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3 2044 102 868 692 



D, ippkUm 4* Company puhUsh, uniform mth the Grammar^ 



Prepared with reference to the American edition of 



FrqfimoT qfih/t UaKan Language and LUeraiure in the I7til0»«iv»iy ^llbe Cify qf 

New-York and Columbia College, 















^iducT 1^1^.5 3 c4? 

hAfiV'.M?t/ C'^.tj? I'pffA:^^ 

6in OF 
fiOF. KENNETH i^ mmcCt 

Emtbbbii, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1846^ Of 


In tho Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern Distiiot oi 


A Kby to the Exercises of this Grammar is pablished in a 
■ei>arate volume. 


Mt system of acquinnga living language is founded on t&e 
principle, that each question neariy contains the answei 
which one ought or which one wishes to make to it The 
slight difference between the question and the answer is 
always explained before the question : so that the learner 
does not find it in the least difficult, either to answer it, or to 
miLke similar questions for himself. Again, the qnestioc 
containing the same words as the answer, as soon as the 
master pronounces it, it strikes the pupil's ear, and is there- 
fore easily reproduced by his speaking organs. This prin- 
ciple is so evident, that it is impossible to open the book 
without being struck by it 

Neither the professor nor the pupils lose an instant ot 
time. When the professor reads the lesson, the pupil an 
swers ; when he examines th» lesson written by the pupil 
he speaks again, and the pupil answers; also when he 
examines the exercise which the pupil has translated, he 
speaks and the pupil answers: thus both are, as it were, 
contimially kept in exercise. 


The phrases are sq arranged that, from the beginping to 
the end of the method, the pupil's curiosity is excited by the 
want of a word or an expression : this word or expression is 
always given in the following lesson, but in such a manner 
as to create a desire for others that render the phrase still 
more complete. Hence, from one end of the book to the 
other, the pupil's attention is continually kept alive, till at 
last he has acquired a thorough knowledge of the language 
which he studies. 

The numerous and pressing demands for this, the English 
ind Italian part of my Method, make me hope that my 
endeavours towards facilitating the study of foreign lan- 
guages in England will on this, as on former occasions, be 
crowned with success ; and should it meet with as extensive 
favour as all my other publications have found at the hands 
of the public^ I shall be amply rewarded for the many yean 
of labour it has cost me. 

•*> Rm SI Rmttuso, Pabv. 
July 85, 1846. 



L'autore di questo metodo non ha il minimo dubhio di 
renir criticato nella scelta delle frasi e dei vocaboli di cui si 
servl nell corso dell' opera : la lingua italiana, ricca di tante 
bellezze fornitele da una letteratura di piu di sei secoli, oSre 
una scelta d' espressioni qualche volta imbarazzante per lo 
studioso ; ma V autore, attenendosi a solido appoggio, prefer 
il Manzoni, fira i modemi scrittori il piu unanimemente 
stimato in fktto di precisione e di buon gusto* 


Expressions which vary either in their constraction or idiom from 
the English are marked thus : t 
A hand (1X9*) denotes a rale of syntax or constraction. 


The thanks of all who ane interested in the cultivation of the 
Italian language and literature in the United States are justly due 
to the enterprising publishers of this American edition of Ollen- 
dorff's New Method. Teachers and scholars are now, for the 
first time, provided with a clear, philosophical; and well^tgested 
Granomar, by means of which a thorough and correct knowledge 
of Italian may be gained with comparatively little labour, and in a 
space of time that will be deemed incredibly short by those who 
have confined themselves to the tedious systems heretoibre in use. 
My experience in teaching long since convinced me that a work 
of thb description was needed in America ; aad^ after a careful 
perusal of Ollendorff's Method, I do not hesitate to commend it 
to the public, as in every respect worthy of the great and well- 
deserved fame of its author. 

Scarcely a week passes among us that is not marked by the 
advent of one or nx>re new books to facilitate the acquisition of 
foreign languages. Grammars, Manuals, and Treatises, fall 
rapidly from the press, flutter for a moment, and disappear, 
like snow-flakes upon a river. Each claims to be superior, in 
its method of teaching, to all its predecessors, if not absolutely infal- 
lible in every important detail. Pedantic vanity and the desire 
of gain crowd the republic of letters with eager aspirants, the 
character of whose productions unerringly corresponds to the 
meanness of the motives that gave them birth. Hence the faint 
hope of any important improvement at the present day, particu- 
lariy in those favoured countries where freedom of the press is 


Now it will be found upon examination that all the details of 
these different modes of teaching languages are resolvable into the 
two following methods : — 

1. The classical, scholastic, or scierUific method. In this the 
practice is almost entirely subordinated to abstract, formal rules, 
which are prominently brought forward and hold the first place. 

2. The empirical or practical method. Here a commencement 
b made with the concrete tongue : almost exclusive attention is 
given to the living practice, the grammatical principles of the 
language being either postponed or subordinated, or perhaps 
altogether neglected. 

Of the first method I had harsh experience in the happy days 
of my youth, as did also, probably, all my cotemporaries. We 
studied, alas! in the old-fashioned colleges. In the beautiful 
land of my native Italy I applied myself to the Latin, Italian, and 
French ; and oh, what days of vexation and toil ; what slow and 
tedious progress ! It could not be otherwise, for the method did 
violence to every process of nature. It had nothing in it to excite 
the attention or engage the sympathies of the pupils. In speaking 
a foreign language we enjoy the pleasing satisfaction of expressing 
our own thoughts and feelings in a form at once novel and attrac- 
tive ; but the method of which I am speaking can never aflS)rd this 
advantage but in the slightest degree, as a slowly-piled, granite- 
faced Cyclopean substructure of grammatical rules b considered 
an indbpensable preliminary to any attempt at speaking. And 
while the student reluctantly submits hb understanding and 
memory to the task of encountering these barren formulas and . 
abstract rules, he b never called to make an attempt to connect 
the sound of hb written, though rarely spoken words, with the_ 
objects to which they belong; but* instead thereof is obliged to 
work out the connection in the slowest and most painful manner 
possible, by means of hb mother tongue and a dictionary. To 
learn foreign languages by such a system in a pleasing, rapid,* 
and practically useful manner, b obviously impossible. Question 
the hopeful youths in European colleges who are compelled to 
pursue by thb method the study of Greek and Latin — ^the sup- 
posed principal foundations of human knowledge ; questicm them, 
and you will find Uiat after four or five years of tedious drilling 


ihej are unable, in every thing that constitutes a practical know- 
ledge of these languages, to get beyond an awkward and painful 
crawl. Iron energy and vaulting ambition will now and then 
spur on a solitary individual ; but the many flag, and flagging, in 
the study of languages; is equivalent to retrc^ression. 

I came to the United States strongly impressed with the 
absurdity of this classical method. Exiled by long and sorrowful 
political misfortunes from my native land, and compelled to engage 
in the humble occupation of teaching my mother tongue, I felt 
awaken within me my ancient disgust for such a method, and 
immediately commenced, as my pupils well know, with an oral 
system resembling that of Professor Ollendorff. 

The empirical or practical system is in accordance with nature. 
It may be that experimental philosophy, which, since the days of 
Bacon and Galileo, has fbr ever dethroned the ancient jargon of 
the schools of l^ic and metaphysics, has also contributed to the 
in^rovement of the method of teaching languages ; or it may be 
that the two constant facts, that a child learns so easily its mother 
tongue, and an adult so readily a foreign language, by residence 
in a country where it is spoken, .could not be forgotten. But 
whatever may have been the immediate cause of the improve- 
ment, it is certain that books of practical oral teaching have sup- 
plied a deficiency that was deeply and extensively felt in thb 
country, as is evidenced by the welcome reception and rapid sale 
of Mr. Arnold's Latin Lessons, and the French and German 
Grammars of Professor Ollendorff. 

Ollendorff's Method possesses the distinctive characteristic of 
commencing with the concrete practice on the simplest elements. 
The grammatical forms and syntactical rules are gradually 
developed by means of this, practice, which consists mainly of 
common and familiar conversations on the most orainary subjects, 
f n a word, it is the grammar put into a conversational form ; 
it thereby serves its purpose admirably — ^because, 

1. There is a direct appeal to the ear, the natural organ by 
which a language is acquired. 

2. Tins appeal b made under circumstances in which a direct 
relation is established between the sound and the thing signified : 
JO painful series of steps is to be taken through the grammar. 


dictionary, and the idiom of another language, before the conneo 
tion is made. 

8. The appeal is made with such, familiar phrases as cannot 
fail to excite strongly the attention and engage the sympathies 
of the scholar. 

It is, in short, a very close imitation of the method by which 
a child learns its mother tongue, or an adult th^ language of a 
foreign country in which he resides. 

An Ehigllsh and Italian Grammar of this description has been 
hitherto unknown in this country. Teachers of Italian have been 
under the necessity of supplying, by their Own ingenuity, the 
deficiency of a well-ordered method. By availing themselves of 
Ollendorff's Grammarthey will therefore lighten their own labour, 
and at the same time cheer and encourage their pupils, and hasten 
Aeir progress. By this means they will also pay a well-deserved 
compliment to those who, by their enterprise in this publicatioDi 
have expressed a feeling of sympathy and veneration for the lan- 
guage and literature of our beloved Italy. 

In order to increase the advantages to be derived from studying 
Italiaa by Ollendorff's Method, a Reading Book, with the title, 
CresUmazia Italiana, has also been issued by the publishers of 
this Grammar. Such a work, as every teacher of languages 
knows, is always needed by. pupils. The Crestamaxia Italiana. 
contains interesting extracts selected from the best Italian j)rofes- 
sors of modem times. The most involved passages and the 
idioms are explained by means of a glossary at the end of each 
piece, so that the work may serve at the sime time for exercises 
in reading, trsAslating, and committing to memory. 

F. F. 

Oahimbia College, SeptmJkr, 1846. 

Lezimte Prima. 



iWhen the word begins 

with any consonant except », followed by anothai 



of the. 

to the. 


from the. 

Nimmatieo, fl. 
QenUito, del. 
Daiioo, al. 
Aoeujniivoy il. 
JlMo^, dal. 

HaTe youl 

1 Ayete t Ha EUa 7< 

' To Paorassoas.'^Each lesson should be dictated to the pupils, who 
abould pronounce each word as soon as dictated. The pro&saor should also as> 
erdae his pupils byputting the questions to them in various ways. Each le papp 
includes three operations : the teacher, In the first place^ looks over the azer- 
ciaes of the most attentive of his pupils, putting to them the questions 
contained in the printed exercises; he then dictates to them the next lesson ; 
and, lastly, pats fresh questions to them on all the preceding lessons. The 
teacher may divide one lesson into two, or two into three, or even make two 
Sato one, according to the degree of intelligence of his pupils. 

* It is, perhaps through an abuse of dvilzation that the use of the 
second person plursl yau has been introduced into modem languages. The 
Italians, however, go still further, and use, as the pronoun of address, even in 
^waking to a man, the third person singular feminine, EUa^ which they begin 
with a large letter, out of deference for the person they speak to, and to distin- 
guish it from the third person ftnoinino. It relates to Vo^tra SignoHa (con- 
tracted : Votrignoria, abridged F. S,t yovr worship), which is understood. 
then are, howevor, three ways of addressing a person, via. :— 
1. Darddiu, to say thou. 
S. Datdd voif to say you. 

% Dor dd Lei, {EOa, nominative,) to f peak in the third person. 
WsB-adnealed peraoBs use the sacond person singular lii, thon, only in 



7m, Sir, I haTe. 


The hat. 
Have you the ball 
Ves, Sir, I have the hat 

The bread. 

The salt. 

The soap. 

Si, Signore,* Fho. 

11' (before «, followed by a conaonant 

h I and before a Towel, f). 
S^ Sli^ore, ho 11 cappello. 
II pane. 
II aapone. 

When the word begins with », followed by a consonant (or with x). 



of the. 
to the. 

from the. 

The looking-glass. 
The boot. 
The sugar. 











Lo specchio. 

Lo sti?ale. 

Lo zucchero. 

- speaking to their intimate friends. It is also used in all sorts of poetry. The 
second person plural, roi, you, is used towards servants, but towards other 
persons It is a mark of familiarity. The third person, eOo, she, is most gener • 
ally used as the pronoun of address, and you may be sure never to give offence 
in using it, either towards your superiors or inferiors. But as we must know 
how to speak to our servants and intimate friends, as well as to other persons, 
we have in the course of our method made use sometimes of the one, somo- 
tlmes of the other, and sometimes of both ways ef expression, giving, however, 
always the preference to EUa, 

In speaking in the third person singuUr, EUa is used for tb^ subject or nomi- 
native; Lei^ La, Le, for the other cases : and in speaking in the same manner 
to more than one person, the plural of those pronouns must be made use o^ 
/la., JSZb or JSZtoio, for the subject or nominative, and Loro^ Lt^ for the other 
cases. These pronouns being feminine, the adjective must needs agree with 
them. Ex.: K EUa amUnia? or simply: l eontmta? are you satisfied? 
(literally: Is she satiBfiedl) Come aia EUa? or simply: Come eta? how do 
you do? (literally: how is she?) Le parlor I speak to you (literally: I speak 
to her). £Sono euo (or U di LeS^ devoHeeimo eervo, I am your most devoted ser- 
vant (literally : I am her most devoted servant). Ho veduio U di Lei (or U euo) 
eignor fraietto, or else UfraieUo di V, S., I have seen yoor brother (literally : 
I have seen her Mr. brother), i. e. the brother of your worship. 

> When Signor Is followed by a noun, it has no e at the end, except when it 
begins with s, followed by a consonant. Ex. : U Signer AleeeandrOf Mr. Alex- 
aadert U Signer Conie, Count: a Signor Abate, Abbot; U Signore Si^om^ 
Hs. Stephen. 

raunr imssov. 

Oht. X When tii0 wmd b^gfaw with a TO^d th« Mme anide Is m 
a^ with dda dilineaM ooljr, that for the letter o an apoetrophe C) i« 

Abm the. 

i^m. r 

Cte, oftbe. 

Gm. dOP. 

ZXiC totfae. 

Did. aiP. 

Jo; the. 

Aec r 

AbL fimmthe. 

JOL daOr. 



The man. 


My hat, \ flmlocappeno. 

06a. BL In Itafiaa the definite article pieeedea the poaaeariTe 

Tow braad. 
HaYo you my hati 
Tea^ Sir, I have your hat 

HaTo yo« your breadi 

Tea, Sir, I haTe my bread. 

HaTo yoo my aogarl 

Tea^ Sir, I hare your eogar. 

Ob». C. When the word beginning with ^ or with «^ followed bya 
aanty la preceded by another word, the article is not io^ but tL 

{ B Toatio pane. 
iHaEUa ilmiocappellol 
( Ayete il mio cappeUo 1 

SI, Signoie, ho U| fj^ I ۥ! 

pello.« ■ 
CHaEQaUdiLei panel 
( Avete il Tostro pane 1 
SI, Signore, ho fl mio pane. 

Si, Signore, ho H dl Lei snccheio. 

WJdeh or what ? 

I Quale for Chef 

Obf: D, Whkk or what Is more generdly rendered by e^ when the nooii 
iollowB Immediately, and by ^uale (plnal ^uaU) when it la separated from It* 
Bnt whai is preferably rendered by che, and vkkh by fnolt (abridged 

Which hac have yont 
I hare my hat 

dnal cappeDo ha EDal 
Ho il mio cappeUo. 

* The first of fheae expresrfons is genendly used by weB-edncated persona. 
< Tliat Is to my,Ucapp^ttodi F. &, the hat of your worridp. 

* Rxi Eee§da^apade: quaUtdUU? Hera are two 8Wordl^ whidi wUI you 
hmt itiaHfraq9€aHUMmioimUif Which oftheoa hooks an mfawl 

nSBT IA880N. 

Which bread hswe 7011? 
I haT6 your bread. 
Which Boap have youl 
I have my eoap. 
Which coat have youl 
I have your coat. 

Che pane ba EDal 
Ho il di Lei pane. 
Qua! aapone haEUa? 
Ho il mio aapone. 
Che abito ha Ella? 
Ho il di Lei abito. 


Have you the bread ?— Yes^ -Sir, I have the bread. — ^Have you 
your bread ? — ^I have my bread. — ^Have you the salt 1 — I have 
the salt. — Have you my salt? — ^Lhave your salt. — Have you the 
soap.— Tes, Sir, I have the soap. — Have you your soap ? — I have 
my soap. — ^Which soap have you ? — ^I have your soap. — ^Have 
you the sugar? — ^I have the sugar. — ^Have you your jsugar? — 
I have my sugar. — Which sugar have you ? — ^l have your sugar 7 
— ^Which boot have you ? — ^I have my boot. — Have you my boot 7 
^-I have your boot. — Which bread have you ? — ^I have my bread. 
—Which salt have you? — ^I have your salt. — ^Have you the 
looking-glass ? — ^I have the looking-glass. — ^Which looking-glass 
have you ? — I have my looking-glass. — ^Have you my looking- 
glass ? — ^I have your looking-glass. — ^Have you the coat ? — ^Yes, 
Sir, I have the coat. — Which coat have you ? — I have my coat. 
—Have you my coat ? — ^I have your coat.^ 

T Pupils desirouB of making rapid progreee may compose a great many 
pbraaea, in addition to thoee we have giten them in the exercises } but they 
must pronounce them aloud, as they write them. They should also make 
separate lists of such substantives, adjectives, pronouns, and verba, as they 
meet with in the course of the lessons, in order to be able to find those words 
more easily, w<heB they require to refer to them in writing their lessons. 

LezimM Seeonda. 


Lo (sometimes jQ. 

Hmre you my hati 


Tea, Sir, I have it. 

Si, Signore, V ho. 






Vezzoeo, leggiadro, Tago, grailoso, 


Handsome, finoor beautiful. 






The cloth. 

11 panno. 

Hie wood. 

n legno.3 

Tb^ thread. 

11 refe. 

11 fiizzoletto, il mocdeUno, 

The waietcoat. 

U gittbbetto. 

The cotton. 

11 cotone. 

The dog. 


The horse. 

II cavallo. 

HaTC yoa the fine dogl 


Yes, Sir, I have it. 

81, Slgnoie, V ho. 



I bare not. 

Non bo. 

I haTO not the bread. 

Non ho il pane. 

No, Sir. 

No, Signore. 

HaTe yon my old hat t 

Avete 11 mio Tecchio cappeUo t 

No, Sir, I have it not. 

No, Signore, non V ho. 

> Where two words happen to finieh with the same Yowel, we generally 
Boppress, for the sake of euphony, that of the first word, as : buonpannOf good 
doth ; huon giorno, good morning ; instead of : buono pannOf buono giamo. But 
the suppression does not take place when the second word begins srith • fol- 
lowed by a consonant 

s Before a consonant (not before • followed by a consonant) iel is employed, 

* Wood for fuel is femlnhie, and is rendered by laUgna. 


Which dog have you 1 
I ha^ my pretty dog. 
Whleh handkerchief have yon 7 
I hKW your pretty cotton liandlter- 

Uual cane ha Ella 1 

Ho il mio bei cane. 

dual fazzoletto ha EUal 

Ho U di Lei bel fazzoletto di 

. tone. 



!V abito di panno. 

The doth ooat, , ._ . ., 

I ( n veatito di panno. 

Ob9. A, The preposition tU (like de in French) is always put between the 
name of the thing and the name of the matter of which it is made, and this is 
in Italian always the last 

TIm cotton handkerchief. 


The leather. 

The gold. 

The lead. 

The iron. 

The candlestick. 
The wooden gun. 
The leaden horse. 
The golden candlestick. 

II fazzoletto di cotone. 

Lo schioppo. 

II cuoio. 

L' oro. 


II ferro. 

II candeliere. 

Lo schioppo di legno. 

II cavallo di plombo. 

II candeliere d' oro. 

Obt. B, The preposition di loses its i before a vowel, as may be seen iron 
the example above. 

Which gun have yon 1 

I have the iron gun. 

Which candlestick have you? 

I have the fine golden candlestick. 

Have you my fine wooden horse? 

No, sir, I have it not. 

Che schioppo ha EUa 1 

Ho lo schioppo di ferro. 

Che candeliere ha EUa? 

Ho il bel candeliere d* oro. 

Ha Ella 11 mio bel cavallo di legno 1 

No. Signore, non 1* ho. 

* It will not be amiss for those who are acquainted with the French and* 
Latin languages to noticej that whenever the letter /is found In those languages 
after btf, p, it is in Italian changed into u Ex. : — 

Lead, French, plomb; Italian, piombo. 

neur, . . fiore. 

c blanc, . . bianco, 

< blanche, . . bianca. 

plain, . . pieno. 

temple, templo. 






Have you my fine hone ?— Yes, Sir, I have it. — ^Have you m^ 
old waistcoat 7 — No^ Sir, I have it not. Which dog have you ? — 
I have your pretty d(^. — ^Have you my ugly handkerohief ?— 
No, Sir, I have it not.— Have you the good cloth ? — ^Yes, Sir, 1 
have it. — Have you my ugly gun ? — No, Sir, I have it not. — 
Which gun have you ? I have your fine gun. — Which candle- 
stick have you ? — ^I have the golden candlestick. — ^Have you my 
golden candlestick ? — ^I have not your golden candlestick. — ^Which 
boot have you ? — ^I have the leathern boot. — ^Have you my wooden 
gun ? — ^No, Sir, I have it not. — Have you the good bread ? — ^I 
have not the good bread. — ^Which waistcoat have you I — ^I have 
my fine cotton waistcoat. — ^Which soap have yoy ? — ^I have my 
old soap. — Which sugar have you ? — ^I have your good sugar. — 
Which salt have you 7 — ^I have the bad salt.— Which coat have 
you ? — ^I have my old cloth coat. — Have you my ugly wooden 
candlestick? — THo, Sir, I not. — Have you my leaden 
gun 1 — ^No, Sir, I have it not. — ^Have you my pretty coat ? — ^No, 
Sir, I have it not.— Which horse have you 7 — ^I have your iron 
hmrse. — ^Ha^e you my fine hat ? No, Sir, I have it not. 

Lezwne Terza. 

Somethifigi any ikmg. 

Htm Ton any difngl 
lb. %i 

iQualche earn, 
Aleuna comu 
c Ha Ella qnalehe ooni 
i Ha Ella aleuna coaaY 
( Ho qualehs coaa. 
C Ho alcana eoaa. 


Nothing, or not any thing. 

NuUa (before the ye/b). 
e Non ho niente. 
) Non ho nulla. 
i NoUa ho. 

Obt. A, NuOa may simply be used fot notking, not any ttuMg: but 
stands before the verb. 

Nothing, not any thing. 
I have nothing. 

{ Nan nimte, 

\ Non nuUa. 

The wine. 

My money (cash). 

The silver (metal). 

Of silver. 
The silver candlestick. 

The string. 

The ribbon, the tape. 
The golden ribbon. 

The button. 


The cheese. 

Are you hungry 1 

I am hungry. 
I am not hungry.' 

Are you thirsty 1 

1 am thirsty. 
I am not thirsty. 

Are you sleepy 7 

r f>m sleepy. 
I am not sleepy. 

Something, or any thing good. 
Have you any thing good 1 

Nothing, or not any thing had. 
Nothing, or not any thing had. 
(have nothing good. 

II vino. 

II mlo denaro {or danaro). 



II candeliere d'argento. 

II cordone. 

II nastro. 

U nastro d*oTo. 

II bottone. 

( II cacio. 
I II formaggio. 

ct Avete &me7 

t Ho fiime. 

t Non ho fame. 
it Avete sete? 

t Ho sete. 

t Non ho sete. 
^t HaEIlasonno'? 
c t Avete sonnol 

t Ho sonno. 

t Non ho sonno. 

Qualche cosa di humo. 

\ ^* ^^ I qualche cosa di baono t 
i Avete ) 

{ Non—niente di eaitivo. 
( Non — nulla di eattivo. 

Ob suolt] 
Nulla di cattivo (before the 

r Non ho niente di buono. 
^ Non ho nulla di buotto. 
( Nulla ho di buono. 

THiKD wtaaon. 

•te. B, QiuUAe oqm^ fwnr-TnimU. mm— miaa, nloilf or nttflo, Mqntn 41 
vben tliey are before an ad jectiye. 

HaYe you any thing pvettgri 
I haTe notUBg |int(y« 


What hlTe you 1 

What havo you goodi 
I have the good coiiee. 

Are you afraid 1 

I am afraid. 
I am not afraid. 


lam wann. 
I am not wann. 


i Arete jq^iilcfceooaadivagol 

{ Non ho niente di vago. 
i NuUa ho di leggiadro. 


Che ha EUa di buono 1 

Ho dd (aome) buon cafl9. 
C t ATete paura7 

t Ho paunu 

t Non h6 paunu 
( Avete calddl 

t Ho caldo. 

t Non ho caldo. 





Haye yeu my good wioe 7—1 haye it.— -Have you the good gold ? 
—I haye it not. — ^Haye jrou the moEiey ? — ^I haye it.*— Haye you the 
gold ribbon ?— No, Sir, I have it not. — ^Haye you your silver can- 
dlestick 7— Yes, Sir, I have it.— What have you 7—1 have the 
good cheese. I have my cloth coat.— Have you my silver button 7 
— I have it not.— Which button have you 7-**I have your beautiful 
gold button. — ^Which string have you 7 — ^I haVe the gold string. 
— ^Have you any thing 7 — ^I have something. — ^What have you 7 
— I have the good biwd. I have the good sugar.— Have you 
any thing good 7 — ^I have nothing good. — ^Have you any thing 
handsome 7 — ^I have nothing handsome. I have aemething ugly. 
—What have you ugly 7 I have the ugly dog. — ^Have you any 

I The third expreeaion is theleaat ooneet,and uaed only in ooBTeraatiott. 


flOtlETV LI880N. 

thing pretty ? — ^I have nothing pretty. I have «omddiing old.— 
What have you old ? — I have the old cheese. — ^Are you hungry ? 
— ^I am hwigry.-7-Are you thirsty ? — ^I am not thirsty.— Are you 
sleepy ? — ^I am not sleepy. — ^What have you beautiful f — I have 
your beautiful dog. — ^What have you bad ? — ^I have nothing bad. 
—Are you afraid ? — ^I am not afraid. — ^Are you cold 7 — ^I am cold. 
— ^Are you warm ? — I am not warm. — ^Which thread have ydu I 
— I have your good thread. — ^Have you the fine horse ? — ^No, Sir, 
I have it not. — Which boot have you ?-J have my old leather 
boot. — Which handkerchief have you ? — ^I have your fine cotton 
handkerchief. — Which waistcoat have you t — ^I have my pretty 
doth waistcoat. — ^Which gun have you ? — ^I have your fine silver 
gun. — ^Have you any thing pretty ? — ^I have nothing pretty. — ^Have 
you any thing ?— ^I have nothing. 

Lezione QuarUu 

Thai. < QueOo. 

Ob». Qti«{ is used before a consonant, qudlo before § followed by a consonaati 
tod giidir before a vowel. Ex. :— 

That book. I Quel Ubro. 

That looking-glass. Q:aeUo specchio. 

That coat. Qnell' aUto. 

Of the dog. 

Del (genitive before a conso- 

BeUo ( before $, followed 

by a consonant). 

^Deir ( before a vowel). 




or thai 

Dello MivBle 







Thai or ike one. 

TiM aeigiaioiii'i^ or Aal of 4ii Adgli- 

The bakei't, or tbat of the baker. 
The man'e, or that of the n^n. 


HaTo yon my book or the neigh- 

I Iwve the neighboiii's. 
Have you my bread or that of the 


I hBT« mttthe baker's. 


dneOo dd fimalo. 
QneOo deir Qono. - 


(HaSDa)fl mio Bbn 
( AYete ) viciiiol 
HoqueUodd viciiio. 

{HaEOa^ll mio 

paac^ o qnelhi < 

C Avete ) Ibnialol 
HoUdlLet Ho fl 

Non ho qQeDo dd fimalo. 

Ho 11 

Wiie or my own. i 

or mine. 

From mine. ANathe. 


I Ddmlo. 
I Ddmlo. 


OfyoiBB. Gtn, 

From youm AJU^ 

The friend. 

Of the friend. 

That of the friend. 

The stick. 
Hie thimble. 
My brother. 

Qyostro. Dsno. UdiLeL ^ 

Dd Tostro. Dd soo. Dd di Let 
Dd Tostro. Dd soo. Dd di Let 

Qneilo deir amico. 





Aile. There is no article befon the poesesdvto pronova in Ihs 
when it is immediately foDowed by a nomi of quality or kindred. 

My dear brother. ; n,mio caro fimteUo. 

My brother's, or that of my brother, t Qaello dl mio frateQa 
Your friend's, or that of your IHend. I Qudlo del voetro (dl Ld) 



Have you thaVbook ? — ^No, Sir, I have not. — ^Which book have 
you ? — ^I have that of the neighbour. — Have you my stick, or thai 
of my friend ? — ^I have that of your frieodl— Have you my breao 
or the baker's ? — ^I have the baker's. I have not yours. — ^Have 
you the neighbour's horse. — ^No, Sir, I have it not. — ^Which horse 
have you ? — ^I have that of the baker.«-Have you your thimble 
or the tailor's. — ^I have my own.-^Have you the pretty gold string 
of my dog? — ^I haye it not.— Which string have you ? — ^I have 
my silver string. — ^Have you my gold button or the tailor's ? — ^I 
have not yours ; I have the tailor's. — ^Have you my brother's coat 
or yours ? — ^I have your brother's. — Which coffee have you ? — ^I 
have the neighbour's. — ^Have you your dog or the man's ?— I have 
the man's. — ^Have you your friend's money ?— I have it not.— 
Are you cold ? — ^I am cold. — ^Are you afraid ? — ^I am not afraid. 
— ^Are you warm ?— I am not warm. — ^Are you sleepy t — ^I am 
not sleepy ; I am hungry. — ^Are you thirsty ? — ^I am not thirsty. 

Have you my coat or the tailor's ?— I have the tailor's. — ^Have 
you my gold candlestick or that of the neighbour? — ^I have yours. 
— ^Have you your coal or mine ? — ^I have mine. — ^Have you your 
cheese or the baker's? — ^I have my own.— -Which cloth have 
you ? — ^I have that of the tailor. — Which boot have you ? — I have 
my own- — ^Have you the old wood of my brother ? — ^I have it not. 
— ^Which soap have you ? — I have my brother's good soap. — ^Have 
you my wooden gun, or that of my brother ? — ^I have yours.—* 
Which waistcoat have you ? — ^I have my friend's cloth waistcoat. 
— ^Have you your leather boot or mine ? — ^I have not yours ; I ' 
have my own. — ^What have yoji ? — ^I have nothing. — Have you 
any thing ? — ^I have nothing.— Have you any thing good ? — ^I have 
nothing good. — ^Have you any thing old ?-:-I have nothing old.-^ 
What have you pretty ? — ^I have my friend's pretty dog. — ^Hav« 
you my handsome or my ugly stick ? — I have your ugly stick.-— 
Are you hungry or thirsty ? 

liezione Quinia. 

The merchant. 
Of the shoemaker. 
The boy. 
The knife. 
The spoon. 

n mercante. 
Del calzoUk). 
U cncchiaio. 

HaTe yon the merchant's stick or 


I have neither the merchant's stick 

nor mine. 
Are you hnngry or thirsty 1 
lam neither hungry nor thirsty. 
Are you warm or cold 1 
I am neither warm nor cold. 
HaTe you the wine or the bread? 
I tiare neither the wine nor the 

I have neither yours nor mine. 
I have neither my thread nor the 


Avete il bastone del mercante, h ■ 


Non ho il bastone del mercantCi nd II 

t Avete iamei o sete? 
t Non ho fame, nd sate, 
t Avete caldo, o freddo7 
t Non ho caldo, ni freddo. 

Avete il vino, o 11 pane? 

Non ho II vino, ni II pane. 

Non ho il Tostro^ nd il mio. 
Non ho 11 mio refe, nd quelle del 

The cork. 
The corkscrew. 
The umbrella. 
The honey. 
The nail. 
The iron nail. 
The hammer. 
The carpenter. 
The Frenchman. 

Whathav*? yfu? 

What is the matter with you? 

11 luracciolo. 

II tiiatnracciolaL 

L' ombrello, 1' ombreUa (i 

II miele. 

11 chiodo. 

n chiodo di lerro. 

11 marteUo. 

11 legnaiuolo. 





14 7IPTH LB8S0N. 

] { Nan — nienU (menie). 
Nothing. I I jvim-miBa {nulla). 

I haTe nothing, or < t Non ho nlente. 

Nothing \B the matter with me. i ^ "^ ^on ho nulla. 

[8 any thing the matter with you 7 j ♦ -^▼e^ qualche cosa 1 

Nothing i. the matter with me. J l^''^ ^^ °f*'','*-„ , , 

I ( Non ho nulla (nulla ho). 

I am neither hungry nor thirsty. — Have you my boot or the 
shoemaker's 1 — I have neither yours nor the shoemaker's. — ^Have 
you your knife or the boy's ? — I have neither mine nor the boy's. — 
Which knife have you ? — I have that of the merchant. — ^Have you 
my spoon or the merchant's ? — ^I have neither yours nor the mer 
chant's ; I have my own. — Have ypu the hotoey or the wine ? — f 
have neither the honey nor the wine. — Have you your thimble or 
the tailor's 1 — I have neither mine nor the tailor's. — Have you your 
corkscrew or mine ? — ^I have neither yours nor mine ; I have the 
merchant's. — ^AVhich cork have you ? — ^I have the neighbour's. — 
Have you the iron or the silver nail ? — ^I have neither the iron nor 
the silver nail ; I have the golden nail. — Are you warm or cold ? 
— ^I am neither warm nor cold ; I am sleepy. — ^Are you afraid ?— 
I am not afraid. — Have you pny hammer or the carpenter's ? — I 
have neither yours nor the carpenter's. — Which nail have you ?— 
1 have the iron nail. — Which hammer have you 1 — ^I have the 
wooden hammer of the carpenter. — Have you any thing ? — ^I have 
something. — What have you? — ^I have something fine. — What 
have you fine 1 — I have the Frenchman's fine umbrella. — ^Have 
you the cotton or the thread tape ? — ^I have neither the cotton nor 
the thread tape. 


Have you your gun or mine 1 — I have neither yours nor mine. 
— ^Which gun have you ? — ^I have my friend's. — Have you my 
cotton handkerchief or that of my brother ? — ^I have neither yours 
nor your brother's. — Which string have you ? — ^I have my neigh 
hour's thread string. — ^Have yon the book of the Frenchman or 
that of the merchant ? — I have neither the Frenchman's nor the 



mendiant's. — Whidi book have you ? — ^I have my owh. — ^What 
is the matter with you 1 — ^Nothing. — Is any thing the matter with 
you ? — ^Nothing is the matter with me. — ^Are you oold ? — I am not 
cold ; I am warm. — Have you the cloth or the cotton ?— I have 
neither the cloth nor the cotton. — Have you any thing good or bad ? 
—I have neither any thing good nor bad. — ^What have you ? — I 
have nothing. 

Lezione Sesta. 

The bee( the oz. 
Qf the captain. 
Of the cook. 


You have. 

You have not.* 
Ami hungry 1 
Yon are hungry, 
You are not hungry. 
Yon are afraid. 
You are not afraid. 

You are not ashamed. 

Are you I 

I am y fhfl *n f»d 
Ton are wrong. 

Yon are not wrong. 
Yon are tight 
Vot an not right 

II manzo, U bue. 
n biscotto. 
Del capitano 
Del cuoco. 


ATete. Ella ha. 

Nonavete. EUanonha. 


t Avete fame. Ella ha fiune. 

t Non aTete fame. Ellanonha&me. 


t ATete paura. Ella ha panra. 

tNon aTete paura. Ella non ha 

t Ho Tergogna io7 
1 1 Non aTete Tergogna. 
! t Ella non ha Tergogna. 
jt Ha Ella Tergogna 1 
i t ATete Tergogna. ^ 

t Ho Tergogna. 


t ATete torto. EUa ha torto. 
1 1 EUa non ha torto. 
! t Non aTete torto. 

t Ho io regional 
1 1 EUa ha ragione. 
i t ATete ragione. 

t Ella non ha ragione. 
Non aTete ragione. 




You haTe it noL 

llave X any thing goodi 

YovL have nothing good. 

ITou have neither any thing good nor 

What have II 

Have I the carpenter'e hammer? 
You have it not. 
Have you it 7 
C have it not 
Have lit? 

The butter. 
The mutton. 
The milk. 
The penknife. 

Which one ? 
That of the captain, or the captain'a 
That of the cook, or the cook'e. 

The fine one. 

The ugly one. 

\m. 1 right or wrong? 

Tott are neither right nor wrong. 

iTou are neither hungry nor thirsty, 
c^ou are neither afraid nor aehamed. 


L'avete. EUa lo ha (lo ha or I* ha> 
Non r avete. Ella non lo ha (or 
non r ha). 

Ho io qualche ooea di buonol 
( Ella non ha ) niente (nulla) di buo- 
c Non avete ) no. 
( Ella non ha ) niente di buono nd di 
\ Non avete > cattivo. 

c Checosahoiol 

Ho io il martello del legnaiuolo 1 

Non r avete. Non 1' ha. 

L' avete voil LohaEUa? 

Non r ho. 


II burro, il butlrro.. 
II caatrato (roontone). 
11 latte. 
II temperino. 

Quale f 

Quello del eapltano. 
Quello del cuoco. 
II bello. 
11 brutto. 

t Ho ragione, o torto 1 
^ t Ella non ha nd ragione, nd torto. 
( t Non avete nd ragione, nd torto. 
^ t EUa non ha nd fame, nd aete. 
c t Non avete nd fiime, xA aete. 
c t Ella non ha nd paura, xA vergogna* 
{ t Non avete nd paura, nd vergogna. 

Have I your butter or mine 7 
Vou have naither youra nor mine. 

Ho il voatro butirro, o il mio7 
( EUa non ha nd U di Lei, nd il mio. 
c Non avete nd il voatro, nd ii mio. 

I have neither the baker's dog nor that of my friend. — Are you 
ishamed I— I am not ashamed. — Are you afraid or ashamed ? — ^I 


am neither afraid nor ashamed. — Have you my knife ?— Which ? 
— ^The fine one. — ^Have you my beef or the cook's? — ^I have 
neither yours nor the cook's. — Which have you*? — I have that of 
the captain. — ^Have I your biscuit? — ^You have it not.'— Am I 
hungry or thirsty ? — ^You are neither hungry nor thirsty. — Am I 
warm or cold ? — ^You are neither warm nor cold. — Ami afraid ? 
— ^You are not afraid. You are neither afraid nor ashamed.— 
Have I any thing good ? — You have nothing good.*— »What have 
1 1 — ^You have nothing. — ^Which penknife have I ? — ^You have that 
of the Frenchman. — ^Have I your thimble or that of the tailor ?-* 
You have neither mine nor that of the tailor. — Which one have I ? 
— ^You have your friend's. — ^Which umbrella have I? — ^You have 
mine. — ^Have I the baker's good bread? — ^You have it not. — 
Which money have I ? — ^You have your own. — Have you my iron 
gun ? — ^I have it not. — Have I it ? — ^You have it. — Have I your 
mutton or the cook's ? — ^You have neither mine nor the cook's.— 
Have I your knife ? — ^You have it not. Have you it ?— I have it. 
— ^Which biscuit have I ? — ^You have that of the captain. — ^Which 
cloth have I ? — ^You have the merchant's. — Have you my coffee 
or that of my boy ? — ^I have that of your good boy. — Have you 
your cork or mine ? — ^I have neither yours nor mine. — What have 
you ? — ^I have my brother's good candlestick. 

Am I right ? — ^You are rights — Am I wrong ? — ^You are not 
wrong. — ^Am I right or wrong ? — ^You are neither right nor wrong ; 
you are afraid. — ^You are not sleepy. — ^You are neither warm nor 
cold. — ^Have I the good coffee or the good sugar? — ^You have 
neither the good co^e nor the good sugar. — ^Have I any thing 
good or bad ? — ^You have neither any thing good nor bad. — ^What 
have I ? — ^You have nothing. — ^What have I pretty ? — ^You have my 
friend's pretty dog, — ^Which butter have I ? — ^You have that of 
your cook. — ^Have I your corkscrew or the merchant's ? — ^You 
have neither mine nor the merchant's. — Which milk have you ? 
— ^I have that of the Frenchman. — ^Which penknife have you ?— 
I have the silver penknife of my neighbour. — Which have I ?— 
You have that of the old baker. — ^Which have you ? — I have that 
of my old tailor. — What is the matter with you ?— I am afraid. — 
Have I any thing"? — ^You have nothing. 

Lezione Settimct, 

Who has the knife 7 
The man has the knife. 
The i|ian has not the knife. 
The boy has it. 
The boy has it not 

The chicken. 
The chest, the trunk. 
The bag, the sack. 
The ship. 
The yonng man. 
The youth. 

Chi ha 1 
L' uomo ha il coltello. 
L* uomo non ha il coltello. 
Lo ha il ragazzo. 
I] ragazzo non V ha. 

II poUastro (il poUo). 

11 baule (11 forziere). 

II sacco. 

11 bastimento. 

II giovane (11 giovine). 

L' adolescente (il giovinetto). 


{EgU (for persons). 
Esso (for persons and for 
Ei or e' (also for persons). 
Ob», A. EgU is used for persons, CMofor persons and for things, and e< or e* 
for persoaS) but not generally before a vowel or before s followed by a conso- 

Ha has. 
He has the chest 
He has not the chest. 

He has it. 
He has it not 


Egli ha U baule. 

Ei (e*) non ha il baule. 
I E^ (esso) r ha. 
i Ei (e*) r ha. 


I The letter h is never pronounced in Italian. What proves this is, that il 
may be entirely omitted, and a grave accent be put In its stead on the three first 
persons singular and third person plural of the verb overs, to have ; and in- 
stead of Ao^ I have ; ha^ thou hast ; Ao, he (she) has ; kanno^ they have, we may 
write : d, dj, d, itnno. This kind of orthography has been followed by 3Uta$' 
tdcto, but is not generally approved. 




Has he tlw knife 1 
Has the man 1 
Has thefiiendl 
Has the young manl 



HaP uomol 
Ha V amicol 

The RngHahtnan- 

i L' Ingleae. 

Is the man hungry 1 jt 

£fe is hungry. ; t 

He is not hungry. i t 

He is neither hungry nor thirsty. , t 
Is your brotlier warm or ooldl '. t 

Is the man afraid or ashamed 7 1 1 

Is the man right or wrong 1 t 

Has tlie boy the hammer of tlie car- 
penter 1 
He has it. 
He has it not. 
Has the baker it 1 
What has my friendl 

HiSf her, Iters. 
Has the servant his tnmk or minel 

He has his own. 

Somebody or any body, \ 
wme one or any one (indefinite / 
pronouns). ) 

Has any body my bookl 
Somebody has it 
Who has my stick 1 

Ha lame P nomo9 

Ha fame. 

Non lia lame. 

Non ha ni fame, nd sete. 

Ha caldo o freddo ii di Lei fimteib? 

Ha paura o veigogna P nomo 7 

Ha ragione o torto V uomo 1 

Ha il ragaxzo il marteUo del le> 

Non P ha. 
L' hailfomaiol 
Che ha il mio amicol 

Tlie rice. 


The countryman, the peasant. 

11 oontadino, il pi 


11 serrltore. il ser 

His or her penknife. 

11 sno lemperino. 

His or her dog. 

11 suo cane. 

The bird. 

L' uccello. 

His or her foot 


His or hereye. 


His money. 

n sno denaro. 

The tea. 



Ha il serrltore il sno fondera^ o II 

Ha U sno (ha U suo propiio). 

Qualcheduno, qualcunOf or 
oZctcfto, iahmo. 

Ha qnakmno il mio libro 1 
Quaidieduno P ha. 
Chi ha II mio bastonsi 

20 SBV£NTH LB880N. 

No onCi nobody, not any body. 
Sohody has your stick. 

Nabody has It 

Nesauno, niuno, venmo. 
Neasono ha il vostio bascone. 
r NessuDo 1* ha. 
< Niuno V ha. 
^ Veruno 1' ha. 

Ob9. B, In using aietmo for no mu, nobody^ noi any body^ It mutt always be 
accompanied by non; but fuwtmo, nttoM, and venma, require nm only when 
they follow the verb. 

Who lias your gun 1 
Nobody has it. 

' Alcuno non 1' ha. 

Nonl* hanessuno. 

Non V ha niuno. 

Non r ha Teruno. 

Non r ha aleuno. 
I Nessuno 1* ha. 



Who has my trunk.?*-rThe boy has it. — Is he thirsty or hungry 1 
—He is neither thirsty nor hungry. — Haa the man the chicken 1 
— He has it. — Who has my waistcoat ? — The young man has it. — 
Has the young man my ship 7 — ^The young man has it not.— 
Who has it?— The captain has it.— What has the youth ?— He 
has the fine chicken. — ^Has he the knife ? — He has it not. — ^Is he 
afraid ? — He is not afraid. — ^Is he afraid or ashamed ? — He is 
neither afraid nor ashamed. — ^Is the man right or wrong ? — ^He is 
neither right nor wrong. — ^Is he warm or cold ?^He is neither 
warm nor cold. — Who has the countryman's rice? — My servant 
has it. — ^Has your servant my penknife or his ? — He has neither 
yours nor his. — Which penknife has he ? — ^He has that of his neigh- 
bour ? — ^Who has my old boot ?— Your shoemaker has it. — What 
has your friend ? — He has his good money. — Has he my gold ? — 
He has it not. — Who has it ? — ^The baker has it. — ^Has the baker 
my bird or his ? — ^He has his. — Who has mine ? — ^The carpenter 
has it. — ^Who is cold ? — ^Nobody b cold. — ^Is any body warm ?— 
Nobody is warm. — Has any body my chicken ? — Nobody has it. 
—Has your servant your waistcoat or mine ? — He has neither 
yours nor mine. — Which has he ? — ^He has his own. 

a E V BH T H LB8SOII. 21 


Ha8 any ooe my gun ? — No one bas it. — ^Has the youth my 
book ?— He has it not.^-What has he ? — ^He has nothing. — ^Has 
he the hammer or the nail ? — He has neither the hammer nor the 
nail. — ^Has he my umbrella or my stick ? — ^He has neither youi 
umbrella nor your stick. — ^Has he my ooflfee or my sugar ? — ^He 
has neither your coflfee nor your sugar ; he has your honey.— 
Has the boy my brother's biscuit or that of the Frenchman ?*-> 
He has neither that of your brother nor that of the Frenchman ; 
he has his own. — ^Have I your bag or that of your friend I — ^You 
have neither mine nor my friend's ; you hayeyour own. — ^Who 
has the peasant's bag ? — ^The good baker has it.-«Who is afraid ? 
— ^Thc tailor's boy is afraid. — ^Is he sleepy t — ^He is not sleepy. — 
Is he cold or hungry I — ^He is neither cold nor hungry. — ^What is 
the matter with him I — Nothing. — ^Ha« the peasant my money ? 
— ^He has it not. — ^Has the captain (got) it ? — ^He has it not ? — 
Who has it ? — ^Nobody has it. — ^Has your neighbour any thing 
good ? — ^He has nothing good. — ^What has he ugly I — ^He has no- 
thing ugly. — ^Has he any thing ?— He has nothing. 


Has the merchant my cloth or his ? — ^He has neither yours noi 
his. — ^Which cloth has he ? — ^He has that of my brother^-^Wbich 
thimble has the tailor I — ^He has his own. — ^Has your brother his 
wine or the neighbour's ? — ^He has neither his nor the neighbour's. 
— ^Which wine has he? — He has his own. — ^Has any body m} 
gold ribbon? — Nobody has it. — ^Who has my silver string?— 
Tour good boy has it. — Has he my wooden or my leaden horse ? 
— ^He has neither your wooden nor your leaden horse ; he has his 
friend's leathern horse. — ^Is any body wrong? — Nobody is wrong. 
— ^Who has the Frenchman's good honey ? — ^The merchant has it. 
— Has be it ? — ^Yes, Sir, he has it. — ^Are you afraid or ashamed ? 
— I am neither afraid nor ashamed. — ^Has your cook his mutton ? 
— ^He has it. — ^Have you my bread or my cheese ?— I have neither 
your bread nor your cheese. — ^Have I your salt or your butter ? — 
Tou have neither my salt nor my butter. — ^What have I ? — You 
have yoor mutton. — ^Has any body my gold button ? — No one has 
it.— Who has< the tea ? — ^Which ? — ^Mine. — ^Your servant hm it. 
—Which tea has the Englishman ?— He has his own. 

* Leziane Oitava. 

Tlio tailor. 

The tne. 

His looking-glais. 


The atrangar (the foreigner). 


The garden. 

The gloTe. 

Thia or that ox, 
Thia m- that hay. 
Thia or that boot. 

Thia or that friend. 
Thia or tliat man. 
Thia or that aaa. 

Thai hook. 

Have yon thia or thatbookl 
I have tliia one, I haTo not tliat < 



II ano apecehii. 

n ano materaaao. 

Lo atraniero, lo atraaiem. 

li foreatiero. 



Qneato, o quel hue. 
Queato, o quel fleno. 
Questo, o quello ativale. 

dueato, o qneir amico. 
Queato, o quell' udmo. 
Ctueato, quell' aaino. 

Quegio Ubro (coiuto lihro)» 
Quel Ubro. 

Ha Ella queato Ubro o quellol 
Ho queato, non ho quello. 

Qvesto (coiesto), queUo. 



^^'^ X dnaato^ thia. 



Gen. Di qneato, of thia. 
Dot Aqueato, tothia. 
IM. Da queato, from thia. 

Di quello, 
Da quello^ 

of that 

to that. 

from that. 

Qb9, A. DemonatiatiTe pronouns are never preceded by an artide, pi e p til 
liona being the worda employed before tham. 



This one. j Questo {coieslo). 

That one. \ QueUo. 

Ob». B. Q^uto dedgnates tlw object near the person who tpeaki^ cslflte 
the object distant from the person who q>eaki, and near the person spoken to ; 
but quills diiaignalwi at the same time the object distant from both the person 
who speska and that spoken to. 

Hare I this or that? 

Von have thl% you have not that 

Hm the man this hat or that 1 

Ho io qnesto o qnellot 
EUa ha qnesto^ non qneUo. 
Ha P nomo qnesto 

He has not this, but that 
He has thU^ hnt not that. 


Non ha qnesto, ma qneDo. 
Ha qnesto^ iha non qneOoi 

The note, the billet, or the ticket. 
The granary. 
The con. 




Have you this note or that ? 
\ have not this, bnt that. j 

I have this, but not that. | 

Has the neigfabonr this I66king-glass ' 

or that? 
He has this, but not that. I 

Ha EUa qnesto biglietto, o qpieBol 
Non ho qnesto, ma ho queOo. 
Ho qnesto, ma non ho qnello. 
Ha 11 Tidno qnesto 

qnello 1 
Ha questo^ ma non ha qnello. 

Th» horse-shoe. | H ferro da esTdki 

iM*. C. ITie preposition da is made nse of between t 
when the latter expnsses the nse of the Ibnner. 

The wine-bottle. 
The oil-bottle. 
The bottle of wine. 
The botOe, the oiL 

Hfiasco* dsTino 
n fiasco da olio, 
n Tsso da kite, 
n fiasco di Tino. 
U fiasco, r oUo. 

That or which (reladve pro-j 

noun). I 

Have yon the noia which my brother j 

haal I 

I have not the note wUcfa your bro- ■ 

thsrhas? | 

Have yon the horse wUch I have 1 
t have tha horse wlileh yon have. ' 

\U quale. 
HaEDa il bigUetlo che ha nfofra- 

Non ho U Uglietto che Ite il dl Lei 

Ha EDa HcavaOo che Io hoi 
Ho il cavaUo che ha Y. 8, oche vol 


(•N.B. The word ftsttfgflM la nsed also instead of /k«B.l 


Thai wMck, the one which. 

I haya not that which yon have. 
I have not that which he haa. 
Have I the glove which you havel 
Von have not the one which I have. 

{ quel che, 
I QueUo che. 
Non ho quelle che ha EUa. 
Non ho qoeUo che egli ha. 
Ho io 11 guanto che ha Voasignoiia I 
Non avete quello che ho io. 


Which hay has the stranger ? — ^He has that of the peasant. — . 
Has the sailor my looking-glass ? — He has it not. — ^Have you this 
glove or that ? — I have this. — Have you the hay of my garden or 
Uiat of yours 1 — ^I have neither that of your garden nor that of 
mine, but I have that of the stranger. — Which glove have you ? 
— ^I have that of the sailor. — ^Have you his mattrass ? — ^I have it. 
— Which thread has the sailor ? — He has his own. — ^Who has my 
good note ? — ^This man has it. — ^Who has that gun 1 — ^Your friend 
has it. — ^Have you the com of your granary or that of mine ? — I 
have neither tl^at of your granary nor that of mine, but I have that 
of my merchant. — Who has my glove ? — That servant has it. — 
What has your servant ?-^He has the tree of this garden. — ^Has 
he that man's book ? — ^He has not the book of that man, but he 
has that of this boy. — ^Has the peasant this or that ox ? — He has 
neither this nor that, but he has the one which his boy has.— ^Has 
this ass his hay or that of the horse ? — He has neither his nor that 
of the horse. — Which horse has this peasant 1 — He has that of 
your neighbour. — Have I your note or his ? — ^You have neither 
Mine nor his, but you have that of your friend. — Have you this 
aorse's hay ? — I have not his hay, but his shoe. — ^Has your brother 
my note or his 1 — He has neither yours nor his own, but he has 
the sailor's. — Has the foreigner my bird or his own ? — He has 
that of the captain. — ^Have you the tree of this garden ? — I have 
it not. — ^Are you hungry or thirsty ? — ^I am neither hungry nor 
thirsty, but I am sleepy. 

Has the sailor this bird or that 1 — ^He has not this but that.~> 
Haa your servant this stick or that ? — He has this, but not that.* 


Has your oook this chicken or that? — ^He has neither this nor 
that, but he has that of his neighbour. — Am I right or wrong ? — 
You are neither right nor wrong, but your good boy is wrong. — 
Have I this knife or that 1 — ^You have neither this nor that. — 
What have I ? — ^You have nothing good, but you have something 
bad. — ^Have you the chest which I have ? — I have not that which 
you have. — ^Which horse have you ? — ^I have the one which your 
brother has. — Have you the ass which my friend has ? — ^I have 
act that which he has, but I have that which you have. — Has your 
friend the looking-glass which you have or that which I have ? — 
He has neither that whidi you have nor that which I have, but he 
has his own. 


Which bag has the peasant ? — He hfis the one which his boy 
has. — ^Have I your golden or your silver candlestick ?— You have 
neither my golden nor my silver candlestick, but you have my 
iron candlestick. — ^Have you my waistcoat or that of the tailor? 
— ^I have neither yours nor that of the tailor. — Which have you ? 
— I have that which my friend has. — ^Are you cold or warm ?^- 
I am neither cold nor warm, but I am thirsty.-— Is your friend 
afraid or ashamed ? — ^He is neither afraid nor ashamed, but he is 
sleepy. — ^Who is wrong ) — ^Your friend is wrong. — ^Has any one 
my umbrella ? — ^No one has it. — ^Is any one ashamed I — No one 
IS ashamed, but my friend is hungry. — Has the captain the ship 
which you have or that which I have ? — ^He has neither that which 
you have, nor that which I have. — Which has he ?— He has that 
of his friend. — ^Is he right or wrong ? — He is neither right nor 
wrong. — ^Has the Frenchman any thing good or bad ? — ^He has 
aeither any thing good nor bad, but he has something pretty. — 
What has he pretty ?— He has the pretty looking-glass. — ^Has he 
(he good biscuit ? — ^He has it not, but his neighbour has it.— Has 
the Englishman the wine-bottle 1 — ^He has the wine-bottle, but he 
has not the bottle of wine.'-*Which shoe {Ujtrro) has your baker ? 
—-He has that of die horse. — ^Has he my oil-bottle ?— He has not 
your oil bottle, but he has your milk-pot. 

L^zume Nona. 


(when the word begins with a consonant, except « followed by anotlier 










« of the. 




to the. 


Ai or a'. 






from the. 




Rule. Masculine nonns and adjectives, whaterer may be iheir 
ehange it in the ploral into i. Ex. 

The hats. 
The books. 
The good books. 
Of the books. 
The sticks. 
Of the sticks. 
The thimbles. 
The dogs. 
The brothers. 
The merchants. 
The horses. 
The neighbonrs. 
The good neighbonrs. 
Of the neighbours. 
The peasants. 
The servants. 

I cappelli. 


I buoni Ubri. 



Dei bastoni. 



I fratelli. 

I mercanti. 



I buoni vldnl. 


I rustici, contadini. 

I domestici, i servl 



(wlien th« word begins with • followed by a eouommt, or wldi a Towai). 


Nam, the. 

(Ten. of the. 

Ai<. to the. 

Aee, the. 

.d&L from the. 



The good boota. 



Hie coats. 

FUiBAia Mascot nio 
Nam, gll 
Gau degIL 
IXrf. aglL 
Aee. gIL 

AbL dai^ 


61i stiTsIL 

I bnoni stiTaH. 


Oli ombreHi, le ombidle. 

CHi aMtl, i Teatlti, le ▼eatiiasola. 

ObB. Ju When the word begina with i, an apostrophe la sabatitatad hi the 
article g^li, for the letter «, thna : 

^«»- J the Englishmen. ^^"^?GP1 

Act, > ' 
Cfen, of the 
DaL tothe 
ilM. from the 






Fnsr ExcBmoir.^An notms ending in the singnlar in e, monoajrflableay 
and noma haring the accent on the last rowel, aa alao words ending in <e^ do 
not change their termination in the phmd. Ex. 

flSng'. Fbir. 



nieking. ThekingsL 



The loot. Thefiset 



The tea. Teaa. 



The coffee. Cofieea. 



Tliebailifi: ThebalUfia. 



Sscom> ExcsmoR.— Noma ending 

i; in CO and go, generally insert is 

ploral the letter ik. Ex. 

The cook. The cooka. 



The bag. The baga. 



Tbeinn. Theinna. 



Thedialogoe. The dialognea. 


1 dialog 

The German. The Gennanai 



The Pole. The Polea. 



The fixe. Tbefiiea. 





Tubs EzoBVTiow.^Nouni ending in ia, preeeded by a Towel, lotft tht ktiM 

9 In the plural, and those in which io is preceded by a consonant, change te 
the plural io Into iO Ex. 

The baker. 
The tpoon. 
• The shoemaker. 
The bookseller. 
Th» uncle. 
The temple. 
The principle. 

The bakers. 
The spoons. 
Thp shoemakers. 
The booksellers. 
The uncles. 
The temples. 
The principles. 

II fomaio 
II cuccKiaio. 
II calxohdo. 
II Ubraio. 
Lo zio. 
U tempio. 
U principio. 

I cucehial. 
I tempU. 
I principii. 

06i. B. When, however, the final syllable to Is preceded bye, eft, g*, gi^ It 
may in the plural be chan^ merely into i. Ex. 

The looking-glass. 

The eye. 
The cheese. 
The son. 

The looking- 

The eyes. 
The cheeses. 
The son& 

Lo specchio. GHi speochi. 

L' occhio. 
II formaggio. 
II Qglio. 




FovnYK EzcxrrioH.— The following few words form their plural quite irra- 
gutarly, Tis. 

The man. The men. i L' uomo. OU nomini. 

God. The gods. ' Dio. * Gli* Del. 

The ox. The oxen. Ibue. Ibuoi. 

Cbt. There are some masculine nouns terminated in e^ which in the plural 
take the feminine termination a, together with the feminine article,* and othera 
also in o, which in the plaral may take either the masculine article and termi- 
nation, or the feminine ; we diall speak of them hereafter.* 

1 Formerly these nouns tooki ^^ ^^ plural, but the generality of modem 
authors have entirely rejected this letter from the alphabttt. The reason is that 
it is pronounced like ^ and whenever it occurs In the formation of the phual, two 
i's are substituted for it. 

* Dio is the only word In Italian beginning with « consonant, which In tho 
phiral takes the article gU instead oft. 

* Nouns terminated in a, t; ti, with a few exceptions (of which hereafter), and 
when they do not represent male individuals, or dignities, or professions be 
lonjisg to mals individuals, are feminine ; all others are generally masculine. 

* The prlnc^ are :— 

Deentlnaio, the hundred. 



n migliaio, 

the thousand. 


the mile. 


a measure. 

Lo stale, 

the bushel. 


the pair. 

V novo, 

the 09. 


Le moggia. 
Le stale. 
La nova. 


Your k>okki£-«laMes. 
Have you my small looking-gbMesI 

I bare not your sman looUng-glaBsea, 
but I bare your hxge looking- 

I mieispeediL 

I Toatri ipfPcW 

Ha EUa i mid piceoUB apeecUt 
fNon ho i dl Lei pleeoll, ma 1 di Ld 
J grandi specdiL 
jNoaboidiLd pkeoB ■paecUi, aa 
L ho benri, i gmiidL 

Great, brge. . Gnode.' • 

Little, small. I Piccolo. 

06t. C. 6^nim^gr«a<; loses the syHablad^ before a oooaonant (not bcfines 
followed by a consonant), and for the letter « before a vowd an apostropba is ' 
snbstitnted. Before a noon in the phml, beginning with a vowel, grmdimmfi 
be used. 

The laige coat. 

n gran cappdh- 
n gruid' abito. 



My ermine. 
Your— yours. 
His. * 
Our— ours. 
Your— yours. 
Their— theiis. 



11 sao. 







His books, looUng-glssses, eoats. 
Our books, looUng-gMses^ coats. 
Hieir booksi looking-glasses, eoata. 

i snoi Ubri, speochi, aUlL 
I notM Obri, apsedtf, tUtL 
I Imo libri, ^pecdtf, abttl* 

Which books, looking-glasses, eoatol 

Qnali (quel, qua*X Hbri, speochl. 


These er tliose books, 
niese or those coats. 
Tliese or those looking-glssses. 

Qud (or que*) Hbri. 
Que^ qiecdiL 

• There is in Italian that partienbri^, that the significatioiM>r nouns can bs 
angraented or diminished by the addition of certain syllabies called augmentn- 
Itres and dimlnntiTes (of wliich hereafter ; see Lesson X.). But in the pw sfl m 
instance we cannot make uw of tliem, on account of the contradictory answer. 

< To avoid ambiguity, we say, In the third person, di ltd, instead oOf su^ I 
•Mai. Ex. : Paul loves Peter and hia children, Paolo ama Pidro t i iffS flgU^ 
■si^or iJgUmoHtUhd: for u udng < sMt it might convey the meaning that 
Puilloves his own diildrea. ' 



Which books have youl 

I have the ine books of four good 

Have I his small boots 1 
You have not his small boots, but you 

have his large boots. 
Which looking-glasses have 1 1 
Vou have the pretty looking-glasses of 

your brothers. 
Have you the large hammers of the 

I have not their large hammers, but 

their large nails. 
Has your brother my wooden guns? 

He has not your wooden guns. 
Which has he 1 

Have you the Frenchmen's fine um- 
brellas 1 

I have not their fine umbrellas, but I 
have their fine sticks. 

Hy oxen. 

Their I 

His horses. 

Of my gardens. 

Of your horses. 

Have you the trees of my gardens 7 
I have not the trees of your gardens. 

Of my pretty gardens. 

Of my fine horses. 
I have not your cotton handkerchiefs, 
but I have your cloth coats. 

The bread, the loaves. 

auai libri avete vol? (ha Ella)? 
Ho i bei libri del . vostri baonl 

Ho io i suoi piccoli sUvali 7 
Ella non ha i ■ suoi piccoli stivall, ma 

htf i suoi stlvali grandi. 
dual! specchi ho io 7 
Ella ha i leggiadri specchi del di 

Lei fratelU. 
Ha Ella i grandi martelU del lo^ 

gnaiuoli 7 
Non ho i loro grandi martelli, ma 

ho i loro gran chiodi. 
Ha 11 di Lei fratello i miei schioppi 

di legno 7 
Egli non ha i d! Lei schioppi di legno. 

Ha Ella i begli ombrelli del Kran- 

Non ho i loro begli ombrelli, ma ho I 

loro bei bastonu 

I miei bnoi. 
I loro asini. 

I suoi cavalli. 
Dei miei giardini. 

Del \ ^^ ^" I cavalli. 
c vostri ) 

Ha Ella gli alberi del miei giardini t 

Non ho gli alberi dei di Lei giardioL 

Dei miei leggiadri giardini. 

De* miei bei cavalli. 

Non ho i vostri fazzoletti di cotone, 

ma ho i vostri abitidipanno. 

II pane, i pani. 

Have you the gloves ? — Yes, Sir, I have the gloves. — Have you 
my gloves ? — ^No, Sir, I have not your gloves. — Have I your look- 
ing-glasses ? — You have my looking-glasses. — Have I your pretty 
Handkerchiefs ? — ^You have not my pretty handkerchiefs. — Which 
handkerchiefs have I ? — ^You have the pretty handkerchiefs of your 
friends. — Has the foreigner our good penknives ? — He has not our 


good penknives, but our good ships. — ^Wlio has our fine horses ?-— 
Nobody has your fine horses, but somebody has your fine oxen.-* 
Has your neighbour the trees of your gardens ? — ^He has not the 
trees of my gardens, but he has your handsome notes. — Have you 
the horses' hay ? — ^I have not their hay, but their shoes (£ loroferri). 
— ^Has your tailor my pretty golden buttons? — ^He has not your 
pretty golden buttons, but your pretty golden threads (JUi). — 
What has the sailor ? — ^He has his fine ships. — Has he my sticks 
or my guns ? — ^He has neither your sticks nor your guns. — Who 
has the tailor's good waistcoats? — Nobody has his waistcoats, but 
somebody has his silver buttons. — Has the Frenchman's boy my 
good umbrellas? — ^He has not your good umbrellas, but your good 
knives. — Has the shoemaker my leathern boots? — ^He has your 
leathern boots. — What has the captain? — He has his good sailors. 
— ^What has our bookseller? — ^He has his good books. — ^Which 
books have you ? — I have the fine books of our booksellers. 


Which mattrasses has the sailor? — He has the good mattrasses 
of his captain. — ^Which gardens has the Frenchman ? — He has 
the gardens of the English. — Which servants has the English, 
man ? — ^He has the servants of the French. — ^What has your boy ? 
He hds his pretty birds. — What has the merchant? — He has our 
pretty chests. — What has the baker ?*-He has our fine asses. — 
Has he our nails or our hammers ? — He has neither our nails nor 
our hanuners, but he has our good loaves. — Has the carpenter 
his iron hammers ? — He has not his iron hammers, but his iron 
nails. — ^Which biscuits has the baker? — ^He has the biscuits of 
his friends. — Has our friend our fine penknives?— He has not our 
fine penknivesai — Which has he ? — He has the small penknives of 
his merchants. — ^Which looking-glasses has your servant? — ^He 
has the looking-glasses of his good merchants. — ^Has your friend 
the small knives of our merchants? — He has not their small 
knive^ but their golden candlesticks. — Have you these notes ? — 
I have not these notes, but these silver knives. — Has the man this 
or that note ? — He has neither this nor that. — Has he your book 
or year friend's?— He has neither mine nor my friend's ; he has 
his own — Has your brother the wine which I have, or that which 


yoo hare? — He has neither that which you hare oor that whieh 
I have.-^ Which wise has he ? — ^He has that of his merchants.-* 
Have you the bag which my servant has? — I have not the bag 
which your servant has.— Have you the chicken which my cook 
has, or that which the peasant has? — ^I have neither that which 
your cook has, nor that which the peasant has.— Is the peasant 
cold or warm ? — ^He is neither cold nor warm. 

Leziane Decima. 

There are in Italian ttiro aorta of augmentativea, vis. 
1. In oxVi to ezpreaa any thing great and fairge. Ex. 

The hat . . the large hat. 

U cappello . . 11 cappellonc. 

The book . . the large book. 

n libro . . il librone. 

ThehaU .. the large halL 

La saU . . il aalone. 

The hooae . . the large house. 

La casa . . il caaone. 

06«. ± The augmentativea in oim are always maacidlne, though the ladl- 

cals be feminine. 

The door . . the 5 >"^ge <iow- I 
(gate. ) 

La porta . . 11 portonc 

The chamber . . the large chamber. 

La camera . . il camerona. 

2. In Accxo for the maacuUne, and ac 

czA for the femlmne. These designate 

mething bad or contemptible. Ex. 
I he hat . . the large ugly hat. I 11 cappello . . U cappellacdo. 

the table . , the large ugly table. La tavola . . la tavolaccia. 

f he house . . the ugly house. I La oesa . . la casacda. 

06t. Bl Nouns terminated in anu denote plenty or abundance, as : Ckn 
tame, abundance of people; omome, abundance of bones. 

Oba, There are noons in all these terminations, without being augmenta 
tives. Ex. iZ battoM, the sick ; to ttarru, the carded wool ; U kucio, (he noose 
jLjacda^ the fiice. 

OP omonrnYEs. 

Then are also tipo ants of diaii|iitivc% vis. 
1. Orkiiid]MMaiidfliitier7iB:«i0»«Cfa^A^fiirth«i 
lib, for the feminiDfr Ex. 
JPiokD pcncnff poor, are deiivod : 

A poor little man. I Porer 

A poor Dttle woman. | Poveiina, povencta, ] 

Of compaaaion in: ueda, weea, ieemda, for the maamllnp, and in; aHCM^ 
uzxa, ioduola, for tlie feminine, Ex. 
Fromf uoBu^ tlie man, are fonned : 

Tlie poor litda man. IL'nomnecii 

I olo,orrc 

Obe. C. Tlie diminntiveo eon^ey no bad ^^^ Hke tlie aaynieniaiipeai 

and to ezpreaa a little old man, yon may nae indifferently: wnhuttia, vmhhm, 
96 tthie tti9ii0f vteekitTtXUtf i wcBB i cr rfhiie^ MeeaousoL Fiom Is cnea, yon may form : 
la eatina, Is eoMtto, la ennrm, la ra t nrria, la catiirrWiij to expraa the i 

Obt, D. ThedtaainatiTeain«ioandtaa,ezpre8Bi 
ing, and eajoling. Ex. The pretty little prince, U pi I 'n c fpi aa (from yriwcy^ i 
the pretty Uttle pitneam, ie prmcycwBia (from pHtidpmmh tbe fittla table, U 
tevdJnio(from faeob); the pretty maO honae, acame (from caaa); the little 
diamber,«li»aurteo(fromaBiMni); the Bttle cap, g ^cmtfwe (froat Wwrff a) ; 
the pmtty little d(« d eofMliNo (^iom eone). 

€b9, B. Tlieaeexamplea afaow that manyfemiaiMnomieiB«l 
dlminntiTea in ine^ which termination ie maaniHne. 

Have yon my booka or thflna of the 

Ihavenotyonn; I havo thoaa of tho 

\ Qua or fBe*. 

Ba EOa i mlei libil, o qaei (qne^ 

Non ho i di Ld, ho 


^ Quem, the (or em). 
\ Quel (or jiie'), eke* 

Have yon the booka which I have? 
I have thoaeiHiidi yon have. 

(HaEDaifibriehehoiol . 
r Ho qnei ehe Bib ha. 
< Ho qnei cba avete voL 
( Ho qaelli cheha Elhu 
Haa the Bni^Mman the kidvea Ba P Ingleae i colteDi cbe avete vol 
wtaldk yon have^ or thoae wUch I o qnelli che ho lol 




Ha hu neither those wUch you have, 

nor those which I have. 
He hu bis own. 

Non ha nd qoelU ehe vftUB toI, al 

quaUi che ho io. 

These books. 
Those books. 
Those coats. 
Those looking-glasses. 

Questi Ubii 
UuegU abiti. 
Quegli ipecchi. 

Have yon these or those books 7 
These (Plur. of «Aw one). 
Those (Plur. of that one). 

Have I these or those 1 

You have these, you have not those. 

AvjBte questi Ubri, o qoelUI 

Ho questi, o quelU 1 

Avete questi, non avete quelli. 

Ho io gli specchi dei 
Non avete xA questi, nd quelli. 

Francasi, • 

Have I the looking-glasses of the 

French, or those of the English? 
You have neither the former nor the 


Gbt. F. In Italian, as in French, ^former and Ou kUter, ffu oru and tk$ 
aiher, are expressed in an inverted order; quuto, queatij referring to the latter, 
and qtuUo, queUi^ to the former. 

Has the man these or those sticks 1 
He has these, but not those. 
Have you your guns or mine 1 
I liave neither yours nor mine, but 
those of our good friends. 

Ha 1' uomo questi bastoni, o quelli 1 
Ha questi, non ha quelli. 
Ha Ella i di Lei schioppi, oi mieit 
Non ho n^ i di Lei, nd i miei, maho ^ 
• quelU dei nostri buoni amid. 


. . one book. 


. . Un libro. 


. . good bread. 


. . Buon pane. 


. . fine horse. 


. . Bel cavallo. 


. . great courage. 


. . Gran coraggio. 


. . Saint Peter. 


. . San Pietro. 


. . tliat dog. 


06*. G, These adjectives lose, the two first their last vowel, the others 
their last syllable, in the singular, when they precede a word beginning with a 
consonant (not • followed by a consonant). 

But when they precede a word beginning with a vowel, all lose their last 
vowel .Ex. 

The fine tree. I n beli* albero. 

The large tree. I u grand' albero. 

06s. B. This suppression of a letter or a syllable never takes place before a 
feminine noun or before a masculine noun in the plural, except with respect t^ 
Ve word grandcj for we say : 


LaigebooKs. | Oran libit 


Great man. i Graidf uomo. 

Great men. I GrancH uomini. 

Gbt. /. The word 6efio may be used in t^ plurai aa follows • 



Pktr. " 

Bel or be'. 

Begli (before • followed by 
a consonant, and before a 
- Towel). 

Have you these or those notes? — ^I have neither these nor those. 
— Have you the horses of the French or those of the English ? — ^I 
have those of the English, but I have not those of the French. — 
Which oxen have you ? — ^I have those of the foreigners. — ^Have 
you the chests which I have? — ^I have not those which you have, 
but those whioh your brother has. — Has your brother your bis- 
cuita or mine ? — ^He has neither yours nor mine. — Which biscuits 
has he? — ^He has his own. — Which horses has your friend? — He 
has those which I have. — ^Has your friend my books or his ? — ^He 
has neither yours nor his, but he has those of the captain. — Have 
I your waistcoats, or those of. the tailors? — ^You have neither 
these nor those. — ^Have I our asses? — ^You have not ours, but 
those of our neighbours. — Have you the birds of the sailors? — I 
have not their birds, but their fine sticks. — Which glasses {il Me- 
chiere) has your boy? — ^He has mine.— Have I my boots or those 
of the shoemakers ? — ^You have not yours, but theirs. 


Which milk has the man ? — He has ours. — Has he our coffee I 
— He has it not. — Have you our coats or those of the strangers ? 
I have not yours, but theirs. — Has your carpenter our hammers 
or those of our friends? — He has neither ours nor those of our 
friends. — Which nails has he ? — He has his good iron nails. — 
Has any one the ships of the English? — ^No one has those of the 
English, but some one has those of the French. — Who has the 
coolTs chickens? — Nobody has his chickens, but somebody has 


his butter. — ^Who has his cheese? — His boy has it. — ^Who has 
my old gun?— The sailor has it. — ^Have I the peasant's bag? — 
You have not his bag, but his corn.^-Which guns has the English- 
man ? — ^He has those which you have. — ^Which umbrellas has the 
Frenchman ? — He has those which his friend has. — Has he our 
books ? — He has not ours, but those which his neighbour has.— 
Is the merchant's boy hungry ? — ^He is not hungry, but thirsty. 
— ^Is your friend cold or warm ? — ^He is neither cold nor warm. 
— ^Is he afraid ? — ^He is not afraid, but ashamed. — ^Has the young 
man the birds of our servants? — He has not their birds, but their 
soap.-^Which penknives has he ? — ^He has those of his old mer- 
chants. — ^Have you any thing good or bad ? — ^I have neither any 
thing good nor bad, but something fine.— What have you fine ?— 
I have our cook's fine beef. — ^Have you not their fine muttoD?*— 
No, Sir, I have it not. 

Lezione Unde^ma. 

The oomb. 
The email oomb. 
Have yon my small combe 7 


The wood or foreet. 

The work. 

The jowel. 

II pettine. 
I II pettinino. 
i II piccolo pettine. 

U bicchiere. 

Ha Ella i miei plocoU pettini (pel- 


II boseo ; jdur. i. boedii. 
I U lavoro, 1* opera. 
! II travagiio. 






Hu be mj fine gli—ml 

Ha esao i miei beUi UodHeill 

He has tliem. 




Von have them. 


Ton have them noL 

EUa non li ha. 
i Non U svete. 

Has the man my fine jeweb? 

Ha 1* uomo i mlei bd giolsUI 

He has them noL 

Non U ha. 

Has the boy (got) them t 


Hie men have them. 

611 uomini li hanno. 

Hare the men (got) themi 

Li hanno ^ uomini 7 


EgUnOy em (et, e'). 

They hare them. 

Eglino 11 hanno. 

They have them not. 

Essi non 11 hanno. 

Who has them 1 


TheGennan, the Gennans. 

I] Tedeaco, 1 TedeschL 

The Turk, the Turks. 

IlTurco, ITnrehi. 

The Italian, the Italians. 

L' Italiano^ gl> Italiani. 

Lo Spagnnok), gtt Spagnu<dL 

The Russian, the Rosiians. 

HRusso, iRnssi. 

The American, the Americans. 

V Americano, gU AmericanL 

The clothes. 

\ I vestiti. 


Some or any.^ 

( Sing. Ddy deOo, deJP. 
\ Plttb. Dei, degU, degV- 

Some or any wine. 


Some or any bread. 


Some or any butter. 

Del bntirro. 

Some or any sugar. 

Dello zucchero. 

Some or any money. 


Some or any books. 

Dei Ubri. 

Some or any bnttons. 


t Some or ony is sometimes expressed in Italian, and sometimes not| nearly 
as in English. It is expressed when a tpianJ^ or a UttU may be understood, 
otherwise it is not expressed. Ex. Give me some bread, daiemi dd pane ; I dilnk 
wine and you drink water, io heoo «feo, e toi bevete aequa; we have seen nq sol- 
diers, or we have not seen any soldiers, non ahbiamo veduto ooldoHs wine and 
bread are sufficient for me, jKine od acqua mi baetano ; to write well we must em- 
ploy good paper and good ink, per bout ocrioort biaogna adoperare bwma carta e 
htMn tnddoolros the poor are often reduced to bad meat, i poneri wno wpeom. 
ridoUi a eaUwa came 



Some 4r uy gold. 

Some or any silrer (metal). 

Some or any men. 
Some or any friends. 
Some or any coats. 

Have you any wine 1 
1 have some wine. 
Has this man any doth 7 
He has some cloth. 
Has he any books 7 
He has some books. 
Have you any money 7 
I tiave some money. 

No or not any, before a noun. 
I have no wine. 
He has no money. 

Y'ou have no books. 
They have no friends. 

Some or 
Some or 
Some or 
Some or 
Some or 
Some or 
Some or 
Some or 

any good wine, 
any bud cheese, 
any excellent wine, 
any excellent coffee, 
any good books, 
any pretty glasses, 
any fine coats, 
any old wine. 

Dell' oro. 
Dell' argento. 

DegU amici. 
DegU abiU. 


Ho del vino. 

Ha del panno quail' i 

Ha del panno. 


Ha libri. 




Non ho vino. 

j Ella non ha librL 
i Non avete libri. 

Non hanno amici. 

Dei buon vino. 
Del cattivo formaggio. 
Del vino ecceUente. 
Dell eccellente cafid. 
Dei buoni libri. 
Dei leggiadri bicchleri. 
Dd begli abiU. 
Del vino vecchio. 

Have you any good butter 7 

I have no good butter, but some excel- 
lent cheese. 

Has this man any good books 7 

He has not any good books. 

Elas the merchant any pretty gloves 7 

He has no pretty gloves; but some 
pretty jewels. 

\ Ha Ella buon burro 7 
! Avete buon burro 7 
Non ho buon burrOi ma ho eccel- 
lente formaggio. " 
Ha buoni libri queli' uomo 7 
Non ha buoni libri. 
Ha leggiadri guanti il mercante 7 
Non ha leggiadri guanti, ma ha leg- 
giadri gioiclU. 

What has the baker 7 

He has some excellent bread. 

The painter. 

Some coals. 

The pencil {pt a painter). 

The picture. 

The pencil 

Che ha il fomaio 7 
Ha del pane ecceUente. 
11 pittore. 
II pennello. 
U quadro. 

II lapis {la matUa, a feminine noun). 


Have you my fine glasses ? — ^I hare them. — ^Have you the fine 
horses of the English ? — ^I have them not. — Which sticks have 
you ? — ^I have those of the foreigners. — ^Who has my small combs ? 
— ^My boys have them. — ^Which knives have you ? — I have those 
of your friends. — ^Have I your good guns? — ^You have them not, 
but your friends have them. — Have you my pretty birds, or those 
of my brothers 1 — ^I have neither yours nor your brothers^ but 
my own. — ^Which ships have the Germans? — The Germans have 
no ships. — ^Have the sailors our fine mattrasses? — They have 
them not- — ^Have the cooks (got) them ? — ^They have them. — Has 
the captain your pretty books ? — He has them not. — Have I them ? 
— You have them. You have them not. — ^Has the Italian (got) 
them? — He has them. — ^Have the Turks our fine guns?— They 
have them not. — ^Have the Spaniards thenf?^— They have them. 
— ^Has the German the pretty umbrellas of the Spaniards ? — He 
has them. — Has he them? — ^Yes, Sir, he has them. — ^Has the 
Italian our pretty gloves? — ^He has them not. — ^Who has them? 
— ^The Turk has them. — ^Has the tailor our waistcoats or those of 
our {riends? — ^He has neither the latter nor the former. — ^Which 
coats has he? — He has those which the Turks have. — ^Which 
dogs have you? — ^I have those which my neighbours have. 

Have you any wood ? — ^I have some wood. — ^Has your brother 
any soap ? — ^He has no soap. — Have I any mutton ? — You have 
no mutton, but you have some beef. — ^Have your friends any 
money? — ^They have some money. — Have they any milk? — 
They have no milk, but they have some excellent butter.— Have 
1 any fire? — You have no fire, but you have some coals (m the 
tmg. in ItaUan). — Has the merchant any cloth? — ^He has no 
cloth, but some pretty garments. — Have the English any silver? 
—They have no silver, but they have some excellent iron. — Have 
you any good coffee? — ^I have no good coffee, but some excellent 
wine.— Has the merchant any good books? — ^He has some good 
books.— >Has the young man any milk? — He has no milk, but 


soma eicellent tea. — Have the French any good gloves?— 1 hey 
have some excellent gloves. — Have they any hirds? — They have 
no birds, but they have some pretty jewels. — ^Who has the fine 
pencils of the English? — ^Their friends have them. — Who has 
tbd gpod biscuits of the bakers ? — ^The sailors of our captains have 
them. — Have they our clothes? — ^Yes, Sir, they have them.— 
What have the Italians I — ^They have some beautiful pictures.-^ 
What have the Spaniards? — They have some fine asses. — ^What 
!)ave the Germans? — ^They have some excellent com. 

Have you any friends? — I have some friends. — ^Have your 
friends any fire ? — They have some fire. — ^Have the shoemakers 
any good boots ? — ^They have no good boots, but some excellent 
leather. — Have the tailors any good waistcoats ? — ^They have no 
good waistcoats, but some excellent cloth. — Has the painter any 
umbrellas? — He has no umbrellas, but he has some beautiful 
pictures. — Has h^ the pictures of the French or those of the 
Italians? — ^He has neither the latter nor the former. — Which has 
he ? — He has those of his good friends. — Have the Russians any 
thing good ? — They have something good. — What have they good ? 
— They have some good oxen. — ^Has any one my small combs ? 
— No one has them. — Who has the peasants' fine chickens?— 
Your cooks have them. — What have the bakers? — ^They have 
some excellent bread. — Have your friends any old wine? — ^They 
have no old wine, but some good milk.— >Has any one your golden 
candlesticks? — No one has them. 

Leziane Duodecima. 

:same of ii^ anp of U^of U. 
Some of thenif any of them, of, 

Ne (is always placed before the 
verb, except when this is in 
the infinitive, participle, or 

TWSirTH LS880N. 

HftTe foa any wioal 

I bare aome. 

Have yon any bread 1 

I haTe not any, or nona. 

Have yon any good winal 

I have some good. 

HaTe I any good doth? 

Ton have not any good. 

Haa the merchant any avgar 1 

He haa some sugar. 

He haa aome. 

He haa not any. 

Haa he any good aogar 7 

He baa aome good. 

He haa not any good. 

Have I any aaltl 

Ton have aome aalL 

Ton have no aalt. 

Ton have aome. 

Ton haye not any. 

Have yon any boota 7 

I have aome boota. 

I have no boota. 

I have aome. 

I have not any. 

Haa the man any good horaea7 

He haa aome good onea. 

He haa not any good onea. 

Has he any pretty knivea? 

He haa aome pretty onea^ 

He haa not any pretty onea. 

Haa he any money 7 

He haa aome. 

He haa not any. 

Have onr frienda any good bnttei 7 

They have aome good. 

They haye not any good. 

Have yon good or bad book87 

I have aome good onea. 

Have you good or bad bread 7 

I have aome good. 

VHio has aome bad wine7 

Our merchant haa aome. 

c Avetevino7 



Non ne ho. 
c Avetebnon'viiio? 
( Ne ho del buono. 

( EUa non ne ha dl boono. 
c Non ne avete di buonoi. 

Ha raecharo U niereante7 




Ha egii boon anecheio 7 
( Ne ha del bnono. 

Non ne ha di buono. 


Avete aale. 

Non avete aale. 

Ne aveta. 

Non ne avete. 

Avete 8tivaU7 


Non ho ativalL 


Non ne ho. 

Ha F nomo buoni cavaJii 7 

Ne ha del buoni. 

Non ne lia di boonL 

Ha egU leggladri coltelU 7 

Neha del ieggiadri. 

Non ne ha di leggiadrL 



Non ne ha. 

Hanno bnon buzro i noatri amid 1 

Ne hanno di bnona • 

Non ne hanno del booQO. 

Ha EUa buoni, o cattivi iibrit 

Ne ho dei bnoni. 

Avete buono^ o cattivo panal 

Ne ho del buono. 


Ne ha il noatro i 



What bread haa the baker 1 
He has some good. 
What boota haa the ahoemakerl 
He haa aome good onea. 

The hatter. 

The joiner. 

dual pane ha il fomalo ? 

Ne ha del bnono. 

auaU aUvaU ha Ucalzolaio'k 

Ne ha di baoni. 

D cappellalo. 

U falegname. 

r Un (before a consonant 




-4 or one. ^ ^^ ^i^fore s followed 



consonant, or when it stands 





a or an. 

Nam. uno. 


of a— an. 

Oen. d' uno. 



Dot, ad uno. 


a — an. 

Ace. uno. 


from a — an. 

AU. da uno 

A or one horse. 

Haye youm book 1 

I have a book. 

Have you a glaaa 7 

I have no glass. 

I have one. 

Have you a good horse 1 

I have a good horse. 

I have a good one. 

I have two good ones. 

I have two good horses. 

I have three good ones. 

Have I a gun 7 . 

You have a gun. 

You have one. 

You have a goo4 one. 

You have two good ones. 

Has your brother a friend 1 

He hu a friend. 

He haa one. 

He haa a good one. 

Un cavallo. 
( Avete > 

Ho un libro. 

( Avete ) 

Non ho blcchiere. 

Ne ho uno. 

Ha EUa un buon cavallo t 

Ho un buon cavallo. 

Ne ho uno buono. 

Ne ho due buoni. 

Ho due buoni cavalll. 

Ne ho tre buoni. 

Ho uno schioppo 1 

Ella ha uno schioppo. 

Ella ne ha uno. 

Ella ne ha uno buono. 

Ella ne ha due buoni. 

Ha un amico il dl Lei fratello 't 

Ha un amico. 

Ne ha uno. 

Ne ha uno buono. 



He has two good ones. 

He has three good ones. 
Hae your friend a fine knife 1 
He has one. 
He has none. 
He has two of them. 
He has three. 
He has four. 

Have jon fire good horaet? 

I haye six. 

I have six good and seven bad ones. 

Who has a fine umbrella 7 

Tlie merdiant has one. 

Ne ha doe buoni. 

Ne ha tre buoni. 



Ha il Tostro amlco un bel colteUo 1 

Ne ha uno. 

Non ne ha. 

Ne ha due. 

Ne ha tre. 

Ne ha quattro. 

t f *g^"* \ cinqne buoni canUi 7 

Ne ho sei. 

Ne ho sei buoni e sette cattivi. 

Chi ha un bell' ombreUo7 or una 

II mercante ne ha uno 


Have you any salt ? — ^I have some. — Have you «Dy cofiee ? — ^I 
have not any. — ^Have you any good wine ? — I have some good 
(wine). — ^Have 3K>u any good cloth ? — ^I have no good cloth, but I 
have some good money. — Have I any good sugar ? — ^You have 
not any good. — Has the man any good honey ? — ^He has sorne.-^ 
Has he any good cheese ? — He has not any. — Has the American 
any money ? — ^He has some. — ^Have the French any cheese ? — 
They have not any. — Have the English any good milk? — They 
have no good milk, but they have some excellent butter. — ^Who 
has some good soap ? — ^The merchant has some. — Who has some 
good bread? — ^The baker has some. — ^Has the foreigner any 
coals ? — He has not any. — Has he any cloth ? — ^He has some. — 
What rice have you? — I have some good (rice). — ^What hay has 
the horse?-— He has some good (hay). — ^What leather has the 
shoemaker? — ^He has some excellent (leather). — Have you any 
jewels? — ^I have not any. — ^Who has some jewels? — The mer- 
chant has some.— Have I any boots ? — ^You have some boots. — 
Have I any hats? — ^You have no hats. — ^Has your friend any 
good knives? — He has some good ones. — ^Has he any good oxen? 
--He has not any good ones.-r-Have the Italians any fine horses? 


— They have not any fine ones. — Who has some fine asses f— 

The Spaniards have some. 


Has the captain any good sailors? — ^He has some good ones. — 
Have the sailors any good mattrasses? — ^They have not any good 
ones. — Who has some good biscuits? — The baker of our good 
neighbour has some.^^Has he any bread ? — He has not any. — 
Who has some beautiful ribbons? — ^The French have some. — 
Who has some excellent iron nails ? — ^The carpenter has some.— 
Has he any hammers? — He has some. — ^Whathanmiershas he ? — 
He has some iron ones. — What is the matter with your brother ? 
— Nothing is the matter with him. — Is he cold ? — He is neither 
cold nor warm. — ^Is he afraid ? — ^He is not afraid. — ^Is he ashamed ? 
— He is not ashamed. — ^What is the matter with him? — ^He is 
hungry. — Who has some pretty gloves? — ^I have some. — ^Who 
has some fine pictures? — ^The Italians have some. — ^Have the 
painters any fine gardens? — ^They have some fine ones. — Has the 
hatter good or bad hats? — ^He has some good ones. — Hss the 
joiner good or bad wood ? — He has some good (wood).-*Who has 
some pretty jewels ? — ^The boys of our merchants have some. — 
Have they any birds? — ^They have not any. — ^Have you any tea? 
— ^I have not any. — ^Who has some ? — ^My servant has some. — 
Has your servant any clothes Y— He has not any. — ^Who has 
some ? — ^The servants of my neighbour have some. 


Have you a pencil ?— I have one. — ^Has your boy a good book ? 
— ^He has a good one. — ^Has the Grerman a good ship? — He has 
none. — ^Has your tailor a good coat? — ^He has a good one. — ^He 
has two good ones. — He has three good ones. — ^Who has some 
fine boots ? — Our shoemaker has some. — ^Has the captain a fine 
dog? — He has two. — Have your friends two fine horses? — They 
have four. — ^Has the young man a good or bad gun?'-He has no 
good one : he has a bad one. — Have you a cork ? — I have none. 
— ^Has your friend a good corkscrew ? — ^He has two. — ^Have I a 
firiend? — You have a good one. — ^You have two good friends.-— 
You have three good ones. — ^Your brother has four good ones.^ 



Has the carpenter an iron nail? — ^He has six Iron nails. — ^He has 
six good onesy and seven bad ones. — Who has good beef? — Our 
cook has some. — ^Wlio has five good horses? — Our neighbour has 
six.-— Has the peasant any com ? — He has some. — Has he any 
looking-glasses? — He has not any.* — ^Whohas some good friends? 
The Turks have some. — ^Have they any money?— They have 
not any. — ^Who has their money? — ^Their friends have it— Are 
their friends thirsty? — They are not thirsty^ but hungry. — ^Has 
the joiner any bread ? — ^He has not any.— Has your servant a 
good coat? — ^He has one. — ^Has he this or that coat? — ^He has 
neither this nor that. — Which coat has he ? — He has that which 
your servant has. — ^Have the peasants these or those bags?— 
They have neither these nor those. — ^Which bags have they? 
— ^They have their own.-— >Have you a good servant? — I have a 
good one. — ^Who has a good chest?— ^My brother has one.— Has 
he a leathern or a wooden chest? — ^He has a wooden one. 

Lezione Decimaierza. 

How much? H&wmany? 

How much bread 1 
How mocii money 1 
How many knlvea 1 
How many men 7 
How many friends 1 

(My, ha. 

I iMcve bat one friend. 
I have but one. 

Quanio? Quandf 

duanti uomini? 

Nan — che. 
^Nan — serum. 
Ho loltanto un amieo 1 
Ne bo aolamente ! 



I have but one good gun. 

I have but one good one. 

Vou have but one good one. 

How many hones has your brother 1 

He has but one. 

He has but two good 

Much, a good deal of, very 

Much bread. 

A good deal of good bread. 
Many men. 
Have you much money? 
I have a good deal 
Have you much good wine 1 

f have a good deal. 

Too much. 
Too many, 

Tou have too much wine. 

They have too many books. 

Enough money. 
Knives enough. 


A Utile. 
A little doth. 
A little salt. 
A few men. 
A few filends. 

But UUki only a Utile, not much. 

Ho soltanto un buono schioppo. 

Ne ho Bolamente uno buono. 

Ne avete solamente uno buono. 

duanti cavali ha vostro firatellot 
( Non ne ha che uno. 
i Non ne ha se non uno. 
t Non ne ha che due buonL 
} Non ne hft se non due buooL 



> mssai. 

Mom ) 

Molto pafte (asi 

Molto pane buona 

Molt! uomini (assai nomini). 

Avete molto denarol 

Ne ho molto. 

Ha Ella molto buon vinol Ha 1 

del vino molto buono. 
Ne ho molto. 


Avete troppo vino. 
Hanno troppi libri. 

Abbastanxa denaro. 
Abbastanza coltelU. 

( Poco. Siag. 
iPodd. Plur. 
Tin poco di {a2qua$Uo). 

Vn poco di panno. 

Un poco di sale. 

Pochi uomlnL 

Pochi amici. 

Non — quasi. Non^^hepooo. 
Non — moUo. 
Solamente poco. 
y Non — se non pocOm 


Ifol many J hufew. 

I haTo bat little money. 
He has few filenda. 

We have bat Uttle gold. 

\ Nan — cKe packi, 
\ Non — se mm podd. 
( Non bo ebt poeo danaio. 
1 Non bo ae non poeo iknaro 
( Non ha nuriii amlcL 
I Ha poebi amid. 
r Non abbiamo uMrito oio. 
< Non abbiamo dw poeo an. 
i NonabUamo ae non poeo oro. 


CofaggiO) enofe. 

Ton haTo not mneh eourage. 

Non avete qnaai eoragglo. 


Have we? 


We have. 

Abbiamo, not abbiamo 

We hare not 

Non abbiamo. 


Some vinegar. 


Have we any vinegar ? 

Abbiamo aoeto? 

We have aorae. 



Have yon a good deal of money 1 

c Avete molto denaiol 

I have bot little of it. 

^ Non ne ho ae non pooo. 
c Non ne ho nidto. 

Von have bq.t little of IL 

Non ne aveio ee aao poeo. 

He baa but little of it. 

Non ne ha molto. 

We have but little of it. 

Non ne abbiamo ehe poeau 

Have yon enongfa wine 1 

Ha JEDa abbaatanza vinol 

I have <Hily a Uttle, bat Mioogh. 













How many friends have youl — I have two good friends. — Have 
you eight good trunks ?-— I have nine.— -Has your servant three 
coats ?-— He has only one good one. — ^Has the captain two good 
ships? — ^He has only one. — How many hanuners has the carpen- 
ter?— He has hut two good ones. — How many boots has the 
shoemaker? — ^He has ten. — Has the young man nine good hooks ? 
— ^He has only five.— How many guns has your brother? — He 
has only four. — Have you much bread ? — ^I have a good deal. — 
Have the Spaniards much money ? — ^They have but little.— Has 
our neighbour much coffee? — ^He has only a little. — Has the 
foreigner much com?— He has a good deal. — ^What has the 
American? — He has much sugar. — What has the Russian?-* 
He has a great deal of salt. — Has the peasant much rice ? — He 
has not any. — Has he much pheese? — He has but little. — ^What 
have we ? — We have much bread, much wine, and many books. 
Have we much money ? — We have only a little, but enough. — 
Have you many brothers? — ^I have only one. — ^Have the French 
many friends? — They have but few. — ^Has our friend much hay? 
— ^He has enough. — Has the Italian much cheese? — He has a 
good deal. — Has this man courage? — He has. none. — ^Has the 
painter's boy any pencils? — He has some. 


Have you much pepper? — ^I have but little. — ^Has the cook 
much beef? — ^He has but little beef, but he has a good deal of 
mutton. — ^How many oxen has the Grerman? — ^He has eight. — 
How many horses has he? — He has only four. — ^Who has a good 
many biscuits ? — Our sailors have a good many. — Have we many 
notes? — ^We have only a few. — How many notes have we? — ^We 
have only three pretty ones. — Have you too much butter ? — ^I have 
not enough. — ^Have our boys too many books?— They have too 
many. — ^Has oiir friend too much milk ? — He has only a little, 
but enough. — Who has a good deal of money ? — ^The peasants 


hrnvBU good deal. — Have they many gloves? — They have not 
any. — Has (he cook enough hutter ?— -He hJEis not enough. — Has 
he enough vinegar ? — He has enough.— Have you niuch soap ? — 
I have only a little. — ^Has the merchanjt much cloth ?— He has a 
good deal. — Who has a good deal of pepper ? — Our neighbour 
has a good deal.— Has our tailor many buttons ? — He has a good 
many. — ^Has the painter many gardens ?— He has not many. — 
How many gardens has .he? — ^He has but }wo.^— How many 
knives has the Gennan ? — He has three. — Has the captain any 
fine horses ?-— He has some fine ones, but his brother hits none. — 
Have we any jewels ? — ^We have a good many. — ^What jewels 
have we ? — ^We hitve gold jewels. — ^What candlesticks have our 
friends ? — ^They have silver candlesticks. — ^Have they gold rib- 
bans t — ^They have some 

Has the youth any good sticks?— -He has no good sticks, but 
some beautiful birds. — ^What chickens has our cook ? — ^He has 
9ome pretty chickens.-~How many has he ? — ^He has six.'i— Has the 
hatter any hats ? — ^He has a good many.-^Has the joiner much 
wood ? — ^He has not a great deal, bdt enough. — Have we the horses 
of the French or those of the Germans? — We have neither these 
nor those. — ^Whidi horses have ve ? — ^We-have our own. — ^Has 
the Turk my small combs ?— He has them not.— Who has them ? 
Your son has them. — Have our friends much sugar ? — They have 
little sugar, but much honey. — ^Who has our looking-glasses ?— 
The Italians have them. — Has the Frenchman this or that spoon ? 
-*He has neither this nor that. — ^Has he the mattrasses which we 
have ?— He has not those which we have, but those which his 
Metada have. — Is he ashamed ?— He is not ashamed but afraidt 

Lezhne Dedmaquartd. 

A few hooks. 

JAlcuni Uhri, 
Quaiche Uhro. 

Oftt. A. The nonq folloiNiiig quakht is always nsed in i\n slngunt. 
HaTe 7on a few bdoks ? } Ha ElU alcmd llbri 1 

' Afew. 
I have a few. 
Ton hare a few. 
He has a few. 

i Avete qMlche libm i 

AlcUni (pareccM). 
Ne ho alcuni (pareechi). 
Ne arete pareechi. 
Ne ha alcuni. 

IJiave but a few books. 

You have but a few books. 
H« has but a few sous. 
I have but a few. 
You have but a few. 
He has but a few. 

One or a sou. Phtr. sous. 
One — a franc. " francs. 
One — a crown. ** crowns. 

Another son. 
Some other souar. 

Hare you another horse 1 
1 have another. 

No oiher horse. 
I have no other horse. 
* I have no other. 

Haye you any other horses? 
I haye some others. 
f liaye no others^ 

r Non ho se non alcuni UbrL 
< Non ho se non pareechi librl 
( Ho soltanto alcuni UbrL 
Avete solamente alcuni UbrL 
Non ha se non alcuni soldi. 
Ne ho soltanto alcuni. 
Ne avete soiamente alcunL 
Ne ha soltanto alcuni. 

Un soldo. Plur. soldi. 
Un franco. " franclii. 
Uno scudo. " scudi. 


Un altro soldo. 
Alcuni altri soldi. 

Ha Ella un altro cayallo? 
Ne ho un altro. 

Non — aUro cavaUo, 
Non ho altro cavaUo. 
Non ne ho aitro. 
Ha EUa alcuni altri cayalllf 
Ne ho degU altri. 
Non ne ho altrL 



Tlie month. 
Tile t^lnme. 

n braccto {jfiwr. le bracda). 
*II cirore. 
II volume. 

What 4^f of the month is it 1 


< Claanti ne abblamo del i 
I A quaoti aiamo del meael 
C E il primo (Ne abbiamo nno). 
I Siamo al primo. 
( Ne abbiamo due. 
I Siamo al {or ai) doe. 
^ Ne abbiamo tre.' 
C Siamo al {or ai) tre. 
06*. B. The cardinal ntiftthers mnat be used In Italian when speaking of the 

lays of the month, though the ordinal are used in EngUsh, except Uprimot the 


It a the aecondj 
It is the third. 

It Is the elerenth. 

Ne abbiamo undid. 

♦Which volnme have youj 

dual volume ha Ella 1 

I have the fourth. 

.Ho 11 quarto. 



The first. 

n primo, 


11 secondo, 


— third. 


iterxi. ^ 

• — fourth. 

11 quarto, 

i quart!. 




— sixth. 

11 sesto, 


— seventh. 

11 settimo, 


— eighth. 

L' ottavo, 


— winth- 

11 nono. 


— tenth. 

n decimo, 

i decimi. 

— eleventh. 

L' nndecimo. 

. gllundecimi. 

— twentieth. 

B venteslmo, 


— r twen ty -first. 


1 ventesimi- 



— twenty-second. 

11 venteaimo- 

i ventesimi- 



— thhtleth. 

n trentesimo, 

i trentealmi 

— fortieth. 

11 quarantesimo, 

i quaranteilmL 



Have you the first or second bookl 

Ha Ella 11 pximo, 

il secondo Ubiof 

I have the third. 


Which volume have you? 

dual volume ha Ella 1 

I have the fiAh. 

Ho 11 quinto. 

> HenoefbiA the learners should write the date before their task. Ex. 
£Midra,ai{iior9i)qukidieidildUglionaUoiUte$^ Lon- 

doQ.lSth July, 1844. 



ne lemdning numenls are :— 















Twenty-three,* twenty-third. 







A ^ one hundred, 
A jr one thousand, 
1 tro hundred, 








two hundredth. 

Tliree hundred, 
Two thousand, 
A million, 
Two millions. 

The last. 

A tenth. 


A score. 

A thirtieth. 

three hundredths 
two thousandth, 

CardvuA Nvmberg. 

' Quindici. 


^ Dlepisette, or 
i Dldiaaette. 
{ Dieciotto, or 
i Diciotto. 
^ Diecinove, or 
I Dicianove. 

Venti, dkc. 

Vent' uno, Ac, 

Ventldue, Ac, 



Ordinal Numberg 

{ Decimo terzo, ot 
I Tredicesimo. 
c Decimo quarto, or 
i Quattordiceslmo. 
( Decimo quinto, or 
I Quindieesimo. 
( Decimo sesto, or 
I Sadiceaimo. 
) Decimo settlno. 

> Diciasettesimo 

> Decimottavo. 
{ Decimo nono. 

Ventesimo teno. 

Tren^ Ac. 

Quaranta, Ac. 








Ducento (da- 

Due miHioni. 
L' ultimo. 

Una decina or dlclna. 
Una Tentina. 









Doe millesimo. 

Qbo, C. From tfie above msy be seen that eaito is invariable ir the plun^ 
•nd mOU is in the plural changed into jnUa. 



Have jou many kniTes? — ^I have a few. — ^Have you many 
^«encils ? — ^I have only a few. — Has the painter^ friend many 
looking-glasses? — He has only a few.— ^Has your son a few sous? 
— He has a few. — Have you a few francs ? — We have a few. — 
How many francs have you ? — ^I have ten. — How many sous has 
the Spaniard ? — ^He has not many ; he has oi^jf five.-— Who has 
the beautiful glasses of the Italians ? — ^We have them. — ^Have the 
English many ships? — ^They have a good many. — Have the 
Italians many horses? — They have not many horses^ but a good 
RUiny asses. — What have the Oermans? — They have many 
crowns. — How many crowns have they? — ^They have eleven.— 
Have we the horses of the English or those of the Germans?— 
We have neither the former nor the latter. — Have we the urn* 
brellas of the Spaniards? — ^We have them not, but the Americans 
have them. — ^Have you much butter 9>— I have only a little, but 
Plough. — >Have the sailors the mattrasses which we have ? — ^They 
have Qot those which we have, but those which their captain has* 
— ^Has the Frenchman many francs ? — ^He has only a few, but 
he has enough.— Has your servant many sous? — ^He has no sous, 
but francs enough. 

Have the Russians pepper? — They have but little pepper, but 
a good deal of salt. — ^Have the Turks much wine? — ^They have 
not much wine, but a good deal of cofiee. — ^Who has a good deal 
of milk? — ^The Germans have a good deal. — ^Have you no other 
gun ? — I have no other. — ^Have we any other cheese ? — We have 
seme other. — ^Have I no other picture ?-*You have another. — ^Has 
our neighbour no other horse? — He has no other. — ^Has your 
brother no other friends? — ^He has some others. — Have the shoe- 
makers no other boots ? — ^They have no others.^— Have the tailors 
many coats ? — ^They have oqly a few ; they have only four.— 
How many gloves have you ? — ^I have only two. — Have you any 
other biscuits ? — ^I have no other. — ^How many corkscrews has 
the merchant ? — He has nine. — How many arms has this man ? 


— He has only one ; the other is of wood. — Wjiat heart has your 
son? — ^He has a good heart.— -Have you no other servant? — 
I have another. — ^Has your friend no other hirds ? — He has some 
others.-— How many other birds has he ?'— He has six others.— < 
How many gardens have you? — ^I have only one, but my friend 
has two of them. 


Which volume have you ? — ^I have the ' first. — Have you the 
second voligne of my book ? — I have it. — Have you the third or 
fourth book ? — ^I have neithei' the former nor the latter. — ^Have 
we the fifth or sixth volumes ?— We have the fifth, but we have 
not the sixth volumes. — Which volumes has your friend ? — He 
has \he seventh volumes. — ^What day of the month is it ? — ^It is 
the eighth. — Is it not the eleventh? — No, Sir, it is the tenth. — 
Who has our crowns ? — The Russians have them. — Have they 
our gold ? — They have it not. — Has the youth much money ? — 
He has not much money, but much courage. — Have you the 
nails of the carpenters or those of the joiners ? — I have neither 
those of the carpenters nor those of the joiners, but those of my 
merchants. — Have you this or that glove ? — ^I have neither this 
nor that. — Has your friend these or those notes ?— He has these, 
but not those. — Has the Italian a few crowns ? — ^He has a few. — 
Has he a few francs ? — He has five. — Have you another stick ? 
I have another. — ^What other stick have you ? — ^I have anothei 
iron stick. — Have you a few good candlesticks? — ^We have a 
few. — Has your boy another hat ? — ^He has another. — Have these 
men any vinegar ? — ^These men have none, but their friends have 
some. — ^Have the peasants any other bags? — ^They have no 
others.— Have they any other bread ?— They have some. 

' Leziane Decimaquintc^ 

Tlie tome (the Tolume). 
Have you the firat or second yolame 
of my book? 


I have both. 

Have you my book or my stick 1 

I hnre neither the one nor the other. 
The one and the other (plural). 

Has your brother my gloves or his 

He has both yours and his. 
Has he my books- or those of the 

He has neither the one nor the otl^er. 

THe Scotclmian/ 
The Irishman. 
The Dutchman. 

Stm, yet, some or any more. 

Some more wine. 

Some more money. 

Some more buttons. 
Have yon any more wine 1 
1 have some more wine. 
I have some more. 
Has he any more money 1 
He has some more. 
Have I any more books 1 
You have some more. 

n tomo (il Yolume). 
Ha EUa U primo, o 1 secondo tomo 

U vnoeV aUro (ambidue), or 

Ho 1* nno e 1' sltro. Ho ambidne. 
Ha Ella il mio Ubro, o H mio baa- 
tone 1 
Non ho nd 1* uno nd V altro. 

Ha il di Lei fratello i miei guanti, o 

Ha egU i miei. Ubrl, o quelli degU 

Non na gli unl nd gli altiL 

Lo Scozzese. 
L' Irlandese. 
L* Olandese. 

( Aheora, ) 

lAnche, \pi^<^P^ 
( Anco {per anco). 
r Ancora vino. 

< Ancora del vino (see note 1, 
C XI). 
e Ancoro danaro. 
I Ancora del danaro. 
c Ancora bottonl. 
( Ancora del bottonl. 

Ha EUa ancora vino 1 

Ho ancora vino. 

Ne ho ancora. 

Ha egll ancora danaro t 


Ho ancora libri 1 

EUa ne ha ancora. 



Not any more^ no more. 
I hsre no more bread. 
He haf no more money. 
Hare you any more butter 1 
I have no more. 
We have no more. 
Has he any more vinegar 1 
He has no more. 
We have no more hooka. 
We Jiave no more. 
He has no more dogs. 
He has no more. 

Not much more, not many more. 

Have you much more winel 
1 have not mnoh more. 
Have you many more hooka? 
I have not many more. 

One book more. 
One good book more. 
A few hooka more. 
Have you a few franca more 1 

I have a few more. 
Have I a few more loual 
You have a few more. 
We have a few more. 
They have a few more. 

Non ho piii pane. 

Non ha plii danaro. 

Ha Ella ancora del hnnol 

Non ne ho pih. 

Non ne abbiamo pih. 

Ha egli ancora aceto ? 

Non ne ha plft. 

Non abbianio pih Ubri. 

Non ne abbiamo piik. 

Non ha pih cani. 

Non ne ha piii. 

!Nonr-fiu moUo. 
Non — fiu moUi, 
Ha EUa ancora molto vino 1 
Non ne ho piA molto. 
Ha Ella ancora molti libr) ? 
Non ne ho pi& molti. 

Ancora un Ubro. 
Ancora un buon libro. 
Ancora alcuni llbrl (qualche libro).' 
Ha Ella ancora alcuni firanehl (qual- 
che franco)? 
Ne ho ancora alcuni. 
Ho ancora alcuni soldi ? 
EUa ne ha ancora alcuni. 
Ne abbiamo ancora alcunL 
Ke hanno ancora akuni. 



Which volume of his book have you ? — ^I have the first. — ^Ifow 
many volumes has this book ?•— It has two. — ^Have you my book 
or my brother's ?— I have both. — Has the foreigner my comb or 
my knife 1 — ^He has both. — Have you my bread or my cheese ? 
I have neither the one nor the other.-^Has the Dutchman my 
glass or that of my friend ? — ^He has neither the one nor the 
other. — ^Has the Irishman our horses or our chests?— He has 
both. — ^Has the Scotchman our boots or our waistcoats ? — ^He has 
neither the one nor the other. — What has he ? — ^He has his good 
iron guns. — Have the Dutch our ships or those of the Spaniards ? 


— ^Tbey have neither the one nor the other.; — ^Which ships have 
they 1 — ^They have tfieir own. — ^Have we any more hay ?— We 
have some more. — Has our memhant any more pepper?— rHe has 
some more. — ^Has our friend any more money ?— -He has not any 
more. — Has h& any more je^^ls ? — He has some more.«— Have 
you any more cofiee ?— We ^have no more cofl^, hut we have 
some more tea. — ^Has the Dutchman any more salt ?-^He has no 
more salt, hutjie has some more hutter. — Has the painter any 
more pictures ?— He has no more pictures, hut he has some more 
pencils. — ^Have the sailors any more biscuits 1 — ^They have not 
any more. — ^Have your sons any more books ? — ^They have not 
any more. — Has the young man any more friends ?— He has no 


Has oUr cook much more beef? — ^He has not much more.— 
Has he many more chickens ? — ^He has not many more. — ^Has 
the peasant much more milk ? — He has not much more milk, but 
he has a great deal more butter. — Have the French many more 
horses ?— They have not many more. — ^Have you much more 
oil ? — I have much more. — Have we many more looking-glasses? 
We have many more. — Have you one book more ? — ^I have one 
mo^e. — Have our neighbours one inore garden ? — They have one 
more. — ^Has our friend one umbrella more ? — ^He has no more.— 
Have the Scotch a few more books?-— They have a few more. — 
Has the tailor a few more buttons ?-^He has not any more.-^Has 
our carpenter a few more nails ? — He has no more nails, but he ' 
has a few more 8ticks.-r-Have the Spaniards a few more sous ?— - 
They have a few more. — ^Has the German aiew more osen ?— 
He has a few more.^Have you a few more francs?*-! have no 
more francs, but I have a few more crowns. — ^What more have 
you ? — ^We have a^ few more ships, and a few more good sailors. 
— Have I a little more money ? — ^You have a little more. — ^Have 
you any more courage ? — ^I have no more. — Have you much more 
vinegar ? — ^I have not much more, but my brother has a great 
deal more. 


Has he sugar enough ?— He has not enough. — ^Have we francs 
«noiq;h? — We have not enough. — Has the joiner wood enough ? 




—He has enough.-^Has be hammers enough ?— He has enough. 
—What hammers has he ? — He )ias iron and wooden hammers. 
— ^Have you rice enough ? — ^We haye not rice enough, but we 
have sugar enough. — ^Have you many more gloves ?— -I have not 
many more. — ^Has the Russian another ship I — He has another. 
—•Has he an^er bag ?— *He has no other. — What day of the 
month b it ? — ^It is the sixth. — ^How many friends have you ?r-I 
have but one good friend. — ^Has the peasant too much bread ? — 
He has not enough. — ^Has he much money ?— ^He has but little 
money, but enough hay. — Have we the cotton or the thread coats 
of the Americans ? — ^We have neither their cotton nor their thread 
coats. — ^Have we the gardens which they have ? — ^We have not 
those which they have^ but those which our neighbours have. — 
Have you any more hooey ? — ^I have no more.— Have you any 
more oxen ?— «I have not any more. 

Lezime Dedmasesta. 


Several mexu 
Several childreiT. 
Several knivea. 

The father. 

The child. 

The ink. 

The inkstand. 

The cloak. 
The cake (the paatry the pie). 
The ptnall cake. 
The macaroni. 
The paatry-oook. 

J Diversi (moUifparecchi). 
I Vara. 

Diversi uomlni. 

Diversi fanciuUi (bambini). . 

Vazii colteUl. 

II padre. 

II fanciuUo (U bambino). 

L' inchiostro. 


II maniello (il paatrano). 

II pasticcio. 

II pasticcino. 

1 maccheroni. 

D pasticciere. 




As much* 
As many, 

As many — as. 

Aa mnch bread aa wine. 
Aa many men aa ehildien. 



Tanto paae qnanco vino (che ar 

come vino). 
Tanti uomini quanti fimciolli (oome 

or che fandttlli). ' 

Have you aa much gold aa ailver 1 
I have aa much of thia aa of that. \ 
I have aa mnch of the latter aa of ( 

tlia£mner. ) 

I have aa much of the one aa of the 

Here yon aa many boots aa handker- 

I have aa many of these aa of those. 
I have 88 many of the former 

the latter. 
I have aa many of the one aa of the 


those. ^ 

' aa of ( 

Quite (or just), as much, as 
I have quite aa'mnch of thia aa of 

Quite aa much of the one aa of the 

Q,oite aa much of theae aa of those. 

Quite aa many of the one aa of the 

An enemy, enemiea. 
My dear fHend. 


The heart. 

Ha EUa tanto oro qnanto argento 1 
Ho tanto di qneato qnanto di qnello. 

Ho tanlo deU* nno qnanCo del- 

Ha Ella tanU stivall qnanti &iso- 


Ho tanto di qneati qnanto dl qnsUL 

Ho tanto de^ nnl qnanto d«gll 


AUrettamoj aUrettanU. 

Ho altiettanto di qoesto qnanti di 

Altrettanto dell' nno qnanto dal- 

1* altro. 
Altrettanto di queati quanto di 

Altrettanto degU nni qointi degii 

Un nemico, nemid. 

Mio caro amlco (yocative). 


II cuore. 

Obi. A. Words in the singular, having one of the liquid conaonantSi I, m, 
% r, before their final vowel, may loae it (except before words beginning with 


1 Though ehe and eovru are aometlmes used as the correlatives of taniOf it is 
only tolerated, and none of the great writera, or indeed no Italiana who speak 
Ihdr language correctly, uae any dkil^ but quanio^ ^uoiiM, aa the oorrelatlveaof 



• followed by a conionant). The vowels aiter / and r, however, are ofkener 

dropped than those after m and i 
The linen thread. 
The faithful hearu 

Your welfare. 
My opinion. 

l\ja diJino (instead of /2o). 

11 euor (or por) fedele (instead of 

euore or core). 
II bm vostro (Instead Of bttu), 
U parer mio (instead ofpartre^^) 

More (a comparative adverb). 
More bread. 
'More men. 
More bread than wine. 
More knives than sticks. 
More of this than of that. 
More of the one than of the other. 
More of these than of those. 
More of the ones than of the others. 
I hftve more of your sugar than of 

He has mora of our books tisan of his 


Piii pane. 
Piii uomini. 

Piii pane che vino. 
Piik coltelli che bastoni. 
Piii di questo che di qnello. 
Piil dell' uno che deU* altro. 
Piti di questi che di quelli. 
Piii degU uni che degli altri. 
Ho piii del vostro zucchero cbe del 

EgU ha pih del nostri libri che M 


ObM. B. Q^anto^ the, and come, ere employed for the comparative of 
equality, but du only for the comparative of superiority and minority. 

Lessy fewer. 
Less wine than bread. 
Less knives than sticks. 


Meno vino che pane. 
Meno coltelli che baatoni. 

Leas than L | Meno di me. 

Obf. jC. After menOf than is rendered by di before a pronoun. Ex. 
Less than he. Meno di lui. 

Less than we. 
Leas than you. 
Less than they. 

As they. 

Than they. 

Aff much as you. 
As much as he. 
As diuch as they. 

Meno di noi. 

Meno di vol (di Le^. 

Meno di loro. 


Quanto loro. 
c Di loro. 
I Che loro. 
I Tanto qnanto Lei, EUa, vol (Lovo). 
} Tanto quanto lui. 
Tanto quanto loro. 

> But as soon as the word following begins with • followed by a consonant, 
there is no elision. We say : U wU splendcnU^ the splendid sun ; un bene t^ror 
prjmaric^ an extraordinary benefit ; tin parere ttranOf a strange opiidon, and 
not il nl wpUndetUtf un hen Btraordmario^ un parer atrano. 


Have you a horse? — ^I have several. — ^Has he several coats ? 
—He has only one. — Who has several looking-glasses ? — ^My 
brother has several. — What lookmg-glasses has he? — ^He has 
beautiful kx>king.glasses. — ^Who has good petty-patties ? — Several 
pastry-cooks have some. — Has your brother a child ? — ^He has 
several. — ^Have you as much coffee as tea ? — ^I have as much of 
the one as of the other. — Has this n^an a son ? — He has several. 
— ^How many sons has he ? — He has four. — How many children 
have our friends ? — They have many : they have ten. — ^Have we 
as much bread as butter ? — ^You have as much of the one as of 
the other. — ^Has this man as many friends as enemies ? — ^He has 
as many of the one as of the other. — Have we as many spoons as 
knives ? — ^We have as many of the one as of the other. — ^Has 
your father as much gold as silver? — ^He has more of the latter 
than of the former. — ^Has the captain as many sailors as ships ? 
— ^He has more of the latter than of the former. — ^He has more of 
the one than of the other. 

Have you as many guns as I ? — I have as many. — ^Has the 
foreigner as much courage as we ?^— He has quite as much.— 
Have we as much good as bad coffee ? — ^We have as much of the 
one as of the other .^-Have our neighbours as much cheese as 
milk ? — ^They have more of the latter than of the former. — Have 
your sons as many petty-patties as books ? — ^They have more oi 
the latter than of the former ; more of the one than of the other. 
— ^How many noses has the man ? — He has but one. — How many 
feet has he ? — He has several. — ^How many cloaks have you ? — 
I have but one, but my father has more than I ; he has five. — 
Have my children as much courage as yours? — ^Yours have 
more than mine. — ^Have I as much money as you ? — ^You have 
iess than I. — ^Have you as many books as I ? — ^I have less than 
you.— Have I as many enemies as your father ? — ^You have fewer 
than he. — Have the Russians as many children as we ? — We 
have fewer than they. — ^Have the French as many ships as we ? 


They have fewer than we. — Have we as many jewels as they 1 
— We have fewer than they. — Have we fewer clothes than the 
children of our friends ? — ^We have fewer than they. 


Who has fewer friends than we ?— Nobody has fewer — Have 
you as much of your wine as of mine ? — ^I have as much of yours 
as of mine. — Have I as many of your books as of mine l — You 
have fewer of mine than of yours. — Has the Turk as much of 
your money as of his own ? — ^He has less of his own than of ours. 
— Has your baker less bread than money ? — ^He has less of the 
latter than of the former. — ^Has our merchant fewer dogs than 
horses ? — He has fewer of the latter than of the former ; fewer 
of the one t)ian of the other. — ^Have your servants more sticks 
tlian spoons ? — They have more of the latter than of the former. 
— ^Has our cook as much butter as beef? — He has as much of the 
one as of the other. — Has he as many chickens as birds.?— He 
has tnore of the latter than of the former. 


Has the carpenter as many sticks as nails ? — ^He has as many 
of these as of those. — ^Have you more biscuits than glasses ? — ^I 
have more of the latter than of the former.-r-^Has our friend more 
sugar than money ?— He has not so much of the latter as of the 
former. — Has he more gloves than umbrellas ? — ^He has not so 
many of the latter as of the former. — ^Who has more soap than- 1 ? 
— My son has more.-^Who has more pencils than he? — ^The 
painter has more. — ^Has he as many horses as I ? — He has not so 
many horses as you, but he has more pictures. — ^Has the mer- 
chant fewer oxen than we ? — ^He has fewer oxen than we, and we 
have less com than he.— Have you another note ?-— I have ano- 
ther. — ^Has your son one more inkstand ? — ^He has several more. 
— Have the Dutch as many gardens as we ? — ^We have fewer 
than they. — ^We have less bread and less butter than they. — We 
have but little money, but enough bread, beef, cheese, and wine« 
—•Have you as much courage as our neighbour's son ? — I have 
just as much. — Has the youth as many notes as we ? — ^He has 
just as many. 

Leziane Dedmctsettima. 

OP THE iNPmmvE. 

Tliere tie in Italian thne Conjugations, which are distinguished by the tennl 
nation of the Present of the Infinidve, viz. 

1. The first has iu infinitive terminated in abi, as :— 

parlofie, to spealf ; 

comprare^ to buy: 

tagUare, to cut. 

Z, The second in nfe, as >- 

teflierny tofiBar; 

peidere, to lose ; 

credere, to beliere. 

3. The third in in, as:-^ 

■entire, to feel ; 

fintre^ to finish; 

udtre, to hear. 

Each yerb we shall give hereafter wUl harvo the number of the cteas to 
which it belongs marked after it. The verbs marked with an asterisk (*) are 







A mind, a wish. 

To work. 
To speak. 
Have yon a mind to work 1 

I have a mind to work. 

He has not the courage to speak. 

Panra, timore. 



Ragione, diritto. 



Deslderio or voglia. 

All these words re- 
quire the prepo- 
sition Di, o( after 
them, when fbl* 
lowed by any in- 
finitive yerb. Ex. 

Are you afraid to apeakl 
I am ashamed to speak. 

• To cut. 
To cut it 

Lavorare 1. 

Parlare 1. 

Ha Ella deslderio o voglia di lavo* 

Ho deslderio o voglia di lavorare. 
Egli non ha coraggio di parlare. 

Ha Ella paura di parlare? 
Ho vergogna di parlare. 

Tagliare 1. 



Obt, In Italian, as in English, the accusative of the personal pronoutaB and 
theiehitiTe tu are placed after the Infinitive ; but in Italian the pronoon is 
joined to the verb in the Infinitive (which loses its final vowel), the present par- 
ticiple, and in the imperative (of which more hereafter). Ex. 

To cut them. i TagUarJk 

To cut some. I TagUame. 

Have you time to cut the bread? 
I have time to cut it. 
Has he a mind to cut trees 1 
He has a mind to cut some. 

To buy. 
To bay some more. 
To buy one. 
• To buy two. 

To buy one more. 
To buy two more. 

Ha Ella tempo di tagliare 11 panel 
Ho tempo di tagUarHo. 
Ha egli desiderio dl tagUare albert 1 
Ha desiderio di tagliarne. . 

Comprare {comperare) 1* 
Comprame ancora. 
Comprame uno. 
Comprame due. 

CompranM ancora uno. 
Comprame ancora due 

To break. 
To pick up. 

To m^d, to repair. 
To look for, to seek. 

Rompere* 2. 
c Raccorre* (raccogUere*) 2. 
( Raccattare 1. 
r Accommodare 1. 
< Raccommodaie 1. 
i Assettare I. 

Gercare 1. 

Have you a mind to buy one more 
. horse 1 I 

I have a mind to buy one more. { 


Have you a mind to buy some books'? 
I have a mind to buy some, but I have 

no money. 
Are you afraid to break the glasses 1 

I am afraid to break them. 

Has he time to worki i 

He has time, but no mind to work. 

Am I right in buying a horse 1 
Ton toe Bot wrong in buying one. 

Ha Ella desiderio di compraie an- 
cora nn cavallo 7 

Ho desiderio di comprame ancora 

Ha Ella desiderio di comprare libri? 

Tin desiderio dl comprame, ma non 
ho danaro. 

Ha Ella paura* di rompare i bio 

Ho paura di romper^i 

Ha egli tempo di lavorare7 

Ha tempo, ma non ha vogUa dl 

Ho io ngione di comprare un 

Ella non ha torto dl < 


Have you still a mind to buy my friend's horse ? — ^I have still 
a mind to buy it, but I have no more money. — Have you time to 
A'ork ? — I have time, but no mind to work. — ^Has your brother 
time to cut some sticks ? — ^He has time to cut some.— rHas he a 
mind to cut 'some bread ? — ^He has a mind to cut spme, but he 
has no knife. — ^Have you time to cut some cheese ? — ^I have time 
to cut some. — ^Has iie a desire to cut the tree ? — He has a desire 
to cut it, but he has no time. — ^Has the tailor time to cut the 
cloth ? — ^He has time to cut it. — ^Have I time^to put the trees ? — 
You have time to cut them. — Has the painter a mind to buy a 
horse ? — ^He has a mind to buy two. — Has your captain time to 
speak ? — He has time, but no desire to apeak. — Are you afmid 
to speak ? — I am not afraid, but I am ashamed to speak. — ^Am I 
right in buying a gun ? — ^You are right in buying one. — la your 
friend right in buying a great ox ?— He is wrong in buying one. 
«— Am I right in buying little oxen ?-^You are right in buying 

Have you a desire to speak t — ^I have a desire, but I have not 
the courage to speak. — ^Have you the courage to cut your arm ? 
— ^I have, not the courage to cut it.— Am I right in speaking ? — 
You are not wrong in speaking, but you are wrong in cutting my 
trees. — Has the son of your friend a desire to buy one more bird ? 
— He has a desire to buy one more. — Have you a desire to buy 
a few more horses ? — ^We have a desire to buy a few more, but 
we have no more money. — ^What has our tailor a mind to mend ? 
— He has a mind to mend our old clothes. — Has the shoemaker 
time to mend our boots ? — He has time, but he has no mind to 
mend them. — ^Who has a mind to mend our hats ? — ^The hatter 
has a mind to mend them. — ^Are you afraid to look for my horse ? 
— ^I am not afraid, but I have no time to look for it. — What have 
you a mind to buy ? — ^We have a mind to buy something gckxi, 
and our neighbours have a mind to buy something beautiful .«— 
Are their children afraid to pick up some nails 1 — ^They are not 


afraid to piok up some. — Hbyb you a mind to break my jewel 1 
— I have a mind to pick it up, but not to break it. — ^Am I wrong 
in picking up your gloves? — ^You are not wrong in picking them 
upi but you, are wrong in cutting them. • 


Have you the courage to break these glasses ? — ^I have the 
courage, but I have no mind to break them. — Who has a mind to 
break our looking-glass ? — Our enemy has a mind to break it.— • 
Have the foreigners a mind to break our guns ? — ^They have a 
mind, but they have not the courage to break them. — Have you 
a mind to break the captain's ship.? — I have a mind, but I am 
afraid to break it. — Who has a mind to buy my beautiful dc^ ? 
— Nobody has a mind to buy it. — Have you a desire to buy my 
bojjutiful trunks, or those of the Frenchman? — ^I have a desire to 
buy yours, and not those of the Frenchman. — Which books has 
the Englishman a mind to buy ? — He has a ' mind to buy that 
which you have, that which your son has, and that which mine 
has. — Which gloves have you a mind tp seek ? — I have a mind 
to seek yours, mine, and our children's. . 


Which looking-glasses have the enemies a desire to break ? — 
They have a desire to break those which you have, those which 
f have, and those which our children and our friends have. — ^Has 
your father a desire to buy these or those petty-patties ? — ^He has 
a mind to buy these. — Am I right in picking up your notes ? — 
You are right in picking them up. — Is the Italian right in seeking 
your handkerchief? — He is wrong in seeking it. — ^Have you a 
mind to buy another ship ? — I have a mind to buy another. — Has 
our enemy a mind to buy one ship more ? — ^He has a mind to buy 
several more, but he is afraid to buy some. — Have you two 
horses ? — ^I have only one, but I have a wish to buy one more. 


Lezione DedmouAtana. 

To make. 
To do. 

To he wilUng. 
To wish: 

Fare^ 1. 


I Voler^ 2. {denderare 1.) 


Are you wiiliug 1 

>Vuol£]la1 (^ 

Do you wish? 


I win, I am wilUng, I wish. 

Voglio {or vo') 

WiU he? is he wilUng? does be wieh? 


He WiU, he is wUUng, he wishes. 

Egli Yuole. 

We will, we are willing, we wish. 



They wlU, they are willing, they wish. 


Ihon wilt, thou art willing^ thou 




(Volete i; 

Do you wish to make my fire? 

I am willing to make it. 

I do not wish to make it. 

Does he wish to buy your horse 1 

Hb wishes to buy it. 

He does not wish to buy it. 

Vuoi Ella fare U mio fuooo 1 

Voglio farjo. 

Non Voglio faxlo, 

Vuoi egli comprare U di Lei caTallo I 

Egli vuoi comprarfo. 

Egli non Yuol comprarto. 

To bum. 

To warm. 
To tear. 

My bed. 

< Brudare 1. 
( Abbruciare 1. 
i Scaldare 1. 
( Riscaldare 1. 
Stracdaie 1. 

11 mio letto. 


With or ai the house of. 
To or to the house of. 
To he. 
To be with the man or at the man's 

To go to the man or to the man's 

To be with his (one's) friend, or at his 

(one's) friend's house. 
To go to my father, or to my lather's 

Andare* 1. 

> In casa di^ or da. 

Essere* 2. 
i Essere in casa dell' nomo. 
( Essere dall' uomo. 
i Andare in casa dell' uomo. 
c Andare dair uomo. 
( Essere in casa del suo amlco 
( Essere dal suo amlco. 
i Andare da mio padre. 
( Andare in casa di mio padss. 

At home. 

To be at home. 
To go home. 

To be with me, 
To go to me, 
To be with him, her. 
To go to him, her, 
To be with us, 
To go to us^ 

To bo with you, 

In casa. 


■ at my house. 

- to my house. 

- St his house. 

— to his house.. 

— at our house. 

— to our house. 

— at your house. 

— to your house. ■ 

casa sua. 
Essere in casa. 
Andare a casa. 

Fssere in casa mia ) ^ 


To go to you. 

To be with them, — at their house. 
To go to them, ^ to their house. 

To be with some one, — at som^ one's 

To go to some one, -^ to some one's 


Andare a casa mia 
Essere in casa sua ) da lul, dft M 
Andare a casa sua > (fern.) 
Essere In casa nostra Jd^nol.* 
Andare a casa nostra > 
!?.•»« I in «*a sua, di t.ei^ 
^"*^$« "vostra.divoildaLel. 
^„d^ > a casa sua, di Lei f da Tol. 

. S""vo8tra,dlToiJ 
Essere in casa loro l^i^g^ 
Andare a casa lore i 

Essere in casa J 1 '"*^; 

C dl qualcuBO. 

Andare a casa 

To be with no one, — at no one's i f^^Q essere. 
house. i 


/-in casa aim 

J da nessuno. 

I in casa di aJ 



in casa dl nessuno. 


To go to no on^ 
house. ' 

— to no one's 

r a casa di nessuno. 
Non andare 7 da alcuno. 

( a casa di alcuno. 

1 > We cannot say in Italian da m«, da noi, when we speak of ourselves. 

2 > Ex. Voglio andare a cata viia (not da me), I wish to go home. But : Aflo 
fraidh vuol vmire da me. My brother wishes to come to me ; VcgUamo andara 
a eaaa nostra (no^ da not), We will go home. But : Voglumo, i Signori^ venire 
danoi? OentleuMn, will you come to us 1 



Atwhogekmue? Wiihwhom? 
To whose house ? To whom f 

To whom (or to whose houae) do you 

wish to go 7 
I wish to go to no one (to no. one's 

At whose bouse (with whom) is your 

He is at ours (with us). 
Is be at home 1 
H^ is not at home. 

To drink. 

i Da chi? in easa di chi ? 

Da chi Yuol Ella andare 1 

Non vos^o andare a casa di nearano. 


Egli i in casa nostra. 
£i egli in casa7 
. Non dine 


E Ella 7 (SieteT0i7) 


Stance, Usso. 

Are you tired 7 

fe: Ella 8tanca7 (Siete lasso 7) 

lam tired. 

Sono stance. 

I am not tired. 



He is. 


We are. 

Noi siamo. 

You are. 

Yoi siete. 

They are. 


Eglino aeileno sono. 

Thou art. 


JBfire* or leoertf^ 2. 

Doet ? ovef onde f donde f 

What do you ifrish to do 7 

What does your brother wish to do 7 

Is. your father at homel 
Whal wUI the Germans buy 7 
They will buy something good. 

They win buy nothing. 

Do they ^ab to buy a book7 

They wish to buy one. 

Ho yotfwish to drink any tiling 7 

! do not wSah to drink any thing. 

Che vuol Ella Iare7 o che Toleto vol 

Che YuoI fare il dl Lei o suo fratello 1 

E in casa vostro padre 7 

Che vogUono comprare i Tedeschi7 

Vogliono comprare qualche cosa di 

Non TOgUono comprare niente. 
Vogliono eglino comprare nn.libTo7 
Yogllono compram« uno. 
Yuoi EUa here qualche cosa 7 
NoiP voglio beyer niente. 



Do you wish to work ?— I am willing to work, but I am tirod* 
— ^Do you wish to break my glasses ? — ^I do not wish to break 
them — ^Are you willing to look for my son ? — ^I am willing to look 
for. him. — What do you wish to pick up I— I wish to pick up that 
crown and that franc. — ^Do you wish to pick up this or that sou ? 
— ^I wish to pick up both. — ^Does your neighbour wish to buy 
these or those combs ? — He wishes to buy both these and jthose. 
— Does that man wish to cut your foot ? — ^He ddes- not wish to 
out mine, but his own.-^Does the painter wish to bum some oil ? 
— He wishes to bum some. — ^What does the shoemaker wish to 
mend ? — ^He wishes to mend our old boots. — ^Does the tailor wish 
to mend any thing ? — ^He wish^ to mend some waistcoats.— la 
our enemy willing to bum his ship ? — ^He is not willing to bum 
his own, but ours. — ^Do you wish to do any thing ? — I do not wish 
to do any thing. — ^What do you wish to do ? — ^We wish to warm 
our tea and our father's coffee.*— Do you wish to warm my 
brother's broth ?-<^I am willing to warm it. — ^Is your servant will- 
ing to make my fire ? — ^He is willing to make it, but he has no 

' Do you wish to speak ? — I do wish to speak. — ^Is your son wilU 
ing to study ? — He is not willing to study. — ^What does he wish 
to do ? — He wishes to drink some wine. — ^Do you wish to buy any 
thing ? — I wbhto buy something. — ^What do you wish to buy t— 
I wish to buy some jewels. — ^Are you willing to mend my hand- 
kerchief? — ^I am willing to mend it. — Who will mend our son's 
clothes ? — We will mend them. — Does the Russian wish to buy 
this or that picture ? — ^He will buy neither this nor that. — ^What 
does he wish to buy ? — ^He wishes to buy some ships.-^Which 
looking-glasses does the Englishman wish to buy ?-^He wishes to 
buy those which the French have, and those which the Italians 
have. — ^Does your father wish to look for his umbrella or for his 
slick ? — ^He wishes to look for both. — ^Do you wish to drink some 
wine ? — ^I wish to drink some, but I have not any. — ^Does the 
wUor wish to drink some milk ?— He does not wish to drink any ; 


he is not thirsty.— -What does the captain wish to drink ? — ^He 
does not wbh to drink any thing. — What does the hatter wish to 
make ? — ^He wishes. to make some hats. — ^Does the carpenter wish 
to make any thing ? — He wbhes to make a large ship. — Do you 
wish to buy a bird ? — ^I wish to buy several. 

Does the Turk wish to buy more guns than knives ? — ^He wishes 
to buy more of the latter than of the former. — How many cork, 
screws does your servant .wish to buy ? — ^He wishes to buy three. 
— Do you wish to buy many corks ? — We wish to buy only a 
few, but our children wish to buy a good many. — Will your 
children seek the gloves that we have ? — ^They will not seek those 
that you have, but those which my father has. — ^Does any one 
wish to tear your coat ? — ^No one Wishes to tear it.-^Who wishes 
to tear my books? — ^Your children wish to tear them. — With 
whom is our father ? — He is at his friend's.— To whom do you 
wish to go ? — ^I wish to go to you. — Will you go to my house ?— 
I will not go to yours, but to my brother's.— Does your father 
wish to go to his friend^s ? — ^He does not wish to go tp his friend's, 
but to his neighbour's. — ^At whose house is your son ? — ^He is at 
our house. — Will you look for our hats, or for those of the Dutch? 
— I will look for neither yours, nor for those of the Dutch, but I 
will look for mine and for those of my good friends. 

"^m I right in warming your broth ? — ^You are right in warm- 
ing it. — ^Is my servant right in warming your bed ? — ^He is wrong 
in warming it. — Is he afraid to tear your coat ? — He is not afraid 
to tear it, but to bum it. — ^Do your children wish to go to our 
friends? — They do not wish to go to your friends, but to ours.— 
Are your children at home? — They are not at home, but at their 
neighbours'. — ^Is the captain at home ? — He is not at home, but 
at his brothers'. — ^Is the foreigner at our brother's? — He is not at 
our brother's, but at our father's. — At whose house is the English- 
man?— He is at yours. — ^Is the Aknerican at our house 1 — He is 
not at our house, but at his friend's. — With whom is the Italian ? 
—He is with nobody ; he is at home. — ^Do you wish to go home ? 
—I do not wish to go home ; I wish to go to the son of my neigh- 


bour^x— Is your father at home ? — ^No, Sir, he is not at home.— 
With whom is he ?-^Ha is with the good friends of our old 
neighbour. — Will you go to any one's house ? — ^I will go to no 
one's house. 

Where is your son ? — ^He is at home. — What will he do at 
home? — He wishes to drink some good wine. — ^Is your brother 
at home ? — ^He is not at home ; he is at the foreigner's. — ^What 
do you wish to drink ?-*-! wish to drink some milk.-^What will 
the Grerman do at home ? — ^He will werk, and drink some good 
wine.— What have you at home ?— I have nothing at home. — Hits 
the merchant a desire to buy as much sugar as tea ? — He wishes 
to buy as much of the one as of the other. — Are you tired ? — ^I 
am not tired. — ^Who is tired ? — My brother is tired. — ^Has the 
Spaniard a mind to buy as many horses as asses ? — ^He wishes 
to buy more of the latter than of the former .-r-Do you wish to 
drink any thing ?— I do not wish to drink any thing. — How many 
chickens does the cook wish to buy ? — ^He wishes to buy four.— » 
Do the French wish to buy any thing ? — ^They do not wish to buy 
any thing. — ^Does the Spaniaurd .wish to buy any thing ? — ^He 
wishes to buy something, but he has no money. — ^Do you wish to 
go (venire) to our brothers' ? — I do not wish to go to their house, 
but to their children's. — Is the Scotchman at any body's house ? 
— ^He is at nobody's. — ^Where is he? — ^He is at his own house. 

Lezione decimanona. 

Where? WhUher? Where tof 

There or (AitAer, to it, at it, in it. 
To go thither . 

kOve? Dove? 
lOnde? Dondef 

VioT ci,^ 

Afidarviy andard, o andart «d. 

' When not united to the verb, then is expressed by in, Id, ft. 



Ok. The tebtlTe or local adverlM H andviara Joined to tho vero which kMea 
its final TOweL 

To he there. \ Esservi^ eeserd, ad essere Id. 

hioiiyU there or thUher. 
Them there, or thither. 

To iakef to carry. 
To send. 

To leadj to take. 
To conduct. 

3b take U there, or thUher. 

Him (object of the verb). 
Them ( — ). 

Him there, or ihUher. 
To aend him thither. 

lb tako him thither. 

Them there, or thOher. 
Some of it (here, or ihxiher. 

To carry them thither. 

To caiTj aome thllher 

Win yos aend him to my fittoerl 
I win aend bim thither, or to himl 

The phyridan. 

Ce h, ve h. 
Ce U, ve U. 

Portare 1. 

hmare 1. Mandare 1. ^S^ 

Menare 1. 

{ Portarceh. 
c Portaroelo. 


Ce lo, ve lo. 
C Condnrrelo. 

Ceh {or gV). VeK {or gU). 

Vene, eene. 
. Portaroeli, portarrelL 
Portarcene, portarrone. 

rVnol EUa inTlarlo a caaa di mio 
< padrel 

C Yuol EUamandarlo da o a miopadrpi 
r Yoglio InTianrelo. 
J Yoglio inTiarodo. 
] Yo^o mandanralo. 
^ Voglio mandarcelo 

II medico. 
Venire* 8. 






Some where or tohiiherf any where 

or whither. 

No where, not any where. 

Do you wish to go any where 1 

( wish to go some where. 

I do not wish to go any where. 


Domanl. • 


In qualehe htog^^ 

In nesaun hugo. 

Vuol Ella andare inqualclie laogol 
Voglio andare in qualche luogo. 
Non voglio andare in nenun laogo 

At what o'clock 1 
At one o'clock. 
At two o'clock. 


The quarter. 

At half-past one. 

At a quarter past one. 
At a quarter past two. 
At a quarter to one. 
At twelve o'clock. 

At twelve o'clock at night (midnight). 

Scrivere* 2. 
Ache oral 
Al tocco. A un' ora. 
Alle due. A due ore. 

Mezzo ; /enimine, Mezza. 
U quarto. 

< Al tocco e mezzo. 
c All' una e mezzo. 

< Al tocco e un quarto. 
€ Air una e nn quarto. 

Alle due e un quarto. 
( Al tocco meno nn quarto. 
c Air una meno un quarto. 

A toezzo giomo. Al vfriggfo 

A mezza notte. 



>• we wish to go home ? — I wish to go thither. — ^Does your 
ton wish to go to my house ? — He wishes to go there. — ^Is your 
brothor at home ? — He is there (EgU c' i or egli o' i). — ^Whither 
do you wish to go ? — I wish to go home. — ^Do your children wish 
to go to my house ? — ^They do not wish to go there. — ^To whom 
will you take that note ? — ^I will take it to my neighbour. — ^Will 
your servant take my note to your father's? — ^He will take it 
there. — ^Will your brother carry my guns to the Russian's? — 
He will carry them thither, — ^To whom do our enemies wish to 
carry our guns ?— They wish to carry tjiem to the Turks.— 

ihkbtbbnth lbsson. 7& 

Whither will the ahoemaker earry my. boots? — ^He will carry 
them to your house. — ^Will he carry them home ? — ^He will not 
carry them thither. — ^Will you come to me ? — ^I will not come.— 
Whither do you wish to go ? — ^I wish to go to the good English.— ^ 
Will the good Italians go to our house ?-^They will not go thither. 
— ^Whither do they wish to go ?— They will go no whero 

Will you take your son to my house ? — ^I will not take him to 
your house, but to the captain's, — ^When will you take him to the 
captain's ? — ^I will take him there to-morrow. — ^Do you wish to 
take my children to the physician ? — ^I will take them thither.-^ 
When will you take them thither ? — ^I will take them thither to- 
day. — ^At what o'clock will you take them thither ? — ^At half-past 
two.— When will you send your servant to the physician? — ^I 
will send him thereto-day. — ^At what o'clock?— At a quarter- 
past ten. — Will you go any where ? — ^I will go some where.— 
Whither will you go ? — ^I will go to the Scotchman. — Will the 
Irishman come to you ? — He will come to me. — ^Will your son go 
to any one ? — ^He will go to some one. — ^To whom does he wish 
to go ? — ^He wishes to go to his friends. — ^Wili the Spaniards go 
any wher^ — ^They will go no where.— Will our friend go to 
any one ? — ^He will go tp no one. 

When will you take your youth to the painter's ? — ^I will take 
him thither to-day. — ^Whither will he carry these birds?— He 
will carry them no where.r— Wilf you take the physician to this 
man ? — ^I will take him there.— When will the physician go to 
your brother? — ^He will go there to-day. — ^Will you send a 
servant to me ? — ^I will send one.— Will you send a child to the 
painter's?- I will send one thither.— With whom is the captain ?— « 
He is with nobody.— Has your brother time to come to vof 
house ? — ^He has no time to come there. — ^Will the Frenchman 
write one more note ? — ^He will write one more.— Has your friend 
a mind to write as many notes as I ?— He has a mind to write 
quite as many. — ^To whose house does be wish to send them ?— 
He will send them to his friends.- Who wishes to write litUe 



notes }«»The young man wishes to write some.— Do you wish to 
earry many books to my father's ?-— I will (xily carry a few. 

Will you send one more trunk to our friend's ?— I will send 
several more there. — How many more hats does the hatter wish 
to send ? — He wishes to send six more. — Will the tailor send as 
many boots as the shoemaker ? — ^He will send less. — ^Has your 
son the courage to go to the captain's t — ^He has the courage to 
go there, but he has no time. — Do you wish to buy as many dogs 
as horses ? — ^I will buy more of the latter than of the fi>rmer.— 
At what o'clock do you wish to send your senranUto the Dutch- 
man's? — I will send him thither at a quarter to six. — ^At what 
o'clock is your father at home ? — He is at home at twelve o'clock. 
— ^At what o'clock does your friend wish to write his notes ? — ^He 
will write them at midnight.—^Are you afraid to go to the cap. 
tain's ? — I am not afraid, but ashamed to go there. 

Lezione veniesima. 

TOf meaning m order to. 
Have ytm money to buy bread 1 

I have some to buy aome. 

Will you go to your brother in order to 

f have no time to go there to aee him. 

Has your brother a knife to cut hU 

Hs has none to eat it. 


Ha Ella danaro per coroprara del 

Ne ho per comprame. 
y uole EUa andaie dal di LelfrateUo 

Non ho tempo di andarvl {fi an- 

darvl) pervederio. 
Ha un oolteUo U di Lei fratallo pel 

tagUare U suo pane 1 
Non ne ha per tagliailo. 



To sweep. 

To eat. 
To kin. 

To be able {can)» 
Can you ? or are you ablel 
I can, or I am able. 
I cannot, I am no^ al !e. 
Can he 7 or is he abit 1 
He can, or he is able. 
He cannot, he is unable. 
We can, we are able. 
YoQ can, you are able. 
They can, they are able. 

Thou canst, art able. 

(direct object or accusative). 

(direct object or accusative). 

{ Scopare 1. 
( Spazxare 1. 

Mangiare 1. 

AmmoMzare 1. Ucddere* 2. 

Salare 1. (Metterd^ in sale). 

Potere* 2. 
Pud Ella? (potete?) 
Non posso. 
Egllpud. . 
Non pud. 
Potete (pud). 
PoBsono (ponno). 




To see. 

Vedere* 2. 

To see me. 


To see him. 


To see the man. 

Vedere V uomo. 

To km him. 



( Sing. Al, alio, aJT. ) {&& 

To the or at the. 

\ Plto. Ai (a 


( agV. 

) IX.) 

Singular. PhtraL 



To the friend. To the friends. 

Air amico. 

Agli amid. 

To the man. To the men. 

All' uomo. 

Agli uomini. 

To the captain. To the captains. 

Al capltano. 

Ai capitani. 

To the coat. To the coats. 

All' abito. 

AgU abiti. 

To the book. To the books. 


Ai Ubri. 

To the Englishman. To the English. 

Alt' Inglese. 

Afi^' Inglesi. 

To tha Italian. To the Italians. 

All' Italiano. 

Agl* Italiani. 



To hmr^a hd , Gh. 

(indirect object or dative). | 

To me — a me. JKt. 

To speak to me. 

To speak to him. 

To write to him. 

To write to me. 

To spealc to the man. 

To speak to the captain. 

To write to the esptain. 

Can you write to me 7 

I can write to you. 

Can the man speak to you? 

He can speak to me. 

Will you write to your brother 1 

I will write to him. 

The basket. 

The carpet. 

The floor. 

The caL 

Parlare all' uomo. 
Parlare ai capitano. 
Scrivere ai cap tano. 

Pud EUascrivermil 

Posso scriverle {or scriYenri). 

Pud parlarie (parlarvi) V uomof 

Pud parlarmi. 

Vuole scrivere al di Lei fratelio 1 

Voglio scrivergii. 

II canestro, H paniere. 

III tappeto. 

II pavimento. 
II gat to. 

Will you send the book to the man 7 
I will send it to him. 

Vuole mandare 11 libro all' uomo 7 
Voglio mandargiielo. 

Ob9, A. When the pronoun gli precedes to or n<^ an s is inserted between 
the two pronouns. 

When will you send it to Um 7 | Quando vuole mandargiielo 7 

I will send it to him to-morrow. I Voglio mandargiielo domani. 

First person) 7^ fiw. Me. 
Third person : 7>> fdnu Him. 

First person : Tb iu. Us, 
Second person : Tb you. You, 
Third person : 7b them, TTiem, 


Indirect object, Direct object, 

or Dative, 
Mi, or a me, 

Me, or mi, 

C^ ne, or a noL 
Vt, — aeot. 
Loro, — a loro. 

Noi, or cL 
Vi, —voL 

Uoeshe wish tospeak toyou7 i 

He does not wish to speak to me^ but I 

to you. ! 

Vuol parlarie (parlarvi) 7 
Non vuol parlare a mo^ ma a Lei, a 



Do yoa wish to write to him 7 i 

t do not wiflh to write to him, bat to 

hit brother. I 

Vnoie Ella aeriTais^ 1 
Non TogUo Bcrivera a lui, ma a ano 

The fc^wlng Is the order in which the penonal pronouns miut be placed in 

mo sentence «' 

It to me. 
It to him. 
It to US. 
It to you. 
It to them. 

Them to me. 
Them to him. 
Them to OS. 
Them to you. 
Them to them. 

t Helo. 
t (ffielo. 
t Ce lo (ne k>). 
t Veto. 

t OUelL' 
t VeU. 

Ob», B. The pronouns : tnt; li, d; vi, ti, sre changed Into : nu, <€^ ec, m, m^ 
when they are followed by one of the prononns : A», Is, ^ gij; If^ tic 

Quaado tuoI Ella mandanni il 

Voglio mandarglieto (mandarreto) ' 

When will you send me the basket 1 
I will send it you to-day. 

In the following manner the relative 

pronoim tM^ some of it, is phoed with 

regard to the peraonal pronoun : 

Some to me. 


Some to him. 


Some to us. 


Some to you. 

t Vene. 

Some to them. 


To give. 

Dara* 1. 

To lend. 

Prestare 1. 

Are yon willing to give me 


Vttole darmi del panel or, Volet< 


danni del pane. 

I am willing to give yon some. 

VogUodargUene (darlene), or, Voglio 

Will you lend my brother 


Vuole prestare del danaro a mic 



1 will lend him some. 

Voglio prestargUene. 

> N. B. The verb must be placed between ne and toro. 










^8 .J ^ 4; :^ 

'S i ^ I i 







O ^ t> q> 

ri ^ e B B B 

i "B S B 

i ^ * 

i s" "^ ! ^ 

«= .- 5 :C iC 5 

' "3 TJ i; oj 

■a © o g B 

1 I £ I a 

I J ^ ^ 5 

S? K g * ^ 

^ E E i; s 

^ 5 ^ ^ 5 

^ ^ jQ _a ^ 


I I I J 

•s s a 

I I tf tf I 

^ S I 4 5 

P 3 S3 

'S 2 



f 5 if ET a 


I 5 

^ ^ ^ 




Has the carpenter money enough to buy a hammer? — ^He has 
enough to buy one.-— Has the caf^tain money enough to buy a 
ship ? — ^He has not enough to buy one.—^Has the peasant a desire 
to buy s6me bread ? — He has a desire to buy some, but he has not 
money enough to buy some. — Has your son ink to write a note ? 
— He has not any to write one. — Have you time to see my 
brother 1 — ^I have no tinie to see him. — Does your father wish to 
see me ? — He does not wish to see you.^— Has your servant a 
broom {unos eopino) to sweep the floor ? — ^He has one to sweep it. 
— Is he willing to sweep it ?— -tie is willing to sweep it.— Has the 
sailor money to buy some tea ? — ^He has none to buy any. — Has 
your oook money to buy some beef? — He has some to buy some. 
— Has he money to buy some chickens ?— He haa some to buy 
some. — Have you salt enough to salt my beef ?-^I have enough 
to salt it. — Will your friend come to my house in order to see 
me ? — He will neither come to your house, nor see you. — ^jElas 
your neighbour a desire to kill his horse ? — He has no desire to 
kill it— Will you kill your friends ? — ^I will only kill my enemies. 


Can yoa cut me some bread ? — ^I can cut you some. — Have 
you a knife to cut me some ? — ^I have one. — Can you mend my 
gloves ? — ^I can mend them, but I have no wish to do it. — Can the 
tailor make me a coat ? — ^He can make you one. — ^Will you speak 
to the physician ? — ^I will speak to him. — Does your son wish to 
see me in order to speak to me ? — ^He wishes to see you in order 
to give you a crown.-*-Doe8 he wish to kill me ? — ^He does not 
wish to kill you ; he only wishes to see you. — ^Does the son of 
our old friend wish to kiU an ox ? — ^He wishes to kill two. — ^Who 
has a mind to kill our cat? — Our neighbour's child has a mind 
to kill it.— How much money can you send me ? — ^I can send you 
twenty francs. — ^Will you send me my carpet? — ^I will send it 
you. — ^Will you send the shoemaker any thing? — ^I will send him 
my boots.— Will you send him your coats ?— No, I will send them 



to my tailor.— Can the tailor send me my coat ? — He cannot send 
it you.— Are your children able to write to me ? — ^They are able 
to write to you. — Will you lend me your basket ? — ^I will lend it 

^ 64. 

Have you a glass to drink your wine ? — ^I have one, but I have 
no wine ; I have only tea. — Will you give me money to buy some ? 
— ^I will give you some, but I have only a little. — Will you give 
me that which you have ? — I will give it you. — Can you drink 
as much wine as milk ? — ^i can drink as much of the one as of the 
other. — ilas our neighbour any coajs to make a fire ? — ^He has 
some to make one, but he has no money to buy bread and butter. 
— Are you willing to lend him some ? — ^I am willing to lend him 
some. — Do you wish to speak to the German ? — ^I wish to speak 
to him. — Where is he ? — ^He is with the son of the American.*- 
Does the Grerman wish to speak to me ? — He wishes to speak to 
you. — Does he wish to speak to my brother or to yours ? — ^He 
wishes to speak to both. — Can the children of our neighbour 
work ? — They can work, but they will not. 


Do you wish to speak to the children of the Dutchman ? — I 
wish to speak to them. — ^What will you give them ? — I will give 
them good petty.patties. — Will you lend them any thing ?— I am 
willing to lend them something. — Can you lend them any thing ? 
— I cannot lend them any thing ; I have nothing. — ^Has the cook 
some more salt to salt the beef? — ^He has a little more. — ^Has he 
some more rice ? — ^He has a great deal more. — ^Will he give me 
some ? — He will give you some.— Will he give some to my little 
children ?— He will give them some. — ^Will he kill this or that 
chicken ? — ^He will neither kill this nor that. — ^Which ox will he 
kill?— He will kill that of the good peasant.— Will he kill this or 
that ox ?— He will kill both.— Who will send us biscuits ?— The 
baker will send you sonre. — Have you any thing to do? — I have 
nothing to do. 


What has your son to do? — He has to write to his good friends 
^nd to the captain.— To whom do you wish to speak? — I wish to 



■peak to the Italians and to the French. — Do you wish to give 
them some money ? — I wish to give them some. — ^Do you wish to 
give this man some bread ? — I wish to give him some. — ^Will you. 
give him a coat ?^I will give him one. — ^Will your friends give 
me some coffee? — They will give you some. — ^Will you lend me 
your books ? — I will lend them you. — Will you Jend your neigh- 
hours your mattrass ?-*I will not lend it them. — ^Will you lend 
them the looking-glass? — ^I will lend it them. — ^To whom will you 
lend your umbrellas ? — ^I will lend them to my friends. — ^To 
whom does your friend wish to lend his bed ? — ^He will lend it to 

Lezione vetUesima primcu 

To whom ? 

A ehi f (a question followed by 

the object indirect in the 



CM? (for persons.) 


Che f (for things.) 

CM? Who?— Che? What? 

For Fhr \ F^perworu. 

permnu, tking9. \ 

Sabjeet, or ^ 

Nomina- (who? What 1 i Chll 

tive. > 

Ofagaec Indt- ^ 

rect in the (Of whom? Of what? 

Genitive. ) 
Object indi- ^„ . ^ 



To what? 









Objeet direct, p 

or AccuM- > Whom 7 

tive. i 

Object indi- \ „ 

rectinthc i ^™'", 







Chi? who? has no plural, and always refers to persons, without distinetloa 
of sex, as who in English. 

Che? whati has no plural, and always relates to things. 

Ob». A, In the the letter e may be substituted by an apostrophe before ■ 
▼owel, but not the letter iindd. 

To answer. 
To answer the man. 
To answer the men. 

Who is It 7 
Of whom do you wish to speak7 

What do you wish to say 7 

To whom do you wish to answer? 
I wish to answer my brother. 

To answer him. 

To answer you. 

To answer them. 
Ob9. B, Ijoro, them or to them, is 

To answer the note. 

To answer it 

To answer the notes. 

To snswer them. 
To it, to them. 
Will you answer my note 7 
I will answer it. 
Will you answer the men 7 
I will answer them. 
My lather withes to speak to them. 

Rispondere* 2. 
Rispondere all* tfomo. 
Rispondere s^^ uomini. 


^ Che vuol dire 7 
c Che cosa tuoI direl 

A chi Tuole rispondere? 

YogUo rispondere a mio firateUa 


Risponderie (the feminine U is hers 
used out of politeness). 

Risponder ioro. 
not joined to the verb like the other 

Rispondere al biglietto. 
Risponderd, risponder? L 
Rispondere ai biglietti. 
Risponderd, rispondervi. 
Ci or Yi. 

Yuol rispondere al mio biglietto 1 
YogUo risponderd (risponderd). 
Yuol rispondere agli uomini? 
VogHo risponder Ioro. 
Mio padre tuoI pariar Ioro. 

Hie theatre. 
Xhe play. 
The ball. 

To or at the theatre. 
To — at the play. 
To — at the ball. 
To -* at the garden. 

11 teatro. 
Lo spettacolo. 
II balio. 
Al teatro. 
Alio spettacolo. 
AI ballo. 
Al giardino. 

Ag^i spettaoolL 
Ai giardini. 



Hie magBzine. 
The warehouse. 
The storehooae. 
The conntlng-hoaae. 
The market. 

II magazzino. 

II banco Qo studio). 
II mercato. 

There^ IhUher. 

To go there, thither. 

To be there. 
Do yoa wish to go to the theatre? 
I wish to go there, 
la your brother at the theatre? 

He ia there. 
He is not there. 
Where is he? • 

a or w. 

Andarci or andarvi. 

Esserci or esservi. 

Vttol Ella andare al teatro. 

Voglio andarci (andarri). 

II di Lei fratello d al teatro (or in 

teatro) ? 
VI «. 

Non c' ^ (non vi d). 


Ia your fJEither in his garden? 
He is tliere. 

.Where is the merchant ? 
He is in his warehouse. 

Nel^ neUoj neif neglU in. 
^ nel Buo glardino il dl Lei padxel 
JS nel suo magazzino. 

What have you to do ? | Che ha EUa da fare ? 

Obs. C. The preposition io is rendered by da when it precedes an infinittvi 
depending on the verb attre, to have, or ewer«, to be. 

I have nothing to do. 

What has the man to drink ? 

He has nothing to drink. 

Have you any thing to do? 

I have to answer a note. 

1 have to speak to your brother. 

Where is your brother? 

The place. 
Be is In that place. 
Whither does he wish to go ? 
He wisties to go into the garden. 
Does he wish to go to the garden ? 
He wishes td go there. 

Non ho da £Bur niente. 

Che ha da here V uomo ? 

Non ha da ber niente. 

Ha Ella qualche cosa da fiire? 

Ho da rispondere ad un bigliettp. 

Ho da pariare al di I^ei fratello. 

Dov' d suo fratello? 

11 luogo. 

E in questo luogo. 

Ove vuol egU andare? 

Yttol andare al glardino. 

y ttol egli andare al glardino 1 

Vaol andarci (pr andarvi). 



Wai you write to me? — ^I will write to you. — Will you wnie 
to the Italian ? — I will write to him. — ^Will your brother write to 


the English ?— He will write to them, but they have no mind to 
answer him. — ^Will you answer your friend ? — I will answer him. 
—But whom will you answer ? — I will answer my good father. 
— Will you not answer your good friends ? — I will answer them. 
— ^Who will write to you ? — ^The Russian wishes Xq write to me. 
—Will you answer him ? — ^I will not answer him.— Who will 
write to our friends ?-^The children of our neighbour will write 
to them. — ^Will they answer them ? — They will answer them.— 
To whom do you wish to write ? — I wish to write to the Russian. 
— ^Will ho answer you ? — ^He wislies to answer me, but he can- 
not. — Can the Spaniards answer us ? — ^They cannot answer us, 
but we can answer them.-»To whom do you wish to send this 
note ? — I wish to send it to the joiner. 

What have you to do ? — ^I have to write. — ^What have you to 
write ? — ^I have to write a note. — To whom ? — ^To the carpenter. 
—What has your father to drink ?-— He has to drink some good 
wine. — Has your servant any thing to drink ? — ^He has to drink 
some tea. — What has the shoemaker to do? — He has to mend my 
boots.^-What have you to mend ? — ^I have to mend my thread 
handkerchiefs. — To whom have you to speak 1 — ^I have to speak 
to the captain. — ^When will you speak to him ? — ^To-day .—Where 
will you speak to him? — At his house. — To whom has your 
brother to speak ? — He has to speak to your son.— What has the 
Englishman to do ? — He has to answer a note. — ^Which note has 
he to answer ? — ^He has to answer that of the good German.- 
Have I to answer the note of the Frenchman ?— You have to an- 
Bwer it. — ^Which note have you to answer ?-*I have to answer 
that of my good friend. — ^Has your father to answer a note ?— 
He has to answer one. — ^Who has to answer notes ? — Our chil- 
dren have to answer a few. — ^Will you answer the notes of the 
merchants? — I will answer them. — ^Will your brother answer 
this or that note ? — He will answer neither this nor that. — ^Will 
any one answer my note ? — No one will answer it. 

Which notes will your father answer ? — He will answer only 
those of his good friends. — Will he answer my note ?— He will 


answer it. — Have you to answer any one? — ^I have to answer no 
one. — ^Who will answer my notes ?— Your friends will answer 
them. — ^Have you a mind to go to the ball 1 — I have a mind to go 
there. — When will you go there ?— To-day. — ^At what o'clock ? 
— ^At haltpast ten.— When will you take your child to the play ? 
— ^I will take him there to-morrow. — At what o'clock will you 
take him there ? — ^At a quarter to six. — ^Where is your son ? — ^He 
is at the play. — ^Is your friend at the ball ? — ^He is there. — Where 
is the merchant ? — ^He is in his counting-hcnise. — ^Where do you 
wish to take me to ? — I wish to take- you to my warehouse. — 
Where does your cook wish to go ? — He wishes to go to the mar- 
ket. — ^Is your brother at the market ? — ^He is no^ there. — Where 
is he ? — ^He. is in his warehouse. 


Where is the Dutehman ? — He is in his granary. — Will you 
come to me in order to go to the play ? — I will come to you, but 
I have no mind to go to the play — ^Where is the Irishman ? — He 
is at the market. — ^To which theatre do you wish to go ? — I wish 
to go to that of the French. — Will you go to my garden or to tha* 
of the Scotohman ? — I will go to neither yours nor to that of the 
Scotchman ; I wish to go to that of the Italian. — ^Does the phy- 
sician wish to go to our warehouses or to those of the Dutch ?— 
He will go neither to yours nor to those of the Dutch, but to those 
of the French. — What do you wish to buy at the market ? — I 
wish to buy a basket and some carpets. — ^Where do you wish to 
take them ? — ^I will take them home. 

How many carpets do you wish to buy 1 — ^I wish to buy two. 
— To whom do you wish to give them ? — ^I will give them to my 
servant. — ^Has he a mind to sweep the floor ? — He has a mind to 
do it, but he has no time. — ^Have the English moiny warehouses ? 
— ^They have many. — Have the French as many dogs as cats ? 
— ^They have more of the latter than of the former.— Have you 
many guns in your warehouses ? — ^We have many there, but we 
have but little com. — ^Do you wish to see our guns ? — I will go 
into your warehouses in order to see them. — ^Do you wish to buy 



any thing 7—1 wish to buy something. — What do you wish to 
Duy ? — ^I wish to buy a pocket-book {un portafoUo)^ a loi^dng- 
glass, and a gun. — Where will you buy your trunk? — ^I will 
buy it at the market. — Have you as much wine as tea in your 
storehouses l — We Jiavc as much of the one as of the other. — 
Who wishes to tear my coat ? — No one wishes to tear it. 


Will the English give us some bread ?— They will give you 
some. — Will they give us as much butter as bread 1 — ^They will 
give you more of the latter than of the former. — Will you give 
this man a franc ? — ^I will give him several. — How many francs 
will you give him ? — I will give him five.— Wlvit will the French 
lend us ?— Thsy will lend us many books.-^Have you time to 
write to the merchant ?— I wish to write to him, but I have no 
time to^y.— When will you answer the German ?— I will 
answer him to morrow.— At what o'clock ? — ^At eight. — Where 
does the Spaniard wish to go 1 — He wishes to go no where. — Does 
your servant wish to warm my broth 1 — He wishes to warm it.— 
Is he willing to make my fire ? — He is willing to make it.^* 
Where does the baker wish to go to ? — ^He wishes to go to the 
wood. — Where is the youth ? — He is at the play. — ^Who is at the 
captain's ball ? — ^Our children and our friends are there. 

Leziwie ventesima seconda. 

To or at Ui6 corner. 

To or at the hole. 

In the hole, in the holes, 
^'here is your cat? 
It is in the bag. 

Al I ^"^^- 

Nel buco. 

Ore d il suo gatto 7 

^ nel sacco. 

Net bttchL 

^ Tht hoU is rendered by Ubuoo (mae.), and : la bum (fern.) ; but the feminine^ 



To or at the bottom. 

To 0r at the bottom of the bag. 
At the corner of the fire. 

To or at the end. 
To the end of the wood. 
I'd the end of the woods. 

To send for. 

To go for ^ to fetch, 

WiJI you send for some wine 1 

I will send for some. 

Will your son go for some bread 7 

He will not go for any. 

I wilt sL-nd for the physician. 

i will send for him. 

He will send for my brothers. 

He will send for them. 
Will you send for glasses? 

I will send for some. 

I In fondo. 
! Al fondo. 

Nel fondo del sacco. 

Nel canto del fuooo. 

41 fine. 

AI fine del bosco. 

AI fine del boschi. 

What have you to do 1 
I have to go to the market 

What have you to drink 7 

We have to drink some good wine. 

You have to mend your liandkerchiefik 

They have. 
What have the men to do 7 
They have to go to the warehouse. 

Mandare a eercare. 

Andare a cercare. 

Vuol mandare a cercar del vino 1 

Voglio mandare a cercame. 

U di Lei fig^o vuol andare a cercar 

del pane 7 
Non vuol andare a cercame. 
Voglio mandar a cercare il medico. 
Voglio mandarlo a cercare. 
Vuol a mandar a cercare i miei fira- 

Vuol e mandarli a cercare. 
Vuol Ella mandar a cercars del bic- 

Voglio mandame a cercare. 

This evening (to-night). 
In the evening. 
This morning. 

In the morning. 


Ho da andare al mercato (Devo 

andare al mercato). 
Che hanno EUeno da bere7 
Abbiamo da bere del buon vino. 
Ha da raccommodare i di Ijei to- 



Che hanno da fiire gU uomini 1 

Hanno da andare al magazzlno. 


La sera, or nella sera. 

Stamattina (stamane). 
: La mattina, il mattino. 
[ Nella mattina, nel mattino. 

labuca, is used to designate a rather large hole, whilst the masculine, t^fruoo, Is 
naed'to designate a rather small hole. Ex. IlgattOy ilcane I neUa buea, the 
eat, the dog is in the hole; u» buco rul vegiito, a hole in the coat; gli iuxeOi 
\annofaUo U toro nidoTuUa buca, the birds have made their nest in the hola 


Now. ai present. jto.m?Ll«.p«rt». 

Tkou. . 7\t.« 

Thou hast— thou art. Tu hai (aiy— tu set. 

John, art thou here ? { Giovanni, sei tu Ilk 7 

Tea, Sir, I am. Si, Signore, ci aono. 

> We have already seen (Note >, Lesson I.) in what instances the Italians oat 
the second person singular; let us, in addition, observe, that it is a diark of inti- 
macy among friends, and is used by parents and children, brother and sisters^ 
husbands and wives, towards one another : in general it implies fiunillarfty, 
founded on affection and fondness, or hatred and contempt Fot, as we have 
seen in the above note, is used towards servants and persons with whom we are 
on a familiar footing, as: ChediU vox? What do you say? Mi avete vednio? 
Have you seen me 7 Ao, turn vi ho veduiof No, I have not seen you. lo vi 
dirb, I will tell you. But the most polite way of addressing a person is with 
Vo99ignoria (K &), contracted and abridged from VoUra Signorioj your wor- 
ship, and in speaking to persons of rank, Votngnoria Bhutriasimay Voitra Ee-^ 
cdLenza^ and to persons of royal blood, VoHra AlUzzOf to monarchs, Vuira 
Maui^ , 

All these titles being expressed by feminine substantives in the singular, the 
word Ella Is used to avoid a continual repetition of them. It must therefore 
always be considered as a relative to, or a substitute for, the above titles. 

According to this principle the nominative should always be EUa (as it is the 
custom in Tuscany), and the accusative Lei, as: Sta Ella bene? Are you welll 
Come ha Ella dormito? How have you slept 1 In Rome, however, and ths 
rest of Italy, they say in the nominative also Lei (generally considered as i» 
correct), as : Sta bene Lei? Are you well? Come ha dormito Lei? How have 
you slept 7 and it would sound affected, if; according to the Florentine manner, 
you were to use there Ella. 

In addressing with EUa the participle or adjective agrees, according to the 
best authors, with the feminine noun, Voetignoria. Ex. Se Ella aifoeoe etm- 
piaekdaf If you had been so kind ; QuanP I giU th* EUa i arrivaio ? How long 
is it since you arrived 7 (and not compiaeitdo, arriwUo), 

The five cases are therefore used in the following manner : — 

Voeeignoria. Ella, also Lei. 

di Voeeignona. Di Lei (rao, eua), 

a Voteitgnoria. A Lei, Le. 

Voeaignoria, Lei, La, 

da Voeeignoria. DaLeL 

Obe. If a particular stress is to be put on the person addressed to, a Lei is 
used in* the dative, and Lei in th/) accusative, if not Le in the dative and La In 
.he accusative. If Le happens to meet with one of the pronouns, lo,la,li,Ut 
ne, it Is changed into gU, as : gUelo, glida, it to you ; glidi, glide, them to you • 
vlvne, some to you. 





To you. 




Prom you. 




I ammot fiitigiied. 
Are the men tired 7 


Non lono stanco. 

Sono stanchi gli aomlnil 



I Dove va Vottignoria? (or Etta? oi 

E EUa Btata sexnpre bene i 
Ella (JX) ha buoniielma clera. 

r II riflesso di V, S. (or di V. Eee,) d 
' < giusto, or il di Lei riflesso, or il 
■ ^ «uo riflesso d giusto. 

^ Dove sono i cli Lei guanti} or i suoi 

c guanti? 

C dual d la di Lei camera? or la 9ua 

I camera? 
lo seggo qui presso^fi Lei. 


Let us take a walk, if it pleases you ' Andiamo a spasso, se Le place. 

{L e, if you please). 
That will neither please you nor him. 

Where are you going ? 

Have you always been well 1 
You look very well. 

Your observation is right. 

Where are your gloves? 
Which is your room? 
I sit down here near you. 

I thank 3rou very humbly. I 

I thank you and your uncle very much. 

Listen then, I will tell it you directly. . 
He is not willing to tell iC either you 

or me. 
To you alone I will say it 
1 shall be eternally grateful to you for 

it. 'I 

I vdll let you see them. i 

I will show them you and your sister. 
I will show it to you to-morrow. 
Well I to you I can refuse nothing. 

Questo non placerik nd a Ijei, hd a 

Le rendo devotissime grazie. 
•Rendo a Lei e al Signor zlo le dovute 

Ascolti dunqne, glielo dird subito. 
Non lo vnol dire nd a Lei, ni a me. 

Lo dird a Lei sola. 

Oliene sard etemamente obbUgato. 


CfHeli fard vedere. 
Li fard vedere a Lei e alia sorella. 
Gliela (fem.) raostrerd don^ani. 
Alia buon' ora ! a Lei non posso dar 
un rifiuto. 


Do not trouble yourself; I pray. 
I begged you and not your brother. 
Pudon me, if I interrupt yoa. 
He has interrupted you and us. 
I thank you for it 

Do not refuse me tliat favour, I en- 
treat you. 
To-morrow I shall go with you to my 

Non s' incomodi, La prego. 

Ho pregato Lei e non il frateUo. 

Scusi, sa La interrompo. 

EgU ha interrotto Lei e noi. 

Ne La ringrazio. 

Via, non mi rifiuti questo lavore, • 

La scongiuro. 
Domani andrd con LH dal cugliio. 



Ofr#. ii. Tho adjective in Italian, the same as in French, when it lapreeedad 
by a noun or pronoan, must agree with it in number ; that is, if the noun or 
pronoun is in the plural, the adjective must be put m the same number, as may 
be seen from the example in the question above, and in the anpwer below. 
Xhey are not tired. t Non oono stanchi. 

Oba. B. It will moreover be noticed, that the adjectives in Italian form their 
plural number exactly in the same manner as the nouns or substantives. 
Thou wilt (wishest)— thou art able Vuoi^Puoi. 


Art thou willing to make my firel. 
I am willing to make it, but I cannot. 

* y noi fare 11 mio fuoco 1 
Vogllo farlo, ma non posso. 

Art thou afraid? 

I am not afraid \ I am cold. 

Art thou hungry? 

t Haipaura? 

t Non ho paura ; ho freddo. 

t HaifiBime? 

To seU. 
To tell, to say. 
To tell some one, to say to some one. 

The word, the jest, device, motto. 

Vendere 2. 
Dir^ 3. 
Dire a qualcuno. 
< II vocabolo (la parola, ajtm, i 
c II motto. 
Will you tell the servant to make the 1 Vnol dire al servitore di £ue il fuoco 1 

I will ten him to make it. 

\ VogUo dlrgU di farlo. 

X GU voglio dire di farlo, o OUelo dird 

Sing, PlvT. 


Tuo. Tuoi. 


n tuo. I tuoi. 

Thy book— thy books. 

IltuoUbro. ItttoiUbri. 

With me, with thee, with him. 

Meco, teco, seco (con lui), also 

me, con te. 

With her. 

Con iei. 

With us, with you, with them. 

Con noi, con vol, con loro. 

Wilt thou go with me ? * | Vuoi venir meco ? con me ? 

Ob9, C When a person is spoken to, the verb to ^o is rendered by vadn. 
to come. 

I wUl not go with thee, but with him. I j JJ**" ^^8"^ ^^"^^ '^* "• ^"^ *"J- 

I c Non vo^io venir con te, ma con lul 

This depends upon you. 

That comes from you. 

He was already twice at your house. 

Qnesto dipende da Let . 
Q,uesto proviene da Ld, 
Ei fu gia due volte da LH, 


With our fileiidfl. 1 Col (plur. of coQ nosiri amid. 

I will go with our good friends. | VogUo pdare coi nostri buoni Mttiim 


Wai you send for some sugiir ?— I will send for some. — Sou 
(JgHo mio)f wilt thou go for some petty-patties ? — ^Yes, father 
(fiodre mio), I will go for some. — ^Whither wilt thou go ? — ^I will 
go into the garden. — ^Who is in the garden ? — ^The children of 
our friends are there. — ^Will you send for the physician ? — ^I will 
send for him. — Who will go for my brother ?— -My servant will 
go for him. — ^Where is he ?— ^e is in his counting-house. — Will 
you give me my broth ? — I will give it you.— Where is it ? — ^It 
is at the comer of the fire.— Will you give me some money to 
(per) fetch some milk ?— I will give you some to fetch some.— 
Where is your money ?— It is in my counting-house ; will you 
go for it ? — I will go for it. — Will you buy my horse ? — ^I cannot 
buy it ; I have no money. — ^Where is your cat ? — ^It is in the bag. 
— ^In which bag is it ?— In the bag of the granary.— Where is 
this man's (di costui) dog ? — It is in a comer of the ship. — Where 
has the peasant (got) his com 1— He has it in his bag. — ^Has he 
a cat? — ^He has one. — ^Where is it? — ^It is at the bottom of the 
bag. — ^Is your cat in this bag ? — It is in it. 

Have you any thing to do ? — ^I have something to do. — ^What 
have you to do ? — ^I have to mend my gloves, and to go to the 
garden. — Who is in the garden ? — My father is there. — Has your 
cook any thing to drink ? — ^He has to drink some wine and some 
good broth. — Can you give me as much butter as bread ? — ^I can 
give you more of the latter than of the former. — Can our friend 
drink as much wine as coffee ? — ;He cannot drink so much of the 
latter as of the former.-^Have you to speak to any one ?— I have 
to speak to several men.^-To how many men have you to speak ? 
— I have to speak to four.— When have you to speaJc to them ?— 
This evening. — ^At what o'clock ? — At a quarter to nine. — ^When 
can you go to the market ? — ^I can go thither in the morning. — 


At what o'clock ?— At half.past seven. — Whenwill you go to the 
Frenchman ? — I will go to him to night. — Will you go to the 
physician in the morning or in the evening I — ^I will gb to him in 
the morning. — At what o'clock I — ^At a quarter past ten. 

Have you to write aa many notes as the Englishman ? — ^I have 
to write less than he. — Will you speak to the Gremlan ?— I will 
speak to him.— When will you speak to. him ?— Now,— Where 
is be ?— He is at the other end of the wood. — Will you go to the 
market 1 — I will go thither to (per) buy some cloth. — ^Do not your 
neighbours wish to go to the market ? — They cannot go thither; 
they are fatigued. — ^Hast thou the courage to go to the wo6d in the 
evening ? — ^I have the courage to go thiUier, but not in the eve- 
ning. — ^Are your children aJble to answer my notes ? — ^They are 
able to answer them. — ^What do you wish to say to the servant ? 
— ^I wish to tell him to make the fire, and to sweep the warehouse. 
— Will ^you tell your brother to sell me his horse ? — I will tell 
him to sell it you. — What do you wish to tell me 7—1 wish to tell 
you sonoething. — ^Whom do you wish to see ? — ^I wish to see the 
Scotchman. — Have you any thing to tell him ? — ^I have a motto 
to tell him. — Which books does my brother wish to sell ? — ^He 
wishes to sell thine and his own. — Will you come with me ?-*-I 
cannot go with you. — ^Who will come with me ?— Nobody. — ^Will 
your friend come with us 1 — ^He will go with you. — With whom 
wilt thou go ?— I will not go with any one. — Will you go with 
my friend ? — ^I will not go with him, but with thee. — ^Wilt thou gc 
with me to the warehouse ? — ^I will go with you, but not to the 
warehouse. — Whither wilt thou go ?^I will go with our good 
friends into the garden af the captain. 

LezUme ventesima terza. 

To go out. 

To remain^ to stay* 

When do you wish to go out? 
1 wiih to go out now. 

To remain (to stay) at home. 

To remain here. 


Will you stay here? 

I wUi stay here. 

Will your friend remain there? 

He will not stay there. 
Will you go to your brother 1 
I will go to him. 

The pleasure, the favour. 
To give pleasure. 

To do a favour. 


I am going. 

I am not going. 

T1k>u art going. 

Is he going 1 

He goes, or is going. 

He is not going. 

Usdre* 8.' 

SRimaner^ 2. Restore !• 
Stare* 1. 

Quando vuol Ella uscire? 
Voglio uBcire adesso. 
c Rimanere in < 
/ Stare in ca 

Qua, qui, in queaio luogo (Oi 

( Rimaner quit, rlmaner quL 
( Stare qu&, star qui. 

Ld, h {ei, vi). 
( Vuol Ella rimaner qua? 
( Vuol Ella stare in questo luogo 1 

Voglio stand (rimanervi). 
( Vuol rimaner la 11 di Lei amieol 
C II di Lei amico Tuol star HI 

Non Tuole rimaner \k (star li). 

Vuol andare dal di Lei firateUo 1 

Voglio andarci. 

U piaoere, il faTore. 

Far piacere. 
( Far un piacere. 
i Rendered un serrizio (ssrTiglo)^ 



Non vado. 





' Kany Italians make use of mrUre instead of uadrtf but this is done erro- 
neooaly, for wriire means, to select, lo draw lots, and not, t« go eut. 



Are W0 going? 
We go, or are going. 
TJiej go. er are going. 

kK» you going to your brother 1 
I am going there. 

Where is ho going? 
He is going to his father. 

Every day. 
Every morning. 
Bf fliy evening. 

it la. 

What o'clock is it? 
It is three o'clock. 

It is twelve o'clock. 

It is a quarter past twelve. 

It wants a quarter to six. 
It Is half-past one. 

To he acquainted with (to 
To be acquainted with (to know) a 


To want. 

To he in want of, 
I want It. 
I am in want of it. 
An you in want of this knife 1 

I am in Want of it 

Are you in want of these knives? 




Ci vado, vi vado (vadovL vadod 

little used). 
Dove va egli 1 
Va da suo padre. 

( SUXG, TlUtO ) 
I Plue. Tuui \ 
( Tntti i giomi. 
C Ogni giomo. 
( Tutte Is mattlne. 
c Qgni mattino (mattiM), 
( Tutte le sere. 





Sono le tre. 
( i meszodi (d mexso giomo). 
f Sonoledodici. 
< ]£ mezzodi e un quarto. 
c Sono le dodici e un quarto. 
c Sono le sei meno un quarloi 
\ Sono le cinque e tre quailL 

k un' ora e meno. 

Conoscere* 2. 
Conoscero un uomo 


Aver hiscgno di, Ahhi^ognare, 

Ne ho bisogno. 
Ha Ella bisogno di questo col* 

Ne ho bisogno. 
Ha Ella bisogno dl questl cot* 



I an Ib want of tlum. 
I am not in want of them. 

I am not in want of any thing. 

Is he in want of money 7 
He ia not in want of any. 

What are you in want of? 
Wliat do you want? 

Of whom? 

• Ne ho biaogno. 

Non ne ho biaogno. 
; ( Non bo biaogno di nulla. 
I c Non ho biaogno dl niente. 
I Ha egli biaogno di danaiol 
I Non ne ha biaogno. 


; Dichecoaa? 
! Diqualcoaa? 

Di che ha Ella biaogno 1 


Of mOp of thee, of him, of her. I Di me, di te, di lui, di lei (ne). 

Of n% of you, of them. I Di noi, dl voi, di loro (ne). 

la your father in want of me ? 

He ia in want of you. 

Are you in want of these booka 1 

I am in want of them. 

Is he In want of my brothers? 

He Is Infant of them. 

. n di Lei padre lia biaogno di me? 

Ha biaogno di Lei (dl Toi). 

Ha Ella biaogno di qneati libri ? 

Ne ho biaogno. 

Ha egli biaogno del miei frateUll 
( Ne ha bisogno. 
I Ha biaogno di loro. 

To read. 




Will you do me a favour ?^Yes, Sir, which ?— rWill you tell 
my senrant to make the fire ?-*I will tell him to make it. — Will 
you tell him to sweep the warehouses ? — ^I will tell him to sweep 
them. — ^What will you tell your father? — ^I will tell him to sell 
you his hprse. — ^Will you tell your son to go to my father? — I 
will tell him to go to him. — ^Have you any thing to tell me ? — I 
have nothing to tell you. — Have you any thing to say to my 
father ? — ^I have a word to say to him. — Do these men wish to 
sell their carpets ? — ^They do not wish to sell them. — John, art 
thou here {Id) ? — ^Yes, Sir, I am here. — What art thou going to 
do ? — ^I am going to your hatter to (per) tell him to mend your 


hat. — Wilt thou go to the tailor to lell him to mend my coats ?« 
I will go to him. — ^Are you willing to go to the market ? — I am 
willing to go thither. — What has your merchant to sell ? — He has 
to sell some beautiful leather gloves {guanti dipelle), combs, good 
cloth, and tee wooden baskets. — Has he any iron guns to sell ? 
— He has s«me to sell. — ^Does he wish to sell me his horses? — 
He wishes to sell them you. — Have you any thing to sell ? — ^I 
have nothing to sell. 


Is it late ? — It is not late. — ^What o'clock is it ? — ^It is a quarter 
past twelve.— At what o'clock does the captain wish to go out ? — 
He wnhes to go out at a quarter to eight ? — ^What will you do ? 
•—I wish to read. — What have you to read ? — ^I have a good book 
to read. — Will you lend it me ? — I will lend it you. — ^When will 
you lend it me ? — I will lend it you to-morrow. — Have you a mind 
to go out ? — ^I have no mind to go out. — ^Are you willing to stay 
here, my dear friend? — ^I cannot remain here. — ^Whither have 
you to go ? — ^I have to go to the counting-house. — When will you 
go to the ball ? — To-night. — At what o'clock ? — ^At midnight.— 
Do you go to the Scotchman in the evening or in the morning ? — 
I go to him (both) in the evening and in the morning. — Where 
are you going now ? — ^I am going to the theatre. — Where is your 
son going ? — He is going no where ; he is going to stay at home 
lo (per) write his notes. — Where is your brother ? — He is at his 
warehouse. — Does he not wish to go out ? — No, Sir, he does not 
wish to go out. — What does he wish to do ? — He wishes to write 
to his friends. — Will you stay here or there ? — I will stay there. 
— ^Where will your father stay ? — He will stay there. — ^Has our 
friend a mind to stay in the garden ? — ^He has a mind to stay 


At what o'clock Is the Dutchman at home ? — He is at home 
every evening at a quarter past nine. — ^When does your cook go 
to the market ? — He goes thither every morning at half-past five. 
— When does our neighbour go to the Irishmen ? — ^He goes to 
them every day. — At what o'clock ? — At eight o'clock in the 
morning. — What do you wish to buy ? — I do not wish to buy ariy 
thing ; but my father wishes to buy an ox. — Does he wish to buy 


this or that ox ? — ^He wishes to buy neither. — ^Which does he wish 
to buy ? — He wishes to ))uy your friend's. — Has the merchant 
one more coat to sell ? — ^He has one more, but he does not wish 
to sell it. — Has this man one knife more to sell ? — He has not 
one knife more to sell, but he has a few more guns to sell. — 
When will he sell them ?— He will sell them to-day.— Wliere ? 
— At his warehouse. — ^Do you wish to see my friend ? — I wish to 
see him in order to know him. — ^Do you wish to ^cnow my chiK 
dren ? — ^I do wbh to know them. — ^How many children have you ? 
— ^I have only two, but my brother has more than I: he has six. 
— ^Does that man wish to drink too much wine ? — ^He wishes to 
drink too much.— Have you wine enough to drink ?— I have only 
a little, but enough. — ^Does your brother wish to buy too many 
petty-patties? — ^He wishes to buy a great many, but not too 

Can you lend me a knife ? — ^I can lend you (me. — Can your 
fiither tend me a book ?— He can lend you several. — ^What are 
you in want ofl — ^I am in want of a good gun. — Are yoir in want 
of this picture ?-r-I am in want of it. — ^Does your brother want 
money ? — ^He does not want any. — ^Does he want some boots ?— 
He does not want any. — ^What does he want ? — ^He wants no- 
thing. — ^Are you in want of these sticks? — I am in want of them. 
—Who wants some sugar ?*— Nobody wants any. — Does any body 
want pepper? — ^Nobody wants any. — ^What do I want? — ^You 
^want nothing. — ^Does your father want these pictures or those ?— 
He wants neither these nor those. — Are you in want of me ?— I 
am in want of you. — ^When do you want me ?— At present.— 
What have you to say to me ? — ^I have something to say to you. 
— ^Is your son in want of us ? — ^He is in want of you and your 
brothers.-— Are you in want of my servants ? — ^I am In want of 
them. — Does any one want my brother ?— No one wants him.— 
Does your father want any thing ? — ^He does not want any thing. 
—What does the Englishman want ? — ^He wants some corn.— 
Does he not want some jewels ? — ^He does not want any. — ^What 
does the sailor want ?— He wants some biscuits, milk, cheese, and 
Wtter. — ^Will yoagive me anything? — I will give yo« 
oread and wine. 

Lezione ventesima quarto. 


In regular verbs* .the present tense is formed from the Infinitive, whose tar 
mination is changed into o. ' 

The first and second persons singular, and the first person plural, arc for all 
the three conjugations terminated in the same manner, viz. 

The first person singular in o. Ex. 

Tlie second person singular in i. 

The first person ploral in iamo. 


- 1 speak, 
[ serve. 
r Thou speakest. 
Ex. < Thou sellest. 
C Thou servest. 
r We speak. 
Ex. ^ We sell. 
V We serve. 

As for the third person singular, it is for the first conjugation terminated in 
a (from are^ as parlare), and for the second and third conjugations in e. The 
Mcond person plural terminates for the first coi^ugation in att {ttom are^ at 
parlare), for the second in eU (from «re, as vendue), and for the third in iU 
(from ire, as servire). The third person plural ends for the first conjugation in 
one (from ore, as parlare), and for the second and third conjugations in ono. 











. Parlare, to speak. 

2. Vendere, to sell. : 


h Servire, to serve. 

Pint Conjugalion. 

Second Coi^jugaiion. 

Third Qn^atian. 

Parlor I apeak. 
Parli; thou speak- 
Parlo, he speaks. 
Parliamo, we speak. 
Parlare, you speak. 
Parlana, they speak. 

Vendo, Isell. 
Vendt, thou sell- 
Vende, heseUs. 
Vendtomo, we sell. 
Vendete, yon sell. 
Vendono, they sell. 

Servo, I serve. 
Servi, thou serv- 
Serve, he serves. 
Serviamo. we serve. 
Service, you serve. 
Servono, they serve. 

1 As for the irregular verbs, it is impossible to give, as for the present, any 
fixed rules concerning them. The learner must mark them in his list of irreg- 
ular verbs as he meets with them in proceeding. 



Cfbt. A, As the rules which I gi%'e above, on the formation of the i resent 
lense, are applicable only to regular verbs, it remains now to point out the irreg- 
ularities in the present tense of ail thuse irregular verbs which we liave em« 
ployed already to enable the learner to use them in his exercises. They are at 

Tboae that are not given here ara^ of course, regular in the present tense. 

To give. 

I give, thou givest, he giTes. 
We give, you give, they give. 

To make, to do, 

I make thou makest he makes or 

or do, or dost, does. 

We do, you do, they do. 

I stay, 

To stay, to remain. 
thou stayest, he stays, 
you stay, they stay. 

To drink. 

I drink, thou drinkest, he drinks. 
We drink, you drink, they drink. 

To see. 
I see, thon seest, he sees. 

We Me, you see, they see. 

To remain. 

I remain, tliou re- he remains. 

We remain, you remain, they re- 

Bare* 1. 

FlrH Second 


Pawn. Person. 


lo do, tu dai. 


Noi diamo. vol date, 


Fare* 1 {hTmexXy facere). 

lo faccio ttt lai, egli Cel 


Noi facci- vol fate, eglino faatr 

amo. DO. 

Starts 1 «. 

lo sto, tu stai, 

Noistiamo, vol state, 


Bere or hever^ 2. 

Bevo, bevi, beve. 

Beviamo, bevete, berono (er 

Vedere* 2. 

Vedo, veg- vedi, 

go, or 

Vediarao or vedete, 


Tedono er 

Rimaner^ 2. 

ls< Pen. 2nd Pero. 9rd Pen. 
Rimango, rimani, rimane. 

Rimania, rimanete, rimangoiio. 

s These three verbs, viz., dare,*/ara,* eiare^'* together with andan^ (which 
•ee in tlie foregoing Lesson), are the only irregular verbs of the first conjuga- 
tion, all the others being regular. 



To ftck vp. 

I pick up, thou pick- he picka 

est up, up. 

We pick up, you pick up, they pick 

To say, to tell. 

I say, thou eeyest, he nye. 

We «y, you say, they say. 

To conduct, to take. 

I conduct, thou con* 
We con- you con- 
doot, duct, 

To come, 

I come, thou com- 

Ws eome, you come. 

To go out, 

I go out, thou goest 

We go oat, you go out, 

he con- 
tliey con- 

Raccorre * 2 (abridged from 

Raccolgo, raccogli, raceoglie, 


raccogliete, raccolgo- 

Dire • 3 (formerly dieere). 

Dioo, did {or dV), dice. 

Diciamo, dite, dioono. 

Condurre* 2 (formerly coii- 

Conduco, oonduci. conduce, 


conducete, conduce- 

Venire * 3. 
Vfngo, vieni, 

he comes. 
tlieyoome.j Yeniamo, venite, 
' U8cire*S, 


he goes 


they go 




or es- 


Ob§. B. There is no distinction in Italian between I love, do love, and ta 
rfivlng. All these present tenses are expressed by amo^ I love. Ex. 




C love. ( loves. 

I < do love. He < does love. 
( am loving. ( is loving. 

( Invest. 
ThoQ 2 dost love. You 
^ art loving. 

love. / love. 

They < do love. 


do love, 
are loving. 

' are loving. 

Amare 1. 
Aroo, ama. 





To hoe, to Wccy to be fond of. 
To arrangey to set in order. 

Do you like him? 
I do like him. 
I do not like Iiim. 

Amare 1. 
I Ordinare 1 . Meitere ♦ (2) in 
< ordine. 
\Assestare 1. 

L' ama £Ua7 (L' amate?) Voi? 

L' amo. 

Non V amo. 

13r Pereonal pronouns, not standing in the nominative, take their place 
before the verb, except when this ia in the InfiniUve, the present participle, or 
the imperative^ for then the pronoun is joined to the verb, which loses its final 
e, as we have seen in Obs. Lesson XYII. 

j Vende Ella U di Lei cavaUo 7 
c Vendete il vostro cavallo? 

Lo vendo. 
^ Lo vende Ella 1 
c Lo vendete 1 
Le manda egli il bigUetto 1 
Egli me lo manda. 
Spazza U pavimento il servitore 1 m 
better, il servitore spazsa egli il 
pavimento 7 
Ha does sweep it. Egli lo spazsa. 

Do you sell your horse? 

I do sell it. 

Do you sell It 7 

Does lie send you the note? 

He does send it me. 

Does the servant sweep the floor? 

To want, to miss. 
To pay. 

Mancare 1. 
Pagare 1. 

Oht, C Verbs ending in core or gore take the letter h after e or ^, in all 
tenses and persons where e or ^ meets with one of the vowels, «^ ^ £z. 

Art thou in want of any thing? 

I am in want of nothing. 

Dost thou pay for thy boots? 
I pay for them. 

( Manchi tu di qualche 

c Tl manca qualche cosa ? 

( Non manco di niente. 
' c Non mi manca niente. 

tPaghitui tuoistlvali? 
j t Li pago. 

06f. D. 7b wady to h^ in want of, may be rendered in Italian in various 
manners; amongst others, also in the following:— 

(Essere d* uopo^ \ ^ ^^ 
Essere uopo^ < ' 
Essere mestieri, I 

To loani, to he in want of. 

Are yon in want of this knife? 

I in want of it. 

Aver mesti- 
eri di. 

Le d d' uopo cotesto coltello? {Le4 
mestieri cotesto coltello?) vecy lit* 
tie used. 
Mi i d' uopo. (Mi 6 mestieri.) 



Are you In wint of these knives 1 

I am in want of them. 
I am not in want of them. 

I am not in want of any thing. 

Is he in want of money? 
He does not want any. 

Le son d' uopoquestl eoItelUI areta 
d' uopo di qaesti coltellil 

]lli son d* uopo. Ne ho d* oopo. * 

Nob mi son d' uopo. Non ne ho d* 
uopo. • • 

Non mi i d* uopo niente. Non ho 
d' uopo di niente. 

Gli d d' uopo danaro 7 

Non gliene i d* uopo. 

To open. 

Aprire* 3 (regular in Pre. 

I open, thou openest, he opens. 

Apro, apri, apre. 

We open, you open, they open. 

Apriamo, aprite, aprono. 

Do you open liis note 1 

Apre EUa (aprite,) voi U sno bigtt- 

I do not open it. 

Non r apro. 

Does he open his eyes? 

Apre egU gli occhl? 

He opens them. 

Egli li apre. 

Whom do you love ? 

Chi ama Ella (amate) voi? 

I love my fiither. 

Amo mlo padre 

Does your father love his son ? 

U di Lei p«dre ama suo fi«Uot 

Hs does love liim. 

Egli r ama. 

Do you love your children? 


I do love them. 

Li amo. 

To hke. 

To he fond of. 


iUke, ihouUkest, helikes. 

Piaccio, piad, place. 

WeUke, you like, they like. 

Piacdamo, piaoete, piacdono. 

Ob9. E. This verb, thesame as 


re* (see next Lesson), is in Italian em- 

ployed impersonally with the dative of 

the personal pronoun. Ex. 

Are you fond of wine? 

Le place U vino ? 

I am fond of it. 

Mi place. 

What are yon fond of ? 

Che Le place? (Che vi place f) 


Dd cidro. 

I am fond of cider. 

U ddro ml place. 

What is the American fond of? 

Che pUce all* Americano? 

He is fond of coffee 

GU place Ucafid. 

The ugly man. 

L' uomacdo. 

To receive. 

Ricevere 2. 


Fuiire* 3. 

I finish, thou finisbest, he finishes. 

Finisco, finisd, finisoa. 

We finish, you finish, they finish. 

Finiamo, finite, finiscMik 



7%M instant. 




At once. 


Wh&t are yon going to do ? 

I tin going to read. 
Wliat ia he going to do? 
He ia going to write a note, 
ire you going to give me any tiling? 
I am going to give you aome bread and 

^t Che fa ora Ella? 
ct Che fate ora? 

t Ora leggo (ato per l^gere). 

t ChefaegliaU'iffante? 

t Mi da Ella wubUo qualcoaa? 
t Le do tubUo pane e Tino. 

Ob9.r. Instead of aayingjM«tottomo, this man ;coteitoiiofiia,tiiat man, t^ 
Aoliana often uae tlie plunl of the pronouns, quuto, eotctto, and tianakte as 
followB : 

That man. 



This man. 

Costui (Plur. costoro, these 


Thai man. 

Cohii (Plur. cohro, those 


Gbt. O, As for eottHtd, that man, it la grown obsolete. 

Do you know thismsn? 

I know nether this nor that one. 

Do yon see this man? 

I do not see this man, hut that one. 

Do yoQ hear these men ? 

I do not hear these men, but those. 


Non conoaco nd queatl nd qnello. 


Non Tedo costui, ma colui 

Sente Ella coatoro ? 

Non sento oostoro, ma eoloro. 

To know. 
We Iniow, yon know, tliey know. 

Saper^ 2. 

So, aai, sa. 
Sappiamo, aapete, sanao. 

Do you love your brother ? — ^I do love him.— Does your brothei 
love you ? — ^He does not love nie.-^My good child, dost thou love 
roe ?-*-Tes, I do love thee. — ^Dost thou love this ugly man {quelP 
uomaedo) I do not love him.— Whom do you love ? — I love my 
children. — ^Whom do we love ? — We love our friends. — ^Do we like 
«iy one ? — ^We like no one. — ^Does any body like us ? — ^The Aroe. 



rioans like ub.-^Do you want any thing I— I want nothing.— 
Whom 18 your father in want of? — ^He is in want of hia servant. 
— ^What do you want ? — ^I want the note. — ^Do you want this or 
that note ? — I want this. — What do you wish to do with it (fame) ? 
—I wish to open it, in order to read it. — ^Does your son read our 
notes t — ^He does read them. — ^When does he read them ? — He 
reads them when he receives them. — ^Does he receive as many 
notes as I ? — He receives more than you. — ^What do you give 
me ? — ^I do not give thee any thing. — ^Do you give this book to 
my brother ?-^I do give it him. — Do you give him a bird ? — ^I do 
give him one. — ^To whom do you lend your books ? — ^I lend them 
to my friends. — ^Does your friend lend me a coat? — ^He lends you 
one.-r-To whom do you lend your clothes ? — I do not lend them 
to any body. 


Do we arrange any thing ? — ^We do not arrange any thing.— 
What does your brother set in order ? — ^He sets his books in order. 
-»Do you sell your ship ? — ^I do not sell it. — ^Does the captain sell 
his ? — ^He does sell it. — ^tVhat does the American sell ? — ^He sells 
his oxen. — ^Does the Englishman finish his note ? — ^He does finish 
it-'Wluch notes do you finish ? — ^I finish those which I write to 
my friends.-^Dost thou see any thing ? — ^I see nothing. — ^Do you 
see my large garden I — I do see it. — ^Does your father see our 
ships I— -He does not see them, but we see them. — ^How many 
soldiers do you see ? — We see a good many ; we see more than 
thirty. — ^Do you drink any thing ? — ^I drink some wine. — ^What 
does the sailor drink ? — ^He drinks some cider.— Do we drink wine 
or cider? — ^We drink wine and cider. — ^What do the Italians 
drink ? — ^They drink some coffee.-T-Do we drink wine ? — ^We do 
drink some.—- What art thou writing ? — ^I am writing a note. — ^To 
whom ? — ^To my neighbour. — ^Does your friend write ? — ^He does 
write. — ^To whom does he write ?-T-He writes to his tailor. — What 
are you going to do ? — ^I am going to write. — ^What is your father 
going to do ? — ^He is going to read.— What is he going to read ?«— 
He is going to read a book.— What are you going to give me ?— 
I am not going to give you any thing. — ^What is our friend going 
to give you ? — ^He is going to give me something good. — Do you 
^^w my friend ?«— I do know him. 



Do you write your notes in the evening ? — We write them in 
the morning. — What dost thou say ? — ^I say nothing. — ^Does your 
brother say any thing? — ^He says something. — ^What does he 
say ? — ^I do not know. — What do you say to my servant ? — ^I tell 
him to sweep the floor, and to go for some wine, bread, and 
cheese. — Do we say any thing? — ^We say nothing. — What does 
your friend say to the shoemaker ? — He tells him to mend his 
boots. — What do you tell the tailors ? — I tell them to make my 
clothes. — Dost thou go out ? — I do not go out. — ^Who goes out ?^ 
My brother goes out. — ^Where is he going ? — ^He is going to the 
garden. — ^To whom are you going ? — We are going to the good 
English. — ^What art thou reading ?— I am reading a note from 
my friend. — ^What is your father reading ? — ^He is reading a book. 
— ^What are you doing ?— We are reading.^-Are your children 
reading ?^-They are not reading ; they have no time to read.^- 
Do you read the books which I read ?— »I do not read those which 
you read, but those which your father reads. — ^Do you know this 
man? — ^I do not know him. — ^Does your friend know him? — ^He 
does know him.-^What is your friend going to do ? — He is not 
going to do any thing. 

Do you know my children ? — ^We do know them. — Do they 
know you ? — They do not know us. — With whom are you ac- 
quainted ? — ^I am acquainted with nobody. — ^Is any body acquaint- 
ed with you ? — Somebody is acquainted with me. — Who is ac- 
quainted with you ? — The. good captain knows me. — What dost 
thou eat? — I eat some bread. — ^Does not your son eat some 
cheese ? — ^He does not eat any. — ^Do you cut any thing ? — ^We 
cut some wood. — What do the merchants cut ? — They cut some 
cloth. — ^Do you send me any thing ? — ^I send you a good gun. — 
Does your father send you money ? — ^He does send me some.^ 
Does he send you more than I ? — He sends me more than you.— • 
How much does he send you ? — He sends me more than fifty 
crowns. — When do you receive your notes? — ^I receive them 
every morning. — ^At what o'cl xsk ? — At half-past ten.— Is your 
son coming ? — ^He is coming.— To whom is he coming ? — ^He is 

108 TWENTY -fOWTH L£Si301«. 

coming to me. — ^Do you come to me ? — ^I do not come to you, 
but to your children.-^Where is our friend going ?-— He is ffAng 
no where; he remains at home. — Are you going home/ — ^We 
are not going home, but to our friends. — Where are your fnends I 
— ^They are in their garden. — Are the Scotchmen in their gar- 
dens 1 — They are there. 


What do you buy 1 — ^I buy some knives. — ^Do you buy more 
knives than glasses? — ^I buy more of the latter than of the former. 
— How many horses does the German buy ? — ^He buys a good 
many ; he buys more than twenty of them. — ^What does your ser- 
vant carry I— He carries a large trunk. — ^Where is he carrying 
it ? — He is carrying it home. — ^To whom do you speak ? — ^I speak 
to the Irishman.— -Do you speak to him every day ? — ^I speak to 
him every morning and every evening. — ^Does he come to you I 
— ^He does not come to me, but I go to him. — ^What has your 
servant to do 1 — He has to sweep my floor and to set my books 
in order. — ^Does my father answer your notes? — ^He answers 
them. — ^What does your son break ? — ^He breaks nothing, but 
your children break my glasses. — ^Do they .tear any thing ? — 
They tear nothing.— Who bums my hat ?— Nobody bums it.— 
Are you looking for any body ? — ^I am not looking for any body. 
— ^What is my son looking fi>r ? — He is looking £>r his pocket- 
book. — What does your cook kill ? — He kills a chicken. 


Are you killing a bird ? — ^1 am killing one. — How many chick- 
ens does your cook kill ? — He kills three of them. — ^To whom do 
you take my boy ? — I take him to the painter. — When is the 
painter at home ? — He is at home every evening at seven o'clock. 
— What o'clock is it now ? — ^It is not yet six o'clock. — Do you go 
out in the evening ? — ^I go out in the morning. — Are you afraid 
to go out in the evening ? — I am not afraid, but I have no time 
to go out in the evening. — Do you work as much as your son ? — 
I do not work as much as he. — ^Does he eat as much as you ?^ 
He eats less than I. — Can your children write as many notes as 
my children? — They can write just as many. — Can the Russian 



drink as much wine as cider ? — He can drink more of the laUer 
than of the former. — When do our neighbours go out? — ^They go 
out every morning at a quarter to five. — Which note do you send 
to your father ? — I am sending him my own. — Do you not send 
mine? — ^I am sending it also. — To whom do you send your 
clothes ? — I send them to nobody ; [ want them. — ^To whom do 
your sons send their boots ? — They send them to no one ; they 
want them. 

*«* We should fill volumes were We to give all the exercifles that are appU- 
jable to our lessons, and which the pupils may very easily compose by them- 
selves. We shall, therefore, merely repeat what we have already mentioned at 
the commencement :— Pupils who wish to improve rapidly ought to compose a 
great many sentencca in addition to those given ; but they must pronounce 
them aloud. This is the only way by which they will acquire the habit of 
■peaking fluently. 

Lezione ventesima quirUa. 

To go to the play. 
To be at the play. 

Andare* alio spettacolo. 
Essere* alio spettacolo. 

To bring. 

To find. 
The butcher. 
The sheep. 

What^ or the thing which. 

Do yon And what you looic for (or 

what you are looking for)? 

1 And what I k>ok for. > 

I ilod what 1 am looking for. i 

{ Recare 1. 
I Poriare 1. 

Trovare 1. 

II maceUalo. 

II montone. 

c Cid che. 
< Quel che. 
' Quanto. 

Trova £Ua eld che cereal o 
vol quel che cercate 1 

Trovo cid che cerco. 



He does not find what he is looking 

We find what we look for. 
They find what they look for. 
I mend what yon mend. 

1 buy what yon bay. 

I pay what you pay. 
Are yon in want of money 1 
I am not in want of any. 
Do you take him to the play 7 
I do take him thither. 

Egli non trova dd ohe 

Troriamo cid che oerchfauna 
Egiino trovano dd che oereano. 
Asaetto dd che aaeetta Ella, aaselto 

od Bccomodo cid che Ella aaeetta. 
Compro quello che compra Ellk 

(comprate voi). 
Pago quanto paga EUa. 
Manca Ella di danaro 1 
Non ne manco. 

Lo condace Ella alio epettacolof 
Ve lo conduco. 

To study. 

Instead of. 

I Studiare 1. 

( In luogo di. 
( Invece di. 

Obi. In$Uad qf is in English foUowed by the present parttdple^ whilst in 
ItsUan it is followed by the infinitive. 

To play. 
To hear. 
Instead of listening. 

Instead of playing. 

Do you play instead of studying? 

I stndy instead of playing. 

That man speaks instead of listening. 

Giuoeare I. 
Ascoltare 1. 
Sentire 3. 
{ Invece d' ascoltare. 
I In loogo d' ascoltare. 
{ In luogo di giuoeare. 
I Invece di giuoeare. 
Oiuoca Ella inveoe di stodkrsl 
Studio invece di giuoeare. 
Ctuesti parla inveoe d' ascoltare. 

To ache. 
To complain. 
The finger. 
I complain — thou complainest. 
We complain — they complain. 
Tou complain — he complains. 
Have you a sore finger 1 
Have you the headache 7 
I have a sore finger. 
I have the headache. 

Has your brother a sore footi 
He has a sore eye. 
We have sore eyes. 




Bli dolgo or doglio — ti dnoU. 

Ci dogliamo ~ d dolgono. 

Vi delete — dduole. 

t Leduoleildito? 
t Le duole il capo (la testa) 1 
t H dito mi duole. 
t II capo (la testa) mi duole. Ho 

mal di testa, 
t Duole U piede al di Ld fratdtol 
t 6U duole V occhio. 
t Ci dolgono gli oochi. 



Tbe study (a closet). 

The desk. 

Tbe elbow. 


The arm. 

The knee. 
1 iMre a sore elbow. 
Tlioii hast a pain in thy baek. 
He baa a sore arm. 
Yon haYe a sore knee. 

Do yon lead instead of writing? 
Does yonr brother read Instead of 

Does the servant make the bed? 
He makes the fire instead of making 

the bed. 

To learn. 
To learn to read. 
I learn to read. 
He leans to write. 

Lo scrittoio. Lo studio. 

ho scrittoio. 

II gomito. 


U braccio (plur, le braceia). 

U ginocchio (plur, le ginocehia). 

Mi duole 11 gomito. 

Tl dude il dorso. 

Gli duole il braccio. 

Vi duole il ginocchio. 

Legge Ella invece di scriverel 
Legge il di Lei fratello invece di 

Egli & il fooeo inYOoe di fare fl 


Imparare 1. 
Impaiare a leggere. 
Imparo a leggere. 
Egil impara a scrivere. 



Do you go to the play this evening ? — ^I do not go to the play. 
—What have you to do 1 — ^I have to study. — At what o'clock do 
you go out ? — ^I do not go out in the evening. — Does your father 
go out ?— He does not go out. — ^What does he do? — He writes. — 
Does he write a book ? — He does write one. — ^When does he 
write it ? — He writes it i|i the morning and in the evening. — ^Is 
he at home now ? — ^He is at home (He is).— Does he not go out ? 
— He cannot go out ; he has a sore foot.-^Does the shoemaker 
bring our boots ?— He does not bring them. — ^Is he not able to 
work ? — ^He is not able to work ; he has a sore knee. — ^Has any 
body a sore elbow ? — My tailor has a sore elbow. — ^Who has a 
sore arm ? — ^I have a sore arm.-^Do you cut me some bread ?^ 
I cannot cut you any ; I have sore fingers (mi dogUono le dUa).-^ 
Do you read your book ? — I cannot read it ; I have sore eyes 
^mi dcghano gU occhi), — Who has sore eyes ? — The French have 


sore eyes. — ^Do they read too much ? — They do not read elioagn 
— ^What day of the month is it to-day ? — ^It is the third. — ^What day 
of the month is it to-morrow ? — ^To-morrow is the fourth.— Are you 
looking for any one ?'— I am not looking for any one. — What is 
the painter looking for? — He is not looking for any thing.— 
Whom are you looking for ? — I am looking for your son.— Have 
you any thing to tell him ? — I have something to tell him.-^What 
have you to tell him ? — I have to tell him to go to the play this 

Who is looking for me ? — ^Your father is looking for you. — ^Is 
any hody looking for my brother ? — Nobody is looking for him. 
Dost thou find what thou art looking for ? — ^I do find what I am 
looking for. — ^Does the captain find what he is looking for ?-*He 
finds what he is looking for, but his children do not find what 
they are looking for. — What are they looking for ? — ^They are 
looking for their books. — ^Where dost thou take me to? — ^I take 
you to the theatre. — Do you not take me to the market ?-»I do 
not take you thither. — ^Do the Spaniards find the umbrellas which 
they are looking for ? — ^They do not find them.^Does the tailor 
find his thimble ? — ^He does not find it. — ^Do the merchants find 
the cloth which they are looking for ? — ^They do find it.— What 
do the butchers find ? — They find the oxen and sheep which they 
are looking for. — What does your cook find ? — ^He finds the chick- 
ens whfch he is looking for. — What is the physician doing ?^ 
He is doing what you are doing. — What is he doing in his study I 
— He is reading. — ^What is he reading ? — ^He is reading your 
father's book. — ^Whom is the Englishman looking for ?— He is 
looking for his friend, in order to take him to the garden. — ^What 
is the German doing in his study ? — He is learning to read. — 
Does he not learn to write ? — He does not learn it (P impara). — 
Does your son learn to write ? — He learns to write and to read. 


Does the Dutchman speak instead of listening ? — He speaks 

mstead of listening. — ^Do you go out instead of remaining at 

home ? — I remain at home instead of going out. — Does your son 

play instead of studying ? — He studies instead of playing.— -When 


does he study I — ^He studies every day. — In the morning or in the 
eyening ? — ^Tn the morning and in the evening. — Do you buy an 
umbrella instead of buying a book ? — I buy neither the one nor 
the other. — ^Does our neighbour break his sticks instead of break, 
ing his glasses ? — He breaks neither. — What does he break ? — 
He breaks his guns. — Do the children of our neighbour read ? — 
They read instead of writing. — What is our cook doing ? — He 
makes a fire instead of going to the market. — Does the captain 
give you any thing 1 — He does give me something. — ^What does 
he give you 1 — He gives me a great deal of money. — Does he 
give you money^ instead of giving you bread ? — He gives me 
money and bread. — Does he give you more cheese than bread ? 
-»He gives me less of the latter than of the former. 

Do you give my friend less knives than gloves ? — I give him 
more of the latter than of the former. — What does he give you ? 
— ^He gives me many books instead of giving me money .-^Does 
your servant make your bed ? — He does not make it. — What is 
he doing instead of making your bed ? — He sweeps the study in 
stead of making my bed. — Doos he drink instead of working ?* 
He works instead of drinking. — ^Do the physicians go out ? — ^They 
remain at home instead of going out. — Does your servant make 
coffee ? — He makes tea instead of making coffee. — ^Does any one 
lend you a gun? — ^Nobody lends me one. — What does your, 
friend lend me ? — He lends you many books and many jewels.-^ 
Do you read the books which I read 1 — I do not read the one 
which you read, but the one which the great captain reads.— -Are 
you ashamed to read the books which I read ? — I am not ashamed^ 
but I have no wish to read them. 


Secondo mtse. 

Leziane veniesima sesta. 

Do you letxn French 7 

I do learn it« 
I do not learn it. 

The Pole. 

The Roman. 


The Aral^ the Arabian. 

The Syrian. 

( Impara Ella il franceael 

I Impara Ella V idioma firanoetB (ei 

^ la lingua f ranoeee) 7 

L' imparo. 

Non r imparo. 




L' ingleae. 



« Italian. 



Lo spagnuolo. 


11 poloneae. 




11 UUno. 



Arabian, Arabic. 


Syrian, Syriac 

II siriaco. 

I learn ItaUan. 

Imparo V italiano. 

If y brother learns German. 

HiolrateUo impara 

II Polacco. 
II Romano. 
II Greco. 
L* Arabo. 
II Siriaco. 

A re you an EdgUahman 7 I fe Ella Inglese 7 

No, Sir, I am a Frenchman. | No, Signore, sono Francese. 

()h9. A. When the indefinite article is used in English to denote qnalltlea, 
ha Italians make use of no article. 



He la a Gennan. 

la he a tailor? 

No^ he is a ahoemaker. 

Egll i Tedeaeo. 


No, egU i calaolaio. 

The fool. II PI12Z0. 

He ia a fool. EgU a pazzo. 

The eyening. , La aera. 

The day. 

{ IIgiomo(Ud!). 

^Denderare 1. 

To wish. 

Dare* (conjugated Lesson 

Augurare 1. 

i wiah yon a good morning. 

Le do (auguro) U buon giomo. 

Obg. B. Often the indefinite article in Engliah anawera to the definite 

article fai Italian. ' 

Does he wish me a good eTenlng 1 

Hi da (augnra) egli'to buona sera? 

He wishes you a good morning. 

Egli Le da (angura) U bnon giomo. 

He liaa a large noae. 

Egli ha il naao grande. 

He haa bine eyea. 

Egli ha^/t occhi azzorri. 



Nero, negro. 

Long. Lungo. 

A large knife. 

tin coltellone. 

A large man. 

Tin ttomone. 

A French book. 

Un libro franceae. 

Un Ubro ingleae. 

French money. 

Danaro Irancese. 

Engliah soap. 

Sapone faiglese. 

Do yon read a German book? 

Legge Ella un libro tedeaeo ? 

I read an Italian book. Leggo un libro itajiano. 

To listen to some one. 

To listen to something. 

What or the thing which. 
Do you Uaten to what the man telle 

t qualcuno. 
f AscoUare \uho. 

f AscoUare <.quakhecosa. 
( alcuna cosa, 
Cid che, fuel che^ ^[uanio, 
i Aacolta EUa cid che 1* 1000 Le 



I listen to it 

He Ustens tolvitti ^11 him. 
Do you listen io whst I tell you 1 
Do you listen to met 

I do listen Io you. 
Do you listen io my brother? 
I do not listen to him. 
Do you listen to the men 1 
I listen to them. 

t L' ascolto. 

t Egli ascolta cid che gli dieo. ^ 
t Ascolta Ella quel cbe Le dieo 1 
t fii ascolta {or «n' ascolta) EUal 

mi ascoltate voi 1 
t La ascolto {or L' ascolto). 
t Ascolta Ella mio frateUol 
t Non r ascolto. 
t Ascolta Ella guegU uominit 
t Li ascolto. 

To take away. 

To take off. 
Do you take your ha: offi 
I taice it off. 

Does he take off his coat? 
He does take it off. 
He does not take it off. 
Do your cliildren take off their boots? 

They do take them off. 
Vott take your gloves off 

We take off our glovet. 
We take them off. 

Portar vm llevare) 1. 

Levarn 1. 

t Si leva Ella ilcappello? 

t Helolevo. 

t Levaai egO I* ablto ? 

t Se Io leva. 

t Non se Io leva. 

t Si levano git ativaU i di Lei Cm- 

t Se U levano. 
( Ella si leva i guanti. 
C Vi levate i guanti. 

t Ci leviamo i guanti. 

t Ce U leviamo. 

Correggere^ 2. 
Corregge i dl Lei temi suo padre? 

II tema. 

To correct. 
Does your .father correct your exer- 

The exercise. 

Ob9. C. There an in Italian many nouns terminated in a, for the moat part 
derived from the Greek, which ara masculine. 

The exercises. I I temi. 

He corrects them. I ISgU U corregge. 

To speak French. 

To speak English. 
Do yon speak French? 
No, Sir, I apeak English. 

To take. 

To dilnk coffee 

Parlare francese. 
Parlare inglese. 
Parla Ella francese t 
No, Signore, parlo ing^eae. 

Prendere* (regular in the 

r t Prcndere U cafii. 
1 1 Prendere dot caii2 {or simply pren- 



To drink tea. 

Do yon drink tea 1 

I do drink some. 

Do you drink tea every day 1 

I drink some every day. 

My father drinka coffee. 

He drinks cofiee every morning. 

My brother drinks tea. 

He drinka tea every moming. 

To take away. 
Who takes away the book 1 
The Frenchman takes it away. 
Does any one take away the 

j t Prendere U td. 

1 1 Prendrre dd ti (pretidero id). 

t PrendeEUadflta? 

t Ne prendo. 

t Prende Ella U ii ogni giomol 

t Lo prendo ogni giorno. 

t Mlo padre prende del cafid. 

t Prende U cafid ogni mattina. 

t Mt& fratello prende del td. 

t Prende U td ogni mattina. 


No one takes them away. i 

What do you take away 1 . 

1 take away your boots and your 

brother's clothes. I 

Poriar via. 
Lo porta via il Francese. 
Ctualcuno porta via i bicchieri 1 Porta 

via qualcuno i biccliieri? 
Nessuno li porta via. 
Che cosa porta te via? 
Porto via i di Lei stivali ^ i vestiti 

del di Lei frateilo. 



Do you go for any thing ?-^I do go for something.— What do 
yoii go for ? — ^I go for some cider. — ^Does your father send for any 
thing? — ^He sends for some wine. — ^Does your servant go for 
some bread ?-— He goes for some.-^For whom does your neigh* 
hour send ? — ^He sends for the physician. — ^Does your servant take 
off his coat in order to make the ifire ? — He does take it off in 
order to make it. — ^Do you take off your gloves in order to give 
me some money ? — ^I do take them off in order to give you some. 
— Do you learn French ? — ^I do learn it. — Who learns English ? 
— The Frenchman learns it. — Does your brother learn German ? 
—He does learn it. — ^Do we leam Italian ? — ^You do learn if. — 
What do the English leam ? — ^They leam French and German. 
— ^Do you speak Spanish ? — ^No, Sir, I apeak Italian. — Who speaks 
Polish ?— ^My brother speaks Polish. — ^Do our neighbours speak 
Russian? — They do not speak Russian, but Arabic. — ^Do you 
speak Arabic ? — No^ I speak Greek and Latin. — What knite have 
you ?— I have an Englidi knife. — ^W^hat money have you there ? 


Is it Italian or Spanish money f— It Is Russian money.— Have 
you an Italian hat ? — ^No, I have a Spanish hat.-— lAre you an 
Bnglishman ? — ^No, I am a Frenchman. — ^Are you a Greek ? — 
No, I am a Spaniard. 


Are these men Grermans? — No, they are Russinng. -Do the 
Russians speak Polish ? — They do not speak Polish, hut Latin, 
Greek, and Arabic. — ^Is your brother a merchant ? — ^No, he is a 
joiner. — ^Are these men merchants ?— No, they are carpenters.-^ 
Are you a cook ? — ^No, I am a baker.— Are we tailors ? — ^No, we 
are shoemakers. Art thou a fool ? — ^I am not a fool. — ^What is 
that man 1 — He is a physician. — ^Do you wish me any thing I-* 
I wish you a good morning. — ^What does the young man wUi 
me ? — He wishes you a good eveaing. — ^Do your children come to 
me in order to wish me a good evening 1 — ^Th^ oome to you in 
order to wish you a good morning. — ^Has the Grerman black eyes ? 
— No, he has blue eyes. — Has this man large feet ? — He has little 
feet and a large nose. — Have you time to read my book ? — I have 
no time to read it, but much courage to study Italian. — ^What dost 
thou do instead of playing ? — ^I study instead of playing.— Dost 
thou learn instead of writing ?^-I write instead of learning. — 
What does the son of our friend do ?•— He goes into the garden 
instead of doing his exercises.— Do the children of our neighbours 
read ? — ^They write instead of reading. — ^What does our coc^ ? 
— ^He makes a fire instead of going to the market. — ^Does your 
father sell his ox ? — ^He sells his horse instead of selling hii ox. 

Does the son of the painter study English ? — ^He studies Greek 
instead of studying English. Does the butcher kill oxen? — ^He 
kills sheep instead of killing oxen. — ^Do you listen to me ? — ^I do 
listen to you. — ^Does your brother listen to me 7 — ^He speaks instead 
of listening to you.— Do you listen to what I am telling you ? — ^I 
do listen to what you are telling roe. — ^Dost thou listen to what thy 
brother tells thee ? — I do listen to it. — ^Do the children of the phy- 
sician listen to what we tell them ? — ^They do not listen to it.— Do 
you go to the theatre ? — ^I am going to the warehouse instead of 
going to the theatre.-— Are you willing to read my book ? — ^I am 


willing to read it, but not now ; I have sore eyes. Does your 
father correct my exercises or those of my brother ?-*He corrects 
neither yours nor those of your brother.— Which, exercises does 
he correct ? — ^He oorrecta mine. — ^Do you take off your hat in 
order to speak to my faiher ? — ^I do not take it off in order to 
speak to him.— ^Do you take off your boots ? — ^I do not take them 
off.— Who takes off his hat I — My friend takes it off.^-Does he 
take off his gloves? — ^He does not take them off. — What do these 
boys take off? — They takeoff their boots and their clothes. — Who 
takes away the glasses? — Your servant takes them away. — ^What 
do your children take awsgr ? — ^They take away the books and my 
notes. — ^What do you take, away? — ^I take away nothing. — ^Do we 
take away any thing ? — ^We take away our father's penknife and 
our brothers' trunks. — Do you give roe English or German cloth ?— 
I give you neither English nor German cloth ; I give you French 
cloth. — ^Do you read Spanish ? — ^I do not read Spanish, but Ger- 
man. — ^What book is your brother reading?— He b reading a 
French book. Do you drink tea or coffee in the morning ? — ^I 
drink tea. — ^Do you drink tea every morning? — I drink some 
every morning. — ^What do you drink ? — ^I drink coffee. — What 
does your brother drink ? — He drinks tea. — ^Does he drink some 
every morning ? — ^He drinks some every morning. — ^Do your chil- 
dren drink tea ? — They drink coffee instead of drinking tea.— 
What do we drink ?-— We drink tea or coffee. 

Lezione veniesima seitima. 

To wely to moUten. 
To show. 
I show. 

Bagnare 1. 
( Mostrere 1. 
I Far vedere. 

Facdo vederab Mottro. 



Thou showesi. 
He shows. 

To show some one. 

Do yon show me your gun 7 

I do show it you. 

What do you show the roan'Z 

I show him my fine clothes. 

The tobacco. 
Tobacco (for smoking). 


To smoke. 
Hie gardener. 
The Talet. 
The concert 

To intend. 

The ball. 

Do yon Intend to go to the ball this 

I intend to go thither. 

Pal vedere. 
Fa vedere. 




jHifaElhivedere I 
( Mi mostra EUa 1 

11 dl Lei schiop- 
pol o volete 
mostrarmi U 
voetro schiop- 

Glielo faccio vedere. 

Che taostra Ella all' uomol 

Oil mostro i miei begli Mtl 

II tabacco. 

Del tabacco da fumare. 
{ Del tabacco In polvere. 
c Del tabacco da naso. 

Fumare 1. 
II cameriere. 
U concerto. 

; Pensare 1. i ^^ °°* ^^ • P"P^ 
[lntendere*2,3 -J^on before the 

^ C infinitive. 
[ n hallo. 

i La festa da ballo. 
Pensa EUa andare alia festa da ballo 

stassera (or qnesta sera) 1 
Penso andarci. 

To know. 
To sufim. 
Do you know haw to swim 1 

Sapere* 2. (Lesson XXIV). 
Nuotare 1. 

Ob§. 7b know is in English followed by how to before the infinitive, whilst 
n Italian the infinitive joined to the verb tapere is not preceded by any particle. 
Do you know how to write 7 I Sa Ella scrivere 7 

Does he kn'ow how to read 1 | Saegli leggere 7 

To etXtinguish. 
Do you extinguish the fire 7 
I do extinguish it. 
He extinguishes it. 
Thou extinguishest it. 

Spegnere* 2 (or spengere* 2) 
Spegne Ella il fuoco 7 
Non lo spengo. 
Egli lo spegne. 
Tu lo spegni. 


TV iighi^ fn kindle. \ Ateendertl* 2. 


]>• yoa •ften go to the ball 7 

As often M yon. 

Am often es I. 
As often es he. 

As often as they. 

Do yoa often see my father 1 

I eee him oftener than yon. 

Not so often. 

Not so often asyon. 
Not so often as^L 
Not so often as they. 

Spesso {spesse tfoUe, sooente)^ 
Ya Ella speaeo alia festa da baK^t 

fCori apeaao che Lei, o tanto speaeo 
qnanto yoi. 
Cok spesso come LeL 
Speaeo qoanto Lei. 
Cosi epesso che me. 
. Cosispe^^ come InL 
< Cos) spesao come lonK 
( Speaeo come lore. 

Vede Ella spesso mio padre Y 
Piu spesso. 
Lo vedo pih speaeo di Lei. 

( Meno spesso. 
i Non tanlo spesso. 

Meno aorente dl Lei. 

Meno speaeo di me. 

Meno spesao di loro. 


What does your father want 1 — ^He wants some tobaooo. — ^Will 
you go for some ? — ^I will go for some. — ^What tobaooo does he 
want ? — ^He wants some snuff.^^Do you want tobacco (for smok- 
ing) ? — I do not want any ; I do not smoke. — ^Do you show me 
any thing ? — ^I show you gold ribbons (dei nasiri d' oro). — ^Does 
your father show his gun to my brother? — ^He does show it him. 
•^Does he show him his beautiful birds ? — ^He does show them to 
him. — ^Doea the Frenchman smoke ?— <fie does not smoke. Do 
you go to the ball ? — I go to the theatre, instead of going to the 
ball. — ^Does the gardener go into the garden ? — ^He goes to the 
market instead of going into the garden.^— Do you send your valet 
{il cameriere) to the tailor ? — ^I send him to the shoemaker instead 
of sending him to the tailor. — ^Doea your brother intend to go to 
the ball this evening 1 — He does not intend to go to the ball, but 



to the concert— When do you intend to go to the concert ? — ^1 in, 
tend to go there this evening. — At vhat o'clock ? — At a quartef 
past ten. — ^Do you go for my son ? — ^I do go for him. — ^Where is 
he ? — He is in the counting-house. — ^Do you find the man whom 
you are looking ibr? — ^I do find him. — Do your sons find the 
friends whom they are lookiog for ?— They do not find them. 


Do your friends intend to go to the theatre ? — ^They do intend 
to go thither. — When do they intend to go thither ? — ^They intend 
to go — ^At what o'clock? — At half past seven. , 
— What does the merchant wish to sell you ? — He wishes to sell 
me some pocket-books. — Do you intend to buy some f — ^I will not 
buy any. — Dost thou know any thing ? — ^I do not know any thing. 
— What does your little brother know ? — He knows how to write 
and to read ? — ^Does he know French ? — He does not know it. — 
Do you know Grerman ? — ^I do know it. — ^Do your brothers know 
Greek ? — ^They do not know it, but they intend to study it. — Do 
you know English ? — ^I do not know it, but I intend to learn it. — 
Do my children know how to read Italian 1 — ^They know how to 
read, but not how to speak it. — ^Do you know how to swim ? — I 
do not know how to swim, but how to play. — ^Does your son know 
how to make coats ? — He does not know how to make any ; h^ is 
no tailor. — Is he a merchant ? — He is not {non V e). — What is 
he ? — He is a physician. — ^Do you intend to study Arabic ?— -1 do 
intend to study Arabic and Syriac. — Does the Frenchman know 
Russian? — ^He does not know it, but he intends learning it — 
Whither are you going ? — ^I am going into the garden in order to 
speak to my gardener. — ^Does he listen to you ? — ^He does listen 
to me. 


Do you wish to drink some cider ? — ^I wish to drink some wine ; 
have you any ? — I have none ; but I will send for some. — ^When 
will you send for some ? — ^Now.— Do you know how to make tea ? 
I know how to make some. — ^Where is your father going ? — He 
.goes no where ; he remains at home. — Do you know how to 
write a note ? — I know how to write one. — Can you write exer- 
uisesl — I can write spme. — Dost thou Conduct any body? — I 


«oiidaot nobody. — ^Whom do you conduct ? — ^I oonduct my son. 
'—Where do you oonduct him? — ^I conduct him to my friends to 
{per) wish them a good morning. — Does your servant conduct 
your child ? — ^He conducts htm.— Whither does he conduct it ?— 
He conducts it into the gwden. — ^Do we conduct any one ? — ^We 
conduct our diiidren. — ^Whither are our friends conduothig their 
sons f— They are conducting them home. 


Do yoa extinguish the fire ? — ^I do not extinguish it.^-Does 
your servant light the fire ? — ^He does light it. — ^Where does he 
light it ? — He lights it in your warehouse. — ^Do you often go to 
the Spaniard ? — ^I go often to him. — Bo yOu go oftener to him 
than I ? — ^I go oftener to him than you^^ — ^Do the Spaniards often 
come to you?—- They do come often to me. — ^Do your children 
oftener go to the ball than we ?— Theiy do go thither oftener than 
you.— Do we go out as often as our neighbours 1— We do go out 
oftener than they. — ^Does your servant go to the market as often 
as my cook ? — ^He does go thither as often as he^— Do you see 
my father as often as I ? — ^I do not see him as often as you.— 
When do you see him ?— I see him every morning at a quarter 
to five. 

Leziane ventesitna otiava. 

We have aeen in many of the foregoing leMons and ezerdaea that the Italians 
have no particular way to construe interrogative lentences ; all depends on the 
tone with which the sentence is pronounced. The English interrogative aux- 
iliaries, da and am, therefore, arsBot generally rendered in Italian. Sometimes 
rhey may be rendered by forte, which sigitifiesptHk^w, why, as wiU be seen 
by the following examples .— • 


Do I wlshl 
Am I doing 7 

T\V£NTV.KI«iH 'H LiiS30!f. 


( Voglio fonel 

j P0880 7 


S Paceio (or fo) 1 

CFaccio forte? 

What am I doing? 


Wliera am I going to? 
To whom do I speak ? 

Am I going? 

Am I coming? 
You are coming. 
Do you tell or aay ? 
I do say or tell. 
He says or tells. 
Wliat does he say? 
We say. 
Uo I speak? 
Do I love or like ? 

( Coaa facdo ? 
^ Che dico ? 

Ore Yado ? 

A cU parlo ? 

Vado? Vadoforse? 

Vengo ? Vengo forse 7 


Dice Ella? 



Che dice egtt? 


Parlo 7 Parlo forse 7 

Amo ? Amo forse 7 

Are you acquainted with that man 7 

I am not acquainted with him. 

Is your brother acquainted with him? 

Uti is acquainted with him. 

Do you drink dder? 

I do drink dder, but my brother drinks 

Do you receive a note to-day 7 

] do receive one. 

What do we receive? 

What do our children recdve 7 

They vecdve some books. 

ConosoeEllacolul? oqaeir4iomoY 

Non lo conosco. 

Lo conosoe il di Lei fratello 7 

Egli lo conosce. 

Beve Ella del cidro? 

Bevo del ddro, ma mio frateUo bera 
del vino. 

Riceve Ella oggi un biglietto ? 
( Ne ricevo uno. 
I Lo ricevo.^ 


Che ricevono i nostri ftncinUI? 

fiaai rioovono del UbrL 

To hegin^ to commence. 
I begin to speek. 

SFrincipiare 1. 
Cominciare 1 (incondneiare). 
Prindpio (incominclo) a parlare. 

1 l/no, in the sense of an indefinite article, can in Italian never stand at the 
end of a sentence; in its stead the pronoun is used before the verb^ or joined 
10 it. 




Do yon speak More you Ustcn 1 
Does he go to the market before he 

( Prima dS.. 

< Innanxi di {che). 

( AvanH di, 

Parla EUa prima d' aacoltarel 
Va egU al mercato prima di &r cola 

To breakfast. | 

He goes thither before he writes. 
Do you take off your gloves before you i 
take oiT your bOoU 7 

Far colathne. 
Egli d ya prima di scrlvere. 
Si leva EUa i guanti prima di levars! 

To depart, to set out. 

When do you intend to depart 1 
I intend to depart to-morrow. 


Do I speak well? 
You do not speak badly 

Partire* d (regular in Pres* 

Quando pensa EUa partire 1 
Penso partire domani 

EUa non parla 

Does your brother know ItaUan 7 ' 1 Sa T itaUano U di Lei frateUo 1 
ObB. When a tense of a verb is a monosyUable, or when it has the accent on 

the last syllable, the pronoun may follow it, but the consonant must be doubled. 

This appties more generaUy to poetry than prose. Ex. 

He knows IL . Egli saUo (instead of h so). 

Who knows EngUsh 7 I Chi sa P Inglese 1 

My father knows it. | Mio padre saUo(/o fs is more elegant). 



Do I read well ? — ^You do read well. — ^Do I speak welt ? — You 
do not speak well. — ^Does ray brother speak French well ? — He 
speaks it well. — ^Does be speak German well? — ^He speaks it 
badly. — Do we speak well ? — ^You speak badly. — Do I drink too 
much ? — ^You do not drink enough. — Am I able to make hats ?— 
You are not able to make any ; you are not a hatter.— -Am I able ^ 
to wrilc a note ? — ^You are able to write one. — Am I doing my 
exercise well ? — ^You are doing it well. — What am I doing ?— You 


are doing exercises.— What is my brother doing ? — He is dping 
nothing. — Whut do I say 1 — ^You say nothing. — Do I begin to 
speak ? — ^You do begin to speak. — ^Do I begin to speak well ? — 
You do not begin to spaak well (a parlar hene)^ but^to read well 
(ma a legger bene). — ^Where am I going ? — ^You are going to 
your friend. — ^Is he at home ? — ^Do I know ? — ^A«n I able to speak 
as often as the son of our neighbour ? — ^He is able to speak oftener 
than you. — Can I work as much as he? — You cannot work as 
much as he. — ^Do I read as often as you ? — You do not read as 
often as I, but you speak oftener than I. — ^Do I speak as well 
{cost bene) as you ? — ^You do not speak so well as I. — ^Do I go 
(vengo) to you, or do you come to me ? — ^You come to me, and I 
go (vengo) to you. — When do you cOme to me ? — ^Every morning 
at half past six. 

88. ^ 

Do you know the Russian whom I know ? — I do not know the 
one you know, but I know another. — Do you drink as much cider 
as wine ? — I drink less of the latter than of the former. — ^Does 
the Pole drink as much as the Russian l—iie drinks just as 
much. — ^Do the Germans drink as much as the Poles? — ^The 
latter drink nu>re than the former. — Dost thou receive any thing? 
—I do receive something. — ^What dost thou receive ? — I receive 
some money. — ^Does your friend receive books ? — He does receive 
some. — ^What do we receive ? — We receive some cider. — ^Do the 
Poles receive tobacco ? — ^They do receive some. — ^From whom (da 
chi) do the Spaniards receive money ? — They receive some from 
the (degV) English, and from the (dai) French. — ^Do you receive 
as many friends as enemies ? — ^I receive less of the latter than of 
the former. — From whom (da cM) do your children receive 
books*? — ^They receive some from me and from their friends. 
— Do I receive as much cheese as bread ? — ^You receive more of 
the latter than of the former. — ^Do our servants receive as many 
waistcoats as coats ? — ^They receive less of the latter than of the 
former. — ^Do you receive one more gun ? — ^I do receive one more. 
* — How many more books does our neighbour receive ? — He re 
ccives threa more. 



When does the foreigner intend to depart ? — ^He intends to de- 
part to-day. — ^At what o'clock ? — At half past one. — ^Do you in- 
tend to depart this evening ? — ^I intend to depart to-morrow. — 
Does the Frenchman depart to-day ? — He departs now. Where 
is he going to ? — He is going to his friends. — Is he going to the 
English ? — He is going to them (ci va), — ^Dost thou set out to- 
morrow ? — I set out this evening. — When do you intend to write 
to your friends ? — ^I intend to write to them to-day. — ^Do your 
friends answer you ? — They do answer me. — Does your father 
answer your note ? — He answers it. — Do you answer my broiners' 
notes ? — I do answer them. — ^Does your brother begin to learn 
Italian? — He begins to learn it. — Can you speak French? — ^I 
can speak it a little. — Do our friends begin to speak German ? 
— ^^^y ^^ begin to speak it. — ^Are they able to write it ? — They 
are TOe to write it. — Does the merchant begin to sell ? — He does 
begin. — ^Do you speak before you listen ? — ^I listeh before I speak. 
— Does your brother listen to you before he speaks ? — ^He speaks 
before he listens to me. — Do your children read before they 
write? — ^They write before they read. 


Does your servant sweep the warehouse before he goes to the 
market ? — He goes to the market before he sweeps the warehouse. 
— Dost thou drink before thou goest out ? — I go out before I drink. 
— ^Do you intend to go out before you ~ breakfast ? — I intend 
to breakfast before I go out. — ^Does your son take off his boots 
before he takes off his coat? — ^He neither takes off hb boots 
nor his coat. — Do I take off my gloves before I take off my hat ? 
— ^You take off your hat before you take off your gloves. — Can 
I take off my boots before I take off my gloves ? — ^You can- 
not take off your boots before you take off your gloves.-4-At 
what o'clock do you bfeakfast ? — ^I breakfast at half past eight. — 
At what o'clock does the American breakfast ? — He breakfasts 
every day at nine o'clock. — At what o'clock do your children 
breakfast ? — They breakfast at seven o'clock. — ^Do you go to my 
iathcr before you breakfast ? — ^I go to him before 1 breakfast. 

Lezione veniesima nona. 

We hare teen (Lessons XVI and XXVILI that the comparatlye of equality 
\f. formed bj came^ tanto^ quanio, altreitanto, eoais ^the comparatiye of superiority 
b> pUtt and that of minority by fwno. As for the superlatire, it is formed by 
changing the last vowel of the a4jective for the masculine into iuimo, and for 
the feminine into uHma. Ex. 





more learned, most learned. 


pih dotto. 






piik povero, 






pih savio. 



more pious, 

most pious. 


piii pio, 






piii ricco. 






pii)i fresco. 






pi& largo. 




most often. 


pih spesso, 


Oba, A. From these examples it may be seen that the snperlatiye is always 
formed by joining to the a4jective in the plural the syllable aftnio. 

Oba, B. The relative superlative, L e. when the article Hu is joined to moH 
or UaH^ la expressed by U piitt U mma, for the masculine, pnd by la ptd, la mtnot 
for the feminine. Ex. 

The greatest 
The smallest 
The finest 
The leaQt^ne. 

n pih grande. 
n meno grande. 
11 meno bello. 

This book is small, that ii smaller, and 
this U the smaUest of all 

This hat is large, but that is larger. 

Is your hat as large as mlnel 

It is larger than yours. 
tt is not so large as yours. 
Are our neighbour's children as good 
as ours 1 

Questo libro d piccolo, qudlo d pilk 

piccolo e ootesto d il pih piccolo di 

Clnesto cappello d grande, ma quello 

d piil grande. 
II di Lei cappello d cos) grande come 

k pih grande del di Let 
& meno grande del di Lei. 
I fimciuUi del nostro vidno sono cod 

savi come i nostril 

1 Many grammarians form the plural of jovto into Mvt, instead of mvjC 
According to this formation the superlative- would be mnitdmo, Instead of 



itey are better than ours. * 

Tbeif are not so good as ours. 

Re is the happiest man in the world. 

SflB9 pift sst! dei noatti 
Soul) meno savi dei nostri. 
Egli d fl piik felioe degli uomini (er 

A yery fine book. 
Very fine books. 
A yery pretty kniie. 

I Un belUaaiad Ilbro. 
I Dei belUssiml librl. 
I Un leggiadrlssimo colteila 

That man is extremely learned. | Questi d dottissimo. 

This Urd is very pretty. | Ctuesto uccello d vexxosissimo. 

Obt. Cf. MoUo and tumd serre also to form absolute superlatives. < Ex. 

Very wise. I Molto savio. 

Very large. I Assai grande. 

Ofrs. D, The prefix orei also senres to form an absolute superlative. Ex. 

Very handsome. i Arcibello. 

Extremely long. I Arcilunghlssimo. 

ObB, E. To some words the particle ttra may be prefixed to form an absoluts 
superlative. Ex. 

Over rich. I Straricco. 

Over done (cooked). I Straootto. 

Obs, F, The ibIlDwIng a^jectivea are irregular In the formation of their 

comparatives and superlatives i 

Gk>od, better^ 

Bad, worse, the worst 

Great, greater, gieatest 

Little, less, the least 

PoaUive, Comparathe. Sttpertatige. 
Boono, migUore, ottimo. 
Cattivo, peggiore, pessimo. 
Grande, magglore, massimo. 
Piccolo, minore, minimo. 




the best Bene, 






TIm least noise hurts me. 
The least thing hurts him. 

II minimo strepito mi h, 
La minima oosa gli fit male. 

06ff. G. In Italian the tepetition of the positive forms a superlative. Ex. 
A very leaned man. i Un uomo dotto dotto. 

The weather is very cold. { II tempo dfttsddofireddo. 

This seems to me most ugly. Ctuesto mi sembra brutto bmtto 

She is the finest woman in the world. E la bella delle belle. 

Obs. B. Superlative adverbs are lormed by joining to the a4jective In 
Hhm plural the terminatloo ssCmoiiunic. Ex. 




Learned — inoet learnedly. 
Prudent — most prudently. 
— moat richly. 

Dv tio — doMlwimamenCe. 
Prudtnte ^- pmd— tlaalmamente 
Ricoo — rtochkdmamenta. 


It la my brother'a hat 
It ia the hat of my brother. 
It ia my brother'a. 
Who haa the fineat hat1 j 

Whoaehatiathefineati \ 

That of my father ia the fineat. 
Whoae ribbon la the handaomer, 

Do yon read aa often aa II 

I read oftenor than you. 

Doea ha read aa often aa II 

Ha reada and writea aa often aa you. 

Do your chlldran write aa lanch aa 

Th«y write more than you. 

_ • 

We read more than the children of our 

To whom do you write. 
We write to our friesda. 
We read good hooka. 

Di chi f 

Di chi d queato eappeUo 1 


E U oappelio di mio frateUo. 

Chi ha U pih bel oappelio 1 

Quello di mio padre d il pii)i bello. 
dual d il pih bel naatro, U di Lei, i 

Legge Ella coal apeaao come io 7 
Leggo piii apeaao di Lei. 
Legge egll coai apeaao come io 1 
EgU legge e acrive coal apeaao come 

Ella {or legge e acrive apeaao al 

pari di Lei). 
Scrivono qnanto noi 1 di Lei fiui 

figlino aer^ono pi& di Loro, or plh 

di Vol 
Noi leggiamo piili del lanciuIU del 

noatri amicL 
Scriviamo ai noatri amicL 
Leggiamo del buoni libri. 


Whose book is this ?— It is mine.— Whose hat is that ?— It is 
my father's. — ^Are you taller than I ? — ^I am taller than you. — Is 
your brother as tall as you ? — ^He is as tall as I. — ^Is thy hat as 
bad as that of my father ? — ^It is better, but not so black as his. — 
Are the clothes of the Italians as fine as those of the Irish ? — They 
are finer, but not so good. — Who have the finest gloves ? — The 
French have them. — Who has the finest horses ? — Mine are fine» 


yours are finer than nfine ; but those of our fiiends are the finest 
of all. — ^Is your horse good ? — It is good, but yourd is better, and 
that of the Englishman is the best of all the horses which we 
know. — Have you pretty boots ? — ^I have very pretty ones, but 
my brother has. prettier than I. — ^From whom (da chi) does he 
receive them ? — He receives them from his best friend. 


Is your wine as good as mine ? — It is better. — ^Does your mer- 
chant sell good knives ? — He sells the best knives that I know 
{che eonoscay subjunctive). — ^Do we read more books than the 
French ? — We read more than they ; but the English read more 
than we, and the German^ read the most (t piu). — Hast thou ' a 
finer garden than that of our physician ? — ^I have a finer one than « 
he (del suo), — Has the American a finer stick than thou ? — ^He 
has a finer one. — ^Have we as fine children as our neighbours ? — 
We have finer ones. — ^Is your coat as pretty as mine ? — ^It is not 
so pretty, but better than yours. — ^Do you depart to-day ? — ^I do 
not depart to-day. — ^When does your father set out ? — He sets out 
this evening at a quarter to nine. — Which of these two children 
is the better (savio) ? — The one who studies is better than the one 
who plays. — Does your servant sweep as well as mine ? — ^He 
sweeps better than yours. — Does the Englishman read as many 
bad books as good ones ? — ^He reads more good than bad ones. 


Do the merchants sell more sugar than oofifee ? — ^They sell 
more of the latter than of the former. — ^Does your shoemaker 
make as many boots as mine ? — He makes more than yours. — 
Can you swim as well (con hene) as my son ? — ^I can swim bet- 
ter than he ; but he can speak French better than I. — ^Does he 
read as well as you ? — ^He reads better than I. — ^Does the son of 
your neighbour go to market ? — No, he remains at home ; he has 
sore feet. — ^Do you learn as well as the son of our gardener ? — 
I learn better than he, but he studies better than I. — Whose gun 
is the finest ? — ^Yours is very fine, but that of the captain is still 
finer, and ours is the finest of all. — Has any one finer children 
than you ? — No one has finer ones. — Does your son read as often 
as I ? — He reads oftener than you. — Does my brother speak 



French as often as you ? — He speaks and jreads it as often as I. 
— Do I write as much as you ? — ^You write more than I.^-Do 
our neighbours' children read Grerman as often as we 7 — ^We dc 
not read it as often as they.— Do we write as often as they ? — 
They write oftener than we, — ^To whom do they write ? — ^They 
write to their friends.— Do you read English books ?-*We read 
French books instead of reading English books. 

Leziane trentesima. 

To believe. 

I put on my hat 

He pats on his gloves. 

Do yon put on your boots 7 
We do put them on. 
What do your brothers put onl 
They put on their clothes. 
Whither do you conduct ue 7 
I conduct yon to my &ther. 

Do yon go out. 

I do go out. 


We do go out 

When does your &ther go out 7 


Credere 2. 

Mettere,* mtUerei. 
( Metto 11 mlo cappello. 
( fiCl metto il cappello. 
K Si mette i guanti. 
c Hette 1 suoi guanti. 

Si mettono gli sUYaU.7 

Ce li mettlamo. 

Che si mettono i dl Lei firatelli 7 

Si mettono i lore TestitL 

Oye mi conduce &lla7 

La conduce dal padra mio, (er vi 
condnco da mio padre. 



Usdamo Noi7 


Quando esoe il di Lei padief 

As early as you. 

(' Per tempo. 
Di buon' ora, 
A hum* era. 
( CotfL per tempo come _ 
( Coai di bHon' ora come 


Ba ifomquU w early as you. 

EgU eaoe cori par tampa < 
or che Vol. 







Too late. 

Too aoon, too early. 

Too large, too great. 

i Troppo tardl. 

; e Troppo di buon' oia (troppo a haon* 

1 ] ora). 

: C Troppo per tempo. Troppo preato. 

I Troppo gw>de. 

J Troppo piccolo. 

Too much. 

1 Troppo. 

Do you speak too muchl 
1 do not speak enough. 

Paria Ella troppo 7 
Non parlo abbastanza. 

Jjaier than yoii. 

Piu tardi di Lei. 

1 go out later than you. 

Esco plii tardi di LeL 

Do you go to the play as early as 1 1 
I go thither earlier than you. 


Doea your frther go thither earlier 

Ha goea thither too early. 

Ya Ella alio spettaoolo oori di hwamf 

ora come io 1 
Ci vado piik di buon' ora di Lei (pih 

presto di Lei). 
Piu presto (pm totto)* 
^ Pm per tempo. 
I Pill di bium' ora. 
Ci va 11 di(piii preato di ma 1 
Lei padre cpi& per tempo di ma 1 

oi V { troppo dl buon* ora. 

: tioppo presto. 

Do you speak already 7 

I do not speak yet 

Do you finish your note 7 

I do not finish it yet 

Do you breakfast already 7 

Do you 

(rid digia. 

{ Non — ancora. 
( Non — per anco. 

Non parlo ancora (par aneo). 

Finisce Ella U di Lei bi^iattol 

Non lo finisco ancora. 


VieneEllaaTedermi7 VeniieToia 

Obt. A. Verbs of motion always require the preposition a (od bafora a iwwei), 
and Verba of real the preposition In. Ex. 



I go to 0M my children. 

1 lend for tome wine. 

I am sending for the physician. 

I am going to the theatre. 

I stay in the garden (In the room). 

Vado a vedere i miei fiuMliilli. 
Mando a cercare del vino. 
Mando a cercare il medico 
Vado al teatro. 

Resto in giardino (in camera), or ma 
ne ltd in camera. 

ObM, B, But as we have seen in the foregoing lessons, the infinitive is ii< 
Italian sometimes preceded by di (Lesson XVII.), sometimes by a or od (Les- 
sons XXV., XXVIir., and this), sometimes by per (Lesson XX.), and some- 
times it is simply used without any of these prepositions before it. The latter 
is the case when it is joined to one of the following verbs, some of which have 
already been exemplified in some of the preceding lessons, such as: voUre^* to 
wish, to be willing (Lesson XVIII.) ; poUrct* to be able, can (Lesson XX.) ; 
far t^dtrtf to show (Lesson XVXII.) ; pemare, intcruUrc, to intend to (Les- 
sons XXVII. and XXVIII.). 


to be requisite. 


to deny. 


to intend to 

Osare, ardire,< 

k to dare. 

to believe. 


to appear. 

Degnare o ;; 
degnarsl, 1 

to deign. 


to think. 


to be able (can). 


to wish. 


to pretend. 


to declare. 


to know. 


to owe. 


to appear. 


to do. 


to maintain. 


to hear, to intend. 


to see. 


to let. 


to be willing, to ^ 

It is necessary to do that. 
I intend going to the play. 
He thinks he Is able to do it. 
He deigns to give it me. 
He wishes to speak to the king. 
I declare I cannot do that. 
I ought to go there. 
He sends me word. 

'I intend to speak to him. 
He lets me do it. 
He says he cannot do it. 
I dare to go there ;' I dare to do it. 
They seem to say. 

I intend tamake a journey. 
Can you give me a franc 7 
He pretends he can do it. 
I can do it ; I know how to do it. 

Bisogna far cid. 

Calcolo andare alio spettaoolo. 

Egli crede poterlo fare. 

Kli si degna darmelo. 

Egli desideraparlare al re. 

Dichiaro non potere &r cid. 

Devo andarci. 

EgU mi la dire, or Egli mi manda ■ 

Intendo parlargU. 
EgU me lo lascia &re. 
Egli nega poterlo fieoe. 
Oso andarci ; aidisoo fario. 
Eglino paiono dire, or semhra ebs 

essi dicono. 
Penso far un viaggio. 
Pod EUa darmi un franco 7 
Egli pretende poterlo fare. 



Be teeiiw to taave a wish to do it 

I malntnin I can do it.' 

We eee liim come. 

Win yoa do me a layoiur ? 

Egli aembra voleilo &ra. 
SoBtengo aaperlo ftre. 
Lo vediamo Tenire. 
Tnol Ella farm! im plaoere 1 

06t. C. Further, there is oo preposition before the infioitiye wlien it to naed 
in an abeolute eenae. Ex. 

To eat too much la dangerous. 
To speak too much is foolish. 
To do good to those that have offended 
ns^ la a commendable action. 

Mangiart troppo d pericoloso. 
PaHar troppo d imprudente. 
Fardel bene a qnelD ohl ci lianno of- 
ieso, d un* atione loderole. 



Do you put on another coat in order to go to the play ?— I do 
put on another. — ^Do you put on your gloves before you put on 
your boots ? — ^I put on my boots before I put on my gloves.— 
Does your brother put on his hat instead of putting on his coat ? 
— ^He puts on his coat before he puts on his hat. — Do our children 
put on their boots in order to go to our friends ?-*They put them 
on in order to go to them. — ^What do our sons put on ? — ^They put 
on their clothes and their gloves.-^Do you already speak French 1 
— ^I do not speak it yet, but I begin to learn. — Does your father 
go out already ?— He does not yet gp out. — ^At what o'clock does 
he go out? — He goes out at ten o'clock. — ^Does he breakfast be- 
fore he goes out ? — ^He breakfasts and writes his notes before he 
goes out. — ^Does he go out earlier than you ?^ go out earlier 
than he. — ^Do you go to the play as often as I ? — ^I go thither as 
often as you. — ^Do you begin to know that man ?— 4 do begin to 
know him. — ^Do you breakfast early ? — ^We do not breakfast late. 
—Does the Englishman go to the concert earlier than you I — He 
goes there later than I. — ^At what o'clock does he go thither ?— 
He goes thither at half-past eleven* 


Do you not go too early to the oonoert ? — ^I go thither too late. 
—Do I write too much ? — ^You do not write too much, but you 
speak too much.-^Do I speak more than you ? — ^You speak more 
than I and my brother. — ^Is my hat too large ? — ^It is neither too 

186 TfllRTIBTB LB880N. 

large nor too small. — ^Do you speak French oftener than Bnglish t 
*-I speak English oflener than French. — ^Do your friends huy 
much com ? — They buy but little. — Have you bread enough ? 
— ^I have only a little, but enough. — ^Is it late ? — ^It is not late. — 
What o'clock is it ? — It is one o'clock. — ^Is it too late to go to 
your father ? — ^It is too late to go to him. — ^Do you conduct me to 
him ? — ^I do conduct you to him. — ^Where is he ? — ^He is in his 
counting-house.— Does the Spaniard buy a hone I-— He cannot 
buy one. — ^Is he poor ?-*He is not poor ; he is richer than you. 
— ^Is your brother as learned as you ? — He is more learned than 
I^ but you are more learned than he and I. 

Do 3rou know that man 7 — ^I do know him.— Is he learned 1— 
He is the most learned of all the men that I know {amasea, sub. 
junptive). — ^Is your horse worse than mine ? — ^It Is not so bad as 
yours.— Is mine worse than the Spaniard's ? — ^It Is worse ; it is 
the worst horse that I know {canascCf subjunctive).— Do you give 
those men less bread than cheese ? — ^I give them less of the latter 
than of the former. — ^Do you receive as much money as your 
neighbours ? — ^I receive much more than they. — ^Who receives 
the most money ?— The French receive the moet.^3an yoorson 
already write a note ? — He cannot write one yet, but he begins 
to read a little. — ^Do you read as much as the Russians ?— We 
read more than they, but the French read the nxMt (piuditutU). 
~-Do the Americans write more than we ?— They write less than 
we, but the Italians write the least (meno di ftOft).- Are they as 
rich as the Americans ? — ^They are less rich than they.^-Are 
3rour birds as fine as those of the Irish ? — ^They are lesa fine than 
theirs, but those of the Spaniards are the least fine. — Do you aell 
your bird t— I do not sell it ; I like it too much to sell it. 

Lexione trentesima prima. 


The past participle, when it is regular,! always terminates in to. It is formed 
from the infinitive, whose termination is for the first conjugation changed intc 
alo, thus: paHar^^-^pariato i for the second into tttOf thus : vendere^-vendtUo i 
and for the third into tto, thus : tcrvire •tr oUo. Examples :— 


p. p. ^ Jf/. p. p. 

parlato. Venders, to sell, vtnduio. 

eompraio. Credere, to believe, eredtUa. 
Mudiaio, Ricevere, to receive, rieenUo. 






to speak, 
to buy, 
to study, 


To he — been. 


to serve, 
to hear, 
to sleep, 

P. P. 


Es9ere* — siato.^ 

Have you been to market 1 E Ella stata al mercato 7 

Obs. In Italian the auxiliary verb ettere * is conjugated in its compound 
with the help of the same auxiliary, and not as in English.* 

I have been there. 
I have not been there. 
Have I been there 1 

Ton have been there. 
You have not been there. 

Has he been there 1 
He has been there. 
He has not been there. 

Yi sono stato. 

Non vi sono stato. 

Yi sono stato 7 
i Yi siete stato. 
t Ella vi d stata. 
\ Ella non vi d stata. 
! Non vi siete stato. 

Egli vi d stato. 
Egli non vi d stato. 

> When it is irregular it will be separately noted. 

* The pupils, in repeating the irregular verbs already given, must not fall to 
mark In their lists the past participles of those verbs. 

' The same is the case in Gorman. Ex. : 3(( bltt ba gnoeftn, I have been 
there* (See German Method, lesson XLIII.) 




HaTB you been at the ball 7 

Have you ever been at the ball 1 

I have never been there. 
Thou hast never been there. 
He has never been there. 

You have never been there. 

Already or yet. 

Have you already been at the play t 
I have already been there. 

You have already been th^re. 


I have not yet been there. 
Thou hast not yet been there. 
He haa not yet been there. 

You have not yet been there. 
We have not yet been there. 


Nan — mat, 

' Siete Btato al Dallo (alia festa da 
i ballo)? 

E Ella Btata al ballo (alia feata da 
[ baUo)7 

Siete mai atato al ballo 7 
[ E Ella Btata mai alia feata da ballo 1 

Non vl Bono mai atato. 

Tu non vl sol mai atato. 

Non vi d tnai stato. 
' Non vl siete mai Btato. 
I Ella non vl d mai atata. 

Gid, di gid, 

E Ella gill atata alio spettaooloT 

Vi Bono gl& Btato. 
r Ella vi d g\\ Btata. 
[ Vi siete gi& stato. 

Nan — aneara (non jfer snco), 

Non vi Bono stato ancora. 

Non vl sei per anco atato. 

Egli non vl d ancora stato. 
( Non vl siete atato ancora. 
C Ella non vl d per anco atata. 

Non vl alamo per anco atatl. 

Have you already been at my father*B 7 ' 
I have not yet been there. I 

fe Ella giJL Btata da mio ptdrel 
Non vi Bono per anco atato. 

Where have you been this morning 7 
I have been In the garden. 
Where haa thy brother been 7 
He haa been in the warehouse. 
Haa he been there aa early aa 1 7 
He has been there earlier than you. 

Ove d Ella atata atamane7 
Sono stato nel giardino. 
Ove d atato tuo fratellol 
Egli d Btato nel magaxzino. 
Vi i Btato coat presto come io 1 
Vi d Btato plii presto di Lei. 



Where have you been ? — I have been at the market. — Have 

you been at the ball ? — I have been there. — Have I been to the 

play ? — ^You have been there. — Hast thou been there?— I hav<^ 

TmETY-iiBsr uasov. 180 

not b&tn 'th^re.—Has your soa evecbeeii at Ihe theatre? — He has 
never heen there. — ^Hast thou already heen in my warehouse ? — 
I have never heen there. — ^Do you intend to go thither f— I intend 
to go thither % — When will you go thither ? — ^I will go thither to- 
morrow- — ^At what o'clock ? — At twelve o'clock. — Has yomr 
brother already been in my large garden ?-^He has not yet been 
^^re. — ^Does he intend to see it ? — ^He does intend to see it — 
when will he go thither ? — He will go thitHer to-day. — ^Does 
he intend to go to the ball this evening 1-^He intends to go 
thither. — ^Have you already been at the ball 1 — ^I have not yet 
been there. — ^When do you intend to go thither ? — ^I intend to 
go thither to-morrow. — Have you already "been in the French- 
man's garden ? — ^I have not yet been in it. — ^Have you been 
in my warehouses? — ^I have been there. — ^When did you go 
there? — ^I nf^nt there this morning. — Have I been in your 
eounting-hoyse or in that of your friend ? — ^You have neither 
been in miqe nor in that of my friend, but in that of the Eng. 
lishman. ^ 

Has the Italian been in our warehouses or in those of the 
Dutch ? — ^He has neither been in ours nor in those of the Dutch, 
but in those of the Germans. — Hast thou already been at the 
market ? — ^I have not yet been there, but I intend to go thither.-* 
Has our neighbour's son been there? — ^He has been there. — 
When has he been there ? — ^He hite been there to-day. — ^Does the 
son of our gardener intend to goto the market? — ^He intends to 
go thither. — What does he wish to buy there ? — ^He wishes to buy 
there some chickens, oxen, com, wine, cheese, and cider. — ^Have 
you already been at my brother's ? — ^I have already been there. — 
Has your friend already been there ? — He has not yet been there. 
-^ave we already been at our friends' ? — ^We have not yet been 
there. — Have our friends ever been at our house ? — ^They have 
never been there. — Have you ever been at the theatre ? — I have 
never been there. — Have you a mind to write an exercise ? — I 
have a mind to write one. — To whom do you wish to write a note ? 
— ^I wish to write one to my son.— Has your father already been 
at the concert t-^He has not yet been there, but he intends to go 


there.— Does he intend to go there to-day I — He intends to go 
there to-morrow.— At what o'clock will he set out l^-tie will set 
out at half-pfast six* — Does he intend to leave (fariire) before he 
breakfasts i — He intends to break&st before he leaves. 

Have you been»to the play as early as I ? — ^I have been there 
earlier than you.^-Have you often been at the concert? — ^I have 
often been there.— ''Has our neighbour been at the theatre as often 
as we ?— He has been there oftener than we.-^Do our friends go 
to their counting-house too early ? — ^They go thither too late. — Do 
they go thither as lafb as we ? — They go thither later than we. — 
Do the English go to their warehouses too early ? — They go 
thither too early. — Is your friend as often in the counting-house 
as you ? — ^He is there oftener than I. — What does hi do there ?— 
He writes. — Does he Vrite as much as you ? — He writes more 
than I. — ^Where does your friend remain?— He remains in bis 
oounting-house.4Doe» he not go out ? — He does not go out. — 
Do you remain in the garden ? — ^I remain there. — Do you go to 
your friend every day ?*-I goto him everyday. — ^When does he 
come to you ?-^He comes to ne every evening. — Do you go any 
where in the evening ?— »I gb no where ; I stay at home. — ^Do 
you send fi>r any one ?— ^ send fi>r my physician. — ^Does your 
servant go for any thing ?«— He goes for some wine.— Have you 
been any where this morning t— I have been no where^^-^Where 
has your fiither been ? — ^He h* been no where.-— When do you 
drink tea ? — ^I drink some every moming.-*Does your son drink 
coffee ?— He drinks tea. — ^Have you been to drink some ooffee f 
•^I have been to drink some* 



Lezione trentesima seconda. 

To have^had. 

Have jou had my book 7 
I have not had it. 
Have I had it? 
Tou have had it 
Ton have not had it. 
Thon haat not had it. 
Has he had It? 
He haa had it 
He haa not had it. 
Hast thou had the coat ? 

Averf^ — aotUo. 

Ha Ella avuto il mio Ubro.l 

Non r ho avnto. 

L* hoavntoio? 

L* ha avuto. 

Non i' ha amto. 

Non V hai avato. 

L' ha egli avuto? 

Egli V ha avuto. 

Egli non V ha avnto. 

Hai avuto I'abito? 

Non r ho avuto. 

Have you had the bookf ? | Ha Ella avuto i Ubri ? 

fE^ The past participle in Italian (the same as the adjective, Oba. A, Les- 
son XXII), when It is proceded by its object, must agree with it in number ; 
that is^ if the object is In the plural, the past participle must be put in the same 
number. It may, however, also agree when followed by its object ; but the 
past participle of eMcr«, to be^ must always agree in number ani gender with 
iu subject Ex. 

A have had them. 
I have not had them. 
Tou have had them, 
Tou have not had them. 

Has he had them? 
He has had them. 
He has not had them. 

Have 3rou had any bread ? 
1 have had some. 
I have not had any. 
Have I had any? 
Tou have had i 

Li ho avutL 

Non 11 ho avuti. 

Li ho io avuti? 

Li ha avuti. 

Ella Non 11 ha avuti. 

avete avuti. 
Li ha egli avuti? 
Egli 11 ha avuti 
Non 11 ha avuti. 

Vol non U 

Ton have not had any. 

Has he had any? 
H» has not had any. 

Ha Ella avuto del pane? 

Ne ho avuto. 

Non ne ho aVUto. 

Ne ho avuto io ? 

Ella Ne ha avuto, or Vol ne avete 

Ella Non ne ha avuto. Vol non n« 

avete avuto 
Ne Ne ha egli avuto ? 
Egli non ne ha avuto. 



Have you had any knives? ' 
I have had some, 
I have not had any. 

What has he had 1 
He has had nothing 

Ha EUa avuto del eoltelU t 
Ne ho avuti. 
Non ne ho avuti. 

Egii non ha avnto niente. 

Have you been hungry? 
I have been afiaid. 

He has never been either right or 

t Ha EUa avutoCude 1 
t Ho Bvuto paura. 

t Egii non ha mai avuto torto qI 

To take place. 

Thai (meaning thai thing). 

Does the ball take place this evening? 

It does take place. 

It takes place this evening. 

It does not take place to-day. 

f Averluogo. 
Cidf quello. 
t Ha luogo stassera la festa da hallo \ 
t Ha luogo. 

t Essa ha luogo questa sera, 
t Non ha luogo quest* oggl. 

When did the ball take place? 
It took place yesterday. 

t dnando ha avuto luogo la festa dt 

t Ha avuto luogo ierL 

The day hefore yesterday. 


V altro ieri. 

How many times (how often) ? 



Thrice (three times). 
Kany times. 
Seteral times. 

^ Quante volte ? 

i duante fiate? (not much used.) 

Una volta. 

Due volte (fiate). 

Tre volte. 

Holte volte. 

Yarie volte (diverse volte). 



f Qualche voSa. 


} TalvoUa. 

I Tahra. 

Do you go sometimes to the baU? 

YaEUa qualche volta aUa festa da 

baUo? or andate vol alia feMda 


I go sometimes. 

Vi vado qualche volta. 




0one thither. 
Hxn you gone thither sometimes? 
I hafd gone thither often. 

Oftener than yoa. 

Have the men had my trunk 1 

They have not had it 
Who has had i: 1 
Have they had my knives? 
They have not had them. 


Andatoci (andatovi). 

Vi d Ella andata qualche voltal 

Ci Bono andato apesso. 

Pih spesso di Lei. 

Hanno avuto il mio banle gli 

tfon lo hanno avuto. 
ChiP ha avuto? 
Hanno avuto i miei coltelU? 
Non li hanno aviiti. i 

Ho avuto fo torto di eomprar Ubri ? 
Non lia avuto torto di co'mpnume. 

Have I been wrong in buyfng books ? 
Vou haye not been wrong in buying 


Singing rejoices. It cantare rallegnu 

Obs, The infinitives and adverbs are sometimes used in Italian substail* 
lively, and preceded by the article. 

Jesting is permitted. Lo Kherzare d permesso. 

Flatt^^ry is despicable., , L* adular4 d cosa vile. 

I do MOt icnow either when or how. | lo non so nd i/ qiumdo, nd U canu. 



Have you had my pocket-book ? — ^I have had it.-^Have you 
had my glove ? — ^I have not had it. — Hast thou had my umbrella ? 
— ^I have not had it. — Have I had your knife 1 — ^You have had it. 
— When have I iiad it ? — ^You have had it yesterday. — Have I 
had your gloves ? — ^You have had them. — ^Has your brother had 
my wooden hammer ? — ^He has had it. — Has he had my golden 
ribbon ? — He has not had it. — ^Ha'^e the Englbh had my beauti- 
ful ship ? — They have had it. — ^Who has had my linen (di Uno) 
handkerchi^ ? — Your servants have had them. — ^Have we had 
the iron trunk of our good neighbour ? — ^We have had it. — ^Have 
we bad his fine gun ? — ^We have not had it. — ^Have we had the 
mattresses of the foveigners i — ^We have not had them. — Has the 
American had my good book ? — He has had it. — ^Has he had my 
silver knife ? — He has not had it. — Has the young man had the 
first volume of my work ? — He has not had the dmi, but the 


seoond.-^Has he had it ? — ^Yes, Sir, he has had it.— -When haa 
he had it ? — ^He has had it this morning. — ^Have you had any 
sugar ? — ^I have had some.— Have I had any pepper ?-^Yt)u have 
not had any.— Has the cook of the Russian oaptain had any 
chickens ?— He has had some. He has not had any. 

Has the Frenchman had good .wine f-— He has had some, and 
he has still {anoora) aome.— -Hast thou had large books I — ^I have 
had some.— Has thy brother had any ? — ^He has not had any.— 
Has the son of our gardener had any butter ?«— He has had some. 
—Have the Poles had good ' tobacco ? — ^They have had some.— 
What tobacco have they had ?-^They have had tobacco and snuflT. 
—Have the English had as much sugar as tea t — ^They have had 
as much of the one as of the other. — ^Has the physician been 
right?— He has been wvong.-^Has die Dutchman been right 
or wrong? — ^He has never been either right or wrong. — ^Have 
I been wrong in buying honey ? — You have been wrong in buy- 
ing some. — ^What has the painter had ?— He has Itad fine 
pictures.— Has he had fine gardens ? — ^He has not had any.-* 
Has your servant had my boots ?— He has not had them.— What 
has the Spaniard had? — ^He has had UQthing.^^ho has had 
courage ? — ^The English sailors have had some. — ^Have the Ger- 
mans had many friends ? — They have had many. — ^Have we had 
more friends than enemies ? — We have had more of the latter 
than of the former. — ^Has your son had more wine than cider ? — 
He has had more of the latter than of the former. — Has the Turk 
had more pepper than com ? — ^He has had less of the latter than 
of the former.— Has the Italian painter had any thing ? — ^He has 
had nothing. 

Have I been right in writing to my brother ? — ^You have not 
been wrong in writing to him. — Have you had a sore foot ? — 1 
have had a sore eye. — Have you had any thing good ? — I have 
had nothing bad. — ^Did the ball take place yesterday ? — ^It did not 
take place. — ^Does it take place to-day ? — It takes place to-mor-- 
row.— When does the ball take place ? — ft takes place this eve- 


nitig.— Did it take place the day be&re yesterday 1 — ^It did take 
place. — ^At what o'clock did it take place ?— »It took place {ha 
mnOo luogo) at eleven o'elock.-— Did you go to my brother's ? — I 
.went thither .-T-How many times have you been at my friend's 
house ? — ^I have been there twice. — ^Do you go sometimes to the 
theatre ?— -I go thither sometimes (iahoUa), — ^How many times 
have you h^ea at the theatie ?<p*-I have been there only once. — 
Have you sometimeff been at the ball t — ^I have often been there. 
—•Has your brother ever gone to the ball 2 — ^He has never gone 
tlu0ier.-^Has your father sometimes gone to the ball ?— He went 
tibither ibrmerly.— Has he gone thither as often as you ?— He has 
gone thither eftener than I. — ^Doat thou go sometimes into the 
garden ? — ^I go thitber sometimes. — ^Hast thou often been there ? 
—I have often been there I — ^Does your old dook often go to the 
market f — He goes thither often. — ^Doee he go thither as often as 
my gardener ?-^He goes thither oftener than he. — Did that take 
place % — ^It did take place. — ^When did that take place ? 

Did you formerly go to the ball? — ^I went thither sometimes.-* 
When hast thou been at the concert I— I was there (vt sano siaio) 
the day before yesterday. — ^Didst thou find any body there I — I 
ibund {nan vi ho iravato) nobody there. — ^Hast thou gone to the 
ball oftener than thy brothers ?-^I have not gone thither so often 
as they. — ^Has your friend often been at the play ? — ^He has been 
there many times. — ^Have you sometimes been hungry ? — I have 
often been hungry. — ^Has your valet (i7 cameriere) often been 
thirsty ? — ^He has never been either hungry or thirsty. — ^Did you 
go to the play early ? — I went thither late. — ^Did I go to the ball 
as early as you ? — ^You went thither earlier than I. — ^Did your 
brother go thither too late ?-^He went thither too early. — ^Have 
your brothers had any thing ?— They have had nothing.-VWho 
has had my sticks and gloves ?-«Your servant has had both.-— 
Has he had my hat and my gun t — ^He has had both. — Hast 
thou had my horse or my brother's ? — ^I have had neither yours 
nor your brother's. — Have I had your note or the physician's ? — 
Tou have had neither the one nor the other. — What has the phy- 
aician had ? — He has had nothing.— Has any body had my gold 




candlestick ? — ^Nobody has had it.- 
knives ? — ^Nobody has had them. 

rHas any body had mysiWet 

Lezione trentesima ierza. 



TUi tense is formed ae the perfect tense Is In English, viz. from the present 
of the auxiliary and the past participle of the verb you coiyugate. Examples :— 

I have studied this morning. 

I studied yesterday. 

I studied last month. 

I have studied this month. 

Last month. 

7b makey to do — made^ done, 
Wliat have you done 7 

I have done nothing. 

Hia that shoemalcer made my boots % 

He lias made them. 
He lias not made them. 

To put — fnU, . 

To pat on — fiU on. 
Have y«Lf ut on your boots 7 
I haora pat them on. 

To lifir-^lified. 

To take off-^iaken off. 

Have you taken off your gloves 7 
I have taken them off. 

Ho studiato quests mattina. 

Ho studiato ieri. 

Ho studiato ii mese passato (scorvo). 

Cluesto mese ho studiato. 
{ II mese passato. 

I mese scorso. 


Che ha Ella &tto7 or Che avetebtto 

Non ho fatto niente. 

Ha fiitto 1 mlei stivali ootesto ealx»> 

lBio7 (or quel oalxolaio). 
Li ha latti. 


Mettersi^ — messoH. 
t SidEUamesalgUsavalll 
t Me 11 sono mess!. 

Levare — levaio. 

Levarsi — UvaUm. 

t SidEllalevaaiguantil 
t Me U 8ono leyafi 



To teUj to »ay^^4M, Mtdd. 
Have jon nid the devioetl 
I have aaUl them. 
Haye jrou told me the device 7 
I have told you the device. 
I have told it you. 



Li ho detti. 

Mi ha EUa detto il motto 1 

Le ho detto U motto. 

OUel' ho detto, or Ve P ho detto 

Tlie device^ the motto. 

I n motto. 

Thai (meaning IhtU (hmg). 

This (meaning this thing). 

Has he told you that? 
He baa told me that. 
Have I told you that 1 
Tou have told me that. 

Have yon told it mol 


Le ha detto ddl 
Mi ha detto dd. 
Le ho detto io queato 1 
EUa mi ha detto queato. 

Lo, r. 

Mel' haBQadettal 

Ob9, A. Wheaever the pxoDonnSi mi, d; ^ vi; «; are followed by lo^ Io, li 
gH^U^iUfV^ letter % 1^ changed into e; and instead of saying mLU^wila^viu 
H^ dke., we must say me to, m«&i,mdK,ee to, Ac. These pronouns are separated 
when used before the verl^ but joined together when they stand after it. Ex- 

I imagine it 

I promise it thee. 

Tou may aasnro yourself of it. 

I have told it you. 

I have not told it you. 

Has he told it you 1 

He has told it me. 

He has not told it me. 

Have you told him thati 

I have told it him. 

Ma Io figuro. 

71s to prometto. 

Potete assicurarMne. 

GlieV ho detto. 

Non glieP ho detto. 

GUel* ha egU detto 1 

Egli me r ha detto. 

Egll non me V ha detto. 

Oil ha detto ella dd questo 1 

GlieF ho detto. 

Ofts. J9. When the pronoun ^ji is followed by to, to, K, to, n^ it takes sn 1^ 
and forms but one word with the pronoun that follows it C»a always precedes 
to, Is, ft, to, ne, thus: gUdo, gHda, it to him; eUdsgUOe^ them to himi giliMi^ 
some to him ; and not to gU^ dc. 

I beg ofyou to speak to him of it i Vi prego di parlar^ffKene. 
Have yon told it them 1 1 L* ha EUa detto loro 1 

I have told it thsoi. I L' ho detto loro. 

Have you spoken to the men 1 
I have spoken to them. 
To whom did you speak 1 

Ha EUa pariato agU uominil 
Ho pariato loro. 



Axe yon the brother of my Mend 1 

te Ella fratello del mio amioot 

Ob». C The |>ronoun lo, whi<;h it eometiniee expressed in English by eo^ 
end more elegantly omitted, may in Italian relate to^a substantive, an a4jective, 
or even a whole sentence. It alters neither gender nor number, when it relatea 
to an adjective or a whole sentence. Sometimes U is used instead of 20^ as ; ii 
90, 1 know it, instead of lo to, Ex. 

I am. 
Are you rich 1 
I am not. 
Is he learned 7 
He is. 
He is not. 
Are our nelghboors as poof as they 

They are so. 
Did your brother go to the ball the day 

before yesterday? 
1 do not know. 

To wriie-^-wriUen. 

Which notes have you written 1 
I have written these. 
Which devices has he written 1 
He has written those which you see. 

To drink, — drunk. 

To see, — seen. 

To read, — read {pa&t pari.). 

To be acquainted — been acquainted 
with. with. 

Which men have you seen 1 

I have seen those. 

Which books liav<e you read ? I 

I have read those which you have lent | 

HaT8 you been acquainted with thoae 

I liave not been acquainted with them. 

Have you seen any sailors 1 
I have seen some. 
I have not seen any. 

Lo sono {U sono). 

E Ella ricca 1 Siete fOi ricco 1 

Non lo sono. 

teegUdottol " 

Egli Pi{orlo i), 

Egli non f d (or non 2o^). 

Sono cosi poverl i nostri vidni come 

lo dicono {or, U dicono) 1 
k suto alia liBata da hallo fl di Lai 

Non loto. 

Scrivere* — scritio. 

dual biglietti ha Ella scrittil 

Ho scritto questl. 

Quai motti ha egli seritti 1 

EgU ha scritto quelU ch' Ella vede. 

Here • (bevere), — bevnto. 
Vedere*, — veduto (visto), 

Leggere% — Ictto. 
Conoseere^ — conosdnto. 

Che uomini ha Ella veduti t^sti)Y 

Ho veduto (visto) quelU. 


Ho lecto quel ch' Ella mi ha prestati. 

Ha Ella conosciuto qu^i uomini? 
Non li ho conoecintl. 

Ha Ella veduto del marlnai? 
Ne ho veduti (visti). 
Non ne ho veduti. 



'^ To can. 
To ihrow. 
To throw away. 

Who calls me? 
Your &tlMr calls you. 
Haye yon called the men? 
1 have called them. 

i>o you throw your money away 1 
I do nok throw it away. 
Who throws away his books 1 
Have you tlirown away anjr tiling 7 
I have thrown away my gloves. 
Have yon thrown them away 1 
I have thrown them away. 

Chiamare 1. 

Gettare 1. 


Chi mi chiama? 
La chiama il di Lei padre. 
Ha Ella chiamato gli uominil 
Li ho chiamati. 

Oetta Ella via ildi Lei danarot 

Non lo getto via. 

Chi getta viai propri Ubri) 

Ha Ella gettato via qnakoml 

Ho gettato via i mid goantL * 

Li ha EUa gettati via7 

Li ho gettati via. 



Have you anf thing to do ?— I have nothing to do.— What hast 
thou done ? — I have done nothing. — Have I done any thing ?•— 
You have done something. — ^Wbat have I done ? — You have torn 
my books. — ^What have your children done ? — ^They have torn 
their clothes. — What have we done ? — ^You have done nothing ; 
but your brothers have burnt my fine books. — Has the tailor al- 
ready made your coat? — ^He has not yet made it.— Has your 
shoemaker already made your boots? — He has already made 
them. — Have you sometimes made a hat ? — ^I have never made 
one.— Have our neighbours ever written books ?— Tbey wrote 
some formerly. — ^How many coats has your tailor made ?*— He 
has made twenty or thirty.— Has he made good or bad coats ?— • 
He baa made (both) good and bad. — Has your father put on his 
coat ?— He has not yet put it on, but he is going to put it on.— - 
Has yotir brother put his boots on ? — He has put them on. — Have 
our neighbouis put on their boots and their gloves ?— They have 
put on neither {quesU ni quelU), — ^What has the physician taken 
away ? — ^He has taken nothing away. — What have you taken 


eif f.^1 have taken off my large hat. — ^Have your childr^ taken 
off their gloves ? — ^They have taken them off. — ^When did the 
ball take place ? — It took place the day before yesterday. — Who 
has told you that ? — My servant has told it me. — ^What has your 
brother told you ?^-^e has told me nothing. — ^Did I tell you that 1 
— ^You did not tell it me. — Has he told it you ? — He has told it 
me. — ^Whohas tQld it your neighbour ? — ^The English have told it 
him. — ^Have they told it to the French ? — ^They have told it them. 
—Who has told it you ?— Your son has told it me.— Has he told 
it you ? — ^He has told it me. — Are you willing to tell your friends 
that ?*— I am willing to tell it them. 


Are you the brother of that young man 1 — ^I am.— Is that 
3roung man your son ?— He is.-**Are your friends as rich as they 
say ?— They are so. — ^Are these men as learned as they say ?— 
They are not so. — ^Doyou often sweep the warehouse ? — I sweep 
it as often as I can. — ^Has our neighbour money enough to buy 
some coals ? — ^I do not know. — ^Did your brother go to the ball 
yesterday ? — ^I do not know. — Has your cook gone to the mar- 
ket? — He has not gone thither. — Is he ill (malato) ? — He is. — 
Am I ill ? — ^You are not. — Are you as tall as I ? — ^I am. — Are 
you as fatigued as your brother ? — ^I am more so than he. — ^Have 
you written a note ? — ^I have not written a note, but an exercise. 
—What have your brothers written:? — ^They have written their 
exercises.- When did they write them ? — They wrote them yes- 
terday. — ^Have you written your exercises? — ^I have written 
them. — ^Has your friend written his ? — ^He has not written them 
yet.*^Wfaich exercises has your little brother written ? — He has 
written his own. — Have you spoken to my father ? — ^I have spo- 
ken to him. — ^Wheti-did you speak to him ? — ^I spoke to him the 
day before yesterday. — ^How many times have you spoken to the 
captain ? — 'I have spoken to him many times. — Have you often 
spoken to his son? — ^I have often spoken to him. — To which 
men has your friend spoken ? — He has spoken to these and to 


Have you spoken to the Russians ? — ^I have spoken to them.-^ 
Have the English ever spoken to you ? — ^They have often spoken 
to me. — What has the German told you 1 — ^Hetold me the words. 
— ^Which words has he told you ? — He has told me these words. — 
What have ypu to tell me 1 — ^I have a few words to tell you. — 
Which exercises has your friend written ?-^He has written those; 
-^Which men have you seen at the market ? — I have seen these. 
— Which books have your children read ?r— They have read those 
which you have lent them. — ^Have you seen th^se men or those ? 
-*I have seen neither these nor those.-^Which men have you 
seen ? — I have seen those to whom (a ad) you have spoken. — 
Have you been acquainted with those men ? — ^I have been ac- 
quainted with them. — With which boys has your brother been ac- 
quainted ?— He has been acquainted with those of our merchant. 
— Have I been acquainted with these Frenchmen ? — ^You have 
not been acquainted with them. — ^Which wine has your servant 
drunk ? — He has drunk mine. — Have you seen my brothers ? — ^I 
have seen them.-^Where have yoU seen them ? — ^I have seen 
them at their- own house (in casa /bro). -^^Have you ever seen 
Greeks ? — ^I have never seen any. — Has your brother seen any ? 
— ^He has sometimes seen some. — ^Do you call me ? — ^I do call 
you. — ^Who calls your father ? — My brother calls him. — ^Dost thou 
call any one^ — ^I call no one. Have you thrown away your hat ? 
— ^I have not thrown it away. — ^Does your father throw away any 
thing ? — ^He throws away the notes which he receives.-^Have 
you thrown away your nails ? — ^I have not thrown them away.— 
Dost thou throw away thy book ? — ^I do not throw it away ; I want 
it to study Italian. 

Lezi&ne trentesima qtuurta. 

To light (Undle) 

— lighted or Ut. 


— >aooeM. 

To ft^MT'W^'f 

—. extinguished. 


— •panto. 

To open, 

— opened. 


— aperto. 

To conduct, 

— conducted. 

Condurre * 

— eondotta 

To pick up (gather), 

— picked up 


— racoolto. 

To answer, 

— answered. 

Rispondere • 

— risposto. 

To take. 

— taken. 

Prendere • 

— preso. 

To break, 

— broken. 


— rotto. 

To know, - 



— saputo. 

To be able (can), - 

-been able (could). 

Potere • 

— potttto. 

To be willing, - 

-been willing. 


— TOlUtO. 


- giyen. 


' — dato. 

In neuter verbs the action is intransitive ; that is, it remains in the agent. 
They are coi^ugated like the active. The latter, however, always form theii 
past tenses with the auxiliary oMftf,* to have ; the fleater verbs, on the con- 
trary, take utertf* to be » and their past participle must agree in gender and 
number with the subject. (See i;^ Lesson XXXII.) Those neuter verbsi 
which are conjugated with the auxiliary to hate in English, and estera in Italian, 
will always be marlced. 


— gone. 


— andato. 

To stay. 



— stato. 

To remain, 

— remained. 


— rimaso, or rimasCo. 

To set out, 

— set out (pad part,). 

— partito. 

To go out. 

— gone ouL 


— uscito. 

To come, 

''Come {pott part). 


— venuto. 

Did you stay long in that country 1 

When did you go to the balll 

I went thither at midnight. 
Did he remain long in Paris 1 
He remained there a y^ar. 
Has your father set out 7 
Have your friends set out? 
They have not set out. 

E Ella stata molto tempo in qnesto 

Quando d Ella andata alia fetta d« 

Vi Bono andato a mexxa notta. 
fi egli rimasto molto in Paiigll 
Ci i rimasto un anno. 
E partito 11 di Lei padre 1 
Sono partiti i di Lei amid? 
Non sono partiti. 



When dtd your brotbera so oat 1 
Tbej went out at ten o'clock. 
Did tbe men come to your &ther 1 

They did come to him. 

duandoBono nsdtiidlLelfiatellit 

Sono neciti alio died. 

Sono yennti dal di Lei padre gli no* 

mini? (better) gli nominlaonov^ 

nud dal di Lei padre 1 
Ci sono venntL 

i¥hich firea have you extinguished 1 

Which warehousee have you opened 1 

Hare you conducted them to the store- 

I have conducted them thither. 

Which books have you taken 7 

How many notes have you receiyed 1 

I liave receiyed but one. 

Which firea has he-lighted 1 

Have you opened the trunks? 

I have opened them. 

Which nails has the carpenter piciced 

To pick up — picked up. 

Which notes have you answered ? 
To answer a note. 

Which books has he taken ? 

Bave they broken the glasses? 

They have not broken them. 

Bkre you the gloyes which I ga^e 

1 have had them, but haye them no 

Quai fuochi ha Etta spenti ? 
Che raaga^zfaii ha Ella aperti ? 
Li ha Ella condotti al mag>itrino ? 

Ce U ho condotti. 


Quanti bigUetti ha Ella rioeynti ? 

Ne ho riceyuto solamente uno. 

dual fuochi ha egU acceei? 



Q,uai chiedi ha raccattatl illegnai* 

Raccattare — raccattato. 
t A quai biglietti ha Ella rlsposto? 
t Rispondere • ad un biglletta 


H^n6 eglino rotto i bicchieril 

Non ii hanno rotti. 

Ha Bllaiguanti cheLehodati? or 
ayete yoi i guanti che yi ho datll 

Li ho ayutl, ma non li ho pih. 


Upon the bench. 
Upon it. 


Under the bench. 

Under it (underneath). 
Where is my hat? 
It is upon the beneh. 
Are my gloves on the bendi ? 

fliey aie under it. 

< SoprHf 
( Sovra. 

n banco (ki scanno), 
c Sopra 11 banoo. 
{ Sul banco. 

Sopra (diMopro). 


Sotto il banoo. 

Sotto (dissotto). 

Oye d il mio cappello ? 

fe sopra 11 banco. 

Sono sopiB il banco (or sul banco) « 

miei guanti? 
Sono aotto (diasotto). 



Do fou learn to read 7 

I do (learn i^. 

I learn to write. 

Hare you learnt to speak % 

I have (learnt it). 

In the storehouse. 

In the stove. 
Xn it or within. 


To get or to have 

To get or to have 

To get or to hare 

To get or to have 

To get or to luiTe 

got or had 

got or had 

got or had 

got or had 

got or had 

To get the coat mended. 
Tp hare it mended. 
To get them mended. 
To get somo mended. 

Are jou getting a coat made (do you 

order a coat) 1 
I am getting one made (I order one), 
X hare had one made. 
HaTe you had your coat mended 1 

I haTe had it mended. 
I haTe not had it mended.- 
I have had my boota mended. 

I have had them mended. 

Ham yon not seen my boo*s 3 
I hare seen it. 

Impart iSBa a l^ggscet 


Imparo a scfhrefc. 

Ha Ella imparato a parlare I 

Ho imparato. 

Nel magazzino. 
I( fomello (la stufa). 
Nel fomello (nella stula). 
Dentrb (al di dentro). 

Lavare 1. 

ft Far rassettare, 

t Far raccomo- 
[ dare, 
t Far lavare, ' 

t Far&re, 

t Far spazzare, 

t Far vendere, 

— latto 

fiitto racea 

— modare. 

— fiitto lavare. 

— fiitto £u:e. 

-* fatto spas> 

T- latto vendere. 

t Far raccomodare P abito. 
't Fark) raccomodare. 
t Farli raccomodare. 
t Fame raccomodare. 

t Si fit ellafitteun abito 1 

t Me lo laccio fare. 

t Me ne son fatto fare uno. 

t Ha EUa fktto raccomodare il dl 

. Lei abito? 
t L' ho latto raccomodare. 
t Non 1' ho fiitto raccomodare. 
t Ho fiitto raccomodare i miel 

t Li ho fatti raccomodare. 

Asciugare 1. 

Non ha EUa vednto 11 mio libro 1 
L' ho veduto (visto). 

* Learners ought now to use In their ezereises the adverbs of time, place, i 
number, menUoned in Lessons XIX., XXU., XXIII., and XXXII. 



When did you see nqr brother 7 

I'saw him the day before yesterday. 
Where did you aee him 1 
I saw him at the theatre. 

Qnando? j^^'! 

duando ha Ella yeduta mlo fra- 

teUol - 
L' ho veduto V altro ieri. 
DoiFS I' ha ZUa Teduto 7 
L' ho Tedttto al teatro. 

Where are your brothers gone ? — ^They are gone to the theatre. 
— ^Haire your friends left (parUre) ? — ^T^ey have not yet left.— 
When do they set out? — This evening. — ^At what o'clock ? — ^At 
half-past nine. — When did the French boys come to your brother? 
— ^They came to him yesterday. — Did their friends come also ?— 
They came also. — ^Has any one CQme to us ? — The good Germans 
have come to us.— ^Who has come to the English ? — ^The French 
have come to them. — When did you drink some wine ?— ^I drank 
some yesterday, and to-day. — Has the servant carried my note ? — 
He has carried it. — ^Where has he carried it? — ^He }^as carried it 
to your friend. — Which notes haVe you carrifed ? — I have carried 
those which you have given me* to carry. — ^To whom have you * 
carried them ? — ^I have carried them to your father. — ^Which books 
has your servant taken ? — He has taken those which you do not 
read.-^Have your merchants opened .their warehouses ? — They 
have opened them.-t Which warehouses have they opened?— 
They have opened those which you have seen. — ^When have they 
opened them ?! — ^They have opened them to-day. — Have you con- 
ducted the foreigners to the storehouses ? — I have conducted them 
thither. — ^Which fires have the men extinguished ? — ^They have 
extinguished those which you have perceived {scortiy — Have you 
received any notes ? — ^We have received some.— How many notes 
have you received ? — ^I have received only one ; but my brewer 
has received more than I : he has received six. 

Where is my coat ? — ^It is on the bench. — Are my boots upon 
the bench ? — ^They are under it. — Are the coals under the bench ? 


— They are in the stove. — ^Have you put some coals into the stove ? 
—I have put some into it. — Are you cold ? — I aTi not cold. — ^Are 
the coals which I have seen in the stove ? — ^They are in it. — Are 
my notes upon the stove ? — ^They are in it (within). — Have you 
not been afraid to burn my notes ? — ^I have not been afraid to bum 
them. — ^Have you sent your little boy to the market ? — ^I have 
sent him thither. — When did you send him thither ? — This mom* 
ing. — ^Have you written to your &ther ? — ^I have written to him. 
— ^Has he answered you ? — He has not yet answered me. — Are 
you getting your floor swept ? — ^I am getting it swept. — Have 
you had your counting-house swept ? — ^I have not had it swept 
yet, but I intend to have it swept to-day. — Have you wiped your 
feet?— I have wiped them. — Where did you wipe them? — ^I 
wiped them upon the carpet.-^Have you had your benches 
wiped ? — I have had them wiped. — 'What does your servant wipe ? 
— He wipes the knives. — ^Have you ever written to th6 physician ? 
I have never written to him. — ^Has he sometimes written to you ? 
— He has often written to me. — What has he written to you ? — 
He has written something to me. — How many times have your 
friends written to you ? — They have written to me more than 
twenty times. — ^Have ybu seen my sons ?— I have never seen 


Have you ever seen any Greeks ? — ^I have never seen any.— 
Have you already seen a Syrian ? — I have already seen one. — 
Where have you seen one ? — At tht theatre. — Have you given 
the book to my brother ? — ^I have given it to him. — ^Have you 
given money to the merchant ? — I have given him some. — How 
much have you given to him ? — ^I have given him fourteen 
crowns. — Have you given any gold ribbons to the children of our 
neighbours? — I have given them some. — Wilt thou give me some 
wine ? — ^I have given you some already. — ^When didst thou give 
me some ? — I gave you some formerly. — Wilt thou give me some 
now ? — ^I cannot give you any ; I have none. — Has the American 
lent you money ? — He has lent me K)me. — Has he often lent you 
some ? — He has sometimes lent me some. — Has the Italian ever 
lent you money ?-f-He has never lent me any. — ^Is he poor ?— ' 


He is not poor ; he is richer than you. — Will you lend me a 
ciown ? — ^I will lend you two. — Has your boy eon^e to mine ?- 
He has come to him. — When ? — ^This morning.— At what o'clock ? 
—Early.— Has he come earlier than I ? — ^At what o'clock did 
70U come ? — I came at half-past five.-^tie came earlier than you. 

Has the concert taken place? — ^It has taken place.-^Did it 
take place late ? — ^It took place early. — At what o'clock 1 — ^At 
twelve.-^At what o'clock did the hall take place ? — ^It took place 
at midnight. — Does your brother learn to write ? — He does learn. 
— ^Does he know how to read ? — ^He does not know how yet. — 
Do you know the Frenchman whom I know ? — I do not know the 
one whom you know, but I know another. — ^Does your friend 
know the same (f tnedesimi) merchants as I know ? — He does not 
know the same (t medesinu), but he knows others. — Have you 
ever had your coat mended ? — I have sometimes had it mended. 
•—Hast thou already had thy boots mended ? — ^I have not yet had 
them mended. — Has your brother sometimes had his waistcoats 
mended ?— He has had them mended several times {akune voUe). 
—Hast thou had thy hat or thy waistcoat mended ? — I have nei- 
ther had the one nor the other mended. — Have you had your 
gloves or your handkerchie& mended .? — ^I have had neither the 
one nor the other mended.^Has your father had any thing made ? 
—He has not had any thing made.^^Have you looked for my 
gloves ? — ^I Jiave looked for them. — Where have you looked for 
them ? — ^I have looked for them upon the bed, and have found 
them under it. — Have you found my notes in the stove ? — ^I have 
found them in it. — Have you found my boots under the bed ? — I 
have found them upon it. — How long did you stay in that coun- 
try ? — I stayed there two years. — ^Did your father remain long at 
the ball ? — He remained there only a few minutes. 

Lezione trentesima quinia. 


— waited. 

^^ intended 

Promettere* — prmneuo. 

t Comprender^ — eon^eeo. 

< Intend^e^ — inteeo, 

( Capire^ — capUo. 

SAUendere* ^—atteso, 

Aspeliart^ — aspeWUo. 

IfUendere^ — inteeo. 


To wait 

To intend {to 

Ob». Compound and derivative verbs are generaUy conjugated like tlieif 
primitives : thus the verb proikettere* is conjugated like metUrt*, to put (Lee- 
son XXKIII), eomprender^, like prtnder^, to take (Lesson XXXIY), ottcif 
cbrc* and intender^t like tenden^^ to tend. 

Do yon promise me to come? 
I do promise you. 

What have yon promised the mani 
I have promised him nothing. 

Mi promette EUa di venire 1 
Olielo prometto. 

Che ha Ella promesso all' uomo 7 
Non gli ho promesso nulla. 

To lose -^ lost. 
How much has your brother lost 1 

He has lost about a crown. 

I have lost more than ha 

Perdere^ — perduto. 

Quanto danaio ha perduto il di Let 

Ha.perduto circa uno scuida 
Circa, incirca. 
Ho perduto plh dl lui. 

Have you ever learnt Italian 1 
I have learnt it formerly. 

To weoTi to use. 

To wear out. 

This coa,t is worn out. 
The worn-out coat. 

To refuse 
To spell. 

Ha EUa imparato mai 1' italiano f 
L' ho imparato altre volte. 


Logorare 1. 

Questo abito d logoiato. 
L' abito logoro. 

Rifiutare (ricusare). 





I Camef 
I Bene, 
I MdU. 

So, ihtu. 

So 90, 

In this manner. 

How h/m jour brother written hie ex- 

He hu written it welL 

To dry. 

Do yon put your coat to dry 1 
I do put it to dry. 

How old are you 7 
I im twelre yeare old. 
How old ie your brother 1 
He ii thirteen years old. 

Ho is ahnost fourteen years old. 

I am about fifteen years old. 


Ho is nearly fifteen years old. 

To draw near. 
^wk are liardly Be?enteen years old. 


1 am not quite sixteen years oM. 

Coeij mqueeto 


In questa 

Come ha seritto U 

L' ha seritto bene 



Asciugare (seccare). 

Mette EUa ud. asciugare U sue abito.1 
Lo metto ad asciugare. 

1 1 QuanU amii ha EU&>7 

t Ho dodici anni. 

[ t auantianni ha U di Lei fratellol 
1 1 Che eta ha n di Lei fratellol 

t Egli ha tredici anni. 

Quasi, meirca {alP ineirea). 
t E£(li ha incirca quattordici anni. 

Circa, incirca {alT indrea). 
t Ho circa quindicl anni. 

Press^ a poeo, quasi, indrea. 

( t Ha quasi quindlci anni. 
c t Si ayvlcina ai quindlci anni. 

Awwuuire, avvtcinarsi. 


t EUa ha appena didasette amil. 

( Non intieramente. 
iNon deltutto. 
i Non naC affatto. 

f t Non ho tutf diatto sedici anni. 
/ t Non ho ancbr compito 11 sedicesl- 
{ mo anno. 

Compirc 8. 


Art thou older than thy brother t 
I am younger than he. 

Old (in yean). 




I t Set tu magglore di fno ftitaBot 
', i Sono pih gioTanedi hit 

( SoDO minoro di lui. 
; Vecchio. 

^ Attempato. 

( Avansato in etA. 

There is. 
There are. 

C iy m i {vi Aa, avni). 
a smw or m sano. 

Hoir many ftancs are there In a 

Iliere are twenty aous, or a hnndied 

oentimee, in one franc. 
There are five oentlmea in a aou. 

A or one hundred. 

The centime. 

The gold aequin. 
The livre (a coin). 
The crown. 
The sou. 
A eeqaln has four erowna. 

There are aeren liyrea (or franca) In a 

There are twenty aous in a line. 

To underatand — underatood. 
1 underatand, thou underatandesti he 

We» yon, they understand. 

The nolae. 

The wind. 
The n<rfee (roarihg) of* the wind. 
Do yon hear the roaring of the wind 1 
I do hear it. 

To lark. 

The barking. j 

Haye you heard the barking of the i 
dogal I 

I have heard it 

f Anaatl franchi ci TOgUpno per tut 

t Ventl mMkf o cento cenlealmi fan- 

t Cinque caateiUM fiuino un aoldo. 


11 centeaimo. 

Lo lecchino d* 0P». 

La lira {afemmihu f*4P«y. 

Lo acttdo. 

II aoldo. 

Quattro acudi Ikuio «^ 

Sette lire lanno uno acudA. 

Vend aoldi fiumo una lira. 

Oapire • — caplto^ 
OBLpi8co,.capLMi, capiaee. 

Capiamo, capita, capiacono. 

Lo'atrepito, 11 mmoie. 

II yento. 

Lo strepito diel yento. 

Intende Ella lo atrepito del yento 1 

L' intendo. 

LatrarCf ahhaiare I. 

D latrato. 

Ha EUa inteao 11 latrato del oanll 

L* ho inteao. 



To waHfar 8ome one or some- 

To expect some one or some- 

Are you waiting for my brother 7 
I am waiting for him. 
Do you expect aome fiiendal 
I do expect aome. 

The nobleman. 

Gentle, pretty. 
Where has the nobleman remained 1 
He has remained at home. 
Have yon remained with tiim 1 
With him. 

Aspettare gudlcuno o qukhhs 

Aapetta Ella mio firatellol 
Lo aapetto. 

Aapetta Ella degli amid! 
Ne aapetto alcuni. 

II gentiluomo (U nobUe). 

J gentiloomini (1 nobili). 

Gtentile, grazioao. 

Ore d rimaato U gentUiiomo> 

Is rimaato in caaa. 

£ Ella rimaata oon lui (aeco) 1 


Seco, oon luL 



Do you promiae me to come to the ball?— I promise you.— ^ 
Have I promised you any thing 1 — Tou have promised me nothing. 
»— What has my brother promised you ?— ^He has promised me a 
fine book. — ^Have you received it ?— Not yet. — ^Do you give me 
what you have promised me ?— I give it you. — Has your friend 
received much money ? — ^He has received but little. — How much 
has he received I — ^He has received but one crown. — ^How much 
money have you given to my son ? — ^I have given him thirty 
francs. — ^Did you not promise him more ? — I have given him . 
what I promised him. — ^Have you Italian money ? — ^I have 
some. — ^What money have you ? — ^I have some sequins, crowns, 
livres, and sous. — How many crowns are there in a gold sequin ? 
— There are four crowns in a gold sequin. — Have you any French 
money ? — ^I have some ; I have French and Italian money. — What 
kind of (ehe) French money have you ? — ^I have some francs, 
sous, and centimes.: — ^How many sous are there in a franc ?»— 
There are twenty sous m a franc -XHave you any centimes ?— 
I have several.r— How many centimes are there in a sou ? — ^There 


are &ve. —And haw many centimes are there in a franc ? — One 
hundred {cerUo). — ^Will you lend me your coat ?-— I will lend it 
you, but it is worn out. — ^Are your boots worn out ? — They are 
not worn out. — Will you lend them to my brother t — ^I will lend 
them to him. — ^To whom have you lent your hat ? — ^I have not 
lent it ; I have given it to somebody. — To whom have you given 
it ? — ^I have given it to a pauper (a unpavero). 


Does, your little brother already know how to spell? — ^He does 
know. — ^Does he spell well ? — ^He spells well. — How has your 
little brother spelt ? — ^He has spelt so so. — How have your chil- 
dren written their exercises ? — They have written XhetQ badly. — 
Has my neighbour lent you his gloves ? — ^He has refused to lend 
them to me. — ^Do you know Spanish? — ^I know it. — ^Does your 
son speak Italian ? — He speaks it well. — ^How do your friends 
speak ? — ^They do not speak badly. — ^Do they listen to what you 
tell them ? — They listen to it. — How hast thou learnt English ? 
— ^I have learnt it in this manner; — ^Did you call me f — ^I have 
not called you, but I have called your brother. — ^Is he come ? — 
Not yet.«^Where did you wet your clothes ?— -^I wetted them in 
the garden. — ^Will you put them to dry ? — ^I have already put 
them to dry. — Does the nobleman wish to give me any thing to 
do ? — ^He wishes to give you somethuig to do. — ^How old are you ? 
—I am hardly eighteen years old.— How old is your brother ?— 
He is twenty years old.— 'Are you as old as he ? — ^I am not so 
old.-i— How old art thou ? — ^I am about twelve years old. — ^Am I 
younger than you ?— I do not know.— How old is our neighbonr? 
He is not quite thirty years old. — Are our friends as young as 
we ? — They are older than we. — ^How old are they 1 — ^The one 
is nineteen, and the other t^nty years old. — ^Is your father as 
old as mine ? — ^He is older than yours. 

Have you read my book ? — I have not quite read it yet. — Has 
your fnend finished his books ? — ^He has almost finished them. — 
Do you understand me ? — ^I understand you. — ^Does the French- 
man understand us ? — ^He understands us.-^Do you understano 

THIBTY-SUrrH LB880N. ' 163 

what we are telling you ?-^We understand it.<— Dost thou under- 
stand Italian 1 — I do not understand it yet, but I am learning it.— 
Do we understand the English? — We do not understand them. — 
Do the English understand us ? — ^They understand us. — ^Do we 
understand them ? — ^We hardly understand them.-^Do you hear 
any noise ? — I hear nothing. — Have you heard the roaring of the 
wind ? — ^I have heard it. — What do you hear ? — ^I hear the bark- 
ing of the dogs. — Whose dog ia this ? — ^It is the dog of the 
Scotchman. — Have you lost your stick ? — ^I liave not lost it. — Has 
your servant lost my notes'? — ^He has lost them. — ^Did you go to 
the ball ? — I did not go. — ^Where did you remain? — I remained 
at home. — Where did the noblemen remain ? — They remained 
in the garden. — Has your fathei* lost as much money as I ? — He 
has lost more than you. — ^How much have I lost ?-<-You have 
hardly lost one crown.*-Did your friends remain at the ball ? — 
They renaained there.-4>Do yon kbow as much as the English 
physician ?— I do not know as much as he. — How many books 
have you read ? — I have read hardly two. — Do you wait for 'any 
one ?•— I wait for no one. — ^Do you wait for the man whom 1 sav» 
this morning? — ^I Wait for him. — Art thou wailing for thy book ? 
— ^I am waiting for it.— Do you expect your father this evening ? 
— ^I do expect him.-— Do you expect some friends ?-*-! do expect 
some. — Where is your little brother ?i— He is gone with the no- 
bleman (col 9^gnore),—la he gone to the play with him ? — ^He is 
gone there with him. 

Lezione trentesima sestet. 

To hUe^-^nUen. 
To heat. 
Why do you beat the dog ? 

Mordere* — morso. 

Battere 2. 

Pei€hd batte Ella 11 eanef 



I beat it because it has Mtten ma 

Poich^, perehi. 
Lo batto perdid ml ba 

To owe — owed. 
How much do you owe me 1 
I owe you fifty crowns. 
How mucb does the man owe you? 
He owes me sixty firanca. 
Do our neighbours owe as much as we 1 
We owe more than tl^ey. 
How much dost thou owel 

Two hundred crowns. 
• Eighty francs. 

Two hundred and fifty sequins. 

Doverel* — doftuio. 

Quants mi deve EUat 

Le devo cinquanta scudL 

Quanto Le deve 1* uomo? 

Mi deve sessanta franohL 

Debbono i nostri yidoi quanto nill 

Dobbiamo pih di loro. 

Quanto devi 1 

Due cento scudi. 

Ottanto franchl. 

Due cento cinquanta xecciiini. 

Are you to .... 1 

lam to 

When an yon to go to this morning 1 

I am to go to the wareliouse. 

Is your brother to come hither to-day ? 

Soon^ shortly. 
fis Is to oome hither soon. 

t Deve Ella.. 1 

t Devo 

t Ore dere EUa andare stamanel 
t Devo (debbo) andare al magaiaino. 
t II di Lei CrateUo dare Tenin qui 

f Quanio pfwuif fr^ pocOf 
} iasta. 
( Presto^ evhUo. 
t Dere Tenlre qid quanto prima. 

To return {to come haek)> 

At what o*doek do yon return from the 
market 1 

1 return from it at twelve o'clock. 

From Uffrom iherey thence. 

Does the servant return early from the 
vrarehouse 1 

Re returns from it at ten o'clock In the 

At nine o'clock in the morning. 
At five o'clock ih the evening. 
At eleven o'clock at night. 

Riiomare I. 

A che ora litoma Ella dal meicatol 

Ne rltomo 


alle dodld. 
mezzo giomOa 


II servitore ritoma per tempo oal 
r Ne ritoma alle died antimeridlane 
< Ne ritoma alle died dd mattlno. 
t Ne ritoma alle died della mattina. 
t Alle nove antimeridlane. 
1 1 Alle cinque della sera (pomeridiane) 
' t Alle undid della sera (o della notte) 



Haw hng? 
During, far. 
How long has he remained there 1 

An hour. 
A day. 
A month. 
A year. 


The winter. 
During the snmmer. 

To dweUf to tivcy to reside, to re- 
To lodge. 
Where do yottUyel 

I live in WUUam-itreet, namber twen- 

Where did your brother liye 1 
He lived in RiyoU-street, namber forty- 
Dost thoa live at thy brother's housel 
I do not live at lii9| bat at my father's 

Does your fHend still live where I 

He Uvea no longer where you lived. 

No longer. 

The number. 
How long were you speaking to the 

I spoke to him for two hours. 

Did you remain long with my iather 7 

I remained with him an boar. 

Qltanto tempo ? 
Durante, per lo gpaaao di. * 

Q,uanto tempo vi i egd restate (ri 

Durante un minuto. 
Per lo spaiio di un' ora. 
Durantd un giomo. 
Per lo ^Mzio di on mese. 
Durante un anno. 

I L^ estate (Jem.) 
! La state (/em.) 

L' invemo. 

Durante la state. 

Stare • di easa ; dimorare. 

ABoggiarey ahUare. 

Dove sta EUa di casa 1 (Ove, al. 

loggia 1) 
Alloggio nella contrada Gugllelmo 

(or via Guglielmo) numero venti 

Dove ha alloggiato il di Lei finatello 1 
Ha alloggiato nella contrada (or via) 

di RivoU, numero quaranto nove. 
Non isto da lui, ma in casa di mio 

11 di Lei amico sta (alloggla) ancora 

ove ho alloggiato (sono state) iol 
Non ista plii dove EUa ha alloggiato. 


II numero. 

Q,uanto tempo ha Ella parlato all 

Gli ho parlato per il corso dl due ore. 
E Ella restata molto teknpo con mio 
. padre (col padre mio) 1 
Vi son restate un' ora. 
Molto tempo. 

1 Durante^ or per lo epazio diy when it signifies^^, may be left out in Italian 
as in Bn^iah, but it is tlien understood. 




Why do yoa not drink ?*— I do not drink, because I am not 
thirsty. — ^Why do you pick up this ribbon ?— I pick it up, because 
I want it. — ^Why do you lend money to this man t— I lend him 
some, because he wants some. — ^Why does your brother study f 
— He studies, because he wishes to learn French. — Has your 
cousin drunk already ? — ^He has xiot drunk yet, because he has 
not yet been thirsty. — ^Does the servant show you the floor which 
he sweeps ? — ^He does not show me that which he sweeps now, 
but that which he swept yesterday. — ^Why do you love that man? 
—I love him because he is good. — Why does your neighbour 
beat his dog ? — Because it has bitten his boy. — ^Why do our 
friends love us ? — ^They love us because we are good. — Why do 
you bring me wine ? — ^I bring you some, because you are thirsty. 
— ^Why does the sailor drink ? — He drinks, because he is thirsty. 
•^Do you see the sailor who is in the {sul, upon the) ship ? — ^I do 
not see the one who is in the ship, but the one who is in the (al) 
market. — ^Do you read the books which my father has given 
you ? — ^I read them. — ^Do you understand them ? — ^I understand 
them so so.^Do you know the Italians whom we know ? — We do 
not know those whom you know, but we know others.-^Does the 
shoemaker mend the boots which you have sent him f — ^He does 
not mend them, because they are worn out {non sono piu hwmi), 

Is your servant returned from the market ? — ^He has not re- 
turned yet from it. — ^At what o'clock did your brother return 
from the ball ?*-He returned from it at one o'clock in the morn, 
ing (al tocco dopo mexxa itotte}.*-At what o'clock didst thou come 
back from thy fnend ? — ^I came back at eleven o'clock in the 
morning. — ^Didst thou remain long with him ?— I remained with 
him about an hour. — ^How long do you intend to remain at the 
ball ? — ^I intend to remain there a few minutes. — How long did 
the Frenchman remain with you ? — He remained with me for 
two hours. — ^How long did your brothers remain in town {neUa 
eiitd) ? — ^They remained there during the winter. — Do you in. 


tend to remain long with us ? — ^I intend to remain with you du- 
ring the summer. — ^How much do I owe you ?— You do not owe 
me much. — ^How much do you owe your tailor ? — ^I owe him 
eighty sequins.^-How much dost thou owe thy shoemaker ? — ^I 
owe him already eighty-five sequins.-^Do I owe you any thing 1 
—You do not owe me any thing.— ^How much does the English, 
man owe you ? — ^He owes me more than you. — ^Do the English 
owe as much as the Spaniards ? — ^Not quite so much.*-Do I owe 
you as much as my brother 1 — ^You owe me more than he.— Do 
our friends owe you as much as we ?— «-They owe me less than yoo. 
—How much do they owe you ? — They owe me two hundred and 
fifty sequins.-^How much do we owe you ? — ^You owe me three 
hundred Sequins. 

Why do you give money to the merchant ? — ^I give him some, 
because he has sold me something. — ^Whither are yon to go,?— 
I am to go to the market. — ^Is your friend to come hither to-day ? 
— ^He is to come hither. — When is he to come hither ? — He is to 
oome hither soon. — ^When are our sons to go to the play 1 — ^They 
are to go thither to-night (stassera,) — When are they to return 
from it ? — ^They are to return from it ^t half-past ten. — When are 
you to go to the physician ?— rl am to go to him at ten o'clock at 
night. — When is your son to return from the painter's ? — He is 
to return from him at five o'clock in the evening. — Where do you 
live ? — I live in Rivoli-street, number forty-seven. — Where does 
your father live ? — ^He lives in his friend's house. — ^Where do 
your brothers live ? — ^They live in William-street, number one 
hundred and twenty. — ^Dost thou live at thy brother's ? — ^I live in 
his house. — ^Do you still live where you lived {dove 8 vtata dap- 
prima)! — I still live there. — ^Does your friend still live where he 
did (dove i ttato aUre voUe) 1 — ^He no longer lives where he did. 
-^Where does he live at present ? — ^He lives in his father's house. 


Leziane treniesima settima. 

Haw long? 

Till, unHl. 
Till twelve o'clock (till noon). 
Till to-morrow. 
TiU the day aAer to-morrow. 

Tin Sunday. 
Till Monday. 
Till thia evening. 

Till evening. 

Until morning. 

Until the next day. 
Until that day. 
Until that moment 
Tin now—hitherto. 
Until then. 
' Then. 

Tuesday, Wednesday. 
Thursday, Friday. 

( Fino a quando ? Fin quando f 
\ Insino a quando f 

Fino, insino, 
S Fino a mezzo giomo. 
C Fino a meziodt 

Fino a domani. 

Fino a S domani raltro. 
I posdomani. 

Fino a domenica. 

Fino a lunedi. 

Fino a stassera. 
( Fino alia sera. 
I Pino a sera. 
( Fino alia mattina. 

Fino alF indomani. 

Fino a questo giomo. 

Fino a questo momento. 

Fino adesso— fin qui. 

Fino allora. 


Marted!, merooledL 
Oiovedi, veoerdi. 

ObB. A. The names of the days and months are masculine, except ta di»- 
MMtiioo, Sunday, which to feminine. Of the seasons, la Prxmatera, Spring, and 
f EwtuU, Summer, are feminine % P iitiAcmu), Autumn, and P Ewntm, Winter, 
are masculine. 

Till I return (till my return). 
Till my brother retains (till my bro 
ther's return). 

Till four o*dock in the morning. 

Till midnight (till twelve o'clock at 
The return or coming back. 

How long did you remain at ray fa- 
ther's house 1 

I remained at his ^ouse till eleven 
o'ckxjk at night '' - 

Fino al mio ritomo. 

Fino al ritomo di mlo fratello. 

( Fino alle qnattro del mattino. 
I Fino alle quattro mattntine. 
Fino a mezza notte (fino alle dodlri 

di notte.) 
II ritomo. 
Fino a quando d EUa restata da mio 

Ci sono restato fino all* undid di 



They, the peopky any one^ or one. 

Itl8Jaid,thatii^p«!fiItji^. . 

Tbef are known, that la, jwfpU or they 

I am told, that ia^ they tell me. 

It ia not aaldr-people do not aqf. * 
I am not told— they do not tell ma 
They do not apeak of it. 
A great many people are seen there 

(that ia, MM aeea there a great many 


06*. B, 7Vy, ihepeapU, anjf om, or 
compouid tenaea, or even in eimple 
aonal pronoun. Ez. 
I am expected (thatia, they expect 


Si dice, dioono. 
8i eonoBcono. 

' Mi fi dice (mi Tien detto, ml di« 

Non H dice. Non dioono. 
' Non mi ti dice (non mi Tien detto). 

Non M 1 ne paria. 

Vi ei Tede molta gente. 

are genenUly not expreaaed In tlie 
when they are ibllowed by a per> 

Here are the booka which he waa 

aaked for (thatia, which lft€y aaked 

him for). 
It haa been aaid (that ia, peopU aaid). 
It haa been written (that ia^ people 

I waa told (that Is, they iM, me). 
TYuy wrote to me. 

HaTe ihejf brovght my bootal 

They haTO brought them. 

They haTe not brought them yet 
What haTe<^ aaid 1 

Tkey haTe aaid nothing. 
What haTe they done 1 

They haTe done nothing. 

Sono aapettato (Mi aapettano). 

Ecco' i libri che gU aono atatl do- 

B atato detto (Hanno detto). 
jb atato acritto (Hanno acritto), or 
Si BcriTe. 
t Mi d atato detto (Bfi hanno detto). 
t Mi d atato acritto (Mi 

1 1 Sono ateti portati i mid atlTaU? 
1 1 Hano portato 1 midatlTali 1 
1 1 Sono atatl portatL 
1 1 Li hanno portati. 
( t Non aono ancon atatl portati. 
I Non li hanno per anoo portati. 
t Che d Btato detto 1 (Che hanno 

C t Non d Btato detto nlaitfe. 
c t Non hanno detto nlente. 
t Che d atato fitttol (Che hanno 

( t Non d atato &tto nlente. 
( t Non hanno fatto nlente. 

To he wiOing {wish) — been 

willing {toished). 
HaTe they been willing to mend my 


t Hanno eaal Tolato raccomodare 11 
mlo abito? 

* St la here changed into ae, becanae It la 
XXXni. 06*. A.) 


by 1M. (See 



7Vyl»V9>^o^ ^^^^ wSIling to mend 

Have fiuy been willing to mend my 

Thejf have not been willing to mend 

To be able (can) — been able 

Have they been able to find the books 1 

They ooold not find them. 

Can they find them now7 
They cannot find them. 

What do 1^ flay 7 
What do (% flay ne#7 

7%$jf flay nothing new. 

SomethlDg er any thing new. 
Nothing er not any tiling new. 

My new coat. 
My a«w horse. 
My fine bone. 
My new Mend. 
My handflome coat. 

Tf> brush. 

This fine man. ' 
Theae fine men. 
This fine trea. 
My new Mends. 
' These fine treea. 

t Non hanno Toluto ratoonodarloi 

t Hanno toluto raccomodara ! mlel 

t Non hanno yolutoiaocomodarlL 

Potere— ^ido. 

t Hanno eg^ino potato trofim I 

[ t Non 11 hanno potato irorsxe. 
[ t Non si son potutl troTava. 

t Si possono troyare adeasol 

t Non si possono trovare. 

Can <&^ do what they wish 1 i 

They do what they can, bat they do ' 
not what they wish 

t Possone egUno fiue cid -che v 

t Si la cid che si pad^ ma non al 

dd che si vuole. 

jt Che M dice? 

! t Cho dlcono 1 

[ t Che n dice di nuorol 

1 1 Che dlcono di nuoTol 

1 1 Non &i dice niente di nuovo. 

[ t Non dlcono niente di noovo. 

dualoosa di nnoyo. 

Niente di naoTO. 


U mio abito nnoyo. 
n mio nnoyo cayallo. 
n mio bd cay^Ilo. 
II mio nuoyo amico. 
U mio bell* abito. 

Spaxxare, spaxxolare 1. 

Q,nesto bell' nomo. 
Ctoesti begli aominl. 
Qoesto bell' albero. 
I mlel paqyi amici, 
Qael, or qaesti begli alfwri. 


Do they believe that 1 

They do not beUeve it. 
Do they speak of that 1 

Itiey do speak of it. 
They do not speak of It. 


( CredoQO dd 7 

( Nod li crede. 

I Non lo credono. 


I Parlano dicid? 

^Se fu paria (see Lesson XXXIII 

< ObB. A.y 

^ Ne parlano. 

( Non M nt parla. 

( Non ne parlano 


How long have you been writing ?— I have been writing until 
midnight. — ^How long did I work ? — ^You worked till four o'clock 
in the morning. — ^How long did my brother remain with you ?^> 
He remained with me until evening. — How long hast thou been 
working ? — ^I have been working till now.— Hast thou still long 
to write ?— I have to write till the day after to-morrow. — ^Has the 
physician still long to work ? — ^He has to work till to-morrow.— 
Am I to remain here long ? — ^You are to remain here till Sun- 
day. — ^Is my brother to remain long with you ? — ^He is to remain 
with us till Monday. — ^How long are we to work ?-<-'$'ou are to 
work till the day after to-morrow. — ^Have you still long to speak ? 
I have still an hour to speak. — ^Did you speak long ? — ^I spoke till 
the next day. — ^Did you remain long in my counting-house ? — ^I 
remained in it till this moment. — ^Have you still long to live at 
the Frenchman's house ? — ^I have still long to live at his house- 
How long have you to remain at his house ?-^Till Tuesday. — 
H9S the servant brushed my clothes ?-^He has brushed them.«- 
Has he swept the floor ? — ^He has swept it. — ^How long did he re- 
main here ? — ^Till noon (meaKOgtomo).— Does your friend still live 
with you ? — ^He lives with me no longer. — ^How long did he live 
with you ? — He lived with me only a year.— How long did you 
remain at the ball ? — ^I remained there till midnight. — ^How long 
did you remain in the ship ? — I remained an hour in* iU— Have 
you remained in the garden till now ?— I hare remained there till 
now ( j&to ad ora). 

172 THiaTT-SBVSllTR LB880H. 


What do you do in the morning ? — ^I read.— And what do you 
do then ? — ^I breakfast and study. — Do you breakfast before you 
read ? — ^No, Sir, I read before I breakfasts — ^Dost thou play in* 
stead of studying I — I study instead of playing. — ^Does thy 
brother go to the pUy instead of going into the garden ?-r-He goes 
neither to the play nor into the garden. — What do you do in the 
evening ? — ^I study. — What hast thou done this evening ?— *I have 
brushed your clothes, and have gone to the theatre. — ^Didst thou 
remain long at (he theatre ? — ^I remained there but a few minutes. 
— ^Are you willing tp wait here ? — ^How long am I to wait ? — ^You 
are to wait till my father returns. — ^Has any body come ? — Some- 
body has come. — What did they want ? — ^They wanted to speak 
to you. — ^Would they not wait ? — They would not wait. — ^Have 
you waited for me long T— I have waited for you two hours.— 
Have you been dble to read my note ?— I have been able to read 
it. — Have you understood it ? — ^I have understood it.-AHave you 
shown it to any body ? — ^I have shown it to nobody. — Have they 
farooght my fine clothes ? — ^They have not brought them yet.^. 
Have they swept my floor and brushed my clothes ?*-They have 
done both. — What have they said ? — They have said nothing.r-«« 
What have they done? — ^They have done nothing.— Has your 
little brother been spelling ? — ^He has not been willing to spell.^-> 
Has the merchant's boy been willing to work ?— He has not been 
willing. — ^What has he been willing to do ? — ^He has not been 
willing to do any thing. 

Has the shoemaker been able to mend my boots ? — ^He has not 
been able to mend them. — Why has he not been able to mend 
them ?-~Beipause he has had no time. — ^Have they been able to 
find my gold buttons t— They have not been able to find them.— 
Why has the tailor not mended my coat ?*^^Because he has no 
good tliread. — ^Why have you beaten the dog ? — ^Because it has 
bitten me. — ^Why do you drink ? — Because I am thirsty. — What 
have they wished to say ?— They have not wished to say any 
thing.*-Have they said any thing new ? — ^They have not said any 
thing new. — ^What do they say new in the market ? — They say 



nothing new (there).— Did they wish to kill a maa? — ^They 
wished to kill one. — Do they believe that ? — They do not believe 
it. — ^Do they speak of that ? — They speak of it.— tDo they spetk 
of the man that has been killed ? — They do not speak of him.^- 
Can they do what they wish ?-VThey do what they can, but they 
do not do what they wish. — What have they brought ? — They 
have brought your new coat. — Has my servant brushed my fine 
ca/pets ? — He has not brushed them yet. — ^Have you bought a 
new horse? — I have bought two new. horses. — How many fine 
trees have you seen ? — ^I have seen but one fine tree. — ^Have you 
seen a fiii e man ? — I have seen several fine men. — Have you a 
new frienil ? — ^I have several. — ^Do you like your new friends ? — 
I like them. 

Lezume trentesima ottava. 

How far? 

Up to, as far as. 

As far as my brothel's. 

As far as here^ hither. 
As &r as there, thither. 
As &r as London. 
As far as Paris. 

To, at, or in Paris. 
To» « " Berlin. 
To, " " London. 
To, " " Rome. 

To, at, or in France. 
To," "Iftdy. 

S Fin dove? 
Fino, sino, 
% Fin da mio fratello. 
c Fino a casa di mio frateUa 
Fin qui {or qui). 
Fin a 

Fino a (or in) Londra. 
Fino a Parigi. 

A Parigi, in ParigL 
A Berlino, — Berlino, 
A Londra^ — L^ndrsi 
A Roma, — Rouml 

In Francia. 

In Italia. 

In Inghiltemu. 



As fiir ■• Eogtand. 
i« Jar «a Italy. 
A« far as Qermany. 
Aa iar as France. 
As ftir as Spain. 

As Ikr as my house. 

As fiir as the warehouse. 

As fiir as the comer. 

As far as the end of the road. 

As ftir as the middle of the road. 

Above or up stairs. 

Below — dawn stairs. 

As lar as aboTs. 
As fiu- as below. 
As lar as the other side of the road. 

This side. 

That side. 

On this side of the road. 

Ob that side of the road. 

FIno in Ingfailterra. 

Fino in Italia. 

Fino in Oermania (Alemsgoa) 

Fino In Francia. 

Fino hi Ispagna. 


c Fino a casa mla (or in < 

{ Fino da me. 

Fino al magaszino. 

Fino al canto (all' angolo). 

Fino in Ibndo alia strada (a capi 
della strada). 
c Fino aOa jmstk della yia. 
I Fino in mezzo delU via. 

Sopra, in aUo^ dissapra, 

GiUj ahhasso. 

Fino dissopra, fino in alto. 

Fin giil, fin* abbasao. 

Fino air altra parte della Yta. 

) Da questo lato. 

^ Da questa parte (da questo canto) 
Da quelle (cotesta) parte. 
\ Di qua della via. 
[ Al di qua della Tia. 
iDil& della tU. 


L' Alemagna, la Oermania. 


L* America. 


V OUnda. 


L' Italia. 


L' Inghilterra. 


La Francia. 


La Spagna. 

The middle. 

11 mezzo (la meti, a lem. no 




La botte (a fern. noun). 

The river. 

11 fiume. 

The lake. 


The castle. 

11 casteDo. 

The comer. 

11 canto, r angolo. 



To travel. 

Do yott go to Parisl 
Do yon traToI to Paria 1 
Do yoQ go to FloraaMi 
Do you go to Roma ? 
I do travel (or go) thither. 
Is he gone to fin^andl 
He is gone tliither. 
How far i» be gone? 
How far lias he travdled 1 
He is gone as far as Americft. 
He is gone as far as Italy. 

To steal. 
To steal something from some one, 

HaTe they stolen your hat from you ? 

They have stolen it from me. 

Has the roan stolen the books from 

He has stolen them from me. 
What have they stolen from you 1 
What have they stolen from your 

friend 1 
niey have stolen all his good wine 

from him. 


An the wine. 

All the good wine. 

All his good wine. 

All the books. 

All his good books. 

AU the men. 

How do you spell this wordi 
How is this word written? 

It is written thus. 

Viaggiare 1. 



V«EllaaRoma1 . 


% egU andato In Inghllterra I 

Ci i andato. 

Fin dove d «irli andato? 

Pine dove ha egti viaggiatol 

EgU i andato fino in America. 

EgU d andato fino in ItaUa. 

Rubare 1. 

SRubare quakosa ad uno. 
Portar via quakosa ad uno. 
^ Le d stato rubato U cappeUo? 
c Le hanno portato via U cappello 1 
^ 111 d stato rubato. 
< He 1' hanno portato via. 
j T ha rubato i tuoi Ubri 1* nomo? 
\ Ha portato via 1 tuoi Ubri 1' uomo 1 

Me U ha portati via. 

Che Le h sUto rubato 1 

Che d stato rubato al di Lei amtoo 7 

GU d stato rubato tutto fl suo boon 


Tutto U vino. 

Tutto il boon vino. 

Tutto 11 suo bnon vino. 

Tutti i Ubri. 

Tuttl i suol buonl Ubri. 
( Tutti gU nomini. 
c Ogni uomo. 

( Come si scrive questo 

< (qneataparola)? 

C Come scrivesi questa parola 1 
C Si 8criv« in questo mcJo 

< cosi). 

( Si scrive in questa maniera. 





To dye (to c$i(mr)^-^yed, 

I dye, thoa dyeit, be dyes. 
Wt dye, you dye, tliBy dje^ 

To dye black. 

To dye red. 

To dye gretn. 

To dye blue. 

To dye yellow. 

Tignere * or tinger^ — tinio^ 

Tingo, tingl, ijgne ortinft 

Tigniamo, Ugnete, tingono. 

Tignere nero. 

Tignere roeso. 

Tignere verde. 

Tignere azznrro (turchinoV 

Ti^ere giallo. 

My blue coat 

n mio abito turchino. 

This white hat. 

Queato cappeUo bianco. 

His round hat 

11 suo oappello tondo. 

His yellow waistcoat 

I auo giubbettlno giaUo. 

I ha^e a three-cornered hat.. 

Ho un ca|>peUo a ire comi (a tn 


00 yon dye your coat blue 1 

1 dye it green. 

What colour will you dye your cloth 1 
I win dye it red. 

The dyer. 

Tigne il di Lei abito turchino 7 

Lo tingo Terde. 

Come Tuole tingere ii di Lai pannot 

Voglio tingerio rosso. 


To get dyedr'-got dyed. 

What colour do you get your coat 

I get it dyed green. 
What colour have you liad your hat 

I have had it dyed black. 



I have had my waistcoat dyed yellow. 

Far ttngere-^aUo iwgere. 

Come & Ella tingere il di Lei Tee - 

Lo &ccio tingere verde. 
Come ha (atto tingere il di Lei cap* 

L' ho &tto tingere i 



Ho &tto tingere giallo il mio glob- 


How far have you travelled ? — ^I have travelled as jar as Ger- 
•nany. — Has he travelled as far as Italy ? — ^He has travelled as 
far as America. — How far have the Spaniards gone ? — ^They have 
gone as far as London. — How far has that poor man come ? — H^ 
has come as far as here. — Has iie come as far as your house 'I - 

He has oome as &r as my father's^^^Have they atolen any thing 
fioDm you ? — They have stolen all the good wine fronf me. — ^Have 
they stolen any thing from your father 1 — They have stolen all 
his good hooks. — ^Dost 4bou steal any* thing ? — ^I steal nothing^r— 
Hast thou ever stolen any thing 1 — ^I have nev«r stolen any thing. . 
—Have they stolen your food clolbes from you ? — ^Thcy have 
stolen them from me.— What have they stolen from me ? — ^They 
have stolen all the good hooks frosil you.'^-When did they steal 
the money from you ? — They stole it from me the day before yes- 
terday.— Have they evar stolen any thing from us ? — ^They have 
never stolen any thing from us. — How &r did you wish to go ?^" 
I wished to go as far as the wood. — Have you gone as far as 
there ? — I have not gone as far as there.-*-How far does your 
brother wish to go ? — He wishes to go as far as the end of that 
road.— How far does the wtoe go (arriva) ? — ^It goes (arriva) as 
far as the bottom of the cask {deUa hoUe). — ^Whither art thou 
going ?-^I am going to the market. — ^How far are we going? — 
We are going as far as the theatre. — Art thou going as far as the 
well? — ^I am going as far as the castle. — Has the carpenter 
drunk all the wine ? — ^He has drunk it all. — ^H^ his little boy 
torn all his hooks ?-^He has torn them all.-^Why has he torn 
them ?— Because he dbes not wish to study. 

How much have yon lost t — ^I have lost all my money. — ^Do 
you know where my father is l*-I do not know.-^Have you not 
seen my book? — ^I have not seen it. — ^Do you know how this word 
is written ? — It is written thus. — ^Do you dye any thing ?-^I dye 
my hat.— Whftt oolour do you dye it ?«»— I dye it black.— What 
colour do you dye your olothes ?-— I dye them yellow. — ^Do you 
get your trunk dyed ? — I get it dyed.-^What oolour do- you get 
it dyed ? — I get it dyed green.— What oolour dost thou get thy 
gloves dyed ? — ^I get them dyed blue.— 'Does your boy get his rib- 
bon dyed ?— He gets it dyed. — ^Does he get it dyed red ? — ^He 
gets it dyed grey.— What colour have your friends got their 
clothes dyed ?— They have got them dyed green. — ^What colour 
have the Italians had their hats dyed ?*— They h&ve had them 
d^ed brown^— Have you a white hat? — I have a black one. — 


ITS THISTY-Biasra lbssoii. 

What hat has the nobleman ?-^He has two hats ; a white one and 
a black one.-»What hat haa the American t — ^He tiu a round 
hat. — ^HaVe I a white hat ?— You have several white and black 
hats.^Has your dyer already dyed your cloth ?— He has dyed 
it,..What colour has he dyed it ?— He has dyed it green.»-Do 
you travel sometimes ?— I travel often. — ^Where do you intend to 
go this summer {ftiesi^ etiate) ? — ^I intend to ge toParis.^4)o you 
lot go to Italy ? — ^I do go thUier.-— Hast thou sometimes trav. 
elled ? — ^I have never travelled. — ^Have your friends a mind to go 
to Holland ? — They have a mind to go thither. — ^When do they 
intend to depart ? — ^They mtend to depart the day after to-morrow. 


Has your brother already gone to Spain ? — ^He has not yet gone 
thither. — ^Have you travelled in Spain ? — I have travelled there.— 
When do you depart ? — ^I depart to-morrow. — ^Al what o'clock ?— 
At five o'clock in the moming.-^Have you worn out all your 
boots ? — ^I have worn them all out. — ^What have the Spaniards 
done ?-»They have burnt all our good ships. — Have you finished 
all your exercises ? — 1 have finished then all.— -How far is the 
Frenchman come ? — ^He has come as far as the middle of the road. 
—Where does your friend live ? — ^He lives on this side of the 
road.— Where is your warehouse t — ^It is on that side of the road. 
-^Where b the counting-house of our friend ? — ^It is jon that side 
of the theatre. — ^Is your friend's garden on this or that side of the 
wood ? — ^It is on that side.— Is not our warehouse on this side of 
the road ?— It is on this side.-^Where have you been this mom- 
ing !«— I have been at the castle.<^-How long did you remain at 
the castle ? — ^I remained there an hour. — ^Is your brother above 
or below ?«— He is above.-f-How far has your servant carried my 
trunk ?-»He has carried it as far as my warehouse.— Has he 
come as far as my house I— He has come as far as there, — ^How 
far does the green carpet go ?— It goes as ftir as the comer of the 
counting-house. — Have you been in Prance ?— I have been there 
several times. — ^Have your children already been in Germany ? 
—They have not yet been there, but I intend to send them thither 
in the spring. — Will you go on this or that side of the road ?-~I 



will go neitber on this nor on that side; I will go in the middle of 
the nNUL — How far does this road lead l — ^It leads as far as London. 

Lezione tr&ntesima nmM. 

To he necessary (must) — been \ „. ^ ,, ^ ^ 

' ^ ' I Btsognare — hsognato. 

necessary. s ait- i». 

' ( Ablnsognare — ahbisognaio. 

Ib it necessary 1 j _, « „ ,. „ 

Must I, he, we, yon, they, or shel ( Bisogiial Ed'uopol 
It is necessAvy. £l d' iMVpo. Bisogna. 

OU. A, AH yerb* eBcpreasliig necessity, obligation, or want, as, to &« obi^ed; 
to woni, tohe neuttary, muatf are generally rendered in Italian by ecMr • dP uapo 

Is it necessary to go to the market ? 

It is not necessary to go thither. 
What must one do to learn Italian 7 

It is necessary to study a great deal. 

( Bisogna andare al mercato 1 
< J£ d' uopo andare al mercato 1 
{ Non bisogna andarcL 
c Non d d' uopo andarci. 

Ch' d d' uopo (che bisogna) (are per 
imparare 1' italiuio ? 

£ d? nopo (bisogna) studiar molto. 

„^ ^ J ^ C Che m* d (mt d) d* uopo fare 1 

Whatmust/dol J Chedebbofare? 

Ofr». B. The English nominatlTe, or subjeet of the verb mtut, is rendered 
in Italian by the indirect cases in the dative ; mi, 0, gli, l^ ei, vi^ loro (see the 
Personal Pronouns, Lesson XX.), according to number afidperson^ 

You must stay still. 
Whither must fugol ' 
He must go for his book. 

Wftat mviB/tihey buy 7 
TheymaaX Imj some beef. 

What must ire read 1 

Le d d' uopo restar quieta. ' 
( Kymgli d d* uopo andare? 
C Ove gH bisogna andare 7 

Gli i d' uopo andare in cerca del suo 

Che i loro d* uopo comprare 7 

k loro d* uopo comprar del i 

Che ei d d' uopo leggere 7 

Che et bisogna leggere 7 
Che d convien leggeial 





What must you have 7 

/ must have some money. 

Must you haye a sou 1 

Most you have a great deal 7 

/ must have a great deal. 

/ only want one sou. 

l» that all you want 7 

That is all I want. 

How much must thou have 7 j 

How much dost thou want 7 i 

I only want a livre. 

How much must your brother have 7 

He only wants two livies. 

, rCheJU^d' uopo7 
' } Che m d d* uopo 7 
I CCheL«bi8ogna7 

Mi id* uopo danaio. 

Le i d' uopo un soldo 7 

OUene d d' uopo motto 7 

Me n* i d* uopo molto. 

Af» d d' Qopo Bolamente un sokfto. 

Non Le bisogna che questo 7 

N<m mi bisogna che qucstb. 

duanto ti i d* uopo 7 

r Non im d d' uopo che una lira. 

< Non mi bisogna che una lira. 

( Mii^ uopo Bolameatd una Urm. 

Ctuanto bisogna al dl Lat frateUo 1 
r Non gU bisagnaBo che due lire. 

< Non gH i d* uopo che due lire. 

( Oliid* uopo solamente dot ttre. 

Have you what you want 7 

I have what I want. 
He has what he wants.. 
They have what they want 


Do you not want more 7 
/do not want more. 
Be does not want more. 

Have you been obliged to work much 

to learn Italian 7 
I have been obliged to work much. 

c che Leid* uopo 9 

Ho eid che m* d d' uopo. 

Ha dd che gH i d* uopo. 

Hanao dd ^e laro i d* nopo. 

NtMr-'-dipnl (fUMi^-^tf). 

Non Le abblsogna di piii 7 
Non mi abblsogna di plii. 
Non gli abblsogna di piii. 

Za i stato d' uopo studiar molto pai 

imparare V italiano 7 
Mi i stato d' uopo atudiar molto. 

What am Itodo7 
Tou must work. 
Am I to go thither? 
You may go thither. 

To he worth — been worth. 
How much may that horse be worth 7 
It may be worth a hundred sequins. 
Are you worth? 


Deve lavoraie, or Dovete lavorara. 



Vakre* — valuto (yaho), 
Ctnanto pud vakre queato cavallo 7 
Pud valere cento xecchini. 
Vale Rlla (valete)7 (not much used.) 



I un worth. 
Thou art worth. 
He is worth. 
' W« are worth— they are worth. 

How much is that gun worth 7 
It ie worth but one eequin. 
How much ifl that worth 7 

That is not worth much. 
That is not worth any thing. 




Vagliamo^-TagUono or Talgono. 

duanto vale queato fudlel 

Vale aolamente uno seccliino. 

\ CiO non yal molto. 
- CM non yal gran oosa. 

Cii> non Yal niente. 

This is worth mora than that. . 

The one is not worth so much as tiie 
other. I 

duesto Yal piA di quello. 

L' uno non Yale quanto P tltro. 

To be better. 

Am I not as good as my brothsrl 
Toa are better than he. 
I am not so good as you.^ 

To give hacky to restore. ) 

Criten hackf restored. ') 

Does he restore yon your book 7 
He restores it to me. 
Has he given yon back your gtoves? 
He hss given them me back. 

Has your brother already commenced 
his exercises 7 

Not yet. . 

He has not yet commenced 
The present. 
Have you received a present 7 
I have reeeived several. 
Have yon received the books 7 
I have received them. 

From whom ? 
Krom whom have you reodved pre- 

From my fHends. 

< Valer* plh. 
I Costar pli^. 

Non valgo quanto mlo firaleltol 


Non valgo quanto Ella. 




Le ha reso i di Lei guanti 1 


n di Lei fratello hagi& comindalol 
suoi temi 7 

2Vbii — ancora ; nofip— per aneo* 

Non 11 ha ancora inoomindatl. 
II regalo. 

Ha ricevuto un regalo? 
Ne ho ricevnti pareoehl. 
Ha Ella ricevuto ilibril 
LI ho ricevuti. 


Da chi ha itoevato del mgslll 

Dai mid amid. 


Whence? Where from? 

Where do you oome from 1 
I oome from the gsrden. 
When 1b he come from 1 
He is oome from the theatre. 
Where did they come from 1 
Tliey an come from liome. 



D' onde (da do^e) Tftansl 
Vengo dai giardioo. 
te yennto dai teatro. 
Da doYe son Tenatil 
Son Tenatl da caaa loro. 


Is it necessary to go to the market ? — ^It is not necessary to go 
thither. — What must you buy ? — ^I must buy some beef. — ^Must I 
go for some wine 1 — ^You must go for some. — ^Am I to go to the 
ball ? — ^You must go there. — When must I go there ? — ^You must 
go there this evening. — Must I go for the carpenter ? — ^Tou must 
go for him. — ^What must be done to learn Russian ? — ^It is neces- 
sary to study a great deal. — ^Is it necessary to study a great deal to 
learn German ? — ^It is necessary to study a great deal. — What 
must I do ? — ^You must buy a good book. — What is he to do ? — 
He must sit still. — ^What are we fo do ? — ^You must work. — ^Must 
you work much in order to learn the Arabic? — ^I must work much 
to learn it. — ^Why must I go. to the market ? — ^You must go thither 
to buy some beef and wine. — Must I go any where ?— •Thou must 
go into the garden. — Must I send for any thing t — Thou must 
send for some wine. — What must I do ? — ^You must write an ex- 
ercise. — ^To whom must I write a note ? — ^You must write one to 
your friend. — ^What do you want, Sir 1 — ^I want some cloth. — 
How much is that hat worth ? — It is worth four crowns. — ^Do you 
want any boots? — I want some.^How much are these boots 
worth ? — ^They are worth twenty livres. — Is that all you want ? 
-^That is all I want.-— Do you not want any gloves ?— I do not 
want any. — ^Dost thou want much money ? — I want much. — How 
much must thou have ? — ^I must have five sequins. — How much 
does your brother want ? — ^He wants but six francs. — ^Does he not 
want more ? — He does not want more. — ^Does your friend want 
more ?— He does not want so much as I. — What do you want ?— 


I want money and clothes. — ^Have you now what jrou want? — ^I 
have what I want. — Hbs your father what he wants I— He has 
what he wants. 

Have the neighbour's children given you back your books ?^- 
They have given them me back.— -When! did they give them you 
back ? — ^They gave them me back yesterday .—Has your little boy 
received a present t — ^He has received several.^-From whom has 
he received any ? — ^He has received some from my father and from 
yours. — ^Have you received any presents I— I have received some. 
—What presents have you received 1 — I have-received fine pros- 
entB. — ^Do you eome from the garden ? — ^I do not come from the 
garden, but from the warehouse. — Where are you' going to ? — I 
am going to the garden. — Whence does the Irishman come ? — He 
comes from the garden. — ^Does he come from the garden from 
which {dal quale) you come ?— He does not come from the same 
(dai medenmo), — From which (da gual) garden does he come? — 
^e comes from that of ourdd friend. — ^Whence comes our boy ? 
— He comes from the play. — How much may that horse be worUi ? 
-—It may be worth five hundred crowns. — ^Is this book worth as 
much as that?-^t is worth more. — ^Howjnuch is my gun worth? 
—It is worth as much as that of your friend. — ^Are your horses 
worth as much as those of the English ? — ^They are not worth so 
much. — ^How much is that knife worth ? — ^It is worth nothing. 


Is your servant as good as mine ?— He is. better than yours.—- 
Are you as good as your brother ? — ^He is better than I. — ^Art thou 
as good as thy friend ? — I am as good as he.— Are we as good as 
our neighbours ? — ^We are better than they. — ^Is.your umbrella 
worth as much as mine ? — ^It is not worth so much.*— Why is it 
not worth so much aa mine ?— Because it is not so fine as yours. 
—How much is that gun worth ?^-It is not worth much. — Do you 
wish to sell your^horse?— I wish to sell it. — How muph is it 
worth ? — ^It is worth two hundred crowns. — ^Do you wish to buy 
it ? — ^I have bought one already. — Does your father intend to buy 
a horse ? — He intends to buy one, but not (ma wm) yours (ildi 



LA').«-4Iave your brothers commenced (itteomincuUo) their ex« 
erciaes? — ^They have commenced them.-^Have you received 
your notps ? — We have not yet received them. — ^Have we whal 
we want ? — We have not what we want. — ^What do we want ?— 
We want fine horses, several servants, and much money .4-Is that 
all we want ? — ^That is all we want. — ^What must I del ?— You 
must write. — :To whom must I write ?^-You must write to your 
friend. — Where is he? — He is in America. — ^Whither am J to 
{debho) go ? — ^You may go to France. — ^How far must I {m d d* 
uopo) go ?-^You may go as &r as Paris. — ^Which (a qum) notes 
has your brother answered ?-**He has answered those of biv 
firiends.— 'Which (quai) dogs have your servants beaten ?-*-They 
have beaten those that have made much noise. 

Lezume quaratUesima. 

To eai~^aten. 

To dine {etU dinner). 

The dinner. 
Hie bieakfasL 
To eal supper (to sup). 
The supper. 

Jnctngiare 1 — uusngiato* 
( Desinare 1 — desinato, 
I Pranxare 1 — pramato* 

II pranzo. 

La oolazione (a fern. noun). 

Cenare 1 — oenato. 

La cena (a fem. noun). 



Alter him. 

After you. 

After my brother. 

€)b9. The preposition dopo requires the genitiTe before a 

noun, otherwise it governs the accusative. 

Dopo di me. 
Dopo di lui. 
Dopo dt Lei (divoi). 
Dopo mio firateUo. 

personal pio- 

AfterAovKR^ spoken. | t Dopo aver parlato. 

Hr When the present participle is used in English after a preposition, it Is 
rendered In Italian by the infinitive. 



After IkwSag sold hif horse. 
After hoping been there. 
I broke your knife after cutting the 

t Dopo aver Tenduto U buo caTiIlo. 
t Dopo esserci stato. 
t Ho rotto U di Lei coltello dopo 
aver tagUato il manio. 

I haye dined earlier than jroo. 
Ton have supped late. 

Ho desinato pift per tempo di 1 
£Ua ha cenato tardi. 

To pay for. 

To pay a man^ a hone. 

To pay the tailor/or the coat 

Do yon pay the shoemaker /of the 

bootal . V 

I pay him/or them. 
Does he pay yon^ the knife 1 
He does pay me^ it. 
I pay what I owe. 

To ask for. 

Fagare 1 — pagato. 

t Pagare im cavallo ad un nomo. 

t Pagare V abito al sarto. 

t Paga Ella gU sUyali al calzolaio t 

t Glieli pago. 

Le paga egli il coltello 7 
t Me io paga. 

Pago cid che debbo. 

Domandare 1 — domandaio 
(Chieder^ — chietto), 
f^ The English verbs to pay and to atk require the preposition for ; but in 
Italian, as in French, they require the person in the dative and the object in the 
accusative. When the verb pagare, however, has no object in the accusative, 
It requires the person in that case. 

I have paid the tailor. 

I have paid him. 
Have you paid the shoemaker 1 
I have paid him. 
To ask a man/or some money. 

I ask my &ther^ some money. 
Do you ask me far your hati 

I ask yoJL far it. 

To aakfoT^'^atkedfor. . 

laakfiir, thou askestfor, he asks 

We ask for, you ask for, they ask 


To ask him for them. 

What do you ask me fori 
I atk you for nothing. . 

Ho pagato il sarto. 

L' ho pagato. 

Ha Ena pagato it calxolaiol 

L* ho pagato. 
t Domandare del daaaio ad un 

t Domando'danaro a mio padrs. 
t Mi domanda Ella il di Lei cap- 

t Gliclo domando (chiedo). 

Chiedere^ — ehiesto. 
Chiedo, chiedi, chlede. 

Chiediamot chtodeta, chiedono 

( t Chiederglielo. 
C t Domandarglielo. 
{ t ChiederglieU. 
C t Domandarglieli. 

t ChemichiedeEIlal 

t Non Le chiedo niente. 



7b try. 

I haye tried to do It 
Ton miwt try to do better. 

To hold^-^-held. 

i hold, thoa boldest, he holds. 
Do 7011 hold my stick? 
I hold it. 

We hold. 

You hold. 

They hold. 

Are yon looking/or any one 7 

Whom are you looking/or 7 

I am looking /or a brother of mine. 

My unde. 
Hy cousin. 
Hy relation. 
The parents (father and mother). 

A brother of mine. 

A cousin of yours. 

A relation of his (or here). 

A friend of ours. 

A neighbour of theirB. 

He tries to see you. 

Does he try to see me 1 

He tries to see an undo of his. 

To inquire t^ier some one. 

Alter whom do you inquire 1 
I inquire after a friend of mine. 

Th^ inquire after you. 
Dc they inquire alter me? 

Frovare {provarm) 1 — pro 


Vuol EUa proyare a fiur cidi 
Ho prorato a &rlo. 
BisognaproTare a frr m^o. 

Tencr«*— leniito. 

Tengo, tieni, tiene. 

Tiene Ella il mio basfonel 

Lo tengo. 




t Gerea Ella qualenaol 

t ChicercaEUal 

t Cerco un mio frateOo. 



n mio parente ; pL i miel parsntk 

I genilori (padre e madre). 

t Uamiofratello. 
t Undi Lei cugino. 
t Un suo parsBte. 
t Un nostro amico. 
t Un loro Ticino. 

Cerca Tederla. 


Cerca Tedere un suo ilo. 

( Domandare di putkuno 

I Chiedere di qualcuno. 

Di chi domanda Ella 7 
Domando di un mio amico, 

( Domandano di Lei. 

C t Si domanda di LeL 

\ Domandano di me 1 

( t Si domanda di me? 




Ton write properhr. 

Theae men do their duty properly. 

The duty. 

Have yoa done your taskl 
I have done it 
Have ye done your taekl 
We hftTe done it. 

A glues of wine. 
A piece of bread. 


Ella BcriTe beniasimo (a peiMone). 
Queeti uomini ftnno U dover loro a 

II doveie. 

n dovere (il laToro). 

Ha Ella fatto il di Lei dOTere 1 

L' ho fatto. 

Hanno fatto il loro doverel 

L' abbiamo fatto. 

Un bicchier di vino. 
(Untozxo ) 



Have you paid for die gun ?^-I have paid for it. — ^Has your 
uncle paid for the books 7— He. has paid for them. — ^Have I paid the 
tailor fer the clothes I — ^You have paid him for them.— Hast thou 
paid the merchant for the horse ?— I have not yet paid him for it. 
—Have we paid £>r our gloves ?— We have paid for them.— Has 
your cousin already paid for his boots ? — He has not yet paid 
fi>r them. — ^Does my brother pay you what he owes you 7— He 
pays it me.^Do you pay what you owe ?— I pay what I owe.— 
Have you paid the baker ?— -I have paid him. — ^Has your uncle 
paid the butcher for the beef? — ^He has paid him for it.— Who 
has broken my knife I — I have broken it after cutting the bread 
—Has your son broken my glasses I— He has broken them after 
drinking the wine.— When has your cousin broken my penknife? 
— ^He has broken it after writing his notes. — Have you paid the 
merchant for the wine after drinking it ? — I have paid for it after 
drinking it.— What did yoii do after finishing your exercises ? — 
I went to my cousin, in order to conduct him to the play. — How 
do I speak? — You speak properly (&entf«Mno).-»How has my 
cousin written his exercises ?— 'He h^s written them properly (a 
p^exiane). — ^How have my children done their XbA ?-hThey 


have done it well.-^Does this man do his duty ? — He alwa^* 
does it.-»Do these men do their duty 1 — ^They always do it. — ^Do 
you do your duty 1 — ^I do what I can.— What do you ask thiti 
man for ? — I ask him for some money. — ^What does this hoy ask 
me for 1 — ^He asks you &r some money. — ^Do you ask me for any 
thing ? — ^I ask you for a crown. — ^Do you ask me for the bread ? 
I ask you for it. — Which man do you ask &r money ? — ^I ask 
hjca whom you ask fer some. — ^Which merchants do you ask fi>r 
gloves ? — ^I ask those for some who live in William-street. — ^What 
do you ask the baker fer ? — I ask him for some bread.' 

Do you ask the butchers lor some meat ? — ^I ask them for some. 
—Dost thou ask me for the stick ? — ^I ask thee for it. — Does he 
ask thee fer the book ? — ^He asks me for it. — What have you 
asked the Englishman fer ?— I have asked him for my leather 
trunk.— -Has he given it you ? — He has given it me. — Whom 
have you asked for some sugar t — ^I have asked the merchant for 
some.— Whom does your brother pay for his boots ?— He pays 
the shoenuJcer fer them.-«-Whom have we paid fer the bread ^ 
We have paid our bakexs for it. — ^How old art thou %-^I am not 
quite ten years old.*-Dost thou already learn French ? — ^I do al- 
ready learn it. — ^Does thy brother know German ?— He does not 
know it. — ^Why does he not know it 7 — ^Because he has not had 
time to learn it. — ^Is your fether at home ? — No, Sir, he is gone 
{fturtHo)^ but my brother is at home.*— Where is your father gone 
to 7-— He is gone to England.— Have you sometimes been there t 
-—I have never been there.— Do you intend going to Prance this 
smnmer }— 1 do intend going thither. — ^Do you intend to stay there 
long ?— I intend to stay there during the summer. — ^How long does 
your brother remain at home? — ^Till twelve o'clock. — ^Have you 
had your gloves dyed ? — ^I have had them dyed.-4rWbat have you 
had them dyed ? — ^I have had them dyed yellow. — ^Have you already 
dined ? — Not yet. — ^At what o'clock do you dine ? — I dine at six 
o'clock. — ^At whose house (da ehi, or in easa di cM) do you dine ? 
— I dine at the house of a friend of mine.— With whom did you 
dine yesterday ?— I dined with a relation of mine. — ^What did you 
eat ?— We eat good bread, good beef, and pelty-patties.— What 


lid you drink ? — ^We drank good wine and excellent cider. — 
Where does your uncle dine to-day ? — ^He dines with us. — ^At 
what o'clock does your father sup ? — He sups at nine o'clock ?— 
Do you sup earlier than he ? — ^I sup later than he. 

Where are you going to ? — I am going to a relation of mine, in 
order to dine with him. — Art thou willing to hold my gloves ? — I 
am willingto hold them. — ^Who holds my hat ? — ^Your son holds it. 
— ^Dost thou hold my stick ? — I do hold it. — ^Do you hold any 
thing ? — ^I hold your giin. — Who has held my book ? — Your ser- 
vant has held it. — Will you try to speak ? — ^I will try. — Has your 
little brother ever tried to do exercises ? — ^He has tried. — ^Have 
you ever tried to make a hat ? — ^I have never tried to make one. • 
—Whom are you looking' ibrl— I am looking for the man who 
has sold a horse to me. — Is your relati<xi looking for any bod^ ? 
— ^He b looking for a friend of his. — Are we looking for any 
body ? — ^We are looking for a neighbour of ours.-:— Whom dost 
thou look for? — ^I look for a friend of ours. — Are you looking for 
a servant of mine ?— No, I am looking for. one of mine. — Have 
you tried to speak to your uncle ? — ^I have tried to speak to him. 
— ^Have you tried to see my father ? — I have see him. — 
Has he received yott ? — ^He has not received me. — ^Has he re- 
ceived your brothers 1 — He has received them.-^Have you been 
able to see your relation ? — I have not been able to see him. — 
What did you do after writing your exercises ?— I wrote my note 
after writing my exercises.-^After whom (di ehi) do you inquire 
(domandare) ? — ^I inquire after the tailor. — Does this man inquire 
after any one ?-^He inquires after you {di Lei). — ^Do they in- 
quire {H domanda) after you ? — They inquire after me. — Do they 
inquire after me ? — ^They do not inquire after you, but after a 
friend of yours (di un di LeLamico). — ^Do you inquire after the 
physician ? — ^I inquire after him. — What does your little brother 
ask for?— He asks for a small piece of bread. — Has he not yet 
breakfasted ? — He has breakfasted, but he is still hungry. — ^What 
does your uncle ask for ? — ^He asks for a glass of wine. — Has he 
not already drunk ? — He has already drunk, but he is still 


Lezione qtiarantesima prima. 

To perceive {to disconer)* 
Wm who. 

Those who. 

Ob§» Cohd and coloro relate only to 
Do yon perceive the ma& who la 

coming 1 
I peroelTO him who ia coming. * 
Do yon- perceive the men who are 

going into the warehonae 1 
I perceive thoae who are going into it. 

I Scorgere* — scorto. 

SQuello, il quale {or ehe) 
Cohdf il quale (or che), 
( QueUiy i quaU (or che). 
( Coloro, i fuaU (or che)» 
perwna, qudb and quelU to peraona and 

Scorge EUa V nomo che viene 7 

Scoigo qnello che viene. 

Scorge EUa gli nomini che vanno al 

Scorgo coloro (qnelli) dh» vi i 

How ia the weatherl 
What kind of weather ia it 1 
It ia fina weather at preae^ 
How waa the weather yesterday 1 
What kind of weather was it ywter- 

Waa it fine weather yesterday 7 
It was bad weather yesterday. 
It is fine weather this morning. 

t Che tempo la7 

t Adesso fa bel tempo. 

t Che tempo ha fatto ieri7 

t Halatto bel tempo ieri 7 
t Ieri ha fiitto cattivo 
t Stamane & bd tempo. 

Is it warm 7 
It is warm. 


It is very warm. 
It is cold. 
It is very cold. 
It is neither warm nor cold. 

t Facaldo. 


t Fa molto caldo {or fii caldisstoEio). 
t Fa fireddo. 

t Fa fineddissimo (or fa molto fnddo), 
t Non la caldo ni freddo. 




Nuvoloso, oscuro. 


Oscuro, fbsco 

DubI^, gloomy. 

Buio, opaco. 

Clear, Ught. 


It is dark in your warehouse. 

t Fa oscuro nel di Lei magazzino. 

Is it dark in his granary 1 

t Fa oscuro nel suo granaiol 

It is dark there. 

t Vi fa oscuro. 

Wet, damp. 




Is the weather dampi 

E umido il tCQipol 

It is'not damp. 

Non d umido. 

It is dry weather. 

£ asciutto. 

The weather is too dry. 

)S troppo asciutto. 

The moonlight, moonshine. 

11 chiaro di luna. 

The sun. 

. 11 sole. 

It Is moonlight. 

We have too much sun. 

t Fa troppo sole. 

To taste. 

k Gustare 1. 
( Assaggiart I. 

Bare you tasted that winel 

Ha EUa assaggiato qnesto vinol 

I have tasted iu 

L' ho assaggiato. 


<| Come Le place 1 

CCome Leparel 

r Lo trovo buono. 

I Uke it weU. 

) Ml place. 

C Mi par buono. 

^ Non mi far buono. 

I do not like it 

J Non mi piace.^ 

C Non lo troYO buono. 

To appear — apptared. 

I appear, thoa appeaiest, he appears. 
We, yon, they appear. 

Parere*~^-paruio (or parso) 

(an impersoDal verb gov- 

erni^g the dative). 

Palo, pari, pare. 

Pariamo, parete, paiono. 

To Wce—iiked. 

I like, thon Ukest, he likes. 
We, you, they like. 

Piacere* — piacciuto (an impel - 
sonal verb governing the 

Ml, ti, gli, place. 

Ci, Ti place, place loro.>^ 

^ Fiactrty in the signification of topUaae^ Is conjugated thus : PtcMcto, piaei, 
pioee; piaeciamo, jriaeeitf piaceiono. 


I Uke fish. 
He Ukes fowl. 
Do you like cider 7 
No, I Uke wine. 
The fish. 

Do you like to see my brother? 
i like to see him. 
I like to do it. 
He likes to study. 

t Ml piaoa n feice 
t Gli plan tt polUstro. 
t Le place 11 cidro 1 
t No, mi place U vino, 
t n peace ; pi. i pesci. 

Le place vedere mlo frateUo f 

Hi place Tederlo. 
t Hi place farlo. 
t Oil place Btudiare. 

To learn by heart 

The scholar. 

The pupil. 

The master (teacher). 

The proieasor. 
Do your scholars Uke to learn 

They do not Uke learning by heart. 
Have you learnt your exercises 

We have learnt them. 

Imparare a memoria. 

Lo scoliro. 

L' aUleTo. 

II maestro. 

n professore. 

I dl Lei scolari imparano TOlontierJ 

a memorial 
Non Imparano Tolontlerl a memoria. 
Hanno imparato i loro temi a i 

Li abbiamo imparatl. 

Once a day. 
nirlce, or three times a month. 
So much a year. 
So much a head. 
So much a soldier. 

. Six times a year. 

Early in the morning. 

We go out early In the monsfng. 
When did your father go out 7 

To speak of some one or some- 

Of whom do you speak 1 

We apeak of the man whom you 

Of what are they speaking? 
They are speaking of the weather. 

t Una volta al giomo. 

t Tre Yolte al mese. 

t Ttoto aU* anno. 

t Tanto a testa. 

t Tanto per soldato. 
[ t Sel volte air anno. 
[ t Sei volte r anno. 

f Di hum mattino or di btum' ora 

Usciamo dl buon mattino. 
Ctuando d uscito il di Lei padre? 

Parlare di uno o di qnalcosd. 

Di chi parla Ella ? 

Parliaroo dell* uomo chc Ella co- 

Di che parlano (di che si parla) 7 
Parlano del tempo (si parla dc' 




The weather^ 
Tlie aoldier. 

To he xAMUhi (satisfied) with 

same one or inmeihing. 
Are yoQ aetiflfied with thie map 1 

I am aati^ed with him. 

/Lre yon content with yonr new coat 1 

I am contented with it 

With wliat are you contented 1 

I am diaoontented wUh him or ii. 

Xi tempo. 
Anche (ancoia). 

Essere conUnio (soddufaUo) 
. di uno di qwUcosa, 

K Ella oontenta (aoddiaiatta) di coa- 

Ne son contento (eoddiefatt^. 
b Ella Boddiafotta d^ di Lei naovo 

Ne son soddia&tto. , . 

Di che cosa d Ella oontenta (soddia- 

Scontento, malcontento. 
Ne Bono acontento. 

They apeak of your friend. 
They apeak of liinu 
They are apeaking of your book. 
Tliey are speaking of it. 


I intend paying you, if I receive my 

Do you intend to buy coalal 
I intend to buy some, if tliey pay me 
wliat they owe me. 

( Si parla del* di Lei amico. 
( Parlano del di Lei andco. 
^ Se ne pada 
( Ne parlano. 
(Si parla del di Lei Ubrd. 
(Parlano del di Lei Ubra 
{ Se ne parla. 
( Ne parlano. 


Intendo pagarla, ^ao rioevo il mio 

Intende joomprar del carbone 7 
Intendo comprame, ae mi pagano 

cid che mi debbono. 

How was the weather yesterday 1 
Was it fine weather yesterday 7 
It was bad weather. 
I intend to take a walk^ if the weather 

is lair. 
If the weatlier is fine, I intend to go to 

the country. 

To take a waUc (go a walking). 

t Che tempo ha fatto ieri 1 
t Ha &tto bel tempo ieril 
t Ha &tto cattiTO tempo, 
t Penso passeggiare se fik bel tempo. 

t Se ia bel tempo intendo andare alia 

Pass^giare 1, 



Do you perceive the man who is coming ? — ^1 do not perceive 
him. — ^Do you perceive the soldier's children ? — ^I perceive them. 
— ^Do you perceive the men who are going into the garden ? — ^1 
do not perceive those who are going into the garden, biit those 
who are going to the market. — ^Does your brother perceive the 
man who has lent him money ? — ^He does not perceive the one 
who has lent bim, but the one to whom he has lent some. — Dost 
thou see the children who arc studying ? — ^I do not see those who 
are studying, but those who are playing. — ^Dost thou perceive 
any thing ? — I perceive nothing. — Have you perceived my pa. 
rents' warehouses ? — I have perceived them. — Where have you 
perceived them ? — ^I have perceived them on that side of the road. 
— Do you like a large hat ? — ^I do not like a large hat, but a 
large umbrella: — ^What do you like to do ? — ^I like to write. — ^Do 
you like to see these litttle boys ? — I like to see them. — ^Do you 
like wine ? — ^I like it. — ^Does your brother like cider ? — He does 
aot like it. — ^What do the soldiers like ? — ^They like wine. — Dost 
thou like tea or coffee ? — ^I like both. — ^Do these children like to 
study ? — ^They like to study and to play.-V-Do you like to read 
and to write ? — ^I like to read and to write. — ^How many times o 
day do you eat ? — Four times. — How often do your children 
drink a day t — ^They drink several times a day ? — ^Do you drink 
as often as they ? — I drink oftener. — ^Do you often go to the the- 
atre ? — ^! go thither sometimes.^How often in a month do you 
go thither ? — ^I go thither but once a month. — ^How many times a 
year does your cousin go to the ball ? — He goes thither twice a 
year.— Do you go thither as often as he ? — I never go thither.— » 
Does your oook often go to the market ? — He goes thither every 
mommg {ognimattfna). 


Do you often go to my uncle ?— ^I go to him six times a year. — 
Do you like fowl ?— I like fowl, but I do not like fish. — What do 
you like ? — ^I like a piece of bread and a glass of wine. — Do you 
learn by heart ? — ^I do not like learning by heart. — ^Do your pu 

rO£TT-FIRST LB8S09- -95 

pils like learning by heart ? — They like to study, but they do 
not like learning by heart. — How many exercises do they do a 
day ?-^They only do two, but they do them properly. — Were 
you able to read the note which I wrote to you ? — ^I was able to 
read it. — ^Did you understand it ? — I did understand it. — ^Do you 
understand the man who is speaking to you ? — ^I do not under- 
stand him. — ^Why do you not understand him? — ^Because he 
speaks too badly. — ^Does this man know French ? — ^He knows it, 
but I do not know it. — Why do you not learn it 1 — ^I have no 
time to learn it.-^^o you intend going to the theatre this eve- 
ning ? — ^t intend going thither, if you go^— Does your father intend 
to buy that horse ? — He intends buying it, if he receives his 
money. — Does your friend intend to go to England ? — He Hitends 
going thither, if they pay him What they owe him. — ^Do you in- 
tend going to the concert ? — ^I intend going thither, if my friend 
goes. — Does you brother intend to study Italian ? — He intends 
studying it, if be finds a good master. 


How b the weather to-day ?— It is very fine weather. — Was 
it fine weather yesterday ? — ^It was bad weather yesterday.— 
How was the weather this morning ? — ^It was bad weather, but 
now it is fine weather.— Is it warm ? — ^It is very warm.-*Is it 
not cold ? — ^It is not cold. — ^Is it warm or cold ? — It is neither 
warm nor cold. — ^Did you go to the garden the day before yes- 
terday ? — ^I did not go thither .-^Why did you not go thither ? — ^I 
did not go thither, because it was bad weather.— Do you intend 
going thither to-morrow ?^-*-I intend going thither, if the weather 
is fine.-^-Is it light in your counting-house ? — It is not light in it. 
— ^Do you wish to study in mine 1 — ^I wish to study in it. — ^Is it 
light there 1 — ^It is very light there.— Why cannot your brother 
work in his warehouse ? — ^He cannot work there, because it is 
too dark (perehi ci fa irappo huio). — Where is it too dark ?— In 
his warehouse. — Is it light in that hole ?-^It is dark there. — ^Is 
the weather dry ? — ^It is very dry.-^Is it damp ? — ^It is not damp. 
\ It is too diy. — ^Is it moonlight ? — It is not moonlight; it is very 
damp. — Of what does your uncle speak ? — ^He speaks of the 
fine weather. — Of what do those men speak ?-— They speak 


of fair and bad weather. — ^Do they not speak of the wind t— 
They also speak of it. — Dost thou speak of my uncle ? — I do 
not speak of hfm. — Of whom dost thou speak ? — ^I speak of 
thee and thy parents. — ^Do you inquire after any one? — I in- 
quire after your cousin ; is he at home ? — No; he is at his best 

Have you tasted that wine ? — ^I have tasted it.-*-How do you 
like it ? — ^I like it well. — ^How does your cousin like that cider ? 
— He does not like it. — Which wine do you wish to taste ? — ^I 
wish to taste that which you have tasted^— Will you taste {sentire) 
this tobacco ?— I have tasted {seniito) it already. — How do you 
like it {come Le pare) 1 — ^I like it {mi pare) well. — Why do you 
not taste that cider ? — Because I am not thirsty. — Why does your 
friend not taste this beef? — ^Because he is not hungry. — Of whom 
have they spoken {si i parkUo) ? — ^They have spoken of your 
friend. — ^Have they not spoken of the physicians ? — ^They have 
not spoken of them.^Do they not speak of the man of whom we 
have spoken ? — ^They epeak of him.-*Have they spoken of the 
noblemen ? — They have spoken of them.— Have they spoken of 
those of whom we speak ? — ^They have not spoken of those of 
whom we speak, but they have spoken of others.— Have they 
spoken of our children or of those of our neighbours ?— They 
have neither spoken of ours, nor of those of our neighbours. 
Which children have been spoken of? — ^Those of our master 
have been spoken of. — ^Do they speak of my book ? — They speak 
of it.— lAre you satisfied with your pupils ? — I am satisfied with 
them.4-How does my brother study ?— He studies well. — ^How 
many Mcercises have you studied ? — ^I have already studied forty- 
one. — Ib your master satisfied with his scholar ? — He is satisfied 
with him. — ^Is your master satisfied with the presents which he 
has received ? — ^He is satisfied with them. — Have you received a 
note? — ^I have received one. — ^Will you answer it? — ^I am going 
to answer it (ora ci ritpondo). — When did you receive it?— 1 re- 
ceived it early this m6rning.-^Are you satisfied with it ? — I am 
not satisfied with it. — ^Does your iriend ask you for money ?— 
He asks me for some. 



LezUnie quarantesima secanda. 


PasfliTe verbs represent the subject as receiving or sufiering from others the 
action expressed by the verb. They are conjugated by means of the auxiliary 
verb tnercj to be, joined to the past participle of the active verb, in Italian as 
weU as in French and English.^ Thus any active verb may be changed into 
the passive voice. 

AcHve voice. 


I love. I am loved. 


Sono amato. 

Thou praisest. Thou art praised. 


Sei lodalo. 

He believes. He is believed. 


& crednto. 

We beat. We are beaten. 


Siamo battntL 

You punish: Yoii are punished. 


Siete puniti. 

They serve. They are served. 


Sono servitL 

To praise. 


To blame. 


To punish. 

Punire 3. 

To serve. 




By me, — by uj. 


— da DoL 

By thee, — by you. 


-da vol. 

By him, — by them. 


-^ da< c(M0fO« 

I am loved by him. 

Sono amato da loi. 

Who is punished 1 


The naughty boy is punished. 

11 cattivo fanduUo d punitu. 

By whom is he punished? 

Dachideglipunito? , 

He is punished by his &ther. 

]S punito dasuo padre. 

Which man is praised, and which is 

Qual uomo 

d lodato e quale ^ biasi* 

blamed 7 


1 With this difierence only, that in English and French we say t I have been 
esteemed, J aJiiU cMtimS; and in Italian : Sono ttaio aiimaio (I am been es- 
teemed, Je 9uU itSesHmi^t for the compound tenses offeooert are formed by . 
means of t^ sum ^rb 



SklUiil, diligent, clever. 
ABaidnous, induatrioua, atudious. 

The idler, the lazy fellow. 

To esteem. 
To despise. 
To hale. 

A DiMuorriva 
. A » 

qf Undemut^ ((feoniempi, 
CattiTo, cattiveUo, cattlTaccio. 
Abile, deatro. 
Inabile, incapace. 
Asslduo, diligente, studioao. 
Pigro, poltrone. 

I 11 plgro, il poltrone. 

Ricompensare I. . 
SUmare 1. 

DispreTszare 1. Sprexxare 1* 
Odiare 1. 

Good (wise). • 

Theae children are loved, becauae they i 
•re Btndioua and good. ' 

To travel to a place. 

Where haa he travelled to 7 
He haa travelled to Vienna. 

la it good travelling? 
It ia good travelling. 
It la bad travelling. 

In the winter. 
In the Bummer. 
In the apring. 
In the autumn. 
Itia bad travelling la the winter. 

To drive, to ride In a carriage. 

To ride (on horsebac'k)^ 

To go on foot. 
Do you like to rido 1 
I like to drive. 

Buono [savio). 

Questi fanciulU aono amatl, perchc 
aono diligent! e buoni. 

"f Andare"* 1. 

t Dove d andato 1 
t E andato a Vienna. 

t Siviaggia benel 
t Si viaggla bene, 
t Si viaggla male 

Neir invemo. 
Nella atate. 

Nella {or in) primavera. 
Nell' autunno. 
t Si viaggia male in invemo. 

Andare in carrozza (in veltum, 
[ Andare a cavallo, or cavalcnTt. 
! Moutare a cavallo 

Andare a piedL 

Le piace andare a cavallo 7 

Mi piace andare in legno. 



To Uve — lived. 
U it good living in Paris') 
Is the living good in Paris? 
It is good living there. 
The living is good there. 


Is the living dear In London 1 
Is it dear living in London 7 

The living is dear there. 

Vivere * — vissuto. 
t Si vive hene a Parigil 

t Ci ai vive hene. . 


Si v|ve a caro prezao in Londnil 
]S caro il vivere in Londral 

[ Ci si vive a caro prezzo. 

! II vivere vi d caro. 


The storm. 

The fog. 
Is it windy 1 Does the wind blow 7 
It is windy. The wind blows. 
It is not windy. 
It is very windy. 
Does it thunder 7 

To thunder. 

Is It foggy 7 
It is stormy. 
It is not stormy. 
Does the sun shine 7 
It thunders very much. 

11 tuono, il fulmine. 

It temporale, la tempcsta (/sm.) 

La nebbia (/em.) 
t Pa vento 7 Tira vento 7 
t Fa vento. Tira vento. 
t Non fa vento. 
t Fa molto vento. 


Tuonare 1, FulnUnare 1. 
t Fa nebbia 7 

t Fa l>urra8ca. Fa temporale. 
t Non ia burrasca (temporale). 


Tnona' molto. 


As soon as. 

As soon as I have eaten, I drink. 

As soon as I have taken off my boots, 

I take off my coat. 
What do yoH do in the evening? 

To sleep. 

Does your father still sleep 
He still sleeps. 

Poif dipoi. 

Suhio che, appena. 

Snblto che ho manglato, bevo. 
Subito che ho levato i miei stivali 

mi levo r abito. 
Che fiEi Ella la sera 7 

Dormire 3. 

Donne anoora il di Lei p«dr»1 
Donne ancora. 


I Senza. 

Without money. Senza danaro. 

Without speaking. | Senza parlare. 

0&«. Without requires in English the present participle ; in Italian 
followed by the infinitive. 

Wlt1»ut saying any thing. | Senza dirnier.te. 



Ai last. 

He haa not arrived yet 
la he coming at last 7 
He ia coming. 

And ihen. 
And then he sleeps. 
As soon as he has supped he reads, and 

then he sleeps. 
He comes in at ten o'clock, sups, reads 
a little, takes tea, and then he goes to 


Togo to hed^^one to bed. 

Ayine, findtmenU. 
Arrware 1. RUamare * 

te arrivato alfinel 
Non d ancor anivato. . 
Viene finalmente 1 

Pot, di poi, indi. 

Poi dorme. 

Subito che ha cenato, legge po 

Entra alle died, cena, legge un poco» 

prende il ti ; indi si corica. 

Coricdrn — corieatatL 



Are you, loved ? — ^I am loved. — ^By whom are you loved f — ^I 
am loved by my uncle. — Bj whom am I loved I — ^Thou art loved 
by thy parents. — ^By whom are we loved ? — ^You are loved by 
your friend8.-^By whom are those children loved I — ^They are 
loved by their friends. — By whom is this man conducted ? — ^He is 
conducted by me. — ^Where do you conduct him to ? — I conduct 
him home. — ^By whom are we blamed ? — We are blamed by our 
enemies. — Why are we blamed by them ? — Because they do not 
love us. — ^Are you punished by your master ? — ^I am not punished 
by him, because I am good and studious. — Are we heard ? We 
are. — By whom are we heard 1 — We are heard 4)y our neigh- 
bours* — ^Is thy master heard by his pupils? — He is heard by 
them. — Which children are praised? — Those that are good. — 
Which are punished ? — Those that are idle and naughty .^Are 
we praised or blamed ? — We are neither praised nor blamed. — 
Is our friend loved by his masters ?— He is loved and praised by 


Lfiem, because he is studious and good ; but his brother ia de • 
spised by his, because he is naughty and idle. — Is he sometimes 
punished ? — ^He is {V e) every morning and every evening.— 
Are you sometimes punished ? — ^I never nm {non lo sono mai) ; I 
am loved and rewarded by my good masters.^— Are these children 
never punished ? — ^They never are (nan lo sono tnai)y because 
they are industrious and good ; but those are so {h sono) very 
oflen, because they are idle and naughty. — ^Who is praised and 
rewarded t — Skilful children {ifanduM ahUi) are praised, e&i 
teemed, and rewarded ; but the ignorant are blamed, despised, 
and punished. — ^Who is loved, and who is hated ? — He who is 
studious and good i»loVed, and he who is idle and naughty is 
hated. — ^Must one be (e mestieri esser) good ip order to be loved ? 
— One must be so (e (Ttwpo esserlo), — ^What must one do {chc 
hisognafare) in order to be loved ?— ^ne must be good and indus- 
trious* — What must one do in order to be rewarded ?-*One mu9t 
be (^uqgYia etser) skilful, and study much. 

Why are those chHdren loved ? — They are loved because they 
are good.— Are they better than we ?— They are not better, but 
more studious than you. — ^Is your brother as assiduous as 4nlne ? 
— ^He is as assiduous as he, but your brother is better than mine. 
^Do you like to drive % — I like to ride.^-Has your brother ever 
been on horseback? — ^He has never been on horseback. — ^Does 
your brother ride on horseback as often as you 1— He rides on 
horseback oftener than I. — Did you go on horseback the day be- 
fore yesterday % — ^I went on horseback to-day. — Dj you like 
travelling I — I like travelling. — ^Do you like travelling in the 
winter ? — ^I do no. like travelling in the winter; I like travelling 
in the spring and in autumn. — Is it good travelling i^ the spring ? 
— It is good travelling in spring and in autumn, but it in bad 
travelling in the summer and in the winter. — Havd- you :jome- 
times travelled in the winter ?— I have often travailed in tlif win. 
ter and in the summer. — Does your brother often trovel ^ —Ho 
travels no longer; he formerly travelled much. — V'hen if* you 
like to ride ? — ^I like to ride in the morning; — Have you biftn ir 
London?— >! have been there.— Is the living good thee ?- -Th* 



living is good there, but dear. — ^Is it dear living in Paris t— It is 
good living there, and not dear«— Do you like travelling in 
Franoe ?— I like travelling there, because one finds {d si iraoa) 
good people there. — ^Dbes your friend like travelling in Holland ? 
—He does not like travelling there, because the living is bad 
there. — ^Do you like travelling in Italy I — ^I like travelling there, 
because the living is good, and one finds {e vi n trava) good 
people ; but the roads are not very good there.-^Do the English 
like to travel in Spain {in Ispagna) ? — They like to travel there ; 
but they find the roads too bad. — How is the weather ? — The 
weather is very bad. — Is it windy ? — It is very windy. — ^Was it 
stormy yesterday % — ^It was very stormy. 

Do you go to the market this morning 1 — ^I do go thither, if it 
is not stormy .-^Do you intend going to. Franoe this year 1 — ^I 
intend going thither, if the weather is not too bad.— Do you like to 
go on foot ? — ^I do not like to go on ibot, but I like going in a car- 
riage when I am travelling. — ^Will you go on foot ? — I cannot go 
on foot, because I am tired. — What sort of weather b it % — ^It 
thunders. — ^Does the sun shine ? — The sun does not shine ; it is 
foggy. — Do you heat the thunder? — ^I hear it. — ^Is it fine 
weather ?— The wind blows hard, and it thunders much. — Of 
whom have you spoken ?-— We have spoken of you. — Have you 
praised me ?— We liave not praised' you ; we have blamed you. 
— >Why have you blamed me ? — ^Because you don't study {non 
itiudia) well.-»-Of what has your brother spoken ? — ^He has 
spoken of his books, his horses, and his dogs. — ^What do you do 
in the evening ?— ^I work as soon as I have supped. — And what 
do ^ou do afterwards? — ^Afterwards I sleep. — ^When do you 
drink ? — ^I drink asjMon as I have eaten. — When do you sleep? 
I sleep as soon as I have supped. — Have you spoken to the mer* 
chant ?-*-I have spoken to him, — ^What has- he said? — ^He has 
left (d fartUa) without saying any thing.^^^an you work without 
speaking t— I can worK, but not study French without speaking. 
—Wilt thou go for some wine ? — ^I cannot go for wine without 
money. — Have you bought any horses ? — I do not buy without 
OToney. — Has your father arrived at last ? — He has arrived. — 



When did he arrive ?— This morning at four o'elock.-^ilas youi 
cousin set out at last ? — He has not set out yet. — ^Have you at 
last found a good master ? — I have at last found one.— -Are you 
at last learning Italian ?— I am at last learning it* — ^Why have 
you not already learnt it ? — Because I have not been able to find 
a good master. 

Lezione quarantesima terza. 


When tha action fiUhkupon the agent, add the objective case reftra to fho 
Mme person as the nominative, the verb is called reflectlTe. In reflaotlTe 
verba^ thexefore^ the pronoun of the object is of the tame peraon as that of tlie 

In inch Terbe each peraon la coqjugated with a double pronoun, thus : 





















one's self. 

J Taluno, 
C Alcuno, 


I themaeWee. 

I Alcuni, 


The people, 








i C Bglino, 


themselves. • 


C EUeno, 

Ob9. A. It will be remarked that the 

third person is alv 

raya H, whataverBaay 

be its number or icender. 





To cut myielf. 


To cut ourselvea. 


r himself. ^ 

J hdifelf. I 


I one's self. J 

Do you bum yourself 7 | SI brada Ella (vi bnMlato) 1 

Ob». B, In Italian, however, the first pronoun is often not exp r esse d , 1 

I do not bum myself. 
You do not bum yourself. 
I see myself. 
Do I see myself 7 
He sees himselt 
We see ourselTea. 
They see themseWes. 

Do yop wish to warm yourself 1 

I do wish to warm myself. 
Does he wish to warm himself 7 
He does wish to warm himselC. 

They wish to warm themselires. 

Non mi brado. 

Noh si bmda (non vi bmciate). 

Mi Tedo. 



Ci vediamo (or veggiamo). 

Eglino si vedono (er Teggono). 

Si Yuol Ella scaldare (volete seal- 

Yoglio scaldarmi. 
^ Si Tuol egli scaldare 7 
Egli Tuol seakiarsi (or Egli si mol 

Si vogliono scaldare (or VogUono 

To ef^i io divert^ to amuse one^s 

In what do you amuse yourself 7 
I amuse myself in r^a^ng. 
He diverts himself in fUtinng. 

( Divertirn — divertUosi. 

I DUettarsi — dfleUtUosi. 

t A Che si diletta (si diverte) Ellal 
t Mi diletto a Uggert. 
t Si diverte agiuoeart. 


Each one. 

Each num. 

iCaeh man amuses himself as he likes. 
Each one amuses himself in the bert 
way he can. 

The taste. 
Bach man has his taste. 

Each of you. 

The world, the people'. 

Every one, every body. 

Quahinque^ ogni. 
CtaseunOf ognuno. 
Qualunque uomo. 

Ciascuno si diverte come gli place. 

< Ciascuno si diverte aUa megllo. 

< Ciascuno si diverte a mode fluo. 
II piaoere, gusto. 

Ognuno ha il suo gusto. 
Ciascuno di vol (di Loro). 
La gente. 
Tutta la gente, tutti. 



Ererf bodyipeaks of it. 
Every one it lUiblo to error. 

( Tutti ne paikno. 
( Ciascuno ne purla. 
Ognuno d Boggetto ad iAgannanL 

& tmslake, to be mistaken. 
Tou «iB mifltaken. 
Be U mistaken. 


EUa 8* inganna (y' ingannate). 
S' inganna. 

To deceive, to cheat. 
He has cheated me. 
He has cheated me of a hundred 

Ingannare 1. 
M' lia IngannaSo. 
Mi ha ingannato di cento lecchini. 

You cut your finger. 

EUa si taglia il dito (yi tagliateil 
I dito). 

Obt. C. When an agent performs an act upon one part of himself, the verb 
Is made reflective. 

Mi tagUo le unghie (a fem. noun, ths 
sing, of which is P unghia). 

I cut my nails. 
A hair. 


He pulls out his hair. 
He cuts his hair. 

The piece. 
A piece of bread. 


Are yon going away 1 
I am going away. 
Is he going away 7 
He is going away. 
Are we going away 1 
We fre going away. 
Are these men going away 7 
They are not going away. 

To feel sleepy. 

Do you leel sleepy 7 
I feel sleepy. 


To fear, to dread. 

Un capello. 

Strappare 1. 
Egli si strappa 1 capelU. 
EgU si taglia icapelU. 
Un pezzo di pane. 

Andarsene ♦. 

^e ne va (ve ne andate) 7 

Me ne vado. 

Sene vaegU7 

EgU se ne va. 

fCe ne andiamo noi7 

Ce ne andiamo. 

Se ne vanno questi uomini 7 

Non se ne vanno. 

Aver vogUa di domdre. 

Ha Ella voglia di donnire 7 
Ho vogUa di dormlre. 

( Tnsudiciare I. 
( Sporcare 1. 
Aver paura, temere, 2. 



He fears to soil his fingeis 
Do you dread to go out ? 
I dread to go out. 
He is afraid to go thither. 

To fear same one. 

I do not fear him. 
Do you fear that man 7 


Whom do you fear 1 

I fear nobody. 
I fear nothing. 

Ha paura d* insudidarsi le dlla. 
Ha EUia paura d' uscirel 
Ho paura d' usdre. 
Ha paura d' andard. 

{ Temere itnp. 

I Aver paura <£' imo. 

Non lo temo. 

Teme costul (temeto questQI 
^ Che temeEllal 
( Di che cosa ha Ella paura? 
^ Chi teme Ella 7 
i Di chi ha Ella paura 7 

Non temo nessuno 

Non temo niente. 

Do you see yourself? — I see myself. — Do you see yourself in 
that small lookmg-glass (nello speccMeUo)1 — ^I see myself in it.— 
Can your friends see themselves in that large looking-glass (nello 
speechione)! — ^They can see themselves therein (vedervin). — 
Why does your brother not light the fire ?r— He does not light it, 
because he is afraid of burning himself. — ^Why do you not cut 
your bread ? — I do not cut it, because I fear to cut my finger. — 
Have you a sore finger^ (Le duole il dito) ? — ^I have a sore finger 
and a sore foot (e anche Upiede). — ^Do you wish to warm your- 
self? — ^I wish to warm myself, because I am very cold. — ^Why 
does that man not warm himself? — Because he is not cold. — ^Do 
your neighbours warm themselves? — ^They warm themselves, 
because they are cold. — ^Do you cut your hair ? — ^I cut my hair. 
•V-Does your friend cut his nails ? — He cuts his nails and his 
hair. — ^What does that man do {costm) ? — He pulls out his hair. 
■ — In what {ache cosa) do you amuse yourself? — ^I amuse myself 
in the best way I can {aJln tnegUo), — In what do your children 
amuse themselves ? — They amuse themselves in studying, 
writing, and playing. — ^In what does your cousin amuse himself? 
—He amuses himself in reading good books, and in writing to 
his friends. — In what do you amuse yourself when you have 


oothing to do at home ? — ^I go to the play, and to the ooncert. I 
often say: Every one (ciascuno) amuses himself as he likes. 
Every mdjr^ciascuno) has his taste ; which is yours ? — Mine is 
to study (b studiare), to read a good book (t7 hggere^ dec), to go 
to the theatre, the concert {indi al concerto), and the ball, and to 

Why does your cousin not brush his coat? — He does not brush 
it, because he is afraid of soiling his fingers {le dila). — What does 
my neighbour tell you ? — He tells me that you wish to buy his 
horse ; but I know that he is mistaken, because you have no money 
to buy it. — ^What do they say {che H diccj or che dieono) aX the 
market ? — ^They say that the enemy is beaten. — ^Do you believe 
that (2o) ? — ^I believe it, because every one says so.— Why have 
you bought that book ? — ^I have bought it, because I want it 
{jfcrch^ ne ho hist^no) to learn Italian, and because every one 
speaks of it. — Are your friends going away ? — ^They are going 
away. — ^When are they going away ? — ^They are going away to* 
morrow.— When are you going away {se ne vanno Loro) ? — We 
are going away to-day. — Am I going away ? — ^You are going 
away, if you like. — ^What do our neighbours say ? — They are 
going away without saying any thing. — ^How do you like this 
wine ? — ^I do not like it.-^What is the matter with you ? — I feel 
sleepy. — Does your friend feel sleepy ? — He does not feel sleepy, 
but he is cold. — ^Why does he not warm himself? — ^He has no 
coals to make a fire.— Why does he not buy some coals 1 — ^He 
has no money to buy any .—Will you lend him some ? — ^If he has 
none I will lend him some. — ^Are you thirsty ? — I am not thirsty, 
but very hungry. — Is your servant sleepy ? — He is sleepy. — ^Is 
he hungry ? — He is hungry.— Why does he not eat ? — ^Because 
he has nothing to eat. — Are your children hungry ? — They are 
hungry, but they have nothing to eat. — ^Have they any thing to 
drink ? — They have nothing to drink. — ^Why do you not eat J— • 
I do not eat when I am not hungry. — ^Why does the Russian not 
drink ? — He does not drink when he is not thirsty. — ^Did your 
brother eat any thing yesterday evening ? — He ate a piece of 
beef, a small bit (unpexzetio) of fowl, and a piece of bread .^Did 
he not drink ?-— He also (anche) drank. — What did he drink ?— « 
He drank a glass of wine. (Seo end of Lesson XXIV). 

Lezitme quanmiesima quaria. 


In Italiftii, all reflective Terbt, without exceptfon, take in tlielr oompointf 
the auxiliary msert *, whilst in English they take io kav 


Hi son tagliato 7 


Si d tagiiata. 

Ella non a* d tagiiata. 

Tisei tagliato 1 

Non my son tagliato. 

U di Lei frateUo •* a tagliato 1 

Egli s* d tagliato. 

Ci alamo tagliatil 

Noi non ci slamo tagUatl. 

Si aono tagliati questi i 

Eaal non d aono tagliatL 

HoYe you cut yourself 7 

I have ent myself. 

Have I cut myself t 

Ton have cut yourselC 

You have not cut yourselC 

Hast thou cut thyself 1 

I have not out mysel£ 

Has your brother cut himself 1 

He haa cut himself. 

Have we cut ourselves 1 

We have not cut ourselTes. 

Have tliese men cut themselves 1 

They have not cut themsehes. 

To take a walk. 
To go a walking. 

To take an airing in a carriage. 

To take a ride, 
l^e coach. 

Do you take a walk '^ 
4 take a walk. 
He takes a walk. 
We take a walk. 

Thou wishest to take an ai*ing. 
llier wish to takoA ride. 

Passeggfatre 1. 

Andare • a jMssoggian. 
I jcanoiia. 

^ Andare •in i legno. 
I [rettuxm. 

I Fare una trottata. 

Andare • a cavallo. 
( La carrozsa, la vettura (^m. 
I II legno. 




C Vuoi fiire una trottata. 
i Vuoi andare in oarrona. 

Vogllono andar a eavaDo. 



To take a chUdaioalking. 

Do you take your children a walking? 
1 take tliam a walking erery morning. 

To go to hedf to Ue down. 

To go to bed. 

To put (to place, to fix). 

I put, thou pnttest, he puts. 
We pnt, you put. 
They put. 

To get up, to rise. 

Do you rise early? 
I rise at sunrise. 

I go to bed at sunset 

The sunrise. 

The sunset. 
At what time did you go to bed ? 
At three o'clock in the morning. 
At what o'clock did he go to bed 

He went to b^ late. 

To rejoice at something. 

I ngoioe at your happiness. 

At what does your uncle rejoice ? 

I haT6 rejoiced. 
They have rejoiced. 
Ton have mistaken. 
We have mistaken. 

Condurre.a spasso tin fan- 

Conduce Ella a spasso i di Lei ian 

Li conduco a spasso ogni mattlna. 

Coricarsi — coricato. 
( Porsi * in letto. 
I Andare * a letto. 

Porre^ (anciently jHmcre)— 

Pongo, poni, pone. 

Poniamo or ponghiamo, ponete, 


Levarsi, aharsi. 

Si aiza presto (di buon mattino) ? 
Mi alzo (mi lero) alio spuntar do. 

Mi corico al tramontar del sole. 
Lo spuntar del sole. 
II tramontar del sole. 
A che ora s' ^ EUa coricatal 
Alle tre del mattino. 
A che ora s* d coricato ieri? 

S' d coricato tardi. 

Sf RaUegrarsi per qualeosa. 
t RaUegrarsi di qualche cosa> 
m raUegroperladi Lei felidtA (o 

della vostra). 
Per che cosa (perchd) si rallegra il dl 


Mi son rallegrato. 

Si sono rallegratL 

t Ella s' d ingannata. 

t CI siamo ingannati. 

At what did your uncle rejoice ? ^ 
What was your nnde delighted 
with? J 

For the. 

Per che cosa s* d rallegrato il di Lei 

j SiMo. Pd (contraction of per if), 
c Pei (contraction o^per t*). 



t S' d rallegnilo pd cataOo che EDa 

gli ha mandato. 
t Per che coaa ai aono raUagratl I dl 

Lei fandnlU 1 

t Si aon ralleffrati pel bel veatiti che 

He rcjoieed at (waadelightad with) the 

horae which you have aent him. 
At what did your children rejoice? 

(What were your children delighted 

They rejoiced at (they were delighted 

with) the fine dothea which I had 

made for them. 

The rapidity of prononncing haa led to a contraction of the definite artick 
with certain prepoeiUona which precede it ; thua prf ia uaed inatead of |Mr tl, ^ 

According to thia contraction we eay and write : 

Singular. Plural, 

Del, ot the, for diU. 

Dei or d4\ 



AAtothe, — aiL 

Ai or a\ 



DoZ, from the, — daiL 

Dei or da\ 



iVe/,inthe, - mO. 




Coi, with the, — eoniL 

Coi or «•, 



Pe/, for the, — per«. 




5W, upon the, — «u 0. 

Sui or nc*, 





Ddto^otthe, for dilo. 

DegU, for 


Alio, to the, ^ alo. 

Agli, - 


Ail/o, from the, ~ dalo. 



A»,hithe, — inlo. 



Odb, with the, — eonio. 



P«ao,forthe, — jierto. 



SuOo, upon the, — 9uh, 



To hurt somebody. 
The evily the pain^ the harm. 

Have you hurt that man ? 

I have hurt that man. 
Why did you hurt that man? 

t have not Hurt him. 
Doea that hurt you ? 
Tliat.hurta me. 

SApportar male ad una. 
Far del male ad uno. 

n male J il danno. 
r Ha Ella apportato danno acoetni? 
)Ha Ellafatto male a qnaati? o a 
( queat' uomo ? 
( Ho apportato danno a coatoL 
( Ho fatto male a ooatni. 

Perchd ha apportato danno a queat* 
rNon gli ho apportato danno at 
} cuno. 

C Non gli ho fiitto alcun male. 
( Cid Le apporta danno ? 
i Cid m* apporta danno. 
{ Cid mi fa mala. 

2b da good to any body, 
HaTo I erer done you any harm t 

On the contrary, 

So, on the contrary, you have done me 

I have neyer done harm to any one. 


Far bene ad uno. 
he bo giammai apportato dannol 

AI contrario. 

No, al contrario, Ella mi ha fiaitto del 

Non bo giammai apporrato donno a 


Havel hurt you 1 
Ton have not hurt me. 

That does me good. 

Le ho fatco male ? o Vi ho io &tto 

Ella non mi ha fatto male. 

I Gidmifabene. 

To do loith, to dispose of. 

What does the tailor make with the 

He makes coats with It. 
What does the painter do with his 

He makes a picture with it. 
What does he wish to make of this 

He does not wish to make any thing of 


Far di. 
Che fa il sarto del paimo 1 

Ne fa degU abiti. 

Che & 11 pittore col suo pennell« 

Fa un quadro. 
Chevuolfardi questo legoo 'I 

Nou Yuol fame niente. 

He is flattered, but he is not beloved. 

That (conjunction). 
I am told that he is arrived. 

A knifis was given to him to cut his 
biead^ and he cut his finger. 

To flatter some one. 
ToflatUr one's self. 

He flatters himself that he knows 

Nothing hut. 
He bsji nothing but enemies. 

( t Lo adulano, ma non 1' amano. 
I i adulate, ma non d amato. 


Hi si dice (mi dicono) ch| d arrl- 

Gli hanno dato (gU d state date) un 

coltello per tagliare il suo pane e 


Adulare qwdcuno. 
Adukarsi, lusingarsi di. 
t Si luainga di sapere il franceae. 

JVbfi — che, 
Non ha che neinid. 



To become. 

He hts turaed a soldier. 
Have you turned a merchant 1 
I hare turned (beeome) a lawyer. 

What haa become of your brother 1 

What haa become of him 1 

I do not know what haa become of 

To en&stf to enrol. 
He haa enUated. 

For (meaning because). 
I cannot pay yon, for I have no money. 

He cannot glye you any bread, for he 
haa none. 

To beUeve some one. 

Do you beliere that man 1 

I do not beUere him. 

I beUera what that man aaye. 

To beUeve in God. 
I beliere in God. 

To utter a falsehood, to Ke. 

Hie atory-teUer, the liar. 
I do not beliere that man, for I know 
him to be a atory-teUer. 

( Diventare — diventato. 

I Divenire * — dhenuto. 

t 8* d fatto aoldato. 

^ E divenUta mercantel 

t Son dlTentato avrocato. 

{t Che n' d atato del di bet fr» 
t Che coea i atato del di Lei fra- 
t Chene^atatol 

t Non 80 che sia dlvenmo («ii^ 
Junctae, of which hereafter). 

Farsi soldaio, arruolarsL 

< Si d &tto aoldato. 

ls*J ingaggiato (si i armolato). 

Perchiy poichi. 

Non poaeo pagaria perclid non ho 

Non pud darle pane poichd non Da 

i Credere quakuno. 
t Credere a qualeuno. 
t Credeacoatull 
t Non g^ credo, 
t Credo a quest'. uomo dd che 

Credere in Dio. 
Credo in Dio. 

MenHre * — mentito. 

n bugiardo, il mentitore. 
Non credo a queati perchd ao cha ^ 
un bugiardo. 


Why has that child been praised t — ^It has been prabed because 
k has studied well. — ^Hast thou ever been praised ? — ^I have often 


been praised. — Why ha3 that other child been punished ?— It has 
been punished because it has been naughty and idle.— Has this 
child been rewarded*^ — ^It has been rewarded because it has 
studied well. — ^What'lnust one do (che i hisogno fare) in order not 
to be despised ? — One must be studious and good. — What has 
become of your friend 1 — ^He has become a lawyer. — ^What has 
become of your cousin ?-rHe has enlisted.-^Has your neighbour 
enlisted ?— He has not enlisted.— What has become of him ?— He 
ha9 turned a merchant. — ^What has become of his children ? — ^His 
children have become men.— -What has become of your son?— 
He has become a great man. — Has he become learned?— He has 
become leamed.-^What has become of my book ? — I do not know 
what has become of it. — Have you torn it 1 — ^I have not torn it. 
— What has become of our friend's son ? — I do not know what 
has (che sia, subj.) become of him. — ^What have you done with 
your money? — ^I have bought a book with it (can queUo). — ^What 
has the joiner done with Jiis wood ? — ^He has made a bench of it. 
-w-What has the tailor done with the cloth which you gave him ? 
— ^He has made clothes of it for your children and mine. — ^Has 
that man hurt you ? — ^No, Sir, he has not hurt me.— What must 
one do (ch' 8 d* uopofare) in order to (per ) be loved ? — One must 
do good to those that have done us harm. — ^Have we ever done 
you harm ? — ^No ; you have, on the contrary, done us good. — ^Do 
you do liarm to any one ? — ^I do no one any harm. — ^Why have 
you hurt these children ? — ^I have not hurt them. — Have Ihurt 
you ? — You have not hurt me, but your children have (me ne 
hannofatto). — ^What have they done to you ? — ^They have beaten 
me.— Is it (e) your brother who has hurt my son ?— No, Sir, it is* 
not (non i) my brother, for he has never hurt any one. 

Have you drunk that wine ? — ^I have drunk it.— How did you 
like it ?— I liked it very well. — ^Has it done you good ?— It has 
done me good. — Have you hurt yourself? — ^I have not hurt my- 
self.— Who has hurt Himself? — My brother has hurt himself, for 
he has cut his finger. — ^Is he still ill (snalato) ?— He is better (star 
megUo), — ^I rejoice to hear (me raUegra V vniendere) that he is no 
longer ill, for I love him. — Why does your cousin pull out his 


hair ? — ^Because he cannot pay what he owes.— Have you cut 
your hair? — ^I have not cut it (myself), hut I have had it cut 
{me U son fatU tagUare), — What has this child done ? — ^He has 
cut his foot. — ^Why was a knife given to him ? — ^A knife was 
given him to {fer) cut his nails, and he has cut his finger and his 
foot. — Do you go to bed early ? — ^I go to bed late, for I cannot 
sleep when I go to bed early. — ^At what o'clock did you go to bed 
yesterday ? — ^Yesterday I went to bed at a quarter past eleven. 
V— At what o'clock do your children go to bed ? — ^They go to bed 
at sunset. — Do they rise early ? — ^They rise at sunrise. — ^At what 
o'clock did you rise to-day I — ^To-day I rose late, because I went 
to bed late yesterday evening (ten sera), — Does your son rise 
late ? — He rises early, for he never goes to bed late. — ^What does 
he do when he gets up ? — ^He studies, and then he breakfasts.— 
Does he go out before he breakfasts ? — ^No, Sir, he studies and 
breakfasts before he goes out. — ^What does he do after breakfast, 
ing ? — ^As soon as he has breakfasted he comes to me, and we 
take a ride. — ^Didst thou rise this morning as early as 1 1 — ^I rose 
earlier than you, for I rose before sunrise. 

Do you often go a walking ? — ^I go a walking when I have 
nothing to do at home. — ^Do you wish to take a walk ? — ^I can- 
not take a walk, for I have too much to do. — Has your brother 
taken a ride ? — He has taken an airing in a carriage.-— Do your 
children often go a walking ? — ^They go a walking every mom* 
ing after breakfast {dopo la colaxioney — Do you take a walk after 
dinner (dopo U pranzo) 1 — ^After dinner X drink tea, and then I 
take a walk. — ^Do you often take your children a walking ? — ^I 
take them a walking every morning and every evening. — Can 
you go (venire) with me? — ^I cannot go (venire) with you, for I 
am to take my little brother a walking. — Where do you walk ? — 
We walk in our uncle's garden. — ^Did your father rejoice to see 
you ? — He did rejoice to see me. — ^What did you rejoice at ? — ^I 
rejoiced at seeing my good friends. — What was your uncle 
delighted with? — He was delighted with the horse which you 
have sent him. — ^What were your children delighted with ? — 
They were delighted with the fine clothes which I had made for 


them {che lor hofaUifare). — Why does this man^oice so much 
{tanio) 1 — ^Because he flatters himself he has good friends. — ^Is he 
not right in rejoicing {di raUegrarsi) ? — He is wrong, for he has 
nothing but enemies. — ^Is he not loved ? — He is flattered, but he 
is not loved. — ^Do you flatter yourself that you know Italian ? — ^I 
flatter myself that I know it, for I can speak, read, and write it. 
— Has the physician done any harm to your son ? — He has cut 
his finger (gU ha tagUato U dilo), but he has not done him any 
harm ; so (e) you are mistaken, if you believe that he has {che 
gU abbia) done him any harm. — Why do you listen to that man ? 
— I listen to him, but I do not believe him ; for I know that he is 
a story-teller (un hugiardo). — ^How do you know that he is {che 
sia, subj.) a story-teller? — He does not believe in God ; and all 
those {e tuiU queUi) who do not believe in God are story-tellers. 
— ^Are we story-tellers ? — You are no story-tellers, for you believe 
in God (m Dio) our Lord {nosiro Signore). 

Lezione quaraniesima quinta. 


We have already seen (Lessons XLL and XLIL) some expressions belonglBg 
to the impersonal verbs. These verbs, having no determinate sabject, are only 
eom'ngated in the third person singular. 

To rain,— r; nins. 

It has rained. 
To snow,— it snows. 

It has snowed. 
To hail,-it hails. 

It has haUed. 

Piovere ♦ 2,— piove. 

te piovnto {or ha piovuto). 

Nevicare 1, — ^nevica. 

i nevicato {or ha nevicato). 

Grandinare 1 (tempestare), — gran- 
dina (tempests). 

fe gnndinato (tempestato), or ha 

> From these examples it may be seen, that in Italian impersonal tprbs 
ulatinic to the weather may take either esMere or avert In their compound tenses 



Th« thne sabatantWes belonging to these verbs tie feminine, and win be 
teen when we come to such nouns ; but as in Italian any infinitive may be 
used as a masculine noun, we may aay also : U picvere^ the rain i U nevieare, 
the anow ; U grandinarc^ the hail. 

To lighten. 
Does it lighten ? 
It lightens. 

The lightning. 

The parasol. 
It rains very hard. 
It lightens much. 
Does it snow 7 
It snows much. 
It hails much. 
The sun does not shine. 
The sun is in my eyes. 
To thunder,— it thunders. 
It has thundered. 

To shine, to glitter,— shona. 


Shut the door. 
Have you done 1 

Lampeggiare 1. 



U lampo, il baleno. 

II parasole, V ombrelUno. 

Piove dirottamente dlluvia. 

Lampeggia molto. 


Nevica molto. 

Grandlno molto. 
t Non c* d sole, 
t II sole mi da agU occhi. 

Tuonare 1,— tuona. 

b tuonato or ha tuonato. 
c Riverberare I,— riverberato. 
< Risplendere Z, risplenduto. 

Chiudere *, past part, ehiuso. 
Chittdete la porta. 

I t Ha EUa finito 1 avete foi finitol 

Is the walking good t 
In that country. 
The country. 
He has made many friends in that 

To walk, to travel. 

t Si cammina bene 1 
In questo paese. 
Si d fatto molti amici in questo 

Camminare 1, passeggiare 1. 

Of which, ofwhoniy whose. 

I see the man of whom you speak. 

I have bought the horse of which you 

spoke to me. 
I see the man whose brother has killed 
- my dog. 

I see the man whose dog you have 

Do you see the child whose father set 

out yesterday? 
I see It. 

iDi cui (onde). 
Del quale (plur. dei quaU), 
Vedo 1* uomo di cui (del quale) EUa 

Ho comprato il cavalio di cui (del 

quale) Ella mi ha parlato. 
Veggo (vedo) 1' uomo U di cui 
fratello ha ammazzato U mio 
Veggt) V uomo di cui Ella ha am- 
mazzato U cane. 
\ Vede Ella il fancluUo U di cui padre 
i partito ieri 9 
Lo vedo. 



Whom have you seen 7 

I have seen the merchant «hose ware- 
house you have taken. 

I have spoken to the man whose ware- 
house has been burnt. 


Ho yisto il mercante di cui Ella ha 

preso U magazzino. 
t Ho parlato all' uomo iZ dl cul map 

gazzino d state brucciato. 

Thai of which. 

Thai, or the one of tohich. 
Those, or the ones of which. 

I have that of which I have need. 
I have what I want. 
He has what he wants. 

SCid di che, quanto. 
Quello di che. 
QueUo di cui. 
Quelli di cui. 

{ Ho quanto ml abblsogna. 
I Ho eiddi che ho bisogno. 
Ho cid che mi d d* uopo. 
5 Egli hiciddieht ha bisogno. 
( Egli ha cid che gU d d* uopo. 

Have you the book of which you are in 

I have OuU of uhieh I am in need. 

Ha Ella U libro di eui ha bisogno 1 
Ho qudlo di ad ho bisogno. 

Has the man the nails qf wMdi he is I L* uomo ha 1 chiodi dt cui egli ha 

in need 1 bisogno? 

He has thoae of uhieh he is in need. | Ha quelH di eui ha bisogno. 

To need, to want. ) 

To have need qf. ) 

To he in want qf something. 

I am in want qf thit book. 
Did you find the book which you 

Aver bisogno di. 

Aver bisogno di qwUche eosa. 

Ho bisogno di questo libro. 
Ha Ella trovato 11 libro di eui hm 
bisogno 9 

Which men do you see 1 

I see those qfuhom you have spoken 

to me. 
Do you see the pupils of viham I have 

spoken to you 7 
I see them. 

Quail uomini vede Ella 7 or vedete 
vol 7 

Vedo quelll di eui Ella mi ha par- 

Vede Ella gli scoboi di ait Le ho 

Li vedo. 




To whom, 
I we the children to uham jou have 

given aome petty-patties. 
Tb ^Bhith men do yon speak? 
I apeak to those -to whom yon haye 


To apply to. 

To mui toith tome one, 

I have met with the men to whom you 
have applied. 

Of which men do you speak 1 
I fl|>eak of those whose children have 
been studioos and obedient. 

Obedient, disobedient 

So thai, 

I have lost my money, so that I cannot 
pay yon. 


I am Ul, so that I cannot fo ouu 

Mate, and Ftim, 

Sing, and Phtr, Mam, Ptur, 

A chi. Ai quali, 

Veggo i fimdulli » quOli EUa ha dato 

del pasticcini. 
A quaH uomini parla EUal 
Parlo a queUi ai quali si d indixixcata 


ilndirixzarsi a — indirixxato a. 
Dirigersi * a — diretio a. 
ilncontrare tmo. 
RineorUrare tmo. 
Ho incontratc gli uomini ai ^uak 
Ella si d diretta (vi siete diretto). 

Dl quail uomini parla Ella? 

Parlo di queUi i di cui fiuiciuUi 
stati studiosi ed obbedienti. 
( Obbediente, disobbediente. 
i Ubbidiente, disubbidiente. 

( In guUa cke-H^osicche. 
} Di modo che^ per cui. 
( Di maniera che. 
Ho perduto il mio danaro, in gnlsa 
che non posso pagarla. 

Sono malato^ ingttlaa che non poaio 



Have you at last learnt Italian ?•:— I was ill, so that I could not 
learn ft. — ^Has your brother learnt it ? — He has not learnt it, be- 
cause he has Bot yet been able to find a good master. — ^Do you go 
to the ball this evening ? — ^I have sore feet, so that I cannot go to 
it. — Did you understand that German ? — ^I do not know German, 
80 that {per cui) I could not understand him. — Have you bought 


the AoTse of which you spoke to mc ? — I have no money, so that 
(it modo che) I could not buy it. — Have you seen the man from 
whom I received a present ? — ^I have not seen him. — Have you 
seen the fine gun of which I spoke to you ? — ^I have seen it. — ^Haa 
your uncle seen the books of which you spoke to him 1 — He has 
seen them. — ^Hast thou seen the man whose children have been 
punished ? — ^I have not seen him. — ^To whom have you been 
speaking at the theatre ? — I have been speaking to the man whose 
brother {il di cvifrateHo) has killed my fine dog. — Have you seen 
the little boy whose father has become a lawyer ? — ^I have seen 
him. — ^Whom have you seen at the ball % — ^I have 9b&a there the 
men whose horses, and those whose coach you have bought {e 
queOi dei qmU hi compraio la carro2»a).-t-Whom do you see 
now ? — ^I see the man whose servant has broken my looking- 
glass. — ^Have you heard the man whose friend has lent me 
money % — ^I have not heard him.— Whom have you heard ?— I 
have heard the French captain, whose son is my friend. — HasI 
thou brushed Ihe coat of which I spake to thee ? — ^I have not }ret 
brushed it. — Have you received the money which you were 
wanting % — I have received it. — ^Have I the sugar of which I have 
need ? — ^You have it. — Has your brother the books which he is 
wanting I — ^He has them. — ^Have you spoken to the merchants 
whose warehouse we have taken ?-/-We have spoken to them.— 
Have you spoken to the physician whose son has studied Grer- 
maa? — I have spoken to him. — ^Hast thou seen the poor men 
whose warehouses have been burnt ? — ^I have seea them.— ^Have 
you read the books which we have lent you ? — ^We have read 
them.-— What do you say of them (ne) ? — ^We say that they are 
very fine.— Have your children what they want {che hro (Mi* 
90gna) ? — ^They have what they want. 

142. • 

Of which man do you speak ? — ^I speak of the one {digneOo) 
whose brother has turned soldier. — Of which children have you 
spoken ? — I have spoken of those whose parents are learned. — 
Which book have you read ? — ^I have read that of which I spoke 
to you yesterday. — ^Which book has your cousin ? — ^He has that 


of which Jie is in need. — Which fishes has he eaten? — ^He has 
eaten those which you do not like. — Of which books are you in 
want ? — ^I am in want of those of which you have spoken to me. 
— Aro you not in want of those which I am reading ? — ^I am 
not in want of them. — Do you see the children to whom I 
have given petty-patties ? — ^I do not see those to whom you 
have given petty-patties, but those whom you have punished. 
—To whom have you given some money ? — ^I have given some 
to those who have been skilful .-ATo which children must one 
give (d mestieri dare) books ? — One must give some to those who 
are good and obedient. — To whom do you give to eat and to 
drink ? — ^To those that are hungry and thirsty. — ^Do you give any 
thing to the children who are idle ? — ^I give them nothing. — Did 
it snow yesterday ? — ^It did snow, hail, and lighten.^ — ^Did it rain ? 
— It did rain. — ^Did you go out ? — ^I never go out, when it is bad 
weather. — Have the captains at last listened to the man ? — ^They 
have refused to listen to him ; all thoso to whom he applied («t e 
mdirizxaio) have refused to hear him. — ^With whom have you met 
this morning {quuta mane) 1 — I have met with the man by whom 
I am esteemed. — ^Have you given petty-patties to your pupils I— 
They have not studied weU, so that I have given them nothing. 

Lezione quarantesima sesta^ 

Rvu.— The first or simple future is formed, in all Italian ver1i% fiNNa tlM 
vifinltive^ by ohaoaing for the second and third conjugations f into ^- 

SurovLAB. Plural. 

1 ''2 3 .1 2 3 

ro^ roij ro, remo, rete, ranno. 
And for the first are into ;— 

erd, eraif era. eremOf jereU^ eranno. 



Inf. Amare 1. 
Fuhirt, \ Amcri, amcra^ ain<ra. 

( Anieremo, wmtrtU^ omeronm).' 

ParUre 1. 
jParleris p<ri<rai; parl«r4^ 

Ricevere 2. 

r Riceverd, riceveros, riceverd, 

' n < Ricevere- ricevere^ riceveron- 

^ mo, no. . 

Credere 2. 

j Credcrd, crederas creder^ 

c Crederemo, credere^ crederonno* 

Punire 3. 

jPunir^, punirat, piinfrd. 

C Pimlr«iw>, punire/*. poniniMitf. 

Servlre 3. 

k Scrviri, senrirot, aerrird. 

" C Servircmo, servire/e^ wninmna: 

06f. ^. It will be remarlced, ttiat in all Italian yerba the first and tlUrd 
peraons singular of the futore have the grave accent ('). 

To Jove, 
feliall or will love, de. 

I shall or will speak, Ac. 

To receive. 
1 shall or will receive, Ac. 

To believe. 
I shall orwii) believe, <frc. 

To punish. 
I shall or wlU punish, <&c. 

To serve. 
I shall or will serve. 


To have. I shall or will have, dc. 
To be. I shall or will be, Ac. 

iTifinitwe, JPhtture, , 

Avere* j ^^'^» *^^» •^>*- 

c Avremo, avrete, avranna 

Essere* { ^"^ *"^ "^'^ 

i Saiemo^ sarste, saranno. 

Oba, B. The following eighteen verbs, besides the auxiliaries aurt * and 
cMere *, form all the exceptions to our rule on the formation of the future^ We 
need not give all the persons, as the first person singular of the ezcepti(nis 
being once known, all the others are, being, as may be seen from the tbove, 
the sanle in all verbs of tlie Italian language. 

To fall. 
To gather. 
To give. 
To complain. 


I shall or will go. 
I shal^ or will fall. 
I shall or will gather. 
I shall or will give. 
I shall or will com- 

. plain. 
1 shall or will owe. 

Andare* 1. 
Cadcro • 2. 
CogUere • 2. 
Dare* 1. 
Dolere * 2. 

Andrd {$lto rtg%dar)» 





Dovere ♦ 2. Dovn). 



To do. 

I shall or will do. 

Fare* I. 


To die. 

I ahaU or will die. 

Morire* 3. 

Morrd or moiiid. 

To appoftr. 

I shall or will ^>pear { 

Parena • 2. 


To put. 

lAhaUorwiUput. > 

Porre • 2. 

Porrb (regular) 

I'o be able. 


Potere* 2. 


To reft 

I shaU or will reat. 

Rimanere • 

2. Rimarrd. 

To know. 


Sapera* 2. 


To hold. 

1 shall or wiU hold. 

Tencrc* 2. 


To be worth. 

I shtn or will be 

Valere • 2. 



I ahall or will see. , 

Vodere • 2. 


To come. 

I shall or will come. 

Venire • 3. 


To be wllUng. 

I ahall or wiU be 

Volere • 2. 


Shall or will he have money 7 

He will have some. 

He will not have any. 

Shall 70U soon have done writing 1 

I ahall soon have done. 

He will soon have done hla exercise. 

Avr& egli danaro 1 

Ne avra. 

Non ne avra. 
t Quanto prima avr& (avrete) finito d 

acrivere 1 
t duanto prima avrO finito. 

Quanto prtma avri finito 11 auo tema. 

iSoofi {ere long). 

When ahall you do your ezerciaea 7 
I will do them soon (ere long). 
My brother will do his exerciaea to- 

Qtianto prima, fra poco, 

Quando fari Ella 1 di Lei temi7 

duanto prima U lard. 

Mio fratello Cuk 1 suoi temidomanL 

Next Monday. 
Last Monday. 
Next ftionth. 
Thia month. 
This country. 

Lunedi venturo. 
Lunedi paaaato. 
'*' II mese venturo. 
Questo mese. 
Questo paese. 

When will your oouain go to the 

concert 7 
He will go next Tuesday. 

Shall you go any where 7 

We shall go no where. 

duando andnl al concerto 11 dl Le3 

Egli vi andra maftedi venturo. 

Non andremo in verun luogo. 

V /iU h.- s.rKl me the book7 I Mi mandera egli il llbro7 

li. A-il snd il you, if ho haa done ( Glielo manderi, ae T ha finito: 
^*' •» »' \iSc V ha finito gllelo mandera. 


Shall you be at home this evening 7 

I shall be there. 

Will your father be at home 1 

He will be there. 

Will your cousins be there 1 

They will be there. 

V\ ill be send me the books 1 
He will send them you. 
Will he send some ink to my counting- 
He will send some thither. 

( Sari Ella in casa quests serai 
( duesta sera sari KUa in casal 

Vi sard. 

Sark in casa U di 1:^^ padre? 


1 di Lei cugini vl sacanno 1 

Vi saranno. 

Mi mandeta egii i Ubri 1 

Glieli mandera. 

Blander^ dell' Inchiostro all mic 

banco (studio) 1 
Ce ne manderk. 

Shall you be able to pay your shoe- 
maker 1 

I have lost my money, so that I shall 
not be able to pay him. 

My friend has lost his pocket-book, so 
that he will not be able to pay for 
his boots. 

Potra pagare il di Lei calzolaii T (o 

potrete voi pagare il vostro). 
Ho perduto il danaro, di modo che 

non potrd pagarlo. 
II mio amico ha perduto il pqrta- 

foglio, in guisa che non potrk 

pagare i suoi stivalL 

Will yon hold any thing ? 

I shall hold your umbrella. 

Will your friend come to my concert 7 

He will come. 

Shall you come 7 

T shall come. 

Will it be necessary to go to the 
market 7 

It will be necessary to go thither to- 
morrow morning. 

It will not be necessary to go' thither. 
Shall you see my fiither to-day 7 

We shall see him. 

To restore — restored. 

Terra Ella una cosa7 (o qualche 

Terrd il di Lei ombrello. 
II di Lei amko retr\ al mio con-> 


Verri PUa 7 Verrcte voi 7 
^ Sarli d' uopo andar al mercato 7 
I Bisognerk andare al mercato 7 
SarAd* uopo andard domanl nella 

mattina (domani mattlna) do- 

Non sari d* uopo andard, 
Vedranno oggi le vostre slgnorie mi« 

padre 7 
Vedrete vol mio padre oggi. 

Prevedere*2 \Pr«>«^' 
( previslo* 

Rendere * — reso. 

834 rORTr-SIXTU LB8S0N. 



Shall you have any books ? — ^I shall have 8oroe.«— Who will 
give you any 1 — My uncle will give me some. — ^When will youi 
cousin have money ? — He will have some next month. — How 
much money shall you have? — ^I shall have thirty-five sequins. 
— Who will have good friends ? — ^The English will have some. 
— Will your father be at home this-evening ? — He -vill be at 
home (ci sard), — Will you be there ? — I shall also be there {anch' 
io). — Will your uncle go out to-day ? — ^He will go out, if it is 
fine weather. — Shall you go out ? — I shall go out, if it does not 
rain. — Will you love!* my son ? — I shall love him, if he is good. — 
Will you pay your shoemaker?— I shall pay him, if I receive 
my money .-^Will you love my children? — If they are good and 
assiduous, I shall love them ; but if they are idle and naughty, I 
shall despise and punish them. — ^Am I right in speaking (di par- 
lare) thus ? — ^You are not wrong. — Is your friend still writing ? 
-^He is still writing. — Have you not done speaking ? — I shall 
soon have done. — Have your friends done reading ? — ^They will 
soon have done.— -Has the tailor made my coat ? — He has not 
made it yet ; but he will soon make it. — When will he make it ? 
— When he shall have time. — ^When will you do your exercises ? 
— I shall do them when I shall have time. — ^When will your 
brother do his ? — He will do them next Saturday. — Wilt thou 
come to me ?— ^I shall come. — When wilt thou come ? — I shall 
come next Friday. — ^When have you seen my uncle ? — I saw 
him last Sunday. — Will , your cousins go to the ball next Tues- 
day ? — They will go. — ^Will you come to my concert i — ^I shall 
come, if I am not ill. 

When will you send me the money which you owe me ? — ^I 
shall send it you soon. — ^Will your brothers send me the books 
which I have lent them ? — ^They will send them you. — When 
will they send them to me ? — They will send them to you next 
month. — ^Wfll you- be able to pay me what you owe me ? — I shall 
not be able to pay it you, for I have lost all my money. — Will 



.he American be able to pay for his boots ? — He has lust his 
pocket-book, so th%t he will not be able to pay for them. — Will it 
be necessary (bist^erd) to send for the physician ? — Nobody is 
ill, so that {per cut) it will not be necessary to send for him.— 
J\Vill it be necessary to go to the market tg-morrow ? — ^It will be 
necessary to go thither, for we want (c' ^ d* uopo) some beef, 
some bread, and some wine. — Shall yon sed your father to-day ? 
— ^I shall see him. — Where will he be ? — He will be at his 
counting-house. — Will you go to the ball to-night (questa sera)! 
— ^I shall not go, for I am too ill to go to it. — Will your friend go ? 
— He will go, if you go. — Where will your neighbours go ?— 
They will go no where ; they will remain at home, for they have 
a good deal to do. 

Leziane quarantesima aettima. 

To belong. 

Do you belong 1 
I do belong.' 
Does that hone belong to your 

brother 1 
It belongs to him. 

To whom do theae gloyea belong 1 

They belong to the captiins. 

Do theee horses belong to the cap- 

tains 1 
Tbey belong to them. 

Appartenere^ (is conjugated 
like its primitive ienere *, 
Lesson XL.) 

Appartiene Ellal 


Questo cavallo appartiene al di Let 
fratellol (oalvostro.) 

Gil appartiene. 
( A chi appartengono queati guanti 1 
( Di chi son questi guanti 1 
{ Appartengono ai capitani. » 
c Sono dei capitani. 

QuesU cavalU appartepgono ai c* 
pitani 1 

AppartengMio lor^ 





DoM that cloth foit your brother 1 
It taits him. 

Do tbflae boots foit your brothMni 1 
Thay siiit them. 

Piacere * {esser * di guHo). 

JKaee questo panno al di Lei frt- 
I teUol 

1 duesto panno i di guato del di Lei 

GU place (d di auo guato). 
f Placdono queaU ativali ai di Lei 
j frateUi? 

^ Queati ativali aono di gaato del di 
[ LeifraieUil 

Piacdon loro (aono di lor gnato). 

To nut. 

Doea it aoit you to do that 1 

It aoita Die to do it. 

Doea it auit your covaiii to come with 

It doeaDot auit him to go ouL 
It doea not auit me to go to him, for I 

cannot pay him what I owe him. 

To succeed. 

Do youmicceed in leaning Italian 7 

I anoceed in it. 

I do aucceed in learning it 

To succeed* 
i aaeeeed, thou aucceedeat, he auc- 

iVe, yon, they aucceed. 

Do theae men aucceed in •dHng their 

Tney do incceed therein. 
Do you aucceed in doing that 1 
I anccaed In it. 

Convetdre^ addirn*^ euer , 

convenewh or dicefx>U. 
Le place di fardel 
Mi place di&rlo. 
Place al di Lei cuglno di Tenire coo 

Non gtt place d' uadre. 
Non mi d conveneToIe d' andare da 

lui, polchd non poaao pagargU dd 

che gli debbo. 

Riuscire*, riuedio (conju- 
gated like uedre ♦). 

Pervenire*, pervemOo (oon^ 
jugated like its primitiTe 
venire ♦). 

Rieace EUa ad Imparar 1' ItaUano? 


Penrengo ad lny)ararlo. 

Riusdre ♦ — ruuciio. 
Rieaoo, lieaei, lieaoe. 

Riuadamo, nuadta, rieaoono. 
Rleacono eoteati uomini a wmdiftj 

VI rleacono. 

Rieace EUa a for ddl oqaeMo? 
Vi rieaoo. 




1 forgot to do it. 

To clean. 

The inkatand. 

^ Immediately, directly. 

This instant, instantly. 

I am going to do it. 
I will do it immediately. 
I am going to work. 

Is there? 
Are there? 

There is not. 

There are not. 

Will there bel 

There will be. 
Was there or has there been 1 
Were there or have there been 1 

There has been. 

There have been. 

Is there any wine? 

There is some. 

There is not any. 

Are there any men? 

There are some. 

There are not any. 

rhere are men who will not study. 

Is there any one 1 

There is no one. 

Are there to bo many people at tlie 

Tliere are to be a great many people 


DimerUicare 1 (takes di be. 

fore the infinitive). 

Ho dimenticato di farlo (or ho di- 
menticato faxlo). 

( PuUre 9—puliio. 
\ RipuUre 3 — ripuHio. 
( Nettare l^nettaio. 


Immantinentej all' istante. 

A moment!, fra poco. 

Lo iaccio subito. Sto per &ilo. 

Lo Iaccio immantinente subito. 

Lavorerd fra poco. 

C e? T e? Hawi? 

Ci sonol Visono? Sonoi i 

Non c* d or non v* d. 

Non ci sono or vi sono. 

Vi sar& or ci sail 

Ci sari or vi sahll 

C d stato oryr'i stato 1 

Ci sono vtati or vi sono stati 1 

C d stato or i* ^. stato. 

Ci sono stati or vi sono statL 

C'd del vino 1 

Ce n' d. 

Non ce n' d. 

Sonvi degli nominil 

Ye pe sono. 

Non ve ne sono. 

Vi sono degli uomini che non hanno 
voglia di studiare {or che non vo^ 
liono studiare). 

V d qualcuno 1 

Non v* d nessuno, 

Ci deve essere mrlta^ 
festa da hallo 1 

Ce ne deve essere molta. 

MoUa here agrels with gtnis, people, which is feminine 



On credit. 

To lell on credit. 
The credit. 
Ready money. 

To buy for cash. 

To lell for cash 

To pay down. 

Will you buy for cash? 
Does it. suit you to sell to me on 


Does that coat fir mel 

It fits you. 

That hat does not fit. you brother. 

ft does not fit hlra. 
Do these boou fit yon? 
They fit me. 
That fits yon Y6ry weU* 

A credenxa^ a crediio, 

Vendere a aredenia (a credito). 


Danaro In contante (danaro con* 

Comprare per contanti (comprai 

Vendere per contanti (vender con 

Pagare in contanti (pagar con- 

Vuole EUa oompiare per contanti? 

Le convieno vendermi a credenza? 

Star * bene. 

Mi sta bene questo abito ? 

Le sta bene. 

Cotesto cappello non isti bene al dl 

Lei fratello. 
Non gli sta bene. 
Le stanno bene cotesti stlTtli? 
Mi stannQ bene. 
Cid (quests cosa) Le sta beniadm* 

(a marayiglia). 

To keep. 

Yon had better. 
I had better. 
He had better. 
Instead of keeping your horse you had 

better sell it. 
Instead of seUlng his hat he had better 
keep it 

Tenere ♦, ritenere ♦, — Unnio. 

t Ella iari megUo (di). 

t Fard megUo (di). 

t EgU fari megUo (di). 

t In yece di tenere il di Lei caTtOo 

fari meglio di venderlo. 
t In yece di vendere il suo ^ 

fari meglio di teneriOr 

Will you keep the horse ? 

X shall keep it. 

Yon mnst not keep my money. 

Lo terrO. 

Non d d' uopo ritenere il mio danaro 
I Non dovete tenerri il mlo danaro 

To please^ to e pleased. 
To please some one. 

Does that book please you ? 

It pleases me much. 

I will do what you please. 

Piacere * (Lesson XLI.). 
Piacere * a qualcuno, 

Le place questo Ubro ? 
Mi place molto. 
t FaWt cid che yorri, o che vorrete. 



You artf pleased to eay so. 

What Is your pleasure? 
What do you want 1 
What do yoa say 7 

t Ci5 Le place di dire (a familiar ex- 

Che desidera, Signore? 
Che vnol^ Signorel 
Che dice? 

To please one's se^. 

How do you please yourself herel 
I please myself yery well here. 

( Piacersi * — fiadiUoai, 

I Trovarsi* — irovaiasi. 

Come Ti godete qui 
Mi ci godo benissimo. 

Whose book is this 7 

It is his. 

Whose boots are these 7 

They are ours. 

It is they who have seen him. 

It is your friends who are *n the 

It is we who have done it. 
It is you who say so. 

It is of yott that I spealL 


E il BUO. 

Di chi sono quest! stivalil 
Sono i nostri. 

Sono essi che I' hanno veduto. 
Sono i di Lei amid che hanno 

Siamo noi che V abbiamo fiitto. 
£ Lei che lo dice. Siete voi che to 
^ dite. . 
E di Lei che parlo. Si d di vol ch« 



To whom does that horse belong ? — ^It belongs to the English 
captain whose son has written a note to you. — ^Does this money 
belong to you ? — ^It belongs to me. — ^From whom have you re- 
ceived it ? — I have received it from the men whose children you 
have seen. — Whose horses are those? — Tljey are ours. — ^Have, 
you told your brother that I am waiting for him here ? — ^I have 
forgotten to tell him so (dir^lielo). — Is it your father or mine who 
is gone to Berlin ? — It is mine. — ^Is it your baker, or that of our 
friend, who has sold you bread on credit ? — ^It is ours. — ^Is that 
your son? — He is not mine; he is my friend's. — Where is 
yours ? — He is at Paris. — Have you brought me the book which 
you promised me ?r— I have forgotten it. — Has your uncle brought 
you the pocket-books which he promised you ?— 4Ie has forgotten 
to bring them to me. — ^Have you already written to your friend 7 

280 F0RTY*8BVB:fTH LBS80H. 

^-1 have not yet {per aneo) had time to write to him. — ^Have you 
forgotten to write to your relative? — ^I have not forgotten to 
write to him. — Does this cloth suit you? — It does not suit me; 
have you no other ? — ^I have some other ; but it is dearer than 
this. — Will you show it me? — ^I will show it you. — ^Do these 
boots suit your uncle ? — ^They do not suit him, because they are 
too dear. — ^Are these the boots of which you have spoken to us 1 
— ^They are the same.(i medenmi, or gU ste^d). — Whose books 
are these ? — ^They belong to the gentleman whom you have seen 
this morning in my warehouse. — ^Does it suit you to come with 
us ?— It does not suit me. — Does it suit you to go to the market I 
— ^It does not suit me to go thither. — Did you go on foot to Ger- 
many ? — ^It does not suit me to go on foot, so that {per evi) I went 
thither in a coach. 

What is your pleasure {ehe desidera). Sir ? — ^I am inquiring 
after your father. — Is he at home ? — No, Sir, he is gone out. — 
What do you say ? — ^I tell you .that he is gone out. — Will you 
wait till he comes back ? — I have no time to wait. — ^Does that 
merchant sell on credit ? — He does not sell on credit. — ^Does it 
suit you to buy for cash ? — ^It does not suit me. — Where did you 
buy these pretty knives {coUeliini) 1 — ^I bought them at the mer- 
chant's {dal mercanie), whose warehouse you saw yesterday. — 
Has he sold them you on credit ? — He has sold them to me for 
cash. — ^Do you often buy for cash ? — Not so often as you. — Have 
you forgotten any thing here ? — I have forgotten pothing. — ^Does 
it suit you to learn this {eid) by heart ? — ^I have not much time 
to study, so that {di mode cheyw does not suit me to learn it by 
heart. — Has that man tried to speak to your father? — He has 
tried to speak to him, but he has not succeeded in it.— 'Have you 
succeeded in writing an exercise ? — I have succeeded in it. — 
Have those merchants Succeeded in selling their horses ? — ^They 
have not succeeded therein. — ^Have you tried to clean my ink- 
stand ? — ^I have tried, but I have not succeeded in it. — Do your 
children succeed in learning English ? — They do succeed in it. 
— ^Is there any 'wine in this cask {in quesio harile) ? — There is 
some in it. — ^Is there any vinegar in this glass ? — There is none 


in it.-^s there wine or cider in it ? — There is neither wine nor 
cider in it. — ^What is there in it ? — ^There is some vinegar in it, 


Are there any men in your warehouse? — ^There are some 
there.— Is there any one in the warehouse t — There is no one 
there. — Were there many people in the theatre ? — There were 
many there. — ^Will there be many people at your ball (aBa di 
Lei festa da IntUo)} — There will be many there. — Are there 
many children that will not play ? — ^There are many that will not 
study, but all will play. — Hast thou cleaned my trunk ? — I have 
tried to do it, but I have not succeeded. — ^Do you intend buying 
an umbrella ? — ^I intend buying one, if ihq merchant sells it me 
on credit. — ^Do you intend to keep mine ? — ^I intend to give it you 
back (o restiiuir gUelo), if I buy one. — ^Hsve you returned the 
books to my brother ? — ^I have jiot returned them to him yet. — 
How long do you intend to keep them ? — I intend to keep them 
till next Saturday. — ^How.long do you intend keeping my horse ? 
— I intend keeping it till my father returns. — Have you cleaned 
my knife ? — I have not had time yet, but I will do it this instant. 
— ^Have you made a fire ? — ^Not yet, but I will make one 
presently. — Why have you not worked I — ^I have not yet been 
able. — ^What had you to do ?— I had to clean your carpet, and to 
mend your linen handkerchief. — ^Do you intend to sell your 
coat ? — ^I intend keeping it, for I want it.— Instead of keeping it 
you had better sell it — ^Do you sell your horses ? — ^I do not sell 
them. — ^Instead of keeping them you had better sell them. — ^Does 
your friend keep his parasol ?— He keeps it ; but instead of keep- * 
ing it he had better sell it, for it is worn out. — ^Does your son 
tear his book ? — ^He tears it ; but he is wrong in doing so : 
instead of tearing it he had better read it. 


poarr-EiGHTH lbssoh. 

Lezione quarantesima oitava. 

To go avfay. 
When Mil yon go away 7 

I will go toon. 

By and by. 
He will go away soon (by and by). 
We will go away to-morrow. 
Tliey will go away to-morrow. 
Thoa wilt go away immediately. 

Andarsene * (Less. XLIIL). 

Quando se ne andr& EUa 1 (o ve n« 

andrete vol 7) 
Me ne andid quanto prima. 

Se ne andra fra poco. 
Ce ne andremo domanl. 
8e ne andranno domanl. 
Te ne »ndrai immantinente. 


Quando {alwrchiy dUorqiuau 

To become. 

What will beoome of you if yon lose 

I do not know what will become of 

What will become of him 7 
What will become of ua7' 
What will become of them 7 
I do not know what will become of 

f Esser * mat {dieenUuref di» 

venire *, Lesson XLIV.). 

t Che sai^ mai di vol ae petdatafl 

Toatro7 . 
t Non so* che nxk dl me. 

t Che8ari^mal(Hlui7 
t Cheaar^maidinoi? 
t Che oari mai di loro7 
t Non 80 coaa ear & dl loro. 


My turn. 
In my turn. 

In hia turn. 

In my brotheHa tarn. 

Each in his turn. 

La voUa. 

t LamiaTolta. 

t Alia mia yolta (tocca a me or qwttt 

a m9). 
t Alia sva volta (spetta a lui or tocca a 

• t Alia volta di mio fratello (tocca 

(spetta) a mio fratello). 
^ CiascuDO alia sua volla. 



Wtaen it oomes to your turn. 
Our turn will come. 

A turn, a tour, a walk. 

To take a turn. 
To take a walk. 

He Is gone to take a walk. 
To walk round the garden. 

To run — run (past part.). 
Do you run 7 
I do run. 
Shall or will you run 1 
I shall or will run. 


Behind him. 
.Behind the castle.' 

A blow, a stroke, a clap. 

Haye you given that man a Mow 7 . 
I haye given him one. 
A blow with a stick. 

A kick (with the foot). 
A blow with the fist. 
A stab of a knife. 

A shot (or the report of a gun). 
A shot of a pistol. 

A glance of the eye. 
A clap of thunder. 

To give a cut with a knife. 
To give a man a blow with a stick. 
To give a man. a kick- 
To give a man a blow with the fist. 

Quando verr& la dl Lei volta (quando 
tocclfierk a Lei or quando spettera 
a Lei) o a voi. 

Avremo la nostra volta (spettera a 
noi or toccheri a noi). 


Far un giro. 

Far una passeggiata. 
I ^ andato a fare- un giro. 
! £: andato a fare una passeggiata. 

Far un giro intemo del giardino. 

Corrert ♦ — corso, 

Corre Ella 7 Correte voi 7 


Correro. Ella 7 Correrete voi 7 


J)ietr6 (or di dietro). 

Dietro a lui. 
Dietro al castello. 

Un colpo, una hoita (a fern, 

Ra Ella dato un colpo a cestui 7 
GlieP ho dato. . . 

Una bastonata, un colpo di 'baa- 
Un caicio, una pedata. 
Un pugno. 

Una coltellata, un colpo di col> 
I Una schioppettata (una fucilata). 
\ Un colpo di fucile. 
Una pistolettata, un colpo di pi» 

Un' occhiata, un colpo d' occhio. 
Un colpo di fulmine. 

Dare una colteQata. 
Dare una bastonata ad un uoma 
Dare un caicio ad un uomo. 
Dare un pugno ad un uomo. 



To fM, to dram. 
To shoot, to fre.. 


To fire a pistol. 

To fire at some one. I 

I have fired at that 'bird. 

I have fired twice. 

liiave fired three times. 

I have fired several times. 
How many times have you fired 1 
[ have fired six times. 
How many times liave you fired at 

that bird 1 
I liave fired at it teveral times. 

I have heard a shot. 

*He has heard the report of a pistoL ' 

We have heard a olap of thunder. 

The fist 

Tirare 1. Sparare 1. Jfar 


{ Sparare un fucile. 
c Tirare una fucilata. 
Tirare nn colpo di pistols. 
Tiran un colpo di fodM a qual- 

Ho tirato una schioppettaU a quelT 

Hq latto fuoco due volte. 
Ho sparato tre oolpi. 
Ho sparato varie volte. 
auanU colpi di fucile ha tirati 7 
Quante volte ha tirato a queU' uc 

Ho tirato pareechie volte sopra di 

Ro inteso un colpo di fucile. 
Ha inteso una pistolettata. 
Abbiamo inteso un oolpo di Atlmiae 

(o scoppio di fttlmine]^. ^ 


To cast an eye i^nmi same one or 


Have you east an eye upon that 

I have cast an eye upon it 

Gettare un* occhiata sopra tmo, 

Ho EUa gettato un' occhiata su 
questo libro 1 (o dato nn* oceliiata). 
Vi ho gettato un* occhiata. 

Has that man gone away? 

He has gone away. 

Have your brothers gone away 7 

They have gone away. 

They have not gone away. 

Have they gpne away 7 

They were not willing to go away. 

Se n' d andato dMtui7 

Egli se n' d andato. 

I di Lei frafcelli se ne sonq andati f 

Se ne sono andati. 

Non se ne sono andatL 

Se ne sono e^no andati 7 

Non hanno voluto andaraene. 

To ask some one^ that is, to. 
fuestum, to interrogate him. ! 

Intem^are quUleuno, 



" , 148. 

Are you going away already ? — ^I am not going yet.-^When 
will that jnan go away? — ^He will go away presently. — Will you 
go away soon ? — I shall go away next Thursday.— When will 
your friends go away ? — They will go away next month.— : When 
wilt thou go away? — I will go away instantly. — Why has your 
father gone away so soon {eosi tosto) ? — He has promised his 
friend to be at his house at a quarter to nine, so that (di modo 
ehe) he went away early in order to keep (per marUenere) what 
he has promised. — ^When shall we go away ? — We shall go away 
to-morrow. — Shall we start early ? — We shall * start at five 
o'clock in the morning. — When will you go away ? — I shall go 
away as soon as I have done writing. — When will your children 
go away ? — ^They will go as soon as they have done their exer- 
cises. — Will you go when I go ? — ^I shall go away when you go- 
— ^Will our neighbours soon go away? — They will go away 
when the^ have done speaking. — What will become of your sop 
if he does' not study ? — ^If he does not study he will learn nothing. 
—What will become of you if you lose your money ? — I do not 
know what will become of me.— What will become of your 
friend if he loses his pocket-book ? — ^If he loses it I do not know 
what will become of him. — ^What has become of your son ? — I do 
not know what has become of him. — Has he enlisted ? — He has 
not enlisted. — ^What will become of us if our friends go away ? 
— ^If Ihey go away I do not know what will becon^ of us. — What 
has become of your relations r — ^They have gone away. 


Do you intend buying a horse ? — ^I cannot buy one, for I have 
not yet received my money. — Must I go {Mi e duopo andare 
Devo 10 andare al teatso*) to the theatre ? — ^You must not gc 
thither, for it is very bad weather.— Why do you not go to my 
brother? — ^It does not suit me to go to him, for I cannot yet pay 
him what I owe him. — Why does your servant give that man a 


out with his knife ? — He gives him a cut, because the man has 
given hini a blow lyith his fist. — Which of these two pupils 
begins to speak ? — ^The one who is studious begms to speak. — 
What does the other who is not so 1 — He also (anch* egK) begins 
to speak, but he knows neither how to write nor to read. — ^Does 
he listen to what you tell him ? — ^He does not listen to it, if I do 
not give him a beating (se turn Jo haUo dei colpi). — ^Why do those 
children pot study.?— Their master has given them blows, so 
that (di maniera che) they will not study. Why has he given 
them blows with his fist ? — ^Because they have been disobedient. 
—Have you £red a gun ? — ^I have, fired three times. — At what 
did you fire ? — ^I fired at a bird. — Have you fired a gun tt that 
man ? — I have fired a pistol at him. — Why have you fired a 
pbtol at him ? — ^Because he has given me a stab with his knife. 
—How many times have you fired at that bird ? — I have fired at 
it twice. — Have you killed it ? — ^I have killed it at the second 
shot (a/ secondo colpo). — ^Have you killed that bird at the first 
shot? — ^I have killed it at the fourth (oZ quarto colpo), — ^Do you 
fire at the birds which you see upon the trees, or at those which 
you see in the gardens ? — I fire neither at those which I see upon 
the trees nor at those which I see in the gardens, but at those 
which I perceive on the castle behind the wood. 

How many times have the enemies fired at us {su di not) ? — 
rhey have fired at us several times. — ^Have they killed any 
body ? — ^They have killed nobody. — ^Have you a wish to fire at 
tliat bird ? — ^I have a wish to fire at it.— Why do you not fire at 
those birds ? — I cannot, for I have a sore finger. — ^When did the 
captain fire? — ^He fired when his soldiers fired. — ^How many 
birds have you shot at ?— I have shot at all that I have perceived, 
but I have killed none, because my gun is good for nothing. — 
Have you cast an eye upon that man ? — I have cast an eye upon 
him. — ^Has he seen you ? — He has not seen me, for he has sore 
eyes. — Have you drunk of that wine ? — ^I have drunk of it, and 
it has done me good.-^What have you done with my book ? — I 
have put it upon your trunks — ^Am I (dehbo) to answer you ?— 
You will answer me when it comes to your turn (quando vara 



la di Lei voUa). — Is it my brother's turn {tocca a mio frateUo) ?— 
When it conies, to his turn I shall ask hxm {Jo inierrogherd), for 
each in his turn. — Have you taken a walk this morniiig ? — ^I have 
taken a walk round the garden. — Where is your uncle gone to? 
— ^He is gone to take a walk. — ^W'hy do you run ? — ^I run because 
I see my best friend. — Who runs behind us {dietro a noi) ? — Our 
dog runs behind us. — ^Do you perceive that bird ? — I perceive it 
behind the tree. — ^Why have your brothers gone away ? — They 
have gone away, because they did not wish to be seen by the 
man whose dog they have killed. (See end of XXIVth Lesson.) 


Leziane quarantesima nona. 

To hear — heard. 

I hear, thou hearest, he hears. 
We hear, you hear, they hear. 

To hear of. 

Have yoD heard of your brother 1 

I have heard of him. 

Is St long Bince you breakfasted 1 

How long is it since you breakfutedl 
It is not long since I breakfasted. 

It is a great while since. 
It is a short time since. 
How long is it since you heard of your 
brother *» 

Udire* 3— «4ito. 
Odo, odi, 

Udiamoj udite, 



Sf Udire * parlare. 
t SerUir parlare. 

Ha EUa udito parlare del di Lei 

Ne ho udito parlare. 

E molto tempo ehe Ella ha fatto 
oolazione 1 

Quanto d che EUa lu fatto colazione 1 

Non d xaoUo tempo che ho &tto 

E moltissimo tempo che. 

E poco tempo che. 

^uanto tempo d che ha udito par- 
lare del di Lei fratello? 



Il !■ a yatr tlnoe I faatrd of him. 

[Is nn anno chA ho adito pailar dl 

I B on ann* cho im ho udito par* 
L lata. 

It la only a year ainee. | fc aolamente nn anno dia. 

Itiamorethanayaarainoe. | E piild' nn anno che. 

Oi». A, That, whan before a number, ia rendered by dL 

More than nine. 

More than twenty timea. 
It ia hardly aiz montha aince. 

A few honra ago. 

^alf an hour ago. 

Twa yeare ago. 

Ob». B. The word/i, third peraon alngular of the Terb/ore, ia need in 
Italian wheneTer there la in Engliah ago^ reUtingto the aingukur. 

Vih di nove. 

Piik di Tcnti volte. 

Sono appena aei meal chOb 

E qualche ora (aono aleuna ore). 

& una men* on (mezz* ora la). 

Sono due anni. 

I have aeen Urn a month ago. 
Two houra and a lialf ago. 
Three centuriea ago. 
A fottnight ago. 
Ten yeara ago, 
A fortnight. 

L' ho Teduto un meae fA. 
Sono due ore e meno. 
Tre aecoU aono. 
t Sono quindici giomi. 
Died anni aono. 
Quindici giomL' 

Hiave you long been in Franael ItE molto tempo Mi' Ella i in 

I Francial 
06*. C. In Engliah the Btate of exiatence or of action, whan l«*ta duration, 
ia alwaya expreaaed in the preteiperfect tenae ; wliUat in Italian %» w41 aa in 
French, it ia ezpz^aaad by the preaent tenae. 

He haa been in Paria theae three t Son tre anni ch* d in ParSgi 

I have been living here theae two 

How long have you had that horae 1 

I have had it theae five years. 

Son due anni che ato qui. 

Quanto tempo i ch' EQa ht 

Sono cinque anni che 1' ho. 

How long (since when) f 
How long haa he been here 7 

( Da quando in qua f 
l Da quanio tempo? 
Da quanto tempo d qoil 

{ Dacche (che). 

> In Italian, aa weU aa in French, we say fifteen daya for a firhdghi. 



These three dajrs. ' 
This month. 
1 have Men him more than twenty 

Da tre giorni. 

Da un mese. 

L' ho veduto plii di venti volte. 

ho pai^ 

It is sLx months since I spoke to him. I Sono sei mesi che non 

I lato. 

Ob». D. The negative non in this and similar expressions is necessary in 
Italian, though the English use no negative in such instances. 

It is more than a year since I heard of 

Since I saw you It has rained very 


Epiii d* un anno che non ne ho 
udito parlare. • 

Da che V ho veduta ha piovuto 


1 have just seen yourbrothex. 
He has just done writing. 
The men have just arrived. 
Has that man been waiting long 7 
He has but just come. 
I have just seen him. 
I have just received it. • 
I have-just written to him. 

r Pocofa, poc' anxij tesU, 
< Ora^ or ara, in queHopunio, 
( Appunto, 

Ho visto il di Lei fratello poco fa. 
Ha finito di scrivere po^ anzL 
Gli uominl sono appunto arrivati. 
£ molto tempo che questlaspettal 
E arrivato m qutsto punto. 
L* ho veduto testl. 
L* ho ricevutd or ora. 
Gli ho scritto pot^ anzi. 

To do one's best. 

I will do my best. 
He wiU do his best 

f Fare il posnihik. 

t Fard il possibile (cid che potrd). 
t Pari 11 possibile (cid che potri). 

To spend money — spent. 

How much have you spent to-day 7 
He has fifty sequins a month to \i\e 

Speridere ♦2. — speso, 

Quanto ha Ella speso oggi7 
^li ha cinquanta zecchini al mese 
da spendere. 

Have the horses been found 7 | Sono stati trovati I cavalU 7 

i:3r The passive participle agrees with the nominative In number t that is, 
when the nominative is plural, the participle must also be in the plural. 

Tliey have been found. 

Where 7 When 7 
The men have been seen. 
Our children have been praised and 

rewarded, because they have beenj 

good and studious. 

Sono stati- trovati. 

Ove or Dove 7 Quando 7 

Gli uominl sono stati vedutt 

I nostri fanciullt sono stati lodati « 

ricompensati, poichd sono stat.' 

sav! e studfosi. 



By whom haTe they been rewarded 1 
By whom haTe we been blamed 1 

Dachi aono etati licompenaatil^ 
Da chi alamo atati blaaimati'? 

To pass. 

Passare 1. 
{ BavawU. 
i Innanzi. 

Ob», E. Before is expreaaed in Italian by prtmo, when It denotea priority 
(Leaeon XXVIir); and by cfaron/j, «iifiafi;ri| when It 8i|{nifiea in presence 
of. Ex. ' * 

To paaa before some one. 
To paaa before a place. 

A place. 
I have paaaed before the theatre. 
He paaaed before ma. 

Paaaar davanti a qualcuio. 
Paaaar davanti im luogo. 
Un luogo. 

Son paaaato davanti al teatio. 
1& paaaato innanxi a me {pr davant! 

I teeaklaated before yon. 

I Ho latto oolazione prima di Let 

To spend time m something. 

What do ypu spend your time in? 
I spend my time in studying. 
What haa he spent his time Inl 
What shall we spend our time in 1 

Passare il tempo a fualche 


t Come paaaa 11 tempo 1 . 
t Pasao U tempo a studiare. 
t Come ha egli paasato ii tempo 1 
t Come paaseremo U tempo 1 

To miss, to fail. 

The merchant haa failed to bring the 

Ton have missed your turn. 
Tou have failed to come to rne this 


Mancare 1. 
n mercante ha mancato di portare 

Ella ha mancato alia di Lei volta. 
Ella ha mancato di Tenire da me 

questa mane (o queata mattlna). 

To he good for something. 

Of what use ia that 1 
It ia.good for nothing. 

The good-for-notliing fisllow. 

Ia the gun which you have bought a 

good one? 
No, it is worth nothing. 

Esser * buono a qualcosa. 

t A che serve dd 1 

t Cid non aerve a niente (Non val 


II diacolo. lo sfiBiccendato. 

II fucile ch' Ella lia compmto d 

No, Signore, non d ouono a niente. 



To throw away. 
Have yott thrown away any thing 1 
I have not thrown away any thing. 
Have yon uaed the books which you 

have bought 7 
I have not used them; I have ex- 
amined them, and found them very 
badp 80 that I have thrown them 

To examine. 

Gettar via. 

Ha EUa gettato tIb qualche < 

Non ho gettatQ via niente. 

Si a Ella servita del Ubri che ha 
comprati 1 

Non me ne son eervito; U ho eaa- 
minati e U ho trovati cattivisaimi, 
di maniera che U tio gettati Wa. 




Have you heard of any one ?-— I have not heard of any one, for 
I have not gone out this morning. — Have you not heard of the 
man who has killed a soldier ? — I have not heard of him. — Have 
you heard of my brothers ? — I have not heard of them. — Of 
whom has your cousin heard ? — ^He has heard of his friend who 
is gone to America. — ^Is it long since he heard of him ? — It is not 
long since he heard of him. — 'How long is it ? — It is only a 
month. — ^Have you been long in Paris ? — These three years. — 
Has your brother been long in London ? — He has been there 
these ten years. — How long is it since you dined ?— It is long 
since I dined, but it is not long since I supped. — How long is it 
since you supped ? — ^It is half an hour* — How long have you had 
these books ? — ^I have had them these three months. — How long 
is it since your cousin set out ? — It is more than a year since he 
set out. — ^What has become of the man who has lent you money ? 
— ^I do not know what has become of him, for it is a great while 
since I saw him. — ^Is it long since you heard of the soldier who 
gave your friend a cut with the knife ? — ^It is more than a year 
since I heard of him. — How long have you been learning 
French 1 — ^I have been learning it only these two months. — Do 
you know already how to speak it ? — ^You see (EUa sente) that I 
am beginning to speak it. — Have the children of the English 



noblemen been learning it long ? — ^They have been learning it 
these three years, and they do not yet begin to speak. — Why do 
they not know how to speak it ? — ^They do not know how to speak 
it, because they are learning it badly. — Why do they not learn it 
well ? — ^They have not a good roaster, so that they do not learn it 


Is it long since you saw the young man who learnt German 
with the {dal) master with whom {presso U quale) we learnt it ? 
— ^I have not seen him for nearly a year. — How long is it since 
the child ate ? — ^It ate a few minutes ago. — How long is it since 
those children drank? — They drank a quarter of an hour ago. — 
How long has your friend been in Spain ? — He has been there 
this month. — How often have you seen the king ? — ^I saw him 
more than ten times when I was in Paris. — When did you meet 
my brother ? — I met him a fortnight ago. — ^Where did you meet 
him ? — ^I met him before the theatre. — Did he do you any harm ? 
— ^He did me no harm, for he is a good boy. — Where are my 
gloves? — ^They have thrown them away. — Have the horses been 
(bund ? — ^They have been found. — Where have they been found ? 
They have been found behind the wood, on this side of the road. 
— ^Have you been seen by any one ? — ^I have been seen by no 
one. — Do you expect any one ? — ^I expect my cousin the captain. 
— Have you not seen him ? — I have seen him this morning ; he 
has passed before my warehouse. — What does this young man wait 
for ? — ^He waits for money. — Art thou waiting for any thing ? — 
I am waiting for my book. — Is this young man waiting for his 
money ? — He is waiting for it. — ^Has the king passed here ? — He 
has not passed here, but before the theatre. — Has he not passed 
before the castle ? — He has passed there, but I have not seen him. 

• 158. 

What do you spend your time in ? — ^I spend my time in study- 
ing. — What does your brother spend his time ia ? — He spends 
his time in reading and playing. — ^Does this man spend his time 
in working ? — He is a good-for-nothing fellow ; he spends his 
time in drinking and playing. — ^What do your children spend 


their time in ?— They spend their time in learning. — Can you pay 
me what you owe me 1 — I cannot pay it you, for the merchant 
has failed to bring me my money. — ^Why have you breakfasted 
without me ?— rYou failed to come at nine o'clock, so that we 
have breakfasted without you. — Has the merchant brought you 
the gloVes which you bought at his house (da lui) ? — He has 
&iled to bring them to -me. — Has he sold them you on credit ? — 
He has sold them me, on the contrary, for cash. — ^Do you know 
those men ? — ^I do not know them ; but I believe that they are 
(ehe sianOf subjunctive) good-for-nothing fellows, for they spend 
Uieir time in playing. — ^Why did you fail to come to my father 
this morning ? — ^The tailor did not bring me the coat which he 
promised me, so that I could not go to him. — ^Who is the man 
who has just spoken to you ? — ^He is a merchant. — ^What has the 
shoemaker just brought ? — ^He has brought the boots which he 
has made us. — ^Who are the men who have just arrived ? — They 
are Russians. — Where did your uncle dine yesterday ? — He dined 
at home. — How much did he spend ? — He spent five francs. — 
How much has he a month to live upon ? — He has a hundred se- 
quins a month to live upon. — ^Do you throw your hat away ? — ^I 
do not throw it away, for it fits me very well. — ^How much have 
you spent to-day ? — ^I have not spent much : I have only spent 
one sequin. — ^Do you spend every day as much ? — I sometimes 
spend more than that. — Has that* man been waiting long ? — ^He 
has but just come. — What does he wish ? — ^He wishes to speak to 
you. — ^Are you willing to do that ? — ^I am willing to doit. — Shall 
you be able to do it well ?— I will do my best. — ^Will this man be 
able to do that ? — ^He will be able to do it, fi>r he will do his 

Lezione cinquantesima. 

Haw far (meaning What dis- 

How fitr Is it from here to Paris? 

fs it far from here to Paris 7 

It is far. 

It is not far. 

How many miles is it 1 
It is twenty miles. 
It is almost two hundred miles from 

here to Paris. 
It is nearly five hundred miles from 
Paris to Vienna. 

Lontano, hingi, 

{ Qualdistansa? 

I Quanta c lantana t 

C Qual distania v* d da qui a Parigf ? 
c Qua! dlstanza corre da qui a Parlgi 1 

C d molto da qui a Par^ 1 

C d molto. Il lontano. 

Non c* ^ molto. Non ^ lontano. 

Un migUo.i 

Q,uante miglia vl sono 7 

Vi sono yenti mlgUa. 

Yi son circa due cento migUa da qui 

Vi son circa cinque cento miglia da 
Parigi a Vienna. 


From Venice. 

From London. 

From Rome. 

From Florence. 
ffbax oonntryman are youl 
Are y^n from France 1 


The Parisian. 
He is a Parisian (from Paris). 

The king. 

The philosopher. 

Thefm ccp tor, the tutor. 

The actor. 

The professor. 

Tlie landlord, the innkeeper. 


Da Venezia. 


Da Roma. 

Da Firense. 
t Di qua] paese d Ella7 o slete vol t 
t &Ella di Francial Siete Toi ftan* 

Lo sono. 

II Parigino. 



n filosofb.s 

11 preoettore,* V aio. 

V attore.« 

n professore. 

L' oste, il locandiere, 1' albergatore. 

^ JkRgUo is one of the nouns in o, wliich, though masculine in the singulsr, 
Cake in the plural the form of the feminine singular, as U miglia, miles. We 
shall see hereafter a list of such nouns. 

s Whenever ph occurs in English, it is in Italian changed into/. 

« I In Italian c or p is never put befbre f, hut they are changed lato i. 



An yoa an KngUshmanl 
4re yon an Italian 1 

Whence do yoa come 1 

I comefiom Rome. 
I oome from Paria. 

Tojly, to run away. 

To rxm away, 

I run away, thou runneat away, he 

runa away. 
W» run away, you run away, they run 
Why do you fly 7 
I fly, becauae I am afraid. 


Siete voL 

To assure n 
I BMure you that he ia arrived. 

To arrive. 

To hear — heard, 
HaTe you heard nothing new 7 

1 have heard nothing new. 
What do they aay of our prince 7 

They aay he ia wiae and generoua. 

Da dove? 

Da dove vienet 

o venite 7 
Vengo da Roma. 
Vengo da Parigi. 

D' onde? 

D* onde Ttene' 

\ Fuggire 8. 
( Fuggirsene^ 

Scappare 1. 

Fuggo, fuggi, fugge. 

Fuggiamo, fuggite, fuggono. 

Perchd fugge 7 ftiggitel 
Fuggo, perchd ho pannu 

Assicurare 1. 
I L' aaaicuro ch* ^ arrivato. 

Arrivare 1. 

Iniendere ♦ — nOeso. 

Non ha EUa ihteso nlente di mo- 

Non ho inteao niente di nuovo. 
Che ai dice (che dicono) del noatro 

principe 7 
t Lo dicono aaggio i magnanimo. 

(better, Si dice ohe i aaggio.) 

To happen"'^ he^ppened. 

The happineaa, fortune. 

The unhappineaa, miafortune. 
A great miafortune haa happened. 
He haa met with a great miafortune. 

^ Aceadere • — accaduto. 
Sopraggiungere^ — sopraggt- 

Succedere *, — iuceesso, 
Arrivare 1. 

La felicita {a fern, noun), 
LadisgTazia(a/em. noun), 
& Bopraggiunta una gran diagrazla. 
Gli d aopraggiunta una gran dla- 
grazia. o aventun. 



What luui happened to you 1 
Nothing haa happened to me. 
I have met with your brother. 

Che Le i eopraggiontoT 
Non mi d eopraggiunto nicbte. 
Ho incontrato il di Lei fratello 

The poor man. 
I have cut tiia finger. 
You have broken the man's neck. 
He broke hia leg. 

The leg. 

II povero. 
t Gli ho tagliato il dito. 
t RUa ha rotto il collo all* uomo. 
t Si d rotta la gamba. 

La gamba {a fern, noun). 

To pUjf — pitied. 

I plcy, thou pitieat, he pitiea. 
We, you, they pity. 

Campiangere * — compianto, 
Compatire (a) — compatito. 
Aver campassione (di) — avuio 

Compatisco, compatieci. compa- 



compatite, compa- 

Oi^9. Moat verba of the third conjugation terminate in the three first per- 
sona of the present indicative in : tteo, itn, itce, and in the third person plunu 
in iseoRfl^ juat aa eompoHrt, As there are a great many of them (some gram* 
marians make their number amount to nearly four hundred), we shall content 
ourselves wlQi marking them thus : {itco^) aa they will occur in the course of 
the Method. 

Do you pity that man 1 
I pity him with all my heart. 
With all my hearL 

To campkun. 

Do you complain 1 

I do not complain. 
Do you complain of my friend 1 
I complain of him. 
I do not complain of him. 

Compiange Ella cestui 1 
Lo complango dl tutto ctiore. 
Di tutto cuore. 

f Lamentarsiy lagnarsi. 

t Silamenta? 

t Non mi laraento. 

t Si lagna del mio amicot 

t Me ne lagno. 

f Non me ne lagno. 

To dare — dared or durst 

I dare, thou darest, he dares. 
We, you, they dare. 

SOsare — osato, 
Ardire. — ardito, 

Ardisco, ardisci, ardisce. 
Osiamo,' ardite, ardiscono. 

■ The first person plural of otare is substituted for the first perscn plural of 
ardirtt not to confound this with the first person plural otardere, to bum. 



To spoil, 
Tou have spoiled my kn\(e. 

To servcj to toait vpon. 

To serve some one, to toait upon 
some one. 

Ehs he been in your aenricel 
Has he senred you 7 

How long has he been in your service 1 

The service. 

To offer. 

Do you offer 7 

Thou offeresL 
He offers. 

Guastare 1. 

Ha guastato il mio collello. (Aveta 

Servire 3. 
r Servire qualcuno. 
) Essere ♦ al servizio di quai- 
ls ctmo. 
E egli stato al di Lei servizio 1 
L* ha servital Vi ha egll servito 1 
' t Q,uanto tempo d che La serve 7 (o 

serve Lei.) 
t Q,uanto tempo d che trovasi al di 
Lei servizio 7 (al servizio di Lei.) 
t Da quanto tempo d al di Lei ser- 
vizio 7 (o al servigio di vol.) 
II servizio. 

To confide, to trust vriih, to 

Do you trust me with your money 7 
I trust you with it 

I have intrusted that man with a 

The secret. 

To keep any thing secret 

[ have kept it secret. 

To take care of something. 
Do you take care of your clothes 7 
[ take care of them. 
Will you take care of my horse 7 

f will take care of it 

Offrire* — offerto. 
Ofire Ella 7 Offritevol7 

SDare * in eustodia. 
Confidare 1. 

Mi confida Ella il di Lei danaro7 
Glielo confido. 
Ho confidato un segreto a costni. 

r Tenere qualche cosa segreta. 
)osservare 11 segreto sn qualche 

L' ho tenuto segreto. 

Aver cura di qualcosa. 

Ha Ella cura del di Lei abiti7 

Ne ho cura. 

Vuole aver cura del mio cavallo'J 
c Yoglio aveme cura, or 
( Ne voglio aver cura. 



To leave— lefi. 

To squander, to dissipate. 

He has squandered all his wealth. 
He has left nothing to his children. 

Lasciare 1 — lasciaio. 
Dissipare I — dissipaio. 
Ha dissipato ogni sno avere. 
Non ha lasdato niente ai suoi Ian 

To hindery to keep from. 
I hinder, thou liinderest, he hinders. 
We, you, they hinder. 
Vou hinder me from sleeping. 
He has hindered pie from writing. 

Impedire * — impediio, 

Impedlsco, impedisci, impedisoe. 
Impediamo, impeditei impediscono. 
Ella mi iffipediace di dormire. 
Hi ha impedito di scriTere. 

'Far spesa, far compera {la 

To purchase, to spend. 

spesa, la ampera, the ear 
pense, fern, nouns). 

Far delle spese. 

^FardeUe compere. 

I have purchased two handkerchief. 
Have you purchased any thing to-day 1 


Cosa ha eomprato oggil 

Ho eomprato due fanolettL 

Ha latto delle spese (delle compere) 

Ne ho fotto. 

Most lovely, charming. 

That hat fits you admirably. 
That coat fits him very well. 

f is charming. 

OraiioBO, Icggiadro, YagD. 

A merayigUa. 

duesto cappello La sU a meravigUa. 

Quest* abito ^ sta benlasimo. 





How far is it from Paris to London 1 — ^It is nearly three hundred 
miles from Paris to London. — Is it far from here to Berlin ? — It is 
far. — ^Is it far from here to Vienna? — It is nearly five hundred 
miles from here to Vienna. — Is it further from Paris to Blois than 
from Orleans to Paris ? — It is further from Orleans to Paris than 
from Paris to Blois. — How far is it from Paris to Berlin ? — It is 
almost five hundred and thirty miles from Paris to Berlin. — Do 


you inteud to go to Paris soon ? — I intend to go thither soon. — 
Why do you nvish to go this time {questa voUa) ?~-Iu order to buy 
good books and good gloves, and to see my good friends. — ^Is it 
long since you were there ? — It is nearly a year since I was 
there. — ^Do you not go to Italy this year (quest* armo) ? — I do not 
go thither, for it is too far from here to Italy. — Who are the men 
that have just arrived ? — They are philosophers. — Of what 
country are they 1 — ^They are from Loudon. — Who is the man 
who has just left? — He is an Englishman who has squandered 
away (dissipato) all his fortune (ogni suo avere) in France. — 
What countryman are you ? — ^I am a Spaniard/ and my friend is 
an Italian. — Are you from Tours ? — No, I am a Parisian. — How 
much money have your children spent to-day ? — They have spent 
but little ; they have spent but one crown. — Where did you dine 
yesterday ? — I dined at the inn-keeper's. — ^Did you spend a great 
deal ? — I spent a crown and a half. — ^Has the king passed here 
(di qui) 1 — He has not passed here (di qui), but before the theatre. 
— ^Have you seen him ? — ^I have seen him. — Is it the first time 
(e ia prima voUa) you have seen him ? — ^It is not the first time, 
for I have seen him more than twenty times. 


Why does that man run away ?— -He runs away because he is 
afraid.-— Why do you run away? — ^I run away because I am 
afraid. — Of whom are you afraid ?— I am afraid of the man who 
does not love me.— Is he your enemy ?— I do not know whether 
he is (s* i) my enemy ; but I fear all those who do not love me, 
for if they do me no harm they will do me no good. — ^Do you fear 
my cousin? — ^I do not fear him, for he has never done any body 
harm. — ^You are wrong to run away before that man, for I assure 
you that he is (P assicuro esser egU) a very good man (tm hravo 
uomo), who has never done harm to any one. — Of whom has your 
brother heard ? — He has heard of a man to whom (a/ quale) a 
misfortune has happened (e aceaduia una disgraxia). — ^Why have 
your scholars not done their exercises ? — I assure you that they 
have done them, and you are mistaken if you believe that they 
have {abUanOf subj.) not done them. — What have you done with 


260 FirriBTH Ltssoii. 

my book ? — ^I assure you that I have not seen it. — Has your son 
had my knives ? — ^He assures me that he has not had them. — ^Is 
your uncle arrived already ?— He is not arrived yet (per anco). 
— Will you wait till he returns ? — ^I cannot wait, for I have a 
good deal (moUo) to do. — Have you not heard any thing new ? — 
I have heard nothing new. — Is the king arrived ?-^They say he 
is {che 8ia) arrived. — What has happened to you? — A great mis- 
fortune {una gran disgrazia) has happened to me. — ^What {ijuale) t 
— I have met with my greatest enemy, who has given me a blow 
with a stick. — ^Then I pity you with all my heart (di tuUo cuore). 
— Why do you pity that man (a costui) ? — ^I pity him because 
you have broken his neck. — Why do you complain of my friend ? 
I complain of him because he has cut my finger. — ^Does that man 
{cosHa) serve you well ? — ^He serves me well, but he spends too 
much. — Are you willing to take this servant ? — ^I am willing to 
take him, if he will serve me. — Can I take that servant ? — ^You 
can take him, for he has served me very well. — How long is it 
since he has left your service {ehe ha lasciato U di Let servizio) ? 
— ^It is but two months since. — ^Has he served you long ? — ^He 
has served me for (durante) six years. 


Do you offer me any thing ?— I have nothing to offer you.«^ 
What does my friend offer you ? — He offers me a book. — Have 
the Parisians offered you any thing ? — They have offered me 
wine, bread, and good beef. — Why do you pity our neighbour ? 
I pity him, because he has trusted (ferM ha dato m custodia) a 
merchant of Paris with his money, and the man (e questt) will 
not return it to him. — ^Do you trust this man with any thing ? — ^I 
do not trust him with any thing. — ^Has he already kept any thing 
from you ?— I have never trusted him with any thing, so that he 
has never kept any thing from me.^-Will you trust my father 
wllh your money ? — ^I will trust him with it. — With what secret 
has my son intrusted you? — ^I cannot intrust you with that with 
Hhich lie has intrusted me, for he has desired me (m' ha pregaio) 
to keep it 8ecx^.*^Whom do you intrust with your secrets ? — I 
ill^ust nobody with them, so that nobody knows them.— Has 


your brother been rewarded ? — He has, on the contrary, been 
punished ; but I beg of you to keep it secret, for nobody knows 
it. — What has happened to him? — I will tell you what has 
happened to him, if you promise me to keep it secret {di 
asservame il segreto), — ^Do you promise me to keep it secret ? 
— I promise you, for I pity him with all my heart. — ^Will 
you take care of my clothes ? — ^I will take care of them.— ^Are 
you taking care of the book which I lent you ? — ^I am taking care 
of it. — ^Who will take care of my servant ? — The landlord will 
take care of him. — Do you throw away your hat ? — I do not 
throw it away, for it fits me admirably (a meravigUa), — ^Does 
your friend sell his coat ? — fie does not sell it, for it fits him most 
beautifully. — Who has spoiled my book ? — No one has spoiled 
it, because no one has dared to touch it. — ^Do you hinder any one 
from studying ? — ^I hinder no one from studying, but I hinder you 
from lomg harm to this boy. 


Terzo mese, 

Leziane cinquaniesima prima. 

The people. - 
WQi the people come mod 1 
IWy will come eoon. 

oooft| very so9n» 

The flute. 
The horn. 
To play upon the TioUn. 
- To play the vioUn. 
Jb», The Terb to play ia rendered by mumart with the accusative^ when m 
tnuBical inatniment ia apoken o^ and by giuoeare with the datlTC, when a game 
ia spoken o£ Ex. To play at cards, giuoeare oUe carte g to play at cheesy 
giuoeare agU eoae^U, 

La gente (afmn. nrnm), 
VerrA la gente qnanto 
Yerri quanto prima. 

ToHo^periempOg quaiUoprmuu 

Un Tiollno. 
U flauto. 
II oomo. 

Snonare il violino. 

The harpsichord. 

The piano-forte. 
To play Uie harpsichord. 
To play upon the harpsichord. 
To play the, or upon the, flute. 
What inatniment do you playl 

II cembalo. 
II pianoforte. 

Suonare il cembalo. 

Suonare il flauto. 

Che atrumento suona Ella? o •«• 
nate Tol 1 

I play i^on tb« piano. 


Near me. * 

N^r thSm. 

IToccare 1. 
t Toeco il pianoforte, (o 


Vlcijio a, presw a, 

Vicino a me. 
Ticino a loro. 



Netr the fire. 

Near the trees. 

Near going. 
Where do you live 1 
I live near the castle. 
What are you doing near the fire 7 

To dance. 


To drop {to let fall). 

Has he dropt any thing? 
He has not dropt any thing. 
I dropt my glores. 

To retain, to hold back. 

Th approach, to draw near. 

Do yoo approach the fire 7 
I do approach it. 

Th approach, to have access to. 

tf a is a nan difficult of 

Vicino al faoco, \iTeaao al fuoca 

yic!no agU alberi. 

Vicino ad andare. Star per andare. 

Ove BtaElla7 

Sto yicino al castello. 

Che ia Ella ridno al fuooo 7 

Ballare X. 

Cadere * — eaduio. 

Lasdar cadere. 

t Gli d caduto qualche coaal 
t Non gli d caduto niente. 
i Mi son caduti i guanti. 

RUenere * (is conjugated like 
its primitive ienere ♦, Lea- 
son XL.). 

Acncinarsi (gov. the dative^, 

S' ayyicina ella al fuooo 7 (vi avri* 

cinate vol al.) 
Me ne awicino {ormerdy m' av 


( Accostarsi ad uno. 

l Awicinare uno. 

f & un uomo che non si pud ayvici- 
£ un uomo che nessuno pud ae 


I go away (withdraw) from the fire. 

To withdraw from. ) 
To go away from. ) 

Why does that manigo away from the 

He goes away from it, because hsii 

not cold. 
I go away from it. 

M* allontano dal fuoco. 

AUontanarsi da (gov. the ah. 

Perclid s' allontaoa oottoldal fuoco 7 

Se 'ne iUontaaa perchd nen lia 

freMo. • 
Me ne^ontano^ 



To recollect. 

Do you recollect thatl 

I recollect It. 

Does your brother recollect that 7 

He recollects It. 

Do you recollect the devices 1 

I recollect them. 

Have you recollected the devices 1 

I have recollected them. 

I have not recollected them. 

Have you recollected them 1 

You have recollected them. 

Has he recollected them 1 

He has recollected them. 

We have recollected them. 

They have recollected them. 

To rememher^ to recollect. 

Do yon remember that man 1 

I remember him. 

Do you remember thatl 

I remember it. 

What do yon remember? 

I remember nothing. 

C Ricordarsi 1 (goy. the geni- 

\ tive). 

^ Rammeniarsi.^ 


Me ne rammento. 

Si rammenta di dd il di Lei fr» 

Se ne rammenta. 
Si rammenta dei motti 7 
Me ne rammento. Me ne rioordo. 
Si d Elb rammentata dei mottll 
Me ne son rammentato. 
Non roe ne son rammentato. 
Si d Ella rammentata di quelll7 
Ella se n' d ricordata. 
Se n* d egU rammentato 1 
Se n' i rammentato. 
Ce ne siamo rammentati. 
Se ne eono rammentatL 

TosU down. 

I rit down, thou sittest down, he sits 

We, you, they sit down. 
Do you sit down? 

I do sli down. 
Thon art sitting down. 
He Is sitting down. 
I shall or will sit down« 
He sits near the fli* 

Ricordarsi 1 (gov. the geni- 


Si ricorda elia di costui 1 (o vi rioor* 

date vol dL) 
Me ne ricordo, or lo rioordo. 
Si ricorda didd 7 
Me ne ricordo. 
Di che si ricorda EIla7 
Non mi ricordo di niente. 

C Sedere * — seduto. 
< Mettersi a sedere. 
V Porsi a sedere. 
Seggo, sledi, dede. 

Sediamo, sedete, seggono. 

Siede Ella (Si mette Ella a sedtte) 1 

(Vi mettere vol a.) 
Seggo (mi metto a sedere). 
Sledi (ti metti a sedere). 
Slede (d mette a sedere). 
' Sederd (mi metterd a sedere). 
^ seduto vidno d fnoco. 

^ Riarrdare, ronuMiilare, when they are not reflective, govern the aocuaasive. 



B» Mt down hmt the fin. 

To Uke better i to prefer. 

Do you like to stay here better than 

going out 1 
I Uke staying here better than going 

He likea to play better than to atudy. 
Do you like to write better than to 


I Uke to apeak better than to write. 

Belter than, 

I Uke beef better than mutton. 

Do yon like bread better than cheese 7 
He likes to do both. 
I like neither the one nor the other. 
I Uke tea as much as coffee. 

Just as much. 
Some TeaL 

iiuUkf fart. 
Slaw, slowly. 

Does your master speak aloud 7 
He speaks aloud. 

In order to learn* Italian one must 
speak aloud. 

Qtttdter, faster. 

Not so quickf less qmck. 

As fast as you. 
Ha eats quicker than I. 

S' d messo a sedeie Tridno al fiiooo. 
S' d posto a sedere vicino al fuoco. 

f Placer megtio (ptd), preferire 


Aver pi^ caro. 

Amar megUo {jpiu). 

Le place megUo restar qui che 

Mi place megUo restar qui che 

Ama megUo giuocare che studiare. 
Le place piii scrlvere che pariare 7 

■ Preferisco pariare a scrlvere. 
U parlar mi place piik ehe lo scri- 

( MegUo che. 
\ Fin che. 

Mi place pA U manzo che U mon- 

Le place piii 11 pane che 11 cacio 7 
GU place fare 1' uno e 1' altro. 
Non mi place nd P uno nd F altro. 
Mi place altrettanto U td quanto U 

Del vitello. 
Un Titello, del TlteDi. 


Lentamente, adagio. 
Forte, ad aUa voce. 

II di Lei maestro parla forte 7 
Parla forte. 

Per imparar V Itallano blsogna par* 
lar forte. 

PiU presto. 

Non cosi presto, meno pretto^ 

pa adagio. 
Cosi presto come Lei. 
Mangia pii presto di me. 



Do you leani na fast as II 

I laiiD faster than you. 
1 do not understand you, because you 
speak too iast 

To scU cheap. 

To sell dear. 

Does he sell cheap 1 
He does not sell dear. 
He has sold ma vary dear. 


This man sells every thing so dear that 
one cannot buy any thing of him. 

Tott speak so &8t that I cannot un- 
derstand you. 

To luy something from some 

I have bought It of him. 

I have bought that horse uf your 

I have bought a cake lor my child. 

I have bought it for him. 

So much ; plur. so many. 

I have written so many notea that I 
cannot write any more. 

Do you foar to go out? 
Ifoar togoout. 

To run away, tofy. 

Did you run away 1 
I did not run away. 
Why did tliat man run away 1 

He ran away because he was afraid. 
Who has run away 1 

He has run away. 

Impaia presto come lo (al paii dl 

me) 7 
Imparo pih presto di Let 
Non La capisco, perchd paria tioppo 


Vendere a hum mercaio. 

Vender earo. 

Vende a buon mereatol 

Non vende caro. 

If ha venduto carissinio. 


Quest! vende tutto oosi caro che non 
si pud comprar niente da luL 

Ella parla cori presto che non poaao 

C&mprar qualche com da 


V ho compmto da lot 

Ho comprmto questo cavallo daldl 

Lei fratello. 
Ho oomprato un paaticclno a mio 

Olielo ho oompiBto. 

Tanto ; plur. tanti. 

Ho seritto tantl UgUatti ( 
posso seriver piil. 

Teme Ella d' uacirel 
Temo d* uscire. 

Salvarsi 1. Scappare h 

ft Ellascappatal 
Non sono scappato, 
Perch^dscappato cestui 7 {pi 
I ofaggitovia.) 

I k scappato, perchd ha avuto pann. 
< Chi s* d Bahrato 7 
c Egli i scappato. 




Do you play the violin ? — I do not play the violin, but the harp, 
■ichord. — Shall we have a ball to-night 1 — We shall have one. — 
At what o'clock ? — At a quarter to eleven. — ^What o'clock is it 
now ? — It is almost eleven, and the people will soon come. — What 
instrument will you play ?— I shall play the violin. — ^If you play 
the violin, I shall play the harpsichord. — Are there to be a great 
many people at our ball? — There are to be a great many. — Will 
you dance ? — ^I shall dance. — ^Will your children dance ? — They 
will dance if they please {se place lord). — ^In what do you spend 
your time in this country ? — ^I spend my time in playing on the 
harpsichord, and in reading. — ^In what does your cousin divert 
himself? — ^He diverts himself in playing upon the violin. — Does 
any one dance when you play ? — A great many people dance 
when I play. — Who ? — At first (m primo luogo) our children, 
then our cousins, at last {injine) our neighbours. — Do you amuse 
yourself? — ^I assure you that we amuse ourselves very much. — 
Whom do you pity ? — ^I pity your friend. — Why do you pity 
him ? — ^I pity* him because he is ill. — Has any one pitied you ? 
— ^Nobody has pitied ope, because I have not been ill. — ^Do you 
offer me any thing ? — ^I ofier you a fine gun. — What has my 
father offered you ? — He has oflfered me a fine book. — To whom 
have you offered your fine horses ? — I have offered them to the 
English captain. — ^Dost thou offer thy pretty little dog to these 
children ? — I offer it to them, for I love them with all my heart. 
— Why have you given that boy a blow with your fist ?«— Because 
he has hindered me from sleeping. — ^Has any body hindered you 
from writmg ? — ^Nobody has hindered me from writing, but I 
have hindered somebody from hurting your cousin. 


Have you dropt any thing ? — ^I have dropt nothing, but my 
cousin dropt some money. — Who has picked it up t — Some men 
have picked it up.— Was it returned to him (GU i siato reso) ? — 
It was returned to him, for those who picked il up did not wish 


to keep iU— la it cold to day ?^-It b vary cold. — ^Will you draw 
near the fire f— -I caimoi draw nait it, for I am afraid of burning 
myself. — Why does your faead go awiy from the fire ? — He 
goes away from it, because he is afraid of burning himself. — Art 
thou coming near the fire ? — I am coming near it, because I am 
very cold. — ^Do you go away from the fire ? — ^I go away from it. 
— Why do you go away from it ? — Because I am not cold. — ^Are 
you cold or warm ? — I am neither cold nor warm. — Why do your 
children approach the fire ? — They approach it because they are 
cold. — Is any body cold ? — Somebody is cold. — Who is cold ? — 
The little boy, whose father has lent you a horse, is cold. — ^Why 
does he not warm himself ?-*Because his father has no money to 
buy coals. — Will you tell him to come to me to warm himself? 
— ^I will tell him so {dirgUeh). — ^Do you remember any thing ? — 
I remember nothing. — What does your uncle recollect? — He 
recollects what you have promised him.— What have I promised 
him ? — ^You have promised him to go to Italy with him next 
winter. — ^I intend to do so, if it is not too cold. — ^Why do you 
withdraw from the fire ? — ^I have been sitting near the fire thia 
hour and a half, so that I am no longer cold. — ^Does not your 
friend like to sit near the fire % — ^He likes, on the contrary, much 
{moUo) to sit near the fire, but only when he is cold. — ^May one 
(c» pud) approach your uncle ? — One may approach him, fer he 
receives every body (totti).— Will you sk down? — I will sit 
down. — ^Where does your father sit down ? — ^He sits down near 
me. — Where shall I sit down ?— You may {pud) sit near me. — 
So you sit down near the fire ? — ^I do not sit down near the fire, 
for I am afraid of being too warm.— Do you recollect my brother ? 
— ^I. recollect him. 

Do your parents recollect their old friends ? — ^They recollect 
them. — ^Do you recollect these devices ? — I do not recollect them. 
— ^Have you recollected that ? — I have recollected it. — Has your 
uncle recollected those devices ? — He has recollected them. — 
Have I recollected my exercise ? — ^You have recollected it. — 
Have you recollected your exercises ?— I have recollected them, 
for I have learnt them by heart i and my brothers have recoh 


lected theirsy because thegr hare learnt dtasm by heart.-^s,i| long 
since you saw your fic^d froa Paris 1*^1 saw bim a fcrtnight 
ago. — ^Do your scholara like to team by beart) — They do not 
like to learn by heart ; th^ like reading and writing better than 
learning by heart. — Do you like cider better than wine ? — I like 
wine better than cider. — Does your brother like to play ? — He 
likes to study better than to play. — Do you like veal better than 
mutton ? — I like the latter better than the former. — ^Do you like 
to drink better than to eat ? — ^I like to eat better than to drink ; 
but my uncle likes to drink better than to eat. — Does the French, 
man like fowl better than fish ? — He likes fish better than fowl. 
— ^Do you like to speak better than to write ? — I like to do both. 
— ^Do you like honey better than sugar ? — I like neither. — ^Does 
your father like coffee better than tea ? — He likes neither. — Can 
you understand me ? — ^No, Sir, for you speak too fast. — Will 
you be kind enough {aver la honid) not to speak so fast ? — ^I will 
not speak so fast, if you will listen to me. 

Can you understand what my brother tells you ? — He speaks 
so fast that I cannot understand him. — Can your pupils under- 
stand you ? — ^They understand me when I speak slowly ; for, in 
order to be understood, one must speak slowly. — Is it necessary 
to speak aloud {forte or ad alia voce) to learn Italian ? — ^It is 
necessary to speak aloud. — Does your master speak aloud 1 — He 
speaks aloud and slow, — Why do you not buy any thing of that 
merchant ? — ^He sells so dear that I cannot buy any thing of him. 
— ^Will you take me to adother? — I will take you to the son of 
the one whom you bought of last year. — ^Does he sell as dear as 
this ? — ^He sells cheaper (a migUor mereato), — ^Do your children 
like to learn Italian better than Spanish ? — ^They do not like to 
learn either; they only like to learn German. — ^Do you like 
mutton? — I like beef better than mutton. — ^Do your children like 
cake better than bread ? — ^They like both. — ^Has he read all the 
books which he bought ? — He bought so many {tanU) that he 
cannot read them all. — Do you wish to write some exercises ?— 
I have written so many that I cannot write any more. — Why 
does that man run away ? — ^He runs away because he is afraid. 



— Will any one do him harm ? — ^No one will do him hann ; but 
he dares not stay, because he has not done his task, and is afraid 
of being punished. — Will any one touch him ? — ^No one will 
touch him, but he will be punished by his master for not having 
( per non aver) done his task. (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 

LezUme einjuaniesima secanda. 

By the side of. 

To pass bj the tide of loiiia one. 
I hare paned by the side of yov. 
Hare yon passed by the aide of my 
. biotherl 
I have passed by the side of him. 

if Accanto a, 
t Passare accanto ad uno. 
t Son passato accaato a LeL 
t B Ella paasata accanto a 

t Son passato accanto a lid. 

mio fra* 

To foss hy a place. 

I have passed by the theatre. 
He has passed by the castle. 
Too have passed before my ware- 

( f Passare euxanto ad un Imogo. 

I \Fassare vidno ad un hiogo. 
t Son passato vlcino al teatro. 
t & passato Ticino al castello. 
t Ella d passato davantl al mlo ma 

To dare. 

I dare not go thither. 

Be dares not do it. 

I did not dare to teU him so. 

Ardire (see Lesson L). 

Non ardisco andard. 
Non ardisce farlo. 
Non ho ardito dli«llelo. 



To make use of^ to use. 

00 you ute my hone 7 

1 use it. 

Does your lather use it 7 

He uses it. 

Have yon used my gan. 1 

I have uaed it. 

They have uaed your hooka. 

They have uaed them. 

Servirsi di, adoperarc 1. 
t Si serve Ella del 4nio cavaUo? (Vi 

servite voi^) 
t Me DC servo, 
t Se no serve 11 di Lei padro 7 
t Se ne serve. 

t S' d Ella servita del mlo 8ehioppo7 
t Me ne son tervito. 
t Hanno adoperato i dl Lei Ubri. 
t Li hanno adoperatL 


I inatmet, thoa instmcteat, he in- 

We, you, they inatmct 

r Ammaestrare'-^iimmaestraio, 
< Instruire, or istruire (isco) — 
( instruito, or istrvito. 
Istruiaco, iatruisd, iatruiace. 

Istruiamo, iatrulte, istruiscono. 

To teach. 
To teach some one something. 
He teaches me arithmetic. 

I teach you Italian. 

I have taught him Italian. 

To teach some one to do some- 

Ha teaches me to read. 
I teach liim to write. 

Tlie French maater (meaning the 
maater of the Fr^ch language). 

The French maater (meaning that the 
maater is a Frenchman, whatever 
he teaches). 

To shave. 
To get shaved. 

Insegnare 1. 

Insegnare qualcosa a qualeuno. 

W inaegna 1' aritmetica (a fem. 

Le insegno 1' italiano. O vi inaegno. 
GU ho insegnato 1' italiano. 

Insegnar a qudlcuno a far 

quaiche cosa. 

M' inaegna a leggere. 
Gl' inaegno a scrivere. 

II maestro di firancesa. 
n maestro franoeae. 

I f Sbarharsi. 
\ t Farsi la harba. 
j t Farsi far la harha. 
\ f Farsi sharbare. 


nmr-sBcoND lbssoh. 

To dress. 

To undress. 

To dress one^s self. 

To undress one*s self. 

Hare you dressed youraelf 1 
I have not yet dressed myseIC 
Have you dressed the chUd 1 
I have dressed it 

To undo. 

To get rid of. 
Are yon getting rid of your damaged 

I am getting rid of it 
Did you get rid of your old ship 1 

I did get rid of it. 

To fart with. 
The dedgn, the intention. 

Toiniendyor to hoot (he vsten- 

I intend to go thither. 

We have the intention to do it. 

Do yon intend to part with your 

horses 1 
I have already parted with them. 
He has parted with his gon. 

To discharge. 
Have you discharged your servant 1 
I have discharged him. 

To get rid of some one. 

I did get rid of him. 

Did your &ther get rid of that man 1 

He did get rid of him. 

Vestire — vesHio. 

SpqgUare — spogUaio, 



S' i Ella vestital Vi slete^-esdtol 
Non mi sono ancor vestito. 
Avete vestito il bambino? 
L' ho vestito. 

Disfarsi di. 

Si disa Ella del dl Lei sneefam 

Me ne dislaccio. 
S' d Elladis&tta del di Lei veochio 

bastimento 1 
Me ne son dia&tto. 


L' intenzione (a fmn. noun), fl di- 

Designare, o aver intetuione 

Ho intenzione di andard. 

Abbiamo intenzione di fario. 

Ha EUa intenzione di dis&urai dd dl 

Me ne sono gid dis&tto. 
S' d dis&tto del Buo schioppo. 

SLieensaare 1. 
Mandar via. 

Ha Ella iioeozialo 

vltore 1 
L* ho licenziato* 

U di Lei ser- 

( f Sharazzarsi di quakuno. 

( f Sbrogliarsi di putlcuno. 

Mi sono sbrogUalo di iui. 

II di Lei padre s* d sbrogUato di 

Se n' h sbrogUato. 



To wake. 

To awake, 

i generally awake at six o'clock in the 

My servant generally wakes me at six 
o*clock in the morning. 

The least noise wakes me. 
A dream has waked me. 
I do not make a noise in order not to 
wake liim. 

A dream. • 

To come down. 

To alight from one's horse, to ' 
dismount, I 

To conduct one^s self. 

To behave, 

I conduct myself well. 

How does he conduct himself 7 


He behsTes ill towards that man. 
He has behaved ill towards me. 

To he worth while. 

Is it worthwhile? 

It IS worth while. 

It is not worth white. 

Is it worth while to do that 1 

la It worth while to write to him 7 

It is worth nothing. 

Svegliare 1. Risvegliare 1. 
Svegliarsi 1. Risvegliarsi \, 

Ordlnariamente mi sveglio alls sei 

del mattino. 
11 mio servitore ordlnariamente (di 

solito) mi sveglia alle sei del 

II minimo stropito mi risveglia. 
Un sogno m* ha risvegliato. 
Non faccio strepito per noo ris- 


Un sogno. 

Di solito, ordlnariamente. 

Scendere * 2 ; past pa rt. sceso, 

Discendere calare, 
Smontare da cavallo. 

Condursi*. (Less. XXXIV.) 

Comportarsi 1. 

Mi conduco bene. 
Come si conduce 7 

VersOf or inverso di. 

Si comports male verso costui. ' 
S' d comportato male verso di mo. 

{ Valer la pena. 

( Meritare il conto, 

Val la pena 7 
Cid val la pena. 
Cid non val la pena 
Val la pena di farlo 7 
Val la pena di scrivcrgll 7 

t Ciu non vol niente. 

{ Non val niente. 

Is it better 7 
It is better. 
Win it be better? 

fe meglio 7 
E meglio. 
Sara megUo 7 


It will not be better. 
It if better to do this than that. 
It is better to stay here than go a 

It is better to read a good book than 

go to the theatre. 

Non eark megliow 

E meglio lar questo ehe qnello. 

E meglio restar qui che paaseg- 

k me^o logger nn buon Ubro che 

andare al teafm 


Have your books been found? — ^They have been found.— 
Where ? — Under the bed. — Is my coat on the bed ? — ^It is under 
it. — ^Are your brother's clothes tmder the bed ?^-They are upon 
it. — ^Have I been seen by any body. — ^You have been seen by 
nobody.— Have you passed by any body ?— I passed by the side 
of you, and you did not see me. — ^Has any body passed by the 
side of you ? — ^Nobody has passed by the side of me. — Where 
has your son passed ? — ^He has passed by the theatre. — Shall you 
pass by the castle ? — ^I shall pass there. — Why have you not 
^ cleaned my trunk ? — I was afraid to soil my fingers. — Has my 
brother's servant cleaned his master's (iZjNidron^) guns? — He 
has cleaned them. — Has he not been afraid to soil his fingers ? — 
He has not been afraid to soil them, because his fingers are never 
clean (puUie), — Do you use the books which I have lent you? 
— I use them. — May I (passo) use your knife ?-7-Thou mayest 
use it, but thou must not (non devi) cut thyself. — May my brothers 
use your books ? — Tliey may use them. — May we use your gun ? 
—You may use it, but you must not «poil it {non dopete guas- 
iarJo), — What have you done with my coals ? — I have used them 
to warm myself. — Has your brother used my horse ? — He has 
used it. — Have our neighbours used our clothes ? — They have 
not used them, because they did not want them. — Who has used 
my hat ? — ^Nobody has used it. — Have you told your brother to 
come down ? — ^I did not dare to tell him. — Why have you not 
dared to tell him ? — Because I did not wish to wake him. — Has 


he told you not to wake him 1 — ^He has told me not to wake him 
when he sleeps. 


Have you shaved to-day ? — I have shaved. — Has your brother 
shaved ?-— He has not shaved himself, but he got shaved. — Do you 
shave often ? — ^I shave every morning, and sometimes also in the 
evening. — ^ you shave in the evening 1 — When I do not 
dine at home. — How many times a day does your father shave ? 
— He shaves 6nly once a day, but my uncle shaves twice a day. 
— Does your jousin shave often 1 — He shaves only every other 
day (ogrU due giorm), — At what o'clock do you dress in the 
morning ? — I dress as soon as I have breakfasted, and I breakfast 
every day at eight o'clock, or a quarter past eight. — Does your 
neighbour dress before he breakfasts ? — He breakfasts before he 
dresses. — At what o'clock in the evening dost thou undress ? — 
I undress as soon as I return from the theatre. — Dost thou go 
every evening to the theatre ? — I do not go every evening, for it 
is better to study than to go to the theatre. — ^At what o'clock dost 
thou undress when thou dost not go to the theatre ? — Then I 
undress as soon as I have supped, and go to bed at ten o'clock. — 
Have you already dressed the child (t7 harnbino) ? — ^I have not 
dressed it yet, for it is still asleep {dorme ancara). — ^At what 
o'clock does it get up ? — ^It gets up as soon as it is waked. — Do 
you rise as early as I ? — I do not know at what o'clock you rise 
(si levi, subj.), but I rise as soon as I awake. — Will you tell my 
servant to wake me to-morrow at four o'clock 1 — I will tell him. 
—Why have you risen so early ? — My children have made such 
a noise {tarUo strepiio) that they awakened me. — ^Have you slept 
well ? — I have not slept well, for you made too much noise. — At 
what o'clock did the good captain awake? — He awoke at a 
quarter past five in the morning. 


How did my child behave ? — He behaved very well. — How 
did my brotlier behave towards yon ? — He behaved very well 
towards me, for he behaves well towards every body. — Is it worth 
while to write to that man ? — It is not worth while to write tc 



him. — ^Is it worth while to dismount from my hone in «4dc;r to 
buy a cake ? — It is not worth while, for it is not long siuce you 
ate. — ^Is it worth while to dismount from my horse in order to 
give something to that poor man (a questo povero) 1 — ^Yes, for he 
seems ( pare) to want it ; but you can give him something with- 
out dismounting from your horse.— Is it better to go to the theatre 
than to study ? — ^It is better to do the latter than the former. — ^Is 
it better to learn to read French than to speak it ? — ^It is not worth 
while to learn to read it without learning to speak it. — ^Is it better 
to go to bed than to go a walking ?-— It is better to do the latter 
than the former. — ^Is it better to go to France than to Germany ? 
— It is not worth while to go to France or to Germany when one 
has no wish to travel. — Did you at last get rid of that man ? — ^I 
did get rid of him« — Why has your father parted with his horses ? 
— ^Because he did not want them any more. — Has your mer- 
chant succeeded at last to get rid of his damaged sugar ?^- 
He has succeeded in getting rid of it. — ^Has he sold it on 
credit ? — ^He was able to sell it for cash, so that he did not 
sell it on credit. — ^Who has taught you to read % — ^I have learnt 
it with (da) a French master. — ^Has he taught you to write? 
— He has taught ma to read and to write. — ^Who has taught 
your brother arithmetic {V aritmedca) ? — ^A French master has 
taught it him {vMegnaia). — ^Do you call me % — ^I call you.-» 
What do you wish {desiderate) ? — Why do you not rise ? do you 
not know that it is already late ? — ^Whal do you want me for 
{che vuol Ella) ?— I have lost all my money, and I came to 
beg you to lend me some. — ^What o'clock is it I — ^It is already 
a quarter past six, and you have slept long enough (dormitG 
mbboHanxay^^ls it long since you rose ? — It is an hour and a 
half since I rose. — Do you wish to take a walk with me ?^» 
I cannot go a walking, for I am waiting for my Italian master. 

Leziane cinquanteaima terza. 

To change. 
To change one thing for another. 

I change my hat for hie. 

The change (exchange). 

To change (meaning to put 
other things). 

Do yon change your hat t 
I do change it. 
He changea hia boota. 
They change their clothea. 


CanMareffar canMo di. 

{Cambiare qnalche coa^ con qnaleht 
Far cambio di qualche coaa con 
qnalche coaa. 
e Faccio cambio del mio cappeDo col 
< ano. 

V Cambio il mio cappeUo col ano. 
II cambio (ooncamblo). 

Muiare 1. 

Lo muto. 

Eglino mutano i veatiti 

To mix. 
I mix among.the men. 
He mlzea among the eoldiera. 


t Mischiarsi 1. 
t Mi miachio fra gli oomlnL 
t Simiachiafraleoldati. 

3b recogmzej or to acknowledge. Riconoecere * (is conjugated 

like its primitive conoeeere *, 
Lessons XXVIII. and 

Rioonoace Ella qneat^ oomol 
b A lungo tempo che non V ho vlato 
che non lo liconoeoo piii. 
Ofc». A. When there ia a compadaon between two aentencei^ than k 
rendered by ifffucttodU^ followed by non. Ex. 

Do yon recognise that manl 
It ia ao long aince I aaw him that I do 
not recollect him. 



Ihaw moro bread than I ahall eat. 

That man haa Bsora money than he 

will apend. 
There la more wtne than will be 

You haye more money than yon wUl 

We have more clothea than we want. 

That man haa fewer frienda than he 

To fancy. 
To ihink. 

To hopfif to expect. 

Do yon expect to find him there 1 
I do expect it. 

To earn, to gain^ to get. 
How much haye yoa gained 1 

Haa your lather already atarted 

(departed) 1 
He ia rea^y to depart 


To make ready. 

To make one's se^ ready* 

To keep one's se^f ready. 

I mnady to Bit out 


To hreak some one's heart. 
Ton break that man'a heart. 
Whoae heart do I break 1 

t Ho pih pane di qnello che non 

t Qneat' nemo ha pKl danaro di quello 

che non lapenderi. 
t Yi d piii Tino di quello che non fara 

d* uopo {or non aara biaogno). 
t Blla ha plh danaro di quello che non 

le abbiaognerk. 
t Abbiamo pik yestiti di quello che non 

oe ne abbiaogneri. 
t Q,neat' uomo ha meno amid dl 

quello che eg|l non penal (aubjnno- 

tive, of which hereafter). 

ilmaginare or immaginare. 
Imaginarsiy credersi. 
Pensare I, 

Sperare 1. AspettarsL 

Spera EUa troyaroelol 

Chtadagnare 1. 
Quanto ba fiUa giiad^gaa1»1 

fe gik partltoU di Lei padrel 

fe pronto a parti ra. 

Pronto (takes a' before the 


Preparare, aUesUre {Ueo). 

Prepararsi, aUesti^si a. 

Tenersi pronto a. 

: m tengo pronto a partire. 
[ Son pronto a partire. 

S^piardate 1* 

Squarciare U euore ad uno. 
Ella aquarcia il cuore a queaf uono 1 
A chi aquarcio io fl cuore? 



To tpiU Ink upon the book. 

To spreadf extend, 
7b expatiate, to lay stress ffpon. 

That man is always expatiating vpon 
that subject. 
The subject. 

To stretch one^s self. 

To stretch one's self along the floor. 

The S0&, the bed. 
He Stretches himself upon the sofa. 

Spargere * ; past part, sparso, 

Spargere dell* inchlostro sul libra 
Spandere versare. 

Stendere * ; past part, steso. 

Estenuersi * jsofpra. 

Quest' uomo si estende sempre su . 

questo soggetto. (0 si difibnde.) 
II soggetto. 

K Sdraiarsi, 

( Stendersi. 

Sdraiarsi (stendersi) sul pavimento. 

U soO, il <!anapd, 11 letto. 

SI stende (si sdraia) sul canapd. 

To hang on or upon. 

The wall. 
I hang my coat on the wall. 
He hangs his hat upon the tree. 

We hang our clothes upon the nails. 

Th0 thief has been hanged. 
The thief! 
The robber, the highwayman. 

i r Appendere * a; past part. 
j < appeso, 
( Appiccare 1. 


Appendo U mio abito al mnro. 

SgU appendell suo cappaUo all' «l- 

Appendiamo i nostri Teitltl al 

II ladro d stato applceato. 
II ladro. 
II ladro da strada, il maanadiero. 

Tou hare always been stadioufl, and 
¥/ill always be so. 

Tour brother is, and will always be 

A well-educated son neyer giyee his 

father any grief; he loves, honoiVSi 

and respects him. 

Ella d sempre stata stndiosa e to 
■ari sempre. (Vol sSete stato sem- 
pre studloso e lo sarete sempre). 

II di Lei fratello d sempre savio e lo 
aar& sempre. 

Un -figlio ben edncato non.dA mat 
dolore a suo padre ; P ama, I' onora 
e lo rispetta. 

If I can, I will receive him willingly. 1 1 Se potrd, lo riceverd volontterl. 

06«* B. The conditional eonjuoetion m, if; may in Italian be followed b$ 
ihe future. 


If you go there, we shaU eee each Se andrft, d vedremo. O «e voi v) 

other. I andrete. 

IfoiirafiainpeniiitQa,we8haUtakea; Se i noatri afiail oa io permetta- 
ahort journey. 

The affidr, the oecupatioii. 
To allow, to permit. 

Tha Toyaga, the journey. 

ranno, andremo a Cira urn piccolo 

Volontleri or Tolentierl. 
Parmettere • (la coiyiigated like Its 

primitive metUre *, Leaaons 




Do you hope to receive a note to-day ? — ^I hope to receive one. 
—From whom V-Froa a friend of mine* — What dost thou hope ? 
i— I hope to see my parents to-day, for my tutor has promised me 
to take ine to them.^-Does your friend hope to receive any thing ? 
— ^He hopes to receive something, for he has studied well. — ^Do 
you hope to arrive early in Paris ? — We hope to arrive there at a 
quarter past eight, for our father is waiting for us this evening. 
—Do you expect to find him at home ? — ^We expect it. — For what 
have you changed .your coach, of which you have spoken to me? 
—I have changed it for a fine Arabian horse. — Do you wish to 
exchange your book fi>r mine ? — I cannot, for I want it to study 
Italian.— Why do you take your hat ofi*? — I take it ofi* because I 
see my old master coming {vedo venire). — ^Do you put on another 
(muiare) hat to go to the market ? — ^I do not put on another to go 
to the market, but to go to the concert.-^When will the concert 
take place ? — ^It will take place the day after to-morrow. — ^Why 
do you go away ? — ^Do you not amuse yourself here ? — ^You are 
mistaken, Sir, when you say that I do not amuse myself here ; 
for I assure you that I find a great deal of pleasure in conversing 
(a conversare) with you ; but I am going, because I am expected 
at my relation's ball. — Have you promised to go? — ^I have 
promised. — Have you changed your hat in order to go to the 
English captain's ? — ^I have changed my hat, but I have not 


changed my 'coat or my boots. — How many times a day dost thou 
change thy ddthes ? — I change them to dine and to go to the 


Why do you mix among these men ?— I mix among them in 
order to know what they say of me. — What will become of you 
if you always mix among the soldiers ? — ^I do not know what will 
become of me, but I assure you that they will do me no harm, for 
they do not hurt any body. — ^Have you recognized your father ? 
— It was so long since I saw him, that I did not recognize him. — 
Did he recognize you ? — ^He recognized me instantly. — How long 
have you had this coat ? — It is a long time since I have had it. — 
How long has your brother had that gun ? — ^He has had it a great 
while. — ^Do you still speak French ? — ^It is so long since I spoke 
it, that I have nearly foigotten it all. — How long is it since your 
cousin has been learning French ? — It is only three months since. 
— Does he know as much as you ?-^He knows more than I, for 
he has been learning it longer. — Do you know why that man does 
not eat ? — ^I believe he is not {che turn ahbia^ subj.) hungry, for 
he has more bread than ho can {fossa^ subj.) eat. — ^Have you 
given your son any money ? — I have given him more than he will 
spend {eke non ispenderd), — Will you give me a glass of cider? 
— ^You need not drink cider, for there is more wine than will be 
necessary. — Am I to {dehho to) sell my gun in order to buy a new 
hat I— -You need not sell it, for you have more money than you 
will want. — ^Do you wish to speak to the shoemaker ? — I do not 
wish to speak to him, for we have more boots than we shall want. 
— Why do the French rejoice? — They rejoice because they 
flatter themselves they have many good friends. — ^Are they not 
right in rejoicing (di rdUegrard) ? — They are wrong, for they 
have fewer friends than they imagine (cAe jiefmho, subj.). 


Are you ready to depart with me ? — ^I am so. — ^Does your uncle 

depart with us ? — ^He departs with us, if he pleases {se Pttofc).— 

Will you tell him to be ready {di ienersi pronto) to start to- 

morrow at six o'clock in the evening ?— I will tell him so. — Is 


this young man ready to go oat ? — ^Not yet, but he will soon be 
ready .»-W by have they banged that man ? — They have hanged 
him, because he has killed somebody. — Have they banged the 
man who stole the horse from your brother? — They have 
punished htm, but they have not hanged him ; they pnly hang 
highwaymen in our country (nel nostra paese). — ^What have you 
lone with my coat ? — ^I have hanged (appeso) it on the wall. — 
Will you hang my hat upon the tree ? — ^I will hang it thereou 
{appenderveh), — Have you not seen my gloves ? — I found them 
under your bed, and have hanged them upon the rails. — Has the 
thief who stole your gun been hanged ? — He has been punished, 
but he has not been hanged. — Why do you expatiate so much 
upon that subject ? — ^Because it is necessary to speak on all sub* 
jects. — If it is necessary to listen to you, and to answer you when 
you expatiate upon that subject, I will hang my hat upon the 
nail, stretch myself along the floor, listen to you, and answer you 
as well as I can {alia meglio). — ^You will do well. — Shall you go 
to Italy this year ? — If I prosper (se faro buoni affari) I shall go 
there. — Shall you go to the captain ? — ^I will go if you go. — Will 
you lend me a book ? — ^If I Dan {se potrd) I will lend you one. — 
Will your son receive a present ? — ^If he is {se sara) good and in- 
dustrious, he will receive one ; but if he is idle, he will receive 
nothing. — Shall you go out ? — ^If it is {sard) fine weather, I shall 
go out ; but if it rains I shall remain at home. 

Leziane einquafUesima quarto. 

To he well. Star bene. 

How do 70U do ? Come sta 1 

I am well. Sio bene (or simply heiu). 



Olts. A. The verbs to be, and to do, are both exprened in Italian by the Terb 
Miare \ when they are aaed in Engliah to inquire after, or to spealK of a person's 

r Per ubbidirla. 

I Per servirla (an expression com- 
I monly nsed in Italian, in answer to 
[ an inquiry after one's health). 
Come sta il di Lei signor padre 1 

To serve you. 

How is yonr father? 

(Xm. B, The qualifications of Stgnore^ Mr., Signora^ Mrs., Sigrwrmot 
Miss, usually follow the possessive pronouns In Italian, when we speak to a 
person respecting his parents, relations, or friends, and we mean to pay them 
some respect. 

Tour father. 
Tour brother. 
Your cousin. 
Tour cousins. 
Tour uncles. 

To douhi a thing, \ 

To question any thing. \ 

Do you doubt that 1 

I doubt it 

I do not doubt it. 

I make no question, have ao doubt 

of it 
What do you doubt 1 
I doubt what tliat man has toM me. 

The doubt. 
Without doubt, no doubt 
There is no doubt about it. 

Sta male, 
t 11 di Lei signor padre, 
t II df Lei signor fratello. 
t II di Lei signor cugino. 
1 1 di Lei signorl cuglni. 
1 1 di Lei signorl zU. 

Duhilare di quakhe cosa. 

Dubita Ella pi cid 7 
Ne dubito. 

Non ne dubito. 

Di che dubita Ellal 

Dubito di dd che m* ha detto 

II dubbio. 
Senza dubbio. 
Non V ha dubbio. 

To agree to a thing. 

Do you agree to that? 
I agree to It. 

Convenir^ di quakhe eoea 
(conjugated like its primitive 
venire .** Lessons XXIV., 
XXXIV., and XLVL). 
Conviene Ella di cid 1 
Ne convengo. 

How much have you paid ftr thati t Qnanto ha Ella pilgato quetto 

hati I cappellol 

I hnTO paid three crowns for ii. • t L' ho pagato tie scudL 



rimr-FouRTH lxssoh. 

I hftTa bought thit hone .^ five 
hundred firanct. 

The price. 
Haye you agreed about the price 1 

We have agreed about it 
About what haye you agreed T 
About the price. 

Ho compnto questo caTiOo jnt 

dnqne cento finuichL 
Sono EUeno conyenute del presiol 

(O rfete yoi conyennto.) 
Ne aiamo eonyenutt. 
Dl che aono EUeno conyenaie? 

To agree, to compote a differ^ 

To feel (to perceive). 

To consetU. 

I consent to go thither. 
He coneenft to pay It me. 


SenUre 8. 

iConsetUire (di before Infin.). 
Accottsentire (di before Inf.). 

Acooneento d' andanrl. 
Acoonaente di pagannelo. 

To wear (meaning to wear 


What garments does he wear 1 
He wears beautiful garments. 

Tile garment. 

Against my custom. 
As customary. 
My partner. 

To observe eomething. 
To take notice ofeomethuig, 
Do you talce notice of that 1 

I do take notice of it 

Did you obeerye thati 

Did you notice what he did 7 

I did notice it. 


Portare 1. 

Che yestimenU porta egli 1 

Poru bei yestimentL 
( U yestimento. 
{ Pbir, I yestimenU * le yestimoBti. 

Contro il mio solito (costume). 
Come al solito. 
II mio socio. 

Aceorgersi * 2 ; di quakhe 
eosa. Past part, accorton. 

Si aocoige EUodi questo? VI acoor- 

gets yoi dL 
Me ne acooigo. 
Si a Ella aocorta diqvesto ? 
Si A Ella aocorta dl eld cue ha 

Me ne son acoorto. 



To e^epect (to hope). 

Do you expect to receive a note from 

I expect It. 
He expects It. 
We expect ft 
Have we expected it 7 
We haye expected it. 

To get (meaning to procure). 
I cannot procure any money. 
He cannot procure any thing to eat. 

To make fun of some one^ to 

laugh at some one. 
To laugh at something. 

He laughs at every body. > 

He criticises every body. ) 

Do you laugh at that man 7 
I do not laugh at him. 

To stopf to stay. 

Have you stayed long at Berlin? 
I stayed there only three days. 

f Attenderst * 2 ; past part. 

atiesosi* {Aspetiare o aspeU 


S' attende EUa a ricevere un Ugilet* 

Mi vi attendo. Lo aspetto. 
Vi si attende. Vi s* attende. 
Vi ci attendiamo. Ce lo aspettiamo. 
Vi ci siamo attesi. L' abbiamo atteso. 

f Procurarsi. 

( Non posso pB oem i m i danaro. 
c Non posso procnrarmi del danaro. 
NoQ pud pmcipirarfll dl che man- 

f BfffuTsi (1) di qualcuno. 
Buriard di. 

Ridtrn * (2) di quaUhe cosa, 
p. past* risosi. 

Ei si beffa di tutti. 

Si befia Ella di quest* uomol 
Non me ne befib. 

Fermarsi 1. 

f La si d fermata molto tempo a Ber- 
I lino 7 (Si d ella fermata.) 
I )& rlmasta Ella lungo tempo a 
[ Berlino7 (Siete voi rimasto.) 
Non mi vi son fermato che tre 

To sojourn, to stay. 

Where does your brother stay at 
present 7 

At present, actually. 

He stf ys at IHorence. 

The residence, stay, abode. 
Paris is a fine place to live in. 

Soggiomare 1. Stare*. 

Ore soggioma attualmente U di Lei 


Soggioma a Firenxa. 
II soggiomo. 
t Parigi d un bel soggiomo. 



Alter reading. 
After cutting myself. 

06t. C. Sec i::^ Lesson XL. 

After dressing yourself. 

After dressing himself 
After shaving ourselves. 
After warming themsehres. 
I relumed the boolc after reading it. 

I threw the knife away after cutting 

You went to the concert after dressing 

He went to the theatre after dressing 

We breaicfasted after shaving oar- 

They went out after warmiqg them- 

To return {to restore). 

The sick persop (the patient). 
Tolerably well. 
It is rather late. 
It is rather far. 

t Dopo aver letto. 
1 1 Dopo eseermi tagliato 

t Dopo essersi vestita. (O esserrl 

Test! to.) 
t Dopo essersi vestlto. 
t Dopo esserci sbarbati. 
t Dopo essersi scaldati (rlscaldati). 
t Ho resdtnito ii libro dopo averlo 

- letto. 
t Ho gettato il coltella dopo esserml 

t Ella d andata al concerto dopo e»- 

sersi vestita. 
t Egli d andato a teatro > dopo essersi 

t Abbiamo fistto colaxione dopo c 

t Sono usciti dopo essersi scaldatL 

Restitttire 8. 

II malato. L* infenno. 
Mediocremente (abbastania bene). 
E molto tardi« 
fe molto lontano. 

How is your father {il di Lei signor padre) 1 — He is (only) so- 
so {cosi cosi). — How is your patient ?-^He is a little better to-day 
than yesterday (d' ten). — ^Is it long since you saw your brothers 
(i di Lei signori fratelU) ? — I saw them two days ago. — How 
art thou ? — ^I am tolerably well {ahhastanza bene). — How long 
has your cousin been learning French ? — He has been learning 

' There is a difference between andare-al teatro^ and andan a teatro, Hm 
former determines the theatre we are going to, whilst the latter implies to go te 
the ploy merely. Ex. Vaelo al teatro reaie^ lam going lo the royal theatre. 


It only these three months. — ^Does h^ already speak it? — He 
already speaks, reads, and wrhes it better than your brother, who 
has been learning it these two years. — Is it long since you heard 
of my uncle ? — ^It is hardly a fortnight {quineUci giomi) since I 
heard of him. — Where is he staying now ? — ^He is staying a; 
Berlin, but my father is in London. — ^Did you stay long at 
Vienna ? — I stayed there a fortnight. — How long did your cousin 
stay at Paris ? — He stayed there only a month. — ^Do you like to 
speak to my uncle ? — I like much to speak to him, but I do not 
like him to laugh (che si hefi^ subj.) at me. — Why does he laugh 
at you ? — He laughs at me, because I speak badly. — Why has 
your brother no friends ? — ^He has none, because he criticises 
every body. — Why are you laughing at that 0ian ? — ^I do not 
intend {non ho intenzume) to laugh at him.-* I beg ( pregare) you 
not to do it, for you will break his heart If you laugh at him. — 
Do you doubt what I am telling you ? — I do not doubt it.— Do 
you doubt what that man has told ycNi 1 — ^I doubt it, for he has 
often told stories (tnentire). — Have you at last bought the horse 
which you wished {che voleva) to buy last month ?-*I have not 
bought it, for I have not been able to procure money* 

Has your uncle at last bought the garden ?— He has not bought 
it, for he could not agree about the price (nelpretxo). — Have you 
at last agreed about the price of that picture ? — ^We have agreed 
about it. — ^How much have you paid for it ? — ^I have paid fifteen 
hundred (mine cinque cento) francs for it. — ^What hast thou bought 
to-day ? — ^I have bought two fine horses, three beautiful pictures, 
and a fine gun. — ^For how much hast thou bought the pictures 1 
— ^I have bought them for seven hundred francs. — ^Do you find 
them dear ? — ^I do not find them dear. — Have you agreed with 
your partner ? — ^I have agreed with him {con hd), — ^Does he con- 
sent to pay you the price of the ship? — He consents to pay it me. 
— ^Do you consent to go to France ? — I consent to go there. — Have 
you seen your old friend again {rivedere *) ? — ^I have seen him 
again. — Did you recognize him ? — I could hardly {non V ho qiuui 
pm) recognize him, for, contrary to his custom, he wears a large 
hat.— How is he ? — ^Ile is very well. — What garments does he 


wear? — ^He wears beautiful new garments. — Have you taken 
notice of what your boy has done ? — ^I have taken notice of it. — 
Have you punished him for it ? — ^I have punished him for it. — Has 
your father already written to you ? — ^Not yet ; but I expect to 
receive (mi attendo) a note from him to-day. — Of what do you 
complain ? — I complain of not being able to procure some money. 
— Why do these poor men complain ? — ^They complain because 
they cannot procure any thing to eat. — How are your parents ? 
— They are as usual (came alsoBto) very well. — ^Is your uncle 
well ? — ^He is better than he usually is (del soUio). — Have you 
already heard of your friend who is in Grermany ? — I have already 
written to him several times (partcchie voUe) ; however (ma)^ he 
has not answered me yet. 


What hftve you done with the books which the English captain 
has lent jrmi f— 1 have returned them to him, after reading diem. 
—Have you thrown away your knife ? — I have tlirown it away 
after cutting myself. — When did I go to the concert ? — ^You went 
thither after dressing yourself. — When did your brother go to the 
ball ? — ^He went thither after dressing himself. — When did you 
breakfast ? — We breakfasted after shaving ourselves. — ^When did 
our neighbours go out ? — ^They went out after warming them- 
selves. — Why have you punished your boy ? — ^I have punished 
him because he has broken my finest glass. — ^I gave him some 
wine, and Instead of drinking it, he spilt it on the new carpet, and 
broke (e ha rotto) the glass. — What did you do this morning ? — 
I shaved after rising, and went out after breakfasting. — ^What did 
your father do last night (ieri sera) ? — He supped after going to 
the play, and went to bed after supping. — ^Did he rise early ? — 
He rose at sunrise. (See end of Lesson XXIY.) 

Lezione cinquantes'ima quinta. 



Norn. Gen. Dai. 
La, deUa, alia, 

Le, delle, alle, 

Ace. AbL 
la, dalla. 
le, dalle. 

Sing. JPhtr. 

The house „ thehonaea. iVbm. Lacaat „ Lecaae. 

Ofthehonae „ of thehonaea. Om. Delia eaaa „ Deile 

Tothehouae „ to the honaea. Dot. Alia eaaa „ Alle 

Thahonae „ thehonaea. Aee. La eaaa „ Le 

From the houae,, firom the honaea. JhL Dalla eaaa „ Dalle 

The contraction of the feminine article with certain prepoaltiona ia aa followa : 
(See Leaaon XLIY.) 


I>«Ba,ofthe, lor dila. 

AUa, to the, — a la. 

DattOf from the, •«• da la. 

Ndla, in the, — in la. 

Cotto, with the, — eon la. 

JPeOa, for the, — par fa. 

SullOf npon tbe^ — mla. 


DOU, for diU. 

AOe, ^ aU. 

DaUe, — dale. 

Cotte, — conU. 

PtUe^ — jwrla, 

8uXUi — aui*. 

Obt. A. When the definite article atanda hefore a vowel, it ia in the aingnlar 
alike for both gendersi and in the plnral the feminine article doea not varj^ aa ; 


Nam, Om. Ihd. 
. L', den*, an*, 

. Le, delle, alle. 

Aa. AJbL 
I*, dair. 

le, dalle. 

Obf . B. The plnral of the article la ia nerer abridged, except, however, when 
the noun begiba with an «^ aa : 



The eloquence. 
TUe eminence. 
The execution. 
Of the eminence!, of the eiecutions. 

V eloqutnia, 
L' eminenza, 
L' eMCuioiia^ 
Dell' eminenze, 

V eloqaenzfl. 
P eminenze. 
r eeecuzloni. 
dell' eeecoaionL 

Obt. C. HVhen, however, the noun beginning with < hee in the plunl the 
eame termination as In the eingular, the article cannot be abridged. Ex. 

The image. 
The emphaaia. 
The age. 
The extremity. 

L' enfaii, 






Le eetramiti. 

RvL» L^Nouna and a4jectivee ending in a are feminine ^ and form their 
plural In changing a into e. Ex. 

The woman—women. 

The table. 

The shoe. 

The stocking. 

The pencil. 

The stone. 

The brush. 

The broom. 

The pistol. 

The daughter. 

The sister. 

Tlie candle. 

The bottle. 

La donna, 
La tavola. 
La Scarpa. 
La piatola, 
La aorella, 
La candela, 



le taYole. 







le pistole. 


le aorelle. 

le candele. 


1 From tldi rule must be excepted some nouna of dignity and of 
belonging to men, and aome novna derived from the Gkeek, auch as 

II papa, 
n clima, 
II dladema, 
II diploma, 

II dogma (or domma), 
II dnmima, 

L' enigma {or enimma), 
L' idioma, 
11 poema, 
II tema. 

the pope, 
the climate, 
the diadem, 
the diploma, 
the doctrine* 
the drama, 
the enigma, 
the idiom, 
the poem, 
the exercise, 

i diademi. 
i dlplomi. 

' i dogmi {or donimi). 

gl' enigmi (or enimml) 
gr idiomL 
I temi, Ac 



The shirt. 

The amiable woman. 

The straight stocking. 
The barbarous law. 
The soul. 
The island. 
The shade. 

La camicia, 
La donna ama- 

La scaipa stretta, 
La legge barbara, 
L' ombra, 

le camicie. 
le donne amahUi. 

le scaxpe strette. 
le leggi barbare. 
le anlme. 
le isole. 
le ombre. 

RvLx 2.— All nouns and adjectlTes, masculine and feminine, terminated In < 
form their ploral in i, Ex. 

The mother. 
The key. 
The invention. 
The nut. 




le madri. 

La chiaTO, 

le chiavi. 

L' invenzionei 

le inyenzioni. 


le nod. 

RviB 3.— Nouns ending in i, is, an accented yowel, and monosyllables, have 
In the plural the same terminaUon as in the singular. Ex. 

The metropolis. 
The crisis. 
The foot— feet. 
The king. 
The crane (a bird). 
The town. 
Order— series. 


PhLT. • 

La metropoli, 

le metropoli. 



lipid (or piede). 










La serie, 


La specie, 


Ob§. D. LamogHs, the wife, is in the plural U vu^Ut wives. 

Rule 4. Nouns and a^jectiTes, masculine and ftnninine, terminated in ea^ 
go, CO or go, generally take an & in the plural to keep the hard sound. Ex. 



The sleeve. 

' La manica, 

le maniche. 

The witch. 

La Strega, 

le Btreghe. 

The monarch. 


i monarchi. 

The wood or forest. 



The lake. • 


i laghi. 

The inn. 

L' albergo, 

gli alberghi. 

The rofireshment. 

U rinfresco, 






piFTY-FinR iBsaon. 




The pvUh-priMt 



The oMigation. 

L' obbUgo, 




11 medico, 




11 monaoc, 

i monad. 


1 porci. 

U Greco, 


! L'aeparago, 


Ob§. E, All feminine nouni terminated in ea and ga take, without ez« 
oeption, an ft in the plural. Ex. 

I Sing. Plur, 

V arnica, le amlche. 

La lega, le leghe, Ac 

The following maaealine noonj are a ISbw of the ezceptiona to the above 
rule ;— 

The phyaidan. 
The friend. 
The monk. 
The hog. 
The Greek. • 

RvLB 6.— Some maculine nouns form their plural in a, and become feminine ; 
others have a masculine plural in t, and a femininw plural in a, of which the 
tatter is most in use. 
a) The foUowing masculine nouns always form their plural in a :— 

A thousand. 
A hundred. 
An egg. 
A mile. 
A pair. 
A bushel 
A sort of measure. 

ufsd in preference ^— 

The ring. 
The arm. 
The gut 
The castle. 
The eye-brow. 
The horn. 
The finger. 
The thread. 
The basis. 
The fruit'. 

Un migliaio, 


Un oentinaio, 


Un uoTO^ 






Uno staio. 


Unmoggio, . 


d a feminine plural, but the latter 





11 Dracdo, 


D budello, 








11 como. 








• n Jhttto is employed for fruit in general, but la fmUa and U JruUa for 
fruit only. 

The action *. 
The knee. 
The elbow 4. 
The cry. 
The Up. 
The woods. 
The sheet. 
The limb «. 
The wain. 
The bone. 
The apple. 
The arrow. 
The laughter. 
The shriek. 


U ginocchio, 
II gomito, 
II grido, 
II labbro, 
II legnO| 
II lenzuolo, 
II membro, 
II muro, 
II pomo, 
II quadrello, 
II aacco, 







le grida. 

le iabbxa. 


le lenxuola. 

le membra. 








Conibiuaxione delta Letione cinquaniesima quinia. 

She — they. 

Sing. Phir. 

Eua — eiw. 

De$»a — (2e»M (See Table of the 
Peraonal Pronouns^ 
Obt. A. Tn the plural, tiUno^ c§n, and dette^ are more freqnently used than 

She has not. 




* Bgetto meana alao geatnre, and then ita plural iBgutu 

4 Jl gmnito la alao ameasure, and ita plural la theaigomUL 
> Jl Ugno meana wood for timber, or any thing else : but wood lor fltel ii 
!a Ugna and U Ugno, 

* Membro, a member of an assembly, la In the plural t fMmJbru 
f MurOf a rampart, la in the plural i muri. 



They have. " 
They hare not. " 

1 Eaaenonhanno. 

Hy, mine. Fern. Sing. 
Thy, thine. " 
Her, hen. " 
My, mine. JF^em, Phut, 

Mm. Got. Dai. 
La mla, della mia, alia mia, 
La tna, della toa, allatoa, 
Lama, deUa ana, aliaeua, 
Lemie, delta mie, aile mie, 

Aec. AJbL 

la mia, dalla mia 

la tna, dalla toa. 

la ana, dalla ana. 

le mie, dalle mie. 

Jl padre e nio figUo, o ma figUa. 
La madre a auo fi(lio, o tua figlia. 
n &ncial]o e wo iiateUo, o mia m 

The lather and Aif son, or kU 

The mother and her eon, or Ker 

The child and tte brother, or Us 


Ob9. B. See Rule, Lesaon IT., about the poaaeaaiTe proiipun taking no aiti- 
ele in tlie aingular, when it ia immediately foUowad by a name of quality or 

Ruu 1 .—The EngUah poaaeaaiTe aiQectlTea or pronouna are in the gender of 
the poaaeaaor ; in Italian and French they rauat be in the gender of the thing 
poaaeaaed. My, thy, hia, her, ita, muat be ezpreaaed by U «i»d, tl luo, U mtot 
when the thing poaaeaaed ia maaculine^ and by la mia, ia tua, latuOi when it la 
feminine, without oon^derlng in the least the gender of the poaaeaaor, as may 
be aeen from the above examplea. 

le tue iettere. 
le noatre nod. 
le voatre booehe. 
le loro porte. 
1 loro uaci. 
le loro 1 

My pen, 
Thy letter, 
Hia or her fork, 
Our But, 
Yoor month, 


my pens, 
thy letters. 
our nuta. 

thair doors, 
their ha n^ff. 

La tua lettera, . 
La auaforchetta,' 
La noatra nooe, 

( La loro porta, 

c n loro uado^ 
La bromono^ 

Ruia 2.— All nouns terminated In o are maaculine, except la mono, the 
hand. Aa for the poetical worda imago and Cartago, tiiey are abridged from 
imagine, image, Cartagine, Carthage, and are of courae feminine. 



The pretty woman, 

the pretty wo- 

La vezzoaa donna. 




The email candle. 

the small can- 

r La piccola eandela. 

le pieeole 

C La eandeletta. 


The large bottle, 

the large hot- 

La gran bottin^ 

le grand! hot- 






Sbig. Fiur. 

imicli woman 1 whici) wemen 7 

Che donna 1 che donne ? 

Which daughter 1 which daughters 1 

Ghefigllal chefigUel 


Quale, Sing, QuaU, Phtr 

This or that woman, these or those 

Questa donna, quests donne 


This young lady, 

these young 

Qaesta signoiina, quests signo 



That young lady, 

those yonng 

Quella signorina, quelle signo- 



The right hand. 

The left hand. 

La mano manca (mancina). 

I hare a sore hand. 

My hand aches. 

Mi fe male la mano. 

The tooth, the teeth. 

n dente, 1 denti. 

Have yon the toothadia 1 

t he lanno male i denti 1 
)Le dolgonoi dentil 

rt Ho male al capo. Ml duole la 



"^t Mifa male U capo. Mifemalela 
[ testa. 

I feel a pain in my side. 

Ho male a un lato. 

His feet are sore. 

. EgUhamaleaipiedi. 

His feet ache. 

' HaipiedichegUfenmale. 


Lafaccia,ilTlso, la feoee^ i visi, 
11 YOltO, 1 volti. 

The cheek. 

La guancia, le guance >. 

The tongoe, the language. 

La lingua, le lingae. 

TUB window. 

La finestra, le flnestre. 

The street. 

Lacontrada, leeontrade. , 

The town. ' 

Lacitta, ledtti. 

The linen. 

La teh^ le tele. 
r La vecchia donna, le vecchie donne. 

The old woman, the lltde old woman. 

) Layecchietta le veochiette 

C (vecchierella). (Tecchicrelle). 

Ob9. C. From what precedes, it m 

ay be seen that Italian adjectiyes ter- 

minate either in o or e. 

The a^jectivea 

in 0^ whichibrm their masculine plural 

' Feminine words, ending in eia, gia^ «cm, reject In the plural the letter i, as : 
tagtiandOf plur. le guance ; la epiaggia^ the coast ; plur. le epiagge ; la ooaeia, 
the thigh ; plur. le coeu : except, however, where t* has the accent. Ex. la 
fricgfo, the lie ; plur. le bugie. 


In {, in nwda feminine by changing their tennlnndon Into afiir the i 

and into « for the plural. Thoae terminated in* are of both gendera»«ndfoRn 

their plural in changing * into i Ex. 

induatrioua boya. 
induatrioua yomig 

An induatrioua 

An induatrioua 

young woman, 
An amiable man, 

An amiable wo- amiable women. 





Una donna ama- 


dei lagaxxi attlvl. 
delle mgane at- 



delle donne ama- 


The room. 
The front room. 
The back room. 
The upper room. 

La atania, la camera, 
t La camera rerao atrada. 
t La camera verao corte. 
t La camera In alto (la camera al piano 
OU, D. A^jeotiveeterminated Inert, which aaaflBneiallyalaoBubetantiTei^ 
change for the feminine art into triu. Ex. 


Fn rha"H "g- 


Vendl o al oi e» 








Ncm. Delia, deU>. 



Oen. DL. 



D<U. AdeIla,adeU'. 



Aen. Delia, deU>. 


Some Bilk. 
Some meat 
Some good aonp. 

Bring lighta. 
Strike a UghL 


Delia came, 

Delia buona 


delle aete. 
delle cami. 
delle bnone xappe. 

Portate del lumL 

ncDBPnnrs articlb femininb. 

^•«- I 5^ 1^- 

Dot, Ad una. 

Gm. D' 
AhL Da 



A vlrtuoiu woman. 

An active young woman. 

A happy young lady. 

A new gown. 

An ingeniouB proposal. 

A dumb woman. 

A good truth. 

A cruel certainty. 

Such a promise. 

An old acquaintance. 

Have you my pen ? 
No, Madam, I have it not. 
Which bottles have you broken 7 
Which door have you opened 1 
Which water have you drunk 7 

Una donna vlrtaosa. 
Una ragazza attiva. 
Una slgnorina felice. 
Una gonna (veste) nnova. 
Una proposizione spontanea 
Una donna muta. 
Una buona veriti. 
Una crudele certezza. 
Una simile promessa. 
,Vna antica conoscenza. 

Ha Ella la mia peima7 
No, Signora, non 1' ho. 
Che (quali) bottigUe ha Ella rotte? 
Che (qual) porta ha Ella aperia. 
Che (quale) acqua ha Ella bevuit 
or bevuta 7 
Obs. E. With the auxiliary av«r« the past participle may or may not agree 
with the noun in gender and number, but it must always with the auxiliary 

Which letters have you written 1 

Which windows have you opened 7 
Which young ladies kKve you con- 
ducted to the ball 7 


Have yon this pen or that 7 
I have neither this nor that. 

Che {or quail) lettere ha Ella scritte 

(or scritto) 7 
Che (quali) finestre ha Ella aperte7 
Che (quali) aignorine ha Ella ooa* 

dotte al ballo 7 

dueste or queste qui. 
Quelle or quelle 14. 

Ha Ella quests penna, o qusQa 9 
Non ho nd quests nd ^jnella. 

It or Jier — them. 

Do you see that woman 7 

I see her. 

Have yon seen my sisters 7 

No, my lady, I have not seen them. 


Do you speak to my ststera 7 
I speak to them. 

Some coarse linen. 

Some good water. 

A napkin, a towel. 

La — le. 

Vede Ella qaesta donna 7 
La vedo. 

Ha Ella vednte le mie sorellel 
No, slgnorina, non le ho Tednln 

Le — hro. 

Parla Ella alle mie sorelle 7 

Parlo loro. 

Delia grossa tela. 

Delia btton' acqua. 

Ufta salvietta (un tovaglioto). 



Some baaotifal Wntn shirts. 
SoiiM fine ailk sUMkinfi. 

The Christian. 

The Jew. 

He negro. 

A companion. 

A friend. 
To celebrate, to least. 
Do you wish to go to Spain 1 
Have you paper to write a letter 1 

DeUe belle caiftide* di tela. 

Delle belle calze d! seta. 

II Cristiano. Pern, la Crlstiana. 

L* Ebreo, " V Ebrea. 

II nero, 11 negro, " la nera, la 

Unoompagno, " una com- 

Un amico, ** un* amiea. 

Gelebraze 1. Festegglare 1. • 
Vttol EUa andar in Ispagnal 
Ha EUa della carta per IscriTere nna 

Ob», P. Of two words, the first of which ends In n or r, and the second 
begins with «, followed by a consonant, the letter i is prefixed to the second. 

I have some to write one. 
Who does not study does not learn. 
What have yotr found in the street 7 
A book to study Italian. 

Ne ho per iscriveme una. 
Chi Aon istudia non impara. 
Che ha Ella trovato per istnda? 
Un Ubro per istudiare 1' itaUano. 



How are your brothers ? — ^They have been very well for these 
few days. — ^Where do they reside? — ^They reside in Paris. — 
Which day of the week do the Turks celebrate ? — They celebrate 
Friday {il venerdX)^ but the Christians celebrate Sunday (la do- 
menica), the Jews Saturday, and the negroes their birthday (t/ 
giomo deUa Joro nascita), — " Amongst you country people (Fra 
voi aUre fe^fi deUa campagna) there are many fools, are there not 
(turn e vera) V asked (domandd) a philosopher lately {V altro gi- 
omo) of a peasant {ad un coniadino), — ^The latter answered (m- 
pose) : " Sir, they are to be found {se ne irooano) in all stations 
{gU BtaU)" — " Fools sometimes tell the truth {la veritd)" said 
(disse) the philosopher. — Has your sister my gold ribbon ? — She 
has it not. — What l\sa she ? — She has nothing. — Hasyour mother 
any thing ^ — She has a fine gold fork. — Who has my large bot- 

* In eonucia the letter i is not sui^pressed in the plural, to prevent mistaking 
It for cornice, a priest's garment. (See note », p. 286.) 


tie? — ^Your sister has it. — ^Do you see sometimes my mother 1 — 
I see her oflen. — When did you see your sister ? — ^I saw her a 
fortnight ago. — ^Who has my fine nuts? — ^Your good sister has 
them. — Has she also my silver forks ? — She has them not. — Who 
has them ? — ^Your mother has them. — What fork have you ? — I 
have my iron fork. — Have your sisters had my pens ? — They 
have not had them, but I believe that their children have (abbiano, 
subj.) had the m.^ Why does your brother complain ? — He com- 
plains because his right hand aches. — ^Why do you complain 1— 
I complain because my left hand aches. 


Is your sister as old (cojrl aUempata) as my motliA^r ? — She is 
not so old, but she is taller. — Has your brother purchased any 
thing {fare delle contpre) ? — He has purchased something {ne ha 
fatto), — ^What has he bought ? — He has bought fine linen and 
good pens. — Has he not bought some silk stockings ? — He has 
bought some.^'— Is your sister writing ? — No, Madam, she is not 
writing (non Ucrive), — Why does she not write ? — Because 9he 
has a sore hand. — Why doss not the daughter of your neighbour 
go out ? — She does not go out because she has sore feet. — Why 
does not my sbter speak ? — Because she has a sore mouth. — Hast 
thou not seen my silver pen 1 — I have not seen it.— Hast thou a 
front room ? — I have one behind, but my brothper has one in the 
front. — Is it an upper room ? — It is one (n* e ugui). — Does the 
wife of our shoemaker go out already ? — No, my la^y (signmraf 
no)^ she does not go out yet, for she is still very ill {essendo essa 
ancarmoUo ammalaia). — Which bottle has your little sislertroken ? 
— She broke the one (queUa) which my mother bought yesterday. 
— ^Have you eaten of my soup or of my mother's ? — ^I have eaten 
neither of yours nor your mother's (n^ di queUa di sua tnadre), 
but of that of my good sister. — ^Have you seen the woman who 
was with roe this morning? — I have not seen her. — Has your 
mother hurt herself ?— She has not hurt herself. — Have you pa- 
per to write a letter ? — ^I have some, but to whom must I write ? 
— ^You must write to your mother's friend. — ^What has your sis- 
ter to do ? — She has to write to her friend.— Why does she not 

13 * 


write to her ) — ^Becavse she has no pen to write to her.^-Can she 
not write with iier pencil ? — She can write with it {con quelIo)t 
but does not wish to do so {non vaole). 


Have you a sore nose ? — I have not a sore nose, but I have the 
tooth-aehe. — Have you cut your finger 1 — ^No, ray lady, I have 
cut my hand. — Will you give me a pen f— I will give you one. 
—Will you have this or that ?— I will have neither. — ^Which 
{quale) do you wish to have ? — I wish to have that which your 
sister has. — ^Do you wish to have my mother's good black silk {h 
bwma seta nera), or my sister's ? — ^I wish to have neither your 
mother's nor your sister's, but that which you have. — Can you 
write with this pen ? — I can write wifh it. — Each woman {ogm 
donna) thinks herself amiable, and each {eiaseuna) is conceited 
{ha delP amor proprio)» — The same as {del pari che) men, my 
dear friend. Many a one {tal) thinks himself {si crede) learned 
who is not so {non V i), and many men surpass women in vanity. 
—What is the matter with you ?— Nothing is the matter with me. 
— Why does your sister complain ? — Because she has a pain in 
her cheek. — Has your brother a sore hand ? — No, but he feels a 
pain in his side. — Do you open the window ? — ^I open it, because 
it is too warm. — Which windows has your sister opened ? — She 
has opened those of the front room. — Have you been at the ball 
of my old acquaintance ? — I have been there. — Which young la- 
dies did you take to the ball ? — I took my sister's friends there.— 
Did they dance ? — They danced a good deal. — Did they amuse 
themselves ? — ^They amused themselves. — Did they remain long 
at the ball f — ^They remained there two hours. — Is this youug 
lady a Turk ?— No, she is a Greek. — ^Does she speak French ? — 
She speaks it. — Does she not speak English ? — She speaks it, but 
she speaks French better. — Has your sister a companion ? — She 
has one. — ^Does she like her ^— She likes her very much, for she 
is very amiable. 

Lezi&ne cinquantesima sesta. 

To go to tiM oonntrf. 
To be in the oouQtry. 
To go to church. 
To be at church. 
Togo tojBchooI. 
To be at school. 
To go to the ItaUaa eehool. 
To be at the ItaUan school. 
To go to the dancing achooL 
To be at the dancing school. 
To Of at the ezchaage. 
To or in the kitchen. 
To or in the cellar. 

The phiy (the comedy). 

The opera. 

The river. 

The hunt. 

Hie fishing. 
To go a hunting. 
To be a hunting. 
To go a fishing. 
To be a fishing. 

To hunt 

To fish. 

The whole day, all the day. 

The whole morning. 

The whole evening. 

The whole night, all the nigh{. 

The whole year. 

The whole week. 

The whole society* 

All at once. 
Suddenly, all of a sudden. 

Andare in or alia campagna. 

Essere in — alia campagna. 

Andare in — alia chieinu 

Essere in chieaa. 

Andare In iscuola or alia seuola. 

Essere in iscuola. 

Andare alia seuola d' italiano. 

Essere nella or alia scuolad' italiano 

Andare alia scuoU di hallo. 

Essere nella seuola dl hallo. 



In cncina. 

In eantina. 


L* opera. 

n fiume. 

La caccia. 


Andar a (or alia) caocia. * 

Esser a {or alia) cacda. 

Andar a (or alia) pesca. 

Esser a (or alia) pesca. 

Cacciare 1. 


Tutto 11 giomo (tutta la glomata). 

Tutto il mattino (tutta la mattlna)b 

Tutta la sera. 

Tutta hi notte (tutta notte). 

Tutto r anno. 

Tutta la settimana. 

Tutta hi sodeti. 
( Tutto ad un tratto. 
C Tutto in una volta. 

ftepentinamente (repente). 

> When the hunting is determined the article must be made use o( Ex. 
Andar o eooer alia oaeda dd cervo, to go or be a stag-hunting; andar o cSMn 
oOa pesea dcOtptrU, del eoraUOf to go or be a pearl or coral-fishing. 



Thle week, 

Next week. 
Every womaD. 
Every tlma 
Every week. 

Your mother. 
Yottr siBter. 
Your sUters, 
A person. 
A word. 

The ear-ache. 
The nausea. 
The belly-ache. 
The stomach-ache. 

She has the stomach-ache. 

His sister has a violent head-acbs. 

I have the stomach-ache. 

Qnesta settlmana. 

Quest' anno. 

La settknana scorsa (passata). 

La settlmana ventura (prossima). 

Tutte le donne, egni donna. 

Tutte le volte, ogni volta. 

Tutte le settimane, ognl settiiiiana. 

La di Lei signora madra. 
La di Lei signora sorella. 
Le di Lei signore soreUe. 
Una persona. 

11 male agl^oreccld. 
La nausea. 
II mal di ventre. 
U mal di stomaco. 

t EUa ha un dolors alio stomaeo. 
t Sua sorella ha un mal dl 

t Ho male dl stomaco. 


Our or ours, your or yours, > 
their or theirs, > 

Thy or thine, his, her, or > 
hers, its, ) 

Our or ours, your or yours, 
their 0r theirs, 

(/m. ting.) 
(/Mil. plHr.) 

Have you my pen or hers 1 

I have hers. 

What do you wish to send to your 

I wish to send her a tart. 
Will you send her some fruit also ? 
I will send her some. 
Have you sent the books to my 

sisters 7 
I have sent them to them. 



( La nostra, la vostn, la loro. 

( Le tue^ le sue. 

( Le nostre, le vostrs, le loro. 

Ha Ella la mia penna, o la tual 

Ho la sua. 

Chevuol EUa mandare alia di Lei 

da 7 
Voglio mandarle una torta. 
Vuol mandarle anche delle fruttal 
Voglio mandargliene (invlargUene). 
Ha Ella inviato i libri aUe mis 

Li ho inviati loro. 

II dolore. 
La torta. 



The strawberry. 


The cherry. 

La cUiegia. 

The newflpaper. 

II giomale. 

The gazette. 

La gazzetta. 

The merchandise. \ 
The gooda.^ J 

La mereanzia. 

La cameriera. 

Oba. A. Some aubstanUTea have the same tennlnatioQ for both renders 

And are only diatingidabed by the article, such aa : 

The husband. 

n consorte, or^ J 

11 marito. 

The wife. 

La consorte, or 

la moglie. 

The heir. 


The heiress. 

L' erede. 

The nephew. 

11 nipote. 

The niece. 


The relation. 

II parente. 

The female relation. 

La parente, Ac 

Oba, B. Others change their maacu 

line ending o into 

a, "such as : 



The uncle, the aunt, 

Lo zio, 



11 cugino. 

la caglna. 

The brotber-in- the aister-in-law. 

11 cognato, 

' la cognate. 


The cook, the female-cook. 

11 cuoco, 

la cuoca. 

U viclno. 

la yicina. 


The lad, the lass. 

11 giovinetto, 

la gioYinetta. 

The heathen, 


la pagana. 

A peasant, a country-woman. 

c Un contadino, 
i Un paeaano, 

una contadina 

una paesana, Ac 

Ob, C. Substantives (the same aa ac 

yectives, preceding Lesson) terminated 

In Ufr€^ are generally made feminine by 

changing tore i^ta 

trice. Ex. 



The accuser. 

V accusatore. 

V accusatrice. 

The actor. 

L* attore. 

1» attrice. 

L' ambasciatore, 

r ambasciatricD. 

The benefactor. 

11 benefattore, 


The hunter. 

11 cacciatore, 

la cacciatrlce. 

The elector. 

L' elettore, 

r elettrice. 

The emperor. 

L' impentore. 

r imperatrice. 

The founder 

11 fondatore, 

la fondat^ce. 

The protector 

11 protettore, 

la proiettrice. 

The painter. 

11 pittore. 

la pittrioe. 

The author. 

L' autore, 

r autrice. 

The Yictor. 

11 vincitore. 

la Tincitrice. 

The conqueror. 

n conquistatore, 

la conquistatrleti, 





Ob», D, Some have a dUtinct form for imlivldaab of tho fsmolo oez, 



Tho abbot. 

L' abate. 

abbadeaaa (la ba- 

The baron. 






The canon. 


The ainger. 

11 cantante, 

la cantatrioe. 


II oonte, 




The god. 









r llmarcheae, 


The marqnia. 

\ Phtr. I roar- 
( cheai, 



n princIpe, 

la principeaaa. 

The peacock. 

11 pavone, 


The prior. 



The king. 



The poet. 



The phlloeopher. 


la filoaofeasa. 

Hie merchant 


Tlie landlord. 



The cock. 



mw elephant 





The prophet 

11 profeta, 

la proleteaaa. 

The ford mayor. 



The doctor. 

U dottora, 

la dottoresaa. 

The manager. 

11 frttore, 

la fattoreaaa. 


n padrone, 

la padrone. 

Obt. J?. The namM of trees are con 

gnate the fruits of the aame trees. Ex. 

The eheatnm-tree, the cheatnat 



The cherry-trefl^ the cherry. 

n cUiegio, or 

la cUiegia, er 



The pear-tree, . the pear. 



The phtm-tree, the plam. 

U prugno, 


The walnut-tree, the walnnt. 

U noce. 

la noce. 

The following, however, are always masculine, and designate the tree as well 
as the fruit : Iljleo, the fig-tree, and the fig ; U cedro^ the citron-tree, and citron ; 
UdatUrOy the date-tree, and the date; Upomo^ the apple-tree, and the apple. 

Oft*. /*. Of the names of animals aeveral become feminine by changing e 
Into a, as : «/ eavallo, the horae{ la cavaOa, the mare ; U gaUo, tho cat ; fogatfc^ 
the she-cat, Ac. 



Others have for each gender particular denominations, as : U bui, the ox ; la 
Meca, the cow ; il beeeo, the buck ; la eapm, the goat ; U monioiUf the ram | la 
peeara^ the sheep, Ac. 

Others again, though they are used for both genders, are always masculine, 
as : U tordo, the thrush ; il amOf the raven ; lo aoarafaggio^ the beetle, Ac. 
Others again are always feminine, as : la rondme^ the swallow j la poiUero, the 
panther ; la vipera, the ?iper ; f anguOlat the eel. Finally, there are some 
which it is indifferent to make masculine or feminiqe, such as : tf or /a lepre, 
the hair ; il or 2a Hrpe, the serpent, Ac. 

{ Frendere in qffiUo (or a pi- 
I gione). 

V Prendere a nolo, 
C AJUtare 1, or dar in affitto (or 
\ a pigione). 

V Dare a nolo. 

To hire. 

To let. 
Ha^e you already hired a room 1 

Ha Ella gi& preso a pigione una 
camera 1 

To admit or grant a ihi9ig. ) 

To confess a thing. S 

Do you grant that 1 

I do grant if. 

Do you confess your fiiultl 

1 confess it. 

I confess it to be a fault. 

To oonfiBSS, avow, own, acknowledge. 

So much. 
ohe has so many candles that she can- 
not bum them all. 

To catch a cold. 

To make sick. 

U you eat so much it will make you 

Does it suit you to lend your gun 1 

It does not suit me to lend it. 
It does not suit me. 
Where did yon catch a cold 7 
I caught a cold in going from the 

Convenire * di qualche cosa. 

Convlene Ella di cid (or in dd) 1 

Ne conyengo. 

ConYiene EUa del di Lei errors 1 

Ne convengo. 

Convengo ch* d un errore. 

Confessare 1. 


Ella ha tante candela che non pud 
comumarle tutte. 

Raffreddarsi 1. Itfreddarsi 1. 
Sendere malato, 

Se Ella mangia troppo cid La ren- 

der& malata. 
Le convlene di prestare U di Lei 

Non mi convlene prestarlo. 
Non mi convlene. 
Ove si d Ella raiTreddaU 1 
Ml son raffreddato nel sortire dal 

teatro dell' opera. 


To have a cold. Easer raifreddato {or infreddato). 

The cold. 

The coagh. 
I have a cold. 
You have a cough. 

The brain. 

The cheat. 

II rafireddore (1* infreddatora) 


Ho un infreddatura di t 

EUa ha la toaae. 


U petto. 


Where is your cousin ? — He is in the kitchen. — Has your cook 
(fern.) already made the soup ? — She has made it, for it is already 
upon the table. — Where is your mother ? — She is at church. — Is 
your sister gone to school ? — She is gone thither. — Does your 
mother often go to church ? — She goes thither every morning and 
every evening. — At what o'clock in the morning does she go to 
church ? — She goes thither as soon as she gets up. — ^At what 
o'clock does she gel up ? — She gets up at sunrise. — ^Dost thou go 
to school to^ay ? — I do go thither. — What dost thou learn at 
school ? — I learn to read, write, and speak there. — Where is your 
aunt ? — She is gone to the play with my little sister. — Do your 
sisters go this evening to the opera ? — No, Madam, they go to the 
dancing-school. — Do they go to the French school 1 — They go 
thither in the morning, but not in the evening, — Is your father 
gone a hunting ? — He has not been able to go a hunting, for he 
has a cold. — Do you like to go a hunting ? — ^I like to go a fishing 
better than a hunting {che nan a caccia). — Is your father still in 
the country? — ^Yes, Madam, he is still there. — What is he doing 
there ? — He goes a hunting and a fishing. — ^Did you hunt in the 
country ? — I hunted the whole day. — How long did you stay with 
my mother ? — ^I stayed with her the whole evefting. — ^Is it long 
since you were at the castle ? — I was there last week. — Did you 
find many people thefe ? — I found only three persons there ; the 
count, the countess, and their daughter. 


Are these girls as good (savio) as their brothers ? — They are 
better than they. — Can your sisters speak German ? — They can- 


noty but they are learning it. — ^Have you brought any thing to 
your mother ? — ^I have brought her some fine fruit aijd a fine 
tart. — ^What has your niece brought you ? — She has brought us 
good cherries, excellent strawberries, and very good peaehes. — 
Do you like peaches ? — I like them much. — How many peaches 
has your neighbour (fern.) given you ?— She* has given me more 
than twenty. — Have you eaten many cherries this year ?**-! have 
eaten many. — Did you give any to your little sister? — I gave 
her so many that she cannot eat them all. — Why have you not 
given any to your good neighbour (fem.) ? — I wished to give her 
some, but she would not take any, because she does not Mke 
cherries. — ^Were there many pears last year ? — ^There were not 
many. — ^Has your cousin (fem.) many strawberries ?^— She has 
80 many that she cannot eat them all. 

175. ^ 

Why do your sisters not goto the play ? — ^They cannot go thither 
because they have a cold, and that makes them very ill. — ^Where 
did they catch a cold ? — ^They caught a cold in going from the 
opera {neW uscire dal ieairo deW opera) last night. — ^Does it suit 
your sister to eat some peaches ? — It does not suit her to eat any, 
for Ae has already eaten a good many, and if she eats so much 
it will make her ill.— Did you sleep well last night 1 — I did not 
sleep well, for my children made too much noise {il rumare) in 
my rocHn.— Where were you last night ?— I was at my brother, 
inlaw's— Did you see your sister-in-law ? — I saw her. — How ib 
she ?— She is better than usual {megUo del soliio). — ^Did you 
play 1^ We did not play, but we read some good books; for my 
sister-in-law. likes to read better than to play. — Have you read 
the gazette to-day t— I have read it.-^Is there any thing new in 
it ? — I have nof read any thing new in it. — ^Where have you been 
since I saw you ? — ^I have been at Vienna, Paris, and Berlin. — 
Did you speak to my aunt? — I did speak to her. — ^What does she 
say ? — She says that she wishes to see you. — ^Where have you 
put my pen ? — ^I have put it upon the bench. — ^Do you intend to 
see your niece to-day ? — I intend to see her, lor she has promised 
f»e to dine with us. — I admire {amndrare) that family (lafantigUa), 


.808 pumr-siXTH lbsson. 

lor the father is the king and the mother is the queen of it. The 
children and the servants are the subjects (U suddiio) of the state 
(lo tiaio). The tutors of the children are the ministers (i/ muMt* 
tro) who share {dmdere *) with the king and the queen the care 
(la tmra) of the goYernment {U gavemo). The good education 
(r edueaxione) which is given to children b the crown (la coromi) 
of roonarchs (t7 numarcaf plur. t). 


Have you already hired a room t— I have already hired cme.— 
Where have you hired it ? — ^I have hired it in William*street 
(neUa anUrada GngUehno), number one hundred and fifty-two.— 
At whose house (da dd) have you hired it ? — ^At the house of the 
man whose son has sold you a horse.— For whom has your father 
hired a room ? — ^He has hired one for his son, who has just 
arrited from France.— Why have you not kept your promise (la 
promesta) ? — ^I do not remember what I promised you. — ^Did you 
not promise us to take us to the concert lilst Tuesday ? — ^I confess 
that I was wrong in promising you ; the concert, however (piire)^ 
has not taken place. — ^Does your brother confess his fault ? — ^He 
confesses it. — ^What does your uncle say to (d£) that note ? — ^He 
says that it is written very well, but he admits that he has been 
wrong in sending it to the captain.-— Do you confess your fault 
now ?— I confess it to be a fault. — ^Where have you fi>und my 
coat ?— I have found it in the blue room.— Will you hang my hat 
on the tree ?-^I will hang it thereon {e^ppendervelo). — ^How are 
you to-day ? — ^I am not (mm iaio) v^ry well.— What is the matter 
with you ?— I have a violent headacbB and a cold (una tt^edda- 
tura cb*.<es(a).— Where did yoa catch a oold?'S— I caught it last 
night in coming (neff usdre) from the play. 

Lezione dnquantesima settima. 


TIm present participle is in Italian formed from the infinitlTe by changing 
for the fint ooigtigatfon, ort into anda^ and for the two othera trt and tr« intr 
tndo,^ Ex. 

To apeak, — speaking. 
To aeU, — selling. 
To serve, — serring. 

To hare, — having. 
To be^ — being. 

1. Parlore, — parlamlo. 

2. Vendere, — vendcmfo. 

3. Serrire, — senreiMfs 


Ob: A. This form of the verb is not so often used in Italian as in English, 
for whenever it is used in English aftet a preposition it is rendered in Italian 
by the infinitive. (See f^ Lessons XL. and XLI V.) Moreover; it is often 
substituted by the infinitive with one of the proportions a, oon, in, nd^ as: 
tol wnvprartj in buying ; nd vendere, in selling h ^ eervire. In serving. Ex. 

in teaddng one learns. 

He was drowned inp<unng the river. 

In seeing him 1 judged that he was not 

Having come too late he found no 

more room. 
To be drowned. To pass the river. 
To infer. 


CotP vuegnare s' impara. 

Egli si d annegato nei vaUoare H 

M vederlo argomentai che non era 

Per eaeer venuto tardi non trovd plh 

Annegarsi. Valicare 11 fiume. 
Argomentare {argomentai is its pre* 

terite definite). 
TrOvai (is the preterite definite ol 


> There Is another present participle, which is also forme4 from the infinitive, 
and terminates for the first coojugation in anU, and for the two others in enU, 
as : parkmUf speaking; vendenie, selling ; eervenie, serving. It is not much 
used in Italian, and In Its stead the present or imperfect of the Indicative la 
often •employed. 



I trtmble only in thinking of it. 
I perceiTed it iu reading the letter. 
She gets a livelihood by spinning and 

In going out of the church. 

Treni( solameuta in pennirL 
He ne accorai nel legger la lettera. 
Ella si guadagna il Titto col filare c 

col tessere. 

Obt, B, Yet the present participle is used when an agent performs tw« 
actions at the same time. 
The man eats while running. L' uomo mangia coirendo. 

1 correct while reading. 
I question while speaking. 
You speak while answering me. 

Correggo leggendo. 
Interrogo parlando. 
Ella parla rispondendonu. 

Obs. C. The personal pronouns, the relative ne, and the local adverbs et and 
n, are joined to the present participle io the same manner as to the infinitive. 
(Obf. Lesson XVIi.) 

I read your exercises while correcting 

I question you while speaking to you. i 
You ride while fighting. 
He fighu while retiring. 
You speak while dancing. 
I extemporate while eating. l 

He walks while reading. | 

Leggo i di Lei temi correggendo^ 

La interrogo parlandok. 
Ella cavalca battendon. 
Egli ai batte riarandon 
Ella parla danzando. 
Improwiso mangfando. 
Passeggia leggendo. 

Obs. Lu When a certain continuation 
pressed, the present participle Is made usi 
flare, Mmre. Ex. 

I am writing. 

Thou art reading. 

He is telling me. 
He is telling me his misfortunes. 

I am gathering flowers in my garden. 
He was crying all day and all night. 

I was thinking of the things that had 

just happened. 
Her grief is consuming her by degrees. 

or succession of time Is to be ex- 
B of with the verbs muUare, mandart, 

Io ato 9CTwendo» 

Tu vox (or j^) Uggendo. 

Egli vien raeeontandonii. 

Egli <to raeetmtandomi le sue sven- 

Vo eogiiendo fiori nel mio giardino'* 
Ando gridando * tutto il giomo e 

tutta la notte. 

10 ofidoM penmtndo alle cose acca- 
dttte 8. 

11 suo dolore la va druggmdo ten- 

s Racamlart^ to tell, to relate ; la sven/ufo^ tei jnlsfortime. 

* CogUereJIorif to gather flowers ; iljhre, the flower. 

* Andb is the third person singular of the preterite definite of the verb otMiai^ 
to go : gridare\ to cry. ' 

ft Andava is the first person shigularof 'the Imperfect indicative of the verb 
andare ; aeeaduU Is the past participle in the plural feminine of the verb oeoa 
deret to happen. 

* Strttggendo Is the present participle of Hruggere, to consume, to kill, tc 


Tkey were desoending slowly the hill. 


I am beginning to perceive that I was 

What I am doing now, thoa wilt know 

when it is time. 
They were conversing together for an 

hour, when .... 

You are thinking. 
I was perceiving. 
He is saying. 
What were you doing^ when I arrived 7 

IS dining. 

To question. 

The cravat. 
The carriage. 
• The family. 
The promise. 
The l^g. 
The sore throat. 
The throat. 
I have a sore throat. 

The meat. 
Salt meat. 
Fresh meat- 
Fresh beef. 
Cool water. 
The food (victuals). 
The dish (mess) 
Salt meats. 


-The traveller. 

To march, to w^, to step* 
I have walked a good deal tMay. 

Venxcano seendendo lentameiite K 

Vado vedendo che mi sono Ingui" 

duello che ora tto faeamdo^ lo sapral 

a suo tempo. 
Se la statano diteorrendo insleme da 

un' ora, quando .....' 

Vol state ptMondo. 

lo andava accorgtndomi. 

Egli va dictndo.* 

Che andaoatt (or ataeatt) facmdo 

quando son giunto.*^ 
lo pranxava (io Hwoa pranxando). 

golai or ho mal dl 

Interrogare 1. 

La crayatta. 


La famiglia. 

La promessa. 

La gamba. 


La gola. 

Mi fa mal U 

La came. 

Carne salata. 

Came fresca. 

Manzo fresco. 

Acqua fresca. 

L* alimento. 

La vivanda, 11 cibo. 

Vivande salate. 
c II latticinio > p^^ D^ji latUcinU. 
I Un latticinio S 

II viaggiatore ; ftm. la viaggiatriee. 

Camminare 1. 
Ho camminato molto oggi. 

7 VmiowM is the third person plural of the imperfect indicative of venire. 

• DiscorrerCf to converse. 

9 Dicendo is the present participle of dire, to say. 

>o Andavate is the second person plural of the imperfect indicative of ixndare, 
and ttavate ts the same of stare. Giunto is the past participle of gtungwc, f* 



, Oft*. E. CammUuw mnal not be mistaken for pamiggian. Thefonaer 
means to walk, and the latter to walk for pleasure. (Lesson XLIV.) 

I haTS been walking in the garden 

Ho passsgglato nel glardino con 

with my mother. 


To walk or travel a mile ^ two miles. 

t Far un migllo — dos miglia. 

To walk or travel a league — two 

t Far una lega — due loghe. 


To walk a step. 

t Far un passo. 

To take a step. 

t Far un passo (presso di). 

To go on a journey. 

t Far un yiaggio. 

To make a speech. 

Far un dlscorso. 

A piece of business, an affair. 

Un affarei plur, i : una faecenda. 

To transact business. 

Far degU afiarL 

To meddle wUh eameUung. 

( Misehiarsi di qualehe coea, 
I Immischiarsi di qualehe casa. 

What an you meddling with 1 


I am meddling with my own buaineas. 

Mi mischio d^ miel piopri afirL 

That man always meddles with other 

duesf uomo a* immisehia semprc 

people's business. 

negU a&ri degU altrL 

I do not meddle with other people's 

Non m' immiachio negli a&ri al- 



Others^ other people* 


Si occupa di pittwa. 

The sn of painting. 

La pittura. 





The art 





It is strange. 


To employ one^e seff" in. 

i; Occuparsi di qualehe eoea. 

Tb concern eome one. 

To look ai some one, 

I dojiot like to meddle with thinga 

that do not ooneem me. 
That oonoems nobody. 

To concern one^s self about 

To irouhle one's head about 

Concemere, riguardare qual- 


Riguardare qualcuno, 

Non mi place Immlschlsrmi didd 

che non mi eonoene. 
Old non rignarda nessano. 

Curarsi di qualehe cosa^ or 
Prendersi eura di quakhe cota. 




I attrmct, thou attnctiBit, he attneu. 
We, yon, Uiey attract 

Loadstone attiacta iron. 
Her ringing Attiacti me. 
To charm. 
To enchant. 
I am charmed with it. 
The beauty. 
The harmony. 
The power. 

To repeal. 

The repetition^ 
The commencement, be^nning. 
The lord. 

A good memory. 

A memorandum. 

The nightingale. 
AH beginninga are dlAenlt. 


The Creator. 
The benefit, the benefiietor. 

The iSnr of the Lord. 
The earth. 
The lesson. 
Flour, meaL 

{Auirare 1, " atHrato. 

Attraggo, attrai, 

Attraiamo, attraete, attraggono. 

La ealamitaattrae (attira) il tero. 

n soo canto m' attrae. 



li^e sono felioe, ne aono incanlnto. 


L> armonia. 

La voce. 



La ripetisione. 

II prindpio. 


Ld studio. 


Una buona memoria. 

Un memoriale, un promemoria, \ 

11 rosignuolo, 1' wignuolo. 
Ttttti i prindpii sono difieUi. 

Creare 1. 


H Creators. 

n benefisio, il benefattorss firn. 

U tiiioie di Dio. 
La tens. 
La teiione. 
11 molino. 

06.. F. We hare Men (Le«Q. XLIV.) that Jl wflecthre T«b. jw. ta 
1.2^^ wen- m French. co,j«gat«l with *• '"^^IniSi 
Adreomponndten*^ ""•ew^beddee^me other wtb^wWc^ to 1^ 
SSuSwta. c«»P<mnded with the wudltary «.«^. to be, thongh U..y «e «»• 



reflectiTO, and generally take to have for their auxiliary in EngUab. Tbt prla- 
eipal are the following : 

Togo. . 


To atop. 

Arrestarai 1, fennaral 1. 

To arrlTe. 

ArriTare 1. 

To decay. 

Decadere* 2. 

To die. 

Morire* 3, trapaaaare 1 

To come in. 


To be bom. 


To aet out. 

Partlre 3. 

To go oat. 

Uacire* 3. 


Cadere* 2. 

To come. 

Venire* 3. 

j DiTenire* 3. 
c DiTentare 1. 

To become. 


Non oonyenire* 3. 

To interyene. 

Intervenire* 3. 

To attain. 

Perreniret 3 

To come back. 

Ritomare 1, rinvenire* 3. 

To happen. 

Sopraggiugnere* 2. 

Uaa your mother come 1 ' | fiTenataladi Leimadxel 

]:2r Tile paat participle of theae verba muat agree in gender and nunber witir 
the nomlnatiTe of the verb eMar«*| to be. 

Slie haa not oome f^u 
Have the women already come 1 
They have not oome yet. 
Haa your aiater arrlTed 1 

Non d ancor vennta. 
Sono gU arrivate le donne 1 
Non aono ancor arrivate. 
b arrivata la di Lei aorellal 



Will you diae with us to-day ?— With much pleasure. — ^What 
have you for dinner {ehe ha Ella da pranxo) t — We have good 
soup, some fresh and salt meat, and some milk food. — ^Do you 
like milk food I — ^I like it better than {Li preferiseo a) all other 
food. — Are you ready to dine ? — ^I am ready. — ^Do you intend to 
set out soon ?--I intend setting oat next week.— Do you travel 
alone (sola) ? — No, Madam, I travel with my uncle. — Do you 
travel on fi)ot or in a carriage ? — We travel in a carriage. — ^Did 
you maet anyone in your last journey (nel di Lei ultimo viaggio) 


10 Berlin ? — We met many travellers. — What do you intend to 
spend your time in this summer ? — I intend to take a short (piccolo) 
journey. — ^Did you walk much in your last journey ?.— I like 
much to walk, but my uncle likes to go in a carriage. — ^Did he 
not wish to walk ? — ^He wished to walk at first (da pnncipio)^ but 
he wished to get into the coach after having taken a few steps 
( poijaid appena aJcuni passi voUe nunUar in legno), so that I did 
not walk mttcb. — What have you been doing at school to.^ay ?— 
We have been listening to our professor. — What did he say ?-— 
He made a long speech on the goodness of God. After saying : 
*' Repetition is the mother of studies, and a good memory is a 
great benefit of Grod," he said (egU disse), " God is the creator 
of heaven and earth ; the fear of the Lord is the beginning of all 
wisdom." — What are you doing all day in this garden ? — ^I am 
walking in it. — What is there in it that attracts you (che nuU V 
atlira cold) ? — ^The singing of the birds attracts me (nd vi atirae), 
— ^Are there nightingales in it ? — There are some in it, and the 
harmony of their singing enchants me (nd rapisce), — ^Have those 
nightingales (forsegU tuignuoU hanno) more power over you 
(sopra di Lei) than painting, or the voice of your tender (tenero) 
mother, who loves you so much ? — ^I confess the harmonj^ of the 
singing of those litUe birds (di-questi augelUni) has more power 
over me than the most tender words of my dearest friends. 

What does your niece amuse herself with in her solitude ? — She 
reads a good deal, and writes letters to her mother. — What does 
your uncle amuse himself with in his solitude ? — He employs him- 
self in painting and chemistry. — Does he no longer do any busi- 
ness ? — He no longer does any, for he is too old to do any. — Why 
does he meddle with your business? — He does not generally 
(ordinariamente) meddle with other people's business, but he 
meddles with mine, because he loves me. — Has your master made 
you repeat your lesson tcday ? — ^He has made me repeat it. — ^Did 
you know it ? — I knew it pretty well (eiwcre/amente).— Have you 
also done some exercises ? — I have done some, but, pray, what is 
that to you (ma che Lefa questOy ne La prego) 1 — I do not gener 
ally meddle with things that do not concern me, but I love you 


80 much that I concern myself much ahout {the io m' inUrnse 
moUo a) what you are doing.— Does any one trouble his head . 
(hawi akuno che si corm) about you ? — No one troubles his head 
about me, for I am not worth the trouble (non ne va^ la pena), 
— Who corrects your exercises ? — My master corrects them. — 
How (came) does he correct them ? — He corrects them in reading 
them'; and in reading them he speaks to me. — How many things 
(quante cose) does your master at the same time (m una voUa) ? — 
He does four things at the same time. — How so (come cid) ? — He 
reads and corrects my exercises, speaks to me and questions me 
all at once (al tempo siesso), — Does your sister sing (caniare) while 
dancing ?— She sings while working, but she cannot sing while 
dancing. — Has your mother left ? — She has not left yet. — When 
will she set out ? — She will set out to-morrow evening. — At what 
o'clock ? — At a quarter to seven. — Have your sisters arrived ? — 
They have not arrived yet, but we expect them this evening. — 
Will they spend (passare) the evening with us ? — ^They will spend 
it with us, for they have promised me to do so. — Where have you 
spent the morning ? — I have spent it in the country. — Do you go 
every morning to the country ? — I do not go every morning, but 
twice a week. — ^Why has your niece not called upon me (venir a 
vedere qualcuno) ?— She is very ill, and has spent the whole day 
in her room. 

Leziane cinquantesitna ottava. 


The past or compound future is formed from the fntore of Che aiiziUaiy, an^ 
the past participle of the verb yon conjugate. Ex. 

I ahan haye loved. i Avrd amato. 

Thou wflt have loved | Avral amata 




Egli avr& amati. 

She wlU have k>Te<L 

Ella avriL amato. 

We shall have loved. 

Avremo amato. 

You will have loved. 

Avrete amato. 

They will have loved. 

J^«. Eglino) ^^„,^^. 
i Fan, Elleno i 

I shall have come. 

Sard vennto. Fern, venuta. 

Thou wilt have come 

Sarai venuto. " venuta. 

He will have come. 

SarK venuto. 

She will have come. 

Sari venuta. 

We ahall have come. 

Saremo venuti. Pen. venute. 

You will have come. 

Sarete venuti. " venute. 

They will have come. 

( Saranno venuti. 
l Saranno venute. 

1 ahall have been praised. 

Thou wilt have been praised. 

He will have been praised. 
She will have been praised. 
We shall have been praised. 

You will have been praised. 
They will have been praised. 

Sard stato lodato. Pent, stata io- 

Sard stato lodato. " stata lo> 

SariL stato lodato. 

Sard stata lodata. 

Saremo stati lodati. Pern, state lo- 

Sarate stati lodati. 

{ Saranno stati lodati. 
< Saranno state lodate 

state lo- 

To have left. 
When I have paid for the horse I shall 

have only ten crowns left 
How much money have you left 1 
I have one crown left. 

I have only one crown left. 

How much has your brother iefti 

He has one crown left. 

How much has your sister left? 

She has only thre»sous left 

How much have your brothers left? 

They have one gold sequin left. 

When they have paid the tailor, they 

will have a hundred Italian livres 


t Rimanere* 2, 

Q,uando avrd pagato il cavallo non 
mi rimarranno che dieci scudl. 

Quanto danaro Le rimanel 

Hi rimane uno scudo« 
( Non mi rimane che uno scudb. 
I Mi rimane solamenteunoscudo. 

Q,uanto rimane al dl Lei ^tello t 

Oli rimane uno scudo. 

Qnanto rimane alia di Lei sorellal 

Non le rimangono che tre soldi. 

Quanto rimane ai di Lei frateUll 

Rimane Loro uno zecchino d' ore. 

Qnando avranno pagato il sartors^ 
resteranno loro cento lire itallaiMt 



06#. In English the present, or the compound of the prewnt, is need 
after the conjunctions : v^itn^ <u toonoM^ or cJUr, when futurity is to be ex- 
pressed i but in Italian, as well as in French, the future mtist in such instances 
always be employed. Ex. 

When I am at my aunt's, wlU you 

come to see mel 
After you haye done writing, will you 

take a turn with mel 

Yon will play when you have finished 

your exercise. 
What will you do when you have 

When I have dined, I will take a turn 

with my sister in the garden of the 

When I have spoken to your hrothen 

I shall know what I have to do. 

Does it rain 1 
It rains. 
Does it snow 1 
It I 

la it muddy 1 

It is muddy. 

Is it muddy out of doors 1 

It is very muddy. 

Is it dusty 7 

It is very dusty. 

Is it smoky 7 
It is too smoky. 
Out of doors. 

To enicTf to go in, to come in. 

Will you go into my room 1 
Will you go inl 
I shall go in. 

Quando saiO da mia sia, verra EUs 

Quando avii finito di sciivere, veirl 

Ella meco a £ur un passeggio7 er 

una passeggiata. 
Ella giuocher^ quando avr& finito U 

di Lei tema (eaercizio). 
Clie Uii EUa quando avnl prsnsato 7 

Quando avrd pransato, andrd a lat 
una pass egg iata eon mia sorella 
nel giardino deUa marchess. 

Quando avrd parlato al di Leifra- 
tello, saprd dd che ho da fare. 




ct Viddel&ngol 
et Vdfango? 
t C d del fango in istndal 
t k cattivo andare. 


Fa molta polvere. V ha molts 

Vddelfumol Vdfnmol 

V d troppo foma 

Fuori. Inl 

EfUrare 1, in, 

7uoI Ella entrar nella mia camenkt 
Voglio entrsrvi. 
VI entrerd. 

To sit down. 

To git, to he seated. 
He is seated uponthe large chair. 
She is seated upon the bench. 

I sit down near you. 


a sedere (Les- 

die*, mettersi 
son LI.). 
Essere seduto ; fern, seduia, 

Egli d seduto suUa gran sedia. 

Esaa i seduta suUa panca. 
i Seggo presso di Lei. 
i Hi metto a sedere viclno a Lef 




To fill the bottle with wine. 

Do yoa fill that bottle with water 1 

I fill my purse with money. 
He fills his belly with meat. 


i Empire or riempire (Uco) 8. 
Empiere or riempiere 2. 
Riempire di Tino la bottiglia. 
Riempie Ella d' acqua qnesta bot- 
Riempio di danaro la mia bom. 
S' empie 11 yentre- di carae (a toI 

gar expression). 

Have yon come quite alone 1 

No, I haTO brought all my men along 

with me. 
He has brought all his men abng with 

Haye you brought your brother along 

with you 1 
I haye brought him along with me. 
Haye yon told the groom to bring me 

the horse? 

The groom. 
( haye brought you a fine horse from 

kn you bringing me my books? 
K am bringing them to you. 

To takCi ^ carry. 
Will yon take that dog to the stable 1 

I win take it thither. 

Are you carrying this gun to my 

I carry it to him. 

The cane, stick. 

The stable. 

To come down, to go dovm. 

To go down into the well. 

To go or come down the hill. 

To go down the riyer. 

To alight from one's horse, to dts- 

To alight, to get out. 

I: EDa yenuta del tutto sola 1 

No, ho oondotto meco tutta la mia 

Egliha.condotto seco tutta la sua 

Ha Ella condotto seco 11 di Lei in- 

telle 1 (or vostro.) 
L' bo condotto meco. 
Ayete detto al palafreniere di con- 

durmi 11 cayallo 1 
II palafreniere. 
Le ho condotto d' Alemagna un bel 

Hi porta EUaimieiUbril 
Glieli porto. 

Menare 1. 

Volete menare questo 

Voglio menaryelo. 
Porta Ella a mio padre questo 

Olielo porto. 
La canna, or 11 bastone. 

C Soendere * 2 — sceso. 

I Discendere ♦ 2 ; past part. 

\ disceso, 

Discendere nel pozzo. 

Scendere la monta^a. 

Discendere 11 flume. 

Smontare da cayallo (Lesson LIL>. 

Scendere, or discendere dal legno. 



Togo yp^ tonunaU, ioaseend. 

To go np Ae mounudii. 

Where It your brother gone to 1 
9e hu tsoended the hUL 

To mount the hone. 


To get on board the ship. 

To desire, to beg, to pray, 
to request. 

Win yon deiire your brother to oome 

I beg of you to call on me to-dty. 
The river. 
The ■tream, torrent 
To go or come up the river. 

The stream. 
To go or oome down the river. 

Afofilore, sqUre *» ascendere *. 

^ Satire U monte. Salire il coOe. 
f Moatare suUa collina. 

Ore ^ andato il di Lei ftateilo 1 

te montato eulla collina. 

Montare a cavallo. 

Montare In legno (in canonay. 
c Entrar neUa nave. 
} Aacendere U navlglio. 

Pregare 1 {di before lof.). 

Vnol EHa pregare il dlLelfiatdle 

La prego di Tenirmi a vedere oggl. 
II fiume, la riviera. 
II torrente. 

Andar contro la corrente del flame. 
La eorrente. 
Diaoendere il flume. 



Will your parents go to the country to-morrow 1 — ^Thcy wUI 
not go, for it is too dusty. — Shall we take a walk ?— We 
will not take a walk, for it is too muddy out of doors {perche e' e 
troppofango in istraia, or perehl k strode sono troppofangosey-^ 
Do you see the castle of my relation behind (dietro) yonder 
mountain {queUa numtagna) ? — ^I see it. — Shall we go in ?— We 
will go in if you like.— Will you go into that room 1—1 shall not 
go into it, for it is smoky. — ^I wish you a good morning. Madam. 
— ^Will you not come in ? — ^Will you not sit down ? — ^I will sil 
down upon that large chair. — ^Will you tell me what has become 
of your brother ? — ^I will tell you.— Where is your sister ?— Do 
you not see her ? — She is sitting upon the bench. — Is your father 
seated upon the bench ?— No, he sits upon the chair.- Hast thou 
spent all thy money ?— I have not spent all^^How much hsst 


thou left ? — ^I have not much left. I have but five Italian livrea 
(la lira itaUaria) left. — How much money have thy sisters left ? 
— Thpy have but three crowns left. — Have you money enough 
left to pay your tailor ? — ^I have enough left to pay him ; but if I 
pay him I shall have but little left. — How much money will ycfti 
brothers have left ? — ^They will have a hundred sequins left. — 
When shall you go to Italy ? — I shall go as soon as (suhiio ehe) I 
have learnt Italian. — When will your brothers go to France ? — 
They will go thither as soon as they know French ? — When will 
they learn it ? — ^They will learn it when they have found a good 
master. — How much money shalt we have left when we have 
paid for our horses ? — ^When we haVe paid for them we shall have 
only a hundred crowns left. 


Do you gain (guadagnare) any thing by (m) that business ? — 
I do not gain much by it (gran ehe), but my brother gains a good 
deal by it. He fills his purse with money. — ^How much money 
have you gained ? — I have gained only a littlCi but my cousin 
has gained much by it. He has filled his pocket with money.— 
Why does not that man work ? — He is a good-for-nothing fellow 
(disutiJaceio), for he does nothing but eat all the day long. He 
continually fills (si riempie mai sempre) his belly with meat, so 
that he will make himself (diverrd) ill, if he continues (c<m' 
tmuare) to eat so much. — With what have you filled that bottle 1 
— ^I have filled it with wine. — Will this man take care of my 
horse ? — He will take care of it. — ^Who will take care of my ser- 
vant? — The landlord will take care of him, for he will give him 
to eat and to drink ; he will also give him a good bed to sleep in 
(per eortcarsi). — ^Does your servant take care of your horses ? — 
He takes care of them. — ^Is he taking qare of your clothes ? — ^He 
is taking care of them, for he brushes them every morning. — 
Have you ever drunk French wine ? — ^I have never drunk any. 
— ^Is it long since you ate Italian bread? — ^It is almost three 
years since I ate any. — ^Have you hurt my brother-in-law ? — ^1 
have^ot hurt him, but he has cut my finger. — What has he cut 
your finger with ? — With the knife which you have lent him! 



Is your father arrived at last ? — ^Every body says that he u 
arrived, but I have not seen him yet. — Has the physician hurt 
your son ? — He has hurt him, for he has eut his finger. — Have 
they cut off (iagUttre) that man's leg ? — ^They have cut it off. — 
Are you pleased {soddisfajUo) wiA your servant f-^— I am much 
pleased with him, for he is fit for any thing (^uoito a HUio), — 
What does he know ? — ^He knows every thing (tuUo). — Can he 
ride (andar a eavallo) \ — ^He can. — Has your brother returned 
at last from England ? — ^He has returned thence, and has brought 
you a fine horse. — Has he told his groom to bring it to me {di 
eondurmelo ^ud) ? — ^He has told him to bring it you. — What do 
you think {che dice EUa) of that horse f — I think (dico) that it is 
a fine and good one {ch' 8 beUo e humo), and beg you to lead it 
into the stable (m istalla). — In what did you spend your time 
yesterday? — ^I went to the concert, and afterwards {e poi) to 
the play.-— When did that man go down into the well ? — ^He 
went down this morning.^-Has he come up again yet {gid ris- 
aJUo)l — ^He came up an hour ago. — Where is your brother? 
-r-He is in his room* — ^Will you tell him to come down? — 1 
will tell him so, but he is not dressed yet. — Is your* friend 
still on the mountain ? — He has already come down. — ^Did you 
go up or down the river ? — ^We went down it. — ^Did my cousin 
speak to you before he started? — He spoke to me before he 
got into the coach. — Have you seen my brother? — ^I saw him 
before I went on board the ship. — Is it better to get into a 
coach than to go on board the ship (o saUr la tuxoe)! — ^It is 
not worth while to get into a coach, or to go on board tlie 
ihipf when one has no wish to travel. 

Leziane cinquantesitna nona> 



The imperfect of the indicative ie formed in all Italian verba by changing the 
termination re of the infinitive into vaA Ex. 


To apeak— I apoke, Ac. 

To believe 

-I believed, 

To hear— I heard, Ac. 
To hhve— I had, Ac. 

1. Parlare. 

2. Credere. 

3. Sentire. 
2. Avere. 


{ Parlapo, parlavi, parlava. 

c ParlaiKtmo, parlavate, parlavafu)> 

{ Credevo, credevi, credeva. 

c Credeoomo, crede«af«, credevano. 

< SentiM, aentivi, sentiva. 

c Sentivamo, aentivo/e, aentirono.' 

( Aveva, avevi, avevo. 

I Avevomo, avevo^e, averano. 

Ob9. A. There la but one exception to thia rule ; it ia the verb Mtere, to be . 

I < Eravamo, eravate, 

To be— I waa, Ac, 


Ob9. B. The imperlect is a paat tenae, which waa atill present at the time 
spoken of, and may always be recognized by uaing the two terma, " wAa 

DOING," or " USED TO DO." Ez. 

When I waa at Berlin, I often went 

to aee my friends. 
When you were in Paris, you often 

went to the Champs-Elys^es. 

Rome was at firat governed by 

Cesar waa a great man. 
Cicero waa a great orator. 
Our anceatora went a hunting every 


Quando io era a Berllno, andava 

spesso a vedere i mlei amici. 
Quando Ella era (vol eravate) in 

Parigl, Ella andava (vol andavate) 

apesso ai Campi Elisi. 
Roma era da principio goveniata dal 

Cesare era un grand' uomo. 
Cicerone era uo grand oratore. 
I noatri antenati andavano fjttl 1 

gioml a caccia. 

> The termination of th<r firat peraon of the imperfect indicative in o haa 
grown obsolete. Beaidea, the beat authora, and the Academy della Cnisca, 
have rejected it, as being contrary to ita Latin origin : eraTn, amabamf legtbam^ 
amdUbamt Aq, - 




Tkie Romana cultivated the arte and 
adeneea, and rewarded merit. 

Were you walking 7 

I waa not walking. 

Were you In Paria when the king waa 
there 7 

I was there when he waa tliere. 

Where were you when I waa In Lon- 
don 7 

At what time did youbreaklaat wlien 
you wore in Germany 7 

I breakfasted when my father break- 
Did you work when he waa working 7 

I atudied when he waa working. 

Some fish. 

Some game. 

To live. 
When i lived at my father'a, I roae 
earlier than I do now. 

When we lived in that country we went 
a fiahing of ten. 

When I waa iU, I kept in bed all day. 

Laat aummer, when I waa in the 
ooimtry, there was a great deal of 
fimit. I 

1 Romani coltivavano le arti e la 

acienze, e ricompensavano 11 me- 

Paaaeggiava EUa (passegglavate 

Non paaaeggiava. 
Era Ella (eravate vol) a Parigi quaa- 

do vierailre7 
y* era quando v* era lui. 
Ove era (eravate vol) quando io eim 

a Londra 7 
Quando faceva Ella (&cevate voi) 

colazione allorchd Ella era (era- 
vate) In A)emagna7 
Faceva colazione quando la faoeva 

mio padre. 
Lavorava Ella (lavoravate vol) 

quando lavorava lui 7 
Io atudiava quando egli lavorava. 
Del peace. 
Delia cacciagione. 
Dimorare 1. 
Quando Io dimorava da mio padre, 

mi alzava pi^ presto che nol* 

facclo adeaao. 
Quando atavamO (dimoravamo) in 

quel paeae, andavamo apeaao a 

Quando era malato, atava a lei to 

tutto 11 giomo. 
L' estate (or nell* oatate) acoraai 

essendo io aUa campagna, v' em 

gran copia di frutti. 

A thing. 
The aame thing. 
The aame man. 

It iafJl one (the aame). 


La medeaima coaa (la ateaaa eoaa). 

II medeaimo uomo (Io ateaso uomoX 
i IEi tutt' imo. 


Such a man. 
S«eh men. 
Such a woman. 
Sach thinga. 
Such men merit esteem. 

Tahf simile. 

Un tal uomo. 

Tali uominL 

Una tal donna. 


Ten uomini merltano delta atliBn. 

• JVW la a contraction of nen Io. 



Out of. 

Out of thA sAtf (the town). 

Without, or out doon. 
The church stands outside the town. 
I shall wait for you before the towif 

The town or dty guta 

The bonier, the turnpike. 

Seldom (rarely). 

Some brandy. 

The life, the livelihood. 

To get OM^s UoeUhood — by. 

I get my liTelihood by working. 
He gets his living by writing. 

I gain my money by working. 

By what does that man get his Uvell- 

To conUnue, 1o proceed, to go on. 

I eontlnue to write. 

He eontlnues his speech. 

A good appetite. 

The narrative, the tale. 
The edge, the border, the shore. 
The edge of the brook. ^ . 

The sea-shore. 
On the sea-shore. 

The shore, the water-side, the> eoast, 
the bank. 

People or folks, 
niey are good people. 
They are wleked pedple. 

Fuori di. 

Fuori della cittk. 


La chiesa d fuoii della citti. 

L'aspetterd innanzi alia porta della 

La porta della dttlL 
La barriera, la porta, U dazio. 

Raramente, or dl rado. 
Dell' acquavite. 

Chiodagnarsi U vitto (il pane) 

— col. 

Mi guadagno il vitto lavorando. 
EgU si guadagna il vitto eoUo scri- 

Guadagno U mio danaro col lavo- 

Con che el guadagna quesf vomo 

U vitto 1 


Continuare 1, proseguire 
seguitare 1. 

Continuaa scirivere. 

EgU continua 11 suo disoono. 


II racconto, la novella. 


La rivadel rusceUo. 

La spiaggia del mare. 

Sulla spiaggia del mare. 

La ripa, il lido, la sponda, I* arglne 


Sono buona gente. 

Sono eattiva gente. 



Were you loved when you were at Dresden {Dresda) ? — I was 
not hated. — ^Was your brother esteemed when he was in London f 


— ^He was loved and esteemed. — ^When were you in Spain {in 
Itpagnd) ? — ^I was there when you were there. — ^Who was loved 
and who was hated ? — ^Those that were good, assiduous, and obe- 
dient, were loved, and those wh(^were nauglity, idle, and disobe- 
dient, were punished, hated, and despised.*— Were you in Berlin 
when the king was there f — ^I was there when he was there. — 
Was your uncle in London when I was there 1 — He was there 
when you were there. — ^Where were- you when I was at Dresden ? 
— ^I was in Paris.— Where was your father when you were in 
Vienna ?-^He was in England. — ^At what o'clock did you break- 
fast when you were in England ? — ^I breakfasted when my uncle 
breakfasted. — ^Did you work when he was working ? — I studied 
when he was working. — ^Did your brother work when you were 
working ?— He played when I was working. — On what (&' eke) 
lived our ancestors ?— They lived on nothing but fish and game, 
for they Went a hunting and a fishing every day. — What sort of 
people were the Romans % — ^They were very good people, fiur 
they cultivated the arts and sciences, and rewarded merit. — ^Did 
you often go to see your friends when you were at Berlin 1 — ^1 
went to see them often. — ^Did you sometimes go to the Champs 
Elys^es when you were at Paris ? — I often went thither 


What did you do when you lived in that country ?— When we 
lived there we often went a hunting.-— Did you not go out a walk- 
ing {jpa99eggiare) ? — ^I went out a walking sometimes. — ^Do you 
rise early ? — ^Not so early as you ; but when I lived at my un- 
de's I rose earlier than I do now. — Did you sometimes keep in 
bed when you stayed at your uncle's ? — When I was ill I kept in 
bed all day. — ^Is there much fruit {Awi gran copia difrutU) this 
year ? — I do not know, but last summer {neHa Mcorxa esiaie)^ when 
I was in tne country, there was a great deal of fruit. — What do 
you get your livelihood by ? — I get my livelihood by working. — 
Does your friend get his livelihood by writing ? — ^He gets it by 
speaking and writing. — Do these gentlemen get their livelihood 
by working ? — ^TJiey g^t it by doing nothing (Jucende niente)^ for 
they are too idle to work. — ^By what has your friend gained that 


money ? — He has gained it by working. — ^By what did you get 
your livelihood when you were in England ? — I got it by writing. 
— Did your cousin get his livelihood by writing ? — He got it by 
working. — Have you ever seen such a person ? — I have never 
seen such a one (una simile), — Have you already seen our church ? 
— ^I have not seen it yet. — Where does it stand (essere) 1 — It 
stands outside the town. — If you wish to see it, I will go with you 
in order to show it you. — ^Upon what do the people live that in- 
habit the sea^shore ? — They live on fish alone. — Why will you 
not go a hunting any more ? — I hunted yesterday the whole day, 
and I killed nothing but an ugly bird, so that I shall not go a 
hunting any more. — Why do you not eat ? — ^Because I have not 
a good appetite. — Why does your brother eat so much 1 — Because 
he has a good appetite. 


Whom are you looking for ? — I am looking for my little bro- 
ther. — If you wish to find him you must go (hisogna andar) into 
the ^rarden, ibr he is there.; — The garden is large, and I shall not 
be able to find him, if you do not tell me in which part (in qucU 
parte) of the garden he is (na, subj.) — He is sitting under the 
large tree under which we were sitting yesterday. — ^Now I shall 
find him. — Why did you not bring me my clothes ?— They were 
not made, so that I could not bring them, but I bring them you 
now. — ^You have learnt your lesson : why has nqt your sister 
learnt hers ? — She has taken a walk with my mother, so thM she 
oould not learn it, but she will learn it tp-morrow. — When will 
you correct my exercises ?-r*I will correct them whan you bring 
me (mi porie r , future) those of your sister. — ^Do you think you 
have made faults in them ? — ^I do not know. — ^If you have made 
faults you have not studied your lessons weH ; for the lessons 
must be learnt well (hisogna imparar bene) to make no faults in 
the exercises. — It is all the same : if you do not correct them to- 
day, I shall not learn them before to-morrow (non U ig^parcrd se 
nan domoni). — ^You must not (Ella non deve) make any faults in 
your exercises, for you have all that is necessary to prevent you 
from making any. 

Lezione sessaniesimcL 


(Pastato remoio,) 

Thi» pMt tenie U fonned from the InfinitiTe by changing the tennlnatloni 
mr§t m^ ire, into ai,H,iL Ex. 

PrtUriU Definittti 

( Parlmi parlotfs parld. 

c Parlommo, parkwfe, parlarpiw. 

< Credel, credesti, credd 

c Credemmo, credeate, erederono.' 

( Sentii, eentiati. aenti. 

( Sentimmo, aentiate, aentirono. 

To apeak— I apoke, Ac 1. Parlar«. 

TV> beUere— I beUeved, 2. Credera. 

To hear— I heard, Ac 3. Sentlra. 

Ob$. A. The third peraon aingnlar of the preterite definite haa in the regul&r 
▼eiba ahraya the grare accent (*). 

To havo— I had, Ac Avera*. 
To be— I waa, Ac Eaaere*. 

( Ebbi, aveati, ebbc 

\ Ayemmo, aveatCi ebbero. 

% Fui, foati, ftt. 

C Fummo, foate, ftirono. 

06a. B. The irregularity of an Italian Terb almoat alwaya folia on the pre- 
teritQ definite Thla ia irregnlar only in the firat and third peraona aingular, and 

1 Almoat all the verba of the aecond coi:\jugation have a double form for the 
firat and third peraona aingular, and third peraon plural, and Inatead of «, ^, 
iTMia^ they end in «ttj, ettd, eUero^ aa: ertdtrt^ to believe 
Credei, or credettl, 

Credd or credette { 

Crederono, or credettero. 
Practice alone can teach which form ia to be preferred. We have, however, 
aacertained that when the verb enda In tert the preference ia to be -given to the 
first form, aa : 

Potere, to be able (cai^ — potei, I waa able. 
Battere, .to beat " — battel, I did beat. 
Eaiatere, to eziat " — eaiatci, I exlated, Ac 



the third penon plurd, which almost invariably end ihe first person singulai 
In 1, the third person singular in e, a;id ihe third person plural in eroi Ex. 

To please — pleased (past part.). 

I pleased, Ac. 

To know — known, 
I knew, Ac. 

To hold^held. 
I held, Ac 

To wish — wished, 
I wished, Ac. 

To read — read. 
I read, Ac. 

To iake—4ook. 
I took, Ac. 

Piacere — piaciuto, 

PrderiU DefiniUs 
( Piacqu!, placesti, piacque. 

I Piacemmo, piaceste, piacquero * 

Conoscere — conosduto* 

r Conobbi, conosceati, conobbe. 
< Conoscem- conosce^te conobbe- 
V mo, ro 

Tenere — tenuto 

k Tenni, tenesti, 

\ Tenemmo, teneste, 

VoUre — voluto, 


i Volli, 
! Volemmo, 

Leggere — letio. 
{ Lessi, leggesti, 

C Leggemmo, leggeste, 




Prendere — preso. 
{ Presi, prendesti, prese. 

I Prendemmo, prendeste, presero.* 

* All verbs having e before the termination ere of the infinitive are .conju- 
gated in the same manner, as : nateeref to be bom ; toeere, to be silent ; giaeere, 
to lie, to be situate; nuocerCf to hurt; except euaeere^ to cook, bake; and conot- ' 
fere, to know ; which^have in the pret. def. eoeei and conobbi. 

' The principal verbs which, besides the above three, double in the preterite 
definite the consonant in the first and third persons Angular and third person 
plural are : aterej to have ; Mi^ I had : rompere, to break ; ruppij I broke : 
cadere, to fall ; eaddi, 1 fell : aapere, to kiiow ; eeppi, I knew : piovert, to rain ; 
piowe, it rained. 

* All verbs whose first person singular of the indicative terminates in ggo^ co^ 
M7, primo, cuoto, have their preterite definite terminated in an, as : Dieoj I say ^ 
dieeif I said : «erteo, I write ; acriaei, I wrote : eeprimo, I express ; eepresai, 1 
expressed : acuoto, I shake ; Koen, I shook : peretwiOf 1 strike ; pereoeei^ I struck. 

' All verbs whose first person singular of the indicative ends In do have their 
preterite definite either in on, eai, wi, osi^ or 1441, according to the letters that 
precede this termination, as : perntado^ T persuade ; perstuuif I persuaded 



To cAoM^— <AMfn. 
lehoae, Ae. 



i Sceisi, scegliestl, aoelse. 

I Soeglieinino, sceglieste, scdaero.* 

Obt. C» The learner has s/n/y to make himself acquainted with the Irre- 
gularity of the first person singular of this tense ; this once known, all the 
others are. For, in addition to the first person singular, rhe irregular persons 
of this tense are the third person singular and third person plural, all the other 
persons are always regulsr. The first person singular, therefore, ending in t, 
thethlrd person singular changes t Into e, and the third person plural into en, 
as may be seen from the above examples. This rule holds good throughout 
the Italian language. All the other rules that can be given on the formation ol 
this tense in irregular verbs are contained in the above five notes. 


This tense is so called, because it always expresses an action completed at a 
time specified, either by an adverb or some other circumstance. Ex. 

I had done reading when he entered. 

Vou had lost your purse, vhen J found 
mine, \ 

Avcva finite dl leggere, quando egU 

Ella aveva (vol avevate) perduto la 

di Lei (la vostra) borsa, quando 

/roMs lamia. 

Obe.,D. These examples show that the pluperfect Is formed in Italian, as 
In English, with the imperfect of the auxiliary, and the past participle of the 
verb you coiy'ugate. 

We had dined, when he arrived. 

The king had named an admiral, when 
he heard of you. 

After having spoken, you vent away. 
After shaving, / tpaehed my face. 

After having warmed themselves, they 
went into the garden. 

Avevamo pranxato, quando egli or- 

rich (orgupiM). 
II re aveva fatto nn ammiraglio, 

quendo gU ei paHb di Lei (or qwrn- 

do gU partarino di Lei). 
Di^o aTer parUto, Ella se ne andb,' 
Dopo essermi sbarbato, mi lavai la 

Dapo essersi scaldati, tMndartmo In 


chiedo, 1 ask; diieei, lasked: rwfo, I gnaw; row, I gnawed: ddudOy X shut; 
chiusi, I did shot : fondoy I melt ; fush I melted. 

« Verbs whose termination o of the first person singular indicative is pre- 
ceded by a consonant, which in its turn is preceded by one of the liquids /, n, r. 
with which they form the syllables Igo, nco, rdo, have their preterite definite in 
Ui, net, or rei, as : rtnco, I vanquish ; rinei, 1 vanquished i mardo, I bite , marm, 
I bit, Ac, 



Ab toon Q» the bell rang, you aieofte. 

Ax twm as they called me, I got up. 
A» soon as he was ready, he came to 

see me. 
As ttofi as we had our money, we 

agreed to ihaL • 
As soon as he had his horse, fu came to 

show it me. 
After having tried several times, thsy 

succeeded in doing it. 
As soon as I saw him, I obtained what 

I wanted. 
As soon as I spoke to him, he did what 

I told him. 
The business was soon over. 

Tbsto che la campana susnA^ Ella si 

risvegliu (voi vi ristegliaste), ' 
Thsto che mi dUamarano, mi te9ai. 
.Tbsto che fu pronto, vemu a ve 

Tosto du noi oDemmo 11 nostro da 

naro, convenimmo dl cid. 
TVwto che ebbe l\ suo cavallo, venm 

a mostrarmelo. 
Dopo aver provato parecchie volte, 

pervennero a &rlo. 
Tosto che lo vidi, attenni cid di cui 

aveva bisogno. 
Thsto che gU parlai, fece cid che gli 

L* affare fu ben tosto fatto. 


(Passato anteriore.) 

This tense is compounded of the preterite definitive of the auxiliary, and the 
post participle of the v^rb you conjugate. It Is used (from its name anUriors, 
anterior,) to express an action past before another whith is likewise past, and 
is hardly ever used except after one of the conjunctions : 

As soon as. 



No sooner. 

< Tosto che. 
( Subito che. 

Dopo che. 
( Allorchd. 
C Qoando. 

Non toBto. 


It also expresses au action as quickly done* * 


As soon as I had finished my work, I 

carried it to him. 
Am soon as I had dressed my«e[f, I went 

When they had done ptayingy they be> 

gan singing. 
When I had dined, it struck twelve. 

ijs soanas'the guests were ossenMedt 
the rsnast commenoed. 


TVsto die Mi Jnito U mio lavoro, 

gUelo portal. 
7\)sto du mi fui vestUo, uscil. 

Quanif OhsTO Jbnto di giuocare, si 

ihisero a eantare. 
Quando ebbi pranxalo, suond 

Tbsto che i convitati si fUrano ra- 

unati^ il banchetto comincid. 



I had aooD done eaUng. 

After the eoldien had pillaged the 

town, they alanghteied without pity 

the women and cliildren. 

Seareeijf had w arri9tdf when we were 
conducted to the king. 

He had nn tooner perceioed tt»^ than he 

advanced towards na. 
When h* had done reading, he ex. 

When hehadwU undeniood, he left. 

EbH ben prealoJbUto di manglare. 
Dopo the i eoldaU ebbero aaedug* 

giata la dttft, truddarono apia- 

tatamente la donne e 1 lanci- 

Appena fummo ghaUi, ehe ci d 

conduaae {or che ci conduaaero) 

iVbfi toeia egK ci Me ibarfti che d 

aranxd verao noi. 
Quoiuf ebbe fbdio dl leggera, eada- 

Quonif ebbe eapUo bene, parti. 

To dU {to lose Ufe).' 

I die, thou dieat, he or ahe diea. 
We, yon, they die. 

I died, Ac 

Shall or will you die 7 

I ahpOl die. 
The man died thla morning, and hia 

wife died alao. ' 
The man is dead. 
Tbid woman died this morning. 

Morire ; past part, morto. 

Hnoio, muori, muore. 

Horiamo, morlte, muoionc 

c Horli, moriati, mor). 

\ Horimmo^ moriste, morirow 

Morr& Ella (morrete 701)1 


L' uomo d roorto queata mattina e 
aua moglie pure d morta. 

L' nomo d atorto. 

La donna d morta queata mane. 

To km. 

IkUled, Ac 

To iellj to relate. 
TIm spectacles 
The acddent 


I wrote, Ac 

Uccidere * ; past part, ueciso, 

PreUriU depdU. 
k Ucdai, ucddeati, uodae. 

C Ucddemmo, noddeate, ucciaero. 

RaccoiUare 1. 

L* ottioo. 
L' acddente. 

Scrwere 2 — scritio, 

PrtteriU definite. 
t Scriaai, acrlveati, seriase. 

\ Scrlvemmo, acrlTeate, acrisaero. 

What did y m do w^ien you had finished your letter ? — ^I weni 
my brother, who took me to the theatre, where I had the plea* 


sure to find one of my friends whom I had not seen tor ten years 
(da died anni). — What didst thou do after getting up this morn^ 
ing ? — When I had read the letter of the Polish (polacco) count, 
I went to see {uscii per vedere) the theatre of the prince, which I 
had not seen before (nonr-^nncora). — What did your father do 
when he had breakfasted ? — He shaved and went out. — What did 
your friend do after he had been a walking ? — He went to the 
baron (il barone). — ^Did the baron cut the meat after he had cut 
the bread 1 — ^He cut the bread after he had cut the meat. — When 
do you set out ? — ^I do not set out till (nan parto che) to-morrow ; 
for before I leave I will once more sea my good friends. — What 
did your children do when they had breakfasted ? — They went a 
walking with their dear preceptor (precettore). — Where did your 
uncle go to after he had warmed himself? — ^He went nowhere. 
After he had warmed himself, he undressed and went to bed. — 
At what o'clock did he get up 1 — He got up at sunrise. — ^Did you 
wake him ? — ^I had no need to wake him, for he had got up befdre 
me. — ^What did your cousin do when he heard of (quando apprese) 
the death (la morte) of his best friend ? — ^He wa» much afflicted, 
and went to bed without saying a word (senxa dtr motto), — Did 
you shave before you breakfasted V — I shaved when I had break- 
fasted. — ^Did you go to bed when you had eaten supper ? — When 
[ had eaten supper I wrote my letters, and when I had written 
them I went to bed. — At what (di che) are you distressed (cffiUta) 1 
— ^I am distressed at that accident. — Are you afflicted at the 
death (delta morte) of your relation ? — ^I am much afljicted at it 
(ne).-<— When did your relation die ? — He died last month. — Of 
whom do you complain ? — I complain of your boy. — ^Why do you 
^mplain of him ? — ^Because he has killed the pretty dog (il tag- 
noUno) which t received from one of my friends. — Of what has 
your uncle complained ? — He has complained of what you have 
done. — Has he complained of the letter which I wrote to him \h» 
day before yesterday ? — ^He has complained of it. 

Why did you not ^tay longer in Holland ? — When I was there 
the living was dear, and I had not money enough to stay ther# 


longer. — ^What sort of weather was it when you were on the way 
to Vienna ? — ^It was very bad weather, for it was stormy (teiii- 
parale)f and snowed and rained very heavily {diroUamentey — 
Where have you been since I saw you ? — ^We sojourned long on 
the sea-shore, until a ship arrived {faio alP arrivo d' tm — ) which 
brought us to France. — Will you contihue your narrative 1 — 
Scarcely had we arrived in France when we were taken (coii- 
durre *) to the king, who received us very well, and sent us back 
to our country. — A peasant havmg seen that old men {U veeehio) 
used (servirsi di) spectacles (ocehiaH) to read, went to an optician 
(«n oUico) and asked for a pair {e ne domando). The peasant 
then took a book, and having opened it, said the spectacles were 
not good. The optician put another pair («» aUro paio) of the 
best which he could find in his shop {la hetiega) upon his nose ; 
but the peasant being still unable to read, the merchant said to 
him : <' My friend, perhaps you cannot read at all ? " ^ " If I could 
{se sapessi leggere)^'' said the peasant, << I should not (fum avrei 
biscgno di) want your spectacles." — Henry (Enrico) the Fourth, 
meeting one day in his palace (il palaxzo) a man whom he did 
not know (ehe gU era sconotcitUo)^ asked him to whom he belonged 
(appartemessef imp. subj.). <'I belong to myself/' replied the 
man. " My friend," said the king, << you have a stupid (stoUdo) 
master (padroue),** Tell us (La ei raeamti) what has happened 
to you lately (V aliro giome). — ^Very willingly (henvoletUieri) : 
but on condition (coUa amdizitme) that you will listen to me with- 
out interrupting (interrompere *) me. — We will not interrupt you: 
you may be (pud esseme) sure of it. — Being lately at the theatre, 
I san the Speaking Picture and the Weeping (piangere*) 
Woman performed (vedere * rappresentare). As I did not find 
this latter play (quest* ultima commedia) very amusing (troppo 
dUegra per me)^ I went to the ooncerti where the music (la musica) 
caused me (cagianare) a violent head-ache (tm vkilenio mat di 
testa). I then left (loMdare) the concert, cursing it (nuiMicendo\ 
and went straight (emene andai difihio) to the madhouse (lo ape- 
dale deipaxd\ in order to see my cousin. On entering (nUrando) 
the hospital of my cousin, I was struck with horror ( fui preso d* 
orrore) at seeing (vedendo) several madmen (U pazzo), who came 
up to me (awicinarsi ad uno), jumpini^ (saliare) and hovling 



{urlare). — What did you do then ? — I did the same {aUrettanto), 
wad they set up a laugh (mettersi * a - ridere) as they whhdrew 

Lezione sessantesima primtu 

To employ. 

When we received some raoney, we 
employed U in parchaaing good 

When you bought of that merchant, 
you did not always pay in cash. 

Has your alster succeeded in mending 

your crarat 7 
She has succeeded in it. 
Has the woman returned from the 

market 1 
She has not yet returned. 
Did the women agree to that 1 
They agreed to it. 
Where is your sister gone? 
She is gone to church. 

Here is, here are. 

There is, there are. 

There is m^ book. 
Behold my book. 
There is my pen. 
Behold my pen. 
There it is. 
There they are. 
Here I am. 

Impiegare 1. 

Quando ricevevamo del danaroi 1' 

impiegavamo a comprare del 

buoni llbii. 
Quando Ella comprava da questo 

mercante, non pagava semprs in 

contantl. . 

Sua sorella ha dessa potuto racoomo- 

dare la di Lei cravatta 1 
L' ha potuto. 
La donna d dessa ritomata dal mer- 

Non n* d peranco ritomata. 
Sono convenute di old le donnel 
Ne son convenute. 
Qv* d andata la di Lei soreOal 
E andata in chieaa. 


Ecco 11 mio libro. 

Ecco la mia panna. 

Eccolo. Ftm, eccola. 
Eccoli. '< eccole. 

Ofts. A. The pronouns are joined to the word eoeo in the following mannar 



tliora 01 Here I am* 
« " thou art. 

••* •' heia. 
« ** Bheta. 

lam there. 
There ia aomc. 

Thero ia the man. 

There ia the woman. 
Thatia the reason why. 
Therefore 1 say ao. 

My feet are cold. 
Hia feet are cold. 
Her lianda are cold. 
My body ia cold. 
My head hiirta me. 

Hia leg hurta faim. 

Her leg harta her. 
He haa a pain in his aide. 
Her tongue hurta her very much. 

There or here we are. 
" *• you are. 

" " they are. 

" " they are. 

Sing, PiMT, 

Eccomi. EoeocL 

EccotL EccovL 

Eccolo. Eoooli. 

Eccola. Eccolc 

Eocomici, or eccomiTi. 

Ecco 1' uomo. 
Ecco la donna. 
Ecco p^rchd. 
Ecco perchi lo dico 

t Ho freddo ai piedi. 
t Egli ha freddo ai pledi. 
f Esse ha freddo alle manL 
t Ho freddo a tutto il coipo. 
t Mi duole la teata (mi & 

t Gli fa male la gambal 
t Le fa male la gamba. 
t Ha male ad un lato. 
t Le duole molto la lingoa. 

male U 

A plate. 
A dean plate. 
Clean platea. 

Un tondo. 

Un tondo pnlico. 

Dei tondi puliti. 

The aon-in-law. 
The atep-son. 
The daughter-in-law. 
The step-daughter. 
The iather-in-law. 
The atep-iather. 
The mother-in-law. 
The step-mother. 

11 genero. 
II figiiaatro. 
La nnora. 
11 anocero. 
11 patrigne. 
La matrigna. 

The progress. 
To impn>Te. 
To improve in learning. 

tlie progress of a malady 

t Far dei progresai. 
t Far dei progress! negli atndii, i 
II progreaaa {or i progresai) d' 



What hu become of your aunt 7 

I do not know what has become of 

What has become of your sisters 1 
I cannot tell you what has become of 


Wine seUs well 

Wine will sell well next year. 

That door shuto easily. 

That window does not open easily. 

That picture is seen £ur off. 
Winter clothes are not worn in sum- 
That is not said. 

Tliat cannot be comprehended. 
To conceive^ to comprehend. 

It is clear. 

According to circomatanoes. 
The circumstance. 
That is according to drcumatances. 
It depends. 

Sorry, displeased. 

To scold. 

To he angry with somebody. 

{ Ch' d avvenuto della di Lei zia9 
Non so che ne sia avvenuto {mdj.). 

Ch' d avvenuto delle di Lei soreliel 
Non posso dirle che sia avvenuto di 
loro (»ujbj.). 

II vino ha grande smercio.' 
Vi ha molta ricerca di vino. 
II vino avri grande smercio V anno 

L* anno venturo U vino si vender^ 

Questa porta si chlude agevol- 

Questa finestra non s* apre &cil- 

Questo quadro si vede da lontano. 
I vestiti del verno non si portano 

nella state. 
CiO non si dice. 
•Questo non si capisce 
Questo non si concepisce. 

Concepire (concepisco) ; past 
part, concepito; preterite 
def. coneepiL 

£: chiaro. 


t Secondo le occorrenze. 
L* occorrenza {or la drcostania). 
Secondo le circostanze. 
Dipende (dalle circostanze). 

Ck>ntento (dl before in£). 
Soddisiatto (di before inf.). 
Halcontento, increscloso. 

Sgridare I. 

'Essere iSi eoHera con q[ualcuno, 
Essere indispettito coniro quoL 

Nutrire mal animo contro pud- 


» SmsrdOt though in constant use, has not been wnrtlonrfl yi r by la Crutes 



To be angry about something. 

What are you angry about? 

Are yon aorry for having done it 7 
I am aorry for it 

Are you rich 1 


Are the women liandaomel 

They are; they are rich and 

Are you from France 7 


What countrywoman is a)ie7 

She ia IhAn Italy. 

Essen indispettUo per fuakhe 

t dnal i V oggetto che La indiapeC 

t Le rincntoe d* aTerio ftttot 
Me ne lincreace. 



Sono belle le donne7 

Lo aono ; aono rioehe o belle. 

t EEllaFranceae7 iBUadl 

t Di qoal paeae d deaaa? 

Eaaadd* Italia. 




Happy, lucky; 
Unhappy, unlucky. 




la it uaeful to write a good deal 7 
It la uaefuL 
la it well (right) to take the property of 

It la wrong (bad). 
It la not ifell (wrong). 

Well, light. 

Bad, wrong. 




Scorteee (Unpnlito). 







fe egli utile di aeriver mohot 


t, egli lecito di prendera I' averedagU 

altri 7 (o hi loba degl' altri). 
Non va-bene (ata male). 
Non i lecito. 

That la of no nae. 

What is that 7 

I do not know what that la. 


I do not know what It la. 

C t A che aerre cid 7 

ft Achegiova7 

( t Cid non i buono a nienta. 

c t Cid non aenre a niente. 

Che i questo 7 

Non 80 che sia {prueni aubj.), 

e Non so che sia (mbj.). 
( Non so che cosa aia (/Tea. aii^ V 



What it your name 1 
My name is Ofaarlea. 

What do yoa call this in Italian 7 
How do you express this in Italian 7 
What is that called 1 
That flower is called anemone 

r Come si ehiama T 
2 dual d il di Lei nome 1 
( Che nome ha Ella 1 
i Mi cbiamb Carlo. 
I Ho nome Carlo. 

Come si ehiama cid In itallano 1 

Come si dice questo in itallano 1 

Come si ehiama cid? 

Questo fiore ha nome anemone. 

George^ Third. I Giorgio terzo. * 

Cbt. B, Alter the Christian names of sovereigns the Italians employ tha 
ordinal numbers, as in English, but without using the article. 

Lewis (he Fourteenth. 
Henry the Fourth. 
Henry the First. 
Henry the Second. 
Charles the Fifth spoke seTeral 
European languages fluently. 
Europe, European. 

Luigi decimo quarto. 

Enrico quarto. 

Enrico primo. 

Enrico secondo. 

Carlo Quinto parlava speditaments 

parecchie lingue europee. 
Europa, europeo. 


Rather— than. 
Rather than squander my money, I 

I will rather pay him than go thither. 
I will rather bum the coat than wear 

He has arrived sooner than I. 
A half-worn coat. 
To do things imperfisctly (by lialTes). 


Piuttosto che (di). 

Piuttostoche disslpara 11 mlo dai* 

naro, lo conserverd. 
Lo pagherd piuttosto che andarri. 
Abbnicierd 1' abito piuttosto che por> 

Egli d arrivato prima di me. 
Un abito mezzo logoro. 
Far le cose a metA (a mezzo). 


Did your mother pray for any one when she went to church ? 
— She prayed for her children. — ^For whom did we prAy ?— You 
prayed for your parents. — ^For whom did our parents pray ?— 
They prayed for their children. — ^When you received your money 
what did you do with it {che ne facevano) 7 — We employed it in 
purchasing (a eamprare) some good hooks. — ^Did you employ 
youra also (fntre) in purchasing hooks ? — ^No ; I employed it in 
aitfi^ting (a soccorrere) the poor (i paveri). — Did you not pay your 

880 8IXTT«FI£ST U»80N. 

tailor ?-— We did pay hiin.<"Did you always pay in cash when 
you bought of that merchant? — We always paid in cash, for we 
never bought on credit. — ^Has your sister succeeded in mending 
{ha potuio raceomodare) your stockings ?— She has succeeded in 
it {P ha pohtto). — Has your mother returned from church ? — She 
has not yet returned. — Whither is your aunt gone T — She is 
gone to church. — ^Whither are our cousins (/«».) gone ?— They 
are gone to the concert. — Have they not yet returned from it ? — 
They have not yet returned. — ^Did you forget any thbg when you 
went to school ? — We often forgot our books. — ^Where did you 
forget them ? — We forgot them at the school. — ^Did we forget any 
thing ? — ^You forgot nothing. 

Who is there ^ — It is I (sanio). — ^Who are those men ? — ^They 
are foreigners who wish to speak to you. — Of what country are 
they ? — They are Americans.— -Where is my book ? — ^There it 
is. — And my pen ? — ^Here it is. — ^Where is your sister ? — ^There 
she is.— Where are our cousins (Jem.) ? — There they are. — 
Where art thou, John {Giovanni) ? — Here I am.— Why do your 
children live in France ? — ^They wish to learn Frendi ; that is 
the reason why they live in France. — Why do you sit near the 
fire ? — My feet and hands are cold ; that is the reason why I sit 
near the fire. — Are your sister's hands cold ? — ^No ; but her feet 
are cold. — ^What is the matter with your aunt ? — Her leg hurts 
her. — Is any thing the matter with you ? — My head hurts me. — 
What is the matter with that woman ? — Her tongue hurts her 
very much. — Why tlo you not eat ? — I shall not eat before I have 
a {prisna d^ aver) good appetite. — Has your sister a good appetite ? 
— She has a very good appetite ; that is the reason why she eats 
so much.-— If you have read the books which I lent you, why do 
you not return them to me ?— I intend reading them once more 
{aneor una volia) ; that is the reason why I have not yet returned 
them to you ; but I will return them to you as soon as I have read 
them a second time (per la seconda volta). — ^Why have you not 
brought my shoes ? — They were not made, therefore I did not 
bring them ; but I bring them you now : here they are. — Why 
has your daughter not learnt her exercises ? — She has taken a 


walk with her companion ; that is the reason why she has not 
learnt them : but she promises to learn them to-morrow, if you do 
not scold (sgridare) her. 

A French officer {uffinale) having arrived {essendxi arrivato) at 
the court {la corte) of Vienna, the empress Theresa (Teresa) 
asked (damandare) him, if he believed that the princess of N., 
whom he had seen the day before (la vigilia), was (fosse, subj.) 
really the handsomest woman in the (del) world, as was Said. 
" Madam," replied (rispondere *) the officer, " I thought so yes- 
terday." — How do you like that meat ? — I like it very well. — 
May I ask you for (Oserei domandark) a piece of thatiish? — ^If 
you will have the goodness (la hontd) to pass (porgere) me your 
plate, I will give you some.- —Would you have the goodness to 
pour me out some drink (di zirsamu da here, or di mescemU) ? — 
With much pleasure. — Cicero (Cicerone) seeing his son-in-law, 
who was very short (piccoUssimo), arrive (venire) with a long 
sword (cori una lunga spada) at his side (al laio), said, " Who has 
fastened (aUaccare) my son-in-law to this sword V 

What has become of your uncle ? — ^I will tell you what has 
become of him. Here is the chair (la eedia) upon which he oflen 
sat (essere seduto), — Is he dead ? — ^He is dead. — ^When did he 
die? — ^He died two years ago, — I am Yery much grieved at it. — 
Why do you not sit down ? — ^If you will stay with me, I will sit 
down ; but if you go I shall go along with you. — What has 
become of your aunt 1 — I do not know what has become of her. 
— ^Will you tell me what has become of your sister 1 — I will tell 
you what has become of her. — ^Is she dead ? — She is not dead. — 
What has become of her 1 — She is gone to Vienna.— »What has 
become of your sisters ?— -I cannot tell you what has become of 
them, for I have not seer them these two years. — Are your parents 
still alive ? — They are dead.— How long is it since your cousin 
(Jem.) died ?— -It is six months since she died. — Did the wine 
sell well last year ? — ^It did not sell very well ; but it will sell 
better next year, for there will be a great deal, and it will not be 
dear— Why do you open the door? — ^Do you not see how it 


smokes here ? — ^I ses it ; but you must (hisogna) open the window 
instesd of opening the door.-^The window does not open easily ; 
that is the reason why I open the .door. — When will you shut it ? 
— ^I will shut it as soon as there is no {ehe fion vi tara) more 
smoke. — ^Did you often go a fishing when you were in that 
country ? — We often went a fishing and a hunting. — ^If you will 
go with us into the country you will see my &ther's castle. — ^You 
are very polite^ Sir ; but I haye seen that castle already. 

When did you see my father's castle 1 — ^I saw it when I was 
trsTelling (viaggiando) last year. — ^It is a very fine castle, and is 
seen far off.— rHow is that said ?-^That is not said. — Thatcannot 
be comprehended (ftort si concepUce) ; cannot every thing be ex- 
pressed in your language ?-— Every thing can be expressed, but 
not as in yours. — Will you^rise early to-morrow ? — It will depend 
upon circumstances- {tecando) ; if I go to bed early I shall rise 
early, but if I go to bed late I shall rise late.— Will you love my 
children ?— If they are good I shall love them.-— Will you dine 
with us to-morrow ?— If you get ready {far preparare) the food 
I like I shall dine with you. — ^Have you already reaSi the letter 
which you received this morning ? — ^I have not opened it yet. — 
When will you read it ?— I shall read it as soon as I have time 
{che ne tmrd U tempo). — Of what use is that ? — ^It is of no use. — 
Why have you picked it up? — ^I have picked it up in order 
to fibow it you.'-^Can you tell me what it is ? — ^I cannot tell 
you, for I do not know ; but I will ask {domandare a) my 
brother, who will tell you. — ^Where did you find it ? — ^I found 
it on the shore of the river, near the wood. — ^Did you perceive 
it from a&r? — ^I had no need to perceive it from afar, for I 
passed by the side of the river.— Have you ever seen such a 
thing % — ^Never.-— Is it useful to speak much ? — ^It is, according 
to circumstances : if one wishes to learn a foreign {straidero) 
language, it is useful to speak a great deal. — Is it as useful to 
write as to speak ? — ^It is more useful to speak than to write ; but, 
in order to learn a foreign language, one must {Usi^na) do both 
(VvnoeV dUro).—U it useful to write all that one says ?— That 
is useless. 

Lezione sessantesima seco?ida. 

As to {as for). 

As to me. 

Km to that I do not know what to Bay. 

I do not know what to do. 

I do not know where to go. 

He doea not know what to answer* 

We do not know what to bay. 

To die cf a duoase. 

She died of the small-poz. 
The small-pox. 
The fever. 
The intermittent lever. 

The apoplexy. 

He had a cold fit. 

He has an agua , 

His fever has returned. 

He has been struck with apoplexy. 

To strike. 
To he nwe of a thing. 

I am sure of that. 

I am sure that she has arrived. 
I am sure of it. 

To happen. 

Something has happened. 

In quanio a, or quanto a. 
( Clnanto a me. 
c In quanto a me. 

Quanto a cid, che dira. 

Non so che fare. 

Non so dove andare. 

Non sa che risppndere. 

Non sappiamo che comprare. 

Morire* d* una malaUia. 

Esse d morta del vaiuolo. 

II vaiuolo. 

La febbre. 

La febbre Intermiti^nte. 
I L' attacco d' apoplessia. 
[ II colpo apppletico, V apoplessia. 

Egli aveva nn accesso di febbre. 

& preso^dalla febbre. 

Gli d ritomata la feblnre. 

EgU 6 state colpito d' apoplessia. 

CoJpire {colpisco^ &c.) 

SiCurOy certo (fem. sicura, 

Esser sicuro (certo) di quakhe 

[ Ne sono sicuro (certo). 
I Sono certo (^curo) di cid. 
Sono certo ch* essa i arrivata. 
Ne sono certo (sicuro). 

'Accadere*; p. ^^ri. accaduto. 
(Conjugated like cadere, Less. LI.) 
PrtUriU Definite. 
Accaddi, accadesti, accadde. 
Accademmo, accadeste, accaddero, 

[Used only in the 3d pen.] 
E accaduto qualche oosa. 



Nothing hu happened. 
What hat happened 1 
What has happened to herl 
She has had an accident 

Non i accadoto niente. 
Ch' d accadnto 1 
Eaaa ha avuto un acddente 

To shed. 

To pour out, 

A tear. 

To shed tears. 

To pour out .some drink. 
I poor oat some drink for that man. 
With tears in his, her, our, or my eyea. 

fSpargere* 2 ; p. part, tpano 
Prtteriie IkftniU, 
Sparai, sptrgesti, spaite. 

Sparge'jimo, spargeste, sparMi* 

Versare 1. 

Spargere lagrime. 
Versar da here (mesoere). 
Verso da here a qaest* uomo. 
CoUe hq^rime agli occhL 

Sweet, mild. 
Soar, add. 
Some iwvet wine. 
A mUd air. 
A mild Mphyr. 
A soft Bleep. 
Nothing makes life more agreeable 
than the society o( and intercoarse 
with, onr friends. 


Acido, aeida. 
Del Tino dolee. 
Un' aria dolce. 
Un dolce seffiro. 
Un dolce sonno. 
t Non avri cosa che rmda hi vitaco: i 

dolce quanto la societA e il Lom- 

mercib del nostri amici. 

Obt. A. Tkere i«, in the above signification, may be rendered in seven dlfler 
sot manners, viz. avn, erri, vi ka, vil^ t^ ha^ t^ ^ if t 

To repair to. 

To repair to the army, to one's regi- 
An army, a regiment 
I repaired to tliat place. 
He repaired thither. 

Rendersi a (pret. def. re*t, 
rendesH, rese^ &c.) 

Rendersi all' eserdto, al suo reggl 

Un eserdto, mi reggimento. 
Mi sono reso a questo luogo. 

To cry, to scream, to ehridt. 
To help, 

I hdp him to do it 
I hdp yon to write. 
I will help you to work. 

Gridare 1. 

Aiutare 1 (governs the accas 
and takes a before the inf.^ 
L' aiuto a larlo. 
L' aiuto a scrivere. 
Voc^io aintarla a lavorare 



To cry for help. 
The help. 

( Chiamare aiuto^ 
c Domandar Boecorso. 
L' aluto, il Boccorao. 

To irtquire afUr same one. 

IVifl you have the goodnese to pass me 

that plate 1 
Will you pass me that plate, If you 


To reachy offer, present. 

Informarsi di qualcuno, 

Vuol Ella aver la bonti di porgerml 
quel piatto 7 
t Favoriaca di por^ermi Quel piatto 1 

Porgere * 2, past part, porio 
(pret. . def. porsi, porgestiy 
parse, &c.). 
Jh favour. Favorire Z (favorisco), 

Jf you pUof is often rendered in Italian by the impentiTe 


Please to sit down. 
As you please. 
At your pleasure. 
As you like. 

To please. 
To knock at the door. 

To trust same one. 

To distrust one. 

Do you trust that man 1 

I trust him. 

He trusts me. 

We iqustnot trust erery body. 

To laugh at something. 

Do yon laugh at that 1 


At what do they laugh 7 

To laugh in a person's face. 

Favorisca di sedersi. 

, Come Le place. 
Come Le aggrade. 

Aggradire 3 (isco), 
i Bussare aUa porta. 
\ Picchiare alia porta 

f Affidarsi a qwUeuno. 

( Non fidarsi di qualcuno. 

C'Diffidare dl qualcuno. 
Si fida Ella di quest* uomo 7 
Megliaffido. MifidodiLuL 
Egli s* affida in me (or a me). 
Non bisogna fidarsi di tutti. 

' Riders * di quahhe cosa (Les» 

' sons LIY. and LX.) 

Preterite Definite. ' 
Risi, ridestl, rise. 

Ridemmo, rideste, risers. 

Ride EUa di ciO.7 Ridete voi di 7 

Ne rido. 


Riders! di qualcuno. 




To langh at, to deride eome one. 

I Sngh at (deride) yoa. 
Did yoa laugh at ubI 
We did not laugh at you. 

We neyer laugh at any body. 

r Riderai p 
) Beffarai > di qoalcnna 
C Farai beffe 3 
{ Mi rido di Toi (di Lei). 
: M: befib di Toi (di Lei). 

{ Non d ridevamo di Lei (di Toi). 
i Non ci befiavanio di Lei (di toL) 
r Non ci beffiamo mai di neaaonow 
< Non ci facciamo mai beffe di n 




Un llbro pieno d' errori. 

To afford. 

t ^^^ ^ <^**' -^^^ ^^^ ^ 

Can you afford to buy that hone 1 

Ha Ella di che comprare quel ca 


I can afford it 

Ho di che oomprarlo. 

Non ho di che compiarlo. 

Who ia there 1 

Chi 4 1&1 


Sono io. 

ia not rendered in Italian. 

it ia not I. 

Non Bono io. 


E deeao? 


Non d deaao. 

Are they your brothera 1 

Sono idi Lei firateUi (ori anol, m- 

i Yoatri frateUi) 1 


Sono easi. 

. /<U pot they. 

Non Bono essf. 


k deeaal 




Non d deaaa. 

Are they your aiateral 

Sono le di Lei aorelle (or le sue, or la 

voatre aorelle) 7 

/Ms they. 

Sono esae. 

it ia not they. 

Non Bono eaae. 

i> ia I who apeak. 

Son io che parlo. 

latt they who Uughl 

Son essi (/em. esse) che ridono 7 

It is you who laugh. 

^ Lei che ride (aiete voi che ridete). 

Ia U thou who haat done it 7 

Sei tu che V hai latto 1 


/ Siete yoi, aignori, che arete dett« 

Aia you, genUemen, who have aaid 

N cid. 


) Sono loro signori che fianno dottc 

^ cid. 



We learn Italian, my brother and I. 

You and I will go into the country. 

You and ho will stay at home. 

You will go to the country, and I will 

return to tOwn. 
A lady. A lady of the court 
What were yon doing when your tutor 

was here .1 
I waa doing nothing. 
What did you say 7 
I aaid nothing. 

MIo fratelloed io impariamoT ita 

Ella (vol) ed io andremo In cam- 

EUa (vol) ed esao resteranno a casa. 
Voi andrete (Ella andra) in cam- 

pagna ed io ri{ornerd in citta. 
Una signora. Una dama di eorte. 
Che faceva (iacevate) quando ii di 

Lei (i^ vostro) precettore era qui 1 
Io non faceva niente (nulla). 
Io non diceva niente 



Where did you take this book from 1 — I took U out of the room 
(neUa camera) .of your friend (fern.), — Is it right (jpermesso) to 
take the books of other people ? — ^It is not right, I know ; but I 
wanted it, and I hope that your friend will not be displeased {non 
ne sard incresciosa), for I will return it to her as soon as I have 
read it. — ^What is your name ? — My name is William {Crugli- 
ehno), — ^What is your sister's name?-— Her nante is Eleanor 
{Eleonora), — Why does Charles complain of his sister ?^-Bccause 
she has taken his pens. — Of whom are these children oomplain- 
icg ? — Francis {Francesco) complains of Eleanor, and Eleanor 
of Francis. — ^Who is right ? — They are both {tuUi e due) wrong ; 
for Eleanor wishes to take Francis's books, and Francis Elea- 
nor's, — To whom have you lent Dante's works {h opere di Danie) ? 
— I have lent the first volume to William and the second to Louisa 
{Luigia). — How is that said in Italian ? — It is said thus. — How 
is that said in French ? — That is not said in French. — Has the 
tailor brought you your new coat ? — He has brought it me, but 
it does not Hi me. — Will he make you another ? — He will makp 
me another; for, rather than wear it, I will give it away {dar 
via). — ^Will you use that horse ? — I shall not use. it. — Why will 
you not use it ? — ^Because it does not suit me. — Will you pay for 
it ? — ^I will rather pay for it than use it. — To whom do those fine 
books belong {appartengono) ? — They belong to William. — Who 



has giYen them to hhn ?— ^His father. — Will he read them f — ^lle 
will tear them rather than read them. — Who has told you that ? 
•—He has tqld me so himself (egU stesso). 


What country womaa is that lady {la signora) ? — She is from 
France. — ^Are you from France ?— No, I am from Germany. — 
Why do you not give your clothes to mend ? — It is not worth 
while, for I must have (mi ahUsognano) new clothe s.*4s the coat 
which you wear not a good one 1 — It is a half-worn coat, and is 
good for nothing. — Are you angry with any one {essere in coUera 
con qualeuno) ? — I am angry with Louisa, who went to the Opera 
without telling me a word of it. — Where were you when she went 
out ? — ^I was in my room. — I assure you that she did not know 
it. — Charles the Fifth, who spoke fluently (spcditamenU) several 
European languages, used to say {aveva costume di dire\ that we 
should speak (che hisognava partare) Spanish with the gods, 
Italian with our friend {fern.), French with our friend {mas,), 
German with soldiers, English with geese {coUe oehe), Hungarian 
{ungherese) with horses, and Bohemian {boemo) with the devil. 

Of what illness did your sister die ? — She died of fever. — How 
is your brother ? — My brother is no longer alive. — He died three 
months ago. — I am surprised {maravigUato) at it, for he was very 
well last summer when I was in the couotry. — Of what did he 
die 1 — ^He died of apoplexy. — How is the mother of your friend ? 
—She is not {ntnk ista) well ; she had an attack of ague the day 
before yesterday, and this morning the fever has returned {le e 
ntorfiato).f— Has she the intermittent fever 1 — I do not know, but 
she has.often cold fits. — What is become of the woman whom I 
saw at your mother's? — She died this morning of apoplexy . — ^Do 
your scholars learn their exercises by heart ?— They will teai 
them rather than learn them by heart. — What does this man ask 
me for ?— He asks you for the money which you owe him. — If 
he will repair to-morrow morning {domani maUina) to my house, 
I will pay him what- 1 owe him. — ^He will rather lose his money 
than repair thither (rendervisi). — Why does the mother of our 


old servant shed tears ?— What has happened to he;* ? — She. sheds 
tears because the old clergyman (il vecchio ecclesiasiico), her 
friend, who was so very good to her (cJie lefaceva ianlo lmie)y died 
a few days ago. — Of what illness did he die? — ^He has. been 
struck with apoplexy. — ^Have you helped your father to write his 
letters ? — I have helped him. — Will you help me to work when 
we go {quando noi andremo)U> town t — I will help you to work, 
if you help me to get a livelihood. 

Have you inquired after the merchant who sells so cheap ? — I 
have inquired after him, but nobody could tell me what has be- 
come of him. — Where did he live when you were here three 
years ago ? — He lived then {aUora) in Charles-street (neOa con- 
trada CarlOj or via Carlo), number fifty-seven. — How do you like 
this wine ? — I like it very well, but h is a little sour. — How does 
your sister like those apples (Ja mela) 1 — She likes them very 
well, but she says that they are a little too sweet. — Will you 
have the goodness to pass me that plate 1 — With much pleasure. 
— Shall I {devo) pass you these fishes ? — ^I will thank you to 
(prego di) pass th^ to me. — Shall I (devo) pass the bread to 
your sister 1 — ^You will oblige her (Le fara piacere) by passing 
it to her {nel porgergUek). — How does your mother like our food ? 
—She likes it very well, but she says that she ha§ eaten enough. 
— ^What dost thou ask me for^? — Will you be kind enough to {La 
prego di) give me a little bit (un pezzeito) of that mutton ? — Will 
you pass me the bottle, if you please (favorisca) ?-i-Have you not 
drutik enough ?-*-Not yet, for I am still thirsty. — Shall I {devo 
io) give you {versarle) some wine ? — No ; I like cider better.^—* 
Why do you not eat ? — ^I do not know what to eat. — ^Who knocks 
at the door ? — ^It is a foreigner. — ^Why does he cry ?— He cries 
because a great misfortune has happened to him. — What has hap- 
pened to you ?— Nothing has happened to me. — Where will you 
go this evening ? — I do not know where to go.-^Where will your 
brothers go? — I do not know where they will go; as for me, I 
shall go to the theatre. — Why do you go to town ? — ^I go thither 
in order to purchase some books. — Will you go thither with me ? 
—I will go with you, but I do not know what to do there. 

Lezione sessantesima terza. 

To get into a scrape. 

To get out of a Mcrape, 

I got oat of the flcnpe. 
That man always geu Into scraps 
but he alwaya get* out of them 

f Auirarsi cattivi affaxi. 
f Cavarsi d^ impiccio. 

Mi eon cavato d' impiccio. 

dueat* nomo a' attira mai aempn 

cattivi afiarl, ma n' esce aempra 


Anumgtt or omidH. 

To make some one's acquahU-' 

To become acquainted with 


I have made his or her acquaintance. \ 
I have become aoquainted with him ( 

or her. 3 

Are yon acquainted with him (her) 7 ) 
Do yon Icnow him (her) ? > 

I am acquainted with fcdm Qhk). ) 
I know him (her). > 

He or she ia an acquaintance of mine. > 
She or he is my acquaintance. > 

He is not a friend, he is but an ao- 


To enjoy. 
Do you enjoy .good health 1 

To be well 
She is well. 
7b imagine. 

Fra or Ira. 

Far canoscenxa con fualeumo. 

Ho fittto k turn 001 

Lo (U) conosco. 

fe di mia conoseenxa, or 
^ una mia conoscenza. 
Non ^ an amico, d solamento \ 

Godere 2, di. 
{ Gode Ella baona salute 1 
( Gode Ella d' ana buona salute 1 

C Star bene. 

(Essere in tnuma salute, 

( Sta bene. 

( fe in buona sslate. 

f t Immaginarsi. 



Our Mow-creatnres. 
He has not Ub equal, or hla match. 

I noatri aimili. 

EgU non ha V ugiiale. 

To resemble some one, to look 

like some one. 
That man resembles my brother. 

That beer looks like waten 
Each other. 
We resemble each other. 
They do not resemble each other. 

The brother and the sister love each 
other, but do not resemble each 

Are you pleased with each other? 

We are. 

So, ihns. 

AS| or as well as. 

The appearance, the eounle- 

To show a disposition to. 

That man whom you see shows a 
desire to approach us. 

To look pleased with some one. 
To look cross at some one. 

lAThen I go to see that man, instead of 
receiving me with pleasure, he looks 

A good-looking man. 
A bad-looking man. 
Bad-looking people, or folks. 
To go to see some one. 

Rassomigliare a qualcmto, 

Quest' uomo rassomiglia a mio tm» 

Quests birra d come acqua. 
V un V altro. 
Not ci rassoroigliamo. 
Kglino {fern, elleno) non si rasso- 

II fratello e la sorelk s* amano, ma 

non si rassomigliano. 

Siete (sono) contenti 1' un deli' al« 

Lo slamo. 

r Siccome, come. 
^ Egualmente che. 
C In quel modo che. 

La ciera (i' aspetio^ la 
sembianxa, la visla, la 

Far vista, far mostra di, 

duell' uomo che Tede ft vista d* 

aTvidnarsi a noi. 
( Far huona cera a qualcuno, 
I Accoglier bene qualcuno. 

iFar caitiva cera a qualcuno, 
AccogUer male qualcuno, 

dnando yado da quelP uomo, in 
Tece difiirmi (mostrarmi) buona 
cera, egli mi fa (mi mostra) cattiva 

duando vado da quell' uomo, in vece 
d' accogliermi bene, egli m' ac 
coglie male. 

Un uomo dl buon aspetto. 

Un uomo di cattivo aspetto. 

Delia gente di cattivo aspetto. 

Visitare qualcuno,' or far visita a 


srxrr -THIRD lessok. 

To pay tome one a Tiait. 

To frequent a place. 

To frequent aocietiea. 

To aaeocimte toUh mnae one. 

Reaiituire la visita a qua^cnno, m 
render laviaita a qualcono. 

Prequentare an luogo, or an<Ur ipea 
ao in un luogo. 

Frequentare delle sodeU. 

Prequentare qualcuno. 

To look Kkej to appear. 

How doea be look 1 
He looks gay (aad, contented). 
You appear very well 
You look like a doctor; 
She looka angry, appears to be angry. 
Tbey look contented, appear to be con- 
To look good, to appear to be good. 

Aver V aspetio (aver V aria). 

Che cera ha 7 

Ha la cera Ueta (trista, contenta). 
Ella ha V aspetto di star bene. 
Ella ha I* aspetto.d' un medico. 
Essa ha 11 sembiante Indlspettlto. 
-Kglino hanno V aspetto co.Wento. 

Aver r aspetto buona 

To drink someone's health. 
I drink your health. 

It is all over with me. 

t Bere alia salute dl qualcuno. 

t Bevo alia di Lei aalute. 
( t Sono perduto {Jtm, perdnta). 
1 1 Sono ito (/«m. Ita). 
is finita. 

To hurt some one's Mings. 
Von have hurt that man's fselings. 

Far dispiacere a qualcuno. 

Ha fatto dispiacere a quell' uomo. 

A place. 
I know a good place to swim In. 

IUn luogo. 
t Conosco un boon luogo per nuo 

To experience^ to undergo. 

I have experienced a great many mle- 

Sperimentare 1. 

Ho sperimenuto molte disgrazie. 
Son passato per molte disgrazie. 

To suffer. 

To open. 

To offer. 

To cover. 

To cover again. 

To discover. 
To feel a pain in one's head or foot 
r felt a pain in my eye. 

Soffrire * 3 ; p. part, sofferto 
ApTire»3; " 

Offrire»3; " 

Coprlre*3; » 

Ricoprire • 3 ; 
Scoprire • 3 ; 






Soffrir dolori al capo, al piede. 
Ho sofferto all' occhio. 



To negkci. 

Ho has neglected his daty. 
He neglects to call upon me. 

To yield. 

We must yield to necessity. 

To spring fonoard. 

The cat springs upon the rat. 
To leap on horseback. 

An increase, an augmentation. 

For more bad luck. 
For more good luck. 
The fullness. 
For more bad luck ^o complete my 
bad luck) I have lost my purse. 

To lose orU's xcits. 

That man has lost his wits, and he 
does not know what to do. 

Obstinately, by all means. 

That man wishes by all means to lend 
me his money. 

I follow, thou foUowest, he foUowsi 

To pursue. 

To preserve, to save. 

f Trascurare 1, negUgere * 2, 
non badare 1 ; past part. 

Preterite Dtfinito- 
Neglessi, negUgtoeti, neglesse. 
Neg^igem- negllgeste, neglessero. 
L mo, 
Ha trascurato il suo dovere. 
Egli bada poco a visitarmi. 

Cedere 2 ; pret. deL regular, 

or ccssi, or cedetli. 
Bisogna cedere alia necessita. 

Lanciarsi 1, or slanciarsi 1. 

II gatto si slancia sul sorcio. 
Lanciarsi a cavallo. 

Un aumento (un' agginnta, un ac- 

Per colmo di sventura (d* infelicitk). 
Per colmo di felicitiL 
II orimo. 
Per colmo di sventura ho perduto la 

ixiia borsa. 

Perdere la testa. 

Quell' uomo ha perduto la testa e 
non sa che fare. 

Ad ogni paito. 

Quest' uomo vuole ad ogni patto 
prestarmi il suo danaro. 

Seguitare 1, seguire * 3. 
Seguo or sieguo, segui or siegui, 
segue or siegue, Ac. 

Perseguitare 1, insegmre ♦ 3 

(b conj. like seguire *). 
Conservare 1. 

Must 1 sell to tha; man on credit ? — You may sell to him, but 
not on credit; you must not trust him, for he will not pay yoii. 


— Has he already deceived (ingannare) any body? — ^He has 
already deceived several merchants who have trusted him. — Must 
I trust those ladies ? — ^You may trust them * but as to me I shall 
not trust them, for I have often been deceived by {daUe) women, 
and that is the reason why I say : We must not Irust every body. 
— Do those merchants trust you ? — They trust me, and I trust 
them. — Whom do those genUemen laugh at ? — They laugh at 
those ladies who wear red gowns {la veste) with yellow ribbons. 
— Why do these people laugh at us ? — They laugh at us because 
we speak badly. — Ought we (dohbiamo) to laugh at persons who 
speak badly ? — We ought not to laugh at them ; we ought, on the 
contrary (devest al contrario), to listen to them, and if they make 
blunders (errori)^ we ought to correct them. — What are you laugh- 
ing at ? — I am laughing at your hat ; how long {da quando in 
qua) have you worn it so large ? — Since (da che) I returned from 
Germany. — Can you afford tp {ha Ella di che) buy a horse and 
a carriage I — I can afibrd it.~-Can your brother afibrd to buy 
that large house ? — He cannot afibrd it. — ^Will your cousin bu> 
that horse ? — He will buy it, if it pleases {eonvenire ♦) him. — Have 
you received my letter ?— I have received it with much pleasure. 
I have shown it to my Italian master, who was surprised {che i 
rmasto maravigUaio)^ for there was not a single fault in it.-^Have 
you already received Petraroa's and Boccaccio's works {le opere 
del Petrarca e del Boccaccio) ? — ^I have received thos© of Boc- 
caccio ; as to those of Petrarca, I hope to receive them next 


Is it thou, Charles, who hast soiled my book ? — It is not I ; it 
is your little sister who has soiled it. — Who has broken my fine 
inkstand ?— It is I who have broken it. — Is it you who have 
spoken of me ? — ^It is we who have spoken of you, but we have 
said of you nothing but good {se non dd bene), — Who knocks at 
the door ?— It is I ; will you open ? — What do you want {desid- 
srare) 1 — ^I come to ask you for the money which you owe me, 
and the books which I lent you. — ^If you will have the goodness 
to come to-morrow I will return both to you. — Is it your sister 
who is playing on the harpsichord ? — It is not she. — ^Who is it ? 


— (t la my cousin (fern.), — Are they your sisters who art 
coming? — It is they. — Are they your neighbours {fern.) who 
were laughing at you? — They are not our neighbours. — Who 
are they ? — They are the daughters of the countess whose brother 
has bought your house. — Are they the ladies of whom you have 
spoken to me? — ^They are. — Shall you learn German? — My 
brother and I will learn it. — Shall we go to the country to- 
morrow ? — I shall go to the country, and you will remain in 
town. — Shall I and my sister go to the opera ? — ^You and she will 
remain at home, and your brother will go to the opera. — What 
did you say when your tutor was scolding you (La riprendeva) ? 
— ^I said nothing, because I had nothing to say, for I had not (non 
avendo to) done my task, and be was in the right to scold mc (di 
rampognamu). — What were you doing whilst {quat^do) he was 
out (ftiori) ? — I was playing on the violin, instead of doing what 
he had given me to do. — What has my brother told you ? — He 
has told me that he will be the. happiest man when he knows how 
(quando saprd) to speak Italian well. 


Why do you associate with those people? — I associate with 
them {lafrequenio) because they are useful to me. — If you oon< 
tinue to associate with them you will get into bad scrapes, for 
they have many enemies. — ^How does your cousin conduct him- 
self? — ^He does not conduct himself very well, for he is always 
getting into some scrape (or other). — ^Do you not sometimes get 
into scrapes ? — It is true (yero) that I sometimes get into them, 
but I always get out of them again {ma tC esco semprefelicemenie). 
^-Do you see those men who seem desirous (chefanno vista) of 
approaching us ? — I see them, but I do not fear them ; for they 
hurt nobody. — ^We must go away (hist^na aUontanarci), for I do 
not like to mix with peo^e whom I do not know. — I beg of you 
not to be afraid of them (aveme paura), for I perceive my uncle 
among them.^— Do you know a good place to swim in ? — I know 
one.— >Where is it ? — On that side of the river, behind the wood, 
near the high road (vicino alia via maestro). — When shall we go 
to swim ? — ^This evening, if you like. — Will' you wait for me 
before the city gate ? — I shall wait for you there ; but I beg pf 




you not to forget it.— You know that I never foi^et my promiaes. 
^Where did you become acquainted with that lady ?— I became 
acquainted with her at the house of one of my relations. — Why 
does your cousin ask me forYnoney and books ? — He is a fool (tm 
paxxo) ; for of me {n me), who am his nearest relation (il sua pin 
proisimoparenU) and his best friend, he asks nothing. — ^Why did 
you not come to dinner (venir a pranxare)! — I have been 
hindered, but you have been able to dine without me {senxa di 
me). — Do you think {credere) that we shall not dine, if you can. 
not come I— How long {smo a quando) did you wait for me ?-* 
We waited for you till a quarter past seven, and as you did not 
come, we dined without you. — ^Have you drunk my health V^ 
We have drunk your health, and that of your parents. 

Lezione sessantesima qtiaria. 

How good yott are! 

How foolish he is! 

How foolish she is! 

How rich that man is 1 

How handsome that woman is I 

How much kindness you have for 

How many obUgaUons I am under to 


To he Wider obligations to some 


1 9xA under many obligations to him. 
How many- people I 
How happy yon an ! 
How much wealth that man has ! 
How much money that man has spent ' 
In his life! 

r Q^uanto Ella d buona ! or 
< Q^uanto ^ buono ! 
( (Quanta bont& 1 - 

Quanto d ibiocoo 1 

Q^uanto d sciocca ! 

Quanto d ricco quell' uomo ! 

Quanto d bella qoeUa donna ! 

Q^uanta bonti Ella ha per me 1 

c Q^uante obbligasioni Le debbo ! 
I duanto vi son debitore ! 

Aver (dovere) delle oWiga^ 
noni verso qualeuno. 

Gli debbo molte obbligazioni. 
Quanta gente! 
duanto Ella d fellce ! 
Qtiante ricchezze ha quell' uomo ! 
Quanto danaro ha speso quell' nomo 
neHa sna vita ! 



To be obliged to some one for some- 

To be indebted to some one for some- 

I am indebted to him (to her) for it. 

E^ser obbligato verso qualcuno pei 

qualche cosa. 
Esser debitore verso {vr a) qnalcano' 

di qualche cosa. 
GUene sono debitore. 

To thank. 

To thank some one for some- 

I thank you for the trouble you have 
taken for mew 

Yoa have no reason for it. 

Is theie any thing more great 1 
Is there any thing more cruel 1 
Is there any thing more wicked ? 
Can any thing be more handsome? 

Hovir large 7 
How high? 
How deep ? 

Of what size? 
Of what height? 
Of what depth? 

Of what height is his or her house? 
It is nearly fifty Teet high. 
Our house is thirty feet broad. 
That table is six feet long. 
That river is twenty feet deep. 

The size. 
Of what size is that man ? 

How was that child dressed ? 
It was dressed in green. 
The man with the blue coat. 
The woman with the red gown. 

Ringraziare (governs the ac- 
cusative of the person, and 
the preposition per of the 
object, as in English). 

Ringraziare qwdcuno per 

qualche cosa. 

La ringrazio per la pena ch' Ella si 
d data per me. (or, Vi ringrazio 
per V incomodp d). 

r Nonne vale il prezzo. 

I Non ne vale la pena. 

Che v' d di pVx grande ? 
Che v' d di piii crudele ? 
Che v' d di piii cattivo 1 
V d qualche cosadi piDi bello? 

Di chegrandezza? 

Ctuanto d alto (alta) ? 

duanto i profondo (profonda) V 

Quanto d alta la sua casa ? 
E alta cinquanta p^di incirca. 
La nostra casa d larga trenta piedi. 
duella lavola d lunga sei piedl. 
duesto fiume d profondo venti 

La statura, grandezza, forma. 
Di quale statura d queH' nomol 

Come ^ra vestito quel fanciuUol 
t Egli era vestito di verde. 
t L' uomo dall' abitq turchlAo. 
t La donna dalla veate rossa. 



Ib it trna that hli home Is burnt 1 

It iB true. 
Is it not 1 
Ib it not tnie7 


EYero che la BU 

Non d verol 

d abbnio- 

1 Bhall perhapB go thither. 

Toaharef to divide 


V andxO forae. 

Dividere * 2 ; p. part, dimso ; 
pret. def. divisi. 

Di chi f (See Lessons XXI. 
and XXIX.) 

Ofr«. The abaolute pbaaeasiTe pronoun, mtiu^ tiUne, Ac, whan it is preceded 
hj the Terb to ^ e««ere, ia in ItfJian rendered merely by the poBaeaaiTe pr«^ 
noun. Ex. 


It Ib mine. 

Whoae horaes are these 1 

Tliey are mine. 

Whose house is thisi 

It is mine. 

Whose houaea are theae7 

They are mine. 

Di chi d queato cavallol 


Di chi son quest! caTallil 

Bono miei. 

Di chi d queata caaal 


Di chi aon queata caaal' 

Sono Bfie. 

To run up. 

Many men had run up; butinatead of 
extingulahing the fire, they aet to 

To run to tlie aaaiatance of aome one. 

To extingtiish. 

Accorrere * 2 ; past part, ac- 

corso; pret. def. aceorsi. 
Mold uomini erano aeoorai, ma in 

▼ece d' estinguere il fuoco, a* erano 

measi a predars. 
Accorrere al aoccorao di qualcnno. 

Estinguere * ; p. part, e^tmio ; 

pret. def. estinsi. 
Lo acelierato. 

To save, to deliver. 

To save any body's life. 

To plunder (to rQb). 

To set about something. 
Have they succeeded in extinguishing 

They have succeeded in it. 

Salvare 1. Liherare 1. 

Saivare la vita a qualcuno. 
t Mettersi a qualche oosa. 
Sono perrenuti ad eatiagiien 

fuoco 7 
Vi sono penrenuti. 



The watch. 
Hie watch indicates the hour:} 

To mdieate, to mark. 

To qiiarrel with some one. 

To dispute {to contend) ahont 

Aboat what are theae people dis- 

They are disputing about who shall go 


Thus or so. 
To he ignorant of, 
I^t to know. 

The day before. 
The day before that day was Saturday. 

The day before Sunday is Saturday. 

Li' orinolo. 

L' oriuolo indica le ore. 

Indicare 1. 

Querellarsi 1. 
Rimproverare qualeuno. ' 

Disputare sopra qualche cosa. 

Sopra che cosa dlsputano quegU 

Disputano a .hi tocca andare U 


Cos\ in qucsta guisa, 
Ignorare I. 
Non sapere. 

La vigiUa. 

Lavigiliadiquel giomo era un M- 

La vlgilia di domenlca d sabato. 


How docs your uncle look {che cera ha — ) ? — He looks {ha la 
cera) very gay {lieOssisna), for he is much pleased with his chil- 
dren. — ^Do his friends look as gay {Jumno la cera coti Ueta) as he ? 
— ^They, on the contrary, look sad, because they are discontented. 
My uncle has no money, and is always co.ntented; and his 
friends, who have a good deal of it, are scarcely ever so. — Do 
you like your sister ? — I like her much, and as she Is {ed essendo) 
very good-natured {compiacentissinia) to me, I am so to her | but 
how dp you like your sister ?— We love each other, because we 
are pleased with each other.— A certain {eerto) man liked much 
wine, but he found in it {gli) two bad qualities {la qualitd), « If 
1 put water to it," said ho, *' I spoil it, and if I do not put any^to 
it, it spoils me {mi guasta m«)."— Does your cousin resemble 


you ? — He resembles me. — Do your sisters resemble each ^her ! 
-^They do not resemble each other ; for the elder {la primo- 
geniia) is idle and naughty, and the younger {la codetta) assid- 
uous and good-natured towards every body. — How is your aunt 1 
— She is very well. — Does your mother enjoy good health 1 — 
She imagines she enjoys {essa s* immagina di godere) good 
health, but I believe she is mistaken (cA' essa s* inganniy subj.), 
for she has had a bad cough {la (osse) these six months, of which 
{del^fuale) she cannot get rid. — Is that man angry with you ? 
— ^1 think he is angry with me because 1 do not go to see him ; 
but I do not like to go to his house, for when 1 go to him, instead 
of receiving me with pleasure, he looks displea^d.-^You must 
not believe that ; he is not angry with yon, f^ir he is not so biid m* 
he looks (come nehaV asptUo), — He is the be^t man in the {del) 
world ; but one must know him in order \o appreciate him {^cr 
palerlo apprexxare). — There is a great diil* rcnce {la diferenza) 
between you and him ; you look pleased with all thoifc who come 
to see you, and he looks cross with them. 

Is it right {sta bene) to laugh thus at every body ? — If I laugh 
{quando mi beffo) at your coat, I do not laugh at every body. — 
Does your son resemble any one ? — He resembles no one. — Why 
do you not drink ? — I do not know what to drink, for I like good 
wine, and yours looks like vinegar (e come aceto). — If you wish 
to have some other I shall go down (discenderd) into the cellar to 
fetch you some.^-You are too polite. Sir ; I shall drink no more 
to-day. — Have you known my father long ? — ^I have known him 
long, fer I made his acquaintance when I was yet at school. — 
We often worked for one another, and wef. loved each other like 
brothers. — I believe it, for you resemble each others — When 1 
had not done my exercises he did them for me, and when he had 
not done his I did them for him. — Why does your father send 
for the physician ? — He is ill ; and as the physician does not 
come {rum venendo)^ be sends for him. — Ah {Ah)^ it is all over 
with me ! — But, bless me (Dio nUo), why do you cry thusi — 1 
have been robbed of my gold rings, my best clothes, and all my 
money ; that is the reason why I cry.— Do not make {fu^faeda) 


00 much noise, for it is we who have taken them all {tuUo ad), 
in.prder to teach you (per dpprenderle) to take better care {a^ 
averpiu euro) of your things (effetti), and to shut the door of 
yojir room when you go out. — Why do you look so sad ? — I have 
experienced great misfortunes.— rAlfler having lost all my money, 
. was beaten by bad-looking men ; and, to my still greater ill 
luck, I hear that my good uncle, whom I love so much, has been 
struck with apoplexy. — ^You must not afflict yourself {nffiigersi). 
so much, for you know that we must yield to necessity {necemitd 
non ha legge). 


Can you not get rid of that man ? — I cannot get rid of him, for 
he wiH absolutely (ad ^pti potto) follow me. — Has he not lost his 
wits ?— It may 1^ (pud darsi). — What does he ask you for ? — He , 
wishes to sell . me a horse which I do not want* — Whose houses 
are those ?— ^ey are mine. — ^Do these pens belong to you ? — 
No, they belong to my sister. — ^Are those (sano quelle) the pens 
^ith which she writes so well? — They are the same (le medenme). 
— ^Whose gun is this ? — ^It is my father's. — ^Are these books your 
sister's ? — ^They are hers. — ^Whose carriage is this ?— It is mine. 
— ^Which is the man of whom you complain ? — It is he (queUo) 
who wears (che mdassa) a red coat. — " What is the difiference 
{che dffferenza c' i) between a watch and me ?" inquired {do- 
numdo) a lady of a young (^cer. " My lady,** reptied he (quesii. 
le rispose), " a watch marks the hours, and near you (e presso di 
Lei) one forgets them." — A Russian peasant, who had never 
seen asses (tin asino), seeing several (vedendane alcutu) in France, 
said (disse) : << Lord {Dh mio), what large hares (2ix lepre) there 
are in this country ? " — ^How many obligations 1 am under to you, 
my dear friend ! you have saved my life ! without you I had been 
lost (lo era iio). — Have those miserable men hurt you ?— They 
have beaten and robbed me ; and when you ran to my assistance 
they were about {erano sid ptmto) to strip (spogliare) and kill 
me.— I am happy to have delivered you from the hands of those 
robbers (il triccone), — ^How good you are ! 

Leziane sessantesima quinia. 

To propose, 
I propose, Aa 

I piopoae going on ihat journey. 

He proposes joining a banting party. 

A game at ehess. 

A game at billiards. 
A game at cards. 

To succeed. 
I succeed, Ac. 

Do you succeed in doing that? 
I do succeed in it. 

To endeavour, 
I endeavour to do it. 
I endeaTour to succeed in it. 

Endeavour to do better. 

' Since, considering. 

Since you are happy, why do you 

Proporsi *' (is conjugated like 
porre, Lesson XLIV.). 

{Mi propongo, ti proponl, si pro- 
Ciproponiamo, vi proponete, si pro 
P, part, propostosi; rui. propoirt; 
Prei. dif, proposi, proponesti, «c 
Mi propongo di &r queeto viag 

Si propone d' andaxo ad una partita 

Una partita • agU scacchi {or a 

Una partita al bigtiardow 
Una partita alls carte. 

Riuscire ♦ (a before Inf.). 

( Riesco, riescl, riem^ 

c Riusciamo, liusdte, 

Riesce, EUaalar cid? 

Vi rieaco. 

Sforzarsi {di before Inf.) 

Mi sforzo di farlo. 

Mi sforao dl riuscinri. 
( La si aforzidi far meglio. 
i Sforzatevi di far meglio. 

Giacche (poiche, dacchct ^ 

Oiaccha Ella d feUce, percbd La si 
lagna? or Poichd siete ftOcs 



To he thoroughly acquainted 
with a thing, 

7b make one's self thoroughly 
acquainted wUh a thing. 

That man understands that business 

I understand that well. 

' t Essere in istaio difar qual^ 

che cosa, 
"f Conoscere qualche cosa a 

f Irformarsi (istruirsi) di 

qualche cosa, 

Q,uest' uomo d istmito di quell* af 

Sono istrulto di eld-. 

Since or from. 
From that time. 
From my ohildhood. 

Froni morning until evening. 

From the beginning to the end. 
From here to there. 

I have had that book these two years. 
I have llTed in Paris these three years. 

Da poi (or simply da). 

Da quel momento. 

Dalla mia giovinezza (infanzia). 
{ Dal mattino fitao alia sera. 
c Da mane a sera. 

Dal principio sino alia fine. 

Da qui fino la. 
{ Ho questo libro da due anni in poi. 
( Ho questo libro da due anni. 
( Dirooro a Parigi da tre annL 
I Dimoro a Parigi da tre anni in poi. 

3b blow, to hhto out. 

To allege {to bring). 

I allege, Ac. 

We allege, Ac. 
In the same manner are conjugated : 
Th conduct. 
Ho introduce, 
Tb produce. 
Tb reconduct. 
Th reduce, to avbdue. 
To 'produce again, 
Th trandate. 

I Soffiarel. 

Addurre* 2; fomnerly iwWtt- 


Free, Addnco ; P, part, addotto \ 
, PreL dtf, addussi ; Put. addurrd- 
Adduce, adduci, adduce. 

Adduciamo, adducete, adducono. 

Condurre * 2, formerly conducere, 

Dedurre * 2, 
Introdurre * 2, 
Produrre • 2, 
Ricondurre * 2, 
Ridurre * 2, 
Riprodurre ♦ 2, 
Sedurre* 2, 
Tradurte * 2, 

Obe.. A. Verbs ending in u/stre, gliere, rure, acre, have been contracted, so 
that they have two infinitives ; the ancient Latin one, as addueere, to allege ; 
90glUre, to gather (to catch) $ poncre, to put ; traere, to draw ; and the nev 



eontncted one, m : mUktrrt, eorrgf porre^ trarr^ The tecond contracted one 
is ahrifs used In the infiniUTe from which iluftUurt and the preeent of tht 
eondiiional (of which hereafter) are formed, aa : addurr^ I ahail allege; eorri, 
I shall gather ; p^rr^ I ahall put ; trarrdt I ahall draw, Ac (See Lenon 
XLVI) But all the other tenaee are in tuch verhs formed from the ancient 
Latin infinitive. 

7b puij to place." 
Ipnt, Ac. 
We put, Ac 

To draw, 

I draw, Ac 
We draw, Ac 

In the aame manner are conjugated 
Aairarre^ to oMrad, 

AUrarre, toaUraei. 

Conirarre, to contract. 

formerly ponere ■. 
poni, pone 



Ponlamo, ponete, pongono. 
Pott part, posto; Put dtf, poii: 
f\it. porr<y. 

Trarre * 2 ; formerly traere, 

Traggo, traggi, tragge or tne. 
Traggiamo, traete, traggono. 
Pa$t paH. tratto; Pret. def, ttwaA', 
Put, trend. 

Deti urre, 

to detract, 
to extract, 

7b gather. 
I gather, Ac 
We gather, Ac 

In the aame manner are conjugated ; 


n tadiit to Zoom. 

Corre * 2, or cogUere ■. 

Colgo, cogiii oogUe. 

Cogliamo, cogUcte, colgono. 
Pa$t part, oolto; PreL dtf.coUii 
Put. corrd or cogUerd. 

Seerre • or ocegliere 2 {neUo, eeeW, 

oeerrb or occglierb). 
Sciorre* or eciogkere 2 (aeMte, 

odoUii odorrb or oeiogHer^. 
TVri • or togUert 2 {toUo^ tM; 


^ And all ita compounda, iuch aa : 

Anteporre, to praliBr. Imporre, to impoae. 

Apporre, to add. Opporre, tooppoae. 

Comporre, to compound. Poaporre, to postpone 

Contrapporre, tooppoae Preporre, CD prefer. 

Deporre, to depose Proporre, to propose 

Disporre, to dispose Soprapporre, toputoTer. 

Esporre, to eipose Sottoporre, to subdue 

Prapporre, to interpoae. Supporre, to suppose 

s In vertM in gliore the contracted are more generally used in poetry. 



To drink, 

We drink, Ac. 

Bere * or bevere. 

Bero, bevi, here, 

Beviamo, bove% bevono. 
Past part, beato or bevuto; Pr^, 
d^. bevvli ^tU.heid. 

06f. B. Besides the abore there are a few other verbs terminaled in ire 
ong, t. e. with the accent on the last syllable but one, which are not contracted 
in the infinitive, but only in the future (and consequently in the conditionali 
hereaAer), when they reject the letter e of the last syllable but one (Lesson 
XLVI.). Thfeyare: 

7h have. 

Avire * 







7h be abU {em). 

PoUre ♦ 











To appear. 




Obo, C, When the verbs in 9re long have / or n before that termination, 
those letters are in the contracted form of the fiiture and conditional, for the 
i of euphony, changed into r, as : 

To remain. 














. II 






To destroy. 

To construcL 


P. part, distrutto; pra. def. dis- 

Cosindre * (isco). 

P, part costruito and costruttoi 
Prei. dtf. costrussi, coBtruisti, Ac 

To reduce the price. 
To reduce the price to a crown. 
To translate into Italian. 
To translate from Italian into Eng- 
lish. ^ 
To translate from one language into 

. I introduce him to you. 

I present him to you. 

To present. 

Ridurre* ilprezxo. 

Ridnrre 11 preno ad nno scudg. 

Tradurre in itallano. 

Tradnrre dalP itallano in inglese. 

Tradurre da una lingua in nn' altia. 

L* introduco da Lei 
Glielo pretento. 
Presentare 1. 












Hd has tbld me, myielf (not to anotlier 

I also told him the same. 
In the same manner. 
It is all the same. 
One does not like to flatter one's sel£ 


He has not eren money enough to boy 

some bread. 
We most loTe e?ery body, ereo our 

Stesso or medesimo; fem. 
sieua or medesima. 

Plur. Stesn or medemad; 
fem. 9Us9e or medeatmn 

lo stesso, or io medeaimo. 

Ta stesso, er ta medeaimo. 

EgU steeso, or egli medesinM. 

Ella stessa, or Ella medealma 

Noi steasi, ernol medesimL 

Vol steesi, or vol medeeimL 
( Egiino stessl, or «gUno medeslmt 
i EUeno stesse, or elleno medeaime. 

Se stesso, or se medesimo. 

Me V ha detto egli stesso (sgU me 

V ha detto a me stesso (a me me- 

Gil ho detto anch' io lo stesso. 
Nello stesso modo. 
iB tutto lo stesso (d tutt^ uio). 
Non place losingar se stesso (or se 




Non ha nemmeno abhawtanxa danaio 

per oomprar del pane. 
Bisogna amar tutd, anehe i nostzi 


Again (once more). 
He speaks again (anew). 

Di nuoTO, vn' altra Tolta. 

TofaO. ' 
The price of the merchandise fiJls. 

7b deduct^ to lower. 

To averehargef io ask too much. 

Not having OTereharged you, I cannot 
deduct any thing. 

An eO, a yard. 
A metre (measue). 

( Ahhassare 1. 
( Ribassare 1. 
t La mercansia ribassa dl prsno. 

iDimnuire (isco). 
Dedurre^ (formerly dedueere). 
f Domandar piu che la cosa non 
Non arendo domandato troppo 
(pift che la cosa non valeX non 
posso diminuir nlente. 
Un braceio; pi. braeda: on' asns 



To produce {to yield, to 
profit, to Mng in). 

Ilow mach doet that amployment 
yield you a year 1 

An employment. 

To make one's escape. 

To run away (iofiee). 

To take to one's heels. 

To desert. 

He deaerted the battle. 
Ha deaerted hia coloura. 

To run away. 
The thief haa run away. 

By no meana. 

Not at all. 

Riportare 1. 

Rendere * (p. part, reso; pret* 

def. rest). 
Dare* (p. part, daio ; pret 

def. diedi and dattt). 

Q^oanto Le rende queat' implego all 

Un implego (un offizio) 

Prender la fuga, fuggirsene* 

Disertare, saappare 1. 
Egli ha abbahdonato la battagUa. 
Egii ha dieertato la bandiera. 

Evadersi, Jttggirsene. 
II ladro ae n' d fuggito. 

Non mica, in noMnn modo. 
Niente affatto. 


Will jou go to Mr. Vimerati to-night ?— I shall perhaps go.— 
And will your sisters go ? — They will, perhaps. — Had you any 
pleasure (diwertirsi) yesterday at the concert ? — I had no pleasure 
there ; for there was such a multitude of people {taniagente) that we 
could hardly get in. — I bring you a pretty present with which you 
will be much pleased. — What Is it? — ^It is a silk cravat.— Where 
is it ? — ^I have it in my pocket {neUa mia tasca). — Does it please 
you ? — ^It pleases me much, and I thank you for it with all my 
heart. I hope that you will at last (Jinalfnente) accept (accettare) 
something of (da) me. — What do you intend to give me ? — I will 
not tell you ; for if I tell you, you will have no pleasure when I 
give it you (glido daro), — Have you seen any one at the market ? 
—I have seen a good many people there. — ^How were they 
dressed ? — Some were dressed in blue, some in green, some in 


yellow, and several (diversi aUri) in red. — Who are those men I 
— The one who is dressed in gray is my neighbour, and the roan 
with the blafik coat the physician, whose son has given my neigh- 
bour a blow with a stick. — Who is the man with the green coat ! 
— He is one of my relations. — Are there many philosophers in 
your country ? — ^There are as many there as in yours. — How 
does this hat fit me ? — It fits you very well. — ^How does that coat 
fit your brother ? — It fits him adnairably. — ^Is your brother as tall 
igrande) as you ? — He is taller than I, but I am older than he.— 
Of what size (dt quale statura) is that man ? — He is five feet and 
four inches (ilpoUice) high. — How high is the house of our land- 
lord ? — It is sixty feet high. — ^Is your well deep ? — ^Yes, Sir, &r 
it is fifty feet deep. " There are many learned men (i/ doUo) in 
Rome, are there not (n' ^ vero)V* Milton asked a Roman. 
** Not so many as when you were there," answered (rupase) the 


Is it true that your uncle is arrived ? — I assure you that he is 
arrived. — ^Is it true that the king has assured you of his assist- 
ance (f assistenxa) ? — ^I assure you that it is true.-^Is it true that 
the six thousand (rnila, plur.) men whom we were expecting have 
arrived ? — I have heard so.t— -Will you dine with us ? — ^I cennot 
dine with you, for I have just eaten. — Will your brother drink a 
glass of wine ? — He cannot drink, for I assure you that he has 
just drunk. — Why are these men quarrelling ? — They are quar 
relling because they do not know what to do. — Have they suc- 
ceeded in extinguishing the fire ? — ^They have at last succeeded 
in it ; but it is said that several houses have been (nano staitt 
subj.) burnt. — Hav6 they not been able to save any thing ?— - 
They have not been able to save anything ; for, instead of extin- 
guishing the fire, the miserable wretches (2b scellerato), who had 
come up, set to plundering. — ^What has happened ? — ^A" great 
misfortune has happened. — Why did my friends set out without 
me ? — They waited for you till twelve o'clock, *nd seeing that 
you did not come they set out. — ^What is the <Jay before Monday 
called ? — The day before Monday is Sunday. — Why did you not 
run to : assistance (in aiuio) of your neighbour whose house 


has been burnt ? — I was quite ignorant (ignorare interaniBrUe) of 
(lis house being on fire (che V mcendio fosse neUa di ltd casa)* 


Well (Ebhene) ! 4oes your sister make any progress ? — She 
makes some, but you make more than she. — ^You flatter me. — 
Not at all ; I assure you I am more satisfied with you than with 
all my other pupils. — Do you already know what has happened ? 
•*-I have not heard any thing. — ^The house of our neighbour has 
been burnt down {abbruciaia}. — ^Have they not been able to save 
any thing ? — They were very fortunate (feUcissimi) in saving 
the persons who were in it ; but out of the things (delle cose) that 
were there (trovarsi)^ they could save nothing. — Who told you 
that ? — Our neighbour himself (istesso) has told it me. — Why are 
you without a light {senxa lunie)1 — The wind blew it out (Vha 
spenio) when you came in. — ^What is the price of this cloth ?— I 
sell it at three crowns and a Iwilf the ell.^— I think (irovare) it very 
dear. Has 'the price of cloth not fallen (ditninuito) 1 — ^It has not 
fallen ; the price o£ all goods (la mercanzia) has fallen, except 
that of 6loth (eccettuaio quello del panno). — I will give you three 
crowns for it, — I cannot let you have (dare*) it for that price (a 
^uesto prezzo)y for it cbsts me more {cosia piu a me). — Will you 
have the goodness to show me some pieces (la pezxa) of English 
cloth ? — With much pleasure. — Does this cloth suit you ? — ^It 
does not suit me. — Why does it not suit you ? — Because it is too 
dear; if you will lower the price, I shall buy twenty yards of it ^ 
—Not having asked too much, I cannot take off any thing. 

Lezione sessantesima sesta. 

A kindy 9ort (a species). 

What kind of fruit is that 7 
A itone (of a frtiii). 
A atone of a peach, an apricot, a 
Una muat break the atone before one 
eomaa at the kemei. 
A kernel. 
An almond. 

It U a kemel-frait. 

To gather. 

To gather fruit: 

To serve up the soup. 

To Iring in the dessert. 

The fruit. 
An apricot. 
A peach. 
A plum. 
An anecdote. 

Last week. 
Last year. 

'Ih cease, to leave of. 

I leave off reading. 
She leaves off apeaidng. 

To avoid. 
To escape. 
To escape a misfortune. 

Una sorta. 

Che sorta dl frutto i questo 7 

Un nocci^. 

Un nocciolo di peaca, di alblooceo^ 

Frutto da nocciolo. 
Blsogna rompera 11 nocciolo per avei 

la mandohu 
Un acino, una mandola. 
Una mandola. 
Frutti da acino. 

"^ un frutto da aclna 

Corre* or cogliere. 


Portar in tavola kt mppa. 

Portar in tavola lafruUa. 

II frutto. 

Un albleocco. 

Una pesca. 


Un aneddoto. 

Dell* arrosto. 

L' ultimo, V ultimo. 
( La settimana acoraa. 
i La settimana passata. 

L* anno scorso (pasaato). 

Cessare 1. 

Cesso di {or dal) leggere. 
Cessa dl {or dal) parlare. 

Evitare 1. 

Scatdpare 1, seappare 1. 

Scampare da una dlsgraaia. 



H« Tan away to avoid death. 

To do wUhout a thing. 

Can you do without bread 7 

I can do without it. 
There are many things which we moat 
do without. 


To execute a commission. 
To acqvU one^s self of a com 

I have executed your commission. 
Have you executed my commission t 
I have executed it. 

To do one^s duty. 

To discharge, to do, or to fulfil 

one's duty. 
That man always does his duty. 

That man always fulfils his duty. 

To rely, to depend upon some- 
He depends upon It. 
I rely upon you. 

You may rely upon him. 

To suffice, to he sufficient. 
Is that bread sufficient for you 7 
It is sufficient for me. 
It is sufficient for me, for thee, Stc, 
Will that money be sufficient for that 

It will be sufficient for him. 
Little wealth suffices for the wise. 
Was that man ^tented with that 


- Ha preso la fuga per iscampare dalla 

. Scappd per fuggir la morta 

( Privarsi di quaJche eosa. 
( Far a meno di qualche cosa. 

( Pud Ma piivarsi di pane 1 
I Pud Elia 2ak a meno del pane 1 

Posso fame a meno. 

Vi sono moltissime cose di cui d ne- 
cessario fare a meno. 

Far .una commissione. 

Ho fatt'o la di Lei commissione. 
Ha Ella iatto la mia commissione? 
L' ho latta. 

Far U sua dovere. 
Adempiere U suo dovere. 

Ctuest' uomo fa sempre 11 suo do- 

duest' uomo adempie sempre *\ suo 

{ Contare su qualche cosa. 

I Far capitale di qualche cos \ 

Ci cdnta. 
( Fo capitale di Lei. 
I Mi fido di Lei. 
^ Pud fidand a (or di)luL 
< Pud fidarsene. 
C Pud fiir capitale di lui. 


Le basta questo paub \ 
Mlbasta. ' • 

t MiDasti^Uba8ta,Ao. 
Questo danaro* baster& a quelF 

uomo 7 
Gil baster&. 

Poca fortuna basta al savlo. 
dtftst* uomo si 4 egll contentato dl 
' '(||ucHa8omma7 




Hai that sum been sufficient for tint 

It haabeen aufficient for him. 
He haa been contented with it. 
To be contented with something. 
It <riU be sufficient for him, if you will 

only add a few crowns. 
He vrill be contented, If y^^n will mUy 

add a few crowns. 

To add. 

To hold. 

To embark^ go on hoard, 

A sail. 
To set salt 
To set sail for. 
To sail for America. 


Under full sail. 
To sail under full sail. 

He embarked on the aizteenth of last 

He sailed on the third instant. 

The inatant, the present month. 

The fourth or fiAh instant. 
The letter is dated the sixth instant. 

TfUU is to say (i. e.). 
Et catera (etc.). 
My pen (quill) Is better than yours. 

I write better than you. 

Ctuella somma d bastata 

GU d bastata. 611 bastd. 
Se n* d contentato. 
Contentarei di qualche cosa. 
GU basterk ae vuol aggiugnerri sola- 

mente qualche scudo. 
Se ne contenteri se vuol aggiugnertl 

appena pochi scudi. 

Aggiungere * 2 (p. part, ag- 

^gmtUo; pret. def. aggiunsi). 

Costruire * 2, isco (past. part. 

cosirviio or costruito (p. d. 


Fahhricare 1. 

Itnbarcarsi. Entrar mSa 

Una vela. 
1 1 Mettere alia vela. 
1 1 Spiegare le vele. 

t Far Tela per. 
j Far vela per V America. 
I Andare In America. 

Andare a vela, 
r A piene vele. 
I A gonfie vele. 

Splegar tutte le vele. 
rS* i Imbarcato U sedict del mess 
I scorso. 

I I: entrato nella nave il aedid del 
[ mese paasato. 
Ha fatto vela il tre del corrente. 
II corrente. 

II quattro, o il cinque del oorrent& 
La lettera d del sei corrente. 

Cioct vale a dire. 

Eccetera, e sindli. 
La mia penna d migUors della di 

Scrivo megUo di Lei. ^ 

They will warm the soup. 
Dinner (or supper) is on the lable (Is 
served up). 

St iarik scaldare la zuppa. 
R in tavola. 


Do you choose some soup 1 
Shall I help you to some soup 7 

I will trouble you for a little. 
To serve up, to attend. 

Desidera Ella delia zuppa7 

Desidera Ella che io Le serva delli 
zuppa 7 
{ t Gliene doraando un poco. 
c t He ne favorlaca un poco. 

Servire, presentaref offrire. 


Tou are learning Italian ; does your master let you translate 1 
— He lets me read, write, and translate. — Is it useful to translate 
in learning a foreign language ? — It is useful to translate when 
you nearly know {quando gid si sa) the language you are learn- 
ing ; but while (quando) yqu do not yet know any thing (non se ne 
sa niente) it is entirely (affaito) useless. — What does your Italian 
masHer make you do 1 — He makes me read a lesson ; afterwards 
he makes me translate English exercises into Italian on the lesson 
which he, has made me read ; and from the beginning to the end 
of the lesson he speaks Italian to me, and I have to (deoo) answer 
him in the very language {nella lingua stessa) which he is teach- 
ing me. — ^Have you already learnt much in that manner ? — ^You 
see that I have already learnt something, for I have hardly been 
learning it three months, and I already understand you when 
you speak to me, and can answer you. — Can you read (it) as well 
(del pari)l — I can read and write as well as speak (it). — Does 
your master also teach German ? — He teaches it. — Wishing to 
make {desiderando fare) his acquaintance, I must beg of you 
(La prego) to introduce me to him. — ^It will give me (Mi faro un) 
pleasure to introduce you to him. — ^When do you wish to go to 
him ? — ^To-morrow in the afternoon {dopo metxo giomo), if you 
please (se Le aggrada), 


How many exercises do you translate a day ?— If the exercises 
are not difficult, I translate from three to four every day (da ire 
a quatiro al giomo) ; and when they are so, I translate but one . 
[uno «o/o).— How many have you already done to-day ? — ^It is the 

864 Birnr-sixTR utssox. 

third which am translating (Ho iraducmdo) ; but to-morrow I 
hope to be able to do one more {uno di piu), for I shall be alone 
(solo). — Have you paid a visit to my aunt ? — ^I went to see hei 
two months ago {or fan due mesi), and as she looked displeased 
I have not ^ne to her any more since that time (da quel tempo), 
— How do you do to-day ! — I am very unwell (moUo male), — 
How do you like that soup ? — ^I think (La trovo) it is very bad ; 
since I have lost my appetite {P appefito\ I do not like any thing 
(noft nd piaee piu nienie). — How much does that employment 
bring in (rendere *) to your father ? — ^It brings him in (gU render 
or gU da) more than four thousand (mUaj plur. of mUley crowns. 
— What news is there {dire •) ? — ^They say nothing new. — ^What 
do you intend to do to-morrow ? — I propose joining a hunting 
party. — ^Does your brother purpose {divisa egU) playing {far) a 
game at billiards ? — He proposes playing a game at chess. — Why 
do some people ( perche mai eanvi persone) laugh when I speak ? 
— ^Those are unpolite people ; you have only to laugh also {Ella 
pure), and they Will no longer laugh at you. — ^If you will do as I 
do, you will speak well. — ^You must study a little {Le ahUsagna 
etudiare qualche poco) every day, and you will soon be no longer 
afraid to speak. — I will endeavour to follow your advice, for I have 
resolved {nU son proposto) to rise every morning at six o'clock, 
to study till ten o'clock, and to go to bed early. — Why does your 
sister complain ? — ^I do not know ; since {quando) she succeeds 
in every thing, and dince she is (e eh\ e) happy, even happier 
than you and I, why does she complain ?— Perhaps she com- 
plains .because she is not thoroughly acquainted (nort i Utrtdta) 
with that business (m tale faeenda). — That may be {pud darn). 

Have they served up the soup 1 — ^They have served it up some 
minutes ago. — Then {aUora) it must be {dep' essere) cold, and I 
only like soup hot {la xuppa calda), — ^They will warm it for you. 
-^You will oblige me. — Shall I help you to some {desidera 
Ella) of this roast meat? — ^I will trouble you for a little.— 
Will you eat some of this mutton ? — ^I thank you ; I like fowl 
letter. — May I offer you {desidera Ella che Le serva) some 
wine ? — ^I will trouble you for a littlo {me ne favorisca un poco). 

SlXTy-S£>r£NTH LESSON. 365 

—Have they already brought in {portalo in tavola) the dessert ?— « 
They have brought it in. — Do you like fruit ? — I like fruit, but 1 
have BO more appetite. — Will you eat a little cheese ? — I will 
eat a little. — Shall I help you to English or Dutch cheese ? — i 
will eat a little Dutch cheese. — What kind of fruit is that ?— ^It 
is a stone-fruit. — ^What is it called ? — It is called thus. — Will 
you wash your hands ? — ^I will wash them, but I have no towel 
in {per) wipe them (with). — ^I will let you have {Lefaro dare) a 
towel, some soap, and some water. — I shall be much obliged to 
you. — May I ask you for (oso domandarle) a little water? — Here 
is some (eccone). — Can you do without soap ? — As for soap I can 
do without it, but I must have a towel to wipe my hands (with). 
— ^Do you often do without soap ? — There are many things which 
we must do without (di cut i necessarioprivarn). — Why has that 
man run away ? — ^Because he had no other n^eans of escaping 
the punishment {dalla puniziane) which he had deserved {meri- 
tare). — Why did your brothers not get {procurarn) a better 
horse 1 — When they get rid of {quando avranno aUeruUo) their 
old horse, they will get a better. — Has your father arrived 
already ? — Not yet ; but we hope that he will arrive this very 
day (ojggi 8te8so). — Has your friend set out in time?— I do 
ncA know, but I hope he has {cTie sard) set out in time. 

Lezione sessaniesima settima. 

To be a judge of something. 

SIntendersi di quakhe cosa. 
Canoscersi di (or in) qualche 

Are yovL a good jadge of cloth 7 SI conosce Ella di panno 1 

( am a ivnAge of it. Mi vi conosco (me-ne intendo). 


I am not a jadgo oi it. 


I am a good jadga o! It. 
I am not a good jadg.9 of it. 

To draw. 
To chalk, to trace. 

To draw a landscape. 
To draw after Ufa, 

Tlie drawing. 

The d^igner. 


Non mi vi conoeoo (non me 

Mi vi conotco beniaaimo. 
Non mi yi conoaco molto. 

no in- 

Disegnare 1. 
Calcare 1, ricakare 1. 

Diaegnare una riata di paeae. 
Diaegnara dal natarale (dal vero). 
II diaegnatore. 
La natun. 

2b manage, or to go about a 

How do you manage to make a fire 
without tonga 1 

I go about it,ao. 

You go about it the wrong way. 

I go about it the right way. 

How doea your brotlier manage to do 

SUlfuIly, handily, dezteroualy, cle- 

Awkwardly, unhandily, badly. 

t Prendersi, 

Come ai prende Ella per fiir del fuoco 
aenia moDe 1 or Come ttella a &r. 

Mi Ti prendo cori, or Facdo co^ 

Ella Ti ai prende male. 

Mi vi prendo bene. 

Come ai prende il di Lei frateUo per 


Senza giudizio. 

I forbid you to do that. 


To caat down one'a eyea. 
The curtain. 
The curtain rises. 
The curtain falla. 

To rise. 

To fall, to descend. 

The stocks have fallen. 
The day falla. 
Night comes on. 
It growa towarda night 
It grows dark. 
It grows late. 

To stoop. 

Proibire 3 (isco). 

Le (vi) proihiaco di far ddi 

Ahhassare 1. 

Abbassara gli occliL 
La tela, il sipario. 
Cala il sipario. 

Alzarsi 1. 
Calare 1. 

n cambio ha baaaato (d calaloX 

Declina il glomo. 

La notte s* awidna. 
t Si fa notte. 
t SifaoscuTo. 
t SifaUrdL 

Ahhassarsi 1. 



To meU, to feel 
He 8mell0 of garlic. 
To feel some one*! pulse. 

To consent. 

I consent to It 

Who says nothing consents. 

SewUre Z. 

< Ha un cattivo odor d' agUo. 
i Puzza d' aglid. 
Toccar 11 polso a qualcuno. 

ConserUire 3. 

V acconsento 
Chi tace consente. 

Aceonsentire 3. 

To hide, to conceal. 

The mind. 

In deed. ^ 

'In fact. 
The truth. 
The fact 
The effect 

A true man. 
rhia is the right place for that picture. 

Nascondere* 2 (past part, nas- 
coso or nascosto ; pret. def. 

La mente, lo spirito. 
In veriti. 
t In latti, t in rero. 
La Teritft. 
U fatto. 
L' effetto. 

Un uomo Verace. 
Ecco il vero luogo per questo quadra. 

To think much of one {to esteem 

To esteem some one. 

I do not think much o^ that matL 
I think much of him (I esteem hhn 

( f Far conto di qualcuno. 

( Aver in isiima qu&leuno. 

Stimare qualcuno. 

Non fo gran conto di quest' uomo. 
Fo gran conto di lui Oo stimo molto)» 

The flower, the bloom, the blossom. 
That man has his eyes on a level with 
his head. 

On a level with, even leiih. 
To blossom {to flourish). 
7*0 grow. 

To grow rapidly, (fast). 

To grow tall or big. 

That child grows so fast that we may 
even see it 

II fiore. 

Quest* uomo ha gli occhi al piano 
della testa. 

Al piano, a Uvello. 

Funire 3 {isco). 

Crescere* 2 (past part, ere* 

sciuto ; pret. def. crehhf). 
Crescere rapidamente. 

Ingrandire 3 {isco), 

duesto fanciullo ingrandisce a Tista. 


That child hat grown very &st In a 

ahort Ume. 
That rain has made the com grow. 


A cover. 
A shelter. 
A cottage, a hot. 
To shelter one's self from some- > 
thing. j 

To take shelter from something. ! 
Let us shelter Ourselves from the 

rain, the wind. 
Let us enter that cottage, in order 
to be sheltered from the storm (the 

Every tohere^ aU aver, ihnnigh- 

All over (throughout) the town. 
A shade. 

Under the shade. 

Let us sit down under the shade of 
that tree. 

To pretend. 

That man pretends to sleep. 

That young lady pretends to know 

They pretend to come near us. 

From, since. 

From morning. 
From morning till night 
From the break of day. 

Questo ianciuUo ha molto iqgiinditf 

in poco tempo. 
Questa pioggia ha lattplngiandire U 



Un ricorero, un rifuglo. 

Una capanna. 

MettersI al ricovero dl qualcbe cosa. 

Mettiamoci al ricorero della pioggia 

del vento. 
Entriamo in quests capanna per es- 

sere a coperto ddla tempests, or 

per essere a ricovero deUe inginrie 

del tempo. 


Per tutla la dtti. 
Un' ombra. 

AJP onibra. 

Andiamo a sederd all' omhim dl 
quest' albero. 

Fingere* di (p. part. jStilo; 
pret. def. jSfwt). 

' Quest' uomo finge di dormire. 
(Quest' uomo & semblante di dor- 
' mire. 
Questa signorina finge di oapere I* 

Fanno semblante d' aTvidimral r 

Ora, al fnresente, adeeto. 
Da, fin da, dah 

Dalla mattina. 
Da mattina a se^ 
Dallo spnntar del giomo. 



From tne cradle. From a child. 
From thia time forward. 

Fin dalla culla. Fin dall' inlaniia. 
Da ora in poi. 

As soon aSm 

^u soon 88 1 see him, I shall speak to > Tosto ch' io lo vedrd, gU parlei^. 

Tosto chcy appena. 

For fear of. 

To catch a cold, 

I win not go out for fiear of catching a 

He does not wish to go to town for 
fear of meeting with one of his cred- 

He does not wish to open Ids purse for 
fear of losing his money. 

( Per iimore (per tema), 
I Sul Umore, 

PigUar un^infreddatufM. 

Non vo^o uscire per timore d' in* 

Non viiol andigr in citta su! timore 

d' incontrar un suo creditore. 

Nob Tuol aprire la borsa per timore 
di suo danaro. 

To copy, to transcribe. 
To transcribe &lrly. 
A suhstantiye) an adjective, a pronoun. 

A Terb^ a preposition, a gnunmaf, a 

Copiare 1. 

DecUnare 1. 

Uettere in netto. 

Un sostantivo, un aggettivo (add!- 

ettivo), un pronome. 
Un verbo, una preposizione, una 

grammatica, un dizionario. 

Have you executed my commission ? — ^I have executed it.-^ 
Has your brother executed the' commission which I gave him ? — 
He has executed it. — ^Will you execute a commission for me ? — 
I am under so many obligations to you that I shall always exe- 
cute your commissions when it shall please you to give me any. 
— Will you ask the merchant whether (se) he can let me have 
{damd) the horse at the price (al prexzo) which I have offered 
him ? — I will ask him, but I know that he will be satisfied, if you 
will but add a few crowns. — Good morning, children (ragazzi) f 
^-Have you done your task ?-^You well know that we always do it 
when we are not ill.— What do you give us to do to day ? — ^I 



grtve you the sixty -seventh lesson to study and to do the exercises 
belonging to it {ehe ne dipendono); that is to say, the two hun- 
dred and eighth and two hundred and ninth. — ^Will you endea- 
▼our (« ttudieranno) to commit no errors (far errori) ? — ^We 
shall endeavour (d studiertmo) to make none. — Is this bread suf- 
ficient for you ? — It is sufficient for me, for I am not very hungry. 
— ^When did your brother embark for America ? — He sailed on 
the thirtieth (i7 trenid) of last month. — ^Will you ask your brother 
whether he is satisfied with the {del) money which I have sent 
him ? — ^As to my brother, he is satbfied with it, but I am not so ; 
for having suffered shipwreck {Jar naufragio), I am in want of 
the money which you owe me. — ^Do you promise me to apeak to 
your brother ? — I promise you, you may depend upon it. — I rely 
upon you.-**WiU you work (studiare) harder {megUo) for the 
next lesson than you have done (ehe non ha studiato) for this ? — 
I will work harder. — May I rely upon it ? — ^You may. 

Are you a judge of cloth ? — ^I am a judge of it. — ^Will you buy 
some yards for me? — ^If you will give me the money I will buy 
you some. — ^You will oblige me {EUa mi fard piaeere, or GUene 
sard tetnUo). — Is that man a judge of cloth ? — He is not a good 
judge of it.-^How do you manage to do that ? — ^I manage it so. — 
Will you show me how you manage it ? — ^Very willingly (moUo 
volenUeri). — What must I do (ehe dehhofare) for my lesson of to- 
morrow ?— You will transcribe your exercises fairly (mettere m 
neUo)f do three others, and study the next lesson (la lexian^ se- 
gu^nie). — How do you manage to get goods (ddle mereanxie) 
without money ? — I buy on credit. — ^How does your sister man- 
age to learn Italian without a dictionary ? — She manages it thus. 
— She manages it very dexterously. But how does your brother 
manage it ? — He manages it very awkwardly (saua aleun giudi- 
no) : he reads, and looks for the words in the dictionary. — He 
may (pud) learn (studiare) in this manner twenty years without 
knowing how to make a single sentence (una eola Jraae), — ^Why 
does your sister cast down her eyes ? — She casts them down be- 
cause she is ashamed of not having done her task. — Shall we 
breakikst in the garden to-day ?-T-The weather is 90 fine that we 



should take advantage of it (cA« hisogna apprqfUt^ime). — How do 
you like that cofTee ? — ^I like it very much. — Why do you stoop ? 
— I stoop to pick up (per prendere) the handkerohief which 1 
have dropped. — ^Why do your sisters hide themselves ? — ^Thcy 
hide themselves for fear of being seen. — Of whom are they afraid ? 
— ^They are afraid of their governess {la maestra), who scolded 
(ramjM^iiare or sgridare) them yesterday because they had not 
done their tasks (il lor dovere, in the sing.). 

Lezione sessantesima ottava. 

To get beaten (whipped). 
To get paid. 
To get one's self invited to dine. 

t Farai battere. 
t Farsi pagare. 
t Farsi invitare a pranzo. 

At first. 
Tlilrdly, dc. 

18 your mother at hooie? 

She is. 

I am going to her hou93. 

A cause. 

A cause of complaint. 
A cause of sadness. 
She has reason to be sad. 

Orief, sorrow, sadness. 
Is thnt woman ready to go out 7 

She is. 

Da principiOi a prima vista. 
Primieramente, in primo luoga 
Secdndarlamente, in secondo Inogo. 
In terzo luogo, ecc 

& in casa ladi Lei madr^7 
VI ^. 
Vado da ( 

una causa, una 

Un molivOy 

Un ^oggetlo, 

Un soggetto di dispiacere. 
Un soggetto dl tristena. 
Ha un motivo dt tristeua. 
II dispiacere, la tristezza. 
Questa donnn i desea pronta 

uscire 7 




NolwithsUindit^, m sffUe of. 

Notwithstanding that 
In spite of them. 
In spite of ms. 

{ Malgrado, 
( A dispeUOf ad otUa. 

Malgrado lui or sno malgrado. 
Malgxado easa or ano malgrado. 
Malgrado loro or loio malgrado. 
Hlo malgrada 

To manage. 

Do yon manage to finish your work 

every Saturday night 1 
Do you manage to have your work 

done every Saturday night? 
Try to do that to oblige me. 

( f Far in modo di. 
I Proewrare di. 
t Fa EUa In modo di finire U dl Lei 

laToro ogni aabato aeral 
t Fa Ella in modo d' aver finlto 11 di 

Lei hiToro ogni aabato aeral 
Faccla in modo di &r cid per oompia- 


Ob$, Whenever in ortUr lo can be anbetitnted for the prepoaitlonfo^ the hitter 
is rendered in Italian by per, to express the end, the design, or the causey ibr 
which a thing la done. 

I will do every thing to oblige yon. | Fai\i tuttoper eompiaceilo. 

To look upon. 

The window looka into the street. 
The window looka out upon the river. 
That apartment looks upon the street 

The back-door kwks into the garden. 

Dar su. 
Guardare «u. 

La finestta di (sporge) auDa stiada. 
La finestra sporge (dk) sol finme. 
Quest* appartamento dd (sporge) 

sulla atrada. 
La porta di dletro di sul giardlno. 

To drown. 

To drown a dog. 
To drown one'a sel^ to get drowned. > 
To be drowned, to be drowning. ) 
To leap through the vrindow. 
To throw out of the window. 
I am drowning. 
He jumped out of the window. 

He was fastened to a tree. 

Annegare (affbgare). 
Annegare tm cane. 

Annegand (ajBogand). 

Saltare dalla finestra. 
Gettare dalla finestra. 
Mi annego. 
Saltd dalla finestra. 

V attaccarono ad nn albero 



The catUc 
To keep warm. 
To keep cooL 
To keep clean. 

To keep on one's guard against some 

Keep on your guard against that man. 

II bestiame. 

t Tenersi caldo. 

t Tenersi fresco. 

t Tenersi p'ulito. 

t Star air erta contro qualcuno. 

t Mettersi (porsi) in guardia contro 

Stia all* erta contro quest' uomo. 

To take care {to beware) of 

To take care {to beware) of 


If yon do not take care of that horse, 

it will kick you. 
T^e care that you do not fall. 
To beware of somebody or something. 

Keep on your guard against that man. 
Take care! 

Cruardarsi di {da) qualcuno, 
Badare a qnalche cosa, 

Se non bada a quel cavallo, Le darfL 

uh calcio. 
t Badi a non cadere 1 
Ouardarsi di qualcuno o di qualcha 

La si guardi da quest* uomo 
Badi I (La badi!) 

A thought. 
An idea. 

To be struck with a thought. 
A thought strikes me. 
A thought has struck me. 

That never crossed my mind. 

To take into one's head. 
He took it into his head lately to rob 

What is in your head 7 

Un pensiere, un pensiero. 

Un' idea. 

Un impeto. 
Ct Venir in pensiero. 
( t Cader nell' animo. 
^ Mi viene un pensiero. 
i Mi viene in mente. 
c M* d Tcnuto un pensiere. 
c M' d venuto in mente. 

(Questo non m* d mai cadnto nelP 
duesto non m* d mai passato per la 

f Immaginare 1. 
t Egli immagind 1* altro giomo di 

t Che immagina Ellal 

In my place. 
In your, his, her place. 
We must put erery thing in ito place. 

A (in) mio luogo. Inmiavece. 
A (in) vostro, di Lei, suo, luogo. 
Bisogna mettere ogni cosa a 



'ilrmnul, round, 

AU urowid. 
We niled aroand Englapd. 

They went abont the town to look at 
the citrlo«itie& 

To go round the house. 

To go about the hoaae. 

To cost. 

How much doeu that cost yon 1 
How mnch does this 0bok cost you 1 
It costs me three crowns snd a halt 
That table costs him seven crowna 

I Iniomo (a preposition). 

I Intomo intomo. Tntto Intomo. 
I Navigammo Intomo all* Inghit 
I terra. 

Andarono qui e Ul per la dtt^ p**r 
vexdeme le cose notsbili. 
^ Andare intomo alia caaa. 
I Far il giro deUa casa. 
Andar qui e U nella casa. 

Cottare 1. 

Quanto Le costs 1 
Quanto Le coata qocsto libro 1 
Mi costs tre scudl e mezio. 
Quests tsTola gli costa setts scndi. 

Alantf hf wu^t ttlf, 

I was alone. 

One woman only. 

God alone can do that. 
The very thought of it is criminal. 
A single resding is not suiBcicnt to 
satisfy a mind that has a true taste. 

Soh ; fern. 9ola, 

10 era solo. 
Una sola donna. 
Un solo Dio. 

Dio solo pud fitf qnesto. 

11 pensiero solo dl dd d criminoso. 
Una soU lettura non basts per con- 

tentare un uomo che ha 

To laUhy shooting. 

To blow out some one's brains. 

To shoot one's self with s pistol. 

He hss blown out his brslns. 

He hss blown out his brains with a 

He hss shot him with a pistol. 

Vccidere con arma dajiioco. 

fFsr saltare le cenrelia a qualcnno. 
Bruciare le cenrelia a qnalcuno. 
Mandar a qualcuno le cenrelia all' 
Ucciderai con una pistoieCtata. 
Si d &tto saltare le cerrella. 
Si d latto saltare le oerreUa con una 

Gli ha mandate all' aria le cenrelU 
con una pistolettata. 

He served for a long time, acquired ' 
honours, snd died contented. ! 

He arrived poor; grew rich in a short 
time, snd lost all In a still shorter 

Servi gran tempo, giunse sgli onori, 

c mori contento. 
Arrivd povero, diventd ricoo in poco 

tempo, e pexdd tutto in meno tempfr 





What is the matter with you ? — Why do you look so melancholy 
{coA melancoUco) ? — I should not look so melancholy, if I had no 
reason to be sad. I have heard just now that one of my friends 
has shot himself with a pbtol, and that one of my wife's best 
friends has drowned herself. — Where did she drown herself? — 
She drowned herself in the river which is behind her house. — 
Yesterday, at four o'clock in the morning, she rose {si leva) with- 
out saying a word to any one (ad alcuno), leaped out of the win- 
dow which looks into the garden, and threw herself into the river, 
where she was drowned. — I have a great mind (gran vogUg) to 
bathe (bagnarsi) to-day. — ^Where will you bathe ? — In the river. 
— Are you not afraid of being drowned ? — Oh, no ! I can swim. 
— ^Who taught you ? — ^Last summer I took a few lessons in the 
swimming-school (alia scuola del (or di) nuoto). 

When had you finished your task ? — I had finished it when 
you came in. — Those who had contributed (contrihuire) most (piu) 
to his elevation to the throne (alia sua elevazume sul trano) of his 
ancestors, were those who laboured (lavorare) with the greatest 
eagerness (con piu animosita) to precipitate him from it (per pre- 
cipitamelo). As soon as (Dacche) Ceesar (Cesare) had crossed 
(passare) the Rubicon (U Rvhicone), he had no longer to deliberate 
(deUberare) : he was obliged (doveite) to conquer (vincere) or to 
die. — An emperor (un imperatore), who was irritated at (irritato 
caniro) an astrologer (un astrologo), asked him : << Wretch (tniS' 
erahile) I what death (di che sarta di morte) dost thou believe thou 
wilt die?" — '<I shall die of fever," replied the astrologer. 
" Thou liest," said the emperor, "thou wilt die this instant of a 
violent death (di morte vtbZento)." As he was going to be seized 
(stavano per prenderlo)^ he said to the emperor, " Sire (Stre), 
:>rder some one (ordinate) to feel (che mi si tocchi, subj.) my 
pulse, and it will be found that I have a fever." This sally 
(questo detto) sByed his life. 

Do you perceive yonder house (queUa casa laggiu) ?-^I per- 
ceive it ; what house is it ? — It is an inn (una locanda) ; if you 


, .<Maf ciie tu abbia (iibbl). 

, I !ibiilamo, che vol abbiaia 
{ tlliilio {esse} ) 

M (essti) > 
I ^i.vmo> cUe vai iiat«. 

. I lend (esse) ) ^ 

ui: wMi parJIamOi cbe vol parliate. 

C'li' U> creda, cho tu cr^da, ch* egU 

Ciu3 ijoi cfedlami^, eh» ifol eradiate 

etc lo ftBOio, cbo tu Mtita, eh' egll 

Cho nol aeniiamo* cUa vol Benikie, 

^tii ihfiftrai cotijtigfttion the thrua per- 
lettictt, and in tha two auxllinrlcB, in a 



The wcond penon dngular of the auxiUariei may also tenninate iu t. Sec- 
ondly, that all the three coDJugationa have the firat and aecond peraona plnial 
terminated altke, and the third peraon plural terminatea in the aecond and third 
conjugationa in ano^ whilst in the firat coi^ugation it enda In bio. 


A. The Bubjunctiye in Italian ia made uae of to express doubt or uncertainty.' 
It ia goTemed by one of the following coqjunctlona, which generUly preoedea 
the verb which ia put in the subjunctive mood. 

Cfu, that 


I to the end that. 
I although. 

Atv^nachl, whereaa, tho1lgfa^ 
fSnM, tUl. 
Sinlantoehi, until. 
Quaniunque, though, although. 
Purdii, provided, that. 

B. The conjunction efu makes all the words to which it is joined become 
conjunctions. The following conjunctive expressions, therefore, also require 
the Bubjnnctive : 

suppose thst. 

Bisogna du^ it is necessary that 
Diofaeciache, {would to God 

Voglia Iddio cAe, ) that. 

In coMo cAe, in case that. 

^i^*^ J before that. 

C. Verba expresdng wUl, detire, command^ pcrmtMton, and fear, followed by 
the conjunction cfu^ require the subjunctive, as: I will, I desire, I command, 
I permit my brother to study, to spMk, to see, to go out, Ac, vogKo, deaiderot 
eomandOf pemuUo, die ndo JrtUeUo tiudii, parlif vedo, cseo, Ac. I fear he may 
not aing, he may not say, Ac., temo che turn eon/i, che rum dicot Ac. 

I wish you may do it aoon. 

I fear it will rain to-night 

I hope to succeed in it. 

I must go there myael£ 

He says so, to the end that you may 
not attribute the fault to me, and that 
you may know what ia to be ex- 
pected from him. 

Though it be difficult to aubdue ov 
paaaions, we must, notwithstaniing, 
vanquiah ouraelvea. 

The count, though much frightened, 
had the boldneas. 

Wait till I return. 

So long as I have not finiahed my 

t will come, provided it doea not rain. 

Deiidero che lofaedaU presto. 
Temoekepiova qneata sera, 
t Spero dke la cosa mi rieaoa 
Bisogna ch* io stesso ci vodSo. 
Lo dice, aecioedii non diaU a me W 

colpa, ed t^ffinM MttppiaU, quanto 

d po9$a sperar da lui. 

BeruM na difficile vlncer le nostre 

passloni, bisogna perd vincere se 

II conte otvegnaM (anporehX) fo9$e 

molto spaventato, ebbe 1' ardirc. 
Aspettate jCnc^ io tomu 
Sinianioehi io non abbia finito il mio 

Verrd purefi^ non piova. 

> Hence the verb eredert^ to believe, always governs the subjunctive In 
Italian. Ex. MtofraUtto erede ch* io parH, My brother thinks I speak. 



Soppow that he die. 

In case he ahottld not be in hia apart- 

Suppose it to be so. 

Would to Ood that all were going well. 

However wise the counsel that you 
have taken may be. 

It is sufficient ibr me to know. 

I must do. 

Potto ehs egli muoia. 

In caso €he non fotte nel suo appar- 

DtUo ehe sia eo»^. 
' Diofaoda du tutto vada bene. 
Comunque savio «ta il consiglio cho 

avete preso. 
Basta di* io $appia, 
Bisogna eh* io faeda. 

D. The conjunction ehe does not require the subjunctive when it relates to 
verbs expressing certainty. Ex. 

I know that thou hast not been at my 

He assured me that the work was by a 

I am sure that he is wrong. 
I swear to thee that I have told him 

I am convinced that he does not betray 


E. The indicative is also employed after conjunctions expressing an action 
wlitk certainty, such as : 

Io BO c^ tn non Mr stato da me. 

M' assicurava ehe V opera era di 

mano maestra. 
Sono persuaso eh* egli ha torto. 
Ti giuro ehe non gli ho detto niente. 

Sono convinto die non mi tradisce. 












so that. 






80 that 

Non pertanto, 







because, why. 


if, since. 




80 that 


( therefore, 
c nevertheless. 








as soon as. 




yet, nevertheless. 

Whilst he was at dinner, two horses 

were stolen from him. 
lYhilst fortune came to his aid, it 

happened that the King of France 

Whilst I am speaking, time is passing. 
It seemed to him he was ill, but he was 

nevertheless contented. 
I should like to know why you do not 

call upon me any more. 

Intanto di' egli etasa a pranzo, ^U 

furono rubati due cavalli. 
Menireehi la fortuna veniva ad 

aiutarlo, avvenne ehe il Re dl 

Francia mori. 
Mentre di* io parlo^ il tempo passa. 
Gli pareva di star male, ma nan per 

tanio era contento. 
Vorrei sapere, perdii non veniU pih 




I cannot oome, bectoM I amlmsy. 
He is tn honeat man, therefore I 

believe all he tells me. 
Every thing loit may be reoovered, but 

not lUe : iherefora evoy one ought 

to take good care of It. 

Though every body aaya It, I never- 

thelesa do not believe it. 
Now, aa God has granted me eo nnich 

grace, I shall die happy. 
Thongh I have been advised by many 

phyaidans to use certain baths, I 

kave nevertheless not been willbig 

to do it 
If I do not mistake, I saw him the 

other night 
Though the smell of that juioe offends, 

it is not for all that t^juiious to 

As soon as I am able, Iwlll come. 

Non poBBo venire, perch^ As da frre 
Egli d galantnomo^ percid end* 

quanto mi dice. 
Ognl cosa perdnta ri ptiu ricuperue, 

ma non la vita : tpperb ciascono 

dcse easer di i^ueUa buon guaidia- 

Benchd tntti lo dicano, io ptrh non 

Ora, potoU Dio mi ka faUo tanU 

gruia, lo morrd contento. 
Qnantunque da molt! medid mi sU 

atato oonsigllato d' usar certi bag- 

nl, furt non 1* ho vobtio fare. 

Se non m' inganno, lo vidi V altia 

Sebbene V odore di questo sugo ofieo- 
da, non perdb ntioec alia salute. 

TbttoM io pofrd; verr^ 

F, The suljunctive is fhrther made nse of after the relative pronoun du, 
when it follows a superlative ; and after the relative pronouna d^ i^ quaU, di^ 
euif when the action which they present is doubtful or uncertain. 

Tlie finest pieturs that Is id Rome. 
The bravest man that I have ever 

Tlie most lidicukms fignre that one can 

For tlttt a man of some knowledge Is 

You will not find any body wlio would 

I liave nobody on whom I oould rely. 
Show me any one who has never com- 
mitted a foult 
I want a horse that must be taller than 

It is assured that peace la made. 
They say that there lias been a great 

battle near the Rhine. 
Whatever may happen. 
However handsome she may be, she 

does not please me. 
Let liim be awake or asleep, I must 

speak to him. 

n pi& bel quadro eke Ha in Roma, 
n piil brav' uomo eh' io obbia mai ce- 

La figunla piik tidioola e^ tA pama 

A dd si ▼uole un uomo cfte oUui dalle 

Non trov^rete thi lo faeeia. 

Non ho nesiuno in eui poefa fidarmL 
Mostretemi uno dke non abhia mai 

oommesso un folio. 
Ho biflogno di un cavallo cft« Jta 

pih alto di questo. 
Si d& per dcuro che la pace na fotta. 
Si dice eke al Reno eia state data una 

gran battagUa. 
Ne wceeda quel che vuole. 
Per bella eke sia non mi piece. 

VegH o darma, biaogna ch' io gU 


There Is no one, however learned he 

may be, that knows all. 
I do not Bee which is his Intention. 
I do not know which are your books. 

Non v' i uomo, per dotto eke sCo. e^ 

tappia tut to. 
Non vedo qual Ha V intenzione sua. 
Non so quali tiano I vostri Ubri. 

G. When of two Terbs the first is preceded by non, the second by che^ the 
latter requires to be in the subjnnctive. Ex. 
I do not believe he studies. I Non cn^o du tiudiU. 

I do not think he walks. | Non penso du wmadnL 



M. de Turenne would never buy {turn compraoa max) any thing 
on credit of tradesmen (t7 fnereanJUi)^ for fear, said he, they should 
lose a great part of it, if he happened to be killed {se gU accadesse 
di restar morto in guerra). All the workmen {gli operai) who ' 
were employed about his house had orders to bring in the bills 
(di preseiUare i loro cimti)^ before he set out for the campaign 
^meUersi in eampagna), and they were regularly paid. 

You will never be respected (rispettafe) unless you forsake {se 
non bueiando) the bad company you keep. — ^You cannot finish 
your work to-night unless (a meno eke) I help you. I will explain 
{spiegare) every difficulty to you, that you may not be disheart- 
ened (scaraggiare) in your undertaking (f impresa), — ^Suppose 
you should lose your friends, what would become of you ? — In 
case you want my assistance, call me ; I shall help you. — A wise 
and prudent man (un uomo savio e prudente) lives with economy 
when young, in order that he may enjoy the (per godere del) fruit 
of his labour when he is old. — Carry (portaie) this money to Mr. 
N., in order that he may be able to pay his debts (i7 delnto), — 
Will you lend me that money ? — I will not lend it you unless you 
promise to return (rendere*) it to me as soon as you can. — Did 
the general arrive ? — ^He arrived yesterday morning at the camp 
{U campo), weary and tired (stanco ed ahhaUuto), but very season- 
ably (molio a proposito) ; he immediately gave his orders to begin 
the action (la hattaglia or il conibattimento), though he had not 
(nan avesse) yet all his troops. — Are your sisters happy ? — ^They 
are not, though they are rich, because they are not contented.-— 
Although they have a good memory, that is not enough to learv 


any language whatever (qualunque siasi Ungua) ; they mast make 
use of their judgment (ilgiudizio)» — ^BehoM (Guardi) how amia- 
ble that lady is ; for all that she has no fortune {quatUunque turn 
na agiata)^ I do not love her the less (/* amo isiessametUe). — Will 
you lend me your violin ? — I will lend il yon, provided you return 
it me to-night. — Will your mother call upon me ? — She will, pro- 
vided you will promise to take her to the concert. — I shall not 
cease to importune (importunare) her till she has forgiven me.— 
Give me (mi dia) that penknife (il temperino), — ^I will give it you, 
provided you will not make a bad use of it. — Shall you go to 
London? — I will go, provided you accompany (aceompagnare) 
me I and I will write again (di nuovo) to your brother, in case he 
should not have received my letter. 

• 213. 
Where weie you during the engagement (ilfatto d' amd) ? — I 
was in bed to have my wounds {la ftriia) dressed {medicare). — 
Would to God {cast fosse piaciuto a Dio che) I had been there {ch* 
iovifossistato)\ I would have {avrei voltUo, cond.) conquered 
{vincere*) or perished {perire), — We avoided {si evUd) an engage- 
meat for fear wo should be {che nonfossimo) taken, their force 
being superior {superiore) to ours. — ^Grod forbid {Dio non voglia) I 
should blame your conduct ; but your business will never be 
done properly {a dovere)^ unless you do it yourself. — Will you 
set out soon 1 — I shall not set out till I have dined. — Why did you 
tell me that my father was arrived, though you knew {mentre ch* 
EUa sapeva) the contrary ? — ^You arc so hasty {iraamdo), that 
however little you aro contradicted {ch* uno La contrarii) you fiy 
into a passion {meilersi in coUera) in an instant. — ^If your father 
does not arrive to-day, and if you want money, I will lend you 
some. — I am much obliged {ienutissimo) to you. — Have you done 
your task ? — Not quite ; if I had had (^e avessi avtUo) time, and 
If I had not been {fossi stato) so uneasy about {per) the arrival of 
my father, I should have {F avrei) done it. — If you study and are 
(sla) attentive, I assure you that you will learn the Italian lan- 
guage in a very short time. He who wishes to teach an art 
must know it thoroughly {afotido)^ he must give none but clear 
(preciso) and well-digested {digerire) notions (la mmone) ; he 


must iastil {far entrare) them one by one into the minds (nello 
spirito) of his pupils ; and above all {sopra tutio)y he must not 
overburthen (sopraccaricare) their memory with useless and un- 
important (vano) .rules. 

My dear friend, lend me (prestatend) a sequin. — Here are (cc- 
cone) i»ro instead of one. — How nuich obliged I am to you (quatUo 
Le Mono tenuio) \ I am always glad when I see you, and I find 
my happiness in yours. — Is this house to be sold ? — Do you wish 
to buy it ? — Why not ? — Why does not your sister speak ?— She 
would speak (jparlerebbef cond. ) if she were not (se rum fosse) al- 
ways so absent {disattenta), — I like pretty anecdotes : they season 
(cofuUre) conversation (la conversazione), and amuse every body. 
Pray relate me some. — Look, if you please, at page (pagina) one 
hundred and forty-eight of the book which I lent you, and you 
will find some. 


You must have patience, though you have no desire to have it, 
for I must also (pure) wait till I receive my money. — Should I 
{nel caso cV to) receive it to-day, I will pay you all that I owe 
you. — Do not believe that I have forgotten it, for I think of it 
every day. Do you believe, perhaps {crede Ella forse) that I 
have already received it ? — I do not believe that you have already 
received it; but I fear that your other creditors {che gli aUri di 
Lei credUori) may already have received it. — You wish yx)u had 
{vorrehbe aver, cond.) more time to study, and your brothers wish 
they did not need {vorrehhero non aver hisogno) to learn. — Would 
to Grod {yolesse- Iddio) you had (avesse) what I wish you, and that 
I had (avessi) what I wish. — ^Though we have not had what we 
widh (yet) we have almost always been contented ; and Messieurs 
B. have almost always been discontented, though they have had 
every thing a reasonable man (un uomo ragionevole) can be con- 
tented with. — Do not believe. Madam, that I have had your fan 
(i7 ventaglio) — ^Who tells you that I believe it ? — My brother-in- 
law wishes he had not had {vorrehbe non aver avuto) what he has 
had. — Wherefore 1 — He has always had many creditors, &nd no 
money. — I wish you would always speak Italian to me ; and you 
must obey, if you wish to learn that language, and if you do not 



wish lo lose your time (inutilmefUe).^^! wish you were (varrei 
ehefotte) more industrious and more attentive when I speak to 
you. If I were not {rumfMsi) your friend, and if you were not 
(wmfaste) mine, I should not speak {jmrlerei) thus to you. — Do 
not trust Mr. N. (non vifidate del Signor JY.), for he flatters you. 
— Do you believe a flatterer (tm adukUore) can be a friend 1 — ^You 
do not know him so well as I, though you see him every day. — 
Do not think that I am angry with him, because his father has 
offended me. — Oh ! here he is coming {eccolo ehe viene) ; you 
may tell him all yourself. 

Lezione settantesima. 

If I hadf if thou hadst, if he had. 
If we hid, if you had, Ifthejr had. 

lur^^rmcT or rum auajimcTivB. 

S' io aveati, ae lu aYeaaf, r egh 

Se nol aveaaimo, ae vol aveate, a* 
agUno aveaaero. 

If I were, Ifthouwert, ifhei 

If we were, If you were, if they were. 

S* io foadi ae ta fo^ a* egli foaae. 
Se noHoaalino, ae voi foate, aP eglino 

If I apoke, if thou apokeat^ if lie spoke. S' io parlaaal, ae tu parlaaai, a* egii 

If we flpoke, if you apoke, if they apoke. Se noi pariaarimo, ae yoI parlaate, f>' 

' eglino parlaaaero. 

U I bellrfVed, if thou beiievedat, if he S* io crede8al« ^ tu credeaai, a* egli 

believed. ! crcdesse. 

If we believed, if you believed, if they ! Se noi credeesimo, ae voi credeale 

believed.' 9' eglino ervdeaaero. 



If I heard, if thou heardest, if he heaid. . S* io sentissl, se tu Bentissi, flP egll 

I seDtisee. 

If we heard, if you heard, if they i Se nol sentfeeimo, ae voi aentiste, a* 

heard. > egUno sentiasero^ 

Obt. A. Tt^e imperfect of the aubjunctiTe ia formed from the passcUo remoio 
(Leaaon LX.)* hy chan^ng, for the firat coi\jngatioii, at into mm, for the aec- 
ond ei into esti^ and for the third u into im. The aecond peraon plural la in all 
alike the aecond person plural of the pastcUo remoio. (See Lesaoii LX.) 

Obs. B. Aa to the formation of the preterite, or preterperfect and pluperfect 
of the aubjunctiTC, it ia exactly' the aame as In the indicative ; the former 
being compounded of the present aubjunctive of the auxiliary, and the paat 
participle of another verb, the latter of the imperfect subjunctive of the auxil> 
iary, and the paat participle of another verb. Ex. 

That I may have loved. Ch' Io abbia amato. 

That he inay have come. Ch' egli sia venuto. 

If I liad loved. S' io aveasi amato. 

If I were come. S' io fosai venuto. 

RxMABK H.— On thi Uaa op thb Subjiwctitb. 

The imperfect of the aubjunctive ia employed after the conditional conjun* 
tion M, i^ expreaaed or understood K 

If I had money. 

If he had time. 

If you were rich. 

If he were a little more amiable. 

If he loved me. 

If Iloatmymoney. 

If he were to beat hia dog. 

If ahe heard me. 

Ifthe child slept. 

Se io aveaai danaro. 

Se avease tempo. 

S' EHa foase ricco. 

S* egli fosse un po' piu oortefe. 

Se mi amasse. 

Se io perdesai il mio danaro. 

Se batteeae il suo cane. 

S^essil ml sonfisae. 

Se ft fanciullo.dormiaee. 



Thia ia formed from the present future (Leaaon XLVI.) by changing 


Sing, ad, 
into ** axi. 

2 3 


1 2 3 

Plur. axMo, Bsra, »anno. 
" asMMO) asaTX, aaaasBa 

> Except when futurity la to be expreaaed, for then the future muat be madt 
vae of. Ex. 

If he cornea, we ahaU^sa him. i Se verro, Io vedremo. 

I will go to aee him to-morrow, if 1 1 Andrd a vederl0 domanl,. aa ftful 

have time. . *^ tempo. 

• 71 


I Aoald Kare, thou wooldst luMr%.he 

would have. 
Wo obottld htTo, yon woald here, thef 

would have, ■ 
I aboiild be, thon wonldot be, he w«ild 

We ohouM be, yon woitl h^ tha|r 

would be. 

I should loYe, <hou wouldot love, he 

wouM lOVOw 
We ihonld lore, you would love, they 

would lovok 

I should believe, thou wouldst believe, 

he would believe. 
We AonU believe, you would believe, 

they would believe. 


Avrel, avrem, fMobte. 
Avremmo, avreste, aviebbem 
Sarei, eanotl, tanbbe. 
Saremmo, ^^reste, aarebbeio 

Amerei^ anweiti, amerebbe 
Ameremmo, amereate, amaaebbflfa 

Crederel, credeiestl, crederabbe. 

Crederemmo, credereate, ered» 

I ABttld hear, thou wouldat hear, be Sentirei, sentireati, aentirebbe. 

would hear. 
We should hear, you would hear, they 

would hear. 

Senliremmo, aentireaie, aentirsb- 

f. Wkenever there is a condition to be ezpreaaed, the imperfect of the sub- 
junctive ia used, and the conditional present answers to it. It ia Indifeent to 
Ibfin the sentence by the imperfect of the subjunctive or tho oonditional, and 

If I had money, I would buy some 

I would buy some books, if I' had 

If he were a little mora amiable, he 

would have manyfrienda. 
Ha would have many fHends, if he 

were a little more amiable. 
If I oouM, I would do it. 
If I had money, I would have a new 

I would have a new coat, if I had 

If thou eouldat do thia, thou . wouldst 

jo that. 

Sd oMtM danaro, oomprern de* Iibr|. 
Comprerei de' libri, ae aaesi< danaro. 

^ egli ybsMun po' pi& corteae, ov- 
rtbbe moltiamiei. 

Avrehbe molti amici, a'egUybMs un 
po' pih cortese. 

hojareiy tjmttati. 

S^poUtH, lofareL 

St WHsH danaro, tmni nn' aUto 

Avrei un' ablto ntiOTa«Oe oaesti da- 

S* tu 9ap€99i lar queato, vo rr wa H lai 




Thoa woiQdtt daiial^lC than couldst 

do this. 
If he could, he would. 
He would, if he conld. 
I would go there, if I had time. 
If I had timet I would go there. 
U he knew what you^have done, he 

would acold yoiL 
He would scold you, if he knew what 

you have done. 

If ther« were any wood, he would 

He would make a fire, If there were 

any wood. 

Should the men come, it would be 
necessary to give them something to 

Should we receive our letters, we 
would net read them until to- 

Vmresti iar qu^o, se tu tapemi fai 

Se poieatCf -vorreNte. 
Vorrebbe, se poUtit, 
"V' andreii se avesH tempo. 
Se cneatitempOf T' mndrsL 
Se-^apesse 'ci6 che aveto fatto, vi 

VI* rampognerebH ^ sapme cid eh' 

SMte fatto. 
Rampognare (sgridare). 
Se d fome \egnA,JbrMe taoeth 

JbreMefuoeo, se d fosse legna. 

'Se gli uomini venissero, btsogns' 
rebbe dar loro qualche ooia da 
Bisognsrtbbe dar loro qdaloke eosa 
. da bare, se gli uomini vettissero, 
Se rieevessimo le nosqre lettere, Boa 
le Uggeremmo prima di domanl. 


It is formed from the present conditional of the auxiliary and the piat pgr- 
tldple of t&e verb yon conjugate. . 

I should hare had, Ac. Avrel aTuto, dc. 

I should hate been, dc. . Sarei state. Fem. stata, Ac. 

We should have been, Ac. | Saremmo statL Fern, state, dc. 

I should have, thou wonldst 
ham^ ho would have, 

We should have^ you would 
have, they would have, 

Avrei, avreati, avrebbe, 




I should have, thou wouldst 1 
have, he (she) would have, ] set 

We should have, you would fom. 
have, they would have, J 

Sarei, sarestl, sa- 1 partito ; Fsm. 

rebbe, I partita. 

Saremmo, saresto, j^partiti; f^uk 

sarebbero, j partite. 

They would bave been more cautious, 

if they had been wamad. 
Ha would havebesafti0ed,tf h9l0i 

raqnssted It. 

cauti,te fosser9 

Sarebbero siaU 

staii avertiti. 
Sarebbe siaio dispensato te f 



If I htA neelvtd tty money, I would 
hare bonght ntm ihoM. 

If ho had had a pen, ho would hate 

reeoUeetad ihe word. 
If joa bad riaen eariy, yoa would aot 

have caofht a eold. 
li thejhad got rid of their old horae, 

they would havo procured a better 

If he had wadied hla handa, he would 

have wiped Ihem. 
If I knew that, I would behave difieiv 

If I had known that, I would have 

behaved dlfieranUj. 
If thou hadat taken notice of that, thou 

wouldat not have 

ff io i i aaai i lioemto fl mio danoi 
ro, oar^i eamprolo delle acarpe 

£r oveiM arnto una penna, «t aoreU* 

£1^ al/o«i levata (abata) di boon* 

' on, DOQ at mrMe sRfraddoia. 

fiSi wum t r o vendnto 11 lor vecchio 

eavallo, aa ae mrMero pneisnio 

ff €tomm lavato le aue mani, ae la 

a8fvUe oflfeMiaulfl* 
Se isptui dO, m» ooiubrrvi dlfle- 

Se oaem topule cU^ raS •ard tm- 

doUo altrimenti. 
file ti Jmn uocerU dl dd, non tl m. 

K. The pluperfect of the aubjnnctive and the paat conditional meeting with 
each other, may aometimea be aubatituted by the impexiect of the indicative. 

Se lo aaptao leri, io acmaa aicora- 
Had I known It yeaterday, I would 
certainly have oome. 

I would have given it you, If I had had 

Inatead of: 
Se f OMwi a^ptcto leri, aorei fomde 

Io re lo doao, aa f oaeea. 

Inatead of: 

L, Aa aoon aa aa la not conditional it requirea the Indfbative mood. Ex. 

If at that time I had Italian booka, 

they wars not mine, 
if he ia not ill, why doea ha aend for 

the phyaician 1 

Se allora io oaiaa libti itaUvii, non 

aroRomltti. * 
Se non ^ ammahto, peichd fa venlr 

11 medico 1 

If. The imperfect of the aubjunctive ia further uaed to ezpreaa a wiah in an 
exclamatory form. 'Ex. 

O eonld I but know your aentlmenta ! 

O could Lalao come 1 . 
O had I but money 1 

Ok poUsti aapere i voairi aantl- 

OkpoieiH venir anch' io I 

And when there ia another vprb fbUowIng, it la alao put in the tepoKftet of tha 
aubjunctive. Ex. « ; 


Would to God h* never returned any | VoU^se U'jAlo che non rUanuute mei 

more I I pih 1 

N. Bat when the wish is not exdaniatory, the present of the conditional 
must be employed. Ex. 

I ehould like to see him. 

r ehonld willingly accompany yoa to 

I could not say bo. 
I would lay any thing that it will nut 


Vbmi vederlo. 

L' aeeompagnerti Tolentleii a PI 

Seomvuiterei tutto, che la cosa non 

andri bene.> 

O. The post conditional alone is made use of to represent as doubtful an 

event that is to follow a preceding event. Ex. 

He has promised to send me the goods, 
as soon as he would have received 
them. . 

He has promised to write to me, as 
soon as he should be arrived in Lon- 

Hapromesso dl mandarmi le mer- 
canzie subito che le avrebbe rice- 

Ha promesso di scrivermi subito chtt 
sarebbe arrivato in Londra. 

Wonld yon learn Italian, If I learnt Itl , 

I would learn it, if you learnt it. 
Would yon have learnt German, if I 

I would have learnt it, if yon had learnt 

Would you go to Italy, if I went 

thither with you 1 
I would go thither, if you went thither 

with fae. 
Would you have gone to Germany, if I 

had gone thither nith you 1 
Would you go out, If I remained ht 

Would you have written a letter, if I 

had written a note 1 

Imparerebbe Ella V italiano^ se to r 

L' imparerei, s* Ella 1' imparasse. 
Avrebbe Ella Imparato il tedesoo, se 

io V aressi Imparatol 
L' avrei imparato, se ellaP avesse 

Andrebbe Ella in Italia, s* io v* an- 

dassi con Lei 1 
V andrel s* Ella d venlsse meco. 

Sarebbe Ella andata In Alemagna, as 

io vi fossi andato eon Lei? 
Uscirebbe Ella, se io stessi in casa 1 

Arrebbe Ella scritto una lettera, se io 
avesai scritto un biglietto 1 

> Such expressions are, in fact, elliptical, for they should be : Varrei vederlo^ 
Be pote99^ 1 would see him, if I could; P OBoampagnerei voieniUri a Jflrenxe, m 
ovesn tempOf 1 should willingly accompany you to Florence, if I had time ; non 
»aprei dtrlOf se dooesn, I could not say so, if I were obliged. Henee it comes 
that when such expressions are followed by another verb, this must sUnd in 
the imperfect of the subjunctive. Ex. Vorrei trovare vno the m' oeoompagnant^ 
I should Uke to find one who would accompany me ; V<ifrTti un eegreiario efu 
eerpeue la lingua ikUianOf I should like, to have a secretary who knew t£c 
Italian language. 



P, TIm imiM&et of the lulyiuieCtre U often auboticiitod liar Ae Impflrfwl 
of tlM IndicatiYe in ■poaking emphatically. Ex. 

How much 1 relied on fntr fironite, 
you know ; how much I IoyoA fou, 
ia not unknown to yoa ; liow little I 
deeenred your IbiiKetfulnese, let your 
heart tell it you for me. 

dnanto io "nd JIdaaai della toetn 
promeeea, Yoi lo lapeie i qnenlo io 
V oMMtiy non tI ^ ignoto; quante 
poco merUaan la Toetra dlmenti- 
canza, lo dica il Toetro cuore per 

Q. Let It finally be remarked, that the relative ofte requirea the indicatiTe 
whon the aubordinate proposition expreaaes any thing certain or poattlYO, and 
the subjunctiTe when it relatea to any thing nncertalo or doubtful Ex. 

Bring me tlM book that pleaaea me. 
Bring me a book ttiat may pleaae me. 

I am looking for the road that leada to 

I am aeeking a road that may lead me 

to Plorenoe. 

/fid. Recaml il libra che mi jMoee. 
Svbj, Recaml un libro die mi 

Ind, Ceroo la via che mma a Fi- 

SuJbj. Ceroo una via che mad a Fl- 


However or howsoever. 

STer quanta, 

ObB, R. Bomntr or liei ea egaer, followed tff an acUecdve, la rendered by pif 
^Monfo iuTariably without o^ or by per with c^ In both caaea the aubjunc 
tlTO ia employed. Ex. 
However learned yon may be, there Ptr quanta dotto vol tiate (or fMf 

are many thlnga which you do not 

However happy ahe may be, 
alwaya thinka heraelf unhappy. 

doiio du vol tiaU), ignorate molte 

Per quanta fortunate ella Ha (or ptr 
fortunau ek' ella aia), al ereda 
aempre infeUce. 

WhaUver^ whatsoever. \ Per quanta. 

• Oba. 8. Whatever or whataoever, followed by a aubatantive, ia rendered by 
per quanta without dba, but It agreea with the aubatantive, and la foObwed by 
<he aubjunctive. Ex. 

Whatever endeavoura he may make, 
he will never attain hlaalm. 

Whatever richea they may poe a eaa, 
they will never be eontented. 

Whoever, whosoever. 
of whomsoever you may*apeak, avoid j 

Per quanti aforsi eg^faeeia, non ar^ 

riTer& mai al auo fine. 
Per quante ricchezze paeeedana, nor. 

aaranno mai colitenii. 

SChi che sia (or chichessm). 

Chi che aia la persona di cui parlat^ 
evitate la maldicensa. 



Whosoeyer may come, will be wel- 

Whoever the etmnger may be that you 

will see, receiTe him well. 
WhomsoeTer yon may give this book 

to, -recommend him to read it atten- 


I have seen Aothlng that could be 
blamed' in hia oonductk 

I know nobody who la ao good aa you 

There ia nobody who doea not know it. 

Whoever, whosoever* ) 
Whatever, whatsoever. ) 

Whoever may be your enemiea, you 

hare not to fear them ao long aa you 

act according to juatice. 
Whatever hia intentlona may be, I 

ahall alwaya behaTe towarda him In 

the aame manner. 

Chiunquo venga aaril ben Tenuto. 

CM che ala lo atranlero ch' Ella 

▼edra, 1' accolga bene. 
A chiunque diate queato libro rac- 

comandate di leggerlo attenta- 


Non ho vednto niente che ai poaaa 
biaaimare nella aua condotta. 

(Non conoaco neaauno che ala coai 
bnono come Lei^^orVol. 
Non conoaco neaauno che ala tantc 
bttono quanto Lei, cr Vol. 
Non v' d chi non aappia cid. 


^ualupque aiano i di Lei nemlci non 
ha da temerli tanto che al etnduce 
aecondo la gluatizia. 

Q^ualunque aiano le aue Intenzioni, 
mi condurrd aempre nella ateaaa 
maniera contro di lui (cr verao di 


Would you have money if your father were here ? — ^I should 
have some if he were here. — ^Would you have heen pleased if I 
had had some hooks ? — ^I should have heen much pleased if you 
had had some. — ^Would you have praised my little brother if he 
had been good ? — If he had heen good I should certainly {swiuu- 
mente) not only have praised, but also loved, honoured {onorare); 
Mid rewarded him.— Should we be praised if we did our ex- 
ercises ? — ^If you did them without a fault (senza errore), you 
would be praised and rewarded. — Would not my brother have 
been punished if he had done his exercises ?-^He would not have 
been punished if he had done them. — Would my sister have been 
praised if she had not been skilful ?^She would certainly {certa 


menie) not hare been praised if she had not been very skilful, 
and if she had nol woAsd from momlDg till evening. — Would 
you give me somstUng if I were very good ? — ^If you were very 
goody and if you wwrked veil, I would give you a fine book.— - 
Would you have written (d your sister if I had gone to Paris t — 
I would have written to her, and sent her something handsome 
^f you had gone thither.— ^Would you speak if I listened to you ? 
—I would speak if you listened to me, and if you would answer 
me. — Would you have spoken to my mother if you had seen 
her ? — I would have spoken to her, and have begged he? (pregare) 
to send you a handsome gold watch (un heW oriuoJo (Voro) if I 
had seen her. 

Would you copy your exercises if I copied mine ? — ^I would 
copy them if you copied yours. — Would your sister have trans- 
cribed her letter if I had transcribed mine T — She would have 
transcribed it if you had transcribed yours. — ^Would she have set 
out if I had set out ? — ^I cannot tdl you wkat she would hav* 
done if you had set out. 


One of the valets de chambre (tmo dm eamerieri) of Louis (dt 
Lu^i) the Fourteenth requested that prince, as he was going to 
bed (menire quesU andava a letio)^ to recommend {di far racemn- 
mandare) to the first president {U presidenie) a law-suit (una Hie) 
which he had against (coniro) his father-in-law, and said, in 
urging him {sotteciUtndoU) : "Alas {Ah), Sire (Sire), you have 
but to say one word." '< Well (£A)," said Louis the Fourteenth, 
" it is not that which embarrasses me (mm i quesio ehe mi dia 
fatlidio) ; but tell mo (dtfluni), if thou wert in thy fiither-in-law's 
place (m hugo <2i-*), and thy father-in-law in thine, wouldst thou 
be glad if I said that word ?" 

If the men should come it would be necessary to give them 
something to drink.— If he could do this he would do that.«-I 
have always flattered m^velf, my dear brother, that you loved me 
. as much as I love you ; but I now see that I have been mistaken. 
I should like to (vomi) know why you went a walking without 
me (senxa di me), — I have heard, my dear sister, that you are 
angry with me (m coUera coniro di me), because I went a walking 


without you (senza di, voi). — I assuve jou tbat, had I known that 
you were not ill, I should have come &r you (vtrure a cercare qual* 
euno) ; but I inquired {it^ormarn) fX {dal) your physician's about 
your health {suJla vostra iaJuU)^ an4 he ^Id me, that you had 
been keeping your bed {che voi stavaie a leUo) the last eight days 
\da otto giomt). 


What do you think of our king ? — I say he is a great man, but 
I add, that though kings be ever so powerful (potente), they die 
as well as the meanest {ahbietio) of their subjects. — Have ypu 
been pleased with my sisters 1 — I have ; for however plain (hruU 
to) they may be, they are still very amiable ; and however learned 
(dotto) our neighbour's (Jem.) daughters, they are still sometimes 
mistaken. — ^Is not their father rich ? — However rich he may be, 
he may lose all in aa instant. — Whoever the enemy may be whose 
malice (la di cm maJma) you dread (temere\ you ought to rely 
(jiposarsi) upon your innocence ; but the laws (la legge) condemn 
(condannare) all criminals (il reo) whatever they may be. — What- 
ever your intentions (rintenxiorie) my be, you should have acted 
differently (differerUemenie), — ^Whatever tl\e reasons (la ragione) 
be which you may allege (aUegare), they will not excuse your 
action, blamable in itself. — ^Whatever may happen to you in this 
world, never murmur (mormorare) against Divine Providence (la 
divvna providenxa) ; for whatever we may suffer we deserve.— 
Whatever I may do, you are never satisfied. — ^Whatever you may 
say, your sisters shall be punished, if they deserve it, and if they 
do not endeavour (studiarst) to mend (emendarsi), — Who has 
taken my gold watch ? — ^I do not know. — ^Do not believe that I 
have had it, or that Miss C. has had your silver snuff-box (la 
tabacehiera), ibr I saw both in the hands of your sister when we 
.Were playing at forfeits (a' p^gm).— To-morrow I shall set put 
for Dover ; but in a fortnight I shall Iip»back again (iomare)^ and 
then I sball come to see you and your fami^.-^Where is your 
sister at present ? — She is at Paris, and my brother is at Berlin.—* 
That little woman is said to be going to marry General (ilgeti- 
erale) K., your friend ; is it true 1 — ^I have not heard of it. — What 
news is there of our great army ?— It is saii to be lying (stare*) 



between the Weaer (itVsser) and the Rhine {U JZeiio).— All that 
the courier (U corriere) told me aeeaing (parere^) very probable 
{verismile)f I went home immediately, wrote some lettera, and 
dr^rted for Jjondon. 

Lezume setiantesima prima. 


Thli mood !■ formed from the proMirt of the sutgunctiTeby chtogliig, for tlit 
first coqjvgatioii, the terminatioB i of the aeoond peroon alngnhr into a, mod 
for the two other coqjngKtioiis a into <. All other persone of the imper^tiTe 
•re like the preeent of the subjunctive, except tlie eeoond penon plnrali which 
\m formed, eten in moft of the Irregular terbs, from the second person phiral 

fihitf. /mperottsc 

That Ihou mayest speak, 1«C 

•peak thon. 
That thon mayest belieye, Tnd. 

That thou mayest heer, 3rdL 

hear thon. 

2rjd pert, ting, 2nd pen. mng, 
ParU. l>arla. 

Credit CredL 

Sentft. Seatt. 

Taa oraaa Pbbmws of thb Impbb 

ATivx Aas: ' 

Let him speek, letiu •pedt, speak ye, 

let them spedc. 
Let htm believe, let ns believe, believe 

Let him hetf , let vm hmr, hetf ye, let 

Parli, parliamo, parlaU, parfino. 
Creda, credlamo, cndHef credano. 

2nd pen, Zrdpert, 
Have thon, «c. Abbi, abbia. 
Be thon, Ac. SU(sia), sia. 

let p. pi. 2ndp.pL 3nip. pL 
Abblamo, abbiate, abbiano. 
Siamo, aiate, afaiio. 

Obe. A. The seeond person singular of the imperative is rendsvtdby tfit 
"nllnitive whenever it is preceded by the negative nmu Ex. 



Do noe do that. 
Do not. Ba J that. 
Do not deny that 
Do not believe that. 

HaTo patience. 
Be (thoo) attentive. 
Go (ye) thither. 

Non £^ c 
Non dir questo. 
Non negar queeto. 
Non credere cid.' 

Abbiate pazienza. 

Sii attento. 

Andatevi (or andate U) 

Ob§, B, The pronouns mi, <s ci, vi, m, nuh, edo, gHeto, Ac., are joiied to 
Ihe imperative (the same aa to the infinitive, Lesson XVII., and to the preaent 
participle, Lesson LVII.). Ex. 



j MandategUelo. 
I Prestatemelo. 
! Credimi. 

Give me. 

Give us some. 

Giro it me. 

Send it to him (to her). 

Lend it to me. 

Believe (thou) me. 

Ob§. C. When the imperative is In the third person singular or plural, or 
when it is negative, the pronouns are not joined to it. Ex. 

Let him Relieve me. < 

Let them believe us. 
Do (thou) not believe me. 
Do (ye) not tell it me. 
Do (thou) not listen to him. 
Let him not give it him. 
Let us not believe her. 
Do (ye) not believe me. 
Let them not believe him. | 

Have the goodness to reach me thatj 
dish. ' 

Ci credano. 
Non mi credere. 
Non me lo dite. 

Non r ascoltaie. ^ 

Non glielo dia. V 

Non le crediamo. 
Non mi credete. 
Non gli credano. 

Abbiate. (abbia) la bont& dl por- 
germi questo ptatto. 

To borrow, 

I will borrow some money of you. 
I will borrow that money of you. 

Borrow it of (or from) liim. 
I borrow it from him. 
Do not tell him or her. 
Do not return it to ihemi 

Chiedcre (riccvere) inprestito, 

Voglio chiederle danaro in preetito. 
Voglio chiederle In prestito questo 

Chiedeteglielo in prestito. 
Glielo chiedo. 
Non glielo dite (dies). 
Non lo rendete (rends) loro. 

1 This manner of rendering the imperative is elliptical, for there ia always ths 
V^rb d«9h thou ougbtst or shouldst, understood, as if we said : Non denfarque$- 
io^ thou shouldst not do that ; noii deri dir tptetto, non devi ereder eid, Ac 



Patlsnet^ Impttienoe. 

The Mlghboar, the uiiiff-boji. 

Know (ye) It 

I La paslena, V impaslama. 
II proidmo, la tabatehloiB 

I Slatabuoni. . 

Obey your mastertt and never give 
them any trenble. 

Pay what you owe, comfort the af- 
flicted, and do good to thoee that 
have offended yoa. 

Lore God and thy neighbour aa thy- 

To obey. 

To comfort. . 
To offend. 

Let ua always love and practlee virtue, 
and we shall ^ happy both in this 
lift and In the next. 
Tb practise. 

Let US ase which of us can shoot beat 

fH To express. 

To express one's se^. 
To make one's se^ understood. 
To have the hahii. 

To accustom. 

To aeenstom one's self to something. 
Children most be accustomed early to 

To he accustomed to a thing, 

I am accustomed to it. 

I cannot ejqirees myself in Italian, for 
lam not in the habit of gM^B^^ng 

ObbedJte ai vostrl raaeatrl e noa 

date loro mai diapiaoere. 
Pagate dd che dovete, conaolate gf 

infelid e fate del bene a quelli chc 

vi hanno ol&sL 
Amate Iddio ed il prossimo come 

vol steasl. 

SUhhidire {yhhidisco). 
Ohhedire 3 {ohhedisco). 
Consolare 1. 

Offendere * (is conjugated Kke 
prendere *) 2. 

Amiamo o pratlchiamo sempre la 
virth, e saremo felici in queata vita 
e nelP altra. 

Praticare L 

Vediamo chi di noi tireri magUo. 

Esprimere * 2 (past part. f#« 
presso y pret. def. espressiy 


Farsi capire. 

Aver V ahitudint. Essere 

AwcTosare 1» or assuefare * 
(like/are •). 

AvvezzarsI a qualche coaa. 

Bisogna awezsar presto i fiucinlU 
al lavoro. 

Esser awezzato (assuefatto) a 

qualche cosa. 
lo son awezzato (avvezzoi assa^ 

Non posso eepTimermi bene in iu- 
liano, perchd non ho T abitudinc 
di parlare. 



Voo ipMk properly. 

To talk (converse). 

To chaUer. 

To prate. 

A 'prattler. 
A chatterer. 
To practise. 
J proctiee speaking. 

To permit, to allow. 
The permission. 
I permit you to go thither. 

Ella parla (vol parlate) propria- 

Parlare 1, discorrere {dUcor 
so, discorsi) 2. 
C Cicaiare 1. 
( ChiaecMerare 1, ciarlare 1. 

Cianciare 1. 

Un cicalone, un darlone 
Ufi ciarlatore. 
£sercitare 1. 
Mi esercito a parlare. 

Permettere* (like mettete*), 
{ 11 permesso. 
l La permissione. 

Vi permetto dl andarvi. 

Do good to the poor, have cothpassion 
on the nnfortunate, and Qod will! 
take care of the rest. 

To do good to some mie. 

To have compassion on some one. 
The rest- 

Fate del bene ai poveri .ed abbiate 
compassione degl' infelici; Dio 
nyxi cara del resto. 

Far del bene a qualcuno 

Aver compassione di qualcuno. 
La compassione. 
La pieti. 
II testo. 

If he comes tell him that I am in the 

Ask the merchant, whether he can let 

ine have the horse at the price which 

I have offered him. 

Se viene dltegli cli' io sono nel giar 

Domandate ai mercante, se pud dar- 

mi IKeavallo al prezio che gll he 


There arc in Italian two accents : 

I. The grave ( ' ), and 

II. The acute ('). 

I. Thk Gbave Accsmt. 
This ia put, I. On nouns in th'^ and lii Such nouns have the singular ane 
plural alike, as : 
Beauty, goodness, virtue, youth. | J?«tt^, hanJUl, viHik, gwctrUil. 

3 Many Italian nouns in M derive from the Latin nouns in tat, as: autU^ 
chastity ; maesth^ msjesty. Such nouns in a that are unaccented, are variahk 


These nouiu ended Ibnnerlf in ode, aU, vde, icle, and are sllll need thus m 

2. On the third person singular of the preterite definite of rerbe wlioee flrsc 
person ends in two Yowels, as ; 

He loved, he believed, he heard. ( Am6, cred^ tntt 

From omat, I loved ; eredti^ I believed ; uaidU, I heard. 
But write without an accent : Ftfu«, he vanquished ; prut, he took ; ditdt^ he 
fsve, from : vuin, I vanquished ; prtai, 1 took-; dUdi^ I gave, Ac. 

3. On the first and third persons singidar of every verb in the future, ast 
I sliall speak, he will speak. ParUrd, paHeri. 

I shall beUeve, he will believe. Crederb, ender^ 

I shall feel, he wUl feel. Smtirb, aenUr^ 

4. To make a distinction between words alike in orthogmphf , but dififaml 
in signification, such as : 

Xid, U, there, and /a, the, her ; H, be, they. 

Diif he gives, and da (the ablative), from. 

IH, day, and di (the genitive), o£ 

SI (the affirmation), yes, so, and ti (the pronoun), one's seH 

£, he or she is (the verb), and e (conjunction), and. 

5. There are some other words wliich lAso have the grave accent, such «s : 

PUtf more. 
Gid, below. 
Co9tl and co§ttif there. 
Cot^ thus. 
' Qui, already. 
Ctd, that which. 
OAe. When a ward, having the grave accent, is joined to another word, tlic 
eonsonant of the latter must be doubled, and the accent taken o^ as : 

IH and ctd joined to mi become dimmi, tell (thou) me j dammi, give (tboo) 

F^b and to, become/oroOo, I will do it 
PUl and io^ make ptuiftwto, Ac 

II. Tim AcuTJi Aocnrr (')• 
This is seldom used in Italian. Some authors employ it : 

1. On the letter i of words ending in to or to, whenever «o or ia are prononnced 
in two distinct syllables, such m : 

Folly, gallery. i PazzSa, galleria. 

Desire, adieu. | DesSo, addio. 

2. On words which have a double signification to avoid an ambiguoos 
meaning, as : 

Tenire^ to hold, aid Unertt tender. 
A3fie6ra, again, and Aneora, an anchor. 
NlUare, nectar, and ntUdrt, to clean, Ac. 

in the plural, as : una vmto, a visit ; plural, U vUUe, the visits : grosto, grace I 
plur. grasU, graces : Mqn^nxa, wisdom j plnr. tapUnze: xmpotta, a poet ; piur 

SBy£NTT.FlRST LBS80N. 380 

Have patience, my dear friend, and be not sad ; for sadnear 
altera (cambiare) nothing, and impatience makes bad worse {peg 
giarare U male)* Be not afiraid of your creditors ; be sure thai 
they will do you no harm. They will wait, if you cannot pay 
them yet-— When will you pay me ^hat you owe me ? — ^As soon 
as I have money I wiH pay all that you have advanced {anUcipare) 
for me. I have not forgotten it, for I think of it (m penso) every 
day. I am yeur debtor (U dehitore), and I shall never deny 
(negare) it.— -What a beautifbl inkstand you have there ! pray lend 
it me.— What do you wish to do with it ? — ^I will show it to my 
sister.— Take it, but take care of it, and do not break it. — Do not 
fear {Non tema di rnente). — ^Wkat do you want of my brother ? 
— I want to borrow money of kim. — ^Borrow some of somebody 
else {ad un aUro), — ^If he will not lend me any, I will borrow 
some of somebody else. — You wiH do well. — ^Do not wish for 
{desiderare) what you cannot have,- but be contented with what 
Providence {proMenxa) has given you, and consider {eotisiderare) 
that there are many men who have not what you have. — Life 
being short {breve), let us endeavour to make it as agreeable 
(gradevo^) as possible {quanUrpossiiUe). But let us also consider 
that the abuse {Pabuso) of pleasure {dei piaceri) makes it bitter 
{afnaro). — Have you done your exercises ?-— I could not do them, 
because my brother was not at home. — ^You must not get your 
exercises done by your brother, but you must do them yourself. — 
What are you doing there ? — I am reading the book which you 
lent me. — ^You are wrong in always reading it. — What am I to 
do ? — ^Draw this landscape, and when you have drawn it, you 
shall decline some substantives with adjectives. 

What must we do in order to be happy ? — ^Always love and 
practise virtue, and you will be happy both in this life and in the 
next. — Since {giacchi) we wish to be happy, let us do good to the 
poor, and let us have compassion with the unfortunate ; let us 
obey our masters, and never give them any trouble ; let us com 


fort the unfortunate, love our neigbboum a« ouraelvea^ and M 
hate thoee (e wm odiamo ^[ueUi) that have offended us ; in short 
(in una parola), let us always fulfil our duty, and God will take 
oare of the rest. — My son, in order to be loved you must be Ubo- 
rious {iahoriato) and good. Thou art accused {U mcatsmio) of 
having been idle and negligent (negHgenie) in thy afl&drs. Tboa 
knowest, ho.wever (perd)^ that thy brother has been punished for 
having beea naughty. Being lately- {PaUro giomo) in town, I 
received a letter from thy tutor, in which he strongly (moUo) 
complained of thee. Do not weep (piangerel^) ; now go into tby 
room, learn thy lesson, and be a good boy (Mvio), otherwise 
{alinmenH) thou wilt get nothing for dinner.(i2a|vaiuo).— I shall 
be 80 good, my dear father, that you will certainly (certamatU) 
be satisfied with me. — ^Haa thtf little boy kept his word [tener 
parobi) 1 — ^Not quite (iVion del tuUo) ; for after having said thai, 
he went into his room, took his books, sat down at the table (n 
mue al loeo&i), and fell asleep (M^addormenio). — ^* He is a veiy 
good boy when he sleeps," said his fiither, seeing him some time 

Good morning, Miss N. Ah! here are you at last (eccok 
dOafine)^ I have been waiting for you with impatience. — Yon 
will pardon (perdonare) me, my dear, I could not come sooner.— 
Sit down (n aecanunodi), if you please (La prego). How is youi 
mother ?*— She is better to-day than she was yesterday. — ^I ^ 
glad of it (ne tono conienla). — ^Were you at the ball yesterday I— 
I was there.-^Were you much amused (dherUrsi) ?— Only so so 
(mediocremenU). — ^At what o'clock did you return (rUomare) 
home ? — At a quarter past eleven. 

Have you been learning Italian long ? — No, Sir, I have been 
learning it only these six months. — ^Is it possible ! you speak 
tolerably well (passdhilmente bene) for so short a time (per sipoeo 
ten^), — ^You jest (seherzare) ; I do not know much of it yet.— 
Indeed, you speak it well already.—- Ithink (credo) you flattcrine 
a little. — Not at all (nuQa affatto) ; you speak it properly (c<w- 
ven«uo/mente).«-*In 'order to speak it properly one must know more 
of it than I know (ehe non so io). You know enough of H tfi 


make yourself understood. — ^I still make many faults. — ^That is 
DothiDg (rum fa nuUa) ; you must not be bashful (timido) ; besides 
(d*altronfle), you have made no &ults in all you have said just 
now. — I &m still timid {timido) because I am afraid of being laughed 
at (che si hefino di me). — They would be {lisognerehhe essere) very 
unpolite to laugh at you. Who would be so unpolite as to laugh 
at you ? Do you not know the proverb {U proverhio) ? — What 
proverb ? — He who wishes to speak well must begin (deve camm* 
dare) by speaking badly (dalparlar tnale). — ^Do you undef^land 
all I am telling you ?-^I understand (intendert^) and comprehend 
(capire*) it very well ; but I cannot yet express myself well in 
Italian, because I am not in the habit of speaking it. — That will 
come in time {col tempo). — ^I wish {desiderare) it with all my 

Do you sometimes see my brother ? — ^I see him sometimes ; 
when I met him the other day he complained of you. " If he 
had behaved better, and had been more economical {economo)^*^ 
said he, <* he would have no debts {il dehito), and I would not 
have been angry with him." — ^I begged him to have compassion 
on you, telling him that you had npt even money enough, to buy 
bread .•^" Tell him when you see him,", replied he to me, "that 
notwithstanding his bad behaviour {la condoUa) towards me, I 
pardon him. Tell him also," continued he, " that one must not 
laugh at those {ch6 non Ueogna leffarn di eoloro) to whom one is 
under obligations. Have the goodness to do this, and I shall be 
much obliged to you (ten«ft>«tiRo)," added he in going away 

Lezione setiantesima sectmda. 

To stand up. I f Star in piedi. Stare sit. 

To remain up. f Restar in pte&. 

Will you permit me to go to the Vuol Ella permettermi d' endare rf 
market 1 ' mercato? 



To kastcMf to make haste. Sbrigarei 1. 

Mtke hute, and ratnni won. . Sbricateri e ritomaie prato. 

Oo mnd tell him that I euinot come to- AniUte a dlrgtt che oggi non pooe 

daj. I Tcnire. 

CM*. A, Always put a before the Infinitive, preceded by a rerb of modoa. 
The oo^jonctlon «iid» which in Bngllah foUowa the Tarba g* and emu, Is not 
He came and told us he could notl Venne a dlrci che non poten ?•• 

come. I nlre. 

Oo and see your friends. | Andate a Tedere 1 rostri amid. 

To weep, to cry, 
fhe least blow makes him cry. 

To frighten. 
To he frightened, to startle. 
rhe least thing frightens him (her). 

Be «ot frightened. 

Ti> he frightened at something. 
What are you frightened at 7 

At my azpenae. 
At hIS) her expense. 
At our expense. 
At other people's expense. 
That man lives at every body'B ex- 

To depend. 

Th«t depends upon clreumstancea. 
That doeattat depend upon me. 
It dependa upon him to d^llmt 
O! ys% it depends upon him* 

To astonish, to surprise. 

To he astonished, to teonder. 
7b he surprised at something. 

I am surprised at it 
An extraordinary thing happened, 
which surprised eveicy body. 

Piangere * ; p. part, pianto ; 

pret. def. piansi. 
II menomo (11 pih piccolo) colpolo 
la piangere. 

Spaventare 1, atterrire (iico). 
Spaventarsi, atterrirsi. 

La piii piccola (la minima) oosb Jp 

(la) spaventa. 
Non si spaventi. Non si atterrisci 

Non vi atterrite. 

Spaventarsi di qualche cota, 
Dl che si spaventa (vi spaventate)1 

AUe mie spese (or a mle q)ese). 
AUe sue spese {or a sue spese). 
AUe nostre spese {or a postre spcae). 
All' altrui apese (or ad altmi qM«>- 
duest' uomo viva alio spese di tnttL 

Dipendere da. 
duesto dipende daU^ circostanWi 
disato non dipende da me. 
Dipende da luidi far dd. 
Oh I ri, dipende da lul. 

( Stupire 3 (iseo). 
I Sorprendere ♦ 2. 

Stupirsi, mararigUarsi. 

Essere maravigliato {iorpit^) 

di qualche cosa. 
Ne sono sorpreso (maravigliato). 
Accadde una ooaa straordintri* ^ 

sorprese ognl pf rsona. 



To take place. 

Maoy things hare pasaod which will 

mupriae you. 
Uaoy days will pass before that 

A man came in who ajiked me how I 

Awerdre *, Aceadere. 
Sopraggiugnere * {soprag* 
giunio (sopraggiunsi), 

Avrennero molte coee che La sor 

Molti giorni paaaeranno prima dj 

Entrd un uomo ohe ml domandO 


Then, thtu^ consequently. 
The other day. 

In a short time. 

Dunque, adunque. 

Ecco perchi. 

V altro giorno. 
( Ultimamente, poco fa. 
c Non d gran tempo» non ha guarl. 

Fra poco. 

Fra {tra) in. 

06«. B. When speaking of time, fra expresses the epoch, and in the 
duration. Ex. 
He will arrive in a week. 
It took him, a week to make this 

He will have finished his studies in 

three months. 
He finished his stndiea in a year. 
He lias applied himself particularly to 


He has a good many firiends. 
Ton have a great deal of patience. 
They have a great deal of money. 
Ton have a great deal of courage. 

To make a present of something \ 

to some one. 

Mr. Lambertini wrote to me lately, that ; 
his sisters would be here in a short { 
time, and requested me to tell you 
so ; you will then be able to see them, 
and to give them the books which' 
you have bought. They hope that | 
yon will m^ke them a present of { 
them. Their brother has assured I 
me that they esteem you, without I 
knowing you personally. I 

Egli arriveri/ra otto giorni. ' 

Ha iatto questo viaggio in otto 

Egli avr& iatto i suoi studii fra tre 

Ha finito i suoi studii in un anno. 
Ha fatto uno studio particolare deUa 


Ha molti amid. 
Ella hamolta pazienza. 
Hanno molto danaro. 
Ella ha diolto coraggio. 

Far regalo di qualche cosa a 

II Signor Lambertini ml scrisse 1* 
altro giorno che le sue signore 
socelle verrebbero qu! fra poco,'e 
mi pregd di dirglielo. Potra 
dunque vederle e dar loro i llbri 
che ha comprati. Sperano che ne 
fwtk loro regalo. II loro fratello 
m' ha aasicurato che La stimano 
senza conosoerla personalmeiite. 


7b wani amusement* 
To gel or he tired. ' 

How could I get tired in your com- 

He geu tired erery wbeit. 

! Awioiarsi 1. 

(Come potrel annolanni pwe i o dl 
Come potrei annoiarmi nella di Ld 
S* annoia dappertutto. 

Agreeable, pleasing. i Oraderole, piaeevole. 

I { Raaer il ben Tenuto (ii ben anlTato) 

To be welcome. { ^^^ ^ j^„ ^^j^^j^ q^ j^^ arri^ta). 

Be welcome. i Siate il ben Tennto (la ben Yenuta). 

You are welcome erery where. I EUa ^ dappertutto il ben Tenuto. 


Have yoQ already seen my son ? — I have not seen him yet , tiow 
is he ? — He is very well ; you will not be able to recognize bim, 
for he has grown very tall {si e fatto moUo grande) in a short 
time. — ^Why does that man give nothing to the poor (aipoveri) ? 
— ^He is too avaricious (avaro) ; he does not wish to open his 
purse for fear of losing his money. — What sort of weather is it 1 
•—It is very warm ; it is long (^ un petzo) since we had any rain : 
r believe we shall have a storm (un temporaky — It may be {pud 
darsi), — The wind rises {alxarsi), it thunders already ; do you 
hear it ? — ^Yes, I hear it, but the storm is still far off {moito Ion- 
tamo)* — ^Not so far as you think ; see how it lightens.— Bless me 
{Dio mio) ! what a shower {che pioggia diroUa) I If we go into 
some filaco (m qualche sUo)y we shall be sheltered {al coperto) 
from Ihe storm.^Let us go into that cottage then {dunque) ; ve 
•hall be aheltered there from the wind and the rain. — Where 
shall we go to now ? — Which road shall we take ? — ^The shortest 
{corto) will be the best. — -Wc have too much sun, and I am^ still 
very tired ; let us sit down under the shade of that tree. — Who 
is that man who is sitting under the tree ? — ^I do not know him. 
— It seems he {pare ch* ei) wishes to be alone {solo) ; for when 
we ofier to approach him {gU andiamo viemo), he pretends to be 
aUeep. — He is like your sister : she understands Italian ver} 


f^ell (henissinu) ; but when I begin to speak to her, she pretends 
not to understand me. — ^You have promised me to speak to the 
captain ; why have you not done so ? — ^I have not seea him yet ; 
but as soon as I see him, I shall speak to him. 


Will you drink a cup of tea? — ^I thank you ; I do not like tea. 

— ^Would you drink coffee ? — With pleasure (vofenttm), but I 

have just drunk som'e. — Do you not get tired here ? — ^How could 

I get tired in this agreeable (gradiia) society? — ^As to me, I 

always want amusement {nd annoio sempre). — ^If you did as I do 

{came sogHcfar io)^ you would not want amusement; for I listen 

to all those who tell me any thing. In this manner I learn a 

thousand agreeable things, and I have no time to get tired ; but 

you do nothing of that kind (di tuOo do), that is the reason why 

you want amusement. — ^I would do every thing, like (come) you, 

if I had no reason (ntoUvo) to be sad. — ^Have you seen Mr. Lam* 

bertini ? — ^I have seen him ; he told me that his sisters would be 

here in a short time, and desired me {pregare) to tell you so. 

When they have arrived you may give them the gold rings (V 

aneUo) which you have bought ; they flatter themselves that you 

will make them a present of them, for they love you without 

knowing you personally. — ^Has my sister already written to you ? 

— She has written to me ; I am going to answer her. Shall I 

{dehho io) tell her that you are here ? — ^Tell her.; but do not tell 

her that I am waiting for her impatiently {con imfaxtenxay — Why 

have you not brotight your sister along with you ? — Which ? 

-—The one you always bring, the youngest. — She did not wish 

to go out, because she has the tooth*ache.— I am very sorry 

for it, fi>r she is a very good girl. — ^How M is she t---She is 

nearly fifteen years old. — She is very tall {grandiuima) for 

her age {T eta). How old are you ? — ^I am twenty.two.— *Is 

k possible ! I thought you weio hot yet twenty. 

Leziane setianiesima ierza. 

He i< too fond of ma not to do it. 
I go away not to diapleaae him (di»- 

plaaae her). i 

One must be a fool not to peroeive 


Mi ama troppo per non lario. 

Me ne Tado per non dlnil a n w ul 

Biaogna eaaere adoeoo per non ae- 

corgerai di qneato (or Biaogna aver 

pocoo aenno per non aoooigeni 

di questo). 

To dare. 
To be able. 
To know (can). 
You continually aak me for money. 

She doea not ceaae complaining. 
1 do not daie to aak you for it. 
She doea no\ dare to tell you so. 
I cannot go tMther. 
1 cannot tell yon. 
TottcanattbelieTe it. 

Ceuare 1. 

Ardire {ardiseo^)^ osare. 


t Non ceasate mai dal chiedermi da- 

t Deaaa non si ata dal lagnant 

Non ardiaco chiedeigUelo. 

Eaaa non ardlsce dlrglielo. 

Non posao andarrt. 
t Non lapreidirle, or diivi. 
t Non potrobbe erederlo. 

Betides, moreover. 
Sendee thai. 
Beaidea what I have juat told you. 

In olire^ di piu. 
OUre do, or oUre di dd. 

Oltic dd che Le (vi) ho detio oc 
Tliere la no means of finding money Adeeao nfin vi i mezzo di troTir 
now. danaro. 

1 Not to confound the Terb ardire, to dare, with anUre, to bum, its preaenl 
participle, first person plural of the present tense indicative, first and aecond 
persons plural of the present tense subjunctive, and fiitt peraon plural of the 
imperative, are aubatituted by the verb osore, as : Present participle, omndot 
daring : firat person plural indicative, Nai tmamo, or noi abbiamo P ardire, we 
dare ; first and second persons plural subjunctive, Otiamo, oeiate, or cA« not o^ 
biamo V ardire, che voi abbiaU P ardire, that we may dare, that you may dan 
first person plural of the imperative, Chiamo, let us dare. 

sbventy-thihd lbsson. 




Along the road. 
Along the street 
Along the coaet. 

Along the river. 

All along. 

All the year round. 

To enable to. 

To he able to. 

To the ri|^t On the right aide or 

To the left On the left aide or band. 

Conid you not tell me which la the 
neareet way to the city-gate 7 

Go to the bottom of this street, and 
when you are there, turn to the 
right, and you will find a cross-way, ! 
which you must take. I 

And then? I 

Ton will then enter a broad street, ■ 
which will bring you to a great; 
eqnare, where you wiU see a blind 
You mast leave the Ulnd-alley on yonr 
left, and paas under ttie arcade that 
la near it 
Then you must ask again. 
An arcade. 
The cross-way. 
The blind-alley. 
The shore, the bank. 

Spingere* 2 (p. part, spinto; 
pret. def. spinsi), 

SLungo il (or a2). 
Rasente ily accanto di. 
Lungo la via (lunghesso U camlno). 
Lungo la strada. 
Lungo 11 lido, 
c Lungo il fiume. 
\ Lunghesso U fiume. 
Pel corso di. 
Pel corso dell' anno. 

t ileitere nel case (in isUdo) 
C f Essere in istato {nel caeo) 

I Essere capace. 
( A destra. A mano destra. 
I A diritta. 

{ A sinistra. Dal lato manoo. 
{ A manca. 
Non potrebbe dirmi qual d la via 

la pift corta per arrivar alia porta 

della citt&7 
Segua tutta quests strada, e-quando 

sari all' estremit^ giri a destra; 

troverii una capocroce, or on cro- 

cicchio che traverser^ 
Pol lentreri in una strada discreta- 

mente large, che La mener4 eopra 

una gran piazza dove vedr& un 

Lascieri 1\ angiporto dal lato man- 

co, e passeri aotto gli archl che 

sono accfiito. 
In seguito domanderiu 
La capocroce. 
L' angiporto. 
La Bpiaggia, 11 Hdo. 

To get married^ 


enter into 1 Maritarsij ammogSard, 



To marry somebody. 
To marry (io give m marriage). 
My oontin, baring given his titter in 

marriage, married Hiaa DeibL 
Is your couain married 7 

No, lie is still a bachelor. 
To be a bachelor. 

Embarrassed, paxtkdf ai a loss. 

An embanrassmest, a puzsle. 
Tou embarrass (pnzxle) me. 
You puxile (perplex) me. 

The marriage. 
Me asks my sister In marriage. 

The measure. 

To take meamuea. 

I shall take other 1 

Goodness ! how rapidly time passes in 
your society. 

The compliment. 
7on make me a compliment which I 
do not know how to answer. 

The fauU, 
It is not my &ult. 
Do not lay It to my charge. 

To Jay to one^s charge. 
Who can help Itl 
Wliose fault Ultl 
I cannot he^ it 

The delay. 
He does it without delay. 

I must go (must be off). 
Go away f Begone! 

Sposare ^ualamo.. 
Mio cugino avendo maritato sua 

sorella, sposd la signorina DelbL 
II di Lei signor cugino d egU am 

No, Signore, d ancor celibe. 
Esserecelibe, or sc^wlo. 

ImbaraxxaiOy impac d alo 

Un imbarazxo, nn imbroglio. 
fiUa m' imbaraza. 
Ella mi mette nell' imbarano. 
II matrimonio. 

Domanda mia sorella in matrlmo- 

La misura. 
Prendere della mijure. 
Prendeid altre misura. 

Dio! qnanto presto passail tempc 
neOa di Lei sodeta (nella di Lei 

II compUmento. 

Mi la un complimento al quale non 
so cfae rispondere. 

RfaUo, la colpa, 

Non i mia colpa. 
^ Non me lo Imputi. 
c Non imputatemelo. 

Imputare a qualcuM. 

Dichiaia colpa? 

( Non so che farvl. 
( Non saprei che &nrt 

ora me ne 

I La dllaxione, 11 ritardo, V induglo. 
t Lo fa senza ritardo. 
I C Sto per iltararmi (or 
! < andrd). 

^ Sto per andarmene via. 
; f Fu|?ga! S<aippl! 

f Andatevene! Se ne vada! 



The jest, the joke. 
Seriously, in good earnest. 

You are jesting. 

He cannot take a joke, is no joker. 
To take a-joke. 

To heg same one's jHirdon, 
To pardon. 

I beg your pardon.'' 

Pardon me. 

The pardon. 

Buffonare, hurlarey scherxare. 

Lo scherzo, la burla. - 

Senza burleXsuI serio). 
( Ella burla (scherza). 
i EUa si burla. 
t Non regge alia celia. 
t Reggere * alia celia (retto, recit). 

Domandar scusa a qualaaio. 
Perd&nare, fnr graziaf sa^ 

rBIiperdoni. La mi.scuai- Le do- 
< mando scusa. 

V Perdonatemi. Vi domando scusa. 
C Vossignoria mi scusi. 
c Mi scusi. Scusatemi. 
II perdono, la scusa. 

To advance. 

The watch goes too fast (gains). ' 
That clock goea too fast (gains). 

To retard. 
The watch goes too slow (loses). 
My watch has stopped. 

To stop. 

Avanzare. Andare avaanU 


L' oriuolo avanza (va avanti). 
Quest' orologio anticipa. 

Ritardare 1. 

L' oriuolo ritarda. 
J II mio oriuolo si i fermato. 
I U mio oriuolo sta (or i) fennot. 

Fermarsi 1. 

Wheredid westopl 
We left off at the fortieth lesson, page 
one hundred and thirty-six. 

t Dove ne eravamo 1 
t Eravamo alia lezione quarantedhnii 
paginacent( trentasei. 

To yrind up a vnUch, 
To reguUUe a watch. 

Voor watch is twenty minutes too 
last, and mine a quarter of an hour 
too slow. 

Caricare un oriuolo^ 
Regolare un oriuolo (mettere a 
segno un oriuolo). 

II di Lei oduolo avanza venti ml- 
outi, e 11 mio ritarda un quarto d* 





Hm it alrMdy ttnick tweWe 1 
It has tlretdy stnick three. 

To Strike. 

On condition, or prorided. 

I will lend yon money, provided you 
will heiieeforth be more eoonomical 
than you have hitherto been. 

Heraafter, for the futnre, henceforth. 


To lenonnce gambling. 
TofiUow advice {cmtn»eJ).\ 

Ton look ao melancholy. 

Adien, fiurewell. 

God be .with yon, good bye. 
Till I aee yon agalif. 
I hope to aee yoa again aoon; 

( Sta per •oonare meno . 

c Meuo giomo auoneril or on. 
Son gii inonate le dodid 1 ' 
Le tre aond gii aonate. 

Suonare 1. BaUere 2. 

( A oondixione, aotto eonditioiie. 

i Col patto. 

Vi preaterft del danaro, a eondlilo* 

ne che aarete d* or ionansl p(& 

economo che non aiete stato aino 

adesao (or che non lo foate finoia). 

D* or innanil, d* oggji In avanti, in 

awenire, ndP aTvealn. 
L' awenire (mot.), 11 futnro. 
Economo, eoonomico, riaparmlaata 
{ Rinunciare al giuooo. 
i Abbandonare il gtoooo. * 

Seguire tm cansigUo {un pa- 

EUa ha V aapetto cqA i 

c Al plaeero di 
i A rivederla. 



iVhy does my sister make no progress ?— She would make tome 
if she were as assiduous as yoU. — ^You flatter me. — ^Not at all 
(menfe affatto) ; I assure you that I should be highly satisfied {con^ 
Imltmmo), if all my pupils worked (Hudiare) like you. — Why do 
y«a not go out lo-day ? — ^I would go out, if it wete fine weather. 
— Shall I have the pleasure of seeing you to-mottow I— If you 
wish it I will come. — Shall I stiH be here when ytm arrive {al di 
Lei ritomo) ? — Will you have occasion (occasume) to go to town 
this evening ?-^l do not -know, but I would go now, if I had an 
opportunity (una buona occo^tontf). —>You would not have so mach 
.pleasure, antl you would not bo so happy, if you had npt frienda 


and book8.*-Man (P tiomo) would not ezperienoe (pravtart) so 
much misery in his career {ia earriera)^ and he would not be so 
unhappy, were he not so blinrtl (cfeco), — ^You would not have that 
insensibility (quesla insensiMUd) towards the {pei) poor, and you 
•would not be so deaf {sordo) to their supplications (aSe loro preg- 
hiere)j if you had been yourself in misery for some time, (ijualehe 
tempo), — ^You would not say that if you knpw me well, — Why 
has your sister not done her. ezevcises ?i — She would have done 
them if she had not been prevented.— If you worked more, slid 
spoke oftener, you would speak better.— I assure you. Sir, that I 
should learn better, if I had more time. — ^I do not complain of you, 
but of your sister.— You would have no reason {Non avrehhe luo- 
go) to complain of her, had she had time to do what you gave her 
to do. — Would you be sorry (spiaeere^ad una) if your mother 
were to arrive to-day 1 — ^I should not be sorry for it.-^Would 
your sister be sorry if she were rich ? — She would «ot be sorry 
fcr it. — Where were you when your sister went out ? — I was in 
my room% — She, wished she had known it (EUa vorrehht averJo 
tapulo) ; for, had she known it,, she would have called you in 
order to take you along with her to the opera.— They say that 
the house of our neighbour has been burnt down {std staia aibhru- 
etoto).- Did you know it ? — ^I was quite ignorant of (ignoravo m- 
Ueramente eke) his house being on fire {ilfuoco foa'se aUa eua 
eaea) ; for had I known it, I would have run to his assistance (m 
wo aiiUo). — ^What has my brother told you ? — ^He has told me 
that he would be the happiest man in the world (cle/fiumdd), if he 
knew th^ Italian language, the finest of all languages. 


I should like to know {vorret pur sapere) why I cannot speidk as 
well as you. — I will tell you : if you did asl do you would apeak 
well. You would speak as well as I, if yon were not baAfol 
(timido). But if you had studied your lessons more carefully 
(megUo), yoa would not be afraid to speak ; for, in order to speak 
well one must know» and it is very natural (molio naturale) that he 
who does not know wcV what he has learnt, should be (svhj.) timid. 
You would not be so timid as you are, if you were suce to make 
00 mistakes (ehagU). 


I oome to wish you a good morning. — You are very kind (a 
hUtssmo). — ^Would you do me a favour ? — ^Tell me {Dieondy or m 
dice) what you wanty for I would do any thing to oblige you {per 
renderk servigw), — ^I want five hundred crowns, and I beg you to 
lend them to me. — ^I will return them to you as soon as I have 
received my money. — ^You would oblige me much {rendere qwl 
euno ohbUgaio)^ if you would render me this, service. — I would do 
it with all my heart (dituUocuore)^ if I could ; but having lost all 
my money, it is impossible ht me (mt e mpassibile) to render you 
this service. — May I ask you for (aterei domandarle) a little water ? 
— ^What do you want water for ?— -Because I wish (jperchi vorrd) 
to wash my hoftids.— If you would also give me a towel to wipe 
my hands after having washed them, I should be much obliged 
to you {Le tarei ienutissmo. — ^Why have your brothers sold their 
old horse- 1 — ^They would not have got rid of it, if they had not got 
a better. — Why did not your sistef get a better carriage ? — If she 
had got rid of her old carriage, she would have got a better. — 
Would you execute (fare*) a commission for me ? — ^With much 
pleasure. — ^If the merchant would be satisfied with the sum which 
I offered for the horse, I would buy it. — I am sure that he would 
besatisfied, if you would add (aggiungervi) a few czx>wns more. 
— If I was sure of that I would add a few crowns more. — Children 
(ragOtzi miei) ! have you done your task I — ^We must be ill {hi- 
sognerebbe che fossimo ammalaii) not to do it. — ^Is this wine suffi- 
cient for you (Le hatla, — )? — It would be sufficient for me if I 
was not very thirsty. — If your sisters have done their tasks (U hr 
dof>ere)y why do they hide themselves*? — ^They would not hide 
themselves, if they did not fear to be seen by their {daUa lor) 
governess (maestra), who would scold them for having gone a 
walking without telling her {senza dirU nuZZa). 


What o'clock is it ? — ^It is half-past one. — ^You say it is half- 
fast one, and by my watch {al mio ariuolo) it is but half-past 
twelve. — ^Ifwill soon strtke two.' — Pardon me, it has %et struck 
one. — ^I assure you it is fiVe-and-twenty minutes past one, for my 
watch goes very well. — ^Bless me ! how rapidly time passes in 
your society. You make me a compliment which I do not knoii 


bow to answer. Have you bought yonr watch in Paris ?»>I have 
not* bought it, my uncle has made me a present of it. — What has 
that woman intrusted you with ? — She has intrusted me with the 
secret of a great count who is in great embarrassment about the 
marriage (a cagione del mairwumio) of one of his daughters. — 
Does any one ask her {La domandaforse qualcuno) in marriage ? 
— The man who asks her in marriage is a nobleman of the 
neighbourhood {la vicinanza). — Is he rich ? — ^No, he is a poor 
devil, (t7 diavoh) who has not a sou {un quaittino), — ^You say you 
have no friends among your school- fellows {il condiscepolo) } but 
is it not your fault ? You have spoken ill (^ar/are) of them, and 
they have not offended you. Believe me, he who has ne friends 
deserves to {men/are di) have none. 

226. ' 

A Dialogue {Dial4)go) between a Tailor and his Journeyman 

Charles {Carlo)^ have you taken the clothes to the CJount of 
{deUa) Torre ? — Xes, Sir, I have taken them to him. — What did 
he say ? — Nothing but {se non) that he had a great mind to give 
me a box on the ear (uno schictff'o)^ because* I had not brought 
them sooner. — What did you answer him ? — Sir, said I, I do not 
understand {non tollero) that joke : pay me what you owe me ; 
and if you do not do so instantly, I shall take other measures! 
Scarcely had I said that, when he put his hanci lO his sword {eke 
miee mano alia spada), and I ran away {prendere* lajitgay 

Lezione settantesima quarta. 

To last {Ufwear well). Durare 1. 

That cloth wiU wear well. I dueato panno durerd molto. 

How long has that coat lasted jrou 7 { Quanto tempo Le ha dnrato quest 

Sbitol « 




Td ew]r body*t Uklag. 

Ifobody etn do any thing to hit 

A mio grade (a mw gemoy m 

A gfBdo di tuttL 
r Noa 1^ va niento a genio. 
< Non al pud hi nulla a auo grade 
\ (a mode luo). 

A boarding-houae. > 

A boarding-achool. ) 

To kwp a boarding- houflo: 

To board with any on^ or any where. 


Tanere penaione, tenere a dbniBa. 
.« Eaaere in penaione di, eaaeru a doi- 
3 xlna. 
C Metterai in penaione a. 

To make uneagy. 
To get or ^010 uneasy. 
To be uneaay. 
Why do you ^t (are you uneaay) 7 
I do not Iret (I am not uneaay). 
That newa majcea me uneaay. 
I am uneaay at not reoelTing any 

She la uneaay about that afiair.. 
Dp not be uneaay. 

Compoae youraelt 

Esclamare 1. 
Liftdeiare 1. 

Eaaer inquieto (/em, Inquieta). 
Perchd mai a* inquieta 1 
Non m' inquieto. 
dueata nuova m' Inquieta. 
Bono inquieto di non rloevera nuinpo. 

fc inqulettiau queoto aflim. 
Non 0* Inquieti. 
TranquiUOi qnleto. 

To aJier, to change. 
That man haa altered agreat deal 

To he of use. 
Of what uae ia that to you 1 
That la of no uae to me. 
Of what uae la that to your brother? 
It la of no use to him. 
Of what uae ia that aticic to yon ? 
I uae it to beat my doga 
Of what uae ia that horae to yotn- 

TranquUIare 1. 
Si tranqullll (tranquUlateTi). 

Cambiare 1. 

dueaf uomo ha molto cambfato da 
che non V lio Tedtto. 

Servtre 3. 
t A che Le aenre (▼! aerre) ddl 
t Non mi aarre a nlente. 
t A che aeme cid al dl Lei fiateUol 
t Non gli aenre a nlente. 
t A che Le aenre queato baatonel • 
t Mi aerre per batteiei miei canL 
t A che aenre queato cavallo al dl Ld 




He uses U to carry hit TegetaUea to 

the 4narket. 
Of what 1286 are those bottles to your 

They serve him to put his wine in. 

To Hand instead^ to he as. 
I use my gun as a stick. 
This hole serves hfan as a house. 
He used his cravat as a nightcap^ 

To avail. 
What avails it to yon to cry 1 
It avails me nothing. 

Opposite to. 

Opposite that house. 
Opposite the garden. 

Opposite the church. 

Opposite to me. 
Hight opposite. 
He lives opposite the castle. 
I live opposite the king's library. 

To get hold ot > 

To take jiossession o£ > 
To witness. > 

To show. > 

To give evidence against some one. 
He lias shown a great deal of friend- 
ship to me. 
To turn some one Into ridicule. 
To become ridiculous. 
To make one^s self ridiculous. 

To he horthm 
Where were you bom 1 
I was bom in this country. 
Where was your slater bom 1 
0he was bom in the United States of 
North America. 

t G.i serve a porter i suoi Jsgwni a* 

t A che servono quests bottiglie al di 

t Gli servono per mettervi' U suo 


Servire di. 
t II mio schioppo mi serve di bastone. 
t Questo buco gU serve di case, 
t La sua cravatta gU ha servito di 

berretta da notte (di cuflla da 


Servire {di before inf.). 
t A %he Le serve di piangers « 
t Non mi serve a nulla. 

i IHrimpeUo a, m faccia a. 
( Coniro a (di), di cotUro a. 

Dirimpetto a quests case. 

Dirimpetto algiardino. 

In faccia (dirimpetto, di contro) alia 

Dirimpetto a me. 
Propiio in faccia. 
Abita in faccia al castello. . 
Abito in faccia alia biblioteca reale. 

Impadronlrsi di. 

Attestare 1, testimoniare 1, dimosi 

trare 1. 
Testimoniare contro qualcuno. 
Mi ha dimostrato molta amidiia. 

Porre in ridicolo qualcuno 
Divenir ridicolo. 
Rendersi ridicolo. 

Esser naio, 
t Dove d Ella nata 7 
t €ono nato in questo paese. 
t Dove d nata la di Lei sorsllal 
t £ nata negli Stati-UnAti detf Am» 
rica settentrionale. 


Whof wen your brothers bom? ; t Ore son nati 1 di Lei frmtaUlf 

Thejr were born in Italy. I I Son nati in Italia. 

The boarder. 

The pouch. 


A pillow. 

Un guandale, pinmaoda 




What are you astonished at ? — I am astonished to find you still 
in bed. — If you knew how (quanio) sick I am, you would not be 
astonished. — Has it already struck twelve ? — ^Yes, madam, it is 
already half-past twelve. — ^Is it so late ? Is it possible? — ^Tbat is 
not late, it is still early. — ^Does your watch go well ? — ^No, Miss 
N., it is a quarter of an. hour too fast. — And mine is half an hour 
too slow.*— Perhaps it has stopped ? — In fact, you are right. — ^Is it 
wound up ? — ^It is wound upj and yet (pure) it does not go. — ^Do 
you hear ? it is striking one o'clock (swma V ora). — ^Then I will 
regulate my watch and go home. — ^Pray {di graxia) stay a little 
longer ( La resti ancor un poco) f-*I cannot, for we dine precisely 
at one o'clock. — Adieu, then, till I see you again.-^What is the 
matter with you, my dear friesd ? Why do you look so melan- 
choly ? — Nothing ails me {turn ho mente). — Are you in any 
trouble (Avresti a caso ^[ualche dispiacere) ? — I have nothing, and 
even less than nothing, for I have not a penny (un quaitrino), and 
owe a great deal to my creditors : am I not very unhappy ? — 
When a man is well and has friends he is not unhappy. — 
Dare I ask you a favour ? — ^What do you wish ? — ^Have the good- 
ness to lend me fifly crowns. — ^I will lend them you with all my 
heart, but on condition that you wiH renounce gambling (rmtm- 
tmre algiuoco), and be more economical than you have hitherto 
been. — ^I see now {Ora redo), that you are my friend, and I love 
you too much not to follow your advice.— John (Giooanm)! — 
What is your pleasuroiSir? — Bring some wine. — Presently, Sir. 
— ^Menico ! — ^Madam ? — Make the fire (del fuoco). — The maid- 
•ervant has made it already. — Bring me some paper, pens, and 
ink. Bring me also ^r>me sand (deUu sahhia) or blotting.pfltf)ei 


(delia carta sugatUe o succhia), sealing-wax {della cera lacca), and 
a light («n lume). — Go and tell my sister not to wait for me, ana 
be back again (di ritomo) at twelve o'clock in order to carry my 
letters to the post {la posta). — Very well (benissimo)^ Madam. 


Sir, may I (arcUro io) ask where the Eaxl of B. lives ? — ^He 
lives near the castle on the ^other side of the river. — Could you 
tell me which road I must {dehba) take to go thither ? — ^You must 
go (^egua) along the shore, and you will oome to a little street 
(qtuindo sard all' esiremUd prenda una corUradella) on the right, 
which will lead you straight (cUretiamerUe) tq his house. It is a 
fine house, you will find it easily. — I thank you, Sir. — Does Count 
N. live here ? — ^Yes, Sir, walk in {favorUca di erUrare)^ if you 
please.— Is the Count at home? I wish to have the -honour 
(P onore) to sp^ak to him.^Tes, Sir, he is at home ; whom shall 
I have the honour to announce (annunziare)! — ^I am from 3., 
and my name is {eMamarsi) F. 

Which is the shortest {corto) way to the arsenal (T arsendle) ? 
— Gro down {segua) this street, and when you oome to the bottom 
{sard air esiremUd)^ turn to the left, and take the cross^way 
(traverd una — che traverserd) ; you will then enter into a rather 
narrow {siretto) street, which will lead you to a great square {la 
piazza), where you will see a blind alley. — Through ( per) which 
I must pass ? — No, for there is no outlet {P uscita). You must 
leave it on the right, and pass under the arcade which is near it. 
— ^And then ? — ^And then you myst inquire further. — ^I am very 
much obliged {ienutissimo) to you. — ^Do not mention it {Non ne 
vol la pena). — ^Are you able to translate an English letter into 
Italian ? — ^I am. — Who has taught you ? — My Italian master haa 
enabled me to do it. (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 


litzume settaniesima quinia. 

To hM-ngki c/. 

The sight 
I wetr ■peetedes becaiue my tight is 

bad (or beektuse I have a bad sight). 
I am Dear*sighted. 
The ship is so fitf off that we shall ' 

soon lose sight of it. < 

I have lost sight of that. 
As it Is long since I was in England, 
I have kwt sight of your brother. 

As it is long since I hare read any 
Italian, I have lost sight of lt.i 

' f Perdere di vuta. 
\ Dileguargi dagUocchi {daUa 

f Ltudare andare daUc 

sguardQ {dagU sguardij ddl 


La vista. 

Porto degli occhlali, perchd ho cat- 

Uva vista, 
t Ho la vista oorta. 
t II bastimento ^ eoA lontano che si 

dilegneri qtianto prima dalla noe- 

tia vista (dai nostri oochi, del noa- 

t Non 80 pHi nulla dkdd. 
tSicoome d molto tempo che non 

Bono stato in Inghllterra, ho per- 

dutodivUtalldl Lei fratello. 
t Come d longo tempo che non ho 

letto V Italiano, P ho dimenticato 

(non lo 80 plh). 

You oiigft< or thmdd do that* \ 

Ofrff. A. Oi|f/U and aftoicM ara rendered 
verb datere; to be obliged, to owe. 

He 011^ not to qieak thus to his 

We oMgU to go thither earlier. 

lliey thoidd listen to what you say. 

Vou ahf&uld pay mote attention to what 
I say. 

You ought to haoe done that 

He should hfoo^ managed the thing bet- 
ter than he has done. 

Vou skould ha9€ managed the thing 

AwrtUs&r eld. 

Into Italian by the oondiHonalB.of the 

E^ non doonbU parlar ooiS a ano 

Dovrtmmo andarvl pih per tempo 

(plh di buon' ora). 
Dovrebbero ascoltare cid che B3te 

Do^rtHe hr plh attenilOBe (star pift 

attento) a cid che dico. 
Avrebbe doouio far cid. 
Egli aerebbe doouto regolarai m^gflc 

che non ha fiitto. 
Avrebbe dovtUo pnBodersi in mode 

diverso (or maneggiare la ooaa). 



Tb»y oug^ to haoe n^aoagedlli* thing 

Ml did. 
We mi^ to have managed it diffetcntly 

from what they did. 

Von have managed the thing badly. 

To bid or to wish. 
I bid you good morning. > 

I wiah yon a.good morning. > 

I wiah you a good journey. 

To play a game at billiards. 

To play upon the flute. 

A fall. 
To have a fall. 
A atay, a aojoum. 
To make'a stay. 
Do you intend to make a long stay in 

the towBl 
I do not intend to make a long stay 
in it. 

-t Aprthbero tUmUo agire in tal fiw* 
cenda come mi vi son prsso io. 

t Avranmo dontio oondurd in tal iur 
cenda diTcrsamente di quello ens 
hanno fatto. 
Vi siete mal preso. 

Augurare 1. 
Le auguro il buon giomo 

Le augure un buon vlaggio 

Far una partita al bigllaxdo (Las- 
son LI.). 

Suonare U flauto (Lesson LL)> 

Una cadutiu 
t Far una caduta. 

Un soggiorno. 

Far un soggiorno. 

Pensa Ella fieur un lungo soggiorno 

Non penso farri un lungo sog- 

To propose (meaning to intend). 

1 propose going on that journey. 
I propose (intend) joining a hunting 

To suspect, to guess. 
I suspect what he has done. 
He does not suspect what is going to 
happen to him. 

To think of some one or of 
Of whom do you think Y 
Of what do you think? 


To turn upon. 
To he the question. 
It is the question it turns upon. 
The qoesUon is not pleasure, but your 

i Far propostto ) 
Mi pTopongo di far questo viagglo. 
Hi propongo d' andare ad una par 
tita di caecia. 

SospeUare 1. 
Sospetlo cid cbe ha iatto. 
Non sospetta cid ehe or ora gll to* 

cadrA (gli arriteiAy. 

Pensare a giiafouno, o a qual* 
che cosa. 
A ehi pensa EUa? 
A che pensa Ella? 


Si tratta di. 

Non si tratta del Tostro placerei i 
dei voetrl progress!. 



Toa play, Sir{ bat playing is not the 

thing, but studying. 
Whst is going onl 
Tfyd question is what we shall do to 

pass the time agreeably. 

GiuDcate, Slgnore ; ma Bon si tnlli 
di giuoeare, si tzmtta di stndiava. 


Si tratta di sapera ci5 che tanmo 
per passar il ten do piaoeYoimente. 

On purpose. 

i beg your pardon, I haye not done it 
on purpose. 

A heUaposla. 

Le domando scusa, non ' ho &tto 
apposu (a bella posts). 

To hold one*s tongue. 

To Mp speakings to he silent. 

Tacere*; past part, tachiio ; 
pret. def. tacqtd. 

Ob§. B. Five irregular verbs hare their pei/elfo remoio in c^im, via. 




To please, PiacSre*. 

Piacqul, • 


To be aituated, Giacftre*. 



To be silent, Taoftra*. 



To hurt, Nu5cere». 



To be bom, Niseere*. 



Do yon hold your tongue! 


I hold my tongue. 


He holds his tongue. 


We are silent. 


They are silent. 


After speaking half an hour, he held 

Dopo aver 


*meai* cm 

his tongue. 






Why does your mother fret ?-^he frets at receiving no news 
from her son, who is with the army. — She need not be uneasy 
about him, for whenever he gets into a scrape he knows how to 
get out of it again. Last summer, when we were a hunting toge- 
ther (ifisieme), night grew upon us (la notte ci sorptest) at least 
ten leagues {la lego) from our country-seat {la casa di campagna). 


— Well {Ebbene)t where cUd you pass the night? — ^1 was very 
uneasy at first (da principim)^ but your brother not in the least 
{non — affatto) ; on the contrary, he tranquillized me, so that I lost 
my uneasiness. We found at last a peasant's hut, where we 
passed the night. Here (m) I had an opportunity of seeing how 
oleTer your brother is. A few benches and a truss of straw {un 
fasUUo di paglia) served him to make a comfortable bed ; he 
used a bottle as a candlestick, our pouches served us as' a pillow, 
and our cravats as nightcaps. When we awoke in the morning 
we were as fresh and healthy {sanq) as if we had slept on down ' 
and silk. 

A candidate {un caruUdato) petitioned (domandare a) the king 
of Prussia for an employment {un impiego). This prince asked 
hioi where he was born. *' I was born at Berlin,'^ answered he. 
« Begone," said the monarch {ilmonarca) "ell the men of Berlin 
(i7 berUnese) are good for nothing." ** I beg your majesty's {ia 
maesta) pardon," replied the candidate, " there are some good 
ones, and I know two." " Which are those two ?" asked the 
king. " The first," replied the candidate, " b your majesty, and 
I am the second." The king could not help laughing {non pati 
astenersi dal ridere) at this answer {la rispogta), and granted the 
request {aecordare una domanda). 

A thief having one day entered a boarding-house stole three 
cloaks {il manteUo). In going away he was met by one of the 
boarders who had a fine laced {gdlUnaio) cloak. Seeing so many 
cloaks, he asked the man where he had taken them. The thief 
answered boldly {freddamenle) that they belonged to three gen- 
tlemen of the house who had given them to be cleaned {dapuUre). 
" Then you must also clean mine, for it is very much in need' of 
it {aveme gran hisogno)" said the boarder ; ** but," added he, 
^'you must return it to me at three o'clock." "I shall not fail 
(mancare), Sir," answered the thief, as he carried off {portando 
via) the four cloaks with which he has not yet returned {eke non 
ha ancora riportati), — ^You are singing {caniare)^ gentlemen, but 
it is not a time for {non si iraita di) singing : yo.u ought to be 
silent, and to listen to what you are told. — We are at a loss. — 

432 sgvBicTY-FirrH lsssor. 

What are yoy at a loos about ? — ^I am gcnng to tell you : the 
question is with us how we shall pass our lime agreeably (fielo- 
menie). — ^Play a game at billiards or at chess. — ^We have pro- 
posed joioing a hunting-party ; do you go with us (d EUa dei 
nastri) ? — I cannot, for I have not done my task yet ; and if I ne- 
gleet it, my master will soold me.— Every one according to his 
liking i if you like staying at home better than goii^ a hunting 
{ehe lum d' andare aUa auda) we cannot hinder you. — ^Does Mr. 
B. go with us ? — ^Perhaps. — ^I should not like to go with him, ibr 
he is too great a talker {trappo ctdr&m«), excepting that {da queBo 
tn fum) he is an honest man. "^ 

What is the matter with you? you look' angry. — ^I have reason 
to be {aver moUoo d* euere) angry, for there is no means of get* 
ting money now. — ^Have you been to Mr. A's.— I have been to 
his house ; but there is no possibility (turn c' ^ mexxo) of borrow, 
ing from him.— -I suspected (pentare) that he would not lend me 
any, that is the reason why I did not wish to ask hikn, and had 
jou not told me to do so, I should not have subjected myself {nan 
mi sart9 ^spr^lo) to a refusal (ilr^mio). 

Quarto me$e. 

Leziane settantesima sesta. 


Be oomes towards me. 

He hae behaved very well towards 

We moat alwaya behave weU towards 
every body. 

The bdiavioar of others is but an echo 
of onr own. If we behave well to- 
wards them, they will also behave 
well towards us; bat if we nsethem 
iD, we must not expect better from 

To treat ot to use somebody weU* 

To use somebody iU. 

As you have always .used me well, I 
will not use yon ilL 

As he has always need me well, I 
have always used him In the same 

To delay {fo tarry). 

Do not be long before you return. 
I shall not be long before I return. 

y iene verso dl me. 
Si d condotto benisslmo verso dl 

Bisogna oondursi sempre bene verso 

La condotta degfi altri non d che un 
eoo della nostra. Se ci condu- 
ciamo bene verso dl loro, si oon- 
durranno pur bene verso dl noi; 
ma se trattiamo male eon essia 
non dobbiamo aspettare meglio da 
( f Comportarsi ( bene eon 
( f TraUare (usare) I fuakuno, 
{^ Comportarsi imah con 
\ f Trattare (usare) \ fuaJcuno, 
t Come EUa si d sempre comportata 
bene con me, non mi oomporteiO 
male con Let 
t Come sP d sempre comportato bene 
meco, mi sono sempre comportato 
. deUa stessa maniera con lui. 

> Tardare 1 (a l>efore Inf.). 

Non tardate a rltomare. 
Non tarderd a rltomare. 




To long for or io, 

1 long to Me my brother. 

He longs to recelre hit money. 

Wo long for dinner, becaase we tre 

▼ery hungry. 
They long to deep, became ihey are 

Oh, how much I long that some one 

may join me here! 

' {Desiderare l.« 
f Esser impadenU di (tar 

dor t 
' f Non veder P ora dL 

Sono impadente di yedere mio fins* 

K impasiente di rioerera Q sno da- 

naro. (Non vede 1' oia di licerwe 

il suo danaro.) 
Siamo impazienti di pranxareb 

percbd abbiamo molto fame. 
Deaiderano dl dormite, perchd sono 

Oh! quanto mi tarda ch' aM qui 

ginnga t (jirt». tfike mdff.) 

To he at one^s ease. ) 
To he eomforidble. \ ' 

To he uncomfortable* 
I am very much at my ease upon this 

Yom are uncomfortable upon your 


We are uncomfortable in that board- 

Essere agiaio (comodo). 

SEssere mal comodo. 
Non essere agiaio. 
Sono molto comedo su questa ts- 

Ella d mal oomodo sulla di Ld 
t ChepudesQcrel 
Siamo mal oomodi in questa pen- 

That man is well off, for he has plenty Quest* uomo d agiato, perchd ha 

of money. i molto danaro. 

That man Is badly ofi; for he ia poor. ' Queat* uomo non d agiato, pmhd d 

I povero. 

To make one^s self comfortable. 
Make yourself comfortable. 

To he uncomfortable. 
To inconvenience one's self. \ 
To put one's self oulcfthe> 
way. } 

Do not put yourself out of the way. 

That roan never inconveniences him- 
self; he never does it for any body. 

Can you, without pntting yourself to 
inconvenience, lend me your gun 7 

f Accomodarsi. 
La si sccomodi. 

Essere incomodo. 


Non La si incomodl. 

Quest' uomo non s* incomoda mail 

non 8* incomoda mai per alcuno. 
Pud Ella, senza incomodarsi, prea 

tarmi 11 di Lei fucUe? 



7& make entreaties. 

To beg with entreaty, 

I employed every kind of entreaty to t 
engage him to it. ! 

To solicit^ to presBy to suCy to 

Far istanze. 

Pregarc con istanza, 

Ne 1' ho loUecitato con tutte 
istanxe possibili. 

SoUecitare 1. 

Here and there. 
Now and then. 

From time to time. 

Indifferently (good or bad). 
I have made my composition tolerably 

Qua e U. 

i Di distanza in distanza. 
! Di tanto in tantor. 
\ Di quando in quando. 
! Di tempo in tempo. 

Bene o male. 

Bene o male ho fiitto la mia compo- 

To postpone^ to put off. 
Let U8 put that ofi* until to-morrow. 
Let lis put off that lesson until another 

To impart something to some one. 

Have you imparted that to your 

I have imparted it to him. 

iiimettere* a, differire (isco). 
Rimettiamo questo a domani. 
Rimettiamo questa lezione ad.un' 
altra volta. 

f Far parola di qualche ea$a a 

Ha EUa fatto parola di dd'al di Lei 

padrp 1 
Gliene ho fatto parola. 

In vain. 
In vain. I looked all around,. I saw 

neither man nor house: 
least sign of settlement 

not the 

A dwelling, habitation, settlement. 
In vain I speak, for you do not listen 

to me. 
In vain I do my best, I cannot do any 

thing to his liking. 
Vou may say what you please, nobody 

will believe you. 
ft is in vain that they earn money,'j 

they will never be rich. 
VVc search in vain ; for what we have 

lost we cannot find. 


lo avea bel guardare tutto all* intor- 
no, io non vedeva nd uomini nd 
case : non- la minima apparenza d' 

Un' abitazione. 

Ho bel parlare, Ella non m' ascolta. 

Ho bel fare quanto so di meglio, non 

posso &r niente a suo grade. 
Ha bel dire, nessuno Le credera. 

Invano si gtiaddgnan danaro, nOn 

saranno mai ricchi. 
Cerchiarao invano, non potrem mai 

troyare ciu ch' abbiamo perduto. 




I hftTe tiM honour to bid yoa adieu. 
Present my eomplimente to Mm (to 

Remember me to blra (to he^). 

Prey pieeeat my oompUmeiOa to your 

Remember me (present my compli- 
ments) to him (to her). 


ffii^^ oomott* 

Salutare 1. 

Ho r onoie di selntazla. 

OU Oe), presento i 

GU (le) dice molte eoee de mia 

La prego di fiur imiei eompUmentI 
alb di Lei signora sorella. 

GU (le) preeend (effim) le mie dTtlti 
(1 miel umiU riepetti), (dvUtlL ob- 

Non mancherik 

The present (the present time or Ilpresente. 


The past. 
The loss of time. 
Eiyoy ail the pleasures that virtue per- 

II passato. 

L' ovtenlre, il futoio. 
La perdita di tempo. 
Goda (godete) di tntti i piaeeri ehe 
la Tirtii permette. 


281. • 

I suspected (penman) that you would be thirsty, and that your 
sister would be hungry ; that is the reason why I brought you 
here. I am sorry, however (pero), not to see your mother. — 
Why do you not drink your coffee ? — If I were not sleepy I would 
drink it. — Sometimes {i>ra) you are sleepy, sometimes cold, some- 
times warm, and sometimes something else b the mhtter with you 
{ed ora quakhe alira cosa). I believe that you think too much 
of the misfortune that has happened to your friend (Jem.). — ^If I 
did not think about it, who would think about it ? — Of whom does 
your brother think ?— He thinks of me, Tor we always think of 
each other {F uno aJT aUro) when we are not tc^ether (iiuieme). 
I have seen six players {il giuocaiore) to-day, who were all 
winning (guadagnare) at the same time (nelT utesso Umpo). — 
That cannot be (nan si da) ; for a player can only win when 
andther loses. — ^You .would Ife right if I spoke of people that had 
played at cards or billiards ; but I am speaking of flute and 
violin players (di suonatori di fiauto e di vioKno). — ^Do you some 


limes practise {fare) music {deUa musica) 1 — ^Very ofteo, for I 
like it much.-i-What instrument do you play (suonare) 1 — ^I play 
the violin, and my sister plays the harpsichord. — My brother who 
plays the bass (t7 contrabasso) accompanies {accompagnare) us, 
and Miss Stolz sometimes applauds {applaudire — isco) us. — Does 
she not also play some musical instrument {Ulrumenic di mu^ 
ska) ? — She plays the harp {T aTpa)^ but she is too proud (Jiera) 
to practise musia with us. — A very poor town {una eiud alquanio 
ffovera) went to considerable expense {far una spesa considered 
voh) in feasts and illuminations {in feste ed iUuminazioni) on the 
occasion of its prince passing through {del passaggio del sua — ). 
The latter seemed {ne parve) himself astonished. " It has only 
dcme," said a courtier (ten cartigiano), " what it owed (t7 suo de- 
hiio) (to your majesty)."—" That is true," replied {r^endere*) 
another, " but it owes all ^hat it has done." 


Have you made your Italian composition ? — ^I have made it. — 
Has your tutor been pleased with It ? — ^He has not. In vain I 
do my best, I cannot do any thing to his liking. — You may say 
what you please, nobody will believe you.— <]!an you, without 
putting yourself to inconvenience, lend me five hundred livres ? 
— Ab you have always used me well, I will use you in the same 
manner. I will lend you the money you want; but on condition 
that you will return it to me next week. — ^You may depend upon 
it {poterfame capilale). — How has my son behaved towards you ? 
— ^He has behaved well towards me, for he behaves well towards 
every body. His father often told him : — " The behaviour of 
others is but an echo of our own. If we behave well towards 
them, they will also {pur) behave well towards us ; but if we 
use them ill, we must not expect better from them." — May I see 
your brothers 1 — ^You will see them to-morrow. As they have 
just arrived from a long journey {Uviaggio), they long for sleep, 
for they are very tired. — What did my sbter say ? — She said 
that she longed for dinner, because she was very hungry. — Are 
you comfortable in .your boarding-house ? — ^I am very comfort- 
able there. — ^Have you imparted to your brother what I told you 1 


— As he was very lired, he longed for sleep ; so that I have put 
off imparting it to him till to-morrow. 


I have the honour to wish you a good morning. How do you 
do? — Very well at your service {per servirla). — ^And how are 
all at home {E come stanno in €asa) ? — ^Tolerably well {pastdbU" 
mente), thank God (grazic a Did) ! My sister was a little indis- 
posed {indisposta)y but she is better {ristabilita) ; she told me to 
give you her best (m* ha incaricato di moUi — fer Lei) compli- 
ments. — I am glad {contentissimo) to hear that she is well. As 
to you, you are health {la salute) itself {slessa) ; you cannot look 
better {ha la miglior cera del moiwio).— I have no time to be ill , 
my business (t miei affari) would not permit me. — Please to sit 
down {La si accomodi) ; here is a chair. — I will not detain {dis. 
trarre) you from your business ; I know that a merchant's time 
is precfous {che U tempo e prexioso per un ntgoxianie). — ^I have 
nothing pressing {pressante) to do now, my courier is already 
dbpatched {il mio corriere e gid spedito). — ^I shall not stay any 
longer. I only wished in passing by {passando di qui) to inquire 
about your health. — ^You do me much honour. — ^It is very fine 
weather to-day. — If you allow me I shall have the pleasure of 
seeing you again {rivedere) this afternoon {questo dopo pranzo), 
and if you have time, we will take a little turn together. — ^With 
the greatest pleasure. In that case I shall wait for you. — ^I will 
Kxfme for you {verrd a prenderkt) about {verso) seven o'clock. — 
Adieu then, till I see you again. — -1 have the honour to bid you 

Lezione settantesima seitima. , 

To mean. 

WhaX do yon mean? 

I mean. 

What does that man mean 1 


What doea that mean t 

That doea not mean any thing. 

I do not know what that meana. 

r Volere *. 


( Intendere ***, ngnifeart I. 

Che pretendete (intendete) 1 
Pietendo (hitendo). 
Che vuol quell' uomo 1 
Vuole (pretende, intende). 
Che aignifica queato 1 
Noir aignifica niente. 
Non 80 che old iiignlflca. (Noa i 
eoaa aignifichi qneato). 

To he particular. 

I do not like to deal with that man, 
for he la too particular. 

To grow impatient, to freU 
Do not fret about that. 

f Biguardarvi da vidno. 

t Non tratto volentieri con quell' 
uomo, perchd ▼! riguarda troppo 
da Yicino, (or perchd d troppo ain- 

f Impaxientarsi di. 
I Non aP impaiienti di ddi 
I Non impazientateTi di ddb 

To eit up, to watch, 
I hare aat up all night. 

To advise,. - 

The dresa, the eoatnme. 
An elegant dreaa. 
Hia dreaa ia decent (elegant). 

To dress one's se'tf. 
That man alifraya dreaaes well. 

TofindfauU with something » 

That man alwaya finda iault with 

every thing he aoea. 
Do you find fault with that 1 
t do not find fiiult with it 

VegUare 1. 
Ho Tegliato tutta la notta* 

ConsigUare 1. 
n veatire. 

Un veatire elegante. 
11 Buo veatire d deoente (elegante). 

Vestirsi 8. 
Queat' uomo ai veate aempro bene. 

Troitare a ridire a quahhe 


Qneat' uomo trova aempre a lidlre a 

tutto cid che vede. 
Trova Ella a ridire a queato? 
Non vi troTO niente a ridire. 



A trick. 
To play « tiick. 
To pby a trick on aome ona. 

To take a turn. 
I have taken a tarn round the garden. 
He haa taken a couple of tuma round 
the garden. 

Una befia, «na liurla. 

Fare una burla. 

Fare una burla a qualcnao 
t Fare un giro (una paaaegglnta). 
t Ho &tto un giro nel giardino. 
t EgUhalattoduegirinel glazdiM 

To take a little turn. 

To trarel thsoun^ Europe. 

f Far un picool giro* 

t Fare U giro dell' Europau 

More (meaning besides). 
Yon hate given me three booka, but I 


Ella mi ha dato traBbri^Bin om m 
oooorrono tn di pitk. 



Three leaa. 
Three too many. 

Tn di meno. 
Tro di iroppo. 



I want three hooka. 

Occarrere ♦ ; p. part, occorwo; 

pret. def. oecorn. 

My reach. 
Within my reach. 
Out of my reach. 
llioae thinga are not within the reach 

ofeTerybody. ' 
That ia not within the reach of my 
Within gna-ahott 
A gun-ahot (meaning diatanoe). 
Twogun-ahot«( " " ). 

How many ahota have you fired 1 

La mia viata (capadti). 

Alia mia viata. 

Fuori della mia viaU {or eapadf A). 

Queate coae non aono della capadti 

di tutti, or alia poruto dl tutti 
Cid d troppo lontano per la mia 

A un tiro di fudle. 
Un tiro di fuclle. 
Duetiridl fucile. 
C^uante rolte ha Ella tira» (I 

XL VIII.) 1 

I wooder why that man makea such a 

So long as. 

So long aa you behave wdl, people 
win love you. 

t Vorrei aapero perchi qoeat* aomo 
fa un tale atrepito (un tal rumore). 

^ Qtianto. 

( Finehiffn taiUo che. 

Finch^ (or fintanto che) vi eompor 
terete bene, vi amennno. 



A mouthful/ 

To overwhelmy to heap, to load 

To orerwhelm one with joy. 

Beneficent, charitable. 
Vou have heaped benefita upon me. 
An advantage. 
The dieadvantage, prejudice. 
I ahall never eay.any thing to your die- 

Fortarma, rapire (isco). 
Una boccata. Un boccone. 

. Cobhare 1. 

Colmare qualcuno di gioia. 


Benefice, caritatevole. 

Ella mi ha oolmato di >>^"*fi«t< 



Vn vantaggio. 

Lo avantaggio. 

Non dirO mai nlente a avantaggio di 

• Lei. 

To surrender. 
The enemies have surrendered. 

To prefer* 

I prefer the usefiil to the agreeable. 

I nemici si sono real. 

Preferire* (iseo) (past part. 
prtferUo ; pret. def. preferU 
or preferei). 
Preferisco 1' utile al gradevole. 

Ob§. All the infinitive moods of a verb used substantively are masenline. 
The drinking. | II here (11 bevere). 

The eating. I II mangiare. 

To hehold. 

Behold those beautiful flowers with 
their colours so fresh and bright. 

The colour. 

The lily. 


The rose. 

An emblem. 
Fresh verdure i» salutary to our eyes. 

Guardare 1. ^iguardare 1. 

Ouardate quel superbi fiorl d' «n 
colore co^ freaoo e splendido vivo. 

n colore, 11 colorito. 



Larosa. t 

Xki* emblema. 

La verzura fi«scafii del bene ai no»* 
til oochi (or d fii del bene agU 

The lo6&o£time b an irreparable (irreparahiie) loss. A single 
minute {un sol mmuto) cannot be recovered (riguadagnare) for all 


the gold in the {del) world. It is then (dunque) of the greatest 
importance {della tnassima importanxa) to employ well the time 
which consists (coruistere) only of minutes which we must make 
good of {che hisogna mettere a profiio). We have but the present; 
the past is no longer any thing (non 8 piu nuiZa), and the future is 
uncertain {incerto). - A great many people (una hybutd <2' uommi) 
ruin themselves (rovinarn) because they wish to indulge them- 
selves too much {per voter a:t>wmiaggiarey If most men {Ja 
maggior parte degU uomini) knew how to content themselves (ccn- 
teniarsi) with what they have, they would be happy ; but their 
greediness {la loro aviditd) very often makes {rendered) them un- 
happy. — In order to be happy we must forget the past, not trouble 
ourselves about the {non inquietarti deW) future, and enjoy the 
present. — I was very much dejected {afiitiissimo) when my cousin 
came to me. << What is the matter with you ?" he asked me. 
** Oh {Ah) ! my dear cousin," replied I, '*' in losing that nooney 
I have lost every thing." <<Do not fret," said he to me, *' for I 
have found your money." 


Why have you played a trick upon that man 1 — ^Because he 
finds fault with every thing he sees. — ^What does that mean. Sir ? 
— *That means that I do not like to deal with you, because you 
are too particular. — ^I wonder why your brother has not done his 
task.*— It was too difficult. He sat up all night, and has not beon 
able to do it, because it was out of his power {capacUdy — As soun 
as Mr. Civilti sees me he begiQS to speak English, in order to 
practise, and overwhelms me with politeness {lajinezxa), so that I 
often do not know what to answer. His brothers do the same (ns 
fanno aUreUatUo), However, they are very good people {sono 
buonissime penane) ; they are not only {non solamenie) rich and 
amiable, but they are also generous and charitable {henefid). 
They love me sincerely, therefore I love them also {to pure), and 
consequently {percid) shall never say any thing to their disad- 
vantage {lo svantaggio). I should love them still more, if they 
did not make so much ceremony {(ante cerimonie) i but everyone 
has his faults, and mine is to speak too much of their ceremonies. 



Have the enemies* surrendered ? — They have not surrendered, 
for they did not prefer life (la vUa) to death {la morie). They 
had neither bread, nor meat, nor water, Jior arms {ni armi), nor 
money; notwithstanding they determined to die rather (Jianno 
ffreferUo morire) than surrender. — Why are you so sad ? — You do 
not know what makes me oneasy, my dear friend (fem.) — Tell 
me, for I assure you that I share {dhidere* in egual modo) your 
sufferings (la pena) as wdl as your pleasures. — I am sure that 
you feel for me (prendere* parte aUe mie pene), but I cannot teli 
you now (in guesto momenta) what makes me uneasy. I will, 
however (pure)> tell you when an opportunity offers (al presentarai 
delT occasione). Let us speak of something else now. ^ What do 
you think of the man who spoke to us yesterday at the concert ? 
— He IS a man of much understanding (di malto senno), and not 
at all wrapped up in his own merits (e non ^ mica infatuaio del 
9U0 meriio). But why do you ^k me that ?-i-To speak of some- 
thing. — ^It is said: contentment surpasses (contento val meglio) 
riches ; let us then always be content.' Let us share {dividere*) 
(with each other) what we have, and remain {t r^tiamo) our life- 
time (tutta la nostra vUa) inseparable (inseparahile) friends. You 
will always be welcome at my house, and I hope to be equally so 
(iopure) at yours. If Isaw you happy, I should be eq^ually so, 
and we should be more contepted than the greatest princes. We 
shall be happy (Saremo feUci) when we are perfectly {perfetn 
tamente) contented with what we have ; and if we do our duty as 
we ought {bene), God will take care of the rest. The past being 
no longer any tiling, let ^ us not be uneasy about the future, f^nd 
enjcv (repeat the imperative) the present. (See end of Lesson 



Lezions seiianiesima Mava. 

A gold watch. 
A marble atatue. 
A demniag aokUer. 
A talentad jrouth. 
A mahogany table. 
A biick hoiue. 
A atone honae. 
A Yt\Yet bonnet. 
A aUVer tankard. 
A one-atory honae. 
A two-atory honae. 
A three-atory houae. 

Un orinolo J oro. 
Una atatna di mamax 
^n aoldato (iinMrito. 
Un gioTane di talentio. 
Una veata di aeta. 
Una tavola di* mogano. 
Una caaa di mattonL 
Una caaa <£ pietra. 
Un cappeflo di veUute 
Un boccale tf -argento. 
Una caaa <f nn aol piano. 
Una caaa di due pianL 
Una caaa di tre piani. 

Oba. A, Aa we have aeen (Leaaon II.), the prcpoaltion di ezpreaaea the 
matter of which a thing ia made ; but to mark the uae of a thing, the prepoai- 
tlon da muat be made uae of. (See Obi. C. Leeaon VIII.) Ex 

A kitch^-table. 

A nightcap. ' 

A powder-box. 

A neck-handkerchief. 

A baidkerchief (for the noae). 



A. princely magnificence. 

A gallant action. 




A cofle»-mill. 

A water-miU. 

A ateam-mill. 

A one-horae waggon. 

A foor-horse carriage. 

A two-wlieeled waggon. 

A four-wheeled waggon. 


Una taTola da cncina. 

Una benetta da notte; 

Una aeattdla da polyere. 

Un fiosoletto da collo. 

Un lazzoletto da naao. 

Carta da acriVere. 

Un bicchiere da vino. 

Una magniflicenia da prindpe. 

Un' axiona da cavaHere. 

PoWere ca ca&none. 

Armi da tnoeo. 

Un mnlino a vento. 

Un mulinello da cafi^ 

Un mollno ad acqna. 

Un muUno a rapore. 

Una carrozza ad nn csrallo. 

Una carrozxa a quattro caTaUi. 

Una carrozza a due mote. 

Una caiTozEa a quattro mote. 

Lai)orta dd giaridino. 

VVaiter 1 bring aomethlng to drink, to | 
•at, to 4t upon. I 

Garzone t portate da bare, da man- 
glare, da aedere. 

A thne*ooni6r hat. | Un cappeUo a tvepunta. 


Ob§. B, The preposition a la made uae of when the determinating noon 
ezpreaaea reeemMonce or tihapt. 

A laahionable coat. 
A pendulum-clock 
An hour-glasa. 
A sailing vessel ' 
A rowing vetseL 

He entreated him with joined hands. 
.Thon wantedst to act ac^rding to thy 

To play at first sight 
To drive with sis horses, 
lliey will^me at the fized^tlme. 
At twelve o'clock (mid-day). 
At twelve o'ctock at night (midnight). 
He came in time. 

To play at a game 

To exaggerate. 

That man ezsggemtes sU that he says 

That man eiaggerates his genero- 
sity. . 

To take the place of , to he m- 

That man is a father to me. 

fliat nmbreOa serves him as a stick. 

An inch. 
On a small scale. 
On a large scale. 
Thereftbonts, nesrly. 
Alternately, turn by turn. 

Un abito alia moda. 
Un orologio a pendolo. 
Un orologio a polvere. 
Una nave a vela. 
Una nave a lemL 

Lo pregd a mani glunte. 
Volesti iare a tuo modo 

Snonare a prima vista. 
Andare a set cavallL 
Verranno df ora stabilita. 
A mezzo giprno (alle dodld). 
A mezza notte. 
Venne a tempo. 
Oiuocare a un giuoco. 

c Esagerare I 
< t Spingere trqpp' oUre. 
( t Andar off eceesso. 
Quests uomo essgera qnanto dic6« 

qnantofiu ^ 
Quest' uomo spinge tfipp' oUre k 
sua generodti. 

Servire di, iener luogo di. 

e Qnest' uomo mi tiene luogo di padre. 
\ Qmst* uomo mi serve di padre^ sf 
i mii&da. 
Quesf ombreilo gli tiene loogo dl 

Un poUice. 

In pipcolo. 


Presso a poco, a nn di pressu. 




To emdeawnar^ to wtrwe, 
T6gi»e me*» se^ 91^ to grief. 




Sfonarsif ttudiarri 1. 
Atbandonarn al doitre, 
^Fonderf^ ; past part, fum; 
pret. def.yim. 
Stmggerei*; p. part, jfmffo; 
- pret def. 9truui. 
t StniggenI In bfrime. 

To give Urth to (meaning to 
raife, to cauet). 
To nite dii&cultiea. 
To caoM qvamela. 
To cauM ■utpitions. 
Tho behavioiir of thnt mi 
pldottt in my mind. 

JPor fuucfre. 

t Far naacere delle diffioolti. 

t Far naaoers delle queationL 

t Far naacere del aoepettL 

t La oondotta dl quaat* nomo feee 
naacere del ioapetti neUn mia 
mente, or mi Iboe naaoera del aoo- 

To ehake. 
Shako that tree, and the fruit will laU 


Scuoiere*; p. part. 

pret. def. scoesi. 
ScQotete (ecuota) qneaf alhero e nn 
eadianao i fruttL 

<ffto be ihort off 

Tohe m\ 
to want* 
That man Ib in want of OTory thing. 
I am In want of notliin«(. 

{Maneare di. 
Aver numeanxa di. 
Qneet' uomo manca di tatto. 
Non manco di niente, er non 
manca niente. 

A plaop at table, indnding knift, fork, 

A ubie for four persona.. 
A table for ten perM>na. 
A writing-table or desk. 
A dining*TOom. ^ 

A Bleeping or bed-ioonL 
A mnatird-pot. 
A pitcher. 

Boiled meat for dinner. 
A fowttng-pieoe. 
A milk-pot 
A liahlng^line. * 


Una tavola da qnattro poaata. 
Una taTola do. died poaata. 
Una tavola da aeriTere. 
Una aala da prsnio. 
Una camera da letta 
Un oriuolo a ripetitiona. 
Una moataidiera. 
Un Taio da aoqna. 
f La pentola. 
Un facile da caeda. 
Un Taao da latta. 


. To exact, to want of. Esigere* ; p. part. esdUo. 

WYutt do you want of me "l { CJhe esisfiste (ealge) da me 1 * 

What did yon exact of me 1 * C Che vuole darnel 

I exact nothing of you. i 5 N°° ''•'^ »'«■"« <«• '»1- 

I c Non YOglio Diente da LeL 

The rabbit-man. | L' nomo dot conigU. 

The oyster-wopian. ' La donna ddife oatriche. 

Dainties. . I buoni bocconi. 
He is fond of dainties. Gli piacciono (ama) i bttoni boceo'Ji 

At broad daylight. Di giomo. 

To dt down to dinner. ' Mettersi a tavola. 


Behold, ladies (Signore), those beautiftil flowers, with their 
colours so fresh and bright ; they drink nothing but water. The 
white lily has the colour of innocence {V innocenza) ; die violet 
indicates gentleness (indka la dolcezza); you may see it in 
Louisa's eyes (negH occhi di Luigia). The forget-me-not has the 
colour of heaven, bur futufla dwelling, and the rose, the queen of 
flowers, is the emblem of beauty and of joy. You see (Miran) 
all that personified (persomficato) in seeing the beautifel Amelia 
(AmaUa), — How beautiful i? the fresh verdure (la v^rzura) I It 
is salutary to qur eyes, and has the colour of hope (la speranxa), 
our most faithful (fedele) friend (fern.), who never deserts (alf- 
handonare) us, not even ih death (aUa morte). — One Word more, 
my dear friend.— 'What is your pleasure ? — I forgot to tell you to 
present my compliments to your mother. Tell her, if you please, 
that I regret (che mi rincresce) not having been at home when she 
lately honoured me with her visit. I thank you for her, I shall 
not fail. Farewell then (State bene). 


Has your sister been out to-day ? — Sho^has been out to. buy 
several things (per far deUe compre), — What has she bought ?— 
She has bought (I^ n ^ comprata) a silk gown, a velvet bonnet, 
and a laee veil (un velo di merleUi), — What have you done with 



my flilTer tankard t— It is on the kitchen-table, together with the 
(eoOa) oiUbottle, the milk.pot, the pitcher, the mti8tard.pot, and 
the ooffee-mill. — ^Do you ask for a winc-bottle ? — ^No, I ask for a 
bottle of wine, and not (e non mica) for a wine-bottle. — ^If you 
will have the goodness to give nie the key of the wine-cellar 1 
shall go for one. — What does that man want of me ?-r-He exacts 
nothing ; but he will accept what you will give him, for he is in 
want of every thing. — ^I will tell you that I am not fond of him, 
for his behaviour raises suspicions in my mind. He exaggerates 
all that he says and does. — ^You are wrong in having such a bad 
opinion (im' opmume) of him, for he has been a father to you. — 
I know what I say. He has cheated me on a small and on a 
large scale, and whenever he calls he asks me for something. 
In this manner he has alternately asked me for all I had : my 
fowling-piece, my tishing-line, my repeater, and my golden can- 
dlesticks.— Do not give your^lf up so tnu^h to grie( else (oAri- 
mend) you will make me melt in tears. 

Democritus (Dsmocrtto) and Heraclitus were two philosophers 
of a very different character (d' wi indole moUo diferenU) : the 
first laughed at the follies {la foUia) of men, and the other wept 
at them. They were both righti for the follies of men deserve 
to be laughed and wept at 


Have you seen your niece t — ^Yes ; she is a very good girl, 
who writes well, and speaks Italian still better ; therefore she is 
loved and honoured by every body. — ^And her brother, what is 
he doing ?-:-Do not speak to me of him ; he is a naughty boy, 
who writes always badly, and who speaks Italian still worse : he 
is therefore (jpercio) loved by nobody. He is very fond of dain- 
ties, but he does not like books. Sometime he goes to bed at 
broad day-light, and pretends to be ill ; but when we sit down to 
dinner (si va a tavola) he is generally better again. — He is to 
study physic (la medicina), but he has not the slightest inclination 
for it (alcuna voglia). He is almost always talking of his dogs, 
which he loves passionately (t^tpassumaiamenie). His father is 
extremely sorry for it. The young simpleton (P UnhedUe) said 



lately to his sister, *^ I shall ealist as soon as a peaoa^ (la pace) is 
proclaimed (pubpUcare)" 

My dear father and my dear Qiother dined yesterday with 
some friends at the king of Spain (aW insegna del re di Spagna). 
— Why do you always speak English and never Italian ? — Be- 
cause I am too hashful. — ^You are joking ; is an Englishman 
ever bashful ? — ^I have a keen appetite (grand' appetiio) : give me 
something good to eat. — Have you any money? — No, Sir. — 
Then I have nothing to eat for you. — Will you not let me have 
some {rum mi da EUa) on credit? ' I pledge {impegnare) my 
honour. — ^That is too little. — What {cime)^ Sir ! 

Lezione settantesima nana. 

Juti a JUOe, ever so Uult. 

Will you do me the finrour of giTing 

me a piece of bread 1 
Do you wish a great deal 7* 
No, just a little. 

( Alquanio, 

< Unpoco,unpocheUo,unpochino. 

V Un tantino. 

Vuol iarmi 11 piacere dl darmi on 

pezzodi panel 
No, un pochetto. 

f Farvalere (trar prafiUo). 

To turn to. account. 
To make the lest of. 
Thia man does not know how to make t Qneef uomo non ea fiur v^lere i buoI 

the best of his talents. talentL 

That man turns his money to account t Quesf uomo la valere 11 suo danaio 
in trade. . i I nelcommerdo. 

t Come U EUa valere U di Lei, da- 

How do you employ your money? 
I turn it to account in the stocks. 

To hoasty to brag. 
I do not like that man, hscause he 
boasts too mndw 

t Lo foecio valere nei fond! pubblici. 

f Farsi valere. 

t Non mi place quest' uomo, perchd 
si & troppo valere, cr perchd aj 
vanta troppo. 



Notwithstanding that. ) 
Far all that, aWwugh. \ 

That man ia a little bit of a rogne^ but 

Dotwithatanding be paMea for an 

honeat man. 
Although that man ia not Tery well, he 

notwithatanding worka a great deal. 
jUthongh that woman la not very 

pretty, atiU ahe ia very amiable. 

Although that man haa not the leaat 
talent, yet for all that he boaata a 
great deal 

Although the taTem-keeper'a wife ia 
rather awarthy, yet for all that ahe 
tuma the buaineaa to good account 

I receired your letter on the fifth, on 

the aixth, on the aeventh. 
On the eighth. 

To go iaekj to return. 

The top. 
The bottom. 
Up to the top. 

The eldeat brother. 
The eldeat aiac^. 
He ia the eldeat- 

To ojpipear, to seem, 

I appear, Ac 
We appear, Ac. 

To keep, to nuUntain. 
Atfy keeping or maintenanca 
My keeping costa me aix hundred 
livrea a-year. 

To drive in, to sink. 

To converse vnik some one. 
A conTersation. 

Cid fum di mino (nuBameno) 
Nondimeno, nuUadimeno. 

Quest' uomo i alquanto biiccx>n^ 
cid non dimeno paaaa per un g^ 

Quantunqne costui non iatia bene 
non tralaacia di lavorar molto. 

Benchd queata donna non sla molto 
leggiadra, non tralaacia (not ele- 
gant) d' eaaer molto amabile {of 
pure la d molto amabile). 

Qnantimque costui non abhia alcun 
talento, non tralaacia di farai mot- 
to yalere. 

Benchd la moglie di queat' oste ala 
un tontino bruna, non tralaada di^ 
far valere 1* osteria, or pure £i bene 
gU affari della aua osteiia. 

Ho ricoTUto la di Lei letlera II 

cinque, U aei, U aette. 
L' otto. 

Riiomare 1, tomare 1. 

L' altOk la dma. 
U baMO, 11 fondo. 
Fino in alto. 

II frat^io primogenitor 

La aorella prlmogenita. 

k il primogenito (U maggiovB). 

Parere *, semlnrare 1. 

Paio, pari, pare. 

Paiamo (pariamo), parete, paionot 
paot parL parao ; jrret. dtj. paril 

Afontenere *. 
n mio mantenimento. 
II mio mantenimento mi coata Mi 
cento lire T anno (air anno). 

( Andar a fondo. 
\ Affondare 1. 
Conversar6 con qualcuno *• 
Una conversazione. 

» Coiwroar€ in un paese means : fretjueniarvi, to go often to a country. 



Spare yous money. 

EispamUare 1. 
Rispanniate ii vostro danaia 

To get Ured. 
To be tired. 


To lean against. 
Lean against me: 
Lean against the wall. 

To aim at. 

To stop short. 

Yirtne is amiable. 
Vice is odioitf. 

Stanearn 1, annoiqrsi 1. 
Esser'stanco, lasso, annoiato. 
'Maneggiare 1. 
Appoggiateyi a me. 
Appoggiateyi c6ntro U muro. 

{ Prender di ndra. 
\ Metter in mira, 

Gorto, snbito^ . 

Fermarsi subito. 

La virtii i amabile.. 
R yizio d odlpso* 

' OAtf. A, Before substantives taken in a general sense, and in the whole extent 
of their signification, no article is made use of in Englishj but in Italian it 
cannot be dispensed with. 

Men are mortal 
Gold is piecious. 
Com is sold a crown a bushel. 

Beef costs four-pence a pound. 

The horror of vice, and the lore of 
virtue, are the delights of the' wise 
England is a fine country. ' 
Italy is the garden of Europe. , 
The dog is the friend and companion 

of man. 
Theesaly produces wine, oranges, le- 
mons, olives, apd all sorts of fruit 

He ate the bread, meat, apples, and 
petty-patties ) he drank the winci. 
beer, and cider. 

Beauty, gracefulness, and wit, are valu- 
able endowments when heightened 

OU uominS sono mortali. 

I^ oro d prezioso. 

M grano si vende uno scudo lo {or 

alio) staio. 
Jl manzo costa quattro soldi to (or 

alia) Ubbra. 

V ornMre -del vizio e P amore ddia 
virti^ sono % diletti dd savio. 

1/ Inghilterra d un bel paesa. 

V Italia d 11 giardino dell' Europe. 
Jl cane d 1' amico ed il cbmpagno 

deiP uomo. 
La Tessalia produce dd vino, dUle 

melarancie, dei cedri, dtlU ulive ed 

ogni sorta di frutti. 
Mangid il pane, la came, U mele ed 
• i pasticdni ;* bevette U vino, la 

birra ed U cidro. 
La bellezza, i grazie e 1* Ingegno 

sono vantaggi prezlosisslmi, quan* 

do la modestla lor d& rilievo (or 


' !©♦ 



I than go to Qeniiaay on my return 

from Italy. 
The balance of Europe. 
He U?ea In Spain. 

Andi^ in Aleraasn* al : 

d* Italia. 
Vive in lapajpia. 

They have generally no article in Italian, and are declined hy i 
poaitionsi auch prepoaition la caUed the indefinite article, viz. 




of Peter, 

to Peter, 

from Peter, 


of Rome. 

to Rome. 

from Rome. 



lof pro- 


di Pietro, 


da Fietro, 


di Roma. 
' a RoDUL 
da Roma. 

The wife of Joseph or Joseph's wife. 
I aald BO to Theresa. 
I have received thia book from Alex- 
He is from Vienna. 
He goes to Venice. 
He departs from London. 

La moglie di OiOfeeppe. 

Lo diesi a Teresa. 

Ho riceruto questo libro da Ales 

Egliddi Vienna. 
Va a Venecia. 
Parte da Londra. 

Oba. B. The artido, however, is made uae of in the following Instanoaa: 

a) When the name is preceded by an a4ioctive, as : 

The brave Casar. I U valoroso Cesare. 

The divine Raphael. I II diviao RafaeUo (or Raflbelle). 

b) Some proper names of onen and godf take tiie article in the plural when 
they stand as appellative nouns, as : 

TheCloeros. I I Ciceroni. 

The gods of the ancient Romans. | Gli del degll antlchi RomanL 
Also in the singular, when they are used to mark another person, as : 
The Solon of France. | B Solone della Francia. 

c) When known personages, particularly learned or renowned men, are men- 
tioned by their fiuaUy-names, as : 


11 Tasso. 


11 Petrarca. 


La Fiammetta. 

Obe, C When a whole part of the world is raewlooed, the article is generally 
made use of, as : 

Europe if more peopled than Africa. 

The States of America. 
Itkly is on three sides surrounded by 

L' Europa i pih pofpdata dell* if- 

Gil Stati deir America. 
U Italia d da tre parti drcondata da] 



Ob9, D, Somo eountrieg and iaianda have always the arUcie, such aa : 

n Tirolo, la Svi^zeiB, la Moldavia. 
La Horea, la Crimea, la China. 

Tyrol, Switzerland, Mddavia. 
Morea, Crimea, CMna. 
J^HUi, Peru, India. 
Brazil, Virginia, Sicily. . 
Sardinia, Coraica, Ireland. 
Iceland, Capri. 

n Giappone, U Perh, le Indie. 
n Brasile, la Virginia, la SicUia. 
La Sardegna, la Coraica, f Irlanda. 
jy Iaianda, la Capraia. 

And a few othera. 
(%9. E» The namea of conntriea which are called aftftr their capitals have 
never the article as: 

Naples, Venice, Geneva. | Napoli, Venezia, Qenova*, Ac. 

Obt. F, The namea of the seaa, rivers, and mountains, liave lilways the 
article, as: 

The Atlantic oc^an, the Danube, the | U Atlantico, il Danubio, U Po, Ac. 

Will ypu relate {raccontare) somethiDg to me ? — What do you 
wish me to relate to you ? — A little anecdote, if you like. — A 
little boy one day at table (a iUvola) asked for some meat ; his 
father said that it was not polite to ask for any, and that he should, 
wait until some was given to him {ck$ gUene desero)^ The poor 
little boy seeing every one eat, and that nothing was given to liim, 
sidd to his father : '* My dear father, give me a little salt, if you 
please." " What will you do with it ?" asked the father. " i 
wish to eat it with the meat which you will give me/' replied 
{repUcare) the child. Every body admired (amndrare) the little 
boy's wit; and his father, perceiving that he had nothing, gave 
him meat without hii> asking for it (senza ch' egU ne donumdasse), 
—Who was thftt little boy that asked for meat at table 1 — He was 
the son of one of my friends. — Why did he ask for some meat ? 
—He ^ked for some beci^use he had a good appetite. — ^Why did 
bb father not give him some immediately ? — ^Because he had for^ 
gotten it. — ^Was.the little boy wrong in asking for some 1 — ^He 
wfts wrong, for he ought to have waited. — Why did he ask his 

* Alao" the names of the following islands have no article : Cipro, Corf&, 
Greta, Cerigo, Candia, Maiorca, Minorca, Malta, Ischia, Procida, Lipari, Rod!, 
Scio, and a few others. 

444 SF/BNTT-NJlfTH UM80H. 

father for some nit ?-^« asked for some salt, that (i^mM) his 
father might peroeive that he had no nieat^ and' that he might give 
him some (e gUene desse). 

Do you wish me to relate to you another anecdote ? — ^You will 
greatly oblige me.— ^me one, purchasing some goods of a shop- 
keeper (i/ meremUe)f said to him : '^ You ask too much ; you 
should not sell so dear to me as to another, beoause I am a friend 
{sono amico di casa),^^ The merchant replied, <' Sir, we must gain 
something by {eoi) out friends, for our enemies will never come 
to the shop." 


Where shall you go next year ? — I shall go to England, for it 
is a fine kingdom (i/ regno)^ where I intend spending the summer 
on my {al vdo) return from France.)— Whither shall you go in 
the winter? — ^I shall go to Italy, and thence (<ft Id) to the West 
Indies ; but before that I must go to Holland to take leave of my 
friends.— What country do these people inhabit (^ah&are) ? — ^They 
inhabit the south (t/ mexxo giomo) of Europe ; their countries are 
called Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and they theixMsdves (ed esst 
medesimi) are Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese ; but the people 
called Russians, Swedes, and Poles, inhabit the -north (t7 SeUm^ 
iritme) of Europe ; and the names of their countries are Russia, 
Sweden, and Poland (Polonia). France and Italy are separated 
(separarc) by the Alps (le A^), and France and Spain by the 
Pyrenees (t Pirenei), — ^Though the Mahometans (U Maamettano) 
are forbidden the use of wine ( proihire quakhe cosa ad ttno), yet 
for all that 'some of them drink it. — ^Has your brother eaten any 
thing this morning ? — ^He has eaten a great deal ; though he said 
he had no appetite, yet for all that he ate all the hieat, bread, and 
vegetables (e tutii i legttm)^ and drank all the wine, beer, and 
cider. — ^Are the eggs {U uova plUr. of F uovo) dear at present ?— 
They are sold at six livres a hundred^-^-Do you like grapes {k 
uve or r ttva) ? — ^I do not only like grapes, but also plums (una 
prugna), almonds^ nuts, and all sorts of fruit (di fruUi), — ^Though 
modesty, candour, and an amiable disposition (V amabilUd) are 
valuable endowments, yet /or all that there are some ladies that 
are neither modest, nor candid (candido), nor amiable. — The fear 


cf death,'and the Fove of life, being natural to men {nelT uomo)j 
they ought to ^hvm^fuggire) vice {il vvdo), and adhere to {aUenern 
a) virtue. 

Lezione ottaiitesima,- 

To give occasion to. 
Do not give him cause to' complain. 

Dar motivo di. 

Non dategli (non gU-dia) itootivo dl 

To have it to one, Rimettersi al giudizio d* al' 

I cuno, 
I leave it to you. | Bli rimetto ol di Lei giudizio. 

A good bargain. Un buon mercato. 

To sticlc, or to fibide by a thing. t Tenerai a. Stare a. 

1 abide by the offer you haye made 

t Mi tengo {or ato) all' ofierta ch' 
^lla mi ha &tta. 

I do n6t doubt but you are my friend. | Non dubito ch' Ella non wia mio 

I amico. 
06>. A. The verb dubUare, negatively uaed, requl^a non before the sub- 

I do not donbt but he will do it. I Non dubiio che noti lo facda. 

7 b s lifer J fa bear. ' Soffrire 3. Sopportare 1. 

They were exposed to the whole fire ' Erano esposti a tutto il fuoco dells 

of the place. piazza. 

To examine one artfully y or to\ f Sorprendere il segrefo rti 

draw a secret from one. qualctmo. 

I examined him artfully, and by thi^t Ho sorpreso il suo segreto, e coai mi 

means I have made myself acquaint- son messo bl fatto di' tutti 1 »uo» 

ed with all his affairs. afiari. 



3b hear 9 iojmtup wUh. 

Yon wUl be obliged Co put up ^ib all 

'Sattoporn* .(oonjugated like 

p&rre* {ponere)^ Leaariis 


Le Mrik fona (Ella mtk costretta) di 

aottoporai a tutto aid ch rg^ 



Denao, apeaao, foko. 

Athfckcload. . 

Un nuTolo denao (or una nuTola 





Uno acroado. 


Uno acroado di riaa. 

To bunt out langhing. 

( t Dar uno acroado di riaa. 
( t Far uno teroedo di riaa. 

To bunt out 


To bunt out a laugfaiag. 

Scopplare dalle riaa. 

Splendour, brightneea. 

Lo aplendore. 

To make a great ehow. 


To light. 

lUuminare 1. 

The noiae, the crack. 

Lo atrepito, lo aooppio. 

To aufier one'a aelf to be beaten. 

Laadarai bettere. 

To let or to auffer one'a aelf ttf ialL 

To Buffer one'a aelf to be inaulted. 

Laaciarai oltragglan. 

To Buffer one*B aelf to die. 

Laaciard moiira. 

To let one'a aelf be atruck. 

Laadard percnotflKf. 

To aend beck, to aend away 


To extol, to praiae up. 


To boaat, to praise one'a aeiC 


Go thither. 


Let ua go thither. 


Obf . 0. The letter oof the flrat and 

third peraona plural of the impMuflv* fa 

omitted before the adrerb of place» d, 9i 

Let them go thither. 

C YadanTi. 

Go thou. 


Go (thou) thither. 


Go (thou) away. 


Let him go thither. 

Ch' eaao d vada. 

Go away, begone. 


I^ret ua begone. 


Let him go away, let him b^ne. 

Ch' egli ae no vid^ 



GMte me. 
Give it him. 
Give him some 
Get paid. 
Let U8 set ont 
Let UB breakfast 
Let him be here at twelve o'clock. 
Let him send it me. 
He may believe it 
Make an end of it. 
Let us finish. 
Let him finish. 
Let him take it 
Let her say so. 

The starling. 
1^ I were to question you as I used to 
do at the beginning of our lessons, 
what would you answer 1 

We found these questions at first rather 
lidiculousi but, full of confidence in 
your method, we answered' as well 
as the small quantity of words and 
rules we then possessed allowed us. 

We were not long in finding out that 
those questions were calciilated to 
ground us in the rules, and to exer- 
cise us in conversation, by the con- 
tradictory answers we were obliged 
to make. 

We can now almost keep up a oonver- 
sation In Italian. 

This phrase does not seem to us 
logically correct 

We should be ungrateful, if we aOowed 
such an opportunity to escape with- 
out expressing our Jiveiiest gradtude 
to you. 

In all cases, «t all eventa. 

The native. 

The inaurmountable difficulty. 





Fatevi pagare. 


Facdfuno oolazione. 

Ch* egli me lo dla. 

Ch' e^\ sia qui a mezzo glome. 

Ch' egli me lo mandi. 

Ch' egli lo creda. 



Ch' egli finlaca. 

Ch' egli lo prenda.- 

Ch* esse lo dice. 

Lo stomello, lo stomo. ' 

Se vi presentassi adesso delle quee> 
tioni come ve ne presental al prin* 
dpiare delle nostre lezioni (come 

. prima fo aveva V abitudine di fiur- 
lo), phe riaponderastel 

Abblamo trovato a prima vista tall- 
questioni alquanto -ridicole; ma 
pieni di confidenza nel dl Lei me- 
todo, vi abbiamo rlsposto per 
quanto ce lo permetteva il picciol 
corredo di parole e di rogole che 
avevamo allora. 

Non abbiamo tardato ad accorgerd 
che tali qttestioni miravano o ten- 
desano ad inculcarci i prindpU ed 
eserdtard dla eonveraazione coUe 
■jlsposte contraddittorie che era- 
vamo costretti di fard. 

Adesso possiamo presso a pocq sos- 
tfinere una conversazione«ln ita- 

Questa frase non d paie loglcamente 

Saremmo ingrati, se lasclassimo 

* siugglre una cod beOa occadone 
^ senza dimostrvle la-piii viva gr^ 

In ogni caso. 

II native. 

La diffieoltA insupeiEbUe. 



A young prince (tm prmcipmo)^ aeyen years old, was admired 
by every body for his wit (a cagione del sua spirito) ; being once 
in the society of an old officer (J* ufixiale), the latter obsexred, in 
speaking of the ^oung prince, that when children disoovered so 
much genius (aver moUo epiriio) in their early years, they gene- 
rally grew yery stupid (ne hanno ordinariamente poMseimo) when 
they came to maturity (quando sono awanxad fn eta). " If that 
is thd case," said the young prinoe, who had heard it, ''then you 
must have been remarkable f)t your genius (acer molUtsmo 
tpirito) when you were a child {neUa sua mfantia)." 

An Englishman, on first visiting (al primo giugnere m) France, 
met with {s^awenne — in) a very young child in the «treets of 
, Calais, who spoke the French language with fluency and elegance 
(eorrentemefUe t eon eZe^^onsa).-^" Good Heaven (jgran Dio) ! is it 
possible," exclaimed he, " that even children here speak the 
French language with purity {la purexxa) ?** 

Let us seek {ricercare) the friendship of the good, and avoid 
(emtare) thesociety of the wicked (dei cottjm) ; for bad company 
corrupts (le caitxoe societd cprrompono) good manners (t huota 
eostumi). — ^What sort of weather is it to-day I — ^It snows continu- 
ally, as it snowed yesterday, and, accordifig to all appearances, 
will also snow to-morrow.*— Let it snow ; I should like it to snow 
still more, for I am always very well when it is very cold. — And 
I am always very well when it is neither warm nor cold. — ^It is 
too windy to-day, and we should do better if we stayed at home, 
r— Wl^atever weatjier it may be, I must go out; for I promised to 
be with my sister at a quarter past eleven, and I must keep my 
word (tefiere* parola). 

Will you drink a cup of oofiee ? — ^I thank you, I do not like 
coffee. — ^Then you will drink a glass of wine ? — I have just 
drunk some. — Let us take a walk. — Willingly {con moHo piacere) ; 
but where shall we go to ? — Come with me into the garden of my 
aunt ; we shall find there very agreeable society. — I believe it ; 


but the question is (resta a sapere) whether this agreeable society 
will admit me (mi vorrd), — ^You are welcome every where. — 
What ails you (che avete),^ my friend ? How do you like that 
wine ? — I like it very well {aqtdsUo) ; but I have drunk enough 
of it {hastantemetUe), — Drink once more. — ^No, too much is 
unwholesome {ogni eccesso e nocivo) ; I know my constitution (t7 
temperammio), — Do not fall. What is the matter with you ? — I 
do not know ; but my head is giddy {migira la testa) \ I think I 
am fainting (padere in deliqido^ or svenire), — I think so also {ic 
pure), for you look almost like a dead person (un morto), — What 
countryman are you ? — I am an Englishman. — ^You speak Italian 
so well that I took you for an Italian by birth {un Italiano di na- 
none), — You are jesting. — ^Pardon me ; I do not jest at all. — 
How long have you been in Italy ?— A few days. — In earnest 
{dawero)'i — ^You, perhaps, because I speak Italian; I 
knew it before I came to Italy. — How did you learn it so well ? — 
I did like the prudent starling. 

Tell me, why are you always on bad terms {essere sempre in 
dissensUme) with your wife ? and why do you engage In unpro- 
fitable trades {pecuparsi di mestieri inuiUi) ? It costs so much 
trouble (si dura tanta pena) to get (ad ottenere) a situation (un 
impiego) ; and you have a good one, and neglect it. Do you not 
think of (pensare a) the future ? — ^Now allow 'me to speak also 
(alia frua volia). All you have just said seems reasonable ; but 
it is not my fault, if I have lost my reputation (la riputazione) ; 
it is that of my wife : she has sold my finest clothes, my rings 
(r aneUo), and my gold watch. I have a host of (esser carico di) 
debts, and I do not know what to do. — ^I will not excuse (seolpare) 
your wife ; but I know that you have also (pure) contributed 
(cantrUniire) to your ruin (laperdita). Women are generall]f 
good when they are left so (quando si laseiana buane), 



The Master. — ^If I were now to ask you such questions- as I 
did 11^ the beginning of our lessons, viz. (tali che): Have you the 
hat which my brother has ? — Am I hungry ? Has he th^ tree of 
my brother's garden ? &c., what would yo^ answer ? 

450 BiGimr-PiBST lbssor. 

TTie Pupib.—Vfe are obliged (essere cottretto) tQ confess thai 
we feund these questions at first rather ridiculoos ; but, fall pf 
ooniidenoe in your method, we answered as well sa the small 
quantity of words and rules we then, possessed allowed us« We 
were, in fact, not long in finding out. that these questicms were 
calculated to ground us in the rules, and to exercise us in con- 
▼ersation, by the contradictory ai^wers we were obliged to make. 
But now that we can almost keep up a conyersation in the beau- 
tiful language which you teach us, we should answer: It is 
impossible that we should have the same hat which your brother 
has, for two persons cannot have one and the same thing. To 
the second question we should oSiswer, that it is impossible for 
us to know whether you are hungry or not. As to the last, we 
should say : that there is more than one tree in a garden ; and in 
asking us whether he has the tree of the garden, the phrase does 
not seem to us logically correct. At all events we should be 
ungrateful (ingraio) if we allowed such an opportunity to escape 
without expressing (dmostrare) our liveliest gratitude to you foi 
the trouble you have taken. In arranging those wise combina- 
tions (la combinaaone) you have succeeded in grounding uf 
almost imperceptibly {impercettilrilmenU) in the rules, and exer- 
cising us in the conversation of a language which, taught in any 
ether way, presents to foreigners, and even to natives, almosr 
iarannounuble difficulties. (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 

Lezione otiantesi$na prima 

It lacks (wtnts) a quarter. i { t CI vuole un quarto. 

I C t Manca un quarto. 

Itwanta(laeka)ahaU: I J t « vuol la meti. 

^ ' ' C t ]f anca la met^ 

How muah does it want 1 ' Quanto ci Tuole 1 

It does not want much. . ^ Non ci vuol molto. 



It wants but a trifle. 

It wants but an inch of my being aa 
tall aa yon. 

It lacked a great deal of my being aa 
rich aa you. 
The half 
The third part. 
The fourth part. 

Ton think you have retume<l me all • 
a great deal is wanting. 

The younger Is not so good as the 
elder by far. 

Our merchants are fiur from giving ua 
an idea of the yirtue mentioned by 
our miasionaries : they may be con- 
sulted on the depredations of . the 

He ia nearly as tall as hfs brother. 

A discourse, impeded or embarrassed 
by nothing, goes on and flows from 
itself and aometimes^proceeds with 
such rapidity that it is only with 
difficulty that the mbid of the 
speaker follows the words. 

{ Ci mane% poea. 
c Non ci manca se non poeo. 
Ci vuole un pollioe perch' io sia de^ 

la sua stature. 
Ci mancaYa molto porch' io foaai 

ricoo quanto LeL 
La meti^ il mezzo, 
n terzo. 
n quarto. 
Ella crede forse (vol credete ibrse) 

avermi tutto reso ; ci manca molto. 
n cadetto d molto meno savio del 

I nostri negozianti son ben lontani 

dal fomirci 1* idea di quelle virt& 

donde ci parlano i nostri mlssion- 

arii : si pud conaultarli sui ladro- 

D^ccl dei mandarini. 
QB maaca ben poco ad esser grande 

cove suo fratello. 
TTn disoorao chiaro e aclolto precede 

e fluisoe da ae stesso e taWolta 

coai rapidamente ch' egli d aolo 

con difficolta che il penaiero dell' . 

ontore piu tenergli dictro. 

In a foolish mannerf at random. - Sconsideratameiuef disawedu- 

tatnerUe. . 

Ha speaks at random like a crazy man. Parla soonsideratamente come un 

, [ pazzo. 

To resort to violence. 

Afiict. ^ 

It is a fact 

Elae, or else. 

To make fun of. 
To contradict, to give one the lie. 
Shouki he aay B0| I would give him the 

Hia aotions belie his words. . 

To scratch. 

t Venime alle vie dl fiitto (agli atti di 
Un fatto. 
'k un fatto. 
Se non, altrlmenti 
Befiarai, burlarai dL 
Smentire qualcuno. 
Se dicesse questo Io smentirai. 

Le sue azioni smentiscono le sua 
Grojfiare 1. 



7V> escape, 
I fell from the top of the tree to the 

bottom, but I did not hurt niyeelf 

1 escaped with a scratch. 
The thief has been taken, but he will 

eacape with a few months* imprison- 


Scappare, Mcampare 1. 
Sono caduto dalla cima delT albeio 

(al basso) e non ml son fatto molto 

V ho scappata con una graflUtora. 
U ladro i stato preso, ma aeampeii 

opn alcuni mesi di prigione, or ma 

sela passeracon. 

By dint of. 
By dint of labour. 
By too much F^plog- 
You wiH cry your eyes out. 

1 obtained of him tliat favour by dint 
of entreaty. 

f Pel gran {aforxa4i). 
t Pel gran lavoro. 
t Pel gran piangere. 
t Pd gran piangere ehe fa, perdera 

H^ occhi. 
tOttenni da Ini questo faTOro pel 
gran pregare (a foisa di ptegaie). 

That excepted. 
nat fiTult azoepted, he is a good 

Toiriewilh each aiher. 

Those HMD ara trying to rival 

{ Da quello infuori. 

\ Eccetluaio questo. - 
I Da questo In fuori (eccettuato ques- 
' to) d nn buon uomo. 


t A gara^ a prova (T mo 
deir altro). 
A eeneorrenxa. 
t Qnesti uomini lavorano a gan. 

' Clssnlinen. 

The less^-as. 
I am 1^ more discontented with his 
conduct, a« he is under many obliga- 
I to me. 

Ivntht le»9 pleased with his conduct, 
OS I had more right to his friend- 

Netto, pullto. 
; Delia lUncheria pnlita. 
^ Delia biancheiia di buoato. 

Tanto piu — ehe^ 

Tanio mena—^he, 
Sono tanio ptd malcontento della 

sua condotta eh* egli d molco ob- 

bligato verso di me (egli mi ha 

molt^ obbligazioni). 
Sono tanto mcno soddis&tto della sua 

condotta eh* lo aveva pii^ diritti alls 

sua aroicizia di qualunque altro. 

/ wish that. 
A wish that house belonged to me. 

t Varrei che. 
t Vorrei che questa casa fosse i 



To musBy tp if^. 
I thought a long time on that affair. 

MedHare I, star pensieraso 

(or sopra penfiiero). 
Ho meditato molto tempo bu qnesto 

afiare (ho penaato molto tempo ra 

questo afiare). 

To he naked. 
To haye the head uncoTered. 
To have the ieet oncovered. 
Torbe barefooted. 
To be bareheaded. 
To ride barebacked. 

Esser nudo (ignudo). 
Aver la teeiia ecoperta. 
Ayot i piedi ecalzL * 
Eseeie pid ecalzL 
EesQre a capo scoperto. 
Cavalcare a bardowo (or a lehieDa 

To heme Uke to, or to think to 

I had like to have lost my money. 

I thought I had lost my life. 

Wa hadiike to ha^e cut our fingers. 

He waa very near filling. 

He was withlna haix^s breadth of being 

He had like to haye didd. 

Mancare I, star per. 

e Stetti per perdere 11 mio danaro. 
<Pooo mancd ch' io npn perdeeai 
( 11 mio danaro. - 

Credei perdere la yita. 

Poco mancd che non ol tagUaaaimo 

Stette quasi per cadere. 

Poco mancd che non fosse ucdso. 

Poco ci yoUe ch' egU non fosse uo- 
ciso. ' 

Credd (pensd) essere ucdso. 

Credd (credette) morire. 

At, on, or upon your heels. 
The enemy is at our heels. 

Alls yostre spalle. 

n nemico c* insegue alle spalle^ 

To strike (in speaking of lightning). • 
The lightning has struck. 
The lightning struck the ship. 
While my brother was on the open sea, 

a yiolent storm rose unexpectedly ; 

the lightning struck the ship, which 

it set on fire, and the whole -crew 

jumped into the sea to saye thdfai- 

seWes by swimming. 
He was struck with firlght when he 

saw that the fire was gaining on all 

He did not know what to do. 
He hesitated no longer. 

Cascare 1, cadere* 

U fulmine cadde. 

II fulmine cadde sul bastlmento. 

Troyandod mio firatello in alto mare, 
soprayyenne fiera tempesta; il 
fuhnine cadde sul bastlmento cht 
mise in fuoco, e tutto 1' equipaggio 
si gettd'al mare per salyarsi a nu- 

Fu preso da spayento yedendo che 
11 fuoco imperversaya da ogni lato. 

Non sapeya a che appigUarsl. 
Non istette pih la foiae. 


si^nrr-FiBST uesson. 

I have not heurd of him yet Non bo 

An ugeL tTn uigelo. 

A niMWr-pieoe. tin capo d» opera. 

Maatcr-plecee. Capl d* opera. 

Ob». Of a woid componadeJ by means of a prepoaiaoD, ezpraaaed or i 
•uxkI, the first word only takes the mark of the plural. 

Pour o*clock flowers. | Gebominl di notte. 

His or her physiognomy. 
His or hef shape. 

tlie expression. 
The look. 

Grace, charm. 
Thin (slender). 
Uncommonly welL 
His er her look Inspires respect i 

La sua fisonomla. 

Le sue forme^ la mm 

L* espresaione. 
L* aspetto, la ciera. 
U contento. 
U rispetto. 
L' ammirazione. 
A maraWglia. 
Attraente, lusinghiero. 
STelto, asdutto, smilzo, i 
Superiormente bene. 
11 sno aspetto insplra deferenia ed 




Will you be my guest (mangiare conftioZrnffio)? — ^I ihank you; 
a friend of mine has invited me to dinner : taa has ordered (fare 
apparecchiare) my favourite dish (tm cibo fgnarito). — What is it? 
-^It is a dish of milk (dd laUidnu), — ^AJs to me, I do not like 
milk-meat: there is nothing like {nienU di megUo che) a good 
piece of roast beef or veal. — What has become of your youoger 
brother? — ^He has suffered shipwreck (Jar naufragio) in going to 
America. — ^You -must give me an accoimt of that (Lamiraecmti 
quest* awenimfnto). — ^Very willingly (vohnUerissimoy — ^Being on 
the open sea, a great storm arose. .The lightning struck the ship 
and set it on fire. ^ The crew jumped into the sea to save them, 
selves by swimming. My brother knew not what to do, having 
never learnt to swim. He reflected In vain ; he found no means 
to save hb life. He was struck with fright when he saw that 
the fire was gaining on all sides. He hesitated no longer, and 


jumped into the sea. Well {su via) what has become of him ? — 
I do not know, having hot heard of him yet. — ^But who told you 
all that ? — ^My nephew, who was there, and who saved himself. 
— As you are talking of your nephew (a proposiio del — ) where 
is he at present ? — He is in Italy. — ^Is it long since you heard of 
him ? — 'I have received a letter from him to-day. — ^What does he 
write to you ^'•-He writes to me that he is going to marry a 
young woman who brings him a hundred thousand crowns. — Is 
she pretty ? — Handsome as an angel ; she is a master-piece of 
nature. Her physic^nomy is mild and full of expressioh ; her 
eyes are the finest in the (del) world, and her mouth is charming 
(e la sua Ipccai kggiadra). She is neither too tall nor too short; 
her shape is slender ; all her actions are full of grace, and her 
manners are engaging. Her Ijpoks inspire respect and admira- 
tion. She has also a great deal of wit ; she speaks several lan- 
guages, dances uncommonly well, and sings delightfully. My 
nephew finds but bne defect in her {le trova che un difetto), — ^And 
what is that defect ?-^he ' is affected {aver deUe preteTisiani).^-* 
There is nothing perfect in the (al) world. — ^How happy you are ! 
you are rich, you have a good wife, pretty children, a fine house, 
and. all you wish. — ^Not all, my friend. — ^What do you desire 
more ? — Contentment {la cmUentezxa) ; for you know that he onl) 
is happy who is contented {che quo dirsi conterOo). 

Lezione otiantesima secanda. 

7b unriddley to disentangle. 

To diientan^ the bair. 
To unriddle dlffictUtieB. 
I have not been able to find out the 
•enee of that phrase. 

' SvUuppare 1, sciogUere * 

{scioUa, sciolsi) 1. 
Disirigare I, distmguere* 2 

(p. part. dUUnio, pret. def. 


Pettinare i capelli. 
SciogUere difficolti. 
Non hopotuto distinguere ii aensc 
di queata tnae. 



To have dlflbreneet (aquanel) with 

Una qaenia, una liMa. 

AVer delte qulstionroom qoalcdi^ 

To take good care,' to whun, to 


I will take care not to do it. 

Mind you do not lend that man 

He takae care not to anawer the quea- 

tion which I aalced him. '. 
To nak a queation. 

If yon take it into your liead to do 
that, I will puniah you. 

To take into one'a head. 

To become/ tojk well. 

Ooea that beoonie me 1 
That doea not become yon. 
It doea not become you to do tliat. 
That fita you wonderfully well. 
Her head-dreaa did not becoiiie her. 

It doea not become yon to reproach 
me with it. 

To reproach. 
To follow from U. 

It foUowa fnrn it that you ahould not 

do that 
How ia it tliat yon iiave come ao late 1 

I de not Icnow how it la. 

How is itihat he had not hia gnni 

I do not Icnow how it happened. 

To fast. 
To be iaating. 
To giTo notice to, to let any body > 
know. ( 

To wan iome one of aomethlngr. j 
Gire notice to that man of Us father'a 

Guardarsi da. 

Mi gnarderd bene dal&rlo. 
Gnaidatevi dal preatare daoaro a 
* coatuL 
Si gnarda bene dal riapondere alia 

queatione che gli lio fatta. 
Far una queatione {or una doman- 

da). ^ 
Se Ti avviaate di larlo, li puniiO. 

A? Tiaarai (metteral in capo). 

Star bene, eanvemre *, of arm. 

Mi ata bene queato 1 

Non vi (Le) ala bene. 

Non Ti (Le) conviene di br da. 

Qtieato Le (Ti) eta a maravi^ia. 

La ana acconciaturm di capo le atava 

Non Ti tta bene di rinlacdannekk 

Rvifacciare I. 

SeguirCf mccedere * ; p. part. 
SMCcesso ; pret. def. succeesi. 

^e aegue die non doTreate (do- 

Col^ mai d Ella (aiete) 'venuta (ve- 

Non 80 come. 

Come mai non ayera il auo ftidle 1 
Non BO come. 

Digiunare, far artiaenxa. 

Eaaere a digiuno. 

AvTertire (ayTiaare) qualcuno di 
qnalche coaa. 

Aryertite (ayyiaate) costui del rito^ 
no di Buo padre. 



To dear, to elucidate, to clear up. 
m weather is clearing up. 

SeMarire 3 (Isco). Rischiararo 1. 
II tempo sirischiara. 

To refresh. 
Refresh yourself^ and return to me im- 

To whiten, to bleach. 

To blacken. 

To turn pale, to grow pale. 

To grow old. 

To grow young. 
That makes one look young again. 

To blush, to redden. 

Rinfrvscare I. 

Rinfrescatevi e ritomate suUta 

Imbiancare I. 
Annerire (isco), abbnmare. 
Impallidire (isco). 
Invecchiare 1. - 
Ringioyinlre (isco). 
t Questo ringloTinisce il Tolto. 
Arrossire (isco). 

To make merry. 
To make one's self merry. 
He makes merry at my expense. 

RaUegrare 1, diverUre d. 
Rallegrarsi, diyertirsi. 
Si diverts alle mie spese. 

TofeigUy to dissemhle^ pretend. 


He knows the art of dissembling. > 
To possess. 

Fingere* ; past part, fnto; 

j)ret. de^.Jinsu 
Possiede 1' arte di fingere. 

Possedere* (is conjugated like 
sedere*^ Lesson LL). 

To procrastinate, ta go slowly. 

I do not like to transact bttsiness with 
that man, for he always goes Tery 
slowly about it. 

f Mandar le cose in hmgo, 

Non mi place fiir affiiri eon oostnl, 
petchd manda lempre le cois in 

It is a proof. 


To stray, to gel lost, to lose ) 
one's way, to lose one's self. ) 



The cannon-ball went 

I lan him through the body. 

fA traverao. 
Per mezzo. 
Da banda a banda. 
Da parte a parte, 
through the La palla di cannone d passata a tra- 
▼erso la muragUa. 
Gli ho paanto la mia apada da parte 
a parte. 





Th0 apotciophe is iiMd,«» | 

1. After tlMtftldeslo^ fa, Is ^tnd their obUqnacaaei, when they maet I 
fore words beginning with « Toweli or when they are abbreviated, as : 

The son], the honour. I L' anima, V onore. 

Ofthebooks,tothefiahera. I M Ubil, a' padri, 4ke. 
06f . J. The articles lo^ fa, are nerer abridged in the plural, unlesa the n» 
following fa begins with an t <. Ex. 
The friends^ tlie ooats. 
The loves, tha honoua. 
tlie ahades, tlis inventions. 
Hie eminences^ the eieeutiona. 

GU amici, gtt abitL 
GHi amoil, gli onotL 
Le ombre, le invenalonL 
Le eminenie^ le es ecu*lonL 

fiat write. 

Hie geniuses, ths English, the instm- I Gl' ingegni, gP Inglesi, gP istm- 

ments. | mentL 

Ob9, B. Whenever the prepositions : eon^ with ; in, in ; ni, upon ; per, for, hf , 
meet with the definite articlea, <l^ fa^ fa, they are bontracced : thus nd is said 
instead oi-Jm ii^ luOo^ instead of in fa, ^kc. According to tliis contraction we 
■ay and write: 

SmeuLAB. Plueal. 

, ^ . , A U 

MaaevHiu, FemiidnA, 

In the. 
With the. 
Upon tlie. 
For the. 



In the gardens^ In ths spirits, hi the 

Neierne*, neglL Nolle. 

Coi or 00*, oon gli or eogil. Gollo. 

Su* or sni, sagtt. Salle. 

Pelli,p6i or pe", per gU. Pel]0>. 

In ths garden, in the spirit, in the Nel giardlno, nello spirito, neOa 

No* glardint, negU spiriti, neOs 
camere, Ac 

2. In the article il the letter i la somethnes cut of!( and an apostrophe put in 
Its stead, after a word ending with a wwel, bat not the vowel of that word. 
This, however, Is more frequently thff case in poetry than in prose. Ex. 

The whole country. I Tutto '1 paese. 

Let him tell me his name. I Ml ifica '1 suo noma. • 

3.Jlfi,fSci,vi,fM^«e,si,ci^ receive the apostropitt before a 

vowel. Ex* 

Ton understand me. 
He understands it 
He will mistake. 
If he likes. 

Vol m' intendete. 
El V intende. 
' 8' inganneri. 
S* egli vuole. 

1 Words ending in gli and ei are never abridged, unless the following word 
begins with i, asr qutgff iniervaOi, these intervals; doic* ingamd, sweet lUa- 
sions. But write ^uegH amiei, those friends, and not qu^ taiueL 

< The oontractiona contained In this last line are less generally made uee oC 



05*. C. Cs however, is nerer abridged More a, o, u, to vuAd hanhnen. 

We want. Ci abbisogna. 

We are in want o£ Ci occorre. 

They unite ns. ' Ci uniscono. 

4. The words uno, bdiOf grande^ taiUOf qtulio, bwmOf are often abridged before 
maacoline nouns beginning with a consonant or a Yowel, but nerer before 
feminine nouns (except when beginning with a yowel), or before « followed by 
a consonant. (See Obt.O., £t,, /., Lesson X.) Ex. 

Un Ubro, un bel libro, un gran ca- 

vallo. • ' 

San Pietro, quel soldato, bwm pane. 
Un amibo, un beff uomo, grantP in- 

Sanf Antonio, gudP amore, huan 

Gran barca, gramP armata. 

A book, a fine book, a large horse. 

Saint Peter, that soldier, good bread. 
A filend, a fine man, great genius. 

Holy Anthony, that love, good orator. 

Large boat, great amty. 

6. Words tn the singular, haying one (not two) of the liquid consonants, 2, 
m^n^r^ before their final vowelr may lose this, unless before words beginning 
with «, followed by a consonant. The vowels after m and n are not so often 
dropped as those after I and r, except in verbs, where the vowel after m is fre- 
quently dropped. Ex. 

The rising sun. 
Tour weliare. 
The serene sky. 

Light wind. 

Let us wait. 
Let ns go. 
Let us feign. 

II sol nascente (uiffeod qf sole na- 

n ben vostro {inaieod qf bene vo»- 

II del sereno {imiiad qf ddo se- 

Pien Senate {intUad qf pieno se- 

Leggier vento {in&tead qf leggiero 

Attendiam ijnUead qf attendiamo). 
/^nHiam {fnaUad qf andiamo). 
Fingiam {jnaUad qf fingiamo), Ac. 

OU, D, Cannot be abridged :— (a) The words, o^ro, clear; rort^ rarei 
nero, black ; omuto, dark ; and-some others. (&) The first person dnguiar of 
the present of the indicative, as : Jo-pcrdanot I pardon % io mi coMola^ I console 
myself Ac, except miio, first person singular and third person plural of the 
auxiliary efMre. Ex. 

I am ready:. Io son pronto {for \o sono pronto). 

They are come. Eglino son venuU (/or e^no sono 

V venuti). 

6. InfiniU veo, when joined Uiviii,H,fi,vi,9i,ne,hf,la,U,lsglsoi%xicf othet 
#ord, drop their final e. Ex. 

To see him. 

To feel one's sdf. 

To repent. 

Per vedeno (/or per vedere Io). 
Sentird (/or sentire d). 
Pentird {Jar pentire dj. 


Ob9. ff. Words haYing tbo gnrt accent an nerer abridged, aa> dirh, I I 

■haftaay t for^ I will make ; fitieU^ happineea, Ac., except ehe, with its com- 
pQiifeda: JMrdtt, miyl htmM^ although; meekl, therefore, bo that, Ac, whiHi 
aM aoMBtUoaa il>ridged. Ex. 

Because hl^waa. I Perch' era. 

Tliough he might go. I Bench' andsMft, Ac J 

1. When words beginning with « followed bj a consonant are preceded by one 
of the prepositions <», eoi^jMr, or by the negative lum, the fetter i la prefixed 
to them for the sake of euphony. (See Obt. F. Lesson LV.) Ex. 

In the street 
In a state (able). 
With terror. 
With study. 
By mistake. 
Do not jeau 
Not to Stay. 

In istrada {for In strada). 

In Istato {far in state). 

Con IspaTento {for con spaTcnto). 

Con istudio {Jor con atudlo). 

Per isbaglio {for per sbaglio). 

Non ischezTata {for non scherxate) 

Non istare {for non stare). 

2. The prepoaltlott o, and the conjunctions e, s^ fi2 are changed into od, cd^ 
ec^ ntdt before a Towel ; od and tud^ howerer, are less frequently made uae of 
thaA oif and ed. Ex. 

To Anthony. 
Yon and i. 
We and ha. 
Neither thoa nor she. 

Ac< Antonio. 





The Emperor (Charles the Fifth being one day out a hunting, 
loet his way in the forest, and having come to a house entered it 
to refresh himself. There were in it four men, who pretended to 
sleep. One of them rose, and apnroaching the Emperor, udd 
iiim he had dreamt he should take his watch, and took it Then 
another rose, and said he had dreamt tnat his surUnU fitted him 
wonderfully, and took it. The third took his purse. At last the 
fourth cam^ up, and said he hoped he would not take it ill if he 
searched him, and iix doing it perceived around the emperor's 
neck a small gold chain to which a whistle was attached which 
he wished to rob him of. - But the Emperor said : " My good 
friand, before depriving me of (spogUare qualeuno di qtialche eosa) 


this trinket (tlgioieUo), I must teach you its virtue.*' S»xing 
this, he whistled. His attendants (t su9i t^ziah), who i^ere 
seeking him, hastened to the house, and were thunderstcuok 
(saprt^atti daUo stupore) to behold his majesty in such a staii. 
But the Emperor, seeing himself out of danger {Jitor di pericolo), 
said (/£ prevenne tUeendo) : « These men {Ecco degU uomini che) 
liave dreamt all that they liked. I wish in my turn also to 
dream." And aRer having mused a few nnoments, he said : " I 
have dreamt that you alL four deserve to be hanged:" which 
was no sooner spoken than executed before the house. 

A certain king making one day his entrance into a town at 
two o'clock in the afternoon {dopo mezzo giomo), the senate sent 
some deputies (un deputato) to compliment him. The one who 
was to speak (poriar la parola) began thus (m qutsU termtni) : 
*< Alexander the Great, the great Alexander," and stopped short 
{e iosio t' arresio). — The king, who was very hungry {aver moUa 
fame\ said : " Ah ! my friend, Alexander the Great had dined, 
and I am still fasting." Having said this, he proceeded to {pro^ 
tegidre verso) the hdtel de viUe {U palazzo della eiUd)^ where a 
magnificent dinner had been prepared for him. 


A good old man (im vetckierelh\ being very ill, sent for his 
wife, who was still very young, and said tocher : " My dear, you 
see that my last hour is approaching, and that I am compelled to 
leave you. If, therefore, you wish me to die in peace you must 
do me a favour {una graxia). You are still young, and will, 
without doubt, marry again (rimaritarsi) : knowing this, I request 
of you not to wed {prendere) M. Lewis (Luigi) ; for I confess 
that r have always been very jealous of him, and am so still. I 
should, therefore, die in despair (duperato) if you do not promise 
me that." The wife answered : " My dear husband {ndo caro 
marito), I entreat you, let not this hinder you from dying peace- 
ably ; for I assure you that, if even I wished to wed him I could 
not do so, being already promised to another." 

It was customary with Frederick (Federico) the Great, when- 
ever a new soldier appeared in his guards, to ask him three quea- 


tions; viz. ** How old mre you ? How long have you been in 
my aervioe ? Are you satisfied with your pay and treatment V 
It happened that a young soldier^ bom in Franoe, who had senred 
in his own country, desired to enlist in the Prussian service. 
His figure caused him immediately to be accepted ; but he was 
totally ignorant of the Grerman dialect ; and hb captain giving 
him notice that the king would question him in that tongue the 
first time he should see him, cautioned him, at the same time, to 
learn by heart the three answers that he was to make to the king. 
Accordingly he learnt them by the next day ; and as soon as he 
appeared in the ranks Frederick came up to interrogate him : but 
he happened to begin upon him by the second question, and asked 
him, " How long have you been in my service ? " Twenty-one 
years,'' answered the soldier. The king, struck with his youth, 
which plainly indicated that he had not borne a musket so long as 
that, said to him, much astonished : *< How old are you ?" *' One 
year, an't please your majesty {con huma grazia della Maestd 
Vostra)." Frederick, more astonished still} cried, "You or I 
must certainly be bereft of our senses." The soldier, who took 
this for the third queftton^ replied firmly (eon moUo sangue fred* 
do) : ** Both, an't please your majesty {quando piaeda a Vosira 

Lezione ottaniesima terza* 


The double. 
Four Bhare, your part. 
That merchant asks twice as much as 

he ought. 
Tou must bargain with him ; he will 

g*-e it you for the hal£ 
you have twice your share. 
Von have three times your share. 

( Addopfiart !• 

( Doppiare 1, raddoppiarB I. 

II doppio. 

La Tostra parte. 

Questo mercante domanda U doppio. 

Bisogna mercantegglare con lui; 

glielo dahi per la meta prexzo. 
Ella ha due volte tanto. . 
£Ua ha tre volte tanto. 



To ranew. 

To Btun. 

WUd, giddy. 
To shake somebody'B hand 
Open, frank, real. 

I tell you yes. 
I tell you no. 
I told him yes. 
Itold him no. 

To lay up, to put by. 
Put your money by. 
As soon as I read my book I put it by. 

I do not care much about going to the 
play to-night. 

Rinnovare, rinnovellare 1. 

Stordire (isco). 


Stringere la manoa qualcuno. 

Franco, aperto, schietto. 

t VidicoflKsJ. 
t Vi dico tU no. 
t GUdissidiBi. 
t Gli diss! di no. 


Serrare 1, riporre * (posto, post). 
Chiudere, rinchiudere * (chiuflO, 

Chiuda (chiudete) il di Lei (il yos- 

tro) danaro.- 
Appena ho letto il mio libro, lo ri- 

Non mi do molta briga d* andare 

alio spettacolo questa sera. 
Non mi euro molto d' andare alio 

spettacolo questa sera. 

To care. 
To satisfy one^s self tnih a 

I have been eating an hour, and I can- 
not satisfy my hunger. 

To he satisfied. 

To quench otitis thirst, 

I have baen drinking this half hour, 
but I cannot quench my thirst 
To have one^s thirst quenched. 

To thirst for^ to be thirsty or 

He is a blood-thirsty fellow. 

On both sides, on every side. 

On all sides 

Darsi hriga, curarsi, 
Saziarsi 1. - 

/ E un' ora che mangio e non posso 
J saziarmi. 

I Mangio da un* ora e non piaso 
^ saziarmi. 

Essere saxio, 
Dissetarsi 1. 

k una mezz* ora che bevo, ma non 

posso dissetarml. 
Esser dlssetato. 

Esser asseiato, aver gran sete. 

pj un uomo assetato di sangue. 
E un uomo sitibondo di sangue. 
Da un canto e dall' altro. D' ambs 

1 lati. 
Da tutti i lati. 



Allow me, my tody, to introdooe to you 
Mr. G^ tn old friend of oiir liuniiy. 

I em delighted to become acquainted 
with you. 

I ehaU do all in. my power to deeene 
your good opinion. 

Allow me to introduce to you Mr. B^ 
whoae brother baa rendered anch 
eminent aervicea to your oouain. 

How happy we are to ate you at our 

It ia the fineat country in Europe. 
Candia ia one of the moat agreeable 
lalanda in the Mediterranean. 

He Uvea in hla retreat like a 

You liTe like a king. 
He acta like a madman. 
Td behave like a blunderbnaa. 
Who knocka aa if he were 

where I am? 

GkK>d morning. 
You are oat very early. 
I wiah you a good morning. 
You roee early (In good time, tote). 

Had you a good night*8 reati 

Gk>od evening. 

I wiah you a good night'a reet 
I wiah you a good appetite. 
I wiah yon the aame. 
May it do you good. 
A happy new year. 
A happy journey. 
I wiah you good luck. 

God bleaa you. 

God preaerre you. 
When ahall I have the pleaaure of » 

ing you again ? 
Soon. In a short time. 
Adieu ! till we meet again. 

Permetta, Signora, ch' io Le pro- 

aenti il Signdr dl O. come un vec- 

chio amicb della noatra famjgjia. 
Sono eontentiesinia, Signore, (mi d 

gratiaaimo, Signore) di &r to di Lei 

Fard tutto cid che aari in mio potera 

per rendermi degno deUe di Lei 

buone grazie. 
Signore, permettano ch' io Lor pre- 

aena il Signof di B. il cui fratello 

ha reao coai emlnenti aervigi al 

Loro cugino. 
Ah, Signore, quanto aiamo content* 

di riceverto in caaa noatra I 

fe il pi^ bel paeae delT Europe. 
Candto d una delle iaole piik 
del Mediterraneo. 

Yive nel auo ritiro come un vera 

filoaofo (da vero filoaofo). 
Yivote (Ella viva) da re. 
Si cqmporta come un forioao. 
Condorai come uno atordito. 
Crhi picchia da padrone ove aon lot 

Buon giomo. Ben lerato. 
Coai di buon' ora in piedL 
Le auguro U buon giomo.. 
Yoaaignorto (EUa) a* i levataabuon' 

ora (per tempo, tardi). 
HaEUadormito (ripoaato) benel 
Bttona aera (lelioa aera). 
Buona notte (felice notte). 
Ripoai bene. Donna bene. 
Le angnro on buon appetita. 
Boon pre Letoeda. 
Buon capo d' anno. 
Buon viaggiOb 
Le auguro (Le deaidero) un pn»> 

pero aucceaao. 
II ciel La benedica. - 
Oio la guardi. 
Quando avru il placere di rivedertol 

I'resto. Fra poco (tempo). 
Addio, Signore ! a rivedcrci. 



Tour ni38t honfbto B^ant. 

Vour most obedient senrant. 

I BTD entirely youn. 


How l8 your Lordship 1 

How do you do? 

Well, at your senrice. 

I am glad of it. 

How is your health 1 . 

I am well, very well, tolerably, so 00, 

Not too well. Sow. 
You do not look yexy well. 
What is the matter with you 7 
I am a little indlspoaed. 
I am sorry for it 

Welcome, Sir. 

I am happy to see you. 

It seems a century since I had the 
pleasure of seeing you. 

It is a good while since I had the plea- 
sure of seeing yoa» 

Give this gentleman a chair. 

Please to sit down. 

Sit down. Be seated. 

Sit by my side. 

Take a chair. 

I thank you, I prefer to stand. 

Do not trouble yourself. 

Do as if you were at home. 

Do not make any compliments. 

I will not trouble yon any longer. 

Do you wish to leare already 1 

« Stay a little longer. 
I must beg you to excuse me this time. 

r Umilissimo servo. M' inchino a 

< Lei. 

C Le sono schlavo. 

{ Servo divoto. Divotissiroo servo. 

1 1 miei rispetti. Padron riverito. 
Son tntto suo. 
La riverisco. 

Come sta Vosaignoria lUustrissima 7 
Come va '? Come se la passa 7 
Bene, per servirla (per ubbidirla). 

( Ne godo. Me ne rallegro. Me ne 

c consplo. 

Come sta V. S. {t\l&) di salute 1 
Sto bene, ottlmamente, passabil- 

mente, mediocremente, male. 
Non troppo bene. Cos^ cosi. 
Ella non ha troppo buona ciera. 

Sono un poco Indisposto (a). 
Me ne displace. Me ne rincresee. 

Ben venuta, Vossignoria. 

Ml rallegro di vederla. 

MI pare cent' anni che non ho avuto 

11 placer di vederja. 
k gii lungo tempo (d gta un bel pez- 

zo) che non ebbi il piacere di 

Date una sedia (date da sedere) a 

qnesto Signore. 
Si serva. S' accomodi, La prego. 

La supplico, resti servita. 
Si metta a sedere. Resti a sedere. 
Segga accanto a me. 
Prenda una aedia. 

La ringrazio, voglio restare'in piedi. 
Non s* incomodi^ La prego. 
Faccia conto d' essere a casa sua. 
Non fate cerimonle (complimenti). 
Non voglio recarle incomodo pib a 

Voglio levarle V incomodo. 
Or mai se ne vuol andare? Se ne 

vuolegii andare 7 
Si trattenga ancora uo poco. 
Per quests volta convien (bisogna) 

che La preghi dl dispensarmene. 




Are yon In such a hwry 1 

Yon are in a great huiry,. Sir. 

I must go. 

I have prening bnalneea. 

I epealc Iranlcly. 

I hope then to have the honouraa^hv 

Favour me oltener (with yonr visits). 


Till we meet again. 

Ha poi tanta premural 

Ha moita fretta, Slgnora. 

Btaogna ch' io oie ne vada. 

Ho degli afiari di premura. 

Io parlo schietto, senza suggexioiie 

Spexo dunque d' aver Y onora on* al- 

Hi iavorisca piik speaao. 
Si conaerri. 
A buon rivederct 

It is the prerogative of great men to 
conquer envy ; merit gives it birth 
and merit destroys it. 

Vinoer 1* invidia « privUeglo del 
grand! uomini ; il merito la & 
nascere, il merito la fit moiirs 


A man had two acms, one of whom liked to sleep very late in 
the morning {itUia la nuUtina)^ and the other was very industri- 
ous, and always rose very early. The latter (costui), having one 
day gone out very early found a purse well filled with money. 
He ran t» his brother to inform him (a fargli parte) of his good 
luck {la hwma fortuna), and said to him : << See, Luigi, what fs 
got (jguadagnarsi), by (a) rising early." — "Faith {in fede mia)?* 
answered his brother, " if the person to whom it belongs had not 
risen earlier than I, he would not have lost it." 

A lazy young fellow being asked what made him lie {start^) 
in bed so long — " I am busied {essere occupaio)" said he, " in 
hearing counsel every morning.. Industry {il lavoro) advises 
me to get up ; sloth {la pigrizio) to lie still ; and so they give 
me twenty reasons pro and con { pro e contro). It is my part 
{tocca a me) to hear what is said on both sides ; and by the time 
the cause {la causa) is over {intesa) dinner is ready." 

A beautiful story is related of a great lady, who, being {si 
racconia tin bel tratto <2' — ) asked where her husband was, when 
he lay concealed {essere nascosto) for having been deeply con* 
cerned in a conspiracy {per essere stato complice. d^ una conspira- 
xione,) resolutely {coraggiosamente) answered, she had hid him. « 
This confession drew her before the king, who told her that 


nothing but her diflcoyering wh^re her lord was concealed could 
save her &om the torture (che turn poteva emtare la lortura quando 
nan iscoprisse H ritiro del tuo sposo)* " And will that do (^- 
iare) V* said t!le lady. ^* Yes/' said the king, " I give you my 
word for it." " Then," says she, **I have hid him in my heart, 
where you will find him." Which surprising answer (questa 

risposta ammirdbile) charmed her enemies. 



Cornelia, the illustrious (iUu9tre), mother of the Gracchi {dei 
Gracchi)f after the death of her husband, who left her with twelve 
children, applied herself (amsacrossi) to the care of her family, 
with a wisdom {con tal saviexza) and prudence {la prudenxa) that 
acquired for her {che si acquisto) imiversal esteem {la stima unu 
versale). Only three out of {fra) the twelve lived to the years 
of maturity (f eta maiura) ; one daughter, Sempronia, whom she 
married to the second Scipio ^Africanus {Scipione F Africano) ; 
and two sons, Tiberius {Tiberio) and Caius {Caio), whom she 
brought up {educare) with so much care, that, though they were 
generally acknowledged {henchd si sapesse generahnentf) to have 
been born with the most happy dispositions {Ja dtsposizione)^ it 
was judged that they were still more indebted {pure si ritenevano 
dehiiori—piu) to education than nature. The answer she gave 
{fare*) a Campanian lady {vna dama della Campania) concern- 
ing them {su di essi) is very famous {celeberrima), and includes 
in it {rinchiudere*) great instruction for ladies and mothers. 

That lady, who was very rich, and fond of pomp and show 
{essere appassionato pel fasto e lo splendore)^ having displayed 
{esporre*) her diamonds {U diamante), pearls {la perla), and 
richest jewels {U aumi/s), earnestly desired Cornelia to let her see - 
her jewels also. Cornelia dexterously {destramente) turned the 
conversation to another subject to wait the return of her sons, who 
were gone to the public schools. When they returned {ArrivaU 
ehefurono), and entered their mother's apartment, she said to the 
Campanian lady, pointing to them {mostrandoU) : '< These are 
ray jewels, and the only ornaments {V unico omamento) I prize 
lapprezzare)V And sUch ornaments, which are the strength {la 



fwna^ and support (t/ notAtgrni) of soctetjr, add a brighter lustre 
(im jrftt gran Aufro) to the fair (la M2ena) than all the jewela of 
the East {dM OrienU). 

Lezione ottantesima quarta. 


1. The ngultr construction baa this principle for basisi that the governing 
wo|d or part of spalch has always its place before the governed. 

According to this principle, the subject or nominative, with all the words that 
dwiermine it, takes the first place in the sentence i then follows the verb, then 
tim elijective case (accusative), with all iu determinations, then the indirect 
object (genitive, dative, or ablative), with its determinations ; at last the modi- 
ficationi^ sbovTing the different circumstances of place, time^ Ac. Bz. 

ManderO domani senza laDo U pUk 
fedele del mief servitor! da Lei, per 
restituiiie i manoscritti affidatimi da 
qualche tempo ; e ha scrivo quests 
cartolina, or bigllettino, acciochd mi 
&ccia sapere V ora alia quale ii mio 
servo La troveri in < 

I shall surely send to-morrow the most 

laithful of my servdkts to you, in 

Older to return you the manuscripts 

with which you have intrusted 

me not long sgo ; and I write this 

note to yifu, that you may let me 

know the hour at which my serrant 

vriil find you at home. 
I have the honour to return you the 

Italian book which you had the 

goodness to lend me. 4 have read it 

with much pleasure, and am very 

much obliged to you for it .1 

2. As for the irregular construction or inversion, which the Italians, in imi- 
tation of the Latins, use very freely, it is impossible to lay down any fixed 
rules} it depends entirely on the particular stress the person who writes or 
speaks wishes to lay on certain words, which he then puts at the head of the 
sentenoe. The foUowing sentence, which may be rendered in Italian in seven 
different ways, may stand as an instance : 

r Rendo me a voi 

Ho I V onore di rimandarle il libro 
itaUano che EUa ebbe la bonti dt 
prestarmi. L' ho letto con molto 
piacere, e gliene sono tenutissimo. 

I sabmlt to you. 

A voi rendo me. 
Hi raado a voi. 
Refkdemi a voi. 
A voi mi rendo. 
Vireadome. (NoA elegant). 

bightV-pourth lesson. 469 

L Inversionsi however, when used properly, contribute uncommonly to 
elegance, beauty, and harmony of language. This may be exemplified in the 
following beautifully constructed expression of Boccaccio, which if construded 
regularly^ would lose all its harmony, beauty, and Ii^terest. 

O dearest heart, all my duties towards 
thee are fulfilled; I hav« nothing 
else to do, hut to go with rof soul to 
keep thee company. 

O molto amato cnore, ogni mio officio 
verso te ^ fomito, nd pih altro ml 
rest* a fare, se non di venire con 
la mia anlma a fiire la tua com- 

1. Expletives, which the Italians call ripieno, L e. full, filled, are employed 
tor the purpose of giving more emphasis, fulness, harmony, and elegance, to 
the sentence. The principal are : 


I have paid a bundjred crowns. I Ho pagato cefito begU scudl. ' 

Your suit of clothes is finished. | li di Lei vestito ^beUc fiitto. 

I asked'him, if he had the courage to 
send him away, and he answered, 


I do not think that you will take it'ill. 
i flhould not like him to go. 

Gli domandai, se gli bastasse 1' ani- 
mo di «acciailo via : ed egll 
riapose, s^ bene. 

He is always repeating the same 



He is more learned than I thought 
Learning is of greater value than 


What he told me is not true. | Non d poi vero quanto mi disse. 


They are now dispoaed to come. . | Ora sono pur disposti a venire. 
Ob§, A. This expletive is often used to strengthen the imperative. Ex. 

Non credo giii che V avrete a (or pei) 

Non vorrei gul ch' egll partisse. 

Toma mai sempre a dire V istesse 

Mai sempre. 

Egli i piu dotto ch' io non credeva. 
La dottrina i di p\h gran prezzo die 
hon le richezze. 

1 Re-establish the regular construction, all the beauty, harmony, and lively 
interest which is fek in reading it, disappears : " O cuore amato molto, ogni 
mio oflScio d fomito vflrao te, nd mi resta p\h altro a fiire, se non di venire a farti 
conipagnia con la mia anima." 


Say (i. e. yoa have only to ny) DItejwrt. 

Go (i. e. yoo may go). i Andate pure. 

Give (i. 0. you may give). ' Date pur<. 


An yoo willing to do iti do it I Volete &rlo 7 ma latelo. 

I«et ua make peace, I Via facdam la pace. 

MI, Ti, CI, Tf , 6I» vs. 

I tbooght you were an Italian. lo mi credeva che vol foate ItaUano. 

I wiah thou wouldat stay with ua this Deeidero che tu con noi H limanga 

evening. queata sera. 

Sheleft. E88aMn< parti. 

I do not know whether you know that 

He leads a gay life. 

Non so ae Toi vi conoadate qneat 


Egli M la paan aaaai Iletamente. 

II. As to the Ucensesi they are very numeroua in Italian, and are chiefly per- 
mitted and made uae of in poetry, tIz* 

a) Thfp letter v is sometimee left out, chiefly in the imperftct of the Indicative^ 

Avea, potea, finia, dee, deono, bee, bea, Ac. for 
Aveva, poteva, finiva, deve, devono, beve, beva, Ac 

b) Th» letters g and gg are sometimes substituted for other letten^ aa : 
Segglo, veggio, caggio, veggendo, cheggio, veglio, q>egUo, Ac, for 
Siedo, vedo, c«do, vedendo, chiedo, vecchio, apeccUo, Ac 

c) The third person plural of the preterite definite of the indicative, ending 
In orono, la often abridged into aro, chiefly in poetry, aa : 

Amaro, legaro, andaro, for 
Amarono, legarono, andarono. 
d^ Tlia syllable at is often Kjected In poetry In the past participle, aa : 
Colmo, adomo, chino, domo, oao, for: 
Colmato, adomato, chinato, domato, osato, Ac 
•) The letter o Is often added in poetry to the preterite definite of verba eadluf 
hi In, aa: 

Rapio, finio, eropio, uacio, for 
Rapi, fini, empi, usci. 
/) TIk articles delloideUa, degH^ det, deUe, are by the poets often written. 

Dtlo,dtla,degH, dcH^dcU, 
Ob§. B. A great number of figurative, as well aa Latin vrorda, are also naad 
by the Italian poets, which are hardly ever used in prose i thus you will find : 

Air, sword. 
Poem, food. 
Ship, carriage. 

Aer for aria ; hrando for apada, 
CormeforMrM; eMS for ei&o. 
Legno for mmiUo or corrocaa. 

Eye8,hand. lAtmibiftocchitpabnafoimasia, 


Poet, men, heroes, Ac 
OU, GL No abridgment takes place / 

SquUla for campana. 

UnquOf unquandu, tm^uanes^ foi 

VaU fbrpoetai viri for nnun^ Ac 


a) In die last word of a sentenoe, chiefly in prose. 

b) In the words which have an accent on their last syllable, except the with 
Its compounds, as : betiM^ perchif jtoiM^ Ac. 

c) In words ending in a before a consonant, except the adverbB, aUora^ talora, 
aneora, Ac., and the word •uora, sister, when used as an a4JectiTe. Say akuna 
fiertonoy netnma peno, and not oZcim mtssno, newun pena, 

d) In words terminating in a diphdong, as : oechio, tp^chWf eambio, dc. ' 

• 250. 
JP0LITBNBS8 (Creohxa). 

When the Earl of Stair was at the court of Louis tde Fourteenth, 
his manners, address, and conversation, gained much on the 
esteem and friendship, of that monarch. One day, in a circle of 
his courtiers, talking of the advantage of good breeding and easy 
manners, the king offered to lay a wager he would name an Eng- 
lish nobleman that should excel in those particulars any French- 
man of his court. The wager was jocularly accepted, and his 
majesty was to choose his own time and place for the experiment. 

To avoid suspicion, the king let the subject drop for some 
months, till the courtiers thought {ande far credere) he had forgot- 
ten it ; he then chose the following stratagem : he appomted Lord 
Stair, and two of the most polished noblemen of his court, to take 
an airing with him after the breaking |ip of the levee (aZT usdre 
del grand lever) ; the king accordingly came down the great staiiv 
case at Versailles, attended by those three lords, and coming up 
to the side of the coach, instead of going in first as usual, he 
pointed to the French lords, to enter; they, unaccustomed to the 
ceremony, shrunk back, and submissively declined the honour ; 
he then pointed to Lord Stair, who made his bow, and sprang into 
the coach ; the kii^ and the French lords followed. 

When they were seated, the king exclaimed : " Well, gentle- 
men, I believe you will acknowledge I have won my wager." 
" How so, Sire?" " Why," continued the king, " when I desired 
you both to go into the coach, you declined it ; but this polite for- 
eigner (pointing to Lord Stair) no sooner received the commands 
of a king, though not his sovereign, than be instantly obeyed' 


The courtiers bung down their heads in oonfiisioD, and aoknow 
lodged the justice of hb majesty's claim. 


• kildukss. 

The mildness of Sir Isaac Newton's temper through the ccune 
of his life commanded admiration from all who knew him ; but 
in no instance perhaps more than the following. Sir Isaac had a 
favourite little dog» which he calLed Diamond ; and 1>eilig one 
day called out of his study into the next room, Diamond was left 
behind. When Sir Isaac returned, having })een abeent but a 
few minutes, he had the mortification to find that Diamond, hav- 
ing thrown down a lighted candle among some papers, the nearly 
finished labour of many years was in flames, and timost consumed 
to ashes. This loss, as Sir Isaac Newton was .then very fiir 
advanced in years, was irretrievable ; yet, without once striking 
the dog, he only rebuked him with this exclamation : " O, Dia- 
0K»id t Diamond ! thou little knowest the mischief thou hast 

Zeuzis (Zeusi) entered iato a contest of art with Panrhasius 
(Parratioy The former paivted grapes so truly, that birds came 
and peeked at them. The latter delineated a curtain so exactly, 
that Zeuxis coming in said : << Take away the curtain that we 
may see this piece." And finding his error, said : " Parrhasius, 
thou hast conquered : I only deceived birds, thou an artist." 

Zeuxis painted a boy carrying grapes ; the birds came again 
and peoked. Some applauding, Zeuxis flew to the picture in a 
passioA, saying : <' My boy must be (hisogna dire ehe^-e) very 
ill paittted." 

The inhabitants of a great town oflered to Marshal de Turenne 
one hundred thousand crowns upon condition that he should take 
another road, and not march his troops their way. He answered 
them : " As your town is not on the road I intend to maroh, I 
cannot accept the money you ofier me." 

A corporal of the life-guards of Frederick the Great, who had 
a great deal of vanity, but at the same lime uus n brave fellow. 


firore a watch-chain, to which he affixed a musket- bullet instead of a 
watch, which he was unable to buy. The king, being inclined 
one day to rally him, said : " Apropos, corporal, you must have 
been very frugal to buy a watch : it is six o'clock by mine ; tell 
me what it is by yburs ?" The soldier, who guessed the king^'s 
intention, instantly drew out the bullet from his fob, and said : 
'< My watch neither marks five nor six o'clock ; but it tells me 
every moment, that it is my duty to die for your majesty." 
" Here, my friend," said the king, quite affected, " take this 
watch, that you may be able to tell the hour also." And he gave 
him liis watch, which was adorned with brilliants. 


My dear friend (catissima arnica), — As we have next Tuesday 
several persons to dinner whose acquaintance, I am sure, you 
would be delighted to make, I request you to add by your presence 
to the pleasure, and by your brilliant and cultivated mind to the 
mirth of our assembly. I hope you will accept my invitation, 
and awaiting your answer I send you. a thousand compliments. 

Dearest friend {amadssima arnica), — I accept the more readily 
your very kind invitation for Tuesday next, as my disappoint- 
ment at seeing so little of you latterly has been very great. I 
thank you for your kind remembrwioe, and send you a thousand 

Lezione ottantesima quinta. 



Essere, to be, and Avtre, lo have. 

PrettrU of the Ir\finUive (Infinito Presente). 
Avere, to iMve. ) Eaaere, to be. 


fciGarir^fiFTH lesson. 

Ptuiqf HU hyinUiv (Infintt* PuMto). 
Aran Avuto^ to havo had. | Eaaere auto, to have been. 

PrmaU PartiapU (Participio Preeente). 
Aruido,^ haTing. I Eaaendo, betng. 

Pati PartkipU (Partidpio Paaaato). 
Mate Avato ; Jtm. aTota. I JMoac Slato ; fim. atata. 

Phtr. ATUti ; fm, avute. I Pbir. Stad s fm, atata. 

lo ho (i), aee Leaaon 

Ta hai (il), 

r (3 !-■(*) 

Not abbiarao, 

Voi avete, 

Egllno (eaai) ) hanno 


Aveva (avea), 


Avera (avea), 



AtoYano (aveano), 

mOICATIVE (IndlcatlTO). 
Prwertf QPieaente). 
VII^ I baV6.fIoaoDa| 

thou hast 

ihe haa. 
we have., 
you have. 


I they 

Ttt 861(80*), 





RgUno (essi) 



thou aft. 

we are. 

you are. 

they are.* 

Jmptrjtfd (Imperfetto). 

I had. 
he had. 
we had. 
yon had. 
they had. 

Nol eraTamo, 
Vol eravate, 





Pr4itHU DeJfnUe (Ppsato Rimoto). 



Abbiamo [ 
Hanno. J 

I had. 
he had. 
we had. 
you had. 
they had. 



Fn (poet, fue), 



Furono (poet foro), 

you were, 
they ^ 




we were. 



PreUrpgrfeet (Paaaato Prosaimo). 

{I have 
yonlutve I 
they'havo J 






>Btato: [ 

i/em. atate, 

I have 
I thon hast 

he haa 
r wehaye 
) you have 
( they have/ 

1 There ia another preaent participle, whieh ia aeldom uaed aa such, viz. 
avente^ having (See Leaeon LYII.). 

9 The peraonal pronouna : te^ I ; fu, thou ; egli^ he ; etto, ahe^ Ac, are not in- 
dispensable in the Italian conjugation. You may as well say : asno, ««, 2 ; 
aerii, avrai^ avri, aa: £o, wonOj tu Mt, egUi; io avrd, tu ovrat, egU ovrd. But 
when there is a particular stress to be put on the person, or when an ambigu- 
ous meaning ia lo be avoided, the pronouna muat be expreaeed. Ex. NoiHame 
'" - »'«^ rot. Wo arp H*Hy»lved, not you. 



Pikperfed (Trapaaaato). 


I had been, de. 


Era \ ^ 


Eri J«i»to8 



E„ ^/«ii.BtatiL 


•ftyat*. . 

Eravamo x 


Eravate (■'»** 8 



Erano K*^' •**•* 

PreUriU Anterior (Paaaato Rimoto Composto). 

Ibadhad,^. Ihadbad,4e. 






Fummo j 


roste y^^i 

Ebbero . 

Furono i/«n-«t*t«- 

FSOure (Futuro Imperfetto). 




I shall be. 


thou wilt have. 




he will have. 


he wUl be. 


we ahall have. 


we ahall be. 


you will have. 


you will be. 


they wiU have. 


they WiU be. 

' FSUure Pa»t (Futuro Peifetto). 

ATTd ^ 


3ard \ atato; 

I ahall have 


thou wilt have had, 

Sarai { /em. 




SarA > atata. 

thou wilt have 



9aremo ^ atati ; 

been, de. 


Sarete V fm. 



Sarapno ) atate. 

^ Coii<li<Mna{PreKfii(CondizionalePre8ente). 


I should have. ' 

Sarei, I ahould be. 


thou wouldst baTe. 

Sareati, thou wouldat be 


let. he would have. 

Sarebbe (poet. he would be. 


aaria, fora). 


we ahould have. 

Saremmoi we ahould be. 


ywi would have. 

Sareate, yon would be: 


they would have. 

Sarebbero, they would be. 

(poet avrl 


(poet, aaziano, aaricno, forano.) 

jra$i CandUumal (Condizionale Paaaato). 



Sarei ^ atato ; 

I ahould have 



Saieati ( fan. 



thou wouldst 
^^^«^^- have had, 

Sarebbe J atata. 

thou wouldat 


Saiammo ^ atati; 

have been, 



Sareste i fern. 



Sarebbero > atate. 



Pretent of At SuhjuwHu (Congiqiptivo'Pi isente). 

Che io Al^bia, tliat I may have. 
" tuabbia(abbi), that thou mayest 

. have. 

•* egli abbla, 
** noi abbiamo, 
•' vol abbiate, 
" easi abbiano, 

that he may have, 
that we may have, 
that you may have, 
that they may have. 

Che io^sia, 
" tu aia (aU), 

" egU aia, 
** noi aiamo, 
" voi aiate, 
" eaai aiano, 

that I «nay la. 
that thotf mayna 

that tke may ha. 
that we may be. 
that yott may be 
that they may bt 

( Invptrftd iff tiu SubJunUict (Imperfetto del Congiantivo). 

S* io aveaai, If I had. I S' io foaai, If I were. 

Setciaveaai, ifthouhadat. | Se tu fosai, ifthoawert. 

S* e^li afiaaae, if he had, \ S' egli foaao, if he were, 
Se noi aveaaimo, dc. Sa noi fbasimo, Ac 

Se voi aveate, Se voi fqate. 

8' eaai aveeaero. S' eaai fosaero. 

Petfeet of the Subjundwe (Paaaato Proasimo del Congiuntivo). 

That I may have had, dc. 
Ch* io abbia 
Che tu abbla (abbi) 
Ch' egli abbU 
Che noi abbiamo 
Che voi abbiate 
Ch* eaai abbiano 


That I may have been, Ac. 
Ch' io aia % 

Che tu aia (all) i stato ; /em. atata 
Ch' egU aU 3 
Che Boi aiamo i 
Che voi aiate > atati ; /et 
Ch' eaai aiano 3 

Pktperfeet qf th» SuijuneHM (Trapaaaato dd Congiuntivo). 

Se tu avead 
S'egli avesaa 
Se noi aveaaimo 
Se vol aveate 


If I had been, Ac 
S* io foaai p 

Se tu foaai > atato ; fnu aUta 
S'egUfoaae > 
Se noi foaaimo ^ 

Se voi foate V atati ; fern, atate. 
S' eaai foaaero 3 






IMPERATIVE (ImperaUvo). 
(No* firat person lingular.) 

Have (thou). 
let him (her) have, 
let UB have. 
have (ye), 
let thesi have. 

SM (8ia)«, 





fie (thon). 
let him (her) be. 
, let ua be. 
be (ye), 
let them be 


A. Thtrt i9f la in Italian rendered by euere, preceded by e» or vi. Ex. 

* The second person alngular of the imperative la rendered by the in6nitiv« 
when it is negative Ex. Non cutrt^ be thou not ; non avere^ huve thou Qu* 
(Lesaon LXXI.). 



There ,* a groat quantity. 


There wm once a wioe Oreclao. 

There were nations. 

There has been a singer. 

There wen princes. 

Is there any physician here 'I 

C hiv' h) una gran quantiti. 
Ci «mo (in sono) delle persone. 
C tra una volta un saTio Greco, 
f* erono de* popoU. 
C i Mtata una cantatrice. 
Cimmostaii de* principi. 
O (9* 2) or eeci (ervt) qi^ un quel- 
che medico 1 

B. Instead of emere, a9tr% ooold In some cases be used, and may stand In the 
singular, though the substandve be in the plural Ex. 

There are princes. 

There are many things. 
There are' many poor y^plo. 

F' ha (instead of x^ htmno) de* prin- 

IB ha molte cose. 
V* ha (or Aorot) molta gente povenu 

C. liqfU 01 if than is undentood, it is tendered by ne. Ex. 

There is no more of Iti 
There are many of them. 
There were only two (of them). 
There are no physicians here. 
I do not think that there are any. 

Noneen' dplii. 

Cb 7U 9Cfno molti. 

Non Mfi' erano che due. 

Medici qui non ce nt §ono, 

Non credo che ve n* abbia. 

D, Sometimes it may be rendered by n <2d or «t cfonno. Ex. 

There Is nothing worse In the world. | Non n (id al mondo cosa peggiore. 
There are some who pretend. | Si danno dl qnelli che sostengono, 

E. The adverbs e^ m, are left out when time Is spoken of. Ex. 

It is a month. It is two yeare. 

A few months ago. 

It is a long while sinio 1 saw her. 

This happened two nwuths ago. 

^ un mese. Sono due annl. 
Pochl meal oono (or pochi med/a). 
is un bel pezzo, che non P ho ve- 

Cld aeeatUU due mesi/o. 

P, Avert and etftrt are followed by the preposition da before the infinitive, 
when they are employed iB the signification of mutt or thaU. Ex. 

Tou shall do It thus. 

Avde da farlo coai (Instead oC doodo 

/alio cost), 
Egli ha da sapere. 
Ahbiamo tuttl da morhre. 
l£ da teroersl. 
Egli non 2 da scusare. 

He shall know. 

We must all die. 

It is to be feared. 

He is not to be excused. 

O. In other instances a precedes the infinitive. Ex. 
I should like to ask a hvour of you. l Aorei a pregarla d' un favors. 
She went to see her. | EUa/u a rtlrovorlok 


Present qfihe InjBiUive (Infinltlvo Presente). 
Parlare, to speak. | Credere, to believe. | Nutrire, to nourish. 

Pati qf the InJnUioe (Infinltivo Passato). 
Aver parlato, to have I Aver creduto, to have I Aver nutrlto, to have 
spoken. I believed. I nourished. 



Pre$eni PartidpU (Partioipio Pwsente). 
•peaking. I beliering. I nonrishiiig. 

Parkto, ipokeii. 

Past ParHapU (Partidplo Patnto). 

I Cnduto, beliered. | Nutiito, nouzidied. 



INDICATIVE (Indioitifo). 
JPreBoU (Preaente). 

I beliere, Ac. 

— i. 

— ^ 

— iamo. 

I ntfniiab, Ac 
Notr-o, (mw). 

— % (iwe). 

— iamo. 

— Ita. 

— avL 

— ttfata. 

— ITaBO. 

I ipoke, or did epflak, 
— aatL 

Imperfect (Imperfetto), 

I beUeved, Ac. 
Cred-eva (aa). 

— evi. 

— era («o). 
^» cwno. 

— erato. 

— e?ano (aoiio). 

PrdniU D^iU (Paaaato Rimoto). 

I nouriahed, Ac 
Nutr-iva {in). 

— ItL 

— iTamo. 

— ivata. 

— Ivano. 

— arono. 

I belieyed, or did 

beliere, Ac 

Cred-el, (etU). 

— eati. 

— a, (ette). 

I have qwken, Ac 

Ho 1 

Hai I 





— eate. 

«^ erono, (attero) 

FriUrperftd (Paasato Proaaimo) 

I nooriahed, or did 

nonriah, Ac 

— lad. 

— immo. 

— iate. 

— irono. 




I have nouriahed, At 


« There ia tfala difoence between the two piaaent participlea, that the firat in 
aindo, endo applies to a person vhUt speaking, belieying, Ac. ; and the aecond in 
9nU, mU to a peraon wAo speaks, believes, Ac. (See Lesson LVII.) 



Flupetfeet (T»apassatO). 

1 had spoken, Ac. 



1 had nourished, Ae. 

Aveva ' 




FreieriU Anterior (Passato Rimoto oomposto). 

1 Avesti 

poken, Ac. 

I had believed, Ac. 

I had nourished, Ae. 






Puiure (Futuro Imperfetto). 

I shaU speak, Ac 

— erA. 
*. eremo. 

— erete. 

— eraono. 

I shall beUeve, Ac 

— end. 

— crt 

— eremo. 

— erete. 

— eranno. 

I shall or will nourish, Ao 

— iral. 

— irtu 

— Iremo. 

— irete. 

— iranno. 

PiOurcPaU (Futuro Perfetto). 

I shall h 


ave spoken, 

I shall have believed, 










uU Pt uent (Condiiionale Preaente). 

1 shottU 

— erestL 
-^ erebbe 

— ereste. 

— erebbe 

1 or would 
Ik, Ac. 



I should or would 
beUeve, Ac. 

— eiestL 

— erebbe. 

— eremroo. 
~ ereste. 

— erebbero 

I should or would 
nourish, Ac. 

— irestL 

— irebbe. 

— irenimo. 

— ireste. 

— irebbero 



Cmdmoiud Pari (CoDdi^onale PaMsto). 

I ahould or would ha?e 
•pokgD, Ac 

Avrebb . 
ATremmo f P*n*to. 

I ihonld or would hmve 
believed, Ac 


I sboold or would 
DOttriabed, Ac. 


PreaaU of tU Suiffynetive (CongiundYO Preaente). 

That I may apeak, Ac. That I may beMoTe, Ac. That I may nourish, < 
Ch' lo parM. crad-a. 

— I. 


— iate. 

— ano. 


— iate. 

— ano (m 

Imperftd qf ike Sul^^wuihe (Imperfetto del COngiuntiTo). 

If lapoke^Ac. 

• aaalmo. 


— eaaimo. 

— eate. • 

— eaaero. 

IflDOuriahed, Ac 
nutr-iaaL ^ 

— iael 

— iaae. 

— iaaimo. 
^ iate. 

— iaaeio. 

Prderpeifcei tf the SubJuneHoe (Paaaato Pioaaimo dd CongiuntiTO). 

That I may have 
ipoken, Ac. 
Cbf io abbU 
Che tu abbia 
Che noi abbiamo 
Che vol abblate 


That I may have 
believed, Ac 


That I may have 
aouiiahed, Ac 


Plupm^pKi 4(fihe SubfuneUve (Trapaasato del Congiuntivo). 

If I had apoken, Ac, 
S' lo aveasi 
S' egll aveaae 
So noi aveaalmo 
Se vol aveate 
S* eaai aveaaoro 

^ to. 

If I had believed, Ac 


If I had nourished, Ao 




IMPEaATIVE (ImperaUvo). 

%eak (thou), see note 


Believe (thou), 

1 NoTirlBh(thou), 

p. 476, Ac 





Nutr-i. (wet.) 

— L 

— a. 

- a. (i«i.) 

— imo. 

— iamo. 

— iamo. 

— at& 

— ete. 

— Ite. 

.— ino. 

— ano. 

— ano {iaemu 


Obff. Tofonn the pasaive voice the Italians use to place before the past par- 
ticiple of the active verb the auxiliary Mtere, but often also, and mpre elegantly, 
one of the verbs, ventre, to come ; aidare, to go ; reBtare, to rest ; rimanartf to 
remain ; wtare, to stop, stay, to express with more emphasis a continuance of 
action.* (See Lesson XLII. and XLIX.) 

JPreaent of the InftnUiveJl\n&nito Presente). 

Essere amato or amata, to be loved. 

Poii qfAe Infinitive (Infinitb Passato). 

Essere slato amato or stata amata, to have been loved. 

PrtBrni PartiapU (Participio Presente). 

Essendo amato, amata, amatl, amate, being loved. 

PqH ParlieipU (Participio Passato) . 

Stato amato, stata amata, stati amatl, state amate, been loved. 

INDICATIVE (IndicaUvo). 
PretaU (Presente). 



vengo amato, /em. a. 

I am loved. 



vieni amato, " a, 

thou art loved. 



viene amato. 

he is loved. 



viene amata. 

Noi alamo 


veniamo amati, " e, 

we are loved. 



venlte amatl, " e. 

you are loved. 



vengono amati, ) 
vengono amate, i * * 

they are loved. 




Venne aeeutati, 


Qfieata voce va posta prima, 

JV(8 reBtai (or rinuui^ maravigUato (in- 
stead of ne/ui maravigUaio), 

Emu non ne ruth (/u) perntoM, 

/ cavoUi 9tanno \jKno) aUacoH alia car^ 

. He is praised by every body 
' She was accused. 
, They will be blamed. 

This word must be placed at the hcao 

iMras quite surprised 9$ it. 

She wan not convinced ol it 
The horses are put to the carriage. 



hnptaftd (Imperfetto). 

lo en «• TenlTa amato, ftm. a, I wm IotwL 

Ta«ri " ▼eniti »n»to, " a, thou wert lofad. 

EgUara " vanlTa amato, he wallowed. 

Bihera TenlTa amata, the wai loved. 

Nol eivramo '* venivamo amati, *< e, we were 1 

VWeiaTate •* Tenlfate amat^ " ^ you were - ^ lored. 

Baalerano " ▼enlTano amatS, > theywere J . 

BaaeeraHo " Teolvano amate S 

PnUnUde/biiU (Paaaato Rimoto). 



Tenni amato, /wi. a, Iwaa 



TenlaU amato, " a, thouwert 



venne amato, hewai 



venne amata, ahewai 


Tenlmmo amati, " e, we wore 



Teniate amati, " e, you were 



vemieio- amati, ?. .they were . 
Tennero amate, > 

Ene ftnoDo 


Fr§Urp§rfed (PaiMito Pronimo). 

loaoDoatoto amato h haw been loved, dc 
. lo iOBo eUta amaU > 

Nol alamo rtatiamatl)^^,^^^,,^,^^^^ 
N<d alamo atate amate ^ 

Pluperftd (Trapaaaato). 
lo ere auto amato, Ac I had been lomd, Ac 

Obi The PrtUriU Anterior of the paaalTO voice: ioj^ m/UOo withmyia 
pvtielple, li not used in Italian. 

fVcfurt (Futuzo). 

U nxd >r yerrd amato or a, Ac I ahall be loved, Ac 

F\awrt Paid (Futuro Pei&tto). 

lo and atalo amato, Ac I ahall have been loved, Ac 

ConHUiomeA prueni (Condiiionalo preoente). 

lo lanl or verrel amato or amata, I ahould be 

Ta aareoti " venreati amato ** amata, thou wouldat 1 
Egliaarebbe " verrebbe amato, he would b< 

BUa aarebbe verrebbe amata, Ac ahe ahould I 

ildatbe 1, , 

Ibe ?«<*^««i< 

Id be J 

OmdUianai Pott (Condizionale Paaaato). 
lo aani atato amato, Ac I ahould have been lovnl 



— tuBia 

— egtisia 
«— ellaaia 
^ DoisUmo 
-» yoi state 

— eaaisiaiio 

that thou maytt be 
that he may be 
that she may be 
that wo may be 
that you may be 

that they may be 



Iflwereloredy Ae. 

PftHni qf the SuJbjunetice (Congiuntivo Presente). 
or Tenga amato or amata, that I may be 
Tenga amato" amata, 
yenga amato** 
Tenga amata ^ ' 
yenlamo amati * 
yeniate- amati" 
yengano amati 
yeogano amata 
hniptiiftd qf iki SuJtjtmciive (Impexfetto del Ck>ngiQntiyo). 
8e io foasi or yenisai amato or amata, ^ 

-> tn fbsai '* yenisai amato '< amata, 

•» egli fosse " yenisse amato, 
«- elia fosse ** yenisse amata, 

— Boi foBsimo ** yenissimo amati " amate, 

— yoiibste '* yeniste amati " amate, 
^ esai fossero ** yenissero amati, 

— esse fossero " yenissero amate^ 

Petfed qf the SutjtmeHivt (Paasato Profesimo del Qongiuativo). 
Ch' io 9iA stato amato, ^ 

Ch' io sia stata amata, Ac. (That I may haye been lorod^ 

Che noi siamo stati amati, f Ac 

Clie noi siamo state amate, Ac J 

Phxperfod qf fk^ SubftmcUve (Trapassato del Congiuntifo). 
Se io fossi stato amato, Ac If I had been loyed, Ac 




If^lnUioe Prtoeni (Innnito Piesente). 

Difendersi, to defend one's selt 

h^fimSJUiot PoMt (Infinito Passato). 
Essersi difeso, to haye defended one's self. 
PrioaU PartidpU (Partidpio Preaente). 

Difendenteai *, defffldtng one's sell 

* * The partidple, joined to the difierent pronouns^ would be thus : 

haying defended 

haying defended 

haying defended 

having defended 

having defended 

haying defended 


Difendendomi, defending myselt 







himself or 













PmrUeipU Pad (PirUdpio Pu^ato). 

5!?T?' Idefendedone'iieli: 
Dlfedd, I 


INDICATIVB (In<>icadT0). 
PrcMtf (PrMente). 

TaUdilendl, thov ^efendeit th]rM£ 

Vol vi diliBndete^ you defend jovntt/m. 
^JBidlfendon<H they defend themaehree. 


I defended 


CI difenderamo. 

Yi difenderate. 





FrderiU D^bdU (Ptaeato Rimoto). 
I defended myself; Ac. 




IhaTe defend 
TtMl 1 difMO}/Mi.dlibtaV. 

laaato Proaaimo). 
ed myael^ Ac. 

CI alamo % 

Viaieto >dife8l|/Mi.difeM. 

Si aono \ 

10 em J 

Tl^Vt dUMOi/Mi.dUeBa. 


Ci enTamo i 

Vierayate ;difed|/<«i.dlfeM 

Sierano. > 

PnUriU Anterior {VnM 

TllbMi (difMO;/Mi.dIieMU 

Clftunmo ) 
Vifoate [difeaii/em.dlfe8e. 

Si ftirono ) 

V TIm reflective irerba in Italian being conaiderad aa paaalTe, take in thnir 
CQPP<wPd tenaea the anziliary eaetrt, wUeli agieea in genider and number with 



Mi difendeid. 
Ti difeoderaL 
Si difendera. 

Mi sard 

Tlsarai ^ difeao ^ /em. difesa. 
Si sari > 

PuiuTe PreBOfU (Futuro Jmperfetto). 
I shall defend myself Ac. 

Ci difenderemo 
Yi difenderet& 
' Si difenderanno. 
Future Past (Futuro Perfetto). 

I shall hare defended myself, Ac. 
Cisaremo ^ 
I Visarete >difesii.;%iii. difbM 
Si saranno ) 

Conditional Present (Condizionale Presente). 
I should defend myself Ac. 
Mi difendereL | Ci dlfenderemmo. 

Ti difenderesti. VI difendereste. 

Si difenderebbe. I Si dlfenderebbero. 

CondUUmalPatt (Condizionale Passato). 
I should have defended myself Ac. 

Misarei % 

Tiaaresti > dileao ; /em. diiesa. 

Sisarebbe ) 

Ci saremmo 
Yi sareste 
Si sarebbero 


— tn ti difeoda. 

Present qfthe subJuneHoe (O>ngiuntivo Presente). 
That I may defend myself; Ac. 



Che noi ci difendiaino. 

— TOi vi difendiata. 

"~®^ ^sidifendano. 

— esse ) 

Sa mi di&ndessi. 

— UdUiendesaL 

— si difendesse. 

Impeifeet qfthe SvhfuneHve (Imperfetto del Crongiuntiro). 
If I defiBDded myself; Ac 

Se ci difendessimo. 

— vi difendeste. 

— si difendesserou 

Prettrperfod qf the ^Jbjunetvoe (Passato Prossimo del Congfontivo). 
That I may have defended myself Ac. 

Chemist i 

— tisia >difeso;yMii.dife0a. 

— sisia > 


— Ti siate 

— sisiaoo 


PUnptifoet qf ths Subjunethe (Tfapassato dpi CragtantiTo). 
If I had defended myself Ac. 

8e mi fossJ i 

^ ti fossi >difeso;/em. difissa. 

- si fosse ) 

Se ci fossimo 

— vi foste 

— si fossero 


IMPERATIVE (ImperatiYo). 
Difendia, Defend thyself. 

Non ti difenderci do not defend thyself! 

SI difionda sgU, let him defead himself: 





let Qt ddaod onnenw. 

defend youneWet. 

let them defend themeehree. 


h^ftnUhe FremU ^nfinito Praeente). 

Procuniwlo^ to get, procure It. 

Ji^fbtUiM Pad (Infinlto Paeaeto). 

EanrMle proenrmto, to haf e got It 

Prmni PartieipU (Partidpio Pieaente). 

ProcnrandoMto^ getting It. 

PartSe^ Pad (Partidpio Paaaato). 

Proeuratoaeb^ got it 

INDICATIVE (IndicaUvo). 

PrtMiil {tH^tenU). 

I get It, Ac 

Noi et lo proeudamo. 


lo iM fe proenro. 
Ta li fe proenrl. 


I got It, < 



Vol ve lo proenimte. 
jg^ ^Mlbprociiraiio^ 

Imptrfml (Imperfetto). 

I lo nu lo pcocnraya, Ac 
PnUriU DiJhUU (Paaaato Rimoto). 

I lo me fe procnral, 4o. 
PnUrpmfid (Paaaato Proaaimo). 
I hare got it, Ac « 

Noi et h aiam 
Voi V io aiete 



lo iM lo aono 

aCj***'* J Eaae 

Plupcrftd (Trapaaaato). 
I had procured it, Ac | Jlf« lo era procurato, Ac 

PreUHU Anterior (Paaaato Rimoto compoato). 
I had procured it, Ae. | Jll« lo fui pioeurmto, Ao« 

F\dwe PrtteiU (Future Imperfetto). 
I ahall procure i^ Ac | JIfe lo procurer^, Ac 

F\aitr9 PaU (FnTvuro Perfetio). 
I ahdiliaTe procured It, Ac | JIMo aard pro«iirato, Ac 



CoindiiHmud Pretmt (Gondizfonale Preaenta). 
A ■hould procure It, dke. | lo nu lo proeurerei, Ac. 

CondUunud Past (Condizionale Passato). 
I ahould haTC procured ii^ Jkc [ Me lo aarei procurato, Ac 

FremU qf Ihe SubftmeHve (Conginntivo Preaente). 
That I may procure it, Ac. 
Che lomeh procuri. Che noi ee lo procuriamo. 

— tu<e to procuri — volMtoprocuriate. 

— cfia s ** ^ procuri. ^ 31 earn \**^ procurino. 

Imperfed qf the SubJuneUce (Iroperfetto del CongluntWo). 
' If I procured it, Ac. | S'io me lo procuraaai, Ac. 

Preierperfed qf the Subjunctive (Paaaato Proaaimo del Congiuntivo). 
That I may haye procured it, Ac 
Che io 1IM fo aia 

io 1IM fo aia ^ Che ooi ee lo aiamo "^ 

iJiUlo^ Iprocurato. - voiwtoaiate I 


- siH'"^**"^ J 


Pluperftet of Vii Suibfuneiwe (Trapaaaato del CongtuntiTo). 
If I had pfocured it, Ac | S* io me /o foaai procurato, Ac 

IMPERATIVE {hnperaiwo). 

Procvntelot Procure (thoti) it 

Non telo procurare, do (thou) not procure It. 

Se lo procuri egli, let him procure it 

Procuriamoetfo^ let ua procure it 

Procurateveto^ procure (ye) It. 

8e lo procurino eaai, let them procure it 


Z. The final a of the InfinitiTCS in are, ere, and ire, may be dropt before a 
▼owel a»well aa before a conaonant (except before a followed by a conaonavt), 
witnont an apoatrophe being put in ita atead. Ex. 

Egli Tuol far qneato. 
Voglio Ugger queato libro. 
Non dormir punto. 

He wiahea to do thia. 
I wiah to read thia book. 
Not to Bleep at all. 

B, The dropping of the final vowel may alao take place before a consonant 
in thoae peraona of the verba which end in mo, and have the accent on the laat 
ayllable but one. Ex. 


We an free. 
We were ntiiAed. 
We ehaU be pnieed. 
We love sincerelj. 

Siam liberi {huUad tftHamo), 
Enfim content! (hiiChmI ^ eraTimo). 
Sarem lodati {buUad qf aaremo). 
Amiam ainoeramente (intUad ofuaiti- 


But when the accent leeta on the laat ayllable bat two the laat vowel 
be dropped. We could not aay : 

F\f9Hm,for fltealnio colperoU. i Were we guilty. 

AvtMmm^for av^aaimo veduto. I Had we aeen. 

Amemim^ for amiaabno tntti. | Did we love alL 

C The abbreriation may further take place In all the third peiwna ploral 
that have no or re lor their endJ^ aa : 

Aman, they love ; aenton, they feel ; tnalead <^ amano, aentona 
Amavan, they loved 3 amaron, they loved ; tMltad 1^ amavano, amarono. 
Amaaaer, did they love; potrebbe, they could; avrebber, they would have; 
inatead of amaaaero, protrebbero, avrebbero. 

Z>. The third peraon plural of the perfMto rimoto ia often abridged in more 
than one manner^ aa : 

hu/Us^ qf andaipno, they went ; you vfflptdi andaron, andaroi andlr. 
" «* furono, they were; •« " foron, furo^ for. 

B, The third peraon alngular of the preaent tenae of verba in ere often lows 
the final a when it ia preceded by I, r, orn, aa : 

81 auol dire, they nae to aay, instead of niofe. 

8iciiioldiqaeato,theyaieaorryforit, ■* " dueKt. 

Cid M< molto, this ia worth much, ** ** voU. 

rwolfiue, he wiU do, « « vwbU 

Per, M pera, sing, of pfrei^ to appear, Inatead of parr 

Pan, " " ^piQfrrt (ponere), to put, «* " fwna 

Tten, '< " Uxuri, to hold, « " liene. 

FSen, " " ^adrty to come, " " went. 

AKDion, ** *< rtmonere, to remain, " " rlnuma. 

Sbn, let pera. aing. and 3rd pera. plur. of eaeere to be^ aona 

I. oir THS vBKSa or ore. 

1. Verba whoae InflnitlTea end in eore or gora inaert an A as often aa g^ or e 
meeta with e or i. Ex. 

JVeMfi/.—Ceroo, I'aeek; ca^ld (not eerci), thou aeekeat; eervAiama^ we 
feek, Ac. 

#Wtire.^CerdUrd, I ahall aeek ; eercAeroi, thou wilt aeek; cercAerA, he wiO 
aeek ; ecreAeremo, we ahaU aeek, Ac. 

Ptftmi SubJ,—Ch* lo eerehif that I may aeek, Ac. ; cenAuune, that we may 
seek ; eerdiiaU, that you may aeek ; eerehino, that they may aeek. 

2. When the infinitive enda in dare, giare, gliare, and aciorf, the letter 1 
must be left out aa often aa it meeta with i or «. Ex. 



To threaten, to eat, to advise, to leave. 

Thou threatenest, eateat, advisest, 

1 shall threaten, eat, advise, leave. 

ilwiaosiarc, numguwct conn^tortf &v* 

TV minacci, mangif eoitngUf ktfcL 

lo minaccerbt mangerb^ eonriglUrd^ 

I should threaten, eat, advise, leave. lo mtnaeeeret, numgereif conn^/teres, 

I laacereL 

3. But in verbs whose first person singular of the present tense indicative 
has the accent upon the letter i, the second person singular must be written 
with it. Ex. 

I send, I spy. 

Thou sendest, thou spiest. 

InifSo, tpto. 

II. ON THB vxass IS ere. 

1. The greatest irregularity in the verbs in ere takes place in the perfetto r^ 
moto, and the past participle. Very £bw verbs in ere have In this tense the re- 
gular ending in ei, and even those that have it, may take also the irregular ending 
in etti, as may be seen above in the conjugation of credere^ which has credei 
9nd eredeUi^. 

2. To know, thwafcrc, the perletto rfinoto of those verbs which have not 
the regular ending ei^ It is only necessary to know the first person singular. 
That onc§ known, the thii^ person singular is formed from it by changing i 
into e ; «iid from this again the third person plural is formed by joining to it ro. 
The remaining three persons are always formed regularly. Er. 

ThpUof. Preterite definite: I pleas- 
He pleased, they pleased. 

Thou pleasedst, jre pleased 

You plesiMd. 

To write. Pret. det I wrote. 
He wrote, they wrote. 

Tnou wrotest, we wroto. 

You wrote. 

Piaeere. Peri rimoto : piaoqul 

3rd pers. sing, piacgue : 3rd. pers. pli& . 

2nd pers. sing. piaeesHi 1st pera. plur. 

2nd pers. plur. jfiaeetie, 
SeriBtre, TerL Rimoto : eerieei. 
3rd pers. sing, scriite; 3rd pers. plur. 

2nd pers. sing, ecrhoeetii 1st pers. plur. 

2nd pers. plur. ecrituU. 

3. a) Of the verbs in ere the following have the doi^ form In the perfdio r»- 
jMlOt i. e. the regular in d, and the irregular in eUi. 

* Here die pronunciation renders the letter t again necessary. 

• In Tua^y the ending in eUi seems to be preferred. 



noRTT-pirm ismom. 


I'ltrfttUt iMHoto* 



Anistert, to tMbt, 




T>etist6re, to decUt 

Esistere, to exist. 

insitten, to insist. 

Resistera, to teslst 

Sossisteie, to subsist 

fisttere, to best, 




Combsttere, to fight. 

Conviere, to sccomplisl^ oompiei, 

' compietti, 


Empiere, to filL 

Credere, to believe, 




Eslgere^ to exact, 




Fendere, to split, 



fienduto (fiBSso). 




• fiemnto. 

to shudder, 

Gemere, togrosiii 




Hietere, to mow. 

mietei, ' 



Pendere, to hang, 
















Serpere, to creep, 




SolTere, to dissolve, 


• solvetti. 









Vendeie, to sell, 




The fbllowbig with the acceot on the last syllable but one have also tfM per^ 
/rfloHBMto in «' and sM.* 

Cadere, to &U, cadet, cadetti, eadnto. 

Doveie^ to owe^ ddvei, dorettl, doTuto. 

Godere, toei^oy, godei, godetti, goduto. 

Potere, to be able (can), potel, potetti, potnto. 

Sedere,tosit, sedel, sedetti, seduto. 

Temere,tofiMr, temel, temetti, temnto. 

Obff. Some have^ besides the two mentioned forms in m and ctta, a third form 
in si. Of these three forms sometimes the one, sometimes the other, is em- 
ployed. Tliey are the following : 

AssolTere,toabaolTe, assolyei, assolvetti and ^assolnto, 

assoisi, ' Cassolto. 

RisolTere, to resoWe. 
Chiudere,toshut, chiudel, chiudettl otuf chlaso. 


» The ending in «tti is generally, for the sake of euphony, av(4ded in veibs 
teving in thefar radicals one or two <'s. N. B. The greatest part in effi are now 
inlte obsolete. 

HqBTr-FirrH lbskhk. 


Mi^UUko. • 



Part Pom. 




Cedere, to yield,' 


codBiti and 



Conoederai to gnnt 




Perdefe, to lose, 


perdetti and 




Peiliiadere,topennade, perraadei, 




Di8Biuuiere» to disraade, diflsudd, 4c 


Vnmuasn, to presume, premimei, 

presametti and 



Rendeie, to lender, 





Bpendere, to qMnd, 






I berri, 


b) ThefbUowiiigfiye,tnd*droQmpoimde,hRTethe;Mi/<ttoHm«<dind9ict 

Piaoere, to please. 



Giaoere, to Ib^ lo be situate, giacqni, 


Taoere, to be silent, 


Ucinto. • 




Nasoere, to be bom, 



c) Tlie following three in 6M .*^ 




Conoscere, to know, 


Ciesoere, to grow, 


, erssdnto. 

4) The following tw«> in Aii .*— 

Cadere, to fidl,- 



Vedere, to see, 


i Teddi, {onHquatmi^ 

e) The following two in ppi ^- 


Rompere, to break, 



Sapete, to know. 



f) The following two in vi :— 


Paioie, to appear. 



g) Tlie following two in li and ti<f— 

Volere, to be wilUng, 



to wish, 

Tenere, to hold, 



403 KlffHTT-FirrR LMSOIC. 

4) AO the odierTerbt in «re liaT» (li6pef:Att9 rciMtoi>tii «< or «•; and the pot 
partldpk in m, io^ or <<a. The following le an alphabetical hat of them. 

Obff. DeriTmtiTe and oompovnd yerbe follow the aame coigngatlon ae their 
rimple. It ia lurtlier to be obaerved that the monoayllabical partidea a, e^ dlo, 
yVo, fo, M, mi, double the following conaonant, when it ia not • impun (L e. t 
followed by a conaonant), aa : oeepmcrc^ to nin np i eppemti to oppoae ; doUmc 
honeat;/roiii]Mtfcr«, to put between; raggiungtrt, to n||oin; aoeMuItn^ to 
ahnt up ; twrfrfi^^rffra, to aubdlTlde, Ae. 

Prima permma 

JnpuHto. deW Inditaii90 Peifdto 

PrutnU, nmeCoL 

Aeeendero, to light, aceendo^ ' aoceai, 

MiaeeauUrt, to re-kindle (See abore Oba.). 
Acc of getal, to percelTe, aeooigo, aocarai, aooortow 

Scorgere, to notice (See the above Oba.). 
AflUggere,! to aiflict, alliggOi ailUaai, alBitto. 

Appendere, to hang up, appendo, 9PV^ appeao. 

Soapendere, to deky (See the aboTe Oba.). 
Ardere^ to burn, aido^ arai, araow 

Aaoondere^ to conceal, . aaoondO) aacoai, 

Naacondeie, to hide (See the above Oba.). 
Aaaohrere, to abaolTe, aaaolvo, aaaolal, aaaolto. 

Riaolvere, to reaolTe (See the aboTc Oba.). 
Aaaorbere, to abaorts aaaorbo, aaaorai, aaaorta 

Aaanmere, to aaanme, aaanmo, aaaunai, aaaunto. 

Preaumere, to preaume (See the above Oba.). 

Rtaaaumere, to re-aaaume (See the aame). 
Chiedere, to aak, chiedo, chieai, ohiflBto. 

Richiedere, to demand (See the above Oba.). 
Chiudere, to ahnt, chiudo, . " diiuai, " chioMK 

Conchiudere {or Concludere), to infor, ' 

Eadudere, to exclude, 

Inchiudere (or Indudere), to indoae, 

Richiudere, U include, 
Rinchiudere, 3 ^ 

Schiudere^ to open, to ezdude, 
Socphiudere, to ahnt up, 

1 Verba having a vowel before gen^ double the letter g, aa: teggire, to nad. 
Ii^gfo^lread; le^ thou readeat ; f^sra^ he reada ; i«gpiam^ we read; kggei^ 
you read s Uggmw, they read, Ac There is further to be remarked that verba 
ending in gger€f vers, and arre, aa: qffiiggere, to afBlct; aerseere, to write | 
Inorre, to draw, double in the p^^fiMo fimoio the latter a, and have in the past 
oartidple tt, e. g. qffiimi, 9eri9»i, tramig aHlitto, acntto. tiatto. 

(See the above Oba.) 



Prinna ptTwmi 
b^bMoo, ddP htdicoHoo 

Accingersi or accigneni, to prepare 
one's self (See the nbove Olw.)* 

^8^«^'^ I to gather, } ^?"^' 




Corre, ^ '" »- -» < colgo, 

Accogliere or accorre, to rcceWe, " f (See the abofe 

Kaccogllere or raccorre, to collect, to pick up, j 


(See the above Obe.). 

(See the above Oba.) 
difendo. diiiaei, 

Connettere, to connect, . connetto, oonnesai, 

Correre, to run, ^ corro, corali 

Accorrerei to run np, 

doncorrere, to concur, 

Diflcorrere, to discourse, 

Incorrere, to incur, 

Percorrere, to run over, 

Ricorrere, to have recourse, 
Cuocere, to boil, to cook, ' cuoeo, cosai, 

Deludere, to delude, deludo, delud, 

Alludere, to allude, 

Illudere, to delude, 
Difendere, to defend, 

Offendere, to offend (See the above Obs.). 
Discutere, to examine, discuto, discuss!. 

Distinguere, to distinguish, distingo, distinal, 

Estinguere, to extinguish (See the above Obs.). 
Dividere, to divide, divido, divisi, 

Suddividere, to subdivide (See the above Obs.). 

Dolere,toache, |do^, ^^^ 

Erigere, to erect, erigo, eressi, 

Espellere, to expel, espello, espulai, 

Impellere, to impel (See the above Obs.), 

(See the above Obs.) 









> (See Obs. above.) 


Esprimere, to express, esprimo, 

Opprimere, to oppress, 

Gomprlmere, to compress, 

Deprimere, to depress, 

Imprimere, to impress, 

Sopprimere, to suppress,* 

iTlggere, to fix. ^ggo, flssi, 

Affiggere, to post up, 
Crocifiggere {or erucifig< 

gere), to crucii'y, 
Prefiggere, to prefix, 
Sconfiggere, to conquer, 
Trafiggere, to pierce, 

> Verbs in gliere change this ending In the ptrfetto rimoio into ki, and In tho 
cmst participle into tto, e. g. odogHtrt^ to untie— «c{oM, adoUo ; togHerCt to lay 
hold of-~<oK toUo, dte. 




FinfBTB, tofbigii, 

Ponden, to mdc, 

Confondere, to eonfonnd, 
DMIbndera, to poor out, 
Infondere, to InfuM^ 
Rlfonden, torattore, 
Tnifimdere, to pour from ono 
TOMel to anotlier, 

Pmigoro, to bnft| 

Infrugera^ to brmk to piecM, 
Rlfimiifera, torafloct, 

PrigseiVi to fry, 

Olangera, or 
Agginngere, to add, 
Congiuiigwe, to join, 
Di^ginngere, to d^join, 
Raggtungwe, to rejoin, 
Sogglangera, to add, raplf , 
Sopraggiungere, ) 
Somggiaiigen, J ^ t^P?^* 

laddere, to make an Incldon, 
Ciroonddere, to dreumdae, 
Daddare^ to dedd^ 
Raddaie, to cut, 

Intridan, to knead, 

Laggw^ to nad, 
EleggerOi to elect, 
BUeggare, to read over again, 

Her^e, to plimge^ 

Immefgere, toimmeige^ 
Sommergera, to anbmeige^ 

Mettere, to put, 

Ammettere, to admit, 
Gomaattere, to commit, 
Comprometttte, to oompromiae, 
Dimettere, to diacontiniieb 
Dlamettere, to diamlaa, 
Piammettere, T . ^,- 
Inframmettew, J ^ *""" "^ 
Intromettere, to let in, 
Ommettere, to omit, 
Pennettere^ to permit, 
Premettere, to put before, 
Promettere, to promiae, 
lUmettere, to remit, 
ScommetterB, to lay a wager, 

<UW InkaOioo 






(See Oba. abore.) 

> (See Oba. abote.) 
friggo, fried, 

gluigo, glvnai, 

(See Oba. abote.) 





(See Oba. above.) 
intzido, intrid, 

> (See Oba. abofe.) 

I (See tke above Oba.) 


» (See Oba. abov«.) 



Mettere^ to put, 

Smettere, to dismin^ 
Sommetteie, l^^^^^. 
Sottomettere, J •»«""*> 
Tnamettere, to tranBmit, 

Mordere, to bite, 

Iliiovere, to move^ 

GommuoTere, to disturb^ 
DismuoTere, to stir up, 
PromuoTere, to promoto, 
RimuoYere, to remove, 
SinuoTere, \o penrert, 

NegUgere, to neglect, 

Opprimere, to oppress, 

Pereuotere, to stiilLe, 

Fnaui ptTBotUL 
ddP IndUxOvoo 




(See Obe. above.) 

) mugno, 5 






- uoni, 


Scuotere,tosbake, J (gee Obs. sbore). 

Kiscuotere, to exact, > 
Piangere, to weep, pianto, 

pingere and Pignera^ to paint, . pingo, 

Dipingere, to depict (See Obe. above). 


Porgere^ to reach«— — 
Prendere, to take, 

Apprendere, to learn, to hear, 

Comprendere, to comprehend, 

Intraprendere,-to undertake^ 

Riprendere, to retake, 

Sorprendere, to surpHse, 
Proteggere, to protect, 
Pnngeitt, to stingy 
Radere, to shear, 
Redimere, to redeem, 
Reggere, to reign, to govern, 

Correggere, to correct, 

Ricorreggere, to correct again, 

Dirigere, to direct, . 

Erigere^ to erect, J 

RIdere, to laugh, rido^ 

Deridere, to deride (See Obi. above). 

Rimanere, to remain, rimango,- 

Rlq>ondere^ to answer. rispondo, 

Corrispondere, to sgree with (See Ob«. above). 

Rodere, to gnaw, rodo^ 

Corrodere, to fret (See Obs. above). 


(See Obs. above.) 






n«glessi, negletto. 







protesid, , 


lee Obs. above.) 









Prima peraona 
li^lmii99. dM JndicaJtwo Pmfdt^ 


Scerre, ) ( scegUoi 
PrMcegliere, to telect (S«e OIm. above). 
Scendere, to descend, Mendo, 

Ateendere, to ucend, -^ 

Coiidi.cei>de»,toooiideMend, ^g^e the ibow Ob..) 

Diecendere, to deece n d, f 

^TFMcendere, to exceed. J 

S«**«'**"'*^Jtooiitie, jidolgo, ) 

DiectogUere or dSeciorre, to dieeolve (See Obe. above). 

Serivere, to write^ 

Aecriverei to ascribe, 
Descrivere, to describe, 
InsGrivera^ to inscribe, 
Piescrivere, to prescribe, 
Rsserivere, to txanscribe, 
Sopraserivere, to sapetscribe, 
Sottoscrivere, to snbscribe, 
Tiascriver^ to copy, 

Snrgen, ) 

RlsoigerSi to Fssist, 
Inseigere, to rise against, 

Spargere, to spread, 

Spenders, to ip«tad, 

Spergere, to waste, 

Aspergere, to sprinkle, 
^spergere, to besprinkle, 
Dispergera, to disperse, 

1 ' 


(See Obs. above.) 



\ (See Obs. above.) 






lee Obs. above.) 

>(See Obi 

(See Obs. above.) 


Stringers ^\yf^ sqneeae, 
Strignere, ) 

Astrbagere, ? to force, 
Costringere, ) 

Sf*?****"' ? to restrain, 
Rlstringere, ) 

Stmggere, to dissolve^ 

Dlstruggere, to destroy (See CMml above) 

SveUere, to pull out, \ •^«"<>« 

> svelgo, 


(See Obs. above.) 








InfiiniHfXt, , 

Tendere, to tend, 

Attendere, to wait, 
Contendere, to contend, 
Estendere, to stretcli, 
Intendere, to understand, 
Pretendere, to pretend, 
Soprintendere, to superintend, 
Sottintendere, to understand, 

Tergere, to wipe, 

Intingere, to steep, 
Attingere, to reach, 
Ritingere, to die again, 

ddP Inaieaiivo 




' (See above Obs.) 


(See Obs. aboye.) 


C tolgo, I 
i toglio, S 

DistogUere or distorre, to divert ^ 
from, ( (See Obe. above.) 

I (See Obs. above.) 

RitogUere or ritorre, to retake, 
Torcere, to twist, torco, 

Contorcere, to wring, 

Rltorcere, to twist again, 
Valere, to be Wortl), 

Prevalere, to prevail (See Obs. above). 
Ucddere, to Idll, uccido, 

Ancidere (poefiooQ, to kill (See Obs. above). 
Ungere, to anoint, ungo, 

Vincer^ to vanquish, vinco, 

Convlncere, to convince (See Obs. above.) 
Vi?ere, to live, 

Rivivere, to revive, 

Soprawivere, to survive, 
Volgere, to turn, 

Avvolgere, ^ 

Rawolgere, ? to wrap up, 

Rinvolgere, 3 

Sconvolgere, to invert, 

Stravolgere,^ ^ 

Travolgere, > 

> (See Obs. above.) 


> overturn, 





• vissi, 




C valsb, 
( valuto. 



i vissuto 


»(See Obi. above.) 


A. Verbs ending in ueeref glUrt^ sure, oerej-are contracted in the infinitive, 
Ro that they have two infinitives, i. e, the ancient Latin, as : adduccr§, to ad- 



iiot; €Oglim% to gitlMrt pmur§, to put; iratr* {wad traggtrt\ to dnw; and 
the modem eontnetod iuSiittiye, •■ : addmrr^, eorrt, perre, fnorrf. The«eooiid 
ooatnetod inftniilTe to genenlly iiaed ; from it are formed the fntiireciid the 
pneent conditioiie], w: addyrr&, eorrb, porr^ trarrd, and odUurre^ eorrei, 
ptrrHf trarreL AH the other tenaee are formed from the aodeDt hifiaitiTe, as 
from coiMiueerc, Proa. eoiidiMQ^ eoiuiiid; eondiiee^ Ac. Impedect : eonduccoo, Ac. 
Impeft ea)q. eandunmif Ac. 

In the foOowing verbs the InfinltiTe is oontmeted, and the oontiaetion main- 
tabled for the fritme and present conditional »— 

Mi^mtHvo. Mh'$§mit» 


f» ..rfiTiif.irii 


Addmra, to addoee. *addiico» 





Condnm, imUmd ^ oondoeere^ to oondnct. 

Dednne, " « deduoere, to deduce. 

Introdorre, ** <* introdnoere^ to introduce. 

Produne, *« " producere, to produce. 

Ricondune, " " rlconducere, to reconduct 

Riduireb •• « riducew, to reduce. 

Riprodum, *' *' riproducere, to reproduce 

Sedurre, " " seducer^ to seduce. 

* Tradum, ** ** tradaoore, to transbite. 

Bere, to drink, «i- > * ^ 
jtaKf^bevera, J ^ 




Pone, to put, In- !««««. 
jtaKfqfponere. JP""*^ 




Anteporre, to prsfor. 

Imporra, to 




Comporre, to compound. 



Contrapporre, to oppose. 

Preporre, to 


Deporre, to depose. 

Propone, to 


Disporre, to dispose. 

Soprappone, to put upon. 

Eqwrre, to exposs. 

Sottoporre, to subdue. 

Frapporre, to interpose. 

Suppone, to 


Trarre, to draw, inr ttacgo, 




«<M<< of traeie. 


Astxarrs, to abstract 

Detrarre, to detraicL 

Attrane, to attract 

Estrarre^ to extract 

Contrarre, to oontnet 

Sottrarre, to deliver. 

Ck)rre> or K^^.v^ 5«>teOi 
cogUere, \^^^^ JcogUo,] 

J eoK 

colto, \ 


ecegUere^j**'*'^'*^ I scegUo, 

} •eeW, 

scelto, { 


* In the verbe in g^trt !Rie contraclsd form is generally pnfoned in poetry 




rone or 

I to untie, 
I to take,. 

PetfiUo P»^apio l^hdtgn 

(■dolgo, ) ^„ 
<8ciogUo, J ^ 

Ob», B, Be^des these, there are those verbe in er< that haTe (like aUri^ the 
accent on the last syllable but one; they are not contracted In the infinitive, 
bat in the future and conditional, where they reject the letter e of the last 
syllable but one, as : 

FutuTO, CandixUmaU. 

-dolto, J"^^5^r. 
c scios^erd. 

tolto. i *®"* ^ 
* i togUerd. 

Avere, to have. 



Dorere, to owe. 



Potere, to be able (can). 



Sapere, toknow. 



Yedere, to see. 



Parere, to appear. 



Ob». C. But when the verbs in ere (with the accent on the last syllable but 
one), end in nen and ler«, the letter n or I is in the contraction changed into 

r, as: 

FuJturo. Candufianoim 

Rimanere, to remain. 
Tenere, to hold. 
Dolere, to hurt 
Volere,;to be willing. 

JUmarrdk rimarrqi 
Terrd, terrei. 
Dorrdk dorrei. 
Varrd, varreL 
Yorrd, voneL 


Addnire, to allege; formerly addueere. 

Addncendo, alleging. 

Avere addotto^ to have alleged. 

Addotto, alleged. 














PoMoto Riaudo. 










Ho addotto, Ac I have alloged, 4e. 


AveTa addotto, Ac. I had alleged, Ac 

PreUHU AnUriar {Pas^ioRimcio Compmitf^ 

fibbi addotto^ Ac I had alleged, Ac 

f\Uur€ Pretnt or Simpie, 

I risaU allege, Ac 


1 Addurr-emo, 





Fuhwe Pott, (Futuro Perfetto). 

iTTd addotto, ^. . I shall have alleged, Ac 

Condiltimud PretmL 







▲▼lei addotto, Ac l8liouldhaTealkg8d,«« 

Pr€$aU iifHu Subjuneii9t. 

That I may allege, Ac 






1 Addttc-ano. 

Impnfid of tke Sutjundhe. 

If I aUegdd, Ac 





Preterpetfeet of tiu Sitbjuneihe. 

Che abbia addotto, Ac That I may ha¥o alleged, Ac 

Pluperftd qf the StibfuneHoe, 

S* lo avatrl addotto, Ac. If I had alleged, Ac 


Addae-i, allege (thou), 
rron addune, do not allege. 
Addnc-a, let him allege 

Addnc-Iamo, let iia allege. 
Adduc-ete, allege (ye). 
Addac-ano, let them allegs. 





Of Ihg Terbs in irt only the following are entirely regular . 



PerfeUonmoiQ. . 


Aprire, to open, 




BoUire, to boll, 




Conveftire, to convert, 





coprii (copend), 


Cudre, toaew, 




Dormire, to sleep, 




Fuggire, to flee. 




Partire, to depart, 




Pentirri, to repent, 


mi pentil, 


Segnire, to follow, 




Sentire^ to feel, 




Senrire, to aerre. 


■ervll, • 


Sofllrire, to soffer. 


soffirii (eoffersl), 


SoTtire, to choose, 




Yestire, to el^the. 


Teatil, ' 



The remaining verba in tre differ from the above regular form in so much 
that they end in the present tense in iaeo. This irregularity also takes place In 
the present of the subjunctive and imperative, as has been shown heretofore in 
the coqjugation of mUrire (p. 477). 

There is, however, still some doubt existing with respect to the first and 
second persona plural of these verbs; for in 'conversation, as well sa in some 
Italian authors, JbiimAUano, ntUriaduama, 4kc., as well as: Jbiiamqt mdriamo, 
are employed. Modem authors, however, seem to incline for the regular form 
in the first and second persons plural (ss in mOrire^ p. 477), except, notwith- 
standing^ where a double meaning is to be avoided ; as in the verbs ; arditt, to 
dare; aUerryrt^ to frighten; mardtre^ to rot; tmalU^e^ to digest; 4e. where 
ardiamo^ aOerriamo, mardamo^ tmaUiamo, are avoided, not to mistake them for 
the first person plural of ardtre, to bum ; aUerrarei to throw down ; mardarii 
to march ; •mottorfl^ to enamel. 

The following verbs and their compounds terminate almost always in tMS. 
Those marked with a cross (t) have also the regular form, as : abborrire— abbot' 
ritoOf abborro : but the form in wco is pteSened in conversation, the other in 
poetry and the didactic style. 

Abolire, to abolish, 
t Abborrfre, to abhor, 
Arricdiire, lo enrich, . 
Arrossfare^ to blush, 
Bandire, to banish, 
Capire, to understand, 
Colpire, to strike, 
Compatire, to pity, 
Concepire, to conceive, 
Dlgerh!c, to digest. 


























. compatito. 











Parf4M9 Haute. 


EMgvira, to eseealfl^ 




Piorire, to bloowm, 




Oradire, toapprOTO, 




tlmptnire, to grow iimiI, 


Incrudetira, to grow cmel, Incmdelifco, 



tLanguiie, to languiih, 




Paiire, to sofler, 




Perire, to perish, 




Spodife, to di^Mteh, 




Tradire, to betny, 




UbUdiTB, to obef , 

QbbidiMSO, . 



Unlio, to unite, 




06t. The Terba aprin, to open; ^aprirt, to cover; riopprin, to cover again ; 
teoprin, to nncover ; o^«n(i^ to ofiqr ; aa ako d{ferir*^ to differ; frvferirt, to 
otter; tefirin, to sufleri have a double perfeUo rimoiOf via. the regular, as : 
fiprui ^$rii, Ac, and an irregular, aa operd; qfsni^ 4e. Ex. 
I opened, tlioa openedst, he opened, AprU or aptrm^ aprUUt apH or 

We, yon, they opened, 

ilprtmtnfl^ aprisUf i^rirvne^ or optr- 

06t. A. b^kArt (alao in^fcMrt), to influence, haa in the fierfetto jimoto only 

Obt, B, The verb opjwir t , to appear, and Ita compound eomparvrt, to appear, 
have in the perfetto xlmoto, beaidee the regular form In ti, another in m,« aa : 

I appeared, thou appearadat, he ap- 
We^ yon, they ^ipeared. 

Apparii and apparvi, apparisti, ap- 

parl, aand apparve. 
Appailmmo, appariate, apparirono 
Olid apparvenK 

Ob9, C. Of the verbe in trt the following three are contracted in the futora 
and conditional : 

To die, f^MTtr^ ftitnre morrd^ conditional morrtL 

To aaoend, mHtc, ** aarrd, " aarrel (poetical). 

Onproae) aaUrd, " aallreL 

Tocome^ venire^ verrd, '* rerrei. 

•Obff. D. The only one of the verbs In irt that haa a contracted InfinitiTe ia 
4lra, formerly dioeffl, to aaj. 

There are onlf four irregular Terba of the first coigugation, viz.— 
Ajndai^ to go ; fan (formerly./^ioire), to make, to do ; dan^ to give ; iton^ ta 

« Thia double form in the perfdto rimoio is to be attributed to the double 
infinitive of the rerbs ; for we find ako apparen, amparere, though the lattar 
be not used. 

N. B. The Italian language la very rich in the irerba la ima. 

They are coiyugated in the following mannec : 


iTifinUvK PreaerU, 

AiinAW, to go. 

Fau, to do. 

Dabs, to give. 

Stabs, to atand. 


Etieere andato, to 

Aver iatto, to 

Aver dato, to 

Eaaere atato, to 

have gone. 

have done. 

. have given. 

have atood. 

Part&ipU JPrcfeiU. 

Andando, going. 

Faoendo, doing. 

Dando, giving. 

Stando, atanding 


Andato, gone. 

Fatto, done. 

Dato, given. 

State, atood. 

Pruent huUeaHoe, 


I go, 4kc. 


I give, Ac. 

I atand, Ac 


Faccio (or fo), 





















I went, ^. 

I did, dc. 

I gave, Ac. 

1 atood, Ac 


Fac-cva (/«a), 








&c-eva (/ea), 














PrderUe DeJbiUe ( Paasato Rimoto). 

1 went, did^. 

I did, did do, 

1 gave, did give, I atood, did atant 







Diedi (cletti), 




deatl, • 




diede(dd,<ie««), atette, 










diedero {^tUrmu^ atettero. 

ferono), " 


Prdtrptrftet (Paaaato ^roaaimo). 

1 have gone, 

I liave done 

I have given. 

I have atood, Ac. 


(made), Ac 


Sono andato, ^. 

Ho fatto, «c. 

Ho dato, Ac. 

Sono atato, Ac. 


I had gone, ^. 

I had done 

I had given, Ac. 

I had stood, Ac 

Era andato, de. 

Avevik&tto, Ac. 

Aveva dato, Ac 

Bra atato, Ac. 



PrderUe AnieHor <Paa 
I had gone, Ac. Ihad done, Ac 

Fui tndAto, Ac Ebbi ftttoj ice 

ftto Rimoto Compoeto). 

I bad given, Ac I had stood, At. 
EbbI dato, ^. Fui etato, Sc 





I shaU or wib 

make, Ac. 

give, Ac 

stand, Ac 






















. la-nuino. 





I shaUhave 

I ahaUhave 

I ahaU have 

gone, Ac. 

done, Ac. 

given, Ac 

stood, Ac 

Airrd &tto, Ac 


Sard stato, stota, 

andata, Ac. . 




I should do^ Ac. 

l8houldgive,Ac I should stand, Ac 






















' &.iebbero {iano). 



OmdiHonal PaM. 

I should \UM 


I should have 

I ahottld have 

gone, Ac. 

done, Ac 

given, Ac 

stood, Ac 

ATrei fiUto, Ac . 

Avrei dato, Ac 

Sarei stato, stata, 



Pru^nt qftiu Subjundite. 


do or make, 















che egU vada, 




che noi andiamo. 

fiu»damo, . 






che essi vadano. 


diano {dUno). 

stiano («f£ene) 

Mperftd qfOu Subjunctive. 

rf I went, Ac. 

made, Ac. 

gave, Ac 

stood, Ac 

Se io and-aasi, 




se tu and-assi. 




e*e«^i and-asee, 



■e not and-BSslmo, 




ae voi and-aste. 








Ptrfaet of the Skibfuneiive, 


That I may have 

may have done. 

may have given. 

may have stood, 

. gone. Ac. 




Che io eia andato, 

abbia &tto, A«s, 

abbia dato, Ac. 

sia state, stata, 

andata, Ac. 


Pbtpafed of the Suijunetwe, 

If I had gone, 

had gone, 

had given, 

had stood. 





Se fosai andato, 

ayessl fatto, Ac. 

avessi dato, Ac. 

fossi state, ktata. 

andata, Ac# 




Va. go (thou), 

Fa, do (thou), 

DA, give (thou), 

Sta, stand (thou). 

non andare, go 

non fare, do 

non dare, give 

non istare, do (thou) 

(thou) not, 

(thou) not, 

thou (not), 

not stand, 

▼ada, let him 

faccia, let him 


stia, let him stand, 




andiamo, let us 

facciamo, let us 

diamo, let us 

Btiamo, let us stand. 




andate, go (ye), 

fate, do (ye). 

date, give (ye). 

state, stand (ye), 

▼adano, let them 

facciano, let them 

diano, let them 

stiano, let them 





06#. A* Verbs compounded of dare and store, such as : eeeondare^ to assist ; 
sSreondaref to encompass ;— amwtore, to approach ; etmtrattare, to resist ; ottare^ 
to oppose i coetartt to cost ; redare, to rest, are regular ; except, ridare, to give 
again, which is coqjugated like dare^ to give ; and eoproHare or «orrajtore, to 
superintend, to threaten, which is conjugated like store, to stand. 

Obs. B, Verbs compounded of /are, as: diqfare, to undo; rtfaret to repair | 
•oddiffare^ to satisfy ; eoprtffort^ to overpower, Ac. are always irregular like 
••'ire, to do. 


Preliminary ObeervatioTU.^U the learner has studied well all that we said on 
the irregularity of the Italian verbs, he lias in the following irregular verbs only. . 
to make himself acquainted with the present of the indicative and subjunctive, 
and in order to know this he has only to remark tlie following : — 

When an irregular verb has in the first person singular of the present tense 
other consonants than those of the infinitive, as~in potere, where it has poem 
instead ofpoto^ it retains those consonants also Iq the first and third persons plu- 
ral, as : paeaiamo, we can ; poeeono, they can, and in all the persons of the pre- 
sent of the subjunctive, as : poeea, I ma^ be able ; poteiy thou mayest be able i 
posaa^ he may be able ; poeeiamOj poeeiate, poeeano. The imperfect of the indlca* 
tlve and that of the subjunctive are always regularly formed from the Ihfinittra. 
Ex. inf. pot-ere ; imperf. Ind pol-eva ; imperf. subj. pof-estt, Ac. 




I rmaiovLAt tbsu batuio trb Aotmrr ow i 


ii|f. j»r<9. Polfre» to be able (ten). 
h^.pati. Aver potuto, to hare been 

Poeeo, I can, Ac 


Pnd ifuoU), 



Posaono (pomie). 

Pret. part. Potendo, being able. 
PaHpmt» Potato, been able. 

t^e$0nt miJbf, 
Cai' io poaaa, that I may be abb, Ac 
Che to poaaa (poifO. 
Ch' egli poaaa. 
Che no! posalamo. 
Che Tol poealate. 
Ch' igUno poiaano. 

fmptnf* Potera, Ac. I ooold, Ac. 

pifftiio rimU^ Potei (poMM), poteati, poti, potemmo, poteate, potenmo {ptUtm 

Uro\ I could, Ac. 
tmptrf. 9ubJ, Be poteaal, Ac If I conkl, Ac 
fWvra. Potrd, pdtrai, Ac I ahall be able, Ac 
Cmd, jtrM, Potrei {potria), potreati, Ac I ahould be able, Ac 

h^, pret. DoY€re, to be obliged 

A|/C patL Atst dovato^ to have been 


Davo (fUbbQ, d€ggio\ I muai, 

Devi (do). 

Dobbiamo {d^ggiamo). 


Derono {dMcnu, dtggieno). 

Prt», pari, Dovendo, being obliged. 
Pott part, Doynto, been obUged. 

Ch* io debba (d^gi^), that I may ba 

obliged, Ac 
Che tu debba {deggia), 
Ch* egU debba {deggia). 
Clie noi dobbiamo {d^ggiamo)* 
Che Toi dobbiate {deggiaU). 
Ch' eglino debbano {diggiano), 

hufprnf. DoTera, Ac I waa obliged, Ac 

Paif. Hm. Dovei {daotUS^ doveati, dovd (dovette), dovemmo, doreate, dovet- 

teio, I waa obttgodi Ac 
Hiptaf. mAi> Doveaai, Ac If I were obliged, Ac 
FSOare. Dorrd^ donal, Ac I ahall be obliged, Ac 
Cmd, pret, DoTiel, ^ I ahould be obliged, Ac 



VoKre, to be wliling. 
Aver Tolnto, to have been 

Prta, part, Volendo, being willing. 
Patt pari, Yoluto, been willing. 

Prm, ind. Voglio (ae^), vnoj, Tnob^ vogliamo^ voletfl^ vogUono, I 
willing^ Ac 


Pre9, md(f Che io TogUa, tu voglia, egU vogna, vogUamo, vqgttato, vogKano. 

thttt I may be wffllng, 4q.' 
Fmpmf. Voleva, Ac. I was willing, Ac, 

Per/, rim, VoUI| volesti, vollei Yoiemmo, voleste, vdllerOi I was willing^ Ac 
imperf. mtj. Se Yoleasi, Ao^ if I were willing, A«. 
PiUure, Yorrd, vorral, Ac. I shall be willing, Ac. 
Coiui pret. Vorrei, Toireati, Ac I should be willing, Ac. 

Inf. prtk Sol6re, to be accnstomed. 
■/fl/*. pa9t. Essere solito, to have been 

Pru.yart. Soiendo^ being aeeiw* 

Past pari, Solito, been accostomed. 

Prt9. ind. Soglio, noB, suola^ sogliamo, solete, sogliono, I am accna- 
tomod, Ac. 

Pru, subj. Ch* io BOglia, che tu soglia, ch' egli soglia, sogliamo, sogliate^ 
eogliano, that I may be accustomedi Ac. 

hnperf. Soleva, solevi, soleva, Ac. I was accustomed, Ac 

hnperf. mdj. Se io solesai, tu solessi, egli solesse, Ac. If I was accus- 
tomed, Ac. 
Oba. This verb is delective, and the tenses wanting are generally made up 

by means of the past participle with tf«er^ as : io sono, io era, I0 fui, io sard 

solito, Ac. 

Prew. part, Sapendo, knowing. 
PoMt part, Saputo, known. 

h^. pru, Sap^re, to know. 
h^, pad, ' Aver saputo, to have 


Pre9. indie. So, sai, sa, sappiamo, sapete, sanno, I know, Ac. 
Pre9, $ubj, Ch' io esppia, tu sappia, egli sappia, noi sappiamo, voi sappiatSb 

eesi sappiano, that I may know, Ac. 
Imperf, Sapeva, sapevi, Ac. I knew, A& 

Pmf, rim, Seppi, sapesti, seppe, sapemmo, 8apeste,.seppero, I knew, Ac 
Imperf, euhj, Se io sapeMi, tu sapessi, egli sapesse, Ac If I knew, Ac 
Ptihgre, Saprd, saprai, Ac I sluUl know, Ac. 
Cand, pree. Saprei, sapresti, saprebbe, Ac. I should know, Ac. 
Imperatbte, Sappi, sappia, sappiamo, sappiate, sappiano, know thou, Ac 

Inf, prte, Ved^re, to see. 

If\f. poet. Aver veduto, to have seen. 

Pree. part. Vedendo {teggendo)^ 1 

Poet part Veduto (vieto\ seen. 

* The irregular verbs in Ure (with the accent on the last syllable but one), as 
vcUre: doUre, to grieve; vaUre, to be worth, and their compounds, take in the 
first person g^ which is retained in the persons mentioned in the Preliminary 
Observations (p. 606). In doUre and voUre g may precede or follow the letter I, 
except in the first and second persons plural, where the soft sound, dqgHame, 
degUaU, is preferred to the hard, dolghiamOf dolghiaie. 



Prm. imd, V«do (t^go^viggia), vedl, y%d% yeeflamo {9eggiaimo\ vedal^ 

▼edono {veggonOf veggitmo), I see, Ac 
Pre*. mUfJ, Ch' lo, tu, egU veda {vegga^ w^^)» noi vediamo (v^ggiamo), *e^ 

that I may see, Ac* 
Impetf, lo vedeva, ta Tederi, Ac. I saw, Ac 
Ptrf. rim, VUli, vedeati, vide, Tedemmo, vedeste, videro, I nw, Ac 
Jmpmf. nifrf. Se lo vedeaal, ttt Tedesal, Ac If I saw, Ac 
PuJturt, Vedrdk Twlrai, Ac lahaUaee^Ac 
Omd, pTit. V«drei, vedreati, vedrabbe, Ac I ahonld aea, Ac 
imptrnHH, Tedl, veda {Hgg^t vediamo {ptggieam\ Tedete, Yedano (v^^ono), 

aeetbon, Ac 

h{f. fTf, Sed€re, to ait. 
ii|f. pati. Aver (or eaaere) aedvto^ to 
hare aat. 

Prta. pari. Sedendo {Mggmdo), tAu 

ttng. ' 
PaaiparL Sednto. 

Fre§. intL Siedo {Mggo^ 9eggio), aiedi, aiede, aedlamo {•eggiamo)^ aedeto, ale- 

dono {teggvno, Mggicmo), I ait, Ac 
Fru, §ubj, Ch* io, tu, «gli alada {Mggth •tggia)^ eediamo {iteggiamo), sedlale 

{aeggiaU)t aiedano {aegganOf Hggiano)^ that I may ait, Ac 
hnp, Sedeva, ledeTi, Ac I aat, Ac 
Pmf, rim, Sedal {9td€Ui\ aedead, ledd (aedeOe), aedemmo, aedeate, aaderono 

(9etUiUro\ I aat 
imperf,9uij, Se io aedeaal, ta ledeaai, Ac If I aat. 
fSUure. Sederd (poet Mdrd), Ac lahallalt^Ac 
Cond, pm, Sederei, Ac I ahoald ait, Ac 
imperaihc Siedl, aieda (Mggs), aediamo {9eggiamo), aadete, aiedano {Hggotm\ 

alt thou, Ac 


P9e9. pari. Parendo, appearlni:. 
Pad parL Paruto {parmf^ appeared. 

hif. pru, Parire, to appear. 
htf, paai» Avar parato (parto), to 
have appaafed. 

/Vm. ituL Paio^ pari, pare, paiamo (poriomo), parete, paiono, I appear, &c. 
Pret, §ui>j, Ch* io paia, tu paU, egU paia, pariamo, pariate, paiano, tint I ma> 

appear, Ac 
fmpmf. PareTi, pareri, Ac I appeared, Ac 

P^. rim. Parri, paieati, parve, paremmo, pareate, panreio, I appeared, dbe. 
impmf. nifrf. Se pareaai, Ac If I appeared, dbc 
AifuTi. Parrd, pairai, parr&, Ac I ahall appear, Ac 
CoiuL pret. Panel, parreati, dbc I ahould appear, Ac 

* Verba In dirt (with t^o accent on the laat ayllable but one) may in the firai 
peraon of the preaent take inatead of d the letter^, which la doubled between 
two Towela, and pronounced either hard, aa in ^ or aoft, aa the En^pUah j. 
Only there is to be observed, that, aa here above (note>), in the firet and seoond 
persons plural, the soft sound, aa veggiama, vtggiaU^ ia to be prelerred to tlM 




Prtt, part. DolendOi gileviqg. 
Peui pari, Dolttto, grieved. 

h{f, prm. Dol6re (see note ', p. 607), 

to grieve. 
Inf. poBt, Eseere doluto, to have 


Pret. ind. Doglio {dolgo) duoU, daole, dogUamo {dolghiaino)^ dolete^ dogUono 

{dotfi:ano)f I grieve, dbc. 
Pres. wbj. Ch, lo' tu, egU doglia (dolga), dogliamo (dolghiamo), dogUate {dot^ 

ghiate)f dogliano (dolgano), that I may grievie, dkc. 
Imperf. Doleva, dolevi, dkc. I grieved, dbc. 

Per/, rim. Dolei, dolesti, dolse, dolemmo, doleate, dolsero, I grieved, Ac . 
Imperf. wbj. Se dolessi, &c. If I grieved, dtc. 
Future. Dorrd, dorral, d^. I shall grieve, 6lc. 
Cond. pre*. Dorrei, dorresti, Ac I should grieve, &c. 


Ir\f. pret, Val^re (see note >, p. 607), 

to be worth, 
ifl/: poMt. Aver valuto, to have been 


Prta. part Valendo^ being wonh. 
PoMt part, Valato (fiaho)^ been worth. 

Pres. ind. Vaglio {valgo)t vali, vale, vagllamo {vaigkiamo)^ valete, vagUono 
{v€Ugono\ I am worth, dbc. . ^ 

Pret. 9ubj. Ch* lo, tu, egli vaglla (valga)^ vagUamo {vaighiamo), vagliate, vag- 
liano {valgano)t diat I may be worth, &^. 

Imperf Valeva, valevi, dbc. I was worth, Ac 

Perf rim, Valsi, valesti, valse, valeniroo, valeste, valsero, I was worth, Ac. 

Imperf tuij, Se io valessl, dbc. If I was worth, &e. 

Puture. Varrdi.varral, varra, dbc. I shall be worth, &c. 

Cond. prt9. Varrel, varresti, dkc. I should be worth, dkc. 

Imperative. Vali, vagUa, vagliamo, valete, vagUano, be thou worth, Ao. 

Pre*, part. Cadendo, falling. 
Pagt part. Caduto, iaQen.