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rtorutaii of ibbh ainoBT no itoiusQiouT la rai oithouo dxitiuiti or ntuiri) ; 
cuiBiuK>n>i>a >iiiiia o> thb iocixti la uiiiquuuu oi aooTLAiB, tTo. 

*DITID, iriTB 




VOL. iir. 






lAU >I(I.U 







XACTURE XIX Or Udiliiikm, f dknitdu, wtc, ut AxotsnT 

GsiKM 1— sa 

(Vn.)OrDDiLD[sai,FiiKNiTDRB, KTcfcontlnocd). Of the number 
and «iKeeHionartliiecolonUuot inuient F.rinii. Tnidilion aicrilint 
no butUlinga tu Pirlhahn ut lii« [K>i>pto ; their (cpuldiml mound* at 
T^liglit iitnr DuUIn. DeHnilioHa ol llie Haih, itia Jiaa, ihu I/i', 
the CiiUtal, unil t>i« Caltair; (liu latter two were of iloiia) aiMoy 
modom MwnlaAd-aanM d^rcd trom Ihcao term* ; rrniiiin* of 
taAoy of th«M itractiim itill nxtA H-illi na RiyK or '' Itatli of iha 
Kltn!»", aiT«ra; tli« TttirA Mar MiliLh AmoM, or''Grwiit Uoum! u( 
the Tlionuind* of Sotdi«r«'. Sevenl lionaet vrerc ufuo inuludrd 
iritbin the Mine itaii', l>un. Lit, or (Jaittat. Extent of tlio dvnietno 
laDdaofTan. 'Die AikA or Ctithair of MUack; accanntof lu baildiog; 
the lioiuM wlihln the Rotk aa well ■* the latter ven of atone ; why 
called AiUaeh Ftigriitdl Ail*acA int«tlan«l hj Ptal«m/. Acoount 
(if the Anf&of C'rmi-^iin in tli« Tdia BiS FrttUJi. Hie "IIoiMenf the 
1107*1 Branch ". ncacriplloo of a fJ'ot in Falrjt Liand. Xli« t4Tiiiii ttath, 
^^m l^n, and /.u flp;i1ii>d to the tan* kind of vncltMnm. Th<i Fontdh at 
^^1 Tara, D«acripl>vouflli« buusoof CW(/(C IVo daMM of btuldtra. — 
^^m Ibe Aa(A>1>uildcr, and the L'ou»iM)uL)<l«r ; list of Ui« inutiiaianot 
^^p bolli arts fram the Book of Lviaiter. Vab/iallarli Mac h'iilUaigk'i 
cop/ of Iba MS* liat (not*) ; hiaobMrralioiu in Biiiiw«r totboae who 
dcojlliflrdBlMcaaf ftonc-bnilding in ancient Erian. Tlieitorjr of 
Britrim* F«aat; plan of hi* lioiiae: hit ffmnou or "aun houav"; hU 
IdtIuUimi to ConeMiar and tho UltODlana { bit aowi diudniiona 
amo&K lliG •rompn ; blio Itnatfiar San Uladh t — bla buuae waa 
niRdB at >lL'lt«T->rork. 

I.ECTUBB XX. Or ButLouioa, FraxmiBB, ktc- ni Akciiwt 

Bmmr ....... 2a— 38 

(VII. } BoiLBiKca, l<mxrTcaK,BTC-i (coBlianed). The deacrlptloa 
of b<i1|diitf{»iu our anckot MS8, vTcn when poetical in form, and 
not itrlctlj aocunie ai to date, ar« atill Taluabl? for (lie object of 
thna Itcturea. Vetacitf of the eitdence rwpeollnK iIm "Gmt 



Banqootliig lUH'i.! Ton in ih« timvof Cormae Mae AiTt,t»ipwvn 
bjr Dr. I'l'trie i no iccord »f tlio di«ig«« which took pl*c« it Inn 
fuliicquc-nt to that time. Rrsidenco of ih>e niuniKlia of Ertiin ftflef 
ibe Jcienlon of Tarn. DMcniotiuI oUii-r (vklintttl rojai rctidcnceat' 
— Kmania, CrMotAan, ele. Divjuon of (h« {ivaplc inlucljuaci thit 
divuion did nol impow perpelally of caslo; iocrcaae at wealUi 
enitiled a man to paai frum uue rank lo anti[lier;GifiBealaM 
thii ndrancemont; tlie qualilScationi m t« furnitiov ant boOMl 
llic aorcmt clutc* of Airu or landlioldcn \ lltiv* Tor injurf to tli« 
hauwof Uic/lrrv lirtr/ Ifrtilfi/; ot llie Airt l/*»n i at \he Aiit:\r(l; 
o-f tlie ilrfv Fi-ryrtill I ot the king of a territorj. Law a^inat damage 
or di«!l)Ei]revii-ut of buildinKs tnd (ariutun ; ol thu hou*o of a Q4- 
Airt; at ihtihavM at nn Airt-Dtnat »t thr liounof an /lirc-THua; 
of thu liouM of an Airt-Afd. Law directing Uia prori«inn to be 
miulofof agedman. Bhapo of houtMin *ne>ea( Erimi i coiiDtrnctioa 
nf tlie rosud hnuK; rcfiercace lo the building nf *udi ahonwlnan 
Irith lifn of St. Caiman Ela ; a tiniilRr iUirf lulil of Rt. ('umin Fada. 
No iiMt.inMi recorlAlof an eccloiAnltfil oi)il:i.'i*buUl nf wiekor work; 
ivo iiittaiicvB iif Hie liuildtng uf oratorieBof wood; — ttorj' ol tlrt 
oratory of St. itMnff; tjiutrain ol ftuKaiut Mac Colnaan on tilt 
oncory oT Jtaihim Ua Sinnaipli ,- account uf Humattii writing a poem 
for the (inlU of Dublin ; he ciurin hia wcnUh to Cill Dthi'jh ; tlntv- 
ment of wvvn titreci> of Gatlt or (circlgncra nt tiist jiliice ; luijioct- 
cooe ol the occounl of Uwaand. 
LECrUllB XXI. Qr BciLDtKo*, FtmitlTVaB, ktc. ui amoxht 

Erimh . . . • . ■ 39— <a 

(Til.) Or Buiunicaa, FcBinTORB; (conlintud). Of th« GiMnn 
Satri niftnkMcniu-^riiinghlni; Hplanstlon of lila nairc; he waa 
A rcul perionnKc, Old Irisih « liten fund of aaslgnlog • tnytftologiool 
origin la men of gnent ikill or iMtnttng. Tlio IcgL-ntl of TuiMi, tlie 
TnthBT of (jtMan Sarr ; obwrTatiiODS of Dr. P&lrltt on lhi« Icgond j 
error of fit, P«lfi«, Story of Lny Unt F.illlt>ii;\\\t SnhK JJJtuach 
or " trunk of &11 arte". TutrM a dmcenilnnt of OiKolt Ohiim. lle- 
fcTvticn to (I'uMrin Hiair iii ancient GurilluCic MS^. ; — nnu in Ihfl 
Itidi lifo of St. Aibiia { thy> itnino of Ihc plivco whrrv' f.' hullt 
tlic church for St. Albun not uii:ntiuii'(>d i another in tlie lif^ of SL 
iMing. The naiiio of CoUtau msnlioiicd lit a irneiii in an juicienl 
Ga<nlliello MHS. nf thi' Hjthtli c'nttirj' : — original and tmnilntioii of 
lliia |io^m (oolf) : origiuul nnd IraotJation of a [loeai nf Si. Uoiing 
from tijti Moif MS. which i) alw found in a Mt3. in Ireland — gnat 
impuTlnnRP of thi« poem (noto). OratnrlM gciivmU}- built of wooil, 
liut »oniMinie« nf ttonc. Ancient law nigulathtj the prioa to he iwid 
for ecd-ctuatical tnuldinga ; — lu to the oralory ; a* to tlic Damh-liay 
OT Uone church ; explanation of thv rule *■ to tlit latter (roti-) ; a) 
lo tlie C/aiciracb er b«lfry. Exphiiilionof tho prttfedinji rule qnowd 
(nun Dr. P( lr>« ; rvaKiiw fur rri' jumiuiog thvtv rul«i. I>r- Potriv'a 
0|ililoD about the KnundTover* uiiaarailnhle. I^aw RgalKtlngthe 
pior onion n to ilip^-ndaor OtUonkn atitiriKb of the CWnnA - builder ; 



Dr. t'etrie'i DbMrratton on ttio puuge Teenrdlng the lUpend of Ibo 
0/bnA-butId<T : dwcltlng hoDte* cmlttwl rmu tho li«t of biuldiogf ) 
ntotokc midcbjr T>t. Petrie al>out the |itw<M£C concoruin^ the OKaaJk' 
balUtr ; MUhor'i comctimi nC thU mitukc : meaniiiK of ilie ward 
CMtfur^H,— new int«rpr«tation bj tti« author. Attlstlc voiki of 
ibe (^/anA-builJrr; tlie Jii!ir'jra<Al vt wurldoK iu jcw-wood; OUT- 
Inf in j-MT-wowl at Kmania tnS Crunr/Kin, aiid In Armagh oathe- 
inl Itomimtic origin of work in yew-vouJ— Ipgnnd of FMann, 
M» of IU<ira i uo trace of lh« dijctrino of invtcmptjrchoaia ttaoag 
the Gaedliil ; legend of Frntiiim, oc>Dt!iitiei]. tin of tuiictca of houtc- 
hold rurtitcirro mentioned in the Uwii rogmnlinj; landtng or pledging. 
I4« retarding tti» hoat« of > docw- 
LSCTURB XXIL Or Boiu>i»4U, PcBViTCBa^ xtc.. im Awciimt 

Kmmm ....... Gt— SG 

[VII.) Or BmvDivot, FtrBRTTcxB, rrc. ; (continiifd). Etono 
boUiUflf:!; Vaifiairtani Clotian*; U'fbhcrty'* notice of Iho Cltt- 
almu of the Annn laUodi ; CUxitan* still rxitting In tbow liUnd* ; 
Cioekan* on other Island* of the «««t«ni coaA. Mr. Ilii Noj-er'a 
■ceount of BDcirot »lot\c baiMiiiga iii Kerry ; lil* etimgltjjpoal com* 
pariaonii tnmni*7T of hi* tjvw*; apart his >|)eculntionB, lit* [iftpcr 
bloapoftoDt. DiflirrvDt raembi^n uf the taiui.' fitmilj hail diitinci 
boWM In inclcnt Erlnn, Mr. Da Noyer'a claim to prioritj in 
tbe<iiMo**ry of the atone baildiagaof Kerry inHdnuMible ; Uf. B. 
Hilchcock bad nb^ad; noticed them ; ancient burial grotinda alao 
aoiiMd hy the latter in the nmo dlitrict The two naraei of 
•' Oabtn" given hj Mr, Dn Koyer, not ancient ; hla opinion of the 
nae of DvrJkg fort not currucl \ lliia aud the other foris did not 
fona a line of fortiflcationa. Inttance of a bMt-hin> Iiouae or Ctaehan 
having be«n bi^Jt within Uio AifA of Aihaeh. Limited uaacf the 
Wcm C'atAotr ; the Bane l«nn not alwnya applied to the nine kind of 
hiihllne. Talc of ttiediipuce about the "champion'taharu'^ Smith's 
notlM of SliAbh .Vu and t'alhair Cvnroi ■ Hoiy of th\t dupulit about 
the ' dMOipioi^ thar*^ <cantinned). The " guard room" or " watcb- 
IngMat". TIm poiitlaa of CaiSair C'cnroi nut exactly aiceruiiii.'d. 
tiUirjr of "the alaoghtcr of C'ltrAmV CanroC. Heferenee to i'aUair 
C«»rM in UU) Uto of " the Battle of Veotrj Uitbonr". Modem 
hyperiwrit of the lolbrioniy of Ihc MileaiiLiii. 8tonc-buUd!ng in 
wciiiit Elian not eicliui*oly pre-.Milt»ian. Tho A iihmcfi Twxtha or 
JifaceJfi. Tbe Ftrbolga ititi jiowerfal In the dictb oentaty. Tixrn- 
IuhI oamee derived from Vathnirs. No evidence that the Miletiaua 
were ■ ruder race than their predccoMon in Erinn. 
LECTUKE XXm. Or Data* uin QmxMVjiVt . 87— 107 

(VIIl.) Early uimptiiary hw regulating the colour* of drvM^ at- 
irilnited to the monarcha Tiyhtmma* and Eochaidh and Eifsadath, 
Native goM Brit amctted by luelutdan, and goldtrn omamenta made 
ut Ireland in tli« reign of Tig^tnuaaa. Tht iiaoa of colour* lo dlilin- 
gubh Ifae eereral daaaea uf ixiely, also attributed to the Mnio 
fbdIcmfA; the nntnieof those coloun not tpeddeJ. Uounhold 



vSwrili^ flnmiMa, and Tsricmtl^ calaui«d inmm oC Ailill tni 
ilitliM monEiaDtd in tlw Ule of tlio Tain B-i Ciuailgnt t (he OHtc- 
rial or faahioo (4 ihe tlnM nul ipecilltsl. MtdhLh'§ preparation tvt 
the war d Uie flni T4ia ; doacription oT th« panin Rimitioned. D«- 
•cripliaa of the Ultonian clanna at tlia bill of Sltmmn, formiof Uw 
&riu; In immit of AilUl anil MeJliLA, by the lierald of the Uttcf^' 
lUot Roth, (roin tlie late cf the 7'ifin lU VhuailynM ; hi* descriptioil 

of Conchahar Mae A'tMa ,- of Caiitfraiii ilmt/ ; ot S/nu-Ao ; ot Ko^i 
Hac Uurthadili* ; of Latgaire BaaJach ,- of Munremur s of Coiumdt 
<it litochaid ; of Aimirym; i3t J-'traduc/i fiiitl Ftrhinar:h;otI'iadia^ 
and ffaicAna; of CtJuAair Miu Uiiatr and hi* cUan; of £irrft 

EeUMi of Mtnd, ton of SaMot^n i of ArynB ; of Lrtt, HD of C<ir» 

pn .Via FtT mhi] hli claoD : of Cveliuiitind'i ctaaH. Note : CMfatBj 
loini/it removed to Muirtkfimnt after lui IlgUl vitb Fcic/tuJJl, togotf 
thv b^nvBt of the ticaling prop«ilici«f it* Rtrwtn ac rirtrri cnumvra- 
tioa of thoinj vUilo there, CVr/irni. wlto had gono to bii atoiitKacVi 
■rrirn coreivd with woondi, and ii Ti«iu>d by phyiichiu from 
*ava>y'* C4nit>, whom h« drives awsji C'ii<Au/iiut</ then fonda for fw- 
jtin Fathliayh, Mho (unnlaei caoli of liii wound*) anil Ctlktm d>> 
■t'ribca tliv pt-'racin* who gavo ttivm— hia deicriplioii ot lUomd, aon of 
J-'er/fV; of qiUCTi Mr.dhhh ,- of O'/and OMti)*; of fitin Uld Mteeann; 
«f Z^rocn and JUruiJni, aoiu of 7Viii'a &iJ'ji(,kingof Cnif/i .• of Ctrma^ 
[i/oc] Colematig and Ciirnnjc the iod oI Slarl^l'v^ : of >Vdrw iUimA- 
TfHtiii and Jfun* J(Ar<j»iii7, aaiii ol Ji/iU add Mtdhlih : of th* 
ckaiDpionB from Iruade [Morwnyjiof ^Jt// and hia *an Mane; of 
tlw nairow bath bj wliich Ct'litm was hr alcil, wheoco tho nainv of 
fimtriSMNtoir, now Sinariiiorc, !□ the oouuly Loulh. Mtd/ibh*n\ua^ 
nUt bet dowry tc Ailill; fif t« promiJCd by \im lo LoKy Mar Eaaau f 
glfta promiaod bj hn to I'trdiiJA , one of those giltr, her ntubrated 
liTooL'li. wciKhed t»aro tbaa finir potind)i. Story of Mac Coa^Hadtr 
Ilia exiravagant dream g h» dcicrlptlon of a curious dnwa of a door- 
keeper; ouiiljsi* of the i)t«m— the Cach^U, the /«ii<ir, tho OrA- 
wutk 1 nna1>>ia of Jfac Conr/linde't oirn drtM ; his Ltttiidh. niMluo- 
tlon between the Lfim and thv f.finiifA— the letter wa* ■ kilc Ua- 
•cnpliua of tho drcM uf tlie clinintiimi /Tc/tlu IlonJ in tho tal* of the 
Exilu of ihc Suna of DmiJtnnaii ,- lie won: a kilt. Aiicicnl law repir 
hillng the wunrintc of the Ltimdh or kite, aad llie Oc/inttA or paoto* 
LECTUflG XXtV. Or Dnaaa ado OaMAnewTa ik Aucibkt 

Kkikm 10«— IM 

^Vlll.) Dskaa *HB ORNjiNKNn (toiitinuvd). Cunntant rvrftrtncea 
to fringeg of gwU llireml ; mcolion of thi* omamcDt in tlie nci.-ount 
of Htdbh't f liil to her cLivf Uruiil in the coiumcncein^ntaf ihc 7idw 
B6 Chvaitjn*. — doFOription of t'rdtlm the |iiopli«leM wearlnK a 
frinfte ; the Irlnije •■•orA ot httli tnuulioncd In a poem o( Dalian For- 
gaiU (oircn *.o. &(iC). Anuleot lawn relating to the pIcdxioK of om«> 
u>ent*,«tci Uot rclaling Co tbu tilcdiilui; of a needle; Ihe pled gin j| 
of a queou'ti work bag ; th« work b^g of an Airtth Fcsbkt. The kgal 



(xinlADU at & vwktMg formeiJ only a uuall part of a ladj'a penooal 
cnMuuouu. BefercncM to cljeiug, weoiTiiiH, ROitiroirleriiig, eti^ In 
Ihtt tUKltot Utw* ivKiUatiiic Dittrcw ; objpcb coiincctcil niiL iboM 
■rlB for the tTGarrry of whicli procoodlngs mlgliL hare bcvD takga 
voder tboK law«. Colourvd thread and wool paid aa rent or Irlbutet 
Tb* djrc-atalTt uwd w«r«of home gravtb. Ltscudof St. Ctaran 
and tba U«a dfC atulT called GluUm. SttiaouiT}- of tlio proccisi-s in 
tlia tozltla arta mfntioni'il in tJia iratracta quoUxl in tbo Ivclunt. 
Koferraoa to ambroidary in tho Uls of tha Tothaare nSimm, and 
tn 111* A'nMBoiMila*. Coea the embroldctta* of St. Cvbtmctlt*. Tlia 
kitowlnlgeoT tlieGaedliilaatoutcolouniliuwD liy tliu UliimiOHtioiia 
to the Bouk of KrUa. Bofvrcndo in lliei Rnak nl ItallyitioLD tu tlio 
colour* warn by dilT«r«nt dativ*. Cl<>tli of varioiia vuI»um fornuid 
part of tl)« irlbatu or tAxca paid aa late aa the oinih and teoib c«a- 
lurica. Trthuca lo the king of Caittal according do ihc Book of 
BighUfron: Ami Hoi/itin; Lcioiter; UaMnn; jyuii/mtach MBd 
Jfnng; Cemtauuadhi lh« JMitt i Ortiraiikt. Sdpcad* paid by tbe 
kfaicof CaiW/tOIlickinKRof ScTT}-; Uait/ittnn; Am. Tributcalo 
tha kinyofConnacbt from t'mhaU; ilio Grta^raidh*ith»Ci)iitiD(xitM! 

tin CuirriiiMt i lh» /.uii/liat: I ttiA DuMfinit i fi 3fiitnt. Stipoiida 
{■Ubjr tbekiiigof Conuu.lit to (be kiscs uf i lltallihna; U, ifaine. 
Tnbatiui to Itio kiog of Ailtach from : iba Cuii*aniraullM ; iba Ui 
Hie CatflkaiitH i Vt Ttiiilri, Stipcnila paid hy thv king of AiUotA 
■o thaUtigaoCi CWf Uoyiamti Ctmi iimanna ; CrmUi Vi Hie 
CavAamm ,■ I'ulati Og. Sliiwidj paid hj Uw king tA Orial to tha 
Uoga of! a Brmtiail: Ci I^aeKaeh; Vi Mtil/i : l.'i Uortaut,- Ui 
BroM Ardi«illi Vi 'J'uirlrt ; Ftara Alanoeb ,- Hog/Mor- and /fM< 
6tipenda paid by lli« kinn of UJatlh to ihc hinga 0(1 CuaHgaa; 
Arau/At! CiMiaia ; iltniihtimnt. Ttibntet to tbeklo^of (//uift frooii 
&B1I1M ; CroitraiilAt i Catltal. Gif U lo the king of Tank Stiponda 
paid bjp iha kiog of Tan to the kiiiga of: MasK Lucha 1 CmicHc ; Vi 
Btct^n. Tribulea to thakiiisof Tara from: tlia £.a^Aaa; Om Ftam 
Arda; tbe SotJJni; Gtiifrnfftt ; ih? Vi Htrraa. SlifWflds paid bjtha 
kiK* of LcloaUir lo tbt: Vi Ftalaim llie chief of Cualanni Vi 
ftHmtatHia; king of Jtatiliitn; Vi Vriamiifuinnnn, Tribiitva to tho 
Uaf o( t^natar from lIib: GbII*; Foniuathai Fotlarta; men of 
SoittJh LeinMar. Cilia from Um monardtof Erinn to llii: kinKof 
JShom itachtt. Gtipuiida of the king of Bmain MacAa tu the kiciga 
of ; RaXhmt/r ; Vi Uriaui .- Crinmiu^ntt. Gltla bwHowcit an Ihu kiiitc uf 
Laiattcr bf tha n:onateh of Knnn whencTcr \tt viiiinl Toro. 'Gift 
of ibo king of Leinaicr oo h)a isium from Tiua 10 ihe kiog of 
Vi FfthtM. QHU of the uonurvh of Krion to tlui king of Caiiml 
wboD at JToimiatr I-uaehra. Stipcoda ginn hy tbe king of L'liutal 
at ibo Tiittatioa «f tbouoiiBrthof £rinii to tha: lAiit ; Vi CAonaHi. 
Stlpcodapaltd bjr tlioUngof Connndit lo llie klDgiof: Ui itaint; 
Lmfhmt. ColiMin of wladi, accordinfi to the preface to the StamAitM 


LSCTURB XXV. Or DaH« and Obmuuxt* m Atnatxr Buvh 

<VII[.) Drem and OaNAMBiin (ouiitiiiiud> Of CeHatf« UOr, 
moMnth of BriBii (drc« b.o. 100 to b.c. SO) and t1i« outlawed mm 
or D'litil I>m, tcaxiiag to Hie luident taU of llie Bnufktaa t>a- 
ditga : tlin nn* of Jiond IJ*m» uairaitU with Itio Dritifh outlaw Inp- 
cil to plnaikr Iho etmu* of ItritAin And Brinn ; lUa monarcli, in ro- 
tsrotngttom C</rca CA<iucin»in(licCo, CUre, WinKiuublcwrMkcli 
Ttn^ gOM to the oourl oX iJaiUrrf : fnijtil vUili the court (o auxr- 
Ula llM rcuibilSl}' of pluntlertn; it ; be Kivga dtwcriiniuim on kU re- 
Mm to bia ootupwioDi or tborc lie tttw thervi itai. J-'tnogoM Umt- 
Met them ; Iiis<tl't ileacriptlan oT the Ultonlan warder Cormac 
Con/omyu and kia oompMniani ; tit iho CniUnntvaib or PhU: o( 
Uio niii« pijrt idafCM; of TuHU. the houao tUiw«r>) ; of Otall. Oihiti, 
an^ C«irprt t'inJmar, aoni of Conatrt A/ur .- of ilic chnrnploiis Afat 
JUae Ttnaiitd, ifuiitttmor, and Binttri/ ; of tba umil Ullooian c1)Sin> 
pioQ ConafI CtamncA ; of ifae iD^aarcli himaelf, (7*iuum 3/^r ; of ilie 
lis eu|( beutni of Tttekmne, the rojral I>niid ojiil jemlcT; of the 
Ultm awioe-herJt; of CaatrriKh Mend: of thaSjxon princeaand 
titelr COD] pan ions I of the kbig'a outri>let«; of the kinfi'* thn*e 
jtlilsc*; of tbekiuif'* ■>'"« hsrpvra ; of Uie kin|^'i thrci* juE|;l«t<i ot 
the three (diicf cmkB! of theklng't ihreo poeW; uf thu kiiis*a Iwo 
«ird«n; of lUe kioK** nine giuiilamcii ; uf llic kiug's two table 
attendaniai of tbo clianiploDa -S'lacAa, JiaMadt JJa*l I'l-tdA, aod 
CoAnim: of Aider jiUmMlfj of lite klngV ihtrt door kL-«i>cn; of 
tlie Britiill i^xllea at the I'oiin of Ibe inuiiiircli ; of t1)« tliroe jotter* 
or downs; of the ttirve dnnk bcttrcm. Kuinniary of the cUmm of 
ptjaona deaoribeil. The cxacKcrBtiont of inch doacflpthHif tcanxlj 
atGxi thvir r4lao ibr the pfuml purpotn ; verj Utile enggeraUoD ou 
Ibc whole in the tAl«« of the Bmiyiitan IMiitryt aad TVaa Bi 
CfmaiJytM. Aotiiiuitjr anil WgcgntinuK) uxt ol theeolourof oer- 
tuin eannotita Bhoim by tlio tale of the AatAra CAvnnii. by i/at 
Lioff'i v\*^ on Tad^ U'Eelly, and aJwt b; a poetD of Gtlfabriftilt 
Hoc CoiuaMt^ 
LBCTURE XXVI. Or Dbkos and OniiAiinrTa isr axcirht Ettiax 

lis— 170 
(Till.) UmxKt AMU Ohn A MXHTS (continued). Very earlf mratton 
of ornamcntii of koIJ, olc., ••- 7. iu the deacriptiou <4 EJadhi tbe 
FouiorUn kiiii:. In the eecond battle (tf UatfA TuirtadA. riuaipHxii 
ioiiivtliii«s wore a flnga hnj for uaeh king killed. Alluaioii to 
bTacdtttsiaaa micit'iit poetical name of the rite* Ujjiw. Oruameate 
meuiioned hi a dc'ciiption of « carulcade RiTca Id an aDcieDC (irpfaec 
10 the jTAk Bit L'huatfyne, lad in thfe dcscriiitiou uf ajiutlicr caval- 
cade in the tame trace. Soma of the richeat dcacriptiona of noM and 
ailrcr oraBtncata are to be foood tn Lite romantic tale of iho " Wui- 
deflDjia of AtiuUum'i Canoe" (clica a.D. TOO). Urouae Daidiu for 
tlie liiir iu X>r. FctTU'e oolteotlon. Umtiineats de*crib«d In the tale 
vfthe 3'orAmnrc Btcfvh. Slurj of AiiSimt Ai!yi§ath, king f'tryui 



Fairs*. *aA Ibe ^d broocb loaiul at Ari Brtuitt: the HaA'iag of 
cnisnmiu uneoniiKCod villi liunuLn noutina explftined by tItU taio. 
Htdbon of ■ large tlscd broMb in ttio l^tcndu? butacj- of Qtieco 
Sdain. Andenl law rMpectbr the mode of vearin^c Urge brooclio. 
L«rf« broodiei nimtiimtd lo tlie tal« of tlie *' Wandntngi of 
StatUmt'i Canoe". Tlittlc hcotlnl or b'cottifli brooctiM ; nlwwM 
Id Seoltiab broocbee ia iha ttorj of Citno con of Garcnan. Cured 
bcDodiM meDlloncd 1b the title of the Brvi-flitau Dadttgti. Rofcr. 
COCA tOACJirTtd bmoch m tlie Book of Mniuwc. Another TOfennc« 
lo a earned tiroocli in a poem atDribcd to Ouiu. BrooubM o[ bronso 
Mid FMmitit. C!mu«I Hold pin* ui^ (!o«n lo lIm bCKJnnlnii oi the 
tlitit«wlta GMktuiy. Of Iho (liflervDt kimU of tiiig*. Tbe Fniitna 
vkA to conlliM tlic liair. Hair tioi;4 wrA, in the wwunlwuth ora- 
tarjr. ^Wi^wne «ioni apt1i« whole ann fur the purpoee ufhstowing 
tton upon poet*, «tu. ; oxnniplu of Ihi* froni tliD Book of Liamor*. 
Of llie bf*COtct caUe4 a Hadm, liuiJni, or Butuitt. 
LECTDRB SXVII. Of Dnisa akb OnMaxaiiTa u Amcibht Smkk 

in— 1S4 
(VIII.) OasM iSTB OuiuiicgiTa (cootlniiM). Anonyraoni notice 
of ItUi Toninea; dtacripiion of two fouuJ at Tun ; accontia of 
Tarqaat found ia Knglanil ; do nccoant of Torauca in the wufka of 
oUcrIrlaliantIqi»riea;tboMruuni]«Tajiibaiightln 1H13 byAldor- 
iDBii West of Dublin ; 111* aullior dotm not agree » ith the aoon^ 
man* as to lh« moJc of pruluctiuii of the Tara Turqnrii. TTies of ilie 
Tnr* TorquM; referenoo totuch a rin^ o( fold for I tie wabt ia an 
aM^cnt preface lo Itic Tdim BiS ChuaH</in i another ref«f«ncc to «u«h 
■ ring in an ncoount of a iliapule abuol Uie manaur of death of 
F«iiadA Aifsttath bctvovn king Jfonjjnn and tb» poet Dalian Far- 
^illlnaa the I,tathiiT nn h-VMttt Catlttt ncconat of h|j niod« of 
binial i a lioup or waitl-twr^uw anioDB Uie oroanieata placed on 
/oitorfA'a itoue coJSn. Bturj' of Cormac Mae Aiit and f,ntjitM 
LttgHf fliowin^ oni! of tho ui«a uf ringa nan on tli* hanilD. Omn- 
nvati for the aovk ; Ihe Miim./iti fint dm;<I in lliv iLioo of Jfioaf- 
aai^Mi (cues B.C. ISOOJi mciilioDeiliaa [lotin uf Prrerirtnt on Curoi 
ihr. JJairt ,- aUo in account of tbn Bnttlo of MapA Ltana. The 
yUmit /.antforflat crtaecDt of gold worn od ih« hmid, b> well at 
«a ilia Mok. Tb« lfack-T«n|iH ol Curmoc Mae Airt. Dcacriptlana 
of tlie (brew and omanMBM of D*c Fola. 'llie Mmnche mentioned 
in Uie talf of lb* " U'atidMicjta of MatlJ«m't CanAo", and in the 
ilorjof C'("»#. iininth* and Land u«(d nbo for Iho neck oniaiDcnta 
at anloiab and ipeara. Um of the t^mi Jfuraiom. Of tli* .ifW. 
Lajid mmtloDed in tlie TUn Btl F'ruirJ,. 1"be forrulu of a epeMf 
uSod a Mn'iKhr in the account of Ibv Bnttle oE Mayh Leatnat din- 
coTorjr of aacli a ling in Kerr? ; (he leriu bIm uwO for the voIUra 
Oif giS] lioaiidi, ohivDj In FpnL\n tale*. Ueritiuti of tlie Toeem ita 
Staple form In tbo Boob <t hexatXtt. Of the Lund or lonolie \ it 
fonncd part of the legal ooDt«nl« of a hd;'* wiirkbng. and of the 
, failMcttKDCsof dkugbtcra. Tb« Lam/ was worn on the head aawell 



u on the EiGclL u ihown b; the dracripticm at t'onatn ifdr\ head 
clmrioMcr Bad npix^ntiM chaHM<M« -, m<) ilio of hi i poM*. 
LRCTUBB XXVHI. Or Dusn and OtKiJiKtiis ix Ai(Cl>vTEu^N 

18J— 1'JS 
^riU.) Dual uitt Obnamimts (canttnui>d>. Of EAr-ringt: tlto 
Am Xate meotionnl in Comtac'i QloMarj, uiil iu Ibe ftCCounU of 
TvfrAtnnc ibe i)rui<l unA jufigli-r, miil Die Imrtfcn in the ink ot Uie 
BniigheaH Dadtrffa. Of th« fi'Aiu.- il wMBli*dscolaffic»,e*pi!ekUj 
of chuiotwn; tl i« tnentioiicO in ClieiicsiTtplion of /ii<in (^ii!>AfYt, 
CutiulainJ"! rhnriutcer ; and alio in • legcn J about liim in Lealiiar 
na ffUi'lhrt ; iho word <>i'6h* ■■ explained in an uiclentglcMuy In 
ft vellum MS. ; t)i« itoTT of Edaia und J/iAr ■howl that tho Giiiu 
vu aol worn rxcluriyclj bj chariatnn. TIic aptnit liax fot the bafar 
nientiuned In iho ' ' Waiulninfri or Macldvit't Canoe". Men a> well 
■■ women divIdMl Ihe hair Hotlon* golden bolla hsterw) to Uia 
tretiG« of tlic hair : tncnUoo gf lucli ornBmciiU in the talo of Iha 
Bttiu)htiia Diidti'jii ; cnrloui jiocm from ihc lal« o( Eorltaidk 
TtMltadi and Edain (foot natc)', s^lden balla for Iho li.-ilr alao niflii- 
tioiwd in llic " Sick 13vd of C^ichulain4': two tuich ball* mentioMd 
in tlic Uilc* of Bit Fohi and IJrvighvan DaJtrga, and onijr vae Iu that 
oflhci "Sii'k It^d". Tlir iViad otr or crown cot a Laniltx creawnt i 
It i) mmliijni^ in the Brchua I.awa, and in ■ talo in tho /Mabhar m 
A-t'idf-rt ; tho K«g>rid name utrd in Ibc tale In quctllon proToi that 
tlic Mind coTCTvd tho lirnil. I'bc Afiwiot Mrdb al llm Tain Au 
CKuaitynt. 'ilic J/i'hi' wu alio worn in Scotlaud, ai i> ihuwn hy tiio 
■torj of prinr« Caiio, hlett nlwi woro a goldc'n .1/iW, at B)>|ie)ir* 
(rotii t)io TVin Aij Chuailifnt ,- thU orntnieDt called In other pana of 
the tale an Imifind. The curloui J/iiiif worn hy Cannae Mat Airt 
Dt tho meeting of the StalH at l!'iMtt--}i. 
LtcrUltE XXJX. Or DnKsi am> OaNAawn » Axctur Euxx 

(V(I].) Dbbm akd OftirAVRKTH (iwnlinuMl). Star)' of a Mind 
culled the /Jarr Un-xnn tii the taloof (he 7''^i''i /Iif .liniftn. Anolbar 
Ivicml nbuut the Min-o Mind (rnni the Book of LUmorr ; another 
cvlclimti-d ilifd nKiiIianodin tli()lMl^r tc^oiMl : ori^n of the undent 
name of tlio Laluu of KiiWii^y froui tiiat of Lfn Lm/ltiathfh, iho 
uakra of thja tcooDd Afind. The aniiervt gnlilamithB n|iprar inhnrc 
worked at or near ■ gold mmt. f.¥n the Koidmniili npjiFnri to hare 
fldtiTislwd (itcn n.e. 800. Tho namM of ancient arilttaarepurralljr 
dcriicd froDi thwe of th«it axta, but thai oT htti ti dcrivi-d fruni a 
pcculiailiy i>( hli teeth \ tliia circumtutive »hiiw« that lH<wa«iint the 
l^endary reproicmalii'c of hit url. but u ml ariitC Gdd ooraa- 
menli tuund in a bog oe^ar CuMtn in tbc caunlj' ol Tlpjicnirji cir- 
Conislonci:a nndor which they wtra found, and enumerniion of tlis 
articlea lounj — note. Cfrdraighe or aiieiircit terrilor^r of th« ([old- 
•mitba near the prcaont CuUoo. P«digKc of th« Vtnlmight ni Tit- 
lad Goiia ; ihii fi)niil}' of goldainilhiBrebniugbtdownbj Uiiipedi- 
gm to vinn a-u. SOO; the tldeat brtnch bocatno oiiitict in St. Mo- 



', diet JLD. G30 : btiC othor LirAnchoi nliCfd at ■ much Utur 
Hie mliMMl dtilri'iti «f 9- WrmiaM and Uainiu ar* not Tu 
Iroai Cidko. Tlia J( and tbe CUInit. Tbo Au-r, Ccjtn^rr, 
foAorr. and m^hbatr. 'Vha goUjooith (n Koolmt timM waa only an 
■ttiiin ; othtr arUxnna of die tans ckai. Crtidnf the flrU (Vi or 
(Toldimith i liii ilmklfa aicntlatird io a poem of /'/nnn of Mfinntter- 
boiee : Uiis poem ahows that fureif n golil w.u nt iini) tiniv iiapiri«d 
into InteAiL Tbc Hm rccorikil ([no1ti>rof gtid in iKhnd mu a 
futireof WIeklaw. RcFcranoM b>tl>9 making oF vpocifloarlidM not 
Hkely to bo foand in our uhronlclea: Ihere b, luiir«T«. abii»iUnt ui-i< 
dcOMOf a belief Itifti tha metallic uranmoiiU uii»1 iaitvlaiid wi,<n! of 
luitiva muiafMtuT^. 
LECTUUE XXX Or Moaic add Mchcai. iNarauMRiiT) :« *nciri(T 

EatxM ....... 312— 2»H 

(IX.) Of Utraic AMD Mdhval ImrncwKitK. Aalitiuity of tha 
harpiBBiinn. Thefintmuiioal inatrumciit mcntianc'l inGuvJIiclii: 
VTiUaci li tba Omf, or hani, of Iho Dnqfidn, n chief ind ilralil <il 
i^tTiMikalMDamiami hi* curJoiu invocation to tila harp i thethno 
BMi^oa] fealt played upon it) «xaBiln»tion«f tli«»annMcf tlii* liarp; 
tlw woni Coir, roTniiDK ]iart r^f tlie name of (he lynghda^t harp, came 
iawQ to modimi timra, aa ia atioirn by a |ioc*m of KMtinufln Tadgh 
(yCttlhj, tiL« hupar. The liayhda't invocation lo hU hnrp farthcir 
exiBuDTd ; tliO llircc miBlcal model comp&retl to tbe tli»a tciwini 
of lb* jrearinanc'etitEirj'pt; mythofthediicovery of thaljrv; Dr 
BtnH^ OD the thrM muiiejil inuJua of Ibc nioeln ; tho thm GrMk 
wodcfl rtpmentcd bf the Iriih three fcaUi coiijccluAil uitnpU-tion 
of Iba text of tbe D^qhda'a iiiTontian ; vhal wYre llic btlllci ami 
plpaaof Mw Dagl\dat harp: onoient pnimlngufn l;ire at FtiTtid. 
witb a pipe ft fiuic for croaa-har, mentlcnod bj I>r. Iturr.c^. I..cgend 
o( the oriiciD of llie ilirco fbata, or mnlrs of harp playing, from the 
T^i» B£ t'Toiek: iimD<Dgaf tli» name C/imVAna in Ihia k-Bvnd. Ho 
ioR of atringiinlhaaeootliilaf tlie/^7&i/a*>linrp. liut tb«j> aro 
Id iLe talc of the Tdin BtS FrakL Legend of t'md Mae 
Cv»iiailli ^talliark and her ina[[tcnl haip; Sf^Aarh'a harp liad 
thiee atringat <>■> meoiion of inatic lisTing bv«n plajod at rither of 
tlw batUaa of tbe norilicra or touHieia Mayh Tianadh > thia pnvM 
lb0 andiimtj of thcae accuottta. Tbe DagKJti'x harp iraa qoadran- 
fnlar, aOrcek hirpof tho wuiiu fonn rqireacnted in the hand uf a Gra- 
oian Apollo at R'lme : examplo of an Iriah qumlnuipulir harp on the 
nKsofan asoleot miMal. Dr. Fcrjiiiion on the antiquity and ori^n 
of imuic in Erioa ; mtiaiial canon of tlic W'clali rrjiulaieil by IridH 
harpenatoiit A.D. 1100: Ui« accouiilof the ZA^oi abowo muotionrf. 
And of Aitarea of tho ban> front ancient Iriih moiiumeotAl eroiaei 
whicb icKmUed the old Ki^ypllan one ; he Itiinki lliia iMtmlilaiK* 
nitpetutlte Iriah iradilioui; IiUli KISS, litiln •tuilled twenty 7«an 
but HDCO tboy IiA*e bcco; froio this ^Tiniinntian Itie author 
''ttluka the Firlml'j% and Tvtaha De ZXinann bad Dotlkiog to do witb 
Siypl, bat that tbe MLlealsna had. MiETationoI the TWUIa Dt 


ZtoaoM turn Gttecei lli« autliur ilocfl oat bellera Shay wntt lata 
SouHHiwrlk ; bo btUnei tbvir tiU« at Faiuii, Gotm*. etc., treie iii 
0«rinnnf ; thcj- «polce Gernun, according to the Book el Leeam. 
Tbe aimtlarity of tl»hsipfon tbctBonotneatof Orphcuaal I'claoin 
Sl;ri& and on Uie rAtM of tlie Stowu MS. mar point to MtnTbut m 
the ilunat at tbe Tuaiha lU Vaminn. 
LECTURE X-^XI. Or Mutio akd Mirucjtb [NmcNSMT* im AuCIskt 

Ebixm S34— 2i« 

(IX) Of MvMC AND Mdmcju. iNsTBBMorr* (cuniiiiurd). Le- 
gcDiluy oriftin of tlia lUrp acoofdiag bo lh« tal« of IwdXtaeit •a 
2V«n i;>JkaunA«, urtbe "AdTontUMttTllw 0iMlB«dlcCom]Mii7''i 
Staatha*'! vittt to Gtniire ; Intcrrtflw of J/tmbAua, GiMire'* brall)«r, 
Willi SuKfAan .- J/'ir£Aon'j legend i>f CuH >n(l f 'aituf (acA 3JUr uul 
tilt iATCDtiiHi «f tlic liarpi hi« )«g«od or tli« iatntioa of v«tM; 
Ilia legaod ooDoerninB tb« Timpait ; ttio strand of Camot not ideati- 
Bed. Sttrnlflcatlon of Lh« void CnU. The UUL Tim/uin iraa a 
itnii£«d instrument AnoUiAr etymology for CVu>(; IMdora no* tba 
aatlimty foi UiiifXpIautiDn. Itclcreiice to tliv Crvit iu Iho eutj' 
history of ttto UileaianR, JUmltr and Knimthna uul luu fur ■ peel 
and hupcr. Skill in miuii! ana of th« gin* uf tlie A'twriua or 
toutiicm ntco of Kriiin. Utntiot] «f tb* CVuii iu t)i« hi*tori««l talk 
of Orgnim Dindn^t or tlie ■' deatructlou uf Dindngh", Flnt oc- 
curMQce of the word L'ti* In tlili tii]«: it oocuni again In eonncctioa 
with tbe asKmblr of Drom t'tat, jk.s. ST3 ; Aidbti or C^iv* CVoi^ta 
mcntiunad In coDucction with poemi la pvalaa sf St. Cohat CUte, 
■UDirai ihlfl aasemlily; meaning at tli« word AiJimi th« author 
lieard th« CnnrSn or throat Accompaolnktnt to dirget ; origin of lbs 
word "crone"; the ImliAuiiai kuotra in Scotlaod lu Ctj^ig i tba 
woni Cey43 knaurn in Irclnni] «Imi, ax shown by d {Hem on tha 
de»tb of AthmriK- The nMtrinbty ol Z^Jrvm (Vol continucil i OalloM 
FotyaUf'i «]<-gyon St. Cflum CtUtf ttiv wvnl CVis ouuurs ia tbis 
puccnalsui Cm Uttrv rtprcsetit*a|«tt of lUv luirp, as shown by a 
Kholinmin LtaWiat na h-Uidhr* : antiquity ufUiabUa of tba 'Df 
■traction of Dmdriyk" prared by tliJx wboliam i the word Cm 
gluted in all audoat cupba of the alacy on St CoUm CUU i adio- 
lium on ilie aanic poem In the M8. El. S. 16. T.C.U.; Ettusa on the 
poam in Liber Ilyninoruni; partaof tho tiar^i rarmlscd to lutvobaon 
lli« VtU,—ih<i VelUiyht cr " siitcr*", and tho Lvthrmil ; Ltitkrvtd 
or half hamiODy, and Rind at full harmony ; dlfQcotly ol delermiaiiig 
what Ctfu was; it was not a part ol^ the harp ; aunini&r; of the 
views Of the oomnentaiors as to the mMming of (.Vu. Kourth re- 
feTcnm to tliu word C'eii in an anwnt tale in £,«al>iar na A- Uidhrt, 
Fiftli reference to C>i« in another ancient poem. f.'oiV, lUiatJivr l«rm 
far lintmony. sjinonyniDiis with Ctit; the author concludes that Cms 
lueiint «Uli«T lionuuiiy, or tli^ mode of iilayiiis witii a baw. Tho 
word (ikt incntiutied in (he suliolium In II- i. 10. is itill a living 
word ; tlui Crann OUatta nuailioiiul tu u poeRi of the aiglilnnith 
Cfnlary; this poom contains the names of the prircipkl |>«rts of tlie 



Wpi tb« BUDM of Um dtOcKat dum of rtring* an imly t« b« 
foofld In tlw wHtlM In Uia /.ciUur «a h-Vidire lu Ui« tlvey on 

XiBCTURB XXXn. Ot Uvav Atn> Hautiti. lunKvutnTttv Axcui^t 

Eum 85»~t78 

<IX.) Mswo Ajio HvBui. IstTKVMKian (cmtiaucd). Rcffnon to 

tit* dlfienot parU of a h>r|i in a jpatm of t))0 MvonCAonth caatuiy. 

^Rm avtabv o( Mringa not raeotiinicd io re (vkdco to harp*, eicept: 

ID two iiutaacM ; ibcSnti* Initio laleof iha Inbar Mie A imgit or 

tba "Vtv TW«ar i/<tf jlia^u''; the iflMriuncnc m«Dtionod in lliii 

tab VM not ft Cru>/, but ■ ttirro (trinnvH Timf/an ; the tcond ntftr- 

ennlitobcfounJ ia ilie Booli of f.tcftn: and tbo iRitruioDDC iaftxhl 

■ttfiifcd. Ttic UMtmnient called " Brian Bom's Harp" hu thirty 

■Uin^ llefwCDiC* to a manj' atiiagCil harp in the aevenlc^ath cca- 

AUeniioo paiil to the hu|i in xhe tvt-tfth mil thirteenth cea- 

Scteraum to the 'fmiiaa u Into an thn taTantmttb oeatu^, 

ipg it to hSTO bMn a ftriniietl iiutnitncnl. Th« Timpitn mm 

ad from tbe I'rvif or full tutrp. No \vcj uicient lia«p 

Tha lurp in Triuitjr OoUegp. Dublla : Dr. P«trie'« account 

«r it ; aumRiarjr oi Dr. PottVa ooncloaitmi. Dr. IVtrJol toioDi 

C^wrgv agaittflt \\m C3i«Taliar CQarman. Soma cqriaua rdWcnoca 

to harpa bdunsliic to O'Briens nbk'h the author has met wliIi: 

Mae CoAnid^'a poem on HtntieAaM CaiibriaeA U'Brien ; Afae Con- 

midJa'i poem on the harp of tlie urae O'Brfen ; tho poem does n«t 

expUia bow tba hftrp want to Scotland. WLal bMnina of ihit harp ? 

Wu U the hup preanited by Uenr; the iElnhtli to tlie f:arl of 

CJanrickard T l'«rhap« it ng-gtaled the liarp-ooinagf, which mm in 

ctnulatitm in Jlcnr? the EitilitL'a tiiiK. U'lic Chevalier O'Goriniui 

ant7 mitCook obc Donofb O'Brien for aoothcr. There can bo no 

doubt tiuttlualurpdhlonco belong to llieEartof Clanrlnkard. H 

ll>« Wp waa an ti'KciJl hsrp, how could it» «U)r>- bnvi,' been invrnled 

Bod puUidicd in the bfecitna of thoM cuiiotTiicd? Arthur O'Nrill 

mar Into plijod upon tho harp. But it cuulil not haw bwn bU; 

Ihia harp h aol an U'Matll, bat an O'Brien oti« ; Dr. F«trte'« antiqna- 

-jfiB diflqnltlaa i atithor'a aatwcr : uto tbamonogiuD I. II. S.; aa 

Id the anM on the cacnicheon. The asaertion of Ur. Petri*, thai the 

Rpl cf O'KcUl ia mora illmtrioii* th*n lliat of U'Brtan. ii ineorr«ct. 

LECTCTRE XXXtll. Or Muuc i.fra Houcu. lnwnvviKxt* ix 

AkcU«T Ebinx ...... 379—303 

(IX.) Hone iXitMcsicii. iNtnL-nKNTiCcoDtuiacd}. DonHchaJh 
Cmrbnadi U'Bilcn lent some priEcil Jewel to Scotland aome lliuu be- 
for« Jfac CoimiitKt't mlailon f:ir Donnthn'ih'i harp. Tli« Four 
Uaftcfs* eooonnt of llui puraiiit of Altiie<adhnih O'DaJj by O'Don- 
noU; O'Dalj-siivsftirpraccln three pDCRii, and iifomlrcn ; nocopJM 
ol Ihew porui* exbtinK in Ireland : t'o of th«ti> are at Oiford. Thi^ 
VMr Maatan' nMount of O'Ualy'i beniihnient not tccurat«; hia 
pOsoM Bo Clantieknrd uid O'&iira girc oTine paiticulua of hia 
BIf bL Foam of (VDaljr lo Morogh O'Brien, Rif ing sums accouoc of 



tb« po^t nfW III* flight to SootUniL Hi* pocl Brian 0*IIiff||ioaiin>l 
DftviJRocliB of Fenituj. 0*EI>g^ia« frrlleaa poem tolilin which is 
In Ibo Uciok oi Feraioy ; (bif pwm sivei a foniewluit diflVreai ac- 
«ount oE U'Dnlj'j return (rom thit of ili« Four MuUt*. U'Dalj 
wu pcrliap* not ollorcd to bare BcoCUnU witliout mnroin ; wbM 
wu tlie j«we] paid >■■ ibii rsntoin ? The author hcllvre* thnl it ma 
th<^ harp of (XBrUn. TliU tiarp dM not come t>ack to IreUnd 
dircclljr, and mAy have paJWi! iiilo ttie of Ldnrard tho (Irrt, 
■nd have boea giTcii b,v Hcnrj thv Eighth la CUnrickard. Tboar- 
BiDTial lieatiugi and monogram not of (Im tama a^ aa the harp. 
OlQctt* of ih'fi auihor in thcpravioui diacnaaioD. Poeni on anoltMr 
■tnjinjE harp of an U'llricn, irrtttGnin UTOj ilia O'Brien waanoaot- 
Eul of IhnnioDd ; the Fonr MaatMi' accooat of bia lubaiiirion to 
Qnccn lUiinbcth ; It traa during bia altort afaeene* that hia harp 
poftcd into atrangi! hand*; thohfrp in T.C.D. uot tliia hwp. Mr. 
Lnriftan'a hari>. OwDcra of rm: antiiiuitles ahould \ilaix them tor a 
time in the miu^am of tha K.I. A. Some note* on Itith lurpi by Dr. 
Pctrie. — ' Uo T«gn<(a llio ab«M« of any ancicnl liarp", " prtacnt in- 
diOvrenco to Irisli lutrpi u'lJ iiju«k" ; " Mrue nxksiutiul rcllcii prv- 
atrrcd"; Dr. Pi-lrie «roiilJ have [ireferred llie liarp of St. Patrick or 
St. Rrvin: ''onr lioijiiniay yelsivumiinauvifntharp"-, Mr. Jo/'aao- 
oouot of aucii a harp found tn tho county Uracrick; acc^rdin; to 
Dr. Potrio, tliiaburii waa at lc«*t 1.000 year* otO. What haabe* 
eomeot the liarpiof I7K2 and \Jm A hnrpof 1.^0:1. "Brian 
£tDT«''" liATp i« ilicoldeit of thoie known; (b« i>ul«ay harp i* nexi 
taacBittto '"Kiiptioni on tbii hup impcrfccily transUtcd in Mr. 
Jciyli eiaay. Piuteasor O'Curry'a translation of Diem : Mr. Joy's do- 
•crlp4.ion of this harp. Th^ harp of the Marqwaof Kdtlare- Harp* 
oftbeciKhtcbnth ventury: the un^-in ihu [>««•( adon of Sir Herroy 
Bmooi tho CiulteOlway harp; a harp fornjcrly bclooKtng (a Mr. 
Hehir of LimpTJuk; a Magvnnia harpiwn by Dr. Fetrloia lt>3i; tha 
hnqt in Ihu piMscaiiitn of Sir 0- Hol«on ; tho tmrp in <b« muieumof 
tho R.I. A- pun:luai»l (r<iiu Mnj'ir Slrr; iheso-called harpof Caioka 
in thp niuwutn of liii; K.I. A. The harpi of th« pmant oootury aB 
nada by Egan; one of them in Dr. Pctrio'i poasestion. Dr- Prtrle'a 
oplntoo «f the cxrTtisni of the lUrp &x-icty of BelCut. ' The Iriali 
harp ia dead for ever, but the mu»lc won't dio". The liaip hi Scol- 
land known ua ttutt of Mary Quoennf Soota. Ker. Mr. Maf Lnuoh- 
Lan'i "fiook of tho Deaa of LUmorc"; it contain* tfarm poenn 
aacrUicO to ODaly 01 iiuirrnd&acli ABanatA 1 Mr. Mac Lanchlan't 
note on thiapoeli hia deaor'pllon of oneof th« poemaincorpectaa re- 
gard* O'DoJ/i Mr. iX*c Lnuchlan not nware that il/uiVcjifitiicA AHo- 
aafh wu an Irishmau. 'Jlia autlior lu* cotleclvd all that tic MieTCS 
■uthenilc on the CrniV. Thi; *tateiiifnt* about aiicimit Irish mailo 
and musiculiaiii'umenisof Walkt-r aud Hunting of na*alu«;tb«M 
WfiMndid not know the lii*h Umgungo; ttio author regrets to bar* 
to apeak thus of the work of one wlio has roacued *o mndi of our 



IlGCTUBB X.XXIV. 0> Moic amii Mtincu. IxtTKOMKum a04-^2fi 

(IX.) Or Mcaic Ana McsiCAi. Ixn-acntKim (ooniinaed). NanM 

ol nnuicsl iiutfumeiit* found in oar MSS.— Tb« fftita'BmiUiailti 

ihe C<>n«-Aiii&JUi&adrlaliinsharn The Denn-Ckroil. TIioRimw. 

Tkt CMr-C*alAaireMiir. The Com.- tho Comaira at hom-plijOT 

lB«itti«n«d Ifl the TMit Bo fiaich, in tb« " OauiUhip of /Vfr", ami 

bL ■ I^tniliii; Tcnlon or tho B<xik of (^nesi* : qd reruirncu to 

inuopMt Id the Tilit B6 Chaait-jnr, but tliu pln/ing of harjia in (ha 

I tDcanpmtDb limcDbontd ; iutJUMc of mtwiciaiu in tKu tr4in«o( 

[Unp ud chief* oa tniUur>- npcdUIonn-lhe Baltla of Almham 

I the legeniH of Uoniibo. Miuiaal iuitruiueiiU uiuatiunud in tiiv 

I fll tbe B.-tltIo of Almhain, %iiA in tho poem on Iho Fair of Car- 

maa. The Ctmaxn, or lioni-bIi»w«r, alia mcullanml ia ibe pooiu oa 

tbe JUnqnttiiifHoitto of 'Ctn. The CrtuM-Ciiiil. or Mjiicil 

Bruioih, montioned hi tbo'Dilo o4 fi*4 Bricrindat ' Bficriu't t'ctuf; 

Ibe nmdcal bnoch a Bfoibol of po«t* nod uwil for coannuiilinfc *V- 

Imoc, u itiown \>y tlic Tntt^ n( " CriVriVi FcMt", noil the " Court- 

gjhip of fJKcr'; tho Miulial BrsDoh uicDltonwI in Llia I'sle a( the 

*I>ialogii* of Iho Tw ^gn" ; niiil ntx) Ll tlit T*Io of the " Fmding 

fllf Cormac't Bruiidi"; nad tutl^ in o poom of About the )rc«r aj. 

too I tho MoiicAl Itrenrh Rjmbolicnl of rviioeo and iwaoe; II ww 

(aulogDiu 10 the TvrkUh rilvtr erMWU and lells ■. Mine hronu bolla 

I Ibe miueain of tlie n.I.A bdongolpcrbaiMtoiaclianhMtTumcink 

I l»Bi caOod ■• Croiala" dtacribed Id ihv Pttuiy Jounwl: lit. Ft- 

I ofeierrations tboreon ; " CtoIaIb" not tiacd I:^ Cbrittioa priMM j 

of the term ; Ibe Iriob wonla erothaM, croAla, aoi] 

' ettikra ; tlioy ara tho onljr worda al all hko tTotaUttn, cxcvpt ciolal, 

tka favilca td fmlt. it. coauneli | holli pat on the ncckt of con, and 

buncai tlao Ct^tal not laiown in Ireland. The Crann- C'laJ, ot 

[MntfCAl Tm ; it waa a iioicrtc term loraDy khid ofmutical instru- 

II, *.y. a CriM/, a Cvitle, or tube, or a Timpan. Tho Caittath .- 

■tionvd in Ibe poem on tho I'fiir uf Cormin, and in Uir* TaIo of 

tVw BflUlo of AtuJiam, Tho C»u/a OuiJ anuthcr naiut for Cmnn 

1 'Cuir/; Cvitl* a living vonl nieiuiiiig a vcui, or a kind of Cuuk : men* 

Fticondia the Book ofluTiuionai CaufecipUmed In H. 3.i8.T.C.D., 

~M ■ Hiiiiul Tioe. 

■"LECTUBE XXXV. Ov Mttiir «jcoMu«ca[, ISiniitMa!CT« 327—350 
(IX.) Or Hone A^n Mrsicxt. Ikbyromsntc (contlnned). TJio 
F'.ii^ : oHniioflcd in tho Hook of iitcnorc ; FuUn plAyor* lavntiontd 
In ilie Breboii LawB. Tlie FiJU or Fiddle i tti«utlon«d in tho pocw 
CM iba fair of Carman, and Id a poem written in 1 680. Xlie GiUk- 
^.Suindtl noiitioaod in an Iriih tlTo of Alcxunilcr th« Qrtttt ; tllO 
I Ce^Um alao nivulioood in tUls Lniot i iaoorrrct nK^nlog given to tUa 
fWDtd in HaidcoJa and Octrai'* Uiotiouarjr ; CtiUm not a difnlou- 
tttvo ol no', but ttio naiQo of a tinkling b«ll; tho t'tiililn inctition.«4 In 
Iriifa Ufeof St. J/iic L'nndla. Tho GuMuini aUo montioDcdin 
ilriablra^ oil tho tHOgootTro^. 'I'tv (Mil TtdiK^. TbeOircmi 
^nentiODcd ia tho Iruli Triada ) ooo of the banb of St<i»rAi»n Ter- 
VOL. u. 2* 



peiita " Gmt Bardic ContpAn;" cillttd Oiicna ,- do cx[>lniution of 
Oir<.«* koDon, acvpC tbftt it vu tlio iiiuneor tlietint Up-doc. Of 
the Pip or Pip«, and in thi:i plunl A)i>ii or Pipes ; mcutionod in tl)« 
pMm ontlio Fair of Carman i tli« vnly ancient refi-ruiiec to l)i* 
PipaireadKay at Pialrairf., or Pi ptr, known to aulbiir u in a frag- 
mcntof Brelian t.air. Of iho Stoc ; mmitiancd in a p«r,i|>liraM o( ibc 
B<)olc «f Gen««i« in t)>« Lnthhir Brtat, tinil \a Ihft TCMiOD of ti)0 
" FaH of .Torichu" iu Uiu muii« took ; anil »^Ma in ileKribiag Um 
cominsof AniicUritt; ami tn the plural farm Stair in tlie pot'Oion 
the Fair of Carman, and in tli» 7'rfin /f<i yHdali. Xnather inatru- 
munt. the £rurfjiju, tn«ntl«ncil in ttiis tracL; ami alto in a {hkbi on 
Bandal lurd uf Arran. The SfurgrmuMe or Sturgan player men- 
tianed in Kmtirg'm " TlirocSlufUof Doatli". Sputiinunioniii.' Corn. 
Sioci am) J}luryan an [irolmlily to b« found in ths MuKrum of th« 
U.I. A. Ilio Cvni nas iitv Kutnau Comua. Tli^ Siik it:\iivfC!H.t tlio 
Bpuibq BticciDu. Tlie Simi/an uamtpomi* (o Uio Uumau Liluua. 
Mr. R. Otulcj** dracriptioQ of the Sliac aoil the Siurr/tiiia in ths 
Museum of tli« H.I.A. Andcol Itiali Kia<I iaitruinentt of Eraduateil 
•cnlo mid (»]iii]uin ; ihi' trumi>«tii ineatioaet] !□ Walkn'K Irlili Bonla 
finit de»crih«d imd figured in !-mi(h'« liuiorj of Uork ; Wilkcc"* 
obivrvatloDi on them ; llicy arc &Kur«d iq VrtiuU Manuni«iitai ■ 
lin^lu trampct fuand in EoslanJ; liic author ngnxi vilh Walker 
tlitt then tntut haTc bt-en aDolher joint in the trumpcti > dlocrc- 
paacy l>olWECn Ibe liguret of SinitlL and ttio VetuiU Monu.iiictit«; 
SiDitii'i opinion that thry irprc UaoisU, crroneoov; Hmilh'a emt 
tliat tlio Cork truniiiela formtd but o]ic ij)*truniei)t, rvpruducod by 
Mr, B. MiicAdim; Sir W.WiHii'» novel idea of tho U(« of ilia 
alrai^lit tubea ; hit idea tliat tliey wcr« [>att of a " ConiuuoilM'a 
Slafl", borrowed from Wagner; Kir Willbiu Wilde'a illtutniioo of 
tha UM of tlic atnu|{lit jiart of a truiiiiioi n* a " Commundrr** Staff **, 
UDMlUfuctoTj' \ h\a wparalloa of tiio lUaiH^t tube from lUe curved 
jians in [ImMutcum of tbo R.l, A. ■ mistake whicli ougliltabe cor- 
nvlod. Sturgana, Stm'c, aoJ Ca'na Intbo Muteumi of tliu Royal 
Inali Acodciuy, and Ttiiiity College, Duttliu. 
LBCTUIUS XXXVI. Or Music i,ya Udsigai:. iNaTBCKEN-ra 351— SfiS 
(IX.) Motic jkND Hdsical IssiBUMESTv (uontiuued). lliit word 
y'tilliit, the nmuc of a limp in WclUi. it not a|>plicd io Ganlholictoa 
aiiuicalintU'uiucnti incoaliig ol 'i'tljin occor^lotc toOwcn'a Wvltli 
UiotLoLar? ; 7Wjn originally jKTliapi » derisive naniB ; Caractim'i 
account ui the iatroduciloa of harp mtuie ttom Ireland into Waict; 
author unable to flud wlut Wclili wotU Caradoc utcd for harpi tlio 
Te/gn and tVuiA ircro tlic Ciuit and 7'mfianot Irtbnd; Oven't 
d«tiuitioti of a W«bli Cruit. Tba Irltfa C'ruir iru n lyT«, and not a 
dthara. Tbe Wolih CriH/ or Crowd could not rvprncnt tlio Iriah 
Cruit. TUo Wclih word Ttlgn npparcatly tlie aame aa ilie Iriah 
TtUlin, applied to tlio humming bee and humble bc«; Ttittin occurs 
va \\i9 Dinnttanthnt i alw) in u pociu about jlfnr^un and Cuairei 
•nd in one by Q'HwaeWy writtvu about 1G60. Tbe 'wonl TtUKn 



■pplwdtothcfaoiDninf ofbcwi II ha> become otwolets In Iretuul, 
bat rot In Scoiland ; occun in the HigliUnd Society'i diclianar; u 
SiilUtn. Ttlfn cotild not b« a modiflcfttioB of th« Grack Ch*l/>. 
Sotue think ttio fldcll« nprotcntt tlw uicicnt Cmil ,- thv poem on tbe 
fwir of Ciinmia pnrei tbb So be emncooa. Of llie Timpan : Vof 
mat't derlvUlon of Ifali word glrw m the niateriiUa of which tlie tn- 
•tnnaent w« made ; ttio T^pinmoniioncd in an ancient pinphruM 
of tbs Book of Eiodiu ; alK In iho Tale of the Datllc of ifiKjh Ltntt ; 
• ■fld la that of th# EzUe uf the Saoj of DuU DirtnaiJ; Buotlier 
^TefMWiee In the INatogu* of tbo Ancient Men ) the puMigo ia Ibe 
latter ihf onljr one which cTplalni) LntArind ; In IhlsptMlga/atlnHlJ 
ngnille* the tn'ble purl ; ktiuther deBcriplion of iha Jln^A glrea iB 
LBm ffiegc of Dr'imdumhghairt. Tlic Timpan waa a atriaged ioatn- 
Bi«iit plajvd with a bow ; this U fully conflnnfd br a puujro from a 
vdlum MS. compiled by Bdmuiid ffLMmm in 1509. The hudo 
fMiuH ma/ have played the harp and Timpan, but they werg two 
I tfrtiad profeMJoDe, Tho l^mpait cane dowo to the icTeDtcentb 
centuTT' Important puHtci? rrom the Drthon Law rr«iicctinE th« 
Tlmpanlat ; it would appear fram this that, la addition to tlie tx»r, 
tlie deeper itring* wnc (truck wicti tliennil. tUijwriaDdTiiiiiHiaiits 
•reanmnitcly mctttlone^ in the Tochmarc F-mcrc. The harper alone 
■Iwiyi ooiMi<l«Ted of Cho rank of a B/i At't; the tinipnolit, oa\y 
wtMra ehief Timpanitt of a king. Itetiktiic puw«r« of Ihe harp ami 
Tiapan Rtiutmlftl lif n Ick<it>'1 from llio Book of LiMnore. Pr> 
I IniloDal name* cif inuilcal pei (uruien • the Buinnir* i the Cnaieih- 
[.ntar ; Itte Vvrttatr i the tVBt/iV* ; the Cuiiltunarh ; xhn Ftddnach ; 
ibi F«r Cttigail .- itie Gt aica : the Pipatrr ; the iSfocaire ; the Slur- 
yititaiMt; Ibe Timpnnark. 
UCCrURB XXXVIl. Or MnaicAXo Mcue^i. IxtraDKRn 8T0— 589 
{IX.) Or Uuaic AND Mviiclu. lasTavutMS (cootinucd). The pu- 
tlcular kluck of muuf iDUUtioDcd in aiiclt^n t man uacrlpts : the A idhti ; 
the C4fi6e. V*p6e only anothor name (or Aiiffia; the word Cf-pife 
nacd III Ireland abc^ aa iihowa by tlic I'alc of " .</•'£ DtUha'i Pig", 
wmI in au eteg; on JtfJime the poet. ^iWfifi or Ctptic a iind of 
(.VoiUn or gtittural miirmur. The C*rt<i« relorrei! to parlituUrly in 
Uw Ctfw Ji/oaiJlniK/k TliO CrimdH, mcotiDOw) in the aocount of 
lUh BMembly of Drom Ctal; aud alio in the Ailventures ul the 
* Gnu Batdic Company". The Crann-L'vTd; it comiitoi of an nt> 
COBfttiiaiUi* produced by tho cbthi»E ol tpiir hamJIn*, ai Uiowii 
by a pUMge in the Tiim B*S diaa^i/at : and in a Ivgeiiii from the 
Book of Liamora in whidi the term occnr*. Other muaical leraa 
ttf^d in thU t«Ui tbeZ>«>(i<Jri,- the /bebiriJ; t)ka Abr/in i tttaF^adi 
llx IJvid FiaBta s ibt Itorrf; the hiaMtn tho Andenit llm laltgc 
Monlvccun in the Tale of the " Sunt uf Vitntth'; IhispuiasekbowB 
th«l the pagan Q acdUl aaaft md ptny«a in ehora* and in conuct ; 
, Iboni^i liorti and ita dcriTstlT«e imply oiuaic. the word I'tirddn waa 
•pplted totbenoteaorthniiliee. ChsrncbT of tho Crunn-/>orJiho«n 
by a I«H*ge from Ibe ■■ Dialogoe of the Ancient Men": and by 



•MtlMT pusagn trom Ihc Buno DUIopis In ft US. ia the Bajral IrMi 
Acadom;; the Lhtd-Fianta wti therefore t kind o( uroodca gonit 
accoinpaiiimenl. Th^ riiv:h'\Kd, cxpUnsd aa Lninncyg tn nvuAc\ 
Lutnutot/ ubiukte In Itelimd, bat uatA In Scoilnnd fw a dlltj or 
ciMni* i DveAauJ vu p»hAbly a dirg* ; Dvan, a Uudiitloii ; tiutJiand 
occnra b Corwae'a Glotaarr vsplnitilng litnad i tbe Uttrr a moaning 
air or tuae Id cliorui. Tlie Etnad. 'J lie Three Matlcal Alode*. 
The G^iH IJ^uaiih OT " i>niii't Shout", mciitioDed In thsTnUofthe 
BaHlff of^/niAdiii. riio Goltfhoirt BaM%lIh»^t>twtA^it\h» BowiJht, 
mantloiwd In the Tiiin B6 Fmieh : it probably came doira to a lata 
period. Tl)c Guhha. The Ltu^airetht or (unpml wnll. occtin In 
Cormiit't Ulouanr at tl)« wvri dmralht mcauiiig uf tlte taltvrtvrtn. 
The Z^riiFiTMnrj. TItc Santi^Auf/a, or oca nyniph'a •oiije ■> it i* ex- 
plained In itn olil glcmrf. Ilia .%n nr .S'tonun, npplird in thpTala 
tt tlic llnttto «f the Moond Atajh TftrraJh \q tlic wliiuiii); of a 
apcar ; npfilicd to n ions iti Uib TaIo of the Son> of L'Uar.rA ; ami 
also Id llie wanderinef of tbe pticilt StmJjiia milI J/bi: Hiaghla; it 
deiignaMd iofl pUinti*o miuio. Sirfclach applied to low nnuiQj 
tynwjVBOM v\\\i Aiibond ! tho loitn' wunl uccuca irj lli« Fntolug)' 
of /l^ni^ut Cti't 0<: AMond Tiiri/h, or ttiplp Adhowi, ojtplnineil in 
Uiehael O'Clcry't f^loaury m tlm Thr«a Muucal MchIm; Tri/teh 
WGUia ia ZeiiM' Gmmmitlica Ctilic^i TViracA mM apiilied t» a 
apMiet oT Ijrriv poetry ; the icnn Trirtch DM exoluaively a|>i>lied to 
tbo iiiUKic or quimit; of vcin.\ but iiitu to a jiaiticutar kiDd of 
laudalorj peciii ; tlie ulaiiM in quviliou tiagu li> tliv uir ol '' Tor 
Ireland 1 wuulJ ntii tell who die U". 
LECTURICXXXVlll. Or Mi.uii akd Mciic^ IxsriirvKKTH SM — Ul 
(IX.) Or Mtifnc A)ti> Miucu. IxBTRi-xsNTe (cuntinued). 'the 
ancient lytic Tune adapted to tin nntieiit oir referred to in liuit Icc- 
tUTV ) th(- cxintAnco of old IjTle (.1)111 pmiti cm ■ hit ring a. iwculiar Rtmc* 
tun of ilijllim aiUpKd to old nio *till oxUtinjc, unknown in tlia 
nuiiciil histuijuf any ollicrcu'uiitry i uianj' tucli kiiuvii*, tticrccx- 
btaln tlio Hook uf BaUyinotf mpixiu.! Unci on verrillcaliuii cuiitiun- 
tngnpecimuD Tcnei; the apeoinicd* are Tttvnll; luor-tincd Tcnef, 
but tlieytiog to certain linii^lc »i>ktuu nut. iljeerv- ure cLicflj- ibo 
poemi called 0»iiuiici the uuthor hm licanl lii> li^ilm ting lliu 
Onlanic posini ; nn<l )ia> beard of 11 wry good ivni;<T oF lh«m naiocd 
O'iltieui Uic eutLor odI> titAid one other pucm tuug lo lliu nirof 
tiie OuuiiiiiiJ potuia; man/ utlier old poenu wuuld, huwcvcr, ting to 
it. Th<^ tiaul ou v-ucalflenliun voiilnin* tpcdnieuE wbidi mutt road 
t« Riutic nl flratkiglit; three «jiaiiii)l«i i«levt«%i, Thu (Iru colled 
Ociit-FocLidi Corrai.acA Btg, or, "the lilllf Liglit-liiiii mrretl 
reno"; thii Dla» of iKiem* wrttlan to a mclodj' vixittruL'tpd liku tluit 
known a* ibo " RIacIc g|«ndtr Bo;"; t1fuiijrti»n of thi» kiud of 
rene^ The eccoiid i* tbo Ocht Fudach MiJr or '- gn»t ciKltt lino 
vane"; lhi> ataiixa wna writluu lu tho uiutlcnl luttre of im itit uC 
tthiohtliafirKlialfor ".lohii O'Dwfcr of tli« Gleti" iaao examplai 
dvaoripllon ol ihtt klod of tcnc. TIig tUltd ia the Qtia /actacA J/Ur 



i-Comtnifh, or "gmt cnrvtnj-etglit Hoe vene"; meaaare. tixenta, 

, and rh/tDO an the lame aa in tbe fcconil. Anotlior a[icci- 

BwD of *(ne from o Iodk poem in the Bogk of ^rca>i j Uw kiod 

callcil <Ml Foc/dtA ii»-£*(niAin. or tlia "nixhl line r<trao of 0" A> 

^XmAm"; tb« C/( «r prvOxed to the uanie of Itie sathor of llie poem 

I not nwe Mir lly tmply hia haTlog IitmI nftor tho pcrninncnt ni- 

|'tiiinptJ<mof aunuoKiei tlwcripUon^lhuikiiiiJ ul |)oeui; tliia [tociu 

'vritUn to n diflurcnt kinii of air (Voiu tho utlicr atinitai iiuoteil ; 

win ifnf to asf eoit of t)in» wall Icntiwa aim. Thu aiilhvr dou* not 

Mj Itwl ttwo vvnca wan wriltw (or the nlr* tlll<aliolH^I, but only 

Ibat tbejr ling naturalt.r lo them. Tluc tlicae suaua were not 

urittanfa/ Iha wril«ta on Iriahprotod^ taiD|ipart iitliao(7, i< alioirii 

bjr p(wnu in tbo TUe of tlio TdtM }h! l.'Jivatttfitt ; c^. tho ptom 

fioniaininf^ iho iIUIagiM baC<rcoii ite<ii and ^'tritiadi miialcal 

^aaaljrili of Uiii poeoi; tbere are Ave poemi ol llie lame Iclod In Itils 

talc. Tho nuclMT doet n^t irant to euablUh n theorj, bnt onlj lo 

dinct attvtuion to tbc aubjoct. Aiitlquitj o( tUe pmcnt veisioa of 

IbB Tdim Btl CAnnilffn* i tb€n:opy [ntiic LfiM^ir lui A-CnJAri ; tba 

tepf In the Book of I>clDMcr. At kast one gpeclmen oF tho tonie 

kind of ancient tvtw in the Ifinnjnuteltas, eg. in tho lagenil of Alh 

FaJatf, or Alisdc: the JtiiinMaachat, mt vrittcn alKiut COO hj 

Jtmeryin, chtf-f poot to Dt^naail, aon of Fsr^ut CnrtAtoiY; them 

I <nrioii» CoanpositiMM «ra at l«ait 9'><> jtanM, Mid prurc that the 

1 cncttantlag foriu of Irtili muwc it intligvnvna. Tho aTttlior i* 

I of hb niilltDMa to d«]witli the BubJ«cC of mi»lc tech- 

EBloallf ; oonpUInt on the n^picct of IrliU mtiale ; appeal to Irlafa- 

mta ia farow ot it. 

f^Vo clear tDoMoii in tho vgry old [rith MS3. to dancinic. The raodvm 

(SDcrU) BBAM for daMtng I* lHuiKtadhi It la lOOietiinM colkd 

X>tfnA(aj MMo!«s of thoM tcrma. Form end Peti the modem 

\ for aininng and diii:cing mu*it-; MichneJ Ot^lcry applice tlic 

[tefin Ptirl tn lyric hiumc in ({viiltaI. Cor. in tlic iiliitui C'uiV. an aid 

Iriah nrvnl for niVidc, perltK|M coniiei;t«^l with Vhomt i thv nulkor 

megratsthat A»t nesaiicieiilly, wlial it 1» dow, a "jis'i nnd Cor, 

■ "root"; "jig"' bonofi'd from ihu t'rvnch or ItalUu. Rn'itceadh 

fiija, ' long danM", not an amHtnt tcmi ; Dpi4i«d to a counity 

rdaneeb ConduiMu 


1. Tlio Fight «( Pcniliul and CucintUiiul, ftoai the rdin B^ 
QAviiitjat ...... 

IL TwtrOldLaw Tracta: 

1. Tl» Crith CtOtlnth ..... 

S. A Law Tnet without n title, on the cleaaea af aedelj 
IIL Tht Aacieei Fair nl C'orrjinn .... 

Glonarial In^x of Iti»li Wurdi 
Iiidn Momieaei 
Index LuCiMiuii 
Gcnml Index 





The following errors faave been noticed in preparing tbe Index 







with water, 

with water between them. 




1 8, 



















Cradlik dtarg, 

Croih derg. 











four timet htch. 

twice seven. 





and perfect. 

and a perfect. 





[of the pmti.] 

the front posts. 

■ I 




with salt ; and a tmmI 
of lour milk, 

withcoi)dimcnts,an(l Aves 
Bcl of skimmed milk. 





the mouth, 

a mouth. 











on OUamh, 

an Ollamh. 












sons of. 





three times three thou- 
sand men, 

three TWudia Ctd* in it. 

















a man of hound-like, 
hateful face, 

and he fierce and terrific. 





dote napped cloak. 

cloak with little capes. 





a dark gray long woolei] 

1 a loose fitting dark gra; 











after me there, add with a glossy curled head c 

hair upon him. 













two woodringa. 

two kings of CaUl, 





of the househol d youths 

sons of. 



iiot059,col.I,]Liw1S bx. 







with sena BiiU. 





Pi|CP IM „ 19, N Btae. 

]10.nDte71. ool. J. liiwU. V^t^]», 

HI, ltn« 6| faitenitig, 

131 „ i&.iB It. f'artharta, 

I3« „ a 

H9 .. ft 

. .. M. 




thy. WTptiiy. 

white *liirt and ooIUr. white co1l«red tlilrt 
•OturuauwnoJforTolour. suds of Efimd (jamb) Rnd 

Comtad (iloor). 
«/l<r *ilvrr and, aiM Hvih-manfftiog spoara vith 
vdoi of golil sad eflrer, Mid Crcdama (brtHiu), 

105, liae 8, fclloirtilk. 


jrcUow ulk with *ilverBpoa 

refvraiH! w parred broochM 

in iltiok of Mutiitcr. 

18<,iMciwt« cuT«d In 

Hook ol Miuifttt^r, 

180> lilM MsitlcnMc^dtvtxrf Atan^oiAra, drcssuf /,ii4ji/i, t«>nD(iIttM- 

gahki a. 
Fair liiiired woniKn, 

In a funnor Uwtur? nn 













SIS. Bote 397, 




(air womaD. 

In a former lecture 1 gave 


Lodf i^nr of BaJth Dtarft muiiloin'*. The lad; 
^ar mmtioncu) in thi« tale, •mu daughter of i^ocA, 
■oil of Doir* LrilA. u( the CruiUntuaUh or Iruli 
nclit, and wifu nt {'rimlhna Xia ifar, and not 
A'or rua/firndA of UaiRk D4rg'» maiuiori. who 
■mta ewinebord to Uatilk Iftri/, and a gntA w&r- 
ri}T, See Ijuidteaeliaa, MS. Book <>/£<can. 

ron READ 

«» ., «. 

rings, coil*. 

sso - 2a. 

lulls, Sidhe, 

148 . 40t 

a/ttr fail lint add: " and It vsa together thi^y iiuulii 

that ranBtc". 

tfM SS1[> 

249 ^ B. 

the C*ii. tli« mnilc&l Ctii. 

S51,aotc33S, coLS, line 1, logef " euro", to fc«itdt>, parting in /.rt. 

n<i h-Vidhri, p. 9. 

2M, Une S, 

(xNintcr pan Mrinica LrMrini/ with its itilDgs In 

o( lliat pnn in lti«ir it. 

ppojwr {ilncv*. 

2<5 ,, S. 

TMoightvat, Laoiglaa^ck. 

MS ., S«, 

to poKitiun, in a iNjNltiou, 

»1 „ 7, 

OoitUiMirj, Croihddarf. 

WU, Um 12. 

CrmUaaek C«rM<icA. 





Page 808, note 363, col. 1, line 9, 

bd CAp, 


„ 312, notc859, eoL l.line 15 

, curU, 


„ 313 „ 

3G0, coL S, 

Tol. ii. 


•I 828 ,, 

877, col. 2 line, 8, 

TIO CAtltl, 

tio ccAnn. 

„ 33tl, line 

2G, Bide note. 

also a poem. 

also in a poem. 

,, 342 „ 

16, siilo note. 

iSfuic or Hturgana, 

Stuic and StwgoH 

,, 844 „ 


may seem. 

may be seen. 

„ 857 „ 


Duakjr Ttliiftt, 

buzzing C'uiraaj. 

„ 86* „ 

17- 18, side note. 

there were, 

they were, 

If » 11 


IrU Calhargh, 

Ini» Cathagh, 

,. 873 „ 

£0^ ct Beq , 

ladj Luain, 

lady Luan. 

„ 875, note 429, col. 2, line 4, 



„ 879, line 


Dord Fiansa, 

Crann Dord. 

If ir J fi 



Crann Dord, 


„ 380 i „ 

This mistake is repeated, pp. 879-880. &< 

Introduction, p. 


.. 417 „ 


wUl km. 

wilt kill. 

„ 418 „ 




.. 467 » 

2 (marg. note). 



11 M »J 


Airi Dti.a, Airi Tmn, Airi Deta, Ai 

Ard, Airi Tuit 

„ *97 ., 



a new calvied cow 

„ 600 „ 



bond Ciila. 

., m „ 


ten not. 

ten on. 


(VII.) OiBonoiirai^PuaitrroBKiKrcinaiidsatSrinn. Of tlie aumbar anil 
MoCMHoa trf tit* cclonuti of •ncHut Briait. l^vdiiMti ucribM nobuiklintE* 
lB/tefi(it/«Morhitiwmhi; tboir (epalchnlnouiidtftlTiiJiayhlnMFliiiblin. 
DsiriUoM tt tbc AdU, th« Z>Kii. llio Lit, tho Cauiat. nnd the CnM.iiV; tha 
IbUct two von of BUne i manjiiKKlpm towoLud-iwntPRilvnTfd fram UifM 
Mtoi«: reiUHBa of ousj el thno Mmctiltta MiU rxiit. AuA ma AyA or 
" lU;li at the KioBi*, at Tim : the Ttaek U4r MUM Aiw, or " Gnat 
IUdm t>t tbe ThooMdMb of BoldimT. G«*cnd hoiu*« were often indnil^d 
vilhin tbe *aine Rati, Dun, Im, or CauttaL Gxttni of tho detnoiM land* 
of T&ra. Tbe HaiA or C'oMaH- of AiUncht accuunt of i» boUdiiig: the 
hoilMi viihin thL> Raik u waII ai Itin litil«r vera cf Jitoniii why called 
AHeaA Fnytindt AiinifA mi'niiniicit by Ptulraij. Accxiunt »f the Ratlt 
«r CnHKAan in tlic 7<iV.> JU Fratch. Tbe " Uoim of tbo Kojral Braovh". 
Dtacriptioo of k i/^i' in Fuirj L«iid. The term* ffafA, tinti, ami Lu applied 
to the Mine kind t>f (incliMuns The foradi at Titra. DeKTlpUan of tlio 
boUBOf CVarfr. Two clatiw tit laiihltCT. — Ute /fii/A-build^r, and the Cautu/* 
Iwilfcr; Uat of the proftwe—ofboth «K» trom tli« Bctik ol Ltaiiit^c. IfiMal- 
tatA ifae Firiutifkt copj of tbe Mta« lat (nutc) ; bU obaemtioiu in answer 
t« thoM who deur tha «uil«not of Moiie- building in andmt Erion. TUe 
•tarj OT BritnKd'a VtMt ; plaA of bla iMue | lua yrMitaa «r " «aa lioaK-" ; 
bb utlistloa lo CmdKAar and the DltanUa] he aowi dlMnsloBi amottg 
thawaatantbaBiialharBan C/iocUf— UihoiiM waamwleaf wicktt-wcdrli. 

ill the last Ijecturo I ooncludcil wbak I had to sqr conocnung the 
Arms, the Militar}' System, and the modes of Warfara, oi the 
Biuaent Gaedhit. I novr proceed to the conaderation of their 
DoiDestic Life ; and, as the pii-'t^tiuD of dweUIiigs, and wiili these 
tbe adopti<»i of means of dclcncc against vxtvnutl aggrcanoa, 
must hare been the flret can: ot'uveiy p<;oplc whore society 
began to be fortncd, wc tnay saturally commence with the 
HCTansement of thcii houses and the appliances of comfortable 
life within them. 

In dealing with this subject I duill naturally bo back Gist to 
the Tcry canicst oulomtiU of ancient Erinn ; and in duing so, I 
mtut premise by repeating the caution I have already inUmatcd. 
— that here again I adopt the niunbcr and succession of these 
coloniatB, as I have hitlicrto done, uinply in the order in which 
I iind them in the ancient " Book of Jjivasions"; because the 
time haa not yet come (oi entering ou the considcnitioa of the 
grounds upon wliich those aocient accounts have been, or to 
what extent they ought to have been, so implicitly mlicd on by 
the Gacdhflic writers of the last ciglitecn hundred years. With- 
out It all then eiitcriaB.$t pseeont into any investigation of tha 

TOL. II. 1 

2 OF BuiLDurpsi'^tijtVTi'unE, etc., ih 1BCI8BT SKnrv. 

■OT. XIX. long ^iacuSseilU question of the veiacity of our ancient records 
anq tf^ditiiMis,' which declare that this island was occupied in 
^. ^tfcipapron by the Parthalonians, the Nemedians, the Firbolgs, 
■-;*ite' Tuatha Di JDanann, and, finally, the MilesianB or Scoti; 
; ;•. • or from what countries or by what routes they came hither; it 
' must strike every unprejudiced reader as a Tery remarkable 
ieSeoU iact, that the Scoti, who were the last colony, and consequently 
namoiti the historians of the country, should actually have recorded, by 
^l^ffDri. o*"**^ ^°^ local position, several distinct monuments, still exist- 
ing, of three out of the four peoples or races who are said to have 
occupied the country before themselvea. And although much 
has been incautiously written of the tendency of oui old Scotic 
writers to the wild and romantic in their historical compomtions, 
I cannot discover any sufficient reason why they should coa- 
cede to their predecessors the credit of bemg the founders of 
Tara, the seat of the monarchy, as well as of some others of the 
most remarkable and historic monuments of the whole coantry, 
unless they had been so. 

Etymological speculations and fanciful collations of the an- 
cient Gaedhelic with the Semitic languages, were taken up by 
a few very incompetent persona in this country within our own 
memory, and carried to such an extent of absurdity, that both 
subject and the authors became a bye-word among the truly 
learned historians and philologists of Europe. Still, etymology 
and philology must have an important bearing on the ethno- 
logical history of Europe. It forms, however, no ^art of my 
present plan to enter upon any argimients based on these studies ; 
though I may of course have occasion now and again to refer 
to proofs or ulustrations ascertained by their means. 
sJj^JHogi It is a remarkable fact, and one not to be despised among the 
iruuion. evidences of the extreme antiquity of the tradition, that no 
account that has come down to us ascribes to the Parthalonian 
colony the erection of any sort of building, either for re«dence 
or defence. Parthaton and his people came into the island 
A.H. 2520, B.C. 2674 (according to the chronology adopted 
in the Annals of the Four Masters) ; and although the descen- 
dants of this colony are sud to have continued in Eriim for 
over three hundred years, still no memorial of them has been 

S reserved save what we may find in a few topographical names 
erived from those of their chiefs, excepting only the ancient 
sepulchral mounds still remuning on the hill of Tamklacht (or 
Tallaght, in the county of Dubhn), where the last remnant of 
this colony are recorded to have been interred, after having 
been, as it is said, swept off by a plague. The word tamh in 
the Gaedhelic signifies a sudden or unnatural death ; aod leaeht 

or Bl'ILOIXaS, FtrRMTtlRS, ETC., IK AXJIKMT Eltl!«.\. 

Binonumcnl&I mound or heap oT stones; and hence those ancient '■^ct. 
monurocntal mounds hare frora a period beyond the reach of 
histoiy prcacrvcd the name of TamhUacACa Muinnttnl I'har^ 
toiain, that is, the Mortality Mumidii of the peuple of Par- 

Thirty years after the destruction of the poopleoTParf/xj/on, nioiiBn«( 
•ocordiitg to the Four Mustcre, !vemhidii csnia into Eriuo ut "^'*' 
the hcaa of a large ooUiny ; and altlioueh t})is colony also re- 
muoed in the country for three hundred yean, we have uo re< 
cord of any sort of buildings having been erected by ihera, any 
more than by their picdeceeeorat excepting two only, both of 
which are »aid to hiivo been prectea by Nejtifiuui hiin!>elf; 
namely, ItaOi-Cinn-Kidi, in Ui Niallain (now tlie barony of 
Oncilund in the county of Armagh); and Hath Ctmbaotth, in 
Stim/tnf (which was the ancient name of that p.ut of tlie sea- 
board of the present county of AiUrim, opposite to which Lies 
Islaad Magee). 

That these /ifoMj, or Forts, of Nemhidl* could not have been 
of any great extent or importance according to our present no* 
tioiu, is evident, since vrc 6nd it stated in the " Book of In- 
vasions', that /tath-Cinn-h'ieh. (lit. the Hor*e-IIewl'Fort). was 
built in one day, by four Fomori&n brotlicrs, who it would 
appear were condemned by Nemhidh, as prisoners or slavi^a, to 
perlbrm the work, but wno were put to death the twxt day 
Wt tliey should dcmolijli ilicir work agRiu. No trace of these 
ancient c'lilicrs now remains, at le«t undrr their anelent ntiinc!- 

It may be us well to slate here what is extictJy mcuil by tJit? 
diAerent words Rath. Dun, Kit, Caiuat, and CaUuiir; tho prc- 
TfttUng naiues for fortiQcd places of rci<idenc«, us well as for the 
rOTtiScations theinselvee, aiuoii>,' the Gaedhil. 

The Haik waa a (ample circular wall or enclosure of rutsed ■""> *•* ' 
earth, euclosuig a space of more or less extent, in tvhich stood 
the residence of the chief and somctimcd the dwellings of ene 
or more of the officers or chief men of the tribe or court. Some- 
times also the Rath consisted of two or three coaccntric walls or 
circumTallittioiis ; but it does not appear that the erection so 
called was e\-er intended to be surrounded with water. 
' Thf.' Dun was of the same form as the Ratk, but conaisting The omi. 
of at lca<t two concentric circular mound? or walls, with a deep 
trench fuUof watcrbctwccn them. These were often encircled 
by a third, or yven by a grL-atcr number of walls, at increasing 
tlislancce ; but this circumstance made no alteration in the form 
or in the signification of the name. Dvn is defined strictly in 
so autlioiitativc a MS, as the ancient Ciocdhcllc Law tract pre- 
serrfrd in the vellum MS. H. 8., IS. T. D., thus: " Dun, i e. 

1 D 


lOT. XIX . t^o walls with water".'" The same name, according to this 
derivation, would apply to any boundary or mearing ronned of 
a wet trench between two rused banks or walls of earth. 

thu. The Lis, as fai as I have been able to discover, was precisely 

the same as the Rath; the name, however, was applied gene- 
rally to some sort of fortification, but more particularly those 
formed of eaith. That this was so, we have a curious confirma- 
tion, in the life of Saint Mochuda, or Carthach, (the founder of 

!iinof the once famous ecclesiastical establishment of LU-M6r, now 

Vi^um. Lismore in the county of Waterford). The life states, that whrai 

•*■ Saint Mochuda, on being driven out of Rathin (his great foun- 

dation, near the present town of Tullamore, King's County), 
came to the place on which Lis-M6r now stands, with the con- 
sent of the king of the Dets^ he commenced forthwith to raise 
what is described as a circular enclosure of earth. K religious 
woman who occupied a small cell in the neighboorhood, per- 
ceiving the crowd of monks at work, came up and asked whM 
they were doing. " We arc building a small Lis here", aud 
sunt Mochuda. " A small Lis ! [lAa S^gr]", said the woman: 
" this is not a small Lis, \Lia Beg}, but a great Lis [ita J/iJr]", 
said she ; and so we are told, that church ever since continued 
to be called by that name. It matters little to the [»resent par- 
pose whether this legend is strictly true or not ; but it is quite 
suiBclent to show wbat the ancient Groedhils understood the 
word Lis to mean. 

So much for the Rath, the Dun, and the lAs, all of which 
were generally built of earth. The Caiseal and the Cathair are 
to be distinguished from these especially, because they were 
generally, if not invariably, built of stone. 

J CjrfjMi The Caiseal was nothing more than a Stone Rath or enclosure 
within which the dwelling-house, and in after times churches, 
stood ; and the Cathair, in like manner, was nothing more than 
a Stone Bun, (with loftier and stronger walls), with this ex- 
ception, that the Cathair was not necessarily surrounded with 
water, as far as I know. 

ra or No reliable analysis of the term Caiseal is to be found among 

the writinga of the Gaedhils ; but our experience of esistiiw 
monuments enables us to decide that the Caiseal and Cathatr 
were both of stone ; and that the words are cognate with the 
British *' Caer", the Latin " Castrum", and the English " Castle". 
There can be no doubt, however, but that our ancient writers 
often used the terms Dun, Rath, Lis, and Cathair, indifierently, 
to designate a stronghold or well-fortified place ; and theae terms 
ailerwards came to give names to the towns and cities which in 
'*> originul: — ^n .t. 9^ t\M6 tm uirce. 


time epraoff up at or around the rarioits forts ao deai<niated, or <•»<"- »<» 
in which uiase fortified residencM were eituated, which natu- 
rally became the centrca of increasing population Thus weK^nmrf 
have Rath-Gatla, (now the town oi' Ratlikeaie, in the county of KS^"™ 
Limfirick) ; Rath-Nai-Ainavr the town of Knthnow, in the county *f^Z'^fx, 
of Wicklow); Dun-Duibli-Unni, (now the city of Dubhn); Ihm-'>^*.i^ 
Dtaiea, (now the town of Dundulk, in the county of I^uOi) ; 
DunrChwltchair, which vros aflorwoids called Dun-da- Leath' 
(jAfcu, (now the townof the county of Down); 
Li»-SI<ir, (now the town of Liamore, in the county of Water- 
ford); Lin Tuathail, (now the town of Li*toweI, in the county 
of Kerry); Cathair-Dun-Iatciiif/h, (now the town of Culur, in 
the county of Tijiporary); CaUmir-ChitttfLh, (now the lowu 
of Cahercontish, in the county of Liniericlc) ; etc-, etc. 

Rctnaia? of many of the residences and forts known as Rath, BnuiM«i 
Dim, /-ii, and Cathair, giill exist throughout Ireland, some ctitt^M^' 
which 1>elong to tJie most remote anliquily. Tlie C«tfmir or "**"■* 
Stone Fort i? seldom or nfcv#r met with but where stone is in 
great abundance; 8uch us in llie counLtOJ of Ken^' and I.imt> 
ricb; in Burren, in the county of Chirc; and in the Araim 
Island*, on the cuost of Clare, in which ihorc are fine cxamplea 
of these ttono cdifiecs, thou|;h singularly cmou^h, still b(.>anng 
the names o^ Dutu, such as Ifun-^]nffliuiSf Ihrn-Ochaill, thtn- 
Bogkanaehty end Ihtbh Chalhair, (or the Block Fortress) , on the 
^freat or western island ; and Dan-Cftonefiraidh, on the middle 
ulaud; these remarkable fortresses on the Arann islands, ore 
Toferrcd to the Clarm t/mair, (a Firloh tribe, wlio occupied 
the seaboard of Clare and (inlway, shortly before tlw Christian 
ora), excepting ooc, Dim-JCog/iamicht. This fort must have 
been crectc<l aflcr the close of tho third ucntury, whc-n the 
EoghanaeltU, (that is, tho dcscondonta of f-oijhan JIvr, son of 
Ouiotl Otuim, king nf Munstrr), took their tnbe-tille from tliat 
dundrous priaoo, in whu«« time, and (or centuries afterwards, 
thoee islands belonged to Mun«tcr. 

In any attempt to treat of the early or primitive buildingnor naihut 
habitations of Ennn, we rausi; of course give the fii'st ]>luce to tu».'* 
Tara. which, according to all our old accounts, had been first 
founded by tlie Firboigs, the third in the series of the early 
eotoniats of the island. In the ancient account of the battle of 
the first or Southern J/aj/A Tuireadh, we are told that tho Fir- 
bolf^, who had l)een dispersed into three parties on their ap- 
proach to the Irish coost^ n storm, hod, on their landing, re- 
paired by one consent to Jialft na Hiifh, (i-v. the Rnth or I^nce 
of the Kings), at Tani. And again, when /Sreat goes out from 
the camp of the luailvi Di Danann to meet Sreitg, the Fir- 



L«OT aix- bolg WRrrior wliom they saw coining towards them, Breaa aeka 
Sreng where he had slept the ni^t before ; and Sreng anawera, 
that It was at " the Rath of the Kings at Tara". 

It ia stated in an ancient poem on Tara, the author of which 
is not known, that the " Rath of the Kings" was first founded 
by Slaitigi, one of the Firbolg chiefs ; and it is rather singular 
that, in the time of Cuan G'Lomehain, who died in the year i0i4, 
this same Rath-na-Righ was the most conspicuous and by far 
the most extensive enclosure upon or around the Hill of Tara ; 
and that it was within its ample circuit that, in an earlier era, 
the palace of the monarch Cormac Mae Airt, as well as other 
edifices, once stood. This will be very plainly seen from the 
map of ancient Tara, prepared by the ofiicers of the Ordnance 
Survey, from Cuan O'Lothehain a poem (described in a former 
lecture)"* for the illustration of Dr. Petrie's History of the An- 
tiqmties of Tara Hill, published in the year 1839.'** 

There were two remarkable buildinga at Tara in ancient 
times, namely, the Teach M6r Milibh Amtia, i.e. the " Great 
House of the Thousands of Soldiers" ; and the Teach Midh* 
ehuarta, i.e. the " Mead-circling House", in other words, the 
great Banqueting House or Hall of Tara. 
TiM"Grwt The " great House of the Thousands of Soldiers" was the 
Thratuidiof Mrdcular palace of the monarch; it stood within the Rath-na^ 
*>""«"■■ R^h, or Rath of the Kin^, and was called also Tigh-Temradt, 
or the House of Tara. Of its extent and magnificence in the 
time of King Cormae Mao Airt, in the middle of the third cen- 
tury, we may form some notion from an ancient poem preserved 
in the Book of Leinster, and ascribed to Cormac FiU, or the 
poet. The precise tame of this writer I have not been able to 
ascertain, but he must have flourished in or before the middle 
of the tenth century ; since we find Cineadh OHartagan, who 
flourished at that period, set down in the Yellow Book of Leean, 
the Book of Ballymote, and others, as the author of the same 
poem. Dr. Fetrie has published this poem in his essay on the 
" Historjr and Antiquities of Tara Hill .<*' 

The following short account of the extent and arrangement 
of the Great House of the Thousands of Soldiers, is translated 
from the Book of Leinster (foho 15). 

" As regards the arrangement of the Palace of Tara by Coi*- 
mac, it was larger than any house. The Rath was nine hun- 
dred feet in Cormac'a time. His own house was seven hundred 
feet; — [and there were] seven bronze candelabras in themiddle 
of it. [There were] mnc mounds around the house. There 
were three times fitly compartments (imdad/i) in the house; 
'" Sea L«t. Tii., anlt, vol i. p. HO. '» P. 143. <*> P. 190. 


and three times 0% men io each comportment ; and three timeg" T-w- 


fifty ooiitinuation* of coinpamucuta (airil); and fifty [men] ui'n,."OrMt 
each of these ooatinumtioiu. n^^«A!!'o 

*• Throe thousand pcraons, each day, is what Cormae used to »""'»™"- 
imuntMD in pay; IkskIch poets and satirists; and all the stnm* 
gen who sou^ut dm king: Galk; ond Romans; and Frtinks; 
sad Frinaas; and I^ngDonls; and Albanians, [i.e., Caledo- 
nians] ; and Saxons ; and Cruilhneana, H c, Picu] ; for all these 
uae^l to Bcck him, and [it waa] with gold, and with silver, wiUi 
Bteeds and with chariots, [that] be paid them off. They used 
all oomc to Coi'mac, because there wns not in liis time, nor be- 
fore him, any one more <!clcbratcd in hononr, and in dignity, 
and in -wisdom, except only Solomon, the aon of Davids 

It is iMt easy to conceive how this " Great House" of Tara 
could have ree«ved into its compartments, and sub-compart- 
ments, tlic "thirty thousand men", which, on the authority 
both of the prose and the veife account in the Boole of Lein- 
II ate r, it ia stated to have accommodated; but although no plan 
H^Bthe Great House has been presenred to our time, tlie plan of 
BHa TirocA MidhchuarUit or Ijanquetin^ IlaU of Taia, aa pre- 
W served in tl»e liook of Leinater and m the Yellow Book of 
F -Lecan, enables us to form »ome idea of the orranffement I 
must, however, add, that even the whole compaSB of the Hath' 
na-Righ^ot italhofthc Iv)nj^,wii]iin which the "Great House" 

» stood, could not possibly accuminudale anything like the num* 
borof persons just mentioned. Tbc encloBurc of ihia Rath of the 
Kings, when measured in 1839 by llic officem of the Ordnance 
Survey,'^ was found to measure across, &om south-east to north- 
west, within the ring, only 775 feet. 

It may be noted here, that the Rath, Dun, TM, or Caiaml, Jf"''^'- 
which formed the fortiiicatiou of uiicicnl rvmdeiices, often coii-onen (on. 
tained wiihin fhera more than one hou9«; and thus the whole **"""*"'*" 

anciuiit city of Torawaa composed of »even Dtau,ot enolostureat 
each containing within it a certain number of housea. We 
leam this fact worn an ancient poem of thirty-sovcn stanzas, of 
whi^.h there is an old paper copy in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, {MS. H. 1, 15). This poem begins: 
" The plain of Tcraair was the residence of the kings"/" 
The foUowing are the twen^eighth, twenty-ninth, and 
thirtJetlj stanzas of this valuable poem : 

" The demesne of Ttmxir they ploughed not • 

It was seven full haiUt [townlands], seven full littea 
[houses] , 

'» 8m P«tii«'« Bittety and An^liu af Tiua Uiil, p<4l« IM 
■■i ariftaal! — b«<L« ii« pig fox nmrAft- 

ml boiuiai. 



*CT. xij(- SeTcn plougliB to each fiill lit; 

Of the Dcst class land was fftir-akumed Temur. 
'* Tlie demesne of Temur was a pleasant abode ; 

A mound surrounded it all around ; 

I kpow besides the name of every house 

Which was in the wealthy Temur. 
" Seven duns in the Dun of Temur, — 

Is it not I that well remember; 

Seven score houses in each dim. 

Seven hundred warriors in each brave dun". 

itsntof We find from this poem that the demesne-lands of Tara, 
iJdll^y**" *rhich were never distnbuted or cultivated, consisted of seven 
"*• iotVA, that is, "ballys", or townlands, as they would Be now 

called ; and from an andent poem which I took occasion to 
print some years ago in connection with the Historic Tale of 
the " Battle of Magk Leana",'" it will be found that a baiU 
contained grazing for three hundred cows, and as much of tillage 
land as seven ploughs could turn over in the year. This was 
the quantity of land that by law appertained to the dun or lit. 
And as the demesne of Temair contained seven such bailii, the 
quantity was equal to the feeding of two thousand one hundred 
oows, and the ploughing of forty-nine ploughs, for a year, 
•i**"* or The next great building, in point of antiquity and historical 
(bact reminiscence, is the great iiafA, or rather CaUiair, o? Aileack (\a 
the county of Deny), so well described by Dr. Petrie, in tiie 
Ordnance Memoir of the parish of Templemore. This great 
Cathair is said to have been ori^nally built by the Dag/tda, 
the celebrated king of the TuatKa Di Danann, who planned 
and fought the battle of the second or northern Magh TuirecuJh, 
against the Fomorians. The fort was erected around the grave 
of his son Aedh, (or Hugh), who had been killed through 
jealousy by Corrgenn^ a Connacht chieflain. 

The history of the death oS Aedh^aaA the building of ^tfeocA, 
(or " the Stone Building*^, is given at length in a poem pre- 
served in the Book of Liecan;'-*' which poem has been printed, 
with an English translation, (but with two lines lefV out at veise 
38), by Dr. Petrie, in the above Memoir. The following ex- 
tract from this curious and important poem, beginning at vetse 
32, will suffice for my present purpose ; 

" Then were brought the two good men 
In art expert, 

fJi CaA MhuigU Ltana,tlc, pab. bj the Celtic Societj; DnUlo, 1856; 
pp. lOG-7, note (t). 
"}See&lwLect. vii-, onM.ToI. i. p, 161. 



Gaiihan and Imckealt, to Eoeiuad [Daghda]^ 

The fttir-h»ired, vindictive; 
And hv ordered tlit^so a rath lo biiilil, 

Around the Knile youth: 
Thai it should l)c a rath of splendid sections— 

'Flic finest in Erinn. 
N^d, son of Indait Baid to them, 

[He] of the eevcro mind, 
Thiit tFM: b«8t hosta in the world could not erect 

A building like AileacJi. 
Gitrbhan tbt- active proceeded to drefis 

And to cut [the 9lones] ; 
Imcheail proceeded to act ihem 

All arotind in the house. 
Tlio building otAikadta fastness came to an end, 

Though it WBS a laborious process ; 
The top of the- house of the groaning bostofKfl 
One atone closed". 
Iq a Euh«equont verse oftliis poem, (verse 54), the author nyt 
tbat Aileach is the senior, or faUicr ot the buildings oflSnna: 
" It is the senior of the buildings of Erinn, — 
AiUaeh Frigrind: 
Greater praise than it deserves^ 
For it I iaditti not\ 
It appears ck-arly fi-om this very ancient poem that not only 
was tlie outer Rath^ or protective circle o^ Auench, built of stone 
by the rcculur muisons Imcheail and Garbhan; but that tlio 
palace and other houKC within the cnclomrc were built also of 
tlotie, (nay, even of chipped and cut alone). All these build- 
ings, proluiblyt were circulaT, as the house or Prison of tKc 
Hoatagcft certainly must have been, when, as the poem says. It 
was " closed at the top wilh one etono". This, however, is a 
matter concerning wnieh I ehoU have sometliiDg to eay in a 
future Lecture. 

The tiirie lo which the first building of AileiKh may be to 
fcrred, according to the chronology of the Annuh) of the Four 
Masters, would bo about ecvcntcvn hundred years before the 
Cbristtau era. But another and much later erection within ihe 
same fiath of Ailtaeh is also spoken of in ancient story, and ns 
baring conlbrrcd a name upon tbia elebratcd palace. 

It is staled further in this poem, that Aittaeh in ftf\er ngcs ob* 

taiacd the name of AiUach Frigrind, aa it is in fact colled in the 

Maoza quoted last. According to another poem" (written by 

Flann of Ihloaastcrhoicc), and preserved in the Book of Lcin- 

•*' Seo Loct tU., itnu, vol. J., p 1S3. 


Tklt KaOt 
■nJ lu 



LRCT. XIX. ster, this Friarind was a famous builder, or architect, as he 
would be called in our day. Having traTcUed in Scotland he 
was well received at the court of Ubtaire, the king of that coun- 
try, where having gained the affectJona of the king's daughter, 
the beautiful AilecK, she eloped with him, and he returned to 
his own country with her. Fearing pursuit, however, he 
claimed the protection of the then monarch of Erinn, Fiaeha- 
Sraibhthini, (the same who was slain in the battle of Dtibk- 
Chomar, in Meath, a.d. 322) ; and the monarch accorded it 
at once, and gave them the ancient fort of Aileach for their 
dwelling-place for greater security. Here Frigrind built a 
splendid nouse of wood for his wife. The material of thia 
house, we are told, was red yew, carved, and emblazoned with 
gold and bronze ; and so thickset with shining gems, that " day 
AUrtuh and night were equally bright within it". I may observe thi^ 
^"^amr. AiUach is one of the few spots in Erinn marked in its proper place 
by the geographer Ptolemy of Alexandria, who flourished in the 
second century, or nearly two hundred years before the time of 
Frigrind. By Ptolemy it is distinguished m a royal reaidenoe. 
To proceed to the next in order of importance of the great 
royal residences of Erinn, we find in an ancient tale, called 
Tdin Bo Fraich, or the carrying off the cows of FVaech Mae 
FHdhaidh, (a tale which in fact forms part of the Tdin Bo 
Chuailgni), a curious instance of the existence of more than 
one house within the great Rath of Cruachan, the reudenoQ 
of the kings of Connacht. 

Fraeeh Mac Fidhaidh was a famous warrior and chieftain: 
his mother, Be-binn, was one of the mysterious race of the 
Tuatha Di Danann, and by her eupematural powers, according 
to this tale, her son was enabled to enjoy niany advantage! 
both of person and of fortune over other young princes of ^i» 
time. After some rime, accordingly, he was encouraged by hu 
mother to seek an alliance with the celebrated Ailill and 
Medbh, the king and queen of Connacht, by proposing for the 
hand of their beautiful daughter, the celebrated Finnabhaxtt 
[" the fair-browed"!. So his mother supplied him with a gor- 
geous outfit; and Fraeck set out for the palace of Cruaehan^ 
with a train of fifty young princes in his company, as well ai 
attended by all the usual retinue which accompanied friendlj 

E regresses of this kind, such as musicians, players, huntsmen, 
ounds, etc. Arrived at Cruachan, they alight, and take th^r 
seats at the door of the royal Rath; a steward then comes from 
king Ailill to inquire who they were and whence they comet 
and he was told (the tale goes on to say) that it was FVcudi 
Mae F\dhaidh ; and the steward returned and informed the 


'* was tlicn fv^^jii^B 
to tbrnn. Tlie manner of that house was tlut: There omhuih. 
seroD companies in it; seven oompartmcnta from the fire 
to the wall, all round the house. Ever/ compartment had a. 
front of bionse. Tlte whole were compofcd of bf>aniituUy 
carved red yew. Three stripe of bronze ircrc in tlic iVont of 
each compartment. Seven itrips of bronze from the founda- 
tion of the house lo the ridge. The bouse from Urn out iraa 
built of pine, Iffttti]. A covering of oak shingles was what was 
upon it on the outside. Sixteen -windows was the number 
that were in it, for the puipose of looking out of it and for ad- 
mittiDg li^ht into it. A shutter of bronze to each window. 
lA bar of bronxe across each shutter; four times sewn unjriix of 
BbnoM waa what ouch bar contained. AilUl and Mebdh'i coin- 
^^Hfakeot vai made altogether of bronsc ; and it waa situated 
H^Du middli! of the house, with a front of silver and cold 
arotind it. There was a silver wand at one ndc of it, which 
rose to tiic ridge of the house, and readied ail round it from 
tie utie door lo the other. 

" Tbc arms of the guests were hung up above the arms of alt 
other persons in that house ; and ihcy sat thuraselres down, and 
"Wen; badu welcome". 

Such ia tlic dcKcription of one of the footr " roj^l houses" 
which, in the heroic af^ of our history, that o( AiUHaTid Mtdbh, 
(the century ptcoeding the Chiiatian cm), ue said to havu 
Ctood within the ancient Rath of Cruachan. 

Thedcsciiplion of the Crtubh-JitKidfi, oT house of the "Roya! Th. ni.^ 
firanch", ut Linania, the capital citv of unctcnt Ulster, (&a ucs- ualii 
cribed in the Ancient Hisloric Tulo of TocJimare nl^imiri, or '''""'''■ 
" the CourtsJiip of the Lady Kmer by Cuekulaiitn"), agrcea vtay 
nearly with this description of the house at Cruaehan; and we 
inow that there were tliree ereat Ilousca at Icafi within tlie 
circle of the great Rath of iCmania^ tmsbA by queen iMacha, 
more t}ian three hundred ycurs before tlm Chnutian era. 

A^ain, we 6nd the same general features of a toyal (brt '*,™dj|"^''' 
aSooM to in a ^hoit description of another />c»i, or enclosure, I'tirr ijuio. 
(prewrrod in the Book of Dallytnotc and in the Yellow Book 
of Ltc<t»), in a romantic account of the adventures of king 
^Ccrtnne Mae Ain in the Land of Promise, or Fairy-land, of the 
aedhiU. According to this wild storj*, rh Cormae waa Ixaver- 
ig this unknown land in eearch of his wife, " he saw another 
ery large, kingly /Jan. nnd another palisade ot brun».> around 
It; ibur houses in the Dhh. He went into the Jiufi! and be saw 

12 07 bdildiuqs, fubhitdbe, etc., in ancient ERmr. 

LTOT. XIX. a very large house, with its raflers of hronze, and its wattUng erf 
silver, and its thatch of the wings of white birds ; and he nw, 
too, a sparkling well within the Lis, and five streanu issuing 
from it, and the hostfi aiound, drinking the waters of these 
TiwMiM From these various descriptions of Tara, Aileaeh, Cruachastf 

cDciMDra the Craebk Buadh, and the Dun in the Land of Fromiae, it 
l^^w^ '"^ ^ ^^^ '^*' '^^^ °^^ writers applied the terms Rath, JDvtn^ 
andZ^s, indiscriminatelj, to the earthen enclosure or fort within 
which the houses of the ancient Gaedhils stood. We have 
Been also that these enclosures frequently contained more than 
one "house"; and we know, from actual existing monuments, 
that the " Ralh of the Kings" at Tara contuned, beade« die 
" Great House of the Thousands of Soldiers", at least two other 
remarkable edifices ; though, whether they were houses or mere 
moimda, it remains yet to oe shown with certunty. The first 
ofthesewas the Jfur Tea, or Mound of Tot, the wife of £r*moii, 
one of the Milesian brothers who took Brian from the Tuaiha 
Di Danatm. It was because T&x was, in accordance with her 
own request, buried in the rampart of this primitaTC " house", 
that the name of Tea-Mur (that is, Tea's i/«f, or rampart, now 
Tara), was first given to the hill by the Milesians. A small 
mound remained still, at the time of Cxtan O^Lothchatn, about 
the year 1000, as the remains of this once famous mound ; but 
all vestiges of it have now disappeared, though its situation is 
still pointed out as a little hill which lies to the south, between 
the roradh and Cormoe's House. 
ThePbmu There was a second and more important buili^g within the 
Rath of the Kings, besides Cormae'e Great House- This was 
the edifice called the Foradh, large remains of which still exist, 
adjoining the Great House of Cormac. This does not appear 
to have been a house at all, but rather, what its name implies, 
the mound upon which the royal residents of Tara used to ut, 
to enjoy the sports which were celebrated on the slopes to the 
west and south of it. 
^ehoDio of I introduced into a former Lecture*"* a poetical description, 
from one of the ancient Fenian Poems, of tne mansion-house <i 
a young princess of Kerry, in the time of ^tnn Mac CumhtnU; 
but the subject is so appropriate to the purpose of the present 
Lecture, that I feel I cannot with propriety omit to notice it 
again here. I allude to the story of the Courtship of Credi 
and Cael, preserved in the Book of Lismore in the Royal Irish 
Academy, which contmns the curious poem descriptive of the 

i^*^ Led, oniAe MS. MaUriaU of AncUnt Iriih Bitlorv ; p.S09: and Al*. 
No. XCIV. i p. 694. 


EDiknsion, s _ 

^^ within it. The following vciscs arc Uiosc to TUoMiaout 

fliich T Mpcctidljr allude ; » ""^^ 

" Delightful tnc house in which she )8| 

Between men, and cliildren, and women, 

Between dniida and musical perfonncra, 

Between cup-bearers and door-keepers. 
" Between horse-boys who arc not shy, 

Ami uible servants who diKlribiitc; 

The command of each and all of these 

Hath Credf the fair, the yellow- haired. 
*' It would bo hap^ for me to be in her rfun, 

Amonu her Rolt and downy coucbce. 

Should Crtde deign to hear [my suit], 

Happy for me would be my jonmey. 
•• A bowl slie has whence berry-juice flowa, 

By which she colours her cyc-brows black; 

^hc has] clear vessels of fermenting ale; 

Cups she has, and beautiful goblets. 
•* The colour [of her duii\ ia like ihe colour of liiiio« 

Within it are couches and ^cen rushes ; 

Within it are silks and blue mantles ; 

Within it arc red gold and erystal c\ip9. 
" Of iifi gri'anan [sunny chamber] lie corner stoon 

Are all of silver and of yellow gold ; 

Its thatch iu stripes of faultless order, 

Of fbirdsQ wings of brown and crimson-red. 
" Two door-pofttfl of green I ace ; 

Nor is ita door dcvwd of beauty ; 

Of carved silver, long lias it been renowoed, 

Is die lintel thai is over iw door. 
" Cnfie's chiir is on your right hand, 

The picasajitest of the pleasant it is ; 

All over a blaze of Alpine gold, 

At the foot of the beautiful couch. 
** A got^eoiw oouch in full array, 

Standi directly above the chair. 

It was made by [ttr at?] TtiW. in the east, 

Of yellow gold aud precious stones. 
*' There ia another eoueh on your right hand, 

Of gold aud Eilvcr, without defect; 

Witli curlalua, with soft [pillows] ; 

And with graceful rod* of golden bronxe. 
'«The houwhold whicli are In her house. 

To the happiest of cooditioDa have be«n destined ; 



Gray and glossy are their garments, 
TbahoMtot Tniated and fair ia their flowing hair. 

" Wounded men would sink in sleep, 

Tho' ever so heavily teeming with blood, 
With the warbling of the fairy birda 
From the eavea of her sunny grianan. 

*' One hundred feet are in Credits house, 

From the one gable to the other ; 

And twenty feet in measure. 

There are m the breadth of its noble door. 
" Its portico with ite thatch 

Of the wings of birds, blue and yellow ; 

Its lawn in front, and its well 

[Formed] of crystal and oTcarmogal [carbunclee ?] 
" Four poata to every bed, 

Of gold and of silver gracefully carved ; 

A crystal gem between every two posts; 

They are no cause of unpleasantness. 
" There ia a vat there of kingly bronze. 

From which flows the pleasant juice of malt ; 

There is an apple-tree over the vat. 

In the abundance of its heavy &uit". 

• ••>•• 

This poem is of especial value, inasmuch as it describes widi 
such minuteness not only the form, size, and materials of whtt 
a poet in the earliest period of our literature would have re- 
garded as a beautiful house, but also the nature, position, and 
materials of the principal articles of furniture in a mansion of 
those primitive times. 

To return now to more general considerataons : 

The Ji>»- It appears irom our ancient authorities, that the pagan Gaedhil 

uivCoiMai- had two classes of professional builders: the RatiirohuidJii, tx 

bniidBr. iJa^A-builder, who built the Rath, Dun, and Lis, which wers 

formed of earth ; and the Catsleotr, or CauM^builder, who built 

the Caiseal, the Cathair, and the Dun when it was constructed 

of stone. These authorities go as far as even to preserve Uie 

names of some of the most ancient professors of both arts, not 

only in Erinn, but even in the far east. Thus, th^ Book of 

Leinster (fot. 37, b) presents us with the following list, headed: 

" Hi sunt nomina virorum eomponentium lapiaes": which I 

believe is bad Latin for, " These are the names of the men 

who built in stone". — "Cabar was the Caiseal [i.e. stone-work] 

builder of Tara ; IHan was Solomon's Caiseal builder. Cemor 

was Kimrod's Caiseal builder. Barnib was the Caiseal builder 


of Jericho. Cir WM the Caittal hailder of Rome. Ara*m t-»gT. «ii 
was the Cadfii builder uf Jenualem. AUn was the Caiseal ">:>» fut- 
builder of Con!tfintin<iplc. Biuhur »•»? the RaOt [i.e. CAtth- ma cwms*- 
work] biiil*l«r of Ntiiiroil. CitiffJorn waa Curm'-J/ac-Jaif*"! *""*"' 
etoDO (CfiifAi/) buiUpr", [wlio biiill for liiin Cal/iair Conroi, 
the ruuu of which may aliU cxiat, oomcivhuc to the weat nf 
Tralec, in the count? of Kcnyl. GoU-Cloehair, the son of 
Sratt^ il wii» tha( hatit Cattfol [Oashcl], the place eo-raIIc<l, for 
./Sagus Mae Nadjraich. Jiiffrinn [yW-'whtTu Fri/rrimi] was 
the sLone (caittat) builder of Aitcaat, assifiLed by GabUtn the 
ion of U-Gatrbk. Trai^hUl/ian was the Auf/i-builder of Tarn. 
Btocc, son o( 3Utr, was the /fofA-buildcior Cruackan. Bland, 
son of Dalran. was the /(a(A-buit(lcc of Kmania. Jtalar, 
the son of litMrainfeh, was the ^alA-builder of Bn<u flJie 
king of the Tuatha Di Dananu\ and who built for him VtuM- 
Sreiti, in Counai^lit. CrieJul, the son of iMil/t^hluUfi^, was the 
Rath-builder of AliRn" (in Lcinstcr). DubhaUach Mac Fir- 
bittigh, commonly calleil Dinlluy Mac Firbia, the last grrat 
BOtiquaTy of that wlobratrd Connacht Ikmily, hns pTT^n'ed a 
ooDj of thU list of huildeiB, in proee and veise, with some slight 
dinennces, in the preface to bis great genealogical work, com- 
pUed in the year 1650.<"'= 

• ")" ViaH", Im Mjn, " ora tbe nnoMsnf Mmeof themiuonii(orbuUd«n)wlio 
■n calW tho mMOai (or botUen') td the dil«r Mom: buiUinn— 

" Alum «M Snlanion^ CauMAbtiiliJcr. Citliur «tu the CaueoV-bnililrr of 
XtmoiTi UarnA ■tua lb« Coitral' builtlcr of Jcridio. Jiac*4 wu the RntM- 
btrildir of Nimred I'in^am vat t'urdi .l/ur Dnire't Caittal-h^Mtt. Vir 
wuUwCawui-taiiUilardrRotDO. jiniwiwuilie Ciruta/.liiillili'rof Jnruaalam. 
CtTuiwnattw C(iiMa/-lMiildar of Conatsuliiio(i1e. fiu/c. the luu »{ ffta'.vni 
(he AirA-tiiiilder c/ CnMcAitiL <7u// uf Clochar [now Muiiinli^f . in iJie oumitj' 
olUnMnclijiniatlwCiiuca'buililwGif iVa</^ni<cA[wliofuuii<lct] iliv first stouv 
botidiag >t tb« place «(UI called Cuhd). Ca*^ha htm tlie> (ViufuJ l>iiilJ-r of 
Jitino. &m/ia, Ot Riyrm, und GabMan t)i« xia of V-GaiTbh,m GarbAnn tb» 
•sa of V-GairHi, were t)ic two Coiici/' build on of Ailtoih \mnt D^iry]. 
TVe^btAaa tru tlie f:ufA-bui]il»r ol Tumnr, Baatdt^ ur Satif/in/, llic >UD 
or/Mdni. wu ibc AofA-builcli-T of £muitui. fioAir. Ute aoa of /ttmi,-Uim- 
Aaek, wu ibv Hati-huUdct ot Ilaih Brciai \\a Ciinaodit]. CtithtK Lbo luii uf 
^M-cAfHtV, WM ihc /ta(A-buitdLTof tbv Baih of Ji'Jinn' [in Iiviottur]. 

"Aad Ibote", he ootitlntui, " were the chief «<>□«■ bullden, m the poet 


'AHiat with 8<doiiion of the bo«U, 

A taanliful, Dobto Caneal-ltiiM- 

WUb HIlDTDd, M KACBf Ul buUdCT, 

Cinr II wu that Oiillt « Cinnai. 
" AniMt in Ilia vw n aood tloM, 

Waa tU C'aiawir-baiklar of J«r>- 

cho'a laikdi 
Bone took 0>,— gnwfal wm hi* 
' cMKit 
'^mu wai tlie nuno of Jeniaa- 

" In ConatBDlinopto, with activity, 
CIteikor wu powerful in liia art; 
With NIniKx), without temr of 

Baeiu the Doblo wM itaM-buil- 
" C'orotM CaiMai-boilder wa< gifted 

With till' H0I1 of iVur/rcMcA wu 

Gort uT Cli.dtar ; 
C<Nni6a wMthe priccIcM Cowd/- 



L«rr. XIX. Mac Firbia, in answer to those who would deny the exiBtenoe 

um rirut of atone-building in ancient Eiinn, offers some fair remarks, ficom 

tmiidingin which I quotc the following passages: 

S^™* *' It 13 only because lime-cast walla are not seen atancUnjir in 

the place in which they were erected a thousand and a half, or 
two thousand, or three thousand and more years since, what it 
is no wonder should not be ; for, shorter than that is the tame 
in which the ground grows over buildings when they are onoe 
ruined, or when they fall down of theioselvea with age. In 
proof of thb, I have myself seen within (the last) sixteen years, 
many lofty lime>ca9t castles, huitt of limestone ; and at this day, 
(having fallen) there remains of them but a mound of earth; 
and hardly could a peraon i^orant of their former existence, 
know that there had been buildings there at all. Let this, and 
the works that were raised hundreds and thouaandB of yean 
ago, be put together [compared], and it will be no wonder, 
were it not for the firmness of the old work over the work of 
these times, if a stone or an elevation of earth can be recogniaod 
in their place. But such is not the case, for such is the dnra^ 
bility of the ancient work, that there are great royal ratha and 
lisaes in abundance throughout Krinn ; in which there are many 
hewn, smooth stones, and cellars or apartments, under ground, 
within their enclosures, such as Rath Mailcatha, at CasUe Con- 
nor, Bally-O'Dowda in Tir Fhiackrack, on the brink of the 
[river] Muaidhe [Moy]. There arc nine smooth stone cellan 
under the mound of this rath ; and I have been within in it, and 
I think it is one of the oldest raths in Erinn; and thehaghtof 
its walls would be a good height for a cow-keep". 

I make this quotation from Mac Firbis only for what it a 
worth ; for he does not absolutely assert that the masonry con- 

Who used to have gieat itone- Waa the if aM-bailder of the nohls 

hawinE hatchet*. king of Emama. 
"The two Caiual-biiMen of aimed " Balur, of vhom it wu worthy, 

AiUach, It was that formed the atronf 

Rigra and Garbhan Kn of U- RatA-Breit^; 

Gatrih ; Crictl the taa al DtMrcatk, wltil> 

Troigltthan, an hereditary beaati- out reproach, 

nil builder, Wae the acute builder of AiBuu^ 
Wasthe^AaM-builderoftheationg "M^ the high and happjheaTene 

king of Ttmair. Be giren to Domhnall, the aoa of 

"Bole the son of Blar, from sweet FUnnean, 

Aih-Btair, WhohaicompotedapoeniiDoiB* 

Wu the i!af A-bnilder of the circa- direct numbert, 

lar Cruachan ; From Ailian down to Allium. 

Baiitche the gifted, from Btarbha, lAilkM'. 

I hare not been able to obtain any other reference to DomAitall, the m 
of f/annean, theauttior ef thiapoem; but I am ntiafled tiiepoemas it atank 
it a* old ma the tenth centnty. 


t^xaa and mortar; and tlicrv can be uo denial of Uic ox- tw-r- xti 

'of stone Ibrta in ihia coiinlnr from the eftHiest dnacB. as 

{fenced not only by our oldest hiatorical rocoKla and tamdi- 
ins, but by tbc very great number of them of the remotert 
tiquity, wnich still retaain in wondeHul preservation. 
The following extract from a large frngiofnt of n curious 
A vary ancient (ale, preserved in the J.,mbAar na h- Vidfirt 
1.1 A.)i will lend to explain more closely tlie actual mode 
'building, and ibe matenala of tho«« encivnt bouse:) ofwhieli 
Save been speaking. Tlie story is referred to a rt-nioie period 
Irwh History; and llie substance of it may be told in a few 

In the time of Concftobar Mae iftwa, the celebraied king sif^rtof t^« 
Ulster, who was contemporary of our Saviour, there lived in i"', .Zu, 
later a ftrnious satirist, called Brirrtnd Ntmh'thfttija, or " Bri- 
[tuf of tlie Poisoned Tongue", (from whom Laeh-Bricrend, 
kr called Ixjcli-Brickland, in tiie counly of Down, derives 
I name). BrleriTid wne a constant ^lent at the court of King 
^chobar, al Kuumia; where it may well be supposed tlie 
trchflse aC silence from his bitter ton^e brought him raanv a 
ft from a jwople alwaysi eren to this day, peculiarly sciisitivt; 
I Uio vbafu 01 tatire. This lirierind once proposed to himself 
|prep«rc a great feast fur the king, the knighla of the Royal 
WKD, and the other noblea uf Ulfitcr. uud their wives; not, 
Wercr, out of gratitude or hoEpitality, but simply to gratify 
i mere love of tniwhlcf, and to work up a geriuus quarrel, if 
Bsiblc, by exciting such a spirit of envy and jealousy among 
C ladies, as would draw their husbundii into war with emu 
l&tbor. In the rery commencement of the tale, in which 
fcse scenes are related, occurs a posn^ which I may Inuia- 
tc Erectly from tho original, because it bears at onco on our 
esent eubject. 

" Bt^rmd of the Poisoned Tonguo had a great leaal for 
mchobar Mac Neiaa, and lor all the Ultonians. A full year 
ks he preparing for tho fcaet There was built by him, in 
t iDcantimc, a magniticcnt house in which to ecr^'C up tlie 
|sl. Tbia house was built by Bricrind at DitifHiiJ/iraidkf, 
trobably the exact place now called Dundnuo, in the county 
I Downl, in likcncw to [the boust: oQ the Koyal Branch at 
inain-Maeia, {ot Emania), except alone that his house oxocl- 
i in material and art, in beauty and gracefuLuces, in pillais 
id facings, in embtazonmenta and brilliancy, in extent and 
rictTi in porticoes an<l in doors, all the houses of its lime. 
<" l^he plan iipon wbieh this house was built was on the plan ■■<•<■ "t mi 
Ithe TaucA-J/u/Ac/iuar&i, n.e. the great Banqueting House of''""* 



«<"■ "'• Tan]. [There were] nine couches in it fwHn the fire to the 
wall : xkirty feet waa the height of every gold-gilt bronze &oDt 
of them all. There wae a kingly couch built for Conchobar 
[the king] in the front part of that kingly house, above all the 
other couches of the house ; [and it wasj inlaid with carbimcles* 
and other brilliants besides, and emblazoned with gold, and 
silver, and carbuncles, and the finest colours of all countries; 
ao that day and night were the same in it. The twelve couches 
of the twelve heroes of Ulster were built around it. The style 
of the work, and tiie material, were equally pcmderous. Six 
horses were [employed] to draw home [from the wood] every 
post; and [it required] seven of the strong men of Ulster to 
entwine (or set) every rod; and thirty buildeia of the chief 
builders of Erinn were [engaged], in the building and the 
ordering of it. 
f,S?"*" " '^h^rs ^*s * ffrianan (or sun-house) built by Bricrind for 
BO**! himself, on a range with the couches of Conchobar and Ae 
heroes of Ulster. That grianan was built with carvings and 
ornaments of admirable variety ; and windows of glass were let 
in it on all sdes. There was one of these windows set over hil 
own couch ; so that he could see the state of the entire of the 
Krent house before him from his couch ; [be built this] because 
he well knew that the [f»reat chiefs of the] Ultonians would DOl 
admit him [to feaat] into the [same] house [with them]. 

" Now, when Bricrind hod finished his great House, and hti 

Cnan, and furnished both with coverlets and beds and idl- 
I, as well as with a full supply of ale and of food, and when 
he saw that there waa nothing whatever in which it was defi* 
cient, of the furniture and the materials of tlie feast, then he wmt 
forth until he arrived at Emain-Maeha, to invite ConeAoior, 
and the nobles of the men of Ulster along with him. 
II luTita- " This was the way, now, on which the Ultonians held a fidr 
M^ ^' at Emain-Maeha. He receives welcome there, and he sat ti 
J^,**" Conchobar's shoulder; and then he addressed Conchobtw and 
the Ultonians : ' Come with me', sfud he, ' to accept a banquet 
with me'. ' I am well pleased', said Conchobar, ' if the Ult> 
nians are pleased'. But Fergus Mac Rdigh, and the nobles rf 
Ulster answered, and said : ' We shall not go', said they, ' be- 
cause our dead would be more numerous than our living, after 
we should be set at variance by Bricrind, if we were to go to 
partake of his banquet'. ' That will be worse for ye, thent 
indeed', sdd he, * which I shall do to ye if ye do not come 
with me'. ' What is it thou wilt do then ?' said Conchobar, 
* if they do not go with thee ?' " [They then argue for aome 
time ; and at last :] ' It is better for us to go', said Fergus Mm 


Kiii^h: ' vhst he has said he will Terify\ Baid he. But as & 
procnutiDD agaiiut kU BubUc tongue, Sit\e/ta Uic ton oCAUiii, 
the chief poet of Ulster, advisbd tuom: 'Since', smA lio, 'thera 
i* aa objection to going n-ith Itricrind, cxsct Kctiritic4 from 
him ; and place ciglit swordsmen Hroimd Lltii for tlic purpose of 
eooTejnng liira out of the hoiisc when he hu «hown thorn the 
feut'. So Futbaidi Ferbeann, ihc SOQ of [VIng] Conckobar, 
went with this message, and told JBricriad. ' I ftm well ploosed', 
uud Bricrini, * bo act aucordinglr'. So thu Ultonians wont 
forth from Fmnin-Maeha; each dlvinon with hig king; each 
batuliuit with ilij cliit^f; and each company with it? leader''. 

The storjr goes on to describe how, on tlio way, Bricrind 
contnved to sow jcalousica unoog all the priacipiU ch&mpiooa, 
by fliUlcriiig vsch scpsmtely at the «xpeDH.- of the others; m 
tnat, when they took their plaoca in the banqueting house, he 
couM see from his t/riarum that iht-y were soon ahnost at dig- 
gen drawn. It then proceeds. 

" It happened just to his desire, thnt^ at this very time, 
ledttm Aoi-efiridfii\ [i.e. " tiic Kver-bloomlng Fedelm"^ the 
wife at Zitughaire JJuadhach, was leaving the hoiuo with fiHty 
of her attendant women, to take the cool fur outade for a while ; 
and Urieriad accosted her, and eu(L — ' Well done this night, 
thou wife ot LaegUairi Jiiiadhacfi; it is no nickname to call 
thee F^im the ever- blooming, because of the excellence of 
thy shape, and because of thy intelligence, and because of thy 
family. Conchcbar, the king of the cl^ief province of Erinn. 
is thy father, and SM*gkaxri Buadhach thy hiubond. Now 1 
would not think it too much for thee that none of the women 
of Ulster should come before ihee into the banqueting house; 
but that it should be after thy heels that the whole band of the 
women of Ulster should come, [and I wy to thee that] if it be 
thou that ahalt be the first tn enter the house this night, thou 
aKalt be queen over all the other women of Ulstci'. Fedelm 
went forth then as far as three ridges out from the house. 

'* Immediately after, came out LeHtkiimir, the daughter of 
Eoghnn Ma" DnirlhmdU [king of Farney], and wifn o? Conall 
Ctamach [the ^reut ohampioa] ; and Brycrind uddrcseed her, 
and said. — ' Well done, l^tulahair, said he ; ' it is no nickoanie 
to call thee JJendabair, [i.e. (he Favourite], because ihou art the 
beloved and detircd of the men of the whole world, for the 
iptcndour and lustre [of thy beauty]. As for as t}iy husband 
excels the warriuraor the world iu beauty and valour, thou ex- 
eellest the women of Ulster*. Aud so, thoug^muchof Hattering 
praise ho had bestowed upon Fedctm, he lavished twice aa much 
upon Laidabair. 



LBcr. XIX. « Emer, Cuckulainn^s wife, came out next.—* A safe journey 
b«Mwi to thee, O Emer, daughter of i^orf^a/i Manaeh', said Brierind: 
^ne^ ' thou wife of the best man in Erinn : Emer of the beautaful 
womiin; jj^jj_ -j^g kings and the princes of Erinn are at enmity about 
thee. As far as the sun excels tlie stars of heaven, so far doat 
thou excel the women of the whole world, in face, and in shape, 
and in family, in youth and in lustre, in fame and in dieni^, 
and in eloqueace'. So, though great the flattering praise he be- 
stowed on the other women, he lavished twice as much upon 

" The three women moved on then till they reached the same 
place, that is, three ridges from the house ; and none of them 
knew that the other had been spoken to by Brierind. They 
returned to the house then. They passed over the firat lidge 
with a quiet, graceful, dignified carnage ; hardly did anyoneof 
them put one foot beyond another. In the second ridge their 
steps were closer and quicker. The ridge nearest to the hooss 
[in getting over it] eacli woman sought to forcibly take the lead 
of her companions ; and they even took up their dresses to 
the calves of their legs, vying with each other who shonld 
enter the house first ; because what Brierind said to each, un- 
known to the others, was, that she who should first enter dke 
house should be queen of the whole province. And such ma 
the noise they made in their contest to enter the kingly house, 
that it was lite the rush of fifty chariots arriving there ; so tbit 
they shook the whole kingly house, and the champions started 
up for their arms, each striking his face agunat the o&er 
throughout the house. 

" 'Stop', said Sencha, [the judge], ' they arc not foca that 
have come there ; but it is Brierind that has raised a couteat 
between the women since they have gone out. I swear by the 
oaths of my territory', said he, ' that if the house is not closed 
B^inst them, their dead will be more numerous than their living*! 
& the door-keepers shut the door immediately. But Emer, 
the daughter of Forgall Manaeh and wife of Cttchulainn, ad- 
vanced m speed before the other women, and put her back to 
the door, and hurled the door-keepers from it before the otliei 
women came up. Then their husbands stood up in the house, 
each of them anxious to open the door before his wife, that hii 
own wife should so be the first to enter the house. ' This will 
be an evil night', siud Conckobar the king. Then he struck 
his silver pin against the bronze post of his couch ; and all im- 
mediately took their seats. ' Be quiet', said Sencha [the judge]; 
' it is not a battle with anns that shall prevail here, but a batuB 
of words'. Each woman then put herself under the protection 

or otrriDixo!!, praiOT«BE, etc , ih axcikst EBPtjr. 

of her huebflud oiitAidn: and it was then they delivered lliosc ^»CT. mx. 
spcechce which are colled by lht> poet& the BriatitarcKath Ban iii* »rith- 
Utadh, the ' battlc-8poirchc9 of the wnmen of UlBtcr' ". nSH?*" 

Wc must Tor the present pass orer thn<<e loiig-celehntt«d 
8pec>clie«, remarkable though they arc in point of mere luu- 
gna^, as examplps nf the copioosocBa and delicacy of the 
UKient Gacdhvhc toi-j;uc in teriiu of UudndoQ, such m theac 
thrc9c princcsMs of Ulster luvished on their husbaods on this 

At the ooncluincai of the. harangues, the champions Lae^haird 
JBuadhaeh and Conalt Ctarnnch mshod puddenly At the wood«n 
wall of the house, and, knocking a plunk, out of it, brought in 
their wives. Not so Cuchtdtdim; "he raised up", the story 
tcUs us, " that part of the liouac which was opposite hia couchf 
so that the stiirs of heaven were viable from beneath tlie wall; 
and it na5 through this openin"; that his wife coine lo to luin". 
And the tale gocfi on lo »iy that, " C»chulaiy\n then let ihe 
botve lall down auildenly again, so tlwt he shook the Trhole 
fabric, and laid Bricrind's ^rianan prostrate on the ground, 80 
that Bricnnd liimself and his wife were out into the mire. 
among the dogs, llien Brterind harangued the Ultoniana, and 
conjured them to restore his house to its original position, aa it 
still remained inclined to one eide. And ufi the champions of 
like Ultontans united their Ftrcngt}] and exerted thcineelvcs to 
lestore tlie balance of the hou«e, but without clfcct". I'licy 
tbeti be^cd of Cuchulainu to try his own gtiengUi on it, whicK 
he did, and alone restored the house to ita perpend Iculnr. 

Thi» is an cxtravnganl talc in fonn; aurl a great part of it 
may at fine sight appcai: somewhat irrelevant to the purpose of 
tlua Lecture. Il was proper, however, to give so much at lea«t 
of tbe story as to explain the occasion of tnc singular pcrform- 
aaoe atoibuted, in the tfxiu;gcrated language of the poet, to 
tKe hero Cvehtilainn, who filu oomplotcly the part of Hercules 
to our anucnt talcs. And it happens tliat none of the other 
great bouses already mentioned have been described, in some 
rcsjpectt), witJi tJic same miuuteocss as to foriD^ material, prcpa* 
ration for building, furniture, and internal arrsngeincnt, as this 
oclebrotftd house and tfrianan of Bricrind. For instance : we Bi*-n«a» 
art' told that tliere were six horses to carry home every post or mX^"* 
plunk of the walls; that it took avvco of the aUnit««t luvn in "^^^' 
Dlster to weave or interlace between the upright posts, each of 
the siont rods which, bke b&8be^work, tilled up the space be- 
tween these posts; and there were iliiriy bLilldeis or carpenters 
besides- The rods thus used wcr*^, 1 believe, uniformly of 
hazlc, perliaps because that was the smoothest of sll the forest 


1.K0T. XIX. treee. Ag^n, we are told, that this house was BuppUed with 
gUea windows ; and that it was supplied, as well as Brtcrind'a 
own grianan, with coverlets, beds, and pillows. And we 
learn that the panels and posts of these beds or couches, (for 
they answered both purposes,) were gorgeously adorned and 
emblazoned. So that, making due allowance for the poetry of 
the description, this house of Bricrind must have been an ele- 
gant, as well as a commodious building; and though we must 
not take the description as representing more than the poet's 
ideal of what he would have regarded as a splendid house in 
his own time, still there can be no doubt but that such edifices 
as that described, were in their main characteristics the prevul' 
ing form of house in ancient times in this country ; and in fact 
the use of the wooden basket-work building, with its decora- 
tions, came down, as we shall soon see, to a comparatively late 
period of oar history .'"' 

[<"' See Intsoouctton on the nmUar home* of the Oanli sod the Uhntra- 
Uoiu from the Colonae Aotooine in the Lonrre, Fig*. 54, 66.] 


[Ddlnni tM Itlr. MMJ 

^VTf.) Or BinuKira*, FvaMiTCBt, vrc.; (Mntinnnl). Tin ilomliillwiii of 
bdMin^ In onr undent MSS., ««i wlitn pwtieal in fann, and not tUteOf 
accurate m to dnto, are Mill valuable for llic object uf thcK' bctujga. Yvradljr 
of ilip cTldenoe mpeclinf the '-GnNlBaDquctiiiKHkU" of Tmicitliv Utn* 
of Cvrniac Jlf ac Mirl, oa gircn tiy I>r. Pclric; no record of UiccbangM which 
touk [il»c« M% Tan aBbarguvot to tltal time. Iteddcncci ol* tfw noiuirGlis 
of Krinn after the dewrtlon of Tan. DcMrtion of otli«f oelabmud royal 
wriJuawn — i&MMU4i, CmaiAaii, ete Ulviaion at titt people into cUmm i 
tUi dMilini dM not Inpuie perpMult; of caate ; inoraeae uf vealth onablcci 
m man to paia tnm me nuk to auotMr ; Grime alone bured ihia ad«»noe> 
tncnt 1 the qnatiAcMtuna aa to futnitore and houaea of the acreml olaaiea of 
^irAor laniJhaUen : lare f«c I11J1U7 totlie house of the ^ir^i?ni-^£>r<i(A( r 

oftlae^rr^ZlMaj of the Jirf-Ard; of ttti Air/ FoiyaiU ; vt I'bv king of 4 

enritoty. Law Baaliiatdaniaf^ or dUflgnreiMtii ol bailJlng* aad forDitnrei 
of the houaeof a Bo-^iV^,- or the hoiiic of ui Airif- Dbih ; of the liutiae gl an 
Airf-Taiu:otXhe Iio<um ol Ma Aii^-Ard. Law clltecUntf theproibiou tu be 
nuda for afcd meo. i^iape ut Ikiukv in asdeni F-riiin; conatnictioD of lite 
rovnd bonae { fefeieDCt^ ta tbv builJiiit; at stich a huusu in an Iriali life of St. 
CWi*a« atai * almiUr Uu*y told of hi, Cimnn Fada. Ho itiitimcc reoofdMl 
ot SD ooderiMtlct] edifice bvUt of vldur work ; twn inMauce* of tbe bulld- 
falf of oniorlM of wood;— «tat7 td tbe antaty of ^t. Molmy; ^untrun ot 
Kmattd Mat Cotmam tm the oialoiT of HiAan Va Suunai^h , nccimm of 
AnMiarf writing a pooDfbi the 6Wbaf DuUic; hecarrii'tltUwc-alltiKi Cilt 
Biiuigki MMewcnt uf wren itreeta uf Gali* or iurelKnere at tlial ptuofii 
Inporteiioe ol llie tkocoKutt of Bumoml. 

It is of very little moment to the liietory of tito country whe* 
thcr the descriptions, pri^crvcd in our ancient luaQiucnpl^, of 
the "Great Huuscs" ofthv Ruval Uraiicli, of Emania, in Ulster; 
of Uie " Grc*l llouec' into wEiicli fraeth, the son of Fidhadhj 
WB« ushered wiili hia foUowens, at Cruachaii, in Comiaclit; or 
of the " Great Hoasc" which Brierind built at liatk Rudhraidhi, 
in Ulatcr (all these account» rL-fcrrinK to the period of the In- 
carnation), be strictly correct in all uioir dales, ot tinged witli 
somewhat i»f the slory-tcUer'a exaggeration. The imagination 
of wriu-'rs say of llw foiuth, fifth, and sixth ccnturiea must 
have been groandod, at leant, on what they were accuatomcd 
to soc about them; and they mu^l have describud (he it iudecd 
witli 0ome colouring as to Bcceeeorice) merely tliat state of things 
(rhicli still (xiniinued in vivid reoollection, if not in actual exi^ 
cnc*;, in iheir time In this way even the inott poetic accounts 
arc important lo history'; just as thow of Homer ore so with 
pjfercnc* to similar mailers, although mixed up with so much 
of the fabulou* and the impossible in action. 


KCTjtx^ As to the character of the " Great House of the TKouaands of 
Soldiera", Bnil the Great Banqueting House at Tara, in the time 
oTCormae Mac Airt (that is, m the middle of the third century), 
and in the reign of Laeghairi Mac Neill (that is, at the time of 
the coming of SuntPatnck in the fifth century), no candid reader 
will for a moment refuse credence to the evidences of them pub- 
lished hy Dr. Fetrie in his admirable Essay on the History and 
Antiquities of Tara Hill, at least to the extent to which their 
probable veracity is measured by that thoughtful and most cau- 
tious writer. 

Of the changes or improvements, if any, in the mansions of 
Tara, between the death of Laeghairi Mac Neill and its total 
desertion as a royal residence and seat of the central government 
of the kingdom (about the middle of the sixth century), no 
record has come down to us, as far as I know. Neither have 
we any account, that I have seen, of the style or particular 
character of the dwellings of the monarchs, or of the provincial 
kings of Erinu, who succeeded Diarmait, the son of Fergus 
Cerrbhioil, the last occupier of the Great House of Tara, down 
to the final overthrow of the monarchy in the twelfth century. 
iiidBiica* For, after the desertion of the ancient seat of the supreme 
>D*rchii uf royal^, each of the succeeding monarchs fixed his residence in 
Bdi^uon Bome part of his own provincial territories ; so, the Clann 
T»™. Colmain, or Southern Ut-NeiU, who were the hereditary prin- 
ces of Tara and Meath, and who subsequently took the name 
of 0' Maeilsheaehlainny had their chief scat at Dun-na-Seiath, on 
the bank o£ Lock Atninn (now called Loch Ennel, near Mul- 
lingar, in Westmeath) ; whilst the northern Vi-Neill, subse- 
quently represented by the O'Neills, whenever they succeeded 
to the monarchy, held their court and residence at the ancient 
provincial palace of Aileach, near Derry, of which mention 
was made in the last ' Lecture ; and when Brian Borumha 
came to the supreme throne in the year 1002, he continued to 
reside at the celebrated Ceann-Coradh (a name which signifies 
literally, the " Head of the Weir", at the place now called 
Eillaloe, in the county of Clare), a place about a mile south by 
east from Gtianan-Lachtna, ne&r'Craig'Liath, the once noble 
residence of his great-grandfather Lachtna, some traces of which 
even still remain. 

So also, when Torloeh M6r O'Conor, and his son Rudk- 
raidhe after him, became monarehs, in the first part of the 
twelfth century, they had their residence on the bank of Loch 
En (a place now represented, I believe, by the castle of Ros- 
common). This is gufiiciently shown in the Annals of the 
Four Masters, at the year 1225. For, it appears that, in that 

"oDor having ^ucct-'cdcd his f»tlicr, Cathal t KOt. xm. 
>h-dtar^ (i.c " of the tied Hand"), in the kint^&liip, dU- 
^a all imporlaQt chief, n&rard Donn-uij Muc hracfitatifh, 
Unda; that JL/tM Eraehtaigk tavitcd O'Neill to his oa- 
mtnnce e^nst his own king; and thst iho tatter proccedt-d to 
Athlone, in the neiLihhuurhoiHl of which lie rumaincd two 
niahbh and totally plundered Loch An, from whence, we uic 
iDlurmed, h*- aimed off O'Conor's jewcb. It seems, however, 
that this j>]iux- was atandoDcd allcrwaids Xty llic O'Conora; 
aa 1 liud, from two contemporaneous [Ktetns in my own pc«- 
session, Uiat Aidh, the son of Kcfghan O'Conor. icmoved tlicir 
residence from ZocA An to Cluain Fraveh (a place near Slrolcett* 
tovm, in the same county), where he built u residence, in tlic 
year 1309. It is in description and praise of this new p:ikce 
oi Cluain Fraich that the two poems to which I allude (and t« 
which I shall have occaaon to refer again) were written. 

It appears from an nncirnt pacm, also in my poasesnon, that s«m»i^ 
Ktaanta ceased to be the roynl residence of the Ktnga of UUtvr ai>t,^^ 
after the death of Fer^hw Pi'ffha, in tlie year 331 ; Cruaehan, '^'•^ 
to be tlie residence ot the kiii^ 4f Counacht, afler the death uf 
Rat/fiatiath in 645 ; Caitml (Ca»hel), to be the residince of the 
kio^s of MuD^ler, after the death otCormacJfac CuileriHiim in 
1H>3; J\<u[now Naa*].the re«idouce oflhe kings ufI>oin»tcr, after 
the death of C^iMalt, son of .V>tireffan, in 904 ; and J Ueach , to 
be the rcaidenee of the kings of Ulster of tfio i/i'-jWi// line, after 
tbe death of Mu ircftearlaefi, the ton of Niali Giun-diihh, who was 
killed, in a battle with iJie Dunes, at Alii Firdiudh (now Ardee), 
ID the year yil- The poera in which the!<e fact* are preserved, 
was written aUmit A.D lt>2U, by Eochaidh (fh-Eughuta, for the 
twived castle of Mac-Dcnnot's Rock, of Loch Ci. 

llaviiig disposed, so far, of our rcf<^i'cnee to special building 
residences of the higher classes, in the more ancient lime, 

proceed now to the consideration of the dwellings of the 

less exalted clas^t!, the arrun^mencs of whtcli were, iu guiiie 
respects, regulated by hiw according lo the rank of the omiur- 
llic people in ancient Kriuu were divided, as 1 expkiacd on 
a former occasion,"'^ into several classes; those who had no nvMonorl 
land nor dwuUinga; those who hud land at rent not amount- Liiocri^ui 
to the value of that number of cows wliich was required to 

rt the rank of u cow-chief, or rich grazici ; those who hud 

the retiuired quantity of land lo entitle them to tlini rank ; and 
tiie degrees of that rank itself, in accordance with ihc iDcreafeil 
number of cowd or th^r grazing; and lastly, those who inherited 

'»' 8m I<«ct. ii., unit, vd. L p. 38 «f 109. [ijcc dao Appcuaix for tbc oatir» 
o( iht frifincot of iIm '^nih OafJ-UcA referred to ia Lvci. :(. 


thii divlilon 
did not 



Of Um faml- 

botuu or 
tha MTtral 



oT the Qg 

Of the Bo 




or otherwise obtained any quantitj of land for an alwolate 
OBtate; and of whom, agun, there were three ranke. 

The general name for a man of any one of these classes was 
Airi, or Flaith, that ia, something like our landlord; a term 
which may be applied at the present day to a man who lets 
ten acres of land, as well as to the man who lets ten thousand. 

The law did not impose perpetuity of caste upon any of 
those ranks, but lefl it open for them to ascend still higher in 
the scale of social dicnity, should the prudence or industiy of 
any man, or any of the chances of life, enable him to acquire 
more land and cattle ; provided only that his moral status in 
society was not impeachable, this being always deemed essential 
by the social law of the country. Thus, no perjm^r, no thief, 
no receiver of stolen property, no absconder from his lawful 
debts, no murderer, no homicide, no unlawful or unnecessary 
wounder of another, could ever legally rise in the scale of 
society, until he had made full and ample satisfaction, ac- 
cording to law, for hb misdeeds. All the professors of the 
mechanical arts were eligible to rise in rank in the same man- 
ner, under the same conditiona. 

I have already in a former Lecture expluned from the ancient 
laws the nature of the different ranks of the Airia, or land- 
holders, and the qualification of each rank in point of wealth.*"* 
I diall only here repeat so much of the laws respecting the 
different classes of society, as regards the size, the furniture, end 
the appointments of the houses allowed to or required to be 
kept oy each of them, according to his rank; because these 
laws contun much important information as to our immediate 

1st, The Og AirS, or Toimg Aird. He was required to have 
a fourth part in a ploughing apparatus, namely, an ox, a sock 
(or plough-share), a goad, and head-gear for the control of the 
ox. He had a share in a kiln ; a share in a mill ; a share in a 
bam; and an exclusive cooking-caldron. His house was or- 
dained to be nineteen feet long, and his kitchen, or store room, 
thirteen feet 

2nd, The Aitheachar Athrehka,or Bo-Air4, who succeeded 
his father. He counted his stock by tens : he had ten cowsi 
ten pigs, ten sheep, and a fourth part of a ploughing machine, 
namely, an ox, a sock, and a goad, and head-gear for controL 
He hiid a house twenty feet long, and a store room of fourteen 

3rd, The Bo-AirS Febhaa, or Best Cow-keeper. He had the 
land of four times seven Cumhals: his dwelling house measured 






twen^-seven feci, and hia store room Gftccn feet; he had also 
a share in n mill, in which his taniily and his reTcction-cona- 
P&oics grouoil their com ; he had a kiui, » bnrn, a sheendiouK, 
a cow-hoi»B, a calf-hoiisc, and ft pip-ety ; ami he had within the 
cncIoe^iiTL- of his dwflling-house six tidgps of onions, and one or 
more oriccka [etc.] 

4ih, The Bo Airi Gtnxa, or Chaste Cow-keeper. Thefiimi- of iiionf 
tore of his house (tJie dijiifiisioDB of which ar* not given) in- 
cluded a large caldron, with its hooks and iia bare; a vat for 
brewing ale; uid an ordinary workinc boiler, with minor 
veaseU; oawcll ai spits, ami fle«h-fbrks; knpading-troughs, and 
S^itis (to sift toeau and flour on); a washing-trough, and a 
" bead-bulhing baiin"; t^ibs; candlesticks; knives (or hooks), 
for cutting or n>flping rushes ; a rope ; on ad2e ; an auger ; a 
saw ; shears ; a foresl-axc, for culling f^vcry quarter's firc-wnod ; 
— every item of these without borrowing ; and a grinding-stone j 
a billet-hook ; a dagger for alaughtering cattle ; perpetual £re, 
and a candle in a candlestick, without fwl [i.e. he was boimd 
to keep a fire always kindled, and li^'hts m tite erenlug] ; and 
perfect ploughing apparatus, wiih all its neoeasary works. 

5th, The Airi Ueiri BrtitM, or the Judgment-distributing^!*^ 
Cow-keeper. (Ic had seven houses; namely, a kiln, a bam, a Brtuui 
mill (that is a share in it) for hii grinding purposes ; a dwelling- 
house of twenty-seven feet in length, with a More room of 
twelve feet; a pig-ity; a calf-hotise ; and a sheep-house. 

Tlie tines appointed by law for injury to thcliouse or fumi- ""«> '« 
lure of a man of this cUas, may uteo be quoted as recording h" ».• m" 
fioine further partJoulttre, thua. — He was entitled to five »ed*,'^m^^ 
[the Md was Bomeliirtes a ealf, and sometimes a heifer, or a ''^.^ 
cow], for a person climhine over the lit (or rampart of hia ' 
house), without his leave; but it was lawful to open its gate 
ftora without. Five eedi for opening the door of his houao 
witliout consent; a cow for Bpying iuio it; a calf for taking a 
handful of its thatch off; a yc'arold calf for tvo (handfuls) ; a 
Itrtt-yearKiM htifer, (or an armful; a thrcc*jear-old heifer (not 
bulled), for half a bundle; a cow for a whole bundle, ns woU 
as reBtilulJon of the straw; five ud» for entering hiH house or 
hn cow-house by breaking the doors; u calf lor breaking the 
withe (of tho door) below; a yearling for hreakiiig the withe 
above; a heifct for bn-aking a wattle holow; an older heifer 
for breaking a wattle above [that ip, sliould the cow-houae door 
be faatenod by a wattle or bur, and not by a twig or pad, below 
and aboTo] ; a yearling for disliguiing the door-posta of tho 
front of his house; a calf for tlie dcx}r-pust« of the hack of his 
house. The seventh part of the price of honour of every rank 


Lwn-. XX. is paid for stealing anything out of his lawn (or green); a 
calf for disfieuring the lintel of his back door; a yearling for 
the lintel of his front door; for Btripping his couch, if it be a 
lock (of hair) from its pillow, two jjillows are to be paid for it; 
if it be a lock from the part on which he sits, two sVins are to 
be paid ; if it be a lock from the foot, a pair of shoes are to be 

From these extracts we may form some idea of the style of 
the establishment of what, in old times, waa looked upon as a 
farmer or landholder of the middle rank ; but there is very 
much more connected with hia position, pnvileges, and lia- 
bilities, too minute to be introduced into a fecture of this kind, 
and too technical to be understood without explanatory notes, 
which would lead us too far from our immediate object. All 
this information, however, will appear in the forthcoming pub- 
lications of the Brehon Law Commissioners. 

oitb*Airi- 6th, The nest AirS, or landlord, was the Airi-DSsa ; that 
■' is, an Air^ who possessed Dh, or free land derived from his 
father and grandfather. Of this class of A irh there were four 
ranks, of which the simple Airi-D^a was the lowest The 
dwelling house of the Airi-Disa was twenty-seven fcot long, 
with a proper store house ; it was to have eight beds, with their 
furniture in it, as well as vats and caldrons, and the other 
vessels becoming the house of an Airi, together with koeves. 

titximJUri.- 7th, The Airi-Ard, or High Airi, was so called because 
' he was higher than the simple Airi-D^ta^ and took precedence 

of him. His dwelling house was to be twenty-nme feet in 
length ; his store house nineteen feet. Eight beds were to be 
in the dwelling house, with their full furniture, befitting the 
house of an Airi-Tuia4, with six brothrachs (or couches), with 
their proper furniture of pillows, and (stuffed) skins for sitting 
upon: he was also to have proper stands (or racks) in the 
house, furnished with vessels of yew of various sizes, and iron 
on^ for different kinds of work ; and bronze vessels, with a 
(bronze) boiler, in which would fit a cow, and a pig in bacon, etc. 
, rf the Airi- 8th, The AiH-FoTgaill, the third of this rant of Airds, ao 
■' called because lus evidence is good against all those before 
enumerated, wherever lie undertakes to deny a charge ; because 
bis qualifications are higher than those of his fellows, as thirty 
feet was to be the length of his dwelling house, and twenty 
that of hia store house. The furniture of nis house was of the 
highest order. 

ottbBkiof 9th, From those intermediate ranks of society we pass to 

wrj," the king of a territory or province. And the proper establish- 
ment for a king who is constantly resident at the head of hia 


people (or tcnilory) waa u follow*. Seven score feet of pro- 
perly mOMtuvd TkcI is ihe meastire of Via dun (or circular fort) 
c»ch way; tcv<^i\ fvot id the thickness of ita mound at top; 
twelve fcet at its base-. }iv is a king only wKcn his tiun is 
Burrmmded willi drechta gialina, thiit is, with a trench made 
by ha own tenants. Twulvc fuct ia the breadth of its mouth 
and tu depth; and it is &s long as the {fun. Thirty feet in ita 
length attho outeidc. Clerics arc t« bless hia house; and c^Txy 
one wKo damages it id to pay a cart load of wattlea, and a cart 
iuad of ruahcs by way of unc. 

Sucb wen;, snoTlly, as iiiditaied by tlie laws, tbe different 
claaK8 of private houses tn ancient Krinn, as distiDgaiabed from 
tiiOK great cdiGccs of which I spoke in the last Lecture. But 
the Laws contain many pusogce in which still more minute 
details oonceming the arrangement of personal residences arc 
happily preserved to us. 

Tm^ is one clmptcr, or version, in particular, of the spL-cial 
law against damage or disiigiircinent yrbuiUlings and rurniiure, 
preserved in another part of the ancient coilo, which is so 
ourioin and precise, that I think it will nut be deem(>d an un- 
neoeaaoiy repeution of some part of what has been already said 
on the subject. This law was specially intended lo punish 
disfigurciueat by scratching or cutting the door-poets:, tltO 
columns, and the fronte and heads of beds and couches. It 
nuu ta follows. — 

" The house of h Bo-Airi (or Cow-chief). To disligure its 
NUth door-post, A shc«p ut mid for it ; fl. larab for its norm door- 
poet: why 19 the south side more noble? Answer. Because 
It is it thitt is in the view of thu gond man [of the housxQ, who 
always nts in the north end (or piii'l) n{ una home : bccauao 
that IS the port in which lhi> good man lUwnys nts. Its lintel: 
a ahoep for didfiguriiig its frunt; u lauib for the book (or in- 
side). The inc»$ement of his bed (or his eoueh): n dairt [i.c. 
yearling' calf] for it in front ; a sheep lor the book. 

" The house of an Airi-Dita. For cutting its south door- 
post, thero is o dairt (or ycuTliag.) paid ; a sheep for the northern 
post. The door of this house receives the finish of a Gaulish 
»xc {Gaiil Liaif), and carving (aurtcartadh). To disfigure 
(or cut) ita south door-poet, so us to render it useless, there ia 
a. cow paid for it; and a ludfcr for tho other post (at the bock 
of the Douse); and reittilutLon, [that is, poets in place of them]. 
It is the some that ii) paid forita lintel, and theirontsof his beds, 
(and couches) receive tlie finiah of a channel-plane (rungcm)i 
should tlicy be disfigured in front, tticrc is a cow paid ; nud an 
hdfcr for Uic bock. If they be disfigured so u to be rendered 

1*1 unlnal' 

of •»>- 
Jlrr : 


/ ' .tl'i 


*!■ ■-- :r:i::-v:? 7vi:>:t- i". ■-: :> iyc:-.5T iiiss. 

tI-:'?. :>.:_-: _■: -- . :.:_: ■-. i ::-!■ iz 1 i r-o::-. :. piid for 
V.-: :r:-:. ii.i 7~--.-..- ":: •.;■.. tii-i-j" ; i mt isIt for the 

■■ TV.-' J: .K : _:■ ■ -7 ■■: E- :'-. :*_- -.>:-:? receive tlie 
•^-■i"-, : i. . ;-z:l T__-- - ■ ■■ \ iz:: ;^z_" iJ'irft."orta(//i)- 
F:: ;:= 7. _--::.' J i:? ?: .:.. ::■ ?■:■:■:: v-.rM i* j ow paid; anda 
r.:i::- :.: :':v z r-;.:- T'- '^i:^. :? rii; ::r :'^ linteL Foi 
■i.-r._~i::r.j :>- rr ;■.: :' L.ii > 1 - ::,':V. . dvc izdf.oi *caw 
a:,i ,ir. '::::-.:.-:: -,_.".. ^- . i : - :_r :';.v backs. For di»- 
:',_".;rir,_- i; ::,! :: i;"- r. : r i .-: ■^■■, : vr-? :* rSS a tumkal, 
■ T A c.-vr !=■ ;.- :..i^:", v i: i :":: :".:. :::r.:: iai dve Ki/*, or a 
I'Mv .inl a:: >.-:i:'.7. t:,': :,r :'.-.■ Va."-: 

■■ Ti-.e r. :■:*'.' . : a:: A . '■ -A : I:? Ijor-r-rstt ami the (ides of 
itslv U :•;.'-::-.-: ;>. r.:.:-'-. ;: .; l:v-:?;i:v:r.j": Iatio (mn^KiH); and 
ih? i-arvir.js ;■:-. ;::j '.^i :-,-.s: -.-: :' :'.■■; :■•:«: kiuii mat can be 
:o-.;!i i :r> .v.-.v l:.-v.*tf. F : ::? -i;r:;rv.70T.!?iii in iu iouthem door- 
JK5:^. :-ve ft :<. ^-r a c:--v .::■. i i :. ;:'or, art* paid: a t^i''^ '°'' ™ 
noniicrn posLs. Ii i j tr.o i..rj-; :Vr ::= ".ir.tol. For disti^'ureinent 
ot" [ho sia-.-s of i:^ bo U :"i:ni r>.t? trcn:. :hon? is half &fiimkat,a 
a o>>w AHil a-lul:. ju:J : live .i,-.^<i. or a cow ami a heifor, for tha 
back: for its di-Hjuroiuvr.: r:U ii ij rendored useless, there u 
a fumkal. or throo cowi, paid lor tiio front, and Haifa cuHwa 
for the back", fete.''. 

Tho5c rctjiiirtioiii contain abundant eridcncea of the amount 
of ornament and workiiiaoihip bestowed upon our domerto 
aichitectuie and furniture in the earliest tinscB. 

And here, before we pass irom the apecial subject of 
houses ordered by law to be kept by particular classes of ni 
and for particular purposes, let me make one nio-re extract 
i? one not merely useiul in eoanection wiUi ray iinni'^dialc ■ 
jcct (as affording yet some further iBromialion M *« '*"-'■ 
of the construction and fiintiture of ancieoi^tflH 
but interesting oa a very curioUd 
welfare of the people which so 
our ancestors. It pforenthatl 
legieJators of ancieut Krinn tt 
for those of the popuUitieu 
no longer ablo to ti 
subaistGiicc upon tk 
law in question ' 
in which " atif 
means of* 


iroTlilun for Wno a&3 

Ma iged. 


OP eirU.[150£, FtrnXtTDRT, ETC., IB ANCICST RRIKN. 31 


tnaiatftin me'. They come to bitu; ami they eaj tinto hiu: . 
'What rent [or m&intenanoe] Rhnll wc cive Uice? How uiauy 
iteoMafojaintenanwaiciiIlowcdbytholaw?* Auawer- Three: 
BaintenuKe in food, majatenance in atloudanco, iiiaintcnaoco 
of miUi. The iiuunteiituic« in ibod is, half a juir^A in (or cake) 
of vhcalea meal, with salt ; and a vessel of sour milk. The 
maintdunee of fttt«n<Unce U, to wa-ih his body nvery twentieth 
D^i. ftod lo wadh bb bead eveiy Saturday- The maintenance 
of milk is, one nutcli-eow erery motilh throughout the year. 
Ui9 house ofmaintensoce is to be Kvente(?n fcut lon<r; it is to 
be voveA [as baskot-vork] tilt it r«achc! the lintel of ibc door; 
then is to be a vriog [or weather-board] between eTciy two 
wcariogs frum that up to the ridce; tliere are to be two door- 
ways in it : a door to one, a hurdk- to ike other. A chc«t to be 
at ooa aide of the boose, a bcU at tlie other side ; it is to h^ve a 
kHdm [or store-kouae] to it. In tbc fort [oi enclosure] of 
maintenance [that ls. the little cardcD within which the house 
■lood], there can fit but four ridges ; tkat is, two ridges at each 
aide of the boose: twelve l«ct id to be the length of each rid^e ; 
and eight its breadth. I'he bundle of llrcwoou of maintenance 
is lo oonnat of seventeen sticks, each tioc of which should be of 
Book Kse that, if split into four parts, each part would be suS- 
cieot fi>r the liandlu of a forest-sxe or hatchet [As to] ihecn 
(plotf) of tnaintc'nanoe, seven handa iit to be its circumJii^ettce at 
tne hiae; ax hands in the middle; and four hands at top". 

From the meagureoient of the building described in the fyic- n^ ^ 
cxtncta, tbc bousea in aacient Erinn wouid appear iomSi^ 

I in some instances of a rectangular cr oUoag fontt. '"^* 
: is, howcvn, absolute proof of the exifteocc of round or 
llMUses, m..U fJili^flg, jp-jrbiJly of wkkxiowork; sod 

mora geaml farm. Tho 

I very anplr, aad majr be 

Swlo sbcep-oobt in many^ 

a abtiacjaai Cfuwlr to 

iboSB «apf^^^ ^ 

■ pi '•• ■ ■• M^'r ?7u' 



lOT. XX. wicker or basket-work, until It reached the required height of 
the wall. In the meantime there was Brmly set up in the centre 
within, a stout post, called a tuireadh^ of length commensurate 
with the required height of the roof; into which were inserted 
by mortices, or otherwise attached, a certain number of rafters, 
which descended slantingly all round to the tops of the upright 
posts of the wall, into which they were received by tenon and 
mortice, or otherwise attached, in the same way aa at the root 
tree. The number of these main rafters, as we shall call them, 
need not, and could not, have been great; because, according as 
their distance asunder increased as they radiated Irom the centre, 
cross-beams or pieces were inserted between them, as often as 
was needed, until at last a regular shield-roof, with a sharp 
pitch, was formed above ; across the rafters and ribs, Uins in- 
serted were then laid bands or laths, or narrow slips of wood, 
which were fastened with pegs, or with gads, that is, twisted 
withea, forming a regular network from the top of the roof-tree 
to the walls. On these, again, were laid or fastened, at short 
distances, what may be called a sheeting of rods and thin 
branches of trees, stretching from the roof-tree to the wall. 
And now, the shell of the house being finished, it was thatched 
with straw, rushes, or sedge, and neatly fastened down with 
what are now Anglicised " scollops'* (from the Graedhelic word 
tcolb, literally, a thin twig pointed at both ends), an andent art 
of which the use, as we all Know, is not yet forgotten among us. 
I cannot say how they staunched the walls of the round wicker- 
house, whether with clay, moss, or skins ; but it appears, from 
what we have seen in the last Lecture, that some houses at least 
were covered with the wings and skins of birds, though probably 
onW' by way of ornament. " 

There is a curious reference to the building of a round wicker- 
house preserved in the ancient Gaedhelic Life of Saint Colman 
Ela, of Lann Ela (now called Lynally, in the King's County). 
The story is this — 
geoant of The celebrated Saint Baoithin, the nephew of Saint Colwn 
Vroina' ^»^^. "^^ placed by the latter under the tuition of Saint Col- 
tarf at* *"**" ^^' ^**<'*'^'" 8 understanding was clear and acute enough, 
limn* £1*. but his memory failed him, and all his master's instnictionB 
avuled him nothing. It happened that one day, Sunt Colmatt 
was so irritated at the dulneas of his pupil that he struck him ; 
whereupon the latter fled from the church into the neighbonr- 
ing wood, to hide himself, to avoid his lessons. Here, how- 
ever, he discovered a man, alone, building a house ; and the 

<"> [Bee iHTBODncTioM on the dmilar Ganliab lioiuei figured on the CokniM 
AotoQine in the LouTre.] 

is dcscribeH, for Ibe story says, that accorjing bs he »■"«'- 

to the end of Aettin^ or weaving one rod iruo the wall, ho 

would immediately introduce the head of ajiothcr; uad no 
worked on, from rod to rod, setting one only at a time. Slow 
•3 this process appeared to the young student, still he snw the 
house rising apace ; and he said to himself: " Had I pursued my 
Ickming with this assiduity, it is probable that I might have be- 
ocHne a scholar'*. A heavy slmwcr of rain fell at the aamn time, 
■od BaoUJnn took shelter frum it under an ouk-lrec. Here he 
perceived a drop of the rain drippin); from ontj leaf of the tree 
upon a particular spot. The youth pnisaed his heel upon tliis 
spot, formtog a Uttlc hollow, which was soon filled up by the 
dripping' of the sinple drop. Baoilhin sajdilico: "All I if I had 
pursued my learning even by such *low degrees, I would doubt* 
lesa have become a scholar" ; and thca be spoke this lay : — 
** Of drops ft pond is 6lled ; 

Of roda a ruund-hoii^e is built; 
The house whieh is liivoured of Gt)d, 
More and more numerous will be its family. 
** Had I attended to my own lessons 
At all times and in all places, 
Tho' small my progress at a time. 
StiQ I Would acquire suffi^cnt learning 
" [It is a] single rod which the man cuts. 
And which he weaves upon hia house ; 
The bouse rises pK-aaantly, 
Tho' singly he sets the rod. 
*' The hoUow which my heel hath made, 
Be thanks to God and Saint Colman, 
Is filled in every shower by the single drop; 
The single drop lireonifs 8 pooL 
" X make a vow, that while I live, 

I will not hcncciortln my lessons abandon; 
Whatever the difficulty may be to me, 
It is cultivating learning I shall always bc*^. 
A limitar story is told of the celebrate J Saint Cmnut Fiida, simiu! 
Btgfaop of Clontcrt (who died x.I>. 661), as to his having tukcn^^ 
a leason in peiBevcrance from seeing a little pool formed by the 
drippinf; ofa single drop, and scciDg a house rising to comple- 
tion by the weaving in of a single rod at a time. 

Jt does not appear that, even so late as tins period (the 
•eventk century), stone dwellings were in much repute or use, 
excepting eoclesiflstic&l edifices; and that these too were fre- 
qacnily if not genettdly built of wood down to the seTcnth and 
eighth centuries, we have the clearest proofs. It appears, how- 




' oi tha 

I'lP uoiuir 
el Si. 

GYCT, from another pa<sjgc in the Life of Saiat Calmtm 
quoted above, that litonc buili]inge< miist been ooei 
u»vd at tlic eainc lime us vrooil. Thus R^ys the LiTe : 

" OdO of the (Ia,y9 tint Colman was biiildiny the cauwwfcy 
■which i« Bituiited oX l he rocle on the western side [of the Church] 
[it happened! tliatj there wra.* no one cnj^agca in »rttin^ thi 
stoncii in the wulLi of the church, nor in the Caiteat [i.e. 
encircling wall], nor in the Torhar [t.f. the causewaTJ. nn tli 
day, who did not receive altendiinco from Duiurfliadlt, whi 
ma tlie " eecond !«oii of the king of that couAtry, buc who ih: 
ihowed hitt humility and the fervour of hi^i lUith". 

In deftlitig with the subject of the dwelling bouses andotber 
butldiugabcrein the early ages aftL-i- the iniroducuon of ChrLs- would bo impossible to scpAmle the ccclo«ajitieiil and 
the liiiCdL buildias|i; because the builders and archtlccts of both 
were the eatno. Tho same architcci pUnned the gre*t ^tono 
cliureh and the belfry, as well ax the oratory, which wus 
sometimes built of stone, but more penerally of titiibcr, in the 
dnit three ccnlitrics of our nittiunat Church. 

It duc8 not appear in any auetent writing nitfa Ti'liich I am 
Bcquaintud, that any kind of ceclcKiutical ttdihoc wad built of 
basket or wicker work, like the lioii»cs of the laliy ju!>t de-^ 
BcribcJ. There arc, however, at least two instances on record^ 
of the actual building of oratories, or fniull churches for privutc 
prayer, of wood, and instances of such infrest that I cnonot 
but cite (hem here. Both uix: conncclx:d with the life ol the 
celebrated builder, Gobian Soei\ of whom I shall have aom^ 
thins to say by and by. 

Tiie first of ihew instances 1^ that of the oratory of Saint Mo* 
liny of 7ifc/* deling (now Snint MullinV, in theeounly of Cat- 
low), and is recorded m the ancient (lacdhctic lilc of tJiat .^inU^| 
The story w so tinj^larly told, wild aa it ie iu part, that 1 ruu-fl 
Bot but ^vc it in tuU. iJut it in, of cour5c, only vahiuble in 
our present inquiry us preserving a statement of the materials 
of which the orutorr was built. It isua follows: 

"It was iit this lime the great ancient yew tree called the 
£o Rosta \i.e. ihe Yew ol iioti''\ woa blown down. Tbbt 
famous tree became the property of S;iiiU Molaue ol' /^ilfifflhin, 
who had it cut up and disuibutcd among the sainfs of Krinn. 
Saint Moliiui went to him and asked him Ibr a share of the 
Yew ol Hosn; and Saint Moliai presented him with ns much 
of it aa would make shingle;! for his oratory. Saint AioUug 
then brought Gobban Saer to build his oratory. His coni> 
pony coasiatcd of eight carpenters and their eight wive?, and 
ejolit boys. They continued with the saint for a whole year 


wilKoul commenciug the work, and dui-ing this time their en- t-ccr.xx.^ 
tertainmcnt was novt-r tlio worse G^>bha>\ uso<l every morning »otr«ctB* 
to press ibcm lo j;o to the wood; and what he said every duy fu^*°f(,^ 
waa: ' Let js go in the aame of the Heavenly Father to-day . |j}^„_ . 
Then Rt the end of the yciu* he said ; ' Let us go in the name 
of the Ftithcr, and oT (he Son, and of the Holy Ohost'. 

" They went ihen at the end oithc year to the wood, Saint 
JHoiiuff and GoI>Imu, and having (bund a hiiiutble uvo, ihvy 
bcgiin to cut it down. The first chip that flew from die tree 
struck Saint Moliuej on the eye and biokc it; he dicir hia cowl 
orer it; aiid, without iiifoniiing them of what had happened, 
he bade than work wcUi while he shoidd return home to read 
\i\a dIIicc: this he did, and hud his eye mimculoualy healed. 
Oobtxin and h'u ossiiitanta soon returned from the wood; and 
the oratory was built foilhwlth. 

"In the meantime Oobban's wife, RuofUich Dtr^^ had rc- 
' e«i a inilcli cow as a picsent from the ?aiiit. Tina cow was 
1 after stolen by a notorious thiet' named Dihic, who in- 
fected the neighbourhood. The woman went to Soint Moling 
lo complain of thiu. The saint sent a p:irty ol his people in 
search of the thief; and they found him roasting the cow at a 
loree fire on the brink of the Batrow. When he saw them he 
quickly cluiibcd a high lice which stood ueur; hut one of the 
men wounded him with a spear, and lie fell down into tlic 
river and was drowned. The party took up the carcase of tho 
cow, one ndc of which h;id been put to the lire; and they 
rolled it up in tho hide, and ciarricd it bjck lo the saint, who 
by his players called tt to Hfe again, io the aamu condition 
tliat it had been before, except th»t t)ie «ide wliich had been to 
the iirc remained of a dwrk gray colour ever after. Gobban'» 
wilb hiving heard that the oow had been recovered, came 
a^uin to the saint requesting that it should be restored lo her. 
'lo this icquest, however, oji\ai, Aloluig did not accede; and 
iho woman returned in hi^h anger to her husband. 

*^'Cobban had just finished the huildine ol the oratory at this 
time; and hi? wilis atidressed him, and naid that shu would not 
bcnocibrth live with him, unless he fhuuld dt^^nmnd from tho 
taint ns the price ol his work what she should name. ' It sliall 
be done w', saidt/Vif'rtft. ' VVell then', eaidshc, ' tho oratory ia 
liniabed, and accept not any other puymcnt for it biitits full of 

Se'. * it shall bo fo done', fc;iid OeOban, Gobliau went then to 
lint Moting; and the latter said to him, ' Make thy own dc- 
' now, because it was thy own demand that wiif proinited to 
* I shulL', said Gohbau ; ' and i ( is, that ite (the oratory's) 
of rye be paid to me'. * Invert it\ said Saint Moling, ' and 

3 b* 

SoGohban ap- 
"^ "'•'■■ pliod macViincry and force to tJie oratory, so that he ttiraccl it 
vtaurMurr iipsiJe dowTt. antl not a plank of it went out of it« place, and 
jfXV- "o^ a joint of a plonk gave the smallest waj bcjruDtl Knother. 

" Saint Moling, on ncarinit hi« exorbitant (Kinand, scat im- 
mediately to his paternal relatives, the Ui-Dtaffha, on all sid^j^i 
foi asfislanco to meet it; and he epokc the following poem: 
" Grief has seized upon itic. 

Between the tivo mountains, 
Ui-J>faflia by me upon tliu cast, 
Vi-Detufka by inc on the ■west, 
" There bus been acmanded from m« 
The full of a brown oratory 
(A demand that is difficult to me) 
Of hare rye grain. 
*' If you should pay this to hiin, 

He ahftlL not be much a gainer; 

It ahnll not be malt, of a truth, 

It shall not be Eccd, nor dried. 

•' The Ui-Deagha, lo serve mc. 

Will relieve mc from gricf; 

Becautc I must desire 

To remain here in corrow. 

" On receiving this nic»age the Vi-Dragha assembled, 

the east and from the west, to him, until the hill was covered' 

with tJiem. He tlicu explained to them ilic demand which had 

boon made upon him. ' If we bad the means', euid they, * you 

ehuuld have wh^it you want; but in (act wu have not amou; all 

Vi-Deagha more than the full of tJiis oratory of all kinds of 

corn'. ' Tliat ia true', said )ic ; * and go ye all to your hotue* 

for this nJght, and come back at riging lime on to-morrow, and 

Kflwve noihing in the way of com, and nul*, and apples, and 

green rushco, until tliis oratory be HUed'. They came oti the 

morrow, and they tilled tlie oratory, and God on tliis occasion 

worked a miracle for Saint Malingy so that nothing was found 

in tlio oratory but bare rvo grain. So Gohban took away Hia 

corn tlico ; and what he uiscovcrcd it to be, on the nejtl day, 

was a heap of inafrgotn". 

Iha <econd of the two instance* on record of the Iwiilding of 
a wooden thtirthtach, or oratory, though cot in connection with 
the name of any uchitcct, and although thepoEsage describing 
it haa already been puhtiahed in Dr. Pcirie's Essay on the Round 
Towers (page 348), is, however, so valuable in relation to my 
BubjecCi that I cannot omit to give it here. 

" It is found'', [says Dr. Petrie] " in an account of 

<tt BOIUmtOfl, FOBSITintS, E!rC., 13 AKCIBXr SBISX. 37 

OQiiuUiiou nhieli oceuioncd the writing of a po«m for the 
Galls, or ibreigncn of Dublin, liy ttie celebrated Inab poet 
Rumnnn.who hw l)«n calM by the Irish writci* the Virgil of 
Irelfini.1, and wlioae denlh is tliu9 entered in Ihe Attniib of 
lighprnach at the yenr 717: 'Human Mae Colmain, Poeta 
cptimua quieeif. It rcfcm to tlie 1)iiildin>; of the duirtfteach 
nvir, or gicat oratory of RaXAain Ua Suanau^h, now Rolien, 
[nciP TullAinor«] in the King's County; and tli* original, 
which IS preserved in an ancient vollum MS. in the lioaleian 
Library at Oxford, is said to have been eopiod from tin? Doolc 
of Rattmin Ua Suunaiffh: ' Riimann, son of Colman, i^. the 
son of the king of Laogain^', [in Me&th], of tlic rac« of Nial), 
loyal poet of Ireland, was he that corapoEcd this poem, and 
L«dh Luu£cacli is the name of the measure io which be com- 
poBod iu Uc came on a pilgrimage to Hathan in a litne of 
great dearth. It was displeasing tu the people of ihe town that 
be diould come tliither, and they said to the architect who voa 
taaking the giiLMt dutrtluarh [or oratory], to refuse admittance 
to Oio man of poetry. Upon which ihe builder soid to one 
of his people : w meet Rumaiin, and toll him ihat he shall not 
enter the town until he malccs a quatrain in which tliere shall 
be an enun>eration of what boorda tliere are h^re for the build- 
ing of the ditirUteaeh. And tbon it was that he composed thie 

r*" O my Lord \ what shall I do 
I About thme great materials? 

^^'hen shall be [teen] in a fair jointed ediQce 
These ten hundred boarda?' 
"This waa the number of boards there, ic. one thousand 
boarda; and tlien he wiuld not be refuFed [admittatuej, fiinoe 
Ood liad revcalcil lo him, thronj^h his poetic inspiration, the 
numbi:!r of boards wliich thu builder had. 
" He compoaed a great poem for the Galls of AthClialh 
[that is, tho Foreigners of Dublin] imoiediately after, but the 
Galls aaid that they would not pav him the price of his poem ; 
upon whioh he composed the cclcbmted distich in which he 

" ' To refuse mc, if any one choose, he moy' ; 
upon which Im own award was given him. And the award 
wnicfa he made waa a pinginn [iiir penny} from every mean 
Gall, and two jnnffirtni from every noble Gall so that there 
VIA not found among them a Gall who did not give him two 
prnjTi'nns, Itocau^* no Gall uf them deemed it worth while to 
b« catvcnicd a mean Gall. And the Gulls then told him to 
praisG the sea, that they might know whether his was original 


Suinla 04 
• ■taiiif BB 
m lutka» 

IVwni at 
/CiiAiaqrf for 


iKCT sx. poetr/. Whereupon he pmscd the aea while he was drunk, 
when he spoke [as follows] : 

" ' A great tempest on the Plain of Lear' " [ie., the seal- 

" And he then carried his wealtli with him to Cell Belaigh 

in Magh Constantinc [or Constantine's Plain, near Bathan}, 

for thia was one of the churches of Ua'Suanaigh, and tho 

whole of Magh Constantine belonged to him. For eve^ plain 

and land which Constantine had cleared belonged to [Saint] 

Mochuda; bo that the plain was named aOer Constantine. At 

KwiHtra or this time Cell Belaieh cad seven streets of Galls for foreigners'] 

of fnreignot* m it ; and Kumann gave the third [partj oi his wealth to it be- 

Mt^ilk. cause of its extent; and a third part to schoole; and he took a 

third part with himself to Ratham, where [in coui3e of time] 

he died, and was buried in the same bed [or tomb] with Ua* 

Suanaigh, for his great honour with God and [with] man". 

This extract contains for us an undeniably curious piece of 
history. First, it gives us a clear idea of the materials of which 
the great oratory at Hatkan was built, and of the size of it, 
which could not have been inconsiderable, since there were no 
less than 'one thousand planks prepared for its use. 

It also supports the old account, which states that Constantine, 
the king of the Britons (perhaps of AUcluaidi in Scotland) 
retired from the care of hia government, and entered the mo- 
nastery of Sathan, under Saint Mochvda, who preceded Va- 
Suanaigk. All our old martyrolopes give this fact, and assign 
the 11th of March as the festival day of this royal penitent 

A second curious fact established, to my mind at least, by 
this story, is that of the existence of " seven streets" excluaiTeiy 
inhabited by foreign pilgrims or students at C^l Belaigh, in the 
middle of the eighth century. And a third remarkable fact is 
that of the residence in Dublin of a large population of foreigners 
80 early in this century ; for it is only towards the close of that 
and in the beginning of the succeeding centuir that our aimals 
begin to notice the descent on our coasts of the hostile foreigners 
whom we call Danes. There is no doubt, however, but that 
there were foreigners settled in Dublin, and in other parts of 
the east and south-east of the island, in the peaceful pursuits of 
trade and commerce, long before the fierce invaders of the ninth 


(V II-) 0» BintiH!ro*,FcaHiTiiM; (ooutbuwd). Of tli« GMati&ur; miitaket 

ooaoBmiag him : npliuuiUcui of hi* atatt ; he vaa a ital pemmtgo. Old 

Irtah writer* fond u( lUalit&iiwa ravtboluyical orlffin to men oT gn*t aUJl 

or tearninc. The kgvnJ ci( T^n^ti. Ibc fatlicf ot OMitn Satr; ob«crTa< 

tiona of I>r. Pptri« on Ihu \tg«nd i Hrror of Dr. P«(iu). Slor]r of £m A/ne 

jkiiXU-M, thtSaU 7Um<«at or "inint; of ail iiTtV'. 'jTwrtM a dMuuu&nt cT 

rOi/^/ OAmi*. Keteieneet 10 G'i'>V»t .Sncr in nncicticGaodhsltaMSS.;— ono 

' ilha Irtah life oC St. Abint; tlin namu of thi? (dnoe whnv 0i>6Aun liuUt 

e dumb for St. JUn* not mcnlioiH^ ; aDOtber in llit Ufa at Si. Moling. 

lit nan* of C^oUoit uwnLioncO in a focm in an aadvnt tiacdhelia; M SS. uf 

__je 4tght)i CMitury ; — oriKinal smA tr«ailAtion of tllli pOCBi (note) ; original 

ItBod mnalatJMi of a pucm of SI. itnliuff fttm tbe aanw Hit. which ii oIm 

pibaiid in a .MS. in Inlanit'-tireat ImporUnoe of tUf poem (notu). Ora- 

^orioa SHifrallj' buili u( wood, but atMiietUuea of aloni;. Ancient law nga- 

Ittoc the t>n«! 'A bv poiJ for ccclralaxttcal bnttdlnm i — u lo tha omlurj ; 

jatoUivZMBA'^Hif oriloiiic«buTc)i)«iplaiutloiiof th«r«lcaa to tbv liuter 

(nolo); M U the CiUiUacI, or bcllry. lixplanatioo of the prccatinK rule 

1 from l)r. r<4rle ; runMina for revsamliUDC th{>ac rulea. Dr. IVtrie'a 

B rixMK the KuunJ TowcTa unaMallablcv Law Teciilating the [iin>|MV* 

ale Hlpeadiol otfaaUc— enivnJauf ilte i>/JumA> bid tiler: Vi. 1*(-Irie1a 

itterntioa on tfae puacKe lOKUfiiiai; the atipeud of llje ol I'm A -h^Mvri 

[dvclliw boBMs omiKcd fioiD 0\i> litt u( buiUingvi uiUktlcu luuJu by Ur. 

^clsie asMtlbe poaugc conc«inin^' the e//nniA-liulldcr( auiTior^ corrvctim 

w^ tUa alitlke i tBoanlng of the won! C->iett^H,—B«w InlctprvUtion bj tbo 

iMiUiur. Aniatic works ol tite of/uinJl.bulU^. Uio /uAromcM or working In 

t jrew-woiMJ ; cutvlr^ in jcw-wood at Eiwima and CVaoclan, and in Ariiiagh 

fcanlwdral. Boinaouc orljiin of work in yvf mod— k(r«iid ot Finiana, son 

Ijtf £tocA/« i DO Irac* of (li« doctrine of mvtccnpajrchoda amoott Uie OxHlliil ; 

ot fuitamt, cMttintu<1. litt of artldea of boDaehold funutura 

nei] ia tho lawa n^sriling landiiin or pledgiuj. Lnw rcgviliag tlia 

rof a doctor. 

It woatd hsre mtcmiptcd too much the thread of the lost lec- 
ture, OS well as unrciisoimtly prolonged its length, if I had in* 
Uoduced whut 1 have (o say oonceming Gobltan Sw, vrhun I or . 
alluded Co hJs works in connection with the wooden ontorj '**^' 
of SBtnt MottHff. I shall, therr-fbre, begin the prpsent lecture 
with some obw^ations concerning thia remarkable man. Tliia 
in thn EDoie neoesEerj because his tuimc has been associated so 
]oD^ vritb luodcTQ leg^daiy lor«, that, I bclievo, nmny i>ci3art9 
arc content to doubt nis existence altogetlier, and to look upon 
hito as an iinp«rsonativn of building or oiclutccture lu our no- 
tional inythologj. Some writers, a{^n, whoso want of acquaint- utiuic* 
aaeo with the ancient language, and whoso )jnioran<!« of tlio * "* 
Ijcnuinc history and archaeology d* the Gaedhils, betray tliem 
into 80 nuiiy fuociful speculations, nay, ei'en into tlic assuuip- 




■ ml 

i.Mrr xxt. tion of theoretic facts, if I may bo call such inventions, accept 
the Gobban Saer indeed as a personage who had a real exist- 
ence, but, in order to assist in supporting a'whole series of false 
theories concerning the history and the me of our remote ances- 
tors, refer back hia era, together with that of the Round Towers^ 
to pre-historic times. It is, therefore, very neceasarv to show 
that the celebrated builder in question, as well as liis works 
(some of the Round Towers included), belonged to s time not 
only quite within the historic period, but more than a centmy 
af^r the time of the mission of Saint Patrick. 

And, first, aa to the name, — Gobban Saer. The man's Chrw- 
tian name was Gobban, — a word which means literally one witL 
the mouth like the bill of a bird ; and the word saer sigzufiea, 
in the old as well aa in the modem Gaedhelic, both a carpenter- 
and a mason, and generally a builder; so that Gobban Saisr sig- 
nifies, simply, Gobban '■ the Builder". That Gobban is not a 
fanciful or merely mythological name is well shown by the &ct 
that Cill-Gobbain,no-w Kilgobbin, near Dundrum, in the ooun^ 
of Dublin, is named afler a saint of this name. Very little is 
known of the real history of this remarkable man, and it was 
only lately that the precise period at which he lived has been with 
certainty ascertained. Dr. Petric, in his unanswerable Essay on 
the Round Towers and other ecclesiastical buildings of Irelaiid, 
published in 1845, gives all that could then be found concerning 
nim, among our ancient writings at home and the popular tra- 
ditions of the country. Some small additional information has, 
however, been since discovered, which I shall give hereafter. 

It is not necessary for ray present purpose that I should quote 
from Dr. Petrie, anything more than his belief in the real exis- 
tence of Gobban Saer, and bis high character as an architect, — 
because the original passages from native Gaedhelic autliorities, 
printed in his beautiful book, I shall give also from the original 
sources, and with my own independent translation, tliough tnese 
can, indeed, differ but little from the translation given Dy him, 
in which I had some small share myself. 

Our old Irish writers were very fond of tracing to some ro- 
mantic and mysterious origin, men who at any time had exhi- 
bited artistic or scientific skill, or philosophical knowledge of an 
fojj^in''"' "* uncomnaon and extraordinary order, and particularly those who 
were, or who were supposed to be, of TuaUia Di Danann descent. 
Such were, for instance, Manannan i/acii>, the great mariner; 
Dianceeht, the great phy wcian ; Goibniu, the great smith ; Jjug 
Mac Eithlenn, the great polytechnic trunk or block ; and so on. 
And so in accordance with tliis tendency of our ancestors, we find 
that, in order, it would appear, to give our Gobban Saer a claim 

A mrlho- 


■lugnod to 
mea of 


ta an lier«ditar}' and mvstcriou" excellence in liis art, they pivc "°*- 
him a fatlier uf equally inyBtcTious orlcm and uilcniti- TLc 
Icgcntl of Goblfan'a latticT ia given in tbc well-known ancivnt 
topographical tr^tct calleil the Dinnteanchas, where it professes 
to tmcc the origin of the n«iii« of Traigh Tmrbhi, now the 
Btnuid of Turvcjr on the coast of ihe county of Dublin. Thia 
carious legend, taken from th^ Rook» of Lpcan and Ballyinotc, 
and which i? alfo civen by Dr. Petrie, is an follows: — 

"The strand of Tuirbhi, whenco was it named? Answer :*n<«Ui«n 
It is Dot unpleasant to tell. Tuirbln 7'rnijhmhar, that If, 'i'tiir- vnnttOnt m 
bhi • of the Strand", the father tif Oohbati Saer, it was he that ^^ 
owned it [the strand] and the Inad. llo it was that ttaod to 
throw a cast of his hsichct &om 7\Uadh-an-Bhiail, [bimt is, Hill 
of the Hatchet], in the face of the flowing tide, and it i)8cd to 
■top the [Bowing of the] sea, and it [the seal used notcomc in 
put it His true pedigree is not hnown, luilo^t he was ooc of 
the disericed mt-n who ilcd from Tiira before [tliat is, from] the 
Snbfi tldatme/i (or Polytechnic Ithn;k), and who remain in the 
Diamhraibh (or deacrls) of iiregia fuow Dianior, in Mcath]. 
Jiencc the strand of Tuhblu dieidtr . 
Thia legend ia next tlirowa into ven<o as fbUuw; : 
'• The strand of Tuirbhi received its name, 
According to niithora I relate, 

rProm] Tuirbhi of the stTAud^, pord] over oU strands, 
I xha ancctioruite nciite lather of Gobhan. 

■ " Ilii hatohet he would (ling uner oeit^iiig [from work] 
^^_ The rusty-faced, bliick, big fellow, 
^^B Fr«iu the pleasant Hill ofthe Hatehct, 
^^^ WTuch in washed bj the great Hood. 
K " The distance to whieh hia hatchet he used to fcnd, 
^^^L The tide hcyond [or wlrhin] il, tlowcd not; 
^^^F Though Tmrbhi in his land ia the south wa strong, 

■ It is not known of what stock was his race. 
I " Dolees he was of the mystical black race, 
I Who went out of 1 ara from the heroic f^ug, 
^^H Itis notknown for what benefit he nvoidc^l to tneetlum, 
^^^ The man of tlic Icata from the strand of Tmrbhr. 
^^ On this wild and un^atisfaL'tory legend the Umughtful and Dr.PeWtt' 
H aoooin|)li4hed Doctor IVtrie makes the following remarks : lorqioint 
B "Itis not, of courae, intended to offei: the preceding extract "*'"''' 
P MtlrietJy hiitorical : in such indent documents we miiiii be con- 
tent to look for the substratum of truth beneath the covering of 
fable with which it is usually encumbered, and not rejeet the 
one on accfjoint of the improbability of tbc other; and, viewed 
in this way, tlie pasaage may bo regarded as, in many respects, 


■BCT. ixj. of interest and value, for it ehows that the artist spoken of wtu 
not one of the Scotic or dominant race in Ireland, who are il- 
ways referred to as light-haired; and further, from the suppod' 
tdon, grounded on the blackness of his hair and his skill in aits, 
that he might have been of the people that went withLugudh 
Lamhfadha from Tara, — that is, of the Tuatha D^ Danann race, 
who are alwavB referred to as superior to the Scoti in knowle^;e 
of the arts. We learn that in the traditions of the Irish, uie 
Tuatha De Danann were no less distinguished from their coa- 
CTuerors in their personal than in their mental characteristia. 
The probability, nowever, is, that Turvey was a foreigner, at 
descendant of one who brought a knowledge of art into the 
country, not then known, or at least preTalent". 
Storin There is an error in the reading or the above legend, whers 

Ib^^ra^n*. it IB conjectured that Tuirbhi, the reputed father of Gohban Saer, 
was descended from one of the party of artists who went forth 
from Tara along with Ximt Mac Eithlenn; that Lttg, who wa> 
the great stock or trunk of all the arts and sciences in Emm, 
according to our ancient writers, — who was king of the TWfAa 
Di Danann, and whose exploits at and before the battle of the 
second Magh Tuireadh, have been already mentioned at cona- 
derable length in a former lecture. 
itarf of The story oiLug as a man skilled beyond all others in the arts 

siMtiM. and sciences, is as follows : — When he came first to Tara, he 
introduced himself as a yoimg man possessed of all the arts and 
sciences then known, at nome and abroad ; and hence it was that 
he was afterwards called the Sabh Ildanaek, that is, the " stock 
or trunk of all the arts". When first he came to the gate of 
Tara, the door-keeper refused to pass him in unless he was the 
master of some art or profession. Lua said that he was a aeur^ 
that is, a carpenter or mason, or both. The door-keeper an- 
swered that they were not in want of such an artist, as they had 
a very good one, whose name was Luchta, the son of Luohad. 
The young artist then s^d that he was an excellent smith : *' We 
don't want such an artist", said the door-keeper, " as we have a 
good one already, namely Colum Cuaellemeach, professor of the 
three new designs'* [greisa]. Lug then said that he was a cham> 
pion : " We don't want a champion", said the door-keeper, " since 
we have a champion, namely, Ogma, the son o£ Eithlenn". *' Well 
then", said Lug, " I am a harper". " We are not in want of a 
harper", said the door-keeper, " since we have a moat excellent 
one, namely, Abhcan, the son of Becelmaa^*. " Well then", said 
Lug, " I am a poet and an antiquarian". " We don't want a man 
of these professions", said the door-keeper, "because we have 
already an accomplished professor of these sciences, namely, .En, 


'tAomait", " WfU then", toid IJuff, " I ara a necro- !j! ^- 7^. 

Wo are not in want of Euch a man", said tlie door- Su-jor 

T, " because oiir professors of the occult sciences and oar xSjml 

ids arc very aumeroua". *' Well then, I am a phymcian", said 

" Wo arc not ia want of a prolcssor of that orl", said the 

F-kecpcr, "as we have on excellent one already, namely, 

cAt". " Well then, I am a ^ood cup-boarcr', said I^Uff. 

We don't want such on officLT", said the tloor-keeper, " bcxiause 

i are already well supplied with cup-bcaicra, namely, DtU, 

4 Drucht, and DaiUie, and Taei, ana Taloin, and Troff, and 

Ui, nod Glan, and GU»i". [Thcec, I may obscrre, arc oU fb- 

namca.] " Well tJien", said iw, " I am an excellent aiti* 

(card)". '* We arc not in want 01 an iLrlirex",8aid the door- 

■, " OS we have already a famous one, uaincly, Creidne the 

artiliccr". •' Well dien", aaia Lug, ■' go 10 the kini;, and aalc hitn 

if be has xn hi^ court any onu uiaa who citihudicK ui himself 

A thete arts and professions ; and if ho has, I shall not remain 

m^r, nor tcclc lo enter Tarn*'. It id nccdlcis to say tltat tlic 

Icing "vnf overjoyed to lay hold of siich a wonderful person as 

MO, and that he was immediately admitted into the palace, 

Du piscod in the chair of the ollniiJt, or cliiuf professor of the 

to and acioncca. 

Ia^, db «o have already seen, rendered the Tuatha D6 Da- 
linn« the mo6t important services in the battle of the second or 
trthcra Magh 2'uireadh, which they fouj;ht u^nst the Fomo- 
iBs, and in whicl) he slew liis own grandfutlier, Balor " of 
te evil eye". AAcr thld he became king of tlie I'uatJia Di 
kmiann, orer whom he reigned forty years, until he wa* Hloin 
jr Mac Cuill, one of the three sons' of Cermat, son of the 
^a«hda aVot, who were tlic joint kings of Urinn when tlio 
uU$iana arrived, and conquered them. 
I have gone into this digression for the purpose of showing 
lot tbia Luff, who was otiicrwise, orpoeti<^ally, coUc-d the Sabh 
fdanocfi, never fled from or left Tara accompanied by any 
[tinbcr of artists; but the great probability is, and indeed it la 
t stated in the proec and verge aooounis above quoted, that 
ben the artists of the court of Tara found themselves to far 
ershadowod by the superior abilities of the newcotacr, they 
ircd in disgrace to tlic solitudes of lii-cgia, or the eastern parts 
Meath, wnetd the fruitful imaginatiOD of our romancists 
rrcd them in concealment, even down to Tuir^hi, iho 
of the celebrated Goblan Saer, who lived to the close of 
seventh century. And notwithstanding the veil of mystery r-i-tw* 
ich the poet llirows over th'.' lineage of the talented Tnirbhi, a) mim, 
can be little doubt but that he was dceucndcd, if ho ex- '^'"*' 





one In the 

Ufe or St. 

The name of 
tha place 

e«tAaq bollt 
Uia church 
BOt glveo. 

istcd at all, from no other than Teige, the son of Cian, eon of 
OilioU Oluim, the celebrated king of Munster. This Teige, in 
the third century, settled in the territoiy which runs along the 
coaat from the nver Bojne [Boind\ to the river Liffey, where 
his descendants continued to rule as cliiefa until supplanted by 
the Danes in the ninth century ; and their chief descendants 
were, in latter times, represented in the family of Mac Cormae. 

To proceed, however, with the account of the Gobban Saer : 
I have never had the good fortune to meet with aaj old written 
reference to him but in two instances, although I have read a 
great many of the iTves of our Irish saints, with whom, he is 
believed, on the authopty at least of more than one tradition, to 
have maintained a close professional intercouse. But these two 
instances conclusively establish the date at which he flourished. 

We read in the ancient Irish Ufe of Saint Abban, a distin- 
guished saint of Leinster, of which I possess a copy, that after 
he had travelled into Connacht and Munster, and founded many 
churches in those provinces, he returned to his native province, 
and decided on settling down there for the future. *' Hiere 
was", says the writer ofthis life, " e distinguished builder redd- 
ing convenient to Sunt Abban, and Gobban was his name ; and 
it was his constant occupation to do the work of the saints in 
every place in which they were j until at length he had lost his 
sight because of the displeasure of the saints, on account of his 
deamess and the greatness of his charge. Saint Abban went to 
him to ask him to build a church for him. Gobban told him 
that it was not possible because of his being blind. Sunt Ah' 
ban sud to him, you shall get your sight while you are doing 
the work, and it shall go from you again when you have fioishea 
the work. And so it was done, and the name of God, and of 
Saint Abhan, wore magnified by this"."" 

It is to be lamented that the writer of the life docs not give 
the name of the place where Gobban built this church for Saint 
Abban, The life states that his chief monastery was at CaMnroi, 
but does not name the chieftaincy. The name CamroB, however, 
remains still as that of a townland in the parish of Ofierlane, 
barony of Upperwood, and Queen's County ; but I am not aware 
of the existence of any ecclesiastical ruin remaining in it There 

"•' [original: — \>A0^ e.-^ «ile faop 4n6jiA6 Ajcoitifopij" wo Aban, Acnr 
^ob^n a flinm, 4cuf po Du* e Agtiacugi*. oibpeacti* nd naoih wo ^eitaih 
At! 5&ft Alc AmbioTH]- 50 po ■oaLla.* t Le hoifbipe n& tiaoth ):aij» ip* 
■6Aoine ^pt4, Acuf ap iViti'o iVoiJ. tci-o Abb^iti "OA iapp*it 00 T>en4ih 
peigteire ■od, Awbepc Jobaii nap bo tifeimp "oo ip ba 'OiitU Atfbepc 
4baii FPT' ^° Seh-iip 'OO pope an 1:0* b^ip 415 ■ooTiiih na hoibpe, acor 
awul, iiaic lap n'o6anat)i na noibpc, acuf po popa'A gAfi T\\ 4iob pfi, 
acap T>o mapa'd atnm <oc, acup Abain oe pn.] 


is anothop Ciunroe near Ban^s Cross in the county of C»rlow- ^»ct-" 
Tliis pariah of OnVrlane u) Aituaied in the western side of tlie 
Queen's County, adjoitune the King's County, whcie there is a 
church &uil miish still caUeil KilULWn, )utuat4.-il in the «aaa>rn 
part of the Queen's County, in t)ie barony of ballyadams, and 
on the boundary ofKitduru. There 15 reason to think that tiiia 
may bo the re»l chiircli of Snint j4/<6in, and that tho name 
Camrot a a mist&kc of sumc old traoscribci'. for CuamftToa, 
whidi vaa oertoinly situated in the place now occupied by 
CU AbtHUrtf or in its immediate neighbourhood. Biahop Ibar, 
Saint ^6£an'x maternal nncle, dind in the year 500; so that 
Abban himself must have lived fai- iulo tlie sixth ocatury. 

The second, and only other mention that I have Ibimd ofThAMennd 
Gotban Satr, is that in the lifo of Saint Molina (of lech Mot- ouMwrT " 
ittg. now Saint Mullin's, on the river Barrow, in the county of 
CupIow), TC-hich I gave in full in the bet leclupc, This Saint 
MoUnp fiUs a distinguished plaec in the civil as well as in the 
eoclcsiasUcal history ofancicnt Erinn: his fatlier was eliief of the 
itoiy of Vi-Dwg/taidfi, in thti south-eastern port of the pre- 

tcounty of Kilkenny, and \ui niolheiwss the daughter of a 

Uunster oiii«tUm. of toe county of Kerry. 

So for, we arc able to follow with ccitainty the history of 
this celebrated architect of the Milesians. I have, however, 
the satisfaction of being able to refer, in oorrohoration of the 
authenticity of thcac rcfcienocs to Gobban in the lives of the 
SwDts, to a Gacdhclic manuscript eu old as the ei'dith century, x*""!*" '>' 
DOW in the inonn^tery ol bniitt rutil in LanntKm. rrom tljiSMs. unto 
anci«nt manuscript, tlirough the: kladaess of my learned friend/""^"'"'^J 
Mr. Whitley Stoitcs, 1 am in posseMion of two or three stanzas 
of a poem, into which the name of Gobhan Saer cntcie; but 
at yet 1 have not been able to ascertain whether tlieao stanzas 
stand as mere fragments in the book, or whether they have 
not been transcribed as specimens by a distinguished scholar, 
UcTT Mone of Carlerube. In any case they seem to form only 
a fragment of & longer poem. The language ia veiy archaic 
and obscure, bo that it is very difficult to make a Balisfactory 
traneUtioa of it. I should not indeed have attempted to do 
so before cotlaltng my text with the original manuscript, were 
it within my rcacli. The Smbne Oeitt, to whom tlte poem ia 
aUnbutcd in the ancient codex, ended his life at Teeh ifotintf 
»M ft much favoured member of the household of St. Moling, 
whom GolAfan San luilt tlie oratory iusl described. He 
Ithoreforo coeval with ^t. Moling and willi Gobban Sner,&aii 
lis testimony may be rccaidcd aa that of an eye witncM. 
This poem consequently aflorda a piece of very important evi- 


i.i5or.»]tt. dcnce in favoar of the ChristUn character of the round towe 
e.«.«V ^^ 'odcwl any further evidence beyond what has been alrcadj 
»i°<i or III* given hy Ih. Pctric were needed. The following is tho bcal 
B.h «a«r7 j^ingiation X Can oirer of il: 

Stiiine, the mad, Barr Edm. 
A mairiti I have heard ia Tuairn Inbir, 

Nor is there a house more auspicioug, 

Wifh its »t4i3 Iftit night, 

With ils 8UD. with it« moon. 
Gobban made there 

A block Conecafar and a toirer. 

My believing in the God of Heaven, 

Thut raised the choicest Ioitctb. 
The house of the Ire Pera Fteehod, 

The place [hotuej of the chief Vii'^n ho built 

Slore conapicuoua than ihc orchard's food, 

And it without an Vduueht upon it.'"' 

The bjime MS. containB two other poems, one a epeecT 
the devil to St MoHm nfter he had failed to seduce hini into 
his own allegiance. It begins: 

lie is pure geld, he is a nimbus around the sun. 

Siiil)fl« geilc b.vnn irtiin. 

mil ehtuisecAn wu on twm 
ij- >!« CT15* Kiyif. powcotg. 

Cecil li-ijift )T|Uficch(ra,S 
i<ia>$«n 11a Aif^oen,! i«inaii 

l-OltpDIjt VlW luU^[IC 

oi^o c<?» tronnicl n-twibt. 

• Mairiu it iiiTlia{M nn obioleie rorni of a vtrb ili-riv<^ troni URi'r^^dEr, 
Smit, Willi ilK-itictiuic veibal rniliitj -I'u Iniiead uf tlie more usiuil "tghvdk, 
<:f. waiiiiraht/i, Buniglttilh tu pmiiv, [u C.talt, Ici mn^iiiifj', Cf- aUo Junroy 
liodlt, bitilaic;, Iruiii t.((/r,n nlouc null, nu(] -n-jAHui, ii>i.'ii:ittictfialVDiJinggf 
ji iLTb, anil nii-n/'^/Jiii", I wnll ru or fori 11^, *tc., kO Ih^l Moinu niigbt ulto be 
1i-jn«lAi<>J ■' n liouM--lniiiiliTiy". 

t TbcK lino indicHiv Uii> Miiiqnit; o( tbeccittoin of drawing anfocica 
tiom lbi:lifnTi'n1}'lioilir.Mi(toihriiii*pidoDiinr»af conuncDciair ■ Ihwhc 

I Cii'iftf^fa' t/«A a black [icnltcmiBiy or liugw of mgrtiScation, &«B 
er^ifoi', IK morlillcil ot '-n-lijolcil. Cf. CftHJ* c^i, a liOU*c of gmd UiDc, a 
«laco vbcT« reaoirn i* Io«ii-r«d fend ptcMivcd. MS. ICgortOD 68, Grit. Uii«. 
60, a. 8. voce, alL Tliu wuril wwy aJiu bo rpnd ni an ubwietv furTU uf mui- 
ftciuar, RiAj' bi; Hrt-n, the/ U-'iiis ('lii]i--il; niid it ibc u hi duih tuuid be<iT«r> 
looked, anil iliu o in (oiV (s lumrj iivailv «, ilji- liiiu niluhl b« lead, "T 
U iiMv lie perci-tiliblu lu you In liifiur/ '. 

} jre /fro FJcchnd, till.- liin<l ur t«iiilor}'ol llio Fti-a Fltthoii, 

y Aigd'r, ilii<rf Virjiin, lli(< Blo'wi) Virgin, froin m^, k cbirf, as in~ 
Jill', a inniily (-hlcf. ntiil lin, n dnii<<hlFr, a t irein, r» id oiiidr^; n miild. 

^ CV»iri:/<i waa tbc hurillo rmf of a lounil boute, njion irlilrh ilic tbaieh 
MQ^ Uiil. Il ilao meant a inlludc or bunllc fence vliicb markod an iofio* 
table tancluBTj. lite abwocc of nn Vdnuckt unplie* ihat it waa aai^y ao- 
OMiiblo to all, and ai viiublo ai lh« a{iplea in nn ordiaiJ. 

t"*niamiu* dun bi ctuim mbin 
M i-jTi c«"cb<04if 'bor fcrcii, 
cona |t»c^Liniiaib 4i\ptp, 
coiiii Eiwin ccna creu.f 

conccei:?*]'! mhiIi *"r eo'f i 

or nuiLDZBcs, TniucmiBB, xrc, iv akciext brink. 47 

Of ihia poem I have a copy from a ToUum MS.'"** of the twelfth t^or- ^' 
ocntary. The sucand poem is Bpunegyricoaa king of Leinster 
Bsmod Aedh, of which Lhe foUovriog is a traasUtion: 
Aedh pest to promote happiness, 

Atdh really to dijpcnsi: ha;»pilaUty, 

The ihomy rod, the most b(>amiful 

Of ihc noblai of cleurcil Roerin. 
The body which enshrine tho wisdom of faith, — 

A^tcat eplcndour under choicest thatches, — 

Who was oxalted ahovo all goiiHrations 

Of Muietfn of stnoothcal meadows. 
The von ot Dermot dc^r to mo, 

Whatever is desired ia not dtlBcnlt to him. 

To praise him, richest in Ircitauccs, 

Pocm$ shall be sun^; by me. 
BeUired the name, — the Hune is not ncw,^ 

O^ Aedh who loworRd not hit dignity ; 

The fihaetc form, the fame tincoiicealet], 

WhoM patrimony is tho smooLh LiOey. 
The detcendaot of Muirtadfiach without diA^roce, 

Aeho«en clifTorioudly proclaimod dignity, 

A descendant whose litce has not been foimd — 

Or king? of lhe clans ofCaalann. 
The chiot*, these ore hvt irhoritonce, — 

All good be to him [from] God in the highest,— 

The ecion of ihe r«»pro»chle«8 race 

Of the renowned kings of itarggae. 
He ia the etcm of a great illustrious noble treci 

For batllo he is a prop of valour; 

He is a silver sprig ol' exalted power, 

Of the race of a hundred kings, a hundred quectts. 
At ale-drinking cmulaloiy poems arc sung 

Between chivalrous people; 

Swccl-BJnging haixl^ «xtol 

Through u>amy ule the nnmc of Aedh. Atdh greaL''^ 

Wbcn wc remember that the book tn Carinthia containing 
these poems is considered by so competent a judge as Ilerr 

t««i 1. on jUn, ir nem jiWfi.— MS. H. 2. 18, T.C.D.. f . "iM, b a. : Book ol 
Baltrmoie, RJ.A.. r. UO. bjk ; Book ol Liimon-. part U. t. ^&. aji. ; MS. 
Lauo. 61(\ Bodleian L\hnrj, Oxford. 

***:tdc« oil Flit Airaut) Ti-AHc^ 
abt> ponii tpt roiVceo nXjo, 

In cIiU Bowi^r coT)T> cp^njit, — 

T>\ moirctTi mine ni |.b]pugdib. 
mac wftpniftca «il «*f»f*, 

ii moi^Ti mAifriu niA^nib, 


Kenllrm of 
MS. pftn* 


built a/ 
Vind. hut 
*nin4il fnei 

tacT.KTi. Mpne to be of the olglith ecntury, and that St. Ahban, w 

whom Gobhan was ctiuu.>m|>or!iry, lived perhaps to the miilJlt? 
of the Eixtb century, or litUc more than one hundred and iSvf 
yetti beforo the presumed dito of the codex, we liave, I tKialc, 
good evidence of the real cxbtcnoc of Gobban Saer u an 
architect; and also of the authenticity of our GtacdhcHc records, 
and of the truth of the gtatcments 90 fr«qtiontIy made in onr 
manuscripts of later date, that they were compiled from mote 
aaoiont bookg. 

[ hare dwelt too long, I fear, on the subjcctof these woodcD 
oratories, to which, after all, nc have so few msloricalTcfereocc*; 
the subjuct, however, is not an unimportant one, as it shovrs, as 
far as we can ascertain, tliaC tlioae edifices were ofWn, probably 
generally, if not always, built of wood, where that material wu 
most abundant; while it is certain that, in the stony and rocky 
countries on the south and wnat coasts, and on the uhuids, they 
were built of stone, that being the most abundant and ready 
tnaterinl. And the sunie rule thai applies to these eacrcd edifiocs 
will doubtlc9>9 apply as well to tho ordinary ediiioca for human 
habitation, whether round, oval, or qnadnmgular in shape. 

Dcforc pawing &om this subject I muat mention another, 
indeed I may say the mo»t impoitaiit, reference to the special 
law which regulated tho rcmuncratioti for buitding aucU eutGoca 
in the ancient tjmcs; a law which, it is very probable, arose 
from the circumstance of the exorbitant prices which such dis- 
tinguished builders as the Oobhan Saer, and other men of his 
class of abilities, had put upon tlioir works, in the seventh 
and eighth centuries. This important n^ulation is found in a 
distinct article in a volume of tho Brehon Laws,'"' and wlUt a 
notice prefixed recommending special attention to it. The 
article, as will be seen, deab with the group which, of old, 
formed a regular coclciiastic&l establishment, namely, & Duirth- 
tacfi, or oratory, a Damfi-liag, or stone-built principal church, 
and a Chicteacft, or bclfr)-, or belI>house, as it is more appio- 

lrn*)Ti iwflinm,— tiic oc nuoblA,- 
tn cfuch sVa". ct* n#w cLlch«, 

Au» mutpeojicli een ctioiji. 

lutj tI^'Oi, irpTO A ojibbatf,— 
each in*icn 06 D4 no dp-ooAC,-^ 

1Y1 gAf pne cen wvdit 

m pigAib tnAff Alb itiAps^AA. ^H 

Iftxi" Cfuiinnwiiip mu« foepo^ ^^ 
pT^i biig If bun&D |)1itnoAet 

'r Efr"* irEs-i'c apoo bpig, ^^ 

w cViWno cnfic pi^ceic piStiMBH 

Afiot^cec bdiiicni biiioi 

C|U taich t'nnt ainm n-a»n4. 

(■*' OM H. 3. 17, in tiM Lttinu7 oTTrinilr CoUrficv UvWia. 

or RuiLDixaa, ruBMiTusir, ktc, t» akcikmt xrixn. 49 

priatelj termed in the Gnedbelic, and with Uie proportuuiAte t-w^r. »i 
Ijjrice paid for the boilding of each. 

** If it be an Oratory', [^ys tliis rale] "of fifteen feet, or !«« " I™". 
than tbiit, that Ia, fiftei^n teot la ila length tend t«n in its brCRdtli, 
it ia a tamaiac [or tliree-ycar-old heiferj that is paid for evenr 
foot of it across, or for every foot and an half in length ; this is 
wbcn it is thatched with nishcs; and if it be a covcrinK of 
shingles, it It a cow for every foot of it aoro£<!, or for every Toot 
and an balfiti leooth. If it be greater lliau fiUccn fecti'therc 
is a Momaiie paid lor every two-thirds of a foot aoroes of it, or 
ior every foot in length : ihie is with its covering of niahoe ; if 
II be a covering of »htngte.s, there is a cow for every two-thirds 
of a fool aoroas of it, or for n foot in length. 

" That 19 the price of the oratories, according to law ; and a 

third of it goes to art [that is, to the builder], and a third to 

materia], and a third lo food and to attendance and to sraithsi 

und it ifl according as smichs may be wonted that this is Ri^igntMl 

them; and hatf the third ^ocs to the ffmiths alone [if they 

"^ ited St all], that is, a sixth part ; the other sixtti to bo 

1 into two parts between food and attendance, one-twclftU 

cnch of them ; and if a division should remain, where smitha 

•re not ccquired, it is then to be divided into two parts between 

id and attendance. If it be a work for whicti land ia ro- 

oircd, [that ia, the site of which must be piirehosed], and at 

Lich a nniih in not, a third [^oeal to art, imd a third to land, 

third to material and to fowl and to nttendancc! half of 

Qaat third] goes to material alonci that is, a six Ih ; Hie 

illior sixth goca to food and attendance, Uiat ia, a twell^ part 

each oflhcm. 

"The DutTiJitiaff [or stone church]. If it be a covering ofMKMw* 
inglea that if upon it. thu priec of it ia the same »s of an orgp ' '" 
ijy which in equal in »he to it. If it be a covering of rushes 
rtvM ta clearly a miatakc here ; and we must read — if it be 
roof of stone] tliat n upon it, the proportion which atone 
^aI« to wood, it is that proportion of full price that shall be 
pon it; and tlie proportion which wood bears to stone, it is 
lot proportion of halt price that shall be upon it; and the divi- 
lion which shall be made of thcae proportions \a, the diviaion 
, which W08 made at the oratory."^' 

I O0) It bu b««a fMod lay difficult to umtontand ct^arlv tht* ivrj curioui 
■MlBOdaafocaBlHitatlao, BUT hult, up totlii* dny, twm otmiXy t^^lussAhf 
^nr am I duU, hoverer (with the condition of corrtcUnK the Fvrd nuihes 
Pv Ae text l« wbu it Rally mMt bav« been —»t9nt), ^ndt^TOUT to«xplala tho 
KcuiDfr of tbc wrilct'i wor4«, u tlut uMUiiig appears, at Ifait to taj own 
Tlifl writrr Mff, that vhaa tho «ten« chnrcfa «w roofed vith ttoitior and 
VOL. II. 4 




ka to the 

nr. Pstrie'i 
p ucFdIng 

"The belfry [CfotcteacA]. The base of this is measiued with 
the base of the stone church, for determiiung its proportion j 
and the excess which is in the length and breadth of the stone 
church over that, that is, over the mcaaure of the belfiy, is die 
rule for the height of the belfry ; and should there be an ezoesB 
upon it, that is, upon the height of the belfiy, as compared witb 
the stone church which is m equal price with it, the propoT- 
tionate price [of that excess] ia to be paid for the belfry . 

The necessity of making the translation as literal as posmble, 
80 aa to express as nearly as could be done the pecuhar idiom of 
the original, in the latter article, as well as in the two previous 
ones, renders a short explanation necessary. And yet, the rule 
laid down here for the height of the round tower or belfiy, in 
proportion to the dimensions of the church, to which it was a 
mere appendage, is quite simple and intelligible; and as the 
whole article respecting the three edifices has been published by 
Doctor Petrie in his "Round Towers", I may as well quote for 
Tou, from that admirable work, the cautious but accurate read- 
ing of this rule hj its learned author, and the decided proofi of 
its correct application which his extensive researches enabled 
him to put on record. 

" It is not, of course, necessary to my purpose to attempt an 
explanation of the rule for determining the height of the belfiy ; 
yet, as a matter of interest to the reader, I am tempted to hazard 
a conjecture as to the mode in which it should be understood. 
It appears then, to mc, that by the measurement of the base of 
the tower, must be meant its external ciroumference, not its 
diameter ; and, in like manner, the measurement of the base of 
the Damhliag must be its perimeter, or the external measure- 
ment of its four sides. If, then, we understand these terms in 
this manner, and apply the rule as directed, the result will very 
well agree with -the measurements of the existing ancient chur- 
ches and towers. For example, the cathedral church of Glen- 
dalough, as it appears to have been oiiginaUy constructed, fer 
tiie present chancel seems an addition of later time, — wu fif^ 

corered with ahingleB or boards, the price of bniULag it wu tbs Mma •• tbs 
price of building an orator? of the same dimeniions altogether of wood. But 
if the roof were stone [not mshes, which would be nonteiue], th«i the fhll 
price which should be pud lor it would t)e determined by the pioportioiu whidi 
the price of a house built altogether of stone would bear to one built altogether 
of wood j and this is clearij explained immediately after, wfaen the writer M^ 
oT the proportion which wood l^ears lo stone, tliat that was the half price whw 
should be paid for it. In other words, when the cLuTch was stone, and atont- 
roofed, as was ollen the case, the price of building it was doabld that of tli* 
wooden oratorjr of the same dimensions ; and the wooden oratory waa but haU 
the price of tl)e atone-roofed church. This role appears to hare baea mod i flld. 
in after times, aa we shall see further on. 

or iii;ii.Dtsns, fcrsitvae, rrc., ts ancebst sitiNir. 5) 

Bre feftt in lenf;th, giving a perimet«r of one hundred and oighty- '^"c »» 
fou feet, if from this we subtract the circmorcrcncc of the 
tmrer, at ike lose, or foun^Ation, which is iifiy<two f««t, tre eJuU 
Wvearomaiadcr of one hundrL-d and thirty-two feet, u the pre- 
vribed height of this struclure; for, to Its pr«aent height of one 
hnsdred and ten (cct should be added from Gflccn to eighteen 
(eet far its conical roof, nowwanting.aiid pcihaps a few fcutatits 
boo, which ore concealed by the ftocumutation of earth around 
it In coses of churchea having a chancel as well as nave, tho 
ntte thin understood is equally applicable; for instance, the 
dhircboflniscaUragivca a perimeter of one hundred and sixty- 
t*o ibot, from which deducting foity>six foot, th<j circumfurGncc 
of lie tower, we have one hundred and sixteen feet as the pre- 
Knbed bcight of the latter, which cannot be far from the actual 
JBal hd^t of the tower; for, to its pn-fent height ofeighnr 
'must be added ten or twelve feet for the upper story, wnich 
Biiow wanting, fifteen feci for it« conical roof, and a few feet 
hi* poruun concealed at its base"/"' 

It nuiy, as I have obserrcd, appear to some persons that an «*""<*'«' 
nticli! which has been alnnidy piibliahud, whlcTi doe^l nut deal itiu* roiw. , 
vith the dwdUngs of the people, but with ecclesiastical build- 
nccd not on rcpiibliahcd here. To such an objection I 
answer, that I was myself the first who bad the good for- 
tune to diMOTcr this most important little tract, in the yrar 
18S7, at e time when the round-tower controversy bad attracted 
a degree of critical examination and puUic diecuinon which it 
never eojojred before. And although the erUcle was published 
ID Dr. Petiio's work, yet, conaderbg the suddenness <^ ita 
(fiBDOvay, and iKe extreme cautSon obserred in iu Lruislation, 
as well as the entire abstinence of the editor from any attempt 
to deal with the discrepancies and ambiguitiea of the text, I 
believe I may, with some advantage, at uiis distance of time, 
and with a much more mature acqusontancc with such writings 
BOW than then, take advantage of this opportunity of rccx- 
aminiog the meaning of (bis piece, and of leaving on record, 
lobeoonficmed orietuted by future inquirers, of greater ability, 
tlio readbg which 1 am about to ^ve, ajid which w little dilfcra 
fixnn th« raiding published fourteen years ago, that I am myBclf 
baed that it could have been so wcU undetstood then. 
aLall also bring under the rmdGr's notice, and chiefly for 
■ the wasona ^ust mentioned, another article connected witli build- 
ings in aaacnt Erinn. This second piece was also publtslied 
"ly Vt. Potrie; for, 1 may say, there was no reference wkitever 
inich, at tiie time, could be discovered in our ancient monu- 

<*'• PMti»'s Round nwtrM, p. 381. 

4 B 

52 OF bvudinos, fobkxtukb, btc, ni Axojar xsnnr. 

"""•• »"• scripts bearing in any way on the erection of eoclesiastical and 
other buildings, that was not pressed into the psges of Dr. 
^infM*^*" Petrie's book; and it is aatasfactory to tliat eminent scholar and 
■boDt the artist, and to those who lent thrar more humble efibrts to reliero 
voMMUabiii! him of some part of hia laborious investigations, to saj, that 
although all our ancient Gaedhelic manuscripts at home, and 
severaTin England and in foreign countries, have dnce that 
time undergone a much moie thorough examination, nothii^ 
has been discovered — indeed nothing, I believe, ever can — to 
^ow the smallest doubt upon the dear conclumona on the oi^ 
^ and uses of the round towers of Ireland, to which, after long' 
thought and research, he had come. 
i«w natitik- The following is the article to which I have juat alluded ; H 
■Upend of is found in a Biehon Law tract preserved in the Book of Bally* 
*""■*''' mote, in the Royal Irish Academy, and also in a fragment c£ 
another copy of Uie same tract preserved in a vellum manuacript 
of thosame date, 1391, in the library of Trinity College, Ddd- 
lin.'*" The tract is one which defines the rank and privilesei 
of all the higher classes of eccledastical and civil society, toe 
fines and penalties for injury, death, or dishonour, brought upooi 
any of them, and the public stipends which the chic& aroUamhSf 
and the other profeaeois in the various departments of literatara 
and the social arts, received from the cniefs, provincial kisjgfl^ 
or the monarchs of Erinn, when attached to their respective 
courta. The stipend, however, advanced in proporticm to the 
rank of the patron, as we may easily believe that any of the 
oUamh professors of the monarch received a much higher sti- 
pend than he would under a provindal king or a chidf of one 
or more territories. These dignities and stipends were not 
arbitrarily and immediately conferred by king or chieC The 
man who aspires to an ollaveship in any profession or art, ^ould 
submit his works for examination by one or more oUandu, who 
pronounced judgment on it,'"" and if the judgment were favour- 
able, the king, or chief, as the case might be, confen«d on the 
candidate the rank and degree of an ollamh or master in all the 
departments of his profession ; — such as, if he were on oUamk 
in DuUding, he should be a master of all the varieties of the arts 
of a mason and a carpenter. And at the same time that these 
were necessary qualiucations of the ollamh, there was a aai or 
chief professor oi every one, or more, of these arts, who had aleo 
some privileges. It was the same with poets, lawyers, judgeot 
doctors, etc."" 

<") Clan H, 8, 16. 

"■> Bee Agaltamh m da Shvadh, at the Dialogue of At 7Vo Smsf- 

vn It u not to be sappooed, however, that the ollamk in muy arti, cr Ita 

OF BCni>I»S9, FtntKtTDRB, ETC , tS AKCIBKT SntltSI. 53 

TboK propottioa&te stipends aro aU eet out in tlio present "^ct. »xi 
ct, and the Mctiou of it th&t 1 Kbtc to deal with at prcscRt, 
I Lfiat which recards the oUamk, or chief professor of the build- 
gg art, and which is as follows: 

If he be UQ ollamh builder he Bidvanoes to twenty teda in HUpandor 

IS pa;ri that is, if he bo a chief who profesKe the mastership of bn'iii«f."*' 

Ite biuldlng ut, there are tweaty-one sedn assigned to him for 

stipend. There arc twcntv-onc cows to the chief master in 

buildinff art : and a munth s rvftxitions, that is, a month is his 

lief onood and attcndaneo ; for, although (torn remoto times 

lief builder wui entitled to more than this in reward of the 

tilily of bis geniua, or )m bcinp master of many arts in vo- 

ins other departmentfi, tbc author f of these laws, i.c, the le^s- 

lor] felt a repugnance to allow hue more than an equality 

itb the chief poet, or with the chief professor in laneuagre, or 

the chief teacher. Wherefore, what the author fle^shitor] 

KB, to allow him to have two prin^pal arts fitnaamcntally, 

Ly.stone-buildiDgand wood-buitding; and of these to hare 

lie two noblest cxclu5i\-oly, namely, the damhliag [or stone 

Surch], and the duirthtaek [or oratory!. He had twelve cows 

these, that is, six cows for each ; and hiseuperiority was re- 

lized over the other urta from that out; ancl he waft to talcc 

luindent to a sixth [oi their pric*?] out of each [work of) 

tliem, tliat is, his own sixth, flix cow.t for iuhroradu, ["that 

^ and furniture from the [wood of the] yew-lr«ej ; and 

OOWI for cowiiffhet; and six cows for mill-building-; take 

loowafrom these [xrliich] added to the twelve cows which 

has excluavely, aod they make fifteen cows. Four cows 

iM, and four cows for barcas, and four cows for curacha 

se] ; take two cows from these, which added to the Bftcen 

above, and they make seventeen cows. Four cows fur 

lea Teasels, namely, vsu and tube, and kceves of oak, and 

^Teasels bcades; and two cows for ploughing machinery; 

out of tlieee added to the seventeen cows above maWcs 

rhteen cows. Two cows for causeways, and two oows for 

to walls, and two eowe for sti^pping fitones [m swamps and 

sxii] ; a cow out of these aildcd to too eighteen cows above, 

A it makes uineieen eows. Two cowa for carvings, and two 

>wi for crosses, and two cows for chariots ; a cow out of these 

to tbe nineteen cows above, and it makes twenty cows. 

■ofoocart OTKlonce. was itobuTedtiyliiti public tiitx^iKl fromfoliow- 
; hit protaOon at lante and recelrlnii its cni«>luini'iirs. Tliis woolil be i|uttc 
rd. becanae, for luuaoe, )a the cam ut lliu vllimft bail<ler, twcnty-onc 
vBuld be but k peer reirirj fwr tli* cHruM vf In* v*rMiil* {cniui : h« 
ak»J with (he cbittf (tliamA in poelxy.whn alM rroeircd tvcatj'.ooe cowt tur 
> •Uptnd, and iwcaty-oat coir* for vtwy [*»m wliiub lio imita. 


Dr. P<tria-i 

Dii tb« 

I.KOT. axi . Two COWS for rod [or wicker] houses, and two oowb for ahieldi, 
and two cowb for casks ; a cow out of these added to the twenty 
cows above, and it makes twenty-one cows for the chief builder, 
in that manner ; provided he ia master of all these arts".'*' 

It is but juBtioe to Dr. Petrie to quote his observations on this 
article, as far aa it regarded the object of hia Essaj. " It is to be 
regretted", he eays, " that of the preceding curious pasBage, 
wmch throws so much light upon the state of society in Ireland 
anterior to the twelflh century, but two manuscript copies have 
been found, and of these one is probably a transcript from the 
other, for it seems in the highest degree probable that by the 
occasional omission or change of a letter, the sense of the oiigi< 
nal commentary has been vitiated. Thus, where it is stated that 
six cows was uie payment for kitchen-building, which is the 
same as that for building a damhliag, or duvrthgach, it would 
appear much more likely that the word originally used was olovh 
itghes, or bclfry-buitding, which we may assume was a miuih 
more important labour than the other, and which, if the word 
be truly coicthiges [Tectd, coiethigi»\ ia omitted altogether,though| 
as I shall show in ue succeeding section from another commen* 
tary on the Brebon Laws, ranked amongst the Irish as one of the 
most diBtinguiahed works of the aaer, or builder. But till some 
older or better copy of the passage be found, it must of courae 
remain as of no authority in reference to the Round Towers ; and 
I have only alluded to it with a ^Hew of directing attention to 
the manuscript copies of the Brehon Laws not immediately 
within my reach". 

Such are Dr. Petrie's Judicious observations, and it does i^ 
pear rather strange, at first view, that the cloicUach, or round 
tower, should have found no place in this enumeration of build' 
ings, unless, as he has conjectured, that it might be concealed by 
misspelling in the word coietigkia, which only wants the lett^ 
•n iPFannt I after the initial c to make it the round tower. Yet, howem 
strange the absence of the cloicteach from the list may appear, it 
is not more so, nor even as much so, as the total absence of all 
allusion to dwelling-houseB, except to the inferior kind which 
were built with wattles and wicker-work. 

There is another remarkable fact that cannot be pasied ot^ 
in the article, and it is this : — It sets out with stating that the 
oUamh or chief builder of a territory received from the ch^ 
an annual stipend of twenty-one cows in right of his office ; and 
the writer then goes on to snow how these twenty-one cows were 
calculated, counting one by one the various works of art of which 

(i*> See original and abo a umilar tranilation in Dr. Petrie'a Eutu/ on tiU 
Sound Toutn, p. Stl. Ilie original tract ia In U. 2, Ifi, 930, T.C. I>. 

omlulon la 
tha Mms 


Uie oiiamh wu master, and upon the prices paid for which the '^^'t. 
odeoktion of that stipend woa made. And tiiorc is a eimplc 
Tu]e laid down for this calculation, namely, thiic for every builtV 
ing, or work of ari, for which ax cows n-orc p&id, thcie was a 
cow allowed to his stipend; not tliat it wiistakcQ from thenctual 
pric*, and tpven to him, but calculated on the price- And wlicre 
sioglc works of art did aot cost tax cows, the writer groups them 
into twos and tbreiK) until thcj amount to six cows ; and for the 
oUam/i-maEticry in these arts there is anodicr cow put to his 
■lipend; and so on U> the end, when? wo find the sura total of 
twcnly-ooc COW0, prctoii^ in ttia rule, complctclv made up, and 
this without any ahoitcxHning on account of the absence of the 
thicUach or of tlie dwelling-house, cither of which, most oer- 
lunly, the word coietiyhU vtas intended to signilV; for it will 
be clear to any one chat a kitchen could not enter uto the group 
of buildings in whicli it is fuund. 

The mistake — a very nnttiral one in the ftatc of antiquarian mn"it« 
reacaichos at the time — into which Or. Fctrio and thnsc who 'St. r«tria 
eod««»ourcd to assist him (of whom I was myscU' one), Ibli, was g^,",*^'* 
this: we thought that the twcnty-onc cowswaa the entire actual 
pay of the t>/uMriA-huildi>r ; tliat he received six cows for build- 
tag an oratory, six cows lor building a church, and aoowoutof 
^^?ery six cows paid for the othfj enumerated groiipa. I Imve 
^■^biro, however, that this was not tlie codc. And notwith;jtUDd- 
^^^fc that wo had seen, in a fovnicr article, time an oratory of 
^^^Ben feet in leuglh and ten feet in breadth, when covered with 
BVnBglcs, and at the rate of a cow forerery f<:>ot in breadth, coet 
■ ten cowa, and that the church and the belfry were paid for at 
r the same rale; still, when we found it stated in the present rule 
that the c//a»i/i- builder, in more remote times, rcet^iveda higher 

(rate than this, we took it for granted, and it is no matter of aur- 
priae, that it waa a higher price lor the building of thei>e sercral 
edi&oea that waa meant by it, and that the clousl^acli, which wc 
thonghtought tofmpear in this gioun, was, though of equal im- 
portance with ita fellow-buildings, thrown by some mistake oi 
accident into tlic next incongruous group, and wiitten innecu- 
tntely by learing the letter t out of it. 

This view of the case, however, appears to me to be a mis- •Mtiori 
taken one ; and I now believe the calculation of the oliamli^a ciii. 
stipend did not imply the appropriation bjr hiin oi' any part ot"™'""''> 
the price paid to any other builder tor his work, nor even to 
himaclf; but that, on the contrary, if he were the builder of the 
otutory, the church, and the tower, himself, ho was paid the full 
price eet forlli in tlie former rule, t^uite independently of his 
■Upend of twea^'One cowa a year which he received irom his 


i.goT XXI. chief in right of his oUsveshlp. In thiB view of the case, which 
I am now confident is the correct one, it was not at till necessarjr 
to introduce the tower, because of its heing clearW implied in 
the gronp. I have now to consider the real significatioa of the 
word coictiahis, and endeavour to explain the apparent absence 
of the dwelling-house from the above list of works, 
marainaor This word — coictighia, is compounded, according to the pub- 
touSghu; liahed translation,— of cote, a cook, and tights, the plural ottiffh, 
a house, that is, literally, " cook-houses". But &om the fact, aa 
before stated, of finding it grouped with works of so high an 
order of art as mills, and the manufactures from the yew-wood, 
we arc, of necesuty, driven to find another and more congenial 
signification for it. It is curious enough that, without altering 
a letter, such a signification, on a further examination of the 
Brehon Laws, has been found ; a signification too, which, leaving 
the idea of a belfry out, fills up in the most satisfiictoiy manner 
the o&cr defect which appeared in our list of works, namely, 
the absence from it of the dwelling-house, 
nn inter. The word cotc-tighU, in the sense in which I now propose to 
^an^r' take it, will remain still composed of the same identioal letters^ 
and compounded exactly of coio and ttghts, as before, the latter 
part retaining its foimer proper signification of houses, but the 
first part changed from '* cook" to " five" ; so that, in place of 
translating the compound word "kitchens", or "cook-houses", 
I propose now to translate it " five-houses", and for the follow- 
ing reasons: — First, it is quite unreasonable to suppose that 
such an important item as the building of the superior class of 
dwelling-houses should be omitted from the above list of works, 
whilst the building of the inferior class — those formed of wattles 
and wicker work — is introduced, and classed in price vrith the 
making of shields and casks, for each of which two cowa was 
the pay of the artist. Secondly, we know now, from these very 
laws, uiat the regular establishment of a farmer of the firat class, 
as well as of a chief, consisted of five houses ; and that if he were 
deficient in any one of these houses, he vras not entitled to tlie 
full privileges and dignity of his rank. Thus saith the law in 
this respect ; that is, " the five privileges are — a great house, a 
cow-house, a pig-sty, a sheep-house, and a calves'^ouse".*"* 

Even a slave, when he came to possess these eoic-tighis, or 
five-houses, with the lawful stock that required them, oecamo 
forthwith emancipated. 

I need not, I think, pursue this argument any farther, as the 
object I have in view is, not to criticise any one, but to set 

<'•) ori^nat; — Iciac na, cuic cupba, cech mdj^ bo-ccAfi, fOiVmuc, \a&x 
fde]Mcli, LiAr-l^eJ — H. 8, 18, p. 121^. T.C.D. 


myself uid otliera right ss far as I can, in a matter that some 

J rears aeo pteteated appar«nL contradictious which it wa^ th«n 
blind ulilicult to exptaio. But before pa««Dg from the iiainc 
diatc subject of thate remarks, namely, the article frnm the 
Brelum Lavra vhidi enumenka the various artistio works of 
which the o/brnA-buildcr was master, I must bring t}iRt eniitno- 
ntioD or Ust of works more directly uadcr the render'^ notice 

It maj be remembered that the Rnt item in the list is the 
eoclc«iasticdl esl&blisluncnta, coiuistlng of a woodon oratory, a 
BtoDc chnrch, oad a stone round tower or belfry ; and these, we 
hsTC seen, were die works which required and received the 
highest exercise of the builder's ar(, botli in stone und wood- 
work- For tlie building of llieso three edifitea, according to 
certain proportions of one with tuiothcr, the builder received 
thirty cows; but oul of tliia he vtsa U> auiiply mulcriuls, tnules- 
men, labourers, and sometimes oven tlio site of the edifices. It 
docs not »ppeu,howevcr, that the other requisite buildin|:a wKich 
mtuthave lonned port of the establishment, were iacludi^ in the 
nun of thirty cows, sueh as a cook hoiue, refectory, dormitoiy, 
th« ord'ui&ry residence of tlie clergyman, and eo forth. 

The next exercise of the artist'^ skill was the Fultrofaeht, or 
vroiking in fu6ar, or yew-wood. 1'bc working in this matt^rial 
itmst have embraced a wide ranL^o of objects, as it formed, wiUi 
■omE cxccpliuns, the nutbcrial ot all the most clcgnnt articles of 
fumituro lu beds, bed-poEt^, buckets, cans, mu^, medars, [or 
equaru mcAd^drinking nau<^1, cujn, and sometimes largo vcsecla ; 
as well as, we may faLly iiifur, various otlier articles of conve- 
nicnco and uniiimi;iit fur ihu liouiKs of the ht$;hcr classes of sti- 
caety. Tlie sleaiing, lireakiny, ur dufauiiiguf tliisclassorartlcles 
caiDC within the ratx^e of the crimtJial law, which injury to 
■uuilar articles manufactured from any other native wood, did 
not. The yew was aim largely used in cornices, wainscoting, 
or some aooh omaincntation of houses, from (he very early times, 
US may be seen from the dceci-ipiion of the pulace of i}ic Koyul 
BrancJi axEmaiiia^ imd of tbc house asngned to h'raech, the son of 
Fidhadh, at Ualh Crtuwhain, luentianed in a prev-ioud lecture.'"-' 
Where the palace of the Hoyal Ui-anch is dc9cril>cd it in eaid,'**' 
1.0. "oniameatation of the red yew in it". And when; the 
house in Ratfi Crtiachain a dcscnbcd, it Is said,^"' i.e. " an oma^ 
mental carvlnjj of red yew ujjon the entire of it*. We are told 
in this tract that the houao it£eU'was built otgiui, what wc now 

f**! L«ct lix., antt. rul. U. p. 10. 

'*** eaiginnli — Cprco(t 'Oin xr^fce laWp *nt>, 

*»»' OTlpBili— Aii]trc«|iT)«« w> ofrH5 tttbap TO biwche imcKlm aiVe, 



tttik lit tbB 

I^F tmbro- 
Tiir/it, w 
viittkitiii in 



*■""■ ^3". call " deal" ; tnd I am obliged to use the general term (muineii- 
tation, because there ia notaing from which I could understand 
the precise cbaraotor of the work in yew. I have, however, 
been so fortunate aa to meet with one passage, which clearly de- 
fines the use to which the yew was put in the particular case 
to which it lefers. This passage occurs in a poem of forty* 
seven stanzas, or one hundred and eighty-eight lines, written 
by Criolla-Brighde Mac Conmidhi, a distinguished Ulster poet 
who flouiished between the years 1220 and 1 250, in praise and 
description of the cathedral of Armagh founded by Saint Patrick. 
The only copy of this curious and important poem in Ireland, 
80 far as I am aware, is a fine one in my own posaession. The 
verses 6, 7, and 12, bear particularly on the subject I am at 
present discussing, and are as follows: 

"The church of Armagh, of the polished walls, 

Is not smaller than three churches ; 

The foundation of this conspicuous church, 

Is one BoUd, indestructible rock. 
"A capacious shrine of chiselled stone, 

With ample oaken shingles covered ; 

Well hath its polished sides been warmed, 

With lime as white as plume of swans. 
• •••••« 

c«uTiii( In " Upon the arches of this white-walled church, 
«"'^y^ Are festooned clusters of rosey grapes, 

MUiwini. From ancient yew profusely carved ; 

This place where hooks are freely read",'* 
I have quoted these verses in order to show that down to the 
middle of tne thirteenth centuiy the cathedral of Armagh, though 
its walls were built with chiselled stone, was covered with <i«k 
shingles or boards inplace of slates ; and in the second place, that 
the arches at least of that venerable hiatorical edifice were fes- 
tooned with clusters of the ripe vine-berry, carved from ancient 
yew, and apparently coloured to imitate the natural grapes, probsr 

<■*"> [oiigicftl:— CeAmpAtt a^xho itia6A An Atmji £itip^ 

til tttjlid* nilT> C(\1 ce&Tnp«itl. 

5I«4n ATI ceAmpAill, fcpic baAllA 

fiA tic ce4flncT\«iw £«c(iA|\j\4a. 

tnionn VuchTiitiAi\ cVotc^e ctii|\pe 

fUnnccAcli ndtvach TuojjViuintie 

T»o c6)'6e4'oh a caob fte«rtiain, 

ie heoL ti-cieiteal, n-SeireAthAil- 
• • " " • • • 

Ap ronaigh 4n ce«fflp«ilt dieotbghit, 
CAO]\a 'oe na nweapgaoibVibh 
fetniobap 00 gelitna Kl.*ti 
vfrighioDA'uh Veagh^A LeAba^ 

From the Book of Fearm Coimai/lJ} 


blr Bomo part of a more ancient roof ofthe chuKli itself. From tjgr , xxST 
shia caiious tkct-, for, as & fact I am salislivd to lucuivc it, we 
may csnly imagiii« in vtut way the yew ww applied to tho 
adommcut of the ancient palace of the lto)-a] Brancii at ^'niania, 
the Great Uouso in Rath Cmaehain, and many others ivliJch 
may be met witli in our old writings. 

The rom&DCK; ori^^ aecribed by the poets to the majiufacUir- toni 
illg trrea of rcascls Tor duincAtic use fiom the ycw-tnsc, is pro wuiiMarnp* 
eerred in our uuciciil writing*. We are told that in tho clayB ••**'" 
of the monarch Dcrmot Mac Fcrguta drrhheoil, who died at 
Taia in the year 558, then,- ajppc«r«d an aucit'iit suf^c whu had 
outlived the gcactal deluge. Tius nuui's name was /'mntemi, tho 
son of Boehra, and hi; was one of the Uuvc men who came to 
Erind fttong with the lady Ctatair, a short time before the de- 
higo. But, an the Icgt-ndiishurt, undaaitmay notbegCDcrolly 
known, I shall t*;!! it in a kvi words, as recorded in Uie Book 
of Lcinstcr. 

When Noah rooeived the command of the Lord to build the i*B-nd x 
aik, nod the number of persona be sliuuld take into it, ho had tunuf "" 
s fourth son whose name was BUh, or l^ife, who was not in- *'**• 
eluded in the number. BitA, aocompanied by his dau^htcr 
Ceajiair, went to hiH father iH-'gnng to be taken into the nrk, 
IhiI Noah relumed, and di^ircd tJiein to take shinpiug and sail 
to the weslem borders of the earth, where, probnuly, the deluge 
would nut teach them- This they did, In three isliips, two of 
which were lost; but the third, oontaiuiug Gily women aiul 
thre« men, reached the coast of Kcny, and landed safely in that 
oouotiy. Among the women who drrired in safety was the 
lady C^osoir, and the three men were — her father, BitA.lMdhra, 
sod i^iiialan, the sou uf livchra, »on of iSiih, son of Noah. 
The whole party, however, are stated to have died before the 
flood came, C3CV[ttiNinn(anft| who,wlieu ibcoinnicncetl, was cast 
into a deep sleep which continued for twelve montjis, until thu 
watuiB were dried up, when be found Umself in Dun-TuirJui, 
his own former re-'iaeoce, a place situated somewhere near the 
head of Kcomorc Buy, in Kerry. Here he continued to live, 
ctmtemporancously with the various succeeding series of colo- 
nists, and down, ss I have alnsady said, to the time of the 
monorch Dtrtnoi, in the middle of the sixth century, before 
whom he appeared at Tara, aooompiuiicd by eighteen compa- 
nies of lus own descendants ; but it docs not appear who his wife 
was. To show the antiquity of these talcs, and that they are 
not isolated stories found only in some local compilation, 1 may 
mention that, in the vory aneiL-nt aoeouut of the battle ol" the 
Itrst or southern Magh TuireacUi (fought between tlic Firbolifa 



Ho true of 
Uia diKtrlua 
la mctcmp- 

■mong ths 


>nn of 



and the TuaOia Di Danann), it is stated that the Firhohs sent 
for Finntann, to take his advice on the course thev should adopt 
towards their enemies; and also that thirteen of his bods took 
port in the battle. 

While speaking ofthis^'nnfann, the son of SocAra, I vishto 
correct an error in which some persons have been indul^ng for 
many years; namely, that the ancient Gaedhils, Pagan and 
Christian, believed in the doctrine of the transmigration of souIb 
— in other words, that when people died their ei^thly existence 
was not terminated, but that their eouts were transferred to 
other corporeal forms, genertdly to animals. I would not think 
it necessary to notice the subject now, however important it 
would be in connection with the psychology of the Gaedhils, 
but that the opinion that the belief in metempsychosis did reallj 
exist among the people of ancient Erinn has been more than 
once lately put forward with all the pomp of supposed historical 
data, and on tlie authority of a gentleman whose mere word 
has, for many years, been deemed sufficient guarantee for the 
value of any assertion connected with Irish archieology and his- 
tory. I have applied myself to test these opinions by the simple 
evidence of that history to which appeal has been made with so 
much confidence; and, in the course of an examination of the 
original of the celebrated legend of i^wniann, I have found abun- 
dant proof of the entire absence of foimdation for the reckless 
assertions which have been made on the authoilty of this tract. 
This subject, however, would evidently require so much space 
for ita discussion as to lead me into an unwarrantable digression, 
if I were to go into it here in full ; and I therefore content myself 
for the present with denying that there are any data in our ex- 
isting Goedhclic literature which could give the slightest sup- 
port to the opinion that the doctrine of metempsychoMS existed 
among the ancient Gaedhils, either Christian or Pagan. 

To return then to the account of old Finntann, who is swd, 
as I have above mentioned, to have survived the deluge, and 
whom I loft on his arrival at the court of the monarch, Dermot 
Mac Ferguaa Cerrbheoil, at Tara (about the middle of the sixth 
century), I shall now telt, in as few words as possible, how this 
strange event was supposed to have occurred. 

In the time of the monarch Dermot, land, it would appear, 
began to become scarce, and the descendants of NiaU of the 
Nine Hostages, who at this time were the owners of all East 
and West Meath, and who are commonly called by English 
writers the southern Hy-Niall, became dissatisHed with the 
waste of the groat extent of the royal demesne of Tara, which 
was never allowed to be cultivated, or otherwise to contribute 

to Uic support of the roval estabUsbinent. Tlie monarch lie&id 
these compUints, and said that Ke was quite willing to con- 
tr»ct the bmit« of the rojal demesne iu kccordauoc with thcir 
reaaoiublc wishen, provided »ny one could be found tt> sltow 
that it oovr exceeded what it nod been in (ill times from tho 
foundation of the moRarchr. They then sent for the oldest and 
most intelligent men of tne oountrj. These wero C^nn/o^- 
iadk, the siioceseor of Saint Ffttrick kI Armagh; Fiae/ira, the 
■on of Nadruiff; CtnnfaeUidh, the pon of AiliH; Finnehadh 
of Leinsler; Cualadh from Cruachan; ConaUidit: Bran-Bairne 
from Burren, in the county of Clare ; Oabtin, the son of Deghaf 
and 7\tan Mae-CarriU {of ■wlioia I may have more to stay hcre- 
sAer). The latter 6ve sa^ee were commanded to appear forth- 
with at Tiuii; and when they arrived, and heard the point that 
was proposed to them lo settle, they all declined to offer any 
opinion on it as long ili their wnior — by an immense distance— 
in age and in niklom was Htill living, and accessible for consul* 
tntion, namely, Fuihtaiin, the son of Bcehra, who was the son of 
Sith, >on of Koah, and which Fiaiitann leiiided at Dun Tuidta, 
in the eouth-wcst of Kerry. 

Bfarran^ Cefiufaeladfi's serraut, went then to request /linn- 
Isnti'e appe-antnce at Tara. Finittatin aeeeded to the ri*que8t, 
and appeared at the palace, accompanied by eighteen companies 
or banu!i of men — moc before him, and mnc after him — all his 
own dcEccndante. He received a hearty welcome at Tara from 
king and people, and, after renting' himself, he related to them 
bis own wonderful history, and tliat of Tare from its very foun- 
dation : — " That is very gouU", said they, when he Imd liniabed, 
** and wo shoTild tike to know from you an instance of tho 
tenacity of your own memory". *' You shall have it", said he: 
" I pttwed one day throuf^h a wochI in West MutiEtcr: 1 broufrht 
home with mc a led berry of the yew tree, which 1 planted in the 
vegetable-garden of my mansion, and it grew tlicre until it was 
as tall aa a man. I then took it out of the earden, and I planted 
it in the green lawn of my mansion ; and it grow in the centre 
of that lawn until an hundred championa could fit under its 
foliHffC, and find thelter there from wind, and rain, and cold, 
a&d neat. I remained eo, and my jcw remained so, apcnding 
our time alike, until at last its leaves hU fell oft from decay. 
When afterwards 1 thought of turning it to some profit, I went 
to it and cut it from its Etem. and 1 made fnun it oevcn vats, 
seven keeve*. and seven atom, and seven churns, and seven 
pitcher?, and seven miians [i.e. an vrna\, and seven medara, 
with huups fot all. I remained still with my ycwvessfls, until 
their hoope all fell off from decay and old ago. After this I 

l-«ig(>n>1 of 
t^n (if 


inicici of 



«"■ re-iDftde tbem, but c<ml<l oaly get a. kcevc out of tUc Tat, and b 
«Can out of tlic keere, and a mui; out of the itan. and a Hlorn 
[pilcherjoutof tbemug, andamiV<m[an urna] out of the ei/wn, 
and A medar out of the miit«; aad 1 leave it to ' Almighty God' ", 
mid he, " that I do not know where Ihcir dust is now, ^<t their 
dissolution with me from decay". 

Such i» the legendarj account of the first monuliictare of 
houseliold veeaels of vow, valuable at leapt for l)ie list it oon- 
tivlno of the diflerent noosohold utenaiU of tlx) earlier agea. 

We find nlfo m the Una conoeming the lemhng or pledg^ti^ 
nf certain articles of hoiiite fiiraittire, that, if thejr were not re- 
stored after one da;r's notice, a " soaart" fine fell upon the per- 
sODfl who overheld them ; and among thew were tne following 
articles: A flc^ fork, and a boiler; a ktMading-tiough, and a 
Here; a wide-mouthed pan, or vat; a nHirow-monthed barrel, 
or chum ; a mirror, for men and women to ^cw thcm*clv«s in 
vrhcu prcpating to attend a fair or assembly ; play*things for 
ehildrcn, to dnvc away decline from them, mich as " kictctu'', 
" pups", balla, " huiUcs", etc.; bridle* with single and doublo 
moa; hatchets and forcst-axcs; the iron reaptng^hook of a 
widow's house, which she had for reaping the straw and ruahes 
of her house, and also Xo cut ivy and holly with; the chess- 
board of a gentleman's liouao; the salt of a farmer's house; 
griddlofl, and gridlets, or the small nxitulas with which the 
cakes were turned on them; candlesticka of various kinds; bel- 
lows and flanges, with which to blow the fire in lesipectable 
iiotiMS ; the cihm, oi pitcher witli a handle at ita side ; or Ute 
mt^, or mtdar; and any or all of the seven requisites of a gen* 
tlrman'9 houee, nnmely, a caldron; a keeve; a water-cask, or 
bucket ; a pan ; a plough ; a honc-bridlc, and a brooch ; and all 
wrticlee maniifictured from the yew-tree ; and beaidee these, all 
beautiful drinking vessels, such m goblet? of glass and of silver, 
witJi cups, mugs, and flagons of bronze, brasa, or copper. These 
Gncs extended to the ovcr-bolding or withholding of splendid and triukuts, from men and women, at the approach 
of a fair or assembly, as well as to chariots and various other 

it would he difficult to bring tog«ther and arrange in any 
readable order, all the variouR articW of household rarnlture, 
domestic economy, and personal ornament, to be met with in 
our ancient taws and hiscoiical and romantic tales and poems, 
i** I!!**'*" There is, however, a passage in the laws which shows with what 
'tMw or n je^oQS care tite arraDgemcnts for domestic life were guarded 
by oven fonnal legislation in the olden time. The pass^e in 
question has reference to the house of a doctor, and proviues oi 



follows : " He ahall arrange bis lawful boose *, a bouse of great 
work ; it sball not be a dirtj, slovenly bouse ; it aball not be one 
of tbe tbree bouses; [i.e. a cow-bouse, pig-House, or sbeep* 
house.] Tbere must be four doors upon it ; so that tbe sick man 
maj perceive it from all sides ; and ^ere must be a stream of 
water passing tbrough its middle". 

Lecture xxii. 

[DtHnndJalrlWb. IU«.] 

(Vll.) Or ButLDiitas, FnaNTTCRc, BTC.;(coDtiiiiied). Stontfbnildingi; Co* 
Main and Clochatai O'Fliiliertj's notice of the Cloehans of the Arann laUndsi 
ClochansBtill exiating in those Iikncbi Clochant ou other Ulsod* of the weM' 
em coast. Mr. Du Nojer'a account of ancient itone boildinga [n Kenj; hi! 
cthnologicnt comparitons; lumnmry of his vievs; apart hiB ipecolationa. hit 

Eaper is important. Different tnembera of the lome fainilj bad distinct 
Olives in ancient Erinn. Mr. T)u Noyer's claim to priori tj in thedlscoTeij 
of the stone buildlngi of Kerr^inailmissible; Mr. R. Hitchcock bad atreftdy 
noticed them ; ancient burial grounds also noticed by the Litter in the Mune 
district. The two names of " Cahers" giren by Mr. Da Noyer, not ancieot { 
his opinion of the use of Dunbtff fort not correct ; this and the oth«r foiti 
did not form aline of fortifications. Instance of a bee-hire hooseor CUchatl 
haring been built within the Rath of Ailtaeh. Limited use of the tena 
Cathair; the same term not always applied 10 the same kind ttf baildlng. 
Tale of the dispute about the " champion's share" ; Smith's notice of Siiabk 
Mis and Cathaix Conroit Story of the dispute aboQt the "champion'a 
share" ^continued). The " guard room" or " watching seat*. The poeitton. 
of Cathair Conroi not exactly ascertained. Story of " the slaughter of 
Cathair Conroi". Reference to Cathair Conroi in the tale of " the Battle of 
Veutry tlarbour". Modem hypntheds of the inferiority of the Mileriaos. 
Stone -building in ancient Brinu not ezclusiTelypre-Miledaa The AitAeaek 
Tuath or Atlicotti. The Firbol^ still powerful in the uxth century. Tows' 
land names derired from cathajrs. No evidence that the Milenans wen ■ 
ruder race than their predecessors in Erinn. 

2"'' I SHALL conclude the present divinon of my subject — &at of 

the buildings and domestic furniture of the people of ancient 
Erinn — by some observations upon the stone erections of thcf 
primitiTe periods of our historyt and particularly upon those 
constructed for the purpose of the fortification of me settlement 
of a tribe, or the palace or court of a king, the remains of some 
of which fortunately still exist in a state which allows us, even 
at the present day, to form some conjectures as to the original 
design of their first builders. 

Wfcririand The subject of ancient cyclopean architecture — that ia, that 
of buildings of stone constructed without mortar or application of 
the mason's hitmmcr — has for a long time occupied the attention 
of Irish antiquaries, particularly those edifices which are known 
by the names of cathairs and clochans. The cathair was always 
a stone fort or wall of enclosure; while the ctoehan, as it is 
called, is a small hut, generally of one chamber^ built of un- 
cemented, undressed stones, usually circular, in the form of a 
bee-hive, but sometimes oval or lozenge-shaped, and in a few 

(It mrtLBaas, VDuiiiiTtiitE, etc , in axcient srinn. 65 

utiCioccti flijuarc mthin lltoagh circutur without. Both txtthairs t-mcr. to 
ud doehana arc found chiefly, if not cxcliiHively, or the south 
imd west coaate of Irclan<l, and on the islands of the^c coasts, 
but purtJculnrly in the district lying to the west iuid aorth of 
iiiv town of Ventry in Kerry. 

The lii>t untii^uaiy who appears to have paid anv attention 
I'j ihwc clocftant on the western coaat, was Ucderick O'Fiaherl/, 
tlie luthor of the Offijijia, in his Chorographical Description of 
West Connaehl, — a work written in the year 1684, ana which 
*■ edited by the IiUc James tlnrdimaa lor the Irish Arcluco- 
kocal Society iu 1846. O'Flalierly, in describing the Aninn 
Ifundp, on the coast of Ctare, in tho Bay ofGalway, epealts aa 
fuliows : — 

"The s(ul is almost paved over «ith stones, soe as, ia «>in« 
jtlacca, nothing is to bo seen but \aj\!v stones with wide op4>n- 
mcB between them, whore cattle break their legs. Scarce any 
mEct fltonea there but limestones, and tnaible tit lor tomb-stones, 
chjtnney maotcl-trccE, and high crossoa. Amonj tho«c stonce 
b Tcry sweet pasture, so that bcefe, veal, mutton, arc better and 
Mrlier iu season ben; than viecwbcro; and late thore is plenty 
of cliccsc and tillage-muelcin^, and com is the same with the 
lea-ado tract. In some places the plow goes. On tlie shore 

E0W8 ninphire in plenty, ringroot ot »ea-lioly, and aca-cabbage. 
Cfc are (.'omish cliougliEi, with red legs and bills. Here are 
ayriea of hawkee, and birds wluch never ily but over tlie eca \ 
and, therefore, are nsed to be eaten on (osting-days ; to catch 
whicli people goe down with ropC3 tycd about ihom into tlic 
caves ofclifls by night, and witli a candle-light kill abundance 
of thera. Here are soverall wclla and poolce, yet in extraordi- 
nary dry woatlicr, people murt turn tbolr caltell out of the 
islands, and tlie com lailes. They have no fucU but cow-dung 
dt^red with the sun, unlcra they bring turf in from the western 
ooDtinenL Tliey have elogkam, a kind of buitdint^ of stones oruhMt: 
laid one upon another, which arc bronght to a roof without any darJuiM 
manner of muitar to cement tJiem, some of which cabins will *""»• 
hold forty men on tlielr iloor ; so aociont that no body knows 
bow long ago« any of ibem was made. Scarcity of wood, and 
store of fit stones, without peradvcnturc found out the £ret iu- 

Of tho chfhans mentioned above by O'Flaherty, several re- «i<^'»» miu 
nun etill on the Great or Western Island of Aroun; some of^ilklSidl' 
them in ruins, and others stiU in a state of poo<i preservation. " *"'"' 
Of these latter, four or five are to be seen in the immediate 
vicinity of lite beautiful Utile ruined cliuruh cuUod Tempalt un 

VOL. u. 5 


LgQT. XXII. Cheatkrair Atuitm, or the " Church of the Four Beautiful Per- 
sodb". These " four beautiful perBone", according to the Inshc^ 
Malachias G'Cadhla, or Kiel/ (who so infonned Father John 
Colgan, about the year 1645), were Saint Furta, Saint Brendan 
of Birr, Saint Conall, and Saint Bearchan. One of these clochaiu 
is in almost perfect preservation ; it is built of dry stones, and 
measures about twenty feet in length, about nine in breadth, and 
nine in height to the top of the arch. It stands north and sooth, 
and had three doors, one at each side, nearly in the middle, and 
one in the east end, and it has a square ap^ure in the top near 
the south end, made, probably, to answer the purpose of a chim- 
ney. There is a square apartment, now in ruins, projecting from 
the south jamb side of the door on the western side of this clodum, 
with an entrance immediately at the same jamb, on the outedde 
of the main building; but there is no communication with this 
apartment from within. The work of the whole is of the rudest 
and simplest character ; and most probably when it was inhabited 
it must nave been covered with sods, or the interstices at least 
stuffed with moss or mud to Iceep out the wind. This edifice 
was occupied by a poor school-master within the memory of some 
people still livmg on the island ; but it does not appear to have 
und!ergone any change whatever from its original condition, 
during this or any other occupancy. There are three or fotir 
other clochana a little to the west of this, but they are now re- 
duced to heaps of ruin ; still one or two of them appear to have 
been circular, and one of them has the remunsof a little porch 
which stood against, and appears even to have entered into, the 
main wall, immediately adjoining the north jamb of the door in 
the east side. There may be many more in this immediate neigh- 
bourhood, but to one so much burdened with lameness as I am, 
it would have been a work of no ordinary trouble to move among 
the rugged rocks and constantly recumng dry stone walls with 
which the place is beset ; and I did not venture to attempt this 
on the occasion of my late visit to the island. 

There is another clockan^ one at least, in more perfect preser- 
vation, situated between Murvey Strand and the Seven Churchea 
of Saint Brecan, on the left hand side of the road ; but I was not 
able to visit it. There is another also, in ruins, near TempaU 
Benen, in the eastern part of the island ; and there are some two or 
three, in ruins, within the great stone fortress of Dun Concr<adh, 
on the middle island. 
Ow*«iiiin Besides these clochana on the Arann Islands, there are four 
totendaorthe more such edifices of bee-hive form, in ruins, on the island of 
w.coiit Inia-Gluaire on the Connacht coast, together with three small 
churches. There arc others of them again on Ard-OUetai, or 




High Island, wkero Saint Ftchin fouaded a churcli in Uie sixlli i'' ^- ^J" '- 
century. Thn island of luis'Firea too^ near Init-Bty-JinM (now 
Bofiin, oB*thc coast of Galway),contAiii9 tho ruins of ui ancient 
church, called Saint /^'s church, and near it is a cross called 
Lfo's Flaj?. On the wuth shore of this inland there is a cave 
called Uaimh JJfO, whciv the 5alnt is said Ixi havp [ie?ecd much 
of Ills tim« in prayer and meditation. There 1.1 hrie nlso a min 
called Cioehan Ii«o,in which he is said to have dwelt. ComiDg 
back a^raio Houthward, we find a ohclian of the hpo-hivc shape 
on Cho Bishop's Island, a little to the west of the mouth of the 
bay of Kilkct.' on the Clare ooaat. I know thi.<t tsUnd w«>ll ftom 
toy earliest boyhood, nnd have acco the clocltan from the inMn- 
laad, frotn wlitch the inland is distant but a fihort ppace ; but I 
bav* never been on the bland, and can only epealc of the pro- 
d«c fonn of the " bishop's house", as it is popularly called, on the 
authority of the Ushenoen, who are almost the only persona able 
to elimb the steep precipitous cliffs which wuU it in. I may here 
mention that tlie name eiochon for tliia, or indeed for any other 
kind of habitation, is not known in any part of the county of 
Clara that I am aware of. 

I have been induocKl to go thus minutely into an account of'''- "? 
these curiouB old ediQcea, on account of somo statements made occnunt ii 
by BIr. George V. Du jfoycr in a paper read by him before CidtliVtiu 
toe British AsM>ciation fox the Advancement of Science, at ^^'^• 
it« meeting in Dublin in 1657.'*" The picfaco to Mr. Du 
Nojer's paper is bo short that it will occupy less time and 
space to give it as it stands than if I wore to make any ana- 
lysis of it. 

••The earliest vestigea", says Mr. Du Noycr, *' whicli arp still 
in existence, of any dwellings of the inhabitauta of Ireland, con- 
aist generally of a simple circular mound of earth, nirrouuded 
by one or more foeecs and earthen rampurt!> ; but they arc far the 
most part so defaced by lime, that arolia'olnj^Hta nave passed 
tfaen by as undeserving of attention. Whcti, however, we Qnd 
atotic buildings of an equally remote period occurnng in group, 
surrounded by a massive circular wall, a« if" intended for warlilte 
dcfcnixe, and in detached houses comprising one, two, or three 
ajtartments, more or leas ciroular in plan, and ull evincing oon- 
Biderahle skill and ingenuity in their dcagna, the in^-catigation 
of them is attended with no little interest; for It may throw 
some light on the social condition of a race who occupied Ireland 
at a period bo remote, that scarcely a trace of their arts has been 

{■"•On tht rtnaiit 6/ ancititt Stnt-bt^ Forlrtn** eiW I/a6ilationt ^ttur- 
munbcr oTtlM Jaima/o/ (JU ^rfioMlfjWaf /nin'MTt. 


Ecr.sxiL preserved to us, and even their epedfic name as a people Im 
[r. Do not been rescued from oblivion. 

SEiw' of " It was my good fortune", be continues, ** in the gammer of 
SiiStai'to' 1856, while engaged on the Geological Survey of IreUmd ia the 
'"J- Dingle promontory, to meet with on extensive group of tuch 
buildings. They are known as Cabers and Cloghatins,"" and 
had till then escaped the notice both of tourists and antiqn«rie& 
These buildings, amounting probably to seventy or aglity in 
number, arc in the parishes of Ventry, Ballinvogher, and Dim- 
quin, and occupy, in groups as well as singly, the narrow and 
gently sloping plateau which extends along the southern base 
of Mount Eagle, from Dunbeg fort or Caher on the east to the 
village of Coumccnolc on the west, a distance of three miles. 
An ancient bndlc-path, still in use, winds along the slope of the 
hill near the northern limit, and was near the original road whidi 
led to them. Tlicy occur principally in the townlandofFahan: 
hence the collection of buildings which I am about to describer 
may with propriety be called the ancient Irish city of Fahan. 
Proceeding west from the coast-guard station at Ventry, alon^- 
the bridle-road just alluded to, at a short distance south-east of 
Fahan village, we arrive at a group of small Cloghauns, or bee- 
hive shaped huts, which appear to have served as an outpost, 
to guard the place on that side from any hostile surprise ; and 
close to them, nearer to the sea, ore two groups of standing stones 
called gallauns, which mark the eastern limit of the city. 

" The Caher or fort of Dunbeg [little fort], which protected 
the city of Fahan on the east, is the first of these structures whicK 
requires a detailed description. By reference to the map it will 
be seen that it lies due south of the present village of Fahan on 
the sea coast. This remarkable fort has been formed by sepa- 
rating the extreme point of an angular headland from the mun, 
shore by a massive stone-wall, constructed without cement, from 
15 to 25 feet in thickness, and extending 200 feet in length 
from cliff to cliff. This wall is pierced near its middle by a 
passage, which is flagged overhead, the doorway to which is at 
present 3 feet 6 inches high, 2 feet wide at top, and 3 feet at 
Its present base, having a lintel of 7 feet in length ; as the pas- 
sage recedes from the doorway it widens to 8 feet, and be- 
comes arched overhead ; to the right hand, and constructed in 
the thickness of the wall, is a rectangular room — perhaps a 
guard*room — measuring about 10 feet by 6 feet, and communi- 

<■*) '< Caher liftniBei a circular wall of dry TOtaanrf, u well u « fort or i 
bouM of large aiie. Cloghaui^ rr bete used meiinB, a hut or hoow formed of 
iry muonrj, irith the room or tooidb doine-shapetl, having each itone over 
lq>piDg the other, uid terminating in a single itoue". 


catinj; with t!ic passa^; by means oT % low square opening, '•»"'■ ,*.»j 
oppofflt* to which, in tne passajjc, a a broad bench-like 9c»l ; a 
second guard-room, similar to tnc one iust described, has been 
constru^ed io the thickness uf ttic wall on tbe i«(t hand of tho 
main cnUaooc, but unconnected with it, the access to tliis being 
from the area of the fort through a low square opening".***' 

Futthcr on Mr. Du No^rer givea ua a little of that kind of "^"» 
" uUtii'e ethnology wmeh now too commonly posaes for*ihn..i'* 
ac«, and which many writers, too superticial to follow oul t^^ 
the true and only metliod by which axchsology, like all olher 
ecienc«$t can prcgrese, namely, p&ticnt research and careful in* 
dnction from facts, usually indulge in to the grcatlnjury of true 
knowIcd|,'V. As X shall have to notice thcs« tfpeculntionsof Mr. 
Du Noycr, I cannot uvc^d adding tlic following extract from liis 
paper: " The smallneas of the sltwping-chamborsand of tho en- 
trances leading into ihcm is very remarkable; indeed this a>)di- 
tion to the Cloghaun is u sinf^ular feature in the habit« of the 
people who ttscd them. Taking both into account, wc ui^y aup- 
poae that the attainment oC warmth by animal heat was the chief 
object they had in view In. their cooftructioti ; if eo, it at once 
lowers tliym to the scale uf the Esquimaux, whole circular In- 
gltte, or Btono huts, clo«ly resemble the smallor and more insig- 
nificant of our Ctoghauns; indeed the rcncmblance may go even 
yet further, for it is hkely that in many instances there wore 
long c ovcrcd stone passages, conducting to the door of the Clogh- 
aun, nmilar in design to the long, low, and straight stone pus- 
sages, covered with no6a, which lead into the wiuber IngiUu. 
WhcD we conaider what an important addition to our comfort 
u a chamber set apart for sleeping in, no matter how unull it 
maybe, we are <nm)rised to find that so few of the Clon|i»iiikd have 
this important addition to them; it it svfdcicnl, nowc^'cr, to 
know tluit such was sometimes required, and we may reirard tliie 
fact as evincing som* degree of refinement in a people whose 
habits must have been nide and simple". 

These conclusions of Mr. Du Noycr's amount simply to this : timmwrT uf 
that some of tlte ancient Irish pcoplo built beehive-shaped houses 
of stone, without cement, somotbnes of Bmall, tmd somctiraos of 
coinparalively large dimensions, fur at tlii« day si;cty men might 
stanu together on the door of some of them ; that some of these 
found houMs were divided into two or throe apartments; that 
aome of the aparunenu were pretty large, ami some small ; and 
that in some of the buildingE there was no wcond apartment at 
all- The additionul ujxirtinentd in the former class of buildings 
were beUcvcd by Mr. Du Noycr toboslccping-rooota; and taking 
'**>e»-a ixmouDCTlosi, Pi(». Jfl,57,n(Ml 6a. 


r.CT. XXII. the emalleBt of them for his rule, he delicatelj concludes that the 
Bleeping parties were composed of savages of both aexes, hud- 
dled together promiscuouslj for the purposes of animal warmth ; 
and then, aiguing from this assumed fact, he at once leaps to the 
conclusion that such a people must have been lower even than 
the poor Esquimaux of North America in the scale of hunum 
civihzation. Then again, this estimate of the people being taken 
for granted, he deems it conclusive as to the remote antiquity 
of Aese dwellings, and of the people who built them ; and he 
luihesitatjngly assures us accordingly, that neither the building 
nor the builders have any place in our oldest traditions or hia- 
torical documents. 

It is sufficient to summarize, aa I have just done, the conclu- 
sions to which Mr. Du Noyer has arrived, to show how illo^cal 
and gratuitous they are. It would surely be a waste of tune, 
and not very compUmentaiy to the reader's inteUigence, to dis- 
prove them. Indeed I would not have noticed them at aH, only 
that the passage afibids an admirable example of the modem 
ethnologic&l theories put forward with such parade by popular 
writers Apart from tncse absurd ethnological comparisons, Mr. 
Du Noyer's paper is a valuable and important contribution to 
Irish topographical aichsology, illustrated as it is by admirable 

In all the civilized countries in the world there have been, 
and must continue to be, two extremes of society, one high and 
one low ; and to judge of the high by the low is what no man 
of intelligence would think of And so, in the case of the edi- 
fices at Glennfahan, if we find the house of one apartment, we 
also find, alongside of it, perhaps, the strong eaOiair enclosing 
within it two, three, four, or more, small and large houses ; but 
we are not to infer irom this fact that these enclosed houses were 
"^faT^df i^^l^i^dby different families; for we have disdnct statements 
I wDiB in our ancient records that different members of tJie same famiW 
unct"' had distinct houses, and not apartments within the same rath, 
'^*- dun, lit, or eatkair; that the lord or master had a sleeping- 
house, his wife a sleeping-house, his sons and daughters, if he 
had such, separate sleeping-houses, and so on, besides places of 
reception for strangers and visitors. 
Dn I shall presently refer to the buildings described by Mr. Du 

i^'r Noyer, but before doing so I must correct a mistake which he 
*"'»■ has made regarding the first discovery of the stone buildings of 
the Dingle promontory. The mistake occurs in the following 
note which ne has appended to his paper: "In reply to some 
remarks which have reached mc relative to the bee-nive houses 
of the county of Kerry and other districts, especially in the west 


of IreUiul, I foel oillod upon to state dii^liDctly timt, udUI I 
examined and slcetehed the Fahan buildings. In tlio siumiiior of 
1 ti6C, Lbvy bud. luin unliiio^ a to, or at Icnst uodccoribcd by, any 
tourist or antiijusry; «veii that ucuw observer and rcconivr of 
•0 mwiy of the prc-nistoric relics of the Dingle promontory, tho 
Imic lamDatcd Mr. Uitcboodc, p»s»cd tbem b^ without exami- 

NovTt in justice to tbe late tuincnlcdlEicbunlHitcIi cock, ii must 
be aud tbat Mr- Du Noy*'r docs not licrt; deal qiiiw fniily with 
biin. It i^i true that Mr. Hitclicock did not wniv, or ut li;iu<t did 
not pub!i?}i, aiiy descrijuion of the C'lodtaiis at Vt'nlry ; but on 
tlie otlmr band tt is ctiitain that he did not pass tbcin by with- 
out examinatioa. Mr. Mitcbcock's ajitiqaaiian reseaicbea were 
ducfly* if not wholly, confined to the diM:ovcry and sltctching 
f>f Acnes with ogham inscriplioii;*, and thew he did discover, ana 
prewnre in sketches, with wonderful industry and accuracy. His 
too nudcquate means, and the iuipossibility of bis absennn» him- 
aclf Ions itom his ofBcial duties in Dublin, could not, of courec, 
permit him such opportunitJca and so much time for collateral 
examination!!, as Mr. Du Noycr enjoyed in the fulfilment of his 
pntfcnsional duties on the Geological Surrey of Ireland ; but tiiat 
Air. Mitchcock «aw, and, I behcve, examined them, i» beyond 
dispute. For, in a maauecnpt book of " nott» un o^rAanu", in 
Mr. Ilitcbcock's handwriting, depovilod with hia other books 
afkr his dcalli in the Hoyul Irish Academy, by his widow, we 
fiiid at page 103, wbeie ho \» describing the oijham on the 
Ihmmore stone in the townland of Coumccnvolc, tlie following 
wordd: — "The locality of this ogbam inscription anpt^rs on 
sheet 52 of the Ordnance Survey of the coutity [of Kerry] , 
where the stone is nnoied ' moniitnentol pillar'. Ctoghaun* arc 
very numerous to the south- esKt, and iht-re are also a few calu- 
raah burial grounds. The townlands of Couraeenole, South 
Gbnlahan and Fahon, at tlie sea-side, are actually filled with 

This note was written inthnjear 1850, and I thinkitshows 
dearly enough tliat Mr. llitchook not only discovered the 
** dogbaunj" at Vcniry, but discovered among, or about them, 
what appears to have escaped Mr. Du Noycr'a notice, at least 
ne few cealittrath*, that is, sites of ancient churches and burial 
idfr And it is not at all improbable that all tht^se beehive 
98 described by Mr. I>u Noycr wure in fact hut the colls of 
Christian hennits, like all llie other building.^ of the same class 
known along tlie western coast of Ireland. It is quite clear, how- 
ever, that, the Glcnfnhon " city", bo called, line not yet received 
■ thorough antiquarian examination ; nnd until it shall have been 

Dflt tdiab 

nil Ik 


iMct. xxii. properly investigated, I do not wish to be understood as ezpTw* 

tang any positive opinion upon thia conjecture. 
"'•'"»■•■<* Mr. Du Noyer has recovered but two names of "caliere'' among 
bT Hr. [^ the group at Ventry, and both these names, in the form in whicm 
uiSmt. ^^ P"^ them, are grammatically inaccurate : one iacahtmamae- 
Hreeh, which he translates "the stone fort of the wolves*'; and 
the other, eaher-fada-an-dorais, or the "longfoit of the doors". 
These arc certainly names either entirely modem, or else inac- 
curately taken down. I cannot, however, examine them further 
at present, and shall therefore return to the immediate subject 
of this lecture. 
iTieftrttM In the first place, there is nothing extraordinary or peculiar, 
pesuiiar. HOT anything necesaanly implying a very remote antiquity, m 
the " caher" or Fort of Dun-heg (a word which signifies the 
little dun or fort), on which Mr. Du Noyer expatiates so warmly, 
and which evidently received its name of Dun-beg to disUnguieh 
it from Dun-mt}r (or the great fort), also described by Mr. Du 
Noyer. The latter was constructed in a manner exactly like it, 
by drawing a thick wall or mound of earth, lined with stones on 
the inside, across the narrow neck of another point of land which 
projects into the Atlantic ocean about three miles or so due-west 
from the Dun-beg, a point which forms, I may observe, the most 
western point of land in Europe. 
M». ^ Mr. Du Noyer believes that the Dun-heg fort in the east was 

nf ths'oM of intended as a protection to the supposed " city" of Fahan, which 
noTcorrret^ he thinks lay scattered over a distance of three milta west from 
it; but be gives no place in the protective idea to the Dun-nuir 
fort which is at the other end of the line, although it is quite 
clear that the idea which suggested the erection of the one must 
have suggested the erection of the other ; and if the idea of both 
was the protection of the prcsiuned " city", there was a very 
lamentable defect in the design, for, whilst one or both ends of 
the " city" may have had the benefit of protection from one or 
both of the forts, the whole sea and land lines in front and rear 
of the " city" were left without any protection whatever. It 
cannot, of course, be supposed that a stronghold erected on a 
point of land projecting considerably into the sea beyond the 
front line, and at one end of the presumed " city", could have 
formed any possible protection to it, while its front and rear were 
quite exposed by water and land ; and the same objection holds 
good as regards the Great Fort at the other end. 
ihiiuid Hw These forts in fact were not intended for the immediate pro- 
didM^roon tection of anything but what happened to be permanently (or at 
Stortiacl!^' a!l events occasionally, in time oi danger) kept or placed within 
tioDii their walls If the iort of Dan-beg had been multiplied into a 



line of forts or " cahere*, or oontinued into such a wall u formed ^'^*- '»"• 
ittdi^ bat carried on northwarda from it to the harbour of Smer- 
wick, thai u. across the entire neck of the head-huid, thi^n indeed 
would there have been a protection for the inhabitants of Fahan, 
•s well aa for all the others within thia line. Again, there is not '"i^","' 
anytluog in the character of thcae particular cathairs and ticoh- 
ana to iranant the ooncluraon that thcv belong to an age of an 
antiquity beyond uur historic period. And it can be shown from 
the most ancient historical uudinriticn which we posscas, that tbe 
two kinds of buildins to be found at Glenn Fahan, namely, the 
>lonc forts now callnl " cohere", and the bce-hivc stone houses 
found within them, now called ^chaita, have their types in one 
of the moist ancient buildincs — indeed the most ancient now 
idenliliL'd — in Ireland, naiiv;!^' that o( AiUach in the county of 
Donc^l, of whicl) 1 have already epokcD. 

ThiB ancient BaM Q\^AilMeh, a» you may remember, wnaori- Air«i».« 
einally built by ordere of the Daghda Mvr — the t'reat king of u. )tVA^ 
the Tuaiha Di DanaitnM — around the scpulclirc of iiis son, four- *'*^*- 
teen hundred years it is suppueed befort.' the Clirttftian en. We 
Aie told tliat the work was pcH'ormed by his two cauteort, or 
atone'castle builders, namely Garbhati and ImehfaU. GorUmn 
is recorded bo bave shaped and chipped the stones, while ImthwU 
Bet them all round the hoti!«, until the Inborioui; work wns lin- 
uti«d, and until the top of the house called tliat of the " groan- 
iae liostages" was closed by a Mngle Hlonc. ThLi houae was one 
of thoBc within tho circle of the preat ratft, which contained, of 
oourec, all the various houi^es or buildings refjuisite for ttic cata* 
btishment of the king even of a very comparatively email num- 
ber of Buhjccts; the whole cuUng with that very neccsaury ap- 
pendage Uj a kiiis's palace in tliuse days, a houfc or prison for 
noflt«Kea and plcc^os. As this house is dcecjibcd as luiviiig been 
clewed at the top with one stone, tliere can be no doubt of the 
ehapc of it, — a shape whicli waB probably common to it with all 
ibe others. 

And here, to to the name of cathair: it is remarkable that in ■'•nitrd i 
tlMold poem already quoted, as well as in ncTpndorher pieces in^u^ir." 
proM and verse which refer to this ancient stnicture (" the senior 
or pmn?nl of all the edifices of Erinn", us the p(»pm calls it)— 
this ftooe biiildiny never goes by the name of cathair. Tho old 
poem culls it ullerDUtely rufA, and cftiii, nnd even caiaicn, or 
castle, but never fotfiairi nor do we find any other cdifioo of ihe 
oaily Firbclffs, Titatha Di Danann, or Milc»iens, called a cathair, 
«xeept in one inslanoe alone, whore It is stated in an ancient poem 
that Tara was called Calfiair Grojiu in the time of the Tttai/ia 
Di Danaun. And this liu:t holds good even to a comparatively 


I.1CT. lan. late period as regards the F%r6olg$. On their return to Erinn 
— after an abaence of several hundred yeara, afler the battle of 
Magh Tuireadh (under the designation of the CUuin Umoir), tJie 
people of this race received liberty from AiliU and Medbh, the 
king and queen of Gonnacht, to settle in the western half and 
on the sea-board of the present counties of Gralway and Glare, 
as well as in the Arann Islands. And here, where they raised 
for themselves, as on the Arann Islands, those enormous fortreaBee 
of stone, some of which remain in wonderful preservation to this 
day, these fortresses were never called eathairt; and those on the 
Arann Islands are still, as well as in all antuent times, called dmUy 
and named after their respective builders or owners, as Ihmr 
jSnghuia «oA Dun-Ochaill, oxt the great island, and Z>un-CA<»i- 
chraidh, on the middle island. There is also, indeed, on the 
great island, another most ancient fortress, bearing the name of 
no particular person, but called simply Dubh-Chatkair,'-*" or the 
" Black Cathair^\ These are all buUt of stone, and I imagine 
Bimply because no other material could be procured on those 
rocky islands. 

It is remarkable that there are no clochans, or bee-hive houses, 
remaining around any of these great forts, whilst they are found 
with the Christian churches; save that there are some traces of 
the ruins of such edifices within the area of Dun-Conckraidh on 
the middle island ; though whether they were of the same date 
as the fortress cannot now be ascertained. 

It may be remembered that the period to which the erection 

of these edifices is referred by all our old writings, is the century 

The ume immediately preceding the Incarnation. And to show that in 

■iw4yi " those ancient times this people were not wedded to any parti- 

The'^B* ciilar descriptive names for tneir residences,'**' we find from the 

kind of same authorities, that others of the Clann Vmoir gave other 

names to their residences, as in the case of Daotach, who, with 

Endaeh, his brother, settled on the river Davil (on the coast 

of Burrcn, in the county of Clare), whose dwelling was called 

Teach Eandaieh, literally EandacKs House ; and this houae was 

most undoubtedly built of stone, since other materials are as 

scarce in the district as in Arann; and as it was intended 

for a fortress as well as a residence, it must have been of large 

dimensions, and could not, therefore, have been of the bee-hive 

(u) This Di^h Chathair would «ecm to be a cominon modem Dame, tike Mr. 
Da Noyer'i " Fort o( the dwrs", etc. This fortress is not ■ppareoilj' coeval 
with the others on the islaoda i why haa it no name ? The name could not 
hftve been lost, any more than the other*, 

<*■) Just as at the preMnt day Urge manBions, some of them castellated, are 
called " halli", " houses", " courtV, ■' manors", etc Cathair is like the French 
thaUau (a castle or grand residence). 


This hoase is not cow Icnown, as far us I am aworo, lutt.x 
ithe looUity still bcuis tliu onciont name o( JJaoUich. 
site, however, we have no account of litono-buUt citiee, 
UnroSt or even vlUogca, ia uucictit Erinn, it ia yet ccrt«n that 
iriterever tb« provincial king, or the vhtefaiKl Icadvr of a torn- 
loiy, as well at Ui« head of a tiibc, had his rcsidcnoc, it was eur- 
nniadcd by a town or rillaf^, as tlic cusc might be ; and th&t 
iKe boiMus were built of soch m»tcrial8ii$wercmo»tconvcmcat 
ami compatible willi the poeltion imd lesouices of ihc iiihubt- 
tanta. And wu may. I tliink, obo reaaonably suppose, if wo do 
not actually bchnvc it, tliitt wherever the requireoK^uU of poa- 
tiou, or tlie peculiar taste of an individual chiei'oi tribe, made 
stoQc tho material of the " lieiul-houae" of tlie teiritory, there 
the bouKs of the next in importance at least, if oot all the houses 
of the ixibc which must have suiTounded it} were buUt, if poo- 
tiUc, uf the aouie ualcrial. 

As an iitstaucc of thu character and condition of the dun, 
rat/i, or eatJiair, in very ancient times, I may be permitted to 
fiivG you heru a short extract from an anciuat tract preserved in 
Lcabhar na h-Uvlhre, a manuHcripi of about the eleventh cen- 
tnry, preserved in the Royal Irish Academy, and so oAen quoted 
ID the course of these lectures. The stoiy from wliich I am 
about to quote is one which grew out of that Brterin^s Feast, 
already dcsciibed. 

Cwhuiainu, Conall Cearnach, and Laeyhaire linadhaehv&K Tiiaof Uit 
the great leading champions of Ulater at the period of, as well 
aa a shott time previous to, the Incarnation, ^twcen tliese 
three IcmgblB of the Royal Broach of Ulster there had been for 
a long time a dispute as to which of tlicm was best cntilled to 
what was cidled the cnradk-mir, or " ebumiiiun's share" at table 
at all tho great fcaels and solemnities of Uic province. After 
having submitted their case together with their mspeeti ve claims, 
tOBOTcral parties for arbitration, but tvithoul success, they were 
at last advised tu repair to the cathaii; or mansion uf Curoi 
Mac Ddirc, king of West Muuster. And this catftatr was 
situated oa a shoulder of a high mountain which Is said to be 
colled even to this day Cathair Conroi, and which is a part of 
Slkibk Mis, situated on llie peninsula which separates the bay 
of Tmlee on tlic- north &om the bay of Dinglo or Castlemoino 
on the south, in the county of Kerry. 
Asl "' ' ■ ■^ 

in the 

momitaiQ is a circle of uiafsy stones, laid one on the utlior in 
the manner of a Danish inUcnclimcnt: several of them arc froai 
eigth to ten cubical feet, but they are all v\jj rude. 

" elMDif loa'a 

ic soutn, m tnc county oi rwerry. 

t to this mountain, Smith m Ida History of Kerry, published Ji<iiii.)ii 

e year li&tj, and at page 15G, says: "On the top of this isnaM jf m^ 


"''^■""- *' From the situation of the place, it resembles a beacon or 
place of guard to alann the country ; but &om the prodi^ooa 
size of the stones, it rather seems to be a monument of some great 
action performed near this place, or perhaps a aepulchral trophy 
raised over some eminent person. 

" This piece of antiquity stands on die smnmit of a conical 
mountain, which is more than seven hundred yards above the 
level of the sea, and forms a kind of peninsula between two very 
fine bays. The country people, from the height and steepness of 
it, and the largeness of the stones, will have it to be the work and 
labour of a giant, and it seems indeed wonderful how human 
strength, unassisted by engines, could possibly raise stones of 
such a prodigious weight to the summit of so steep and high a 

Dr. Smith adds two notes, one on the way in which stones 
of enormous size and weight were carried, in comparatively mo- 
dem times, in other parts of the world, for purposes and to situgp 
tions similar to the present ; and in the other note he gives from 
Keting's Hbtory of Ireland, the popular but ancient stoiy of the 
destruction of this formidable fortress. 
stoT^ u» But to return to our story. The three contending champions 
■bontnw ofUlflter8etoutfrom£manta,andindue tiracarriveaat CoiAan' 
■hire" COT-* Conroi. Curoi, the lord of the fortres*, was not at home on their 
u lued. arrival, being absent on a foreign expedition, so that the visitors 
were received by his wife, the beautiful Btatknaid. When night 
came the lady told the three knights tliat when her husband was 
leaving home he acquainted her with diis intended visit, and re- 
quested that they should keep watch over his palace during their 
sojourn, — each ia turn to watch a night, according to seniority. 
This request was at once acceded to ; and Laeghaire Buadhach, 
the eldest of the three, undertook the watch lor the first night. 
After this the story proceeds in an exaggerated strain of fable ; 
but even in the midst of the greatest extravagance of incident, 
it contains so many details of the form and the various appur> 
tenances of an ancient fortified mansion, that I believe I aball 
best make use of the piece by translating a portion of it with all 
its extravagance, just as it stands in the original: — 

'*iitW(/Aat«Bua<i/iac/i thenwcnt to thewatching the first night, 
because he was the senior of the three of them. He waa in the 
warder's seat after tliat until the end of the night, when he saw 
a champion away from him as far as his eye could reach, on the 
sea to the west, coming towards him. Huge, and ugly, and hate- 
ful appeared this champion to him, for it seemed to him that his 
head reached the sky in height, and he could plainly see the 
broad expanse of the ocean Twtween his legs. The phantom 

Off BmDnras, rowmunM, etc., eh axoiest EEim. 77 

came towsrdx liiiii, mtli onlj }m two Kandsful uf unk sspfincs,' 
tad each bare pole of \hiaD w&a nififictcnt to make the Bwingie- S(Mr>r *b» 
trae oTa pSoiigh, uid no pole of thctn rfquirtMl ilic rcpetilioa oTab^MUn 
Ae one stroke of the Bword bj which it wm oit from its atom. ii2™"«»!^ 
He threw ooe of tlKse bnmclic^ at Laeghaire, but XaeoAa&ra u«ma 
etrftdei] it. He rcpcMed thii twice or thrioc, but none of them 
rcache^l Loe^Uairee body or shield. Lafahatre cut at Iiim a 
ipcar, but it did not Toach him. Ho 8U«(clie<l hia arm towards 
tacgKairt thcu, and ilic arm was so long tliut it reached over the 
three ridiiefi that were between tlicin at tile casting, and he thca 
grasped Kim io his hatid. Though large and though portly a 
maQ yn» Lae^hairt, he fitted in the one nand of the man whom 
be enooimiured, with 09 much ease as would n ohild of one year 
wid; and he pressed him between his two palms, in the mine way 
that a cbcfismnn b prcwted in a groove. When at Iiength he was 
half drad In that way, he threw a cast of him over (nc caUioir 
&am without, bo that he fell upon ihu bench at the door of the 
royal buu«e fwithin], and the cuM/iir wat not opened for tliat 
purpoae at all. The other two champions and all the inhahi* 
tanta of the eaU\air thought it was by a leap o?cr the catluiir 
diat be came from with<»it. in orde-r to leave trie watching to the 
Other tncQ. They spent that dav together till the cvcoing, when 
the wfttclt hour came, when Comttl CeantacJi went out Io iJie 
Warder's scat, becaiiac he wn^ older thnn C^j^Au/dijin; but he met 
with exactly the same adventure wliich Ija&jhaire met with tiu 
the previous night. The third night come, and CvehuUtinn took 
bifl place in the warder's seat TItis was pruciacly the nii'lit upon 
which the three gieen men of Seiacenu Uairfteoil, and the three 
Bita^lUaitfh [or itinerant cow-keepcre] of Bregia, and the three 
■on* of tilt' mifiical Dornmar, had appointed to come to the 
caOtair. It wa^, too, the night which had been prophesied that 
the monster which inhabited the luJce near the auftair would 
devour the occupants of the whole catablifihment, both man and 
beast. Cuchuta'mu, however, continued to wntch throughout tlie 
night, undhfcxtwriencedmany misliaps. When midnj'fhtcaine, 
he heard a loud noiite approach : ' Speak, apeak T soiu Cuchtt- 
tainn ; ' whoever are thtrL-. l«t them speak if irienda, let them at- 
tack if fuca'. Thereupon Uiere was ftct up a li^rful ahvut at him. 
CuchnUtinn sprang upon them then, ko tliut it was dead the nine 
aoen C4mc to the ground. Uc then cut o£f their hcudd and placed 
them near liim In thewatchlng-seat. Suddeulyiilne more shouted 
at him ; but, to make the story alioit, he kiUcd the tlixee times 
nine plunderL-r* in the same maniiL-r, and he heaped un their 
bcadfl and tltcir arms in one heap in the same place. He kept 
iuB place afkt that till the end of tlie uight, tired, weary, and 


I.KLT. xxu. fatigued, when he heard the upriain^ of the lake, as if it were 

stinr or the the noise of a great sea. HiB ardour induced him, uotwithstond- 

at^^th* iug hifi great &tigue, to go to see the cause of t^e ^reaA noiae 

•hS^ w^* which he had heard, and he presently perceived the tumult 

tiDDML , which the monster had produced. It appeared to him that there 

were thirty cubits of it above the late. It dicn raised itself up 

into the air, and sprang towards the cathair; and it so opened 

its jaws that the vat of a king's house might enter them. He 

[Cuehulainri] then executed his fwm-chleasy and sprang up [in 

the Mr too], and widi the velocity of a twiating-wheel flew 

around the monster. He closed his two hands around its neck 

then, and then directed one of them to its mouth and down its 

throat, and tore the heart out of it. He then cast it from him 

upon the ground, and he plied its sword upon it, cutting it to 

pieces, and carried its head to the watching-aeat, where he placed 

it along with the other heads. 

" Cuchulainn took some rest afler these mighty exploits, on* 
til the dawn of the morning, when he saw the great phantom 
coining from oiF the western sea towards him". But, without 
repeating details, it is sufficient for our present purpoee to state, 
that his good fortune and his stout heart and arm stood to him 
on this occasion as it did in his previous encounters, and that 
he overthrew the phantom giant, as he did die rest of the ene- 
mies of Curota court. 

Our hero then bethought him that his companions, who pre- 
ceded him in the wardcrship the two previous nights, must have 
jumped over the wall of the catiutir, as they hfid been seen to 
&11 from the air within, when cast over by toe giant, and he de- 
termined not to be outdone by them in this stupendous feat. 
The story then goes on in the same extravagant style of lan- 
guage which we meet in the tale of the battle of Magk-Rath 
^ubUshed by the Archseolo^cal Society), and in many other 
such pieces, as follows : — 

" He attempted twice to leap over, but he failed. ' Alaa V 
said he, < that X have taken so much trouble hitherto to secure 
the " Champion's share", and to lose it now by failing to take 
the leap which the other knights have accomplished'. What 
Cuehutainn did at these words was this : He would fly from 
where he stood, at one time, until his face would come plump 
agunst the caOiair. At another time he would spring up into 
the air, so that he could sec all that was within the caAair. 
At another time he would fall down and dnk to his knees in 
the ground, from the pressure of his ardour and his strength. 
At another time he would not disturb the dew from the top of 
the grass, from the buoyancy of his spirit, and the velouty 


of his motion, nnil llie vulicmcncL- of his action, such waa the '■'''^- **' 
bounding foi^- into which hp Iia^l been excite*!. At Wt, in "iin-nt iii»_ 
ODC of Uic«c Jurioiu) fiu he lien over the cathair irom without at^^ui ii>o 
and oligfatiMl io the miildk uftlio ealkaar vithin, at tbo door of )^h'i!m"Mn 
the rojal house ; and the phioo [or print] ol' hia two feet remtuns t'"'>*^ 
■liU in llie flw which is in the mictdle of iho ealhair, whore it 
etood at the door of the royal house, ile entcretl tlie hou»c 
then, and hca^ved a detip etffh: upon wliicX BlalJitmid, the 
liaughtcr of Sfidir and wile oi' Curoi, said : ' 'Xliat is not n ngb 
liter trvBchery', aaid she; ' it is a si^h aAer victory and iri- 
lunph". The daughter of the king <>f Firfai<fia indeed knew what 
dimcultics had beset Cuchultnnn on that night. They h»d nut 
been long there alter tliat when they saw C'trci entering the 
bouse, having with him thi- battle suit.4 of tJic tlirce nines Cn- 
Auiamn had slain, together with their heads and the head of 
the tnonatcr* He said then — after having put all ihe hesda 
down on the floor of the house : * The youth whose trophic* of 
(SIC ni^htorc all thcnc', aaid he, ' isayouthmoetciualificd to keep 
perpetual watch over n king's dun. And Curoi tlien uwaidcd 
Cuehuiainn tJio ' CbampioD's share' al all the feasts of L'Utcr, 
■nd to hia wife preoedence of all the ladiee of Ulster, et (vasts, 
fun, and ftS8eniulic«, the queen of the province excepted" 

I have not, as will be seen, been deterred by the wildnent 
of this very ancient tale from quoting dinwtly from the origi- 
nal, as much of it at bears directly on the conaition and dicum- 
Mnocf of this ancient eathair, of the existence and ntioool his- 
lory of which tJiere cannot be the least doubt. 

it ig of ftome inipoi lajico tu Die diseunuon on ancient 9tono 
odifioea, to find atiil in existence one not only of undoubttid 
sothoDtiejty. but even preserving through ages down even to 
tbc present day the naiuc of the man for whom it was built, m 
wdl as tliat of the man who built it; for in the list of builders 
in stooe who were attached to certain great locti, already quoted 
fixim the Uook of Leimtor. Ciuodorn is set down sa Cttrm Mae- 
DiirSteauUoir, ot stone-builder. 

The description of this cathatr when occupied b iruportanl, Tho"t 
tD OS lor aa it explains on authority the aetual lute and intention ^^^,Sn 
of those flrsall internal and external chambers, tlic ruins of wliich ****"' 
aro found among the "cahers" and " ehghaum" represented in 
Mr. Dm Noyer'a beautiful plates, and to some of which he pro 
perly give.s the name* of " guard rooms". One of thetie des- 
cribed in conLCctioo with Cathair Cortroi ie called a suidke^ 
fairt, or " watching'seat'', and was one of those situated outnde 
the wall 

The royal mansion of Curoi ifcc Dair4, king of Wc:9t Mun- 

80 OF BniLDiiros, furkitubb, etc , in AHCIBKT bbisv. 

wT.xtii. Bter, which stood in the middle of this once great caUiair, was^ 
no doubt, one of considerable dimensions, and built of stone ; 
but unfortuaately, aa no trace of it is known to remain now, and 
as no precise description of it is given in our stoiy, we are left 
to gucaa that it wbs probably a building somewhat of the mze 
ana form of the house of the royal branch at Emania, or of the 
house in Hath Cruackain which I have already described. Even 
MiUon of the exact situation of the historic Calhair Conroi has not be^t 
mroi not Satisfactorily ascertained ; although Dr. Charles Smith in his 
I^ined?' History of Kerry, already quoted, places it on the very summit 
of a conical mountiun of that name, and describes by this title 
the highest of the Sliabh Mis range, a mountain 2,100 feet above 
the level of the sea. This, however, could scarcely be correct, 
as no human dwelling, much less the fortified palace of a king, 
would be placed in so inaccessible a position. And, therefore, 
the heaps of large stones which Dr. Smith mentibns aa exist- 
ing on the top ofthis mountain, if they be ancient remains at all, 
must probably be those of a ruined sepulchral monument, and 
not those of CuroCa CaiJiair. 

On the Ordnance Survey map Caihair Conroi is marked but 

at an elevation of one thousand feet above the level of the sea, 

and at or near the source of the little river Finnghlait, which 

runs down the side of the mountun and falls into the bay of 

Tralee near its western extremity. This would certainly be the 

toTT of the proper position for Calhair Conroi, according to the old topo- 

uaaofth*' graphical tract called the Dinnseanchas, which professes to give 

JJ2I^""" the origin of tlie name of this stream. And as this story too has 

reference to Cathair Conroi, and as the substance of it, given 

in a few words, may enable some one who hears or reads them 

to identify with certainty the site of this famous catJiair, I shall 

briefly narrate it here. 

We have seen before how graciously the lady Blathnaid,)ang 
Curoi Mac i'diV^s wife, had received the three rival champions 
of Ulster at her court, and how warmly Curoi himself, on his 
return home, had eulogized Cuchulainn's valour in guarding his 
court. Yet, notwithstanding these commendations from Curoi, 
there existed an old cause of dissension between hiai and Cuchtt- 
lainn. Curots wife, the beautiful Slathnaid, was the daughter 
of Midir, king of the island of Firfalgia, which some of our old 
writers say was a name for the present Isle of Mann. In a suc- 
cessful attack made on this island by the chief heroes of Ulster, 
headed by Cuchulainn, and assisted by Curoi Mae DdirS, who 
joined them in disguise as a simple champion, the chief prize 
among the spoils obtained was the king's daughter, this lady 
Blathnaid. Accordingly, on the return of the party to Ulster, 

op BHiLsisas, f inisiTDHs, btc., in ahciemt BBura. 81 

Cududami, on the fiJ^-igion of ihe spoil, ciainicd ihc ftiir prin- i-bct. xxn. 
csm as hi) !ihiu<<!. T« this, Iiowevcr, Curoi Mac JMiri objected, 
and faid that, aa the hii^licst exploit connected with the aasault 
on Midir's court hud be«n performed by him [Curoi), he tliought 
it but fair tliat he bIiouIU cairy off the iiigheet prize, A com Dat 
«nsited, ID which Caroia more mature strength, joined with equal 
military ekill, prevailed orcrthc more youthful CuchukttHd. The 
Utter was left Tsinqubhvd on the Geld, tied hartd-and-loni, and lii:^ 
Iftng hair culoff'cfoBC to ihc baek olhiH head by the sword of his 
proud conuucror. Curoi and \m beautiful captive !«et out then, 
■nd amvcd in duo time at the famous Cathatr on Stiabh Mis. 

It docs not appuu that CuckuUtmd had luiy subscqiient know- 
ledge of the (ate of the fair captive until he saw her in the tuurt 
of Eer hiub«nd ; and it aeeiuB that it was then for tho &rrt timo 
bo diiwovcred who his victorious antagonist for her poseea* 
had been, ns C-aroi had gone on the expedition conipl«t«ly 
liwcl. It Totdd seem, however, that ^omc undonttAiiJing st«rri*r"i 
«f a&teadly nntufc sprang tip between Cuekulaind and his fair osSm^" 
bosteas during Iiis short pojoum at her court, from what wc nic c*'"'*'"- 
tolil in the old story of Ordain Caikrach Chonrai (or " the Skugh- 
Icrof Co^tJ- CAoitroT), which was ono of the Great Stories mo 
oltamli was aceoatomed and bound to relate before the kiog. In 
tltit old atory we are told that, in 9ome time oAer tho >*isit of 
Ac dirve Ulgtor knights to Cathatr Chonrai, the lady Bhlltnaid 
ttnt a secret ineeKige to C^tthuhind, inviting him to come at an 
ippointed time, ana wcU attended, to the foot of the hiU upon 
which her court was situated, and to stop at an appointed place 
en the brink of the river which flowed down by the CaUiaivt until 
lie should Bee it* waters changing colour, and them rapidly to 
■aoend the mountain to the Catiiair^ wlicrc she would contrive 
to pboe her hiu>bnnd, nnanuiKl, in his absolute powur. All 
tfais wta done uccoidb^ly; and Cuchut^xnd hod not remained 
bag watcliing the flowmg water of the river, until he saw it sud- 
'leiUy change in colour from dark to white. This change of 
colour was produced by the spilling of several tubs of milk into 
ftroam, where it pasecd by the Cathair, by orders of the 
_' Blaithnaid; and soon this nlent mceange Informed Cucfiu- 
^wd that nil was re«dy. 

Cucfiulaind immediately ascended to tlie Cathair, which he 
feiind, M was promised to him, open and imguordcd. Ho 
found the royal mansion within in the same oon£cion; and, on 
catering ihnt, the lady iUalhnaid sitting on a couch hy the iiide 
of her nusband, who lay asleep with his head in her Iqi, his 
gwotd and spears hanging on a rack over the couch. Cuchur 
laiiui's first care was to secure the sword and speare ; and then 




LMT.Tzn. giving the sleeping warrior a smart prick of hiBsword in the side, 
to awaken him — so that it ahould not be said he slew him while 
in his sleep — he cut off his head. 

The court was next stripped of all its valuables ; and CucAu- 
laind with the treacherous lHathiiaid, taking with them a quan- 
tity of rich spoils gathered from all parts of the world, returned 
in safety to Ulster. If the stream which passed by Cathair Ckon- 
rai had received a name before this time, it thenceforth lost it, 
for it is ever since, even to this day, known as the FmnghlatM^ 
or " white-stream". A nd therefore any person taking this white- 
stream, still so well known in the locality, as his gmde, and fol- 
lowing it up the mountain, may perhaps discover the ancient 
Cathair Chonrai, some vestiges of which must still exist. 
R^ruiM to Cathair Chonrai appears to have been well known at the time 
chimrai la of writing the old tale called Cath Finntragka, or Battle of Ven- 
Se "tutt* ^ Harbour. The name Ventry ia a vulgar anglicised fbnn of 
JJ^J^J^ Finntraigh; a name which literally signifies " white-strand", and 
which ia very applicable to the shore of that famous harbour, 
which is covered with beautiful white sand. 

In this old story we are told that when Find Mae CumhaUl 
was marching from the eastern parts of Ireland to the grcftt 
battle of Ventry, he passed over the river Muge, in the county 
of Limerick, into Ciamiidhe Luachra, or Kerry, and then passed 
over the long white strand (of the bay) of Tralee, with his left 
hand to Cathair na-Claen Hatha, which was called Cathair 
Chonrai, and to Sliabh Mia, and so from that to the mouth of the 
Lai>hrand, and so on to Finntraigh [Ventry]. 

I cannot take upon myself to say that the places mentioned 
in (Ms march arc all correctly set down ; but the reference to 
Cathair Chonrai appears to be correct, as it was after Find had 
passed over the strand of Tralee, that he is aud to have passed 
by it leaving it on his left ; and this would exactly agree with the 
position on the map of the river Finnghlait, wluch &Ils into 
the western extremity of the bay of Tralee. 

Another curious bit of additional information, if it be correct, 
is supplied by this tale, namely, that Cathair Chonrai was also 
calletl Cathair na-Claen Ratha, that is, the " Cathair of the slop- 
ing Rath" ; and probably Claen Rath, or " BlopiM Rath" only. 
And this may lead farther to the identification of the old Cat- 
hair, since, perhaps, it may be still known under the name of 
Cathair na-Claen Ratha, or of Claen Rath only. 

So much for the construction, position, and history of one of 
the most celebrated of the ancient stone buildings of the Mile* 
sians, of which we are fortunate in having ap example pre* 
served so well in the description of Cathair Chonrai. 


Some vritcTs, I know not why, have ansumcd that the more 
ancient colometo uf Kiinn, the Ftrbolgi and Tuatha Df Vananrtt 
from a superiority orknowlegc and taste, erected stone buildinra 
in prefea^nce to earthen uues; whilrn their succcawis, Uio MJfe- 
■uu), bcin^ofalovcF order of intellect, nnd baring rcachoJ only 
a lower tc»lv of t-ultivatioii , weru content with forts and houses 
built of oarth, or of wood. Nothing could be more unfounded 
tluLn ihi« as^rtion. And I have alreudy, I think, fully shown its 
fkllacy by placing before the render a li«t of the buildings ftscnbcd 
daring tlie (irst occiipation of thia island, to those two colonies, 
in which our oldest ohroniclMandtmditaonawcribcbuttfae one 
nagte stooe building of AOeacft, to the Firlolgs nnd DtalJia Di 
iMnann. And if [he Firhotm, who, allor centuries of abnenoe, 
returned to Erinn a short time before the InutmaUon of our 
Lord, erected for themselves some fortre»iWs of stone on the 
wcetcm coast of Erinn, where no other b^iildio^ material could 
be found, yet, notliing remain;) in writing, in triLaition, or in any 
exiettnf; monumental niin, to eliow timt tbo»e chiefs of that tribe 
who at the ^aine tirar- »cttle<l inland, in the territories of SouUi 
Connueht and North Munet<3r, where Ptono was scarce and other 
tEUleiiai abundant, built their fortresses and re:^idcnc('a of tho 
fonner and not of the latter. It may also be asked why did not 
the Firboigg and the Tttaika D4 Danarm ereot some stono build- 
ing at Taru during their succexnTe oeeupntionsof it? Surely, 
if they preferred stone to wootl, tlicy wouhl have been moro 
likely to have indulged tliat taste at the seat of royalty than 

Alt tliut can be aud in favour of this modem theory of the 
superiority of the older ooloQists over the Milcsinnii, is, that tra> 
dJtioD ascribes nccromanlic imwcr and a superiority of inven- 
tivc genius to the 'I'vat/ia Z>J Danantt; but among the sneci- 1 
toens of ancient personal decorative art which have come down t 
in such abundance to our own tliuca, nothing has been as yet ' 
found to equal in ingenuity, or in artistic taste and excellence, 
articles, such as brooches, girdles, and torques, in the precious 
roctala, the fabricatioa of which can be dearly shown to bo 

Tlion, as regards thouc stone buildings about the southern and 
wvMcm cotfta of Irelaud, being all of Firftotff or Titalha IH 
Hanann, or of pre-hlstonc erection, whatever may be said in 
fuvuur of the hypothesis as regards all places on the coast north 
of the ShannuQ, there can certainly be no reason for extending 
it to the coa«t south of that river. 

There is to be found In the Books of Ilallymolc and Ztfcan, 
and in Di^aitach SIic Ftrlihuigft'a Book o! Gonealogies, a 

liTpuUiaiii of 
tha inlo- 


tMer.xxa. 7^17 curious list of the tribes who took part in the great Aith- 
each Tuatha revolution in the first century, and of the dispetnon 
and enslaTement — to some extent — of these tribes, in the same 
century, by the monarch Tuathal Teaehtmhar, on recorering Ae 
throne of his father, who had been killed in that revolution.** 
Those revolutionary tribes are very generally believed to have 
been die oppressed and degraded descendants of the pre-Mile- 
sian colonists ; but, althougn great numbers of them belonged to 
the earlier races, yet a great many of them belonged to the de- 
cayed Milesian race also, as well as to the Picts wno had settled 
in the east of Ireland. These reTolutioniets have been called 
Attacotti by modem Irish writers; but, whether they really 
were the Attacotti of Romano-Britiah history is a question 
that, I fear, will never be cleared up. It is, however, certain 
irom the detailed list just alluded to, that they consisted not 
all of one race, but of a number of tribes belonging to the 
various races which then inhabited the country. l%ere can 
be no doubt, however, that among those revolutionary tribes 
there was a large proportion of the Firbolg race, who, from 
a list of the battles in which they were defeated, appear to 
have been in valour and social position the most formidable 
opponents that Tuathal had to contend with. And it ia not 
to De supposed that, when these various tribes were reduced 
to the condition of rent-payers to the state, they therefore dis- 
appeared, or even sunk into insignificance. It was not so: 
Tiie Hr- for, we find about the close of tiie sixth century that the 
■uiipowarrni whole country of Ut-Maine, in the present counties of Gal- 
^^^^^ way and Roscommon, was in the actual possession of the ftr- 
boigB when, about that time, it was forcibly wrested from 
them by Maine M6r of the race of CoUa da Chrioch, ancea- 
tOT of the O'Kellya of that country. There is a curious and 
somewhat romantic account of this conquest in the Life of Saint 
Greallan, patron of the territory, preserved in the Royal Irish 
Academy, an extract from which ia published in the " Tribes 
and Customs of Hy-Maine", printwl in 1843 by the Irish 
Archffiological Society. 

Now, the Firbolgs down to the historic times preserved ter- 
ritories and importance ; and we have very fair evidence to show 
that, during a space of more than a thousand years, they held 
possession, one way or another, of the whole province of Con- 
nacht, often as sovereigns. It would be but reasonable, there- 
fore, to expect — if " cahers" and stone-buildiog were peculiar 
characteristics of their civilization — that vestiges of such build- 
ing should even still remain, in connection with Uie townland 
(*" See ia Appendix the note on this subject 

odier lopograpliical names, without any rcCcKane to the 
leiliate picsoncc or absence of stone ia any paiticuUr die- 
IzicC of tlieii Bxlcmure Cvrritory. I have made out a list from 
the census of ItidI of all thu townUnd namos in. Irclimd, aa 
tftlcen irom the Ordnance Survey, iiitu th<: names uf which the 
word Catfiair enter*. And, as the li*t is not long, i shall, without 
going into thv lucul diftribuUun uf the namce, give a summarjr 
of it here. 

In tlic whole province of Ulster there is not one townlund 
talEiitg its name from a Cathair. In Lcin^tcr ihura are but two — 
Dae in the county of Longford, and one in Llie Queen's County. 
Ia MuQBter there arc 151, distributed as followT* Aiaong the 
oountie8:CiaPC.58;Cork, 32; Kerry, 35; Limerick, 17;Tippe- 
rair, 5; and Watcrfurd, 4. IiiCcnnacht lln-rcai-c!)!, distntpu- 
tcJ as follows: Galway, 67 ; Miiyo, 22, at' which ihorv are 15 
io the inland barony of Caatlcmatni; ; and in HoBcommon there 
are 2 1 thus shuwing, among the many thoii«iiid« of towulanda 
in Ireland, that thurc arc but <;4-i which take their namca from 
Cut/fairs ; whilst tlie number of names compounded ofiJiin . L U, 
uid HalA, u very great, biit particularly the latter, which 13 
tnoro than three times the number of all the others. Nor can 
this paucity of Cotfiain, to be found at the present day in our 
topography, be ascribed, to any extent, to modem cDungca; 
rinoo wo tmd that they held exactly the same places and pro- 
portions in the inquisitions of Lcineccr and Ubter, tukeu id the 
leigna of Etizabedi, Jame;) the Fiitit, Charles the First, and 
Charles the Second, and published — w fur as these two pio- 
viooes about diirty yean ago, under tW direction of the Irish 
Record Commission. 

It ia also worth noticing that while the county of Gutwuy 
preserres the oaoics of sixty-seven Cathairs, of uteao only fnx 
Bie foond in the cuftcm or Shiiiuion-bourd baronies 01 the 
county, whjlo in the neighbouring baronies of Athlone and 
Moycanie, in the county of Roscommon, there are none to be 
(band. And yet we know that the esstero paxts of Galway 
aad Roscommon were the places longest and Iwt held by the 
Firbolifs in Krinn. 

From all that I have said, then, it may bo collooted concern- 
ing the primiOTc colonislH of Kiiau, lu wc ilnil thrrm set down 
in tmr cnronicles, as well as in our oral traditions, and — what is 
«Ten more important — in our topographical namca, that nothing 
BOW remains to show, witli any cenalnty, tliat the periods of 
occupobon of the various races were marked by any distinct 
chnracterisUcs of civilii^ation or social refinement And niirely 
it is not Io be suppoaed that the Milcsiuns, who came in the last, 

LECT. rxni 





Ho erldcnea 
tn>i Die 
*0* ■ ladar 
not Uian 



iMCT.xxn. even if they were, as pretended — a ruder race — would contii 
to adhere to their own less re6ned habits and tastes, after tJ 
had become masters of the country, and that in presence of 
niperior civilization of their now fallen predecessors, who i 
remained in peace under their rule, and lived in import 
numbers around them. 


tli.«.Mi< )_•; Hk, II**,) 

(JOD—OtDrnm AMDOmvAitKim. Kut^Kunptiurf lawvegataliiuUiDGO- 
loan ot dnM, anribuled lo tlie moninba Itgitnmai uid EoeiaiM Edgm- 
iidu NadiAgoUflrM irocliml bj/acAacb*, andgoUttncraaiiimtaiuiilalii 
btkoil Lb tin niga of TiffAertmuu. Tbc nac* of ccJonn Ui <tiMUi)tuUi the 
MTtfal e l — of Mckt^. aW lUtribuUHl U> tbu Muue £»tfuudh -. tlia aatun 
al iboai ookowi not tTwclAed. II«uMboldiilaodl«,OFiMmenciaiidvBrletia|v 
nlMinddTMNtorJUi//Bn[l if<dUJI BenUoned In the Mia oT Uki r<fiwfiit 
OMH^nw ; the nutcTiU or laahlon oC ihedraMnot mdfied. UtdAU't pra- 
gntioB te the waruf ihc tnn Tdiai deaolpUaa o( the («rtka nniMaeiL 
DiiiiiiitiLM) of Uic L'llonian Gbau at tbe hlU of Sltmain. Conerag Um 
antti* in pvault ol ^lU/ and MtiMh, hy tiia lt»nkl of tbe latter, Jifae 
Aou, Irom tito ule o( tlic 7'rf ih iJo < Auai/yM .- hU ileKfhpUon of Ce«cia6iir 
J/oc A'anu ; of C'utuirruii/ A/tnJi iil ^ni;Aa ; uf /joyun J/uc i>WltecA(a; 
at iMUguirt liaailarJi ; i>t MunrtTKHf ; at (.'oiinud : at lleocAaid i ot Amoi^ 
fMi of i'trotfucA A'uiJ i'tcAinaci ; of I'iacAaiy aoi] FuicAmi ; c4 CaAeAair 
J#4« C'lhair and lit« clana | of Eirryt Ethbri i of SltnH, ton of JK>fcA«fi^a« ,- 
of ^'o-piui i of A'rfc, aon ot Carpri Hia Ftr and bta claim ; of Cvth*- 
lam^t flbna. Mote: CWtwAunrf b raraored to i/airiJ(nniM aHer bis fight 
witli /VnKtuM, tv |tM Uw bao«St of the heallnit pn^rtlei nf ita rtrMm 
or rirer ; cimniL-nitiKi at ihem ; while tli«rc. Cttktr*, who had fione to fail 
aMiatancr, irrivt^ covcr(<) with wuBikla, and la Tiaial br pbjrticiaiii froia 
iW oDtniji'* C3uu^, iiliwtii li« (liiTW aoar j OicAufntW ilioii iwai)* (vr FU. 
ym faiAliafk, «bi> (rxnininM aaeh of hL) woanda, nnd C4tAtrtt do*cnb«a 
Iha poraaiu who gnvi' tli«at — hla deacslpllon of Itl'ind, son of »rjriu ; of 
aaaan ilatdlU: of Oil and (AAuivr of &un and Attctotui: of Arofaand 
AWaC aooa ol TW.] .^W/«i. kioit oC C'vUl* .* of Curmvc [Stac'y Catomitna 
■ad Ovraiac tlie »oa of Ma<i^f»mi of J/om JfolAromai/. and Mom ^t/- 
rtmail, foiM Of ^i/tJJ aail .I/mUMj of tlte ohanptaai from IrtaJt [Nor- 
mtfll of JiViUand hia aoa J/aa*; of tbc mamw both by which C*tlnm 
VBintaled, wbenee tbe aaiatat Umaamainr, now Smannura, In tliecotinty 
liOUlh. atJUIteattaentatlmrilowiTtt>Ai/Hli sHufnaawfi b; Iwr to 
Ltmg Jfuc £m<Mm : glfta pntauaed bj her to Ftniiadh .- one of thoao gUt^ 
hrr wlttbralMl bnMcb, wrlgbed more thao fuur pouoii*. Morj of Mac Lua- 
altiuUi hia aurtvagant dMan 1 hia dMcription of acunoua drceaof adoor- 
keoiwr ; analyabof thadr«<8 — the CoeAof/, thn/uiiir.itio OckrtiiA: anaHrala 
of Jifiic CMtgSmi^t uara droaa; his Ltitdt/lt. Dialincliuii bi'twcen ibo Liimt 
aad the LtvuM—tlm latter vim a kilt. l>oKripitUiD of the drew of the 
cltati]|4aD £t/«>(u itonJ ioibe talcof tlie Kxiloof theSonaof 2>«i/>/cniMitf | lie 
wore a kUt Aocieiit lanrvgoJatiag tbowoaringof the LtiaMH or kill, attd 
the Odtrati or juuiialooB. 

]■ llic last (our leottucs I uppUcd mrseirto llie aubjcct oFtlie 
(In-i'Iiiut;:!* of t)\G pt'ople of anciont Lriiin, the Ibrrns in which 
their liouAcs ivnd lltuii strong pluci-^ wtre built, llic materials 
lued, (ind tliB manner of buiUling arlcipic"! in those curly ngce. 
1 pn>vticd OQvr to givo some iicuuuiiL ol' U>o uctsonul dtcsn oitd 
onuuncDts, and of tlie laws coniu^Lcil wiili dn«i, it« tnateriBla 
uid nianuiacturc, as w« Had ibcm dc««tibod in oui uicicnt 








tint inislt- 
iDgof gold; 

oT giiMvD 


writings, as well as the various sumptuary laws by wUch parti- 
cular robes and omaments were re^nilated in very early times. 

One of the earliest entries in our ancient books connected with 
my present subject, and referring to a period usually considered 
80 remote 83 fifteen hundred years before the Christian en, is a 
notice of a sumptuary law regulating the colours to be worn in 
dress. Such a law implies necessarily a considerable advance 
in the arts connected with weaving and dyeing. The intro- 
duction of diversity of colours in dress is attributed to the mo- 
narch Tighemmas, who is said to have reigned at the remote 
period just mentioned. To the monarch EocKaidh Edgudetek 
or *' Eoohaidh, the cloth dc«?ner", is attributed the exten^on 
and complete establishment oT this early sumptuaiy law. The 
Boot of Leinster, which is the oldest authority that I am ac- 

auainted with on this subject, thus speaks of it: " T^hemmai, 
le son of Ollaig, then assumed the sovereignty, and he broke 
three times nine battles before the end of a year upon the de- 
scendants of Eber. It was by him that drinking horns (or 
cups) were first introduced into Erinn. It was by him that 
gold was first smelted [the word used means literally boiled] 
m Erinn, and that colours were first put into cloths (namely — 
brown, red, and crimson), and ornamental borders. It was by 
him that omaments and brooches of gold and rilver were first 
made, luchadan was the name of the artificer who smelted the 
gold in the forests on the east side of the river Liffey. And 
Tighertatms was seventy-seven years in the sovereignty, and he 
nearly extirpated the descendants of E3>er during that time. 
And he died in Magh Slecht, in the great meeting of JUagk 
SUcht, and three-fourths of the men of Erinn died along with 
him, whilst adoring Crum Cntach, the king-idol of Erinn; and 
there survived accordingly but one-fourth of the men of Erinn. 
. . . The one-fourth who survived of the men of Erinn gave 
the sovereignty to Ecchaidh Edgudack, the son of Dairi 
Domlhig, of the seed of Lugaidh, the eon of /(A".**" It 

<•*' roriginal :— ^ab^f cigennmAr 
mac oLUaif; pije la^^ ciAnna cotin 
P . . . .] CAiri Acaj- bpipf cjmtioi 
catA ne cinT) btiaitia foj> cCaitiT) 
ebep. 1]- ieij- cuca cuipti ncuif 
in he^ion. If l^f ]^o benbAt) on 
Ap cur "1 lieiMnn, acaf [cuca**] 
vd,£a p3f ecdtge ACdf copcajvi [.i. 
iWAttin^L t>e4p5a, 4CA]" cojicjvi] If 
teif TienA* Cumcaigc Acay bpecc- 
nafA 6ii\, Ac&f AP51C in liopetin. ^\iCa■ 
WAti Aitim fia cenwA fo bepb^-o iti6p 
IiifoC)\4ib qAf t?] bipe. AcAf bAi. 

txKtiii. ihbbiA'iAin ippt^Atn hettenn, 
ACAf If bee nap (niit£etrD CLAino 
ebep AT- in pe pn, Conepbaibc itn 
niAtg SLcfc immApviLit. maig SleAc 
ACAf ccopA cecbpAtnchanA fep ii- 
epetin niAlLe nir, ic aopAO Cpoim 
dpoid, pi5iWAil.l,nepeflii. CunacepnA 
AmbAicipn aCc cendefrpAmcb* fw^ 
tibepenn . . . T)o jiAC in cech- 
pAHichu c)iepnA ■ofCTWiio (ejienn) pi- 
ge uo eochaitjli CDgii'OAfi mac 'Oaipe 
Tiomchij, vo pb bugWAC mac IC*". 
H 2. 16. f. a b. col. 2. mid.] 

W»rd elTtced, but wm |>iatiabl]r (bat In brackiu. 

or DABSi iVD 0RSAMEKT8 TV isciBVT xitnnr. 

vu by lids Eocltaitih, wc aw told by Keating, on tlie awtliority x«ti 
of ft Aimilnr tmcicnt record iu existence in kis Umc, but now 
IcMt, that cluili was Gret coloured criiuiioii, blue, and gTeen. in 
Eriiin. It was by bim ibkt rftrioiu oolouts wcK introduced ^7"",^ 
into tbe wearing clotbes of Eriniit namelv, one colour in iLe d>c«iinft', 
doUies of scrvftnU; two coloura in Oio clothes of rent-pnyiiig' iZ^b^'' 
&nnen; tbreoooloura in tliu dolliefi of olEcera ; tire colours in°'*a«<- 
the clothes of cliieft ; sx ooloura in the clothes of oUtwiks and 
poctfl; scTOD coloius io the clothes of Icings and queoos. It 
a (rom thts tbaC (mys the old book) (be custom has grown 
this day, that all tlie&e colouie aie in the clolhea of a biuiop 

Although the number of colours, which are ben: mentioood 
us havin? distintj^ished each of the eeven clas»e£ into which 
the people of Kiinn at bo early u period bad been divided by 
the Milesian colotu«ts, are given, yet we have uu duscription 
flpccifylng what these colours were exactly, whiufa were tbvn ^^^ 
employed in dress, excepliug bron-n, rud, and crboeOD, wliieh Mioa^out 
llffhernmoB is stated to have prcvioualy cirtabliahcd. It could ''"^"^ 
•carccly be expe<:U.'d, indeed, thul ttuch a d<-»cnpt!on would 
mrvive to oar timu In any other \ri.y ihtta by occidental refe- 
rences in the ouurae of history to the cxjstutue or wardrobes of 
paiticidar individuahu And although we may not find any 
pcTBonal deticiipliou identical with tluit of the higher classes in 
the above list^ it happens that we hare a very ancient refemnoe 
to, and even an enuntcmtion of, the vaiioua colours which 
were used in the select wardrobe of royalty, at a pcrii>d which, 
though far within that of Tigherutnajs, ia yet rcuiote enough 
fiom us indeecl. I allude here to the account of the display of 
their valuables of oil lcind», made by the celcbrstcd Mt'dbh, 
queen of Ctnmacht, and her consort, Ailill, as described in the 
opoiing of the ancient tale of the Tdin Bo Chuaiiyne^ %o ei\cn 
quoted from in the courec of these lectures. 

Aiiill and Afedhh, it uiuy be remembered, Houriidied in tlic UAiuHoid 
OGDtury immediately preceding the CluiaLicm cm. The render JU^SI^Irtm 
will, doubtle»8, remember the account of dieir converealion in '^J.u^^*' 
the palace of Cruaeftan, said to have been the remote urigin uf V<aMi 
the celebrated war of the Ttiia Bo Chaailipit. They liud been 
boosting of their respective possessions, and comparing theil 
wealth together, when, at last to settle their dispute, tliey pio* 
ceeded to make a complete examination of their furniture and 
irinkcta. They hod brought unto them, eays the talo, the moat 
brilliant of tlivir jewels and valuables, thut they miulit know 
which of them had the raoet of jewels and wealth- There were 
brought before them also, it continues, their vessels of can-cd 
yew, and tbcii two-handled koev«e, and iholr iron TCfisola ; tUcU 


^^'"- small wooden veasela ; their cauldrons and their small kecvea ; 
their rings, and their bracelets, and their robes, and their thumb- 
ringB, and also theii cloUies ; and of these clothes the ooloiin 
enumerated are these: crimson, and blue, and black, and green, 
and yellow, and speckled, and pale, and gray, and blay, and 
striped/"' Now, if we consider the tale of the Tdin Bo Chuaiigne^ 
from which the above enumeration is taken, to have been ori- 
ginally written even as late as the time set down for the recovery 
of a much older version in the seventh century, no one will 
deny that the list of primary colours which it contains, indepen- 
dently of combinations, is ample enough. But the existing tale 
bears internal evidence of being composed of fi-agment£ of e tbo- 
ro^hly pagan tale connected anew mto a connected narrative. 
Ri&t«rtai or It does not appear from the passage in question what the 
thVd^ Dot materials of the robes alluded to were, but we may presume 
"•*"'**■ that they were native wool and flax, and probably imported silk, 
or Siriac, as it is called in some of our ancient tracts. Neither 
does it appear of what shape or fashion were the robes, nor of 
what particular articles they consisted. Indeed almost all our 
personal descriptions are silent on the number of garmenla 
worn by either men or women, as it seldom happens that any 
distinguished persons, except warriors in or going to battle, are 
described, and in those cases the description is oia very general 
character. As instances, however, of the diversity of colours 
which distinguished various classes in ancient times, and the 
general character of their clothes, we shall have to draw again 
to a great extent on the same grand old tale of the Tdin Bo 

I have in former lectures sufficiently described the origin of 
the war of the Tdin Bo Chuailgne, and need not therefore say 
anything further on that subject here, and may consequently 
take up the stoiy where the preparations for the war commence. 
""B**'* When queen Medhh, stung by the refusal ofBaire Mao Fiaohtux 
Forwi to sell or lend his famous bull the Donn Chuailgne, had vowed 
vengeance against the whole province of Ulster, and had de- 
termined to get possession of the bull by force, she bethought 
her of the means of carrying her plans into execution. She 
accordingly summoned to her court the seven Mainea her sons, 
with all their followers, and their cousins, the seven sons 

<*'>[origlMl:— Cuca* t>6ill arib& cucu, a fi^nne, Acaf * T*^^- *c4r 

TM.mbA'D \,ia ffeoic, 4c&r miiiie, acaj" a n-ecsu-oa, ecip iopcdip, acAf 

iti^Tnijya. Cuca* tuca 4 ti-ena, jojhti, acaj- "oub, aca-t viine, bui*e, 

Acar * n-nabfid, acaf a ti-iai^nlep- acaf bpecc acaj- Utcna, (woj*, 

ZA\x^, a mitain, acaf a V6£oti)tfiaip, aLt4, acap fi«b«C. — H. 2. 18. £ 41. 

ac«f a n-T>f\Qlrtiaea. Cucaic ■oana b. col. 1.] 


Moffoek, with ihcij followere, and Cormac Conloingmn, tho son 
of Condtobar, king of Utiiter, who bod b«ea in cxUc in her 
kinfrdom. tnth liU exiled followers, numbering about fifteen 
bandnid men. 

Thcw three paitics immediately answered the queen's «um- •iwcrivUra 
mons, Bod appeared Vforu ilie paUce oC Craacfum; and lliey |laii^ 
sie wpaiatcly described in the tJc in the following order. The ^^"*" 
description, tlitmgh nhort, will be Ibuud very impurtaiit for 
the purpose 1 liavc at present tn view. The tlrat party camo 
with black uncut hair; they wore greeo cloulu>, with silver 
brooches; the shirts which they wore next their flcin were in- 
terwoven witli tJirciul of gold. Thcsecoud compuny had closely 
cut hair, light gray cloaks, and pure white shirts next their 
t]an. The third uid last party bad brood cut, f^r yellow, 

Eilden loose flowing hair upon them; they wore crimson era- 
oidered cloaks, with stone set brooches over their brcasta (in 
the cloaks) and fioc iong silken shirts, lolling to the insteps of 
their feet. 

But there is yet another passage containing rofercncea still ooKHftJoa^ 
more minute, and much more nunivruus, to tliu characteristic trtX"wln> 
di0crencea of coetume, used by diHcFcnt leaders and tlicir clanns '{■^fl ^ 
(no doubt the far originals of the Scottish tarlans), as well as OMfliww-- 
to the details of personal cloihing. It is \vhcrc, aftei- the retreat 
from tllater, the army of Connacht uudcr queen Afeddh is over- 
taken by the Ulstcrmen under Conchobar Afai J^'essa at St^m- 
oin (now well known as the lownlund of Slctinihain near Mul- 
lin'mir in the county of Wcstmeath). Hero AHiU and Afadbh 
held B council; and A Hill ordered hia humid Mac HoOi, to go 
forward to observe the approach of tlie eticiny ; and when m 
had carefully uaoertuinod tneir military order, their diess their 
weapons, and iheir numbers, to return to him with the infor- 
rution. Mac Itoth wcat forth and took up a favourable posi- 
tion at ^^catn, where be waited until trie Ultonian chiels 
with their respective cluins had arrived, and having viewed and 
well noted tn^ appearance, he then returned to Ailiil and 
Jfedbk, with whom was Fergus the exiled prince of Ulster, to 
iaform them of what he had seen. 

I have already quoted the descriptions of the arms given by 
Mce JiolJi,""aa<X shall therefore confine myself now to those of 
the costume of the warriors of Ulster, both as to colour and mate> 
liols, only adding figure, face, hair, complexion, etc., which aic 
almost as necessary to our present purjusc of endeavouring to 
form an accurate idea of the appearance of tlic nobles and chief' 
tains of tho^c early days. 
***> Uct. XV, vntt, roL i., p. 915. 


^»nt- The first party deBcribed by Mae Roth consisted of tliree 

K ReWt timea three thousand men, according to the story ; and after de- 

'^ci^M- scribing how they nused a mound for their chief to sit on, the 

i*id™ ** pofitic ncrald continues : " A tall gracefid champion of noblei 

mmim; polished, and proud mien, stood at the head of the party. This 

most beautiful of the kings of the world, stood among his troops 

with all the signs of obe£ence, Bupeiiotity, and command. He 

wore a mass of fair, yellow, curling drooping hair. He had a 

pleasing, ruddy countenance. He had a deep blue, sparkling, 

{)iercing, terrific eye in his head ; and a two branching beard, yel- 
ow, and curling upon his chin. He wore a crimson, deep-bor* 
dered five folding Fuan, or tunic; a gold pin in the tunic over 
his bosom ; [and abo] a brilliant white shirt, interwoven with 
thread of red gold, next his white skin".'*" Such is the descrip- 
tion of the renowned champion Conckobar Mae Neata himseu^ 
the king of Ulster. 
cmueraM Thc next company at the hill of Slemain was imder twice 
three thousand, and, says Mac Roth, " this party too was led by 
a comely man. He had fair yellow haii upon him. He had 
a glossy curling beard. He wore a green cloak wrapping him 
about ; and there was a bright silver brooch (Cofsan) in that <doak 
at his bieast. He had a brown-red shirt, interwoven with thread 
of red gold, next his skin and descending to his knees".'** This 
was Causcraid Mend Mocha, son of the king Conchobar. 
3tin*ai The third company is described by Mae Roth as similar to 
the last in order, in number, and in dress. " There was", he 
said, *' a comely broad headed champion at the head of tliat 
party, with long, flowing, brown yellow hair ; he had a sharp 
LlaclE blue eye rolling restlessly in his head. He had a divided, 
curling, two-branching narrow (or confined) beard upon his chin. 
He wore a black-green, long-woolod cloak, wrapped around him ; 
and a foliated brooch (Delff Duillech) of Findraine m that cloak 
at his breast. He had a white shirt, with a collar, next his 
skin. A bright shield with devices in silver hung at his Bhoulder. 

t'" [origliial: — dcljAc fee* fiCd bpocc &c ^.h^mnne; Uine st^et 

n-iiiM^Ti n-ipDmin ix)i\u<il.l^6 tn 6utpACAC h« 'oejig inct>iu<o oo WPE 

Aiptnu^ 114 buiTjni y\n. CAimfi t)1 6p fnia 5el,U;lineff. — U.2. lS.f.O&. 

l^Liitib in T>omuin ^mca cjemn&caip, col. 1.1 

ecip 4 fl.uj5.\tb, ecip ujiun, acat ("'[original: — pep c*lti Ano -otid, 

g]\diii, ACAf bii5, i,cax CoTTUt). iti Aipinu6 riA btii'Dtie pi) CAetjefpn. 

potc Finubui'De if f6 cajy """^ Fol.c piroburoe f aijv. uIAa eiqi im- 

■opumneC cdbAC ^rApiue [.i. fAipJ. iAfr i"""* P""^- W^^ *'*"™*' T**!*" 

Cutntjpu dAem fioncApsbon teii". cip«t imme ; cAp'i'i S^^ aT'S'c T 

Uofc po giAfY gop-ApfA, tijh ciCatU in bpuc Apibnuiim). liimwh qoh- 

WA ATiuacliin*^ iiiA CiiiT); ubfiA tie- t>ep5 mi'LecA oa ^ep5 iitdT/Iut) -oo 

jAbLAcli ip- t bui-oe uivfAfr bA tiepK 6t\, p^^ Sf^ *"*Tr' CAUfCutw 

p«ec1i, ^uah concpA coppcnA^AC glunils ■06.— fi, 3. IB. I. 66. OoL l.J 
ca6ic -DiAbuit imbi ; e4 6ip ipn 





A «ITC^hiltCl3 vmxrd in t flaming scabbBnl at his eide. A apcfir 
like a cttlumn of a king's palace beside him". This champion 
sat upon B mound of ioJs in ptVBunwj (or front) of Uic fim 
champion Qdn^ Conck^lrar) who came to tho hill, and his 
company sat around him.*'" " Swoeu>r lo me", cootinncfl Mac 
Row, " than the sound of triangular harpe In the hands of pro- 
frsaional porfonnen on them, were ihc melodious aounda of the 
Toice and the eloquence of that young hero, when addreeaing 
him who had lirsl come lu the hill, and udvinag him in aU 
thing*". ***" This TTOfl Senehn the orator: he waa king C<mehO' 
bar's chief minister at the time. 

" There came another compony to the same hill of Stemain ""•P" 
of Midhe', auid Mac Roth. " A fair, tall, grost, roan waa at iwiua '' 
tile head of that party, of a florid, noble, countcnaiicc: with 
eoft brown hair, falling upon him in thin, smooth lockii upon 
fail forehead- He had a deep gray rlonk wrapped around him, 
ud a silver brooch in the cloak at his breast. He wore a foh 
white flbirt to his skin'."*' This was Kotfnn 3fac fhtrlhacfila, 
chief of Fifmmairje, now Famey in the county of Monnghan. 

Another clann U described by Mar, liolh as iidTancing fiercely rf Uttttn* 
and in greater disorder. AU of them, he said, bad their clothes ***''**' 
thrown back. "A large-hcadcd, warlike champion took the 
front of that party; a man of hoiindlike, hoJcfid face. He had 
light gtinly hair, and large ycUow cyce in lus head. Hv worr a 
toIow, closp-napped ck»k upon him ; and a gold brooch ipeiy) 
ID that cloak at nis breast He had a yellow frin^d ehirt next 
his skin".*'" Thi.s was Locgatm linadack, that is " Loeghaire 
tho victorions", chief of /mmnif in Ulster. 

TIw next clann is described as haring '* a thickncckcd, eor- •'i'«*»- 
polent champion at their head; he wore black, abort, bti»hy 

""[oflgliMl:— t*e* caem ceniv- 
IcctiAn w Aipwiitch iw buinni pn; 

iHtUed vubn>fini foi\ roui«m«in 
w« clttno. ♦icp <»ne*fr i(-ri 
«eC4b1.«£ TntiA«t imnti p"''- o^c 

met J TjiiilVet w# «M)Tiotne n** 
bpucc b\A bpume. twe gclColp*- 

(wnwi. r«7» r'Sc'i'S" Ft*' ^ *'TT— 
ILl. 16. f. G5.0IL -ir^ 

*"i [orii[taal:— >»Ce ha limnitiii 
Itwipo ptsofi tic meno*i*occ "IW- 

fiuKw A pit* ACAf d iftLdb^ in 

citoeps chjwc tpn cutiij, Acjr AC 
cdbaitic C.1C4 coiiiAmt« i>6. — H. 3. 
16. t Its. CoL Z.J 

***' [origlad:— Tcp piroj*r-» wifip 
inA'fintiA naVonni pn, Tfi- sftp:* 
gopinAlfi«C; pole t»iw> cemm p*-^. 
If* flfm CAnaioe ban a *«uii. 
Oiwrc pT*S'-*n" • pl-lmti ininio. 
ticlj Appc ipn bpocc if * bpii'ini. 
ttntti ccl THiTliiTiri rpi cIlllcrT^ 
I!. 3. la. f. fit ooL I.J 

ji«a »n .itpiimf tw. botmipn j if* 
cifapoA u.tchiriAiv role n-scfom 
^-STwVUae fjiyv rfile boiMi in6iu 
nA ^no, bpdcc buivc ciiotjamaA 
imm< ; oric oi[ibvioe pn bpucc Ar 
Ab^Uinne. tins buce co|spiA)i«cn 

nw ctintrr— J*- 2. is. f. to. <wL i.j 




hair, and he had a scarred ciimson face, and gray sparkling 

eyes. A wounding shadowy spear over him. A black shield 
with a hard rim of white bronze hung at hia shoulder. He 
wore a dark gray long-wooled cloak with a brooch of pale 

fold in that cloak at his breast. A shirt of striped silk lay next 
is skin. A sword with hilt of ivoiTi and an ornamentation 
of gold thread upon the outside of his dress"."" This champion 
was Afunremur the son of Gerdn, chief of the territory of 
Hodarn in Ulster. 

of cotM^i l^'^ i*6xt clann had " a broad-faced thickset champion at its 
head. And he was irritable, and had prominent, dull, and 
squinting eyes. Ho wore yellow, close curling hair. A streaked 
gray cloak nung upon him, with a bronze brooch at the breast. 
He wore a shirt with a collar, descending to the calves of his 
legs on him. An ivory-hilted sword hung at his left hip".'** 
This was Connud the son of JHorna, from Callaind in Ulster. 

of rm The leader of the next clann described by Mac Both appears 

**""'" to be a specimen of manly beauty accoidmg to the herald's 
ideas. No more comely champion had yet arrived, he says: 
and he describes him as having a head of bushy red yellow hair ; 
a face broad above and narrow below [the true Celtic head of 
Ireland] ; a deep gray, flashing, Naming, brilliant eye in his head, 
and pearly white teeth. He wore a white and red cloak or 
wrapper, and a brooch (EtJ) of gold in that cloak at his breast. 
He nod on a shirt of kingly silk, turned up with a red hem of 
gold, next hia white skin".*"* This was Reochaid the son of 
Fafheman from Rigdond in Ulster. 

ot Anar^K The next clann is distinguished by Mac Roth as steady and 
diversifled. " A beautiful, active champion was at the head of 

'"' [original : — V^eA nmnpemup 
colA^C in AiftnuA n* bui-oni pti \ 
foXx: nub c6ba£ fdip, Rtiuif tneoad 
£ofca]i-oa ya&, pore po SWfT 1*'"- 
nepoa tiA chin-o. Sab j^LeC 50 pj]^ 
cATMib uapj. TJubrciat co cjLao 
buitiT) pintmuim ftn-f,, bpacc onon- 
nallaclioArweinime. bpecnar bin 
6ip If in bpucc 6fA bpuinne. Wine 
tpebpai-D rice fpi* enef. cUn-oeb 
CO n-elx4i D ■ofec, *C4I" co n-imoenim 
6prnAit Ap a ecAtj immaic & nei- 
caip.— H. 2. 18. f. (i5. coL l.j 

'"' [original :— taefi ceteplecati 
compemcip m aipinufi nj, burom pn. 
Iffe anij-c ooop'Od. Ife ■oepij-e 
CdpbvA, Cpuntjpop: O'oapva n-aw- 
ipo ma ftinB. l^otc butje podAp- 
faip. CpuiTOfciat 'oeps co m-biU 
CawB apgdic in& imtimcliiutl. 

oapi ; cAe ptitroteftAti, fVejfocA tiA 
tArni. DpAcc piabaA itnme, eo um4 
ipn bpucE 4p A bpuinni. XAm iut/. 
pacAfi 1 £aufcuL ^a |x>pcnib n^, 
Co\.c T>ic iAp nA fiorr-OArAic it,i.— 
H. 2. 16. 1. 69. b. coL 1.] 

<") [original;— nl comcig bftei If 
AAermu nZ in \^tt fAib in«ptnti£ itA- 
buTOfli pin. t^obc c6bA6 oepg buroe 
fAip i AgoB poiim fop\«tAn lAipfi 

pore pOgbAff SOp:Ap"OA, lf6 C41TI- 

TJelTiA 5Ap6dcAi nA Cinn, pep cdip 
cucpumniA ipS pACA pofiAeb poietAti, 
b^ib 'oeip5 tAnAi*e t^eipri wtoic 
mAmWAnemAnoA; coppigelcnepcA. 
CAppan ceboepg 1 pAtM UApu j e4 
6ip ipn "bpucc fip Abpomni. t^e 
■oe fp6b pig inA Bepsfibbiotj ©a 

^T5 ^IVTT' S®'- **i*tf' — H**- '8, f. 
G6. S. CuL 2.J 



this company; he wore a bine, fine-bordered ehirt next hia xxm. 
skin, wiih carved and interlaced clasps of whito broozG, with 
real buttons of bun)i«hcd red gold in ito openings and breast. 
Ho wore above it a cloak niotik-d with l\w splendour of all the 
mow bcauufiU of (toloure"."* This waa Amar^n, tlic son of 
Ecttsalach iho smith, the good pool from the rivur BuaU in 

The nest cJann was tlidt of Feradaeh Fin Fechinaeh of Slebe "f^^^!^^ 
Fuaid in UUt«r, dc94:ribod as a champion entirely fair, hair, hcAj 
ejree, beard, eyebrows, and dress."" 

At the head of the next rnnipany the herald dcticribci " two of n«M« 
•oft youiha with two green doalcB wrapped around them, and •^''•<*"' 
two brooches (Cattdu) of shining silver in these cloaks over 
their brcftste ; they wore two ehirW of smooth yellow silk next 
their Bkins"."" These were Fiachaip and tiackna, the two 
younger bom of king Conchobar himaelf. 

Another clann noted bjr Mac Hoth in his poetical report is of ftjuhat 
deecribed ja " overwhclininfr in magnitude ; fieiy-red in a beat ; ,r*'hii " ' 
a battalion in numbers; a rock in strength; a dcstnictinn in ^'*"'" 
battle; aa ihundor in unpetuuiuty. The cliioAain at its ht>ad 
waa [one certainly of no very enviable style of beauty; for ho 
is described as] "an angry, terrific, hideous man, lonc-nosed, 
Urge^arcd, apple-eyed ; with coarse, dark-gray hair He wore 
a striped clouk.and instend of a brooch, he had asttke {Cfiaitle) 
of iron in that clo^k over hia breast, which rcoohed from one 
shoulder to the other. He wore a coarse, streaked shirt next 
lua skin".*" Thia waj! the great Cettehair Mae Utlmir, from 
Dun-tla-tethglan, now Downputrick in Uli'tcr. 

The next in order among the cliuins of Ulster is reported «' '•"»• 
by Mao Roth as, Orm and furious, hideous and terrible; '* ita ******' 
mder a champion, one of whose eyes was black, and the other 
'^*ite; ft wtynccked man with long handt.; he had brown, thick, 


"^ [oriKinsl I— Ia*c «lAint> afcaio 
Ml dfHiach Dd buram pn ; goftn 

pt« pgfti Ft«A pttDiMiini, gocnayyib 

owb. AC*!' buolXiig wo pM *m>TT. 
bfdTT t>i)mtnAna£ cu m.budto cd£ 
«a£d chdiMTT -H. i. l&f.ftS.i.col. 1.] 
""[iiriiiftili— l.«et T»nob«ioe in 
ojiinuch rid Umxn jvt. pn,? vi\js, in 

pfli* f*in *eif. foic JcAj- jwr* *f^*r 

B.Z. l».f.C6. (i.ool-I.J 

'••'{origiiKj;— -Oiai" tniet 6t1kt 
TO 4«ivinui nAt>aT>ninn. V* T>)ucg 

5*1. AiisAic ir "* bfiaccaib If a 
ihbuunmb; tii l«iic tn tl*imtrt flc« 
bui^x- C|M4 cncffAt^i.— II. 2. 1&. f. ffft 
a. coL 1.1 

ft [nnginkli— If bdtMi-o ^^ miie ; 
If cene x-^an ItttTfi ; tp caC ditUw } 
If aVo lilt nifc; tf h^Ci a|i b)Ji|(iu<o ; 
If co]wiiT)A]t ea|tpi^. f«p F'l^S' 
J**; ujieVmdp, ijicjpim, in Ai{itnn£ 
no buio,ii pn; >r* fpinmap. 6nia|(, 
nbiLl, ivutro ; foLt n-gaph ti-yiwb* 
Acli. Opace ^ibiiin ttnrnc; ouaILi 
lainn ifin bpiitc 6f a bputnni, con 
w\i on cua\.AinD |;» « paiV« v6. 
t*ne Karb tiwVnjm 1^1 inofr-— U' 
3. IS.I. ee.a. cd. l.J 


xxut. curling hiur. He wore & black flowing cloak with a brooch 

of red bronze over hia breast ; and an embroidered shirt next 

hia skin"/**' This was Eirrge Eohbel from BH Erp in Ulster. 

of Mtnd nn We have next a clann with a large Ene man at its bead. He 

%S^'' . had foxy red hair, and foxy red large eyes in hia head, and he 

I wore a speckled cloak.''*' This was Mend the son o£ Saleholgan, 

' from the headlands of the river Boind. 

at rtrgna; At the head of the next clann that came to the hill o£Slanam 

was a chief described as a long-cheeked swarthy man with black 

hah upon him, and long-Iimoed. *' He had a red longwooled 

: cloak, with a clasp of white silver in it, over his breast, and a 

Unen shirt next his skin"."*' This was Fergna the son o£Fiad- 

conna the king of Burach in Ulster. 

oTffmunot Then we have a company described as steady, and different 

ArMd^ from the other companies: "some of them had red cloaks; 

'i'*""! others gray cloaks, others blue cloaks, and others cloaks of 

green, blay, white, and yellow ; and these cloaks all floating 

splendidly and brightly upon them". " There is", said Mae 

Rotk, " a red speckled little boy, with a crimson cloak, among 

them in the centre ; he has a brooch {E6) of gold in that cloak 

over his breast : and a shirt of kingly silk interwoven wi& red 

gold next bis white akin".'"' This was Erco the son of Carpri 

Nia-Fer, monarch of Erinn, and of Fedilm Nueruthaeh (Ute- 

rally Fedilm the ever blooming), daughter of king Conekobar. 

This was the Erco mentioned in a former lecture, at whose 

death his sister Aeaill died of grief, and was buried on the hill 

of Aeaill, so called after her, and now known as the hill of 

Skreene, near ancient Tara. 

ot ciuiM. Lastly a clann is described by Mae Roth, which counted, he 

d'nn!' said, no less than thirty hundred blood red, furious warriors, 

i'<)[origlnal:— lr In bite bnutli- otJOpTxi in itpinufi na burani pn. 

map, Iff' citnguichmap; l^ec [ana- fo\,c Tiub faip; fich babtiva'o .%. 

fam 7 ] bpuafai bolman itiatnmuC caffa faua. bjwcc wef g fa £afUt 

na buTinipn. If hi toCgiefiip, l«ich imme ; bpecnaf bin apjaic if in 

inftint>,Lamfa'oa[in aipinucJi na bu- bpuc 6f a bpumni. bfeni UnT)i fpl 

itMii pn;] rote ■oonij po taff fatp. finerf. — H. 2. 18. f. 6& a coL 2.] 

bpaccoubtuafcaiimme; poficpeoa <"' [original: — If lii fofpno 6efa- 

pn bpucc if a bpuititii. t6ni nepg t*iait pif na buBmb ailc, Aitt bpo- 

fcaiccbi fpi cneff. — H. 2. 18. f. Gb. tec ooipg ; 6itL bpuicc jtaiff , At\X 

a. col. 1.1 bnmcc cuipm, 4itt bpuicc uane, 

<*•> [original :-—T;ep m6p bpefca iti btae [btanal, bina, buroe; iciac 

aipinu£ «a bmoTii fin. ITolc puat)- attc ecpofica uapi. Unisfe^ mac 

"oepgpaip. 86 tD nua'otjepja m6pa tn-bec m-bpecuepscoTn-bpucc top- 

na cbint). Sic5iicnip pi Cpummfrip cpa ecuppu bap mewdn oawerpn. 

mefiip miter) ceicapnai, wina pig 66 6ipipn bpucc 6f abpDinni,l,fiiie 

nofc puan pam6pa raitec taiff. we fpfit pig ba T)ep55inctiiiT> t>e 

Opacc bpecc imme. — H. 2. 18. f. 6ti. nepgop fpi get finepf. — H. 2. 18, f. 

a. col. 2.J 6G. a. coL 2.] 

t**> [origiiud :— taec teccotifoca 

J, cleam, dignified, ciirtwjn faced men. Tliey had long ^""- 
fdlow h»a [upon themj, sploai^d, Wi^ht coimt«iuuice8, 
spttrklin^ kingly ejcs; ■.nd llipy wore glossy, long, flow- 
9DC6, wiui noble brooches (Deilge) of gold, poTe sbiiung 
llets (Ian\dota)t and shirts of stnped afk."" Tliese were 
tea of MuirUmmne, the Iwieditory patiimony of Cuchu- 
I tlw great hero of ihc talc 

iese dcscriptioDS urc Huruly BpociGc enough to afford us a 
Tivid climpee of Otc drCES and acoouticmcnta, aa veil as 
eisoauJ appeannce of th« Gaedhelic vrarrion of two tliou- 
j«m ago. But the same remarkable talc contains much 
Bs on toe subject'^' 

Ariximl^ — HAS ■AECi r]\tchd>- cc«tg« U^«a lc(i«iiuf]*A, o*il^o 

k fttCA pitWroi. griup dLle S. IS. I. 06. ogl. 1.] 
cai I putre peitti piyoiirji j 

^All lli« elomiB w)ioM (Irate ■nd r«rMn4l otn«in»nt« am iltacritxil in thf 
ekag to ih« DItonUn parc^-, ili«r« are. hotmer. 'ion* dncHpliocui, 
I aM m> nut la other part* of ihc tiUe or the Tain B« Ciuail^«, of tlis 
)oa> of Connaclit. uid the mllica of A liiil and 3hiiWi, a few of wltlcb 
p glvva boa. i& onlor to ihow that, w far ftt leuc u that ula li can- 
't Umto bi ao ovidonoc of diflbrvnco of cortumo &ni] *rnu botirvan tha 
«bM in tfa* oorth««] kBd wMtcm Mrt« of ancient Krinn. 
V Ibt ireat comtuit botwocn FtrdiaM and Cuckulaimt, tho latter irai 
I t« rrara Ihnn b«(<iro tlia antmy. and balake hltn lo hia l>ed uf grcfui 
, in order to qtitnin fclicf from thL' fearful wotind* which lia tiiuJ i«celted 
•tnliadk. Ik tiiul not rcmiuncd \oag in tbia [KMition, when tom^ ul liii 
ro fricndi urm-d to hia a«aut*noei llndiog bin), boworor, Ui a rcrjr 
loo* lUtv. ihc}' took Urn awnr to bis nadve MidrUnimM, to whoM 
la and ritut, anil iheplantawhicugrewlii thmn. Die 7'uat^n lit Danaim 
WPinnatcattd bealing prupertiea. _ Tbe nuitca of ihcw tivaltiii: alruima 
—Sua, Bvaai, BilAlain, ruufyitat^ Gleoir. Gttananuitn, Btitp, Titiijf, 
^iLJtmd,Jiir,J3r<i>iiU,JJkaem, .VuacA, J/tAnCi i'omimy, CtUcntt, Gui- 
\, xWb;, Dtil, tJubyla*. WhiU CarJtulaind WA* Ulcing tbo banaflt of 
patwa, the tunou* Cfitntn, wlio wa« doactibgd in l^ctura xv. (vd i_ 
}, aa laaklaf mch baau fr«ni Ui< north to tbe awillaaca of CutAu&tW, 
• ooold onir inD hiniMlf with un iron *idl, arrired. htakiiiK atml^ht 
laanpof Ihc iumdcrf, liknn munioccTcryoue he mci wiiJi 
t,aiMccGeivc4 >n trturn to miuiy vouad*, ttiitt be wn« a[ Icufitb <iUi|^ 
idnir tu wlwrc C-wAuIaind wm« undtfgoing medical trcatmvat. 
ingojrivcO theru. C'tiAeit aakcd C'tKAu/aimtf lo procun hitnaomo nwJl- 
(odaaea. Tbu Utt«r iauaediaielj' compUed wUii bia r«guiwi, iy iiiviltnff 
r (tf nedloal nun from Utecoeaiy'acaiDptocotaeouctubiiii.M nonvof 
iioaiau phydcbma w«r« at the lloia avallaliiH. Thv aunry oorthcra 
Ion, rvodi-cvd fnttful by Lia maii^ wounili, lisu\ do pati«u«e fur (hv dila* 
ilibaratioti* <•( t)i«dDeti>r«,uiflhnari»TdiiigIf ditmiawdtheni with Lluwa 
Donida, aonip, at n^ an> tuM. to u l>«d of mcknata, ^d aom» to death. 
Sina^ tfaereior^ xrnt tiii rhnrioiut^r />m^ far Finuin FulMianlt (or /ur- 
» propticlic Iftcli or plo'nciati), kias CinKAobar Mac \«*t'i't cintt phj' 

lo f'tria tingin tm tbe t>nnf gf J>/»i< /'hqm/, in Qk proacnl cotmtj 
nagli. TNe phjdclan rttuni«d vith tbe lucafcngcr, and the nurator uf 
la aniia himaclf of the dlakgue betircea /Vnyi'n and lUs patient in tbo 
ee al CucAuAuarf, to inttodoce to the nader by detcription* uf tlieir 

drtsf, pertuual ontannuu and arm*^ aeveral of tbe cljampiooi of tbo 
VOL- U. 7 


or fiftSSa AKD ORy&llENTS IB AVClKtn KHIKK. 

j »tu. At tlie opcninc of ilit pillow controvcriy alrendy spoke 

twlwccD queen Aledlh and Kor consort AiUU, toe initated 


iavtding forec TbeM dMctlptbwi (t li, which It Is pwpowd lo add (7 my 
or uipiiloinent to thoae of Uae RoiJk Id tb« Wit. 

"Tba pltyaidin ImtIiik anlred at CBiAfnt'i beil, tlw btt«t eiblUU hta. 
wouDda to htan one bj odc, nnil aski his opinion ol each. 

T^S^T r^S^" '" P"^ V^ '■ P^' " f Win GJtuDLoie^ thai UiMil: 

ban tti Uaig, cc*]- nl bR]v«o immn- 
cliA. If T*r ^*' *^ ^"P Cschepn, 
worn T»4C«i'* "*"' fPT *"''> cui»- 
mJiiW F*ipi bpacc 50pm i pLliuw 
immc, wcl^ "-dfjic ij* in bfucc 
A^d b^kumne ; C|tDmmfcidch go 
^aebuiv doiTHii'LA* ; fiip r'-*E 
euifpino in na ULim, r^gA fAL-ga- 
blavgc n.i iraptiAT). X>o ocpc in fuiV 
j-din. Iturrotn piit iti*bic u^rrife 
n6. Rd c* p)^*mini*]\ in r*!* r*'"i 
4i« biji CotuCaimj,— ilV«iit> il-if 

Uini.— H. S. IS. £ 01. coL 2. 

f*S* Voce vam in riiiV fco t)n4, & 
MO popA phtngm, bajt Cccbopn. 
T*ftA«r pncin in pitV nn : b^n 
caIa Daniidl-AA 4110 fo, «!« b^t« in 
Lidtg. If ftp Am, Ale haj\ Cechrpn, 
«otn|iiaCcra wen ben an-o, ben 
6J.*n blnAin«<, l«cc4n j«ca mAt<< 
moHMj 6ji btiiDft fU|t|ti ; bjwic e«p- 
0^ gwiwjlti "npi, ftA Alp If in 
bpucc 6r d btvuin-ni; fl^g XMpiuC 
opatnnei «iv wcpgl^jfTflo ha Uim. 
tlA bene in trail pii, i:o|\mrA; ]iuc 
p jiill m-bic UAimro^ 116. n«Cd> 
p»CAmtn4iMn mnai pn, ite bai* Cut- 
alamo, — TneBbinttn e-c1i4iT> Jt-iw- 
lig, injcn aivoiMg n 0]1ctih, ap va 

Cl*£c p4n con spam mumpn. Ija 
uoio ocaj" <i>f«on o-c*]- tOTTimw- 
wiwm l« 514 00 r4ie<i|rccru ^>* 
Uin4ib.-U. a. IS. ftii. i;i.k.ii.col. I. 

Pffi* l«cc n«in in piitfc no 4 mo 
jiopaFlimi5iii,b4i»Ccc>ieTin. F**4ir 
i-Nnjin in fuiLr^m : — Jali* ca (en- 
not) inn to, ate bap in liaig, ij- j-ip 
im, bap Cecliepn, twnnpiaiCiCap' 
fA "Oi«r 4T10, "oA t^hoxtmAiXt rupaib ; 
o^ b|\4cc A gopma 1 ptlmia im^u; 
welgi J,]\j;4'c 'I" 14 &ir4CC4*b 6]- a 
ni-bpunn^u ; nMinAob|u£ 4peic oen- 
pl im bj^jgic iaftCAipnii vm. M- 
CA FCCJininap in ^if pjin^ aI« b4p 

ia a liKli-t!i»g voonii', 
jJiyaician, 'nivi il wiU not cam 1 
otr voir aoon'. "rnia*, aaul CiUw-^- 
*■ lingla man approacmd bm tlisra: 
a btno oloik vrajkped woond him. ■ 
bnrach of iHya ia that clonk at hii 
teeuti ft entrred *hield oitb iharii 
cured edgaa npoi hia alMQldcr; k 
flMh-aeeUng aJuA (or light *pc«r) in 
Us bull, and a r'lW'i FnryaMMpt (or 
a mtaU doira-htwJed ajiearj nev it. 
It w«a b« thai garv tliit wouiidt nd 
he^t aalightwoiindfromme'. <W« 
know that man', mi^ CuiAuIauMl, ' ha 
U IBand, the aooompllsbed mirior, 
•onof FarjrNhUid liawaaDotdotinfu 
that tboa abouldat fall Iv hla band*. 

" ' Look at tbia blooi [voiudj for 
inp, mjr iiood /Vityui', faid Ceti4n. 
fm^ axamliml tliia hlood : ' Thia it 
tho daad cf a hatislity w-oman', aaitl tho 
l^jratciaa. *lt la true', aaU CeUm*. 
• then cama to pm os« bcaotiAil, paie, 
lotiK-faccd, woman, wlBi (oqk Howins 
joldea ;«lldw hair upon ]i«fj [i)i« hHl 
a urimMn cloak, wini a broecn of gold 
in that cloak orw Iwr btvttli a 
itnught-rtiked itts^ (or lljtbt apear) 
Uazing ml in tier faaod. &bo it 
wiu thut itarc tao tlint wouotli and 
»lie got a aligbt wound ff»m ni«'. 'Wa 
know that womaa w«ir, aaid Cvdm- 
luind, ' abc ia JVetttU, (li« duogbCir 
of EtJiatd Ptu/ty/, tli« dani^ter of 
ihe hltth iSDg of Hrtnn [and timo 
of ConoachtJ ^ U ia ahv that game thai 
unto ma. Sh» would hAT«deoincdits 
^rvaC f ictory and a Uiumph that Utou 
tJinuldat hav« fallen hj lior liaadt'. 

" ' Look at thla blogj fwouuitj for 
mu, my bqoJ /mp«*n', add CttAtrn. 
Fi'i'^in fXAwintd that blood: 'Tbia 
Is the dLs.1l uf two chaoiplaoaV 
■aid thu iilivMciiui. ■]! tt tnw in> 

dei-il', !Mit] <*C(Arrn ; ' tWD KWil aUBB 

to uie llii'TL- n-ith two gloaiy curled 
li»id> uf luiri tiro bliM duaka wrapped 
around ihem ; broocbe* of ailtar ia 
the uloaka over their brcaata ; a chain 
of brlfht Bllter around Tlie nock of 

CBcutainv,— oil oc4r Ocnm* fam, each of tLem'. ' Wc kuo* Uica3 iwo 

or ontss asd odhamkntb iv ancient ekikit. 


i]i)ccn docs not hesitate to my to her husband, iJi»t ttlie had 
paid htm a high coinplimcnt, when she selected him &g her 

tft.— H. K. IS. r. Gl. Ii. L eol. I. 

fti* L«ec OAm TT1 puiVr^o no a mo 

pngin tn piilf^iin :— OoPijtidecA- 
CAfT' Qtdif 6ac T^nmp 4n^ con- 

ttdi w^bpuw. (Tedair pngi" i« nut 
pn. Oob mLs. in fmli*o, Ale »wf 
TnliAtg. CT»t ^^i*rt>« oo tpaeAip waic 
CO (v-oepna tyiovf Tjib tpic fproe, 
OC«f nt pipidraimiYA ic«: Ant>fo ; 
" l«o s*tMm«>r« oAicreo vo U>f- 
lect eeAf r^nroit nt (iaAak 
;Atr immaCA. fUcA f«canimAr 
11 olr r^'^ *^ ^^P CucuLAinv,— 
\)vn ocAf lYtrcconn r«"». '" fA"», 
•nuncip OnULl^ o^aj* IMcwta. 1>a 
os^iu^c l*o ge*vop,ieCoiccip> oa 
tjAIAlb.— U. 3. 1ft. f. 61. b. B.«oLl. 

pe<4 Iac vun m pnVfCA tio a mo 

^pA puglfl. Ap ^:pr^«pn. ^ecIlAlr 
V»"5"i '" piilfAin ; — Mppji^uattin 
ttAfigcAiLLe AitipJ. aLetup in Liaig. 
Ir pr •i"'! 1>A[> C«cliepti, ODinpiA:^' 
CACApfA Di 6<t«6 Aii;pnnA AbfAC- 

NArn ; T>A )>1^A^7 UAn^ lp>]t<tpul 

intpq I oA tij^in getAfi^e if da- 
b|MCCAib JfA Tn-biwnmb; VAfLeig 
CBicpinni inA UmAib. tr imniAicp 
■u evil vo bc|^CACA1^ fupic, AbebAf 

tn U«<S: K ir*er ^X' '"«CAH VAIC, 

on <!qmApa»cgACAii |<««mA ha ti-^aa 
inniHc, ocAf (li hAfpi Aicc AMBfo. 
Ha CA pfCAMiHAii in xtif fA'n, bjf 
CocoUiitn). bpoHi OCA)* biiv«ni 
rwn, meM; Cbco|>* SoiLlp, o« niAC 
fi'ij; CAitVe. bA buAit), tKcc CofcU)*, 
o«Af 6om«Amb t«o cia «a cAo 
eAlTCepi 1*0.— II- 1. IS. £ BL h. a. 

Is I4 

fMA Iacc bam tn f iiiL|-eA na a mo 
^ofM r^tnpn, A|i Cech^n. FoCait 

Einpn in piil Tain ; ConmgAr «Am- 
|McTi«n ADOfo, aW Sajt ID ViAtg. 
If T*!* *"•• l*Aji C«chppn i T>«mmA4- 

men «'ell', ul<t Cvtlmtaind, ' tbcj nra 
Off Aii>I OHim4,ot ihe ipedikl Iii>um» 
lioia of .1^.7/ AiiJ .yftdAW. 

'"Lo<di M thii Uood [wouiul], for 
nw, (nj Hood ^Tn^V. old C<(A«rn. 
fityii, looked at that blood, [nnl C«- 
CAfn uid] ; 'Tbnro oiirni? to me two 
younit warriare, who huTO not a* .vet 
coin« to full mnnhixHl : each of Ibcoi 
tbrutt A rp\% into mc, nnd 1 wounded 
euh of tbcm ta ictorn with ihU apit'. 
/VnjTtn oxunincd tliat Uooil Lwoandl. 
' Tbii blood b all bluk', uid tlio 
plijr^dftn. 'It wu tUrougb Ihjr 
Mtrt tli^ fiora»l lhc«, m llut they 
Ibrawd I. «R)M ifl iby he«tt, and L 
fluiDOt praaonim r eun Iimd; but I 
can praouT* fbr ttiM incli plants of 
taealinK ind iitirins pmp«rtics ai thull 
»Tt ttiw from na cnfly (Iralh*. • Wo 
kiwir tliCM two nwo", »atd t'ucAu- 
JaDvi/, ' thty ore J^mii and .V*fcd>in, 
ol the ipecinl liautctiotd trouiM of 
A mil luii] MtiiM. It Kould bo jiImw- 
'uxg to tliciiii tital titou *lii>ulil«l Tvnrico 
tiiy AiaAli itounda fhnii tluur lianda'. 
'" Look at IhU wound for Fi>F,mr xood 
/'liniyii', auid CeJ/irrit. f'mifai lookij 
ut Ibi* blood [wouudi]: 'Ibmi urn 
tliu red tusli ot two wiwdriDga', MJid 
Iliu ImcIi ' True', Mid Cctfarn, ■ ilicru 
caniii bJ DW two fair-(nood ruutha, 
Willi luitd bliM «f** and wilb gr^Mvu 
diadem* on Ihmit; two green cluii^ 
wtapjwil urouiid tbimi , two hpoochoB 
of bMiibl nitvLT in ilu-u' clonki oivr 
ibelT brcaAis; and two (iL^h-aEnk- 
b>)c ipoira in their bonda'. ' Tho 
woudJ* tbcy linvc ipTtn lli(« an 
inriilblo wonndi : it <a down thy 
Ihrual tliuu liati nx.'^rvil limn, wlitva 
tbti piiinl* of tlie »[>nan met witliiu 
thcv. and a cure ia not rjiy hvic'. 
' Vt'o know thcao two wtll', mi'l Cm- 
c^h/oiW. 'tJiey nre Droi» »nd IJ-tiiiin, 
of tlie houwhoCd jootha of Ttora 
SoilUi, t1i« two soni f)I tlic kliis of 
CaUk. liter would uuiuidtr it n vic- 
torj, sad a trlnniph, and a Muao ol un I- 
Tcnu sxuluifaRit tiiat (Imu abouLdf t 
KOtfirttby death wounilafrom Ilicm'. 

"'look at this blood [iroundl (or 
me, D17 Kood J-'iHgim', tald CftMtrn. 
t'mijin \ot.M»\ at that btood Iwound j. 
' Tlili It iho joint dtxd of twobratbon'. 
Mid ifao pli)-«iBiA&. 'True iiKloed', 
Mid Cithtm, ' tliMe ciuiie two kingty 

7 Ji 




.hnsband, w)i!Io lie was only a younger eon of the king of 
Lcinstcr; aad she rcmintU hun Uuit ehc bftd prcKOlcd turn sC 

bflTOft rorp<>i t>|tuirc oBbsi^rr* 

fi Voir < fts^ciKfl- in*pu 1 i>cl>gi 
vuiiV«^ oo tin'oitiiiiiiii ir **A l)|%ac> 
CAib 6x * m-o|«u«mb; tninAip L»- 

c«cdmmd(i HI oif ratn, 4U> b«|t Cucn- 
Winoi CopniAC [mac] coU>fiij|ii5 

^o fainmuncip AiUta otaj- TMcn- 

l>4. lU OUAUAE l^O CCA «0 JA«- 

eAnxoni «4 t6ni&ib. — H. S. 16. L 81. 

fecliA Ukcc ti4Tn in pj^Vf** HO « 

el>4ir P^K*" '" f«ilf.Mn I— ^ccAd 
■o* fi-oejibf jtf jp anwfo, jf in l.i«ig. 

ir r'p <""■ *^ ^r ccciicpn, t>i>ni- 

lM*ficap''a T>i«r "i***'* o-cUW on'», 
tciac c<>mifti-ni«ll,c t>ibl,»iiaib, folc 
Cdfl* ba|« in nAfA ndi T>^b, folc 
CAffbmoa ba^ .iridil« ; oa b^ucc 
vdnme 1 libpcijial, impu, «j tap 
T*n 5*1. *|igic If tta btvAccitib 4f 
4 in-bpoTiib; oa Umi w« fl^tnain 
f«r* bu'w* ri"* cHtffra'b i cl^ivbi 
5«l.i)UifTi yap a cperj-aibj «ia gel 
TCiaC CO coagmiliab ap^C piTOi 
ftipaib ; Ofl fl-cig cuicpniw go ye^ 
caTiaib appr ocnpl- in* Uinaib. 
Cnculamo, — mAn«ina£|\emailfain, 
ocAf manft ACiicfnailt ti* ma* AiliU 
ta ucaf meobi. Oc«r '>**'"*«> *"<^T 
concur OG«r commatninm l«o £a« 
H) -natitrcffp vi. Umaib.— U. i> 


t»tA tac oam in pnlii'Mi 4 mo 
"popa ir>iinpn, bap Cechopn, t>om- 
1iia£cap 'Diar oac rdimc anv, 
eontignam n-*cpv*, ice *papoa 
ffffva-ro* ropfo, tiraige atlmapoa 
inngancacna trapo. Cumattt^ bi|\ 
mninmrii c«Ccap'*ai vlb, cvniann^ 
rA(bip)cpt cbeCcajina^ uibitum, fe- 
e«17 ITingin iti j-uil jan^ : »Jcai"ainp 
»ia pitti pa bopc«ea]i (."Opc, ale ajt 
*n ^'a'S. goivaa jtuboaca^ T^e« oo 
t^itTio tmiioc, C0ITO4 n-tmbm x>o 
*iiroe ic eliab, imman nbiilL > ra- 
biiVli ni map C«fcii n -rirbulj, 
CO «a* fail, r«i4 iciji igi imrmi- 
Itmngr oc*f »il oepjtnaimro Icc 

champlotu la nw^ «hh rdlow Twir 
spoa tlivm ; black gny lUokka with 
friiigg* wnppod iToafld ifcmi; aud 
IbUftlad braochw iif Fiminiumi ift 
thvir dnlu u th«ir bmatt : bfOMl 

EoQ ilfutu4 («r f|NMn) tai tha^ 
tSa.'. • We know cbot two Tttr 
mir, Mid (WMaM, 'tbrr ore 
C«r*M<, [aanon CaXoaian];. wid C't- 
B<M, the loii or M«^*foiKa, aS lb» 
«p«eUl faOMeboMor JiA^Jaod UntUk. 
It woold be ddigbtTuI to thocn tba* 
thou ahoold*! receive ihy death wotiad 
u tlMJr huilt'. 

'•Look at tlii* hlooa [wOTud] Ibr 
Bi«, IDT good Futftn'f Md Cuiant. 
/Vm^ih loofegd at that Uood r«>MUMjJt 
"ThiBtBthadM-ilortvnbrotiMn', «U 
tin phjriiciaa. ' Truo Indeed*, mM 
C<(A4m, ' ihcro cuhq two TOtuif war— 
lien to mo reaHnblinfc ea<Jt odwr, on* 
had codine [daf kj tinir. nnrtlbrtnihar 
cnrUng rdkiw liidr ; two gram doaka - 
■mpped arotiiKl Umoi, with two 
brooclio of briglit ftilrcr In thdrdo^ 
alll>o)r bnpni j tiro wft mootli lUfte 
of yellow «llk to tli«ir akia ; t<ii> hn^ht 
hillel •wonit at tliiiir gtrdlpaj two 
bright ilUeli!* with rMlonJufa of 
brijilKiaTerapiici LbeiD:8nd twolMb 
Ncklag aJIr^lt (or liKht *|Kwn) wllh 
brigh [ Toininn uf pvre brij^t (ilrn OB 
Uieir hiuiillM'. 'We koow Umm two 
TCrjr wdf, eald CveAnlau^, •ibiqr 
aro Mam Uaii/ematl, and J/mw 
JrfmKu4 two lotM of AUm and 
MedK&A. Ad<) ilioy would deem It ■ 
r-clorr, and h iriitwpb, aod a caaaa of 
vnlrenal cxtduiinn, that Ihuaafaouldrt 
(all ty their handi*. 

" ■ Look at this bl oodlbr nw^ lay good 
/w7in',iald CafAtra. 'Thtncamoto 
DM there two jauog champioBi vUb 
dear, nohl^ iiuatj> IcatoTM, and with 
wondcrfDl ntrctga clotha* upon theoi. 
Each of thorn tbriul a apit into nM^ 
m\A 1 si-nt thli spii iou nwh of ihoa*. 
/Vfiyin oiaiuineil tlie wound* [bkiodl: 
'Thof have iuflictcddanitniMi* wooodi 
on lh««r, aaid the phjuciaa, ■ Ibr th«r 
ban aeTor«d the atrings of thy h*m% 
within thw, lo that it plaTi in thv 
bndjr like an a|)ple la the air, or a ball 
of thrvad Id an eaptj Mick, ao Htmt 
tht» ta not a atring nutaJuiag it, and 
I cannot pt<(4nu an; euro In Uiia 

outset with twelve suits wf robes, a chariot -tpoith three , 

M aevetx cumals (or rixty-tlipec cows), the breadth of his fate 
vi soldi and a bracelet o^ Findruine or carved white iiinisu - '- 
rer oroDze) lo fit his left wri«U<*^ The breadth of hia face 
■ed ^old spoken of liete, and of which wc shall have ooca- 
I to Fpoak again, was doub(l(»s one of those duep creK«nta 
red gold of which th«r« arc so many magnificent specimciu 
lervcd in our national museum in thu Royal Imh Acadcmj. 
Lgain, when queen Mtdbk is inducing one of her warriors, 
led Lon^ Mac JCmtmU, to Gght Cucnttlaind in single com- 
, she "pmraiaes him great rowarda, namely, twcRe euite oii»m*»- 
robes, and a chariot worth four times seven cumaU or jvmwu'm 
ity-four cows, and her (kughter S'mdabair to wife",'*" And JjJJrtJ,** 
in* when queen Mtdbh Bummooed Ferdiadli to light CutJiu- 

ro. ItA c« Fec«m44k tn v^ fAin, place [bcrc\] ' Wc ko«v thow two 
b*H Ciicui«int>, mar T*'" *"* '^^ w*U', i«id Cm^tlainJ, ' t\t»j n« 

choice clmmpioni ct Irruttdt 

n cotfc o aiblt ucAj- u nicitib 
r£a Iacc iMm in piiLfe no a mo 

^ngin in ye-iK, foin no : Imjtii- 

wnc otu)* 4t4n lAnvpo, aL« d|\ 
ui;. If f^p AtJi, liAp Cech»pti, 
ipMtcdpra x>j fep m6pa, gaiti- 
' vvpoa *no, go ntmndib 6ip 
UnuiS tt^p*) eivpi«T> pi^attFi 

■i c1^K»bi 6pvui]ui inct^fp 

« «]wi<r«^b> s" r*pb<»isj'D 

le *•• pt, Ko TptcUftwiieAtb oip 


[KorwajrJ trlio w«tu utit ipvcialty br 

^i/^; find iUilM va kill tlutf. 

■"Lvoli lit Uiit yood {^irauodlfur 
me, mj good /'imrn', miJ C<U«rn. 
/'•ihTin 0X«tnlae<l um blood [wouoiJb] 
anilwid : ' Thi« la lite Jeial plcrdag of 
a tathei and ton', «a)U tlie phj'iiciau. 
' Trurf. ■aid CfiAmt. ' Oiete cani« to 
me there two lurice incn vitli llAiiiInK 
ejet, li«vi»|! dixdt^nia uf liwtruui gut J 
on their baatlajwith liinulj' drM« upon 
tbem, witli loiig fpM hlltM virordi at 
their RirdlMi lo scabbunU of bright 
wni1«An«£c«<ii. nAC«pacAin'< thlnlOK nlnr, vllh (ivlttii|[t of mot- 
n vip raiii| «le bap cuc«l^in<D, ttcd %wd on tDBiT lover caJ^. ' We 
It «caj- a m«c pd<n m«n», cvn- know |hctct»orcry well', tBid CucAit- 

Uiiitd. 'they uw ^i/i7/ knd hi« ion 
Main/, who tiave in Dieted ihoM 
wooud* uiwa tliw- Thev "oulJ iliink 
^ta. col. S. it ft rlctorj- tuicl a irliuiiiih, uid a cauts 

^H of nnircnd exalutiuu, thit tliou 

■ •bouldrt Ul by tboit huub' ". 

^■tlMantllnr tlw luifaTonnble o^nion iironoanDcd bj Fingia upon Mmo 
||K**« wuuud*, be •uccacdcd, ire ant told, in curinit hin, or at Iva*! La 
■■g him (o ahan again in the cvofiict. Tbia fa« U nid lo have done b; 
HI of a enrioiu bath fonned of tba ■naireir of a gi«at DUmbifrT o( ceva 
!h CWclsfniarf had kiUod fur Iho pnrpoM. The plitoa wlierv Uiia batli waa 
ar<d i«celTnl tbe natiio of SmiramaiT or the lunow-baih, which la alill 
wnA in (hat of toamiorc in bh« coual/ of Louih.] 
''[ariciaali— C«eApa co^ acap <*" fdni^uiKl- — ^etlar mi»T>btit07(> 
tctn vwrc Aihait ai* oech c^c 6omA no, .1 cimCcCc c« T«p vej 
nnii( .». cimch** wi fcpoCc ti'*- 00 ecsoti, ocjf cappac ceCr*» r*^ 
cappacrpi r«tc cutViaU com- ctimaC otaf p"'o*b*ip vomnaoi". — 
ic l^-al£chl no vopg up, com- Prof. (yCutrjr'a cmij. foL&SofH. 2. 
HI 00 pi^frA til no pnwopuim. 18, wUdi nait me eoslsliwd thU 
' ~8. t. 41. b. a. ccL 1] painage, U nam apparently wtntlnj.] 

ji^b uLe. ba btiato ocap co^ 
aoap eoinmaimam l«a g«A po 
i«rTi»T« ma Umaib.— 11. 3. J*, 
col. S. 


»"". laind in that great combat deacribed in a former lecture,'"* 

_ fij^ich proved fatal to himself at A Ik Ferdiaidh (now Ardee) 

if^ are told that when he came to the queen's pavilion, " he 

waa honoured and supplied with the bert of f(>od, and plied 

with the choicest, most delicious, and most exhilarating 6i 

liquors, until he became intoxicated and hilaiioua. And he 

oiftipro- waa promised great rewards for undertaking to fight and com- 

£«um'o bat, namely, a chariot worth four times seven cumaU or eightjr- 

Ftrdiaoh; ^^^^ cows; and suits of clothes for twelve men, of cloth of aQ 

colours; and the size of his own territory of the smoothest part 

of Magh ^i (in the present county of Roscommon) free of rent 

and tribute, and of attendance at coort or upon expeditions; 

without any forcible exaction whatever; and to his son and his 

grandsons and great-grandsons to the breast of eternity, and 

end of the world ; and the queen's daughter {Findahair) as 

his wife, and the brooch {jE6) of gold which waa in (queen) 

ons ofthra. MedlKi mantle over all that", or, aa she is made to say in the 

b-trti. copy of the 2H«i preserved in the vellum MS. H. 2. 16. T.C.D.: 

li^nm " "ty epear brooch {Puillend-Dealc) of gold which weighs thir^ 

low poonda. Ufiqag (or ounccs) and thirty half Ungat and thirty CroaaacKt^ 

and thirty quarter [CrMsac/ta]"."*" 

Persona often find it difficult to believe that some of the gold 
bracelets and silver brooches to be seen in the museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy could, from their massiveneas, have ever 
been worn as personfd ornaments; but after this great gold 
brooch of queen Medbh, which, according to our calculation, 
must have weighed more than four pounds Troy, we need won> 
dcr no longer at the weight of those that have come down to 
us from those remote ages. I have indeed so frequently had 
occasion to refer to the uae of these large heavy pina in nar- 
rating more than one historical event or anecdote, that I need 
scarcely insist on the abundance of evidence we possess aa to 
the use of brooches even larger and heavier than those in 
the museum of the Academy : and there is in fact a fiiagment 
of one such ^Iver brooch in that museum, sufficient to show 
how easily queen Mocha Mongruadh might have marked out 
the tracing of the great JiaUi of JBmania with hers, 
."lory of i/ae There 18 another curious reference to the imaginaiy costume 
"^ " ' of an imaginary individual, preaerved in the heabhar M6r Ihina 
JJoigkre (now called the Ijeabkar Sreac) in the Royal Irish 

<«» [See I/ect. XIV., anie, vol. i., p. 303; and also Appendix, wbetie the 
whole episode descriptive of thii fight is given,] 

f-"' [See Appendix, where the original of this pusage will be foond u 
part of the lest of the whole episode of the comhatof C'ucAu/aMc/ and Fer- 
ftiadh 2 




Actdomy; 1>iit, slthough the item u imagimuy aa regnrdfl itt 
matenak (indeed of the raoet ludicrous character), the dcacrip- i^2i^" 
tion given of it is not the leM tnic tnd valuable u regards tho ' ™ 

names ami the destination of the different articks spoken of. 
The tract in whlcli we find this reft-ronoe, is of b rcry wild 
charaotei. I have already briefly alluded to it in a formei k-c- 
ture,'*" but I shall have to refer here to some parts of it mora 

The rtoiy oommcnoei with ioforming us that about the time 
^vbich it refers («y about the yenr 740) there were at the 
college of Armagh eight divinity students, who in aAer 
fo became diatinguiflhcd personflgea in tboir country. One of 
these studunte was Aninr Jfac ConglimUt a youth not more dis- 
tinguished for hi^ litGrary acquirements, than ho was for hta 
nalurol tftlcat and his inclination for bitter sarcasm and satiricaL 
rhyming. Mac Comjlinde after eome time discovsitd that his 
vocatiou for the Church was doubtful, while his prefcrcnoo for 
poeuy and hislory wag every day becoming more and more ap- 
parent At Iiwt he retired from Armagh and remrted to hia 
foTRicr tutor nt RoeoommoD, where he devoted liiniself for gome 
time to the culbration and nudy of hia favourite pursuits. At 
Icugth he bctJtonght him of the best place in wliich to com- 
inenee hJs practice in hi» new character; and having heard that 
Catftal Mac Fttuf/iutne, king of Munstcr (who died in 742), was 
sidTerin^ from a demoniac, voracious, uDsppeasable appetite, 
he decided upon ixu-ing Iiim a visit and enucavoui to cure him 
of his malady. " With this intention Mac Congtindi", tJie etory 
mtSt " sold the few cflccts that he poaeewcd for two wheaten 
cmlces and a piece of cured beef; tlicse he put into his book- 
WBllet; afler which he shaped for himiielf a pair of Cvarans, or 
aboeA, of brown leather, seven times doubled, lie arose early 
tbo next morning ; tucked hia T^inidh above his hips; he put on 
hi« white cloak el five doubles, firmly wrapped about him, and 
with on iron pin {Milech) in that cloak at tm breast.'*" Thus 
accoutred Jifae Congtinde went on to Cork, where he heard the 
king of Munster was malcing a vi»tndon of his territories; and 
adcr some adventures he Ibutid hinufclf in the royal preeeoce. 
Tlu: young poci hod tlien recourse to various devices to draw 

'*" Sec Lect. IV., .mk^ vol. L, p. 81. 
***' [original; — lip yn {wcav tn 

cbocttc fcn-i'ft»lle CO cYfp o4[i 
t*ar '^r; TI4C pn IDA £eig tibdi]^: 
*c4r cumATr 'DiCvApon coppo co- 

tto in d^fo l>i>t AcTwAc mocli 

in &pogAb.iilAf tnrlXub a l^pve; 

cocttolcA I ropcip^l imm« ; mtlccti 
>anii«ieT> u4ru in« tmun.^£«aUar 
&MC t Vt. a.) 

_ forth tbu demon wliicb it xrns believed liiul taken up lus (bode 

>Hr*«< j(M in the lcio|;'e )>toiiiftc1i snd tormented him witli an unappewable 
' appctjh:. One of thv (Icvloea to which he bad recoime wm, to 
exDibit to tiw oyc» of the kin^ food of the moit tcmptins chaiv 
actcr, but, Tontulua-hke, in such a way u t]ul although it came 
up to hi« lipH, he hud not tlic power to touch it. Another oThia 
platu waa to give ft vivid and tofmenbEic; dctcdption of pleatf 
of viands and sumptuous food whicli he nad eeen in his dieama 
or his itnaginadon. Nothing can be more pvtcsquc or extra* 
Tftgant clian thie description as preserved in tlie piece before ua. 
But though it is impossible not to laugh at it, it contains how- 
ever much detail of quite serious importance with refemice to 
Durjircaent subject. 

Tlte extravagance to which I altuJe may be judged bj the 
oomtnencetnant of Mac Conglinde's bIotj to the king, in which 
he describea how he was carried to Iiis droam to a lake of new 
milk, in whicli stood an island of whcaten bread, and a manuoD 
built of butter, cheese, sweet curds, and various kinds of pr»- 
pHrations of milk, aa well aa of many aorta of fl^^^^h and fleshy 
substances. Ha\'ing ranched the brink of the laice, he found 
there a little boat made of fat beef, and well graved with 
auot, wit}i seals of ewcct curds, with pruw of laru, with stetn 
of butter, with sculLs (or paddles) of taarrow, and with oars of 

Having found himself rowed over in this singular eqtiipage 
to this lingular inland, Mac Conrflinde landed and walkca up 
to the mansion, where he met the doorkeeper; and of lum 
he spoaks in these wurdu, in which the most minute account 
is giron of the several articles of drees worn by such a fuao- 
tionary, and in which the only absurd pordon cousisls of the 
ludicrous character of the materiaUt of which they were sup* 
poised to have bc«n made. 

*• ComoLy was the face of that young man", said il^iu Con* 
«itiutudT«w glinde; " hu oame was MeuifaiUe (Uiat is, a pcnon dedicated to 
klcpwt'^ fat meat), and he was the son of MatUmmt (that ia, of a person 
dedicated to rich butler), who was the son of rich lard. There he 
stood", conljnucs Mac Conc/linde, " with his smooth .^saai or 
eondala of old hune beef upon his feet; wilh his OcUrath or 
trews of sweet ciiros upon nis shins; with his Juar (tunic, or 
fiock) of fre-sh fat cow-beef upon his body; with his C'rts or 
girdl« of ealmon tish around nim ; with his Cothall, or cape, 
of TtfMoicM, or fat heifer beef, upon his shouUU'ra; with oia 
aeven Corniu or garlands of butter urouud his hcoil; with 
his acven rows of onions in each garland of them sepamtely ; 
with his vi\ea epistles of sausages around his nock, with BUU 

tlcm of m 


1 ebftll not ftt present follow Mac CongUnd^t hiunaroUB dei 
eripUoQ fftrther. I^et us »top to analyze the doorkeeper's drcfs, 
to predsely tad mtautvlv itutcil, and, abelracting irom it tlie 
tbuirdilies of the ranciiul maCRriuls inentloneil, we caa very 
euily ckll ap tlic image of a man in tlic costume of the time. 
Afid in iact it happens, most ftinguWljr, witli ihe exception of 
the Hojukls, the girdle, the garlandfl, and what is called the 
EpiMtU or necklace, there is still in existence in the Museum of 
tiw Royal Irish Academy an ancient and most t'uilhful copy of 
the doorkecpcr'e dre^s: that is, as regards the principal urciolca 
of which it contoBtud, namely the trcwB, the frock, and the cape, 
or those last three articles of dress it isquito iinncce»ary to 
M>y any more here, as they come within the knowledge of 
erefT one. Wc all know tliut tlie Coehall is the ordinary capo uw a«i«ltf 
or luort cloak for the shoulder, such as is worn at ihu day. 
Secondly, the Inar, or tunic, ia almost identical with the tight, •*• aw^ ( 
mibtoiy frock of modem times, but without a collar of any ^ 

kind u far aa we know. The third article of the dre«8, the ^ 

OcAmfA, or liewti, woe a very graceful fashion of tighl^Iitting »< oatrwA: 
pantaloons, reaching from the hip« to the ankles Thew three, , 

it will be remuiibeii:i], were the principal articles of Jfoc Con- m 

oA'iuie'e doorkeeper's dress, and they are sniBciently explicit. 
Not >o, however, will) Mae Coiuilinde'a own diesB, oa deacribcd mmItiIi m 
at the opening of the tale. Then;; we are told Uiat Uie night j^llh-v"*' 
before hisdcpaiturc for Koscommon, our youn"- poet made t'or''^"*' 
hinuulf a pair of Cuarant, or shoes, of brown leuthor of" seven 
doubloa. Me arose in the morning, and of counc dressed him* 
relC The purllculars of the drcisB ore not giTCn, but we ore 
told that he tucked tip his Ltinidh orcr his hips, and wrapped hULd^uk. 
bin wliite cloak around liis body. Here we have no account 
of the pantaloons, nor of tlic frock, because they were close 
fitting orticlce, that tc<|uircd no tuokbc up to iocilitatc tlie 
tnveller's motion. T1i>.> while cloak does not demand any 
potticular attention ; hut the LtinicUi which he tucked up above 
nis hipn, is on article that has not hitlicrto attracted the notice 
of any writer on Irish antiquities. 


'••1 [«fif;lDil :— Ija cam B«lb >n6- 

blonp, cotu ApTJib j-Wmn* inw- 

EAiU* imcL bvnnu; con* ochf aib vo 
<ii»o fcAibUnc inwVdiigib ; cotiA 
b-nwp bo-fdiLLe immci cona cpr 

*\X oie4|'V4ra tmm* ; conA all. cwv 

TubunnfflWIAclwtVi WCd)■bACA|^ niV 

f*tno wbfl«e f«l*cti; conA .»ii. 
ii|.«ytf lib T>» eaeUinu irbiil p" bjiA- 
CA1C, Con& .aW. m billc va bUmAig 
bituO ft>ti mnv caCa h-rpifl) «ib- 
jtxnn—U<iiiiaT Bnac, f. 100. b.] 




ti<)tir«DIi tlu 

— iha Ult«r 

ot tti« ilinia 
Df Uwchiun 
t-lnn jrJcA* 


The word Leine, thonph written in two different w&ys, __ 
aignifying two different Uiines, is and must be iarariablr pro- 
nounced the some way. Wncn it aignilics a sbirt, as ii does at 
the present day, it ia wittcn LHw; but when, as in the present 
case, it signifies a sort of petticoat or kilt, it is then writum 
LMnidh; but I am not able to explain Oie reason of the di0cT^ 
ence in orthography. I am Tcry well aware that these words 
have been of^ tnoughtlessly and carelessly written, one for the 
other, even in very oU manuacripte ; whenever wo find a person 
described with a LUne of mme beautiful stutT' placed upon hb 
white skin, wc tnay, however, be ccrt^n, whatever the orthogra- 
phy may be. that the article ipokcn uf is a aliirt And again, 
wh<?n WL- tind a pt.>reon deecribed with a LUnidJt having a ooatlj 
border or fringe, and descending to his knees, wc may be 
equally certain that the article spoken of was a kilt or petticoat. 
I nappen to Iibtc met two rcfurtoices to the word \a ita latter 
rigniucauon, that leave no doubt of lU distinctivo chatactat 
and itfl aaagncd place on tliu human body. 

Ill tlie ancient tale called Loingt* nMac Hlhuldemaita, or the 
Exile of iho Sons of DuiUiemuxit, wc are told that on a ocrtain 
occasion as Ailill and Medbh, the king and queen of Connacht, 
were in their palace of Cruaehan, the warder of the castte 
came out and informed the queen that he eaw a body of men 
ooming towards them Irom the eouth: and then the story says 
that, " aa they were lookoDg out then, they buw the csvakaao 
upon the plain ; and they saw a cimnipion leading them, having 
on a cHmeon four-loldiiig clouk, witli tta four borders of gola 
upon it ; tt shield with eiuht joints of Findruine at bis back ; a 
Leinidh reaching from lus knees to his liips ; fair yellow hair 
upon his hc&d, falling down both flanks ot the steed he rode; 
a Dunch of thread ofgold depending irom it of the wei^t of 
seven ounces; and it was hence he was called ICtichitfiond 
[thut is, Edchu of the f^old thread or wire]. A gray blaek- 
ifpottcd stallion under him, [havingj a golden moiitlipiccc in 
hia mouth; two spears with ribs of Findruine in lua hand, 
and a gold-liiltcd pword upon hia udo".'"' l*his splendid cJiam- 
pion was the king of Ui Maine in the present counties of Qal> 
way and Roscommon, and one of the F\rbolg race. ^ 

C' [onginml : — Ain.^iliiabacAj\&rra cowLm foji <wh ftcf^ib tnTt!Bicb|H 

14H pn, cont>[:4C4C4p inftuaig fan 
Tn«s 1 ac«f con<tG.>ca;t in Voo£ 
I>«nnb, ac*r bp*e eo|iciiA cec'wp 
<oi4 bait tmiM, cona cooccaiwib o'p 
[rtelt O'pj'b] T'*'ri r^^ch fiotiotc 
tiiUj-Lib pnopume fuiwitium; Letis 
cone cb&T' ^I^E^^'C tinim o afjbnn co> 

.All. numgi, b* T>(( po tiamipiniccft 
Ovtv Rciiv F^ip. S*''*'!* ^T^t b\««- 

mjiwim, cUjiwo ono«i|Mrn ym " 
epifT— !!• >• 1^ ool- 'I'll I'D* »■] 



Here, I think, tlieie can bo no (loulit of die precise character 
and use of the L&nidh; and the following passage from the 
KQcl«nl Gaedbelic Triads, givoa us eren the vety law which n-- 
gntatcd the wcarizic of the Leinidh, u well aa of the Ocliraih, 
ai trews; and the length of the hur (or beard). Thus Dpcaka 
this Triad: 

" Three legal hondaWoadths, that arVt namely — a handa- u« . 
breadth between his shoes aod his Ochtaih, or pontflloong; a^Mrtoi^Dr 
hundsbrcatUh bctwewo hia eat and his beard (or hair); and a^Jt^'^'j 
handrtireadlli between tlic border of hia Jjeiitidk and hia Iciil'c. **' >>» f^rma 

1 need not, I think, aay another word to show what the OcA- Z!^ 
rath and the LeinM wt;re, but il would appear from lhi» ubsence 
of che htinidK in the description of the tat doorkeeper, that tliat 
article of dress was not worn by tbe inferior people, but that it 
appertwned to the higher clasees and to the proteieiDtu. The 
iaenUficatioQ of this article of dresa is, I must confcae, a late 
diacoveiy, and limt! has not allowed me to pursue the subject 
farther at prescat; but [ have no doubt but that I shall be ablo 
' 7 to add to these deacriptions aome mine striking illua> 
from some of the illuiumatioiiB to be met with so ofton 
in our endeDt looks and from our sculptures/*' 

C,t. CHincoiv l« n-in tto te Mnnott 

'**' [origina] : — Cft bAr« c»f ca f .i. 
TitigCcaC*). bar cicip o vxXA (-»■ 

«n 6cui$ (.1. irtimVlXiTa<Co)V 
IS. p. 9S5, lioB 7.] 

(.t. «tc)< lut Cicip u (•>■ A cloAr} 
AK*T d benj^tf (.t. •iitli.'bi A linn), 

^AtfltMOMtM.LMlitMixv. vol. iL{».l<3, whareDitiiking illiutntiian ol 
tho BMXtm or tba Ltiiuilh ii pvoa frm lti« tale of the Jirvightan lia Oerifa J 


|lt«n««7alrMik. IMS] 

(Tlli.) Dkbm ans Omunan* (eontiDMed^ CmiiUiil ntmmem to fringM 
of void tkraul i rnvnUun of UiU oniaiwiBt Id t1i« ucoiinl of J/erfU'i vUl 
b> Eer oliM Dtuid iii the CtttiimwvewiiiMt of Cli« Tdin Bo L^MiiTjnM^de* 
•cHpllud tji Ftd*lm tlir prD]>li«(CM weaving « friniw; tbe frin^ sward ur 
Utli uviiliouvJ Id ■ pocni of Datim t\ryaiU{tiKM aj>. 660}. AiK-ieni 
law* rciutiug to Uic pUidgins of vxauBcnb, tic- i uw MUting to lli< plo>J|;ias 
ofanHdle; th« ptodgingorK quocn't work bigi tbawtatotgot »a A t«t% 
FtMe. ThekgnlconlenUofH wiorkteafiiniicdoiilyamall putof ■ lad/** 
penonil ociiaaieota. ItefereDces to d^euig, wnTlog, eiBbnddi>Tliif , «t&, tit 
the uidoit law* re^'^'l't'lt UbUm: o)(}ccu oouiMCted with tluMe am for 
Die nanay or wtiidi imMWllo^ migki hara tccn taken niufw ibne Ian. 
Objeeto oooaecloJ i^iiii il'« t«xti)e arti mnrtioiMd b otbar anoicnt Im- 
Colcnucd thnad uid wool p«id m rant or Mbnta. Tha ilfa^atoSt and 
vere of home powib. LeyaQil of St. Ouron and tKc- blue (ifs anIT oalled 
<7hiitM. SaOLinarj of tli* prooeoM In tbe textile art* mcDtiotied In tha 
axtiacta quoted In tbe lecmrei RrfVrFnoe to embroidcrr in the tale of iba 
TMflMtrc A&'uiM, an<l Id tito Dumtaauduu. C«ca tiie iinibniiiUrnai o( ' 
St. Colami-iliA Thn k iiuit IlhJj^ of the l^aadliila about colAnra tliown bj tW 
ilLum initio ni tii Uie Uoi>k ai UclU. It^fdrsnoe in tba Bock of BaUfmoCo t» 
thti culmira wuiu hy ilillviciit cla*M«. Clolfa of neiuuf coLouis foniMd nart 
of Uie tributes ur toue paid as laic a* ths nintb witl uirtlt cencuneL Tn- 
butcitoilivkinvn(C(UHafaroonlliij[totlioUookollltKl)Mfiwn: Ara: lioi- 
rim( Lciniter; VaiiAiM; DmU^Htad aad Drwty i CaremmrwiJA; thcZ><tMr 
OrtrMlit. Bilpend* paid by the king of CoumJ to tba kuift of Knrr ; 
ilaitliiem; A fa. llributo* to tlio \Sag ttt Connacht fhxn VrnJuUt; Uw 
Ortammdlii: llir Conmav-Ha .- tlio I'iarraCdhe : tlio i.noJtna ; Uia Otalhkita 
ViUain*. fittpemla paid bjr tlirkiujt tifContiH^t totlu-ainpiof : OaottAaa; 
Ui Mama, 'J'rlbin«a to the kintc of AiUarli frum i the CmitaatraidJkei tha 
Vi Mk Catrthainti ; L'i Tttirfn. SliiHmdE pakl b^ tbe kiiw at AUtaeA t4> 
tltokin(iuf- Vi'itl DoghatMe; Cintt Eanna ; CraM : Vi iiie Catrtkoimi*! 
T^laeh Off. titip«ii<d« Mid b;r the king of Uriel to the kln^ oft U% B^ea 
tailt Vt JiucSiieh: Ut Mtilh : L'i JJottaiiit L't iSrimin ArtioiUt Vi 
'J'uirfm i-'tiira JUunacA; dfu^AiUorn tiuil Hot. Stlpendi jMM bj tha killK 
uf Vladh to the kiu» of i CuitilyHt ; Araldht : CoMeu ; UuwtiuimtM. 
TMbuwaiolbeklnBol ViaJA (ma: Hmkin i Cnliraid/it ; C'adoA Qlftt 
to Uio king of Inn. SttMnvd* paid W tha king of Tnm to tlio kinn of i 
Maph l.acha; Cuirnu ; Vi jBeeen. Tribtitea to Che king oT Tara irora ; 
the l.uishn*; Hit t'tam Ar^a t the SairAne; Oaiitaga; tho Ui Bream. 
fitipande paid bjr th« klni; of Lalnater to the: L'ittalain: ibm cliiof of 
Cvtthtmt ViFtHauiJlia;k.ltiso1 Ra*iUim; ViCriomltlkaiiMait Tribatoala 
tbakuKof Ltfntlvrfroni tbci Gall*; FenAuaiAa; y^lAaritt ; meo of Sviith 
IMtuur. Gift* Ironv the mocareli of Kriua to the king of A'Mdtn J/acAo. 
SajMBAMtt the king <it KtaainJJatAalo ihti kingtof : tUithmor: L'i Brniin; 
VMmaicH*. Girta bcttawed on the king of ljcin«t«r by tbe inoaaRll oC 
EriDD wbciiev«r ho rialted Taia. Gin of tliv king of LHneter on hla 
return ftvm Tnra tolhekingof C^i /'Kafota. Giflaof the tnaaaidi ef Brian 
to tho Itiug of C'uwcii' wlK-n at 2'tianAoir laiachi a, Siipeoda glraa bj tbe 
king of CaiMnl at the vlaltalion of tha nunarcb ol Ktinn to the i Zhue ; Ui 
CAotioMil. StipeiiiUpaldbytbekingofCoiuiachttotbckingtof: &'iJtfaMe,- 
Lmi^n*. Coloun of windi, aeonding to tba pieCMW to the SwdkAo* ifor. 




Ih the last lecture, f brought together a consulerable number 
oT genenl descriptions of tbe costume of kinga and wnrriois 
armed lor battle, taken chicHy from the histoiic talc of the great 
war between CoBuucht itnd Ulstvi in thu time of Cottekobar Mae 
Ntata, about oii« thousand niuc hundrott years ago. I purpose 
in tbia lecture to give ax detailed deacripiiona of toe manuGictuTe 
of omaaaental dresses, as the account* preserved in our old books 
will enable mv to do. 

Wo have seen, and sball soo bercafWr, in tbo description of 
the clothes of men aud women, constant rcfcrenc* to irordera, 
fxr frtngefl of thrciul of gold and other mutorialfl and of various 
coloun!. And in laot we Qnd a Tory cin-unutantial. and thttre- 
ton most interesting, reference to the actual ronniilacturc ofthia 
beautiful omamcnt at the beginning of the tale of the Tim Bo 

When the three greet parties olreodj rooken of, conasting of 

nn Medbh'ssevca sons, their oouains, Uic seven sou* of ^tfn^- 
, Corrmu Conloittfftas, the exiled Ulster prince, and tlieir 
fbUowciB, had arrived at the palace of Criiachan and quartereil 
thomselvea for the time on the eurrounding territory, cjueen 
Mtd&h herself bc^n to entertain Borious thoughts on the pro- 
bable results of toe great war on which she was about to enter. 
To labsfy herseil'aa lar as possible, the queen ordered her chariot 
and tlrove to the residence of her chief Dniid, and demanded 
knowledge and prediction of the future from him, " Nurabcra", 
said Mvd/ifi, " sliall sepaniia from their companions and from 
their fncoda this day, and from their country, and from their 
lands ; from father, and from mother; and if they do not all re- 
turn in safety, it is upon mo thoir groans and tbcir curses shall 
^ bo ponied out ; however, there goea not forth uud there remataa 
^ta^Bt at homo any ooo more precious to us than oun*elves, and 
Huutoin thou lor ua", said she, " ■boll wc return or shall wo 
not". And the Druid atuwered : " Whosoever rettims not, you 
yourself shall return".'"" 

The story then goes on as follows : 

•* The oluiriotccr then turned the chariot, and Msdhh pctiipaod 
book. She BBW what was a gurpriH; to her, namely, u single 
woman ntting upon the shad of the chariot beside her in her 
pteoftnce. What the woman waa doing was, weaving a border 
with a sword [that is, a lath or rodj of Findruini (or white 
^"[«rigia«li— SutAivffr^dpAri^''' tec 'm"i4i acAf "^ »n4"v itr^r *T 

Eiiicr t 

ptMUU ^ 

lut whoa 

«(! m»nb, 4e*y m^ i\vt, acap rpij. 
r»tuno -, f]>i4 u:h«>p, 4cAf y\<Ai m** 
Cttiiv, Ac«r "iitnt tircc nil in imfl«ii, 
ci for.mr4 CO m-bcnr«e an opwn 
*CAr A mAltdclicAin. A(t Ai pn m 

*car f^ Twn> in opoi : ■' Cip6 tio »i4 
cic tncnni rerpn"-— H. 2. 18. L *3. 
a. col. 2.J 



"• bronxe) in her right hand, h&ring 

or flUpt tbe 
UMt loi|>»r- 

■wurd niau- 

w/cn riba of roi goM 
points (or ends). She biul a gnton spoUtpccIdeJ cfoak 
her; and a round heavy beaded broocn (Bretnaa) in that cloak 
over her breast. Her countcnaoce was crimson, rich-blooded ; 
her eyes gray and aparkUng ; her lip* red and thin ; her tcoth tun- 
ing and pearly, so thai you would think it was a shower of faJr 
pearls that had been ect in her hcsid ; like fresh Partain^ [Coral] 
were her lips ; as sweet as tlie stiiogs of sweet harpa played by 
the bands of long praetiwd moftera, were the sounds of hor votoo 
uiid her line epcccb; whiter ihaa the snow ahed in one nig^it 
woic her skin and her body appcariag through her dtcas; ahe 
had long, crcn, white feet; and her naiU were cxiinaoo, well 
cut, circular, and sharp; s.he had long fair vellow hair; thi«e 
wreaths of her hair were braided around her Dead ; and another 
bnud dfiiwnding as low down as the calves of her legs".''" 

Queen Medbh questioned this strange visitor as to her name 
and tlie cause of her visit. The Luly answered that she was a 
handmaid of her own, IJoin the iaiiy mansion of Cruaekm} that 
her name was Fedelm the prophetess; and that she had coma 
to tell her royal mistress beforehand, the loasce and misftHtunea 
which would result firom the intended expedition. The pro- 
phetess then in a puuin of ten stanzas, dt-scriboa minutely the 
person of Cuchulaind, who was to bring such tosses and di^t«rB 
upon the <]uccii;_and disappears. 

The moat TCinttrkable matter in this short description ia tlio 
fact of the speaker being cnga^-d in weaving a iiingc or border 
ill the eamo way that auch an operation is carried on at thia day : 
for (he poetical sword which she made uau of for the purpoao is 
represoutod by the less costly Bword-likc hilhofour mor« matter 
of fact times. The fringe sword or lath ix meotioncd also in the 
ancient and ob«^uie poem, believed to have been written by 
Dalian Forgaill for the shield of viedA or Hugh, king of Oirg^ 
hiatia or Oriel about the year 500. 

"'•[flriginali — Inipiif m c-ajta i« 

.1. in n-Aen rnnit fO]i ye^tcJ'T in 
Cai^pAiC no r<^|tiiAO 104 ooCnm. If 
ATTiLaio bol intj in«cii ic pgi topp- 
£«ipi «caf cidivob pnoputni ma 
LaiiH "OPiff. conji feCc n-.vrl.'l> «<• 

biwcc impi; b|i«cnAr C01^1^d£ 
Cpen-ccuDpti opwcc of a bpnnni. 

chAn4i«»i owe niAimM ncmAWoa, 

4H«41\icc b«c«(i FT^IT* piro"" 
tnanw «^cdip m* c«nv j cofwt*!' 
no nvi. p«|tcAing a. hvM, ; btnnto' 

d ciin uiil^bpa ; pbnip r^ete* 
fntgoxi FT) own *roti c4iote4 a cnifr 
icaf A col,U», j*i A etme** f<>ftc»'ii ; 
cpaigti pir* pchj^oLj ; 'Isni cojv- 
CH«, 1:0 pi, cpuiitJ-ci^pj, Li; folc 
pnobuTti (TdCA p>p6pod FOppi ; ce- 
ojw ciMttp TMi yiili imwiA cerm 

colTJiA.— U, S. 19. C 42. a 091. a ] 



This flin^lAr oomp«dtion consists of twenty- oae stanzu, the , "'y- 
IbortecDth of which nmi as foUowa ; 

£** It vraa not woven witti * beiun op heddles 
Nor a wooden lath of the wliitest 

Nor [woa itl the handiwork of a dexterous cmbroidercss, 
Nor did rca fBLitening (astcn »tj""' 

This is Kud of the king of Oriel's shield DuhhgkiUa, bhA from 
the negative allunoos to the absence of the wcavci's beam, the 
wearing swords, or heddles, the hand of an expert woman, and 
the &stoma^ piiu in its mimufftcturc, it is evident that the thlcld 
was one of thoac formed of wickcrwork or woven luLba. 

It would be cmy to multiply examples of the refcrcDCCs to rich 
borders or laoc4 In our old historic and romantic talcs, but tho 
fbllowiiig one or two iiisluucoa will bo aafficient lo iUustrate thii 
article of our ancient luxury. 

The following' curious enactments found in the ancient Insti* AneianiiawR 
tiLtes of Erins commonly called the Bcchon Law.4, relate to the I^^pil^^Ba 
pledging of certain articles peculiarly appertaining to women, ixsm*- 
and 13 of great interest in oonncctioD with the present subject, ^tldl/" 
These laws were enacted to provide against tnc Ines or mis- ll^^';' ^ 
appropriation of articles of domestic use, as well as of peisotuil 
aoonunent and convenience, when those happened lo have been 
pledged and not dclivcr^ii up when demanood, and upon pay- 
ment of the sum lent ; lu which caae the overholden woic liable 
lo " Bmscl" fines. And tliose fmcs varied according to the iin> 
portance of the article lo the owner, as for instance : if a man or 
woman pledged a ring, a bracelet, or a brooch, and wislied to 
release it on the eve of a great fur or assembly, the di&gmoe of 
the owner for having to appear without his proper omamcnls 
or not at all, was included m lljo calculation of the fine for over- 
bolding the article"" llius eays the law : " If there happens to 
be B day of sotumnity, such as Easter or Christmas, or an assem- 
bly, such as a fur, oi a convocation of the state, to entertain a 
question, by a king, or by a synod [of thu clergy], if his pledged 

"*' [nfgintl 1— ^1, nip p«ro asgAjMnjin n* AcWivmiV. 
Hi cdilL jajiriAn 5* p^c 
Hi ctotibi ci^oiTin co n-gjio 
Hi LamAc tiAs-mn-i X)iiume 
til T>e^g <*M*r5* 5*'I"R®' — ^- ^' '^' P- 5*5^] 

"" [orls^na] :— IHa cmwai Itch Ui- m«Dt of Uic SsimcAat Uof in U. 2. tH. 

eh«, n« thitU lift c)iO]icont)ucc cuai- T.C.D. iiuot«d in thU lectin* arc eoa- 

che, M4ini t:oi|w a golt oO, MB f^ tainpd, m woll u I can rccolici^t. tin 

brpo pfi. oort* t«n l^ AMtOch vo pp. 27 to 30 of that MH. II mu nut 

cacti, yti miAv. Ut cpaico vft neoch BTniUble lo nic (or oollalibn, auO the 

BO piiipincr«ni t>i r<"'chc:dtb ucu)- nti-nncat tu iliff {n^to* nheni gii-un 

aickntiAiV — Q. S. tC. r. 3D? Tlio cro cunt«<iii«titl7 otilj affnniiDa- 

wbo» ol tlw puaagea fruiu tli« lntg> liona } 



article ia not restored to the pledger, thst is liis brooch, and 
eTerythisg which is compoaed of [gold or of] sUver, or an article 
equfu to it in value, there shall be a fine of dishonour, and other 
enumerated fines, together with leatitution of the pledge [upon 
the overholder]".*"' 
ElSC"' '^® ^*"' *^^° S°^8 "^^ more minute detaila as followa: — 

" What has the law laid down as the fine of a pledged needle ? 
Answer — it is a dairt (or yearling calO that is paid as the fine &a 
it. If it be a cloak needue, it ia a heifer that is paid as its fine;. 
And it is the same fine that is paid to any person [for needletj^ 
but women are the most proper to put them in pledge".^*' 

This article is further exphiined as follows : '* What does the 
law lay down as the fine of a pledged needle? Answer— A 
dairt [or yearling calf] worth four screpalU [of three pennies 
each] IS what is paid as the fine of the needle, that is of the fine 
needle. That is to say: a yearling calf to every woman what- 
ever as the fine for her needle, except the embroideress, for, as 
regards her, it is the value of an ounce of silver that rfiall be 
paid her as the fine for her needle ; provided, however, that thia 
may not be paid her except for tne needle with which she 
works her ornamentation, that is, her embroidery"."" 

Thia article is further explained by another aeotion, which 
•ays: — 

" The lawiul right of the pledged needle of an embroideresB 
is laid down by the law. It ia in ornamentation she is paid aa 
far aa the value of an oimce of silver ; because every woman who 
is an embroideress is entitled to more profit (or value) than 
a queen".'"' 

This is a remarkable instance of protection to skilled industry 
so many ages ago I The law proceeds : — 

'■''*> {art ffoal: — t,ichLaiche, .i.cAifc CAiVe .1. tiai)ic x>o ca6 mtiAi tiit* * 

tio noclAig, j>&\1, .1. oenoig, clio- piiil,\*m a piacAici cenmotu tn 

compAcc cuatche, .1. )m Cdtnpn ■m^ BptnTug, U4iji ni«.T> ipwe if l^j 

1*15, no i-e«i'o. 4 Eft^^'oo, .i-Avedl^ notnp AtT^Jic bi*)" m « piiLtem 

«caf ■ooT1eoc>11I■AlC'oea1J^5l^), fin46- 4rniie4ict; no lotto, coni oeift pM 

caib, .1. "OAipcib, Aiclicin4ib, .1. tia ni ate ipn piAtrec t>« mncnea'o a 

naiTOS— H. 2. 16. f. 80?] hit«Tjen*m, ,t. & opuineclmr". [tlocH 

'") [original;— C'-ofopropofOTOi- ij- comTjipe .1, neoch fefiim gone4 

Ren cec5ica FutWm* 5iI,1j piA^Aice com6p wn\ if T>ip bu 546 jatv 

tateine? Tim, — 'DdipcT>ipeti<kpitin4 •oume 54 wii p. Ache tc mn* .1. 

piil,teiTi4 p*oe. tnaubpacfnaCac tf aCcaitim coni« latj n« mn* if coip 

colbcAcTi 104 fuilLemfit). tlocli if t)i<v CAbaipc msilU — H. 2. Ifi. Vide 

coniT>ipe 1D1 cech necTic, ate ic tnriA ante, p. 111.] 

«c<k copui TMA r&DAinc ingeLU— H. (") [original: — CeclicA yuXXereiA 

2, Ifi. Vide ante, p. ill.] gitL piacaice, 'optnmse td f^itie. 

"•J [original : — ciwfopfo.i. cidapa 1m<o^mdib T>ipetiAp coppmcce V05 

f Amaigea Tjl-iger) fuililem pH, fna- nomge upric ; aip iff tno no c>iopba 

tAioe ■oa peip in-o f eneCaif ? Oaipr, wjfti cacnbeti bef vpntnech to 

.1. o&ipcfr .1111, rcpebutbife4*eipni- TMice ptgtia. — H. 2. 15. Vide ant*, 

tep itiA fMiltempwe .1. n* ftiAtdice p, 111.] 





**The Ikwfu) right of tho pledfjcd noodle of an embroidcrcaa 
is hid down in thu law. Shu is paid the r&luc of an ounce of 
silver in omamentation [which wl- may suppose means matemlfl 
for ornamentation], for uvcrv needle irhicn she haa [pledged]". 
" Or it ia half an ounce of silvt-r the is pftid for the needle with 
which abe works her omamentation ; and Ihc name lo her, as 
lo may other woman for uvcry n««dJe which she baa from thai 
out. The greater profit [which the embroidercss was entitled 
to beyond the qucea], eousislcd of Breac-GUu [{rrecn-spottcd 
cloth] and Srot ^. c. eatin or nllc], and fringes (or boracrs) ; 
Mtd Uiat all iheae omameDtahona weie worth eu umicu of 

In the following article the oontcnts of a queen's workbag uio pMcsui ' 
are minulelj recorded. ^m^Xtt* 

" The lawful One of the pledged workbag of the king's wife. 
Ifit contuns but two of ite lawful nrticles, itiere are two ounces 
of flilvcr pmd for it"" 

" If il contains iu legitimate proper^, namely, a veil of one 
colour, and a Muid or crown of Rold, and a Laud, or cicsccnt 
of gold, and iKread of silver. This then ia the workbf^ of the 
wires of the kings, and when all these articlea are in it, tliree 
cows (or six beifera) are ita fine : and if they arc not in it. it 
is double of cvoiy arucle which is in it [that b paid], until it 
leacdiM the chice cowa, and when it does ao reach, it goes no 

And again the Uw sayt, " Ifit coDtaias iti iMitimate pro- 
perty, namely, a veil of one colour, and thread ofsilver, and a 
%ca\d, or crescent of gold, and a Mind or crown [of gold] — if 
all these are in it, it Is three ounces [of silver that arc paid]. I f 
it it one of them that [it contains] tt ie one ounce that ia 
paid. But if the four articles are m it, it i:> threu cows that 
ore paid for it ; and if they oic not [in it] it is double- [the 
value] of every Article tbut it contains [that is paid for it] until 

<"J [origiDat :— Cectica patltrniii- IcmA gill wiwigi mni in pig. maw 

pit, .t, Tjttgev fuillipniA ptl, fn«- •octoc wt, ic w uitigc— Ji. 3. U, 

ca>c« tiA Vftmrngo. tmi>eTTinAibi •■• Vido luittt, p. III.] 

cijM«ic^Vo5'»«»i5i**i'>5n>'DttnTi*n4ni tui [original ;— laertigft, .). ctag, 

*i in Jit i^if.ito wli btf A1C1. Ho WA heich c«mj chock guraib, .1. ni4 

tf Lee «ntgi «iMn> «i tf dn fn-ttdirt oid pdb p co na cof-afAib vltgtvA- 

na iroendflv « imoeriAm ; ACAr cnc- Cdib, .1. cdillc axn ttatt, axA\ niinn 

gA& rnAC4n> utl* bif *ic<.' q Iir****"' •'■ 'Ati^iban Ti*]M5r*o, ac-ar >> Wto, 

V*At, - • • • ■ .1- . 


(. Oo cbo(ib&, .1, "oo bi«^LAf 114 «*i4i pn tnci if e^\ b* in* ruiL- 

ir p^oV, *cAf contiC4|uibi ACAf" lem, acaf ihahj |vabjt>, \y vidblAv 

cwpViAC po wnj* uiii «* imwc-oiBA jitA nwC bif '"'C^ "* 5** l'^'* "* 

B. £. IS. Vide ante. p. 1 1 1 ] cpi ba, Ac*)- ono pa m ' - 

'"' [origtnal :— Ccchca fwltcmA wiprb.— U. 8. XS. VMo 

gilVuvAigooiTia'pig, .t.vl*5««pnU 111>J 

vot. II. 8 

tiiio COB 
ute, p. 



thB vork- 
wife «f Ml 


• work bag 
onlf* null 


it reaches three cows, and when it reaches [the three cows] it 
gOBB no further".'*" 

The law then passes from the profeseional and firom theatna- 
tenr embroideress and from the ting's wife, to the wife of an 
Airech Fetbke, or chief of dignity, of whom it says : 

" The workbags of the wives of the noble [or lord] grades, 
that is, a woikbag with its legitimate property oT [ailTerJ Uiread, 
with a veil, and with a diadem of gold, and a mlk handkerchi^, 
and if so, there are three heifers paid as its fine ; and if these are 
not in it, it is the double of every article which is in it that is 
pud until it reaches three heifers"/*'* 

This text is further explained as follows : 

" If it be a bag without its lej^timate property, namely, a 
veil, and silver thread, and a crescent of silver, and a diadem 
of gold ; or what contains a painted mask, that is, what oontainB 
a painted fece, [or mask] for assemblies, namely, the banner or 
the handkerchief of silk, or the gold thread, that is when it does 
not contain those things ; and if those things were contuned in 
it, three heifers [would have been the lawfiil fine for it] ; but 
when those [articles] ore not in it, it is double the vaine oC 
everything which is in it until it reaches the three heifers [^t 
is paid for it, but when it so reaches] it goes no lurther".'**' jHiia 
is a very curious entry regarding ladies' dress, and indicates, I 
think, a peculiar and advanced state of civilization. 

So much then for the legal protection of an embroidereas in 
an(uent Erinn, and for the legal requisites of what is, I believe, 
in our times called a lady's wockbag or work-box. We must 
remember, however, that the articles required by law to consti- 
tute the contents of a lady's treasure bag, formed only a small, 
though an important part of the articles intended to grace and 
decorate her person. Neither her ordinary nor her state gar- 
ments are enumerated here; neither arc her. rings, bracelets, 
clasps, ankleta, brooches, earrings, necklaces, or torques, nor the 

<••' [<»igbul !— CecTirdib, .1. c«i1,te 
Aftfl ]7iiiTiA, acaf pono, acAj- X^nrt WT), 
ACaf miti'O — m* beic itine uile ic 
ceopA Hinge, m&'o *n tub ef ^" 
uinre. no macaic n* cpiup tnci if 
cpi Dd ^■na. pui1A«ii> ; acaj" tnana pui- 
iec ij- tMablat) cacli neich intin co 
pi* c^M bi, ac4f ono na noco c6ic 
cainpb.— H. 2. 15 f. 29.] 

'*'' [origiDol: — Cechca pnU/Cma, 
.1. i4T)a£ ban na ng^xa'D fl^ta, .1. 
iAT>afi cona coiaj- cechca jvain'oe, 
Ru cail.1*, acaf jn mint) o))\, ac&f 
QHeiT)pT)a, acaf vfS ramairce ma 
futLlemgacafmani wiLecT^omci if 

Biabtao 54ft neift titl, rti pa 
na cpi r&maifce. — H. 2. 16. f. 29. a.] 
>**> [original i — ntanip lavach, .t. 
nianap ciag gan a coioj- 'oli^Aeati, 
.1. caiLte, acaf ^ono, msa^ tano 
aippc, acaf mtnti oifi ; nt conai 
Tecnat, .1. no nt coimeoaj" ecofc 
T>il>a coin, .1. iti meipp, no in bpftiT* 
I^Tja, no in |\ainT>i, VA\ft nofto null, 
an-o Hint pn ; acaf wa mbei |iabat> 
cpi ramaifci ; iiaip nafi fnit if wiab- 
lat) jafi neift ml, inei no 50 ^wa na 
ci\i ramairci ; acar nooo celt) caipr- 
pb.— H. i 16. f. 39. <!.] 



goUen balbt rtng», and pins of hor hit'tr, nil of which artiolrai, 
w« know, were wum by tlie lailiea of those tiinca at the groat 
fain, aaembUea, and siate mcotinn of the country. 

In ■ nmilat law to that just nfetml to, we find »oin« detaib 
fegudiBg the dyeing of cloth, wcftving it, and pr«p<uing it for 
uie« all wltich wen* vmployinonu of women. It ta only fix>m 
these alhtsion? that wc eon ditworcr clearly what ihcy nad to 
wear in those ancient times. The law I allude to is udc regu- 
lating the recovery of debts by distress or »eiziiTe, and th« time 
eUowed for tJie distrained property to remain in tte hands of tlio 
owner, in order to give him time to procuTc means to pay Uic 
debt. This law was general and complicated ; and the time of 
stay, as it was called, varied according to circunulaooes, from 
tbo immediate carr^-ing away of the dutresa, to a period of one, 
two, tKroc, five, tea, and filWn days, or more. Two days, 
howcrer, was the stay of sale of all aciaurca made on the part 
of women noty, either for tlioir piy as manufacturers, nr fnr 
aittelsB connected with their Rinnuiaotares, sold, lent, or ts.kcn 
away fix>m them. The following arc the items for the locovcty 
of which women Imd lecouise to the tad of the law, as Ikr ns 
this particular enaclmcnt is concerned. 

1. The price (or wages) of hand produce [labour], tliat is, the 
price of what she proaucei.1 with her hand, uoiiiely, tuuiug and 
cxiloumig and weaving (wool), the prioe or pay being one-tenth 
part of each work [i.e. of the value of the wo»en piece].'"' 

Also (or napping [or also alccking] the cloth, half the wages 
of Iho weaving woman, i.e. the wages givon, i«. the price of 

2. For materials, such as of gray flax awl gray woollen yam, 
when ufR» the spindles.'*^ 

ft. Pot a flax-sninning spindlo-'"" 

i. Fur a spindle, i.e. a \vool-»pinning spindle, or a spindle of 

&. For a foot-bag, that is, a bae [which contains the sorted 
woof], and which is placed under (or at) the woman's feet, out 
of which she combs (or cards) hor materials, that is, the comb- 
ing (or carding) ba^V' 

ApAr.i4nAti ndilv iin lag ld.mcho- 
|MiTik .». tm Log iti e«natt> t>o tii p 
6 Urm, .1. bo<:«ti, itcax bnircAA. dcuf 
PSff. .1. Mchm^n cdrCiiA v&Ia. — 
S*m*li** M^, Huldan 1186. 19S. 
Brit MU.C laa-a.) 
*•*' tori^nal i Im pubpche, .r Urt 

M« pibj 0«i Hl«ii lp,«p]\- 

e4|»]. .) luog pjt.— /6iV/j 


tint I 

olijtcu um. 
nccU4 Willi 
lur llie r^ 


wblfii fro 
micht hits 
torn ukea 
isnant 111* 

'•*' foriginiJi— Ini OACh itAaT>bu|\, 
.1- gl.*!" U". t)*r 1 ^(icpb, ,1. piift 
5W0LL1.— /«d.J 

i") faiijpDiil:— im pc|«c4ir. •)-!(». 
tm piinidipc, .1. oll« no in (*pc«ir 
toim, .1. niHtMcK, — /W.] 

'■'' [origlaiil;— im p<»r fcolj. -i- 
imm toLj bi]* p) piif focjiAIJo, Af 





objseu eoD- 
seetad wtm 
thoM tru 
for tbe r»- 
oorsT]' or 
vbloh pro- 
might &IT« 
bcra Ukan 

6. For a Feiih-Geir, which puts a sharp [smooth] fiice upon 
her weaving."*' [This, I beheve, was the sleeking stick ot 
bone which weavers still use to cloae and flatten linen cloth on 
the breast beam of the loom while in process of being woven.] 

7. For all the weaving implements, i.e. for all the instru- 
ments used in weaving, including beams and heddles, that is, 
weaving rods.'"" 

8. For the flax scutching-sfick, i.e. b^ which the flax is 
scutched. For the distafl* or flax rock [or for] the spindle for 
spinning wool.'*" 

9. For a rolling beam, that is, the beam without the radia- 
ting head, without sharp points."" [This was, I believe, the 
front beam of the loom upon which the warp was lolled up to 
be woven.] 

10. For a border (or fringe) sword, that is, [the sword or 
lath] upon which the border (or fringe) is woven.***' 

11. For materials, that is, for the finished material, the mate- 
rial which wants only to be woven ; that is, the white balls, 
the white (bleached) thread.'"' 

12. For the instrument of the manufacturing woman, namely, 
the winding bars, that is, the tree upon which she prepares the 
yam, the winding reel."" [This was not the verti«d reel upon 
which the skene of yam was formed from ofl" the spool or the 
spindle, but it was the horizontal reel upon which the skene of 
yam, when taken off the vertical reel, was laid, and wound off 
into balls or bottoms, as they still call them in the rural districts.] 

13. For a border fringe upon itself, [i.e. cloth having a boi^ 
dered edge or fringe made of its own warp, and not sewed on] .*' 

14. For the facilitater of her handiwork [namely], that wmch 
facilitates to her the work she produces &om her hand ; the 
pattom piece of leather, which is placed before her, in which 
IS delineated the pattern of the work.***' 

(••) [original: — Itn yet [no p*] cliAijie, .i.^i-Af^^^ie^fncajx^tclMifW 

gein fi. Tjo beip feiC 5ep t)4jj a — Jitrf.] 

yi^.l—Ibid. and vol. i, p. 163 of Sen- <"> [original i — Im Ab|\tiT'i .i. Aobip 

chus Mdr of Brehon Law Commis.] naif afic a pgi, .i. n* cwpcte s^W, 

<*•) [original; — im 4iceT> pge uile .i. piAC pnn. — Ibid.'] 

.1. coniobi|\ no, p^e t>o gftjiniiiib <*" [original; — Im comofxikiti ha- 

OCUT- x>o cl-)i'otnib .i, tiA j-taci pge. biiyij^ [.i. in^ an « comoibiiigenn in 

Harl. MSS. 483, foL 10. a. a 1 
(M) [original: — Itn ftefctlTi, t.-oa 

)r'LejH!c1iei\ in Un. Im cmcil, .i. cui- 

ol tin, .1. in ^repcaif, .i. notl.*. — 

<"' [original :—lni lu5«.pmiii«, .i. 

tuja gApman, no Lingua gapiiiAn, .i. 

in giptnon ccn buiuji [cetibAi]i], ,i. 

ceti raebap, — Ibid,]' 
(*") [origioal: — Im cljoioem cop- 

dboipfeC i h-Abpaf], .1. cjunn co- 
cbdpiAi r.i in cpAnn cod^p-oA.J no 

tdjij. noLbaipre,.!. piim ap 5iiiiti.-/6,I 
I") [ori^nal. — Im cop^Aip, .1. uippt 

i:*in —Ibid ] 
(M) [original: — Im Aifce I^tiicIio- 

C&^^o, .1. uf/kice ie in copao t)o gni 6 
iim ; in nv&t Wob in4 paQnAip, .1. 
piAt in Epepa innci. — Ibtd.] 


TliiB moat curious &ct, of a. pattern, cut or painted, by an 

ardst or designer in leather, was probably made available for "'"i^ ™"- 
6guTed weaving as well ai embroidery and other needlework. thoH am 
Sevoal bones of animals have been discovered, and are now in ^^^ 
the moseum of the Royal Irish Academy, containing patterns ^^^ 
of illuminated letters foe ancient books, and delicate interlacings mighih«»B 
for Buch letters, or for the embellishment of shrines, croziera, JSaor'rt?' 
covers of books, etc. ; and an ancient box or pouch of strong ""^ 
leather, with various interlacings and grotesque figures, embossea 
by pressure, and which was intended for, and used as, a case for 
the ancient Book of Armagh, is now preserved, as wcU as the 
book itself, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. There 
is good reason to believe that this case -was made in the tenth 

14. For B wallet with its contents, that is, a bag with what 
19 put to keep in it. For the material, that is, the Aiteog, that 
is, the string that is about it, that is, about .its mouth.'*" 

15. For a Crioll, that is, a bag formed of strips of leather 
rtitcbed together with a thong."^' 

rrhis Crioll-maikiiie was a trade in itself, hut included the 
irmlfing of leather bottles. The maker was called a Cliaraidhe, 
from Glera, a word synonymous with Crioll; and he was also 
called a Pataire, from Pait, a bottle, when he practised that 
branch of the trade. The brogue-maker, or Cuaranaigh, some- 
times made bag and bottle making part of his trade.] 

16. For a leathern tube-bag, that is a bag (or case) with a 
wooden tube, that which encased the cosmetic or oil bottle.'*" 

17. For a Hinde [that is, a round wooden bucket].*""' 

18. For a Cttsal [that is, a long wooden bin (or box),] These 
were small wooden repositaries of prepared materials, which the 
women kept in ancient times".""'' 

19. For a needle [i.e. the thread passes through its eye].'!*!' 

20. For ornamentation thread, that is, coloured thread.""" 

21. For a Scaideirc, that is, the reflector of the woman's 
image, that is, a mirror"."**' 

(W [originBli — ^Im iiTt^g cotia "°*> [original :^lm jwn-oe, .i, in 
eco^cAi^, .1. in ciAr cor 4rii ec*n- foca. — Ibid.'} 

c>iAi\innci. tn [ini] C4bpuf , .i. ai- <'"' [original: — im chufaiL,. 1.5.11- 
ceoc, .1. in loniAn bi;- imbe, .1. im a pic, .1. cpuint) figwo, .1. cuAmaogA 
beoLa. — iW.1 bccd no biC ac& AnAildc im dn 

*•"> [origioal: — im ci^iob, .t. im dbpar. — Ibid.'] 
qroiAbi, cuopiAiKcliep ^'1 *l,l-nb, ""> [original;— Im piictiaic, .1. 
no cno ATT-Diil,tAU). — Ibid.'] f6r inc pi4it in* cp6. — Ibid.-] 

(**> [onginal: — im cpamjbots, .1. "•'' [original r—lm piiicTie I-I54, 
Vec^Aiji, .1. bolg AT imbiT) cj\Ann- .1. jtiaC tMtA. — Ibid.] 
bel.An AMAiLuT^ .1. biT jon paic ""> [original: — im fcaroeipc, .1. 
foiliti.— iiii] r^ac t>gi\c n4 tnbAii, .1. rciW"- — 




O^ecU con- 
nected with 
the textile 
art! me&- 
otiiflr ui- 

thread end 
wool paid u 
rent or trl- 

For Focoule ben, that is, uuything which one woman borrows 
from another"."*" 

To this curious list of articles, connecteil with the manu&c- 
ture of domestic clothins, may be added the following few iteou, 
which are found in the Brehon Laws, wliich relate to a Kparir 
tion between husband and wife, when each of the partiea took 
of the common property, as it stood at the time of sepaiatitxi, 
an amount proportioned to theii reepectaTe stocks when fint 
married, the property of the wife not resting in her husband 
under the Insh law. The following is an extract fix>m the 
law alluded to: 

" Four divisions there arc upon wool [at the time of separa- 
tion], of which the woman takes a seventh part, if it be only 
in the ficpcc, and a sixth part if it be in flakes, and a third part 
when almost ready [for the rock], half after oil was put into it, 
and also when in cloth"."*" 

" Four divisions there are upon the Glausin [that is, the Aye- 
stuiT). A ninth part for plucking it, a sixth part for bruising 
it, and until it is applied to the colouring, that is, until the wool 
passes from the Glaiain into tiie first, or ground colour. A. third 
part, if it has passed out of the first dying into the second She 
takes half if it is fully dyed.""' 

" Four divisions that are upon flax for her. She takes but 
a measure of the seed if it is only standing, that is, if the flax 
be still growing, or in bundles unbroken. She takes a sixth 
part if it is biokcn. She takes half if it has passed from the 

To these curious references to the materieJs of cloth, and linen, 
and their manufacture, to be found in our ancient laws, I shall 
here add another small item from an ancient tract cidled the 
Book of Rights, published by the Celtic Society in the year 
1847. This curious book gives an account of the tributes and 
services paid by the various chiefs and territories of Erinn to 
the provincial and petty kings, and these again to the monarch, 
as well as the monarch's stipends and presents to these in return. 

Among the tributes and services paid to the king of Leinster 

'""J [original :—t:ocoirieben 4p 
Apaite, .1. bepfp tn ben 6 c6il,i. — 
Uarleian MSS. 432. foL 10. a. a.] 

(io<) [origiool:— Ceclieot^d. nAtitjj, 
pulppjUottrfunci.ti 111 [,uii.7] ihau 
dji l^in)MiTi, &car .ui. ev aXXoAih, 
ACAY cpiAti & cincno a-obil-aTn, tccTi 
o -oo cae bcoit, inw icip ibixuf Ac&r 
ecActi.— H. 2. 16.] 

'"•'' [origioal:— t■ec>1eol^4 bi (:oj» 
5l<vipii, .1. nomtvT> «.\\ na buAin ,ui. 

e^> iA]\ riA minu^d'O, co cec)ic a cjio 
[.1. *pn nsUiipii lo-i cec c^]. Cituin 
iiMi na cec co-o>it) [.i. ^f in cnn CAn«i" 
pj. tech mat) co caiT>e. — a, 2. 16.] 
<"*' [orisuial: — Cec1ieo|\A|\&ivo«'ot 
foil l,iti. nef CpA puif -01 man pop « 
coif bcch in tin, no mA-o Af cuapaib 
cen chaagAin, Serpji) m4T> itiii4|t- 
ta [mAin 'OApcatl. t^ch too £oi 
ocUp.— U. 2. 16.] 




are the (bUoving few: "TKe burnialiiiiff, and renewing, and 
wsshiDg, Hnd cleansing of his court was performed hy dm CocarU 
of the lower order of the people; and tho supply of his court 
with ciimaoD [thicailj and criinsun drc, and icci, and light blue 
thread, and white, and Way, aud yellow, arid ' biudcan wool', 
from the bcUcr olan of CocarU":"^' 

Here we «eo how the mtuiufaclure of cloth, and the supply 
of its mateiialfl, were diMrilmR-d among the lower and middle 
clum of peannte in ancient tiiuos, 8o Uiat it could never cwse 
to be oulurated in a ic^Niotable di^rev, nncc even the king's 
wardrobe as well as hia pnaenta were eupplied from llie wool 
and yam dyed and «pun by them. 

Another cin-ioiis fact connected with those mttnufacturca was, tkoiIti 
that it eppeorg that the varioiu dye-stuffs were of homo growth »S^o('** 
or produce. a^th. 

The first part of the proccas of wool dyeing is called in Irtgh 
Ruafwulh, or liinieiM/, and this its effevted by steepin;^ and boiUDS 
the wool withthe twigs or brushwood of the alder tree, to wliicu 
tbcygivcthcDsmcofi^uaiVi.or *' Jtime". This piooes producce 
■ good reddish brown colour, and forma the ground for black, 
blue, or red: green I have never seen produced at home, ex- 
cept by one woman, Catherine Collinti, an intelli^'eiil ntanlua- 
maker in Clare, who kept her knowledge a profoiuid secret all 
her life. 

If the colour is to be a black, after the wool ia " rimed" as 
dcacribed above, it is again put down with u black sediment, 
which i> uken up from the bottom of certain pools, ponds, and 
kolea, in tho bocs and boggy borders of likes, and which is 
called Dulifi'Poiil or black of the pond, a stufT which imparted 
a strong but rather dull black coloiur; tho addition, however,of 
oak chips or twin improves tlic undecided colour to a clear 
glossy jet black, now, of course, logwoud and coppercte, when- 
ever they can be readily got, arc grnerally Bubstilutecl for the 
bog stuff and oak chipe. In order to dye the same " rimed" 
wool of a splendid crimson red, they cultivated a plwit in 

(***■ tSnoriipullnCenUar M;>CMir(orThc Book of Ulghia. p. 818. 
11m MknriDff m Ibo poetical wcount ot tbeia trlbutca: 

The mdrw tribta, a coadiiion oot 

That arc on tii* [lliu kisg'i] own 

Serrtfe not bj them, it i> thu truth. 
Ia to b« niiiitiwl to tho palncc* of 

tbe chief tciiig. 
Ttke tribuiowliiuh li due of ilie*o 
[ li 1 ot Sr»-bDte nul wood : 
tAbo] Ibc rvaewlng of hla ckiaki, 

caftHanUbe praciiGC 

A tribute in WMliing aad to cleaof- 
Thoro ii duo o( tbe beat part;' o( 


Jiuu md pnrplo ol fino nvniith 
Sod thread, trbito wool, 1 wUl Dot 

GCIDCMi ii, 
VttUow 6/(1(1 M and binJr/iti, 

Irab^'ir an y-L'fitrr, |k.i:!3.] 


, ^"T- ancient Erinn which they called JRudh and Soidh; bnt as the 
plant 19 not now known in the country, I cannot designate it 
by any more intelligible Dame. In the ancient laws it claBsed 
with com and onions ; and they speak of a ridge o£Budh or Boidk 
aa they would of a ridge of onions or com. 

The other in^dient already mentioned, which ie called 
Glaitsin, and with which they produced the various shades of 
blue, appears to have been the plant now called ** woad", for- 
merly much used by dyeis.""' The late Mr. Frands Bf»- 
hony, of Limerick, made a handsome fortune by the culti- 
Tation in fields of this plant, and its application to the purpoeea 
of dyeing, which he carried on very extensively fiw muiy 
i^vn^of There is a curious reference to the application of the Glatatutf 
Mid tbc blot in colouring wool, preserved in the anaent Gaedhelic life of St 
^^^igf^ Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, who died a.d. 548. The following 
*•"■ is a literal translation : — 

*' On a certain day Ctaran's mother was preparing Glaiaatn. 
And when she had it ready to put the cloth into it, then his 
mother said to him : ' Go out, CiararC, said she, ' people do not 
deem it lucky to have men in the house with them when they 
arc putting cloth down to be dyed'- ' May there be a dark 
gray stripe in it then', sud Ciaran. And so of all the cloth 
that was put into the Glaistin, there was do piece of them with- 
out a dark gray stripe in it. 

" The Glaistin was prepared again, and his mother said to 
him: ' Go thou out now this time, Ciaran, and let there be no 
dark gray stripe in the cloth this turn' ". 
It was then he sud : 

" Allelujah Domine. 
May my mother's Glaitsin be white ! 
Every time it comes back to thy hand 
May it be as white as bone ; 
Every time it comes out of the boiling, 
May it be whiter than curds". 
And 90 every piece of cloth Uiat was put into it afler this was 

" The Glaissin was prepared the third time. ' Ciaran', said 
his mother, ' do not ^oil the Glaissin upon me this turn, but let 
it be blessed by you , [this Ciaran did] and after it was blessed 
by Ciaran, there was not made before or after it a Glaitsin 
as good as it, for though it were all the cloth of all the Cinel 

(110) [^e litdia tinctoria (Lin.) Glattvm or Guadum, The French call It 
PiuUl; theltaliuu, GiuitfoBiid Glattro; taidtiie&i»a\aidt,PtuttlajtiGiatti>, 
See on thia n^ject InlroduetiotiJ] 

t oQuniy of Galway] th«t had been put into ite nfter-dye, LwnaofM. 
. ihe mother-liquor ol the dje v»t], it would <:olour if blue; ih'woe'J^ 
md it afterwards made blue the hounda and the cats and the trees eual^*' 
tohich it touched".""' 

This curious legend fnipplies uj with an inWtrcBting bit of 
incient Bocial btston', and it ia valuable, not oaiy for the dis- 
tiiict manner in which we are told that inantifacturcd cloth wa» 
ijeA in the piece, but al^ tor the antiquity of the superstition 
vmich dc-cmcU it unlucky to have men in the hou»c at the time 
af putting the cloth inio the dye. This superHtitJon does not, 
Bo my- knowledge, exist now, but there arc certain days of the 
month and wecx upon which no housewife in Munstcr would 
put wool or cloth down to be dyed. 

In these few cxuttcta wc have Blltutions to all the proocRiCB 
bf tlie muiulftcturc of cloth in ancient Erinn. In the extracta 
the laws, as well as from the Book of Rights f^vca aboTe, 
e bare the procc«sc« of dyeing, carding, spuming wool, and 
Earing it into cloth. Wc have abo the progrcM of the prc- 
,mtiou of flax— the pulling of it out of the ground, the tying 
^ it ia bimdlo, the retting or steeping of it in water, the talcing 
[>ritupBnddiying, and tying of it into bundles again; the break- 
ing 01 it with a uiallet, and the scutching of it. [Tbe cloring 
ud hackling arc omitted, unless we take tlic combing, as of the 
iroo], to be the hackling of the flax] We have it put on the 
rockoi distaS*; spun upon the spindlu; fonncd into sicenca from 
kfftfac^indle upon the vertical reel; taken off the vertical reel 
n akeaes; [baihMl with borae-m^ulf: potash, and pat out on the ^°"7 of 
pass to bleach, which is oinittod iiere, though the bleached EhTC^ria " 
Kread i« spoken of;] wc next have the akene wheu bleiiehcd ^^1'^ 
ud on the hori7,onriil reel, and wouiid up into balls for warp- ^'^"".'^ 
Bg, IS well OS for weft [waiped then upon the wooden pine, 

""> [ortgiail!— » 1«« pa.b U vo 
hat^ajt CliiA|uin, oc «Miu<n glAipie 
topo paCc CO CAbtiipc (loti)g intict. 
IS «nn po ^14 A ih&Catp pttf. Atndt 
iKMi a CniAiutn in hdt>a teofnmt 

tfUt o*«H dnnpiiV on o\, Cta|\#n, 
Do tieo« r]w vo •oufi cdcaA tpn 

n gWpn cont>«baiiicaihaCAtpn^> 
torn, Oip«p im«i ^Mn winter* a 

uin A C)iii{uin ncfd. !]■ Aon pn 
>0 iMlOpnin- 
dllrlaia oonnnv 

C«4 c*nci am Uit* 
flop gtVithvp cnAitn 
CaC ci 4 bf nC, 

Cei «t>ii£ B"i \>c TWC4* 11111CI TV>- 

ot ii*i*C4>p r* mill, UWiAm tnni 
innglAipn Adt benna>(CAp Vac 
Opof beitAlt onioppo chupain. 

atViaCa'p t\a mill, uniAm tnnor* 

•ocApntifi ftoimiJi TM Tiem«ig Kl^>pn 

1 "uu ln?j»ii itiA Iviap- 

buiJ conimAi£ iiti»r*i "^* m)« C«ni- 

C4"i Tift]- gojvmpift Acaj" nDgnjimi* 

2IUnOA Fplf ACOlll]lAH;CO'",^B(Wt (•/ 
itmort, t 'i, tt. OOl. 1.} 


^txiT. either driven into the walls of ft house, or on a fiame Bpedally 
made for the purpose], and Uien put into the loom and woven. 
On the aubject of embroideiyanu elegant needlework, itwould 
be verj easy indeed to extend this lecture much &rther; but for 
the present I will content myself with a very few referencea <^ 
striking interest 
RcrenmM to la the andent tale called Tochmaro nEvnirey that is, the comt- 
tn"ui?ui^t ship of the lady Enter, described in a former lecture, we are 
m'rT^' ^1^ t^' when CuehuUiind, the great champion of Ulster, came 
netmirt; in his chariot from Emania to Luek, in the present county of 
Dublin (where Forghall Monach Emerge father kept his high 
court of universal hospitahty), he found her sitting on the lawn 
of her father's court surrounded by fifty young ladies, the 
daughters of the surrounding gentlemen, whom she was in- 
structing in needlework and embroidery. 
and Id th* Agun, in the ancient topographical tract CE^ed the D%n»' 
nbutatu/Mt. gg(i„chat, and in that article of it which profeeaes to g^ve the 
derivation of the famous and well'known hill and Rath of Mcua- 
Hu, now called Mullaghmast in the county of Kildare, we find 
the following curious pass^c : 

" Maittiu [from whom the hill is named] was the bom dau^- 
terof^en^tu^o*; Utnor, and embroideress to Aengua Maclnog. 
She was the first petson that formed the figure of a cnxe in EIrinn, 
in the breast border of Aengut' tunic".'"** The Aengut Mac 
Umor mentioned here, as the father of the ladyifawtiu, was that 
Aengua of the Firbolg race who, shortly before the Incarnation, 
built the great stone foit on the great island of Arann, ao well 
known to this day as I)un Amghuis, and of which I had much to 
say in a former lecture. The other Aengvs, who, I dare say, 
was the first that was ever decorated with the order of the cross 
at the hands of a fair lady, was the celebrated Tuatha D6 
Danann chief of firu^A na Boinne, or " the Palace of the Boyne", 
near Slane, of whom bo many mythological legends are still ■ 
preserved in Ireland. 

But no sooner did Christianity raise its heavenly banner in 
our island, than the charming ingenuity of woman was put in 
requisition to adorn with befitting dignity and splendour the 
glorious and devoted soldiers of the Cross. St, Patnck kept three 
embroiderc^es constantly at work, with, we may be sure, a suffi- 
cient staff of assistants. These were Lupait, his own sister, and 
Ere, the daughter of king Daire, and Gruimlhoris of Cenngoba. 
Oka tiie cm- St. Columb CilU also had his special embroideress, whose name 

brolderM* of ^ 

8L Coliui.b 

tii Aetigufd mac gumoip bitiiipuin- acoppcaii\ bpotlanrh i»aip Aen- 
neach «engufa mic tnog 4p puf £Uf4'.— JJou^'o/ ,Z.ecan, (. ^Sl. a. b.] 



Coca, from whom CiUt Choea, now Kilcock, in the county "J^' 
of Kiltlnie. u luuoed. Tliis pious ludy ia mentioned in a note 
lo tlic FmUre AtmhuU, or Fc«ology of Aeagm the CiU* Di or 
CuUee ftt her ft^Uval da.y, the $lh of January. Thia note is ati 
MIowi: " Ercnat, the virgin nun, WM cook and robe maker to 
St Colvmh CUU, uid hei church ia C»/J« t'Aoca [or Kilcock] in 
Cmrbrt ma Ciardha [now Carb»iry, in the couaW of Kildare]. 
Ermat nas her true namei which means an eiDuroideiuss, he- 
cmae ErcadA , in the ancient Gaedbfilic was the aamc as diaw- 
iag and embroidering now; for it was that vi^ia who n-as the 
embroiderc&Bi cuUci, and sewci of clothes to St. Columb CUU 
■nd his discipica". 

The intinute acquaintance of the ancient Gaedhils of Erinn |^» <'<:^- 
vrith the cardinal colours in their highest degree of pnritj, and «!i^n a 
with picst variety of other shades and tints, can bo clearly SuiSm''"'*^ 
(sUibliithcd by existing uviduncc of a very certain ohaiucter. ""i,?'^'' 
The Book oi KvlU, which is an anyicut copy of the four Gos- 
pels, pruBcrred in the library of Trinity College, DubUn, con- 
laine m its pictorial rL-proeemations, as vrnW ax in iu illumina.- 
bonaoTlhe written text, a display of bL-auuful coluuiiog, Bufli- 
deaC of itself to prove tlie taste and knowledge of thu beautiful 
in colours posseswd by our remote ancestors. The figures in 
the Book of Kells are no doubt ccclesiosdcal and scnptuml; 
but tliis crircuinstaDoe docE not in tlic Jeael invalidate our claim 
to originality in the production and combination of the colours 
used in the vestments there pourtraycd. On the contrary, the 
fact of tinding them in illummatjons such as these, still prcacrv- 
tng all thoir brilUancy, in a book written, perhaps, about a.d. 
590, only bears the stronger evidence to the tnithfulncss of the 
use of biiUiani dyea in the culuurin(< <jf eoettimc to which atten- 
tion has Uicn directed in the cnunte of these Lucttirea. The purity 
and brillitiiicy of the gn^'u, the blue, tlie crimson, the ecurlet, 
the yellow, and the purple of the book, Itko its pcninauship, 
stand perhaps unrivaued, and con only be realised l>y an ocluid 
examination of this very beautiful manuscript itdclf- 

This book, it hus been always believed, was written by the 
hand of St. Columb CUU liimsflf, the original founder of the 
church of Geaaannut, now called KelU, in the county of Meath ; 
and the following passage firotn the Aimals of the Four MoaterR 
will show the esteem and vencia^on in which, from its aiiti- 
qni^ and splendour, it was held even at the beginning of the 
cicvendi century: 

" The great gospels of [St.] Cclumh CUU was sacrilegtously 
ttolcD ftl night out of the wcaieni socriaty of thi" great stone 
church at ttanannm [or Kt:llttj, It was tbc chief iclic of the 




RsfttTAnco In 
B. ot Ballf- 
ADlonn vnm 







ninth And 


tlis king of 
from: idra; 


western world, even as regftrded its shrine of human workman- 
ahip ; and it was found in twenty nights and two montha, after 
ftll ita fomamentatdon of] gold had been stolen off it; with aods 
turned over it".""' 

I have found in the Book of Balljmote a curious old 
stanza, headed with these Latin words : 

" Ordo vestimentorum per colores" ; that is, the order of the 
cloths according to their colours. 
" The following is the stanza: 

*' Mottled to simpletons ; blue to women ; 
Crimson to the kings of every host; 
Green and black to noble laymen ; 
White to clerics of proper devotion".""" 
It is wrobable that this stanza is only a fragment of a longer 
poem, smce we have undoubted authority that at the close of 
the ninth century (say about the year 900), clothes of various 
colours such aa cloaks, tunics, mantles, and capes, continued to 
be paid by way of tribute or tax to and by the monarch, the 
provincial kings, end their subordinate kings. The following 
stanzas from the Book of Rights will show to what extent this 
reciprocity of stipends, or presents, and tributes existed between 
the supreme and petty rulers of the land in ancient times. 
To the kings of Cashel were pfdd as follows : 
" Two hundred wethers from the host were ^ven ; 
An hundred hogs in statute tribute; 
An hundred cows that enriched the farmer's daiiy ; 
An hundred green mantles from the men of Ara.'"*^ 
" A thousand oxen, a thousand cows I exact; 
To the palace in one day I ordain, 
A thousand rams swelled out with wool, 
[And] a thousand cloaks from ^otrinn.'"" 
" He himself, the king of noble Gashel, is entitled 

To three hundred suits of cloths at Samhain [from 

Leinster] ; 
To fifty steeds of a dark gray colour 
In readiness for every battle.'"" 
" This is what is due, and no falsehood : 
Fifty oxen and fifty cows, 
Fifly steeds with noble bridles, 

(in) Annals of Four MaatcTB. Dr. O'Donovan's Edition. Year U>. 1006. 

(im Original ;— Of-oo uercimen- Coticdi]\ bo piE*ib Jadix-lxng 
rofwm pepcolaper, .i. opniiA netiAC Uaine ij- uub wo l^e6iwiT> peit, 
VAtAib. pn-D ■DO fiLeiricib c)\AbAiv C)vu4iv 

Ijpec vo Bf oft4ib, sofm no liinittJ [no coip] ! — folio 161. b. 

(lit) i^ee for original Ltabhar na a- Ceart, p. 41. 

(><•> Ibid., p. 48. ""> im, p. M. 


And an hundred cloaks of the cloaks of Utnall.^*^*' xxiv. 

" Three hundred hogs 6:0m the men of Vaithne Vauin*; 

To Cashel without failure [ 

Three hundred mantles ofbright mixture, [i.e. varigated] 

With an hundred strong milcn cowa.'"*' 
*' Thirty short cloaks well stitched, DuMuuMth 

Which with crimson are trimmed ; "* *«wj 

Thirty good cowe from the men of Dutbhneach, 

Thirty oxen from Drung.'^"^ 
" There are due from the county of Coreumruadh coram- 

An hundred sheep, an himdred sows; maMi 

A thousand oxen from brown Boirinn, 

A thousand cloaks not white.""* 
" Tea hondred oxen from the Deiae, ifaeiWM; 

A thousand fine sheep, 

A thousand cloaks with white borders, 

A thousand cows after calving.""' 
** An hundred from the men of Orbhratdfie orMnuif. 

Of cows are g^yen to him ; 

An hundred white cloaks to &ir Cashel, 

An hundred bows for the sty".*'**' 
Such were the tributes, including those in clothes, which the 
king of Cashel received from his tributaries; and from the 
scanty number of garmenUi with which he presented them in 
return, it is evident that by far the greater part of his stock was 
bestowed on persona of inferior rank, in his own tribe perhaps, 
including his men-at-arms. Thus : — 

" Seven mantles with wreaths of gold, stipwidi 

And seven cups for social drinking, liTngoJ' 

Seven steeds not accustomed to falter, Soktopor! 

To the king of Keny of the combats."'" K«n7i 

** The prosperous king 01 Mathlenn is entitled Jfoitmi 

To the stipend of a brave great man; 

Ten swords, and ten drinking horns. 

Ten red cloaks, ten blue cloaks."*** 
" The king of Ara of beauty is entitled ^r*; 

From the king of Eire of the comely face 

To six swords, six praised shields, 

And six mantles of deep crimson"."**' 
The tributes of the king of Coimacht come next, of which Trfbat^n 
our poet says : — ci^S^°* 

" Five score cows long to be praised, ^Zii; 

i'i«) IMd., p. 66. (»•) Ibid- p, 62. ('»> IMd., p. 64. 

<-'i Ibid., p. 64. <'»»> Ibid., p. 66. ('"» Ibid, p. 66. 

t'") IWd., p. 74, l"») Ibid, p. 82. <«•' Ibii, p. 86. 







Uia Lulglni t 

the Dtal- 

Ui MMnt. 

paid by the 
king <rf Con- 
nuhc to tbe 
kings of 1 

Ui Jfalnt. 

TrlbDlei to 
the kiDg ot 
trom: the 

Five score hogs of broad fades, 

Five score mantles of beautiful colour, 

From Umall to the king of Conniicht."*" 
" Three score hogs, great the tribute. 

And three score kinglj cloaks, 

Three score milch cows hither come, 

From the Greagraidhe of the fine trees.'"*' 
" Twelve score of costly cloaks, 

Two hundred cows without error in reckoning, 

Eighty hogs of great report 

Are due from the ConmatMW.""' 
" Three score red cloaks, not black, 

Three score hogs of long sides. 

From the Ciarraidhe, — a bard seateoce, — 

And all to be brought hither together."** 
" Thrice fifty bull-like hogs. 

And all to come hither at Samhain; 

Thrice fifty superb cloaks 

To the king of Connacht and Cruachari^*^^ 

[From thcXuijFAne]. 
" Three times fifty crimson mantles it ia known, 

Without injustice, without transgroenon. 

Of the D^lbkna are these due 

To the king of Connacht at CruocAan."*" 
" The great tribute of Vi Maine of the plun 

Is well known to every historian ; 

Eighty cloaks, it is no falsehood, 

Eighty hogs, a weighty herd".'"** 
Next come the disbursements of the king of Connacht, as 
our poet sings : — 

"Entitled is the king oi Dealbhna ot Drawn Leith 

To six swords and six shields, 

Six steeds, six tunica with gold ^embroidery], 

Six drinking homa for banquets,''**' 
" Entitled is the king of Ui Afaine the illustrious 

To seven cloaks, seven horses over the valley, 

Seven hounds to follow the chase, 

And seven bright red tunics".*"*' 
Next come the tributes paid to the king of AUeaeh or TVr 
Eogltain in Ulster : — 

" An hundred sheep, and an hundred cloaks, and an handred 


<|"' Ibid., p. 98. 
"»> Ibid., p. 102. 

0»1) Ibid., p. lOi. 

(»«) Ibid, p. 98. 
'i»')Ibid.,p. 102. 
('") Ibid., p. U2. 

<!»») Ibid., p. 100. 
"») Ibid-, p. 10«. 
'i»>IlBd.,p. 114. 


And an hundred hogs are given to him, xxiv. 

From the CuHeantraidhs of the wars, 
To the king of Aileach, beside labour."*" 
" An hundred beerea from the Ui Mie Gaerihainn, ihs m uu 

And an hundred hoga — not very trifling, catrtMim; 

Fifty cows in lawfulpojrment, 
Fjity cloaks with white borders."*" 
" An hundred milch cows from the Tuatkas of Tort [ Ui m Tutrir*. 
Fifty hoga in hacon, fifly (live) hogs, 
Witn fifty coloured cloaks to him are given 
From Dm no h-Uidhre in one day".""* 
When the king of AiUaeh was not himself the monarch of^^^',^ 
Erinn, he was entitled to three hundred suitB of clothes from kuiEor 
themonareh; and of the distribution of these three hundred aS^rffofj 
suits among the king oi AileaeJCB subordinate kings or chiefs, 
the poet nngs only of the following : — 
"The king of the Cinel Boghaine the firm Sft^f* " 

Is entitled to five steeds for cavalry, 
Six shields, six swords, six drinking horns, 
Six green cloaks, six blue cloaks."*" 
"Entitled is the king of OmI Eanna ^^. 

To five beautiful powerful steeds, 
Five shields, five sworda for battle, 
Five mantles, five coata of mail""' 
"Entitled is the king of Craebk to a gift, <^'«**' 

Three strong steeds as a stipend. 
Three shield, three swords of battle. 
Three green cloaks of uniform colour."*" 
"Entitled is the king of Ui Mic Caerthainn aiJSl^' 

To three tunics with golden borders, 
Three beautiful statute mantle, 
Three befitting bondwomen."*" 
" Entided is the Imig of TutacK Og ^"^ <* 

To fifly serviceable foreign bondmen, 
Fifly swords, fifty steeds, 
. Fifty white mantles, fifty coate of mail"."'" 
_ Next comes die king of OirgkiaUa or OrieCs i^stribution of 21jyto*the 
rich garments among his subordinate kings, of which our poet Gogtf <»r*«i 
BogBi — S(,"" ''■■ 

" The stipend of the king of Ui Breatail is '='' *"•**' 

Three crimson cloaks of lightning lustre, 

"»•» IWd., p. 120. <'") Ibid., p. 123. <"•' Ibid., p. 124. 

<'»«Ibid.,p.l80. ""> Ibid., p. 130. ""1 Ibid., p. 183. 

«'«») IWd.,p. 132. <'"^ Ibid., p. 184. 











WUbf tlM 

king or 
kiDg ot : 


Five ahielde, five swords of battle, 

Five swift steeds of beautiful colour.*'**' 
" Entitled is the king of Ui Eaehaeh the noble 

To five crimson square cloaks, 

Five shields, five swords, five drinking homSt 

Five gray dark-forked steeds."*" 
" Entitled is the king of Ui Meith the hero, 

From the king of Mocha \_OvyhiaUa] of great assem- 

To four swords, four drinking homs, 
' Four cloaks, four iron-gray steeds.^'*" 
" The stipend of the king of ui Doriain is 

Three crimaon cloaks with borders, 

Three shields, three swords of battle,*"" 

Three white mantles, three coats of mail. 
" Entitled is the king of Vi Briutn ArchoiU 

To three tunics with golden borders, 

Six steeds, six heavy bondmen, 

Six befitting bondwomen"."*" 
The king of Ui Diirtre was further entitled to giAs from the 
king of Oirgkialla, such as : — 

" Eirfit bay steeds are due to him. 

Eight crimaon cloaks of beautiful texture, 

Eight shields, eight swords, eight drinking horns, 

Eight hardworking, dexterous-handed bondmen."*** 
" Entitled is the great sing of Feara Manach 

To five cloaks with golden borders, 

Five shields, five swords of battle, 

Five ships, five coats of mail. 
" Entitled is the king of Mughdhom and Am 

To six bondmen of great vigour, 

Six swords, six shields, six drinking horns, 

Six crimson cloaks, six blue cloaks".""*' 
Next comes the distribution by the king of Utadh, or Vlidia, 
that is Down and Antrim, of his gii^ among his cliie&, firstly 
to the king of Cuailgnet ea our poet sings : 
" Eiftv swords, fifty shields, 

fifty cloaks, fifty gray steeds. 

Fifty capes, fifty pack-saddles. 

And fifty pleasmg coats of mail."'" 
" Twenty specified cloaks, — no small present, 

Twenty mantles of softest sheen, 

("') Ibid., ^ 146. 
('") Ibid, p. 16a 
I'**) Ibid., p. 16*. 

('«> IWd, p. 148. 
"") Ibid , p. 160. 
"•'J Ibid., p. 168. 

I'") Ibid., p. 1«. 
(It*) Ibid., p. 162. 


Twenty diinking-lioraa, twenty quorn-women, ^^'v- 

To the valorous ting o£ Araid/te.""^ 
"The stipend of the victorious king of Cobhaia cobhaUi 

Ten drinking horna, ten wounding swords, 

Ten ships to which crews belong, 

Ten cloaks with their borders of gold. ""' 
"Entitled is the heroic king oi Muirtheimne — the hero? Jf^^ 

To six tall drinking horns full of ale. 

Ten ships to the champion of Ealga [Erinnj, 

Ten steeds, ten scarlet tunics".""' 
Next come the tributes paid to the king of Uladh by his sub- Tribnteito 
ordinate chiefs and tribes, among which we find the ibUowing, t/toi/ATrili 
as sung by our poet: 

** Three times fifty excellent cloaks from Semhne, &diAh<,- 

This from all, 

Three times fifty excellent dairy cows, 

All within two days.""' 
*' There b due from Crotkraidhe of the fleet, croa. 

Bear it in thy memory, — raiJA.; 

An hundred wethers, an hundred cows not sickly, 

And an hundred cloaks.*"*' 
'* Three hogs from the lands of Cathal, c«*«t 

Not very severe, 

Three hundred well coloured cloaks, 

He is entitled to in the north".""' 
Next comes the hereditary kingof Tara and Meath, with his oifutoUng 
gifts from the monarch, when he was not himself tlie monarch 
of Kiinn ; and hi^ own liabilities to the petty kings and chiefs 
of Meath, as our poet sings. 

" An hundred swords, and an hundred shields, stipends 

The king of Tara of lords is entitled to, osiarlta "' 

An hundred suits of clothes, and an hundred steeds, "" '^"^ "'■ 

An hundred white cloaks, and an hundred suits of 
" Entitled is the king of Magh Lacha ""ok 

To five shields, five swords of battle, " ' 

Five short cloaks, and five steeds. 

Five white hounds, in a fine leash.""' 
" Entitled is the king of Gnirene of the shore cbiVokj 

To six shields and six horses, 

Six cloaks and six shepherds. 

Six drinking horns, full, ready for use."**' 

(>»»> Ibid., p. 158. t'"> Ibtd., p. 164. ""> Ibid., p. Ififi. 

iiMj Ibid., p. 170. "") Ibid., p. 170. "*" Ibid., p. 172. 

(»»•' Ibid., p. 178. '"»J Ibid., p. ITS. i'*"' Ibid^ p. 180. 

10L. tl. U 





Ui« king of 
T»r« (rum i 

Tba Ftarm 

tba SaUUnt ; 




fud br tha 
■tar to tba : 


chlalof Owt- 

" The Btipend of the king of Ui Beceon ia, 

Five swift ready steeds, 

Five speckled cloaks of permanent colour, 

And Ove swords for battle".""" 
Next come the tributes paid to the king of Tara, or Meath, 
from his territories, and of which the poet sings: — 
" Thrice fifty white cloaks, from the Luighne, 

Thrice fifty hogs, as were reckoned, 

Thrice fifty beeves, without default. 

To be brought to great Tlfomatr."*" 
*' An hundred Mevea from the Feara Arda, 

An hundred white wethers besides. 

An hundred hogs, heavy to be remembered, 

An hundred dcaks tne enumeration of the great 

" An hundred best cloaks from the Sattkns, 

An hundred sows, a stock of weall^, 

An hundred beeves from the plains, 

And an hundred wethers to be slaughtered/"** 
" Three hundred hogs from the territory of Gailmga, 

Three hundred wethers, three hundred white cloaks, 

Three hundred oxen, great the relief 

To the Clam RaUk fat Tara] ye have heard'.*"" 
'* Sixty cloaks from the ui Beceon, 

Sixty beeves, great the strength, 

With sixty excellent sows, 

And sixty tunics (?) to the great hill" [of TVanwtr].""' 
We come next to the king of Leinster, and his rights and 
liabihties when not himself monarch of Erinn. He was, among 
other presents from the monarch, entitled to fifty short cloaka 
and ten kingly mantles. Of the king of Iieinster's liabilities to 
his tributaries, we take the following stanzas from the poet: — 
" Six diinking horns, six rings to the Vi Fealain, 

Six white cloaka at the same time, 

Six swift steeds, with their caparisons. 

Though they boast of this it is not brotherhood.""* 
" Eight ships from tha champion to the chief of Cvaland 

With sails and with sailing masts,'"" 

Eight drinking horns, eight keen-edged swords, 

('•!) Ibid, p. 183. "«> Ibid., p. ise 

<i") WAA., p. 186. t'«> Ibid, p. 188. 

fi") Ibid., p. 204. 

t"*J [Ocht loTigA 6'n 1.4ec>i no fUiicti diuitairo, 
Co TeoU.1% CO j-eol, fefatiib. 
Dr. (yDonovan tninBlUe* the second line: 
"With nil! [ud] with utin flags (baoDen)".] 

II") IKd., p. 186. 



Eight tunics, eight gold worked mantles. 
" Seven steeds to the fair Ui Feilmeadha, 
Vehement men, and vengeful [are they ;] 
Five curved drinking horns, with five cloaks, 
Five mantles let it be remembered.""' 
"Ten carved clasps to the king o£ Raeilinn, 
And six royal steeds, I reckon, 
Six mantlea also to the champion, — 
Six bondsmen to the same warrior.'"" 
** Six steeds to the Ui Crtomhthaiman as ordered, 
Six oxen in good condition, 
Six drinking boms to hold in their hands, 
Six mantles without mistake".'"" 
Next comes the bibute received by the king of Leinster 
firom his tributary tribes, from which we select the following, 
■s sung by the poet.- — 

" Seven hundred pigs in bacon, seven hundred hogs, 
Seven hundred oxen, seven hundred good wethers. 
Seven hundred cloaks, and seven hundred co^ra. 
From the lands of the Galls all in one day.""'* 
" Two hundred cloaks, no falsehood, 

An hundred heavy hogs, heavy the herd, 
And two hundred lively milch cows, 
From the lands of the tribes of the Fortkuatka.^"'^ 
" From all the Fotharta 

Are due two hundred prime cows, 
And two hundred statute cloaks. 
Two hundred wild oxen tamed.'"" 
** Two hundred beeves, great the progeny, 

Two hundred cloaks, and two hundred milch cows. 
Two hundred wethers, great the rehef 
From the men of south Leinster".'"*' 
We come next to the king of Emain Maeka, that is Emania 
in middle Ulster, and we have an enumeration of the gifts which 
the king of that important territory was entitled to from the 
monarch of Erinn, as well as his own liability to his tributary 
chiefs, and theirs to him in return. From the list of the gifts 
from the monarch to the petty king, as sung by our poet, we 
take the following stanza : — 

*' Twelve spears on which there is poison, 
Twelve swords with razor edges. 
Twelve suits of clothes of all colours, 





the klDg irf 
(Tom tbe: 





out! from 
the manweh 
o( Erlno to 
the klD| of 

<•") Itnd., p. 316. 
<"•> lUa, p. 230. 


('"J iwd., p. 22a 

«'"! Ibid., p. 218. 
t""> Ilnd., p. 220. 




Stipenda of 
Ihe Ung of 
king! at : 


Mowed on 
Uiu king of 
Lalniter tf 
tho monireh 
vhaneTor ha 

Qirt of king 
of LelDiMr 

to the king 
or Ihe Ci 

am of ths 

monucb cf 
Erlnn to 
klnft ol Cai. 

For the use of the sons of high chiefs"."'* 
We find the king of Emania's gifts of clothes to his tribu- 
tariea aa limited as those made to himself by the monarch of 
Erinn. These gifts appear to have been limited to two chiefs 
only, the king of Math Mor Muighe, i.e. of Magh Line, and the 
king of the Conmaicne in Oonnacht, who were of remote Ulto- 
nian origin. Thus sings the poet: — 

" Entitled is he [the Iting of Rathmor] shall any ask it? 
Unless he be king over the men of Ulster, 
To eight coloured cloaks and two ships, 
With a bright shield on each shoulder.""' 
" Entitled is tlie king of the noble Ui Brium 
To his truly noble French steed; 
Entitled is tlic king of the £iir Conmaicne 
To a Bleed and a choice of raiment"/"" 
Wc are told that whenever the king of Leinster paid a state 
visit to Tara, he received from the monarch — 
" Seven chariots adorned with gold, 
In which he goes forth to banquets, 
Seven score suits of well coloured clothes, 
For the wear of the sons of the high chiefe."™ 
'* Upon which he goes back to his house, 

The king of Leinster, with the champions. 
Until he reaches the palace of Nas after a journey 
Until he distributes his stipends". 
Among these stipends, however, which the king of Leinster 
distributed after his return from Tara, we only find one of the 
chiefs entitled to a present of garments; as the poet sings: — 
" Entitled is the King of fair Vi Fealain 

To seven coloured cloaks, for cheerful banquets".""' 
We further find in this book, that the monarch of Erinn wai 
bound by ancient usage to accept of a periodical iavitation to 
a feast from the king of Cashel at leamhair Luachra (an 
ancient palace situated in the neighbourhood of Abbeyfeale, on 
the borders of the counties of Limerick and Kerry). Here the 
monarch was bound to remain for a week, and in the meantime 
to hand over to the king of Cashel the gifts and stipends of de- 
pendance to which he was entitled from him. Among these 
were: — 

" Eight score of cloaks in cloaks, 

Eight bright shields over white hands, 
Seven plough yokes in full range, 
And seven score short homed cows"."*" 

("•) Ibid., p. 242. 
<'">lbid.,p. 281. 

<!"> Ibid., p. 244. 
(""' Ibid., p. 250. 

<"•) Ibid., p. 246. 
*'•" IbW., p. 864. 


The king of Mimster then distributed to his own subordinate 

chiefs and to their ladies his gifts and stipends in this manner, stipend* 
aa sung by the poet:— gl^of^S^' 

" Eight good steeds of high degree t^wli^'or 

Are due to the king of the noble Deise, the mon«rch 

And eight green cloaks besides, tnei 

With eight brooches oi Findruine [or white bronze]."*** "**"*' 
" Entitled is the king of the fair Vi Chonaill Ui OuntUL 

To an Easter dress from the king of Caiaeal, 

His beautiful sword of shining lustre 

And his spear along with it"."*" 
Again we find the provincial king of Connauht liable, among stipend* 
many other things, to the following items: — Efniwcon- 

" Entitled is me king of great Ut Maine kf?m o? ,"" 

To four drinking horns for drinking occasions ; f' Maimt, 

To twenty cows and twenty steeds. 

To two hundred suits of clothes — no false award."**' 
** Entitled is the king of the vaUant Luighne iiutim*. 

To four shields for victories, 

Four tunics with red gold, 

Four ships, not a bad gift".""' 
I must, however, close here these extracts, having only desired 
to show at how early a period ornament was systematically ap- 
plied to dress in ancient Erinn. I shall only add one more ; 
becaose in leaving the subject of dresses of different colours, I 
cannot but lay before the reader a very curious example of a 
theory of colours in connection with the phenomena of winds, 
which I would wish to be able to investigate at much greater 
length than my narrow limits at present will allow. 

Of the acquaintance of the ancient Irish with the nature and coinowof 
combinations of colours, an instance is preserved in the preface to coniing to 
the Seanchaa M6t, that great law compilation, which is believed iS^**" 
to have been compiled in St. Patrick's time. The writer of 
ibis preface, which is evidently not as old as the laws them* 
selves, when speaking of the design and order of the creation, 
gives the following poetical description of the nature and charac- 
ter of winds. 

** He (the Lord) then created the colours of the winds, so 
that the colour of each differs from the other ; namely, the white 
and the crimson; the blue and the green; the yellow and the 
red; the black and the gray; the speckled and the dark; the 
dull black (ctar) and the grisly. From the east (he continues) 
comes the crimson wind ; from the south, the white ; from the 

<'i») Ibid, p. B5& ('"i Ibid., p. 268. "") Ibid., p. 264. 

ciM) Ibid., p. 264. 




■riDdi RC- 
eendlni to 

north, the black ; from the west, the dun. The red and the 
yellow are produced between the white wind and the crimson; 
the green and the gray are produced between the grisly and the 
white ; the gray and the dull black arc produced between the 
grisly and the jet black ; the dark and the mottled are produced 
between the black and the crimson ; and those are all the sub- 
winds contained in each and all the cardinal winds"/"** 

It would be a curious speculation to inquire into the mean- 
ing of this strange theory of coloured winds; but it contains at 
a glance evidence at least of the existence, when this most 
ancient preface was written, of a distinct theory of the relalionB 
and combinations of colours."*" 

('••) [orl^nal:— noT>et.boonAT>A- 
£d <n«. n-^&et, coniT> fdin VAt C46& 
jaeifie Tiib fpi 4]MiitA!, .1. ^et octif 
copqw, gtJiif ocuf oiine, bui*e 
ocuf "oefs, 'oub ocuf ViAt, in aI^a-o 
octif in cimin, in ciap ociif in ot>u)v 
An«ip in ^deC cot^cpA, aneaf in 
geat^ A Euai6 An nub, Anidji an 
coop. In -oeps ocuf in bume icip 

vdine ocuf in g^r ^*^r ^^ nm|i 
ocuf m jjl/egiL bic i in t/i«i octir i« 
tiip icip m vtT>i|t octtf m citimb 
bic ; in cemin octif in aIat} tcip tn 
oub ocuf in copcpA bic. Cont vt 
rojAift in &Ad ppimcAic inpn. — Pi«- 
face to StaneAaiM^, Haileiui US& 
482, Brit Has.] 

*'") [Thii thpory of coloured wlndB Appareotly refen to the more chuwster- 
iatic cotoura which the doudt aMume about tb« riilng and tetting nm, and 
which to a certain extent Becm to depend upon the wind which blowv at the 


[MHtwwI Jilj Ittta, IMO.] 

(Vin.) Dkau Aim Oknahkittb (continued). Of Conaire Mor monarch of 
binn (ciica ^jo. 100 to b.c. 50) nnd the outlawed son* of Bond Da*, 
Mcofding to the ancient tale of the Briagktan Daderga ; the soui of Dond 
Jhu tModate with the Britiih outlaw Ingctl to iilnnder the coasts of Bri- 
tain and Eiinn; the monarch in returning from Corca Bhaiscmn in the Co. 
Clan, being nnahle to reach Tara, goes to the court of Dadtrg ; Ingati 
Tiaita the conrt to sscertiua the feaaibilit^ of plundenng it ; lie gives de- 
acriptitnia on his return to his companions of thoae he aaw there, and Fer> 
toffom identifies them ; lagceta description of the Ultoni&n warrior Cor- 
mac ComUmgu and his companions; of the CruUkenluaih or FIcts; of 
the nine pipe plajera ; of Twdle the house steward ; of Oball, ObUni and 
Cairpra Fiadmor, sons of Conaire Mor; of the champions Mai Mae T«l- 
imd, Mutnrtm^ and Birdtrg; of the great Ultonian chami^oQ Conall 
Ceariiacli; of the monarch himself, Conaire Mor; of the six cup bearers; 
of TUcAumethe roj'al Dniid and juggler; of the three swine-herds; of 
CaiucracA Mtnd ; OC the Saxon princes and their compajoions ; of the king's 
OQtriden; of the king's three jadges; of the king's nine harpers; of the 
king's three jugglers ; of tlie three chief cooks; of the king's three poete; 
of the king's two warders; of the king's nine gaardamea ; of the kingS two 
table attendints; of the champions Sencha, Duhihack Dae! Uladh and 
Coibtau; of Dadtrg himself; of the king's three door keepers; of the 
British exiles at the court of the monanJi; of the three jesters or clowns; 
<rf the thi«e drink bearers. Suminacr of the classes of persons described. 
The exaggerations of such descriptions scarcely affect their value for the 
preaent purpose ; very little eiaggeratioQ on the whole in the tales of the 
BruigJuait Daderga, and T£n Bo Chuaiignt. Antiquity and long conU- 
imed use of the colour of certain garments shown by the tale of the AmAra 
Ckonrai, by Mac Liag'a elegy on Tadgh O'Kelly. and also by a poem of 
GiUabrighde Mac Conmidkt, 

Ib the last two lectures I gave a ahort account of the military 
drees, chiefly in regard to colour and omamente, of the ancient 
Irish, as preserved m the old historic tale of the Tdin Bo Chu- 
ailgne- This was followed by a long account from the Brehon 
Lawa and the life of St. Ciaran of CTonmacnois, of the mode of 
colouring and treating wool and &sx, preparatory to their being 
manufactured into cloth, the instnunents used in the various pro- 
cesses, and the laws which protected the workers, who, as far 
as we know, were always women, in the recovery of their wages, 
and any part of their property when pledged. I shall now pro- 
ceed to give some account of the civil dress, worn in courts, at 
state assemblies, public fairs, and ^eat festivals, still treating the 
subject as far as can be in chronological order ; and although we 
have not yet exhausted the rich descriptive stories of the Tdin 


^^''- Bo Chuailgne, we shall now draw upon sources scarcely, if at a] 

laid under contribution hitherto ; and of these sources the ta] 

of the Bruighean Daderga, will be the chief. As I have give 

in a former lecture""' an ample sketch of the tale of the Bruii 

hean Daderga, I shall only have occasion to describe it here i 

the briefest manner. 

MnoHiirt The reign of king Conaire Mor, or the Great, who assume 

outitircd the monarchy of Ennn a century before the Incarnation, was 

M^vvtDond prosperous one to his country, and extended to a period of fiA 

years. His lulc of justice was so strict that several lawless an 

discontented persons were forced to go into exile. Among tl 

most desperate of these outlaws were the monarch's own foste 

brothers, the four sons oi Bond Bess, an important chicflain < 

Leinstcr. These refractory youths, with a large party of & 

lowers, took to their ships and boats and scoured the coasts t 

Britain and Scotland as well as of their own country- Havin 

iheintfer met on the sea with Ingcel, the son of the kingof Britain, wh 

wild the for his misdeeds had been likewise banished by his own fathe 

^w!'i'-3^t ^'^*-^ parties entered into a league, the first fruits of which wei 

tSi'Iliiiw- ^^^ plunder and devastation of a great part of the British coas 

' after which they were to make a descent on that of Erini 

During this time the Irish monarch had occasion to go int 

Corca Bhaiacinn, in the present county of Clare, to settle son 

difference which had sprung up between two of the local chiel 

On his return, and when approaching his palace at Tara, wii 

a very small retinue, he found the whole country before hL 

one sheet of fire ; the plunderers having landed in liis absenc 

and carried fire and sword wherever tliey went. The kin 

accordingly turned away from Tara, takmg the old BotJu 

Chualand which was the great road that led from Tara, throug 

Dublin, into Leinster; and having crossed the Liffey in safet; 

t'lo moniiMh he repaired to the court of Baderg, which was situated on tV 

rciciiTra liver Dothra, or Dodder (at the place now called from 

S^ur(*ot!>a. Bothar na Bruighne, that is, " tlic road of the court") nef 

''"■f; Tallaght in the present county of Dublin. This was one of th 

six courts of universal hospitality, which at this time were estal 

lishcd in Erinn ; and in this court the monarch was received wit 

the honour which his own dignity and munificence procured ft 

him everywhere within his dominions. 

The plunderers having satisfied their vengeance, and loadc 
their vessels with spoils, put to sea again, and running alon 
the coast in the direction of the hill of Howth, they perceive 
the monarch and his smalt but splendid company driving alor 

<"'> \i-ea Leclure» on tha SIS- Maltriah of AncieM IritA Bistory, h& 
Xii., p. 258.] 


the road towards Dublin. Hia own foster-brothers, who were *-^^- 
imoDg the leaders on board, immediately recognized Iiim, and 
^eaong the cause of his journeying in such a manner in such 
s direction, the^ took proper measures to keep him in view to 
the end of his journey. 

The British outlaw chief, Ingcel, having received infonnation '^^ ti»h 
of the monarch's resting place, ran his vessels on shore some- ucenain 
where to the south of the mouth of the Liffey, and undertook m^ ^"1^ 
when he came on shore to go with a small party to Daderg's "lertnHii; 
court, and aacertaio with his own eyes the feasibility of plun- 
dering it and killing the monarch. On his return to iiis people, 
they lormed a circle round him and the five sons of Dond Deu. 
Ferrogain, one of the five foster-brothers, was well acquainted 
with the monarch, and the functions and names of all the 
officers and official attendants who formed hie ordinary com- 
pany at Tara, and who attended him on all his excursions. Fer- 
roffoin therefore questioned the chief as to what he had seen 
m Dadergi court. The chief described the different groups ei'«» «t- 
which he had seen there, and Ferrcgain identified them ; and hn ^ti^' 
it ifl this curious dialogue, which constitutes the chief part of J[|^';^" 
the story, and, like the Tiiin Bo Chuailqne, contains those f''"^'" 
mmute accounts oi costume, etc , lor the sake ol wnich I pro- them, 
coed to make extracts at length. 

Ferroaain speaks first. 

" I ask thee, O Ingcel! didst thou examine the house well?" 
8ud Ferrogain. 

" My eye cast a rapid glance into it, and I will accept it as 
my share of the plunder, such as it is", said Ingcel. 

"Well mighteat thou do so if thou didst get it", said Fer- 
rogain, " it is the foster-father of us all that la there, the high 
king of Erinn, Conai're, the son of FJUrscel". 

" I ask what thou sawcst in the champion's seat of the house, 
before the king's face on the opposite side?" said FerrogainS'**^ 

" I saw there", said ho, " a large dark faced man with bright 
sparkling eyes, beauti(ul well set teeth, a face narrow below and ^'S"^.* ^* 
broad ahove, and flaxen fair golden hair, upon him. He wore cormat 
well-fitting clothes ; a silver Milech or brooch in his cloak, and '^'™'*'"»" 
a gold-hilted sword in his hand. He had a shield with golden 
bosses ; and a flesh-piercing spear in his hand. A manly, comely, 
crimson countenance has he, and he is beardless". 

""1 [original: — Cifcinuepcaior"- "^' P^ ^"^ ai^-opi liCpcnn Conaife 

AceC cotntnaiC a Ingcel,? ]:op JTep- "lac ecc]^]■ccolL Cific cit) occon- 

pogdln. HoLj mo piitp; tuACioiip-o TmpcfU ipnx* jrocl-ui fcniiifoa in 

Ant), dcuj- 56bjiic ym pado a,tnjiV cijc, rpi encC pij;ipn IciC anatl,? — 

Aci If -ociCbip T)dic a mjceil. Z,ea6A(ir no A-L''i'/Are, f. 61. a. col. a.] 
c'lAnfi gibta oV FeppogAiti, apiiAici 


'*•'•■ *' Pass that man by for the present", said Ferrogain; *' and 

after him who didat thou see there?"""' 
t«l^. " ^ ^*^ there three men behind him, and three men before 
miou him, and three men close in front of the same man. Thou wouldst 
think that it 'was one mother and one father they had ; and they 
are all of the same age, the same form, the same beau^, and same 
resemblance. They had long polls of haii ; and grerai cloaks ; they 
had Tanaalaidhe, or brooches, of gold in their cloaks ; bent shielcu 
of red bronze upon them ; ribbed spears above them ; a bcme- 
billed Bword in the band of each man of them".*'*" 

Then Ferrogain identifies them as Cormac Canlouiga, the 

son of Conchobar, king of Ulster, and his nine comrades. 

^hat. " ^ **^ there another couch", s^d Ingctl, " and three men 

■M or in it — three great brown men, with three round heads of hur, 

**" of equal length at poll and forehead. They wore three short, 

black cowls, reaching to their elbows, and long hoods to their 

cowls. They had three enormous black swords, and three black 

shields over them; and three black [handled] broad green 

spears over them [that is, standing by their aides and teaching 

above their heads *]. 

" It is not difficult for me to identify them", said Ferrogain : 
" I am not acquainted in Erinn with three such, imless they 
are those three [champions] from Fictland {^Cruitkentuaih), who 
have passed into exile from their own country, and are now 
among king Cbnatre's household. Their names are Dubloingeg, 
the son of Trebuait, and Trebttait, the son of Lonacae, and Cur- 
naoh, the son of Ui Faick. These are the three heroic victory- 
winning champions of Cruitenttiath [Fictland]."**' 

*'*•> [original :—6cCon'04pc 4nti fteg4i>fuininei* i34r*ili; CAlgwAc 

olre, fej\ jopmAined miii pofc itUiifli c<i4 pp ■o\h.—Ibid,, t. lil. a. 

Ti5l.An tigtedp-OA taif, weiu geti col. 2.] 

coif, M^&o yoticl fofieCiti, ttno- "•" [original: — AcconoAitc awo 

foU: pti^ pjnoptnie fiiji. popci iwo-ie.icuf cpianinw— cpi'Ot>i«)p]\ 

toi]i imbi; tniiefi -upEic miiA bpuc, m6iv4, cpi cpuin-obepftA foiwtb, ifte 

ACUT cUu-oeb oit^'outitn inAiaim. comtebiw TOi\c(it *cnT eiron. Cpi 

SctAft cocoiq\oe oip f Alp ; i-iej jepp Ao^Atit, -oubAe impn, contni, 

c6icpint) iflAlAinr. CAinrA c6ip fiiiti cfeititiiiai pflcA p>p ha coAtAib. Cpt 

topcopoA baif, of£ AriiuiAfi. ^itm- ct.Ai'0)b'oubA-o)m6pAl.fro, Acuf ce6 

mnat in fen pn, acuj- lAp pn cia aca pA oubbocc&ci AAfAib ; ACuf c^opJi 

,^nxt.~LeaoharnaA-Uidhre,t.6l,^ 'oubrl«sA LeftATigbAppA UApfAib. . , 

col. 2,] 1f AtlDfA ■DAmfA A fAfllAlU Tllf f«- 

''•" [original !— AcconoApc Ant) CAppA iti hepm incpiAppti, mAni'oh^ 

CplAp pep fpip ATllAp, ACUf CpiAp in CplAp UCUC -01 CpUlCenrfAie, -DO 

ppip Anaip, Acup cpiAp Ap btlA int) tiefi^ACAp poptongAip ApA tip, convA 

pp efecnAi. AcAplecipoenmAcliAip pt hi cejjtaC cTionAipe. lc£ AtiAn- 

ACUf oenAcliAip t)6ib ; ic* comierA, tnAno, Oublomjep hiao Cpeb6Aic, 

comdope, comA\,t,i, copnAite uti. ACApCpebuAicmAC fii LonpcAe, Acup 

COlmon^Ae fopoib ; bpuic ^Ainiw CupnA^ mac Hi fi\t. Cpi U.ic aca- 

impu 111,1 ; CAflAfLAttie 6tp inAtn- oeijAibcegAirceDlACpuitencuAit 

bpucA; cuApfcei£ cpent) fopAib ; inqiiAppn.^-iW, f. 61. b. otd. 1.] 



*' I saw there", eai<] ingcel, " v. couch and nine persons upoo 
H; they haA fair yoUow hair, and were like in beauty ; they wore 
speckled, gloesy cloaka, and had nice ornamented quadrangular 
cspa {T€nn*t) over them. The emblazonment which is upon 
theae quadran^Iar cape would be eulBcicnt light for the royal 
house. These are nin? pipe-jilayere who came from the lairy biUa 
of Brtgia to Conaire to *lo nini honour. Their names arc Bind, 
Robind, Riarbind, 8ihe, Pifn, Deichrind, Unuil, Cumal, CialU 
giind. They ore the best pipe players in the whole world"."**' 
These nine niuncs, I may obsnre, are svmbolic&l of the nine per- 
fecciotu or higher performanecs of munc, but, with the cxccp- 
tioD of tl>c GrsL and second names, they ore now uuintclligiblc. 
Tbfl tint two Dttmpj, Bind and Robind^ that is, sweet and mors 
iwccl, or melodioiui and more melodious, are still livln;; words."*" 

" I saw there", e»td Jnffeet, " a couch with one man on it. 
He had coarse hiur. so cosrac that if a sack of wild apples were 
onptiod upon his head, not an apple of thrm would Inll to the 
tuid, but each npplc would slick upon his hair. He wore his 
l woollen cloak around him in the house. " Every cliscus- 
thal arises in the house about seat or bed", said Ingcel, " is 
submilted to his dfclnoo. If a needle dropped in the lioutte, its 
(all would be heard when he speaks. A huge blaclc tree or most 
stiinda OTer him ; it is like the shall of a mill with its cogfi and 
wheel and axle. That man", said Ferrogain, "is Tutdte of 
Ulster, hou»e-8teward to [kin^] Conaire. lie is a man", conU- 
nocs Ferrogain, " whose decisions are not to be impufped. He 
U the man tliat enpplics seat , and bed, and food, to every one. It 
is his lioQseliold stjtff (or wand) that stands above him".''"* 

" I saw another couch tlicre",paid /wyce/, *' and three persons 
upon it. Three BofVyonthg with three Sirrcfidai [or wtlkati] cloaks 
upon them, and throe brooches (iJr^nowa) of gold in their cloaks. 

t*TO«i ecvf ttmiliu|i itroi ; moncAe 
niro bum ■:oniA\,l'i nne : 
biunc bp#c Ug4 iiDfin, acuf noi 

htp«. . . nonboji cwftenTiif inpfi 

Ed£CAC«p coCuntiAipt aji a Aip- 
itb«pobtt6g Ic6 jniipaianD— 
, Reu'Tvo, Itispbin'D, Sibe, 'Oib»i 
O'lftpfo, UiB*l, Cstnil^Oful.lgVu'w. 
Ic^ ctiTWwMTg 4rA w#c rlL 'pn wo- 
mon.—L*aUat na i- LiidArt, I. fl . h 
a*. 2.1 

(iMj [g,^ fMMta, line kciun* on 
Basic, f 

4rth« nlaa 



itnrv*! AMj-ofirjvf inci. ntavLj^ivb 
l^o^riirai, c!4 i?f>cppc« Tnia£ p«o- 
ubuVt, p>n dm&vl, ni |X)e^i6ro ubutL 
oib fOT>U]i, Ate nopugWo ca6 
nbuVl (^ A pnn«. Ab^xdC poUma|« 
cjiptj- ipnpj. C*t »nnij\»f*in btf 
ipn C1J impaiTHQ nO Uc' ipn Aput^ 
cUf;6ic «U. Oo fDtc^tn p)j>Cac 
tpncig, pucWtii-Ciii a conin inciM 
ldbpa]-b6or. VubcTuirro mdp {JAp* I 
coT^AiL T|M miA, moboQ ci»n4p«4- 
C*«b AC4f » cwnnfiAtg «caf dipm- 
cioo- . - - CtiiTil* ut** inpti, 
f«ecAi|\e c?5t*'5 c)ion4ii*e- if * 
ccn Avr^<n.ip£c « buciC mvpp pu. 
rep cunntc piTwc, aciif U$«i Jcai" 
btAO OU i\l|^. lp «U*pg ccgt«t5 
fuiL G«i-^-/W., I. 61. U col. 2.] 



nn.4 ATor. 

MIU !.[ 



^'"'- They had three ycUow golden hc&ds of hair. When anger seizes 
upon them, their golden-yellow hair reaches to the points of their 
shoulder hlades. Wlien they r^se their eyes, the hair rises up, so 
that it descends no lower than the tips oi their ears. It is more 
curled than the forehead of a bleating ram {relha eopad). A 
golden shield and a candle of a royal house was over each of them. 
Every one in the house admires their voice, their deeds, and 
their words. Continue thy identifications, O Ferrogain". Fer- 
rogain now slied tears until his cloak in front was wet, and no 
voice was heard irom his head until a third part of the night was 
past. " Alas !" swd Ferrogain, " then, I nave good cause for 
what I do ; these are Oball, and ObUni, and Coirpri Findmor 
[that is, the fair and tall], the three sons of the king of Erinn ".'"•* 
'theebtra- " I saw there a couch", said Ingcel, " and three men in it; 
w V« three large brown men, having three large brown beards. Long 
'5^? thick legs had th^ : thicker than the body of a man was every 
j'^"'** limb of theirs. They had three brown curled heads of hair 
'^' majestically upon them. They wore red-spotted white kilts. 
Three black shields with devices of gold, and three flesh-piercing 
spears, hang above them ; and each of them has a bone-hiltcd 
aword". These were Mai Mae Telbaind, Muinremor Mae Gerr- 
cind, and Birderg Mac Ruain, three regal stems, three heroes 
of valour, three victory winning champions of Erinn.'"" 
Then follows a strange deacnption indeed. 
rthe (treat "I saw there on an ornamented couch", said Ingcel, *' the 
lampimi most beautiftil man among tlie champions of Krinn. He had 
MrnaeA ^ Splendid crimson cloak upon him. One of his cheeks was 
whiter than snow. Whiter and more red-tinged than the fox- 
glove was the other cheek. One of his eyes was bluer than the 
violet ; and the other blacker than the back of a cockchafer. As 

"•"[original: — Acftoiroapc 6nx> OhtiXX, ACir ObLini, aca)- C6i|ifijM 
im-ooe Acur cpiop itin, .1. trpi j:im)iii6)icTM«iicnigIiepetiintipn — 
ii'i6o46ct-iii; <kcuf cpi bpuic ppei- Leabhar na h-Uidkrt, f. S2, %. col. 2.] 
Tjai impii, ce6pa bpecn^j-pj OptJAi '""' [oriijinal ; — ACCOnT>a)\c 4in> 
inn& mbp.icciib. Ce6pd tnong* iniTiAe acap cpiAp hitii; cpiDonupp 
opbuD! fo^xaib. Incon palflngac « fiipa, Cpi doitd bep^A psp&ib. 
baipbCiu CAcmomg in niong opbu- tloitiw cotbtae pempae befi: pemi- 
■Di '061b cobpaitie a nirwoae. to tip ineT>oTi pp cifi babb Tiib. Cpi 
baitJ conocbac Appofc c6ti6c4ib in tiohtj fuibc fiApT* foppaib cope- 
foXx: contiii ipbu' pino a nuae. m6pfiitn>. Cioiia benna bpecrjepg* 
CdrP^P pcCo copa-o. Coic poC 6ip impu. Cpi ouiOfctiC cocuag tniUb 
acap cdin'oet pigtigc- uap cafiae. oip, acap ceopa pbega coicx^iTtttnt 
Tlai ■ouni pLipti cig ap caceip gut, ^apaib; acarcLainT>'0?ccaCpj\*oib. 
Acap snim, acap bpcitip. SamaiL . ■ . niaLmac CeLbamTjacapITIuin- 
bac A V'PfoS*'"' HoCi V'epogain pemop mac Seppcino acap DipT>ep5 
combopbiuC a bpac pop a b6baib, mac Tluain, cpi pigT>artin4e, cpi bait 
Acap ni h6cap gut appatm-o co cpi- paibe, cpi taifi acatie lipcfib c*pci'o 
An na hanjiii. * becu ! op (T^* '" bepenn. — /itiJ , f. 62. b. coL 1.] 
pogAiti tpceiCbip oam i antiogniu, 


large as a reaping basket is the busty head of golden hair which ^^^ 
ia upon him. It touches the lower tips of his two shoulder blades. 
It is more curled than the forehead of a bleating ram"."*" 

This was tlie celebrated Conall Ceamach, one of the great 
champions of the Royal Branch of Ulster. 

'* I saw there a couch", said Jngcel, " and its ornamentation of tho 
was more splendid than all the other couches of the court. It <"« "« 
ia curtunea around with silver cloth, and the couch itself is *''^'' 
richly ornamented. I saw three persons on it. The outside 
two of them were fair both of hair and eyebrows, and [their skin 
was] whiter than snow. Upon the cheeks of each was a beauti- 
ful ruddiness. Between them in the middle [sat] a noble cham- 
pion. He has the ardour and the action of a sovereign, and the 
■wisdom of a historian. The cloak which I saw upon him can be 
likened only to the mljt of a May morning. A different colour 
and complexion are seen upon it each moment ; more splendid 
tkan the other is each hue. I saw in the cloak in front of 
him a wheel brooch of gold that reaches from his chin to his 
-waist. Like unto the sneen of burnished gold is the colour 
of his hair. Of all the [human] forms of the world that 1 have 
seen, his ia the most splendid. I saw his gold-hilted sword laid 
down near him. There was the breadth of a man's hand of the 
sword exposed out of the scabbard : From that hand's breadth 
the man who sits at the far end of the house could see even the 
smallest object by the light of that sword. More melodious is 
the melodious soimd of that sword, than the melodious sounds 
of the golden pipes which play music in the royal house".""* 

And here follows a poem by Ingcel containing a minute des- 
cription, 80 minute that I cannot do better than give it here at 

'"■•J [origin*!: — AccontiApc aito tn 6cU£ ecopj»o immetion. biiuS Acai" 

wolAefraiblieiwnn, bpAcc cayfiop- j-euiit). bpic accotiT)a;\c imbi if 
CJ14 imbi. 5il.itij\ r"^*^^^ ititiaLi- cubef &CAfce6eecdnidtii. Iritntiaft 
^tiAro oo bpec -oepgitiii fion Ati acaj- ecofc cdiAhuatpi cd'obarfAip; 

VAtj* tMu; ir T>ubiCip Tjpuim n^AiL pot ii6ip ipti bpuc ap a b^Uiib an- 

m cfoib Aibe. ■meic cUab bttatia comaii viafmei coaioiLitiTi. Ifcof- 

tti wofbiU pnu iropoptia pb ^aip. itmil fi\icui'oU5 tifiip fopT,orcti T>at 

tlenaiv bjwtm ATjainraAe. Ir c»iyi- opuitc. "Oitieot acconTJamcoe'DeV 

mn neCe coppaT). — Leabkar na baib beta Syx nelb aj* atticMn ttih. 

i-UuAre, t. 62. b. coL 2.] 4cconT)Apc a ctamti nop'oui^n occo 

('••) [MlginsI ! — AcconiDapc atro tip. Roboi aipfrip Uiime •oin cl.ainT> 

nmMe acaf bacAimiu acatntat ob- fpi cpuaiLL anefcaip : atiaiptip \A' 

vAca ifiroATia in CI51 oVfiena. Sfeob- mipn rep nobi-o 1" aiptiup m agl 

b|i&cnaip5WTOiiTnpe, acapcvmcaise cif cfebau ppigic fjM fopqau in 

tptiwiTrroae. AccotToapccpiapmtini. ctaitro. Ifbitirn bmtiFOgpostTO in 

In oiaf imeicnanafi -oib puna loib cbaiiro, obnip bmtiirogpa na c«p- 

UnAtb conapobcoit aeaj- a b]vacaib, bent* ndp'oao ro6anac c6ob tpnT) 

Ac*f icgiUtippieCcae. Tlo-oiu-ondi- pigtig. . . — Ibid^ t. ^2. b. etA. 2.} 
Wtro fonsivua-o ceCcap tiae. ni6ct 


^»y- full lengUi. It mentions almost every article of dreaa or oma- 
of tii« ment in whicli a painter should pourtray an Zrish king: — ^"^ 
^oirt ['* I saw a tall illustrious chiet 

**^'' Starting forth upon the lovely earth, 

FulUwaxing in the springtide of dazzling beauty. 

Of features gentle, yet of propordons bold. 
*' I saw a renowned placid king, 

Hia legitimate place rightfully occupying, — 

From the threshold even to the wall, — 

For his couch. 
" I saw his two blueish-white cheeks, 

Dazzling white, and like unto the dawn 

Upon the stainless colour of snow. 

Two sparkling black pupils 

In dark blue eyes glancing, 

Under an arbour of chafer-black eyelashes. 
" I saw his bright lordly diadem. 

With its regal splendour, 

Radiating its lofty refulgence 

Upon his illustrious face. 
*' I saw the splendid Ardrotk 

Encircling his head, — enwieathing 

With hia hair its brightness, 

The sheen of gold most brilUant,— 

Above his curling yellow locks. 
" I saw his raany-hued red cloak of lustrous mlfc, 

With its gorgeous ornamentation of precious gold be- 
spangled upon its surface, 

With its flowing capes dexterously embroidered. 
" I saw in it a great large brooch, 

The long pm was of pure gold ; 

(»••) [original :— 

Ac£tu 7U11C nipt) TiAij\e5V4e cow'OfjHpeCc )i«iiw6, 

474 DiC buillJeC bfipexjAfi bpfificir, r** opfan puitAn 
pdimfe ^obapcae peficbput, 4 5"^'r comoecAB. 

ciin ci\ot ciatbat&p, AcClu Apupot tiiimi4iTT» 

Ac£iu cCotpig coixoxiafi, immaeen-o, — co copfo 

cocnga'b inriAfiepc pamQ £6ii\, — como fpipiLcu fjiiCeftiwif, 
comfietbunj 6 C|i&int) cofjwij, — Tronuai n6pTi0i nol.tmAirre, — 

fo a pii-OL pi uij-a bepaTj buioefiap 

Ac£^u ArttjingpuaiTi ngopmseba, AcCiu abpac nepg Tiibwatafi n6ic«6 
comtiFpiFuainun pntj piinefroie ppic, 

jiip vit roepnat jneccaiBe, ap weibCop ti'O^maiTye mni>6^ 

'DTOibjilitibretijbaiyaib glanriH aupo^ipc ppeCCiffft pl-uinix, 

a pofc po bu^aA cernnm atuinp- Ait bewo aLac&ait ntmonaicDi. 

cbu, Aceiu -oelr tianw otLaobot, 
catticocut) icepcteeCop nuub Be6p uiCi mcl-aijT-* ; 
noAetabpac. Vafpaio ap tut tanepci, 

AcCiu amino pno yta£a, tatne a cuaipn copcopsenxnaA 



Kig'ht shining like a fuUmoon 


Waa its ring, all around, — a crimson gemmed circlet ortbe 

Of round sparkling pebbles, — cmatrt 

Filling the fine front of his noble breast *'*'■" 

Atwixt his well proportioned fair shoulders. 
" I saw his splendid Unen kilt, 

With its striped silken borders,— 

A face- reflecting mirror of various hues, 

The coveted of the eyes of many, — 

Embracing his noble neck — enriching Its beauty. 

An embroidery of gold upon the lustrous silk — 

[Extended] from his bosom to his noble knees/"" 
*' I saw his long gold-hilted sword, 

In its scabbard of bright silver, 

Which through shielct on champions cuts, 

Until it reaches the illustrious blood. 
** I saw his resplendent beautiful shield, 

That towGis above innumerable troops, 

Inlaid with sparkling gold 

On its polished rim of white metal, 

Luminous like a glowing torch. 
** A truncheon of gold, long as a king's ann, 

Was near him on his nght. 

Which when grasped by the proud chief. 

Summons fort£, of hardy curly heroes, 

Three hundred fighting champions 

Around the victory-winning kingly chief, 

And vultures from their eyries. 

It is a court, a woful house I saw.] 
" The noble warrior waa asleep, with his legs upon the lap 
of one of the men, and his head in the lap of the other. He 

Con^Alb AptMWie nT>etiDTn-un* y&it uifopotigiib w^mef, 

Ac^n Al«Me bswae iiniDe, if top p;eo bii b&n bput, 

coniti f|Mn\eo&tiT) rSjieicAfi, — iMiiopii] bit VuA£ec- 

cocs^i^ Ai«nfeic frHiiiienftop — ■om^nbAfi fpicpiAC caiIc 

o A'obponw co«p5tiifle. cjii ce*t> cotvAe combin* 

Astiv AiAMtfO ti6iVDHinn ninclAnf©, fiAfitiBpupij ]viC{\£Antut), 

tn* ptimnC piroApcic, fpi boit>b hi mbpom bejvCAf. 

Mpxim At> Cei]\;vt"j ? c6ic)ioft, if bi\i:]t}it) bpAncij 4cti«. 

contD ^icpUAiT> tiAiiii<OAtfvc naif- dr£^u fbai^ niivo nai)\e^ae. — 

Ci^i. LaaMutT Tta h-Uidhrt, f. 63. a. col. 1.] 

<**') [Hiil puug« cleut^ provet that the Lamdk wu a jtt/( or petticoat 
nadiiiig to the kneM. See on tfai< nil^ect Lect. XZIU., anu, to). iL p. 106.] 


*^y- awoke aftcrwaids out of his sleep, stood up, and spake these 
words : 

"I have dreamed of danger-crowding phantoms, 
A host of creeping treaehcrous enemies, 
A combat of men upon the [river] Dothra; 
And early and alone 
The king of Teamair was killed".<'"'> 
" Identify for us, O FerrogaW:, who it was that spoke that 
lay", said Jngcel. 

"I do know his like", sfdd Ferrogain; "it was not a sight 
without a king [thou sawest] indeed, it is the king most noble, 
most dignified, comely, and most powerful that has come of the 
whole world; the most polislicd, smooth, and precise that has 
ever appeared ; namely, Conairi M6r, the son of Etertcel; it is 
he that was there, the high king of all Erinn".'"*" 

I believe it would be difficult to find in ancient poetry any- 
thing nobler or more beautiful than this vivid picture of a 
chivalrous king of the heroic ages in Erinn. 
The tale continues : 
of thB >iz " I saw there six men in front of the same couch, with fair- 
'^"'' ' yellow hair. They wore green cloaks around them with 
brooches of red bronze fastening their cloaks ; their faces were 
half red, half white, like Conall CearnaciCa. Each man of them 
is practised to throw his cloak around another quicker than a 
wheel in a cascade, and it is doubtful whether thy eye could 
follow them. These", said Ferrogain^ " are the six cupbearers 
of the king of TifanMiir, namely, ifan, £roen, and Banna [that is, 
froth, drop, and stream], Delt, and Drueht, and DathenP^'^ 
ornifeiifniM " I saw there", continued Ingcel, " a large champion in front 
dru"*^ of the same couch, in the middle of the house. The blemish 
jajgier of fcaldncss was upon him. Whiter than the cotton of the 

•"" [original: — Hob<ii laputn tn laomon «ii;iflitpi ApbUtem, acaf 

Tn6cC6c\.A6 itiaftocVuD, acai" jSojji* af minem, acaf Af becu* t>o v^nic, 

inuCc ititmLap^v, ac&y a Cent> itiMtc .i.Conaipem6]Miiao ecepfceoiViir* 

apail^. Bopiufaig taiiiiin ajy.! pL ant) aptmi lie)\enn iilii. — Ibid.,!, 

iocT-uT), acaT ac^^apaCc, acaf po- 63. tt coL 2 J 

£a£ain: , . . <•"*> [oripiaal: — aI;col1T>a)^c anw 
■Domm Jpf if irnnet) immer) pabpai, j-erpup .^p b^laib na mmwa^ cicno, 
fLiag pAeti fiLgUB nimac, tnoiigapnubu'oiiropaib. bpuicuatii- 
compac fep pop 'OoCpai ; tyi impu, xjeiLs cpfroa iti aunpt/)- 
■ootpaice pic cempaft itioici'o op- cu-o ambpac ; ice (Xet ©epjaj Let 
cae — ZiooAor na k-Vidhrt, f. gabpa amail. CtionaLL Cennai. fo- 
63. a. col. 2.] ceipT) caC fcp abpac imApaiW, acaf 
(•") [original i—Samait lecai^p- iptuaCTOip potiniViboaVeti ipngna* 
HOj^ain ctapoCaiatn in tampn. Tim. inwi apC6c 'oo fuil. . . . flln. 
Oamj-a a r**"*!!- f op V^ppogam ; ni 'Oamri on. S6 T)al«main p\t Cem- 
, ep^ecetipijfimnnijiffrpi apanopai* pa[cn] inpn, .1. Uan, acap 0)lden, 
[ampa], acap ap opT)iiit>em, acap ap acap Oanna, Dele acap OpiiCc acaj" 
c^inem, acap apCumaicotn t^wc in "Oaten. — IlAd., f. 63. b. coL S.j 


mountain^**^ la every hair that grows upon his head. He had «xv. 
ear-claepB of gold in his ears ; and a speckled white cloaJt upon 
him. He had nine aworda in his hand, and nine silvery aliielde, 
and nine balls of gold. He throws every one of them up [into 
the ur], and none of them fall to the ground, and there ia but 
one of them at the time upon hia palm ; and like the buzzing 
of beea on & beautiful day, waa the motion of each passing the 
other". " Yes", said Ferrogain, *' I know him ; he is Tul- 
ehinne, the royal druid of the king of Teamair; he is Conaire'a 
juggler: a man of great powers is that man".'"" 

** I saw three men in Uie east side of the house", said Ingcel, <»' ">• ""■m 
" with three black tufts of hwr. They wore three green frocks "'°'"''*^' 
Qpott them, and three black kilts [plaids or shawls 7\ wrapped 
around them. Three forked spears stood above them by the 
side of the wall. Who were these, Ferrogain ? They are the 
king's three chief swine herds, Dvhk, Dond, and Dorcha", 
answered Ferrogain.^^" 

Ingcel then Scribes the dreaa of the king's head charioteers. 
As this description is important in connection with the gold or- 
naments worn on the h^, I shall reserve it for a future lee- 

" I saw another couch", aud Ingcel, " eight swordamcn on it, ^'fjf"*"** 
and a young champion between them. He had black hair, and 
stammers in hia speech. All in the court listen to his counsel. 
The most beautiful of men is he. He wore a shirt, and a white 
and red cloak, and a silver brooch in hia cloak. Ferrogain 
>ud this was Caiucraeh Mend Macha, [that is stammcrin? Caus- 
crock of JSmania], the son of Conckobar [king of Ulster], who 
is in hostageship with the king \Conaire\, and hia guards are 
the eight swordsmen around him .'"*' 

C*> [ CanacA i/«ift<, the Eriophorum polyttachion at COmiliOD Cotton OraM. 

Onie name no doubt was applied alM to Eriophorum vaginatun, or Hantail 
CoCtoD Oran, which in Ireland ia a much rarer apecics than the Kriophorwn 

("•) roriginal; — drcoTiT)&]ic arm in6iy\ inn pep pn. — Leahhar na k-Ui- 

bop^x6cMed 4^ b6i«ib nAnnTiAe dhre, f. 63. b. col. 2.] 

cecnae,f^L4iMn cige. Aftir mit'Le '"") [original :—4LcconoAnc cT^iap 

fMtv. pnniftm cAnat x'\jhhe cat iti4ipftiop tti age, cpi ■oubbepcae 

ptinA AfAf cjiiAtiA Cent). Un^fCA pspdib. C]« i:opci uAnroi impu, 

dip %mi,6 J bp4c bpecUjt)* ittibi. cpi ■oubienn* catj\pu. Cpi giboi- 

IX ctdiflT> inA iiim, <ic4f n6i i^iiC 51C1 fiAfaib bic6ib fpAigcD. . . . 

Atp^oiTM, OfMX -i^- ntibbiL 6ip. ^o- CiAfic A t^ppogAin. Tim. oL ITep- 

6«lpv ce* Ai Bib itiAp'OAe, AC4f ni pogAin, cpt muccAioi inTipig fin, 

tnc nS wlb foptip, ACAp tii bi a6c TJiio ACAp TJonr) ACAp T)op£A. — Ibid,, 

oen <oib fop Aowr; ^cAf ip cummA f. 64. a.1 

ACAf cimtipeic beS itW AnVi CAfiAe "<*> PoUea, Lecture xxTii., Tol. il. 

re£ ApAite V^T- • ■ ■ ■ Tim, p. 183. 

ItmpA ArAniAil. op i;»ppogAin CauI- ''°'J [original : — AcconuApc im- 

6tnne pig ■opui pig cempAC, ci«p- t)Ai nAiCi, oficup clArobeC inci, Acap 

rdLirniAC CbonAipe mpn 1 pep coniAic miofioclieC ecoppo. mieboub pAip, 

VOL. II. 10 


^^- We heve next a dcBcription of the dresa of appientioe chariot 
drivers, which I shall also reserve for a future lecture.'*'*^ 
er tiifl suoa " I saw", said Ingcel, " in the north nde of the house lune mait 
tbiS^Mo^'' with nine yellow heada of hair, wearing nine shirto upon them, 
v*"*^*' and nine crimson kilts aroond them, and without broodies in 
the cloaks. Nine broad spears and nine curved red ahi^ 
hung over them. '* I know them, said he ; ** they are 0»aU and 
his two companions; Othnt the long-handed and his two com- 
panions ; and Lindae and his two companions. These are three 
Saxon royal princes, who abide with the monarch".**'" 
of iha kbg*! " I saw three men more", said Ingeil; " the three have bald 
oat Aim, jjeodfl upon them ; they wear shirts and cloaks wrapped around 
them ; and a whip (or scourge) is in the hand of eaoh. I know 
them", said he, "they are Eehdruim, Eekruid, Echruaikar, 
the horse-back boys [or outriders of horae expeditions]. They 
are the king's three riders, that is, his three esquires (iZiftn)"."" 
ot the " I saw three others on the couch along with them", said Ing- 

joSSn!""* ^'' " -A- comely man whose head was aaom was the first, and 
two young men along with him with long hair upon them. 
They wore tliree kilts of mixed colours, with a silver brooch in 
the cloak of each of them. Three swords hung over them at 
the wall. X know them", said he, " they are FtrguM Ftrde^ and 
Ferfordae, and Domaine Mossud, the king's three judges".'"" 
Mthe " I saw nine others in front", said Ingcel, " with nine bushy 

hMjiri-"* curling heads of hwr, nine light blue floating cloaks upon them, 
and nine brooches of gold in them. Nine crystal nn^ upcm 
their hands ; a thumbring of gold upon the thumb of each of 
them ; ear clasps of gold upon Uic ears of each ; a torque of silver 
around the neck of each. Nine shields with golden emblazon- 
ments over them on the walL Nine wands of white silver 
were in their hands. I know diem", said be, " they are the 

4C4f betivkfopmenu teiff. CDnma- -oA 4oTn«lrd j Orbinc LifflFOC* acct 

fee Aef tia biMitmi uLi ACon<oel.s. a xti. iom&\jC6. ; tiiWAy «o4|- a m 

Aitnetn th v&inib \ih. C&imp imbi, AomaVcA. C^vi ^igoomnA t>o Suuji- 

4c&f bjiAc gebwepj, oo aipgic ii"i4 ii4ib pn pl^t> ocotrojMs — iWd., f. 

bjTOC. llo pecupr* P" oL ITeppogdti, 6i.a 1 

.1. Ci)p:iui4 rnent) m«6A vn&c Con ('"> [original:— AcooniMiui qtMti 

Cob4i]i pt lim^atnAi L«f in i\1£. naib), c6o|\a mAelA fOf aib ; E|n 

Acomecai'ot mm m coficd.)! pLimmi. ienci impn, «car cni bjwMC hi fop- 

'^Leabharnah-Uidkrt.t.M.t^l cepni; pukicett itiAtn c«£a«. Rnf- 

<«io> [potlta, Lecton xxrU., toL U., irecAHfapn oLfe, ,i. etoptrm, eA|mKi, 

p. 163.1 e6pa«6«Tt,cT\f mAnc&igim>ptgfm,.i. 

'•"J [ori^nal I — AccontiAnc ipivo *. trS jiici)!! — Ihid., I. 64. a-J 

toit 4c<i4ii'o -ow ag tionbtif, tioi **'*' [original :— ^econtMtU) cfMip 

iiiOM5a ifop bmw p)]Viib, tioi c&imp tt4iti tpn Dini>04i ocaib. irtj* cAin 

pigAjWi imfu, noileniue cot^cjuioi nogftb « miebAD bi cec*t>, mocU'^ 

CAippu, cen-oetgAa in-oib. Tloi m&- tei|' co mon^^ib fojtAib. Ceopa 

nai]^, not cpomp:oit Tieii^e nAfftib. VenoA cnitnAtvoAi im|m, e6 «t^c 

Titin»CAm4if ol T«, .1. OfAbc ACAf A imbjKic oaefi nAtoib. CfM s*rc*v 



I nine hupets, namely, iSuic oncl Didt, DtdtOht and l>eieU- x\* 
Caumui, and Ceifyeih 01 and OUne, and Olchot"."'" 
"X sav thre« more on the oouch", said Inactl, " wearinij^ <*•*»»* i 
ihina of full l«n^; carrving quadrangular ahiclds ia Ui«ir steTi "*" 
Ilaoda, with booMS of eold upon them, and having with them 
(alia of silver, and slender long darts, I know them", eaid ho, 
" thc^ arc Clc»e und CUasiite uod CtestauMnn, tJie kill's throe 
ttdioarj jugglere'V"*' 

" I saw tHn» men cooking, continued Inge^ " droacd la •J'J*?'J^ 
DDgapnuia {Btrrbnea) ; a fair gray>lutired maii,aiidtwoyoutha* * 

kloog with him". " I know them", eaid Ftrrogaia; " tJicy aro 
be kio^'athreechief cooks, namely, the Doffdaa, and his two ap- 
fno.1aaet,Seig%jidSi^d(u,th.e two sooaofiitf/roftbco&c apic"."'*' 

Ingeel next dcwiibes the dress of tlie king's three poeta, »J"w ^^"t,' 
rhich to avoid repetition I shall omit hero, but the reader will ""* *' 
ad ii in a futut'e It-cture/"" 

•* I »aw ihero", said inyal, " two youne warriors Handing >" t**W"m 
mar the kia^, bearing two boat shields and having two great 4«ui 
words. They liad red kilts, and brooohea of bright silver in 
boircloaka. They", [aud Ftrrtigain,']** areJSvi and J/wctm, 
be Idng't two waMcns, cbe two tona of Mafir TTmiirs^'^ 

"lMW*,Baid /N^ce^"nine men upon ■ coaoh there in front "'"'^^^^ 
ifthe same king's couc^. They had (air-yellow hair ; they wore m """^ ' 
^>nns (Btrrbiyjta), naA little speckled mantles, and earned pro* 
lecting ehields. Each of them had an ivory-hilted sword in hta 
band, and e*ery man who attempt« to enter the house, they 

ItfTAib fci IT*'5 - ■ ■ flurr*'"*!'' 
fan olre, Fer5«ri;«T<«e. ir«pr*ii04», 
»^*X Wo^i'n* tnppTTO, eiibpit*' 
ntain mobile fin —LMbkar na K- CI- 
Mrr. t. G4. 6.J 

''"'l^urlKliul: — Ac<om>«(kcn<MibHii 
lUiliC null •notp, ndt nM>ng4 cfs^c 

I MiCuimiMuf. ntAjt imOtAC pt*; 

AkhIc coi>intdtb Ot^Mib UApb 
tfiUte. ix. |-i«fcd pnoafWic inA 
idio. HitpecofYd p«i oVfe. not 
Cfuicifi inopiK inopn, Srae AC-*)* 

C*ax"i\. ACAf CeVLjen, ol «c«r 
Dlcnp. dC^r OUui —ll'd., i. U. b.J 

pAil« innoAiTtiM, c4o|u> caiAtp 
litfttvicib 1V1VV : r^aCA c^tfoowM 
HM liimaib, cocebaib olp foM'o, 

p ieu. RorT^c^rr* °^ r* cbefn 

(tear Ct»TT">», ACiAf Cl«TT'*""'""» 

all cl*iTA'''ri*i5 m^jiigpn. — JM^t. 
I b.J 

^"*> [origliuih— ^tcConoarc cpi^n 
oc oAB*m pil«te& imbefP^I*^**'© 
inctMTpb; f«p pm)U«i, M^r ^t 
ocL«<g AA rA|k|UT>. Hunr<)cu)f A pn 
oV v^^l^T^S'**' • ^P )}f impiL^eco]ta 
intiptg p«. .« >n OagKM*, 4«*r **>* 

MAC nap\i o*nbapa — AuiL , f. M. b.] 
«>" i^Mtea, Uctaiv utU., toI. iL, 
p. 183.1 

("* ■ [oiigtnnl : — Accorodpc a«v ni 
6cUe£ tniufvppcmi of cinQ intific, 
■napa occo- Lctiha frciwit impa, 
vetct pnvatf^c <y »« bf4C«ib, 
bun AOdr me^cuti pn olfA o« £o- 
■i«CAtb Ml n*e tpnt o4 iwAO tllorpp 
chtiiU— Arttf., L «fi. B. ool. l.J 

10 b 



"^- threaten to striko with the swords, and no person dares «p- 
prosch the couch without their leave. I know them", saK^ 
r'erroffain, " they are ' the three Early Mornings' of Meath » 
the three symbola of victory of Brtgia; the t&ee pillars »^ 
Mount Fuad. These arc the king's nine guaidnnea", saic? 

of lbs kin|-i " I saw another couch there", said Ingcel, " and two men oc9 
utanduti; it, bold, gross and stout-firm. They wore aprons (^Bervbrcea},^ 
and their complexions were dark-brown. They had hair shortfi 
at their polls, and high upon their foreheads. As swift as ■* 
waterwhccl do they run past each other. The one to the [king'a^l 
couch, the other to the fire. I know them", said Ferrogctm^ 
" they are Nia and Bntthni, [king] Conair^a two table atten—* 
«f oi« " I saw", said Ingcel, " a couch, the nearest to [king] Contnrty 

amic]i<^ub. and on it three prime champions. They wore black-blue kilts. 
m^h^ Every limb of theirs was thicker than the body of a man. TTiev- 
**•*"*•' carried black, huge swords, each of them longer than the sword 
(or lath) of a weaver's beam ; they would cut a hair upon water ; 
and the middle-man of them had a great spear in his hand. 
These were three victory- winning, vahant charapons of Erino, 
namely Sencha the beautiful son of Ailill, and jOubthaeh Datl 
Utadh, and Goibniu the son of Lwaneck ; and the spear 
of Celtchair Mac Vithidir, which was in the battle of Magh 
Tuireadh, was in the hand o£ Dubtliach Dael UladhTS^" Celt- 
chair Mac Vithidir was a famous Ulster champion whose 
residence -was Dun Cheltchair, now Downpatrick, in the county 
of Down. His famous spear here alluded to was traced up to 
the battle of the second or northern Magh Tuireadh. The 

tii»i [original : — Acfion-oaiw: nortbuii ectin. IcLu&tiTJi]^ noft bu4t« ceficai* 

m im'OAe an-o *p bi'Laib n& iniT)4i T)e fedaniile. 1n'o&l>«>>i«i •oowo im- 

[himiDie] cecn4e monjAepritJbuo) t>4i,'il.atle'DonceniT». , . Hir. OAtn^-A 

Cpoib, be^T\bixAcd impu; acai" cofi- tli« 4C4f bjiaCtii TJipjixmer^Cbon- 

ne bpeccA, dcaf fc^t b6iTnne6& Aitte inrin. — Ibid., f. 65. a. coL l.j 
7un<Mb. Cl^iiiT)oec tlit^itn ca£ pp >*"> [originaJ; — AccontiApc iiiitma 

oib, «C41* ca£ fe)i t>o eiec ir^cei, Af ner^m'QO cTionAti\e,cpi f>piiiiljiift 

f61,6imet:ip Ab6nn copiA cl.Atnt>, in». lienn4'oiib5l^rr*^'"P''' Heim* 

niliOme£a]\ tiefi -oul. wotvo imoae tip meu6n pp caCbaLl. trib. Cpt 

een Atpi^fdAc tiiib. . . Tti«. tJoinrA ctaitro oubA B(in6p4 l«o, p4ttp 

6n cpi mot micnig tlliTJi ; cpi bid- cWn'o ngapmnae CACae ; (icto^oIat^ 

geWaig ^r^j; cpt ro)-c4i5 Slebe cairr""'*^ T^^'T"*; ^E^ "^t"'-' 

puiic. notibop comecAi'tie itrop^g Liim itropn me^6n4ijj . . Cpi UtA 

pn — LtalAar na k-Vidhn, t. 66, a. acA-oedjaibCesdircfrDiit beTienn, i. 

col. 1.] Sene&t)iacAlAinTiAiblVA,-i>c«7'Dub- 

<*">) [originml : — dcconndpc im'OAe t&t XXtrX Ul^-ft, acar joibnetiT) itiAo 

iiAtbe ndTi'o, acAp ■mar in-oi icfe 'oam t-up^mg ; acap inuWin C>i«U;eAip 

■oab£a baVcpempA oeppbpdca itn- mac Uti'Oip p)ppific liicad maiEi 

pu i ice goptn'oonna itropp. Cutmon- Cupev, irri pt itlAim Onibtec X>Mt 

g4 campi p>paib, ic6 aupapva pop uUti.— /W, t 66. b. coL S.J 


d eeerip ti on of it in the tract relating to that battle is highly "t- 

" I saw another couch there", said Ingcel, " and one man on it o{^p*'*n 
with two giUea (or pages) in front of him; one fair, the other ^^■•"' 
black-haired. The champion himself had red hair, and had a 
red cloak near him. He hod crimson cheeks, and beautiful 
deep blue eyes, and had a green cloak upon him ; he wore also 
a white shirt and collar, with beautiful mterweaving [of gold 
thread] upon him ; and a sword with an ivory hilt was in his 
hand ; and he supplies every couch in the court with ale and 
food, and he is incessant in ^tending upon the whole company. 
Identify that man, Ferrogain. I know that man", said he. 
" That, is Daderg himself. It was by him the court waa built, 
and nnce he has taken [up his] residence in it, its doora have 
never closed, except the side to which the wind blows, it is to 
that side only that a door is put. Since he has taken to house- 
keeping, his boiler has never been taken off the fire, but con- 
tinues ever to boil food for the men chT Eiinn. And the two 
who are in front of him, these are two boys, ibetersons of his, 
namely the two sons oS the king of Leinster, whose names are 
Muredaeh and Corpri.^*'" 

" I saw there three men on the floor of the house at the «f tha kin 
door", said higcel, " they had three clubs with chains in their Sjl^ 
hands. Each of them is swifler than a wild cat lunuing 
around the other as they rush towards the door. They 
wore speckled aprons (Berrbroca) and pale cloaks. Identify 
those for us, O Ferrogairu These are the three doot-keepeis 
of the king of Teamair who are there, namely, Echur and 
Toeh^r and Techtnang, three sons renowned for valour and 

<***> [original: — dcccnroAfc imtiAc g^bAir ctvcWt) ni cuccav A&di)\t no 

«iAile Ami, «:*T oenfc]! ince, acaf teniTi, 46c no b^ti oc hfait btw •oo 

^M. ^\Xa a]wbei4ib; acar Tjdtioioj feiviib ^epenti. Acaf in Tiiar pt ap 

fOf%aib, in T)*ba lia< if oub, aUuie, ab^l^ib "oa oatca Tjofom, m\>i mao 

irfinti. pole wens foi\pn'otiefi, acaf pn, .1. oa mac pit Lacen, .1. mnf ei)a6 

abtwicwei^vglair. Oancfiiaiw chop- acaf Coppfii — L«abhaT nah-Cidkn, 

cojraa \mx, l^fc pogMf po tkm f. 65. b. col. 1.1 

occa, acdf bpac uAni'oi imtni; tene <*'*> [originu i — Acconoapc aivo 

^l ctibpacad coti'oeg inctaiti imbi ; cpiap fO]\ Un in cige ocotittoptir, 

ACaf cbaitiQ conim-oujinT) 'o6c ma- ce6pa topga bpebtieca tntiaUtnaib. 

\Mm; acaf atv]\ic ai)\e£cain caCaim- I]- Uadwp patnam ca£ae mb cim- 

oa«iinn cig -DiUnti acaf biuf), otT^ £iit.t>apaiteTio£uminT>ofvaip bepp- 

corr^^^ oc cimtipeAr tncrl^iS *'^''- bp6ca impv ice bpeca acaf bptiic 

Samatbt. B. a. p n. nin, no|:ecup- iaCcnae l6o. Samail, b S. a. f. n. 

ra itina ppapn, Oaoepga lofain \\ Cpi Bopr*'^* 1^*E CempaC inpn, .1. 

Mirvo. Ronnaoinbpuijtean, aca)-6 edupacarCoiupacurtTeimaiic, cpi- 

Babaifcpeba'ont pcDunaicaBoipfe, mic epyanii acap comba-o. — £lnd,t. 

ptam o -DO pignen a6i: LeC oiainbt G5. b. coi. 2.] 


»"■ " I saw there", swd ingcel, " a couch, and three tamea nine 

o,th, men on it; they had fair-yellow hair, and were all q£ equd 

■|;^t)'^<n^ beauty. Each wore a small black mantle, and a white hood 

court 01 the upon each mantle, and a led tuft upon every hood, and an ina 

''"'°*"''' brooch in the breast of each mantle; and each carried a huge 

black sword under hia cloak, and they would sever a hair upcti 

ihe surface of water; and they had shields with sharp etchings 

upon them. Identify those for us, O Ferrownn". " They", 

Baid Ferrogain, " are three times nine youthful oatlawB of 


sf tiM ihTM " I saw there", siud Ingcel, " three jesters at the Cie. TTiey 

'"**"' wore three dark gray cloaks; and if all the men of Eiinn were 

in one place, and though the body of the mother or &ther of 

each man of them were lying dead before him, not one of them 

could refrtun from laughing at them". '* These were Ma^ 

(btUd), and Milithi (pale), and Admilithi (more pale), the thiee 

jesters of the king of Erinn who are there", said Ferrofftm}"' 

Lastly, and to end my long list of extracts, Ingcel says: — 

oruMthTM " I saw there a couch and three persons on iL They wore 

^^i^ three grayi floating cloaks around them. A cup of water waa 

before each man of them, and a tufl of watercress"**' upon each 

cup of them". Identify those for us, O Ferrogain. " lliej 

'*•*) [ori^oal : — Accon'o&pc An itn- tnic mbiiCrw t>( t)]»cnaib trtpn,— . 
v«e, ACd)' cp^ nonbuiMnci; mon^A Lti^harnah-Uidhrt,t.66.b coL S.] 

Ctio bu-o! Txjjvaib, ic6 comaLb, Co6- *"*■' [origiiud :— 4\cconv«|xc Aim 
me Qub imcad nAenfe)\ •oib, Acap c|M^if ft)p6uicbi'o*hiciirDc«iieT>. Cju 
cenniuo pno fO]i CAfi coAul-l, ACAf b^uic <k>|m impa; ono b«cAf pjt 
cuipc« vet^ pop ca£ cfrnnai-o 'Dtb, be^wn in oeti mA^n, 4C4f £6itobeC 
ACAf 'ocl.5 niipinQ tn Aunfion ca£ coLAtno AmA^Ap no AtAp AjtbibAib 
£o6ai1,1> ; AcAf ctaint> nub 'oiAmiip c&t pf^ vib, n't jxiebfAO ne6 ^b cen 

r6 hfmc caC pp 'oib, Acof 'noxiVo- };J.<pi Wpa , 

VAjxiir pniA i:opurci« ; ACAf ycM tlm. tnieb, ACAf Ttlitifti, ACAf 4m- 
coTJAeoAp con'ooAtAFOpAib. SAmAiL itiibifti, cnlcmcblpiel^epen1nptl''.— 
bS.A.t:.n. Tim. Oibep^cpi [hai] IM., t. 65. h. eol. 2^ 

(■**> [fiirur, tfae Natturttum officinah (R. Brown). The oommoo %muiUi 
name 01 this plant U Birro. This name \t thoroughly Spaniah, ai ia proTod I7 
the popular expreMion andaf a la Aor del birro, applied to atrolUng or >tn^ 
ffUng about, being bwrowed from its mode of K^wth. The Baaque name ii 
BtTT^-atarra, Those words are evidentlj cf^nate with the Iriah, and an, I 
think, Celtic and not Basque. The Spauirh namci of sereral other watov 
plaati are connacted witii Bern, thus the Great Water Partnep (Sittm laH- 
joimnt) is called JBerrera and StrriSza, The common cabtMge B^r^a alao 
appears to contain the same root. Waa the latter name giTen to cabbage wbeo 
flrat introduced at a mbstitute for Water cress 7 In Corntac's Glo«sai7 (Stoketf 
edition) the word fei'ror ia giren : bipop .1. bip cippa no rpt";*'i ^op ■'. mong 
bipop vm fnonc ctiippAc nof|\ocViai. " Biror, i.e., grass of B well or iticam, 
Aor(oror), i.e., the tnane(that la, the growth). dVor conaequeutlj me&na the 
mane (or growth) of the well or Btream". I'hia deriratiwi is at all eventa in- 
genious, for there cannot be a doubt that Dirur contains the oune root ai ^r- 
eli, a water stream, and Bir, a well, a word which is still preaervcd in tlie 
Wallon tongueinthaformof Burt, though now applied to a coal ;n(, that if, to 
the deup wcdl or ihaft by which the water is pumped up and the ooal extracted.} 



Aii (bbck), Bond (broTm), and Dobur (dark), the three 
Icbearera of the king of TiaainAaiV."*' 
I this VC17 miatile account ne have not only a description 
be Biode of ammgement of k regsl houaehntd in t)ie king's 
BDce, bat ikscripnoiu of the dreaa of sevenl chanipionst and 
of the characteristic costnmea and uuogaia of mch oi the 
arch's household attendants and officers u happened to to* 
pony kirn in his ofdinary exctiraons. We have the monarch 
wlf^ hifl eons, hie nine wonderful pipere or wind instrument 
esB, tbc king 9 cupbearers, that is tlie cupbearen of hia whole 
) or company ; the king's chief druid-jugglcr, his three prilt- 
I chBriofocrs ; their nine i^rentioe charioteers, hia hostages, 
Soxuo princes and their companies, the monaroh'g equerrica 
Btridcrs, his three judges, hb nine har^rs, his three ordinary 
[leis, his three cookb, has three poeta, his nine guardsmen, ana 
two private table attendants; then we have Daderg liim- 
the lonl of the mansion, the monarch's three doorkecpcn, 
British outlaws or cxilee, snd tinally the king's private dnnk- 
ere, who were always prepared with thi-ee cups of waterand 
B bunches of watercreoGee in them. But it may be objected 
icac descriptions, that tbc whole $tory with it6 gorgeous iUii»- 
cma is only poetry, and the romantic creation of a lertilc ima- 
tton- There is, no doubt, a certain degree of exaggeration 
way of the descriptions, and there ore some among those 
ill 1 have not quoted that are wholly improbublc. But 
txistenoeof ntch poetical excrescences, or the introduction 
iiy manaioos or Tuaiha Di Dwann courts no more in- 
tatet the descriptions of what wad undoubtedly real, though 
iwbat highly coloured, than the oorrespondiog cxa^gera- 
I and supernatural ag^ciesdo tliose in tlie Iliad of iuHuer. 
led, it must be admitted that the descriptions in this talc, 
in that of the Tiiin Ho Chuailgne also arc on the whole very 
I exvgerated, and bear the stamp of truth upon there. As 
rds tho cotoura of Uie various clooJia deM:nbcd, wc have 
taay ancaent references to them, that there can be no ra- 
d doubt of their having existed in remote times. Then as 
rds tbe brooches, rings, bracelets, ncok torques, diadems, 
ets, and creecents of g<^ and diver, for the head, neck, and 
If the articles themselves sttll pieserved in such great abun- 
10, afford the most complete evidence of the accuracy of 
taJe ; while, with the exception of the extracts from the 

[origiDal : — Acoonod|tc divo rop ca£ c6«£> SamdiL L 8. «.r. A. 

•c«rci[MApini>i. r7»bpsicclAr nm onb. ocar vonti, acat Uaoa)*, 

)«<«tmpti. Caa£ efc* Af>Ml4il> cpJ ooogUaifu flc Cttrtrwrf inpi>.— 

pip »lb, AC*]- popp -oo Vlpop IvaHar na i-VHUr*, f. 6<J, a- voL K.1 

SummBiT' 1 
of pBnoiiB] 

nicli da- 





nu a* 




and loDi- 
■aie at the 
colour oT 
ceruln gu- 

iboim bj 

the Mio of 

ancient tale of the Tain Bo Chuailane already quoted, there 5 
no known existing authority for tbe manner of wearing their: 
80 decided or reasonable as this. It is to be regretted mdee*) 
that it was not at Tara the scene of this most curious and ins 
portant tale was laid, as then we should have doubtless bad : 
glowing description of the regal magnificence of the time \m 
its most ample dimensions ; but it is no small evidence of Utim 
authenticity of the descriptions and incidents of the piece thiU' 
it is a private house is made in the story to be the scene, uic 
an unexpected incident the cause, of the death of the splendic 
Conaire M6r. 

It would be tedious and unprofitable to attempt to trace th« 
modifications of fashion from the eighth down to the twelAh anc 
fifteenth centuries. These, indeed, are periods within which 1 
have scarcely entered at all in the course of these lectures; anc 
although the references to costume during those tames are abun- 
dant and striking, still, as it is possible that the fashions ma^ 
have been more or less influenced by the more intimate con- 
tact and connection with other countries, they would not tenc 
to throw much light hack on the more ancient and far more in- 
teresting times which it is the special object of these lectures 
to illustrate. 

Of the antiquity and the long continuance of the colour of cer 
tain garments in ancient Erinn, I may be allowed to refer in 
conclusion to two very brief, but very valuable instances. 

There is an ancient, but very Utile known tale or piece- 
treasured in some of our old MSS., under the title of AmI^rm 
Chonrai, that is, the death song or funeral oration of Curoi 
Tliis was the celebrated Cnroi Mac Daire, whose history, anJ 
the account of whose residence at CaUudr Chonrai m the county 
of Kerry, I have already given at some length in a previous 

Curoi, as, on the occasion just alluded to, I showed had be^i 
treacherously killed by the Ulster champion Cuckulaind. After 
his death, his household bard Fereeirtne wrote a panegyric oa 
him, in which, among others of his noble deeds, he enimierates 
the gifts and presents made by him to himself in the course of 
his professional connection with liim. These gifts consisted of 
drinking horns, forts, houses, sheep, hogs, bondmaids, garters 
{Fernu) of gold, head pieces or circlets of gold {Eohurrud oir), 
white ancillac or anklets of silver, or of Findruine, white discs 
or dishes of silver, neck rings or torques of gold, a scarlet cloak, 
scarlet horsc'saddlcs or cloths, balls of gold for jugglery tricks, 
Bollans or small drinking vessels, Tailliamna, or slings, Ructftat, 

"") Aiile, Lecture xxii., vol. ii. p. 7fi, tt srg. 


ue explMncd u BOirict (roeka, hats, Tvhite silver broochea, 
curds mt with preocnu stoocs, bridles, and oUier gifta too 
i)Dinerou5 to aamc io thia place. Of all these, liowcvcr, tliQ 
only articles we are iromediftt«ly concernud with lien; are tlie 
scarlet clooks (Lor Lethna), and the Ruclha^ which our ancient 
writer ^otKS M citlier scartet frocks (/not) or scarim panta- 
loons {Tfiahha*). 

The colour of the gannentm cither case is one of rare occur- 
renoG, and it is on tJiu account tliat I Hatc deemed it worth 
while to quote another paasagc of a much morv recent date, 
frotn wht«ti the scarlet Inar, or fi'ock, would appear to have 
Ik-vb a guTuenl of rather general uisc, or eW perhaps the badrc 
of a particular tribe or clann. The passage to which I ullttuc 
is &om a poem bjr Mao Liag, preserved in the frugmeni of the 
ETeat Book of Vi Maine In the Hrittsh Museum, and which I 
nave so fully described in a former Ifoture.""* This poem'ia 
an elegr on the death of the bard's patron Tadgh O'Kelly, who 
was killed at thelMttleorCluntarf,in which he recounts aU the 
exploits and triumphs of his life, and his munificcnec to all 
men, but more especially hie gifts to himself. Among the many 
which the aoirowing bard acknowledcea to have recoiveJ 
his noble patron, after his various trni[ii]>h8, he mentions 
following, in the thirty-fourth and tbirty-lUU) atanziu of his 
poem: — 

Ta^h gave me on the day [of the battle] of Loch Riach 
An hundred cowr, an hundred swords, an hundred shields, 
An hundred oxen for the ploughing Sfoion, 
And an hundred halter horses. 
He gave me on the night [of the battle] of Glmnnerg 
An hundred cloaks and an hundi'od scarlet Irocks, 
Tliirty spears of bloodstained points, 
Thirty tables and thirty chess boards.'"" 
And tlie ufie, and therefore the manufacture, of similar dicsscs 
same bright ooloure, continued at least two hundred years 

■, as is proved by a quatrain from a spirited poem written by 

Gillabrighdt Mac Conmidht for Donnchadk Caithrech O'Brieo, 
upon tlieoccofflon of his inaugumlion at Limerick, after the death 
oi his brave father /Jorn/ina/e J/Jr O'Brien in the year 11114. I 
give thb stanza from tiie poet's vivid description of tJie person 
and bearing of the young Dulcasoian prince, merely to carry 

<"•) r firf' ««", Lertare •!., toV \^ p. 1S4.] 

f*' fongiiBia!— cut C*m *.\xtt» ^UrxTf^j^^ 

cvz nam rj*5 la L»c* Hueh c. &|14C tf c vna\y nocpg, 

c Do c, cU^fn-TFi, t. jxiflch. dvi** X^^% Wp"^* iic*«tm, 

o. 90 Otimwb r« liuitipnaip, X [xxx?] nilbc.i: [.v.\x?] pcliiVlc. 

«cAr c- e^ch ndVAfvatp. —i/Oimy • copy froin lb« original ] 

by Vrw 
KBlJy ; 

■ IH}vm III 


. down the chain of evidence regarding colours from the mc 
ancient to the more tecent, though still remote, times. Tfa 
speaks the jpoet: — 

A dark brown red mantle, and a gauntlet, 
A splendid shirt under his gloas; hair, 
A brown satin tunic lustrous and light, 
A keen fine largo eye of bright deep blue.'"" 

(•*" [ortgbiBl! — pin cf^it 4ot*r**? "E*^ *w 

liin6 cAirp6f ^l '6*10 rwif, — O'CoDoriferf* HSq 0*CnRT%oii{ 

ionnA|\ ■00Titifj\6it w^ 6&'oqitiim tqL iL, p. Ml, No. 5, SXA.] 


IlMlnnd July ITUk IMk] 

CVTIL) Dtua AMD OkKUfiHTa (continoed). Vcr^cul/ mention of ornit- 
aanli ot snU, Mc, «.a. in tli« dcaerlptlon ot Eiadha ibe Komohia kintt, in 
iteMCood btUla o( J/«;A 7\itrutfA. Cbunplont tuuiotim» onrca (Iiijiot 
jiu tor ndi kLo j killed. Alhuien lo bracelet* in mi auu-ieut iwctintl iwina 
^■Ttoc rivv Boyao. Ornainoau menUoned in a descri|>liiiii at a cavalcdida 
lo fa) an uimat Mcfaca to live T4m Bo Ciumlgitt ,- wnJ lu tha dcacHp- 
lefMMlwcaTafoideliitkCMiiieinet. Some 6l the nohett dcKzlpUaiM 
ffM uid iUnr ORUUBOIU w* to be toami in the rammntlo talo of tlw 
'•• WBBitcrliicA ol MatlAm't CtDM" (ctnx a. o. TOO). Bignae Budiu ttti the 
hur ia lit. VesMa coUeelkia. OnMmeDU daiolbcd in tfa« tale of tha 
TtKAmare Bte Fob, 8(017 ^^ Auiimt Aiffitaei, Uhk /^ryut /'aiVys, ootl 
the (oU broocti rouoJ &t /Irt/ £rwrin« ; the Aailuig ol onumcD It un c«auec[«d 
villi buman renMiM «(|ilaiii«d bf tItU talc. Mention of a Ur^ ■'t»yl broixih 
^ lbs hfpitiy UttofT of Qumo £dai». Anelont l«w mpictiRK tho mods 
iCwailiic luge laoocnM. Larf* taoodiM nuntionvi) in thn inle of the 
'Wurtenn^Qt iVa«Uiinl CuMe*< TUMlc hcndcd or ScotlUti brwcbcs; 
t to Soottbh broochea In tbo ttorj at Cam ton of Gartnan. Carred 

I BontioaDd lo tiw lal« «f th« limiyktan Va^trva, Befcmicv to 

(■TMd iKweh in tho Book of Mniutvr. AnaUier MnMooo to a comd 
notb in a poam atcrilMid to Oinn. Broodiaa of bronw and i'lndrvme. 
^ChaaedgoUploaoaeddoTD tothelwKinnlrK ot thd tliineenth oentnr;. Of 
ttttflmBt nsda €f linca. The Fomnr uml to cod Sim tha b^r. Dalr 
fli wad U tfaa avrenenth ccniury- FaiU vera won up the vIioIb arm 
' tlU nupoat «( baatowing them upoa pocta, etc 1 cample of thli £rora 
> Book 01 Unwia. 01 uo bracelet coAod a Itudnt, 

I FKOCEBD now to another branch of the subject of drear ; that, 
lamely, of tho ornanicnU ninde of the precious metals, used by 
^e ucoplv of uiicicol Enim. 

All our ancioQt lii»toriea and romantic tales abound in reler- 
c«K«a to splcodiU vv^urc and penoDAl oraiuncnts of gold, lilvor, 
luedouft stones, uod tine bronie, from the Gist battle of Magk 
TuireadJt {tmi to have been fought more than seventeen hun- 
dred years s.c), down to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
Thm, in tho battlo of the second, or northern Mngh 7\iiTMdh, 
fought between the TttoMa D4 JMnann and the I'omonons, we 
are told that Eiadha, king of the Fomorians, appeared suddenly 
leTore a Tuaiha D^ DoJiann maiden in Connacht, dressed aa 
foUowa : — 

" He had golden hair down to his two Bliouldots. He wore 
ftcloalc bnuded with golden thread; a sKirl intcrwoYcn n-iih 
threodE of gold ; and a Droovh of gold at his breast, emblazoned 
with brilliant precious stones. He carried two bright silver 


■old, aM^ 

In tha dM' 

crlpKon or 


JtTTi. spears, with fine bronze handles, in his hand; a shield of gold 
over his shoulder ; and a gold-hilted sword, with veijis of ^ver 
and with paps of gold".'*** 

We are further told, that at parting, the splendid Fomorua 

lefl the maiden his ring of gold, which he took ofi* hia middle 


chunpiDni It would Appear, too, diat in ancient times ^et times mora 

S^"^5ot recent than that of the battle of Magh Tuu'eadh), some obam- 

u^i kui«^ piona wore a gold ring on their fingers for every King they had 

killed in battle. As an instance of this &ct, wo are told la the 

Book of fjecan, that Lugliaidk Laga, a prince and warrior of 

Munster, had slain seven kings in successive battles; of which 

f-eat achievement the famous Cormae Mac Airt, monarch of 
rinn (whose father, Art, was one of the seven), said: " His 
hand does not conceal from Laga what number of kings he has 
killed"; that is to say, " there were seven Fails [Bumdi], or 
rings of gold, upon his hand [that la, upon hia fingere'^.'"" 
AUuiiini to The river Boyne, frona the clearness of its waters, was poeti- 
•D^Di^c'* cally called Sign Mnd Nuadhat; that is, the wrist or fbreann of 
nCirS the -A^yrfAaCs wife. This lady was one of the TuaOia D6 DanoKn; 
nrtr Boyirt. and the poetical allusion to her arm originated from her keejring 
it constantly covered with rings or bracelets of gcdd to bestow 
upon poets and musicians. 
onwmaiu The following gorgeous description of a cavalcade is preserved 
iHTd^Hp- in one of the ancient prefaces to the Tain Bo CkvaUgnt, con- 
M«r<ldii Id tailed in an ancient vellum manuscript, sold in London in the 
t'i.£"5^& year 1859, with the books and MSS. of Mr. WiUiam Monck 
vkMU/gm; Mason, but of which I have a copy. The story relates that 
Bodhbh Dearg, the great Ttiatka Di Danann chief of the hill 
or mountain now called Sliabh na m-Ban in the county of Tip- 
perary, went one time on a friendly visit to his couam OckcJl 
Oichne, the great chief of the ancient hill of Cruackan, in the 
county of Roscommon, afterwards the royal reaidenoe of the 
kings of Connacht. The people of Connacht had a great 
meeting to receive Bodhbh, at l^och Riach (now Loch ReagK). 
Splendid indeed was the calvacade that attended Bodhbh on 
the occasion, says the story : — " Seven score chariots and seven 
score horsemen was their number. And of the ^me colour 
were all their steeds ; they were speckled ; they had silver bri- 

•'■ [origtiuil: — Tllo5j;oTibui'oep)in cfleDnmae; coicpoifi oi|\i)Af Amtiin; 

50 A'Oib goAittib. bi^ac 50 f]ieC4iD ci<«>ib op'ouipn 50 ^:«6Aivtl} «(*- 

■01 oi\pi&t tmbei ALctiegoti&Tjin^le cede, *c<ir 50 ci6ib 6n\. — Egertoo 

•Aaib -De ot\pi-j.t ; vctc rioip &X' '^^' BISS., 6280, Btit. Utii., commoDcuif 

jium'oc, 50 popr^i'i** ^^ ^i^c U>g- f. 52.] 

nla]^4 oiib. tiia gelgjie <l15^5ttle, (*"> [Sec original, note, LectzsTii,, 

Ac^r -oiTomciwon ftiAr*" intnb ue potUa,\fA. It, p. 177.] 


dice. There was no person among them who was not the K-a 
of H king and a qucea. They all wote green cloaks witli four 
erimsoa Heo, or pendants, to oooh oloak ; and silver cloak- 
broodies (liroth-Gka) In all tJicir cloaks ; and they wore kitu 
■with ted iaterwcavinga, and bonUrs or fringes of gold thread 
upon thom, and pcndanta of white bronzo thread upon their 
lM;gings or gnwres {Ocftratfi), and elio«s wiih clasps (^IndeoU) 
of red Dronzc in them. Their helmeta were ornamented with 
crystal and white bronze ; each of them had a collar (Ntamh- 
iJand) of radiant gold around his neck, with a gem worth a 
newly calved cow set in it. Each wore a. twisted nng (Souindt 
do At) of "old around liirn worth thirty ounces (Mnjaa) I of goldj. 
All had wliito-fBCCil tduolda, witli umamentBtiDiu) of gold nnd of 
nirer. They carried flceh-seeking speure, with ribs ofjjold and 
■ilver and rod bronze in their sidcn; and vnth coUara (or rings) 
of silver open the ncclce of the spoars. Tbey hiid gold-hilted 
awordd witli the forms of serpents of gold and carbuncle? set in 
them. Tliey astonished the whole assembly by this didploy ".'"'' 

Tlie eame tract contoitu nmilor deKriplioos of olhei cavaJ- 
cades nf a like kind, such as the foUowiug short one: 

When the great Tuatha DS ftanann chief of Cruachan eaw ""•'""'•' 
the mogni^cenco of his southern frienda' retinue, he called a orutoiiier 
secret meoting of his people, and aakcd lliem if tbey were able SoliSlfo ^ 
to appear lu Uie ussemhly in coittumcs of equal splondoitr with "***• 
l)to«e of their visitors? They all answered that tney were not; 
upoo which Ockal, their chief, said that they were dishonoured 
for ever, and tliat they should acknowlcdfjc their own puverty. 
Whilst the ooblc chief was thus giving vent to hie mortilication, 
tbey saw coming towards them from the north of Gonnacht a 
iroop of horsemen, — namely, " Three wore bridle atocda and 
three Rcore chariots. All tlie sieeda were black : one would 
think that it was the «•» that had cast them up ; they had hri- 
dlo-bits of gold. The men wore bluck-gray cloake, with crimson 
loops; a wheel-brooch (ffoM) of gold at the breast of each man of 

ocnvAt fop a ncehmb vtlvi •'■ b^c 
«iLo;M:«r IT*"'" aingioi vp'it. Wicon- 
boi *nn »tc niic pr acaf pgno. 
tofwic hiiani«i imftoio ail*. ocAf 

Itb i Acaf tcnc« cunfiTicpt; innVdi), 

Biuiehi pnTi]>«]n« AX *. no«hf«ib ; 
A^At com ini]«oil. t>o cfie^umo (wi- 
fnnb tUTi. ceniitMifi rommvcniiw) 
VtSWmo ac«r finvituinc poii a cen- 

OBib ; mdmhLAim m^ iinbfU(;dto 
c»ch pup, jwi pu LftiitgaiTi 11015- 
cchccdji iTttia pppnc. buuinQe no 
«c "n cct ^cp pu xxx.Av )iuingv. 
Scotch clioXgouUi ropinbniVciConn- 
<fn<;)i«pvviboi|to(4i'apceuit). TdcAr 

acar4tpgn>]ocAt-c]\«MiafnDnnd cao- 
butDiocd]' garnnncliifi Ap);Ait>rna»i- 
bpAtgwb "* r'^' CLftivow oiivBiivn 
contiftlbvtb n&t|UL£ «io|\ ocof ch^ji- 

mm Mil* cop^ (iTietpDin nnninipti.] 



them. Kilto of perfect whiteness, with crimson atripes Aamrm 
their aides upon tnem. Black hair upon every man of uiem,andi 
BO sleek, that you would think it was a cow that licked thco^ 
all. They carried shields with emblematio carvings, and ahaiiHa 
scolloped rims of Findruine, at their shouldera. Ivoiy set swor^S 
at their sides, inlaid with figures of bronze. A pomtlesB speais 
in the hand of each man of them, with rivete of silver. Piftjp— 
coils (Torrochta) of burnished gold around each man. They" 
had no sandals on their feet, nor head pieces {Cennbair) upooM 
their heads, except a few of diem. They did not come ireotlr" 
into the assembly, bat set up a camp of their own; after whieu 
they came to the assembly — three score in chariots, and thea 
other three score on horseback".''*^ 

This party appears to have come in the same way as BodJibk 
to the great meeting of the men of Connacht at hock Riaeh; 
they were under the command of a man named Fgrgna, chieJT' 
of that territory in Ulster which afterwards received the name 
of Dal Riada. At this time Bodhbh Derg had in his service a 
professional champion whose name was Rind; and it happened 
also that Ochall the Connacht chief had in his service at the 
same time, and in the same capacity, this champion's brother, 
whose name was Falhhar; but neither of the chiefs knew that 
their champions were brothers. In the course of the meeting 
Bodhbh challenged his friend Ochall to find him a man to 
match his champion Rind in single combat. Ochall imme- 
diately produced Falbhar, and thus the two brothers entered 
the circua, and unexpectedly met in deadly combat. The battle, 
however, soon became general ; the Connacht men had the worst 
of it ; but the two brothers survived to act other prominent parti 
in the wild mythological history of these remote times. 
SomcoftbB Among the romantic and highly-coloured descriptions into 
^pu^i*^ which personal ornaments of gold and silver enter, some of the 
fii«"?n«- richest will be foimd in the ancient tale of the Wanderings of 
uftSiSto*" -^'^^"'"'s Canoe {Imramh Curaigh Maeilduin). The inci&nts 
tha Mie Df of this tale are assiimed to a fixed date far within the period of 

tbe Wander. ° '^ 

MatkMn-t '"*' [origin*! i — •'. cpi.scse eit ifo a pn-ofuitii iwMitctiipb fOf a wwmb. 

Cuoc f]\iAtit]ib,AC4f ciM.Mx. caj^pAC. eich Cotg& -oeco teo ipa a cnmib, cm 

nubtt fuclitiib tiiLe : in oa|iI,acc ri)ici)\tb >iumAe ft>Atb. TTloeL goft 

beLlp* oin liit 
■Ajyo col.l,uib 
ip impo ; noch oip fop 

bpumniD gafl pp TMb. teinci lam- icctMitro imp«, n* cermbAip imo 

ij- muip 
f^iu hutli 

p popidiTipuc ; beLlp* oin tiitwith 54C, pji ■oib, cti|«iHAnTintb 
itU. di T>ubg'LAffO coHtub Aipccic. CoecA cojtachc «>io]t jfOfW 
.t-p impti ; nach otji fop loifcci itn ^a£ ndi. n^ b&CA|( iaLW 

ge&iA, contiefnaich concjvaib wp- gcennuip, Ate ViuaCaiI mb. InoMitpi 

tttit) caebuib impu. tnbnuft c1]^tJub 54151 nefi liipn vajwcbc, 

pin sac pen wb, iwoAp tacc, i)- bo CACAn iti-ounac { caiiefpi 

imb connBuatAe, 4CAf contmttb c^ti .xx. ii hiniMfe«hc.] 

our aodonbtod kislory — namely, about a.d. 700; and havin? 
foriner lecture'"*-' pveo a lull account of the lustoij- and 
nature of the pictx:, 1 nhalt not Dovr go iota it a^a. I proceed 
St ODce to the dvEcriptioa of the lad/ in the Twelfth Island 
zeacb«d bj the voyagers, when she comca out to them* after 
*hiur three days of tinchanted sleep. 

" Upon the fourth day". theBtorysays, "the woman came forth 
to thera, and splendidly did she come tlic-re. She wore a white 
.Kobe and atwmcU TiTi^{Iiit(ine,oT liuxnn^) ofguld oonlining hor 
lair. She had ooldcn hair. She had two 5hoca of silver upon 
lier crimBon-whitc feet; a silver brooch, with cbaios of f^\a in 
liar robe ; and a nttipcd amock of silk next her while skin".'**'* 
This stoty, it is true, is a wild lu^nd of magic; hut the de- 
ftdiptian is certainly that of a rich orcse, such as the wiitci was 
■ocufltomed tu regard aa beautiful luuon^' those worn by the 
ladies of thft very early period in which thiii tale WM written- 

lb will be purceaved that among the personal omumonts of 
thte lady thcic arc two articlcB tliat do not often app«ar In 
Bach descriptions, namely, a silver brooch witb cliains of 
gold attached; and a spiral ring of m:ild to eonfino her hair. 
This ring waa, ui facti used only wncn the long hair of the 
katid was plaited, or rolled into ono roll at llic poll ; aud it was 
OQ thta roll that the spiral tins was put, to keep it I'lom unrol- 
ling, and for an ornamc-nt. Inere are a few ancient specimens 
9f this ornament in plain gold, and some in bronze, preserved 
io the Museum of the Ko\-h1 Irish Academy. But Dr. Petrie'a 
«oU«ctioQ contains a bcautUul, if not unique one, in gold bronze. 
This beautiful ring is formed of a liollow or half cylindrical 
Uun fillet of clastic brooEo; tapering from a breadth of about 
ihree^uartcrs of un iucli at one end, to un obtuse point at the 
odter. It has been eoilod up epii-ally from tbe broad end, bo 
that the whole fits, circle witlun circle, in the one great circle 
at the bnmd end ; or, if the sfHrals are not presEod homo, it wtU 
fbnn a r^ular cone, with uU the external appoaranoe of a solid 
ropelike body. When the bair was rolled up, and the ring put 
upon it and expanded, &om the thick butt of the hair down to 
it! small top, ux whole ring, from its convex spiral surfacft, 
appeared like a golden rope closely twisted aroirna the hair'"' 

tha lialr in 

Dt, ■■•m«'* 


la tar nvriou kctDr« b to b« found 
al |k 369 of U«» Lttttirm on MS- Jf«(e- 
ridlt Iff /ruA /fiilory.] 

"»" [orlfiDal I — Ipn CflCp*""™ 

Aim. llf*c ge«V impe, *car biiinii« 

oiH imin (V moing. niong ojnju rujii. 

«Qpe|v*ii bpecnar *l*e*'o conbpBp- 
t)tb ovpiitAbpec; -A^uT l«t>« tT*" 
tiuive r^cn fpi* 5»l ciiep— /."okAar 
fid k-CidJtf% M. 36. b. DM. n Mr/., 
and Hmiton MSS^ MW, Bdk Hn»] 
•"•>[8««». 66.J ' 


»xYi. It would be impossible for me, with any degree of cosBecu - 
tive arrangement, to press into one lecture all the refeEeDces U^: 
those personal ornaments of gold, silver, bronze, and preuoui^ 
stones, which in the course of my readings 1 have brou^t to — 
gether; and I shall therefore, for the present, content myself 
with a few only, and first transl&te the following extract m> ii= 
a very curious story in an ancient MS. written in a very amuen^ 
style of diction, 
onunmti Diarmait and Blathmac, the two sons of Afdh Slaitu, wer^ 
?^tai^r° joint monarcha of Erinn for eight years, until they were botl^ 
2^*JJJ^ carried off by the great mortality in the year of our Lord 664 — 
Our legend tells us: — " That ZHarmait, the son oEAedh Slaing — 
was king of Temair [or Tara], and hod in pupilage and hostage — 
ship from the province of Leinster, Cnmhihann, the son o0 
Aedh [king of tnat country] — He lIHarmait] went one day U^ 
Ath Truim [Trim], in the territory q£ ]jaSghair», and his pupH 
Crimhthann along with him, and attended by but one aenrast.- 
They saw a woman coming over the ford [on the Boyne] fron». 
the western side, in a chariot. " She had on her [feet] twc* 
pointless shoes of white-bronze {Findruine), ornamented witb- 
two gems of precious stones; her kilt was interwoven witb 
thread of gold ; she wore a crimson robe, and a brooch of gold, 
fully chased and beset with many-coloured gems in that robe. 
She had a necklace of bumislied gold around her neck ; and a 
diadem of gold upon her head. She drove two black-gtay 
steeds at her chariot with two golden bridles ; and the yoke of 
the horses had trappings of silver".***' After some parley, 
Diarmait took her with him to Temair. She, however, soon 
cast her attention on his \IHarfnaiCs\ pupil, tbat is, upon 
CrimJitkann, the son oi Aedh. The youth consented to meet 
her at Cluain da Chaileach (near the place now called Baltin- 
glass, in the county of Wicklow), at the third hour for nine 
o'clock) on the Sunday following, in order to elopo witn her. 

The story goes on to say, that : — " The lady, Bee Fola, lost 
her way in the wood of Dubhthar [near Baltinglass] ; and that, 
' seeing a fire, she went towards it, and there saw a young warrior 
cooking a pig. He had on a silk tunic of pure crimson, with 
circlets of gold and of silver ; he had a helmet of gold and 
silver and crystal upon his head ; he had meshes and gems of 
gold upon every lock of his hair, down to the blades of his 

(»•■) [original ; — Da'niAet^iTi'pn- tofce im d b^gaic. ; mmt) noip foj* 
^«in« impe, wi gem oo tie log- a cinw. T)* e^ch •onbgtArA ym\- 

oip itnpe; b|uc co^ciu, veAtg di^ cocuAgniil.«ib Ain^ivib -ponAib.— 
Unec«)1^ CO mbt^eAictuo n^em niV- H. 2, 16. f. 766} U. 8. 18. f. 767.] 



slioulders; he wore two balls of gold upon the two forks or *»vi. 
dirisiona of his hair (in front), each the size of a man's fist. He 
ixiA a gold-hilted sword at his iprdle ; and he had two sharp 
fleah-aeeking spears between the leathers of his shield, with 
rings of white bronze upon them. Ho wore a many-coloured 
oloak. His two arms were covered with bracelets of gold and 
silver up to bis elbows"."***' 

The next example is equally curious. There is a story told SMrr of 
in the *' Book of Leinster" of a satirical poet of the province of th« braoen 
TJUter, in the reign of king Conchobar Mac Nessa, whose name Sr«(^,- 
"^TM Aiihime AUgieach, or AithiTne " the covetous". 

Aiihirru took it into his head to make a visitation of the 

other provinces of Erinn, for the purpose of raising contributions 

&om the kings and chiefs, under the the terror of his satirical 

toMuc. Having arrived in South Leinster, be mot the king 

And people of that country assembled to meet him at the hill of 

•^rd Brestine, a place which still preserves its ancient name, 

Utuated near Ahade (Ath Fadat), about three miles south of 

TuUow, in the county of Carlow. 

The Leinster men were prepared with rich presents for the 

poet to purchase off his good words ; but the satirist would 

accept nothing but the most valuable jewel on the hill, though 

no one know what or where that jewel was. Whilst the king 

and his people were at a loss what to do in this difficulty, *' there 

was a young man careering a steed on the hill, and m one of 

the turns that he made close to the royal seat, the horse threw up 

a clod of earth from his hinder legs, and which clod fell in the 

lap of the king, Fergus Fairge, who immediately perceived in it 

a DTOoch (Dealg) of red gold weighing eighty ungas or ounces. 

" What have I got in my lap, O AWiirtief" said the king to 

the poet. " Thou hast got a brooch (dealg) there", said Aithime: 

and Aithirju then recited this verse : — 

** A brooch that has been found in Ard Brestine, 
From the hoofs of a steed it has been got ; 
Over it have been delivered many just judgmenta, 
When in the cloak of Maine, son of Durthac/it". 
I**) [original ! — DofjWilA (mj\ me- im a tenn ; mocoiV acAf pclup oip 

C41^caT>4n [coTi'ooc«i\t.4cup, 11.3. 18. cL&j\ a. tii tmuai ; va moaXX oi)\ fop 

756, bot.] com 4ic&i cotw m*pbfAC ^ei ^Ab&V imonp, men fell]^t)opnn 

At) tmlc ACir L«iT) p >iic]V4nT) pop cc&Ccdp nil. ^fiLaiTiel) op'ouipnn 

cecheo. <ltnciat ipn cputro confACAi apA inif; acaj- a <oa fWg coicpinTit 

mew fop l^p HA CAil.ii. tui'D "oo icip LcAtAp A fceit, co cobpuTO 

itrni in cencD. CotipACAi in ocl.Ach tinnpuine popA. bpuc it'oAtAfih 

itnon cent ocopgnAm na muici InAp fleir, H. S. 18. 757]. A "04 iaim 

ppectMii ime congLftniopcAip ACAp Iaha xji pAiVgib oip Acap ApcAic co 

CO cipcLAib dip acnp Apcwc; cenn- a TntniUnn.— H. 2. 16. col. 766. ; U. 

bApp tnop AC4p Ap^c AcAf ^iAinne 3. IB. 7S7-] 

VOt. 11. 11 



xxvu " This brooch", said he, *' ia what I Bhould prefer, because :«-t 

was my mother's brother that put it into the earth, when d^=s- 

fealed in a battle along with the TJhonians, namely, the battL< 

of Ard BresUne". The brooch was there giTen to nim.'*"' 

ihe flnding This ciirjous, and probably tnie story, eives one 8atiafactoi~^T 

nnconnMtnd reason why ornitmente ot the precious metals, and oi bronze, m t 

^■iJiiS^" well as arms and various other articles, have been, and atiU cor:»-- 

th!l"uie'^ tinue to be, turned up from the earth in places where no hnma-iKi 

remuns are to be found. It would appear to have been Hm. * 

custom in ancient as well w in modem times, for letreatiiL^g 

individuals or armies, to hide or destroy their mc«t precioc«-S 

treasures, in order that they should not fall into the hands c^f 

their pursuers. 

MBntiQ(iof« Anoth(;r example of a very krce sized brooch occurs at 

brooch In 

the hlltOT)' 

of Queen 

very early period of history indeca. There is a fragment of 
story prcBcrved in Lmbhar na h-Uidhre in the library of d»« 
Royal Irish Academy, relating to the birdi and after history o/ 
a celebrated lady of ancient Erinn, whose name was Edain^ aa.d 
who became the wife of the monarch Eochaidh Fedhtaieh, one 
hundred years before the Incarnation. The lady Edam mS 
the reputed daughter of an Ulster chieftain, whose name wtf 
Etar; and after her birth, the story says: — 

*^ Edain waa educated at Itibiur Ctchmuini [in the cast of 
Ulster], by her father Etar, and fifty matdens along with her, 
the daufflitera of neighbouring chiefs, and who were fed and 
clothed by Etar as the companions of his daughter. One day 
that all the maidens were bathing in the bay, they saw from the 
water a horseman riding towards them over the plain. He had 
under him a curveting, prancing, broad-rumpcd, curly maned, 
curly haired bay steed. He had on a long flowing green cloak, 
gathered around him, and a ahirt interwoven with thread of red 
gold (under that). A brooch (Ed) of gold in his cloak [across] 
which reached his shoulders at eiUier side. He had a shield of 
silver, with a rim ofgold, at hisback, and with trappings of silver 
and a boss of gold ; and he had in his hand a sharp-pointed spear, 
mi) [originnl; — bui ciwniAixcai «c wdU: arro, o\, Aitipmj ij-An'OArbepc 

X>o cpuib ei6 ■DO]«Ti4chc ( 
Cawr fuca* ni6p mbiieft cefic, 
liiiDpuc maim triAC t)u|i£A£c. 
ife lOTjel^fm pop&l, ■OAmf*! onAch- 
a\\i, .1. bfue^i^ mAe^pr^ fWDXtAcaib 
oc&f vo )ut: icaI-a^, i«|i tnAiom 
4if CaCa psnuticu, ,1, c«t Tnt>(%erc- 
ini, If in-opn -oonarAt) x>& inT>e\^ 
— Huleinn MSS., fiZSO, Brit. Hw; 
and H. 2. 18. f. 74. a. a. top.] 

*1^^ itnptm «, oi6 if ciLiic T»o|^uictie<o 
Tiocum n* V.iipe6cA nounscB UAUib. 
jToCc &nx) 'oiti ocfouT) in'oei6 ■oap 
coI.):>Ca. X>o cumioap an ceicVi p6c 
m6p tta ■Dibcpoib [jptapcoib] tiipo 
Aipig "ouine iptiDaipiuic comcAp- 
Ia inuclic iTiBpig, .1, ^epgufa paipge 
[m«c TltiacA necbc], conACcA fe* 
AMWcVg inapr) mTif6iu -ooiiLeit 
oncALniAin, ippAbAcap oecpi fi6n: 
ungA THuepgip. Ci-o pt imuclir- 
!*& A AchAipni 7 oX, inpi. Act. 


CMvered with rings of gold from its socket to its heel. He wore «xyi. 
Cur jellow hair, coming over his forehead, and his forehead was 
bound widi a fillet of gold to keep his hair from disorder","*" 

This richly-dressed man was Jtfidir, the great Tuatka De 
i}aaann chief of Bri Leiih in the county of Longford, whose 
bistory we shall not follow farther at present, since our concern 
now is with his dress only. And even as to this, the only cir- 
samntance connected witri it which we shall now direct atten- 
tion to is the great size of hia brooch of gold, and the fact of his 
wearing it across hia breast, reaching from shoulder to shoulder. 
No brooch of this description has been yet discovered in Ireland. 
Here, then, is another curious fact illustrative of the way in 
nrhich these ancient massive brooches were worn. We find, in- Ancient i«w 
Seed, in a passage from the Brehon Laws, that men were legally ^^'^u^'or 
bonnd to wear, or perhaps rather to curtail, their brooches, J^*"' 
whether they wore them at their breasts or at their shoulders, nrwaiMi 
in sach a way as that they should not be dangerous to the per- 
•om around them ; a very good proof that they were the large, 
kme-spiked pins, of which specimens arc found in the museum 
ttf' the Royal Irish Academy. The following is the passage 
alluded to: — " Men are guiltless of pins" — [that is, it is safe for 
Ae men to wear their brooches] — " upon their shoulders or 
Qpon their breasts ; provided they don 't project too far beyond 
it; and if they should, the case is to be adjudged by the crimi- 
nal law".'*"' Yet these large brooches, and other over large 
omamente, continued to be worn. For, we are told in the 
rtory of the Navigation of Maelduins ship, already quoted, that 
Ae wanderers came to an island, landed, and entered a great 
Eiouse, where — 

" They saw ranges (or ranks) upon the wall of the house all '•'«• 
round fi'om one door-post to the other: firstly, a range ofmenuoiud 
brooches [BretnasBo] of gold and silver, stuck by their shanks 1," J^-'wSn. 
uto the wall; another range of great necklaces [■^wntorcs], ^^^^ 
ike the hoope of large tubs, made of gold and of silver ; Cwm'. 

<*•'> [origin^: — &tcA lA^om ecAtn ^wfatjeo AjuAlxiititi fop cAt Vet, 

tc Inbiup Cifimoirti \a ecap, ocaf Scid.£ aipgtjiui, conimbiut oip imbi 

L. itireti impe, iM msenaib cvfcC, fonam«)n,rci4eyiAda]isiB anT>, ocif 

.cof b* he^Teom nofoa. biato.'o ocar cul. noiii f&ip ; oc«y rl*E cmcpinB 

lo ti«ceT> Afi com&iceir CcaiTii &iti- cofetan oit\ impi ointon'o co cjw 

pm T>o gnef . \-tioaiiot>oib *n inge- ittdlAtm. FoLc pnT>-bHiT)i fi^f■ co 

iwb nitib iptiTJiTibiup OC4 potpoc- hccun, piiie oip i^op a ecun conna 

K>, conAC&CAp in mapcid ipan maj- ceiL^cti a pole foagio.— ieaiAar no 

»c«T)OfiT>mrcia. etTJon'ocuajmap A-(7uUre, folio 61, col, 1.] 

■opun popLecan capmoncae capcaip- <***' [The MS. containing thti pu- 

;ee ro^apui-oni. A p4*Uipac uaitie u%t not being available to me, I con- 

npLLiuo immi, ocap l«ne poBepg not give the origuul.] 

nliu'o imbi. AcAf eo oip iha bpuc, 



»«T'- and a third range of great swords, with hilts of gold and 

Now, it matters little to our present purpose, that this is an 
imaginative end exaggerated description. Our business is with 
the writer's evident acquaintance with the general existence and 
use of these precious ornaments in his own country ; a fact 
sufficiently clear from the accuracy of his description. 
Thiiue- Among the brooches in the collection of the Koyal Irish 

broo^M. Academy are some with round knobs, a little below the head, 
and deeply carved diagonally, so as to give the knob, with its 
flat-topped head, the exact appearance of a thistle head. I am 
not aware that our Scottish kindred have as yet put forth any 
cltums to the exclusive right to this ancient type of their modem 
national emblem. Ncitiner am I aware that they have as yet 
discovered any specimens of this brooch in their own country, 
or that there is any particular reference to it, or to any other 
type, in their ancient writings. The only reference I have met, 
with regard to Scottish brooches, is found in a very azu^ent 
story in my possession, which relates the adventures of Cano, 
the son of Gartnan, and grand-nephew to Aedh Mae Gartnan, 
king of Scotland, a contemporary of St. Colum CilU. 
Rarcrance to This voung prince, Cano, was compelled to fly from Scotland 
broochei in into Ireland, to avoid the jealousy of his grand-uncle, who had 
c^^oi already slain his father, and killed or dispersed all his people. 
""rtM*. xhis was about the year 620. After the death of his father, the 
young prince took counsel with his people, as the story tells us, 
m these words : — " Well, now", said Cano, " it is better that we 
avoid this man, who has killed my father. We are not neara 
to him than the man he has killed". " Where shall we go to?" 
stud his people. " We will go into the land of Erinn", said he, 
" to a friend of ours". He caused canoes to be made. They 
went to the sea shore. This was the order in which they went 
down to the sea: fifty warriors; a crimson five-folding cloak 
upon each man, two nesh-seeking spears in his hand, a shield, 
with a rim of gold at his back, a gold-hilted sword at his girdle, 
his gold-yellow hair falling down at his bock. This too was the 
order in which their fifty wives accompanied them : each wore 
a green cloak, with borders of silver, a smock interwoven with 
thread of red gold, brooches (Deilgi) of gold, with full carvings, 
bespangled with gems of many colours, necklaces (JUmnct) of 
("•'[original;— ConAccAciiii&ppn ^541- aiipc, tti4i\ Cipctti t>ub£4 ce- 

iintnAcua>]\'D 6in>upi'*in'o "ota. jvatt 1 aib cotiim'ooniiaib 6ip AE^f Ai(\ac. 

fpeft Ann fiecamur w bpecnAfAib — Ltabhar na h~Vuihre,fM. 26, ocX,l, 

6m *oAr AUgic acAj- 4cof4 iptiTrnvAi- See alao Uarleian MSS., Tract 1. 5280, 

£it>i Ac«r TTst no nturicojicAiD 6ip Brit. Mm.] 



higUy buniishcj gold, a (litilora {Mind) of gold upon tlic head «^'"- 
of c«cli. The fifty servants llial aWeuded thorn wore tunics of 
y«Uow silk- A chess board (Filhc/itU) upon the back of each 
aen-ani, with men of gold aud gilvor. A bronze Timpan (or 
harp) is the t«0 hand of each »CTT&Qt; aud tfro grayhoundfi, Lu 
a aiU'cr chain, in hia right hand.'**'' 

Such then, ig the very rcmftrkable dcfcription of the noble 
Scotliah fjtile and his retinue, on their visit to the monarch of 
Crinn, Dutmuutf the son of Aetff* Statne, who icceivcd them 
litably, and rejected all thu utTcrs und soticitdtions of the 
> of Scotland, to K-tmy them into his handB. I may remnrk 
furtmnr, in n:furcnc«: to these c«rvud, or thistlo headed brooches, 
that not one of them has been yet discovered, with any kind of 
emblazonment or gcmd or couipoiuUon; while several of the 
other types are found richly set with etones. 

Again ; in the ancient tale of the Brwghean Dadtrga, or Da- c»"cd 
dertj\ court, wc have ihe monarch Conaire M6r« own reaiions ■uonfiDn'a4 
for fcoking the hospitality of Dadtrg'9 mansion, when forced lo " illJ '*'' 
fly from Tara, to avoid the plunderers and rebel* wlio made a J^fJJfJT 
mdden irruption into the district. This ia the monarch's claim on 
Dadrrg, and in his own words; — " DatUrg of Lcinistcr", said 
Conaire, " came to solicit gifts from me; and he did not como 
to Gnd a refusal. I bcatowcd upon him an hundred hi^h class 
cows; an hundred fut hojrs; an hundred crimson-mixed glossy 
cloaks ; an hundred blue-coloured death-giving swords ; ten 
carved hrooches (j[>tfi£i;i) of gold; ten keeves, fine noble vessela; 
ten slaves ; ten owes ; three times nine white hounds in thcirsilver 
chains; with an hundred giAed steeds, oa Coct as roebucks".'*'*' 

We have anotticr reference to the car^-cd brooch, such as the 

"•*> [original:— m.:iiCcT>o u|tC4no. giro. VcVi(elL poi^ ""o™ c«C gill^, 
•f FCAIT Dun im^AbAil mo fipr^ iw G<i T*IMib oip «CA|- alI^C1Q, Ctin^jdn 

Com jn rUiljp* aincne t-nj Lsim vcirr 
— H.3. l&ce). 78»,mfd.] 

*"*'[<iri^n«l.— ■D«u»r{owiUsiiil), 
oL Condi;w, pintc Cncumfa «m oL 
ConAtp« no £tiingro ^m^A, «L*ti|- ni 
frniotro con«tM. U4nip«i-d imcec 
m1>& boUnd 1 fi^iin iin cec fnuo 
niBccjVjrfi ; Tunn imcec mbjiic en- 
rtigJn'UC rc«ti TiAHtl imoec n^Afp 
ctu ngoiini odCd ngubd* ; Twnti vm- 
x>c\t n-ioitci ©cpcA t>n»p-oa; pan im 

pdnnini a mogttj)iatinnn x reeiVei 
pjiiti im cpi .'St. con ncngcL mn* 
rLAb|\«n<iib 4«p5«i*)ib; pa'nn tm c. 

mAie '-ciji T>&|««D CO m-bjueaii ©tin. 
Oo ^mccA^ cutuC tAif. 1.oc«p 00- 

IMp vocksTn nAju, .1. cotKA V«cCi 

««, «* fl*ig ewcikiTTDt in* Vaim, 
ymit 00 iB-buAitig otp T'"T*» cloiweb 
oponjm \o^ ^T> A tnoT^E opbuitie 
IM1W dip Af ADildtA r>o uea£«tMp 
tn coccA biin : bfuc hudino cc c«|>- 
£«|taib «rsdtc. wi>e 00 *>-n*Ti5 "">- 
led« ot|i, a« i>ii\ l.«n«c<Mp CO 
w»-l>peA6cjui* n.5<Tin nilw&CAi, 
■ntmci vi<>;\ pipUiifYti. mino oip 
poiw Aitro cd&ai. tn caeca n>^lUt 
in«|u oa fic« bam inifiv co n-4p- 

— CcuMar m h'Vidht, f, C», ooL 1 



XX.V1. Scottish ladies are repreBented above as having worn. This 


sttenatmoi reference is found in the ancient Book of Munster, where wc 
iD^ookof ftre told that after the unfair death of Eoghan M6r, kine ol 
Munster, at the hands of the iriends of Conn of " the Huncbred 
Battles", in the hattle of Mctgh Lwna, in the King's county 
fought A.D. 180, we are told that after this occurrence, Mm 
NmcOi, the son of Eoghan, the deceased king, threatened Conn 
with a new war unless he was paid the usual eric, or compod- 
tion, for the death of his father. To this condition, we are 
told, king Conn was advised to assent; and therefore there were 
paid to Mac Niadh two hundred riding steeds, and two him- 
dred chariots, and Conn's own ring of gold, and his predou! 
carved pin or brooch, and his sword and shield; with two hun- 
dred ships, two hundred spears, two hundred swords, two hun- 
dred hounds, two hundred slaves, and Sadf^h Conn's daughtei 
to wife. 

I shall only give one more reference to this carved brooch, 
which, however, does not in this instance appear under the 
name Dealg, but under that of £6. This reference occurs in aE 
ancient poem ; ascribed to Oiain, the celebrated son of Fina 
Mae Cufiihaill. 

It appears that a dispute arose in the presence of Find Mai 
CumJiaUl among some of his warriors as to their respective pro- 
ficiency in che^plajing. The sons of Cruimchenn boasted that 
they would beat the celebrated Diarmait O'Duibhne and hii 
comrade at this old game. Find, however, made peace betweeo 
the disputants, and Cist'n says : — '*"' 

" He, Diarmait of the brown hair, then challenged them, 

The sons of Cruimc/ienn of the martial deeds. 

Two Fails of gold from each of them 

To stake upon the one game. 
" It was not long after getting rid of our anger, 

Till we saw coming towards us over the plain 

A large, beautiful, admirable young champion, 

Stem, manly, and truly brave. 
" A silver sandal on his left foot. 

With shining precious stones beset ; 

A golden sandal on his right foot: 

Though strange, it was no ungraceful arrangement. 



> cured 





<»") [original!— 
Tlof jpeAima* la-o TJiojimA-o "oonn, 
mic Cpuimfiinn conn lotap 

im xii. fail. 6i)» ce6c4p*e 
wo C&bAinc 4ii4on cLuitc 

ft « 1 • A * * 

50 bFAicmiD Cu5Jin fdti teipg 
acLAec m6p, jil^inn, .iTn|\A, 
flT^'Si feapp*^, popiaVmA. 
Ait Jpc-iic ima coif cU, 
50 ligAib logniApA ti i 
*TT oppWA imA toif nBC-fi"! 


" A cloak over his breast the champion bote, ^^""^ 

And a kilt of fine soft satin; 
A brooch (-Erf) well carved of brown gold, 
In the splendid cloak of graceful points. 
"A helmet of yellow gold upon his head, 
With carved liona, at full spring ; 
A ^reen shield at his back was seen, 
With art of maiden hands displayed". 
I have quoted more from this poem than was strictly neces- 
sary for my immediate object ; but the whole passage is so curi- 
ous, and at the same time illustrative of the suDJect of dress and 
ornament, that I could not well omit any of it. I shall return 
fiuther on to the first stanza when discussmg the subject oi' Fails. 

But the splendid pins of ancient times were not always of the Broochei of 
[ffecious metals. Besides the brooch^ of gold and silver to which nJ^Ii?M. 
we have so many ancient references, we have in the Tain Bo 
Ckmilfftte, instances of brooches of Umha, or ordinary bronze, 
uul cXFindruintt about which we are at a loss to know whether 
It waa a distinct metallic alloy, a kind of white bronze, or gold, 
w rilver, or some special style of carving and ornamentation of 
white metal. 

Before passing away from the subject of these old brooches, Chuadgoid 
however, I diink 1 may be justified in giving some reason to So'J^'^th« 
think that the use of chased gold pins came down to a compa- l^^nit,"' 
radvely late period. From a poem, written about the year HyO, cmtory. 
by GiUabrighd4 Mac ConmidhS, a distinguished poet of the pro- 
nnce of Ulster, for Dennot O'Brien, chief of the Dalcassian 
race of Munster, and of which I possess, I believe, an unique 
copy, we discover that the manufacture of costly brooches and 
Buch articles had not then gone out of use. The poet com- 
plains of some hardships thelay literary orders of Ireland were 
labouring under at the time, and calls on the great Dalcassian 
chief to take the lead in redressing and correcting them. He 
dwells in glowing terms on the beauties and importance of gene- 
ral literature, but more particularly on poetry, which was hia 
own profession. He compares the effect of his art on the words 
of a language, to the impress of the artist'shand on the raw ma- 
terial of gold ; and in illustration of the latter idea, he writes the 
following stanza : 

iiod«it fee *n ciiToell, Aintietp 50 neatcaib l«o*iAn l^in'oedlX; 

bp«c <yf 4bi\tiwfle goti UieC, i*ciit uaine o\& ■ftpuim gari *6c, 

Jf tAtncD T)omi« fpoiVL fnkot j jo "SP^r tnftme macbatic. 

^^6 liji na eAccopo'op'oonn, — MSS. Ro^aT Irish Academy, No, 

■00 Vt ifin m\y^a.z mbUiC mbeAnn- H. (n. 4, $. collection), p. 441, bot., 

coii^ ^j j^2 gtanj. 4,;] 
C^Mp o]\biii'De inid ce«nii 


»«•"• " The gold brooch (Dealg), though it gets the pniise, 
When the artist makes it lustrous by his art, 
It is to the artist the praise is really due, 
Who thus has beautified tlie brooch".'*''' 
Although 1 have not exhausted my list of pins under varioiu 
names, I must through want of space pass for the present to the 
consideration of some other personal omamenta of the people d 
ancient Erinn. And aa the ornaments nearest to the pins in 
order and frequency of allusion are perhaps rings, I shall pro- 
ceed to describe them next. 
otutadurc- Of rings there was a great variety, under the various namei 
"agt. " Failf Fainne or Faidne, Fiam, Omase, Domcac, Orduiae, Budnt 
or Buinne, Fornasc, Nose, Idh, etc. The Fail, I believe, w« 
an open ring, or bracelet, for the wrist, arm, or ankle. Fainm 
continues to be the ordinary name to this day for a closed fin^ 
ring. The F^m was a chain which went round the neck. "Iik 
Ornate was also a 6nger-ring. The Domasc was a bracelet foi 
the wrist. The Orduue were rings for the thumbs. The Budttt 
was a twisted or corded ring, bracelet, or circle, formed out ol 
one twisted bar or several strands of gold or silver. The Nast 
was a fillet-ring, or garter, and when compounded with thf 
word Niadk, a champion, it signified something like a knighi 
of the garter, exactly as these words are understood at this day 
because the Naac-Niadh was in fact worn on the leg ; but 'an 
wearer was obliged to establish his title to it on the field ol 
battle, sword in hand. In those remote, and, if you will, rude 
times, the fawning on prime ministers seems to have been but 
a poor way of obtaining decorations and dignities. 

Of the Fornasc 1 cannot well form an idea. The name occun 

in the enumeration of the trinkets of king Ailill and queer 

Medhh in the opening of the Tain Bo Chuaugne, along with the 

Fainne, the tail, and the Ordutse; and aa the word is com^ 

pounded of the intensitive or super- adjective prefix for, and tht 

noun Nose, it very probably was the general name for those 

splendid gold bracelets, or armlets, which terminate at the extre 

raitics in cups of various degrees of depth and regularity of shape 

Tue Fainni Of the Fainne, or ordinary finger-ring, we find a referenc* 

"onailSthe whicli shows that the article which hore that name was use( 

''■"■■ for other personal purposes. Thus, in the Courtship of Maine 

the Connacht prince, and Ferb, the daughter of Gerg, preservec 

in the " Book of Leinster", we are told of Maine and nia atten 

dants, that: — 

("■) [original. — aToon feipD if m6 of Tnot^T>li, 

An •oeal.5 oip cmli c t^ioLciip, an TJeatg ■00 ilacliustiawti. — 

tiUrtiaf ceapo cpecliu liiochTJAibh, ffC. MSS., Liof Siiiiitji,voI. ii.,p. 283. 


"They all had green shields; and if they owed a dish of gold, mvi- 
or silver, or bronze, one rivet (rem the spear of each man would 
pay it; and all with their hair confined by Fainnes^ or rings of 

I have already shown in a quotation from the Navigation of HatrriDgi 
JfaMuin'a Slup, and elsewhere, that the hair was sometimes (anntociit 
ctmfined by a spiral ring of gold or other metaL This custom **°'"y- 
came down to a very late period, as we find from a poem of 
Eoehaidk CBeoghusa, poet to Mac Guire of Fermanagh about 
die year 1630. The subject of tliis poem, which consista of 
forty-one stanzas, is a lament on the flagging energies of the 
Irian in opposing the English oppressor and wrong-doer la 
comparing the then living generation with tho^e which had 
gone before, he bursts into the following passionate stiwi in 
the tenth stanza: — 

" No youth is now seen in the gage of combat, 
Nor a warrior's armour close by his bed, 
Nor a sword sucking the palm of the hand, 
Nor does the frost bmd the ring of the hair".'*"' 

Of the Fail, which appears to me toTiave been an open brace- 'am worn 
let, I have already, from the Courtship of Bee Fola, given a Sn, for th 
most important instance of their being worn on the arms all up ^l^H^f 
from the wrist to the shoulder ; and the same is told of Nuada'a ij^"^" 
wife, a Leinater lady, that she had her arms covered with Fails 
of gold, for the purpose of bestowing them on the poets and 
other professors of arts who visited her court. That this species 
of munificence was not of a limited character, many instances 
could be adduced ; but, as the case requires but little if any 
illustration, a little incident from the ancient tract of the " Dia- 
logue of the Ancient Men", in the " Book of Lismore, will be 
aumcient as an example. 

" Caille, the faithfiil lieutenant of Find Mac Cumliaill, being B.«inpio oi 
travelling through the country of Connacht on a certain day, Bo^k of 
met a certain chieftain's wife, attended by ten fair ladies. After "^*™ 
some conversation as to whence Cailte had come and whither he 
was going, the lady , perceiving that he had a musician with him, 
asked : — ' Who is this musician in thy company, O Cailtef said 
the lady. ' Cos Corach, the son of Caincinde, the best musician 
of all the Tuatha 1)6 Danamt\ said Cailte, ' and even the best 
musician in Erinn or Alba' [that is, Scotland]. ' His counten- 
ance is good', said the lady, ' if his performance is equally good' 

(!<■) rj iiaye Qot been able to flud this piuMAge.] 

!"•' [oriBinal:— 
ni paij;ccji eitte aj jedLt cpCArj, tii ceangUinn poioi* fiinne piitc. 

na cne4l,Uih U6ie U^fn pe cuilc, „.MSS. R.I.A. No. rii (O'Giua MS.) 

ti* coicc as -ofioLweaptiAnn U.rtie, ^ gg_ ^(^^^ , „ -] 


xxTt. ' On our word', said Cailte, ' though good his countenance, h 
mufiic is hetter'. * Take thy Tutipan, O young man', said sh 
He did t«j£e it, and played, and &eely performed for her. Tl 
kdy then gave him the two Fails that were upon her anna"." 
It would appear from the first stanza of the poem attribute 
to Oitin, which I quoted above,""" that these raile or annle 
were sometimes pledged as stakes at the chess board. 
^ From the bracelet called the FaU, let us now pass to the linj 

led a or bracelet, which was called Budne, or Suinne. The woi 
** literally means a wave of the sea, or, in domratic art, the waT 
or strong welt of rods which basket-makers weave like a roi 
in their work, to give it strength and firmness. In the metalt 
arts, this kind of work was produced by two di£ferent mode 
The first was by twisting a round, square, or flat bar of meti 
so as to give it a spiral or screw form. This is the ordinal 
mode Btin. The second mode was, by taHng a solid square bi 
or prism of metal, and cutting out of it with a chisel along tl 
lines of the longitudinal edges, at the four sides, all the soli 
metal, to within a thread or line of the centre, and leavis 
standing, along the edges, a thin leaf of the metal ; so that whe 
the whole is cleared out, what was a soUd bar before, now coi 
usts of a mere skeleton, formed of four thin leaves standing oi 
at right angles from a central axis, and proceeding, as it wen 
along its line, &om the two solid ends, which were not at a 
hollowed out Two specimens of JBttdna, or ropes of goli 
manufactured after the latter mode, have been found togetht 
at Tara, one smaller and more delicate than the other; tb 
smaller one was perhaps intended for a woman. I shall hai 
more to say on these two ornaments in the next lecture. 

(**'> original! — Cnec in cainpuefi 4eAt.b, if fepii a aippTjedc. Jei 

uc &cf«p]\4 & Ch&ilce? 4]\ an ingen. mo t^mpan 4 ocUi'g, *pp. Agaf pi 

Car CojwC mac CamcinTJi ainfroeC gafc aja]- pofeoi icafefnaT), agaj-K 

CO. D.«il.i ai\ Cailce, Agafin CAin- i-aeipfeinm. Cue laponi an inj* 

jn-oefi 1]" fe]\jv a nCipnti agaf a nAL- inxia fata* boi imma l.aiViuilS *o.- 

t>ain, Af inaiCa*eal.fc, apan ingen. Book of Liimore (O'Curry's cop, 

itiafa match a aipficeti, oap ap H.1,A.), f. 239. «. col. I.] 

m-bpeicepath, apCailce, grftmaiCa '"*> Ante, vol ii. p. IBC. 


CniL) Dmxu AMD OutxMSNTa (contiDiied). Anon^moHC notice of Irith 
Tcnqua; deacriptioii of two found at Tan; accounts of Torquei foand in 
Sngluid ; no account of Toiquea in the worka of older Irish antiquaries ; 
Ihon foimd at Tara bongfat in 1818 by Alderman West of Dublin j the 
anthar doea not agree with the anoDymous writ«r as to the mode of pro- 
duction of the Tara Torquet. Uses of the Tara Torques ; reference to such 
a ring of gold for the waist in an andent preface to the Tain Bo ChuaUgne ; 
another KEerence to anch a ring in an account of a dispute about the man- 
Dw of death of Foihadh Airgttach t>etireen king Mongan and the poet Dal- 
/<M /Wjoinfrom the Leabhar na k-Uidhrei CaiUt't account of his mode of 
borial; n hoc» or waist-turque among the omamente placed on FothadA'a 
ttonecoffln. Stcvy of CormacMae Airt aaA Lugaid/t Laga thaving one tit 
the tues of rings worn on the hands. Urcaments for tbe neck ; the MuincAe ; 
flnt aced in the time of Muineamhon (circa b.c. 1300) ; mentioned in a poem 
(rf Ftrcarlne on Curoi Mae Daire ; also in account of the Battle of Magk 
Ltmna, TbeNtamiLandar flat crescent of iiold worn on the head, as well a> 
CO the neck. Tiie Neck-Torque of Cormac Mae Airt Descriptions of the 
dtCM and omomenta of Bee Fola, The Muinche mentioned in the tale of 
the *' Wandering! of MaelduoCt Cono^', and in the atory of Cano. Muincht 
KDd iiomd used alto for the ueck ornaments of animal) and spean- Use of 
tbe term Muintorct. Of the MaeULand mentioned in the Tmn Bo Fraich. 
Tbe ferrule of a spear called a J/uincAe in the account of the Battle of Jlfa^A 
Ltana ; diacorery o( lucfa a ring in Kerry ; tbe term also used for the collaira 
of grajbound*, chiefly in Fenian talea. Mention of tbe Tore in its rimple 
(mm in tbe Book of I<einBter. Ot the Land or lunette ; it formed port of 
the l^al contents of a lady's workbag, and of the Inheritance of danghtera. 
Tbe Land woa worn on the head as well as on the neck, as ihown by the de- 
BCripUonB of Conaire UtSr'a bead cduutioteer and apprentice charioteers ; and 

I SHOULD not Iiave Teutured to offer so unartistic, and indeed 
BO Tcry diT, a description of the very beautiful ornaments to 
which I alluded at the end of the last lecture, while I might 
have availed myself of a verj learned and artistic description 
already published, but that I differ in opinion with the writer 
of that description, whoever he may be, ss to the manner of 
maouiacture and mode of wearing tnem. The description or Animraioiii 
account of these ornaments of which I have just spoken ap- ^It^"' 
pearcd anonymously in " Saunders's News-letter" of the 31st of ''''"i"*' 
December, 1830 ; and as it contains all tliat is known of the 
history of these articles, and the thoughts and observations ol' a 
scholar, I shall quote from it as much as appears pertinent to 
my present puroose. The article in question is headed " Anti- 
quities: The Irish Torques". After wliicli it proceeds: 



of two loimil 



fonad In 

of Torqaea In 

thB work! o( 
older IrlBh 
■ntlqnulei i 

*' Two specimess of this ancient, mnd now extremely rare 
ornament, were discovered about eighteen years ago, in some 
reclaimed ground, at TaraK, in the county Meath. They are 
wreathed bars of pure gold, nearly five feet in length, bent 
into a ciicular form, Sexible, but returning with elasticity into 
their natural curved shape ; each bar consists of four flat bands, 
most accurately united along one of their edges, and then 
closely and spirally twisted throughout the whole length. The 
extremities end in smooth solid truncated cones, suddenly re- 
flected backwards so as to form two hooks, which can be 
brought naturally to clasp in one another. Perpendicularly 
from the base oi one of these cones proceeds a gold wire, a 

rrter of an inch thick and eight inches long, terminating 
in a solid conical hook. Tms last appendage is dcfident 
in every other torque that we have seen or read of, and adds 
considerable difficulty to what already existed in explaining 
the use of these expensive and singularly wrought omamenta 
The weight of the larger is about twenty-five ounces; of the 
lesser, filbien ounces. 

" Three particulars contribute to render these omamenta 
objects of great interest to the antiquarian — their invariably 
wreathed or twisted form ; the perfect purity of the gold they 
are composed of; and, lastly, there being no other ornament in 
the use of which so many nations have conspired. The Egyp- 
tians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and almost every people of 
ancient Euiopc, have adorned themselves with tnem in the 

early periods of their liistory Of English writers 

Lhuyu is the Gist who published an account of the torques. 
The one he describes was found A.D. 1692, at Harlech, Merion- 
eth ; its weight, eighty ounces ; length, nearly four leet. An- 
other is described by Woodward, in his * Collection of Curiosi- 
ties', published in 1728- In 1787, a torque weighing thirteen 
ounces was discovered by a labourer at Ware. Fearing that it 
might be claimed by the lord of the manor, he sold it to a 
Jew, who melted it ; a drawing, however, had been previously 
taken, and appeared in the ' Gentleman's Magazine* for Sep- 
tember, 1800. 

" It strikes us as not a little singular that this splendid proof 
of the ancient wealth and adornment of our island should hi- 
therto have escaped the observation of every Insh antiquarian. 
No trace whatever can be discovered in the writings of Keat- 
ing, Ware, Pocock, or Ledwich, which manifests the least ac- 
quaintance with it. It has even eluded the research of the pa- 
triotic Vallancey. 

" The specimens which have given rise to this article", con- 


or ftKUa AKD ORirilfKNTS lir JtNClRKT EBIKK. 173 

tinues tic wriu^r, "were purchwed in the jrear 1813 hy the ^»^n.1 
late AlJeroaan Wcat, and have since remained At lua estub* «-*■ '■■»' 
Kdunoit in Skinner lUiw, open lo the inspection of the cu- taJ^m 
iiotM> They are evidently the productioQ of the most ro- VIIiinMs 
tiMHc antiquity, and, with the exception of two othera, much *"•■ 
smaller in dnoeaaions and inferior in design, are the only 
relics fram the existence of which wc can lay claim to an 
ornament so much prized by iho civilized portion of the an- 
cient world. On no olber occasion have two torques been 
discovered together. The regal solidity of the one is con- 
mated with ^e feminine lightness of tlic other ; and, if trc 
arc allowed to annex any importance to the site where they 
wore found, wc consider it ruthcr surprising thiit monuments 
sntili as these should have so long remninea tmnoticcd by the 

F** We are Induced lo offer the foregoing remarks in hopes that 
iKe attention of the ciirioua will be directed to the ucquisition 
of these invaluable omamenta, which will be offered fur sale, 
this day, by the executors of the late Mr. TVest". 

With the deepest respect and grabtude to the, to mc tin- ^'^'<«t 'o 
known, writer of tliis learned ana candid article, 1 feel thBt^ih*wun7. 
I murt differ from his assumption and conclusions ae to the J^^jtlJ"*' 
iDodc of manuf»ctiirin>^ thf-se two particular ornaments, and their J^^^ 
object and use. I do not believe — 'indeed they bear ample ow or the 
evidence to the contrary — tliai they were produocil by twislmg t^^n; 
a wreathed bar of gold. Neither do I believe that these capo- 
cunia ciiclcl£ were ever intended to be worn as torqiicn at the 
neck, ftlthaujili there is j^iood reaion lo believe that omumenta 
of a aunitar loim, but of much narrower ronipasa, were s*i worn. 
In support of mv first opinion I have only tu direct an examina- 
tion of the article itself, to convince any one, in my mind, tliat 
it was cliisellcd out of a solid bar of gold. In support of ni^ 
second opinion, as to the object and use of ornaments of this 
size and type, I trust I thall be able in a few words to show, 
thai ihey were not ornaments for the neck, as well as what tliey 
really were. I believe that they were girdles, or oiiclets, to go ir»»orili« 
round thu body; and it is singular that Gibbon, in his edition of r^iu*, 
Camden's ' Britannia', conic? lo the same concluaon, but with 
some modification; he thought they were bolts Irom which the 
ancients n);ipcndc<l their quivers of arrows. There appears to 
me no better way of dispoung of this curious and long standing 
question, than by bringing forward one or two example* from 
our ancient writings, in which various kinds of personal onia- 
menta arc enumerated, and by contrast and external knowledge, 
lo define tlie UBe and place of each, and sec if among tlicm there 



rcfCmiM to 
•och ft Hog 
ot gold for 

•n anclvnt 

'(tin Bo 

Another re- 
ferance to 
Buch ft ring 
froni th« 
Leabhar na 

about tbs 
mftnnor of 
death of 
Dalian For- 

Eim aiid 
Ing Jfm. 

shall not be found an appropnate description, name, and place, 
for these very articles. 

It may be remembered that at the opening of the last leo- 
ture,"*" I translated from an ancient Graedhelic MS., a gotgeouB 
description of the cavalcade which attended upon Bdbhdn Dearg, 
the great Tuatha Di Danann chief of Afagk I^hnhtn, in Tippe- 
rary, when he went on a visit to his friend Ochall Oichne, at the 
hill of Cruaxhan in Connacht. Upon that occasion we are told 
that each man of the seven score charioteers and seven score 
horsemen of the retinue, wore, among other ornaments, a helmet, 
or cap (Cend-Barr), beset with crystal and Findmine upon hia 
head ; and a radiant blade (Niamh-Land) of gold around hia 
neck, with a gem worth a new milch cow set in its centre {FHr- 
sine) ; and a wavy ring {^Bouinde do At or Bunm do At) around 
each man, worth thirty ounces or ungas of gold. 

Here we have the three most costly articfes of personal orna- 
mentation, set out with so much precision as to leave no diffi- 
culty whatever about their identification. There is, first, the 
CendrBarr, or cap, or whatever ita form may have been, upon 
the head, ornamented with crystal stones and Findruine. There 
is, in the second place, the Ntamh-Land, or radiant crescent, of 
gold, with a gem worth a new milch cow, around the neck. 
This was a torque or gorget of the level fashion, and from its 
name, which is not an imcommon one, it could not possibly 
have been a spiral or twisted article. Next comes the Butme 
or Bouinde do At, that is, the wavy or twisted ring, which we 
are told each man wore around him ; and from ita size, estimated 
by its value or weight of thirty ounces, it requires no argument 
to prove that it could only have been worn where we are told, 
around the body. 

I shall only ^ve one other reference to the wavy ring, or 
Bunne do At, where it is placed in such a contrast as, like the 
last case, to leave no room to doubt ita use and destination. In 
an ancient story preserved in Leabhar no A- Uidhre in the library 
of the Royal Irish Academy, we are told, that at a certain time 
a dispute in historical questions arose between Mongan, king 
of Ulster, who died in the year 620, and Dalian Forgaill, bo 
well known as the writer of the celebrated elegy on the death 
of Saint Colum CilU. The king Mongan one day asked the 
poet, where and what was the manner of the death of FothadA 
Air^teack [one of the three Fothadh brothers, who reigned 
conjointly over Erinn for one year, between the years of our 
Lord 284 and 285] ; the poet answered that Fothadh Airg- 
ttach had been sltun in the Dvhthir of Leinster [now Duffem 
("»> See Lect xxri., anta, toI. ii., p. 156. 


in the county of Wexford]. The king Mongan said that this ^xth. 
was not true, whereupon the poet said that tie would satirize 
him for presuming to doubt his Tcracity, and not only that, 
but that he would satirize his father, and mother, and f^nnd- 
faUier, who were a long time dead ; that he would eatirize the 
vatera of the country, so that no fish could live or be caught 
in them ; the treefl, so that no fruit should be borne by them ; 
and the plains, so that they should for ever remain barren of any 
produce. The king then agreed to pay to the poet whatever 
ne should demand as far as three times seven cumhals, or six^- 
three cows, if in three dfiys' time he should not be able to prove 
that the poet's account of the death of Fothadh Airgteacn was 
not true. This ofier was accepted by the poet, out of respect 
to Breoihigirn, the king's beautiiul and boimtiful wife. 

At the end of three days of great anxiety to the king and 
queen, a strange warrior appeared at their court with the head- 
wae handle of a spear in his hand. He made his way into the 
palace, took his seat near the king, and asked what they were 
concerned about. " A waaer I have made", said Mongan, " with 

rder poet about the place of death of Fothadh Airgttach; 
said it happened in Dvbthir of Lcinstcr: I said it was 
fidacV*** The warrior said it was false on the part of the 
poet You will be sorry, said Dalian Forgaill [the poet], to 
nave contradicted me. I shall not, said the warrior, I shall 
prove it " We were along with Find Mac Cumhailt\ said the cauui te- 
warrior, " on our return from Alba [now Scotland], when we /T^iai 
met with Fothadh Airgteach here at Ollarbha [near Lame in SStSr^ 
the county Antrim]. We fought a battle there. I threw a 
Bpear at him", said he, " which passed through him and entered 
the ground on the other side of him; and it left its iron blade 
in l£e ground there. This", said he, "is the handle which 
was in that spear. The bald rock from which I threw that 
cast will be found there ; and the blade of the spear will be 
found in the ground; and the tomb of Fothadh Airgteach [wiU 

<'*"[originaI:— Imcomaiwipnion- yeec cumai :— .... 

g«nAp^it>l.AAnAno,ci&ti4-oevi:o£- Cj\A* mbicip Arm a,1}f:6^AniJ^ fep 

«ro Aiiimj ; 4|-bepc ITojigolL gfiire van iwit 4n wef, abf nc nipipci- 

im 'Oubdain 1,41 gen. Afbepc mongan pal itni, Acof tHcelpCUH inna liim 

ba 56 ; aj-be^ir in pit ntyo naipf ex> natjbienbec. Cobng rrTT"* 'TWnr>- 

4n>ait5iuT>,actif no aejiFAB Adcaif, rin cajina ce6pa |\ACa CAtnbfii ro^ 

acBrAtnuCAnvvcurarenatMHiAcni- top bj"; turutiiti oombAi t<5T* "^P 

■oo ceftntro ropanurciu conna gebfta ini) pig ^4ige ; wipiwu combfit ecej\ 

life )t)4 inti»twib, -DO cetnu'o fOp tnongan acuT ppAigiti fop pano- 

« fcvaib cona cibpicaip copAT>, aoapc. In pli in taptap in caige 

fojiA maige comcip ambpici t*i*ei fpi pig aniip. Segaip incepc \pn 

cacatlainve. X)o fappait) mongan cig, peaw inwoclaig vuvAnic. Ci>o 

Ajieip t>6 wpAcaib cocici pe£i: cii- Tiatapptin'o ol,puoia, pogetipom ob 

maba, no vipe^c cumab, no cpi TTIongan, Acop in pbi vcuc im aitira 



be found] near it, a little on tlie east. There is a stone coffin 
around him there in the ground. His two FatU [or bracelets] 
of silver, and hia Bunne do At, and his neck-toique [Jfutrttorcj 
of silver, arc laid upon hia coffin ; and there is a rocK standii^ 
at his tomb ; and there is an Ogham inscription in the end which 
is in the ground of the rock; and what is written in it is: 
* Eockaidh [or Foihad}{\ Airgteaeh is here, who was killed by 
Cailte in battle, on the side of FituT. Our warriors buried him 
as I have described", continues the young man, " and his funeral 
obsequies were performed [by us]' . 

It remains only to be told, that the warrior who had so timely 
come to the relief and rescue of king Mongan was no other than 
the spirit of the celebrated Cailte, the cousin and special favour- 
ite of Find Mac Cumhaill. This Mongan was the most learned 
and wise layman of his time : so remarkable were his knowledge 
and wisdom that people believed him to be Find Mac CumliaxU 
himself; and this bchef or fact is asserted in the present legend- 
naueoan. It is not, however, with Afongan personally that I am at pie- 
sent concerned, but with the important facts, for such X take 
them to be, connected with the tomb of the monarch Fothadh 
Airgteaeh. Of some of these facts I hope to make important 
use in my future lectures, if I be spared, and to the others I 
shall now refer with as much brevity as possible. 

Indeed I have but to call attention back to the articles which 
are stated in thia curious legend to have been deposited upon 
the stone coffin of king Fothadh Airgteaeh. These were his two 
Fails, or armlets of alver; his two Dunnes do At, or twisted 
hoops, but whether of silver or gold is not stated, EUid his Muin- 
tore, or neck-torque of silver. Here, as in the former case — 
and in the absence of the diadem whicli is not mentioned — we 
find the three most important articles of ornament grouped in 
such a way as to leave no doubt in my mind of the use of each. 

■ boopiOr 

■moDg the 

51m«d on 

ijubtop Vagen ; ATTiubAjicTa tf 56. 
dfbeiic tn c6c\,&t 04 56 t>ontj pliT). 
bio Aift Ug oL ITopcoti ciiXe ■da 
■oummwtjciw. tli 644^011 oi in 

tHonE4n tiiinAiCpn bimipm tipin'o 
C1V4 oLpi TuiWomup TJidlbae. im- 
i«i4pTi4cmip pii Tj^oeu-o ii*ip5Cei)n 
fuiTO Accuc fopOl.topbi. pfiiffl- 
tnip |%4nT>alj nulTo. ItocAprro e«- 
coivpaip CO feftcpicco\,l,«iT> hi caL- 
niAiti rr'rr ahaVL; acur conf^cab 4 
lApnt) hi c«tAm. irpn Aiiwi ceVc^p 
|iob6i ipn £4ipn. lfii£ebC4piiifliael 

Clx>£ 014 poLtlfA ApOUT>p ; ACtIf p>- 

jebcAp AnAip lApnn ipn cALiAm ; 
Acuf pi^ebtAp 4iiUiT> i:o£«)o Aips- 
cig TTpT A"Aip bic. ACA compA^ 
cCofie imbi Atio hi cAblAin. Acaic 
A <oip^il Aip^c, Aciif A m bnnne t>o 
AC, Acuf A inuincopc Aip^c pjp a 
£omp4ip ; Acur 4c4 coipte ocAubAro ; 
ocur AC4 o^om ipn cinti pi hi CAt- 
tAm otn coipCi; ifpn pt aiib: eo- 
tm-o AipgceAfi tnp> pAmbi Cj^ibce 
imtnAepiuc pM Fititi. 

eche fi- 'oo S'licep'] lAf inAcb4i6 
Api4c rAml-Ai'D nl* Acup pifep^A. — 
Leabhar na A. Vidhre, f 63. b. a. col. 




It IB rctnaricablo, havnver, that there ore two fiudnai, or hoo|M, 
tnentioQed here, but whclh(;r nccuratvlv or not, we hsvc not now 
the meona to ft«c«rtain. It U remarkable too, th&t while we &ra 
told the armlets and nrcklace wcio of silver, the molal of which 
the Budne or twisU>tt ring was made is not upeciticd: and 
might not this reserve imply that the ardcle waa iuvariably 
nude of gold ? 

As I have already stated. JtudM was a name descriptive of 
artist fashion, and not of nze or particular destination, and it 
is therefore that we have found it already conflmog a lady'i 
hair, and in the following instance adorning a warrior's hands. 
Z.iMhaidh Jjoga, as etatcd already, was o dietinguishod urinec B>*^r^ 


and warrior of Munster, brother lo Oilioit Oiuiin, the celebrated jM^t'" 
king of Mungter in the middle of the third ccntuir, and *ncC8- i^iTrtw. 
lor of all the great families of tJint province. When Cormae Jj* ""f^ 
Mae Airt aama to the mvoreiOTity of Erinn in the year 227, tuiw^ 
he waa immediately opposed by the three Feryusa, brothcn, 
prineeH of Uktcr, who drrtve him out of Tara, ond forocd him 
to fly fo MiiQStcr for relief. His futher'a dstcr, Sadkbh, was the 
wife of Oitioli Oluim, the king of that province, and to her 
gt«iid»on, Tadhg, the son of Cian, son of OilioU Oluim, he ap- 
plied for relief and asHistance to regain liis inheritance. TadAff 
cooacnted, but advised the dcpoeed monarch to procure the 
■■aiiteDce cf Jjuffiaidh Laijha, hiB, Tadhff's, grand-uncle, who 
waa a superannuated wamor, and who had on a former ooca- 
fion cut oS' Cormac'n father's head in the battle of Ala^^h Muc- 
rwimfit in the county of Galway. 

Coroute succccdoa in thie, and the Mutistermcn, imdcr the 
command of Tadhg and Lvyhaidh, marched into Meath, and 
mat Tara, to the placeoalled Vrinna, near the present romod ab- 
t<ey of Melltfont Here the hostile forces met ; the Ulstermcn were 
defeated, the three Ferffiue$ killed by Lugaxdk, who j>rc«ented 
their three heads to Cormae; whereupon Cormat said: "Hii 
hand doea not conceal trom I^aga th&t he haa elain kings". And 
this is explained by the statement that he had " seven Sumni 
or twistea nogs on his hand or on his fingets^. This is found 
in the Book ol Ijtcan, folio 124, a.; but in another reference to 
the same fact, at folio 137, b^a., of the same book, it is mode 
aeven fhiW or rings of gold upon his hands.'"** Whether (he 
number oi these ISudfii, or haH^^ worn by the warriors in 
general in the olden times, bore any relation to the number of 

<**^ [TYi* origlMl vt tl>« p«a*ase «t The foUawinE U Um origliul a| th« 

panigv u f. isr. b. ». (itip>! m t*^\. 

.1. Af«4£c \ia\%\ OTf itn«laiiii. itca 
aUo Lees. ur(.. antt, vol. II., p. IMJ 


■. (marf . cd. mid.) iti — lr i 

r 124. 

ooiv foil L^ fdbi pi£a..t. dfed<lic 
mbuiittii dip ima tMiv nu nuA meaiv 
TDf- 11. 


^^y- kings or chiefs alain by them in battle, I cannot say, but in the 
remark of king Cortnac upon Lughaidh'a hand, there is good 
reason to believe that he implied tnia curious &ct. 

Before passing away from this class of ornaments, I mean the 
ring, I shall have to speak more particularly, but still briefly, of 
the neck -torques, or gorgets, which have been so often inciden- 
tally introduced into those lectures. 
ofoniMMQU The accklace, or gorget, Uke the smaller rings, had aeveial 
"" "' names, such as Muinche, Muintorc, Land, Fiam. Of theee the 
Muinche, as the word literally signifies, was a generic name for 
any kind of ring or bracclot mr the neck. The Muintore, which 
is a name compounded of 3fuin, the neck, and Tore, a torque, 
means of course, a neck-torque. The Land was simply a blade 
or leaf of gold or silver, and Fiam was a real chain of either of 
these metab. The Muinche and the Muintorc, from what la 
known of them, were evidently blades or leaves of gold or silver, 
of a certain artistic fashion. While the Land, as its name im- 
plies, was a simple flat, or level blade of metal ; and the Fiam 
was a chain of some fashion, or mode of linking, of which no 
specimen has as yet come within the range of my knowledge."** 
Tbo^ There is mention of a Muinche, however, with a qualificatioa, 
'' which leads me to think that it was not a blade or leaf of metal, 
but a wreath, a Budne, or twisted ring of metal, on a smaller 
scale than the Budne, which went around the body; this was 
the Muinche do At. It must be admitted too, that the name 
Muinche is oflen applied to any kind of ring or band for the 
human neck, or for the neck of a spear, a dog, or for any other 
purpose of that kind. The following recapitulation of the refe- 
rences to this article of personal ornament which have from time 
to time been introduced into these lectures may be useful The 
^'"' '««^ In first reference to the Muinche that I am acquainted with occurs 
ifDtiuain- in the " Annals of the Four Masters", so far back as the year of 
s^iKK?; the world's age 3872, or about one thousand three hundred 
years before the Incarnation. Thus speak the Annala: — 

" At the end of the fiA,h vear of [the Milesian monarch} 
Muineamhont he died of the plague in Magk AieUine. It waa 
this Muinearnlion that tirat placed Muinches of gold upon the 
necks of kings and chiefs in Erinn". 

And we are told by the old etymologists that this man's real 
name was Maine M6r, or Maine the great, but that afler hia 
institution of the order of the collar of gold he received and re- 
tained the name oi Muineamhon, that is, of the rich neck, trom 
mut'n, the neck, and main, richer. 

The next instance of the Muinche that I remember occurs in 
<■**) [S«e flg. 57 (Fig. 3, pi. xrU., Miaeelbmta Graphkay], 


the dtige already quoted, which was composed by the poet xxvn. 
FereeirtM for his master and patron Curoi Mac Vaire, ting of nwn'ioneiiiD 
West Munster, in which he enumeratea all the gifts and pre- peretirtnt 
sents that he had received from the deceased chief, among ^,^'0^ 
which he reckons ten Muinchi do At, wliich, if I properly un- 
derstand the words, were full rings, or bracelet, wreathed and 
hooked behind. 

Again : the battle of Magh Leana was fought in the year ■>•<> <« u- 
Xdl^DGivtoeaEoghan M6r, tne king ofMunster,and Conn "ofttatcKot 
the Hundred Battles", monarch of Erinn. A copiously detailed "'"'' ^^'• 
•ccount of this battle and the causes that led te it was published 
by the Celtic Society in the year 1855, and at page U3 of the 
volume we find the monarch, when arraying himself for the bat- 
tle, putting his easy, thick, noble, li^ht Muinche upon his neck, 
andTiia Jfind A ird Rtgh, or chief king's diadem, upon his bead. 

I may next refer to the passage already quoted from the visit 
ofBobhdh Dera, the great Tuatha De Danann chief of Tippe- 
laiy, to his friend OchaU of Cruackan, at Loch Eiach (now 
Loch Reagh) in Connacht, where we are told that each of the 
Beven score charioteers and seven score horsemen who composed 
hia cavalcade wore a Niamk Land, or radiant leaf of gold, around 
his neck. This Niamk Land, or splendid flat crescent of gold, ne jrfoM* 
waa worn not only around the necic, but was also worn upon tnLxalot 
or over the forehead. This may be seen from the following ^'t[,*bSd 
passage, which occurs in a volume of talcs and adventures of f J ""!'"' 
F^nd Mae Cumhaiil. The scene of this story is laid on the 
mountain called Sliabh Crot, a historical mountain in the south- 
west part of the county of Tipperary, and it is told by Cailte, 
one 01 Find's most cherished and trusted officers, in the follow- 
ing words : — 

" One day", said Cailte, " Mac Cumhaiil was upon this moun- 
tun, and the Fenian warriors along with him ; and we were 
not long here when we saw a lone woman coming towards ua 
to the mountain. She wore a crimson deep-bordered cloak; 
a brooch (J^elg) of enchased yellow gold in that cloak over her 
breast ; and a Aiamh Land (or radiant crescent} of gold upon 
her forehead".'*"' 

This lady was a resident of Benn Edir, now the hill of 
Howth in the county of Dublin, but as I shall have occasion to 
speak of her more at large on a future occasion, I shall not fol- 

(»W| [i^gliMl: — Ceil wo \^itib ■Oft coptAHAft >mpi ; tielj; opwiicbuw)* 

jwib m«c CumAiLL «p im celAig p3 ipn biwc of a bnumnei niaml^nn 

ot, C^iicc, acay art fidnn in* f ai>jva'o ; o!p imo, Tienin. — No. 2-36 of Hodges 

AC4f no£4p ciAn Tiuinn anti ^o fdCA- uid Smitli'* collection of MSS. in the 

m«ip an 4tTi itigen cucwnn 50 com- library of the Koyat Iriih Academy.] 
fiiliee gtif an ciiocr«» t>I^AC copciuL 


xxvn. low her history any fiirther here. This is but one of several 

references of the same kind that I could bring forward. 

TJwMek We may, Z think, next refer to the description of king Cor- 

coimaiJ/M mac Mac Airt^s personal appearance at the great feast of Taro, 

^'"' which has been printed in the first aeries of my lectures/"^ and 

from which I shall quote the following short passage as stricdy 

pertinent to my present purpose: 

" Splendid indeed was Cormac'a appearance at that assembly, 
sleek, curling, golden hair upon him. A red shield with engra- 
vings and animals of gold, and with trappings of silver upon 
him. A crimson, sleek, shortrnapped cloak upon him. A 
brooch of gold set with precious stonea over ma breast. A 
Muintorc, or * neck-torque of gold around his neck". 

This, it must be admitted, is a decided reference to the Mutrt' 
tore or Neck'Torgtte of gold, but still it does not convey any 
idea whatever of tnc particuUr shape or form of the article itself 
From the time of king Cormac, who lived in the middle of 
the third century, wc may pass to that of die famous lady Bte 
Fola, the woman so romantically met, wooed, and won, by the 
monarch of Erinn, Diarmaid, the son of Aedh Slaine, about the 
year 640, and already described in a previous lecture.***** I shall 
again quote here, in order to make my summary complete, the 
passage of the legend describing the lady Beo Polo's costume : 
DMeriptiMi "She had on her [feet] two poinUesa shoes o( Fiadruvu, 
uid^oniB- ornamented with two gems of precious stones ; her kilt was 
Sw'ivbl interwoven with thread of gold ; she wore a crimson robe, and 
a Dealg or brooch of gold fully chased and beset with many- 
coloured gems in that robe. She had a Muinche or necklace 
of burnished gold around her neck". 
hb ifMintht I may also refer again too, to the story of Maelduin'a Navi- 
"'"oi tfae'" gation, or wanderings on the Atlantic Ocean, where they came 
iiiS"''if"i- ^ ^^ island in which they saw a house, into which they entered, 
g*j^„ and saw upon the walls all around from door to door a range of 
brooches (Bretnaaaa) of silver and gold, sticking by their points; 
and another range of great Muinchi Uke the hoops of a great 
tub, all of gold and of silver. What has been said of the Scot- 
tish women who attended prince Cano into Erinn, about the 
Mdinitorr year (iOO, may also be remembered. They wore brooches 
""*' {Delgi) of gold with full carvings, and ornamented with gems 
of various colours, Muinchi of bumbhed gold ^around their 
necks), and Minds or diadems of gold upon their neads. 

I could, were it necessary, multiply references to show the 

<"*' [See Lectures on th« Mamiscript Mattrialt of Andeitt Iriak Hiitory, p. 
U, and App. xxri., p. 610.] 
i»Mi [Lecture xxvi., anit, vol. it. p. 160.] 



Diuven»l uw of the Mninche, ilio C<t«(i, nntl the Mnmtore, as _? ^v"< 
onumcnta for Ibe neck iii ancient and compttTativcIy modem ir«i-^ «■<! 
timet in this counir^r. The names MuineJte and Land, however, £^J^ 
■ppear Xn have been common not only to the necklaces of men Si^'u™*" 
and women, but also to those orhounda, liorsca, and inanimate •'■»">'*i« Md 
things, tuch u spears, etc- The Mxdniore, if wreathed afi its?Mofui« 
nunc implies, might he used in the aiinc way, excepting os aS? *"** 
ruu cnr bond, to ^ncn the n«<ck of a epeur. 

Id the visit o{ Fraech Mae Fidhaidh to .liYiT^and Affdbk, at^L'^'^f^ 
the paJace of Cruaekan in Connaeht, to demand the hund in tion^"rth« 
DUUTUtge of their daughter Findabair^ and of which [ shall /yi"|j^ 
have more to aay by and hyo, wo are told that each of the 
fifty needs which formed the cavalcade had upon iU neck a 
Mad-Land of silver with little bells of gold. Tnt- wm-d Mael- 
Land of silver used here would £i;.'nify Utendty a pointless blade, 
or broad band, or cr«»ccnt of silver, but aa no recognizable spcci* 
men of this part of horse himiture has come under my notice, 
or probably cxistB at ull, I cumot eay more abuut. it, than to 
give the nmple analysis of the name. 

Again, in the pnsiagc already quoted in part from the Rattle '"'•ftr 
of Juagfi Lfana. n-heie the monarch Conn "of the Hundpudwityr* 
BaUles" ia described as arraying and arming himself for the Jo'lc^u"! 
combat, we are told that "he placed hia blue, ^hnrp-edj^ed, j;[^"]|'»"'^ 
lich-hitted sword at ha convenience; and his strong;, tnuia-^MM,- 
phant, wonderful, firm, embossed shield, with bcautifuT devices, 
upon the convex elope of his bock. He rrosped hit> two thick- 
headed, wide socketed, haltle-spcArs, w^ith llieir Muinchi (or 
rings) of gold QpoQ their necke, in his right hand". Mere the 
worn ifuindu is applied to the ornamental ferrule, or ring of 
gold,, placed upon the neck of a spcar-hondlc, just where it 
enters the socket of the spear itscli'; and it is important enough oiHormri 
that we h&vc at Icnst one specimen nt what there is good reason iilKmV^ 
to belicrc to be this particular Sfuinrht or spear necklace. 
This ring, or hoop of ntiix* "old was found many years ago on 
the estate uf the lute Duntcl O'Cvunelt, of ever glomus inc- 
moiy. in the county of Keny- It was diseovcrod in a sinaU 
depontof ancient bronze, namely — u bronze sword, some bronze 
hatchets, and a hronxe xkian, or oval-pointed dagger, to Uie de< 
caycd wooden shaft of which it appeal^ to have belonged. These 
reimuns of certainly the most remote period of our history, were 
found under a large stone which stood in a river; and having 
pvsacd into the hands of the ^rcat O'Conncll, were sub8e<iiiently 
picsented hy his son Maurice to tlic Royal Irish Academy, 
where they nave for many ycani formed one of t!ie most inte- 
reeling and valuable groups of tlic collection of antt()idtics of 


^xm tbat National Institution. The name Muinche, as I have alreadv 
the term tiw stated, is oflcn found applied to the collais of noble gray houn<]s 
cniianor' in the old books, and cHiefly in the poems and tales which re- 
SiSrS^* cord the exploits and adventures of Find Ma^ CumhaiU and 
F»iiunT«jM. iu8 Fianna. However, as it is not my intention to burthen 
these remarks with umiecessary illustrations or an idle display 
of research, I shall content myself for the present with what "l 
Lave already said in proof of the existence, and the particular 
and general use of the Mmnche, the Muintorc, and tne Land, 
among the noble classes of Milesians in ancient Erinn. 
uenHon of I may, however, add that I have found the *' torque" men- 
la'taiEmpie Uoued by itsclf, and not, as usual, compounded with mum, Uie 
^'°,"" neck, 90 as to make it a " neok-torjiue''. In this form I have met 
L«ia*wr. the name but once; but in that instance it is very curious be- 
cause its authority states that the articles thet? mentioned were 
of foreign manufacture. The passage is in a very curious poem 
in the " Rook of Leinster", written in praise of the ancient pa- 
lace of Ailinn in the county of Kildare. The poem consbts of 
twenty^six stanzas, of whicn the following is the eleventh : — 
" Its sweet music at all hours, 

Its fail ships in the foaming waves, 
Its showers of silver spangles magnificent. 
Its ' torques' of gold from foreign lands''.'^' 
It would be idle to speculate on this curious passage, and I 
give it here merely for what it is worth. 
Of the Land From the necklace in its various forms I shall now pass to 
« uMt 1 jjjg next ascending ornament of the person, referred to in our 
old writings, and this is the Land, or crescent, or lunette, as it is 
generally named at present. To this article as an ornament for 
the front of the head as well as for the neck, we have such 
references as shall leave no uncertainty of its very eztennve 
use among those who were by rank entitled to wear it in an- 
it/mnncd cicut times. I have already quoted ii-om the Brehoa Laws a 
Gg«i°on." short article in reference to the work-bag or work-box of a 
iiSr» wMk. chiefs wife, and its legal contents, which consisted of four pre- 
^■- cious articles, namely, a veil of one colour, and a Mind, or dia- 

dem of gold for the head, and a blade or lunette of gold, evi- 
dently for the neck, and silver thread, or fine wire. If this 
lady's work-box or bag were stolen, and all these not in it, she 
was entitled but to the restitution of what had been stolen ; 
whereas, if the legal complement of articles had been in it, she 
would be entitled to a fine of a breach of aristocratic inviolabi- 

""> [original : — affdip -wpstc opTixwi mip, 

*ce6il, binni icacli cTipAi, dcuipc 6if a cipilJ s^\X. — H. S. 18. 

4icin bipc fopconT>gv]\ ^Wnifo, f. 37, a. b.] 


lity, in addition. We find it laid down in our ancient laws »ty"- 
that: — 

" Ab long as there are sons forthcoming, daughters do sotitibnoKt 
receive any part of a deceased father's property, though he be fS^^m^''^ 
their father as well as the father of the sons, nor anyflung hut <'^^««'"'™ 
crescents of gold, and Rand or thread of mlver, and Bregda, 
that is Briein, or thread of various colours [for embroidery]"/*" 

However clear it may appear from these and former passages The La»i 
that the Land, blade, or crescent of gold, was worn on the neck, a^bi^u 
the following few passages, out of many, will show with equal Jj,en"k™ii 
cleameas that it was also worn on the front of the head, and ■'>°*'° '■7 
probably sometimes across die head from ear to ear. The pas- 
BHcea in question are from the tale oiBruighean Da Derga, and 
Which I alluded to in a previous lecture,'**" and will, 1 think, 
be sufficient to prove this. These passages occur in the descrip- 
tions given by the pirate chief Jngcel to Fer Regain of the in- 
terior of Da Jbergas court, and the disposition of the monarch 
Conairi M6r and his people within it. 

"I saw there", said liigcet, "three other men in front of th«ii'«crtp. 
these. [They wore] three Landt [blades or crescents] of gold c^^4 
upon the back of their heads. Three short aprons (Berrbroca) ^^'ou^ 
upon them of gray linen embroidered with gold. [They hadj 
three short crimson capes (Coehlini) upon them, [and carried] 
goads of red bronze in their hands". 

These were the monarch's three head charioteers, Cul, Fre- 
eul, and ForcuU*^ 

" I saw there", sud Ingcel again, " nine [men] sitting upon ud oi hii 
[bare] wooden couches ; they wore nine short capes upon them J{UJf°t««ii 
with crimson loops, and a Land (blade or crescent) of gold upon 
the head of each, [and cairiedj nine goads in their hands". 

" They", said Fer Rogain, " are nine apprentices who are 
learning chariot driving from the king's three chief chariot 

" I saw three others there", said Ingcel, " with three Lands ud aiM or 

•••') [oripiJil:— 5eiTibeiciYiiC4iiTi bp6cd impu oeUn sl^sj- imTiencAt "^ 
noco beivac, ingin* ni wo mba'D in ■oiop ; cpi coCUm co^cpai impu ; cpi 
nctfAfV wogpef, C10 indiMi Ach*in byioiccfn>titnnnAUiini. SdmAttle4ic 
iK><b Acay wo ti& m&cAib, ctti cob pti « pppogiin. tlorpecdp oLfe, 
in^nn, aCc mAO Lrnn*, acaj- panTia, Cut, 4caf ppecot, 4C4f ITopcul., cpi 
ACA]- bpegna. t^nn, .i. oip, Acaj* ppimipaTo iniDpij. — Lt<Ahar na 
pAttn, .1 in piAiCi Aipjic, AOdf bpeg h-Uidhr', t. C4. a.] 
B4, .1. in bpicin,—- ^ Acftd. col.ect. <"" [original :—*ceonT) ape tion- 
K ' A C S. b. * ^"1^ ^pcpAnomu'D putt Tifiib ; n6i 

Vt<;'Lecture xxv., <.««, vol. ii , p. focUncnipu colubun 4opcp.ii iCAf 
137 et ■«/ ■> > > i- L«n'ooiprupcinvc&6A*,n<litnbpuic 

f..ib *V "mb6Uib ceopaUnn^ Klomm^ U cpi pp^-^P^u intipij.- 
o*p p>p «ipiiup 4 cvn-o ; ciopo bepp- ■'*"'■■ ^' '"■' 


.(blades or creBcenta) of gold across their heads; [they worcl 
three speckled cloaks upon them ; and three shirts "with red 
interweavings [of gold]. They had three brooches of gold in 
their cloaks ; three wooden spears [hung] over them at the 

" I know them", said Fvr Moaain; " they are the king's three 
pocta, namely, Sui, and Ro out, and For Sui [that is, sage, 
sreat sage, and greater sage], three of the same age, three bro- 
thers, and three sons of Maphir RochetuU"}"*' 

<•») [original t— Accom^iu: qiiip r*t* «»*r*'t hinwir, fto feeder* f"* 

ceriT) ; tpi bpoic \yf\tc ytnpv ; cfr6tUL Sui, ACAf no-Sm, ACAf ITc^Sw, ctM 
CAitifi cotiTiepg inctAit) Cio]VAbne<- cotnAif, Cja bn&£in, vpi tmo ftlAfit^ 
nAp-A 6ipinAmb|MCAib) c«opA Dntv noimvnil —IbttL, t^Lb. IkC} 


(VIIIO ntlH Aiii>Okii*Miiiim(ooatinii«]y Of BaMtnoitlit^v-AVicmen* 
OotoA In Cennac'a GkMMn, kikI tn tl)« nciMUittsol TuUwm the dnud lutil 
Jaa^er, uid the harpen fn tbe uU ot tbe fini^;Aom Dadirya. Ot ths 
oSmii It wuKtMdgeofoffln.wpeciftDy of ebtfiuMn: li lincMioBod in 
■be dcMttptloo of AiViM G/ibAra, C^kuloi^ifi diailolcer : am) il» In « tetrwl 
BbautbliD)DJ[^iiUarn<i A-(.Vc/Ar«, thawonl (tAm UexpUned In mb uicicnb 
gloMarr fa) ft vtUinn M S. ; the ttory of AWum uid JuKfir •Atows Ihat tbo 
CAm wai not worn exrlncird/ by ohariolwra, Tlw aptral ring for th« hair 
fanitlon«din tliB"Wani]«rininafi/M/(hu^aC>iH»^. M«nuwcll aawMBon 
dhUeS the Iwlr. HoUi>« xoldan balli fiMcrwd to ih* civwm oT die haip | 
■MOttOB of rach onumenu ia tbe talc of the Draiyliitii' Imdnna ; curkiua 

rn fKm tlia tiUecif j^tdidtiA iUUntcA and /^i^ui'n (foot Dote)( ^IJcii bolla 
tb« balr aUo nunUOMd in Iho ■■ Skk BtJ of CacAuItimtf -, l^a audi balla 
n»«nt(CMi«d ta tita Ulaa of iir^ Fola luid Itna^htan Dadtrya, and odIj ona 
In Iliac of Um " Skfc Bed". Thu J/iWoo- or crown not a£an</orcmcent| 
It la nmiboiMd In tbo Brahnn Lnv*, and In a tale in tbe LtaUkar na 
A- Uidkr% ; the Mcond naire uari) in tlie tale in qwMk>n prorea tbat the 
Mimd oovei«d the head. The Mitui of Medi at the T^fM & CKvaagnt. 
Tbv i/wiJ waa alio wun Id Scotland, m b ibovn hj the atorr of {wince 
Com. U<n alaa wom a jtoldcn .l/wii, uappcata from the T4ai Be Ciuaitgivi 
tUa ornament called In othrr [«rt« of the tale an IrurinJ. The eancnu 
Jlfiarfvern by C»rmae ifne jtiVfat th« meetiagof the tjlateiat £^wueA. 

From tKcse oresoenU or lunettes of gold, worn on the front, 
ftud sooMtimw ftrthcr back on tlie bc&d,'by men and women, 
we now poet to the next urtiolue of omiuneat with wbich our 
icraoto oncoetors adorned the bead, namcl/ eiLr-riaus. To this orKw-n&i 
claaa of omkmcnt, howcvci, I bare met but icw. rclcrcnocs, and 
in each case tbe weareit were men only. Tbia ornament ap- 
peals under two names, 
The first name is Ai 

an ear-rinj*. The eccond name is Au-CAutmritteh, which literally 
aigniBGa ear-bund, vi cac-ligaturc'***' For the precise value of the 
term Aa■CflwmTUKfl^ or car-band, I have not been able to du- 
corer any authority further than the plain analysis of tbe name 
itaelf aflbrdc ; but not to with the Au-A^ate, aa we have the fol- 
lowiDg clear definition of it in the ancient glossary, so well 
known aa Cormac's glossaiy : 

'* A Jt-A^ase, that is a ring for the ear, that is a ring of gold which tha da-jrts 
is wont upon the Gngcra or in the cars of the sons of the free n^wT' " 
or noble familiee". otomm 

This explanation is clear enough ; perfectly jo, indeed, avcord- 

i**' [See Fig. 5R] 

^^AivJB iti:au iii^iA uiiijr. A ujo vMuaitv^:ui nif- 

amc8, differing apparently in signification. 
Ii(-A«jc, or t/'-A'tisc, which aigiiifica literally 



«nd In th« 
■cconnt of 
tha lirnld 
■lid Juggler, 

and lln la 
th*t of the 
btnwr* In 
the wie of 
the Bnit- 

Th* Oitnt 

a twdgc of 
otltre, eipfl- 
dilly at 

insn tinned !n 
the deurlp* 
tinn uf the 
drau of 
RiBH Oablm, 
duTlolesr ; 

ing to the compositjon of the word, and as far as rings for the 
cars arc concerned ; but I cannot help believing that me second 
meaning, that is, that they were rings for the fingers also, is 
wrong, and an interpolation of some thoughtless transcriber of 
more modern times. 

It may be remembered that in a former lecture of the present 
course,"*" when describing the various groups in the court of Da 
Derg, where the monarch ConaiH M6r was killed, Ittgeel, the 
captain of the piratical assailants, describes the monarch's chief 
juggler as follows: — 

" I saw there a large champion in front of the same couch, 
in the middle of the house. The blemish of baldness was upon 
him. Whiter than the cotton of tJie mountains is every hair 
that grows upon his head. He had U-Na»ea or ear-clasps of 
gold in his ears, and a speckled, glossy cloak upon him". 

The second reference to this ornament is found in the same 
important tale of the Court of Da Derg, where the harpets are 
described in the following words : — "*' 

" I saw nine others in front, with nine bushy, curling heads 
of hair, nine light blue floating cloaks upon tiiem, and nine 
brooches of gold in them. Nine crystal rings upon 1^^ 
hands ; an (Jrdncuc or thumbring of gold upon the thumb of 
each of them; Au-Chuimrhtek or earKiiasps of gold ufwn the 
ears of each ; a Muinche or torque of rilver around the neck of 

There is another Uttlc ornament called a Gtbne, connected 
with the head, whlcti, I think, ought not to be overlooked here: 
it is the band or thread which was tied around the head to 
keep the hair down on the forehead and in its place otherwise. 
Tliis ornament, -however, appears to have been more particu- 
larly a badge of office, pecuhar, but not exclusively so, to chariot- 
drivers, and the only instances of it that I remember, except one, 
are connected with Laegk, the son o{ Rian Gabhra, charioteer 
to the celebrated champion Cuchulaind. In the great combat 
fought by that champion against Ferdiadk, and which was so 
fully described in a former lecture,""* we find the following pas- 
sage in the description of the charioteer's dress: — 

" The same charioteer put on his crested, gleaming, quadran- 
gular helmet, with a variety of all colours and all devices, and 
falling over his two shoulders behind hira. This was an addition 
of gracefulness to him, and not an incumbnmcc. He then with 

(iMi [Se^ Legt. jciT, anle, toI. IL, p. 144] 

<"•; [!■«:,, xiT, ante, Tof i. p. 802. See nlio Appendix for the whole epiiode 
of the Tain Do Chiiailgm, contaiuing the fight of Cuc/atlaiitd with FtrJiaM.} 



Ins hand pUcwl to his forclicad the rcd-ycltow Gilnt, like a 
crescent of rcil gold, of (.'old wliicb hail boiled over the edge 
of th* purifying crucible : and this he put on in otxlcr to dtstin- 
ipiish hu otucc of charioteer from that of hia maiter [who wta 
ihe champion]'*- 

Of the same champion auA charioteer there ig n very wild 
legend preserved in tJic aJiciciit I,tabhar na h-Utdhre, in' which 
the Gibne appc^R! again as port of the outfit of the Utter. The 
itory is ehortl)' tliis. 

\vhen Saint Patrick fiist appeared at Tara, and attempted Mda'm m > 
the conversion from pugunism of the very ohsiinaie monarch, huTIi. u.^^ 
Lafqhaire Mae J^'eUi, the latter refused to bolievo in the iTuei'^,^^ 
Gtxl until Uie ssJiit shtmld raise to him from tlie dead C'uc/iu- 
tauititthc »Toat champion of Uleter.who hadlwcn dead more than 
four hundrrd years at the time. Tho saint did not seem to assent 
to this ooudition, but, on the next morning, as the nionjirch 
was driving in hia chariot northwards from Tara towards tha 
rircr Boiiui {the present Uoyne), the spirit of the famous clum- 
pion ttpj>carea to him , splendidly dmsscd, with lus chariot, ho7?es, 
and charioteer, the same as when alive. After describing 
Cuefitilaind himself, his chariot and horses, tlic king conti- 
nues : — " There was a charioteer in front of him in the chariot. 
Ho was a lank, tall, stooped, frcckle-faccd man. He hod curl- 
ing, reddish hair upon his head. He had a Oilns of Find- 
nam upon his forehead which kept hia hair from his face; 
and Cvaehe for little cups) of gold upon his poll behind, luio 
which his hair coiled; a small winged CotfAa// or cape on him, 
with itfl buttoning at his two elbows. A goad of red gold in 
his hand by which he uigcd his horses".'*"" 

Let us examine what the ornaments of the charioteer weru 
In this case. Wo have firet a Gihfit or thread of .ffnrfntuu or 
white bronze upon his furehcnd, to keep hi? hair from falling 
over his fane; and litile cup« at hia poll behind, in which his 
hur woa coiled up. Now ihix is a new piece oi oniunicut, of 
wKich I hare not found mention anywhere else; nor can las 
yet recognize in the large coUuctivn in our national museum 
any article which could answer to tins description. As n^rds 
the word Gibnt, just mentioned, 1 find it explained m on Manning or 

andcQt glossary in a vellum MS. in Trinity College, Dublin, 


I |r"p AmuVLni. Sipni; pnopimip yap 

cdi^«lLiv 4): Ate. coitUno m 
c«< imnit cofiAVprlaciro «p Aotb 
t!ull«iitidib. brimcnr wrocpsAii ma 
lAim VMCanccltot) « e66u. — /.<«- 
biar ma h-Uuikri, f. 71. a. b.] 

pUti4i'i1 In Aft 
■tin en I |[[M> 


xxTiii. Bg follows: — *"""(?t6HC, that is a thread, a» Laegh swd -when 

^ving the descnptiott ; — ' I saw' said he, ' a man on the plain 

and a Gibne ofJPindruint upon his forehead'". The man who 

spoke the words was the Laegh just mentioned above, Cuehu- 

iatntfs charioteer, but I have not been able to find the tract 

from which it is quoted. 

uiartorrot For the fact that the fillet, or thread of gold, or other metal 

jHdf (boin which confined the hair on the forehead, and which must have 

^^«mu &>'^^ round the head, wae not exclusively worn by charioteera, 

Mt *o™ ■«- 1 m^ refer back to the story of the lady Edain and Midir, the 

chuiotMn. chieftain of Bri Leith, in the present county of Longford, g^ven 

in a former lecture of the present course.'*"* In this very an<uent 

story it may be remembered that, whilst the lady and her fifty 

attendant maidens were bathing in the bay of Inbiar Oeh- 

muini on the east coaat of Ulster, they saw coming towaida 

them over the pl^n the chiefWn Midir, mounted on a splendid 

bay Bteed. Among the other rich ornaments already described 

which the horseman wore, was a thread of gold bound upon his 

forehead, to keep, as the story says, his hair from &lling over 

his face. 

There are a few more omamenta connected with the hair of 
the head, about which I shall now briery speak. These are the 
ring, which confined the hair at the poll m one lock or bun- 
dle ; and the hollow balls of gold in which the front side-locks, 
or divisions of the hur terminated. I need not refer beck to a 
former lecture of the present course, where I described the beau- 
tiful, spiral, and elastic ring for the hair at the poll, in [the late] 
Dr. Petrie's fine cabinet of Irish antiquities;"'*' but I may again 
call attention to the lady mentioned in the Navigation, or wan- 
derings oi MaelduirCs Ship, where we are told that: — 
Ttaendni " Upon the fourth day', the story says, "the woman came 
tinSr men-* forth to them, and splendidly did she come there. She wore a 
^™n\»^ white robe, and a Budne or twisted ring of gold confining her 
oWn^rin-i hair. She had golden hair. She had two Maelann or point- 
less shoes of silver upon her crimson-white feet; a Bretnaia or 
ulver brooch, with a chain of gold, in her robe; and a striped 
smock of silk next her white skin".""* 

I may here observe that the ring for the hair at the poll may 
be easily distinguished from all other rings, because it must of 
necessity have been of a spiral form, and gradually diminishing 

(»ii) [original : — 5ibnne, .1. piAiCe, <"»> [Ante, Lecture xxri, toL iL, p. 

bdL^: dccontid^^c ay^ r* F*P 'P" '^ [/W.,p. 169.] Acar cibtie pnn^puitie ro 
4TM11.— H. 3, 18. 469. b. 660. «.] 



mTono end to ihe other, in order to fit ttie tapering character 

the conlincd poll of hair, which climuiisbcd gradually in 
ickncsB from tlie root to the top. Such is thu character of the 
eutiful hair Budne in Dr. Pclric's collecLion, and alHu of a 
uUer goldon one in the Museum of thv Royal Iriah Academy. 
That men n5 \i«\\ »8 women coufinctl, citlicr in ono or soveral 
visioiifl, the hair of the poll, will he »ccq from the following 
itance. In the story of Bee Foia and l^ing Diarmait, already 
TOTal timea referred to, we are told that the strange young man 
bom she met on tlic brinkof a lake, when she lout herwuy after 
t>ptng from her husband's palaoc, had among other om&moDtSt 
cneshea, and a net of gulu on every lock of lus hair boltind, 
aching down to his Bhouldcrs ; and two apples, or hollow balla 

gold, the size of a man's fist, upon the two locks or forks, 
to which his hair was divided, but whether at the poll or tho 
Baple«, wc are not lolU, though it certulnly mual liavu been 
e latter. It would be very difficult to identify any of the 
or-ongs spoken of here, as they m»y have been of the ordi* 
ly circular form, and not spinil, since they were intended 
pre for ornamenting Mparatc small )r>cks of the hair, than ibr 
nSntng Oio whole m one tapering bujidle. Of the net of gold 
r the hiur mcnUoned here, it is unnecessary to say anything 
rtlicr, as such nets arc still used, not however by gentlemen, 
it by ladi«s, to whom in our matter-of-fact and democratic 
jn, oniamonts of gold for the hair arc cxcludvcly confined. 
The next omaaient we have to consider is the hollow ball of 
Id in which the tops of the two front, or rather side-locks, of 
e hair wen; genenuly received and fai-teiicd. The icrt^renccs 

this ornament arc not many, though from lis chuructcr, sim- 
icity, and luxury, there can he nu doubt but llmt it was in 
itensivc use with men and women in the olden times. Parsing 
«! the dcitcription of tlie two balls of gold just raven from 
story of king Diarmait and the lady Bee /'o'o, 1 have but 
'o more references to this ornament, but one of these b so prc- 
K and characteristic aa to explain clearly in what way thct>e 
lis or hollow sheila were attached to the hair. The very 
cieni and valuable tale of the Bruiakmn Daderija, so copioimly 
awn upon in the course of these lectures, opens with tho fol- 
ivinir poetical passage : — 

**'Ilicre was [of old] an admirablo, illustrious king over 
^jnn, whoso name was Eoohaidh FedUach. He on ono occa- 
ta passed over the IHr-grccn of Bri LtUh [in the pr<«cnt 
unty of Longford], where he saw a woman on the brink of 
fountain, havin 
pnted with go! 


Men u well 
M womvn 
illTliIeil Uis 

B»ldgn baJli 
riateiicd ta 

e a comb and a caekol (Cutrtl) of silver, oma- 
id, washing her head m a silver basin with 


"vnr- four birds of gold perched upoii it, and little sparkling gems of 
lenuoDiKiin crimsoa carbuDclc {Carrmogut) upon the outer edses of the 
S^,J^' bawn. A ^ort, crimson cloak, with a beautiful gloas, lying 
''•*'^'" near her; a Dualldai (or brooch) of silver, inlaid with aparkki 
of gold, in that cloak. A amock, long and warm, ffatheied and 
soft, of green silk, with a border of red gold, upon ner. Won- 
derful claaps of gold and of silver at her breaat, and at her 
shoulder-butdes, and at her shoulders in that amock, on all rides. 
The sun shone upon it, while the men [that is the king, and 
his retinue] were all shaded in red, from the reflection of the 
gold against the sun, from the green silk. Two golden-jellow 
tresses upon her head, each of them plfuted with four locks or 
strands, and n ball of gold upon the point of each tress [of the 
two]. The colour of mat hfur was like the flowers of the bog 
flrs in the summer, or like red gold immediately afler receiving 
its colouring. And there she was disentangling her bair, and 
her two arms out through the bosom of her Bmock".'"*' 

This is a curious description, and the old writer might fairly 
incur the charge of pure fiction, if we had not still extant, «a 
far as combs, not of silver but of bone, gracefully carved, and 
little caskets of gold, clasps and fastenings of all sorts, and the 
balls of gold in which the two plated tresses of the hair termi- 
nated, to prove the accuracy of his description of the ancient 
personal ornaments. 

The name of the remarkable lady of whom we liave just 
spoken was Edain, already mentioned ; she was the daughter 
of Etar, a Tuaiha Di Danann chief, and grandmother m the 
monarch Conairi M<ir, the hero of this tale of the SruigkMn 
Daderga. When the monarch Eochaidh Fedleach had suffi- 
ciently observed and admired the beautiful Edain at her free 
toilette, he made proposals of marriage to her, which were at 
once accepted, and he returned to his palace at Tara in high 
spirits with his new queen. The lady, however, had not until 

(•»W [original : — bui pi &m^ 4ip- tngAticAt TMop ACdf Aipeec poji a 

egoa yop eipeti Cocli&i'oli fe^- bpuintii, acd^ a. popmnAio, acat a 

teach 4 ainm, tio l.utT>f«acHc ; n^nn gimitib ipntitene wc«£Leic1t> 

W4p aenacli inbpeg Leich conAccai Caicneo f]M4 ingpiAn cobbafveAfg 

ititmiAi fop up in cob&ip, &t6.\ cipp, "ootiA (rejiAib cufoteA iti'ooip FlMpn 

6uippeV 4p^c conecop tieop, AcCe ngpein ipn ciciu UAinoi. 'Oi. cpi- 

oc pslxjiix) Att-umg Apgic, Ac&r ce- itf tiopbui^i pjp & cin-o, fig* ceifr* 

ichpi heom oip jxjp pt, acdf jWoip- pmouAil. ceAchcAnn'oe «c4f nieUi 

jemAi beccai 'oic1i4ppmo5«\. chop- f«pnin>ocAchT>tiAtl.bAcofin4it,l«o, 

cpai liifopflercuib naLuingi. t>pAc Oach tn-o poiLc pn fpi bAppnAilep 

caf copcpAfoLoic1iAin&ic±e;'ouAl.t/< CAip hifdnipAi>, no fpi '0»«{tKop up 

■OA1 Aipgoit>i ecoippoe neop oibinnu n'denani a TtA^A. 1|- atio bm oc 

ipbpAcCi tens uibup cutpACAch CAi£biuc1i a p)itc via piicAD, ACAf 

ip done le inop tieipciu UAinioe a t>AtAim cpiA 'oenc AfODlAig im- 

paTjepginliuw oipimpt. CuAstnttA niAch.— H. 3. 16. cu 716. top.] 



this time remained unobserved and unadmired by other men ; 
and among thoee who ardently loved her was Midir, the Tu- 
atha Di DoTumn chief of Bn Leith, where she was first met 
by king Eockaidh. This was the gorgeously dressed and deco- 
rated Sidir, who had previously surprised herself and her fifty 
attendant maidena when bathing in the bay of Inbiur Cich' 
nUuni in Ulster, aa I have already mentioned. 

This JUtdtTf Uke the rest of his race, was an accomplished 
magician ; and in a short time after the marriage of Edain, he 
appeared in disguise at the palace of Tara. He was, in fact, 
the Btranger who asked to play a game of chess with the mon- 
arch Eot^idh FedUacht and won the queen Edain as the stake, 
the Btory of which I recounted in a former lecture,'"*' and need 

(■^^ \AnU, LacL ix^ voL L, p. 192. It may be neeful to give here ■ somo- 
rhat different Tenkxi of thU poem, bother with the original : — 

If 04HP j^b^iiie pole 4tit), 
If wt rneicti £of p coin« 7 

If Atro nut) bi mm nucat ; 
SeUk v«c An-o t>tibai hfM ; 
If Vi rnUk tin <i;\ r^uAiji 
If ■onbpon [no if hpeccj AtiT» ce4 

If COficaip niAije [no ioffa] cift- 
If 1,1 folo [no If tidcli] ugw tnin ; 
Cto CAin veicfiu muip t^AiL, 
Annum lap^aif mui^e m«Li|i. 

Cnmefc Lib coipm Itife 1^4)1, 
If mefcw Doi]\m ct]\e mAip ; 
Am]UL ri)te ctp Afbiof , 
Tli 6^c OAC anv jiepun. 

SjtotA ceic miLip cA]t cip ; 
Ro5« ■oemiT) Acuf fin ; 
Voint 'DeipvAi-oi ce^on ; 
Combdpc cen peccAD cen col* 

tcbmm cat fop c^t \xt, 
4U:nf ni conn&cc ine£ j 
rem el. imoi^bdtf Atiaini 
1)<n>onai\£e)i a|\a ]\Atni ? 

4 ben oiiptf mo CUai£ ciht), 
If ba^ll^ 01JV bi4f fojic tinx) ; 

Btfindl wilt tbon oome with me 
To a wonderAil kiv] that U mine^ 
The hair ii there like unto the 

bionom iA the Sobarehe, 
Of the colour of mow is the fitic 

There will be nor xrief or care ; 
White are teeth there, black the 

Pleasant to the eye is the nnmber 

of our hosts. 
And on erery cheek the hoes of the 

Crimson of the mead is each neck, 
A* delightnil to the eye as the 

bUckUrd's ^gs; 
Thou^ pleasant to behold be the 

plains of [/hrm] fail, 
Bsirely wouldst then risit them after 

frequenting the great plain. 
Though hitoxicating to thee be the ale 

More intoxicating are the alee of tb« 

great country; 
The only land is the land I speak of. 
There youth nerer grows into old 

Warm sweet streams traTerse the land ; 
The choicest of mead nnd of wine ; 
Handsome people without blemish ; 
Intercourse without tin, without 

We see every one on every side, 
And no ooe seeth ui ; 
The cloud of Adam's fault 
Has caused this concealment of 

which 1 speak. 
WomanI if thoucomeattomyproud 



"Tm. not dwell further upon it here, especiaUy as it ia not further 
necessary for the purpose of my present subject I may, how- 
ever, remark that the poem addressed to Edain under the tide 
ofBefind, or Fair-h^red Woman, and given in tho lecture allu- 
ded to, is of undoubted primitive pastoral character, both in 
construction and in the allusions contained in it, and may in 
great part be safely referred to a very early period, if not to the 
age 01 Eochaidh FedhUach himself 
■^ '"g^^ The next and last reference to balls of gold for the hur, of 
CfjnMm^", which I sh&U at present avail myself, m found in the ancient 
Gaedhehc tale of the " Sick Bed of Cuchttlamn\'^^ of which I 
gave a very complete analysis in a former lecture.^"* It may 
be remembered that a woman with a green cloak, the wife of 
Labraid " the quick hand at sword", a fairy chieftMn, was sent 
from the lady Fandy the wife of the great Tuatha Di DanoKH 
navigator, Manannan Mao Lir, who had fallen in love with 
him, to invite him to visit her, and aadst Labraid in a batUe, 
and that his strength would be restored. Cuehulaind, before 
going himself, sent his charioteer Laegh to report on the coun- 
try of Magh Mell, or *' the Pluns of Happiness". Laegh goes, 
and is well received by Labraid; and when he returns, he de- 
scribes, in a poem of twenty-eight stanzas, his visit to Labraid's 
court. The following are the first two stanzas of this poem:— 
" I arrived in my happy sportiveness 

At an uncommon residence, though it was common, 
At the court where were scores of troops, 
Wliere I found Lt^iraid of the long flowing h^. 
" And I found him in the court, 

Silting among thousands of weapons, 
Yellow hair upon him of a most splendid colour. 
And an apple of gold closing it".'"*' 
two nieh In the previous instances there are two balls of gold men- 

tilil'ed'°nttn tioned, in which the two divifflons into which the hair was 
a£^m*** divided in front terminated ; here, however, there is but one 
*^iJj^ J ^*^ of gold, which closed or terminated the whole of the hur. 
oniyoneiD It is therefore quite clear that this ball could not have been in 
-SMsSSr. front or at the side of the head. It follows, then, that it must 

Tnuc up, \Mt lemnAfc lAtini}, It li a golden crown ihall be upoa 

nocbta tim. dnw a tJepiro! thy head ; 

—Leabhar na k-UidAre, t. tt2.] Freah poik, banqueU of nov milk 

and ale. 
Thou ahalt have with me then^ O 
tm\ [PubliBhed In the Atlanta, vol. I., p. 86:1, and vol. 11., p. 96. DaUin, 
'•T»i [Ante, Lect. Ix., Tol. i., p. IM.l 
lii"! [See original in Atlanlii, voL it , p. 103.] 




nre be«a ux the poll, uaJ that the hair wus citlicr confined by 
~'ng, or woven into one great plail bcliind, bo that its arranw> 
at wu nude finn and secure by ite tcnuinatinf point being 
eired into, or punng through, Oils boUow ball of gold. 
\ It does not appear, as far as I haTc been able to diacorer, 
|at women in the olden times vonfluL-d dio hair in cxiiU on the 
I or back part of the head with piiu, brooubca, or combs, 
aough tlieie U reason to believe tlmt they did use pins and 
ochcs for »omc purpose connected with its ariangemctit 
[1 ahalt now pass from the study of tlie nunur oinamcnts of The uM ' 
' beadf which I have dwelt upon at iudi conridontblc length, cnini. 
I the chief of all. the Mittd tSir. or Minn Sir, that is. tht ci'owii, 
'difldt^m of gold, of wliiuh wo fiml freciucnt luotilinu iti our 
eicnt wriiiiixs. Tluitthe J/i'ii(i uir was not iin ordinary iand, nM»*«^ 
is, a froiitlel or crescent of gold, must be atonoe aclcnow- " *"*" ' 
d^, when we find botli mentiooud together as dificrcnt 
ticlea belonging to one and the same person, aiid when, 
this faut, it will be shown that, wliiL<t the Land wus 
. either at tJie neck or on tlie forehead [and the buck of the 
. vid4 p. 183], the Mind invariably covered or suiToundcd ni*nii<!>i».HB 
m whole of llic head. The first reference to the Mind or 'i™.!' ™ 
jnwn, to which I shall call attention, is im article in the Bre- 
DD LawB, and baa been already mentiont;d in connection with 
w Land-, or oreseeat uf gold. In the article in question wc 
1ft told that the wurkbag; or worlcbox of a king's wife, when 
fa|iUy funiifibcd, should contain " a vuil of one colour, and a 
Jpjtd (or crown) of gold ; and a Land (or crescent) of gold ; 
hd thread (or fine wire) of silver". This instance alone would 
■ suflicicot to prove that the Mind and the Land of gold 
hre diFerent articles and worn in a diiFereat way. 
|Tbo following passage translated, from an ancient story in udioi 
pe of our oldest MSS-.i'wMar na h-Uidhre, leaves, however, ^JC^SlUt^, 
p doubt at all upon this matter. 
" There waa", says thissloir, "a great fair held atoncdmcat 
^UU^ [now absurdly called Teltown in the county Meath] by 
leGacdluls [of Erinn]. The pcnson who was king of Tara at 
■IB time was Diarmail, the eon of Fergus CerbeoU [who died 
; the year 6881 The men of Erinn took their places upon the 
ads and benchea of the fair-plaee, each aeeording lo iiio dig- 
Ity And poncflsioD and legal right, as liad been at all previous 
the custom. The women had a separate stand for tliem- 
Ives along with the king's two wives. The queens who wore 
^di [kingj Diarmail at this time were. Mairvnd Mael [that 
ilairend the Bftldlj and itfwjain, the daughter of Con- 
udh. soQ of Duaeh Dand, of the men of Munster. Mugain 
VOL II. 13 



xzYiu. was deeply envious of Mairend", because she was herself barren, 
whilst Mairend was fruitful ; "and she called unto her a satirical 
woman, and told her that she would pay her whatever she de- 
aired, if she went up and pulled the Afind of gold off the head 
of queen Mairend. The condition of queen Mairend was this, 
that she had no hair upon her head ; wherefore she constantly 
wore a queen's Mind to conceal her blemish. The satirical 
woman went up then to where Mairend sat, and pertinacioualj 
pressed her for a gift- The queen said that she had nothing to 
give her. Thou wilt have this then, said the women, pulling the 
golden Cathbarr, or diadem off her head. May God and St. 
Ciaran avenge this, said Mairend, at the same tame clapping 
her two hands upon her bare head. No person in the assembly, 
however, had time to notice her disgrace before a mass of flow- 
ing golden hair started upon her head, falling down below her 
shoulder-blades; and all this through the miraculous interpoa- 
tion of St, Ciaran" [of Clonmacnois]."*" 

With the peculiar morality of the royal court which this venf 
interesting legend reveals, or the miraculous agency which it 
introduces, we are not concerned here ; but the evidence which 
it affords of the meaning and use of the golden Mind is so con- 
The Mcond elusive as to require no further proof. If, nowever, iurther proof 
""t'nMd' were required, Hie second name, that of Cathbarr, under which 
'" ?« th't' ^^ diadem is mentioned, would amply supply it. The word 
tbsj/inii Cathbarr is now, and has been at alt times, well understood to 
hMd. ' ° signify a helmet, and in that sense it has come down as the pro- 
per name of a man, especially in the O'Donnell family of Done- 
gal, to even so lat« a period as the year 1700. To call a queen's 
diadem a helmet would savour a bttle of robust poetry; but 
whatever be the idea which it was intended to convey, it ia 
valuable to our inquiries so far as to bear out in full our con- 
ception of the character and use of the ancient golden Mind. 

(*M) [original I — bai cjuk mfiit a6- 
tiaft m6p, 'fciK dti-o hi Catl-cin, ti 
XJiApmaic mac tTepsufA Ce^ibefiil,. 
Ro Viop'omgic cpa pp liepcn pop 
popaiTJib itit) oenuis, .1. CAfi an fflS&- 
T)4ib, ocur uinaib, ocup wtepcu- 
tiup ant), jmaiL bignafi coppn. t)ai 
T)Aii poput) ap TjCiC oc na wniib \m 
oi r^cij itTD pig. ba lilac p'stii bai- 
cap hipait 'Diapmaca mcanpri, .1. 
mAipetTD ITlaet ocup 1111150111 itigen 
Cbonipaio mac Ouai 'Ouin'o ido pe- 
paib TTIuman. bi: cnuC mfin oc 
mugain ppi inaipiii"o; ocup apoepc 
mugaii rPT*^ mbancanci tio bcpa* 
4 bpeC f^n '01 ■oiambepo* a Tnitiw 

Oip T)0 6IWO 114 IMgll&J 4|\ Af AfflUn 

boi niaipen'o cenpoLc, conit) imn'o 
pigna no biTi oc poUifi ALo£ca. Ca- 
me cpa in banfiainci coatpm imbi< 
maipetiT), ocup b6i oc coCtugao 
netfi poppi. Apbepc in pigin "i 
bii acct. btai-6 ocuc po oppi occap" 
poing 111 ca^baipp opDA ota ciwv 
t)ia ocup Ciapan pipT)e im oppo, of 
TdaipenD, oc cabaipc a oitAm 1110- 
cen'O, lliCftpnicim oppoT>oneodipp'n 
cpLuAg -oepcuiD puippi, incAn pojnat- 
Kot A-DA hiniDA'o in poic pAnt) pier 
cat popoptiA poapApfuppi cpianwc 
CiapAn. — LtaAhar na h-Uidhn, fbw 
42. b. col. 1.] 


I have entered into this discussion because of a statement Jtxvni, 
■which has been made, and which has been frequently repeated 
and looked upon as final— namely, that the kings or queens of 
ancient Erinn did not wear any kind of head ornament which 
could be called a crown, because in none of our muaeums of 
antiquities can aiiy such article be found. It is true the word 
MiTui docs not convey to the mind any precise or definite idea 
of the form or details of this diadem ; but neither does the Latin 
word " corona", or the English word '* crown", which is formed 
from it. If there be any advantage at all, it must be on the 
tide of the Gaedhetic words Mind and Cathbarr, words which 
have been shown above to signify a helmet, or complete cap, or 
article of some such fashion, mtendcd to cover and protect the 
whole head. 

Our next reference to the MindoC go\d is found in the Tain Tbaitindot 
Bo Chuailgne, where we are told that when Medb, the queen mubo**" 
of Connacht, was on her march with her army to ravage the Chmugtt*. 
country of Ulster, her progress was conducted in the following 
order, — She had nine chariots devoted to herself alone : two 
chariots of these before her, and two chariots after her, and two 
chariots at either side of her, and a chariot between them in the 
centre, in which she sat herself. And the reason [we are told] 
why queen Medh observed this order, was to prevent the clods 
from the hoo6 of the horses, or the foam from their mouths, or 
the mire of a great army, or of great companies, from tarnishing 
the lustre of her queenly Mind of gold.^**" 

And further of this same Mind of gold, we are told that when 
queen Medb and her forces entered the territory of Cuatlgne 
(in the present county Louth), they encamped for the night on 
the brink of a river at a place ever since called Redde Loiche. 
The story proceeds to say that " Medh had ordered a comely 
handmdd of her household who had been in waiting upon her, 
to go to the river and fetch water for her to drink and wash in. 
Loehe was the name of this maiden, and she, Z/ocke, then went 
forth to the river accompanied by fifty women and carrying the 
queen's Mind of gold above her head. Cuchulaind, the oppos- 
ing champion of Ulster, was concealed near the river, and per- 
ceiving the procession of women coming towards him preceded 
by a beautiful woman with a queenly Mind upon her head, 
whom he believed to be the queen herself, he let fly a stone 

<••'' [original I — ^■c amUii-o no im- if *'?p T* 5"^" mewb pn dp n* fif 

e^igw** metib oci^-noi CAppaicpAti CAtj- pdcbaige & epuib ^e^,noudn- 

A oeiiu)^: 'OA Aappac ^vempe T)ib, ^at) aglompaib niiin, no ■oen-osup 

[ocBfDA fiAppAC nA oiAi*], ocAT TiA tTiop fl.ijAi5, HO mop buiweti, Ap tlA 

c^AppAC CBcncAp A T)A CAeb, ocAf ofA"o wiAmpucu'o "oon tnmT) 6ip ntt 

cappAC ecuppu Ap tnevon GAT)efpn. pi^nA. — H. 8. 18. f. 146. a.] 

13 B 


=^^™'- , . from hifl sling at Her head, which struck her, broke the Mind 
of gold in three places, and killed the maiden on the spot".""* 
Tha ifimi The Mind or Minn of gold was also worn by the women of 
Zln'^m *^® Gaedhil of Scotland, as is shown by the story of prince 
seottina, u Cano, which I told in a former lecture.'"" Each of the wives of 
at Surr of the fifty warriors who accompanied the prince in his exile into 
Prtnw Coiw. Xreland, we are told, " wore a green cloak with borders of silver. 
A smock interwoven with thread of gold. Brooches (Deilge 
Laeair) of gold, with full carvings bespangled with gema of many 
colours. Necklaces (or ' torques') of highly burnished gold. 
A Mind (or diadem) of gold upon the head of each". As this 
story belongs to alrout the year 620, it affords proof of the 
knowledge and, no doubt, use of such ornaments in Ireland, 
and I think wc may fairly assume in Scotland also, down to so 
comparatively late a period as the seventh century, 
uentiio Tnat the Mind of gold, however, was not an ornament pe- 

""" •„. . culiar to females, will be seen from the following passage from 
uippean ' the same old talc of the Tain Bo Chuailgne. 
rX'^' " It was at this time", says the story, " the youths of Ulster 

chtuitgnti came southwards from Emania [to Louth]. Three times fifty 
boys, sons of the kings [and chiefs] of Ulster, was their num- 
ber, under the leadership of Folloman, the son of Conckobar, 
king of Ulster. They fought three battles against queen Me<& 
and her forces, in which they slew three times their own num- 
ber, but the boys themselves were all killed except [their leader] 
Folloman, the son of Conchobar. Folloman vowed that he 
would never return to Emania until he should carry away with 
him [king] ^iVtY/'sheadandtheJ/ind of gold which was over [or 
uponj it. This, however, [we are told] was not easy to accom' 
plish, for the two sons of Beithe, son of Ban, [that is] the two 
sons of king AililVa nurse and fosterfather, came agfunst the 
young prince and slew him".""' 

Farther on in the same story we find this same Mind of gold 

(lii) [original; — Rawii- tfleub rjMd THada; vfS coicaic m&c t)o m&ccaib 

Ciem inail.c coni.Mceic4T)ainuiflci]i nig, im VottomainmAcConctio- 

ceftcO]icenT>u]-ci,ooiLoca|-innal^a bdipjOMf oorbepi-acceotMiCatATKi- 

uoftum na h-aba "oi. tofie comamm nafLuAgjib cocopiiwcApdCiMCom- 

na h itijenc, ocaf ido Caec iiApum Lin, ocay conftpacAp vn tnaccpa'o 

toCe ocdj" coicA ban impi, ocaj- mmti nvn aCc );ol.UJtnatn mAC Conclto- 

ti-6ip flA ri5"a Of a cino. Ocar po- baip. bajaif Vo'^l*™*'*' "* r*5*^ 

ceipT) CuiuLaitio clxiiC arpa tabal.1. ap cula co h-etna«ti cobputini 

pippi copp6c bpip m mint) o-6ip 1 m-bpita ocap beta co m-bepao 

cpl, ocar copo mapb in n-inctii mna cent) ieip cop in mino 6ip 

peiT). — H, 2. 18, f. 50. n, a. b.J boi Uivpa. tlip bo pero ■oopom & nipn, 

''•»' See L«cl, xxtI, ante, YoL ii., p. uaip ■no ropCecap ■oA mac betCe 

IM. mac t>iin oA mac tntiinm« ocAf Aire 

(■**> [origin*! ; — If''' P"*"'r^r^o'^ '<*<' Atlibb, ocap po gonac co cop- 

iocapinfnaccpa4 Acuaroon-etnain taip Leo. — H> •!. 16. f. 164. &. b.] 


designated by another name, that of Irrueim, or Imacing, as may xxviu. 
be seen from the following passage. uued in m- 

** Then the men of Erinn desired Taman the buffoon to put or tms'taia 
on a suit of king Ailiirs clothes and his Imaoim of gold, and go "• '■'«*^ 
down to the ford of the river which was in their presence. He 
[the buffoon] did put on king Ailill's clothes and his Inwcim 
of gold, and went down to the ford. CucAu^intf perceived him, 
and taking him for king Aililt himself, he cast at him a stone 
from his CranntahaUl or sling, which struck and killed him on 
the spot".'*"' 

In a former lecture,'"" an account of the occasion and manner curioni 
in which the celebrated monarch Cormae Mac A irt was deprived by co^^ 
of his eye in his palace at Tara by Aengua Gai Buaifnech, that iJ",^iS 
is AenguB of "the poisoned spear", his own cousin, and chief "["■■siMef 
of the DfiaS, in the present barony of Dcece in the county of 
Meath. When the sing received this injury, he was obliged 
to abdicate the throne in favour of his son, Cairbre Lifeachair, 
because it was declared -by the ancient laws and customs of the 
nation, that no man with any personal blemish or defect should 
ever be king of Tara. Cormae then retired to the palace of 
Acaill, now the hill of Screen near Tara. where he compiled 
the Book of Acaill, a volume of Laws. King Cormae did not . 
submit tamely to the injury offered to his person, and the dese- 
cration of the sacred precincts of Tara and the violation of its 
ancient privileges. But he had been a constitutional monarch, 
and in place of calling out the national and regal power of the 
state against the offender, he called a national convention at the 
ancient place of meetings of the states, the hill of Uitnech in 
Westmeath ; and before tKis assembly he sunomoned the offender 
to come forward and justify hia regicidal act or receive the 
ponisliment due to so heinous a cnme. The great meeting 
took place at the hill of Uitnech, where, we are told, " Cormae 
came with a king's Mind with him upon his head, with four- 
and-twenty small leaves of red gold, furnished with springs and 
lolleis of white silver to maintain and suspend them, for the 
purpose of covering his injured eye and save his face from the 

'•») [oriftinal :— atio pn pa ]M)<0' ecmaif * F^tT* ocat a eoUnr b* r^ 

fecap pp li-epetTO pi Camun npficli AiLil-l, bm nn-o ^'I'ocfpti, ocaj" bo 

eceuo 4<l,tH,ii oca.\ a inii*cimm nop- pperln cWiC aj-p o, cpatincabail,!. 

D4 «o C4b4it immi, ocap zotz pap ua'6 fain, conapc camun opuC can 

tn n-AebAT) piaonaipp ■o6>b. poga- anmam oap pn • ippaibi, — H. 2. 

l>«pcAp pom tiDcc^uv niVitil'Uv ocap IS. f. 56. a. b. mid.] 

« impcimtn 6poa immi, ocap camg '*»" [Seeieciunu on (Ae J/S. J/ote- 

bap tn n-it .... T>o (onnaic riali of Ancient Irish History, p. 48.J 
CuCuVamD e oc*p mwap leip tn 


I need not dwell further on this curious specimen of the 
kingly Mind, or the curious mechanism of the twenty-four leaves 
of red gold attached to it for the conceahnent of the king's ble- 
mish. These leaves must have been, I should think, small bits 
of gold leaf arranged and fastened togetlier like the folds of plate 
ELTmour, but I must confess my inability to compiehend the mnc- 
tions of the springe and rollers, or travellers, mentioned in con- 
nection with them. 


[I>«ll>nv] luly Hill, l«M.] 

(VIIL)DBKMAHDORKiHifNTS (continued). Story of a 3fi'nrfcalied the flarr 
Srvmn in the tale of the Tain Bo Aingen. Another legend about the Aame 
Miitd from the Book of Lismora j another celebrated Mind mentioned in the 
latter legend ; originof the ancient name of the Lakes of Killarney from that 
of L^ Linfhiaclach the maker of thi* iecond Mind, The ancient gold- 
■mttha appear to have worked at or near a gold mine. Lin the goldsmith 
sppearg to have flourished circa B.C. 300. The names of ancient artists are 
generallj' derived from those of their arts, but that of Ltn is derived from a 
peculiarity of his teeth ; this circumstance shows that he wac not the )egen< 
Avy representative of his art, but a real artist. Gold ornaments found in a 
bog near Cullen in the coouty of Tipperary ; circumstancej under which 
they were found, and enumeration of the articles found — note. Cerd- 
raight or ancieut territory of the goldsmiths near tlie present Cullen. Pedi- 
gree of the Cerdraighe of Tuiach Gossa ; this family of goldsmiths are 
brought down by this pedigree to circa x.o. COO ; the eldest branch became 
extinct in St. Motkemnioc, circa A..D. S£0 ; but other branches enisled at a 
much later period. The mineral districts of Silvcrmines and Meanus are 
not far from CoUeo. The At and Cltitme. The Darr, Cennbarr, Eobarr, 
and Hig/ibarr. The goldsmith in ancient times was only au artizan ; other 
artizaoB of the <ame class. Creidne the first Cerd or goldsotitb ; his death 
mentioned in a poem of Flann of Monasterboice ; this poem shows that 
foreign gold was at one time imported into Ireland. The first recorded 
nnelt«r of gold in Ireland was a native of Wicklow. References to the 
making of specific articles not likely to be fouud iu our Chronieles i there is, 
however, Bbundant evidence of a belief that the metallic ornaments used in 
Ireland were of native manufacture. 

Thbri is a very curious story about a .^inrf, or diadem of gold, ^J^°'.f'^ 
preserved in tlie very ancient tale of the Tditi Bo Amgen intheSorr 
the Book of Leinster. The story commences by telling us that ^'uieoi 
Ailill and Medb, the king and queen of Conaacht, so often ^''(JJJJJ" *" 
mentioned in the course of these lectures, were one dark No- 
vember eve enjoying themselves in their ancient palace of Cru- 
achan (in the county of Koscoramon, not lar from Carrick-on- 
Shannon) Their majesties had had two culprits hung upon a 
tree the previous day; and king Ailill, in order to test the 
comage of his household, offered liis own gold-hilted sword as 
R reward to whoever should go out to the gallows trees and t'.c 
a gad or twisted twig upon the leg of one of the still hanging 
culprits. This offer was accepted by a spirited young man 
whose name was Nera, who went forth in the darkness of the 
night and performed his work with becoming courage. How- 
ever, upon Nera's return towards the palace, he saw, as he 
thought, that building on fire, and he met a host of men on 


»^i^ the way who seemed to have plundered and set fire to th 

surjott royal mansion. The men passed A'fra without seeming t 

theAorr notice him, and he, anxious to know who they were, foUowe 

the'uit^i tbeni as closely as he durst for that purpose. He had not far 1 

ihe TMn Be go, however, as the party soon entered the welj known cave < 

**"' the hill of Cruaehan, and Nera, still keeping at a respectabl 

distance behind them, entered the cave after them, 'rhe la 

man of the party discovered his entrance, and he was take 

before the king of the royal residence of the Tuatha DS Dt 

nann, which was supposed to exist, invi^bly to external hums 

eyes, within the cave. The king demanded and received a 

account from Nera how and why he had intruded into h 

secret palace. *' Go", said the king, " to yonder house, whes 

thou wilt find a lone woman, who will receive thee with kinc 

ncss when thou tellest her that it is by me thou hast been sen! 

and thou shalt come every day to this mansion with a bundl 

of firewood for our kitchen". 

Nera did as he was ordered. While thus occupied, Ner 
noticed every day a blind man leaving the door of the mansioi 
carrying a lame man upon his back, until they reached the brin 
of a fountain which was at a shoit distance from the house, whei 
they sat down ; to this place he followed them unperceived. " 1 
.. is not there", said the blind man. " It is indeed", said the lam 
man, " and let us go back now", said he. Nera inquired of th 
woman about this matter. " Why", said he, " do the blind an 
the lame men frequent the fountain?" "They frequent tl 
Barr which is in the fountain", said the woman, " that is. 
Mind (or diadem) of gold which the king wears on his heat 
and it is there it is kept". " Why is it that these two persoi 
frequent itr* said Nera. " Because", said the woman, "the 
arc the persona that are most trusted by the king"."*" 

Nera soon after, through the ingenuity of his wife, retume 
-to his own people at Cruaehan, and described to king Aili 

(•"> [original! — e^c non taij ut) no teitjwr combiTiir fo^ tip t 

fiAtVciw, ol^in t\i, Ac&bean«encumA cibtiart i n-T)OtMi|- in Tjuitie. " t1i ^ 

4tix), acaf ■oena'D nrniC ppic, nbaiji niro, ot in TiaiU fi\,eicin,ol,'tnb. 

^1« if uoim po Fa)Cep cucu, acoj- cicb, ciagam af -om, oV in bdCAC 

C4ipp acat -014 CO cuiil, cotn>aij Ho lappaOc TIcTva lapam in ni \ 

■oon caigj^a "Oo gnpjm lapam an con mnai. Cm cacliAipc^ol. j-e, • 

ni pn 4ina.i\, aj-bp^trb fpTi pC^P* "OatL Acup an bacafi Bon cibpait 

aro lapam i« bean paitce pptp, acap Cataipc in m-bapp pV tpn wbpai' 

apbepc poclien ■duit) oVp ; mapa obniben.eionmmtiOiptippDpciT 

li-e itip'S po cbiTiw lite ipe em, oi int> pig, ip a«u do toipecaip. O 

Tlepa. tlo cbeiT>ea-6 Tlepa iapam ap iiiiaTi m -oiap ucrr nochachaigc 

CO cuaiL conTjaig -oon oun ca£ wa, Ot 116pa. tlin. Ob pi, uaip pabT>< 

avCic ap in tjuti aina£, cacli -oia apa law po bo caip'p topn pig". — U. 

cmT), xiabL, acap bacach pop aihum, 16. uol. 669 and i>GD.1 


-what he had seen in the cave. This was the time at which xxix 
Fergus Mac Roigh and the other Ulster champions who exiled 
themselves after the treacherous death of the sons of Uianeaeh, 
arrived at Cruaehan. King AUill, availing himself of the pre- 
sence of these valiant warriors, resolved with their aid to possess 
himself of the reported treasures of the cave of Cruaehan, and 
accordingly on the November eve following, he, with a strong 
party, and through the contrivance of Nera's wife, entered the 
subterranean mansion, and plundered it of all its treasures, in- 
cluding the diadem of gold which was called the Barr Bruinn 
or Bruinn's diadem. 

It appears that this Mitui or diadem was lost or rather car- Aoothmi 
ried back again by some unexplained agency to the same foun- th" wmV 
tain in the cave from which it had been brought. This Icgen- ^"^J° 
dary statement is found in another ancient story preserved in "more; 
that important part of the ancient " Book of Lismoie", so singu- 
larly recovered some time since from the city of Cork. 1 he 
story is shortly this. Fingin Mac Luchta, who was king of 
Munster about the year of our Lord 1 90, resided at his palace 
at Druim Fingin, or Fineen's Hill, in the county of Waterford. 
There was a certain prophetess from Sliabh na in-Ban in Tip- 
perary, that visited him on every November eve, and related 
to him all the occurrences that took place in Erinn on that 
sacred night, and the results that should issue from them until 
'that night twelvemonths. On one of those November eves 
that this lady visited tlie king, she related to him with peculiar 
emphasis one circumstance that happened on that night, and 
this was nothing else than the birth of the subsequently great 
monarch of Erinn, Conn of " the Hundred Battles". . The birth 
of this great king and warrior was, according to our prophetess, 
ushered in with many strange and wonderful occurrences, all of 
which, however, were of a favourable character, and presaged 
the happy results to his country wliich were to result Irom the 
actions and reign of its future monarch. From the many sin- 
gular and important events thus referred to in connection with 
that auspicious time, I have selected the following brief iieras, 
as quite pertinent to the subject of the present lecture, and 
bringing the older story of the golden diadem, called the Barr 
Bruinn, a few centuries later down than the Tain Bo Aingen 
just described. 

The conversation between the king Fingin and the pro- 
phetess was carried on by way of qucanon and answer. 

*' And what are the other wonders of this night? ' said king 
Fingin. " These", said the woman. — " The three chief articles 
of manufacture in Erinn are this night found and revealed, 


""• namely, the Barr (or diadem) of jBrumn, the son o?Smetra : it 
waa the Cerd (or artificer) olAengus, aon of Um6r, that made it. 
It is a CaUibarr (or helmet) of the pure crimson of eastern 
countries, with a ball of gold above it as large as a man's head, 
and a hundred strings around it of mixed [or variegatedj car* 
bunclc, and a hundred combed tufts of red burnished gold ; and 
stitched with a hundred threads (or wires) of Findruine (or 
white bronze) in a variety of compartments. And it has been 
a great number of years in concealment in the fountain of the 
hill of Cruackan till this night, to save it from the M6r Rigain, 
[a celebrated Tuaiha D6 Danann princess,] and so it has re- 
mained under cover of the earth tmtil this night. And [ano- 
ther article, said she], the chess of Crimthann Niad-Natr [in 
the eighth year of whose reign the Saviour was born] which 
he brought aivay with him from Aenuch Find when he went 
with the lady Nar of BodJibh Derg's mansion [in Tipperary] 
on an adventure to the secret recesses of the sea, and which 
[chess] has been concealed in the Rath of Uiaiiech [in West- 
meatlij until this night. And [continued the prophetess] the 
thsrcoie- Mind (or diadem) of Laeghaire, the son of JJuchta Laimjinn, 
Maaei (pi Luchta of the white hands), which was made by Lin Lin- 
mi- fhiaclach, the son o( Banbulga, and which has been found thia 
night by the three daughters of Faindle Mao iMtbraithf in 
Sulh Findacha [now Sliabk g-CuilUnn in Ulster] after having 
been concealed there since the time of the birth of Conckobar 
Abratliruadk [monarch of Krinn, who was slain in the year of 
our Saviour's birth], until this night"."**' 

It would seem that when these stories were written, it waa 
a common occurrence, as it is now, to dig up from the earth 
ancient, elegant, and costly articles of the kind abovo mentioned, 
of the former existence and disappearance of which there still re- 
muncd authentic written history, or a vivid and well-credited 

'»"' [originAl — OcwT ci'fi .b. niib p] icj, 14]^unl foccic.\]\ cAtmati cupju- 
iroj^ V'"5i"' il'iSop-i" bean. — Ceopj ode puieaV Cpimtdin Jiiatt naip 
ljpimAicT»e GifiCTi mnodc po ppiC cucca liAenuch pnT) Tiw Lui* li 
iii:ufpoiNjilil,pgcei, .1, bopTi^bpuitin Tlaip cuoWaeid ifp* IJui'Db po poi- 
mcic Smetfwi ; Ceap-o Aciigui-Oi cp4 comboi fo ■oiiiViipAib na pjipje, 
nieic ttriioipTJO pigne, .i.c^Cbapp'oo ocApO'OiileiC ipn ttaitli itroUpiech 
copciip igbi'ii chipe tiAn-om-o [?] octif cof anode. Ttlinn U>eg4i)\e, itieic 
ubuLb otp uafA, ba ttioic pep cmx>, Ludco LMmpnn, ■oo iMgne Wn tin* 
ocup coc fnacVosiia mime ■oon fiacl-jd, mac Ijanbubga, b*iin4 po- 
cappiliocAb cumupcoa, ocup ccc pudpacup mocliu ceopa hinsina 
caiLchep cipcopcpd 1)0 -oepgop pop- TTatn-obe mac 'Oubpa'cb, a SiTi piiD- 
loipct! ; ocup cea-o poi>ii pii'opuinnc aclia ap na bea* po ■oicVcit o Jem 
aca uaimbpodcpa'o. lea una bb^-O- Coiicubaip tfkhpaCpuAi*, 5upatiodc". 
tid po -oicbleiC icippaic p*c Cpuad- — Book of Litmort, vel. copy by Jo- 
Am, dp in mo]\ Hisuin cupanocbc; ecpli 0'LoDgBn,f. 1118, p.2,coL l,tup.] 


To Lin Linfhiaclach, the maker of the second Mind, or dia- xxix. 
dem, mentioned above, namely that of Laeghaire, the son of the Dana or 
Uuchta of the white hands, I have found another reference, tbc S^^"* 
which places his time, his character as an artist, and his iden- ^H^^ 
tity with one or two Irish locahties, in a lieht that cannot fail '">*. fi* 

■' . ^ r . ■ ■ ■ 1 °r T ■ f • Origin of thB 

to give satislacQon to every genume lover oi Insh antiquanan tncieat 
researches. K^'^'^r"' 

In the very ancient Gaedhelic tract called the Dinnsmnehaa, "iii*™'?- 
or the etymological history of many of the most remarkable hills, 
inovrntiuns, rivers, lakes, etc., in Erinn, we find an article devo- 
ted to the origin of the name of Loch Lein, now the celebrated 
lake of Killamey. In this article we are told that LM Lin- 
Jhiaclaeh was Cerd (or goldsmith), to the chieftain Bodhbh 
Dearg'a noble mansion at Sliabh na m-Ban in Tipperary ; that 
he went to this lake to make splendid vessels for Fand, the 
daughter of Flidaa; and every night after his day's work was 
over, he would cast his anvil from him eastwards to the place 
called Inneoin (or anvil) near Cloumel, and he would throw 
three showers about him &om his anvil, a shower of water, a 
shower of fire, and a shower of pure crimson gems ; and the 
story adds that Nemannach (the artificer) used to do the same 
■when shaping (gold) cups for king Conchohar Mac Nesaa (king 
of Ubter) in the north. And Lin met his death at this lake, 
and hence the name Loch Lein, or LerCs lake. 

The prose account is followed by an ancient poem of thirteen 
stanzas, in which the history of Loch Lein is further discussed ; 
but as my present concern is alone with the artificer, I shall 
only quote those stanzas which have special reference to him, 
namely the fourth, fifth, and sixth, which are aa follows: 
*' I have heard of i^ with liis many hammers, 

Having been upon the margin of its yellow strand, 

Where he fashioned without mishap, or flaw. 

Splendid vessels for Fand, the daughter of Flidas. 
•' From Bodhbh'a court went forth reproachless 

Lcn Linfhiaclach, the son of Boicad, 

The firm son of Bandad of high renown, 

The good son olBlamad, son of Gomer. 
•* Whether a chariot or a Mind of gold. 

Whether a cup, or a musical instrument, 

Was required from him by distinguished men, 

It was quickly made before that night".'**" 

<•"> [original:— 

Ax> ch\iAia Leu coliti uipn, ^llanlte4lTol^ V^'"*' plitiaif, 

tjo bicli poi\buiiiT> A bLdcli buipt), Opt) bui'ob pjcneap'o caticboiiji 

vi4p£tim c*ticiai*ige Afcutcftir, t^ tinfidcUM;, iuac \>oU;«>tT), 




Tbe ancient 
b«Te worked 
■( or nau- 
tha mlDi. 


4p|)«»r> to 


rlica HC. 

The nam*! 
or art^ti^ 

oft^n deHr^d 
fiiim I ho 

tint that o[ 
jUn ni>t. 

It would appear from this curious and valuable quotation, as 
weU as from others that could be adduced, that the ancient 
custom in Ireland was, that the artist, or goldsmith, sometintes 
went to the gold or silver mine himself, and dug, or procured 
to be dug for him, the precious mineral, to smelt, or, as it is 
called in our ancient books, to boil the metal on the spot, in 
small quantities, whenever the locality suited, and then and 
there rubricate and fashion those splendid articles, the delicate 
mechanism of some of which is found to puzzle and astonish the 
most expert workmen of the present day, notwithstanding the 
great improvement in the processes and tools of the mechanical 
arts. This appears to me to be the explanation of that stanza 
of the poem wnich says that Lin went with many hammers or 
sledges to the borders of Lack Leia, where he actually made the 
splendid cups for the lady Fattd, daughter of FUdaa. But 
who was the lady Fand for whom these Niamleastar, or splen- 
did vessels, were made? She was the daughter of Flidas 
Foltchain, that is, Fiidas of " the beautiful hair", and sister 
by her mother to Nia Seghaniain, of the Eberian race of 
Munstcr, who reigned as monarch of Erinn from the year of 
the world 4881 to 4887, when he was slain by Enna Aighneach, 
who succeeded him. So that, according to the chronology of 
the Annals of the Four Masters, the gifted artist Lin, and his 
royal patroness the princess Fand, flourished about three hun- 
dred years before the Incarnation of our Lord ; and far within 
the sway of the Milesian dynasty, 

I must confess that of all the referencea to native gold and 
famous native gold-workers which I have hitherto met, or may 
meet hereafter, this appears to me to be the most important. In 
the case of other artists of this class, the name of the artist is 
often derived from the art itself, or from the metal on which it 
is exercised. Thus, in the case of Credne, the celebrated Cerd 
or goldsmith of the Tnatha De Danann, and of whom we will 
have to speak hereafter, his name was derived from credk, the 
ore of the precious metalsin which he worked, and, consequently, 
the fact of his real existence might be very fairly questioned, as 
savouring a little of the poetical and mythologicaL But in the 
case of Len Lin/hiaclach no such objection can be made, since 
the name is not descriptive of the art or the metal, but of the 
man proper, and signilying simply, Lm of " the many teeth", 
meanuig evidently that he was remarkable for high, or a double 
row of teeth 

ocg m.\c blflm.ii'o, m.ic Joiniiip ; 
Cm cdjibau, cm caftbapn otp, 
ciD cuicb, ciTD caipti emit coip, 

CO Icati f jpp 'OCAsblA'O'oc, 
bj piini ■iTJbdV nia naiiodo. 

Book o/Lecan, t liSS. a. a.] 


But the following short article from the Brehon Laws settles 

completelj the question of the native manufactures of these The niun 
precious personal ornaments : — S'^ldSS 

" The law book telb us", says the commentator, " that the "^^^ (,^ 
w«ight of the Land dir (or crescent of gold) was paid in silver ">• Braimi 
to tiie Cerd or artist for making it". 

We are told also in the same laws that the artists who made 
the articles of adornment and household splendour for a king, 
or a chief, were entitled to half the fine for injury to their pro- 
perty, or insult or injury to their persons, which would be paid 
to the king or chief himself for a like injury. This shows in 
what respect artists in the precious metals were held by the 
nobles, and the security afforded them by the laws of ancient 

In Guthrie's " General Gazetteer", published in Dublin in 
1791, we find, as well as in other authorities, the following 

" Cullen, a fwr town in the county of Tippcrary, province of Oow oni». 
Munstcr ; ftura on 28th October. At the bog near this place was in"bl,g « 
found a golden crown weighing six ounces ; many other curi- Ji|'J'^'„|,°, 
osities have been discovered in it, particularly some gorgets of ornpperai 

gold, and gold- handled swords : for which reason it goes under 
le name of the golden bog". 
This bog of Cullen is situated in the parish of Cullen, ba- 
rony of Clanwilliam, and county of Tipperary, and on the 
immediate border of the county of Limerick. From time im- 
memorial gold has been found in all conditions of preparation, 
from the primitive ore to the most beaubful of fashioned orna- 
ment, nay, even the very crucibles — small bronze saucepans, 
with the gold arrested in its progress of smelting or boiling — 
have been found in this bog and ita neighbourhood. Witnin 
the last fourteen years, I have myself seen two bars of pure 
gold turned up out of this bog or its neighbourhood ; the finders 
are not anxious to enlighten one much as to which. One of 
these bars was about five inches in length, an inch and a half in 
breadth, and more than half an inch in thickness. The other 
was somewhat smaller, but being plain bars without any artistic 
feature, they were not unfortunately secured by the Royal Irish 
Academy, and consequently they passed into the hands of a 
goldsmim, who of course has long smcc melted them down."** 

«••) [In the year 1773 QoTemor T. PownaU exhibited to the Society of Aati- 
qnATies of London, two Bwords, and lome other rrogmentB, said to have been 
fbund in b. bog at CulleD, in the county of Tipperary, on the lands of Lord 
Milton. On the lOthof February, 1774, ha read a paper on the subject, which 
wse afterwards pabliahed, iUoatrated by a plate, in vol. iii. (p. 565), of the 
Archatohffia for 1775. So far us we can jadge from the drawing^ the swords 



To return, however, to the golden bog of Cullea. It is not 
loidorna. at all Unreasonable to assume that this boer was ancieatlv a 

nenti fmind " ' 

tt • bo( near 

wieD, la exhibited to the Society were not peculiar, being of ooe of the qmuI rormi of 
he coniitr bronze iworda. The other object flgured in the plate is a low conoliU di»c of 
fTlpiiBi*T7. gg(j about four inchei in diuneCer at the baae. The apei of the conoid i> 
chaaed ao as to form a small itellated ornament ; this is snrrouDded by the 
osaal ridge, like chasings which are found on many Irish gold ortuunents. 
These ridges form a series of complete concentric circle* near the apex, bat aa 
they approach the base, the form being aconoTd, and not a cone, they can only 
form segments of circles. Around the base, however, there is a border of com- 
plete circular ridges — the ridges being much larger than the centre ones. Od 
the inner side of this border ia a zigeag ornament which preaenta the appear- 
ance of rays pointing towards the centre or apes. This omamentation doea 
not go round the entire border, being wanting for about thirty degrees of 
the circle at the shortest slant- height of the conoid, tliat is, where it ia neantt 
the stellated apex. Its conoidal shape would aeem to show that it conld not 
have been the boss of a shitld, which it otherwise resemblee. Oovemor 
Fownall thinks that it formed part of tlio gold plating of a wooden idol— thia 
particular ornament being intended for the teat or nipple of the braML Tho 
following is his account of the matter : 

"The fragment, which waa Faid to be part of an image found at the Hune 
time, ia of a black wood, entirely covered uid plated with tlun gold, and seema 
to have been part of the breasts, the teat or nipple of which is radiated in bam- 
nered or chased work, in lines radiating from a centre, as is usual in the 
images of the aun ; and round the periphery, or setting on of the breast, there 
are like radiations in a speciBc number, with other linear omamenta. There 
ia another figment of the same kind of wood which aeema to be a fragment 
of an Ammonian horn ; there are in it the golden atuds or rirets by whicb ft 
may be supposed to have been also plated with gold. The first account I had 
of this image waa, that it waa of an human form, with a Aan's face ; then, that 
it waa indeed biform, hut of what sort not apecified. I hare since been in- 
formed that the image, whatever it was, waa of a aizeaofficient to make agate 
post, to which use it was affixed". 

It must be confessed that the evidenco connecting the gold conoids with the 
image is not very satisfactory ; foe it appears by the report of the Ber. Mr. 
Armstrong, given by Qovernor Pownall, that the finding of the image occnrred 
above sixty years before, and he found no one in the neighbourhood of 
CuUen who remembered anything about it. That some kind of carred wooden 
image was really found there, there appears to be no reasonable doubt; bat 
whether it had golden nipples and was biformed, we have unfortunately no 
aatitfactory evidence. 

The report of the Bev. Mr. Armstong above alluded to, ia a chronicle of the 
discoveries of gold ornaments, bronze weapons, etc, found in the same small 
bog near Cullen, between the years 1731 and 1763, made by a Mr. Nash, and 
between the years 1760 and 1773 by a Mr. Cleary. The golden artiolea found 
consisted of two chased cups, bosses, pieces of tube, plates, and ribbons, some 
of the former chased, gold wire, rings or ferrules, pommels of awords, the point 
of a scabtiard, pieces with the linka of a chain attached, a number of Ingota, a 
quantity of amall bits or elipplniji, amountmg in all to above six pounda. The 
bronie articles consisted of a bronze cauldron and a quadrangular vessel, aeveo 
socketed spears five inches long with parts of the wooden ahafts ; thirteen 
socketed spears ten inches long with handles of quartered aah six feet long; two 
swords with pieceaof gold attached to the rivets of the handle ; a sword weigh- 
ing ^Ibs. Goz., having a piece of white metal, called in the report pewter, inlaid 
in the bronze near the pommel ; in this white metal was inlaid in copper, what 
arc described as resembling four figures of 1 ; a piece of bronze tube ; thirteen 
whole swords much hacked and notched; and forty-three parta of aworda of 
(he handle ends, and twenty-nine of the pmnt ends; three ingots weighing 


wooded valley, resorted to by a party, or parties, of gold sniel- »»'Jt- 
ters and smiths, on account, perhaps, of its contiguity to a gold 
mine, as well as the convenience of charcoal. But indepen- 
dendj of these positive and assumed circumstances, there is 
extant a hbtorical reference to this precise locality, which, I 
believe, identifies it with a family and a race of workers in the 
finer metals. There was anciently in this district a small chief- CtrdmitJu 
taincy called Cerdraigke, that is the territory of the goldsmiths ; SrT'of uw 
and this territory, as well as the tribe who owned and occupied ^''*"SJ|^ 
it, had received the name from a man who bore it as his dis- 
tinctive title in right of liis profession of a Cerd or goldsmith. 
The tribe of the Cerdraighe were descended from Oilioll 
Oluim, the celebrated king of Munster, who died a.d. 234, and 
theirpedigree is thus given in the " Book of Leinster" : 

" The pedigree of the Cerdraigke of Tulach Gossa, that is, Peaigrra o 
they were named Cerdraigke because every man of them was raivktot 
a Cerd (or goldsmitli) for seven generations. ^jj^ 

" OilioU Oluim had a son whose name was Tigkemaeh, who 

had a son Cerdraigke (or the king's goldsmith), who had a 

son Cerd Beg (or the litde, or young goldsmith), who had a son 

Cerdan, the still more diminutive goldsmith, who had a son 

StTiach, who had a son Temnen, who had a son Lugaidk, who 

had a son Carban, who had a son St. Mothemnioc, who, being 

a holy prieet and not married, the family in this line became 

extinct in him ; and the race of goldsmiths must have ceased 

in his father Carban, who was the sixth generation from 

Cerdraigke, the first of the artists, and grandson of king Oilioll 


Tib*.; a pi^e of ftbout lib. weight of what seemed to hare been thereddoe 
left ia the ladle Bfc«r castLog some article. 
Th« number of articles noticed in this report must bear a very ineignificBOt 

niortion to thoee actually found and eilently dieposod of by the peasaotrv 
Dg the last ccntuT]'. Indeed O'Halloran statea {History of Ireland, vol. 
IL, p. 92 ; DnblLn, 1 819) that a gold crown wai found in tint bog in 1 744, 
which he uw himself, and which, be lays, was *' like the clote crowns of the 
eeatem princes". From the number, as well as the variety of the articles, 
it aeenia certaio, therefore, that gold and bronze working must have been 
anciently carried on in the district. It would appear that notliing had been 
found in cutting away the upper ux feet of the peat, except the trunks of 
different kinds of trees, all of which, with the exception of thoee of the oak and 
fir, were rotten, and some horns, which from their size (they were said to be 
large enough to hare a circle of about three feet in diameter described on each 
palm), may have been those of the red deer. It was in the second cutting 
below six feet that the first objects were diacovered in 1731. The depth at 
which the articles were found, their number and character, and the interesting 
Rtatioc established in the text by Professor O'Curry between this locality and 
the tribe of the CvdraigAe, invest the bog of Cullen with special interest.] 

<*•'> [original:— SetieUi'6 Cef^xy- mop ^jeffiu^. tnoiemtiioc (.i Cem- 
'o^i^e Cuitiejou*, .i. CepTwipaije nen) mac Cipban, maclugeva mac 
&ninni'A,Ap b* cep^tA caC fepwib co Chemeti,m«,c Chemnen mAc SeriAig, 


iMK. According to genealogical computationa, the jeara of these 
umtMiiUT seven generationa would be 210, to which if we add the years 
mithi'b of Oilioll Oluim himself and his immediate son Tigkemach, the 
?"" tod^ f**^^'' of Cerdraighe, the last of the seven generations of artists 
A.D. 000; would come down to the year 474, or say m round numbers to 
the year 500- And so we find that the trade and art of gold 
manufactuie if not of gold smelting and mining, was carried 
on in this district, probably in this very spot, during the long 
period of 22 1 years. It is a singular fact that there still exists, 
some five miles to the west of Cullen, but in the county of 
Limerick, a well-known townland bearing the name orBaiU 
na g-Ceard, or the town of the goldsmiths. I am, however, 
with great regret obliged to acknowledge that I have not as 
yet been able to discover the exact situation of Tvlach Gosaat 
the ancient patrimonial residence of the family. 
tba eidsit But although this, the eldest, line of the family became ex- 
^eax^ct tinct in the person of St, MoHwnnioc, say about the year 530, 
^^Lmmiet. '' ^ 1"^** Certain that the whole race had not become so, as 
circa ^D. may be collected from an ancient Gaedhelic tract in my pos- 
session. This curious tract contains a more detailed account 
than the '* Book of Rights", quoted in a former lecture, of the 
services rendered to the king of Cashel by several of the chief- 
taincies of the province of Munster, as well as of the particular 
territories whicti by ancient custom and privilege, supplied his 
court with certain oflGcers. Thus, his doctors were furnished 
him by the Dail MugkaidUe in Tipperary ; his harpers by the 
■na other CoTcoiche in the county of Limeiiclc; his Cerds, or gold and 
^[■"w"! ■ silveraraitha, and his Umfiaidke, or bronze-workers, from the 
wrtat*'*' Cerdraighe; the steward of his milch-cows and dairies from 
the Boinraighe; his poets and scholars from the Miucraighe of 
Ormond ; and so on. 
Thcminermi It is worth mentioning here, that the mineral district of Silver- 
Biiwmio^'. mines, in the county of Tipperary, is only about twelve or iif- 
SStfl^" *^" miles to the north of Cullen, and that the ancient mineral 
CBiiaiL land of Miamia, now Meanus in tjie county of Limerick, is only 
about the same distance to the west of that town. 

I cannot conceal the satisfaction I feel in being able to con- 
nect the discovery of gold in all conditions of smelting and 
manufacture in this place, with a race of workers in the same 
metal, resident on the very spot, or in some contiguous locality, 
whose ancestry, term of existence, and period of time, I have, 
I trust, established on such satisfactory grounds as will be 
deemed sufficient for all the purposes of general history. 

mdc CepTj-oain, vn&c Cef oabicce — H. 2. 18. foL 222- b., lower corner.^ 
m4c cTiiseptiaig mic AitetL4 OUtim. 



Of t3i« Other names ol" » covcripg or ornament for the head, 
wliich liave ooinc uudcr my uuiice in my rt-xdings among our 
uKHcnt miwuKripts, 1 ahali gire only n vory biicf notice, sot- 
tiug ibcin ilowd in alpKabclicul orikr. These names arc . — At; 
Borr; Cdthbarr; Cenn Barr; Clfilnu; aiwl Eo-iiarr. 

The Ai hiiJ the saiiiu :fi'fnilicution as the prtscnt Englioh Tue^ima 
word " hat" Tlie old BritiKli iium« wiia the suiio as tho Gautl- ''"""** 
belie, nnd hud the eamu dcclfntiunal fonim,niid, m my opimon, 
wu borrowed from tt. ThU word Al Minifies Bimply an orna- 
mentul owe or cowring; and the kutlioiity for the &ppUcih1Jon. 
of the name to an omaniental covcrirR, or hat, for ili« head ts 
found in the socicnt elegy pi onounccd by the pocc Ptrteirttie 
on ha prince uid patron Curat ^fac Dairi, tlie kinf; uf West 
Munster. The poet, in cntimt-raiing the many gilis icecivcd 
by him from tlie tMUDtiful deceased prince, cuuuld ten Ctettmes; 
and an ancient glos^arist explains tnc Cieitme to have been & 
Ri^hhharroT At, that is, a king's radiating helmet, or a hut. 
The word Clfititte ia aim explamed in a majdm of the Brchon 
Law0 In this v^ay; — 

" Laltic<> precf^des crest", that is, says the ancient commenta- 
tor, " J prvfcr that ihe Lutticc walla of the hoiuc be tuUt bcfurc 
ihe Clcitme (nr crest) ' f"" 

The Harr, wlii«h enters into the ©ompound words Ctnnbarr, t^t^'f. 
£obaTr,Mn6 ^iWi^rr, signifies, tike the Cfeilme, a radius or crest £<«Sr.ui'a 
compounded with cenn, inc head; «i, the top, and nV/A, a king. *****" 
Wtwn compounded with catJt, a battle, as in the won! and name 
Cathbarr, it »giii6cg properly a buttle eap or battle helmet, and 
not a mere ornamental creati appi^nd^igc. cap, or hat> 

llaviitg now completed ivhut I hod to eay about the permnal 
omamcnta of the people of ancient Eriiin, it ouly remains to 
say a lew words on ilieir artilicers. The Cvrd or goldsmitli The eoid. 
was not included amone the profcssora of the free and libtml oDwia""* 
arts in ancient Briiin, altliougli he was entitled to some high "''•": 
pririlcges. Uc belonged to Uio Oatr Nemhidh, at bate profes- 
0on, that 19, the higlier class of nrtiKans, of wliioh we luve a 
list in the Brehon Laws. Among these were tho Sarr or cjit- 
pentcr, the Goblia or blacksmith, the Umhaidlie the bronie 
worker, and tho C«rd or smith, who worked in the precioiis 
nict«U. These several prufes^oos were oonfidered to l>e base, 
because they perlbrmod ilie duties of Uieir professions with their 
banda or fiste In connection with these higher artizans may oihw.Hi. 
abo be mentioned the Rinnaidhe, or engraver, and the L'nco- 1^^"' "" 

"**• [cfflKlnal: — Xto ftc cliAch clctclio, .1. -ir ^pfnceccai Lium cU«£ 
i£CAip in ci£i DD t>enAin dp Ou|-, aiwr cLeicme a muLl&ig.— /Wre beg, IL 

VOL. U. 14 





[DsUnrd IDUi Igni, IMI.] 

(IX.) Of Mirsic and Mdbical iNamnMENTB m ANcntRT Eamr. Anli- 

Jaitj of the harp in Erinn. The flnt muBical inatrnment mentioned fat 
iaedhelic writings it the Cruit, or hup, of the Daghda, a chief uid druid of 
the Tualha D€ Danonn; his curious invocation to hi* harp; the Uins 
mtuical feati played upon it ; examiaation of the namei of thia harp > f** 
vord Coir, forming part of the name of the Dagkda't harp, came down to 
modern timei, aa is iho^rn by a poem of Keating on Taagh O'Cc^ej, hia 

^buper. Thp Uaghda'n invocation to bis harp further examined ; the threa 
muucal modes compared to the three seasoD* of the year in ancient EgTpt ; 
\ myth of the discovery of the lyre ; Dr. Btimey on the three moiical miodci 

■^ of the Greeks; the three Greek modes represented by the Irish three fe«ti; 

conjectural completion of the text of the Dagkda't invocation ; what wera 

the bellies and pipes of the Daghda't harp ; ancient paintinft of a lyie at 

Fortici, with a pipe or flut« for croaa-bar, mentioned by Dr. Bumey. L»- 

ind of the origin of the three feata, or modes of harp playing, m>ni tba 

(ftn Bo t'raich ; sjeaning of the name Uaiikne in thia legend. No mentioo 

of Btnngiin theaccount of the Z^a^Acfa** harp, but they are mentioned in the 

tale of the Tain Bo Fraich. Legendof iPintf 3/ac CurahaiUi Scaihach KnAbei 

magical harp; •^cafAocA's harp had three itringsi no mention of maaic having 

been played at either of the battles of the n(»them or southern Magh 2W 

readh ; this proves the antiquity of those accounts. The Da^kdifa bars 

was quadrangular ; a Greek harp of the tame form reprewnted m the hand 

cf a Grecian AtwUo at Rome ; example of Irish quadrangular harp on tAtea 

^' of an ancient misaBl. Dr. Ferguson on the antiquity and origin of moaic io 

^' Erinn ; musical canoo of the Welsh regulated by Irish harpers about aj>. 

^ 1 too ; his account of the l/ieca atwve mentioned, and of flgurei of the harp 
from ancient Irish monumental croasea which resembled the old Egyptian 
one; he thinks this resemblance gupports the Irish traditions ; Iiiah HSS. 
little studied twenty years ago, but since then they have been ; ftom this 
examination the author thinks the Firbalga and Tuatha D4 Dananii had 
nothing to do with Egypt, but tliat the Milesians had. Migration of the 
Tuatha De Danann fro[U Greece ; the author does not beheve tfaey went 
into Scandinavia ; he believes their cities of Fdliat, Goriat, etc, were in 
Germany i they spoke German according to the Book of Lecan. The dmi- 
lority of the harps on the monument of Orpheus at Petau in Styria and oa 
the iheca of the Stowo MS. may point to Murrhart as the Mwritu cf the 
Tuatha D€ Danann. 

■Aafviitj Di The early cultivation of music and raclody, and a apecial res- 
niinn, pect for tlie professors of the art, bespeak a peculiar civilization 
which unplies no Bmall degree of refinement of habit and of 
taste in a people. If there ever was a people gifted with s 
musical soul and sensibility in a higher degree than another, I 
would venture to assert that the Gaedhil of ancient Erinn were 
that people. 

In no country in Europe, at least I believe so, is the anti- 
quity and influence of the harp thrown so far back into the 




■ker rc^ons of Iii^tory aa in Erino. Our traditions arc more 
inct tlian tlicm; of tliL- Ou'eks; for, tlioj give lJni<> and plnce, 
,me and occasion. Ours is not the shadowy mjtl) of Orplieiw 
to tlic realms of Pluto, and by bin lyre sofWning ilie ob- 
beaK of (bo grim monorcK of the infernal abodes. Jt 
a something much more of real life, and belongs more 
) deGnite hietory. It 19, iudc«d, a rcmolo tradition ; but, it 19 
lentified with a people and with persons whose bistovy, thongh 
bscuie sod exaggerated, i» still embodlocl in our oldest cbron* 
ties* and baa never dcpiirted from l1ic memories of our living 
Xnancei and popid^tr tradilionH And, from tbe very remotdt 
eriod to which our oldest traJiliooa with any degree of <ai- 
Dnwtanualiiy refer, we Hnd music, musical instruments, miud> 
fcl performers, and the power and influence of music, apoken of. 

The first iimMoal in-ntniment to which we have any reference Tii»sr« 
n our Gaedbflic writinjig, is the Cruit, or harp; and this refe- S^J^U"' 
[encc 13 found in tbe history of tliat mysterious people cftlled "'^JlJ^'ou, 
be TiuiUia De Vanann, o\ whom so much hoa ueen .-ttiid in vntuig* 
he courrtc of tbeac lectures. Tbe reference to which I allude 
I found in tbe ancient detailed account of the battle of tbe 
<:oond. or northern Magh Tuireadh, described in a funuLT leo- 
uie; a battle which wa.*) galimd by tlie Tuatha Di Ditttann 
t tliose curly pinitical viaitons of our ehorcs, commonly 
the Fomoiitins. 'V\m baule was fought, according to 
Aiuuls of the Four Majtlon", in the year of ilm world 
330, or about eighteen hundred ycara before the Iricamalion ; 
nd it w«£ fought at ^fagh Tuireadh, a place still well known, 
ituated in the parish of C'tU ilhic Truna, barony of Tirerill 
TxT Oifwlla), md county of Sligo.""' 

The Fomoriana bavinw been defeated with great slaughter, 
oofa of ibcm as were etill able, rclroated from Uic Held, under 
heir surviving leader BreoB, who had been euptmcd, but oh- 
uned bis liberty by a stratagem. The tiior^- prooeeds iti these 
rords : — 

'• Luffh [the 7\iatlia De Danann king! and the Daghda t« ih« onM. 
ili'_-Ir great chief and ibruidj and Ogma [inuir bravcitt chain- uiu r^Wit. 
ionl toUowed tlte Fomorians, hecauae tliey had carritMl off the 5v'!!)iAi"w'* 
'/aifhdtt'a haiper, Uaithne was his name. They [the pursuers] bmamn 
IDOii reached ihc bancjuctiDg house in which tliey [tbe Fomo- 
Daa chiefs] ItrMv, the son of Klathan, and JiUiUtttn, the eon 
iT /Jeihalk, were and where lliey found tlie burp hanging upon 
he wall. Thiswaathchiirpinwhich the inu^ wag spell-bound, 
o that it would not ansn-rr when called forth, imlil the Vugfula 
ivokctl it, when he said what iiillows hero down : 
>"*) Sw abobi lUi* iMltlu, Lect. xU., ault, vol I. p. 2W. 


^"»- '"Come Uurdabla; come C6ireetkairehitir ; come Samih 

hniDTon- come GaJnJC [that is, come summer, come winter^ from tli 

iurf; ' moutlis of harps, and bellies and pipes. Two names now ha 

the harp ; namely, Durdcdjla, and C<iireelhairchuir. The bar 

came forth from the wall then, and killed nine pcTsoos [in its pai 

sage] ; and it came to the Daphda; and he played for them tb 

three [musicall feats which give distinction to a harper, namelj 

the Suaniraigne [which from its deep murmuring caused sleep] 

the Gentraighe [which from its merriment caused laughter] ; am 

the tbKB the Goltraigke [which from its melting plaiutivencsa caused C17 

S^biJSd ing]' He played them the Goltraighe until their women ens* 

"- tears. He played them the Gentraighe until their women aiu 

youths burst into laughter. He played them the Suantraigh 

until the entire host fell asleep. It was through that sleep the; 

[the three champions] escaped from those [the FomoriaosJ whi 

were desirous to kill them /**" 

i^niiiiiuoo I must confess that these names applied to the harp of thi 

of tbeb^V great i>a(7Af^, and the musical sounds which he evoked from i 

— evidently descriptive names, as they are — are among the mos 

unmanageable phn^es I have ever met. The first name Bpplie< 

here to the harp, Durdabla, can, by taking its component part 

at their ordinary value, be analysed in this way: Durd, or aord 

a murmur, and abloy the possessive case of aball, a sweet appli 

tree. The second name, CoireetJiaircuir, can be analysed ii 

the same way : Coir, signifies arrangement, adjustment, and M 

thairchuir, compounded of cethair, lour, and cor, an angle, 0: 

rather a beak like the beak of an anvil, signifies quadrubeaked 

or quadrangular; so that the second name would simply agnifj 

the quadrubeaked or quadrangular harmonious instrument. 

th«word The word Ctfir, as applied to the proper tuning or bar 

down to mo- momziDg ot a harp, or any musical mstrument, came down U 

M^ioifn'tV ""? "^"^ early days ; and we have a good instance of its ap 

a poem ol 

"* (■<») [originni : — l,oucup ii nuiai-o i:m-(i. T)otui'o &ti c^oc ajtad fpoij 

114 p'omopift T>no tug acdf on 'Oog- lApam, icaf mAubjD ,ix. majt; oca) 

■Douagay Ogma^ncpuiftipe [in 'Oof;- canuiGC "oodum an Oogvo; ocop re- 

•oa ponucfaT) Veo, Uoictno a omm.] pamnre (?) a cpto'oi pop animicnii 

lloi-ajat) lepum a jrLecceC amboi cpuicipi ■001b, .1. SOoticpoigi ocjj 

bpcap mac CLof.jii, ocaf OlaSjti getincpaiti, oc4p goLLcpaigi. Se- 

niacT>cl,bArt, ij-arn boi in cpoc fOp jjaiiiti jollcpoigi ■ooib congoVrot 

in Fpaijiti. Im "icpuicpn ap a tie- amna ■oeapiCo. Sepomn getincpA- 

noipc 11a cboUil conti*poj;o5pai'0]'c- igi ■ooib concibpoc omno ocap i 

cop cpiocaipm coiroesjpc mOaswa niAcpdicli- Sepoitin Suoncpoigi ^Kiit 

in can ocbepc annj-opp. caipOaup-- concuilpe^ ■*" cpUiai*. 1p ttepe^ 

■oabUio, ro'p Coipcocapftuipp, caip 'ownU\C4p ocpiup pVan uaiwib cu 

Sam, caip 5ani (cAip imbutc a) o ma ■uott, a ngom. — Battle of JUagl 

beuCa cpoc acar bo).g acupbumne. 2'uireadh, Ilorleiaa MSS> 6280, Brit 

X}i. Tiainm T>no barop pop an cpuic Mob. f. 59. a. last line.] 
pt), .1. tDnp'oabt* acAf coipcechatp- 


olication in the bcaulirul verses of the Rev. Doctor Gteoffrey 
kcnting-, the historiao, oo his harper Tadhg O'Cobthaigh, or 
O'Coffi-'j?. In this [>oem he cnminftncca by 8slcin», who is it 
th«t pUys the enchanting music that dispeU nil the ills that 
aum 13 Dcir to; nnd he goes on to enumerate several of the 
celcbrotcrf musicians of juicient Rrinn, for any of whom ho might 
be mistaken; he then unawers himt^If in tlie flflh and eixtk 
staiuus of the poem, which nrc as follow: — 
" It vi not luiy one tlial I iiave here named. 
Of the nccromaatic 7'uatlia Dr iMnanttf 
Nor of any race from thtao hither, 
That has struck the Cifir of the harp. 
" Tadhg <7Cobt/taigh of benuteoiw form, — 
The chiefbetfuilcr of women, 
The intelligent concordance of all difficult tiinc8, 
The thrill of music «ud of harmony".'*"* 
The term CtHr, Ibr time, or being in liine, and Cornghodh, 
for putting in tune or orik-r, appears to apply more ptopt-rly to 
s wind in^irxiinenl, us may Iw seen from " O'Oavoren's Ancient 
Irish Glo«ary", at the word — Indell, — to set or put in order, 
where he applies the word GU$ M the tuning of the Crttit or 
haip ; and the word Cor^ujkUtery to Uie tuning of tbc Cuiiltanna, 
or pipes/^ 

Bui, to return to the account of the harp of the Daghda. xinD^yh- 
The two first names seem to symlxjUze the diitinctive (jiiali- ^""Iht?' 
tics, and the mechanical formation of his wonderful harp ; but, g^^jJ^Ji" 
in the remaining words of the address, he sccins to inTolcc it in 
its Timed musical character, when he aaya:— " Come aummor, 
come winter [from] the months of bnrpe and bags and jjipca". 
It ta difiicuit to understand lliosc figurative invocatioiia; but 
tbf> difficulty of attempting an exploiiutlon of tlicm is gr*'atly 
inereosed by tho circumstance' tliat there seems to bu a delect 
in this copy of the tract, the only one known to mc ; for some- 
thing is left out between the word " winter", and the words— 
** moutlis of harpe and bags and pipes". It naturally occurs to 
oak — why it is, that the three searanj into which the year was 
(bnncrly divided arc not mentioned i' — why it is the summer 
the winter only, leaving out the spring? When first I saw 

inluoin no^i>'A|t Ai]iAo&f dnn, Civin|« ^n 'luiL '\A<n taiceTyi.'X. 

Wo t*ii4ftaito ooilr* ^ 0*«a»m; — JI8S. K^jonoti. Ill, Bril. Mm., p. 

n^ t»'fii»n o'n Ain fair il» \t. 

S8S. col. 2.] 
<•**» furipiul 1— InnctU .1. rI^t, 


"»■ this passage, it occurred to me that there were two Beasona left 
out by acme mistake, the spring and the autumn ; but then, this 
number would not agree with the three musical feats, which, it 
18 stated, gave the dignity of OllamJi, or doctor in music, to the 
professor of the harp, 1 found, however, that there was a very 
ancient authority for the three seasons of the year only being 
indicated or represented by three musical feats, corresponding 
to the Greek Modes. It is referred to in " Bumey's General 
History of Mueic". 
The threa In speaking of a celebrated benefactor of the ancient Egyp- 
SS^iom- tians, Dr. Bumey Bay« that, " He was the first who out of 
^JJJ,J2mdi *^^ coarse and rude dialects of his time formed a regular lan- 
"S'^"" guage, and appellatives to the most useful things; he likewise 
EiTpt) mvcnted the first characters or letters, and even regulated the 
harmony of words and phrases ; he instituted several rites and 
ceremonies relative to the worship of the gods, and communi- 
cated to mankind the first principles of astronomy. He after- 
wards suggested to them, as amusements, wrestling and dancing, 
and invented the lyre, to which he gave three strings, in allu- 
sion to the seasons of the year: for these three strings, produ- 
cing three different sounds — the grave, the mean, and the acute, 
the grave answered to winter, the mean to spring, and the acute 
to summer, 
mjihoftha " Among the various opinions", continues Dr. Bumey, " of 
^J^i^^ "* the several ancient writers who have mentioned this circum- 
stance, and confined the invention to the Egyptian Mercury, 
that of ApoUodorus is the most inteliigibte and probable: — 
* The Nile', says this writer, ' after having overflowed the whole 
country of Egypt, when it returned within its natural bounds, 
lefl on the shore a gieat number of dead animals of various 
kinds, and among the rest a tortoise, the flesh of which being 
dried and wasted by the sun, nothing was left within the sbeQ 
but nerves and cartilages, and these being braced and contrac- 
ted by desiccation, were rendered sonorous. Mercury, in walk- 
ing along the banks of the Nile, happening to strike his foot 
agdnst the shell of this tortoise, was so pleased with the sound 
it produced, that it suggested to him tlie first idea of a lyre, 
which he afterwards constructed in the form of a tortoise, and 
strung it with dried sinews of dead aniraals'"."*" 
Dr. Bnniar Dr. Burncy has the Ibllowing observations also'**" upon what 
maai^ he calls the three musical modes, wliicli may, 1 think, be re- 
Q^i°' "" gardcd as explsinattiry of the three feats of music among the 
■ Gaodhil:— 

[tii») Uurnej's (Jentral Uistirg ofhln\k, vol. i , p, 15)9. 

m ANCIEST Eitixn. 


" Herodotns, in tracinr llie gonenlogy of tbc Dorians, one of _ 
Hio moel ftDcipnt people ol Greece, mitkcs them njLiives of Egypt, 
moA as the three inuMcal modoa uf liighest ftuliquit/uiion^ Llic 
.Orooki, ore tho Dorian, Phryt^ion, and Lydinn, it is liKcly 
I that the E^fplian colony wliich peopled tlio Doriiui province, 
J brought vrilli tlicm tL« music and iiutrumcnts of tlicir native 

I have introduced tliese quotationa here from Dr. Burney'a 
wotJc, with the view of showing the probubitity that out tlircc 
ancient inuaical feat« of sleeping, laughing, anu crying, nxc n.-- 
presented, after the Egyptian or Greek manner, by the grave, 
the mean, and the acute; or winter, spring, and nuinmer. And 
that, if so, ihore is one of them, the spring (Erraeh or Imbole)^ left 
oat in our copy of tlic Dugkda'a invouihou of his hurp. It is 
wry ovident mdccd, that tlicre is a defect here, because iho pre- 
positioQ a. froiQ. is absent between Gamh, or winter; and the 
words Mia Crot, aeat Bolyy acm liniune — that i*, inuiiths lyi 
horpB and bags and pipc^, which imiiicdiutolv fvilow, and the 
^bcise ooonection of wliich, on account of tliiH defect, canuot be 
^■Btcd upon. 

IT, then, tliis opinion be correct, tbc Daglidai invocation 
TTould run in this way: come, Ourdabla; come, Cdircflhair- 
chttir; L'OiQC, Samli (that is, aummer); como, Gamh (that is, 
winter); coine, Imholc (that is, spring), from the mouths of 
harm ami nags and pipes: and auotlinr fact comes here in foA 
ol' lliia reading ; for that the ant-iont ItibIi, at some remote period, 
did divide the year into the three Ecasnns of Samh, nimmer, 
Gamh, winter, and Irnholc, spring (uuiittiag the foghmhar, or 
autumn), ta quite evident from thu liict, that Cormae Mac Cui- 
Uannain and the other old gloasarista, explain Satnhain, or No- 
Tembet ovc, by SamJt, summer, and/utn, the end; that is, tlio 
end of Samh, or summer. Tliat the year was also divided into 
ibur seasons at one time, and into hut two at another time, will 
be seen from a chanter " On the Divieion of the Year among tJie 
ancieDt Irish", printed in the Jntioduotion to the " Book of 
Kighte" (p. xlviii ), published by the Celtic Society in 1847. 

Another dilliculty pn»ents itaclf in this extraonhnnry address 
of the Daghtia to his h&rp. What were the bellies or bags 
(for tlie word Ootff, in thu original means either), and tlie pipes 
m>m which he calls forth the mysterious mueic? It h clour 
from the context, that there was but the one instrnment pxc- 
Ktit, the DaghdaB own harp: and it inuat therefore follow that 
ibesc wcic pai'ts of it, each contributing its share to the pro- 
duction of the music. We can easily understand the bcll^ to 
mean the sound-board or box; but then, wliat was the pipe? 

(lie ihrto 

iy th« liiillj 

ifM (mm. f 


v( tlis Mat < 
DdfAtlai la 

■lis MiiMa 
aiid nifwof 



^itx. I must expresa mj inability to answer this quegtion. There 

ia, however, a passage in Dr. Burnej'a work which is worth 

mentioning in connection with it, though it contains only b hint 

of what might possibly account for the mention of the pipe or 

tube alluded to by the Daghda. 

Andrat "In one of the ancient paintings at Portici", says Dr. Biamey^ 

Jjn!'w\xh»^ " I saw a lyre with a pipe or flute for the cross-bar or bridge afc 

bri^' "" *'^® *°P » whether this tube was used aa a wind instrument Up- 

accompany the lyre, or only a pitch-pipe, I know not; nor 

within the course of my inquiries has any example of such lb 

junction occurred elsewhere"/"" 

This is indeed a very loose account for our purpose ; one that 
suggests nothing more than a vague hint: for we cannot leain. 
from it anything of the precise form of the harp, or of the age 
and circumstances of the painting which Dr. Buraey says he 
saw, nor to what period of antiquity hia words " ancient punt- 
ings" might be referred. It would, however, be truly a re- 
markable fact in relation to our present inquiry, if there be still 
extunt an ancient classic painting of a harp suggesting so curious 
an explanation {as far as we can understand it) of our moat 
ancient account of the Daghda'a harp, as regards the union of 
the tube with that instrument, whatever the particular use of 
that tube might have been. It seems to mo evident indeed, as 
I have already said, from the Dagfida'a calling forth the music 
of summer, wmter, and spring, from the mouths of Cruit, belly, 
and tube, that the latter did really contribute its own share to 
the sounds of the instrument: and Iience, the very obscure 
words of our ancient text would receive some explanation,- or 
at least some remarkable corroboration, if we are to depend'— 
upon the singular account of Dr. Bumey. 
Legend nt Let me, howcver, return to the subject of the three feats of 
tba i^'i^" "' harp-music, to which 1 have suggested an analogy in the three 
^^'^, Greek modes. Concerning the origin of these three feats, there 
h»rppi«jiDg is extant a very ancient and singulaily wild legend. The story 
rdta Bo forms one of the preludes to the Jain Bo Chvailgne, and is 
/VaWk. preserved under the name of Tdin Bo Fraiek, or the plunder 
of FraecKs cows. Of this Fraech I had occasion to speak in 
a former lecture, when describing some of the houses which 
formed part of the ancient palace of Cruachan, in Connacht,""' ' 
but I shall have to introduce him here again. 

Fraech was the son of Fidhadh, iind a chieftain of West 

Connacht. His mother's name was Bebinn) a name which 

literally signifies thcmelodious woman), one of the Tuatha I)i 

Danann, and fistor to that lady Boami from whom the river 

>»• ' Ubi uipra, vol. i., p. 498. '■"^> See Lect xii., an/e, toI. ii., p. 10. 

Boyne (Sffwid) derive* its name. Tliis young chief, we nre aiiti. 
tola, confident in the splendour of hia rctiuuc and in his own Ltamn oi 
h«muty ol' fipure, propoeod to lil iiisclf lo solicit the hand in mar- ISl' "H'm "' 
ri»gc of no [cs8 celebrated d bciiuty than the princess Findabar '^^\t 
{or '* the fuir-browcd*^. tliu duiightor of Aitili and Medb, the n»fT>pi«iiJ 
kinc and qtiet-n of Connncht j «nd being sumptuoaaly eiippUcd rdS aT 
■with an outfit and attendance from the rich naourcca of Tuatk '*"'* 
Di Danann wealth, by lue aunt the hidy Bound, he set out for 
the puiacu of Cruachan without any announcement of his in- 
tended visit. The dt**cription of his aceoutrcments is so rich 
that I am tcniptvd to ^ve it entire. 

The story proceeds to tell ub that : — " He went southwardii 
lo his mothers sitt«r, that is to Boand, in tKc plain cPBreaia; 
and she gave him fifty hlack-Uuo cloaks, whose colour was like 
the backs of cockchaicis, each cloak bad four blue care [or lap- 
petal ; and a hruocb of red gold to each cloak She gave him 
periaw fifty splendid white Bhirls with fasleiiings of gold; and 
Bfvf shields of silver with borders of gold. She ga\-c him a 
great hard spear, llamirg like the eanJle of a royal house, to 
place iu the hand of each man of hU party, and fifty rings of 
bumishod gold upon eaeli epear, all ol thpm set off with car- 
buncles, and their handles studded with precious intones. They i 
would light up tho plain the same as th*> gUttering light of tlio ' 
eUD- jVjid ehe ^nvc hitn liHy guid-hilt«d »wurd£, aud filly eoil- 
gray slewia, on which liis men nt; all VTiih bridle-bits nl gold, 
wiUi a crtfccnl of frold and bells of silver on tho neck of each 
iteed qf thcin. And tliey had dHy crim»>n saddles, witli pen- 
danfs of silver thicad, ana with buckler of gold and eilrer, and 
with wonderful fastenings upon them (the steeds); and their 
ridot» had fifty horsc-switrhoa of Findmine, with a crook of 
gold upon the head of cacli horac-switch, in their hands; and 
they had bcadea, seven grayhounds in chains of silver, and a 
ball of gold upon (the c'lain) between ouch uair of them. 
They wore nhoes of red bronie {Crgd-Uma); and there was no 
colour which approaclied them that they did not rvilcot it. 
They hod seven trumpeters amonc them, with irumpcta of gold 
and eilvcr. wcarin" many coloured taiinciits- Their hair was 
litjlit {golden; and ihcy bad splendid wIull- shirni upon them. 
There were three bntioons preceding the parly with *ilvf-r-gilt 
coronets upon their heads, aiul each carried n shield with cm* 
blemutic carvings upon it ; and crest*.^ heads, and ribs of red 
bronxo in the centres of these aldclds; and there were lhr<.-e 
each Willi the appcarnnco of a king, both as to his 
', and tiia anus, and hia slccd".""* 


^^»- Having arrived at Cruachan, the party were lio^pitably re- 

Mrt of ceived, and entertained for several days. One day alter dinner, 

Xm " Icing -^ iiiii spoke to Fraech, and requested that the harps should 

\ttot ^ played for them ; and the story then tells us that; — 

i>-g*]riiig "Thiswas the condition of these [harps]. There were harp- 

» Ba ba^ of the skins of otters about them, ornamented with coral, 

**■ {Partaing) with an ornamentation of gold and of diver over 

that, lined inside with snow-white roebuck skins; and these 

again overlaid with black -gray strips [of skin] ; and linen clotha, 

as white as the swan's coat, wrapped around the strings. Harps 

of gold, and silver, and Findruine, with figures of serpents, and 

birds, and grayhounds upon them. These figures were made 

of gold and of silver. Accordingly aa the strings vibrated [these 

figures] ran around the men. They [the harpers] played f<w 

'. them" then, until twelve men of .(li/tW's and //erfft's nousehold 

died of crying and emotion. Three comely men indeed were 

■ these [harpers], and sweet was the music which they played 

And tney were the three sons of Uait/tne [the harper] that 

were there These were, indeed the three illustrious men so 

much spoken of, namely — Goltraighe, and Suantraigfie, and 

Gentraighe [that is literally — crying music, sleeping music, 

and laughing music]. These three now were three orothers. 

Boand from the hills was the mother of the three. And it was 

this kind of music that Uaitfme [their father] played upon the 

Dagkda'a harp ; and, it was from it the three [sons] were named. 

At the time that the woman [their mother] was in labour, it was 

then he [the husband] played the harp. When then the woman 

iflibai 1 ttlaig bpej; acAf Awbejic efcib, -ici).f co pl)l.Ati&iboip*CAf ai» 

■onOjCaeca bpcic tt-'Dubgopm, Acaj- ba gA't), <icafco centiniiUiibinsancait» 

copi>< a tiacb mi ■oputmni n-oiiU, yopaib inipu ; acAj- coecA echl^TC 

ceCoi\do&ii3ub5Uifafopcicb bpaci ptTDpume co tn-baccan opoa pjp 

*ciy miljjcti ■oepjioip La each tn- ciiro caca bccbbaifci in* l^maibj 

■ bpoc CaecA bena b*n5el,co cnAiT)- ACAp fefic mtbtotn ipLabpATiAlb AiTV- 

mibAib oip umpu ; ACAf cacca p^iaC gro, Acap ubuLL oip cop cAcb [icip 

AipgDiTM conimLib oip umpu. Oeti cecb tiAe]fbAbpAOOil). tliioccACpe- 

jAi cpuA'OAC mop 1 roiLLpicbui pig tiuhiao umpu; ACAf ni pAiDi xtat nAT> 

tAitnjebbpigcAigniAitn CA<; fipnib; beiC iticib. fie6c coptiAipe Leo co 

CACCA COpjet ■Dl op OpT-AIJ-Ctl 1111 £^6 COpHAlb Op'dAlb ACAf AlpgrMtJlb, CO 

Ti-gAi, cipttiiciu-oo i)0 cnAppmocob necAiJib ibb'OAcliAchA vmuu ; co 

GAib anif uiLi, ACAp if ■oo becAib mon^Aib op'OAib pinbui'6iropAib,co 
JltlApAlb imT>eilCAl [AllAlp lApil] A betlClb CCpOtCAlb (lITipu. DacApcpi 

n-upt>uipnn, — no bAfCAif in fAiilroi ■opuicb pctnib co minnAib [aipgiT)] ' 

AKiAib puicbnib spetie ; ACAp caecA fO'oiGp pop a cem>aib ; j-ceicb co 

cbAiDeb n-opT)uipin>beo, ACApcaecA pechbaib contniALacliapopcach nAe; 

jAbop m-bocgbap po puiuei acap acap co cipbachbaib impu, acapco 

pebLce [beibge] 6ip fpiu uiLi acaj- nepna'OAib cpe-oumac lap na bap 

muiilim) [mAeLbaii'D apgaic co cbui- [caebaib] mo pciacb bauap popAib. 

cim oip] oip CO cLutciniu pop bpa- CpiapCpuicipecon ogopcpigim cAft 

jAiocacb ccb ■oib. aoapcaecAcpaiTD n-Ai imp ocaigib, Acap Apmu, acaf 

acjunn] copcpA co pnaitib Apgatw eocbu.~H. 2. IC col. 619.] 


ksoTCHT snnnr. 



ms in her labour, ii was cryinf,' iind mourning with hpr in the 
iDlcnsitr of her pains at tbc bc^niiing. It was laughing and uaend at 
joy with hLT in the middle of tBem, at the pleasuro of havint' Ifjl i,^** 
brought forth two sons. It was repose and tran<iuillity witn '™^J^'at 
her on the birth of lUo last aon after t!ie wulght of llje labour; ii»rp.pi«»iiiB 
and it ^^ on that account that each of thcin waa named nflcr ma An 
a third pait of tbo iuumc. Baand then awoke from the ropoae. '*""*■ 
* Accept thou tby three sons, O pa£sionat« Vaithne, said ijho, ' la 
return for thjr generosity'; naiucljr, crying music (Goltraiahe) ; 
and laughing rautic (Geantraigkt); and sleeping music {Suan- 
traighr); for nwm wiU [hcreaftcrj die of hearing tnc-ir car-tuning 
if toey go to play for M- db and Ailill [thai is, when attuning 
their harps to their own irars]' ". 

"Thcso eons"*, the story uontinuee, "were afterwards nursed 
until tlicj- were men, and they it was whom Fraech took with 
him on hts viait to court the princess Findabar, so that they 
played music at the desire of wliWi.'**"* 

This p&aMgc ia, as I have said, from one of the most ancient 
of the historic talcs ; and I suppose 1 need hardly observe that 
it is br no means to be Uikea hterully. It is, in fact, but an 
early form of one ©four most ancient myths or legends, ac- 
counting for the lost history of the invvntioB of music, or 
its introduction into the country; and, while on the one hand 
the word^ hen; used ua proper names, am really words de- 
ficriptivQ of tho various Kinds of music in which the most 

t***' [oTi|[iiMl:— If AnnlAiD DO h-a- 
TM|i pnc tiMo. cuocbuilcctjucno-ic- 
TubwobaiWO'i ompu, coti4 n nrnmn- 

wm impn Ap-miTion ; foiaVtj ■owo- 
ctar' imA meuonpne ; dcaf l>|t(lic 
tin {pl.icc|i pidti n-gMp iniHa c«Cd. 
Cpocd v\ A^ dCd]- 4ips?v Acor yiTio- 

*« AC-ar ""l^o" piipaib. X>\ bfi .ic*f 
atpger* nABelbipi*: AHiwiit nogUM- 

iinactsdi|\c n* t>eotba pn. 3»jrptno 
VAtb iftpam CO •t-opwocar wa f t^v occ 

«>» tnaincili 4>VitV.!S aCd^ nicuba 

Vacao ACi\ eoinp. tiA cjin c«a \n 
cfiApf A, auAr b* bint> Afl ceoV oo 
fUMirav ;* bAtkAp li-pq*t tunc h- 
tlicrim*T>Tirni. lp*D ej" r" "' ^1'^*^ 
tiip^pic AfbciMp, e*fl)i SoT-^J'S"! 

C]" TtefbuAckAin cpa in rpiA^ fAi 
berifiTj [Doinw'] A pwjib d mjiiAiji 
<tc|nii|«. dc«r 'f ^"' cbcncoLratc- 

>T Tie ammmgclien a c|Mu|i. in c*tt 
pubAi iin lien oc lAinnAV ij- Anv po 

pinDfem in Cpuic OpAWSiAfAinin- 
bi7ATi vuLomrdv bA ;;uLaCA]- maing- 

l«* La guipi* «* n TOAti icocA*. OA 

gtrri AfAf gii|M AC«rFA<l'C<» Afunertou, 
coon Ap iiiic)iolcdin innj niAC «o 
bpoicli- bA futw ACAf Ailpnv «}i4 
bpciG£« in WAC <o«ioiiiAchi o^An «i\ 
cpumio »iA bpmcVii i coiiA-ft aim |ta 
h4mmrmj*>« cimaj* [cpiAn] m cniviV 
nib. Oo TuifAtg Upum iiiboAno aj" 
«n p»4n. «flp)tm pp« olp oo cpt 
mcic A UAJCnni Auroimpfi otp xio 
£pi niAccv A Udicbni tATi bnutA fo 
bicJi foil' [plo], nAun 5oV'.cp-"S', 
ACaf K«Ai1Cp,iij^,aCAT auAncpA'gi, Ap 

p>|»Aib [-ceo ninAib tiA cAiyofAD La 
meob ACAi* AibtL AiibeUnv pp La 
cVuAp A gli6fA Qotb. diLcep iha 
mc'C ]-Bo cpA lAppirv'ii, coTini«n 
n^oiu, ACA^ coniMfC « ryuie ppoccn 
Iaii" v» cucwopc pnwAbjiAC cojtA- 
bAOAit ocan p:ntn Ia bnechi n 
oaill*.— a. 3. 16. coL MO.) 


XXX. ancient of musiciana were practised, the very form of the myth 
itself proves how very ancient — how far before the farthest 
back coDimencetnent of the historic period, must have been die 
cultivation ot an already regularly developed music in £rinzi, 
at least among that superior race wliich preceded the Milesian 
Heninrtof The word Uaithne, the name given as that of the Daghda'B 
naiaHu^ harper, and father of the three musical sons, has three dinerent 
fiignificationa in the ancient Gaedhelic language, namely, a post, 
or pillar, female parturition, and concord or harmony m poetry 
or music ; so that, if the name be symbolical at all, it must l>e 
in the last sense. 

It may be proper to pause here for a moment, and inquire 
what was the actual mechanical agency by which these three 
mechanical feats, or modes, or their wonderful effects, were pro- 
Nomratiaii It may he rpmombered that in this allusion to the DaghcUCs 
tha fiJlrUa'i own harp, the Durd-ahla, there is no mention of any number 
I^ Ji"' of strin*^, or of strings at all, whilst in the description of the 
ta'th'^raJ ^^^ of the three sons of Uaitline in the palace of Cruachan, 
Bb fraidL. there is a clear reference to the strings, which not only pro- 
duced the music, but ako by their vibrations set the serpents, 
birds, and fjrayhounds, with which the harps were adorned, in 
motion. Ilure, however, there is no allusion to the number of 
the strinirs, and we are therefore still at a loss on that head. 

The following curious story, taken from the old tract so oflen 
mentioned in the course of these lectures, called Agallamh na 
Seanoracit, or the Dialogue of the Old Men, and which recounts 
a great many of the achievements and adventures of the cele- 
brated champion, Find Mac Cumhaill, seems to show that the 
earliest harp was a three stringed instrument. 
Laiendar One day, wc are told, that Find was hunting in that part of 
o^Kiam, Erinn which is now known as the county of Dont^l, attended 
bn'mi^Mi^ by only eight chosen companions from among his warriors, 
••■ni; Having sat down to take rest on the well-known mountain of 
JBeamas M6r, his party started a huge wild boar, and sent their 
dogs after him ; but the boar killed them all except Bran, 
Find's own celebrated hound, which conquered and captured 
him. The boar, on being captured, screamed loudly and vio- 
lently, whereupon a man of giant size came forth as it were 
from the hill, and requested of Find that his hog should be 
set at liberty. The eight men attacked him, hut he soon 
vanquished, and bound them in tight bonds. He then invited 
Find to his Sidh, or enchanted mansion at Glenndeargdeit, an 


invitation wluch Find and his Mends gladly ocoepled. When xxx, 
thev came to ihc door of tlic manstan. tlie giaot struck the boar uiMd at 
vriui his magicul wand, and turned him into it young womftn of rJlnnvu* 
great beauty. He Ihcn struck biinself with the same wand, ^"I^S'' 
und restored binucU'tohis natural size and beauty. The wbolc h^nii 
part^ then entered the manMon, wJiere they were hospitAbly 
nxcived, and aat down to a feast which Iiad been apecially pre* 
pared for them, proaided over by the host's beantiful dauf^htcr, 
whose name waa Scathach, or " llie ehadowy". Find fell in love 
with this fur damsel, and asked lier from her father in marriairu. 
Her father, of course, assented ; and the champion and the fairy 
laJy wore forlhwitb united on the spot. Feasting and mume 
continued niml tbc hour of rest had arrircd, when {""ind retired 
to the aj>arlmtjut asstf^ncd him, expecting to he soon followed 
by hii bride. 

So far the stor^*. The folbwing passage &om the origimtl 
poem, in which the whole is told, npppars to me lo simpon the 
idea of a throe-stringed harp ; and I translalt: i t in rull uccauae 
in it such un in«tnitnont is described, possessing all llie same 
woadurfid gifte that distingu ishod the Doffkdat own harp :""*' 
" The noble bed is profHirL-d ; 

Find is tbc first to approach it; 

Scaliiach asked before retiring. 

The loan of iho musician's harp. 
"Tlie household harp was one of tJiree strings, 

Mctbinks it was a pleasant jewel : 

A string of iron, a iitring of noble bronze. 

And a string of entire silver. 
" The names of the not heavy strings 

Were Suantorr/jUs; HeantorrgUa the great; 

GoUarnjlii was the other string, 

Which sends all men to crying. 
'* If the pure GoUteariflh bo pUyoa 

For the heavy hosta of the earth, 

The hosts of the world without delay 

Would all be »ent to couslaiit ciriog- 
"If tho morry GtntofrgUt be played 

For the nosta of the carlli, without Heavy execution, 

<»•> [orfidMtl I— 

XlijUjl SpAt.!* pill "00 luij. 

Art c«A<onA ■OAt«cca« iomLin. 

5oll£a]tf^l«r *" ^*'"* '"^' 
ChuppoAf ci.b «ii Claihoipi;. 

8Loi§ *n TJOtViTiiTi cftrt txillSA 
1I« bMt ml? m:c tMoC Aogfo. 


^^ They would all be laughing from it, 

From the hour of the one day to the Bame of the next 
" If the free Suantorrgli^ were played 
To tlie hosts of the wide universe, 
Tlie men of the world, — great the wonder, — 
Would fall into a long sleep. 
" The gifted maiden plays 

The bIow sonorous Suantorrglds, 
Until his heavy repose fell 

Upon the son of Muirin \_F\nd] the highly gifted. 
*' To deep sleep, above all others, she sent 
Bran, and the eight warriors, — 
Until the middle of the following day 
They continued in their deep sleep. 
" When the sun had arisen over the woods, 
To them it was no mighty loss ; 
Where they found tliemselves was at Beama$, 
Which showed their diminished power". 
The date of this curious poem eannot bo fixed with any 
precision, but, in its proent condition, it may be very fairly 
ascribed to the early part of the twelfth century, though I am 
satisfied that it is many centuries older. The question of age 
of the composition itself, liowever, is of very little moment to 
U8, since it is with the very curious tradition preserved in it our 
concern lies; and the later the poem, the more curious would 
the existence of this clearly very remote tradition be. Accord- 
ing to it, the fabled Cruit of the magical mansion of GUnn- 
*o«ae*-. deirgdeis had three strings ; whilst the additional information 
tiint that of these strings one was of iron, another of bronze, and 

■*^8* tlie third of silver, shows that all these materials were used for 
different harp strings before the time of the writer; while, 
even if his reference to them be taken us the work of the 
poet's fancy, they may also be regarded as intended to repre- 
sent the grave, the middle, and the acutfi musical modes already 
spoken of 

Farther on in this, and in the lecture tliat shall next follow 

t)4 feinncicds 4n seincoiipgL6i- gift Ap m4c TTluppne 50 mfip bUAi-6. 

"DofWiigAricALmuingoLticponiiii, Cuippif n* ccortifian caj\ difi 
1)0 Beiuif ace gippeie, bpjn,— if^n coCcAp 6ccl.aC, 

On cpiC potrtiop 50 poiLe. Jo tncA'ftan t40i mop «n moA 

OAremncicdednpiAticoppgteri-iop Uobi-o^p n& ccot>L4*. 

Do j-tuiguib boat* riA mbpaoti, dnuaip ■do 6ipit gp'-Jfl Ofno*, 
pp -doriiuir, — iii6p in moi, — 'Olioibpoth mopb^ibal. Ancion; 

X>o beiccip na pop Co*!^*. Ann nobiwop imb^opnuip, 

Seinmp an ingean ^aCaC Sep luga teo « ccigepnuf. 

An pan ceapgUap p6p cnafidi __m.8. No. -c^ B.IA., p. 480, bot] 
no gup Cuic A Coippiiinr6*ifl "■ "■ 


it, U)c exutCDCC of an imcicut threo-etringed harp, or TVm/Min, . 
will receive much otldiuonal corroborution. 

To return Xq ifac account of tlic Vayhda's harp in tlie rtory v»ti)«>tuiBH 
of the battle of the second, or iiortliern Matrh Tuireaii/i; thut udiwtNi^| 
baip which it* mafltcr culled from the wall whert; it hung by KCmi of'tw" 
Uic names Durdahla, and CvirceOtairchuir, nnd ifi pUying ?*'"J?''^*''* 
upon which he is described as evoking mu«ic from tho mouths n-t-*^ 
01 barpa, and bellies and pip«s. Mni!l^»'i» 

I liovc ulroftdy endeavoured to show that the hclliw and ^^^^ 
pipes, which he invokes, vrcre coiniKiUL-nt partji of the 8ame«f>b*Bt 
bwp; but, should I be mistukoi), ana that tlie iiibo alluded to 
was on independent inatrumcut — in abort a ttuinpel, then, in- 
deed, it will appear very strange that with these references io 
the pu69CS»oaoi music and martial musical iiifltrumcnta by the 
Tuiuha D4 Danana at the lime, there is nevertheless no men- 
tioa whatever made of music of any kind having been played 
prcMratory to, or in either of tlie battles of the two 3fa^h 'iSdr- 
tadh»i ami further, tiMt Lu</h, tho preat philosophical chief, 
who marsliallcd the 2\atha D4 IMncutn forces for tho scennd 
battle, whilst he calls on the smith, the brazier, the car|)ent«r, 
the buDtcrs, the dniids, the poct«, etc., for their a»iatance in 
the coming battle (and, in doing fo, is made to give an enu- 
meration, apparently, of all classes about to be engaged lo it). 
makes no menliinn whatever of any miuicioo- 

Thia is an important fact, and spealts much for th© very ti.i' p"»* 
great antiquity of the original accounts of these primitive baltleti qMr. 
of the Firbolga, Fomorians, and Tuatha Di Danann; for, cer- 
tainly, if tbey had been historical romances of more modem 
times, full of the poetic embclUahmenta of the Tdin Bo Chtt- 
ailgntj (br example, and of other pieces even rtf tJiis ancient 
olflifis, there can bo little doubt that in the enumeration of the 
prolcsKonal parties mentioned by Luijh, the military perfor- 
mers on tubes and horns would have been included.' *°*' 

As far, then, as we cau ascertain witli any degree of proba- 
biUty, the great Ai^Ai/a invoked but the miisicBl powers of his 
harp alone, excluding any idea of an independent musical tube, 
pipe, or tnim[)ct; and, cransci^uently, if there was s pipe at all. 
It lormcd part of that harp. 

I bare already endeavoured to show from one of the namrs -n,> /■«#*. 
of tha harp, tlmt it was of a quadrubeaked or quadrangular ^ q';|^. 

'*^> I aaj bIm add here thni I lure oot foiui'l anj' meatiiMi or atnaic or of 
a mrt csl lattnunenu mmoDgt tbe FlrUiIti* id vili«t liM come dctvin to ut «f 
tMrltUte«7; nor do I renumber luring nwt an laMaaceof oiiuk having 
been plijM] at wty bailie. 

VOL. II. 1} 


"X. form ; but it is curious, that, of tKe variouB fonns of the hsip 
and lyre taken from ancient Greek sculptures, and Bgured in 
■ Gitekharp the 6rst Tolumc of Dr. Bumey's book, there ia but one, No. 8, 
on uideot plate T,, of precisely a quadrangular form ; and this ia a parallel- 
''^"^ ogram with eix strings, as represented In the hand of a Grecian 
Apollo, in the Capitoline Museum at Rome. This Sgure is an 
oblong square, with a sounding chamber, or belly, and some- 
what resembles the high back of an old-fashioned chair. It is 
clumsy- looking in design, and apparently coarse in its mechani- 
cal details, considerably inferior to what we should be inclined 
to Bgiire in our minds as consistent with ^e artistic skill of 
the Tuatha D4 Danann. These were themselves undoubtedly 
Greeks by education, if not by remote race, but they, or some 
others of our earliest colonists, have left in Erinn specimens of 
mechanical ait in metals — the only material that could live to 
our times — which are not, I believe, excelled by anythin? of 
their kind that antiquarian researches have discovered in eiUier 
Greece or Rome. It may be then that the Tvatha Di Danann 
quadrangular harp, if not exactly the same, had been modelled, 
and, perhaps, improved upon the early Egypto-Grecian harp. 
eiuBpi«of One curious example, at least, of the quadrangular haip of 
ruTga^tr ~ ancient Erinn is still extant in a carving on the shrine, or tneea, 
otuude^ "^^ *° ancient missal of the Irish Church, now unhappily, in the 
miiMi possession of Lord Ashbumham, in England. But, as the de- 
scription of this Jigure, as well as other important points in the 
history of our ancient musical instruments, are so ably treated 
in a " Dissertation on the Antiquity of the Harp and Bagpipe 
in Ireland", written by my learned and accomplished fhend, 
Samuel Ferguson, Esq., and published in Bunting's " Ancient 
Music of Ireland",**"' I shall quote the passage, in preference 
to anything I could myself say on the subject, 
"'th"'^ Mr. Ferguson, after discussing the description of the music 
quitr Md ' of Ireland written by Giraldus Cambrensis about the year 1 1 80, 
muiori continues his argument as follows: — 

Srtnn i «t Assuming, ^cn, that the Irish, in the latter end of the twelfth 

century, possessed an instrument fit for the performance of such 
harp airs as were then known, with their appropriate basses, we 
come next to inquire how long had they possessed it. For, aa 
Guido of Arezzo, the inventor, or at least revivor of counter- 

Coint among the Italians, lived somewhat more than a century 
efbie that time, a suspicion reasonably arises, that they may have 
had their acquaintance with their improved style and method of 
playing from continental instruction. In answering the ques- 
tion proposed, and clearing away the preliminary objections, we 
<»}) DubUn, Hodgoa and Smith, 1840, p. 4G. 



diftv our first iMwtancc from the ovidcocc of tljc WcUli. Thcv, "»• 

__ is well known, bad their musical canon regulated hy Irish iiiMi«i 
harpcM about in. IIW- This th#y wrtitld hardly have eiib- vl°!jin^ 
mittcd to hutl thcjr not considorod their inatnictois the greater l"|hh«p«w 
prx)tici<>nU in tlieftrt ; and yet the Weleli liad before this ti mo ■*?"' ^>^ 
been noted for giofpnft and pfaforming in concert. But it may 
be obje«t«d by that numerous class, vrbo would refer cvory- 
thine creditable amoa<; tliu ancient Irish to a Danish origin 
(conioundtng the I)ane» of the middle ug«e witli the Tunth de 
Danuif of tradition), thnt they were Donish-Imh to whom 
Griflith ap Conan inferred Jbr liieM- instructions, naratfly, to 
Aulaf, king of Dublin, the ^n of Sitnck ; and [bat, of the har- 
pers sent by Uie Hi bercio- Danish inonaroh, one only, Mathiiloch 
Gwyddoll, 18 mentioned a» Irish, while the chief mii8icj»n, Olar 
Genlswvr, is manifestly one of the Ostmcn. To this it may 
be tntwercd, that there is no trace of nonbem phraseology in 
the Iri^h or Welsh musical nomciicluturc, but that, on the con- 
trary, much, if not nil, even of the Welnh vocabulary is pure 
Iridh. Farther, that the harp, known from time iinmcniorial 
to the Irisli as CruU and Clairgau^h, lins never borne ile Teu- 
tonic designation of Hearpa in any other of the lanj^ajres of 
the nnitea kingdom than the English; and finally, niat tlicse 
niuncal oongrcssos, to fiLr irom being conGncd to tbc Danes of 
Dublin, were customary among the native Irish ; for, not to 
dwell on limilar aseemblics at an earlier period, vre find, that, 
St a meet'mg, identical in ita character and objects, held betbrc 
an Irish petty king, at Glendaloch, imniodintely after the one 
in question, the regulations of the Welah synod were con- 

*' But, foilunatcly, the question reets on evidence of a tnoic Dr-.r«ri- 
tangible nature than mere historical statement Two innnu* tr'iiVo^ 
ments, one of the eleventh, and the other of a much earlier S^n',^^*" 
ccnttu-y, are now to be submitted, on which we have autbiriitic 
contemporaneous dcUDeati<»u of the Irieb harp executed by 
Irish artists. 

**The firs* is the omamontol cover, or ' theca' of an Irifih 
maniucript, containing, among otlier writings, a litiu^ of the 
teventh eemurv, now preserved at Stowe, in the library of the 
Ihike of Buctinfrliara, and elabormtely deacribcd by Doctor 
Charles O'Conor m his catalogue of ifio MSS. of thiii magni- 
ficent collection.'"" The age of the ornamental cover is ascer- 
tained by the inscriptions remolninc on it, from which It ap- 
pears to hove bcws made by Donnchadh O'Ta^an, on artificer 

<*■•' Wstth Ar<i\mo'.osj, *ol. iii. p. fiSr.. 
^m> Vai, i,, Apptn. L 

15 8 


»^»- of the Irish monaatery of CloninacQoise, for Donnehadh, the son 
of Brian (Boromha] , iting of Ireland, and for Maccraith O'Donn- 
chadh, king of Caahel, during the lifetimes and reign of the for- 
mer, and, probably, during the lifetime of the latter also. But 
it is stated in the Annals of Tigheamach that Donnehadh was 
expelled from the 80vereiji;nty in the year 1064, and died the 
year after, and that Maccraith, king of Caahel, died in 1052. 
The ' theca' must therefore have been executed prior at least to 
• the year 10G4. Now, among the ornaments of this cover are 
five delineations of the harp of that period, containing, however, 
two pairs of duplicates, fac aimiUi of which are given at the 
end of the second volume of O'Connor's ' Rerum Hibemicantm 
Scriptorea Vetere*', whence the subjoined engraving have been 
accurately copied. 

" The first, probably owing to the minuteness of the scale on 
which it is engraved on the silver plate of the tluca, is unsatis- 
factory as to the shape of the instrument, which appears not of 
a triangular, but of a quadrangular form, and is represented 
with only two strings, the latter feature being, however,- a 
manifest defect in the drawing. It is nevertheless valuable, as 
showing that the mode of holding and playing on the instru- 
ment had altered in nothing from the practice of the eleventh 
century, at the time when the MS. of Cambrenas, already 
alluded to, was illustrated.'*"" 

" The harps in the second ornament are represented on a 
large scale, but still not sufficiently so to enable the artist to 
show more than four or five strings on each. This piece of 
early Irish art, which combines embossing, enamelling, jewel- 
ing, and engraving, is thus described by Doctor O'Conor: ' Of 
the three central ornaments (i.e- of each marginal side) two are 
plates of silver ; the third is the brazen image of a man dressed 
m a tunica, tightly fitted to his body, girdled round the waist, 
and reaching to the knees. The legs and feet are bare ; the 
hands and arms are also bare, and are extended round two 
harps, which support the arms on either side. The heacb of 
the harps resemble in shape a small cornu ammonia of blue 
enamelled glass, and in the breast of the figure a small square 
hole is filled with a garnet'. 
«ndofnpin;» "The instrument", Mr. Ferguson continues, " submitted to 
from«'!?cient the reader from the other monument above referred to, is evi- 
JTen'Ji"""'' dcntly of a much older date. The musical inquirer and general 
•mw'nB^id fiitiiu^ry cannot fail to regard it with interest : for it is fhe Jirst 
£g]rptiu apecimen of a harp without a fore pillar thai haa hitherto been 
*"'' found out of Egypt; and, but for the recent confirmation of 

<iiai xhe harp nlludid to here ii a triangQlor one. Bee " p 87 of the latnd." 



Brucc*8 testimony witli rcgord lo ita Egvptlun prototype, might 
pviliaps bo receivoJ whli vijiiitl incroJiiliiy ; for, lo Itio origlual 
oiOioiuty orstipposuig aucti uo iiutrumvnl vapublu of supporting 
Uie tension of ils strings, U now added llit^ sturLliug prvsumption 
that the [riah have bad their harp originallj out of Egypt, 
[The drawing follows here.] The drawing is taken from one 
of the ommncntal ooropartrrcnts of a i^cnlptured croai, at tho 
old church of Ullunl, in the i-ouuty of Kilk<.*nny. From the 
style of the workmanship, la writ as from the worn condition 
or the cross, it eecms oMlt tlian the similur monument at 
Monuitcrhoico, which is known to have K'en eot up bttforu the 
yew 830. Tlic sculpture id nidc ; the circuUr rim whicli binds 
the anns of t1ie cross together is not pieroed to the quadrautti ; 
■nd many of the figures origlniilly repieaentcd lu relievo mo 
now wholly abmdea. It is difficult to determine whether tho 
number ol strings represented is aix or seven ; but, as has been 
•IreadT remarked, accuracy in this respect cannot be ex|»L'ctA-d 
eitbcr in Kulptures or in many picturesque drawings. One hand 
only of the performer is shown, it piobably being beyond the 
nrt of the sculptor to exhibit the other; ami this, which in the 

^fright iiand, is stretched, as in alt the preceding examples, towarila 
the longer strings of the instrument. The Imrp is (tiso held on 
the knee as in tin: otlicr tnatancea ; the oidy ilUicrcncc between 
the sculptiiie hviv and (he fir^t engraving on the Oie^^ of the 
Stowe AlS., being, that lliu Uiluiu harp to all appearance liaa 

jjio &oat arm or pillar. In both cnacs the musician b naked; 
•nd yet both arc aseocuated with rcprcscntaQont of churchmen 
and othei^ bi rich dresses; but it wul be recollected that, in the 
hands of the figure in the ornamented tunic nn llio ihfca, thero 
arc rcpicscntm hurpa of a perfect form; while that pliyed by 
the naked mutician in the adjoining compartment, is very mide 
in stnictuie, and strongly resembles the UUard iuetrutnent. 
HvDOC, wc must by no means receive the latter as conetusivo 
evidence that, ai the lime of its being sculptured, there wu no 
other d(«criptiun of harp in use". 

Mr. FcrguMU oondiiues further hie learned discussion on the ht wnu ] 
harp, and its progress to iiertoctinn, from its tiret fabulous in- "u,^"."^ j 
veotion by the Kgyptian Alercurj-from the shell of a dead tor- i]i;i'n'ir«*i. ' 
toise. as wc have seen already, first the (eeble bow or three- """■ 
ndcd, to the four-iiidcd, and from that to the triangidar form. 
And from thcee ctrcumstanoca the learned writer iirgce the pro* 
bublc truth of our ancient " bardic tradilioiia" of tlie progress of 
the early colonists of Ireland Irom Kgypt through Scy tlua ; and 
he then continues »s follows: — 

" There can be no q^oesiion of tho fact, tliat at a V017 early 



period, a itrong 6dt of omUxtdon flowed into the . 
Europe from the KUe, uid thcnc« sprciitil northward and wi^t- 
wud; and tlierc arc many groutuls, cxtriiuuc to this in«iitin-, 
on wliich it appears Lliat u strong argut»ent loay be ruaed ior 
iDtimute international relations tiotwccQ the original inhat ' 
taats of ihcso islanda and tlie aocient oooiipanta of the ease ' 
Kuropc. If ttie various points of re«>niblunce and even induttr 
oii wliich audi au argument might be rented, were adv-ancec 
it would probably appear aomething more than a cmncidence, 
that in a luoQumcot civctcd at Polau, in Slyria, during the UTe- 
timc of the emperor Aiirelius, the Thracian Urpheus should be 
repieaentcd perfonmng on an instrument in ell respects rcsemb* 
ling that on the ikeea of thcStowe MS.,'*"' being in fact, whas 
has ju9t been surmiBed to be the Egyptian harp m a transition 
etate, after it hud ivceivcd it« forcaiin, and before it hail ao* 
iiuircd itii perfect triangular form by tJie incorporation of the 
■oundiog chamber with tlie olJier upright" [here the Ggurc 

It way be thouf^ht that I have quoted too copiou»ty from 
Mr. Fcrgufton'a essay; and that his argiunenta may have little 
to do with the bare accumulation of facta practicnUy recorded, 
as ihey stand in oiir ancient chroniclca, which was nil that I 
ever proposed to myaoli' liore to make. But, although much of 
what ho states in the able paper from which I (juotc has b«en 
knuwn to us through other channels, yet I fool it due to him, 
as well as to my deeire to strengthen my own opinions by the 
coincidence of fiis, to select hia work especially tor rafurenoe i^_ 
this place. ^H 

uiu .ume Even so recently as twenty years ago, when I>r. Petrie wroto 
i.niV;T>n hb eea&y on the harp, improperly called Brian BvromAaB harp, 
'*"■'"" now in the museum of Tnnity College, Dublin, tliomagniS' 
cent remains of ancient hi^oricul wrilinps in our native tongue 
had been but liiilc studied or examined. And those who did 
pretend to exatiiiDO them never could find in iheni any thing 
that woa of real value to true historical and antiquarian mvesn- 
pition. Within that time, however, these venerable records 
nave undergone conaide-rable examination ; clo^e readings hare 
su^gL'BtL-d and sustained new victwn and ideas, coiilinnod some 
old traditionary asaertiooe, and are now oponin<' up the true 
paths by which alone we can hope to become Uioroughly ao- 
quainlcd with the origin, history, and vestiges of the poopl^^ 
whose history our tecords profcoa to be. ^| 

1 cannot, liowever, consbtcntly with what I hare read ill 
these our ancient records, asurni to Uie idea that the more 

■IM, bill 
■fricfl lh#ll 

Uity haTO 
lit oil : 

l*'U .Vowf/aiuM, Ti. p. 2K 


IS inciBNT Eanv. 


miuve colonists of Erinn, siicli as the Firbol^ and Tvatha Di 
Danaun., carae iiidireccly fioiii,«r Imd any councction wlialcvcr 
«nth, tlie Unci of Egypt. The Milrsions, I bcliwc, luul; but 1 
am not at prestiut concerned wiUi i)iat faaaous vulony. 

All our ancient traditions and writings are collccteu aud c1iri>- 

»' nologicttlly set down in wliiit le culled llitj "Book of Conqurat* 
or InTa-tionn*' ; and the account there pre^irved Is just thia: we 
are told llmt the lady Ctatar come to this isUud " from Pales- 
tine before die Flood" (whatevci iJiat ma^ incaa); that Par- 
tJutlon came out of Migdonia in Greece, some tlirc« hundred 
yean after the flood ; that allvr the destruction of ParOialoti'i 
people, lYtmidk and his people caino from the same country, or 
at leaat liotu that part of Scvthia wliich our GoedhclJc writers 
say had been peopled by a Greek colony. That the Neniidiana 
again, after a considerable time, vrere overpowered by the fea- 
robbcra callnl Komnriajiii, and lied froiti (lie country in tliiee 

Euties ; that one of these patties settled on the nearest coast of 
iHtain, chieily in the mesent island of Aiiglcsca; that anotlter 
of them went uuclc to Greece, or at least to Thrace, which was 
then part of Greece, oi eubjcct to It; and tlmt the third party 
settled in wliat are called tlie islands in the north of Greece. 
And we are told t^t this latter party were the people who 
afterwards took, or received, the narac of TtiaOta IM J^nann; 
» aasK eaid by aome of our oucicat ctymologi^ta bo signify tliu 
people of the deities of science, bccauw they venerated their 
piofcasors of the social and occult ^cluncca lu dcitlvs. 

These TiKit/ia Di Danatm are said to have inhabited that part 
of Greece in which the famouacity of Aihcns wa-isiiiiatcd; and 
this territory hating been invaded by a fleet from Syria, tbey 
are stated to have exercised their druidical powers in tiivuur of 
their own friends aucoessftiUy for some time; but their Hpclla 
having become counteracted by a Syrian druid, they tlvd Jrom 
Graeoe iiorthwaida and we^lwai'ds (into Germany), and over 
the north of Europe (into Denmark, Sweden, and Norway), 
and on their way they are recorded to have established tJiem- 
selves and to have brouuht tlieir arto into the four cities of /h* 
ikw, Goneu, Finiat, and Murias — those arts which they after- 
wards brought into Erinn. 

This is the common account of their travels, as may be seen 
reported in Kcatinp ami O'FUherty, but not in older cluronicles. 
I am inclined to dissent from this account of the Tuatha Di 
Danansiy as far as regards their having passed into Norway and 
Swetlen. I think there is no good reason to believe thot ihoy 
over inhabited tlicse oounuics. As far as I am aware, ao city 
is knows to have existed in anv one of those countries whose 


txtsra Ibli 

Ctl* MlElW 

T^alha M 

I'r iio wiui 
V.KTV'^ bat 


UlUMIan I 
IKS rl.«l^^ 


IM inlllat 
Jit* i>«t t>t- 

TUT la; 


name lesemblea in my way any of the names of the four atiea 

bebeiUTu menrioncd above. Not bo, however, with Germany. I am 
oi/aKtuT cert^ that eveiy one will at once perceive the close affinity, if 
«ert^ Qvr- "***■ ">deed complete identi^, of Fatiat, and Westphalia ; Genat 
"w"'! and Goritia, or Gortz; rinias and Vienna, or Finnebuig; 
Murias and Murrhart, all names of cities in Germany. And, 
without burthcniiig this discussion with a collation of TvtUha 
Di Danann and German personal names, I have still a very 
strong argument to adduce m favour of my opinion. It is this, 
thiy ipoka In a short article preserved in the Book otLecan on the lan- 
emom'u'' guftges spoken by the different colonists who invaded ancient 
^ took o( Erinn, we are told that German was the language of the Tuatha 
Di Danann, and that they spoke Latin, Greek, and Gaedhelic 
too.'*"' Now, it is quite certain Uiat the old Craedhelic writers 
would not confound the German with the Swedish or Norse 
languagea; and, that therefore, whoever wrote this very old 
article nad no idea that the TuaOta Di Danann had ever been 
in these countries, or taught their arta and sciences in them. 
I have gone into this, I fear, too long digression, for the pur- 
pose of endeavouring to show some remote reason for the quad- 
rangular form of the TuaUia DS Danann harp. 
iiMihniia- You wiU remember that it has been already stated in the 
b>n>*on the quotation from Mr. Ferguson's essay on the harp, that, in a 
STp'h'SJ monument erected at Petau in Styria, during the life of the 
St^""!? ^""P^^or Aurelius, the Thracian Orpheus is represented per- 
on the tiKta forming on an instrument in all respects resembling the quad- 
SIUrKit"*' rangular harp on the Oieca of the Stowe MS. Now, Petau, 
TbaUa Di ^herc this monument stands, is an ancient town of Styria, on 
Danan the rfvcr Drave, 35 miles north-east of Cilly, and 109 south of 
Vienna. And it ia, indeed, a singular coincidence that the river 
Muer, upon which the town of Murrhart, already mentioned, is 
situated, and from which it takes its name, is only about six- 
teen miles east from the town of Petau. And if we could sup- 
pose that the present German town of Murrhart, or any other 
town on the river Muer, and taking its name ixom it, could be 

*"*' [ebn& oo C^eai*dip, &c&x St*^5 Hebrew [was the langnaae] ctf Cta- 

■oo pa^ipcTmUin ; Spec ACij* t-iiT)en aar, and Greek of Parthalon ; Greek 

tA Tlemev corii\muince]\; ^jiecaca]* and Latin of A'«me(/ and of his people; 

t^iDen ACtv)' bnecriai|- ac ):ed|\Aib Greek and Latin and British of the 

boLc, acA]- bctgaix) dcu 1 net^ctiti ; Firbolgs, and who also had the Belgic 

acor 5epm4Mii ac coachaib -De 'Oa- in Irelnnd ; and German of the Tua- 

nan-o; Lai-oen acaf Jpeg acaf Jai- thalfiDaiionit; who also had l.atin, 

■oeLg teo fOT. SaiueVsacaf t-niDeo and Greek and GacdhcUc; Gaedhelic 

La macaib initeaTi — Hook of Ltcaa, and Latin of the eoob of MUenna. 
fu!.'>29. h. col. 1. hot.] 

A siniitiirHtcouni is prpgervcd in a |ioem in the Book of Liamon (O'dury'a 
ct'i'j, U. 1. A., itii. liiD, h, a. mid.] 

the antncnt city of Muriu, one of ihorfc into wliicli tLe TWrAa 
Di Danann brought llicir aTttf, then indtiod, nutwitbatanding « 
wido duiatice in utiruiiolugy, wu mi);lit fuirl^ KUoiigli iinagiac 
whence tlie qii«ijr»DguIrtr hftrp of tlie gixot Datjhda cwnc, wid 
why the Tlincian liarp, wliicli would xpix-ar to liave been its 
prototype, appt-nr* on ihc Stjrinn moniiincitt. 

It must he udmitlL-d tlmt tlic cliromilu^'iculdiiTerenoe betvrccii 
the arrival oflhc Tuatha f>i Danann in Ireland, and the ci^u- 
tion of the St^rion muuumcnt, which took plac« lu the Uilnl 
century of the Chriatini) era, is very gn;al, bnng more lliau 
fitlMio Imiidied yviin,iH:i;onliiig to the cTiruuulugy of the ^ luials 
of the Potir Mii»ters. Dm i^vcn so, we have no reason to ihjuk 
that ancient manners and cu&toius did not, with Uttic change, 
cover great spaces of lime in various paria of the world, perhaps 
peculiarly i^ituatcd and inhabited by people of peculiar dis[*oii- 
tioDS. We know that at this day there is a tradilional uiuaic 
piccerred among the eypait's of Hungary, quite distinct in cho- 
nctcr from, and uninfluenced by, the more cultivated music of 
suiTouniling nations. We know that Thrace, wliere the quad- 
rangular harp ia believed to luive been in early u»e, was ^lart of 
thai Greece in which the Tuatha Di Danantt culiivatcd and 
taught their arte and acicuces; and if we compare the liuic nliicK 
may have elapsed bptwci;n the time of tlie invention of the 
quadrangular Imrp in E^(ypt, and of its being adopted in Greece 
by the Tuatha Di Dananu, with the time wjiich clupscd in Ii'C- 
luid between the battle of Magh TuifiOilli, where the hurp is 
first mentioned, and the time of Donvrjh, the sou of Brian 
HoTimha, in whoi>c icign, about tho year lOliO, the sf]uarc Iisirp 
wa? put on the (Acva or ehnne of tlie titowe MS., we will iitainly 
sec that notwithstanding the probable improvements and cuaii>!cs 
of time, old Ibnns and old cuatoma mutit have prevailed in Ire> 
land at least for over two tliousand yeam. To carry this dis- 
cussion out to its legitimate concUiaione, however, would requiic 
much more time, and I may xay much greater abllitiea, ihaa I 
can bring to it; and if 1 have oy no inconjidcnble cxpcnic of 
Tcsearch and thought succccdeti in presenting this interesting, 
and indeed most imi)onant, subject in a new point of view, 1, 
am quite content willi having plucked a few green leaves from 
this new tree of Icnuwledge, fearing to more competent and 
miccesBfuI tnvceti<;ator3 to pluck Uie ripe fruit of euooeae, which 
certainly awa!l!« the hand of the honest and industrious inquirer 
10 thia <Ui£«uU and devious patJi. 


Tat itml 
iUt oi il 

h«t^ an _ . 

iif urplif 

M^rli in A 
Oh ihr tWu 
limy pulrit lo 
M tho 
TVaMil M 



itMllriil IM fHUL INI ) 

CIX) Or itone Atrv MnicAi Ihitivhknti (contiimM)), I^mduy 
a(theEupROCoidta)stoUi«ul«of/fiuA»a(-if«ii TVnM MauiM. or u* " Jid- 
VCnturMtrflhoOrcnt D«rdle Ooni]MBj*; Sttinrkaa'» Ti>it to finatrt; intrr- 
rtew ot 3/iirAJI'in. d'n^irVf'vbnnhcf ,«(th Srnn^/un; Sfafl'i'Ut'«}eKtni at ChU 
tai VaniKltch il/M nnd tliaintntiooof tlif lUrp: tuilfsmdontwiDtvo- 
tion of vene; hU lo^irnd ocowtroiiig tlxt '/Vwi>in,' tlu> alnnd of Camiu doC 
I^mlifltd. SigniBoition of IIia vrorl OmiE. Tlio IrUh Timfuim •una % •tringvd 
inArumont. AMiUwrM/inolagjrfarCrHir; Itii]ar«nattliciiulh(irilr furttiia 
•xpUnalioii. IMkmiM to tli« Cruit in the Mjtjr hul«>7 o( Ilw Milrnann 
fuifln- and iKnomJloii art lot* for « pnct and hanwr. Skill in inwc dim of 
tile t(!ft( of tlie Ebariaa dt lontlicrii ncc of Krina. Mention at tlw Vniit In 
the tiUtoricoI ule of Orjfaiit OmdrifM* or tha " <lc*tniction of JJi/tdngK". 
Finn ounirntuci.' uf tli« won! LVu in thia lole ; It oecvn kgaln io connoc-Uoii 
with till! mwiiiIjI)' lit JJrum Ctai, j.u. ^7:1 ; AiMm or C*unu LVviidia men* 
tioncil in cimni'Cliuii witli iKicm* in praiw uf St. Caiuiit CilU, *ukk at tliia 
AMctiilily : iiKttiiiii); »f l\>e wi>nl Aidba: llie aultiur Iwnrl the CVon^a or 
thiootoocoiupBuliiiL-DCtuOiretai origin of (lie wont " cruDo") tbe Iriab ^I'lAn 
kncx>D In t^ootknil u C*p6y i tite woni C'#/><J<r known in iKlnnd klao, w 
iboirn l<y a poom on the ilMth of Aikaimt Tli« anembl/ oi Urom CvU 
ooQttuunI ; halhin F'TjuiUt vlegy un St. C'a/uM CiU* : the ward C«u oocntv 
in titii [Hivat aJm ; Ceu her« re^in-jonta a (xui of Um harp, u abo«n bf s 
•cliolmui ill Latbhar mi li-Ui/dkni uiiiquity ot tlietaleof the "Drotrwitin 
of Ihn-lriftl' Dtvvvi] \>j llii) hIiuUhiu 1 llktt vord Cru k''''**^ >» *ll anckat 
oopico irf tti« ewgy on St. CoAin OU/« ,- MihoUoiD oa t)u) muic puem in tbe U'l 
U. t, IC T.CU. : glon eo the pa«m in Liber U/nneraii i parta of ihv liup 
•unuiie'l to hare boon (he Cm,— the t'oMuiyktat "tiil«n*, unl (lie il,tuj^- 
rind; Lei'iAruc/ or half liaruMU)', anil /6nt/ or full Imrmoiiy; diflkuliy of de- 
tenninliig whM Cm waa ; It vt aoi a purt of (lii: hir]> ; etunmarr of Lh« 
rinra of the comuioatator* m lo tlw mMning uf Cim. t'owth rcleratoa t« 
t1iu wonl CVw In an alulent talo In L»abkar wi A- l.'iJKrt. Fifth rvfuveaoe 
to Ctu In aneclier aiident poem. Coir, another term for himioaf, aymuiy* 
moiia with Ctu : the author cooolodea that Caia meant either liamwar, or 
(he uiude ol plijinn wtUi abaai. The wont ffiA ncnilaD«ltDih«sdioUlini 
in II. 3 IG, la atiil a IIvIiik word ; the Crtum Gleatta meiKlaned In • poctn 
of tiio ciylittvnth ccniurj' ; tbir poem coDi«iu* the namea of (tra prlndpal 
parU of ihc harp, Ihc nnniH ol'tho difloKntclMWi' of atnn^a aroonlj (ob* 
tonnd in Itie tcliuUum in tlio Leabhar na A-Uidin to tlio dcgj on St. 
Colum CUU. 

So far, I have endeavoured to tbron some li^ht on the remote 
origia and the practical ii*e of the Irish \yre ; s light, if it be 
Bucn, dravrn, I raiijt aclEno\rlcdgc, as much from inlerenoca and 
probabilities, as from acMial liistoHcal stotemcnts. But Uie ancient 
Ctaedhclic literuture is not entirely silent on the ori^fin of llie 
harp, any more than that of Greec« ; and the Bimilarity of tlie 
two le>^>nJs is so striking, that 1 must brietly narrate ours here. 
Oi tho ancient talc called Imtheachi na Trom Vhaimhs, or i 

Adventures of tlic Great Bardie Compuny, I gave a short, but »»»'■ 
mlhet free isltetcli iq a fonnt;r Wture.""' Ai llie riKlc uf ropuat- i«e*"<i«rr 
ing sotDOthing of what I asiid on that occasion, 1 muet Kcrc again tlkrp"atc«i^* 
pioface tho portion of that talu wiiicU hvan uuon nij present ^JI^'J,","^* 
subject bv a f^w observations auSicicnt to introaticc tiic pcrsoQ- " A<<*<n<- ^ 
Bgea ol tbe talc uuoa the sccue. u: 

On the death, m the year 592, of the poet Dalian For^atil, "" 
the cclcbriiiw] panc^rist of St. Colum CiUe, and chief poet of 
Knnii, ihc viuiini OUarnK's iniuitlti auU chair weru by tJiu uoani- 
moua voicu of the profcssioa, conferred on the young pocLiSean- 

It was the custom in tiiosc hoepitahic days, wliun a uctv chicf- 
poel OlUtmh of Eriuu succeeded to the vuciuil place, that be 
■oleoted, ua a mutter of high difltioctioOt cither the monarob of 
Elian, at or near Tare, or some provincial king at hifl provincial 
cowrt, to honour with his first Tisil. Tliiii pleasant custom *•■<»«*« 
Stanchan was resolved should not fell in hi« liiindi!, and eon- oh!>{^, 
ndrJn<; \m knowledge of the generous habits of the different 
kings m Krinn, he determined to bestow on Guaire, called the 
Hospitable, king of Connacht, the honour of the lirst visit of the 
new Ard OUamh, or chief poet of Erinn. Thither, then, he 
went with his wife and cliildren, and his accompanying retinue 
of oUamht, tutors, and pupila, honea, does, and so Ibrtli. They 
wera boaptably received and entertainuil by ''^K Onaire; but 
soon 8«ne of tncm began to be pcttieh, and to ask for dolicacieB 
which were out of season and not procurable. The hospitable 
hoat was deeply ptuncd when ho found that be could not aati^ly 
the desiTL-a of hia unrcuonablc jiucsut; but he had u brother 
Darned JfarOhon, who some time previously had retired from 
court to the solitude of (iUnn Dallun, where he led Uie life of 
a reclu^S devoting bis time to prayer, meditation, and philoso- 
phical reflections. To tliis giited man the king lepau'ed lor 
counsel and assistance in his difficulty ; nor was he disappointed, 
aa the brother freed bim tram all his dilKcultics, and followed 
hiin shortly after to his court 

Martfuin having arrived at Guairt'i court. Introduced him-inian^ 
self at oucc to S^ajKhan and his learued, though cumbersome, ou^tr^ 
company; and having expressed & desire to hear some of theii H^i^Slp^ 
miistcal perfonnanocs, %-ucal und instiumentalv his wish was''^—' 
freely complied with by various performers, with all of which, 
howe\'er, he Bix-med diasalisGcd. The performance iso for was, 
it accms, of the vocal character, and of the species called Cronan 
(a word which might be translated " purring"), a kind of niouo- 
toDou»ch»unt, of which I iihaU have occasion to apeak in a future 
i«ii, Lecturu iv., attlt, vol. L, p. H, 


i^xi. lecture. At this stage of the interview between the recluse and 
the poets, one of the Tatter came forward and offered to give him 
a specimen of hia art, upon which the following dialogue took 
place between them : — 
jrarM«-i " What art wilt thou display for me, and what is thy name?" 
cSFtiiOt- said Marhhan. " I am a ^food ollamJi of SeancAan's in my ait", 
MM^aa °*'^ ^^' " """^ ™y name is Catmael the Cruitire (harper) . " I 
the iDTsn- wish to uslc thee, Caamael the harper", said Marhhan, " what was 
h^p, ' ' it that the Cruit was at Srst derived from ; and who it was that 
composed the first song ; and which of them was the first in- 
vented — the Cruit, or the Ttmpan?" "I do not know that, 
thou prophet of heaven and earth", said Casmaet- " I know it", 
said Marhhan, " and I will tell it to thee: — There once lived 
a couple [a man and his wife], Cnil the son o£ Midhuel waa the 
man, and Canoclach Mhor was his wife. And the wife conceived 
a hatred to him, and she was [always] fiying from him through 
woods and wLldemesses ; and he continued to follow her con- 
stantly. And one day that the woman came to the sea shore of 
Camas, and was walking' over the strand, she met a skeleton of a 
whale on the strand, and she heard the sounds of the wind passing 
through the sinews of the whale on the strand ; and she fell 
asleep from the sounds And her husband came afler her [and 
found her asleep] ; and he perceived that it was from the sounds 
the sleep fell upon her. And ho then went forward into the 
wood, and made the form of the Cruit; and he put strings from 
the sinews of the whale into it; and that was the first Cruit that 
was ever made 
hiaienndof " And again", continues Marbhan, " Jjamee Bigatnas had 
UMiof^iie;two sons, Jubal and Tubal Cain were their names. One son 
of them was a smith, namely, Jubal; and he discovered from 
sounds of two sledges [on the anvil] in the forge one day, that 
it was verses (or notes) of equal length they spoke, and he com- 
posed a verso upon that cause, and that was tlie first verse that 
was ever composed". • • • • • 

h)i legend The tale goes on: — Another person in the house then said: 
tte^ropiai; *' I Will display an art for thee". " Who art thou", said Marb- 
han, "and what art dost thou profess?" " I am the oUamh- 
Timpanist of the great company", said he, " and Cairehe CeoU 
bhinn (i.e. Gairche of the sweet music) "is my name". "I 
wish to ask, then, Cairehe", said Marbhan, " why is the Tim- 
pan called Timpan Naimh [or saint's Timpani, and yet no 
swnt ever took a Timpan into his hands ?" " I do not know", 
said the timpaiiist. " Then I will tell it to thee", said Marb- 
han. " At the time that Noah, the son of Lamech, went into 
the ark, he took with him a number of instruments of music 


into it( together vnih a Tvitpan, which one of hU sons had, 
who knew how to pUy ii; and they remained in the ark during 
the timn That the dehign waii poiirinji down. Afterwards, when 
Koidi and his children went forth from the ark, and his son vfas 
denroiia to tnke the Timpaa nwity with him". " Thou nhalt not 
take it", said Koeh, " unlit thou hast loll its price [with mc.]^' 
The son asked him what llie price w&n. He answered thst he 
■hould require no greater price than to name tlic Ttmpan from 
himnelf. The son granted that price to his father; »o that 
Noah's Timpan ie its hbhic from tliat time down ; and that is 
not what yc, the ignorant timpanisls, call it, but Timpan of the 

These are, indeed, two cnrioiifl legends, wcU worthy, for more 
reuons than one, of carcliil consideration and compariaon with 
the legends and tradition» of other early nations. The legend 
of Tubal reminds us at once of Pythagoras, who is said to have 
been led to discover the mui-ic^l ei!ect of I'ibratioRi of a chord 
by obBcnring the sound of various Wows on an anvil; thiiugh 
the Irish legend (tor the rest more t&jtuo) does not appcor to 
bear on the tones so much as on the rhythm of music. The iti««tr*na 
strand of Coma*, on wliich the skeleton of the sea monster wms loantuiwL 
found, cannot be identiticd, as there arc a great many places of 
the name in Ireland. It waa prohably at the moutli of the 
lower tlann in the ronniy of Antrim. Tlie names of thr hus- 
band and wife in the story are, of course, fictitious; and ihey 
arc not io meaning symhnlicAl of munic in nny way that I can 
disooTur, The word Cruit, which is our most ancient name lor simiixwii 
the harp, n^fice literally, a sharp high bicast, such as of n cvlu 
jroose. a heron (miscalled a crane), or a curlew; inileed the Gaed- 
hclic name of the curlew is crottaeh, or the sharp high brcaMcd; 
it is what is commonly termed a chicken brcajst or chicken 
breasted. The word Cruit, at the present day, when signifying 
apcrsonul deibimlty, is oflen applied to a hump on tuc buck. 
This, however, is incorrect; and the more proper words dronn, 
drontioff, and dronnaighe arc, in facti also living words among 
the hctt«r informed speakers of the Irish language. As to l\w 
ator}' of Noah's Timpan {Timpan Naoi), I must cnnfees that I 
have never mt-t witli another referent to that name. Yel, tlie 
Dame, at least in its reputed corrupt form of Tivtpan NaoimK, 
or saint's Timpan, must have been well known in this countiv, 
otherwise the story would have never been written b> correct it. 
And tJie story itself pcnntA to an early belief in the grcut anli* 

t»"j [Soe for onginti of theM pWMgcs " tmrkta<kt na Tnnndkaimhir, edited, 
Willi n tniiiiJnlion. b^ FiofMsor Conni'llani TTniiiacllanc o( tlm OatiMtic 
ttociecr, vol. C, p. 96 £«« ilap Dook of Llunure. u'Loouu'i *el. cgpr. B< I- A., 





Tho Iritb 


qmty, and in the caetem origin of tbc uutnitnent. But, • 
greatar niystcry than this aliaclics to tbc trutniiiient itself, 
which the Gacuhil called a Timpan. Wc know that tbc Kng^H 
tiKli T^tnUil and Latin Tympanum mean a drum ol'some eort^ 
but it 18 boTond all dottbt that tbe Irieli Timpnn spoken o(' in 
our Bitcivnt Irish AISS., was a strin^'d ioscnuaeut, one of the 
Idnd* of burp, US 1 shall altcrwards show. 

Tlie account juat given is not, however, the only one of ibe 
origin of the Cruit. There is a very old and Mtmvwhat difle- 
rvnl ftyraoloffy of the word given in an ancient Gaodhelic tract 
iu my poSBQwioQ. Thio very ancient tract in a orilical diacu»- 
sion on the origin and arranectncnt of the Book of Ps&Inis, with 
the ord«r for sin^ne end prayinfr thorn in the Jewish temple, 
made by Icing David himMdf. The folloniog literal translabon 
of the opviiing of this ttact will give an idea of its character, a^H 
well as fiii-nish the reference to Uic etymology of the Cruit joafl 
alludt'd to: — 

" 'ITio title which is in the front of this book is * Brightness 
to the minds of the Learned'. Its name in the Hebrew is flaper- 
talim, that is, a Volume of Hymns, in tho same way that Liber 
Psolinorum (or Book of Fsnlms) is named, for the word psaliD, 
or hyinnof praii>t>, is its interpretation. It is asked wbai is ihc 
name of this book in Hebrew, in Greek, in Latin? Anrwur. 
Nabla [is its namo] in 1 lebrow ; PsaltEiium in Groek ; I<atids- 
torium, or Organum, in the Latin. It a asked, why it wm 
aanuxl by that name? Answer. From tlie CrvU through which 
Da^-id chauntcd tbc p«iilia» ; for, Nubia was its name in Hebrew-, 
Psaltcrium in (tre.<rl{, Laudalnniim, or Organum in Latin ; in aj 
ranch as Organtmi is a generic tiaiue for alt mtincal instruments, 
bccaiiRe of ita great nobleneai. Nabla, howcvi-r, is not a generic 
namo for every nmsienl instnimeni, but Citbera Is tlie generic 
name for CritiU. Citbeni, that ii", Pectoralis ; that is, the breast 
iiiaUumi'nt; for aa much, as thnt it is at the breast it is played. 
The Nabin ia a tcnsiringed Cruit; that ie, which is funiiehcd 
with ten strings, which are played with tea finger*; in which 
the ten coinmandmnnts are concentrated. It ia down upon it 
[that Is at lop] that its belly [or sounding chamber] is pUecd ; 
and it is downwa^rds it is flayed, or that music is performed on it. 
'J'hts name [of NabUj is transferred, ho that it is beoome the nami~ 

JhtsnamelotnablaJ tstrans]erren,Ho inatitis [>eoanie tlicnamc^ 
of thia Book, which is botmd by the ten strings of the Mtria^H 
chal law, upon which are plnved dc tupremit mmteriis Spiriti^^ 
Sanctis,- that is, ' the high nol>le mysteries of tho Holy SpiiiL* 
" Psaltcrium- This is a Greek word ; it is the derivative namo 
of tlio book. These five words were invented in relation to 
each otJicr, namely, Pealmns, Psaltcrium, PHiltnista, Paulmo- 




dum, Pealto. It is asked: Whence came this nomenclature? 
Answer: What Isidore says ii>, tbut I'salmUta in the name of 
the man who plays ; I'salccriurn, what is playeJ upon; Fsalmo- 
dium, the name of the miisic which is playpd; I'sullo, thewords 
of the man who plays. . . . What David did in the Inttor 
dmc5 was: He ficle^i:tei3 four choice thourandsi of the »ons of 
Israel to srng the psalms perpetually, without any interruption 
whatever. A third part of them at the phoir; a third at Croit; 
and a third between choir and Croit That which is entitled to 
the naino of I'tialmuB is that which is arranged and practised 
upon ihn Croit. That which has & right to the nanteof Canti< 
cum , is that which is practised by the choir, and is clianted from 
the Croit. That which haa a right to the name of Canticum 
FstJmvs is what is carried from the Cr^it to the choir. That 
which has a rij;ht to he called Canticum Psaltni, is what is 
carried from the choir to the Croit'\^*^" 

I am inclined to think thnt, although Isidore (a. writer of the w-iorffpo* 

nn, ,. 1-1- ^ • ■ ■ \ \ Iti" millm- 

nlth centiir)-) i3 quoted in thiB tract in Konneciion with the iiir«.r tiii* 
Psalms, it is not on hie authority that the derivations of Cithera "''""*** 
and Cmit are ^vcn, as may be seen from the following extract 
from his Etifmologij : — 

'•"> [oriipnal:— [If] he cicftL pL 

mrnnonvnih Tna U'gniti*". Ift* « 
Ainm ifA"^ e(>iw h(»|-pencal."n, .i. 
uottutnn unimajium dinm d,n>^ap 

C9*tx da iTi>m anLiupoifip> a epn«, 
* Sl^' ''-'-*'^" ^ tlin. Ti4hLAinT>- 
^lu,; Pr«U:iuni if &il Sl^^'S- 1-^"* 
iMCoi"un, no OpsAiiutn tj" *»> l^- 
mn. CtAte can f,o ainmmsd^ oo 
inoainiRfCti 7 tlin. Oin cpiiic cjie- 
j-«noca^Oin VatlioiA na I'al.nin, .i. 

TIaSi^ a li4"iTn if»n wehf o. pp^Cco- 
puRi in 5|i«co, l^oDACoji'um, no 

CO piroiiloic, ooinptupwffnivi^omtr 
""rcepif rpwcuj* j-ancrif J xts ttift 
T>puni]j WAtftib an fptT"^* noib. 
Pralc*j\iut«i pon SjiejTi* vnren ; if. 
fiHi dii"» o(;nu»>p(ii6 p>pj^'nlibonra, 
dpocjiccp nj coic pim tdiTicuTniior- 
cjr, .'. lifjlnin]", pj-aVc'-pniTn, yj-ot- 
mii-cd, praltniyoiiim, pTdVto. C*fir, 
can uD^ic 4ncoiititnflicavpo ? Urn. 
ijTo* 'IT'^P eiro»<Sii, . . . pfAlctf 
ainm an ■p.^- uncTCiiTOi pr'lce> 
jMUTTi ino) f*Tit>Qiii ann ; pi-dlmo' 
■nium oitim aYi citnL j^nxioip aii« [ 

fij-aUo lij^etoj* int) pp »oe|wiinAip. 
MSS. il»rli;tiin, h2m, Br. Mu»., f. 1 1. 
■.tip.) ... irrewoi-pisnctJahaiDi"- 

Opgann ml^cin; *p inoi if Orjo- ticgcnCoco:coi pocccocccpicmilio 

rtvm tr ainm concLvt;)) o>cc«ti ciul. ca^«)T>o vi niacoib 1|i>act piccccoli 

Aft poatppchur- nabia inoppo rn acar snaci^saw na pTatm t>tgptXi 

tiAtnm cciM>l,a£ «o ce^ cpoic Ait, ip cend6 coijirniupc ocojt. Cpian vxpn 

ocepa 4tni« ccnDl.A( cnch.i cpmcv. pii cLauif; C]>iaii pi<< cpoic; cpian 

CtCvpa, .1. pfccopftli)-. '" Ijhuhoi- nc<T\ cljif aca|" cpoic. Ifoouaf 

4c, .1. lepr')" "' ri^'oop ro^pJlU11l- wip dii"i ip ppaLfflur wwro* aipiCc, 

T)ibi tlaaLaC-pvic VMTQC,.). cocap- 4car ^acaicccp hi cpaic. dp t>o 

tpiwcap o a 3(. cvcaib, r*n"«ip » J*- ^l" ""P *"•" IrCanc'cum wni ^nocal- 

mcfiulD, iMiacompacuc "a ««'<: ciM- Scao ppie cVai]", icip can^p o cpoic, 

na. fruipio ifTouaip bin abulg th if tiuu if oir* anTii if Caficicurn 

fu4iu : acaf ironouap pnnnai*, nnc ppaLmuroini a«popo cpoic A ul^ir. 

fopnit^n \K\'a\, iiioe. CJpmWitop Of bo ip ^T '"''" T CaTiocum ppal- 

tn mpc conua ainm t»cii Ituboppo, «" "oomjiil oo bepop Actaip hicpotc. 

oenc«p:irfcC«p 6 .x- ceca'b ati pafl- —Jbid., L IS. a. nud,] 


"»"• " The form of the Cithera at first", says Isidore, '"' is said to 
have been like the human breast ; because, as the voice [issues] 
from the breast, so from it [the Cithera] the sound ia emitted ; 
and it was named from that cause. For, in the Doric language 
the breast is called Cithara. . . . This is the diSercnce 
between the Psalteriura and the Cithara. The Psalterium has 
at the top [or upper side] that concave wood whence the sound 
is yielded, and the chorda are struck downwards, and sound 
from above [or at the top]. The Cithara has the concavity of 
the wood underneath. 1 nere are ten chords used in the Hebrew 
Psalterium, from the number of the Decalogue".""* 

Passing on from this glimpse of an etymological connection 

between the CruU and the harp of Greece, I proceed to the 

further consideration of the musical instruments of the ancient 

Gaedhil, such as we find them spoken of in our own ancient 


wt^oiii "^^^ °^** reference to the Cruit is found in the history of 

In the m\r the Milestans, who conquered and succeeded the Tuatha Di 

oH^'Sd^ Danann in Erinn. After the total overthrow of the Tuatha 

Di Danann power by the Milesians in the battle of l^aillte, in 
Meath, and the erection of their own power and government 
in its place, we are told (in the ancient " Book of Invasions") 
that tlie two leading brothers, Eimher (or Eber) and EreamJion 
(or Eretnon), divided the country between them, the first taking 
the southern half, and the second the northern half for his share. 
They next (as this record informs us) divided the surviving 
leaders, servants, and soldiers of the expedition, until nothing 
more remained for division but two professional men, a poet 
and a Cruitire, or harper, who had come on the expedition. 
The name of the poet was Cir, the son of Cw, and that of the 
£<m*<r ana Cruitirs was Cindjind. Each of the brothers put forward a 
cut lot! for claim to both, but at last they agreed to decide their preten- 
bw^f"* sions by lot. Eimher\ lot fell upon the CTuitire, and Erearri- 
kon'a on the poet The following quatrains commemorative 
of this curious event are quoted in the same ancient " Book 
of Invasions" ; they are also quoted by Dr. Keating from the 
" Psaltair of Cashel" :— 

'■ The two sons of Milesius of bright renown, 
Conquered Eire and Alba. 
Along with thcra hither came 
A comely poet and a Cruitire (or harper). 
" Cir, the son of Cm, was the fair haired poet ; 
The name of the Cruitire was Cindjind; 
For the sons of Milesius of bright renown, 
(*■<) Iiidare, Etgm , lib. ii=., cap. 22. 

His Cruit was played hy the Cruitire. 
" Thctic kings ornianj balUcs, 

Who took the soverBirrniy of Eriim, 

TUcy made the clear .Mprighliy conteotioQ, 

Eimhtr and Erfamhoa. 
" They then noblj- cast lots 

Upon the great profcsaional mcD, 

Until to the eoutncrn leader fell 

The tuneful, svcomplishcfl Cruitire. 
*' The BweeUloaa of Birinjj-iiiusic, bbiidnt-sa, valoiir, 

la the south, in the couth of Kriua oic fouadj 

It so shall be to the end of time 

With the illufltrious race of Etrntter. 
" There fcU to the share of the northern man 

The profcasor of poetry vith hia nolle gifi<- 

li 19 a inaiicr uf boast with the north that vltb thcni hua 

Excellence iu poetry, and ita ohlei' ohode".*" 
It u a singular fltcl to find tlint i>o early and so late aa the sunm 
time of the hol^ Cannae Mac CuUeannain (a.b. 1*00), the author "S'iiiuot''' 
of the " Psaltair of Casher, there should exist a tradition that ^'HmSiSS 
preeminence in music, iu blondncas, and in perisonal atrength, ^f** 
were of the moet ajicient times the peculiar naturaJ ^i(\6 of the 
Ebcrian, or soiilhcrn race of Ireland TUi» indeed is not the 
only place in which the tiame lact ia alluded to, for in an ancient 
Gacdncltc tract in my poescssioQ, which purports to be an ac- 
oouDi of a meeting held at Tara in the time uf king Diarmait, 
about the year a,d. .^50, and at which the celebrated FlnnUuui 
was present, that ancient sagt>, in ^cakin» of the characteristics 
of the west, east, iiortli, and south of Erinn, uses these words: — 
" Her eutaructa, her (iiin (or usaejnblies), her kings, her warriors, 
her professors, her wheat, her melody, her harmony, her amuse* 

'»"' [wfglBalt— 

Sabfac ervinn if dtltain. 
Leo vo ituo^cop aVte, 

Ctji niAC C»i-, *n plo potixi ; 
Ainm flon eViiBinn#CnM>p«wi 
l4 tnACAib niii« rnid'A ngCe, 
SvAphnair cpuic All ciiutopc. 

Ha rWchr coniol^ap no^c^rfi, 
5«brac Rts^e TiA liCpc^rn, 

■oo chnipfct cpiMtichon oo hwt 
ltn«n acr nti«Ti« nnlofHiii, 
Co fK*j\* von fiop «ii-o*4r 
VDft. II. 

C^Tubinnex ciuil, CAotne, <Df«m, 
IrvD*!', niotrp:e7iC Ciptnn; 
If «jnta6 biAf ^'^ bpiaC mbit. 
4g pot. di^ico^^ ci^ip. 
X>» j»*l.ii won pup ACoaTd 

Art toVl^ih ^uj* Jn ollbu^iA. 
A\ »or bA^A ciwC «o|*nAche 
Sor xtATiA Ac«r otWmnAclic. t>A. 
— O'CWy'a Book of InvMion, R.I.A.. 
t, 81< A tlifibtl]' dtSerent Tcnion gf 
tlib pwm luM bun alrcadv gtr«D in 
Tui. I. p. 4. Tbo editor did aoi wi*li, 
faowpTur, to omit 11 here, (•peciaUj' 
a* It jffDnSed liira ao op^oituBiij vf 
printirg Um origbiL] 





Mention o( 
Iba Crtdl In 

,mciiu, her wisdom, hor dij^Uy, her order, her Ictming, he 
teaching, her chftTnptoiisliip, her cb«»-pl»ying,hcr rashness, her 
piusion, her poetry, h«r fulvocacy (or lawyorship), ht-r ho«pi- 
tuUly, hur residences, her shipmnc, b«r fertility, »U arc from 
her soutliem parts in iho soutli ."*''' 

AHer what has been »iud in the last loctoie of the great 
Dmjhdit and his Cruit, and of Vaithn« and his three sons and 
their Cruita, and the Alilcfniin Cruiiire jnst mentioned, the next 
historical reference to the Cmit and its power, known to me. is 
found in a historical talc described in o fonner leeture.'"*' 
I allude to the anoient htstorio tale which gires an account of 
the early life and rortim^t oC fMhraid /^naiiue/t, monarch of 
Erinn about four hundred years before tlic Incarnation. 

The father and ffrandfather of this prince were murdered hy 
iiMbUMruli his granduncle, Cchkthach Catt, while he was yet a child ; i 
^TM^'^ he waa eommiltcd to the care of two letaincni of hi» fatlier 
UMjf mmi- house — namely , Ferceirtne, the poet, and Crai/tine, the C\ 

or harper. When the yonnff prince grew up, hia presence gam . 
uneasiness ic his cruel pmnaunclo, Hud )ii<> tutors foarinf* for htl 
safety, fled with him into WV-st Mimstcr, where tiiey were boa- 
pttahly received by Seoriatii, the king of Tir Mortha. Tim 
Scoriath had a beautiful daughter wbow name was Moriatk; 
and. OS oRon happens under sirotlar circumstances, an attnclh 
mcnt w» soon formed between thie young lady and the Lciaster 
prince. The mother soon detected thi- mutual partiality of ih« 
yoving people, and accordingly aho contrived so to mana^ her 
nouscnold arrangcmcnta, that they could never find an oppor* 
tnnity of being w lone together ulone as would allow them la 
give csprcsaion to tlicir thoughts. The young prince's (aithfid 
Eutoi's eaw clearly enough the state of affairs, and Craij'line, the 
Cruilire, determined to lend thuin his aid. At this time ScoriaA 
invited the nobles uf his territory to a great feast The young 
lovers immediately held council, througn the means of the poet, 
and the Cruitire, ttnd they formed a plaD of action. Whvn di« 
time came, the corapnny arrived ; ond in the course of the feast, 
the cup, tiie tale, and llie aong as usual went round. Crmftine, 
the most famous of harpers, was requested in his turn to j«r- 
form, a request with which he readily complied ; but graduiilly 
he led them on from a joyoufl to a more seductive strain; and 

'*'*' [ariginal I— A her"*- * horn4> 

(lAijiniiCTiiv, A \^X> ^ ro^tax*), a 
« Tttttt, A Wfccixv. « ptrAectic. A 

A crai%ta'ti, A'^A xjcrcetic onwe^r. — 
U, 'i. 1«. ooL Tie. mU. I and 1). of 
Ltfan, t. 377. b •.] 

<*'>' [Sw Lcct. 00 the H8. Mate. 
riali,<tc., p. 351.J 

jurciCHT BRlirit. 


were Oioec wliicK always followed tlie Saan- ^""- 
It sleeping mode) : the qucm ana all the company were woMin oi 
Ito a happy 6tat« of luiconsciuitsDCss, nnd tlie ynung ihehiabTied 
Itimc enough to open their minds in wonlB, and pledge I^E^iil? 
of love and Gdelity to each other. The queen (^" « «*•■ 
as the first to awaken from the trance into which 
|}uid llirown his audience ; and Although she found htn" 
ntill innocently reclining at her ^dC| stiU (says (he 
' cncsscd alt that had happened, and quickly roused 
ill elumbcTinp husband : *' Arise, Scofiath", said she, 
^^tcr rcapircs the breath of a plighted wife ; hear her 
r tlio seeroc of her lovo has pasaod away from her", 
fnot who has got it", Raid the king, " hut the dnuds 
netB shall lose ihcii heads If they do not discover who 
"lis". The talc goca on. " It would he u disgrace to 
?",Baid FerceirlHf, "to putthineown people to death". 
[ shall be struck off thee", mid king ixoriatJt, " if 
not tell me". " Tell it", said [princcl Lahntitl, " it 
that I filono should .tuffcr". It was then Fercfirlnt 
[>ncc&I not that it was the musical Ceie of Crai/line'i 
put upon the hosts a death sleep, so thnt friendship 
cd between Stain [tlmt la Lai/raid] and the youtb- 
of Morca ; Labraid is above all price. It was 
[Boid he, *' that embraced her after yon were all sent 
Crai/tifts'i Crnit". He (the poet) saved his pcopta 
^ IS. " Good llicn", said [kinK] Storiath, " we have 
ght of a huaband for our daughter till thin night, so 
,vc wc loved her ; but though we had been choosing 
teoiild not select a better than he] whom God baa sent 
m banquet be ptcpared in the house", said he, " and 
pe be given away lo LnlTttul; and I shall not put 
t until he ia king of Leinater (ZciV^Ain)".'"" 
ife was then given to Latmid, wc arc told; and some 
a muster of the men of Munstor was made 

' A^A cai anAl.mnd'Lar- 
! A hopiaiu tApnwtdin 
Atn. ... Tit cnitfedr cid 
nnn ootid niiuinil) acaj 
Hib o]trc mam pnco^t cid 
jb'n a"iim o%iic, dji F(Mf- 

^ twera pen, «p Hcopiit. 

l^icVepoi. ni coLc ceir 
tpaic Clipjippir* coc'if- 

pei coil>n*«r '^*r 1**0 tWi"' tno- 

nwt ii*p Toixcdlf^iri} wu CHU1C CT\aip- 
cine. MomerwTOTii a muinccii a jv- 
mo. nlAii en* AjL 3G4t«acli| v\ 

copnnote, AfLA T*«pc Umn cta «o 
bemiT im fog* fOi*» - . . t>t> ivxo 
vio-onn. txmcip '"l 'P" cic, <»|»ns 

Idicvn— n. 2. I6.e(i). 7&S, mill. ; find 
H- 3. 18. f. SOI. b. b.J 

16 b 


commiuid, witli wliofn ho marchGii 1 
M(Ti>ti»»»( LcinsU.-!'. He ndvunccd to llic walb of Diadrigh [ni;ar LtUh- 
tbcUMwiui •7A/tfin, ur Loi<<iillii, iu tlic roiiuty ufCarlow], tliu palace orUia 
J^D^^iS-' fa*J>cr and giaiidliitlicr; and \\kxk auain the tna^cal power of 
tuqfttotod- Crafftine't muHciil skill was called iulo reuuisitiou. When 
tbcy came to the ncapurta of IHndrigh, tbcy ucld a council of 
war, and the decision that tlicy canic to was, that Crai/ttiu 
should mount the ran){]«rl, nnd [>Uiy tlic sleeping stnin (Stian- 
traii/he) for the parties iusidc. whibt his own friends werv to Itc 
down with their lacc« to the ground, and their finocra in their 
cars, BO tliut tliey should nut near the music. This nae done 
accordingly; nnii the result of course was that the guards within 
vent aluuLditurud, and the palaoe taken. 

Jforiath, Lat'Taiii'i young wife, however (nays the atoryX 
did not think it honourable to put her fin^jer? into her east 
aguiii^l her own cherished mii^c, and thciefore she fell into a 
s^ep which continued three days ; for no one dared to more 
her. This circumstance is preserred In the following quatrain, 
quoted in this very ancient tmct, from the poet Flnnd ifae 
Lonain, who died in the year 891 ; an extract which sutlicienil/ 
marks the great anticjulty of thb celehrated tale: 
" In the same way that noble Moriath slept. 
Before the hosts of Morea, a long repose ; 
When they destroyed Dindrigh—ixx ungollant deed' 
When the head-sleeping Ce\» sent forth its music*.*" 
1 gave on a foniKr occasion a fiill accoiuit of this ancient 
talc of the destruction of WnrfngpA;'**" and I Introdnoe this refe- 
rence to it again, only to call pordcular attention to two p«s* 
Bagps 9o remajkahle as to the ancient Irish Cruit, and the tone 
u underfill muncal strains, or feats of per Jbnnonce wliicb marked 
the CfiHWrs of eminence. Of tliomsclvca thcFc rcforcncea would 
give us but very little actual knowledge of the precise ohoraciei 
of tile Cruit, if the word Ceis, which occurs tJirco tinies Bt 
PCIiolU remote from each other, in connection with the Cruif, 
did not occur also in another piece of composition of a penod 
lying somewhere near midway between these periods. 
t ayur- When king Sionalh tiiKawned Fervdrtne with the losi of 
•Mil C4t4 m Ilia head, iJie poet's words were these : I conceal not that it w»8 
**"' the musical C'eu, of Craifiine'a Cruit, that put upon the hosts a 
deuth sleep", etc."*" This, the flret oociurencc oJ the word Cat 


<»" [otlfHral:— 

tH4«oitcT)ino)t>g— p«m 
T>i«rvpAinv coir wmvcolV 
— 7W. H. 2. ] e. Ml. 7fiE, bot.] 

"**< CSee Leotujw oo MS. Mate* 

fcot; riil», «C.. p. afit.] 


<■»" t8w«»iB,»oLil,p.«a,] 

thiUThKTe met mth, is rcforred to a senteneo nid to htTC been ,. «»"• 

fiuu;u9 VI uiu rum uioaicia ■ it ouuuio b^ili utiucr uudc Wl c,b f„i 

the year 592, in rererence to iho piusagc to which ntwntion ia *■»■'>«; 
now to Ix; direclcd, tlioitgh, I fvar, in a diecunivc way. 

In a Ibrmer lecture, I gnve am account of the National As- 
Kubly cftUed by tlie nionuoh Aedh Mae Ammin (a.d. 573) 
with a Tiew to banish tbe eiirplus professon and students of the 
Kieaoee out of the country, in consequence of the too great in- 
crease of their numbers as a privileged class, and the exorbi- 
Inusc of tJicir dcm&nds npon the working people, and held &t 
Dnm Ceat (near the prewnt town of Limavady [LetmrOrilKa- 
cbnaA], in the county of Derry). 

Siu CoUtm CiUeXwr'xn^ heard of this meeting and its objecta, 
and being a great patron of Htemtnre, csmc over from his island 
boue at /, or lonit, whillicr he bad relired from the world 
to appease the king and (he people, and quite unexpectedly 
appeared at ibe mooting. The poete at this time, with Dalian 
For^U as their chief, were collected in all their numbers, in 
the vicinity of the hill of meeting, anxiou9ly_ awaitin? their fate ; 
bnt tbcir anxit'ty was soon relieved, as their able advocate had 
BO much influence with the nioniuch and his people, 08 to pTO* 
care a aalisfactory tcTmiuatioa to the misunderatanding between 
them and their po<-ts. 

The poct«, on Icaniing this happy turn in their favour, arose 
with their cbielsi at their bead, and went in a body to the meet< 
ing, each man of them who bad a company (tbal is, who was a 
master) having a lau(bttory poem for the saint; and the chief of 
each band, we arc (old, aang hi» poem (all in chorus) ; and v1 1(/^', ^(iiir. ar 
that is Corut Crondin, (that is. wientific purring chonu) waa the ST^^IT*" 
name of Uiat mmdc [i.<. tlic air to which they sangj and it was J!^„",""'^^ 
the most excellent of music, as Colman Mac Lrnene said: vtui i>Mnt 

" As the blackbird to the swana, m. c^i^"* 

As the ounce to the Dima, S*/""'" 

As theshnposofplebeiitn women to tbc ibopcB of queens, tiri 

As any o(hcr king to Dovmalt, 

Asanngto munniir to lui Aidbii, 

Aa a ruabliglit to a candle, 

So is any other sword [compared] to my tword*."*" 

<••*' [original;^ 

,1. \)c|ioli no lam, f-ap|UT> n« nct« 
Lum DC hcotAib, 

wmgi o tJinnAib, 




Iha tntbM 



That b to sav. aooordiug 1o aii interlined gloes on these Une* : 
as tlic blaokliirdg arecontemp^lile ncorthegnajis; astheooDoc 
ia conii^iDplible Dcar the Dirna; [the name for a Urge mass of 
metsl] ; us all kioga are coiitompLible near kiog Domnatt; aa 
all music ia contemptible uciur tbu J idbii; u one snuUI omdlc 
IB conlc'tupliblu titTur a tar|>o royal candle ; to was any other awoni 
oontciQpbblc (wmpurcd to his own sfrord. Tlic swoni would 
appcaT lu liuvc teaiii a. present from aome great man to the poet. 
It will be tcca that one of thcac seven lines (quoted from some 
ancient poem) cites au example of llieir auuiot'* low esUnwie 
of nil kinds and com blnataoiu oftnunc compared to tho AidM, 
which vfoi that which waa auiig hy the poets Fur St. Colum CUU. 

Tlio word AidOni in its simple, otdinary signiGcation, means 
nothing more than grt-ut^ or greataess; hut, in its technical mu' 
eicol Blgnitioutiori, it means tho singing of a muldtude in chorus- 
It would uppeur, however, tliut the AiJbM waa nob tbe muuo 
to wbioh the body of the poem in praise of St- Colum CiU« was 
■uiu. Wcauac this was the perloriuance of cuch pvrsua for him- 
8C-UV hut it was ill? tow inumniring ecoompaminenl or chorus, 
ill wliich the crowd took pan at the end of each Tcrac, and 
which, fioin )t0 name of Crumdii. must huve been produced in 
the ihroat, like the purring of a cat. The irord -iidi^ would 
appear to have been used ulao to denote the htmcntutiou at great 
iiiuoralfl, whore ono man or onu womau sang the praises of tba 
dead to a specially appropriate air. oi^ which many varictiea abll 
live, and in which the whole concourso of the fiuusral took ])an, 
hy taking up along with the lunger, at the end of each yerse, 
this curious, munnuring churuis; thu etuund of which, though 
produced in tlie throat, wa£ not unmusical or monotonous, but 
one capable of various modiftcatioiu of iliatinct. musical tonee, 
ascending from the deepest baas to the highest treble. 

I have, myself, olVn heard nidi pleasure this CnFuufn, oc 
throat accompnninicnt, -without words, performed to old llish 
dirges; ivnd 1 very wt^ll know how it was produced, and coutd 
even attempt an imiution of it. But, 1 have never heard the 
concert; and I have known < 

iy simg 


cn6C* bArt r\Actct o cjiochiib pignA, 
pig ic "OomriALl, 
.1. oorujiT. c^i ttol ifAf^D iHobp, 
■DUpV ic Aitjbp, 

•t. ioe|\&iL ocii*Ainn«lt bee >ii fApiXAw cimle mttf* 
AOAtlV oc C«>inill1l, 
.1. oWoeV 

cole OC mo choilcTe. Acaj* innoeneic "oo giiicir ifl cec 
fin Leabhar »a h'Uidhrt, T. 3. a. b. line 6-3 



who were profioicDts in it ; one of them was my own father ■ the 
odier was Jolin Molony, a younger and beUcr pcrfonner. Tliey 
wen both large men. My ra.ther sang Itish 9ong» bettor than 
■ay man I ever knew; but John Molony coulu dol &iug at 

Many of our popular vrntcra spealc of on old woman " oron- 
ing" io the coraer ; they mean by this that she is humming some 
»&rl of a Uuie. The word " croning*, however, ia a migoppUcd 
and ehoTtened form of" cronaning", which is an Anglicised way 
of saying that dhe wm anging u Crom'm, which, aa 1 Lave just 
said, wa3 not hummiDg, but a kind of purring. They have gone 
so far indeed aa to form a generic noun from the corrupt word 
" Cloning"; and the word " crone", aa an old TToman, is now to 
be found in the Engtiiih dictioaaric?, on the presumption, it may 
be observed, that every woman is old who hums in imitatioo of 
the old Irish Cfviuin / 

There may be many persons ettll living in Tarious paiU of 
Ireland, who have heaixf this Criiiuin from their fathers; and 
there may be eome who can produce it ; but in my youthful 
days, ana within ihe range of my acquaintance, though I have 
known many to attempt it, I never knew but the two persona 
already mentioned who succeeded in iu 

The same practice of lauding ^e Living and lamenting the 
dead, and in the a&uac way, was anoientW iblluwed tn Scot* 
land; but what in Ireland wa« c&ltcd Ai<U>si, was there called 
Cfpd^. This word CejM^f/ was well known iu Ireland too; 
and It is singular to find tlial in neither country is cither of 
these ttotia uow lemembercd. Both words, however, arc entered 
in O'Reilly 8 "Irish-Eiigli*h Dictionary", b«t without mniclent 
explanation; aud Stewart, in hia '* Gaelic Dictioaaxy", hw the 
vord Aid/tbfui expluinctl in the game way as O'Ueilly, but he 
hat not the Ctpi^g. Thikt the word CeDiig for a song of praise 
or elegy, waa well known in ancient Ireland as in Scotland, will 
bo seen from a short story, preserved in the " Book of BaUymolc" 
[which will be found in Lecture xxxvii., whtrc llic words AUlfni 
and Ctp^ arc very fully discussed in their approprintc place]. 

But to return to St. CoUm CUU and Dalian Forgall. Tiic 
poets having ehaiintod their linidatory poomy and pertonuod their 
wonderl'ul aiu»cul stnuu for thuir Iriund and patron, thu chluf 
poet of Krinn and head of al) the others, whoiie name was DaU 
MO For^U, that is ( For^ali Clic blind), came forward chaunU 
ing the commcnci'menl of an exleinpore poem iu pruie of St. 
Coium Ciili. But when he had sung the first verse of it, the 
euat 8top[)cd liim, saying that tlie struin was an elegiac one, and 
should not be composed until afkr his death. And he further 

arliiin at i 



knvwa In 



lilt WVfll 

Cif ta kiiovn 
IB IcaUiid 

His Aaciu- 
b)y of />n« 





Oic vard 
oceuTi In 

tot Oil 

M nhaTn by 

■ KtinllmTi 

sud to the pocl: " In whalcTcr pkoc jou iire, you stall ht 
my dcBtli wliPii it occurs". 

After this tlic meeting of Drom Ceat broke up. St. Cofwn 
Cilia retorniMi to his liome at /, or lona, and Oie poett di»- 
pcraed thcmsclvca throughout the country, in strict ftccordanee 
with the trrangementa made far them at the great raeetinp. 
Now, sevpn years after that event, the chief poet Dalian For- 
gaill was travelling witJi bis rtitinue in ihc nc-ighbourhood of 
Lodi Voir (now Loch Owcl, uc^r the prcsonl town of Mutlln- 
gar in Wcstmcoth), and ihcy were oTCitakcn on the rosd by a 
strange honeman. Soma of the poot> pooplo aslcod the sUsnger 
if he nad any newv; and he answcivd thst he hiid what was bad 
news for the Vi NexU (that 10, for th« people of Meath and 
UUtcr), for that their crcat patron St. Colum CitU was dead 
The inomeut the chlcipoct, Dalian Forgtilt, heard these words, 
he recollected what the saint had told him, and that he alao 
charged him, that the very words in which his death shonld 
be announced to him, eliould be the words with wliich hi* 
poem on hi» death sliould commence; and immediately the 
poet oommcnccd in the word;) of the ttranger: 

" It Ifl not good news for the ft iVriW"."'»»_ 
And making stnii^lit for Port Lomon, on the brink of 
above lake, had finielicd his poem when he amvcil there _ 

It is in this very aiictent and celebrated po(.>ni that the pas- 
sage occurs to which I desire to direct notice : for in the nine^ 
teenth lino the puot doKrihca Ireland and Scotland ntier the [o^| 
of their great saint in these woixls ; ^ 

" A Cruit without a Ceu, a church without an abbot*."* 

TIjat the Gn* mentioned here, as well as in the former re- 
ferences to it, in tlic storv of the princess MoriaOi, and Craif- 
tine's Cruit, in represented as an esBcntial part ol'tlie harp, and of 
remote antitjuity, n-ill bo apparent from the ioUowing gloss, or 
rather comincntaty on iho al»vc line a^ Dalian ForyalCa poem, 
as it is found in the JJaabkar va If Uidhre, of which the cxistiaf 
copy was made before the year 1 1 06. And it is strangu indeeu 
that at thi» early lime, and while tlic harp or Cruii \m still the 
dielinguishin^ lualriiuieui of the naliun, that any doubt or diffi- 
culty couid cciBt as to the prociflc signification and u»c of the €eit. 

Ihua speaks the commentator just alluded to : '* Cm, that is. 
a means of fastening ; or a path to iho knowledge of tho musi«; 
or Cei» is the name of a small Cruit which accompnnice a large 
Cruit in co-playing; or, it is tho name of tho litljc pin (or key J 
which retains tnc string in the wood of the Cruit; or [it is ' 

•"*' roriiJnal;— h* wn;**'!- o*'b n*ilUl 

«••> [oiigUial:— 1r «T>nt CtTt C»ir> T "^ «»' *b4TO.] 

nxme of] Ow CotMui^ [lliu two iitriogs calloil llic slaters] ; . 
or it is the natiw of the heavy string [or bft»J ; or, the Cm m 
the CruU is nJist keeps ihc counlcrpart with lis strings in it, as 
the poet said, ihaL is, Mm, tho eoD of Find, CtiCtnit ; or Fer- 
ceiring the poet: 

" 1 conceal not [said ho] thai it was the Cei$ of Cra^me's Crui( 
That thrciT the host into a death sleep. 
Until Lahraid mid Moriath ol' Morea were united; — 
Beyond all price did elic prizoXair<ii'(/, 
Sweeter than all the music was the Cruit, 
Which vrta placed for Labraid, Loingaiuch hpre; 
Though tJic prince was before that dumb, 
Craiftine'9 Cei» wii* not cone^aied".'"" 
Even thcae sUmzas have un interlined glow, but it could not 
he made appreciable lo the ear; and I must al^o indoed admit 
that it is diniutdt for a popular audienee to eatch the forcu and 

Jioint or to necessarily stiff and closo a translation as I Imvi) 
uund myKlf bound to give of bhi> important commentary. 

It may be perceived that th« commentator quotce two 8tan»i« ■ 
iroro Ftrceirtfu'n answer to king ScoHath, the father of the prin- ! 
cess Moriath ; but he appears to be uncertain whether the words ' 


.1. ceil" **' *r^Ut>4, no CO' «ipf »n 011111.; 

If c^uc cen ceij*, \v cell cen Abditi, 

.1. c^tr '<""< v*> '^pu'c tiio \i\y I coTTidtCG<c ciiuice in6pe htcompnmi 

no iinm j»/n ■oelw'ii bic jxjfcjf m ccic tummuoc n* cihjcd [ 

no TKina foblAipTt ; rio ainm tian cpom teci no tp in ct^y tpn opuic 

*ti Tit cumgbjf tti Let^iirm satw rirjili tno, UC WJKiC poeCA, nof 

wiac prn-o cfcinic ; fio VepCejicne pl«. 

.1. ni nodcil nnf mac piin<o no VRpCci^cnc pit. •!■ cfkuic^r^ 
tliccic ccif ceol oe cpuir C{UMbcme 

.1. no luc .1. b^r coDdLcd 

copeLd-pcAf po]t ptuAgA piAnbdf 

.1- V 
conrqic coibniur, ccep fceo main Itlopiaec ni«n>«chc 


.). Vdbtuwo Voitigpa£«]\bA%«tb 
l>Amo 16 cecr "Log 'UvbpMu, 
b* binnui coft ceoL in cpoc 

•1. LAbjUto \.Oflgpuo tn&c •\iLi<fV tn«c t>(rg >n«« UCAitii inw|i 

Ai\per:e "Uvibiwiiio Loingpic Lo|ic. 
•It ci«p bo baVb pemi pn 
ciapbotiote yoji putie tn pt 

ni fo 6ebc'ceip C|iAipcini, — T^abhar na h-Vidhre^ f. 6. a. 
a. top.J " • 





In ill uidant 
Mpl» ot lb* 
clenT on K. 

fiatiulian in 
Ki It 1. 1«. 

wore really to bo sBcribeJ to Feritirtne, or to Nos, tbe kmi 
Find, a poet to whom 1 have ocvt^r met aav other alluson. 
Attd this a&cen&intT pUc«s the antiquity ana authenticity of 
the old tale of the Destruction of Dimlrii^h in a much higher 
and mora importiuit light; because, if its tnulition or histoij 
had not been of remote antiquity, there could scarcely be any 
doubt about the identity of tlio poet at the early time at whiclt 
thia commentator must have Uvcd. And we further collect 
irum this commentiiry, that there must, in ancient times, have 
existed a much more extensive and detailed version of the de- 
strucdon of Dindrigk, than the short condensed tract which I9 
now extant; and that it coutaiued a whole poem of the charac- 
ter of the additional ancient stanza quoted m this commentary, 
— that stanza which declares that " S\reetvr than all musio was 
the CruiC, which Craiftin* played. 

It is strange indeed, aa I have already observed, that at so 
caily a date as about the year 1100, when out copy of the 
Ltahhar na k-Vidhn was mode, there ahuukl have buen any 
ditliculty aa to Uie precitic signiiication of the word C<ia; ana 
not only then, but when liie '* Liber Uymnorum" waa written, 
which was about the year 900 ; and not only at that time, bul 
nt a time much Tarthcr bach— in fact at whatever dme Dalian 
J'orffali'a elc^'y for St. Cvlttm CUU flrst came to re^iuirc ui ex- 
planatory gloM. It la not only in the copy of thia celebrated 
poem preserved in LeabJutr na h-Vxdhre that the gloss on the 
word Ceu is found, h\it in all the ancient copies oi' it that I ara 
acquainted with, and which amount to four, namoly.that alicady 
referred to in Ijtahhur na k-Vidhre^ another in H. 2. IG, or 
the " Yellow Boole iif Ltctn, in tlie library of Trinity College, 
Dublin ; another in the " Liber llymnorum" in the same libiaj^, 
and nnothcr in a vellum MS., liitely piircha'-cd by the Itritish 
Mit^eutn, ut the sale of Mr. William Monck Mason's libnU7> 

The quotation and commentary that I have just quoted, aro 
taken, as 1 mentioned, from the ancient Ltabhar na h-Vidhre; 
but the following version of the same commentary is taken irom 
the other ancient copy of the meeting at Drom Ceat, and the 
poem on St. Golum CrW«, preserved in the " Yellow Book of 
Lccan", in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

This version is as follows: " A Oruit without a Ceit (are I 
land and Scotland atW him), that is, without a means of seeuri 
the strings [below], that is, without a knot [on the ends of tho 
strings]. Or without Cobhluiffhe [that is, the strings called the 
sistersT; or they are a CruU witliout a heavy atriag [a baas], 
or a Cruit witliout a string of knowledge such as Cairbrt the 
harper had ; that is the string of knowledge, which waa itt; 




Cair^e's harp ; [mi whenever he struck thai gtriog] there woa «««■ 
not [mm the lismg of the sun to ita going down any secret of 
which he wuignoruit- Ireland and Scollandt tli^n, arc a Cruit 
without B Cm aSUit him [St. Colum CiUe], or, thxt it was tur 
ft small Cruit, Cei» "vw the nitine, and it was atuap with a large 
Cruit it ujed to be played ; for the Gu« airings were in the uubU 
Crmt, and the heavy siringg in the giett Cruit, and it was to- 
gether thcr were pkyed; imd Eriitn and Scotland arc [a*] u 
Cruit witfiout a Cat aAer him, as the poc-t said, and it wiu 
Dalian himself that sang : — 

'* Thu cure of u jihvflician without a medicine-bug, 
The parting of the morrow from the hooe, 
Singing with a Cruii without a Ceur, 
Such are we alWr our noble protector". 

" Or", continuca the commentator, " it was & CruU, withoat 
anyone of the three luninga (GU»a) which served to Crai/tint 
the harper, duqcIv Suaniraig/i, and OoUraigh, and Gentraigh, 
for the sleeping, the crying, and llie laughuig mode*]".'"" 

The copy in the Briu«h Miieeum adds nothing of value, ex- 
cept the words fastening hclow, inxxoduced into tue last veraion. 

The following ia the short version in the "Liber Hymnorum": 

" Cat ia the name of a email Cruit which accompauied a large 
Crvit at p'*y'"K "pon; or the name oi" a nail on wliich iLo 
strings oallcu Lclhrind were flutcncd ; or the name of the little 
pin; or the name of the [striuyg called the] Cohkluiglie (oc 
ststers); or tiic naiuv of the heavy stiing".'"*' 

The wold Lelhriad wc shall come to presently; it means 
here, probably, the treble strings- 

Among llie other parts of the harp which the commentator 
Biiinusee the Ctiii to have been, were the CoMduiffli^ and tlie 
L^tkrmd. Kuw, the word Cobkla, which is the singular of 

Tlo Af C(V«1[: cen jlef ^o ha cf* glo- 
cmjicipi, .1. ruancTiji5, scaf SO^'l^ 

SMS Id Lthtr 

<•■' forigliul; — df cpoc ocm ioif, 
A- cen CA« rAi]-, .1. ti«n •«|tpMtvm. 
Ho c«»» coVWigt i n« if epwic con 
citcMti c)<«te, no A)s:]i*"^ ^^ vtn> 
pf AiM&ii f o boi ic CAtjtbpt; .1. An 
tfrru pr T^ ^''' ^ C|\uic CaiftbiM : 
ocaf an Cdn -no gl«Airci> ah cn> 
pis tnhrt) o cuptba't CO puincft'o iii 
« n^mfif T><i. tr ep^oc ccn ceitj fif 
eipi 4c*f 4U)A TH.1 en*eAin, no com- 
AO OA Cfvic bic buo dtnm cop dcji)- 
vnAilLe pe cpu«c moip; no pwccA 
UAtp tM ^olocd tpn flpuic bi£, Acaf 
tiA cnom CcAt>A pi\ £|iuic moip, 4C«r 
«ni«iX no pmncoi; ■»S-»r *r ^p^'^ 
c*n i*o1. Bin* acAf AVOa to* fir, uc 
po*cA vtmc, Atur cotHAV » "OoLtan 

inrp nt. 
mijiH to 


Dk*. ar " tlA> 



irpa*5, acjf KWcivjis, iici4c pn AW 
AniMmjimi— H, H. IQ. gc>L AW.] 

'••'' [origioali — c«irAinmT>oejtutc 
btc hij hi comAicccnc cnuiei w^jn 
1i-)CA fwnrti; no Ainm oo tnji^mg 
A|\ A mbi m Leictiptno; no Ainm 
con Qel.gA<ti bic ) nv amm von* 
et>bt-itsib : no t>on qiom chwc— 
£. 4. 3. Libar ll^'inuonm (la amfA 
CoVmm), I. 32. h.J 


IMiiirini. or 

muaj. Hid 

Cohhluighe, ia explnined in our ancioot gloseaiies as CamA/nfA, 
tlial !!•, stDiullancous motion ; and it is in tliie sense UuU C^>iiiA- 
iadk is the ancient name of a door; because, aa at«t4^ in Cor- 
mac's GlosMjy, it moves simultanuousJj upon its hiogea abora 
and below. 

It is remBilcablo that in Hw long Bpocrvphal list of tKe 
nametf of the harp strin^js, crinlcd by the lato Edward Bunting 
in his " Ancient Alnsic of IreUad", the word Cobhlwght occurs 
twice. Id the tirat place, at pogo 21, concealed undur the 
slightljr corrupt orthoOTaplij m Caomhluighe, and translated, 
" lyini; togelher" ; and, in the second place, at page 3£, 
where it is correctly enough written comhluightt anatnn^ 
lated, " stretched together". There can be no doiiht, then, that 
Bunting's Caoitxhluuiht, and our commentator's Cofihluiffhe* 
mean one and the same ihinv; and the following foot-nolc 
in Bunting's book, page 2\, will very wcli mwtttain the et)-mo- 
logy vhicn I have vnntiired to give above, aa well us tlic idcn* 
tity of the Qamcs of these nrinps : 

" CaomhiuigAe, called by tlie harpers * the sistert', were two 
strings in unison, which were the first tuned to the proper pitch ; 
ibcy answered to the tenor (J, fourth string on tlie viotiii, and 
nearly divided the instrument into bos and treble". 

That the priLCbco of harmony — the uee of the musical chord, 
existed lu Ireland trom a very remote period, is clearly shown 
in the commentary given above, where the writer at one tiioe 
surmises that, perhaps, Cms was the name of a smell harp which 
BCconiponied a large harp; indiciiiin^'; that the large harp coa- 
taini'd the hcflVT or bass string, whilst the small haip contained 
the thin or treble stringi>, and that it was together they were 
played. Now, the liarmonious unison of tlie twu harps, when 
playing together — small string aadnst large string, and largo 
string against small string — cxnctlv produces musical harmony. 

It IS evident that the word LtiOtriud, or half harmony, wai 
not originally intended for cither the large or the mtaaU harp, 
but for 8 constituent part of a single haq>— naraelj?, that part 
which held cither the uoas or the treble striugSr divided by tho 
eobhluiffht, or "sii<tera". 

Along with tliia, in O'Davorcn'a " Irish Oloesary", oompilod 
in the latter half of the sixteenth cenluTy. I find iho word rand, 
i.e. music, with correapoiiding music against it"."**" In other 
words, Jtiiul was music consisting of iuliiiarmony, while Leitff 
rind, or half AtVif', waa one or cidier of the two corrc!'ponditig 
ports which produced the hnimonious whole, and these parts 
were the boss and treble notes, or the boss and treble strings — 
""' CdflBal: — ftinn .1. caol co e«t1>oiiif in« agftio.] 



the Trom Thc*i<f<i, and the Goloca, or the heavy and the ihin 
Blriugs, i'lthor of which, ihe commentator on DaUau Fortjaiita 
clugy OQ St. Coium Citie suimucd to be the Ceis mentioned in 
that puciD, and without whicb the harp had lost its life and 

So far I have endeaTOurcd (o give a despription of ihe harp, 
and an idoa of iti miuical powcre, auch as 1 could Tranie from 
the Btoterncnis found in our most ancient hi.ttoric tale? and 
Tomaatic wriliiiys. 1 am sorry to have U> acknowledire, how- 
ever, lh»l I am not able to QL-cidL- with certainly iipfin what 
the Cm of the CruU pnwisely was ; but why should I take 
btame to myself for my ahortcomtngs on this point, when we 
tee how unc«rtiiin wen; tlie wntunt even, of the eleventh and 
carlitii' ccaturica aa to the exact mciuun£ of this same word? 
All thta difficulty of undewtiuiding this ancient t^sim, howuver, 
goo« to show the cictnjmc antiqmty of the harp, cither as a 
complex whole, or aa furiued of Lwo in<lt.-pciident but imperfect 
parts — namely, the largo and the small hnrpi), the combination, 
or the co-pbiving of which was necesaftry to make a perfect 
harmonious wnole. But, though I cannot »peak with authority 
aa to what exactly the Ceie was, yet there i» good ii-aaoii to thint 
that it was no material port of llie harp after all, but that tha 
word agniCcs simply the harmonized toned or tunc of the in- 
strument. We have seen that on different occasions, the father, 
mother, andhouieboldofthc princeKs J/(?riatA, and hRTeclfaAor- 
wardjf, slept profoundly under the ma^ncal apell of the CeU of 
Croi/tiM'a harp. Sumy it could not have been any material 
part of tlie harp, except the string Unit could have produced 
this extraordinary effect. Surely it could only h.ive i>oen the 
richncw of the lianimiiy of the jnatiumcnt as so played. It is 
noteaay to gay whether tlie word Cei» refei-s to thai harmony 
or that mode of pkying, or to a necessary portion of the parU- 
cular kind ofharp played on. 

Wc have »ecQ from the words asoribad to the poet Ftretirtna 
m answer to Scoriath, the king of West Munster, thai " I con* 
ocftl not that it was the CeU ofCrai/iin^'a horp" which Bcnt the 
king witli hia household to sleep ; and, strange to aay, we find 
the schohajiton thusc lines m the eleventh and earlier ocntune* 
quite at a loss to undersiAnd whnt ii was precisely that tliia 
word Ctis signified. The acholinst in LMohoT na A- Uiithre, 
copied before the year 1106. eurmi^ce, etymologically, that 
Cn> ia a condensation of the two words Cat Aituda, th&t ia, a 
means of lasteaing, or Coi dfit in citiU-, that ii, a path to the 
knowledge of the music; or uiat Ceia was the name of a small 
harp which accompanied a lar^ harp in co-playing; or that it 

«l»t CMi 



not K put «I 

HOIDIUjr tf 

Uio titv* rt 


UuortM u> 
mMnlat el 



Fonriii rarn- 
iviira latUg 
woril Ctuln 
an anoMmt 

vraa the name of the littlo pin which retains the string in 
wood [that IB, the harraonie curve] of th« harp; or that it 
the name of the strings which aro called " the sistcn", or of ihft 
boat gtcing; or that the Ceia in the liarp was vhat kept the 
coriQtcrpart strings of that part in their proper plac«« in the 
harp. Again, in thosehoUura on the same lino cf Daltan For- 
galte poem in the " Yclloir Book of Lccan", compiled in the 
year 1391, we fiad that a harp without a Cas was a harp with* 
out a mcan« of tigbtcuing, that is, without a knot (on the ends 
of the string hclow), that ia, without a fastening pin ; or withom 
a haw Btrinff; or withotit a string of knowledge rach as Cairin 
the harper (of whom I happen to know nol^ng more) had in 
his harp ; or that Ceu vtta the name of a email harp which was 
played along with a larn; har]>, for that the small strings were 
in the email harp, while tlie heavy strings wore in the lar^ harp; 
or that it wai^ a harp without a GUU (that is a tuning] of the 
tliree GU'sa which were known to CTai/liiie the harper, namely, 
the sleeping tunc, the crying time, and the laughing Wne. 

A fourth reference to the Ceia is found in llie rery ancicQl 
talc of Tcghail BrnidhHe Da Cho^, or the Dostruction of the 
niamrion of the Two Equal Masters, who were two smiths by 

It tuay ho remembered from fonncr lectures, that Fargm 
Mae lioigh, the celcbratod prince of ITletor, had exiled hinnelf 
in Conuacbt after the tragical death of the sons of i'imeeh 
while under bis protectioii, by command of Coneholtar Mae 
Ntna, the king of Ulater. Fermu wa? accompanied in his exile 
by Cormac Conloingis, sod of King Conchobar. On the death 
of the tatter, his ton Cormae wm invited back to Uialer, and 
having accepted the inritatlon, he set out IWm Hath Cruaeiam 
in Roeeommon, erosscd the Shannon at Athtonn, and soariit 
rest for the night at the mansion of the two smitha. (The 
ruined fori of thi* mansion is shown still on the hill of Entig' 
heart Mhor or the Qrcat Mansion, in the parish of Druma^y* 
barony of Kilkenny West, and county ot Wcstmealh]. The 
faouac woa beset in the night by the men of Leinater, and Ccr- 
nuxe. with the mo»t of his people killed. 

The tale of tliia slaughter relates that Cormae had been the 
former lover of a Connscht ladv named Sceonh, who afterwards 
became the wife of a famous harper named Cfoiftine; and it 
is stated that on the niglil of the attack on Cormac, Cmi/iinet 
in a fit of jealousy, attended outside with his harp, and msycd 
for him a Ceie Crndtoll, chat is, a head-sleeping, or a duhiUtut' 
ing C«*, OT tunc which left him an cosy prey to hia enemies. 

A 6fth reference to a Cruit, or liarp without a Cew, is found 



m aik tuieient poem of gonentt instiuctions to a now king. l>ut 
«W(lenlly intended for & Wing of Munster, probably for Cormae 
Mac CiiHeannnin in the ninth century, I'he pc«m consiflia of 
thiitT-w^ven (luatrains, in itie twcntv -third of which the poet, 
dilating on the advantages of a good king to liie people, Bays: 
*' This world is every man's world in nis turn, 

There is no prophet but the tnie God; 

liiltf> a compimy without a chief, like a harp without s 

Arc the people after their king".**"* 

Another lenti for iho harmony or proper tune of the harp was 
Coir <whieh literally «j,'nilie* propriety), as has been already 
shown io speakiof;; of tiie great Titalk Di Danann harp, and m 
the quotation from Dr. Kcating's poom on hia haipcr. The fol- 
lowimf pa83B|^ lirom the Brehon Laws will illustrate tliis fact : 

** Cctr is eonocalcd Erom harps wh«n on<.> string is broken, 
that is Coir it completely concealed from the liurp when ono 
■tring 18 wanting to it, so that iu harmony (or Ctneelttt) la dett- 
troyod, occordin" to propriety. The Coir (or propncty) of 
hannony i« dtMSolved, that is, the Coir (or propriety) of playing 
ia concealed, when one airing of the haip has been broken .'•* 

Now from all of the foregoing commentaries, and noiwitli- 
staadjoc their uaccrtamty ui many respcote, it is, I tliink, a 
reasonable deduction on the whole, independently of the words 
o^Ferctirlm and Mac Lonain, that t)ie Ceie was tho mere har- 
mooy of the harp, or that the word denoted only tho mode 
of playing upon it in harmony, that is, with a boEs. This 
point would seem to be in fact decided by the liut para- 
graph ofthcecholium from tlic " Vellow Bookof /-(fflji"*, which 
snppoacs the harp without a Ceis to be a harp without any ono 
of tho three GUta^ or tuuings, by which Crai/tint, as well ae 
the other older harpers, produced such wondcrAil effect. Kow 
it happens that the word Glet, which is here put for Ceis, has 
been a living word from the oldest times down to our own, and 
always understood Lo signily preparing, setting, or tuning; and 
not only this, but the name of the tuning-key itself i$ still on 
andcat record, and in such a pusition as to leave no duubt 


ridii ma. 

nata to ' 
in an ineii 

CMr ■nolli 
term for 

ijfkonf noi 

AuUior ma 
cIikIm that , 
Cait itmnt 
riihti l»r- 
tnnnf or thn 

plaj-tng vlia 
a lau. 


The word 


•chollnin In 
It Lid,* 

'■"» [<niginal>— 
AM bii>C-ro «f btoe c*t* Ap VMf, 

ni bpitL j*tt Aic pAii^n poT» ; 

ewipe c«n eenn, cjiuic g^n ceif 

rAtnAtCTiii cuAiC t>'cii' an pit. 
CCOWW Dwn M8S., Itl.A., p. 1P17 ] 

<•*•' [ofiififuU: — DicidlA^it coup A 

XCA1Q conbon^an Mm c6o. i. 
lI oiGVictuf « cOip «]! in qtuic o 

«ipiU:iiioc1i * couMcat aimpe oo 
pcip c6ip. Caicfcmichqv cwji « cw- 
cfiCAtV, .'. wicVic'icp coip, in cr«*n- 
m* olwv)T;ef aon c*t> ypn cpiiic- — 
H. S. 1?. 4af. ViJb im(<j<^c na r-iom 
TMiiViff, Uetbam USS., imi.,osx. n. 


""'■ whatever of what it was, and its close relation to the word GUi. 
The name of this instrument was Crann-GUta, or tuning-tree; 
and we &nd it mentioned in the Brehon Laws among the artictei 
for which there was a special law for their prompt recovery, if 
borrowed and not duly returned. Here it is called Conthohair 
gach ciuil, edkon Crann Glha, that is, " The instrument of all 
music, namely, the Crann Glesa, or tuning tree". [H. 3. 17. 
p. 403^.] With this instrument of course the strings were 
strictly tuned, so as to make it possible to play in full harmony 
of chords. 
the cnuM- And agtun. In a single stanza, some hundreds of years old, 
uo'Sei'in'*" preserved in a paper MS. of about the year 1740, in trie library 
mh'c^I''* **f Trinity College, Dublin, and prophetic of the decline of the 
'<»r; harp in this country, the poet says : 

" The Crann-GUasta will be lost, 
Strings will be thickly broken, 
The Corr will drop out of the LamJickrann, 
And the Com will go down the stream".***" 
thiipo«m This is an important stanza, for it gives us distinctly, what ia 
n^si of tha exceedingly rare to be met with, the names of the chief mem- 
pS'S?lji« ^"' or parts of the harp The Crann GUatta is clearly the 
™Pi tuning tree or key; the Corr is the cross tree, or harmonic 

curve ; the Lamhchrann ia the front pillar, and the Com is the 
ihecainuot belly or sound- board. The only loss is, that we have not in 
eiusea or*'*' this, or in any other stanza, the distinctive names of the difie- 
fiunf 'in'thii ''^"' classes of strings, such as Trom- Jliida for the heavy string ; 
■choiiumto Cobhluiqfie, for the strinirs called the sisters; and GoUca, for 
St Coimn the light strmgs. IJiese names indeed 1 have only met in the 
above scholium on Dalian ForgaWs elegy on St. Colum CUte. 

'"•' [origlnftl;— CjittpeAp on cpAOTi giidfco, 
biMiireop cfroa go ciuj, 
Cuicp* in copn ar m LitJifipann, 
1]' po£<iii4 &n com pe f^ud — B. 4> 20. f, 92.] 


tOMrv^ Jbh imi. un.) 

.) 0* Moiic Axo MiTSicAi. IicKTitrMKNTa (rnntintiol^ IWennce tath« 
iJiflcnat parte ol s liorp in » poem of tbc icvcnU-vnth century. Tbe nani- 
l>cr bt' itringt not cnentionod in ruEvrcnwit^tutriM, except In t«roln*tiinCM; 
the llrit U in the lab of tiis Jutar Mic Ainoit or the *• Ve* Tm» of Atac 
Amt/ti" : Lh« inalramcnt mcntkinul iu Ililt tale vtu uoi ■ CrutT. but h tbreo 

I atiifwcd n'mpan ,- the wcood^iic« ii Co )>« fuund in itie Boole cjf Letau, 
■ad tn* laitracncat ia eight atrinijiM]. Thu iiialruiut- [it calle>l " Brian tlciru^ 

* BartT IiM Uiirtv tiring*. Rv-firL-iicu' (u a mau^ atriofivil harp iu the mtvu- 
tcenlh ctftilury. At.ti^;iCi<:ii> pajil lo tlie )Mrp in (h« twelfth anil IhirtMinlh 
wnlorioe. lli'fen.'ii'Ces to iht.' Timpan u ht<> u the ipTt>nic«ntli ccnturj, 
praTiiiR U 10 hnvo been a atrioeed laUrunjent. TIid 7'ir'r/>nn traa illiLin- 
viiiahed iratn the CruiVor full li«rp. No vt-ry uoclent ham iircwrred. TIio 
Skip la Trinity CcUege, Dublin; Dr. Petrie'a account of ll^ vimmnTj vt 
Dt. PeOWi eondwlKia. I>r. Fetrio'a aerioiu charK« tgainat tbe ('hvTJtLcr 
O^Oomuji. Sttma corlona ro(ar*nc«a to hup* beloBging to O'Rrima which 
dw nttkor bu awt with : Mae CMmiAa'i poem on DmuKhadh CoMu-weA 
0%tM; Mac Comnvfht't jioeni •nthohnrpofthtMnieO'BrlMi;l1wpotai 
doaanoi explaio liovth? harp went to StrMtluDi). Wliatlwcameotf thiabavs} 
Wta tt tho harpprcorntcd by Ilrniy ihi' Ei^tli totho E^rlof ClandckaiuT 
FctlMM ll tajEpntcU Iho hwp-Goitiagv, which wu in circulatiou In Ueniy 
ih$ Eighlh'a t(n>«. Tlio Cheralier CQafman only uiUtouk ciuo Duuogli 
trUmn for another. Thsrooan be nodouM that thiabarp did once bolong to 
tlie Earl of Clnnriclcard. If the harp waa an ONe^III liu-p, how could tta 
■toiy bare \y»a iari>r>i«t1 and pnhlUhed in the lltetlrof of Ihoae coticemeii? 
Annur CMelll mny Hare pUjeil ujiod the lurp, bjt It coult) not have been 
Ua i thia harp la not an </Ntili, but no O'Brlua od« ; Dr. toulcfa antiqua- 
rian difficultic* : nutbiH^a anawer j a« to tlic coaaOjfr am 1. 11. S.;na tothoNnrni 
OB tho Mnitehfon. The oaacnlon of Dr. Piftha, that tbc arfit of U'N^U 
la mm iUuslriatu than ttiiU. »( LTBricEn, ii iiiuomw^ 

&T the doae of the lost Lecture I qaolcd a stansa contAining an 
^d authority for Uie natncs of tho tlirce principal parts of the 
Barn. But even in coraparativoly moderi) times also we may 
{£□11 authority for thesti names, and for the fonn of the inscrii- 
■Dent, which ecema to have remained the eaiae. 
; I have in my po^wsdon a curioiu poem of tvrcnly-dx f[va- 
jtraioB, written by l^ierce Forriter, of Ferriter's Cove, oq the 

emst of thi; county of Kerry, about the year 1640, on a harp 
hich had boeo pre^ientcd to him. Pierce Fcrriter was a gentle- 
man and a schoiar, a poet and a miijiician; and he wrote this 
tiuvdhctic poetn in pnuse of & certtun harp which was proacnted 
io Itim by Mi. Edmond ifac an Daill, the Bon of Mr. Donncll 
MfK an Daill, of MagU horcf, in the county of Roscommon, fn 
this poem he speaks of the harp under both the Gaedhclic 
names of Craxl &ud Clairttach (the former, of course, being by 
vol. II. 17 

IMhnnN to 

tliB dlffi-isn I 
harp IR a 
pens ufllM 
ag w a w Ui 

ReftrahM to 
Ui« illirirail 
uru ril ■ 
h^y in ■ 


TiiT the more ancient niiiae); and, u thcie are some int 
details inlruduced into his veiiws, I may quote a few Btanxas of 
them here. At the t«ntli ataoa, tbo poet, speakiag of LU barp, 
caJIs it — 

" The key of munc and it« gate, 

The weaUh, the abode of poetry ; 

Thp skiUtil, ncAt Irisbn'oman, 

The richly feetive rooaner. 
" Oiildnm in dire rickne«s, men in deep wounds. 

Sleep at the Bourds of il« ctimsoo txiard; 

Tlie merry witcli hai chased alt wrrow, 

The festive home of music and delight. 
" It found a Cor in » fniitfu! wood in [3/ajA] Aoi; 

And a JLamh'chraHn in the Fort of Sranfro^i,— 

The rich sonorous discoiuser of the musical aotea ; 

And a oomehr Com from Eat dd Ea^tm. 
"It found Mac ^thduiil to plan it. 

It found Cathal to be its artilioef, 

And Btanttfflan, — great the honour, — 

Got [lo do] its tiistenlngs of gold and its crablazomn^J 
" Excellent indeed was its other adomer in gold, 

PartUalon Afore Mac Catfuiil, 

The liaip of the guld and of tKe gems. 

The prince of decorators is PartAalon"."*'^ 
This harp, tlie poet saye, found iu Corr, tliat ia, ita harmonic 
curve, or crossticc, was found in the fruitful woods of Mt^h 
Aoi, in the plains of Roscommon. It found it3 LanJicAnmn, 
that is, its front pillar waa Ibund ac the fort ot SeatOraoi (a. place 
I Qin iioable t^ identify); and it found its Com, that iii, its sound- 
board wad found at />'<u t/a J'Jcconn, now iho falls of Balljshou- 
non, in the county of Donegal. In the same language he goea 
on to notno the artificers. So it was J/iio SiUtdutUthfA deaigned 
it, and CatJial that made It ; and it was bound and emblazoned 
br Bmnglan, and it was decorated witli gold and gems by Pat- 
Uialon Mor Mac CaOuiil. So that in this instjujce, so great wat 

If ctxciVi *om 6 Cap [«d] Coconn. 
pidi^ TT1<>c &iC4oit.1. c^ n"'Ao''V> 

tnait 4 lioi^i^6Aitu «ile ruin, ^M 

— M itccl1«iiMU« FofRit, cfiH'flf oopieit 
(roni Ilia D'Coniiur l>on's Book. 
O'Cuiry MSa, Ci:li. Unit-, p. 

lonnriinr, c»Ag n4 h^td^rtiA ) 
{et)n«4TiTi«6 btdT«A CiA«mait. 

covldiv HIT *ti coUaTv ccotvc]w ; 
«n bed ba^t) TionlinAn iiobpir, 

4C4f ViihftpAriti * ttof SotiCT\4(ii, — 
bii«Ay^46 mACHC Vonn oa cdtrf 




l3»e c*re bertowed on the manufacture of a Iiaq>, that it eii- _ ^xxn. 
gaged the prolcssioiml skill of lour distinct artisU, — the niodcK 
ler. the woo<l'Work«r arid curgK^iitcr, the biaticr and cmblazoucr, 
aod the deoorator ; tuid the Hervict^ of those artizans axo referred 
to as if their ocoup^tioim vrci-c ijl the usual course, each of tliem 
living hy his ovrn indcpendi'Tit nit. Tlie Khapc and genciul de< "Hi* numb 
Ogn of the uioicut harp, uud the luatet^als used in ita fritinc- nirne)"^ 
work, are then, frequemlv alhided to; but there is, unfbrtunal^ly, l!^"!^,*^ 
one great omiasion in iiU tlie references to the harp that I have ">" '" "" 
met with — 1 mean the absence of any alhision to the number 
of Etiings which it properly contained. I have, indeed, met 
on« or two references lo harps of a certain limited number of 
strings; but it is evident from their bein^rso particulamed, that 
they were exceptiona to the general rule. To tlicso referenoes 
I have next to direct your attention. 

The lirst of them, and wbich ia contained in the talc called /u- !!|"''7'^ 
biutr Jlic AinffUy or the Yew Tree of jt/ac.4i"(;u(which alludes iha"Y<w 
to B harp of the kind called Timpan), ia of undoubtedly great i^' f" 
antiquily, though the tale is one of those belonging to the most ' 

fabulouii class, &b far as the incident connected with the harp ia 
concvmod. The talc is pTe9er\'cd In Tery old Ungiiage in the 
" Book of LaiiBler', and may be shortly staled as follows : — 

OilioU Oluim (the ancestor of the gie&t famiLioja of auuth and 
north Munster, and who was kin^ of that province, died after 
a long reign, in tlie year uf our Lord 234), wu» married to 
Sailfibh (or Sabin), the daughter of the monarch of Erinn 
Conn of the Hundred Battles, and widow of Jfae S'iad/i, a 
distinguished I\<liui.tter prince; and iSad/iLfi had a son by her 
first husband, named Lugaidh, more popularly called Mac Con, 
and several sons by OilioU, her second husMJid, tho cldeal of 
whom was Eoghan AUr, or Eugene tho (ircar So much as to the 
pcn)oaaj;es mentioned in this story, which proceeds aa follows: 
" At a curtain time [thia] Eogiuin, the son of OilioU, [O/utm], 
and Lugaidh Mac Con, his stepbrother, set out to pay a visit 
to Art, the «m of Conn [monarch of Erinn], their mother's 
brother, who was then on a viait in Connacht, for the purpose 
of receiving somt- bridle-sleeda from him. Now, as they were 
passing over the river Maiah or Maigue [at Catterttsa, in the 
county of Limerick], they heard music in a yew tree over tlie 
cataract, [and eaw a little man playing thorcj. Aller that they 
returned Back again to Oiltoit with him, that is, with the [littloj 
man whom they took out of tho tree; becau&c they were diH- 
puling about bun [as to who should have himi, to that OiiiaU 
mi^t give judgment between them. Uc was a little man, 
wito three strings in hia Timpan. ' What ia your name?* [said 

17 B 


What bu 


tt* - Ttr matt 

u^Kl ye backr said OUioU. ' Wij arc ilisputiog about Uiis 
tt* [aaid iWy]. ' What «oil of man is be? [eaid OUiot}]. 
' A good timpanist' [said thoj]- ' Let hit miuie bo pUrod for 
us* ^id OUiolf], ' It dall be done', said he. So lic'})1ajfd 
for them the crying tune {GoltraigKt), and he pot them to 
crying and lamenting and tear-sheddlng, and he was requested 
to doust from it. And then be played the laughing tiine((f«n- 
traighe), till they laughed mth mouth* so vride open, tha^^^^ 
hut their Uing^ wore visible. He then played the >lfl^^^^| 
tunc (Suaitirau}he) for them, until they were cast into a 'Hi^' 
[ao deep, that il lajited] from that hour till the tame hour next 
day'*. '* He then", oontinuei the iiory, " went away from than 
to the place whence he was brought, leaving a bud feelinjr 
between thoin.stich m he pftrticuUny wUhed wiould exist".'"** 

The bad feeling which the hulc tjmpanist left between the 
■tepbrothen aroiie not fO much in regard to himself, as about 
the ownership of the wondciful yew tree in which be was found, 
and which appeared to have sprung up ^pontaneoitgly by necro- 
mantic art lor their misfurtune. 

The lemainder of this wild story is too long for my present 
purpOM, and il i» therefore sullicient to say, that the Iitue man 
was one of iha TunOta Di Danarm race from the neighbouring 
hitlofKnockony (CniK vli'nc). The famous Ttiatha V4 Domom 
lady, Aine, from whom this hill takes its name, had been Kime 
short time previously abused, and berscli' and her brother 
Kogabhal slain in a fit of anger, by king OiUoU Oluim, and !l 
was to have revenge for this do*d that the little timpanist, 
Ftr-Ji., thn son of Eogahhal, nuMrd up the phantom yew tree 
at the fulls of Caiier-OM, tti order to excite u uii-pute between tlie 
sons and the stepson of Oilioti. In this he succeeded to the foil. 
Oiliotl awarded the yew tree to hie own son Eoghan, and Ma*^ 
Con charged him with partiality, and challenged him, with afflfl 

(»») [ori^n»l :— V«it> t>4Ti Ve*« -»V«, 
Cogjn mAC A'lillA at*]" IrUgAio 
tnAc Con, .1. A coTiidLtcA ca Ape itiac 
Cuinn wdmbAi <(o<f, cuAipc CovrtbtK, 
oo Citbdipc cC rpWn fiiio, .1. bpacli- 
ai{\ T11ae•l1^■IKl eogiin. Occc^c voib 
I^ft a.n niAjJ CO ciul-iCAU m e*ol, 
intnoiij'ibj.ip'pobi" 0]'pii«*u. b»- 
|i4icl*o CO Vi-dibll. ji]ii»)ip,.i.inFcp 
Ciiq'AC *rp*w>mTT"! *|»bACAp ocim- 
pqrjitn imnic, oojipuc^o biicicli TK>ib. 

fV^ b«C, C|\l chic ItIA cTllTn)?^!^. 

CiACAinni ? 1^p-r^ <"Ac eosAOAiU 
Cionnbfmcii? Oj> diUlU drj^m 
ootmpe^'iinwiiiioi.'cpfi. CHinaf pf- 

Olio A c**t, Of AibVl Ooj^Ticap 
ojifo, ftof*f.4tn9 «6ib T^fl gnl* 
cj«iv», coTiAQ ci>[Ufr4ic ifi^aL, ai 
1 tsi/t, AC^f vq\f6miuo. Riigerf 
AHAO oe. nofmnti -oait, gcnc]i 

Mopeaji ecn*i aprj>tm. Itofrph^tn^ 
t)6ib Tjjin f^Annuigo coniMCo(tA^ 
ran if^^ii on C|ilrU ci>a|«Ai1.«. Ac> 
^^ult41]^eoIn lapprtTiio dlletJi th* 

ccuppn ap bjpjxfftit Veip— U. 3. 1& 

Ms foToes, ia x battle, nt a time to be fixed aftcrwdrfi. When xtkh. 
ttie appuintcd time caine, both parties mot at the liill of C>nn* 
Altrat, in ihc npifrhbourhood ofKiUiniin, on tlie borders of the 
tuunlifS of Cork and Limerick, where a battle ensued, in whicli 
Jdoe Con waa defeated, nnd forced lo lly ihc eotintry. He went 
into Scolliind. but m dome years a'tuructl with a Wac force of 
Scoltbh 01 Pictub and British udventurcTSt who sailed round 
hy the south coast of" Erinn, and cnterwl the bay of (lalwaf, 
and Uicre, in the neij^hbourhuud ut' Onumiore, at a place ealled 
Magh Mucruimfic, a battle waa fought between them and tho 
mooarch An and his forces, aided uy his nephews, the j«?vt;u 
SODS of Oilioil OCuim, and the forces of Alunst'-r, tinder tho 
leademhip of Eofftian idir, the eldest of them. This eelebratcd 
bAttle, which forms one of the cardinal points of tho history of 
the period, proved fatal to the rojal arms, the monarch himscEf 
hAviDg been slain in it, as weU as Koghun M6r and all ihe 
other six sons of Oilioit Ulitim. So tlie liulc timpanist, J''^r-/i, 
the eon of Eogabhaii, )iud ample revenge for tho death of his 
father aiul his aunt. 

There is a metrical version of the part of this ilory which 
rcUtea to the little timpauiat and the phantom yew tree pro- 
aerred oUo in the " Book of Lfiinnter". I believe Cormac Mno 
CuiUannain was tlie authur of this piece, and that it waa copied 
into the " Book of Leitister" from liia ** Psalier of Ciisliel". Tho 
authority, then, for thia distinct allusion to the Tinman is old and 
high enough. 

It must M obflctved that the three Ptrineod iutrument men- 
tioned iu tliis story, is not called a CrvU, OTDBtfp, bat a Thnpan. 
But even though it were not a Cmit of tho ordinary kind, it 
certainly must huve been some species of it; and it ia important 
to know, on authority aa unduubicd, that the Timpan was a 
stringed iiutrument, and therefore some kinil of luu'p, though 
perhaps of an inferior class. 

Tlic next reference to an instrument with a definite number 
of strings, is found in the "Book of X*can'. in the library of 
the Royal Jrish Academy ; and this, aa well as tlie laFt, was pro- 
bably taken from the " Saltair of Oaahel"; and the instrument 
referred to must aUo have been of a peculiar character both in 
shape and $izc. 

I may premise that the Feidlimid SJac Crimthain men- 
tioned in thiii storr was king of Munster and monurch of Ktinn, 
a distinguished .^c^olfir and a scnbe or writer of books, and thai 
he died at Cashel in the year 845, The l/i Connaic mcntioni-d 
in it were a tiibc of the EoghoNoehU, or Eugcnians of Di Fidh- 
gfiwiU, who at an earlier period crossed the Shannon and the 

tb« intttll- 


In ibl*ul« 
■■Bnot • 

fVMC t-Bt* 




rnltorrim !■ I 
In Ihc BwkJ 


OP XDStC Ain> Ml'StCAL tliSTni: >!«!(» 


■ai U>c Ill- 
Ill uiiienl I* 


Fcrgiu aad settled beyond the ]atter in the northern part 
Conxt-ifhaUciiid, their territory being nearly coextensive with 
the present burony ol' IhIojuIs in the county of Clare. In this 
etory we are told tlint : 

" On a certttin day in iIk iteason of autumn, aa Feidhlimidh 
Mae Crimhthaiunit monarch of Kriou, w&s ia Coshel of the kings, 
there came to him the abbot of a church of the Ui CormaiCt 
and he sat oti tlie couch, and Ite took hia little eieht-atringed 
[instrument] (^Ocht'Tedacfi) unto him from his girale, and he 
played sw«et iniuic, and song a poem to it, and he Hag tliew 
woids there. — 

"U«w*re! beware ! O chief and fethor! 
Does the king of the Eoghatiacht ht;ar? 
A tribe who arc by the Shannon on the north: 
Woe ia it that they hiivc ever gone into exile I 
'■ The Ui Connaie, O Ft-iiilimid! 
Do not lore thy mtisit'-muking; 
Tlio Carva-Bhaiseind, bocau«v of their strength, 
Vouchnatc not justico to the EoghanaehU. 
'* My rcBidenct-' has been plundorc^d ; 

And tho men arc not vet impeached; 
The ahricks of ita cicnca ami of ita bcUa 
Ai'e not hcatd this day by FeidUmid, 
" Vi Connate and Tradraidht 
Are much in want of relief; 
They arc from their friends far away, 
And their great hardship is manifest. 
"They are in want of relief. 

Too Vi Ccrmaic and Tradraidht; 
It is not now usual v/'iili [any one of] them 
To bo two (Iftya in his abbotalup.'*'** 
[t-e., such is the dauEcr that no abbot, even, can bo sure 
his phico for two days ] 
(»»»> [orlKinAl:— In ai\oitv lo »awi 

Ci\T»'>*"4"i p'S CpinB iCairil, n* pic, 
«o|itdc1ic at|tch)rraeAch£i\.b tio liaiD 
Contnac chuici ocur I"> fu'* *P >" 
cotbA, ocdf ctXA, A ocncc^DAich 
mbic dimci aj* cTitiif «eAr I"> f*' 


in cluinaAnu pig eoEdndcliet 
cnaeh pt no Sin4ino a cvaiv ; 

ni'o«''M<T> c<^pc v&ogAtnete, 

no1id<{\c(>« mo bAiUf«A 
•T PP S^" AHfri 1.1510; 
;;«iTV A cl»if»ach ifA cLoc 
m eluin irtoCc Faroljmra. 

hi Copmoic ij- CiwoiMnot 

pdv oriA cuacnaib ^ec«ib) 
ifdomAtn Afnajt v^t^)^ 
Re«a*t> 4l.#4f fmjMcnin, 
1 Conitiaic If qw^Tutoi; 
ni ca£«iit AH-oir La cuch 
invA CTMcli in AbuAine. A. 
— B«ok vf L*>:<tn, fgUo 1S3. «. a.] 



What ihc effect of this einpular appeal of the abbot bom 
€orca Bhaiecind on the Icflmctl iiad just king Feidlimid was, 
»c aro not told; but wc may presume that jubucp was rendered 
where it wna due. It ia, however, in rcicrriicc to the musical 
iDstrumeDt mentioned in it tiiat tlie littU article is of value to 
our prcKnt purpoec. The date of king Feidlimids death 
•upplit;^ us with two rather importaiit liistoricaJ facta; the first, 
that the tribe of the Ui Ccrmato must have crossed the Sliannon 
to the north some time before the yt^ar 845; and the second, 
^uit a portable eight-stringed harp was then an e^tabliahed 
IDstnimcnt in the country; but whether a; peculiar to the 
Church, or in couiiti&n ueo, I am not at present abk' to aay. 
7hcre ia no particular name eivcn to thia instrument, more 
than its being merely aaid tliat tlie abbot brouuht forth hia iittie 
^ cight^tringcd" rimrp] from hia ginllc; yet I tnink wc need not 
]>«sitaC« to take it lo have been a stnall eight-strin^d harp; 
find wc must look upon it as a small and li^ht one indeed, when 
lie cmild convoniently carry It at his ginlie from Clary to Ca- 
•hel. I confess myeclf unable to draw any conclusions from 
this little '* eight-stringed" [inslnimcnt], as I cannot compare its 
eomposB with any musical standard of an earlier date ; not hav- 
ing ever met with any reference to such standard, wc must 
^erefore come much fiuthet down before we can speak with 
HIT certainty of the iisiiul number of strings of the Iriali harp. 
If it really had a standard number. 

I In the old harp preserved, in ike museum of Trinity CoIIcto, 
kCubltn, commonly called " Brian Uoni'g harp", and to which 
r Vcfereoce was made in my last lecture, the number of the strings 
lis thirty; and we are told by Mr. Bunting, in the la-it volume 
|«f his " Ancient Music of Ireland", pasie 23, that this waa the 
I usual number of strings found on all the harps at the Belfast 
[meeting in IVJ'2. Tet, we find in the same writer's disscrta- 
f^tion on the harp made for Sir John Kitzgerald of Cloync, in 
(he county of Cork, in the year 1621, that it contained forty* 
five strings. 

An initianee of authority for the uio of a coiuidenible num- 
ber of airings in the harp, occurs inn fni^ent of a i^uoint Eng- 
lish manuscript history of Kerry, written some time in the fir^tt 
ihaii, I think, of the last century, and now preevrvcd in the 
,libmry of the Rnyal Irish Academy, in which we find at page 
45, the following reference to a diitinguiahcd harper in that 
county: " Aa to the harp-playing, said county could wcllbrage, 
bftving the chicfcst tnn-^ter of thot instrument in the kingdom in 
Kia time, Mr. Nicholas Pierce of Cloinnaurice, not only for hia 
lingular capacity of composing lamentations, funerals, addition! 






b«rp It) tlia 
t«d(Ui and 


iMntli em- 

pnnliui ttu 
ban bc€DB 

and elevations, etc., but also by coniplcliiig said i 

with more wire* tlmn ever before liis lime were used". ' 

TKu wnLcr oFttiid tract docs not epvak ofllie predae Uroeat 
whiuli Mr. Ptcrco flourished ; but wc have his time from other 
Buurccs, und in lan^iugc which bean out llie euIo;;iuDi of our 
auuiiymouii auilior on hiiu. It appcure tliat Mr. Pierce was 
bUiicf,Eiacc wc Gnd him called, with rcvcrcucei "Blind N'ichuhia"* 
in Piurou Fuiritor's poem ofi his liarp, already referred to. But, 
b( sides thijj K-fcrcnce, wc have three distinct pocm», bj three 
difPerciiL authors, written exclusively iu hie praise: oue by 
Ftrflaiha O'GnitnJt, a niuivo of Ulster, who noiiiishcd about 
the year 1640, who calls liint the CraiVftWof Ca«hel; another 
hy Maelmuird Mac-an lihaird, ol' the couotjr Donegal; the 
tliird is luiaoyinous, and inu^t, of course, have buea wriltea nt 
tlic same tiiiio. The two lalter of these curious poenaa ore prrv 
served in the O'Conor Dun'a volunui of ancient poemst and 
will be found at pages 17 and 30 of my transcript from that 
volume ""' CGniink's poem is in my own pocBcntioD. 

GL'ing back to a still vailier date we (lad the fullowiog curious 
entry in in the " AnnaU of iocA C^at the year li25, showing 
tliat attcuiiou was paid long before to the impcovument of the 

" Aedli (or Hugh), the son of DonnaUbhe CfSochlaehcHnt 
vicar of Cvnya, a prol(>asor of unging and harp-tuning, as well 
as having invented a tunine (or arrangemcnl) lor himself thas 
had not bceik donu bvlitre Tiim ; and he was a proficient in all 
arte both of poetry and engraving and vrritinjr, and of all lh^ 
arts that man executes. He died this year"."*" ^| 

What O'Socitlacltau'a arrangement of the harp was, hower^^ 
whether an addition to, or diminution of tlie number of strings, 
or a new arrangement of the old number, whatever that nugiit 
have been, out chronicler, unfortunately, does not say. 

I have one reference more, though of a comparatively modem 
date, lo the airings of the harp, or rather of the /I'myxin, and 
which I deem of sufficient ralue to add to these already brought 
forward. Abont the year ItiSO, a controvcray sprang up 
among some of the banU of Ulster, oa to what race, by antneol 
right, the armorial hearing of Ulster — the "Red Hand", be- 
longed. Some person named Cermae, said or wrote !i»mcthing, 
which I have uercr secoi to the efiect, tJiat the Red Hand be- 

(»"> rSow Jn tt» Hbtaiy of th» Royal !ri»h Acsdemy.] 

**"*> [ortglnal: — a«0 m*c 0»tn»i- ocufbi roi w j^fi ceipTi, to»ii vin 

n*mt oe ft** niA v«jipn«e faiitiv, CV(K. i. 19).] 




longed hy ligHt to tlie Clann Neill; but he was cullod to account 
for saying 80 bj Diartnait, i\i(i son oi Laoiglaeal Mac nu litmird, 
(called in Engtisli IjOuU Ward), wbo wrote h poem of seven- 
teen quatrain?, in 'whicb he adtiticos many bistoriciil reasons to 
EroTc that the lied ttand of Ulster belonged by right to the 
'lidians of the Rudricitui or Irian race, of whom J/<io £^iiu (or 
Alageais) of the county Down was tlie chieC This poera begins : 
'* O Cormaol remember what w right; 

Take not from the Ij'ian blood its honour. 
JitBtiTO la the bc9t urEriinient : 
The race is not now m boimtiful affluence"."**' 
To this poem an answer was given by Ka^han OottJtgfiaile, 
or O' Donnelly, in a very clever poem ot~ many stanzas, but of 
which I have never been able to procure more than the first 
thirty. O'Donnelly claims the " Red Haud" (or tlie Clann 
Neilt, and deals severely with his opponent's historicshl facts. 
The third stanza of this poem runs as lollows: 
"Thiee stniigs not of sweet melody, 

I perceive in the inithlle of thy Timpan; 
Small iheii' power; bitter their sound; 
They are no proof for the mighty great hand".^*"" 
tt is true that the Timpan and its three strings are spoken of 
only figuratively here, m TvpnsGntlng Mac an liltairati hI»to- 
rieu BMcrtioii, and itia tlircc principal authorities ; still tliu rcfcr- 
eiK»i»curioLi!, ulTordJn},' another proof of what I have said of the 
Thnpant by showins that even so late as the close of tlic eevcn- 
teentli century, the Ttm/Jtm, or Tympttimni, was known in this 
countiy as ft stringed iostrumCDt, and not by any means as a 
drum instrument of any kind. The humorous last will of 
Thomas Dcusc, Bishop of Mcath, one of the Council of Kil- 
kenny, 1643, apciika of the Clairxeach or hiup. and Uie Timpan. 

Tliere was, however, a distinction between the Cruii, or full Ths 7i<»pm 
biTp, and the Timpan, as may be st-cn from the fullowmg pas- (oTihiid a^mh 
•age frum the Brcfiou laws in which the Cruitiri, or harper, is^^'** ^ 
iCGoguixcd as one of the disunguishcd artists, in a special clause ■ 

in the following words: / 

*' A Cruil; that is, this is a Cruil in place of a Timpan, or a / 
Crutt in its own proper slate. This is the only species of mu!iio ; [ 
that is, it is the only profession of music, — whtcb is enttUed to 

"••> [original!— 

Iff « e6)n (Mgiia If T^pp : 

— u. uiTs. ug&, si>». ai.A., ott.^ 

SIS I SB. H. i. b. p. 40. top,] 

(MM [<iri|piMl^ — 
—, £0, tuii.] 






be eaaobletl ; that is, wliich is CDlitled to Entehtand; [llut 
n fine in right of insult to the honour, as well ae for per 
injury to tlie ferTormer], even though it does not attemi on the 
illustrious, that is, although it is not retained by a nobleman^ 
but it being noble in its ovrn Tight".""* 

Here Rguin w-e have the Cnnt, or harp proper, >nd the 7Yin> 
pan na a iinecies of harp, placed in such a iclnii re position as CO 
render it nifHcnlt to distinguitih between them, although thoro.^H 
ia certainly a maiked distinction. ^| 

It \st very unf(>rttmBU« that wc cannot point to any exunplo 
in prcscn'alion, of any very ancient liurp, an exoiolnation of 
which nilght at once solve the problems leU unexplained in any 
of the many references I have given, to the power of tliid instru- 
ment as \isGd by tbe g'reat musicians of the golden age of anciejit 
Irish civilization, 'rhcro \s, however, one valuable apecimen of 
a purely Iridi harp in existence, and one of the tnoel beautiful 
worknaaiuliip too; though it is one of small size, and of an age 
not many centuries removed from our own time. I allude to 
the haip preserved in the museum of Trinity College, Dublin, 
with aoine okeervatlotia upon which I may propetry ooDclude 
this portion of my subject. 

Tiiis harp has been the theme of mnoh learned discassion 
already; and I confesa I feel myself incompetent to ofiur any 
argumeuta coaocnuQg tlic thcotics broached upon the subject. 
It would, indeed, bo a work of souio effrontt'iy, without a much 

SGttter share uf historical, artistic, and antiquarian knowiedm 
an I possess, tu enter at all into a critical discussion of t£a 
evidences pretcntcd by this harp itself as to tlic period and style 
of instrument to wliich tt beloni^id, aflcr the cautious and aocu- 
rate pen of sucli a writer as l>r Pctric had recorded a decided 
opinion upon the matter. 

ijtill in jugtiee to Dr. Petrio hiin»e1f, as well as to the cause 
of truthful mvcslj^ation, of which he has Ions Ixren a chatnpioni 
though not with tho view of otlering oppoation to any oT hia 
concIusionB, I feci impelled to say a icw words on the probable 
history of this harp ; becauso I believe I am in position to plaoe 
before him and the public some interesting facts hitherto un- 
observed, which may throw no little light on the subject. 

in order, however, to introduce to you the few facts to wluch 
I allude, as bearing, I believe, on this subject, and for tlic bfitter 
understanding of their point and value, 1 muat picmiw by 

'••'> [oriftiniil:— CiMiic, .1, cwiic 4p vliger ***<cl«in> cemmrero \a hop- 

cimpAn |in ro cpuic uppi oovcdi ■oati, .i. con oofMb malic pe 1iu«f«L 

*r lux AQfi ^ftn ciBiV ini>rcn, .1. if© *Cc AWai Af^«ni * ocnup. — U. 3. 

oen QAn Mpp<cicAtt olt^odf fuifM, .1. IS. p. 941.] 

I» ANClhttT BUI^X. 


tnaking another quoiation from Pr. PctrieB " Memoir of on ■"""■ 
Ancient Harp preserved in Triaity College". nr ivni'Va 

•' The harp", says Dr. rctrie, " pre«rved in the museum offff"""'' 
IVinity College, Dublin, and popularly known hb the harp of 
Brian Boru, is not only the most ancient instrument of the 
kind known to exist in Ireland, but is, in all probubllity, the 
oldest harp now remaining in Europe. Still, however, it is 
very hx from being of the remote age to which it ia popularly 
supposed to belong ; and the legendary story on wliteh tfiu su p- 
position 18 groimded, and which has be«ii mbricBtcd to mia; its 
anlitpiity and increase Its bistoncal interiist, is but ft clumpy 
forgery, which will not bear for a moment the test of critical 
antinnarian examination. We are told that Donogh, the aon 
and Eucceseor of tlie celebrated Bnaa Boru, who waa killed at 
the battle of Clontdri' in 1014, having succeeded hia brother 
Teigue in 1023, wjs JapoMd by hJa nephew, in consequence 
of which he relircci to Home, carrying with him the crown, 
harp, and other regalia of his father, which ho presented to the 
Pope, in order to obtain absolution. ' Adrian the Fourth, sur* 
named Breakspear, alleged ihis circnmstanee as ore of the princt- 
|Hd titiee he claimed to this kingdom, in his bull tnuisfurriug it 
to Henry the Second. These regalia wem kept in the Vatican 
till the Pope sent tlie harp to Henry the Eighth, with the title 
of Defender of the Faith, but kept thu crown, which was of 
ntaBaivc gold. Henry gave the harp to the £rst Earl of CUn- 
ricardc, in whose family it remainea till the beginning of ^e 
Ust century, when it came by a lady of the Do Burg family into 
that of Mac Mahon of CIciiugli, in the county of Clare, allcr 
whose death it pnssod into the poiecssioa of Commissioucr 
Macnamara of Limerick. In 17Bi it was pre»ciited to the 
Right Honourable WiJlium [Burton] Conyngham, who de- 
posited it in Trinity College, Dublin . Such is the story, aa 
framed by the Chevalier O'Gonnan, by whom iHo harp was 
giveD to Colonel Burton Conyngham, and, as is usual, in the 
tabrication of niost romantic legends, the fictitious allegations 
ue BO engrafted on real hietoricul facta, the fable ia so inter- 
mixed with truth, that few readers would think of doubting 
one more than the other, and even if they should doubt, would 
have the power of distinguishing between them"."**' 

" It is scarcely ncccssftry", continues Dr. Potrio, " to puretio 
the examination of this further, except, perhaps, to remark that 
Uie allegations in it reapccting the miX of the harp &om tlie 
Pope to king Henry tJic Eighth, and again from king Hrnry 
to the Earl of Clanrieardc, nave no better authority to rest on 

<*") Bauiiiig'a Andtnl A/fttie oflrttmtl, p. VK 



xzxii. than that of tKo chevalier himself There is, hofrever, on* 

Dr. i>«ttir-) statement appcmled to the story, as on evidencu of iu truth, 
MMunt •( ^^j,;,;]^ ghoufil not b« paised over in silence, as it exhibits in an 
cquflt decree the a&tiquiirian ignorance and tlie daring inQnd&- 
city of the writer. Tliis Btateiricnl is, ihnt on the front arm of 
iho harp ' are ehased in silver the arinii of tlie O'Brien family— 
th« bloody hund supported by Uons'. As fdrcaly remarked by 
Mr- Moore, the circumstance of arms being on nn instrtiwcni 
ia fatal to its reputed antiquity. &a the hereditary uae of 
armorial ensigns vraa not tutroauced into Kiin^ until the 
lime of the crusades, and was not catablislieU iu England until 
the reign of Henry the Tltird. Tlie sliitement ia altotfethef 
erroneous. The supporters ore not linns, but dogs, probably 
wulf dogs, and the uima are not tho»e of the O'urien family, 
but of the more illustiious sept ofO'Neil; and it is on interest- 
ing circumstance in the history of this harp, that the pcrwn who 
liLsl an-itlcc its long dormant hirnionies, was a minstrel descended 
ln>m the mme royiU race to whuui it originally owed its ejus* 
tcnce, the celebrated Arlhiir O'Neill having played it through 
the streelti of Limerick in the yom 17liO".'*^ 

** The IcffOod M long connected with this iDtcrcsting relic 
being now disposed of , coalinucs Dr. Petric, "it only n»^ 
maijis to inquire — ■ 

" 1. To what &^c the instrument belongs? and 

" II. Whether it was originally inlenaed lor secular, or (oi 
ecclesiastical purposes? ^| 

" TIic first *]U(--3Uon might be determined by the skilful antl-B 
quuty with Hullicient accuracy from the stylo of workmanship of 
tnc armoriul hearings already notiot^, which erideotly belongs 
to the clost' of the fourteenth, or, more probably, to ilie ear^ 
part oi' the (ifteenth century ; and the general chanu:ter of 
the interlaced omamentj) on the harp, though derived from an 
earlier age, al^o points to the same period. But though hitherto 
unnoticed, there is one feature observable nmong Uioec oraibv^ 
meota which decides thid question with still greater ourtaintyrjl 
namely, the letters I. M. S. carved in relievo in the Gotliic or 
black-lcttcr character, iu general use at that period, &nd which 
is not fuuml an iitonumenls of an earlier age. ^1 

" That tliis harp did not belong to the clsss of bsidic Instiu-^l 
ments, but rather to that smaller clai^ used chiefly by the Irish 
eccLesiostios, as accompaniments to their voices in singing thetr 
hrnms, would seem most probable from its vciy nnaU size, 
wliich would unlit it for being used by the minstit!! at Ilia 

'**** It U •trans* thftt Itantlnfc, from whow Tolamo 1 quote Dr. PMcl^a , 
EfrnjiibiiuM n«*er bare hctrd o( thi* it«rr. 

festive boarJ ; and thia conclusion socms to acquire eupport from 
the sacred monogram already noticed as Ix^ing carved upon it". 

So far Dr. Pctric, whosic opinions on tliia curious old harp I 
have given in full in tiis own wurdif, lest by any cKanct; any ac- 
count of them in mine should ftul to convey their fiill forec and 

If 1 understand these obiKsrvationa aright, they amount to 
this: — 

I. That tbe harp now in Trioity College, Dublin, and popu- 
larly baovrn as Brian Bora's harp, is not, and could not have 
been, the harp of that illnsitrioiii raono-rch. 

II. TliHt ihere is no probability, mueli lesa c«rtuinty, that 
Donogh, the son of that ftrian (who went on a pilgrimage to 
Roinv ubuut the year 10G4). took with him thi!) hiup, along 
with the crown and other tcgalia of his great lather, and mado 
a present of it to the Pope. 

III. Tlmt it ia not true that another pope, in the early part 
of the sixteenth century, say in or about Uie year 15^0, niodo 
a present of that rame harp to 1 (cnry the Eighth, king of Kng- 
land; or that king Henry made a present oi it to the first Earl 
of Clanrickard ; or that from the Ctanrickard family it pa.'«.'»ed, 
by the marriage of a lady of that hoitst', into the family of Mac 
Mahon of Cldenach in the county of Ctam, ancestor of the pre- 
aent brave Duke of Magenta; or that it wes next found in the 
poaaeesicHi of Commisaioncr Macnamara of Limerick ; or that, in 
\7%i, it was prencnled to Colonel Burton Conyngham, by the 
CSievfdier Thomas O'Gorman ; and that, finally, this whole atory 
and history of the harp in question was false and unfounded, and 
a mere invention and tabrication by the same Chevalier Thomas 

This appears to me to be a very bcHoub charge against any 
moo, and one which ought not, I think, to have been made, 
unless grounded on his own precise words, an I those words set 
oat in the text ; aail it is a charge which I should be sorry to 
believe the Chevalier O'Gonnan at all capable of deserving. 
There ia in fiict sutKcicnt evidence that OXiorraan (or Mac 
Qorman, as he should liavo called himsell^ did really write or 
communicate verbally tJiis, or eome such account, either to 
Colonel Conyngham, to whom Mr. Ousely, and not O'Gorman, 
presented the harp, or to General Valloncey, who published it 
m his " Collectanea" (p. 3i!), as furnished by O'Gonnan. It ia 
very probable, indeed, that O'Gorman did write the story, as 
publiahcd by Valltincey, and by Walker in his " Irish Bonis" 
(p. til); but that he invoiiicd the whole story, and, for the first 
bme gave to tb« instrument Hits name by which it has ever 

I>r. |-<ltir'a 


Dr. r*tiW* 

ft(ain>l I he 

OdunuB. , 






"""■ stnoe been known, ia stirclj more tlian quostion&blc. For^ 
though short the time wnce the year 1788, when Vallancey 
publuihed this 9tory, many an old (radiuou, originally founded 
in fact (howeyer distorted aPMitwanlfl), baa disappeared sine 
then ; and the ab&once of evidence of such tradition is by 
taf^ns to be taken as proof that it had no existence in the 
of O'Gonnan. 

1 have bci>n led into theae observations by the ctrcumstanoe' 
of ha^-ing met with one or two curious facta in connection with 
c?arw!«*' harps wliich at one time did belong to diMinguiahcd membcn 
of the great O'Bnen family, one or either of which may hare 
been, the remote foundation of the story current concerning thij 
harp, said to have belonged to Brian lioroTiJui. But, whether 
thuy really were so or not, they are of tliemaclves of sufHotcnt 
interest to jiistily the propriety of introducing them into the 
dLicussionofaBubjoctupon which bo tnaoy le^iniod diKS<.>rtationji, 
and so few genuine authorities or tangibly authentic rcfoieiices, 
have been produced. 

There ia in the possesaion of the O'Conor Don a manuscript 
volume of family and hiatoricut poems, ia the Iriah language, of 
various dates, flay from tho tenth to the soventecnth century. 
This volumu, which is beautifully written, vug compiled at 
Ostcnd in Belgium, in the year 1B31, for a Captain Alexander 
Muc Donnctl; but the compilcr'ii name docs not appear in it in 
iu present sumewhat damaged state, From tliis bcautifiil vo* 
lujue I copied, Eurnc years ago, one thousand quarto pagts of my 
owu writing, containing one hundred and Qfty-uight rare family 
poems, of which, with a vciy few exceptions, do copies are 
Known to me elsewhere in Ireland. Among these preoous 
family records, 1 have fallen upon one which, ew much for its 
gntcefulncss of composition ta for its peculiar historic vaJuo aa 
a very old authority bearing upon our present subjoct, I have 
alwav!) looked upon with great interest. The poem to which I 
ftllude WM written by GiUa-Brighde Mac ConmidA^, otherwise 
called GUia-Brighdt Albanaeht orof Scothmd: he was so called 
because he was accustomed to apcnd so much of hie time in that 
ooantry; for, being a Qutivcof IJUtcr, the ncighbouiiug land of 
Scotland came witjiia his profcAsioiml province as much as any 
part of Ireland. 

Mac ConmidJit must have been bom, I believe, about the 
year lliK), ainco we find him writing a poem dcduriptivc of^ 
Donnchadh Cairbrtach O'Brien, when he became chief of thi^fl 
name and of tho Dalcasgian tribes, which happened in the year 
1204, tlrnt chicfuiiu dying in the year 1 242. In ihie poem the 
composer describes a vision in which he was earned on tho deck 

UmioD i 



of aahip to iKc city of Limerick, and bow there he »w a young 
mfta eiubu in tlio chiefWin's ch^r or throne. He then desicribes 
tlu8 chief in glowing terms, ^ving an account not only of his 
peraonol appearunoe iLnd costume, but alio of his varioua accom- 
pUalimoiite ; and, amotis tbe latter, he makes special mentioQ of 
muse, to vrliicK he alludes in the foltowiag complimentArjr 
etanzft, the tKird of tlte poem : 

" Strings as nwect as lus conversation. 

On a willow harp no fingers hare played; 
Nor have the youtli's while fingcra touched 
An instrument eweeter than his own mouth".***' 
Thia Donnckadh Cairbreach O'Jtrion was ttic Bnst who took 
the distinctive chieftain name of " The O'Brien" ; he was the 
8oa o( DonOuiaii Mdr O'tiricn, the last king of Munistcr, who 
died in the year 1 194. 

It would appear that the warm feelings which inspired this 
poem, and the connection between th« bard and the cliieft*in 
in whose praise it was written, did not terminate with the ooca- 
sion of its cumpontion. On the contrary, wc can gulhcr from 
Mtu Conmidfies second poem — that which bears more directly 
on our subject — that, in many years afterwards, tie had been 
eent by the same DonnchaiUi Cairttreach O'Brien on a special 
mismon into Scotland to gain back — cither freely, or by repur- 
ohase for an cquival(;nt in Irish sheep — tbe small, sweet harp 
of the same O'uriea, wliich, by some means that 1 bavc not been 
able clearly to ascertain, had previoiuly passed into thatoountiy. 
Jt was on the occasion of this mission that Mae Ccnmidkt 
wrote this second poem ; and as no worJa uf mine could explain 
80 well as the poem ileelf, cither its historic value, or its btiauty 
aa a composition, and os the piece is not a long one, I ms.y aa 
well ^ve it unbroken, in tho followiog closely literal transla- 
tion: — 

" Bring unto mc the harp (Cruit) of my king. 
Until upon it I forget my grief — 
A man's grief is goon banished 
By the notes of that swcet'Souading tree. 
" He to whom this muiic-tree belongcu 

Wa* a noble youth of sweetest performance. 
Many an inspired song has he sweetly sung 
To that elegant, aweet-voiocd instrument- 
*' Many a splendid jewel has he bestowed 


tKHin on (ha ' 
hkrp of 111* 

O'Brlon 1 

>***> [oclitlnal:— 

Alt cV^itfoiLe^ \ri\\ fe-inn fnt^fi 

— M ^ttvllBiieaiu Poenu, ctiidly oofikd 
Iroin ilio OCuiMCir Son'k Book, 
O'Curry M8S., Cotli. UDir.,p. 'iii.\ 






Ftoiti bcliini] tliis g^'m-tiet trw; 

Often luia he dielribulcd lite spoils of the rac« of Co 

With its grncefiil curve placea to his thouldei. 
" Beloved tlve hand iJiat ttruok 

The thin, Blendct^stilcd board : 

A tall, brave youth wiLt lie who played upon it 

With dexterous hand, with jwrfect facility. 
" Whenerer his hand touched 

That home of music io perfection, 

lis prolonged, soft, deep sigh 

Took away from all of us ourgrie£ 
" When into the hall vould come 

The nice of Cat of the waving hair, 

A harp with patlietic strings witliia 

Welcomed the comely men of Caehel- 
" The jnaidcn bucame known to all men, 

Throughout iho soft-bordero<l lands oC Banha^ 

It ia the hurp oi Donnchadh! cried every one— 

The ^lender, thin, and fragrant tree. 
" O'Brien'ft harp ! »,ve^i its melody 

At the head of the banquet of fair Gahhrvn ; 

Oh ! huw the pillar of bright Gabhran called forth 

The melting tone? of the thiilling chords. 
" No son of a bright Gaedhil shall gel 

The harp of O'Brien of the flowing iur j 

No son of a foreigner shall obtain 

The graceful, gem-Bet, fairy instrument ! 
" Woe ! to have thought of sending to Iwg thee, 

Thou harp of the chieftain of (air Limerick — 

Woe I to have thought of sending to purchiuc thca 

For a rich Hock of Erinn'a she^p. 
" Sweet to rac is thy inuloJiouB soft voioc; 

O maid I who wast once tho arch-kings', 

Thy sprightly voice to me is sweet, 

Thou maiden from the island of Erina. 
" If to me were permitted in this eafltem land 

The life of tnc cvrrgrcen yew tree 

TKo noble chief of fervndon'e hill. 

His hand-harp I would keep iu repair. 
"Beloved to me — it \s natural for me — 

Are the beautiful woodu of Scotland- 

Though au-ange, 1 love dearer still 

This tree from ihe woods of Erina".«*»' 

5* eep««si»n tii)t]ic w'tmfnto*,— 



. of J/ur Cmitnitifif; but it is nee<IIc»< to x>x». 

literal tramlutjon 

hcartfcic pathos uf 



>t It IS : 

like justice to the fei-voiir an 

sg poem. 

omincter of the poem, however, is tuoh that it gives ua tho r<«m 
s to tlie circiimsCitncoe under wluch 0'Uneo'« hauJ-harp «pu«i''iMjw' 

into Scotland; but lliat it had gone tlicrc at the tiniK, '^|;;,''*J7 
u Muc Conniitlkg tru eeijt to ivcover it, L-lihiT thx-'Iy or ^"i>«>ii' 

equivalent of Irish shocp. we have ftitthorily here tli&t 

be questiuoi'd. It is equally cpriaon that the tnission of 
tlomatic poet was a failure, and. that the proverbial taste 

Scotanian tor our IrisJi mutton garc way to his higher 

ir our Ancient music, os evoked from this celebrated harp. 

ttien, became of thi» harjiV Did il remain in l}ic IiundB WMitKr>m« 

n chief, or king of Scotland till the conquest of tJiat'"^''"''^ 

Y by Jildward the Thinl, king of England, who died in 

ir 1;H)7, but who had previously carried nway from the 

;. polace of Scone, jn Scotland, the aneiont inaugural 

nd other regalia of the old Scottish uiotiarclifl, and de- 

. them in Wratminatrr Abbey in London? May it be 

10 harp of Doujichadh Cairbreaeh O'ilrion was by any 

amojijr the spoiUV and if tliat were powiblc, cuuld it 
emained unnoticed and iinappreeiuted at Westminster, 
le ntune of ila original owner Lruditiuniilly attached to it, 

)u>(%C' dn cjvAon ciuiL 

(fjieiidnn tio gAb CO givimi 
1 mbUC-(i\ann tijVin nguc- 

vo bponn «)i(iT> 6 ccomn, 
Ml b4r on TiesnaO 

ati4t> <>inn d|t11T)obi^&n. 

DO e^s**''^ AjxrcA^ 

lliAir n*c>ctii no|Mnn>Ti»«43 

Ml mttonbd mboipfnti^ 

iu a. 

6 beina* I'CuJi'g Sabpim gtoin, 

ri lii-oigc rnac StujiftiL giL 
cfuic itjpiAin an hax>\\ o|iuimiiig; 

An fVsbiM^Ai^ p94*ih4itl 
n)«i|ig tto ymavn ou|t |\eii« iutngia, 
A epmc fl^eA punntwmmj, — 
no 00 ]^uain cti|i f^AO 6cAniiAft 

t)i«n liom -oujue iiiilir»n*», 
a bean wo l)i 5411 aiiiwyng, 
wo gut mcai^ if imUf t'Oii, 
a b«An a Uinij- Gtpmnn. 

D4 Wigei «afli fAti cijv Cotji 

r*os*i *>i rtAici> 

doOmtic b4n-tiiuic t>p<MTiuinrt 
aliAm-epuic v» Wfc^svin- 

pO'Abui'Ac diLUi Atban 
gioA lonpid'A Af Ann|*A l«Am 
«nn c|UTinrA «fi<)4baii) CiriBAnn. 

— <yCounor Dunn'» M3S., O'Cuny'a 
co|iy, B.I.A.,1). »:«. I>) 


Wu It tb* 
hup pi-*' 
waud bf 

Ol irUDilck- 
■Id I 

I ha Idea of 

tllB luiV 


Wbldi WW Id 

In llenrr 
VlU-a UiDK 

Ilcl UTkii- 

ni*D Diilr 
nnnan for 

till the time of Ucnrv tlie Eighth, whn, it ie eaid, preseat . 
celebrated harp to Uiu evs\ k>1^ ClunrickarJ, as the harp of a 
Donogh O'Brien ? 

It ma/ indcrd seem sti'angc that, if Hcniy did prcaRot the 
harp to any on« at this tirao, it was not Morro;»h O'Brien that 
he should iinr<^ solcclcd for the giU, nho dcscrtot! to tlit* Kng> 
liah and was created Earl of 'iTioTnood by Uiio on the isit of 
July, IM'1, on the same dny nnd at the same lime that tho 
Nornann>Iri»h chief, Mac Willinm Burke, exchanged his 4^iof^ 
tain title for tiiiLt of Kiirl of Clanrickai-d. 'Miis, however, is a 
(question lliat caimot be cleared up now. But, assuming for a 
lUuiDC-iil tliat thia liarp vru preserved in WcsUninster vrhea 
Henry the Eighth came to the throne in the year 1500, would 
it be too muoh to bcUcvc that it vrts the celebrity of thia ou- 
cicnt Instruitient that sugvesled (o that execrable monarch tbo 
first idea of placing the harp in the oti»* of Ireland, in tho 
fashion of the hcTalury of the time, and impressing it upon his 
coinage in this country ? I cannot thinli ihv idea very fancifiiL 

That the haqj-coinagc niu in circuhition in Ireland in Henry's 
time is well known ; and the fbllowin!* brief extnct from uie 
Ijoid Deputy and coimcil of Ireland to Henry the Eighth, dated 
at Dublin, tho I5tb of May, iu tlto tliiriy-tiftli year of that 
king's reign, and a few weeks bnforo iKe creation!! of iho eark 
ofThonHnid and Clantickanl, alTords a curious illustration of 
thia fnct : 

" Fynally , for that ther ys no sterling money to be had with- 
in thia your rcahne, thiea ^ntlcmcn wliichnow reeozte loyoui 
hiehnes, wer utterly dyamrnished of money to bryng Uiem 
thither, I, your inagestics deputie, lent O'Brii^n on hundred 

riunds stei'ling in default of other money, which 
have delivered to your tresorer". 

Supposing — believing, indeed, as I Jo— that the haip noir in 
Trinity College, was given by Henry tho Eighth to Clanrickard 
as the harp ol a Donogh O'lirien, ail tlien that the Chevalier 
O'Gonnitn, or some pcr&on before his time whoeo fltatements he 
followed, oould have done was, to substilute a wrong name, 
that of Donogh tlio son of ^rtan Boromlm, i'ut Uonncliadh Catr- 
hreach O'Brien ; for it is scorccly possible that O'Gorman or 
any one else could think of inventing the entire story; or that 
a tradition should be current that Henry tho Eighth gave tho 
eail of Clanrickard a harp at all, unl<?9ti some such harp had 
been rc&Uy presented oi ai8ftrt«d to iiave bocn so presented, by 
tlte Clanrickard fjiuily. If O'Gorman bad invented tlie story, 
how did it happen that he should not haye selected the 
himself, the newly created Earl oi' Thomond, 03 the reapu 

Hi. ont; wuiim think, wotild ma 
inventioii mucn more appropriate Hnd plausible, and eiiould, iii 
the absence ol* the qut»uon of the anrtorial beoriagi ntUed by 
Dr. Petrie, scarcely ieavo any room to deny the story by mere 
argument alone, it cannot, I think, be well denied, :uid in- TieiDcinta 
deed it has not been denied, thut this purtitulur lia-tu did oiiw o^mv^ 
beton^ to the CUnricIcanl iamily ; that it passed from them ,1;t«i!i^Bi 
with ita tmditionaS hbtory (pcrhftpij through the Mac Muhons f^!^*'! 
of Cliicnach, iu the coiiiiiy of Clare), ccriuiiily ui liist into tlie 
hands ol' Counsellor Aliicnnina.m of Limerick; and that from him 
it came into the possession oi Kalph OuK*Iy, who ia I76i pre- 
sented It to Colonel Burton Conynghain. 

Now, if this harp be u ruUc of ihc O'Neill fiimily. and If oa HAilMrf ' 
tmeb it wits pluycd by the celobTuied Arthur O'N^ilL in Lime- ^.iHhup, 
rick in the year ITGO. how did it happen to have passed from IrTj'i!"™'" 
hijn into tlie hands of Counsellor Macaiimara? And how, too, J^J,.',^^^^ 
could » story so glaringly tUlse as this oliui^ed upon the Che- imuiiMd 
valler O'Gormaji. be put ao unbluBliinf^ly belore tlie world in i"„!j*''Ihi>^ 
converwtiou, in broad print in No. 13 of Vallanccy'd " CoUcc- """■"•nioi!' 
tanca", 1786, while all tho^c parties were still living? Arthur ^ 

O'Neill himscil" lived down to the year 1818. 

Arthur O'Neill, aecordiog to Mr. Hunling (p 80), innde a *'•''■' 

prote9«ionat tour of the four province9 when be was but Qiac- tal^"vC«> 

weD years of age* and as he was bom in the year 1T34, the b^bUJn 


tnlit I 

year in which Garolnn died, thia tour must hnve been mi»do in ^J,"^"^ 
1753. It may be pre^iumed tb&t in this tour he must have ni*: 
frnntirrl through Limerick, and tiojourncd for some time in that 
nonnteble city. Wua this the harp he pluyed at the time, as 
weU as on the occasion of hie ftlle^<-d second visit in 1 750 ? and 
if it was, how can it be believed for a moment that ho could 
have quietly left it ibert-, and parted for ever with so venerable 
a memorial of the noble cept from which he was so proud to 
clum descent? It could not bo. It i« entirely improbable. 
Is it not more probable, ihcD, that this old burp wad at the time 
in the pos»L-asion ofCoiuucllor Macnamara, whose herofbtaiy 
hotfpitaOty, wc may well suppose, the gifted young niinstiel 
must have largely ahured? .\nd ia it not ycry probable that 
darioff his visit with thiti gentlenmn, this 7cncral>le harp wu 
brou^'ht under his notice; chat, he strung and tuned it onevr; 
and tliut be did actually play it, not indeed b3 an ilineraul 
ihrough the streeia of Lunrnck, tor that wa.1 beneitth him, but 
■a a matter of courtesy to his hoiit and hiii other nntrona in the 
city? There can euareely be a doubl but that the inatrumciit 
was known as an O'Brien harp at this time, and that the CIan> 
fiukard ixadiiien was well known, to that all that O'Gorraan, 

18 B 




Utb lurp la 
Mil an 

an U' Jill (11 

Df. r*lih'4 

■ iii^bikrkjiii 


I. M.S 1 

or whoever first rmmcil tin; story, appc'sni really to hay . __ , 
was to endeavour to account for the wny in wnk-h it came to 
Uenr/ the Eightli. In doing this, he m4?relv iilcntitk-d wttlfl 
it the tinme of the veronft Dooogh, as being the mo&t Ulc^^B 
person of the name to Bt the »1ury, for of DonnckadA Cair- 
hrtaeh's hnrp, I dare tuy, he hiul nt^ver hoAnJ. 

Aa fur, then, 08 lit^utry. probability, and li'^'itiinate inference 
go, this ii not an O'Neill, but sn O'Brien harp. But then 
cuiDc Dr. Fetrie'a atitiiiuuiimi diOicultiuB; and 1 raust voofen 
that thov are not euujy If ut all to be got OTf^r. Dr. Pctrie*s 
three ohjcctions an:: — I. That tlic carving of ll>c hxrp, though 
an imitBtlon of an old etyle of curving, ia not as old as the thir* 
teonth ccnttiry ; 2, That the pratitice of carving the ntonogmn 
I H.S. in black letter, is not a.1 old as that century; 3. That anno- 
rial bearing were not known in Kii»land till the reif^ of king 
Henry the Third, who bcjj'an hisrci^min l:;i6,and diedin 1272; 
thkt tuere are aruu on the liurp ; and that they are not those of thv 
O'Briens, but those of the moi-e illustnotiit sept of the O'Neills. 

To the first objection I can say nothing more than that I 
believe it would be very dilTicult to find now any spe«^uien of 
curving and design of tbe close of the ibiirttcnth, ot beginning 
oftheuAecnth century, presenting tliv peculiar chumclcr of the 
tracery of the upright pillar of this harp, and that do such 
specimen htu been Khown to exist 'i*hcn as to the monogram 
I. H. S., 1 cannot duubt but that the lettem so boldly, ret to 
rudely, carved iii the curved bar of the harp, were intended to 
represent the !^acI^>d symbol. The H is rudely and inaccuiBiely 
formed; and tlic 8, the tliird letter of llie monogram, U reprc- 
tented by a C; and ihie is more in acconianoe with the older 
Irish form of the sactcd nionogriun, Duch ua it la found In exist- 
ing Irish MS. of the very early part of the (ll'ieenth century, 
which may well carry us back still lulhcr. There is an iustoiice 
of tlii», tor example, in the copy of Cormac^a Gloswry now tn 
the Library of the Royal Irish 'Academy, and which, ihcroil 
rcueon to believe, formed at one lijne part of the great Book of 
Dun Doi'jhre, now known as tho Leabhav Hreat, or Sp(>ckted 
Book, and which wtut compiled before the year 1 ILlf. In this 
copy of tlie Gloeeary, I say, we find the hotter I iu the Gloesaiy 
commcocod with the mono^m ihC, in hoc nomine est nonteD 
nostri £slutuii»; and whether older copies of the Glossary had 
it written in the same way or not, I cannot say. aa wc have not 
an older cupy now known. I may state, however, that in the 
Other largo portion of the greiit Book of Dun Dotghre which 
remmns, this symbol ianoltobefotmd, excepting at folio lOU b; 
but this ia not in the original hand. Again, in port I. of the 




Liber Flnfii.*, or Yellow Rook, compiledin tlie 
nioiiogtuin 1. II. C. occiin in the top nuurgia iu 

It vrould indeed be oiisy to multiply inttancof of its occui^ 
ncc in this form, wid alwup In the top margin, in books of 
is ftnd Fiibsoqiicnt dates. It dcjcs not, Iiowcvcr, api>ear in 
lor no h-iiidhre, compiled before the ycnr 1 106 ; tnr Book 
Leinater, cumpik-*! b«fore the year 1 i 50; thy Book of Bally- 
olc, conipi!';(l in 13111; or the Iluak of i^<c»n, conipileH in 
413 In ftU lbwe,an(i other books of their time, it is tiieword 
jTOanoel, cither written at length or in » contracted fonn, that 
,ppc*rs in the place ol' the I. H . C. and always in the top mar- 
in, without any ref^nrd to the eiibject of the page undcrneatli. 
Upon an examination, ihon, of a repiilar saccesnon of boolt< 
roDa, say t)ie year 1 ISU to the yew 1500, it \a not eoxy to *\v 
rrniine witli precision tlie lime at which the old Emanuel wm 
tboadoned, aod tbc monogram I. H. C. generally adopted- 

As regards the monocnm under diwiiMrion, liowcver, I do 
Bot feel myfclf jiifltiBcd in diMCTecing vrith such an autliority 
ta Dr. Pctrie. that it cannot he 3dfT tlmn the close of the foiir- 
eonth, or boginninp of ihe lift^'t'nth century. Indeed, I may 
!vcn doubt lliat it is so old. Uiit when I examine the work- 
ansKip of thi3 Imrp, 1 may well doubt the conclusion he would 
Iravr from it; for I must say tliat I cannot holievc that this 
ooogTwn, to very rudely cut as it is, was ever executed by thfl 
e masterly hand that carred. the other decoration!! of the 
niment. It itppeura, inde^nl, that tlic place occupied now 
Uiis monogram was originally led vacant for some design, 
hetlier inteinled to be of a roligioua or a heraldic charncler. 
ifl remarkable that whilst every otbct item of the carvtiig \» 
untud and woni from ago ana friction, the outlines of the 
oDt^ram now to be acen there are quite rliaxp and freeb. la 
it unreasonable, then, to believe that the very old e^oulcheon 
tow nailed to the hollow oriinnally lilletl by a crystal, was du- 
ngned to occupy ihe place now held by the monogram? The 
rorkmanship ot the eaoutchcon appears to me to be much older 
han the monogram. 

Dr. Petrie asserts that the orraa of this escutcheon, namely, ■ • ii> »i« 
m erect forearm and open hand with a shield, arc not thoGc of ".^'rhoan* 
he O'Briens, but of the more illu.strious sept of the O'Neiila 
Into thehemldie mystery of tliese anus I am quite incomjielenl 
lo enter, but 1 may bo allowed to sny (rnm their external fea- 
\Tvt, tiiul they iij)[>ear to belong as much to the O'iinens as lo 
ic O'Neilli!. Even at the present day the chief emblems of 
tb families arc radically the same; tliough I am quite certain 



*^^'- that the me of the upnght arm by the O'Biiens is of an 

n< in i-*ui> which 
Ihttlhr Milt ""'"'" 

nl o'S-inu 

tnnra llliii- 




date than thoUod Htn^of the 0'>eilt. lndo«d it was openly 
and niibltcly a.-'JH'rtcd in t)ic wvcnteeiilh Cfiilury by writers of 
the Clann 'Nriil raco thcin^lvcs, ihat the Ued Hand wuh thtt^ 
right of Magenis, bnt that the ONniild wrvetcd it to thrmaclvc^H 
and hflvo continued to usurp it to tbia dav '**** 

I cannot but cxprca my regret at thp digparasing compuison 
lich Dr Pptrie in his pkhiv hna thought well to drav, when 
he says thnt: "The arms on the liarp arc not tboee of iht; 
O'Brien's famih'. but of tJie more ithifitrioii!) sept of O'XeiU". 
It ii true that, before tlic year llX)2, tlie »ept of O'NeiU, in con* 
ncction and concert, now with one now with another kindred 
sept of the same race, and either backed or unchecked by the 
ixro f;reat provineea uf Leinster and CoanQchl. did contrive la 
keep tlic ro^oil power, such as it waa, in it« hand*, to the wrong 
and prcjudicL- of the single southern province, with its compara- 
tively limited territory and military rcwurcce. But il would be 
ntteriytintruc to assert that the O'Ncillfl were ever more brave, 
more monificent, more magnificent, or more tnio men than the 
O'Briens. Let the antiqiinrinn and historian compare, oveo at 
this dny, the mined ehureheit, abbeys, and CBSttes of Clare, 
Limerick, and 'I'ippcrary, with thoee of O'NciU's country, end 
he will have bltle dillieulty in settling with himself, from cvi- 
dcQOC the most enduring and conclusive, which Mptbas lef^ be- 
hind the greater number and the noblest monuracnts of taste, of 
dicnity, and of munificence. Ijcthim take up our ancicot manu- 
scripts, our annuls and our poetry, and he will find that the 
O'Hncn name, in prose and verso, completely overshadows that; 
of O'Neill. Let na then hcnr no more of this strange claim to 
superiority at the expense of a race to whose exploits we owe 
some of the most brilliBnt paMaecs of our national history- 
Both racca gave ua great ana nobTc princes : let our oiily 
ing be, rcgnt lliat they nre of the past. 

""> [8c« anlc. >dI It, v 2«-J 


tMtml MB) i«i>. IKRI 

i(tX.] Or Mtrtic and Muiicai. IxaTXiiMKNTS (continued). Lottnehadh Coir- 
inaek Q'Bnva Kat lomK |»iiiitl jewi-l tu Rctitlaiiil Mitiie time botoro ifat 
CwMwVAc't u>i»bn tat [>oitrttK'td'» limp, 'I he Kuur Uartera' Mcount of 
ihc pnnuit uf Muiteadkack O'IMIj by O'DonncIl; O'Daly iuM for pfAM 
in Ihrco pooin*, >tiri !■ furirivon ■ no cojiIm of tliew poeme cxIaciiiB In Ira- 
land; iwool ihHRi iit« Ht Uxfutit. The Kour MaateTK iu.-::oiiLii (if li'l>>I]r*« 
lianiilimcnt not rttcumC^; lil* jnoeius to Clanrickunl iinil CVlIrien iprn 
fume pnliculnre of tii« (liKlit- Poun ofO'Dsljt to M(iru);h O'Brien, gUing 
■ome account of tlic ptwt iiftvr bU flight tv Scotland. Tbv pot-t Brinn 
tfHiSgin* and Dntul )locIk« of l^«raia]r. O'Uiggiat Mrlt«« a puom to him 
vhicli U in iliu Buuk of Vftraioy, t)ii* iioeni girai a fomewlut diCfiircnt 
Rceountbf O'DnlyarctOPn from thut of tlie Four Muttn. O'lMlji wu 
prrtiapi not aUnwcl to leave Scotlnnil without nu»om: what vu tin; joirol 
paid aa tlila mnuinF Tlic iiutlmr bclU'ri^ tlint ll una ilii' haip of O'llrirn. 
Thia harp ^"^ "v' irame bock: lu IccUud (Urvullj, anil xanj ti.iYc paacwil iota 
the hand* of IvdwDTtl lli« Kirkt, and haro been given by Henry the ICigtith 
to Clannckntd. 'ihe nrmatial titnrinf^ and monograni not of tho aaiuo 
ftirv lu tlia har]i. Ulijivli uf tlie iiutliur iii tlif |irvviuii> diifuuiuji, Fooni 
UB anolheTitrayins hiirpofaii (/Elmn, writtw) in 1570; tli(< U'Urien was 
Caoor Earl of Tliomotid \ tliv I'our Maitcrt' occoant of hi* )utiniiKslon to 
Qoeot ELInbcth ; it "u during lii* abort abKRcc that \m ii«T\i piuB«cd 
\iM> atraitav band*; tho harp in T.CD. not thi» liar|>. Mr. Laulguu'i barp'. 
itw-iMn tii TAK Biitiii'uitic* iliouli plnce then) for a iimo in tlift muMUiu of 
tho R.I.A. Soma notra on Irlnh hnrpn hy J>r. Portfi?— "Ho refrota the 
abaeno! of Hny ancient liarti"; "pn'wnl irullfltfri-nro lo Iriih liarpi and 
moaic"! "Kniif ccclc»in»iiciil m-Iicb iiri:ocrtoit" ; Dr. I'l-irio would hnve pro* 
fbrrwl iJte tuirp oi St. I'uirick or Hi. K(.-viii ; " uui bnic* ntny ytc givo us ao 
■neitDt hai|i ; Mr. Joy'* account of such n tiarp luunil in llic oouuly 
IJMtdok; w:c<irdi(u[ to Dr. fvtrie, tbla hiu-p vm at leiut 1000 ynnn old. 
What haibccamooithrliRTjiaof lTti2aiiill7t)2? A hnni m lAoa. "Jiriiai 
jpom'a" bnrp ic tlio uldutl of tl^ow now known; llio Daliray harp ii next ia 
■fCitbeliiacrtptloDaiHi tbii harp Impvrfvctl j tnndalvd in Mr. Jojj'aeauy. 
Prafntor iycinyi irancbtloa ot ihom i tir. Joy'a ikwcription of tliia liarpi. 
Tbo harp of IW tktarquii of Kitdair. llnrpa oi lUe «)Ebt«culli ccutury: 
tbe ofl<t in tl'O iitnifisiiou of Sir K.Tvi-y litui^o; the Cnatlo Otvay bafp ) u 
hHTp lortnerly liclnngiiip t<i Mr. Hrliirof ].tnierick; a Mngennia iiarp won 
by br. PMrie in li^S'i ; ili" liarp in thu poawnian of Sir G. Uodiun ; ttia 
harp in tti? cuukutii of ilio lt.I.A. purcbaaed frooi fttiuor Sirr ; tlie ■o-ualled 
harp ol Cnrulnn in tbo museum ol [lie RI.A. Tlie tiorpa of t|je pruwut 
nnturr all iiiado by Kgan ; one of thcoi In Pr. I'ctrif'a puaM.-wiiui. 1 >r. 
I'plnti opiiiiuii of tli« oafitionn of tlw llurp Suoioty uf Bi>llail. '*Tli<> friHl) 
harp it dkiid fvr cvir, liiit tlif nioaic wuii't lUa". The hnrp in Bculland 
known m Ihai ol Xtary KluKHn of bcul«. Kct. Mr. Mac l.«uoIilan'i *■ Book 
of the Ooan of l.icniurtr t it coninini Ihrte po«?m« atcrlbed to U'Ualy c« 
Muutndhtich Al(i!inii':lt; Mr. Miic Lauchtnn's note oQ thii poet; hit d«> 
ecriiHi'Uii uf one ul' ilie (locm* Inturieil aa rvjiarda U'ltaly ; Mr. Mac Laucli- 
lull nut aworv that Mmrtiidfiuch Albanacft waa an Irtrlimati. Tlie author 
bsa tuitevlvd hU tliHt he bvlitrvv* authviillc on tlii.'- Cmtt. Tlio Ktatvnicnta 
about ancient Irlth inusio and muMool inatrumvm* of Walker and Jlnntltig 



*uinr JtnH 
to ^oilind. 

MXiii. of n« valuci tlictc writer* di<l am know tli« 1ri>ti liuitwt^i ti>c*gl 
" ' npaU to Im T« itf gpcok Uiua vt the vjtk «f oiw «> lio hiM n-w ticO toi 

of oiv maiiv. 

Ik the lost lecture I vcinurc<} to iraggcst 90Tne reanom ft>reete^ 
taininc the opanioii, that the iustnimcnl prewrved in the Mu9cuia 
of Tnnity College, Dublin, nnH popularly Icncvirn m Brian 
KoruV harp, was reully the hurp oi' Ihniicitadk Cairbreadt 
O'Briori, ilie sixth in flceccnt fn^nn the groat hiro of Clontarf. 
I ehow*-J, witli irurluinty, thut eomc lime, tVf about the ywir 
1230, llie pM't Mae Conwidhe li&il been emil into Scotland U> 
cndravoiir to triiij; back from thui country the harp of Doan- 
ehaJfi, aud u'htoli was ccrtiiinly then in the poeseesioD of some 
potiAnlatc tlierr. My next duty ought to be, to »how, if poni- 
ole, somo protmhlp cnnse lor itn Imving gone into that country 
BmimrhtM Rt all. Attil It IS fiii^ilur eiiciuj[h tlial I liavc good autlioiily 
oiiti/iT.'sni to show that, norne time b«forn, this noble O'Brien did realljr 

""' Bcnil into Scotland some prcciouB and m\)ch-prized jewel fot a 

gcncri/us purpose and iii n princely spirit. To make intelligible 
what occurs to me w connecting this act of the O'Brien with 
the suhjcci of ihc pio^cnt ilisi-iission, I fitiftll first cite from tlic 
*' Annali< of tho Foiii- Masteri!", tho- followin" tOiort entry in 
thai invaluable record, which ia ftCt duwii under date 1213. — 
"/'»n O'Jirodtacfiain, Bicward to tho O'Donnell, Uiat is 
Donncll Mor (prince of Tir-C/ionnaii), went into Connaught to 
collect O'Uonnell's rent. The firet place that he went to was 
•fVni iiiV Cairpre of Dniraclifle. He tliere went with his attenduutB to 
*"*' tliB houiw of the poet Muirmdhaeh O'Dnly, of Liasadill, where 

he fell to olTering irreat abuse lu the poet, for he was very ex- 
acting on behalf o\ a powerful man (not that it wfts his inn^lor 
that advised him to it). Tho pool yrau )»ct.-n#ed by biiu, and 
he took up a ]ceen-eil}.'«d hatchet in bis hand, and gave hiin a 
blow whivti left him dead without life. He went then htntsclT 
to avoid O'Doimell. into CianrickardH country. When O'Don- 
nell cime to know this, he coUeetcd a latffc force and went in 
pursuit of liim, and he stopped not until he reached Deiry 
O'Donnell in Clanrickntd, which [place] received its nam« frotn 
]ii9 having been encamped there. He commenced spoiling srd 
burning the country until Mac William at last submitted to him, 
and Bent Mnireadhach [O'Daly] into Thomond for proledioin. 
0'Doun(->ll wont aftt^r htm, and fell to devafllalc and spoil that 
country too, until Doniichwi/i Cuirhreach O'Brien sent Muirc 
adhaeh away from him to the people of Limerick. 0'0i>nncU 
followed hitn to the gate of Limerick, which he besieged ffom 
Ids camp at Aloin Vi UhomhttaiU (which from him la named)- 
Thc people of Limerick aent Mmrwdliach away from them by 

Ul« liool 
(/Hal; i,r 

m ixciKNT KKmn. 


[>ii poiM In ^ 
tlirw i»«au. 
*iiil li for- 

(hotil pofl^ 

111 Irviind i 
toe a( ilii-n 
m( OttanL 

okIpt of O'Donnell; to tl»«l he Toimd no 8lielt<?r, tut to be ^»*"'- 
conveyed fiom hand to hand UQtil ho reached D\iblm. 
I "O'Donnell returned homo on that occasion, after having tn- 
hencd und luade a complete circuit of Cotinaught. 
W " He mode another expedition again without delay and with- 
out iu9t, in that ^anio year, to Dublin, until the peuple of Dublin 
■were forced to sriid .VtiirfaMaeh away from ihcm iiilo Scot* 
land; and there he remained until he composed three landntory 
pocm», imploring peace, forgiveness, nad protcctioa from O'Don* 
pell ; and one ortnc three wns: 

' Oh I Donnell, good hand for [granting] peace', etc. 
PeaoQ tru granted him for lii« Iimdationg, and O'Donnell took 
him into his friendship nftcrwords, and gave him a holding and 
land, aecurding to his wi^heit". 

h Of the three poems addressKd by O'Daly to O'DonnoU, no co- 
pies are known to me to be extant in Ireland. Then; are, how- 
ever, two of them prceerved in the Jtudlcian Library in (.)xf<>rd 
the vellum MS. which contain* O'Donnell's life of St. Co/urn 
JilU. One of these is that which is quoted above by the Four 
[uters; and it consists of thirty*ei<:;ht!!tanza!i- The other is ad- 
Ed to O'Donncira eon, Oomhmil 0<fe, written in the fif- 
I year of the poet's exile, and descriptivcofhis sorrows and 
uderingt on the Continent and tip the Mediterrsocan Sea. 
fhts mostcunoua poem consist)! of 29 stanxas, beginning: 
" Long is it since I have drank the Lethean drink". 
There waa a good deal mure in the history of O'lialy'B ban- 
iabment than the Four Masters hnve reeordod in ihia article ; 
and there is some reason to think that pari of what they have 
recorded partakes tnoru of Donei»al traihtion than of hi^orie 
fact. Of O'Oaiy's laying into the Clanrickard territory there i» 
sufficient authority atill extant in a rem.irkable poem addressed 
iy the fugitive to Mac William Biirkc, the powerful chief of 
tB&t territory, in which lie avows hi» name and hi« crime, and im- 
plores proteclioQ. It itfcerluin, too, thut O'DuIy pussed into Tho- 
luond Irom Clunriekard, for, there is oxUiiit a poem addresaod 
liim at the time to Donnchadh Catrbreach O'Brien, chief of 
bat country, and of »-hi[:h the following is the tlrat atanxa:-^ 
*' Let me have my own bed, ohi Donnchadh, 

1 am entitled to honour from tliv curled head; 
I shall not be driven eastwai'ds fi-om Ireland [into Scot- 
In the reign of the noble fair-boired chief."*" 
<»"' [orif[iii»I;— 

im ci6*r « "^^ ?*r — lwlMlllMs.,CT^•^ wj 



"o'li' Tills pot'm mBy, I tVink, be aaaign-d lo the year 1216, 
ihereabouU, a lime that O'Bncn, owing to fiimily broils a 
Kngliiih iiitcHi.-rcnc«, was not in the best condition to sbelte-r 
the fugitive from the vengeance of hia punuer; and O'Daly 
n-as compelled iilumatctjr lo fly to Scotland, where it appears 
he found slielter and protection from the Mac Doonells, Lords 
of the Ittlee, pnrticularv the Clanmnald. It will be seen, how- 
ever, from Hrian O'lligpn.-)' poem, to which I shall come bre 
and bye, that it \yas agaiiiat tlic advice and prohilntion of Ute 
men of Thomond that ho left ihnl country. 

O' Daly 'a history, froin hia flight to Scotland to his peace vith 
O'Donnell and hia return to liis native counlir* would have 
been lost to ub, were it not for tlic existence of his ovn poems, 
already meBtiooed.addrewcd to the O'Donnell*, fjithcr and scm; 
another addressed iVom Scotland to .Uoro^h nnd DonnchodA 
O'Brien; oiid a (i»urlh poem, addreawd by Brian O'Uiggin, a 
Connocht poet, to iJavid llochc of Formoy in the county of 
Cork, about the year 1450. 

O'Daly's poem is addressed to Mon^h, tlto son of Bmn 
O'liricii, who was the uncle of Donaehadk Cairhreach. It is a 
viguruuH pieet' of eutii position, duvotod chieOy to thp praise 
and personal dvfeription of the young prince, who, from the 
poet, would appear to have been the heir apparent, or lanaiste 
to hia ooimn Vottnchadh Catrbteach. This poem, of which 1 

Sosaesa a copy (made by niywlf from a vellum MS. io the 
iritiali Museum), eonstsia of twcnty-aix alanzaa, of whidi (be 
following is (be first: — 
" Guc33 wio I am, O Murchadhj 

Good is your inbenLance of a well-directed cast; 

Your fatlicr cxccUed all his acquainluncc, 

[He excelled] the arraiiged battalions*" .'•■' 

Ho continues tbcn in the lour stanxM ivhtch next follow, to- 

addreea liim thus : — " Giicaa what my profbsion in ; gtiess what 

ray name !»; guess what country 1 come from". He then 

informs O'Briea that he has cnnic irum bcyontl the Mcditcr- 

raiiu^iii Sea; that he liaa been goinjr about the world; that 

Muiretidhach Alfianach, or Muireadhach of Scotland, ia hia 

name; and that he is certain the Clann liloid (that is the 

O'liiieus, etc) would take charge of hitn and protect him, 

even though he Lad commitu>d thnft itself. And m, after a 

good dealof etrong proiaeand favouniblc prognostication of the 




<"•' [orlKiiwl;— 

*>o fri»w> c«*4i|\ Ap ateR"i 

— AdJilioital M8. (tciliim), 10,095 
Brlt.kliii.,f. t. a. top.] 

fntiiro, tlie poot coinca to the last filaims, in whicli he ftddicescs "^th. 
Vontichadh Cairbrtach, and which runs as (oUowd : — . 

" Pcnnit me to return to my country, 

O Dmmehadh Cairhreacfi of tlie smootli skin, 

Out of Scottand of ihe fcastt ftiid of the grassy [Qelda], 

Ol'stf-cde, cifsjieara, [or, of suet], and of islands: 

My run to Erinn on my return, 

Uow eoou !»liull 1 iiiuke! And gucas".*"" 

It is not to be understood that O'DuTy waa in Tivland at the 
time that he addressed thia poem to Mureliadh, the couKn of 
lionnchadh 0"Bri*n, though lutcndL-d for ilio mort* powerful 
chief liimKlf. He not only asks Murehaiih to "iict^wno ho \a, 
but he iidtiiita distinctly that he luis ucvur wen his face or mode 
his BC(]uaintBnce. 

After this pcwrm we Tiivc no direct account of O'Daly but 
whit the Fuiir Muslera tttatc of itio means by wliich he conci- 
liated O'DoiincIl, and bis having been received into favour by 
bim on his ivturn. This, however, is not the account of O'Daly 9 
ruttiro contained in the poem of O'Hiyjjhi, alnivc mentioned, 
a poem which is preserved in the old Book of Fennoy, a volume 
compiled in the year 14<i3. Hiiaii O'llig-'in, the author of thia Tiiorooi 
poem, waa one of a learned family of bardi and tenclicre of the o^,"ei„^ 
province of ConnachL Hib name and fame appear to have |'^^'''^J^ 
reached the ear^ of David Roche, who at tliis time dii^ixmfcd rennor. 
the hoapitalilics of a chieftain at bis princely rcaltlcucc at Fci^ 
moy, in the county of Cork. The book culled thu Book of 
Fennoy was, in fact, compiled for this noblemtin, in his owa 
liouae. by the numerous poets and scholars who, by invilutlon, 
chance, or otherwise, repaired to him; and thia ia the reason 
that the book cxliibita so uiauy vurictiea of bftiidwritiags, each 
literary man writintr his own poem or piece into it. Among 
the many scholars, then, wliu rcctiivtd an invitation to the court 
of Fermoy (and suinciuiit expt'iisL-a fur the journey, as he him- 
acU'etalc^) was Ilrian O'l liggin ; and the pRst-nt jiocm, in praise O'liictiiw 
of the lord of tliBt maneion, buurs evldeucu lo tbo fact that the fMiTt* i>iia 
author's reception was flattering and remunerative. It appears, ^hi"^^^^ 
however, that the bard was so well pleased with the hospitalities ** p»"«i«xt 
nf the south thttt he felt inclined to abandon even tlie plains of 
RoKofnmon for the rich vulleystof MunsU'r. Nor does hebe->itale 
to hint this desire lather broadly to David Roche ; but as he uy 
pean anxious to save himself from a charge of singularity in 
a«» [original.— 

A OonncViAiA c.i>rb]i«« j CficfifilM, »i t-uaiC C^Sfti"". 'f co«ti**f. 

A liAlbAiN flvOj't F«i>4ig, —Additional M». (wlliini), l9,99S. 

ngprg.M-ft, ngppa'j. rpleivoij: Bnt Uoi, 1.4. b ail^l] 




•ctiiunl cS 

intiiii fr»ia 
iiiBi Drill* 

** t our Mat- 

prckTrmg a strnnpc coumry nnu people to hie own. he, 
following eiAnziw, adduces tlie case of MuireadhaeJi O'Daly il 
eucti a way as to lead us to tliink tlmt the means through 
wliich lio returned fioin Scotland were riOl exactly those 
corded by the Four Masters. Thus spunks O'iiiggin: — 
" To ahaiidoii bis iialivo land, 

On account of nn iopult to lua proretsioa, 
Agaiii!^t tho command of the soutlicm laod: 

So did once a pout of mv own pccn. 

" The jewol o( Donnehadh Cairbreruh having been sent 
To release tUo chief poet of Scotland, 
This it waa that brousht him over the iies, 
Though it was a coming opoa chance. 
" His attention on the foreign Islca 

He {J^nneliadh'j bc«towcd but a abort liuae, 

He brought Afuiread/nuk over tlie aea, 

Though ne was an adopted flOQ in Alba. 

" When he {MuirwdJiaoh'] was imporUincd, 

At an alk<r timo, to go to his native plibcc. 

Seldom did he thitlier go 

From the Duleassiitus, as we have heard. 

" Mr ulIuBioim to him Huvc now come to nn cud, 

To llmt bonneimdk. O David! 

You aud I are ju&t like tlicec 

Two comiwlea in poetic Rcicnce".*** 

A»d it v-os thuB, by the example of O'Daly 's prerereaoe of ' 

O'ltriens and TIiomi>iid to the O'DonnelU nitd hi» native Con- 

naclit, that Brian O'lliggin jusiificd hia own preference of 

Kochc and south MiiusLcr to his native province and itachiels. 

There can scarcely be any doubt of the correctness of the 

acrap of hialory contained in these few veracs. The hatnh 

course of 0'I>onncll, and the friendly intertercnce of O'Brien 

in the cimc of O'Daly, must have Ixicn subjects ofnuch interest 

to sueeuoding bards that we may be sntielicd they were ppeaerved 

witli vi\'id accuracy. 

("•) [original!— 
Cfiig^An & eife bun«iv, 
ap Anonm|i 'D*«lA'0«in, 

t>4<{1 Althnc tiA Cipcr tKj; 
•OQ |Mnc maitliciK nciQRp 

d]i ccnn oLWfndn AVbur, 
VKibue ra & cotxa. cAf rutnn, 
^f evened 1*4 cuaf mm, 
A «%<X> A\\ tnnpl:) $«1.l 
m c«b)Uo Afic no com^lU 
eoc r* lHw»T*«'*'4 c*p uinip, 

TJa eti5,iTi Aiiiipur am, 
cp^iC cipti oaL "A «flcli«i<, 
a OAut cdi)\dir EUfi 4nnn<ti 

Ay. tn" f oi^Lilt pr j\*iiiie Cf '*, 

^on voniieh«A pn, a t>4ibte 
ffldp dcdf pb iff^ml.* 

—book of Femoy, K. 1. A., I. I ij 

Il ia, KoTWvwr, wiUi the ransom sent into Scotluod to release 
O'Daly tliat our cbiel* conoeni lies now. "Wo are to suppuBc 
that tbc Mac Donnvlls, ur perhaps Uic kiii^ ol' Scotland, — tor 
O'Daly WBS OUanJi, or chief poet, of all ScotUnd, — perhaps. I 
my, Uiat cithci ol' tbeao powciful parties would not allow him 
to pass out of it, without demanding soin« remoikable conij>eii • 
BKtioa for so great a loss. — somethinif, in fact, which ihey hoped 
would not be given. What, then, was the jewel (mciij) which 
O'Brien aent over to purchase the liberty of his favourilc burd, 
and emible him to return to his own country? It could not hu 
money; and it cotdd scarcely he cattle, the only other com- 
modity that could Imve value in both countries at the tioic We 
know, indeed, from MacConmidhe^ poem, that whoever the 
pcrsoa was in ScotlunJ who bad poaeession of CBricn's harp, 
reftjaod to part with il, either freely or for conipcnsition in Irish 
eliccp. And this clcurly eiiuu^h shows that properly of this 
kind was deemed of loes value in Scuilaud than th» harp of on 
Irish chief; and it shows aLeo, wc nay liiirly argue, that eo lioh 
a troaaare aa the gifl«d puet eould not be parted witJi in the 
same country for any amount of the ordiosTy commodities of 

What was it then that brought O'Brien's harp into Scotland 
at this pariiculjr lime''' I may state heie that Mac ConmidMs 
poem appears to he defective at the end. It docs not, accord- 
ing to an invariable ancient iisaL'c, cud with the same word with 
wluch it begins ; and if it had been perfect, it is more than 
probable that we should have hutl some »lliuion to the circum- 
stances under which the instrument had passed itiiLi Scotland. 
We have no diicct authority ou the subject; but from the alhi- 
sions I have rclurred to, 1 may express my uivn belief tliat the 
harp was the jewel sent there to releiuc Maircadhack O'Daly 
from tile dillieulties which stood iu thu way of liis return to his 
Dwu country. 

'i'he next question is, whether that bat]) ever came bnck 
direct to liehiudi' and to this qucatiou 1 think wu may answer 
with all the probability of truth, that it did not; for wo bavp it 
on tlie authority of Muc ConmidUe's poem, that i\a restoration 
could not be obtained tor love or money, at leant in tho owner's 
lime. And now we may ftitther aalc, whether it is possible that 
the harp now preserved in tlic museum of Trinity College, 
Dublin, with its traditional hijrtory, i<uch a^ it is, may be no 
other than this very harp of O'Brien? I answer thut it possi- 
bly may bo so; una that whether this harp passed from Scot- 
land into England along with tbc regalia in the brae of Edward 
the First; oi wbetlicr ii came there in any olhcr way before 

4]rnvi-J to 

tp4'< •tVI- 
lUld VIlkOHl 

WhNl WM 
pUll M ih 

The inllinr 

iKllOtIS tllCt 


V Hanrr 




mnoaar tin 

ilaM M tits 

Uio ■nllinr 
hi Uil* 4b- 



lvkr|i of aa 

or after lliat time the tradition of its having been given 
King Honr^ tlie Rifrhth to the Karl of Clannckard, and of its 
bsTing continued Blung lime in the Clanriokai-d family, uniler 
the name of Donogh O'Brien's haip, remntns uncontradicted bjr 
onj cvideaoe or bv any logictO ormiinent. 

Then, as rc^rtU ibo armorial Doanngn, by the character of 
which the atje of tbu harp has been ait«mpted to be dctcf 
uiiiiL-d. I venture to »ay that those armonal bearings, what family 
soever ihcy may have belonged to, were no part of the original 
harp; and thut there is not upon the entin: tniilmmeDt & spot 
left vacant in which they could tit, excepting that alooc which 
ia DOW occtipled in the harmonic curve by the monognitn i. H. C, 
n rude and inferior in artiintic design and execution to tlio re 
of the car^'ing, into which it would ajjpcar to have been inscrtei 
probably byeomeposaesBorof the instrument after it had 
from the haiidd of its original owner. 

In this tedious and perhaps shadowy di^nision on the firinn 
lioru harp, I trust I snail be believoil wticn 1 t&y, that I huvo 
had no obieet in view but the elucidation, as lar as poasible, 
of ita true history ; or if not that, the nearest possible guess al 
it; such a guess as might reasonably be given, iVnm the few 
ft/M and ciicum^ancca that I have adduced, and vrliich appear 
Co me to supply cuiiieidetiei's be-atiti^ with remarkable point 
upon tlie subject. I don't wont to oner any flat contradict iui^| 
to high autlioiity. 1 wish to place before thew auihoiitivg Huck^" 
facts only as 1 have collected since Dr. Petric"« Essay was pub- 
liabed, iu the hope tlmt if they do not lead to the certainty of 
the truth, they may bo fouud ii*eful landmarks in the further 

Jiioeecution of this interesting antiquurian inquiry. And Mill 
iirthcr, to show that I am not truaiing merely to speculatioiu 
of my own in opposition to tKeopinioiu of well informed men, 
and that there is nullung at all improbable lU what I have ven- 
tured to eurarcstaa to the wanderings of tlic harp otDonnchadh 
Ctrt'r&reocA Ci'Brien, I may horc noucu a relerence to the stray- 
ing harp of another diaCinguislied, but much later uoblcmiui 
of the great O'Brien family. Thl* harp, indeed, might come 
within the ranee of Ur. t'ctric's unliquanan tests, as to its iigej 
but, if it \n siill extant, it is not accompanied by any known 
legend that would lend to its identilication. 

The reference to Uila barp that I have just mentioned, is 
found in an anonymous poem of eonmderabic merit, which, like 
Mao Conmidhe'?' poem on Donuchadh Cutrbraich'a Imrp, was 
addressed to it, when heard played by a stranger, by the dis- 
consolate bard of ita exiled owner. Tliia poem oonaiet of tea 
i]^aatraJQ«, so appropriate to ilie present subject, and certainly 

4K)ntiaB0finiiii{]urtu.ntliistoriQjLl uvcnt, 
tlhratta^umof til*; wliolo of it. Ic is »s foil 
Iiisical tliou art, O harp of tay lung! 
The plaint of ihy striii/n hiu brouj>ht mo to giiof; 
It U little that my mina was not deranged 
When I h4.-tttxl tliy voice while bcln^f tunvd. 

*' Seldom ha^t thou been seen upon a visitation, 

O fount of music ! wlio lialli (raiiit-d every prixc! 
Thou bcuutiful harp ol'tho CHfamhs of [CV^jamJ 'i'dil. 
Oftcni:r waa the visit of nobles to thcc ! 

*• Tliou musical, fiuG-pointi>d, apeckled harp I 

Thou hast seen a time — did vrcof it wiah to tcU — 

WlicB Ut ihee were eunjr the poeina ofKaguB, 

For which Ua Duitch [O'lJricn.] paid Etccde and guld* 

" Many a luind mn over thy ribs. 

In that bright inaasioa. where pleaauje reij<nedi 
Thou of the noble hrcnst, deligntfiil iind free. 
Until thou didsl allow hira to sail over the waves. 

*• l^ou muaical harp of the race of Brian — 

After them no one should in greatness trust, 
Whilst I am like Toraa afkr Niall. 
And thou among strangers alV;r my king] 

" The foreigners have driven beyond the sea 

The Earl of thy Chnn TAU — what creator wo! 
From that time thithtr I have heard no harp 
That has not a tone of wailing in its notes. 

** Alas ! that thn fair, bountiful man did not consent, 
The heir of tliu O'Briens, who gained all siviiy, 
To suBer base deeds wLthout auger 
And (fiianl himself agaiust Euglish treachery. 

" Their oppressive demands were not borne 

By the beloved of Cashel, of the fuam white skin 
His glowing billowof kingly blood [coxdd not bear it], 
lla conseijuence, alas! has come upon us. 

" Erinn has eea.<icd to live of the sorrows of the king, 
Completely has her career gone down. 
The nut produce of Inis Fail has ceased, 
The happiness of all men has ceased, and their tnusic. 

" Sweet, O'Gilligan, are thy notes, 

Sweet the voice of the etringa in thy fingers ; 

Still 't was sweeter to toe in the time oT Da Ltive 

Tho' tliis harp is always sweet for its music 1**"" 
"•*) forigiuU: — 

pAnjA oo tto 1 «> cvaIa CO gut wa gU' 

IM^n en 


hsip t/i nil 

C'liinr. Ful 

Uw *■ Foot 

woiani of 
liU ■uliinl*- 
r4>in Is n 

Tbis poem, whoever may have been the uutlior of it, IM 
hayc been written in the year 1570; for it wtut m that ye*r,i 
we are told by th« Annals of the Four Maxteni, that CbiioT 
O'Brien. Earl of 'I'honiond, in consequence of tlit: disacnfiions of 
his own ptKipIo and the pressure of the English power, came to 
terms with the Kurl of Ortnoad, Queen Khxabcth'a rcpnseik- 
t«tlve, and promised to be counaelled by liim. Tlw fQllowing 
is ih'i account of tbi3 event, as chronicled l>y the Four Masters; — 

" He [the carl] gave up his towns, namely, CUmroad, Clai^ 
nior [now Clare Oustlc], uud Buurutty, into the hands of tbc 
Earl of OrmoiKl; and Donucll O'Brien and other cliiertaina of 
Thomotid, whom the eurl had as prisoner, were set at liberty, 
OS nere also the priaoaera l;eld by the president. The earl vriu 
oflcrwards aciscd with sorrow and regret for having ^vcn up 
hia towna and priBoncrv. fur he now retained only one of all hu 
fortrcwet, namely, Magh O'tn-Bracain, and in Uiid he left ever- 
fkithful warders; he resolved that he would never fubiinl him- 
flolfto tho law or the mercy oftliit eoutivil of Irekiu), ehuo!iiri;< 
rather to be a wanderer and an outlaw, and «rea to aWndoo 
his estates and his Gne palnmony.tlian to go among them. He 
nflcrwaids conccaJed himscli' for some time in Clanmaurioo [in 
Kerry], from whence hu pdssed, about tlie feetival of St. Joan, 
into France, where he stopped for some time. Jlc afterwards 
went to England, and received favour, [Hinlon, and honour frotn 
the queen of ICngliuid, wLo aeat letters to the council of Ire- 
land, commanding them to honour the earl, and he returned to 
Ireland in tlio winter of the lame y«ar". 

It must, tlieu. have been in tlic precise year 1570 the above 
poem wa» written, lor Uiat was the year in which O'Brien wta 

AiroAih 1,eAc CT«icpn ap cu.upc. 

A tjnv\t CeolfAp beannCopii trpeoCt 
ciipaip rcaU— gi cc im oo^ 
vo giubc^i puc L^iee pioiA, 

itin i 
a itiOjvfld buBtnoefe^Ti;'*'? t*"P. 
g«p titfig cu a tach pc cuinn. 

A Sjvuic £«uUap cVaranc blipiAin, — 
« cc^^an "4 noiA'S nip ioip bi»ifc 
If nnp> map Cd|Wd cap e'tf neiCC, 
ij" cuf-A Ap eJtciw ucip mo pit 

Bu t:iiipr»«u Ailriiupaig cap fin, 
laplA CdiL — cij cpdO ap in6! 

«r cp«*5 "-jp *enc«ij 4" pi»tj pftl, 
UA n-fi m1>piAn, po mtM-tv^.M bdpfi 
pU"i; CtAin bept : cut pe r^'I^S- 
w\t ap4 tcoiiiine *p teili njiU i 

niiv fuiLngCAO oM.ip« a nio>p«a£ 
ivjnnAn CAtpUcnoAp nidpftuinnt 
A ttinn itiobp«C f«t.A pt$~^ 
cjpLa * weapcai*, pApiup woi« 

Cjipmg OtpewAipd Afl pit, 
oo tvas'6 inl« pp A f£oU 
CAipnig cnu ih«Ar iptto tZAil, 
CAipiHg Albtlfp tA\t r* cocoU 

bitin, A Ui Silb^Am DO StdfV 
biiTi 50<A tiA cc*tj av iltcop; 
biriTic Um i A bfl^iCiop Ut luiite, 
i;« bmn i a» Apuic Apd eeoL 


— (fCurrj MS3, C.D.I., Livet ' 

SiviiiB, vol. li., p. 4&] 


ircod to fly over the ten from the Eagtub power. It is ciirious, 
however, to find tliat within the comparatively short time the 
carl was abeent kis litirp Iiad paasod into a strange couDtry, if 
not into stranzc hands; for, although the poet praises the per^ 
forraance ofOGilli^|Bii, who uppears to have been the possesaor 
of this harp at the- time, O'Gilligan is not a Mimstcr name, and 
the bearer of that name could scarceljr be expected to be iwsedi 
to the distinction of chief OUamft in music to the Clann Taii, 
or O'Briens, in preCcrcoce to ilie musicians of their own country 

ri race. 
The harp now in Trially College could not have bt-cn this 
barp of the Karl of Thomouc), unte^ indeed that the lutt^r 
borp might hare come dowa eomc hundreds of ycara aa an heir- 
loom in the family ; but thiij is not probable ; and if thi^ Btruying 
harp of Conor O Bricn, Earl of Thomond, of the year 1670, 
be in existence at all, it is not identlGed. 

There ia an old harp in the possession of JofaiL Ltni^n, Esq., 
of Oaatle Fogarty, in ihe county of Tippcrury; ana I have 
hoard Mr. Lanigan say that it exactly resembles in lizo and 
carving the harp in Timity Colle^, of which he saw a cast in 
the Koyal Irish Academy. Mr. Lanij^'s harp, however, has 
not been seen by any person who has given his attention to ita 
comparative style and age, or who wiis (juuIiGed in any way to 
form and express an opinion on it, It ie miieh to be rcorettcd, 
and a great loae to inq^uiries of tlrie kind, that the owners of ran: 
icUca of antiquity arc not at all times wilEog to place for a 
time these curious remains in the Royal Irish Academy, where 
they could bo properly cxaminccl and compared, duly under- 
stood, and apprecaated by tlie general public as well as by the 
antiquary. There arc generous oxc^ptiona to this rule, aa in 
the ease of Sir Richard O'Doniiell, Baru, of Newport, county 
of Mayo, who had for many years allowed his preciou» relic, the 
CatAach, to add to the richness of the splendid museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy, and it would be greatly to bo deeired 
that his liberal example were more generally followed. 

In continuation of these obBcrvations of mine, and tracing 
still farther down the existence and abode of a few other survi- 
ving harpa of iJie later times, tlie following cotniniinication from 
my own and Ireland's distinguiihcd friend, Dr. I'ctrie, will, 1 
am sure, be n-'w;ived with all tlie; uttentlun and respect due to 
Jiis revered name. Thua writoa Dr. Potric. — 
■ " To the lovers of ancient Irish melody— a body, I regret to 
Bay,8mall in number amongst the educated classes in Ireland — 
it is a matter of deep regret that no rery ancient specimen le- 
maius to us of the Instrument which gave Uiut melody a grace 
VOL. II. 19 


Ilia Mierl 

fall turp 

tno tjarp IB 
T. C. II. nol 
Ibii \itrv. 

Kr. lAlll- 
(tai harp. 

Ttrn inllqnl. 
Ilcf aUoUlil 
pUce III urn 
Tor 4 tiino la 
Ill's nitiwum 
«l UtA ILlJL 

Smd* M 
an Itlili 
liar#« br 
t>[. l-itrlo. 

" lla rccrMf 


of injr 




ui t ittqi or 

St VdlHok 
at St. 

xtxm. of form and depth of feeling which that of no other coantrr 

'■in^jioni h&8 ever cquiilled, or will ever surpassi. Aa n nation, indeed, 

to''trtSh''"'' wc huvc been and ore hopelessly indifferent in tlie mfttter. We 

ttMu'r^ suppose the Irish harp to have been a barberoua instrument, 

and believe the mtisic to which it gave birth to be at best biit 

rude and uiuiittcd to civilized can; and in truth it is not of a 

kind to touch the feelin>^ or satisly the conventional taste of 

Bocictv as at present constituted. 

"^he reli^ous BentJment, so strongly diaractemtic of the 
Gacdhclic mind, has, in despite of co nianjr adreree circuit)- 
Btances, preserved to us a few relics of those aaini.Iy men who 
hy tlii^ir zeal in the uropo^atioti of Ctiristianity, both at home 
and abroad, obtained for their country the title of Jntuta Sane- 
torum ; and these rcUce arc no less interesting as touching me- 
morials of the ^ood men of a remote age, than valuable as 
ipecimciu exhibiting an intimacy with the elegant orta which 
without them would probably be more than doubled. 

*' Highly, however, as I appreciate these remains, 1 confesi 
that I would rnther have poHie^sed the harp of the apostle 
Pntiick, or that of the gentle Keven of Glandalough. which we 
know to have bci-u fo long preserved, than their bells, shrince, 
or crozicrs, or any other of their relics ; for sucli were only mc- 
uorials of their professional existence, while th«ir luuipt would 
present to our imagination tho existence of that sensibility to 
* the concordance of ewcct sounds' which tlio Creator haa be- 
stowed upon man, as the most soosuous and pure of his leisure 
enjoyments. Unhappily, such touching memorials, however, 
we can never possess 

" Butwc may still indulge tho hope that our boc»i vrhicb 
have preserved for us so many interetitinB remains iDujtrativc 
of the progress in civilization of our fopulailiors, may still con- 
serve and present to us a specimen of our ancient harp ; for at 
least one such they have already given us in our own liino, but 
it Booms to have dccd uncarcd for, and, oooEcqucatly, — des- 
" The late Mr. Henry Joy, of Belfast, in his learned and ad- 
luXiJUi mintble ' Historical Critical Dissertation on the Harp', printed 
^^aV^' "^ ^^^ '**^ ^^^' ^^^^^ Bunting's ' General CoUccuon of the 
Uintrick"! Ancient Music of Irelnnd' (vol. L: London, 1811), has informed 
ue that — 

'* * About ten or eleven years ago, a curious harp was found 
in the county of Limerick, on the estate of 8ir Ricliard Harte, 
by whom it was given to the late Dr. O'llalloran. On the 
death of that gentkmon it waa thrown into a lumber room, and 
tHcDce removM by a cook, who consigned it lo the flames. It 

" our bOM 
may yet 
gKc lis «n 


"Mr ilnj'i 


«Tsct fipure we liavc nul been able to obtain. Severtl gestle* _; 
rnca who saw it, declare lli&t it totully chfieKcl in co&ttnietion 
from the instrutnenl now ItDonn in Ireland ; that it wus tiiiialW 
in site, and still retained three met«l stricga, witK pins (or 
several others. It was raised hy labourers at the depth of 
twcWo fpit« or »p«dinc;g tinder the earth in Coolness Moss, near 
Neirc«Bt1(.', bctwi'vn Liiiic-rick and KiUamey. It sccnia <;xtra- 
ordinary tlial nnv vestiee of metal strings or pins ^liauld have 
rcmiuncd, nutwi^Lhatanding tLe qualitiea atUilukd Uj mom 

" From the great depth ut which this harp was found ", con- "Ai-Q^rrfinji 
tinues Dr. Fetrie. "it could hardly have been less llian one- t^i.Tiir°"^' 
tboiuand jexn old. Nor is it improbable that amoncat the- mo'^li^. 
lutm belonging to the Imrpent of the last century and early part "'■'" 
of the present, eomc of them may have bctn of a leapcctablo 
thoigih infirrior antiquity to the Limerick liurp. What, it may ^"^^ 
be ft^cd, has become of the hftrpa of the Bcven haipers who met tnt bfus» ' 
at Qranard m 1782, and thi: ten harpers at Belfoet in ll^i? |?S,1?'* 
Most of tliem, no doubt, have been used for firewood. Y«t I V,^?,*'"' 
hare been informed by the late Mr. Chrutopher Dillon Bcllcvr, 
and hit! lady, of Mount Bellcw, in the county of Galway, that 
foi maay yean a very aged harper, who was very probably one 
of those who attended ihv harp iniMittn^, used, in making hia 
annual rounds at tbc houses of the Connaught gentry, stop at 
their maniuon for a fortni^lit, and that on those occasions they 
voce always much stniclc with the antique character of liia 
harp. ' It was', tlicy said, ' small, and bm simply ornamented', 
and on the front of the pillar, or forcanii, there was a brass 
plate, on which waa inactilwd the name of the inuker and tlic 
uule — 1609. The poor harper bad ofb^n expressed hia inten- 
tion of bequeathing this harp to hia kind enlertuiners; but a 
summer camo without bringing him lo his aecu^tomcd haunts, 
and the harp waa never forwarded, nor it» fate ascertained. 

" Of the harps now remaining to us, thai prtiBcned in ihe mn- '!!*??■ 
scum of Trinity College, and popularly called ' Brian Boru'a', utiiVuid* 
but which I would call ' O'NeillV. is, probably, the oldeaL t^Jt'"" 
But, there can be no doubt of its being the work of a uiucli 
later age tlian that of the Munaler king: and it may be quo 
tioned if the ancient harps preserved in Scotland, and wliieh 
arc probably of Irish manufacture, ore not of equal or oven 
oulier antiquity, ^he next in ago is the Fitzgerald, or. aa it "Ou n»iw«f ' 
is now popularly called, the Dnlway harp, having been iu the ^Jr "'"' " 
poaBearion of that old Antrim fumilv fur a considerable number 
'or years. Of this harp, unhappily, only fracmCBU remain, 
namely, the harmonic curve, or pin-booid, and the fore-arm i 

19 a 




tlio aound-lward harine been lost or dcstrojed. 

mente are, howovcr, of fjroat intorost, not only on jficoUflLof 

their clabciiatc &it(l tustel'iil :itatiou, *"'*i MrhaPBi *t^*^ 

more from thuir "boiu^ In ";--.. j 

TnaTi inftrnptif"' From tTic!« ^»criptionj 

harp was imulu for one 


vc learn that tlie 
of the Desmond Fitzgeralds, namelj, 
John McEdmond Fitsgerold of C/nwrm, or Clojno^ whose ftrtn* 
arc huiidaumcly choked on the front of the foic-pillar, sii^ 
moutitcd by the arms of England. It nKScnts tu also witb 
(he name of the maker, ' Donalus, Fillus Thadcl', and the dam 
ofits fubritiation, 1621 ; and, in the Imh tangiiagc and let 
the names of the scrvimtB of the hoiuvhold. 

* Ilis1iualp> 
hirp Inpo'- 
tttUf Inni- 
laudin Ur. 

Jpf MMT~. 



«( Uwm' 1 


"Thesa itiacriptiona having been imperfoctly tnnslBlcd 
Mc. Joy's Essay, but recently read con-cctlv by youTKlf, lUid 
priutud for private difttribulion by the late t)r. Robert Ball, I 
thiok it desirable to give them a more secure record in your 
lectures as intcri^ting memorials of domeBtic life in Ireland aX 
that period". 

The followinc ia my liuosluttun of these Irish inacriptjom :— 

" These arc tliey who were servitors Co John Fit* Edmond 
[Fitz Gerald], ut Clumn [Cloyne], at the time that I was made, 
viz.: the Steward there was Janics Fite John; and Maoriec 
Walsh waa uur SiipuriiiCendcnt ; and Dennod Fits John, Wine 
Biider; and John Kuadhan was Bver Butler; and Philip Fiu 
Donncl waa Cevk there, Anno Domini 1621. 

** Teige O'Ruarc was Gbamberbua there, and James RusscI 
was House Marshal; and Maurice Fitz Thomas and Mauric« 
Fitz Edmond; these were all discreet atlcndanla upon him. 
Philip Fitztcigc Magrath was Tailor there; Donncnadh Fi 
Tcigc waa his Carpenter, — it was he that mode me. 

" GioUapatrick Mac Ciiilan was tny Musician nnd Harmo- 
nist; and if I could have found abetter, him should I have, and 
Dcrmot M'Cridon along with him, two highly ftccomplishcd 
men, whom I had to nurse me. And on cvciy one of these, 
may God have mercy on them all".'**'* 

"*" [ortginali— Ipi'DTynsoVTM'o- 
tn&nAic A^ Stf^An mac OmjifiT) 

pcm«4 ""p. .». tiolio r^tiAtvo *iin 
Beinof ma€ SeoAin j At^r muipif 
t>peAnAch vobA ]:AvmAnT>a£ ; «ca|- 
OlApmui-oniAC ffOAAn botci WtppflHAi 
ACjf Si>aAn Hii*o.n b«iciL*ip iiibeo- 
jwii ACAf piLip mAC OomrAiLL ba 
cOgai]<i<> ATin, Anno uommo UVil. 
Cawj O ltuAi)tc bA i-fOTnpaBOip 

5aI ci5«i AcAp tWinpr nt»c UawAif 
ACAf m«ii\n" "lAc CiiAHw J bA giwn- 
AHA^g "Dlieii-gcpPd'AtA I40 ro ttiie, 
ptbV iiiai: Caitig rtie Cf aiC tu cub- 
imp Ann; t)oiiTicfA]4 nutc C^utig ha 
rALe]iJ w> pon. 

JtwbUj-pAVIiiS wb* CiMWAtn iwbA 

jWAp (ecil-ACAT- o']iApt)< tMm j ACAT 
OA yliA'gin m buiC fc^r T r* *"* 
b1i«Ag, ACAr tKAjtmAit) AtAc Cniojin 
Tio^t A£amrA«oin «l.irti««ii. 4^t^^tA 



" Aocordiiig to tax old custom*', Mr. Joy writes, " the instm- 
naeat U supposed to be animated; and, among other matters, 
infonoa us ot the ncunes of two hirpura who had pruduccd the 
finest music on it; tliese were, it seeing, GloUa Patriclc M'Ci-idan 
und Diannnd M'Cridan". ThU liarp, which was nearly twice 
the sixe of the last noticed, has been thus described uy Mr. 
Joy : — " By the pins, which remiiin almost entire, it u found to " Dewnp- 
have contained m the row forty-Gve strings, boaidea suven iu mu turf. 
the centre, probably for unisons to others, maldng in all fifty- 
two strings. In consemiciice of the aound-botu-d being lost, 
different attempts to a^^rtain its scale hnvc bciOiL unsucccfisful. 
It contained twenty-four strings more than the noted harp 
calli^d Brian Boiromhe's; and in point of workmanship, is he* 
youd comparison superior to it, Doth for the elegance of ita 
crowded ornaments, and for the general execution of those paxta 
on which the general corroctnoaa of a musi'pftl instrument de- 
pends. Ilie opposite side is equally beautiful with that of 
which the delineation is given; the fore-pillar appears to be 
aallow, the harmonic curve of yew. 

" The instrument, in truth, deserves the epithet oliumcd by 
the inscription on it«elf — ' Ego shot Reg'ma VUhararuni". 

As following in age as well ns in importance", continues "Tbabu^ 

T. PeLrie, "the liarp 1 have next to notice is, by u curious m«ti'uii of 
idence, also a Fuzgerald one — it is the Iiarp of tha great ''*''**""- 
It family of Kiidorc, and is buppily in Lhelr keeping. The 
Dzc and proportions of this harp are aoout the same as those of 
'e Cloyne harp; and, like thelatter, it is richly, but less elabo- 

teiy ornamented In botli haips, too, the style of the oma* 
mentation is generally chaj-acteristic of an earlier o^ than that 
of (Jicir manufactm'O, oa proved by the coats of aims and in- 
scriptions upon them. In the Kildore harp, the inscription is, 

Hit ml*. 

the Irioh iascription thoro 
^Urse Eomui Istton, nnr ilin 
[vf a qaecn. at the and uf the 
Jo curve, 

Upon the bow the toyAl nxiuJ of 
~ anCftrriK!; mu) H U ti> he 
rked iboe the q.iurlcriug lot Itt- 
Uad exbibite ■ bup which i* ■ good 
i«pMWBt>tl»a of that knoirn u the 
bttp of BrUn lioramha. Under the 
ril anni ani tlioie of Sir Jolin Fitx- 
FltigeraUt, of CloTse^ Uu- 

palcd with thoto of tilf wife, tho Hon. 
KUsn Bwry, diwuhUr of Vi»roun( 
Buttffvimt; iiu wiu married la tlill, 
uid iii(<d ill \(A0. Tha mottoes imiter 
thci Rmii nppnr to )>«, " Vlruclt ml- 
u^K rirCut, Ooutcx on sTODt". Upon 
th« cdjco of (he bow were Latlu la- 
Mriptloof (now pitrtl/ loft)-, tboi« 
Ntnidn, ■'Fluctn vinco loga . . . 
incinitra riru*. tiiuiii^ !>«! donum. 
di*UacUi KilAtur iTiutii^a nn^iiict- tiC 
wniM .... tfkoell aiu glon-i 
inunOi. Viiioit T<niU«". Upvn th« 
Uutdf of tho bow. in brge lettcn, ii 
iiiscribcd, "Doauiui ttliui Thadel ma 
(ucli, spot mea In Uoo'-J 





< If hittnib 


" Ua on* In 

lilt y'n- 

wiilan at 
At lIcrTty 

Btam" : 


iudced, B very Bimple one, namely, tlic lettcis R. F. o., and, m 
Arabic nuraeraU, the dale. Ifl72. Yet, bripl'aa this inscription 
Uy coupled with the cscuiclicon of arms above wlucli it is carved, 
it 18 quite faifficient to identic the partlciilar Fitzgerald Cor 
wbom the barp vras mode. The esoutoheon, which is cAirod 
ia liigh relief iipoo the fore-pillar, exhibit* the anna of the 
KildftroFitzperaldB — pcarl,a saltire, nibv ; but they ate charged 
willi a cTCKcnt, to denote that thej belong to the second soa 
of the chief of t)ic family; nnd thim infonned, wc are enabled 
by a reference to Lodge's Pconigc, lo detcnnine, with ccrtaiotr, 
that the R. F. G. of l(i72, wns Kobert, the ttccond son of Oeor^ge, 
the sixteenth earl of Kildare — who brought the name of Robert 
into that noble house — and who, during the minority of his 
nephew. John, the eighteenth earl, who was bom in 1661, ws» 
ftpjiointed by the kinp to the government of the county. Ho 
WM bom in 1637, and he died in Jnnuan' 1607-H. On the 
death of Georce, the sixteenth earl, in 1 707, the earldom paaaed 
to a second Robert, bom in 1 liVfi, who was his finrt ooiinn, b«ing 
the son of his uncle, for whom the harp waa mude. and from 
him, in a direct linn, is descended the prcjunt e»tim»blc mar- 
quess, by whom, in the ancient csette of the laiuily, nt Kilkca, 
the harp in now most carefully conMired, axid of nia race may 
it never wunt conservators. 

" I have now noticed all the harps of an ape anterior to tlie 
eighteenth century knvwtt to me as cxiating in Ireland, and I 
have next to spealc of those of a later age. The earliest harps 
of the eighteenth century which I have aocn were made by Cor- 
mac Kelly, nt Bally nuacrcen, in the county of Londondurrr, 
*& district', as Mr. Bunting informs un, 'long famotu lor the 
construction of such instnimenla'. Of these harps, the most re 
markoble ia that preserved at Downhall, the seat of Sir Horver 
Bruce, Bart , in tlie same county, and wtiich had belonged tiU 
the time of his death to Denis Hompson, tlie wcll-inown 
harper of Magilligan, who died in 1807, at the age of 112 
years. Its siifes and front are made of white sallow, and the 
back of bo^ Cr, patched with cuf)per imd irou plates, and the 
following lines arc sculptured on it>~ 
' In the di-yt of Noah 1 was grown. 

After his flood I 've not been seen, 

Until seventeen hundred and two: — I was found 

By Cormac Kelly, under ground ; 

He r^sod me up to that degree. 

Queen of music they c*ll inu". 

" A second, hy the same maker, is preserved at Castle Otway, 

in the county of Tipperary, the seal of Captain Robert Jooelyn 

» ARCIZWT 8ItT!ty. 

r, R.N. and D.L., and beaw the date 1707. TTiia harp ""'t : 
he property of the harper and fiddler. Patriclt Quin, a. 
iiiiUv« of i'ortedown, in the county of ATinagh, and who wru 
the youngest of the harpers who attended st llie assembly in 
Jlilv, nya, Hampson being the eldest. Quin was bronght to 
Dublin in ltf09, as the only survivor of tlie old harpers, by the 
unfortunate Jolin Homnrd Trotter, who hod mtdc a TiticaiBry 
and fniitlee? attempt to organize a Harp Society, throueh whose 
patronage a ttchool for the instrnction of a new race oi harpen 
might be established, of nhich Quin was to be the leachei; and 
many Dublin septuagenarian? like myself may remember hia 
peifonnance at a Coiuiucuioiatiou of Hjuadel at tlie Kotundo in 
that year, ajid which was got up with the new to promote cbis 

'■A third harp of this period, which was. and, as I truat, i8"«ii»rp 
BtiU preserved in the county of Liraenck, ia olw, according to Hi^Jiu« » 
Mr. bunting, the manufacture of this maker, and engravinya of "'".„'.'*!.>■■ °^ 
it are given in Walker's ' Irisli Bards', and in I.iedwich'9 'Anti- 
quities of Ireland'. Itut there can Bcareely exist a doubt that 
my old friend was in error in this statement; for, in ncldilion to 
tlie fact that this harp, in it« fonn and style of omumciitation, 
diflere essentially from those of Corma*;, we have the statement 
of Mr. William Ou»lcy, of Limerick, who drew the harp and 
supplied tlie information respoctini' it for VValkur, that it bore 
the in*c.iption 'Made by John Kelly, 1726'. It woa alao of 
greater size than any of the harps of Cormac Kelly, aud which 
were never more than four feet in height; for we arc informed 
that this haip wa« tivc feet high, and contained thirty-three 
■trings. In 11$^ this harp vns in the po^^etsion of Mr. John 
Hehir, of Limerick. What haa since become of it 1 know not. 

" Superior in muny pespecls to any of the harp* of this period ■■• «»j«ini« 
I have now noticedt ^oa one which, through tlic kindness of a uT^Fwtfta la 
IrieQd, I had the pleasure ofuceing in 1832, and of which, un- '*""' 
happily, 1 can now npeuk only Irom a faded rucoUectlon. It 
waa at that time the properly or in the keeping of a country 
aolicitor, who had liia Dublin ofBce on Bacbeloi'a Walk, and 
who was then out of town. This harp waa of modciatc size, 
■Boat four feet in height, and, with the exception of a frjkottirc 
which it was obvious it had recently reL-eiveu, was in the most 
perfect stale of pre^ufniition. lis colour woa that of a pre- 
ciooa and well cared for Cremona violin, and no instrument of 
that class) could exceed it in tlie beaiitv and periection oi its 
workman^] lip, wlitle, from the antique cliarectcr of its orn&meo- 
tation, one would suppose it an instiutnent of much anttciuity, 
but for llie presence of aa intcription which gives iu hulory 


or Mvstc jlxd hdbical nisrRviiEWTfl 


uid the Te*r of its mnlnng. This inscription waa not, ss uauo 
ongniT«a on the woodwork of tlie baxji, bufwrittca in the Irieh 
lauffUBge and characters on parchment, which was under glaa), 
on the sound-hoard, and, amongst oth«r mutten which I forcet, 
it inromied us that it was tlio property of a Cftptun Art Ma- 
gcnnisi, of Ronic pinec in the county of Down, for whom it was 
made in the year 17:^5. or theteabout. Shortly afbor my seeing 
the infltmrnQnt, the tnend to whose kindness I was indebted for 
the privilege einigratcd to Ajsenca, where ho diod, and ita 
owner having given up hta lodmngii, I could learn nothing from 
his euccessor as to bis town and country residences. I can only, 
tJicrefore, indulge the hope, I confess a feeble one, that this in* I 
terestio^ memorial of a past elate of feclinL* and condttion ufi 
society in Ireland may have escaped the usual fate of such rclica^ i 
and 1 have a pl[?s8urc in pcaning this imperfect notice of it, 
from the hope that, if it yet exists, such rwjtice may lead to onr 
acquiring a Kaowledge of ite locality, and perhaps to a conse^ 
ying appreciation of it« interest and vahie- 
'thaharp In " To this period I tliJnk we sliould also ascribe the harp prft* 
Han «^a. served with an honoured place in the hall of iloUybrook nouM, . 
"***»'"' county of Wicklow, the beautiful scat of Sir George F. J.I 
Hodson, Bart. It is of small size, and without ornament or 
inscription. But it is not without a peculiar intcrviit; for its 
presence carries our minds hack to the joyous days in that dift- 
trict of the ancestor of Sir George, the ' ftobin Adair* of numj 
an old lung. Which of ua has not heard the * You are welcome 
to Puckstown, Robin Adair', manufiwrt-urod into * You 're wol- 
coiue to Paxton, Robin Adair' hy the Scotch, and for a long 
time claimed as their owni* or the still more popular baUad 
' The Kilniddnry Fox Hunt', in the opinion of Ritson, the best 
ballad-pocm in the KngUah language, in which wo aic told 
triumphantly that ' Holx>rt Adair, too, was with us that day'? 
That lino will prcsen'C hia name and memory for over. AxA 
it abo reminds us that in those days of simple Uvin^', social 
Irish mcrrimc-nt, and uaconventionul freedom of mann^is, the 
BOtrnd of the Iriih harp, and die melodies of Ireland, whether 
gay or tender, were not forgotten ; for the Qrst of these songs 
wua oMociutcd with the cxijuisitely beautiful and impassiiKied 
" Eileen aroon"; and the second wltli tlie tempered mirthfiil- 
BG«8 of ' Stghilc ni Gora'. And, for my own pari, 1 confeea 
that I cann'Ot banish from my mtnd the unpreseion that there 
existed at this period, in the romantic district of the Bray river, 
a poebof the type of the ancient hards — one who combined 
with the powers of song the gill of compodng exciting rhymes 
for the purpose of tlio hour. And he otlcn presents himself toi 

nty imaniuition, Bcatcd in tKc old mansion of HoUrbrookc, 
with Roljcrt Adttir and lb« bold liuiuen* of Kilruddury — him- 
self no doubt one of tlicm — fingiag, witli the accompaniment 
of ibis very harp, tbosu eimplu aonga which are yet iiyoem- 
bcred, and give plcusurc in the remembrance, not only in tho 
locality that gav« them birtli, but even in diatant countries that 
have little knowledge or conception of it« beauty. 

"To this period may also be aecribcd the harp prcaen'cd in 
Uic Mutcum of tho Kuyal Irish Acadomy, though indcud there 
ia, in my opiaion, a posaibility of iti being of an earlier ago. 
It ifi of medium siae and of good workmanship, but its only 
ornamentation connsta of a bird's head which adorna the foro 
pillar. Ihis harp aune into tho posseggion of tht- Academy 
by tho piuchssc of tho second collection of Irish antiquities 
made by tho late Major Sirr, his first and. bett«r coUoctlon hav- 
ing bccQ disposed of to a Glasgow picture dealer, coupled with 
tlie sinj.'iilttr condition tliat nonL* of them should be oflea-d for 
Bale in Ireland; and 1 need hardly add, that, as a consoniioncc, 
the vhole collection passed into tnc hands of Scotch and Eng- 
lish antiquaritis- 

'* The Academy also posesaes another harp, which, if it had 
any ju^i claim to the namo it bears — ' Carulan's' — would be 
viewed by uppreciators of muacal gcnnia with a deep inicicst. 
But, lliough It was sold to the Acodomy as such by a person 
who lepreacntcd himself as the lineal descendant of the great 
minsUtil, I have no doubt that he was a wretched impostor, 
whoso statement was wholly unworthy of belief. We hav« 
trustworthy evidence tliat Caroloii's haip wm burned by the 
servants of Mac Ucrraot Hoc at Aldcrlord House, in which 
Carolan died. And even if such evidence were wanting, the 
chancter of tho harp itwlf would belie the assertion ; for it is 
of the rudest form and worktmuiahip, and -without any cliarac- 
teristic of Carolan's time. In ehutl, I think itisaclumsypicec 
of work of the early part of the present century, and wholly 
unworthy a place in the great mu^euiu in which it la depoeiteu. 

" I have now noticed all the old harpe which have come under 
my own ub^a^rvatiuu, aiid^wlth the exccpliun of tlie Laitigun 
hftTp, in the county of Tippcrary, which 1 have never seen, but 
I believe to be old — all those ol whose present cxiaicnce 1 have 
become cognixant- 1 have now, therefore, only to wy a few 
worda in reference to the harps manuracturcd in our own time- 

" As far ais I know, thcHC harps are alt tlie manufacture of 
Egau, Uie eminent Dublin harp-maker, and owe their origin lo 
the necessity of providing instruciieuts for a new mcc of liarpcrs, 
the pupils of the scliogl of the Bclliiat Harp Society. XneM 



" tba bwp In 
■ha H. r. A-y 


"Ml. »t>- 

ckiitii riMTi 
th« IlLA.- 


«*ntnr7 kU 

miula trf 



thtm In Dr. 


' Dr. Praie'a 
o^nlmi or 

th< OltT- 

tinna or ih« 
Df Bvltut". 

harpe were of good form and iim, aWat the hwj^ht of 
hurps, ncli in tunt*, and of ejccL'lli'iit workiuaiiBhip. But the 
wcK wholly without ornament, and bad nothinc about t)iemi 
remind ua of ' the lorcd harp of utlicr daja*. Where am the 
harps now? To what purpose havo they been applied, now 
that tlictr players have diauppcorcd from amongst ua? I can>i 
nut 8iy. Oat^, indeed, is iu my own possession, and is 
existing mccaoriul uf a fr^tiai Inumph of religioua liberty- 
tiiumpTi which I (ni^l will vet obliterate the puoful recolle_ 
liun of put divisions uud aulTcniigs, and uiutti Inahmcn of all 
claaHes and creeds in the bonds of \fC-nct: and brotbeily atToction. 
Many of us must, like myself, remember the triumphal pro-1 
ccasiou of O'Connell through the leading streeu o? our city inj 
1820, after the paising of the Eiiinnoipation Act The oor 
of ihc day was acatcd in a triumphal car, richly deoor.._ 
with laurels; standing on his leli hand, his henchman — one 
my hoy friends — the uoble and lionheartud, and yet gentle, but 
nut uvorwisc Tom Steele; and seated before, but below them, 
a vcncrobic minati-el, vrith abundant silvery locks and board, 
arrayud iu the Eupposed costume of the baraic race, and Bpp»- 
rcnlJy drawing from his harp the joyous melodies of hi* coun- 
try fitting for the occasion. It is true thai be might as well 
have been a ' man who had no music in his soul', fitriktng an 
instrument which could give forth no sound: for the nevei^i 
cea*ing Irish shout, whioh 1 believe is allowed to be far supericV'] 
to all other should, of the ai^cmblcd tbuusanda who preceded,] 
and surrounded, and followed the car, was a jealous tinout, and 
wuuld allow no other sound to be heard The harp of that day] 
waa the otic which is now mine; and ttie harper, wnoso appear 
aucc indicated a centogcnarian i^e, and from whom, in a aut 
Be(|^ueni year, I bought it, was M'LoughUn, one of thu ya 
harpers of the Belfast school. 

" The efTort of the people of the nortli to perpetuate the cxJ 
istcncc of the harp in Ireland, by trying to give a harper's skill-' 
to a number of poor blind boys, was at onoe a benevolent and 
a patriotic one; but it was a delusion. The tiarp at the time 
was virtually dead; and such ellbrt conld give it for a i ' " 
only a sort of gQlvanl^cd vitality. The selection of blind 
without uny gicator regard for their musical capacities tlum ' 
pusse^^ion of the organ of hearing, for a calling which doomed 
them to a wandering life, depending for existence mainly, if 
not wholly, on the sympathies of the poorer closs^^. and neces- 
sarily conducive to toe lormation of intemperate habits, was not 
a well-considered benevolence, and should never have had any 
fair liope of success. And besides, there were no oompetcnt 

saclierF, imbued with a refined senee of the beauty of our finest 
tnclodif^, to instruct thorn; none to BoWt for them the rao^t 
touchini; of thoi« nielotlica, ami unite tlicm, anew, witli u eim- 
ple but correct liorraony, such as hai been preserved tradition- 
allj b/ the barpers of Wales, and give to ilicir caLbn^ a con- 
tinimnce and a patronage not yet wliollj' extlngiiislicd! Thus 
imperfectly instructed— I'pnorant of counterpoint, untl with a 
IcDowledgcof onlya few of ounnelodieB, rarely of the first cUag, 
and KBTCcIy ever perfenlJy prescrx-cd, how could it be expected 
that their performance could be tolerated by cultivateu esrg, 
accustomeci to the * tunes of the day', which are often of great 
beauty, and alwayg correct and elective in their hannoniea? 
But, even if it were otherwise — if those blind boys had been 
taueht to play with «kill endcorTcclJu-ee the melodies of Ireland 
— tlio only molodios suited to their instniinont — there was no 
longer in the country a generally diiliiaed Celtic sentiment, — 
no national feeling, independent of elasii prejudices, like that of 
Scotland 1 A new phaae of society, of which the struggle for 
wealth and the enjoyments of luxury are the characteristic 
fcraturcs, baa taken the place of that simpler one which gave a 
zest to the purer cnjoymcnti, springing from man's sennbilitica. 
Fashion will not now allow ub to exhibit depth of loobng, or 
marked individuality of character. Aa a great poet haa ex- 
piessed thin change . 

" * The world is too much with us; late and soon, 
Getting and sjwnding, we la^ waste our powers: 
Little we sec in nature that is ours; 
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon f 

"No. The Irisli harp cannot be brought back to life: 't is "tiwl 
dead for ever! And, even the music which it bad created will for'^^S^ 
never be felt ogoln u it has been felt, But, it won't die. 
few minds, possessing the dee]>er sensibilities ofour nature, and 
Hirong enough to spurn the deadening influences of fashion, will 
always be toiind. who, in ibe enjoyment of such music, will 
took for a. solace amidst 

" ' The fretfid stir and fever of the world' ". 

Pasicing from this valuable communication of Dr. Petrie, I 
shall tww take up the tlircad of my onn observations. 

There ia a harp in Scotland known as the harp of Mary Tiithin'Ui 
Queen of Scots, described in " Gunn's Historical Kntjuiry", and fjit!ilir« 
aaid to resemble in a remarkahic degree the Trinity College L'^'^^^'Ti 
harp ; bot it has not, I believe, been yet examined by any per- *«"■ 
80B properly qiiBlified to say how far this rcscmbluncc really 
axtsts. 7'hi» niiiy, for all we really know, be tlie harp of JJoiin- 
ehadh Cuirbreack O'Brien. 

A tha tnnMg 




Br*. Mr. 
lan'a " Uook 
of lJHnor*"i 

It evnUIni 
1fart« po«iD« 

nala nn tlili 

So far I have cndearoured to collect nicU refercooea to 
ioTm, compoLM, and anBugemeat of the ancient harp, — our cha- 
roctemtic □ationid iustrument of uauac. — bs veU as to the hu- 
toiy of the few cxisUng examples of it koowti to us, u I have 
been able to gather in my readings of our ancient lore. Btit 
before I proceed to the next branch of my stibjccC, and as I 
liavo said 80 much of Muireadkaeh Atbanarh O Da)y, I muEt 
be pardoned anoltter ?hort dieresaon, in order to alloir me to 
ooFToct an error into which aleamed Scottish writer, of whose 
aaiuaiDtADCe I Icel proud to boast, liaa lately fallen respecting 
this celebrated Irish bard. 

Tlie gentleman to whom 1 allude is the Revoread Tlioraos 
Mac Lauchlan of Edinburgh, whn has within the present year 
published, with translation and notes, a volume of GaedhcUo 
poeiai selected from llie lloolc of the Dean of lismore in Scot- 
land (a MS. of the year 15S9). This boolc is a valuable contribu- 
tion to the Gaedhdic literature of Ireland and Scotland. It is a 
work of great labour, most creditably executed, being enriched, 
be^dea the labours of the editor himaelf, by a long and deeply 
interesting introduction and additional notes from the learned 
pen of another valued friend of mine, William Forbes Skene, 
Esc[., of Edinburgh. Thin is not, indeed, the place to enter 
into the raerita of Mr. Mac Laucblan'e work, though I cannot 
resist the oppartunity whicli the occurrence of J/uirMtttdcA 
O'Daly'e name in it oifords me of bearing my humble testiuoay 
to its merits. Among the curious selection of Ossiauic and 
other poems in the volume, there are three short poems of a re- 
ligious character ascribed to MitinaeUtac/t Albanaeh (O'Daly), 
ot which I do not know of any copies existing in Ireland; and 
at page 109, in which is printed a poem ascribed to n John 
Mao Muirich, Mr. Msie Lauchlnn appends the follovring note: 
" This John McMurrich, or McVurnuh, was in all likelihood a 
member of the family who were so long bards to Clanranald, 
and who derived their name from their great ancestor in the 
thirteenth century, Muireach Albanach". And again, at pa^ 
Id 7, where the Urst of O'Daly's poems occurs, uic following 
note is appended: 

'* Murdoch of Scotland was t!»n first of tho great rsce of Mac 
Vurriclis, bariia to Macdonald of Clanrana!<r From all that 
con be gathered regarding him, he was an ecoledastic, and, ac- 
cording to the mcQsuie ol light he poswsscd, a man of earnest 
and sincere religion. It was not known, until this volume of 
Dean McGrc^oPa was seaicbind, that any remains of bis com- 
pontions existed; but here we find wvei-al, all very much of the 
same character. Tlictc is one long poem to the cross, which 



~«ip««r9 to have been modelled on the early LaUu byntns. Mur- »■ 
dock of Scotland, nr MuireadAaoh Allmitach, would appear to 
hftve lived between a.d. 1180 and 1220. Mr. Standtsh H. 
O'Grndy, late Preadent ol' the Owtianic Society of Dublin, 
kindly sent to the writer some yeore ago a poem, still prcecrred 
in Ireland, containina n dialogue between Maireadliach and 
• Cathal Croibkdhear^ , the redOiandcd Cnthal O'Connor, kin;j 
of Connsught, on the occasion of their embracing a religions 
life. Cathal's ' floriflh' \a known to have been between a.d. 
llMand 1225'. 

Mt. Muc LnuchUn printai the poem here, but the description huitMP 
of it is incorrect ae fiwr as O'Daly is ooncerned, for it contmna '^ta'^'""'nit 
no alhision whatever to his having embraced a reUgiouu lite, ^^j™** 
On tbo contrary, bo strongly urgee the warrioT long not to*^?' 
sheathe his .^wonl, hut i-athor to whet it for more hatilen, in place 
of whetting his knil'c for the pcrpoee of tonsuring his head; and 
Cathal of the Kcd Hand did continue lighting his battles up to 
the year of his dtsth in x.D. 1224, though he die?d in the habit 
of a Cistercian monk, in the abbey of Cnoo Muaxdh, in the 
county of Galway, an abbey which he had himself founded in 
the year 1190.'*^' Kven in this poem O'Daly docs not ibrget 
to pay a high and affwcrionate compliment to his friend Donn- 
tMdn Cairbreach O'Brien; but it is doubtful thot he was in 
Ireland at all at the time of writing it. I posseaj a fine copy of 
this cuiioiia poem. 

It does not appear that Mr. Mac Lauchlan waa aware that Mr. iu« 
Muireadhaeh Aibanach was an Irishman, but such he certainly |;ii"!^ 
WW ; and if the Mac Murdochs, or Mac Vuirricha, of Scotland, l^SSJ!**^ 
are descended from him, they are the only posterity he is known ^*»«rt 
to have lefi. For although his own pedigree is preserved by irutuau. 
the O'Clerys and Mac Firbis, they do not seem to know that 
he had left any descendants. Mnireadhach Alhaaach O'Daly, 
or, 89 he was called, Muirtadhach of TAof an-DoiU, was the third 
of six brothers, the second of whom was Domtchadft Mor O'Daly, 
abbot of Boyle, in the connty of Ilosconinion, author of many 
religions Irish poems, some of them of great bcautv, particu- 
larly those in praise of the Blessed Virgni Mary, "the abbot 
dlud in the year 1214, and it is possible tliflt some of the poems 
aacribed to his brother were his. This branch of tlie Irarncd 
O'Daly family is set down by the O'Clerys and Mac Firbis as 
the O'Dalys ol' Brcifne}', and not of Mealh, as some say. They 
were descended froin Niall of the Nine Hostages, and of the 
wimc race as the O'Neill?, or Cinael Eoghain. 

From this digression I now return to my proper subject, and 

UMl 8m tho Aasalt o( tho Four MMtert, a.i>. 1SS4. 



.1 shall accordingly proceed vith our invcMagvtion into the 
cords of ihc musioul iiutrtuncnu used aad the music performed 
in ancieot Krinn. 

The hiirp, of course, was the chief instrument emplored 
that music. And it ie conccmiug the uec of tbc hup iltat the 
greater part of the apocrypha! Blat«tiienta currt-nt conoeraing 
uici€-nt music have been ni&dc. I have hero collected all that 
I bclicrc to be rvally autiicntic on the subjcci of the pericct 
harp, or Cruit; Oic rcmaindur of what 1 have to aay upon this 


hai ■Mntcttd 
■11 (hat bi 

mOitCnM. (.jimj of iijslnimcnt will coino in morv properly when 1 have to 
speak of tho Telyii, or Welsh li&rp, and to lav U-furu th« reader 
more full account of the Ttmpdn. 1 Imvc iiure but to add a 
few words by way of caution as to ihu spccuUtioiii of some of 
the more popular writers on the subject. 
TiMiuta. Much has ui-en confidently written on the uicient Irish miitai 
mUSSmivSi uitl musical instrumotits, particularly by Mr. Joseph Cooper 
"ull«1°* Walker and Mr. Edward Buiilinff; the former chiefly from 
m.irmiKintj ima''ination, and the latter from induction, aided by a high mu- 
•tiii 'lu'tina tsieal education ; for Mr. Bunting's uctuol hnowledgc, or rather 
ofi.»..iii«i notions, of the ancient Irisli harp, uud the pcculiuniii:>8ofaDdeot 
Irish music, were derived by nim only from the degenerate 
body of harpers who held their last synod iu Belfast in the yea^^ 
n)i1i. That tho informalion derived by him from those piofl 
fessora was apocryphal and corrupt will clearly be seen from the 
long list of muiitiol terms publislicd in his last volume (1840)i 
all of which, wiih few exemptions (as I shall show by and bye), 
arc, I lunv at once say, mere forgeries, or else tho most common- 
place and vulgar Uibcmieisma of English terms supplied him 
by his informants, whoever they vcre. Mr. Bunting w^ not 
Ml Irish scholar. It may appear strarijic that in all that has 
been written on the subject of Irifih music and musical instru- 
menbt down to our own time, no example or instance of the pur- 
formaitces in ancient litnes on the harp, ur any other musical 
instrument, cither singly or ia concert, has been published on 
anything like auihority by our muncal writers. The reason of 
ui««Tiuua this, however, is obvious enough. These wntcrs had no ac- 
quaintance with our ancient literature ; they did not even under- 
stand our UnjTuagc: they had a reference to Craiflint and hi 
wonderful harp from Keting. a few references to horos or Iruio 
pets in what are called iho poems of Oisin, and to theic th 
own iinuginutioii and efiVontery made large additions. 

It is witli tlie greatest reluctuncv thut I venture to otfereuch 
strong remarks on the compilation published by Mr. Bunting, 
who has rescued so much of out p^^eiou^ mu°ic from loss and 
oblivion } but I mutt say, that it would have beta more to h' 

<tl(l finl 
know III* 
Irlth Ian- 



credit if he had left the whole discusaion of the ancient Irish xxxm. 

harp in such judicious hands oa those of (zeorge Petrie and tba ■uthcn 
others of his stamp, whose deep learning and perfect conscien- {SSTto*" 
tjousness would always keep them within the bounds of actual J^ |^ 
knowledge or fair rational induction. As for Mr. Cooper Walker, ^^ *)» 
he appears to have been the sport of evCTy pretender to antiqua' ■> mosn'ot 
rian knowledge, but more especially the cfupe of an unscrupu- °*"""*'* 
lous person ofthe name of Beaufort, — not the learned author of 
the " Memoir of a Map of Ireland", but another clergyman of 
the name, — who unblushingly pawned his pretended knowledge 
of facts on the well-intentioned but credulous Walker. 


(IX.) Or Uvnc uto Mdricai, FMsrftirMKimCcaatlniHdV Kcmca of i 

(aalrutnonti fonni] in our MS^— Tti« Dem- HMUail! ; the CWn-fibuMmV 
a drinking lioro. Tl\m Ikitn-Ciiroit. Tht ItMomt. Tht Cyir- CealJiairthuif. 
Tho Vara ; tlio Corn/urt or hora-plajer mnHJooed tn tha T/Hh B-> f'mieh. 
la the " ConrUhlii ot Ftrh", aaa in « locandary nvMOO oT the BcxA of 
OcDC*L*; n(ir«ft;renc« to triimpvts !□ Tho /■fin S« <M<un%«(, but tfat plu> 
iog of burp* Id Ibc cncamnoiGnu b mcatiooodi IdMumm qT nnulciuM In 
Um tnuos of fcing* and chief* oa miliMrv oqMditioai :— tho BbUI« of 
Atmhain and tho Icgtnd «f IXituHnt. MiuImj Im t r ui iiemi mailioa«d in iIm 
Tnlo of tliD Ualtio nf A fminin, «nil In Ibe poom oa tba fair ol Coraiu. 
Tho Cornair*, or Iinm-blmror, alao mentioned iu iho potin on tlM BanqoM- 
iQZ'ITauni of Tora. The Cratbh- Ciiiil, or Huaicol Urancli, owattoaed m 
ihe ThIo <>f /7diM Bricrind or " HrKriu'i Feut"; the maaical Itmnch n 
•f mbol of jiocU and uwd for commanJins lilmoe, w Bhown bj^ tlic T»lci of 
"Bneriu't ir«ut", aad th» "CtMftablp of £iiMr"i the HoBte*! liraacti 
mmtioiuxl in tlw Tab of Um *■ IMaleeiie of the Two 8afca"i ud abo in 
thaTaia of the " Flndins of Cormae't Bianch"; and lastly (n a poem of 
about the jrcar an. IfiOO; the Mulca) Bmoch ijinfaolic^ of rupose ami 
peace; It vru aoalo^iu to tlio Tutklah Mrtr cnaoeut n-ai IxiU^; soou; 
wonao b*ll) in tlin niiiX'Uin of tho K I.A.. belonMd |icrlxap« to Hied aa in- 
nruiMnt. Th« bcils called " CrWah" <lcMribed (a tho " P«ui; Jwitnal" ; 
Dr. Petrla'i obserraUona thereon ; "Crotnl^' not awd by Chrinian ptIeMa ; 
ex[duwtloa ot the term; ilie Iriah worda crecAa A, crotAto. and cfixAra; 
they ai» 111* ODlr worde at all lilcecrofahim, except croti', the buaka of Ihiit, 
La. caitamta; oella put oa tho uouluoroow*, aiiilon horNo; tbaOvtofngt 
fcaoira in Irolanil.-^iveryttii"^ written abtiut it i* o-iuv in*«iitloa. The 
CnMa-CUtf, or Mufical Treo. ii mi n generic t^rm for any Und of Biiwl«a] 
Inetnunent. an la «1io«a by > paiua^e from tho Dook of Liioim, wliere it It 
a Cniit; CuUfs, a tnbe, eijilaioe^ in a rnlluni MS. a« a Huaiiail xim ; la 
a^QutLer pkiof in tte Unok of Llamoro it i« a Timaan tliat la n calted. The 
Cuut'ieh; moil tio (led in tho poem on the fair of Carmam, and in tboTdoof 
tli« Biillh'of AJxiJi'iii'. 'ili-o CHM/ACiui/atiuthM'nocaercrr f.Viwii CimJ; Cuitl* 
a Liviiiff wurtl manniitit a vnin, or n kind of cocic ; uiiHiliaitMl in Uia Book of 
Invuiuiu ; Cvuf« DX|ilaiiiiN}, in H. S. 18. IX.D., us a Miuical Jtm>. M 

It IB not at all »atis(i(ctory, nor is it to be n-oudered at, that, 
although VIC find »everal muaicil instniments mcntio&ed by 
name in our ancient writings, we have so few of them now 
existiD^ ftmonp the spccimcna of ancient nrt preserved in the 
museum of lOe Rojral IrisK Aotdemjr. Thoae iDstrumcntd 
have for ages ceased to be known in Ireland, and ore now only 
OOcitaioDKlIy found buried deej) in the caith, from whicli tliey 
are from time to time recovered to bear their unimpeachnbh) 
evidence; to a remote era of civilisation and art iu the couutiy- 
The best way, perliom, in %rliich we could enter upon tlie study 
of these objccta would be to first give in alphabeUcal ordc 

. of such mitiacal in!<tnimc^nl!< as I liuve rniuid mrniioned iu 
Gacdhelic writings, anil ilxji) give in Uie samv onlcr a 
literal translation of' these Dames u far a» I can, togcilicr with 
the curcutnstances and ancient auchonti«3 in which they oio 
found. After thai I ehall ^vc (with such explanalions as I con 
offur) the name!! for miisioal perrormt^rs, anil for the variotis 
epecicB of nnisic, and the occasions upon which the^ are iDcn* 
Uoned, as far as I have been able to collect them. 

The number of iiistrumcntij, then, amounts to twenty, and 
llie following ace their munea: 

JimnbuaiihaiU; Btnn-ChroU; BuineUotBumM; Coir-Cea- 
thatrcAwir; Corn; Craebh-CiiiU: CTami-Cii'iil; Cruit; CniU- 
eaeh; C»U(e-CiuUi Feaddn; fi'tdil; Gnth-BuimU; Oeht-Tedaeh; 
Oirdn; Pip or Pipai; Stoc; Sturffan; Teillin; Timpan. 

The first instnimont, lienn-buuhhaill, was certainly a com- 
pound aamc, tornivd from bcnn, a hom, and buabhallt a butTtilo 

' wild ox. Thi« real lioni, us an int%Lrui»ent of music, is not 
ItioQcd, OH fox as I have found, in any computaUon oldor than 
those mediaeval poems and wriunga known ai the Kinian tales 
And pocnu, to cJled because they pretend to record chicHy the 
life and achicvemeala of Find Mac Cumltaili, and liia wairiora. 
In ttic modem conicfi of thctc pieces the name of thir instru- 
ment is written Barra-BuadA, but this ia ronnilcstly a cor* 
niption from the old cora«t form of Bfnn-Buabhaill. The 
name will bu found in several of the Finian poems, and in the 
Finian talc so well k uowu as tlio Bruiijhtan ChaerUtainn, in all 
of which it is made the chief instrumi^nt by which the cham- 
pion Fhtd cath'd l\ia troops togetlier for war or the chase. 
Mention of the use of the naluml hom Occurs, but under 
another name and foi a diflereni purpose, in other places where 
it is called a Ccrn-BtuUthaUl, — Mm and benn both being names 
for a h(mi ; but under this name it is always applied to a drink- 
ing cup or drinking hom, and not to n mmncal imilrumcnt;— 
aa, for iaatance, iu the Finiuii tract iu the Book of Lismoic*:--> 
'* And the young warrior gave iu full in a Com-Bue^haiU out 
of the cask of ale which he had, to Caill^".'***' Many ether 
instanoes could be adduced of this use of the Corn-BuabftaiU. 

The eefiond inalrumcnt, Berm'Chroit, ta explained in uu an- 
cient glowary thus: " The suings of a Jienn-Crot, that is, tlie 
Btrinjp of ft pinnacled (or triangular) Crwit, that ia of a Tim- 
pan".*"*' This is a curious interpretation, and if cOTiect, it 






TtiA Cant- 


The tina- 

<••'> [origiOA]:— 0eii|*ciiC4n eoc- 
VaA a tin a mboi jnD-baAf%AVL A]" in 

Boole o( Uwcaan, fgL SSS [111] a. a] 
VOL. U. 

(••*> [original!— CBcambeAtmciioc, 
.1. (14 c^oc mboinnae, .1. nacitnpan. 
— EI. 4. 2::. «7 or 6S]. 






HiB Oan>i 

, would IcAtl to tlic upinion tbat the rc^l micietit Crtnf wt 
ranguUr, vhxh tlic Timpan woa triu,a<p]liir. Tbe phrase, " Al 
iweet as the rtruiffs of Benn-CroC, occurs ycit ofton in onr 
ftDcicnt talcs ; and in deriving the name of Geidc OU^othacK, 
or GeifU of the ^Tcat toicc, one of our ante-CbiistUn kings, we 
arc told in the Book of LtnnMcr uid other equally ancient 
authorities, tliat lie wu so called becauwi fioni the pesoefuli 
harmonious cJiaractcr of hii reign, the peopln hpord eachaiher's 
wonU and voices with the imniu delimit lu if th<:/ liad boon the 
Btrinjffl of the tnanjfular [ ? melodious] harm, or Benn-Chrotta. 

The third instrumont is t]ieBuui<U or Butnnt; and wo havethe 
best dednition of lU form that can be dei^ired, from the old text 
qtiotcdiDZciU0'"Graminntic«Celtica*',voLl.,p. 481, where wQ 
find : Roboi (fuinttdJoehotmuUiua hadarca* side, that is " a comet 
horn; which moanii that it woa a trumpot in shape of a horn". 
The icarnod author of thu " Graminalica Celtics' merely girca 
iho passages for grtiinmnticn.1 purpost?a from a oodex at ^lilan in 
Italy, containing a commentary on the IWms of David ; but 
tills passage contnirui an important authority for the loeaniiig 
of tJic word JJuinne, siaoo the MS. is one of the niQth ccmury. 
Again the same authority has, at [Kifie 77 of the same volume: 
ang«iitth4V isin/t buinniu, no cn)i>,wiiicb isglo«is.'d thus: "quod 
Cfinitur; Lc tibia vcl crotta"; that is, " what ia chanted on the 
libift, or the harp". Now Tibia ia not exactly a horn, or an in- 
strument of the horn furm, but a ilutc, fife, or clarionet; but 
of ruch an iti8lnim(>nt no ancient specimen that I know of hu 
come down to cut times. 1 have not met with the name Buinng 
iise\r as applying; lo any instrument of music in my readings 
of ancititit (jmcdhulic ori<^inal writings; but the Butnir^, or 
performer on ihe Hmnne, is mentioned in thcaiici<!Dt poem on 
the TeacU Midchxtarla, or Banauctinj; Hall of Tarn; and h« 
is placud at the same ubie witli the Gornair, or horn-player, 
in the plan of that hall published by Dr. Pctrio in hia Essay 
on the Aiiliijuities of Tara. 

The (biiTth inatrumoni is iho Coir Cmthairehuir, — the grwit 
harp of I he Tuatha Di Danaan, so amply (Iidmii<»ed in a former 
lecture; but, whetliLT this was one of the »[>eciftl names for this 
particular harp, or the nmnc of a particular fashion, or class of 
narps, it is at present quite beyond our reach to ascertain. 

The fifth instrument on my list is the Corn; a word which 
aimpty and literally signifies a horn, but which, certainly, was 
applied only tn a metallic insrrum(>nt of music of the trumpet 
kmd. Of this fact, as well as of tlic use of the Corn, we have 
ay cxumplea, of wliich the following will be siiffick'nt for 
present purpose. lu the very aacieat tale of the jI 

Fraicfi, already quou^il in former lectures (where the tliroe ^"'<'- , 

hnrperg, tlie sons of VaiOinf and lioand who atl<-uili;d Fnieeh ■mufar- 
OD hU matrimonial visit to the pttlace of Cruachan, are <io- "ntnp'BTof 
seribei]) we are tolil that the young prince was attended in his [^^""JJi, 
piogrecB by Boven Comaire, or Corn players. *» JVatoif 

"There were", saya the tale, "aevcn Cornairts along with 
them, who had Coma of gold and of silver, and who woi« 
clothes of varioua colours; ihcir hair was fuir-yellow, as if of 
gold, and they wore briltiant white shirts"."*" 

We have a description of another group of Cornairg from 
a difleroat source, and a difletent tale of equ»l aniiiiuity, ex- 
actly wmilar; I mean that in the talc called T^cKmare Fiirhi, 
or the Courahip of Ferhi and which is one of the most cele- 
brated of iti elaes. Ferb wa£ the beautiful daughter of Gfrg^ 
the chief of Glenn^Geirg^ in Dlatcr, and she was beloved by 
Maine, one of the sons of AUilt and Medb, the eelcbniK^ 
king and queen of ConnachL Wc arc told that this young 

Srincc having, with the eonscnt of his father nnd mother, 
etertnincd on pacing a visit to the court of the lady /Vrfr'a 
father, for the purposo of making a formal demand of her hanct 
in murriage, he ect out at the head of a splendid cavalcade to 
bia fathers palace of Cruadutn to show himself to lita royal 
parents and to receive their benediction and good wishes- 
Nothing' can be more gorgeous tlmn ihf dt-scriplion in this tale 
of prince SSAvM^ and the cavalcade that aitcntlcd his pro^regi, 
aa may be seen irom the following short extract, which it will 
be oUcrved includes the mention of iho Comaire or trum- 
peters, nnd of the Cntiiire or hurpei-s, as well ta of tlic druids of 
tlie cavalcade. 

" There were seven Krayhounds ottendlnghis [prince Maine's] in "■• ^ 
chariot, in chains of sdvtT, with balls of gold upon each chain, or k«6-i 
so that the tingling of the balls against the chain? would be 
music sufficieni [for the march]. There was no known colour 
that was not to be seen upon these grnyhuundi. There were 
seven C</Ttiaire, with Corna of gold and of silver, wearing 
clothes of many colours, and all having i>dr-yj]low hair. Three 
druids also went in front of them, who wore Minda (or diadems) 
of silver upon their h<>ad» and i^peckled cloaks over iheir dresses, 
and who carried shiclde of bronite ornamented with red copper. 
Three CruUi're (or harpers) accompanied them; each of kuigly 
aspect, and arrayed in a criioson cloak. It was so they an-ivcd 
on the grcca of (the palace of) Craacfam; and they nin their 
three assembly -racea upon the green of CruaefiaiC S*^ 

'"" [oriKliiBl olreailf ^reu; antt, "**> [owlnal :— Scic witcoin im- 
Lect axx-, vol. U., p. 3S(Xj inac«i^poicirLftb|Mt)«ib«ip5ic,A^f 

^U D 

t^fr. A Her this die stoiy ieiOt ds tliey ircnt foi-th on Uunr joumcT'i 
wbich, lioweTcr, happeoed to cuni out on unfavourable one. 

or this Gne old talc there remwiu « beautilul copy in tbe 
Book of Leiii8ter, with the lorn of, perhaps, a page at the 
beginning. I quote only that part of it in which wq Ccmairt 
are introduced- 

uid In ■ The next rcforenoc to the Com ia from a verv dificrant 

l^?^?t eource indeed, but it ia one that siifEciently well deftnes the 

^^^ •* chuTflcler and use of the iniitrunicnt. It ia to be (bund in a 

beautiful legendary vcrfiian of the Book of G«neus, the Olt*- 

tion of Adiirn and Evo, tlicir temptabon and fall, and expuIsioB 

from KdcQ. 

" And it was tlicn", says this )^end, " that Adam board tlie 
voice of Michael the ArchangoU saying to Gabriel : ' Let a 
Corn and a Stoc Foera be soiindcd by tbev, uniil tbey axe 
board throughout the mven heavens; and go all of ye to tbe 
prcaencc of your Creator. And ariN:, all ye armtes and hu«l of 
angela of the eevvn heavens, until yo repair along with yoor 
Orestor t« paradise' ".'"^ 

There con Rcaicely ivmuln a doubt that the Com spolceo of 
bcrv was the long cur%inf; trumpet of which wo have such a 
magTiiliu.'nt S]>etTiinen In the museum of the lloyal Irish Aca- 
demy, which ifl an iasiruuent of tlie most powerful charac- 
ter;'*"' and it appeals to me equally certain that the Stoc ww 
a clarion, a smaller, a more shrill and sharp- sounding instrument, 
of which, as far an we can surmise, no specimen has come down 
U^vIX offt fop cat fVdbiiM), combA- 

rtobpaTiiitu *ii>co \y»\it OAcli "4 
fiAbi tpA ConAib. tJJiCAp AW9 mop 
p>iyniT\ coivnAtfe. c<i cofmdib oip, 
acur AT^pc Ijco, conccdigib illioa- 
tMo tmpu, CO mongaib pnWive 
fOt^ib. bd cap Cjii miui pempu 

eominodib aij\ct>roib «a)-a cennAib, 
CDfnb^rcMl> b^cccdib inifju, ^cu)" 
corciJiCAib umaitiib ftoop conaj-n&u 
vth ancMvmA\ pjinib. Cp civnie- 
cvfn conccofc tvi:T>A^]> ccfac rnt,- 
£oni«i||t imbjioccdtb ca|tc]VA'b. Hi>ri- 
CACAII UT^fin richirn pn co cnu.4c- 

aenaic to|i ir«ic^ na cputthn,!.^ 
B. D. 18 ful IS9l a. K. and n. 1j. 

TliU i»MUige I* yaj tXatihr u> tim 
eorrcpoixiiug one from itio 7ifin lio 
Fratrh, ft)v«a In lecl «re xxx. (wrf* vnl. 
lJ..|>,3t9) Tho bufluoi.*. or a» iIiht 
ouiclit periiapj more pn^iwrly tii Ui 
Qilleil JuK«liira, Id tho laiMr bviog 
hart cbIIm OruUaj 

(«•! [osiitlna) }— CoTiTo «nn pn to 

bb CO cluinn « ywnn ifona .vn. m- 
tiouiLcmAn ; ucMf i.-pnt> tuXm AfU>gn 
ocuf d «ipb)iiti d^ngvt nA .mi. tiime 
4!(Moec1l)-am inajuwn pia bun wtmii- 
tanidtn va6um uaiwor. — LtcMmr 
Bnae. folio, 4i^ a. >. boL] 

rt*" Tlib c»ntl indraiMfil, flg- «1, 
wtien tlw two pictm an jorn**), mpo- 
tun* pigbl fi-et H*c iiwhvs in IcDKth. 
Tlie opening ■( the large cod i« three 
and a ball jiicbeawlilc, and Bnt-cif^htlu 
of an Inch at Ui« naall «mL Tbvra 
ti>u»i liavetitt^ii Hiioiljec {lieee M kut, 
u well uB a uitiutli-pieoe. Tberc li 
al*ci in iho AcadcDi)'^ iDUwam Um 
inL[ldk>-piMa of anuiher gr««t hotn, 
fiirtunatcil}' |iK«K>rvtiiii tliow clttnlu 
hiivei at ihi> eDiU by ttlildi U wat 
coDUccbcd iritti ilio ottier two : 

to our time. Of tliu instrument, hovcTer, I ■Hhll have to 
aguiii under iw proper head.'***' 

Jt U rcmurka!>lc that there is no fefercncf to instrtimcnti of "o rererene* 
the truittjH.-t kind in the Yifin Bo Chtiailffne, nor in the Bnti- in tit'^ntm 
g/itan Dtuierga, two talcs of a very warlike ohafocter, in which ^XntiMn 
the mention oi auch inslmnicnU niiglit nuturitlly be expected. |^„'J,^g*( 
Indeed the only reforence to miMJc in the Tiiii Bo Chuailgne^'V'n tha 
is ivhetx; ve are told thut when tlie iniircliin" forces Laltcd ut ni«iiHi 
night, they were reLiilcd with the niufic of the harp and other 
iimrumentd ut and after dinner. Another instance of the ■■'•to^<>'*or 
attendance oi' musical perlormers upon kings and chiefs on iKcir t^"' twSrf 
royal progresses and military expeditions, is found in the do pi,",'?."'* 
tailed account of the battle of AlmJiain (now the hillof Allen, ^'IJ^'i^ 
in the county of Kildare) fought in the year 718; and this 
account containn 90 much that rrlales to oiir present subject, 
that although 1 have already used it in a former lecture,'*^ I must 
go into it at some length here. 

Jn the year 718, the inon;irch of Erinn, Ferghal, the son of 
Maetdiiin, of the northern U\ AeOt race, and who at the time 
reaidcJ at Ailear.h (near Derry), proposed to re-unpouc, and 
lory from the people of Leinetcr, the old Bonomcan Tributo 
which hftd been remitted to them a few years previously by the 
then monarch, FinnachUi, at the eulicitation of St. Moling. 
He accordingly made git-at prrparatinns for this dangerous 
oxpediliou, bf will he sei'n from tnu following extract: — 

" Lone, indeed, waa this muster being made j for what every t»ei»ii it 
man of the Leilh Chtiian (or Conn't half. i.o. tlie northern halt of 
Erinnto whom the tummoiucamc) used to tay.wai: *\{ Donntc 
goei> upon the expedition, I will*. Now Donnho was the son of 
a widow belonging.' to the FfraRoit (of the county of J/iitn* 
eachan or Monu^hun) ; he had ne?er gone away from his mother's 
houwone day or one night; and there wos not in nil Erinn ono 
more comely, or uf better »htipe or face, or more graceful fym* 
metry, than he; hewiw the heat at singing amusing verses and 
tcUti^ of royal stones in the world ; he was the bu^t to equip 
horses, and to mount spears, and to plait hair; and his was the 
best mind in acutcness of intellect and in honour".'"" 


'•*•! ISe«Le<;l.Xviu.,<ta»,TOl.l.,pt 
<™' forixinal;— bd fdo* ciw (»- 

& p0«««,O plJCCtUO, .1. "Xth "CCl 

tlotin)>6 A^i *n rluAg&O |i«g«t>ta", 
Dom'b6 imvpiio in«c b&i<nci(t«t»- 

tiiLe ukO cuiiiii^, iiu buD r^rr cp"^ 
no ti«\.b, nu viMid>m in^f. 11) pabA 
1 n-Oipnii uil« buA g^iob^^ no 
boO (V^Aino n\i\, JieA\ a\ vaO bttQ 
^YX" V'Anr. v\ft &c*\ ]vi|^Ia pop 



xxxiv. _ Such wM llie description of Donnho, the widow's son, 
i»ic*n<i III appeared so precious, wc arc told, in his niotlici'g eyes, that when 
(tcFEtinuM). t'le kin^ summoned him to his standftrd, she would not allow 
liim to go until she had gotten the security of St. Colum C'iiU, 
throujjh his representative Mail Mac Faitbh^, that be shooM 
return to his homo from Leinslcr in Mtfetj^. Not so, howerw^ 
was the youn^ man's fate, as the sequel wi II show. jH 

King Fertfat having completed his preiiamtions, set oat liwT^' 
AiUa^ upon bia southern march, and la due time and alier 
much toil, renchcd C'luain Dolhail, at Alm/iain, where he en- 
camped and Fct up his own pavilion. It was then, the sloty 
says, that Ferttal said to Domxho: "Make amusement for 
us, O Donnho: because thou art the liest mtDfitrel in Erinn, 
namely, at C^Ueackt, at pipes (or tubes), and at harps, and at 
poems, and at tntdilions, and at the royal stariee of hricn ; and 
to-morrow mnriting we shall give hftttle to the Leinstcrmcn". 
'*Notso",9atd Donnho, "I amnotalileloaoiueetbeG iKisnishtt 
nor can I exhibit one sin^rlc feat of all these to-nisht. Bati 
wherever thou art to-morrow rui^lit, if I be alive, I wull make 
•miisemcnl for thoc. Let then tlio royal buffoon, Ua Maigh' 
linne, amuse thee lo-night". So Ua MaighUnne was caUe<rto 
thr>m then; and he commenced to narrate the baulc»and trj- 
umplis of Leth-ChutHtt and Leinslcr from the destruction of 
Tuaim Tfnnliafh, that is Diiid Rif/i, in which CobhUtaeh Cael-m 
Breafih was killed, down to that lime ; and tliey slept not much 
that nigtit, btxaiiae of their great dread of the Loinsti-rmen and 
the great tcitipeat. For ihiB was the eve of the frsliviil of Sl^ 
Finnien in the winter" (thai is, the llth of DecemltGr)."*" ^| 
The story j^ucs on to relate that the battle was fought on tli^' 
next momiug, and that the Dorthems were defentea with the 
lose of nine thousand men, including the monarch F^gat him- 

«c«r oo inwrnu rVe$, agar 'tJ-pge 
yoVc, *c«r buo fon \.i AiCfic [.i. mg- 
n* itiTicWfCal Tia cniei. — TIik« 
TniginroU rj Iiiah AnnAU, pub. hy 
I.A.&, p. 31 ; riiTt uleo )1. ?. IG. 030; 
and E}ook of Furmoy. ful. *9. b.b.] 

Vers*' TT''* 'Oornliii ■otwa *ippi- 
■tv^ T>{iiii, 4 Ooinnbd I t^bi6 4,|r cu 
At" oiM* jinpoo put in ©ijimii, .1. t 
cuipj, Agay 1 ciiij-U?n«oib, agaf i 
cpuicilJ, Agar pinojib, agar TMnt- 
ycioib. agar f'Sni'^'^''* *Jircni> ; 
agorif m iHiiuiiip mibipdC vu b*- 

Vonnb6, r\\ ^iifnsAimp o.i|ip<c>(i *uie- 
p Atiotfe, A^iX "^"C*'^ *<>" rn^o'^ 'o^b 
pn viL» oo c«n»bpfi «no£c. A^af 

cipp a»t>m ) iwbitp a "lipafi, agjf 
"iibeor*" ■"*<* Oinr* wppw* t>iiicp. 

(i&inc Aipt'i'Oo <ouic Anofc. CU54A 
noA mafgWni tabu idpcc&in ; jio 
gabpitAo Of tmnpn cat, agdf com- 
paTtiAlifticvChatnTi AgvTUiigun 6 to* 
gaiL CnAmA Cenbdi. .1. Tleoinod nf t, 
in i>A mA]\1^d4 CobC^C C^uVbiieg, 
conigi An aimp)\ p«, ajaj- «ii bi 
mftpccKiAtt^oa pinnp*Lao in 4it^ 
clii pn. pa m6o odgLa l»o t«i^n. 
a5.^^ Lc mfm tia wotmnnc, .Mioip 
aiftti peLc vVimTiiiin gaitltiiiApn. — 
TIium Viitfiiuvnta of JniJi Ant 
pub. h7 I, A. S., p. .48 ; vidt nlw H. 
II!. ftl:>i and Book oi Farmov, (oL T 

aeir, and almost all the northerD chiefs. It was Aedh Slenn, a ^^xir. 

Lcinstcr chief, th&t slow J^erffal, but not before he hod first slain Lepndot 
tfa« iniiuitrcl Donnbo, who appeals to Lave lost Im Ilfu la tltu ^^^ud). 
epccial defence of the king. The buffooa, Ua Maighiinne, wm 
tsken prisoucr; and we ere told be waa oommaDdcd to give hia 
*'buiroon> roar" (whatever thftt jjcrfoirmuiec was), aikI that he 
did 80. And the tale lays paiticular emphasis u|joo thb per- 
formance, for we arc ti>M that loud and mettxlious wna thie roar; 
kDd thi| Uii Mauihlinne& roar rcmulned with tlie buffuona uf 
Erinii from that time to the time of ihe wrilfrr. This was not 
nil, honever, for we are further told that kiiij^ Fc*^a[s heud 
WHS then cut off, and the buiTiKm's bead was also cut off; and 
that the echo of the buffoon's roar continued to reverberate in 
the air for iJirec days and ihrec nights: a feat clearly showing to 
what clofs of the wonderful the lalo I quote belongii. Then 
comes the paesage in which the allusion to musicaJ infitninicnta 
ooours, in connection with which I shall quote this singular 

"Jt was at Condail of the k'uvrs" (now Old Connnll in the 
COantr^ of Kildarc), conltnucs the ttury, " that the Lulni^lcnncu 
encamped that ni^bt, drinking wine and mead pleaaantly and in 
good spirita, alter having (bu^ht the battle, and each of thom 
relating histriumphsmerrily and cheerfully- Then MurchaHh, 
the son of Bran (kinf; of Lcinpter), said: 'I would jjive a 
chariot woi'lh four cunthaU (that i», twelve cows) and a steed, 
and my diess. to any uhampiou who would go to the field of 
slaughter, nnd who would brin^ us a token from it'. ' I will 
go', said Baethghaiach, a charapion of Munster. So he put on 
Elsbattle-drcss of buttle and combat, and reached the spot wbcio 
(king) FergaV* body was; and he heard sotaelhing near, above 
him, in the air, winch 8iii<i, for he heard it all: ' Hero is a com- 
mand to you from ihektiig of the sewn heavens. Makeamuae* 
ment for your master to night, that is, foe Fer^jal, the son of 
^a«i/t/utn I though you have all of you, the profeseional men, 
fallen here, both CuiaUannehu (that is, pipcra), and Cornaire 
(that is, trurapeteis), and Cruilire (that ia. harpers); yett let 
not terror nor ditbility prevent you this ni^^ht from performing 
ioi FergaV. And then the warrior heaiu the music both of 
■ingeta, and IruTnpeteui, and filers, and harpt^m; and he heaid 
the voriety of music, and he never heard bolbre nor after better 
mumc. And lie heard in a cluster of rushes near him a Dord* 
Fiaata (or wild 8on;r), the sweetest of all the world's music 
The waiiior went towai'ds it. ' Do not come near mc', aiiid the 
head to him. ' I ask who thou art?' said the warrior. * I am 
tlio head of Dontibo't said the head, ' and I was bound in a bond 



I _33uuY. but night to 

tlie king thia night; md do not jou inter*' 


nipt mel" 'Where is Fergai'a bo3y her©?' eaid iho warrior. 
' It is it thiit fahinc« bovond ihcc there', naid the head ' 1 aeV\ 
said the warrior, ' sh&H I take thee also sway wiih inc? It is 
thou that 1 prefer to take'. ' I prelrr that nothing whateror 
should carry mc nwny', said the he»d, > itnlosa Christ, the Son 
of God, ifhould take inc', oontiniKid the liead ; * thou must giro 
the guarantee of Christ that thou wilt bring me back to my 
body again'. ■ I ehall ceilainly briD^thccfback)', saidlbc -war- 
rior; and so (he wauior returned with the head to Condail the 
■ame night, and ho found the Letnstcnnen still drinking on bis 

'** Hast thou brought a token with ihce?" said king Mwf' 
ehadh. ' I haTc', answered tiic warrior, ' the head of VonnMt 
' Place it on yondor poet', said (king) Jfurehadh. The whole 
hoH then knew it to be tlic head of Domibo; and this waa what 
they all ^d: ' Pity thy fate, O Donttboi Comely waa thj 
face 1 miikc uiausemcnt lor us xVve night, the Mune as (ho» didst 
for ihy lord yei^terthiy'. So he ttinied his face to the wall of 
the bouse, in order tliat it ihould be the darker for him; and 
he raised his Dord Finnta (or wild song) on high, and it waa 
the sweetest of all niiisio upon the surface of the earth I So that 
the host were all crying and lamenting Irom the pUintiTeness 
Biid softness of the melotly'V"" i 

b« binflc I in ctti\ titpTi ol^i^c cnnt 
in ^>t>indi«. — ]). c( h»tiaa>r, t. 80, a. 
tt.]. Vtiift Alt cngVd^ ne. o6(iiw. Ma 
c.Mjt &f. m'^mu]-, 3.f, an cimn ffUT. 
Cc^.cid cu?dpan cAgl-AC. nin mifetj 
ccnno Vumitba, «ii *n ccnn, *^a 
nc))»t>^oniiivnic4fiwni4 ;wiit«i|vf 
\.iyo ATi|iig4roJc; Agar "^ epcoioi*! 
•ftaw ! CAnti.' cufip jTufigaiT. j-unii,? afA 
An c'ogLdt,? (lT«A£oppin C4ien«A*] 

'•"i [origlriBl:— 1 conoaiV n<i piog 
tno^ dfcfiip An C4£« £« fuba:fi 

fdOin. il^an-npr jw iiiift mapeha* 
mac t>p<iini ''do Wdpaiircn CA^ipoc 
ctfCtie cuniAb», 'S^T *"° "^^i *i^t 
in' *p)M*, tton \At>t ^ft jiaj** ipn 
i|uh&6, A^df no bfr|va4 coifid]fe« 
ouEainn Af. nstao^rA ap b.i<it- 
gdCd^il^ocoiiiirnJlTlutiiain. S'-'^^'^ 
a c«£cT'lv«'6 c.iCa d^^y- L-uiViUarnA 
ttittic, go pjtimj gu honim 1 ixbdoi 

^dtfgAi^o tpn 4eoji 6f a cinn, con- 
ti»fi«|(c: ap cLofT nil*. ni»ai«n&0 
t>iiib 6 T^ig r«'c m*c. OcfiA Aippoe 
vj bvp ccisciinix anofr, .i. v'Fopgdl 
tiiAO tilAoLouin, CIA oo |iod|ia|>«i|t 
pint) u1l« in bUp fiAOit^ana <>rDi|\ 
cinrLc^noto, ag*]- coftnaif*, ACAr"* 
cpuiap« ! Tia cAipmt^fccA •fi^^C no 
ti«S cumnanc pb T*'aiiipticO onoCc 
^1 VCiipjavU 5© ccuaVa iap*Tli jn 
cujtjrf «n coipj. agar **• ccot p- 
fe^eta*. 5© ccvaIa *art Yaw eutw 

mat tiic ardlL. aji in ceaiiv, c«tc a»\ 
>Ti cu<;lac£ cia tio ben biBm, — 11. i, 
IB !>S}.4f ar}.] "arc* *r^*^ '•'""''» 
ti««i b^fia, ai> -«"« c*n«i ; afc p*C 
cp*r^ "(KSt) *i"0 <M (loni pu^a, g* 
ccti^a w* *p atnup mo f olt^ w> jno* 
ip. -Oo bftip *Jin, ap an cugLoC ; 
<^av iinpoi an c^^LaA agar ^n ocnn- 
La'r cot'so CoiioatU acar piaip 
l^'gin ag 6V A^i A ianr' pn ai<6^ 
cAcna. An cru^aip cumapCa bacf 
Ap niopfhaA. Cu^af, a^ an c6gLa£ 
cc-nn Ouinnb6. voi^aim ap 4n 
f-ua^tno DC CalU^P mupfa'A. Cu^- 

[aw an r^-u^fe "'l-* a'tiw F*'l> S'lp 
fe ccnrt t)uinnb6 ; agap af^-O po>'i 

Howevpr wild this strange Bloiy may bc^ the eompontKin 
aObnis eviclcncL- siifRcient to show, tJiai in ilie middle age*, say 
in the sevuMlh and «fr!uh pentunoa, il was the custom in Erinn 
that music and song ehnuld attend on military expeditions, it' 
not tocheurthcm on to the battle-field. At least to ket^ji iip tlicir 
epirita and to difli-ipnte the gloom wliicli muint naturnlly liang 
over on anny un the nifrht preceding the day of bnttlfi; and i>o 
ftUo we gather from the context, that it was cu^lomiury for the 
victors to celebrate their tjiiimphs wiih wine, ale, miific, and 
song. 1 may hero obsoire thai the musical instrunwnto men- 
tioQcd in ihia story were t)ie Cuueacfi, the Cuitlt, the Cruit, and 
the Corn- Of the CntU 1 have already said uuch; of the 
othcTB I shall bare more to fny further on. 

This roprcsentB one class of those occasions on which we find 
tiie music of the bom player rclcrred to. 

Again, in tJie ancient poem presurved in the Book of Lcin- 
sicr, And described in a fonncr lecture, which ^vcs an account 
o( the sporta aud eiilerlainnirn'B practised at the fair of Car- 
md'.'"" (now Wexford) in ancient times, wo Kivi scvcrsl infltru- 
mcnts of tnti^c nn:ntioncd us baring been in rctiuisition at these 
great national or provincial assemblies. Thiti poem was written 
ty FularUicfif a uiitivv of LeinstcT, about the year lOOO; and, 
in epeakiiig of and (■mimomtinjr the various kinds of th<>«0 
CDtertoinmcDts. the poet tclia iia (at the (iity-fiflh stanxa), that 
Binong its fuvourlte miirece of vnjuyiiient vieiv tlv.* Sluie, the 
Crula, the wid«-moHthcd Coma, the C'uinf:acha, the Timpain, 
th« l*ij>ai (at pipes), the Fiddles, thu Fir-Cer>g»il. the Cnamh- 
fhir, and tlie C»(*lentiacftf. I may objciTc that the laat tlireo 
names are those ofjuTfonners. denvod from the names of their 
itutnimenti', of each of which I propoi>e to speak under ila par- 
ticular head. 

The Coriiair, or hom-bloffi'cr, i^ nM>ntioncd also in the nneioni 
poem on thcamngcinculof ihc Qunqiictino IIouki nf 'J'ara, the 
Teach AfuikeJiuaria; and we find the pnrtinidar place assigned 
to him in tlint ercat liouiw marked on the plan of it publislied 
by Or. IVlrie in his " History of tlie Anlifjuities of Tara". 

The sixth iustiunient on our list is the Croehh Ciiiii, or Musi- 
cal llranch. This appe:!!*)) to have been n bianch. or hrnneliy 
CSi-irci&wilfri wm;-4n*iric AtJ^uln^■^- 939. <f ii^.] go mbiccun uiLe aj 
&I M ouxh vo o«4l.ty, vttii «ip- cjftt agar *5 cnipp [^>» c|\ti.ii^ 

dgjij' ri cdiciuM III nmU i^ofdn, 
— H. 2. Ift 'MS o *rvO— Tiin« Frui- 
mi-'iibof IrUfa Auuotf, pub. b; l.A.S., 

'"•'[S** T.wt. II, mni, vol. ii. p. 
3S: ftnil kJh Aprotulix, for tha otigl> 
lul of ihlB iPipoTtant poGm ] 



ID < he TalO 

or Ihr 

" Batlla Dt I 

uiA tti* 
iHum on I 

comAO-Dop^A'Vo.— U. 2. T<t. WDU. it 

Accpudg d]^ 4lJ^f>, [c(Mnb«biniM cAch 
ctel &x> cutno caUnAn— U. i. 16. 

Tin Oir. 

lint ■■!«■■ 

Hand iB Ih 

EL^ti]. rui (h 
ii4|ii4'llr,> J 
lifiiiM Hi 





la iht Talc 

- BUcrWt 

_ pole, upon which & cluster of bells w«» suspeniled ; aome _ 
pcrhftps, like tho crcBCcnt with iu bcUg, which, bonowed from 
llic Turki! williin our memory, lield a nither conspicuous place 
in the iitilitury baude of the British nrmy. It i.i, perhaps, 
scarcely correct to cdll thiis u luusicul instrument, as we do ool 
tiu<l il meitlioned ody where in cnnncctioo with other ioitru- 
mc&ts of music, lue first reference to a musical branch that 
1 have met is in tlie very aacient talc of FUxUi Jtr 
(Rrieriu'a feiut), fully desohbed in a former lecture.'*" 

When at this feast tlie wives of the great champions of ' 
had got into a wnrm war of words tn support of tbu merits l„ 
their reapcctiYe husbands, the husbands tneraselTcs bcin? pte- 
Bcot became excited, and ready to step beyond tbe limits of 
wordy argument to test the assertions of their spouses on the 
spot, As the paAiage is u verv short one, I may as well give 
toe following traoslatioD of it from (he Ltabhar na h-Didkrtt 
" The house became a babel of words again with the women, 
in a contention about their husbunds and themselves- And the 
husbands showed a disposition to quarrel again, namely, ConaU 
[Ceamacft^, axiA. I-aeghmre JJuadhach, and Crtehulautfi- Then 
SeHcha [the poutl eon oi' A Uili araac, and tic abouk the Cratbh 
Skgneha, or Smcha't Branch, whereupon all the UUouians 
silent to hear him".*" 


Uia UlulMl 
Rr^gli a 
i^mbol of 
PMI*. uid 
■i(04 (or 

Tliis SeneJia was a distinguished soholar and poet, and 
bcflidoa, the po»t of chid juiij^e to Coachohar Mas Net»a, king 
of Ulster at this lime, in a foimer lecture'***' [ have given a 
description of Sij person, arms, and dress, as told by Mac iioth, 
to A ililt and Mtdhh, the kiii^ and Queen of Cuimachi, at Slcim- 
hain, in Westmeatli, quott>d from the Tain iio Chuaihnt. 

That the Musical Branch was an appendage pecutiar to the 
poets, and probably for the double purpose of distinction and of 
commanding ailence, as in the present c^m, may be inferred from 
another pa.'wage in the same tale of Brieriu't, Feast, on the 
occasion of the first commotion of the women and their hus- 
bands rcfcmrd to in the pa.<«»ge just rjuoted above. The con- 
tention in this case aro?e among tJie women when outride the 
house, US to who should be the first to get in, whereupon the 
tale says : m 

(Ml: [Sm Ltctwtt on tht 3fS. if alt- 
rialt of AiKtvil Jrith Uttiory, p> 3(6; 
and Heo J.eeiure six- anit, voL ii. p. 

!*•' I^orifftnal;— Vofaldtr ceCin- 

ocuf p*c ^»par. Co ToLcmair** 

Con«LV ocuf Lwcjflipc ocuf Cu£uV 
Utintt. Acy\a£c Sc»£d> m.ic Ail«tV4 
Tiaejvine m Cnjicib Sont.\, otvf cof»- 
coircC i)l.]i[ulcii] uLi fpif — £«aMap 
/Kl h-l.'idhrt, foL, Ij' h. b. rl i€^.'] 
•^^' [Sm Lectuiiiuui.,tiii[*,vol.l 



" Tboir husbonda Arose in the house ; cacli mftQ of thei» 
(anxious) to open ihc door for his wilo, so that she should be the 
ant woman to ontor the hotiac. ' It will be an evil night', said 
(king) Concholar; and he stnick the red bronze post of the 
couch with the spike of silver which he held in hia aand, upon 
which the whole host sat down".'*"' 

That this was not nn sccidentul circumst&nco 09 rttgards t)ic 
king'a means of coinmiindiiig peace and Kiloncc, wc have ample 
evidence from the following passage in the Tdcfimarc n-Eimire 
(or, the Courtship ot£»ter and Cxtclndaind), in which the same 
king CoJicliobar Mao Neua, and liis palace, the Rojral Branch of 
Emtmia, ore described: 

" Coneliobhar'a couch was placed in the front of the hoase; 
it wu ornamented with plates of silver, ond it hod posts of red 
bronze, with gilding of gold on their heads, inlaid with gems of 
carbuncle, bo that day and night were o{ equal light in it There 
was a pl*te of olvcr [i.e. a kind of gone:] over the king, reach- 
ing to the roof of the royal house ; and whenever Conchohhar 
ctruck with the royal wand tlus plate, the Ultoni&ns all were 

The next raferenco to the Cratbh CiuU, or Musical Branch, is 
to be found in ihc ancient tate called A^atlam/i an da SkuattA, or 
the Dialogue of the two Sa^a or Proleswre, of which I gave 
a free analysis in a former lecture when treating of the pieces 
called nncient prophecies .'*"' I shall give here a short analysis 
of the Blory by way of preface to tho particular paseago bearing 
upon my present eubject. 

^ dftna, a learned man of the provinco of Connacht, was chief 
poet of Ulster, and attached to tlic couit of the above Conchobar 
Mao Nttta at Emania, about tlie time of the Incamation. This 
Adhna had a »ou, JVeiihe, who, after finishing his education at 
home, ])asKcd into Scotland, to add to hi^ learning and know- 
ledge of the world in the schoola there. Afler spending aomc 
time there, at the whool of a celcbraU'd philosopher of the name 
ofJCocfiaidh Echbheoil, he r<;tuiiicd with a few companions to 
bis father at Einnnia. 'When he reached that royal palace, 

■1 ttioinl \!f 

and lbs 

■■ Cunrtahlp 
or BnuKl 

till Miule 
" liiiiiii|iia 

!»••} [original :— [C0T>*p5fc t. pp 

c«£n4 cir«« 'IT* c*' Aptup tJiio 
oW iimawaig, op Conc*bi)»; ocivAra 
*c\b nangtc x-a li6i maliitn fjiipn 
nuiiCni cp^numa in naitiiQA. Coti- 
0*TW*p in nrUiiiis innafUTJi. — Leah- 
kmr iM A-VuiAre, falio ST. ». b. e( irq.] 
tHM [oilgitiat. — Imoac ConcoWin 

dtpCTO, CO iiuaiCTiib cpeounm, co- 
ligpuo oip r<)p d conoaib. co nge- 
ntoib copprao^ul. incib, comma com- 
]x>l4f V«a ocvT avaicc mce. S»n<k 
jt«tl.l. Aipwo u.-if in pit ea anoliop 
An p«)^gi : !fl HAtn no boal/rij Con- ca latere P'pDai ATI T^*IU con* 
caiciT uUhu uL'c pip — USS. E|,'er> 
toa nSSO, BHL Miu.] 

■*"< [Sm Lv.lur^ on tKt MS. •Vii4. 
TUili cf Andtnt IrUA ffu/ery.] 




ttet UtMlnl 
ttanttf In thg 
W* ol Ilia 
> [HalojM 
pt iheTvo 

lioircver, hn discovered that his &di«r had died a few d&ys 
viounly ; rikI having cntcrc<l tlic court, he found tiw. OUaTnS% i 
chiuf poet's chnir which his fkUier had tilled, eropij', with 
chief poct'.t ^eplemtid cloak laid on the back of it, as no suc< 
aor to the Ii^amcd deccaSL-d hiwl been yet appointed The young 
tnan without hci<itation put on the cloak and sal in tlie cbair; 
but, ahortljr aRcr the poet Fereeirtne, who was the pronimplive 
BUCCVS30T to the Vacant cliair, walked in, and to his astontsbt 
found it alrcsd/ occupied by a youthful stranger. Fr 
questioned him an to tho chair and cloak of which ho had 
SDttcd liitaEcif. The young man answered that hia looming ' ^, 
his titlv to them, and he proposed [o maiutMn it by a public di»> 
onwon. llie chftltcnge was accepted, and the discussion wm 
carried on in presence of king ConcU(AaT and the noblea of 
CUtcr; ond this is the discu«non, the report of which is what 
has ever eiocc been called the AriaUamh an da SIniadh, or the 
iJialoguc of the two Sagwt or l*rol<j(»or». It is not, however, 
with Uie dialogue itself that wc arc at prew^ul concerned, but 
vitha passage in the prefnoo to it, which, in the following worda, 
gives an account of the young poct'« setting out Qom Scotland 
with his comninions! 

" Keidite ihon aet out from Cfnn TirS (now Kentirc), an^^ 
went lironi that to Ainn Snoff. He alter that set ont from Por^f 
^t^ (in Scotland) over the gca, and lnnr]c<l at Rind /ioit» (in 
Ulstci): from ihm he set out over SfinJine, and over I^th* 
airtu [now I,anie~}, and over Maifh fAuft, and over OllttrbhOt 
and over 'J'ufaek fime, and over Ard-Sleibht, and over Craib 
Tltfca, and over Afaffh- KrcaitJti, ond over the [river] Banna 
nppcr, and over Glenn Right, and over the tciritonua of Vi 
Hrea^ail [in Anniu;h],Bnd over Ard Sailrcli, l\iul U Ardmeeha^ 
and over tlie hill ol the palace ot'JCm/min [or Fmania'], And it ta 
how he made his journey with a silver branch ovor iiim- Tliis 
was what t\\(^ Atirad/is [that is the poeteoftho second order] car- 
ried over them ; ond it was a llrancb of gold that the chief pocl«, 
tJiat is the Ollamha, eariicd over them ; and it was a llianch of 
bronze that all other poets besides these carried over them".***'' ^ 

C|1aC 4 c«fCA vocumLAipi; do CliinQ 
Cipc.ncnr Lttiv 1 AT< P" ^*^ Ktno Sndc. 

OOCIIWlldirOC IApllinApU|1C n^gTM^t 

A|TA">' f^'l* Svmnin fun Voc^pi'ti, 
few tttig LtitPy fop oUo|^b«■ pJi* 
t^jUiig Hnil*c. r"!^ *■'" !'V*b». foil 
L'tUMbCcU:«.ro|\ maj MCHCatce, fDl> 
b«im« ^tf iiuaCc*(t, |op sVenv 

KfK) S«tV«A. rpfiiAttO]i A^n .m. <n- 
wu. yo-^ \r» bpnTg na hcrnn*. ij* 
AinUini van i>a cunil^i ir thac, oc«|> 
citc^ib vvusviwt wur*. U«i|\ If 

r<dio I4i. t).a.mld.J 


. I li ft oioioas pasM^ u prasemnjr to d« ftn mtcresimg 
fectnn in ^ ptofoedoasu equipment of ibe auvcml itcgrcca ot' 
t}ie poets in the otdcn diiic», and oue, too, liiUicrto unnoticed 
"by liU vrritore on Jmh antiquities. 

The third rolcrenco to s Cfaebh Ciuit or MuaicaL Brunch is 
Tound in an ancient tale, ontilled, "The Finding of CormAo's 
Branch'', — copies of which are preserved in the ftuuka ol' iJal- 
lyinote and Fermoy in the iibmrj ofihe Koyal Irisli Acadomy, 
and iho Yellow Book oi' Lvcaa in the library of Triuity College. 
Cormae MacAirt, the hero ol'thii! story, was monarch ul Erinn in 
the tmddlo of the third century ; and the following id the open- 
ing paae*go of the tale, which givefi ui account of the w«y in 
'Which bo obtained this Btuncb, as told in the iJoolc of Fcrinoy. 

"One time thut Ccrmac, the grandson of Conn fof the liuii- 
dred battW] was in Liaftft-'I'ruim [anotlver name lor Taro], be 
saw coming towards him on dio green of the palace, a. attitely 
fclr-eray-lituded warrior. The warrior came up tarrying in bis 
hand a Uranch of i'coce, with three apples (oi balls) of icd ^Id 
upon it; and it a not known to what particular kind o( wood 
it belonged. ^Vod when he [the wariior] shook it, sweeter 
than llie world's music was the music which the applt^s pro- 
duced ; and all the wounded and sick men of the earth would 
go to ttteep and repaie with the music, and no sorrow or depr«8* 
Mon ooula rest upon the person who heard it".'"*' 

It is not nece-isary to our present purpose to enter farther 
into the details of this story, or ahaw how kinu Cormae ob- 
tuned, lost, and refined this wondi^rful Branch: it is proper 
to state, however, that, an lunu as Con/iau hud it, he used it in 
the same way that the poet iyeitcha lucd hie Brunch ut Brie 
rtu's feast, and king Conchohar hia silver 8pik<.! uiid waiidf 
namely, to shake it, and produce peace tuid nloncc in his 
palace, whenever the high spirits of hj» courticra approached 
the point oi' dieturboncc at the feast. 

The next and laat reltTCnee to a Xfuslcul Branch thatllmvc 
met is of moderu daU-, compu.r«d to thot^e already given; but 
it is not the less valuable on tliut acouunt, bccuusc, although 
the nuxa^ VB but figuratively applied to a hurp, the figure is 
oorrcctiy carried out by ascribing to tlic partieului hurp rufvrrcd 
to, the magically »)otliiug propertioe of a Mimical Branch. 

■nd also In 
th* Tal* or 
" Tris ntOf 
Itig «t 


■ rotvM 

■bout Cha 
jar *.n. 

"*•' [oriiiinali — ("o^cufBobi Cop- 

dvnacUvcti rupujx.^ finrtiat a^i ap 
yaitfri in T>uin. 1|- Aml^ vo bi *n 

l^im, CO cft hubtAibt>«i]k^|k piii>|w; 
OC1l|' «i f *i" CA j-rtV Hi ! OMf *I1 CA" 

ociif iwCoiwcWoif yppfaib concA 
*5ur OCT giUiin! irt beatd Lcpn 
ciJ('V,pn, ocuf tiacibitcui^iAnornWi 

—Book ot FtriDpj.fotki IK %.. b.]. 




This reference ia found in b erect liMle Gaedhelic p 
eiglitwn stanzas, of which I poncn a very good copy, 
name und time ot'thv author are uiik&on-n to rac; but 1 Btiould 
suppose that he floumbcd iibont [ho y<>ar 1500. The author 
apptiura to have bocn, or pretends to nave been, abandoned or 
Dcglcctodb}' his fnends anajpaLrong; nnd in tbiii state he addrefK* 
the poem to liis Iiiaturicaf tnunu»crii)t book, calling on it lo 
come to bin), and not to abandon him like his other dear rriends. 
He obarEes the book to come to him accompanied with hia 
paper, Ilis pens, bis book of pocois, nnd his handbook of aritli- 
ini>tic and astronomy, by meansof which he was enabled to cal- 
culate Ghronolo<ry since the Deluge, and to count the stars of 
heaven. Thin DringH hitn to the eighth stanza, which, with 
the ninth, tenth, unoeleveDth, he devotes lo bia barp, as will bo 
seen from the followin^j literal tratislaUoQ ; — 
*' l)o not forget the Musical Branch, 

The red-bowded, dry, sweet-toned [uutrument']. 
The Boft-voiced, melodious moaner; 
Which is a sleeping sedative to the minil 
"Do; bring mo the musical lyre. 
Speaking, brilliant, plaintive, 
Foliabeu, well-soiuionL-d throughout, 
l^ne-Btringed, and carved all round. 
" Whenever I see the artistic harp, 

The great brown-ebadod, smooth-aded (uistrumont] 
Under the bounding ardour of my avifl-moving fingen 
It excites my mind despite itsolf; 
" Until 1 have played Uuillmg siveet tunes 

From the very tips of my furiously rapid fingew, 
Warm, thick-wove, arid grave. 
Filtered, hard-lingorod, even".'*" 
I scarcely need say any mote to prove that the Craeih Ctdt/, 
or Musical Braneli, wiuan instrument indicative ot symbolic of 
repose and peace, and uaed by those who were qualified by 
station or profession to command it. The particular form or 
parts of the Musical Drancb wc have now no m'juii:) of diifcovcr- 
ing ; but, from tbe qualities aacrlbcd lu the bmnclies of the poot 

II") (originil I— 
na vein vvdfinoo oun c1i|%aoiI> 

U^LLcinAii B05, tocj* binn; 
I^- jnianan c<M)«Icj ■ftinrtrn, 
X}Jli1.i4 w«ih on lipic U)inni»AC, 
C«nga£, r jvc;u>t;c. togt.At)n»d, 
t1i«Ai g|\cAnc«, |r^O«ip£« «p fv^t 

yAtpotwfcipspTHiiji mo riicoip 

^\i]\ piiviio* bni! cuiCjie cop -^oftc 
Upppinn ma fneoi^llppitiji ^oo, 

&il«4C, ciiaiciTieApa6. cofpom. 
— aCuny MS&, Cuh. Doir.. Ulrto> 
rlcal Peemi, voL iv. p. U9, Biid.J 



, and of king Cormap 
tat least, if aot in eho 

that it resembled. 

with iu gentlv-UDgllog I 
vemis airo baa a pWc i 

we inay asaume 

)c, the silver crceccnt of the Turka, it 
or thiit w 
in Uritub miliUiry bands. 


, from 

iM lo tami 

jt,»cme TuriciA 
years ago bad a place in lintuli militAry bands, Jt Iiftppcns i'^f.^A*" 
that there are al present in the musoiiin of the Ro^aL Irish t*"** 
Academy two telt of little bells tbrmtyd like hollow musket 
bullets, with steina, which may probuWy have formed purta of 
an iaatrument of this kind. One set of thoee belh voiisitis at bronubatti 
proaeat of iiHecn Ivmo bclU); they are foniiud of brunzc of an ■eani''i}r'ii« 
ancient kind, having two small holes at both sides of the stum, brlonirwi 
and without any encloauro. The other set consists of thirtficn ; p*'"'»i'« *« 
they are formerl of a more modem kind ofbriuts or bronze, and lutruumt 
are a little smaller than the former, and aot so regularly globu- 
lar. They have each two similar pcrromlions, and contain each 
of them a small loose ball op pea within, mode, I 9uppo»e, of the 
same metal. They arc at present — and were so when purchased 
by the Academy — slung loosely by their Erbems on q piece of 
wire bent latQ a Ecrics of ro?iilar bends, and ihe whole of iheon 
formed into a hoop or rinjf, like a cogged crown wheel, with a 
diameter of about four inches. Now, if' this rinj* were £xed 
horizontally at the top of a thin pole or wand, and so shakim, the 
litUc bells being each elunijupon it« own. bend of the wire, they 
could }iroduce a small dnglmgnoiiic, or music it may be, tiiougri 
certainly not of a very southing quality- But I cannot refer to 
them as by any means an example of the effective instrument 
whose music ia described in the ancient wriUnj^ I have quoted. 

There is another class of bells preserved in our national mu- Theboiu 
aeum, of a different form from iIiom- just described, and of mo«t ^craLia" 
undoubtcdly remote antiquity. These bells were notieedin the i'i't'"."ivl!nl° 
" Dublin Penny JouruaP^"' by a correapoiidoni who siyns him- Jimra*!*; 
self with the letter B. The article is headed, " Ancient Irish 
Bells and Crotals", and goes on &s follows: 

*' The annexed woodcuts represent some ancient Irish bclla, 
which, with a great variety of ' skeynea", 'cells', spean and 
arrow-hcada, gnn^'s, metallic pens, and other relics of (intiiiuity, 
were found a few years ago in a bo^ near Birr in ihc King's 
county. Many specimenfl of the curioMties just enumerated, as 
well aa of other rare remaioa of ancient times, ineludin^ that 
antique work in metal called Dmniin Cootawn [^Jiearmin Cu- 
lann] (apwardeof nine hundred years old), of which an account 
[a very silly account indeed] is given in the fburtocnth volume 
of the ' Transactions of the Koyal Irish Academy', arc now in 
the collection of T. L. Cookcr Esq., of Birr. The bells arc of 

>»»J No. «7, voL L, p, 8TS, Bday IStli, 1833. 




JeurBBl" : 

bcll-mctol, and ftopoar lu if mlt. No- 1 is live inches 1 

two ani] OQO and u-lmlf in the greatest duinietor; and Ha. i 

it three by two inches and a quarter. 

" Thosu bolln w«re formerly called Crotols or bell-cymbals, and 
a» siippoecd to have been usc-d by the clergy. T)tey consisted, 
as Dr. Ledwich writes, aud o* the specimens before lu prov 
of two hollow dRmisphor(*« of U'lt-mmnl, joined together and' 
closing B small piece of tlie same »ubetaiioe, to serve the use 
a tongue or clapper, and produce the sound. The learmnl ani 
qunry just referied to says, ou the aiillioriiy of John Sarishc 
* The Crotal seems not to hnre been n barxiic instrument, but < 
bell-cymbal used by the olcrf^y, anddeDODiinatod a Ciotaliun by 
the LAtioa'. Ue adds, * it waa alw used by the Roman pagui 

" Tlie name", continnes thin writer. "senm« to bpderirml rroin 
the Irish irotal, a husk or pod, \rhich woa iiH-'taphoricaUy u«>d 
to express a cymbal. The TcnrrabhrClcnnal Vallunci-v, in the 
twelfth Dumber of his ' Collecldni.w\ intimates thai beUa might 
have been employed bv the Irieli (lruida,>nd adduces instonoca 
of the anricmt augurs having used them tn ptonouociug the 
oracles. Walker, in his ' liistory of the Iruh IWds', voL 
p. 127, tells us that these bells were formerly used by the pric 
to iri^ten ghoeta". 

Doctor Pctric, the learned editor of the " IVnny Joiirnar, 
ofiers the following ob«crvation on the communicauon from ** 
of which 1 have given the above extract. 

'* 'llie unciont religious bells of the Irish, tiins briefly notit 
by our rcn[>cctahlc correapunJent 1), is u suhjcct of consic 
aulu interest, mid which we shall ruluni to in a future ni 
bcr at Eomc length; wc ehall, therefore, only observe uoi 
that the belb represented by our cijrn.-»pondeiit, 1 and i, 
well as a third which wc hoi-c add from the museum of tho 
Dean of ^t. PatncVs, and which was fuund in the same bog, 
are evidenlly of that description called Ciolal, or hell-cymbal — > 
two of which wen; ulways connected tO((fthei' by means uf a 
flexible rod. Bcauford, in his essay on ihc nucicnl Iriiih mue' 
cal inslnunents, pubUslied iii Ledwich'n * It'nii Anticitiitifa', ^'ivi 
o plate of whut he and T>cdwich supposed to bo the lonn of i 
Irislt Crotab, btit which are in tealily only aheep-bclla of I 
aevenicenlh century, and of wliich we subjoin a tipecimen from 
our own collection. The CrotaU gi%-cn above are the only tnte 
ipecimens of the kind which wc have heard of as being found 
in Ireland; o. great number of brazen trumpets, of the saroc 
inctal, gilt in the same manner, and apparently the work of the 
same workman, were found along witn them. These trumpet* 


are in the possession of I^ord Oxtnantown [the Intc cnrl of Rossc], 
the I>caii of St. I'ati'ickV, and Mr. Coolce, ai*Pimou3towa". 

Of the coUections of Imtt aniiquitipfi alluded (o in tbe prc- 
ocdio^ obaervctttous of Dr. Petrie, tliul of thu Dean of St. 
PstHcVs has since that time passed into the museum of the 
Royal Iriflh Acudcmy, that of Mr. Cooke to the Briljeh Mu- 
seum; hw, of* Lord Kossc's coUcctiou I know nothiug. If it 
were not humilitting to our national pride and dc^rniding to 
our self-respect, it would be aiuvism}j to iirad these bulil attempts 
of mob ignorant, iin^cnipuloua fabrtcaton of tacts, as Ledvich, 
Beftufordt und VulUuicey, to impose their nudscious forgeries on 
our presumed ignoniiice of tiie written sad cxieling records of 
our ostioDiil htatory. A buldovsa to be tlie more wondered at 
from tlie well known fact, that not one of the three ever read, 
or ever could read, one chapter, one pu^c. or ono Bcntcncc of 
that history in the native tongue, itUhoiigh it vuclrck'd tbvm all 
round in ponderous voLumci, five, six, seven and more hun- 
dreds of ye^rs old. It i« trut> thul the Chrijitiuii priests froin Si. 
Piitriok down had the use of bells for the ordinary ecclesiMtic*! 
purposed, but these' WL-re of the ordinary shupe, round or sq^uare, 
open below, and with regular clappers of the ordinary kind. It is tr'iau iuh 
oot true, however, lu for as the must extensive reading leads, that curutiaa 
Crotahf or Crotalum, were ever used by our Christian priests i""™'"* 
for any purpoEG whatsoever. In fact, the word "croUil"doea not 
cxtMatall in theGaedhi^lic tangu3^. It Ls n. modem corruption 
of the Latin word, thus explained in " Ainoworth's Dictionary": 

" Crototi, or crotsiiorum, iewels so worn that they iinglo as "('•"•""•l 
tbcy Sttikc ojrainst one another. Urotalum, an instrument 
made of two brass plates or bones, winch being struck together 
taodc ft kind of music; a castanot'. 

Now I ask, whether there is the remotest reacicblance bet- 
twcon the " Crotala" or bran plates described htTO tiom Pliny 
and Cicero, and these curious bell-shaped insttumenta which 
are to be found in our nttdonal museum ? 1 have, in former 
lectures, from time to time had occasion to describe pocla, 
musicians, and druids in the actual excrctse of tlieir respective 
profcaions; btit in no instance of thcec, nor anywhere else, have 
I found " Crolals", or beUs of any kind fonning any part of 
their professional pai'aphernalia, excepting in the instance of the 
poct« and their Musical Uranohes, already described in this lec- 
ture. To follow these most impudent, because mort ignoranl, 
writers further on the present subiect, would be a positive wasto 
of time and patience, and I shall tlioreforc leave them for the 
present, and conclude this part of my subject with a few mot* 
words on the word Ootal, or Crotulum. 

VOL. IX. a 


or uDsic AND mruciL ivst&ohkkti 


It would, perhaps, be- 1> qu««ticm of «ORve Dhiloloi^eal iutef 

Qwiruh to collate llic Lalin worj CnUahtm witli ln« GaeJlieliL! wuid 
tfv'uoM. CroUtadh, to shake, and CrotUta^ and Clolkra, anytliing which 
Hw"*''"'' '"'*'"'* * noisn by ehnkiag. My DKraning will be uniicrsiood bj 

fivinethe translation of the signification of these two words, u* 
(iiiu it in a Hrchon Law (ilussaiy, coDi|iilcd lir DonthmA 
0' liubhdahhoiretm, or O'Davorun, an accoinpliehod xcbular and 
gt.-ntleiiinn oT Kiirrfn, in tny native county ot Clare, in the year 
15ljif. The fullowinj; are tlie gloset?*:— 

" Clotlira, tliat i^, a tiling wliicli is htr»nl being sbakcn, encli 
OB it is [in t]iL> Laws] : ' It' it bu a Ao'fi that ia accusloined to anring 
upoti people, tbcrc must be an alarm of a bell or a CUthn 
arotind it* QecW, that in. a little bell at Its neck, or sotnechiog 
else wbicb is beard ehalciag [or ringing] when it is gotog to 
commit a trespass'. 

" Crothia, sueh as the warning of a croee or a Crcihta, that 
is, to pass over what E.t fhakrn there, tliat is, the tbrbiddisg 
drolan (or hasp), t)mt is, the Crothia which is placed upon tks 
garden door ofthc gaiden ofan exile of Uod [thati3,ofa rednse 
or pilgrimpw" 

Prom this curious explanation of the word CTOi^la we Icam 
two intc^>!<un^ fuctx: tlie Gmt, that in nldea times in our 
country, the liiw alluwml no person to enter into ihu hermitage 
of a PL-ligioiis recluse without due notice of his approach; and 
tceondly, thut the udvancv or garden door of tlua hetmitaga 
was fiimishcd with a cross, hasp, or something else, which was 
ttruclc against the door, like our knockers, or shaken, as the 
iron hasp ofthcdooroontinuca to be to itiidday.iu theooimtiy 
parts of Ireland. 

vaj •» lb* l hose twu words, then, Clothra and Crotfda, which ikctually 
M'iii'iuo* 'Oeiui tlie same thing, are tlio only words that I am acquainteu 
with in the Gucdhebc language, which at idl approach the Latin 
word erotalnm; but we see cioarlv, from their assigned aignifi* 
cation, tlmt they are really as unlike bells of any kind as the 
crotatum or caslanet itself. Tlteie is, to be sure, sa the wri ler in 
the " Penny JeurQul'sttys, the word crotal, ttgnifving the liuaks 
of fruit, or iLe scales of ilah, and such Like; but there is no 
great reason to imagine that the Gacdhlls ioipromed the nuin« 
of a bell from so remote and diaiimilttr an idea. We know 


tnlai Ilia 

r>atl. Lr. 
cuiaumt ; 

••"1 [iiflgltul:— CloCpo. .1 ni cln- 
■mccup 4g4 cpo^ji*, ^<nAiL «ca t ■ ■ ) 

cUiicc, no ctotf A fo A b)iA^&ic, .i' 
cttiipn im4 b]tAgA<r, no nt «il» ie 
cVvtnpctie&A «{a cfoCAO in CAn 

cicpA -DO sen«-Ai F<)£l«. O'Davoreo, 
iroce CI'CKni. 

Cpoil*, vr, upj«J!ii4 «(«Mp no 

ooivur 'iit^Vip, Ai|\i4p An neo' 
o4. O'Davorea, tow Cmkbu} 



|fiom ih« DioKon Laws fimt cows of the find class or quality _* 

)n anci^ittimes vere, fordi^iinction, riirnis]i(>(l wiiliLcUs (called obikvviod 
Ctuitf) at their neoke, and iliat cows bo funii?Iied wuie b_v luw ?^;*' 
inviolate, so that they could not be taken in distraint even under 
a process of law, una if stolen or injured, tho penalty wua much 
higher than that which attached to the same offcnc* when coni- 
BiiUed upon ordinary cows [v. Smu^htu Mot, vol. i. p, 143,uwio9 
pub. by lirchoTi Law Com.]- We know, too, that hurew were ■""**•= 
I furnished with little bells, sometimes of silver and gold, at tlieir 
necks, long before the introiliiction of Cht-i^umiity uito this 
country. An in.stance of thi* (act i» preserved in tli« very 
, aacient tale of the Tdin Bo Fraich, wlicro we aix: told that 
! ^r(WcA, of whom so much has already been spoken in these 
\ lecttires, when goiug to Crw/cJian to pay his audrcs!ici> to the 
princess I'^ndabair, went with a cortege of iifty horsemen in 

I rich array, and each hor<«e furnished, among other things, with 
* ereaccnt of gold, and little golden ctoffs, or bells, at it;< neck. 
Sut again, I aswrt that tlicro is no sucJi instrument as a CrotolomcraMi 
Inown in the Gacdhelic language, and thai all that has Wen •"n'riiuriT- 
written about it for the Inst eighty years in books, and read Vi'u^"''"* 
in papers heforo the Royal Irish Academy, is pure rabricatiou, •i>"'>''«n"« 
wunded on the !t.«sumntion ot a laet that never had exieieueo. 
Having, as I tnist, disposed for ever of the '* Crotal" na having 

'been an ancient Irish iiistrumcut of mu^ic. I ^liall turn from Hiia 
rather long digression, and u^'ain take up tho alphabcticsl Ui-t, 
u th« word next in order, namely, the Crann Cidtl, or Musi- xh. om* 
cal Trco; and, in the lirst place, 1 must observe that the word vwtcM 
tree, in this aa well ua in various other inamncos, does not mean '^^^ 
a tree in the ordinary, sense of a growini; plant. When I ums 
the word here, I do so in truuaUlJon of tlic Irish word Crann, 
and exactly in the sense in which we understand the word tree 
in some compound Kni^lidh wordd, aa a. tpade-trcc, an axle-tree, 

' a boot-trco, a saddle- tree, and others ol the same class. The 
Crann CitUl, or Musical Tree, would implj; by the very form 
of the words that the instrument was made of wood, but beyond 
this, even if so far, lU nuMiral si;;ni[iciktion dcKrs not extend- 
Indeed, I mi^ht say that tlio word Cratin-duil Is n generic"*"* 

I term lor almost any kind of miisical in.iirumt-nt; and aa a dis- UnuCvrMcr 
cussion on the autject would be of little vahie, I shall content ^[iU,^'i 
myself with two examples of this of the term. In the old uuimniw'. 
Book of Lismore, we find the followisg convereauon recorded 
as having ukcn place between CaiVte (the aurvivlng historian 
o( f\nd Mac CttmhatU), and St. Patrick: — 

" It was then**, lays the story, '* that St Patrick asked Caille 

' if they badmuainans in the reniau troops. ' Wc bad, indeed' 


or MltSIC AVD MDSICit IH8T llDirEltTt 


•> U •hi>wii 
br ■ laiuca 
rroiu itie 


■ben It Is • 

pl4l»F>l In ■ 
wlhim US. 
■«■ Huttcal 

!>nul Ca'iltt, ' the one best musician that coald be found ta 
Brian or la Alba'. ' What wtu his n&me?' said St. Patriek- 

• Cnu Deroit, sail! Callle. ' Where was he fouuil?' said St 
Patncle. ' Between Cr^tta Cliach and Sidk Ban Find (now 
Sliahh na m-BaM, va Tippcrarp') in the south', Buid Ca^. 

* What wiu his de^oription?* wud St Patiick. 'Four hmub- 
1>r»dtlis for Find wa^ liia height; and three handsbreadtha for 
him wag the height of the Crann CvUl which he played', Boid 
Cailft. ' The other niusicians of the Tttalfia De Daaonn be- 
came jealous of him', snid he, * and itime<l him out of their court. 
Fmd\ conUnues Cailte, * happened to go on that day lo >SidA 
Ban Find to n chate and hunt, and he sat there upon a raised 
mound. The Fenian chief baving looked about him, pcrocivod 
ihe little in»ii tuning und playing his Cruit (or liarp) upon the 
batik near him ; anif there he sat with his liiir yellow hair floAl- 
ing down his back toluahius. And when he saw Findhecaxae 
up to him, and put his hand into his hand [as a token of Bubmis- 
sion], for he ]_Find] waa the iirsl person lie met al^r coniiog 
out of the [fwry] hill. And ho continued to play his Cruit in 
Find's presence until tlie r«at of the Fenian warriors came up. 
And when they came up they heai-d the enchanting fairy rouaie. 
Good, O beloved Find', said the Fianna, ' this is one of the three 
best gift* thai you have ever reccivL>d'. And he continued wit 
him [Find] afterwards till hi* death".'*"' 

In this short article it will be seen tliat what was first 
cribed ns a Crann Citiil, or Musical Tree, of three hands in 
height, is twice afterwards described as a Cruit, or harp; and 
vet, tu an anient gloemry preserved in a vellmn MS. in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin,""' w« find tliw word CuisU 
{A tube) explained as a Crann Ciuit, or Musieul Troe. Weare 
told further in the same old Book of Lismorc, tliat white CW/(« 

tvns [nriSLRiU:— )]■ Anopn po p*p- 
fAtg pjcuaicno Cliiittci in pabftcjn 
«ippcig *cinbp ifin T^nn. Do bt 
nni«|tiw a\\ CaiV^i m cacn aippCL>£ 

bdtn. Ca hainm pn A[v pAtjuic. 
Cnu Depcnl, d^ CAitri, cdic Aig^it « 
&tipAC^ig. eivi«]iCpoc«clia«Acur 
Sicli bann bpifn cif Ap CaiVo. 

Cl>CC A CUdpAr^bdlL iY VACfldlC. 

Aour C|M t»ii|tnii tio tpn C|\an« 
Ciuii, oo f iMtiftu. flcur Ainpng CuA- 
t&VoDdnnAin x>o pinowcuat n'p 
IniB pnn inUi pn co aroban pun 
pan «o feile oewT vriAgACi oc»r 
pii**!* Ap in Oppc pocomj anvpn. 
SlU.i|" lApum in ^\Ait fame j-^^Iia 

confAci in p»^ bvc Ac fopiAO. 
ocuf AC r-^'Pf*!""* * CHU1C1 AW •» 
fftfl mj rot^'T' 0'"r T *««t*io 
liobai, Acur i^iLc f-avA pnnbuiw oo 
t\-»P o w* icaj- f j\p, ocur Ap FAte- 
pTi finn cainie i><v lOnnpAljto, oe»f 
cue aLaIH TM, iAtI", OjV AfB co« vaiii* 

CAitL« DO tio up cuioo<% Af 111 tpw 
Atn.ich, ocoj- pobui ec fcinm ACtKii* 
ci apAonutp pi" no gw T*n©A- 
cap 111 pAiin, w«ur *r ceeltc voib 
AC«tijl4CAp tn cckA. p[ie6c4£ p4t. 
illjie A Anum a fVitnn Ap an fiAnn, 
Ar* iiic V cpef cupcAiTute Ar r*N' 
fUApAir piATli, oouf tio bi <ic pnn no 
CO p)Aip b^p Book of LuBKxv, fol. 
SOSiubl , 

<"■' [original :-U. S. IS. f. U5.]j 



was on a visit to the king of UUter, a young man camo to the . " .iw. 
court dressed as a minstrel, and carrying hla Timpan at Ins 
back. TTiie young strangpr lurDcd out tu be Cos Corach, son 
of Bodhhh Derg, lue great Tuatita Di Diuiaan chief of Stagh 
J^emen in Tipuerniy, who had conw lo make aciquaintuntie 
with Cailte, and add to bia stock of Etory and song from tho 
Inexhaustible stores of the vutvraa Fenian warrior. Cailte re- 
ceived the young iniia wi(!i kindnc-M and enoouragement, aad 
Introduced him to St. Pittrlck, who uraahighlypleaaed with his 
wonderful pedbrmancft on hia Titnpan or harp. The aaint re- 
ceived hilt oonfussion of faith, for which, and for bis deligtitful 
perforroance, he promieod him heaven, in the following words: 

" Heaven is tliinc", said St. Patrick, " and may thy art he one '" »iiptb*r ' 
of the three last arts by which a person shall realize his benetit \u^k ^ ' 
in Erinn; and though the unwelcome which may be inlcndcd rlil^'i* 
for a man of thy art, when ho has played hJs music and [told] »»»e<i 
his stories, may be great, he shall not be any longer unwel- 
come; and the prorcsRora of thy art shall be at all times the 
couch fellows of kiag9, and they shall bo prosperous provided 
they be not laxy". And then he (Co* Corach) put up his 
Cratttt Ciiiil into ila keep-place.'"** 

From these few extracts iiuite enough for m^ purpose, we 
sec clearly that the term CVonii Ciiiil was applied inaiscrimi- 
Balclr to a Cruit or harp, a CuUU or tube, and a Timpan, 
which was certainly a stringed in8trun)l^nt of die harp kind. 

The next instrument in iLtphabetieal order is the Crutt, of 
which I have already treated in the former lectures. 

Next in order id the instruiiicnt, the name of wliicb la writtea '"'a cwt- 
Cuistach, a wonl not obsolete, but which, from the position of 
gradation that it huldi iu relation to the otliccinstrumcnta men- 
t)om.>d Edun^ with it, I should lake to signily a reed, or some 
such iiutrumcnt of a very simple order. To this instrument I 
have never met more than two references, the (ir^t of which 
b JJi the ancient poem on the fair of Carvion described in a mtntiooed 
former lecture,'*"' and which I Imve also referred to iu lliid ^If, u,b1^?| 
lecture in connection with mujical instnimenw. Among those «'<?•""•*■ i 
I mcniioned Cuiitachs. The word which actually occurs in 
the poem ia Cvtigh, which I take to be the plural of Cuitfach 
^? plur. Cuiteaeita], and to signify reeds or small pipes. The 

in woichiplL oirtj- pc feapncAlidkOAn 
^c convcpTi4 AippiccO) «o«T con- 

pai;i<«tc I *ctir 7«ap l««pea ^15 cp» 

noiU ice fii4e«eAnnjiic Vop;^. Onuj- 
pocmppum al"jiam> Ciuil ma oorni- 
cao. Hciuk lit Lianam, t. !2S *.b.] 
int) [<^ Lc«liir« U., onft, tdI. i. p. 




uid In thi 
Td* or lh« 

kills «r 

nun* rm 

llTlni ir«nl 
win. or k 



•fMf In I ha 

Bank al 

luiuiuna I 


at plained In 

U. a IS. 

T. C. U. u b 



next, and only otlier rcreicncc ttat I have mci to Ac Ctiiseaet 
i» found in the passage Trom the ancient account oftho baicl« of 
A Inihain which 1 have ijuotecl above, where Vm^Fer^al, addrcas- 
iog DonnhoiSSLj^i "MaJec ftinusi>nientfor us, OX>intn&o, because 
tfaou art tJie bcBt minatrcl in Krinn, namely, at Cuiaeac^f^^ at 
pipc!) (or tubes), and at harps, etc. In this oomblnation of is- 
8truiiient3 we find the Cuieeach placed firet, before the Cuwte 

S^r tube) and the harp; leaving us room to infer that it was 
ic minor or simplest mstniment of the three, ilowcver, aa I 
am not able to Uirow any further light upon the history or 
idcntiGcation of tlm instrument, I shall pass from it for the 
present, leaving to fiiture inveiligation tlic chance of carrying 
the inquiry fiuther. 

The next instrument in alphabetJeal order is the CuuU CitiU 
(or mu!*ical tube). This is, simply, another name for the Crann 
Ciuily or mu^ioul tree; and it is from this form of the name :hat 
the dnsigTiation of the performers is derived, namely, that of 
VuisUniuich, or lube jwrfomicr, whilst there is do attempt at 
deriving a performer'n nirnie from the form ^* Crann CtuiT. The 
word Guide is a living one at this dayi as well aa in more an- 
cient time*, and is applied both to the veins of the living body 
through which the blood courses from the heart to tbc cxtxe- 
uiities, and also to a piece of reed, or hollowed wood, such as 
in country public housci is, or was in my youthful da^s. used 
with a stopper, in tapping a keg of wliiskcy or cask of ale. be* 
fore the convenience of regular cocks for Uiii purpose pcne- 
traled to the nirul districts. In this sense it was also called 
eanoiU, or c&nal- And it is in these latter senses that it is 
mentioned in the ancient Book of Invsaions of Ireland, in the 
fitory oftho misbohuviour o( Dfalgnad, Parthalon's wife. This 
lady ia slutcd, in thin very old account, to have given her paia- 
niour a drink of ale from a spoeial cask n!i».>rvea lot her hus- 
band, of which «h<; was always entrusted with the CuiiU of 
gold throtiah which the liquor -was drawn. In the anraent 
poem which repeats the prose account of Dealgntuft tniabeha- 
viour, the G\m(< is glosst-il bs Com Cael, that is, a thin or slen- 
der horn or tube; and in an ancient ploesary prcfcnrcd in the 
vellum M.S. clnasod H. 8. IB. T.C.1>., foto 415. CuUU is 
explained as Crann Ciui/, or a musical tree. Thin old example 
of tbc word sulHcicntly indicates that a musical instrument of 
thi'j name must have boi>n of the pipe or tube daaa, and proba- 
bly one of slight or thin bore. 

(»»•) Sm n^ra, p. 810. 



(IX) Oi Mcnc A!iin MuwriL iHtrnciiENTi (TOntinued). TIjo Fttldn; 
menlioncil in tlic tio'k i<f Liamiirc; Ftdan plnyiT* mcntinnnl In the Bralioo 
!««<. Tlic Fulil nr Fi<i>Uo: mention M In ihc ^m on ihe f^ir of Carmnn ; 
wDd in ■ povQi wnttvti iii IC&X T)i« Gatkliinndt; nwntiotiod in ui Iriih 
Uf* of Aic-smiili'i' iJiii Utial i II10 C'lilan hImj inoutioacil in tlii< tract; jn- 
Gomci aji>iiiiiji{- f^ivBo ta lhi« w<inl In Mnclcod'n nml Dvwat't IMctionaryj 
CWcfn nut R (llmiiiutlve or««i>J, but the tuuun of • tiiikliii)[ bell; the 6WUii 
1aeiak111t.1l ill tlic Itiihlifoof St. ifttt Omcha. Tli« liuiMnanile n\wo men- * 
llooad itt un [ri>li Cnri nti (ho Slega ot Troy. Tliv Or( IWaJ'. The Oiir* 
cm I oivntiouml in ttiu liUh Triii)*i one of the bnrda lA Scanflian Torf^iftm 
•* Grnr Bonlle Conipnnj" oolled Oxrvnr ; no ccptiiniLtion of OiVcne ktiown, 
except tbal it wtu ilie namo of llio lint lnp'iJ<%. U( tlie Pip or l^pe, 
4Uid !□ the plumi I'ijiai or Pipei; niMitiutiuil in the pot-iu uu the fiUr 
of Cunran: the onlj' ansient rrfirreni'i? t" ttin fipn-rendha, cir Pwbairt, 
«r Pititr, known to auiliiir in in ■ frnKmciil ol' Urehuii Lav. Of th« 
Stoc ,- iiii^iitiuDiMl in a poraplii'DH uf the Qook of Ov-nctlB iii lltu ZtoMnr 
Br4ae, an<l in the vcnivn of tiic"Fitli of ifcricho" In tlie nme tixrtk] 
BBd win In dGicribtng the cominft of Antichrlfl ; vu) In the plural form 
Sliit in IVie poi!ii] on iliv fuir of Carman, iiml iu the Tliin Bo Fluiatt. 
AaC'lh«r tnatruinu'iit, (lie SiargaH, menlianeil in ttiiii tract: and alio in 
a porm va Hvnilu.! Jiiril of Arann. The StunjiinniMc or Slurgait pinyur 
■ti en u 01 !<.-(] in Kl^atlCj{'* "Three Slmfta of IJviLtli'. Spi'cimijn* of Uie 
C'o'n, St-K, Olid .iinr/fan arc probnUy to bo found ill the muiviiiu of 
tlie K.I.A. The Corn wu tho Ronuui Cornua; tpcclmcni in tlie muicura 
ot Ibc KJ.A. The Slof rft|in>at^C« the It-miin BucciiiL Thu ^'(ur^.in 
comtpuiiib to the tlDiniin Liiiitm. Air. H. ouilvy'i dencrlptluo uf the 
friiic luid ibi! Sturyiina in llic niniic-iiiii itf lla- liJ-A. i ihu apfL-iiutn* ui 
Uie Aotdrcn;'* niuiwum on; parts of two iuttnunence, end iM of qoo; 
ancient Iriah wind imlrumtnt* uf itTii(tu<-loi aoftlv end coRlpMs; lliu truin- 
peta Bi«ntlani:-<1 \u Wiilkor'a " Iriab llArds" tint dcflcribed end HKurvd in 
fiflilth'i Hiii^iTy (if Cork ; tVulkur'n ubK.>rraiii)iia od them ; they mid figured 
bi Ve(iMta>lotiiiriivii(n; « nmilar trump<.-t fuuni) in Eri^Und; the auttior 
Bgreei with W«lkri tlinl tlicrt! nniKt hivti b^-n itiiutiier juinc in the tnini- 
pete; diMrtpnacj between tlic Elf;um uf ^ll1tlh mid tlit: Vututta Uuiiu- 
tueotat Saiitli'a upmiuii that thuy wltc l)iuii}b, Kirun^ous; Sii>ilVi> •trnit 
Chat the Cork truni[H.-t« formLcl but ou-t iiiitruiiioii, r<'[irud»oix1 bj Mr. 
R. M*cAd«m: Sn W. WildeV tiovvl idei uf tue u»e of Uw ainiitflit tulw*- 
U* id<M tliBt llioy were [uirt uf u ' 1. uniiiuuidcr'e bialt". bucfuwL<d Hum 
Warner; Sir Willtum Wilde'* iUuitrution ol the use ul' the itniiuhi \tAn uf 
■ tntn)|iet man " ('utiiiiiitiidvr'a Ma1I'*, mi3.iiiB(nctor]r ; ixia BViJaretiuu uf the 
■tnight tubufroni the ciu^ud piutB in tlie Miucuiu vftliv 11. 1, A. :i niiatuke 
vhlch ougiit (o bo corrccieO. irtut;iaiia, Atuic, tuid C'<'rn>) in the mtuuuai 
of Uia Koyal Irith Aciidcmjr, anil Trinity Cullege, Uublln. 

Thk next musical Instniment in ulpJiabetical order from tlie liat Thoj 
whicli 1 jjave in my last lecture is tno Fedun. The wonl Ftddn, 
in the Living language, signifies a tliin, sit-ndcr, musical pi^Ct ur 
tube, and in the old mcdtcal monuscnpui the vnim is apfpUedto 






Tfc,. /VJM gr 

• fistula. It wu probably a whistle, since /ad is the terra, boti 
ancient and modern, for n wltii^tliiig with the motilh, and Ftdaa 
would therefore sitnjily ai^ify a whtatUD); insiniment. I tloa' 
renn-*mber Iiuving met with mort! than one written rclcrence 
this inMtriimcnt, namely, in the Dialogix! of the Ancient }A 
in tlic Boois of Lianioiti. It is wheits Cmlte ia rclatine to I 
Pfttrick how the palace of Tara was set on fire CTeiy Hovem- 
ber eve by AiUan, the son of Midna, a famous chief of 
Tuatha /V lianann race, who resided in tht'^ f&iry mansion 
Slidbh Cuitinm in Uisler. This chief, it appeared, was i 
tomod to Hp[)roacli Tarn, playing one or more musical i 
menta in such soil and soothing strainsi, as to throw ita 
dinns into a dead sleep till he nad accomplished hia pi 
foT, M Caille snyfi, "even women in laboiir and wc 
ohampioDS woidd be put to eleep by tJie nlaindre fnlrr 
and tne swectlv-tuned strain of son^ niiich the skilTuI 
former r^aed wno burned Tim every year" 

This soothing musician, however, was killed at last by Find 
Mae CwitthaUly witli a spear given to hiiu by Fiitch Sfac Gm^ 
a fiinnd of his fatliera; and, when giving hira the fpear, we ar 
told tLat Fiacft said to him : " When you hear the fairy muM 
and the swect>strinped Timpan and the luclodious-soiindiii^ 
Ffdan, uncover the blade of this sp«ar, and apply its sharp cdga 
to your lurehciid.or to some other member of your memU-TS, und 
it will keep you from falling ask'ep imtil Aiiian eotocs ^vithin 
reach of you ."^"' F'iml took this good ndvicc. and when AiUoM 
approached Tnra, he found him»clf detected aceardingly, and 
fled to hid residence, followed closely by Find, who overtook 
und slow him h& he wiia entering the door of hiu own rnansi 

In an ancient Brehon Law tract in the Book of Baltym 
[f, 186. b, a. Itip], which "ives a list of the rank and pity of thi 
various professions, the Fediinaigh, or Ftddn players, are 
down among chosQ who performed at thu fiurs and public Bports. 

The next musical instrument in odphabetical order is the 
Fidil or Fiddle, bo which, however, 1 have met but two ns 
fcrencos in our old MSS., one considerably older tlmn the 
other; but I cannot say that thu old term FidU wu applied to 
tho gftme kind of instrument as our present Fiddle. The BrsfaH 

poo ocu(" &n cimpati wrb>"*> oeuf 

no carni iia cpii)pt Apil* C-Abtup 
" CI cCn 


""' [original '—Udiyi xto coooL- 
WAif v\n^ conmtiaib. ocui" L^eich 
tcvAipce fiipti cpol ppetrAft pwi, 
ocBf pipn nt;aT>*n njlcrcu njviC- 
Virti oo canAO >n pix roinemoiL pvi 
1*0 T,oip:oo C-.'nwii* git* bliiriAin 
(.1. AiLlfifl n<Ac miiifiA) . . . ij-^nn 
tK> f«iop«Ca, m*p «:cl»ini* tn teol. 

CT> ccujTi, no f cbal 


DOC b*l^ 

•igm' HI l«fC]r« STMin n* rte*- 

niar««f. SIS. b^,] 

Book gt Lb- 

aocic-nt fair of Caitnan^ rcicrred 
ture, which is found in the Book of Lcinatcr (a MS. of about innTe^Sw" 
tho year 1150). Among the varioua inslrumonW of music and"**™""* 
masicifttiii mcnlioiiL-d in this poem as having br«ii present at 
this great assembly, ate Fidli^ or Fiddles ^^ thu old word dif- 
fcting from Uio tnodcni in having one d only, in scconlance 
■with the pnnius of iho Gucdiielic Itinf^uagc. 

The Becoud place in which I have met wilh the word " Fid- 1111^""^*. 
die" 19 in a poem wriuyn about the year 1680 by JEojAorj w« lu i 
O'DonnghaiU (or Eugene O'DonncUy), a native i>f Ulsltii, lor a 
Lupcr, whojie Ctiristian name vsa Feidhlimy, who paid him a 
visit. The poet'a prai&o is conveyed chiefly in a negative stnuD, 
not describing the artiiitic wrfcctiuns of his visitor and his harp. 
but ihe delects and blemiahea which ihey have not. Thij very 
clever poem conBists of iiiVcn quatrains, of which the follow* 
ing, the third qKatrain, wilt give a very good idea of the cha- 
racter of tho whole : 

" Yon ate not Riigone of the bad tuning, 
Who haa the blubbering FidioU; 
It is not you who have tJie iihirting posttin!,^ 
And tltcre are no starlings in your nerves".""' 

Here the Gddle is written tulioU; and it is a curious loot 
that at the present day, in Munater at least, tho instrument ia 
called violin in spealtii]^ Irish, and fiddle in English; nor have 
the people a^ notion that the latter is the older name in their 
language. Tlie wunl Fiddle is, I believe, an old word in the 
Saxon languHgc too. 

The next musical instrument in alphabetical order to which ttic «««. 
I havo met wilh any liistorieal referonco, \i the (jutfi-bumdey a ■""'*" 
word compoumled of fjulh, the human voice, and Huinda or 
JSttinne, a. pipe or tube ; probably sonic kind of speaking trumpet. 
I have never mot this inetruincnt named in ajiy purely Gacdbehc 
nipuciUon, ni»r at alt but In two instancen, both of which are 
laslations Irom tho Latin. The llrst reference to the Gulh- <b«<i[obo1 
fttirn(/«i«foimdin tho life of Alexander the Great, translated from iL'oi i'k* 
Orw, an unknown author, and preserved in the great book of oltii;"" 
Dun Doighre, OT Lrabiiar Hreac, m the library of tlieUoyal Irish 
Academy,^'*'' into which it was copied from the ancient Book 



t*"'[8wledQre II. ame, *oI. i, p. 
46 ; uid tra ApputitliE tur the original 
of the whale poeiu.J 

'•"J [orixillBl;— 
111 CD Co^An If oVc innioili 

fm bionn fTnarpift antio pndOfAn. 
— O'Cutry MS?. Cnih. Uni». Uii- 
torlcul p«inn«, '□!. ir. p. 4U^.j 
••"> tFoI. lOB, a. U] 


Hit Outlt- 

!• aft Intb 
lifter Alci- 
■Ul«r tii« 

of Saint Dtrchan of CUtain Sotta, now Clooosoflt, in tlie Kiii<;*f 

Tbv powagc ia which thia reference occurs follows Aleno