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^ 



THE 



NO RTH AMERICAN 



REYIEW. 



VOL. CIX. 



Ttm Tyrinsqne mlhi duIIo diwrindiie agettir. 



BOSTON: 
FIELDS, OSGOOD, A CO. 

1869. 




A..'"/ ^4 7. 



KalMvil ncrarling to Art or ('oiigrcni, in th« ymr 1R69, by 

K I K T, T> 8 . O S Ci O » , & CO., 

In Ibe Clerk 'n Office of tha District C«urt of the Dlttrlct of 5ftuuwrhH.-Njtt«. 



UMivmaiTV pRifs: Wklch, BinsLow, ft Co., 
Cambsidui. 



CONTENTS OF No. CCXXIV. 



rioi 

ITerethtart Tvsanitt 1 

La rBVflialogic Morbide Hunii ses Rapports avec lu 
T*Jiilo«>phie tie I'lliittoire. ow de riiiflactit'c tle^ Nevro- 
patUirs siir !e Dyiminlaine iiilcllecltiel. Pnr le DoCTKCR ,- 
T. MosExc (do Touri*), M^fdecin de riloapice do Bi- 
ekire. 

A CnArrER or Erie 80 

TuK Keligiov or Akcient Gbueck 106 

1. Die Ucligion dcr Ciricchen. Von J. A. IIarti;no. 

2. PmU'^ioriitna xii p'mer H-i.ssvnsclial'dichen Mflholo- 
^it;. VoD Karl OiiritiEn MUller. 

TlIK POTERTV OF EnOLAKTi 122 

1. Public H4MiUb. Reports of (he Medicu) OlRcer of 
the Privy Council, 

2. Tvrcncifitii Arinunl Report of the Poor Law Bonrd. 
S. Firsl Report of llin Comini^-ioners on the Eriiploy- 

IDUOt of C'hiKlri^n, Young Per=ouB, luid Women, in Agri« 
caUure. 

Open-air Grape Ct:T,TniE 155 

\, Au Elementary Tri'niise on Americiui Grape Cul- 
fore and WiniMTinking. By Peter B. Mead. 

2. VtnoyArd Culture Improved and Cheapened. By 
A. Du Brki;il. Translated by E. and C Parker. 
WitU Notes and Adaptations to Americun Culture, bj 
Jqbk a, Wardku. 

S. The Gmpe-Vine. By Fred£RICK Jloiiu. Trnns- 
Ufed by Charles Siedhop. 

4. Tlie Wine-maker*^ Manual. By Charles Reeme- 
Lur. 

5. Address of Dr. C W. Grant, delivered before the 
Grvpe-GrctWCTS* Convention at Cnnunclnigun, N. Y., Octo- 
ber SO, iar^8. 



Contents, 

6. The CultivatioD of the Native Grape and the Man- 
ufacture of Amrricfln Wine. By Gbobge Hcsmanx, 
of Herman, Mias-nuri. 

7, The Culture of the Grape. By W. C Strowo. 

IlDN-aART AND ROUMANIA .... 

TiiK Laws of HtsroRr 

1. A History of the Intellectual Development of Eu- 
rope- lly JouN William Drapkh^ M. D., LL. D. 

2. Ancient Law ; iu Cnnin-ctiou wiih llie Early His- 
tory of SfK-it^Ly., nnrl Its Uehktlon to Motlern Idea^. Uy 
HKNsr Slmner Maine. 

^ni. Voloakoks 

1. Vesuvius. By Jony PniLurs, M. A. 

2. Ili^toire Complete dc lagrande Kruptlon dts V^i^ura 
de 1631. ParH. Le Ron. 

3. Reifte der Oestnrreichisclien Fropitle Novnrn uni 
die Erdc in den Jahren 1857, IS.'iS, 1H5D. Gcologischtr 
Tht'il, Kr:>ter Band, Ersle Abthoilung. Geologic vou Neu- 
Seclnnd. Von Dr. Fcrdinanu von Hocustettek. 

4. Voya^« Gt-'ologique dans les RepuljliipiOsde Guato- 
mala et San Salvador- Par MM. A. Dollfcs et K. Dk 
Mont-Skkrat. 

5. The Natural SyslPm of the Volcanic Ro*:!^. By 
Baron F. Richtrokkn. Kxiracted from the Memoin 
of the California Academy of Sciences 

IX. Chiticai. Notices 

Uc Costa '« DitfL'uverv of AmcTica. 365. — Saulc^'s Elude il'Ksdru el da 
Ki'liomiv, 37!J. — Bicktnorv's Travolfl in Ihi? Ensl Inditin AK*l>t|icli>|^J 
476. — Broirnine's The llintj nml iha Uuuk, 2T9. — iitpr&^uo'ti Annals o^ 
ilic Anioriwin Pulpit, 'i83. — Marci'I's Stadr of Lanj^iijjiM, 385. — \lr\)or 
(jf IiiNiituitfin for l)i^ Attd iJumli, 2S7. — Liji))iu*s Infitritry, Artillfry^ 
and Cttvulry, 290. — I'circc's Ualf-Ctntury with .luvenile I>clinqueiiut,j 
SM. — B«rtlctt*3 FamiHar Quointlons, 293. — Dana'a Two Veur* 
fori? thr Mnst. V98. — StnUli'ii RutatioDs btrtwean America nnd Knglani]„ 
299 — Stcdntan'<i UlnntclcBA Pnncc, 301. 



List of some Rkcknt Pcdlications 




JULY, 1869. 



IT. I. — La Ptycholo'jie Morhidf dans ses Itttpports ava^ la Phi- 
to90/rhif (If rUistoire^ uu de Vlnjhtcnce dn N^vrvpathies sur 
U Difttnmiiime*hiU-Utdad. Par le DoCTEim I. MoreaC (de 
Touth), JltUticia de rHospice de Biciitre, Paris. 1859. 
pp. 576. 

Op all tlie difloases to which our race is liable, wc doubt it* 
Ithere » another Uiat tuucbcs our iutorcsta at so many dif- 
Tfereiit foiutH as inaanitr. In its attacks it spares no class 
I of men ; It meeta ub every day m our courts, embarrassing llio 
I coarse of jiujtice; its victims are regarded by every Cliria- 
tian state as entitled to special cnrc and protection ; and tlm 
1 kind of inanagemoiit best calculated to reconcile the clainm of 
[homiLuity with those of a pro])er economy has become one of 
x'Stions of social science. Thou^'h none of the ro- 
il. - „jeut inquiries into this subject will compare with 
[UiciRo grand diacoverics, the circulation of the blood and vao- 
1, yet taken in the aggregate, and regarded in their 
as well 'A& their direct and present effects, it canjiot 
lied that they amount to a considerable contribution to 
>wlodgc. 

' course of inquiry respecting mental disease has been 

Jr hindered by a class of difficulties over and above tlioso 

It to the study of \i\\ disease. Besides the organic lesion 

irbance, liiero is the mental atiection springing from 

[miies a« yet hut littJe widerstood. T\\q part borne by ea<;\v ot 

roL. as. — ifo. 224, 1 



Hfrcditary Insanity. 



[J 



tbeae elements iii producing the uUimate result, their eom 
boud of counectiou, the la'wa hj which they act and react a 
each other, — all these are problems compared with -whio 
those involved in tbo study of mere bodily di^eai^e are ti'ivial o 
transparent. Moreover, the student ftjund himself, at the ver 
threshold of his inquiry, face to face ^>ith tlie meta]^yaician na 
the theologian, by whom he was warned against entering upoi 
their domains if lie would shun the jiaius and penalties imjioftei 
upon materialism, and was tims com{>ollcd to receive paasivel; 
whatever they offered him without examining it too closely a 
cuiiously. The idea of a humble inquirer who watched (iii 
mental pheuomoua in the wards of a lunatic hospital, euu 
sought for a key U^ their mysteries amid the blood and filth a 
a disscoting-room, questioiiiug the sufficiency of those s{>eculii 
tions wltich the world had been accustomed to regard with ai 
almost sacrod awe, implied a sort of presumptijjn*that bordcref 
on sacrilege. On tliis point, there is now little room for com 
ploiut. The freest investigation may be pursued witbou 
provoking censure, and a man may come to almost ao; 
couclusiuus LJi such studies witliout beiug thought an cm 
of religion or morality. 

These hindrances to the study of morbid psychology si 
to prevent much progress in it until within a compai-ativ 
recent period. Observers were content with recordiu; 
more obvious manifestations of mental and bodily disturb 
they made autopsies, faithfully describing every lesion aui 
change; and they tried new medicines and new applian't 
But there came no results worthy of so much labor. It scarcdl; 
helped to dissipate the obscurity that hung over the w 
domain of mental disease. It furnished no answer 
questions that mot the student at the outset uf his inqu: 
Indeed, people were hardly agreed in considering insani^ 
legitimate object of physiolo^cal inquiry. It was tbougl 
many to be something quite outside of the operation of un' 
causes, — probably a visitation of God or the DeWl. Only fiH, 
years ago, it was declared by a distinguished German wri 
(Ueinroth) to be tlie unhallowed fruit of copulation bet' 
the soul and sin. 

Pursued in such a spirit as thia, the most diligent st 



SBtife* 



^^ 



»,] 



Iftri'ditary LtMOPitj/, 



nitr o<nild reach no vorj valuable concloflionft. Naturally 
H jriren to its cnuscB: but It seemed to be 
i.j^ in tboBC prorniiiont, B|H.H'irtl events that pro- 

it nat very remotely, and to roeogiuze the connoction, 
tnih' ' 'i caro to understand all or any of the conditions. 

\%v I M iu (he iiivestii^tion was simply a record of this 

tiectioQ ; and thus, whether the attack had been preceded 
on the l»ead, a .supprospod secretion^ a domestic 
i religious excitement, or the turn oflife, that particu- 
^rrent,singlod out from all the other events of lite, was to be 
deti an itA cause. It was no part of the philosophy of these 
or investigators to explain how such dissimilar agencies 
I he competent to produce similar eflfeets. No mortal had 
^undertaken to trace the successive steps of that uiorbid 
\ whicli, he^nning with a fall nn the head or a disappfjint- 
nwt in lo%'e, ended in an attack of furious mania or melan- 
|d)n|y and suicide. The revelations of pathological anatomy 
l*ere of doubtful signific4inco to men who were unable to go 
md the visible record, and whom the actnnl lesions before 
heir eyes taupht nothing respecting those that had preceded 
|tbem. Tliey looked foi* something, they hardly knew what, and 
lAt they found ledt the mystery as deep as ever. Tlie tumor, 
" "' Bcess, the inflammation, the thickening, the serous ofFu- 
twere thomugldy examined and minutely descrilKid ; but 
3er they had caused tlie insanity, or the insanity had 
them, WHS far from l)eing a settled point. Certain men* 
enomena during life had coexisted with certain phenomena 
rerod after death, ami to know tiiis fact seemed to be a , 
ve gain in which they had a right to rejoice. Names and 
ea were mistaken for ideas, and a collection of Ijarren 
for a trea*ury of invaluable knowledge. 
■ •■ " reserved for a recent generation to see the study of 
jursued with reference to its proper aims, under the 
ttBlw and in the spirit of a liberal scieuce. Pinel l>egan the 
Irtftirm by discarding many of the time-honored notions con- 
^n»cteil with it, and throwing upon its difficulties the light of a 
|^(ul, sagacious, and disciplined intellect. Esquirol, tliough 
difTcreutly endowed, contributed to the same end, by^ 
ling and recording a great many cases, with a degree 



SeYeditartf Insanity^ 



clearness, precision, antl graphic art never eilaibitcd 
same field before. Following the sanio btylo of ubso 
their succeasors have entered upon a line of inquiry wUn 
showH the highest concoptiona of the end uud aim of Ui 
researches. Prepared hy a aevcrc professional training, 
the objects of their peculiar study thronging around 
they have succeeded in taking that necessary step whio* 
aiats in the correct appreciation of the relative impori 
facts ; and, while not despising the results of their predece 
Bors, they seek for something more worthy the name of Trhi 
Bacon calls the fruit of scientific investigation. Although tht 
think it well enough to know how many patients in a himdrc 
recover and how many do not, how many are over a cerla 
age and how many under, yet tliey deem it far better to asce 
tain, if possible, those primordial movements which initia 
mental disorder, the conditions under which the intogfity i 
tlie mind is preserved, and the laws which regulate Uie 
luission of the morbid germ from one generation to ant 
Among the investigators of this school, none has achie 
more Iionomhle or permanent distinction than the au 
the work before us. To the abimdaut opportunities for 
vntion aPfunlcd by the private asylum at Ivry and a Iong"rt 
vice at the Bicetro, ho joins a knowledge of character derive 
from much intercourse with the world, and that kind of i»ta 
lectual discernment that can sec in a fact something mor 
than what directly meets the eye. He is entitled to all tb 
credit that belongs to an accurate observer, a lalx)rious sti 
dent, and an original thinker. Xo one interested in studie 
of tliia kind can safely neglect his works, for they iit' 
better than those of any other writer of our times, the i 
stride which the study of morbid psychology has made 
the last century. 

The work before us furnishes a new and very original in 
tation of the facts of psycliological science, well calculate 
excite the scorn and derision of all who adhere to the beat 
track, and the admiration of those who rejoice in bold inq 
though they may not ncoept the conclusions to which it lea 
If any apology were needed for biinging it up at this late, 
it would be enough to say, that it is but little known 




■i 



Sist€dii<try Iniamty, 

ntiy, and that most of its tigwb have been rather confirmed 

kcnod bv subsequent inqnirica. At present, wc shall 

.r*a atteutioii on the lending idea than on tlic sulwrdi- 

but no loM important priuciplee from which chiefly that 

" 'd to derive its support. In illuHtratlng and explain- 

; ., we Bliall not confine ourselves etrictiy *o the author's 

, bid work being intended for a class of readers soniowhat 

niliar with the subject. 

PhyRiologists have been fond of considering life as a state 

ateined by the action of certain forces, mysteriously at- 

to the orjwnic structure, against the pcr|>otual influ- 

arnund it that tend to impair its vigor and drive it 

the • material form which it serves to animate. It 

that partietdar itarts of the structure are sub- 

ly to iho general operation of this law, but, each 

I its peculiar way, to some special advcrso influence tending 

and destroy them. The lungs, the liver, the 

luiidrt, are thus ex])osed to mortific agencies in 

I earth or atmosphere ; and in this respect the brain differs 

them ordy iu the kind of agencies that deteriorate its 

and prefrtire it for fatal disease. Though not so easily 

lined and described as many of the agencies of nature, yet 

'<? none the less ublo to mark the general character of 

mode of their o]jeration, the extremes of tlicir ac- 

|Nt}^, and the means of prevention. 

T(i [ ill the initial movement of disease, we must con- 

111 reduced to its simplest elements. These, as 

hO¥ understood, consist of a cell, with connecting filaments, 

i-ve»sol. M'ithin the former, which is nourished by 

I , is generated the nene-fotce on which the mental 

lena depend. By means of this simple apparatus are 

11 tlioso primitive forces which, in one way or another, 

iiiil to the mtsntal ]>honomeua. Tlie various combina- 

I of cell and vessel furnish the requi.sito variety of particular 

ilts. Tlic ^ntid force which keeps them in activity, and thus 

BCtires the fulfilment of their appropriate function, is called 

xcitahility, and, of course, supfxisos on exciting agent. In 

^^i, 1. ,.. ._ — _ ^^ activity of the one and the other is 

iiud the function is perfectly executed. Let 





Hereditaria Luanity. 

this excitation bo iiicrca&od, as it in by adverse iufliicnceB, 
then this iiico relation is disturbed, and the ultimate resut 
marred. Hero wo have the Btartbig-jioiut of all moritid m< 
meuts,aU abnormal conditiona. Tho ultimate morbid co&dii 
is determined by the location, Uio extent, and the mannef 
progress of tho morbid activity. Its existence is annoiinoed 
by one or more of various affections, ranging from a 6inipl0 
exaltation of the normal sensibility to the most demonstr 
affections of the mental or nervous power. Considering 
local extent of the morbid action, the rapidity of its proj 
and the diverse functions of the various parts of the brain, 
cannot bo surprised at tho almost infinito variety in tho finol 
issue^ while the initial morbid movement, the eBsential con4fi4j| 
tion, is the same in all. Consequently, wo may ba\-e, in oacr ' 
case, a disorder of sensibility, such aB the neuralgias ; in aa>t 
other, a disorder of motility, such as chorea ; in another, a noih-i 
rosis, such as hysteria, catalepsy, eclamjisy, epilepsy ; or the dia«^' 
order may be chiefly a mental one, such as eccentricity or manifc'J 
By a law of morbid nervous action, these various disorders oftea 
supplant or accompany one another in the course of their prog- 
ress, and assume protean shapes without end. Change is the 
characteristic feature of all forma of nervous disease. 

A word or two more as to the primordial fact of mental dis- 
order, before we turn to its ultimate results. These result*, 
varying as they may in apparent intensity al«tractly coa- 
sidered, convey no certain indication of the intensity of tie 
morbid movement on which they depend. Something, hoiN 
ever, may bo learned on this point from the order of their 
succession. In one case, for instance, epilepsy may be tho 
first appreciable sign of a morbid condition, while in another it 
may be the last in a long series of i>athological events. Ai| 
first only what may be called a dynamic lesion, it may end, if 
life continue long enough, in lesions of structure visible to tbs 
eye. These mark only tho duration of the morbid action, bat 
indicate nothing as to the initiatory stage. Hence it is that 
dissection, in the case of persons who have died insane, oftca 
reveals to the eye, oven though assisted by the most ingeniouB 
instruments, no cliange of structure, — a fact which has givon 
rise to tliQ idea, entertained by a few, that the brain is no^ 




Hereditary Intasufy. 7 

seiU of insanity. The point of material interest is, tliat, 

een the tirat and the last member, in this series of morbid 

ActiuiiSf there may interreue a period measured in most coses 

years or jreneratiDus, This curious fact, the full signifi- 

ace of which has hcon but recently learned, furnishes us 

hh a key to many of the mysteries of mental derangement. 

T ' la attending it cannot he too carefully consiHurcd, 

» r , no apology is needed for presenting them with 

Dine degree of minuteness. 

The adverse influences that vitiate the health of the brain 
lldom do more at first than produce that abnormal move- 
Mfit already mentioned, called superoxcitation. Its effect on 
hi mind, when it has any effect at all, is chiefly manifested 
irsomo aliglit deviation from the ordinary routine of human 
Dnduct, and from an avcragcpropriety of thought and feeling, 
Wperson may exhibit some phase of exaltation or depression, 
Bffle eccentricity of maiiner, some extravagant notions, some 
jTCgard of the common conventions of society, some domes- 
icemcntj*, some strange and impnlsivo movements, 
ess for drink, or some other debasing habit, and often 
ail unreasonable manner of dealing with practical mat- 
not easily described, I>ut obvious enough to the practised 
Oftener, however, the effect is witnessed scarcely at all 
the • psychological condition, but is manifested solely in 
ous sensations, — in pain or aching of the head, or some 
neur<tpathy, in a sense of weariness, or in some form of 
oos disease. Nothing more than this may be exhibited 
the life of the individual. He dies and gives no other 
cerebral disorder, but the disorder may not die with 
It passes along to successive generations in accordance 
ith the laws of hereditary transmission, arid makes its ap- 
ice in a variety of forma. The existence of this law 
lown to Iho earliest observers, but the full range of 
[ration, especially in regard to morbid and abnormal 
ions, began to be discerned only ^-ithin a very recent 
Already investigation has made us acquainted with 
iV of the conditions by which this curious physiological 
iK'wa is governed, and has thrown a flood of light on one of 
oliwurest problems in the scieucc of life. Our limits will 



Hcrediiarif Laanity, 



allow UB to discuss this subject only so far as seems 
sary for a clear understanding of the points more i>arti 
Ueforo us. 

It is an ordijiauce of nature that in the process of gei 
tion liko produces like. Xot that tho beings thus produ 
exactly aliko. Diversity there always is. It is for tho 
tific inquirer to asccrtjun the limits to which this may ox 
In a rudo general way they liave already boou detoraun 
the commou observation of mankind. The likeness is 
tiling closer than that which prevails between tlio niembo; 
a common order or genua. It is not tho likeness of a lio: 
tiger, or of a horse to an ass, but the likoness of a lion 
lion, and of a horse to a horse. On the other hand, Llns kind 
of likeness does not exclude a certain amount of dilTcrcnce; 
and we are no less strongly impressed with this fact of diver- 
sity, as exiflting between Individuals, than we are with the 
essential similarity of all the individuals of a Bpecies. Heny 
then, ani two orders of hereditary transmission, or hcreiiitj/f^ 
wo may Anglicize the French term, viz. one ombnuiiiig thfl 
traits tliat characterize the species, the other tho traits peculiflf 
to individuals. With the latter only we have to do in 
inquiry. 

The transmission of the bodily features by the parent tol 
offspring has l)een more thoroughly investigated, eapeciall; 
the case of some of the domesticated animals, during the last 
(ifVy or sixty years, than ever before ; and the result has be«ft 
to demonstrate a degree of exactness and uniformity in thfl 
0))oratiou of tlio laws that govern it tliat reminds us of tJiiO 
phenomena of brute matter. Not only is tho existence of thi 
general law proved, but, wliat is equally important, tlie ap« 
parent exceptions to it are proved to be subject to laws no less 
inflexible. But at the very threshold of the subject, we meet 
with an order of facts liable to mislead the hasty observer. 
Wo are in the haliit of saying that the features of the pareni 
are transmitted to the otTspring, but we must hear in mind 
tliat, of necessity, the features of both parents cannot coexial 
in the child. lie cannot inherit the aquiline nose of the one and 
the snub nose of the other, the black eyes of tho one and the blui 
eyes of tlie other, the vigor and hardihood of tlie one an 



^uhflr 

I 



BU 



».] 



HeredUa^^MiSmt^ 



' the other ; but on the contrary, will have perhaps the 
i Ml-.* one imd the nose of the oUier, the handa of the one 
bd the feet of the otlier. In place of Ihis combination of 
fiiti dfrivud gome from the one parent and some from the 
It. , •! vn is iwuoUy a niixturo, often obvious, but amount- 
aially to a complete fusion where no trait of either 
ent can bo diaccnied marked by its original character. Let 
i observe, iu pujiising, that fraita im]ilyifi{r cr)nsidcrahIo devi- 
ation from the norninl ty|K5, — such as BUperuumerary toes or 
liutfers, or dwarfish limbs, — which have ariaou from some in- 
'.'T[i]tf'ablo pluy of organic affinities, are not transmitted with 
t ' -iiuic uinformity. In many of the offspring they do not 
il ir at all, and unless particular pains ore taken by painng 
ll.ijf.- only in which these peculiarities exist, they sooner or 
Iitff disappear altogether. Indeed, no remarkable trait of 
In is easily peq^etuated. Of this fact stock-breeders 
.i.v.ily aware, for not until tho desired trait has de- 
i"d through several generations are they sure that it is 
I I. fixed in the bbxjd and not liable at every remove to dis- 
r. Thus steadily nature adheres to prevailing forms, 
^brinks from a i>er|>etuation of any considerable deviation 
iiiiiu them. 
Tlu're id another reason why the features of neither parent 
' i I be very exactly reproduced in the ofTspring. Every in- 
;:al carries within him the mingled blood of two other 
I'.iilualft, in both of whom are to l»o found traces of innu- 
tt«iible streams flowing from distant sources as into a common 
K»ervi)ir. which are often interrupted, proljably, and may disap- 
pear from \iew, but which ]>reserve to the last their distinctive 
! '! ri'?8. It ia not necessarily from his immediate predcces- 
'■'■^ ;d(tnn that tljo individual derives his physical and mental 
'[ virics. In him may reappear tho tokens of some distant 
''"' stiir, which have boon transmitted from one generation to 
Hotlwr in a latent state. The natural tendency of mingling 
*nou8 bbxxia is to neutralize the activity of one or another, 
flu reduce the Hphere of their influence within tJie narrowest 
i; (uid tho more remote they are, the stninger their ten- 
noy to b(» absorbed and confounded in the nearer and 
jer streams of the immediate parentage. Accordingly, 



10 



Hereditary Insanitif. 




wc find thftt the transmission of any particular trait p: 
as it existed in the parent, though not very uncommoi 
nevertheless, far from the invariable rule. It is a n; 
view of heredity which supposes tliafc every or any trait mun^ 
descend from parent to child in nil its original vigor aaQ 
proportions. But while temporary disappearance is compotii 
blc with the physiological law, it is equally truo that 
may bo transmitted in a latent form, and may reap 
some distant interval. Instances of this law, or a elosely 
relative one, M'ill be better considered when we come to a, 
of the transmission of disease. At present we need only 
that such instances furnish no support to the idea that a ti 
not derived from the immediate progenitor, though existing i 
uncles, aunts, or cousins, is not attributable to heredity, 
simple fact is, that in some of the family it is fully dr- 
while in some it is latent but more or less ready to m— .w 
appearance in the next generation. This we are ob* 
believe, imlcss wc maintain that the recurrence of u trait, ai 
it has once dijjap|>eared, is purely accidental, — a rec 
which is too common to be explained hi this manner. 

Not only are the bodily trail^s and peculiarities of stnn 
transmitted, but the same is true of the moral and intell 
qualities, — aptitudes, appetites, passions, feelings, habii 
thought, — and with the same apparent irregularity. Co: 
eriug tliat these are connected with the cerebral system, aud 
dependent on it for their manifestation, this inheritance mighl 
be expected, and the fact is proved as satisfactorily as any nther 
in the whole category of hereditary transmission. The big] 
manifestation of intellect — what passes under the 
genius — is, however, seldom transmitted, and the fact 
been inconsiderately regarded as disproving the whole doc 
of the hereditary character of the moral or intellectual nm 
Genius, however, is not a simple, definite power, but a hi; 
complex manifestation resulting from the mingled acti 
many parts of the brain endowed with the finest qualitii 
structure. Tlio transmission of genius in its hi^bost ftinnS 
therefore, impjios tlio Himultjincous dencent of a great nui 
and variety of organic peculiarities. The thing is not im 
ble, but, under the ordinary operation of the luw of hi 



■m 






Hereditary Inmnitj/, 



It 



I not likdj of^cn to happca. Single ta]entR, simplo and cir- 

■I their nnhtre, are more frequently transmitted. 

■ is true of tlie moral ]iowerj». A houevoleut, or 

lat, or proud, or timid, or bold mnn ofton scca his charac- 

i '' ■ ved in his child; but that coniplote, 

kl I iiment which occasionally di&tingiiishes 

□c fiirarad mortal ia seldom lepeatod iu tlie next succoeding 

fjeral mle, pcculiaritiea of structure which are the 

. of accident subsequent to birth f;o no further, and the 

)t who has thn» \o»t a limb or au eye has no appre- 

nou of seeing his offspring tx)m deficient in thin organ. 

• it fe well knoMm that aptitudes which are produced by 

I 11 may be trunsmitted to the offspring. 

IV manifested in ddga, whose pot^uUar 

lilies, such as pointing, setting, and retrieving, strongly 

iitery as tliey nro, wore oris!;inalIy obtained by a process 

ling. At first the transmission of such qualities is un- 

L 'and irregular, and not until they have passed tlirougb 

T«ml generations do they Ixicome fixed iu the constitution 

the breed. jVnd there can be no <iue8tion that the general 

[ivemcut of tho physical and mental character of man, 

iluce<l V ■Tioiis culture and other elevating influences, 

I It'lt by ii}5 generations. This is the jxtteiit agency 

ting the advancement of the race. Without it, one genera- 
oii would Imj little if nny better than its predecessors, because 
ftorly without the bci»efit of any cumulative improvement. 
«eni(ition raises the individual, but it is heredity which raisea 
srace. 

Bearing the above facta in mind, we shall the more readily 
TUidi^pRtand the true origin and propagation of disease, because 
*J &re governed by the same general laws as those of the 
loniul and hciiUhy traita. Ttioro ia this difleronce in the two 
**«*, thttt diseaik) originates in conditions and intluetices ad- 
Tnrae to the healthy action of the nervous system. None the 
w«, however, doen it become an organic trait, subject to the 
Qo laws of propagation as any feature of the face or quality 
tins mind. The biitial step in the morbid process, as we 
»ir(j already seen, \e a Bupcrexcit;Uiou of the vital activitioa 



12 



Hereditary In$anity, 



tJ 



inherent in the cerebral orgnnism, and the Gnal one Is ol 
Icflion of the atructuro. But the whole process* we mi 
member, seldom jmsses throufzh all its etages within Uie 
time of a single individual. Within that t>6nod, it is iisi 
confined to tlio first stage, but it becomes a fixed fact in 
cerebral economy, and is transmitted witli na much {persist' 
as might ho ex|)ectcd of a trait so rocciitlj engrailed on 
common stuck. The circumstances of this transmission 
pre-eminently matter for curious and imjKirtant intjuiry, 
in view of the painful frequency of mental diseases, dese 
bo l>etter understood than they generally are. 

The affections of the brain, like those of other 
Bldom transmitted to all the offspring; and, not nu ; , 
all are spared the sad heritapo. They disappear before 
stronger influences of better ijlood concerned in the wor! 
reproductii^n, or are overborne by the more settled traits 
belong to the normal condition. It is to be considered, 
ever, that in a large i>rop<)rtion of cases where the offs 
Bccm to have escaped, the abnormal affection may e.<ist 
latent form, to aj>poar, perhaps, fully developed in a subsoq' 
generation. 

Tlie observations of contemporary inquirers have mad 
acquainted with another fact scarcely suspected before, 
used to be thought that the idea of hereditary insanity imfi 
the existence of mental disease, in precisely the same fofj 
in the immediate parent. Ob8er\'ation and analogy both 
ns to con.Midcr every case as hereditary where abnormal ac! 
even the lejist intense or prominent, existed in tlie pi 
The cssontial thing is a fixed, persistent deviation from 
lino of healthy action. Precisely what shape it may 
either in the individual in whom it originates, or in Oie 
ceeding generations to which it is trausmitttKl, depend 
causes which we have scarcely begun to understand. Of 
fact, however, there can be no doubt. Unequivocal, de 
strativo mania or lifelong ejnlepsy may be rcprcsoutei 
the offspiin;; by a dormant germ never quickened into nc 
or by mental pecidiarities that pJiss in the world for originality 
or affectation, or by some inflammatory or congestive disorder 
of the l)rain, or by a repetition of the $ame form of mania or 
epilej>8y. 



A^ 



HM 



Thtil our owu day, little account was mailo of thosQ minor 
nil of tlie bruiu vvbicli are mauii'cBtod by lionUaclies and 
light forma of neurosis, but which, ueverthelcBs, become 
ifctanilwtiou of tlie severest fnrras of mental discnso. Neither 
there (mppoaed to be any connection between the mental 
ouvuleivc disease of the ofTsprlug, and those habits of the 
nt — drinking, onaniBm, etc. — which, without inflicting 
ba their subject any miuiifost derangement, nevertheless 
aion a kind of cerebral dctoriorution, which may bo trans- 
10 succeeding generations, to make its apiKsaj-ance in 
TV posaible form of meutid or nervous disorder. 
|u the current notiona on this subject, some confusion of 
pught haa always prevailed respecting the precise thing 
tlch i» roatly tmnamitted. A little attention to the history 
I other discafies would have prevented any error on the sub* 
Nobody supjwscs that phthisis, cancer, or gout, all ro- 
lled as hereditary, are conveyed from parent to child with all 
• distinctive characters. Years must pass before the evil 
vealed at all, simply because what is really transmitted is 
lljr tliat almonnol condition designated as tendency to disease, 
ftlmt initial Bt:ige of it which is held in check by the antng- 
kistic forces of early life, and which, perhaps, may never at- 
la a hurtfid degree of actinty. The multitudes who are 
pderstood to have a tendency to consumption may live long 
iifortTiiily under a judicious hygiene, and die at la.st of 
tier disease. And this is precisely the case with men- 
It is ottly the primordial germ — the taint — tliat 
litted, in one degree or auotlier of intensity. In an- 
the question whether the insanity of any particular 
is hercditjiry, it is not enough to show that the dis- 
occurrod in none of liis progenitors. The hereditary 
lit is fairly ostftbllshed If it ap[>ears that some near 
^^uito^ suffered from any affection of the head. The 
nge in the ty|>e of the disease, as it passes from one genera- 
itoaj)other, which is so characteristic of insanityj is not leas 
hNjucutly from a higher to a lower grade of intensity than 
»i^ revorno. Hence it is that we often see among the chil- 
hm of die insane one maniacal, another imbecile, another 
flepUc, imothcr hysterical, another eccentric, another pae- 



14 



Hertditarif Inaanify. 




tlMMj 



sionate, another alternating between exalttition and dopr 
To recognise tho hereditary element iu one of tlieee 
not in another indicates no very broad observnf 
course of disease, nor a very nice perception of it? ,i 
relations. 

It would be interesting to know in whut piop<.irtiou o( 
well-deveioi»ed mental disease is transmitted in any 
the offspring. The fact tJbat it may exifit iu a latent 
giving little or no indication of its presence, must net • 
prevent any very satisfactory statistics on the subjecr. 
mou observation shows us that all the children^ where 
are several, seldom escape, while some remain eutiv' 
from any trace of disorder. Thus is illustrutud the ci 
of the physiological laws that are concerned iu the process ofj 
transmission. Wliile in some cases the force of hurodHy! 
carries down the morbid tendency, in others Mature a«Kt'rti| 
her right to transmit the characters of the race free iVooil 
foreign admixtures and abnormal ingredienta. Besides,! 
healthier blood of the sound parent may play a controlling j 
in the formation of the new I>eing. "We are not warranted ' 
believing that of these two forces, the normal and the abnoT'' 
mal, the former is less likely to prevail than the latter; so tbuti 
in the long run^ half tho offspring at least may e8ca|>e. TlieiC! 
are conditions in tho case, as yet very imperfectly understood,! 
that forbitl any more definite conchmiou tlmn this. No nior* 
can bo said, with any approach to certainty, thou that the longer 
the cerebral troulilo has existed in the family, and the raoro 
decided its action has been on the nervous system, the more 
likely it is to be transmitted. 

'J'hc general doctrijie is that the morbid movomcnt which 
ends in insanity is a progressive one, and usually requires 
more than one generation in order to reach its full develojK 
ment. Of late years the proportion of cases having ui 
hereditary origin (including in tliis category ttiosc wliere tbe^ 
disease existed iu collateral branches) has been estimateij by 
few practical observers at less than one half. Measured by 
our views of hereditary influence, and with exact iuformatioa 
of the parental antecedents, this proportion would be greatly; 
increased. We would not say that insanity never exists 



dktt 



Mitf 



th^ 



»•] 



BiredUary 



15 



'I the Leroditary element is present, for cases have 

....^jrved that woulil prevent such a conclusion, though 

Bj are nut exftvtl}' of Ihe kind tlmt Die ordinary views of this 

i>ject would lead us to ex]>6ct. It would seem as if a blow on 

ad, a Bunstroke, a hubit of drunkenness, a ^^olent fever, 

(aibuudAutly able, each of tliem, to cau^e insanity, witltout 

Ke~aid of any innate tendencies. Yet it is a well-observed 

that iu u lar^e propKirtiou of the cases thus ostensibly pro- 

ced there in also present the hereditary predisf>osition. In 

wc find that the numl>cr of ilie cases aKrihuted by prao- 

|ical \rrit<xrb to 4omo sjKicial exciting cause has been steadily 

liuiatuQg, while tlio number of those sot down in the ordi- 

ary ulile# as hereditary or of unknown origin has been aa 

Hcsdiiy iucreafiiug;. The meauiug of this fact cannot be mis- 

erstood; for, inasmuch as mental diseases do not sjiring 

ut of the ground, we can ecarcoly resist the conclusion that 

et tif these cases in which the cause is unknown have au 

editary origin. Moreau tliinks tliat not loss than nine 

|(DM» of insanity out of ten may bo fairly attributed to he- 

editary conditions; and we are inclined to believe that this 

[Mimate, large on it 18, will be found to be hardly large 

ugh. Still, the agency of exciting causes iu producing , 

liasiuiity is too potent to be despised. Where the predispo 

Indoa Gxistd, they serve to foster and quicken it into aotivity, 

Uhjlfl irithout thuir infiuenco it might liavo remained in a 

Iktent stJitc. If a person strongly disposed to mental dis- 

|*Me sQstiuns a domestic afilic^on, or plunges into a course 

lof religious excitement, or Ixjcomes absorbed iu the mystoriea 

UfsiMritnalism, and then becomes insane, the true explanatioa 

Uf Ibe fact is, not tlmt any of these things caused his insanity, 

M«t Uittt they belpt^d to develop into fatal activity a morbid 

\pna whbch otlierwise would have always remained a germ. 

|]( ii to be supjmsed that the germ itself had been created in 

[»pr- iiwration by the action of such causes in (piicken- 

^iiig^t ictivity of the cerebral organism, aud permanently 

I Ntal^iftliitig a state of superexoitation. And thus it is that 

ial inovt^mentjB, though implying an excessive strain 

_;:ntal powers, exert a peniicious influence on the brain, 

I by depriving the actors of their reason than by establishing 



16 



Hereditary Imanity. 



a luorbid tendeacy which develops into insanity in a 8U>>se 
goneralion. This view of the subject miglit be strengtl 
]»crliaps, by a soarcbiug esamiiiatiou of the operation of tl 
so-called exciting causes, — an examination which would 
eitlier that they are rather the eOfect tlian the cause, or tl 
ipre accidental, — having no necessary connection with th« 
ease, — or that they cannot be sup|x)8ed, ui»on any ackuowlc 
laws of [mthological action, to possess the cfiiciency attributed I 
them. Such an investigation our limits forbid, for we ' 
to unfold some important points more directly coimec- , . 
the present inquir)'. We have said that it is the tendency \ 
sanity, the jirimordial germ, not the full-grown disease, wl 
is trausmittt'd from one generation to another. Lot us , 
5CC what becomes of it after it is transmitted. 

Xo one of the many manifestations of such morbid 
deucics ia more clearly or generally recognized than that whic 
passes under the name of insanity. But it is not to be forfl 
ton — for the fact is one of groat practical importance ■ 
up to the very outbreaJc of actual disease the patient may : 
presented no indication whatever of mental disorder or ii 
fectjon, but, on the contrary, may have been uniformly qi 
self-possessed, and well balanced. The morbid condition maj 
be manifested in some convulsive affGction, such as liyater 
chorea, epilepsy, or some paroxysmal loss of proper consti 
ness, such as catalepsy or somnambulism. It csui hard! 
necessary, even if our limits would permit, to indicate all 
lanifestations of this misounduess ; but there arc some Ufi 
Buerally regarded as of an liercditary character, wt 
therefore, claim a more particular attention. 

Among these the most common consists of tlioso ntf 
degrees of mental disturbance that jiass under the niimc u^ 
eccentricity. Strange, queer, unreasonable as eccentric poopla 
often arc, even surpassing tlie insane in their deviations fror 
the Hue of recognized proprieties, nobody calls them ine 
Many of thorn become unequivocally insane, and it is alt 
difficult to determine tl»e cxaot perioti wlicn the transition' 
completely etVcctcd. The ditViculty is not lessened by tl 
prevalent disjtosition \o scout at the idea of ' eccentricity beinfl 
any tiling more than singularity, — a mere token of strong ■ 



i& 



m 



Ser^ditnry Tnianity, 



n 



ity, signiiyiug nothiiig abnormal. Tho trutli is tliat, iu 
with afliiclioiifl more decidedly morbid, it ciui often be 
tu ou licreditary taint. Of courno wlien it paiisos into 
ail doubt on tliis point is removed. T\nB transition is 
tch insensible gradutiona as to defeat every attempt 

-ill absolute distinction between tbc states, (bougli 

oro many pbysiciana and jurista wbo flatter tbemselvea 
ey have accomitlisbed thift feat. 

are many other moiUal pcculiaritica not uaually con- 

!(l Its abnomiul, which no less surely reveal the hereditary 

In famiUpa where insanity prevails, the practised observer 

&dily dificerus tltu signs of the morbid tendency iu peculiar 

of thongUt and feeling, iu a disregard of logical dls- 

lions, in irrelc\-ant Hu^'^gestions, in unusnal forms of ex- 

hsUtn^ in ways and manners more original tlian natural, and 

tB Eipffular lack of plain common sense, associated perhaps 

grace and gilt. For tho first time by any English 

^ mental condition lias been described, and designated 

tdie iAtane temperament y in a recei»t work, which, with ol] its 

ulte, — and they are many and serious, — aljonnds in original 

rigorous thought. '' He has/' says Maudsley, alluding in 

terms to a*per3on exhibiting this kind of heritage, *^ a 

constitution of nervous element, which, whatever name 

it, is uustable or defective, rendering him une(]ual to 

' the severe stress of adverse events. In other words, the 

' ' M^ temperament; he is liable to whims, ca- 

:id feeling ; and though ho may act calmly 

ltd ftoberly for the moat part, yet now and then his uncon- 

' itrc,over]>owering and surprising him, instigates eccen- 

(avagant activity, wliile an extraordUiary and trying 

pney may upset his stability entirely." 

ither frequent manifestation of the hereditary evil con- 

alternato exaltation and depression. In the fonnor 

' every prosjiect is bright, every undertaking promises suc- 

I and every scene is tinged with roseate hues. In a few 

ckfl or months, or it may Ik; years, the whole face of things 

changed. All that abundant self-contidence has fled. 

ag hopeftd, nothing cheerful, sends a gleam of light 

Uie darkness that envcloi>es the soul, and the duties 

1TOL.CIX.— KO. 224. 2 



18 



Mereditarif Inaamtif, 



of life are pursued \v'itb unroricd 'woarinfiBa and paii 
process of time, under tlie wear and loar of daily triu 
ejcallatiun may become high excitement, the dcpresftic 
accam]Niiacd by a tendency to suicide, imd tlio liiie 
passtKl that separates sanity trom insanity. 

Again, the abnormal state is sliuwu in on liabitual 
and suspicion of cverylwidy ckot amounting almost tu a 
belief on the part of the subject that he is luniKKscly tliv 
at every turn. In cases of this descripUon, the sii]B 
pretext is sufficient for misconstruing the acts even 
best iricndS) while tlic most simple and natiiral thiu^ 
twisted into signs of hostility or opposition. The subjq 
sucli delusions live and move under a iiersistunt iiupr« 
that thoy arc the victims of great injustice ; that, whill 
suiilcs of ProvidcncG and the favor of men arc frouljl 
stowed ou otiiei's no better than tliemselvcs, their murit 
unacknowledged, and they arc slighted and despised. In^ 
the rewards bestowed on others arc n\)t to bo r 
personal aflront to tliemselves, aud at times ttie ...-. 
prudence and regard for propriety are cast awayi and the I 
up feelings of the heart break forth in words of wi'at 
bitterness. 

In auoUier class of persona wo observe au extreme 
tibility to every obstacle aud trial that comes in their 
Wliilc tlic soa is smootli and the winds fair, their course isi 
and hopeful ; but let the slightest adversity befall them, axkd 1 
sky l>ecomo8 overcast, and there is no longer any hope or j 
tort for them. Tlie least opposition to their plans or pii 
cxcit4!s a storm of passion, ending, perhaps, in scenes 
leuce and ])lood. Though tliey may be correct in Uieir 
and pleasijig in their manners, they prove to be uncomfo]; 
neighbors, and in the midst of their own families 
feared rather than loved. In the world they pass for u){ 
uugovornablo teraiMirs, and, when brought into judgm« 
theii' acts of violence, they got no indulgonco ou the 
abnormal inability to control their passions. 

Others there are who give no sign of mental imper 
until they commit some terrible deed entirely opposed to\ 
habitual character, with no apparent or aducjuatc motivef 



'•] 



UeredUary Laanity, 



19 



> 80 oontrAiy to oil truu senso of moral and legal pro- 
aa (o raise the Hiu([ticu>ii of insaiiii y. Tlitm u pt'rson of 
iclcss lifu ifi converted, trlmost in the twinkling of lui eye, 
a Tory raonater of wickednee*. Ho inny undcrtako to 
and juHtify liitt oonduft, Imt his rea»ou» ar(; ho opj^osed 
aary modet^ of ihinking and feeling as to indicate, at tlio 
, an extreme coufuaiou of moral disiinctioua. 
'part of '" tal economy suffors more severely from 

disi 11 that which conaiete of the appetitca, 

Jou8, and omotiona. Li inaanity generally, the moral 
Bi ■ in the mental disorder in a fai* ^rreatcr 

cdly supjwsed. " This moral nlienution is eo 
taut," says Enquirol, *^ that it seems to be on essential 
iiity. There are those amonp the insane in 
t aberration is hardly |»erceptible ; hut there 
whose paK»ioD« and moral affections ore not dis- 
d, or annulled." There are people in 
_) to n»i:*chicf predominates over every other 
. Cursed, it may bo, with tho vilest pasaiong, they 
•*d to indul|Lre them at whatever cost. Nothing 
". more thfui to stir up Rlrife and mar the com- 
(if tliosc aroimd them. They lie, they steal, they are 
' ipRs or natural affection. Many of them hcjrin 
at i'> manifeeft a moral disorder^ which, not llngrant 

fiivt., grows with advancing years. They are indolent, 
klo, steady to no parHuit, addicted to low vices, qunrroU 
pasKionato, violent. ITow many families in wliich the 
st morality and religion have always boon careftilly and 
ftdily inenlcated, are afflicted with members of this doscrip- 
on J They are generally keen, cunning, abounding'in re- 
; and to the world at largo they seem to differ fiom 
•j)lc only ui their superior capacity for miachief, Tho 
.iH|uirer, however, lielieviufr that such characters do 
M^ apIH*ar by chance, h«t are tlio result of some organic law, 
rii-.,..i... xxuiJX ho finds, if not the law itself, at least the path 
•^ to it. Ho observes acrnal insanity in other mem- 
JinTTi 01 the family, or ascertains that a parent was hysterical 
epileptic, or, in conmion phraseology, ** highly nervous," 
here be seea the effect of the inexorable law of heredity^ 



20 



Hereditary Lxmnity, 



[J 



Lest a general description might fail to convey an adc 
conception of this class of cases, we will ^tb the partic 
of one, which wo take from Moreau. 

A., aged twenty-eight, was admitted to the hoHpital of 
c^tre. His father was a man of the worst character, 
perate, given to every excess, and finally died insane. A' 
ternal uncle was insane, a paternal aunt was completely 
another was nearly so, and also suffered much from vertigo.l 
has every appearance of being sane. "Wlien told that he ' 
considered insane, ho admitted that lie had been guilty of < 
extravagances and that he could exercise no self-rest 
that he would stick at nothing to gratify the slightest deal 
that shame, dishonor, and death were notliing to him; thi 
ought not to go at large, and that he was just where ho 
to be. This man's whole life has been one continual 
against society. Not an instinct, desii'e, or passion has fo 
a counterpoise either in that simple common sense 
restrains the most perverse from doing what is manifestly i 
trary to their own interests, or in that, inward voice which, I 
tlic innermost recesses of the soul, raises its protest 
wrong-doing. Wilful, angry, and vindictive, when a child|1 
wanted every forbidden thing, and would eat or drink what 
came in liis way, at the risk of being poisoned. When 
three years old, being unable to o|>en a door that led 
neighbor*B house where he was in the habit of going,' 
jumped out of the window and was taken up for dead, 
parents, unable to manage him, placed him at a board 
school, in the hoi>e that strangers might have some con 
over him. Here he behaved worse than ever before, and 
sent home. Once, when his grandmother visited him, 
begged her to take him away, and on her refusal, he pic 
up a stone and hurled it at her head, wounding her sever 
On being reprimanded for his condnct, he not only 
fested no penitence, but regretted that he had not ii\jt] 
her more. As he grew up the little wretch became more 
more terrible. At school, he stole from his comrades, 
them, and made himself a perfect pest. Between his twe 
and eighteenth year, he was put to several trades, but cv 
m&ster drove him out of the house for thefl or other mia 



I duct. At eighteen be enlisted in the army, antl while in 
service behave*! very credilaltly ; but iu time of ])eace 
I oflon iu tnxihlo, going about, sword in band, to rcvengal 
I ftincicd wroogs. Ue underwent many jminfiil pHnisbmr-ivts, 
jffhidi, however, made him no better, flaving assiudted an 
(officer, he was condemned to death. On hearing the sentence, 
is&id, "It is time for this to stop. Let tliem kill me; I shall 
got rid of myaelf." The punishment waa couimuted for 
j*eap«' iraprisoiunent After serving out his sentence, he 
3me unef[nivocally insane, and was sent to Bicttre. 
To caaea like this — which wo have given, not ttecauso it is 
aire and extraordinai^, but because it represents a form of 
i^order very conmi<m and very much misunderstood — 
, - i:ted, cliiefly by tliosc whose notions of morbid psycbol- 
havc not been derived from the wards of a hospital, that 
bey indicate unruly passions, defective training, anything, in 
[bet, rather than au abnormal condition of mind. Iu replying 
|to mch objections in the present case, Mo]*cau points to tito 
iits of tJic family, and bis own fate, and takes oeca- 
.mark upon the difficulty experienced by the observer, 
lla this Claris of cases, iu communicating liis impressions to 
[others in :dl thnir force and vividness- "It is only bj' incea- 
ut personal observation of such cases, by day and by night, by 
irntcbiug their most triHing acts and prying into tlicir thoughts, 
pi/ iih|niring of those uround tbcm, especially of their com- 
kpaiiifms, — towards whom they act frt^ely and naturally, — 
[by ideatifyiug one's self, so to sjteak, with them, that we can 
"ii obt^iining an exact idea of their mental state, and, 
uding to what extent their thoughts, desires, will, and 
ksctious are onntrollod by an irresistible, fatal, automatic in- 
iflui I, ■ " r the specious npponnince which covers them 
[w'iU. i-h of reason, moral lilterty, and all the csscn- 

Itial attributed of man truly worthy of the name." Tliis remark 
iVont* who has s[>unt bis life among the insane, and brought 
[to Uie .study of their di."*ordr:rs all the resources of a sagacious^ 
Ittiil oomprchensivo mind, deserves to be' carefully pondered by 
Tall who imagine that insanity is a superficial thing, reipiiring 
loaljr the smallest modimm of common sense to ho understood' 
[ihdl enough for any judiciul piu'jHDso. Wo may add, via «^ ftort 



Sereditary Insanity. 



[J 



of corollary to the above remnrk, that, while many mi iu4 
person may betray lus mental condition by no Blngle extt 
gance of thoaght or action, and^ as long as no special painiri 
taken to expose bis defects, may ])as8 for a model of sbr 
ness, yet the i^ractised eye, familiar with the physiogn« 
of mental disorder, will often detect tho morbid element 
the turn of thonght, in the mode of action, in tlie styW 
rca3oning,'an<l in tho play of feeling; and the skilful ol 
might he as little able to give a reason for his belief satisfact 
to others, as to give one for believing that a certain face 
remarkably handsome, or that a [wrson be had just passed] 
the street was fresh from Ireland or Germany. 
Tho forms in which tho transmitted tondency is displa 
as varioxiB as the characters of men and the condition 
inorbid action. We have selected a few by way of illustrati^ 
and we pause for a moment to direct the reader's attention 
the practical lesson which they teach, viz, that the me 
condition cannot always be expressed by the Hinijde 
sanity or insanity. And yet this is what the common SG 
ment on the subject implicitly requires. It recogniies^ 
intenncdiato state. It admits no obscure, no indefinable dc 
tions from the line of ' perfect soundness. Unless the es 
oau say, unhesitatingly and without qualificatiou, that 
person is insaue, ho is siijijjoscd to l>c endowed with the 
measure of moral and legal responsibility. No account 
be made of abnormal traits of character which, however 
and unohtrusive, may determine the conduct by a force as 
resistiVjle as that exerted by overt disease. In the cor 
apprehension, insanity is somethiug that may be banc 
measured, weighed : and it is made an occasion of repr 
to physicians, that they are mial)le to detine it. Tiie 
pctual straining after an miexceptionablo definition of j 
sanity is as far from success as it was a thousand years 
and the ever-begiiming, never-ending attempts of tlie courtaj 
estahlish a test of responsibility only furnish an iudicatic 
the false conceptions of this disease that still hold almost 
disputed sway over the opinions alike of the wise and the fooH.sj 
The able, untiring expert, after spending many years in 
observation of the utsane^ under the circumstances best fit 



H^editary Iiuanittf. 



2S 



tlioir Inmost thoiiL;h<fl, is, iifior all, scarcelr more lin- 
ed lijr what he has learned than hj what remains to bo 
lumod ; but Uie judgOf destitute of all such exporionco, and, 
4Ui;Mtly, of all sijlf-distrust, calls tlie |)er8on to his sidOi, 
with him a few moments, pronoimco!) litm soiie, and i 
him frtim restrahit. The transaction has in it a 
4*f the ludicrnui* ; but it fairly illusti-atos how coraplefoly 
I men nf culture have failed to comprehend the true charac- 
' of mental discaao. No one ^ho watches the admiiiiatrntiou 
rthe law, either here or in Kn^laud, can help ftceiug that iu- 
uity is almost universally supposed to he something; loud^ 
fearfbl, rootish, or, at tho very least, a constant and 
irretfularity or a!>erration of tho mental faculties. 
rie» ntlK^rt of actual raving are simply regarded as very 
tfa« freaks of a singular and original character ; and it is 
" ' even the «rros8est doluaioris may 1>6 paralleled by^ 
..1 and extravagant conceptions of men who pass for 
|«riking examples of mental integrity and power. Of course it 
•ted that tho sudden transformation of 
• y into overt, unmiatakalile discaao would 
|t>9 nadily admitted as a scientific fact, or that any mental 
i(ion8 would bo allowed to pass for insanity which 
■: au exaggeration of traits natural to tlie individual, ' 
|flr,at the worst, mere eccentricities. 

lo any question of hereditary tendency, it should not be for- 

lg9Uen that the orpmic change implied in it may proceed very 

I (ar without pro<hicing any obvious mental disturbance. In this 

1 reifH^et cerchrul affections follow tho law of other diseases, la 

\pb$tmorU m exnminutionM, we not unfrequently find extensive 

I l«ai)ns of structure which were scarcely suspected during life, 

w which manifested their legitimate effect only towards the 

very last. It is not so vory strange, therefore, in view of 

Kich facts, (hat huicido, or homicide, or a grievous assault, 

nboitld sometimes he the first [wsitive indication of cerebral 

I ilisonlcr. And yet it has been warmly contended that a 

I criininal act cooimitted under such circumstances cannot prop- 

Wly bo admitted in proof of insanity. It is enough to say, on 

^ ptviut, that in ^\evy hospital for the insane may be found 

Patients whose derangement was first manifested by acta Kti t.b\% 



24 



Hereditary Insanity, 



kind. The order in which the manifestations of iusaiiity a|: 
Ib governed by no invariable nile of succession. Tliere la i 
ing in the nature of things to prevent Buicide or murder 
being the first symptom of insanity. It may as naturally 
precedence of all other symptoms, as a fit of abstractio 
foolish bargain, a groundless suspicion, or a gross delusioc 
Thus far we have only considered those results of the da 
pathic element which are ob^nously of a pathological nab 
In the further development of his doctrine, M. iloreauj 
ranees another step, and contends for the essential identit; 
tlie organic conditions that constitute the starting-point o( 
sanity and other cerebral affections, and of those on wl 
depend such considerable deviations from the ordinarr 
of thought as ecstasy, tlieosophy, mysticism, and all thaj 
rious forms of religious and political lanaticism. Hit 
■our philosophies have been disposed to assign the orif 
some of tJbese to higli mental eudowmcuts, worthy, perl 
of admiration and imitation, while the subjects of them 
been held up on the historian's page among the shining li| 
in the pathway of the race. In such characters as 
Theresa and Madame Guyon, the psychological observer, 
rendering homage to their exalted aspirations, discerna j 
neath an abnormal excitation of the norve-cells of the br 
very ditferent from that kind and degree of excitation wlj 
attend miqualified liealth. Those raptures which aV)8orli 
the faculties of the soul and defy all control, that intii 
communion with the great objects of human worship wlj 
spurns all the bonds of flesh and sense, that divine 
which ijreathes into every pore and fills every channel of 
spiritual being, — all these are remarkably like the phe 
ena of insanity, and are undoubtedly derived from the 
nervous condition. The fact signifies nothing dcrogaior 
this class of endowments, beyond denying to them a suf 
natural origin. Like all other mental manifestations, they ar»l 
connected with certain physical con<litions, which present \xA 
our apprehension no grades of honor or dishonor. In tbe 
founders of religious systems tlmt have swept whole commuui^ 
ties into their embrace — the Mohammeds, Joe Smiths, aud 
many whose names the world is not yet willing to see iu ai 



S5 



keo&oection — we discern the influence of a like psycliological 
ion. In those politioal cnthusioatB whose bloody deeda 
^brought u|wn tbera a load of infamv". — men of the type 
"'Jacques Clement, Jean Chritel, Daniiene, Feltou, Wilkes 
th, — wo cannot overlook the presence and the commiuid- 
influcncc of an nbnormal element. Now, in all these 
B, wo shall ftnd in the history of tlic individuals circuin- 
i3« thftt amijly corrohorate tlie concluaiona dra>iiTi from 
In their hahits of abstraction and revery, in theu' 
tent rcTolving of certain notions until they become fixed 
in their constant feeling of subjection to motives aad 
BneocGs more sacred and imperative than those that govern 
jnduct of ordinary mortals, in their lofty disregard of all 
Jcrationa prompted by tlio soft^r'scntiments, in the irre- 
tible agency that forces them to work out their fancied mis- 
ildn, in their steadfast resolution oren after all is lost, in the 
usil>iUty U) pain with which they meet the extreme couse- 
pcoa of their acts, — traits which are all more or less 
■ted by them, — they show their aflfinity to the un- 
ftlly insane^ who are only a step or two beyond them 
tl»e development of the morbid tendency. , 

The next stop in this inquiry brings ua to the gist of our 
pulhor's dtM^triiie. Indeed, the foUowing statement of it cou- 
itcs the '*^ argument " of the book : " The meutal disposi- 
|which distin^uisli one man from another by the originality 
tlwughts and conceptions, by the eccentricity or energy 
TMa effoctive faculties, or the transcendency of his intellect, 
in the same organic conditions as those mental 
of which madness and idiocy are the complete ci- 
lioD.*' Much as we should like to discuss this question, 
ur limits will ohligo us barely to indicate the general course 
fthe UKjuiry. 

Thu organic condition signified by the manifestation of 
li iiosition implies also a state of suporcxci- 
-•:d vitality, in the nervous system. Thus 
|«fiei'tGd, tlie organs necessarily act with a force unknown 
[to tlieir normal state, like au engine suddenly subjected 
Mo A higlier prv*(8ure of stvaxn. What then is tlio result 
|of Kipcractivity of the organ charged with tho mamfeftlaX\OTV 



20 



Heredilary Lisanity, 



of the thinlrinp faculty ? Enilently a greater flow of i^ 
more rapid cunception, a bolder dash of imagination, 
originality of thought, greater variety of associations, iucr 
vivacity of memory, superior energy, and a wider Hway of 
instincts and affections. In producing this Huperexcilatifl 
the nervous functions, heredity acts like all tlie other 
that modify the nervous power. If it passes certain liroi< 
it controls the mot, — the inward principle destined to 
and combine the action of the different intellectual powe 
then, instead of incrcafiing the vigor and sweep of the me 
faculties, it loads directly to Lusauity. The general prino 
involved in this statement is far from being new. 
earliest times, observers have noticed that diseaaes aad 
abnormal conditions of the brain are sometimes acooiii| 
by extraordinary displays of intellectual power. The 
abound with cases where blows and falls on the head, at 
of fever, the approach of cerebral lesions, the incubation 
sanity, have produced a remarkable revival of memos 
quickness of perception, an exaltation of the imagination, i 
foreign to the patient's usual condition. In insanity 
tilings are of frequent occurrence. No one converBant 
the disease can have failed to witness among its phenc 
intellectual displays far beyond the normal range of thi 
tienfs powers. Many make verses who never did before ; 
accomplish mechanical inventions for the first time in 
lives ; some, to whom writing was always distasteful, 
treatises or essays ; and some apply themselves to mi 
painting who never thought of such a thing before. The 
signification of such facts cannot be mistaken. The 
diange in the cellular structure which has produced ina 
baa simultaneously enlarged the power and compass of 
mental faculties. Indeed, the notion of an intimate 
tion between the highest forms of intellectual power and 
tal disorder has prevailed so extensively that we can 
resist the conviction of its Ijeing founded on fact. *' No j 

enius wittiout a mixture of madness," says Aristotle. **^ 
Extreme mind is near to extreme madness," says Pascal, 
what is the most subtle folly made, but of the greatest 
dom?" aaks Montaigne. "Genius bears within itself a 



B-] 



Sereditarif iManity. 



27 



of destruction, of death, of madness," sajs Lamartino. 
ribrations instead of five may transform an ordinary man 
bio a [>rodigT,'' miy^ Broussais. 

'* Gre&t iriu arc rare to madaeas near allied." 

fe^ Drydeu. 

A fe** of those favored mortals who hare achieved Ulustrious 

In lite^iure or art have jn^en us a glimpse of the work- 

rttf Iho wondrous meclianism by which the highest forms of 

ught are evolved, and from that wc lca.ru that the process 

Hot entirely independent of physical movements. " When I 

m?self with attention,'* says Mt^tostiisio, " the nerves of 

isi^rium are put into a violent tmnult ; 1 grow as rod as 

ttanikord, and am obliged to quit my work." '' Contemplate 

subject lonp," says Buffon ; ** it will ^dually mifold, 

tfiopt of electric spark conmlses for a moment the brain, 

ids do\vn to tiie very lieart a glow of irritation.** 

tells us that when the first idea of one of his worka 

upon his mind, he experienced a nervous movement 

afiproached to a slight delirium. Descartes, amid tliose 

||Bvcrit*» of his youth which led to the grand achievements of 

tmaturcr years, heard a voice in the air that called him to 

tlio truth. Sir Joshua Reynolds said that, when walk- 

BE aliroad after a morning's work at his art, tlie trees seemed 

[lo Lim like men walking. Puulus Jovius, dcscribiug one of tho 

iliau improWsatoriiSays: " His eyes, fixed downwards, kindlo 

ho gives uttcmnco to his oflusions, tho moist drops flow 

iuwu his cheeks, the veins of his forehead swell, and wonder* 

Dy his learned ear, as it were abstracted and intent, moder- \ 

I each impulse of his (lowing numbers.** 

lo csonnection with this class of factfl, it is worthy of notice, 

iWause it testifies to the same general truth, that precocious 

Iduldron die young of diseases that originate in the brain, and 

|fto mrmnd pathologist mistakes tho cause for the ofioct. 

Pmm all this tho conclusion is fairly drawn, we think, that 
I (h«t intelloctnal i>roccsB by which thoughts of singular beauty 
I power come forth unbidden, as it were by an automatic im- 
ttlflc, there ia unusual excitation of tho norvo-cells of the 
But tliis is not enough for SI. JUireau, Flo believes, if 
not mistake his meaning, — which is not so clearly ex- 



Hereditary I/i»amiy. 



pressod aa it might be, — that this peculiar organic ooni 
which readily passes iuto disease , ie csiientia] to the lii^ 
formfl of ink'Uoctual eflbrt. Iii this view of the v 
account is inadc of original endowment. Uninspirc , 
abnormal activity of the cells, the conceptions of a 
Bpeare, a Newlon, or a Cuvier would liavo scarcely be€ 
tingiiisbod from those of ordinary mortals.^ Our 
expressly declares that the old sayings mens sana in 
sanoy is uTong, and tliat, so long as the ** nonniil stale i 
organism is (j;enerally ni accordance with U»e regular ac| 
the thinking faculty, wo shall never, or only excoptioT»aUy,l 
the intelligence rising above an lionorablc mediocrity." ThU, 
course, is at variance with the doctrine now gtMieridly accept* 
we believe, by physiologists, that the mental [wwor and ext 
lence displayed by any individual depends chiefly on Uic «f 
of tlie brain, the proportion of its parls to one another, and t 
quality of ita elementary materials. Even Morcau himself { 
clarcs that "certain intrinsic qualities which are the vc 
essence of organization" constitute the " most important c* 
dition necessary to the highest grade of cerebral activitj 
This remarkable conclusion originates in what wo deem to 
an error in a matter of fact, — that of regarding the narra 
Bwperescitation that leads to disease as identical with tl 
which gives rise to the happiest working of the cerohi 
mechanism. The proof of such identity is wanting. Mtt 
that M. Moreau considers aa proof merely mdicates an ac 
dental connection. In a collection of Biographical Facts, 
has presented a fearful array of cclobnited churactors who h 
cither been afflicted with some cerebral troubles, or who na 
berod among their progenitors or descendants one or mo 
whom this misfortune had befallen. Such facts, however, oi 
show that those most highly as well as thoi^o most humbly ( 
dowod with mental gifts are nob exempted from the oasau 
of disease. Why should they ho ? Nor do we see why 1 
should abandon the obi distinction l>ctwecn healthy and raoH 
excitement. The kind of nervoiia excitation which iuspircs t 
grand conceptions of the poet or artist is as different from tl 
which is the prelude of disorder, as the ruddy glow of heal 
in tlie cheek is from the hectic of coiisumptiou. It is a 



^ 



1 



HcrtdiUxrif 

opposition that the morbid clement necessary to one is 

uscut in the otJjer, and yet this is the cornop-stone of 

_ Bthor*H tlieory of gnmt genius. No doubt maiiy distin- 

Wied men }iave been afflicted Trith some kind of cerebral ail- 

at, but they are gi-eatiy outnumbered by those in whom no 

, of ineutid diaorder was ever witnessed. The objection is 

' evaded by saying timt the organic condition which pre- 

Ttho mind for its most brilliant triumphs becomes disease 

Jy when poshed beyond a certain point, because it is ad- 

ed by all tliat the morbid principle is a prensxistent necoe- 

of insanity, and, consequently, by the terms of the 

aent, as quoted aboTe» it must precede, not follow, the 

iun of genius. 

. ,...i thcao few remarks rather to indicate our dissent 

the author's views on this point, than as furnishing a 

plr worthy of their im|>ortance and of the ability with which 

tj are maintained. Let it not be supposed that he fails to 

ort them with reasons that cannot but instnict, tliough 

ay not convince. It would be diffjctilt to find a work 

I subject of insanity more strongly characterized l)y that 

e&tifie sagacity which catches the highest significance of 

and by an intimate knowledge of the workings of the 

mind. 

J. Ray. 




fVn 



A»T. n. — A Chaftee op Ewk. 

. EvKRY generation during the last six Imndred years, 
cu^^ontly au|>pose(l, luia seen sometiiinf? of tho aniiunl edtiC 
out of tilt! Caucasian type of raun. But proirross in this 
tion has been noithor so rapid nor bo steady as many tuanj 
believers in the approocbiufr millennium are disjtoscd to 
Often the old enemy confronts us in a new and more Br 
fornif ajid experience then steadily teaches us tlrnt, in 
vice by no means loses half its evil m losing all its 
Take, for instance, some of the cardinal vices and ahna 
the iinptirft'ct past. Tiio practice of piracy, it was 
was battered and hung out of existence when the 
Powers and the pirates of tho Spanish Slain Itad l>f^eti 
dealt witii. But tiie froclwotcrs have only transferred 
operations to the land, and tho commerce of th^ worfd is 
more severely, though far more ei|nnlly, taxed thnmgl 
machinery of rings and tariffn, nellish money c^omlnnatic 
business centres, and the unprincipled corporate cont 
great lines of railway, than ever it was hy dopi' " 
side of the law. Gambling has ceased to bo fas I 
Crockford's doors were closed years ago, so that in 
Bpect too a victory is claimed for an advancini; civilii 
But^this seems to be another error. Oflmbling is a b*i 
now, where formerly it was a disreputable excitement, undl 
called by some such eujthcmism as '* operatiuir," " H ' 
ing." or the like. Again, legislative bribery and cormph 
within memory, looked upon as antiquated misdemeanoMi 
almost peculiar to the unenlightened period that expired witfl 
Walpole and IloUand, and tho revival of them regardt4_ 
impossible in the face of modem public opinion. Thifl 
third error. It is no longer the jiractice of Government 
Ministries to buy legislators; but individuals and coriwrai 
tious have of late not unfrequently found them commoditici 
for sale iu tho market. So with judicial venality and ruffiaw 
ism on the bench. Bacon was imfK-achod and JclVrics 
infamous fur offences ag&inst g(K)d morals and common 
ccncy which a self-^atistied civilization believes iucompd 



tOL 



)riK»raj 
odidei 
■utfianJ 



A Chapter qf Erie, 

rts present development, llocont revelations, however, 
■re cnrit ^ruve «IoulttH on Uie correotncBs oven of this asBiirap- 
Allw;?t'thor, tbero \h more to be suid than is commonly 
^eu'd in favor of the monility of the past aa compared with 
t|tf *' - - - • t fifty. 

..tion of the fantastic guiBCs which the worst 

}pluou evilK of history cutnumc, as they meet us in tho 

of the day, could lie afi'orded than was seen in tho 

Bndiuff what arc known as the Eric wars of tlie year 

Beginning in Fchniary and lasting until Pect^mber, 

pog fiercely in tlio late winter and spring, and dying away 

a hollow tnico at midsummer, only to revive into new 

>re vigoi'ous life in tl»o autumn, this strange conflict 

the money market, occupied tho courts, apitated 

ares, and perplexed tlie country, throughout the entire 

ltd history has not been fiilly written and probably 

■'•M bo; yet it sliould not be wholly forgotten. It was 

j: new to see a band of conspirators possess them- 

ilvve of a road, more important ttiau was ever the Ajipinn 

hy, aud make levies, not only upon it for tiioir own cmolu- 

t, hut, liirougb it, on the whole busincHs of a nation. Nor 

lid it fail to \ye seen that this was by no memis the end, but 

il> the beginning. The American |)eoplo cannot aftbrd to 

Kce at tJiis thing in the columns of tho daily press, and 

lismi»9 it frtnu memory. It Involves too many questions; 

bcs too nearly tho national life. 

Tbe hitttory of the Erie Railway has ])een a checkered 

Bc Cliartercd in 1832, and organized in 1833, tho cost 

its constructioQ was tlten estimated at three millions of 

iHan, of which bat one million were subscribed. By 

fhe first report was made, the estimated cost had 

to six milliona, and the work of construction was 

lually tiegun on the strength of stock subscriptions of a mil- 

Tmu find a lialf, and a loan of tlireo millions from the State. 

[lu IS42 tbe estimated cost had increased to twelve millions 

|ud-« half, mid both means in hand and credit were wholly 

■ ' ription books were opened, but no names 

I . uom ; the city of New York was applied to, 

I And rofasod a loan of its credit ; ai^iu the legialatntQ w{i&\)« 



82 A Chapter of Urie, 

Biei^d, but the M from thiH quarter wag how hampered 
inadmissible conditions; accordingly work was suspended, | 
the proju'rly of the insolvent corporation passed into the hd 
of assignees. In 184o tlio .State came again to tho rescafi 
Burrenderod all claim to the tliroe millions it had already 1 
to the comt>any; and one hnlf of their old eubecript 
been given np by the Btockholdcrs, and a new sub: 
three millions raised, tho whole property of the road was ; 
gaged for three millions more. At last, in I80I, eigb^ 
years after its commencement, tho road was oftoned 
Lake Krie to tide-water. Its financial troubles had, 
ever, as yet only begun, for, in 1859, it could not meet ' 
interest ou its mortgages, and i>assed into the hands d 
receiver. In 1861 an arrangement of interests was eflbi 
and a new company was organized. The next year tbd] 
Now York and Erie Railroad Company disappeared und^ 
foreclosure of the fifth mortgage, and the present Eric 
way Company rose from its ashes. Meanwtiile the orig 
estimate of throe millions had developed into an actual ai 
of fifty millions ; the 470 miles of track ojicned la 1842 ] 
expanded into 773 miles in 1808 ; and the revenue, 
tlio projectors had *' confidently " estimated at somet 
less than two millions in 18$3, amounted to over flro 
lions when the road passed into the haiids of a receive 
1859, and in 1865 reached the enormous amount of sixt 
millions and a half. Tho road was, in tmth, a magnifid 
enterprise, worthy to connect the great lakus with the 
seaport of America. ScaUng lofty mouutaiu ranges, rt 
through fertile valleys and hy the banks of broad rivers, 1 
nectuig the Hudson, the Susquehanna, the St. Lav. : 
the Ohio, it stood forth a monument at once of > 
skill and of commercial enterprise. 

Some seventeen or eighteen years ago, Mr. Daniel Prcw 
made hie appearance in the Board of Directors of tlie Erie, | 
where he remained down to* the year 1868, genenilly holding | 
al(*o the office of treasuwr of the corporation. Mr. Droi 
what is known as a sclf-mado mau. Bom in the year 1] 
as a boy he drove cattle down from his native towu of 
mel, in Putnam County, to the market of New York 



A Chapttr qf Erie, 



88 



DDtly, was for years proprietor of tlic BuUV Head 
take Uia coutem|>ofary, and iJly or opjwuont, — as the 
tbo, — Conicliiw Vuiulorbilt, lie built up his fortunes 
iboat iuterettt, aud 8uh»cquontJy exteiuled Uik o|>er- 
^vcr tlic rapidly dcvelnpiug railroad Hyetem. Shrewd, 
lulous, and very ill iterate, — a atrango combiuatioii of 
itioti aiid faithleHsuoss, of daring aiid timidity, — often 
tiircd and soniotiiiies ju«ncrou», — he has ever regarded 
iciax}* pottitiun of director of a railroad aM a moaiis of 
toting its stock for his own ndvatitngc. For years be 
^c leading bi?ar of Wall Street, and hia favorit* 
ro been tlie secret reccshcs of Krie. As treasurer 
urution, he ba«, in its fretiuently recurring houru of 
)cod it simis which it could not have obtained oIbo- 
tlie obtaiulug of wliicli was a tieceBj«ity. His man- 
his favorite «toek has Ijoen cunning and recondite, 
Its inscrutable. Tlioso who sought to follow him, 
rhu aouglit to oppose htm, alike fomid food for Had 
m; outil ntlaBt he won for himself the expressive sobri- 

RSjjcculativt' Director. Sometimes, though rarely, 
greatly in the complications of Wall Street ; more 
iJy he inflicted severe damage upon others. On the 
I-, his fortrmes had greatly prositered, and the 
_^i ...yi Erie war found him the actual possessor of some 
^bd the reputed posse»sor of many more. 
ic spring of IStJti Mr. Drew's manipulations of Krie cul- 
^^ an operatiou which wiih at the time regardc<l as a 
^ft, but which subsequent experience has so improved 
mt it iit now looktMl on as an ordinary and inartistic 
^panciering. The stock of the road was at that time 
^pibout 95, and the corporation \i'a6, as usual, in debt, 
preflsing need uf money. As usual, also, it resorted to 
isurcr. Mr. Drew stood ready to make tlie desired od- 
Qpon •ecurity. Some twenty-eight thousand shares of 
I authorized stock, which liad never been issued, were 
lime in the hajids of the comiMmy, which al^o claimed 
hi, midor the statutes of New York, of raising money 
ifume of bon<ls eonvertible, at the option of the bolder, 
t>ck. The twenty-eight thousand unissued shares and 
cix. — NO. 224. 8 



S4 



A Chapter of ErU, 







bonds for ihrco millions of dollars, convertible into stocki 
placed by the company in the hands of its treapnrer, a» 
for acash loan of §3,500,000. The negotiatiou had been 
effected, and Mr. Drew's campaign now opened. Once mo' 
was short of Erie. While Erie was buoyant, — wliile it a' 
approximated to par, — while speculation wus nimpan 
timt outside public, the delight and the prey of Wall 
was gradually drawn in by the fascination of amassing \f 
without labor, — quietly and stealthily, through his 
brokers, the grave, dosiwnding ojjerfitor was daily coucl' 
his contracts for the future delivery of Htouk at current 
At last the hour had come. Erie was rising, Erie was 
the great hear had many contracts to fulfil, and where 
to find the stock ? His victims were not kept long in susjieosi 
Mr. Treasurer Drew laid his hands upon his collat^Tal. IaH 
instant the bonds for tJireo millions wore converted into on (i<\fM 
alent amount of capital stock, and fifty-eight thousand shaia 
dumped, as it were, by the cart-load In Broad Street} 
Erie as plenty as even Drew could desire. Before tlie asfi 
ished bulls could rally their faculties, the quotutioiis had 
from 95 to 50, and they realized that they were hopcl 
trapped. 

The whole transaction, of course, was in no respect 
creditable tlian any game, supposed to be one of chi 
skill, the result of which is made to depend upon the so 
a pack of cards, the dosing of a racehorse, or the selling 
his powers by a "walkist." But the gambler, the patron of 
turf, or the pedestrian represent*, as a rule, no one but liira 
and his character is generally so well nnderNtood as to 
warning to all the world. The case of the treasurer of a 
corf>oralioii is different. He occupies a fiduciary position 
is a trustee, — a guardian. Vast interests are coufidod 
care ; every shareholder of the corporation is his ward ; 
a railroad, the commmiity itself is his cestui que trust. 
passing events, accumulating more thickly with every yoar| 
thoroughly corrupted the public morals oa this subject. 
rectorship in certain great corfHiratiuns has come to he 
OS a situatiun in which to make a fortune, the pi 
vhwh ia uo ioiiger dishonorable. Tlie method ofaccomi 



m 



*" — " 



A Chapter of Ertc 



85 



i^bnplc and safe. It coiisista iu giving contracts as a 
)iie'a solf ns un individual, or in speculating in tlio 
[one^a ct'stui que trusty or iu using the funds coutided 
rgc, a« treasurer or otherwiao, to gamble witli tlie 
I of UiMse funds for tlieir own property, and that with 
sd in advnnco. Those prococdings arc looked u}>on 
cjirtilicnsihlc. The wards themselves ex|)Out their 
to throw the dice against tbom for th(dr own prop- 
TH Kiirprlsi'd, :is well as'gratified, if the dice are not 



moral sensibility has, however, for some years 

Ither Wall Street or the country at large. As a 

|e transaction of 1866, Mr. Drew was looked upon as 

Icted a surprixingly rimer operation, and he retired 

old hated, feared, wealthy, and admired. This epi- 

Street history took its place as a brilliant success 

i Prairie du Ghien and Harlem "corners," and, 

)ucnt events, would soon have been forgotten. 

section, however, with more important though 

ents of Erie history seems likely to preserve its 

Great evontfl were imp«mding ; a now man was 

I in the railroad world, introducing novel ideas and 

laud it could hardly be that the new and old would 

conilict. CorneliuH V^iuiderbiU, oximmonly known 

3oro Vanderbilt, was now developing hia theory of 

bment of railroads. 

the year 1794, Vanderbilt is a somewhat older 

)rew- There are several jwints of resemblance in 

jives uf the two men, and many [}uiuts of curious con* 

air characters. Vanderbilt, like Drew, was born in 

le circumstances in the State ^ New York, and ro- 

Ittle education. lie Itegan life by ferrying over i>as- 

produce from Staten Island to New York. SuV 

I he too loid the fuuudation of his great fortune in 

ntioat navigation, and likewise, in due course 

I himself to the railroad interest. When at 

}i^y the two came into collision as representatives of 

^ttm uf railroad management and of the new, they 

Jof them ihrccscoie ami ten vcars of age, aud \ia^ 



S6 



A Chapter of Erie, 



both been successful in the accumulation of millionB^ — ' 
derbilt evcu more so than Drew. They were probably 
unscrupulous aud equally selfish ; but, while the cast of i 
mind was sombre and bearish, Vandcrhilt wan gay and 
ant of temperament, little g^ven to thoughts other than 
world, a lover of liorses and of the good tilings of thifl 
The first affect-s prayer-meetiJiga, aud the last is a deviv 
whist. Drew, in Wall .Street, is by temf)eniment a hear, 
Vanderbilt could hardly be- other than a bull. Vond 
must be allowed to 1m) by far the superior man of the' 
Drew is astute aud full of resources, and at all times aj 
gerous opponent ; but Vanderbilt takes larger, more 
liensive vicws^ ajid his mind has a vigomus gmfip which ' 
of Drew seems to want. While, in short, in a wider 
the one might have made himself a groat and successfu 
pot, the other would liardly have aspired to bo more 
head of the jobbing department of some corrupt gover 
Accordingly, while in Drew's connection with tlie railroa 
teni his operations and manipulations evince no fpialitic 
culated to excite even a ^-ulgar admiration or respect, 
impossible to regard Vanderbilt's methods or aims will 
recognizing the m:ignitude of the man*s ideas and cono 
his abilities. lie involuntarily excites feelings of admir 
for himself aud alarm for the public. His ambition is a i 
one. It seems to be uothing less than to make himself i 
in his own right of the great channels of comnmnication 
connect the city of New York with tlic interior of 
tinent, and to control them aa his private property. 
Drew has sought ouly to carry to perfection the old syst 
operating successfully from the confidential position of dir 
neither knowing au}'Tlung nor caring anything for the 
system except in its connection with the movements 
stock exchange, Vanderbilt has seen the iidl magnitude 
system, and through it has sought to make himself a die 
in modern civilization, moving forward to tbis end step byj 
with a soil: of pitiless energy which has seemed to have inf 
clement of fatality. As trade now dominates the world, 
the railways dominate trade, his object has been to make U 
aeJf the virtual master of all Viy making Uiin-self absolute^ 



Chapter of Erie. 



S7 



|«f the railwAys. Had he licgun his railroad oper»iioDB with 
|faid iu viow, cumpleto failure woiihl havo been almost cor- 
hi8 rewa-ni. Cinnniunciiif<; na lie did, however, with a 
[comparatively ineigiiificaiit objective point, — the cheap puis 
of a bouloMipt stock, — and developing his ideas a» he 
need, hia power and hi-f reputiition grew, until an end 
bkh it would have 8oemed madness to entertain at ftrRt bo- 

' M loth natural and feasible. 

1 lines of railway traverse the State of New York 

connect it with the West, — tlie Erie and the New York 

JCentral. The latter eommunio-ates with the city by a great river 

nd by two railroads. To get these two ronds — the Harlem 

tins HudMon River — under hia own absolute control, and 

so far as the comicctiou with the Central was concerned, 

iaiM)U»h the river, was Vanderhilt's immediate object. First 

lunz himself mofiter of the Harlem Road, he there learned 

' -•' ■ '■' ons in railroad management, mid picked n])a for- 

huii' .ij. A few years ago Harlem had no value. As 

jUteas iJiibU it sold for 8 or 9 dollars per share ; and in Jaiiu- 

tf7, 1863, when Vaudcrbilt had got the control, it had risen ouly 

iM, By July of that year it stood at 92, and iu August was 

?hly raised by a »* corner" to 179. The next yeai- witnessed 

Is&itnilur uperation. llie stock, which sold iu January at less 

Ithan £H), was settled for in June in the neighborhcwd of 285,1 

lOii one of these occasions Sir. Drew is reported to have contrilv 

MM a »nm approachinj; half a million to his rival's wealth. Of 

|lnt* tlii- stock has been flnated at about 130. It was in the suc- 

■ nduct of this fii-st experiment that Vanderbilt showed 

manifest suffcriority over previous railroad managers. 

[The Harlem waa, after all, only a competing; lino, and compcti- 

tiftii Tras proverliially the rock ahead in all railroad enterprise, 

|>T|^ success of Vanderbilt with the Harlem depended upon his 

Dg rid of tJie competition of the Hudson River Riiilroad. 

lAii ordinary manajrer would have resorted to contracts, which. 

|ira never carri<Ml out, or to opposition, which is apt to be ruin- 

Vanderhilt, on the contrary, put an end to competition 

' np the coni]H;ting line. This ho did in the neigh-, 

. .: J if par, and, in due course of time, the stock was sent 

' to 180, Thus his plans had developed by another &le\t> 

\^^ through & Judicious course of financiering aud -wnlenw^ 



38 



A Chapter of Erie, 



and dividing, a new fortune bad been secured by hiin, 
this time Vauderbilt's I'eputation as a railroad maua^r 
one who earned divideuds, iuvonted stock, and created wt 
•^liad become very great, and the managers of Uio G 
brought that road to him, and asked him to do with it 
had done with the Ilarlem and Hudson River. He ace 
the proffered charge, and now, prolmbly, tlio possibilitios 
position and the magnitude of the prize within his grasp at 
dawned on liis mind. Unconsciously to himself, worldug 
wisely than he knew, he had brought to it^ bigical coaci 
the development of one potent element of modern civilizati 

Gravitation is the rule, and centralization the natural 
sequence, in society no less than in physics. Physi 
morally, intellectually, in population, wealth, and intcUi 
all things tend to consolidation. One singular illustratioB 
this law is almost entirely the growth of this century. Pormerfjrj 
either governments, or individuals, or, at most, small combina- 
tions of individuals, wen; the originators of all groat work* of 
public utility. Within the present century only has demixrwy 
found its way into the combinations of capital, small share. 
holders combinuig to carry out the most extensive enterprises. 
And yet already our great cor[K>rations are fast cmauci[>atiii^ 
themselves from the state, or ratlicr subjecting the state tf 
their own control, while individual capitalists, who long ago 
abandoned the attempt to compete with them, will nest seek tr 
control them. In this dangerous path of ventralizalion Toih 
derbilt has taken the latest, step in advance. He has combiDcd 
the natural power of the individual with the factitious power oP 
the corporation. The famous " LVtat, c'est moi " of Jjowb 
XIV. represents Vanderbilt's position in regard to his rail- 
roads. Unconsciously ho has introduced Cffisarism into cop^ 
porato life. He has, however, but pointed out the way whyib. 
others will tread. Tlie indiviiUial will hereafter bo engrafted 
on the corporation, — democracy running its course, and result- 
ing in imperialism ; and Vanderbilt is but the precursor of 
class of men who will wield within tbe state a jMiwer created by 
it, hut too great for its control. Ho is the fomider of a dynasty 

From tJio moment Vanderbilt stepped into the managouieu 
of the Central, but a siugle effort e^emcd uecessary to gh 



LRoO.] 



A Chopier of En'r. 



39 



be iK^w rnilni.'ui kinjf al>Bolutc control over (he railrond sy«- 
, anil consixiueiitly over the commerce, of New Ynrk. By 
Inacing ouly one step he could securely levy Ins tolls on the 
of a contiuent. Nor couUl this fitc|i have seemed diffi- 
take. It was hut to repeat with the Erie his successful 
vratioa with the Hudson River Road. Not only was it a step 
^to t4Lke, hut here n^ain, as so many times iKifore. a new 
Be seemed ready to drop into his hand. Tlie Erie uiij^ht 
nil yield a not less golden harvest than the Central, Hudson 
lS»er, or Harlem Road ; there was indeed but one obstacle in 
lliittwny, — the plan might not meet the views of the one man 
Ivhoat that time possessed the wealth, cunning, and combina- 
ItioQ of qualities which could defeat it, tliat man being the 
[Spernlativc Director of the Eric, — Mr. Daniel Drew. 

The Now York Central pnssJR into Vanderbilt's hands in the 

r «.;..,. _ r i8g^_67^ ajij lie marked the Eric for his own in the 

ig autumn. As the annual meeting of the corporation 

kipjiroiiched, tliree fiarties were found in the field contending 

|fw control of the nmd. One party was represented by Drew, 

IwhI might he called the pnrty in possession, — that which had 

oug ruled the Elrie, and made it what it was. — the Scarlet 

llpMnan of Wall Street. Next came Vanderbilt, flushed with 

e«i, and Iwut upon his great idea of developing impenalism 

1 corporate life. Lastly a faction made its aj»i>earaucc com- 

l|>a»pd of some shrewd and ambitious Wall Street operators and 

jorocrtoiu persona from Boston, who sustained for the occasion 

U)6 novel character of railroad reformers. Tliis i»arty, it ia { 

ediesft to say, was as unscrupulous and, as the result proved, 

able aa either of (ho others ; it represented nothing hut a 

T«i<i inu'Je upon the Erie treasury in the interest of a thoroughly 

Ittakrupt New England corporation of which its meml>er8 had 

thfi control. The history of this corporation, known as the 

Boium, tliixtford, and Erie Railroad, — a projected feeder 

*dJ conuecrion of the Erie, — would be one curious to read, 

thyiuHi very difficult to writ«. Its name was synonymous witli 

y, litigiition, fnuid, and failure. If the Erie was of 

icpute in Wall Street, the Ikmton, Hartford, aud Eric 

fwd long been of worse than doubtful repute In State Street. 

W \ji\^ years, under able and jiersevering, if not scru^tuloua 



40 



A Cfiapter of Eru. 



management^ the biuikrupt., moribund company bud 
»lowl)- struggling into new life, and in the 6|kring of 18G7J 
had obtainod, under certain conditionS|,from tho Cummunirca 
of MasaadiiiHettd, a Buhaidy in aid of the conatriii^tion (4 
road. One of the conditions imposed obliged thu corporati 
to raise a sum from other sources Btill larger tbau Uiat graiif 
by tlie State. Accordingly, those liaving the line in cha 
looked aI>road fur a victiui, and fixed their eyoa ujion the Kri 

As the election day drew near, Erie was of course for 
A controlling intei-eet of stockliolders stood ready lo sell 
proxies, with entire impartiality, to any of the throe contend 
parties, or to any man who would pay the market price 
them. Nay, more, the attorney of one of the contend 
parties, as it afterwards apiM^attid, actually Bold the prox 
of his j}riucij>al to anotlier of tic contestants, and hi& doiojij 
seemed to excite no serious surprise. Meanwlulc tho rep 
sentatives of tlic EuRtein interest played their jmrt to ndmi| 
tion. Taking advantage of some Wall Sti'eet compile 
just then existing between Vanderbilt and Prcw, they indo^ 
the former to ally himself with tliem, and the latter Haw i 
his defeat was inevitable. Even ut this time the Vaude 
party contemplated having recourse, if necessary, to the < 
and a petition for an iigunction had Ijecn prepared, sot 
fortli the details of the '* corner" of 1866. On the Sun^ 
preceding the election, Drew, in view of his impending defflj 
called upon Vanderbilt. That getitleniaii theroupon 
amicably read to him the legal dtwumetits prepared for 
benefit, whereupon the ready treasurer at once turned 
and, havinj^ liitherto been hami>ering the Commodore by] 
hear oi>erationB, ho now agreed to join hands with him in gi\ 
to the market a strong upward tendency. Meanwhile the ( 
parties to tho contest wore not idle. At the same bouse, 
later bom- in the day, Vanderbilt exjilained to the Easb 
adventurers Ids new plan of operations, which included 
continnanco of Drcwin his directorsliip. T' 
puzzled, not to say confounded, by this sudi 
An explanation was demanded, some plain languago followc 
and the parties separated, only to meet atjain at a later hou^ 
tho houae of Drew. There Vanderbilt brought the new ; 




hy proposing to Drew a l)old covp de ?»oi'rt, calculated to 

w them entirely out of the direction. Before tlic parties 

tod tluit iiiglit, a writteu agreeuieut ImU )>ccu entered 

liroTidiug tliat, to Rave appearances, tlie new board should 

without Drew, but that immediately thereafter a 

shttuld be created, and Drew chosen to fill it. He 

therefore to go m as one of two directors in the Von- 

lOt uiterost, tliat gentleman's nephew, Mr. Work, being 

»U)or. 

hU programme woa faithfully carried out, and on the 2d 
>ctoljer Wall Street was at oucc astonished by the news of 
defeat of the notorious leader of the bears* and bewildered 
tbe uumodiate resignation of a member of the new board 
the election of Drew in his place. Apparently he had 
m his submission, the one obstacle to success was re- 
nA, ftud the eTcr-rictorious Commodore had now but to 
e his fingers on his new prize. Virtual consolidation in 
Vanderbilt interest seemed a foregone conclusion. 
n» roinstaluient of Drew was followed by a period of 
low truce. A combination of capitalists, in pursuance of an 
moment already referred to, took advantage of this to 
as much as possible of the spare cash of the " outside 
from its jKJcketa to their own. A ** pool" was foraaed, 
|iriew of the dej)rcssed condition of Erie, and Drew was left 
manipulate the market for tlie advantage of those whom it 
ooQceru. The result of the Speculative Director's opera- 
tp[»lied a curionx commentary on the ethics of the stock 
igc, and made it questionable whether the ancient adage 
to honor extends to its combinations. One contributor to 

'• pool/' iu this instance, was Mr. , a friend of Vandop- 

Tbe ways of Mr. Drew were, as usual, past finding out ; 

k. , however, grew impatient of waiting fur the autici- 

I rij»e in Erie, and it occurred to him that, l>osides partici- 

in the profits of the ** pool," ho might as well turn an 

$t peony by collateral operations on his own account, look- 

[ to the expected rise. Before embarking on his iude]>endent 

^tatCf however, he consulted Mr. Drew, it is said, who 

ily decUnod to express any judgment as to the venture, 

uC at the same time agreed to loan Mr. out of the 



42 



A Chapter <if Erie, 



" pool " any inoiiej'4 he luiglit require upon tlie secant) 

in such cosoH. Mr. uvuitod himself itf the mc 

put at his iliHpufuil, ami laid in a private stock uf Krie^ 
expected riHo, howevep, gtill did not take place. As 
applied to Mr. Drew for information, but with no 
ce»3 than before ; aud again, tempted hj the cheapw 
Eric, he borrowed ftirther funds of the "jwol," and mad 
purchases of stock. At last the long-continued dopr 
Erie aroused a di'eadful suspicion in the bull operate 
inquiries were set on foot, He then discovered, to hisi 
ittbment and horror, that his stock had come to him thnM 
certain of the brokers of Mr. Prew. The meml>er9 
"pool" were at once called together^ and Mr. Dr 

appealed to on behalf of Mr. . It was suggested 

that it would be well to run Erie up to aid a confe 
Tliorcupon, witli all the coolness imaginable, Mr. 
announced that the " pool " had no Erie aud wmited uo 
that it had sold out its Erie and had realized lar- 
which he now pro|)08ed to divide. Thereafter who * 
tend to understand Dauiel Drew ? who could fail to afif 
elate the hmmirs of Wall Street ? The controller of 1 
*^pool** had aelually lent the money of the ** pm.il ** to fl 
of the members of the " pool," to enable him to buy up I 
stock of the " pool *' ; and having thus quietly saddled Inni w 
it, the conti*oller proceeded to divide the jinttUs, and 
returned to the victim a portion of liis own money ail hi: 

of the proceeds. Yet, strange to say, Mr. wholly] 

to sec the humorous side of the transaction, and 
feigned great indignation. 

This, however, was a mere sportive interlude befv«^c'( 
graver scenes of the drama. The real conflict was now impc; 
ing. Commodore Vanderbilt stretched out his hand to gn 
Erie. Erie was to be isolated and shut up within the li^ 
New York ; it was to be given over, bound baud aud 
the lord of the Central. To perfect this progranimo, tho| 
seutativcs of all the competing lines met, and n propositi 
submitted to the Erie party looking to a iiraetical consolll 
and a division among the contracting parties uf the 
from the New York City travel. A new illustration 



Aflb 



••] 



A Chapitr of Erie, 



48 



[bl &fibrded, at the expense of the trade and travel to and 

, the heart of a continent, of George Steplienson's famous 

D, tliat where combination is possible competition is 

lie. The Erie party, however, represented that their 

learned more than lialf of tlie fund of which they were to 

! ouly one third. They remonstrated and proposed mod- 

HoM, but their opponents were inexorable. The terms 

\ tab hard ; the coufereuoe led to no result, and the war 

} out a&eak 

Tandorhilt, foiled in his attempt, went into Wall 

'1 to make himself master of the Erie, as before 

iimself master of the Hudson River Road. Tlie 

t hi itself was one of magnitude. The volume of stock was 

ense; all of it was upon the street, and the necessary 

odituro involved many millions of dollars. The peculiar 

ulty of the task, however, lay in the fact that it had to be 

II m the face of antagonists so bold, so subtle, so \m- 

^. bo tlii>n»ughly acquainted with Erie, as well as so 

ailior with all the devices and tricks of fence of Wall .Street. 

*TIic first o|>en ht>stilities took place on tlie 17th of February. 

or »i»me time Wall Street had l>een agitated ^rith forebodings 

fthe coming hostilities, but not imtil that day was recourse 

lt« the courts. Vanderbilt had two ends in view when ho 

tit to avail himself of the processes of law. In the first 

E, Drew's long connection with Erie, and especially the un- 

Itlvd tranKuoftons arising out of the famous corner of 1866, 

fitrJe*! lulniirable ground for annoying oti'ensive operations; 

I, in the second place, these very proceetlings, by throwing 

lit on the defensive, aflbrdod an excoUont cover for 

's own transactions in Wall Street. It was esscn- 

U> hia sncccss to corner Drew, but to comer Drew at all 

Dot easy, and to comer him in Erie was difBcuU indeed. 

iperienccs since the Ist of Jannary of this year, no less than 

: memories of 186fi, had fully warned the public how mani- 

ond ingenious were llio expedients through which the cun- 

Dg treasurer furnished himself with Erie, when the exigencies 

Mils fiosition demanded fresh stipplics. It was, therefore, very 

ir Vanderbilt that ho should, while buying Erie up 

nd in Wall Street, with the other close, so for as ho 



44 



A Chapter of Eric, 



could, that apparently inoxlmustible Hpruig from wliirl 
generous supplies of new stock were wont to flow. Act' 
If, on the itlh of February, Mr. Frank Work, tho only re: 
iug represeutative of the Vauderbilt faction in the Eri^ 
rectiou, accompauied l»y Mr. Vanderbilt's attorneys, Me 
Rapallo and S[>enser, made his appearance before Judge ^m 
nard, of the Supreme Court of New York, then sitting in chtaJi 
bers, and applied for an injunction against Trcastirer Drew a^:**' 
his brother directors, restraining tliem from the payiueul 
interest or principal of (he three and a half millions bor- ^ 
of the treasurer in 1866, as well as fx'om releasing Drcv 
any liability or cause of action the comi>auy might have agoii 
him, pending an investigation of his accounts as treasiurer ; oa 
the other hand, Drew was to be enjoined from taking any Icgv/ 
steps towards compelling a settlement. A temporary itijiuw> 
tiou was granted in accordance with the petition, and a finw 
ther hearing was assigned for the 21st. Two days later, hoir» 
over, — on tho 19th of the month — without waiting for tbi 
result of the first attack, the same attorneys appeared again b^ 
fore Judge Barnard, and now in the name of the peoph>, acting 
through the Attorney-General, petitioned for the removal frtim 
office of Treasm'er Drew. The impcrs in the case set furth 
some of the difficulties which t^set the Commodore, and ei» 
posed the existence of a new foufntain of Erie stock. It ajK 
iwarcd that there was a recently enacted statute of New York 
which autliorised any railroad company to create and issue its 
own stock in exchange for the stock of any other road imder 
lease to it. Mr. Drew, the petition then alleged, and ce 
of his brother directors, had quietly possesflcd thcmsclres 
a worthless road conneL'tiiig with the Erie, and called 
Buffalo, Bradford, and Pittsburg Railroad, and had then,: 
occasion and their own exigencies required, proceeded to 
ply themselves with whatever Eric stock they wanted by l 
ing their own road to the road of which they were dirccti 
and then creating stock and issuing it to themselves, ia 
change, under the authority vested in them by law. l*he 
tory of this transaction affords, indeed, a most happy illua' 
tion of brilliant railroad tinancioring. The road cost 
;)urcbaser3, as financiers, some $ 250,000 ; as proprietors, tlwf 



A Chapter of Erie. 



45 



led in its name bonds for two millions of dollars^ pay* 
onw of Uicmselves, who now figured as tnistoc. This 
Uicn, shiitiiig hut characttir, dr(*w up, ah counsel for 
lie«, u contnict U.'flwinj; this roiid to the Eric Ruilway 
hundred nnd nincty-nino ycnrs, tl»e Krio agrooing to 
Uie tiondit ; rcipjicariitg in thoir orijLnual character of 
tore, these gentlemen then ratified the lease, nnd 
it only remained for them to relapse into the rolo 
eicniT and to divide the proceeds. All this was hap- 
pUslind, and the Erie Ilailway lost and some one 
<0,00n u year by the bargain. The bkilful actorB 
Itl^ much-fthilling drama proltably proceeded on the fa- 
piar theory fhat exohaiige ih no rohlx''ry ; and the ex- 
it vrafl certainly ingenious. CVtmmodorc' Vanderhilt, 
rover, naturally desired to put some limit to the amount 
I the Mock in existence, a majority of which ho sought to 
Accordingly it waa now further ordered by Mr. Jus- 
Barnard that Mr. Drew should show cause on the 2t8t 
raver of the petitioner should not be granted, and 
J he wa« tcniiiorariiy suspended from his position as 
arer and director. 
I^Jt was not until the 3d of March, however, that any decisive 
ilion wa» taken by Judge Barnard on either of the petitions 
hna him. Even then that in the name of the At^oniey- 
era] woj* poatjH^nt^d f<)r final hearing until the lOlh of the 
uth : but on tlie application of Work nn injunction was 
retraining the Erie hoard from any new issue of capital 
k, by conversion of bonds or otherwise, in addition to Ihc 
\\M9> shares appearing in tlie previous reports of the road, 
forbidding the guaranty by the Eric of the bonds of any 
' of road. While this bust provision of the order 
i lo furnish food for thought to the Boston party, 
derfor meditation was supplied to Mr. Drew by other clauROs, 
^ forbade him, his agents, atlorneys, or Itrokers, 
iiasactions in Firie, or fulfil any of his contracts 
pready onberod into, until ho bad returned to the company 
1 ftharea of capital stock, which were alleged 
U livolvod in the unsettled transact iun of 18GG, 

0(1 till; more recent Buffalo^ Bradford, and PittHburg e:ic\\tu\^^. 



46 



A Chapter of ErU, 



[J 



A final hoariug wUvS fixed for tlie 10th of March on hot 
juncHons. 

Things certainly did not now promise woll for Trc 
Drew and the bear parly. Vanderhilr and the hulls 
to have it all their own way. If any virtue existed iii tlw j 
cesses of law, if any nutliority wiis wielded hy a New 
court, it now seemed as if the very head of the hoar fa 
must needs he coDverted iuto a hull in liis own dospit'C, 
his manifest ruin. He, in this hour of his trial, waa tti 
forced hy hiH tritiniphtuit (>i)poncnt to make Erie scarce bj 
turning into its treasury sixty-eight thousand aharoa, — j 
fourth uf its whide capital st<iek of every description. Sal 
from manufacturing frcsli Eric and pouring it into the ; 
he was to lic'coniercd hy a writ, aud forced to work his 
rum in obedience to an injmictlon. ApjwiiraueeH are, howfl 
proverbially deceptive, and all depended on the aasumptinnl 
some virhie did exist in the processes of law, mid that 
authority was wielded by a Xow York court. In spite ofj 
tiiroalening a8|)0ct of his affairs, it was very evident Ihatj 
nerves of Mr. Drew and his associates wore not serioasi| 
fected. Wall Street watched him with curiosity not unming 
with alarm : for this was a coullict of Titans. Ib'dgodj 
around with orders of tlie court, susi^ended, oiyoined, 
threatened with all manner of unheard-of processes, with 
derhilt*s wealth standing like a lion in his path, and all 
Street ready to turn upon him and rend him, — in presenfl 
all these accumulated terrors of the court-room and of tha 
change, — the Speculative Director was not less epecula 
than his wont. He seemed rusliing on destruction. Dayi 
day he pursued the same "short'' tactics; contract aft«r i 
tract was put out for the future delivery of stock at cb 
prices, aud this, too, in the face of a continually rising ma 
Evidently he did not yet consider himself at the end of 
resources. 

It was equally orident, however, that ho had not much 
to lose. It was now the 3d of March, and the atiHcij 
" corner " mistht be looked for about tlic lOlh, As usual, i 
light skirmishing took place as a prelude to the heavy she 
decisive battle. The Erie party very freely and openly expr 



>•] 



A Chapier of Erie* 



47 



^*i#lw! l3<rfc of resi)ect, and 8nmt>thingr apprnachinfr contempt, 

[the purity of that particular frngiuoiit of the judicial ermine 

tell — fi)5uralirelj — adonied the jjerson of Mr. JuHtice Bai*^ 

ITiey did not pretend to conceal their cunviotion that 

miigistnitc wiw ii piece of the Vanderhilt property, and 

Terr plainly announced their intention of seeking for jus- 

'i*.;ro. With this end in view they betook themselves 

vvn town of BLughamton, in tho county of Broome, 

^ere they duly presented themaolves before Mr. Justice Bal- 

(he Supreme Court. The existing judicial system of 

Tork divides the State into eight distinct diHtricts, each 

I vhich lias an independent Supreme Court of four judges, 

hy the citizens of that district. The first district alone 

oyM five judges, the fifth being the Judge Barnard already 

erred to. Tliese local judges, however, are clotlied witlx cer- 

Ijntty powers in actions commenced before them wliieh 

aughout the State. As one subject of litigation, tliere- 

e, might aflbot many indiriduals, each of whom might initiate 

[)ceedings before any of the thirty-thi'ee judges, which 

i again, miglit forbid proceedings before any or all of the 

her judges, or issue a stay of proceedings in suits already 

iced, and then jiroceed to make orders, to consolidate 

and to issue process for contempt, — it was not im- 

ftble that, sooner or later, strange and disgraceful conflicts 

ority would ariue, and that tho law would fall into con- 

[Tftking advantage of the extreme complication in practice of 
jiT«tem so simple in its theory, the Erie i»arty broke ground 
tiiiiew »uit. The injunction was no sooner asked of Judgo 
com than it was granted, and Mr. Frank Work, the Attor- 
bf^teneral, and all other parties litigant, were directed to 
bow cAUftC at Courtlaiidvillo on the Tth of March ; and mean- 
Hule, Mr. Director Work, acouscd of liemg a spy of tlie 
tie councils of Erie, was temporarily suspended from 
1, and all proceedings in the suits eoiumcnee<l before 
Plijge Barnard were stayed. The moment, however, that this 
' ■■'. a hi New York, a new suit was commenced 
interest iii the name of Richard SchoU ; and 
fwlgc lugraham cried check to the move of Judge Ba\coni,\i^ 



48 



A Chapter qf Erie, 



[H 



furbidding aiiy meeting of the Erie board, or tliu triutsaetiq 
£uiy busineas by it, unless f)ircctor Work was at Tull I»l 
participate thcrpin. The first move of the I >rcw faction! 
not Keein likely t-o result in any stgual advantu^e to 
cauHe. 

All this, however, was mere skinnishinp, and now th<! 
cisive engagement was near at hand. The plans of the 
ring were matured, and, if Commodore Vanderbilt wa 
the stock of their road, they were prepared to let him 
all that be desired. Ab usual the Erie treasury woa at 
time deficient in funds. Aa usual, also, Paoid Drew 
ready to advance all the funds required on prof»er 
One kind of security, an<i only one, the company was dia 
at this time to offer, — tlicir convertible bonds under a pled| 
conversion. The eomi)any could not issue stot^k tmtriphi 
any ease, at less than par ; its hoi»d» bore interest, «Jid 
useless on the street; an issue of coDrertitile lionds 
atiother name for an issue of stock to l>e sold at m " 
The treasurer readily agreed to find a purchaser, :,. 
he himself was just then !ti pressing need of some 
thousands of shares. Already at the meeting of the 
IHreclors, ou the 19tb of Febniaiy, a very deceptive 
of the coudition of the road, jockied out of the general 
intcudcut, had been read and made jiublic ; the incr 
depot facilititts, tlie project**d doul)Ie trtn'k, and the en 
ing steol rails, had been made to do vigorous duty ; 
board had duly authorized the Executive Cummittee 
borrow such sums as might bo iiecessar)', ami to i| 
therefor such sccurit}' as is provided for in such coiei 
the laws of this State." Tmmodiately alter the Boa 
DirecUjrs adjourned, a meeting of the Kxecutive Commij 
was held, and a vote to iasue at ouce convertible bonda forf 
millions gave a moaning to the very ambiguous I 
the dircctora* resolve; and thus, when appunMitly ■ 
threshold of hie final triumph, this mighty mass of one liun^ 
thousand shares of new stock was Imnginir like an a\*alai 
over the head of Vandcrliilt. 
The Executive Committee had voted to boU the 
lount of these Bonds at not less tlian 72}. Fire 



A Chapter cf Srk, 



W 



placed upon the market at once, and Mr. Drc\r*s broker 

,0 i' ! r. — Mr. Prow giving him a written ^-^imr^ 

Bgt3 -i being oiititlcd to any profit that mi;rUt 

it was nil dose m ten miuutcs nftor tho Committee 

od, — the bonds issued, their coax'ersion Into »U>ck do- 

d and complied with, and eerti6catcH for fillv thoihsmid 

IS deposited in the Itroker's safe, uuhject to the ordern of 

^' \. Tlieiii they rcmninod until the '2'Mh, vrheu llioy 

. on liis reqaisilion, to certain f»thi,T8 of that gentle- 

urmy of brokers, mucli tis amniuuttion might he ifisacd 

t - nient. Thri'o days lator eanie the 

Krie suddenly rose in the market. 

it WHS determined tu bring up the reserves and let the 

bolls have the other tivo millions. The history of tliis 

d ij**uc wns. hi all R'sitects, an episode worHiy of Krie, 

dusenes mlnutu relation. It wtut decided u])ou on the 

'■ '''0 bonds were converted Barnard's injunction 

i on every one comiected witli (he Erie K4)ad 

itit I'Buiel Drew. The 10th was the return day of the writ, 

Erie oftcrators needed even less time for tlieir dehbcrur 

Monday, the 9th, was settled upon ns the day upon which 

ffiwt U>e impemiing ** comer.'* The night of .Saturday, 

was & l»uay one in tho Erie camp. While one set of 

and clerks were prcpaiing affidavits mid pruyera for 

iffe writfl and iJijimctionSj the enjoined vice-president of the 

wiw hnsy at home signing certificates of stock, to be ready 

Dstant use in case a modification of tiio injtmction could be 

Incd, and another set of counsel was in immediate atlend- 

on the loaders themselves. Mr. Ciroesheck, the chief 

be Drew brokersj being liimself enjoined, secured elso- 

e, after one or two failmes, a purchaser of the bonds, and 

liim to the house of the Eric counsel, whore Drew and 

r directors and brokers then were. There tlie terms of 

nominal sale were agreed upon, and a contract drawn up 

lifijrnng the bonds to tliis man of straw, — Mr, Groesheck 

awhile, witJi tlie fear of injiinctiuns before his eves, pru- 

lly withdrawing into the next room. After (he con(ract 

i«lo«ed, the purchaser was asked to sign an affidavit sotting 

h Ids owuersliip of the bonds twd the refusal of the corvio- 

■Ot. crx — jfo. 225, 4 



50 



A Chapter of Erie, 



ration to convert tbom into stock in complianc© witii 
contract, \\\Mm which aflidavit it was in coutemphitiou t<i 
from some justice a writ of mandamvs to compel llio i 
Railway to convert them, tl»o necessary i>a|»erft for such ; 
cccding i>ein)< then in course of preparation elsewhere, 
the purchaser declined to do. One of tho lawyen* pr 
then said: "Well, you con make the demand now; bfl 
Mr. Drew, tho treaaurcr of the company, and Mr. i^ould 
of tho Executive Committee." In accordance w-ith this 
tioii a demand for the stock was then ^ade, and, of cot 
onco refused ; thereupon the scniples of the man of 
beinf;; all removed, the desired afhdavit wa.s signed. AH] 
jicss hanng now been disposed of, tho parties separated) 
legal papers were ready, tho convertible bondft had bciei 
posed of, Olid the ccrKHcates of stock for whicli they wfl 
be exchanged were signed in blank and ready for delivery^ 

Early on Monday morning the Erie people wer« at 
Mr. Di-ow, the director and treasurer, had agreed to 
that day fifty thousand shares of the stock, at 80, to tho I 
of which Mr. Fisk and Mr. Gould were membera, these 
men also being Erie directors and njemhers of the Exec 
Committee. The new certificates, niiule out in the ui 
these firms on Saturday night, were in the hands of the 
tary of the company, who was strictly enjoined from allf 
their issue. On Monday morning this official directed 
ployee of the road to carry these books of certificates fro^ 
West Street oflice of the company to the transfor cle 
Pine Street, and there to deliver tliem cai'cfuUy, The i 
senger left tho room, hut immediately returned empty-hi 
and informed the astonished secretary that Mr. Fisk ha(T 
him outside the door, taken from liim the books of uiii^ 
certificates, and " run away with them." It was true ;• 
essential Btc]> towards conversion had been taken ; the 
cates of stock were beyond tho control of lui uijunotic 
day or two later tlie convertible bonds were found npc 
secretary's desk, conveyed thither by an unknown hand] 
certificates were next seen in Broad .Street. 

Before launcliing the bolt thus provided, the consjiiratoij 
considered it not unadvisable to cover tlieir proceedings, il 



A ChapUr of Sne. 



ti 



vn\\\ SotnO foriQ of lavr. This probably was looked upon 
Miony, Imt it could do no harm ; and perhaps 
1.;: was dictated by what has been called " a de- 
rC9p<!ct for tho opinions of mankind/* combined with u 
nipt fiff judges and courts of law. 
. uiorniujr of the S*th, Judge Gilbert, a higldj 
etod ma^trato of the Second Judicial District, residing 
upon by one of the Krie counsel, who 
ium a new suit in the Erie litigation, 
iiU lime, in the name of tho Saturday evoniug purchuscr of 
S<b ' ' r of affidavits, A writ of ff!fl?i(/am«s was asked 

br. 'i fieiirly did not lie in such a ease ; the mugis- 

Inio very prof>orly declined to grant it, and the only woijder is 
' ' ' iiM have applied for it. Now counsel were then 

Mtncd, and a new petition, in a fresh name, was 
x-til^d. This petition was for an injunction, in tlio name 
' lt?n, tbe husincBs partner of Mr, Fisk, and the docu- 
( and there presented wore probably aa eloquent an 
of the lamentable condition into which tho once 
?d judiciary of New York had fallen as could possibly 
been |X'nned. The petition alleged that some time iu 
ry certain persouB, among whom was ospecially named 
O. Bumard, — the justice of tho Supreme Court of the 
District. — had eutoi'cd iul4) a comi>ination to sitcculate 
stock of tbo Erie Railway, aud to use tho process of the 
»r the purpose of aiding tlieir speculation ; *'and that, 
beraace of tlio plans of this combination,** the actions 
"ork^s name had been commenced before Sarnard. It 
-■'■!o by any criticism to do justice to sucli audacity 
.0 dumb silence of amazemoiit is tJie only fitting 
ntan'. Apparently, however, nothing that could be 
led i»f Ills coUoaguc across tho river excpeded tl»o belief 
|Jn<lg0 (tiihert, for, atler some trifling delays and a few 
Btions on the part of the judge to tlio form of the de- 
order, the Krio counsel returned to Now York ^vith 
|}cw injunction, restraining all the pailies to all the other 
frttm fnrtlwr proceedings, and from doing any acts in 

I 1.(, ^^ gjjjji conspiracy;" — in one paragraph ordcr- 

..ue directors, except Workf to continue *ui iW *i\s^ 



6S 



A Chapter of ErU, 



of tlieir dutiea, ia direct dcfiaiu-e of '^ 
ludgo Ingruliam, nud in uiiuthcr, with an « 
Judge Barnard, forbidding the directors to dcsifft troo 
verting bouds into stock. Judge Gilbert having, !i feir' 
before signiug this woudeiful order, reliiiied to issne a 
mandamus^ it may bo proper to add that the procofts of 
here resorted to, compelling the performance of vr^^ 
of recent invention, and is known as a "mont; 
tion," 

All was now ready. The Drew party was enjoined \xi\ 
direction. One mugiBtrate had forbidden them to mord 
another miigistrate iiad ordtrrcd tlicm not t.o stand vtiD. 
Erio board hold meetings and transacted business, it vJd 
one injunction ; if it abstained from so doiug> it violate 
other. By the further conversion of bonds into slock 
and penalties would he incurred at the hands of Jtn' 
nard ; the refusal to convert would bo on act of disi 
to Judge Gilbert. Strategically considered, the [>ofiJtiani 
not l>o improved, and Mr. Drew and his friejid* were nfl 
men to let the golden moment escape them. At once, 
even in New York a new injunction could be obt*dnDd,| 
thousand shares of new Krie stock were flung upon the 
That day Erie was buoyant, — Vanderbilt was purclmsingJ 
agents caught at the new stock as eagerly as at the ol 
the whole of it was absorbed before its origin was buh] 
and almost without a falter in the price. I'heu the fre 
tificatea appeared, and the truth became known. Eri^ 
that day opened at 80 and risen rapidly to 83, whilo it 
even to par was predicted ; suddenly it faltered, fell ofi 
then dropped suddenly to 71. Wall Street had ncverl 
subjected to a greater shock, and the market reeled Xi 
fro like a drunken man between tlie blows of these 
as they hurled about shares by the tens of thousaadfl 
money by the million. The attempted ''corner" was u fui 
and Drew was victorious, — no doubt existed on that 
The question now was, could Vanderldlt snstain himself 1 
spite of all his wealth, must ho not go down Itclure hial 
ning opponejit? When ni<^ht put an end to the contlict,] 
stood at 78, the shock of Mtlo was over, mid tlio ostofi 



J9.] ^^^ A Ohapirr of JirU, 

drcir breath as they waited for the events of tlic mor- 

10 monting of the lltli found tlio Erie loaders still trana- 
> at the office of the cor|X)ratiow iu West Street. 

ai that thei*e gentlemen, in spite of tJic planing 

[itempt for the proceHu of the courts of which tliey had been 

pjty, had made uo arrnngementa for an orderly retreat Ik> 

tho jurifidiction of the tribunals tl»cy had set at dcliauce. 

K^y were t?[>ocdiIy roused from their real or affeuted Iran- 

by iniafworthy iuteUigeuco that procossos for contempt 

Uivady lasuod at^iu^t them, and that their" only chance 

I eecafie from incareemtion lay in precipitate flight. At ten 

plock the asti^niahed police saw a tlirong of pauie-Btriekcn 

lir*y direi^tors — lookinj? more like a frightened Kong of 

B¥^, disttu'bed in the division of their plunder, tlion like 

ilthv representatives of a great corporation — msh hoad- 

\>\\i tlie doors of the Erie office, and dash off in tl)e 

ption of the Jersey ferry. In their hands were packages 

3oft of papei*3, and their pockets were crammed ^vith 

and Be<mritioR. One individual bore away with him iu 

■ ba4:knoy^2oach bales contnining six millions of dollars in 

cnl)ackfl. Other memlxTs of the board followed nnder 

of tiie night ; some of thcm^ not daring to expose thom- 

to the publicity of a ferry, attempted to cross in open 

l by the darkness and a Marcli fog. Two 

.'. , lingered, were arrested; but a majority of the 

tive Cominitt^ coUocted at the Erie station in Jersey 

Ity, and tliere, free from any apprehension of Judge Bar- 

rd's pursuing wrath, proceeded to the transaction of busi- 

ile, on the other side of the river, Vanderbilt was 
; in the toils. A;* usual in these Wall IStreet opera- 
bore woa a grim humor in the situation. Had Yander- 
Jed to sustain the market, a financial collapse and 
^mmtt have euRued which would have sent him to the 
Bo had suBtnined it, and had absorbed a hundred thou- 
hares of Erie. TIuls when Drew retired to Jersey City 
riod with him seven millions of his oppfinent^s money, 
bal tlie Counuodore had frcel/ su])jjlied the enetoy vivVVi \Xi(i 



54 



A Chapter of- Urie. 



sinews of war. fie Imd gnuiped at Erie for liis own 
ttnd now his opiK)nen*« promised to rehabilHaie and nn 
old line with the monev ho had funiishcd thom» so as 
effectually to compete with the lines which ho alrwnily^ 
Bcssod. Nor was this all. Had they dono as they Ic 
claimed they meant to do, Vaudorhilt might havo hnj 
hintftclf in tho faith that, ailor all, it won but a qucstia 
time, and tho prize woidd come to liim in the end. He, 1 
ever, knew well enough that the most pressing need ot 
Erie peoi)lc was money w^ith which to fight him. With 
hud now furnished them abundantly, and lie must liav 
that no Bcmplea would prevent tJieir use of it. 

Vaiiderbilt had, however, little leism*e to devote to 
joyment of the humorous Hide of hia jtosition. The kit 
was alarming. His opponent« hud curried with them in " 
flight seven millions in currency, which wore withdrawn 
circulation. An artificial stringency was thus created in 
Street, and, while mon(ry rose, stocks foil, and nnurtual raa 
were called in. Vauderbilt was carr}-ing a fearful load^j 
the least want of confideuco, tlie fauttest sign of fait 
might well bring on a crash. He already had a !um^ 
thousand shares of Erie, not one of which he could sell. 
was liable nt any time to bo called U]>on to carry as much 
as his opponents, skilled by long practice in the m;mufa 
of the article, m.ight see fit to produce. Opposed to him! 
men who scrupled at nothing, and who knew every in 
of the monoy market. With every loitk and c ■ 
anxiously scrutinized, a position more trying than ' ij 

can hardly bo conceived. It is not known from what 
he drow the vast sums which enabled him to surmoiml 
difficulties with such apparent ease. Ilis nerve, ho? 
stood him in at least aa good stead oa his finauciol 
Like a gi'eat general, in tho h(mr of (rial ho inttpired^ 
fideneo. While fighting for life he could *Malk horse'*] 
pluy whist. Tho manner io which ho Uion omcrged &ofl 
troubles, serene and confident, waa aa extraordi 
financial resources ho commanded. Such a coim 
power in the hands of u single individual is ono sigc 
feature of the times. 



A Chapter of ^uf» 

iie, More turning to the Mdu of battle, which now 
!(., ^.,..y from the courts of hiw into the halls of Icj^BJation, 
^ra ore ta-'o mattcr« to \w ili8i>ose(l of; the division of the 
is to be recounted, aud the oltl and useless lumber of con- 
mufit >te olcarrd awiiy. The division of the profits nccru- 
|t<i Mr. Tronaun.'i* Drew and his associate directorB, acUng as 
^vidualH, wa8 a fit couclwiiou lo the sloek issue jui^t described. 
! Ixiuds for five millions, after theii* ccJnvorsiou, realized near- 
^our Uiillion.-t of dolliirs, of whicii $3,625,000 pnsficd into Ibo 
ry of tho company. The trustees of the stockholdcra 
therefore in this case secured a |irofit for some oue of 
p3,U00. Confidence in the ^(ood faith of one's kind is very 
idabla, but possession is nine points of the law. Mr. 
trough wliom the sales were mainly cfTected, declined to 
any jmyments in excess of the $3,625,000, until a divis- 
I of profits was agreed upon. It seems that, by virtue of a 
er signed l)y Mr. Drew as early as the 19fh of February, 
Id, Pisk, and others were entitled to one half the profits lie 
Jd make " in certain transactions." What these trans- 
DS were, or whether tho official action of Directors Gould 
Fisk was in any way influenced by the signing of this 
amcnt, does not appear, Mr. Fisk now gave Mr. Drew, iu 
, of eio*h, hi** uncerlified cheek for Iho surplus § 376,000 re- 
uing from this transaction, with struck us collateral amouut- 
: to about the half of that sum. With this settlement, and 
I redemption of the collateral, Mr. Orew was fain to be con- 
tent {Hiven months afterwards be still retained po^scssioit of 
itertified chock, in the payment of wliicb, if presented, he 
icd to entertain no great coutidenco. Everything, however, 
conclusively the advantage of operating from interior 
While the Krie treasury was once Jiiore replete, three of 
|L*pert^tns who had .been mainly instrumenUil in fdling it had 
Buffered in tho txansaction. Tho treasurer was richer by 
1(^0,000 directly, and he himself only know liy how much 
lincideutally. In like manner his faithful adjutants had 
&fit«d to an amoimt as much exceeding $60,000 each as 
eir saj^trity hu'l led them to provide for, 
I As t*i the usolesii lumber nf cnntlict, consisting chiefly of the 
iimcroua judges of the Supreme Court of New York B^ud VWvc 




A Chapter of Erie, 

confliclinpj processes of law, this can be quickly disposed 
Judge Oillxjrt was soon out of the field. ' HIb process iiad 
its work, and the Eric councillors liardly deignod uj 
18lh, which was the day fixed for showing cause, to go ! 
\o Brooklyn and listou to iudignant denunciaiiona on thej 
of their Vandcrbilt brethren, as, with a very halting exf 
tion of his hasty action. Judge Gilbert peieinptorily 
tlje request for further delay, and refused to continue his ig 
junction. It is due to this magistrate to 8ay> that he is 
of the most respected in the State of New York; and 
that is said, much is implied in tJie facts oLroady stated 
his opinion of some of liis brother judges. Judicial demi 
zation can go no further. If Judge Gilbert was out of 
fray, however, Judge Barnard was not. The wrath au(| 
dignation of tliis curious product of a system of electi^ 
diciary cannot bo described, uor was it capable of utter 
It is unnecessary to go into the detaib* uf tlie strmigcj 
revolting scenes which the next few n]onths witnessed in 
court-room. It reads like some moufitrnua parody of tbo 
of law ; some Saturnalia of bench aud bar. The mag 
became more imrtisan than were the })aid advocates before ] 
and all seemed to We with one anotlicr in their efforts to 
their common profession into public contempt. Day and 
detectives ui the pay of suitors dogged the steps of the 
trate, and their sworn affitlavits, filed in his own court, 
to implicate him in an attempt to kidnap Drew by mc 
armed ruffians, ajid to brinR the fugitive by violence within ; 
of his process. TheUj in retaUatiou, the judge openly avt 
from the bench that his spies had fKJiietrated into the 
sultations of the litigants, and he astonished a witncs 
angrily interrogating him as to an afQdavit reflecting 
himself, to which that witness had declined to make 
At one moment he wept, as counsel detailed before hii 
story of his own griovancos and the insults to which ha 

* Question bjr tbo Coan to Mr. Bcldcn : " Did not Mr. Field send von 1 
thn>o dnys tgo an Affidavit (Uled with pT>9S iibuse of me, and vdq deilinrd 
Hign ii? " 

Witnetw (prodacin); a ptpcr) : " This is the nflldaTit. I said I would ; 
not aign it." .... 
Qaeation by Hr. Field : " Did you »how Wia* *a4w\\\n 5tt^^"ft»^Dwe4^1 



A Chapter of Erie, 



OT 



salgected, and tlien again ho Tindicated liis purity with 
flpecimens of Tammanr rhetoric* Wiieri the Vander- 
connso] rao\x*d to lix a day on which thcii* opiwnenta 
d show caii9C why a receiver of the proceeds of the last 
'-issue of stock should not ho apftointed, the Judge aston- 
tho (R'titioners hy outstrij>ping tlieir eagerness, and ap- 
tiug Vanderhilt's own Rou-in-Iaw receiver on the spot. One 
fjir. John \\. Huakin was phiced upon the stand, and there 
aftceno wliich Barnard himself not inaptly characterized 
next day as " outrageous and scandalous, and insulting to 
ciiurt/* Upon this occasion the late Mr. James T. Brady 
the witness almost hiid a personal coUiaion in open court; 
ptirity of the presiding ma>(istrat^> was impugned, and hia 
openly implied thrcuijih a long cross-examination ; and 
ess acknowledged that he had, in the course of liis 
; nndertaken for money privately to influence the (uind 
tlic jndiro '* on the side of right." ' All the scandals of the 
tico of the law, and the private immoralities of lawyers, 
I dragged into the broad light of day ; the whole system of 
paced counsel, of private argument, of referees, and of un- 
Bldiig extortion, was freely discussed. On a subsequent 
the judge himself made inquiries as to a visit of two of the 
Mora to one gentleman supposed to have peculiaj' influence 
Uie judicial mind, and evinced great familiarity with the 
otiatioos then carried on.f Nor were the lawyers mocli 
kind the judge. At one moment they would iudulgo in per- 
a) wrangling, and accuse each other of tlie grossest malprac- 



i«r: "I did not." 
ora^n • '* How tWn did he Icam of its boiii^j wnt to von ? *' 
Bd^ BAmord : " He docs not know, and never will iii this world. I am now 
IR «s olbcr people have been doing ; I liavu Iieeii fulJowed by detcctivca for four 
wtcii nil uver ihe cil v, and now I am following others." 
ihUwIih; city of a millioti or a million and a half of InhohiUintf, where a 
he hlnnl for five dollnrs to Bweiu- any mnQ'i life aw&y, there is not ono so 
to eunie npon ihii naod and avcu- that I hod oiiything to do with nay con- 

[t Qtt'Mli'm Jty the Jud^t' to Mr. Belden : " Do you know whether James Fisk, Jr., 

IWiUlam H. Mnrsioo went^n a carrinRe to John J. Crane'n honse and ofTored 

0,000 to Tamie thu injanrtion ; and did yuu hear froiu a tlireetor of the 

klUdraad that the Executirc Committee had allowed thai -tiim to li<< jinid ? " 

[ Aiuwcr : " So one of the diriHiow told mo lldft ; but I think 1 hi-ard ^univiliing 

FtWklnl. I vnn't u-U froto whom I tiemtl it; thcro were numerous te^QCU ft^tt^ 




58 



A Chftpter of Erie, 



[Jiilf, 



tiec ; tlie next, they would dare auj one to onter an order juai 
granted by (Jio court, aud tlireaten the prftsidiug juatics wiM 
impcnA.*hmL'ut. All this time injunctions were flying aboiit Ifte 
hailstones ; but the crowning injunction of all was one israed 
by Judge Clcrke, a colleague of Judgo Bai-uard, at the tliite 
sitting as a nicraber of tlio (loiirt of Ajtpeals at Albany^ in rrf 
ercnco to the ajipolntincnt of a receiver. The Gilbert iujuu» 
tion bad gone, it might havo seemed, sufficiently far, in tiniftin- 
ing Barnard the individual, while diatuictly disav.j 
reference to him in his Judicial functiona. Judge Clcii... ;,.... 
no such exception. He enjoined the individual and ho cujtnnrf 
the judge ; he forlmde his making any order apyiointinp a 
receiver, and ho forbade the clerkfi of hia court from entcriJi|( 
it if it were made, and the receiver from acce|»tiiig it if it wert 
entered. Tbis cxtraordiiuiry order, the signing of v 
any judge in his senses admits of no explanation, i..^ :.■■- 
counsel served upon Judge Barnard as he sat upon tlic bea^ 
and, having done so, withdrew from the court-room; whert- 
uiK)u the judge immediately j)roceeded to vacate the order, and 
tu appoint a ree>eiver. This appointinent was then entered lijl 
a clerk, who hud also been enjoined, and tJio rect'i\Tir wi< 
himself enjoined as soon as he could be caught. Finalljr the 
maze had become so intrtcato, and the whole litigation so efi 
dently endless and aimless, that, by a surt of ; 

parlies, Judge Ingrahara, another colleague of Juiip.. i ^ 

issued a final injunction of uniTersal applicalJon, a« it vo^ 
and to be held inviolable by common consent, under which prtf 
ceeduigs were stayed, pending an api^eal. It was high tiniC 
Judges were becoming very shy of anytlnng conneetod willl 
the name of Erie, aud Judge MoCunn had in a lofty Ion* 
informed counsel that ho preferred to subji^ct himself to tlK 
liability of a fine of a thousand dollars rutlvcr than, by \ms6fi 
a writ of hahetis corpus^ to allow hfs court *'to have anytlutt( 
to do with the scandal." 

The result of this extraordinary litigation may be sanun0< 
up in a few words. It had two branches: one, the aj)pointni«Q 
of a recoiver of the proceeds of the luuidred thnoHund share* C 
stock issued iu violation of an injunction ; the other, the pt* 
ccssos against the persons of the directors for a contempt ' 



-^ -" 



A Chapter of Erie. 



59 



Aj for tbo receiver, every dollar of the money this 

.' 1 ta receive was well known to be in Xew 

loach. \s^\y one jiarty cfired t^i Usist on 

ap{iointinunt, or why tlie t)tlier piirty objcctoil to it, is not 

I'nt. Mr. OHgooil, tJio Hon-in-law ot" Vamlerbilt, was 

,uk1 iiniuetliatt'ly (.^joined from acting; BubsiKiuently 

(resigned, when Mr. Poter IJ. Sweeney, the hea*i of the Tom- 

1. wtts appointed in his place, without notice to the 

Uf course he had nothing to do, as there was 

ag to be done, so ho was subttequontly allowed by Judge 

8ir»0,000 for bis services. The contempt cases bad 

result tluin that of the receivership. The settlement 

>(|UGutly effectod between the litigants seemed also to in- 

Ihc courts. The outraged majesty of tiie law, as repre- 

[it«d in tbo person of Mr. Justice Uaniard, was pncified, and 

fciTthing wQd explained as hanng been snid ami done in a 

rickion sense-' ; so that, when tbo terms of j)cace had 

mged lietwoon the bi^h contondiuf^ parties, liarnard'a 

' degrees subsided, until at last he ceased to ra^ at all. 

lalty for violating an injunction in the manner described 

■ finally tixcd at tlie not unreasonable sum of ten dollars, 

ept in the coses of 2ilr. Drew and certain of his more psomi- 

Rt associates ; their contumacy hia Honor held to be too great 

j(»o estimalod in money, and so they eacai)ed without any 

shment at all. The Icj^l profe-ssion alone had cause to 

rtlio cessation of this litigation ; and as the Erie coimscl 

160,000 divided amouR them in fees, it may bo presumed 

tfifvcn they wore finally comforted. 



|lt is now necessary to retwn to tbo real tield of operations, 
bich had ceased on the morning of the 11th of March to be 
jftc courts of law. As the theatre widened, the prococd- 
Js became mopj complicated and more difficult to trace, 
iliracing a.s tliey did the legislatures of two States, neither 
famed for piu'ity. lu the first shock of the catastro- 
1 it WOK actually believed that Commodore Vanderhilt con- 
a resort to open violence and acts of private war. 
worfl inlimationa that a scheme bad bcrn matured 
kidnapping certain of tha lim dii-ectors, mc\uOai\^j ^t. 





DroT*', ami bringing thorn by forct) witbin reach of JiwJge 
nard*» proocBS. It appcurcd that on (he 16tU of March 
fifty iatiivnihials, subsequeutly descTibedjin an aflidnvii fil 
the special benefit of Mr. Justice Barnard, si£ " diso 
cliaracters, commonly Icnowti as roughs," crossed by the ftr, 
vonia Ferry and took possession of tlie Kric drpot. FVum 
their conversation and inquiries it was divined tbnt they 
intending to " copp " Mr. Drew, er, in plauicr phrascol 
take him by force to New York, and expecU'd lo roceivi 
8uni of 850,000 as a reward for so doing. Tho oxilcn at 
loudly cliarged Vanderbilt himself with origmating' tbi» blitfr 
dering schfimo. Tlioy simulated intenso alarm. Fn ' 
day new ])ariics were started, until, ou tbo 19tb, 1>: 
Bccreted, a standing army was organized from the ompli 
of tho road, and a small navy oquippod. Tbo abirm e 
through Jersey City ; the militia was held ill readiness ; 
eveuiiij; the stores were closed and tlie citizens bcfsaji to 
while a garrison of about a hundred and twcnty-fivo m 
trenched tliemselvos around the directors, in their hotel, 
the 21st there was another alarm, and the foars nf an 
continued, with lengtheuing intervals of iiuiot, until the 
■when the guard was at last withdrawn. It is imyH)»w 
suppose thnt Vanderbilt ever bad any knowledge- of thb ridiw 
lous opinode or of it« cause, except tbiviugh tho press. A htai 
of ruffians may have ci-osscd the forry, intendinR to 
Drew on speculation; but to suppose that tl»e nhrow 
energetic Commodore ever sent them over to g(i ' 
a station, ignorant both of the person and tlio w|i 
hira tliey were in search of, would be to impute to Vj 
at once a crime and a blunder. Ruch botching bears uu 
^^^ of his clean handiwork. 

^^B The first serious efibrt of Uio Erio party wod to ini 

^^^ itself in New Jersey ; and here it met with no opf)<)!«iliun 
^^ bill making the Erie Railway Com|)any a corpon\tioii of 
^^p Jersey, with tho same powers they enjoyed in Now Yori 
^^^ hurri<Ml through the legislature in the space of two hours,. 
^^^ after a little delay, signed by the Oovornor ; and the 
^^M ished citizens of tlie latter State saw thoir famous b: 
^^B gauge road metamorphosed before tlieir eyea into a d 




A Chapt^ of Erie. 

gdom of Camden and Araboy. Here waa another 

\ hint to Wall Stmet. What further issues of stock 

t hecome legal under tijis chart^ir, how the tenure of office 

present Board of Directors might l>e altered, what 

Imra legal complicaiiuus mijrht arise, were qneations more 

put than satisfactorily answered. The region of pos- 

tiea at tuiy rate was conaiderably extended. The new 

»jf incorpctrntion, however, was but a ])rccauti(>n to secure 

libe directors of Uio Erie a retreat in case of need ; the real 

of conflict lay in the legislature of New York, and here 

iderbilt was first on the ground. 

he carruptiou ingrained in tlie i>olilical system of New 
k City i« supposed to have been steadily creeping into the 
alatnre at Albany during several years jmst. Tlio [iress has 
ftith chaises of venality against members of tliis body; 
iduals have been pointed out as the recipients of large 
ib; men have certainly become rich during nhort terms in 
; and, of all the rings which influence New York legis- 
ts tiie railroad ring is currently supposed to be the most 
pt iind corrupting. The *teiiid of the unjirejudiced in- 
who really desires to ascertain the truth on this subject, 
ibably pass through several phases of belief liefore set- 
lOwn into conviction. In the first place, he will be ovcr- 
by the broad, sweeping charges advanced in the 
of the press by responsitile editors and wcll-infonned 
ndonts. lie will read with astonishment that legisla- 
ia controlled by cliques and is openly bought and sold ; 
lobby is but the legislative brokers* board, where votes 
y quoted ; that sheep and bullocks arc not more regti- 
in the market at SmitliHeld than Assemblymen and 
Aors at Albany. Amazed by such statements, the inquirer 
mcs incredulous, and demands evidence in support of 
Thia is never fortlicomiJig. Committees of invcatigar 
le or two in a session — are reguJarly aj>{H>inted, 
ts are invariably calculated to confound the ox- 
c i. These committees generally express a belief 

existence of corruption and an utter inability to find it 
; against some notoriously vojial brother legislator they 
a Scx>tch verdict of ** not proven " ; and, having so far 



62 A Chapter of Erie. [Jul/, 

been vpry giiardod in thoir langiiagt?, flioj then Iniin^'''' *''''^' 
into tremeudona flennnoiations of an unliridled aaid 
Bible press. Here they have it ali their own way, and ■ 

make out an excellent case. Meivnwhih^ the seeker alu . 

loaves both corresjMjndRntBand eomraitteos, and trios t« reucbi 
conclusion by otlier means. Public nnnor hn fuuls to bit in^irlf 
a rcflcctinn of tho ju-esR, or itsoir the inifml[»at)lc form wbicli 
tlie press reflects. No conviction can be !iad on snch 
dence. He fijids loose statements, unproved nssertionfl,] 
imsustainod chargesj tending to produce gcucnil iiicrodfl 
VThere so much more is alleged than is proved, nothii 
finally believed ; until individual corniplion may Ikj ftir 
moa.<«urcd by an ostentatious disregard of public opiuIoiL 
Passing tlu-ongh the phase of incredulity, the in(|uirer m^' 
at last i-esoi't to tho private jud^ent of the best it ' 
Appealing to individuals in wlioso purity, judiciul : ji, , 
and means of information be ha^ entire coufidence, be vQll 
probably fintl his conclusions as disoonrftpinjr us the; 
evitable. Tbe weight of opinion and of evidence ^i' 
becomes irresistible, until hif miud settles down into a Ii4' 
belief that probably no reproHontativo bodies were ever nwn* 
tliorougldy venal, more shamelessly corrupt, or more hopiH 
lessly beyond the reach of public opinion than are certain of 
those bmliea which le^slato for republican America in tlltl 
latter half of the nineteeuth century. Certainly, none of tli« 
developments which marked the Erie conflict in tho Now Yoit 
logidlutnro of 1868 would tend to throw doubts on lliia cOff** 
elusion when once arrived at. 

One favorite method of procedure at Albany is through 
the appointment of committees to investigate tho ;! " ' 
wealthy eorp<jr.itionfi. Tho stock of some great cou ; 
manipulated till it fluctuates riolcntly, as was the case wittt 
Pacific Mail in 1807. Forthwith some member of tJje A«- 
Hcmbly rises and calls for a committee of invrstigution. TW 
instant the game is afoot, a rush i« made for i>usitl<>ii8 oil 
the e4:)mmittcc. The proposer, of course, is a memlf 
ably chairman. The advantages of tbe position arc 
Tho committee constitutes a little tenijKtrary outside riDl 
If u member is corrupt, he has snl^stuntial advantages ofier^ 





A Chapter of Erie, 

to inflitenco his action in regard to the report. If he 

ttot o(K»n to bril>ery, he ia nevertheless in pusaeBsion of 

valuable infonnation, and an innocent litlU^ remark, 

oalljr let fall, may lead a eon, a brother, or a loving cousin 

ikc very judicious purehaflcs of stock. Altogether, tlie 

■n is one not to be avoided. 

w invv8tigation f>hase wa.s the first which the Eric atrnggle 

at Albany. During the early j^tagus of the conflict, 

;ialataro had sccntod the carnage from afar. Tbero was 

ley in it," and the struggle waa watched with breatbless 

at. As early as the 5tb of March the subject had been 

Iiioed into the State Senate, and an investigation into the 

stances of the company called for. A committee of 

wms ordered, but the next day a Senator, by name 

Ittoon, moved to increase the number to five, which was 

no, he himself being naturally one of the additional mem- 

Thifl committee had its first sitting on the 10th, at 

VBTy crisis of the great explosion. But bttfore the inves- 

tion was entered upon, ilr. Mattoon thought it expedient 

j coavince the contending parties of his own perfect impar- 

and firm detenmnation to hold iji cheek the corrupt 

of his associates. With this end in view, ujwn the 

the 10th he hurried down to New York, and visited 

: Street, where ho had an interview with tlio leading 

ic directors. He cxphuned to them the comipt motives 

hich had led to tlic appointment of the committee, and 

his sole object in obtaining an increase of the number 

id lieen to put liimsclf in a jtoRition in which he might be 

to prevent these evil i)ractices and see fair play. Cu- 

ily enough, at the same interview, ho mentioned that 

son was to be apptMUted an assistant scrgeaut-at-arms 

aid in the investigation, and proved his disinterestedness 

mentioning the fact that this son was to servo without 

The labors of the committee continued until the 3l8t of 

1, and during that time Mr. Mattoon, anil at least one 

' 'SoDutor, pursued a course of private inquiry which in- 

ilveJ furttir^r visits to Jersey City. Naturally enough, Mr. 

Ihrcw and bis assobiates took it into their heads that the man 

Ivftuted to be t>ought, and even affirmed subsequently that, at 



64 



A Chapter of Erie, 



[•J 



one interview, he )iad in pretty broad terms oSi^rod 
for sale. It baft not bocn diatiiictly Btdted in evk 
any ono Uiat an attempt w^ls made ou bis purity or im J 
of his publir-Kjtiritcd sou: and it is difiicuU to believe 
one who came to New York f*i fiUl of high purpnso 
have Ix'cn sviRiciently corrnptod by metropolitan inthjeuc 
receive briboH from both fcidcs. Porliaps improper ore 
were made to him, and his indignation thorout inflic 
Ids final action in rogard to the report of tljc committee. 
the 8lKt» it ttcoms, the draft of a proposed report, exonor 
in (^reat nieasuro the Drew faction, vaa read to him by 
flociatc, to which ho not only made no objection, but wliic 
was oven undorstootl to approve. On the same day auc 
report was read in his presence strongly denouncing the 
faction, sustaining to the fullest extent the clmrgea 
against it, and eharacterizing \i» conduct as eorrupt audi 
gi-accfid. Kach report, was signed by two of his associi 
aud ^Ir. Mattoon found himself in the position of hotdinj 
bulanco of power ; wliichover report lie signed woidd bu] 
re]>ort of tlie committee. To a man of Mr. Mattoon*s ooijj 
probity such a position must have been one ji>f terrible 
gibility. He expressed a desire to think the matter orvt\ 
is natural to supp<jse, that in his cagenioss privately to 
information, Mr. Mattoon had not confmed hi« uiiolficiai 
to the Drew camp. At any rate, his mind was in a Htii 
painful Buapcnse. Throwing t!»e theory of double bribery nM 
OS unsustaijied by direct endonce, the other theory, that o| 
fended virtixe, will alono account fur tJic fact,tluit, after ar 
ing in consultation on Tuesday for a report favoring tlic 
]>arty, on Wednesday he signed a report strongly donon 
it, and, by so doing, Bcttlcd the action of the oonmiittcc. 
Jay Oould must have been acquainted with the circumsta 
of the case, ajid evidently supposed that Mr. MattuoUj 
" fixed," as he suhsotiuently decbirod that he was ** astc 
ed" when he beard that Mr. Mattoon had signed tliis rcB 
However, the committee, with tlicir patriotic sergoant-atra 
whose eerviees, by the way, cost tlie State but a hnudredj 
Iar8, desisted at length from their labors, the result of 
was one more point gained by Conmiodore Vandcrbilt. 



^1 



A Chapttr of Entt, 



^ 



I Vnnderbiik had Urns far as much outgouoruUod Drew 

• r public upinion, aa Drew had outjreiieralled 

Jt ' ' autif'aeUire of Erie slock. Uis whole achcme 

000 of monopoly, which was opposed to every interest of 

d S^t-ate of New York, yet into th« Knpport of this 

liad brought every loading paper of New York City, 

a mugle exocption. Now again hu scorned to have it all 

own way in the legiBlaturo, aud the lido ran strongly 

kinst tho exilt'S of Erie. The report of the investigation 

JttcQ wari signed on April 1st, aud may he considered 

rking the high-water point of Vandcrbilt's siiccesa. 

lh« Albany int^jreats of the exiica had >»een con- 

f to mere agents, and had not prospered ; but when fairly 

Etd hy ' " * '■•. the Drew party showed at least 

U a i . 1'^ tactics of Albany as with those 

yfftXi Street. The moment they felt themselves settled 

nity thoy had gone to work to excite a jKipular 

in their own bclmlf. The cry of monoiwly was a 

can! in their hands. They cored no more for the actual 

of commerce, involved in railroad competition, than 

for the real interests of the Erie Railway ; but thoy 

truly that there was no limit to the extent to which the 

'might he imposed upon. An active competition with 

iderbilt roads, by land and water, was inaugurated \ 

and freights on the Erie were reduced on an average 

uno third ; sounding proclamntiona were issued ; " intcr- 

from the press returned rejoicing from Taylor's 

to New York City, and the Jersey shore quaked under 

Ucr of this Chinese battle. Tlie influence of these tac- 

de itself felt at once. By the middle of Mai'ch memo* 

I'ag&inst monopoly began to flow in at Albany. 

W ! ithy was thus roused by the bribe of 

I was introduced into the xVaacmbly, in 

fErio interest, legalizing the recent issue of new stock, do- 

\ and regulating the power of issuing convertiblo bonds, 

Ihg for a broad-gauge counection with Chicago aud the 

inmtco of the Ifonds of the Boston, Hartford, aud Erie, 

Ir forbidding, in if:o far as any legislation could, the 

Idation of the Vcu^ru) and the Er'w in the hands at \ wa- 



66 



A Chapter ^ Urie, 



(lorbilt. Thid 1)ill was referred to the CommiHce on 
on the I3th of Marcl), anU on the 20t)i a jiubLio lic^M'ttiji 
it was begiiUi and tho cominittco prococdod to take oTtj 
aided by a long array of opposing l*uiui&o1, must of 
had tii^red in the proceedings in the courto of law. 
few days the bill woa advoraoly raported upon, and t| 
port adopted in the Assembly by the deciftive vote of 
three to thirty-two. This was upon tho 27th of March, 
hint was a bruad one ; the exiles mnst give closer lit 
to their interests. As soon as tlio news of this adverse 
reached Jersey City, it was decided tliut Mr. Jay (rouldj 
bravo the terrors of tho law, and personally »u|Mir 
ters at Albany. Xeitlier Mr. Brew nor his aasocia 
to become permanent residents of Jei-sey City ; nor 
wish to return to New York as criminals on their way 
Mr. Gould was to pave the way to a diflerent nJtum 
the recent issue of convertible bonds legalized. That one 
Commodore Vauderbilt was not tlie miin to wage an unM 
war, aud a compromisp^ iu which Barnard and hiu proc 
contempt would be thrown in as a makeweight, could 
bo effected. A rumor was therefore started that Mr. 
was to leave for Ohio, supplied with tbe necessary aut 
and funds to press vigorously to completion tho oigbt 
of broad-gauge track between Akron and Toledo, wliich ' 
open to the Eric the mucli-coveted conjiection witli CI 
Having hung out this false light, Mr. Jay Gould wont 
mission, tho president of the company havinir ^ 
viously drawn half a million of dollars out of tl 
Erie treasury. 

This mission was by uo means unattended by dillici 
In the first place, Judge Burnurd's processes for cout 
Boemcd to threaten the liberty of Mr. Gould's person. He] 
Jersey City and arrived at Albany on the 30th day « 
three days after the defeat of tho ICrie bill, and two d;.^ 
Mr. Mattoon hod made up his mind as to which 
would sign. Naturally his opponents were well mi 
the present aspect of affairs, and saw no benefit like 
from Mr. Gould's presence in Albany. Tho day 
arrival, therefore, he was arrested, oa the writ issued 



^ 





A Chapter of Erie, 



67 



VOBtempt of court., and held to bail in half a million of 
s for Ms appearaacG in New York on the foUonijxg 8atur- 
Ho was immediately hailed of course, and for the next 
lys devoted himself assiduously to the humucss he had 
ud. On Saturday he appeared before Judge Barnard, 
raa duly put in charge of tJie sheriff to answer certuin 
rogAtorioH. It would seem to liavo been perfectly easy for 
to bare ^ivcn the necessary hail, and to have returned 
BamArd'fl presence at once to Albany ; but the simple 
td'Beems never to have been resorted to throughout these 
iUoitions : nothing was ever done without the iuterposi- 
of a writ and the assistance of a crowd of counsel. In 
cA«e Judge Barrett of the Common Pleas was appealed to, 
I iBBued a writ of habeas corpus, by virtue of which Mr. 
lU vas taken out of the hands of the sherilT and ttgain 
(agbt into court. Of course the hearing in the cnae was 
, and it was equally a mutter of course that Mr. Gotdd 
IftDt on at once returning to his field of labor. The 
to whose care Mr. Gould was intrusted was especially 
by the c^iurt, in Air. Gould's presence, tliat he was not 
IT his charge to go out of his sight. This difficulty was 
Ipurmijunted. Mr. Gould went by an early train to Al- 
', taking the officer with him in the capacity of a travelling 
lion. Once m Albany, be was naturally taken ill, — not 
91 to go to the Capitol in the midst of a snow-storm, but 
too ill to think of returning to Now York. On the lOtli 
Inaty ofBcial and travelling companion signified to Mr. 
Id that his proeenee was much desired before Judge Bar- 
.duij intimuiod an intention of carrying him back to New 
Mr. Gould then pleaded the delicate condition of his 
and wholly declined to undergo the hardships of ilie 
journey. Wl»ert:!upfm the otTicer, stimulated, as was 
!, by (roald*B opponents, returned alone to New York, 
reported his charge to the court as a nmaway. A new 
<if judicial indignation ensued, and a new process for 
Hccmcd imminent. Of course nothing came of it. 
wits from Albajiy pacified the indignant Barrett. 
for a habeas corpus was discharged, and Mr. 
I •-[ically returned into the vustoiiy of the sheriiT. 



6B 



A Chapter qf SrU» 



Thereupon the required security for his appenrauco 
uecdod waA given ; and meanwhile, pending tlie recov 
his liimlth, he ajtfliduoufuly devoted the todiouK hoiint 
valescence to the task of cultivatjug a Uiorouph undexst 
bcfrwoeu bimeclf and the members of the lejri«hitiirc. 

A strange legislative episode occnrred ut this time, vl 
tlireatened for a day or two to thwart Mr. Uoidd's oper 
but in the end materially facilitated them. All 
\Man!h the usual Bcnsational charges had lieen f' 
the press in relation to the buj-iuR of votes on thv j>. . 
measures. These were as vagfue and as diflinult tu 
usual, and it wus very important that no indiscnjot 
legislative purity should blunder out charges which 
triumphantly refuted. On the let of April, howcveft ' 
ond day after Mr. Gould ap|>earcd on the ground, a qniettl 
try member named Glenn, remarkable for nothing but 
ranced years and white hair, suddenly created an ifl 
sensation by rising in bis place in the Assembly and cx<! 
declaring that he had just been olTered money for hia 
the Erie bill. He then sent up to the Speaker cbargos : 
ing, to the effect that the recent report nn the rejected 
was bought, that meml>er8 of the liouse were engaged il 
cliasing roteft, that reports of coEmmitteeR were habiluiUIj 
and ended liy charging " comiption, deep, il ■ ' 
on a ]K>rtion of the houHC," of which he felt *' u , i 
a member.** A ooumiittee of investigation wuh, of 
pointed, and the press congratulated the p ' " 
specific charges had been advanced from a n - 
On the 9th, Mr. Olonn followed up the attack by ohorgiug,^ 
in writing, that one menilter of the committee of inve 
whose name he gave, was the vqtj member wlio had oflfer 
money for his vote. Mr. Froar, tbe member in 
once reaigned his place upon the committee, and d»3r 
investigation. Then it turned out that the fiimpla^ 
tleman, botwoon his desire for notoriety and his Ofl 
expf)sc corrtiption, bnd been made the victim of a a 
Some waggish eolloagxies had pointed out to him «u it 
Jew, wlio liauntcd the lobby and sold spectacles, oa an 
the fourth estate^ From him tbe old gentleman hod J 



A Cliaptcr of Erie, 



69 



I cJumBy angllug aud many leading questionii, procured 

;be supposed to be an oQcr of money for hJB vote, which, 

ilndlcrous misimderfttiiudiug, iimuaged by his humorous 

s, iras made to a{>{>03r in liin eyes as having rcceivod 

.Frew's indorsement. Mr. Glenn's chargjes ended, there- 

a ridiculons fiaseo, and in a tromen<iou8 outburst of 

Jpgislativo virhie. The cN)mniittee reported on the 

1 ; *rory ono was exonerated ; Mr. Glenn was brought to the 

censured, and the next day he resigned. As for the 

ed pedler, bo was banished from the lobby, im])risoued 

ite<l. The display of indignation on the part of Mr. 

I bmtJjer lej^lslatora was, in view of tlie manifest absurd- 

oflhe wholo ulFnir, somewhat superiluuus and somewhat 

•ul ono such faUo accusation jiroiccts a multitude 

Tlic trade of censor of morals fell into disrepute 

Dj; and, under the shadow of tins parody upon expo- 

lof corruption, Mr. Gould was at liberty to devote himself 

lierioiu Imsiiiess without fear of interniption. 

|Ibe itill and tmo history of tins legistative campaign will 

r^knovu. If the official reports of investigating com- 

lara lo be believed, Mr. Gould at about this time inidcr- 

i I curious psychological metamorphosis, and suddenly 

the veriest simpleton in money mattrra that ever fell 

I tbe hands of happy 8har|>er3. Cunning lobby members 

Ibot to pretend to an infiueneo over legislative minds, which 

rone knt'w they did not possess, to draw uidinutcd amounts 

[this verdant habitu^ of Wall Street. It seemed strange 

1 bi could have lived so long and learned so little. Ho 

\ in lari^e Hunis. He gave to ono man, in whom he said 

not take much stock," the sum of $5,000, "just to 

hin» over." This man had just before received $6,000 

money from another agent of the company. It would 

pfore )>e interesting to know what sums Mx'. Gould paid to 

\ individuals in whom he did ** take much stock." Another 

1 to have received ?< 100,000 froni ono side, 

. :_ 1 ,_! aiiou," and to have subsequently received 

1000 £rum the otlier side to disappear with the money ; 

^T * 'rigly did, and thereafter Itecainc a gentleman 

(• '. One Senator was openly charged in the col- 



idid 



70 



A Chapter qf Erie, 



mnnfl of tim pross witli receiving a bribe of ji 20,000 
side, and a aeci>ml Itribe of * 1^,000 from tlie other; \t 
Gould's foggy tncntnl condition only nnftbiRd Inm to Xto 
feotly uBtoundod " nt tlio Hctioii of this Senator, llioq 
knew nothii)|Z of any such transactions. Other Senate 
bleasnd with a sudden accession of wfuUii, but in 
was tliere tiny jot or tittle of proof of bribery. Mr. 
rooms at the Ii»¥f4Trrl louse overtlowcd with a joyous c<« 
and bis checks were numerous and heavy ; but why he, I 
them, or what became of tbem, he se«?med to know led 
any man in Albany. This strange and expensive haUti<! 
lasted until about the middle of April, when Mr. Gov 
ha[ipily restored to bis normal condition of a s)irewdJ 
energetic man of busmess ; nor is it known that tie ha 
experienced any relapse into financial idiotcr. 

About the period of Mr. Gould's arrival in Albany 
turned, and soon b<^n to flow strongly in favor of 
against Vanderbilt. How ranch of tliis was due to tbfl 
manipulations of Gould, and bow much to the rising 
feeling against the practical constdidation of competind 
cannot be decided. The popular protests did indee<l 
by scores, but then again the Erie secret-service money] 
out like water. Yet Mr. Gould's task was sufficiently - 
After the adverse rofwrt of the Senate committect 
decisive defeat of the bill introduced into the Assemt 
favorable legislation seemed almost hoptdcss. Both 
were committed. Vanderbilt had but to prevent ac(| 
keep things where they were, and the return of bis of 
to New York was impracticable, unless with his con.sftnt^ 
appeared, in fact, to bo absolute master of the sitaat 
seemed almost impossible to intro<luce a bill in the fa 
great influence, and to navigate it tlirough^tbc man^ 
of legislative action and executive fljiproval, >i\'tthn«^ 
where giving him an opportunity to defeat it. This 
task Gould bud before him, and be accomplished it* 
13th of April a bill, which met the ai)proval of the Eril 
aud which Judge Barnard snlmoquently compared not] 
to a bill legalizing counterfeit money, was taken uj 
Senate ; for some days it was warmly debated, and on 



tb hg 



tS* of Erie. 

li Uy tlie decisive vote of seventeen to twelve. Senator 

.1 ,. * !;-.,.^,f,,j t(j j^jp debate in vain. Pcrlmps liis 

nTliaps the first anger of otfendod virtue 

Ridwi ; at any rate that incorrupt! l)le Senator waB found 

witl» tho majority. The bill practically legalized the 

ifl&uea of Imnds, but made it a felony to uw? the procoeda 

sale of these hond« except for completing, furthering, 

^rating the road. The pjaranty of the bonds of oon- 

lig rvadg W119 authorized, all contrncts for consolidation or 

HI of receipts between the Erie and the Vanderbilt roads 

^forliiddcji, and a cbinmy provision was enacted that no 

balder, director, op officer in one of the Vanderbilt roads 

Id 1m) an officer or director in the Krie, and vice versa. 

bill waa, in fact, an amended coj)y of the one voted down 

nively in the Assembly a few days before, and it was in 

rfly that the tug of war was expected to come. 

lobby wua now full of animation ; fabulous stories were 

dd of the amounts which the contending parties were willing 

} ; never before had the market qnotatioue of vote^ 

j^.„wmucei!tood so high. The wealth ofViuiderbilt seemed 

against the Erie treasury, and the vultures flocked to 

any from every part of the 8tatc. Suddenly, at the very 

moment, and even while special trains were bringing up 

I contestant* to take part in the fray, a rumor ran through 

lltauy as of some groat public disaster, spreading panic 

ml terror through hotel and corridor. The observer was 

aindod of the dark days of the war, when tidings came of 

"it defeat, as that on the Chickahominy or at Fredcr- 

In a moment the lobby was smitten with despair, 

|in4 the checks of the legifllators were blanched, for it was ro- 

it Vanderbilt had withdrawn Ids op|>osit!on to the bill, 

rt was tnie. Either the Commodore had counted the 

; oud judjred it excessive, or ho despaired of the result. At 

id yielded in advance. In a few moments the long 

^ <»vor, am) that bill which, in an unamentled form, 

iJuui but a few days Iwsfore been thrown out of the Assembly by 

|iv> ^ ■ l>ty-threo to thirty-two, now fkassed it by rfvoto of 

l«i<^ I ;uid oue to six, and was sent to the Governor for 

I ^ Rigrmtnre. Then the wrath of the disappolut^d m<im\s^T 



t:s 



A Chapter <jf JSW>. 



It 



^turnod on Vanderbilfc. Decency was forgotten iu ft 
so of dtBQppoiiited avarice. That eatue tiight tiio fffo 

'freight. UUl, and a hill coiji|M!l!inif the sale of tlir- 
by competing lines, were hurriedly passed, sunj 
they were thought hurtful to Vaudcrhilt; tmd the duel 
ransacked ui search of otiier nieasui'es calciUated to ii 
or annoy him. An adjournnioiit, liowevtT, brought refl 
and subsequently, on this subject, the legislature «tultiAod ii 
no more. 

The bill had paaeod the Icgislatore ; would it receive 
Executive signature ? Here was the last ata^ of 
For some tiinfi doubts were entertained un tbi 
last real conflict betwt'oii the opposing inten .- _ o 

tlie Executive Chamber at Albany. There, on the aitemi 
the 21at of April, Commodore Vauderbilt's counsel ap] 
before Governor Fenton, and urgod uj^on him thoir reason* 
the bill Hhould be returned by him to the Senate without liSl 
sipnahire. The arguments were patiently T ' ' " ' '.' 
when ihoy had closed, the Exetnitivo tsignatui' , 
of success upon Mr. Gould's labors at Albany. Even here tbe 
voice of calumny was not silent. As if this remarkable ooih 
troversy was destined to leave a daik blot of suapicion upoo 
every department of tlie civil service of New York, there wort 
not wanting those who charged the Executive itself wii 
crowning act in this liistory of corruj)tion. Tlie very 
wliich had been paid, as it was protended, was named 
broker of Executive action was |>oiuted out, and the u 
of minutes was S|jecified which shoiUd intervene botwei 
payment of the bribe and the signing of the law.* 

Practically, the conflict was now over, and the pcrii 
negotiation had already begini. Tlio combat in the eoi 
indeed kept uj) until far into May, for the angry pa^sioDs 
lawyers and of the judges n.'ipiirod time in which to wear 
selves out. Day after day the columns of the press rev 
fresh scandals to the astonished public, which at last 

* It U biu JDStice to Qorernor Fvnton to suv ihai, diougti tliU < 
idvnnrad hy rrspectnble Journals of )■» own ]i»ny. U Mnnnt )m > i . 
tAinod h; lbL> vridrnire. The testiinonjr on \]k point will U( ruunil in I 
Seiisiur Hale's i&r6«tigoung cocamiuoe. Uoctuucolf [8cu«i<-l. ISC9.^ 
144-148, l&l- 155. 



it^iumisM 



ts 



it to fluch rcrelationa. Beneath all tlie wranglirif? of tho 

^ 1. wliile the popular itttenfiou nu» dibtracted Ijy 

iiwyiTs' tongues, the leaders in the conlroverey 

iMtljr progressing towards a scttlemont. In tho early 

■ i'«i Mr. I)it}w had been more tlopnrased in spirit, 

/ in couuci), than liis youagcr and more roboat 

dat«s. llie publicity and excitement wliich liod sustained 

. ercn amusc^them had wearied and ainioyed ihc uld man. 

I mind hud bijon oppreaaed with doubts and tonuonted by 

9U» advifterB. Stronger wills than his were bearing him 

with them ; and though, perliaps, not more scrupulous 

those about him» he wan cert^iuly loss liold. He missed 

»htff homo comforts ; he felt himself a prisoner In everything 

m name ; he knew that lie wa.s distrusted, and his every 

an watclw*d by asKociates of wh<mi be even stood iu pbys- 

Afler tlio ilrst week or two, and an affairs began to 

> 4 less untoward a£])cet, Ids spirits revived, and he soon 

}in make secret advances towards his angiy opjtonent. 

I Tio«tilitica of the Stock Exchange are proverbially sliort- 

A broker skilled in the ways of his kind, ui his evi- 

in one of these proceedings, assigned five minutes as the 

st {Kiiod during which it was safe to count on the en- 

im or alliances of leading operators. £arly in April Mr* 

GT took advantage of that blessed iuuuuuity from arrest 

bich the Sabbath confers on the himted of the law, to revisit 

familiar ficenes aiuoas tlte river. His visits soon resulted 

Ponferene<^fl between himself and Vanderbilt, and these 

icfts naturally led to overtures of peace. Though the 

turning against tho ^["oat railroad king, though an 

Bcontroilablo popvdar feoUng was foat bearing down his 

of mono]>oly, yet he was by no means l>eaten or 

His plans, however, had evidently failed for the 

at. It was now clearly his interest to abandon his late 

fftttaek, and to bide bis time patiently, or to possess him- 

hi» prey by some other method. The wishes of all 

B, therefore, were fixed on a settlement, and no one woa 

1 i$(ajid out except in order to obtain bettor terms. 

.'sU, however, were multifarioiis. There were fonr 

ito bo taken care of, and tho depleted treaftury ol Wwi 

> SaSvrajr was doomed to suffer. 




A Chapter of Erie. 

Tlio dotoils nf tbi9 raaeterineco of Wall Streor ■'■■ ' 
have nevev coino to light, lnit Mr. Drow's visits I 
became mure froquout and loss piardod, and, hy lh« mid 
April, he ha<l ai»j»oared in Broad Street on a week-dar, 
turbod by fears of arrest, and soon rumors l»egan to «p 
misunderstaudings betw^ccu himself and his brother exiles 
was said that Ids continual absences alarmed them, that 
dirttrusted him, lliat bis titrmB of RcltlemenUwere not 
It was even asserted that his orders on the treasurr wi 
longer honored, and that he had, in fact, ceased to be 
in Erie. Whatever truth there may have been in tboae 
it was very evident his associates had no incliiiatiou to 
themselves witbin the reach of the New York courts ui 
definitive treaty, satisfactory to thomselves, was signe 
sealed. Tbis probably took place in tbe noighborluiod of 
2r>th ; for on that day the Erie camp at " Fort Tuylor, 
their uninviting hotel had l>een dubbed, was bntken upj 
President and one of the Executive Committee took si 
for Boston, and the other directors appeared before Ji 
Barnard, prepared to purge themselves of their eontosnpt. 

The details of the treaty winch had been concluded bol 
tlie high cuntracting parties wore not di^nilged to the 
of Directors until the 2d of July. Upon that day Mr. Kid 
announced tbe following terms of .settlement: Commod 
derbilt was to be rejieved of fifty thousand shares of 
at 70, receiving therefore .* 2,500,000 in caab, and f l,250,i 
bonds of the Boston, Hartford, and Erie at 80. He w\ 
to receive a fiu^ber sura of 8 1,000,000 outright, as a coi 
ation for the ])riVilego the Erie Road thus purcliosed of 
ui)4in him for his remaining fifty thousand abarcs at 70 afel 
time within four months. He was also to have two 
the Board of Directora, and all suita were to be diamimi 
offences condoned. All the Vanderbilt proeeotiiTigs bad 
ever, been conducted in the names of other persons, who 
by no moans disposed to see themselves ignored in th« 
adjustment. The sum of ^ 429,250 was fixed upon as a pi 
amount to nssungo tlie souse of wrong from which those 
tlemen suffered, and to efface from their memories ail 
tion of the unfortunate " pool " of the prenous December. 



ChapUr fff 



75 



I ownors of tbo Eric Railwar rdionld Imvo j)aid this indom- 
$4,000,ono iH j»ot very clear. The openitioiifl vero 
itly outride of tho bufiiuesB of a r&ilway company, and 
[^Duro connected with the fttockholdcrn of tho Eric than wcro 
Jchen*' bills of the individual dlroctors. 
SW Vaiidorliilt ainl \\\a frifntls wore tlius provided for, 
nDrew was to be loft in undisturbed enjoyment of the fruita 
rwcut ojiorationft, but was to pay into tho treasury 
^OOlt and inti^rest, in full discharge of all claims and cati»ea 
'tdion vrhitiU tho Erie Company mi;:;ht have aguinat him. 
:)Ston party, as* ropresonttKl by Mr. Eldnd^ro^ was to bo 
nl of 40,000.000 of their Boston, Hartford, and Erie 
for which ihr^y wore to receive 84,000,000 of Erie 
IOCS. None of thcfle parties, therefore, had anything 
l]dain f>f, whatever might he the sensaHona of the real 
Iraiinv of the railway. A total amount of fioino $ 9,000,000 in 
sh was drawn from the treasury in fulfdment of this seUle- 
firt, aA ilie p<^rson8 concernttd were pleased to term this re- 

ahle diiJiwaition of pro|jerty intrusted to their care. 

iMesWT*. Gouhl and Fisk still remained to he provided for, 

W to them their associates left — tho Erie Railway. Those 

ntlcmen subsequently mainUined that they had vehemently 

this settlement, and had denounced it in the secret 

la 08 A fraud and nn outra^ce. TIub would seem in no 

improbaltle. ITie rind of the orange is not generally 

sidoi'cd tlie richest part of the fruit; a corporation on the 

I of bankruptcy is lens coveted, even by operators in Wall 

et| tJian one rich in valuable assets. However, the voice 

' « clear majority was for jmaco. Mr. Eldridgo counted out 

bonds and received his acceptances, which latter were 

at once to close up tho transaction, and thoreuj)on he 

his [lositionrt aa director and president. Tho Boston 

lidew than retired, heavy with 8i>oil, into their own North 

Bntry, where, doubtless, in good time, they ynW introduce 

UK more Iiighly developed cinlization of the land of their 

Dporary ailoption. Mr. Vandorbilt apparently ceased to 

Quct»rn hiniRclf with Erie ; and Daniel Drew, released from 

W** anxieties of oflicc, asnumed for a space the novel character 

f tt dieinteresied obstrver of the operations of Wuil ^ttoviVv 




A ChapifT of Eri0. 

Thus, in the early days of July, Messrs. Fislc and 
found tliemselvea beginuing life, as it were, in absolute 
trol of the Erie Railway, but with an empty treSHiiry 
doubtful reputation. Outwardly things did not look uuf 
ising. The lepal compHcationa were settled, and tlie fc 
load imfjosed by the settlements upon the already o^ 
deuod resources of the road was not, of course, iinpftrte4| 
tlie imblic. It is unueccssary to odd that the " outside '* 
ers of the stock were, in the couascls of the managers^ inch 
in that public the inquiries of which in regard to the atfaii 
the company were looketl Uffon by the ring in control as da 
right impertinence. A calm — a deceitful one indeed, bat 
a calm — succeeded the severe agitations of the money ma 
All tlirough the month of July money was easy and rule 
three or four per cent ; Krie was consequently high, and 
quoted at about 70, which enabled the company to 
witliout loss of the Vanderbilt stock. It may well l)e belid 
that Messrs. Fisk and Gould could not Iiave regard<?d 
empty treasury, just depleted to the extent of nine milUoai 
trust funds misapplied by directors in the processes of 
gambling, — without serious question as to their ability to i 
tlie road from bankruptcy. The October election was appr 
ing, Vanderbilt was still a threatening element iu the fu 
and new combinations might arise, Millions were ncc 
and mw&i at once be forthcoming. The new oflicials 
however, men of resources and were not men of many i 
pies. The money must be raised, and recent experience 
dicatod a method of raising it. Their policy, freed from lii6 
influence of Drew> vacillating, treacherous, and withal timid 
nature, could now Ite Iwld and direct. The pretence of resist* 
ance to monopoly would always serve them, as it had served 
them before, as a plausible and popular cry. Above all, their 
councils were now free from interlopers and spies, for the finrt 
act of Messrs. fiould and Fisk had been to do away wilh the 
old board of auditors, and to concentrate all power in HMtt ' 
own hands as president, treasurer, and controller. Forluiiately 
for them it was midsummer, and the receipts of the road were 
very heavy, supplying them with laj^e sums of ready nioneyj_^ 
most fortunately for them, also, a. stcau^e iufatuation 
time took possession ol* t\w; ^n^\\s\i mvu^. 



I at II 



A Chapter ({f 3rie. 



TT 



fikrowil OS tJic British ctipitaliat prorerbially is, his jndg- 
X in regard to Aim^ricun iiivofttmonts hi\» heon Bingiilarly 
lible. WhOD our natiunol lx)ndB went hugging ut a cliHcouiit 
silt/ (Hjr cent, ho tmn.sinitlcd tliem to Ocrnmny und rofused 
toarh them himsoif. At the very same time a plau»ihle 
p4 of thi! American railroad finaDcicr — a mau the history 
wh(we career would read like the tale of an Ai*ahian night 
-ira« involving the whole Royal Exchange in wild and mi- 
nuted invoRtraents in a Western huhhle road. To the Brit- 
h bankers who had apparently nished from the extreme of 
wiion to the extreme of cootidence, even tl»c t;i*aeh of May, 
866, did not soem to teach wisdom. They now, aflcr all the 
posnresoftlie proreding months, apparently iK'cause it sermed 
K»p, rushed iiito Eric, and the pricca in New York were bub- 
liifled by the steady demand for stock on foreign account. Not 
liljr did this onrinua infutuation» involnng purchases to the ex- 
iDt of a hundred thouaaud shares, cover up the 0]K}rat]ons 
the new ring, bat, at a later (leriod, the date of the |K)SMib1e 
of this stock to Wnl! Street was the hinge on which the 
of their culmiimtiug plot was made to turn. 
THe appearance of calm lasted but about tliirty days. Karly 
it wa« evident that aomelhing was going on. Erie 
Illy f^m per cent; in a few diiys more it experienced 
fiirtUer fall of seven per cent, touching 44 by the 19th of 
nth, Ujtou which day, to the astonishment of Wall 
the transfer books of tJie com|>any were closed prepar- 
to tlio annual election. Aa this election was not to take 
fcce until tlie IStli of October, and as the iMxtks had thus been 
tl"»ttl thirty days in advance of the usual time, it looked very 
M though the managora were satisfied witli the present 
I of the stock, and meant, by keeping it wliere it was, 
' , iic any such unpleasantness as an opposition ticket. 
i courta and a rciK'wed war of injunctions wore of course 
uny coutestuuts, including Commodore Vanderbilt, 
\ '-d to avail themselves of tliem ; probably, however, 

memory of recent struggles was too recent to induce any 
■ treacherous waters. At any rate noth- 
irapted. The election took place at the 
time, and the ring m control voted themselves without 



78 



A Chapter of Erie. 



opposition into a new lease of power. Two new naniea 
meanwhile appeared in the liRt. of Erie directors, tliose of P< 
B. Sweeney and William M. Tweed. The constniction oftinl 
new board may be stated in a few wordn, and calls for 
comment. It consisted of the Eric ring and the Tami 
ring, brought together in cIobo political and financial aUianM| 
and, for the rest, a working majority of supple tools ami 4 
h(H>eIei4a minority of respectable fifiiire-heads. Tliis iorraidaUtt 
combination shot out its fcclerfi far and wide; it wielded tbt 
influence of a great corporation with a capital of a hmidred 
millions ; it coRtrolled the politics of the first city of the Net 
World ; it sent its representatives to the .Senate of the Stilly 
and numbered among its agcuts the judges of the courbi 
Compact, disciplined, and reckless, it knew its own [tower anl 
would r»ot scruple to use it. 

It was now the month of October, and the harvest hi4 
been gathered. The ring and its allies determined to rdp 
tlieir harvest also, and that harvest was to bo nothing len 
than a contribution levied, not only upon Wall Street and Nef 
York, but upon all the immense intei*C8ts, commercial aa4i 
financial, which radiate from New York all over the country. 
Like the Ctesar of old, they issued their edict tliat all tU 
world should be taxed. The process was not novel, but ll 
was effective. A monetary stringency may be looked for io 
New York at certain seasons of every year. It is generally 
most severe in the autumn months, when the crops hare lo 
be moved, and Uie currency drains steadily away from the 
financial centre towards tlic extremities of the system. Tbt 
method by which an artificial stringency is produced is tfam 
explained in a recent report of the Comptroller of the Cra^ 
rcncy : '^ It ia scarcely [>ossible to avoid the Inference tliM 
nearly one half of tlie available resources of the natiotui 
banks in tho city of New York are used in the ojwratioM 
of the stock and gold exchange ; that they are loaned apua 
tlie security of stocks which are bought and sold largely tm 
speculation, and which are niani|iuluted by cli()ues and ctiuh 
binations, according as the bulls or bears are for the mumvnl 
in the ascendancy*^ . . . Takuig advantage of an active demau^ 
for money to move the crops West and Soutli, shrewd open- 



A Chapter of Erie, 



79 



tbeir comhiiialioxi to def)res8 the market by * lock- 

loncjr, — witiidniwing all they can control or borrow 

common fiinii ; money becomes scarce, the rate of 

. and stocks decline. The legitiumto dcinaiid 

■;. .... ..iiics ; mid, fearful of treucliiiig on their reserve, 

lUu aro &iramod fur moans. They daro not call m their 

d loaiiH, for that would compel their customers t<> sell 

on a falling market, uhich would make matters 

bitually lending their means to the utmost limit 

ince, and their credit much beyond that limit, Xo 

d speculators, they are powerless to afford relief; — 

y)mers by tlte force of circumstances become their 

The hanks cannot hold back or withdraw from the 

itna in which thoii* mode of doing business has placed 

They must carry tlie load to save their margins. A 

lid greatly reduce the j»rice of securiticK would 

-, if not futal, resultii tu the banks most cxten- 

I'd iji such o|>erations, and would produce a feeling 

I'ich would he very dangerous to the entire 

ijf the country." * 

machinery was now put in motion ; tlie banks and 

forced into the false position described, 

if Octubur it had become perfectly notori- 

in Wall Street tliat large now issues of £rio bud been 

■ new issues were intimately connected 

■ iicy Ibcu existing in the money market. 
last dGtcrmincd to investigate tlie matter, and upon 
of tho month a committee of throe was appointed 

ock Kxclmiigc to wait ui>ou the officers of the corpora- 
vith the view of procuring such information as they might 
'>;irt. The committee called on Mr. Gould and 
of their visit. In reply to their inquiries Mr. 
4 informed them that Erie convertible bonds for ton mil- 
'id been issued, lialf of which had already been 
utik, and the rest of wbicli would be ; that the 
ey had been devoted to tho purchase of Bostou, Hartford, 
' for fire millions, and also — of course — to 
iccl rails. The committee desired to know 




A Chattier of JEW*. 







if any furUicr issue, of stock was in oontemplaiioit^ but 
obliged to rest satis6ed with a calm oaBiirauco that no nowif 
was just tbcn contemplated cxcojit. " it 
from which enigmatical utterances Wi ' 

that the exigencies of Messrs. Gould and Flak were 
not to be omitted from any calculatioufl as to the iV' 
and tho money market. The amount of lhe«o i^. : 
stock was, of course, soon whispered in a general w&y;| 
it was uot till nmntJis afterwards that a sworn s 
the Becrotory of tho Krie Railway rovcnlod the U 
stock of the cor]>oration had been tncroojwd from ♦84,265^ 
on tho lat of July, 18ti8, tlic date when Drew and hia 
atos Had left it, to $.57,7{>G,300 on tho %\\\\ of Octol 
same year, or by two Imudrod and tliirty-Ove thousand »1] 
in four moallis. This, loo, bad boon done without ■ 
with the board of directors aud with no other am 
that confen*ed by tJie ambiguous resolution of February l( 
Under that resolution the stock of the company had now 1 
increased one hundred and thirty-eight per cent in 
months. Such a process of inflation may, perhnps, jfl 
be considered the most extraordinary feat of financial 
dernain which history Ims yet recoi*dod. 

Now, however, when tho committee of tho Stock Esc 
had returned to thofle who sent tJiem,thc mask was tlnv>wni 
and operations were conducted with vigor aud detcrir 
New issues of Erie were continually forced upon tho m 
nntil the stock fell to 86 ; greenbacks were locked up in^ 
vaults of the banks, until tho tmcxainpled sum of twi^lvo 
lions was withdrawn from circulation ; the prices of secai 
and merchandise declined ; trade and tJio autumnal niorei: 
of the crops were brought almost to a stand-still ; aud loaug 
came more and more difficult to negotiate, until nt lengtli 
one and a half per cent a day was paid for carrying stocks, 
liind alt this it was notorious that some one wiu pallingj 
wires, the slightest touch upon whicli sent a quiver thr 
every nerve of tlie great financial organism, and wrung ^ 
rate gain from public agony. The strange proceeding 
one of those scones in the chamliers of the Itti]uis)tion yt\ 
the judges calmly put their victim to the question, untif 



A Chapter cf Eri«, 

▼anted tliem iiofc to ctxcocd the HznHa of human en- 

At last the pnhlic distress reached the enra uf Ihe 

It at Wiifiliingtoii. Wliile it waa 8mi])ly tho gauj- 

W'all .Street who were t^ariug eacli other, their I'lamor 

xiittui little synipiithy. When, however, the auffcp- 

itleii Uirough aJl the h^gidmale Inisiness cirdes of 

jtry, — when t)je scftrcitj* of mnncy tlireatencd to cut 

f wiuter food of tJio poor, to roh tho fanner of tho fruits 

toil, and tu hrini^ ruin ujjon half uf the dehtor clasH 

community, — then even Mr, McOulhtdi, pledged as lie 

autractian, wan moved to interfere. The very rcvonuca 

jvemment were affected by the operaHons of gainhlers. 

pre therefoi-e informed that, if uceoBsary, fifty millions 

liouul currcney would be furthcoming to the relief of 

community, and then, and not till then, were the screws 

fted. 

harvest of tho »[)eculator8, however, was still but half' 

Hitherto tho conihiuatioa had operated for a fall. 

mnjont to change their tactics and t-j\kc advan- 

loi J. The time was calculated to a nicetv. The 

Ion infatuation had continued wonderlHilly, and as fust as 

fctcs of stock wen) issued they seemed tu take wings 

[jo Atlantic. Yet there was a limit even tu Knglish 

aUty, and in November it became evident that the agents 

houftpfl wore Holling their stock to arrive. The i>rxce 

itit 40 ; the certificates might be expected by the steamer 

fUw 2!)d. Just-autly the comhiuation changed front. As be- 

' ^v had do|irea8cd tho market, they now ran it up, ami, 

? as if by magic, the stock, which had been heavy at 40, 

^hed every one by shooting up to 50. New developments 

\\ hand. 

, Mr. Daniel Drew once more mode his nppear- 

Moe on the slogo. As was very natural, he had soon wearied 

■ " of his [jart as a mere looker on iu Wall Street, 

into his old h:d)its. He was no longer treas- 

r of tlio Eric, and could not therefore invite the public to 

himself with sombre piety shook the loaded 

d become with him a s<!cond nature to operate 

rie, ftud once more he was deep iu its movomeuts. At^at 



82 



A Chapter of Erie* 



ho had combinetl with hia old fiionds, tho prcsont liii 
tlieir " locking-xip** conspiracy. Be liaii iigroed to ass) 
to the extent of four millious. The vHcillat.ing, {\m\A 
of the mau, liowuvcr, could uot keep i>aco with his mor^ 
and determined associates, and, after cmbnrluug a 
coming alarmed at the success of the joint opornti^ 
the remonstrances of those who were threatened with 
withdrew his funds from tlic ojierators' control and hini« 
their councils. But though he did not care to nm the j 
to uicui* the odium, he liad no sort of ohjectiou to shi 
spoils. Kuowing, therefore, or supposing that he kn« 
plan of campaign, and that plan jmnping with hin own M 
incliuations, ho continued, on his own account, bperatiot 
iug to a fall. One may easily conceive the wrath of 
operators at such a troncherous policy ; and it is not di£ 
. imagine tlieir vows of vengeance. Meanwhile all went w< 
Daniel Drew. Erie looked worse and worse, ajid (ho g< 
harvest seemed drawing near. By the middle of Xovej 
he had contracted for the delivery of some seventy thoa 
shares at current prices, averaging, perhujjs, 38, and pru 
was ooimting liis gains. Ho did not apj»reciate the fut 
and resources of his old associates. On the 14th of Nt 
tlieir tactics changed, and he found liimself involved in 
entanglements, — cornered, hoj>elessty coniered. His 
disclosed itself on Saturday. Naturally the first tmpii 
to have recourse to the courts. An injunction — n dd 
junctions — could he had for the asking, hut, rnifortuiii 
could he had hy both parties. Drew's o^vii recent oxperi< 
and hia intimate acquaintance with the characters of Fisk 
Gould, were not calculated to insi.>ire him ^rith mucl 
dence in the efficacy of the law. But nothing olsfl r«i 
and, after hurried consultations among the victims, the 
were applied to, the affidavits were prepared, and it 
cided to repair ou tlie following Monday to the eo-oal1c 
of justice. 

Nature, however, had not hestowed on Daniid Dt 
steady uervo and sturdy gambler's pride of eitlier Van 
or his old companions at Jersey City. Hi8 mind wuv< 
and hesitated between different courses of actiou. 



1 



A Chapter of Erie, 



as 



was for biinBelf, his only thought was of his owu poBitiou. 

uraa willing to lietray oiio i>arty or the other, ajj t!ie caac 

It Im. lie had given his affidavit to those who were to 

the suit on tho Monday, hut ho stood perfectly ready 

jomploy Sunday in betraying tlicir counsels to the dofend- 

iti tJio suit. A poMiiiou more conteiuptlblu, a state of 

more pitiahlO) can hardly be conceived. After passing 

night in this abjoot condition, on tlie morning of .Sunday 

1 «ought out Mr. Fisk for purposes of eelf-humiliatiou and 

tiery. Ho theu partially revealed the difficulties of his 

ion, only to liave his confidant prove to liim how entirely 

liraa cauglit by completing to him the revelation. He be- 

tho aocrcta of his new allies, and bemoaned his owu 

, fiite ; he was tliereufKtn comforted by Mr. Fisk with the 

• remark that ^'he (Drew) was the last man who ought to 

line over any position in which he placed himself in regard 

I Erie." The poor man begged to see Mr. Gould, aud would 

no denial. Finally Mr. Gould was brought in, and the 

was repeated for his edification. The two must have 

satiated with revenge. At last they sent him away, 

sing to see him again that evening. At tho hour named 

igftiu appeared, and, after waiting their convenience, — fw 

ppared him no humiliation, — he Again appealed to them, 

ag them great sums if they would issue new stock or 

him of their stock. He imjJored, ho argued, he threat- 

At the end of two hours of humiliation, persuaded that 

i«as all in ^-ain, tliat ho was wholly in the power of autag- 

Ptfl without mercy, ho took his hat, said " I will bid you 

1 iiigfat," and went his way. 

[Tbore is a toutfU of nature about this scene which seems like 

Indeed ifirresistibly recalls the feebler effort of Dickens 

ay Fogin^s lust night alive, and there is more patlios in 

tiiig addrCKS than in the Jew's, — ** An old man» my lord! 

f, Tory old man." But tho troth is stranger than fiction. 

lid not dare to picture the old "fence" in Oliver 

led out of his own house and stripped of his plunder 

' tbo very liands through which he had procured it. Xxi the 

,0f Daniel Drew, however, tho ideal poetic justice was 

^ftbout in fact ; the evil iustructions returned to plague 





] 



A Chapter of BrU. 

the inventor, aiid it is hard to believe tJiat, as he \r>T' •** ■ 
offices that night, his apt pupils, even us those ol* I 
have done, did not watch his retirin<^ steps with sunfl 
luerrimeut; and, when the door had closed upon liini, 3| 
one did not explode in !oud hiirsla of laughter, wliile the 
with a quiet clujckle, plunged his hands into those cti 
pockets wliich yawned for all the wealth of Krie. 
these things are, terrible as is the condition of 
partially revealed, there is a grim humor riuming Uirong 
which ever makes itself felt, 

But to return to the course of events. With the lord 
Erie, forewarned was forearmed. They knew something ol 
method of procedure in New York courts of law. At 
ticular juncturo Mr. Justice Sutherland, a magistrate 
pure cliunicter and unsullied reputation that it is iuex| 
how ho ever came to be elevated to the bench on wf 
sits, was holding chambers, according to assignment, for 
four weeks hotwcen the first Monday in Novenjber And 
first Monday in December. By a rule of the court, all a] 
cations for orders during that time were to bo made be 
him^ and he only, according to the courtesy of tliL* !■ 
cognizance of such p^)ceeding3. Some genera] urruii^ :^;,. 
this nature is manifestly necessary to avoid continual ooni 
of jurisdiction. The details of the assault on the Er 
havlug baen settled, counsel apf»eared Ixiforo Judge m. .... . 

on Monday morning, and petitioned for an injunction resti 
ing the Erie directors from any new issue of sttwk or th( 
moval of the funds of the company beyond the jurisdictio 
the court, aud also asking that the road be placed in the lu 
of a receiver. The suit was brought in the name of 
Auguste Belmont, who was supposed to represent large fon 
holders. The petition set forth at length the alleged foci 
the case, and was 8U[)ported by the aflidavils of Mr. Dt 
otiiers. Mr. Drew apparently did not inform the couiw 
manner in which he had passed his leisui*o hours 
previous day ; had he done so, Mr. Belmont*.-* 
ably woidd have expedited their movements, 
was, however, duly signed, and, doubtless, itnmcdiatelyj 

Meanwhile Messrs. Gould and Fisk bad not boon ' 



i»^_^^^^* 



d foci 

isoB 

rs on] 



jnns for injunctions and receiverships were a pmxe. that 
could i>luy at, uiid long experience liail taiight th(!8c close 
i^TA the very groat value of the initiative in law, Accord- 
Ij, somis two hoiiTH Iwforc tho Belmont appli(;atir)n was ' 
tliry luiil flought out no less a person tlmn Mr. JiLstice 
ord. caught him, as it were, cither in his bed or at his 
k(»Mf wheixjajx)!! he had held a /it de justice^ and made 
<L»tonisliing ordere. A petition was presented in the 
twe Mcintosh, a sahirJed officer of the Krie I^oad, 
imod also to Im? a shareholder. It sot forth the danger 
ictions and of the appointment of a r-eccivcr, the great 
ilikely to result therefrom, etc. After due considera- 
i>D the port of Judge Barrmrd, an injunction was issued, 
g and rostroinuig all suits, and actually ap]K)iiiting Jay 
td receiver, lo hold and dishiirse tho funds of the company 
dance with the resolutions of the Board of Dii-ectors 
Eiccutivo Committee. This, certainly, was a very 
int flank movement, and testified not less emphatically to 
*fl genius than to Baniiu*d*s law, and to the efficacy of 
new coroliinatiou betwceu Tammany Hall and the Erie 
my> Since the partsage of tlio hill " to legalize counterfeit 
ify," in April and the present Novemhor, now light had 
i upon the judicial mind, and as the news of one iiijuhction 
a vague rumor of Ujo other crept tlu'ough Wall Street that 
no wonder that operators stood aghast and that 
ted wildly from &0 to 01 and back to 48. 
Erie directors, however, did not rest satisfied with tJie po- 
' ^t they had won through Judge Barnard's order. That 
, x'd thorn, as it were, in a strong defensive attitude. 
ff WBTB not the men to stop there : they aspired to noth- 
in a rigorotis offensive. With a supcrh audacity, 
'3 admiration, the new trustee immediately filed a 
plement4kry |jetition. Therein it was duly set forth that 
ilita hud heen raised as to the legality of the recent ia- 
fif some two hundred thousand shares of stock, and 
It only aV)Out this amount was to ho had iu America ; the 
) f»etitioncd for authority to use the funds of 
to purchase and cancel tho whole of this 
touut at any price lotfs than the j>ar value, without io^^i\ X/a 



-j.->. . ..iL 



86 



A Chapter ofEru. 



P 



the rate at which it had bceu issued. The desired antho 
was conferred by Mr. Justice Barnard as soon as 
Human aHsurancc could go do further. The petitiononi 
issued these shares in the bear interest at 40, and had \ 
down the value of Erie to 35 ; they had then tiirned 
and were now emijowered to buy l>ack that very stock in ^ 
bull interest, and in the name of the corporation, at par.J 
law of the State distinctly forbade corporations from opcr 
in their own stock ; but tins law was disregarded, as if iti 
been only aji injunction. An injunction forbade the treaad 
from making any disposition of the fiinds of the eomp 
and this injunction was respected no more than the 
These trustoes had sold the property of their wards at 
they were now prepared to use the money of their wa 
buy the same property back at 80, and a judge liad been foi 
ready to confer on them the power to do so. Drew could ( 
witlistand such tacticA, and indeed the annals of Wall 8t 
furnished no precedent or parallel. Tliey might have fumlfl 
one, but the opportunity had been lost. Had Robert Schn 
not lived fifteen years too soon, — had ho, instead of flytngl 
country and dying broken-hearted in exile, boldly att^mp 
change of front when his fraudulent issues had filled 
Street with panic, and had he sought to use tlie funds of] 
company for a masterly upward movement in his own 
factured stock, — then, though in those imcultivated and 
eral days he might have failed, and even have passed from I 
presence of an indignant jury into the keeping of a 
jailer, at least ho would have evinced a mind in adranc 
his day, and could have comforted himself with tho 
ance that he was the first of a line of great men, and tbai^ 
time was not far distant when his name and his fame woul^ 
cherished among the most brilliant recollections of Wiill Str 

When this last, undreamed-of act was made i)ublic on 
nesday at noon, it was apparent that the crisis was not far i 
Daniel Drew was cornered, Eric was scarce and selling at 
47, and would not become plenty until the arrival of the Eng- 
lish steamer on Monday ; and so, at 47, Mr. prew flung him- 
self into the breach to save his endangered credit, and, undw 
bis purchases, tho stock rapidly rose, until at five o'clock oo 



8»0 



A Chapter of Erit. 



87 



•on it reached 57. Contrary to Gxi>ot:t:ition, 

i ngt yet cuUninated. It bctuinic evident the 

\i morning tlmt liefore two o*clcH>k that day tho Usiitf would 

sidwl. Drew fought dos]>oratt'Iy, Tho Brokers* Board 

Jd with excitement. High words passed ; collisions took 

tbo bears were aavugo, and tho bulls pitiless. Krie 

G2, and tlion^ waK a difference of sixteen por cent bo- 

cuaU stock and stock sold to be doUvered in tJireo days, 

' wbon tho stoamcr would be in, — and a diflcronce of ten per 

|1' '. to be delivered on the spot and that to lie de- 

1 time, which was a quarter after two o'clock. 

lions were handled like thousands ; fabulous rates of inlep- 

vre paid ; riimorri of legal proceedLn^s were flyiup about, 

[jniya of the Erie cliiets on tho Vandorbilt roads were con- 

Beally predicted. Now York Central suddenly shot up under 

OS seven jK^r cent, and Vandcrbilt seemed about 

ti-ild. The interest of iho stock market centred 

1 Hk combatants and on tlicae two great corporations. AH 

ks were quiet and nejrlect4?d, while tlie giants were 

out. The battle was too fierce to last long. At a 

' lioforo tliree o'clock tlie struggle would be over. Yet 

■!ii» very last moment, the prize which trembled before 

-I'd tJio grasp of the Erie rinjj. Tiieir opponent was 

saved, but they shared lua diHa&t(u-. Their combinalion 

■ d oM the fact, disclosed to them by the Eric books, 

three hun<lrod thousand shares of its stock had l)een 

, iu the t^n-sharo certificates which alone arc transmitted 

'Udjdon, This amotnit they supposed to l»e out of tho coun- 

' ; the balance tliey could account for as beyond tlie reach of 

Suddenly, as two o'clock approached, and Erie was 

bling u\ the sixties, all Broadway — every tailor and boot- 

aud cigoi' \'oudor of New York — seemed )K)uring into 

I Street, and each new-comer held eagerly before him one 

BftTc of those ten-sliaro certificates which should liave been 

Uudon, Not only this, but the pockets of tbo agents of 

ei^^n iKtnkers seemed bursting with them. Bedlam had sud- 

Jjf broken bjoso in Wall .Street. It waa absolutely necessary 

the con8tMrator« to absorb this stock, to keop it from the 

I of Drew. This they attempted to do, and luaufuUy stxiod ^ 



88 



A Chapter of JErie, 



their ground, fighting agaiiiel time. Suddenly, when tlia 1 
had almost come, — when five minutes more wwulil have h 
them i?J snfuty, — througli oue of those 8trang:e inci ' 
occur iu Wail Street, and which cunnot be exjtlu 
Koemed smitten with panic. It i» said tlieir hank reftuted 
certify their checks for the smMcn increased amount; t!ii3| 
lers insisted on having certified ctiQcks, and, iii tho 
caused by this unforGseen difficulty, the precioua fire 
elapsed, and the crisis hud passed. The fruits of their 
had escaped them. Drew made good his contriu^tB at 57 
stock at onco fell heavily to 42, and a dull quiet succeede 
the exoiteraont of the morning. 

The Wall Street conflict was over, and some one had 
a harvest. Who was it ? It was not Drew, for his lo 
apart from a ruined prestige, were estimated at i" 
lion and a lialf of dollars. The Krie diroctoi's v>\ 
fortunate men, for their oidy trophies wore jn'Cftt pii<J* of 
tificatcs of Erie stock, wliich had cost them ** corner*' pJ'M 
and for whicli no demand existed. If Drow*s loss was ft 
and a half, thoir loss was likely to be nearer to three ml 
Who, then, were tho recipients of these missing milUti 
There is an ancient sapiig, which seems to have Ihmmi ti 
verified in this case, that when certain persona HlU out i 
other persons come by their dues. The "corner" was 
beautiful in all its details, and most admiralily plaiinud 
unfortunately, those who engineered it had just pro^ 
made tJio vohune of Bt<^»ck too large for accurate • 
For onco tho outside public had l>ecn at hand and > 
had 1>eon found wanting. A large fiortion of (ho vast sum i 
from the combatants found its way uito the pockets of the i 
of English bankers, and a part of it was accounted for hy 
fA) their principals ; another portion went to relievo 
holders among the American outside j)nblic ; the rnmnli 
fell to professional operators, probably far more lucky 
sagacious. Still, there had been a fall, before there Wfl 
rise. Tho subsequent disaster, perhaps, no more than 
terbalanced the earlier victory ; at any rate, Messrs. Citi 
and Fisk did not succumb, but preserved a steady 
aud Eric was more u[:'on tho street than over. In 



mt 




A Chapter of Erie. 



88 



"iolly tbore now. Tho recent oiferationa had proved 
tecomi even for tlie Brokera' Roiird. A new nilo 
^, thai no stock sliotild he cnlli'd the issues of 
*ro not registered at some rospectablo banking-house. 
5 directors declined to conform to this nile, and 
id waA fttrickon from the list of caJU. NuUiing 
liy this» these Protean crcatnres at once organized 
|«l of tiieir own, and wei*e nuOkieutly successful iu 
P^ to tiave Erie quoted and bought and sold as t*egn< 
Iter. 

JLtfac catastrophe had taken plaoc on the 10th, tho 
ftis not yet over. The intcresld involved were so 
g, tho dcvolopuicnt« were so a&tounding, such pasfiions 
I aroUHod, tl»at some Bafoty-valve through wliich sup- 
viaili could work itself off was ahstdutely neceasary, 
the courts of law nflbrded. The attack was stimu- 
various motivca. The bona fide holders of the stock, 
f the foreign holders, were alarmed for the existence 
p^>pe^ty. Tho Erie ring had now boldly taken tho 
that tlitilr duty was, not to manage the road iu tlie 
of its owners, not to make it a diridcnd-paying corpo- 
\i Ui jireaerve it from consolidation with the Vaudcrhilt 
'. This [lolicy wa« openly proclaimed hy Mr. Gould, 
r day, beforo an investigating committee at jUbany, 
\t\e effrotitery, — an ctTrontcry so great as ac- 
!„., A^j ou his audience and a |)ortion of the press, and 
m believe that the public ought to wish him success, — 
ibed how stock issues at t!ie proper time to any re- 
punt could alone keep liim in control of the road, 
r, Vanderbilt out of it ; it would be his duty there- 
Lied, to issue as much new stock, at about the 
mmual election, ns would suflice to keep a majority 
ock ia existence under his control ; and he declared 
leant to do this. The strangest thing of all was, that it 
jed to occur to hia audience that the propoundcr of 
eophistry was a trustee and guardian for the stock- 
not a public l)onefactor ; and that the owners of the 
light poHHJbly prefer not to be deprived of their prop- 
er to secure the blotfaiiig of com{K;titioa. So uuv\vx?i 




a method of Beouring a re-oloctjon was probably never 
BUgpested with a grave face, aud yet, if we may beltev 
ivporlttra, Mr. Gould, iu dovelopuig it, produced a venr 
able improBsion on tbo couimittoe. It was hardly t^3 
pcctod that such advanced views as to t!i« dutie** and 
railway directors would impresa favorably commonplnco 
viduals wl»o might not care to have their property scalod > 
to meet Mr. Gould*8 views of public welfare. Tliese 
accordingly, popularly supposed to be representwi by Mr. 
mont, wished to get their property out of tho hands of i 
fanatics in the cause of clieap transportation and plentiful i 
with the least possible delay. Combined with these we 
operators who had suffered in the late " comer," and who< 
to fight for better terms and a more equal division of pit 
Behind them all, Vanderbilt was supposed to he keeping 
oagor eye on the long-coveted Krie. Thus tho 
Utigatiou existed in abundance. 

On Monday, the 23d, Judge Sutherland vacated Judge I 
nard's order ap|>ointing Jay Gould receiver, and, after 
hoars* argument and some exhibitions l)y counsel of tqI^ 
and indecency, which Tied with those of tho pix^viuus Af 
appointed Mr. Davies, an ex-chief justice of tlie Court of Af 
receiver of tho road and its franchise, leaving the special 
of the order to be settled ni. a future day. The seven 
struggle had not l)een without an object, for, before the 
WM entered at niuo o'clock in tho evening, Judge Bn 
who had employed his time since the IGth in delix'oriug to" 
grand jury one of the most extraordinary charges erer, 
teued to, in which ho hod informed them that be waa 
fwndent on the charity of his wife '' to eke out a prcc 
support, and edified them m regard to a ** comlnnatioj 
thieves, scoundrels, and rascals who had infested Wall 
and Broad Street for years, and were now quarrelling 
themselves" • — had already issued a stay of the proceed 
then pending before his associate. Tuesday had boon namec 
by Judge Sutherland, at the time he appointed his receii 

• Tl»e wliolo of thJB curiotiity of l<?g«I htcrnturc, wliicli, with ir 
tory, stiould hy no meuQS tw Insi m [lostpritv, van bo Tuiind in tlic N 
6rNorvrober 34, Bsd the Evening Post of December \, 1SC8. 



mam 




w^??r of Ent. 

day upon wliich be would settle the details of (lie order. 
fint procceditif^ upon that day, on finding hiA action stayed 
Ittdge Barnard, wiis to grant a motion to sliuw O-auHO, oti 
next daVf why Bomard^s order should not bo vacated. 
Style tA warfare, however, savored altogether too mnch 
tame dofensive to meet ancceasfully the bold strategy 
»r«. Gould and Fiiik. They carried the war into Africa, 
twenty-four hours during which Jndgo Sutherland's 
to show cause was pending three new actions wei-e 
d hy thorn. In tlie first place, thoy sued the sners. 
the immense injury likely to i*csult to the Erie Hoad 
tions comracuced, as they alleged, solely with a view of 
nrtinjr money in settlement, Mr. Belmont was sued for a 
of dollars iu damages. Tholr second suit was against 
Work, Schell, and others, concerned in tie litigations 
Pthe previous spring, to recover the $429,2.50 then paid tlicm, 
^TW alleged, iu a fraudulent settlement. These actions 
ere, however, common [dace, and might have been brought by 
dinary men. Messrs. Gould and Fisk were always display- 
:tho inveutiou of gonius. The same day thoy cai-ried their 
reU into the United States courts. The whole press, both 
New York and of the country, disgusted with the [iarody of 
itice enacted in tlie Stjite court.s, had cried aloud to liave 
be whole matter transferred to the United States tnhunals, 
^e decisions of which might have some weight, and where, 
t least, no partisans upon the bench would shower each other 
fith gtays, iujuuctions, vacatings of orders, and other such 
Ns of the law. The Erie ring, as usual, took time by the 
clock. While their slower autagouists were deliberating, 
ey acted. On this Monday, the 23d, one Henry B. Wlielp- 
irho had been a clerk of Gould's, and who claimed to be 
Icholdcr in the Erie and a citizen of Now Jersey, instituted 
rwit against the Erie Railway before Judge Blatchford of 
'\ States District Coiu't. Alleging the doubts which 
LIj ; the validity of the recently issued stock, he pe- 

liiued that a receiver might bo appointed, and the company 
Urucipd to transfer into his hands enough property to secure 
TOi losfi himnelf, a« well as all other holders of the new 
The Erie' counsel wore on tho ground, and, aa Wiou 



92 



A Chapter of Erii. 



fJ 



OS the petition vas road, waived all furtlier notice afl to i 
matters contained in it; wlii<reupoii the court at once appoin 
Jay Gould rccuivor, and directed the Kric Comjiaiiy In 
eight inillioni} of dollars in his hands to protect the 
represented Ity tlie plaintiff. Of course the receiver w» 
quired to (rive bonds with sufficient sureties. Amniig 
sureties was James Fisk, Jr. The brilliancy of this mm*o i 
only surpassed by its success. It fell like a bombshell iiij 
oueujy's carap, and scatU:red dismay among those who 
preserved a lingering faith in the virtue uf law an udmiiiu< 
by any known courts. On what ground so lughly rcspivctuli 
magistrate as Judge Blatchford based this extraordinary or 
is not luiuwu. His actiun was asked for on the gruiuid 
traud. If any fraiid had been cominitted, the officers of ^ 
company nione c<»uld Imj the delinquents. To gwarvl nga^ 
the consequences of that fraud a receiver was asked for, i 
the court appointed as receiver the very officer in whop} i 
alleged fi-auds on which its action was based must ba 
originated. The Erie ring, at least, had no oocasiun bj Ix^ dL 
satisfied with this day^s proceedings. 

The next day Judge yutherUmd made short uurk of 
brother Barnai-d's stay of proceedings in regard to the Itaf 
receivership. He vacated it at ouoo, and incontinently 
cecded, wholly ignoring the action of Judge Blatchfurd un ' 
day befon,!, to settle tJie terms of the order, which, cnveB 
as it did the whole of the Erie property and franchise, CJ 
mg only tlic operating of the road, bade fair to Icail lo • i 
fiict of jurisdiction between the tit-ate and Federal court*. 

And now a« new judicial combatant a]»pears in the orena.^ 
is difficult to Hay why Judge Barnard, at this f 
pears IVom the narrative, Perhu|>K tlio nolorit 
yiolonce of the man, which must have made his eagernc 
dangerous to the cause he osprm^od as the cfiu f aj 

swiit witness, had alaiined the Erie counsel, i !lte; 

that Judge Sutherland's term in chambers would espiroH 
few days had made them wish to intrust their cause te| 
magistrate who was to succeed him. At any rate, the 
order staying proceedings under Judge SutJicrlantrs ordwi 
obtained from Judge Cardozo^^it is said, somewhat boibrol 




of the receivershiit hafl been fuially settled. Tlie change 
well for the discrimiiuition nf tlujso who made it, for 
Carilozo is a very Oiffereut man from Judjro Barnard. 
ctxw htjf iafiexible, siiljtle, clear-hoiidod, and imscnipu- 
I **■• ' •rini^ftt.rato conceals the wtn hand honoiith Hie silken 
t illy vei'Hcd iii tlie laws of New York aiid in the 

Driea of Tammany, he Iiud earned his place by a par- 
decUion on the excise law, and wa« nominated for tl»e 
I by Mr. Fernando Wood, in a few remarks concludhig as 
rs: ''Judges were often called on to decido on pnlitical 
§on«, and he was sorry to say the majority of them do- 
a4«rtrdinp to their political bias. It was therefore abso- 
I :try to look to their candidate's political pnnciplcfl. 

fcw,..U i.ouiiuato, as a fit man for the office of Judge of the 
Une Court, Albert Cardozo." Nominated as a partisan, a 
Ban Cardozo has always been, when the occaision do- 
led. Such wiis the new and far more formidable cbam- 
who DOW confronted Sutherland, in place of the vulgar 
ord- Hia first order in the matter — to show cause 
the order of his brother jndgi? should not be sot aside — 
^not retumahle until the 30th, and in the intervening five 
fe vents were to happen. 

....u ly alter the settlement by Judge Sutherland of the 

r appointing Judge Dft\nea receiver, that gentleman had 
eedcd to tulco possession of Ins trust. Upon arriving at 
2rie building, he found it converted into a fortress, with a 
ry patrolling behind the holts and bars, to whom was cou- 
1 Uio duty of scrutinizing all comers, and of admitting none 
Uie faithftd allies of the garrison. It so happened that Mr. 
ies, himself unknown to the custodian, was accompanied l)y 
Eaton, the former attorney of the Erie corporation. This 
lemau was recognized by the sentry, and forthwith the gates 
open for himself and his companion. In a few moments 
iv receiver astonished Messrs. Oould and Fisk, and 
^ .1 gentlemen with whom they happened to ho in con- 
f, by suddenly appearing in the midst of them. The ap- 
oeable. llowever, Mr. Fisk, with a fair 
liity, widcomed the strangers, ami .shorlly 
' left tho room. Sjwedil/ retunung, his maixner u\\t\*;r?rft\\l 



94 A ChaptfT of Fne. [M) 

a change, aiid lie requested the ncw-coinerfl t-o go the way Uii^ 
came. Aa tboy did not compljr at oucB) he o]>enGd tho do^ 
and directed their attention to some dozen inon of forbiddiM 
aj*]>c(!t who sti»)d outside, and who, he infuoated,wen3 prepartl 
to eject them forcibly if they sought to prolong Iheir unwil 
come stay. As an indication of the longtlis t '' ' ^' f ' 
wns prepared to go, tliis was aufficicjitly ^ 
movcmunt, however, was a little too rapid for his eom^tauiftuti 
the lawyers protested, Mr. Gould apologized, Mr. Fi^t 
down, and his familiars retired. The receiver then \v: 
to give written notice of his appointment, and the fiict that U 
had taken posaession ; disregarding, in eo doing, an - ' 
Judge Cardozo, staying proceedUige imdor Jndgt' i>\\x\ ■ 
order, wliieh one of the opposing counsel drew from his |)OCkC| 
but which Mr. Davies not inaptly eharncterizutl as a ** 
gular order," seeing that it was fiignod before the teru- 
order it sought to affect were finally settled. At length, Itwf 
over, at the earnest request of some of the subordinate offirial* 
and satisfied with the formal possession he had taken, the uuf 
receiver delayed further action until Friday. He little knev 
the resources of his opponents, if he vainly supposed tb * ~ '" ■ 
mal |M>rwoH9ion signified anythiug. The succeeding Friu. 
the directors again fortiAed within, and himself a much enjoinod 
wanderer without. The vigilant guards were now no longer to 
be beguiled. Within tlie liuihling, constant discusaioii? owl 
consultations were taking place ; without, relays of d. 
incessantly watched the promises. No nmoor waa toti 
public credence. It was confidently stated that the <: 
wore about to fly the State and the coimtry, — that the trw 
Bury had already been convoyed to Canada. At last, late Ml 
Sunday night, Mr. Fisk with certain of his associates loH: tJ« 
building, and made for the Jersey ferry ; but on tlje way U 
was stoppcsi by a vigilant lawyer, and many pape- *■ "' 
sensed ufiou him. His plans were then changed. Ug . 
to the office of the com|»any, and presently tlie detectives hw i 
carriage leave the Eric portals, and heard a loud voice ' -^ ■• ** 
to be driven to the Fifth Avenue IJotol. Instead ' 
tliere, however, it drove to the ferry, and proHontly au en 
gino, with an empty directors' car attached, dashed out of tlv 



■■K 



A 



L] 



A Chapter of Mi^, 



«$ 



starian in Jersey City, and disapi)earod in the dftrkness. 

detcctires met and consulted ; the carriage and the empty 

Were put together, and the inference, ajiuoujiced in every 

York paper the succeeding day, was that Messrs. Pisk 

Gould had absconded with millions of money to Canada, 

such a ridiculous story shouhl have been published, 

believed, simply shows how utterly demoralized the 

! niind had become, and how prepared for auy act of Ixigh- 

iod fraud or outxage. The libel did not long remain 

ntntdicted. The next day a card from Mr. Fisk was tele- 

kphed to the newspapers, denying the calumny in indignant 

The eternal steel rails were again made to do duty, 

i the midnight flitting became a harmless visit to Bingham- 

LOG bofiiness connected with a rolling-mill. Judge Baleom, 

dver, of injuuctiun memory in tJie earlier records of the 

it suits, resided at Biughamtou, and a leading New York 

not inaptly made the timid inquiry of Mr. Fisk, " If 

really thought that Judge Baleom was running a rolling- 

of the Erie Company, what did lie thuik of Judge Bai*- 

l?" However, Mr. Fisk, as became him in his character 

\ the Maecenas of the bar, instituted suits claiming damages 

I ikbulous sums, for defamation of character, agauist some 

zen of tlie leadiug papers, and nothing fmlher was 

' of the matter, nor iudeed of the suits either. Xot so 

[the trip to Binghamton. On Tuesday, the Ist of December, 

^one set of lawyers were arguing an appeal in the Wljelp- 

Ijefore Judge Nelson in the Federal courts, and an- 

i«et were prociu-ing orders from Judge Cardozo staying 

iings authorized by Judge Sutherland, a third set were 

diug Judge Baleom in certain new proceedings instituted in 

! uame of the Attorney -General against tlie Eric Road. The 

ult arrived at was, of course, that Judge Baleom declared 

I to be the only shop where a regular, reliable article in the 

»5 of law was retailed, and then proceeded forthwith to ro- 

ftin and shut up the opposition establishments. The action 

brought to terminate the existence of the defendant as a 

f[K)rati(>n, and, by way of preliminary, application was made 

ran injunction and the appointment of a receiver. His honor 

k\'\ that, as only three receivers had as yet been appointed, 



m 



A Chapter of Erie* 



he was certaiDly entitled to appoint another. It wait pcrf 
clear to him tliat it was his duty to eujolu the defundani i 
ration from delivering tho i ' n of its road, or of 

its aflflcts, to cither of tho i nlrrady Jippointed ; 

equally dear that the oor|)onition would be ohligcd to 
tliem to any receiver he mij<ht ap|x»iut. However, be 
prepared to name a receiver just then, Ihongh he iutii 
that he should not hesitate to do so if neccsbary. So be] 
tented himself wilh the appoiutiuont of a referee to looVl 
matters, and, generally, enjuinei^ the dircctorm from nmti 
to operate the road themselves, or from delivering the 
eion of it to " any (person claiming to he a receiver." 

This raiding upon tl»o agricnltnrul judges was not pcc^ 
to tho Eric party. On the contrary, in this proccedbg i 
rather followed than set an example ; for, a day or 1 
to Mr. Fisk'a hurried journey, Judge Peckham of - 
upon papers identical with those in the Rehnont suit, is 
divers orders, similar to those of Judgo Balcom, hut on' 
other side, tying up tho Erie directors in a most aston 
ing manner, and clearly hinting at the expediency of an i 
tioual receiver to he appointed at All)any. Tlii' 
these Peckham and Unicom pri>ceeding)* is rh 
havo been initiated witli perfect gravity, and notthcT to 
been looked ujwn as jests nor intended hy their oi " ' 
bring the courts and tho laws of New York into . 
coniempt. . Of course the several orders in tbcso cases 
no more importance than so much waste paper, unl 
some very cautious counsel may have considered . i 
junction or two very convenient thinji^s to have in his 
and yet, curiously enough from a legal point of view, (h« 
Judge Balcom's court seem to have been aVK)ut the fttily 
eriy and i-egularly initiated proceedings in the whole case.] 

These little niral episodes in no way luterfcred with 
newal of vigorous hostilities in New York. While .ludge 
com was apjwinting his referee, Judge Cardozo granted an a^ 
for a reargumcut iu the Belmont suit, — which Uro« 
again the ap|)ointment of Judge Pavics as recciverjS 
assigned the hearing for tho 6th of December. This 
on his part reminds one of certain i)erfonnances in tliol 



A Chapt^ of Erie. 



9T 



case of the Wood leases, and made the plan of op- 
perfectly clear. The |>eriod during wliicl* Judge 
ind was to sit in chambers was to expire on the 4th of 
er, and Canlozo himself was to succeed liim ; ho now, 
e, projKised to signalize his associate's departing from 
Ts br reviewing his orders. No sooner had ho pranted 
Ion, than the opposing counsel applied to Judge Suther- 
lo forthwith issued an order to show cause why the ro- 
it ordered by Judge Cardozo should not tflke place 
aim at once. Upon which the counsel of the Erie 
t&tantly ran over to Judge Cardozo, who vacated Judge 
md*a order out of hand. The lawyers then left him 
I back to Judge Sutherland with a motion to vacate 
t order. The contest was now becoming altogether 
icrons. Somebody must yield» and, when it was re- 
tliat, the honest Sutherland was pretty sure to, give 
the subtle Cardozo. Accordingly the hearing on this 
ion was postponed until the next morning, wlien Judge 
ind made a not undigniBed statement as to his posi- 
d closed by remitting the whole subject to the succeed- 
iday, at which time Judge Cardozo was to succeed him 
bars. Cardozo, therefore, was now in undisputed pos- 
of the field. In his closing explanation Judge Suther^ 
\ not quote, as he might have done, the following ex- 
passage from the opinion of the court of which both he 
rdozo were justices, delivered in the Schell case as 
' as the last day of the previous June : " The idea that 
by such manceuvres as have been resorted to here can 
drawn from one judge of this court and taken posses- 
hy another ; that thus one judge of the same and no 
)wcr« can practically prevent his associate from exer- 
jia judicial functions ; that thus a case may be takeq 
dgc to judge whenever one of the parties fears that an 
able decision is about to be rendered by the judge who, 
mt time, had sat in the case, and that thus a decision 
Hit may bo constantly and indefinitely postponed at the 
Mie of the litigants only, deserves to be noticed as being 
ufy in lognl tactics,- — a remarkable exhibition of invon- 
dns and fertility of expedient to embaixass suits iwhVcU 
ax — so. 224. 7 



•08 



A Chapter of Erie* 



llijs extraordmai'Uy conduot«d litijBiiHoit hna devd-" 
a practice oh that diHcliiKed by thin liti|t!:ati'>ii, s.^ 
attempt to counteract tlic onicrH of each othnr in the pr 
of the suit, 1 eoufoss is new und ahockinjr lo nio, . . 
trust that we have Hoen the hist iu this hipli tribunul oi 
practices as tliis wmo luis exhibited. No approhenaion, 
fancier], thut any judge is al)Out:, cither wilfiilly ur iuDOCJ 
to do a wrong can palliate, much less justify it." Noitl 
.ludji^e Sutborlnud state, as be uiiglit have stated, tJin 
admirable expressiou of the sentiments of the full IkjucIi 
written and delivered hy Judge Allxjrt Carduzo. Hou'cv 
was now very clear tliiit Receiver Ihiviea might nhnndo 
hope of operating the Eric Railway, and thut Mus^a. 
and Fisk were borne upon the swelling tide of victory. 

Tlie proHjwrouH aspect of their atTaira now oiic 
last-jiamed gentlemen to yet more vigorous ofli:..... 
tions. The next attack was upon Vanderbilt in person.] 
Saturday, the ^th of December, only two doys aft^r Jj 
Sutherland and Receiver Danes wero disposed of, the int] 
gable Fisk waited on Commodore Vanderbilt, and, in tbs i 
of the Erie Company, tendered him fifty thousand shurcs of 
common stock at 70. As the stock wae then sell 
"Wall Street at 40, the Commodore naturally <lecUM 
avail himself of this liberal ofter. He even went fuc 
and, disregarding his usual wise (joliey of silence, wra 
the Now York Times a short commmxication, in wliic 
referred to the alleged terms of selllcment of the pr 
July, so far as they concerned himself, and denied 
in the fiiUowiug explicit language : "I have had no 
ings with the Erie Railway Company, nor have 1 ever] 
that comjxiuy any stock or received from them any 
As to the suits instituted by Mr, 8chell and others, 
nothing to da with them, nor was 1 in any way ■■ 
their settlement.'* This was certainly an announ .;. . 
culated to confuse the public ; but the confusion bocamA] 
founded, when, upon the 10th, Mr. Fisk followed him in af 
in which he reiterateii the alleged terms of scttlemoul, 
produced two checks of the Erie Com{»any, of July 11, 
made payable to the treasurer and by liim indorsed ft) 0. 



169.] 



A Chapter of Erie. 



99 



•HiU, opon -whose order they had been paid. Tliese two checku 
r tfao sum of a millioii of dollars. Ilo furtlier said that 
c^;-ui]tanjr had a paper in Mr. Vauderbiirs own handwriting, 
^Kittg tliat ho bad placed tilty thousand shares of Eric stock 
tlko hfuidfl of certain porHuns, to be delivered on payment 
>500,000, which snm he declared had been paid. Un- 
j these apparent discrepancies of statement admitted 
explanation ; and some thin veil of equivocatiun, Buch 
e transaction of the business through third parties, jus- 
Yanderbilt's statements to his own conscience. Com^ 
, however, is wholly Huperfluous, except to call attention 
amount of weight wliicli is to bo given to the state- 
its and denials, apparently tlie most general and explicit, 
from time to time wore made by the parties to these 
inj^B. This short controversy merely added a little 
discredit to what was already not deficient in that 
On the 10th of December the Eric Company sued 
imodore Vaudcrbilt for §8,;'>00,000, specially alle^ring in 
complaint the partictdars of that settlement all know- 
of or connection with which the defendant had so em- 
icaUy denied. 

of the multifarious suits which had been brought as 

were aimed at Mr. Di-ew. The quondam treasurer had 

i.r«i-,.i,tjy wholly disapi>earc(l from the scene on the 19th 

raber. Mr. Kisk took advantage, however, of a leisure 

to remedy this oversight, and a suit was commimced 

t Drew, on the ground of certain transactions l>ctween 

u Ire^surer, and the railway company, in relation to 

steamlKjats concerned in the tnide of Lake Erie. The 

allegiitions of fraud, breach of tnist, and other trifling 

nd, teclmically, not State prison offences, were made, and 

tmog^'S were set at a millioii of dollars. 

Ofion the 8th, the arjnjment in JJclraont's case had been re- 
poicd l»efore Judge Cardozo in New York, and upon the same 
av. in Oneida County, Jmliro lioardmaii, anotlier justice of the 
iippnio Court, had procfoded to contribute his share to the 
xi>tim: complications. Counsel in behalf of Receiver Pavios 
B.i rod liefore hira» nnd, upon tlieJr application, the 

ui....' iij unction, which restrained the receiver from taking 




4 




A Chfipier of Eric. 



poBRORftioii of tlie Erie Railway, had been disaolved. 
appUcatioa was made, or why it Avas grauted, surpass 
prehension. However, the next day, Jadge Boordmari 
having been read in court before Judce Curdozo, llioi 
trate. Suddenly rerived to a full appreciation of the v 
|)re88ed by hun in June in regard to jmlicial interferer 
jtidicial action, and at once gtiginatizcd Judge Boa 
action as " extremely indecorous/' Xeglenting, bowi 
happy op[7ortunity to express an opinion aa to hia own 
during tlie previous week, lie simply stayed all proc 
nnder tliis new order, aud apidied hiuiBclf to the ta ^._ 
iug tbe case before him reargued. '^^M 

This hearing lasted many days, was insulTcrabl^H 
inexpressibly dull. While it was going on, upon tl 
Judge Nelson, ui the United States court, deUvi 
opinion in the Wlielpley suit, reversing, on certain 
grounds, the action uf Judge Blatchford, and doclur'm 
case for the appointment of a receiver had been mi 
accordingly he set aside that of Gould, and, in coi 
sent the matter back to the State court, or, in otbe 
to Judge Cardozo, for decision. Thus the gentleraoi 
ring, having been most fortunate in getting their case 
Federal court liefore Judge iJlatclifonI, were now even 
tunato in getting it out of U»at court wlien it had coi 
Judge Nelson. After this, room for doubt no longer 
Brilliant success at every point had crowned the sti 
tbe Eric directors. For once Vanderbilt was efTectuaH 
and driven from tJic field. Tliat he shrank fn^m coj 
the contest against such opponents is much to his en 
showed that he, at least, was not prepared to see how 
could come to the doors of a State prison and yet n 
them; that he did not care to take in advance the ojl 
loading counsel as to whether what he meant to do mij 
him in the felons' dock. Thus Erie was wholly given 
the control of the ring. No one seemed any longer toi 
tlieir right and power to issue as much new stock a^ 
them seem expedient. Injunctions bod failed to chec 
receivers bad no terrors for them. Secure in their po 
now eit«ndcd their operations over sea and land, leni 



^^ 



^- ^ 



?9-] 



-4 Chapter ^ Ihie. 



101 



buying shiamlionts, ferricB, theatres, and roUiug-mills, 

Riding connecting Uiika of road, layiiig down additiouftl raiU, 

gouerally proving themselves a power wherever corporo- 

rore to be influenced or lejrislatures v^gtg to be lx)ug!it. 

Btmas, the period of peace and good-will, was now 

r.hing. TIio dreary aj'^imcnts before Judge Cardozo 

rminated on Pecember 18th, long after the press and 

dUc liud censed to fKiy any attention to them, and 

ay minors of a settlement were rife. Yet it was not 

bftt the settlement shonUl bo cflfectod without some 

riking catastrophe, some characteristic concluding 

111. AiDong the many actions which had incidentally 

niug fnim these proceedings was one ngainst Mr. Siunnel 

rles, the editor of the Sprhigfiold Republican, brought by 

Fisk in consequence of an article which had appeared 

that paper, reflecting moat sevei-ely on Fisk'a firoceed- 

onU private character, — his past, hi» present, and his 

l)le future. On the 22d of December Mr. Bowles hap- 

fted to be in New York, nnd, as he was standing in the 

of Ids hotel, talking with a friend, was suddenly arrested 

[the warrant of Judge McCuuu, hurried into a carriage, and 

to Ludlow Street Juil, where he was locked up for the 

tit. Tliis esccllent jest afforded intense arausomciit, and 

^ cause of much wit that evening at an entertainment 

en by tlxe Tammany ring to tlie newly elected Mayor of 

pir York, at wliich entertainment Mr. James Fisk, Jr., was 

honored guest. The next morning the whole press was in 

[«tate uf high iudiL^uatiou, and Mr. Bowles liad suddenly 

ojue the Ite.st advert i^jcd editor ui tlie country. At im early 

^ur he was of course released on bail, and with this out- 

thc si^cuud Erie c<jntcst was broiight to a close. It 

emed right and projwr tliat proceedings which througliout 

i set public opinion at defiance, and in which the Stock Kz- 

the Courts, and the legislature had come in for ecpial 

B« of opprobrium for their disregard of private rights, 

Id bo tcrm'mated by an exhibition of |»etty spite, in which 

bar, judge, sheritf, and jailer, lent themselves with 

rviency to a violation of the liberty of the citizen. 

It was uut until tho 10th of February that Jud^^Q Cvxdoi^ 



102 



A Chapter of Erie, 



[i 



publialied liis decision setting aside the Sutherland receive 
and estaUiHhinjr on a Iwsis of authurity tlie right to ovei 
stock at picanurc. Tlie subject was then as obaolete aud 
gotten aa thouglx it liad never absorbed the public att 
and another *' settlement" had already been effected, 
details of this arrangement have uot yet been drag 
light tlirougb the cxjwsures of subsequent litigation, 
by careful reading between the lines, it is easy to see 
a oombinatinn of over)x>wering influence may have 
effected, and a guess might oven be hazarded as to i 
jects and its victims. The fact that a BCttlement had 
arrived at was intimated in the papers of the 2Gth of Dece: 
On the 19th of the same month a stock dividend of 
per ceut in the New York Central had i>een suddenly deci 
by Vanderbilt. Presently the legislature met. While 
Erie ring seemed to have good reasons for apprehending 
tile legiaiation, Vanderbilt, ou his part, mi(^bt have feared fof 
the success of a bill wliich was to legalize his new stock, 
hardly a voice was raised against the Eric men, and the hill 
the Control was safely carried through. This curious aWiK« 
of opposition did not stop here, and soon the two parties we^i 
seen united iu an active alliance. A''andorbilt wanicd to caih 
solidate bis roads ; the Erie directors wanted to avoid the fon^ 
mality of annual elections. Thereupon two other bills wont 
hastily through this honest and patriotic legislature, the on* 
authorizing the Eric Board, whicii bad been elected for one year, 
to classify itself so that one fifth only of its nil*mljers should 
vacate office during each succeeding year, the other conscJv 
dating the Vanderbilt roads into one colossal monopoly. Pub- 
lic interests and private rights socm equally to have been i 
tile victims. It is impossible to say that the beautiful unitr 
of interests which led to such results was the fulfilment (rf 
the December settlement ; but it is a cmious fact that the 
same paper which aimounced in one column that tbe coo- 
Bolidation and Central scrip bills had gone to the Goverwtf 
for signature, should, in another, have reported the discontia* 
uance of the Belmont and Whelpley suits by the consent of all 
interested.* It may be that public and private interests wert 



• Sco the New ToA. '£n\m&« o^ U*! \<J\^fc,\^'i. 



M 



'•] 



A ChapUr of Erie. 



1^ 



iDor 



Uius balanced and traded aw^y in a servile le^pslatiire, but 

iks very mucb as if they were, and as if the settlement of 

ml^r had made white even that of July. Meanwltile the 

LoerorB — the men whose names had ]>een made notorious 

:h the whole Uuid in all these infamcTus proceedings — 

erect and proud of their notoriety through the streeta 

great cities, and loolced those whom tliey had defrauded 

the faee, and Wiasted of their deeds and of their coiitonipt 

law and of tlieir immunity from punishment, and still men 

found to prate of the advancing t-ono of public opinion in 

America. 

ommont would only weaken the force of this narrative. It 
iciently suggests it.s own moral. The facts which have been 
forth ciinnot bat have revealed to every observant eye the 
decay which has eaten into every part of our social edi- 
No portion of our system was left untested, and no por- 
showed itself to be sound. The stock exchange revealed 
us a haunt of gamblei*s and a den of thiores ; the offices 
our great corporations appeared as the secret chambere in 
truflteea plotted the spoliation of their wards; the law 
a ready enj^ine for the furtherance of wronpr, and the 
Sno of the ju<lge did not conceal the eagerness of the parti- 
&; the hulls of legislation were transformed into a mart in 
Mch tho price of votes was higgled over, and laws, made to 
der, were l>ought and sold ; while under all, and through all, 
e voice of public ojjinion wus silent or waa disregarded. 
It ifl not, however, in connection with the present that all 
is has its chief significance. It sp{?akfl ominously fur the 
tore. It may be that our society is only passing tluough a 
riod of ugly transition, but the present evil has its root deep 
urn in the social organization, aud springs from a diseased 
blic opinion. Failure seems to be regarded as tho one un* 
nJonaiilo crime, success as the all-redeeming lirtue, the 
quisition of wealth as the single worthy aim of life. Ten 
arg agrt such revelations as these of the Eric Railway atfairs 
Md have sent a shudder through the community, and would 
ive |tlftced a stigma on every man who had had to do with 
tin. Now they merely incite otl»ors to surpass them by yet 
ilder outrages and more corrupt combinations. 



Irf4 



A ChapUr of Stie. 



[JoJv 



OhQ leading feature of these dcvelopmeutii ia, ttom ita 
ical aspect, especially wortliy of tlic att4^Mtiou of tlie Amwi^ 
])coplo. Modern Hociety hu^ crctitcd a class of artlQoiul 
■who bid fair soon to be the masters of tlieir creator. It is 1 
a very few yeai-s since tlio osistence of a cor|>oratioa eoiitroll] 
a few uiiUions of dollars was regarded as a subject of ^ 
apprehension, and now this couutry already contains single] 
ganizations which ^vield a power reproBontod by hundreds of i 
lious. These bodies are the creatures of single Stat-cs; ba 
New York, hi Peuusylvania, in Maryland, in New Jcrsfiy, and i 
in those States alone, they are already ostaljlishinii dcHpotiH 
which no Sfmsmodic popular efl'ort will be able to tsliuke 00*. 
erywherc, luid at all times, however, they illustruto the trutl 
the old maxim of the common law, that corporations have | 
Bouls. Even now the syslom threatens the central governm<] 
Tlie Erie Railway represents a weak combination conii^aredJ 
those which day by day arc conBolidatLng under tlie nnsusjMii^ti 
eyes of the community. A very few years moi-e and we 
see corporations as much exceeding the Erie and the Now Y^ 
Central in liotli ability and will for coiTuptiou as they will cxc 
those roads in wealth and in length of iron track. We shall 1 
these great cor[X)ration8 spanning the continent Exom oc 
ocean, — single, consolidated lines, not connecting Albanv 
Buffalo, or Lake Erie with tJic Hudson, but uniting the Atl; 
and the Pacific, with termini at New York and San Kranci^ 
Already tl»e disconnected members of these future lovialh^ 
have built up States in the wildentcss, and chosen their ab 
noys Senators of the United States. Now their power is iuj 
infancy ; in a very few years they will re-enact, on a 
theatre and on a grander scale, with every feature magail 
the scenes which were lately v^atuessed on the narrow st 
a single Slate. The puiJic corruption is the foundatioh 
which corporations always depend for their political poi 
There is a natural tendency to coalitiou between them uidj 
lowest strata of political intelligence and morality ; for 
agents must oltey, not question. Tbe lobby is their liomo, i 
the lobby thrives as political nrtuo decays^ The ring ia ' 
symbol of fKiwer, and the ring is the natural rnn 
ical purity and iudcpcndcuco. All this was abun'i 



■] 



A Chapttr of Erie. 



105 



in the eventft which have just been narrated. The exist- 
ooalitioD Ixrtwecn the Krie Railway and the Tammany ring 
natural one, for the former needs votes, the latter munoy. 
combuiatiou now controls the legislature and courtB of 
York ; tliat it controls abo the Executive of tlie State, aa 
\\ 08 tliat of the city, was proved when Governor Hoffman re- 
lotl his reasons for signing the infamous Erie Directors* Bill. 
B ft new |K)wcr, for which our language contains no name. 
know what aristocracy, autocracy, democracy arc ; but wc 
no word to express government by moneyed corporations. 
the people already iiistiiictively seek protection against it, 
look for such protection, sigiiiticantly enough, not to their 
legislature, but to the single autocratic feature retaiued 
our system of Government, — the veto by tlie Executive. 
h this Governor liofifinan won and lost his reputation in 
York, and it is to the possible use of this same power by 
lent Grant, iu Washhjgton, that the jicople look for secu- 
firom t!ie misdeeds of their own representatives done under 
infiuenco of corporate wealth. Tl»e next step will be inter- 
Ab the Erie ring represents the combination of the 
m and the hired [)roleIariat of a gi'eat city, aa Van- 
It embodies the autocratic power of Caisarism introduced 
rporate life, and as neither alone can uhtaiii complete 
fill of the govenuueut of the State, it, i>erliap3, only re- 
Bsuus tot tbo coming man to carry the combuiatiou of elements 
" in advance, and put Cajsarism at once n\ control of 

I ( r.itiou and of the proletariat, to bruig our vaunted iu- 

vi.tiitions within the rule of all historic precedent. 

i( ffl not pleasant to take such Wews of the future ; yet they 
«^ irre--*ibtibly suggested by the events which have been uar- 
Tliey seem to be in the uaturo of direct inferences, 
i Miily remedy lies in a renovated public opinion ; hut no 
^ 'iition of that has as yet been elicited. People did in- 
' J, at one time, watch these Ei'ie developments with inter- 
'-'. but the feeling excited was ratht*r one of amazement 
f'':i I Iff indignation. Even where a real indignation was ex- 
cited, it led to no. sign of any persistent olTort at reform; 
-payed itttolf only in aimleas denunciation or in sad fore- 
-fs. The danger, however, is day by day iucrcaaijig, 



106 



The lUUifion of Aneient Gre^et^ 



and the period during which tho work of rogrincration 
begin iCTovrs always shorter. It is tnio that oviXn ever' 
their own cure, Imt the cure for the evUs of Roman milij 
was worked out Uirough ten centurieH of barbarism. II 
mains to be scon whotlier this people retains that oiornl 
which can alone nwaken a slecpinp pnhhc opinion to he 
and persistant activity, or whether to us also will apply t| 
words of the latest and best historian of the Koinau ref 
" Whnt DomoRthenos said nf his Athenians was jusflr af 
to the Romans of tbis jjofiod ; that people worv very 
for action so long as they stood round the platform and 1 
ened to prnposiilfl of reform ; but, when tlioy went homa 
one thought further of what he had heard iu tbc market- 
However those reformers might stir the tire, it was to no 
pose, for the iuflammable material was wautiiifr." * 

Chables F. Adajcs, Ji 



Art. m. — 1. />*> Ittiiffim der Oriechm, Vou J. A. Hab 

Erlan^ren. 1830. 8vo. 
2, Prolt'ifomena zti einer tcmenachnJtUchrn M>/th<tff>*fte, 

Karl OTTprtrei) MiiiXER. Gottingen : Vandenhoeek uudj 

precht. 1825. 

It has been coimuon to regard tho polytheism of tho Gr 
and Romans as an utterly false, corrupt, and corru" 
of beliei*; their mythology as meix*ly a serict* of gii; 
springmg from tlio fancy, or at best a mystic and aymh 
presontatiun of grrat truths. Even those wlio, like tlie cr 
of the modern science of comparative mythology, rise UiJ 
oonccpliou of tlie fundamental miity of the religious it 
in the habit of d w*?Uin^ mor*^ upon the historical unity of » 
than tlie essential unity of spirit. They trace with skill 
insiglit tho evidences of identity, but are apt to neglect 
individual and distinctive in religions. 

* ^ommKD, Vol. IV. p. m, rtfurnQg lu tica early CiceroDuin psriod. B. I 



The Hdiffion of Ancient Qreect. 



107 



,ti%*e mythology is therefore partial and incomplete, 

ly leM 80 than tho older mythological Hysteras. If these 

one important Bories of facts, it ovorlooks another, 

iuiportaut. It 18 not uceessai*)' to pass in review the 

plodcr] svAtcms, — the allegorical interpretation, hy which 

ts wore transformed into mere |x'rflonification.s of quali- 

Kuheoiorism, which re;:^rdcd them as deified men; and 

form of Bymlxjlism which conceived a whole syatem of 

!to have heon invented by priests and rulers as an engine 

Jvemment or an instnmiont of education. AH these wore 

I up long ago. A rational and scientific interpretation of 

y — at least on any considerahle scale — was first 

the distinguished Karl Ottfried Miiller, wha^e prm- 

of investigation liave served as the foundation 4)f tho 

successful subsequent inquiries. Tliis px*at scholar 

in the main the jtrinciplcs of interpretation now j^n- 

accepted, which treat the myths as tho expression of a 

of nature ; Imt he discovered tho uecesvsary Umitatious 

principles, and observed a moderation in applying 

practically which his followers would often do well to 

His special service to the science, however, lay iu in- 

;ing into it the method of analysis, treating the myths 

results of a gradual growth and various origin, and re- 

g them into their simple original elements. Tliis is tlio 

od that has led to the important discoveries made since his 

In applying this process in detail, he no doubt errs in in- 

Ig overmuch on the essential originality of the Greeks, 

lays more weight upon the local origin of myths than 

il scholars of the present day, although in one remarkable 

igo ho anticipates the general truths of comparative my- 

gy. His mistakes are jiLst in tho opposite direction from 

I of \m namesake, Max Miiller, and his Proie^mena will 

very well t« balance the extreme views of the latter. 

Bojing that comparative mythology is partial an<l incom- 

I mean merely that it has its own fico[)e and its own 

ions, and that, in the hands of its lesser and too onthu- 

votarics, it is sometimes in danger of overstepping its 

imits. Comparative philology, too, is necessiu-ily par- 

iiicomjilcto when applied to the grammar of any ouq 



108 



The Rdigion of Ancient G^ree^€, 



language ; it treats of itH general and fimd»mental iiut»r 
not of Ms iiuiividoal character. ThuB, Professor Max Miil 
teaches us wherein the mythology of the Grocka is identic 
with that uf the cognate raceH ; and if he attempted to do^ 
than this, he would ceaHe to teach comparative my 
But when the primitive rclij^ion of tlie Aryan race shnll 
l>cou thoroughly explored, then will come the time for a; 
scientific treatment of Greek mythology by itself, takit 
truths of general mythology ax a basis, hut not forgetting'^ 
tho Greeks themselves wore a great creative force, ood^ 
nine tentlas of their mythology is purely their owu. Et6 
it would he possible to come much nearer auch a trea 
than Mr. Cox has done in his excellent littlu treatise, 
aim in the present article is to call atteution to certabi 
of view which he has overlooked, especially in r 
connection of the Greek mythology with tlie Gretl 

The original and individual side of tho Grecian l>elicf i^ 
however, the only nor the most imfxirtant feature in tb« 
ligion which neoils to he insisted upon. *\Ye are accust 
look to the Hebrew thcohrgy as tlio sole foundation of our I 
fiait niouoilu'iKm, and do not at once perceive that it lackfi 
important element which is found in Christianity — wl 
inherited from tho classic civilizations, or traceable to tlio j 
£uropean ongin uf Christian nations^ we wU] not uiidertl 
say. From whichever sonrco derived, it appears at any i 
bo a common feature of the Indo-European theology, and I 
a strong contnist between this and the Semitic. I 
the idea of the immanence of the Deity in nature, 
compare the Greek and Hebrew systems with each otb 
call the one polytheistic, the other mouotlicistic, we are gufi 
an injustice. The Jews did not, any mtu-e tlinn Ihe GruukhJ 
prebend at first the idea of one sole and alI-j}owerful God. 
plnmlity of the godlicad in the earliest Hebrew record* 
familiiir fact ; and tlie progress from this to the pure 
theism of tho later prophets is very gradual. And ovou \ 
the Jews had advanced to the conception of Jehovali, it wa 
for a long time not as tho one omnipotent ruler of tho 
Imt as the special god of the Hebrew people. Other n^ 
had their gods, and roal gods, but Jehovah was the st 



The lieVgi&n 



rtfM. 



109 



He was tlicir God. wlio bronglit thera up out of the land of 

fit, Uie Ood of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jiicob. It would 

beci) rauk blasphemy to Imvo Bpokcii of him as the god of 

and Kebnchadnozzar as well. From tliis idoa of a 

god, more powerful than the gods of other nations, 

kicr religious sense easily developed the idea of one only 

i, creator and governor of the universe; and in the sacred 

tin and the prophecies of this period we have tlie Buhlimcst 

brancvs of all time in the devout recognition of the Supreme 

4ng. 

The polytheism of the Greeks was different in its nature 

that of the Hebrews. Of course neither could l>e wholly 

>id of thii distinctive characterifilit\s of the other, for these 

out of the very nature of man. Among the Greeks thei-e 

here and there traces of the worship of national or tribal 

inities ; and the Hebrews wei*© not wholly without n sense 

■ the divine spirit dwelling in nature. All distinctions of 

consist rather in the predominance of certain qualities 

in the ciclnsion of others. Each set of dogmas then 

> developed from an independent, equally vital ti*uth. Tlie 

derived his from the unity and supremacy of the godhead, 

and supreme within its special splicre — the national life. 

he Greek, on the other hand, stai'tcd from the immanence of 

1 iii\'ine power, inhabiting, inspiring, and vivifying every liv- 

niiy, every inanimate oiyect, and every action of life. 

^\aa a sort of pantheism, — a belief not in one God 

}hig all nature and identified with nature, but in millions 

gods, — n god for every object, for every act. Tims pure 

ticb-worship was not unknown among them. Apollo was 

flipped under the form of a pointed pillar, the Paphian 

reoaa under that of a conical atone ; the Omphalos at Delphi 

lul Uie sacred olivo-treo on the Acropolis were fetiches ; the 

^e of Zeus; the serpent of Asclcpios, the ivy of Dionysus, 

conceived of as in a pecnilar sense the residence of the 

firiu of these gods. And although the Greeks and Romans 

itgrcw fotichism, they uever outgrow this, its fundamental 

pie ; to tliom, nature was always alive, and if alive, then 

by divine spirits. Tbos Jupittr means " heaven* 

ilie god or spirit who inhabited the heavei\a', 'viVW^ 

Ipr h " carth-mothcr. " 



no 



The Jteli^n of Ancient Greta. 



H 



The Latin word (^deus) indeed that we traiislatti g<xl 
hardly moro than our word spirit; it Van applied to Uio i 
of Mic departed, as well as to the gods of the Paiuheou. 
I am to live after death/' Cyrus is repreaented as buying X^ 
friends (Cicoro, do Senoctuto, 22), " reverence me a« a 
The marvellous ima^nation of the Greeks sfrt'odily derc 
this fundaniencal idea into a comjilotc Olympua, with its 

id lesser gods, its gods of the upper and of the lower worl 
Hieogony, its dyuaatios. The more earnest and 
raun,on the otlicr hand, preserved to the latest day I 
deifying even trivial nets and abstract qualities. The vowj 
temple to Pallor and Pawtr ([wileness and panic fear)i 
battle for Tulliia Uostihus; Honor ^ PmHciiia (Modc»ty)(| 
fbra Fortuna (Fortune) had their temples; every baker** i 
contained a Hlirint? of Fornaj' (gitddess of the oven) ; even J 
dew ( H'fl/igu) and manure ( S^tntiius) were i-evereiieed as j 
To this practical and unimaginative character of tlie KoxDa 
is due likewise tliat (hey had almost no myUiolog}*, — onl] 
earnest seuso of roligioua duty, and a devout uhservanc 
forms of worship, which degenerated al last Into eudlciw : 
and ceremony. 

it a]i|)ear8 to me, therefore, that those who under 
defend the Greek forma of faith, on the ground that their | 
Uicism waH uHor all only a disguised munotlieimn, 
to find in the Greek theology an identity with Chi 
ogy, make a fmidamental mistake. It is true tliat tlieraj 
glimpses here and there of monotheistic r- 
many analogies, e8]>eciaUy in tins tnigedien of 
some of the sterner doctrines of Christianity ; but these \ 
only occasional and individual exceptions. We n 
tain, Grst, that their religion, as a whole, was ensei, 
tGelstio ; and secondly, that this polytheism was not a 
rnptcd monothciHrn, hut was developed out of a ji ' 
tichism. It is time lost to try to justify the IIol!' , 
from a Debrow or dogmatically Christian point of rleirr| 
real value is in complementing Hebraism by tho 
lacked. Thus Hartiing remarks (Tom. I. p. 86) tluii 
and Persian accounts of the creation assume the porfonnanc 
a specific act at a special time, while ^* the ideas ox| 



Ill 



ttfimoponica agree complotdy with Ihe views of our 

inotu>|>]ior8, ucrorditig to whom the oartli, with its 

■vU creuturoH, has heeu foiiumfr from oteruity in tho 

ler in wliich we soe ib doveluping and forminic he- 

(red " ; and iu support of this sUiiemmit he adduces 

^vtrt^ ond naturHj bofcli oJ'wIiich moan " growtli." 

my intention nt Ihia timo to Bi>oak at any length of 

"ctation of myths. My sulijoct is rathor the buoiing 

tholojrical notions upon the religious faith of tho 

II dftftire, however, to expreaa ray agreement with a 

pt«r in tJiia review (January 1869, p. 314) iu cou- 

iie huhit of the present school of mythology of ajfply- 

hnciplcs of comparison to all detaiU and incidontH 

Jnntely. ilo gives excellent illustrntious of the true 

Lof ititeqjretation, in the myUia of Charleuiague and tho 

,, which ai*c aIiowu to contain that conihination of 

real which K. O. Miilter holds t-o he tho essential 

^ of the myth. Further, it should not bo forgoU<.'n, 

last mentioned shows, that there are two classes 

and tlmt, while the oldest and most complicated 

ccluHivoly from a ])opular and spontaneous intorpret-a- 

jiture, the wcond class, although genuinely mythical, 

'allegory, and are the results of the later conscious 

men. Examples of this cIoks (which abound in 

re IVoraetheua, Atlas, aud Pandora. 

h of the lIoHcnic i)eo[tlo in regard to spiritual things 

ctatiOd from three fioints of view : as mythology, in so 

kppcaled tu the fancy ; as theology, in so far as it was 

hy Uic intellect ; as religion, in so far as it was eon- 

tho life. Of course these three views cannot ho 

lparatx}<l tmm one another, and it would often bo hard 

any cme conception that it was, for instance, thoo- 

ther tlian mythological or religious. But althotigh tlio 

i for the most part precisely the same, it appeals to 

re (ibiain the deepest insight into the mythologj* of a 

examining tbo relation in wlucli it stands to their 

(faith. 

tUest Greek religion appears to have been of purely 
^'— the worship of Zeus (Jieaven or s/cy), vatXwivA* 



112 



37ttf Religioti of Ancient Greece. 



[h 



temple and without image. This was, as we have said^ 
itogc &om the jirimcrnl times of the raco ; but, as ib reu 
ill the article to which we liave already referred, no hranc 
the race, except that to whicli the Greeks iutii lUvliftoa 
lonf^cd, appears to have made this coiumou diviuity \\a chief j 
" The people of Iran (juit^. rojcctod him ; the Tcut^i 
Thor and Odin ; and even in India there is no ev 
Draus took permanent precedence of Indra." In those 
limes wliicli we call Pelasgian, whatever that may mean,-—* 
seems certain^ ut anynito, that the Pclasgians werp not 
to the Hellenes, — Zeus was the one god everywhere worsliif 
This universality and pre-eminence of his worshiji couti 
througli the periods that followed, and Imcnming, of 
more firmly estahlishcd in projuriiou a^t the idea of monothd 
gained admittance, the chief god miplil easily become thc( 
only God. IJy the side of Zeus was Dione (Juno), tlie fci 
side of his being ; for the fine sense of the Greeks rejected 
duality of the diviue nature held by the Asiatic religionu,^ 
in its place conceived it<4 gods in pairs, male and fes 
Hera, the mistress (^Ihrrin)^ would appear to be only 
thet of tlio queen of heaven, 

AiSTiat other gods enjoy an equal antiquity with Zeus 
hard to determine. Comparative philology has not yet 
pleted its work, and it must he borne In mind that tlio \\ 
antiquity of a name dues not necessarily carry witli it an 
antiquity of eminence. Thus Ouranos, a wholly unimpo; 
divinity among the Greeks, was identical with one of the 
gods of India, Vaduna. Hestia (Vesta), tlio goddess ofi 
hearth, perhaps the only other deity common to the GreeJcA 
Romans, unquestionably helongs to the earliest period, 
sphere would naturally be widest, and her importance g 
ID those distant epochs when the family was not yet de 
into the state. Athene (Afinerva), the dawn, daughter of 
the sky, and Ilcrmes* (Mercury), the twilight, are pro! 
well established as a portion of the common Aryan inherit! 
even although the Italian races lost the memor}' of tb' 

•'Unrlung, from whose ctiiincoily •ensfWc treatise wo Imve ilcriTn' -•■ ■ 

miu'oniit, •(iicsiians ((i. 310J tlii<f Jdentillralioti of fltfriiMrit widi s 
rcJL'cu. imlrcl. ntticfa of ttte fitopif^l iiitcrprttaiioo in which Mux i>ii.u<.i ^^ 
ditciplei abound. 



tAi 



The Heliffion of Aneimt Cfreeec, 



iW 



m. Otlicrs of the chief gods, if already recognized and 
>ped, would seem not yet to have attained their later 
The family circle of Olympus did not yet exist. For 
ntheoD of the Greeks was full of change and develojv 

1e Ao intonHoly looal in their attachments and 

I iDstitutious conld not fail to localize mytha 
li^ouA institutions. Athene was the spocial dignity 

». Hera of Argos, Zeus of jEgina, AfwUo of Miletus, 
town and every district had it** own memories of the 
whtu the gods apj>Gared on earth. But, on the other 
i pco|»le 80 restless and enterprising could not fail to 
Lbrou<l theHO stories, and extend these forms of worship 
ir neighborhoods ; and in the process we can well guess 
atcrially they must have been altered and confused. So 
his minut-e, intricate, and complex network of mythology, 
- modified in later times by poets and artists, and still 
>y philosophers and logugraphers. 
have said, it is my intention to speak of this mythology 
I 80 far as it may throw light upon the religious nature of 
H|n, Of the connection between the two, the point I am 
^B^ention will, perhups, be fomid a good illustration. It 
rious fiict, which Hortung notices (p. 188), that nearly all 
ly developed gods have by their sides elementary spirits 
tscisoly equivalent range of powers, as ZeuB and Onranos 
u>), Demcter and Oe (earth), Poseidon and Oceanus 
i), Ajxillo and Helios (the sun), — the one in each cose 
an Imlividualized, anthropomorphized god, the other a 
htmon. How were these two classes related to each 
f Wore the Olympic gods, as the theogony says, the 
tdants and successors of the elementary spirits, or were 
eveloped afterwards, for Uie purposes of the theogony ? 
■ ' r-inarked that Zeus, Dcmeter, Poseidon, and Apollo 
OH nothing hut elementary spirits at (irst, just as 
continned to be in the Indian mythology. And the wor- 
f" ^» -i:], 8ky, Earth, and Winds (see ^Eschylus, Prome- 
Hoems too firmly rooted in the popular faith to bo 
i invention of theogonists. Perhaps the truth is, that the 
ip of these elementary spirits was really later, but as genu- 
d popular as the otiicr. When tlie meaning oi ^\ia W^ 
, or.— JTO. 224. 8 




been forgotten, and tlie name hud become that of a 
god, inliabiting the sky and conlrolUug the oi>eratifrmJ 
weather, what nioro natural tlian that the simple 
people should go over the process again, and deify 
under its Greek name Ouranos, as thoir ancestors ha 
done under the primitive name Dyaus ? But Ouranos i 
gode of hin class were only the objects of individual 
not of any set and established forms ( Cullus}^ and were t 
fore considered to belong to an old dethroned dynasty^ 
not this again an indication of newness? They wcrefl 
nized as gods, but the time-honored rituals and sacrifices 
all attached to the established worship of the older 
Moreovjjr, a name that was used by a Greek ovpry dfl 
the meaning skff could still 1)0 api)liod to the spirit of 
but could not easily be so far disengaged from ooc 
sociations as to be reganled as a personal god. 

These remarks in regard to tl»c worship of the elei 
spirits Ouranos, Ge, Helios, as distinguished from the 
spending personal deities Zeus. Demeter, Apollo, lead na 
to the consideration of the more striking movementaj 
established new forms of i>opnlar faith, sometimes in 
of introducing a foreign god, sometimes of bringing a 
Greek divinity into new prominence, by a kind of rolij 
revival. This was the source of much of the variety and i 
plication in the Greek religion, and it opens perhaps Uie i 
interesting inijuirics in this field. 

Ernst Curtius says, in the first rolumc of bis Gx 
Gescliichte (p. 9C): — 

" A form of woraliip once pstablisbcd was never laid asido in j 
but was preserved as sacred, and was united with the later 
Thus in Athena, Olyinpia, and Delphi an originnlly Pc 
period [Poseidon, or Neptune, beiug the special divinity of the 
Greeks] is clearly to be recognized, with its ever-enduring 
sacrillce. In lliis way were developed different strstn, fl9 we i 
IhoiD, which are repealed in regular succession in all the mors it 
tant homes of the Hellenic religion, an<l wliich, if oLrefuIly exat 
and compared, show the various Magc5 nf development of the 
ccnictousness, iu tlie game manner as the griidiinl formatfon 
surface of the earth is indicated in the Baccession of geologic 



mmttmt^^asi 



»1 



TJie Iteliffion 07 



MO cpftcli* may be recognixetl with sufficient clearness, cfpccmlly 
ca^ca la which the introdiiclion of ibo new wun^hip IcU to con- 
Acts of which the rem«mbrnnce survived. For even in iieuthcndom, 
r U»e thoughtless reception of everyihinjr new, we finJ an 
ifjf, A fiJelity towm-i]:j the oM godd and their purer, sirnpler 
. 05 Herodotus rclutes nf the Cnuninn mountnineers thtit. in 
' I'lmoply. lance in Jiaud, they drove the iutrujive gods of the 
> "in of ihcir borders." 

be cotnpatnsoD here made Asith geological strata la a veiy 

let oue, for not only have the successive religious periods 

their traces in a dlstinguishabltJ form, but tho history of 

changes, too, lies far back beyond what we call historical 

I that is, beyond contemporary record or direct tradition. 

cv^euts, neglected by most writers upon mythology, are 

irorite topic witJi tlie historian just quoted. Dim and frog- 

itarr as ia nil the knowledge that we can gain in regard to 

l^m, it is cosy to distinguish two classes of religious epochs. 

!rst and most familiar is the introduction of essentially 

eign gods, and their naturalization in the Greek Pantbeon. 

(e Phtcnicians, the earliest seafarers, who had their factories 

aloug the Grecian coast, were the chief source from which 

cign gods were derived ; and these settlements began so far 

kk in time that their Aphrodite, Melikertos, and Adonis al- 

»i wholly laid aside their foreign character, and became to 

i < and purposes Greek divinities. Curtius points out 

were two distinct periods of Phoenician influence, cor- 

f)Qding to the Iiiatoncal periods in which the two chief cities 

the Phnenicians res[>ectively enjoyed preeminence. The 

rinere of Sidon first carried the religion of Astarte into her 

ie«; and Cyprus, and Cythera in especial, became after- 

ds the seats of the Grecian representative of Astarte, — 

phrodittt (Venus), " the goddess of the creative powers of 

b, pervading all nature ; also a goddess of harl^ors." With 

'lined Adonis, whose death is the symbol of the sleep 

as winter comes on, and whose festivals were ^ndely 

bbrated, especially by the Orientals.* 

&u more widely spread at first, if less so in the end, was 

' I v.on of thf liymn to Adonis in MnlthcTT Arnold's cssuy ou Pagan 
lOiu Sentiincnt. 



116 



The Reliifioii uf Andi^it Greece, 



the worship of the (ii>ecial god of Tyro, Melkart. lie, 
a maritiiue god^ and a^ auch wan received by the Grucksl 
the uame McUkertea. But oftenest he was ideiitilied wil 
Greek Herakles, the pioneer god, who prepared the 
ciTilization, which is precisely what the vutarios uf Melka 
iu the territory of Greece. It was tlio Phoenicians who,l 
his name, prepared the laud for habitations, dmiun« 
rivers, drained the swauips, built roads, bridge±«, and barb 
Thus there was a Grecian and an Oriental Flerakles, 
Tyrian Melkart was partly identified with the latter uf 
portly known under his own name, Hellenized, — Me 
Ueuco conflicts and religions strtipgles. " If now," sa> 
tins, "Phcenicians penetrated faj* into Beeotia, if the} 
ruled the whole coa^t of the Grissaeau Sea, what is le 
probable than that the sanctuary of A|>ollo [at Delphi] 
invaded, and his authority resisted by tlio barbarians an^ 
gods? Oriental and Hellenic divination enter here int 
most violei»t antagonism. Herakles therefore overluru 
mantic tripod of Apollo, and, as ApoUodorus sayn, est 
his own oracle ; he insults the god with impudent, bl 
questions, and lays waste his sanctuary, so that its \M 
earth may be forgotten. It is easy to see that this is : 
individual uprising against a recognized authority, but 
national conflict, which can be decided only by t^e 
throw of one or the other." • 

Whether Poseidon (Neptune) was also a Phoenician 
the author of an able article in the Quarterly Keview fori 
ary, 1868, maintains, cannot perhaps be definitely dc 
Gerhard, in his monograph upon Poseidon, declares 
foreign origin ; and it is at all events a significant fact Uin 
anus, the counterpart of Poseidon, appears jwrsonally iu . 
wliile Ouranos seems to have been of later origin. 

Another Oriental people, who affected powerfully the 
of the Greeks, was the Egyptian, altliough tbis intluenc 
that of the Etruscans over the Roman religion and 
txona, has been exaggerated. This Egyptian influenc 
in truth, much later than the Phoenician, and of a 



■ UcrakkB dor Sutjr nnd Dreiromriaber, a monot^'nipfa rend licfon; tht < 
iogica^ Society oTBurliD, at the W'iuckcUiuuia fl*«tiTB], \^t. 



The RfUffioH i>f Anclmt Gr^eci, 



117 



ant character. It lias lieen transmitted to Christinnity, 

■ kfl, lint by the Huhrews. The Phoenicians car- 

, iuij to Greece; the Greeks themselves brought 

BT tbcy tM>rrowod from Egypt. There is no proof that 

ftmdameutal faith nf the Greeks wa^ materially modi- 

by the Egyptiana ; hut after tlie Greek system hnd been 

py establiiihed, and anulogies aud supposed identities were 

overed in the Egyptian theology, its practical workings 

cived a profound impression from the latter, not, however, 

< now religion, but in a way to lie described presently. 

lien, juHt now, we made a distinction between the intro- 

tion of foreign gods and tho springing up of popular revivals 

ire worship, we ought perhaps to have made tho contrast 

rked ; for these revivals were always in the shape of the 

ion of a s]>ecial worship, and often passed as an impor- 

from abroad. Tlie distinction, however, lies in this, 

the»^ new gods, if foreign to continental Greece, belonged 

[any rate to tho Greek race, and accompanied tho migrations 

pouDquesta of Grecian tribes. Such revivals arc quite analo- 

to the reliffious awakening which has at different times 

Uuwed tlie preaching of such men as George Fox and John 

»ley, and the new religions which they established were not 

the new sects of Fox and Wesley. But while Mctho- 

ir instance, was a pure outgrowth of Christianity, the 

; theology seems to have lacked the power of developing 

' haelf such interior and vital movements. It looked outside 

its stimulus, especially to Asia Minor, where the Greek 

came directly in contact with the passion aud fanaticism 

Orientals. Asia Minor, therefore, was the source of 

' all .tuch movements. And it is surprising how many of 

Grecian divinities have this external origin ascribed to 

*' With tlio exception of Zeus, the dweller in tho 

rens," says Curtius, '» there was scarcely a single Grecian 

who was not regarded as having migrated thither [te 

p], and whose service was not connected witJi old myllis 

C3 which had their root beyond the sea." Many such in- 

Fsre slight and half forgotten ; it will he sufficient here 

1(5 to two of the most interesting. W^hile the group 

tbo Olympic gods received the wisest aud deepest, t^N^t- 



118 



The JUUgion qf Ancient Greece. 



[J 



cnce of tho Hellenic people, and the worship of them 
tutcd the established religion, there were two sects, as wc ] 
call them, which exorcised a peculiarly strong practical 
euce ; or rather tho earnest religions sentiment of the Gt 
eiprossed itself in two other forms, — in tho worship of Aj 
and in that of the Chthouiau group of deities (the deities o^ 
earth)^ Demetcr and Dionysns especially. 

** In the worship of Apollo," says Curtius, " the Hell 
polytheism reached its cnlmination, and found tho brigl 
development of which it was capable." Wherever it wen 
carried with it a calmness, elegance, and sober atrengtli, wl 
make tliis god peculiarly the representative of wbatOTCj 
highest and purest in Grecian thought. As the god of 
ho dispelled tho darkness of tho mind ; he knew the 
and therefore was the refuge of perplexed and earnest spii 
Ilia companions were the Muses and Graces, and with 
group wore associated the loftiest achievements of the hu 
intellect in art and poetry. 

Far different was tho group of Chthoniim deities, 
whom were identified the creative powers of nature, wit 
their mysteries and suggestive lessons. Thoy were worsl 
with wild enthusiastic rites, or in solemn mystories ; ar 
the religion of A[)oUo oml)odicd tho loftiest and calmest 
of culture, so that of Dionysus (Bacchus) gave scope to 
ever fanaticism and zealous self-devotion actuated the Gt 
populace, while the mysteries of Demeter (Ceres) sali 
longings for the occult and proternatural. 

The earliest religious conceptions of the Arjan race ap 
to have been connected with tho operations of tho sky an| 
mosphcre, — the alternation of day and night, the sunj 
moon, tho stars, tho clouds and wiuds^ dawu and twilight;] 
these conceptions, as embodied in Zeus, Hera, Apollo, 
and Hermes, formed the basis of the religious faith of 
Greeks, that which thoy inherited from the race to wliich] 
belonged. But in their own land, tliey were led by 
natural surroundings and their daily emiihtyments to Ic 
the earth, rather than the sky, for the objects of their 
ship. The goddess of the earth, Demeter, and the god of 1 
quickening powers of nature, Dionysus, wero the centre oC 



»■] 



TAf Jieliifion of AneietU Ortcce. 



119 



faith. It is true, Dionysus was .at first only the god of 
and of drunkenness ; but the strange demon of intosica- 
WBS concoivod to possess a peculiar sanctityy not unlike 
uf the insiiirod Delphic hierophants, and the intoxicating 
ik was endowed irith a magical jKiwor wbicli seemed the 
Incarnation of tlio spirit of life. So tlic drunken god was 
bed with loftier attributes, and regarded as the gircr of 
uy good thijiga. A higher and more inspiring set of associa- 
f^rouped thcmselvos about his worship, until in time the 
r:nnb was developed into the sublime tragedy, and 
. 4ae festivals, rather than those even of Zeus and 
bene, attracted to Athens from all parts of the world spec- 
ore of taste and culture. 

Sut it was not so much this rog;ular and popular worship of 

I god that distinguishes him among the Grecian deities, as 

Kacchic orgies of foreign origin, which .Bj)read through 

like a contagion, and wliich were celebrated with 

nge rites and tho wildest excitement among the mountains 

in tho forest, in imitation, as was believed, of tho progress 

[the god himself, when he " left the golden fields of Lydia 

I Phrygia, and tho sun-beat plains of Pei-sia, and the Bactrian 

es, and the ragged land of the Medes, and smiling Aral>ia," 

swept over Greece with bis tniin of satyrs, nymphs, and 

[lads. It WB6 not as a benefactor merely that he came now ; 

Iwns no longer simply the givorof the vine and the instructor 

lilw arts of life. It was a new god that came u» trimnphal 

ch, like a conqueror, claiming reverence and homage rather 

i/pst«»wiMg blif.sflings. The blessings he now bestowed 

I spiritual ones, kindling the ilamc of emotiou, and exciting 

i nligious sentiment, and the rapture and ecstasy of derotiou 

themselves ft sufficient reward to the pious heart. ITiis 

»Uc worsliip of Dionysus, which met the craving of the 

in soul for the emotional in religion, did not, nevertheless, 

ly without resistance, — resistance fiercely overcome, 

ized in the bloody fate of Lycurgus and renthcus. 

\)Qe shape winch tliis new religion of Dionysus took was that 

pdi commemorated the sufierings and death of the gud and 

irovival, — tJie type of the su!*i>en»ion of the life of nature iu 

I winter and its renewal iu the spring. In these services his 



120 



Tlie Rdxgion of Ancient Ore^tY. 



[J 



name woa Zagrons, and the rit<^8 of this worship were pect 
aolomn and oarnost. This samo idea was inonrporutcd in| 
Egyptian story of Osiris, a god idoutical with Bui' ' 
specific origin, but in the far higher sense of repr< 
same [Mwors of nature, springing from the same litimim 
ment.s, and meeting tJie same hnman needs. This idoi: 
eiisily discerned when the two nations came in contact, \*ii 
the mystic doctrines of the Orphic ]>hilosophers, of wbii 
shall say a word presently. The myth of Adonis, too, 
I hare already said, only anutlior expression of tho 
natural fact. This waa vqtj widespread, and enjoyed a 1 
popularity. 

This is the point at which the religion of Dionysus 
that of Dcmeter; for tlie rape of Proserpine (Peraeph 
daughter of Demeter) is another form in which the fa 
_the sleep of nature in winter was symbolicftlly clothed. 

srsliip of Demeter, m its orgiastic form, was not n€ 

Qneral as that of Dionysus. It jH>sses8ed, too, a more 
development and a higher character. As tho religious 
sion, uncontrolled by reason, found it.s expression in Ba 
Han rites, so the equally natural leaning of tlie human hug 
the occult and mystic connected itself with the scnico of . 
meter. The Eleusinian mysteries were sacred to De 
Dionysus, and Kora (Persephone), and in them tliis my 
was developed into a religious philosophy, the higlu^st, per 
of which the Grecian poljiiieisra was capable. What 
mysteries were, and what the occult doctrines taught in ill 
cannot now be known with any exactness. Enougli. howcu 
can Im gathered from the allnsions of poets and pbilosop 
to show that their character was high, and their influenctt ; 

It is an excellent illustration of the elasticity of polytheiiii 
of the ease with which its deities jjassed into each other's ftpl| 
and assnmed each other's attributes, — or, it would bo mor 
rect to say, the readiness with which atti*ibates were assign^ 
the representative now of one phase of nature, now of one 
— that this orgiastic character was not contined to the wo 
of the Chthonian deities, even including Cybcle. Tho Let 
worship of Hephaestos (Vulcan) was of the same character^ 
tlw Cretan Zeus was the object of services entirely anal* 



TTu: Religion of 



ff€t!0* 



121 



easy for one tribe to assigu to the god of the atinoa- 
ikfa l-he same characteristics wbich another assigned to the 
of thu Tine. ]u liatiuni indeed Jupiter was distinctively 
god of the vine ; and it was not luitil the Italians came in 
itAcl vrith Greek mythology that they identified Bacchus 
I Oi^ir own Liber, who had originally a quite different sphere 
id charactor. 

|Th& seventh and sixth centuries iKsforo Chrbt wore pecu- 

rly a period when a new religious need was felt, and tijis 

stimulus of the worship of Dionysus and Dcmeter was 

ilcomed. It was a period of disorder and despondency, like 

i one just preceding the Protestant Reformation ; the old era 

laed away, and the new — that of the glory of Greece — 

Dt yet come. The oppression, sorrow, and sacrilege of this 

ne colled for a rcligioiis remedy no less than a politiail one ; 

kEpimoiiides preoodod Solon, purificatiou and religious impulse 

tut before tlie lawgiver. The Oq)hic philosophy was a part of 

» same movement. ** It was immediately allied with magic," 

lya Ourtung, and it was intrinsically Oriental in its nature. 

iNot without reason did the Egyptian jiriests ii^aiutaiu that Or- 

KDs had learned and derived everything from them." But 

I toucli u|>on the progress of the religious faith of the 

oka in historical times, while my plan confines mo to its 

hicol history. It was, perha{»3, i>crmissible to overstep the 

nit in regard to this single event, because it is directly 

ilogous to the earlier impulse which founded the worship of 

nyaus and Demeter. 

I have thus sketched the relations of the Greek mythology 

I the Greek religion, sufliciently, perhaps, to show the direc- 

in which Mr. Oox^s Manual needs to be complemented. 

I had undertaken to foUow out the lino of iuijuiry which 1 

snggeetod, it would have led to a full discussion of the 

niiments, opinions, and usages of the heroic times ; for in 

t'times ererything was based upon religion. Every year 

Qowledge is acquired ui regard to the primitive religious 

x^fiu of the Aryan race, and a further and more detailed 

3Dent of the subject may very well be deferred until a 

day. 

W.F. MAi¥». 



122 



The Poverttf of England. 



Aet. IV. — 1. Public IleaUh. Rcporte of tl»e Medical Ofl 
of the Privy Council. 1858 - 1867. 10 vols. 8vo. 

2. Ttveutitth A/maul Report of the Pwr Law Board. \i 
1868. 8vo. 

3. Pint Heport of Uic Comminsiyiners mi the Emjtlot/irunt 
Children^ Young Persons^ and Women^ in Aji'^icutture, WM 
Appendix. Part I. Appendix, Part II., to First 
1868. 2vols. fol. 

In a speech at an agricultural dinner in Shrcwabury, on^ 
IGth of January last, Lord Granville, a member of the JM 
ministry » speaking in a characteristic vein of cheerful optli 
said: — 

**He had known Englaud during a politionl lilc extending o^ 
year^. He bad ^ee^ the country ruled by different mini^ierjj 
seen different parlies in power; he hiul At'cn it not iiueiiriUlc Id 
occurrence of great and portentous events in oiler parts of the wq 
lie had seen it sutfering from adverse elements, nnd from n defStj 
ecasou of harvest ; nnd yet during; tlie whole of tlmt time it had 
peared to itira tliat England, of wliieh they were all so proud, had ' 
increasing in lUl that constitutes the greatness of an empire. | 
wealth had been grently incrcaswl, the level of general inf' ' 
been raided, ihc iiinnnent ol' the people ^uOeneil, and lite I 
between class and claaa had been done away wiilu" * 

Such a state of society as ia here depicted apfKsarft emineni 
satisfactory, but another and very different vieir of the 
condition of England is presented by Mr. Goscheu, the 
dent of the Poor Law Board, in a speech of the 21st of De 
ber last, un his re-election to Parliament after taking a^ 
Eo said : — 

" I have been aiUed to fill an arduous and rei^ponaible office, 
not dbgui^e Irom myself the tiiU weight of that rc<iponaibUtty. 
Htanily increasing rates, constantly increaaiog pauperism, mitlioii 
money spent, yet without gatistaction, and, infiuitely worse, milliod 
liuraan beings whoAe very name impUei» a degradation cveu in 
own eye^, as recipieula of parochiul relief, — such i:i the snbjecl-a 
with which a President of titc Poor Law Board U called upon lo i 



Report in the Daily >'cws, Jnatuiry Id, t(t69- 



>•] 



Tlie Poverti/ of Ewjlaml. 



ipbere is on tlio durk side of our social fiyetem. His province is 

I inuy call the hnnlcniplcy of tlio million, and it apiienrs lo me 

tthti Poor I*aw« like tbc Bankruptcy Lavr, can never give complete 

ion, becftust* both dcnl with somelliing deploriible in itstdf. 

Q<>5t wc cnn expect to obtain is to make the best of il bad job. 

I anil belicre iJmt much may he done to grapple more effcptaRllj 

; that n-hicJi is a growing evil, for I mnsl sjvenk of n growing evil 

we have to face the t<?rriblc fact that, in the short &pat;e of two 

the pnnpcri.sm of the metropoli.'t has inorcaaed twenty [wr cent, 

id tltat not Ica4 than 30,000 paupers * — a number equal to the popu* 

OD of a good-fiiied town — have been added to the numbers of ihoao 

_M almost Bay, are closing in upon the industrious portions of 

■ .H't« of London, till the ratepayer of to-day himself becomes 

r pfujpor of to-morrow." t 

\nll accttse Mr. Ooscheu of exagperation, but the 
"f society indicated by liia words is ono that may well 
^(^ed not only deplorable, but alarming, A large portion 
' Ute people of Kugland live in poverty so great as to be nl- 
fcys on tlio vergo of paui>eri8m. A majority of the working 
8f In one of the most Industriona and richest countries of 
le world, are habitually underfed, badly housed, and insuffi- 
utly clothed. The increase of wealth, of which Lord Grau- 
ifipeaka, is accompanied by an increase of poverty, with Lt« 
nits of suffering, pauperism, ignorance, immorality, 
Tlio efforts of the government through the poor- 
reorganization, the offortjs of individuals through multitudi- 
xtQ charities, are ineflfectual to prevent the growth of 
-.A malady. The source of the evil is not atTected by 
K'm. 

Thu fjuestion of the issue of this condition of things is of 

jiterest not t^ England alone, but to all civilized nations alike. 

f Mk not merely that the fact of the mass of a people falling 

such a state is a discredit to the principles upon which 

Mern society is organized, but also that such wide-spread 

verty and ignorance produce moral and economic eficcta 

Y ?omi the n-lnmi of llie Poor Law Uoara, it appears that in ihc first week of 
}H1, iHfti, (Jit'ro wi'ro in thv itoions and pnrifihes of fAfntlon H7,08C poupors, in 
I prpfiTjrDon of 3fi,4M in-door to 110,(1^3 uutnloar. Thin was an incrviuu of 
^'t itjwu th6 nutnU-rt of iKo corrc^ptuttliii;; period of lost ywr, of fi,2B7 upon 
'onft67, nut) ofia.TW njAti those of iSOC. 

[1 Rc|»ort la thtt Tin»M, Dowmbw aa. 1863. 



124 



Tfie Poverty of England, 



[Jul) 



which are not confinod in their operatiou to the limits of th 
country in which thev have thoir origin. Wlmtevor throateo 
or injures the moral adTaaco and material prosperity of one < 
the leading nations of the world threatens and injures those * 
all others in a greater or less degree. 

According to the census tables of 18G1, the total populatio 
of England and Wales amounted to just over twenty million 
of persons (20,066,000). Of these a littlo less thau ha 
(9,289,000) were persons either possessing independent ii 
comes or earning wages ; the remainder, principally of conn 
women and children, were dependent on the oUiers.* Tl 
increase of population since 1861 may be safely estimated i 
not less than one per cent annually (the total iocrcase durin 
the preceding decade was twelve per cent), go that at the pre 
ent time there are probably somewhat less than ten millions < 
persons in England and Wales who have an income derive 
from capital^ or directly &om labor, and somewhat less tha 
twelve million without incomes, dependent on the others-t 

Now of the ten million in England and Wales who are in n 
ceipt of income or wages, it appears from an examination i 
the census taldea that about one fifth are persona with iudepeti 
dent incomes, and about four fifths in receipt of wages. 

The population of England and Wales, then, may be roughl] 
divided — and when dealing with such large numbers a rowgl 
estimate or division is all tliat is required to afford safe gi-ouui 
for correct inferences — into two groat sections, — one oa 
bracing the aristocracy, the professional and commerciiT : 
the wealthy and well off, the salaried, pereoiis of indi - 
means of whatever name, who amount, including their wirG 
and children, to about five millions; the other cmbi ' ' 
manual laborers, all [lersons dependent on their \\ 
livelihood, with their wives and children, all paupers u" 
criminals, and all persons without any recognized mean&O 
support, amounting altogether to about Beventeen millions. 

Such being the approximate general distribution of tlie pop 

* No note noci be taken of 151,000 pcnons oouocnung wImm pwltion DOdk 
WM a«*prtii1ncd. 

t The AttiDe pro{M)rt]oQ holdi good if wo uko Uie numbcn fur the wlioLe <jf Grt* 
BriUiD and In'UnJ ; tluit ia, there lire a littlr roore tliiin fi*c ppTKtins wil 
or wages to ercrj- six pcrwuE wiihuut ioootou througlioat the wliolo king 



jum^ 



wilbMj 
ng(k^H 



The Pov^ty of England. 



125 



ill \t becomes itnportant to ascertain aa nearly as possible 

) total iwDoiint of income of each class, and the average in- 

:(tf the wage-receiving class. The retunis of the income 

iflbrtl the means of forming a tolei:ably exact estimate of 

I ibcomeH of the upper ami middle classes. These returns 

' been discussed by Mr. Baxter, in his essay on *' National 

!,"• and the following tabic shows the result of his 

il/sia. 

SR AKD MIDDLE CLASSES: DISTRIBUTION OF INCOMES. 
ENGLAND AND WALES, 1867. 



.«««« AMt««iu«Mli. . Annual lucainv. 


L Labue Ixcomes. 

1. £&000 to X 50.000 and D|}ward8 

TL Middle Itccombv. 

m. Small Iniomrs. 

3. Cmler X 100. fielow ibe Inconra 
Tax 


7.500 
42,000 

150,000 

B 30,500 
1.003,000 


£ 

111.104,000 

69,440.000 

78,912,000 

93,744,000 
60,000,000 


Total .... 


S.053.000 


407,200,000 



iThe question of the amount of wages received by the laboring 

is difficult to determine, owing to the different rates pro- 
ing in the same occupation in different parts of the country ; 
the great irregularity in employment, so that large numbers 
laborers fail to earn full wages the whole year round ; and* 

y, to the fact tliat the powers of laborers in many branches 
work diminish at a comparatively early period^ after which 

wages decrease. In some trades a man is disabled by the 
ic he is fifty years old, or even earlier ; in others, as in agri- 
tural labor, he is rarely an effective worker after sixty. 
Ilr. J. Bailey Denton, who has given much attention to the 

jocti makes the following statement, in a letter published in 

Daily News, October 1, 1808 : — 
*'Tbe weekly earoinga of different laborers which fairly represents 



* "KithNml Inoone. The Uttitcd KiogdooL" Bj B. Dudloy Baxter, M. A. 

UbAm: MacmiUaa k Co. 1868. 




126 Tht Poverty of England. [Julj 

the cIasr known as * indastml * oiwralires of tovTis — inclndiDg if^ti 
work — niiij' l>f staled lo be as follows : — j^| 

Carpenters and joineni from 18 lo 38 ' 

Sawyers *• 21 * M 

Bricklijeni areragft 11 

Bricklayers* laborera "IS 

Brivkmakcrs from 24 to 9*1 

Masons average 80 

Masons' laborers "IT 

Ganleners (exclusive cf bead gardeners) . , "1$ 

Smitlis from S8 to £8 

Bnifwfoiinders •* 24 " W 

Painten aveni^ S8 

Bootmakers fVom 21 to *6 

Tallovr-workers (laborers) averan^c 18 

Engineers and boiler-makera from 23 to 30 

CoalmineTs " 17 * S7 

Quarrymen (slate) " 18 « M 

Carters " 17 * l9 

Railway laborers (maintenance) " 15 ** 90 

Butcliers' men " 14 »* 16 

Police constablci aTorage fiO 

Bakers* men Irom SI to Sfi 

Cotton- workers aTt^rage 13 

Silk-workers from 17 to 2i 

In tlio preceding list, Mr. Douton lakes uo account 
diminution in the annual income of the laborer from 
work, wliicli is a large clement in the account. It would be* 
very moderate estimate to put it at, at least, ton |)er cetrt; 
probably it is nearer twenty per cent.* i 

Tn a letter to tlie Times of December 16, 1868, Mr. H-fl. 
Somerby, Secretary to the Trustees of the Peabody Fundf' 
says : — 

**1 have this dny obtained from the superintondonta of the rsHoBf,, 
blocks of buildings erected by the (mat in various district* of l/mJoa 

reliims of tlie occupants of every npartment, and the result 1 
number of workingmen and laborers far weekly hire to be n 
17 shoemakers, 16 blacksmiths, 7 wntchmnkers, 3 brushmakq 

• Mr. Fmlerrrk I'imlj, priiii-ipnl of the Stniisiirnl < >fficc of iho I 
ill tlw Sinilulicnl Jutimnl. Vol. XXIV. |i. 3M, fiuU's Umt i\\r. mtn. 
ilio tivc most atp-urion ili.slrict5 of England ix gmr^r in i-'i-!- n - \" ■■ <<i \.^ 
by ■♦a.*>,(KH) against 3T0,im(0, or 55,000 pcrwoi, Thi» nuini-^-- i^.r-nt. \\j9i 
eJcBce of tlie cnsiom of tailing off laborers in Uhi seaRon of slack wotfc. 



The Povtrty of England. 



127 



"painters, 1 glazier, 6 letter-carriers, 12 policemen, T>b porters, 
imniWQ, 14 dressmakers niiH nceiUewomen, 2U charwomen, cora- 

2 minwright*, 1 etaymaker, 1 gasmeter maker, 123 labarera, 
4 iAo/HUOD,, 1 upbobtcrer, 2 glnsscuticm, 5 coopers, 3 corkculters, 1 

of a market, 3 boiler-makers, 1 beltmaker, 1 cook, 2 horse- 

!, 2 stcredores, 13 carraen, 2 timckeepors, 19 marinei's, 4 rope- 

■*» 3 rigger?, 1 milk-carrier, 1 brewer, 1 window-1>liiiiI maker, 6 

ighls, 3 engine-turners, 1 bricklayer, 3 tidewaitcn:, 2 sbip- 

3 lightermen, 1 tin plate- worker, 1 eandlcmakcr, 4 carpenters, 
xm to confectioners, 1 8 hip -scraper, 2 ^ailmakcrs, 5 bakers, 1 

*, And 1 French polisher. 
*'nie average wages earned by these various classes of working 
an k A fraction above 20x. a week. Some, such as the painters, 
iriers, compositors, and millwrights, and others, get more when in 
lU work; but as a rule only a proportion of them are fortunate 
KMigh to have continuous yearly employment. The lowest wages 
itaiaed by others in the Peabody houses is i)<. a week. Out of their 
ages each has a family to maintain, which on an averago consists of 
ruror five individuals." 

It will be observed that the average obtained by Mr. 
bmerby, from actual inquiry conducted among workmen 
od laborers of a high standard of industry, — for only such 
le admitted to the benefits of the Peubody Trust, — is consid- 
nbly lower than that given by Mr. Bailey Denton. 

Any estimate of the total amount of the income of the labor- 
ftg class can be but approximate. Mr. Baxter, in the work 
ibtjady cited, discusses the question at some length, and gives 
be table of results which will be fomid on the next page. His 
ignres are drawn mainly from the Census Tables, and he 
reckons the income, not at the full sum of the weekly wages, 
lot with various deductions. It seems probable that he rather 
mder-estimates the sum of the earnings. 

The total income of Enjrland and Wales, according to this 
od the preceding table, amounts to £601,92^,000, of which 
1407,200,000 is the income of about two millions of persons 
upper and middle classes, and X 254,729,000 is the 
le, ill the form of wages, of about seven and three quarter 
ilUons of the working class.* 



IT ihtse tigores be taken as a basis of ca]cnlatioii, it apiicara that less than 



128 



The Povertff of SngUmd. 



KUBfDER AND KARXINGS OF MANUAL -LABOR 
ENGLAND AKD WALES, 1W7. 



biplpyiiiBat. 



1. Hfoui^B Skilled Labou . . 

(Iti'itmmont-niiikf'K. cDf^'ne- 

cirivcrt. l>ook irndn, iron nml 

otliur DninufactuirrH. liutld- 

ing trades, brend-iDRkin^.) 

S. Lowrn Skilliu) I^Anoii . . . 

(Ciirrion by w«u?r, rouch nnd 

harncM mntierv, haniwirc, 

cotton, woollen, and oiher 

mnnufactun:*, carriers by 
UnJ, ihotiuiAkcnt, tallurs, 
miuers, scrvanis.) 

3. AomccLrtinH axd Uxskillild 

Lador. 

(Furm laborer*, quorrien, »oU 
diiTs. jatiiitifcsscs ftnd otsedlB* 
women, &c., &c.} 

Toul .... 



NuniboiSa 



1.123,000 



3,BI 9,000 



S,$«,i)00 



7,785,000 



AumtmiKux}- 
biporiudi- 

yMm a 

X 
60 to 73 



46u>a9 



TW=i) 



K44I 



mi 



20 to 41 



It would be a mistake, to attribute preciflo accnracj 
tables. But, making allowance for evcu f^reator error in j 
than probably exbta, certain important broad conclusic 

60,000 poi«ons oat of nearly 10,000,000 recciTc between oo« third ud t 
of tlio whole iDcoinc. If we iidd to tbc mimaaMabor cliM ilic uumbcr 
not iK'loiiipng ID it whoso income if iiu<Icr £ 100, making 8.788^w In all 
that 89 per cent of the rla»sc» in nx-cipt of inwaio and vttf^ct ob<aiii I 
cent of the total income. The avvra^ amuunt of inrome or wagoi of Ubiti 
of those whose aiiuuiil income or curuioK^s arc k^» tlinn Xino U afa 
Doubling ihi-ir number by the addition of thoi'c dcp»-ndMit npon xhmu. It i 
that tbiH unonnoQs uiau of the people of England, not far from I H.OOU.OOO in 
euppork-d on an nvemp; annual snm which cnnnot vary grf.iily fmni X 17 tii 
or abcmt one shilling a day for each individual. If wc take the da<u w< 
comes ovrr £. 100, and estimate its numbers, including dcppodcBfci, at S.IiW, 
appcani thfii the average annual income of each indtindual \» noi laMi than 
But dividing thiist-laia into two Mctious, th« lirsteomprifiinfctUotoHifti iM'-i>tnu 
.£100 tu X300, wt> find the avura^ income of each indiriduul, I'v 
liclonging to thi« soction, whose nuulwr aaumntH tii at>out l.7i«: 
£ 5A and X &« ; while of the iccond KctJon, namely, that of iUum i 
are over X300, and who, with their dFpond«nt«i. nnmber aboa 
avcn)(^ annual income is not less than £633. However far from 
tbeso flpires may he, tbey arc not wlilioui value u more ot Ua cor 
of existing facu- 



iiaflh 



liflh 



The Poverty of Englmxd. 



129 



iwn firom them. An extraordinary inequality iu the dis- 
ition of wealth ia apparent at a glance, and an enormous 
>rtion between the numbers of the rich and the poor. 
Iso apparent that a large majority of the iuhabitanta are 
Ty — poor not merely relatively, but positively. The great 
lid of English wealth rests on a wide base of poverty and 
I peris ni. 

[t would be easy to adduce proof of the correctness of tlieac 

Cuuclusious, if tborc were likely to be any serious ques- 

of it. Bat there is no dispute as to the immense in- 

dity in the distribution of English wealth, and Uttle doubt 

\Ui tiie fact that this inequality is increasing. The meml>er8 

; the laboring classes, as a rule, are unul)le to lay by enough 

thuir wages to form an accumulation of capital. The 

[ntal of the country, or such part of it as is used as an 

Irance for the ex|)en.ics of production, bcuig in the bands of 

lII numl)er of persons in proportion to the whole p<jpula- 

a, its profits, accmnulating from year to year, make the rich 

bcr. and widen tbc distance between them and the jKior. 

phrafio tlmt has lieea much used of late is, that the rich 

[growing richer and the ptjor [HKirer. Tlie first part of the 

is c*jrrect, but there is no necessary connection between 

I two clauses. If there be a progressive increase of poverty, 

j may l>e due to far other causes than the increase of the 

]th of the rich. Indeed, it would only be through the iu- 

of the we:dth of the rich by unjust moans, by direct 

aon, or by rendering to the laborer an unfairly small 

ition for his share in the work of production, that the 

of |)overty could tnily be said to result from the in- 

of tlie riches of tho rich. It would seem that tbe in- 

of capital, even if massed in comparatively few hands, 

a country largely engaged in production, ought to have a 

udency to diminish the poverty of tbo laijoring class, by 

dg n larger wagest-fund from wliicb labor was to receive 

com|>ensation. But die condition of a society may be 

^ithat the increase of the wages-fund exercises little in- 

in raising the rate of wages. And such a c<jndition of 

Ihgs proliably now exists in England. 

[The grounds of tliia couclusion are as follows : The popula- 

YOL. CIX, — NO, 224. 9 



180 



TA« Poverty of England. 



[JttljrJ 



ttou of Great Britain appears to be incro&fibig nt 
rapid to l>e kept up with l)y the progress of imju 
production, using this term in so largti a senao 05 to idq 
erery moral and material ngoucy u-bich has a tendency to * 
ply new motires or aSord new means of prodaction.* 

It WEB long alnce [>oint.ed out by Mr. Mill that, whenever ] 
lation mokes a more rapid iucrooAe than improvement in ' 
duction, there is a diminishing return to industry. This dii 
ifihcd return falls on the laborer and not on tlio capitalist 
increase of population increases tha competiliou among « 
laborers, and the capit^tlist secures the advantage of this 
petition in the stationary or lowered rate of wages. The < 
mulation of his capital is not necessarily used in giving emg 
ment to additional laborers; but it may bo, and in tlio pr 
condition of English industry and social cu&toms o^o 
invested in such a manner as to afford no advantage to\ 
laboring class. Thus the capital from which the wage 
is derived augments, but there is little or no increase in] 
rate of wages. 

During the last thirty years the capital invested in 
ture has greatly mcreased, and farming processes, as is^ 
known, have improved, Fe^^uiring, in some cases, more 
labor than was formerly employed. Within this (joriod 
has been a nominal rise in the average wages of 
laborerSjfto the amount^ perha[j6, of a shilling or 
pence a week, or of from ten to fifteen per ceuLf 

* " lo round DQailwrB, abont 840,000 prraoni nre anntinlly vltksl m the] 
population in Grciit Britain. Tbo adilihonal irhcatAopplf r- 
bcr, M an avervKe of six busbeli per head, onioants to oturljr 1 - 
at an avemge KngUnh yield of inreniy-«i{;btbtubcU per acm, ni];iT*caUJ 
of upwnrtls of 50,000 nores, and of a niui:li lari;er areruge at a luwar ral^^ 
tion." — Mr. Fonblantiue'i Report, accompanjring the AgricuitDnl 
(rrcat Driuin for 1968, p. 9. 

t Mr. Punlj, in an clabomte paper In the SMittica/ Jottmni, September,! 
aBlimated tlto avrra^jB wtrkly wa^jcs of mon employed in Hfrficnltnnl • 
thirty-four counties, in 1B37, at 10«. 4d., and in 1860, nt 11<. Id. ShiooJ 
\mb been n further adraiice, and the aToni({u wn^ps, botircun a nrnximn 
the Dortbcm countici, and a nnniniom of 9f. io the Muibcni, tniiy hm \ 
betvfcen 12«. and I3f. Sec •tatcments cnncoming wuj;c« in tJic Firat i 
the Commisifioneni on the Kraplovmcnt of Childrea, Young Porions, aitd^ 
ia Agricutiure, 1867. Van L 

Ut, Bailuy DoQbon, in tbo letter already cUed, nf • : ** I find that «l pTHOl 1 



Tht Poverty of ErtghmO^ 

thin in apparently ft considerable rise, it is to be 

abered that during this period tbo value of money hoA 

3, »o timt its purchasing power is less tliau of old, and 

there has been a fall in the price uf some articles ro- 

by the laborer, there lias l)eon a rise in others. Bread 

very little cheaper ; meat and milk ore dearer ; oloUiUig 

fuel have slightly declined in price.* Meanwhile there 

been an advance in the standard of living among tlie 

' classes "-ItogetJier disproportionate to the advance in the 

Br's wages, thus widening the gulf between employer and 

ired. 

at whether the wages of the laborer have positively risen 

[not, anil whetlier his present condition be better or worse 

, was twenty or thirty years ago, the fact remains that 

lition of the laboring classes taken generally — that is, 

te<t *r*.tUj v«gM oT Uie ordiaarj farm loltonr vnry from XOs, Gd. ia tlio mld- 

sodibweflicm diptrictB, including Comwidl, Devon. Suntcnti, imd 

I lUT clifl worat paid rountieit, to 14*. firf. in the uorthcrasicrn district of 

UKl, wtiich inolu<lc4 North unl^f^l■n<], Diirhoin, Bnd Torkshirc, the IhM pttid 

■■ Tbr!>v fit^ttrvi do uot incUttlo tho bii;ber grftdo of luboren, audi w 

, tiuumiit-ri, tiij^infeni, and itiljcr JijKTial workmen, bat ihcy cover ihe wage* 

liliqihcrJ", li'jr^»?litH;(»er», mid hcrJ^mtMi. lu vfoll ns nJl (]oM!ription!i of ItcM men 

on the f;»rin, «nil who receive a mckW or daily pny. The mean weekly 

'\H-cs ut iiMc-UKiicii ineo, not employed at pieccwm^, throoghout tJio whol* 

■Ut^iy RpproximatCH \'2*. 6</." 

ii;> oTtnuTt fmni a It-ttcr in tha Pali Mail Gfodtt of Jananry 33, 1669, 

t that the minimum wa|;ca of the bind it In «om« districcs lowor thun siif>- 

^ Mr- iVnton : " Tho clvr^y of mnny countiea coald tell of the comtani 

I of their poor pari^ltioncra to keep body aiid soul together. Take the caso 

btrc, for exnmplc, and cfl{feci(v1ly the western aide of the connty* 

faiborrr's onlinnrr vngea are 9s. a week : hia ordinary home n two 

i».r.,.,»)i tlia thatcU>d ruof uf which tlw nun drop! oo to a floor linlf 

I KtoDci ; hi* daily food, dry bread and rough cUlcr ; his nor- 

t ignorance nnd Aqunlnr. \rnch of this may douht]e«» be at- 

I cniise*. whicli ojicrata mtiro or leii Bironply in all pnrcly 

' But in Herefordnhire much is olio due to Ita tystem of fami- 

lit lo which irame-|)rc«crTinp is carried." 

." ..i: (»enttrnm is fi-um an article entitled " Rcniarki on the Physique 

Brol Pojiulaiion," by the diuiinpuiflhej hUtoriiin, ihe Ilov. Ctiarlei Mcri* 

h>> t'i*titrm}»irrTrtf li^Htu- for Febrnnrv, I86S : " Tha orrJinnrT wa^^s of the 

_4ftftMr an- aiill rvjiulmcd |iri.'i-i»Iy hy the price of com ; and, an it •xxms to me, 

nui rwcn cither p«»r[ivciy or relatively." And aijain : "I cannot say that 

ibc iwcmy years over which 'my observation cxicndti ihrre hna lM*n any 

hbl« imprctrrmcni in the food of the poor agricnltnrol laborer in my ditirict." 

) tlmitar in lu cliflracterabouDdi. 



1S2 



The Poverty of England* 



[J 



the condition of a mftjority of the {wpiilation of V.y 
to the last degree deplorable. The waj^es urc insut 
port the laborers as a clags and tUclr faiuilios in heait 
conifortt to promote the formation of habits ujk)u which : 
progress depends, to encourage it»lejw)ndencfi, or U> aflbrd 
a ground of hop© for the improvement of their eondition, ' 
demanding of them efforts far bejond the average capacij 
human nature. 

It is difficult, for thoBc who have never known the jiaiig 
weariness, the moral enervation, and the intellectual du 
consequent upon the prcssiu-c of continued want, to cat 
imagination into the real life of the (wor. But if it Ixs 
for those who arc rich or well off", the cultivated and intelL 
BO to realize the wretchedness of those tipon whoso iU-retji 
daily t-oil tlie very prosjicrjty of the upper claasos depcn<i 
not merely to feel their responsibility and their duty lo^ 
the {wor, but to recognize the dangers to thcmselveB 
the state which the present condiliun of society implic&,J 
much more difficult is it for the poor themselves to feel 
force of those moral considerations which are constantly 
and too often urged in a spirit of mere selfi.shnotis, by reg 
whicli they might achieve some improvement of their condU 
With what face can we urge economy and thrift upon aj 
bringing up a family on from ten to twenty shillings a wJ 
How can it be hoped to check population by preaching! 
tiuence to those whose habitations render the preservadJ 
modest habits an imj>ossibility ? IIow can it he ht.iped {vA 
intemperance, when the cheap Lndnlgeucc which stimulate 
vacant mind or deadens the dull souse of weariness M 
solitary outlet from the habitual cheerlessness of foHoni 
A low physical condition induces a low moral condition,] 
restvaiiits which avail with those who arc well oD' have uu 
over the very poor. 

Wlicn one writes or speaks in this way in England, and 
out the progressive danger to society arising from tlie cond 
of the mass of the population being sucli rhat neither phjj 
nor moral health can exist among it, ito is fi*oqi]ontly lut^tl 
the assertions that thci'O is a great deal of oxuggoratiott] 
cermng the wretchedness of tJie poor, aiid that tut 



133 

■ improremont are now in progress, which will be suflficient 

bre verr long to hriiitc about u remedy for coufeased e\ils, 

kgaifiKL the charge ol* exaggi^ratiun, teHtiniouy uiay ha ad- 

which is not likely to he questioned. Fifteen yenrs ago 

lent Burg(ron, Mr. John Simon, now the Medioal Officer 

*rivy Council, and at that time tho Officer of Health to 

' city, wToto as follows in tho preface to a volume in which 

republished his reports relating to tho sanitary condition 

andon." Mr. Simon's character, wide experience, and 

useful services in tlie cause of sanitary improvement, 

the highest authority and weight to his words. 

iThis national proralciioc of snnitary neglect is a very grievous fact ; 

I althnngh I pretend (o no oflicinl concern in anj'lhing beyond the 

ii-s, I cnnnot forego the pre^-enl opportunity of iriflyitig h few 

peuk for it the readurV attention. I would beg any edu- 

i {lerMKi (o consider what are the conditions in which alono animul 

an thrive ; to learn, by personal inspection, liow far these condi- 

i An rtrnlized for the masses of our poptilalion, .ind to form for hlm- 

Mcienliou^ jiidgiaenl iis lo lite need for gretil, if even almost 

ary, rrforms. Let any sueli person devote an hour to vlsil- 

laume very poor neighbor] lood in the metropolis, or in almoet any 

largo towns. Let him breathe its air, (H§te Ub wnter, eat its 

Let him think of human lift; struggling there for years. Let 

fiutey whut it would be to himself to live there, in ihat beastly 

4ion of stink, fed with sueh bread, drinking sueh water. Let 

1. tpttr Bome liouisc there at harard, and, heeding where he treads, 

[le guidanee of his outnigcd nose to the yard (if there be odc), 

ellnr- Let him talk to (he inmates ; let him hear what is 

BfiSt of the b(me-hoiler next door, or the slaugbter-hout^c behind ; 

! of the dcwer-gratiiig before the door, what of the Irish baskct- 

|l<r» upjUnim, twelve in a room, who catae in after the hopping 

got fever; what of the nrtiAnn'a dead body, stretched on his 

r'g one bcil, besiiie her living ehildren. 

}}^l him, if he have u heart for the dutiea of manhood and patriot* 

leMeot whether ftueh siekening evils as an li^ur's inquiry 

■vn bitn utighl lo be the habit of our laboring population ; 

Hber tbc Ir^^laliirc, which his voice helps to eon<^titute, is doing nil 

I might be done to palliate these wrongs; whether it be not ajar- 

du«;>nrd tu the civilization we boast, a worse than pagan savuge- 



Btiitafy Condition of Ute Citjr o( London, 1548-1853. 
' & &WI. iAJ* Sro. pp. xl., Sig. 



London-. io\vTv\{. 



134 



The Poverty of England. 



ness in tli« ClirUtianity we profess, that lucli things oontinne in 
midst of us scandnloiuly ncgltwted, and. thai the iiitcreaU of huina 
except agaiuAt wilful viulouce> are almoet uncarc! for by th*: Ixw. | 

*' And let not the inf|uiror too OA<(ily admit wbot will hv iirg«d 
earne-ft persoiie as their pretext for inaction, — tliul auob orill 
inalienable from poverty. Let liim» in visiting tlvoiJe home* of 
laboring population, imiuirc into the actual rent paid for them, dog"! 
holes aa they are; and, studying the finiuieial experience of mo<W| 
dormitories and model lodgings, lut him reckon whitl tluii runt caa 
cha^e^ ITe will soon have misgivings as to dirt bting cheap 
market, and cli^anlinesd unattiiinably exi>en^ive. 

*• Yet what if it be fio ? Shift the title of the grievance, a th^ 
less ini^uflerable •'' If there be citizens f« destitute that they can i 
to live only where thuy must slmighlway die, renting the twed 
Birnw beup in some lightless fcvcr-bin, or squatting nmid roltenj 
ago, or breiilliing from ttie cesspool and iht; sewer ; »■> 
ihey can buy no water, that milk and bread must be im, 
meet their means of purchase, that the drag* sold them for sic 
must be rubbish or poison ; surely no civilized community dare 
itself from the care of this abject orphanage. And. mat cethtm^ 1« 
principle Iw followed whiihcrsoever it may lend, that CUrisitan 
leaves none of il6 children ht;lple:«st. If s^uch and audi conditio 
food or dwelhng are absolutely inconsistent with healthy life«j 
more final test of pauperism cau there be, or wlmt etean'r right toJ 
lie duccor, than thut the subject's pecuniary menus fall short of prof 
him other conditions than those? It may bo tb»t couipetition 
screwed down the rale of wages below what will purchase indlsiirn 
food and wholesome lodgement. Of this, as fact, I urn no judge ; 
its meaning, if fjict, I can s[)euk. All labor below that mnrk is dm 
pauperism. Whatever the employer saves is gained nl the puhlil 
pense. When, under such circumstaiice», the laborer or hia 
child spends an occasional month or two in the hospital, that sonw] 
infection may work iinelf out, or Ihut the impcmltng loss of An ey 
limb may bo averted by animal food;* or when he gets variou 
from the Itonnl of Guardians, in aU sorts of preventable illnf'^ 
eventually for tho expenses of interment; it is tba public thol^ < 
for the man's heiLlth or independenoc, payis the arrears of wage 
should have hindered this sutleriog and sorrow. 

• Twenty ycftrs' diilly oxpcrjcnce of hofpttttl vntccrj onahlcs m*? M «*Ji 
jtcnoTml Icnowledi^u, that Qur wnrdii nnil uut-pntimit roonm arr* ncvi-r 
ful JllusiriKioii! of tlio etVocLi of iiisulBcieui nuiritinu ; ca^oi, t!i i 
stAfvaiion ilificnKo nmon^ the jjioor ; sucli i|Uca«o an Mn^on ' u liM 

brMicd experimoDts, by footling BaimhU o& «a cv:\va\x«\'« ivy.^ ;<.. 



>.] 



Th Poverijf of EiujUt^xd, 



135 



PrDfaoifly on do point of |H>lilicul economy is ilicre more frenrrnl 

ot* opinion limn again^^t any legtalalivc intcrterencp with 

pri«« of labor. But I would venture to Hubmitt for ihe conj^idera* 

abltir jiidgea llinn myself, that Ijcfort? wngpa can be snft^ly Icfl 

thr-'iT own Ici'el in tho etfuggle^ of an unrestricted compotiiion, 

law ^lioiild be rendered absolute and available in safeguards for llie 

int ptwr, — first, as:ainst thoae deteriorations of staple food which 

le the retjiilnr to disguise i^tArvation to his cuslorners by apparent 

Jtigd of bulk ; secondly, a^aiii^t tbode conditious of lodgOEDCDt 

M% inoonsistent with decency and health. 

Bat if I have addressed luytielf to Ibis objectioti, partly bceauae, to 

wry limited extent In wliich it starts from a true [)remiflo^ it dc- 

reply ; and partly because I wish empbaticully to deelare toy 

n thni Burh eviJi* ita I denounce arc not the more )o be tolerated 

n>iiig in unwilliug pauperism rnther than in willing lilih ; yet 

dM wbeU)er poverty be eo important an clement in the cas« as 

!■• imngine. And allliough I have referred especially to a 

Itorlwod, — because here it is tlmt knowledge and personal 

aemcuc wiU bavo least power to compensate for the ineuHiciencies 

public law* — yet I liave no hesitation iu saying that sanitary mi»- 

ment spreads very appreciable evils high in the middle ranks 

iocii-ty ; and from .wme of the coDsequencta, so far aa I am aware, 

ilaliun can call itself exempt. 

••The Ciiflt lA, ail I have said, that, except against wilful violence, life 
jlmwticnlly very little eared for by the law. Fragnienltiof legislation 
ans indeed, in all direcltonft; enough to eslubhsli precedents; 
to testify some tialf-consciotis poo»e«^ion of a principle : but, for 
little beyond this. The statutes tell that now and Iheu there 
readied to high places the wail of physical gufiering. They tell 
' .w-makers, to the tether of a very scimty knowle<lge, have, 
2ly, moved to the redre.^a of some clamorous wroug. But, 
«wi by any <^(^ientific standard of wiml t^liuuld be the completenew of 
itary U'g'i^lntion, or tested by any personal endeavor to procure the 
pi oorrcetion of gross and gloi'iiig eviU, their inauOieJencics, I do not 
•!iy, constitute a national scandul, and perhnp*, in reiipect to 
^licoccs, something not iar removed from a national sin." 

The couditiun of society hero depicted could not bo set forth 
I frtrongor or clearer words. Btit, it is said, great improve- . 
EUta ill sJinltjiry matters have boon mafle, many of tlit>m duo 
I ilr, Simoirs own efforts duriu^ the last fifteen years, and 
IU Btate of things exliiblted iii the preceding (^aaa^Q Ua& 



180 



The Povtrty of UnglmuL 



been greatly modified for the better. Doubtless it is tn^^^t 
in late years many local improvomonts have been came 
many needed reforms commenced, the poblic senae iios ^wj- 
aroused, as never before, to the need of exertion in W^haJfatj^ 
the ponr, lejrislative action has seconded individual ofiort, sa^ 
private charity lias lanshcd stores of wealth in tbe attempt] 
dam the swelling current of misery. But all these efforts h&l 
been inelfuctual t-o prevent the growth of the e\'ik ag 
which they were directed. Not yet even has the intellig 
part of the community risen to the sense of the need of wh 
Mr. Simon justly called '^ almost revolutionary refor 
Prejudices of various sorts, religious bigotry, the selfish lustj 
gain, careless of the well-being of mankind, the improvitl 
waste of money spent in demoralizing subsidies to the 
and many other influences, have contributed to prevent 
considerable improvement iu the general condition of the Uti 
ing classes, either in the cities or in the coimtry. What ! 
been done is hut a trifle to what was required ; and even 
trifle has failed of its full effect. The tide of poverty has i 
cessively swept down and over the puny banks erected to 
its encroachments. The condition of the laboring classes] 
the country at large has not materially improved during 
last few years, and the numerical mass of wretched poor 
increased. 

In Mr. Simon's Report as Medical Officer of the Privy Co 
oil for the year 1863, some account is given of the results of | 
systematic and continuous inquiry, winch had been in pro 
for five years, into the cii'cum stances which regulate the 
tribution of disease in England, One of the most im; 
portions of this inquiry related to conditions of nourishr 
and in particular to the food of the poorer laboring classes. 

" As the inquiry," writes Mr. Simon, ** spccJolly related to the 1 
ing of our Iowe«[>paid Eaburing classes, it was to be expL^cted thst) 
dunce of very poor di«!i would often be met with ; and such proved I 
the fact. Tlin>ugboiit Konie of tlie examined classes, and in apprecii 
■ fic'cltons of the remainder, tbe diet was, to say tbe best of it, of duubtfid 
permunoitt sitlficicncy for health. For the examined u<>ricultural pop- 
ulations tbe diet wa^ not so poor as for the (.'xaniined in-door oporalive*. 
For both classes, of course, poverty vioa Coand to tell leait upon tlicne 



18T 



m'thorit fiimilic.<i. Anfl in IkiiIi clftflpps, but VRiy eppccially 

\... ^—-^ri}Unn\ists, insuttiriency of food does not nenrly so much 

■d Iiibonir as it nfTects his wife und cliildren. For lit", \n 

, n)U!§t<!fit: pnrliculaply if the agrit*ult«nl Iiilwror 

rr's house ; onU most of all if he, bttinj; itnnmrried, 

iere, lie will rnmmnnly fjira wcU. Kvco sometimes he will feed 

is. niit, Ht leiisU Oic wivos and childi-oa of the e^tnminiMl agri- 

|K)pululi<Kid, ant] tloiilttle^s, to some extent, even ihe luburera 

Tea, arc in someeouniius itii«ei-nl)ly fi-d. The wor.-^t iloficicncieR, 

•f were found among Ihe examined classes of in-door operntives. 

en lu a whole, are so ill fed t]iat assuredly among them (lierti 

many iniEtanoe? of (^vere and injurioiK privation 

in litis point of view there is, in roy opinion, a very iniportnnl 
O'lnlcxl lo be ndded. Il must bo remembered tluit pnviition 
ta very rchiclaDiIy borne ; and that, as a rule, great po«>rne39 of 
only corac when otlier privatinna have preceded it Long he- 
nfflclency of rliel ia a matter of liygienic concern, long before the 
D^wl would ihink uf counting the grains of nitrogen nnd carlKin 
iatcrvene between life and slarvaliuu, the honsehold will liave 
Llerly destitntc of material comfort : -clothing and fuel will have 
pen licanlier than food; against inclemencies of weather there 
ivc been no ad<r(pmLe proleclion, dweUiiig-space will have been 
to the dejjree in which over-crowding produces or increases dis- 
>f Iwnsebold utensils and furniture there will have been scarcely 
ivnn cleanliness will have been found (wslly or difRcalt, and if 
itiU he s(df-reH[)ec(fiil endeavors to maintain il, every such en- 
will represent nddilionni pangs of hung(!r. The home, too, will 
bheller can \te cheapest bouglit ; in qunrters where commonl}- 
leiut frnit of sanitary ^npervidion, least draipage, least Bcav- 
leftist suppression of public nuisances, least, or worst, water *up- 
I, if in town, least light and air. Such are the sanitary dangers 
|wverty is almost certoirdy exposed when it is poverty enough 
iy »cantmesi> of food. And while the ^um of these is of terrible 
id'' ngainsl life, the mere scantiness of food \i in ilaelf of very 
moment. Krom such degreert of it ua Dr. Smith found existing 
the lowest-ftid of the examined clause*, there must, I feel n-*- 
miich direct oansntion of ill-hcjilth, and the associated causes of 
muni be greatly strengthened by it in their hnrtfulncss. Tlie«o 
Ittfiit rcfle^'tion'?, especially when it is remembered thai the 
to which they ndverl la not the deserved poverty of idlene^s, 
i»L4e6 it is the poverty of working populations. Indeed, as re- 
ihe in-door operatives the work which obtains lUe w:av\\'y yiV\.\«.WCk. 



188 



Tht Poverty of JStigland. 



\i 



©r food is. fur the most part, ejcoessivcly prolonged. Yet rviile 
U only in a quoliticd sense that the work cnn be deemed 6elf-RU0 
iiig. All disease of such populations, and wliatever dosiitutjon 
tVom it, mu&t be treated at iliu public expense mid on a verj 
Boule; the nominal self-^supiwrt can be only a ciruuit, longor or fh 
to paupurisra." 

In regard to the insnflScient nourishmeDt of a part 
class of agritmltural laborers, important evidence is 
found in the Report of the Comniissi oners on the EmpIoyO 
of Children, Youug Persons, and Women in Agricultur 
sued at the close of last year^ 1868. 

"U is very commonly noticed," say the Commissioner*, "Uifl 
pnid labor is the least profitable, from Die defect of pliyaical 
which ifl its common accomfianimcnt. Tho same resqlt is foonrfj 
produced by a bad dietary, althoujjh the wages may !•■ 
Uij;h, as in South Norlhumberland, where the old ooui 
the North ha^ in latu years been abandoned^ in conscquvnce of 
* it takes three men now to do tho work of two.' Mr. Culley (ti 
the Assitimnt Coiurai^sioner^) also quoted oxccllent authority fa 
fuel thai llie ill-leil laborers of the South (of Kfiplaml) are infer 
Utosc of the Nortli in the same proportion as raentioiiotl nbovr, 

OS WlKtl to two," p. XXXh 

Mr. Blackbiini, who has farmed largely in Scotland 
England, says: — 

" Two Scotchmen will at any description of work eqnal 
English laborers, owing partly to thoir superior physique, par 
the tiiglier order of intelligence they bring to hear on their 
— App. I. p. 158. 

It 18 a safe inference that the higher order of intelliger 
likely to he associated with the su|»erior physique, and tba 
sujwrior physique depends on sufficiency of nourishment.* 
"When Burke wrote his ^'Thoughts on Scarcitj'," in 17fi 
said : " It is the interest of the farmer that his work shoul] 
done with effect and celerity, and that cannot be done 



* " The plnsicnl comliiion of tlic pcr»j»le," «av« llie Rev. Chnrln Mciirat^ 
ab^ad}' cittd pupcr in iIjc Contrmfororg Jteeifw, " seems Im nn; tn lie fjy 
pTfldnally, lint -itill to some i-xtt-nt. drd'Honuinp." *' I am • ~ 

oty onm pvr^oTia] ulncrrntttfu of the vitiil Tonxa uf our runil 
bcartvotttg'." 




69.] 



The Poverty of England. 



189 



\ laborer is well fed, aud otherwise found with snch neces- 

of animal life, according to his habita, as may keep tlio 

■ in full force, and the mind gaj aud cheerful." If gayety 

bd cheerfulness could bo suj){)oaed in Burke's time to be the 

doual moods of the tiller of tlic soil, at present there can 

^no snch notion. Cheerful toil lias vanished fi*om England ; 

is much patient industry, but the laborer cannot be gay ; 

lifo in country or in town is a cheerless and struggling 

dstence. 

With wages insuflScient, in view of tlie other demands upon 
i, to supply himself and his family with the food requisite 
• health, it is not to be wondered at that the homo of tho 
Dmon laborer is oflei^ an abode utterly un&t for human 
4(»tion. Tlie magnitude of the evil of overcrowding in 
is acknowledged, and efforts in some degree successful 
f been made to cliock it ; but, year by year, acre after acre 
^houses destitute of every proper attribute of healtliy and 
fortable homes is added to the area of the great centres of 
lerce and trade. Such square miles of sf|ualid and de- 
ling habitations as ore now extending in the east of London 
defiled the face of the earth before. The district is a 
ce to human nature itself. 
'In 1864 Dr. Hunter was employed, under authority of the 
Irivy Council, to make an inquiry into the housing of the 
nrer population in towns. His inquiry extended to some 
[ty of the chief centres of population. His report gives a 
ituro of misery on such a scale as happily is not to be fomid 
rhcrc in the world. "In parts of London and some of 
towns/* says Dr. Himter, " the state of the tonoments is 
ickeniug, the state of the peojAe most pitiable.'* "It is not 
I much to say that life in parts of London and Newcastle is 
aal." ■ 

[" There arc about twenty colonics in London of obout ten 

Dusand persons each, whose miserable condition," Dr. Flun- 

declares, exceeds abnost anything he has seen elsewhere 

England, "and is almost entirely the result of their bad 

B»e accommodation; and the crowded and dilapidated con- 

Eighth Ueport of the Medical Officer of the Priry Cooncil. 1665. Apjiendix 
,2. Uuthr litmsti^ of the Poor in 7'oimi, p. 62. 



140 



The P(yvertif of EngJanot, 



dition of these houses is much worse than was the case '■ 
years ago." • 

In diflereut towus the degree and extent of the wretcl 
of tlio habitations of the poor differ widely, hut the readeri 
Dr. Hunter's report can liardly fail to agree with Mr. ^fiiaonVj 
comment upon it, that, ** speaking generally, it may he 
that the evils [resulting from overcrowding, and from the u»| 
of dwellings which are permanently unfit for human habitatjj 
are uncontrolled in England.*' t 

Tlie siime language may in general he applied to the co 
tion of the homes of the rural poor as to those of the 
poor. 

An important paper hy Dr. HuntcBf on the house aceoniti 
dation of rurid laborers in the different parts of England, for 
a portion of the Seventh Rcjwrt of tlie Medical Officer of 
Pri\7 Council, 1864. 

"To the iiisutficiL-nt quantity and miacrable quality," B«y3 Mr. ; 
"of Uie lmiis4i acconmiCKlntion geiifraUy had by our aigrtcultiiral 
erd aliQu6t every page of Dr. Hunter's report Iwiira lestiuioaj. 
grndunlly, for many years j«isl, the sinle of the laborer in these 
has been deteriorating, Iiou^c-room being now greatly more difficul 
Iiim to tiiul. niid when found, greatly less suitable to hi> needs, I 
perimjw for centuries Las been the case- Esi)ecially within the 
twenty or thirty yenni the evil bos been in very rapid Jnc 
till* bouselioM cireiinintaDcea of tlie laborer are now in the hig 
degree deplorable." 

Lator evidence ou tins topic is to be found in ihe rep 
already cited of the Commisaion on the employment of chO-j 
drau aud women iu agriculture. In lus report as Assia 



• Id. p. «9. 

1 Tbe cffi'cl upon the boftlth of the poorrr inhabictnts of the great cldes, 
nanircof ibcir ibt>d, ibo character of their ilwi^Uinj^. anil thegfBier&l want uf 
Mtuiarr iimnf:vnicnt«, is ^trikiogly exhibited m ibo Qiuirterly Beiuro of the 
trarCencr*! fur tlic three munth." cntlitt}; on the 31*t of I>cc«n]bfr, ISfiS. 
tiira xit fitunneti rreat dtic« and towns uf the kin^Iom. peopled hy 6.441,1 
habitant, exhibit a nta of mortnlitr eqaal to S.6I5 per cent per innam. trVtrj 
exceeds the rate in tJw kast nahemlthj districo in KogtMod hj one halt " Wb;,' 
a#k» the llctn&Dar-Genenil. " should ,indo&trioa«> procpenKut, aud wealUiy &m 
manittn s<« tbrir people pmsh rrar aft«r jear ai ^mm appalliog rates w'k 
tag J^ouje radical and diR.-ctual m««»nTM ot ttSwmT" 




59.] 



The Poverty of England, 



la 



sionor, tlic Rev. James Fraucr, whoac good judgment 
mo4lcratioQ prive great weight to tlic coiiclurfiona whicli he 
ITS from a careful aad exteu^ive iuvciitigalioii^ luakee the 
[»wiDg statemeut : — 

*Il will bo observed upon reference, not only lo my Notes of Meet- 
but to tlic special body of cvirlcnoc upon Ihis subject collected out 
tpiy i>niini3> timt nothing can be more wide-spnrad llian the feeling 
kineJ, nothing can be (ilron^^r than t}ie language used, about iho 
condition of the cottage^ of the peasantry, xertaiuly iu ev<Ty 
Eof ibe agricultural dlMrtcts, almost in every one of tlie pnrishfia, 
kicb I have visited. In one return they arc described as *mi»erabIo,* 
I A ««eond AS 'deplorable,' iu a third as * detestable/ in a fourth as ' a 
to A Christian community.* Even where they are lipokcn of 
Bvomble terxus it will generally be found thai if adequate in quality 
ky are inadeipiate lU quantity ; and some rich landowner, ' lord of all 
liurveys-.* and having exercised his lordship by cvicling ^o much of 
f |iopuLilioa as were an eyesore, or were likely to become a burden 
^ — sljll employing their labor, but holding himself irresponBibld 
[tbelr »lomieile, — has, by a most imperfect system of compensation, 
pt a limite^l number of ornamental roomy cottages, which he filld 
h'ta own immediate dependents. Out of the three hundred 
rhtch I -viHiicd, I can only remember two — Donnington, in 
ex, Hud Down Amney, in Gloueei*lershire — where the cottage 
pvi«ioa appe:tred to he both admirable iu quality and suflicient in 
ilitj ; and 1 mention ihese cases with the greater pleasure, because in 
I the Uudowoer, though not resident, la as willing to recognize, and 
fcarcful to discliarge, hit> responsibilities a«^ thoui;lt he were. 
I^The majority of the cottages that exist in rural ]»ari»hi:s are deficient 
ljdmo-<t every requisite that should eonslitule a home for a Christian 
nily in a civilized community. They are <lelicient In bedroom ae- 
Hlation, very few having three chambers, and in some parishes 
|.roportion only one; they are de5eicnt in drainage and 
,;ingements; they are imperfectly anpplied with water; such 
Ti?niences as they have are often ?o situated as to become nuisances ; 
ore full enough of draughts to generate any amount of rheuma- 
and in many instances are lamenlnbly dilapidated and out of 
ir . . - . 

("It i« impo^ible to exaggerate the ill cflectsof such a state of things 

^ ever}' aspect, — physical, kicial, economical, munil, intellectual. 

I(f*icsilly, a ruinous, ill-drained cottage, ^cribbed, cabined, confined,' 

. o*ct-crowded, generates any amount of disease, — fevers of every 



142 



The Poverty of Entjland, 



type, catnrrh, rheamal ism, — ns well as inlenstfiea to ibe utmost^ 
tendency to scrofula and phthisi* whicli, froin thttir fVc<)iient inl 
riages and their low diet, abounds so largely tiinong thp- poor, 
nothing can be more wretcLed than the cundjliim of *open' 
likf Docking, in Norfolk, and South Ccrney, in Glouoc^lorshir 
which have been ponred remorselessly tlie scam and oB^coor of j 
•elose* neighbors. Eeonomienlly, the imperfect distribuiion of] 
tages doprive5 the farmer of a birgc proportion of hia tT" "iB 

power. The employer who has no cottages to offer tin <k| 

employs maiit cither attract laborers by the offer of higher tra^d 
muH content himself with refuse ; and, in either ciise» when he g«0 
man, gels him more or Ies:t enfeebled by the distance he hna had (o tret 
to hif. work. The moralconsequenees are fearful to con- 
only wonder,' writes one clerg^'iuan io mo, ' that our ngi > 
are u moral as they ore/ Modesty miut be an unknown yh 
cency an unimaginable thing, where, in one (small cliamlicr, 
bed* lying as thickly as they can be packed, father, mnther, yrniogl 
lad-, grown and growing-up girls — two. and pomelimes ihi-er gea 
tions — arc herded promiscuously ; where every operation 
toilet and of nature — dressings undressing.*, birthn, deaths — bj 
formed by each within the sight and hearing of all; where child 
both sexes, to as high an ago as twelve or fourteen, or even 
occupy the liame bed t where the whole air is scnsnal, and hn 
nature Ls degraded into something below the level of the swine. 
a hideous picture, and the picture ift drawn from life. Mr. Clar 
Norwich, can tell any one who will ask him tales of things ho haH I 
Bclf seen, horrifying enough to ninkc the very hair stnnd nn end. 
medical gentleman whose evidence I publish, assured me that ' 
incest are anything but uncommon. We complain of the anti-fin 
unchostity of our wonien^ of the loose talk and conduct uf the girk^ 
work in the fichU, of the light way in which maidens part >vltb 
honor, and how fietdom a parent's or a brother's blood boils with sfa 
hercy in cottage herding, is the sufficient account and liialory of ItJ 
— pp. 35, 80. 

Evidence in regard to the habitations of the labohD{ 
other portions of England, to a similar eflbct to that i 
in tikis passage from Mr. Frascr's report, is to bo found iiL 
reports of the other AsHistaut Commisaioncrs in the 
volume ; and a multitude of corroborative stateraenta 
be gathered from various Boutxies. No one who liaa \\iki 
opportunity of personal observation can question the wii 



The Poverty qf England, 



143 



^of RuBeritig among thu Uborinia: classes from the wretched 

Br of their dwellings. In the purely agricultural, in the 

igt iu the manufacturing districts, the evils arisiu}^ from 

insufficient house accommodation exist uuder various 

Eitions, but everywhere to a shocking degree. And 

jrwhorc these evils are of a combined physical and moral 

re, productive at once of ill health, ignorance, and Wee. 

Jie condition of education among the rural poor, and among 

great bodies of English laborers, is what might bo cx- 

ed from the circumstances under which they live. The 

Buce collected by the Commission, whose report has been 

i, siiows that there are very few agricultural districts in 

ii the children att<?nd school after the age of twelve, and 

usually liy the time a boy is ten years old he is put to 

rk, that his fjctty earnings may add something to the narrow 

Oorces of the household. Before he is twenty, in many iu- 

Dcos, he has forgotten all of his little schooling. The |)oor 

elves do not seem to be indifferent generally to tlie 

irantages of education, but the pressure of poverty is such 

|t they cannot resist its compulsion, and against their 

they are forced to submit to their children's growing up 

Qonncc. 

[The agricultural laborer's wages," says Mr. Fraaer, " are 
' up to the mark that can allow of bis sacriiiciug tlie earn- 
af Ills child to higher coirsi derations/* And yet Mr. 
er himself gives some most striking and ufibcting in- 
ucea of the strenuous ofTorts made by the very poor to 
ir own indopcndenco and to secure the blossinga 
urn for their children. It must l>e a hard heart 
can hear the stories of these laborers, given in their 
r'ls, witliout being moved to sympathy with them, and 
: for them, and withotit being led to question the worth 
[ft social system which brings about such results as 01*0 here 
Bd. 
TFnwer gives the following report of the statement of 
B. Mary Cole, of Ingoldisthorpe : — 

! a slieptienl, earns twelve shillings n week. ITna brought 
'liildren, eight girU and mix boys. Never kt a girl oFlicra 
Ito the fields ; has got them all out lato Bervicc. Turned iVi^im ou\. 



144 



The P<ivfrty of Dtufland, 



[Jul, 



an(o the world pretty ear]y, at fourteen years of ago or ea Th^j* htpi 
to go into Little placo?, jubt for ihctr victualis. Tliey are now nil is ffdj^ 
plftces, and aiu the greatest comfoits ibot chiMreu can be i 
ller husbnnd can read mid write, but fihe cannot Not li 
lenmiiig lior::4?lf, abe knew tlio value of it, mj dctt'nuinfd li< 
"■any rate, sbould have aa much as she could give thorn. Tin.: . 
school at Itigoldisthorpe Llicn, 50 the s^tit tbem to Snritiiihata. i9| 
had four of them, all girb, at school at on« time, and paid ' 
week for them. They stayed till (hey were about thirleeii. 
often blnmed by her neighbor.^ for not sending her girls into the 6dk| 
but bcr heart wi» high and she would not. She said In herself, * Wfi ^ 
see liow it 'li turn out. It '3 the ruiit&tion of the country etrl$ fiolH 
into the Hclds ; lliey will ranke neither gn<x\ vt'ives nor 
Hnd what do they know of needh^work ? They gd hoi'; 
independent of their parents. Why, there 'd Uireo of tbeui Joined M 
Rcther and took a bouse by themselves at Sedpcfnrd, In be - ■■ ■ - 
masters/ All her girls eun reiid ;ind write. When she w;i 
up this family her huaband only eurncd ten shllliugei a w*.- 
wbnt he got nt Inmbing time ; her liouse-rent wa^ ihi-ee gtiiiir 
hnd not n mite of a garden. She bad to work very hard li* 
in washing;, but never went out into the field:!. She is sure h<'r tunuu 
wouhl biive suffered for it if she had. « 

" Her boys hnve not had so mucli schooling as her girls, (' 
go out to work so young. Three of them went out at six, oiii: .... .- 
shilling a week. Her huf^hnnd's mailer (ibi.s wfis a good umny yoQl 
B^o) would bnve paid him otV if he had not let them ^ Ui work. Di 
eldest son is now in Truman's brewery, in London ; be has impraroi 
himself, and can write pretty well now. lie wrote home to \m putnll 
to beg that his younger brothers might be kept at school, w te M 
found the good of a bit of learning. Shu had luiothur sod livingJl 
Herefoi-d^hire ; he can neither read nor write, because be boa be^rn M 
work ever ^ince be was six years old. 

**The other two boys who are alive ore poor scholars; they half 
been at night-ttchuol for two or three winter^ but arc too tired wid 
their day's work when they get there to learn much. 

" Her husband is a ver\' sober mnn; brings home evrry t' 
lie earns, never drinks, and the quieto'-l ereftlnri' m t-vt-r ^^ 
face of the carlli. 

" A goo*! schuuj is the greatest ble^y-ing as can bf in n |t;iri.v|i. »>fiiP 
wanted her children to roail and write and do (jlain neeiLteworkt A 
not care nlxiut nunseni«ieal learning. >iever know auything uouicixkl 
taught nt Ingoldi^lliorpe school. 



J^ 



d 



The Poverty of Bn^Iand. 



145 



' StvM m:kny v( Iigp nei^'libors take no thou;;ht ahoiit tlieir cbUdreii'i 
ang. TUiak< it a great pity. Suppose they could alfoi-d to hcnd 
■ ehiUIreo lo school ns woU m she could, if iliey liod a mind. Never 
*I nbout wluit slit! bad to pay. Tliey were lutppy dflys wlien 
U> hc4ir iheir innotjoiit pnHttle w!ien tliey u«ed to wirae home 
I 6c-hi)ol, Rt'rtipmbcri the lirao when flour was 3«. M. a stone, nnd 
liAil nine chlldrou at home, and nothing coming in but Iter hus- 
d'a wft^cs, which were then * hfrined* (raised) to twflve sbittings a 
Thi>y were ImrJ times, aurffly, hut by the blessing of God she 
glcd ibrough, ftnd never bad a penny from ihi' parish." 

ucb o story as this is a tale of enduranco aod oQTort that 

ly be juatJy called heroic. If a corresponding spirit of eacri- 

e, and an ecjual sonse of duty, could he rrjtisod among the 

b, among Oioite who are res|)on8ibl»! for providing the means 

[education for the jwor, tbo condition of England would very 

be changed. 

'tt It a oominon charge, brought against farmers as a class,'* says 
y. Kdwfird Stanhope, in bia report aa Assistnot Commissioner on the 
BploTin'^nt of Women «nd Children in Agriculture, " that they care 
: for t>ducaiiori, and nre rather disposed to discourage it. Now in 
ftH'9 it cannot be denied that edudadon is materially intrrfering 
ilM>r, bec.tusc the object of the laboring claad In seeking it ia not 
[make their children belter agriculturni laborers, but to enable them 
I (o*a higher Bphero in life. ' If I couhl only get him to be a 
r/ aald one woman, ' \w nliould never be a farm laborer.* * If I 
t a scholar, I bIiuuM n't be here,* gaid a laborer, '"nnd that's tlic 
on why the farmers huld agatu^t tiiis *ere scliolardhip.' Oue can- 
i therefore be surprised that farmers should wish so to direct ediicu- 
Itu prevent its having this effect as far as [xasiMe. * Their view 
aorc than a little la VL-ry much too much; they are afmid that 
nam will be spoiled for field vork.* Their object is to keep the 



^'htcd OS are sncli views as tlicse, tlierc is little doubt 
they prevail extcoeivoly, not only among fanners, but 
; manufacturers also, and other omployers of labor. It 
ily ueedn t-o 1)C urged that no permanent iiuftrovoment can 
I expected in tho condition of the laborer imlcss the means of 
iK!alion Irti scoured to him. This is not all that is needed, 
it is one of tlie most pressing of his wants. Without cdu- 
tion he neither knows how to better himself^ nor is &ui(y^V\(^^ 
roL. cii. — m. 224, * 10 



140 



TVmj Poverty qf England, 



[J 



Tritli tho faculties adequato to overcomo the difficttldos ■ 

Burrouud him and hinder his progress. 

"It requires,** said llie TimeSf in a recent nrticle, " botli more \i 
edge and more miclligi'nce ilian he po«^cd:^e^ to Appreciate tite 
bilitiua of migration nnd emigration, ilc knows no oilier tut 
him tlmn tlmt in vrlitcli lie was born, and tbe hurizon of the \'iUa 
hii world. It is the imperulive duty uf liis betters to auist id ; 
htm from Uiis ignorance and helple^nuss. There could tc no 
mistake thun to tiiirik, as we fear some cmplujerti do, ibat the diBch 
of this duly would injure tlieir own inlercst.^. Nothing is mor 
their interest tli»n that the intelligence of the l&l>OFer frhould 
creased. It ia certainly for the inti'rest of the whole coutHry. and! 
country has the right, which it mu.st sooner or later cxcrt-isc, of iq 
ing that the corresponding duty fihall not be neglected.** * 

In a recent essay eiilitled ** What can he done f»r the 
cultural Luborcr?" Professor Fawcett says: ** It is wimetii 
almost triumphantly said — I have hoard it in the Uou 
Commons — that the agricuUural lalwirer is not so hndW 
many who work in our large towns " ; f and, indeed, it is \^ 
true that a workman in London, or any other of the crov 
cities, earning eighteen or twenty shillings a week, is hai 
more pros]>erou3 than the laborer in tlie country with t»jnj 
twelve. Mr. Mechi, whose experience as a farmer, atTi]i 
Hall, in Esses, is well known, writing to tho TIi ^ 
2tSth of January of this year, concerning agricultni 
asserts that the condition of the laborer has iniprore<I of j 
years, and mentioning that the present rate of wages ill 
neight»orhood is eleven and twelve shillings, he goes 
aay : — 

"I know of some collages in this neighborhood where famiW 
seven children hare liad only one small l>€ilroom for the nine mc 
of the family. Hnny cottages are ia a diiuptdated conditioa. .j 

Very few laborert* over forty can reader write Jdnrrled ( 

with large young families are rnthcr dorcly pressed." Uul he 
"I am inclined to think favorably of the oondition of our 
laborers as compared with those in towns and cities." 

What then must tlie condition of the latter he ? 



• Tho Tirot», Fcbrunrr 16, I (•(ID. 

i Mncmiliaa'i Ma^tine^ Octotwr. 1968. 



Th« Poverty <f Entfland. 



147 



from tlie laboring classes tliat the rast armj of panpors 
ited. On oiiy given da/ of tho year tlicre are nliont a 
I men, women, and cliildren in receipt of public relief, 
own as panpers. Tho numl>er8 are a little less in sum- 
in winter, and in a year of proB|>erity than in a year 
ninerclal dej>re«j*ion. Hut for twenty yeara the army has 
boon composed of less than eight houdred thousand in- 
lals, and has frequently risen to over a nyllion.* 
& returns furnished by the Poor Law Board do npt afford 
leans of ascertaining the total number of persons who re- 
relief in the course of a year; they merely pve the num- 
f those in receipt of relief on certain days. It would 
ew be an undur-estimate to compute the nujnber of per- 
ho arc obliged to seek ]>ublic relief at some jicriod of the 
,f double that of the paupers on any given day. If wo 
this uumi)er the nmulter of those who are more or less 
,det»t on private charity for a livelihood, and who prob- 
.monnt to several hundred thousand, we arc brought to 
inclusion that England supports as paupers not less tlian 
wentieth of her population, while much more than a tenth 
r people stand so year the verge of pauperism as to be 
portion of every year dependent upon public or private 
;y. And, still further, though in the absence of exact sta- 
it is impossible to make a precise statement, it seems 
in that not less Uian one quarter of the people of Eng- 
nt some period of their lives dependent for subsistence 
public or private charity. 

returns of the Poor Law Board show that the money 
in public relief of the jjoor during the last twenty years has 
itcd ui^u an average to the annual sum of X 5,831,000, 
lOgh to keep over one Imndred and twelve thousand men at 
at a wage of one pound each per week. And this enormous 
for the relief of suffering seems to have no effect m re- 
iig its causes. Tlie complaint is common that pau]M;rism 
ug,and thougli it does not appear thot tlie number of 
Eugland more or less dependent upon public charity 

■Hunarjr f utemcBi of the metn noniber of piupen in receipt of retier at 
ewh yttkt fiiK'e 1649, M« TvtiiUcih AohuaI Report of tha Poor Law 

r-«. I*, n. 



148 



The PoveHy ^ England, 



[Ji 



for Bupport has increased out of proportion to the growth 
population, it ia obvious from tho returns that vast ai» 
sum expended in public and private charity it does not 
dimiuish the sources of pauperism. 

In a paper on the Charities of London, road at a ra« 
the Association for the Prevention of Pauperism and Crimrfl 
tlie Metropolis, on the 17th of December, Dr. Uawksloy 
as tlie result of a careful investigation, that 

**At least £7,000,000 a year are einploj^ei! in dealing wUl 
requiremenU of London poverty and pauperism. Il result* Umti 
eighth of the whole metropolitan pnpuUtion — ihiu is, 4(>0,0flfl 
Eons — worn enlircljr depciuhmt on the other seven vtghth!-, Llid 
Tmiued would supply to each £17 a heud per aimuiu fur uveryj 
woman, and child, or to every fiunily ot' five person*, £%b p<r i 
and lejivc XoO,000 to [my the expenses of colkcttun and Uistnt) 
Nut withstanding this great expenditure, pauperism and criiae 
vaueing far beyond the relative increase of popuhition [in I^riiluo^l 
During tho la^t ten years, 1858- 1868, the population of Loudon lul| 
increased one sixth, but the pauper part of it has increa!>«d five Itiitl 
or half." • 

Another gentleman, Or, Stallard, who has given great 
tion to the subject, estimates the suiA spent aimually iu 
don for cliaritable purposes at over £ 8,500,000. ** TJua ; 
is equal to 4s. SJ. per week, all the year round, for eight 
drcd thousand persons, aud ought to be more than sufi 
for the rcHef of every form of misery." f 

Whethet we accept the higher or tho lower of these 1 
mates aa nearest the trutli, each of them ia alike evidence 
of effective and wcllHiirected charity, but, iu great part, o( 
misdirected, wasteful, and corrupting bounty of though 
humane impulses and sentiments, and of selQsli cHurts to pu^| 
chase, by au expenditure of money, inmiimity from |Ktr8onil| 
exertion, and personal sacrifice. Much of tho uioneT . 
lavishly poured out iu miscalled charity simply aggravt 

• '* The CboridM of London." By Thoioaa HAwluIvy, M. D, 
pp.7. 

t " Psaperiam. Charity, and Poor Lam." By J. H. Stallud, M. B. 
1S69. 8vo. pp. 18. The Times pubU&bot, February 11, IS60. u 
SynopftU uf Reports of Kirae Me tmpotiuo Choriti^, wtucli, m fur u iu 
coaflriDcd the tstiniutea of Dr. Stallan]. 



t.] Th^. Poverty of England. 149 

which it is meant to relieve ; for while it tends to educate 
a predatory class of degraded profesBional pau[>Gr6, it fails to 
;|IKt5C the independent poor, struggling for existence, and tot- 
ug on the brink of pauj^riam, and ita consequont dcgra- 

Tery recently well-directed efforta have beou made on the 
of government for a better administration of the State 
ity, and on the part of individuals to secure a proper co- 
ition among the charitable institutions, and to f^ve a 
&pcr direction to private benevolence. But no sufficient 
iy for the evils of tlie present system of public and pri- 
almspving is to be found, short of an absolute reform in 
Qjrof its mofit common metliods, Bpringing from a quickened 
among tlie prosperous of their responsibility toward liie 

|Wo have seen that millions of people in this country — one 

the richest in the world — barely drag out existence upon a 

inoe insufficient to secure the food necessary for health, 

ig In abodes unfit alike for the physical and moral needs of 

e, and unable, both from their own circumstances and from 

indifforonce, to use no stronger word, of those whoso do- 

tidants tbey arc, to obtain such education as might invigorate 

efforta for improvement. 
No language can bo too strong to characterize the disgrace 
bd the danger to a civilized community of a state of society 
llicb thus perpetuates the misery of a great proportion of its 
srs, which thus degrades hnmanity by condemning it to 
litionB which inevitably generate ignorance and vice, and 
the fruitful sources of crime. * 

[It cannot be too distinctly stated that the poorer classes 
m not the power at present to raise themselves from the 
lation into which they have sunk ; that the material con- 
|tio<ns of their life so deprive them of hope, of stimulus to 
tion, and of vital energy, that tliey are in great measure 
from responsibility as to the results of these conditions 
moral character. 
r It cannot ha too well understood that the rich, the pros- 
Kv>iiA, and the powerful are directly responsible for the worst 



150 



The Poverty <if EnglantL 



vueaa 
prirtW 



general motives of humanity, but by spocinl motives of 
interest, to exert themselves to a far greater (Ioctcc tlian tb 
seem now to have the thought of doing for thoir rexnodj 
removal. Bound by special motives of self-intorost, — I 
society in which an overwhelming majority of its ro«H 
have no reason to desire the stability of its institution! 
every reason to look forward to change, however rloleDt| 
destructive in its nature, as likely to effect au imi»ro\'eme 
their condition, is constantly exposed to the risk of revolt 
and entire reorganization. And even if this were not the J 
the improvement of the condition of the working classes 
still be a matter of most immediate self-interest to those] 
desire the continuance of tlie'ir own material |>rosperitj 
cause on the improvement of thcso classes, in conformity! 
the general progress in the world, depends the pcnuanoQC 
the wealth aud power of England. If the poor are degeaj 
ing ; if their physical vigor is diminishing; if larger nut 
of them are falling into dei>cndcnco upon public or pr 
charity ; if the motives to independence are becoming weaieV, 
— tlien the decline of the stste has sot in, and the Btream^ 
wealth and prosperity is shrinking at its source. 

But against such considerations as these it is urged : *'l 
be not doing all we might, we ore doing much. Every! 
more attention is g^ven to education ; every y<jnr there ' 
extension of sanitary reforms; and if the condition of t)ie1 
is deplorable, it is duo, not to the ludiQcrcuce aitd 
ness of the rich and the poworliil, but in great measnro 
operation of laws of political economy over which wo hxnf 
control." • 

The laws of political economy whicli arc often tlius red 
to are mainly those relatmg to tJjo diairihution of wealtJi, 
especially those which arc supposed to regulate wages 1 
principle of supply aud demand as applied to labor. 

On this topic especially a vast deal of sophistry is 
The laws of political economy Eire not sufficient by th« 
to regulate the relations of men one to another. If 
properly understood and interpreted, they undoubtedly, i 
OS their jurisdiction extends, correspond with and oonftr 
dictates of that morality which finds its motive and sano 



M^ 



T/w Poverty uf England. 



161 



UG lia;' !' manbiml. But the variely of diepoftiiious 

g nieu - : ..0 complioatiou ol' their interests, arc so groat, 

tiio l«.w« of political economy can rarely be absolutely ap- 

iroa when fully undcrBtoud, to the dux^ction of their 

a. The laws which are thooretically ti-ue couceruing 

accuuiulation and distrihution of wealth are, in tlicii* prac- 

plicittiou, continually subject to moflification by tho 

oouditious of individuals and races. But even the true 

ore of tbe»e laws \& frequently misunderstood, and the false 

iou of them may become one of the moat serviceable 

.1 '.A of oppression, and one of the most dangerous 

[pons uf sellishncss. A striking illustration of this fact is 
nied by the prevalence of the doctrine that the sole econom- 
i ooudideratiou which is to determine the ruto of wages 
% ^>reu place and tioac is the demand for and supply of 
ir. Puftbe<l to its consequences, this doctrine loads tiic 
tployor of labor to take advantage of every circumstance 
leh may promote an abundant supply of the kind of tabor 
lich he re^piires, without regard to the consequences of such 
DouTBc to Uio health and happiness of the laborer. Tho teti- 
Bcy of such a doctrine, applied without restriction, in the 
iBOnt Ktatc of the world, is to the degradation of the laborer, 
il the destruction of his fi-ecdom, even to the point of actual 
nrtoal enslavement. Tho question is often discussed as 
in the competition of the market, the employer and tho 
Mirer stood on equal terms, and had equal power in the 
kmniuation of the rate of wages. But this is very seldom 
ica»e. As a rule, tho employer has on his side two grounds 
BUperiority to the lalwrer, — the possession of capita!, and 
^possession of more cultivated intcUigcnco. The first makes 
I empIoyniHnt of labor more- or less a matter of choice 
til liira; the second enables him to vary Ids pursuits. But, 
12w actual condition of tho laboring claBse«, the laborer 
1 little or no choice in the matter of employment, and 
iBt Uiku such as is offered him, and up^jn tho terms on 
tch it is offered, ot must starve. Tlie result is that, in a 
»plcd country, cmjiloyers of labor in the chief fields 
j — iu all tbtjKO wliich require of tlio workman no 
Bsal intelligence — have the power to dcterniiuft Uw vaX^i Q^ 



162 



The Poverti/ of Eiujlaitd, 



[J. 



wages; and, as long as the present narrow id^oa of pol^ 
economy prevail, custom will do little to pruvont compel 
from pt'iHincin^ its lojriHmatt? olToct in tUe lowerin 
standard of wages to a minimum. Mr. Mill, in hia 
on wages, says: " In this country thora are few kinds of labo^ 
of which tlie remuneration would not be lower than it is 
employer took tlie full mh-aiitage of com])etitiou." But 
if this be true, it is safe to assert that in mauy of the moa 
portant branches (tf industry the employer fnxpiftutly 
advantage of comjKstition to a degree which koejts the Ufe 
in dependence, and even in want- of the nccessarica (»f 
living. No one who investiirates the relations of ' 
labor can doubt that in the Imig run a dispropon 
of the profits of production falls to the capitalist,* and tl 
distrilmtiou of wealth consetiuently grows more and morei 
equal and unsatisfactory. 

It is a truth too often forgotten that, in the present compfcxj 
and unorganized condition of society, many of the laws of | 
cal economy, if applied without restriction to the ro^ltti^ 
hnmau relations, work nothing but misery. In an ideal 
of society, in which every man should bo intellitr' 
pendent, the rate of wages might ])erhapa be sufcl} 
by competition. But in the actual condition of society, ] 
cal economy itself teaches that reliance upou competition tUonel 
to fix the rate of wages may, aud ot^en, ind«*ed, must, <ii« 
in violation of those superior laws of the science which 
mine the jMinnanont prosperity of mankind, and regtdati 
advance. Conijwtition at any given moment may oHtabllj 
rate of wages which shall be destructive of the health and ha|9 
piness of large sections of the community. In its turn it 
to ho controlled in its operation hy higher laws. 

To remove the existing evils two great remedies bare i 
proposed, each tending to a diminution of population, andl 
sequenlly of competitors for labor. The first of those is cs 
gration. But it ie plain that this is a mere palliative. Th4 

* For n striking iltusirnlion ul' t}u^ fuct, tea tltv rcr^ itMtrurtivo oTidea , 
before Iho Tnulc*' Union Coinmi«»iun by Mr. Jnmw Siumyth. tlie cmhw 
cliinioi ; C!i|w(-iii1Iy qoustions lU.l^t - Id.lHSt, fri^m ilin iiintwi'rji in which' 
^ikred Lhiu Mr. Xumrtli had pAhl 3lii. a wetk to a mim vbosc work bn 
in Bpfoth of jCe. — Tcnih Report, \86ft. v- ft^- 



The Poverty (fffBnglant 



153 



for cmifrrantfl will in time, perhapa not long hence, 

,.,i,.^,.,1 while the increaso of the population of the country 

li tho emigrontd deport is likely to l^e tiuickeued by 

£act of their leaving a void to be filled. The second is, a 

ii„:. .T-ruiwaed on the increase of families, a restraint upon 

! of population. That this latter remedy, if it Cfnild 

!'iK?ti, would be effectual in tlie degree of its application is 

.. ...u ; but in the present low moral and intcUectunl state of 

Uio irorking classes, it seema very doubtful whether the mo- 

;o Bclf-reatraint can \\& made so effectual with them as to 

... lo any great results in tins direction. Legal restraints 

Qpou marriage might effect something, but their operation must 

-7- partial. 

hat, tltcn, can be sug^sted as likely to lead to a more 
litable rate of wages being established as tlio recom]>ense for 
yitr^ There '\a no Ringle panacea. But the ground upon 
improvement must rest is that of education, — educap 
of the rich as well as of the poor. The direct result of 
fiicatiou in the case of the |)oor would bo to make them 
era of thonuiGlves, to open new fields of labor for tl»eui, 
^d to develop in them those moral di3pf>sition8 which would 
to a restraint n])on {xipnlation, tuid to tlic formation 
3t« of economy and,tlirift. Tho education which the rich 
specially reqnire is in its nature moral, — an e<lucation in social 
^tdaes, and in that cnlightcuod self-interest wliicli sees its ad- 
^tage, not in a selfish accumulation of wealth reganlless of 
I claims of those who assist in its production, but in such a 
jiriitiou of profits as should raise the general standard of com- 

I Uader nxiating circumstancoB, there can be no object so im* 
brtant for the govornmeut of Enirland as tho jiromotion of 
Puontion. It cannot bo accomplislied miless efforts in behalf 
[ education be accompanied by the widest and most stringont 
res of sanitary reform, which shall secure to the poor 
ibitations as are not detrimental to health, as are not 
Btcnt with ft tolerable degree of physical comfort, and 
l«rhich tlio ffrGrt^r\ation of moral purity is not impossible. 
[The most strenuous, unsclfisli, and foreseeing action is de- 
coded for the preservation of what is good in tU*i «iM*Uv\^ 








rioleut 



27w Pov^y ^ England, 

social order, imd for the remedy of evils which ore novr of 

magnitiide as to be standing memices to the very life ofi 

state. A very different spirit is required for dealing with tlitrsfr* 
evils from that which is displayed in Farliameitt, or in [inbtic 
opinion as expressed by the majority of its leading orsmiti. 
Unless the ruling classes, upon whom rests the resp'> 
for remedial effort, arc aroused from their selfish iuac: 
a new sense of duty and to now exertions, no prophet is u< 
to foretell the a[>proaclimj^ overthrow of social ortler. 
DOW the question with all thoughtful men is whether the tirill 
of the state have not reached a point beyond legal remedy. 
To niauy it already socms that only the red hands nf violent 
revolution can tear down the barriers by wliich, iu the 
of the highest rcfinomcnts of civilization, great masses ol 
people are shut up in a close Jew's quarter of misery, 
ranco, and degradation, a)id reduced to the moral Icn 
savages. The forces of conservatism in England are enirt^ 
mous ; they ore Itandcd tx)gctlior, in many instances, to mnifr 
tain an xmjust order of things, and to repress the healthy life 
of the community. But in proportion to their strength is t^ 
accumulation of the jjent^up forces of destruction. A smftll loi- 
nority of the ]X)pulation are in poHsession of the main inntri 
of compulsion, but in the long run the great majority most 
— if in no other way, by the exhibition and use of the ph^ 
force of which acting in combination they are tlie miisterf. 
Tho progress of democratic ideas in political affairs is 
ually transferring the legislative power to the nji'i * 
pooplo. But the transference of this power is so .-m- ; 
majority have become so brutalized, that tho very process i» 
full of danger. It is a great, though a very common r- 
to suppose that the mass of the laiiuriug elates and of i 
in England are not discontented. They have learned to 
their thoughts ; biit they feel, o"Ji to Home d* 
that tho existing social order is unjust to tbcm, 
tent, though smotliered and inoffoctual at present, might eaail; 
be wrought into a fury against which all the dcfcin 
institutions would bo as vain as wore tho walls i-. 
against the poMions of the mob of the Faubourg St. Au^ 

GffAiu^ EuoT Noi 





itrcn 



155 



^. — 1. An Elnnrntary Treat imf oji American Ornpf Ctd* 
hire aiid Wmit-mnhiiuj, By Peter B. Mead. New York ; 
larper and Brothers. 1867. pp. it., 483. 
I'^oiryar'l C^Oture Jmprovfd itnd Chcapnt^d. By A. Du 
Sretil. Tranalated by E. and C. Parker. With Notes and 
Adaptations to American Culture, by JoHN A, Wari>ER. 
[^iiiciiiiiati, Ohio: Robert Clarke A Co. 1867. ]>p. x.,387, 
Tht^ Grape- Vhte. By Frederick Mohr. Translated by 
jrtARLEa SiEPHOP. Now York: Orwigo Judd A Co. 1807. 
pp. vii., 129. 
i Thr Winr.mak^r*K MamiaL By CHARLES Rekmelin. Cin- 

mati, Ohio : Robert Clarke & Co. 1868. pp. viu., 128. 
lAddrtfiii of Dr. C. W. Grant, delivtred lufore the- Grape- 
f(rn/«vr«* Convvntwn at Cannndav/na^ N'. K, OofoAtr 20, 1868. 
[[Proof-slieets.] 

Thr CitUiviition of (he Native Grnjfc and the Manufacture of 
MfnfriVtw* Winf. By Georqe HiTSMANy, of Herman, Mis- 
New York : Woodward <fe Co. 1868. pp. li., 192. 
'The Ctdhtrr of tJie. Orftpr, By W. C. STRONG. Boston; 
I E. Tilton & Co. 186T. pp. xri., 355, 

April, I860, we gave in this Review a brief sketch of the 
p, pn>greBs, aud condition of o]ien-air grape culture in the 
ditwl States, and addod thereto some safe prophecies of its 
Dboitle future, and some hints upon the management of the 
u, derived in large measure from our own experience. 
Since that time gra[»o culture has made great progress in 
Host every State in the Union ; new varieties liavc been in- 
duced and tested ; new wines have been brought into notice ; 
il, in short, so marlccd an advance has been made in Qvcry 

tment of viticulture as t<i justify u.s in again calling the 

■ion of our readers to tliis imjiurtaut subject. So impor- 
ad complex a subject is it, that we cannot treat it cx- 

My within the limits of au article, but must be general 

four statements, referring our readers for statistics to gov- 

Dmcnt and State reports, and for details and practical meth- 

i to the able manuals named above. 

ii the risk of a little repetition, we propose novf to b\v^ a. ^^^ 




Ojun-air Grape Culture^ 



words In regard to the past history of grap€ culture in i 
country, and then to speak of its present condition, with 
ticular reference to the newer varieties of p-ajtea :' ' ' 
liant prospect now opened in wine-making in tlie V 
Wine was made from nativo KTapes by the early settle 
Florida in IfiO^. The London Company in Virir^ 
donbtlcHS hy tlio abundance and vigor of the indit: 
attempted to establish a vineyard in 1620, imjxirtcd Fr 
vi^nhrons in 1630, had certainly succeedctl in makinjr witil 
1647, and offered premiums for its manufacture iu 1051. 
liam Peun in 1(j8B, Andrew Dot6 in 1685, and Peter 
in 1793 made unBUCcessfuI attcmjits to cstaldish vineyards" 
1722, Virginia had vineyards that gave abundant returns 
little care, but for many years no grape appeared good ciH| 
in all res])cct^ to put grape culture and wine-iuakinp; on a1 
basis. Tlic Catawba grape, discovered in 1801, brought to ] 
Uc notice in 1816, and introduced at tho West with so 
success, is the variety whose appearance at a critical tit 
tirely changed the aspect of grape cultui*o in this country. To 
this variety and to the Isabella, although their day of triuioith 
is now past and gone, we owe a debt of gratitude tlmt shouU 
not be forgotten. As a market grape, and as a grajK) for via 
the Catawba for many years had no rival. Now it 
only in favored spots, aud is l<x> subject to the attacks i 
ease to be trusted as in former days. The laalicUa, tliongti 
widely cultivated, was never a rival of the Catawba, asd'^ 
always Ijecn considered inferior to it. 

We may remark here, iu {>assing, that all the porsia 
and expensive attempts that have been made to cuUi\"ate tltf 
European grape, tho vitis vinifera^ in the opeu air, have 
failures in the Northern and Middle States. The deasMi^ 
is long enough to ripen many foreign kinds, but the ^olcift 
atmospheric changes aud sudden variations of tmnpemlure to 
which we are subject are very unfavorable to the growth u' 
vines whose leaves are naturally susceptible to tho attacks o 
mildew. Now and tlien in a city a foreign vine, trained agaiitf 
a brick wall, may be made to ripen ita fruit, but the exceptiij 
to the general ride are few. 

Local varieties arose and fell, but up to a comparal 



1. ^ 

irds.^H 
>^ 

afflH 

to^j 

im^B 

ry. To 

TiuiDfth 

.» shouU 

for ffiafa 

kso^l 

liougki 

1 

,te«9 



afflH 




mn 



■SLi 



B».] 



OpetHiir Grape Cvtliure, 



loT 



ent dato t)ie Delaware anil Diana grapes, "with pcrliaps the 

ncord, were the only kinds that bade fair to supplant the 

we]l-€stublisLe4 kinds for cultivation on u large scale. 

Dolavvare grajHj, which we described tliree years ago as 

bn faciU princeps among American varieties, and of whoso 

({to origin there cati be no doubt, has been planted largely 

'late, and the extraordinary merits of its fruit, both for table 

[ and for still and sparkling wine, have been fully admitted. 

tlie tendency of the Delaware to uiildew in some local- 

B, and itft habit of dropping its leaves early in the season, 

other witii its slow growth, prevent many vignerons from 

out go many vines of this variety as they would plant if 

by could trust it more implicitly. 

tie Diana is u accdling from the Catawba, and posscasca 

Dg merits of its own, witli some radical defects, trans- 

from its parent. It is better than the Catawba ; its 

are noted for keeping well in the \nnter, and their 

'. mingled with that of the Delaware makes a superb wiue ; 

i the vine itself is somewhat tender, and requires a peculiar 

I and treatment. Still, in spite of its inherent faults, more 

i more vines of the Diana are plant-ed every year. 

Maine to Florida, and from tlie Connecticut Valley to 

ik» of the Mississippi, the Concord grape flourishes and 

Judged by a standard at all critical, its fruit, and 

DC particularly, are of the second or third class ; but its 

iiness, its immense productiveness, and the certainty with 

lich it ripens its crops in ordinary seasons, added to its won- 

iom from disease, have given it a hold on public 

which cannot easily be shaken. To an uncritical 

I its faults are of no moment compared with its cxcelleu- 

«, but tried by a severe standard it can never bold a very 

[li rank. 

|Tho number of new grapes introduced during the past ten 

|i- lus. The facility with which new varieties may 

ing, the fascination attending the production of 
' kinds, and the certainty of profit if a kind be obtained 
Br than any l>cforo known, all conspire to give the grape- 
ring public a Hood of new grajH^s, nine tenths of which ore 
08 soou as tboy are named. One in a thousand, per- 



158 



Open'^ir Orape Culture, 



haps, has qualities which pnt it by right in the front rank, i 
^ro it a placo amoug established kinds. 

Of the newer grapes that have been ))ret.ty well tre 
the Adirondack, IsraeHa, and loua are among the forei 
although of very unequal merit. 

The Adirondack is BU{i|K)»ed to be a seedlinf^ from tbej 
l)ella, and was found growing wild in Nortbern New Yorkr 
18 a sweet, teuder, pleasant grape, valuable rather for its ( 
ness and absence of defects than for any positive merits, 
vine is a moderate grower, and unfortunately is a littlu lea^ 
We do not believe it will ever be widely planted. 

Tbe laraeUa, wbich originated with Dr. C. W. Grant, isi 
a seedlhig from the Isabella, but of more decided merit 
the Adirondack. The vine is vigorous, productive, and 
ally healthy, although subject to mildew in some places. 
clusters are large, compact, and ripen early. Tbe berries 
purple, sweet, of excellent flavor, and cling well to the st^ 
In fact tboy arc sometimes so closely set as to make the civ 
almost solid. It is without question the best grope of] 
Isabella family yet produced in this country. 

When the Delaware had been pretty widely diascrainfl 
and its merits had become known, it was found so superic 
existing kinds as to make cultivators contident that it wo 
a long time before a variety of equal rank woidd bo oli 
No one expected that we were soon to see a grape at 
larger and better than the Delaware. But about tlie 
18G7 the paliciH waiting and well-directed ex: - ' u of 1 
Grant, of lona Island, were rewarded by the m , i* of| 

lona, the crowning glory of viticulture in this country, ; 
grape destined not only to give us more correct not i- ■ 
Icnce in grapes, but to compel the respect and admii 
eign wine-makers. For beauty, delicacy, richness of (lavor, I 
dom from the tough pulp that surrounds tlie seeds ^r 
American grajws, and for the qualities ttmt consl. 
wine grape, the lona, in our opinion, staiida without a 
Its adaptability to various soils and conditions of 
needs more thorough testing, but our ex^terience with it di 
the lost, most trying season leads us to ho{)c that it may i 
with tolerable certainty even in Massachusetts. 



Optn-air Orape CuttHtt, 



169 



e tarn a.si"le for a moment to remark that this country 
more to tlie originator of the loua than it can ever repay. 
necept and cxamjile Dr. Grant awakened the public mind 
e importanco of grape culture and the necessity of ha\ing 
r grains than those formerly set up aa standards. He 
cd that it ia ahnoet as easy to raise the best grapes as the 
c«t, ami, by ])roducin(r new and better kinds, he put tlie 
iR of iraprovomont within the reach of all, Hia labors 
wrought a silent but prodigious revolution in graixs cul- 
iu tiie L'nited States, 

r. E. W. Bull of Concord, Massachusetts, did not roat upon 
anrels when hu had produced and sent forth the Concord 
a, but by piitiont cxporiracnts, conducted year after year 
onwcariod enthusiasm, ho has created several ijow varie. 
seedllngR from tlie Conconi, that cannot fail to make their 
c. From the. tough, inedible native Mr. Bull has produced 
cs of great delicacy and refinement, free from fibrous pulp, 
»edingly hardy and vigorous, and one of them at least pos- 
ing '^QTj remarkable projjerties for wine-making. Two of 
, the Cottage and the Una, a purple and an amber-colored 
iC, hftve been made public proi)crtj, and have no doubt a 
mactiil future before them. The Martha, a grape of mucli 
lira, is also a seedluig fiom the Concord. 
e have left ourselves but little space to speak of other 
etios. For sheltered locations and warm, rich soils, the 
m's Hybrid and the Ilebeuca still hold a high rank among 
t>eolorod grapes. 

lie Clinton, a small purple Kra|>ej is sometimes raised for 
, but has no merits as a table fruit. The vine is an enor- 
I grower and bearer, and is very hard/, 
he Hartford Prolific is still raised on account of its carli- 
U has no other merits, and its defects are glaring. 
re will be no excuse for cultivating a vino like this, removed 
oue step from the native, when the Israella and Mr. Bull's 
lings become Ix'ttcr known. 

[mr yoara ago, in this Review and elsewhere, wo earneBtly 
i ' that the numerous varieties raised and introduced 
1 - Rogers of .Salem were genuine hybrids, and that 
hybridism was established bj facts and roa&omv\^ tU^t, 



160 



Opm^ir Orape OuUure. 



could not be refuted. Tliis doctrine was very unpopular : 
inouy growers at thai time, but we have Bcon them since i 
over to our side one by one, until we think that very few 
that Mr. Rogers has produced graj>es whicli are the resi 
crossing our native varioties with the vUis viniftra of £a 
Within a few yeai's,the so-called Rogers hybrids bavo 
spread through the country, and some of them have acqil 
an enviable reputation. Probably the final verdict will bcj 
the three or four best kinds sliould Ik) prefR'n^d and cultiv 
ajid that the loss valuable uuml)erH should be thrown 
The best, aud one already planted largely for wine, 
^alem, a noble grai)e, showing evident marks of ln>f * ' ' 
and native parentage, aud with us this last year • i 
unfavorable changes of weather as well ad any other on 
vine. Messrs. Underbill of Croton Point, and Moore of 
ester, N. Y., have each produced hyltrid grapes, of which woj 
compelled to say that tliey seem almost too good. We 
by this that we fear they contain so large an amount of 
foreign element in their comiK)sJt)on as to make thcii' sue 
in our climat<; a matter of doubt. One of them at least^ 
Diana-Hamburg, a magnificent grape prr scy is wholly unfit 
this pai't of the country, losing in our garden every leaf by | 
dew )>eforo midsummer. 

We used to. think that the path to euro aiid immediate i 
cess in the production of new varieties of permanent volt 
tlirough hybridizing the native and tlic foreign grape; 
theoretical objections, as well as the great trioroplis of ei 
mcnters like Mr. Bull and Dr. Gi*aut, who have worked 
wholly different way, have led us to doubt the sonndnc 
our former belief. The objection a priori to hybridizing i«] 
strong probability that the hylirids produced will nut oul) 
rive from their foreign parents those properties of flavor, 
noss, aud size wliicli make the fruit of tbo vilis viniferc 
attractive, but also inherit a constitution which can q4 
resist mildew and rot, and make headway against the and 
and violent atmospheric changes to whicli our climate is sul 
The better the hybrid is, ^ that is, the more nearly it roa 
bles its foreign parent, — the more likely is it to have a 
constitution, unfitting it for our vineyards. 



open-air Grape Cutturc. 



161 



tho other hand, by direct breeding, or, in other words, 
■■■■ist mini).>er of seeds of some good trrape, allow- 
.•^ secdJiiigs t^i bear fruit, selecting the one. in a 
id that gives signs of Knporior quality and shows no Inss 
planting its aoeds, and so continuing, prrapcs hurc 
stained of the highest rank, and yet as hardy as their 
The Concord, and, bettor still, the seedlings from it, 
I tiistrnctlre instances of brilliant results obtained by dii*ect 

iing. 

io one shoii]d infer from the* praise we l>ostow upon certain 
; rapes tlint the cud has been reached. We have not 
■t grape. N'o variety has been produced which has 
^the requisite degree tlie three prime qualities of hardiness, 
'i I inir, and fruit of hij^h rharactei*. We have many 
".'8 that are of poijr quality, many excellent grapes 
are tender, and many of the highest class that are both 
^dor and tardy in ripening. 

riie production of new varieties of any fruit opens a tempt- 

[ field for ex{ieriment, and the rarity of high success makes 

prizes drawn all the more vahiablc, Wliocvcr works 

hybri<lizing, or by direct planting, procures for himself a 

bd of the purest enjoyment, and in some exceptional cases 

Sns a large pecuniary reward. The man who shall create 

l^^pe as hardy as the Concord, lipening in Massachu- 

without fail Ivefore the 10th of September, and at the 

Qe time of tho best quality when tried by the highest 

ilftrd, will have added to the absolute wealth of the 

fttrj' an amount incalculable. Major Adlum, who intro- 

tlie Catawba grape, was fond of sayijig that he had 

ne hia countrj- better service than if he had paid off the 

Itiuaal debt, — no idle boast, if we consider what the Ca- 

rbn grape has done directly, and to what indirect results 

bat led. 

To stxm up, then, all the varieties of graj>es we can rocom- 
id for out-door cultivation in this region may be counted on 
I 6ngor8. The Concord and one or two of its seedlings, the 
HIa, Diana, and Delaware in very many localities, |)ossibly 
I Adirondack, the lona wherever it can be made to ripen, and 
roL. CIS. — NO. 221. 11 



162 



Openroir Grape Ouiture. 



[i 



two or lliree of the most thoroujrhlj proved Rogers Uyl 
comprise all we can advise a ben:inner to try. 

The Rebecca and Alleu*a Hybrid among lipht-colorcd 
and the Crevelinp and Union Tillage amonj^ piirplo kll 
will 8uccocd in favored places ; bnt some of rhcm arc ten 
and ail are more or less subject to diseiuie. Tlie le 
almost discarded in New Enpland. The Hartford Pr 
Clinton, and a number of all kinds hardly remove*! froatj 
native grape, ore not wortli cultivating. Some will 
from this opinion bo far as it'condemns the Hartf • ' 
feel sure that this kind must soon give way to vii. 
are equally early and of greatly superior quality. The 
and Nonantum grapes are two recent acquisitions of Mil 
chusetts origin, but as yet are not well knowm. They giTO_ 
signs of being valuable kinds^ and no jtomologigt has 
greater success in producing new fruits than their origlni 
Mr. Francis Dana. 

We do not know tliat any radical change of opinion in 
to soil and cultivation has taken i)lace since we last di»cii 
these subjects in this Renew. 

Success by a peculiar method or in a peculiar location 
often blinds a vine-grower to the merits of a different svBteil 
a better soil. Hence there are almost as many mctliod-s '■ 
theories as there are vii^^erons. If any change has 
wrought in grape-gi'owing, we think it is in the matter of i 
planting and liigh manuring. The school that taught m 
trench the ground deep and stimulate the growth of tlie 
vnth Htroug manures has had its day, and more ratinnal 
sels prevail. The results of deep trenching and high mn 
ing ure,Ro immediate and striking, that the lK*ginner is of! 
led astray, and repents when too lato. Whoever plants a 
yard should remember that present success may be hciu 
failure at no distant day, mid should consider too that in 
ing a vine ho is working, not for a year or for ton years 
for centuries. More vines have boon ruined, we believe, it 
cold climate of ours by boiug planted too deep and by 
quent over-stimidation than by all other caunoa comti 
Vines should not be planted deep, because the soil m\ 
short summer raiely gets warmed more than a foot 



}.] 



Grape CuUure, 



163 



surface ; and they Bhoiild not be ovcrfyd^ l)ecauac high ma- 
ring causes a rank giowtli of wood that ripens iuiperfcetly 
lia an oftvu winter-killed when protected in whiter aa when 

ny moderately good soil, dry and not too rich, will give 

ud crops of i^rajKjs, ]>rovidod the location and tispect arc 

rorable. T)ie Delaware is perhaps the only variety that de- 

a deep, rich soil. In poor land it not only fails, but it 

, hardly bo kept alive. On the other hand, we have Concord 

ues growing^ mtxleratoly well in the gravel of a dry side hill, 

tlie whit4) IxMin, the very pariah of vegetables, refuses to 

ttw at all. The Itebecca does best in a clay soil of modei'ate 

newt ; while the Diana needs a {>oor soil to check its ram- 

li growth and enable it to ripen its wood. Knriching the 

|il MTtll increase tlie she of the Concord grape, but ut the 

ae time the quality of the fruit will be impaired. 

Wo have iu muid as wo write a vineyard of choice variefies, 

) owner of which made preparations for planting by trenching 

the depth of two and a half feet, and enriching the soil 

jitlt every conceivable fertilizer ho could obtain,. The result 

I immense growth of vine and enormous showy clusters for 

' years, and then disease leading to a gradual failure both 

^Tiues and fruit. 

pit cannot ite repeated too olten, tliat the main object of the 
eron in our cold climate should be to get well-ripened, 
Jthy wood that will stand tlie winter unprotected. No vine 
ti is forced or over-stimulated can produce such wood, and 

is why caution in the use of manures is necessai'y. 

Fpr establi^ihcd vines, the Delaware alone excepted, wood 

bfts and bonodust in moderate quantities are the strongest 

tilizers wo arc disposed to employ. These contain all the 

organic fix>d necessary for the growth of the grape, and do 

stimulate tlie vine to excess. The insane policy of cutting 

'the upper tier of vine-roots, laid down in some foreign man- . 

OA essential to success, has never been adopted here, and 

will be. Any procedure tliat tempts the roots to go 

tliaii a foot below the surface is ill advised. The number 

rinen that should bo grown u[)0u an acre, and consequently 

space that each vine sliall cover, are still disputed y^UYt^^ 



164 Open-air Grape CHlture. [July, 

and the consi Jeration of these leads directly to the questioM ol , 
training and prunhig. 

After reading almost everything that has l>een published d 
late years on Uiese topics, and after testing carefully numeroM 
methods of training with a great many varieties, we have conw 
to have certain fixed ideas with regard to the proper distance 
between nnes and the closeness with which they should H 
pruned. We believe that great mistakes are made in crowding 
too many vines into a given space, in cramping the growth of 
each individual vino, and in pruning too close. We do not ll^ 
long to what may be called in a double sense the natural school 
of vig^nerons^ who advocate allowing grapo-vinea to straggle tt 
will over the tops of trees ; hut at tlie same time wc do not thiuk 
that the extremely close, systematic pruning laid down in maiij 
manuals will ever answer for most of our vigorous native Itindg. 

The number of vines planted on an acre in France laries 
from one thousand to more tlian thirty thousand. Here, tJie 
testimony of the most experienced growers assures us that tb* 
smaller of those numbers is too large. The growth of some of 
our vines strikes a foreigner witli amazement, aimual shftots 
sixteen feet long not being uncommon. This strong growth 
makes it necessary to give our vigorous vines room enough to 
spread. If the rows are six feet apart, the distance l>etweai 
the vines should not be less than twelve feet for the ConcMii, 
nor less than sixteen for vines so rampant as the Rogers No. 16. 

Many cases are on record where every other vine in a vine- 
yai-d has been removed, and a year or two later half the r^ 
maining vines taken away, with good effect. We have in> 
space to discuss the various methods of training and pruning 
now in vogue. The simplest is generally the beat, and tha 
simplest and easiest is that of a horizontal arm near tha 
ground, with upright canes, which are cut back to three or 
four buds every year after fruiting. We say three or four had*, 
not two, as most of the text-books teach ; for it is beginning to 
be known that in many viues the best clusters are prodiM^ 
from the third or fourth eye above the old wood. Wo belief* 
this is C8ix:cially true of the Diana and the Concord, and hi 
pruning vines of these varieties we are careful to leav 
wood enough. 



ord, and &i 



59.] 



vnt-air Qrape Culture, 



165 



Some men of experience, Mr, George Ilusmann in particular, 
Wronuuus advocntcs uf summer prmiiug, or piuching the 
n lift of the youug shootH duriug tlio tjummcr, and tliey even 
Lrinnin(ir us soon as four or five leaves have- ai^K'ared ; 
[tractice is more Cafkod about here thau followed. 
Titbout waitiiig fur the rcBulta of experiineuts wluch we have 
we have great confidence in what is known as the 
Jict Guyot system. This consists in renewing the horizontal 
ni annually, by cutting away the old arm at the end of the 
itison and hending down into ita place a new cane that has 
allowed to grow for this purpose from near the base of 
I Tiuo. The next year's Ihiit is raised from the fresh, vigorous 
odfi of tills new arm, and at the same time a new strong 
Dt is growLJtg to take the place of the bearing cane tlie 
libUowing season. This method hns advantages apparent at a 
I gianco to the experienced cultivator. 

Any system of pruning is better than none. It takes but a 
' or two for a neglected vine to get beyond the reach of the 
I, and to become a tangled mu^a of hiLlf-ri|>cned wood and 
slioots. In this c^ise it is often simpler to cut the vino 
ova and start afresh than to try to bring it into shape by 
n'mming. 

Grattiiig the vine is a matter which still tries the skill and ' 
itienco of cultivators. Some recommend the spring as the 
iTofier time for grafting, and others the month of November. 
jraiUng below the soil is preferred by some, and others sue- 
best flix feet above ttie surface, but we must say that in 
Ji mothodfe failure is tlie mlo. We rogret this, for any ap- 
(Jich to certainty in this process would be of immense value, 
proof we may mention that we knew a small two-bud cut- 
b|i to bo gmfted on a vigorous stock in Jnne, and to make 
vni each hud a strong cane ten or twelve feet long the same 
In the case to which wo refer the canes were layered 
-pring, and tlio result was that in fifteen montlis from 
._. the tiny scion was inserted the experimenter had forty 
Dg, well-rooted layers, worth, as it happened, a dollar 
Fpiwie, If he had propagated bis two buds in the^usnal way, 
Wlicat, he wonld have had two small vines instead of forty 
parge ones. We cannot help thinking that at aome- Im^ VX; 



166 



OpetHiir Grape Cuttwe, 



proltlom of griin:ing will be Bolvetl ; and, if it slionid be, 
nurserymen will find it profitable to mise soetUing stocks 
native seed for delicate growers like the Delaware and Rebe 

The chief diseases of the vine are mildew and rot, the 
mor, 8[H?akiiig generully, affecting'the leaves, and tbo latter 
fruit. With us, cold' nights in July and August, after hotj 
damp weather, ore almost sure to bring on mildow. The 
yaricties in our collection absolutely unaffected by mildew 
year wore the Salem, Concord, Una, Cottage, and Hart 
Prolific. Some varieties suffered badly, losing all their Ici 
long before frost came. The mildewing of a few leavi 
strniig vines need cause no anxiety, for its ill offecla 
wholly inappreciable. Sulphur has l)ccn looked u[x>n 
specific against mildew, and even as a preventive of its ftl 
Wo have tried it for three years, but caiinot see that it ch 
the spread of mildew much, imless very tliorougldy appli 
the imder side of the Leaves as soon as the sfM)i« apjiear. 
sulphide of potassium is said to be more efficacious tlum 
sulphur, and may be applied in solution by means of a ayri, 

Rot is a more serious matter than mildew. It has 
the usefulness of the Catawba, and makos certain other g 
an uncertain crop. It affected in Massac Ivusctts last 
though very slightly so far as wc ol)3orved, the 
KoK. l;j and 19, the Concord, and |w>sHibly one or two oi 
kinds. It presents itself under vnrioiis aspects ; but, in w 
over shape it comes, little is known of its cause, 
means of guarding against it has yet been dcAnsed. All 
can be recommended is to select varieties for plmiting of 
feet hardiness and vigor, and to discard all others. 

Among insects, rose-bugs are sometimes a serious 
They eat the vine blossoms with the utmost greediuoas. 
vifftieroH in this State destroyed last year a peck, by m^ 
of these hugs by hand-picking and burning, no other meai 
getting rid of them Ixnng at all practicable. They exhil 
decided preference for the foliago pf the Clinton grapo, 
will actually forsake all other vines in a large collection fo 
sake of feeding on the leaves of this variety. No other 
have become troublesome in this part of the country. 

It is not many years since a few pomids of poor 



mn 1 



167 



I 



Jitly -Mipplicd the markets of our ^eat cities, tlmt now 
lime Jmiidreds of tons of choice varieties every season. It 
d be tfidioua to give hero a list of the prices for vhich 
t'<r table use liare been sold iu our markets, but we may 
we have never yet seen good grapee sold at a price 
irhich did Tiot well repay the prower. 

Discredit has l>eon brought upon grape culture of late by 
aisftgerateij slatoments of the profits it aflbrds- Exceptional • 
rauni8 in favorable years have been cited as an average^ while 
ibori crops and failures have been kejrt out of sight. We have 
seea vineyanis iu this State that have liorne cro|>8 of seven 
Ipu to tlio acre, but it would be unfair to reckon the profit of 
iny tineyard on a basis of more than throe and a half tons to 
the acfc. 

Ompe cuitxire will not suffer when its i)rofit8 are fairly com- 
|«red witli tiiose of any ordinary farm crops ; and such a com- 
(vison is, it seems to uft, the only way of getting a correct esti* 
State. Wo can safely reckon that seven hundred Concord vines 
»ili produce, on an aero of ground, thirty-live hundred pounds 
etch jrear. These, if sold for five cents per pound, will give a 
better return than any field of corn, with less tlian half the an- 
ttoal outlay for labor and manure than the corn would require. 
We may add that, while twice five pounds to a well-established 
Tioe Is only a fair crop, five cents per pound is an extremely 
lOff price for grapes offered for sale iu decent condition. The 
West wholesale price of Concord grapes in the Boston market 
lusi year was twelve cents per pound. 

There is a steadily im-reasing demand for good fruit, and 
»e may even say for fruit of every kind. As the supply in- 
creasoa, the price rises, showing that the supply provokt's the 
"lemapd. The price of strawberries, for example, — of which 
Anil Boston firm sold twelve thousand boxes in one day last 
' Lr, — is three or four times as great as it was when only U:\ 
iliird or a quarter as many strawberries were raised as now. 
j^owr fruit, hastily gathered and carelessly packed, is always 
fclundant and cheap, but it remains to be proved that the public 
*ill hot pfftfor to pay the very highest price for the best article. 

The litcrattire of grape culture in this country is already 
t^pectable, and is aiinually increasing. 



168 



Open-air Grape Cttilnre^ 



[Jt 



Of the books we have named above, Mead's Manual iaj 
most pretentious, aiid Uitsmauu's is the most asefuL 
Breuil's treatise contains precepts and directions wliolly 
suited to our vines aud climate, and the test nnd notes of 
American edition make togetlier a curious mosaic of cont 
tory advice. The monthly horticultural journals affordi 
best index of the interest felt in grape-growing iu this conul 
* and it often happens that half their reading matter, and'av«nn 
largo j>roportion of their advertisements, relate to grapt?s add 
wine. Nurserymen are not rare who advertise vines l>v the 
half-million ; aud i)erhap8 no better way can be found t 
comprehensive idea of the extent to wliich grape-gn>uj 
carried, and indirectly a notion of the size of the vine-g 
area, than to study tho advertising culumns of the jui: 
devoted to horticulture. 

Dr. Grant's address at Ganandaigua is a very able and>^ 
structivo paper, and will well repay a careful study. No n 
in this country has a clearer conception than the author of j 
address of tlie comparative value of different graj>08, or c 
luerits of the wines they produce. Tlie first niimljer of a 
cm monthly journal, devoted wholly to grapes and wine.! 
already appeared, and the mnguxine bids fair to be success 
It is edited by Mr. George Uusmani], a man of jrreat outer 
and wide experience, and we welcome its appearance as a pU 
ant sign of the increasing importance of the grtt|x*-growii 
interest in this country. 

Important as is the growing of grapes for use as foo 
profitable as it cau be shown to be, the cuUivation of 
for wine will always take precedence of it. Little by litt 
from foobio aud uncertain beginnings, wine-making in 
comitry has risen to bo a very im|>ortant element of tbej 
tional prosperity. It promises to take rank by the side 
wooUgrowtiig, cotton-raising, and tlie production of breadst 

It used to bo the fashion, aud may be customary evmi.i 
among those who can indulge themselves in the choicest pf 
uctfi of Kuropoan vineyards, to sneer at wines of dome 
growth ; but as the question, *■*■ Who reads an Amoricau bool 
is no longer asked in derision, so the ipiery," Whodrink.t Ai 
can wiuca?" is becoming a tiling of the past. To say not 



^iOi 



■HtfiifaAi 



open-air Grape Culture. 



169 



Sr Califoraian \-ineyards, in which mainly vinoa of European 
jlgin are grown, we*cau reckon al once at least fifteen kiniis of 
ipcsj wines made from which, and presumably purc, arc now 
ad for sale in (quantity. Other varieties, Huch ns the lona 
some socdlings not yet diaseminatod, hvLVC produced wine 
[the highest quality, hut not yet in quantity sufficient to be- 
ne an article of trade. 

liore is of course much differenco of opinion as to the com- 
parative value of the various wines produced east of the Rocky 
\ and we are perhaps justified in noticing some of 

^. i.ties in detail. . 

HAlthough com|>eUed at once to struggle against the attacks 
H disease and to compote witli newer varieties, the Catawba 
IPipo still furnifthea a very coitsiderahle proportion of our 
Dttlive wine. It is unfair to speak ill of the bridge that has 
1 ns safely over from the days of ignorance in winc- 
-:i^ to the present cnh'ghtoncd period, but we must say that 
the Catawba grajw has seen it« best days. We should l>e of 
the same <tpinion even if it were not affected by disease, for 
Mvcr and ]Mi\iiir kinds stand ready to take its {)lace. Connois- 
Ktua tell us tliat the wine of the Catawba is neither full nor 
^li, and tbat it is apt to l)e too sour. It can never 
i;Lt we need so much, a delicate hock wine. We have 
Ittted many samples of Concord wine. Some were of incred- 
il'Io nafttijicss, while others, nia(le from p<!rfectly ripe grapes 
»ith the aijilition of sugar, were comparatively palatable, al- 
though by no means of great merit. , The pure juice gives a 
' ; the sugared, as we liavo tasted it, a kind of nondescript, 
ly to he cliissed as a sliorry. The jiecullar aroma or 
fl»(ror of the wild grape — called, for want of a more descriptive 
■ : ./' — Ima been inherited in a modified degree by 
-; and is unpleasajitly perceptible in the Concord 
tine. Wo know, however, that in Morida and Missouri the 
Ooncoi * attains a degree of excellence it never reaches 

We, it its wine is improved in a corresponding degree. 

The Clinton grape, tJio juice of which contains a good percent- 
'" ir, proiiuces a strong, full, red wine, of considerable 
n .irsh and unpleasant. We may call such samples aa 
re lukve tasted a rough clarot, and wo hardly thiak tUiaX t.U\& 




Open'-air Orape OuU«r4i, 



wine will \)C popular. We imagine that the quantity of wine m; 
at present from the Isabella grape is vA'y Kmull. We iMi 
frtcontlj sparkling Isabella wine ten year* old, l>ut it oo 
Jinrdly l>e calletl second-rate. 

The Ives Seedling is not a now grape, but it has of Into yc 
heoii brought prominently before the public, and hu- 
tlie prize offered by the Long^vorth Wine Company !'<■ 
wine grape for the whole country. We do not attach mi 
im|X)rtanco to thia award, for it is obTiously iil>surd to ad 
Bay one variety as (he grape for general cultivation in a Oi) 
try of such wide extent aa ours, and which comprises regi 
80 different in climate and soil a» are Maine and Floii ' 
grapo itfiolf ia hardy, boaUhy, and productive. Its ju 
remarkably dark color, and produces wine of great body i 
fulness. The sparkling Ives Cbarajiagne, so called, is t 
peculiar by reason of its color, and, though muoli praificd, « 
our opinion a very inferior wine, being either artificially swi 
ened, or else not sufficiently formented. Wine from the I 
grapo has a very marked aroma» agreeable to many, but 
relished by critical judges. 

We rank the Norton's Virginia grape much higher than 
IvoB. It gives a red wine of very high chaniutor, harsli at fi 
but which improves with age and gradually attains a good 
gree of refinement. In its peculiar class it is suqiassed, in ■ 
judgment, by only one wine, and that made from a giajw as 
little knoAvn. This variety, the Cynthiaiia, originated, we 
assured, in the far West, and has been successfully cultivate! 
Missouri. It produces a red wine,Jesg harsh'aad more rofii 
than the Norton's Virginia, less cloying than the Ives, and | 
scssing a delicate bouquet entirely its own. We had Uie ^ 
fortune to taste some of the earliest samples made by l 
George Husraann, and we believe that the popularity of 
Cynthiana will increase as fast as the wine becomes kno" 
Wo have tlio vino under trial, but loam that its grape is, mi 
tmiatety, unsuitod to our season and climate. 

The Diana, when well ripened, produces a wine resembl 
the best German hocks, but richer and les» acid. U is 
superior to the Catawba wine, but its bouquet is so pocidin; 
to bo offensive to some good judges. 



^t^^^tmk 



»■] 



lit Chape Outturn. 



171 



rice of tho Diana mixed vrith that of the Delaware pves 
Hing wine of very ^rreat ricliness and cxcel!oni*e, but 
Jy dry euoug!i to be called a Chaini)agnc of the first rank. 
uami:ied juiou of the Delaware givoa a wine of which 
' vigneron or any country may well be proud. A page of 
ription would hardly suffice to set forth its merits, and 
we should not give a clear idea of its value to any 
had not tested it. It must riiITico then, to say tliat 
Ivino is rich, pure, and delicate, and that it poHsesseB in an 
TCe all the iinalitica of a fine sherry, with an aroma 

^■.ct of its own. It needs several years* rii)ening to 

g it to perfection. S|jarkUng Delaware is a clioice and 
L'iouB wine. 

» yet but rery little wine has been made from the lona. 
grapes have been too scarce, and too highly prized for tlie 
B, to arlmit of their beincj set aside and saved fur wine. 
littJe which has been made has shown such Buri)rising ex- 
race, and such an assemblage of high qualities, as to astonish 
I those who were familiar with the grape, and who had con- 
leutly hoped that it would bo as good fur wine as for imme- 
096. We do not propose to give an extended analysis of 
erits, l^nt may simply say that the Bam]>Ics we have tasted 
iosA all Delaware wino, and justify us in believing that we 
: at last found a grafie wliich will enable us to rival in this 
try the very choicest and most famous prodncts of tho 
rjrards of the Rliinu. Better judges than ourselves do not 
k tliis iMjlief extravagant or visionary, 
iie of Mr. BulKs seedlings, not yet made puldic, produces a 
y fine port wine, and among the othoi*s aro some entirely 
WToid of pulp and giving groat promise as wine grapes. Tho 
Hybrid No. 1 is said to make a fine sparkling wine, 
have received from Missouri a new seedling grape, 
tho Herraon, from the place of its origin, that gives, it is 
a genuine Madeira wine. If this is true, there is hardly 
iropean wine of any rank that has not its counterpart in 
cMontry, and very few that have not their equals. Chara- 
iC, 8horr>', hock, port, Burgundy, and, we are told, Ma- 
rt^ wines, all liave their representatives hero ; and when we 
i that until within a very few years the Catawba aud laar 



OpetHtlr Qrape Ctdtun. 



[jj 



bella grapes wero tho cluof sources of our wine, wo ma) 
staud amazed at the rapid aud steady progress tliat haai 
made. Inalienable a*80<)iations will always cluster arouc 
very names of some choice foreign winea, and t^urrouud 
with an illusive halo hard to dispel ; but we believe 
close of the next decade will not only bring a vast imf 
luent iji the already excellent product of our vineyardsj 
will see a great revolution in the public tasto, and Am* 
wines ranked as their merits deserve. 

The question which just now seems to convulse tho 
growing world, and which has led to diftputes matched only bji 
those of tho Big-etuliaiis and Little-endians in, Shall 
added before fermentation to sucli grape-juice a^ coxji..^ 
abnormal quantity of acid, and is at the same time dcGdl 
saccharine mutter? It is said that grapc-tskius conta^ 
amount of coloring and flavoring matter suQicieut to 
sugar and water enough be added, three times as mucii 
as is ordinarily obtained from a pven weight of grapes. Tlu 
who do not hold this extreme bolicf yet assert that, wlwi 
juice has too little sugar and too much acid, it is perfo 
to bring the amount of sugar in the juice up to tho qua 
which, when fermented, will produce the pcrccntc^gc of 
peculiar to the given wine. Others say that it is 
raise no grapes than to cultivate varieties whose juico 
poor to make good wine without factitious and mmaturtl-J 
tions. They declare, too, that tho harmonious uiingtil 
qualities which constitute perfect wiiic can never result 
mixture of sugar with poor graf»e-juice. Wo are not able to < 
cide which aide is right, but, while wo lean towards those 
favor tho use of the jmre juico, we must own that tlu: t^mpl 
to double the product of an acre by the aid of HUjrar and 
must be very strong indeed to any grower whose sole 
profit. If nothing worse than sugar weJ^ added to gruf 
in this country tlicre would he little cause for comphiint. 
do not know indeed that anj-thing else la added, but miplca 
nimors are afloat respecting (be treatment to which tlic 
forniau wJnc*B and those of Ohio arc sniyeo.ted bcfi:)re 
offbrod for sale. Wo hope that these rumors arc mifouni] 
and that wino-makers will find it as profitable, oa it 



lU 



\tre. 



"be picftaant, to furnish the public with pure wines, the 
le product of uncontaminated praf^e-juice. 
I price of our American wines \n still far too high, but 
« competent writer estimates that wo Imve in tliis conn- 
K> million of acres of vineyardH, with two millions more 
id but not yet in bearing, wo t^ke courage and look bope- 
brward to a day of lower rates. To be more specific, 
r t)iut we shall not be satisfied that the mfnimiun price 
Beu reached until a good hock or Sauterno wine — the 
in which wc seem to be most deficient, and which are, in 
»tnion, extremely desirable — can bo bought for less than 
ir a gallon. Tliis price will not be attained at once j and 
>• it is as well that it should not bo reached immediately, 
eapnesa alone, with no ability on the part of the public to 
siate their merits, will not make choice winea popular. 
B time that the prices wo hope for become the standard 
a generation will have grown up capable of estimating 
r tme value the wines whose advent we prophesy. The 
it race of Americans is joined to its idol, — whiskey, — 
ill prove hard to convert to a better faith, 
iscussion upon the expediency of increasing the amount 
e produced in our country, or upon the moral and social 
i>n» involved in its use, would perhaps be out of place in 
Sole that jirofcfisos to bo a mere record of the progress 
ondition of viticulture. Yet we did intend, when we be- 
lid pftp<jr, to say a few words upon the physiological eflects 
ohol, to diacusa at some length the current theories upon 
tttter, and to review certain illogical and slipsliod essays 
iy put forward by the advocates of total abstinence, in 
assertion has been mistaken for argument, and hearsay 
ice for scientific proof. But the work of demolishing 
aboard prodnntions has been so well done by other 
• that we need not undertake the task. We content 
VM with .«iaying that, unless all our hopes and expecta- 
ore dLtappointed, the cultivation of the grapo and the 
ftcture of wine will spread into places where neither is 



t>bDl ami Tobacco. I. It does paj to Smoke. II. The Coming Man wil] 
'Inc. By JobD FUke, A. M., LL. B. >'cw York; Lcypoldt &. Holt, 
blr„ IW. 



174 Open^ir Grape OultHre* [Jul 

dreamed of now; that where the vine is now cultir-^-^ ^■ 
suceoBs vineyardfj will multiply teufold ; aud tl»at j: 
wine will in time he ahuudant and cheap. 

It may, pcrhajts, he worth while to quote here some renuri 
made by Mr. E. W. Bull, in aji address delivered at a sessiool 
the Massachusetta Board of Agriculture last December. XM 
commenting upon the low price of wine in Ocrmanyf and ad 
tioning the intereBtiug fact that the last four Inuidred au 
thirty-two years may l»c divided, according to the qunliry i 
the wine prodnccd in them, into 

Those eminently dialinguislied . ■ • . . IL 

Very good years 2it 

Mwlerately i3;oo(I years ...... UjH 

Middling ((ualily wines ...... 76 1 

Inferior quality wtUeH U 

Tulal 

and according to their productiveness, into 

Tears of ample yield ...... Ill 

Years of middling yield ..... I| 

or jtoorcr yif>ld ........ 

or failun;, not {myiug exi>c'iises .... 2(1 

Total 4.H 

Mr. Bull goes on to say : — 

** Now, if under ttieso circumstances of low prices, ftnil nlno 
[}io seasons unliivorable, in Ocroiany gmpe-gi-owiiig iB Mill tht BO 
proHtable agricultural jmrf>uit, I llirnk wc may go on with lfao|iliMUlU 
Asfiurnnce that wo cannot fiul to succeed in making the crop profittdM 
and more profitable than any other crop: and very p- mi) 

Cnd the alternative that will keep our children at liomr. ^ ^f«*i 

ing is the poetic phnae of agriculture. The culture ia eimy, the lixirvM 
is deligtitful. Except ploughing the land once or twice dunng llu 
season, llie women and cliildren could take the whole care of the Wne 
yard, and when at last llje CTop is linrvested the product from a snjfcl 
acre U ofcen more tliun the product from all the rest of iho form. 

** Take another point of view. Many a (toor man finds it difflt^olt K 
eupiKirt bis family and educate his children, n.s the circumslni.. 
time and lite advancing standard make il nece«^ry ihry - 
educated, and S|>enda hU life-blood in merely keeping lL« place «hid 



Operi'mr Grape Cidture, 

bongitt, and fciicceotU in educaiing his cbiWrcn only by the most 

UnU L«i Itiin Imvo hU haJr-acre or acre of grapu^, IVoiu which 

^ould g«l, poAsilily ^UtWO, — $2,000 hoi been realized, — .surely 

per atintim ; and you can see how Ihat moment you lift that man, 

[iru4 ft febvc 10 the ground, to cnmpclency and imJepentlfnce. Ilia 

will then give hitn leisure for reading, enable him to buy hooks 

his love for art anil literature, and make him surb a man 

_»?nt Amcrirjin citizen ought to bir. 1 confti)*?, gcntlemeD, 

; ibis aspect of the ca^ gives nio more pleasure than all others/* 

Ir. BulVs theories and hopes might he passed by as viflion- 
|, ifwy (lid not kuow ihat his arguments and example have 
induced many a farmer in his immediate neighborhood and 
hfiiit the State to plant vineyards, and thus to enjoy the 
of this new entcrpriso. 
the limes to which wc look forward the grapes that we 
miw will be set aside for earlier and better kinds; the < 
^t» whose ext'ellence is known now but to a few will bo com- 
, property ; and even in these Northeastern States wc ehall 
neither to Ohio for our grapes, nor to Gennany for our 

Maine to Texas zealous experimenters are at w^ork 

htitig seeds and stri^-ing to get varieties of the grape l>etter 

I any wc now possess. Some carefully plant a few seeds ift 

Powtr-pot in their parlor, while others drill them in like 

i^ by tbe bushel, over broad acres. Some are earnest in 

> belief that tbe great grajK) of the cotiutry will be a hybrid, 

ers that it will be the result of direct planting, and all arc 

sing towards aconmion goal with so much energy and hope 

1 we cajuiot doubt that the tritmiphs of the past decade, 

pliant as they aro, will be e<.dtp8ed by those of the next ten 

We would aid tlie work by precept and example, and 

pte our readers to join us in what has proved a source of 

t\j increasing satisfaction and pleasure. 

" la nianibus territ ; non hie vos earmine ficto 
Atque per otDbager el longa cxorsa ttinelK)." 

J. M. Mbiuuck, Jb. 



176 



Humjary and Houmania, 



AkT. VI. — HUNOART AND RoUKaNIA. 



iters 



Some twenty years ago, in the Full flush of "EnropC 
tions, and again shortly before that dark deed whii^li hroii^ 
about the downfall of republican freedom in France, the uaa 
of Hungary was, if I mistake not, a household word amoi 
the |>eople of tJic United States, a romantic as well sk a poll 
cal interest baring attached itself to that " War of Indepo 
dencG** round whose heroes and martyrs even the vrriters 
contemporary history, in general 80 critically inclined^ 
already cast a poetic halo. 

Lord Palmerston, when called upon to rocognizo Hunj 
indojKJudonce, replied tliat, he knew only an " Anstriaa^ 
pire " ; hut the United States were not indisposed to enter in 
relations of international amity with the now commonwcftlt 
To the United States it was owing that those Magyar exiles wl 
had found a shelter, though clogged with restrictions on the 
personal freedom, on Turkish soil, wore not kept for an indefinil 
time in such confinement as would have suited the purpose* i 
the Czar and the Kaiser, but were released and enabled to enjc 
the welcome offered them by free nations. In the belief U»i 
tlie vicissitudes of fortune which Hungary hai* since exjiCT 
cuccd, and her position and prospects now that she hiu r 
attained self-goTernnicnt in a constitutional, if not in the mot 
complete democratic form, \vill have au interest for American) 
1 shall give some account of the political resurrection of tli 
Hungarian realm, as well as of the penla which yot surround J 
in consequence of it« relations to what is called the " Eaater 
question." 

Wlien Lord Palmerston said, in 1849, that he kna 
Himgary, hut only an " Austrian Empire," he rcpcatc 
phrase lie had used some eighteen or nineteen years iiefo 
the occasion of the Tolish war of iudependeDco. 
had declared that he know no Poland, hut only " Rd 
dominions.'* In the mouth of one whom it wii» tho ffl 
with ultra-conservatives to style " Lord Firebrand," i\ 
pression may have seemed strange enough ; but I belli 
could he explained, after all, by his earlier relations witli ' 



Ml 



D 



J 



tttn^iy and H/>umtm\n. 



he diplomacy, though such an explanation would reflect 
p credit on the memory of that able and powerful, but 
irincipled statesman. At all events, he was guilty of a 
icy both ID the case of the " Kingdom of Poland " and 
that of Himjrary, when ciideavoriug to make those coun- 

appear simply as provinces of the respective "empires'* 
tfoicd hy the houses of Romanoff and Habslmrg. Even 
r, crushed Poland, partitioned as she bad been among three 
ers, had yet preserved some signs of national life and some 
anct institutions of !ier own. In that part of Poland which 
joined to Russia, the Constitution of 1815, engrafted upon 
t of 1701 . established representative government, there being 

two houses of parliament and a responsible ministry, aa 
I 08 u separate army organization^ the monarch hanng tlio 

of " King of Poland," and the administration being caj- 

on, during his absence, by a viceroy. The rising which 
an at Warsaw on November 20, 1830, and which soon as- 
icd the pro|X)rUon8 of a war, could therefore under no cir- 
IwtJincoB be regarded as a simple revolt of a "province" 
inst an •'empire,'* It was the movement of a distinct 
ion against an oppressive ruler, who, from (he fact of his 
ndiug at the head also of another nation of vast military ro- 
irccfi, wa« otile to crush the feebler, freedom-loving power. 
HI it was with Hungary. Although under the samu niters 
the other countries comprised in the ** Austrian Empire," 
UigAry, down to 1849, had been a separate kingdom as re- 
fdcd its constitution and the tenure of the royal power ; the 
ifinea of the realm were cleaj-ly marked, and itij territory 
! girdled by a cordon of custom-houses, which formed a 
Umcrcial division, in addition to the political oue^ between 
cuuutries on the two sides of the boundary line. A ** ))rov- 
r" of the ** Austrian Empire,** Hmigary therefore was not. 
I very niuuo of Kaiserthum or Katser-Staal^ as applied to 
itria, only dates from the beginning of the present century, 
tn Francis was compelled, through the misfortunes of war 
be stnigglo against Napoleon, to lay down his im(>erial Gor- 
n dignity, w^hidi had l)ecome a mei*e shadow, and thereupon, 

alight Huluee, assumed the title of Austrian Emperor, or 
Bcr, Constitutionally speaking, Hungary was not aStscVaOL 



178 



Hungary and Bawnaxda. 






tUereby. For Hungary, tho Anstrion emperor remninod 
a *' kiiig,*' though in some uudefiniMl way he Iiad proviiU 
self is-ith an additional title, which the folly of men i» 
regard as an ajjpellatiou suj^erior to that uf '•*■ king/* 

Haviag boundaries, representative institutions, and a 
ment of its own, though connected by dynastic and ot}it 
tions with Austria proper, Hungary, iu 1848-49, first 
to improve its CoriBtitution iii tho sense of greater pari; 
tary freedom and of [>oUtical equality among tho r&rious 
that dwell within the I'calm. Royalty waa not to bo di 
away with, but only to \yi restricted in it« privilegee, Bol 
resorting to the ** extreme "_ step of biking the maoagein 
of their affairs into their own bauds, uatious gcner 
quire some act of intolerable oppression or treachery J 
committed against them b}* their rulers.' It was the 
dealing policy of the Habsburgs that drove the Iluttg^ 
into a war, during which tho reigning house was declafl 
have forfeited its rights; the way Ixiing thus paved for' 
establislmient of a republic, liad it uot been that the riiiiiig 
erties of the people were crushed under the weight of a doa 
military attack from abroad, combined with reactionary mo 
zueuta fostered by Imperial statecraft witliiii. 

Tho character of a mere "pi-oviuce" of tho "Auiitr 
Emjure/' wliich Ijord Palmorstou falsely attributed to Bi 
gary, at a time when she seemed destiued to acquire full 
poudence, was in reality imposed upon that country throu| 
fiad issue of the war. lu return for tlio declarutiou 
upon at DehreczLii, which prououuced the forfeiture 
" crown of St. Stephen ** by the house of Habshurg^I 
tho Kaiser now declared the Hungarians to liave foli 
their autonomy and their constitution through tho &ct 
rebellion. It was done on the Verwirkt^n^s-Tkeorit^ 
tlie special phraseology of Im|>erial officials. He 
Hungary was to be governed according to tho pk 
tlie monarchy the whole machinery of represontutire innt 
tions, both in state affairs and iu local matters, having b 
abolished by u stroke of the pen, or rather of the sword. 
iel etl tiolre plaisir^* — that haughty exprcssioa of K 
French despotism, wlucb even yet lingors in (lie officic 



IkA 



9.] 



Hyjhjary and Jtcrumanui. 



179 



I the Engliali Orvvm and its I'arliaiucnl* iJioiigh 
gjj...; ! : -iLA'cmiuout in England biw fortunately changed 
rthe better — vas to bo mado a hot'sli truth in the onco self- 
Vemed Mag}ar r*^a!m. 

r^M^n, for the 6rBt time, arose that Imperialist doctrine 
would not acknowledge any longer tbe distinctiona be- 
-Gveral component parts of the ** Anatrtan Kmpirc," 
- . uunfi whJL'h are so broudly Btiqpped upon them cither 
I the diScTGnces of national character or by the influence of 
arical prouping. There was to l>e a " centralized Austria" 
ider the hlack-ycllow flag, held together by the iron bands 
^ arbitrary rule, with no trace of national rights or popular 
' i>. standing. Roliert Bhnn, Mcss^iliauser, tind the 
iiipions of <Iermftn democracy, were in their bloody 
jms'at Vienna. On the gallows at Arad the hangman of 
ii;d, Royal, and Apo&tolic Majesty had strung up 
^liigyar generals and statesmen by the dozen. In 
ily the work of oi)prefl8ion was completed by numberless 
'i;il fwHillades. Tlier« wns consequently no impedi- 
hu fulliUuent of tiie Kuiser^s desires. At least so it 
carc<l for a time to the cabinet politicians of Vienna. 
fTct the Rchemo of ti'iunjphant tyi-auny would not work. In 
ifacu of their victor, — who, the better to mark the relation 
which he stood to the i>coplc of his capital, would never 
1818 down to 1860) ai)fK>]ir in public in any other than 
Military garb, — the ViemiCiio pi-osorved an attitude of sullen- 
tho more galliug to the court because it formed so 
'"utraat to the good-natured and forgiving temper of 
;ire-loving but withailree-mindcd popiUation. Year 
uW year passed by, but tlic Viennese would still remember 
fvr**. Theirs is tht; only town in Europe which can 
monument wortJiy of the clmnipions of the popular 
that foil in the street Gghts of the early part of IS'IS. 
I is a granite obelisk, towering aloR like a coloAaal finger of 
[ling. To the honor of the Viennese txi it said that, at 
I tery time when o]>prL>sRion was rampant, they matured the 
litiou for tbe erection of tliat noble memorial. Nay, 
Itlie government-, on being applied to by the eommimal 
ACQ, rofuaod to allow a suitable inscription to bo placed q\i 



180 



Hungary and HoumaTiia, 



[jj 



tlie pedestal, the " aaaemljled fathers" of iho town resolved 
a IVirnial decree to refrain from adding any inscription ai 
'' until it could be done in proper form ut a more propit 
time." 

Even as the people of Vienna would not be weaned 
their lil>eral asjjirationg, so the Lombards and Venet 
would not abandon their eager desire for a jmiction witli 
Italian hrotlu'ea. Against the Iialiane, it is true, so k 
they were unaided by foreign forces, the Court of Viemia^ 
able to avail itself not only of a commanding strategic ptnsil 
and a large military array, but also of the su])erior 
prowess of its non-Italian subjectw. Nor uiUHt it be forgcti 
Uiat, in the Lom^ardo- Venetian kingdom, national tendcn^ 
were scarcely to be found beyond the urban iwpnlatiuns 
tlic better part of the '* upper classes" ; wbilst the peasanl 
animated by class hatred against the signori, and attracted 
some degree to Austrian rule by a well-devised systeiu of | 
partial justice in minor social matters, looked rather coS 
upon the plans of deliverance formed by the demooratic pa 
of action, as well as by the more cautious and astute Pied 
tose politicians. Sint^o in Italy, as on the Continent in 
eral, the agricultural class forms the vast majority, in fact 
than two thirds, of the aggregate population, it is easy toJ 
tliat Imperial rule had, after all, to deal only with a very i 
though active, minority, which it was not diHicult to ore 
by a constant display of military force. The fact of the indS 
ence, nay, in many cases, the positive antagonism, of the li 
antry to Uie national tendencies of the more enlightened da 
has been testified to me by the two chief leaders of the It 
popular party. The nickname of ^^ Austriacanli^* was 
fore oiten applied to the peasants, ua well as to the time 
ing or unpatriotic members of the higher ranks. Even du 
the war of 1859 many peasants were foimd ready to sud 
the Austrian soldiery on its retreat. It was a state of 
similar to that which prevailed in many jirovinces for 
Polish, where the patrititic aspirations of the towns and 
more progressive nobility also found tbcmselve* chec 
during a time of insuri'ectiou, by the sullen indifiereuoe 
class which, from the remembrance of long-staiiduig 



Jlungaty and Houmania. 



181 



I, is of a somewhat, suepicioug disposition, and therefore, 
mlo, little incliiiod to co-operate heartily with the people 
le towns. 

t it was* also in Galicia, the Polish province under Habe- 
Hway. There class hatred was embittered even more 
n artificially fanned antagonism of race. In fialicia, the 
lotion belong partly to the Polish race, properly so eollody 
y to the " Ruthenian '* stem, which holds an intermediate 
ion between the Polos, or *' Lechs," and the Unssiaus. 
ading over Jjithuania, Podolia, Volhynia, Galicia, and 
hern riunpary, the Ruthenians, accordinjr to their territo- 
pOt*iti<>n and the extent of their mterconi-so witli their ira- 
ate uoighbora, approach in speech and tendencies the Poles 
le Russians, and may consequently, in an ethnological as 
AS in a political sense, he considered to occupy in a great 
rare a deljatablo grontnl. Those of them who are located 
alioia occupy the central portions of the province, around 
Eapital, the Poles proper dwelling in the eastern and the 
enx districts. This distribution of races, together with the 
i feuds between the peasantry and the aristocracy, enabled 
ernich> in 1846, to ((ucll a patriotic Polish movement in 
eia by a cruel massacre, in which the notorious Syela 
Bd an infamous part. It was a <leed the more liideous and 
TdI l>ocan»e, even from the point of view of Austrian di- 
lacy, a reconstituted Poland would bo a dcBirahle consiun- 
ort, as it would affcird a shield against the aggressive ten- 
iic» r>f Uus.sian Pansclavism. lint ttiough the Hutheniana, 
> 1846, have frequently been opposed by monarchical state- 
to their brethren, the Poles, the idea of Polish indopen- 
e could not he vanquished even in Galicia. Hence this 
(ko the aspirations of the Lombards and Venetians, formed 
r against t!ic establishment of a Centralized Austna. 
an even greater degree was tliis the case in Hungary, 
conntry could ho vanquished, kept down by the bayonet; 
t« political parties, with remarkable unanimity, would not 
of any p<^litical fusion with the other dominions of the 
e of Uabsburg. There is, in that polyglot country, — which 
(filhin its precincta races differing as much as the Turks 
:Qfix tlie Prussians, or the Italians from t\\e Du\AiV, — ^ 




Hungary and Houmania, 



[J 



wonderfully strong national spirit, the growth of a c 
hiat^frical development, agoinefc which the strengtli oven 
Joseph li. failed, though ho called ideas of progress to liis 
in hia attempt to overcome aristocratic privilege in the iu 
of ft more impartial, but nevertheless overbearing, mom 
ical rule. Hungary, during the popular stniggles of 1848 
was often called a " nationality." That appellation has, 
many public writers and speakers, clung to it; but in poii 
fact it is a misnomer. Hungary is certainly not a nation; 
in the sense in which wo speak of an Italian, a Germi 
French, or even a Polish nationality. It is rather a com 
of " nationalities *' ; and yet it has on unmistakable ch: 
of its own, which stands out iu bold relief and explains 
great degree the vitaUty of ita political constitution and 
fruitlossness of the attempts made for ita overthrow, 

Austria has been called a Europe in nnce. The 
the Sclavonic, the Romanic, and the Ugrian races are 
resented in it, besides various odd fragments of tril»C8 
genoously huddled together in some nooks and comers, as 
remnants and sediments of the migration drifts. What is 
of Austria as a whole is even more true of Hungai^ ani 
Bo-callod annexes. When wo look back into history, we 
Dacians, Baatarnae, Getie, Illyrians, Pue*)nian8, Sannata, 
yges. Vandals, Bulgarians, Alans, Avars, Huns, Sucvi, 
Marcomanni, GepidgB, Longobardi, Goths, Sclavonians of 
ent denominations, Khay&rs, Wallachians, and last, hut Ml 
least, Magyars — a people belonging to the same stock as ibi 
Fins and the Turks — successively sweeping into what to-dar, 
after the "Ugrian" or "Ungrian" trilje of the Magyars, is 
called Hungary. There are other European countries that !«?« 
been visited by a nearly equal succession of discordant 
But the East of Europe — Hungary and Turkey — have 
served the strongest traces of such national dissimilarity; 
some respects, various parts of Hungary aro even worse 
this score than certain 'l^u'kish provinces. There are dii 
in which every claim of one race is contested by half a 
other races. 

Hungary is inhabited at present by the central Mi 
r&cOj wJiich is mainly settled, oti t\ics ^\s.\ia", \\\ different Scl 



inn populationa, chicfiy inhabiting the more mountainous 
hut Btretdiing ulso» in greater or lesser compactneas, 
g the uortlieni, wofttern, and southern parts of the cir- 
iercnce; by the Genniin race, whicli has Rpread along 
t gn^nt artery, tho Oanuhf , and through the towns in gen- 
; and by th« Rouman, or Wnliacliian, race wliioli i9 scat- 
over theeaatem difitricts, where it tnuchoH, through Tran- 
anifl, the coj^iate population of the Dainiltinn principalitiCB. 
aylvanift, which tlie Him^arians insist on considering as 
of their own country, aa it covers their oaHtorii flank by the 
ier Carpathian range, is inhabited hy a majority of Rou- 
(peaking but somewhat uncultivated people ; the political 
,gtJi, social power, industry, and intellect being chiefly re- 
ited by tlie Mugyars^ the Szeklers, — a people of Magyar 
it, — and the "Saxon nation," — a German population 
tied tliero since the early centuries of our era. 
In a numerical sense, every race may be said to he in a 
bority.in Hungary. The Magj'ars, counting between five and 
millions, are pretty well o!5set by the Sclavonians, taking 
tew latter in the bulk. However, as the Sclavonians are 
anewhat scattered around tho circumference of the kingdom, 
iL'reas the Magyars occupy a more concentrated position in 
middle ; and as the fnrnier are, moreover, split up into a 
Jiber of tribes, — namely, Slovaks, Croats, Rascioni^ Schok- 
ttes. Wends, Ruthcnians, and otliers, — who lack a common 
wlium of understanding, their different languages being still 
llw state of simple dialectB ; tho Magyar nation lias natu- 
lily a position of greater influence, even in intellectual mat- 
8. The cbief source of progress in this respect, as well as 
industrial aflaira, is however the neighboring (Jerman na- 
Mi, whose pioneers of ci\-ilization have penetrated into what, 
the more ambitious among them, has sometimes been called 
ir Colonial Department in the East. Altogether, the German 
fpuUtion of Hungary may bo reckoned at about two millions, 
lives, fortunately, on the whole, on terms of good fellowship 
l^thc Magyar element, there being even a tendency among 
w Ocnnan immigrants and settlers to Magyarize themselves 
' Omir family names, so that, under not a few strange-aound- 
15 nauHMj, a " MuUer,*' *' Schulze/' or " Pfaunenftc\\\a\^'Ji" %% 



184 



Uungarif and Bm^mania, 



[J. 



bidden. Upwards of twu millions of Komnans occu|ij 
greater portion of Trausylvama, and are loosely scattered 
the districts Uitwecri that princiiHilitj' and the river Thfl 
Politically disfroncliiscd under the old Magyar confttitut 
which treated tliem contemptuously as the plebs Valachor 
they have, in some notable cases, heeu made use of as iiibtr 
monts for convulsing Hungary in the Imperial interest, 
which jMirt their low state of civilization — into which, 
true, they had been thrown by ariatocratic misrule — eminen 
fitted them. 

Shall I also mention the medley of Amauts, Bulgaria 
Armenians, 0\^8y clans, and so forth, which goes to makd^ 
the full aggregate of the Hungarian population ? Be it odo| 
to say, that it would bo difficult to conceive a more runes 
hodgepodge of '* nationaliHe«" and tribes than are to be foij 
thrown tAigcther, in " the haj>py-family ** faahioiu botwcfu 
Gar|)athian range and the Danube. 

But the strong state-forming power of the Magyars luis 
to the whole population a tone and a character of its own. \Vil 
all that variety of races and tonnes, which rendered it advii 
down to quite recent t'imea to use Latin as the ofFiciul and 
montary language, the Hungarian common weal tli had moHt^ 
tinctivc features, and was imbued with a spirit difficult to i 
down to the requirements of a levelling mntmrohical btiroa 
racy. Hence Hmigary has l>ecu able to outlive terrible 
ters brought n|>ou her from without and worse internal daiifi 
Never have the latter been more trying to liie cob- * 
realm than in the period immediately previous to tin 
of Vilagos. Battling for independence and lil)crty agaiimtj 
house of Austria, the Magyars were assailed from within hy\ 
cal counter-insurrections, in wliich the fierce passiotis nf be 
races, kindled by despotic guile, ran riot at the expense of I 
freedom which all might have eryoyed. Tims the Rcvoli 
had boon internally undermined before it fell under the wc 
of the combined armies of the Kaiser and the Czar. Buti 
that sad experience could i»ot break the sj)irit of tho Ma 
nation. The gi-eat ca|>acity for sell-government wliich 
Eastern race, whoso origin is to be traced to a nomadic 
alr/r had displayed in an equal degree with nations boastioj 



»•] 



Hwn^jary mid JRoumania, 



186 



,Q|;rlo-f?axoD descent, was slUl powerful enough to mako tho 
s lienr up againnt the discimra^omcut of tho time, 
'i iiipt made by IVinco Scliwarzeubcrg, after 1849, to 

>pcl them to yiehl a ready obcdiciico to tho rule of the 
"'-■i! miserably. So did tho more lil>eral, but Htill 
1 i ian. policy of Hcrr von Schmcrling, wlio endeavored 
Lud a coutralized Austria ou the constitutional principle. 
B first jflauce there was something 8j)ecious and captivating 
his latter a4:herae. To many it seemed but natural that tho 
IS " antiquated " institutions of tho different populations 
Austria should be altogether discarded, and a new funda- 
ital law, on the modern representative pattern, set up in 
stead, proclaiming uniformity of civic rights, irres[>ective 
lational history and distinctions of race. It was a plan which 
lost necessarily won the assent of tho great indnatrial inter- 
of the fiemian provinces of Austria, — interests cvery- 
- — - "tient of restrictions on their acti>-itr. To the great 
era, tho mere idea of a possible return to a stiite of 
ttiiiiCT under winch a custom's line might bo restored l>etween 
iwrr and the other dominions of the dynasty appeared 
rly preposterous. Their Bympathiea were therefore easily 
itcd on the side of the Sehnierling constitution, 
n the other hand, it was easy to see that if that constitu- 
were finally adopted, there was an end of the long-dreamod- 
natitution of a United Italy, and an Independent Poland, 
to speak of German Unity, which can never be complete 
out those Austrian provinces tliat have for so many centu- 
Ci)nned part of the Fatherland, — first under the Empire, 
then under the Uimd, or Federal League, which replaced 
At tlie samu time, tho Kungarinns, priding themselves on 
rinstitutiou nearly a thousand years old, would not receive 
tho hands and by the sovereign pleasure of a monarch tliat 
udi they considered their imprescriptible right. A constitu- 
thus arbitrarily be.st<iwed might bo arbitrarily taken away. 
L^ Hungarian id^a of u constitution was that of a compact, or 
'iBitt, somewhat like tlic ancient A rragonese constitution ; 
king being only considered a lawful king after having 
to observe the national fundamental law, and only re- 
iiaing a lawful king so long as he observed his \>axl <3l >^vi^ 







Hungary and JSoumonM. 

oomp&ct. Tbo Schmcrliiig notion of a conatdtuliou was j 
a convcniODt macliincry for raising mouoy und passing 
mentfl, with no "right of resistance" to illegal royal 
perial procodurea attached to it. Tliero was o radii 
vergeuce Ijetween the two opinions. If the Lil>oniIs of 
Schmerliiig avhool o&aertod that Uio now Austrian conAtitol 
was iu many ro5[)ecU more pro^^ssivd than tlie old Uiti 
rian statute, the Magyars replied, with some sliow of 
that progress was hest wrought out and secured by 
resolution of a people, and that, moreover, they did not 
simply to return to the old constitution of their countiy-jj 
08 it was before 1848, hut that they intended to accept also 
** amended laws " of that year of progress. 

On the continued refusal of the Hungarians to send depal 
to tliet new " Eeichsratli " at Vienna, Herr von Schmcrl 
uttered the haughty expression, '•^We ran afford to wait _ 
them! " Erents have proved that the Hungarians could off 
to wait for the downfall of the Schmerliug ministry. The i 
noeuvres which that able but crafty statesman employed 
order to bend the Hungarians to liia designs will be in < 
recollection of many readers. They were the same as Hh 
whicli had been employed during the Eevolution of IS 
Wliilst in Galicia the unscrupulous minister made uao of I 
Rutlienian peasantry for the furtherance of his Austrian ccnti 
ization scheme, he threatened the ifagyars with the nikiudl; 
of separatist movements, and contiived to induce tlje Tr 
sylvaniau Diet, in which a majority of floumau deputies i 
assembled, to send delegates to the Keichsmth. In tit 
he meant to surround, and circumvent the Magyar pof 
overpower it with a coalition of secessionist elements, 
pel it to sue for mercy. 

This plan, also, failed ; the trimnpb remoined with 
tended victims. To the undaunted perseverance of the fi 
Magyar leaders, not less than to the favor of unoxpoctodj 
which broke the pride of tJie Inifwrial family, the hucog 
constitutional movement, of which Francis Deak waa 
prominent representative, is to he attributed. TcMlay '. 
has onco more its ancient frontiers, its time-honored j 
mental Jaw, modified by the reforms of 1848. Its rule 



kn^ls 



Hungary and Hmtinania. 



187 



Dg taken a Bpecial coronation oath, is recognized only 

T\\e name of Hungary is placed, in all state docu- 

bnts, on equal terras with that of Austria proper. The Hon- 

s, who fought against the Kaiser, are acknowledged as hav- 

merited well of the country. Tlie rank of General is given 

to Klapka, Percyel. and Vetter, once among the military 

I of what in the llofburg was called a rehollion. lu short, 

resforntion of liberty is welluigh as complete as it could 

sibly bo under a royal r^g'ime. A few steps further would 

CO Hungary in the condition of full independence she 

oed destined to enjoy at the time of her glorious struggle. 

^Even the most thorough-going advocates of independence, 

ih very few exceptions, are, however, unwilling, midcr prcs- 

; circumstances, to hurry on matters in that direction. They 

I Pocks ahead, and will not risk shipwreck by venturing too 

What I have stated above in reference to the multifarious 

I with which the country is dotted over, and among which the 

davonians and Roumans are somewhat infected with seces- 

list dispositions, will explain this cautious behavior of even 

lical Magyar politicians. In the East, — in which Hungary 

^y well be included, — race plays a greater part than is con- 

ent with sound political principle. At the gate of Hungary 

an overgrown but still aggressive power, — Russia, — 

ich in 1849 effected the iinal overthrow of the Revolution 

augh the army led by Paskewit^ch. Russia aims at the 

>rptiou of the vast countries that separate her from the 

Bditerranean and the Adriatic. In her eager desire to pre- 

them for annexation, she carries on a propagaudism, 

sded on alleged consanguinity as well as on similarity of 

piginus crcciK The Sclavonian tribes scattered through Him- 

and Turkey are thus allured to unite tinder a common 

^onal banner, though in reality they differ as much from the 

lians, and from each other, as the Germans, Danes, Norwe- 

18, Swedes, Dutch, and English, all of whom belong to the 

mic stock, differ from one another. The Gi-eck Church 

fequally used as an engine of propagaudism by Russia. Tlie 

3k Church numbers among its members not only many 

liona in Turkey, but also several millions on Transylvanian 

Hungarian soil . T)}e importance of this fact w^a VQVio^viftA 



188 



Hungary and Itottvtania. 



[Ji 



in the so-called " Last Will of Peter I. " — a forged pnpei 
doubt, as I have stated in a previous article. — not less lictit 
tlian the famous exclamation ot '^* Finis Pohni.^ ! *' wrongt 
trilmled to KosciuskOf — but still containing maxims on 
the successive rulers of Russia have evidently acted. 

It is the fear of Russia which induces the Magyar statesc 
to refrain from steps which might become fatal to tlic vitalit 
of their commonwealth. What ia at present called tlie'^ex-j 
treme left'* in their Diet is chiefly composed of men who wor 
under cover for separatist ends. In the districts inhabited bj 
a Rouman and Servian speaking population these pseudo-rad 
cals have jost carried a number of elections* wliilst in the Mu 
yar, Germanj nay, even in the Slovak and Croat districtSj 
party favorable to Hungarian union has triumphed, 
who fail to ])erceivc tlie character of this secossionist uudtT 
rent are deceived by party denoniinatious. There are membcnj 
of the " left" who aim at detaching Transylvania and the 
vian Banat from Hungary ; others who, under the 
a '* Danubian Confederation " scheme, would swamp the 
yar nation by the addition of large numbers of a Sclavo 
speaking population from Northern Turkey, 

Against both these plans the leading liberal and radical] 
ticians are on their guard. Not even the name of Kossi 
who, unfortunately, has changed his political views as rep 
Hungary so entirely that he has actually gainsaid evcryt 
ho stated when on his great tour through the United Stat 
has been able to lend any lustre to tliat " Danubian Conf^ 
ation " plan. It is denounced as got u]) in the Russian intei: 
and in the heated discussions which have latterly taken 
ujMin the subject, it was brought to recollection that, tofl 
the close of the Hungarian revolntion, Kossuth had prof 
to offer the crown of the country to a prince of tlte itD| 
family of Russia ! Nor can this fact he explained away! 
the very documents containing the proposal have been 
liahed, and their anthcnticity is not denied. If the propoisi^ 
was not urged any further nt that time, it wjis becatis 
moved too quickly, and the subjection of Hungury hv 
arms had been accomplished before the offer alluded 
be properly made at the Russian head-qoartera. 




>.] 



l^MwuMnia, 



189 



lave only referred to these mntters as affording a key to the 
KUingness undoubtedly existing amonfr the vast majority of 
bgari&n politicianH of all parties to adopt the counsels now 
then vouchsafed them from h quarter to which formerly 
^boHt uicn of the country looked up mth cuuiidouce. 

fact of the elcctioua having gone against Hungarian 
bfl in the districts where a llonmiui and Servian iK>pu- 
oa i« in a miyority proves that there the ** Eastern ques- 
I " exercises an influence — a question of incalculalilo im- 
ance to tlie security of all Euro]>e. The Rounian leaders 
Jukarest, of the Bratiano stamp, aud the Servian ene- 
of the ifagyar realm, wish to cut up Hungary, the 
ner demanding the whole country as far as the river 
I have before me a curious correspondence, pub- 
Eiod at Paris in 1851, between Hr. D. Bratiano and a Him- 
exile of the name of Iran^n. In it (lie aims of the pan- 
jan propaganda are already openly avowed, the writer in 
I Rouman interest choosing the form of a republican pro- 
ion of faith, in order to render his doctrines acceptable 
le French public. It was at a time when France still 
in ap(iearaucc under republican institutions, the covp 
filat of Iwjuis Napoleon not having yet been perpetrated. 
the strength of that reimblican profession of faith, Sir. 
go subsequently 1>elouged, for a while, to the '' Geutral 
ropfuu Democratic Committee" at Loudon, of which Maz- 
und I^dni IloUin were members. Suddenly changing 
i^des, however, the brothers Bratiano entered uito relations 
tlie French government, and, on tl»o overthrow of the 
Cuuza in the Danubian Principalities, brought about 
be election of Prince Karl of HohenzoUem to the throne of 
k : proHent called "United Kouuioiiia/* Since then, 

li^ II party, which formerly professed an undying hatred 

of KiuMia, have been frequently accused of underhand dealings 
'sernment at St. Petersburg in a sense detrimental 
lui territorial integrity. Facts have come to light, 
that the Oanubian Principalities may indeed bo ro- 
ts the centre of that movement which aims simul- 
\j at the disruption of Hungary and Turkey, thus en- 
ivoring to deal a blow alike at a re-estahUshcd (tec «Va\]& 





190 f^nngwfy and Jtounumia. 

and at a stationarjr Oriental rule which is an impedloifl 
certain schemes of aggression. It is this unfortonato cg 
tion whicli places all thoughtful friends of progivss in 
sntl Oiloninia, whou cnlluii n^ym to side with one or Uie 
party on tho " Eofitorn question." 

It may Vks useful to east a glance here at the c- 
of the Czars to obtain influence in the PanubJan i i 
Ottoman supremacy over Moldavia and WallacUia had 
established in 1393, by the treaty of Nicof)oli, between S^ 
B^azet I. and Myrtclie I., of Molduria. It was sixty 
before Constantinople even had become n Turkish city, 
first the treaties stipulated for a more Ottoman 
Tlie course of events convertod it into a more sul-- 
rainty^ which gradually approached a complete sovere^ 
Soon, however, attempts were made at n roconquest of 
peudence on the part of tlic rulcre of Moldavia and WalU 
-who strove to use the ]>nvilegea left to them for tlirowii 
the Turkish yoke. It is at that epocli we find tho Czar of^ 
cow already casting a wistful glance on tho Danubiau 
luces. Iran III. — the same who married the niece of thi 
Byzantine Kmperor — is known to have ejitertn^ 
notions rea[>ectijig a claim of his own to the i; 
" Eastern Rome" ; and in furtherance of that object ho 
his house and his political interests witli Moldavia. Thti 
cesflors of Ivan also kept tlioir attontion tixoj un the Daut 

Now the Turks, acting upon tho maxim that Constantin 
must be protect-ed at tho Danube, took the opportunity 
victory gained by them over the insiu'pent Wallachiana to | 
Tert Wallachia into a Turkinh [lashahk. On their 
MoUlc>-Wa11achians became more and more accustomed to^l 
to Russia as an ally. It was during the war begun in 
that Peter I. made overtm-es to tho hospodars Ui secure i 
as confederates against Turkey. To Ihmtn CAntimi^ 
offered to render tbc princely dignity hon^Hlilary in hiav f* 
and to place his snccessors forever under Russian prol 
Dmitri Cantimir eagerly closed with this pro|K)ftal, 
treaty thereupon concluded, he was fetyled *' '^U^f^i Se 
ness, Lord and Solo Master of Mohiavin, Coufederafft 
tiffatar^ of Russia." A similar cjigagemont was draw^ 



»-] 



<t»<i lii^umanCd 



191 



:n Potcr I. and the Wallachian priaco. Both hos- 

then inrited tlio Czar to enter tlieir country' with bis 

ft aod, wben bo had crotsod the I'ruth, assisted him to the 

' their ability against Turkey. Peter, however, having 

rouuded by the Ttirks, xery nearly fell iuto the hands 

^dft cncmic«, and owed bis |)ersonal safety only to the cin* 

ist:' - mistress find future Czarina, Catherine, having 

i:. . — ^r in commajid of the Ottoman troops. 

om those days, Russian governments have steadily kept 

eyes on Moldo-Wallachia. Already in 1772 Catherine 

fpffOpcMed, at Fuksani, to render the Danubiau provinces 

ident. The project was shelved at tliat tim«. In the 

srationB preceding the treaty of Kudjuk-Kainardji, in 1774, 

ro;>oatod her demands. She ostensibly j)aradc'd the 

|kt of those countries to a national administration of their 

find contrived to obtain for the hosjmdars the title of 

srcignis/^ a» well as the privilege of being represented 

jostanttnoplo by diplomatic agents. At the same time 

gw»d care to assure to herself the important right of 

Buce, under cover of guaranteeing the constitution of 

licipalities against Turkey. 

ion of the Crimea offers in this connection a 
.nay well be .studied to-day. When, towards 
end of tJic last century, Cotherino I. was bent upon gain- 
ing on the Ulack Sea, one of her first acta tending 
1 was to (kvor the movement then made in the 
lea for forming that peninsula iuto an indc|>endent king- 
Toking advantage of the jealousy tlte Khuns of the 
nea felt towards their Ottoman suzerain, the Knssiau 
rnmont espoused the caoae of the Tanric Tartars, and thus 
tdved to bring about a sovei-ance of tlio tics wliicb for ceu- 
Im bud bound the ijeninaula to Constjintinoplo. Conse- 
liUy, ID tlia peace of 1774, the Crimea was ackuowledgi^d 
I'-nt realm, — ^^ dependent only vpon God** VLsy 
uussian wording. The people of the peuinHula 
IB bonceforward to govern themselves " freely." Such were 
'' ' ' . imiKtsed by Rusaia upon the Porte. Many 
rals even extolled the magnanimity of the 
iaa. 



192 



Hungary and Rmimama. 



A few years more passed by, and tJie wily dosignc of 
rino were disclosod. The Crimea^ unable by its own 
resist tbo pressure of Russia, and iiniiided hy the ; 
former suzerain, fell, in 1787, an easy prey to f 
iDAnder. Thus ended an ^' independence,*' tbe ostablin 
of wbicb had been so pompously heralded ! 

It was a favorite idea of Catherine II, to create Buoh "i 
pendent" states. Witness her scheme for tiio cstablisl] 
of " independent Hellenic republics/' under a Un- 
toratc. In this latter plan, it is true, she met w < tii 

failure. The insurrection she caused Alexia Orloff to fo 
tlu! Peloponnesus by means of Muscovite ogentH, drcwfi 
Greek priest*, utterly miscarried. Had- it been othonri< 
repetition of the Crimean game would have been the pr 
result. 

Every step taken by the Autocrats, in reference to the \ 
bian Priucipaltica, suiee the end of the lust century, wa 
effort to convert tbe hospodprs from vassals of the I*orte ' 
subjects of the Muscovite protector. Sometimes Uusxia wurl 
in this behalf by mere diplomatic Intrignc ; sometimes by \ 
tary invasion ; sometimes by getlhig uj) sluun insur 
such us that of Yptsilauti, lu 1821. The influence she acqv 
after the war of 1829 brought her very near to the accomg 
ment of her long-cherished ambition. 

In pri)]Kirtion as tbe Czars wiiwolidated their influence iH 
Principalities, they gradually droj)(K;d tlie idea of Moldo-^ 
lachian independence, only laboring for that of their 
protectorship. Thus, in 1848, wo find tlic Kmperor Nidw 
prououncutg himself, in a note Avritten in the n:io.st 
terms, against the foundation of an independent and free 
mauia, whicli had been the object of tlie i-evolutinu at Biika 
The interest the Czars felt in the scheme of " indcpendoti 
only lasted so long as they were able to direct the movem< 

The policy of Bussia in tliis matter, as in others, was al^ 
one of expediency. For the luoment, not seeing hor 
annexation, she is satisfied with setting tbe Boumans 
the MagA'iirs. The ctmsolidation of either of these «tut4 
tlio one of quite recent formation, the other only juat vfHiA 
to its autonomy — ia to bo impeded, and passions are 



3] 



Sungary and Roumania* 



193 



|iioh, It ifl no doubt hoped at St. Petersburg, will one day bo 
Bnalse both Uungary and the Prmcipalities as to place them 
|lhe mercv of a atroiip^r ueip:hbor. 

may hero say a few words as to the social condition of 
Ido-Wallachia^ and the political consequences resulting 
am. 
: middle class," bo wrcfto one of the most zealous defond- 
of Bouman indepcndoucc some years ago, when the Priuci- 
iliti**8 had not yet ac<iuired their present autonomy, — ''a 
jddle class haa scarcely begun to form itself in Muldo-Wol- 
We have, therefore, to look mainly at the peasantry 
he aristocracy. Now, unfortunately, thti most mimerona 
rthatwliich constitutes the bnlk oftlic population, namely, 
peasants, are deeply sunk in i^iorance and su[>erstition. 
bey are under tlic thumb of their (^lerpy ; and that clergy has 
Miucntly euongh shown Russian Itiaiiings. Of the noble 
lies, the majority owe their very rise to the former Musco- 
protectorate ; and of the spmt which auimatCH many mem- 
> of the Polish and Hungarian nobility, nufhing Is to bo 
nd amongst them. 
[There remains, consequently, only a party oT lesser boyards, 
i the jHjpulation, numerically somewhat insignificant, of a 
towns, in whom patriotic and liberal sentiments are to be 
with. This will exfdain how the n[)8tart Couza could so 
lily overthrow a state of comparative freedom, by dissolving 
National vVsscnibly in Napoleonic fa.sliion, and then appeal- 
to the sulTrago of brutish masses, to whom, partly, gross 
its were held out, or who were not int4;lligcnt enough to see 
real ca3e at issue. For several years Couza tlius held 
, apuig bis Parisian model. Great was the sorrow of real 
in tlic Principalities when they saw i\\Q very source of 
thus [X)isoned. 

Nothing remained for them but to resort to an a^tation 
linst tlic usurper in public opinion abroad, and to prepare in 
mean while a plan for his sudden capture and overthrow 
Bukarest. The emissaries of the Liberal party of the Prin- 
BlKilities, who were sent to Western Europe for the purpose 
intlncncing governments to look favorably ou the cause of 
It, had a most unsatisCactory reception.* Lord Pulineratoa 
roL. ax. — so. 224. 13 



194 



Smxgary and Romnania. 



[J. 



gave the cold shoulder to tlio confidential envoj thatj 
proaclied him with a message. I vividly remember the ' 
sions of sorrowful indignation which tlic laltcr iiaod befor 
when he came back, from that hopeless interview. 

However, the secret plan for the overthrow of tlie tjrranti 
bettor luck. It sufficed that a party of determined men,Tf1i 
had gained over his body-^iartl, appeared one night 
denly before his bed« presenting pistols at his heod, to 
about hia siwedy abdication. I believe tliose who formed 
original plau for the deliverance of the country hud nu ido 
eallijig a HohenzoUern prince to the vacated throne, hut 
rather bent upon the estahlishnient of true freedom. •Tliia 
any rate, was the notion of that oxceltoiit man, — himite 
cabinet minister of Conza before the latter had turned na 
er, — Mr. Pane, who had tilled at London and Parifi 
post of confidential envoy of the Rouman Libeml party du 
the time immediately pi-eceding OouEa*8 downiali. It 
through him that exiled Italian^ German, and French del 
cratfl were kept informed of what was quietly beijig prejn 
Unfortunately he was not to see the dawn of fjocdom 
appeared after Couza had l>oen ejected. But neither 
he the galling pain uf soeuig his country made (mco 
the instrument of despotic intrigues. The last L heard of ! 
was through the head physician of a well-known fi ' 
Vienna, where he had l>een ]>laced, and where, a Liu 
died in a state of mental aberration. Who knows wt 
sorrow at seeing tlie promising Liberal n)ovcinont among 
compatriots gradually thwarted by tlie elementa which auj 
gressive absolutism had set in motion did not darken 
intellect before so bright and lucid. 

Hungarians, as well as Roumaiis of the United Priiic{pAli:| 
might at present do much for the freedom of the Kast if : 
unfruitful quarrel of races were dropped. But the men of J 
Bratiano party still heap upon the Magyars the lunet 
ing insults, pronouncing tliem ^* intruders from Asia," 
might, without injuHtice, be driven out into the wildc 
from whence they came, and taunting them with "1 
ism," because their ancestors formed a nomadic ohii 
whilst they, the Rt^mans, are, forsooth, the desoenilant 



Hungary and Itoumania. 



195 



ttncicnt Latin race, — that is to say, if we keep to his- 
lal tnirlt, of tho iiilmhitaiits of a j>cnal gettloraent of the Ro- 
Empire ! As if we Europeans had not all successively come 

A*io, a little earlier 01* a litUe later 1 The Hungarians, 
oubt, 'were among the last arrivals ; aud Gcrtnans, ^vho 

had to suffer much from them at a time when they were 
u rtide niee, might bo least exjtected to l>o partial to 
But must not good Hunse teach ub to giro up all in* 
nia distinctions in presence of claims well made out by 
e struggles for self-government? Atternll, that Magyar 

had established ou the banks of tho Danube a sort of 
itiah Constitution," even before tlie time when England 

attained to pnipcr parliameutaiy gorenmient, thus prac- 
ly contradicting a superlioial race theory whicli is at prcs- 
too much iu voguo. 

.on tho other hand, we were to inquire into the Moldo- 
Uchiiui claim to a classic origin, it would be easy enough 
bow, judging the question cthnologically, that the thinly 
n Latin race of the ancient !»acians became, in tho cen- 
Es immediately following the fall of the Roman Empire, so 
Itowed up iu the invasions of Goths, Romans, PelchoncgSr 

a flood of Tartar tribes, that any remnants of the original 
uan elemcut must have been completely remoulded. The 
icipajjties bavo always served as one of the great gateways 
mgh which the tide of migrations flowed. Each wave of 

human ocean left its impress. Thus the *' purity of the 
igreo " of the Moldo- W'allachian population is rather doubt- 
Wliilst antiquarian research may exercise its ingenuity 
in the subject, the politician will dismiss tho ethuologicai 
at once, and only take into consideration the urgent 
tical events of the efxicb, which unquestionably point to 
necessity of maintaining Hungary as a unit. 

cannot do bettor, in concluding, than refer to tho dia- 
rsp which Louirt Kossuth delivered in New York in Decera- 

1H.*)J, and which is printed in the edition of his collected 
eliftB tnidor tho title, "On Nationalities." This speech 

made at a dinner of tho ])ress, presided over by Mr. 

nt, the poet. Treating of the relation of tlie Magyars 
lio othor races of Hungary, Kossuth said that " ro "wot^ 




Hungary and Jtoumanta. 



[Jul,, 



. . . .1 

1 

1 from 



has been more nuBreprewnted than the word 'nationality,' 
vbioU is become in the hauda of absolutism a dajigcrooft 

weajMU against liberty If longua^ alone makes unfr 

tion, then there is no great natioi» on earth : for there is no 
coimtry whose population is counted by millions but Bpe&ka 

more tlmn one lan^agc But on the Kunjpcaii cooti* 

nent there unhappily has grown up a school which bound tlio 
idea of nationality to the idea of language only, and joined 

political pretensions t,o it This idea, if it were not lot- 

practicable, would be a curse to humanity, a death-blow t« 
civilization and progress, and ttirow back mankind by cen* 
turies. It- would be an eternal source of strife and war. . 
Xotliing but despotism would rise out of sucli a fanatical 
of all mankind." 

Then, after having denounced those who would " claim 
Hungary to divide its territory, .... to cut off our right hand, 
Transylvania, and to give it up to the neighboring Wallathia j 
to cut out, like Shylock, one pound of our very breast, — \h& 
Banat, and the rich eomilry between the Danube and Thciai, 
— to augment by it Turkish Servia," Kossuth continued : "It 
is the new ambition of conquest, but an easy conquest, n«t 
by arms but by language. So much I know, at least, ihnt tfaii 
absurd idea cannot, and will not, be advocated hy any man hew 
in the Uniteil States, which did not open its liospitaljle shores 
to humanity, and greet the flocking millions of emigrants.with 
the right of a citizen, in order that the Union may be cut to 
pieces, and even your single Slates divided into new-framed 
independent countries, according to languages." 

" And do you know, gentlemen," the orator went on to 
** whence this absurd idea sprang up on the Continent? It 
the idea of Pansclavism, — that is, the idea that the mij 
stock of Sclavonic races is called to rule the world, as onoft, 
Roman did. It was a Russian plot ; it was a dark ilosi 
make out of national feelings a tool to Russian preponde: 
over the world." 

At that time the exiled Hungarian leader spoke and acte 
accordance with the views of the best elements of Ids nutioo. 
With his lafcr changes I have hero nothing to do. Ou tlw 
question of *^ Hungarian Nationality," the most progrcssirs 



^ffttf of . 

of Ins country still adhere to the opinions be then gave 
lleranco to, — opiniona founded in the very nature of t!nng8 
sUug in that peculiar Eastern region. It is not by shak- 
Bucli a complicated, bat still necessary, political edifice 
igary to the jn'ound that freedom can be promoted. It 
ber by raisinp up again those bulwarks of European secu 
which an encroaching autocracy has contrived to throw 
m through intrigue and brute force. Commonwealths like 
hoW! of Hungary and the Uanubian Principalities ought to 
hands in such a work. To venture upon deadly strife 
iritli each other cau only bring about for both of tliem the 
kte which has befallen unhnppy Poland. 

Karl Bund. 



Y\\. — 1. A Htittfry of the Litellectual Development iff 
Eicrope. By JoHX Wiluam Draper, M. D., LL. D.. Now 
Ynrk. IftfiS. 
VAnciftit Law ; itt Coitneetion tmih the Early nistj>ry of Society^ 
anti iu Relatwn to Modern Ideo^. By Henry Sumner Maine. 
London. 1803. 



Ktrby attempt to discover the laws to which social changes 

nfimn must run great risk of being fnistrated by the mere 

immuusity of the mass of details which the investigator strives 

Kirraiige in orderly sequence. .Seemingly numberless as are 

ttw (diemtmena dealt with by the physical sciences, they bear no 

Ppfjrtion, either in multitude or in variety, to the facts ui>on 

ifhich the historical inquirer must build his scientific theorems. 

rwt» concerning man in his pliysical relations to soil, climate, 

il, and the configuration uf the eartli, blend with facts con- 

eruuig the intellectual and moral relations of men to each 

hw and to tlie aspects of nature by which they arc sur- 

ndrtd. making up a problem of snch manifold and multirona 

■■, tliat it may well have long been deemed iiicapable 

v.,..,.it:U»ry solution. The fit subject of wonder is, indeed, 

ot Uiat wo ore as yet unable to arrive at ticcura\«j ^iGVm'OQ. 



198 



The Law» of HUtO}y. 



% 



amid auch a divorsified throng of phenomena, hut litat, 
aidering the moagreaess of uur kiiowledgv m man/ 
departjueuta, we shutild hnvo been uhia lo detect any 
formitj' wimtever iu huinnn affaii*3, and having detected 
affiliate it upon trustwoi'thy primordial principlOB, 

In determining the laws of hifttory, the ordinary iad 
methods, ao potent in chemistry and physics, are luai 
of hut little efficiency. The extreme hetfirogeueity of Bodil 
phenomena is apt to make their employment vt»ry iniisleadiufb 
Many of tlie wordt political fallacies now ciirrcut have rosnltol 
from the pcjverse application of tlie methods of Agreement aiul 
Difference to cases whore the composition of i^iii> 
plex as to render hopelcHS all attempts at an indui-i 
In the science of history, the deductive method must be ntfii, \\ 
no loss than in astronomy, tbuiigli under difltront c<' " 
aud with different limitations. It is no less essential, i: 
to conduct our invostlgatiou securely to its fmal issue, that m ] 
should make extensive use of elimination. Minor pn " 
elements must for a time be left out of consideration,,; 
the inequalities of motion resulting from the mutual attractiou 
of the planets were at first passed over in tho sourch fur tJ» 
general fornnda of gravitation. The discussion of eudlaii 
minute historical details must bo reserrod mitil the law of ' 
social changes has been deduced from more general phi' 
and is ready for inductive verification, A juw wide cj" , 
form a basis for historical science must needs be CTninently 
abstract, and can bo profitably sought after oidy by conlent* 
plating the most general or nifist prominent characti'-risticsof 
social changes. The prime requisite of the formula of whid* 
wo are iu quest is that it should accurately designate 
ohoogos under their leading aspect. 

Now by far the most obvious characteristic common to ni 
nmnber of social changes is that they arechajiges from a 
to a bett45r state of things, — that they constitute jthuscs of 
gress. It) is not asserted that human history has in all time^ 
and places l)eon the history of progre^w ; it is not denied 
at various limes and in many places it has been the hist 
retrogression ; hut attention is called to tlie fact — made 
b/ long familiarity, yet none the less obstinately miscouoeive^ 



I time^ 

m 




The Lttu)9 cf History, 



ira 



rtliat progress baa been on the whole the most prominent 
arc of tl»o history of a considerable and iuaportant portion 
mankind. Ajid it is to the scientific interpretation of this 
ct that the present article i» devoted. 

Tliuii^hsuvorul pjissiijrea in ancient literature express the opin- 
. that the earliest men wure little superior to brutes,* there is 
an for sufifjosing that the idea of continuous progress 
ttitorod into the social Jind political spocnlations of ancient 
bilosophers.t Far from supposing the liunnin race to havo 
in strength, virtne, and inteUigeuce, they for the 
^part liONPOiled its constant degeneracy. Scarcely could 
ro men of later times load upon a wagon the stones which 
lektor and Dioraedes hurled with case at their antagonists ; 
ud even decrepit Xeatur lightly quaffed from the goblet which 
i fevblor bands of succeeding nations might vainly strive to 
Kir from the table. Yet oven this heroic race has degenerated 
ioce tlio days of Tydeus and Belleruphon ; and in tlie iron age 
phich follows, men arc a(71ictcd with grievous calamities^ reap- 
bg jiiat retribution for their mischievous knavery and profli- 
TT nrdly does it j)rofit a man to be just ; % wholesome 
ontrition (Aj&dr) has quit the earth; and, as a fit consnmma- 
pon, Zeus may shortly 1k3 expected to overwhelm ull his un- 
worthy creatures in common ruin. 
Anong the Stoics and the Boman jurisconsults, the golden 
I of popular belief was refined into a blissful state of nature, 

• ,Tjr»i. Prmn 451-5IS; Etirip. Snpi*!. 201 -91S ; LucrcL V. 923, »^.; Ilonit. 
fin. I. iii !it : Jnvrniil. XV. 151 ; Mftiiil. I. 90-94. 

t " * : .Hire kIvps few or Tin hinttt of a IwUcf that the i»roEP«?s« of society 

l">*v 1 .voHe lo beticr." (MoinL*. |>. "4.) 1 do not recollect any pa»- 

I'wU^nr a hebcl in pPO{r'^^ ** clvurly cxpirsat'd, iink'ss it 1)C in SiinocA. Nat, 

jotiit V1L US. " Vitiirt tcmpili<{tti>ii>tiiqu(v tiiinr, lAtcnt, in Iiuy^i dies cxtrahnl, 
1 '■niifioTif aen dili^ntio. .... Veniet tempos, qno potteri no5tri tun nperta nos 
aoQitvuuruutitr-" 

Eif/T-* ('/iU7 ulor. iitti KOKov itm HiKaiav 

*\KXa Tvlt oftffd) foKrm rvXf if Ata rtpirutipavvov. • 

— lleaiod, Upp. Di. 370. 
" DamnoKn qitii] non iinminnit dies T 
Ai'tas [lamiriuu, pcjar nvi.^, lutit 

No<i niN|ini>reH, mox diituros 

Prygvntcm t'lUomtvm." — Uorat., Corm. XVL ^. 



200 



TJic Laws of Jlittorif, 



[j« 



wherein maancrs were simpler, passions more uo<ior cob 
and legislation more equitable, than in the period kno« 
liistorj*, Mr. Maine has admirably delineated the prot*et* 
which, from the constantly foH want of a system of priucid 
fit for Bettling disputes between Roman citizens and foruigu^ 
there griuliially aros« in the Prffitorian courts an Oijni 
of hiw founded upon customs common to all nn: 
That this process, even while being energetically carried 
should never have iKsen cDrrectly underdlood or int* i ' 
a phenomenon of moral improvement, shows in tht i 
ing manner how foreign to ancient modes of thought wn«{ 
conception of progress. Fai- frnni pereeiving the real chara 
of the noble juristic system steadily growing up under tlioir < 
supervision, — daily attaining grander proportions as the 
tesque and liarharous elements hallowed by liical usage onel 
one were eliminated from the mass of equitalde ideas wliic 
formed their common substratum, — the Praetors of the Ro]»u 
and the great Antonine jurisconsults, under the ii ' 
Stoic conceptions, supposed themselves to be merely 
their original integrity the disfigured and partiiiUy obliter 
ordinances of a ]»rimeval state of nature. Tlie state of fa; 
less morality and unimpeachable equity which cousiilutod 
ideal goat of their labors, they mistook for the shadow of i 1 
thougli unseen past. 

The migbty sway exercised by the ideas of Boman jurist 
dence over all departments of modern thought ia nowhere i 
clearly to he discerned than in the subsequent history of 
conception. The great writers who in tbo sevent'eenth ceoiti 
illustrated with exquisite beauty and clearness the doctrlna 
Public I*aw seem to have been completely satnnited with 
notion of a primitive natui-al code, fit for regulating intern 
tional concerns, and for supplying everywhere tl»e shortcoo 
of civil legislation, its degenerate offspring, whose wortli 
bo uniformly rated according to the degree in which it 
preaches the perfection of its parent. The influence of tlii'' 
conception, so thoriDughly incompatible with a consist^'nt 
in progress, may Iks Ijcst appreciated by reflecting nu the rxB 
to which contemporary legnl literattire, whether embodicdl 
expository treatises or in judicial decisions, is impregnate 



The latot of Ristoy^, 



201 



rho appeals to " right reason " and " natural reason," 
BIackstoiio*8 tim« have filled ao lars^ a place in 
^L-rUtiou, beai* imeijuivftcal marks of tliuir urigin. 
[wboi less 8ubtilc,but equally notorious, has been the Influ- 
of tJie Hoinaii Uioory n{>ou social nnd liisbirical spcouln- 
Tlie viilgar opinion that national decadcttcc in general, 
tho docllno of the Bomau Empire in particular, may be 
bod to the i>revalencc of luxury, and tho ahandoiinieut of 
aroua simplicity, i8 a ciiHC in jwint. The wide-spread no- 
oS a Social Compact traces its pedigree to tho same remote 
ce from which sprang the Kthics of Kpictotus and tho jurid- 
tbeorica of rutfendorf.* And the extravagtint doctrines 
ouaseau, advocating ao far as praoticable a return to tho 
liti?o Jiappy atato, 

•' Wbttn wild in woods the noble BAvagp ran," • 

merely distorted caricatures of tho prevalent opinions of 

juity respecting tho more or less hopeless deterioration of 

luinaa race, 

coording to Mr. Maine, " the tendency to look not to the 
hut to the future for types of perfection was brought into 

world liy Christianity'*; and his statement, with some 

ifications, may be accepted as profoundly true. Of the 
ancient nations, whose lines of moral, intellectual, and 

[ioua development by tfeir convergence resulted in Cliri.H- 
ty, the Greeks and Romans, as we have seen, embraced 
one conacut the melancholy doctrine of human rotrogrcs- 
Far more hopeful wa.s the view of life taken by the 

Dent tJiinkers and writers of Palestine. Among the Jews, 
tni'% traditions of a long-lost atnto of primitive innocence 
Imppiiiess were more or less current, as is scon in the 

ih of tlie garden of Eden and man's expulsion therefrom. 
Hiis particular tnwlition hears upon its face strong indica- 
tof a Persian origin,t and socms to have been entirely ig- 

!Hj by Jewish writers, until tho lato ago of tho apostles. Bo 



Sn i)ie d'tfcriHtun of the doctrino in Austin, rrov. Jarup. nsi -371 ; Knnl. 
Wtru, Th. II. Ab»clin. i. : Suhl, IMiil. ilw Hctliti, II. Ui* ; and Mainu, Cbiip. 

boldta't Ocnc»i«, O. 57 - S9 ; Colcnro, $$ leG5, lOS? - lOOU. 



202 



The Law$ of SUtory. 



a 



this as it mny, Hebrew prophecy, from beginning to end, I 
spired hy exulting faitli in a future state of glory 'iestiiU 
eclipse and render of no account all tbat had preceded it* 
&[efisiauic kLu<;doni might indeed iu its geucrul fetktur 
copied fii^m the romantic reign of David, but it waa toj 
copy immeasurably transcending it^i origiinil pat(x.^rn. 
exiKscUtiuns of future glory were, however, reserved for 
aloDC. For all other nations the fate in store m'os irrctric^ 
ruin. Tlicy were to be dnnUed in pieces like a potter's vq 
But on passing into Christian hands, the Messianic tU 
nssiuned a diiTerent as]>ect. It waa raotamorpliosed into 
doctrine of Christ's millennial reign upon the earth, iv 
blessings of wliich all nations were equally to share, <»u 
' plying with certain prescribed conditions. Thus, for the 
time, there appears a well-defined belief in the iK>«sibIe udra 
of all maikkind to future perfection ; thus do we fuid 
scntcd, albeit in crude and meagre outline, the rudimeni 
the modern idea of progress. Tlie Cliristian theory of hu 
jKjrfcctibility, ever presernng a subtle autagouism to thccli 
theory of deterioration, has in modern times assumed 
and imposing proportions, and, allying itself witli the 
sious of scientific investigation, it ia now rapidly drivinj 
opponent from the field. Anti<iuatod couccptious of a, 
state of nature must abdicate iu jjf^vor of modern couce( 
of a future state of equilibrium. Civil legislation mt 
longer be judged by ita conformity to the rules of "i 
reason," but by i(s i>ower of fulfilling the requirements o| 
vancing humanity. And as for the noble savage, the resji 
historic research may be summed up in Dickcns*s emphotid 
laration that ho is *' a prodigious nuisant-e and an enor 
superstition," — that "his virtues are a fablo. bin 
a delusion, his nobility nonsense.*' 

The illusti'ious thinkere of the last century, who end« 
to study human history from a scientific point of view, ' 
unconsciously led into an error from whicU conlemp 
writers have not us yet entirely freed themselves. The fft 
era of Turgot and Condorcet wore prone to regard prog 
sometliing necessary and universal. They attempted 
count for it, much as Lamarck tried to csplaiu orj^uc dev 



-] 



The Laura qf SUtorif, 



t, a» Ihe continuous and ubiquitous niuiiifcstation of an in- 
■ifnicy toward porfection. BaseloRs as sucti a theory 
., it has nevertheless iuiected BubBe<juent Utoraturo 
surjiristu^ extent. Thus Dr. Wiiatoly, in his edition of 
jop Riiig^B Discourseii, osHcrts Unit ** civilization is tho 
fetuto of man, since he luig o\idcntly a natural tendency 
it/' Upon which it hsis l^-en aptly remarked tlnit," by 
rity of roa^touing, old ago is the natural state of man , since 
^eridenlly a natural tendency towards it."* Mr. Adam 
under a nimilur confusion of ide:ui, when ho fnids fault 
Sir O. C. Lewis for upholding tho dttctrino of progress 
admitting that certain races have never advanced. In 
iig this course, tho great scholar exhibited his usual good 
and caution ; and, as ho was ever wont to do, knpt closely 
He facto of tho caao. Yet for this Mr. Adam accuses him 
irtually dividing mankind into two diOcrently constituted 
of whiuli the one (Kissesses, while tJie other lacks, the 
snt tejidoucy toward perfection ! f Closely allied to this 
is that which assumes that the theory of progression rc- 
ujH to suppose thut nowhere at any time has there been 
bmporary retrogression. Thus, Mr. Goldwin Smith, in his 
clun^ on the Htudy of History," holds that " positivists" 
not proAorve consistency without admitting that the reign 
?hiirlt.'» TI. was an advance upon the Cromwellian Protec- 
Mr. Alansel, in his " Limits of Religious Thought," 
more projjostcrously declares that on the tlieory of pro- 
sion wo ought to regard the polytheism of imperial Rome 
.liigher form of religion than the earlier Hebrew-worship 
^hovab. While thinkers of the opposite school, in order to 
tlicir choriahed doctrine, inconsiduratcly accept dilemmas 
liiijB sort, and strive to coax the annals of the past into 
uing the uninterrupted advance of civilization. 
[eiio thcso examples to show bow vaguely the doctrine of 
rei^s has hitherto been apprehended. The fallacy of sup- 
fig civilization to have proceeded serially, or uniformly, 
I oouscquejice of any universal tendency, is nearly akin to 
cy of classifying the animal kingdom in a series of as- 



204 



The Laws of History, 



p 



ceuding groups, — a fruitful source of delusion, wbicb iti 
Cuviur's great merit to have steadily avoided. The llieok 
habit of viewing progressiveness as a divine gift to man,* ' 
the mo ta physical habit of regarding it as a necessary att 
of humanity, are equally unsound and equally frauglit 
error. Until more accurate conceptions aro aw^uired, nl 
euro advance can be made toward discerning the true 
of social clianges. Far from t>oing necessary and unii 
progress has l)een in an eminent degree contingent a^d 
tial. Its career has been frequently interrupted by perio 
Htagnation or declension, and, wherever it has gone on, S^ 
been forwarded not by any inherent tendency, but by 
currcnco of favorable conditions. Again, without going < 
so far as to say, with Mr. Maine, that " the stationary i 
tion of the Iniman race is the rule, the progressive ihi 
ception," t we must still be careful to remember that 
conimuuities which have attained to a conspicuous de 
of civilization constitute a numerical minority of maul 
Contemporaneously with the rajiidly advancing natioB 
Europe exist the sluggish nations of Asia, and tlie 
stationary tribes of Africa and Polynesia. So irrcguln 
deed, has been the march of civilization, that most st 
progress may be made the subject of ocular iuvestigadfl 
the present day. 

In the science of history, therefore, old " means not 
chronology, but in structure: that is most archaic whicti 
nearest to the beginning of human progress considered 
development, and that is most modern which is farthea 
moved from that beginning." { Let tis, then, pluck fron 
minds every twig and rootlet of the insidious tendenc 
associate latouoss la time with completeness in deTeloji 



• " It ia irapossiUo for mere snvaj^rs to civtliw llicniaelve^ Cons 

miu nia!»t at H>inc pcricxl have rci^ivctl the rudiments of cirilimtioQ fmni n < 
human iustruclor." (Whiiielv's Rhetoric, p. 94.) A Htatfrucnl n> 
catnpatiiilc with the one ju^t quoted from the snmc author in the text. 

t Ancient Law, ]>. 24. In Tjlor'it Kjtrly Tlistorr of MHiikinil (p, lintf w«*t 
found some grounds for bcHuriu;» that ewn the luMt«i human raPC* have adwn 
in civilitntion, though lo an almost inapprccinblc extent. (Cf. Lewis, Metho4ill 
Obftcrvatiun in Puliiicii, Vol. I. p. a02.) 

t M'Lennui, Primitive ^larnftee, ^. ^. 



The Laws qf Sistory, 



205 



PTiilip m. was probably less civilized tlian it had 
mdcr Abdcrahiuan 1X1. 

Hew of tbeso consideraHona, hut little need be said in 
(m of the dootrinc of cyclical progresBion,* which was 
\j asserted witli more or. less cleanieas by several pbi- 
ars, but which owos its thorough olaboratiou to Yico. 
fsciit this tlioory is likely to find but fow adv<icates; and 
indestinc influence upon speculation is fortunately insig- 
it. We have never known the beginning or the jnd of 
oric cycle, and have no inductive warrant for believing 

e arc now traversing one ; while the analogies drawn 
tiio solar system, which probably first suggef^ted the 

, are &ut!iciently disposed of by the fact that even llio 
juj iiioti'ins wei-o not cyclical so long as they were pro- 
ng toward mobile equilibrium, 
tificd by the foregoing reflections, we are now in a con- 

lo exauiiuc a very renmrUable tbeory respecting tho 
tatiou and development of society, which, tliougli long in 
imeutary form fiimiliar to the minds of scholars, has only 
1 tho present century exerted a notable influence. I 
to the doctrine of " the social organism," of wliich it will 
xveniont to begin by scrutinizing the earliest form, — that, 
ly, in which tlie whole human race, with respect to its 
Dpment, is likened to an individual man.f The coucep- 
ifl an old one. Plato, in his "Republic," instituted an 
rate com])ariaon between the chief divisions of society and 
icaliics of the human mind ; and Hobbes, long afler bim, 
vorcd to trace with still greater precision a resemblance 
>cn society and the human body, expending in the effort 

laudable but bootless ingenuity. More recently, Rot- 
iu the introduction to liis AUt^emeine Geschkhte^ has 
ud universal history as the biography of mankind. The 

conception frequently appears in the great work of 

' "Jam rv«lit ct Tir^o, rcdeunt Sflturnin rciinn, 

AVer n-it tarn Tiplir?. vx altera niiir vrliot Argo 

Dt'ti-clos liiTtiajt: oruQt r]UO«|ue iilr<.'rn U-lln, 

AU|ua itcrum uil Trojum mngnii* mUtcnir Achilla." — Virg. Eel. IV. 
I lUxtritic i* «liitinill;r stmcil hi tlic fomoHfe rcmnrk. trf FiuraK — " Toutc la 
inn lie* Iioiiitu«9. |t4<iiilnti! Is tun^^nc ^uiic flc^ biitli'S, duit f.ta* riknsid^ii^ 
aa soul liMiiiuic, qui iuluUtc tui^oors, ct tjui t^pruid conUniu:\\cm«:i\l." 



200 



The Latva of HtMtory* 



H 



Corato, and the part played hj collccliro Kumanitf in 
later speculations is well known. But no preTioiis write^ 
pushed tbo analogy between individual and social de\ 
so far as Dr. Draper. It is the central idea whicl 
though not always efficiently, to biud together the innrtl 
hctcrogcnoiius mass of facts accumulated in his " llistor 
tl»e Intellectual Pevelopment of Europe." Pri?mising 
" man is the archety[>c of socioty^ and that individual de* 
ment is tl»e model of social progress," Pr. .Draper pr 
divide* the history of civilization into five distinct 
namely, the ages of Cx-edulity, Inquiry, Fnith, T 
Decrepitude ; answering respectively to the period.s ... 
Childlioodf Youth, Manhood, and Old Age, in the inti 
ual*. It soon appears, however, that collective hnmfl 
corrcsiwnds not to one individual, but to several ; for Grt 
civilization having passed through all these epochs, and 
expired, modern' civilization entered upon its career, iu 
it has by this time attained tlic estate of manhood, 
history is treated as a digression, and its pf>sitioD in the 
of development is not clearly indicated. The intoUccti 
velopment of the ancient Jews, so essential au clemeul iii; 
history of civilization, is entirely jmssed over. And 
Egypt and the great Asiatic cnmmunitioH, we are led to 
that, after running through the earlier stages of national j 
tliey had, by the dawn of authentic history, arrived at oldj 
The mere statement of this arrangement is duubtVsD* enc 
to reveal ita pun.^ly nH»itrary charact^jr. Kut th(^ impor 
of the subject will justify a closer examinatiou. Let us 
the chronological limits assigned by Dr. Draper to his sua 
aivo epochs. The (»rook age of credulity, ending with Tl: 
is followed by the ago of inquiiy, which closes witli tlic SoplJ 
The ago of faith extends from Sokrates to Kn' 
of rftJ\8on from Aristotle to Claudius I*tolem;i 
decrepitude from Philo to the closiug of the Attic scho 
Justinian, Forbearing to criticise the earlier parts of 
scheme, it may be rt^marked that the age of faith is an ent 
superfluous interpolation. In so far as the labors of Sol 
resulted in the application of dialectics to lopcal and ethj 



Draper, pp. 1, U, IC. 



The Laio9 of HUtory. 



20T 



•pbj, the ]>criod in question was nn age of inquiry ; in 
as ihey rtjjinlttMi in tiio estuMisbment uf nu improved 
ic method} it was an ago of reason. It ib indeed difH- 
■ ' ow P/rrho and the New Academy con be regarded 
iuting prodncU of an a^e of failli ; or how Sukmroa, 
nriginator of the most powerful scientific impulse which 
reek mind ever underwent,'* * can be said to have nsb-. 
in such a pcriod.f It may likewise bo asked, In what 
ct does an age of faitii differ from an age of credulity ? 
faith we moan the attitude assumed by tliorongtily re- 
is minds in contemplating^ the universe under its unknow- 
li£poct, then au a^c of faith has not yet been reached, and, 
d of correspondinf? to the youth of mankind, it would 
cr to it» fullest maturity. The only other correct dcfi- 
of faitii is that which makes it. synonymoua with credu- 
And whichever of the two wo adopt, Dr. Draper's classi- 
on must equally 1h3 pronounced a failure. 
bift arrangement of the epochs of European history, there 
Itill more striking anomaly. The age of erednliiy is not 
iclly marked. The ago of inquiry embraces the period of 
brmation of Christian doctrine, ending with the capture of 
I»y Aiaric The age of faith extends from the foundation 
dperial Constantinople to the Renaissance. Thus it will 
iticed tliat tlie first live Cliristiau centuries are assigned at 



Irow. UlBtory of Gwcw. Vol. VIII.. TrefiiM. 

(r- Ihupwr's wliolu luvouni of Gm-k philosophy is dtrnngi'Iy inaccnrniB ; t)iit 
tfif ic Itctrayi io mucli CAruleuncsa dm liii ircntmem of Sokrntcs. lie neither 
■UmL' hi» n'lntitjii lo the Sopltist* nor him utlituilu towanl jibjaiciil investiga- 
»luL'-!lv Lnoring all that grent scholar*, like Mr. Groic, have wiitk-n on the 
•Jmfnt or Biicnn i« etpiall^r pcrvenw, ronsiotinj; chicHy of whoIe!ialo 
.;^aiiut the f^rcat lUAatcr of inductive philu^ophr heoiu.'ie hu did not 
lif the iliscoverici* of C<tpcrnr(fi» anJ Gilbert. If gival men were lo bo mcai- 
tli. ir -liorti^otnldgD in!<lcu4 of lhcira<:hicrl:|llc^t^, tlier nii;;lit nil faiivo to ktep 
lis. Lpihniix iT.iccteil Uio low »f irrnvimtiim ; I.n|>lfti\' hea]»ci| Pon- 
■■n.x>rt*a of Frc'rticl ; Cornie est-liewctl the rumlu of pityrholoB-ic ro* 
; IJarre/ contnidictcd A^('lli'(l fiittcovery of the lacieali ; nml how often hut 
iDlarky tleltiiiiion uf Ufti hcvn ■pinie'l in iIen»ion of one of the |£rcaie.«t 
['niMi nui'uinmjito observers the worKl hiis ever »ecn. In Docun's dav 
Iprnvc dilEcultipii KitPticlinK ihc Cnpcniintn theory, vrhirh were fmt solved 
<n. Iimlf a cvutnry later. If it t<t a nmrk of ^'cniua rvudilr to uccr|)i new 
iu, it in 110 IfM R innrk of wiHtloni to bedtiisDti>'ticd with imperfect ovidcnco. 
til. Unier of KittarD, 65 ; and Laplace, Estal tor les Prvhobilii^, 25S.| 



208 



The Law» of ffistory. 



[Ju 



once to tlie Earopeau ages of inquiry and faith, and tq 
Circck agifs of rcusoit aitd decrcpltudo. Now, who wcro 
Kuropcoiie who arc represented as emerginj; nt that ttiuci 
intellectual childJiood iulo intellect iial youth ? TUcy we? 
the most part the very Greeks who, by the mime philos<»ji 
indicatioUB, arc 8uid to have bocu paafiiug from maahouii 
old ago. The same influx of Oriental upon Hellenic tiwfi 
18 judged to he nt ouce an iudex of senile decay and of yout 
vigor. Can anything more clearly show the arbitrary cl 
ter of the whole arrangement V Chrislianity was a» mil 
j)roduct of ancient thought as Neo-Platonism. Forpliyry] 
Proklos were no whit more Hellenic than Clement and Or 
It was the advent of the German tribes which introduced 
modern state of things ; and tlie closing ages of antiquity i 
be rightly ealled either decrepit or inmiaiure. The clabor 
of the Christian system was their a\)8orhing work ; and Ohriq 
ity was in nowise the oflispring of nndevcluped intellig« 
comprised whatever there was of greatest practical cffi< 
Hebrew theosophyT in Greek dialectic^ and in Roman jurid 
dence ; and all this diversified material it fashioned int^ 
enduring mould ui>ou which the features of modeiu so 
wore destined t^) he modelled. Symptoms of the childbt 
society would moi'e judieiously be sought ft>r among the I 
barian followers of Ododccr and Clovis ; and the degcn^ 
continuation of ancient life might perhaps bo assigned (c 
Byzantine empire, which lingered tlnuugh Uie iliildle 
neither adding to the past achievements of the Grecian pB 
nor taking part in the energetic movomcutu going on 
side, until its profitless existence was terminated by the i 
scymitar of tlie Mussulman. 

The history of the Arabs, when carefully studied^ ykJ^ 
Dr. Drapcr*s theory no better support. There is no enj 
that the period of faith ushered in by Mohanuncd wm] 
ceded by anything which could be called on ago of in(] 
The century of glorious religious and niilitary »< 
followed the death f»f the Prophet undoubtedly cub 
brilliiuit i^e of reason, which, long surviving (lie political > 
of the Arabian empire, was only extinguished by the arrif 
brute force in the shape of half-civilized Spouiarda and] 



19.] 



Tha Laten of Htstm/. 



209 



3tis Turks, Horciii lies tho difficuU.y of assijo^nuig to Ara- 

oivillzaiion an ago of decrepitude. From iKjIidcal cousid- 

tiouA alone, tliat ago may be suid to have comnioiicod in the 

witJi ilio accfiiisioii uf Motassem (a.d. 83H), and in tho 

one hundred and ^y years later, with the death of the 

Almauzor. Yot the most iUuslrious acieniilic achiove- 

%A of tite Arabs took place long afler thiB. The great 

of Avcrroes, Arzachel, Geber, Alhnxcn, Algazstali, and 

arc all eoinpn»cd within tlie eleventh centnry and 

half of the twelfth. The drcaiy ofoch of Almoravide 

siicy was* at (he saiuu (iine an c]i(j('h of active intellectual 

3r thcfniincnt rank which he assigns to Anihic civilization, 
for calling attei»t.ion to tlic innumerable ways, hitherto not 
;iout1y recognized, in which it has stimulated the aubse- 
'lopment of mankind, Pr. Draper is entitled (o re- 
,;tl pnuBO. Dul so much cannot be said for the odd 
Mtion exhibited throughout hia work, not only to refer tho 
pnrt of Greek culture town Egyptian source,* but unifonnly 
|exaU tho uon-Kiiro|>oan civilizations at the exiMjnse of tho 
opean. This tendency has an obvious connection witli hia 
^niim that the groat Asiatic nations passed in rcuiuto an- 
nuity through the earlier stages of collective life, and arrived 
ago at a atationaiy but vigoroua old age. History, how- 
id '' ifTord the requisite data for enabling us to reason 
» slJito of Asia with nmcb certainty. Neither 
3, Uindus, Assyrinns, nor Egyjitians seem over to havo 
ed the art of insuring authenticity in their records : and 
ipply to the accounts of these ancient nations the rigor- 
[ canon* of criticism laid down by Lewis and OrotOjWe shall 
to tho conclusion that wo really know but little about 
But it will I»e well to note that the extremely rude 
barbarous structure of the Chinese language is decidedly 
war with the theory that tho Chinese people liavc at any 
1 boon notably progressive ; and the moat cursory perusal 



' excnTjig;°nt Uironr of a profound Ecirnee poiacsscfl hy ibe K^rjiiUn 
from B ri^ttioic antii(uit^, nii't imparieil to ilincrnnt Greek pbtluH/plicm, 
aitrrlv dn4tru\nl liv Sir G. C. licwiii, in lits Irnmul work on tlia " Aii- 
^«f ihe Aacienu." 

ctx, — so. 3S4. H 



210 



The Laws of Hiitorif, 



of the writings of Confucius streiigtlienB the philolojnc 
eucc that China, for from having readied un ad^iineed 
development, haa been irrevoi'nhly fix*^d at a very low |! 
The nation whose greatest literary production ia tlie " 
Chou" may perhaps be lingering in stunted infancy; 
carttiinly not enjoying a green old age. While with n^d 
Egypt ;ind Hindustan, as well as Assyria, it may be sm) 
the colossal mouuments whteh buvo adorned tlioHe coau 
since jirehistoric times bear witness to the former 
of a Imrbaric des|>^)tiam totally inrompatihie with B"- ' 
ity, and therefore witb well-sustained progress.* The seal^ 
upon these moninncntK, moreover, betoken a very tnidcvel 
condition of tiie artistic faculties. Space permitting, it « 
be easy to show thut the costo-systom of Hindustftii ha 
Bultcd from the crystallization of family relations - 
a quite infantine state of society.f And the social ] 
of Egy])t, so far as they are known, have sinnlar impHcat 
Not to dwell too long upon details of tliis sort-, it mi 
observed that the hyf*othc«ia of old ago is (iltogelher ii 
quate to explain many striking phenomena of national dei; 
Marked endcnees of a falling off in civilization b; 
among the Tunguz, the Kalmucks, and some h 
tribes, as well as in South Africa : % and no one will con 
tliat, in the caj;e of Uicse archaically modol1c<l conuttoo 
decline can be pronounced e4iuivalent to senility. I do lU 
tach much weight t« the current opinion which a«cribC4 
declension of higher communities t<i thoir conquest and abi 
lion by less cultivated races ; though the conquest of medi 
Russia by tbe Mongols may porhafM be cited in its sup 
For when a civilized nation is thus compelled to snecin] 
barbarians, it is usually owing to the presence of vitjil d^ 
in its internal structure, which may safely lio presumwl 
cato spontaneous decline. Greece could not have Iw 
sorbed by Macedon, Rome would not have yielded 
Teutonic assault, the Spanish Moors would not bati! 
their empire, had not domestic decay preceded and \xxn 

• " Ancient Egypt mny ** considered an n jireat hii/taviium, or fiUnttd 
Ytlcd by llto ciilire popuUtiuii ai tlie kiTi[;'s slitvca."^ Ia-wU, ikixx. 
1 M'l>cniinn, I'rimilive Mfttriaf^, p. 355. 
/ TyloT, Early Iluitory of lVikuVinA,pv-\**i^W. 



a d^ 
liat? 



1^ 



77te Laura of Hlttory. 

ViolGacc. But in noidior of tJio&c; three trpicol cases can 
3wiiig weakiiesa bo interpreted as an index of political 
ge. The Greeks were conquered because they had never 
ked jKilitiral uttaliitity, though if Athena had t>eeu victoriuus 
PeK>|X)nri03inu war iliey mij;lit have done so. Instead of 
\\y uniting to fnrui an integral nation^ tlieir numerous 
:>ramunitte8 had by mutuiU repulsion continually woak- 
icaeh oUier. But the unsocial spirit of autonomy, to which 
»ult was duo, was at its maximum in the earliest period 
itheutio Grecian history, and cauuot tlierefore be cousid- 
. fiymptoni of old age. The fatal defects in Roman civil* 
wert^ Uic draining away of tlie rural jwpulatiou of It:»ly for 
ary purposes, and the ciuisequent expansitm of slave labor ; 
ck of a rt^pre.scutAtivo system of government, which, with 
toriai onlargemeut, rendered necessary an imperial dcspot- 
and the ignorance of political economy which allowed 
cchiu to ostublibli a maximum price for coru, aud which 
ried tlie adiuiuiatrafion of the provincial revenues to the 
bjty of private speculiitnrs. Moorish civilization perished, 
»e it bad uo municipal, aristocratic, or ecclesiastic bodies 
between the calijih aud his equally enslaved subjects. 
I of these flaws in sc)cial organization have any special con- 
on with overripe senility. They belong to the earlier 
!r than to the latter epochs of national life. Aud I believe 
jry, if narrowly scrutinized, will yield no support wliat- 
lie statement that nations grow old and die. 

r's theory that social life repeats the phases of iu- 
Dil life yn{\ not, therefore, bear a critical examination, 
tientary ai* are the considerations winch have been ad- 
1, they still suffice to prove that his division of history into 
|li8 is (lioron.ehly fanciful, and they imply moreover that 
similar division, sustiuned though it be by numerous 
moat surely be overthrown by other facta which are 
jMy essential. Dr. Drajtor^s arrangement is perhaps as 
u uny other which could be framed with equal minutc- 
but all such attempts must over be impracticable, be- 
st u|>on an unproved and unprovable assumption. 
a«isiuiiIation of the social to the hinnan organism 
be urged two insurmountable objectious. lu U\q ^t%\» 



212 



The Lftfi>ii of Hi9tory» 



place, a social aggregate lias no definite form. It hns 
metry, either spherical, radial, or bilaleral- Tt lias iiol c 
the specific unsymmctry wliich characterizes the mnllm 
Fluctuating and irregular to the lost degree iu Us cxttr 
shape, Bociety might more fitly he compared to a prilvp^ 
than to miything higher in the scale. In Hie second ; 
living units of society " do ntrt and cannot logo indi\iv..i... . 
sctousncss," while " the community as a whole has no cor 
rate consciousness." " The corporate life njust here he i»idw 
vicut to the lives of the parta ; instead of tlio lives of the pa 
being aubserrient to the corporate life." • Of those di«ti 
tions, the second is the more important, but both are fnni 
mental. Owing to the Protean changes undergone by Aodi 
in its figure, it has been impossible for Dr. Draper clearly 
I determine the immber of social biographies of which past 1) 
tory consists. Yet either the whole human race must, on I 
theory, be likened to one individual, — as was done by Past! 
— or its separate communities nmst bo likoned to sevoral in 
viduals. In the first case, wc have an individual, of wfai 
some parts develop, while others do not ; and in the b«W 
case, we have a company of individuals of whom, while wM 
have attained various stages of maturity, others have ling»y 
in perpetual infancy. With these last — the stationary savi 
tribes — Dr. Draper's theory cannot even pretend to do 
Their history presents not even a superficial resemblance 
individual life. TliQ human child either dies or grows to n| 
hood. Seeds kept for centuries in au Egyptian seimlchrefl 
flourish when exposed to sunlight, hut with man such 
pension of development is out of the qucstion.t 



* Spencer*! Eunn, Sd Htries, p. I&4. 

t Viewed ofl a formula for intelloctiial dcvolopmi^nt Alone, tli- 
truth mntainL-4l in Dr. Druiwr's tlimirr ItiLs Xntva luurh iiiutr iK'> : 
by Corato, in his well-known doctrine of tlic ihrtv itsuci of imiiiul 
Thnt the bnman mind adrancw from crvduUiy ihroucli inqnir)- to knowlfl 
niftriicd inslAOce, nnd probalily tU» only oitc, of th* (illi-t:i'<l |utniUi<IUni (j«tl 
individual and llie nwi.'. This kind of prtiKn.'**ioii. tojtetlicr with ii vatt Dl 
oihcr ftrikinjt concoptions. is exprT*<-o<l In C.nmxv's tinu-^wvwt ilmt hiitnart 
lifu panwd fmm tlie thwlo^ficfll, thronifh iTio nictiiphy«icnl. JDio ihv 
To thrse ihr<!M pcriodn Dr. Drapi-r*A a^^ of m'<lnli[y, iminiry, ajid 
Mid roQghly to (XirrcKpond : ihiin^h fhi^ Iflticr, far rtiorc lliaii tha fur 
thv nnrrire of rhrmioIuKicttl epochs, and hnrc accordingly s cuiiaiM 
Mati a d/minishcd value. 



Mb 



^tfk^ 



The Lawt of Jlitt^ry, 



218 



u( lliouph Dr. DrJiper's theory does not express tlio Iruth, it 

rtJjt^less eontuins nit ajiproximntion to the truth. A so- 
ty cannot imlcjod he conjpared to a man, but it may still be 
id fui an organism. And the laws of social evolution will 
been to a great extent determined, if they can be proved 
identical wiUi the laws of orj;anic evolution. The law 
g to whicli proirrcss takes place in tlie animal and 
ilo worliid, dicciivercd by Von Baer, has been extended 
the phenomena of human society by Herbert Sjicncer. A 

illwdt rations of the general law of organic evolution w^ill 
ist tho reader in undorstunding the special laws next to be 

id. 

he researcliCH ofilarvey on generation estaljlished the truth 

I every animal hu» at some period of itf^ existence consisted 
ply of a structureless and liomogeneous genu. Whether 

germ is detached from the parent organism at each geuer- 
)u, as in all the higlier animals^, or only at intervala of sev- 

gonerations, as in tho Aphides^ or plant^lice, matters not 
the general argument. In every cuac the primitive state 

n animal is a stat'O of almost complete homogeneity. The 
m-cell of a lion, for instance, possesses no obvious charac- 

tic wheruhy it can he dintinguishcd from the germ-cell of a 

ti or a dog. Moreover each part of it is an nearly as pos- 

I Ukc every other part, in texture, in chemical composition, 
temperature, and in specific gravity. Here, tlierefurc, in 

waya it is seen that homogeneity is the parent of bctero- 
Iflify. In tho firKt place, all animal germs ai-e homogeneous 
Ii respect to each other, while tho auimaU dovcloj)ud from 
Di present all kinds and degrees of diversity; and, in tho 
oud place, each germ is homogeneous with regard to itself, 
Qe tiie creature developed from it is extremely hetcrogene- 
Tbe successive ditlereutiatiunb and mtegrationa by which 

change is brought about may be found descril}cd in any 
ilorn work on organic development, and need here be but 
ifly sketches!. Tho first difterentiation is that between the 
ooating of tho cell ou the ono hand, and its interior con- 
9 on the other hand. The outer eoating is then differ- 
iatcd into two layers, the imter layer being destined to 
imc U)o ncrro-muscukr system, the inner layer to ytodvLCA 



214 



T/mt Lttu'8 of Higt<ny, 



the digestive apparatus. Betweoa thcso two» by a fuj 
differentiation, arises tlie rudiment of the circulatory ir 
Then are successipely dilTereiitiatod from the alimentary 
the liver, stomach, and various secreting glands, until the 
homogeneous intestine becomes very complex. Along with 
this, a piirallel process is going on in the outer layer: thi 
nervous system, at first appearing as a more groove upon 
surface of the germ, finally exhibits an almost endless li 
geneity. First, there is the dilTereuce hetwceu white and 
tisflwe ; then there arc the differences between tho cerol 
the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, the sfiiual cord 
the sympathetic system, each of whicli pai-ts, moreover, ii 
treraely heterogeneous in itself; and then there are the 
merahle ditferenccs entailed by the highly complicated coi 
tions established between one nervons centre and onoth 
the inextricable crossings, iaterlacings, inosculations, am 
tanglementa of different seta of nerves witli each other, 
the circumstance that some nerves are distrilmtod upon 
clea, others upon glands, and others u[Mjn gaiiglJn, Tins© 
suffice as examples of differentiation. Then, as cases of 
gration, may be cited the union of all t!i* '" '' 
one aft^r another differentiated from the >. 
tory canal, into odo distinct organ, the liver ; and 
union of the anterior vertebral to form the skull. It sbonl 
noted that integration is Just as essential a part of ttia 
process as differentiation. If the latter alono t4>ok pi; 
should liave simply a chaotic medley of organs and 
Both operations arc rei|ui8ite to produce .a system of oi 
capable of working in concert. And if cither process goamfi 
alone, in any part of the body, disease, and often death, ti tki 
result. Cancers, Ivpi exeilentf.s^ and nndignant tumnra flW 
merely vague differentiations, which, never becoming intogrsttd 
in harmony with the rest of the organism, end by i 
finally destroying it. To give a full list of the di 
which take place in the course of the evolution of o singla 
vidual would bo to write the entire history of tho animal 
ism. This was done^by Von Baor; and whwvor wdl t«l 
trouble to i*cud his Entwickctuni^sgcsckichU will have th« 
thrust upon him at every page that organic ovolatioA' 



rilL 



The Laws of Miatojy. 



215 



firom liomoffcneity to lieterojifcucity. To Mr. Spencer 

J assigned the honor of havin;:; demoustrated that intc- 

don« or the change from indefiniteness to definitcncss of 

acture, is an equall/ xitnl part of the process. 

Now the advance from indefinite homogeneity to definite 

erogfuneify in structure and function, which constitutes or- 

lie doveh)pmGnt, has heeu fomid to ho equally the chief 

Bhamcteristic of social progress. On considering primitive so- 

fietios, we find them affected by no causes of heterogeneity, 

icept those resulting from the ostahlishment of the various 

ally rL*latioQs!>i[>8. As^h*. Maine has shown, in early times 

family and not tho individual was the sucial unit. In the 

ence of anything like national or even civic organization, 

cb family chief was a monarch in miniature, uniting iu his 

I person the functions of king, priest, judge, and parliament ; 

he was no less a digger and hewer than his subject chil- 

en, wives, and brethren. Commercially, it is needless to 

all primitive communities are homogeneous. In any 

ibapous triljo tho number of different employments is very 

J, and such as there are admit of being midertaken indis- 

linately by any one. Every man is his own butcher and 

kker, his own tailor and carpenter, his own smith, and hia 

1 weapon-maker. Now the progress of such a society toward 

.dvilixed condition begins with the differentiation and inte- 

ipation nf productive occupations. That each specialisation of 

entails increased efficiency of production, wiiich reacting 

out still greater specialization, is kuown to the tyro in 

cal economy. Nor is it less obvious that, with the advance 

iHzation, labor has been steadily increasing in heteroge- 

h not only with regard t.o its division amimg different sets 

Dfers, but also with regard to its processes, and even ita 

imontfi. The distinguishing characteristic of modem mo- 

f^ as compared with the rude tools of the Middle Ages or 

By aj^paratus of the ancients, is its heterogeneity. Tho 

Bt between tho steam-engine of to-day and the pulleys, 

3. and levers of a thousand years ago assures us that the 

ing complexity of the objects which labor aims at is paral- 

by the growing complexity of tho modes of attaining 

6m. Turning to government, we see that by differentiation 




in tho primeval community »orae familiex acquired 

power, while others sank, though in fhffcrent <lc.gre**^to1 

rauk of suhjccU. The integration of aHit'd faaiiliCv-i" -'i^ 

a&d of adjacent tribes into natioua, as well as that L 

gration oxliiliitod at a later date in the closely knit • 

interrelations of different countries, are marked stojih.iu 

progress. Next maybe mentioned the diflercntiatioa elj 

governing power into the civil and the ecclesiastical ; w^ 

the side of these ceremonial government prows up 

as a thii-d power, regulating the minor det&ila of \ 

course none tho less potently becau»c not embodied in i 

and edicts. Comparing tho priests and augurs tif wA 

with the dignitaries of the medijeval Church, the muchi 

heterogeneity of the latter system becomes manifest. 

government likewise has become differentiated into csocmfl 

legislative, and judicial. Executive goverument has Ihvwi 

ridod into many l>rancheR, and diversely in differ' 

A comparison of the Athenian jwpular government v 

roseutativo systems of the present day shows that tlie legtshj 

function has no more than any of the others preserved its n 

na! homogeneity. While the contrast between the Au 

gis of the Norman kings and the courts of common lawJ 

and admiralty, — county courts, queen's courts, Stated 

and Fe<lenil courts, — which are lineally desceniled fri 

tis the same story concerning the judicial power. No 

it be forgotten that the steady expansion of legal sys 

meet the exigencies which civilization renders daily moMj 

plex, is an advance from homogeneity to beberogen«ilr^|| 

Not only is the general law of organic dcveluprndBP 

illustrated in tlie internal progress of all nations, it is also 

spicuously exemplified in the divergent courses pursud 

many communities which have started from a common oi 

The Germanic tribes* which in the fifth and sixth centuric 

quired control over Roman Europe, were nearly liomoges 

with respect to eacli other. The description of tlie Oem 

left by Tacitus, would doubtless have applied indiscrimmi 

to Goths, Saxons, Franks, and Lombards, ^oue of them 

advanced far beyond the primitive patriarchal system of 

ernment, nor bad any of them experienced much inditf 




to.] 



The Lawa qf Uiitory. 



217 



itiation ; aiid mi thcrci woa hnt little scope \c^ tliem for 

' ■'•"•'■- of aoc'ial iiulikciicflst'a. Eveu ho lato as the twelfth 

.0 Ulterior structure of each great Kuropean commu- 

b; waJ«, except in mioor poiiils of detail, very siiuilar to that 

\tXi the others. The feudal Bvstora, chivalry, the crufiading 

,8choltt3t)c'isrn, monusticistn, serfdom, baronial isolatiou, 

^ war, ecclesiastical supremacy, — those were the striking 

of society at that time, in England nti well as in Spain, 

^f!raiicti as well aa in Italy. But in oui* day the hetero^ene- 

fii notal>lo. The so-called Anglo-Saxon nations are ditleren- 

iti'd from all the rest hy their [Hilitieol individualism ; but the 

I orjranization of Araerica clifTers widely aUo from the free 

ttixatiou of England. AbRolutisni, on tJio otlier hand, is not 

»iHuue tiling in Austria that it i» iu Fruiicc, nor ih Catholi- 

I th« sftnie thing in Fi*anco that it is iii Spaiu ; while the 

Protcatantism of Prussia bears little resemblance to the 

owl^i-utcal^intisni of .Scotland aad Sweden. 

[Whether tlw human race, ethivdogically conftidered, has erer 

ited a close approach lo homogeneity, is perhaps uncer- 

Por our present purpose, however, it is iraraatcrial 

sr the various races of mankind are descondeti from one 

stock or from several primitive stocks. It is enough 

that where there has been marked social progress 

I hiM also been marked ethnic differentiation. The widely 

cad tribes of unprogrcHsive American Tmlians, now so rapid- 

: ilisappeariug, have retained to the end thcur ancient phys- 

li, intellectual, oud moral horaogonoity. But in the descend- 

btsofthe primitive Indo-Euro[»eans, from the flabby mid [airsy 

ndn to the wiry and long-iimbed Kentuckiim, may l.Ki seen 

immense heterogeneity entailed by long-continued diifer- 

■ Hocial ortianization and of physical environment. They 

numberless unlikenosses of size, strength, complexion, 

, of anatomical conformation, of moral Busccptibility, and 

Kcclual cap^^city. Still further lUustratiou is to Ix; found 

languages sjwkon by these Aryan nations. Eight fain- 

iof languages, containing each from half u dozen lo a score 

unintelligible dialects, are descended from the cnm- 

r tongue spoken by our Aryan ancestors before tbey 

I left the ncjghlwrhood of the Llindu Kuah, The devclo^mcut 



218 



The Laion of SiHory* 




of the Semitic languages from u single parent tongue fiini/jc 
a parallel example. But tins is far from being the wliolt-of 1 
caae, for a careful study of the structure of lan^Tia;j;e in itj 
shows that its growth takes place by difTercntiatioD 
togratiou. I have elsewhere* collected some evideuco 
proriug, among other things, that integration takes place im \ 
the progressive coalescence of roots with their terminafi' 
well as in the concentration of syllabic sounds^ and in 
creasing logical coherence of clauses ; while the gonoration dfj 
dialects, the rise of parts of »poe-ch, the growth of widely dii 
gont words from a common root, as well as the growtb 
widely divergent languages from a common stock, were sha 
to bo prominent instances of differentiation. 

But, by a still greater sweep of generalisation, Mr. Sj: 
has likewise included in Von Baer's formula the cha 
of inorganic nature, having traced the development wli 
it describes throughout a vast number of plienunieua, 
tellurio and cosmic, f Thus, by reason of ita Tcry 
honsivcncss, the law of universal evohition can no Ifl 
supply the precise kind of information wo desire rogar 
historic ]>henomcna. It is the law not only of social 
but of all other changes. It utters uo truth concerning > 
man development which is not true of all developK 
Though it is the idtimato law of history, it is silent rosp 
ing the differential characteristic by which a historic ev 
is distinguislied from a physical event. The ultimate uti\ 
general formula needs to bo supplemented by one that i«^ 
derivative and special ; which shall de8cril)e organic eTotfrj 
tion in terms* inapplicable to inorganic phenomena; vlilcll I 
shall be, in short, a comprehensive deBnition of life. Tbk\ 
additional step was taken by Mr. Spencer, in 1855. In 
** Princijilcs of Psychology," published in tliat year, is U»i 
found the first statement of that *' proximate dctinition of IH 
wliich contains by implication the law of organic ba 
guished from uiorgauic progress, f 

* "The Kvuliilioii of Langnoge," Xorth American Review, October, l&CS. j 

t Fii-flt IMuL-ipli-s (ill oil.), pp. 308-.19B. 

} As a formulit fur soci»l progress, it had AlFcndj been fores1t«dow<d, thoofli 
)irob»My witliuut full ronscinasnep* of it* entire significanrB, in Mr. tipmc*'* 
Sotiid Statics^ pubUsUcU fout jciura «»xVi<:c. 



J69.] 



Tht LatOB of History. 



919 



\(»cordinp: to thifl exhaustive definition, life — and intelli- 

Fice likewise, af t)io higliesl known manifestation of life — 

8»st« in the continnous estiiV)Iishnit!nt nf n»ktionB within 

I oTf^anin^ni in correspondence with relations alreu<Iy exisfincf 

tthc environmi'nt. The dejrree of life is high or lo\v^ nccord- 

:ft» (ho correspondence between interna! and exlL-rnal rela^ 

is complex or simple, extensive or limited, complete or 

ikl. perfect or imperfect. Tlie lowest for*m« of life I'cepond 

nly t<i fho simpler and more homogeneous changes which af- 

ct the whole of their surrounding medium. The relations 

Ijliahed within a plant answer only to the presence or ab- 

UCB of a certain quantity of light and heat, and to the cliem- 

&1 and hygrometrie relations exisling in the enveloping 

aosphero and suhjacent soil. In a zoliphyte, besides grn- 

rclations similar to tliefio there is established a special 

elation in **oirespondence with the external existence of cer- 

icnochanical irritjints, so that its tentacles coutract on being 

died. The Increased number of correspondences, as we as- 

nd the uuiraal scale, may l>o rolmi by contrastinjr the polyp, 

Well can simply distinguish l>etwoon soluble and in.solnlilo uiat- 

B, or between opacity and translucence in its environment, 

|*itii thi? keen-scented bloodhound atid the far-flighted vulturot 

ud the increa.He of complexity may be appreciated by compar- 

Dg the motions respectively gone through by the polyp on the 

one band, and liy the dog or vulture on the other, while se- 

ng and diapasing of its prey. The advance to higher 

of life consists in the orderly establishment of internal 

'>f sequence answering to external relations of coex- 

. ud soquenco, that are continually more heterogeneous, 

remote in space and in time, and at once more general 

•' special; until at last we reach civilized man, whoso 

^ Mce responds to every variety of external stimulus, 

moat ordinary needs are stipplied by apjiaratus of amaz- 

fififl wmiplexity, and whose mental sequences are often deter- 

I willed by ciiYurastanccs as distant as the Milky Way, and as 

[iftcient as the birth of the solar system. 

TliR lower forms of life respond to the changes going on 
*''0iu them only in an imperfect and general way. A Xvkh^ for 
Blanco, meeting by changes within itself none but pU^fftitwil 



220 The Law$ of EUU)ry. 

and clioraical cbnnges without-, exhibits life in a very 8i 
form. We ]uil)itually regard it as leaa alxve than a polype' 
cause t]»e poly[), hy displaying contractility and nascent 
BitivoiiCHA, res{jijnds to a greater variety of external 
Yet the zo'riphyte, possessing no specialized organs of 
can oppose but ouc sort of action to mauy diverse kinds nf 
pression. Phenomena so different a** those of light and 
Bound and mcclianical Whration, can affect it in but one 
ways, — by causing it to raovc, or by slightly altering its cl 
ical condition. Here let it be noticed that the mwics 
eponso to outer relations are far less heterogeneous than 
rolatiouH tUoin.selve3. Passing now to civilized man, at 
other end of the animal scale, we find a state of things en 
the reverse. To each kind of external stimulus there arc 
possible modes of response. Not only, for example* does 
human organism sharply distinguish between variations wl 
a(Tt;ct the eye and those which affect the car : not only do 
and ear, whirh are themselves organs of amazing compl 
discern an eudloss imml>cr of differing tones and hues, as. 
as a great variety of intensities and ((ualitieH ; but each 
ular manifestatitm of sound or of light is capable of awak 
*in the organism very different actions according to 
stances. Tennyson's traveller, who, walking at nightfall 
strange laud, hoars tlic moaning of a distant sea, 

*• And know5 not if it be thumicr. or a roand 
OfrcK'ks thrown down, or one deep cry 
Of great wil<l WaetP," 

will adopt a course of action more or less in coufornrity 
liis environing relations, according to the degree of liis 
and the extent of his experience. Streaks of light and t 
of cloud in the horizon will lead the practised mariner and 
imskilled passenger to different conclusions. A ci 
Rupliael or a symphony of Beethoven will excite dil 
emotions in an artist and in a person uf lictlo sonslbj 
And fi*om the swinging of a cathedral lamp a philosopher 1 
draw inferences which have escaped the attention or b 
the penetration of tliousands of uncxdtivated beholders, 
with civilized man, present external stimidi are surpi 
liOtcrugoneity by their intcruul clfectB. 



Th« l4*tw$ of Ulntory* 



221 



otc also that o« the orfyaitiBui advances the environment 
iDcruAfi08 in oitent and diversity. Tlie environment of 
»Tst6r covers but a fow yards of hoach or of water, and 
pri£C8 hut low favorable or hostile inflnence^i, The plivHi- 
tonroiiment of a modem European extends over a great) 
of ilto earth's surface, and his mental environment is 
fly. limited in time or space. His welfare is not nnfre- 
jtly aflcctod hy accidents occurring at the antipodes, while 
•laus fur the coming year are often shaped with conscious 
iconecious reference to events which happened centtiries 

bus we aro led almost imj^erceptibly to look uiton Mr. 
ticer'H definition of life as fnrniabin^ the key to tlie phe 
lena of history. Scarcely is it jtossitilc, i\\ illustratijig timt 
utiou, to avoid a coiitimml reference to the fouts of coUce- 
aa well as to those of individual life. Indeed^ since the 
Dry of a community is madu up of the acts of its individual 
nbers, a formula sufficiently abstract might lie cx])ccted 
w cnpable of including both in one expression. History 
Buililrs biologv, not because in each a progress is traced 
infancy to old age, hut because both record the ad- 
ce from incomploteness to completeness of corrcspoudence 
icvcd alikq by organisms 2a a whole and by societies. The 
rojrress of society, like that of organisms, is, throughout, a 
loeas of adaptation. If we contemplate material civilization 
ier its widest as|)ect, wo discover its legitimate aim to be 
attainment and maintennnco of an equilibrium Iwtwocn the 
its of men and titc outward means of satisfying them. And 
ile approaciiing this goal, society is ever acxiuiriug in its 
Domic structure both greater heterogeneity and greater 
ializalion. Agriculture, manufactures, conuncrco, Icgisla- 
ijtlic acts of the ruler, the judge, and the physician, have 
ancient times grown immcasnrnbly multiform, both iu 
' lianccs. And here it is to Ije carefully 
iition has resulted in the greatly iu- 
id ability of society to adapt itself to the emergencies bj 
fidi it is ever beset. Tlie history of scientific progress is in 
manner the history of an advance toward complete corre- 
dence between our mental conceptions and outward r<^9^lv- 



222 



The Laws (j/* ilUtory. 



[Jul; 



ties. Truth, which is the cud of all honcHt and suceesM 
research, ia attuined wheu aubjoctive rebtiuiui arc 
adju-sled to object ivo relatiorin. And what can he the wj 
matiou of moral progress but t)io thorough adaptation 
doairos of each iudividual to the- roquiromenth arising Cr 
desires of all neig:hborinR individuals? Thus the pln'rioi 
ofsftcial und of organic progress are seen tocorresptind 
grec not contemplated by those tlunkcrs who first inst: 
the comparison betwoou them. The rosemblauct'K here br 
to light are far more dce]>-fieatcd than those which Dr. I) 
and otlieiTi have endeavored to de<luoe from a more coUutii 
epochs. The dominant charnctevistics of all life are t 
wliich social and iudividual life agree. 

Lot us now glance at one or two subordinate truths, 
will greatly facilitate the comprehemiiou of the gourral tin 
First, from the twofold circumstance that life is high ae* 
as the organism is hctcrogcneons, and also according 
adjusted to snrrouiiding conditions, may be derived the 
lary that heterogeneity in the envi:*onment is ono of iJie 
determining causes of social progress. The onvironmon 
society comprises all the circnmatanccs, adjacent or remoi 
which the society may bo in any way obliged to o<»nfoi 
actions. It comprises not only the climate of tiie coun 
soil, its flora and fiiuna, its perpendicular elevation, its rcli 
to mountain-chains, the length of its coast-line, tlie eh; 
of its scenery, and its peoj^aphicul position with res: 
other conntries; but it includes also the ideas, feeling* 
toms, and observances of past times, so far as they 
served by literature, tradition, or monuments; aa 
foreign contomi>orary manners and opinions, so far as tK 
known and rogarded by the community in question. I*i 
ing this, it will bo seen tlmt, owing to the political isolatJ 
ancieJ\t cotnnnniitios, the heterogeneity of their <■ 
must have been trifling- Holding but little iut(^: 
each other, and ac<;ommodating their deeds and opiniona 
ly to the conditions existing at home, their progteas 
usually feeble and lialung. Aud for the same rooMii, 
modes of life and their mental development woro for 
deeply impressed with the characteristics of surromidiiig 



iJta 



^Uki 



59.] 



The Law$ of History. 



SS8 



U tlio case in modern feimes. Herein is contauiod whiit- 

't>f truth iti conveyed in SIi*. Buckle's statomont, tliat in 

rtip« limn has been more powerful thuii nature, while out of 

rope nature ba« lh>en mor»> |K)W(^rful Mian man. The con- 

%X is not hctwoon Kumpe and the rest of the world, hut he- 

leen the isolated civilisations of anhVjaity and the integrated 

atiun of modern timpH. Owinp to the eiiormous hetero- 

of the ouvin.>uniei»t to which modern nations are forcied 

tbenuolves, progress in later ages has 1>cen far more 

and far more stride than of old. The pliyeical well- 

Dg of au aucient Greek was not enhanced hy aii invention 

iu China, nor could hia philosophy derive useful hinta 

thooriea pi*«)pounded in India. But in these days Kcarcely 

oyihtng e^Lii happen in one pnit of our planet which docs not 

adily affect every other part. That the rapid and pernioncnt 

tcr of mwli^ni pmpress i:^ in great measure due to this 

stance will he denied by no one. And thus is explained 

Wonderful civilizing cQect of various events which have 

^jxi time to time brought together distant sections of man- 

nd ; of which it will be suf^cient merely to name the cam- 

[18 of Alexander, the spread of Roman dominion^ the 

lion coiKpu'st.s, file Crusades, and the voyages of Columbus, 

Ihui, and Oc (hiiua. 

Now " the law which governs the changes in organic beings 

I such that tlio lower their place in a graduated scale, or the 

nplur their atrucluro, the mure jjersistcnt are they in fonu 

nd organization In whatever manner the changes 

II broui!;ht ubout^ .... the rate of change ha8 1>een , 
Jiere tlie grade of organisation is higlier." • And this ' 
Mr. Darwin interprets as resulting from " the more com- 
« relations of the higher beings to their organic and inor- 
1 conditions of life." Comparing the fact and its ex])Ia- ' 
vtion witli the historical generalization above given, it will be 
^'that we have here a new pciint of community between 
life and organic life in general. 
Secondly, observe that the living beings lowest in the scale 
^; nothing but simple cells, as witness the Prolococcus and the 
jBJiiiopfifla. In the second volume of his *' Principles of Biol- 



sa^ 



The Law9 of JIiHtQry, 



ogy," Mr, Spencer haa sho\ni that progress in xuorplsc 
composition, l>oth in the animal and ^*e^taJ>Ie kingtloii 
gists to a certain oxti.'iit of tin.* union of thtjse ' 
into aijgre.gatcfi of liiglior aiul higher orders. " 
tlio coalescence of at^accut parte pcrformiug lilce fm« 
such as wo SCO in the crab when contrasted with tlio mil 
\» ft hMilin^ foatnro in tu'ganic development ; for tliis pi 
increasing tho Bjiecializatiou of the organism, liiiu 
facilitates its adaptation to the environment. In the st 
social evolution, wc are met hy quite similar plieiiorn«;na 
us consider what is implied by the conclusions to whij 
Mainu has arrivtid in hiH admirable treatise ou Anoic 
nil elaborate inquiry into the early ideas of property^ 
and testamentary succession, and into primitive crimit 
lation : " Society in ancient times was not what it 
sumed to 1m3 at present, a collection of indhridnah, 
and iu tho view of the mon wlio cx>mpo!)od it, it wa.<i an 
g-atiun of families, Tho contrast may ho roost forcib 
pressed by saying that the unit of an ancient society 
family, of a modern society the individual. Wo must 
pared to find in ancient law all the consequences of this J 
enco."* Evidences of this state of things arc to bo *U 
in the internal atructuro of all tho Aryan comuiuniUes.'j 
cently, Mr. M'Lcnuan has revealed a still more archaic 
tion of humanity, in which not even the family, pr 
speaking, existcd.l But passing over this state,-:— in iS 
the social units might bo aptly compared to thoso lowo«( 
opods which have scaively any individuality wlmt<*ver,- 
tion is called to the fact that primitive families, like 
organisms, are aggregates of the first order. Tho 
crnment excluded not only individual indejiondenco, 
etato Buprcmacy. Vestiges of a time when there 
aggrcigfttiouB of mon more oxtoneive than the family, nut 
there was no sovereign authority except that cxerciaedJ 



• Anricnt I-aw. p. H6. 
t WMtiew Koniiiii j:«nte«, Orwk phi-atrius, Crhic Clan«, HEndo «nil 
*illiue<-c!OinmunttiiM ; and for the Teutons, eet Tac. Germ. VU. ; Cmm f 

I Primitive Marriage, p. 229. 



■fii 



Istmy, 



225 



of the family, may he found in every part of the irorld.* 

' ■ fiud, tjotiiul orfftuiixatiou »h but one step removed 

'ut*^ and roroi.'ious lumrohy. "Mistrust, jealousy, 

&l nmtywshes, and implacable vongeancea" characterize !ho 

Inal relations of these social apf^^regntes of the first order. 

:ilitj iH tlie nilc, and peace the exception. The repnisivo 

are stronger and the cohcHive force* weaker than at any 

equcnt period. Tlie synifiathetic feelings, whereby man is 

Befly distiiigmirthed from the licasts are as yet unawakened ; 

: the Belfish desires which tend to maintain savage isolation* 

Ued save by family affection, the mont instinctive 

Uy the least generous of civilizing emotions. 

bo expansion of families into trilnti and their coalescence 

civic communities illustrates the formation of social ag- 

tc» of the second order. For a long time these higher 

\tGA retain conspicuous traces of their mode of comjKJsi- 

as in Greece and Rome, until increasing heterogeneity 

iterates the original lines of demarcation ; while new di- 

kms (spring up, resulting from the integration of like parta, 

1 seen in the guilds of meditevsl Europe, and still better in 

(localization of industries which marks the present time. 

^lo ad\'ance from tire civic or rural f community to the na* 

I — an aggregate of the third order — is best exemplified in 

► history of Franco, which, fVom a disorderly collection of in- 

lendcut baronies, has passed by well-defined transitions into 

rfectly int-egral empire. The attainment of this stage is a 

iinal event in social life, and an indisponsablo preUminary 

[& career of permanent progress. As huited above, the pre- 

are overthrow of the Hellenic political system is mainly, if 

i loltfly. to bo attributed to its very incomplete integration. 

^e of the national type was in process of being formed 

nsivc coalescence of maritime cities under the lead- 

fdp of Athens, when the Poloponnesian war supervened, in- 

Dg the superiority of sclBsh autonomy, and showing by its 

jr'» View of tht! Unitod 8tiiics, p. 3B7 ; Philtipp on Jo riffpru deuce, 
. Comw, U=i;MaUoti, Uv. 111. c. 26 ; ArUt., Kth. Nic VIII. 14 -. Orota, 
,4ft-«<); Gibbon (PaiU cd.), III. 243; Vico, Scienza Nuuva, Operc. 
jy. pp. M, M, 40. 

I eontmimitjr ma^ \te oitlivr on int-iiiicnt ciiric commuuil/ or a tuDtUfica* 
ivibt, 

I. C3x.^m,224. 15 



226 



The Law8 of Butory, 



roBult that the civilizing spirit of nationality waa as 
feeble lo prevail. 

It waa lirst under the Roman dominion that Tiational i 
gallon and the feeliug of national «oUdunty wcr»? dflvek 
Bomcthing like complctcnesa. By absorbing nearly all th« 
communities thou existing, and by gradually extending H 
members the privileges of citizenship, the Roman Emj 
ceeded in dealing to the passion for autunumy a bloi 
which it has never recovered ; while the enormona 
the Kmpire, and its ethnic heterogeneity, imparted to 
tioual spirit thus invoked a cosmopolitan character de 
afterwards to be of great service to civilization. The inl 
of these circumstances upon the subsequent attitude of 
tianity cannot bo too strongly insisted upon. N'o bumn 
could have even conceived, mucli less have carried into i 
tion, the idea of a universal religion, if the antique sti 
social isolation had not previously been brought to a cli 
universal empire. If Christianity had appeared four ccn 
earlier tliau it did, it would, like Buddliism, have a»6uc 
garb of a local religions reformation. Or if it could have j 
at anything higher than this, its preaching would harej 
upon ears not ready to receive it. All the Oriental entt 
all the Hellenic Bubtilty of Paul, could have effected no 
liad ho visited Athens in the days of Plato an<l Diogenes.^ 
the cosmopolitan element in Roman ci^nlizatdnn was jai 
which Christianity most readily assimilated. From this ! 
concurrence of circumstances, there was formed upon lh« 
of Paganism that religious organization which alone 
churches that have existed has earned the glorious u« 
Catholic. Disgusted at her high-liandcd pr 
times, bistoriana have too frequently forgotin. ...i 
Churchy by co-ordinating the most vigorous and pr 
elements of ancient life, has given to modern civilii 
its ubiquity and its permanence. Had the Cburcl 
along witli the Kmpiro, amid the general wreck of anc 
Btitutions, it is difficult to see how European history conlj 
been anything else than a repetition of Grecian history.sas 
in the extent of its geographical range. Whoever is dis{to| 
doubt 80 em])hatic an asseiiion will do wcU, not only 



<■! 



The Lain of m^toty. 



227 



the immeasurable inferinnty of the Scandinavian reli- 
cs, compared with early Christianity, but liki^wiae Uuly to 
the dct tliat the Gcroiiui coittjuerora of Rome )md not 
kneed beyond the stage of tribal organization. On their 
ition into niral and civic Itodieg, the autonomous spirit 
bave acquired aji ascendancy which it would have taken 
fier more fortunate Athenian federation, or another ahsorli- 
[Romaa domination, tburoughly to destroy. Even as it waa, 
juired all tbo immense pgwer of the Church, unflinchingly 
cLsod through many generatjona, to prevent European 
t)ty from disintegratutg into a mere collection of mutually 
bllini? tribal communities. But the Church not only pre- 
yed Che Bociul rCHults of Roman dj)niinion, by haatening (he 
Bulidution of each embryonic nationality ; it also, by it«i pe- 
ir (Kisilion as common arliiter Iwtwceu the different states, 
Itrlhuted Xa the formation of a now social aggregate of the 
beat order. The modern system of independent nadonali- 
ihfild in virtual federation — not by international codes, but 
u of guiding principles of conduct more or Less 
. :. i;eed by all — is the work of the Roman Church, 
t'c, finully, wo have roachcd a systom whoso structure bears 
Itbe highest degree the marks of permanence. It is sua- 
by tbo ever-deepening sentiments of cttsmopolitan pbi- 
{lliropy and universal justice, — the most cohesive of social 
c«, as the spirit of local sclfishne&s waa the most disrup- 



bos, throagbout, wo find the development of society corre- 
arliug in a remarkable degree in the develoiiment of organ- 
b.H lu a whole. By the special comparisons which havo been 
t<>d, tlie general theory of social evolution is illustrated 
'. it is confirmed. As far as the inquiry has gone, — and it 
bt be cajried much further, — the claims of Mr. spencer's 
of organic life to be considered tlio law of history are 
nndicuted. As for as humanity is a manifestation 
e life, the law of its progress may be said to be 
lined. But to render the interpretation coextensive with 
lena. onothoi* consideration must be brought for- 
' ir law of history, as it now stands, covers alike the 
|iK(jDomena of social and of organic life ; and to \l \\ic iVkStex- 



^& 



The Laws of Eitiory. 








eutial clement must be added, by virtue of wliicb tho on 
of pheuomoiia is Uistijiguishod fiom tho other. 

Ilk tho ancient family, a« delineated by Mr. Maine, t 
arati3 existence of tlic individuals waA olmoM guliin~ 
in the corporate existence of the a^gn'gatc. Per; 
was entirely unrecognized. The doctrine that each por 
the exclusive right to be tbe arbiter of Iub own dcfltiny, ad 
to no meddling interference from without, found no pla 
the statute books of ancient lawgivers. To family dnt 
individual rights were subjected. By a tie, religious 
than political, the members of the family M-orc all hobl in all 
glance to its oldest male representative. The futhi-r lulgt 
expose his aon in infancy, and when grown up mi}<;ht sell bii 
as a slave, or put him to death for disolfedience. And the wil 
was to an equal extent in the power of her htisband, U) wb« 
she legally stood in tbe relation of a daughter, so that jnanioji 
was but the exchange of one form of somtude for anotiJiM 
No transfer of property was valid, unless the persons couduo 
ing it swore in the name of some ancestor, — dead ajres ugo, i 
might bo; for so ahsoluto was tbe authority of (ho jmhffi 
milias that it could not be conceived nf a.s departing from liii 
at death, but must be exercised by him, through the medim 
of prescriptive ceremonial, over whole genenitiona to cobu 
Notliing, in short, was regulated by contract, tout evt\rythin 
was determined by status.* And this is the fact wbicti im 
trievably demolishes the theory of a primitive sociiJ compad 
advocated by Hobbes and Rousseau. The prevalence of IW 
state of things, moreover, in the desjwtic empiros of the EqbI 
is proof conclusive that those nations are nothing but imt 
tribes, or aggregates of the first order; and thus the (he 
the overripe character of Oriental civilization meets its do 

With the rise of higher aggregates, such om stales, ci^ 
imi>erial, this sinking of the individuid in the corponile 
enco still for some time continued. Tho rights and di 
tlie individual were still unrecognized, save in so far ns tliQ 
lowed from tbe status in which he happcmed to bo plaoe 



■ "StatuHc«t qaalituH ctijiu rationc homines ilivi'rM> jure uiimfur. . 
jnrc utJlur libcv homo; olio Acrrus; olio cUh; alio pt'i-cgrinua." He 
taiiona, Lib, I. tit. 8. 



itnrcdiJM 



[,tnp» 



Istcry. 



poblican Rome, and in the Helleuic communities, the welfare 
the cittzeu was universally pontponed to the welfare of the 
But circumstances too complicated to be here detailed, 
FiHiich the chief s^fmptom waa the increasing importance as- 
hy Roman jurisprudence to contracts, resulted, at an 
&d period of the empire, in the more or less complete 
lition of individual right* and obligations. On the rise 
the fnidal system, the relations of vassal to suzerain were, 
rrmgh the infln*;nco of Roman conceptions, extensively regu- 
ed by contract ; and it is in this respect ttiat the feudal insti- 
ure most widely distinguished " from the unadulterated 
of primitive races." • It was, I believe, mainly owing 
fOtifl tliat the integration of feudal sovereignties was accom- 
ed by the enlargement of individual liberty to a much 
iter extent than the integration of ancient gentes and 
Imtries. The Roman Church also aided in promoting the 
adorn of Individuals, as well a« in facilitating the consolida- 
of states. By the strict enforcement of celibacy, it mnin- 
linod in the midst of hereditary aristocracy a comparatively 
Qooratic organization, where advancement usually depended 
on moral excellence or int-pllectnal nbility. And preaen'ing, 
the same admirable institution, its indcf>endence of feudal 
Itronagi?, it was often enabled snccessfully to interpose be- 
^een the tyranny of kings and the helplessness of subjects, 
development of industry, crossing in various ways the 
bticjae divisions of society, has contributed to the same result; 
1, In modern times, the primitive mode of orgtun'zjition is 
st entirely effaced, leaving perhaps no other vestige than 
jal disr|uttlification8 of women. Individual rights and 
Sons, from being nothing, have come to be all in all. 
ft will thus Iw seen that the very same process, which has 
ailed in the formation of social aggregates of a higher and 
ber order, has also resulted in the more and more complete 
ination of the re»piirements of the aggregate to the re- 
[jentiii of the individual. And be it further noticed, that 
h Mintiment of universal philanthropy and universal justice, 
blch maintains the stability of the highest social aggregation, 
ntuiuft also to the fullest extent the independonco of its in- 



230 



The Lawt of HUtxrry. 



H 



'land 






dinJual momlKsrs ; wliilc the selfishness, wlii !, ■ 
prevented the oxistoncc of miy higher org.n. 
fiunilyf was aJso incompatible with individual freedom. TIMJ 
tlie exuct reverse of the state of tilings which wu find in« 
gonic evolution. In organic development, individual iifc ii 
moro and more submerged m corporate life. In sociM dv.'rel< 
opment, corporate life is more and more subordinatiHl tn indi- 
vidual life. The highest organic life is that in vbicli tbeuaiU 
havo the least po^ible freedom. The highest wxriai life is thil 
in which the unit« have the greatest possible freedom. 

Thus we hare at last reached the ooncluRion in qui 
which we set out. Supplementing the previous formi 
wltich orgniiic and social life wore seen to agree, hy our pi 
formula, iii which they are seen to differ, wo uhttiin the faiida^ 
mental law to which S4>cial chaugcs conform. The result, ii 
Will bo soon, is the reverse of that reached by Comtc, 
ultimate state of society is one in which individual hite: 
more exists than it does in the cells of a vertebrate ai: 
Nor does it interjiret progress as the necessary con*(«^«i 
an inherent tendency, but it recognizes it os detorn 
complex conditions, which must all be fidfilled before it am Uj 
realized. And lastly, by practically showing that historic 
nomena can be reduced to orderly se<iuonce, it confim 
result which I havo sought elsewhere {Ftn-tnig^ftthf iZcrirtPj 
September, 18G8) to demonstrate iudej>endenily, that, 
changes, as well as physic^il changes, are within the sph 
immutnblo law, concerning which Hooker has said, with n 
truth than sublimity, that *^ her seat is the bosom of God, 
her voice the harmony of tlio world." 

JOHX Fi 



ricj|U 

-inM| 



Jl».] 



FolcanoeM, 



m 



r. VIII. — 1. Vesuvius. By JoHX Pu!LLiPs, M. A. Oxford. 
1809. 12iiio. 

Hisloire Complete de la f^ranftc Eruption de V^suve de 
^^il, Par U, Le Hon. Bruxellea. 186G. 8vo. 
B. Reiseder Oesterreichischen Fref^aite Novaraum die Erde in 
den Jahren 18.")7. 1858, 1859. GeoloKisclier Tlieil, Ersl^r 
Band, Erete Abthcilung, Geologic von Neu-Secland. Von 
Pit. Ferdinand von IIochstktteii. Wien. 1864. 4to. 
14. VoifOfi^e G^olo'^tfue dans tes R^pubHques dc Gitatevtaia et 
San Salvador. Tar MM. A. Dollpcs et E. De Mont-Serbat. 
Paris. 1868. 4to. 
B. The Natural Si/stem of the Volcanic Rocks. By Baron F. 
RlcHTUOKEN. Extracted from the Memoirs of (he Cnlifornia 
Academy of Sciences. Son Francisco. 1868. Pamphlet. 

Wb have placed at the head of this articio the titles of a 

of tlie many volumes devoted chiefly to the suhject of 

Lnoes which have issued from the j>rc88 during the past 

6w yearn. To ^vo a complete list of the rolumea and papers 

which the phenomena of volcanism have been described 

Btl discussed, even if only the productions of tlic last five 

Ijmn were to be included in it, would reipiire many pages. 

lOti the sabject ot the volcanic island of Santorin alone, at 

llenHt BIX diflferent works were published during the year 1868. 

](hje author, Le Hon, gave, in 1H66, a complete history of an 

jenipHon of Vesuvina which took place two himdred and thirty- 

^oiyfht yi»ar« agn; while scvcrnl otiier uTiters, some of them 

l^iown as geological authors and others not» have taken ad- 

vantftgo of the recent period of activity of that interesting 

^c«no to serve up portions of tho maaa of the old material 

"1 & now fiirMi, adding in some caaea new facts of value to the 

pwriously existing stock, hut generally relying for their chances 

^ J^' ther on elegance of typography, or other extrinsic 

•'"' i! -',thaii on scientiiicaccnracy or originality of ideas. 

JHio itjftaon of the exceptional activity in this department of 

['"^^'k-making is partly that the volcanoes themselves — at 

rf^t Roverul of those l>08t known — have been unusually ac- 

*"**>, and partly because the fashion of illustrated and sonr 



232 



Volcanoeit* 



P 



Bationa] bookd ou scientific But^ccts Los boim set, and of 
the subject which gcutogy proMciita there is uone wt 
excites the popular mind as the phenomena of volcouoetf i 
earthiiuakes. 

Earthquukcs are events simply fearful ; lliere ir nut 
about tlttim whicli is not appalling in its nature. Tliojr cc 
witliout wtiniiiig, and loavo uutliing but dismuy uud mln 
hind. Even the minor shooka ure terrible* and more Alam 
in proportion to the iimul)cr of timcH tiiey haie been es 
cncei3. It is only in Califomiu that an uttenipt bus beeu 
to pooh-pooh nu earthquake ; but even there the hoUowuci 
the derision was but too evident. In au cartbquakc-fiha^ 
country the time that elapses betueon the instant, wheu 
perceives that an earthquake wave 'i& approaohing and 
wbou it^ first eflect is felt is one into which a thousand &p|j 
hensions can be crowded. Then, if ever, one feels the u( 
ingigiiificance of man as an integral part' of creation, 
blow may fall lightly and leave no sensible trace behind; 
on the other liaud, it may crush and overwhelm. The reg 
lating screws of the horrid machiuery are Invisible. 
is no reason why one shoidd await with more calmness 
approach of an earthquake shock than, with his head on 
anvil, the falling of a steam-hammer, not knuwiug beforelu 
at what point the pouderuus mass is to bo arrested by 
engineer in charge of the machine. 

Volcanoes, on the other hand, give in almost all ca«6s »o^^ 
previous warnings of their intention to chango their nsuol i 
Bscent state for one of destructive activity. Their dia 
o6re<'ts can ofton be to a large extent avoided by llight- 21 
only very rarely that an ornption is so sudden and \iolent i 
ovonvhelm and destroy without previous and olt-rcpeatcd wd 
ings. Again, eruptive volcanic action is usually proloi^ 
over many days or weeks, or oven months, and the phenc 
exhibited are usually — if the eruption is on a largo scale- 
surpassing grandeur, from a picturesque as well as from a^ 
entifio point of view. Perhaps there is no scene offered byi 
play of nature's forces bo wonderfully attractive as that 
great volcanic eruption, especially when seen by niglit. 
combiDation of every conceivable element of the plclurt^ 



Vtfhfanoeg, 

Hie fluMime afforded by llio great outbroftkfi of KllAicn, 

Bported hy the fow who have had the good luck in wit- 

80IU0 of them, may be mentioned aa au iustauce in 



wonder, tlien, that tlie subject of volcanoes has always 
an iittruetive one to the general, as wcU as to the sci- 
t3-aveller and writer, and (hat such a great nnin- 
f volumes have been puhliahed, and are still puf>li»Iung;, 
g either of vole^noes in general or of parfcicnlar cni]>- 
or f>eriodB of eruptive activity. The work of the veteran 
d professor, Jului Pbillipe, the title of which is placed at 
e^ of tlie list preceding thiti article, is one of the mo&i 
rable of those |H>sscsBing a somewhat popular character, 
in tlie limits of thivi; humlred and fifty pages it gives a 
,ct history of Vosuvins and of the adjaceut volcanic re- 
no much visited by travellers, and is on all points exact 
clear. The illuHtrationH of the volume are numerous and 
live, although not elaborate, and very far from sensa- 
il. The book is exactly wliut was desirable as a guide 
ravellers of scientific tastcH, and may bo consnlted with 
t and pleaKure by the professional geologist. It cont^ains, 
ies, a catalogue of Vesuvian miuoraLs. There is also a 
Iter devoted to the theory of "volcanic excitement/' — a 
KSt on which much has been written, esjwcially of late, 
in regard to whicli it must be admitted that we have still 
h to loam. 

le work of M. Lo Hon, placed second on our list, is os- 

pally valuable qa containing a large map, which appears to 

|p Itoen carefully constructed, and which exhibits all the 

pof lava from Vesnnus between the years 1031 and 1861. 

h ii\y map whicli prtifesses to give with any approacl» 

|.C-.. :. .:s the position of these masses, and evidently it 

m not have been produced without considerable labor and 

lout iiuincroua excavations. The description of the eru|)- 

of UjS\ 18 carefully compiled, and gives a good idea of 

tho most devastating of all the modern outbi-eaks of Vesu- 

Bj this ernplion it is probable that at least four tliou- 

persons ia*it their lives in various ways, while more 

forty towns and villages were destroyed, the ^uxvlvsx^ 




234 



Vifleanoet. 



[Jriy, 



losses being estimated at twenty millions of ducats, — aii enor 
mouK Rum at tliat lime. 

The volcanic pheitomoua of a far distant bnt exceodinglj inf 
tcrcfiting region — New Zealand — are brought to our nutioB 
for the tirst time in a comprehensive manner by Dr. Hocltstulr 
ter, in two se|iaratc works, — one, in royal 8vo. furm, of a popi^ 
lar character, entitled simply " Xeu-Seeland " ; the other, a vol- 
ume of the series published by the Austrian government as the 
official account of the voyage of the frigate Novani, made in 
the years 1857-59. The first-mentioned work waa [mbliiih 
Cotta, in 18l33, with every luxury of adornment^ and is one 
most attractive books — half scieutific and half narrative 
issued. The quarto official volume is also beautifully prii 
and illustrated, and is lariu:cly devoted to a description of 
New Zealand volcanoes, as wc^ll us of the wonderful jrfvsors, 
springs, and solfataras whicli form so j>ecuUar and attrac; 
feature of the island, and which are admirably repreecn 
the chromosteel plates of the jwpular volume and the cl 
lithographs of the other. These indicate a type of geol 
scenery resembling that of the geysers of Iceland, but on 
grander scale, and with the peculiar added beauty of a 
derfully interesting and aJmndant vegetation. Dr. Hi 
ter*s books are rich in information aliout a new and remarl 
region, Imt they are very little encumbered with gen* 
or theoretical views. 

Almost equally magnificent in its typography and 
publication is the work jtlaced fourth on our list, — an ol 
publication oT the French government, issued from the J 
primerie Imperial, as an instalment of tlie residta of 
scientific mission instituted by the Emporor for cxpl 
Mexico at the time when his unfortunate military ex 
to that country was planned. In carrying out this ex 
tion, MM. Dollfus and Mont-Serrat — neither of them a 
gist of reputation — spent a little over two years in that 
eight months of it in Central America. The results of 
investigations have been laid before the public in the form 
ponderous (juurto, in which, as in many other works of F 
savans which treat of the geology of parts of our coDt^ 
there is but little that is new, while, on the other hand, 



89.] 



Viflcanoet* 



S85 



Bins maiiy blunderH. Tho Emperor has l)cen mtfortuiiato iu 
represontatlved of geological science whom he has 8ont 
tbe American continerit. M. Laur, who visited Califoruia 
nc l4>n yenrH ago, ftiiii raado a re|Kjrt on its mines, showed a 
a&rkuble tact for misapprehending^ tho pluincat and most 
uportant fat't^, usd drawing erroneous conclusions; os^ for 
stance, when he announced that the yield of the Cowstook 
iltt would never exceed tUroo millions of dollars a year, 
Irheroas, in reuUty, it soon ailer reached twelve millionB. Ahout 
uif of tlie roliMiu; of MM. noUfim and Munt-Scrrat is taken 
t with romarkfi un tho volcanoes of Centrul America, and it 
I nstoaishinii; how little there is of original and vaUiahle mat- 
to bo found in it. One ih more annoyed still, on exam- 
the beautifully engraved illustrations, to find that they 
evident niarka of the sensational style ; the slopes of tho 
Itonefi are all enormously exaggerated, and no data arc given by 
irliich these errors can be corrected. A few simple outlines 
ilotted from actual measurements would have Iwicu worth more 
hin tho whole dozen and a half of costly steel plates which 
^VGU, tho style of which takes us back to the dark ages < 
' the illustrations to Humboldt's " New Spain." One should f 
ttpore them with the drawings and sections illustrating M. 
tung':* books on Ujo Azores, Madeira, and Porto Sauto, to 
I the diflforonce betwoon fancy and real work, 
Bftr<m Riclilhofen*s quarto pamphlet of a little less than a 
bandrcd pages, witli no illustrations, is entirely difibrcnt from 
hnost of the works already cited, since it addresRes itself exclu- 
pi^ly to tbe professional geologist. It is tlie result of long 
observution and of much study bestowed on the volcanic rocks 
' In nble and experienced observer in different parts of the 
"crld. In it many of tho mont difficult points in the theory of 
olcanocs arc discussed in such a manner as to make its study 
oratiTO on ail who desire to form an original opinion in 
^gard to tbe subjects with which it deals. We shall refer to 
■ firrther on. or at a future time, wheu the theory of volcanoes 
fid earth<|uakc8 is under discussiou. 

In a previous article we endeavored to give a systematic 
^fw of the present condition of our knowledge of eartluiuako 
^henumena, so for as their external manifeatatiou^ or^ v^^^^k- 



236 



Volcancet. 



[Jn 



cerned. We discussed the data of the earthquake cataloj 
with reference to the goograpliical distribution of seismic 
to the relations of time of earthquake shocks, and to their 
nection with moveiuonts and conditions of the atmoaphi 
We had occasion to refer more than once to the relal 
between volcanoes and earthquakes both in time and 
and thuH ]>rei)arod the way for a discussion of the c^usefl 
these truly wonderful and most closely connected |ihenome 

Bof4)re entering on Uiis discnssion, however, we must be^ 
more fully acquainted with the facts concerning volcanoes, 
it i§ with those that tlua article will he occujiied, leaving fur a 
third and final one of the series, an attempt to show how far 
science is aide, at the present day, to throw li^rlit on tli(>« 
workings of unseen forces which arc manifested in the earth- 
quake shonk, the volcanic eruption, the rising and falling of the 
land, and the formation of mountain chains, — for all these are 
effects of one and the same cause, or, at least, of one seto( 
causes so intimately allied with each other that the discussion 
of any one of them must necosaarily include that of all 
others. 

In pursuance of this plan, then, we purpose, in this article,^ 
give an outline of what is known in regard to volcanoes, ha 
reference chiefly to their cxtermil manirostations, such as foi 
geographical distrihution, and their different phases of re] 
and action. This will prepare the way for us to^ot someil 
of the nature of the forces at work below ; for a volcano 
sort of liiippy accident, which lets us into some of natn: 
secrets, — a peep-hole through which we may get a glimjwc of 
interior of the earth. It is evident that, if a great smet 
estnblishment were buried so that no part of it should he vii 
except the top of the tall chimney, from which gases were ii 
ing, and some piles of slags accumulated on the outside, an 
had to report on the nature of the processes going on l*elSF 
from these imperfect data^ the investigation would require no 
little scientific knowledge and ingenuity, and probably sonn 
time would elapse before a guess could be hazarded as to the » 
character of the work of which these gaseous exhalations and 
slogs were the only tangible result. So it is with volcanoes,; 
we collect and analyze tUevc ^ffodvLcta^ •whether solid, fluii 



J 



69.] 



Volcanoes. 



287 



ous; wo note the times and places of these manifestations 
[ihe interna] forces and their correlations witli other natural 
aena ; wo avail ourselves of every conceivable source of 
ition touchuig the suhject, and reason tt) the best of our 
Sitgr on the whole mass of evidence thus obtained. And 
tlie rcHult, it must bo confessed, is far from satisfactory, 
haro are many obscure pouits in the theory of volcanoes and 
:|uakcs ; and if the general cause of the phenomena of 
ilcttnifiin is in the opuiion of most gcolngif^ls correctly de(ei^ 
ned, yet in regard to tlie precise mode of operation of the 
emal forces there is great discrepancy of opinion, even 
uug those who have devoted most time to tliia branch of in-' 
ry. 
volcano is a monntaui, hill, or area of the earth's surface, 
aected with some more or less deeply seated portion of the 
rior by a canal or passage, tlirough which solid or gaseous 
terials arc brought to the surface. It is almost invariably 
case that the substances thus ejected are intensely hot, 
the rocky materiiil often jmuriug furth in a condition of igneous 
fluidity, and the term *■*■ lava " is applied to anything which haa 
fluwed in this way and wliich in cooling consolidates uito rock. 
Uevations which would, according to the definition just given, 
be included under the head of volcanoes, but wlach emit only 
Tra:or with paroxysmal violenco, are usually called '* geysers.'* 
il. so are rare and on a small scale as compared witli proper 

tilcauoes. Orifices from which mud is thrown out, called 
mud-volcouoes," are not imcommon, but are usually of small 
imeusions, and the temperature of the substances they tyoct is 
u many instmices raised but little above thoir ordinary teu- 
Rtiire. 

Volcanoes are called "active" if they have within a com- 

tively recent period given indications of eruptive action. 

flN term " dornjant" may be used to designate that peculim* 

i>Ddition when the intornal forces have remained quiet for a 

length of tune, so that only faint traces of activity are still 

ble ; and if all chemical action has ceased, and there is no 

in history of any outbreak, the volcano or volcanic re- 

tii considered and called " extinct." Yet it is not an easy 

]g to draw the Imc between dormant and extinct volcanoes. 



238 



Volcanoes. 



Thus Epomeo, on the island of Ischia, remained entirely ith 
active for seventeen hundred years. S4> V^esuvius was nevjp 
knoflrn in history as an active volcano until A. D. 79. A pjroii 
flaucer-like depression, overgrovn with wild grapea, in which 
Spart^^^s once camped with ten thousand men, marked ih* 
position of ita crater, and Hcrcnlaneum and Pompeii were two* 
populous towns at its haso. By the well-known eruption of 
that year, these two towns were overwhelmed, — grca?ly to 
the inconvenience of their inhabitants, no doubt, but immenficly 
to our advantAge, — tlie whole adjacent region devastated, and 
the mountain built up into an entirely different shape from that 
which it had had before. From thin time on, the eniptiouB cob- 
tinned, without any long periods of repose between them, untft 
the fourteenth century, after which there was quiet for nnarly 
three hundred years. During this period of repose tlic crater 
became filled anew with a forest vegetation, and only a couple 
of hot-sprinj^ gave evidence of the forces slumbering beneath. 
All of a sudden, again, in 1631, a furious eniption twik iihw-e, 
and seven streams of lava flowed down the slopes of the muoiK 
tain at one time. Since that, Vesuvius has almost always beOB 
uneasy, there being rarely an interval of rest of more Ihaji t<i 
years, and, of late, the eruptions have been verj* violent aod 
frequent. The CJunung Gelunguug, one of the great volcaniyi 
of Java, was, and had been from time immemorial, i>crfectlr 
quiescent, and the site of the present crater was a broad valley, 
the inhabitants of which had never dreamed of anything Irak 
the most peaceful security. I5ut stiddenly, in the middle nf a 
fine day in October, 1822, they received notice to quit, intlio 
form of a violent cxplofdon beneath their feet, which proved t* 
be the commencement of one of the most fearfully dcstructtro 
volcanic eruptions on record. 

There are but few volcanoes which are permanently activ% 
and tluisc which arc thus in constant eruption are usually fitf 
from violent. Paroxysmal, powerful action occurs only occ*- 
fiionally, sometimes recurring, alYer short intervals, tlien slack- 
ening and perhaps ceasing altogether, or, after a long i)enod (if 
repose, say hundreds or perhaps tliousands of years, begi; 
again. 

Wo have in tbe moon 1A\q best ^joasible specimea of 



Volcanoes. 



239 



ily played out rolcauism. The most careful watching of the 
with powerful telescopea seems, thu8 far^to have failed 
f reveal any evidence of changes taking place there. And 
there is neither water nor air to produce erosion or 
utegration of the volcanic surface, it seems pretty clear that 
|nrill remain as it now is for an indefinite lenpth of time. 
Id dividing terrestrial volcantjoB into i^xilnct, dormant, and 
B, it must he understood, tlien, tliat these terms are used 
Kpresa our general opinion with regard to thuir cunditiou, 
on a variety of circumstances, and not as indicating any 
itively estahlished criterion hy which the different classes 
be distinguished from each other. Wo apeak of the vol- 
^ic region of Central Franco, as *' extinct,'* because we know 
a long time has elapsed since any indications of activity 
occurred there ; this has heen ascertained by studying 
I amount of erosion which has taken place ui the lava cur- 
;kt8 and in other ways. Yet the pouring out of a portion, 
Bt, of the vast muss of volcanic material tliere visible 
L'pIacCi in all probability, at^or the appearance of man ou 
earth, although at an epoch immensely remote as corn- 
ed with historical time. Xeithor can any conclusive reason 
given why volcanic activity should not again manifest itself 
) this region. 

' iii> may bo considered as only dormant, and not ex- 

I a in the so-called *' aolfatai'ic condition." Tins 

DC is dcrivod from the Sulfatara, near Naples, where there 

lieen no eruption since 1198, but where vapors and gases 

! constantly issuing from the region of tlio old crater. These 

Dra consist mainly of steam, mixed to some extent with 

llphuretlod hydrogen, and also with sulphurous acid, chloro- 

ydric acid, carbonic acid, nnd nitrogen gnscs. Tlie abun- 

I of the sulphuretted hydrogen is usually testified to by 

I dcpoflit« of ftidjihur, so often met with in the cratt^rs of old 

loes, and undoubtedly formed by the dbcom|>osition of 

gaa ; besides, the nose has no difficulty, if no satisfac- 

bn, in detecting its presence. Steam and 8uli>hurettcd 

fdrogen usually predominate largely among the pruducts of 

■lAhc action. The other gases mentioned generally, but 

1 always, occur in smaller quantity. Boracic acid, petroleum.., 



^0 



Vblcmwfia* 



fipcculttr iron, chlorides of the alkoUos, realcar, nrr^ ■—:■•■ 
arc also occasionally obsen-ed among the gaseous ci 
old volcanic regions. Some obscrvere testify Ut the exists 
of iiiflaminablo gases in sufficiout r|uantitics tu prnJucej 
these gases l>eing hydrogen and snlphnretted Itydrc 
there aro other observers, equally distinpuishod, who liavcl 
frequent opporttinities to examine volcanoirs, both in acliou 1 
at rest, and who liare never seen any indtcjitiou of (Jami!. 
is genemlly called fire, in orui>ti(.ina, is, of course, simply ' 
light or Uie reflection of the lava, wliich is iiitciuitly hea 
but not acttmlly undergoing combustion. 

During the solfatmic condition of a volcano, it« craterj 
comes blocked up with congealed \s.vtL, perhaps overgrown i 
forests and dense vegetation, and the signs of activity dic< 
until, as the last relic of former life, only n tliernml sjH 
may bo found here and there, — an nidicution of the mi| 
forces glunibcring lieneath. Such is the present conditiij 
nearly ull the great Tolcouic cones on our own coast, 
Arizona to Oregon. 

Midway l»otween the conditions of solfataric repoeo 
paroxysmal violence is another stage of activity, in which i 
volcanoes remain during long |X'riods, while a few apjjj 
ucYcr to pass out of it into more violent action ; others,! 
ever, remain in this condition of parti«l repose during Ilu! 
t^r>al8 between violent outbursts. At such times Uje cr 
and the chauuel connecting it with the int-erior remain ojfcu, j 
the lava can be seen in them mnintaining a mobile cuudit 
while occasional explosions of the surface of the melted 
take place, fragments of slag and cinders being throMni upt 
mostly falling iiack into the abyss from which they 
hurled. This was the condition of Vesuvius when visited 
the writer in November, 1B43. At that time there had 
no eruption of lava overflowing tho lip of the • 
1839, when the cavity was cleaned out, and left 
three hundred feet deep, accessible to the bottom. From I 
time a smaller cone bcgjin to grow inside the lar 
in 1843 it was about fifby' feet high, and could be 
dambenng down the walls of tlio old orator, tlie whole 1 



rhich, around tl»o foot of the new cone, was covered with 

which was red-hot a few inches beneath the surface, but 

Id ill most fihicoa Lie sftfL>ly walked on. From the vent a 

per of cinders was thrown up overy fifteen or twenty min- 

and although it was ])08slblo to climb to tlio summit of 

^cone on tlie windward side, with occasional calls for skill 

lodging the prnjectiles, the orifice was too much occupied 

I hscondinp vapors to permit of anything below being clearly 

This interior cone kept on growing by a^lditions made 

■ from tho falling materials, and fmnlly, in 1847, the crater 

fillod, and the lava overflowed, running down on three 

■ once. From tJiat time forwaril Vesuvius became very 

lisy, and finally a great eruption took jdaco in 1850. This 

ubout twenty days, and when it was over the summit of 

mountain was \ci\ much changed in form, the old walls 

been broken down, the central cone reduced in size, 

jw crat/"r formed, about two miles in circumference, and 

and fifty feet deep. Tlie volcano then remained 

fit from 1850 to 1855, wlicn it became very active ; again a 

nd eruption occurred in 1858, and slight ones in 1860 and 

|1. .Since the last-named year Vesuvius has rarely been at 

During tho winter of 1867-68 there was a great out- 

; of Toltmnic force, which lasted several moilths. 

Ujc condition of half-roposc just noticed as not ujicommon 

ifcen intervals of j>aroxysmal activity, observers aro able 

|JQok down into tho throat or channel of Etna, as well as 

amboli, durhig tlio periods of repose between tho crup- 

8, which take place with great regularit)* every ten or fiftceri 

dotos. At such times tho hvn is seen to move up and down 

Ibo chimney ; as it rises, its surface swells u[> inti) a great 

(ter, wtiich finally gives way to the tension exerted and ex- 

with u loud noise, the fragments being ecatterod and 

up with great force ; the column of melted matter then 

Iks back into temporary repose, and rises agaiu afler an iu- 

of a few minutes. The same phenomena were observed 

[fiaugay, one of tho Quito group, a [Hjrniancntly half-actiTO 

-,.». -c exhibition of this condition of the volcanic 

is to be seen in Kilaucn diu*ing its quiet. ^irvoOLa, NqV«.\\ 
<^0L apir.— jvo. ^2;, lo 



242 



Volcanoes, 



the crater, which is three luUes in its greatest dlop 
it largt pools of Iwiliiig and extivmoi/ tiuiJ lava» 
tinually tlirown up in jets of from thirty to forty foot in b 
that fall back iuto the |x)ol before they have time to 
Those lakes of lii|uid firo vary in siie according as the volcuio I 
is more or less active, and Bomctimea cover the whslo area«f' 
the crater, the wind raising the surface in waves of inoheB 
rock, which dash against the encircling walls with an ii 
scribahly grand effect. The greater the liquidity of tlio 
the less the force with which it is thrown up, for the 
imprisoned vapors do not have time, iu a vary fluid nia 
to accumulate sufficient pressure to act with extreme explj 
violcnc-e. 

The phenomena which, wo have soon, thus characterize d« 
Bomi-active condition of volcanic activity ore, in moat rcs|)octs, 
similar to those of the fully active state, ditToring ratbrr in tJiP 
degree of violence with which tlipy are manifcstod than in ki 
It seems, indeed, that the longer and more complete the 
of the volcano has been, the more violent, its ar'* 
once breaks out again. This is natural, for the i j 

an outhurst must, as au ordinary thing, go on increasing 
longer the vent remains stopped, and when this resistan 
finally overconlo the magnitude of the eruption will ho |i 
tionate to the force required to clear the way, Tlie first ff- 
corded eruption of Vesuvius was the most \ioIent of any whidi 
are known to have taken place ; next to this in its destructy 
effects was that of 1631, occurring, as it did, after several 
dred years of entire repose. 

In regard to the precursors of a violent omption, or 1&*| 
symptoms by which the approach of one may he detected, 
there is much uncertaiufy. It may be said, however, ihti t 
great outbreak is to be expected when the intern ul forces br^i 
to show signs of uneasmess and the usual ])henomona of )v^ 
repose to he intensified in their action. It seems a welt-: 
ticated fact, that previous to an eruption of Vesuvius iJio 
and springs adjacent to the mountain begin to dry up. 
volcanic cones are covered with snow it is not iincommi 
the eruptions to bo preceded by devastating floods, oai 
its melting, the natural result of the gradual warming up 
.niouxitoin mass. \ 



JH 



b 



Tbo followinp aro (Im nixlintiry phenomena of riolent crup- 

an appoaiTiuce of fire ; lightuiug; aultterraneous uoisea, 

adfur ; ejection of ashes, cinders, or blocks of lava ; the 

ing out iif ni('lt*:d lara ; an(i, in connection with onrtli- 

sho<rkR, fisflurcB in tlio earth and pe/raancnt changcH in 

pAii levol^f tho adjacent country. 

Great volcanic puroxysnis are often preceded by more or less 

)t earthipiakt; 8l»M,*ks, whirh are hoth frequent and pro- 

ed, Inif usually limited to the mass of the volcano itself or 

■ 10 vicinity. Tremendous underground d(?toimtion8 

MHuiing like tlio firing of heavy cannon or r*?peated 

of moRkctry. These sounds arc hoard at all points at 

^eame instant of time, showing that they are propagated 

tho crust of the earth and also that they come from 

'tp^eat distunce heueath the surface. These explosive sounds 

hn^ ' 1u?ard siinultjineously over areas of many thouHond 

ftf|<i -. Thus the noise of the outbreak of the eruption 

of Temboro, on tho islund of Sumbawa, was beard all over 

' mI everywhere supposed to come from some point in 

.fiediate vicinity, it was distinctly audible at points 

IRN) tliousand miles apart. As the shocks and sounds con- 

[tbue, ()eof»le become more and more alarmed and excited, 

I tad iumginc that they see every kind of portent in the sky 

I tr in the conduct of animals. It is generally thought that 

taa "■,♦» stillness pGr\'ades tiie atmosphere just before 

' Ibtr L of the great outbreak, and that dogs, swine, and 

[gecsc exhibit peculiar indications of fear. How much reli- 

, anoe can Ijc placed on tho statements of the sensitiveness of 

[animals to impending catastrophes, it is not easy to any ; but 

is evident that the circumstances of a great eruption are 

-^^ - tly favorable to a highly imaginative condition of the 

luculties. 

The carth(|uakc stiocks preceding volcanic outbreaks tfike 

- - Mlo the internal conflict is going on lictween tiio im- 

i lava, seeking to find a vent, and the resistance of- 

by tl>e weight and tenacity of the superincumbent cnist. 

'' ' iternal pressure which seeks relief in bringing up 

': the material on which it is acting at last has its 

twn way, the explosion is tremendous, tho mass ol U\q n^Acq^tvq 



Ui 



Voicaiioes, 




boinir shalteu to Its very foundations. As Boon oa the cl 
of commuiiicatioH with the interior ia opened, wJiiuh i- 
uauall}' communicates with the bottom of the old crater> 
though not unfrequently opened through some now side fii 
the pent-up vapors ajid gases begin to escape with treiueu 
force, carrying up in tlio air, torn into fragmeut^, rool^' m 
whicli then fall and arc thrown out again re|)catedly, and t 
by friction against each other or by actual explosion, Uiroi 
Budden changes of temperature, are rapidly reduced to po 
and carried off with the gases or vapors which rise (Vow 
chimney of the crnter. 

The' ejection of vapor and ashes, as the comminuted 
monts of lava are called, is thus.described by Scrof»e, who 
an eye-witness of one of the grandest eruptions of Vesuviu 
that of 1822. He says: "The rise of the vaj>or produoeft; 
appearance of a column several thousaml feet high, iyamtl 
the edges of the crater, and appearing frrtm a dititanco to 
Bist of a mass of iimumerable globular clouds of extreme v 
ness, resembling vast halls of cotton rolling one over the u1 
as they ascend, impelled liy tlio pressure of fresh suppUcH 
cessantly urged upwards by tlie continued explosions, 
certain height this column dilates horizontally, and — 
driven in any particular direction by aerial currents — spn 
on all sides into a dark and turbid circular cloud. In 
favorable atmospheric circuraatances, the cloud with the 
portiiig column has the Hgurc of an immense umbrella, 
the Italian pine, to which Pliny the younger comjwrod lliat 
the eruption of Vesuvius in A. d. 79, and which was aecu 
reproduced in October, 1822. Strongly contrasting with 
pillar of white vapor-puffs is seen a continued jot of bl 
cinders, stones, and ashes, the larger and heavier fra; 
falling back visibly alter describuig a parabolic curve, 
jet of solid fragmentarj- matter often reaches a height of se 
thousand feet, while the vapor pillar rises still higher. Foi 
lightnings of great vividness and beauty arc continually d; 
from different parts of tlie cloud, but prijicipally Itti Ix 
The continual increase of the overhanging cloud soon hides 
light of dny from the distriota situated below^ it, and the 
ual precipitation of the &an<i and ashes it contains contrilii 



rite 



toeatclopo tn"nnoHfthcre in gl<Kim, and adds to the coustor- 
nation of tlie inlmliifHints c^thc vicinity,** 

If the volcano is ono which emits lava, this riBes gradually 

1 In the crrtfor iiud finally overflows it at (he lowest [mint, unleas 

ft succeeds ill forcing its way through some side fissure. The 

[nu^ten ma>» finds Ua way down tlie declivity with a rapidity 

j»0|>urtioiied to iU fluidity, overwliclming and dostrojnng every- 

tbing which it encounters. Clouds of vapor rise from tho flow- 

I ni|f mass, yisible during tho day, tho exterior soon l)ecoiDing 

OKprod Arilh a dark crust of scoriae, occ^isioual fissures iu 

which i^voal, C8i)ecially at nijrht, the presence of the iuteusely 

fpiittd material bonoatb. Tho flow of lava from tJie volcanic 

T«nt indicate* that tho crisis of the disturbance is pa.sscd, and 

tiiat th«*re will thenceforth he a gradual slackening in the 

Tiolenco of tlio eruptive action. 

Xot uTcw volcanoes, however, never send out lava, but only 
vhes and cinders; these are usually the very large ones, as, 
, for instance, the g-reat cones of South America. It is aUo true 
I that largo volcanoes are less frequently tlian smaller ones 
' the seat of great disturbances. The frequency of the eruption 
nonns to be, in a measure, in inverse proportion to tho height 
Cf the volcanic cones from which they proceed. Thus the lofty 
^Icanocs of South America have rarely had more than one 
SRiption each in a century ; the Peak of Toneriffe had only 
I three Itotwecn 1480 and 1798. This is very natural, since the 
; hither the cone tln.^ greater the resistance offered to an out- 
break by the weight of the column. But the rule is not of 
funvTerwil application. Closely connected with tlie last-men- 
[tionod fact is another, previously suggested, namely, that the 
jtnoftt fearful eruptions may be expected to occur after long in- 
|UrrvttJ8 of re|X)se. Both circumstaiices indicate very clearly tho 
l*ccumulalion of force necessary to overcome increased resist- 

At night tho column of vapor and ejected solid matorial ap- 

n red, not because it is ai-tiuiUy a column of tlamo, but 

Jwirtly bemuse it is illuminated by the reflection from the red- 

^lot Inva below, and also !>ocau?e the fragments carried up in it 

*^ themselves intensely boated. Tho fact that the column ro- 

'^^iiiB perj>endicuUir all the time is a proof ftut \\. \ft uqI ^ 



246 



VblcatiocM, 



flame, for, if tbat wore the case, it would be swayed 
wind ; but one of the most cliaracfcriatic features of t 
tioa ia, that tUc pillar of Ore socms to stand immorubld amid 
tUo " wreck of matter" around it/ 

The electrical plieiunncna of a groat eruptiou arc extremcl/ 
interesting. The upward rush of heated vapor gives rise to 
fui'ious disturbances in tlie condition of the atmosphere, as is 
also the case, on a small scale, when steam escapes from oa 
ordinary boiler through the safety-valve. A constant play of 
Ughtniufi; goes on around the ascending column, and tlie iioin 
of the thunder is mingled with the crasli of the projected frag- 
ments of rock. Tremendous bursts of rain, or oven hail, oftea 
occur at the same time, and from the same cause, — namely, 
the elccti'ical disturbance of the atmosphere, — and the effect 
of tlie torrents of water rushing down the sides of the Volcano 
is often more devastating than that of the lava itself. * 

The mass of ashes, scorias, or cinders thrown out in some 
volcanic eruptions is prodi^oua. In that of Yesuvius, in 17i>l, 
four cones were formed on a fissure nearly half a mile long, 
each with its separate crater, throwing up showers of 
hot cinders in such rapid succession as to appear like 
continuous sheet of fire in the air. These showers 
consisted of semi-fluid lava, which expanded in the air 
soft paste. This continued for several days, so tbat the w1 
space above the crater seemed to be filled with the 
meutfi, which formed a column a mile in circmnfcroAce 
rose to an immense lieiglit, then spread out, and sccmi 
cover a mueh greater area than tlio base of the mountain it 
Generally, however, these ejections of cinders arc intenniti 
in character, sometimes following each other in rapid p 
others occurring as a succession of explosions at longer i 
vols. 

Tl»e size of the fragments thus ejected is variable ; often tliey 
are as fine as the fijiest dust, but sometimes the lava is iV 
out in great masses. Tlnis Cottjpaxi vomited forth, in < 
blocks of rock tea feet or more in diameter. The sonralled 
volcanic bombs shelled out by Vesuvius are usually from th< 
size of the fist to that of the head. Generally tliey are ira^ 
larly rounded or pear-&\\a.v(i^\ \ivi\. vEixQlaangea iu which 



^ 



I 



Iin ifl very HqnM U comes dowTi in masses which flaHon 

Ml into cakes when they strike the ground. The fiuer IVag- 

iMuti which in prodij^lous quantity accompaay the lorgor, 

Mid u&ually vary from the stae of a pea to that of a wohiut, are 

, DOW almost everywhere known by the Italian name of iapilli^ or 

1 WpWi, The finer, sand-like materia] is called puzzolana, and 

' tk finest of all cenerij or ashes. 

Ohu of the most curious features of the eruptions of some 

ToJcanoes is the prodigious nujubcr of small but perfectly 

iormcd crysUils which are thrown out among the materials 

lJ«3t up from below. Veauviuii, whieh ia a perfect trcasure- 

I fiiiuabcr of iutcrestliijr minerals* — while most of the American 

volcanoes are miserably proWded in this way. — has furnished at 

i tinKS showers of beautiful crystals of aiigite, leucitc, mica, and 

' bUck garnet, tlio first^named being the most abundant. They 

j «em to have exiHte<l rea<ly formed in the semi-fluid lava, or 

[die to have crystallized out suddenly at the moment of its 

nitrification ; which of tJiese suppositions is the correct one 

i< !''■' i^ddy settled, although the first seems by far the 

tasty, _ . . . ■Ii!. 

Vast masses of volcanic breccia occur in regions of eruptive 

I wek, as for instance in California, where beds hundreds of feet 

iu tliickness are found coveriujr many square miles of area, 

entirely u»ade up of angular fnigraents of lava, of all sizes, 

I which have evidently been ejected in the form in which we now 

jioc tJiorn. The explosions with which volcanic eruptions l>cgin 

sfkr long periods of tranquillity, and which sometimes pul- 

[twtil* the whole summit of tlio mountain mass in which thoy 

1 occiu-, give rise to prodigious accumulaliuus of these broken 

niasses of rock. The great eruption of Ararat, in 1840, was of 

rtlii* kind, a terrific cxi»lo8ion having torn open the side of the 

tuouiitaiu and thrown off an innuenft<j mass of fragments, which 

»eiio projected for miles in every direction, completely burying 

I the town of Arguri*, There was no eruption of lava ; but fright^ 

I fui eonhquakea and torrents of niin followed, washing down the 

I <k!tritus of the explosion in immense floods of mud, which were. 

I Vi' ' ' uctive as lava would have been. 

•\ In Junghnhn,the Javanese volcanoes now emit no 

|-««»,bat only give rise to streams of brccciated m!xt<ina\,'S5VA(iVv 



He4 




have issued from the craters in that condition. The saiiK^ «t 
thor also gives a moat iuterestiug account of the great ei'uptp ^ ^% ,^ 
of Pepandftvan, whicli iook place in 1772. At that time buc"^:^^'//.-^ 
mass of fragments and blocks of lava was ejected tliut the -^^ * 
per part of the Garut valley, for ten miles in length, was ^ibst^ 
vith ashes and angular materials to the average depth of llfiy^ 

^feet, wliile in places the great blocks were heaped up in coii. :.f 
hills ns mucli as u hundred feet in height. The distancv> im 
^hich such masses ore thrown indicate the immensity of thfti 
force by which they are hurled into the air. Cot^ipaxi, fof 
instance, iu 1533, throw rocks from eight to tou feci in diaiD> 
ntor to a distance of seven miles. The maximum height tt 
which masses of lava have been thrown by Etna and Vesuviiav 
ill different eruptions, is givcu by various scicutiiic obficrver? 
as from seven to ten thousand feet. 

Towards the end of au eruption the ashes ejected gi-inv liiier 
and whiter, bearing all tlie marks of having been longer sat 
jected to the triturating process by which the lava is rednail 
to powder. This is the natural result of the slacking off 
the ejecting forces, the sinking down of tlie column in 
clumney, and the consequent longer time that the materials 
exposed to friction against each other. Some observers 
thought, however, that the lava might in many cases l^ 
into fine powder by the sudden expansion uito steam of 
water it contained, at the moment the pressure was remo' 
by its issuing from the crater, and there arc some appearnai 
whicli seem to render this view a probable one. 

Tho fmor the ashes tlius ejected, the farther away fi 
the volcano they fall. Carried by the wind, they are 
times spread over vast areas of country, and tho exceedi 
fineness of the material is testified to by the slownog*! " '*' 
whicli it descends, sometimes filling the air so compl 

tthat the darkness of night reigns for days in succession. It is 
stated that, lu the great eru))tion which devastated the islam 
iof St. Vincent iu 1812, tho fall of aiihes on the island of 
badocs, nearly a hundred miles distant, caused so profound 
obscurity that a wliitc handkerchief was iuvisiblo at five ijichoi 
from the eye. The fall of ashea in the great eruption of Tani' 
boro, in Sumbawa, in 181o, \>tQducQd so dense a cloud that it 




1^'*^ Volcanoes* 

^ ^rk ns nij^ht over the islands of Java aud Celebes. Ashefl 

U^ ^ the islands of Humalra, Bauda, and Aniboyua. West 

dK Sumatra a layer of lapilli, two feet in thickuess, floattJd 

<be sc», (io that shi|ts had difficulty in foretnj^ thoir wuy through. 

iM cartful comparison of all the data, by Zollinger, led him to 

Wichision that t!ic ashes fell over an area of nearly one mil- 

I of square miles, and that fully fifty cubic miles of material 

ejected iji tliis one eruption. Junghuhu, also, calculated 

Irolumc of tlie ejected materials of the same eruption to 

i hundred and eighty-fiver times the dimeiifiions of Vesuvius? 

The area ov^t which daylight wan shut off by this fall of ashes 

fwts nine hmtdrod by seven hundred miles in extent, — that is, 

moal to the whole space in our owa territory between the 

aippi River and the Atlantic Ocean. Coseguiua, in 1835, 

[irered with its falling ashes an area of uoarly one thousand 

hundred miles in diameter. 

The destructive effects of these showers of aslios are fear- 

It increased by the torrents of rain which frequently fall in 

ction with great eruptions ; these carry down the ejected 

&Ib in the form of great flows of mud, which descend 

! sl4!ep slopes with such velocity that they cannot be avoided, 

it| of course completely overwhelm everything they reach. 

It vas by such a hwa cCacquay or water-lava, as the Nea- 

[lolitans call it, that Herculaneum and Pompeii were submerged 

'tftd ileslroyed. For eight days and nights the torrents of 

mad pounid down over those ill-fatcd towns, accumulating in 

s to the depth of over a hundred feet. It was the ''O^f 
* nwrlcnblc way in which these cities were overwhelmed that haff^ 
jirc*ened tliem so wonderfully for the inspection of people for 
tlnoet two thousand years. There is uo other possible man- 
[Mr in which they could have been thus hermetically scaled up, 
l»ii wore, all the walla remaiuiug standing, and everything in 
■fa place. Had a shower of ashes, for instance, fallen from 

.) .,11 jj,Q buildings would have been crushed in; but the 

^ mud-flow crept into everything, filling i-ooms, and even 

etiars, so gradually that nothing was disturbed or displaced. 

fcrrulaiieiim was afterwards covered with a layer of solid lava, 

ixi'i tlieri built upon, so that the opening of that town has been 

itiuch slower and more expousirc; although, in p^o^vl\o\\^a^H 



Voleimoe$, 



tho amount of space uncovei-ed, mora mtercsting niui v 
works of art have boeu disinterred thau iu I'umpeii. 

When these showers of ashes fall iuto tho ocean, the* 
ually sink to the bottom, where they must cvciitufllly 
consolidated into rock, which may be raised ut<uiu to t 
face in the course of the changes wliich arc continually 
on in the relative positions of sea and land. Tlma arc 
vory extensive masses of slrutified rock, wliich ar«^ at tl 
time both eruptive and sodimcrdary^ or Pluto-Nopluu 
tliey have sometimes been called, as bclon^iig to tlic 
mains of tiie mythological rulers of the roiihns of firo and 

It IB by the constant addition made to their exterior 
falling masses of lava,.a3l»cs, and lapilli, that the cones 
canoes are binlt up, — not only the dominating one of 
cano, but the secondary or minor ones, which are so 
very numerous. These smaller conoa form on the 
wliich open frequently in the main cone, and whieli < 
wjtli the scat of action in the chimney of the volcano, 
that is connected with a still larger eruptive mass deep 
interior of the earth. Etna has more than sovou huu 
tlioso smaller conoa around its base, some of which 
respcct-ablc dimensions, one reaching seven hundred 
hciglit, and another four hundred or more. On Ves 
fissure opened, in 1794, about nine hundred feet bel 
summit: this was two thirds of a mile in length, ha 
new craters, with cones of scoriiE, were formed upon it. 

Besides aslics and scoria;, wc expect, in must volcani 
tions, to see rock rendered fliud by heat issuing from the 
and it is to this molten rock that the name of lava Is 
appli\?d. The volcanic bomks, lapiUi, and ashes are 
not fluid when ejected, although" some of the larger 
sometimes reach tho ground in a semi-plastic conditii>ii 
to flatten themselves out into a sort of cake, as befoi 
tionod. Dilferent volcanoes and volcanic regions diSer 
in re8]tect to the fluidity of their fljections. Tliose of Jj 
instance, do not now throw out any molten lava, b 
breccia, cinders^ and ashes. Tho Hawaiian volcanooe, 
other hand, seem never to have ejected anything but Ul 
high degree of fluidity. Vesuvius and Etna furnish ho 
and solid materials in aVjunvVawce. 



Volcanoes. 



251 • 



a jzcneral mlo, tlio very lofty conoa do Qot emit cui-- 
of molten lava. Thua the Rrcat South AmcrlLTim vol- 
tlin>w out, almost oxrlueivoly, cinders and aKhes. It 
' be fitatcil that, in by far tlie larger number of iiiHttmccH^ 
[pn*at nui**fe» '>f lava whioli rxi.st have come from low vol- 
5, or still uftnior from great fiBRiiroB without any couch at 
^tn the form of *^ ma^eiivd eruptious," aa tlioy arc called, in 
eh t* i)bably, by far the larger portious of the older 

kUi l-ave coujc to the surface. 

i» easy to see why, ui lofty Tolconoes, the lava should 
and find iu luauy cases an isaue at some point far below 
I guiuuiit. Tlie higher the cuhrnin, the greater the hydro- 
pressure, and when the reBiatauce oifered by this oxccodB 
; which the sides of the mountain can opjwso to it, the latter 
; give way, ami Uie hivu lind a vent at tho lowest available 
IC The constant battering of the iut«rual wulls of tlio 
ley, kept up by tho exploftivo forces within, jrradually 
[>y» the cohesive power of tlie matoriat, breaks it up into 
sut*, or threads it in every direction with cracks, so that 
elds to the repeattMUshocks, just as a piece of artil- 
ith very heavy charges becomes at last t(x» weak to 
any longer, and bursts into pieces. It is iu tliis way tliat 
re» originate and become filled with molten lava,w^hich 
in them, forming the dikes which are so common in 
Ic masses, and which are so beautifully displayed in 
|ka« where its internal structure is revealed by the groat cut 

its hoai't called tho Val del Bove. 

I^iio flow of lava, in volcanic eruptions, take place in very 

ereiit ways, according to its consistency and the position of 

[ point from which it issues. In general the crater fills up 

lually, until Uie fiery lii|uid rises high enough to pour over 

lodge at Uie lowest point, when it nms down the slope with 

5ree of rapidity proportioned to its fluidity. Tlie Vosuviaii 

b nsually very thick and ropy. One of the greatest 

it» of that volcano, — that of 1794, — which was over a 

id feet hri3ad and from twenty to thirty deep, rau two 

1 a half mil'is in six houra, or at the rate of 2, ICO feet in au 

Tho lava of Mauna Loa,ou the other hand, is so lirjnid, 

when it issues from the crater it pours down U\*i eX^^v 



252 



Vblcanoet, 



slope of the raouiitain, aomctimos with nmazing vc 
Thus Mr. Coan says of tlie eruption of 1855: *Mi\ one: 
only we saw tlio river [of lava] uncovered for thirty poda 
Tiisliiiig down a declivity of from ten to twenty-five dcjj 
The sceno was awful, and tho momentum incredible, 
fusion wrw perfect, and the velocity forty miles an 
This lava, in makinpr its way down the motintain-side,1 
over proci]»icos in literal caacade^ of fire, presenting a' 
sublimo spectacle. It occasionally forces its way out 
Bide fissure, — uuder immense pressiu-e of course, — wl 
plays as a fountain, and the jets of liquid fire are repot 
trustworthy authorities as rising sometimes to the hetg 
six hundred or eight hundred feet. 

Lava streams, however fluid the material may bo, so 
come covered, as they run down the sides of the volcano 
a consolidated crust. This hardened surface gradually 
ens, and tl»e bottom and sides also become more or lea 
grealed, so that the flow continues through a sort, of tunr 
if it were bsine poured out of a sack made of its own snbst 
The surface gets broken up inho groat angular nutsses, will 
by the motion beneath, are thrown into disorder and pil^ 
on each other, as cakes of ice ore on the sudden hreakinp 
one of our great rivers, — the 8t. I^wrence for instniiefl 
the groat ernption of Mauna Ijoa, already mentioiied, tb<J 
made its w:iy seventy miles reckoned hy the course of it 
and forty in a direct line, to Uilo ; and after its surfac 
become quite hard all the way, and there was no eride 
activity visible except the columns of vapor ascending fr 
lu!ftd and foot, Mr. Coan believed that the interior ^t 
moving downwards. This stream of lava was three mile 
on till average, and in some places three hundred feel^ 
The masses of broken crust were piled up on it to the 
of a liundrcd feet at various points. 

The lava of Vesuvius seems more variable in its consM 
than that of almost any other volcano. In the oruj 
1805, the velocity with whicli it issued from the orftt 
almost equal to that of the Muuna Loa current : on iht 
hand, the stream of 1822, when it reached llcsLDa, mi] 
the mie of onlv five or b\x f^iQt au hour. That of 181^ ' 



Voleanoi!9, 



, at the rate of three foet an hour, nine months aflcc 
e, 'ilio i*ato of motion, measured by Dolomicn, of one 
WTifl n mile a year. 

low conducting power of lava is the reason why tlie inte- 
tbe mass can rojiiaiu fluid ho h>ng aud nm hencaUi a 
tf its own aubstanco. Tbe exterior hanlons, enn be 
over, or |ierhap8 even cuhivalcd, while tbe niterior is 
i-hot Tbia internal heat hLsla for a b>ng time. The 
' JoruUo was hot enough to light a cigar I wenty-oiio 
ftcr itft issue; and sixty-six yoarfe Imer it was still per- 
' heated, sufficiently so to give rise to Jvmaroka. One 
lava flows of Etna — that of 1787 — spread over a mass 
r, M'bich, in 1S30, still remained under it mimeltod, 
be overlying mass of rock was quite hot. TIio snow 
fserrcd from melting by a cover of ashes, through which 
C was conductt'd with extreme Hlowness. 
majiner in which volcimoes are built up by successivo 
8 of ashes, BcorisB, and lava, and the question whether 
i size of some cones is due in part to any other cause 
lis simple ono of the piiing up of erupted mutoriala 
a central orifice, now remain to be discussed. 
iimjilcHt i.K)8sible form of a volcanic accumulation is tliat 
rdiaary cinder cone, built up by a single eruption. Such 
re among the most common, us well as tho most charac- 
, foalwres of almost every volcanic district. Tlie coarse 
its thrown out heap tliemsclvos around the orifice as 
J, in tho form of a circular bank, which, as the eruptive 
continues, increases in size until it becomes u hill, hav- 
of a truncated cone, with a fuiiuul-shaijcd hollow 
iitt A section of one will show that they are 
ratified, and that the inclination of the strata decreases 
^istauce from the centre. These cones are of all sizes, 
■of ft hay-eock to that of a mountain. The " Puya," 
are called, of Central France, — Auvergnc, Vclay, and 
rarais, — arc hills of scoria: thrown up in this way. 
lermoiit'Ferraod there are above sixty cones sti-ung 
r on a line moi*o Uian sixty miles in length, and the Gs- 
ich these were built tip is continued in Vchiy and 
with two hundred or more such coues ttvtwx^cii. 



254 



VoUanoet. 



in a belt hrenty miles long. The shape of these aceiimul 
of ejec1:od materials varies with the conditions under 
they are formed. When the wind blows steadily 
qnarter, the materials will he moi'e heaped up on one 
and this effect is very marked in the region of the trnde- 
A great many causes may be effective in modifying tlie 
thus formed. One is the issuing: from them of a cur: 
lava, by which the mass is broken down on one aide ; 
breached cones are among the most common features of 
volcanic regions. 

An onlinary cone resulting from a single eruption confdgti, 
then, of a pile of scoria), lapilli, and other loose mntorials, lilfc 
a single current of lava, which may have flowed from tlie suio- 
mit, the side, or the base of the elevation, and which will fat 
found spreadinf; itself out over the adjacent region in a sbeetot 
stream, projiortioncd in size to the extent of the eruption : - 
nature of the surface over which it has found room to t:, 
self. The result of repeated eruptions occurring from the 
vent will be the gradual building up of a mass, which cr 
size constantly but lias the same kind of structure froi 
bottom. Beds of solid lava alternate in it witli others of 
mentary materials, and the whole system dips in all direci 
from the centre. It is not to be supjwsed, however, that 
one of the heds of lava entirely surrounds the cone ; oi 
contrary, if a horizontal section were made tlirough su 
accnmulation, it would be seen that each outflow of 
rock has only added to the mass a portion of a concentric 
so that the cone is built up by gradual additions of ejected 
tcriais, first on one side and then on another. Besides, 
wouUi be found, in many cases, a net-work of dikes of 
ramifying through the. lower interior portion of the cooa 
produced in a way which has already been indicated. 

Almost all the older authors and many modern oiiea 
po.so that all volcanic cones have been built up in this si 
manner. Tlic theory originated by Humboldt and eUl 
by Buch, and caHed the " crater-of-clevation theory/* 
found many warm supporters even among Ujobc who 
worked long in volc^inic regions, while it has been (jersisi 
opposed by most of U\e fiu^Usli ^ologists, especially by 



Vdcandet, 



255 



I Scropc* aa well or by Dana in Ibis country. According to 

theory, most gi-eat volcauoea consist of two portions, very 

from eacb otber in their mode of famiatioii. The 

Pr port, or base of iho mountain as it might be called, con- 

1 of fltrata iucUuod at a Ighr aii^lo than the apper^ and has 

; been formed by the accumulation of oject^jd materials, but 

rather, of sti-atitied masses, which may have been 

leutary beds de|>o»ited horizontally, or volcanic matoriaJa 

Dted from fissurea under the ocean. In eitlier case these 

I are supposed, by the upiiolders of Bncli's theory, to bavo 

hn broiifflit mto their preeent inclined position by a ** bnbblo- 

>pcd elevatitm of the ground," cauRod by pressure of tlie vo!- 

nic force* confined beneath. On this inflated nioRSj through 

»c*uLre of which the lava afterwards found its way, the cone of 

tiption is 8uj>i»scd to have been formed in the ordinary manner. 

■ many ca^es, however, the process was a more complicated 

AOor the formation of tliu flattened doin&-8haf)ed mass, 

I Tolcanic energy, exerting itself at the base of the chimney 

[which the dome was penetrated, would fracture it in all di- 

nns, force lava into these fissures, swell out the mass, and 

uiaally open a great crater at the summit, around the edge 

bich the strata would stand at a much greater angle than 

Br originally had, it being maintained by Bucb and the up- 

dera of the elevotion theory that lava could not consolidate 

, Ibick beds on steep slopes, — an assertion which has been 

atlantly disproved by observations in different parts of the 

rid. 

[It is in this condition of dome-shaped elevation, caused by 

aiirc from l>eneatJi, that Vesuvius is supposed to liave been 

the time Spartaciw camped iu its crater, just before the 

ion of 79. At tho timo the expUwion took place, 

.ilden forces obtained an outlet, one side of tlic crater 

FtlovBtion wna blown off, and an ohlinary ash and cinder 

. to form in the cavity. The same mode of formation 

! fur Etna by itlie do Boaumout, one of tho most 

Mouft supporters of Buch'a theory, who maintained that 

[H^rlion of this great volcano wa* quite distinct in 

■lion from the upper; that the one was formed 

Eieatb tho aoa by the elevation of horizontally ^ley^^SV^^ 




V'olcanoeji, 



strata, while the other, or the cone proper, — which i^ "T-r-" 
hundn^d feet high and has as Rtoep aii aiurle ait tliirt ; 
grccs, — was huilt up by suhaerial accretions cxclusivcljr. 

Buch applied his theory to the Peak of Tenerifib, of wMofc, 
he made a most detailed examination, and endcaron-d \a m- 
plain by it the formation of the great semicircular w ' 
oncloscfl the [jonlc itself and the cone of Chahorra. i....^ .- 
circling precipice is, in placoB, fidl two thousand feet hiffh and 
no less than eight miles in its longest diameter. Bud) oW 
viHil^d and described with minuteness the beautiful island of 
Palma, a little west of Tencrifl'e, which is another of th«<$ 
great truuciited cones, with a huge and deep cavity in thl 
centre, called by the natives a caldera (kettle), frum tlireo \» 
four miles in diameter, and walled in by a precipice vturyinf 
from fifteen hundred to twenty-five hmidi-ed feet in vprticili 
height- This boundary wall is so Mecp and uubrokuu tluifc 
there is only one place where a descent is possible even on fbob. 
Tbis kind of structure — namely, an enoircUnj^ rii^r, of cdoi^ 
inons diuieuBioim compared with tliose of ordinary Cj*ul4'r-< ultl. 
a oono in the centre — is quite common, and is t 
well seen on some \'olcanic islands, where tlie intern: 
turc is revealed by breaches matio by the sea in lli- u,.. 
rior wall. The interesting island of Soutoriu, in the Grodui 
Aix'lii|K!la*»;o, is a good instance of this kind of arran 
tho volcanic fires hero having been active of late, 
re^on one which has furnished material for a con- 
number of volumes, as already mentioned. The i 
Nisyros has a similar structure, the nearly circular cr... . 
ing three i^iles in diameter and surroiuided by a rim wUii^' 
rises from two tlutusaud to twenty-three liundred foot sAx^ 
the sea. Tlie island of St. Helena is described by Mr. IMi^ 
win as a trachytic volcano, encircled by a broken rine n^ 
basalt, measurifij? eight miles in diameter one way 
other; (he internal cliff faces are nearly pcq>cj._. 
cept that they have in some places flat projecting f\'- 
ledges cut around them in jtarallcl curves, V^ 
the Hay of Bengal, and the Mauritius, are ot! 
amples of tlio same interesting typo of structure. Tb«aB^ 
c/Wlini^ crater ring of the last-named island mottBiir€W no l« 
th&n tinrtceu miles m disuoaaUit. 



Volc<moeg, 



25T 



LHI, in the Uixith edition f»r liis "Principles of Gt^ology," 

ied two years since, has gone pretty tlioroaghly into 

sHoa of the flppUcabilify of Bucirs theory to hotli Vcsu- 

and Etna, giving the results of hid own repeated and re- 

hminiitioiKS of those eltiBsic volcanoes, nnil pointing nnt 

Jiy itniiortnnt facts had l>Ren niiAap|)reheiidcd l>y thoso 

Btj who had ondcuvored to show that the crate.r-of-ele- 

t)ie(>Ty was the only otio applical)le t-o cxpUuu their form 

Btnicture. Hofimaim, many years ago, after a (!areAil 

Jy of ATcsnviiis, ahundone*! the tlieory of Bucli, which he 

previously maintained. Of eminent French geologists, 

rdi«r and Constant Pr<?vo6t were also opposed to the idea 

' iJie hnihling np of volcanoes in any other way tlian by tiie 

ftg of one layer of ejected materials upon auotbcr. 

[The principal difficulty which those who do not support the 

or-of-elevation theory hare to meet is the enormous size of 

fie of these great encircling rings, which would seem at first 

I larg<^ to tie the result of explr>sive forces, implying as they 

an astonisluiigly violent a(!tion and areas of vast dimen- 

;ovor which the volumes of vapor must have been driven 

|>ward8. 

'Tljero are craters of gigantic size, however, in regard to 

ich it Koeini* clearly demonstrated that they were formed in 

ordinary way, tiiat is, by the aggregation of materials 

Bfjted from a central orifice. Thus Kilauea does uol hear any 

fka of Ijeing a crater of elevation ; neither does the grand 

^aleukala, on the island of Mnnui, which is estimated to 

W)me thirty miles in circumference. Junghuhn^ who baa 

in such a careful examination of the volcanoes of Java, 

I It as the result of his observations that the great cones of 

lland liave all been formed by eruption, and not by eleva- 

' Mid. he gives most excellent reasons for dra>ving this 

ifepcnce, — such reasons, indeed, as could only be successfully 

by prcmng him to have misstated the facts. .Similar 

sions have been arrived at by the writer of this miicle, 

lining several of the great cones on the Pacific coast 

^rth America, 

I If we consider what prodigious masses of material are thrt^wn 
as already mentioned, in such eruptions as ti\at ol 'tft.to.- 
Ivou C3X — Aa £24. 17 



S8 



Volcanoet. 



Us 



boro or CosoguiQa, it will not be dilTicuU to underataiKi tbi 
cavity of corrcapoudiug aixe must ])e left boliimi ; said^ 
means of eular^ln^ 8uch a cavity to au almust iiidefmituj 
tent, we may call iii both subaorial and submai-iiLc cro 
although the fonncr has probably been usutilly by far the i 
ofTectivc agcut in this respect, 'llmt any such great blister 
upLiJl of the superficial ci*u8t as wofi imagined by Humboldt 
accoimt for the dome-shaped base of JoruUo ever occurred 
seems, on the whole, highly improbable. Hia idea of a IioIIot 
crust or roof blown up over a vast empty space beneath will 
hardly l>e adopted by any geologist at present. Everylliii 
indicates, on the contrary, that, instead of there being 
vacmmi or a apace filled only with gaseous substances luii 
or over the centre of the volcmiic action, there is nmch 
likely to be a crowding together in Uiat region of fluid 
tcrial, seeking to find a vent. That great areas of strati: 
deposits might, under such conditions, be elevated into du 
shaped masses, is certainly not impassible ; and yet it is 
tionable whether the fact of any sucli occurrence lias ever i 
demonstrated. 

It is indeed curious that the great name of Buch — a: 
once the very leader of geological science, and to wliom Htj 
boldt dedicated bis Kleinere Schrifttn in tliese words : " . 
geistreichen Forscher der NatuV, dem grJlssten Geognostei 
seres Zeitaltera, Leopold von Buch '* — should for many y? 
back have been most frequently quoted in order to bd 
forward fresh evidence agaiust some one of liia favvil 
theories, or to sliow how thoroughly ho misajjprcheodcd 
great geological phenomenon, like that of the distribution 
the glacial boulders in Switzerland. Still the fact, bowcvyr ( 
couraging it may seem to those looking dimply to permaue 
of personal reputation, is, in reality, an indication Qf \x 
in the science. Had Buch made a thoruugh exaitiinulion' 
tlie geologically classic region of Southoni Tyrol, he uc» 
would have given to the world a theory so entirely iinsup|; 
by facts as Ihut by which lie sought to explain the T 
the wonderfully picturesque clitTs of dolomite whicli ' 
that country so celebrated, and the origin of the rock of wL 
thej are composed. The day of geueralisatious of a magmlii 



*if disproportionate to the slender base of facts on which 
■ ' IS pus&ed away; or, at least, the practice of bnnping 
i'j» forward witli tho poeitivencss, and iiphulding 
with the obstinacy, of n Buch is one which is no longer 
ogno* 
tiere are, indeed, many geological phenomena the theory of 

h IB obscure nnd difficult, and for whose final ohicidation the 
ftk of accnniulatod obacrration is still insufficient. If, with 
Tiew of directing attention to delicicncies in this stock, rath- 
han of parading his actual knowledge, the geologist groups 
K facts t<jgethcr. and endeavors to show in what direction 
y»e*^m to pointer what the ultimate solution of the problem 

probably be. he will,if his work be done in the right spirit, 

incur the cJiurge of rashly generalizing or of endeavoring 
force his opinions on others. Among the obscurest and yet 
st attractive topics of geological investigation it would he 
to include the theory of volcanoes and earthquakes, and 
«}ciaMy the connection of their phenomena with those move- 
nts of the earth's crust, which have resulted in the forma- 
u (,>f continents and mountain-chains, and which, by altering 

relative level of land and sea, have played the principal 
in the long series of events that have been going on 
CO our planet becnmc the theatre of geological changes, 
in orticlo, and one in the preceding number, may be con- 

ired as leading the reader to a point from which he will be 
c, with profit, and, it is to lie hoped, not without pleasure, to 
■^ey the indicated field, and we shall endeavor at a fidurc 
le to act as his guide in such a survey. Before closing, we 
it add a few pages to what has been said in a previous 
ifle, in regard to tlio geographical distribution of volcanoes, 
their arrangement uiK)n the earth's surface. 
3y far the most interesting fact in this connection is the 
tximity to the ocean of almost all active volcanic vonts. 
)bab1y nine tenths of them are distributed around the 
cific, forming what has been aptly called a "circle of 

" full twenty thousand miles in length. The islands 

tJie west side of that ocenii form almost a continuous 
lin, beginning with the Alcutinns on tlto north* and extond- 

t-o New Zealand on the extreme soujh. *r\\va ib \vni-wii\- 



260 



Voloamofs. 



nontly a region of active volcimism, for liordly a iiinglo 
tlio luunorous islands in the various groups of wlvioh 
is made up is entirely destitute of active vents, while on 
them tiioy are crowded together by the hundred. I» the 
of the Formosa, Philippine, Molucca, uiid Suri<la 
there is perhaps the greatest concentration of volcanic ci 
which our planet exhibits. Nor is the east side of tlio 
loss boimtiiiilly supt>lied 'vvilh indicationa of igueoua 
ity. Along the wliole coast, from Patagonia to Ali 
eruptive fommtions ai*e displayed on the grandest | 
scale, although the regions of present activity arc boh 
\ridely separated from each other, and the volcanic bell 
as a whole, prusoutH e\'idcnces of a very consideiiihle a 
ing of its energy since the close of the Tertiary period. 
In tho South American Ancles the active vulcou* 
chiefly limited to three great systems, — those of Chili, 
and Quito. Each of these has iU grand cones, amon{ 
ore the liighest points in the world, witii tho cxceptit 
few in the Himalaya. Aconcagua, the monarch of the 
group, lacking not much of twcnty-thrGc thousand 
height, 1ms been generally supposed to be a volcano, 8 
even reported by Darwin as having been iu eruption i 
Some doubts have been thrown on this statemcut, howQ 
M. Pissis, a totwgniphical engineer, who bus been empl« 
years by the government of Chili in making a map 
coimtry, and who maintains that Aconcagua cousiats < 
of the Cretaceous series. It is curiously indicative 
feebleness of the spark of scientific inquiry which is ku 
even in tho most onlightened of all the SoutJi Amerli 
that BO interesting a question should not have been d 
settled a long time ago. iStill higher than Acono 
Sahama, chief of the Bolivian group, and only surpa 
elevation, on the American continent, by Ulimani and 
It is twenty-four thousand feet high, or one ttiouaa 
higher than Chimborozo, which was long supposed to 
most elevated mountain mass of tho New World, but 
although tho loftiest of tlie magniticent group whi 
rounds the plain of Quito, is only 21,420 feet iii 
Off the coast of Central and South America, at a 



"*- '^ 



W.] 



VoUswtA. 



2W 



iJe dlfltnnce, liowpver, nro f^roiipa of volcanic islaiidB, with 

vaU botw'onii them, which may bo coin[>ar(Ml with 

ir^hut far more closely crowded ones on the oppo- 

I Bide of the Pacific. Along the line of these groups, with- 

the intervals l«*twocn them, froqueht volcanic, snhmarine 

Dptionft have Iteen nhs'^rved, which have given rise to islands; 

Iwo, however, bave since been mostly washed away. If 

|i! may judge of (he fVititni hy whnt hiw occurred in the past, 

livoijld be Bafo to predict that, aa volcanic action dies nut on 

present const line, a new belt wUl be gradnally added to 

" I'Mit on the west side. Wo might, without being con- 

^ indulging in a fanciful speculation, say that the pro- 

lof adding such a belt on tlie Asiatic side was already far 

fltunced, while on the American it is just beginning. The 

post remarkable instance of insular voicanism on the east 

ic of the Pacific is the group of tlie Oalapagos, five hundred 

lilcfl oif shore, in the latitude of Quito. This group consists 

five principal islands and several smaller ones, all vol- 

Graters have been seen in eruption on two of these, 

hd on several of the others tlie streams of lava have quite a 

Call a[(|K."araiico. The number of craters on the group is 

great, having been estimated by Darwin at as high a 

limber aa two thousand. 

[Tlio volcanic phenomena of t!»o west const of North America 
on a still grander scale than those of the southern half 
tho continent, as far as the extent of the area covered by 
Igneous products is concerned. There are cot, however, as 
many very lofty cones, and not, in general, as much present 

Eivity. The highest development of voicanism on that coast 
EOS to have occurred just at the close of the Tertiary epoch, 
ind at that time the activity of the internal forces must have 
Etn prodigious. In sjnte of the immense erosion which has 
Iten place since that time, the proofs of this activity are every- 
iorc visible along the whole line of the coast from Central 
icrica to Alaska. The regions of active volcanic excitement 
pa the Pacific coast of our continent are at present but two in 
nlicr, and these are placed at the two extremities of tho 
s, one in Central America and Southern Mexico, the other in 
and the Aleutian Islands. The soulhcvu tft^ww vs. 




Volcanoes, 



divided iato two grott|)8, tbc Central Ainoncan and (lie 
tcati ; thu funuer bo^u8 widi the volcano of Cliiriqui ou^ 
tendif to tlmt of 8ocouusco, on th« Isthmus uf Teliuanto}»< 
a distance of full elevon hundred milos. This ^oup 
markable, not only on account of ite parallelism with aud i 
proximity tn the coaat» hut for the number and size of 
cones of which it is made up; of these there aro more] 
iift)', almost all on the summit or else ou the western 
the Cordilleras. Perhaps, with the exception of Java, 
is uo region in the world where the volcanic vents 
crowded togetJier. Of all tlie eruptions which have taken 
hero diu*iiig the historical period, that of Coseguina, in 
already mentioned, wa^ the moBt aidonishiug. Thv aftbes 
thrown out at that time produced darkness for two days over* 
groat extent of country, aud covered an area as Inri:' 
of New England to tlie depth of several feet, the Uu;- 
heard in Jamaica and at Bogota. 

Four hundred miles north of Soconusco, and 
line with tlie prolonged axis of the Central Amei : 
belt» rises the cone of Popocatapetl, generally con&idcrod tbi 
loftiest point of North America, aud ceriAinly the 1 " 
Las boon aL'cnrately measured. Its only pitssilile rr. 
neighbor, Orizaba, which has been made by some Into, bu 
very tnistwortliy, measurements a little the hJiLtlier of tUo< 
Popocatapetl has lieeu rejieatedly measured with closely 
dent results, so that we probably know its height witliiu 
five ieot ; it is aliout 17,750 feet. Hoth th- 

to the chain of lofty volcanic vents whio 

nent, in the direction of east and west, nearly in the latit 
the city of Mexico. Beyond this belt to the north, witl»il 
limits of Jlcxico, there are no active volcanoes ; nor are ; 
any on the peninsula of Ixiwcr California, as is unifoiia 
reported in all the books; there are but few v.' 
even, although rocks of this character in the i^ 
aud sheets of lava are abundant in some parts of tbo puuiu 
The volcanic formations on the njainland op|>osit 
sive and wonderfully varied iii character; but tli 
to a past epoch of activity. 

Crossing tlie Mexican boundary, and entering 



I 



imvttofjt. 



263 



brritory, we find cniptive rocks abundant ; and, on roaching 

ii* jHtrallel of 35^, a little to tlie north of the cftutro of 

ana, anoUier groat volcanic belt may be traced across 

lie CordilWraa, in a line transverse to their general trend. 

he most pnjminout cones of this bolt aro Mount Taylor, 

Prancwco Mountain, and Bill Willianirt'a Peak, all mag- 

Ificent mountains, probably bc'twnon twulve and fourteen 

honsund feet high, but none of them baa been ascended or 

rurntely uieaBurcd. They rise grandly from the plateau of 

bi)rizoDtalIy Htialifiod rocka, and are Biirrouuded by vast lava 

i^Wb liiMiring all tbo marks of having been erupted at no 

fy remote (M*riod, aHhongli there are uo indications of pres- 

lit activity. • 

Piwsing up through California and Nevada, we find all along 

dth hIo|»c8 of the Sierra Nevada, and on the parallel ranges 

eutirely thi-ough to Salt Lake, abundant endences of 

uer volcanic action, on the grandortt jmBKible Hcale. On the 

vide of the mountains, this condition of activity seems to 

TO censed at the commencomcnt of the present geological 

tcb, or at least to have diminished greatly in violence. The 

iity indications of present volcanic activity along the Sierra 

evada, south of the north line of California, — aside from the 

uraerous hot-springs, — aro some comparatively faint remains of 

blfalAric action on a few of the highest points. Tims Lossen'o 

It, for instance, bus several quite large areas where sulithur- 

gasCB escape* from pools of hot water and boiling mud, 

hile near the summit of Mount Shasta, amid the eternal snow, 

9re is a hot-spring &'(»m wliich sulphurous vapors arc con- 

Qtly issuing. Between those two lotly volcanoes, one nearly 

l,W and the other 14,440 feet high, there are many others, 

nw with won4!erfully well-preserved craters, looking as if 

Tcry recent formation, yet entirely destitute of any traces 

nrcftcnt activity. On the eastern slope of the Sierra, near 

*^ ', aro a number of lofty and beautifully regular cones 

.. letined terminal cratei's, yet apparently (|uitc extinct. 

ill through tiio State of Nevada, indeed, the momitain ranges 

extensively flanked liy vast accumulations of lava, and 

ti«Ji we cross the Humboldt River, and traverse the region 

of the pai-allel of 41*^, we find a condu^oua cwerov^ 



^ 



264 



Volcame*» 



[Wy, 



of volcanio mal^rialA cxtcuding over all tho northern portioft 
of Nerada and Calirorniaf as well as Southern Idaho, Easteru 
Oregon, and WasUiugtou Territory. This re^on, whicl\ is c<w- 
ered almost exclusively with basaltic lava, is but Jittle, if an;, 
less than six hundred miles sijuare, and occupies an areaooft- 
siderably larger than France and Great Britain combinBd. It 
is by erosion of rocks of this cbaractor that the many bcantifil 
waterfalls of tho Snako, Pulouse, and other rivers have l^een 
formed. Those of the Snake River are desuribed liy the few 
who have seen thorn as of surpassmg grandeur. Thvy miul 
bo among tlie very finest in the world, taking into accoual 
height, volume of water, and attractiveuess of the surroujidiug 
scenery. . 

North of the California line tho belt of nearly extinct vol- 
canic activity is continued in the Cascade Kango, — the prom- 
inent peaks and cones of that chain, wliich is in fact a coutin- 
uation of the Sierra Nevada, being all of volcanic origin. Ths 
best known ones south of the Colmnhia River arc — naming 
tliem from south to north — Mount Pitt, the Diamond Peakft, 
the Three Sisters, Mount Jefferson, and Mount Hootl. Tlie lattor 
is a magnificent cone, very conspicuous over a gi'cat extent t4 
country, and much looked up to and pospcctcd by the Oifr 
goiiians, who were very wroth at having its boasted 17,000 or 
18,000 feet cut down by tho nithlcss hand of science to 11,225. 
North of the Columbia are Mount Adams and Mount St. Ileleas, 
which are in nearly the same parallel ; then, Mount Rainier, 
standing in solitary grandeur al>out seventy miles east-souih- 
cast of Olympia; and finally. Mount Raker, near the line of 
British Columbia. Of titeso great cones, Mount Katnicr 10 
the noblest: as seen from Puget's Sound, covered with wiow 
nearly down to its base even late in tho summer^ it is trul; 
a magnificent object. Its summit has never been reached, 10 
far as we can ascertain, while all tho other important cones of 
this region have l>een repeatedly ascended. That any of those 
volcanoes have omitted streams of lava since tlie country bfr 
came known to the whites is not prol>ablc ; but that ashes hftn 
been thrown out from two of thorn, Mount St. Helens and 
Honnt Baker, seems to be well authenticated. Tho uewsp^ien 
have frequent accomita of-eoluim\a of vapor being seeu to issae 



Le CmtaU 



265 



immt. Hood, and of other mdieatious of activity being 
,by tiio gr«at cones which arc such conspicuous oiijects 
sing np and down ihe Columbia. ThcHO storieH, 
t>t intentional fabrications, may perhaps be attributed to 
i that sometimes on doar days the moisture in tho air 
I from the ocean is condensed aronnd tho cool, snow- 
l BammitvS of tho cones, so as to liavo somewhat the 
inco to a not very critical eye of clouds of vapor isauing 
bem. We obtained pretty satisfactory testimony tliat 
Hood ut least had shown no signs of actlWty duruig the 
;ht or ten years. 

IB oro also most conQicting slatouicnts with regard to 
edition of the volcauooji through British Columbia and 
, Thus Scropo, a careful aud trustworthy autiiority, 
" Mount 8t Elias, that it has certainly been seen in 
D, while Grcwingk, a well-knomi geologist who ex- 
that rcgioQ and carefully examined all the published 
ties on tho auhject,, declares that none of these volca- 
3t. Kims. E'l;;t_*combc, Fairweather, etc. — have l)eon 
luring the historical period, or, at Icastj that there is uo 
« of any such activity. 

J. D. Whttnet, 




Art. IX. — critical NOTICES. 



ie Pr*-Cf>!nmhinn DtseoL'fiy 0/ Amfirtra by M* Northmcny I'lfm- 

by Transfations from the Icelandic Stiffas. Editeti^ with Notes 

t General fntroduction, by U, F. De CosTA. Albany; Jotil 

i tli&Ti thirty years a^ (lif.i hope waa exprca^cd in this Review 
inlrresting documents rcluting to the discovery of Anu'ricn by 
^tmen. wliioli had just been published in tho AntiquiUtiea 
irttf", mtg:hl bo put into on En;;lish dress, and prepared for tb« 
of lh<i gpneral rcailer. In the fallowing yojir appcnred tho 
Mr. Jo^buaToulmin Smith, "TIr* Nortluneii in New Englnnd, 
rica in the Tcnili Caniury." To lit.-i*:tiien tlu? inlcrost of thu 
Mr. Sniitli threw his <liEcui»ioo into tho form o{ dvAVr'w^ \ W\ 



266 



De Costa t DUcovmf of America, 



his vivacity proved eo oppressive that, in spite of (he und«n 
nuity with wliitit he h&tittlod liia anjumcnt, JiEs hiwk was sooaj 

L{>I(-tcly torguttvi) as Giveiilaiid Lad been duriag the - 

^TKrce ycari Inter a translation, by iSeami^It* of ilf 
tho discovi^ry of Amehm was publittlied in London. In 1944, i 
known trnnslaiion of (he tleim.skrin;;)a, by Air. Soinucl Lain^. tqtpi 
Mr. Laing, who liiul liis own opinion nbout the NorLheru anliqi 

[plarcd in no appendix thi; ei«;lii cliaplt'n^ which, in tb> 

.'Orilict>, Imd been inl»,'rpoluI«d in PiTingsltioId's edition, 
thorilies, on whicli re«Uf (he L-laim of the Nonlimea to be ng 
the discoverers of the New WorlU. hnve thertifore been for u too 
within the rt-auli of the English remler. Stiil ilicre n>inained nm|i 
for tt new work, in which all tlio origimil documents might 1 
tugcllier and curefully coll.ited, nnd the rvanouii for refcivic 
authentic, and ns anterior to the Cimo of ColuoabtiA, dearly cxh 
NolwitiislandinK the riditiilf whit-ji fell upon tlio fil 
lliu Northern am ii{iiiine^ respecting the Old .Slone ^i 
Rock, and iintwilh^lAnding tlie innocumte paragraph wliJch Mr. 
croft sulftrs to remain at the beginning of his liistory, mo-^t mm ; 
this lime ^titffied that the Northmen must have posȣ^ed Hii 

• quoinlouce with ihi^ continent. But the precise grounds for LJiil 
erally .loncpled conclusion few would be ablu lo give, and » Ilia 
and impartial iaveati^^tion of the whole subject, showing exncllTl 
much has been proved and by what kind of evidence, would bo ai 
valuable and welcome addition to our hiisloricAl literature. 

In a work which has recently appeared from the well-known 
of Mr. Mun&ell, a laudable attempt ha^ been mado to supply t| 
ticieney. Mr. Do Custa has collected every pn^so^e in (he ScvnJii 
Snj»iu wliich relalos lo the discovery of (he New World, giving 1 

Mranslutions of his own and in pnrt trun&laltunb of Mr. Laing's. S^ 
hii extracts are wholly new in nn Knglish dreas. He very propea 
gins with the Sagas relating lo the discovery of Gunnl>(oru'« 
which led lo the first voyage of Eric the Ued tu Grcunhmd. 

, extracts arc from GrijuhuuU fUstoriske Miitt/caintrrl-fr, AU^ 
Ibllow the Sngu of Eric relating to the discovery of (jrreeniand, i 
Sngn of Biame fleriulfgson. Next aro given the Sagas of ihd 
eons of Eric, — Leif, Thorvald, and Thorfiein. The n 
and inlere>ling of all the Sagas — llwt of Tlmrtinn Kar. 
next in order, and the voya'^c of FrcydiR, the siiter of Iver 
lhti» purt of Ihe work. That the reader may be put bi )>o« 
that relates lo the duhjcei, the doubtful account of iho voyage) 
JUxtrson lo Great Irehtud, the nllu^tona to later vpyagcit found 



D* Coata'a IHscoviry of America, 



267 



Rt niftuuseriptii, nnil Borne geogrnpliieal fragttu'ntA in whie-b rvference 

aiic to Vinland, arc grouped at the en(i of the book. 

r. Da Cuata biu nut conlined hiro»eirtu ^ivirif; these nnrrativeft in ft 

&rio. Ti)U9, of Eric'fl discovery of Grt'ciilnnd wo Imvo ihnc 

awiountit, the first being derivcii from tlii! AutiquitaUi Ameri- 

ihfl other two from the iiistoriske Mhu}fsm<rrkcr* Of thu 

I of liioriiA wo have two versions, derivoj from the winic Ktirccii. 

'. Saga of Lcif the Fortunate, who i» fairly eiititUiil to the glory of 

I first sot fool on thy Nt-w W<irhl, \% ffiven in Ihrce vcr^ona, — 

; longer form, as given by Mr. Liiing, the olhtr two very brief. 

>$Hgnof Tborfinn is al<>og^von in Lhreo ver§iof)3, no they are primed 

I the Antiquitfitn Aniericmttg, All Mr. Laing's tninslatinns arc 

ciiittKl by Mr, De Costa ; but Mr. Lning, as liis work was simply 

lion of Snorro Slurleson'a Ciironielf, atul not n treatise on 

Dvery of AmericAf very propcily confined bimsclf to giving 

Sagas afi they had been printed by Fenngskiold, by irlioro. us iei 

' agreed, they wi^re taken from tlie Cwtrjc Flatoiensi's. But in this 

cript Ihc very important Snca of Thorflnn np[ienrs only in a 

Thn fuller u<'ix>unt of Thorfinn !•= derived from a inanu- 

In Aruc Magnus^ti'a coUedion, and is translated by Mr. De 

from the Antt'f/uitftiet Ammcana. Hence we have much more 

In a re(>rint of J!r. Lning. 

ut whik' wu biivc ev^ry disposition to commend Mr, Do Coata'a 

and zeal, we arc sorry to feel obliged to yny that his work by 

MS supplier the deficiency thiii ha«i ao long e.xi^ii.Ml. The mof^l 

I ire can gay in favor of hi-t labors is that he ha-i given us the original 

n au Knj;li-.h dress. Of the originiil malliir wbieh be has 

'.\o can express no very high opinion. His Introduction is 

^bitioi» in lis style and irrelevant in its matter, nnd betrays an entire 

>\\ of the problem ho had to sidve. Surely these simple 

.rnturons discoVfry are not invested with any increased 

fiJwtay by tlte ntalemenl (hat " bufore the plains of Europe, or ever 

>|HiAlifl of Chonmaliiric, rose above the primeval sea:?, the continent 

[Aiaericn cfinrrged from Ihc watery waste that encircled the whole 

nd bei.-atno the scene of animate life," One mrghl not un- 

bdy ijifcri'rom such a sentence that we were about to trac« the 

OVitriefl of men who were contemporaries, not of Hugh Ctipet, 

of (he dwellers in the bone-cave of Aurignuc, or the original 

pBT of the Neanderthal &kull. Mr. De Costa reliii(]uiii>lies with 

tit nduuhince, th« Di^ighton Hock nnd tho Newport AliU, hut 

[more \\iMi dlt^U his discretion on llil-> point hy a la>Hjred nircmpt 

Ov« ttwt the islnad which wtu seen by Leif, as be stuWd U^ \W\. 



268 



I>t Ciitia't Ditcovety of America* 



li 



port of Vintand which vas nfterwards numcd lij Thoriku 
<i^r$trond, and which was identified by Proftnaor Bufii wltli 
tuck(?l, was nothinr; eU*i than ilie Wu Nniisct, ^^ ' ' '■f^ 

infcd on Uic cott:gi of Cape Cud, but has lottg sui' 
tU« same spirit, (rcaling ihe^e Supas prcei^ely as though ihrj^^ 
the log-book of a Cunard KtCAmpr, he jiersistd in fallowing \he . 
men up the Senconnet passage, and into Afount iJupn liay. 
th):j, he is oblij^cd lo tntnsform this brond cx|tan?r of e.-i i 
lake, uiid gmvety Assures us Ihni it not only hat; ihii npj" 
traveller passittg it by mil, but U uf'len callod sOi—- a siniomiinl ' 
we venturts lo say, will a$lound those who bnvn lived by li iiflj 
iWes. With the Mime n-sotute LJu'lerminnliaa lo make ottt «( 
the prelly eminence, le>s thiin iwo hundred feet in height, ncan 
King Philip met his death, and whieh to the eye scarcely bre 
lino of (he horizon, ia not only made a mountain, but ia 
with the stupendous range known as the Mitlon IlilU ! Ani 
appliealiun of language ie griivoly imputed lo ni'-n fresh from tJie ( 
crowned sunuuiiji of JcelaiiJ, and the inaccessible clifTs of GrccelJl 

We lund thought that the lime for thi* labnrioun iriding 
by. The Sagas which describe Ihe discovery of Vinlnud, tlwa^ 
originally ft part of Ihe Ileim^kriiigln, are now admitted by alt j 
petent schuhirs to belong to the same closji of cuinpusitiou!!. Xti 
were not adopted by Suorro into hie great work will be regarded^ 
evidence whatever against tlicir auiiicnticity, when wc bear in mit 
hi:; work was a chroiiiclo of the King3 of Norway, and itiftl he ' 
way concerned with a subject the iinportauca of which wa« not i 
time At all uiider^twd. The style of all those Sngn^ t» that 
twelfth century; they must therefore bare boen tsommitted to* 
in their present form at a period certainly as early as tin 
Ileimskrinfrla wa^conijwsed. Like timl extraordinapy Cu 
belon;; lo thut epoch in the development of Seandinavian bt 
(he Skaldie eongi were beg'inning tu give place to proae com|N 
liis Preface, Saorro Siurleson, giving; the sources from whicli 
drawn, says tliat ihey were ol«J stories, os he had heard them : 
inu-lligcnt people. Some thinj;^ he says, were toiind in old 
registei-s, and jwrt "is wrillea down after old wings and ballads j 
our forefiilhers hud lor ihelr urauscment." Accordingly, nt ihu i 
the liflh puragrnph ot' (he Ynlinga Saga ha introduces a quotatii 
.£ru;i!e ilit* Old. Nor was it only wlien Ireutiiig of a mythnl 
Lperiod that iho htsforian made use of these old f^onn^. In thu 
of King Olaf TryggveMon, in whose reign Leif the Fortunaio i 
famous voyage lo Vinlnnd, there occur no h-» than tiAy-five qa 



»0 



Du Casta a jflSSSS^^^^Am^Sr 



209 



I old fiongs of ihe Skalil«, sonw of tliora ofcon^i^IerAble lengih. In 

no one can examine ibe hitilory uf Snorro 8turl6£on without 

ng ihat U iniu-l be, to a conMilonible exl«Ai, simply a pn»e ren- 

ng uf old bnllud', in wlilc-It ihti Iradiiioiis of \Ue imtirm hm\ Ttren 

krintil. Sort the S»g'i* whicli relate to ihu di^coviTy of Americft 

precisely (he same chftraclorifitics. Thus, wlien Thoi-lmll waa 

yiitg water to hi^i ship, he sung n w>ng; nml, wh#;n hi' nnd his 

iiiocu were about to sail north nround Won der^l rand, tli^y sang 

lio: anJ ' tiyiigs are preserve*! in tiie S«ga of Thorfinn. 

tidmn Ti. iLople chused tho uniped thev sanjf. Who con 

, Uml these vun^ei), iustcm] of being sougs that were nclunlly sung 

*c occHbioRfs ir«^ro but frngmenls of llie original ballad of which 

xive^ lire merely p^u^e nbndgroents, nnd that these portions 

Lto be prceerved dimply becauao tliey struck the ear of the later 



fith this vietr of the nature of these old Sngns (aud we do not see 
''•■ who gived (he lea&t attention to what Snorro Slurleson 
.:;u any other), the absurdity of tivniing them ns Mr. Dc 
gi>tfi in doing is nianilest. Nobody doirhu- tlir*tr ftiihsianlinl 
esB, Nobody, so far as we know, would deny that they de- 
ls occiirrcnrcs which actually took place. Mr. Bancroft couM hardly 
le gncv wider of the mark than when he as-erted ihnt these nnr- 
Jvi arc niytliulogical in fonu, for there is not a single L-Icmeut of 
Ku* mychoh^gy mixed up with them. We think that Mr. Freeman, 
^hli recent Ilistt/ry of the rsorman Conipiest, a good deal overstates 
! mnti^r whco he fipcaks of the ''half-fabulotis narralives in the Nor- 
1-." A story may he ex;iggerate<i and inexact, and yet fall 
ill of being hu if- fabulous. We think there is every reason 
|ibi)ieve that tho«e who wrote the Sagas of Eric and his sons, and of 
nn KorUef'ne, as wiJI us Snorro Sturleson, aimed to tell the 
nipiti tnicij. a.'i they hnd hceni it told to ihem. But we must hoar in 
I what the sources were whence iheir inforinatiun was derived. The 
Ipwlilionfi of Eric and of Thorfinn were made at the clo&c of the tenth 
fiery early in the eleventh eenlun*-. The famctus "Flalo" manu- 
nhicb the earliest account of these expeditions is pre*:ei*ved. 
ttlt-n between the years I3H7 ami 1381*. There are, however, 
«nul n^sons for supposing that they were rednced to their present 
I during the twelfth century. But grunting this much, more than a 
HiiUirjr mu>it huvu elapsed Itefore thev pns.:^ed from the form of oral 
litiou. These tradition-*, no doubt carefully preserved and handed 
, were derived, in the first instance, from the reports which the 
ihutusdvcd bixtught back, lint how precbe xccie v\v«ftn^ 



2T0 



Be Cvttiis Di%covery of Amtrica, 



[J 



Did ll»e voyngcrs koop an acciimtc log? Were lliey nlwoys eai 
nole how many days they drificd ? In ?!iort, arc we to assume the 
exactn«5rt of every f tuti^Aicnt in these Siijrns ? This Home writer* 
Mr. De Costa miisi Im» counted nmong the moftl pcrfiistent of ih** nm 
— insist on doing. Not content with Ihe general proposrlion thtit 
Northmen visited our coasts, lie ;rrftvely remarks in his nolft«: "^Tltii 
Cape was evidenily not I'uint Gilbert, 1ml the lerniitiu^ of Cape CoJ, 
knonrn aa Race I'oinL'* " Tin* was the bay situated between Point 
Gilbert and lalu Nuuset." "Thi^ was Nantucket" Ho doei aoC, 
however, press the coincidence between Mount Hope and the nanw 
of Hop, whicli ThorBim gave lus settlement. Kvcn Ualn. wIj' 
wad almost boundless nns a little stapgored by the hypothf 
tribe of Indiana bIiouM have presei-ved for nearly six ccntnrji 
designation applied to a locality by a few wondering Norscitii 
course the principal pa<isa^ relied on by ibose who a>?cri the posii 
of n precise gt'O'rrjiphicnl dctcrminaiion of the discoveries of the N< 
men is the statcaicnt in tlio Hapra oF Leif, thai day and ni^ht we 
equal tn Vinland than in Gi'eenhind or Iceland : **■ for on Ihe shortJ 
the 9un was in the sky between Eyktanslad and the Dagmalnstad.' 
De Costa ha<i a li)n^ note on this, giving iho substance of (he vie< 
vocflted by Kafn imd Fitm Magnussoii, whlclt llxe^ the latitude oT 
place at 41° 43' 10", being nearly that, ot Mount Hope Bay. 
question is too intricate to be discussed in this plaoe. Torfneus, 
fesscdly the highest authority on the penenil subject of Nortlie; 
tiquilics give.-i one interpruiation : Perin^jsUiold. who, though a '" 
had the ussistunce, in preparing his ti\tnslationT of Gudmund 
a learned Icelander, gives another; while Schoning, whc»c «di 
the lleimtikriiigla — Ihc lirst volume of which was publi^hrd in 1 
is altogether the best that ha^ yct appeared, adopts slill a third, 
interpielation given in the Antiquitutn Jmrritrnnin is tiub:!tanti 
that of Schdning, who derived it from an Icelandic bishop. In thi 
of all these differences Mr. De Costa characteristically remarks, *• 
we know Ihe jiosition of the Ictrliindic »eltleracnt in New Engl 
We submit, on the contrary, that even were the precise meaning 
two Icelandic words JCyltarataU and /><y/Mej/rt*/(«/ ascertained 
doubt, which i^ by no means the fact, slill such A Btntomcnt, 
|>erhaps by an old legend from a still older song, cuuld hardly Xte 
upon as tiie ba*is (or an astronomical calculation. We nnr 
admit that Ihe pa>sn^c proves that Lcif ami his companions winlu 
guoil wav south of Greenland; for otherwise there wouM be no 
accounting for the mentiun of the fact that there was such gr^al^t* 
itjr of days and nights than in Greenland ; but we protest Bgnirwt 



rfb 



IJ 



Da Costa 9 Dlicovery 



IB cxnct processes of science 1o Ibc eluciJalion of a passage the 

logical intcrprctntion of wliicli i? still involved in 30 much ob- 

Xo us lh« wbole discussion oftliti qtie^tion iu (he Antiquitate* 

teantr, has quite loo much the nppearunco of nn anentiuuglit. 

id lUi; luHmed editors of thiit invuluntdt; collection hflve been «uch 

Ian for ihe old Stoni; Mill and ^\\(^ Dfigliion Kook ? 

rt*gr<!t Hint Mr. I)e C'o^ta did not give Ic^s altonliun to these d&- 
iiind mure to a bnuid pi*e§entalion of the grounds on which thefiti 
Id be necopted aa BuUfiiitniially hisiorie. Stich n presenta- 
tniiily be made, and inndu with convincin<r furce. But the 
imporlani circumslAnco beaiHng upon the hisloricnl mithority of 

igas he only alludes to in the tnoAi incidental manner, and cvi- 
y with tio apprccialion of i|.< iuiporCmce. We refer to tlie fact that 
nre diRcrpp»ncica between Ihe SagnB relating 10 Eric and his gonti 
1U3U rchiting to Thorfinn, of hucIi a nature as to leitve no doubt that 
DDSl have come (0 uh from two wholly distinct sources. Torfaeus 
h(! first to direct attention to the^^c discrepancies, at the same ticoe 
king that they were of a nniure to rontirm rather thnn disprove 
niicment^, Tlic Ei-ic Sagas were evidently composed in Green- 
white those relating to Thortinn had their origin in Iceland. 
iHscrepancies arc in themselves of very little consequence, hut 
>crv« to e^triblish the imporlunt fuot. ihiit the Stigns of Eric and 
lorfiun must be received m two indefiendent authoriticfi. Had 
De Costa so arranged his hook a.9, to have brought this main 
ifitlnctly before the reader's eye, he would hnve milled very great- 
its vniue. As the Sngait are printed, there is nothing whatever to 
to that the Saga of Ttiurfmn h:u anything to distingin^ih it from 
which precede it. And yet this distinction ii the mo9t important 
« which a ciitical student would rely upon to e&lablUh the 
icsl character of the testimony adduced. Coupled with this 
lh»! independence of the two accounts is the fnct (hat thcR- are 

little points of agreement^ undesigned coincidences, which ulso 
far to contirm the impression of (heir truthfulness. Mi*. Joshua 
Smith, AS it seems to U9, treated lUh part of the (Mibjcet with 
td doal of ftkill, and Mr. De Costa might have pi*olited by his 
pie. 

GonfcnS, also, to a feeling of some disappointment on finding 
Un De Costa is able to give ua the rPHulls of nu more recent 
rdiu than Ihu^e recorded in the Aiitiquitofcs Americana. That 

wit* publiAlK-d more than thirty ye^rs ago. Griinhmis J/is- 
Miniiam^zrker^ from which he ha* deriveil n portion of his 
ialf appeared io 1633. Is it possible that the DanUh at\l\(\v\i\vw% 



272 



iSaM/<y'« Etuite d'I!8dra$ et rf? N^-fi^ie. 



have tJone notliitig, for more than n genrration, lo iTliutrA(« 
interesting portion of llieir tarly liislory? If Dnihing wlm| 
importiinco ha^ appeareil since, at least ihe fiicl eliotiM 
eiaic'J. In some of hia refereocfs to (be earlier niitboritiffi, ! 
Co6t« is not aocunuc. Tlius, on p. 19, bd quotes ta « 
Torrneus Uie statement tlint Grevniund was first di$o4^1 
Gunnbiom } but a rffcrence lo the poa^agf in the Grontandia j 
will fibow Hint Torfneuft, iu iliin plnw, is wmply quoting iJie 
of nil earlier xrrii^^r. So, in his IntrortuctioD, lie rcfon lo ti 
work of Torfaeus as tlirowing much light on the early to; 
Northmen lo America. Now, we venture lo cay, ihnt in the < 
the GrtftiUmdia Atitiqfia there nre not, at most, fuui-e than fuu 
allofion!) lo Vinluml, and tliefic are bunlly mora ihnn tmrntiooj 
name. The work of Torfueus, iu which the voyngi'S of the Nl 
are so thoroughly discussed that it may be qn^ationed wbt'tlivr i 
cent invf-liiJiiititinti have ndded anything of value to his lr'>iilmt: 
subjecl, 15 the Ifiston'a Vinlatitiite Anfiqute, a volume which id 
by Professor Rtifa as inter rarinimo* lihrvt^ and seem^ wUc^lji 
escaped Mr. De Costa's notjc-e. Wc know, however, of at ll 
copies of ihid work which are not inaccesit'thle (o tho historical | 
These errors are of no great consecpieuce, but ihey nro nr 
should not be found in a work devoted to the s[>eclal difc 
a chapter of Scandinaviun hi^tory. 



2. — J^ude chnmoioffiqtte d<i Utrti iVEidroi et de Ifihimie* 
SAti.cir, de I'Acadcmie dcs Inscriptions ct BcUca Lelireft^l 
1868. 

m. DE Saclct, the veteran numtamatist and nrchnolo 
augmented the tiumbcr of \xU monogrfl[)hs on Ilebrew antiquiti 
chronological itvde on Ezra and Noheminh,or, to ?peak morencJ 
on the whole Persian period of Jewish history and n part of thfl 
ing period. This elnborale, stiirgeslive, and inlerei-ting essay, liti 
other woiks of it^ distinguished author, is, as be informs us ini 
tion to the Ablie Chnuliac, ihc fruit of f-tudies prejvaratorjf 
writing of a long-inedilaled historj' of the SIaecnbec3. The ; 
from which the necessary data were lo be drawn, M. do Sau 
complains nrc in conflict ** with ench oiherf and fomotiniei wl 
selves," scanty, and rather inconclusive, ihc princTfinl be 
Books of Kirn, Nehemiah, Esther, Ilugpii, and Zeoharinh; ihi 
of the jMaccflbees, both canonical and apocryphal ; and the VA 



J.J Saulcy*$ JSiiide d'Hadras ti dt N^h^mie, 



278 



phai. Tbcttc ho has closely stuiliecl, examining ihc moat minute 

with thr ^jti of in*ic[>L-Ddt.*nt und unprojudictfd crilicum. In 

bift^ hirt condus'iuiis lie was ccrfitrollcMl neither by the tcxl^ of tlie 

itmiJ books tior by the authority of Joscpbus^ nor by the coneur- 

, optuious of modem critics. Id fuct. his disregard of tcxU aiul 

iiiea is btriking, ftod borders on arbitrarinet*!^. while 

■ itb treated willi conivmpl and followed witli deference, 

of the latter course romaining unexplHincd. Hib principal 

Paucms may be briefly summed up in the following table of events 



C— Cyni» raptures Babylon. 

He rtJeases the Jewish captives; Sbeshbazzar leads Uie first party dS 

Jew* returning to llieir country. 
522. — Ketgii of Ciinit>y»es, desigoatcd in the Book of Ezra by the 

name of ArtabsbuUta ; be stops the recunjit rue live worki of the 

JewR. 
ASl. — Gomates (Plwudo-SmerdiF) reigns seven mooths, unmentioned 

in the SfripturcH. 
■—First }-eur of Darius Hystaspis; Zerubbabel and Jeshua lead a second 

party of returning Jews. 

— At>Urd \>y Haggui and ZecUariab, tbey commcjice building the Temple. 

— Tlie Temple ii completed. 

^~ Xerxes, the Ahasuerua of the Book of Esther, succeeds Darius. 

— Artoxerxea (I.) Longimanns, unmcntionud in the Scriptures, succeeidt 
Xerxes. 

-404. — KeijTQ of Darius (II.) Nothus, unmentioned in the Scriptures. 

— Artaserxi-a (II.) Muemon, the Artahahaat of Ezra and Nebemiah, a»- 
wsiids tJie throne. 

— Ezra ftrrirea in Jenualcm. 

'— Kchiontali rtibaildn th* walls of Jemsalera ; Ezra and Eh'ashib assist 
him ; Sanballat the Huronile and his associates tr^* in vain to check 
the work. 

, — Nehrioinb a second time in Jerusalem. 
.— Arlaxerxfu (Itl.) Debus, unmentioned in the Scriptures, succeeds Ar- 

laxeraes IL 
1-.S30. ^ Reijni of Daritis (TTI.) Codomannus; he appoints Sanballnt the 
i HoroQile satrap of Samaria ; the latter gives his daughter in marriago 
■ lo ManBSHch, the brother of the high-pricfit Jaddua ; Nehemiab drives 
I MaoaaKh from Jeruialcm. 

I — Darins is overthrown by Alexander the Great; Sanballat jmna the 
conqueror, and builds the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim. 

the more easily lo dt.'termiuc what in these historieo- 
^tal omenta may be regarded as more or less original with 
4ic Sanlcjr we shall contrast with them the corresponding (l&v^% 
U CTX. — NO. 224. 18 



274 



&m^^> £tude d '£$dras et d^ Nih^mi*. 



established by Zunz and Ewalil, wilh whom Gescnini, Miuilc, lie 
Fiirat, «nd ftlmost all olher recent biblical crtlics of doI« AgTCO 
important particulars. These are:— 

638. — Capture of Babylon. 

536. — Cyroa allows the return of th« Jews ; ZerttbbAb«U wbota < 

IS Shejhbazznr, and Jeshaa^ the htgb-priett, lead the flat 

column. 
fi3&. — The Samaritans che<-lc the building of the temple. 
63d -622. — BeigD of Canibysps (tbe Ahasiwnu of tbe Book of £zra,i 

M. de Saulcy paascs over in silence). 
532. — rseuJo-Smerdts, the Artahsbaahta of the Book of Eara ; bei>iBn^ 

the reign of Dariua Ilystospia. 
521. — Darias allows tlic rebuilding of the teraple; Haggai and 

co-operate with Zenibbabel. 
616. — The Temple completed. 

486. — Xente^ the Ahasuerus of Esther, succeeds Darins. 
466. — Artaxerxes I., tlio ArtahaUast of Ezra and Nebemiah, «ua 

Xerxes. 
469 (Kwald, 468 Zunz). — Ezra in Jerasalem. 
446 (Ewald, 444 Zunz). — Nehomiah rubuilds the walls of Je 

hofltility of Sanballat and Ins asaociatea. 
424-404. — Reign of Darius II.; Xebcmiah a second time in 

he drives out Manasieh, ^andson of the high-priest Kliaslubvl 

lon-ln-Iaw of Sanliallat, who seeks refuge in Samaria ; ImlUil 

tbe Mount Gerizim temple (Zunr, later accordine to Rwald). 
364 (Zuns, 369 EwaW). — ArLaxerxes III. adcf-nda the throne. 
396 - 330 (Ewald, 336 - 330 Zuoz). — Kuign of Darius III. 

A comparison of the two tables trill show the followtng deric 
in M. de Saulcy's Etudt^ from the prevalent opinion, twsidei 
chronological vari»tions of minor importance : According to 
Saulcy, Sheshbazzar is not identical wiib Zcrubbubel ; the former I 
the lirst column of returning Jews; Cambyses is not idci 
Abasuenis of Bzra (iv. G), but wilh Artahvhajibta (K. 
for Smcrdis there is no name in the Bible; Zerubbnbel 
followers to Judiea, not under Cyrui, but under DarluK; it ' 
of Kara ami Neheminh i? not identical wilh the first An.. 
Greek historians, but with the second king of that name ; the St 
of Nohemiab is identical with tbe Sanballat of Josepbut, a oouten 
of Alexander. 

To establish his points, M. dc S.iulcv adJuccs no evidence \ 
former crilics. Tbe newly decipherud inscriptions of the Easll 
on theae points ; the wcU-knowo and long-scroLinized texta of dUtl 
menlioDed above, besides some inconclusive and eqoaUj^ ws 



li] Saulcf/'t Etude d'E^dran et de Nihimie. 



2T5 



of others, contiiin nil ll»at can serve as infoi-raalioii. Now, 
le texts before us, we cannot refrttin from stnting ihat their 
rnral crriilence is nil ngHinst the eonelusions of M. de Sanlcj. 
itlin** the minor. bi*lopically uniraporUint diBcreiMincic*, all of which 
I upon ccrtitin pa-s-'t^e^ flmi nrtmos oontalncil in the fourth chnptcr 
Earn, we must roll nttcniion to the main pointis those concerning 
reifpi.t undt^ which ZpniMmhul ami Nehemiah^hogan their mcrao- 
\v caruor*. Wheihf?i- Zerubbabel, " the pasha of JudaeR ,** ns Haggai 
Is him, arirl of whom Zcchnrinh saya (iv. 9), **'rhe hands of 
ihliabel hiive founded this temple" is identical, or not, with Shcsh- 
ar, whom Cyrus "made pa^ha" (Ezra v. 14), and who "laid 
founilntions of the temple in Jerusalem" {lb. IG), may possibly 
11 be open to i]ii«eu»sion ; but to aeiAerl, as our an I hor docs, — and 
I on very iriflmg grounds,- — that Zerubbnbel had nothing to do 
Ih the first rciorn lo Judmn; that the twice-given list of those who 
ith Zerubbaliel ** (Ezra ii. 9 ; Neh. vii. 7) refers to a different 
Cprdicinn than his ; that the 6r.'it intermption of the rcconstructire 
Brk« of the Jews by the Samaritnns, who — hh U dininotly stated — 
drcMt'd iheniHcIves " lo Zenibbabel " (Kzm ir. 2), and were answered 
•*Zcruh(iaU'l, Jwhua," clc- (/i- 3), is lo be explained as referring 
**une action ankMeurc h. celle & Inquelle donna lieu la venue de 
1." — is iiiinply, we think, to fly in the face of narratives as 
di'«linct as any we have in Jewish history. On this point, 
. de Kaulcy boa ngainftt him also the testimony of Josephus^ which 
rejecta the more reailily, as he is not at all surprised to find " one 
rr.iir de plus de m part, h njouter i\ loutes eelles que nous avons d^jk 
iitdr W-nn relevre.*." And yet it is — a» for as wecandi.«covpr — only 
B narrative of that inaccurate historian concerning Sitnballnt and 
I eonnectioo with Darius III., Alexander, and Jnddua, that causes 
\. de Suulcy lo place the cjueor of Exra in the time of Artnxerxes 11., 
lo make Nehcmiah a contemporary of the SIncedoninn conqueror. 
to do this, it if*, however, necessary to make bolh Nche:uiah 
nhallat figore at the head of hostile camps at two pcriocU fifty 
m apart, and to leave a blank in the history of the Jews of Palea- 
leiidiag from about B. c. 515 to b. o. 397. This it", of course, 
Tatal, though certainly a serious objection to the proposed change 
\ht chronology of the age of Ezra and Nefaemiah ; but what makes 
it ciiange decidedly unacceptable — as long ns wo entertain the 
itect regard f()r hil)1i(MtI texlji^ — iit ihe connection repcaleifly 
led of Ntdiemiah witii the high-priest Eliashib, who, accord- 
'o«r author's own showing, ran be computed to have flourished 
le time of Artaxerxes !.» full one hundred years \)cfore N.VxM\^ct 



276 £ickmore8 TravfU in East Indian Arekipdago. [Jjl 

and the equally distinct mention (Neh. .xii. 26) of Ezra, N«li 
nod Joinkira. the i'alhcr of El^ioshib, as conlemfiorarics. In tba 
of all llieso difTicukiL's, M. Ju Suulcy duus not he&tlatc to folia 
lead i.tf Joscphus, — whose bookii, as he ackuowledges, fiW)inn| 
anachronuma, — and we mu^t consider it na ironical when be] 
speaking of EUashib: " Nous nous inclinons d'ailleurs devout tol 
bibliquc." We, on our part, profess tio undue reverence for tox(^ haij 
we wonld sncrtlice none tlmt arc inlrini^icaLly credible, in order i 
the credit of u narrative of Josepbus. 

The most valuable contribution to archieologtcii] discovery i 
in the monograph before ub is, wo believe, the digression, al lU 1 
concerning the age of the ruins of Aiiik-el-Kinir. or ivasr-cl-^ 
whit-h bear in two insert ptioi is, lately Jeciffhercd by Dr. I^lj 
Brciilau, the uurao of Tobiah^ who appears to be the Aiuinuuit^ 
of that name, — ihc associate of Sanballat, — and ihc history of 

scendanld Ttt. de Saulcy traces in an ingenious way. Bnt 
I compels u£ to refer our roaderii to the liiilu book il»elf. 



3. — Travels in the East Indian Archipelago, By Alfred S. 
MORB, M. A., etc. New York: D. Appleton &, Co. I**69, 
pp. 553. 

Next to the pleasure of visiting foreign cnuntricR, and es[>eq 
those but little known, is the enjoyment of the iruvcllvr in lelling » 
ventures ; but the small company of Iravellcrs who give hs much | 
ore to their listeners an t^j themselves docs not increase rapidly inj 
daytf of easy transiL Now, more tlian ever, is it necessary to 
for a scientific journey by careful study and faithful tmii- 
sult is to be of real value. It is fto easy to vi^it region 
inaccessible, tbnt many of our travelling countrymen, aimintf at a J 
talton oDcc purchased only by patient, brave, sclf-sacrlfici 
work, imagine themselves called upon to Iju Humboldt's - 
for a lime enjoy a cheaply purchased honor. 

A private exploring expedition is usually far more GaeiyMfbll 
the.cumbrous armies or navica governments oommoidy send oot,! 
greater part of the known species, botii of plants and anifl 
been discovered through the enterprise of expeditinns constsdj 
or two devoted students of nature, who have gone forth to nitwi 
as did the disciples of Linneeus, not for ppcuniaiy advnntn|*e 
fame, but tvith the single purpose of advancing scienec. ICnowuij| 
adraatQges of individual labor in iJie world-wide £eki of i 



59.] Bickmore*8 Travch in Ea»i Indi^xn Archipelago, 277 

ploralion. we should not have been Mirprised had Cambridge Mnt 
. a pupil whose discoTcries or observatJonSj even in 50 accessible a 
l4he East Induin Archipela^n. would linve added much to the 
knowledge which Kumphins, Vnlentyn, lleinwardt, Junghuhn, 
Jen, Kaifles, and Crawfurd have collected during the past c«n- 
Dd a hair. We had hoped to find something new in the rc?iiltfl 
* exploration of such n region h^r one who had heen the pupil 
'ho di^tinguiHhcd an inatrticlor as Agassiz ; but the volume before 
Is scarcely more than a record of neglected opporluniticB. And 
, »5 Murchiflun sajfl, it is a verj readable Iwok, containing many 
rid piciares of the tropicjil scenery cold New-Englanders like l>e- 
ihey cannot fully appreciate it. It is because the book offers 
Ihat is interealing and attractive to the general reader, that 
nUhes are worthy of notice. • 

bough professedly a record of the travels of a scientific roan, — a 
nhcT of many jwirned societies, — the volume before us might be 
dakeo for the work of a mere commercial traveller, whose interest In 
I extended only to the price of shells and rare bird-skins, &o corn- 
has the author concealed his real love of Nature and devotion 
r service- Who would see an ardent naturalist in Mr. Iilckmore*B 
ription of his shell-gathering — the prime object of his expedition ? 
eolinc collectors ivill be fluqtrl^ed to lenrn that inalead of going out 
the ooml reefs which he describes with so much truth, or joining 
native fishermen on their excursions, Mr. liickmore, on coming to 
Ivillage, had the utflcial drum beaten, and notice given to the shell- 
era and others interested that be was ready to deal with them. 
then seate^l hini^lf behind n (able, in M>me public place, and. as the 
ills were produced, placed beside them what he considered an equiv- 
at, and pronouncing the Inn atau itu {** this or lhat "), concluded the 
krgain. For the localiiies nf the alielU he wa3 dependent on the inao 
report!) of a people whose language he understood but imper- 
Jy. He had no means of knowing at what depth the animals lived, 
tir of noting the many little faets an actual collector considers irapor- 
nt. This ia the more remnrkable, since by his own account he was 
I terj* successful in collecting on a coral-reef. Although fault may 
■found with his method, his frankness in dcscribitig it is commendable, 
nd tb'' very large and interesting collection sent to this country seems 
I have been considered very valtmble by those who have paid pener- 
priees for the duplicates. Although shells were the principal ob- 
tof the cxp''dition, birds were by no means neglected; but, so for 
i«e cjui judge by the book, botany was wholly ignored and geology 
eirvd little attention. 



278 Bickmore*i TrawU in Eatt Indian Arehiptlago. [Jdf, 



It it> hard to repress a feelitif^ of great dUappoinLmeDt. wkoi . 
Bickuiore enlorgt^s upon Uis mngular racilities for lravfUi»g, ibe I 
be carried to and frum the officers of goveniraent best able- lo iat% 
alt hi» phiiis, and the opportunities which absolutely seemvd to Uril 
bia way. Geologists and bolAnisIs might enry bioa bia opportun 
but iiardly his achievements. 

One uf the must unuijtiig features of Mr. Bickmore'ii narrative i 
apparent uncoiisciouanesa ihal much of what be saw for the first tiq 
an old siory to lite tliou^andis who yearly pn^^s through llie S(r 
Molucca on their way lo and from China. That most comtiioo 
ment in the tropical seas, of diving for any bright roin, Hl!a him ' 
wonder, and he rather unadvinndly declares the skill fxhibilMd ' 
as wonderful ad is shown by any of the natives m tlie South 
JkVben a native adopts (hat very common Polynesian custom of 
a raft of cocoa-nuts, be seems to give the man credit for n new in^l 
tion. A volcano only 2,321 feet high presents dilBcultics aluioft i 
passing thoi>e of the ascent of Mout Blanc. These are, however^ 
important mi:ttakes ihut one might easily make on a firM inlivdaq 
to the wonders of tlie tropica ; but the mi&'take«, or mit^staten 
regard to several botanical matters might seriously mislead a i 
a^ when, for example, our autlior asncrla that tlie pandanux^ or i 
pine, *^may be correctly de^ribed as a trunk with brunches at 
ends," making no distinction between branches and aerial roots| 
when he saya thai the banana *^ corresponds well lo the trre iS 
yielded her fruit every month," when in irulb (be plant bears fruit but 
once and then wiiiiersi. Again, in speaking of a famous prophei or 
teacher, Nubiata, he mentions the rile of circumcision introduced by 
him as an indication that Nabiula was a Mohammedan, apparcolJy 
unaware that the custom was widely prevalent in Polynesia long beftrt 
the advent of this prophet, and indeed, far from being confined l« 
Hcbrewit and Mohammedans, is probably practi&ed by more tliao half 
of the inliabitants of the world, 

But we may hasten over these defects in an interesting votao 
grettjng the crude arrangement of the materials, the un 
interpolation of nearly forty pages of historical matter, ofteo 
new nor expbinatory, and the disagreeable prominence given to I 
author in the foreground of all his most interesting pictures. Wei 
pardon him lus dread of carlbqaakes and volcanoes, and Ibe frctiurrrt 
allusions to his service in the war of the Rebellion, in con(>idemtiin of 
the gallantry he di^^played in a combat with a gigantic python, 
was housed in a box eighteen inches long and a foot wide and< 
one side being of slats, ^ol Viking ihcse narrow quarters, the i 



Sroitninff*i The King* mid the Book. 



ST9 



came oat noon after being placed on board the ship in which oar 
r left ihe scene of so many advenlure^, and like the genius in iha 
ian tale of Che Fi^herumu, wliun once out of the box, expanded 
Mich a hagc monster thnt the whole crew of the vessel drew off in 
il [error. Even the captain, armed with two revolvers, could not 
bu trembling hand to shoot the python. Mr. Bickmore alone wu 
ami ielf-|io:ise3fed* and in the coolest and airiest of costumes ad- 
10 the contlict. ** I felt the bloud chill in my veins," he con- 
** a» for an in^tanl we glanced into each other's eyes, and both 
vely rcaliseil thai one of us two roust die on thnt spot." All but 
led, he is at laJit about to succumb, when an nxe is handed him 
alajti the reptile. Tugging his vanquished enemy across iho 
hfavoA bim into the sea, and then uiila on to the ** great empire 
^insi, where I truTelled for a year, and passe^l through more eon- 
dangers aod yet greater hardships than in the East Indian 
btpeUgo." 

Tith the*e defects are mingled many interesting and well-told narra- 
iuul certainly the author ha* exhibited considerable patieuce and 
in concealing the enthusiasm which doubtle^ forms an 
xtanl part of his character as an explorer. We shnll look with 
It for a continuation of his traveU in China^ where be visited 
ptacn (cidom described. 



- J]b« £inff and the Book. 13y Robert Browkikg, M. A. Bos- 
ib: Fieldfi, Osgood, & Co. ISCD. 2 voU. 12mo. 

I WELL-XNOWsr editor uiys that half the value of a newspaper 
er U in it.s headittg, or, if it have no heading, in its opening sentence. 
le Ring and The Book," — hod ever jioem a lovelier name ? The 
ieet metal, liie perfect shape, the dearest human affection, — gold, 
circle, love, — are all suggested by the words, ^'The King." And 
le Book," wlwt ia it but au image of the spiritual essence, stamped 
I an alien clement? 

** Do yon sec thifKing * 

' T is Itome-work mtilo to match 
(By CwtclUui'^i imitative craft) 
Ecrurian cirrlcu found. Home happy mors. 
After a ilropitin^ April ; fuutid s]ivo 
!<park-)ikr 'mid unearthed slope^ide fig-tree roots 
That rujrolJ toiutis rc Clioflsi : soft, yea see^ 
Y«l criip a* jewd-^uttiog." 




N 



Brownin^^i Tkt Bittff and the Bvok, 

Had ever poem a more <brtunftt« 6r8t Motence ? Seven viyiil 1 
OS " crisp flj) jewel -culling." 

The works of the anci*'nt poets come down to U8 winnowed bij ika 
forgetting winds of time ; they are not clasjtified according to yemt 
they furnish us thcmMclves the rules by which we pmisc tbenit and tin 
verdicts have long been made up lieyoud rwversal. Homer, AnacTMIt 
T)ieocritu8, are for m less men than piirchment scrolls, — names wn» 
dering homeless in history ; vacatur nonrnn longt et late. On (he M0> 
Irary a modem poet — Wordsworth, for example, or Shelley — i 
comparison, at a certain disadvantage^ because hii works, being 
the reader's hands make an average impression below iheir 
merit. AVe read an ancient poem and ask, *' Why ha* it come 
to us ? why is it admirable ? ** We read a modern poem and 
it admirable or not ? " The solution rau?t be strained from the 
the happy phrase is hurt by the common neighborhood of pro«e 
the splendor of poems in themselves without flaw is ulouded 
memory of inferior performauces. 

Ko doubt there is poetry of Mr. Browning'^ which will live fiv 
generations ; bat we, his contemporaries, cannot pick out the lasting 
verses. Posterity is not likely to value most highly liis briilianl ikir 
luishes with unbelief and superstition, for theae will be idh- and hanllo 
understand when the forms of thought and feeling with which they W; 
have passed away ; nor his ingenious situntions. for they do not raniitfi^ 
the simple relations which are tlie framework of common expchcncei 
nor bis curious analysts of motives and character, for tliese are a l'l^ 
geon's dissection after death. The future will prize, we thinks a Ultf 
sunset sky out of some landscape ; a song ; a burst of natural paauM | ft 
vague generalization, magically 6xcd by example; a speculative 
trine made by the imagination clear beyond the clearness of 
statement, — for in this order of ideas the syllogisni eoi 
plexes and obi^cures. 

" Paracelsus," once the most admired of Mr- Browmii 
represents the youthful sentiment of its time, as ** Chihle 
represented that of another epoch. It is full of emphasis 
but it is aUo diffuse and vagrant. It is (lie work of a young 
like many of the works of youth, not certain to be long rememl 
** Luria" has been called the best of Mr. Browning's dramae. 
written in a noble spirit; but its plot is improbable* its lei 
Tirtue is sure of final recognition and applause in this 
course, false, and its characters are unreal, whether consid 
persons or types. Yet " Luria " is an agreeable poem. The pi 
adorned with the briWianl \\te o^ i&^^vkvvX Ival^-^oar best scnli; 




d 



Brmoniifuf$ The Rtnff and the Book. 



ippealcd to, ami the ehnsms In tbp lofric nre brirljccd wltli n preftch- 

Ul. A subtile intellect is so skiltull}- umploved to Oisparage 

ItT of InieUet't, that itie reader may be purJoiier] for flliarln^ the 

-lit in his fiKuUtes, cvon to the extent of preferring to be 

■ Liiicr than the Moor. Browning** dramas give us analy- 

f Mlitafy chAraclers, and deri'lopmcniA of 6U0«»Mive sttafltionB. 

lie contiDUoaa mavement of lif*.- ; hence the •• Dramatic Lyrics," 

n uiid Women," and " Dmmjitis PursoniE," ure congeitiiil composi- 

Pfeviously lo ilitj ptihlicntion of "The Ring and iho Book," wc 

d have saivj thai the pic-cee on which tii:i fam^ wuuld rest were 

{; tho^e thus entitled. 

?he Ring and the Bot>k, " (hough in scope a lilvniry novelty, is nol 
tialty a novelty in plan, ilore than once Mr. Rruwninn; lias 
rmcd the experimiml of treating the same subject from dlfTeK'nt 
I of view. For example, under the obvious argument of '* Bbthop 
gram's Apology," stirs another more solemn argument, wUieb 
I forth nt the end in fire. Again, in "The Glove" the popular 
>n of n colebrakd 5lory It given, hut iu such a way a^ to make 
tndcT fed that the »tory is only lialf told, nod ask for the nobler 
>hicb follows. It is the ehild's game, — out of the mmc blooks 
ily to sbnpc u triangle, a iMiruUelogmm, und a star. "The 
BDd Iho Book " is an extended and complicated example of this 
>d. 

I iacidcat in private life excites such general and prolonged 
«l HH a murder. The first reportfi of the affair are eagerly read; 
idictory fiiets and versions of faet^ are added every day ; exaggera- 
. too grosd for the newapaperdi, are current in conversation and 
ase tiiG popular ferment. If ibe alleged murderer is arrested, the 
of biB arrest gives u^ fresh excitemeat, and we wait impatiently 
e trial lo begin that i.< to clear up the truth. What is the prose- 
I prepared to prove? What line of ai-gument will be followed by 
efence? Will the executive pardon? Oo the eve of execution 
be rrinunal make aconfe^^Mon? Whatever the te&limonr, some 
doubt tlie guilt, and some the innocence, of the prisoner. Some, 
tting hiH guilt, will hold that it has not been legally proved, and 
I, that the provocation was enough to oxcune the deed. Let the 
1 bfi u woman, young, beautiful and a molhor; let a luindsome 
5 man bo mixed up in the matter, as her friend and possible 
; let the murderer bo- the elderly kusband ; let the parries belong 
[h life ; and let their relations with each other have been long talked 
ii — tben are present the conditions of tragic interest, 



Browning*8 The Rinij and iht Scoh 



[•f 



" And Robert BrownioK' ,vt>a wrilof of plv*i 
Hera 'fi a Hutijoct miulfl to jour hiiid." 

So llie poet lakes for the basis of bis new work *' 
low book" willi "crumpled t'elbiiu covew," — Uic Ui 
mry, cruilc tacts of a Roidhd raurder-cnse, — pure gold. Hk ihtai 
siders by wbut added nmlterr by vrbuc L-baracterauad molives jtllrib 
to Uie eeveral |i«rson.H, (be Biory will l>ccomti eliapablo into au i 
form, — to carrj* out his figure, say, a ring. 

"Uu miniElMgoU 
With gold's alloy, vitl. duly temptrioi; lioth^ 
Kffoctj ft ituuiB^fmblc inasi, llien workf." 

The pos&ible versions of such a story admit of a thr««fold da 
lion. FirAl, there in the rnnfufted rumor whidi paa«^^4 nmoog ibc | 
lie from lip to ear. Secondly, there is the nocoutit uf the Lransail 
given by ihone who were concernetl in it. Thirdly, there \»\ 
cone H9 rtiOcd under the fomis of law. Encli (»f these three dl 
may include tliree stiilemeuU* numcly, one for the alle<;ed crimittn],f 
4igAin6t him, ftod one that of those who try to get imparlialiy ni^ 
truth, — nine versions. But the story of the prisoner before the 1 
when he pleai].4 not guilty, may rensonuhly differ from hisfloryi 
conviction, and aAer all hope of pardon h past. Thus the < 
facts may oonccirably be nnrruted in t«n seveni) ways ; and nch i 
ceirable narration mny be clawed under one of ten heads. 
hau§t in (Li» ouinnerft Uoronn murjer case iin the pn^^Iigi"' 
** The King and the Book." Nothing could be niore m^ 
dents whieh Homer delightn in than this story, If be had it )o lelj 
would tell it straightforwardly, in part by narrniinn, and in 
dialogue. IIo would f>how each fact in ecvcral ai'pecta before la 
up the next fact, with euch an interest in ht? work aa a hetiltliy] 
takes in healthy men. $bake<4penro would make out of th« iHibjo 
second Othello. As be anfotded the plot, and led tlie dialogne, i 
relations of each character (o the rest^ being pi'cgent in his mlud^ 
be present in every situation, and fell in evvry di<coui«G. The stu 
would bo left to separate them, to follow through the play the thr 
each, to perplex himself among the number of passible e'Xplana 
nnd, perhaps, to come to the opinion ihut explnnation of the wa 
of the world, h lm\m*&i\>\v, A dtdttctic pur[io$>e would ' 
not misled in Homer, present hut not ohtruiled in Shake£p< 
work« the power of the author would be im|mlpahlc hut obviou9^ 
llie day ; but his perMmulitr. the source of bi< poH-er, would be far ' 
drawn. Mi;^ht the^e poets be rnmpnred to the weaver, nt each tlir 
wiioae lifaudle the thread tuna vUruuoh a crowd of figures, and dis 



n^w*! AnnaSs of the Amfriean PuipU. 283 

sKnpe And proportion)! ? Mijiht their be di»lingnish<'d from tlid 
^idunrr, who thioks of a single figure, and plied one color at n 
I? 

IroTTnirn^ oHnpt^ the fornn of tiarralive i(iter6pei*si'J wilb dialo-riic; 
hhe iiamiiivc and tht^diAloguo arc pieces of idenlicnl pnltem. The 
ten arp diflTerent pipee of the same orgnn-slop; and the ttn 
\ «r« resembltn": runes phiyed in one style. Thf pof t i* oonsciou?, 
|X«u ergtiufl, of a didnciic pMr|ioM>, not indeed npf^cnlHtive, but ethical 
Ilomer U alive with the Kenliim'tit of race ; he is moved 
ends which nre the hislorv, (he religion, the life* the pride of 
Je nation. Shake!i{ieiire'R motive Is the love of human beings; 
■■■firay, witlioul judi;ing them. logo and 1/a^y Macheth, 
ly and Dogberry, are oi inlercsiing nnd dejir to him as 
^iQt or imojren. Hormn, because he is t!ie one iinmnral, lie is the 
^iMt, and ihc one un-EngU^b, of English writers. Uut the cause of 
h« King and tlio Book " is a morul and religious lesson, — 

** Tljtf Ie9.*nn, ili«t our hiinmn spoerh in naught, 
Our huninn testinionj fulse, our f»no 
And huraan ettimailoo, wurdf and wind." 

wn poe^TM are ten sennon^ on the fame thesis ; and each is 
p«d by logical prtK-es*. The story in of no account, except as it 
the pod'e purpose of showing a few chamctei's in a great variety 
elntions and of iltualrating bis thesis. To the reader who, losing 
lit of ihe purpose of the book, should object to the rcpul^iveness of 
> Iheme^ the poet might say, in the words of **The Statue aud (ho 

" O, a crime will do 
A* well, I repl V. to serre for a Hst, 
As a vlrtoe golden throogh and ttiroogh." 



finis of the Antericnlt Pulpi't ; or^ Commemorative AWcm of 
vUtinffttUlied Awi-nctin Clerfjymtn of various Denominations, from 
le Mr/y Sfttfemfnl of thr Country to the t_Uo»e of the Year Jf2iyk- 

Hundred attd Fifty-Five. By William B. SfRAr.uE, D. D. 
folttmo IX. New York: Hohert Carter and Brothers. 18G9. 
pp.xli,2l0; xiv.,242s xi., 135; xii., 172; ix., 91. 

it work is approncliing completion, only one vol- 

I. We call it a great work. It is so in other 

than Hint of bulk and w«ight It U so in the energy*, per^erer- 
,and fckill that ha«c planned and executed ii, in the truly gcncr- 
ad catholic spirit that has goverued ild esLeculiou, imti m vV'ti «T&r 



284 iSproffucx AriTiaU of the American Pulpit. 

inent posilion And ability, and the wide diventtty of taste and talc 
he recognixed among \t& eontnliutora. As some of our iraJcn i 
not be familiar with the desrij;!!. we will stale it in brief. Mnnjr yi^ 
ago Dr. Spmgae — well known as a friend and lover of uU goo^l 
— conceived tbo idea — which, strangely enough, liad alniMl ihei 
of a discovery — (hat the chief reason why sincfire Christliia 
ers of diflcrenl denominations hale one another so cordiuUy islhat I 
are ignorant of one another's actual ehuracler. It ociiurred lo him j 
lJii*re was no so sure peace agency among the jarring Rcct* us the faj 
able iulroduclion. to the memhers of each separate fold, of the Ibf 
and beat men from the otlier compartmenlB of the Church. An, in] 
country, the clergy have been pre-eminently the parsons (pr.namn 

;)rejsentatives, of their respective denominations, It was supposed j 
I series of clerical biographies would most directly aocompli»h thd 
sired end. Accordingly, Dr. Spnigne haa brought tngetlwr ia 
Tolnmes the biographlei^ of all the really diftingui-thcd nv 
clerical prnfession in our country, from its settlement to il . ,, 
the publication was commenced. Some of these sketchea he has] 
ten himself; but mo=it of (hem have been furnUhed by relatives, fri 
associatef, or successors of the persons commemorated. In umploj 
such aid, Dr. Sprague has probably expended more labor than ' 
have been needed for collecting the materials and shaping them wid 
own pen; but by this methml he has eliminated all perHonul prettifl 
and prejudice, and has insarcd the representation of each of h\i\ 
jects in such guise as ho wore in the eyea of those who know him 
and loved him most, 

This work, though intended simply as a ^crie.« of cloricil lii'igni^ 
is much more. Whether for good or evil, the clergy of Americji.! 
the present generation, have tnaile a large portion of itj hil 
Their lire^ have been often eventful, and, when not so, typli 
ilhistnitive of time», communities, manners, and opinions. T1i«if I 
WAS, till reeently, hardly less conspicuous in the Stitlt^ than il 
Church, and their social inlluence made iti>elf felt pt-ufoundly 
duriogly. It may, then, be easily imagined how valuable the 
umea are as a repertory of genenil nnd local hifttory, and of thtwu i 
of tlie social and domestic life of the la'»t two centuries which,: 
day of rapid movement, are fast passing out of familiar know 
into the department of archaeology. 

Many of these Dotioes, too, are remarkable monographs, as 
literary execution, artistic skill in iht grouping of cliaiii * 
dents ftttd vividness of jwrlraiture and narrative. Ti 
fyw AfflerJcan writei^ of tneiil, of either Ibe present or thi* just j 



»•] 



MarefPa Study fif Lanffnaffn? 



285 



ton. wlio have iiol been presiptl into the ferrice. Indeed, 
_ iicV aim Um b«en, wbenerer pmcticablc, to have his malcriAls 
shed bv m«]j ot established repuiaiion, whose names would give an 
i]ed interest to their subjects. 

, In the pn<ceding volunic4 the more numerous Henominittiuns bftve 

CO ivpres^nttd. Tlie pn.*3L*nt volume ladcvutetl to fiveoftiie s-mal!er 

igiiiUk bodies wtiicli have obtained foothold among us hy immigraiiou^ 

ber tfian Engliidi, namely, the Lutheran^ RelnrmtM) Dtiicli, Associnte, 

(riBtc lifformeJ, and.Rcforraed Presbj'teriaii, — the btsl three imme<t, 

I fur aS wti eati leani. designating dii^tincliona rather than diflVreneen. 

. rery large proportion of the *-ubject5 of this volume were nntircA of ' 

amy, Holland, Seotlnnd, nr Ireland, came to ihia i-ountry as 

Been in the religioat exploration of new l^ottlemeul^, and eneoun- 

ed the class of cxpTicnces which are more pleasant in the rccol- 

'iian than in the ettdtiranco. Though most of iheir name-f were new 

»tm we have found a peculiar charm in their livett ; and some among 

will have on enduring and favoi*cd place in the porirn it-gallery 

otir memory. AVe have never read a biography in itself more note- 

Drthy, or more altrnelive, than that of John Anderson, D. P., — a 

Dry ihat provokes alternate tears and laughier, prcj«entlng in the 

lA miin a euriouB commingling of the eaint, the sage, and the simple- 

Q^ — one who wa^ tit to eommimo with nngeK and vet mi}^ht have 

dlvd out the pitying ridicule of a travelling tinker. Wc do well to 

Ifeii and retain these pictures now, for the like will never again be 

ale<L Slenm and telegraph are obliterating the pxqmmt eccen- 

ties whieh have made our Americnn rural and village life so pic- 

Bre^uc. ThB tendency now i? toward a normal type in manners, 

»«, luibiu, and cbarTicier. We arc thankful for e^try rccuM of the 

BC« frhen men nursed their idiusyucnuies, and were only the more 

bed and honored for them. Among the many services which 

pmgue has rendered to the publie by his *' Annals," we dcom 

r by DO raean$ the least. 



L — 77/r tS'fii/y of Lantpiagex brought hack to its true Prifta'jj/et, or the j 
Ah of 7'hinkingin a foreign Lanffiiage. By C. Marckl, Knt. Leg.] 
Jlim.9 author of ** Language &6 a Means of Mental Culture," " Pre* I 
miera Principos d'Educauion," etc. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 
1809. 12mo. pp.228. 

TnK title **Mareel on Language" has been made familiar to the 
erican pablio by the recent discudaiom upon metliwia oC c\«^%\^ 



2S6 



Marc^t ^iy ^f LanffuagtM. 



instruction. The work jnst pobliahed W the Newrf. Appleton is,l 
ever, not Marcel's great geneml tr&ntwe on ** Lftngungp," Iml » i 
inlruductory work upon methods of Hnguislic slud}"'. Il • 
(0 find more suggestive tliougtits and pi'actical wtl^dora u; 
compre5$ed ill (hti Batnu spuct* ; and wt; trust that this anUdoift wH 
whorc'vcr the poi»o» of pediinh^ and ruutiuo has pciietrfitixl. 

M. Marcel, with all his railiisilisni, doirs not, however, makfl 
mistake of some eager reformers, who propose that w- 
I^atiii and Greek ^a^ we do our mothor tongu«^*' or • 
living foreign languages. He is careful to insist, in his chipl4 
Alental Culhinif ou the distinction tis wejl of method as of aim 
obwrved in llie t-tudy of the two cla.*(-cfi of language*. Thcr* i 
niL-thtids, he my^^, — the practical and the romparative : **lh« dn 
best suited for modem litngiingcs, the second for the ancient" (|i. 
And again (p. 180) ; " The ends to be attained b/ siudjing tlie 
categories of langtmge difler essenltnlly ; the dead languages arc Wn 
for the sake of the nolional idiom, the living languages for tbrir etn 
sakiv." We wish that the author hod dincusi^ed tlic cuoipurative mttbid 
»s fully and elaborately as he ha£ the practinnl ; hi^ remark^ <""^'' << 
are judiuiouts but too brief, conttiating rather of hinia and sn 
than a Kysteiualic plnu of in.^truction. 

One point that he niakc« requirci a word of remark. It conb 
an element of (rulh ; but it in put, wu believe, in a shape 
confounds (ruth and en'or, and is calculated to do harm rather | 
good. This is, ihftt writing exeivises in a foreign Ituigungr 
no use (o beginners ; for " common scoKe required that the le 
should read before he writes, so as to know what is the bc^t 
order to conform to il " (p. 30G.) Tliis is very just as n^r 
tempts at elaborate composition ; but it ib forgotten Ihiit the sptfcia 
ject which the best leacliers have in view, in requiring wriil 
aims, 19 not to produce good Lnliu or Greek, but to give the pn 
liefit possible pnictice on the principles which ho is from lime lul 
learning. A boy does not really know a form or uDdorstaud al 
until he has himself u$cd it conMructively, 

It is in the earlier part of the book — on tho practical method j 
cable to the ac([U)sition of modem languages — tli»t our author** 
poascss mo^t novelty and value. The titles of the clmpters the 
give an outline of his system: Tfie art of reading^ the art of 
the art of speaX'iHff.thf art oftcriti'nff. Whoever does not see I 
for this order (or at least a reason) muH turn to Mr. Mar 
arguments ; it would be impossible to stJile them adequately 
Ihes, Nor would it bo easy to select for quotattOD from the J 



(ten I 



' tm 



JU^ort qf In$t$(ulum for Deaf and Dumb. 



287 



Tc marked, if U were not (hat our own ohservnlion of llie 
** convorfatiou olosf^es " mukes liis remurks on lliU licnd 
larly intcre-Bling to us, *' What conTorpStion can llicre be I>ctw€pn 
,er and his pupils? The very Uitlo that thu latter rould say 
never nflTonl sufficient practice lu gaiu on extcosWo range of cot- 
^•jifi. They meet, the one to coDiraunieaic, iho olliers to 
iinn : the former oaghl to speak, the Uittrr to listen.** 
87.) 

ipdo nul 5up[>o9e, nor probably wotiM the author claim, thai tlio 
\ method he developa, unmo<lific(I, woiiM alwuys be llie beat. 
t features of it indeed miglil not work well in practice. In es> 
il, we hesitate to accept hia phiii for beginiierfi, — Irnn^hiting an 
Buthor by the aid of a literal Tcr»ion on the opposite page, and 
no attention paid to pronunciation ; timt is, not reading the words 
At all, only translating. Protiuncialion he propo'te^ Id l}ring in 
in the course, leaving it wholly aside at this &tage. llut we are 
led to think iliat the puj»il, instead of acquiring no pronunciation, 
d be all the time Hc<]uiring a very vicious one. 
e would call especial attention to the chapter entitled " The Art of 
ing.** No oou that has cxpericni^ed the bewiklenuentaud htdplcsa- 
wbich even a good French or German scholar experiences in 
ling for the first time to foreign conTersation or discourse, will 
\ that our author exaggerates tlie importance of practice in the art 
arlng. ai a hcIiuoI exercise. It is true, moreover, oa he says, 
^ if the art of reading can be acquired without a teacher, it is oth«r> 
vith hearing and pronouncing." 

• .. 

!■ Eleventh Annual Report of the Oolnmlnan Inttttuhon for the Denf 
V ' "■ ■'''. for the Year ending June 30, 18G8, wiVA an Appendix* 
•n : Goveniment Printing Office, 1868. 

icing the Tenth Refwrt of this establishment for instructing 
imuteH at the national capital, we spoke of the visit made by the 
Mr. £. M. Gallaudet to the European schools, ami the effect 
ations thereon were likely to produce in the American 
)fo for dHaf-nuites. Wi^ have now, in ihe Appendix to this 
enth Report, the full proceedings of the Washington conference 
■incspals of deaf-mute ini«titulions, held in May, IHG8, which largely 
pied itself with the question of articulation and lip-reading as a 
» of teaqiiing the deaf. Korty-five jiflges of the hundred and 
j^foar devoted 1o the conference are filled with Mr. GftlV&M(L%V*% 



288 



Jttport qf InitUution for DmJ and Ihmh* [Ja 



paper on "The American System ** (not meaning a liigh tariff), i 
diecusBion which followed it. Aa IhiB di«euMion, in Ihe year Lli 
clopfied since it toiik plure, has been succeeijed by practical dRiiJ 
introtluce Ihe teaching of" arliculnUon in half a dozftn of th« 
American sciiools it must be rt'gnnled as an imporlunl one. altll 
in itself it added little to what wa3 previously known lo lh« 
Its chief merit was in bringing la the notice of grntlcmen 
with the great American deaf-mute scliooU the remarkable we 
Miss Hugt^ra in teaching by artieulalion at llie Ctnrkc Scho 
Northampton, Jtiiss. This wa« done by three of the Wtsleni 
cipaU^ Messrs. Gillett, Mulligan, an<] Tnlbofi of ihc Illinoia, WI 
and Iowa State in<>.litutioas. These gentlemen had recently virile 
Clarke Schoul, which none of the rest ba<l tlien done ; they were i 
imprcpped by wliat they saw there, an'l they Mated their impre 
with earnestness, Notwilhitanding the ftceptici»m of Hartford aimI New" 
Vork, their statements, taken in connection with those of Mr. Galla 
about what he had seen in Europe, Been] to haTC convinerd lh(.'< 
ference itmt something must be dune, and it was resolved, in T( 
guarded terms, that all in&tilution<t ought to provide for »uoh iustrudil 
in articulation and lip-readin(^ us should be found to be profilAblc | 
content wilh thia, Mr. Gillett, on hia return to Illinois, I:<i ' 
before \\\a board of trustees in a rt^port of much more j 
than anything agreed upon at Wnshinglon, urging that soiot 
should be done at once to alone for the neglect in which ihe 
Illinois bad left it3 deaf-mute children who might have beeo tA«| 
articulate or to retain their Bpeech. At the same tjme he invilnl] 
Rogers to visit his institution, and sent one of his be^t tcaclie 
Northampton to learn by observation the methods in Hse at the 
School. This lady, Miss TrasW, began the instruction of a •imallj 
in articulation at the Illinois school, Inst November, and has since < 
it on with marked succes?. One evening in May Uist, about a ycarl 
the adjournment of the "Washington conference, ?he gave an exhifa 
of her pupiU before the recently appointed Board of Charities of J 
and in presence of a public audience. Great satisfaction was exf 
with the resulld of her instruction thus far, svbich t$eem (o be 
Bimi1»r to those observed in the little sclinol of Miss liogers at Cfa^ 
ford. She has Ia1x}rcd with 2etU and intelligence, and has md 
show fur it, apparently, than any of the teachers of articulation i^ 
other large scliools. 

So far as we can gniher from published reports and private infoj 
tioD, the number of these new teacher.-- is ei<;hl, namely, three 
{Trent New York ioMilutiun, with Ibirly-Sve pupib ( two in tbfe I 



anc 



iTJalion, willt tw^oty-ffiur pupUd ; one in IlliaoK wilb twelve pupila ; 

I in Wtecon^in, with ahoat the same niimher ; ono in lowtti niid one 

Itie riarlfonl A.s)'Ii4m. TUe whole niiinlwr of pupils thus brought 

k^' flioD by llie new ratillioJ is about a hundred, probiiblj', 

'- at Norihnmpion and in a siualt German school ol New 

fek, niirol>ering nvnrljr fifty more. The whole number of dcaf-miile 

[ns oinlitr intttructiun in the counlnr is somewhere from two 

#and to twenty-five hundred, of whom at least a tliou.-aiid w^uld 

|)lle*<9 profit by instruction in nrticulation ; so tbiit le^s thiin a sixth 

, of thuie who ought to be ilius taught Are so at the present time. 

1 when ve r^dect thai three years ago there were less than n half- 

pupiU of this cln^4 in the United Stntct, while 1e.<:s than one 

IBon In ft Ihoii^and had any faith iliat artirulation would he of the 

value to the deaf, the revolution that lias already lakon place 

ftl appear eurpri^tn^. 

another respect the events of the preeent year arc worthy of notice 
rU who have at heart the be<t cdurntion of deaf-mutes. The public 
{titnent of Mat^saohusctlst ha« dcclnn;d the right of all deaf children 
KD clu<*ation at the public cjipense, and^ in accordance with ttii« 
ftmtion, the ciiy of Bomlon ha^ voted to opeji a city school for these 
Jren, Two teachers have been selected for this school, who are 
f»repiiring ihemi^eive?, by u rc^'idenco with Misa Hofjers at the 
■Iji: Stdiool, for beginning their work in September. The peculiarity 
llfae Boston ^hool will be that its pupils will live al home and only 
for the day, while some of them will be younger than 
u it liofi heretofore been possible to secure in tlie large 
itious. it reiiKuiis to he seen what will be the success of such a 
ol, — the Arsl of its kind in this country. At Kdlnburgh, at Maa- 
stiTi and at ;»eTeral places on the Continent, there are day-schoolA 
l^mules, but with whut result, as compared with the boarding- 
plan, we are not di'tincrly informed. We shall soon have the 
to make the comparison in the case of the Boston school, and it is 
unlikely that New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, etc.. 
I >oon .-support school-t of the same description. 

The advanta;;e which the Columbian In.stitutioo enjoys from its 
Kpicuons position at W.idhington seems to be in part counterbalanced 
tie fact tluLt it def»end.s upon Congressional appropriations, which ore 
laviitlUy votdl, und again capriciously withheld, as was tlic case a 
ago. Jt is fortunate in the taleuls and vigor of its principal, at 
invtaacu tlie uouference above mentioned was called, of which he 
) one of the moet active member<». 
pou cix — NO. 224. 19 



fi90 



LippiiCi Infantry^ Artilliry^ and Cavat/y, 



8. — 1. A Treatise on iht Tactical Use of the Three Arms, 
Artillery, and Caoalry. By FaANClft J. LlPPlTT^ Ule 
, Second California Infantry, and IJrevet Brigadier^Gcnc 
Volunteers. New York : D. Viin Noslraud. 1865. 12mo 

3. A Treatise on Intrrncliments. By Francis J. Liprnr, Ijit« j 
Second Culiforoia Infauiry, and Brevot Brigadier-Gcuor 
Volunteers. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 186G. r2mo.i 

3. The Special Operaiiuns of War^ eoinprisiny tjif Forcing i 
fence of Drfiles ; the Forcing and tkfence of Rivers^ and 
sage of Rivers in Retreat ; the Attack and Defence of Open 
and Villages : the Conduct of Detachments for Special 
and Notes on Tactical Operations in Siegfs. By pRANClfl J. 
riTT, late Colonel Second California Infantry, and Brevet Bry 
General U. S.Volunteeri. Providence; Sydney S. Rider and ] 
1868. 12010. 

These Treatises are well prinled, and are uniform iu size aij 
ing. They are not too Lur^c for tlie pocket, and their corrtctilA ; 
well to be companions of those who have any taste Tor the 
of which they treat, or who desire to learn something ot 
fession of the soldier. The work of preparing thorn has l>cen ea 
well done, so well, indeed, tliat one is not surprijied to learn 
dedication of one of the volumes that the author was once a| 
the accompliflhed Professor Mahan, of West Point. Their i 
been readily recognized in high qtiarlcrs in tliis country, 
have been sold to some extent in Kii^land. 

They were composed in the second and third years of onr ! 
in the form of lectureii for the innlruetion of the regimentalj 
under the command of the author. The second Treatise Is] 
provement ujMn the first, though thai is good, and the third,] 
being, perhaps, a better piece of work than the A«cond, is mnd 
interesting and altractire,as a text-book on asti'onoDiy is morei 
reading than one on algebra. 

There are two classes of persons who ought to read th«m 
The officers of the Regular Army constitute the first cla^s. 
probably do no linrm to the graduates of West Point now 
the cavalry and infantry to revive the knowledge thej noqu 
that institution by an occasional resort to General T.Ii ' * 
But the army of the United Slates is not now otllcert<. 
even mainly, by graduates of West Point. A glance at 
Register is sutTieicnt to ahovt that more than half of the Goe o^ 
nrtiJiery, and more Uiau mne len\.\\so? t.U« line oificeni of c«i 



^^m 



iU 



J.] Li^iiCs Lifantryi Ai'tlUery^ and Cavalry, 291 

ifanlry. now in service, have boon appointcil from civil life. 

f Ho?! *.'( ihcm are assigned to duty at such i>o$ts that they have no 

ic<«i*ideruble amount of leisure iit their disposal. They could hardly 

better than to devote a portion of it to making theiusclvcs familiar 

the contents of the&e books. As a rule, they owe their appoint- 

Is to good i^i'rvice performed hy them as volunteers. With the 

[prarli<*al knowIe<lgc thu.i acquired, ihey would find it easy to master ail 

[ihM General Lippitt ha.i sot down, and with such additions to their 

mcnts they would lake a long step from the rank of etVicient 

rs to that of accomplished officer?. 

second claims is composed of that considerable portion of the 
unity which ia made up of those who, whether they have served 
;, have been led by the late war to take nn interest in the "prin- 
of the military art and the application of Ihoae principlea. Few 
who belong to this class are so well instructed that they would 
e no profit from reading these volumes. The great majority 
do well to read them carefully and consult them frequently, 
tpi^>ers and books have made them familiar with the principal 
ita of our campaign?} and perhaps their reading ha;^ extended so 
to embrace the cumpaigns of Napoleon, or even iho^e of Marl- 
igh and Frt'derick ihc Great. From such reading ihey acquire a 
knowledge of facts with hut little knowledge of principles. They 
that this or that battle was won or lost, that this or that place 
be«icged and taken or besieged in vain, and that so many men, 
euch and such generals, mere, engaged on each side, and they 
little more. By an attentive reading of General Lippitl's concise, 
[-written, well-arranged books, they may acquire a clear insight 
[ialo the unsuspected causes and reasons of many events with which 
Ihey are perfectly well acquainted. By drawing his illustrations freely 
t aptly from the history of the late war of secession, the author has 
led them, and especially the Treatise on Intrench ments and that 
le Special Operations of the Art of War, with n peculiar frcsh- 
and interest for American students and readers. There is no 
ig in his books, they are thoroughly compact and business-like, 
a familiarity with their contents tends directly to produce clear 
aud correct views. They deserve a cordial welcomei and it is 
bn[>ed that they will receive it. 



292 Paree't I/alf-Centurif tcith Juvenile DdinquenU. [Jl 



9. — .4 Half- Cmftir^ tcith JurtritU DflintfuimU : or, the Srv 
J/o}ae of Rpfugt and its Times, By B. K. Peirck, O. D^ ' 
lain of the Ilou^e of Refbge* New York : D. Appletou & Co. 

Dn. PeiuCR is n kindly and elcx^uent preoulier of the Mttl 
Clitirdi, wlio, arter acting for some years as bead of ih' 
irinl Si'liool for (Tirlsat Lnncnsler in MasanchuBetla, berm 
the great reformalory of the city of New York, of whicb be ha*] 
wntlen tku liisUiry. It is the lar>;esl e^tablitehnienl of its class in 
countf)', wliich is as mucli iia to eiiy. in tlici world ; for, in rmlH; 
Anicricun rcfnrmulorii^iit giipporicd by citiett and Staff's inukt* n ili4 
daas among institutions of this kind. TJicy are not prifroDd; yelj 
receive all their inmates by sentence from some eoiirt or 
and tliL-y are n part of tlie reco^iiztd pennl ivslein of t' < 
in wlii{-h til ey arc e9tabli'«lK*d. Thf-y an? supported wli- 
by public funds, and are managed in part by ptiblio oMicor* ; yet thryw*' 
generally private corporations in tlietr form of or^nization, and hanv 
■a yet been kept clear of the political influences wliich ltnv« corrtiptH 
the manageuicnt of manr of our prisons. This is Irur- 
York, where {mlilical coiTUption has reached its htgh<M 
aitd nothing is more striking in the history of this House of Kefiij 
Dr. Peirce relates it, than the high cliamcter and excellent motii 
its managers from (irst to last. Amon;; its fuiuideri, lifly ytfarvl 
were Dr. John Griscom, Rev. Dr. Stanford. Josojth Curtis, and 
W. Gerardi and the line of successioA has been kept up by good] 
G7cr since. 

There is no daof^er^ in a book such na lhi<>. that tliese t 
coadjutors will not rect-ivc praise enough ; but thoro id ^ 
their faults and errors of judgment may not be so clearly sc«o S4) 
wiBe measures and the gcueral good result of ihem. There is Kt4 
Dr. Fcircc's book to indicate that the New York Hotiso of Befu£ 
any faults at all: praise is b(«towe*i without stint; (ho brij 
the enterprise is the only one much (u^n^idert^i, and the 
easily be led to suppose that there ia no other. This U naliind,afl 
one liunse, it is commendable ; for, Iwyond doubt, the general dvl 
alt such enterfiiisea is for good, and oven for iiief^limublL' ^uod. 
on the other hand, a miiiake or a false principle inwroogbt in ibe i 
ture of a benevolent establishment does all the more hnnn the 
and stronger it grows. Such a mbtakc vro beliere the Fystein oTj 
gregation, aa practi^ied at Randall's Island, to be ; and all thif 
benevolence, wisdom, and vigilance of the men and women in aallH 
therv cannot prcvenl il from Ivwlng hurtful results,-^ nt amy 



39.] 



Bartldr^Tl^tiar Quotatiims. 



felien t'oTnpnrrtl with the working of a more nnmrfil fystem. If llie 

liui3 lung ago ni5ulvc(l thnt they would never hnve more 

I two huntlrod (^liildmn in one etlablLsbment, nor hiilf so many whetk 

lielji it ; And if t.hi*y hnd pjirly begun lo throw ofT colonies 

- frutu tlieir grual hivL-. placing thera in connti-)* scenes, aiid 

I ibc ciiildrcn could readily have found homes in the fnniiliua of 

l-lo-do furtnvrs tnecluinicri, clergymen, ttchoolmik^ter^, nnd other 

I people, — the blessing upon their tabors would be now, we believe, 

hgrcalor thnn it is. The evil which ihcy ^eek to cure tipritigs 

part from the erowHing of people in citie^: the remeily for it 

btt sought in rustication, aa far as possible: and it is posc'iblo to 

arc the remedy iu mucli larger me&ture in a half-dozen colonics of 

ag dcliiu[uenla in tJic cjjuntry than in one great receptacle in ihc city* 

ENew York. Would Dewetz ever Imve built his Meltroy in a suburb 

iPwia? 

Yet we find llii-i volume one of grejit interest and value. It aims at 
juga bistor}'. mil unly of iheestHbrmhuienl tu which it relate?, but of the 
bole modern movement for the reformation of youni^dtdinquunU. upon 
|iich it doe^, in furl, throw much light. There is a lack of metltod und 
I chronological order, und too great an infusion of mere didactical 
hortatory writing, na i» common with clergymen ; nnd more promi- 
[lei' h given to ihe commonplace remarks or the excellent character 
^Uoo. jV. B^ Rev. C. IJ., E. R, P^-iq., &r.., ihun the subject seems 
^Itsqutre. But tbia fault i& inseparable from a work prepared aa 
has been, and, like the oiber defects of which we liave spoken, 
lirates an amiable spirit in the author. Ue deserves thanks for whal 
Litaa doae, both ns cbaphun and as author. 



|. — familinr Q»ottitioH$^ het'ttff an Attefnpf to trace to their Source 
^anatjfs tmd Phrtues in Common Use. By Jo UK Bartlktt. 5th 
ditioD. Boslon : Little, Brown. & Co. 18CB. I2mo. pp. xii., 778. 

7r are gbid to see tlmt the appreciation of &Ir. BartletlV taste and 
E«Dce luw forced him plfca^antly to a fifth edition, for with every 
HmI his collection gains in eoniplelenc*i8 and accuracy. This is a 
of work which to do well demands time and paina, nor ban the 
bor stinted either. Tlie very index has more honest labor in it 
ia 4>bown by many volumes of more pretention ; and, though the 
kfftance of the book be in one sense second-hand, yet the plan of it \$ 
pnul, anti the execution demanded research and judgment. Mr. 
rtJettV object lias not been lo supply us with rwuly-u\aAc. X^iaiwR^ 



and impromptu felicity of aUiisinn, but lo restore ibo ^tr,' 
lure to tlieir rightful owners. While lie was thus in some - 
a detective of plngiarie^, it is rather niiiiisiing that an Kngltsbu 
named Friswell should have been quietly pltigiarixing him. 

Id a work of this kind approximative exactness is all thatcnnl 
fairly expected. Every one of these needles of wit roi; ■ 
llirough the whole hay -mow of literature. To satisfy all i 
author of a dictionary of quotations should have everything thai 
ever been written anywhere at the tip of hi;' memory. And ihts m^ 
almost have been, possible before printing had made mediocrilrj 
dulne^ impervious to decay. Paper and tyiws cheaply fumUb 1 
antiseptic which ercwhtle the memory of mankind secreted, drop] 
*drop, for the royul race alone. Obseurity may now insure 
againiit "euvious and calumniating Time" on as easy l^rri- > 
Mr. Barclett often finda in forgotten books the germs of \-.' 
have become popular and current on the authority of some la 
name. As in the Roman Carnival, some taller or more aciivi* fell 
will li;;ht his taper at another, and in doing so contrive to extiu 
the source of his own lustre. 

" Cos'i ha tolto rtinn all' altro Ouido 
La gloria dcUa linj^u, o fat^e h ttsto 
Clii r UQO e I'altn) i-mrccrk ili nido." 

Take, for example, the saying that Inngungo was given us to • 
our thoughts. Talleyrand eommonly gets the credit of It, under 
rale of giving unto him that haib which men arc more apt to ad 
in the case of wit tlian elsewhere. Mr. Bnrtlett traces this bfl 
stolen property through half a dozen hands up to Jeremy Tal 
TVo shall be surprised if in some future edition he do not find 
bishop's title prccai'ious. The sentence certainly has the true 
chiavellian flavor. But whoever shall turn out to ho lli' 
the excommunicalcd bishop of Autun will prevail, we mu- 
his saintly brother of Down and Connor. Habent sua Jata h*a* 
impdttrat an<l this is a kind of thiug Talleyrand out/Ztt Ln tmve csid 
So he will probably keep it for this generation at least, and then it wiD 
bo re-failierod on the likeliest wit of the next. In such cases 
ridge^s plea, 

" 'T is mine and it u likewise yotin. 

But, nn if this will iioi do, 

Li'i it he mine, gonil friend 1 for I 

Am the poorer of (he two," 

is of no avail, for it is the richer man who is apt to carry (lie 
Amoog those whom Mr. Barcleti brings into court as eoDcemed iai 



'J 



BartletCs Familiar QuoUtiiom, 



295 



eoy of this piece of wit is Coldtimitlif and we should surmise that 

Igni it of some Frenohmfin. I!e tvos apt to make boot upon these nat- 

I enemies of lits country as unceremoniously aft Ancient Fislol. His 

Bclam B1ui.se mid liia Elegy on a Mad Dog, were both spoils from the 

ut, and one of his most famous passages — *^ Like some tall cliff ibat 

i in awful form ^ — is a translation from Chapelain. From which of 

Latin poets He had stolen it we cannot say. Ttie French have 

f.p^at middle-men in these transactions, — it was so easy to give 

a larger currency by Parisian alloy. The Romans were fair 

for in their day they had turned their exemphiria Gfaeca in 

flenses than one. Tlie work of following up this floating litcra* 

is something like that of a restorer of pnlimpseEts. You re- 

ve the English, French, and Latin layers one after another till 

come to the Greek. Hero Investigation, na Dr. Johnson would 

f, might fonnerly fold her hund«. Nut so now, for underneath the 

lies the Snn^rit, and who knows what may turn up umler that? 

[Te see Mr. Bartlctt le^tiening down an endless Oriciital vi»ta, his eyea 

on a quotation which flits before him like the bird in the Eastern 

There is a dreary kind of comfort in thinking that even the 

cks could say nothing that had not been said before. 

I But 11 this i«aying all? By no means. One of the main uses of 

nartlett'i! book is as a leSvion in rhetoric. It is the irny of saying 

ngs that makes them immortal. The thought may be anybody's or 

Biybotly's, it will at last go by hi3 name who had the skill lo make 

■ startle and delight us by a new melody, a word that Hashed light 

ough the very heart of it, or a turn of phrase so perfect as to seem 

pritable, though all before him had just missed it. The prosperity 

a verse or a sentence lies not so much in tlio meaning it conveys as 

that murmur of memory ttiat clings in it. as in Landor's sea-shell. 

er tells us that wit 

. ..." is no mora lo be engrotscd 
ThBQ snnshinc or die air enclosed, 
Or to pro|iriclj' confined 
Thfln the uncontrolled ami scattered wind." 

ny's Elegy looks down serenely on the poor devils who claim resti- 
lion in the foot-notes. We like it the better (hat it awakens in us 
faint associations of foregone pleasure, and admire the art that 
Md infuse li^ht and warmth into thoughts so obviouf^ that they had 
duly on headstones time out of mind. "VVordaworth's canorous 
\erse in " Laodamia " reminds us of Virgil's largior ctthety but only to 
! advantage of the younger pf»et. Et tu in Arcadia / we say to our- 
IJvea, and like him the belter fur having brought back a Slower that 




296 



BarUetVa Familiar QitotrtlioM. 



^m 



reminds as of iu We conress that we prefer Sir Roger L'Estraoge^ 

" Put nfiture out al the door, sbe comes in through ihu wiiKiiiw," totfw 
origiiml in IToraee. CbiirobiU (na we learn from 3Ir. Uarilcti) 
compared plagiaries to Gypsies wlioaieul cliildreD, " Defacing 
claiming ns their own.** But Sliendun made the i^imilc liis own bir 1 
ening it with n du-sh of wit, — " di^i-figuring tiiem to male 'rm p(m 
his otonJ' We con think of no better ilhiAtratiuo of lh« di 
between the plagiary and the approprialor by right of 
domain. 

M. Fournicr has written a book about quotations under tlie ti 
V^prit det aiitret. This aecma to Ud a mirinomer. Jt would 
well enough to the old pedants hi lu, who uswd lo hong out 
tawdry bits of tlie clAflsics as the Italians on gahi day*) flauul from 
windows every moth-ejiten rug or bright-colored shred of carpH tli«y 
can rummage out of their garrets. Quoting fur bIiow is as barboniii 
as a ring in the nose. The wit must lie in the application and brioa| 
to the quoler, as when Burke slyly appUcd to Wilkee chaired by tkl 
mob nitnieris ferlur lege sohitis. As good was Lamb's sermoni propii^ 
oroj " properer for a sermon," applied lo some of ColcrJJgt's eadj 
poems. One of the happiest quotations ever made waa by L<i{k 
Hunt on a hair of Beatrice Cenei, which some one had given hiiHf 

" Aii>1 tieautv draws uk by n ftiiiglo bair." 
Tbc fashion of quotation seema to bave gone out with ruflte-i. 6a 
was perhaps the last liberal quoter, who could do it with the frcenj 
easy air of large resource*, and, like most men who draw from sfel 
memory, he was seldom exact. Your clever quoters generally lie <^iill 
the suspicion of getting their material at second-hand. As lOtutM 
pigs arc employed to hunt truflles, so the pedants root up from tb 
fields of Greek and lioman literature the delicacies they cannot w\^ 
for these epicures who know how to flavor a dish with them, 
has furnished many a cordon bleu with the relish that 
reputation. 

A collection of this kind is in its own wny a sort of phemom 
fame-gauge. But it U at the same time more exactly tlie max 
an author's power and felicity of expression, of his rights in Bbon,iO 
be an author. Slmkcspetu'e, as should he expected, lead:- off witbuat 
hundred and nineteen pages, Milton follows with thlriy-nint.>, and 
comes next with tlitrty-one, Dryden and Cowper have each 
Goldsmith musters nine. Gray eij^ht and a half, Butler wTen 
hnlf. But under Goldsmith, Mr. Bartlelt should have includ^ 
sages from his prose. Some of them — like ** Shakespeare ai 
musical'gla^ises," aud the picture that " would have been better 



jei{i 



nnot iaiti\ 

SDOHJ 

■ncu^oSB 




60.] 



BoHUtft FmiUiar Quotn 



297 



more pnin? — jire ftmcmir the mosi larailuir allusions. Butler 
im\-e cluinied n piige or two mori.', selcclf^U from ullier poenw 
Hudibms. After thi'»e f^raiidees come ttie comDioners and yeo- 
[of letters* Iloro are tbo 8ingle*speech mon, tbe dull fellows in 
be goil:( mndo inci>ion, mnking tbein poetical for n ijuntnun or h 
rtidi, like Alaiitiew lio^'don, auilior nf four golden verses, or Richard 
^rhon of two proverbial ones. TUete are tlie 

*' Linic Itcrdc-RnKiniM 
Thai kcpen klicfK: nuumg the broomcs," 

P miime pipe* made of a green wlieat-slcm Cliaunor finds room in 
Ilouse of Fame, Some of thest; have stolen the one yew-lanib 
fllb oul llieir entire schedule \tf property. Muttlievr Henry, for 
ujdr, lnll^itgivl; back to Ktiri|tide» ibofie •• tcoond and sober llioiigbts/' 

ilillelo which Mr. liarilctt too easily allows.* Mnj^singLT, loo, tnust 
under *' lids mnny-heiided monster" to Daint'l. And we think Mr. 
tielt should have made at leaat one more quotation from (he " weU- 
uagtid " Siunuel. Thi.t Atan/u from his **■ Mtiso]>lnhiti," 

" And who, in time, knows whiihcr vro mny rem 
Thu treaiiin; of our toni^iu ? To what Btmnge Hhorcs 
Thu ifuin u( out best ({lory hUuII be «cnt 
Tu eiiricli unknowing naiiun^ widi our fttonss ! 
What worMj in iho yet unformfrt ocident 
Mny com« refined with aci-cntA tltut nm ours 1 " 

lit y not A fJinidinr quotation, ought to be so at least to American 

AVe confess we feel a aati^fuction in making that beastly Tom 

l!ne restore bis rocket, stick and all. to the I'asconittmt whence be i^tolc 

I iLuugh tbe last place where one would expect to Hnd fireworks. 

bz sn«r all 

" II faiit 6tn ignorant eomme an nndtre d'(!cole 

Tuar m; ftnitcr du dirv iinc aeale parolu 

Quu personne icl-boh n'ait pu dire avont voui." 

^. Barllett deprives Voltaire even of tbe verse — Si Dieu Wtxistaii 
, &C. — of which he was £0 proud that he quotea it several times 



tti have tbonc^ht that Mr. Bardctt was sometimes a little whimsical 

lenying a line or two more to certain authors, — Donne, for example. 

ijtut, of course, hv only can be Vn own judge of what quotations arc 

lUiar. H<' huf? mtule a very cntcrtniiitng, useful, and even instructive 

kf and we are surprised that one man, even with the us^i^tancc be 

awledgea in his Prefucef could have done so much. Lei every 

tr of il »end the author his annotations, that we may at Ia$t get a 

US nearly perfect as need be wished. Kspccially, if there be any 



298 



Dana^t Ttvo Year* hrfore the Ma9t 



[Jnly, 



one anywhere wlio knows the source of "Though lost to sight it 
memory dear," let him nt once proclaim it, and save from Buici<le ft 
score or so of hitherto baffled inquirers in ull [laru of the world. 



11. — Ttpo Tears Ufort the Afrut. A personnl Nurmlive. By Rich- 
ard H. Dana, Jii. New Edition, with etib^tequent MaUcr bf tbe 
Author. Hoston : Fields, Osgood, & Co. 1869. pp. viL, 470, 

U. Salnte-Belve has discussed the question QWe^t ct fu'wi 
cia$MU/tuf with hi:4 usual taste and discrimination, and sobocidaloas 
soavity. He has dmwn his iHustratiori.4, as is hia wont, from ample 
note-book^, and has given us tiis definition of whnt is a classic But 
we think he has mther defined what n great book should be, than giva 
us the direct answer to his own queiition. His main qunliHeation of i 
classic, if we remember, id that it must be '^a book that has made iht 
human mind take a step forwai'd." But the word stiouhl 1h^ Itmiied 
to a purely literary application, and then a claeatc would be, not I 
hook that lives by corao peculiar property, like Gargantua, or tbe 
Anatomy of Mehincholy, but simply in Tirtue of that pervasive qanli^ 
which we call style, and which recommends it, not to this or lliat mil, 
hut in some degree to all men, tliougli none may be able to give tin 
reason why. 

Shall we lay claim, then, to an American classic? If we did, ta 
know of nobody who could put in a better title to have made one tbn 
Mr. Dana. For a quarter of a century his book has had an : 
wider oven than that of the martial airs of England. The In ; 
has won a place for himself on the same shelf with Robinson Crusoe. 
And how has he achieved this singular distinction? Not turely hjthe 
substance of his story, but by the giinple and natural way in wliicli he 
has told it, by the absence of all exaggeration, by such absorplioa io 
the matter that the manner takes care of itself. 

But Mr. Dana was writing history without knowing it. Nowhert 
else can we learn so well what sea-life is (or rather used tolte) to tbi 
sailor. And if time is to be measured more by change and gnovA 
than by yeara, his volume seems already to vie in antiquitv widi tbe 
Periplus of Ilnnno. He visits the western coast of this continent to filrf 
almost the same snvnge and unmanned shore, against which the fini 
wave of the Pacific had broken. He saw what the seals alone had lookai 
on for immemorial ages. He comes back afier a score of year* in fifli 
a powerful commonwealth, with a capital already wcllnigh ihc mtnehii 
moderu Naples in population, and more than the match in coouadti 



Iconic* in licr bloom. TIieiw^Tssomelliing which slniruliu'ly louches 
I llir tmaginxLlion in Uie {m{j;e4 whicli Mr. Daon bas udJud Co hU new 
|afidou. It is as if Sir FraiicU Dniko were to look in ngain oo the 
Ihpf of San Fmnclsco. Hip vnn Winkle is nothing to it. And we 
IWe become fo intiTusted in Mr. Diina'.s personagea (we can hurdlycuU 
jVOpuiionB those who went with him uo \m voyn^'C to Drciunlund) tlutt 
|»»rftaii the lost chapter, a.^ in a novel, to tind out what becomes of nil 
Mho chnmcters. We arc not going to undcitake the supererogatory 

Utk of telling anybody what Mr. Duna's Iwok is. hut only to con- 
l|nttitslc the new generation on a new edition of it, wliich wo. hope 

they will find as intere^iting at the first reading as we at the second. 



It — TTie lielaiiom between America and England: an AddrcKS d» 
Ueertd U-fure the Citizens of Ithaca. By Goldwln SuiTH, May I'J, 
l8Ctf. Ithaca: G. C. Bragdoo. 8ro. pp. 19. 

BsroRK the war of the Itebellion, Mr. Goldwin Smith had been a 

loiot professor at Oxford, known to tlie outside world only by a few 

kfubliihed lectures remarkable for their sobriety of tone, their impnr- 

jdllity of statement, and their simple force of style. On this side of 

[rtiB Wilier hi>; name was familiar to those who interested themselves in 

I lie contemporary politics of Englnnd, aa that of an advocate of thoao 

lO^oions wIhcIi are one day tu form a common ground of sympathy for 

lit* whole Knglish race. The qncstions raised, or rather forced upon im- 

|tiicdiale alti'nlion, by our war, gave him a more prumincol publicity as 

I In «yini»-«t doft-nder of the Northern party, — in other words, of America 

fla agniruil Europe In this there was entire consistency, for he was still 

In&iDtaining the wiae policy of not blindly opposing that steady pressure 

[nf cvontf^, no less than of opinion, in the direction of liberty and pop- 

I ular goTemment, of wjiose inevitability his hlsloricid studies had con- 

JTinced him, and of applying in our case the same principles which he 

jlriiibod to !iee applied al home. Mr. Adams, in lii§ correspondence, hud 

^orieii called the attention of our government to the touching tenacity 

K the operative classes in England clung to their instinctive 

V with us through four years of privation and suffering. If 

iSntQca could conceive of no finer spectacle for the gods than a brave 

[■fta struggling in the storms of fate, we think we have had the 

pHiilcge of seeing something yet nobler in tho-^e nameless millions 

' '^^uring even the pangs of that la-^t appetite, which moat surely strips 

Otn tft tho ^avagi' selfishness of nature, — hunger, — for what they bc- 

wid to be the common cause of that sclf-govcrnmcul m ^\xw\i 'Aift'^ 

IhetQielvea wen allowed do share. 



bettotin . 



But whilr? wc rt'ittftulwr tli» ai)d pay It the <lii« trihn' 
miring gratitude, wc ^bould recoUccl thnl to (be retincd 
ihcre are pflins more elinrp ihan any of the body. The 
operAlivcd biid al leu^t cacb ulbcr'n •'yiupntby, hut u pr> '' 
great Conscrviitive Univcrsily ot" tlie old worM, who wn 
his public uelion »bould coincide wilb his private prolVsMon, 
consent to forego ibni «odal ftyinpaUiy of cuUi^nied mrm. which oA 
can salidfy (be ke*;ne«t Appetite of tlie :ioiiL Only a brave man, i 
mun cun?eieiitiau<Jy brave, could do what Mr. Goldwuj Smlit) 
Such a man is the eompiitriot of the hi^'h-mindfd evcrywhcrt?, wltetUfj 
ibey agree with him or not, and Atnurica hn^ educated ua to Bul« ] 
[lOst: iC we liATC nut Iciirned that moral eouni^fc docs nut lose ltd qa 
by coming over the water, — liiat it is good in ilB*?ir, and pfrtj 
wboleaomor for us wlicn it croscius than when it sidtrs with our «:lf-!< 

A letter, jircsumably not intended for publication, written ail a I 
when the maudlin loquacity of our ambassador bad revived ottj 
subsiding irritation of the country, when the rejection of ibi^ 
and Mr. Sumner's tprech Imd made even the mo«t 6uber<an[| 
Amcriciuis dunbtful of the future, when it aeemcd to tuuat as \(\ 
sloW'mateli were lighted and it wa^ only a ((uvjiliun of tJmc bow i 
lis tiro would reach the long-^thcred magnzine of war, — this! 
in which Mr. Stnith expressed fears that u fortnight mi^ht n 
justified a^ eonfuteJ, drew U{K>n him Boui<'thing like > 
obloquy from llie whole press of the country for whieJi be iiud endM 
i-omcthtng like a aocial o.-^traci^tu. It was nut, then, the trulU < 
wo loved, but only so much of it us fliUtercd ouraolvcs? It wi 
the chimijiion of principle that we honoi'ed, but the advocate of our ] 
For our own part, we honor that mnn most highly wbo & wUliii 
tell both sides what be thinks, who is so absorbed in wbatever < 
be has deliberately espoused as to forget wlintover rplution it may! 
to his own interesta. We did not tliink. this pnrtiiMiIar Irtlvr of I 
Smith's a judiciou.* one to be published. As a private lultcr (and I 
we suppose it to have been), it was nothing blameworthy. Bui 1 
been ten times less judicious than it was, we are not of thosu wi 
forget yeHTS of sell -sacrificing and courageous Berviisu fur a 
misiuke. 

Of &tr. Smith's speech we shall only say here that it seems to] 
model of dispassionate discus^^iou, where passion were so ir 
than reason. It was as an Kngtishman, and only ^ an 
that he wa-^ nblc to bt^lp us in onr need, bnt it was as nu Loijliah^ 
jealous of the honor of England. It is by pretiisely fiucb nu Eoj 
man that tve are glad to see the other »idc of our argumcM nikli ' 



SUdjnan'a Blamde9i Prince. 



SOI 



I stated in all its force Mr. Smith is giving his unpaid service to 
lion in this country, but he has not surrendered, with tiie other 
urie« of Oxford, \\U love of truth and justice. Whether we agree 
1 him or not, — and we rei*prve a discusiiion of the Alabama question 
[ Boothur ooca5ilon, — uc ibnnk him for a mnnly and undif^tcmpered 
tXiX OS plain as good burliness KngUsh can make it. During Llic 
' we could see only one side. 'Hie war over, it will be wise for UB 
UKO (hat there are K)metimes two. 



> — The JVamelexs Pntice, aiirl other Poems. By EoMirxn Ci.An- 
SC¥. Stkduak. Boalon : Fields, O^ood, & Co. ItiGD. 12mo. 
. viii., 1D2. 

Sktkrai. years ago. we comoicnded Mr. Stedman's Alice of Mon- 

uth (o tho friendly aftpreoiation of our readers. Hi^ recent volume 

M the thvorablf augury we drew from its predecessor. It proves 

mer maturity and th« care that conies of it. The If ading poi*m showa 

I delicacy and depth of conception, but it is too long, and h disfigured 

t ami there by that spotty intensity of color which it is the fashion 

»aday» to Eubj=riiuie for the fulne&s of tone of the t-ldtT masters. 

pt it haa bctautiful and pathotic passage^ and is altogether so gocd 

t we wish it were as good as the author could have made it. It has 

I which are not proper to Mr. Stedman, who is copuble of sim- 

diy and directness. The niitralive is too much awani[>ed in reflec- 

Many of tbe enmllor poems are full of graceful sentiment 

fapfdly expressed. We do not know where fancy, or it** application 

Itlu! sweetening of worlc-day life, )ias been embodied with more re- 

l cheerfulness than in "Pan in Wall Street," and the poems drawn 

outward nature arc, as Ibey should be, landscapes infused with 

Dlioient. Mr. Stedman has the skill to bring us into sympathy with 

feeling, — a feeling always pure and in tlie best sense homely. 

DC ifi a real addition to our better literature. We were 

etrtally interested by the specimens of his translation of Theocritus. 

'.good version of this truly charming and original poet is greatly 

Died in Cnglish. Mr. Stedman we feel sure, would succeed in giv- 

as the standard one. We should only omtion hitn to make his 

Deters as easy of scansion as possible by the unlearned ear. Tliia 

I lo Euglish must follow German^ and not Grecian or even Korount 



802 



List of tome lUcent Puhlication$, 



[h 



LIST OF SOME RECENT PUBUCATIOXS. 



1. The Elemcnti of Theoretical aiid Dc«ripUve Afttronoiny, for tlw 
CoIleg;ea and AL-ademies. Uy Charles J. White, A- M., AwisUnt Pr>j 
of Astronomy and Navigation in the United States Xaval Academy. 
aiU'Iphia : Ctaxton, Remttcn, and HaffetfiDger. 18C9. 1:;ido. pp<37 

2. The Villa on thu Rhine. By Bcrthohi Anerliacb. Author'* 
New York; Leypohlt and Holt. IBC9. 2 vols- l3nio. pp. S>^0. 

3. The first Si.\ Books of Homer'v Iliad ; with Explanatory Noto. 
James R Boise, Professor of Greek in the University of Chicago. CI 
S. C. Gni,'gii & C(i. 1869. l2mo. pp. 2S5. 

•d. Our New Way Kotind the World. By Charlea Carletoo Coffin. Da- 
ton : Fieldfl, Osgood. & Co. 18G9. 12mo. pp. 584. 

5. Klemeuts of Latin Grammar, for Schools. By Albert narkDCS.PKD^ 
Professor in Brown Univensity. New York: 1). Appleton & Co. IWJ. 
12mo. pp.156. 

€. Problematic Characters. A Novel. By Friedrich Spielbagen. 
York : I^^eypoldt and IIoU. 1B69. 12mo. pp. 507. 

7. Studies in Philosophy and Theology, By Joseph Harcn, D. D, 
fcMor in Chicago Theological Seminary. Andover: Warren F.. 
1869. l2mo. pp. 502. 

8. Tlie AliAflissippi Valley ; ita Physical Geography. By J. W. 
LL. D. lllastratcd by Maps and Sections. Chicogo: S. C. Griggy 
1869. 8vo. pp. 443. 

9. Reminiscences of Felix McndclMohn Barthohly. By Elise 
Translated from the German by Lady Wallace. New Y'ork: LcypoUt 
Ilolt. 1S69. 12mo. pp. 354. 

10. Tommy Try, and what he did in Science. By Charles O. G. 
(of Merchiston), F. G. S. New York : D. Appleton & Co. I8€9. I 
pp. 303. 

11. Italy, Florence, and Venice. From the French of H. Taine. BjrA 
Durand. Now York: I^eypoldt and HolL 1869. 8?o. pp. 385. 

12. The Evidences of Christianity, with an Introduction on the ExiriaM 
of God and the Immortality of the Seal. By EbcncKcr ]>odge. D. D-i 
tdent of Ma<Iisoa University. Boston: Gould and Lincoln. lfl<9. 
pp. 24+. 

13. Studies of General Science. By Antoinette Brown BlackwelL 
York : G. P. Putnnm and Son. 18C9. 1 2mo. pp. 356. 

M. The Poetical Works of CharlcB G, Halpine (Miles O'Reilly), 
hy Robert B. Roosevelt. Now York : Harper and Brothers. 1869. 
pp. 352. 

15. The Merchants and nnnkera* Almanac for 1869. New Yotk; Ai^ 
liahed at the Olltcc of the Bankers' Mag^azine. 1869. 8vo. pp. 234. 

16. That Boy at Norcoifs. By Charlea Sever. Chicago; Wi 
News Company. 1869. 8vo. ^^. 73. 



169.] 



lAat p/ tome Recent Pnhiicati/mt. 



80S' 



3 7. Adventures in the WildemcM ; or Camp IJfe In tbe Adirontlacks. Bj 

tlUm U. U. Murray. Boston: Fields, Osgood^ & Co. 1869. I3mo. 

33(1. 

8. fishing in American Waters. By Genio C. Seott, Xew York r 
krpar juid Brothers. 1869. 13ino. pp. 4H4. 

19. Tb« History of Piltsfield, Alas^Achusett-, from 1734 to 1800. By J. E. 

Smith. Boston : Lcc and 8hi.*pnrd. 1869. 8vo. pp.918. 

90. The Ingham Tajfers ; some Memorials of the Life of Captain Frederic 
^am, IF. S. N. By i-Mwani £. Hale. Boston : Fields, Osgood, & Co. 
69. 120)0. pp. 366. 

91. Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska. By Frederick 
liympcr. New York : Harper and Brothers. 1869. 12mo. pp. SA3. 
22. VoIg:ari»m8 anil other Errors of Speech, with a Koviow of Mr. G* 
uhington Moon's "Dcan'n English," and ** Bud KngHsh." Philadelphia: 

ton, Rem^n, and IlaOuIfingcr. lt{G9. 12roo. pp. 241. 
M. Tiic Symbolinn of Freewaeonry. By Albert G. Mackey, M. U 
Bw York: Clark and Maynard. 1869. 12mo. jjp. 364. 
SI. rHmeval Man. An Kxaminntion of some Recent Speculations. By 
«I)ukeof Arg>le. New York: George Routlcdge and Sons. 1869. 12mo. 
X 200. 

24. The Sermons of Henry Ward Beecher in Plymouth Church, Brook* 
D. September, 186S — March, 1869. Nev York: J. B. Ford & Ca 
169. 8vo. pp. 438. 

16. On the Legend of Tristran ; ita Onj^in in Mytti, and its Development 
Boouiuce. By Edward Tyrrell Lcith. Bombay : Education Society*! 
1868. 8vo. pp. 35. 
ST. For Her Sake. By Frederic W. Robinson. New York : Harper and 
hOtWl. 1869. Sro. pp. 191. 

*8, The Old Tcatament Ilistory. From the Creation to tbe Return of the 
from Captivity. Edited by William Smith, LL. 1). New York : 
irpcr and Brothers. 1969. 12mo. pp.714. 

29. History of tbe Legal Tender Paper Money issued during the Great 
ebellion. Prepared by Hon. E. G. Spaulding, Chairman of the Sub-Corn- 
ittee of Way and Means at the Time the Act was passed. Buffalo : Ejipr&s 
■inting Company. 1869. 8vo. pp. 253. 

50. The Principles of P*yvhologr)-. Part I. Tbe DaU of Psychology. By 
iarbert Spencer. New York : l>. Appleton & Co. 1869, 8vo. pp. 142. 

51. Abriss der Deutsehen LiteraturgeM-hichte. Von Dr. E. P. Evans. 
"cir York : Leypoldt and Holt. lKi:[>. 12mo, pp.235. 

52. Tlic OneneM of tbe Cliristian Church. By Rev. Doras Clarke, D. D, 
ikrton: I.«c and Sliepard. 1869. 12mo. pp. 105. 

53. The Malay Arthipelago. A Narrative of Travel, witli Stuilies of Man 
Nature. By Alfred Kuasel Wallace. New York : Harper and Brothers. 

9. 8vo. pp. 638. 
M. Black Forest Village Stories. By Berthold Aucrbach. Translated by 

lea Goepp. New York : Lcyiwldt and Holt. 1869. 12mo. pp.377. 
U. Th« B4ec«nt Progress of Science, with an Examination of the Aawrted. 



304 



lAxt of »ome Recmt Pithlicationt, 



[July. 



Identity of the Mental Powers with Physical Forces. By Frederick A. P. 
Barnard, S. T. D., LL. D. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1869. 8m 

pp. ao. 

36. Moral Science ; a Compendinm of Ethics. By Alexander Bain, M. A. 
New York: D. Appleton k Ca 1869. 12ma pp. 337. 

37. Sermons. By Charles Wadsworth, Minister of Calrary Cbarch, Su 
Francisco. New York: A. Roman & Co. 186!). 12nio. pp. 367. . 

88. Foreipn Missions : their Relations and Claims. By Bufos AnderBon, 
D.D., LL.D. New York : Charles Scribner & Co. 1869. l2mo. pp. J7S. 

39. Walter Savage Lander. A Bic^aphy. By John Fonter. In Sjkt 
Books. Boston : Fields, Osgood, & Co. 1869. 12mo. pp. 692. 

40. History of European Morals from Augustus to Chariemagne. 9f 
William Kdward Ilartpolo IiCcky, M. A. New Yoric : D. Appleton & Ca 
18G9. 2 vols. 8to. pp. 498, 423. 

41. The Brawnville Papers ; being Memcnials of the BrawoTiUe AtUetie 
Club. Edited by Moses Coit Tyler, Professor of English Literature in Mich* 
igan Univcriiity. Boston : Fields, Osgood, & Co. 18G9. l2mOL pp. 313. 

42. The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, from Angint 1689, 
to Alay, 1706. By Charlen J. Tloadly, Librarian of the State Libnrr. 
Hartford : Pre&s of Case, Lockwood, and Brainard. 1868. Sto. pp. i^i- 



,SC0NT£N3!B OP No. CCXiV. 



IE Genesis op LANarAoa - 305 

fnc TVbitikos of Mb. Rowland G. Hazard . . 367 

1. "Essay on Lotiguftge, and other Papers. Bj Kow- 
LNZ» G. Hazard. 

2. Our Rtsourcea. 
3- Finance and Hours of Labor. 

4. Freedom of Mind in Willing ; or, Every Being that 
^lU, a Creative First Cause. 

I 5. Two Letteraj on Causation, and Freedom in Willing, 
Idrcsfcd to John Stuart Mill. With an Appendix oik 

the Existeooe of Matter, and our Notions of Infinite 
Space. Bj Rowla.nd G. Hazard. 

IxDiAS Migrations 391 

Civil-Serttce Reform 448 

Tbb Coast or Eotpt and the Suez Caxal . . 476 

^aragtat, and the Present War . . . . . . 510 

' 1. A Tale of Paraguay. By Roukrt SonxHET, LL. D. 

2. The Reign of Dr. Joseph Gadpard Roderick de 
Fmnda in Paraguay. By Messrs. Rengger and Long* 

CBAMFS. 

3. Paraguay, and the Alliance against the Tyrant 
Francisco Solano Lopez. 

4» Correspond encia Diplomntica entre el Gobiemo del 
Pimguay y la Legacion de loa Estados Unidos de America, 
elcL, etc 

5, Execntive DocumenU, TTniled Slates Senate. Doc. 
ia 5, Parts 1, 2^ 3. Message of the President, commu- 

stlng Tnfonnation In Relation to Recent Transactions 
Ta the Region of the La Plata. 

Executive Documents, United States House of Repre- 
s«otatives. No. 79. Letter from the Secrelar^ ^ >^1A 



It OtnUents. 

Navy, in Answer to a BesoIutioD of the House, trans- 
mitting Correspondence relative to the Paraguay Diffi- 
culties. 

Miscellaneous Documents, United States House of 
Bepresentatives, No. 8, Ft 2. Memorial of Porter C. 
Bliss and George F. Masterman. 

6. Revue des deux Mondes; 1865, 18€6, 1867. 

7. Papeles dul Tirauo del Paraguay, tornados por los 
Aliados eu el Asalto de 27 de Diciembre de 1868. 

VII. Critical Notices 5* 

Miillcr'g Chips from a German Workshop, 544. — Bushnell's Womcii'f 
Suffrage, and Mill'H Subjection of AVomcn^ 566. — Nieolas'i Qu' 
trains de Kh^yam, 565. — Fricdrich Riickon and his Works, 5S4.— 
Baldwin's Fro-hiiitoric Nations, 594. — Kirk's History of Charln tlie 
Bold. 596. — Kocldokc's Alttestamontliche Literatur, 602.— Etuu'k 
Deutsche LiteraturgCHchichtc, 6(i6. — Publications of the Prince Socie- 
ty, 609. — Kinglako's Invasion of the Crimea, 612. 

List of some Recent Publications 6S0 



ERUATUM. 
Page 488, line 2 from bottom,ybr northwest, nad northeast 



fORTH AMERICAN REVIEW 



OCTOBER, 1869. 




I. — The Gen^is op Language. 

' the revival of Greek learning in Erasmus's timo has been 
[»roj)riatcIv termed the " new hirth " of the European int«l- 
t, wc may signalize, ns a hardly less' afltonifllnng renaissance, 
; consequences which in our own day have flowed from the 
ncval of intorcouree, after a separation of i>erliaps fifty cen- 
es, between the oldest and the youngest members of the 
ran race. By the English conquest of India our horizon 
Bpeculation has been vastly and suddenly widened. Our 
tlftiologic doctrines have undergone extensive remodelling, 
inquiries into the course and conditions of human dcvel- 
nent have assumed a broader aspect, llie myths and fairy- 
ilca of Indo-European antiquity, — the weird fancies of pri- 
eval nature-worKluppcrs, previously uuiuteUigible, — are now 
en to be fraught with marvellous significance. Wliilc, with 
rd to the science of language, it will suffice to mention 
t, in the sixty years which have elapsed since tlie public*- 
of Schlegers Wcisheil der Indicr, we have traced a 
proportion of the grammatical forms in the Aryan Ian- 
bock to their primitive significations ; that wo are now 
pOflMsaion of a method by wtiich, after due inspection, we 
classify all dialects, sjloken or written, living or dead ; that 
bavo begun to obtain trustworthy evidence as to the civili- 
ion, the domestic life, and the intellectual habits of our 
icostors, many a;?e8 before the dawn of auihcTiUc \aa\toT^ % 
.roL, cix. — AO. 2'2d. 20 



806 



Tlie GeneiU of LangiMg*:, 



[C 



that wo have dcoiplicred the long-forgolton idiom i- 

mjrthical Zaratliustra proclainieii to his Bactrian > 

tho religipD of light ; and that we can read, tliruagh the wfl 

flhapod Bvmhols iu wliieh they are eugravyd, tli' ' "' 

DareioH HystaitjMis, couliiiniug the same courtU 

exiled Thciuistokles may afterwords have used Id bis 

Bolutatious to the AchsDinenid monarch. 

It is hardly ncccsBary to say that these sfjlcndid rCftulU ue 
uot due merely to a series of hajipy guesses. Thoy have been 
obtained by the patient examination of pnraiiigtns and v. 
taricSf by tho careful analysis of grammatical foiiitg, ui 
study of phouctic changes, conducted for the most part in i 
accordance with inductive methods. Etymology is no lon(! 
as 'u\ Voltaire's day, a science in which cousuuui^ts go fur 
aud vowels for nothing; but it is a science in which 
ohauge uf rowel or consonant must be referred lu gene 
albeit empirical, principles of utterance. Tiio time has 
by for such linguistic feats as those porfoi;pied by Blac 
who derives parson from persona^* because the parson imp 
aonates the church, and Wehstor, who, withuut a twuigej 
coraputiction, derives preach (Lat. prtedicare') from the 
brew baraky ''to bless"! In striking contrast to such 
ceedings, wo now fhid scholars like Max Muller refusing 
admit the identity of such words as cava and care, corvuti 
eroWy o\k Aud whole ; the similarity, which formerly 

* A derivation which Worcester dt£i without ttio Xcasi fiu^ii-ti>ii vf it* 
\\j, Ptinon xnA compression Mptinckimuu, " ono bolongins; \v n f-nrM^ " 
Rcctu good cirmolopc wheat in our populnrdk-tiuiiariua '» \\V 
for hi« jiaiiuf. Mr. Crabbe, for iii.stnncp, icU.* ui that thi' p<Kxl 
varuutoo fromihc Vr. Hon, and the Lut. Jormu>, ' \»i*\vi-\i.' whit-hwAi 
dermio, nnd comes from iha Orvck fiipfta, ' • akin,' bccauiw fico|'lc tiv on ifcitu I 
ihcy slept" (1 n English Synoaymo. b v. " Sloep." H(mn[;fl that he ■hnaU 1 
forgotten the Hebrew damim, "to kecji iilenco " ; noy, wliai tntw it 
dntihar, " 10 i![>cak," for people aomc'timeM talk in their »ltx'|) 1 In < 
3tf. Denri, a ttnpient Itiilien critic, hiu dorivoil //I'omo (LnL //iKmimi 
torn, because the Alcinaiis and Franks nnnoDticvd th? arriral of (L> 
horn I See I^win, Komnnco Lan};uM^es, p. 3S0. Muni of Oio un^ It 
were thus ohtuinoiJ from a mere plnr opon the Atund of word*. Se« 
Lench, SitnuhpHilotophie dfr Ahm, III. 1I3, 1S4, ttiul rl«tcwhcrc ; nii.l . 
derivation of .-tyuwi-miwrt from * Ayatrritt nrtiiov^ >n Thito's A" 
of ^iXiimof from TflS 'fl /»iy lopidfi = aro^ia Xn^miAof, in 1\>-'.^ 
Gftek. d. ilebrSiKhen SpriicHe, S ^ i lAW<:k, A^ittofikimtUt pp. eA7 -84*, 



^atk 



The Genesis of Language, 



807 



at a scholar o^ Bultmami to assort the kinship of such worde, 
DOT amstituting the chief obstacle to an udiniBsiciiL of their 
wmnion origin. 'For it has been ascertained that, as a general 
nit, when a word be^ns in Greek or Latin with a tenuis, it 
cannot, in Enghsh (unless directly imix>rtcd from those lan- 
gOBges), have the same initial letter, but must begin with the 
kindred a.spirate. Tims we have «apS-/a = cor-d = hearty cor- 
m=^hnrn, tre5 = Tp€U^=t/trfej tu=^thou; and it is therefore 
ftat<!d that if ctira and corvus are to be discovered in English, 
they must bo sought among words beginning with A, not among 
¥onIs beginning with c or /»*, while ichoh, if it existed tn Greek, 
could hardly l>e anything else than /roXo?. It may indeed turn 
Ottt tlmt a too obstinate adherence even to Grimm's Law may, 
h some eases, he proof of rashness, since it is, at best, an em- 
pirical generalization, which has from time to time encountered 
serious exceptions.* Nevertheless, the mere fact that such 
plaasihlc derivations arc so vigorously challenged, and obliged 
to March so narrowly for proofs of geiminenoss before they can 
be accepted, shows forcibly that in etymology mere guess-work 
k no longer permissible,! ^^^^ ^^^^ in tracing the pedigree and 
kliiabip of words, siuularity in sound, even when accompanied 
by identity of meaning, is by no means an infallible criterion, 
ffords starting from the remotest sources have not seldom been 
ground down into exactly the same shape. If we have never 
jAttrd the French s-juris, "mouse,*' identified with souris, 
'"mnile," it is doubtless because no one has had a pet theory to 

• See GuMi'« criiirimniim l*rocco<lin|pi of tlw Fliilologicol Society, III. IT3, foIV* 
~ nj exceptions to tirimm'fi Law arc only apparviit. The Zcml Mn (Ki)f>Iish 
' a»y appear anuinaluus when comparctt with Sanskrit iri. But it follows the 
r rule in Zend t^iat y, r, ic, m, n, and ttus sibilants, roughca a preceding tenuis ; 
1 {or Sanskrit ujra ; pathn for Sniwkrit ;ia(iii. See Sjiieycl, AMiiLtnKAe 
fTnaimattt, p. 71. Buitmnnn's identi6i-aiion of ichaU and oXor must be f^ircn np 
ao doubt; tut I cannot a^rco with MiillcrRsi to <vjr™« and aim. In the older 
Jtonea orth«>(fTuphy, c ia u^ed to represent the medial sound of y, nud if is the onl/ 
BB<t guttural ; jw that cvrvyji and curn, l>ping pronounced ijcm^uM aud qttra, are 
Ottftit tniu mrict coufomiity with llio l»w whirh they haic heen supposed lo 
ohtte. Even in later times wo find continunl confuaion between Cams and O'ui'ua, 
Tw and iinw'ts, Compare DonolilBon, ('rtrrosiViniM, p. 292. 
t " Armenian Vtyr it the same na Lat. pattr, not because, as a general principle, 
» U thnnjeahle into A, bat bceauie it can bo proved bj facts to be sir in Armenian, 
ere p^« (foot) is fui ; pancha (fire) is hin^ ; jrCp (Are) ie hour." Miiller, iu Dun- 
B'i OnUiDQf, I. SV. 



308 



The Oene»it of Lawfuagt, 



[Oct 



Bupport by so doing ; • yet the one comes from sortz^ (he olbfr 
from subriikre. Tlie word po^re, meaning the side of a le* 
papor, 16 from Lat. pag-ina; hut tho word pag^t, me 
youthful domestic servant, is from Gr. TrmS/ov. " a cWW ' 
" lad,'* So the Fr. /«?h, ** fii-o," is a compression of 
focus; but tbo word feu, used in alluding to persons lately 
ceased, was formerly vritteu ffutx, which shows it« orig 
Bhapo to have boeu Lat. felixy as tho Greeks uncd o ^cKa^h% 
speaking of the dead. So Uie Gr. m9, " arrow," has no 
to do with lo'^. *^ poisou " ; for the one is repi'- 
skrit by *.t/im, the other by iKsAa, Lat. virus, li i oj; 
we have, as Cobbett said, " the same combination of lottert,^ 
not the same word." On the other hand, words growbg 1 
the some primeval root have been modified by the acquired! 
inherited phonetic peculiarities of tho rarioiw races who 
used them, until all traces of their original iil* ': 
apjKJared. The identity of such words as tear > 
and feather, has been too often illusti-ated to require de 
stration here. A hardly less sLrikinK instance, t' 
identity is not quito so comjiletc, is fuiiiished by 
wanton and uneducated, in the lix&t place, the pretixea < 
and un are the same, our old words tvanluckj uianthi 
wanirustj being simply unlucky unthrifty nntrust ; as may 
seen by comparing the Dutch wangeschikt and tcatiordt 
Germ, nngeschickt and unordnung. In the Soandina^ 
tongues tliis prefix appears as van^ as in the Danish vansk 
ninffi " a monster," vanarti^y " depraved." f Tho second i 
ton, brings us at once to Dutch toxocn. Germ. §•*■; 
Ziehen = Eng. tow ^ Lat. duc~o ^ Skr. duh, wi- 
the essential element of the word uneducated, Gren in 
where diversity of sound is attended with ; > 

bilitj in meaning, the original identity is . 

able. There is nothing in the condition of sfavct to 

* Some writcnf hnve aclimll/ ■UrmpIcO to cunatct lanr, **io lii: 
" !o prairf," because yoii praiM ioti^inp* when jim loL ihrm f TIip ^ne u 
lottii't, tho oilior from iaudare. Sec Milllcr, Sdcoce urLantjuu^c, IL 904. ' 

t Sec Key's intcrcjAing pMiwr un Alplm privuiivt', in hi? Pli' ' : ' '" - 
146. This A&iToy% ArcliltUhcr[i TrvDch'fi di-nvaiiOQ of wo' 
/jopc." Tlie prefix U Uic «unc u fai the woids abore dipl, w :;co !r;rTr 'j i 
rc/crcoco » " waning." 




or justify aa association with the Greek word for 
^fliy.** Yet slave (Russian siavoy Irish cHu) is not simpl/ 
to k\€<k (originally jcXfVov), but it is absolutely the 
rword, as pronounced by the vocal organs respoctively of 
t Grc^k and a Russian. It appears in the self-imposed title 
oftlie Sclavonic, or ''glorious," races, and owes its present 
degradation to the extraordinary number of prisoners of war 
which, in the Middle Ages, these nations' furnished to the 
Fnmks.* 

These examples show how materially the progress of lin- 

guiKtiu science during the present century has affected the 

wlntion of such problems as the one with which we now 

purpose to deal, concerning the genesis of language. It was 

Msy for writers like Herder and Condillac, Monboddo and 

Stewart, to weave gossamer theories of the origin of human 

ecb, 80 long as their reasonings were not controlled by 

^yielding facts. But as soon as Bopp, in 1816, had shown 

hat inductive pliilology, like other sciences, can be success- 

illy doult with only ljy adhering to fixed methods, it began 

be felt, if not consciously perceived, that inquiries into the 

h'gin of language must be postponed until a more thorough 

bowledge of tin? laws of its present structure should have 

DD obtained. So vast is the field of linguistic phenomena, 

numerous and delicate the processes required for its suc- 

sful exploration, that during many years the efforts of 

olors have been almost exclusively devoted to tlie estalv 

limcnt of suljsidiary inductions, while that which in the last 

itury was considered the grand problem of the linguist has 

en quite neglected, or wen treated with disdain. Miiller 

us that "the Socit^tS de Ling^uistique lately founded at 

3, and including the names of the most dislinguished 

olars of France, declares in one of the first paragraphs of 

statutes that it will receive no communication concerning 

cffigin of language." This spirit of caution has undoubt- 

%y been of decided advantage to the progress of tlie science, 



• 8«« Gibl>on, DerHue ami Fall, VII. 104 (Pariiied.). The nnine Wdtk seemi 
ne ixaui u> have run ri*k of shorinp a similnr fiito. In an Anplo-Soxon treat/ 

IflM icnih ccntarj, vtalh, " Welshman," in na«ii in ihv general ucusc of" blaTO." 
! Freeman, Korman CtHiquesi, YoL I. p. 306, ootD. 



310 



The Oenesii of LcmguHgt* 



and hos spared »ib the infliction of many volnmes t^^"'^ 
crude etymologies and cruder philosophy. But t 
now come when it is not only possilile but desirable for i 
proceed more boldly. The inductions of philology art 
broad and firm enough to sustain a goodly edifice of lin^ 
philosophy. The question of origin, in language ob Sn 
subjects, is one which presses for solution ; and it is 
which analytic inquiries into the structure of words will| 
found to offer powerful assislance. 

It is proposed, therefore, in the present essay, to skctcUl 
primitive shape and structure of hmnim Bpeech, and to! 
amine, so far as our scientific resources will pennit, Uio furtfi 
question as to how those primitive elements originated, 
former inquiry must necessarily precede the latter. Po 
endeavor, from a mere conteniplation of exiHting dialect 
point out the origin of language, would be as absurd tuid 
lesB a task as to seek the laws of primeval nebular conde 
tion by a simple scrutiny of our solar system In all it8 m 
ent complexity. 



At the outset, the old hypotliosia of a single primitive Iflfl* 
guage, from wliich all existing forms of speech have bow 
derived, may be set aside without ceremony, as being not i 
unsupported, but even discouutonanoed by all the en<i 
which philology can bring to bear upon the subject. 

Ov yap Jtdynov ^tv Afiht 6p6ot ouS' Zn y^pvt, 

ttKKk yKatrtr i^^tcro, vvkvKKtjrfu S" eatuf ayflfttt.* 

Not only is it impossiltle to imagine a single dialect from' 
> the Aryan and Semitic families, tlie Chinesr^, and the innii 
able louguagos of Central Asia, South Africa, Polynesia 
America, could alike have sprung, hut the w!»ole cours^ 
philologic research down to the present time |)oint8 t<t 
conclusion tlmt originally there were as many fomw of 
as there were tribes or families of men. The primitive 8t«tJ 

• Tlinci, IV. 4-17. *'Kin<* »n tm M^a-n matcricUc Abfinramuii;; iiUiT 9p 
von c'iiUT riiizijjicH Ur»pmcliu kutilirn wir nU iiiimfvlirll rnriTirirfr-n " St 
Di* iM'ifintrIa Theont, p. SI. Comptirc iSuulincf, 
Whitney. Sttidr of LungUAgo, pp, :(8:i, VH \ Rimitn, (jtu : 
F. Sciji<%'Cl, BiUiotliiqm ttutienM, 1. 1AK \ (WtAeil der iaUier, la. I. kap. if. 



» nrnst have resembled tliat whieb we now find Among the 
like Mnck races of the Indian iVrchipelago* where eacb 
gnwp of men and women baa its own vocabulary, unin- 
ble to all its neighbors, and where even in a single 
r the lanjpiage changes so rapidly that p-andparonts can- 
idcrstmid their jfrandcbildren. It is becoming generally 
\i\7/id by philologists that a deiinito and stable language 
it arise until there bos l>ecn a concentration of mctk into 
tribes or states. The notion of a single primitive dialect 
fell suited to the hypothesis that tlie human race is de- 
ed from a single pair of ancestors, who were originated 
oe other way than by the ordinary process of birth. But 
m of the flood of light which has been thrown njwn 
Igin of mankind by the researches of Darwin, Lycll, and 
sy, such a conception is no longer tenable.- Speculations 
hose of Donaldson {Maskil fr-Sophcr^ p. 85) as to the 
5 taken by the families of mankind in descending from 
lonntains of Armenia, a few thousand years ago, can 
icrvc only to amuse us. The origin of the human race 
een taken quit« out of the bands of llie philologist, and 
ick thousands of centuries, into the later tertiary epoch, 
tigers, primeval elo()Iiant8, and gigantic reindeer roaraed 
•gc over Western Europe. We are thus conGronted by 
mcoption of a vast, apparently almost limitless past, dup- 
hich men stni^rgled for existence with stronger but less 
ng brutes, and during which there coidd have been neither 
»I concentration nor organized tradition, and therefore 
lividualizcd languajr*'.* 

j^onccption explains the signal failure of all the at- 
^phich have hitherto l)een made to construct a universal 
i^nasftification of languages. Of the Semitic, Aryan, and 
^an dialects, possibly also of the Altaic or northern divis- 
^■At Max Miiller calls the Turanian family of tougucs, 
Respectively affirm that they must have started from a 



f, ill lliU LN>nncction, tlin profonml and Rlrikiiig rvtnorkfi of tbo Platonic I'ro- 
, ud, ia |»arriculBr, tlic followinc : /(^tovv 8q affpai^rtr^ nai ffa(ta6ak 
re B-oXdit' &■* o^¥ ddpotv&tUy. fjfilKovv oXX^Xouf, Srt oi< txovrtf r^w 
♦*• "V^*" ^""'* ir^iP VMHayyvfuvot tt*<t*&f*povra. TIulo, Proiag, 322. 
'pnbUc.I. 35LC, 



312 



The GeneaU of Lan^u»ujt;, 



10 



elogle primitive Semitic, Aryans Dravidi&n, or Altaic] 
It has l>ecomo a trito remark ihut, if all Uommi Uiftt 
lottl in the night of uhlivioii, wu ehuiild still be r 
waa once a time when BVcncb, Italian, and ^|.. 
one aud tlte same language. So» ill spite of the abHoiic 
historic i*ecord»» we know with absohite certainty thai.^ 
and Riusian, Greek and Suiiakrit, were once but uno do 
formed language ; and wo can even determine witii 
able confideucc what the forms of that language 
when we come to the continent of America, w« 
among its vast hordes of languages uo such genetic suUci 
can be cstablislied. Iroquois and Al^oii'juin, Totoiuw 
Maya, do not present sucli signs of comiiiiship as Teutonic I 
Iranian, Syriac aud EthiopiCf TcLugii and Canareee. Woj 
therefore, indeed, make au American group, the !- 
which are cliai*acterized by morphological re.iembliu 
canuot make an American family, as we make an 
Semitic family. We cannot point to a single in " 
moUicr-tongue from which the twelve hmulred un- 
American dialects enumerated by Adclung might have 
This is because there has been no great ixiUtio:^ 
resultuig in a wide-spread organization of liji^i 
among the American aborigines. Their Inuidrods of difl 
bare gone on from tlie Iwgiuning, imstable und fluctualj 
never attainuig such au organic slwipe as the mother-Aryu 
mother-Semitic. Tlie principle of genetic classification, 
fore, which Bunsen and others have attcmpt<^d t<i ji ' 
sally, has in reality Imt a narrow range of applicu 
available only in tlie case of languages which have boon sf 
hy concentrated tribes or nations. 

The foregoing remarks will prcrent the suspioioa, 



• This n'jiorniiou of kn catttnet Itttij^n^* — n ~ 

stru^'t Hoiiiu rrn^riiciitArj- ro<it)il froiu intlu^Uoiu 
ftnd teeth — is now rapiillv goin^' on. Wc have uii-itidj- :. 
li]atbcr*ton||;uQ. I'lck, n'<>*er6wcA «/«■ iaricMimnttniitcttm < . 
Bv^tmtlf. vcr drt ViiiiirtnJtHUng, liottilipen, IS6C, 8vo. pp. 34*. li is luld 
great phitologljit Sc-hlcichcr (wliouc rcrcnl umimeU dt-aih ev^rr wholar 
plorc) crcn meditated com[K>rtinic a t»l« i 

Att'tnoir It/ G. Curtiui, Zur ChnmUoijit da i ja 

MIC, 1867. 410, pp. 77. 



I 



rwi»e arise in the course of the inquiry, that we aro 
reach that El Dorado of liugnistic research, — the 
of ft common origin of the materials of all languages. 
"lo do not Ixjlieve in any such common origin. lint with 
regard to tho grammatical formation of language, with regard 
to iu morphological Btruoture, the case is wholly different ; 
Jlnd wo are now ulwnt to enter upon a long and somewhat 
intricate eourao of argument, to prove that all languages must 
have bocn origiually foiined upon one and the same ascor- 
taii' ne.* 

; I>egin8 to study French, after a previous acquaint- 
arico with Latin, will find that he can spcodily, without the 
' ■ '" i 'nary, detect the meaning of many words, not 
liity with tJie eorn^Kptniding terms in Ijatin, but 
m tlie fact tliat tliey are nearly all abbreviated or contracted 
if' I'liiformity of mothod. Thus the meanings of 

are at once apparent from the directness with 
''Which they suggest the Ijatin numsis and eccUaia; and simi- 
larly wc have such words as maier^ matjister, diccre^ duodecimy 
redrmpiio^ spiritus^ and mlvere, becoming in French, wuV*, 
rt, dire^ dome, ranfon, esprit^ aud sauver. Wo also find 
lie f*atin consonants vocalized, and parlicidarly wo arc called 
ujMin to note tlie frei|Uout eliange of .// into aw, as in chaux from 
;. catxj and au from ad illum^ Span. at. As Trench quaintly 
i«xpro88es it, " The French devours letters and syllables." But 
Bftnio is true of Spanish, wlioro t/ofitt, mas^ and crcer have 
«(^ne from domitm, mag-isy and credere; and of Italian, where 
tffgrtf tef^iiare, and verno are the modem rcpresoutatives of 
kodie, vi^ilare^ and hibernus. In similar wise the Anglo-Saxon 
Jkn/oCy hla/f^d and Eoforwic have become hawk, lord, and 
York; and wo have candela = mndle^ kyriake = church, 
diaconus = deaUf reffula = ruky nncia ^ inch^ sacristanus = 
$acri:ftam = sexton. The same general phenomena of con- 
traction ore to bo bcou in the Pali, Prakrit, and Kawi, as 
ompared with Sanskrit.f In the rabbinical Hebrew of the 

r Ktam doaswcjscn cine unxahlbore Mengo tod Urvpravlicn vornus, kbcr 
Jiii ^ilc ^tiauinn rir oiao and diesetbe Form." Schleicher, Die Darwintcke Throrie^ 

T Btrmonf rt hti<*cn^ Euai $Hr U Pati, pp. 140^ 187 ; Las«eD, InstitvAiawt L\r>gwA 
I Procntictf, p. 59. fyl'g. 



314 



7% Oenesia of Lemguagt- 



[« 



&nshi\a» ae compared willi claseical Hebrew, au<i Jti tho 
Iteau and Momliii'to iltuIcctH, as compared with the old 
mean, Uic same toiidoucy to the roonlizjitioii of consoii^ 
aiid comijrcssioii of syllnblcfl lins boon noticed. In ti»o 
itan and Chaldee there is a vocalization of tho gutturals, as in 
the Euglirth words plonffh, nighty and datig-hter. And to tbi 
Mahri of SoutJiern Arabia we find the regular chsn - *' 'm 
tt, us in French, besides which so many Irttcrs u 
have been devoured that the Semitic chiiractor of tiw Imifi 
is at first si^rht hardly apparent. Sioiiilar results arc obt 
from the comparison of Amharic with old Ethiopic, and of^ 
collorpiiul Araliic of the Bodouhis with the classical idiofl 
the Koran, wlule the Syriac has obliterated ita roots 
extent hardly paralleled even by the French. Vacalii: 
and contraction, therefore, — processes which tend to fncili^ 
the enunciation of words,* — maybe regarded as a dia 
ing feature of lingnistic development. These co-oporo 
cesses have been minutely descrilwd by Miillor, and 
rded by him as Bymploms of " phonetic docay," •* relain 
muscular energy," '* laziness," "effeminacy," and *'Ihh 
guistic disease." f I am unaldo to see any good reason why 
terms implying censure should be used to (lescribo such » pro- 
cess, unless it be the principle, too thoughtlessly assumed 
many philolugiats, that in the history of language eve 
old is right and everything new is wrong. Thero are, doufc 
certain cases in which "phonetic decay" impairs the 
tion of a language ; as for instance when it produces euci 
distinguished forms as pair and pear ; tfti/me and lime ; 
Wright, riij-ht, and icrile ; Fr. vet, verre^ rcW, imd 
san^y cent, sans, sent, s^en. The evolution of Inii; 
as wo have clsowhere shown,J a change from ind»u...: . 
geneity to definite hcterogtuteity, it follows that the 

• "AIIc VerfiodcruiiiciIcT LuuU-.iIh) im Vyrlaufe dcsiiprai-Iilir-lif > 
iHt zanncliit iind nnmittcllxir Folgo dcs Stntbeiu, imv^' i 

Iriclit za machvn. IJt'f)Ucralii'hk.cit ilor Auupnchr. K;- 
Ut das hicr wirkcnJc Agcns." fkhlcii-licr, l>ie I W, \i. 48. 

1 Miillcr, Science of Lnnguiij;?, II. 199, 212, uh 

I lo a |Hiper on "Tiia Kvoltitioti of Lun^'un^c," m h 
Octol>cr. 1 RrKi. ] am i>lca«cd at fin<iin(; ximilnr vivw» >i 
aexic dcca^ " in FrofcuoT Vr\i\la«^'» Hwd^f of Langnngv, p. 74« 



mt 



The (renesis of Lavguagi, 



ferctUiated dialect, In wliicli distinct words can 
furnielicd fur diHtinct idcaj^, is the most perfect 
iiLstnimeut of thought. When therefore a letter exer- 
\ differoutial function, or serves to difitiuguish ono word 
mother, its eliaiou coustitulea a retrograde step toward 
fenuity. If the procesa wliich has couvorted /audare and 
•like into huer wero to go on unchecked, our modern 
ifjcs would in a few centuries become somewhat like 
Indo-CtiincHe diidects in wliich the same combination of 
I and consonants is obligc<i to sen'e for twenty or thirty 
different ideas.* But when a letter no longer eiercisea 
rential t'uuctiou, its elision constitutes in most cases a 
I advance. For ono instance in which Hr>-cuUcd '* pbo- 
iecay" hiterfures with tlie proper dilTcrentiation of lan- 
i there arc majiy in which it assists it, as the following 
will show: — 

Dm Lat. capit'viUf ihc Frtnch hns chctif^ and cnjttif, 

ISfptvarf, iavrrr, ieparer, 

m iolticitarf^ sotteier^ soUiciUr, 

m ditf'ejunare, dtnei\ 

H paganut, payen^ 

M fiorrto, oh, 

■ minisUriumt mitUr^ 

"phonetic decay" thnt we owe in Englisli such par- 
3rm» Jis blaspheme and blame ; regal and royal; tatlcnce 
lance'; f persecute and pursue ; redemption and ransom ; 
and aim ; diart/^ diurnal^ jourval and joumtj/. It is 
letic decay," moreover, which has made most of our 
Lr words short enough to be conveniently pronounced. 

I 

ivtwQ A word ili«clt&r(;tf« a difTcreutiiU riinrtiun, it Is an Injor/ to the pn- 

la a.H*iiniitut(> it* mmniiij; (i> tlmt of aiiothiT wuni- Srnonrmi- 

i>>tii of Uii^tiUtic deticcituriiry. Prt'tciitJuiu blundfirvm, for whom 

iin^ca of our inromparaliK' Kiiirlisit liin)>uafru would seem to l>o 

w'ni trantfiirf in iho tumixi of hiifjjxn, alone in tliu lense of only, 

ill iJiU nenMj of /wver/ii/, nnil ftrtdi<uttf in tlic ueiise of prfdirt, nre infliriin(f 

Uw^ u|>uu Uio clc»r oxprc5«ion of iltoui^lit, Tbo rtuuler will find aoxna 

\ TBnoMsk* opun tUu nil{|ect in Mill's djrsiem of Logic (ith cd.^ Vol. II. 

;::;li9hof SliAkespcAK, p. 179, cAonce is ibsurUI}' derived front 



dejetm/fff 

paj/san^ 

ttrictj 

homme, 

minUtere. 



316 



The Genesis of Language, 



It was certainly no advantage to the speakers of Sanskrit 1 
obliged to say yushmahhyam for ** to you"; tlic Provfl 
desercnan ia infinitely preferable to its clumsy parent, 
ipsa hora in antea" ; and the French dorinavanl is better i 
" de hora lu ab ante." Nor is it easy to admit that our mq 
tnoutlis have degenerated because tliey are no longer all 
enunciate such frightful gutturals as the digamma, witi 
labial and sibilant admixtures, or the Welsh //, or the 
g-AaiVi, which we will not attempt to describe. In short, j 
economy of neiTous energy which has l>een shown by Sp 
to be ono of the chief desiderata of style is paralleled 
economy.of nervo-forcc aimed at in the gradual coucentrftiid 
of the elements of words. Such economy can with no 
propriety bo termed ** laziness " than buying in the cha 
market can be called "%tinginess.*' I shall, therefore, throw 
out the present discussion, substitute for ** phonetic decay '* 1 
term *' integration," which, without implying either pnuM, 
disapproval, accurately doscrilws the process by which tbfl 
fitituent elements of a word tend to become more and 
intimately united.* 

Questions of terminology Ijocome important when the 
liable to influence our opinions ; and the importance 
present question is made manifest when we find Miilleryi 
knows better, declarmg that, "on the whole, the history i 
all the Aryan languages is nothing but a gradual prucfi 
decay ! " t We shall presently show good reaaons for 
ing that the history of the Aryan languages, and indeed i 
others, is the history of a gradual process of integration 
that in tliis apparently insignificant phenomenon of 
contraction, we have the key which can bo made to 
some of the deepest secrets of language. 

For we are now to show that all the inflectional mo 



* IniiUnccs of real oorruptiont or duintegntion, ore to be Mea in tba I 

kSnglUb words adopted Into KnBr : l<ajiiis9 becomes bapdi2aia : gold 

Xjtamtl = inJaimtia ; prwt => um/irrufVr ; apostle =m vm/RMtJr ; CHjlKrr = imtjiU, 

fard, Ritfir Grammar, p. 69. So, ia Arabic, Phio bvcomoH Iflatxui. Tbo 

TXrijihnn ticcomcs, in Tamil. KiruUinan ; aod, in ChiDCM. Cftritt u iliMnli 

JTiVitv/u. Ktnllicher, ChirtrAuchr. Grammatik, p. 22 ; Caldwell, Drsvldtaa] 

nar, p. 13S. Compare ilic Basque armpoMitia (Vom hat. rMpouum. 

t Science of LangatkgQ,\.U\,%%^-, Vraxcfim^nin. 361. 



nettt 



nguage. 



of tho Aryan languages, exproBsivo of the most delicate 
bctioua of thought, were produced by intogratiou. The 
action of I^t. avicelUis into Ital. ucr.eUo and Fr. oisenUj is 
.he continuation of tho process which primevally integrated 
rode eleinenta avi-c-ufU'S into a single definite word. The 
ge of sufferre into souffrir is but the completion of the pro- 
by which tub and/en*« originally coidcsced. It is not true 
tho inflectional languages have " passed their period of 
Ih,'* aod ** entered into the stage of phonetic decay." 
Dor, II. >t3.) It is tho same process of integration or dif- 
itiol contraction which firut builds up a synthetic language, 
then pullti it down to form various analytic dialects, just as 
tlie same eternal washing of the sea which now builds up a 
nent out of agglutinated sediment, and then wears it down 
1, that from thu dvbris thereof new and more fertile land 
be constructed. Tho first groat achicremeat of modem 
logy was tho discovery that all our inflectional syllables 
doj>ondi>nt words were onco sepaiatc and independent. 
80-caIled root am of amubit was once, aa we shall presently 
a word used by itself, tlie connecting vowel a was a second 
])Ondont word, the tciise-sign bi was made up of a third and 
utli, and the personal ending t was a fifth. Where there 
w hut one word, there was originally a phraee consisting 
re words ; and the process which lias made amabit out of 
ttya^ fti, t/fi, and ta^ is in no respect different frcmi that 
h hoH made the Fr. encore out of the Lat. hanc hnram^ 
h has changed the ferocious par-lormott-de'D'tcu into the 
c«it morbkuy and ground down the pentasyllaJjic mea 
na int« the terminal letter of Yes^m. 

Q method l>y which integration operates in building up 
itod words needs but a brief description. Of many words 
ng after one another in the same sentence, some are used 
on their own accomit than to add precision to those which 
precede or follow. After the word h(/use the primitive 
oyer of language finds it bettor to add the word interior, 
fying that what he is talking about goes on iuside of the 
3, than to indicate the earao circumstance by a shrug or 
iKj. Thus house-interior is his rude contrivance for a 
,vc caae. But inlerior may be used also ^nth ol^etNiQt^^ 



318 



The Genent qf Lan^age, 



with boat J or tankardy or head., tintil its independent « 
cance grows dim in consciousness, and it is no longer fel 
haro any otlior than a modifying or dcterminatire c^cfc. 
the ancient Chinese, uo-li meant " house-interior," and 
power of II was as distinctly felt as that of vo ; hut iu mi 
Chinese, li has ceased to be used alono. It ])as become 
the Chinese grammarians call an " empty word " ; it no loi 
means anything by itself, but, taken iu connection with 
gives to the compound the signification " at home." In 
nese the integrating process has never gone farther than 
But in most languages the added word, which is no longer 
to bo independently significant, becomes clipped and mutili 
in pronunciation, and is at last blended indistinguishahly 
the word which it serves to limit. In tlie Aryan languages this 
process may be observed in all stages of completeness. Ib 
early Aryan literature the phenomena of tmesis, usually showr 
in the separation of the preposition from the verb, are instancei 
of imperfect integration. Thus, in the Veda, we have sam 
agnim imlhate uarahy '' men kindle fi.re," where samindk mcutt 
" kindle " ; and in the Uomeric poems we are continually inecfc 
ing such expressions as irtpi revj^e* eirovaw (U. XV. 655), fiU 
5" tprepa xoXxo<i ri4>v<T (11. XIll. 507), where the verba are -n^f 
eVo) and Stat^ua-a-o}.* That these are really instances of unpes^ 
feet union of the elements of words is shown by the famooa 
" cere commiuuit brum " of Eunius,t and by parallel e.^amplai 
&om the Romanic languages. 8ir Q. 0. Lewis has shown thi| 
the adverbial suffix ment was originally the ablative of the 
in mens ; aa we find iu Ovid *' insistam forti mente," 
Apuleius "jucunda mente resiwndit." In the Provcni;all 
jMflti e causidainenl^^ and in the Spanish " clara y co 
I metUCj^ the word has become a mere suOix, but is still 
to tmesis. But in Ital. larg-amente, allamentej Fr. 
mentf hautemenf., the suffix is thoroughly fused with its 
ing root, and its separate i>ower is lost.| So the Qreek 
ment has utterly lost its independent life, but in the 

* Forthc curious expression, ^\ y dcnrir iA^&n, Bud.XIIL M3,t06 Ba 
ZMrilatfvt (i-d. FiahUkc), p. S42. 

t Cf. " SrfAem subjwu trhnL" Virg., Gcoiip. IU. 381. 

i ComjHin! nmiiittnaut, from manu •i' teneaie, with ibo Eng. "offtuiod," 
" ACS dcr llainL" Lcw\fi, ov c»^ ^^'^^ 



'.] 



Titf Oettrtis of Languaffe* 



S19 



Hi it is BOiactuuea separated from the verb by tmesis. 
elsh it is osually separate, but somotinios united with the 
Finally, iu Iriah, which iu this, as iu other iuataiicoa, 
Ljs its immense antiquity, the augment is nut only rcgu- 
Mparated, but it takes vorioua forms, as at, ady do, ro, 
which are all efjuivalcnt iu meaning to the Welsh and 
rit a, Greek c, aud can he used for many other purpOBOB 
OS that of odduig de&nitencKS to teuse-fonus. 
is owing to the fortunate circumstance that the ^Vryan 
have arrived at such different fitagee of integration, 
are so often able to discover the original significatiouB 
leir now lifeless forms. That wluch io one language has 
tmo a mere suffix, is in a sister-dialect frequently preserveiJ 
indo[)endent word. " An Euglishmau se-es no distinct 
aing in the final syllables of man-hood, jmcst-lmod^ tvidow- 
', or of the Germ. freUicity schiin-heit, teeis keil. But a 
^rian, accustomed to talk of the * gate ' or * schleclite hu,U * 
dngft, can tell him at once that the termination in Imth Ian- 
denotes * quality,' * state,' ' condition.' " • So it is not 
t sight obvious that twcnly is com|}ounded of two and 
hut when we refer to the Gothic tvai tigjusj the aucestral 
I of twenty, the principle of composition becomes at once 
,Ue8t. 'Hie Lat. vi^nti aud Skr, vinsati, which can 
Ifly bo analyzed int<j duo -\- decern ^ dvi -\- da^an^ afford 
ler illustration ; aud the Chinese eui-xhi, " twenty," which 
timply made u]) of eul^ " two,'' and shi ** ten," com- 
tho proof. The Semitic languages proceed upon a dif- 
it, but very similar, principle. The Hebrew shuloshim, 
Tty," arbaghim, " fortj'," etc., are the jilurala of shehshah, 
" arbaghaJif "four"; trhilo, since $henayim^ "two," 
g already a dual, can be used no longer in such a formfr- 
,t ** twenty " is expressed by gftesrim, Uie plural of g-ha- 
lA,"ten." 



lamett, riiilulotirical Hsmj-s, p. 107. 
icdIu". Hell. Gram. \t. 180. •' Numeri tlennrii cxpnmunttir plBrall Nu- 
aiiiiplkitun NOQ tillu gcacris (lifcriniinv, ita tantcii, m PlaraliH Numcri 
mdliilx-Mtur in Plurali nd dcnariom vigiuti dcsigTinndum, cam hie Numcruii 
tyua formnri non ]iowel, et NDmRntscvntcnnrias proprio jnm {.findcit!! nomine.** 
Ann, hixt f-ingmr Samaninnie, p. 134. Cf. Ewald, Graiurn- Anh. I. 231. Mr. 
incntionn l«n;rnac«i which iktiot« " twenty " by " fout-fixc" ^iTtivMiWvVJ^ 
'. 70). mad eomputt tberewith anch French expresftionft &b 9u<Urc-v\iv]l-dix-iveu|. 



820 



The GmcsiB of Language* 



The analysis of twenfy U easy, and has been - 
illustrated, so far as the Aryan fonnation i» c' 
MuUer's Lectures. The structure of the Engliiib cieten ud 
twelve more strikingly iUu^itTatcft the lutograting ■ ■ 
is commonly supposed that these worda form an 
the ordinary Aryan rule in comiling, since, while Uic t^ 
says tphtKa, Swoe^a, and the Latin vn<iecim, duodevim^ (lie I 
lisU does not Bay onetfen and Iwoteftiy but subHtitutes aoa 
loue forms. Webster, i^th his usual iufelicityf explaiaft eli, 
as " one-left (after ten),*' and twelve as *' two-left." 
C. Lewis contents himself with merely stating tlic aj 
anomaly. He tells us (Rom. Lang., p. 164) that, while inthF" 
Romance languagea vndici and dudicij oncn and doce^ ome uid 
douzcy are compounded of owe and two with /cm, on tli<? otliw 
hand, in tho Teutonic languages, rffven and twelve, 
siBvlJ\ are derivatives of one and Iwo^ and tlic word /' ,. .... 
not enter into them. Now a comparison uf tlie cognate fonni 
will show that this view is wholly incorrect, and tijat Uip wniil 
/en, though in a strangely altered sbope, exists in eleven i 
twelve as much as in undid and dodici, hi Anglo-Saxf^ 
words appear as i*n(//«/oH and twelf; in Gothic, as nin-Zi/l 
twalify in which tlie first syllables are Uie Gothic words fof 
and two. What tlien is the final syllublo Uf? It is a 
cation of tho word liba., meaning " ten,*' which appears i 
Lithuanian as lika ; the change from the labial to the gut 
being juat liko the change &om Lat. lupus to Qr. \mi\ 
Lithuanian they say dwgfika for ** twelve,'* tiylika for 
teen," and so on, using throughout the same root wbicli 
UBO only in these two apparently exceptional cases, 
ho who recollecta how often an'initial d interchanges with i 
tho mouths of those who speak earelesjtiy, and who 
mind tho Latin dingua and ling^ta, dagrima and /omima.t| 
find no difficulty in connecting tho Lithuanian lifer. 
and hcKa; a conclusion which is atrikiugly cou^m^^, i-.. 

* Com]»arc Knhbi Jodk's expluifttion of tbe ctjaslly puxilta|f *i^j^ 
"don upon twi'h-o." 

t Comimri! nliio Fr. ^liHitntfe, XiaH. fjhirfanAa, (Vuni Golh. jfttwdnn ; ffp«ii. | 
«ntb the idoDticol Fr. tauter ; and Lite iiAine 'o^oirvvr «> C^yMW. It uj 
ealamittu vu hy Fompeiui wri^lcn Icncbmi'en. (Kay, llT.) 



ri*y 



m^BLA 



im.] 



The Genesis of Langfuage, 



321 



fiwbtu las^ " ten,'* compared wiUi tlie Persian daJi^ Ossctic 

diUi Armenian dasn. The Lat. decent j iSkr. da^anj are 

[aotonously identical with Ooth. taifiun, Germ, sehn, Eng. 

I Iw; 80 tliat eleven and hrehc are not exceptions to oin* utlier- 

liriac universal i-ule in naming nmnbers, save in so far as tliey 

litre built up out of a Homcwhat unusual form of the word ten. It 

'Siting to notice that the Uindustani has similarly obliter- 

rooLs in IhoHe two iustauces ; making i^arehj *' eleven,'* 

I and barch^ *' twelve,*' from the Skr. ekada^a and dvadxi\'a, 

Aud it is no less intoi-csting to observe that even in barbnroufl 

dialects, which do not carry their simple numeration so far as 

lien, the compowid immcrals arc constructed on the same general 

( princiiilc. Tlius in Mikir, where the simple numerals run up 

lu six, •* seven" is thoruk -{- ^'chi = " six-one," etc. ; and iu 

I Kamlwjan, where Uiey count up to five, " sii " is j^am -{- moe 

, = "fivt>-one." 

The fact that Ucdve is merely an integrated form of dcada- 

is not more surprising than the fact that the ch in which 

\mch was originally a verb meaning " to look." This verb 

in Sanskrit as (/rtV (also driksha, B(pK-o^a4y ZpuKtov, 

^V)i Ai^d even in that language has already made itself 

til as a termination denoting '* rescmblanec," as in kidrv'^ 

ite what," tddri^y " like that." In other languages the in- 

[d appears as t; and accordingly in Greek we find -tt^-X/k-o?, 

>w great," ny-XiV-o?, "so great"; Lat. gua-ti-Sj *MikG 

ta-U-s, "like that"; Gotli. hvc-lcik-Sy sva-leik-s ; A. S. 

'•/f, swy-ic; Germ, tce-lchj so-lch ; Eng. whi-chj sv-eh ; 

5tch qtihi-k. The same verb appears in the endings of A. 

5. Uof-liCy Eng. lovc-lt/j and similar words.* 

We are now prepared to enter upon a detailed examination 

[)me forms of the Aryan verb, in which the general prin- 

of linguistic structure are most .strikingly exemplified. 

lio&e who moke much of the distinction between analytic and 

pthcd'c languages might quote, in illustration of their posi- 

3U, tJic phrase, '* he is loved," which the Latin renders in ono 

9r«J, anuitury and the German in three, vr wird ^diebt. Wo 

ban {jroceed to show that amatur is in reality an amalgamation 



• Clu-k. Comparative Gruroniar', p. 178. 

VOL. CJJT. — no. 225. 21 



322 



2%e Genctia (jf Language^ 



of four dLstiuct words, and that, although employed in dJi 
Latin ob a true passive, it was originally a middle or rcfledl 
compounded upon the very same principle as tlic fJcrm, li 
tick. To tliis end it must first Ito shown that a rolJCxi^ii 
bocome a tmo passirc ; and here we shall be assisted by| 
interostiug quotation from Mr. Mursh : — 

"The Ii:elaiHlic bus a retleclive fomi of the verb, used alftO u n \ 
fiivot Ibo ctiamcteHittic of vrbteb is (he consuiiAutuI i-nding $1 ort: i 
the active infinitive at hiUa^ * to call,* makes the rcllecLivc ktMa 
kaliaz. This watt anciently written se or 4k insteml of $t^ and th 
no doiibl ibiU it waa originally simply n conlruction of ilic refl«! 
pronoun tik, correspontling to our «<•//", or more exactly to ibe Fr 
reflective te, so tlmt at kallast was equivalent to * to call one's rcU 
the Fr. f*<tppeter, Tlie form in question was at first purely rtd 
tivc. It gmdunlly as!jumed a pnsfive force, and thcrp are a few iu-tao 
of lis employment ns such by classic uriierA in ihe best ngcs of thit 
literature. In modern Uanii-b and Swedish it is a true pas^ive.'j 
BiiffUsh Languatfe^ Vol I. p. 337. 

In the Sclavonic languages the process may be traced ID^ 
varioua stages of completcucas. In Old Bulgarian wr ' ■^"' 
chtu^ " logo " 4- ^y^i tho roBeiivo, making chlui^ya^ *• : 
In Bohemian tho reflexive se is written separately frf.m the 
verb, and may stand cither lieforc or after it. Tlie liithuaniin 
aflfords a transitional variety, exhibittiig the reflex i^o. united 
and partially integrated with the verb, but not po much altered 
aa in the less primitive forms of Greek, Latin, and SwiKkrit 
Thus, from wadina is made the reflexivo-pasaivc tcatiintt.i. *Mio 
ie named." Tlie same principle is at work in the Vr 
" czo q\io se conten en aqucsta leiczon,'* or ** tJtat which t.^ v ... 
tained in that lesson," and in the Wallachian io me lau^u^ " ttm 
praised." • And finally the reflexive prefix Am in tl»e 1 
" Niphal " and tho Arabic seventh conjugation serves i^ 
a passive. "We must therefore conclude that tho Latin ami 
was formerly amatu-se, like the kindred Boliemian atnfl 

* Certain annlocons idioioaiic rorms ijiill exist lu Italian: "'. 
dtioma 'Plaza di Fironw.'" " Thi« winarc (place) is citllvtl 'I 
(Place) '" ; in French : " L'hiiilo inini'mli> v trottre en atwtnlanrr rn iVna 
" Mineral oil is found id nliuiulancc in I'ennKvIvutiia " ; and f\i.n ^ 
German : " Wa«5ersiofniyp4Toxj*d ztjiirnt nirh nnAtt Liift." ' 
gen is doiYinipu^cd in the air." " Dor Sinhi Jarbt nch jn dcr 1 1 
and bj beat." Sponi&b and Vonu^une %Vvow trattfr of aimUur convtncljaoi^ 



,^jg| 



^aa 



1869.] 



The Geneiis of Lang\iag8, 



323 



The cluinge of s into r, as in hbos = labor, honos = homr, is 
[ilmoBt too well known to require mention.* 

So mucb for tlio final letter of amatur. The in preceding it 
ris tiotbinjr more nor loas than the thirtl personal pi-ononn /«, of 
[wtich I'oliirs are seen iu (Jerm. /?VA-/,aud in tlie Ih or s in Kng. 
[fore//r, loves. So that we have the formula anm -}-<« + r = 
itieb -f- ' + '"'^^ ^ ^(*^'^- + * -h self. And similarly it might 
ibe proved that the Gr. i/itXeirat was formerly <jb/X«*'Ta<ri, ami 
[that the Skr. kamayate woa once kamayaiasi. 

It is thus proved that there aro at least three distinct words 

[integrated in ama^u-t: Further inijiury will show that tliere 

bft fourth, namely, the final vowol a of the stem am-a, which 

the oUI i^^nimmarians thought tliey liad suffieiently explained 

Then they had christened it ** the connecting vowel." That it 

' Tas originally something more than a mere connecting vowel 

appear from the Sanskrit form in the followhig table: — 



kflm>flyft-te 

kHrii-nya-ta-si 

kam-iiyu'lu-si 

In Lithuanian it is 



ifnX'ii-7ai nm-atu-r 

^tX-wya-Ta-cri niii ii_va-t:i-?e 

[This word oya appears in Zend as aye. 

preser^'ed iji the third conjugation aaeyo; while in the 
fsecond conjugation it has become a, lu Latui it is variously 
[contracted, in verbs of the first, second, and fourth conjugations, 
into a, e, and i. In Prakrit it has become e. The universality 
of its presence shows tbat it fulfils an important function ; but 
its primitive signitication cannot lie detected at a glance. Mr. 
Clark' (Comp. (Jram., p. 232) discusses and rejects the only 
l> lH>the8is which seems to occur to him, namely, that it is a 
If n*e-sign. The mere fact that it occurs in all the tenses alike 
is fatal to such a sujiposition. We shall find that the true ex- 
■II la more difiieuU und will take us fur down into tlic 
lu.' iormatiou of language. 
Sir Graves Haughton (Bengali Gram., pp. 68, 95) has satis- 
factorily cx]ilaincd the similarly inserted ya of Sanskrit j^assives 
as being dimply the auxiliary verb yo, '* to go." iJotli in Ben- 
gali ftnd in Hindustani the passive is regularly formed by such 

* Tbii interpn-tHtion uf the r in amatur rests chiefly upon the antliority of Bopp 

' '' --' ' ViTiftni. II. 68S), nnfl I'olt [Eli/m. Fortrh. T. 1,13). It 15 vi^oruu»Ir l>ut ill- 

. rctntiftleil )ir PoniMtton, vrhii of cwirM! docs not let aUp the u\i\A)Tt\xnas 
« rcMuu-^ TroTctawKej Tor giving hUM^hemnfXi to it. (Now CreiyVtui.Y.tiVi A'i^'^^ 




A 



Tha GetieaU of Lanywuf^, 

an auxiliary, e. g. kara yai, *'l go to making" ^"ll 
made," with which we may coraparo tho Lat. " uraatum" 
iri." Xow mauy factH comUmo to show tUa* 
auxiliary, iKiirig a very oM root with tite si^ 
" make," or " causo." In Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, and Got^ib 
it is used in the fonnotion of causalivcs and donominatii 
thus, in Bkr. kar-aya-miy "I causo to uiake"; in liUL 
OrTe^ "cause to die," mtm-e-re, "cause bo think," so 
«* causti to Bleep"; in Or. ^oX-e-w," cause to hour" (cXv^ 
in Goth, drank-jdy " cntisc to drink," i. o. " drench." 
" iu the English word drcnchy ultliough no part of tho oc 
aya is preserved, yet the influence of y ir appnrent in ■ 
change of/c to ch " (Clark, Comp. Gram., 271). Tn Welsiij 
Irish, «yfl, represented hy ia and aigk, forms caasatiYtus 
denominatives ; • as in Irish beos-ni^h-im^ identical 
Skr. hhush-afja-mij *' I adorn " ; and it a]>j)car8 in tho 
adjectival termination ach, as in beos-ach, *' beautiftd," 
last circumstance leads us to regard the ;;rt f - - ' - ' ^ 
formation of ilenominative ahstracts (ao^a^ > 
adjectives {div~i/a-s^ " heavenly," from divy ovpdi^to-v 
ovpavdt^ pair-iu'S from ;*o/<*)\ Mart-iU'S from iV/ars), as ai 
form of atja. Finally, this uhitinitous word appears in 
skrit as u dativc-«nding, and is used in some feminine noting 
form the instrumental case, as in jihvatfay " with the tonj 
from jihva. t 

The inference from all this is that ai/a had a generally i 
ativo sigiufication, and was thercfoi-c early ailopted in 
mother-Aryan as a means by which to dwtingui.sli verbs 
nomis. Its use in the formation of denominnlivcs alone 
tho story ; for a denominative is simply a verb formed fro 
noun, and wo have now to observe that all verbs arc fo 
from nouns or other parts of speech, sometime.-* merely hy i 
ing pronouns, sometimes b^^ the additional insertion of a 
making word like this ai/a. The reader must rid himsell 
the notion, derived from a familiarity with highly dtirido 
languages, that between tho verb and oUier pacta of s|] 

• rictrt, IjangueM Cdtii/Ufa, pp. UP, MS. 

t It ap[>ciiri iiiso in Uio Greek inGaiiivccDdini; ^cmu. for Skr. . 

ring, of mana; aiid in flii! old Sutton and AnglA-SfULOD~uitt»)Uv^y(!adiiur t \ 
See CJark, Coaip. Gram., Vi'i, vaA ii. 'OoQa^Aaw, Kcw Cnt., p. 604. 



w fixoil a (loop und impassable pjlf. Most laii*;uagefl 
ize no aucHwiiie and pcrmauent dibtiiictioii. In Cliineae 
iim bcoomoB a vorl) merely bycliango of tone. In Mantlshu 
aamo nxtiA may gouerallylic nsod a* nouns. vcr)>.s, advorbs, 
LC\'t!ii aa {Kirlick's. In Hungarian, lak racana *• dwelling- 
followed by a pronoun, it becomes n verb, iak-ih, "he 
In tJie same language fep-eni nia}' mean cUlier " ray 
ig" or " I cover." In tho whole Timgnsic class there is 
"ilQ formal diatinction between " my pay " and " I pay." la 
TurkisU, ffuzffi-im may mean " my handsome one,'* or " I am 
himtlsomw," accordhig as it is accented.* " There is no way 
of tU«tinguij*hing between a Coptic finite verb and the corm-' 
spiMidiu^' nomi with pronominal aflixes, except that the latter 
Dsually has the artJcln, which is wanting in the former." (Oar- 
laett, p. 203.) In Tamil, verbal formH may bo declined and 
fnoiiiiK may be conjugated. In Malagaseiy they conjugate even 
adrtrbs and prejiusltioua. In Bas<|ue and several American 
aguageft, even conjmictioas " may be conjugated through a 
flonp array of mc»od« and tenses.*' 

NV'vorihelesR, it is convenient to have a distinction in form 

[between nomis and verbs ; and accordingly, in the mothor- 

fArT.T.n, we find that three expedients were adopted to sccnre 

his iK'sidurntum. In the first place, the verb was distinguished 

k-om the noun by a different set of pronominal endings. Tims, 

I Saiislcrit, vaJc, when followed by oasc-endings, as i-oAv/x, vak-i, 

ale., moans *' speocli " ; but when followed by a different set of 

K08, aa L'ok-mif vak-shi^ vak-tiy it means *' I speak," etc. In 

second place, a noun became a verb by lieiiig rednplicated,f 

dhfi^dha~ma^ " I do," iSkr. dadhami, Or. Ti$t}fti. The 

hirtl exjiedicnt, which was resorted to at a later period, was 

\\o insertion of certain auxiliary forms, called by the Indian 

Ijjriunmarians " vikaranas," uf which t)nr aya Ls a sfxicimen. 

Iimi the Latin, from t!ie root voc, makes voc-3, " voice," and 

* Com[>niv the Rn(;lish p^rfpcl nnd /wr/rW, »iln<rff nnd tum^, dbaait and aiKAtt.ani 
-i'i:h)iT tlitlim-tion lnitwwn li/frwAtp Nnd ddvoeata. 
'liff inrroitiK-i!on nf n«w hftfes. formeil liy a " vikurano." ihc old nnlupli- 
,_ . . ..;i wt'rr iuubIIj' mnde \o scrrc for the pprlcci tPiwo. Cariuu(«ly cnonph, ia 
QUUi wc finil vcrft4 timHt \>y tviliiplk-aiion of the final letter, n* naff, " bliidc," 
' it U bliM*k." Max Mrillor siipifwif* that ihc rnrinhlv i-onsonant in Sftwv\,\w 
E1il«n] rvot* nay liav« mnMtn from ik simihir device Bulu^cq, Ou^Xm^tV ?f^ 





The Qentm of Lang%iAge, 

it might liavo iniido the corroajwiiding verb by flimpljr ofi 
tliG rer|umit» pronoun, m which easo voc-t wouM hnvu 
quU'i; uieiitit;al with Skr. vak-ti. Instead of so doing, )' 
it first ftdded the auxiliary ayay making voc-a-t^ " ho 8|a..:.. . 

That such wiis the proper function of at/a may be clearly I 
seen from ita use in imperatives. As Garnetl well nh 
noun may bo an imperative^ as when the chairmun of » 
lent meeting cries out, Silence! Even particles, aa 
fort ! Ital. via ! may be similarly tised. When tbol 
Aryan lanRuages used their nouns iu this sense, Uicy get 
offixtvl io them the " vikarana," or verb-maker. The 
poraon-ondinp of the Simskrit imperatives in verbs of the 
class is simply ai/a, which still exists in the t»r. Ti/i-a,< 
Lat. om-fl, hab-Cf Goth, tam-ci^ hab-ai. 

But wo hove seen thisnsoful verb-maker scn-inp 
tive^ij^i for nomis. Uow are we to reconcile such 
gent functions ? Tlie task will not seem difficult wbej 
recollect that in English, whore tho loss of inHeCtional 
freiiuently makes us iVturn to primilivo methods, we ar 
tinually raising nouns into verbs by simply prefixing tlmt 
sition which we use also as the sign of the duHvc cast.*. " 
is a noun, but " to love " is a verb ; *' to me " is a dativfl 
♦*to dwell" is an infinitive. We are strongly inclined tol 
this pn^position (o, Oerm. rw, Lat. ad, Skr. adhi^ ti> tho vpbS 
able root dha^ .Skr, dha^ i»r. tfr;, Lat. </», Clerm, Mw, 
do,^ At all events, the kinship botwoen the idea of j 
ing " and that of *' motion towards " is sufficiently ohvic 
any one familiar with the tricks of language, and is unc 
edly illustrated in tho close similarity of tho Aryan 
ayn^ ** do," and ?/«, ** go." The I'jnglish Z'? was or" 
in Gothic, to denote the goal at which nn actioi! 
hausjan, *' in order to hear." f 

Fi-om all these cousidei*ation8, we regard it as siit 
proved that at/a is a most ancient word, signifying 
" put," or " causQ," — analogotts, in short, to dha, 
ing its indei>endout power, it became a useful auxHiar 

• Com|wiroTookp, Dlvprwww of Purity (cil. Taylor), p. ISO.forg. Antli_ 
|»03sil)ility of ft ooniiPt'iion Iwtwccti fitj mnl f/n, Cutting. Btttrdfir, p. 3i9. | 

f A'vtd RJ^o ttiQ inrcytivc funo of Grerk verlu In i^^ da iXiyy«4abi. "J 
dizx/," KtXaii'iiiia, " 1 £"*« b\w^" w^*A«. *' V TS^^'« V*^*." •«« " — 
Syntax, p. 46. 

— '^ ^ 



».] 



The Grenc^U of Language. 



827 



liicli to form dative (and sometimes instrumeutal) cases, in^ 
biftVes, and causative, as well ns denominative, verbs. Thus is 
syllable of our teat-word am-a-iu-r ade<]uately explained ; 
pd wo find it to have consisted originally of four independent 

B, am -f- aya -{-/«-}"** = " love-does-he-himself." * 

iTIiia example, as well as those previously cited, shows most 

ikingly the way In wliich the Aryan languages are built up; 

^d any further inquiry can only serve to illustrate our fundar 

pttlal prop<i3ilir)n that the history of Aryan speech is in the 

a history of phonetic integration. The less highly dcvol- 

Sejoitic languages can afford us no such striking cxom- 

jct from this more primitive domaiu we shall select one 

Bcc which will show ns that it is governed by the same gen- 

I laws. The earliest device for forming plurals ap])earB to 

Ive been the addition of a word signitying "multitude," 

[crowd," ." heap," or " all." Li Tamil the plural suffix Is 

p/, which Caldwell ^derives from dala^ "a crowd": the 

telugii 8ui!ix /(/ has the saiye moaning. The Hindustani, 

pliicli has lost the Sanskrit sign for plurality, has recourse to 

fr, " people," or sab, " all," Bearing this in mind^ let tis 

ke a Hebrew word, such as dhov^ '* good," and observe how 

I forms the plural. The masculine dhov, *' bonus," takes the 
dingg-Atm, forming by integration the plural dhov-im. Now 

word ghim denotes an aggregate, and is independently 
83 an adverb aiid prei>osition t equivalent in force to 
, (Hiov, Lat. cum J simul, Skr. sam, Irish samhuil ; 
hiugli, whether, as Gesenius and Donaldson think, it is ety- 
ulo^cally akin to these words, we shall not attemj>t to 
ecide.J So that dhov-im ia nothing more nor leas than 
fgood-flock." On the other hand, the feminine dkonah^ 
fbona," tidces a different suffix, AV/A, with which, by inte- 
ation, it forms the plural dhovak -f li'elh = dhovoth. This 

' • In the Siidliinn. Bavurian, wnd Tvrolcwe dUIcfta, the verb " ilo '* is {m in Kng- 

tifrnjilmtic form*) asc*J aniversally a« an acixiliiirv witli inllnitivcs, to cxprMs tho 

noia «uh-rorms of tliv iodicaiive mouil, — uiilj' the niixtltflry andori^iiig conjtigii- 

Sec iUk> tlic M. li. Ct. To avoid iiniiccc55ary prolixi/y, I have abgtJiined from 

tnee to itio oblique rase in wliicti the pronoun itt juitu'd ta ilic verb. Tho 

fbnv Mt forth arc not lu bc> irtterjirvted lu c-ontliaiu^ wi[h ihot^o cxixiondcd by 

nat in hi" r.immrs pitpcr an " Tho Natnre and Analysis of the Verb," 1849. 

I I Coinpiiru iha kinship between Fr. troupeau and tfop; luJ. trHpjKt uid trvppo. 
wiis Ruin, "i^ng- 33^- 

iOtwttias, Uctt. Or. p. 4; Donaldson, ifatkii le-Sopher^ p. A6. 



828 



The Gen^nis ^f Lunrpifjffe, 



word h^clh expresses addition, and is used adrprbinU; 
Lat. c^ atiy Skr. ati: an tliat dkovotk is a "good 



er* 



I 






heap." Tltiifi it appears iliat Semitic no less tlimi 
forms show ns, when duly analyzed, tliat iw tho organic Htrartii 
of laujruage no jjart is now dead which waa not ortiruially olti 

So far wo have boeu dealing either with langu 
Ghincfle, in which all the elements of s^iecch ai'c .. ._ 
significant, or witli Inngua^s^ like the Aryan and Se^ 
in which integration has proceeded bo far as to blend nX 
and termiuatioiifl almost indLitinj^iishuIjIy togt?ther. In 
like whirh and twelve^ did wo not postsosis the parallel foi 
|Cognate dialects, wo could hardly [Msrceivo any vestige 
ft)riginally composite structure. In tho Lat. sum, tho 
uont roots are complot-ely fused together, and aUhougrh m I 
third person est tho union of itie tooIm I's and la ia f' 
conspicuous, it is nevertheless impossible to use euu — 
tho other. Taken alone, es is merely so much empty soum 
Wo cull the t a tennination, bnt^ sti-lctly speukinf^ it is iUoll 
root, and its tcrminational |>osilion is merely accidenlaL 
Greek and Sanskrit augiuents, which l>elong with 
called terminations, arc jtlacod at tlie bcgiiming. If wo 
the constant root, because it appears in i\ more or less m: 
ed form throughout tho paradigm, wo may call /, uviu*, \ 
etc., Mie variable irtots, sineo. each contiimally givoa pbc« 
another. And wo may foraiulate it, as the grand prind] 
of stmcture in tho Semitic and Aryan languageft, that iiei*l 
Ltheir constant nor their variable mots caji be UKeil > 
'fielves. Glancing now at a tntnlly (iiffi>n)nt cla^s of \. 
wo aro confronted by a new stato of things. In Turki 
tlie root sever^ " to love," we have tho paradigm ; — 
sevcr-irn, I lovo, fevcr-iz, wo ^ 

Mver-senj ihoti lovcst, Rcvcr-si7, you y lov 

sever, he loves; sever-lor, ihcy , 

Here in the third person singidar the root sever is used 
litself in the sense of " he loves," as in tho Hebrew »; 
'kills," and in rarious Tatar verbs.f The emlings, oi 

* Rxccpt, of connw. in ibo Mcoad penon slo'^lnr, when; Uie aocleni j 
tion has ticm rniireir lost 

t Sec ^'icdomunn, TclwmntMutn Gnminar. p. 193. But in nunv 
thh \y]ia the third pcrsou ft'vuguUt b\&o \\«& Vu ^Vvcv^Auuv, matk, 
Tel\xg\i voffuta-iUt, " he Rpuk&." 



lUoll 
d,J 

i 




Tfie G^eitin of Language, 



329 



liy which the other persona arc (liHtLnguinhed, oro inoro 
abradod fonus of ben^ sen^ biz, siz, mid unlar. Here, 
lore, wo pei-cuive that thw var'ialilo roots have lost llieir 
imdont Hhnpo and meaning almoAt as much as in the 
vorb. Not so, Jiovvovcr, with the constant root. Not an 
that can be altored. Througli all |>ossiblo moods and 
ia all possible compounds, it must remain intact in 
sr; and wen; all the variable roots taken away, It 
accurately convey the idea of loving. 
irtlngfrom thcso data, Willielra von Humboldt lias Miown * 
,11 possible lau^iay:e.H may be it;rim(>ed, according to their 
olof^ical structure, in three ebisses; — 
Jigua^^ea, like Chinese, in which two roots are merely 
>sed,each retaining its independent form and power; as 
stii ^ *' two-ten.'' Therio langnagea have been variously 
Isolating, Radical, or MonosyllBbic ; but the term Jux* 

is far more nccurnto. 
Languages, like Turkish, in which two roots are joined 
ir, one only retaining its independent fonn and power; 
-im, from sever -\- ben. These languages hnvc been 
called Terminatiunal, Allophyliiin, Scytbian, Tura- 
br Agglutinative ; of which the last is the only accurate 
nation. 

i LanguagOB, like tho Aryan and Semitic, in which two 
ftro united, neither the one nor tho other retaining its in- 
ident form or jwwer ; a^ in viripati and twentif. Tbeso 
ages have been called Inflectional or AiniUgaiuuUve ; of 
1 tho latter is tho more clearly distinctive cpltliot. 
' this classification of lanffua^^os Schleicher has proposed 
ttion at once phUoHo])hiL:al and convenient.! Donutiug 



paper on The Kvolation of Lfiiiduaffc, nbovc died, iliu cranil discovery 
ribHt<*i \o Mux Mtillcr. Ii im*. however, ilti'tmclly iintiounccd hv Ilum- 
n Uit cvftuv Criifr Jit EnttttltuHif tier r/raiamatiankm /'unimi, piililiithvU in 
lltiicngli Mtilkr ho.s con.«i'l(Tntj|,v curirhf^l unil brillionttr JllnnttikTed it. In 
inlrr'* AntinU or Rttrnl Rcnpil, I, 161, it is 6tninKf1y ulludetl tr) m Si-lilei- 
Jr%triii ari'l^isiflL-altoit. I am not uwani UiAt Sr'1iloii.*)itT hna doiii' aitvlhinir 
p«v^t to fiirnmh wi exocUcni rnrrhu*! of nomiinn. Mux MiiMrr't; pftrnlld 
Jatnrc of Koniiljr. NotniwT, ami State laii<;iiaKtis ist to \k ncrt:|)ii.>i| onljr wiiU 
rworviitioiiH. 
■obcr, iCvr MarfAoltyie der Spraehf, St. Potcrsburg, \83^. 



330 



The GenesU of Language 



throughout a constant root by iJ, a variable root by r, and 
pressing hy aw extx)uoutialf the fact tliat the root to which 
exponent is appended has lost or is liable to lose its indcpen< 
life, the general formulaa for the three classes arc: for the 
tapositive RR; for the Agglutinative Rr% r'R^ or r* 
for the Amalf^amative R'r', r'R', r'R'r*^ or r'r'. TlitM 
Chinese evl-shi maybe represented by RR; the Turkish 
er-im by Rr'r' ; the Knglish twelve by rr* ; the Latin am 
by Rr'r't'; the Greek elfii by R'r* ; the Arabic ya^b 
from qabaly " to live/* by r'R'r'. By tliis notation the 
to which aiiy language has become integrated may be 
cinctly represented; and we are graphically reminded ofttB 
fact, too often forgotten, that a prefix is morphologicallj 
same as a snfHx^ and that both alike are roots. 

Humboldt's Claaaificatioji of languages wa3 the second 
achievement of inductive piiilology. It has done for the science 
of Language what Cuvier's classification of animals did fur ihl 
science of Life ; and, oven more than Cuvier's, it posscv^seg llie 
signal feature that the progress of discovery may enrich 
verify, but can never invalidate or essentially alter it. 
should be distinctly understood that Humboldt's classdicatn 
covers all the fundamental possibilities of linguistic structure. 
With roofs as our raw material, wo can build up language oAtf 
three, and only three, architectural patterns. Wo can uiala 
words like euf-shi^ words like seveMin^ and words like tweiiifi 
but when we have done this we have exhausted our stock of 
permntatiouH, and can go no farther. No matter how aaaf 
roots we pile together, the general principle remains the same. 
When the Chinaman clumsily designates *^ virtue" as tn^ 
hyan-tsi/e-i^ " fidclity-reTereuce-temperance-upriglitiie^s,*' !« 
still keeps all his root.s distinct, and feels their separate fon%. 
So in Turkish the constant root must be kept intact, liowerer 
numerous the elemental roots which are heaped t^'L- 
form it. The constant root sever is itself composea 
roots, sev and er. Instead of this er, we might put on 
dozen roots, as ish = " self," dir = " cause," »/, the 
sign, eh = '* able," me = " not," mefi, the participial sign 
should thus obtain the following perfectly admissible 
digm : — 



jTAd Gencett of Ldntfuage^ 



831 



^ir-i1-«h-mo-m<?k-i's« " we cftnnot be made tft love cncli oUier** ; 
Ji-dir-il't'h-tne-nirk-jiir, "j-ou ruiiiiol I>e mnde to love rucli oilier"; 
■Ii-dir-il-eb-mu-mek-/ffr, *• Uiey tvinnot be mudti to love eauli other." 

I tlic cunBUmt root sevishdirilehmemek^ iu spite uf its 

WKite clmracter and Us* IrotiMoHomu len^li, retains through- 

ts iutegrity both of sound mid meaning. Tlic essential 

letion betKOon thid compoiuid and un equally long 

eae phrase is that here the various auxiliary roots cannot 

led alone.* Tho formula for Uiu Chinese compound just 

is RRRR; but for the Turkish compound it \touU1 bo 

Wr^/r'. Coming now to hu^g1lUJrt^fi of tlic thin3 claaa, 

lid that here also the number of roots does uot affect the 

J of union. The word aifon^cr consists of at least four 

i, all f»f which are visihle, thou]u:h not in tlieir primitive 

B, in Lat. cx-traneU'S; but which in the English word arc 

tinguishably fused together. Tlic formula for stranger 

i\ 1)0 r^r^fr', A more convenient method of notation is 

;prcA8 tlio olemcnts of a constant root by 7J, aecomimnied 

parouUiesis containing the letters «, /», r, and so our Thus 

t> " : Chinese word remains RRRR; ourTurkish word 

h '. ■ 1 by RQibcdefg)r^ ; our English word by Ri^obctT)', 

luul>oldi's 8yt!ttemf therefore, accounting as it does for all 

fi' ■ ■ninations, must forever remain tho basis of lin- 

I iliciition. As often as ad^'cuturous colonists, geog- 

krs, and missionaries bring home new dialects from the 

V "IB of Central Africa, from the backwoods of Aus- 

|. in tlie deep valb^ys of tho Himalaya, wo have only 

K»rtaiu the degree of coherence between their roots in 

to assign them at once a place in one of Mumboldt's 

groups.f When there is no coherence, they must be 

3d with Chinese. Wlien there is incomplete coherence, 

n in the noii-absorptinn of the constant root, they must bo 

jd wilh Turkish. Wlion tliorc is complete coherence, 

»it^ iu tho absorption of both constant and variabltr roots, 

must I>e classed with Sanskrit. There is no fourth alter- 

Funhcr research can busy itself only iu the work of 

lishing subclasses. 



Uunc«, bnllutl l'1illu!o^, p. 27. 

ikli way tlint Air. Uumcr has brilliantly ratcr^rQUA. \\m <iXrQAVu% ^ 
8iX hisKuriil iJuigal, X. t5G-lS0. 




332 



Tfte Qefi\fiii» of Lay}ffuage, 



[0 



The third grrcftt Blcp iii Hcleiitific philology waa taken 1 
Biinsou and Max Miiller, und CMiisi.stcd in rihuwing thutj 
whatever doss u lunguagc uow boJongH, it iuu6< nrigiiially ! 
belonged to the first, or juxlapositive. cIosk. If idl our c^ 
endings, j>GrRon-eudu)gs, signs of gender, foiute, and nnmo 
are the fossil relics of onco siguificajit wordSf-* if twenttf 
once two-ten^ and virtfali was o!ice itvt-tia^an^ and 
onco am~at^a-la-st\ — the conclusion is inevitublo H 
and Sanskrit and Latin must at first have had the samn fttr 
urc as Cliincse. Whatever rouy l>c the case to-day, tlicre 
hecn a i>oriod in the career of ujanlcind when the for 
for all existing languages was simply RRRR ad itifimti 
This inference cannot be gainsaid without overfl 
that inductive philologj' has accompli&hed,iuid retin 
lawless and barren guesswork of M(>UQgo and Uuicliord. 
who would prove tbat the amalgamalive langtmges '. 
amalguniutlve, must first prov« that twenty never v. 
though tlio Gothic Ivai tigjits stares him in the faco ; ttuU i 
«f in /otTf/ was never an active verb, though a bo^;' 
tional forms, ending with the Sanskrit UtMami, 
that it was ; he must prove, in short, that tlio defunct clc 
whicli make up an inflected word were never endowed 
vitality. As Gurnett says, he must show that while barli 
Finns and Tatars express logical aud gi'ammatical rela 
by significant aflixos, the most cultivated races in the w^ 
employ meix* jargon for the same pur]xiso, Il^would hv ne| 
as easy to impugn the law of gravitation. As surely as] 
existence of fossil iguanodons points Imck to o tint ' 
earth swarmed with live iguanodons, so surely do i 
like the d iu loved and the ch in ichichj point back to ft 
when all the elements of speech were alive with s^ i'" 
The IIumholdt'Muller clasHification is tbcrcfoni f:ii 
an ordinary classification. It is a formula of liugnii^tic dd 
opmont. The langnages ranked as juxtapositive (RR)\ 
simply those which have retained their primitis-e ibti 
while all others have lost it. Agglutinative Innguaj 
have reached an intermediate stage; while an 
guages, like our own (it'r*)) h*^e assumed t, 
organization. For t\\Q \iu^e;v^^c.% x^^^'Ztivoly cumpriaed 






1869.] 



The OmesiB of Languaffe. 



833 



lum]>oIdt's three great classes, I would therefore propose 

new desipiatioiis, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary;* a 

«ncnclnturc which is more eimpio, definite, and suggestive 

; the one now current, while it is at the same time equally 

[irat«. Thronprhout tlie present discussion those terms will 

uaed to describe not only the lauguages characterized hy 

tain vorhal fomiationsT but alflo the formations themselves. 

as, New Tmrn and p^o? TroXi? arc primary structures, RR; 

cton and Ncapofts arc socoridary, Rr* and r'R ; Naples is 

r» r'f* The advantages of this will pi-esently be seen, 

uis view of the process of linguistic development has been 

opted, more or less unrosscrvedly, by nearly all the most emi- 

phiiologists, — by Bopp, Ewald, Lassen, Lepsius, Benfey, 

whtlliigk,t Burnouf, Bunson, Oarnctt, Steinthal, Schleicher,J 

^d AVhitney;§ and — greatest name of all — by the chief of 

scholars, Jacob Grimm. || Nevertheless, M. Ronan 

this doctrine, and maintains that highly developed 

8, like the mother-Aryan, sprang at unce from tlio 

mind, like Pallas from the brain of Zeus, with all their 

ctions and delicate contrivances completely organized from 

be very beginning. And his opinion is reiterated by Mr. 

r, who, in his otherwise excellent popular essay on the 



^Thii is left w it wu written in Jnnaory. 1867, when roo«t of tho present essay, 
ng th« entire ar^mcni, wa-i in MS. Siiice tlicti, Mntlcr hoA used a similar 
niDoIot'T III hit SiratificAtion urLunpnn^c, p. .12. The same nnini-ni-lftturu i<ioieil 
► DonhItl5on iu his New Cratylii», pp. 8rj, 87,nnd .l/(i«i-// /e-.StY»Aer, p. 3, (o express 
MUllr ilifierrnt t^yaicm ordaisificatiori, sod if. in tlie New Cratylus ronDeclod tvith 
irr of llic Clitnes« nnd Turaninn lnn(;ii»}:c!i, rrhicb is now ttio ubeunl to need 
htntion. Rrnau employs the term Kcontlnry lo dMciibc dcriviiliTC lnn(;ofl:;cs, tllco 
nrh itnil Italian ; liiit in thin svqm; i( might tu^uallv W npplii-'tl t<i nil |jtnL;iin<;rfl, 
I iirotniMy not one of tliosft wliii-h now cxi^l \t> truly primrtrdml. l-'rcncli Is 
\ more iletnanstrably dcrirud Irain Lnliii ihuu Lutin in derived fruni the motlicr- 

'It i» inconceivnMc hnw, with siirh n view on tho origin of inftiTtion*, any one 
tdnbt for a moment nbont the po^sibiliiy of two !;ach Innjfiin^!i ns Chinese and 

it'n bitvin(rihe »ttiDc origin." Buebtlingk, in nnnscn'ti Onllincs. I. 283. 

' Dcr Una nllcr Spniehcn wciflt dorauf bin, dnas seine ttliCKte Form ini wr'ornt- 

k AK(irll)C Hsr, die sich bci cini;^en Sprm'ben einfnoli'^ten Bancs {z. B. beim 
dion) erhalten hat." Sehk'k'her, Di^ DarKintrhx 'fhftm'f, p. W. 
I See Wliiiner's Study of I>Hn};ua^, pp. 25.1,401, where the oppoM.-ni of thiii doc- 
BD UPC compnrvd to ilie anii-;t;'w>loS'*t"' "f 'ho lust century, who bclicred that fo«- 
||thiRi» and tinimal* were created nlrendy di-ad and petrified. 
I Giiom, Unprung Jcr Sprxtche, pp. 37 - *7. 



8a4 



The Genetfia qf Language. 



artlffl 



1 



•* Origiu of Language," remarks of Max Muller*« Iww of ^ 
opDiont, that *^ at best it can only be regarded nn an ar 
hypotlicfiis, occasionalW convenient for tbo purposes 
grammorian, but nut corre-spomUng to anr nml condition I 
languages as once spoken " (p. 184). Whathe moaiift I 
is, that amalufs for instance, was never really spoken by i 
tral Aryan mouths as am aya la se ; for in anotlier plnc^ 
asBerts that roots were never real words, but are *' mc 
mologic fictions." • The pbilologist, or creu the gene 
dent who has once mastered his Bopp and his Gamol 
need no lengthy argument to convince bim of the ntu.^ 
lowuesa and futility of such assertions. Nevertliel 
Renan*s great and deserved reputation makes it dceirablj 
wo should give yet further consideration to the objection*! 
have been urged against the doctrine here maintuincd.t 

One of M. Ueaan^s chief difficulties seems to lie lu tlic cT 
distance which sejiarates the three types of linguistic 
and in the supptjsed absence or fewness of transition-; 
connecting one class with anotlier. That the dif^culty is i 
imaginary will appear, in tl»e first place, from a cousidi 
of the Homanic dialects. A language, like Latin, spread 
Tast Bpace'of country in imperfectly civilized times, incrtta 
breaks up iiito a host of local patois, Kacli secludofl 
tic community has its own style of pronunciation, itJ^ 
choice of words and syntactical devices, its own metboil 
contracting or otlicrwiso modifying its expressions, i 
although the inhabitants of any given town ciin usuollj 
municate with those of the next town, the slight diSii 

■ Forrar, Chapter* on X«auRuag«, p. 6S. 

t In jtutico \o TluD«n, it Ahaultl be obaervcd that Miiller tin« otiBcorrd i 
eni'd ht> own c«se b.v hia prcinntnrcjf not wholl}* unwamiuiAMe, rxicitf 
nune Tantnian ; which givtu to hU argit merit aumc tiling; uf thi.< air of KO i 
derive nil varli>iic8 uF «|)cech from unc primordial lutiu-uni.'c. Witlt Uunsvc 
ibiBsoemA to linvc been the chief ohjwt in \-\ovr. Wo hare nln-Qil^v rej; 
eniphatiecouvtriioii uf ili'c fulilttv of ull iudi uiivinpt*; luiil Utouirb. i 
above cit»l, wc »lcf(iniic*l MliUer'a Uic of tbo nmno T'irani t 

it nnr ntltvr timti a morphulo^ficn) dcq^c Hut it in pr' , 
strictly npplicu'flu only to iho Tiinjniaic. SlongoUc, Turkic, i —.u- 
the SdfDoycilic lftnpua;;iw ; lodvsignftie whicli, it would »«ni prorprfl.h| 
Whitney's term Sctjihian. Most Seytlilan words preserve*! hy nau- 
•aid to corrc5|>onil with Aryan (i. c. ScI«roaic, Goiluc, or .Modo-Pi 
8ee Ganiutt, p. n^ 



■ISO 

^"1 



•] 



The QenesU of Langiia^. 



885 



mtilate until intdrcouTBo botwoeu distant places is no 
»r pructiiialile. In such a state of tliingR wc find plority of 
atioual dialects, aa the Genoese and Proven<;al hotwoen 
\\\ ninl French, and the Balearic and Catalan between 
icb and Spauish. The Tuscan can understand tbc Gcno- 
the Genoese can understand the dweller in l*icdmont, tJie 
montcRO can understand the Vandois, and ao on through 
cn';al. LLmousin, and Ljonnais, until we come to Paris ; but 
Tuscan and tlie Parisian cannot nnderstand each other, 
the progress of civilization in each country tends to kill 
be patois^ elevating that variety of the language which has 
made the veliicle of tlio dominant literature to supremacy 
the more provincial forms. Increased facilities of com- 
ication, and the growth of large centres of population, and 
Dcrcial as well as literary activity, end by making the in-- 
tttuts of all parts of the country speak and write more and 
) like tlioso of its inteUectual metropolis. And in this way 
intermediate dialects slowly disappear, leaving two lau- 
Y3S with thoroughly distinct individualities, like Italian and 
.cb* Tl}ia may be graphically illustrated as follows : — 

(rRENCII} 



LfQBSklN 



tuigiM<l*Oa 



limotuln 



Batoubi 



PniTco^ 



Vaodob 



Qiteiui 



LATIN 



ItwlnontCM 



OcooHi 



.-di-iIiilU) 



Sklllu 



VMpOlltMl 



Tweaa 



886 




The Genem of Language, 



Since Latin became tho vernacular language of 
and France, those countries have never been wholly sunk] 
barisin ; and the coiinoction between theiu, as well as thq 
stnbilily preserved in each of them, husstiflliced to {ircvci 
dialects from diverging so widely as to lose the traces of i 
common origin. Tn Hindustan the case is somewhat diifet 
" Execpt wlierc natural barriers, as mountains or seas, o( 
we nowhere find one huiguage leaving off and another iM 
ning at a given spot. Thus the Hindi of Punieah, as yoi 
eastwards, gets nuire and more tinged wltli Bengali, till 
you reach a jioiut where there is no Hindi at all tracoabl^ 
but it is impossible to j)oint out the exact spot where yo 
to hear Hindi cir begin to hear Bengali." * But this 
things is rapidly passing away. Thacultivated Hiudii 
Delhi is jirevailijig over the local patois so rapidly, i) 
Beamcs urges his brother philologists to make all lu 
securing the aid to be derived from them. For bo gr 
been the ethnic admixture in Hindustan, that the ei 
forms of tho Sanskrit-descended dialects are bj no ai 
so clearly related to each other as tho French and 
Some of them, as the Bengali, have diverged to such on i 
that their Aryan character has been doubted. 

It should also be borne in mind that languages chfl 
rapidly during periods of ethnic disturbance, when the 
forms are loss likely to be preserved by literary meant 
finally, a rising language, being at first despised as a 
Jargon, docs not become recognized and embodied in Wit 
until it has already xmdergone a great alteration. Latin 
tinned to be tho only uckuowledged literary language in Wog 
Europe long after French, S|>anish, and Italian had assumed 
tinct individualities. And so powerful has been the offct 
this circumstance in breaking the continuity of linguistic U 
tion, that even here, where tho change has taken place ^ 
under our eyes, so excellent a scholar as Raynouard h» 
led to pro|>onnd the jwiradox that the modern Ilomanic toflj 
are derived, not directly from the Latin, but from the oW 1 
ventral ; and it is only by a most delicate philological ; 
tbibt he has been refuted. 



* Bcnats, Indiim rhtlolof^, p. 14. 




The Genesis of Language, 



337 



r if all this is true of languages springing from a classical| 
itcd, thorouglily individualized mother-tongue, like the 
or Sanskrit, during jKJriods of comparative social fitabil- 
lat, I ask, must bo the case with the divergent oiTspring 
eets wliicli have never been made the veliiclo of literature, 
have never Ikicu organized into a single woU-dcfined lan- 

and which haro been e^x>ken by nomadic tribes almost 
tto of a continuous linguistic tradition ? If Italian conld 
!n for a moment, supposed to be a daughter of Provencal, 
gali could l>e mistaken for a non-Aryan langunge, how 
e be expected to trace the intermediate processes bj 

Syriatiian or Yakut has arisen from juxtaposition to 
ination ? Our real ground for wonder is, not that 
jon&l forms are missing, but that we fiiud so many aa 



it \b in tiie highest degree erroneous to suppose tliat the 
lypcs of linguistic structure are separated from each other 
b'nctly traceable dividing lines. A brief cxaminal ion will 
aot only that, in spite of all adverse influences, there are 
J transitional dialects in existence, but also that all human 
I is filled \vith transitional formations.! To begin with 
96, the literary dialect of to-day — although for a good 
ijSoon to bo explained, it has never undergone agglutina^ 
-is by no means unchanged from'tlie literary dialect of 
1 centuries ago. So many words have become emptied of 
jripiitive force that " no native would now understand one 
ice of the old Chinese, if he merely heard it read as it 
I, without the help of repetitious, expletives, pauses, and 
* of gestures.*' (Bunseu, Outlines, 11. 68.) lu the Man- 

s remvkiiblc panillpliflin Wtvrccn iho zoological and linguistic Ar^gunicDta will 
DbvenYil Iiy tvery iiaturdli^t. 

is »tran;.'e tliai ttio>c ^ohoIar« nho holtl thni no transilion is possiLlc ri-oin 
n of lflnfTinf;c< to inuilicr should not hnrc Rocn Tliai t1i«<rc u reallv no Ina* 
bat ran W Etrictly rnllcl cillivr isolatlti>r, or ngi^lutinutiru. urinHcrtionnI, 

U» Irawition from one sliipc to anoilitr is ronMontly tokinj; pluco uiulcr our 
4." MullcT, StnitifirationorLanf;unf:c!, p. 18. M. ClmrcVhnsponetotlicriilic- 
|t([lh of ftiippC)*!))^ tli'it two irifforetit types of lingual orgnnixatloii ncccn- 
dii:^«te i»"o <iiflrrcnt pn'miiirc typos of rerelml stniciure in ihc com-npond- 
|l|k {[^n /Miu/ua fl im liitrm, I'tiris^ 1862.) Bnt hrro, an oftrn elsewhere, 
^h do hut a.ik, vs'iih the urlmne Homan critic, " Coi non post VaiToncm 
^" (QiiimiliMn, I. 6. 37.) 

, as.—yo. 225. 22 



838 



27« OenesiM qf LaTiguage, 



darin and in the prorinciol dialects most exposed to forei^ 
fiuonccs, there ib exhibited a strong tendency toward thu 
sumption of the secondary type. 

In oM Chineso " the identity of verbal and nominal 
absolute '* ; but in modem Shanghai " a noun U not tmusfo 
into a verb williout its proper chanirc of form by ac 
Miillur hofl already shown that tliu ^hHiifrhfii is now ra}i|j 
developing a case-system. Iloro as elsewhere wo ftad 
modifying words are liable in daily use to C' * 
words wliich tliey modify, and in so doing i 
prefixes or terminations. And it is obWous that this tciulda 
if allowed for some time to operate nnchocked by tl- 
tism of poliU? usage, would end by transforming i^ 
into a secondary language. It is in this way that certain 
golic and Tungnsic dialects m Easl^jrn Siberia have quit 
contly tinveloped a Bystom of person-endings for their verbs 

Agglutination, the distinctive feature of all secondary k*" 
guagea, is by no means equally prominent in all. W! i' 
Tungnsic idioms, as well as the Gongetic and Lobitic, ai 
superior to the Chineso in structure, the Turkic and Finoie 
groups show rudimentary symptoms of amalgamatinn. It it 
significant that tlie Norlhcrn or Turanian languages of A«» 
present us with a complete series of stnictnral gradations, from 
the almost primary Mimdsbu, through the M '■ ' T - 
Tataric, to the almost tertiary FiuJli^ih an . 
in the South we find that Siamese, Burmese, kojisitt, Lvhiimti, 
etc., can be arranged in a similar scries, culminating in M ^ 
guagos of the Dravidian family, which hover just ou tbu ! 
line between the secondary and tertiary kingdoms. Whilti. od 
the one hand, it is hard to tell whether Burmcao ojid Tli ' *" 
are primary or secondary,! on the other hand we find in i . 

♦ Cnsinfn, De Affixis PcTsonnl^tns, p. 13. Coni[iarv Miillcr'i T-cv-mms,! 
323; R^^niuaat, Funtl-imUn dn Onmra, III. 279; llaxtii'i ^' 
and his Prnuiipts Genftatir tlu ChiuuU Vuhiairt, in lUc Jorttno' 

t See Wliitnej'. pp-nao,330. 3:i7.359. Tlib ctrcunislancc. 
truutilcd M, lU'iiiui, who luliniLii tlinl il u " rti a|i|)iirfiiru n>^< 
d^." [L'Oritjintdu fjtfUfai^, 2l.t.) Ilift uttcaiptiorxplilin i; 
happy ; rovt*rin(f rw ic (toes iwo pa;^8 rlmnn-tprizwl hy Qn oN- 
with him, whoro tnwdr/ phriwoR like " hixiliilit^ priintii**," " 
»h(l " (^lat cnitrvuniiiure," mftp tut mcflliicntlj to concoii] r 
thought lieisbcro,Btsu8u&\,fQU(mcdby Mr fnmr. (Origia ot Lan^ua^,^ 



^ta 



^ammtttm 



^ifa 



iO.] 



The QmnU of Language. 



tb tertiary fomml ion« *a gvz, " eye," and g-oV, ** to seo " ; wA, 

oed," and iV, " to do '* ; Ush^ " intorior," and g-tV, " to en- 
" • In ttiese words llio root is no luoro preserved intact 
\ it U in Skr. devas^ from dip,** to sliine " ; and it' tlie Turk- 
c«>iitiiiuo« lo mutilate its roots in this munncrr, it will evon- 

lly liave to bo dawied as a tertiary liinjruage, though it will 
doitbt remain as nnliko the Aryan and Semitic ffimilios as 
10 an? imlikc each other. So when the Orocnlnndio, a 
3ndary language, mokes the verb tUciptms^a^ ** I have ar- 

ed," out of the rcH-it fikit„ it is amalganinting uo less than 
Spauish amal^nutcH when out of the root fcn, " to come," 
iake« vitnf.tmA viniera. The Finnish hui^ '* hjind," hidet^ 

anddj" exhibits ** a plural moro decidedly inflectional than 
Greek yct^-c? or tlio English hfimi-»,^* (Midler, Stratifica- 
u p. 19.) In Tamil the junction of kal^ ** stoue/' with fi-al 
' '. " a crowd *') rewulta in the tertiary jtlund knrkat, 

li wo have itkko^ '* old man," but akha^ " old- wo- 

1," showing perhaps the germ of a Semitic type of forma- 
1. Kvcn down in Marnlshu wo find worm, '* horsG," but 
wa, *' horses." Finally, when we cjcamine the pronouns, — 

ise little words which by constant friction are soonest altered, 
whii'h have been happily compared by Schlcgol to small 
es of money which get their imprints rubbed off, while the 

(Eer gold piccc» retain their freshness, — we shall hardly find 

^h a tiling as a truly primary prououu. The Hungarian and 
ianian wtf, mijte^ ti^ the Murdwinian man, min, Ion, /m, sort, 

ly the Canarese nan and navu, nin and nii*ii^ tan and tavu, even 
Kassia ngUy riffi, pha, phi^ are as decidedly tertiary as the 
, ffflj, IfCy or the Or. w, or. 

3otning now to tlie tertiary languages, it appears that they 
e by no means discarded the more primitive methods of com- 

inding roots. In English we make hy justaiiosition such 

[D&ry formations a-s sleamboat^ mankind^ dnwytfaily outside^ 

lah, sr.itpeip'dcfi^ tunicoat^ xkUiJlinl^ dnrtdf.vil^ tn'trpfof^ chUd- 
, and cohr-iilind: with which may bo compared the Spanish 

iamoros^ perdotiavidttSy rompcestfuirtas ; the French otlisrfeUf 
■i-, vaan'cn; the German Tnn^eiAchts. In all these 
tuent elements arc severally significant, and (heir 



• Ewold, ched in MOtlor, I. 3»&. 



340 



The QenetU qf Language. 



formula ifi RR. By apgUitination tfo make secondary wd 

like Ohristcndontf unbeliever, forbear^ besprinkle^ leaflrA^ 

hoodj nnd misfihcBj iu whicli one of the roots has lout it« i 

rate life, and all of which may be douotcd by tho symhoU \ 

or Rr' in various coruliinations. Many Ar^Tiu laiigiiiigL'sJ 

tho Anglo-Saxon, Icelajidic, Greek, Sanskrit and Ocniion, '. 

retained this power in a very high degree. Every schooW 

has laughed over the perfectly expressive yet unsftoaka 

epithets of Aristophanes ; one of which (Ar. Nub. 382) 

German translator, in a spirit of agglutinative emulatiou,] 

rendered by Ringfingcrigschkndergelockvolk. Wo have ha 

of a Sanskrit word of one hundred and forty syllables; 

Rabelais, iu some of hia rollicking moods, has ahown 

good service the French can be made to jHjrform in 

direction. Many Aryan verbs, as the Latin am-o, cuu l)e > 

jugated from beginning to end on strictly secondary 

ciples ; and Professor Whitney cites, among otliers, tho 

lish word un-iru-th-ful-fi/^ the formula for whicli is riJr(rtitfJ 

Tho following table, adapted from Whitney, shows most 

structivoiy the suecessiou of formations iu tho same laugiiago. 

1. mother fon^Cf ) 

2. mother'toriffiie, rltaf-plate, ) 

3. diafpfaU', goiUihy 

4. gmily, forehead (^forred)^ 

5. fortnight {ot /orttilt), 
C. breahfott | 

{hreakfiuted instead of broke ftut)^ j" 

Nothing can more vividly illustrate the i 
making a clean-cut distinction between these t > 
between the languages which are cliaraet^rized by the 
predonunancc of some one of tlicm. 

Not only do the tertiary langiuigcs Juxtapose and ogglti 
in order to form compounds and derivatives, but likewisd' 
originating new inflections they nrc obliged to recur (n 
same primeval devices. The modern Aryan tongues of kd 
having lost their Sanskrit pbiral-cndings, have boeu obliged] 
express themselves as their ancestors did, long ag«» 
Sanskrit existed, saying artimni-mtiss or stone-heap instiM 
imaU or stones ; and m tu^ny casca these comjxjuuds take 1 1 



PRIMARY, 

Transitionau, 

secondary. 
Transitional, 

TERTIARY, 



RR 



he Genesh of Language, 

alar verb.* In Bengali we may have any one of a dozen words 
uvul," ** iliHtaucc," or ** cause," Imng on as an 
lidii. But (lie point now undop consideration 
, bo best illnstratcd by an historical snrrey of tho future tense. 
O V- lish future ia formed by two anxiliarica, sipiifying 
' volition " and *' obligation/* the remarkable alter- 
ation of which has often puzzled grammarians, and is said to 
'^affbrd a sort of shiiiboleth whei-cby to distinguish the Knglish- 
miin from Scotrb, Irisli, or Americans. The difficulty arises 
from the fact that the two auxiliaries have in different com- 
[1 :.. ..: ,j.^ |j^^ their former indepeudent power in different 
Tlie original moaning of !.hiitl is very remarkable. 
Jrimm, in bis " History of thn (icrman Language," has shown 
that it wn^ originally a perfect, like the Greek olha^ xe'/crrifiat, 
twaya, etc., and signified *' I have killed." It is an instructive 
Icomiiicniary upon tlint state of society in which murder was 
legally conipotmded by leer^eld, or " man-money," that a verb 
jiignifying *' I have killed " could have acquired tho general 
jrce of " I owe," as naturally as ol^a, from meaning ** 1 have 
sen," came to mean "I know." The Gothic skih^ of which 
ttal ifl tho perfect, meant, to divide or cut in pieces, whence tho 
lea, involved in the Icelandic 5W/;(i, of *' dist^rimination," or 
\fh'U, t But shall has now become almost an empty word, 
Ithough in Chaucer's " Court- of Love," wc still lind tho primary 
jn«e of *' owing" in the phrase, ** For by the fjiithe T shall to 
iiod." In the Low German languages it became early cstab- 
Iiab<»d as a future auxiliary; liut in High Gorman, where wer^ 
was emjiloyed instead, it still retains its meaning, sullen =* 
I*' dcbcre." J Otce itself we have not applied to tlie formation of 
sturea. but in the conditional rouod, wliich is a more oxpan- 

lA la be expUtiK'd the om of ft Rinijular verb with tlw plninls of Greek 

lBciiii:ii, \\\itc)\ orit;indlly wem mlltviivc nouns, i. o. fcmtntn»> in lUe iinipiliir. 
'Krcrv tJrrck siuilcui kuovri tbni tJ iinrov niMOs ' a Ixxly of cavalrj.* " ilasLil le- 
|*SJe^jA#T, p. 47. 

t Cuiupnre Uie lAltn dt-vitl-o nriih vid-e-o. Tbc ideiu of weing ftnd dividing ara 
Mb tx|Tti.-M«'i) in '//jvtinj^i'iiA and ditrrrn; and tbo Spanish dlvimr means " to r«c- 
iDgniae at a ilistanrc." 

) U ha« t)H? priinnrv itmsc of dfbtrf only \n the tccbnicol liinti^uj^ of tbo count- 
□l^bouvp; Will); ib« bcail of ibc *' Delitor " rglumn in niTounts. In ordiiuirv nw, 
I alwafa vtjinds lu au auxiliary, Ami its only ftcnw U one of morul oUl^aUorv, 
DLnl to thnt nf compiiUion , — inUTOK.'diatc bctwcca t^c senK of o^mjU Iq Vkxv^ 0(« 
•mjduiie «en» ot $h<Ul, la EagllMh, 



342 



The Gentiit of Language. 



[( 



Bion of the f\iture, we find the i>roterito ought. Bj a iid 
WJrtliy analogy, iu the Persian futures be-brreniy ** I 
carry," be^azem, " I shall play,'* btt-pursem^ " I shall ask/' 
integrated preiix be is derived from bdyed = " oportet,'* 
tliut the principle is the same as in Keglisli, 

To this method of foiining tlio future wo shall br and' 
return. The formation by mcanB of will Ofitius a tftill wil 
field for our consideration. The Latin eris was ori}j 
et-i/a-Sf in which the second root la the one which im^i 
to the oom])ound ita future significance. Thia root is eit 
as Bopp niuinUiins, ilic saiue which appears in Sanskrit 
** to wisli " ; * or, aa Wiillncr (Origin of Linpual Forma, § 
Relieves, the same aa the Sanskrit i or jya, " to go." 
the first case the foi-mation is exactly like the English with i 
in the second case it rcaombles tlic French *'je vaiB di^ 
But, as Mr, Clark acutely observes, it is probable tiiat 
Bopp and Wiillner are right, since it is difficult to avoid i 
conclusion, from the complete resemblance of the two rooti 
their primitive shape, that they are really identical. No i 
word thuu " go" could be used to express the idea of 
ing. ** To be allor " a thing may even now moan either to 
Biro it or to go towards it ; and the word go is used in 
in the souse of viean or loigftj in the vulgar phrase, " X 
go to do it.'' 

Be tliis fu) it mny, the future is built up iu many lang 
by moans of au auxiliary signifying " motion towards." f 
ancient Kg}7itian prefixed aw, the verb substantive, «, 
" personal pronoun, and tr, mcaniug ** towaitls " ; and 
from t>(, " to make," wo have 

a« -|- a -|- «• -|* '*"' =^ ttumri, 
" Am I towards making =: I ^liall mnke." 
Ilal. '* Sono pep fare." (Buuscd. OutL t 

Now, as we saw above when discussing the moaning of 
that the prepositJon to denotes both "motion toward*" 

* Upon which nru itUo fuunJcJ titc Greek optniivv, ttie Smuluit po 
pfL't^Livt;, thfi /t-nil putuntial, tbi; T^tin and Ciuthic coojuiicUvft*, on<i 1 
bian uml Old Bnlgitriun imperntivcs. Sec Clark. Conip. Ontin., p. 261. 

t 1 iim told ttmt the nt-unjcs in some of oar Konihrm Stiuiw are makitus a * 
CXMKnit'aod Kn^Hsh. in wliii-U Uw^ oinimpiw r* fwllow* : jires. *' I done it"; | 
"Idooc done it" ; aurut, '*l goftt Aon^'w" \ lttV."Vgwxn*'isMw it." 



7%e GfTiesin qf Lawptage, 

'jrarpoRO,'* wfi find in Mnlnjra««y tbo proi>osition ho, " for," om- 

' ' future auxiliary, fto that, iuntcad of sayinR "will 

y •' for to lovo." Tho future auxiliary, in Hara- 

A, ift toroj " in order that ** ; and, curiously enough, we find 

' 11 Orenk a future mad« hy prelixing yj, for lVa» "in 

I," mt early example of which may bo seen in a jirov- 

of Lho elcvoiith centnry, preserved by Skylitzoe, *£« oe 

eoi 'It/a 0-6 ;^aX«Vft>, " I huilt thco, oven : 1 will 

I All tbeBO considerations support the conclusion that yn, aya, 

[and i were varying forms of the same primeval root, used in 

be general Reuse of *' going," " doing," *' caueing," or " bc- 

^g »fleT Bometliing," Now wo find tliis ya iu the Skp» 

' n", "T will give," Or. SoJcrw, I^ith. ditsu^ and in 

: Latin future aud-ia-7n, as well as iu _/?(*, which was 

puuJIy fu-yn-mi = Skr. frAaiwi-mi, and in which tho ya 

an inceptive force. (Don. Varr, p. 414.) But the Latin, 

iviiig lost many of its older fuluros, supplied their place by 

compounded wiUi fio, used like the Qermau tcerdcn^ and 

se new Airglutinativc forms early becixrae integrated into a 

tiary shapo. Thus ama-Jio became amabo,* as ama-fui and 

•a^w had bceome amavi and amabam. Now when in tho 

at days of antiquity the Roman Empire was overrun by hordes 

, of Teutohii.' barbarians, and the precincts of the Latin language 

Bere invaded hy scores of Germanic dialects, along with tho 

^krtiul disintegration of society which thoreuixiu ensued, symp- 

Htns of lingual disintegration also, here and Itierc, began to 

Bow themselves. Amavi and amabam^ weathering the storm, 

Rime out more compact than over, appoanng in Italian as amai 

and atnavay iu ^[)auish as am^ and amaha, iu French as aimai 

and nimuis ; but amnho sulTered wreck, and disappeared forever 

^om Itomauic speech. How, then, did Toutonizcd Latin make 

^od the loi<s of ita future tenae ? We may be sure that no 

meeting of Cortes, or assemblage of the Tiers-Etat, or conclave 

of Florentine burghers, ever voted upon tho respective claims 

af/, ai, and u txj serve as algebraic signs of futurity. Neither 

: .i?fie determinative suflixcs " grow out" from the constant 

^v-*, 44 a branch grows from an axillary bud, — according to 

>]C«^ (Cjit. Gram., p. M\ vToDptj supposes Ute Latin f titur« Un&\u&^ku% va \a 



344 



The Oenctis of Language, 



i 



tlie absurd dictum of Scblegel,not wlioUj rejected oven hjA 
Marsh.* Still loss were thoy ever iinpliciUy cont^od In soma 
primitive linguistic germ, as Renan has boldly asscrti'd, and aa 
Mr. Furrar has uuwai'ily reiterated.| Theories likij (licse luif 
iudeed ho written down on paper, hut if tliey contain any aieaO' 
log, I, for one, have never been able to detect it. It was in dd 
such way that the Romanic futures were formed. But tht 
Teutonic a]>cakers of Latiu, who, speaking German, would bare 
said, *^ I have to love," % took the must suitable auxiliary thii| 




• Mr. Mjioli (LtH-t. T. .iriS) thinks that kwm^ tcnnintitions nmy " pwinrMtB," ' 
>inc«: wu hnvc not Actitall^ traccil quitfl aU (if them iHick to iii|ni>')<*niit ruirt* ; mt 
savk thiit thu ivAL'tnlilani;c of (lie gicaititv sioi^ulnr to the nomtnaiivf filunl. twUtto. 
Kn;;li>)i iiiid in Latin (x, i ; ce. »), cannot Iw eX|il.iin(Ml by ilm dm-triiii- oT riMhl { 
cence. It lias ulrcmly been ainplr cxj)]mnc<l ; ai anr une tway »ve wtiu will (vt^ 
pare I>on. Cna., p. 4.1(1, <4.*J, and Vnrrtm., p. 3asi, fol'g. with Oirn«U. p. SI4-SSr.< 
Moa-ovcr, when a t!icory, iniriniticslly prohahic, ha« fiusuiniH] \tM'M in niuc ka»- 
dred iind nineiy time omqa, its dtiincMoffnihirc in the thuu)»ndib arc not Hiklaf»{ 
inj; th.it wc nird run fur safotv to n fumiulii which U too cinpiy of ineaius|B 
admit ciiliiT priwr or disproof Suppose lATcrrier nnd Adam«, when pcrpi 
tlio »linorni&l pcrturhationa of Uranufl, hnd nhandonod the Nrwiotiiim t 
rcfcrcnL-c to thiit particular planet 1 But wo prefer to bcliere Uut Mr. 
hero merely made » »Itp uf ibo pen. 

t " Liing^iiaj^ iriLi formed by n proco«8, not of crystalline sccrctton, bat of 
dcrelopment. Kvery csscniinl pnrt of lanpiigc rxUte^l as completely ( 
only nii[>i)rltly) ui the pritniiivu ifcrm, os the petals of a flowiTexi*! in 
ItcfurL* the mingled intliiciires of the sun and uir havo caused it to unfold." Funo; 
Ori;^. Lanj;., p. 35. What is I his bm mwliiTTal Real ism > Wctalk of tlie'*givilfc 
of lan^uni^ and the " root* *' of words. Wlwn a writer does not slop to tnniiMl 
hiK wonb into ideii*. the jump from cvmmunily of name to fommiirnty of twiuth 
quickly made : nnd so, boeau«e Un^alu;.t^ " /^run* " and has " root*," ht aregm^f 
btked to rc->ivrd ii aa n surt of tret" ! Will Mr. Furror. Icnvint; gv-ueraliiki, npUl/ 
for iiiRtancc, in what ficn>c tlie tcrminntion lo bud* out from the nK>t riHxt ' 

t III Gothic and Old Hi^ German the prcs. indie, inuf^en um^ for /< 
Goiliic, however, (^ncrally umm hahan. In 3 Cor. xi. 12, Ullilu iran-i 
by hutjitH linha ; nlso rifnt httlMutA for tffrat, John Xii. 26. Ai^ut (^ ij^j, A, 3 
aytm, Cicrm. eiyrn, Enj;. otm) wiis al.io used. Also nitVfAa = %rmJt% In Jobt 
xiv. i2,\]lt\\x&rvniicra ftiXXttt (fithayiCttphy mumiis t!fif'a''rhlj(ta. In I ~ 

aiwiiH Itf u«etl as n future auxilinry. Cf. tlw Sttitch " NfK> wc mnuu ; 
John" (Guast, Traiw. Phil. Soc., 1S45, p. 155), and Eng. menu. 
olmoit Bcrre aa a future auxilinry. It ift, perhaps, douhiful wlieihur fti> 
ID tliese wotdd. iw llopp and Sir E., IImJ tltink, or is, according to V. 
be referred tn ^Xitt*, In which eiisc ^irXXu {JtmIv *= "jo vuis dins " {H- 
B. V. fiXirrttv]. Bopp 8Ug;;cstivcly refers us to Skr. Many*. *' I is 
comporci ftXXor = iM^ru. See Sir Edmund Ilead'ci udniirablr liitl<- ' 
Sbnll and Will, pp. 08-75. In ihc rahbiMietil Ilc'ircw of the >' 
U often deti;iiiat(.sl by rjhalhid, nearly equivalent to ^'XA<u. In tlu > 
(^ Knglaad, leorOi — loenLm ^nu ouc:^ iecaKX«.\l:i um^ to forto futuiv^ lUid, |>. C 



m.] 



Hie Genesis of Langxtage. 



345 



10 to hand, and ^nth it bxiilt up, in similar wise, (lie new 
irc*8 amar-ite, aimer-ai^ amer-ho. These arc primary forma- 
QS, analogous to ihoBC of the Cliinese ; and this is the only 
bowu way in which grammatical forms can arise. It was in 
tJiis way that the Romaic of the Eastern Empire, having 
; l)oth its perfect and its future, said henceforth e^w ypuy^ei 
ftd BsXas ypd-y^u instead oi yeypaAa and ypay^ta* 
Wc iind, therefore, two types of the future tense, — the 
^ahall " type and the " will " type. The latter, as we have 
1, in its various representations, will, werden^ ya, etc., rests 
9n the notion of " motion towards " ; the former, ijx its 
ions forms, sAu//, hu, oxoc^ own, o^rt», havc^ etc., upon tho 
Bgularly associated notions of possession and obligation. So 
[>rou|;hly intermingled do the conceptions here l)CCome, that 
, the Greek verhaU in Teo« we find ya^ though a future auxil- 
of the " will '* ty|KJ, employed to express obligation. It is 
noteworthy, as showing the paucity of the primeval de- 
es by which surli vast results have been accomplished, that 
; very same auxiliary is used, now to express past time, now 
^express future time. As have has iK^en used at different 
DP* both as a [mat and as a future auxiliary, so the very do^ 
rf, by which the Gothic languages make tlioir preterite tenao, 
^ttised in Sclavonic to form the future, e. g. bu-du, " I shall be," 
rally, '^ I do to be." (Copp, II. 708.) And in Greek, both 
' acirist €Tv<ft-$i}-p and tho future Tv4>'6iftTOfiai contain the 
same word, Btj =^ do. In Old Sclavonic, we find imam^ 
ho have," used as a future auxiliary, as in imycH imashi, 
[thou wilt have." (Bop[), II. 880.) lu Latin we find scri- 
um est mihi for ** I have to write," and it is easy to see how 
M ' -^session passes through that of obligation into 
I 1 '■ futurity. In exchanging fieri for habere the 
lie languages founded their new future tenses upon a new 
Bption ; but in order to accomplish this, they were obliged 
frcsart to simple juxtajM>sition. 

^b AncM-nit Orcdc wc have occagionnllr such funraii as goKi^at *xtO: $t$ov- 

Matihij;, Cr. Gr. *i 5.'i9. In llcroclotu*, VII. 49. wc hart- <i rWXoi 

. Cf. I. 109. The WalUii-hiuti lioji f.irniwl it* futun; witli vtHe iiuicad of 

,& g. Toia rifHlii, " I will ting." Instcnd ot BiXta.ihc Komnic aiiuiilly cm- 

t AS, a ponimclion of 6iXti pd. Head (p. 00) qaotci prccodeiiu for ibo me of 

1 ft racura •oxilinr)' hi Latin, 



346 



The Qcnem of Lanff*ta0€. 



[(■ 



Tho process bj which tlieso primary tense-forms V '"• " * ^ 

tertiai-y is too well known t^ need description. In ( 
languages, with a few oxcwptious,* tht; futures are now as pia 
inflectional as the Laim avtabo, Tlw modern Greek who i 
6a ypdyjrei thiukfino morcof ^gXra than tho ohl Roman the 
o{ Jio when using his future tense. But it may not be m \ 
erally borne in mind that in Eiiglisli also, as spoken in the ' 
teenth and fourteenth centaries, anulosous symptoms of amn 
mation be^n to sliow themselves. From suntlr*)' old aut 
Mr. Marsh (liCct-, 1. 380) cites cxaml^les like willi^ woldi^l 
hawy^ cani, nerecfii^ thenkcstovj^ vxhdoshnr^ antl /nws^J, for"l 
win." •' I would," " I keep," " I have," '* 1 can," *» 1 reek not." 
*^ tbiiikest tlioU;," *' misdoest Uiou," ajid *" trowest thou." 
Paston LeUei*3 wc ba?e " come fur to arescuffd it " ; in liord I 
ners's Froissai-t, " it shuld afaiicn " ; in Wyclif's A i 
for "have felt"; In Piers Plowman, "why n<!> 
" why hadat thou not." Finally, in an old poem, the amalf 
tion is 30 complete that a second pronoun c4n b't ii' 
fear of tAutology, lyid we find Ihu catistu, literally '■ 
thou."t Mow if this integrating process had begxm two or I 
centuries sooner, and if it had not been so ijuicklv 
such ctntservativo forces aa the invention of prin; 
translation of the Bible, it is highly probable that English woii^ 
have produced a more or less varied system of inflcotions- 
viously the influence of written characters upon spuken la 
is, to preserve tho integrity of existing forma ; and this ] 

* But wo still ImvQ, M raeiDCOtos, tho Portuguese Jai-t^hnt " I «itt t^\ 
Btlil la Frurcnya! tuch pliniMi u tlii* : — 

" E poa mon cor noa am dir ft ncros, 
prtgar ro« <ii, «'en Mia, vn ma clmiuoi." 

Com|)aro Uio Sardiniao appv tuti, etc.. aimI tlie RjMnlsh " atttigar Iim A/| 
armn a fnr." NeventieleKs, this origin nf tlw Itouunic faturea ku been Ut| i 
bjr Am[ii?rc. Utst. Je la Lin. Frau^iisf, |i. IfiO. 

t " Wlwrfor I prei low thai m nn{ nvt hinjil oiw, (lint t'l fm<'' 
whelher bclml wu have ciiy Iiclii or no." UnminJ'B Ijclict ua Gl- 
lion, in Rllit»'s r.c-tt^T*, Sotond S4^^ie«, Vul. I. Ixtior ]V.. p. 15. Ilci* i 
In Chaucer's Itunmimtof ilio Uo»e,a74I, welmvurMVrfi- (ov nt tt^tif. A lil 
tiiintiun nf pcrM»nnl iironoiini O'TtirrM in I'rovcnf al : c. ^f. " So tm »n ( 
fui niiu." " I'ur *imm>-( iciu amors." " Lo jorn yuir-iu m* .->iiii:i 
" Tolrc no-m potlvu ^uv nthvt am." Lcwtp, p, 15t. In OtTu< 
time, wo liavc wiUu, miutu, leuUich, vasOii, wtMhi^ luau&u ^^. ■ ■ 
bImo citci iiutuuccs in lc«\anil\c. 



he Qenatit rf Latiffvaffe. 



8il 



remembered hy thoBo who mamtaiii that, according to tho 
' ' ■'], tlie Chinese ouglit long kiuco to have lost 

_j i -• Tlit! causes which have hitherto thHaine*^ 

third of tlio human race in social as woU as Un^islic 
Ogre, aro t<io complicalod to he discussed here. Bni we 
' note, ftrat, tJiat itleographic characters were used in China 
■ much earlier period tlinn in any other country, except pcr- 
" - '' , ' ■ .ruUy, that the ancestral Aryan and Semitic 
I iioromo tertiary long before Dcvanagnri, 
ieitorm,or I'hcenioiau alphahets were iuvontcd ; thirdly and 
ici[>(illy, that a Ohinc&e character, Rfauding as it dfX^s for a 
tie word, aud not for a constituent letter or sylhihle, must 
rt far greater Lnilueiico than could ever bo exerted by a set 
ilphalxitic symbols, in stereotyping the word which It rt'prc- 
s. As Heiiaii has well ohseri'ed, — though without perceiv- 
iku force uf his own remark^ — it is by no means accidcDtal 
1 tiie two great literary languages which have retained their 
[ittry structure, Chinese and sacred Egyptian, are just those 
Ungungi'4* which have employed ideographic instead of pho- 
symlKiltj. The Japanese, which had become sccondarj' be- 
lt adopted tho ChinOBe choractcrH, was obliged lo give those 
meters a syllabic or phonetic vaiuo. Aud tlio demotic Egyp- 
, which in contrast with the &acix*d language may be pro- 
iic*hl rudely secondary, has given a ])honctic power to the 
ilatcd hieroglyphics in whicli it is written. In Europe tho 
Knci;} of WTitten symbols, lately increased and mnltipUed ft 
isand-fold by the invention of printing, tho education of tho 
lerly ignorant cla-sHes, and the diaseioination of popular 
ature, ha» been active alike in preserving tho inhej-ited in- 
ions of French, and in ini|)ediug the genesis of new iufloc- 
H in English. Were written language to follow (he lead of 
speech, instead of adhering to archaic traditions, the 
of linguistic deslniotion and renovutiou would go on aa 

cnlos loncnra nionofiyUiibiijiK'iqae noun conoalMoni. cpUm dc I'm 

I lODI JHiuailtoniecilv li:urt.*taC." Kf^nuil, TMtifftm S^mttiif*»a, 1.911. Fur- 

Jit(. IHt. In L'fJr,<).>in Lani}aij^, p. Ill, Ilonno thinks it twtter to ftnl'icii 

nl bf liikiTljtit; " fnntrlieniriil " liftcr " forties." At txfft tlil» is onlv llm 

namit of Flourt-ui nbout ilu- doj^i an Ef^yptian monunicDU ; Aod ibc md- 

V uf I^rwet (Studiw in Animai Life, Ctuip. V.) will npfilj to lt«niin m 

Itfw Carlcmat. • 



348 



The QenesU of Lanffuage, 



^,1 



perceptibly, tboucfh by no moans ao rapMly, in Er 
maiiy barbarian tlialccU. Wo should liave bad sii' 
tive conjugations as Aoi'T'i, kavyc^ hazzy ; imperativcK 
dondo'ee and ffijntne ; and our definite article, as in the 
nate Danish and Swodisli. wouUl have lapsed into an i 
tionni modification in such words as iheMpress, theea\ 
ihapostte* 

Tbusc considerations enable us at last to deal with 
phenomena presented by tlio Semitic languages, which 
not hitherto been brought into conformity witii the ■ 
principles of luiguistic evohitioii. The efforts of Bun^i 
aldsiin, and others, to explain tlio existing strnctm'O of 
languages as resulting From the excessive grinding-down 
once complicated set of inflections, — whereby their carc*»r w^nM 
be assimilated to that of the Aryan laugnnges, — has rr^ 
failure. That the poorly inflectional Hebrew and 
represent a more primitive state of Semitic speech f 
ricldy inflectional Arabic is, in ^^ew of the facta now to be 
tlic only t-cnablo conclusion. First, tlio transparency nf Sci 
formations is unlike anything which can l^c seen in lang 
like English and Fruncli, which have onco had a full sy 
inflections. Secondly, the process of modifying the meanii 
words by internal vowel-changes caJinot be cxplaiued,as 
English rifi^^ ran^^ ri/;f^, as resulting from the phttnetic 
ence exerted by inflections now lost. Thirdly^ ihc Hebrew, 
especially tlie Ethiopic, construct-gonitivc can hardly 
plained as duo to the efTect of integJ-ation n|>on a prcrii 
developed genitive. It is rather a genitive case arrested 
development. Miillor has acutely demonstrated that fo 
like the Ilcbrew Ma(k-i-zcdeh,(\T the Punic ILmn-i-Banl. 
be comparod with a formation like tlie Italian frawinto. 



* MAnh, T. 388. Oomparo the Wiillnclilan tlomuul for fliUHtnuM Uhr'. 
/ratelmo -fratfUHM mtut, pittrr mo ^ paler mew*; IIiini*ari«n utgti-m, rtc. ; 
flgj;Iminfii«(I flttiflu's in Al'mniiin nml Hiili^arinn. Tbc influence of wriiiR 
tnnlinjr inf^rmtion i< noti(.-«<l bjr Tromli ( ICiit;li«li, ViVhI And PrMoui, p. ; 
Whirncy ((ip. 47:2, 473), who thnscxpluinn tlio ftiet thai En^li^h wor4»i 
[torrcd from [.niin ani\ Orvuk, tit mmtfrom mourLi, cAm-'-A fnxti ^.uf 
tlertnot^ne, etc., nro lir(;hly rntcjrntcd, wlulu worxl^ rcniillv '■ 
cuinpiinitiroljr fnloct. Svj bIm MullerV raoiiukii on iVn'r aii-, - . 1 
compjiro A. W. ScblegnV, OU. sur la Lowjuevt (a Ka. Provok^aimt P> I*- 



Jtt^B 



•■] 



The Genesi^m 



nffuage. 



849 




he integrated ending was onco an adjectival pronoun equiv- 

T o a tnie genitive, Fiuirtlily, tlio much greater conspicu- 

A of onomatopoeia in tlie Semitic lhaj» ill tlic Aryan Ian- 
shows tliat tlicir words have better retained their 

iivc Rhape. Fifildy, the vast inimber of notions cxpros- 

fihlp hysli^rht uiiMlilirations ofAiiiglc Semitic ro<jt* 13 a fimtiire 
riTislic, not of highly intc^rratcd Inngxiages, like French 
i...,.^Ii8h, but of languages, like Annamitic and Burmese, 
fell have never arisen from their primitive meagrenesa. 
view of Iht.'KO facts, a comparison betweou the older H^ 
and the younger Arabic becomes very instructive. Let 
in mind that the Hcl)rew l>ecame a written language at 
Bt one thousand tivo hundred years sooner than the Araljjc, 
ud that tlio iuflucnco uf writing in retarding integration is 
ckuowlcdged to be capocially powerful in the case of the Se- 
Iphiihcts. (Renan, p. 437.) Xow Araltii.' is fur richer in 
Lii-^L.uus tlian Hebrew. The forms of the verb, which are five 
■Bcbrew, and have been rcducc<l to three in Arama3ai), aro 
tine in Arabic. In the latter language there arc more com- 
Kmnd teiisea. In 8yriac there are but few traces of a dual ; in 
lobrow we find it in some classes of nouns ; iu Arabic it is 
' to adjectives, pronomi8,and vcH)8. " Tlie employment 
L ...lin conjunctions in regimen and with affixes, which is a 
^vacteristic feature of Arabic, is also foimd in Hebrew, but 
Rly in a rudimentary stage." (Renan, 424 -42G.) From all 
bese data, which Renan has most skilfully generalized, ho 
raws the incorrect conclusion that — since the Semitic lan- 
■ have become richer and richer in inflections with the 
r^c: -'^ of time, and since, moreover, they have not given birth 
Brmlytic derivative dialects, as the Latin gave birth to Fi-ouch, 
M the An^lo-Saxoii to Eiif^dish — they are therefore the prod- 
dtuf mental jnucusses totally different from tho.se wliirh have 
Wncod the Aryan languages, and con in no wise bo explained 
^tlio same formula of development. , 

Lu Uebivw. for miUinoe, " the wonl 3^^, in iU rariousconju^tioiu, naeuiia to 

[to tL\cliii(ii:t, to yXMi\\ in tlic plncc of, to |ilodgc, to interfere. 10 be t'jiiiitiiir ; 

Jw to iluuf/pctir, 1o pvl, atitl tu don lhiii}r in ilie evcuitig; l)i-«ii]i;it nit tliU, 

iMii« TttTv'-l ni-Kliiifiitions, ibc same three Ii-itcn mcaii to tx ttwtct, a tly or 

t ftirarif^r, \\\v wcU of cloth, the eTCuing. ft wUlow, and a 



350 



The Crenesia of Lan<piage, 



At the prcacnt stage of our diBcwssion, the way out of ^ 
difficulty is short and easy. Aitbongli tho motl^er-Semiiic 
a tertiary lan)?uair«, no less than the motlier-A' 
Tory misloading to regard them us wjuaUy rl- i ^ 
oulsefc. Tke rttothtr-Arifan wa% the product of afar fnore i 
five an^r^■^/t•^/ proce98 of i/y ' " than tl 

While tho former may bo sn _ ui ilsspi- ■< is 

havo roHomblod such richly agglutiuatud languages da Tclu|pi' 
or TurkiHh, Ibo latlxir must he HUfiiKiKcd to liav 
*poorly agglutinated languogcft as Uurmese or ij< ' 
Its progress, tlierefore, after attainiug the tertiary stago, wouU 
bo toward the further deveIo|iinent of iiitleetion. 'T" 
vowel-cbiingoj* show how meagrely supplied the ni' 
must liavc been with determinative signs. In CUiiiessj 
raeagrcuosa is partly compensated hy an eliihoratr 
tones. Trohuhly the early speaker of h^oinitio sii^ 
uounced liis tdwoIs with ou altered stress, which oftnn lea 
a vowel variation, as, in Hebrew, '* pattach/' leiigthontiHi 
" qamets," may become " qauwts-chatuph." Nuw iu lie 
the development of tertiary fonns was early stof»ped by tbd 
troducliou of writing and literary culture ; * whilo tlie pr 
of Arabic for tbo next twelve centuries was not toward au-ca 
" analysis,'* but toward a more extensive production of 
by amalgamation. Tlie redactions of the Kumn, under 
man ami Abdahualck, put a fniol stop to this. 

Lastly, tlio progress of the Semitic languages, ainoe 
stopped amalgaraatinjj, has been toward furtJier int' " 
the drop[>iug of inflections and vocult/ation of e^>nsi 
tho manner of Aryan tongues, as we bad occasion to oh 
tlie Ijeginning of thia discussion. Ajid let it Ui furUier 
that the Semitic dialect which was latest checked iu itit 
opment of tertiary forms, and which tbert^fore arrived at 
tively great inflectional complexity, — namely, thr 
is just tho one which most resembles the ^Vryan 1; 
its recent tendency towards " analysis." Even Renan comj 
the relation of new and old Arabic to tho relation of new i 
old High German. 

* See aIw, for tiie ooaHrrotira infiaenoe of ■ pricnljr ca*u 
007, pp. MS, U9, 159. 



Ths Qenms of Lanffua^e^ 



351 



ist the history of tho Semitic languages prcscnfs no such 
sing case of cliflnge as the change from Latin to French, 
Aiigh>8axou to EitgliKh, or from Vcdic SanHkrit to Hin- 
may readily be jrnintei.1. But for a moat intimate 
ing of races, such changes would not have occurred in the 
domain, Kxccpt iu the case of Anaharic, no Semitic 
is known to have been adopted as a vernacular sjjcech 
aon-^Semitie race, as the Latin wa8 adopted hy Kelta> 
us, and Germans. And iu the Amlioric wo do find the 
st approach to parallelism with tho Komanio dialects 
ch the Semitic domain all'ortls.* 
Pa aura up this long argument : we have seen good reason 
;it hy a \niivorsal process of integration primary 
L 10 liccome secondary, and secondarj' langnagca 
^d to become ' tertiary. We have observed that tertiary 
ire far fi'om rejccliug compounds and derivatives 
|j cr the primary and secondary patterns. Wc havo 

)wn that lost inflections can be replaced only by a rccmTenco 
n* ' ciry methods of jnxtnjKiRifion : and wo have seen the 
ive process eliciting new tertiary forms from thcao 
ipositivo compounds, save where it is checked by afisign- 
[ retarding influences. Finally, we have oxhiliited the worlc- 
; of t]io same gonorul processes iu tho Semitic languages, 
|ich have been wrongly claimed as constituting a separate 
aain of htunan sjicech, governed by dynamic laws peculiar 
Jtself. TIu)Uglj tin; evidence here given is but a small frag- 
it of what might be adduced, it is still quite suflicicnt to 
Istratc and confirm an inference wliich tlie results of gram- 
tical analysis liave long since rendered inevitable. Thirty- 
t years ago that incomparable pliilologist, Richard Garnctt, 
rltmrly that if inflcotionH were ever indojx^ndently sijrnifi- 
at, thLi structure of all languages must once have roscmbled 
, of the Chinese. (Essays, p. 109.) Bopp and his fellow 
r^kers, hi proving the first point, proved also the second ; and 
only by implicitly rejecting the one that Renun and his 
lowers t are enabled explicitly to reject tho other. 



^ Thfi rArrnnnon of the so-called ^'fonsirnetivo roood " in Ainhftric ro«,v perhapa 
DmjmFnl lo iha formnbOD o( iho Komiuiic futures. Isoutwrg'ji Auhoric Groin- 
k, p. *i'J, t-itcU b; Gornelt, p. i^7. 
\%L I'niiKk accepts Rrnau's theory, " pnrcc^u'cUfl ciV \a \iVi» «>t\^wtnft'^^* 



Sd2 



The Q-mm6 of Lant/ttage, 



n. 

We have thus arrived at a vantage-ground IVom whie 
contemplate more nearly than of old tlie beginnings of huroa^ 
speech. Much of the ancient discuflsion upon this . ' ' ■ - 
once seen to l>c no longer relevant. As loop us imi 
modifying particles were believed to bo arbitrary^ lUey migln 

well have been deemed the offspring of inventive coulri 

not so when they are known to In; Bigiiificant. Tlic i. 
grammatical system of Greek or Sanskrit might well have been 
thought a fit subject for miraculous revelation ; not so ihs 
meagre and artless combinations of Chinese or TunjrnHiRTi 
Over the comparative claims of nouns, verba, niid jtrop- 
to be considered tho jmmal olementa of speech, we n-r- i ul. 
longer ])uzzle oiu-solves ; for we know that in n primitive lan- 
guage there ore neither nouns nor verbs, licithcr adjectives nor 

adverbs, but only naked roots, which maybe uswl to ' '- 

either substance or attribute, position or action, as 
stances may chance to rcijuirc.* Let us consider how tlir 
Chinaman would say, ** Tho sun is shining through the cloud 
Ho would take the woi'd for <mw; a word meaning 
briyhllif, hriyhtnea, or to he bright., according to tin; contexl 
word meaning passtge, or to pai!9 ; and tho word for 
coui)ied with some such expression as mnltitiule^ htnji^ or 
to serve as a sign of plurality ; and heaping togcthL-r these] 
materials, would mako the statement, " Sun Itright jmss cJd 
heap." Crude as such a languago undoubtedly Ls, wo 
pest assured that the winged words of our cxiiuisito Ar 
speech at first limped and halted with oquaf awknarducsv. 
analysis of tho magnificent verse of Dante, 

** lo noD piangeva, A dentro trnpictrAi," 

would show us that its wonderful tissue is woven of very 
bio stuflf, — a word for " stone/' a word imitating the sci 

digniti5 de Dotre luture ec % sn mysti^^ouso grnndeur.*' £twte» O 
Bow long nrc wc tu Krc scbolttrs, rmm triiuni tii>cter t)un{;!i ml;: 
chiMiality flccvptin;!or rcjecfiug tliciirio. nut bccaurc ibev tifp iipln'. 
A\k\»!»\ I>v cstablUtiefl TActi*, but Iwciiusc tht.<y coufonn lo, or conllifl frith, lO 
prcconc«ved n,ation8 of " (lignily " or *" RtDcss " ' 

* *' Auf (lii-sor uruh(4t<;n Siufc sprachlichcn Lc^Knu gilttot ftlM>, lAatlM^i 
aciiicvlcn, wc(lvr Vcrhu nocb N'ominn, wodci ConjagalJoa nocb Oeeliii 
Sclileicbcrt Uit barvnnK.^v. TKeorie, ^. ^1% 



ifl^HI 



The Getiesis of Language, 



353 



pping, and a few demoustralive ejaculationB denoting spatial 
[)xuuity or remoteness. It is from such lowly beginnings 
at language has arisen ; and when we seek to account for the 
»csi« of human speech, we must forcet for a while the uum- 
rloss delicate contrivances by which civilized man gives un- 
iug expression to every shade of thought. We must forget 
nouns and verbs, our infiections, prepositions, and auxili- 
ies, and search for the meaning latent in simple, ungarnishcd 
Dts. We must turn our eyes from the architecture of tlie 
creJ edifice, that we may scrutinize with unbiassed vision the 

blocks out of which it has been reared. 

I But before we can properly arrive at a final residuum, one 

ther element must be eliminated from the j^roblem. The 

that all abstract words whatever, as well as all concrete 

Drds denoting supersensuous objects or conceptions, have been 

ed by tlie potent agency of metaphor out of words with a 

4y physical import, is too thoroughly established to need 

■I ft passhig illustration. Tliat wul and sea are derived 

irae root, that, frhost, yeasty f^ustyg^aSy and geyser have 

^common origin, that words like intellecty conceivey admirCy per^ 

'iy eontrxtiuny atUntion, etc., are built up out of wholly material 

tions, has been proved and illustrated over and over again. 

the hare notion of " moving," we get not only words 

iifying *' furniture " (Fr. vieubles), tlie Skr. sarif, " a river," 

jif.r, " sup," drapniy " a drop," but also age and eleTnUy,9M^ 

I most abstract of the many names for the Deity. 

[The explanations of the word God in our popular dictionaries 

I one and all untenable. Grimm has shown the common d^ 

iration from good to be impossible ; and the identification with 

gian Kftoda^ from Zoiul qvadatOy Skr. svadfUn, Lat. a se datuSj 

Bt, at Aufrecht's bands, with no better fate. Alullcr more 

Wy suggests that it was formerly a heathen name for the 

!y, which passed into Christian usage, as Lat. Deus became 

Dieu* There can, I think, i>e little doubt that God is idcn- 



> Bnnf«n, Ouilinef, I. J9 ; GrimTn, Vairtcfif ^f^hologi*, p. 19 ; MiilUT, Txyrerp*, 
Lacj, — DunaliJeon (New CrnKliig, p. 710) would conned God with koAot, and 
bat wiUi rttf'j/j* ; bat ihi» u annnt fiucstwork, and the laticr iiame was lorn; ago 
I e> Iw iiknticftl Willi I^t. rffiw, Skr. Aixw, from tUv, " lo sliiiie," being a pcr- 
I of iIiiTltglit. Sec [<ns6eD, Intiitche Altnii»mtkvniie, X. 759. 

crx. — m, 225. 23 



854 



The Gme»i$ of Langufigt, 



[c 



tical with Wodan, the namo of the great Northern deity. 
laumi!fiVi<X WUluim^giterre und v^ar^g^uaniian and wtirJtH,^ 
ami tciit,, wilt at once occur to the reader as aunlogotis instanc 
and ft aioailar chungo is Bcon iu the ^Vrmorican ^>i/ua7i2 and 
ffufist<tre,tia compared with hut. urtsfarc, Eug. wusU ; and 
tlie Eng. t/itickt floth. f/uivSy Lat. viius. Paulus Diaconuit t* 
us that the I^ombardii prouoiuiccd WuJun oa Ouodan* 
iniHul digainnia, coDsisting of a combined guttural and hi] 
(f ,^r, ffUj qu, hiP^ stv, otc.)^ is resolved into its constitnente!) 
mcntd, one of which is usually eliminated, so tluit Gvi^il un 
fercntiated into 6Wand Wod. The surviving eteine»>tifl| 
quently vocalized, becoming a mere breathing, as in Odin^ 
which wc ma)' compare the change fronj Geoi"gittu ^^Airiii 
Lat. vinum and Gr, oltto^. Now F-Odin is derived by 
from wuotan^ Lat. vndere, Eng. fvade, *' transmearo, cum 
petu ferri,*' and thus signifies the Prime Mover, ** qui 
permeat," Uic pervading- source of tbc dynamic phenumeii 
the universe ; or, as Panto says: "La gloria di Colui che tt 
muove." Strictly iu keeping with this signification is 
character as the storm-spirit or inciting goiiiua of Uio wiud 
which lie answers to the Greek Hermes, or Vcdic Saramcj 
" Sou of the Dawn," t This is at bottom a purely seusuotw | 
of notions. Yet, as developed by modem philosophy, the i 
ceptiou of Odin is far loftier and more adequate than Lhoa 
pressed by 0eov, Jupiter^ Dyaus ; J as the solar ray ( 2Y» 
Zei/i), though doubtless the immediate source of all life 
molion in our little group of worlds, Ih nevertheless itself b^ 
limited mauifestution of that limitless Power whicb is rcvcala 



* Aiii) we find L^nlnjuieHM for LudovkuM in Grcbomftert, Bisi. Lan'fJ' t ! 
III. aiS. In Gvrmnny iinti Lorraine Wf Imw this (own namu of Gc'< 
bcfj;, UtHtonfthult, uiut VHiuleinoni, all tlprtvi!<t rmni Woiinn. In ti .. 
ilialwl, Wctlnriuinti ("day of Woduo *'} is rnlli'il Cotteiuiag or Gumtag: \ 
Rh<ni«h, fiufleiitiitif : in Klemisli, Uoctmhi'j. See TItorpc, N<»rilir"i \I» 
Tuylor. Wonla and llnces. 32:i ; atid ct. (Jrlmm. C^tch. dir I*. 
The \Ve«iphiiliaD 8axon» wrote Ik>i1i (/uw/tin anil 6'in/rtii. Ii l.^., 
Ter)(en(« of proof*, I am lurprtHMl clwi iMj eijtnolo{;y Ims not hvan woaa ki 
on. 

t For tbo explnnuiion of Uvniics and lii» roneUtives, »« Mdllcr. Iisct. It j 
Cox, MnnunI, SS, fulV; Borinif-Oould, Curious Mythii, II. 153, Ibt'p; 
HeliniouftDcvrioiimenl of tlic (Ircftis and llct«n'ws, 1, 200-874. 

( For iho pliypiral meaning latent in nn* «w Ourtj Woralilp of Bulia, Cb|k 
U. ; and cT. MtcUy, ov- c»x. U. 4\4- «V 



tlrsfi rhythmical activity throughout the length and breadth 
tio K(»8ra0i*. 

The word tntfh affords another illuatrationt whicli may even 
bo worth citing, since wTitere are Htill to I* found wasting 
^qncncc over Horuo Tooke*8 derivation from troicclh, and hi» 
ii«licttl inference to hXt/^c? ov <l>vGfi aWa vo/itp. Us cor- 
fttire in Sanskrit is fl/iniictt, from if/irH, " to place or ostab- 
whence aluo Ootli. (ri^gvus, *' 8t»curo," and Germ. 
^v^n nud treu,* While, according to Pott, the Lat. verus, 
\. wahr^ Welsh j^t'iV, f!ael,y7or, St'laron. ricrn^ is from tho 
ae root which npficnrs in Germ, wehrett^ 0. O. G. wnrjan, 
ah giparetl^ Ital. ^tardarr^ and means that which is 
^oTprod," efg-o sheltered, or soctiro from ntt4ick. 
h b/'ing tlms apfwirenfc that metaphor may educe the grand- 
ahstract conceptions from the Ininililest material notions, we 
ire now only to inquire how the rmits cxprosHive of sucli notions 
produced. Of the rarious recondite, mystical, or incog- 
cihlc theories which have hecn framed, — chiefly in Oer- 
ay, — corieeminc: the orij^n of language, we have not time 
I speak. Max MuUer's doctrine, that roots are *' phonetic 
must be pronounced vague and inadequate. Tho term 
bhanetic tyf»c ** can moan notliing but a reprcsentatioir, in 
il rounds, of iin oltjcctivo phenomenon which invites atten- 
1, or of a subjective feeling which demands expression. To 
iJiat a root is a '• phonetic type,** is therefore merely to stato 
problem without solving it. To exjilain tho gencMsof lan- 
5, it is not enough to say that, as every substanco when srait- 
rings respoMHe to the l>low,.»io the liuman mind attimes itself 
Iconcord with the sensory jrcrcnuaion from without. It must 
I Bbown why tliis is )X)^il>lo, and bow it comes to pass. It 
Bt be shown in wlmt way mere vocal utterances can l>ecome 
fitting signs of externnl aud internal phenomena; by what 
ftubtlo alchemy a rhythmic pulsation of the air is transmuted 

Ethe nindtle messt'iiirerof tliought and feeling. In the pres- 
statc of our knowledge, amid the confusion of ideas in which 
problem is cntAiigled, its solution may bo impracticable, and 
t needs be imperfect . Yet a theory wbicb would fain satisfy 



356 



Tht Gtmsis of Language, 



us by a mcro phrase, like " phonetic typo," iB, as Professor ' 
ney (p. 427) observes, utterly unphiIoRophic4il and iufctiUfj 

To explain the process whereby articiilato Bounds liavo 1 
erected into symbols of mental and pliyaical plieuomcna, a 1c| 
mate hy{>otiiedi9 has been framed, according to which a 
class of words were originally mere rcprcBcntatiuns of | 
sounds given out by animate or inanimate objects. Sou 
uttered in imitative ri^aponse to cxt^nml sounds or nu 
passed into currency as vocal signs of the phenomena wUc^ 
the archetypal sounds were chiefly characteristic ; and the < 
Crete material desigirations thus pruduccd were afterwanU m\ 
phorically applied to tlie expression of abstract and immatc 
conceptions; while all words not tlms originated were 
interject! on al utterances, serving to giro vent to the feelii 
aroused by the sight of external objects. 

The Bow-wow Theory — though it has Imen received by i 
eminent philologists with indignant ridicule and foolish ap] 
to sentimental prejudice — is novorthcless the only bypothd 
yet pittjxjsed which alleges a vera ca\i4<i. Every one 
that many words have come fi-om onomatopOBic roots, 
few are aware to what an extent the process may be ix 
Not only is it that words like cackle^ aiw, croon, snarl, ; 
chirp, twiUcry sigh ^ groan, shriek, sneeze, crash, bang, whiz,) 
snap, crunch, buzz, hiss^ hum, twang, jingle, chink, ru.Htle^ irj 
per, clatter, gurgle, bubble, rumhlt, etc., are manliest iiuitatia 
but also many words indicative of no somid or noise whatof 
many words expressive of purely alistract notions, may 
be referred to an imitative source. They who have caref 
noted Uie wanton Ocaks which metaphor delights in, axid- 
kuow, moreover, that all the ijidigenous words in all the 
languages have arisen from a few hundred primitive rootii, ' 
not be surprised to find a single word begetting logious of < 
spring whose resemblance to each other and to their nirc 10 1 
from obvious. Every one has read of t\iG Arabian genio 
became in succession a wolf, a cock, an eagle, a ponietEnuutt^ 
and lastly a ra^mg fire which burnt up the daughter ■ 
Tho metamorphoses of language are not less marvel :. 
have already seen glor^ becoming the badge of hopelccts : 
tude. We may next contemplate a venerable root, mar, — < 



5fiO-] 



The Genem of Lutiffua^^ 



867 



■live of "grinding down," and douhtlew* imitated from the 

id of that meclianical proccsa, — producing in divers Ian* 

58 at loast one liundred 6fty distinct words (to say notliing 

minor modifications), among which, in English alone, are 

Impriscd tormn so diirerent as wiiV/, mra/, m<iM/, tnoif^ mould, 

^rtatf murder^ member, mper^ marblt\ Mark^ milk , blaspheme , 

tm^f smart, mellow, melf, vutU^ mildy ambrosia^ travnil, temorse^ 

tVct, fft^mory^ aitd mnrft/r.* 

[lu like maiiiif^r uumerouH words, retaining nauglit that is ex- 
iroatory in their forms or meanings, have nevertheleHS hoen 
reIoi»ed from iiit<;rjcctions. From the root ach arc derived 
is expressive l>oth of emotional discomfort and of material 
rpuess ftrt well as swiftness ; among which, in various lan- 
sogos, are Or. ajcm^axavBa^ axo<i, Eiig. ache, A. S. egc^ igeslichy 
jl. ffc/ri, Germ, ekel, ecke^ jucken^ Eng. ilch^ Icel. fg^ia, Lai. 
»o, acusy ocieif fir, ««o»xr;. 5*c/3ov. w*u? = Hkr. oftts, which 
xgB us to (Jf "a = tTTTTo? = equusj wrongly claimed as due to 
imitfttion. t Onoraatojxcia is therefore far from l»ping a 
hrile principle ; nor m it easy to indorse tbc ohjootion that imj- 
kive sounds, even in their crudest shape, are not yet language. 
^iiller tells us that ** there are cockatoos who, when they see 
cks and hona, will bejrin to cackle, as if to inform us of what 
ey see," The inference, that an imitation of cackling can- 
be langiiage, proves somewhat too much ; for we cannot 
isent to banish a considcrahio number of decorous words 
pithy sentences from the category of language, merely bc- 
certain parrots have a habit of reiwating them. So, when 
aglishman at dinner in China^ craving information as to 
ture of the dish before him, said interrogatively, Qiiacky 
cV9 and received the astounding answer, Bow-wow / 
iller doubts wliether such talk as this deserves the name 
[ language. But the doubt rests u{)on a confusion of ideas. 
len the duck says tiuack, no language is used, because the 
id in question corresponds to no general couccpt. But 
^en man in framing language says quack, he is performing a 

Sm the details in Mtiller, IL 331 - 3S0 ; to which I hare fld<led travail, derived 
KBIt>untJiorit]r,lhrut)gb1he French, from Kjrmricfm/aWwtni-f-'narf. "or«F> 




Coni[«ra! Cortiiu, GrieehiKhe Sigutotogu, p. 1S2, with Qaniott, ^. &A, ik,n4 



358 



The Genesia of Language. 



[O^ 



rudimentary act of nbstractiun. He is ilesignatlng em 
hy ono of its conspicuous niarkd, and is tliorcfore using 
guage no Iohh than when lie calls ll»e moon a " shi^ 
lantif Lucin<i^ from (nctre, lux, Tlie word moo* 
boon as inteUigiblo as any of tlio namos for a cov ; nud w« 
have boen quite as cnj^able of producing derivatives, or eutef 
into compoundn, ftignifying milk, boef, leiither, born, btx 
shield, a brigbtH^yud maiden, tlio nourishing carUi, clouds 
swelling udders, distant thunder, bonne stolidity, and 
chewing rovery. A brief examination of Indo-]*^uropeaa 
iholog;y will show what scanty materials suffice for the 
guage-maker; and we may bo sure that in his hands a 
homely imitative roots would soon be wrouglil into number 
forms of quaintness and beauty. 

But it must not bo supposed that onomatoptriu o---^-' 
this principle, to bo traceable iu tho majority of nn>'. 
In current use, a3 wo have seen, words speedily lose 
primitive form and their original significance. Episcopus\ 
comes Danisli bi»p; and we talk td' ostracism without thin 
of oyster-shells. Words arc built up, pulled to picc4is, 
conjured with, until we have strmigcr from rx^ and Ai* 
wi^ and VediXy from the same root. The whole Aryan 
guage must Have gone through tliis wearing and tearing 
C088 many times before it acquired its present struetunil 
liarities. Nor is the imitative principle unlimit<sd in its 
and powers. After language has ac/juired a sufficient fou 
for derivatives to he formed, metaphor begins to assort i\» gs 
It is more convenient to name many objects and actious 
attributes Icsb vttgiio and nmbiguous than the noiuc whlcl) 
make or by whicli tljey are accompanied. In highly dewilc 
languages the traces of onomatopoeia must, on any hy|xyt 
be comparatively slight ; and it is both unpbilosophical 
superfluous to do what Mr. Wedgwood and Mr. Furrar 
loo often done, — to ignore established etymologies and^ 
knowlcdged linguistic affinities, and to override pin 
in tlie eager attempt to gather illuHtrutiona of tlii. i 
Theory, Mr. Wedgwqod, for example, idcolifies houna 

* Tlu« Bound i« BOW, in Ocnnnn, Binl by t-UlttlKO, — nml 
*«n in titemtnrc, lu die Ic^;ttlmiitc term, in "btibytnTk," — for - oiv. 
inJ for •' iliecji." Cf. tlw Eng. iUu-j ictm U yi lut " V^VV! •" 



J9.] 



The Qeneei^^ 



nffWfft. 



859 



//tf«./, with the Esthoniau Awrt^ "a wolf," and derives 
latter from Kath. huTuhmuy '* to howl," "corresponding^ 
i, 0. huftortf * to yelp like a fox,' and Sc. Ai/nr, * to whino.'" 
««oh a |H)int of rcsnmblanco hftwceii lanjni'i^'Os radically 
Bunilar is always likely to ho accidental,* nad in this caso is 
JoubUrdly so. Wliether the Estlioniau hunt is onomatopceic 
fr nnt, wc; shall not attempt to dettTmine. But the Germ. 
fiil lias u very different origin, — no other, in fact, thaa 
sn, **to catch," Swed. haenta^ Eng. huni^ Lat. " pro- 
j|ifH»,** tho kotnui heing the animal " qni capit fonis." (Orimm, 
Ischc Gramm., II. 35.) From the bame sonrco comes 
Jic 8kr. pwrtB, Zend f/jan, Qr. Kvmv, Lat. amis (Bumouf, 
h V./f«rt[, I. Ixxii., Ixxxi.), which Mr. Farrar daima aa 
Stative. To assign for do^ a mimetic origin i»ecauso the Ice- 
lie dofi^ sounds like a growl, — as Mr. Farrar is inclined 
^do, — is to violate the first iirineiples of etymologry ; for tho 
liufll r, in tho Tcolundic form, is no part of the original 
1, bwng merely the nominative cnac-sign, which in several 
ior Arynn hiti^ningoa appears as 5. Thus/cyo/ is in Tcelandic 
Wr, and lirunhild is fJrytUdldr. This r was originally a 
miDoau of the first person. In spite of the identity of tho 
ial letters, I am inclined to believe that the common 
lion is correct whicli derives do^ from the mother-Aryan 
wliich appears in Skr. rfo^, ** to bito " : if daughter = 
ly certainly fomo from dak. As to the Sanskrit 
iuid hhavha^ for *' dog," they are very likely 
ic. Crane, Swed. trana, Germ. Kranich, which is also 
imod by Mr. Fnrrnr, means simply ** the long-shanked," as 
t»hoWM by the Welsh synonpue ^amnaxcg^ from gar, ** a 
Mr. Wedgwood is disposed to connect iWo? with 
' 7, Fr. hobin, Frisian /((?/;/>?, supposed to come from 
mV, whott^ hii/y and /*<!«/), used in <Jriving a horse ; 
iTTTTof is well laiQwn to bo identical with Skr. afva, " the 
which is indeed, as wo have seen, most likely onoma- 
j, bot is not to be disposed of after the summary fashion 

ologio rcRte nn Jen arl>trrnira tint quo Ton n'n point dt^crmin^ ex- 

entnlemcm Ir^s lois d'oprt* K'.*qTicl!cH Im soni w prrmutent en pn^Miii tVuno 

I m ijnr fiMTre ; -'r-it In rtintinJMHncc ilc ve» loii '|iit dunrte ii la pliilolojiic mm- 

fiiiiiillc inilo-cnrupivfinc nn « luut ilt-sr*? tic c«.T\\\MAt." 

(. I. 467. Cuinpnrc Turgot, (K'UTM,Tonv\\.\. -^.li^^. 



£60 



T?ui Gcneaii of Lajiguage» 



of these otyinolo^ts. No is explained by Mr. Wodgwood i 
dev&lopmeut of tlie souud made by an infant when he 
his toetli by way of refusing tlie breast: our uegativ ' 
the beailj he tbiukfl, lias a kindred origin. We .. 
beads to and fro whoa wo rejected tho proffered nuunshi 
and we tliurefore continue through Hfu 1o eliako our heu 
token of denial ! ! No '\^ compounded of (lie A.. S. ae an 
(Qoth. ai and ain^ Lat. avurtiy Gr. alatv» met, Kug. revr), 
thoroforo originally meant never. The latter "^ *' 
derived by (iniff and Kulm fi-oni onr old acquui 
** to go." Ne, tlio former, is a form of Llie demoniitratire | 
Aignifying romolcncss, and used to cxprt^ss uiany ii 
volviug negation, as in Greek, for instance, where ii 
of tho accu.sat)vc. Perhaps no example coidd better iiiusti 
tho utter capriciousnrss of fancy with which many mil 
derivations are aRsigned. Tlie attribution of certain powe^ 
expression to particular vowels and consonants is very 
ardouB. When wc are told that, in Mandshu, '^' " r 
"father," and erne ''mother," because a is tho hi 
e the weaker vowel,* wo need only point to tho Japanese^ 
** motlier," and tili^ ** father." where tho distinction \& rover 
When Mr. Farrar cites the roughness of Germ, cntjwi 
" terror," in behalf of the Bow-wow Theory, we need 
refer to afai'tn, which is not rough, but smooth ; to say 
of tho faot that ent»tUen merely moans a " displa 
And when he adduces the pleasant-sounding minstrel as ft « 
of 4tiflex onomatoi>tBia, we must — in view of tht> origil 
minstrelj through Lat. minister, from rninus^ whicli 
" lesH," and hius uoUiing to do with music — conaider him : 
led by his pleasant aural associations with tiio word. 

The survey of these erroneous dcrivatious shows us tha 
bow-wow principle has been to a great extent suj'i 
obscured in the Atyan languages by formations ha^.v.. ..|r 
more abstract set of conceptions. Thus the moon i^s caUed( 
•* measurer,"- luna tho "shiner," cams tlie "taker," rf*jjf 
" biter " ; and, in spite of Professor Key and Mr. Parror^ : 
ia notlung absurd in the opinion that coic ^ov<:, Skr.^J 
tho " go-or " ; for wo must remerabor that in Gr 



* Compuro the curiou5 «vvai\Al\Qn<^ oC* l^/ibnin, Souvmax Btmtit, VnttX 
cup. U.. wiih PUlo, Kr.ilyU, «6, K%\,VS^. 



The Gfinm$ qJ LongMogi. 



£61 



in a* Hliccp and goats, aro callcMl ra trpo^arat ** the 
alkcrs.*' Mr. Gunictt has admirably Btutcd the 
friuciplc : *■*■ Cirimin has shown that, m EngUah aiid 
»,/aj; simply dyuotoa * hairy * ; in Sanskrit, the femiuiiio 
iOf from hmas, *• hair,' njcans u fox ; wliile llie mas- 
$aaa douoteH quite a ditTcruut animal, a ram. In 
igea, as in the Icelandic re/r, and Persian rouMt, 
jf U«iriiiC88 ijuito diHai>(;kjar8, and Reynard is dosig- 
lother BUiglo quality, * thievishne^s/ • The reason 
:>bviou8. Though u fox i» ait individual, ho is com- 
kn aggregate of particulars, which no eimplo word is 
lexpreAsing. We therefore denote tliis complex idea 
[expreBjiive of some simple quality ; and though the 
lin itself l>e eipially cliaractorirftif of a rat or a equir- 
rera every purpose of oral conunmiieation» as long 
a^eo to cm|iloy it in the some sense.** (Ksaays, 
i^iih what soumiug caprice this principle of uomen- 
^rki$ may l)e3t be seen in the etymology of the words 
id iri/'f. The plural of womnn is written jcrnnfn, 
[tuturut but mistaken notion that the termination is 
mo OS the Knglisb word mizn.-\ It is the Sanskrit forma- 
niOM, Lat. vtotty min, Gr. fAovrj. fitov, fitjv, and fitv, 
identical with Lat. fe-min-iiy .Skr. we-m<iiiy u . 
witli which may Iw coui|»ared our use of spinster, 
ly more strange that the primitive Aryans should 
3man a "weaver," than that tlu^y should call (be 
fer of Uie household a "■ milkmaid '* ; yet this derivation 
U||ttor word bus lx;eu minutely and incontrovertibly 
m^Daii^i'hter^ Gr. OvyoTfjp, Skr. dukitri^ is from duhy "" to 
the sufilx Ur, rijp^ fri^ beiug like the suffix matit in 
^be agent who performs tlie action expressed by the 
root. J It is worthy of remark that, in Chinese, 

ikrli (Iciiif^fttea a vary diHl-rent aaimul b^- lht« Attribute : 8kr. mwJia* 

I ijIuDil uf Vumtimau voA (ontttxiy written inromctlT^ Mtissulaicn. 

ill be caiil of the suppcuoJ connixrti'jn between hvmo and humus? To 

Itwo words (liri'ctly with each other, aiiil then to waste ircxxt rhcturiu 

itkjii of mnn iM *■ Mrth-born " or " humhlc," i^, I believe, jirciKwicr- 

^y»U of the words in question Icndi to n dlflbrcnt ronclniion. Tbo 

wn il»'n.^e* in mony ca*cs thn "placo wbrre," u in (iuib. hni-tn-x^ 

'■ r»iing|iIaco" (Gr. mi in w^iot}. So ;\\e SVi. U«»-iTii-4» \i>fc. 



W2 The Genctit of Lajngxtage. 

woman is rogardod as the " 8wcci>cr," since in the hierogly 
system of tliat language she is represented by a broom, 
wi/e, A. S. wif, Ocrm. weih^ it is ctym ' 'H* couiie 

with A. S. xnefnny Germ, tpeben, Skr. »/v, 1 ^ 

Countless examples 8uc]i as these show that the Ai7aa| 
guagps owe the larger pai-t of tlieir present voCfthularv 
very (JifTerent prinoiple from tlmt of onouiatopcnio. hu%\ 
conclusion, far firom invahdating the Bow-wow Theory, i 
only to demonstrate the impossibility of ro^^niiiig tbo 
Aryan speech as in any true sense of tlie word a priml 
language. Wlion Max Miiltcr proves that a large portio 
the words dainiotl by the mimetic school have in reality sla 
from Guch ftltstruct roots as *' go," "shine," " mcnsnre.'^ 
ho has indeed carried by assault an unt<^nable position 
should never have been occupied ; but he has by no mcanal 
the battle, which, if it is ever to be definitely decided, taw 
fought upon <\\i\{xi differeut ground. For, when we examine 
lowest phases of liarbarian speech, we find, iw might have ' 
expected, that tbey afford no means of expressing such abs^ 
conceptions as those just enumerated. Tlio Aryan may 
moon a "shhier " ; but in Chinese it is just the othf— - 
symbol for '* lirigbt " is there comptnmded of the 
" sun " and '' moon," " It requires but tlie feeblest poi 
abstraction, — a pOAVor posseesod even by idiots, — to 
name as the sign of a conception, o. g, to say * sun ' : toj 
' shoeu," as the description of a phenomenon common t< 
shining objects, is a higher effort ; and to say ' to shine,' a*i ei 
sive of the state or act, is higher still." Mr. Farrar, froig w| 
this judicious remark is cited, has collected many stril 
trations of the paucity of abstract expressions in the l< 
guages. "Tlie Society-Ishuiders liave words for dugV 
bird*8 tail, and sheep's tail, yet no word for tail ; tlie Mofc 

hu-mu-* U " iho filacc wlioru tilings grow." Now homo U comiwumlcd ol 
(A. S. yw-nifl in l^-^i-^fH-mi, " briileproom," fji'rm, inVi/f/w^n-m ). TlMt mi 
Jait l)L-cn cx|>l«inr(l in (lie \txt JIo U prottitMv utcio to ha, IA», ^p, \ 
dorivntivc htt-tuin mcnna "he who f^nvn." Li cunBrmnimn wn nur ri) 
the liAt. Wrj/ecr»fii, Itttt nlM> tlic Goih. thW~it, fnitn Mu (wliciicc Ku^ 
*' to pi>w,'* Xhh^-ti means " a young man." lie wlw grows or w«xt« 
Frum iltp (!anic root tu we ^-x Skr. r*ir«i«, " Mrong," Or. rniJri '*pit«»' 
cliiu5): the Umlirian tk/u, "iTty"; ami ihc folio* lag words for "poop 
dfb iauia^ Irish (uaUi, Guih. iltiudn.O.W.Q. dwtV«^iu»diulMit: u<1 /Am'* 



5».] 



Th Oeni.'$i$ of Lar 



363 



- for ever)' kind of cuttinp;, and y<^t no verb * to cut.' 
^i.,..Lialians have no generic term for fish, bird, or tree. 
Iftlayft Imvo no term for tree or liorb, yet Ibcy have words 
[jro, rout, trce-*jrowii, stalk, stock, trunk, Iwip, and sboot. 
^lue American tongues have sei)ai*ate vcrl>ft for * I wish to eat 
It/ ^\i{ *• I wisli to eat soup,* but no verb for ' I wish ' ; and 
Itif words for a bbjw witli a sharp and a blow with a bhmt 
[icnt, but no abstract word for blow." • The Kafir ex- 
" to live " by ukudhla ubomi, " to eat life." In Kachari 
sivc is ff)mied by mi auxiliary, meaning ** to cat." 
, . .like,'' andyn, " cat," wo have mtg-bii-jif^ang, " I 
a beating, =:** I ain struck," This idiom is found also in 
;iud in the tertiary IJcngali and llindi.f which doubt- 
. . , led it from the non-xVryan dialecla by which they aro 
t closely Burrouuded. With sncli instances before us, Mr. Fai^ 
' portiiiently asks : " Who shall believe that the sun and moon 
(d eai'tb had not becu named at all until they received names 
1 ro*)ta mooning to shiuo, to measure, and to plough ? or that 
rs and reptiles, and creeping plants, and flowing water, and 
ids, made shiH with being anonymous until after men pos- 
?d an indefinite numl>er of verbs, all moaning * to go ' ? " An 
■lid cull liis abcop rli Tpo}3ara, l»it the primitive lan- 
..or had no fialva to fall batk upon: what else could 
\wy hxLi hm ? When Miiller traces back the word vgJy (which 
■ ood aumnmrily derives from -ut^h /) to the -Skr. ««/(, "to 
frura which also come un^vstits, aii^tish^ ntLchus, 
it, Goth. ognSf " fear," angina and ffuinsy^ as well as various 
krd« for ** serpent " — Skr, uhi^ Gr. t;^/s'. ^x^Oi/a. Lat. mti^m's, 
IH. G. f/nc. Ice!, ti^fir^ Gael, asc ; ** hedgehog," — Gr. €-}{ivos, 
ttv ur^ /, A. S. ig-iV, Welsh awg ; " ool," — Or. typ^eXyc, Lat. 
tilla, Gael, eas}^ ; *' lizard," Germ, eidecftsc, A. S. afhexfi^ 
when he has proved this, he has still to show that anh is 
onomatopoeic, before he can make a point against the Bow- 
Theory. And a better combination of lettci*s than afiJt,to 
press tiie somad of choking or throttling, it would perhaps be 

CwiHimwl fmnn Forrftr, Ctiaptcnon Latigandc, 199,300. 

' ' ; - ihv viil^tr Ovrntnn Prwjri Liulm, " to IflSU' tilowfi." Cf. alRO 

•^iofhlawi. ["Kr mii»c» otwfreMfin,** lit. "be must cut it out," 
flm matt fafTt-r it." "bcnr it," "endure the infUciIoii," or, "aisiusA 

'*r"\ 



S64 



The Qmeals of Larxguage. 



hard to find ; if, indeed, this root be not the same fts the i 
jectioual ach^ whose derivatives we have already enume 
Admitting this kinship, we have words for " hor 
'*6crp(sut/' from ouomatopceic roots, aliliough in . 
U there an imitation of neighing or hissing. In similar! 
the Skr. vmrjara^ *' cat/* has not, as lias been 
Gonucction with the sound of purring- It means " 
tliat cleans itself ** (oftopyvvfii. ), hut it cornea ultimately i 
very root mr/r, " ruhi>ing," which we have al 
wliich is in all probability onomatnpocic, > ■ 
not an imitation of a growl ; but its parent word dafc^ " toj 
wf.-ll rojiroscnts the sl)arp sound produced by forcibly sh^ 
the teeth. 

We are therefore strongly inclined to accept, to a la 
tent, the Buw-wow Theory. It makes no a]>peal ti- 
ical wurd-making faculty, possessed by primitive i 
forever lost. It supposes that the forces concerned iii 
laoigiiage have been, like otber forces, essentiall 
their operation. Like the tUfories of Lycll in ij> 
Darwin in biolog>', it seeks to interpret past cventfii 
analogy of present eventfe. And it is known that, tJirou 
the traceable stajres of liiighistic growth, al>solutely new 
are almost exchisively onomatoi>ceic.* 

Indeed, since language is at bottom but a rcr" 
since a word is nothing if it is not a sign, wtmt 
primeval name, unfavored by traditional acceptance, lia^ 
bo considered as the representation of an object, unless it 
aasociatcd with it by some manifest likeness? We knoi 
written langtiage had an imitative origin. f Wo know tl 
Roman characters liave been gradnally metAniorpbosed - 
crude pictures of natural objects. If a man w^isbed to den 
a dog to the eye, ho drew an outline of him ; tliat is to i 
jnade a representation which affected the eye in somewlil 
imc way that the dog aflected it. It is rational to dupfK 

* Wliiincy, op. cit, p. 489, " Ea win! riclmfhr twvrMAPn. Atn-' 
loute nrlicn hesiiinintun Kniut^cscixcn iliit cinzl^cn ^aftm-' 
den ITr^pniujT di-r Sprnche in IJctrorht konimcn un"I Ji 
^onnon." V<it(;Iiuiuin, Oiv Jian-iatU'Thrvrie, p. v. 

1 Thift portion oftttf ar^^iimoot bas bomi admiratily nrmtedby Mr, FjirV] 
U>r» on Langnose, Ch. KVIUV 



S9.] 



The Genesis of Language, 



365 



fwould go to work afler the same fashion iu addressing the 

In representing tlie dog by meajis of the Yoice, wlmfc 

Id he find to represent, if not the sound of the dog? These 

9) — the voice of the man and the noise made by Uic dog, — 

tlie ot'dy terms between which a relation of likeness could 

^lied. • 

holcss tlicrc Is a class of primitive words, most prolific 
[derivatives and most ubiquitous in their functions, which, I 
(ieve, the Bow-wow Tlieory is inadequate to accoui»t for. 
h arc the fundamental, demonstrative, or prepositional roots 
which have originated the simple numerals, many pro- 
as,* words like aya a1>ovo discussed,! and a liost of nouns 
verbs. In one of his profomidest essays, Garnett has 
»wa that the preposition which appears in Armorican aa 
r^r, in Sanskrit as rW, etc., with the meaning *'upon" or 
sr/' has produced an enormous number of words, sigiiify- 
; shade, covering, enclosure, choosing, color, deflection, turf, 
dwelling, a summit, a gate, wool, warning, forbidding, 
Jui^, watching, expecting, enduring, liiding, seeing, wcnri- 
trolh, crookedness, wickedness, a bow, a yoke, a wreath, 
[foundation, dregs, and a vassal. And this is but a trifluig 
of the list. Ben fey, in liis " Lexicon of Groek Roots," 
traced over a thousand words, in Greek alone, to this 
Now, as Garnett says, it is difficult to establish a 
tion of likeness between the ejaculation of a sound and 
idea of direction or position. (Essays, p. 230, foVg.) 

I •• I thonght il posriMe, in my History of Sanskrit Litcrnturc, p. 21, to connect 
witli Skr. 6ha, ' I sniil,' Gr. JJ. Lot. ajo nnd B*y». — n«y, willi Golli. alumt, 
it * ; but 1 do so no lun^'cr. Nor do I accept the opinion or Bcnfcv ( Sautlrit- 
tldt, $ 773), n'tiD iJcrivcs aham fmni the prnnomimil ruul i/Aa irith h pttM- 
: i» U is a word wliit:h for the prcsciil must reinnin witlioiit o ^ciiculot;^." 
T, Ijccturcs, 11- 366, Gamoti's opinion Hxms prcfemhlc, " thnt ihe icrnunBt- 
rhlrh npfKUirs In nU thr, ohltqiic com^s, is the rctU root: und that afia » a 
I prvtlxitl for the fiJco of emphasis, perhAps relntcd lo I'Aii, * bcic,' — nearly 

i to the liitlijiri axomi." (E»«»yt., p, 99.) In trrh-tnilinpi of ihc first pcr- 

i fti 6Aum ni. iil>htifa-m, bfimvpa-m, eic, ibe dcnionstrnlive njot in intliciittiii prox- 
r(o the sjicaker; nnd, hy composition with tlw e<iuivnIeot nftn, the reduplicated 
siou of " ht^rt-'HCria " iKConunt ^ufficiunily iiniphatic tu survt: by ii>clf M a ti^ 
^ertivitv, •' lehhcii " or *' I-hoo(l." Cf. Lat. «/ofM/, nud we Don. Cm/., p. 
KcfiBn, ijj»;/. Semii. I. 464, nolo 2. 
; In liWc luaniiL-r, the nccajwitivQ-tign ^t. and fiw, two, loo, to, Aad dim, ^^, rfo, are 
bly from tbo coine demon^tntlrc roor. 



3G6 



The Genesis of Language, 



I believe these words to have boon originally tit** nr.t.lfl 
DconipaniineDts of ragne ondcftvora to oommmiicni 
'gesticulation. Mr. Tylor, in his "Early History ol' M 
has illustrated the extent to wliicli gesture uccoinp: 
cvQU usurps the pUoc of, articulate speecJi amon^ fta^niEn 
lu savage America, whore the multiplicity iX ' i 
great m to prevent oral intercourse over au l v _ 
country, the Indian tril)es could commimicato, by in< 
gesture, from Hudson's Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. Mr, 
cites several noteworthy instances of nascent languages 
the Paris, Arapahos, and Tasmauiaus, where gesture is nopdeJ 
to supply the deficiencies of articulate sound, and wli' 
stated, though perhaps on iusuflicient evidence, that c< i 
cation of ideas i» the (hirk is nearly impossible. (Karly I&L 
p. 77.) So variously expressive are gestures, thin 
been classified, like roots, as predicative nntl deii 
80 far from arbitrary is their use, that a doaf-mute a»d 
age can ordinarily understuud each other withoni T" 
and it is not ini]»roliahlu that a language of manuu 
have preceded and ushei'cd in the language of articulate vi 
(Cf. Marsh, I. 32; Whitney, 422, 431.) It is obvinufl 
vocal utterances casually occurring simultaneously uith ac 
{jointing, or other pantomime, would in time serve alone as 
stitutesfor the gestures with which they liad become 
ajid we doubt if the origin of demonstrative roots — 
which are even now equivalent to gestures — can bo ia 
other way accounted for. 

This principle may also be extended to the case of predli 
roots, expressive of non-souorous objects^ or of Hcnsatioiit 
accompanied by definite emotional states. Grass 
been named from its rustling, boughs from their cr« 
from its crackling ; but it is ditficult to sec what imifonu 
ciplo could have guided men in the first choice of ni 
day and night, hot and cold, grom»d, fi-uit, etc. Ni?vcrthi 
a name once applied, however casually, would lio almost 
to be repeated and to gain a certain decree of currency. 
of my children, on first seeing an apple, pointed at it, wit. 
exclamation, Puthtba ! a name which she afterwards 
in applying to apples^ and ultimately extended to I 



mil ill • n 



to,] The Writingt of Mr* liowland G, HaiaH 

igcs, and {tears, so lliat in time it would doubtless have 

>me a goiioric namo for fruit. Now if tiie chauco cxiires- 

is of a child, in civilized socioty, may obtaiti teui|»orary 

snoy within a limited range, far more likely was this to 

'"" the case with the casual ejaculations of the primitivo 

luker. Thousands of words might arise, like this 

wkt, tor which it would be impossible to assign any ade- 

roason. Accidental we call them, ouly because the cir- 

istances wliicli detormino the production of one sound rather 

another He beyond the reach of our present means of hi- 

tigation. Mr. Tylor has shown (Fortnightly Itcview, Vol. 

p. 649) that the cliaracter of the emitted sound will, to a 

Lin extent, depend ufjon the expression of the face at tlie 

icat. of utterance, since tlie play of oxprosaion altcrH the con- 

' of tl»o vocal cavity. This opens a very deej) vein of inquiry, 

it is one which must be worked by the physiologist. We 

hers reached an ultimate stralimi where neither Grimm'a 

nor any other im(»leraeut of philological research con help 

&0(1 hero wo may be content for the jiroaout to let the in- 

rest- 

John Fiske. 



n. — 1. Essay tm L<t}ii^uaii;€^ and other Papers. By 
loWLAND G. Hazard. Edited by E, P. Pkabody. Boston: 
'liillips, Sampson, & Co. 1857. 

I Otir Hesaitrces. New York : Charles Scribncr & Co. 1808, 
I Finance and Hburs of Labor. New York : Charles Scribner 

Co. 1808. 

! Freedum of Mind in MlHin^ ; or. Every Bntii^ thai trills, a 
\Creatitie First Cause. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1864. 
^1\nt Lettets^on Causaiion,and Freedom in WUHnffyoddresse^ 
to John Stuart Mill. ll't/A an Appendix on the Existence of 
fatier, and our Notions of Infinite Space. By KowlaKD 
Hazjibi>. Boston: Leo aad Shepard. 1809. 

foregoing list comprises the most important productions 
American author who, without the advantagta ot ix c^t^^ 



36S 



The Writingi of Mr. Itowtand G, Hazard, 



training, and engaged from early life in An cxtvusivo numi 
hiring und mcrcantilo business, wluch has allowed bnt 
opportunities for reading, has ncvcrthfless-writicn with cxff 
dinary ability u]>od the grave and often perplexing problc 
economical and metaphysical science. Of the earliest o! 
published wridngs, the " Essoy on Laugnagc,'* Charming 
speaks hi his lecture on Soit-Culturo: " I havo known a 
Tigurous Intellect, who hud enjoyed few advantages oft 
odncation, and whose mind was almost engrossed by ' 
of au extensive business, who composed a bouk, of i... .- 
iial tJiought, in Rteaml>oats and on horseback, while 
distnnt customers/' His later writings, on topics of finfl 
and phihjHophy, have elicited strong expre.^sioiu* of apprecio 
and resi)ect from one of the most distinguished of living on 
in the same departments of uiquiry, — John Stuart Mill. 
Mr. Hazard, under such disadvantagesi, should bo able <o I 
hold of the questions which he has handled, with so cl<! 
understanding of their nature and their present aspects, kI 
how much may Ix; caught np from tlic atmospliea^ of Ibo 
that surrounds us. Yet these discussions would liare 
impossible, had not the author, I'csides this qui' ' 
vation, been endowed by nature with philosopin 
very high order. A singular delicacy of analysis is co 
with antrong grasp of the main |H>iiits at issue, aJni 
originality 1>oth in argument and iUu.^tratioii. A ji 
for mathematics and mathematical reasoning is fnxjucntif 
manifest: but this dtics not exclude on e^juol sytr 
the higher forms of literature. We propose in lli 
pages to give some account of ftic various writiugii of 
Hazard, and to couple with it occasional criticisms upon 
contents. 

What Mr. Hazard has written upon the subject of }\>titl 
Economy has been in the form of newspaper • 
for the times, having n-fcronco to special topi- 
practical importance. But these essays discover a 
comf)rehcnsion of the j^rinciples of the science, and unce 
skill in the elucidation of them. It is a significant fttc(_ 
though engaged, as wo have said, from early life In ht 
a znouufactuxer, Mr. Hazard, without reading Adam 



1869.] The Writings of Mr. Rawlcmd O, Hazard. 



369 



any of tl»f other writers in this province of knowledge, but 

Lainply through his own reflections, is an anti-protectionist. 

kWc advert to this circumstance, not as aflbrdiug evidence of 

[the tnitli or falsehood of t'itlier |w>sition in \\\\n controversy, but 

Jmercly with reference to the observation, which is frequently 

beard, thiit the advocates of freo-trade are inexpcrieuoed, un- 

|pfactical theorists. They are 8ti^^natized in the leading jour- 

InaU, which defend the protectionist policy, as professors, 

hschooltuasters, and spoculatists. This ar^nicnt — more a 

sneer than an ar^iiuent — appeals to a ^'ulgrar, unfnundod 

[prejudice, which holds in low esteem abstract reasoning and 

[philosophical thought respecting mattera of practical concern. 

lit conu's with ill ^ace from those wlio have been contending 

[for years, on grounds of abstract morality and political justice, 

I against the institution of slavery, the champions of which were 

always ready with their im|>osing array of facts and fijrures. 

Wlicthcr a practical familiarity with business gives special 

lvalue to a man's opinions on financial qnestions, depends 

f wholly on the powers of analysis and generalization which ho 

Cttiries with him into practical affairs, antl wliicli alone enable 

I bim to turn his experienco to profitable account as regards tho 

ft<h !it of science. 

.sources" is a collection of articles published by Mr. 

Hazard during our late war. Early in tho struggle there was 

groat apprehension that, with tho destruction of our foreign 

■ credit, urn* resources would prove inadequate to the emergency. 

I^^icse essays were designed to establish the failh of the public, 

liioro and abroad, in the sufficiency of our means. They origi- 

(nally appeared in the newspa])cr9, but were collected into a pam- 

[>hlet, which passed through repeated editions in this country and 

England, Abbreviated translations of them were also circulat- 

Icd on the Continent. They showed that the »pnrf income of tlio 

ition prior to the war was 11,000,000,000 (gold value), and 

f ''■ in the stimnlns imparted to labor l»y the war itself, and 

i j improvement in agricultural machinery, there was no 

son to fear a diminution of this surplus; furtJier, that from 

»e standard of living prevalent among all classes in tliis coun- 

r, $500,000,000 might be saved without stretching ecouoray 

I a point in?olYing any real hardship. They 6l\o^ed,is\fto,NJftaX,^ 

VOL. ai. — yo, 226. 2-i 



4 



870 



The Wnlini;s qf Mr, Eowland Q. Bcaard. 



mrhilc the great cxpcsuditures In tbo war, tbo proetvUion 
credit of iudiriduals aud of bauks, and the \fithdrftWLDg uti 
required a considerable ciuUsion of pajK-T-eun'ency, vet) 
oxpaiifliou bc^'oud tbe liiuit of this rcqiiircmont wouM incz 
ilie cost of the war, and euhauce the debt to be subaoijueotJjrj 
in gold, with no coiiiiterbalancingadv.ii I i ^uc 

iu the vohirae of paper-money wouhl au i . _ 

value or purchasing power. The waruing which viuj 
these able papers it would have been well (o hoed. On^ 
oaaays, entitled '" Compeusutiou to Sluveholderft/' uiidert 
to demouHtrate that the value of laud alone in a ftao St 
equal to tlie combined value of land and of the sln^ 
to cultivate it in a slave State. Tlilg argument yiel< 
full of encouragement to the South, siuce facta already ijidl 
that it will be verified by .the practical test. 

The loat article of this seriew appeared at a very critical «| 
in the fiiiancial aflkira of the country. The treasury 
plotcd ; gold wan at 280 ; money was scarce, and tlie bonds o( 
government unsalable. The incoming Secretary of the T« 
ury was advised in advance by bankers and tinanciers tha^ 
only resource was to issue more currency, that there might ' 
plentiful supply of mouey wherewith to buy the bonds. 
Hazard in this paper asserted — what in the light of sulksoqt] 
experience is now obvious — that the course rocomme| 
tbe Secretary would lead directly and speedily to nation 
ruptcy, and that it would, if adopted, produce a dcpreciatioj 
tlio currency which it would be impossible to arrest, and 
our financial fate would be the same aa that which bufell 
Soutliorn Confederacy, Tins article of Mr. liazard wai! cut 
" Expansion and Contraction." It explained how the cife> 
expansion must be to make money scarce and prevent tbe i 
of tbe bonds; while the policy of contraction, if avowed,andl 
bored to, would restore confidence, aud release money i 
uses of trade and the appliaucca of speculation, to be 
in government securities. The proposition was goncrdlyl 
garded as preposterous, but the arguments by which it 
supported were found, on examination, convincing, and 
doctrines of this brief essay are among the rocogujjEed truUu^ 
political economy. The Secretary of the Treasury was fa 



9.] Thf Writwtjt cfMr. Rowland <?. ffaiard. 



371 



i need tlmt tbcso positions were woil taken ; and if the 
.._ .:jtractioij, which Uie autlioradvised^wasnot pursued, 
iirtfaor expansion wafl ftttoniptod . Tlic public are not generally 
re how ncnr wc were, at f Imt time, to measures which would 

ineritahly brought ujion us finuncial ruin. 
Ti© second series of Mr. Hazard's financial papers bears the 
, ** Pinanco and Hours of Lahar." The special topics are, 
nonce," ** Honra of Labor"** Payment of the Five-Twenty 
ids," ** Inflated Currency," " How to resume iSpocie Pay- 
its," ** Uocijnstruction — Preedmon'H Bureau." The impol- 
as well as iniquitous character of all schemes of repudiating 
national debt is imprcasively proved. One of the capital 
it» of these essays is the pnxjf which they present, as to the 
Uliar evils, both of rejiudiation and of an intlated currency, to 
.em and laborers, the cltusses whom demagogues especially 
r to mislead on this |>oint. Another escellenco is in t-lio 
Table reasoning by which the fallacious nature of all 
fcea for resuming specie payments without dimiuishing the 
timn of the curr-ericy ih detnonf?trated. In the course of a 
ly to an advocatx^ of one of these jjlausible, but mistjiken plans, 
, Ifazard ol>»en-e8 : ** His whole argument still ignores tJie feet 
t Uie purchaBing power of the whole volume of currency can- 
I be increased by increasing its quaulity ; that if you double 
enfold it, double or tenfold the amoimt will be required to 
' for the same quantity of labor or proj>crty. With the 
ftgi\iliou of thit«, liis whole fabric crumbles" — and, Mr. 
card might have added , many like fabrics of modem al- 
tnisU, who by some legerdemain would transmute [)aper 
>gold. 

•he eai'liost of Mr. Hazard's published writings is the ** Essay 
" ' ' 1i Btaiids first in the collection of his briefer 
iphical discussions. In that essay ho at- 
to define the essential characteristics of the language of 
ry. It is not easy to give a defitution, at once accurate 
coraprehen&ive, of jKjetry : as the fate of many past cxpori- 
its ovincos. Even the definition given, in Moli^re» to Moos. 
1 'i ' ] :> mafiter, which borrows its humor from its sup- 
character, is a failure, since the antithesis of 
ry, according to Coleridge's well-known dwVwm, \* vwj^ 



372 



The Writings of Mr, Rowland G, Uiuard, 



prose, but Boicnce. Arlstotio and tlic ancients, in stjl^ 
poetry au imitative art, were not bo for astray aa some mo 
critios have cJmrgcd, since under iniitutiou U'^ 
reproduction of experiences not aehml, but m 
living power of the imagination. Aliltoa'a opitlicta, — " wriipl0j_ 
sensuous, passionate/* — ai*e a strikinjr dew- of 

qualities of jtootry ; and Lord BaconV fine i* \ 
the office of poetry in " sulimitting the shows of things to' 
desires of the mind," has had its just appliuisc. If wo add 1 
suggestions of Coleridge and Wordsworth, as, that jHwtr/j 
ways springs from an excited state of the faculties, that a 
uniformly liaa pleasure for its immediate end, ; ' ' i lu ' 
pleasure not the whole ulune, but eaeh of its kh 
also, must minister, wo advance still faitlier towards a Boli 
of the problem. Mr. Hazard begins by cal'" 
fact that thought aud language are not in.- 
au incipient stage of our thoughts when they m'e not connc 
with words. Thoughts, as long as tliey are in this stage,1 
desiguales primitive perceptions. Words are tho signs of 
thouglit, aud tlic instruments of communicating it. Wo inayi 
as far as practicablo, dismiss the ideals or primitive i " 
tious, aud, directing our attention exclusively to teji 
means of tltem carry forward intellectual processes. Ma 
matical analysis affords the purest example of this nse ofj 
Ian ffuai/e of abstraction. This is the chai*acteristio laugua 
uupoetic composition ; it is the language of science. Qd 
other hand, our attention may be fastened directly on the idd 
or primitive perceptions, aud their relations to one anolli^ 
and this is a poetic mode of mind. These relations uro 
examined through substituted terms, but immediately. Ud 
over, " poetry, depending on this prominence of the prtmili 
percoptions, must present, or at least use for illustratioUf i 
as we perceive clearly or feel strongly ; and lience its iutii 
and essential connection with imagery and with p(L^fdoll 
Language does not stand as the conventional equivaJonl 
thought, and substitute for it. The thoughts aud cmoda 
which the language of poetry excites arc its effect. The 
uses language " to induce an ideal,*' and avails himself of I 
association between the ideals themselves. " WiUi a ca 



>.] The Writtmfi />/ Mr. Ifaichnd G. JTaznr^. 873 

ho summons tho half-recogiiized ghosta of departed fcel- 
9, ttuO TN-itlitlie iiicaiiUtiuu of terms invokes a host of spirits 
Uie worl<l of fanc}-. And tboiigli wo do not recollect tho 
Is, and cannot repeat tho tonns in tbat order wliich alone 
u mjigic. power, yet the spectral or fairy forms, Ihe 
IS, tho eiiiotionfi, iu short, the ideals they created, 
^y be OS distinctly retained as tho remijmhrance of any ester- 
olject which we have seen wilhtmt lenriiint; its nanie." 
itw (Mjetry can roach beyond tlio limits of precise tonns, and 
\\ia wondrous art reach to romoto idoals, beyond such as arc 
|thin the iumic*liatc p:rasp of words, The modes of abstrac- 
and of ideality are thus directly opposed to one another, 
Ben them lies tho intormediatc language of narration ; but 
^h narration ideality may blend, wlion the langnapc of prose 
comes interfused with "tho sj)irit and diction of poetry. Ideal- 
mingles with abstraction in all oflecrive oratory. Ideality 
the life of clofnienco. Abstraction may persuade, but it is 
lUty that in-spiroij con\'iction. *' It warms tlie heart and 
res an impulse like that which arises from the realities which 
lepicta, for it makes them present to our mind\s sight, and 
fresponding effects aro produced u]>on us." Ideality im- 
thc mind of tlio auditor, without any conscious effort 
his part; wholly without the labor requisite to follow a 
cess of reasoning. 

laving set forth tfcc distinction between ideality and ab- 
ction, tho essay deduces an interesting train of reflections. 
|c of the topics is the lanjnuige of futurity. It is suggested 
it tho future life may introduce a method of comniunion be- 
an mind and mind, which dispenses with words and signs, 
Vb. consummation of which the magic inflnence of poetry, as a 
fColcr of thought, seems prophetic. In that case, thought 
be coramuiiicated without any medium ** to distort its 
ling or sully its brightness.'* The power of mu.sic in 
ikening emotion ia even more subtle and inexplicable than 
it of pt^otry, with which it is intimately allied. The effect of 
paio ifl a aeries of excitements, " an induced activity to which 
fiout is wrought without any conscious effort of its own." 
we may suppose music divested of sounds. Tho composer 
[mtiflic must have the emotions independ^nW^ t^t W\& «»\a\^^ 



374 



The Writingi of Mr, Rowland G, Hazard. [Oct 



as UiG i)oet creates his idtaU inJL>pomlciitly of tlio 
is conceivable, thon, (liat these emotions shouM be ic 
im{>artod to tlio miiid, without tliu iioco&fiity of tbo souuds If 
which they are evoked ; and this may i>« the fat^t in aimilujT 
state of iKJiug. By a very delicate and penetrating analynii, 
the author discovers the secret bond that onitos poetry, \an, 
music, and devotion. lu a fine and elevated strain, he t ' ' 
the intluence of ideality on character. The brief passag^^ 
follow will afford an idea of the style in which tlio di^iissioa ii^ 
carried forward : — 

"In (lie fornifition of character, ideality exerts un influence 
highest importance. It 13 the cliannel by which llie coriccivnblc -cAjwa 
of (leairp or aversion are bronglit nearest to llie sprirj^ of volnniary 
action. From tlioFp suppodablo events which are conliuually riuwinj 
through Ihc mind, wo form rules of contact, or receive imprewuut^ 
which iuiperceptibly govern us in the concerns of real life. V ' " 
lacclitnlion that wo nurture Ihoee innate feelinga which pve in 
action, itnd detennine its mode. lie wlio accustoms himself tn 
cipliiic, who withdraws from liie bustle of llie world, and in iTui , . . 
cobtetiiplates imBginnry cases and determines how he ought lonct xtoAtt 
them, frnnies for him^filf a f^yFtom of government with less lislulll 
error than lie wm do in the tumultuovis scenes of active Ufc," 

** That we can modify our dispositionit, is perhaps sulHciently obv 
thouj^ti too oHcn overlo<^kcJ in its practical np{>1icatin[i. The 
means hy which these modinoalions are effected, wo beltttre Id be j 
cea^c* of ideality^ and the principjd causes of the ^^ ' 
ohnrartcr ore, the perversion of these processes to fosi- 
and the want of ihelr ntfluence in counterttcting the eSecL-* of fxtfnuT 
causes. Fortunately, the occasions of life which have a tendeii 
warp the di:«position, though frequent, have their intervnli*, are 
sicntf and in some degree neutralize each other. The forffl^ v( itli 
may always be brought to mind, and, if we encourage llic preseno 
those only which arc pnre and elevated, we ?hall, as a consequeuc 
come mure and more refined and ennobled. Withont this countff 
ing principle, our moral nature would be the sport of ehance, luib 
be irretrievably driven from its cuu^^c by every caiTcnl of feelingi 
every storm of passion. Character would then dep«nul .>n nr^Md 
and iihysical causes." 

" We have already spokon of ttio power of ideality in i'.nn\/\i 
fall int/> the same chaniich of thought which our aapinintan 
purstie. If we mif^taVc qov,i\»% i&^tiniculftrly obvious in the applie 



dita 



itffti^ 



Eid 



it which wc arc now winsitlcJing. ITow nflcn, when wo have deter- 

Rinrtl on a course of condiietf purticulurly wlien (hut deUTnunalton is 

tincrd undrr the influence of exciting circuiiiBtAiiocs aro we led lo siift- 

Bl the propriety of it, by thinking how some friend would view il 1 

fe pat ourselves in hii postilion, look ai it calmly ai he would do, ea- 

ftTor lo get the snme aspect m would be presented to hitn, ntid then 

rhnps discover that our own vision had been diittorted, and led u» into 

■rror. In tlii.-} way, through (he medium oi' this faculty, we make the 

Krtue and di»cri:iion of our friends nvuilabt'c to us. We use their modes 

' thought lu mould our owu." 

Psychological observations on the subject of inspiration and 

ophtiny, which throw light on rehgioua phenomena generally 

ansiUcrcd iuexjjicahle, form one of the most interestmg fea- 

of the (.'smiy. The two leuding functions of the mind, 

intnitive and the abstTactivc, the poetic and the scientific, 

^considered in tlieir fundamental character, their separate 

Dies, and mutual relations. We subjoin a few [karaj^raphs 

additional illustrations of tho character of tlio discussion : — 

"Wo jit'cd not urge thnt this power of idenlily, by which we revive 
kft post, bn;^hton the present, and anticipate the future, h (he highest 
Sowrocm of buniiinity. It k also that attribute of the finite spirit 
rhidi must nearly correfponds to tlint of omnipresence in the inBnite. 
ly the exercice of this faculty, every place and every object of its 
'- is inndo prciient to the mind ; and, ifil he not equully proper 
a mind ia present to them, this power furnishes an equivalent, 
Irhicfa in efll-ci mnkce mind not oniniprescut bccnuse, and only lifcaa?e, 
il* "not omtii^cient and omnipotent. For, if we knew all thing?, wo 
auld make (hem nil present to ua in the form of ideals ; and. if there 
^rre nu Umii to this power, wc could embrace them nil at om-c ; and 
Ls would be equivalent to being everywhere present at ihc^amc timet 
r, if wc miiy so exprv«<i it, mind, as manifested in rann, has ajimie pre9~ 
rhich has dte >ame relation to oinni'pretence which its finite knowl-^ 
fcnd ponei- have to the other two great attributes of the universal^ 
Itelligynce." 
** To eJicit the emotions in a happy manner requires a knowledge, not. 
»ly of the niceties of langunge, but uf the intricate and delicate relationi 
jiig-s, united to a discriminnting taslc,which neither perplexes' 
.ly, nor wearies attention by prolixity, nor offend*! ihe vanity 
beJiig too miiiule. The poet must frequently give only the promi- 
ent UcmU, and leave the imuginatiun lo supply tho rest. The reader 
,«riU tliui have bis faculties more excited, and fiU U)^ V\va \Ao■t^La\xv «. 



376 



The WrUmgi of Mr, Rowland O. Hazard, [( 



manner mosl agreeable (o himself; and, reTelling in what tho« 
Ihe crciilions of his own funcjr, he will cheerfully awanl tl*e mn 
pntUc to thai which luis prox'okeU him to thought, mid \n\\. 
the elevatkm of conscious power. We may here remur.. 
obscuritj" in expression, or ambigaity in terms, when ko employed 
coaccntrate rather than distract attention, may greatly ftseist thi* c! 
ami, ftl the srtDic time, repel the nttentioii from the tcTms to lh« iile 
to which they allow a greater latitude, but may stlU, ia some m 
conti-ol." 

" Although the poetic and prosaic modea of mind are H'Idom ft! 
untied in their highest perfection in the same individual, yet every 
of the subJL'cl indicates that it is hy a combination of them thut the 
est intellectual power U produced. It is then ibo union ofacUi 
etroDgtii, — the beauty of poetry tningUiig its vivucify and softni 
the sterner und stronger attributes of reason. 80 neccbsary ^loes 
combinatiuu ap[>ear, in order to give efllctency to talentt that wo tl 
should hazard little in asserting that every great enierpn^i« in plul 
had been accomplii-hcd by n (Mwerful imagination, controlled and di 
by yet more powerful reasoning faculties ; nnd that every grund achi^ 
tuenl in poetry had been eflccted by strong reasoning powers, eui 
ond impelling n yet more vigorous imagination. In grrat n^" 
the absence of either endowment, but only i\\(; prfdominnntr > 
iug or ideal faculty, which forms the distinction, and determines the d 
acter to the one or the other class." 

Tho niature.st and moat elaborate of the vriUngs of Mr. 
ard is his work oa tlio Will. IL was uiulertakca jmrtU 
doforonco to a request of Chanuing, who, like man/ otfai 
appears to have been of I)r. JolitiBon's miud, tliat ** all tU 
is against the freedom of tho will, all cxpeviGiiec hi fuviir^ 
it." Remarks of Mr. Hazard on this subject, e»|K*ciall; 
reference to Kflwni'ds's argument, so ini|tro83ed Cbanninc, 
lie urged Uic preparation of a book in answer to ihuL 
treatise. Tho work which Chatniiiig desired to be written 
not see the light until long after tho sn^^gcHtion was made, 
was published in 1864. After a briof Preface, wluch viudi 
tho dignity and. importance of metaphysical studios, the 
enters upou an oxfK)Bition and dufonco of his *,y»tc*m. We 
coed to give a summary view of its leading features. 

To mind, Mr. Hazard afHrms, causal ugonoy pro-emiDeutl; 
not exclusively, belongs. Of the existence of muttor as a 



■a 



10.] The Writings of Mr. Ilf>u'land Q, Hantrd. 377 

Bl entity there ia no decisive proof. The sensations of which 
[are conscious, and on which a belief in matter is founded, 
be the idcoa of Ootl directly imparted to us, the ** laws of 
l>oing,a synonyme for the uniform action of tlic Su- 
ae Intelligouce. But, granting the objective reality of 
Iter, we must fuid all its causal agency in its mtition. Its 
*ion has been eternal, or it has been communicatcfl to it 
without. U is domoustrablo that the causal power ex- 
od in motion would tend to exliauat itaelf. Hence, if motion 
il>een from eternity, this jwwer is reduced to an infuiitesi- 
If it commenced with its present conditions, therefore, 
tiuterference of an intelligent cause must hare been roquisite, 
Uiistain any appreciable power in matter as cause. If it com- 
(iiced with other conditions, a like intctrfcrenco was required 
tian^ them to the conditions which now exist. So that tho 
Dnt iuflufinco of matter, by mcana of motion, must result 
the action of intelligence. Wmd, on the contrary, is pos- 
'. of an ori^nal, causal agency. Its sensations and emo- 
H9 arc not subject to will. Nuither is its knowledge ; ulthough 
[trill we can produce Ute conditions favorable to the acquisi- 
of knowledge. The mind has but one real faculty, or 
irer, to do unytlung, and tliis faculty is the wtV/. Tlirough 
; faculty the mind puts forth elfort. The olyect of every act 
ia to produce some eflfoct in the futm-e. Its immediate 
ect is to influence mental activity, or to move the l>ody. 
lore, then, in the will, is the fountain, and the sole fountain, 
^tlie miud*s cauHat agency. And what is liberty ? It is the 
of compulsion, constraint, coercion. The freedom of 
is an exprcsiiion of the fact that tlic muid cuntrols its 
action, exempt from all constraint. Self-determination is 
Jico of freetlom. Here is a cause which is not moved 
by anythmg else, but is Belf-uiovcd. It is true that there 
> ooiulitions precedent, without which its action is iusuppos- 
Theso conditions are want and knmvled^e. Tlier<! must 
>nie want of which the mind is sensible, and a preconcep- 
of a way or ways in which this want may be satisfied, 
thout this prophetic jwwer volition would l>6 imjiossible. 
neither the want nor the knowledge, which are the condi- 
of volition, are endued with efficiency, T\\ei^ iir^ o^^ 



378 



Tfu: Writings of Mr, liowiand Q. Ettzard, [C 



occasional cnnsoa. It ia true that volition does not tlwni 
low iuiincdiatcl)' on ttio consciousiieAft of a waut anil the 
edge of the meaiia of sujiplifiag it. The mind may ddib 
fts to whether it will gratify its want, or which of varioosi 
flictinp wanta it will gratify, or what course, out of serenl I 
which may be opon, it will adopt for the purpt^sc of attaJDUi| 
the end. But deliberation is volniitmy, and is iuilialcd 
act of will. Whether the mind will seek for more knowii 
prior to putting forth the act of volition, and how mnch tin 
will flpond in this process of consideration, it m for the wil 
the mind willing, to determine. The determination or d«tci^ 
however, which is termed choicfy is not an act of wiU,^ 
purely a perception, — an act of the knowing capacity, 
a prominent feature of Mr. Hazard's system. Having flai | 
attained to the requisite knowledge as to what its want La* iM 
what is the liest method of niiniatering to it, tho mind 
puts forth its activity in the fonn of volition. The wil 
strictly a creative power, and tho mind of man has jxiaK 
aame power iu kind as belongs to God. Aside from the i 
giving existence to matter, of which we can form no concep 
and of which there exiKts no ])roof, the creative jiowcr of 1 
is possessed, though in vastly less measure, by his ratid 
crcitures. Tho knowledge of man is limited, and thus U* 
sphere in which his will can be exercised in propnrtl 
restricted. But the human mind, like the divine, is itiii. i^?:^ 
by it^ preconceptions of its own effects; it ia drown for 
to speak, by the future, and thus is truly a first cause. 

Matter, l)cing unintelligent and without will, must be 
trolled iu its changes by a power without itself. At leaet, i 
has no |K)wer to vary the effects of its own motion, on *' 
position that motion originally belongs to it. In ordc: 
existence of will, thcrd must be at least one want, wil 
knowledge of at least one way of supplying it. In the< 
instinctive action this knowledge is intuitive. It is fn 
to the being without his own action. Hence the el 
deliberation is absent. Rational actions are according 
plan which the being who performs them has contrived. 
hitnal action is tlic action of a finite, intelligent being, ioj 
formity to a plan of iia owvi, with which pracUoo hus 



The Writinf/9 of3tr, Iti/ipfand O. WazarS. ST9 

t famniar tliat each succostiive stop ia token withniit tho need 
examination. Hpnce habit is called second nature. Tho 
totAry action of human beings is first instinctive, Tho 
iis of it. is our innate wants and intuitive knowledge. 

capable of modifying bis wanU by increasing hifl 
Hence his st^ntiincnts are largely, tbouyb in- 
tlj, under hi» control. The knowledge of each individual 
I to wliat i» morally right is for him inftdliblo. lie is respon* 
i\v only for failing to put fortii tlie I'flfurfs which are conformed 
WHb knowledge or sense of right. The persevering effort to 

I noble and good is, itself, being noble and good. Tho effort, 
Ut he real, is here tho consummation. 

Mr. Hazard's system is brought out more fully in the second 

*' 'ng treatise, which comprises his Review of Kdwards, 

' ology of Kdwards in defining tho will is subjected to a 

chiug criticism. Especially is the propriety of his idcntifica- 

^n of choice and volition disputed. That Kdwards involvca 

leclf in ambiguity and inconsistency by making choice, 

|lioh with liim is asynonyme of volition, equivalent to "being 

1, or dirtpleaaed " with a thing, while in other places 

t&tt^r state of mind is made the antecedent and ground of 

clioicc, w clearly set forth. The definition of liberty which 

[given by Edwards is simply a definition of extenial lil>erty. 

asfiumefl a necessity of connection between the acts of the 

II and ** such moral causes as the strength of inclination, or 
tiro." This incliuation may be so strong in one direction, 

^rs Kdwards, thut it is impossible to surmount it. But '* in- 
lation " and " bias " are, by his definition, previous choices, 

I argument for moral necessity generally goes no fart her tlian 
I prove tho incom{iatibility of two opposite choices at the same 
iG. But if his idea Ix; that the mind cannot overcome its own 
; inclination,thcn, according to Mr. Hazard, this fact, being 

I to the aliHcnce of want or tho presence of a conflicting want, 

lot inconpistcht with freedom. The inability to will when or 

[lat a man does, not want to will, is not opposed to liberty. 

Iwards'a favorite method of confuting his opponents, tho 

ror^ntca of sclfnletAirmination, is the reditclh ad ah.'ivrdum. 

their aAsortion that " one can choose otherwise than ho 
iy chooses, if he will," it ia replied, that, o& ^-^-V^" 



380 



The Writtifffs qf Mr. Rowland O. Hazard, [C 



and "chooso" are ccimralont terms, their propofti*'- 
that a choice is itself chosen, which leads to an uii^ 
But it is one thing to saj that ^' Die vnW determines its o' 
acte by choosing its own acts," and quito another tiling to 
that '* the will doteruiiues its own acts in tlie exercise 
power of willing and choosing." Edwards confounds the 
statements ; whereas tJio latter docs not of necessity imply 
absurdity of choosing choices, but merely identifies the 
Bolf-determination with the act of choosing. Thoy arc one 
the sanie. 

Tlie main arguments of Edwards for the doctrine of neces- 
sity arc 'found in the application of tlic maxim, an creui 
without a cause, to the phenomena of the will, "Wl»j, la 
any given case, did the mind choose as it did, and not rttfacts 
wise ? It is not sufficient, says Edwards, to attribute UiB 
event to the power of choice, or to the general activity of thJ 
mind. What we have to account for is, the spccificatioo of U* 
choice, — the choice of one thing rather than another, Btrt 
Edwards solves the problem himself, by one of the mod* 
wliich he states it. *' Active nature," he says, *' is n 
thing; it is an ability, or tendency, (tf nature, to action 
erally taken, which may be a cause why tlio soul acts as 
Bion or reason is given." In regard to this sentence. 
Hazard observcH: *'He virtually admits all that is essentii 
my system; i. e. that the soul has an ability to action, 
it may use when it sees a rea.son, aud that its effort, or 
will, is but an exercise of this general abilitt/ or powoF 
action, which it directs or determines to some pitrfU'uJar oct 
by means of its knowledge." The activity of the soul in wiB* 
ing is not prior io the act of willing, but is identical 
The mind determines and controls iLsolf in the act of w..., 
is not determined by any power extrinsic to itself: this 
freedom. "If, to the question pro|>("»sed by Edward?!, * 
the soul, of man uses its activity as it does," it should 
plied, that int^jUigence, from its very nature, has a fi 
determine, or to direct its activity, it would bo in oonfc 
to his own previous statements, that the mind has a faculi 
which it wills, and that an act of volition h a detOTUittfti 
the mind." The vrholc ?\u<i«tion really is whether aa »1 



■■--^ "*^-^ 



18G9.] The Writmg9 of Mr. Mmdand G, Hazard, 



881 



msc, — a caiiRO not necessitated to act as it does, but self- 
loviiig and sclf-dircctcd, — is conceivable, Mr. Uazard pre- 
Bts a very ingenious refutation of the argument for neccs- 
bi^ derived from the alleged uaifonuity in the action of the 
riU under like circumstances. Supposing tJiat such a uniform- 
exists, — timt is to say, that the will in the same circum- 
acci* will always act in the same way, — there is no warrant 
' the inference Ihut its action is necessary. The mind may 
eety direct its voluntary action with uniformity, and this 
'^y is just as explicable by referring it to liberty as to 
I y. For example, if I go from my dwelling to the post- 
CTCry day in the year, and each time take a direct and 
sy way, instead of a circuitous and difficult oiie, this last 
cumstance affords no proof that I do not elect tlie path 
ith perfect freedom. There is no more evidence of necea- 
l&y, from the uniformity of my action, than if 1 were occasion- 
lly to break up tliia uniformity by taking the other way. Mr. 
denies tlie truth of the proposition that the same 
auscs in the same circumstances necessarily produce the same 
cts. If wo understand him, ho oven questions tlte fact of 
a uniformity in voluntary actions as forms the basis of 
doctrine. lie holds that wliere there is a reason for 
ilocting one of several olijccts, but no reason or motive for 
Meeting one of them rather than another, the mind still can 
Dt fortli its voluntary effort and take one arbitrarily, or frame 
itself a perfectly arbiti*ary rule for the regulation of its 

lactiou. , 

One of Edwards's proofs of necessity is drawn from the fact 

of the foreknowledge of God. Actions which are not deter- 

l mined by antecedent causes, ho argues, canuot be foreknown or 

jredictod. The divine government over the world, ho contends, 

\ would be overthrown on the theory which he opposes. Mr. 

[Htttard meets this argument by admitting that foreknowledge 

i n inseparable from predetermination ; but he rejects the infer- 

ODCG, holding that foreknowledge is not necessary to the divine 

iiniaistrution. The Deity, in tlie very fact of giving existence 

froe agents, foregoes the prescience of their voluntary ac- 

as ; but such are his resources of knowledge and power, 

it be kaows all the possible exertions of free agency on the 



882 



The Writinga of Mr. liowland G. ffazard. 



part of his creatures, and, ns these exertioiu occur, hft< 
sdapt his action accordingly. In short, Mr. Ilozard doaiti 
that forcknowlodge — boyoud tlie foreknowledcv « 

possihle — is neeOftd to the conduct of the diviui.' ..^ 

tion and to the realization of tlio benerolcnt piir|>OBGs of Got 
It is tlio same ground that was t^aken by some of i* 
Sociuian theologians. Wo differ from Mr. Huxard 
point. It cannot be proved that the infallible foreknowl 
of free actions is a contradiction. To say tliat on event 
libly foreknown " raii.st Iiappen,'* is ambiguous. There 
logical necessity, indeed, that it should be, but no real ni 
8ity,for the plain reason tliat foreknowledge is not 
we i*emember an event, it munf have occurred ; but 
to say that it was a necessitated event. Koreover, Doili 
gained to the argument for freedom by the denial of foi 
edge, since every actual event, and thus every fn'e act, wi 
tcccdeutly certain to occur. There is an antecedent ecrtaiaCyt 
and nothing is lost by allowing that this was knov 
telligent being. If to-day 1 freely will to make a t 
ney, or to give a sum of money to a certain )>oor man, it 
true proposition yesterday, and from all ctxTnity, that I si 
to-day thus will. It was a tnio proposition, whether aj 
was cognizant of tJie truth or not. Tliere is nothing to 
against freedom, in foreknowledge, that docs not inhere cqi 
in this antecedent certainty which we intuitively see to 
In truth, there is nothuig in either, in themselves coowi 
that at all affects the question of liberty or nccesi»ity. 

Mr. Hazard's coiTcspondence with Mr. Mill relates 
pally to the subject of causation. With Mr. Mill, CAi 
nifies only the assemblage of antecetlents which - 
invariably follows. Causal agency, or t!ie exertion ■ 
the usual sense of the term, is eliminated, as being 
of the existence of wliich we have no proof. It ft 
the distinction of cthcieut and occasional cauAcs di 
since efficieucy itself has no real existence. Mr. Mill 
the doctrine of necessity, since this word presuppo««« 
agency, which his system does not admit. But he coni 
the same invariable seqaenco in the phenomena of the 
prevails in the operations of material nature. That is 



^^ 



The Writings of Mr. R&wltrnd G. Hazard. 883 

same mind ia tlie same circumstancos alvra^s wills in the 
way, Itcspocting tlio ot\\^i\ ol' the notion of causation, 
licli Mr. Ilazar4, with many other philosophers, attributes to 
conscious voluntary efiTorts, pnxhioing nmscnlar exertion^ 
r. Mill l)ringH forward tlie argument of ^^i^ AViliiam Hiimilton, 
tills cunnot ho the case, since between the volition, and tho 
>tion of tlie arm, or any otiier meral>er, there intcncnc links 
cause and etTocf of whiuh the mind, in the act of will, can 
ro no cognizance. In reply, Mr. Hazard denies that such a 
nizauce of tho intcrreuing process is requisite, inasmuch as 
knowledge that the given elTect will be produced as a con- 
}ucsic6 of volition is at first instinctive, and without Uiis in- 
'ltc tlic putting forth of such volition would be 
Mr. Hazard also argues with much force against 
the ge^ral doctrine of Hume and Mill, that causation is idon- 
riahle sciiuence, efficiency being excluded. It is 
n Mr. Mili't* definitions seem only to indicate a mode 

experimentally findmg what are causes, and do not explain 
' " citlier onr idea or the nature of cause. They do not 
ate between efficient causes and causes which, tliough 
B8«a.ry to the effect, have no agency in produchig it ; as life, 
lie, is the necessary condition of death. Tl»e passive 
vliich resi.st a given change arc not to bo confomided 
tlie active agency which changes them.. The fact that 
sn diner frora one another in thoir distinction of tho cause, 
the mere cuuditions, of a phenomenon, does not prove 
tioro is no cause, in tho sense commonly assigned to tlie 
" If twenty men attribute a phenomenon to twenty dif- 
unt agencies, it is no indication tliat it may 1^ properly attrib- 
ed to the whole twenty agencies combined." This diversity of 
' as to what i« the real cause furnishes no scientific ground 

I ling all the conditions, and deeming tliem, collectively 
ten, tbo cause. Wo have room for only a brief extract : — 

[*Tlierp ma«t be »ome powor producing the uniformity, the existcrcc 

ich, in llic flow of events, all admit. To meet this necessity of the 

fiicLs the lojii hypothesis of our category seems to have been 

II ap|rt:ai-5 lo ftjUy cover the ground inlendrd, for it tf^serta 
Rl the CAQi^e inheres, not in the events themwlvc:*;, but in the invari- 

* or iiniformily of their Buccession. But the vqt^ lh\u^% \» \m 



884 



r/w Writmyt of Mr, Rowland G, Hazard, 



Dcoounted for by tlie lltcory.are, first,- (he atlrentt aclditton, or me 
of an eveni, and second, tho observed unifonniiy in this tac 
Under lliis liypothesU, if it be a.«kcd why one ccrtjun event lue 
another ceiinia event, il must bt^ replied, bt:ciiu5e it ulwnjs do 
i. a. it doi's so on the particular oecniiion, because it doej) M 
other lllte oeeasions. And if in any case the cau^fo of lUta unifui 
be asked for, as, for instance, why this consequent B ulwayi tue 
the antecedent A, the answer must flill be because it always do 
i. e. it nlwuyii docs so because it always does so, or, shorter, it doeil 
■ cau£4) it does. Nur will it help the matter to iay It not only alnn;!' 
hns b(.*en, hut we believe it alwnjs will be ao. The genrrir. na 
the phenomena are now superseded by llie phmi^ altcay* »/cw«,( 
traceable to the same observed fnct of iniiformily, and ho<' 
ing the plieuomeua in a collective form llie causes of tl. 
vidunlly. 

"The idea of causative power is distinct from, ami mu- 
of the uniforinily of its action or its effect. The power (■. 
(he effect mny be wholly independent of any uniformity in it* in 
tation. It U no less enu.-^e ihe first time it acts, when no uuiformit| 
have obtained ; and would be no less cause if it varied xU action i 
time it acted. The two ideas are not only not identical, btit are i 
tially distinct and dltlorenL 

^' From Ihe conclu&ion which I reached, ibiU the effect i- 
neoQs with the action of its cause, I have already suggested ll« 
lary, that our idea of cau.-;c is independent of, and ite^amble froiij 
of succession; an4 if I was correct in saying that ibe I-.- 
we can (through motion of matter or othertvi^e) extend ibr 
action beyond the moment of exertion is not essential to oor idl 
power or of cau^e, we niiiy from this aUo infer tliat sucoc^ion 'n i 
nece^--ary ultmont in our idea of power or of cause i and ibis poil 
if tenable, takes away tho wliole foundation of the definitions of i 
which re-t upon the mere succession of conse((uent.H lo un^ 
invariable, inevitable, or olberwiee." 

Other (joints which are brought into this contrt)vcr»«y iWi i 
natwro of canso and tho origin of our notion of cause, — as^ 
example, the simultaiicousucss of effect and causo, — wt\ 
not here uotice. 

There is one department of the action of tho wUl, vrhio 
it be recognized in this tn^atisc, has less than its duo du 
attention. There are permanent states of tho will, — imo 
nent preferences, — which are properly callisd |>riDQi|de* of 



59.] The Writings qf Mr, Jlowland O, Hazard, 



385 



^Hcin, inasmuch as they dictate a great variety of overt volun- 
nctious subordinate to (hem. In other words, the miud 
bltmtArily wsta l>efore itself ottds, aud the determination of 
^c will towards an end, when once made, may abide ns a 
■\f sitalc of the will, and as the spring of inimhcrless 
vhicli are put forth as meaus for the attauimont of 
^o end tltus previously chosen. Mr. Hazard has a chapter 
tha *' Effort for Internal Change," In Uie course of it, he 
Fe«: "If the object of the efTort, instead of external good 
id noble action, is tho direct improvement of his own moral 
Mure, then iJie persevering efTort to bo go^jd and nolde is, 
elf, being good and noble." Here the effort — that is, tho 
tion (if the will — is chanicterized as " iierflcvcring." It is 
auid : '* Wlulo in the extcrual there must be something 
pond the effort, — i. e. there must be that subsequent change 
lich is tho object of the effort, before the creatiou is con- 
amatcd, — \\\ the sphere of the moral nature tlie effort is it- 
tJie rorii^ummation." Those sen(:6nce3 open a path of 
jujry wbich tbis able writer has not very fully pursued. Wo 
%y briefly iudic-ate what we conceive to be the truth in tho 
atter. That such a continuous purpose or determination of 
will mny exist, ia a truth familiarly acknowledged. I re- 
ive to go to London. This resolve is a determination of the 
I, after n consideration, we will sup|K)se, of the reasons for 
^d a^.':iiii«t the journey. This resolution, once formed, is not, 
need not be, renewed. It remains as an abiding condition 
tho will ; and in pursuance of it I arrange my affairs at 
^mo, engage my passage, and put forth numberless other 
^HtloDs, all of wliich serve merely for tho execution of this . 
Iginal and continuous purpose. Wo believe that wc are not 
wig in describing tho state of mind to which wc advert as a 
ptuntary state, a state of the will. Now tlio mind is capable 
tseUing before itself ends, or clierishiug purposes, of a vastly 
pnOiensivo charnctor. This explains tlio possibility 
. as well as acts, of the will. The will is not merely 
[ fi&cuHy of volitions ; it is a faculty of preferences, compre- 
fcnsivt^, altiding,'and m»vernirij; in tlieir influence, from which 
blitions spring. These lending purposes or princiiples ron- 
Itute character. To follow out the suggesCvoiis o? Wvv?» \t>5J\\ 
Tou ax. — »o, 225. 25 



386 



Tlie Writings of Mr. Rowland G, Hazard. 



\*\\t\x% 



f4 



would lead us too far into the domain of theology. But it 
be observed that philosophical theologians, like Augustine 
Aquinas and Calvin, have considered tlieuisclves to assci 
their doctrine of sin the very truth rosi)ecting the sim^j 
character, which Jesus taught in the declaration, " No 
can serve two masters." To live for an end is uecessary 
rational, moral heing ; and this end is citlior good or oviL 

The treatise of Mr. Hazard, in our judg^ncnt, assigns 
knowledge an undue influence on vohmtary action. We 
not satislied that what the author calls choice, — the dccii 
how to act, — belongs to the understanding. This cril 
touches one of the prominent features of the system 
in the work. Suppose a case in which a man is cngi 
struggle with temptation. Reason and moral feeling 
in one direction ; appetite and selfish passion in nnotlicr. 
suppose that the will acts in conformity with tJie baser im| 
Can it l>e said that the man beforehand know» that this 
ifl best? We are familiar with the distinction which wrv 
make between the rational and the {mssionatc judgment, — 
conviction, on the one hand, that the virtuous action and tlie 
eatisfaction attending it arc host, and (he vivid eonsi^, no 
the other, of the attractiveness of forbidden plcasiu'o. But ihe 
question is, docs not tlie mind, as far as the judging-faculty ia 
concerned, decide that the right action is best, antl, all thinp 
considered, will suit it best ? And does it not act in dirtd 
opposition to the decision of the understanding? In odi9 
words, does the man not know that he is acting ' " s* 

well as culpably ? He is, in fact, choosing an iuuuL ...... ^uLi- 

fication for one more remote and enduring, a gratificatioo of • 
low species for a refined and elevated enjoyment. The motiv* 
to this unworthy act is not to he found within the sphere d 
the intellect or reason. If there is a more intense excilemenl 
of certain lower propensities, and if this vivid concc 
pleasure to be derived from indulging them ot 
wrong act of the will, still this condition of feeling is not I* 
be confounded with an act of judgment. There is «"■ 
choice — a choice by the fci/t — of an inferior good, 
the mind knows to bo inferior; and for this choice do aaf> 
ficient reason \% \xi bo ^Inq^. If there were, the act woaM 



r^ Writings t^ Mr* Rowland Q, Hazard, 



387 



morally \rrong. We can point out the occasions, or 
ent 6tatC8 of feeling, which aro likely to lead to, or be 
1 hy. Buch an act ; but bore our ciiJication must end, 
ffo wouM call evil good. 

nireelt jihiloHophors, without exception, exnggoratcd the 
Mj exercised by knowledge over character. One per- 
error of their systems was this one-sided iiiteltcetualiBm, 

f identified knowledge (uid virtue. This is tlie vor^ 
olars genoriilly, and ha» Iteen stated by none more 
oven in refcronco to tlio Socrutic Bystom, than by 
the historian. An incrciiso uf knowledge may tend 
tcrease of virtno ; hut it is a part of the mystery of our 
1 rea|)onsihlo nature that we can, mid often do, net in 
jontraventitju of our clearest perceptions. Ignorance 
tigate, and in some c«8<%s obliterate, guilt. " They know 
%i they do," is an ai'gument for forgivenoss. Uut it isi 
tliat knowledge invariably produces rectitude. Rather 
ue that the will and aiTections may, and in unrighteous 
Jo, rejuct tho control of iuteliigence. 
^^u»tng Mr. Hazard's treatise, we have carefully looked 
opinion in regard to tho power of contrary choice. 
te mind Ihe power to choose otherwise than it actually 
loose, without any change of circumstances ? That this 
is Qsaential to tho freedom of tlie will has been a prcvo- 
pinion of philosophers. It is tnio that philosopliical 

fLS in great numlier, — Auguatinians, Thomists, Cal- 
Anscnists, — deny the existence of such a powei 
e sphere of strictly religious action, in Ihe present 
Bdoditiun of mankind ; that is, they deny to " the fallen 
Bpower to reverse its own fundamental action. Tho will 
«, — such is the doctrine, — and men 9>m spontanuously, 

fB sense freely ; hut the will is not free to that which . 
on the contrary, it is a will in bondage. But the 
odox of these theologians maintain an oripnal power 
trary choice as an essential condition of man's first pro- 
and they hold to the present existence of such a power 
•ect to that vast category of human actions wliicb do not 
tho distinctively religious sphere. Sut-h a " power 
" ap[»car8 to be essential to motaX XWyatVf . '■'* \ 



S88 



The Writingt of Mr, Rowlmd G, Easard. [C 



could have willed otlierwise," is a bitter ingrcdiont of rcma 
lu fteveral passages Mr. Hazard socms to coiiceUc tlie rvalil| 
the power to the contrary. Ppeakiiig of a wrong-doer, h© i 
(p. ItJO): "'Ho must have been able to will rightly, for^ 
knowledge, wluch is the only limit to this ability, embraced 
that was essential to action morally right." We road olt 
30C) : *' God never permits such action without a mc 
through the moral sense, warniug us to refrain from the 
Ution or degradation of our being, and euggcsfing sea 
that knowledge which, by a faith in the wisdom and 
of the Supremo IntelligCDce, intuitive or early acquired, 
know will reconcile gratiiication and duty." These paiuagel 
seem to imply that there was power fully adequat<>, in the I 
cose, to an opposite determination of the will, and, in the] 
ond case, to another determination in the room nf the 
actually taking place, — another which would have resnltc 
an opposite one. On the other hand, there nro varioufl 
sages which make the connection l>etween rolitioti and wa 
or knowledge, or Ixith, to be of such a nature that the yf ■■ " *' 
an opposite act of will seems to Ije precluded. Wo r- 
227): "The inability to will what or when he does not want to 
will, is not opposed to freedom. Such ideas of freedom art 
absurd and contradictory." The context may |>ossibly rends 
this passage indecisive as to the point in question. We find, 
however (on p. 382"), the following statement: "Thefulljuy 
of the argument .... lies in su))[>osing that after the mind 
has, by a decision or judgment, directed its volition ri 
freedom still requires that some other volition or effort 
be possible." ** If there is of necessity a connection betw 
decision and effort, this only proves that the mind is of ue 
sity free in such effort." Now tho want and the knowlfl 
are, in tho first instance, innate ; and then, if we imders 
our author aright, a volition opposite to the one that act 
occurred would have been impoBsililc. At least, the ponaifc 
of such an opposite volition is not necessary to freedom, 
mind, it is held, on the occasion of its want and knowlc 
puta forth of itself its volitive energy. But is not tho {lortic 
mode of voluntary action, after all, a necessary effect of j 
constitution of tUe miud ? lu other words, is not the 



^ik 



880 



jnstrauie*!, not al> cxtra^ but by its nature, to will ns it does, — 
want and knowledge, wliich by tlic siippoeition are inrolim- 
^ry, Wing what they arc ? And ia this freedom ? Is it free- 
Din on which moral accountablenosB can be founded ? The 
imifision of a power of contrary choice docs not of nccoaRify 
fvolve a denial of the uniformity of action ns a fact. The 
lor'fl reasonings elsewhere, wliere he treats of this last 
ppio, make the truth of this statement evident. It might bo 
ipposcd that room is (i^iven for the power of contrary choice, 
cases where the mind deliberates fur the purpose of incrcas- 
it.H koowlcdgo, cither as to tlie want which it should gratify 
the best means of attaining a chosen end. But as far as 
t« of will enter into this process of reflection, whether in 
iitiatiuj^ it or breaking it off, they are subject to tlie same con- 
tions tu all other acts of will. Thoy result from a want and 
[>m a knowledge, and take place therefore, we infer, with no 
urc possibility of the opposite volition than exists elsewhere. 
f-et it might bo argued that our author's positions, respecting 
uniforuuty of action, the fact of which he questions, and 
Bpccting the power to put forth volition arbitrarily in the 
^aeuco of e motive to a particular form of choice, better har- 
>nizi) with the supposition that a " power to the contrary " 
iieres in the will. 

I Prom the most recent publication of Mr. Hazard, we find 
It the impression as to his views on the *' power to the con^ 
1^," which wo had derived from his treatise, is correct, 
ia to say, he dues not admit its existence, and ho argues 
xt it is not requisite for freedom. **■ Our freedom in willing,*' 
Bays (p. 133), ** is e%Tinced by our willing to do what we 
it to do, and it cannot be necessary to this freedom that we 
juld be able even to try to do what we do not want to try to 
Want, according to our author, is not aji act of will, — it 
Involuntary. If now we cannot will except in accordance 
tb the want, is there freedom ? Is not the act of the will a 
icssary result of the constitution of the willing agent, — as 
xly Ru, tliough in a different way, as the want itself? Is 
5ro rc«f»onsihiiity, when we cannot avoid having the want, 
cannot avoid wUliug in conformity with it ? Mr Ilazard 
rs; — 



8fK» 



The Wriirngi qf Mr, Rowland G, Eazard, [(] 



*• As a<;aiMt Sir Williiim lliimllton'd mferrlnj; freedom dbrcdly 
Con^ciousncw, you wy, 'To bo w»n«.cioii5 of iVt-e will irnwl rrn^an ii 
conscious, bctori) I Imve dccidrtl, timt I nm nbid lo deciile tntUcr 
I woulil »a/. that to bo oon^ciouB of free will mu^t inojm lo b« runicij 
before X hnve decided, that it is I tbat am to decide ; tItnL I am Xn 
mine my own net of will &t uty own pleasure, or as on exiuniiunl 
ftliall find will suit me bc.'^t. Tbe cairo you 6late, whctbi-r one 
prefer to murder or not lo murder, doea not raise the question *if 
dom in willing, but only of prcfernnir, or cliuosing, wbieh, ibough 
toforc beld to be tbe same ns willin}!, you ngrcc with me is Eomel 
entirely difl^'rcnt Tbe willing to mnrdcr is juj-t ns free ns the wil 
not lo munW, nnd the only que.^linn touching Ihe freedom of 
villing i* the same in either wise ; n«m**ly. Does ihc being as 
'good or bad. himself determine lo mnke the effort to mnrder or 
inulce it ? Whi'ther be determine to make, or not to make, mii)* W>- 
cute what bis character is. but baa no bearing upon the queation of bti 
freedom.'* 

Consciousness of froo will is thug idontified with tho Ka> 
Bcionsncss that I am to put forth an act of will conformahlr to 
an intellectual act in regard to wliieh I am not free. TO 
intellectual act Itoing wimt it is, I cannot will otherwise. t)MI 
this conception of freedom furnish an adequate ground of monl 
accountablonesfl ? Does not the mind, in this whole t " 
conform to a lawof itH being from whieh itwoidd Ite iii, 
for it to deviate ? If it bo said that this dctorniiimtion or 
Bion, which precodca the act of will, is itself due indircc' 
prior acts of the will, the reply is, thut these also con 
lowed back to a primary decision of tho same nature, 
no break in tho cliaiu. la it not moreroasonablo to 
determination or decision, in the case supposed, us itself 
nntary act ? And doca it not im])ly a deeper, iindcrl; 
voltiiitary preference of something opposed to tho highest 
— an iramaiaent habit of will ? 

In this account of Mr. Hazard's treatise we havo doi 
than justice to its merits. The subtile and origini 
of argiunentation which arc pursued arc hardly mo: 
able than the fresh and striking illustrations by wM 
author's doctrines are explained and enforced. One 
idea, — that the mind itself is ca|>&b1e of originating 
be^uning effort \n iUo tt.tsc\\c« of oil other causoUvo 



i^^ifa 



force, — porvadoa llio entire diecussioa. This idea is Bet forth 

aa the prime characteristic of freedom, and is defended against 

TartOQs forms of nocoaaitarian ohjection with on ingenuity 

[rarely - 1. Tlie admiration which the ability of Mr. 

fHazanl : ;^s has excited is by no means limited to those 

fwbo coincide with his pliilosophical opinions. The " Two Lot- 

fter- - itionaud Freedom in Willing," which are addressed 

to ' -. :uid which have jiist been given to the public in a 

kroviaed fiirm, aro sufficient of tlicmsolvos to entitle the anthor 

I to a place in the front rank of metaphysical writcra. 

George P. Fishes. 



Art. in. — Indian Migrations. 



In this article I intend to present such evidonce bearing 
[tiiion the migrations of the North American Indians as may 
jbo drawn from a consideration of physical conditions, espcciaUy 
Ltlie influence of abundant means of subsistence ; and, in a 
fsecond and concluding article, such other evidence upon the 
]>aamo subject as may be derived from their systems of con- 
mngulnity, thoir relative positions, languages, and traditions, 
land in addition, notices of such actual migrations as arc known 
I to have fjccurrod. A determination of the probable source of 
jtbe aborijrinal inhabitants of South America will be involved in 
(tlid gfluerul conclusions I seek to establish. 

Since tlic materials we now possess are insufficient for a con- 
kdosive discussion of this subject, some of the views presented 
[irill be necessarily conjectnral. But as philosophical spccula- 
[tioDB precede systems of philosophy, so Iiistorical sj)eculationB 
joflen lead (he way to veritable history. In the present state of 
lonr knowledge, the great movements of the American aborigines 
Ibi pr<'-luKruHc ages still lie within the domain of B]K?onlation. 
) A probable hypothesis witli respect to the initial point of those 
rations is the utmost we may hope at present to reach, 
will Iks my princifial object to bring together a body of 
AcU, bearing upon these migrations, which lex^d Vo %%*ca:^^\sScw 



39-2 



Jndiati Migrations. 



[f 



their starting-point in the Tollcy of the Golumliia Hirer, i 
at tlie outset tbreo propositions will bo assumod to iie 
First, that thero was a time, in tlie past, when North 
8outli America wero dcstituto of human inhabitants. 
that at tho period of the discover/ of their several parU a { 
pic wore found thiulj- sijattorcd ovor their v:- 
80 minutely in physical and mental charac: 
received a commou name, and were regarded, whether cor 
or ijiecirrectly, as a common stock. And third, that the eci 
of their first occupation was of very ancient date. 

With respect to the first proposition, no discussion \a ne 
sary. The second, thougli of limited significuncc, in nrvef 
loss imp'>rtaut. From Now Mexico to Patagonia, Inchi^ 
tho West India Islands, tho Spanish navigators and esj 
found this eiiigular people uiiivorsally distributed, ii' 
upon them, all alike, the name of Tndinna. They r ij 

ditTerence in type, but, on tlie contrary, abundant cvidcnec < 
common type. The English aud French met tlic 
from near the confines of the Arctic Sea to New " 
from the Atlantic to the PaciQc, aud pronounced them, will 
distinction, Amerwm Indians. Tliis uniform * ^ v ofl 

first discoverers, tl»e general truthfnlnesa of cui 

confirmed by all 8ubBC({uent observers, tends to establish j 
of two alternative conclusions, — cither that all these 
rigiual nations were of immediately common descent, or 
this uniformity in physical chai'acteristics was the result 
continuous intermingling of blood. 

Upon tho third proposition, it may be obser^-ed that tho i 
pation of America by the ancestors of the present Int 
extends backward to a remote ago, covering a period of 
thousand years. If the unity of their origin is assume 
lapse of many ages would be requisite to break an ori| 
language into the several existing stock languages, of 
there are forty, more or less, in North Amei-ica alone- 
number which have perished being unknown, — and (o 
these HI turn to pa^s into the multitude of dialects whic 
now spoken. On the contrary, if a diverse origin is 
it would still require several thousand years for two or i 
families genetically unconnected, aud occupying such Ic 



to liavG mterminp;U'd so completely as to create a typical 
fcucli (ts the Indian stock has become. The hypothesis 
iivorso origin would aeem furtlicr to require that these 
^■ihouM have heou restricted, for mutual accessibility, 
^BTorth or to South America^ and to a limited portion 
^P these urcoa, until the coalescence had become com- 
'^mce the inhabitants of the two continents and of the 
j^ero entirely isolated from, and ignorant of, the exist- 
fpch otJier at the epoch of their discovery. 
ISians, ignorant of ngriculhirc and def>ending upon fish 
amo for subsistence, spread over large areas with great 
ty. Under the o(>oratiou of j)urely physical causes, they 
reach in their migrations the remotest boundaries of a 
eut in a much shorter time than a eiviliiied people with 
ii appliances of civilization. This Important and well- 

K. fact should l>e kept constantly in view. A narrow 
less i/lain might arrest their progress for centuries ; 
berever their feet could carry them, with subsistence 
iblo upon the way, tliey would be certain to go, until a 
cut OB vast as the American in both its divisions had 
irarcrscd in all its parts. Agriculture tends to localize 
6 and wed them to the soil, thus arresting their dis- 
n or confining it to contiguous areas. Abundant means 
isistenco tend to the same result ; but when there is a 
te population which becomes emigrant, it seeks similar 
without much regard to distance. 
ether the ancestors of the American aljorigines were first 

d in North or South America remains a question.* Our 

... — . * 

, Pniiict Wilson, in b'M *' Prehistoric Mmi," nJvanccs tlio li/iwtlicai* of a 
C iif Bvuiti Adicricn from the IVIyntJiiAn Ulan'Js, nntl of Noriti America 
DUlh America. It ii With reluctAnca that I am cnrapcllrd Lu dii^etit fii^ni 
*t of Uiis cininont sriiular, who liiui ilone purh pxrcllt-iit nork fur Anicricnn 
fy. He rttnnrk^ : " From soiur one of ilio eiirly ct-ntTtfl of Somh Anu'n'cun 
oil plantctl on llio Parinr t-^niislj liy I'olvnfMan and uUicr nii^raliun.^, nnrsrd 
■Mfeoring ta[K'3*)i of the Ani)p» in remote prc-liUtoric limrit, tho prvdomi- 
^^k met) iliffitficil itftcir, or FXti^ndt-tl its iii0uciicf tlirvitgli m.iny runiiflca- 
RTprrod tiorlhwAn) tKrytiiiil Ihr I-silimnn, cxpandi-il throti^hnul tlic prninntL- 
m of CentJ-a] Aaierica. wid, flftcroccopyiriB fom timu ihc Mexiciin platena, 
ijwi?*! tilitng citht.'r itdc of the fcrcat mounialn chain, rcarhin;; towanU ttte 
t ItttttmlM of ide Pm-ifif, and vxtcmlintf '"'a"*! 'o ^^"> ^^s' "'" ^''^ Itoi-ky 

_'li the jircttt Tflllty wotcrcd by the Jlississippi nml in tiiUiuami. 

, to ba ftoppowd tliat such a bypot\ivku of m^iux'vuu \«v\\^ft% '>^a 



394 



Indian Mit/rationi. 



kuowlcdgo of the aboriginal inhabitants of South Ame^ 
except of thoso upon the Aades!, is still very imperfect. Dt 
tive notices of the people, with some classification of dial) 
into stock laugiiagca, exist, but the ag^cgute of irifor 
fiiila to meet the requirements of ayst-ematic ethnologx* 
inhalnfanta of the Andes, who iu material progress and in" 
importance of their position far Hurpnssed all Oio other 
rigines of South America, were an insulated people. Tliis i 
chain, with its table-lands, mountainff^TalloysJ 

forms a continent within itself; and however .^, 

information we possess with respect to the ViUu|?o Indt 
this secondary continent might l)e regarded, as a gnidoj 
worthy conclusions concerning tlieir original derivalJ 
knowlerlgc of the great movements of the rcmajiiin^ 
would be necessary. The fiicts w^ith respect to th^^ 
and relations of the North American Indians aro u. . . 
understood, and may contain auflficient evidence for a 
ment of the question in favor of an original home in 
America. It is with an impression of the controlling char 
of this evidence that I shall treat the migrations of the 
American Indians independently. 

At the period of tlieir discovery the American abori| 
▼ere ignorant of the use of iron, and, consequently, 
arts which require this motnl ; but they had undonbftTdly i 
great progress, as compared with their primitive state, 
were found in two dissimilar conditions. First woro tlie^ 
iug Indians, depending fop sul>sistence upon fish and 
Second, the Village Indians, depending chiefly upon 
tiiro. Between these, and connecting the extremes hy i^ 
sible gradations, were the partinlly Roving and •■ 
lagc Indiana.* The first class had developed man; 
They possessed the art of striking fire ; of making tfatt! 



literal difl'ufiiunr of a siDElo people from on« seogrtiptijcat oeiitT«.** tfiA 
Futher on he obscrvut : "But itiilciienili^nl iiT all kaI or hyi- 
GfttioQ (roiii Southern or itisulnr olfiici* of occnnic mifrrotion, itr*!,i. 
firm tliB pn>Hn!iiIii_v of • portion of ilic Norih a 
continent from Aa'N hy Bi:!iriii;;'ii Sirdiis oriSe .. 

h\y ti}- the latter thnn iho former, for it u Uie dnuau: 4U4i iiuuiiiiuEot 
bjirritT." (IliiJ., p. 697.) 
* l^uie KoriU Amcticau Rfiview, A.9ril, iseo, jl 491. 



ritli tltc Biring of sinew, and <lic nrrow-hcad, boili of flint and 
»no; of mftkhig vessels of pollery; of ciu'ing and tnnniug 
of making mucca-nius and wearing apparel, together 
ith various implements and iitensila of stotto, wood, and 
3no ; of rope and net making fi-om filaments of bark ; of 
Inger-wcaving, with warp and woof, tl»e pume mati^rials 
Jto Bashes, Imrdon-strapH, and other useful fabrics ; of baskot- 
ittking with osier, cane, and splints ; of canoe-making, — the 
Kkin. hircli-ltark, and dug-out ; of conatructiug timber-fmino 
lodges and skin tents ; of shaping stone manls, Immmcnf, and 
chisels ; of ranking fish-spears, nets, and iHine hooks, implc- 
lenta for athletic games, musical instruments, such as Iho 
lute and tho drum, weajions, and personal ornaments of shell, 
w)ne, and stone. Tlioy had invented the art nf picture writ- 
ig, unti had also developed a language of signs, which be- 
smo the common mediiun of communication between nations 
Bpcnking la'nguagcs mutually unintelligible, TJioy possessed a 
form of government, and clearly defined domestic institntions, 
rhich served to regulate their political atlairs. When the es- 
prit of their progress in these several respects is fully appreci- 
ited, the differences between them and the Village Indians 
11 bo foimd much less in degree than is usually supposed. 
Whilst the Village Indians possessed the same arts, imple- 
icnttf, and utensils, as well as institutions and fonus of gov- 
Bmraent, they had obtained native co]>per, had formed copper 
iplemenls, and, iu certain areas, implements and utensils 
bronze, and had also worked native gold and silver into 
ions forms. But a knowledge of the use of these metals 
ras limited chiefly to the Village Indians of Mexico and Pent. 
?von among tlicso, little progress had been made in tho em- 
ployment of them in the practical arts of life. In addition 
Ito those fneans of advancement, they had learned the art of 
IcuUh-ating tho ground, which established them in villages, 
nd thus gave them a new impulse forward. It is plain 
nllugc lifo, utwn tho sUblo bfisis of agricultural subsist- 
Bnoe, stiinulatod in a romarkublo manner the development 
Jof their primitive arts. A dorrease in the severity of tho 
jtrugglo for cxistonco, and an increase of numbers iu a small 
1, would necessarily be favorable to tlua pYO^vc¥«^s V^v^ 



396 



Indian Miffratumi. 



is conspicuously sliown in their architccturo and stone 
turCH ; and, pcrhup!) more docisivoly, iu the Iktuju aud 
calendars to measure annual time, and in the &o1 
of the Poruvittiis.* Ages u[)ou ages of ciperiencc, 
situdos of lapse and recovery, were required, to producel 
progress tliey hfid made at the epoch of Euroj^eatt discoi 
Measured from the stand-point of their primitive condilioq 
could the extremity of its rudeness be toiow^n, — the pt 
of the Roving Indians was proliahly much more renw 
degree tlian that of the Vilhige Indians after the ch 
a roving to a stationary life. The stages of progress 
ages of barhiLrism were as measured and real as the 
progress in ngcs of civilization. Notwithstanding their knU 
edge of agriculture, the Village, as welt as the Roving ludiaos, 
were still in the " Age of Stone." They w- 
stone implements and utensils^ which had not i 
even among the more advanced of the former cUiss. Ar 
turc, however, performed ati imjiortant part jti tlio ■ 
the Indian family, altbough it never reached a sti > 
velopment to give to the Villago Ijidians the mastery ofjj 
continent, or to emancipate them from the superior powfl 
the Roving and partially Village Indians, from wlioso 
issued the migrating bands which peopled tlio continent. 
principal nations of Villajic Indians in Mexico, if tlioir , 
ditious can he trusted, were themselves emigrants from] 
North but three or four centuries prior to the Spanish cooqo 
Natural subsistence was contending wiUi agricultural fopj 
premacy when Kur(>|iean colonization commenced. It wi] 
seen in the sequel that the former appeared to hold the 
tery. 

The American aborigines undoubtedly comaienoed 
career as fishermen and bunt^/i-s, but chieOy as 6shor 
and the mass of tltcm remained substantially in tliut condfi 

* In the liiniir moiitlH of tKo lrM|uuiii nnd utiicr N'urthtm In>ii 
crirly .sIaj^o of tlie umu tlton^tit. In like nuinncr uc fliid in the l.i 
of tlK* Koviiig Iniliaiin ihu iiicipiunt fitnii* ooC of which tfjn' 
tarv nTiiin;:^ of tlic A/.tcc«. and uliiriiui<-lv thu iiill hi^licr . 
Copnn munuinenl*. If t'iihpr of these furms U ever rp«il, it l> utu laif 
that ihc kt'V' will be funnil in thitt luiifrnaifu of Jtii;n«, which U Ntill in cinimd 
uaoug ttn WestuTQ umions. Ii it ft very ingenious and vary exiircaalro Ian 



Indian Migratiom^ 



397 



to tho period of Europoau discoverj'. The exceptions 
Iho Villugc Indians, who, if not a minority of tho wholo 
ation of both XortU and South America, were not much 
ior in numbers to the lens advanced nations." It will bo 
ived at once tliat the hnnt is a precnriouB source of 
:» Bubsisteuce. Without the horse to follow the larger 
ats of the ohaso uf»on the plains, it was entirely impossible 
fltionH of men to maintain tbemselres from this source 
ilusively, or even principally. Increased nnnibei'H incroaeed 
diligence of the hunt in the same ratio, and this tended, 
irn, to diminish the snpply of game. Nations wniild raji- 
perish if dependent npon so uncertain a source of mainte- 
Be. With the supply of fish the rule is difToi-ent. In tho 
in and in the lakes, which are the nurseries of tish, they are 
id in unlimited abundance. From these, as they enter the 
and rivers, ihoy are taketi in all seasons of tho year with 
ity, and at certain seasons in tlic largest quantities. Tliere 
) doubt whatever that the principal reliance of the Ameri- 
aborifciues for BubHistouee, with tho exception at a later 
of the Village Indians, was upon fish. This fact will be 
id to have an important bearing upon the formation of their 
res of popuIationM and upon their primary and secondary 
rations. They were in Reality, from first to last, nations of 
»nnen, who eked out their scanty sustenance with game, 
iral fruits, and broad roots, and afterwards — a portion of 
tt — with the products of a limited afrriculturo." They 
\ found in all tho intermediate conditions, from those who 
astod principally uj)on fish, as tho Atliaijascane and Ojihwas, 
lose wlio subsisted principally upon vegetable food, as the 
tecs and Tlascalans, and with no defmite botmdory lino 
tepanitc one class from the other. A comparison of the 
cipal facts bearing npon the point tends to show that 
«pa« the basib of aubiUtcrice of the Indian tribes, to which 
increase in nmnbors and dilTusion over North America is 
a£cribed. It was by the abundance of this article of food 



Pbll ffpiniDfi fa «xprF«^ conjcetiinillF. Tho Yillage In4iflrin otfiiplcd tml a 
{Kirtiuii uf the ifjntincDt. lUcy yrtTC conrrontcd witb Uoviiijs ai\<\ poniallj 

pi jDiliuiK on irtir >lik<. aitil i)»iiir Dtitnbcr5, there ara strong omoM for bc- 
', hftTB been gro»5l V cxagycnstcd. 



308 



^dian MtjratwM, 



( 



that ceKain centros of population were created « which 5nij 
plied, aud afterward replenished, the ooDtinout with 
taiitB. 

It should also lie observed that the migrationa of men, 
not fortuitous. Thoy are dolihcrate niovGmoiits, under IboJ 
ernmcnt of law. The influences hy which thoy are iu 
atoly liriHighl about are mucli less imi>ortaut than tlie pbj^ 
conditions of climate aud subsistence under which tin 
accompUshod, An initial point of mip'ations 1 
such by accident, but has of uceessily a in: 
its natufal advantages ; and it may be remoto from the 
where the first ancestors of a family were r ' ' ' 
only after several ehangea of location, and i 
of time. Our first inquiry, tlierefore, should bo, whothe 
fact thorc was any one region or district of < ' " 

America which jH»sses8ed advantages for Indi 
far superior to all others as to render it a natural cetil 
population, and consequently an initial point nf i 
any such region existed upon an uninhabited coh 
when occupied, stand In a superior and commanding 
to every other portion of Hs area until (his wm; 
all its poi'ts, or until these advantages were neui i 
change of conditions, — such, for example, as might 
from the development of agriculture as a eobstltutc for fis 
and huiitingi 

Leaving certain other preliminary considerations 
would naturally suggest themselves, 1 intend, in the 
der of this article, to examine, first, the geographical feat 
of North America with reference to its natural highway^ 
lines of migrafion ; secondly, to comijarc its several rcg 
with regard io the amount of subsistence which they rcs^ 
tivcly atTordod to a people living as fishermen and huDt 
thirdly, to test the results thus obtauiod by the -" 
Indian population in these several areas ; and \\.. 
aider the nature and disfrilRition of Indian agriculture in i 
areas, as u means of counterbalancing these advantages- 
this manner the fact can bo ascertai/fed whether any 
region existed in North America posscBsed of such advantl 
in furnishing spontaaeously means of subsistence aa to 



J9.] 



Indian MlgrcUic^T 



S99 



li« natural nursery of the aboriginal inhabitfints of the con- 

BDt. 

Geographical Featurrs of North America. — Thoso foa* 
uwy he considered nmicr tlic threefold .diviBion of the 
ilirio, tho inountaiu, and ilio forest areas ; tlio first being the 
and the lost the most, desirable territory fur Indian 

pipst, tho prairio areas. Tlic groat central prairies occupy 
interior of the nortiiern couliiient. In the vastnesH of 
Uf continuous expanse, and Iji the exuberance of their veg- 
(ion, they ore without a parallel in any portion of the 
th. They extend from latitude 29% and south of it, to the 
ii of Peace River in tho Hudson Hay Territory, in latilude 
north. In their greatest lateral expausion Ihey extend 
tho western part of tlio State of Indiana, in longitude 9^, 
M eastern baso of the Rocky Mountain ehain, in longitude 
west of Wttshinj^ton. Frtnu tliis lino of their greatest 
lili from east to west, they contract gradually as they stretch 
th uorthwiird and soutlnvai'd^ forming a vast inland plain, 
Btod with grass, watered by great rivers, and encompassed 
jforesta. Tlie boundaries of this central prairie region will 
[made familiar by tracing briefly their circuit. Coromencing 
^n the Rio Grande, wliich forms, in fwirt, tlie southern boun- 
ty of tho United States, and following tho general lino that 
Saratcs tho forest from tho prairie northeasterly, a narrow 
|t of forest ia found in Texas, bordering the Gulf of Mexico, 
: penetrated hero and there by the prairiOt which reaches tho 
at several points, as at the mouth of th5 Nueces* and at 
agorda Bay.f Louisiana, the eastern part cf Arkansas, 
the southcaateru part of Missouri, woro originally forest ; 
ilo all wait of this line was prairie, with the exception of 
3W fringes of forost along the rivers and water-courses, 
of small and irregular belts of timber upon the lowlands. 
Bsfiing the Mississippi above the month of the Ohio, the 
riea follow the wide belt of woodlands along the northern 
ik of tho Ohio, until they reach and penetrate tho State 



] lUrtltitt's -P«notiBl Narradrf, II. 529. 
Baauroft'd Uisiory of ibo Uuitcd Stales. III. 171. 



400 



Jndian Migratimvs. 



of ladiana, where their castorn limit isfouodyWiUi the exce{ 
of prairie openings In Central and Eastern Indiana and in 
em Ohio. Turning theuco in a northvvcsterly dire 
prairio touches, tlie foot of Lake ^icliigan at Cliica 
^vrbiuh point noHliward Iho belt of forest along ilxe wv 
shore of Lake Michigan widens, so that the divi 
a number of miles west of the head of Lake .t-i., 
it continues near the chain of Buiall lakes to Lake Yl 
peg. Keeping to the west of tins lake and of T. 
bar, which is also bordered \rith forest, the boundai , 
prairies runs notthwostcrlj to near the west end of Atbsfi 
Lake, where it crofises Peace River, and extends bov 
River, near the sixtieth parallel, after which it L 
westerly to the slopes at the foot of t!ie Rocky Mount 
Knst, north, and northwest of this litie thoi'o is fores 
all within is prairie.* Upon the plateau of Peace Rirel 
far north, are found the northern limits of these matfntl 
and verJant fields, upon which no eye cta\ r*»8t wit! 
and admiration. Southward, along the base ot 
Mountain chain, the lower slopes of which are wooded U 
edge of the plains, Uio prairies spread uninterruptedly toj 
starting-point on the Rio Grande. 

This vast area, which traverses thirty-ono paroilols oif { 
tndo and ninctoou parallels of lorigitudo, in its 
U0U3 expanse mcasiu*cs more than seventeen hun , 
north to south, more than a thousand miles fyota oost to ' 
and embraces upwards of eight hujidred thousand S' 
It is not entirely *a treeless region, neither is it &ep: 
the surroimding forests by a sharply defined Hue. hagi oTi 
Mississippi River the prairie area is a cotnbinution uf (tji 
and prairies, the latter greatly predominating. There 
margins of forest along the rivers und watcr-course», uponj 
liillfl, and in numerous districts of lowlands. B' 
there are irregular belts of forest, which run forrail 
dontly of rivers and streams. Climate is an efficient 



* Tbent arc potclici of prairie iu>rthwc»t of Haj River, in wliirh ttt* "J 
liDfTalo." 5n onlK-il, U fuuiid. Thiv noimnl it ^ninllcr ilian tbr . ~ .(||~ 

bclicvcti to lie iJiu biitno rpccici. Iliivin^ intviTKCit thr intertir 
rcmaitit'il pcnuiincnttj^ in \U'vi Cat nortlicm rvBton. 



Indian Mtffraiiwt^ 



401 



*■ '■ n of forest in the pmiric nrea east of lliis river. 
] of tlie aluioftiiliero from the provak-nce of wlmls 

the tinif of Mexico, which cietcrmines the climate of the 
bgion, tendn coimlantly thowjrh slowly to extend tlie forest over 
tie pnirie uiul lo increase the extent of its development upon 
be Iwrdors of the rivers. After cr')ssinp the Mis«i?tHippi» in going 
Btmird, one findn a gradual diniiiiutiou of the relative extent 
forest, autl this change becomes more rapid and marUod 
cyond the Misi*<inri, in Kansas and Nebraska.* As we rc- 
ie from the influence of the (lulf winds and eouie in contact 
lith the true climate of the prairies, it liecnmes constant 1)' 
rior, since tlie remaining regiun is now stmt in ni>on the 
Bt by the double barrier of the Roeky Mountains and the 
erra Nevada, which deprive the winds of their moisture on 
eir passage from the Pacific eastward. After travei*sing about 
30 hundred and fifty miles of Kansas, to the tweuty-socond 
aeridian west of Washington, the western limit of aral)le land 
L the prairio area under consideration t is reached. Westward 
'tliis tine the dryness of the climutc continues to increase, the 
tccM diminish in number and decrease in size, antl finally dis- 
ppcar from tiio niargins of the rivers. The grasses, yielding 
tbo same influences, become less and less hixuriant, until the 
lines, long before they reach the base of the mountains, degen- 
ito under the summer sun into arid plains. Northward, on 
^0 Up|K^r Missouri, the grasses never attain the hixuriance 
rbich tliey disjiluy in Kaf^tern Kansas and Nebraska, by reason 
■r UiC western trend of this river, but on the Up|H?r Missia- 
pppi and along the Red River of the Nortli to Lake Winni|>eg 
lioy maintain a vigorous growth. 
The nitxst iierfect diHplay of the prairies is found m the east- 
, parts of Kansas and Nebraska. It is no exaggeration to pro- 
nounce this region, as left by the band of Nature, tlie most beau- 
fwl country in ita landscape upon the face of tlie earth. Here 
lie forost is restricted to narrow fringes along the rivers and 
POftms, the courses of which arc thus defined as far as the 
fe can reach, whilst all between is a broad expanse of 

• >*o M.ivLn, nnme of riaiin River in the Kiw dtalcci, " OTtrspreailln^ Huts with 
•llnw Miit<?r/* 
[ t Expl^VHlion^ ior n Railroiul Rutite, ctc-i to tiio Paritic, I. 25. 

VOL. cix. — SO. 225. 26 



402 



Indian Mi^rati<m», 



meatlow-londs, carpotod with the richest verdure and 
iDg the ap|X^a^:mue of arliHticiilly graded lawns. 
ramiliiirly called the rollinp; prairies, becauAc the land ria 
falls in gentle awcUs, whieh uttiiiu an ck-vation of thirtyj 
more or less, and deacond agatu to the original IotoI, 
the distance of one or more miles. The crest-lines of 
motionless waves of laud intersect eacli other at every 
ceivablo angle, the etfcct of which is to bring into Tiow| 
most extended landscape, and to show the diirk jjreen 
age of the forest trees skirting the stroains in f)lcasing 
tra^t with the light green of the prairie grassos. In 
spring covering of vegetation these prairies wear the 
blance of an old ai»d once highly cultivated country, 
tJic soil of wliich every inequality of surface, every stouo,] 
every bush has been carefully removed and the surface 
down into absolute uniformity. The marvel is suggested 
Nature could liave kojjt these verdant fields in such luxi 
after man had apparently alwindonod tbcm to wa«to. 
striking display is limited to alxiut ono hundred and \l 
miles in tlio eastern part of Kansas and a narrower 
Eastern Nebraska. 

The great extent and peculiar features of the central pr 
urea have been brought thus prominently forward for the 
pose of calling attention to two facts. In the first place, thatj 
region interposed a serious, if not insuperable, barrier to i 
commnnication between the Pacific and Atlantic sides of N^ 
America. Between the thirty-second and fifty-fifth parallels,^ 
is, from the southern boundary of New Mexico to the rec| 
north of the Siskatcbcwun lliver, there are but three or | 
four routes of migration from one side of the continent to 
other, — by the Siakatchewmi to Lake Wimiipeg, aud tlw 
by the chain of lakes to the valley of the St. Tiawrrnce ; by| 
Missouri to the Mississippi, the least probable of the four j] 
tlie Platte to the Missouri and thence to the MJasissippi; 
by the Arkansas to the Mississippi. On either route fiirht li| 
dred miles of prairie, more or loss, must bo traversed iu : 
pendence upon tlie limited supply of game which the friiij 
forest upon these rivers and the open prairies might bo 
furnisli, and over which American emigrants, aided liy thftj 



59] 



Indian Mi^p'atiims. 



403 



ioiu havo boon barely aldo to pnss. Tn the 
. i .... . the greutor part of tliia area west of tho 
Wftsippi, and noarlr nil of it W08t of tho Missonri, was A 
litudo at the |»Grio(i of Kuroj>oau diaeovorv. It is perffintly 
pUorit: from Mie nature of these prairioa that they were never 
aptcU bj Lidtau natiouHf except in diHtricta of very limited 
lent ttlonp: the wowlcd margins of the great rivers by which 
By are traversod. A ro^on more inviting to nomadic nations 
poBftesscd of flocks and herds can scarcely bo found upon any 
kitiiieiit; but inaHmuoh as tho American ahori^nnos wore fisb- 
Pkien and hunters, ami couhi not lead a nomadic lifu upon those 
plains until they had obtatnod tho horso, tlieeo vast pastures 
Mre to them a waste, except as tho nurserios of tho antelopo, 
Wm oiki and the hnffah). America, gencrouH in every other 
reApect, had denied to her primitive iuliabitants all nsefiil 
Mjmala capable of domestication, except the llama of the An- 

■West of the Rocky Mountains there are large expanses of 
^kirie, in Cohtrado, Utah, Idaho, Nuvada, and Arizona ; in 
Idifornia, Oregon, and Wiuihington : and ahso in BritiRh Go- 
Tnmhia. Southward, in Mexico, tho spread and boundaries of 
111. ' ' .* have not been so definitely ascertained. Chihua- 
pi la, and Zacalecas have broad prairies within their 

limits, and patches of prairie land arc said to be found, here 
kad thcro, southward to the valley of Mexico. 
•2. Mountain Areas. — The mountjiin regions of North 
America are extensive, from the great length and lateral ex- 
I -n of the Rocky Mountain chain, which, under different 
.>, extends in sulmtantial continuity fi'om the Isthmus of 
i^anamn to the Arctic Sea. lu its central part it sends off spurs 
id transverse ranges to such an extent, that, when to these 
added tho r>arallcl ranges of the Sierra Nevada and Caa- 
!e Mountains, a large portion of the continent, west of 
central prairies, is so broken up as to render it aubstant ially ft 
Duutain coimtry. Below the snow-line tho declivities of most 
these mountains arc wooded, as well as their lower slopes 
considerable distances outward. Portions of these ranges 
sterile, fr(>m the dryness of the atmosphere, yet the gi*eater 
of them are not only habitfible for mem, but wev^ m' 



404 



InJian Miyraiiont^ 



iDain well &tookod with game, and their valloys with 
TOoiB.* ThoBo proafc ranges furnislied, as well lUi Bttt'* 
highways of migration. They alsci trave to !V ivi 

a general direction from north to iwjutli, or tli* 
uot only probable, but it can be proved with rciisonabtft^ 
tainty, that the migralions upon the Pacific side of tli 
followed these mountain chaius, rnther than the \m< 
BOft-coast. With respect to the method of theso moveincol 
is not to be supposed that they were a series of flights 
or nationn under the impulse of four, seeking u distant 
tion by the most convenient route, and leaving not a 
hind; they were rather a gradual spread from au orij 
centre, preserving the continuity of the people ttver a 
area, for the possession of which it was contending with Ik^ 
dering nations as it advanced outward. Such movcm 
result from the disi)laeeinent from within of uu«U(< 
IHititora for the occupation of an ovoratocked area. 

It is another HUigular feature of the Northern divisind 
the continent, that no mountain chain occurs cast of th<* \Kc 
Mountuins until the confines of the Atlantic are reacbe<!, 
where the moderately elevated Alleghanies are fotuid, 
more than filYecjt hundred miles of prairie and forest l>etw^ 
The last-uaracd range possesses hut little importance with] 
oronco to the migrations of the Indian naflons, as it 
encompassed on all sides by the great American fo 
The same is true of the mountain di8trict« in the Biitish 
ineos. 

« AmoH!; ibc pcvuliMriiies of ihe Itocky MotintfiiiM arc the T^tulEt. ** Thtl 
of CulurniJo are elevated ImiwU in the niuuiiniin cotintn-, tinvin^ tliv i 
of \if^* of inland t^cfvi uptienTed and emp(i<Al of their wnior* Xny volnn 
Ttiey present to the eye srenerj mngnificnnt beyond description, 
renohine forctfii^, feriilu Dicudotrs, ami tieauiiful sirvAmit, HiirrountUM 
peuks <if tiio gTvnt Roi-lc/ Tfm^. The principal of tlicso pfirlu uv tbc NoflJll 

.... Middle I'nrk Soath I^ark, .... Hucrfnno I'ark, . 

/;rnn<i San I.tiin I'urk in the §ooihem pan of Colomdn, hnvinj; ta\ ar 
iquare milt*, wfticrcd I.y tbirty-Hvc pfrcninx. — sixteen uf tlicm omptjria 
Kio Grande del Norte, wliirh dowmhroii^l) iu soitilicrn limit.' nl nirttfli! 
ImU lake, wliicli extends sixty rutles from north to tenth tn the cvnm \ 
and appsrcatly wHtn>nt nn outlet. This pnrk is n<m«rkiiblt< fur iM Datue 
tho grandeur of it« foie^it, the fertility of it« Mil, tlic purity of ita wa 
vnsi depo<tit4 of pent in the vicinity of Sun Lais LakcL*' — J7(y»>^0|f cir I 
fiofKr u/" Gaurul htud Officf for 1868, p. 61. 



5?.] 



7/»i/iV« Miffratiom. 



405 



8. The Fur eitt Area. — Tho remaining, which is much the 

rgt'st, piirt of North Ammoa, wa-s covcrod \v\i\i forests at the 

poch of European diHcovory. To tho American ulMtrif^ntjs, as 

tonicii and bmitcrs, they affcuNlcd a Qot inliospitiiblo homo, 

Thoy ofterwd every advantaj|;e which could render tlic lives of 

jen in their eondition capabh; of maintenance. But tho vig- 

lUfl and over matt tc ring growth of fore»t vegotatiou, against 

fhicli they had no power lo contenrU must have constantly ra- 

lod thi^ir advance in oivillzation. It is impossiljle to con- 

BiVB of u ropon more unfavorahlo to the progress of nations 

)mt of a state of l)arliarism. And when, in coiirsy of timu, tho 

idians obtained corn and the art of tilling the ground, the 

lurdy forces of nature first resisted and then tended to over* 

phelm their feeble appliances in husbandry. Notwithstanding 

iiOBC liiudranct'H, and tlie oppressive burdeuH of forest life, 

finest specimens of tlie Indian, north of Mexico, were 

|buDd in the strictly forest nations. Tlie progress they had 

ctiially made, under such immense disadvantages, although 

11, must heighten our appreciation of their natural capaci- 

ifes. 

There ore two soctious of comxtry not included in the areas 

idy considcrctl, — the " Barren Grounds " and the " Coloj-a- 

lo Basin." Tho former occupy the northeastern comer of the 

jutiucut, west of Hudson's Bay. They are hounded by a line 

iwu from tlie shore of this bay in latitude ^1* north to the 

end of Great Slave Lnke, and thence northeasterly to the 

Arctic Seo. North and cast of this lino the entire region is 

ieetitute of trees and of every species of vegetation except tlie 

Schon. It is utterly barren, and more dreary than the ordinary 

lesert, from its arctic climato.' The Colorado Basin is a district 

bf considerable extent, traversing several [larallcls of latitude and 

iieridians of longitude, situated south of the Humboldt Moim- 

iiuB and between tlic Goloi-ado River and the Sierra Nevada. 

litkter explorations show that this area is not properly a basin. 

There is a aeries of seven basins around and within the rim of 

JO Great Basin, above whit^h the lowest parts of tho central 

rise more than a thousand feet. Tho central portion, 

■ R)f-li)»nl»uti'< Joarnal of a Boat Voyage ilicoogh Ru|iGn's Lood, London ed. 
1861, 1, t&l. 



w 



Indian Mit/ratwns. 



whiub foniis mucli tbo larger port of the aroft, is » — -»..., 
into moiuitmn i-angGi$ ruuiii»g nortli aud Boutb, aar. 
Bvoi'Oge nltitTKlo of five thousand feet.* Tlie sterility ufl 
bnsin is expluincd by ibo drynosB of tlio ciiumte, (be taxt 
precipitation l>eing estiinatod at five inchcs.f Notwitbatund 
its inhospitable cboi'acter, this region HtiU sustaiua a coitsi^ 
ftblo Indian population, but of the lowest grade. 

By tlic di.stn)>utiun of the prairie, th(^ forest, atid the mQ 
taiu aro.is of Nortli America, I^oth tlie primary and tbo 
ary lines of migration are clearly revealed. The prir 
line, upon the western half, ia north and south. It was a gd 
central route furnished aud suggested by the Rocky Mounf 
chain- Parallel witli this, and nearer to the Pacific, w^ufl 
second highway along the continuous cliains of tbo Cascade 
and Sierra Nevada Mountaiua, which extend from a point 
opposite Queen Charlotte's Sound to near the head of the Oiilf 
of California. A third was the gen-coast. Betweeu tbo IUm 
Mountains on tbe west, and the Mississippi and 8t. I^awr 
valleys on the east, the natural lines of migration were 
great rivers, which were secondary iu attract iveueaa and 
I>ortanco. North of Athapasca Lake the forest offered a I 
communication between the mountains and Hudson's 
although the principal rivers run northward. From tbia 
northern region to the southern limlta t)f New Mexico, Uie i 
tral prairie area couhi he traversed only on the lines of] 
rivers which ilowcd tltrougb them oaatward. Of tboAe 
are but three, perhaps four, possiltle lines, as before st 
First, that of the Siskatchewun, which furnished the mo^t : 
ble route ; second, that of the Arkansas, i)osse8sing nearly i 
advantages ; third, that of the Platte, which i.H more diflij 
than either ; and lastly, that of tbe Missouri, which is sut 

• Tb« Shori<-st Koutc to Culifbraift across the Grcai B*sin of Vtoli, Ij 
Brig.-Gcn. T. II. Riiiip<ton, \m^. 

t "Tbifi ^real arid rctfion mitr 1m Mi>l to enihrnco ten dcfrrvot of l.mfiiin.iM^ 
parontecn or Iniiiinlc, <ln»incd oitly by llie Cotunittia uml Grc«t CX'' 
any uailct in the Hin. Fullr half of it U tlio Great Ilnsin of the i.. 
does not rc*ccivc! Minicivni WAtcr io iTf{iiirc nny extcnmt tlralnajx*, T&kil 
buin n> Dcartr oi»hl <l'';rrt>c» of latriiidu iiid iovcD or tung^lutle. wa hav^J 
dreil tJiDti.tnuJ Mpittrc milfh, »a dvAdent iti rnin iti Iu uitit out no riim j 
cumulate no coiiviilcrnMc hv^t:*." — UlidgtU't CiitHataia^y of tht UnittU i 
aM ; and Hi/tid Chart, p. a&\. 



Indian Mltfratictm, 

tiallj an impracticahla route, sinC'O tho rlvor runs for twonty- 
JV€ Iiumlrod mlk's tlirough oiM^n prairios. For tho firnt four 
iimdrod miles east of the Hocky Mouutaintt tUcac rivers flow 
jugli dry and substantially treoless regions, and for tlie noxt 
four hiiiuircd through lands not much more invitiiip to fishcr- 
len and hunters. These obstacles jtrescnted a forniidal^Ie bar- 
9r, as before remarked^ to all communication between the 
Pacitjc ftinl AtliinMc sidrs of the continent. It is not improba- 
[ble thut ail origiual fatuily of mankind, planted in and overflow- 
ig frum the \*alloy of the Columbia as a uursery land, would 
each Patagonia sooner than Florida, mi^i^ratin^ under the 
ifluenco exclusively of physical causes. The influence upon 
Indian migrations produced by the comparative facilities af- 
forded by these several routes will be referred to again. 

4. J/i'A/M i'f >SufKtUtm*;e and VcjUrcs of Population. — The 
juadance or scarcity of foi.Kl, in ditferent imrts of the conti- 
Kucnt, must have oxerciscd a decisive infliicnci' upon the course 
[of Iiuliau migrations, both as to stock fnmilios and individual 
aaUous. The people would necessarily l>o drawn towards the 
pons where sul«istence was most easily procured. Li such 
laces the largest development of numbers would naturally be 
»ttnd. These movements would be gradual, and represent 
fSong periods of time, as well as a series of stniggles for the 
jssesHiou of tho most desirable areas. It is difficult to fonn 
srcu a vague conception of the actual condition of tJie 
Lmericau aborigines in the early periods of their existence. 
iThey were thinly scattered over tlie greater \)&Tt of the con- 
it, and held together in small bauds as fishermen and 
tinntors, by the slender ties of Indian national life. With 
[neither metallic implements with which to cultivate the soil, 
aor domestic animals for pastoral purposes, they were difr 
fmiited, lielligcrent, and mutually destructive. One of the 
[chief marvels connected with their history is the simple fact 
tiat so many of them, as we have reason to believe existed, 
fwerc able tA) maintain life upon resources so limited and so 
iuctuating. It serves to demonstrate that the arts and appli- 
3oe« of barl»arous nations are much more effective for Imman 
laintenancc than a superficial cxaminatiou of them would lead 
I to sup[>ose. 



408 



Indian Migfration9. 



A comparison of the principal rt'giou.ii 
north of Mt^j^ieo, will reveal material <1 i 
ahuudance uf spoutaueoas means of suheistcnco. East of j 
Mis!!iissippi Iho mn.st valiiahlo fwrtiou was that whii' ' 
upon the Great Lakes. TIicsu inltiiiil »L'Xui jjroiiu. 
abundance. The aborigines were alile to take thera in the I 
that indented their Hhores, in tho stroama flowing into 
and in tJie rivers by wliich they were connected in a contini^ 
chain. Alt-bough the Bhorc-Hnc of tbcBO lakcii mcosurca 
sands of miles, there were particular districts wbicli con 
trated the advantup:es of each. Of those, the Rapids at 
outlet of Lake Superior, licld by the Ojiliwas,* tho Strait 
Mackinaw, beld at a later day by the Otawa.s,t the Ge^>r 
Bay, held by tho Hiu'ons, may bo cited as oxamjdes. Tlio i 
shore of Lake Ontario, and particularly tho inland lako rej 
of Central New York, occupied by the Iroquois, possensed 
cellent fisheries. But little inferior to these were tlio 
districta of New England, in which fifth from, the ocoan 
found at particular seasons in great abundance, sup(?raddc 
which were the fihell-fisb of the coast. From Hudson 



■ Tbc Cnme tribe of tlie Ojibwas have the foUowini; tejiiend or tbcbj 
" The (treat Spiiit crfntfd two crnnes, n male and ■ fvmalu. in thn itjj 
and, tinviug It't them thn.>ii;:ti un upciiinj; in ihc t'ky, ilirrvial thrm lo 
fciiiun Tor thumsolvejt upon (Ik* enrth. 'llicy were iolt1,'wb«]i tlioy luil I 
wliicb suited clictn to tuM tlivir wings cIum to ibcir boilics n^ tlinr aligh 
thu cliot*cn spot, yfhen tliey tliuulil hv itntticdiiiuOy tranifonncil into « 
wotmin. The pair flew down to tlic earth niul t,\i<^ni » lan^ tiina iu vtsJi 
ent piirii of the coatincnt. They wont ovor the pntlrit.>««, iwid lasted 
ihtt l)iit)'iLh>, n-hii'-ti thoy foaiid to Ik.' ^>otl, hut thty )iU> <'ntno lu th? n»nti 
k would not lusL They pi\i»cd over the gn-ul forcits nnd ta»t«d ih« i 
elk, thu deor, the bcnvbr, ami of tuiiay other urtimals, all of wliir-h ihfn- 
exccUcnt ; hut they reared tho supply of food from thcM' so--. 
Aftur mnkint: tho eircoit of the llrciic hakcx, nnd iftstinji the - 
with which their wuicrs were ituppltvil, ihcy came nt laf^t to the ItApuis at f6e) 
of Ijikc Superior, where I hey fuuiiil lish in grunt nhundatin' tnitkinir tlwir | 
Ihroujjh iti noisy waters. They discovered ihni they eould Iw tuk*'n wlib i 
ihill the tiupply WAS tno\hiittstihI& ' Ileiv,' they mill to cai-h >>lti' 
erer; here wi- will lunke our home*.' Near tliu site of Kori 
knoll near ilic foot of the llrtpiils of iha St. Miu-y, wlthli U ■ i 
craniia iv|i^;htcd. fuMin^- their wingn as tlim-ted. The Grc*.; 
iihan^cd them into a miiii nod woman, w?in hc-nnic the liist i d| 

Kcaiinr* of the Craiio tril* of the Ojilmns." This Icpuid »^ 
t>io writer by >Vii-lK:-t;e-«in' ( Wliitc-Huwk). ao OjiUwa of itM Li 

t O-tiii'-was : ti && in (Bib«r, a a« \n c&ft. 



m&J 



Indian Mi(fratl>m. 



409 



Quthward io tho Jamos the country, for similar roasonfl, was 

fur linliaii occupation. It niquired, however, south 

'icat Liikes, Uio adOitional resources of game ami of 

t Itmitod Qffriculturo to suRtaiu thu nutnbors found in poa^ca- 

loii of those several areas at tho tinio of tlioir discovery. 

rhc Gulf region was inferior to thoso already named in the 

toanH of Hiitisistence it afforded. It was poorly supplied with 

' pt upon tho coaHt, and with game ; I)ut these disad- 

■ were conipensaled hy a genial climate, and hy tlie 

iter pro<iuctivenes8 of the garden beds, upon vrhich the in- 

- cliicfly relied. There is a wide district of country 

!i sides of the Ohio Kiver, occujiying half the space l>o- 

en llio Great Lakes and the Gulf, which formed the poorCHt 

rt of the area ea-st of tho Mississippi. It was not destitute of 

line, hut jHtor in fisheries, and therefore nninhahitable without 

Jtiratioji of the soil. The absence of lakes throughout this 

Ba, and the turbid character of tho waters of the Missis- ., 

Ippi, which excluded oecun-fish, furnish a suflicient reason 

Vtky this entire region was a solitude at the ])enod of European 

liscovery. It also tends to show that the Mound-Builders, 

kho (tccnpied tills area, — chieily north of the Ohio, — wcro 

fillogc Iu<lian8 (probably from New Mexico) ; otherwise they 

Id not have selected this region in preference to others.* 



Tbc carthwvjrki at the so-cfllle<l Mouml-Builtlri's hctta to rurntua on insoluhlo 
Obtvui til Anu-rtrna ctlmolu^'r Tlic iuiilior$ nf " Tlie Ancient Mwiiiin>.'nt« uf tbe 
i(li|ii ViUIcj' " rt'uiRrk in tlicir pirfiu'o {|i. xxniv.J itint " iliu nnrinit «nclo»- 
I gTTJujis uf Kurks pcT5oiiiilIy vxninined tnd curreirCil are upwiirdB uT tma 

irotl About two liuiHlnrtl moundA uf nil rnnni> lutd aiTtLf, nnd occupjpinjr 

■ variftv of puin'iioa, have oUo lieen cxcnTntt-cl." Out or nineijr-firc cartb- 

^^•(wbtch probably innrk tlie sites of Indiun villn;.'cs} li^urcil oixl iIo^cH)k'<I iu 

Bwif, fiirn'-w.'Tcn opc of the same type, and niaj bo ansignud iin!iP«iWlinj;ly 

ilhi? Moqnd-naUdcrri ; founcrn are emlilccnftticAl enrthworiiii, motilly iu Wiscon- 

^nil ti;:iy probably Ih! (usiii^ied to them also; bat the ratnaioin>; Ihirty-four 

!. 'J'bcy niny or miiy not Jw^Ionij Io the class of Villain Itidiiins wIiq 

M. ^ I tlie works in tbc Sciriio Valley. If to these arc added ihc fiAy or 

DMtienl corthworks in Wisconsin figurwl and described by Mr. Lnp* 

%y be uiio huutlrwl and forty such vorks, \arpi and Anmll, |^-nuino 

i^i^tibtftil. Indicating tbe fiitcs of Indian pueblos, of which somotbini; more 

f)n>- ^llh>^1'd niiiy havo been in nctunl occuputiun at the ahiuo time. The 

< niiLHt lie rOifitrded us thu bites of 80 iniiny fmclito villat;e9, cod* 

pifj by iho Mound- nuilderK. TIio question thou rceunt, furwhut 

bthi^y rMiKc tlieitn emlmnkmrnt^, at an cxpcodituni uT mi luvivitv \\vV«>:!iv\ 

V pi-aciicuJ uii> for ti»}§o emban kmcnu tta \ki luutxd V\ %\VV \a TOnt% ws^ 



410 



Indian 3Iigrationg. 



K 



Along the east side of the MisBissippi, above the Ohm. : 
apon its tributaries, were aetUemeuts of Algunktn naliuns ; 



iftfoctory to fidofit (ho snf^^cfUpn than bo solijcct to the mbcfansT En fttlmoloj^ 
eoracs from luindiag such rtrtiiiins tjvcr lo the ciLti^rv of iDVfitLrici. " A liu^vJ 
hojus tlic Urger porikm ot Uiwa works," uUcrvc tlio fcame aiitlK^m, " «n; rcyij 

ouUino, Uie Miuare ami the circle [irc<lominatiiig I'hu rcj^uUr vcorkx 

most HivnriublyfariedoD [crol rivcriermctis Thesiuuvtuiil tlivi 

ort^tir in rnin)>in»tit)ii, frnjat'iitly romniiiiiii-jiUng nilh nu'-h uthfr." (1 

" Mo?t of iho circular work* ore smoll, vnrjlnp from two huadfcd and fill 

huo'lrc'l feet in dintncUT, while uihure nre a mile or more in ctrrniL" (lbtd.fi 

Thv wuUti of the^Q em hank men tA turn for ilic ino.4t )jiirt slight, s . 

six, cijs'lit. ten, and twelve feci in lieighl, vriib n Iwse wf prop- 

jHMtre from numerous cruM-sectiona faraUb«d by tbo jwtbnr?, iim Wic'i 

cintMLtikmcnu are tho lowest. 

I nrn tcm]Me<l tn Rubtiiit, for wIlU it is worth, b conjoclural cxf>1 
UAcs miidc uf UiP5c cnibnnk.iucntf', on the rcajooabte usumpiiort ili 
lluiblor^ wcrc VilUgc Indians from 'Scvr Afexico, the nearest iwint frotu ' 
vniil-niiits I'uutU have coiue ioto this area ; who, ai such, nuubl ha« 
to dioo»e this region, so fnvorablu for an acricnitural Kabn'tt'nrc, thou 
tnfifih aiitl pame. AHyilUii;r<: Indians they wuuld nndenland ttiltirMioa^l 
adobe brick, and tbo art of cooatructini; cumrounal houses^ closed in the 6i 
the|pi>iiiitlfordt:feti'iiTerefl3onB,atid entered through tbo flat roof by Tucaiui 
wttb wbicb tbry a^c-cndcd also. If, for example, a band of VillAf.'r la 
tucll lifthiis, cmiBrwtfd fram dry New Mexico to the SoUilo valley in Sci 
Ohio, tbcy would Uml it impofiiiblu to roostruct hoostit of adc>be brick ahlftlal 
the fro»t« and rains of tbnt cliroato, Tlicy would then be comiK-llcd to um 
vbicti they did not ; or lu build their hoiuea of pole« and liark ujMjn ilw lt*d j 
and thus change their habitj ; or to rai'ie embani'iaenls of airt/i oj u •utMitMdrJ 
^first utitr^. and eoo^trurt their honscK of poleR and bark ujmn itiiit fuuDdnboD, 
notiraprobablc that tiiesc embankments were construetcd for tliis pnriiow, andj 
lined on their toi» with lon^r pueblo huases of ]k>Ics and bark, — tJia bett I 
able to build. Tbi.4 cunjiicturo bat a basift of probability, and will b«tt j 
GXaminntion. If we examine the Scioto valley, tho curthworkit of wl 
but «[<ecimi'n« of the closi, wc llud within no extent of iwelvu milea 
of seven inrge puddo vilhipfi, four upon ibu east, and three upon thv i 
tbc river. The remain* of each of the seven consist principnlly of an < 
of earth, sovemi feet biirh, nnd corrcspondinf^ly brwid at tbc lMi5e« 
square or Bli(,'b|]y irrefrular area, each of the four walls or cmbankn 
about u thousand fei-t lonn, with nn ojiening or potcwny in the middle of v* 
ntually lU esch of tbc four uaj^IcH of the ci<|tmre. Attached, or )|aite twar. 
of thti Bcren oro larva circulnr cncloduroii, each fonncd by n »imlar btn 
embaukment of earth, and eaeloain;^ a sitace somewhat Inr^cr than t Sm^ 
enclosure. Tbc he)(<:hi of ibe walls of foitr of ifaa squnrc enelrjaom j 
respectively at four, i>ix, ten, and twelve feet, witli basoA from iliirry toi 
and three uf the etrculur cmbaukments are live and six foet high 
TIm) emtuinkmenu around the squareis were probably the urn* uf 
since a* the hi;;bc«t tbcy were lieot adapted CO tlio parjiofe. Wlion In asg ibsrl 
of cour»e higher than at pmiont, and probably with (tat toi>s> an<l tide* i 
Ifnulcd. In bouBca tlws ctqcUs^ u^n f^m^uuL tubaukmeoia, sosw of die I 



59.] 



fi^mtions. 



\ tlie occupntiou of thi« region hy tliem waA comparntivcly mod- 
ern, and Uieir dependence more upon fish and game. The 

I open pmlnes vrcrc also solitudes. 

Bancroft ostimateB the number of Indians east of the Mid^vis- 
Klppi and soutli of the chain of lakes, at the bc^Diiiug of tho 
aevenfthsnth centnr)', at one hundmd and ei^liiy thouHand.* 
Thw is as lurpe a nnmlKsr as our information vriU justify. f 

I There \& not the glighteet reason for Bupjjoaing tliat Uicy over 

I exceeded Uiat number. 

In the central prairie area, west of the Mississippi, there 10 

Kbot ouo difitrici which calls for special notice. It is the ooun- 



[dT fvt^irjt}* cnjoynl in « botue of llic Xi'w Mexican model woatd bo rcAlizcd. 
[Indian! ncciutomcd to such houses, and to Kpcmlin^ Uioir time upon tcrmretl roof' 
||Cip», wimM W apt tu rwort to «ucli ('inhjinknRMit--^, if uii.iMf ^^ ruiwlrurl bouse* ut 
no after nndin^ otMm lirkk un&uiuM*', rather ihiin to Uva upon tho kvel 
[p^mo^ A nnmHer of Uicm" crrlorturw arc ton hundm] and eighty fret M|Dara, 
Iwhtcli give* nn niri^"'K>iic kngth uf ctnbnnkmvnt of four thnitiinnd tlirrr htindnul 
[sod tircnrT feet, tritlioui deducting the ripcnin);^, ench of the four cmhankmeni* 
Ibfhijff diviilci] At the ovnlrc. With tacli i>f the ui;;)it i^^intidimtcd hv n hmira 
not Are hanilred feet lon|* nnd of the width of one uftnrtmciit, acronimo* 
tion« wonl'l lio fiirnifthed for a hnnd of twelve hundred Indinnif, — alioiii tho 
■■: in a liirg^ pimhln. The n;;^;*iilii k-ii!,'th of the npHrlniciiln in thfl 
!i'» Kcile, on itio Klo du C'linco, ill New Mexieu, iiicKidin^ llio Mr- 
^•«U/i<c». i> four ihouHitnd H'n*n hundred feet, uliout cquiii In KXwiniiiodntUKU 

^ooo nf ihiiie on the SHoto, con«tnicied ob sujiposed. 

With respect In tlic emhaDlimi'iitiicnclu&in^ circular atvaj, thcftmaller oncti miglii 
ftV* bccii UH«1 in the itumc vay, und even ilir tiir;>er, hut for two ohjcctioos : first, 
want of tnfflciBnt hfii^ht, and second, thni if so um\ the? woii)il fumii^h ae- 
rations for frutn two to four thouitiiiid aitditionui fiersouii, nuikin^, hy tho 
Iit!ti«.n, |no lar]p,i a niinit«;r for an Inilinn villn:;©. Other nsp«. Kueh ut ihiit of 
[a <.vrir.~:r-rr, or villrtj^ cuinmon, uii}fht be »ii(:ttt'siL-d. In nome of thciu inouad* aro 
Ifniii r iJio remains of deeeivwd ehit'fs- 

|i -tiire with n'lfiet-t to th« hi;*licr embAnkmontA cnrloBing fittuurcs is 

IvtU founded, ch-arcoai and luhcs, the nmains of fire-pits, Khould still be found at 
■1» aIqoj; their sominits, nnldss the banks hare hecn greatly reduced by tho 
I and rains of ccDturieti. 
r** Wc gholl nppfwicli nnd perhaps exceed n ju«t exttniatc of their ntirober» two 
biindrvd ycnn ago. if to the various iril^ea of the AI<;onfinin rocc wc allow nlwut 
' thuitxand ; of tlm Kiiitleni Moux, toss than tlirtt! thuusand : of thi* Ir(M)uoiii. 
iKiif^ ihvir Sotilhcni kimlrvd, alxiiit K^virnteen ihuiinnnd; of the CatAwhns, 
tlKJiuand ; of the riicrokeeK. iweWc thousand ; of tlie Mol»IIinn eonfcilcni- 
finef> and irihoi, Uinl if, of the Chicknfus, ChtKiias, nnd Muskhogees, tlfty ihoasand ; 
I Uchce«, one thoo^und ; of the Xatchca, four thoufiand : in nil, it may be, not tkr 
|OflV huurlnvl nnd rii;IiM' ihoiisand SOuU."— //ufwry o/'Mc Unileil Slulej, I1I.3M. 

Consult, further. Ui'efnlmtgli'a Lstiroate, 1677, Col. Hi>i. N. Y.. U\. i^O : Sir 
am JohRioa'« EtUmato, 1763, Ibid.^ VTI. &8S, and Fi^tich ^\\ma\ft,Vl^^« 
I, IX. 105S. 



412 



Indi*m Miffratu>n$. 



try iipOM iho hcatl-wiitei-H of the Miiwi8Hl{n>i, whicli was 
pied liy tJie Sinux, or Dakotaa, at tlii-' period of European | 
oiiizatioii. B'or Intliim occupation it is not iitfcrior to the] 
of thoso previously doscrihed. Being a combination of fi^ 
witb prairie, and witliiu the raiigo of tlio elk aud tlie boj 
it was ail oxcelleut game ooiintrj- ; but it« clnef ndrtUit 
worn i\w lakes ^vith which Northern Minnesota m Wioi 
crowded, whicli were well stocked with fish.* Tbe 
were \vitlioiit Qgricultiirc, and depended upon fish, game, 
wild rice ( Zizunia aquatica^ Linn.). They ranged easti 
Lake Superior, and westward to the Missouri. Their numi 
when first discovered we have no means of knowinjj accnr 
llicy were one of tlie great stoi^ks of tlic Northern ludi| 
and stood next to the Iroquois in character aud strength. 
Pi-eneh estimate of 1736 gave them about twelve Ihoi 
Thoy now number ujtwards of thirty thousand. 

The Lower Missouri, from the mouth of the Platte Uivcr, ] 
a poor country for Indian occupation. Scvcnil sinoll natl 
dwelt uj>un its banks, and continued to maintain a haro 8til 
enoo. Above the Platt^e the forest is confmeii to the l>oti 
lands within the bhiffs, except in places near the mount! 
and is interrupted for long distances even witiiiu tlji« ns 
valley. This river, from its turbid character, is also poorlyj 
plied with fish. Buffalo abounded upon the entire cou 
the Missouri. They existed in millions upon tJie 
prairies, but without the horse to give chase the Liditm hu 
was ])owerlesa, except by accident of position. 

Canada and the Hudson Bay t-erritory were, in tlie 
countries unfavorable to the sustcnimce of Indians. Fishi 



* Thew Inkoi, whicli nro firom onu fourth of n mile (o ten And i 
lcn;*tl), arc connected, manjr uf ihctn, by cnii(iiiuoii!t utiilct<i, ami iirc -^wix^ 
plied Mritti IikIi. It iji a IiictutriiiQ ix-(.'tuu in tlic full iciuc of tlio 
one iwcniicili ol' iho surTflvu boln^; cavercJ with Uko^. I rouDtM < 
extent or eixty-firo miU-ri •lixtr-one lnkc«, in wltlrh numlwr wcrv iucludu 
01 contiunvil clear water ami wurc fram an ci>,'liili of a mile lu ten iiule^l 
Tliey weru within a lieli not oxwwlln;* t«n iiiltv^ In witltli upon th« itiu 
wbidl was a.4 far Af> liit> ui>iiiitry could U.^ seon. frOtu thu Killing cliiinii*ltrr^ 
fAcc. Thc^ti liiku were ufuully woodctl upon the Dortli nnd eiut ililc 
tlvrc'l widi pniirio qq tbu south and WMt, that sbowibg diQ prvraiiins i 
the wiiidA. 
■ t Colon. Htii. New Yotk, IX. loss. 



L869.] Indian Miuvathni^ 413 

JnU W(?re the prlucipal food of tlieir aboriginal inhab- 
The "Thick Wood*' region lying around Hudson's 
and embraced within a circuit ot* throe hundred milcH 
II its slioros, was coUI, rugged, and »wainp_v. Nearly lialf 
this district is under water; and yot it was thinly poo- 
led from Lake Winnipeg to the confines of the E»kimos on 
Jto coast of Lalirador. Thf^re wore no centres of |M)pulatlou 
rithin this area. North of the prairie ai*oa, or of Peace Kiver, 
licre is a gradual descent of a tlioxisand miles to the Nortlieni 
[Ocean. H.h rivers and lakes are well supplied with fish, and 
its dwarfed forest with some kinds of game. A sliort hot 
jmmcr visits both the Mackenzie and Yukon Ri%'cr district8> 
llmt for the remainder of the year it is intensely ci)ld. Rigor 
|of cliinate, however, is not an absolute barrier to Indian uccu- 
tioD, althougti unfavorable to an increase of numbers. This 
[region has jihvnys sustainc<l a considerable Indian population, 
^which, within the last two centuries, through tlio pcacclul rcla- 
?nB preserved among them by the Uudson Bay Company and 
[by the trade in furs, bus larg<'ly incronsed. 

In 1857 Sir George Simpson estimated the entire Indian 
Ipupulation of British America, east of tlio Itocky Mountains, 
lat sixty-sovt^n thonsnnd eoiUs, including the Kskimos and 
^excluding the halt-bloods at Red River Settlement. Of this 
aumbor be remarks: "Twonty-fire thousand live principally 
[apon buflfalo meat, and thirty thousand live princi|)ally ui)on 
[fish and rabbits." • West of the mountains, in a territory less 
one eighth of this in extent, he estimates the nmnber of in 
[habitants at eighty thousand, and tho reason for this groat dif 

Itcport from th« Select CoinintiiM on the UuJson Bnj Company to Parlioincni 
(to IftAT, p. 9fi. 

In the Appendix to this Rpport, nt paRc 37fi, is ihp rnltovting estimntp, mode by 
1 BimpvOTi, pr the nnmhcr ol' Indiniif^ in iho Htnlsun Bay Territory : — 

Tbirk W<kkI Inl]illTl^. tfant »i(lu of ibv Rucky Moantaius . 3rt,(i<)0 

Tlie Plniii Tribi's. Blnckfcct, etc 2."»,1H)0 

The Esqiiimniix 4.IHH) 

Jndiiinc -cttlFil in Canada .^.i^kh) 

Indiana in British Oc(^u and on the nuribwest coaii . SO.ooi) 

UT.OOO 
Wliita and nnlT-ltrocdfl in Hudson Bay Territory . n.OQO 

TotiJ \%ft.«s» 



4U 



Indian MtJjrationM. 



^cronce will presently appear. The significance of thU < 
portiou is increased by the fact that tlio dovclopmout <4 
larger part of the ix>pulation upon the prai; • of] 

mountains was suhsequout to tlioir possession l : :. 

Tlic general character of the country cattt of the 
Mountaiim and north of Now Mexico has now boeu Kuffi* 
BOt forth to indicate the scctiouB where ft considerable 
tiou was dovelo])ed, and the ba^is upon which it was sustaj 

West of the mountains there is one particular difttrict 
rises in importance above all others upon the continent. 
the nortliwest coast there is a region of ample extent, bi 
Pugot's Sound as its centre on the Pacific, nnd the vkWQ} 
the Columbia and Frazcr's rivcnj within it^ circumfor« 
which combined so singularly all the advantages of tJie 
tain, the forest, the prairie, and the sea-coast as to gii 
a superiority over every other region either of North or 
America. Within a radius of five hundi-ed miles from 
head of this sound, — from the Unipqua River on the «out 
Queen Charlotte's Sound on the north, and from the 
to the western slopes of the ttocky Mountains, — this 
embracing the gi*cater part of the drainage of the two 
before named, wub singularly well supplied at the time 
discovery with the requisites for the subsistcnco of 
trilfcs. A mild and genial climate was added to its 
advantages. In the amount and variety of the means of i 
siatencc spontaneously furnished, it had no parallel in anjj 
of the earth. It deserves a somewhat minute oxj 
from the relation in wiiich, by reason of tliis fact, it stood tol 
remainder of the continent. 

A combination of forest and prairie rendered it an 
game country, althongti it was not entered by the buffa 
boar, deer, mountain sheep, tlie rabbit, and tho beaver we»" 
abundant, and aa they found refuge in the fastnesses of 
mountains or on the o]>en prairies their extermination wn* j 
possible. With water aud land fowls of different spooicii 
region was well supplied, together with wild fmits and ' 
of various kinds, in tho kamash (k2'-maah) root, from wl 
they prc|>ared a species of bread, and which was found in fai 
haustiblo supplies upon the prairies, they possessed a 



mfi.] 



IndioH Miff rations. 



415 



no sidaII imjiortuncc, p&rlicularty in seasons of scarcity.* 

}r bread v^wiiA were alHO CouiiU in this area, bucIj as ibe 

feyiuc and biscuit^ and likewise a 8pocic« of- edible black 

Jotw,+ each of which entered more or less into tlio subsistence 

of the aU:prifrincs. In these several respects this region Avns 

9t gruiitly superior to some of those previously named. 

signal advantages which it possessed were its incxhausti- 

salmon and shell fisheries. From these sources, and par- 

icularly &om the first, arose that superabundance of food 



* T)ie kanivh u- a whiU! Imlhoun root rcAimliling the onion. U Itiu a b|no 

Bwcr, ftnd rijivnf id Juno, in ubieli rnonth it is frothfrcd. Id Oregon nntl Wosk- 

pn il w found in (ilmndniiw, literally covering, when in flower, wmnu of ilie 

■iHe*. The kftniA-«h ii fine bekoi, thcQ formeil into cakc» and drin-d In ilic 

and air, after wljifh ii will kcc[i Tor a yvar. It id lioilnl witlt meat nnd nltfo 

Atune. For the porpoeo of bakin;; (hey mftkc a cavity in ihc j;rbi]riil litr^e 

sngh to hold ten and cri-n twenty huslieU of ihe knraaih, and line it with pebMr- 

Aftcr il is filled to the k-vcl oi' the surface with katnnsh rools.a covt-rinjj of 

bble-«roncs it pbrcU over ibc mnsj. then a second I'ovcring of ^niDS, nfion frhich 

hmrth \i formt^l of v\ny. UjKin this hearth a Gro ia mndo, and continued for 

uat •cvrnty huur«. the linic rt'^tuirod for haling. If the fire eam ihii>agh tho 

artb, whl>''h is shown hy a rt'^e of stcnm from the knmuh, the pltiru is ap^ain 

jrd with morur. Whm (he kamash is inken out it is hhick, *oft, and very 

^t to iho ta^ta. It i« tltcn made into cokes and dried, a^er which it is icndy for \xat>. 

n\Kyif pnniruUr* were oommunicnWl to ihe writer by Fuilier De Smot. S. J., 

■ i Oregon miwionary. Governor Stepliens thus refer* to thi« mot : 

'Ti mot forma an imjioriBnt articlo of food when other <iu|i|dira fail " 

^ff ' Uort, H*M - T'S, I't. I. p. 423) ; and George Gil>hs, Knq., renwrk* : 

'Il ;.avo a iiatunil nsourcc in ihcir caniajih, which gron-^ ahundautly 

tlK- j.fjiiitft of W'hilliy's Wund The cainash, it is worth mentioning, im- 

»><!> M-ry much hy mitivaiion, and it ia laid to attain the nine of a henV e}:g in 

thai hofl hccii plonghed/* (K\pIurailoD* for a Itailroad Koute, etc, I. 4, 33.) 

( This mo«a cniws nbnndanlly as a pamsiic on the pine-trees of Orej^oii and 

[ Wuhin[;ion, some i>( which will yield several bushels. It is gathered nud washed, 

|«/:er abieh it i^ fnriiK-d into hall^ and baked in ovens in ih(j lamo ntanner utt (Iw 

IfcuuaJih, lltc hakioi; reiiuirinj; about forly-cighl huurv. It conic>i out in a (luid 

ati% and is moch like Uquoricc to the taste. After dr>-lng it in the sun they cut it 

icmkea nod pat itafide for dm. They aim) mix it with the kamanh after both are 

t>k«il. and U-t them luinlcn together. When they arc hardened ficpamirly itwy nrv 

onndeU (oj^ethcr and made into a kind of chcuse. The kamash in hj}(hty nutri- 

th« nnwa only luodcralcly so. The biscuit root yields a whitv flnnr when 

i, and ia eaten dry. Deiides these they have a black edible root called tho 

k root, and tho inner bark of a species of pine, which is ^iweet in flavor and uned 

riK'd. There is a smalt oak. both in the Kocky ami Cascade raouutiunH, which 

'ivldfl |ilitntifully on nrom of which they make n palatable and nutritious Koup. 

acorns are gatlicred in bags holding about eighty pounds, and buried in tho 

1. Aftrr a suiheient timo iboy aro taken up. tho dhelli ara reraoTed. and the 

' ' ntu flour. From this flour Uie soup is miuic. 



1 pont 



416 



Ltdian MtgratioM. 



which tended to render thig area the nursery of t)ip 1i 
fonijly. Along the inlcta, bays, and islands of Pn 
which haa a fihoro lino of fifteen hundred mil<ys, .1 
connecting waters of the Onlf of Georgia, oysters and 
are found in extensive beds, and at low tide are 
with facility. Tlic nei^hborinf? Indians not only sul^stfitud \ 
them at certain scafion.s, but dried them on strinfirs for exc 
with inland inhabitants and for winter use.* It was tl 
men fiahorics, however, that gave to this region ita \t 
nence. The salmon were not coufmed to the bars uf 
coa.st, hut they entered all the rivers of the country, nnd^ 
otrated the recesses of tlic mountains as far as the trlbo 
Btroaras were sufficient in volume to admit thoir pa 
Besides the annual run of the Chinook salmon, ^ 
of tJiis fish wore found in the Columbia at all blu .,..„s 
year. The testimony of all observers is tho same with rea 
to their marvellous abundance, their lar^^ size, and thci^ 
ccllent quality. Dr. Suklcy, a surgeon in tho Uiuied 
Army, thus remarks: "They couio up annually in great 
hers on their way to tho head-waters of tho Columbia. 
Lidiau?, as Iteforc stated, all collect in the neighborhod 
tlieso and other falls, where they riot in feasting on tlioirj 
lured prey. Tlicy kill hundreds and thousands of theRO 
by spearing. Tho myriads of sahnon that ascend the rivi; 
the PaciBc coast are almost incredible. In many pUei; 
waters appear alive with them, and the shorej< are thickly ] 
with the dead and dying fish The Columbia Hiv* 

• The Indinns t>r Quran Chnrlnrto'fl IttTnnt], ai laio u lUc yoor l**^" 
totnctl to po Jown l>y »<•«. to Vnnwmver'i l^lund and upend the 
(•vncDl It)' tbcc tthcll-flphcriw. Tlicy went in red-wood rAnoc^, cjuii 
In cam* fifty [«rmnft, iind Sflro for miU'K out at s*'ft. Mr. GiblH 
" iIh* triU;* liriin; iijton ilic cnsicrn Kliore pftwedA alsn icmiory npon 1 
■nd ilieir usual oubtoin is to reson to ilictn nt iho end uf the ntlniuu 1 
■boat the middle nf November. It in iliorc that I hey And i!i 
fihGll-ft."!!, winch form a larj;« port of their n-hitcr stork, nn<. 
for Oicir own use and for solo 10 thow of the interior." 1 t:,vi<i'.>iuiia 
433.) Spciikins of the Chinooks, at the mouttt uf the L'owlftx, thr < 
tnarkfi: *' ft wa.i really Uir [irincii»iil seal of ibc Chin ' - 
the CulutTihin niotiily for tbeir spring salmon, while tituy 'i ■■ •\\ 

their n-inlcr supplifi^ on the l>ny. It formed, in fai^!, a |x ri<->-t i 
adiiplaiinn to c-jinoc irnvcl, and the etundane« of scale and - 
nxuhvA." (IViid., I. \'i'.\ t7cfc also p. 408, for an ajccoant o( tiic niii:»<.n 
on the Yoktma. 



In^an Mi^rationa. 



417 



weigh from six to forty pounds. Tlie Indinna along tlio 

ITor collect during the summer the fish which Ihcy wHiit for 

jti.^r ii»i* ; thijMC ai'e split oj)eu aud the lK)ned removed, after 

^hioh they ore scarified in vuriouii directionH, and then hung 

:*hort. time in tJic smoke ol'a firo. Theyaro thou hung 

. - or the l>ranchc8 of trees, where they arc IVeoly exposed 

tho wind. In a montli they hocomo perfcofly dry, oud aro 

iicii luniiteil in small storehousen Salmon thuH dried 

jrm the principal food of the native-s during the winter.'* * 

le eUnvrhcre ohBcrves : *' Tho salmon of these waters, unlike 

\io»o of other parts of the world, do not take the hook, and, 

anp;o as it secniH, they are said never to stop searching utler 

be source of the stream they are in. Their march is always 

head until tJiey spawn and die ; they never return to the sea. 

sis pcoms to he tho general o]>inion of the jteople with wliom 

'. have conversed/' Mr. Oihba, before mentioned, in speaking 

'the salmon-fisheries of tho Takima River, one of tho trihuta- 

ies t>f the Colmnbia, says : " Besidea the fisheries at the Dalles, 

lie Yidcimas have others on their river, up whicli the salmon rua 

rlihout interruption far into the mountains. On the main fork 

In particular they penetrate to Lake Kitchelus, at the very foot 

lliu dividing ridge. In addition to the difl^erent kinds of sal^ 

.,. , ".per, they have also the salmon-trout, two varieties of tho 

i trout, — the red and black spotted, botli of them grtiw*- 

lug to a largo size, — and some other species of fresh-water fish. 

lie DHJnnjn they take in wears and cast-ncts. The wears are 

>DKtrueted, with considerable skill, njton horizontal spars and 

ipported by tripods of strong poles erected at short distancea 

^lart, two of the legs pointing up stream and one stipporting 

aem Ixiluw. There are several of these wears on the main 

iver, fifty or sixty yards in len^h. The ca«t-net is managed 

by two men in a canoe, one of whom extends it with a ]>ole and 

be Other maimgea the rope." f Elsewhere the same writer 



h^_Sx|ilitrMi«Tu $nr a Rtllrout Route, efc, to the X'aclfic. L 299. 

lid., p, 40T. At tho Snnit Sic. Mnni-, ilie Ojiliwas one a bcooii nrt ti> tiiko 

hfiili in ilia rnptilH. Two ui«ii {iitfli out into the strtnm iit n hiit'tilMrk riirKw, 

I lit thv tivra to inuiia^c ilic Uint with n po\v und forcL- it up itic rapid, tvliiiu ihis 

r, -ttin'lii'^' nt the liow, tnki'S iltu Tibh iiy |i1uiigtiit; tliu nut lo the I)oiU)m axv>l 

' (liujr Mtmtiipi 10 inn a)> rlio rii[()dft TUc ^oVta \b ^Vv\c\v \\>fe twx V^ 

i: too hxt lo»i;. Thin lucthod a higbly sacc^uafuV. i 

rot. cix.—yo. 226, 27 



m 



Indian Migration*. 



reriiarlt«: " The fiKhery at the Kettle Falla is tmo ut the 
ioiportiuit on tbe river ; uml tlie arrangements of the Indl 
in tho sliopo of drying-ficafToIds and storelioiufcs, are on &] 
■responding scale. They take the fish by suspcndii 
b:\8keU upon poles bonealh the [wattras] traps, iuii 
aaluion spring." • 

Father De vSiuet described to the writer this niethotlj 
kot-UHhing, which he had frequently witnobsed at the 
The basket is made of willow, from fifteen to twenty foet 1^ 
five or six wide^ and about four feet deep, witli a high 
upon one side, which is designed to rise above the nurfad 
the water. A stick of timber is firmly anchored in Uio 
bolow tho falls, extending out over the stream twenty o! 
feet. To this tbe basket is &uB{K-nded, aud eo far eut^ 
fts to leave tlie back just above tho water up stream, while | 
opposite side is several inches below the sm*face of the 
and donii stream. Tho ascending sulnlon rise nji tho std 
the bosket aud spring into it, where thoy are held, their 
sage up being arrested by the higli back ; aud ^a thny oj 
turn their heads down the current they are retained mjci 
After the basket in this manner is well filled, a man 
into it and hands out the fish. Two hundred salmtm, wo1{ 
jng from six to forty ponnds each, have been caught in 
way in a few hours. They are also speared in great numt] 
It was a conmion occurrence, he remarked, to take 
tliouaand salmon in a day, since there was no limit to 
nmnbcrs, and a whole band of Indiana were engaged inl 
work. Tho tish were divided equally among the women 
day, the number of females in each family forming the basi 
distribution. He furtlier observed that he once si»ent \\\ 
days at these falls* in the fishing season, with the Kooi 
Qnd received for his share of the fish taken a su0icient (|u 
when dried, to load thirty pack-mules.f Those falls are 
feet high, but they present no barrier to the i>assngc of 
salmon up the river. He had often seen them leap these I 
in great numbers ; in doing which they keep near the s 

• ExplaratioiK for a Hnilroart Itoufc, cv., lo ilii' Pacirtc, I. 413. 

t The nativfH alsu |in!p9irc Asli pvinmican from tho Rolmon. AAsr ki 
ihoy }ialvcrizc it and ni\x \\ V{\v\\ ft&\v uv\ , %»d then form U into Oftkik |l \ 
bowerer, keep a* long \n i\»« form m. >)i\wu. AtvuA- 



ritu 



idian J/w/raiiVnt- 



4ia 



descending water, and »hooL IhemBclves upatonedftrt.aiid 

m coutintie tlicir course. It is simply swiromuig up at a 

^tcr riUc thrill the water falls. In these attempts tlicy often 

if and are thrown I>ack into the stream. They ascend to 

liead-wators of the Culunihia and iu tributai-ies, filling 

small streams, where, worn out and exhausted, they |^>eri8h 

[myriadn. They are not found in Clarke's River, howover, 

)ri3 the great falls. 

jewis and Clarke, the first explorers of the Columbia, make 
Kjuent reference to thft salinon-fishcrieH, the methods by which 
fiah wore taken, and tholr unlimited nmnbcra. ** The mul- 
ilides of this fish," one of them ivmark8,"are almost inconceiv- 
le. Thf! water is so clear that they can roadily be seen at fif- 
pn or twenty feet, but at this season [Octohcr, 1805] they float 
[such quantities down the stream, and ai-e driflod aaboro, that 
Indians have only to rollcct, sjilit, and dry them on scaf- 

^ds The Indians assured me by signs tliat they oflcn 

sd dried fish as fuel for tlie common occasions of cooking," • 

thor on they write : ** At the distance [of] two miles below 

the Columbia] arc five new huts, the inhabitants of which 

I ^ engaged iu drying fish, and some of them in their canoes 

^Ung fish with gigs ; opposite to this estahliahmcnt is a small 

ind in a l»end towards the right, on which there were such 

atitics of fish that we counted twenty stacks of dried and 

adod salmon." t These stacks arc subsequently explained 

follows: ** Wlien it [tho fish] is sufficiently dried it ia 

jnded fine between two stones till it is pulverized, and is 

an placed in a basket about two feet long [deep] and one in 

letcr, neatly made of grass and rushes, and lined with tho 

of a salmon, strotchcd and dried for the purposo. Ilcro 

ley are firessed down as hard iw possible, and the top covered 

Ith skins of lish, which are secured by cords tiirough the holes 

tho basket. The baskets are then placed In some dry situa- 

Ein, the corded part upwards, seven being usually placed as 

>se as they can be jiut together, and five on the top of them. 

ae whole are then wrapped in mats, made fast by cords, over 

tiich mats are again thrown. Twelve of these baskets, each 

' Travdn, 'Hr., to tho Facifte Oce«n, London ed., qauto, 1814^ V- ^^^- 
iliiL, p. aS3. 



430 



Indian Miffrations, 



<tt which contains from uinoty to one hundred pounds, 
stack.'* * Twenty such stacks would contttin about tvrttuLv*j 
thotisaiul iKJUiidft of dried fish-t 

Tlic Cohirabia Rivor Indiang changed their rcsidoncCfl 
different scaj^ons of the year, much in the siund manner \ 
aborigines east of the Mississippi at tht- period whcm thcjr 
first visited by Europeans. The Iroquois, for esamide, i 
plautiug their garden-beds in ilie spring, most of Uiem,^ 
tlieir villages for their different fislnjig-encampmonts, Ic 
tura again in midsumnior when the corn was iu tlie gi'eeu j 
In the autumn, and a^in in the winter, parties went out i 
the autiunn and winter hunts, to return before winter 
spring. Lewis and Clarke describe the routine of llie CohiB 
River Indians at the period of their visit, by saying that '1 
inhabitants of the Columbia plains, after having }>as»ddJ 
winter near the moimtains, come down ns soon as the fmair] 
led the valleys, and are occupied iu collcctiDg and drying 
til! about the month of May. They then crowd tlio river, : 
fixing themselves on its north side to avoid the incursiou 
the Snake Indians, continue fislung until about the 



* Travels, etr., to the Pnctfic Ocean, p. 365, 

t hrinc, io hU Bonneville (p. 385), f-ixei sn afcouni of die tuIiM 
6nnke River, one ofilie ti'itnitftnefi of the ColumhiA, lu follows : " \ 
fisii in grvat quantitictf on>l without the Ion«t 'Ufllcultv, eimpljr tnVii 
the wntcr with thvir hinu)-", nii ilicy tlnundcr nrid sl-Tu^r^lc in the 
8hi»nU of lliu principal strciiina. At the tiiuu the travellers pjubcU u\ct iLucj 
nc8, wme of ilie imrrow deep utivaum Ity whirh ibcy wen? tmrcnKni wta\ 
plvtelr eliokcd with valnmn, which they took in great uamtcri. 11m ' 
bear* frequent lhe,<ic strenmE ni thi4 ^eAwn to nvnil therasclves of thcMlJ 
erics." Antl a^in rm pnco 39C : " It wn^ on Oie 2iith uf Ocuitier when 
Ihcinsclves once uiore on thift noted streou. Tlic Shu»honee«, wlHim iJiev i 
with ill arich scanty nnmlwrs (»n their journey down tlK'rii^cr, now(ibM>1ata 
iu bonVi, to prudt by tlie utiundiincti of xilnion niit) to Iny oft n st4K-kl 
proviniorni. Scaffoldinin' were everj'whero ereeted. und imim 
drying; upon ihcm. In »oinc ptuecfl the flhortu were C()tii|<i' 
itrkinm uf dcjul Miluiun, exhausted in nseending Hm river, or dtisuujul oi I 
— ttic fetid odor of which tainied the air." 

In the rivcnt of Muine the same thing is occnslonally wit- 
londsof fi»h are soinetinics found dead ujhju ihotmnkn, mid ch'^: 
Thin is fatd to be oocuioned by stampcUcr or panics among ihu {i-Ii 
when raoviog In largo nnmbora up atroam and enrminlrrint; some ohftti 
thoal water. — the momentum of those below crowding thoac abuvu ini 
■nd furring tlitui finally upou the laml, wlturu lht:y remain to pcri^b. la I 
ner the YhUs of AeKd saVnvoa found u^on Uic iributaric» of ilio Colambui arv | 
biy to bo expliuaed. 



1869.] 



IncUctn MigraiiQns^ 



421 



Bptembcr, when the salmon aro no longer fit for use. They 

|ien bnry their fiah and retm*n to tlio plamR, where thcj remain 

ithenng <iuamaah till tlic snow obliges them to desist. They 

lieu come hack to the Columbia, and, taking their store of fish, 

re to the foot of the mountains and along the creeks which 

Bipplr tamlicr for their houses, and pass the winter iii hunting 

leer and elk, which, witli the aid of their fisli, enables them to 

sist till in the spring they resume the circle of their em- 

Woym*^nts.'* • 

Another prominent characteristic of tliis region is the mild- 

' of the climate as compared with that upon the same par- 

lele on the Atlantic coast. It is important, since it rendered 

BBS clothing and less subsistence necessary, and thus favored 

increase of namt)ers. The mean temperature for spring 

iges from 46' to 50" ; for sunnner, from fiO' to 65'' ; for 

from 50'' to 62°; and for winter, from 35^ to 40"*; 

^ving a mean temperature for the year ranging from 60" to 

The annual precipitation varied from tlilrty to sixty 

Rhea in difTerent parts of the area.f 

Tlie superior advantages which abundance and variety of food 

id fineness of climate gave to this region over every other 

of North or .Soutli America cannot fail to arrest attention. 

superiority for Indian occupation is created in the main by 

be concurrence of a good climate with the possession of the 

Dost bountiful and widely distributed fiMherios to >)0 found 

any part of the earth. These two elements, superadded 

other advantages not surpassed if they are equalled elso- 

rhere, must have exercised a potent influence upon popula- 

From the superabmidance of the means of subsistence, 

vhich belongs to this region above every other already de- 

ribed, or remaining to Ije noticed, the inference arises that 

ift area would develop a surplus of population from ago 

age ; and that it would become permanently the point of 

irture of migrations to dilTcreot parts of the continent. 

The facts aro sufficient to raise a presumption that the val- 

pj of the Columbia was the region from which both North 

ad South America were peopled in the first instance, and 

srwards resupplicd witli inhabitants. 



• TniTelB, etc., to the I'liciiic Oceao, p. 444. 

i Blodgeti'a CUmMtotogj of the United States; laothcrmiV ani"VL^«X»i.Cta»i'ufc. 



422 



Indian Mii/ratityM* 



A larger population would be expected in this area 
in auy other of equal extent, with the exoeption of dJi 
where agriculiure was the basis of subsiHf ence ; and the jnj| 
tion waa^ in fact, denser, but the execss whjs not large, 
reason must 1)e sought in the nature of the instttutiona of tiM 
Indians, which precluded the formation of a state. Tliey 
wore found subdivided into a large number of j)etty natioiu, 
speaking dialects of several different stock languages, wUdt 
are more nnnicrous in this area than in any other • " ' x- 

tont in North Aniex'iea, thus afTordiog decisive e\ni. li« 

great antiquity of its occupation. It also shows that no ttngk 
nation had been able to consolidate these several nati" 
one in this, any more than ui other parts of the c<v, 
The constant tendency was to disintegration, subdivisiouf anil 
displacement. This tendency is inherent in the infititiition* 
of barbarous ages, and continues in force until the iustituiiaw 
of pastoral or advanced agrieultm'ol life supplant thorn. Co&» 
federacies of nations serve in some measiu^ to counter^ ■ ' 
results ; but none existed, of wliich a knowledge is pr- 
in the valley of the Columbia. 

The first estimate of the number of the Indians in tha' 
gion was made by Lewis and Clarke, in 1806. It includnl nil 
the nations upon the Columbia and its tributaries of whicb be 
obtained knowledge, those upon Puget'a Sound, and tV • ■ *■ 
the southern port of British Columbia. They were cstiu, 
the aggregate at eighty thousand souls, which wa« probabkun 
unexaggerated estimate. In 1857, the Indian popuh'- *■ ''^ 
British America, west of the Rocky Momitiiins, was e»i 
as has been stated, at eighty thousand. This included ib« 
Louchoux or Kutchin (Kti-tchin'),* of the Yukon and Ped 
riversjt and some small bands scattered along the narrow bell 
of land between the Kussiun Possessions and the Rocky Slouii- 
tains, north of the fifty-fourth parallel of latitude. Thw bulk 
of these Indians were south of this line, and within the 
described. Vancouver's and Queen Charlotte's Islands and 
ralley of Frazer*s River were well adapted to Indian occu. 

• S aa oom_fi)oti. 

\ Mr. Murmv, before mentionr«1, who wtabliKlipd tlw firel irAftiitKfKMi M i 
Yukon, inrormed Uic writer, iu lt)6I, that tbU rutiou aumbeml from iXavc h*^ 
diouaaod. 



L^^V 



1^9.] 



Indian Mi</ratioji9. 



423 



id undoubtedly, in 1805, sxiBtaincd a very considerable Indian 
jpulation. For that jtart of the area not covered by iho esti- 

ite of Lewis and Clarke, about lift)' thousand may be added, 
rhich would give a much larger :iggregate uuniber than waa 
jund in any other region of ctpial extent north of Mexico. 

California, wliich eml^raccs a large area, posscaacd only ordi- 

ry advantages for the support of an Indian population. In 

fSO-, the Spanish missionaries estimated the number of Tn- 

luuis at thirty-two thousand and a fraction over; and in IHtJS 

lie Secretary of State of California estimated them at about 

tie same rnmiber.* 

Tlie Roving and partially Village Indians have now been 

ifficiently considered with respect to their centres of popula- 

Son, their means of subsistence, and their numbers. It re- 

lains to notice briefly the strictly Village Indians, wlio inhab- 

tho comparatively small area from New Mexico to the 

Bthmus of Panama. Portions of this area were occupied by 

loving Indians, other jwrtions by partially Village Indians, 

id still other portions wore either solitudes or neutral grounds 

sparating hostile nations. The largest development of num- 

ers was in and around the valley of Mexico, and in Yucatan 

id Guatemala. A dense and unsubdued forest overspread 

lie greater part of Central America, and Mexico was, in the 

lain, a forest country. Since the Village Indians depended 

Bpou agricultural subsistence, and occupied a section of the 

jntinent poorly supplied with fish and game, inquiry should 

directed to the nature and extent of their agriculture. If 
tie degree of its productiveness could bo a.sccrtaiued, it 
light afford means of ascertaining their probable numbers, 
id whether it secured to them any [M)8itivo advantages over 
le liarbarous nations in a contest for the mastery of the con- 
neut. Before considering the subject of Indian agriculture, 
tie geograpliical location of the several nations of Village In- 

ms should be noticed. 

Of New Mexico they were the chief possessors, occupying 

tie valley of the Rio Grande and its tributaries, and the 

l^alleys of the eastern and southern tributaries of the Colorado. 

fhey were found, in 1540, living in great communal houses 

* President's Messo^ and DocuinuotB, 1655- 56, Pt. I. p. &75, nnil not«. 



424 Indian jWifratwns. 

conBtrncted of stone or of adobe brick, &nd scvortti slorlf^ li^ 
They dwelt not in single honses* witb one fan/ 
iu many bouses grouped together, hut in one g: . 
Btruotod upon a dcfijiitc model, contoiniug tvro buiidred ap 
menta, more or less, and birgo enongb for an cnti' 
nation. In rare cases several eueh bouses wore ^: 
getber, as at Zufli ; but usually tliey were situated a 
more apart, in the same valley, the different bauds 
leagued together for mutual defence where tlioy spoke the i 
dialect, or dialects of the same stock language. Castaii< 
who accompanied the expedition of (-^oronado to \cw Mes 
in 1540- lo42,CBtimatod the population of the fourteeu rdli 
of Cibola and Tinrayan at four thousand men (probably war- 
riors) and that of the numerous villages on and near t' '■ 
Grande and ita tributaries at sixteen thousand pouIs, — 
would give an aggi*ogate of about fifty thousand Village luii 

From Now Mexico nouthwai-d for alMHit eight hundred in 
the country was unfavorable to Indian oi:cu]>a!ion. M 
was thinly peopled, probably its iidiabitants never came 
prominent notice. Kut thence southward to the T ^ 
coiuitry waa nune favorable to a population deprn 
agriculture for sustenance. With a tropical climate, 
by table-lands, the disadvantage ol the abflonce of f\ ^ 
of the larger forcsl-animals was more than countei i 
increased agricultural production, and by wild fruitH and i 
plants. These advantages were again lessened h\ 
ical hxjation and contracted areas. The drift ol 
Bcems to have been down the momitain-chainB to the valley of 
Alexico, and thence toward the Isthmus, the only ni' 
from the nortliern half of the continent. Any nation 
to hold the table-lands of Mexico, formiug as tboy do a nat^ 
gateway to tlie distant south, must have been able to roftel ^ 
turn back this flow of migrating bands, or have been swept a^ 
by the current. Moreover, barbarous nations are atrongl) 
tractod to the seats of even partial civilization for i : 
rapine and plunder: witness the continuous as^... 
Apaches and Navc^os, within the last hundred yours, upoai 
Village Indiana of New Mexico, and the ruined aud uband 

• CoU. Tornflux-Compiuis, Vo). IX. 



89.] 



Imiian lilt (jr at ion*. 



426 



iblofi wUliiu that area. IliBtory furmslies «ome cvklunco 
liin^ to show that no nation, previous to tlic AzUtb, Imd 
in able to hold |>ormanently the table-lands of Mexico, or to 
tilup a ]>opijJatioit ui>on the basis of agriculture, able to 
lutAin itReU' there, much less to extend its power a&d iuflu- 
tQ northward. Tike ToltecB, of whose previous oecupution, 
faiircuient in civilization, and retiriMuent from the vidley wo 
'0 some information, iJoubtloss repeated the experience of 
lou ftlter nation which had preceded them. At the time 
the S[>aniBh Ciinqnest tlie AztoCH had been dominant in the 
W'j ulioiit two hmnlred years, luid coming, like their prc- 
eesors, from the nortli, they had neither extended their con- 
sst«, nor plant-ed a colony north of the borders of the valley, 
hi tiie contrary, they were confronted by liostilc and iudepen- 
kt nationtt on the west, northwest, nortlieast, and east sides ; 
t is, U[>on nil (>iides except the southwest, south, and south- 
\.f in which latter directions they had extended tlioir author- 
over the more feeble portion of the southern Village Indians. 
Vlth respect to the numbers and the social and civil con- 
)0n of the ViHuge Indians of Mexico and Central America 
he time of the qoiujuest, our information is very far from 
sfuctory. Fmm the outset the phenomena of their eiviliza' 

appear to have been to the invaders an enigma of mar- 
008 interest ; but we have lost the principal facts necessary 
its olncidation, in gaining volumes of romance. 
kt that i>eriod the areas al»ove named were occupied by forty 
ly nations — more or less — »])eaking dialects of several dif- 
mt stock languages, living chiefly in villages, and depend- 
upon agrieidture for a subsistence. Their villages wore con- 
Dcted in eligible situations upon the margins of lakes, the 
iks of rivers and streams, and sometimes iu fiositions of 
iiral strength. Since their agriculture was confined to gar- 
-beds aroimd and near their villages, the greater |M>rtion 
heso countries was a wilderness without inhabitants, except 
t was traversed by hunting-parties or roving bands. Each 
ton, OP confederacy of nations, was under its own chiefs, 

governed in accordance with those usages and customs 
leh were the common inheritance of the Indian race. The 
3ence that any considerable number of these nations wcto 



426 



Indian Mtt/rfUiom. 



t« 



coiiBolidnted into a state is not satiHfactory. In other wor 
cannot l>e affinned that any number of these nations »]wa 
different stock laiigimpeB h:ui become absorbed into oao: 
tional urganiKation, ^rJth common laws, and one executive] 
ernment lo which they all" acknowledged allegianc^j and 
which they received protection. The Aztec confederacy, Out 
dominant Indian power of the period, bad snbdued l-tie ac- 
tions south of the valley, in a westerly and southerly din* 
tioD to the Pacific, southeasterly to Guatemala, Yucatan, aud 
the Oiilf of Mexico, and along the western eborcs of the Golf 
near Vera (Vuz ; and they are said lo have been tht- 
of suiTounding nations, from their confederate urgum 
their numbers, and their sanguinary character. TJie natiant 
which they liad conquered were subjected to tribute, an' 
in the nominal connection which its i>ayment implies; ' 
Aztecs and their confederates did not spread over the teni^ 
tories of these nations, nor attempt to imi)08© upon thoi : ' 
their language, their customs, or their direct civil adm 
tion. At least there is no satisfactory evidence that they di(L_ 
Traces are found among these nations of the three stag 
political organization common among the northern Indi^ 
firstf the tribe, composed of persons of the same inune 
descent ; second, the nation, couBisting of several tribes in 
mingled by raarri:ige and sjwaking the same dialect ; and 
ly, the confederacy of nations speaking dialects of the 
stock language. Most of them ap[)ear to have been In , 
second stage, organized into nations ; but a portion of 
had reached the tliird, of which the Aztec, the TlascaUn,! 
perhaps the Cholidan and Michuacan confederacies arc ; 
amples. Witli respect to the (dbal organization, the evidfl 
is fragmentary. Among the Aztecs the descent of the 
of chief from brother to brother, or from uncle to nephew, j 
bo explained only by the hyiMJthesis of a di^-ision into 
with descent limited to the female line, as among the Iroqn 

The Aztec confederacy embraced the Aztecs, Texcucans,! 
Tlacopans,! who spoke either the same, or dialects of the i 

* hfttignc of die Iroqnoii, p. 97. _ 

t Tlicro i» some unwrliunty conttrning the correct niimc of ilie ilnft! 
TUeti[i4n. OD tito went tiila of ttic lulu, was tbo naau of ibu piiabln of Um Td 
eciuiB, oiie of thu icycu ii»tio\w w^w " cuauc from tbe far couauics wttlch Ua l 



^ngm 



^|£j 



1869.] 



Indian Mi^ralioru, 



427 



ttngnage, and occupied, in conjunction with other villagers of 
Idndred dc»ccnt« the vaUey of Mexico. It is not improbable 
lat the Chalcaua, and other villagers who maiutaiued 'a di»- 
ctive name, wore iudepeiidont ineml)era of the confederacy. 
c valley is oval in fonn^ being longest from north to south, 
d is about one hundred and twenty miles in circuit. A large 
>rtioa of it is covci'od with lakes. It is surromided by a 
ies of hills, ono rising abovo the other, witli depressions he- 
een, eneompasMing the valley with a mountain barrier, 
itliin it the nations just named resided iit the time uf the 
ish conquest, in about thirty pueblo villages, more or loss, 
ere is no evidence that any considerable portion of the con- 
erates resided outside of tlie valley and the adjacent hill- 
; but, on the contrary, there is satisfactory evidence tliat 
lo rt^mainder of modern Mexico was then occupied by nations 
ho sixtke stock iangnagos difibrent from the AzteCi and most 
whom were independent of the Aztec power. This fact has a 
rial boarhig ujHJn the probable numbers of the pi!*>ple thus 
iifederated. Any estimate liere must be jiurely conjoctuml. 
lere are no materials from which an approximation to ao- 
y can l>e made. There is no doubt that a much larger 
•imlatiou was found in {mrticular districts of Mexico and Cen- 
.1 America than in any other equal area in North Ajnerioa, 
,d that the valley of Mexico contained a larger number of 
iple than any other district of equal extent. But there is 
ground for reckoning tliis population by millions ; * a much 

'. north, , . . . tu pcupto tlio laud of Mcxicu." (Joseph Acosia, Nat, nnil Mor. 
lit- Bu^t anil Vi'l-h Ioi)h-.<, I<ond. t.^1. 1G()4, Qritn-iiuiic'a Trans, p. MM).) Tho Ut- 
r WDuIil ftccin to be tlio correct n»rae of this uution. 

It i« a coiDtnon suiemcni, riinnine tliron^h most nf the b'utarici of tlie Con- 
st, thai tlie pueltto o( Muxicu ciintaiiioU si^ljf tAouxtnd hoiurs. Zuiuu. who vb- 
l Jklextoo in 1521, cited by Prescott (Coniim'st of Mexico, II. 112. note), wrutu 
r thouaand i$iAnbUanta ; tlio Anon vmous Conqueror, " sixty thousnnd firM " ; but 
bhiI Martyr wrote tixty thoumntl housfi*. and the lust haa »>mne bwn siuadity 
atat l>7 ClavijTiTo (HUl. of Mexico, riiiln. vd. 1S17, II. 360); by llerrcra 
at. of America. Loml.cd. 1725,11.360); ttndbyPrewottironqncit.ttf., II. 112). 
Solif Mj» sixttf ihoHiuuui families ( Hist. Conquest of Mexico, Land. cd. 1738, 1. 399). 
Toniuemada, cited by Clavigero (Ibid.^ U. 360, note) increueti the numlwr to on* 
hvHitfvt and tu?eHy thoutmtd hoittfs. There eannot he a reaaonnble doobt that the 
kou^L'D of the Altec* were most of them grcut communal cditiee* like tlioBe in JTcw 
Mexico, K>mo of cbcm Iotko enongb to sccommodntc n tliutisand or more people. 
Kbla tnoj^ifica ttw eJciig^i'L'raLioa to an impo&sibUily. IT tlic»c later writers bad ohy 



428 



Indian 3Iti/rcUwM, 



smallor number would have exhausted the resources of ihe i 
try as developed by Indian agriculture. In the valley of] 
ico, oacludinj; the lakes, aud iucluding a liberal belt of 
rounding hills, there may l>o fifteen hundred Bquare mile 
land. If vre allow one hundred and 8eveuty inhubitnntii I'M 
square mile, which is double the nvcrage number to the ftt|U 
mile in the 8tate of New Vork^ it would give to the nation 
the valley two hundred and fifty-fivo thousand aouts. 
difficult to see how so large an estimate can bo sustulned. 

Witli respect to the nations and languages of Mexico, mo^ 
orn resenrch has advanced but little beyond the sketch i>I ' 
gcro, except in relation to the gramnialicul stiucture " 
of these languages. It will be sufticicnt to follow his un 
fo^ the names aud locations of the ]>rincipnl remaining uutic 
He eimmeratet) fuurteen stock languages in Mexico and Yq 
tau.* 

The most prominent Indian nations contemporary wiihi 
iVztecs were the Chichcmccs, who occupied the country oa 1 
northwest border of the valley, and ranged westward well 
wards the Pacific. They were uon-agiicultural, and il 
pendent of I lie Aztec confederacy, f South of them were] 
Otomios, who for the most part were non-agricultural an^ 
dependent. A portion of them near the valley ap]>car to ! 
Iteeu subdued by the vVzteca. These nations spoke diflfo 
languages. South of the Otomios and immediately west nfj 
valley of Mexico were the Michuacans, who occupied a large j 
extending t^iwarda the Pacific. They 8i>oke tho Tarasca 1 
guage, and were inde|)endent of the Aztecs. Southwest of 
valley, and bordering upon it, were tlie tributary Matlatziii^ 
an inconsiderable people, who spoke a language of the 
name, aud occupied, with a portion of the Otomios, the 
of Talocon. On the northeast of tho valley, and about i 

re*l knowlcilmi of tlio anlyoct, it mast be snpposwl that tlir^ niOAiii '*«j«rtia« 
insicfli) of " ho(ti»c«," trcHtinj; Mu-h tribal hoiiso as u tiloo k uf bouses, and ettin 
tlto nuttiWr of rooms. Zuuzo's esclmttte U probably tlio nuareit to tliu trallL 

• History of Mc:ttco, III. 371. 

f '' Tlw nni-icnt and fir« inhAbttinin of New BpaiD vwtv men 
and savofie, which lirod oaty by bimiin^ ; fur this reason they wcr> 
tnecHS. Tlicy iicitlier bow nor till the bToiinil." (Acostn, Nm. ninl .M^r, i 
p. 407.) Ahhoujih Aco^ta makc« this n gcncnil immo for die Uortn^ 1 
Jlexiro, (hero was a diaihtct natioii of t^vt namo ia the ngioa rarem'd tu. 



iriflta 



39.] 



Indian Migratu^, 



4S9 



|lcs distant, were (he Mortitlans, wlio Rpolfe a dialoct of Oie 
HOC, Ijiit were independent, Kast of tlic latter, and ranging 
fliie Oulf of Mexico, in tlio region ftround Tamjiieo, were the 
stccos, who apoko the Uuast^ic Intigtiagc, and were inde- 
Aulent. South of iUexDy and riuigitig along the gulf as far 
Vera Cruz, were the Totonacs, who spoko tho lanjnjagc of 
lo saiTio name, and acknowledged the supremacy of Ihe Aztec 
ifederaey. Between them and the valley of Mexico, but 
ifined to an area of moderate dimensions, were the sturdy 
!aaealunH,al»o indoi)endent. Southwest of them were theCht^ 
dans, supposed to hare l>een a ButtdiviHion of the Thuscalanfl. 
Whether titc Tlascalan woa an inde;>endent utock language la 
ftt ascertained. It is asserte<l that tho Cholulans were suh- 
od by the Aztecs shortly before the Spanish conquest ; but 
iivigero places them in tlie list of independent republics.* In 
le iirea.s south of the several nations named, between the valley 
^Mexico and tho Pacific, and extending eastward to Guatemala 
^d Yuc^itan, were several other nations, of whom tho names ftnd 
cations are preserved, and but little besides. Among them 
are tho Mixtecas and Xapotecas, who spoke the Mixtec and 
ec languages ; the Cliinantecas, Mazatecas, Tlahulcas, Go- 
llixcas, Popolocos, and s^overal otliers scarcely needing enumer- 
iou, — all supposed to have been trihutary to the A?.tcc con- 
ey, t Whether those Village Indians were permanently 
1, and acknowledged their dependence by paying po- 
I .bute, or whether their submission ended with the fa- 
tbat enforced the tribute, we are not precisely informed. 
I The Village Indians of Yucatan and Guatemala were, proH- 
j»ly, the highest of tlie class in North America, aa well as the 
in their civiliKatton. They possessed some advantage 
tlieir sheltered j)08ition behind the Gulf of Mexico, and otT 
^e great highway of migration to South America, toward 
Itch the movementa of the northern Indians tended to drive 
fipagmcntary and broken nations. The remains of their 
Boblos in ruins bear testimony to their higher development. 
beir agriculture must bavo been more efficient, to over- 

Hlitory of Moxtco, I. 6. 

DolU Marina, tin* interpreter of Cortes, was bom to tho proTinco of Coa!- 
cuolt-o, on Llie Gulf of Mcxtc-o, near the Tabasco Rivet, on^ i^Vc «. ^-uaXwv o^ 



430 



Indian Miffraticn$, 



[Oct 



como the Buperior activity of the forces of naturo m a Iropi" 
cal climoto. "Tho kingdom of Yucatan" wiys Lou Cons, 

Biflhop of Chiopn, who wrote iu 1539 the relation r 
we quote, " eontaiued a piodigioua number of j»eoj i 
of tlio country is von' temperate and pleasant ; it has 
plenty (►f fruits, and all the necosajint's of life ; it exc 
Mexico itself in fertility. .... Tiie inhabitants of it arc ml 
polite, more civilized, and better civilized in morale 
in what belongs to tlie good order of societies, than the 
of the Indians. There is a remarkable prudence and jurti 
of mind in thera, which is not to be found in others.'* 
Herrera remarks to nearly the same eflfect : " Thesr* t ' t? 
then found living together very politely iu town.^. 7 

clean, without any ill weeds growing about, but with fruit-lrw« 
orderly planted. Their temples were in the midst of tlipir 
towns, and near to them the houses of their prime men 
priests, those of tho commonalty being farther otT; and 
common woUa were in the squares or market places: and' 
reason of their being so close together was because of 
ware which exposed them to tlie danger of being taken, i 
and sacrificed ; but the wars of the Spaniards rondo tlimn 1 
perse." t Prom the references of Las Casas to the nx 
and location of the pueblo villages in Yucatan and Guatei 
it is to })« inferred that they were numerous, and, when 
structed upon the banks of rivers, were so near together 
be in sight of each other, in some cases, for rnilos toget 
These tribes seem to have followed precisely tho same iii«t 
of building as tho Village Indians of New Mexico. 

Within a few years after the con(|u08t of Mexico the pud 
villages of Yucatan, fiuatcmala, and Hondui*a8 wore rnM 
by military adventurers, and the people driven from 
pueblos into the forests. The Sjianiards destroyed in a I 
years a higher civilizatiou than tliey substituted iu its pi 



ifaa Mite lanf^agp. "Dofia MNrina understood iho liinf^iit^^< or Go 
and Mt'xioo, which is ouo ami (he same" (Bcmal Piuji, Troc UUu Conq.nf I 
ico, JLondon ol. 1803, 1. 76.) 

• Au ArroHui oF the first Vojragm and DifcoTerioi niftde Kt th« S] 
Aliirl'ica^ Lonilnti rt\. 1G99, p. 53. 

t Uwreru, IV. I6S. 



tfft 



EL^B 



W.] 



Tndiayi Migratidna* 



481 



ic proteaco,'* says Los Cnsas, *' of subjecting ttic Indians 

the ^'ovoriimenl of Spain is only made lo cnrrj' on t!ic <lo- 

1 i.f Hulijecling theui to the dumiiiion of private men, who 

fl them all their slaves/' * 

Tho Mnyti lunjfuii^o vrns spoken in Yucatan ; the Quiclie, Po 

chit and some other languages in (Juatemala ; ami the CMion- 

iu Nicaragua. Oviedo, who was in the last-named proWnce In 

i26, states that there were five lauj^ungessjwkon there, of which, 

one most extensively used was tho same as the iVxloc. f 
It ift not improbable that tho nations of Mexico and Con- 
America aliovo enumerated were so described on Iho 
und of a common language, and that some of them were 
divided into nations 8|)oaking dialects of Uie same stock 
guai^e. The continuity of territorial possession is usually 
ill preserved by nations of the same speech ; hut this did not 
tho inevitable tendency to disintegration inseparable from 
cir institutions. The numl)€r of nations must be measured 
by dialects, and not liy