then follow the figures to the right until you come to the 
figures directly under the figure 15, at the top of the page; the 
answer is 62 square yards. When the half-foot comes in the 
dimensions of a room, both ways, take the next largest number on 
one side. When it comes on one side only, add one yard and it 
will be close. 

For ordinary rooms the chances are that closer results will be 
obtained by using the tables than by tedious figuring. A single 
mistake in taking oft" quantities may spoil an estimate far more 
than any trifle of a few inches as to the width or length of a room. 

It must be noted, however, that the rooms are figured "solid," 
or without any deductions for openings, which is a different method 
from the one in use all through the "Estimator." Allowance can 
be made for this. No other method could be used in a table, as 
no two rooms are alike with respect to openings. 

The tables are copyrighted by the United States Gypsum Com- 
pany, and are used here by permission. 



414 



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420 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



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422 



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423 



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424 



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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 425 

HAND VERSUS MACHINE "LABOR. 

The following data are from actual work done, and are 
reliable. In many industries the hand method has gone 
altogether, but in quite a number of others it still holds the 
field, -to at least some extent. Occasionally, even in our age, 
the old method has to be relied on, as in mining camps and 
mountain regions where machinery has not yet been intro- 
duced, but where preparations are being made for it. 

The following records are of value for this and other work, 
and are here presented in shape for general use. The time 
is given in hours and minutes for one person, and not for 
two, as in the rest of the book. 

These tables are reliable, but I always suspect a man 
who pretends to too much accuracy in estimating. Even in 
mathematics we find that it is often impossible to get some 
of our figures correct. The exact area of a circle has never 
yet been found. Patient men have carried out the decimals 
to 600 places, and given up the task. Perhaps 600 more 
would be figured out without finding a place to stop. The 
first 127 are given below, and they are enough for ordinary 
use. The other 473 are only for the contractors who need 
them in their business. 

To get the exact circumference of a circle you must not 
multiply by 3 1-7 or 3.146, but by the 600 decimals. Even 
then you will not be correct. So it is best not to pretend 
to be too accurate. For probably thousands of years men 
have tried to "square the circle," or to find out the exact 
size of a square that holds the same area as a given circle. 
The contract is still open for any one to sign. 

3.1415926535897932384626433832795028844197369399375105 
820974944592307816406286208998628034825342117067982148 
0865132723066470938446 

About the time this table was being printed I was making 
an estimate on more than a score of granite columns 3' in 
diameter and over 20' long. At least a hint of the time re- 
quired to manufacture them is given in the first table which 
includes a marble column 2' in diameter and about 16' long. 
Hints are sometimes useful. 



426 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



BRICK AND STONE WORK 



Description 


Quantity 


Handwork 


Machine 


Propor- 
tion 


Making common brick 


1000 
1000 

100-ft. 
52 
14 If 
10 If 
1 
20 If 

112 If 

48 sq. ft. 
100 sq. ft. 

18 If 
100 If 
106 

5 
8 
8 
10 
35 
25 

1 
1 
1 

25 
100 

30 

1 
100 
100 
100 
10 tons 
216 
100 


Hrs. 
20 
33 

8 
8303 
246 
31 
388 
106 

244 
75 
64 

60 
134 
35 

12 
60 
92 
4 
20 
6000 

155 
82 
234 

79 
650 

89 

30 
504 
36 
166 
11 
400 
50 


Mins. 
36 
52 

44 
23 
56 
10 
35 
22 

30 
39 

18 
10 
10 
37 

39 

47 

9 
40 

10 
10 

12 
40 
32 


Hrs. 

7 
8 

2 
653 
137 
18 
321 
31 

59 
38 
9 

21 
21 
29 

9 
10 
11 
3 
6 
11 

44 
7 
104 

23 
10 

14 

1 
131 
11 
101 

8 
78 
4 


Mins. 
30 
43 

12 
26 
25 
46 
15 
2 

46 
40 
6 

36 
42 
10 

57 
7 
30 
20 
44 
10 

43 
52 
30 

23 

50 
22 

50 
15 
4 

25 


3 to 1 
4tol 

4 to 1 
13 to 1 
2 tol 
2tol 

3 to 1 

4 to 1 
2tol 
7 to 1 

3 to 1 
6tol 

6 to 1 
8 to 1 

3 tol 
537 to 1 

3* tol 

10i to 1 
2tol 

4 to 1 
65 tol 

5i to'l 

22 to 1 
4 to 1 
3 tol 
lUol 

5 to 1 
11 to 1 


Making paving brick 


Making sand and cement sewer pipe, 
9" 


Granite balusters, 2' 4" long, base 4|" 
x6", cap 3^"x6" 
Carving granite block 5j" wide f" 
relief, Romanesque 


Tracing ivy leaf design on polished 
granite block. Design, 4" wide . . . 
Cutting marble column, 15' 9" long, 
diam. at base, 2' 1 *", at top, 1' 10". . 
Cutting marble cornice 102", O. G., 
double fillet, Q. R. section 
Cutting marble wainscoting cap, 
fillet and O. G. . . 


Dressing granite, 6-cut work 


Dressing granite, 6-cut work 
Cutting iV'xli" flashing groove in 
granite block 


Cutting f"xl" flashing groove in 


Cutting l" and 2" letters in polished 


Cutting 4" letters, 10-cut finish, in 
polished granite slab 


I*olishing granite, sq. ft 








Sawing marble slabs, 8' 4"xl / ' . . . 


Cutting granite urn, 20" high, diam- 
eter of bowl, IS", of neck, 8" 
Cutting marble urn, 24", 10", 5* 
Cutting granite vase, 30", 18", 8" ... 
Cutting sandstone window sills, 7"x 
5"x4' 


Breaking 100 cu. yds. stone 


Drilling 2$" holes, 18" deep, in 
granite rock 


Drilling 2" hole, 12' deep in hard blue 


Quarrying granite, cu. ft 
Quarrying granite, cu. ft 
Quarrying granite, cu. ft 


Quarrying limestone 









WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
WOODWORK 



427 



Description 


Quantity 


Handwork 


Machine 


Propor- 
tion 


Making oak bookcase, 3' 7"x5' 6". . . . 
Making open oak bookcase, 2' 6"x5'. . 
Cutting out lumber for No. 1 cases 


12 
12 


Hrs. 
654 
480 

24 
48 
120 
120 
36 
48 
120 

36 
36 
6 
120 

443 
28 
90 
20 
84 
13 
6 
24 
24 
18 
18 
18 
11 
49 

364 
1224 

792 
470 

970 
40 
110 


Mins. 
40 


Hrs. 
157 
43 

2 
2 
9 
3 
156 
1 
4 

4 
4 

60 

108 
8 
2 
6 
3 
2 
1 
4 
11 

1 
13 

66 

287 

280 
39 

182 
4 
4 


Mins. 
14 
12 

6 
24 
45 

53 
45 

48 
5 
11 

40 
8 
24 
21 
31 
11 
44 
8 
50 
24 
12 
48 
5 

45 
31 

30 


4tol 
lOtol 

9tol 
20 to 1 
12tol 
40 to 
18 to 
25 to 
30 to 

8 to 
8 to 
33 to 
2 to 

4 to 1 
3tol 
37 to 1 
3 to 1 
24 to 1 
6 to 1 
4 to 1 
5 to 1 
2 to 
45 to 
90 to 
22 to 
10 to 
4 to 1 

5 to 1 
4tol 

3 to 1 
12 to 1 

5toi 
10 to 1 
26tol 


Same for No. 2 




Planing and jointing lumber for No.l . 
Same for No 2 
















Smoothing before putting together, 
No 1 




Same for No. 2 . ... ... 




Lock mortising for No. 1 




Making plain drawer pine bureaus . . . 
Making plain 4-drawer walnut 
bureaus 16"x42" 


12 
12 


Cutting lumber for No. 1, above. . . . 
Same for No. 2 


Planing, jointing and gluing, No. 1 . . 
Same on No. 2 




Dovetailing drawers, No. 1 
Grooving, No. 1 










Smoothing No 1 


Molding No. 2 


Tenoning No. 2 




Drawer fitting No. 2 




Lock fitting No. 2* ... 




Clothes horses, 3'x4' 


12 
12 
12 

12 
12 

1 


Oak combination desks and book- 
case^, 28"x54"xl2" deep, carved lids 
Oak, 8 drawer.fl at top desks, 28"x48" 
x30" high 


Walnut 9 drawer, flat top desks, 27x48 
x30" high 


Ladies' oak desks, 26"x42"xl4" deep . 
Sideboards, oak antique, quartered, 
7'x8', 2 cupboards, 5 drawers, 5 
shelves 


Making moldings for above 
Making curved work for above 



*A lock fitting machine has a capacity of 1300 per day. 



428 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Wood Work Continued 



Description 


Quantity 


Handwork 


Carving above 




Hrs. 
300 
4 
210 

1380 
354 

117 
40 
26 
103 
58 
9 
12 

462 
696 
487 
37 
62 
25 
25 
150 
83 

196 
144 
27 
10 

1385 
325 
75 
100 
100 
150 

702 
120 
100 
75 


Mins. 

30 

40 
15 
30 

30 

30 
30 
30 

20 
50 

30 

1 


Dovetailing drawers 




Putting together above 
Oak dining tables, 6'x4', 5 leaves, 
carved feet, round ends 
Walnut tables, 6'x3'4", 3 leaves .... 
Poplar, kitchen tables, 36"x48", square 


12 

12 

12 
1 cord 
1 cord 
12 
12 


Preparing kindling wood, 6* pine . . . 
Preparing kindling wood, 9" pine . . . 
Ladders 30 ft. spruce and oak 


Stepladders, 6 ft. spruce 


Planing for 30-ft. ladders 


Boring for above 




Making W. P. outside blinds, 27"x63" 
3 sections, rolling slats 


50 pr. 
50 pr- 
50 pr. 


As above, but 31x65, stationary slats . 
As above, but Y. P., rolling slats 






Rabbeting No. 1 




Smoothing No. 1 




Planing for No 2 




Tenonin^ for No 2 




Brackets, oak, mantel, 9x15", carved 


12 

12 


Brackets, rough carving above 
Brackets, whitewood, shelf, 5"xll" . . 
Shaping above ... .... 


Making cherry, 5 panels door, 3' x 6' 
6", solid panels, veneered rails and 
stiles 


50 


Cutting out lumber for above 
Cutting veneering on above 


Planing after gluing 




Cutting lumber to exact size 
Doors, oak, 4-pan, 2'8"x6'10" raised 


50 


Planing for above . . 


Mortising for above 




Tenoning for above 





Machine 



Hrs. 

98 



18 



700 
134 

15 
3 
2 

46 

14 

1 

2 



114 
56 

110 
4 
3 
3 
3 
1 
2 

63 

24 

3 



510 
20 
12 
16 

8 

32 

131 

8 
4 



Mins. 



30 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

Wood Work Continued 



429 



Description 


Quantity 


Handwork 


Machine 


Propor- 
tion 


Doors, W. P., 4-pan., O. G., 2'4"x6'8" 


50 

1 
50 pr. 


Hrs. 

412 
38 
37 

42 

300 
56 
12 
37 
37 
18 
312 

170 

383 
325 

71 
8 


Mins. 
30 

15 
30 
30 
30 
45 
30 

20 
40 


Hrs. 

87 
5 
10 

12 
21 

1 
2 
2 
2 
30 

9 

92 
71 
16 
2 


Mins. 
30 

15 
30 
30 
15 

30 
15 

30 
20 


5 to 1 
7tol 
3i to 1 

3Jto 1 

14 to 1 
112 to 1 
10 to 1 
18 to 1 
18tol 
9tol 
10 to 1 

18 to 1 

4 to 1 
4*tol 
4itol 
4 to 1 


Mortising above 


Tenoning above 
Mantel, oak, 60x76", 10"shelf, 12"x36" 
mirror, piano finish 


White pine window sash, 4 Its., 12x24, 


Planing for above 


Laying out above 




Tenoning above 




Mortising above 




Molding above 




Sash, Y. P., 12 Its. 10x15 
Stair risers and treads, getting out, 
3' wide, 17 R, 16 steps 
Window frames, W. P., for brick, 
2'10' / x6'10' / 


50 pr. 
10 sets 

50 
50 
50 
5000 


Same for frame houses 


Window screens 30x30 


Loading lumber B. M 





PIPE WORK 



Description 


Quantity 


Handwork 


Machine 


Propor- 
tion 






Hrs. 


Mins. 


Hrs. 


Mins. 


Cutting off and threading 3" iron pipes 
Tapping pipe for l" pipe 


100 
100 


100 
26 


40 


6 
1 


40 
5 


16 to 1 
25 to 1 



The lesson all through is that it is useless to fight the machine. But the 
hand figures are valuable for estimating. Both together, especially on mill work, 
give a good guide for pricing special stuff. 



430 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

HOW TO GET THE AREA OP A ROOF 

The ordinary rules are easily found in any arithmetic. 
Each part or plane has to be taken off separately. On a cut 
up roof it is a tiresome kind of a job. There is a quicker 
way that is exact; and by using it there is no chance of 
missing some corner. 

The rule is, Get the exact area of the plan on the outside 
of the walls, level with the wall plate where the rafters rest, 
and add as follows: 

For y 2 pitch add 42 per cent., or 142 on the rake to 100 on 
the level. This means that every square on the level of a 
half pitch roof requires 42 sq. ft. extra for the rake. Lay 
it out on a board and try it, or better still, figure it up. It 
does not matter how short or long, wide or narrow, any part 
of the roof is, this proportion must hold. If you get the 
exact area on the level you cannot miss it on the rake. 
Look at No. 11 in this book. If the slopes are all the same 
the area is easily obtained, but you can see what it means 
to figure it in the old way. 

TABLE OF ROOF PROPORTIONS FOR AREA. 
Pitch Percentage Pitch Percentage 

to add to add 

One-half 42 Three-eighths 25 

One-third 20 Five-eighths 60 

One-fourth 12 Three-fourths 80 

The three ordinary pitches are given first. See page 174 
for definition of pitch. For an odd pitch, work the problem 
in simple proportion. 

If there is a deck it is easily deducted, because 100 of 
deck means 142 of pitched surface, and simple proportion 
does the rest. 

But this rule applies only to exact area on a plumb line 
outside the walls, and does not include gable or cornice pro- 
jections of any kind. They are easily taken off and added. 
Dormer roofs, and all kinds of little roofs are safely included, 
but no projections. 

EXAMPLE: Suppose we have a plan at the level of the 
wall plate that measures 40x22' outside of the walls. The 
area is 1008. For a half pitch the roof is 1432; a third, 1210; 
a fourth, 1129; three-fourths, 1815. The figures are not down 
to a fraction, but that is not required on roof measurements. 



CHAPTER XXIX 

COUNTING THE COST 

If you are building with a hammer what chance has your 
work to stand if another man is destroying with a sledge? 
Of what avail is a careful estimate if the man in charge of 
the construction has practically no acquaintance with 
building, and time required to perform work. It would 
need a mint to keep some of the theorists going. They ap- 
pear to have unbounded faith in the old proverb, "Fill, and 
fetch more." Money flows, rather than talks with them. 
They can execute any piece of work on earth if careful at- 
tention is paid to their primary want an unlimited supply 
of money. What they need is a reservoir of cash with a 
pipe at their side and a full head behind it. Then it would 
be not so much a case of "Let her rip!" as of "Let her 
flow!" 

Mr. Carnegie had such a system of keeping costs that the 
men used to grumble that they could not get a brick with- 
out the bookkeeper knowing of it. There is such a thing as 
overdoing this much advertised "system" such a devotion 
to gathering useless details as makes it necessary to spend 
$5 to keep track of $2.50; but the system that cautions one 
not to burn electric light, at Ic per hour, or waste pencils, 
and keeps no record of cost on $100,000 buildings is top 
heavy. 

Nine building contractors out of 10 are able to tell how 
much each item cost 'them how much for sand, cement, or 
lumber; carpenter, brick, paint, or other kind of labor, and 
that without any complicated diagrammatic nonsense. The 
contractor has to be able to tell or go into bankruptcy; he 
has to do the work in a simple, sensible way, for life is too 
short and money too valuable to do it in any other. The 
poorest system that can give actual costs in detail is better 
than the most costly and elaborate that fails here. 

431 



432 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

There is no use thinking that returns in buildings are 
going to compare in all respects with careful estimates; the 
clever schoolboy may look for that kind of work, but not 
the practical builder. There may be delays; the ground that 
was to have been excavated dry may have been flooded; the 
planing mill which gave the low figure may have failed, 
and the figure may have to be increased 50%; or the expen- 
sive retaining wall may have been washed in. There are 
a score of changes possible, sometimes on the good side, 
often on the bad. 

But if reasonable allowances are made there should still 
be a tolerably close resemblance to the estimate if it was 
properly prepared, and is not dated too far back when 
prices were different. 

Reference is made elsewhere to a temporary cement 
house that cost $375 for a building 40'xlOO', 1-story. 

Now, a builder would think himself extravagant if he 
spent $375 for that. 

On No. 2, for example, a much larger building, I put up 
one for perhaps $50, but $75 would seem to the average 
man to be the limit. What became of the other $300? 

For engineering, there was a charge of $350 or so. As 
the owner did the work by day labor there was no use for 
any supervision except that by a good foreman, yet the 
"engineering" cost $350. About $10, on such a building, is 
what contractors pay for their engineering. What of the 
loss of at least $300 here? 

The brickwork cost $29 per M for labor alone. On one 
large building, as already seen, labor, high scaffold and pro- 
fit cost $641; and some pressed brick work is given on page 
93 for $4.75 to $5.75 for labor. As the theoretical student 
would say. "There is a slight discrepancy here," large 
enough, however, to get a contractor into trouble unless he 
had a reservoir behind him. There is much virtue in a 
reservoir. 

I remember once, years ago, making a bill of material 
which called for a certain number of brick. A theorist 



' |f COUNTING THE COST 433 

ordered over 100,000 more, on a building having something 
like half a million. Some one blundered. They were de- 
livered, and although, owing to a change, 22,000 extra were 
used, there was still a train load to haul aw r ay. The un- 
loading was extra, the reloading also, and there were 
enough left to build a dbl flat. A contractor has to keep 
costs, and that kind of work does not pay. He can not af- 
ford to let this brick be figured by logarithms. They are 
good in their place but too much of a luxury near a com- 
mon, ordinary brick pile. 

You must keep the cost, and put men at work they are 
familiar with. I once knew of more than 8 tons of sash 
weights ordered and delivered, and not one of them could 
be used. No carpenter would have ordered them, because he 
knows the size of window boxes. That bill amounted to 
more than $200. 

Years ago I knew of a small building that cost $10,000 
more than the estimate, and that after all the very large 
allowances for extras. No one knew where this small for- 
tune went. How much did the brick cost? No one knew, 
apart from the woodwork or wiring. How much was the 
labor on the brick and carpentry? "There is no way of 
finding out." No check on waste, no division among the 
labor to see which branch is at fault and take the proper 
course, no anything but a big reservoir with a good pres- 
sure behind it. Keep costs! It pays! Do not figure paint- 
ing by the higher mathematics. It does not pay. 

There is need for technical man and practical man, but it 
is usually vanity that makes the former believe he knows 
his own sphere and the other's also. While he has been. 
finding out about curves and cosines, or the Five Orders, 
the other has not been idle. The practical man never 
knows what the theoretical man knows but the rule works, 
the other way also. Both may be educated to the tips of 
their fingers, but the education is along different lines. The 
one is complementary to the other, and not antagonistic, 
and it is only the narrow minded and incapable who sup- 



434 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

pose that either one should be held inferior to the other. 
There are some who seem to think that all knowledge may 
be held in one head. They are amusing. It was a wise 
man who said that God made men, not man, in order that 
the one should help the other. 

I have climbed up to the top of "Liberty" near New York 
Harbor. It is made of copper, for this metal lasts. An 
educated man once asked what color the copper cornice 
of a building he was superintending was to be painted. 
His education did not embrace the building line. He was 
out of his element. Costs are seriously affected if the 
wrong man is in charge. Can a mason navigate a ship? 
Why go to a blacksmith to have a prescription filled. 

If several of the wrong men are in charge the flow is 
large enough to tap a hole in the reservoir, especially when 
"Fill and fetch more," is the motto, without any check. 
Once there was a stoical oriental potentate visiting the 
czar. The guest was shown all the wonders, but scarcely 
paid any attention to them. 

The Russians did not like this, and at last the czar hit 
upon a happy thought, "Show him the building accounts of 
the Moscow Railroad," he whispered, "if that does not as- 
tonish him nothing will." 

When contractors visit your city and refuse to be im- 
pressed take them to some of the railroads which lump 
their labor returns in one glorious integer and show them 
that. 

A few illustrations have been given to point out the ne- 
cessity of having a check on labor returns, of insisting that 
each trade shall be returned separately, so as to see where 
the leakage is, and to show also that while every allowance 
must be made for accidents and so forth, there should be 
a stop put to wasting thousands of dollars. 

I have come to the conclusion: In building, as in every- 
thing else, experience counts. In these days all is being 
subdivided there are municipal engineers, for example, 
who confine their practice to sewers alone, others to pav- 



COUNTING THE COST 435 

Ing, and so forth. You can take the sewer engineer and tell 
him to go ahead and put up a building, and send the 
builder to plan the sewer, but if cost is any object the other 
course is better. Whatever the sewer man may believe, he 
is not long at the work, even with the "executive ability" we 
hear so much about, before the average apprentice knows 
through the smiles of the men, that he is a shining success 
elsewhere. He is not worth $50 per month at the work 
to a contractor, he is worth so much less than that, that it 
would often pay to give him $50 per month just to stay at 
home. What contractor has a purse deep enough to stand 
a drain of $29 per M for labor on brick? 

The conclusion of the whole matter is just this: Do not 
put men at work they are not acquainted with: Keep 
costs separate; for unless you do, this book is of no value to 
you any more than it was to a man who told me he did not 
need it, even while the brick he was laying cost $10 for 
labor. He had a pipe to the reservoir. If you have you are 
lucky, and do not have to compile dusty books. 



CHAPTER XXX 

ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 

The reinforced concrete system of construction is becoming 
so popular that it has been considered well to give more data 
than is contained in Chapter VII. By far the best figures ob- 
tainable are the following from a paper by Mr. Leonard C. 
Wason, President of The Aberthaw Construction Company, 
Boston. 

The paper was presented at the Convention of the Na- 
tional Association of Cement Users at Cleveland, in January, 
1909, and published in " Cement Age, " March of the same 
year. 

Mr. Wason is progressive enough to give actual costs to 
the public, unlike the old-style builder who keeps everything 
under lock and key. He wishes the cost to be so well known 
that bids will run as reasonably close together on this com- 
paratively new class of work as on brickwork or cement side- 
walks. He gives the 'figures for protection, and not " for 
pure philanthropy." We are glad to get them for any 
reason. 

Mr. Wason says of reinforced concrete : 

" In the writer's opinion, there is no class of construction 
where more painstaking skill, and often technical knowledge, 
is required, than in reinforced concrete. When well done, the 
resulting building is satisfactory to the owner beyond that ob- 
tained from any other material, and when poorly done, is the 
least desirable, even if not actually dangerous. Concrete is 
either good or bad. There is no half-way state, and the dif- 
ference in cost of materials to the builder, between perfect 
results and a dangerous structure, is only five per cent. 
Therefore, there is likely to be serious injury done to a rap- 
idly-growing industry by novices, either on account of igno- 
rance, though coupled with honest, well-meaning intent, or 
through skinning a job on which they are sure to lose money. 
Moreover, the older firms in the field have little to fear from 
the beginner, because so much depends on personal ability as 

430 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 437 

well as experience. With growing competition, improvements 
are constantly being developed. The standard of cost is not 
yet fixed, but is being reduced steadily. The desire of reduc- 
ing the present wild bidding and having only intelligent com- 
petition, as well as saving some poor builder a loss he cannot 
afford, is the real inspiration of this paper. The author has 
undertaken it with the understanding that other competent 
writers would discuss it so that a greater good will result. 

METHOD: In order to have an intelligent understanding of 
the meaning of the figures hereinafter given, the method of 
collecting data will first be described. When making up an 
estimate of the cost of a building, in scaling the plans, it is 
found convenient to take off the volume of excavation and 
back-filling, the cubic feet of footings, foundation and wall, 
the square feet of forms for walls of foundations and above 
grade, the lineal feet of belt courses, moldings, cornices, etc.; 
also the size of special features of exterior treatment. Simi- 
larly, the superficial area of column and floor forms are meas- 
ured by themselves. Concrete of each different mixture is 
scaled off in cubic feet and totaled separately. Steel of each 
kind is taken off in pounds. Granolithic finished surfaces in 
square feet, and so on, in detail, every item is measured. As 
the work progresses, it is desired to know weekly how the 
actual experience compares with the estimate and at com- 
pletion to compile correctly the costs of each item, to com- 
pare with estimate, and to aid in obtaining the true cost of 
future structures of a similar kind. The method of account- 
ing was developed to fit the estimate." 

BOOKKEEPING: The system of bookkeeping employed by 
the Company is described, and the paper goes on: 

METHOD OF ESTIMATING "Carpenter work on forms is 
reported by the number of square feet of surface in contact 
with the concrete erected. Thus, walls are measured two 
sides without deducting doors and windows, as it is usual to 
let the form work run straight across these unless it is im- 
possible on account of moldings, in which case the framing of 
the opening will cost as much as the form work omitted. 



438 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

Beam floors are measured around the perimeter of the beam 
and the flat surface of the panel and around the perimeter of 
girders. No deduction is made for the loss of area by the 
intersection of beams and girders, and small openings in the 
floor are not deducted. Anything as large as an elevator or 
stairway is usually deducted. Form work for columns is 
measured for entire area of surface contact between wood 
and cement, all four sides. These reports are made out on 
the job daily and sent to the office. The bookkeeper works 
these reports up into units of measurement, as cost of labor 
per cubic foot of concrete and number of cubic feet of con- 
crete per barrel of cement, number of square feet of form 
work erected, etc., and from this it is easy to obtain the unit 
costs hereinafter given. The bookkeeper can take the reports 
of four or five jobs, employing in the aggregate five or six 
hundred men, and in a single day work up the complete re- 
port for a week's time; thus it will be seen that there is 
really little extra labor involved in the sub-dividing of reports 
into a useful form over merely reporting the time so that 
the payroll can be accurately made. 

MASTER CARD: When a job is entirely completed and the 
ledger account is closed, a master card is worked out giving 
the complete history of the cost. On one side of the card are 
written the items which went into the original estimate, such 
as excavations, back-fillings, footings, foundations, columns, 
floors, walls, stairs, etc. In parallel columns is placed the 
actual amount of the estimate with the actual experience, 
reduced to cost units, such as cubic feet, square feet of form 
work, etc., and the percentage of profit or loss between the 
estimate and actual results. On the reverse side of the card 
the principal items are worked out more in detail. Thus, 
form work is reduced to cost of labor, lumber and nails, wire 
or other sundries used in the forms per square foot of sur- 
face. Concrete is itemized into the superintendent's general 
labor, labor of mixing and placing, cost of cement, sand, 
stone, miscellaneous expenses such as teaming, plant and 
other general items reduced to cubic foot measurement, 
which makes the total cost of the concrete in place in each 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 439 

division of the building itemized for ready reference when 
making up future estimates on work of a similar character. 
An exhibit is given of these forms in an appendix. 

COST: It is well known that the costs of materials and labor 
in different parts of the country vary somewhat. It has been 
the writer's experience that, although the rate of wages and 
cost of materials vary somewhat in different parts of the 
country, the variations frequently offset one another so nearly 
that the sum total of the unit cost obtained in one place may 
be used in another. 

PROPORTIONS: In general the standard mixture for all 
floors has been either 1 : 3 : 6, or 1 : 2 : 4, if the floor is sub- 
jected to extremely heavy loads and service. Walls are mixed 
1:3:6 and columns usuallyl : 2 : 4; in some cases where they 
are very heavily loaded, a richer mixture is used. As these 
mixtures are common to nearly all construction, the costs 
here given may be applied with little danger of error from 
neglecting the mixture on any work. Of course, it can read- 
ily be understood that in the large number of jobs which 
have entered into the averages given (there being as many 
as eighteen in the case of beam floors) different methods of 
conducting the work have been used, and many different fore- 
men. Therefore, while the general average is doubtless safe 
for any work of an average character, some latitude may be 
allowed the judgment in determining whether any specific 
case is likely to be difficult, easy or average. The writer has 
found quite a difference, for instance, in cost of identical 
work handled by different foremen, due to the personal equa- 
tion of their painstaking, supervision and ability. 

CLASS OF WORK : In the following tables only typical 
jobs are given, whose results are correctly known. It appears 
to the writer that the results from a few typical jobs would 
be of more interest than a mass of figures from all kinds, 
eome of which would be of no value. Enough are given for 
a fair average, except in the case of long span flat slab, which 
is, by comparison, a recent type of construction. The figures 
for the highest, lowest and average totals in the fourth and 



440 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



last columns are taken from the vertical column in which 
they stand and have no relation to the other figures in their 
horizontal line." 



COST OF FOOTING AND MASS FOUNDATIONS 







Forms per Sq. Ft. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 


fc 

1 


Location 


ll 


J 


IE 


13 


!i 


g! 


| 


.2 


?J 


"c 


1 


>-5 




&j 


p 


H 


| 


d 


S1| 


V 


tc 


Slag 


J3 

Pi 


f 






6 


^ 


z 




6" 




O 


M 

<! 









827 


Power-House 


























Greenfield, Mass . 


.119 


.077 


.002 


.198 


.065 


.020 


.098 


.092 


.008 


.016 


.299 


824 


Eng. Foundation, 


























Taunton, Mass . . . 


.054 


.025 


.001 


.080 


.045 


.002 


.065 


.048 


.004 


.017 


.181 


817 


Head Gates, 


























Shawmut, Me .... 


.071 


.043 


.003 


.117 


.033 


.001 


.074 


.099 


.003 


.014 


.224 


815 


Canal, 


























Lowell, Mass .... 


.039 


.025 


.001 


.065 


.025 


.011 


.080 


.078 


.004 


.042 


.240 


807 


Foundation, Prov- 


























incetown, Mass . . . 


.069 


.043 


.002 


.114 


.039 


.004 


.073 


.099 


.011 


.049 


.275 


783 


Dam, Mer- 


























rimack, N. H 


.066 


.037 


.003 


.106 


.081 


.008 


.090 


.055 


.008 


.031 


.273 


598 


Foundation, 


























Boston, Mass 


.011 


.006 


.001 


.018 


.035 


.004 


.061 


.072 


.006 


.010 


.188 


597 


Eng. Foundation, 


























Boston, Mass 


.095 


.039 


.003 


.137 


.037 


.013 


.061 


.084 


.013 


.015 


.223 


491 


Gas Holder, 


























Springfield, Mass . 


.034 


.031 


.002 


.067 


.043 


.001 


.061 


.068 


.005 


.010 


.188 


488 


Foundation, 


























Providence, R. I. . 


.016 


.011 


.001 


.028 


.051 


.002 


.047 


.076 


.010 


.010 


.196 




Highest 


.119 


.077 


.003 


.198 


.081 


.020 


.098 


.099 


.013 


.049 


.275 




Lowest 


.016 


.006 


.001 


.018 


.025 


.001 


.047 


.043 


.003 


.010 


.181 




Average of 10 .... 


.057 


.034 


.002 


.093 


.045 


.007 


.071 


.077 


.007 


.021 


.229 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



441 



COST OF FOUNDATION WALLS 







Forms per Sq. Ft. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 


1 

$ 


Location 


l| 

1 s 


1 


g 


1 


0} 

|jj 


^ 8 


1 


1 


"O 


"3 


"cj 


*-5 




~ 


I 


& 




1,3 


IH 


i 

0> 


1 


P 


& 


"o 
H 






O 


** 















< 


H 






831 


Filter, Warren, 


























R. I 


.103 


.048 


.004 


.155 


.062 


.037 


.086 


.068 


.012 


.031 


.296 


809 


Tar Well, Spring- 


























field, Mass 


.071 


.031 


.002 


.104 


.040 


.015 


.094 


.075 


.013 


.040 


.277 


757 


Tunnel, New 


























Bedford, Mass. . . . 


.048 


.045 


.001 


.094 


.213 


.019 


.203 


.092 


.057 


.015 


.599 


756 


Filter, Exeter, 


























N. H 


.124 


.067 


.002 


.193 


.064 


.021 


.071 


.116 


.034 


.019 


.325 


729 


Filter, 


























Lawrence, Mass . . 


.058 


.042 


.001 


.101 


.046 


.017 


.083 


.054 


.012 


.032 


.244 


708 


Theatre, Port- 


























Land, Me 


.081 


.024 


.003 


.108 


.112 


.013 


.073 


.078 


.003 


.020 


.303 


685 


Warehouse, 


























Portland, Me 


.053 


.009 


.001 


.063 


.040 


.019 


.060 


.070 


.029 


.017 


.235 


673 


Residence, North 


























Andover, Mass . . . 


.047 


.019 


.001 


.067 


.108 


.006 


.082 


.045 


.015 


.010 


.266 


*541 


Filter, Lawrence. 


























Mass 


.048 


.035 


.002 


.085 


.055 


.006 


.039 


.027 


.011 


.010 


.148 


637 


Residence, North 


























Andover, Mass . . . 


.065 


.019 


.001 


.085 


.087 


.012 


.6 V 72 


.045 


.013 


.010 


.239 


633 


Retaining Wall, 


























Naugatuck, Conn . 


.134 


.047 


.001 


.182 


.097 


.018 .056 


.032 


.022 


.010 


.235 


621 


Hospital, 


























Waltham, Mass . . . 


.048 


.028 


.001 


.077 


.043 


.019 


.038 


.063 


.026 


.010 


.199 


544 


Greenhouse, 


























Brookline, Mass . . 


.032 


.035 


.001 


.068 


.051 


.007 


.078 


.043 


.013 


.010 


.202 


543 


Hotel, 


























Brookline, Mass . . 


.037 


.018 


.001 


.056 


.043 


.002 


.080 


.054 


.010 


.010 


.199 




Highest 


.134 


.048 


.004 


.193 


.213 


.037 


.203 


.116 


.057 


.040 


.599 




Lowest 


.032 


.009 


.001 


.056 


.040 


.002 .038 


.027 


.003 


.010 


.148 




Average 


.068 


.033 


.002 


.103 


.076 


.015 


.080 


.062 


.019 


.017 


.269 





442 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



COST OF CONCRETE COLUMNS 



Job No. 


Location 


Forms per Sq.,Ft. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 


Carpenter 
Labor 


Lumber 


Nails and 
Wire 


H 


Concrete 
Labor 


l 

o^ 


Cement 


1 

1 


Team and 
Misc. 


1 




I 


865 
788 
'762 
747 
733 
732 
731 
685 
499 


Office Building, 
Portland, Me 
Coal Pocket, 
Lawrence, Mass . . 
Mill, Southbridge, 
Mass 


.133 
.057 
.097 
.093 
.080 
.098 
.071 
.118 
.061 

.133 
.057 
.082 


.039 
.024 
.082 
.022 
.056 
.047 
.051 
.016 
.013 

.082 
.013 
.036 


.001 
.001 
.002 
.001 
.001 
.002 
.002 
.001 
.001 

.002 
.001 
.001 


.173 
.082 
.181 
.116 
.137 
.147 
.124 
.135 
.075 

.181 
.075 
.130 


.064 
.166 
.073 
.110 
.108 
.089 
.070 
.087 
.095 

.166 
.064 
.096 


.004 
.003 
.056 
.014 
.048 
.043 
.028 
.027 
.019 

.056 
.003 
.027 


.087 
.073 
.107 
.062 
.100 
.069 
.072 
.087 
.109 

.109 
.062 
.085 


.084 
.041 
.035 
.038 
.037 
.055 
.058 
.070 
.027 

.084 
.027 
.049 


.012 
.008 
.027 
.013 
.013 
.017 
.041 
.039 
.018 

.041 
.008 
.021 


.022 
.016 
.030 
.034 
.034 
.013 
.020 
.025 
.015 

.034 
.013 
.023 


.273 
.307 
.328 
.271 
.340 
.286 
.289 
.335 
.283 

.340 
.271 
.301 


Mill, Attleboro, 
Mass 


Mill, Southbridge, 
Mass. 


Coal Pocket, 
Hartford, Conn. . . 
Garage, Brook- 
line, Mass. 


Warehouse, Port- 
land, Me. . 


Textile Mill, 
Lawrence, Mass . . 

Highest 
Lowest 
Average of 9 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



443 



COST OF BUILDING WALLS ABOVE GRADE 







Forms per Sq. Ft. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 


o 

J? 

1 


Location 


Carpenter 
. Labor 


1 

3 


Nails and 
Wire 


I 


Concrete 
Labor 


dS 
o3 


1 


Aggregate 


1 


I 


H 


852 


Fire Station, 


























Weston, Mass .... 


.116 


.038 


.004 


.158 


.100 


.007 


.069 


.053 


.026 


.039 


.294 


804 


Mill, Greenfield, 


























Mass 


.062 


.038 


.002 


.102 


.060 


.011 


.084 


.086 


.007 


.055 


.303 


802 


Waterworks, 


























Waltham, Mass. . . 


.137 


.024 


.001 


.162 


.146 


.007 


.058 


.057 


.014 


.047 


.329 


788 


Coal Pocket, 


























Lawrence. Mass . . 


.118 


.056 


.002 


.176 


.042 


.004 


.073 


.043 


.009 


.019 


.190 


747 


Mill, Attleboro, 


























Mass 


.103 


.024 


.001 


.128 


.129 


.018 


.074 


.048 


.017 


.043 


.329 


732 


Coal Pocket, 


























Hartford, Conn . . 


.096 


.047 


.002 


.145 


.118 


.052 


.097 


.055 


.017 


.013 


.350 


729 


Filter, Lawrence, 


























Mass 


.046 


.032 


.001 


.079 


.046 


.017 


.083 


.054 


.012 


.032 


.244 


704 


Italian Garden, 


























Weston, Mass .... 


.101 


.073 


.002 


.176 


.102 


.008 


.105 


.081 


.019 


.010 


.325 


703 


Stable, Beverly, 


























Mass 


.099 


.030 


.002 


.131 


.078 


.019 


.071 


.062 


.018 


.010 


.258 


680 


Residence, North 


























Andover, Mass . . . 


.078 


.016 


.001 


.095 


.096 


.014 


.046 


.050 


.008 


.010 


.174 


648 


Observatory, 


























Milton, Mass .... 


.056 


.038 


.002 


.096 


.095 


.012 


.060 


.187 


.058 


.005 


.417 


640 


Office, Boston, 


























Mass 


.105 


.030 


.002 


.137 


.096 


.033 


.066 


.114 


.066 


.005 


.380 


638 


Tunnel, Boston, 


























Mass 


112 


.045 


.005 


1R2 


.126 


.016 


.066 


.106 


.077 


.005 


.330 


621 


Hospital, 
























Waltham, Mass. . . 


.058 


.028 


.001 


.087 


.089 


.017 


.034 


.063 


.023 


.010 


.236 


536 


Residence, 


























Boston, Mass 


.108 


.036 


.001 


.145 


.110 


.015 


.077 


.069 


.026 


.005 


.446 


515 


Coal Pocket, 


























Providence, R. I . 


.087 


.020 


.001 


.108 


.052 


.005 


.102 


.090 


.015 


.010 


.274 


500 


Italian Garden, 


























Brookline, Mass . . 


.064 


.027 


.001 


.092 


.048 


.011 


.080 


.071 


.019 


.010 


.239 




Highest 


.136 


.073 


.005 


.176 


.146 


.052 


.105 


.187 


.077 


.055 


.446 




Lowest 


.046 


.016 


.001 


.079 


.042 


.004 


.034 


.043 


.007 


.005 


.174 




Average of 17 


.085 


.036 


.002 


.128 


.090 


.016 


.073 


.076 


.025 


.019 


.301 



444 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 
COST OF FLAT SLAB FLOORS 







Forms per Sq. Fr. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 


!| 


' Location 


1 K 

8 


1 


IB 


3 


is 


8 


"a 


I 


N 


"S 


1 






E 




T 


1 


Ja 


03 





1 


r 


s 


^ 


865 


Office Building, 


























Portland, Me 


.078 


.039 


.001 


.118 


.043 


.004 


.087 


.084 


.012 


.022 


252 


852 


Fire Station, 


























Weston, Mass .... 


.067 


.038 


.003 


.108 


.103 


.007 


.092 


.053 


.026 


.039 


.320 


727 


Church, Boston, 


























Mass 


.067 


.037 


.002 


.106 


.146 


.017 


.109] .072 


020 


010 


374 




Highest 


.078 


.039 


.003 


.118 


.146 


.017 


.109 .084 


.026 


.039 


.374 




Lowest 


.067 


.037 


.001 


.106 


.043 


.004 


.087! .053 


.012 


.010 


,252 




Average 


.071 


.038 


.002 


.111 


.097 


.009 


.096 


.070 


.019 


.024 


.315 



COST OF CONCRETE SLABS BETWEEN STEEL BEAMS 







Forms per Sq. Ft. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 



1 


Location 


Carpenter 
Labor 


Lumber 


Nails and 
Wire 


I 


Concrete 
Labor 


gl 

0$ 


Cement 


1 

1 
<, 


"O 

i 
Ji 


[ '. 
1 




"3 


S10 


Bleachery, 


























East Hampton . . . 


.054 


.027 


.002 


.083 


.092 


.007 


.137 


.073 .012 


.046 


.367 


799 


Machine Shop, 


























Milton, Mass 


.087 


.027 


.003 


.117 


.090 


.033 


.114 


.075 


.016 


.034 


.362 


792 


Foundry, New 


























Britain, Conn .... 


.078 


.046 


.002 


.126 


.095 


.021 


.076 


.078 


.004 


.022 


.296 


778 


Stable, Boston, 


























Mass 


.064 


.012 


.001 


.077 


.101 


.019 


.129 


.070 


.020 


.015 


.354 


774 


Residence, 


























Milton, Mass 


.110 


.071 


.003 


.184 


.105 


.048 


.132 


.080 


.053 


.010 


.428 


752 


Power-House, 


























Pittsfield, Mass. . . 


.029 


.030 


.001 


.060 


.131 


.008 


.123 


.068 


.013 


.010 


.353 


725 


Laundry, 


























Boston, Mass 


.058 


.024 


.001 


.083 


.092 


.021 


.098 


.089 


.022 


.010 


.332 


676 


Prison, Ports- 


























mouth, N. H. .... 


.068 


.017 


.001 


.086 


.073 


.005 


.208 


.075 


.006 


.010 


.377 


652 


Paper Mill, 


























Mittineague 


.097 


.071 


.002 


.170 


.144 


.033 


.143 


.062 


.027 


.010 


.419 


584 


Power-House, 


























Quincy .Mass .... 


.047 


.025 


.001 


.073 


.073 


.021 


.159 


.085 


.064 


.020 


.422 


583 


School, 


























Waltham, Mass. . . 


.029 


.028 


.001 


.058 


.138 


.009 


.102 


.078 


.018 


.015 


.360 


494 


Foundry, Provi- 


























dence, R. I 


.028 


.020 


.001 


.049 


.084 


.012 


.114 


.026 


.026 


.010 


.272 


494 


Foundry, Provi- 


























dence, R. I 


.043 


.021 


.001 


.065 


.111 


.010 


.128 


.029 


.029 


.010 


.317 




Highest 


.110 


.071 


.003 


.184 


.144 


.048 


.208 


.080 


.064 


.046 


.428 




Lowest 


.028 


.012 


.001 


.049 


.073 


.005 


.076 


.026 


.004 


.010 


.272 




Average 


.061 


.032 


.002 


.095| .102 


.019 


.128 


.068 


.024 


.017 


.359 












1 















ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



445 



COST OF BEAM FLOORS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 







Forms per Sq. Ft. 


Concrete per Cu. Ft. 


o 

fc 
g 


Location 


Is 


1 


IB 


"3 


Is 


ao 


"S 


I 


1 

S3 o 


c 




o 

*t 




ft 


8 

3 
iJ 


f 


-5 


P 


*% 
^3 


1 


s 

M 
SS 

<3 


II 


s 





827 


Power-House, 


























Greenfield, Mass. . 


.165 


.107 


.003 


.275 


.143 


.020 


.109 


.101 


.008 


.016 


.397 


809 


Tar Well, Spring- 


























field, Mass 


.064 


.041 


.002 


.107 


.076 


.005 


.026 


.075 


.013 


.040 


.335 


804 


Mills, Greenfield, 


























Mass. 


.106 


.061 


.004 


.171 


.077 


.011 


.109 


.086 


.007 


.055 


.345 


796 


Car Barn, 


























Danbury, Conn. . . 


.044 


.051 


.001 


.096 


.128 


.013 


.086 


.071 


.011 


.010 


.319 


788 


Coal Pocket, 


























Lawrence, Mass . . 


.072 


.039 


.002 


.113 


.056 


.004 


.073 


.041 


.009 


.019 


.202 


762 


Mill, Southbridge, 


























Mass 


.067 


.062 


.002 


.131 


.137 


.029 


.191 


.051 


.038 


.014 


.460 


747 


Mill, Attleboro, 


























Mass 


.062 


.032 


.002 


.096 


.071 


.023 


.098 


.062 


.021 


.055 


.330 


744 


Bridge, Ply- 


























mouth, Mass 


.047 


.050 


.001 


.098 


.078 


.019 


.100 


.040 


.027 


.010 


.274 


741 


Garage, Newton, 


























Mass 


.104 


.033 


.002 


.134 


.116 


.020 


.121 


.084 


.038 


.010 


.394 


733 


Mill, South- 


























bridge, Mass 


.057 


.051 


.001 


.109 


.119 


.027 


.132 


.037 


.013 


.034 


.362 


732 


Coal Pocket, 


























Hartford, Conn. . . . 


.060 


.033 


.001 


.094 


.047 


.023 


.081 


.055 


.017 


.013 


.236 


731 


Garage, Brook- 


























line, Mass 


.105 


.038 


.002 


.145 


.160 


.032 


.088 


.058 


.041 


.020 


.399 


729 


Filter, Lawrence, 


























Mass 


.048 


.032 


.001 


.081 


.102 


.016 


.085 


.054 


.012 


.032 


.301 


694 


Storehouse, 


























Chelsea, Mass. . . . 


.064 


.043 


.002 


.109 


.153 


.035 


.115 


.068 


.052 


.020 


.443 


685 


Warehouse, 


























Portland, Me 


.037 


.029 


.001 


.067 


.186 


.030 


.096 


.069 


.043 


.046 


.470 


614 


Textile Mill, 


























Lawrence, Mass . . 


.045 


.042 


.001 


.088 


.130 


.013 


.071 


.037 


.025 


.010 


.286 


499 


Textile Mill, 


























Lawrence, Mass . . 


.053 


.033 


.001 


.087 


.116 


.033 


.194 


.049 


.035 


.015 


.442 


471 


Chapel, Portland, 


























Me 


.053 


.027 


.002 


.082 


.100 


.008 


.127 


.091 


.041 


.010 


.377 




Highest 


.165 


.107 


.004 


.275 


.186 


.035 


.194 


.101 


.052 


.055 


.470 




Lowest 


.037 


.027 


.001 


.067 


.047 


.004 


.071 


.037 


.007 


.010 


.202 




Average of 18 


.070 


.045 


.002 


.116 


.111 


.020 


.106 


.063 


.025 


.024 


.354 



446 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



STEEL 



Job 

No. 


Location 


Weight 


Cost of 
Handling 


Cost 
per ton 


865 
852 

846 
843 
829 
831 
816 
809 
807 
804 
799 
788 
762 
759 
747 
741 
733 
732 
729 
685 
630 
788 
729 


Office Building, Portland, Me 
Fire Station, Weston, Mass. . 


324, 
8: 
65; 

8; 

55 
19 
8^ 
15^ 
24^ 
92^ 
201 
28 
53^ 
293 
49^ 
20 
30 
195 
44^ 
62 
199^ 


tons 



tt 

(i 
u 
tt 

a 
" 

u 
( 
( 

f , 

r ' 

- ; 

i 
i 

- : 

- " 


$5,115.32 
40.26 
548.81 
61.75 
506.76 
102.59 
69.38 
59.21 
136.84 
1,232.01 
177.16 
461.16 
142.76 
3,079.60 
286.02 
86.55 
100.03 
2,316.60 
112.84 
462.99 
1,547.00 


$15.76 
4.74 
8.41 
7.26 
9.18 
5.40 
8.16 
3.82 
5.58 
10.20 
8.75 
16.47 
2.67 
10.51 
5.78 
4.33 
3.34 
11.88 
2.54 
7.47 
7.75 
16.47 
2.54 
8.52 


Mill, Chelsea, Mass 


Coal Bins, Dalton, Mass 


Dam, Auburn Me 


Filter, Warren, R. I. . 


Tank, Lincoln, Me. 


Tar Well, Springfield, Mass.. . 


Monument, Provincetown, Mass. 
Mill, Greenfield, Mass 


Machine Shop, Milton, Mass. . . . 
Coal Pocket, Lawrence, Mass. ... 
Mill, Southbridge, Mass 


Mill, South Windham, Me 
Mill, Attleboro, Mass 


Garage, Newton Mass 


Mill, Southbridge, Mass 


Coal Pocket, Hartford, Conn. . . 
Filter, Lawrence, Mass . . 


Warehouse, Portland, Me 
Standpipe, Attleboro, Mass 


Highest . 


Lowest . . . 


Average of 21 





FORMS " By reference to the general averages on form work 
in the foregoing tables of forms per square foot of surface 
contact, namely, columns $.13 floors with reinforced concrete 
beams $.116, flat floors without beams $.111, short spans slabs 
between steel beams, including the fireproofing on the sides 
of the beams, $.095, walls exposed to view above ground, 
$.128, foundation walls $.103, mass foundations $.093, the 
writer believes all higher in price than is usually believed to 
be a fair cost by the majority of builders. It is upon the suc- 
cess of handling forms that good results financially depend. 

CONCRETE: In regard to concrete, labor is the variable 
item which must be carefully considered. Anyone of intelli- 
gence can make a careful estimate of the materials to be 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 447 

used, but note the average prices per cubic foot of labor, 
namely for columns, $.123, beam floors $.131, flat floors $.106, 
floors between steel beams $.121, walls $.106, founda- 
tions $.091, and mass work in connection with build- 
ings $.052; not until the last item is reached is a price ob- 
tained in experience which, according to the observation of 
the writer, the majority expect to obtain in building work in 
general. Many men who have had wide experience in hand- 
ling large quantities of concrete in mass have at times at- 
tempted a lighter type of construction and been greatly sur- 
prised at the large expense connected therewith. It has come 
to the writer's notice a number of times that men with this 
experience have added from fifty per cent, to one hundred 
per cent, to the cost of mass work and felt that they were 
amply covered for light structural work. The fallacy of this 
can be seen by a very recent experience of the writer's. In 
building a dam this past year across the Connecticut River, 
about 5,500 cubic yards of concrete were placed. Cement and 
aggregates were received on a bridge abutment twenty-six 
feet above the river. Aggregates were dumped upon an in- 
clined chute where they were to be washed, and from the end 
of the chute they fell into bins, from which they were drawn 
through measuring hoppers into a mixer and dumped from 
this into tram cars four feet above the water. The total ex- 
pense for labor of washing, charging, mixing and dumping 
into the cars was only $.12 per cubic yard, and for moving it 
in cars, an average distance of 700 feet, dumping and placing 
was only $.30 per cubic yard, or a total cost of $.0155 per 
cubic foot. 

MASTER CARD: In the exhibit at the end is given an exact 
copy of a " master card " which gives the complete financial 
history of the job when it is finally completed. It will be 
seen that on some items a loss was incurred, as well as a 
profit on others, showing that it is difficult, even on work 
which a company is fairly experienced on, to reach the right 
price on everything, and also that when slight changes are 
made by the owner or architect they often entail heavy loss. 
Take one case of the external walls. The owners furnished 



448 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

the window-frames and sash, which were all of metal. The 
original design was for a frame with two-sash which could 
easily be put into a six-inch wall. They later decided, for 
greater fire protection, to use four-sash. This required an 
eight-inch wall instead of six-inch, and the form work on 
the inside had to be built inward and then the space under 
the windows paneled to save material. This slight change, 
when the job was entirely complete, showed that the concrete 
on the walls showed an actual loss instead of profit, and 
that form work cost more than twice what was originally es- 
timated that it should cost. 

TOOLING : Regarding the tooling of wall surfaces, we orig- 
inally planned to do this when the cement was less than ten 
days old, but, on account of the various changes, forms had 
to be left on a considerably longer time, and it was incon- 
venient to tool the surface until the cement Was so thor- 
oughly set that the cost of dressing was considerably greater 
than was first anticipated. ; 

MAPLE FLOOR: Again, by reference to the y 8 -inch maple 
floor which was placed upon the concrete construction, a 
cost of $89.44 per M. bd. ft. will be observed, and by refer- 
ence to the details on the back of the card it will be seen that 
repairing floor cost $248.50 or $12.42 per thousand. This was 
due to the fact that the owners did not deliver or set the 
window-sash at the time agreed, and therefore the maple 
floors lay exposed to the weather in the building for several 
weeks, swelled, and after laying, shrunk, leaving large 
cracks which the owners insisted on being filled before they 
would accept the work. These indicate how matters which 
appear trivial at the time may cause serious loss, if over- 
looked. 

As seen by the large list of items entering into the esti- 
mate as given by this master card, there are various items 
of cost entering into the construction besides those which 
are enumerated. Nevertheless, the matter of the forms, steel 
and concrete cover by far the largest proportion of the cost 
of a reinforced concrete structure, and the minor items are 
those which are peculiar to each individual case and which 
any person can easily estimate for himself. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



449 



MASTER CARD 
Mill, Tappan Bros-. Attleboro, Mass. 



Job No. 747 
Date, May 24, 1906 


Proposal 


Actual 
Cost 


Per 
cu. ft. 


Profit 


Loss 


Per 
cent 


Total 


$35,164.55 
790.00 
1,738.00 

1,955.00 
1,520.00 
8,883.00 
2,869.00 

832.00 
883.00 

469.00 
348.00 
44.00 

852.00 

1,770.25 
253.00 
387.00 

1,086.00 

2,839.00 
1,738.00 
379.50 
98.00 
1,255.00 

1,009.00 

429.00 
400.00 

300.00 
1,860.00 
100.00 
77.80 


$31,330.48 
823.18 
1,033.57 

2,162.02 
3,630.08 
6,544.16 
1,713.51 

676.65 
910.35 

636.53 
164.33 
35.64 

729.99 

1,656.35 
257.06 
654.00 

835.12 

1,431.69 
1,788.88 
533.19 
70.07 
1,026.06 

647.54 

316.90 
375.00 

218.91 
2,271.73 
120.00 
67.97 


.021 
.137 
Per sq. ft. 
.190 
.125 
.339 
.237 
Per lin. ft. 
1.470 
.912 
Per sq. ft. 
.056 

Each 

2.19 

Per sq. ft. 
.189 

Per M. 
52.17 

33.30 

89:44 
98.89 

Per sq. ft. 
.094 

.211 
.175 


$3,834.07 
704.43 

2,338.84 
1,155.49 

155.351 

183.67 
8.36 

122.01 
113.90 

250.88 
1,407.31 

27.93 
228.94 

361.46 

112.10 
25.00 

j 81.09 
9.83 


$33.18 

207.02 
2,110.08 

27.35 
167.53 

4.06 
267.00 

50.88 
153.69 

411.73 
20.00 


11 




Footings and fn 

Exterior walls 
Wall and fn. centers 
Floors, 6f thick .... 
Roof, 5J" thick 

Columns, 20"x20" 
Stairs 


Tool surface 
Ornaments and cornice 
Ventilators on roof . . . 

Set windows and door 
frames 


Interior partitions .... 
Bolts and iron works . . . 
Stair railing and grill . . 

Screens and setting .... 
2" spr. plank and lay- 
ing . 


|" Maple, laying 
Motor shaft 


Motor shaft foundation 
Roofing and conductors 


Retaining Wall 
Centers per sq. ft. . . 
Concrete per cu. ft. . 
Painting 


Steel footings and 
walls . 


Plant, frt., etc 


Bond 


Extras 





Mr. Wason then goes on to the cost of concrete buildings. 

" It has been a common method to estimate the approximate 
cost of a building by either the square foot of floor or the 
cubic foot of space enclosed. As stated, after making this 
comparison, I am convinced that neither method is accurate 
enough to put much reliance on, but that the square foot 
method is a little safer than the other. Four additional tables 
are presented herewith. In each case the total cost includes 



450 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



masonry and carpentry work without interior finish or deco- 
rating, plumbing and heating. The effort has been made to 
put the buildings upon a comparative basis as regards the 
amount of work done on each. 

The first table consists of the total cost of actual contracts 
executed. The second table consists of bona fide bids on 
complete buildings on which we were not the lowest bidders, 
but where the difference was not, as a rule, very great. The 
third and fourth tables are bona fide bids on work by an- 
other contractor whose experience was similar to our own. 
As a rule, cubic foot measurements are given in cents only, 
seldom being carried to any closer subdivision. In reference 
to Table IV. on second-class buildings, it will be noted that 
for the largest building a variation of one cent per cubic 
foot amounts to over $28,000, while the smallest one in the 
list amounts to only a little over ,$5,400. Again, on the last 
three items, the cubic foot price is practically identical, while 
the square foot measurements corresponding vary by more 
than 100 per cent, with no easily apparent reason in the 
design. 

TABLE I. 
COST OF FIREPROOF COMPLETED CONTRACTS 









Floor 


Unit 


Cost 


Kind of Building 


Job Cost 


in Cu. Ft. 


Area in 
Sq. Ft. 


Per Cu. 
Ft. 


Per Sq. 
Ft. 


Offices and stores .... 
Offices and stores .... 
Factory 


$181,194 
61,646 
12,774 


1,365,830 
496,780 
112,440 


90,474 
39,840 
7,519 


$.133 
.124 
.114 


$2.00 

1.545 
1.70 


Factory 


44,652 


746,674 


49,546 


.060 


902 


Factory .... 


39,830 


312,000 


24,960 


.127 


1.60 


Garage 


10,436 


156,198 


10,806 


.085 


1.23 


Filter 


19,993 


149,250 


19,208 


.134 


1.04 


Fire Station 


6,757 


44265 


2,982 


.153 


226 


Observatory 
Filter .... 


3,625 
20,076 


9,734 
59,991 


657 
5,243 


.373 
.333 


5.45 
3.82 


Highest 
Lowest 








.333 
.06 


3.82 
.90 


Average 











.138 


1.72 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



451 



TABLE II. 
COST OF FIREPROOF COMPLETE BUILDINGS 



Kind of Building 


Job Cost 


Volume 
inCu. Ft. 


Floor 
Area in 
Sq. Ft. 


Unit Cost 


Per Cu. 
Ft. 


Per Sq. 
Ft. 


Storehouse 


$141,755 
60,800 
61,646 
200,051 
19,292 
141,529 
76,796 
91,377 
136,880 
13,064 
75,604 
23,332 


1,714,448 
703,692 
496,780 
1,535,000 
212,400 
1,327,868 
1,140,000 
1,380,500 
693,840 
105,600 
1,211,364 
180,000 


168,696 
57,654 
39,840 
154,000 
15,000 
106,022 
146,000 
90,240 
56,552 
8,800 
74,604 
16,394 


$.0827 
.0865 
.124 
.13 
.091 
.107 
.0685 
.067 
.197 
.124 
.0625 
.129 
.197 
.0625 
.1088 


$ .84 
1.05 
1.545 
1.30* 
1.28 
1.335 
.575 
1.01 
2.42 
1.485 
1.01 
1.42 
2.42 
.575 
1.27 


Hospital 


Office building, 
Cold storage 


Factory 


Factory . 


Storehouse 


Mfg. building 


Office 


Factory 


Factory 


Factory 


Highest . 


Lowest 


Average 



In Table III. another discrepancy is noticed. In the first 
and the last items, the highest and the lowest per cubic foot, 
as well as per square foot, are on office buildings of similar 
type which were within one mile of each other where there 
is no apparent reason for such discrepancy in the design or 
difficulty of access in the erection of the building. I would 
recommend that very little reliance be placed upon this class 
of estimates. 



452 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



TABLE III. 
COST OF FIREPROOF BUILDINGS 







Volume 


Floor 


Unit 


Cost 






in Cu. Ft. 


Sq. Ft. 


Per Cu. 

Ft. 


Per Sq. 
Ft. 


Office building 


$ 70690 


441,000 


35,854 


$ .159 


$1.97 


Cold storage 
Hospital 


132,365 
44,451 


1,016,400 
348,320 


101,640 
34,832 


.13 
.127 


1.30 
1.27 


Hospital . . . 


51,574 


414,732 


29,838 


.124 


1.73 


Bank 


65,580 


533,750 




.123 




Masonic 


180,197 


1,479,456 


; 


.122 





Warehouse 


31,280 


259,700 


24,500 


.120 


1.28 


Garage 
Warehouse 


59,105 
275,723 


497,420 
2,597,000 


212,000 


.118 
.106 


1.30 


Hotel 


220,646 


2,116,106 




.104 




Hospital 


49724 


485,789 


38,247 


.100 


1.30 


Office 


25,151 


264,687 




.095 




Cold storage 
Club . 


82,711 
43,586 


909,240 
513,808 


66,745 


.091 
.085 


1.24 


Office . . . 


60,003 


501,575 


67,400 


.084 


1.12 


Highest 








159 


1.97 


Lowest 
Average 











.084 
.113 


1.12 
1.39 


5 variatiop high 
and low 











53.8% 


57.0% 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 453 

TABLE IV. 

COST OF MILL CONSTRUCTION OR SECOND-CLASS 
BUILDING 







Volume 


Floor 


Unit 


Cost 


Kind of Building 


Job Cost 


in Cu. Ft. 


Area in 
Sq. Ft. 


Per Cu. 

Ft. 


Per Sq. 
Ft. 


Mill ...,..:..'.:. 


$ 66,516 


544,788 


44,172 


$.122 


$1.51 


Warehouse 


337 000 ' 


2 808,850 




.121 




Mill 


113 288 


1,271,300 


129,920 


.089 


.875 


Storehouse . ... 


101,098 


1,714,448 


168,696 


.059 


.60 


Mill 


90,703 


1,622,128 


152,200 


.056 


.60 


Mill 


72,048 


1,331,200 


83,200 


.054 


.865 


Mill 


85,754 


1,752,609 


81,500 


.048 


1.05 


Mill 


122,128 


2,641,000 


98,059 


.046 


1.25 


Mill 


94341 


2,036,731 


174,000 


046 


.542 


Mill 


129,405 


2,867,535 


157,730 


.045 


.82 


Highest . . 








.122 


1.51 


Lowest 


, 








.045 


.542 


Average 











.069 


.90 















COST OP MODERATE PRICED DWELLING HOUSES 
OF REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

So much has been said regarding the cost of moderate 
priced dwelling houses of reinforced concrete that an esti- 
mate has been made on four of the prize designs of the com- 
petition held by the Association of American Portland Ce- 
ment Manufacturers. These have been figured out on aver- 
age unit costs given in the preceding tables. First prize was 
for a $2,000 house, single and double, and for a $4.500 house, 
single and double. The first figure is for a house as designed 
by the successful competitor, the second figure for a dis- 
tinctly monolithic fireproof house en the same design. It 
will be seen that these houses cost more when estimated, 
based upon experience hereinbefore given, than the sort given 
in the competition. It is nevertheless the writer's opinion 
that small detached houses cannot be built as cheap, as a 
rule, as the average unit price upon which the estimate is 
based, because these unit prices are obtained from much 



454 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

larger buildings, the majority of which are much plainer in 
design, which thereby simplifies the construction. 

There has been some inquiry regarding the cost of work- 
men's cottages, and a design has been made for a block 
house to be built in not less than 20 at one time in blocks of 
10 or more in length. These are two-story houses with cellar 
for storage of coal, two rooms on the first floor, four cham- 
bers and toilet on the second; 17 feet front, 27 feet deep, fire- 
proof throughout. These could be built for $1,600 each, or 
16.9 cents per cubic foot, and $1.73 per square foot of floor 
space. If built of the same design, only of wood, the cost is 
estimated to be $1,355, or 14^ cents a cubic foot, $1.48 a 
square foot, a saving between concrete and wood of $245 or 
15.3 per cent. Considering the severe wear and tear such a 
house receives from the class of pople who occupy it, this 
difference in price is very well justified. Prices given here 
are for everything necessary for the building complete, ready 
for immediate occupancy. 

Cost of Four Houses. Prize Designs from the Competition 
Held by the Association of American Portland Cement 

Manufacturers. 

(The houses are complete except for heating, lighting and 
plumbing. The third column is figured out by unit costs 
given in the preceding tables for a house with concrete walls 
and wooden interior as per the competition; the fourth col- 
umn is for the same house built entirely fireproof.) 

No. 158. EUGENE WARD, JR., Architect 
Single house, 26 feet front by 20 feet 8 inches deep; 

2 stories and cellar; 4 rooms and bath $2,000 $ 3,694 $ 4,315 

No. 177. ANDREW LINDSAY, Architect 

Double house, 66 feet 6 inches front by 28 feet deep; 

If stories and cellar; 4 rooms and bath $4,000 6,716 8,385 

No. 156. EUGENE WARD, JR., Architect 
Double house, 72 feet 8 inches front by 30 feet 10 

inches deep; 2$ stories and cellar; 8 rooms and 

bath $9,000 10,440 12,507 

No.. 96. W. CORNELL APPLETON, Architect 
Single house, 33 feet front by 28 feet deep; 2 stories 

and cellar; 7 rooms and bath $4,500 5,847 7,112 

Mr. Wason's valuable paper ends here. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 455 

At this Cleveland Convention another expert gave the fol- 
lowing comparison of cost : 

" Reinforced concrete buildings of reasonable size, that is, 
costing $60,000 and upwards, can be and actually have been 
erected at costs running from 10 per cent, to 20 per cent, 
lower than the best bid received for steel construction on the 
same plans. On medium propositions concrete will not ex- 
ceed first-class mill construction by more than 10 per cent., 
and in several instances where the estimated cost of the 
building has run over $150,000, the figures submitted by the 
concrete contractors have been slightly lower than those of 
the mill construction men." 

THE FERRO-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. 

Another excellent record of actual costs was sent me near 
the end of 1909 by The Ferro-Concrete Construction Company 
of Cincinnati. This Company put up the 16-story Ingalls 
building, one of the first of the new style; and has since 
erected nearly 200 other structures of all sorts and sizes. 
METHODS : Mr. Anderson, the president, says : 

" To make a proper estimate the cost of the form work 
should always be kept separate, and as a general thing, this 
cost is about the same as the entire cost of the concrete itself, 
including material and labor on the concrete, as the cost 
varies with the type of building. For instance, the cost of 
form work for the fireproofing of a steel building is much less 
per square foot than the cost on a reinforced concrete build- 
ing where there is no steel frame. The reason for this is that 
where there is a steel frame the carpenters have the height of 
the floor fixed by the steel work, also all the positions of the 
beams and girders are fixed, while in a strictly reinforced 
concrete building all of these dimensions have to be care- 
fully measured and determined by the carpenter. 

COSTS: "The unit cost of high and narrow buildings, such 
as the Ingalls, is much greater than buildings which are 
more spread out. Each floor has to be concreted before do- 
ing any work on the one above, and this causes delay. Then 



456 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

the men do not work so fast on the outside work when so 
high in the air. 

COST OF FORMS: "The actual costs on the Ingalls Build- 
ing for form work came to 11.39c. per square foot; the cost 
of lumber and nails being $5,669.11, and the cost of labor 
being $22,910.58, making the unit cost of material 2.2Tc. per 
square foot, and the cost of labor 9.12c. per square foot. At 
this time we were paying 37.5c. for carpenters. 

MEASUREMENT: "In getting the number of square feet 
of form work we count on form work that comes in contact 
with the concrete, making no allowances for the deductions 
which actually occur at intersections, thus on the walls we 
count for each square foot of wall two square feet of form 
work, as both sides touch the wall. 

" In figuring columns we figure all sides and count the full 
story height, making no deduction for the thickness of the 
floor itself. 

" In figuring girders we figure the full length of the build- 
ing, making no deductions for that portion where the girders 
go through a column, which has already been counted in the 
column forms; likewise, we make no deduction where the 
beams and girders intersect. Also we make no deductions 
for stair openings or elevator openings, as the additional 
cost of framing around these places more than overcomes 
the amount saved by the opening. 

" These rules in so far as intersections and openings go also 
apply in obtaining our quantities for concrete and steel. 
MIXING AND PLACING: "The cost of placing concrete on 
the Ingalls Building was $1.46% per cu. yd. with labor at 
17M>c. per hour. 

COST OF FORMS: " The costs of form work on some of our 
other jobs were as follows: 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



457 



Name and Address 


Labor 
Cents 


Material 
Cents 


Total 
Cents 


Carpentry 
Per Hr. 
Cents 


Richardson Paper Co., Lockland, 










Ohio 


9.23 


.92 


10.15 




Citizens Motor Car Co 


10 


2.62 


12.62 





Barney Warehouse, Dayton, O. . 
Extension No. 3 Bullock Elec. & 


7.3 


.8 


8.1 





Mfg. Co., Norwood, Ohio 


11.45 


4.04 


15.49 


42.5 


Frank Bldg., Cincinnati, O 


6.69 


3.30 


9.99 


37.5 and 40 


Ware Residence, Ft. Thomas, Ky. 


6.62 


2.72 


9.34 


37.5 


Hauck Bldg., Cincinnati, O 


7.7 


2.66 


10.36 


37.5 


American Book Co., Cin'ti, O. . . 


6.24 


2.08 


8.32 


37.5 


McDonald-Kiley Warehouse .... 


7.76 


2.84 


10.6 


37.5 


American Snuff Co., Memphis, 










Tenn. 


5.66 


3.29 


9.95 


45 













" The labor cost per cubic yard of concrete and steel in dol- 
lars per ton on some of these jobs was as follows: 



Name 


Concrete 


Steel 


Extension No. 3 Bullock Elec. & Mfg. Co 
American Snuff Co 


$1.585 
2.46 


$ 8.16 
6.40 


Barney Warehouse 


230 


1320 


Citizens Motor Car Co . 




1032 


Henderson Litho. Co 


___ 


11.04 


Richardson Paper Co 


2.99 


14.04 


Hauck Building 


1.745 


8.32 


W^are Residence 


2.65 











" These are actual costs taken from our records. 

" It would be well, however, for me to tell how we make our 
estimates before these would mean much. There are certain 
fixed expenses which of course we do not include in these 
costs and which on the average amount to about 10 per cent., 
wo that these figures would have to be increased by 10 per 
cent, to get the actual costs. The expenses I refer to are 
general operating expenses, liability insurance on our work- 
men, superintendents, watchmen and similar expenses. 



458 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



" In some of the costs for form work the material cost was 
very low. This was due to the fact that we had other jobs 
we could take the lumber from, and so a low lumber cost 
was thus obtained. 

" Of course anyone starting in business will probably have 
their costs run higher at the start than would be the c.-ise in 
an old established firm, as the latter naturally know how to 
handle their work better and are apt to have better work- 
men." 

TRUSSED CONCRETE STEEL COMPANY 

One of the largest companies doing reinforced-concrete 
work is the Kahn Co., or Trussed Concrete Steel Co. of De- 
troit. Some data from this company are already given on 
pp. 124-125. The following figures sent me in 1909 from their 
Hy-Rib engineer deal with this new development. They are 
supposed to apply to all the larger cities of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan, if not to any city in the 
country, with the possible exception of New York, Philadel- 
phia and Chicago, where higher prices prevail. One large con- 
tract this company secured in 1908 was the Ford Motor Co. 
factory at Detroit 75'x862'x4 stories; and the cost was only 
5c. per cubic ft. 

Floor costs are given complete. 

"'All the figures given are actual costs, not including con- 
tractor's profit, with the exception of the figure given on side 
walls made with Hy-rib, where we have named the contract 
prices as well as actual costs. 

The figures below are based upon the following unit 
costs: 

Portland cement $ 1.10 per bbl. 

Good clean sand 1.00 per cu. yd. 

Crushed stone 1.35 per cu. yd. 

Common labor 20 per hour 

Skilled labor for concrete work 40 per hour 

Carpenter labor 40 per hour 

Plasterers' labor 50 per hour 

Plasterers' helpers 20 per hour 

Lathers' labor 40 per hour 

Lumber for shoring 18.00 per thousand 

28 gauge Hy-rib painted or unpainted 3.75c. per sq. ft. 

f.o.b. Youngstown, 0. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 459 

26 gauge Hy-rib painted or unpainted 4.2c. per sq. ft. 

f.o.b. Youngstown, O. 
24 gauge Hy-rib painted or unpainted 5.5 c. per sq. ft. 

f.o.b. Youngstown, O. 

TYPE A : A floor like type A, on 6' spans to support 100 Ibs. 
per sq. ft. live load will cost about 24.5c. per sq. ft. of floor 
area. This figure includes the fireproofing of the beams. 
The same floor on an 8' span will cost 26.5c. per sq. ft. 

TYPE B: Referring to type B, this floor to support 100 Ibs. 
per sq. ft. live load will cost about 19c. per sq. ft. on 6' spans 
and about 21c. per sq. ft. on 8' spans. These costs include the 
fireproofing of the beams. 

TYPE C: Referring to type C, this floor to carry a live load 
of 100 Ibs. per sq. ft. would cost on G' spans about 26c. per 
sq. ft., and on 8' spans about 28.5c. per sq. ft. 

TYPE D: Referring to type D, this floor to support 100 Ibs. 
per sq. ft. live load would cost about 17.5c. per sq. ft. for 6' 
spans and about 19.5c. per sq. ft. for 8' spans. These costs 
include the fireproofing of the beams as shown. 

TYPE E: Referring to the upper figure marked type E, 
where the arched Hy-rib is used on steel I beams, this floor 
will cost on 6' spans about 18.5c. per sq. ft.,, and on 8' spans 
about 21. 5c. per sq. ft. This slab will support a load of 600 
to 800 Ibs. per sq. ft. 

None of the above figures include the cost of the steel frame 
work. 

All the above figures include the cost of fireproofing the 
beams as shown in the sketches, and in fact the cost of the 
completed floor just as shown, including the plastering un- 
derneath the Hy-rib, as per specifications in the new Hy-rib 
Catalogue. 

In all those cases where a wooden finished floor is not 
shown we have figured on 1" of first-class cement finish on 
the top of the concrete slab itself, this finish being figured at 
a cost of 2 1 / 4c. per sq. ft. in place. 



460 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

ROOFS: The cost of the roof depends largely on the span. 
The standard thickness of roof slab constructed on Hy-rib is 
1*" above the base of the Hy-rib and about %" plastered on 
below. This slab will cost, in addition to the cost of 26 gauge 
Hy-rib itself, about 8c. per sq. ft. complete, besides the spe- 
cial waterproofing, such as Carey Roofing or Barrett Speci- 
fications or something of that kind. (This waterproof roofing 
will usually cost somewhere between 2% and 3M>c. per sq. ft) 
This cost is made up of the following items: 

Removing Hy-rib from car and placing on the roof, 7%c. 
per sq. ft. 

Temporary shoring (if 26 Hy-rib is used on spans greater 
than 4' or if 24 Hy-rib is used on spans greater than 5') ^c. 
per sq. ft. 

l 1 /^" of best 1:2:4 rock concrete in place, 4c. per sq. ft. 

Plastering underneath, 2.75c. per sq. ft. 

If thicker roof slabs are required lc* per sq. ft. for each 
additional %" in thickness is a liberal allowance. 

The figure of %c. for temporary shoring is based on sup- 
porting the Hy-rib along one line at the middle of its span. 
If the span is so great as to require two supports, %c. per 
sq. ft. of floor should be used instead of %c. 

REGARDING COST OP WALLS: Hy-rib side walls are be- 
ing built, the total thickness being usually 1%", for 11 to 13c. 
,per sq. ft. complete. The writer knows at the present time 
of contracts covering several hundred thousand square feet 
of this wall at a price of 12^. per sq. ft, all openings being 
deducted in figuring the cost. In this price is included 26 Hy- 
rib at 4^c. per sq. ft. with freight allowed to destination. 
We ordinarily recommend 28 Hy-rib which is approximately 
%. cheaper per sq. ft. 

The above figures for Hy-rib walls are the contract prices 
and include a contractor's profit. The actual cost not in- 
cluding profit will run from 10 to 12c. per sq. ft. of actual 
area, openings being deducted. 

SOLID PARTITIONS: Solid partitions built with Hy-rib 
having a thickness of 1%" to 2" will cost complete in place, 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 461 

including the finish coats of plaster on both sides, about $1.05 
per sq. yd. This cost includes all labor and all material. 

HOLLOW PARTITIONS: If desired to use Hy-rib for hol- 
low partition construction the studding can be spaced at least 
4' apart and the Hy-rib sheets run horizontally. A partition 
thus constructed with studding about 4' on centers, with Hy- 
rib run horizontally, and plastered on the outside only as or- 
dinary lath is plastered, would cost about $1.10 per sq. yd. 
complete. 

CEILINGS: An ordinary ceiling made with 28 gauge Hy-rib 
on joists or studding spaced 16" on centers would cost about 
65c. per sq. yd. The joists could as well be spacec 1 3' on cen- 
ters so far as the Hy-rib is concerned and the corresponding 
saving be made in the cost of the ceiling. 

On suspended ceilings where it is necessary to have a fram- 
ing of light steel work spaced about 4'-6" center to center to 
which the Hy-rib is to be attached, the cost of the completed 
job including steel framing, Hy-rib, and all labor and ma- 
terials will average about 95c. per sq. yd. 

REGARDING SILOS: A silo with a single wall can be con- 
structed for about loc. per sq. ft. of wall area. This, how- 
ever, does not include -the doors, the roof, nor foundation, but 
simply the walls. If a double wall is desired this figure 
should be increased to about 25c. per sq. ft. of wall. This 
figure also does not include the doors, roof, nor foundations. 

REGARDING WALLS FOR RESIDENCES: The cost in 
Detroit of such a wall will be 20 to 21c per sq. ft. of actual 
wall surface. This cost includes the studding, the furring 
strips, the asbestos board or building paper, the 6" strips of 
building paper, the Trus-con Bonding Coat, the Waterproof 
Filler, the Hy-rib Sheathing, the Rib Lath, the Cement mor- 
tar, the interior plastering, and all labor of putting all these 
materials in their place. There is absolutely no question 
about the strength, durability and artistic appearance of this 
construction." 



462 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



The following cuts are the ones referred to in the forego- 
ing statement. The short descriptions are to give a clearer 
understanding of the system. 







HY-RIB FLOOR TYPE A. 

HY-RIB sheets are laid on top of steel beam, concrete poured 
in, and under surface plastered no centering is used. 





HY-RIB FLOOR TYPE B. 

Finished concrete slab is flush with top of steel beam, giv- 
ing greater head room below beams HY-RIB sheets are 
supported on the sides of beam boxes used as centering for 
the steel beam fireproofing no other centering is necessary. 




HY-RIB FLOOR TYPE C. 

Flat ceiling is secured by constructing HY-RIB slab on 
the lower flange of beam a light cinder fill over the slab 
brings the finished floor flush with top of steel beam no 
centering is necessary. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



463 




HY-RIB FLOOR TYPE D. 

Ends of HY-RIB sheets are curved and rest on lower 
flange of beams. HY-RIB provides the fireproofing of steel 
beams without the use of any centering. With reinforced 
concrete beams the sides of the beam boxes are done away 
with as the ends of the HY-RIB sheets rest on the bottom 
board. 




HY-RIB FLOOR TYPE E. 

Arched concrete floors used for carrying heavy loads. 
HY-RIB comes to the job bent to exact curve. Ends of 
sheets rest on lower flange of beam. Concrete is poured in 
above and plaster applied to the lower surface. No center- 
ing is necessary. 



HY-RIB FLOORS WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE 

BEAMS TYPES A, B AND C. 

HY-RIB sheets are supported on the sides of the beam 
boxes used for centering the concrete beams no other cen- 
tering necessary. If HY-RIB extends over concrete beams, 
punch out the lathing between the ribs to permit filling of 
the beam. 



464 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 




HOOFS: The construction of roofs is similar to that of 
floors, except that the loads are lighter and a correspondingly 
lighter construction is desirable. In this field HY-RIB is 
especially useful, as slabs as thin as 1% inches can be built. 
It saves in the dead weight of the construction, and conse- 
quently permits the use of lighter roof trusses. 

Concrete construction has at times been rejected when 
desired for roofs of industrial plants, solely because of the 
prohibitive cost of the falsework when roofs are 20 to .50 
feet above the ground. With HY-RIB no centering is neces- 
sary, and it can be as readily installed as ordinary wood 
boards. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



465 



.Or\C gElT E. ^.l-AS 1 



BE-jT! 



j 

a&a 



,rnr- 



5 




L-A 



CEILINGS. 

HY-RIB, as used in ceilings, does away entirely with the 
small channels, T's, angles, and studs necessary where the 
ordinary type of lath is used. 

HY-RIB is placed with the lath surface downward, pre- 
sents a straign true surface for plastering, and requires a 
minimum amount of material. 




Full Size Cross Section Hy-Rib Slab or Wall. 
Note rigidity and perfect surface for plastering. 



THE ROEBLING CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. 

This system is not a purely reinforced concrete one, but is 
used in combination with steel columns and floor girders. 
As noted in Mr. Wason's paper, all heights of stories and 
spacing of beams are already attended to before any form 
work has to be laid out, and this part of the contract is 
cheaper in consequence. The following figures were sup- 
plied by the company in the early part of 1910. 
COST: " SEGMENTAL ARCH, with concrete filled flush 
with the top of the beams and with the flat steel and wire 



466 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

lath ceiling construction, will average about 23c. per sq. ft. 
between 10" beams in spans of 6' or less between beams. 

COVERING: For the concrete column and girder protection 
with interior steel anchors, providing for a minimum thick- 
ness of 2" at the corners of the members, an average price of 
about 16c. per sq. ft. of plastering surface should be allowed. 

FOR OUR SEGMENTAL ARCH system, without ceiling 
protection and with the soffits of the beams protected, the 
price will generally average 20c. per sq. ft. in spans of 7' or 
less between 15" beams. The soffit protection provides a 
minimum thickness of 2" of concrete to the beam. 

FLAT SYSTEM: For the flat reinforced concrete floor con- 
struction , Type 10, the price per square foot, between 
10" beams and spans of 7' or less with the concrete slab 4'* 
in thickness and including the flat light steel and metal lath 
ceilings, will average 20c. The column and girder protec- 
tion the same as already named. 

PANELED: For the flat system paneled ceiling effect, Type 
No. 6, without flat wire ceilings, the price is 17c. per sq. ft. 
between 10" beams and in spans of 7' or less. The Type 
10, with 4" concrete slab flush with the bottoms of shal- 
low beams, that is, beams not exceeding 9" in depth, the 
price is 14c. per sq. ft. 

CONCRETE FILLER: None of the above figures include 
any plaster work, wood work, or concrete fill. Our standard 
fill consisting of one part Portland Cement to ten parts steam 
boiler cinders (without sand) is worth about Ic. per sq. ft. 
per inch of depth when the fill is 2" or more in depth. 

PARTITION: In the partition construction, the solid 2" 
concrete partition is worth about $1.35 per sq. yd., erected in 
place; similarly, the hollow partition, finishing 4" thick, is 
worth about $1.10 per sq. yd. The single partition finishing 
2" thick is worth about 70c. per sq. yd. The above prices in- 
clude only metal work and framing around door and sash 
openings and include no plaster or wood work. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



467 



CORNICES, ETC.: Furring and lathing for ornamental cor- 
nices, coves, etc., where the perimeter does not exceed 2', 15c. 
per sq. ft. of plastering surface. The plain boxing of girders 
where the surfaces are plain and the corners square, simply 
furring them out to larger dimensions, the price is about 
lOc. per sq. ft. of plastering surface. 

DOMES: Large ornamental domes, vaulted ceilings, groined 
arches, etc., 20c. to 40c. per sq. ft. of plastering surface, in- 
cluding the furring and light metal supports and metal lath 
ready to receive plaster." 

The following illustrations show the " Types " referred to 
in the Roebling statement. 

TYPE 1. 




This illustrates the flat construction with a 4-inch thick re- 
inforced cinder concrete slab finishing 2 1-2 inches above the 
top of the beams and 2 inches below the bottom flange of the 
beams. 

This type was designed to meet the requirements of the new 
building code of New York City. 




This shows the 4-inch reinforced cinder concrete slab con- 
struction, finishing flush with the top of the beam, and the 
same as Type 1, in other respects. 



468 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

TYPE 9. 




Another method of flat construction, showing the method used 
in attaching wire lath ceiling. Used extensively in residential 
and office building construction in New York City and else- 
where. 

TYPE 10. 




This illustrates the reinforced cinder concrete slab construc- 
tion, finishing flush with the top of the beam and without soffit 
protection, and showing the wire lath ceiling clipped direct to 
the under side of the beam. 

TYPE 19. 



/.'/'I 


^Vi 


* * 









V 

The reinforced cinder concrete slab construction illustrated 
here finishes either flush vith the bottom or 1 1-2 inches below 
the bottom flange of the beam, with a cinder fill on top of 
same to and flush with the top of the beam. 

THE REINFORCING used throughout consists of 2x1-8 inch or 
1 1-4x3-16 inch flat steel bars set on edge and spaced 16 inches 
on centers with the bars, attached to the beams by clamping 
their ends around the top flange of same, or by hanging them 
in stirrups from the top flanges. These bars are held in posi- 
tion by separators made of No. 5 round rods, and are placed 
two to a span. 

A STANDARD MIXTURE for this type of construction is one 
part cement, two parts sand, and five parts cinders.. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



469 




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470 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

THE HENNEBIQUE SYSTEM 

This is one of the pioneers in the new construction. The 
company has already put up 22,000 buildings in Europe, 
Africa, China, Mexico, and the Americas. As contractors it 
has finished more than $100,000,000 worth of work; and em- 
ploys also a corps of consulting engineers. 

There have been many official tests of reinforced concrete, 
but the Hennebique Company supplied one of the best tests 
yet devised; and it was an unexpected one. Two five-story 
grain warehouses in Tunis settled and leaned over like the 
tower at Pisa. They were loaded with sand on the high side, 
and by excavating on the same side were brought back to 
position uninjured. 

It has been said that the more a man knows about any- 
thing the greater he sees his ignorance to be; and this com- 
pany, while willing to give costs on any specific work, did 
not like to give tables of averages for " The New Building 
Estimator," as the other companies already quoted, owing to 
differences due to location, nature of building, etc. 

The following useful figures are from their printed cata- 
logue: 

ECONOMY: "The cost of the Hennebique System of Ar- 
mored Concrete ranges between that of mill construction and 
steel skeleton fireproof construction. Considering the item 
of insurance, however, Armored Concrete becomes more eco- 
nomical than the apparently cheaper mill construction. 

In the item of insurance alone the saving on premiums for 
three or four years would more than make up the increased 
cost of Armored Concrete over the other non-fire systems. 
Take, for example, a Warehouse which would cost say 
$100,000, and in which merchandise to the amount of $200,000 
would be stored. The insurance premiums for mill construc- 
tion at the rate of $1.40 per hundred would amount annually 
to $4,900. If built in the Hennebique System the premiums 
would be at the rate of 35 cts. per hundred, or $1,050 per 
annum, an annual saving of $3,150, equal to 3.15 per cent, 
of the investment. 

As Hennebique structures are but 10 per cent to 15 per 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 471 

cent, more expensive than non-fireproof constructions, in 
three or four years the increase in cost of the building will 
have been saved by the reduction in insurance premiums. 

In replacing structural steel or masonry by Armored Con- 
crete, a reduction in the thickness of the walls and floors of 
structures is possible. Where a twenty-four inch brick wall 
is required a seven or eight inch concrete wall will replace 
it. The dead space is considerably reduced and the renting 
space of the building is consequently increased. If we take 
an ordinary office building in which seven-inch walls are 
used instead of brick walls, the increase, of renting space 
would be about 15 per cent, per floor. By using an Armored 
Concrete floor the thickness of the floor is also reduced and 
this permits a saving of space in the total height of the 
building. 

We often use five-inch slabs for long spans where steel 
and fireproofing would require a fourteen-inch thickness of 
floor. This causes a saving of nine inches for each floor, or 
ten feet six inches on a fourteen-story building, thus saving 
an entire story in the height, a gain of 14 per cent. 

The use of Armored Concrete makes it possible, in New 
York, to construct an eight-story tenement house of the same 
height as a seven-story building if other materials are used. 

The small dimensions of Armored Concrete structures are 
not only of importance in saving dead space of buildings, but 
also in dimensions of foundation and retaining walls, where 
the saving is a great one. Where a foundation of five or 
six feet is required in ordinary masonry, it is possible to do 
this in Armored Concrete with a fifteen-inch footing." 

OTHER DATA: The foregoing figures give a valuable pre- 
sentation of the cost of reinforced work, both detailed and 
complete, by the leading construction companies; and taken 
together with Chap. VII supply what builders require for 
comparison. The following items of cost, etc., are from vari- 
ous sources, and are also worth preserving: 

In " Carpentry and Building," August, 1909, there is a sum- 
mary from Emile G. Perrot's paper on the Cost of Reinforced 
Concrete Buildings. A few of the conclusions are as follows: 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

" Reinforced concrete costs from 10 to 30 per cent, more 
than slow burning mill construction." But the cheaper in- 
surance has to be considered. 

In comparing the cost of reinforced concrete construction 
with steel construction fireproofed, we find that concrete 
construction is cheaper. Actual bids on the two types of con- 
struction for the same buildings obtained reveal some inter- 
esting facts. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE VS. STEEL CONSTRUCTION 
For the Ketterlinus Building in Philadelphia, which is an 
eight-story and basement building, reinforced concrete was 
decidedly cheaper by about 20 per cent., and made a much 
stiff er building to resist the shocks of ^the heavy lithographic 
presses in the fifth and sixth stories of the building. 

Another notable instance of the saving effected by the use 
of reinforced concrete is the Boyertown Building, Philadel- 
phia. The owners saved about $60,000 by the skillful use of 
reinforced concrete for the entire construction, representing 
a saving of about 30 per cent. It is 10 stories and basement, 
built of a concrete cage having the front veneered with gran- 
ite in the first story and brick and terra cotta in the upper 
stories. 

To sum up, the cost of reinforced concrete buildings can 
best be considered by classifying them under several head- 
ings: 

1. Warehouses and manufactories. Cost 8 to 11 cents per 
cubic foot. 

2. Stores and loft buildings. Cost, 11 to 17 cents per cubic 
foot. 

3. Miscellaneous, such as schools and hospitals. Cost, 15 
to 20 cents per cubic foot. 

These costs include the building complete, omitting power, 
heat, light, elevators and decorations or furnishings." 

COST OF FORMS, ETC.: The average contractor cannot ex- 
pect to handle this class of work so well as those who make 
it a specialty. The following figures from Fred. W. Hagloch 
are worth noting as a caution to some who want to walk be- 
fore they creep: 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 473 

" The labor cost in concrete form building is a very uncer- 
tain figure as no two men do the same amount of work per 
day. I have had a squad of carpenters and helpers that 
would build forms for 24 by 24-inch columns at less than 10 
cents per foot height and again I have seen it cost as much 
as 35 cents per foot. Then conditions make a wide differ- 
ence and I recall an instance where forms cost as much as 
70 cents per cubic foot of concrete, as no form could be used 
over again in stories higher up. The side wall forms are 
worth from 6 to 20 cents per square foot for labor, but it is 
all guess work, for even the nature of the lumber affects the 
labor cost data. Besides that, the cost of forms is always 
the big item in reinforced concrete, and until we have a sys- 
tem of changeable forms, it always will be. I recall an in- 
stance where a contracting firm underestimated the cost of 
forms $28,000 on a building which they contracted to build 
for the sum of $230,000. In fact, their estimate as to cost of 
forms was only $17,000 and the total cost amounted to $45,000. 

The cost of labor per cubic yard for reinforced work of 
sizes given will be as follows: First-story columns, $2.35 
per yard; walls, $2.75 per yard. Second-story columns, $2.66 
per yard. Walls, $3.00, and so on up. These figures are based 
on machine mixing and elevator." 

UNLOADING MATERIAL: The following data by T. Her- 
bert Files in " Engineering-Contracting," April 7, 1909, are 
valuable for cost of unloading. Actual costs are given for 
all the figures. The wages paid per hour ran to I7%c. for 
unskilled labor; 19%c. for concrete workers; for steel, 25c.; 
rough carpentry, 30c.; carpenters, 41c.; foremen in their or- 
der, 30c., 40c., 30c., 50c. 

UNLOADING: FOR CEMENT unloading directly into stor- 
age shed, with little carrying 6 men can handle 600 bags or 
150 barrels in 3 hours, at a unit cost of 2c. per barrel. If 
unloaded by wheelbarrows with a distance of 100 ft, it will 
cost 4c. per barrel, but may run up to 5c. or 6c. if the men 
are not handled in the proper manner. 

SAND AND GRAVEL will cost on an average of 8c. per cu. 
yd. for unloading, laborers shoveling it from the car to the 



474 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

storage pile nearby. The cost varies from 6 to 10c., depend- 
ing upon conditions. 

REINFORCING STEEL BARS can be unloaded at a cost 
varying from 35c to $3.00 per ton, depending upon the carry- 
ing distance. Here are some actual costs: 

Unloading %"x20' twisted steel, from box cars and piling 
it on ground beside car, 32c. per ton. 

Unloading from gondola cars, carrying 300 ft. and piling on 
racks in steel shed, $3.00 per ton. 

LUMBER: The unloading of lumber differs considerably in 
cost, same depending upon the distance carried and the size 
of the sticks. It was found, however, from our records that 
it cost from 70c. to $1.00 per 1,000 ft. B. M. to unload, haul 
200 ft. and pile form sheathing. 

FORMS: The following are some of the costs of forms made 
in a field carpenter shop, which consisted of two saw ma- 
chines, a planing and a boring machine, with a shop foreman 
in charge. 

Per Sq. Ft. 

of Surface. 

Girders and beams 5 cts. 

Floor panels 2 cts. 

Wall panels 3 cts. 

The cost of setting forms for the floors, which included 
time spent in the moving of the forms from one floor to an- 
other, erecting and setting the forms of columns, beams, and 
floor panels and the falsework supporting them, was figured 
per sq. ft. of floor surface. The costs of different floor set- 
ups varied, because the men at first were unskilled and not 
well organized. From 1,300 to 1,800 sq. ft. of floor were set 
up in a day These costs ranged from 13c. per sq. ft. for the 
first set-up to 4.7c. for the roof set-up, making an average of 
8.4c. per sq. ft. 

The stripping of the floor forms cost from 2.5c. to 1.5c. per 
sq. ft, or an average of 1.9c. per sq. ft. of floor. This makes 
the cost of setting up and stripping of forms for floors aver- 
age 10.3c. per sq. ft. of floor. 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 475 

The curtain walls, between columns, were put in place after 
the floors and cost from 6 to lOc per sq. ft. of form surface 
for setting up, or an average of 8c. The cost of stripping 
these was y 2 c. per sq. ft. Partition walls and outside plain 
walls cost from 4 to 8c. per sq. ft of form surface, or an 
average of 5c. for setting and y 2 c. per sq. ft. for stripping. 

STEEL: The cost of the steel work is divided as follows: 

Per Ton. 

Unloading $2.00 

Making up steel 5.50 

Carrying 1.75 

Placing 1.00 

Total $10.25 

CONCRETING: The greatest wheeling distance was 350 ft. 
and the least 50 ft., making the average distance 200 ft. The 
cost of concreting columns and floors ranged from 2.8c. to- 
4.2c. per cu. ft., or an average cost of 3.5c. per cu, ft. 

CENTERING OR FORMS: A word of caution is necessary 
as to the difference of cost of form work for rough and fin- 
ished surfaces. If an extra smooth surface is insisted on, 
then the inside of the forms has to be carefully built, and, ac- 
cording to one expert, the cost is at least doubled. 

EXPANDED METAL SHEETS: The ordinary 3'xl2' sheets 
can be laid by two men at the rate of 125 to 150 in a day, 
when working under average conditions. The lighter material 
naturally costs more than the heavy sheets. The cost per 
ton can be estimated according to the rate of wages. 

PERCENTAGES: On a number of office buildings the per- 
centage of cost ran as follows: 

Labor 40 Steel 20 

Cement 14 Lumber 11 

Stone and sand 10 Miscellaneous 5 

DETAILED COSTS: In "Engineering-Contracting" for 
April 29, 1908, there is an account of a factory building 100' 
xlOO', with extension of 55' on one side. The first story was 



476 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



18', the second 12'. There were 847 cu. yds. of concrete used. 

It was machine mixed and hoisted. The figures are valuable 
for the average contractor: 

MATERIALS 

Per 
Cu. Yd. 

Cement at $2.05 per bbl $ 3,314 $ 3.91 

Sand and gravel at $1.25 per cu. yd 1,054 1.20 

Reinforcement at $55 per ton 2,314 2.75 

Form lumber 4,944 5.84 

Nails, etc 107 0.13 

Total materials $11,733 $13.88 

LABOR 

Building runs, hoisting and mixing engineer, 

378 hrs. at 25 cts $ 94.50 $ 0.111 

Laborers, 3,826 hrs. at 17 cts 669.55 0.790 

Carpenters, 308 hrs. at 35 cts 107.98 0.127 

Total $872.03 $ 1.028 

PLACING AND TAMPING 

Laborers, 3,211^ hrs. at 17$ cts $562.00 $ 0.663 

PLACING REINFORCEMENT 

Laborers, 1,263 hrs. at 17| cts. 42 tons $221.00 $ 0.260 

BUILDING AND ERECTING FORMS 

Carpenters, 4,700 hrs. at 35 cts $ 1,645.00 $ 1.942 

Carpenters, 1,212 hrs. at 30 cts 364.50 0.430 

Total $ 2,009.50 $ 2.372 

STRIPPING CENTERING, CLEANING UP 

Carpenters, 420 hrs. at 30 cts $ 126.00 0.148 

Laborers, 1,451 hrs. at 17 cts 253.93 0.299 

Total 379.93 0.447 

SUPERINTENDENCE 

Foreman, 44 days at $6 264.00 .311 

Superintendent, 2| months at $100 250.00 0.295 

Engineering inspecting, inc. trav. exp 200.00 0.236 

Total $ 714.00 $ 0.842 

Tools and depreciation 338.00 0.386 

Total labor $ 5,096.46 $ 5.998 

Total materials and labor $16.829.46 $19.878 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE. 477 

SUMMARY: The experience of several of the largest firms 
is better than that of any one man or company; and costs 
compiled from many buildings in different sections are su- 
perior to those that are found by taking only one building in 
one corner of the United States. It is well, however, to re- 
member that Mr. Wason's experience is that location does 
not affect costs as much as is often supposed, as one item 
frequently offsets another. 

The cost of reinforced-concrete work is being steadily re- 
duced, according to the Aberthaw records; but the ordinary 
contractor who only occasionally erects a concrete building 
will seldom be able to equal, let alone reduce, the figures in 
this chapter; and thus for general use they may be held to 
be as nearly correct as is possible to obtain for a fair com- 
parison and check, for a long time to come, or until radical 
changes are made in the system of forms used. 

SETTING STEEL 

A great variation in the cost of setting steel per ton is 
shown on page 446. Figures are given on pp. 216-218 for 
ordinary and special work of this kind. 

On an 18-story building erected in 1912 the steel was set 
for $11 per ton complete, with one coat of paint, and a haul 
of half a mile included. 

SURFACING CONCRETE: Business buildings are not usu- 
ally covered with stucco or other material as dwellings 
are, but may be treated in another manner. One way is to 
improve the surface with various tools driven by compressed 
air. Another is by sand blasting. 

These methods break through the glazed surface that, in 
damp climates, at least, many would rather see preserved, 
but gives a finish that does away with all appearance of 
joints, irregular and rough surfaces. Bush hammers, bush 
chisels, and sand blasting are the principal agencies. Some 
cost figures are given in "Concrete" for January, 1912. 

Working with hammers and chisels on panels, balustrades, 
molding and soffits of arches the cost came to 5 1-2 cents 



478 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

per square foot with labor at 30 cents per hour. This does 
not include compressed air. 

With concrete 30 days old 100 sq ft of fiat surface was done 
in 9 hours, but only 40 to 50 on more intricate surfaces. 
From 10 to 20 per cent more can be done with concrete only 
4 days old. 

SAND BLASTING: A complete outfit of machinery for this 
work comes to about $450 in eastern cities, with freight to 
be added for other points. The hose for the air costs about 
50 cents per foot, with 80 ft included in the above price. 

With such an equipment 600 sq ft can be blasted in a day, 
at a cost of from 4 to 5 cents per sq ft. 

Some contractors figure such work at 8 to 10 cents per 
sq ft. The height of the work from the ground has to be 
considered, and whether scaffolding is in place or has to 
be supplied. The character of the surface naturally governs 
the price. Some buildings are plain all over, and others are 
covered with pilasters, pediments, balustrades, and moldings. 

A large amount of this kind of work has been done in 
renovating the facades of the brownstone houses in eastern 
cities, and especially in New York City. (See page 72.) 

WHITE CEMENT: On page 72 allusion is made to La Farge 
cement, an imported article used for non-staining purposes 
on stone setting. For this purpose, and also for white ar- 
tificial stone, there are now several brands made in the 
United States. The price runs from $4 to $6 per barrel, de- 
pending upon freight, etc. 

Some of the brands are supplied by the Atlas Portland 
Cement Company, Sandusky Portland Cement Company, Vul- 
canite (Berkshire) Portland Cement Company, Blanc Stain- 
less Cement Company, Allentown, Pa. 

LARGE WINDOWS: On such buildings as are shown in 
the cuts, Nos. 7 and 8, the area of glass may run to 30 or 
40 per cent. In one of them it is 40. In reinforced concrete 
buildings as much as 80 per cent may be openings. 

The new style of reinforced concrete construction, coupled 



ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE. 479 

with the desire for strictly fireproof buildings, has brought 
with it metal window frames and sash to suit. One of the 
most popular of these makes is the Fenestra, manufactured 
by the Detroit Steel Products Company. The square foot 
prices given below were furnished for this work by the com- 
pany. Of course they are approximate only, as different 
sizes of glass, weight of metal, and other factors affect the 
price. 

There are about 200 standard makes for all purposes. The 
sash get one factory coat of paint, and the glazing is done 
after erection. The putty goes on the inside of the building. 
It is made of lead and linseed oil, but has 20 per cent of 
litharge. It may be supplied by the factory at a cheaper 
rate than it can be manufactured by the contractor. A 10x16 
light requires 9 ounces, and a 12x18 about 11, but this is 
approximate. 

The following prices are fob Detroit, and consequently 
freight, hauling from depot, putty and erection have to be 
added. The glass size all through is 12x18 standard. For 
10x16 the price would be 5 or 6c per sq ft extra. The glass 
is not included, as different kinds may be used. (See p 206 
for price of common, ribbed, wire, plain or polished.) 

Per Sq Ft 

WINDOW A, semi-circular head 25c 

WINDOW B, camber head '. 31c 

WINDOW C 22c 

WINDOW D 24c 

WINDOW E 19c 

WINDOW F 22c 

The necessary hardware is included to attach the frame 
to the masonry or steel work. 

ERECTION: As a general rule the allowance of 5c per 
sq ft covers the work. In a steel frame it can be done for 
3 1-2 to 4c. 

LABOR GLAZING: The cost of this, including the putty, 
runs from 8 1-2 to 9c per light. This does not include glass. 



480 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 





ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 



481 





482 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 





i : 




ACTUAL COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 483 

As the standard light is 12x18, or exactly 1 1-2 sq ft, the cost 
per sq ft may be set at 6 cents. On page 206 lights of 10x14 
are noted as being set for 1 l-2c without putty on the win- 
dows of Nos. 7 and 8, but the sash were handled on the 
ground, while the Fenestra is glazed after erection. 

VENTILATORS are swung on pivots. They may be of any 
size desired. 

TOTAL: Window A 25c for sash and frame; 5c erection; 
6c glazing and putty; 12x18, D. S. common glass, 11; total 
47c per sq ft. Allow freight and hauling extra. 

COMPARISON: The 60-light windows in Nos. 7 and 8 cov- 
ered 250 sq ft. The cost unglazed, but delivered at the build- 
ing; is given on page 182, also the weight of the sash. Each 
frame included 3 sets of windows. Allowing at 25c in 
stead of 22 the frame and sash come to $62.50; 180 lights 
10x14, S. S., $11.70: setting same, $2.70; putty, 25 Ibs. 
at 4c, with points, $1 (see page 206, bottom) ; carpenter la- 
bor, $18; sash cord, weights, lifts and locks, $8; total, $103. 90, 
or about 42c per sq ft complete. But 22c would more than 
cover cost if thinner sash were used, as 2" was the thickness. 
An allowance of 38c would be fair. 

Using type E as a comparison with Nos. 7 and 8 in wood, 
we have 19c for frame and sash; and 22c for the other items, 
a total of 41c. But the 12x18 was allowed in the first total 
for the Fenestra at D. S. glass while the wood had S. S. 
On page 206 we see that the difference is about 4c, leaving 
the Fenestra at 37c. 

There is no freight or hauling to be added on the wood 
construction. It should be noticed, however, that E is the 
cheapest type, while on page 181 a lower figure than 22c is 
given for frame and sash delivered and glazed with S. S. 
glass, and even with D. S. Labor and hardware have to be 
added. 

On page 192 glazed prices without frames are also given. 

TILE ARCHES: On some buildings, old style or reinforced 
concrete, the ceilings and domes are covered with mosaics. 



484 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

and tiles of various descriptions. On a large railroad sta- 
tion for which I made a valuation the mosaic cost $1.50 per 
sq ft. On the same station the Sienna marble was valued 
at $2.50 per sq ft, 1" thick. 

Domes in churches, stations, etc., are of so many kinds 
that only an approximate idea of cost can be given. The 
following figures were supplied by the Comerma Company, 
New York City. 

Approximate Cost of Cohesive Tile Arches per sq ft. 

CARRYING WEIGHT. WITHOUT WEIGHT. 

Unglazed Glazed Matt Unglazed Glazed Matt 

Glazed Glazed 

Flat' Arches ... $0.93 $1.01 $1.10 $0.78 $0.86 $0.95 

Domes 1.01 1.09 1.18 .86 .94 1.03 

The above figures are on the basis of building the arches 
or domes themselves, as well as the tile lining below, but 
do not include any filling above. The construction carries 
its own weight, and the floor load. The scaffold is not in- 
cluded below the spring of arch or dome. 
ITALIAN MARBLE wainscoting set in place, $1.10 to $1.25 
per sq ft. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 
SYSTEM: On pages 10, 49, 61, 74, 134, etc., the system of 
measurement adopted for this "Estimator" is explained. 
It is based upon actual quantities, as a rule, with a few tri- 
fling exceptions, one of which may be noted at the bottom of 
page 259. But there is such a difference of opinion among 
contractors ^as to the respective merits of this manner of 
estimating buildings, and the old trade rules based upon 
increasing quantities rather than prices for exceptional work, 
that the subject is worth examining to some extent. 

First of all, as a contractor I had been in the habit of 
figuring masonry, plastering, etc., in the trade way, and get- 
ting into trouble over the usual list of many exceptions to 
one rule. I then went to the engineering department of a 
railroad where part of my duty was to make estimates and 
bills of material for buildings, large and small. I followed 
the trade custom for a time, but finally adopted the engin- 
eering one of taking actual quantities only. This system 
is better in every way. 

Assume that the brickwork of a building is estimated in 
the trade way: The corners are doubled; an extra length is 
allowed on intersecting walls to make up for the time lost 
plumbing the corners; and pilasters, ledgings, and such flat 
surfaces are taken by a special rule that changes according 
to projection; while piers are measured on two or three* 
-sides depending upon their size. Ordinary openings are not 
deducted .those above a certain number of square feet are 
deducted, if of a certain area half the surface is deducted, 
and so on. It is the same with stone, plaster, paint, and 
other factors entering into construction. 
DETAILS: After I had a building estimated I usually had 
to make out the bills of all material for the complete struc- 
ture. Before getting at the quantities required the work had 

485 



486 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

to be gone over again to take out the double corners, all or 
part of the openings; and the rest of the trade jumble set 
to rights. Brick and mortar are not necessary at the open- 
ings, and are not doubled at the corners, and concrete and 
plaster are required for only the actual surface, or capacity. 
But when the exact surface is taken at first all brick, 
lath or mortar can be at once detailed out without another 
calculation. Where only one building comes up in a 
month, or only a few contracts are secured in a year, the 
method followed does not matter so much, but when sev- 
eral have to be detailed out in a week there is no time 
for useless work. 

The old system wastes time, and is not so good as the new, 
and is, furthermore, quite frequently a source of quarreling 
and dissatisfaction between the owner and the contractor. I 
know of one set of large buildings where a settlement was 
held up for a long time owing to the contractor's desire to 
double all corners and intersections in a heavy concrete 
foundation, instead of taking actual quantities. The differ- 
ence between the systems amounted to something like a 
couple of thousand dollars. 

LOCAL CUSTOM: Another trouble comes from the fact 
that different sections of the country have customs that 
vary; and some states have had building measurements en- 
acted into laws by the legislature. The courts have held 
that local custom governs, so that the only method of pro- 
venting misunderstanding is to have a clause in the specifi- 
cation saying that only actual quantities will be allowed. 
Law suits are undesirable. 

In the case of railroads running into various states, and 
into different sections of these states, with local measure- 
ments to suit the varying ideas, the danger of confusion is 
too great. Consequently, with most, if not all, railroads 
square and cubic feet and yards are used on actual measure- 
ments, and not cords and perches that mean 16 1-2 cu ft 
here, and 24 1-2 there, coupled with trade rules enough to 
fill a pamphlet. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 487 

LARGE OPENINGS: Again, with such shops as are shown 
on illustrations 7 and 8, this book, the openings amount to 
from 35 to 40 per cent of the walls, and the only proper way 
to make an estimate is to deduct them entirely, to take the 
actual surface, and to raise the unit price to suit the work 
of plumbing the corners. Reinforced concrete buildings often 
have one-half of their wall area in openings, and some have 
as high as 80 per cent. 

EXTRAS: There is no gain by using the trade rules in 
competitive bidding, because the cost of the work can be 
found by the actual method as well as by the trade one. The 
sole chance of gain lies in the possibility of extras, just as 
with the concrete foundation already alluded to, when the 
measurement is raised enough to create ill feeling on the 
part of the owner who thinks he is victimized. 
NET FIGURES: Many of the largest contractors now fol- 
low the actual measurement system, and change the price 
unit for difficult work. One of the leading contracting com- 
panies in the United States is the Aberthaw Construction 
Co. (see pages 436, 440-450). Commenting upon the Rules 
of the Chicago Associations in the Building Age for May, 
1911, an official of this company says that the fundamental 
law of measurement is that all quantities of material and 
labor should be measured net as finally left in the building 
or structure, and that all extra labor, waste, etc., should be 
allowed for in the price and not in the measurement. That 
is to say, the extra work on brick pilasters, cornices, piers, 
and corners should be considered when estimating, and the 
price for the work per thousand raised to suit; and that a 
carpenter laying a floor should not be paid for the waste in 
the boards, which often require one-fourth more material 
than the actual area, and neither for the ends of the boards 
that are cut off, no matter if he is flooring an angle, circle, 
or octagon, but only for the actual number of sq ft left when 
the work is finished. 

SCAFFOLDS: Further remarks on this interesting subject 
by the Aberthaw official are: "All work of temporary char- 



488 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

acter should not be measured unless it forms a distinct labor 
item which can be taken separately; for example, staging 
for brick masons, or painters, sheeting for trenches, etc., 
should not be measured separately, but should be included 
in the unit price of brickwork, painting or excavation. On 
the other hand, forms should be measured separately, be- 
cause they are a separate and distinct operation of labor 
necessary to the construction of concrete work, and simi- 
larly, painting on structural steel should be measured sep- 
arately and not included in the price per ton. 
CONCRETE: "The committee has disregarded the cost of 
placing concrete in thin walls and floors, and has also en- 
deavored to eliminate all measurement of forms to concrete 
work, allowing an excess measurement of concrete to pay 
for both. There are a number of difficulties in the way of 
paying for forms for concrete work at unit prices, among 
them being the fact that they will not be seen when the 
building is finished, and furthermore, that there is no estab- 
lished unit of measure for them. For example, an extrava 
gant use of lumber is apt to result if board feet are desig- 
nated as the unit for basing prices. The most logical method 
seems to be to base estimates for form work on the square 
foot of concrete surface in contact with forms. This does 
give a definite and unchanging unit, as there will always be 
the same number of square feet to center in the under side 
of a floor, and the sides of a beam, although the lumber used 
on similar work by different contractors may vary. Much 
here depends on the design of forms used. 

"To show how erratic the application of these rules (The 
Chicago ones) to concrete work might be, let us take an 
actual instance of their working. Assume two walls, one 6" 
and one 12" thick, with a unit price of 30c per cu ft. The 
rules would allow 1 1-4 cu ft of concrete per sq ft for the 6" 
wall, and 1 1-2 cu ft for the 12". Assuming the actual cost 
of concrete without forms to be 25c per cu ft, this would leave 
25c in the first case, and 20c in the second, although the 
work is the same. Again, if a richer mix were adopted for 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 489 

another 6" wall, and the unit price raised to 35c, we should 
have 28 3-4c left for forms, the same as those paid for at 
25c and 20c in the other wall. It appears that the funda- 
mental error is the effort to adjust quantities rather than 
prices. 

"On municipal work especially, adjusting quantities as a 
basis of measurement might bring the contractor or others 
into embarrassing situations, for it would be practically im- 
possible to make an untechnical committee see the justice in, 
for example, charging for 70 cu ft of concrete in a column 
containing only 10." 

UNIFORMITY: The trouble would be in getting an ideal 
set of rules adopted over the entire country, even of the 
kind the trade rule men would approve. The state legisla- 
tures, or some special interest, might block a uniformity 
that is desirable enough. But there is one system that is 
already known and understood in every part of the United 
States, and that is the one that is based on actual measure- 
ments, with price as the unit instead of quantity. If not 
customary locally, it is easy enough to make it obligatory 
by a clause in all specifications. 

DIFFICULTIES: In some cases it is hard to get mathe- 
matical rules to suit estimating. Just to give one illustra- 
tion, the best way of getting at the cost of forms for con- 
crete is by the square foot in contact with the surface, as al- 
ready noted in the Aberthaw comments; but even that metn- 
od is not perfect. A hint is given of another way on pages 
45 and 46 merely as a check. 

PIERS: Take, for instance, two piers with many angles: 
it is not the few feet of plank that count, but the labor in 
making the forms. Assuming one pier with 8 angles x 10 ft 
deep, and girt of 16 ft, and another with the same angles 
and depth, but measuring 24 ft around. There is a differ- 
ence of 80 sq ft, or say 220 ft B. M. of lumber, allowing for 
studs, braces, etc. This amounts to about $6 extra for 
lumber and nails. There is not much difference in the labor 



490 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

in both cases, for the extra comes on the plain plank, and 
not on the angles, and would not be more than $2, making 
a total of $8. Yet setting the sq ft price at 20c. the one 
would take $32 and the other $48. 

ANGLES: In making forms for isolated piers, especially 
battered ones, it is angles that count, and not square feet, 
and even when a high unit price is set the one pier might 
cost, twice as much as the other owing to the angles, although 
all through a foundation the average has to be struck. For 
this reason machine foundations are very expensive. The 
labor on the forms is noted on page 45 as 5 times as much 
as for straight work. 

QUANTITY: On page 46 it is stated that each 1,000 yds of 
concrete required 7,000 ft. B. M. of lumber. On the con- 
crete foundations of the Woolworth building 24,000 yds took 
75,000 ft B. M. 

A SET OF TRADE RULES 

As many contractors like the old system the following 
trade rules are given. The first set relates to excavation 
and concrete, and was adopted in 1911 by the Chicago Con- 
tractors' and Masons' Association, the Chicago Architects' 
Business Association, and the Western Society of Engineers 
and thus there is the weight of good authority behind what 
seems to be a bad system: 

RULES OF MEASUREMENT FOR EXCAVATING AND 
CONCRETE WORK. 

EXCAVATION OF CELLARS AND BASEMENTS. 

1. Excavation to be measured and computed by the actual 
amount of material displaced. If unit price is based upon 
loose measurement, add forty (40#) per cent, to actual bank 
measurement, except if consisting of sand and gravel, when 
only twenty (20) per cent, will be added. If rehandling be- 
comes necessary, same to be done at a special price agreed 
upon in addition to the above. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 491 

EXCAVATION OF TRENCHES AND PITS. 

2. Excavation of trenches, pier holes, or pits when more 
than 3 ft. wide to be computed on actual contents when less 
than 5 ft. deep. 

When less than 3 ft. wide excavation of trenches, pier 
holes or pits to be computed on actual contents if less than 
2 ft. deep. 

If more than 2 ft. deep, compute contents of trench on 
base of 3-ft. width, even though same is narrower. 

If less than 2 ft. in depth, estimate actual width. 

For pits and pier holes more than 2 ft. deep and less than 
12 sq. ft. in area estimate area of same on base of 12 sq. ft. 
multiplied by depth of same down to 5 ft., and of more than 
5 ft. deep, estimate on same basis as given below for addi- 
tional depth of trenches, with the same percentages of in- 
creases added. 

Add 75 per cent, to actual contents of excavation of 
trenches, pier holes or pits for depth between 5 ft. to 10 ft. 

Add 150 per cent, to actual contents of excavation of 
trenches, pier holes or pits, for depth between 10 ft. and 
15 ft. 

Add 225 per cent, to actual contents of excavation of 
trenches, pier holes or pits for depth between 15 ft. and 20 ft. 

Add 300 per cent, to actual contents of excavation of 
trenches, pier holes or pits for depth between 20 ft. and 25 ft. 

Add 375 per cent, to actual contents of excavation of 
trenches, pier holes or pits between 25 and 30 ft. in depth. 

Add 450 per cent, to actual contents of excavation of 
trenches, pier holes or pits between 30 ft. and 35 ft. in depth, 
and so on, adding 75 per cent, accumulative for every 5 ft. 
additional depth. 

BACK FILLING AND GRADING. 

3. Soil required for back filling or grading to be meas- 
ured by computing from cross-sectioning cubic contents of 
area to be filled or graded. 

4. Sheet piling and lagging to be estimated per thousand 
feet of lumber required. Kind of lumber to be specified. 



492 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

5. Shoring of earth banks to be done at unit price, per 
square foot of shored surface of bank. 

6. Pumping or bailing when required to be done at special 
price, in addition to excavation unit price, as the excavation 
rules are based on dry work; this, however, does not apply 
to rain or storm water. 

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS. 

7. Foundations for walls to be measured actual contents 
when made with square and level off-sets. 

Footings with sloping or beveled off-sets less than 30 per 
cent, from the horizontal multiply area of base by greatest 
height of footing. This applies to piers also, except when 
courses in pier foundations are less than 12 ft. in area, when 
1 cu. ft. will be added for each corner for every foot in 
height of such course. 

8. Foundations for all projections, such as chimney 
breasts, pilasters, buttresses, or flues, connected with walls 
to be measured actual contents contained therein, and 1 cu. 
ft. added thereto for each corner for every foot in height. 

9. Recesses and slots in foundations to be measured solid 
and in addition thereto allow two (2) cubic feet for every 
foot in height or length. 

10. Arches in foundations. Multiply length of chord at 
spring arch by height from chord to extrados by thickness of 
arch, and add to the wall measurement. Height of arch ring 
equal to thickness of wall. 

11. Circular or polygon foundations to be figured at double 
actual contents. 

12. For wall 14 ft. or less in height, 24 in. or more in 
thickness, use the actual thickness as basis in computing the 
volume. For walls less than 24 in. in thickness, add one-half 
the difference between the actual thickness and 24 in. in 
computing the volume. If walls are more than 14 ft. in 
height between floors, add to cubic contents fifteen (15) per 
cent, for every additional 4 ft. in height, on accumulative 
scale, as given for trench excavation. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 493 

13. For circular walls of radius sufficiently large to obvi- 
ate the necessity of using specially prepared lumber for 
forms, add one-fifth of length to girt of wall, and figure cubic 
contents, on the same basis as prescribed for external and 
division walls, paragraph 12. 

14. For battered or sloping walls, estimate contents on 
same basis as for external and division walls, and add one- 
half of contents of wedge, or batter to same when narrower 
on top than 24 in. See paragraphs 12 and 17. 

Intersection and division walls, 24 in. thick or less 
(bonded together in any manner not abutting), to be meas- 
ured as slot or recess. When thicker, add 1 ft. to length of 
wall for every intersection when measuring. 

15. In retaining walls, reinforced with beams, columns or 
girders, figure concrete casing a minimum thickness of 12 in. 
from outside edge of steel on side next to earth bank and 6 
in. from outside edge of steel on opposite side i. e., compute 
wall 1 ft. 6 in. thicker than width of steel. 

For all other retaining walls, compute on same basis as 
for external walls, paragraphs 12 and 17. 

No deduction in cubic contents of concrete to be made for 
metal imbedded in same. 

16. Hollow walls to be at special rates. 

17. For each corner of wall more or less than 90 deg., add 
1 ft. 6 in. to girth length of walls in measuring. 

The term corner is used for salient angles of walls, and 
angle for re-entering angles. 

18. All plain projections, such as chimney breasts, piers 
connected with walls and pilasters, to be measured actual 
contents contained therein, and 1 cu. ft. added for each cor- 
ner for every foot in height. 

19. Independent plain square piers to be measured by 
same rule, i. e., add 1 cu. ft. for each corner for every foot 
in height. For plain polygon or round piers, add 4 cu. ft. for 
each foot in height. 

20. Recesses and slots to be measured solid. In addition 
thereto allow 2 cu. ft. for every foot in height or length. 



494 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

21. In vaults, multiply length of chord at spring of arch 
by height from chord to extrados by thickness of arch. 

In walls, find contents of arch by same rule and add same 
to wall measurement, as called for in paragraph 10. 

In sewers and tunnel arches, multiply length of extrados 
by thickness of arch. 

OPENINGS WITH FRAMES BUILT IN. 

22. Deduct contents of windows, doors and other open- 
ings, measuring from jamb to jamb and from top of sill to 
spring of arch, and add 2 ft. of wall for each jamb for every 
foot in height of opening when plank frames are used; if 
box frames are used, add 4 ft. of wall for each jamb for 
every foot in height. 

OPENINGS WITHOUT FRAMES. 

23. Deduct contents of openings, same to be measured 
from top of sill to spring of arch and shortest distance be- 
tween concrete jamb for width, and add for each jamb 2 it. 
of wall for every foot in height of opening. 

Circular, oval or other special shaped openings to be fig- 
ured at special price. 

CHIMNEY BREASTS, FLUES AND PILASTERS. 

24. All flues or hollows in chimneys or walls less than 2 
ft. in area figure solid and add 2 cu. ft. for every foot in 
height. All flues and hollows in chimneys or walls from 2 
ft. to 4 ft. in area to be measured solid. When larger, de- 
duct one-half of contents of flue. 

Detached portions of chimneys in buildings and plain 
chimney tops above roof to be measured solid, and 1 cu. ft. 
to be added for each corner for every foot in height. 

25. Detached chimney stacks to be figured at special 
rates. 

26. No deductions allowed for omissions of concrete for 
cut stone, terra cotta or other trimmings, bond blocks, tim- 
ber, joists or lintels. 

All ornamental or moulded work in cornices, gutters, belt 
or sill courses, etc., to be figured at special rates. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 495 

27. Cutting and patching of joists, girder, or other holes, 
slots, panels, recesses, etc., to be paid for on basis of time 
and material required. 

28. When ordered by owner, architect, engineer, or the 
superintendent in charge of the work, to rack or block in 
consequence of delay of delivery of iron, steel, stone, terra 
cotta, or other material, the concrete that may connect 
with such racking or blocking shall be measured as extra 
work, as follows: Increase girt length of such line by one- 
half and multiply by thickness of wall. 

CONCRETE FLOORS ON SOIL AND TILE ARCHES. 

29. Floors to be measured by the superficial surface be- 
.tween outside walls of building. No deductions to be made 
for floor sleepers, conduits, pipes, drains, division or partition 
walls. No deduction to be made for any piers, columns, 
chimney breasts, pilasters or other projections of walls of 
10 ft. or less in area. 

CAISSONS. 

30. Owing to grillage in caissons being left at different 
heights in same building, unit price for caissons will be com- 
puted on excavated contents, including necessary wood-lag- 
ging and rings for same. Cubic contents of excavation of 
caissons to be computed from top of first set of lagging to 
bottom of caissons and from outside to outside of lagging. 
If steel or any other special casing is required, same to be 
paid for additional at special unit price per pound. 

31. Area of bottom of bell to be multiplied by height of 
bell to neck for cubic contents. 

32. For caissons 7 ft. or more in diameter, estimate actual 
contents from outside to outside of lagging. 

For caissons from 7 to 6 ft. 6 in., inclusive, add 5 per cent, 
to actual contents. 

For caissons under 6 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft., inclusive, add 15 per 
cent, to actual contents. 

For caissons under 6 ft. to 5 ft. 6 in., inclusive, add 25 per 
cent, to actual contents. 



496 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

For caissons under 5 ft. 6 in. to 5 ft., inclusive, add 35 per 
cent, to actual contents. 

For caissons under 5 ft, add 50 per cent, to actual contents. 

33. If compressed air is required, same to be paid for in 
addition to the above. 

34. If rings are ordered left in caissons, same to be paid 
for additional at unit prices per pound. 

35. Pumping and bulkheading to be paid for at additional 
price. 

36. No deduction to be made for cubic contents of metal 
imbedded in concrete. 

Concrete for filling of caissons to be computed on actual 
contents per cubic foot of concrete, but no deduction to be 
made for any metal imbedded in same. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE WORK. 

37. Reinforced walls: Compute concrete on same basis as 
specified in sections 12 and 17 for external and division walls, 
and add to same cost of reinforcing metal put in place. If 
through changes or revisions cutting of reinforcing metal de- 
livered or ordered becomes necessary, estimate the full 
length of such bars or metal fabric, and add to same cost of 
cutting and fitting required. Reinforcing metal to be com- 
puted on unit price per pound or square foot. No deductions 
to be made in estimating cubic contents of concrete for any 
metal imbedded in same, such as wire netting, expanded 
metal, bars, beams, columns, etc. 

COLUMNS. 

38. Measuring of plain uniform size column to be cov- 
ered by the foregoing paragraph 19 relating to piers. 

39. Capitals, cap, brackets, panels, moulding or other 
ornamental or moulded work to be figured special rate. 

GIRDER, FLOOR BEAMS OR OTHER DROP PROJEC- 
TIONS BELOW FLOOR SLAB. 

40. For projections named in this paragraph, add for each 
corner and angle to cubic contents 1 cu. ft. for each foot in 
length. For each chamfered or rounded corner or angle add 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 497 

y 2 cu. ft. for each foot in length in addition to the above. 

41. Floor and roof slabs to be estimated on same basis 
as called for in paragraph 29 for floors on soil, and at a mini- 
mum thickness of 6 in. Less than 6 in. in thickness will 
be computed as 6 in. 

42. No deductions to be made in floor area for opening of 
less than 20 sq. ft. For larger openings, after deducting full 
area of opening, add one superficial foot to floor area for 
each foot in length of girt of opening, and 1 cu. ft. extra for 
each corner or angle. 

43. For pits, baskets, or other depressions in floor, add 
one superficial foot to the area of walls and floor of same 
for each foot in length of each corner and angle. 

44. Setting of facias, frames, pipes, sleeves, bolts, rods, 
clamps, etc., imbedded in concrete to be paid for additional 
at special price. 

FLOOR BASE AND COVES. 

45. Floor base and coves to be estimated at special price 
per lineal foot, with 1 ft. added to length of same for each 
corner and angle. For base or cove around round columns, 
estimate three times girt of column, and for square or poly- 
gon columns, add 1 ft. for each corner to girt of same. 

46. Concrete stairs to be estimated square foot area of 
face of treads and risers. Stair landings and platforms be- 
tween floors to be same unit price per foot as stairs. 

47. Curbs and roofs of skylights to be estimated on same 
basis as called for in sections 40 and 41, except that quanti- 
ties for same shall be doubled. 

48. Sidewalks laid on soil or tile brick arches to-be esti- 
mated same as floor slab, section 29, with special unit price. 

MISSOURI MEASUREMENT LAW 

The following law was passed by the Thirty-eighth General 
Assembly (To apply when special agreements are not made.) 

Section 1. EARTH WORK: Earth excavation shall be 
measured by the cubic yard. For all trenches and pier holes 
double measurement shall be allowed. When the earth is 



498 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

left in a cellar to protect the adjoining banks or walls the 
same may be charged double the amount when required to 
be removed. 

Section 2. STONEMASONRY WORK: Rubble masonry 
shall be measured by taking the length on the outside of the 
wall, including the corners, multiplied by the width or 
thickness of the wall, and this product multiplied by the 
height will give the amount of cubic feet contained in the 
wall; this divided by 22 will be the amount in perches. 

PROJECTIONS from the face of the wall, including chimney 
breasts, flues, pilasters, and the like, 12 inches and under, 
shall be measured by taking the face and adding the two 
returns to the same; this multiplied by the " thickness and 
height will give the contents. For projections exceeding 12 
inches, measure the length and add one return to it, and 
then proceed as last above provided. 

PILASTERS or buttresses, beveling from top to bottom, 
shall be calculated the same as projections, except that the 
measurement shall be taken at the bottom. 

FOR ISOLATED WALLS measure length and add two jambs 
(thickness), multiply by width (thickness) and height. All 
walls under 18 inches thick shall be measured as 18. 
FOR ARCHES in walls, the superficial face of the arch mul- 
tiplied by the thickness shall be added to the full measure- 
ment. Separate arches shall be calculated at double meas- 
urement. 

ALL CUT STONE WORK backed with rubble masonry shall 
be measured as rubble masonry in full. No deductions shall 
be made for openings, but if the same exceed 6 feet in 
length they shall be deducted, less the amount of jambs on 
both sides of the opening. 

AREA WALLS shall be measured by taking the outside mul- 
tiplied by the height, and with the latter calculated at not 
less than 18 inches. Slides and rises under steps shall be 
measured by taking the length multiplied by the width and 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 499 

thickness of same, the latter at never less than 18 inches. 
CHIMNEY TOPS shall be ^measured by taking the full face 
and adding two return (widths), and multiplying this amount 
by the width and height. 

FOR CIRCULAR WORK double measurement shall be al- 
lowed. For all corners more or less than a right angle, and 
carried up plumb, add for each 18 inches additional measure- 
ment. 

FOR SQUARE, ISOLATED PIERS 3' 6" square and under 
double measurement shall be allowed; from 3' 6" up to 5' 
square, l 1 /^ measurement; from 5' up to 7', Ij^; over T sin- 
gle, or actual contents. For all battering piers take the 
average width and allow double measurement. 
RANGE WORK shall be measured by the superficial foot, 
and all openings shall be deducted, less the returning jambs. 
Steps, sills, caps, and coping shall be measured by the lineal 
foot. Arches over openings are taken in addition to wall 
measurement. Should there be a different price stipulated 
for pier work, it shall be measured only for actual contents. 
Section 3. BRICKWORK: To ascertain the amount of 
brickwork done in a building, it shall be an established rule 
that a wall being 4 inches, or one-half a brick wide, or thick, 
shall be calculated at 7 bricks to the superficial foot; a 
9-ineh, or one brick wide wall, at 14 bricks to the superficial 
foot; a 13-inch, or iy 2 bricks, at 21; an 18-inch, or 2 bricks, 
at 28, and raising 7 bricks for every additional brick in 
width. 

METHOD: To find the amount of brickwork done, measure 
the length of the wall by the height of the same, which will 
give the superficial area in feet, then multiply this amount 
by either 7, 14, or any other number of bricks respectively, 
as the thickness of the wall is one-half, one and one-half or 
other number of bricks wide, and the result will give the 
exact amount of brickwork done, including the mortar. 
EXAMPLE: Thus, for an illustration of the rule, and an 
example: A wall measuring 30 feet in length, 21 in height, 



500 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

and one brick wide has how much brickwork? 30x21x14= 
8820. 

EXTRA MEASUREMENTS: Measure outside from corner 
to corner, thus allowing double measurement for each corner 
in the building. For gable and other triangular shaped walls, 
measure the length, multiply by one-half of the height, and 
by the respective number of bricks for the thickness. Pro- 
jections on walls, chimney breasts, flues, pilasters, etc., are 
measured by adding one return to the length, multiplied by 
the height and respective thickness; no deduction shall be 
made for the inside vacancy. 

CHIMNEY TOPS shall be measured by taking the face and 
one return for the length, multiplied by the height above wall, 
and by the number of bricks. Example: A chimney top's 
face measure is 4'xl8"x6' high: how many bricks? Answer: 
4+1 1 6"=5' 6"x6'x28=924. No deduction shall be made for 
inside flues. 

ALL CHIMNEY STACKS, whether square, circular, or octa- 
gon shafts are measured solid cubic contents, and allowed 
at 21 bricks to the cubic foot. 

ALL OPENINGS in walls shall be deducted, less the reveals 
or jambs outside of frames. When openings have arches, 
deduct for height of openings the distance from the sill to 
the spring of the arch. Openings built without frames shall 
have the jambs on each side deducted from the width. For 
example: If an opening in a 13-inch wall measures 4' in 
width, the deduction will be only 1' 10" multiplied by the 
height and respective thickness; or, in this case, by 21 
bricks. 

NO DEDUCTIONS are to be made for plates, bond timbers, 
joists, sills, caps, lintels, etc., but 2" in height is to be al- 
lowed for bedding plates where no brickwork is over them. 
TO MEASURE CORNICES take the length and height by the 
greatest projection, which in no case shall be less than 4" 
wide, all fractions to be put in the next higher class; caps 
are to be measured the same as cornices. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 501 

FOR MEASURING PARTITIONS take the dimensions clear 
of the front and rear walls. For fire walls and gables add 2 
courses of bricks, or 5", for cutting the brick and waste 
thereon. / \$ 

PILASTERS are measured over face and one side for length, 
multiplied by height and thickness. 

ARCHES, ETC.: No deductions are to be made for circular 
or semi-circular openings for arches, vaults, sewers, etc.; 
take outside circumference by the length and thickness. For 
arches in solid walls add to the measurement the super- 
ficial area, multiplied by the thickness of the wall. Project- 
ing arches are to be measured by the length and height from 
.the spring to top of center of the arch by the thickness of 
the projection, which in no case shall be less than 4", or 
one-half brick wide. Vault arches are to be measured one 
and a half times the outside girth. Ovens, coppers, boilers, 
etc., are to be measured as solid work, deducting only the 
ash holes, but the fire bricks, tiles, etc., are not deducted. 
PIERS AND WALLS: In measuring isolated piers take the 
face and one return for the width, and multiply by the height 
and thickness. Isolated walls are to be measured by adding 
to the face two returns, or thickness of wall, for the length, 
multiplied by the height and thickness; on corners more or 
less than a right angle, allow additional the thickness of 
the wall for each corner in the length. 

FACE BRICK: In measuring stock pressed brick fronts 
take the area and returns at each corner and deduct open- 
ings; all openings where frames occur to be deducted, less 
the reveals. When the openings are without frames and 
have the jambs faced through the full thickness of the wall, 
both jambs to be measured, and 4" on the inside to be al- 
owed. A superficial foot of facing to front will take 7 
bricks. Pointing fronts is to be measured by the superficial 
foot. 

BRICK PAVING is to be measured by the superficial yard, 
and 40 bricks to the yard allowed when laid flat. In brick 



502 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

paving, paving on edge or border, allow double the afore- 
said measurement, and in brick on end allow four times 
the aforesaid measurement. 

Section 4. STONECUTTING WORK: For plain rubbed 
face to ashlar, platform, posts, water-tables, cornices, take 
the superficial measurements upon all parts of the work 
where exposed. For moulded work to cornices, architraves, 
imposts, etc., girth the whole face of the mouldings, begin- 
ning with the tape at the extreme edge, and emerging it 
into the hollows and quirks across the whole face. The 
dimensions multiplied by the length will give the superfi- 
cial feet. 

CIRCULAR AND PANEL WORK: Take all flat circular 
work at one and a half times the straight, add when of a 
quick sweep 15" radius or under, twice the straight. Panel 
work measures double. 

LABOR PER LINEAL FOOT: Measure the different kinds 
of work for labor as follows, only by the lineal foot: Rough 
bush-hammered work, 1' and under; checks under 10" and 
over 2", measure double. Rebates, steps, and moulded nos- 
ings, window sills with nosings, window caps, moulded string 
course, pier caps, plain pilaster caps, moulded cornice, 
moulded fence coping. Returns for the whole of the above 
to be measured double. If over 1' high, measure superficial; 
ditto, tooled. 

LABOR PER SUPERFICIAL FOOT: The following kinds 
of W 7 ork for labor only shall be measured by the superficial 
foot: Bush-hammered door sills, bush-hammered piers of 2, 3 
or 4 sides, lintels, pier blocks, base blocks, plinths, measur- 
ing 4' and less, measured double beveled ashlar. All returns 
for above, measured one and one-half times. Ring stones, 
saddle back coping, fence posts of various kinds, coarse fire 
wall coping, chimney tops, double measurement. Platforms 
measured same as steps, 1' from front, the balance per 
superficial foot. If the bottom bed is worked to be charged 
the same as ashlar. Bed over 12" wide to be paid for as 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 503 

rough bush-hammered work, with the exception of plinth 
blocks. Rusticated quoins under 12" in bed, superficial 
measurement; over 12" thick, cubic measurement. Rusti- 
cated ashlar, superficial measurement. 

Section 5. PLASTERING WORK: Plain plastering is 
to be measured by the superficial yard. In measuring take 
the girth of the walls in a room for the length and multiply 
by the height from floor to ceiling. From this product deduct 
one-half of the amount of the openings, such as doors, win- 
dows, etc. 

ALL CORNICES and mouldings, and all work where run- 
ning mould is used, are to be measured from the nose of 
the moulding to the wall, and a moulding is designated as 
being so many inches according to the girth; the length 
is taken on the wall line, and 1' lineal is allowed to each 
miter. Measure all plain or moulded cornices under 12" 
girth by the running foot at their separate values. The plain 
parts of ornamental cornices shall be first taken as plain, 
and the several enrichments therein taken per running foot 
at their separate values, which added to the price of the 
plain moulding will give the correct value per foot run of 
the whole cornice. Complete mouldings encircling centers 
to be measured as mouldings. 

SPECIAL WORK: All circular work double measurement. 
All inclined or raking ceilings under an angle of 22 degrees 
wit'i the horizon to be measured as level; over 22 degrees, 
one and a half measurement. Twenty-two degrees is equal to 
one-fifth of the span. Closets and presses under 4x8 ft double 
measurement. Privies shall be measured double; all ex- 
ternal angle beads and quirks per running foot; furring, 
regulating or stripping on all lath, per square. 

Niches and centers are valued at so much each. Cast and 
enriched centers to ceilings, fixed and put on complete, so 
much each according to diameter. All circular enrichments 
to be twice the price of straights of the same description. 
When the enrichments are moulded from original designs, 



504 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

the expense of moulding to be paid for extra. All work done 
on stone walls with cement or mastic, measured same as 
plastering, but no openings deducted. 

WHITENING AND COLORING to be measured in the same 
manner as plastering. 

Section 6. ROOFING WORK: Slaters' work is to be 
measured by the square of 100 superficial feet of covering; 
to this add 6" run for the trouble of cutting the slates on each 
side of the hips, eaves, valleys, or wherever cut to irregular 
lines. No deductions are made for dormer windows, sky- 
lights, chimneys, etc., unless they are over 50 superficial feet 
contents, then one-half is deducted. 

COMPOSITION AND TIN ROOFING is measured in the 
same manner as the slate roofs, with the exception that 
nothing is added for hips, eaves, valleys, etc. 
(NOTE: SUB-HEADINGS have been inserted, and para- 
graphs and some slight verbal changes made in the forego- 
ing legal code.) 

ROOF MEASUREMENT: The standard rule for slate roofs 
runs as follows: For plain roofs measure the length and 
multiply by the length of the rafter. For roofs with hips, 
valleys, gables, etc., measure each section through the center 
and multiply by the length of the rafter. In addition to 
the actual surface of such roofs multiply the length of all 
hips and valleys by one foot wide; also what the first, or 
eave course, shows to the weather by the length of the eave. 
No deduction is made for dormer windows, skylights, 
chimneys, etc., unless they measure more than 4' square, 
when one-half is deducted; if more than 8' square the whole 
is taken out. 

OMAHA SYSTEM 

One of the best set of rules of measurement under the old 
system is 

THE OMAHA MASONS' MEASUREMENT 
NUMBER OF BRICKS (See page 75). 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 



505 



HOLLOW WALLS: All hollow walls to measure as solid 
wall in same ratal as above up to 4" hollow space, and all 
above that measure to deduct one-half up to 8", and deduct 
all above 8" inches, and measure both sides only as wall. 

HEIGHTS: The heights of all walls, piers, chimneys, 
breasts, etc., to be their net measurements. 

The lineal measurements of all walls to be taken over their 
longest points, as shown by the following diagram, with 
dotted lines, witness marks, etc.: 



CROSS WALLS: All cross or partition walls to measure 
one-half way through the wall against which they come in 
contact. 

PIERS: All iy 2 brick piers and under to measure 
two ends and one side for lineal measure, thus 
and all piers over iy 2 bricks The thickness of 



thick to measure one end and 
one side for lineal measure,thus : 



a pier to be gov- 
erned by the wall 



joining or above it, but where they are beneath columns and 
not in conjunction with any walls, their thickness is to be 
considered the narrowest way. 

PILASTERS, CHIMNEY BREASTS, FIRE PLACES, ETC.: 
of one brick projection from walls, or less, to measure both 
ends and their face for lineal measure; and more than one 
brick projection to measure one end and their face, and to be 
counted as wall their projection from the wall, but in no 
case to count less than one-half brick wall. 



506 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

LEDGINGS: Ledgings for joists, etc., to be measured 
square, their height and projection from wall to be counted 
as wall the amount of their projection, but in no case to 
count less than one-half brick. 

COPINGS: Coping course projections of one or more 
courses each side of wall to be allowed, same as ledgings. 
CHIMNEYS above walls to be measured same as piers, and 
as solid work. The projection of caps of chimneys to be 
pleasured same as ledgings and coping courses, according 
to their styles. The measurements for lengths of chimney 
caps girth the chimney on the projection of the cap, and the 
bases and chimneys to be governed by the same rules that 
govern the caps. 

Angle chimneys to measure across their _< o > 

longest sides for lineal measure, and from 
a to ft for thickness of wall, thus: 

FOUNDATIONS, FOOTINGS, ETC.: Foundation walls, 
footings, etc., to be measured from out to out, same as walls 
of superstructures, and of their average thickness. 

Foundations of footings of partition walls to measure one- 
half way through their cross walls, same as partitions. 

Every two courses in height of footings to measure 6" in 
height. 

Foundations of piers, pilasters, etc., to be governed by the 
same general rules of measurement that govern their super- 
structures. 

CORNICES: Brick cornices to be measured their height 
and projection as solid wall, and in no case to be less than 
one-half brick wall, and all over one brick to count as one 
and one-half, and so on. 

Circular and octagonal smoke stacks, chimneys, etc., to be 
counted square at their mean diameter, and counted as solid 
wall. 

CISTERNS, ETC.: Cisterns, catch-basins, wells and circular 
privy vaults, etc., to be measured on outside girth and of 
their mean heights. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 507 

CORBELINGS: In places where corbelings occur, the ad- 
ditional thickness o fwalls to measure from the bottom of 
corbels. 

OPENINGS: No deductions to be made for any openings 
measuring less than 100 square feet; and for all openings of 
more than 100 square feet and less than 150 square feet, one- 
half of all over 100 square feet will be deducted; and for all 
openings of more than 150 square feet and less than 200 
square feet, two-thirds of all over 100 square feet will be 
deducted; and for all over 250 square feet the entire opening 
will be deducted; but the return of the jambs will be allowed 
as lineal measure to the wall. In openings where deductions 
are made, the measurements will be taken from jamb to 
jamb and from sill or bottom of opening to the springing of 
the arch. 

STORE FRONTS: Nothing will be allowed to measurement 
for store fronts, and all measurements of brick work above 
store fronts to be taken from the bottom of the lintels. 

In store fronts where isolated brick piers occur, they will 
be measured under the head of piers. But when a pier occurs 
in a store front on the end of a longitudinal wall, the face 
of the pier will be allowed to the lineal measure of the wall; 
if the pier breaks out on the side of the wall it will be meas- 
ured as under the head of piers, and the lineal measure of 
the wall will cease at the back of pier. 

When return store front windows occur, with iron columns 
on the corner, the lineal measure of the side wall will stop 
off at the window, but the return jamb will be allowed to the 
lineal measure of wall, and when there is a brick pier on 
the corner, the wall and the face of the pier will be allowed 
to the lineal measure of the wall, and the opening will be 
governed as under the head of openings. 

Where the ends of walls are faced with iron pilasters the 
lineal measure will be the net length of the wall. 

VAULTS: the walls of vaults to be governed by the same 
general rules above specified, except the arches, which will 



508 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

be measured solid from the springing to their crowns, and 
from the inside of the walls, and all grating, concreting, etc., 
to be measured as solid brick work. 

No deductions to be made for any lintels, ends of timbers 
or joists, bond-timbers, cut-stone, boxing for window or door 
frame, etc. 

CHURCH BUTTRESS: Buttresses in church work, etc., to 
be measured as under the head of piers, the height of the 
buttresses to be measured net from bottom of piers to top 
of each coping. 

PLASTERING to be measured by the square yard, and no de- 
ductions to be made for any opening of less than 150 square 
feet. 

All walls to measure from floor to ceiling, and no deduc- 
tions to be made for any base casings, except wainscoting 
not plastered behind, and all ceilings to be measured from 
wall to wall. Attic rooms to be measured square. 

When quarter circles, cornices, etc., occur, the plain plas- 
tering to measure same as square angles, and where there 
is an off-set below or above the quarter circle, the amount of 
the off-set to be added to the wall or ceiling, as the case may 
be. 

Cornices to be measured by the running foot, the measure 
to be taken on the wall, and to girth all chimney breasts, etc., 
that the cornice breaks around, and one foot of measurement 
to be added for each and every angle and circle made by the 
cornice. 

PAINTERS' WORK 

The following set of trade rules from the BUILDER AND 
CONTRACTOR gives a fair idea of the old-style way of 
measuring paint work. 

ALL SURFACES where the brush touches must be meas- 
ured. 

OUTSIDE WORK: Measure solid. No opening under 100 
sq ft to be deducted. Count windows and doors separately, 
and charge so much each. 



MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORK 509 

LATTICE WORK: Double measurement on each side. 

HANDRAILS AND BALUSTRADES: Double the measure- 
ment on each side. 

PLAIN CORNICES: Where ladders and scaffolding are used 
measure one running foot as one sq yd. 

ORNAMENTAL CORNICES: Multiply the length by three 
or four times the girth. 

DIPPING SHINGLES: Multiply each square by four. 

STAINING SHINGLES: Measure solid. Allow additional 
price if work is difficult to get at. Allow scaffold extra if 
required. 

INSIDE WORK: Count all doors and windows and charge 
BO much each. 

BASE BOARDS, PICTURE MOLDINGS, PLATE AND 
CHAIR RAILS: Measure in running feet, and allow so much, 
per ft. 

DADOES AND FRIEZES: If plain measure solid, and if 
paneled allow two or three times the width according to the 
number of panels. 

WALLS AND CEILINGS: Measure solid, including open- 
ings under 100 sq ft. 

"ADD 33 1-3 per cent to net cost for profit, rent, taxes, in- 
surance, tools, and fixed charges." 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

COMPARATIVE COSTS 

In a discussion of the use of reinforced concrete buildings 
for textile mills before the Cotton Manufacturers, and also 
before the Machine Tool Makers, Mr. J. P. H. Perry of the 
Turner Construction Company gave the following figures as 
to time of construction and cost: 

TIME: One building 60x70xlO-story took just 47 working 
days after the foundation was put in for erection. In all, 
the time of erection was three and a half months, before turn- 
ing over to the owners. 

Another 40x80x7-story and basement took only 48 working 
days to put on the roof after the excavation was finished, 
and three months in all before the owner moved in. 

Still another 75x600x6-story and basement had the roof on 
in 63 working days after the piles were driven. 

These are fast records but builders have noticed that 
many reinforced structures have fallen on account of hav- 
ing the forms removed too soon. 
THE COST FIGURES are as follows: 

"REINFORCED CONCRETE will generally run from 5 to 15 
per cent higher in first cost than first-class 'mill construc- 
tion,' and will be from 10 to 20 per cent lower than steel 
construction fireproofed. A large warehouse in Brooklyn 
was begun in May, 1908. At that time new construction 
work was scarce and all contractors figured very closely. 
The successful reinforced concrete figure was $30,000 lower 
than the best bid on the same plans in fireproofed structural 
steel. A large factory in Philadelphia was designed in steel. 
The architects considered an alternative in reinforced con- 
crete and saved $60,000. A large publishing house and loft 
building was recently completed in Springfield, Mass., of re- 
inforced concrete throughout, thereby saving $40,000 over 

510 



COMPARATIVE COSTS 511 

the probable cost in steel. These three instances represent 
respectively savings of 12, 25 and 10 per cent. In competi- 
tion with mill construction the percentage depends almost 
entirely on the size of the building. 

For structures costing $40,000 and less, and of a height of 
four stories or less, the brick and wood construction will run 
about 15 per cent less than concrete. On larger buildings, 
however, concrete gets closer to the cost of the mill con- 
struction. The designers of a very large hardware building 
in Minneapolis were surprised to find concrete figures 
slightly under those of mill construction. A similar case oc- 
curred in Toledo, Ohio. Both of these propositions exceeded 
$150,000 in value. 

In considering the costs of different types of construction 
the initial cost should not be the only criterion. There are 
certain fixed charges which enter into the relative values of 
buildings. These may be briefly summarized as follows: In- 
surance, maintenance, depreciation, amount of light available, 
freedom from vibration, elimination of vermin and the as- 
surance that a fire cannot destroy the building. It is difficult 
to put an exact monetary value on these different items. 
Each plant manager would have his own views and local 
conditions would alter materially any assumptions. If, how- 
ever, due consideration be given to the saving which can be 
obtained on each of these items by the use of reinforced con- 
crete building, it will generally be found that even though 
the concrete structure cost complete 10 per cent more than 
mill construction, there will be a saving annually of from 
IMs to 2 per cent." 

(See also pages 39, 113-115, and 472 for other data.) 
The following table is presented in "Factories and Ware- 
houses," by the Assoc. of Am. Portland Cement Manufac 
turers. 



512 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



COMPARATIVE COST OF BUILDINGS OF MILL 
CONSTRUCTION AND CONCRETE 



Initial cost of 
Building 

Yearly charges: 

Interest at 6^ 

Taxes at \% 

Fire Insurance: 

Building 

Contents 

Depreciation 

Items charged against 

mill construction only: 
(a) Loss due to vibration, 



Mill Construction 
$100,000 



Reinforced Concrete 
$115,000 



at 70c. 
at 90c. 
at 



(b) Increased light, \% 
increase in efficiency of 
labor. Assume labor 
equal to 1-4 value of 
contents or $50,000 ... 

(c) Vermin losses 

(d) Heating charge 

(e) Protection against fire 
at 0.5$ on value of 
50$ of building and 
contents 



$6,000 
1,000 

700 
1,800 
1,250 



450 



500 
100 
100 



750 



at 25c. 
at 60c. 
at 0.25$ 



$6,900.00 
1,150.00 

287.50 

1,200.00 

287.50 



$12,650 $9,825.00 

Annual saving of concrete over mill construction $2,825 

If the saving of $2,825.00 per year be capitalized at 6 per 
cent; it would represent an investment of $47,083.00. In 
other words, a concrete building, though 15 per cent higher 
in initial contract cost than a mill building of similar design, 
would save each year 2 8-10 per cent on all fixed charges. 
(But the depreciation on the concrete building is too low. A 
period of 400 years is unreasonable for a factory structure.) 

THICKNESS: In the early days of reinforced concrete sev- 
eral large buildings were erected with walls only 2 and 3 
inches thick. San Francisco in the ordinance of 1910 sets 
the minimum thickness at 6 inches when the wall space be- 
tween the columns does not exceed 300 sq ft; between 
300 and 400, 8 inches thick; and 12 inches when the area is 
over 400. 

DWELLINGS: At the 1911 meeting of the National Build- 
ing Brick Manufacturers' Association a paper was read by 
Mr. J. P. B. Fiske giving the results of a careful investiga- 



COMPARATIVE COSTS 513 

tion of the cost of the average 8-room house when con- 
structed of various materials. A set of plans was made, 
specifications prepared for the various types, and bids taken 
from 5 contractors on 9 different styles of outside wall con- 
struction. One of the types was actually built. 

DESCRIPTION 

TYPE NO. 1: Frame covered with boards and finished with 
clapboards over building paper; inside surface furred, lathed 
and plastered. 

TYPE NO. 2: Frame covered with boards and finished with 
shingles over building paper; inside surface furred, lathed 
and plastered. 

TYPE NO. 3: A 10" brick wall, that is, two 4" walls tied 
together with metal ties and separated by a 2" air space; 
inside surface plastered directly on the brickwork. 

TYPE NO. 4: A 12" solid brick wall, inside surface furred, 
lathed and plastered. 

TYPE NO. 5: Hollow terra cotta blocks, 8", stuccoed on 
the outside and plastered directly on the inside. 

TYPE NO. 6: Hollow terra cotta blocks, 6", finished with 
a 4" brick veneer on the outside and plastered directly on 
the inside. 

TYPE NO. 7: Frame covered with boards and building 
paper, furred and covered with stucco on Clinton wire 
cloth; inside surface furred, lathed and plastered. 

TYPE NO. 8: Frame covered with boards (building paper 
omitted) and finished with a 4" brick veneer on the outside; 
inside surface furred, lathed and plastered. 

TYPE NO. 9: Frame finished on the outside with a 4" 
brick veneer tied directly to the studding (boarding omit- 
ted) ; inside surface furred, lathed and plastered. 

(It is not usual to fur frame dwellings on the inside, and 
this is probably a misprint.) 



514 



THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 



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COMPARATIVE COSTS 515 

DETAILS COMMON TO ALL TYPES 

A Foundations Local Stone 

B Cellar Floor. Finished with 2" concrete of Portland cement 

C Chimney Faced with Brick costing $17.50 per M. 

D Fireplaces . . Faced with Brick costing $17.50 per M. 

E Plastering First-class "two-coat" work 

F Exterior Finish Cypress- 

G Blinds White Pine 

H Screens Copper bronze on white pine frames 

I Window Frames Hard Pine 

J Floors. .. .Double Floors throughout, with paper between 
except in unfinished attic; Georgia pine upper 
floors; main hall on first floor of oak. 

K Inside Finish North Carolina Pine 

L Doors Washington Cedar 

M Hardware Bronze finish of ordinary type, costing 

$60.00 for the job. 

O Conductors Copper 

P Flashing Tin 

Q Electric Fixtures Costing $80.00 

R Hot Water Heating Costing $250.00 complete 

S Wiring Costing $68.00 

T Plumbing Costing $370.00 

U Painting. Exterior and interior; clapboard house, $225.00; 

other houses, $130.00. 

V Glazing Double thick German Glass- 
Note: Shades, kitchen range and tile work not included. 
DETAILS: It is, of course, possible to increase the cost of 
any house by using expensive materials, such as the highest 
grades of pressed brick, or the more expensive tapestry 
qualities. And so on in other fields than masonry. 

Tapestry bricks are of many styles and colors, but the 
tints are burned in instead of coming from artificial mixtures. 
There is a great variety of colors. The usual sizes are 
8x2i4x3%; 12x2*4x4; 18x2x6. The mortar joints run as wide 
as 1%", so that a wall with this size has half the surface of 
mortar. The face patterns are of all kinds. 



516 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

For the ordinary work with a rough joint, the laying is, if 
anything, easier than for common pressed brick; but the 
pattern work takes more time according to design. 

(See also pages 117 and 454 for some other dwelling data.) 
RIVALRY: The success of the reinforced system of con- 
struction has rather stirred up the "old line" fireproof com- 
panies and the brick manufacturers. Competition is the life 
of the interesting comparisons that are always being made 
between the costs of the various systems. It should be 
remembered that in an ordinary dwelling or structure it is 
principally the framework that is affected by the kind of 
material used. The newer fittings of fireproof finish for 
doors, base, etc., are not applied, even in a house that is 
called fireproof. Walls, floors, ceilings, partitions being 
attended to, the millwork, plumbing, plaster, electric fixtures, 
painting (inside) and other factors should not enter into a 
comparison. They are but slightly affected by the style of 
construction. 

The National Fireproofing Company, dealing in hollow tile, 
publishes a table giving costs of various types of construction, 
based on an average frame dwelling costing $10,000 complete 
in the vicinity of New York City. The figures are based on 
averages taken from two architects and two builders witb 
experience in the type selected. 

TABLE OF COST 

(A) $10,000 Frame. 

(B) 11,000 Brick outside walls, wooden inside. 

(C) 10,000 Brick outside walls, backed up with Natco hol- 

low tile. 

(D) 10,250 Stucco on expanded metal, wooden inside. 

(E) 10,500 Natco hollow tile, stuccoed, wooden inside. 

(F) 12,000 Natco hollow tile, stuccoed, fireproof throughout 

except roof. 

(G) 14,000 Natco hollow tile walls faced with brick, fire- 

proof floors and roof. 
(H) 15,000 Brick walls, fireproof floors and roof. 



COMPARATIVE COSTS 517 

INSURANCE: The method of allowing for this item in a 
non-fireproof building is shown on page 115. This expense 
should always be considered in comparing the fireproof 
structure with the ordinary type. If an expense of $100 per 
annum has to be met this means an investment of $2000, at- 
the rate of 5 per cent. The difference in the yearly insurance 
bill should first of all be ascertained to see if the principal 
necessary to produce the amount would not be better put in 
a fireproof building. 

LOSS: Another danger is loss of business through a fire. 
This sometimes amounts to a great deal. Still another is 
loss of rentals, and one more is depreciation, which is more 
on ordinary structures than strictly fireproof ones. 
EXTERIOR WALLS: COST OF SOME TYPES PER SQ. FT. 

With Net 
Rubble with 16" walls and cut stone openings area 

trimmings for doors and windows 30 cents 34 cents 
Rubble as above covered with rough cast 35 " 39 

COMMON BRICKWORK (On basis of 1000 sq ft.) 

Thick- Number Number Cost at $12 

ness Required Required in per M in 

of in Wall Actual or Wall 

Wall Measure Kiln Count Measure 

(22V 2 ) (17) 

4%" 7500 5667 9c per sq ft. 

9" 15000 11334 18c 

13" 22500 17000 27c 

17" 30000 22668 36c 

PRESSED BRICKWORK (On basis of 1000 sq ft.) 
Actual number required, 6500 at $20= - - - $130. 

Labor laying 75. 

Mortar - - 10. 



$215.00 
Profit 21.50 

$236.50 
Allow per sq ft 24 cents 



18 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

COMMON BRICK FACED WITH $20 PRESSED 

Thickness over all Per sq ft 

9" 33 cents 

13" 42 " 

17" 51 " 

21" 60 " 
COMMON BRICK FACED WITH $40 PRESSED 

(Pressed brick alone, 39 cents.) 

Thickness over all Per sq ft 

9" 48 cents 

13" 57 " 

17" 66 " 

21 75 " 

MOISTURE PROOFING: Add for this, per sq ft, 2 coats, 
3 cents. 

FURRING: 16" centers (no lath): Add per sq ft frotri 
2 to 3 cents, (see page 136.) 

PLASTER: 2-coat on moisture proofing, per sq ft 3 cents. 
PLASTER: 2-coat on wood lath, per sq ft 4 cents. 

(See page 136.) 

BRICK VENEERING 
(On basis of 1000 sq ft.) 
COMMON BRICK: 
Number required in wall measure, 7500. 
Number required in actual or kiln count, 

6000 at $8 - - ; - .- .' -'- $48 

Mortar - - - V* * :X 10 

Labor - - - - * 78 

Profit, 10^ - - - - v '.-.' - 14 

Per sq ft 15 cents $150 

PRESSED BRICK AT $20 VENEERING 
6500 brick at $20 .... $130 

Mortar 12 

Labor - 90 

Profit, 100 23 

Per sq ft 26 cents $255 



COMPARATIVE COSTS 519 

PRESSED BRICK AT $40 VENEERING 
6500 brick at $40 - - - - $260 
Mortar 12 

Labor 100 

Profit 37 

Per sq ft 41 cents $409 

MOLDED or other stone sills, clips, etc., not allowed. 
NOTE: In making a comparison of walls there is one point 
that has to be remembered with a 9" brick one: When on 
an upper story it requires a 13" wall below. That it does 
not always have a p.oper foundation is beside the question. 
It ought to have one. 

For a stud wall on a common dwelling a 9" foundation is 
usually made to serve, and it is strong enough if well laid 
in mortar with not less than half cement, and with an oc- 
casional buttress, bay extension or partition to brace it. A 
mortar of cement alone is naturally better. 

Take, for illustration, the wall of a common flat. Assume 
that it is 8' 6" from the bottom of footings to the top of the 
first floor, 9' 6" clear, and 1 ft to top of second floor, a total 
of 19ft high by 1ft wide, or 19 sq ft at 13". The second story 
9ft in clear, and averaged 2ft for slope of roof, a total of 
11 sq ft of 9". 

The 19 sq ft of 13" common brick, at 27 cents=$5.13; the 
11 sq ft of 9" at 18 cents=$1.98, a total of $7.11. Dividing 
this by the total number of sq ft=23.7 cents, or practically 
24 averaged all over the wall. To get a fair average of a 
certain class of wall the necessary foundation ought to be 
included, and the price taken from footing to the coping, or 
plate. 

Take next a building with one story and basement: Allow 
8' 6"xl3" from bottom of footings to top of floor as before; 
and Il'x9" for the top story. On the same unit prices the 
cost of the basement wall, 1ft wide, is $2.30; and of the top 
story, $1.98, a total of $4.28. This divided by the total sq ft 
gives an average of close to 22 cents. In comparing a 9" 
brick wall with a stud one, therefore, the foundation must be 



520 THE NEW BUILDING ESTIMATOR 

remembered, for a light 9" may be used with frame con- 
struction. In all cases the figure should be from, footing to 
top of wall. 

CEMENT BLOCK WALLS 
For 12" and 8", 2-story, averaged per sq ft at 30 cents 

For 8". 1-story 25 cents 

MOISTURE PROOFING or furring to be added the same as 
already given for brick. 

AVERAGE: All that the figures are expected to give is an 
average. For example, the brickwork ought to be cheaper 
for a 17" wall than for a 9" per M, but there is no change in 
the table. 

FRAME WALLS 
(See pages 24-27.) 

DETAILED COST OF 1 SQUARE OF WALL WITH 2x4 
STUDS AT 16" CENTERS: 

Studding, 80ft B. M. at $24 $1.92 

Labor at $12 per M 96 

Nails 10 

$2.98 

Sheeting, 116ft B. M. at $27 .$3.14 

Labor at $7 per M 82 

Nails 10 

$4.06 

Paper .25 

Siding, 6" plain work with corner boards, 

120ft at $34 $4.08 

Labor , 1.60 

Nails 10 

$5.78 

Painting, 3 coats 2.75 

Profit, 10 1.58 

Total ~ $17.50 

Per sq ft 18 cents 

NOTE: The cost of this wall is the same as the one with 
9" common brick, but the difference comes in the use of a 
13" wall for a basement in the brick building, while a 9" 



COMPARATIVE COSTS 521 

serves in the frame. But the sill must be added for the 

frame. 

AVZRAGE: It would be easy to make a wall cost from 25 

to 100 per cent more than the PLAIN one detailed above. 

Angles, bays, projections, etc. are costly. Corner boards, 

outside base, window or door frames, cornice, etc. are not 

included. 

With the above detailed wall as a basis, the following 
figures are made: p er sq f t 

Wall as given without plaster, (No. 1) 18 cents 

" " with inside 2-coat plaster, (No. 2) 22 " 

" " with other plasters see page 136. 
" " with share of sill on 1-story bldg. 
add 2 cents per sq ft; for 2-story 

add 1 cent. For No. 1 19 and 20 

With inside plaster No. 1 23 and 24 

(A 6x8 sill at 20 cents per lin ft is allowed.) 

Wall with angle sheeting instead of level 20 

Wall with 2x4 studs set 12" instead of 16" 19 

Wall with 2x6 studs, 16" centers, instead of 2x4 19% 

Wall with 2x6 set 12" centers 20% 

Wall with 4" siding instead of 6", with corner boards. .20% 

Wall with 6" mitered siding instead of corner boards 

Wall with 4" mitered siding instead of cor. bd. and 6". 

Shingles, undipped, plain work 18 

Shingles, dipped in creosote 21 

(See page 26 for itemized, approximate figures) 
Plaster on the inside is not given above except on the 
No. 2 wall. The allowance for sill is not included, except 
as noted. 

FOR PLASTER: Wall as above detailed out, without siding 
and paint, but including furring strips at 10" centers on 

outside, metal lath and plaster 24% 

Add for sill, cornice, etc. as may be required. 
There are some substitutes for metal lath on the market, 
but. in general, it is not advisable to use them on the 
outside. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

CORNICES AND CANVAS ROOFS 

As a contribution from a practical cornice maker the 
following material is worth putting by the side of the other 
information on pages 240-241. It appeared originally in "Tiie 
Sheet Metal Shop." 

PER FOOT: "The best way is to estimate as nearly as 
possible the cost of the -labor and materials required per 
foot of cornice and then add for each miter, after which an 
addition should be made of the allowance determined as the 
proper percentage to charge for general expenses. 

WIDTH: "To get the amount of the material add the height 
of the cornice to its projection, and the result will generally 
be about the girth, unless there is a foot mold with a pro- 
jection, in which case twice the projection should be added. 
Then, if the cornice cover is to be included, it should be added 
also, making an allowance o