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1943 Recommendations of the 
Public Health Service 

FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY - Public Health Service 

Division of Sanitation of I he Bureau of Sfale Services 



Preface _. in 

Part I. Short enabling form of U. S, Public Service ordinance 

regulating eating and drinking establishments . 1 

II. U. S. Public Health Service ordinance- regulating eating and 

drinking establishments _ 6 

III. U. S. Public Health Seivico code regulating eating and drinking 

establishments 13 

Inspection fonn for eating and drinking establishments 18 

Index to code 55 


Figure 1. Satisfactory lavatory facilities and drinking fountain 25 

2. Inadequate dishwashing facilities 25 

3. Satisfactory manual dish.wat.hing facilities 20 

4. Counting bacteria removed from uteiibils by cotton swabs 35 

5. Satisfactory (storage of cups 35 

Improper handling of clean glasses 3<i 

7. Improper handling of clean glass 30 

S. Methods of handling silverware ~_ 38 

9. Methods of handling butter __ 40 

10. Satisfactory storage of pies in closed cabinets _ 47 

11. Food protected by glass front 47 


(In 1031 minimum reslauranl sanitation regulations wore proposed for approval 
by tlie Naliontil Hwwery Administrator in coaiicclioii with Section IV, Article 
VIII of the Code of Fair Competition for the Hestawmit Industry,) 

1935. Ordinance only. Mimeographed tentative draff,, December 193,5, 
1938. Ordinance and code. First edition (Tentative). Mimeo- 
graphed, March 1938. 
1940. Ordinance and code. Juno J9-10 edition. Mimeographed. 


The following ordinance and code regulating eating and drinking 
establishments is recommended by the United States Public Health 
Service for adoption by States, municipalities, counties, and health dis- 
tricts in order to encourage a greater uniformity and a higher level 
of excellence in the sanitary control of eating and drinking establish- 

This ordinance and code embodies the latest information at present 
available on legislation relating to the public health supervision of 
eating and drinking establishments but should bo considered subject to 
change as improvements are developed. 

In order that it may have at its command the technical advice of 
a comprehensive group of experts in the various phases of environ- 
mental sanitation, the United States Public Health Service has ap- 
pointed 11 board of consultants, termed the "Public Health Service 
Sanitation Advisory Board," composed of the following members: 

Mr. Victor M. Ehlers, director, bureau of sanitary engineering, 
State board of health, Austin, Tex. 

Mr. Ernest Kelly, Assistant Chief, Bureau of Dairy Industry, United 
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 

Mr. Herbert A, Kroeze, director, sanitary engineering, State board 
of health, Jackson, Miss. 

Mr. Sol Pincus, deputy commissioner of health, city health depart- 
ment, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Walter D. Tiedeman, chief, bureau of milk sanitation, division 
of sanitation, State health department, Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Harold A. Whittaker, director, division of sanitation, State 
health department, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mr. Alfred TI. Wieters, director, division of public health engineer- 
ing and industrial hygiene, State department of health, Des Moines, 

Advantage has been taken of the recommendations of the Advisory 
Board in preparing this edition of- the ordinance and code. Con- 
sideration was given to a number of suggestions from restaurant 
sanitation seminars sponsored by the Public Health Service, and 
from other sources. 

One alternative form of the ordinance provides for grading and 
degrading of restaurants and permits enforcement by degrading 
ou permit revocation or both. The other alternative form is of the 
nongrading type, which provides for only a single set of minimum 


requirements for all restaurants (except itinerant restaurants), and 
uses exclusively the permit revocation method of enforcement. Two 
short enabling forms ol the ordinance are presented in Part I, 
alternative short form A being of the grading type and alternative 
.short form B of the nongrading type. In the unabridged ordinance 
presented in Part II, the grading form is obtained by deleting the 
parentheses signs; and the nongrading form is obtained by the 
deletion of the word* referring to grading, shown within parentheses, 
It will be noted that the sanitation requirements for grade A restau- 
rants in the grading form of the ordinance are identical with the 
minimum requirements in the nongrading form. 

The code, Part III, should be used as the legal interpretation 
of the ordinance. It serves to unify the interpretation of the ordi- 
nance and therefore to minimize enforcement misunderstandings. It 
will he noted that section 11 specifies that the ordinance shall be 
enforced in accordance with the interpretations thereof contained 
in the code. 



(This short lorm is suggested lor adoption by States, municipali- 
ties, counties, or health districts, subject, to the approval of the local 
legal authority, to reduce cost of publication and to promote keeping 
the restaurant ordinance up to date. In many States the adoption of 
hiich short form is considered legal.) 



An ordinance to regulate the inspection, grading, regradmg, and 
placarding of eating and drinking establishments, the issuing, sus- 
pension, and revocation of permits for the operation of such estab- 
lishments, the enforcement of this ordinance, and the fixing of penal- 
ties; and prohibiting the sale of adulterated, m'txbmnded, or unwhole- 
some food and drink. 

The of ordains: 

Section 1. The- inspection, grading, regrading, and placarding of 

eating and drinking establishments within the of 

, or its police jurisdiction, the issuing, suspen- 
sion, and revocation of permits for the operation of such establish- 
ments, the sale of adulterated, misbrandcd, or unwholesome food and 
drink, the enforcement of this ordinance, and the fixing of penalties 
shall 2 bu regulated in accordance with the terms of the unabridged 
form of the 19-13 edition of the U. S. Public Health Service Ordinance 
Regulating Eating and Drinking Establishments, a certified copy of 

1 Communities which lUsh to adopt tlic short Conn ut the nongrmling tvpe of ordi- 
nance, ii ml to icstrlct the, health officer to tlio permit revocation method of punishing 
violations, should adopt alternative Form H. 

J MunicipalitioH, counties, mid health districts In which the adoption of legislation 
by rofeioncc IH not considered legal may delete tho remainder of Sect ion J afler 
"fcluill" and snuHtiluto the following: "confonn with tho icgiilft lions which tlio hcnllh 

officer (or Boanl of Health) of tho ol my adopt, 

under authority horcliy conferred." If the n-uulatlons adopted by the health oftlrci 1 
confonn to tlio 3013 edition of the U. S. Public Ileallh Service ordinance regulating eating 
and di inking establishments, said community will IJG considered as liming adopted tlie 


-which shall be on file in the office of the Cit Clerk: Provided, That 

the words "city of ______________________ " in said Pc Health 

Service ordinance shall be understood to refer to the ---- ---- 

____________________ : Provided further^ That in said ordimmce all 

parentheses signs which enclose words referring to grading snal 
be understood to be deleted: Provided further, That sections 7, 12, 
and 13 of said Public Health Service ordinance shall ha replaced, 
respectively, hy sections 2, 3, and 4 below : Provided further, That in 
section 2 of said ordinance, itinerant restaurants shall ------ 

required to secure a permit. 

Section 2. From and after 12 months from the date on which this 
ordinance takes effect no restaurants shall ho operated wiUnn the 
________ of ____________________ , or its police jurisdief ion, except 

grade A, grade B 4 , or approved itinerant restaurants: I'rovzaea, 
Thai when jmy restaurant fails to qualify for any of these grades 
the health officer is authorized to suspend the permit or in lion thereof 
to degrade the restaurant and permit its operation during a temporary 
period not exceeding 30 dnys. 

Section 3. Any person, firm, or corporation violating ^ any 
provisions of this ordinance shall upon conviction be punished 
hy --------------- _ I 

Section 4. All ordinances and parts of ordinances in conflict with 
this ordinance are hereby repealed; and this ordinance shall take 
effect ______________________ .__ its adoption and publication. 




An ordinance to regulate the inspection of efiffny and drinking 
establishments } the i,witinff t tfUSpenftwH) and revocation of pt'rnrits for 
the operation of web eJtftibtiftkmenfti, the enforcement of thift ordi- 
nantMj and the peing of penalties; and prohibiting the Mile of adul- 
terated^ misbrandcd^ or lin-whoTesoms, food and drink. 

The ________ of ____________________ ordains: 

Section 1. The inspection of eating and drinking establishments 
within the ________ of --------------------- , or its polirp jurisdic- 

tion, the issuing, suspension, and revocation of permits for the opor- 
iition of such establishments, the stile of adulterated, mishmnded, or 

3 If (he nilO[)tlng conitiuniHy wishes tn rpquhe Itinerant restaurants Io Hocur* 1 ponnlts, 
tlio word "jilso" aliotJ l' Insci ted 3ci tlic bluuli sjmce. If not, the word "imt" HhoiiUl [>e 

* MiiiiteljmUtics In position to do eo inny delete ", grade B,". 


un wholesi DUO fond ami drink, the enforcement of tins ordinance, and 
the fixing of penalties shall '' be regulated in accordance with the 
terms of the unabridged form of the 1043 edition of the U. S. Public 
Health Service Ordinance Regulating Eating and Drinking Establish- 
ments, a certified copy of which shall be on file in the office of the City 

Clerk; Provided, That the words "city of " 

in said Public Health Service ordinance shall be understood to refer 

to the of : Provided further, That in 

said ordinance all parenthetical expressions referring to grading 
bluill bo understood to be deleted: Provided further, That sections 7, 
12, and 18 of said Public Hen 1th Service ordinance shall bo replaced, 
respectively, by sections 2, 3, and 4 below: Provided further, That in 

section 2 of said ordinance, itinerant restaurants shall be 

required to secure a permit. 

Section 2. From and after 12 months from the date on which this 
ordinance takes effect no restaurant shall be operated within the 

of: , or its police jurisdiction, unless it 

conforms with the requirements of said ordinance: Provided^ That 
when any restaurant fails to qualify the health officer is authorized 
to suspend the permit. 

Section 3. Any person, firm, or corporation violating any provisions 
of this ordinance shall upon conviction be punished by ... 

Section 4. All ordinances and parts of ordinances in conflict with 
this ordinance are hereby repealed; and this ordinance shall take 
effect its adoption and publication. 

11 MunloipallUPi, counties, ami lionKh districts In which tlio adoption of legislation by 
reference is not considered legnl may delete the remainder of Section 1 after "slmll" nnd 
substitute the following: "conform with the rojjulnUons ivhieh the heallli officer (or 

DoiU'd of Health) of the ol miiy adopt, under ntillioilfy 

hereby conleiicd." If the, regulations adopted by the health officer conform to tho 10-18 
edition of the U. S. Public Health Sen Ice ordinance roRiilnllng eating nnd ililnldiiB 
t'slabllHhmcnlH, said eity will be considered as having adopted the ordinance. 

IC the nilo]jUnB connmmiiy wishes to require Klnerant restaurants to Bi'curc peimifs, 
tho word "alao" ahoiihl bo Inserted In tho blank BHIICO. If not, the word "nol" sliould bo 



(This unabridged form of the ordinance should "be adopted only where 
the short enabling- I'onu in Part I is not considered legal.) 

An ordinance defining restaurant, itinerant restaurant, employee, 
ufftiNi/N) health ofjloai\ etc,, requiring per-mits for the operation of such 
rtif<ibfjtihii)f"ntti) prohibiting the Kale of adulterated, unwholesome or 
mi branded food or drink, regulating the inspection (grading, -reyrad- 
Ing, and placarding)* of such etitablixh'Mcntft, the enforcement of this 
ordinance^ and the fixing of penalties. 

He, it ordained by (.he of (lie city 2 ol' 

as follows; 

Section 1. Definitions. The following definitions shall apply in the 
interpretation and the enforcement of (his ordinance: 

A. Itetitiiunttil. The (erni ''restaurant 1 ' shall mean restaurant, cof- 
fee shop, cafeteria, short order cal'e, luncheonetie, tavern, sandwich 
stand, soda fountain, and all other eating wr drinking establishnients, 
as well as kitchens or other places in which food or drink is prepared 
for sale elsewhere. 

B. fUnerant restaurant. The lenn "iCmerant restaurant" shall 
mean one operating for a temporary period in connection with a fair, 
carnival, circus, public exhibition, or other similar feathering 1 . 

C. Kni])loyee t The term "employee" shall mean any person who 
handles food or drink during' preparation or serving, or who comes 
iu contact with any eating or cooking utensils, or who is employed in 
a room in which food or drink is prepared or served. 

I). U/cnttih. "ITlensils" shall include any kitchenwnre,, tableware, 
glassware,, cutlery, utensils, containers, or other equipment with which 
food or drink comes in contact during storage, preparation, or serving. 

whlcli wlili to mlopt (In 1 noimrjidlii},' lyjic of mdlimncf mid to 
the hen] Hi ollU'ur lo Llic ])i'i'itiit rii\(n'nH(iii int'thnd ol imnlHliiiiB violations should delete 
nil iini'fnlln'tical oxprcHNlonn rcfcrrini; lo jji'iullim UruiiKlHrnt I lie ordinance. AIiiiiicIpnUllcB 
dOHlring to adopt the Bt'iulliiR lyjii' of ordlniincc, I'lifuiTonlilc liv dp^t'ndliiji or pcvinlt revocation 
01 lioth, Hlionlfl hiHlMid ili'lclc i lu> paM'n1lii"i)'h sl(?tis only. Jn plllu't- caw, the cori'i'spondlni! 
footnote should also bo ilt'lelcd. 

3 Siilislltulp iiropL'i 1 legal jui-lhtUctioii hcn> and In all Hii.iltnr plates UiruiiKhont tlio 

IH - -a ^ 

E. Health o$rrr.T\w term '^health officer" shall mean (ho 

' of the cily of or his authorized 


F. Person, The word "person." shall mcun person, firm, corporu- 
tion, or association. 

Section 2, Permit*. It shall he unlawful for any person to operate 

a restaurant in the city of who does not possess 

an mil-evoked permit from the health officer. Such permit shall ho 
posted in a conspicuous place. Only persons who comply with the 
requirements of this ordinance, shall be entitled to receive and retain 
such a permit. A person conducting an itinerant restaurant shall 
* be required to secure a permit. 

Such a permit may he temporarily suspended by the health officer 
upon the violation by the holder of any of the terms of this ordinance, 
or revoked after an opportunity for a hearing by the health officer 
uuon serious or repented violation. 

(Section 3. Placarding or pubflv dhplay of grade iwllcc. Every 
restaurant shall display at all times in a place designated by the health 
officer, a notice approved by the health officer, stating the grade of 
the establishment.) 5 

Section 4. Examination, and condemnation of imwkolesome or ad,u1- 
teraiad food or drink. Samples of food, drink, and other substances 
may be taken and examined by the health officer as often as may be 
necessary for the detection of umvholesomenesK or adulteration. The 
health officer may condemn and forbid the sale of, or cause to be re- 
moved or destroyed, any food or drink which is unwholesome or 

Section 5. Inspection of restaurants. At least once every G months 
the health officer shall inspect every restaurant located within the city 
of In case the health officer discovers the vio- 
lation of any item of sanitation (required for the grade then held)," 
he shall make a second inspection after the lapse of such time as he 
deems necessary for the defect to be remedied, and the- second in- 
spection shall be used in determining compliance with the (grade)" 
requirements of this ordinance. Any violation of the same item of 
this ordinance on such second inspection shall call for immediate 
(degrading or) B suspension of permit. 

One copy of the inspection report shall be posted by the health offi- 
cer upon an inside wall of the restaurant, and said inspection report 
shall not be defaced or removed by any person except the health ofli- 

a Insert title of IfRiilly const Unfed lioallh niiUiorlly. 

1 If the fi(l<i|Hiiitf community wishes lo rcqnlix- Itlnornnl t'esftMirnnls to dpciiro ])enn]la, 
tlio word "also" Minnlcl bo inserted In Uiu blank space, II nol, the word "not" HhoiiUl lie 

6 Hue tool note I, p. G. 

cer. Another copy of the inspection report shall be filed with the 
records of the health department. 

The person operating the restaurant shall upon request of f he health 
officer permit access to all parts of the establishment and shall permit 
copying any or all records of food purchased. 

Section 6. (The grading of restaurants. The grading of all restau- 
rants shall he based upon the following standards.) 5 

Sanitation requirements for (grade A} 5 restaurants, All (grade 
A) s restaurants shall comply with all of the following items of sani- 

Item 1. Floors.- The floors of all rooms in which food or drink is 
stored, prepared, or served, or in which utensils are washed, shall be 
of such construction as to be easily cleaned, shall be smooth, and shall 
be kept clean and in good repair. 

Item 2. Wafts and ceilings. -Walls and ceilings of all rooms shall 
be kepi clean and in good repair. All walls and ceilings of rooms in 
which food or drink is stored or prepared shall be finished in light 
color. The walls of all rooms in which food or drink is prepared or 
utensils arc washed shall have a smooth, washable surface up to the 
level reached by splash or spray. 

Item 3. Doors and windows. 'When flies are prevalent, all open- 
ings into (he outer air shall bo effectively screened and doors shall 
be self-closing, unless other effective means are provided to prevent 
the entrance of flies. 

Item 4. Lighting. All rooms in which food or drink is stored or 
prepared or in which utensils arc washed shall bo well lighted. 

Item 6. Ventilation.- All rooms in which food or drink is stored, 
prepared, or served, or in which utensils are washed, shall be well 

Item 6. Toilet facilities. Every restaurant shall be provided with 
adequate and conveniently located toilet facilities for its employees, 

conforming with the ordinances of the city oC 

In restaurants hereafter constructed toilet rooms shall not open di- 
rectly into any room in which food, drink, or utensils arc handled 
or stored. The doors of; all toilet rooms shall he soil-closing. Toilet 
rooms shall be kept in a clean condition, in good repair, ancT, well 
lighted and ventilated. Hand-washing signs shall be posted in each 
toilet room used by employees. In case privies or earth closets are 
permitted, and used, they shall be, separate from the restaurant build- 
ing, and shall bo of a sanitary type constructed and operated in con- 
formity with tho standards of the State board of health. 

Item Y. Water supply. Running water under pressure shall bo 
easily accessible to all rooms in which food is prepared or utensils 

E Sco footnote 1, p, 5, 

are washed, and tho water supply shall he adequate, and of a safe, 
sanitary quality. 

Item 8. Lavatory facilities. Adequate and convenient hand-wash- 
ing facilities shall lie provided, including hot and cold running water, 
soap, and approved sanitary towels. The use of ti common towel 
is prohibited. No employee shall resume work after using the toilet 
room without first washing his hands. 

Item 9. Construction of utenxih and equipment. All multi-use 
utensils and all show and display cases or windows, counters, shelves, 
tables, refrigerating equipment, sinks, and other equipment or utensils 
used in connection with the operation of a restaurant shall be so 
constructed as to be easily cleaned and shall be kept in good repair. 
Utensils containing or plated with cadmium or lead shall not be used : 
Provided, That holder containing lead may be used for jointing 1 . 

Item 10. Cleaning and 'bactericidal treatment of utensils and equip- 
ment. All equipment,, including display cases or windows, counters, 
shelves, tables, refrigerators, stoves, hoods, and sinks, shall bo kept 
clean and free from dust, dirt, insects, and other contaminating male- 
rial. All cloths used by waiters, chefs, and other employees shall be 
clean. Single-service containers shall be used only once. 

All multi-use eating and drinking utensils shall be thoroughly 
cleaned and effectively subjected to an approved bactericidal process 
after each usage. All multi-use utensils used in the preparation or 
serving of food and drink shall be thoroughly cleaned and effectively 
subjected to an approved bactericidal process immediately following 
the day's operation. Drying cloths, if used, shall be clean ami shall 
be used for no other purpose. 

No article, polish, or other substance containing any cyanide prep- 
aration or other poisonous material shall be used for the cleansing or 
polishing of utensils. 

Item 11. Storage and handling of utensils and equipment. After 
bactericidal treatment utensils shall be stored in a clean, dry 
place protected from flies, dust, and other contamination, and 
shall bo handled in such a manner as to prevent contamination 
as far as practicable. Single-service utensils shall be purchased only 
in sanitary containers, shall be stored therein in a clean, dry place 
until used, and shall be handled in a sanitary manner. 

Item 12. Disposal of wattes. All wastes shall bo properly disposed 
of, and all garbage and trash shall be kept in suitable receptacles, in 
s'lich manner as not to become a nuisance. 

Item 13. Refrigeration. All readily perishable food and drink shall 
be kept at or below 50 F. except when being prepared or served, 
Waste water from refrigeration equipment shall be properly dis- 
posed of. 


Item 14. Whf)7rtiomenc,8A of food and drink, All food and drink 
shall be clean, wholesome, free from spoilage, and so prepared as to 
be sale for hutiwn consumption. All milk, fluid milk products, ieo 
cream, and other frozen desserts served shall be from approved 
sources. Milk and fluid milk products shall be served in the individual 
original containers in which they were received from (he distributor 
or from u bulk container equipped with an approved dispensing de- 
vice : Provided, That this requirement shall tint apply to cream, which 
may be served from the original bottle- or from a dispenser approved 
for Kiich service, All oysters, clams, and mussels shall be from ap- 
proved sources, and if shucked shall be kept until used in the con- 
tainers in which they were placed at the shucking plant. 

Item 15. Storage, display, and ner-oiny of food and drink. All food 
and drink shall be so stored, displayed, and served as lo bo protected 
from dust, flies, vermin, depredation and pollution by rodents, un- 
necessary handling, droplet infection, overhead leakage, and other 
contamination. No animals or Fowls shall be kept or allowed in any 
room in which food or drink is prepared or stored. All means neces- 
sary for the elimination of flies, roaches, and rodents shall bo used. 

Item ]G. Cleanliness of employees, All employees shall wear clean 
outer garments and shall keep their hands clean at all times while 
engaged in handling food, drink, utensils, or equipment. Employees 
shall not expectorate or use tobacco in any form in rooms in which 
food is prepared. 

Item 17. Miscellaneous. The premises of all restaurants shall be 
kept clean and free of litter or rubbish. None of the operations con- 
nected with a restaurant shall bo conducted in any room used as living 
or sleeping quarters. Adequate lockers or dressing rooms shnll bo 
provided for employees' clothing and shall be kept clean. Soiled 
linens, coats, and aprons shall be kepi in containers provided COL- this 

(Grade ft restaurants. Grade B restaurants are those which fail to 
comply with item 1, 2, 4, 5, or 17, but which conform with all other 
items of sanitation required for grade A restaurants.)" 

(Grade resi an/ranks, Grade C restaurants arc those which fail 
lo comply with either the grade A or the grade B requirements.) 11 

Itinerant restaurants.* Itinerant restaurants shall bo constructed 
and operated in an approved manner. 

Section 7. (Grades of) 6 restfturanta -which may operate. From mid 
after 12 months from the date on which this ordinance takes effect 

no restaurant shall be operated within the city of , 

or its police jurisdiction, unless it conforms with the (grade A, or 

B Sco footnote 1. p. B, 


grade B," or approved itinerant restaurant) requirements of this 
ordinance; /'w/<v/. That when any restaurant fails to qualify (For 
any of these, gnules)" the health officer In authorised to suspend the 
permit (or in heu thereof (o degrade tlio restaurant and permit its 
operation during a temporary period not exceed ing JlO days). 11 

Section 8. Reinstatement- of (; mi'/i/t/fmrntary ref/rarf- 
inc/}. n Any restaurant (the grade, oJ' which has been lowered mid all 
grade displayn have been changed accordingly, or) 11 tlm permit of 
which lias been suspended may at any time make application for 
(regrading or)" the reinstatement of the permit. 

Within one week after the receipt of a satisfactory application, 
accompanied by a statement signed by the applicant to the effect, that 
the violated provision or provisions of this ordinance have been con- 
formed with, the health officer shall make, a reinspection, and there- 
after as many additional re inspect ions as ho may deem necessary to 
assure himself that the applicant is again complying with the (higher 
grade) 5 requirements, and, in case the findings indicate compliance, 
shall (award the higher grade or) r ' reinsl ate the permit . 

Section 9. Disease control. 1 No person who is affected with any 
disease in a communicable form or is a carrier of such disease shall 
work in any restaurant., and no restaurant shall employ any such 
person or any person suspected of being affected with any disease in 
a communicable form or of being a carrier of such disease. If the 
restaurant manager suspects that any employee, has contracted any 
disease in a communicable form or has become a carrier of such disease 
he shall notify the health officer immediately. A placard containing 
this section shall be posted in all toilet rooms. 

Section 10. Procedure, when 'infection suspected, When suspicion 
arises as to the possibility of transmission of infection from any 
restaurant employee the health officer is authorized to require any or 
all of the following measures: (1) the immediate exclusion of the 
employee from all restaurants; (2) the immediate closing of the res- 
taurant concerned until no further danger of disease outbreak exists, 
in the opinion of the health officer ; (3) adequate medical examinations 
of the employee and of his associates, with such laboratory examina- 
tions as may be indicated, 

Section 11. Enforcement interpretation, This ordinance shall bo 
enforced by the health officer in accordance with the, interpretations 
thereof contained in the 1943 edition of the U. S. Public Health Service 

Hoc footnote 1, p 6. 

a MunldpiiHUos In position to do HO nmv delete ", or grade II,", 

T Communities wliloli doflro to Include a siiccille lieallli oxuiiiliiiUlon requirement miiy do 
so if their official radii lies for malting llie p\nmiimllons -ni-c nilennnl' 1 . ]''<>r n HiiKBi'stefl 
wording for such a mjiijrcincnt, see Hie corto discussion following section in Part III. 


Codf Regulating Eating- and Drinking Establishments, a certified copy 
of which shall bo on file at the City Clerk's office. 8 

Section 12. Penalties. Any person who violates any provision of 

this ordinance shall be lined not more than . at the 

discretion of the court having jurisdiction. Each and every violation 
of the provisions of this ordinance shall constitute a separate offense. 

Section 13. Repeal and date of effect. All ordinances and parts of 
ordinances in conflict with this ordinance arc hereby repealed, and this 
ordinance shall bo in full force and effect immediately upon its adop- 
tion and its publication as provided by Jaw. 

Section 14. Unconxtitutionalitt/ clause. Should any section, para- 
graph, sentence, claii&o, or phrase of this ordinance be declared uncon- 
stitutional or invalid for any reason, the remainder of said ordinance 
shall not bo affected thereby. 

Si'O fixilnoU' 2, ]i. 1. 



(To be used us the legal interpretation o the ordinance) 

An ordinance defining restaurant, itinerant restaurant, employee, 
iilcmils, health officer, etc., requiring permits for the operation of such 
establishments, prohibiting the sale of adulterated, unwholesome, or 
misbranded food or drink, regulating the inspection (, grading, re- 
grading, and placarding) 1 of such establishments, the enforcement of 
this ordin<ni<'(\ and the filing of penalties. 

Be it ordained, by the of the city - of 

an folio ws ; 


The following definitions shall apply in, the interpretation and the 
enforcement of this ordinance; 

A. Restaurant. The term "restaurant" shall mean -restaurant, oof- 
fee shop, cafeteria, short order cafe, luncheonette, tavern, sandwich 
stand, soda fountain, and all other eating or drinking establishments, 
as well as kilohenx or other places in which food or drink is prepared 
for sale elsewhere*. 

B. Itinerant restaurant. The term "itinerant restaurant" shall 
mean one operating for a temporary period in- connection with & fair, 
carnival, circus, public exhibition, or other similar gathering. 

For sanitation requirements Cor itinerant restaurants sue end of 
section 6. 

C. Employee. The- term "employee" shall mean any person who 
handles food or drink during preparation or serving, or who comes 
in contact with ny eating or cooking utensils, or who M employed hi 
a room in which food, or drink is prepared or served. 

D. Utensils. U U tonsils" shall include any Idtclienwarc,, tableware^ 
glass wa re, cutlery, utensils, containers, or other equipment with which 
food or drink comas in contact during storage, preparation, or serving. 

1 Slnnicipnllllcs which ivlnh to adopt the iiongradlng (ypo of ordlimnco awl to restrict 
tlio lionlth oJHwr to lln 1 pei'mil revocation method of punishing vlolnlimm should rtoIcMi' 
nil pnronthcUcnl nxprosHlona refcn-lng lo grading thi'inif-hoiit lhi> (irdlinint'o HiinlcipftlitlPH 
dpsirliig lo aflopl the gi'tidiiifi type or ordinance, onforiioublG by degrading or penult revoca- 
tion or both, should iiwtond dclelo the pni'uiitlicsos wigiin only. In ellhor case, tin 1 
cori-pspondlnff rooliiolp should nlno he ildotpfl. 

s Substitutes proper legal Jurisdiction hevo nnd in nil HlmJlnr places throughout the 


E. Health officer. The term "health ojjieei^ nhall mean the ____ __ 

____________ ' of the elf i/ of _____________________ <>i' hix authorized 

re prevail alive, 

F. /Vwjft. The m<W 'YKT.SCJN" shall mean p<r.\<i } firm, corpora- 
tion, or association. 


It bhall be unlawful for ant/ person to operate a restaurant 'hi the, 
city of ____________________ tfh<> </(>('* not PONWW (tn 'iin revoked per- 

mit I nun I he htlth oljicer. Huch permit xhall be /w.s/Vr/ in a aonxphu- 
ous place. Only perxonx who comply -with ihe requirements of Ihh 
ordinance f>/K(/t be, entitled to receive and re-tain HHC/I a permit'. A 
person conducting an ilinetanl rexl ait rant shall ------- ' be tvi/uired 

to secure a 'permit. 

ftuch a. pvwnit nun/ be. tcmpoi'arihf xuxpcnded' by the health officer 
u t uon the violation by f/te holder of an;/ of 1he /et'ntti of /A As oi'd/na-nee^ 
or revoked after an opportunity for <thear'tn</ by the lieaUh ofy'aer it.pon 
wrfom or repeated viohttion. 

Whi'i'i 1 tlic gTmlin"' inrni of iho oi'diiunicv Is in ciTt'cl, it in not, ihe 
intent of (his soction to ivqitim iinnuiil pi'i'tn'ils. In such CUM'H the 
])ermit is of value primarily tia u iT^'ish'ution device. It lu'rinilK (he 
health officer to prosecute nny pci'sunfj who Ix'^in o])oi'a(injt' n restau- 
rant without notifying him, and llnus without }w,\\\<r ^nuled. The 
grading' pi-inciphs of iho ordinance makes it. unnecessary thai Ihe per- 
mit be renewed annually, inasmuch as the continuous announcement 
of grades through grade placards as determined by periodic inspec- 
tion is equivalent to ihe periodic granting' of permils. 

Where the, nongrading' form of the ordinance is in effect, (,ho health 
officer may find it advantageous to require animal permits, and to 
refuse to issue or renew such permils unless (he, ordinance require- 
ments are satisfied. 

This section authorizes (he henllh officer (o suspend or revoke, Ihe 
permit for canse. Suspension of the permit, for violation of (lie sani- 
tation items of section G is provided for in seel ion f> and is discussed 
in the Code, material under section fi. When any of the provisions 
of this ordinance other than Iho sanitation items of section G are found 
to he violated, regardless of whether the grading- or (he nong-rading' 
lorm of the ordinance is in cll'ecf, (he restaurant is subject to suspen- 
sion of permit. Section 2 authorizes the health officer to suspend 
permits temporarily without a hearing-. Such authority is necessary 
in order to permit prompt action for any violation in emergencies 
When there is a serious health hazard. 

3 insert (Hit! of legally constituted lu'nUh nnthnrlly. 

'It tlio fulojitiiiE community wlnlies (o reqiiiic illiionuil reNlauraiils to seenic penults, 
Iho word "nlso" should be Imsorteil In the blank spueo, If not, tlio word "not" sliould be 


The permil may he revoked permanently for .serious or repeater! vio- 
lations of liny pro\ision of ;uiy section of the ordinance. An oppor- 
tunity J'or a hearing must he provided he fore such revoeat ion. 

The procedure governing reinstatement of Hie permit following' sus- 
pension is given in section 8. 


Every rexhtnra<nt ti/iall display at all thnex, in <i phier desiynntfid by 
the health o}jiee.>\ a no/ ice up proved by the health office r, stating the 
(j)'(nle of the etituhliKhnieni). 7 ' 

Where the grading form of the ordinance is in (-fleet and restau- 
rants of u grade lower limn grade A arc permitted to operate, it is 
imperative that the hcallli officer rigidly enforce proper grade disjilay 
by nil restaurants and sindhvr estahli.shmenfs, in order thai customers 
nmy be informed ol the grade the!'e(>f. The g'i'ade dis|>lay is the means 
whereby the, competitive cfl'oct of gi-uding lends to improve restaurant 

Immediately upon the degrading of any reslam-ant the health oflieer 
should require that all g'rado dis[)lays he changed. This may ho done 
by means of rubber stamps or si ickor.s indicating' the, lower grade. The 
health officer should curry with him on all inspections the, necessary 
rubber stamps and stickers. 

The grade notice may be displayed on menu cards or boards or upon 
a separate placard, and shall be of a type and in a location approved 
by (he health officer as being readily visible to the patrons, A sug- 
gested form of placard is shown below : 








San footnoto i, l>, D. 



Samples of food, drink, and other sub si anew way be taken and 
examined lj the health officer ait of feu tis may I"' >imv>jwn/ for the 
detection of umoholesomenexs or adulteration. The health officer 
may condemn and forbid the Kale of\ or came to be, removed or 
destroyed,, any food or drink 'which ix unwholesome or adulterated. 

While this section authorizes (ho hotilLh officer to examine and 
condemn food or drink which is unwholesome or adulterated, the local 
health officer will usually find it most practicable to limit such action 
to spoiled foods, those suspected of having caused or being; iiblo to 
cause food-poisoning outbreaks, or other conditions which may 
involve an immediate health hazard, and to refer (hose cases of 
suspected adulteration and inisbranding which involve, no immediate 
health hazard to the State food control officials or to the XT. S. Food 
and Drug Administration. 

"When cases of food poisoning are reported an immediate epi- 
demiological and laboratory investigation should be made, by the 
local or State health department in an effort to determine the vehicle 
and the source so as to prevent a recurrence. Section 10 gives 
the health officer full power to act when infection is suspected. The 
procedure to bo followed in food-poisoning outbreaks is discussed, 
in Food Control by J. H. Sliradei- (1939), pp. 03-09. 

Samples for the determination of adulteration and misbranding 
should be taken and examined in accordance with the methods pre- 
scribed by the Association of Oflicial Agricultural Chemists. 


At least once every fJ months the health of/fee.r Khali ins peel every 

restaurant heated within the city of fn ease, 

the health officer discovers the violation of any item of sanitation 
(required for the grade then held] , B he shall make a second impe.Gfion 
after the lapse of such time as he deems necessary for the defect to 1)6 
remedied^ and the second inspection shall be used in determining 
compliance with the (grade) 5 requirements of this ordinance. Any 
violation of the same item of this ordinance on sue,h second inspection- 
shall call for immediate (degrading or) r ' xu#pen(?ion of permit. 

One copy of the inspection report shall "be posted l>y the health 
officer upon an inside wall of the restaurant, and said inspeofion 
report shall not 1e defaced or removed by amj person except the 
health officer. Another eopy of the inspection- report shall b'e filed. 
with the records of the health department, 

6 Sea foot no Us 1, p. 5. 


The person operating the restaurant shall upon request of the 
health officer permit at'cexx to all partx of the, cxf alii i dimwit and shall 
permit copyiny ant/ or alt records of food purchased. 

The first sentence of this .section should not bu taken to imply 
tliat ono inspection every 6 months is n desirable frequency. It 
should instead be regarded us the legal minimum. In actual practice 
it is desirable to inspect every restaurant at least every 3 months. 

Special attention is directed to the requirement that a restaurant 
shall be immodialcly degraded and the grade notice changed, or the 
permit suspended, if two successive inspections disclose violation of 
the same item. 

Experience has demonstrated conclusively that a strict enforce- 
ment of the ordinance leads to a far belter and more friendly 
relationship between the health officer and tho industry than does 
a policy of enforcement which seeks to excuse violations and defer 
punishment therefor. The inspector's criterion of satisfactory com- 
pliance should bo neither too lenient on the one hand nor unrea- 
sonably stringent on tho other. Violations of minor or insignificant 
degree -should not be entered as a violation on tho inspection form 
but should bo called to the management's attention and should bo 
entered as a remark. 

Whenever a violation is discovered the, inspector should point out 
to the management the requirement that has been violated, should 
explain the the public health reason for the requirement, and should 
Eiuggost methods for correcting the defect. An educational rather 
than a policeman typo of approach is recommended. 

Tho penalty of degrading or suspension of permit is provided in 
order to prevent eon! inued violal ion of the provisions of this ordinance, 
but tho wording is designed to protect the industry against unreason- 
able or dictatorial action. OX course, when a condition is found which 
constitutes an imminent health hazard prompt action is necessary in 
order to protect tho public health; therefore, the health officer is au- 
thorized by section 2 (o suspend tho permit immediately. However, 
except for such emergencies, no penalty is inflicted on tho reslaurant 
upon the first violation of any of tho items of sanitation listed in 
section 6. A restaurant found violating any item must lirst be notified 
in writing, and must bo given a reasonable period of Lime in which to 
correct the defect before a second inspection is made. After receipt 
of the notice of violation, but before the allotted time has elapsed, tho 
management has an opportunity to appeal to tho hen Ith oilicer or board 
of health from the inspector's interpretation or for an extension of tho 
time allowed for correction. Not until the second inspection has re- 
scaled failure to correct the defect is the restaurant subject to degrad- 
ing or suspension of permit. Even then the management still has tho 


legal right to refuse to display flic lower grade notice or to continue 
operating after the permit lias been suspended, ami to rely Tor vin- 
dication u]K>n cnui'l action instituted by (lie heallli oflicer. It is only 
fair to slate, however, Ilial the, courts usually sustain the health ollicer the ordinance requirement, or interpretation i.s proved tu bo 

Violation of any of tlie provisions of (his ordinance other than the 
sanitation items given in section is punishable only by suspension 
or revocation of permit, even where the grading form of the ordinance- 
is in effect. For (he procedure, in such cases, see the Code discussion 
under section 2. 

The accompanying restaurant inspection form, Form K9(>7, bused 
on the requirements of this edition of the ordinance and code is avail- 
able for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing OlUce, Washington, 1). C., at Ilfy 1 per 100 (check, money 
order, or cash with order no stamps). When this form is used where 
the nongrading type of ordinance is in ell Vet, references to the, grade 
notice, degrading, and grade letters should be disregarded. A con- 
venient loose-leaf ledger form, Korm HOTli-K, for posting- inspection 
and laboratory records is available at $1,^5 per Kill. 

The inspeclor should not fail to post one copy of the, inspection 
report at the restaurant. If inspections are made in the, absence of 
(ho owner or manager the, inspection report should he posted never- 
theless, hnl iu addition a written notilication .should he mailed to (be 
owner or manager, 


The gmiting of all reftftiwants */(// he law/ upon the following 

This ordinance does not require the periodic announcement ol the 
grades of the resuuiranls in (he commnnily. .Publishing (he names of 
the establishments of diflerent grades would require much space and is 
not necessary because, prospective customers may ascertain this grade 
of an establishment from the grade placard required by section Jl. 
However, health officials periodically should issue news releases which 
include the following points: 

(1) The supervision of the local eating and drinking estahlish- 
ments is a public health activity designed to minimize, the spread 
of certain diseases. This activity is beneficial both to the, public and 
to the restaurant personnel. 

(2) The restaurants are graded according to their compliance with 
sanitation requirements. Grade A establishments are the safest, grade 

6 Seo footnoto 1, n 5. 


B places have failed to comply vuth one or more of (lie less important 
requirements, and grade C restaurants have violated one or more of 
tlm important items of sanitation. Grade C pluces are permitted to 
operate For only a temporary period of 30 days or le^s; il is a penalty 
grade which was provided in the, ordinance HO as to permi! restaurants 
which {ail to comply to continue to operate during a .short, grace period 
while improvements are being 1 made. 

(3) Patrons should look lor the grade before patronising' an es- 
tablishment, and should patronize only the grade A places. 


AH {grade A)- 1 rcstaim/ntx Khali comply with all of tin 1 
it emu of sanitation. 

A convenient summary of the following- sanitation requirements for 
restaurants will be found in the restaurant inspection form (see t-oe- 
lion f>). 


The floors of all rooms in which food or drink iff stored* prepared* 
or served, or in which utensils are washed, Khali be. of such coml ruc- 
tion as to l)e easily cleaned, shall be smooth, and shall be kept dean and 
in good repair. 

PiiliJiG-hcallh i canon. Properly constructed floors which are in good repair 
can bo more easily kept clean limn Improperly constructed floors. Kitchen floors 
having nn impervious surface can be denned more easily than floors con- 
structed of a pervious or easily disintegrated iniileriiil, will not nlworl) organic 
matter, and are, Iht-reforo, more likely to IIP Uept clean ami freo of odoiu Clcnu 
floors art! conducive to clean food-handling mot hods. 

Satisfactory oonipliance, This item shall bo deemed to have been 
satisfied if: 

(1) The floors of all rooms in which food or drink is stored, pre- 
pared, or served are of such construction as to ho easily cleaned, arc 
smooth, and tire in good repair. Floors may be of concrete, terrazx.o, 
tilo, etc., or wood covered with linoleum, or tight wood. Wooden floors 
containing cracks, holes, or broken or poorly fitting planks, or which 
otherwise fail to be tight, do not comply with this item. If floor drain* 
arc used they shall be provided with proper traps and so constructed 
as to minimize clogging, and the floor should be graded to drain. 

(2) All floors are kept clean and free from litter during the hours 
of preparing, cooking, and nerving of food. Dustless methods of floor 
cleaning Khali be used, or dust-arrc-.sting sweeping compounds and 
push-brooms employed; and all except emergency floor cleaning shall 

B Hoo fool note I, p. 5. 


IK; (lom i during (hose periods when Hie least amount of food HIM] drink 
is exposed, such aKaf'Icr elohino or between infills. 


ITW/.s awl < t'tliitf/fi of nil roonm xludl he /'</>/ < lean and hi c/ootl repair. 
A// twtllti and <'('itin(/N of roomx in which jood or drink in .s/ivm/ or pre- 
paid ahull he. finished in /it/fit color. The walh <>/ all room* in which 
food o/' drink M' prepared or -uten^ilx tin 3 witxhed xhall /tare a smooth, 
waxhable wirjac,e up to the level reach t d by xplaxh or spray. 

Piihlic-iiniltli rcr/.WH. Painted or oilier wise jiniiicrly 1'mKheil wiills mill ceilings 
me more easily U<'i)l clt'tm inul arc Hictd'orc more likely to hi- Iti'pl cleun A liKlit- 
cnloi-cd iiniiil or niils In Iho C'vun rtislnlmlloii of ll^lit iiiul Ihe di'leclHin o(! 
uiiHetin comlilioiis ( 'h-iin walls ami coiliiigH lire coiKlui'h t- to cteuii I'tKicI-lmndlltig 

compliance.. This item wlnill be dceined to htive, been 

(J ) Walls and ceilingh of all moms in which food or drink is stored, 
prepnred, or served lire clean and in good repair. 

(y) Walls and ceilings of all rooms in wbieh food (tr drink is pro 
pared or stored are painted or finished in light color and refinished as 
of (en as necessary in a manner approved by the heullh ollicer. 

(!1) The walls of all kitchens and scnlleries have a smooth, washable, 
surface up to the level reached by splash or spray, especially splash or. 
spray from tho dishwashing vats or machine,. 


W/icn flics an 1 pi't'wi/cnt, nil o/)(iitit(/tt hi/a the air xJift/1 h<> 
effectively ncrcencd and doorx xlm!! be N('lf-c/oi<hi(f, witcua ollu'-i' effective, 
means are provided to prevent, the entrance, of flictt. 

I'lilitic-lictittli teuton. Flics nmy conlnmiiHile (he food \vllli d I sense organisms, 
tlms nullifyiiif,' (lit; ciTc'clivcuehs of all oilier imblie-heiillh wnlcgaards. 

ix factory compliance. This Horn shall be deemed lo have, Iteen 
satisfied if; 

(1) All opening's io the, outer air sire effectively Kcrcencd with not 
less than IG-mesh wire or plastic cloth; and all doors are self-closing 1 
and screen doors to the outer air open outward ; or 

(2) Fany of KiilUcie.nt power to prevent the entrance of flies are. in 
use at all otherwise ineffectively protected openings; or 

(3) Flics are, absent. 

Window and door screens must be tight -titling and free of holes. 
This includes the screens for skylights and transoms. 

This item must be satisfied during the, seasons of the year when flies 
are prevalent. 



AH rooms ir> which food or drink in stored or prepared or in which 
utensils arc waxhe.d shall be well liyhted. 

Public-health rcuKan Ample light promotes cleanliness. 

Satisfactory compliance. This item shall he deemed to have been 
satisfied if artificial light sources are provided which furnish 10 foot- 
candlos on all working bin-faces in rooms in which food or drink is 
prepared or in which utensils are washed, as measured by a suitable 
light meter (which ordinarily may he purchased at reasonable cost 
or borrowed from the local power and light company), and are in use 
except when equivalent natural light is present. This intensity of 
lighting does not apply to the dining room. Storage rooms shall be 
considered to be sulliciently well lighted if approximately 4 loot- 
candles are provided at a distance of 30 inches from the floor. 


All rooms in which food or drink is stored* prepared, or served, or 
in which utensils are washed, shall be well ventilated. 

Public-health reason, Pi'ontir ventilation reduces bacterial concentration in 
HIK air, odors, coiuTonstitlon upon interior snrfiieos which may drop Into food or 
utensils, smudging of walls aiul ceilings, excessive heat, and the concentnUiim 
of toxic gases produced as u by-product of combustion or otherwise. Moisture 
promotes mold development, 

Satisfactory compliance, This item shall bo deemed to have been 
satisfied if all rooms are adequately ventilated so as to bo reasonably 
free of disagreeable odors and condensation. Ventilation equipment 
supplementary to windows and doors, such as adequate exhaust fans 
or stove-hoods, shall be provided if necessary. This requirement shall 
not apply to cold storage rooms. 


Every restaurant shall be provided with adequate, and coivneniently 
located toilet facilities for Us employees aonformhiff with the ordi- 
nances of the city of In tvtttaunmts he.rcaflat 

constructed toilet roomxxhall not open directly into any room in which 
food, drink, or utensils are handled or stored. The doors of all toilet 
rooms shall be self -closing , Toilet rooms Khali be kept in a clean 
condition, in good repair, and well lighted and ventilated. Ilmd- 
washing signs shall be posted in each toilet room used by employees. 
In case primes or earth closets are permitted and, uxed, they shall be 
separate from the restaurant building, and shall be of a sanitary 

7033131 -18 <i 


type oowtrurtcd and operated In conformity with the Ktundurdt; of 
the State l)oai'd of health. 

Ptililu'-lH'ttlth r ^ H fiim. Human exerelu is pnlonlhilly diinRerouH und musl be 
properly disputed of. Tho organisms ciinsiiiH lyphoid fever, pimilyphold lever, 
and dysentery may be preset 1 1 hi Die hody dlsclmrtfes of eases or carriers. Hnnt- 
tnry (inlet facililie.s an 1 necessary lo prolecf UK; food nncl nlensils from feenl 
contamination carried by Hies, oilier insects liniul-S, or clothing. When (lie 
loilet facilities are ol' a salisfaclory type and are kepi elean anil In tfoud repair, 
the opportunities for the spread ol coiilnmiimlloii by I lie above metins are 

The provision of an Intervening i'o<mi or space Itelween the loilet moin and 
any room in which food, drink, or ulensilH are handled or stored makes i| li^s 
likely that lollet-i-oiihiminiiled ilies will enlcr rooms, It will nlso nilininlxc 
the spread of odors. 

When? pit privies are used, it is essential thai, Ihese ho of a snnilaiy typo 
in whidi (he excreta is protected from illes and other agenlK of transmission, 
and that Iliuy ho not rendered inefl-'eclivc hy liniiroper oin'rnlion 

Satisfactory compliance. This ilcin shall be, deemed to luivo bonu 
satisfied iC: 

(1) Adequate toilet facilities conveniently lociiU'd mid complying 
with Ilia city plumbing code are provided for employees, 

(2) Li restaurants hereafter constructed there is im intervening 
room or vestibule between any toilet room and any room in which 
food or drink is prepared, served, or stored or in which uti'nsils are 
handled or stored. The intervening room or vestibule shall be equipped 
with tight-fitting, self -closing doors, and shall be of such dimensions as 
to prevent both doors from being opened simultaneously by (he same 

(3) Tho toilet-room doors are provided with springs or cheeks to 
make them self-closing. 

(4) The toilel room and fixtures are kopl clean, sanitary, in good 
repair, and Tree from flies, 

(5) The toilet room is well lighted, and ventilated to the outside, 

(G) Durable, legible signs are posted conspicuously in etveh toilet 
room directing employees to wash their hands Ijofoi-o redirning to 
work, Such signs may be stencilled on the wall to prevent removal, 

A booth open at the top or bottom shall noi qualify as a toilet room. 

Privies shall be constructed and operated in accordance with the 
standards of the Htnio board of health, 


Ifunnlnff water under pressure Khali be easily avQex&iWe to all rooms 
in 'which food is prepared or ulensih are waxlicd, and the water s 
shall be adequate^ and of a safe, sanitary quality, 

Public-health reason, Running water under preHSim; should be 
BO as to ent'oimigG Its use in cleaning operations ; it should liu adequate so Unit 


cleaning and rinsing will be thorough; and it should bo of safe, sanitary quality 
in order to bo snitiible for drinking and to avoid the con lamination of food and 
utensils. (Compilations of water-borne disease outbreaks reported hy Stale 
health authorities have been issued animally since 1038 by the U. S. Public 
Health Service.) 

Satisfactory compliance. This item fchall be deemed to have been 
satisfied if : 

(1) llnnning water under pressure is easily accessible to all rooms 
in which food is prepared or utensils are washed. 

(2) The water supply is ample in quantity to insure proper clean- 
ing' oil floors, equipment, and utensils. 

(3) The water supply conforms with the construction, operation, 
and sanitation standards of the Stale board of health. 


Adequate and convenient hand-washing facilities shall be provided, 
including hot and cold rwnning water, soap, and approved solitary 
towels. The use of a common towel is prohibited. No employee shall 
resume work after winy the toilet room without first washing his hands, 

Public-health reason. The use of washing facilities and sanitary towels is 
essential to the personal cleanliness of food handlers. 

Satisfactory oonip2ianoe^'r\\is item shall be deemed to have been 
satisfied if hand-washing facilities, including hot and cold running 
water, soap, and individual cloth or paper towels, are provided. Wash- 
ing facilities must be adequate and convenient to the toilet rooms. 
Utensil-washing vats shall not be accepted as washing facilities for 
personnel. Hot water must be on hand at all times or within a reason- 
able time after opening the faucets. Soap and towels should be pro- 
vided by the management. No employee shall return from a toilet 
to a room where food, drink, or utensils are handled or stored without 
first having washed his hands. 


All multi-iise utensils cmd all show and display cases or windows^ 
counters, shelves^ tables^ refrigerating equipment, sinks, and other 
equipment or utensils i&ed in connection with the operation of a 
restaurant shall be so constructed as to be easily cleaned and shall 
l)e kept in good repair. Utensils containing or plated with cadmium, 
or lead shall not 1)6 \ised; Provided, That solder containing lead may 
be used for jointing, 

Public-health reason. If Ihe utensils and equipment are not so constructed 
that they can easily bo cleaned, and are not kept in good repair, it is unlikely 
that they will be properly cleaned. Cadmium and load poisoning outbreaks 
have been reported from the tngestton of acid food or drink which had been 
in contact with containers containing or plated with cadmium and lead. 


compliance. This ilcni shall be doomed to him* been 
satisfied if; 

(1) All Mil-faces with which food or drink comes in contact consist. 
of smooth, not I'ciulily corrodiblc material. 

(i2) All .surfaces with which i'ood or drink conies in contact art* 
in good repair, free of breaks, corrosion, open seams, cracks, and 
chipped places. Thin requirement precludes the use oi' uny type ol: 
equipment so designed as to permit food or drink routinely to come 
in contact with V-type threaded surfaces. Tu all cases where a 
rotating shaft is inserted through a surface with which food or drink 
comes in contact, the inspector shall assure himself that tho joint 
between the moving and stationary surfaces is close fitting. 

(3) All surfaces with which food or drink comes in contact are 
easily accessible for cleaning, and are sol [-draining, 

(4) All display cases, windows, counters, shelves, tables, refrig- 
eration equipment, stoves, hoods, mixers, moat grinders, and other 
equipment are so constructed as to be easily cleaned, and are in good 

(5) No utensils containing or plated with cadmium or lead arc 
used, provided that solder containing lead may bo used for jointing. 
The following field test, adopted by tho Bureau of Food and Drugs 
of the Department of Health, City of New York, may bo used for tho 
detection of cadmium. 


Rfaffctitn.l. Ammonia-sodium iiltralp reagent: To 200 ml. of ammonia water 
(28% ) add 100 grams of sodium nitrate and dilute to 1 lUi-r wlUi dial illed water. 

2. Potassium cyanide reagent: Dissolve 100 grains of potassium cyanide and 
dilute to 1 liter with distilled water. 

S. Sodium sulflde reagent: Dissolve 100 grams of .sodium suindo and dilute to 
1 liter with distilled water, 

Piocrdure.Fmm the utensil suspected of containing or being plated wllli 
cmlmium, scrape off a small quantity of motal. I'liico a smull pinch of tho 
scrapings In a clean test tube, add 8 ml. of tlio ammonia-sodium nitrate reagent, 
bring to a boil over n name, and allow to stand for one or two minutes. Decani 
the clear supernatant liquid into another test tube and add to it 1 ml. of (he 
potassium cyanide reagent find mix by shaking. Add 1 drop oC the sodium 
snlftde reagent. 

/H/07p/fl/iOM. Cndmlum is present if a canary yellow precipitate (cadmium 
sulikle) results from the addition of (he sodium sulflde reagent. Iron, tin, 
antimony, arsenic, silver, copper, nickel, chromium, zinc, and aluminum do 
not interfere with the test. If these metals are present, the solnllon remains 
colorless, except that a whitish gray precipitate forms when aluminum or Bine 
is present. However, if cadmium is present in addition to aluminum or Bine 
the canary yellow precipitate of cadlum sulflde Is easily detected. The only 
metals which do interfere are lead and mercury, but these are rarely if over 
used In plating metals. 

Craw/ton. Use gieat care in the handling and disposition of the highly poisonous 
potassium cyanide reagent. 


Courtesy Kentucky State Itupartuient of Iloiiltli. 

1. BaHstiictoi'y liivuloiy tucillllos and drinking foimlain, conveniently located 
between exits from toilet rooms. 

Courlosy New York State Department of Health, 

2. Inndouunto dlslnvaBhlng facilities, 


D y 

L, r^ 

M a 


.S 'A B 

t- at 01 


D '" 
ii K 

S 5 

1 1 

tr, , 


h *- 
i S 



All equipment, Including display cases fl/ 1 window*, counters, 
/(/h/CN^ re/i'if/ewftvrs, xlovcs, hoot/ a ^ awl shiks, */;#// 6e /-ey 
/m! /Vtmt (/H,S/, (/M, insects, and other contaminating material. A/I 
cloths used !)>/ waiters, 6'hcfx, and other employees shall he clean. 
Single-service containers shall l)e uxe.d only onee. 

All multi-use eafinff and drinl'ing uiensils .shall lie thoroughly 
cleaned anil effect/ 'rely subjected to an approved bactericidal process 
after eaoh usage. All multi-use utensils used in the preparation or 
serving of food and drink shall be. thoroughly cleaned and effectively 
subjected' to ti?i approved bactericidal process immediately following 
the daifs operation. Drying clothx, if it serf, shall be Glean anil shftll 
bo used- for no other purpose. 

No article, -polish ^ or other subs tame containing any cyanide prep- 
aration or other poinonous material shall le used for the cleaning or 
polishing of utensils. 

reason, Foot! cminol be kept oloan nnd Niifp If iiprmittccl to 
coino in cnnfacl willi ciniliiiiicrs, ulciislls, nnd equipment which hnvi 1 not 
het'ii iiroiifi'ly clcinu'il mid slven Imclt'rickltil ti'i'iitinonf. Tlio diseases wliich 
fills It Pin is intended, fo guard ugainHl are those in which the Infective ngeiiL 
apin'ai-s in the saliva or oilier hotly rtlHchnrges. 

Accoidlng to viiriims Invesligators, paling nnd drinking utensils nniy he 
rcsnoiiHitilc for the (runsmi.ssidn o inlluoiiKii, (nlierenlosls, (HiHitlierla, pnemiHtnin, 
scarUM fever, ttlioopitig congli, Ireneh month, typhdid fever, dhirrliea, dy.senlery, 
iind HIP common cold 071 "" " Ia The orgaiiisniH oi these dlsi'tises tire transmit led 
by direeL and Indlreel eontacl from an infecled ease or carrier nmong the putrons 
or oinijldjees. The organisms may hi? eimgbed or sneered on fond, dishes, and 
utensils; Ihey may hi 1 lel'l on glasses, cuiis, spoons, and forltH by moulhlng; 
they may vend) (lie dishwater from washers or handlers or indirectly from 
dishes infected by lho users; or they inny reach cleaned dUbes exposed to 
coiilamhmlidii by handling or droplet, Infection. It bus been shown that disease. 
organisms can lie transferred from infected persons to caling nnd drinking 

"Manual for Hiinllnry tnsppi-torR, ('iiniidlnii Piilillo irrnllh AssncliiMnn, Toronto, 

7 ItoHPiimi, M. ,1. Piovi'iifi\o Medicine anil Hygiene, Applet 011 Conliiiv *'<>-, Inc , N Y., 
HKlh Kill t ton, lOHR, ('hauler I, pl> 1-135, inul Section V, p (111, 

"Itiive'iH'], Mn/yclt P., and Hniilli, K. W. An nniiHiiii] Onflncak of Tjpliold I'Vvoi 1 . 
.Tom mil oC tlio Aiin'i-lciin JVIcilicitt AsNociiilloii, 82, Hlllfi-HG (May 2'2, 100!)). 

"Tliompson, T. O Con trnl of Snllvn-Hornp IiifcotidiiH. An ISpiilcmlc of Intlueiizu. 
Joninal of Hie liiiynt Army Medical Ciirpn, 57, 81-itl (AiiR. 10IH). 

"CiimmhiB, .1 (!. anil YOHKIIP, N. K Killing lllcimil HanlLallon. Amei iciui .loiirnii] 
of Public Ilcnltli, 20, 2;!7-li (Mar. tOJHl). (Includes i-eloieiiuea to Ciininilng'H early 
work. ) 

11 N'lcholH, ITonry ,T. BaclorloloRic Data on thr Uplili'iniiilogy of Ilespli'iitory DINCIIHCH In 
(ho Army. .Tminnil oL' r.iihonilory and Clinical Ali'illclnc, 5, ROH-l I (May 1020), 

"MHcDmiiild, It Kl .T. and l^roclioru, (inice M. StoiJH?ntlou of Eating U tonsils, 
Oiinadian Puhllc Heiillli Joiunal, 24, 8a-0!l (Kob. 


i.ils ll]1 and (hfil piifliojjenK may survive pom- dishwashing motlmrts. 10 I'litho- 
lunc lici'n found mi restaurant tablewine which had not been effectively 
iintl ''sleiiliml " '-'" Although some InvoMiKiilora behove that eating and 
uli'iiMls cimstiliite H nmjor iiverme for (hi 1 hiirejul of the respiratory 
diseases, IO ' J17 i( has mil IJPOII possible to ilrlermme the actual I'xlont to which 
those diseases ate .so .sproad." 1S 10 " 

Mifiafaffoiy compliance. This ifein shall be doomed to luivc br-en 
satisfied if: 

(1) All equipment, including display cases and windows, 
counters, shelves, tables, meat-blocks, ret'rigerator.s, stovos, and hoods, 
are kept clean and Ireo from dust, dirt, insects, and other contaminat- 
ing material. 

(2) All tablecloths, napkins, and cloths used by waiters, chefs, mid 
other employees are clean. 

(3) Single-service articles, .such as paper cups, plates, straws, and 
milk bottle caps, are used once only. 

(i) All multi-service eating and drinking utensils are thoroughly 
cleaned after each usage, and all multi-use utensils used in the prepara- 
tion or serving O f food and drink are thoroughly cleaned immediately 
following the day's operation, in such manner as to bo clean to the 
sight and touch. A suitable detergent shall be used. 

The cleaning may bt! accomplished by the use of warm water (]10 D F to 
120 F.) containing an adequate amount of an effective soup or delurgenl l> 
remove grease and solids. The soapy wash water should be changed at sndl- 
ciently frequent intervals to keep It reasonably clean. Careful scraping or 
prerinsing of dishes to remove the gross food particles before washing will main; 
it possible to keep the wash waler clean fin- a longer time between changes mid 
to maintain a .suflk'ient concentration of the detergent. In machine wash Ins, 
dishes should be stacked in Ihe racks or trays so as lo avoid overcrowding and 
&o as to permit the wash and rinse waters to reach all surfaces of each article. 

(5) After cleaning, all such utensils are effectively subjected to one 
or more of the following or other equivalent approved bactericidal 

processes : 

By approved bactericidal ptorcx* is meant the application of any method or 
substance for the destruction of pathogens and all oilier organisms so far aw 

"Blown, L. Petroff, B. A., nml Pasnuoia, G. Htlological Hindi in T 
Auifiicnn Review of L'uliorailoHis, 3, 021-30 (Doc 1010). 

"Fluyil C. and IfiothlnKlmm, L Table Utensils as a Sourco of Tnbcrciilmw Infcc-dun, 
AraericiLii Review of Tuhi-rculosis, 6, 51-02 (Mar, UL'2) 

'MVarrl, W B . and Dnck, (J. M. B lt (-tr,i tl k )S ]c-ul T.t H on Meclinnlcul PIshwiiBhorB for 
UOIIIP U&c American JomnnI of I'uhlic HciUtli, 29, 111J-I8 (Oi-l lll.'i))) 

* Sarihof C C- , and IIMnoknrap, W. J. 11. Itec-ovcry of StioptornmiH Iloinolylleus from 
Hestnuinnt Tableware. Anwilcan Join mil of 1'ubllc Health, 10, 70-1-07 fSont 1020) 

"C-mnmlntf J. O., Spruit. C. B,, and Router, V. A. Sallvn-norno T ,f PP | ions ; Tln-lr 
Transmission Through Eating UtenMla. Modem Medlcino, 2, 50^-07 ( 11)'>0) 

"Stnllybraw. C. O C hnn K ln Vlew s a, to tl,o Kprea.l of n.focaion. Join, mi of tbo 
Jtoyal Instltnto of Public Honlth n nd ny K lPuo. 1. 700-SO (O.-t 11)38) 

nf'fh^'nn!.! v F> , ^T , P J lndploa of tlle DI8emlunllon of Jllcroblc Di^ HC . Joui-nn! 
of the Bojal Natal Medical Seivlce, 20, 0-21 (Jan 103-1) 

Shrmler. J. U. Food Control. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N. Y., 1030, p. 00. 


practicable, and which, in tho opinion of tho health offlrpr, is effective, tuul does 
not adversely all'ccl the eijuipincnl or the food or dunk or the limit h of the 

(a) Immersion for at least 2 minutes in clean, hot water at a tem- 
perature of at least 170 F. or for 1^ minute in boiling water. Unless 
actually boiling water is used an approved thermometer shall be avail- 
able convenient to the. vat. Tho pouring of scalding water over 
washed utensils shall not be accepted as satisfactory compliance. 

It Is recommended Hint, wherever practicable, bactericidal treatment should he 
obtained through the use of hot water in the manner above described. For this 
method of bactericidal treatment two adjacent deep sinks should he provided 
and filled with a porcelain, intilal, or other impervious drainboard. Metals like, 
zinc which mark the, chinaware should be avoided for surfacing of druinboimls 
or table lops on which dishes are stored. If cllllicully is experienced In obtaining 
clean-looking glasses, it is recommended thai greater manual effort bo applied, 
or that a more elllcltmt detergent be tried, or that UK; rinse, water be changed 
rnoro frequontly, or that a threo-comparlment vat bo used, After washing in 
the first sink, the. glasses, dishes, etc., should be placed in metal baskets and 
immer.sed In the hat water in the second sink for the required period of time. 
Baskets may be lined with wooden strips to prevent marking of the chinaware. 
Upon removal from the hot water they should remain in Hie baskets until dry 
nml then stored in such manner as not to become contaminated before again being 

Where hot water is used for bactericidal treatment, there shall be 
provided a hot water heater (preferably controlled by a thermostat) 
capable of maintaining a water temperature of at least 1YO F. in 
the vat at all Limes during- business hours, and water tit such temper- 
ature shall be available at all times while utensils are being washed and 
given bactericidal treatment. The heating device may be integral 
with the immersion vat. It is considered that oven in the cube of 
roadside stands hot water may be obtained through the use of 
gasoline or kerosene stoves, which may, if the wash and rinse vats are 
correctly constructed, be placed directly thereunder. Provision 
should be made for compensating for heat loss to the utensils, espe- 
cially wlum largo numbers aro submerged at any time. 

Care shall be taken in the bactericidal treatment of containers by 
immersion in hot water or chlorine rinse to prevent the trapping of air 
in the container, thus preventing contact with the entire surface of tho 
container. This may be accomplished by placing all glasses, cups, 
plates, and saucers in a venting position so that air will not bo trapped, 

(b) Immer.sion for at least 2 minutes in a lukewarm chlorine bath 
containing at least 50 ppm of available chlorine if hypochloritfls aro 
used, or a concentration oC pqniil bactericidal strength if chloruminoi-' 
aro used. The bath should bo made up at a strength of 100 ppm or 
more of hypochlorites and shall not be used after its strength has boon 
reduced to 60 ppm. Bactericidal treatment with chlorine is ineffective 


if I ho utensils have not boon thoroughly cleaned. Where chlorine, is 
relied u]ioii for bactericidal treatment, the bactericidal treatment re- 
quirement ,) this itt-in shall therefore bo considered as violated if 
the utensils so treated are not clctni. 

.Solutions itimlc from compounds containing chlorainine or chlonnnino-T Irivi- 
a shmer bactericidal action than hypochlorites containing equal cnneontral inns 
of avfill.ihlo chloi Ine The former must therefore lie made up to n sulliclenlly 
gieiite.1 1 strength Id produce si bactericidal oll'ect within the leqniied exposure 
permd equivalent to that of the above hypuchloriie concentration The chl-orii- 
mnio and chluniinine-T concentration necessary will vary will) the dillVrenl 

Chlorine solutions once used shall not- be reused for Imetericidiil 
treatment on any succeeding day, hut may bo roused for other 

AVhere chlorine treatment is used a three-compartment vat shall be 
required, the first compartment to be used for washing, (be second for 
plain rin.sinn', and (he third for chlorine immersion ; provided that for 
existing installations the second or rinsing compartment may bo omit- 
ted if a satisfactory rinsing or spraying device is substituted, This 
A\ill prevent the excessive consumption of chlorine by organic matter 
and washing compound carried over from the washing compartment. 
The iirst basket of utensils will remain in the chlorine buth for at 
least 2 minutes while the second basket is in the plain rinse and the 
third basket is being washed. Upon removal from the chlorine bath 
the utensils may be rinsed in clean running water, if desired, and til- 
lowed to dry either in the basket or inverted on a drain shelf or tray. 

Silver find sihor-platert tableware should not he treated wilh chlorine as 
silver L-hlornk'h aio formed which blacken Ihc silver. 

The health officer shall .satisfy himself by frequent test that tlie 
chlorine bath in actual use is of the required strength. The following 
test suitable for this purpose 1ms been devised by the, Sanitation Sec- 
lion of the. United States Public Health Service: 

The test for cMorliie ftlicnytn makes UUP of tho fact thai when tin' proper 
amount of o'tolidin is added to n chlorine .solution containing UO parls per inllHnn 
or more a precipitate is formed, except Unit in the case of certain chloramlties 
(he solution becomes cloudy at chlorine concentrations having a 2-ininiHe Imc- 
tericidal strtmglh equivalent to at least the hm-iorlcidal strength of 20 luu't.s 
pur million of available chlorine in the form of hypochlorile, 

Tlie testing outfit consists of two test tubes A by 4 inches, one of which 
contains o'tolidin. (ffur composition of o'toiidin solution see 8 tit ml tint Mcllioiln 
for tlie Etrainlnalton of Water and Snidf/c Diihllshed by the American Tulilic 
Health Association.) The other is Ailed with a medicine dropper nml is used 
for test ing the chlorine, solution. It is etched at the 2 nil. and 5 ml. levels so as lo 
in tike possible the dilution of the solution to be tested to two-fifths of its original 
strength, thus diluting 1111 original .solution of 50 parts per million or morn to one. 
of. 20 parts per million or more, which, as above stated, is the critical point for the 


formal-Ion of the precipitate when hypoi-hlm-Hes are tested llpfnav uny tests 
are tnmle with (ho tipiMirtiliis the medicine dumper sin mid he h-sied to del ermine 
whether il dellvurs tlrons of the oniyer size. To do HUH, sSmiily j-minl tlit> numbev 
or drops mniired lo li]l Io thi> first mark of tin- testing tube. 1 . If tin 1 numlii-r 
required lies between 30 and 50 Ihe tli-unper is fsnllsf.ici.ory. IE not, discard It ami 
se-cnrn one of the iH'oper .size. 

The U'Nl iiroecdin'fi Ja as fulknvK; Rinse. Hie testing lulip and UK dromicr 
with eleun water. Fill 11u> testing lube to tin- lower niarU with (lie 
sululirm Io be tuKlod, using tliP dropiJt'r for this vmrpuHe. Avoid includ- 
ing flouting piirticlow. Fill (o the second murk wilh cleun wiler, using Uic 
dropiitn- for this pnrjinKt?. Add 1 drop of o'lolidm Hold tin 1 minor part of tin; 
toallng tulu- flrmly wiili one hinul ond tup the lowoi 1 ond of il ^htirply HO times 
\vlHi one or two flnserH of Ihf oilier hand If, in Ihe CUHL' of 

or hrowtiiwli pju'Liclcs sepuriitc out wilhin B initiutt's, the soluUon 

al loast f)0 parts per million of uviiilnbli' HiliH'lne If, in the fuse 
of et'1'taiu fhloramiiips, Hits slnllmi becomes chuuly within fi ininntes, tin 1 Milu- 
lion te.sled luis !i tHictoricidal Ktruu^ili for a ^-minute cxiiusuvt 1 ('(inlvaleiit to 
at least the bsieLoricicltil Hlreiiglh of 50 parts por million, of avullablG ciilin'liie 
in IhG form of liypochlurlfp. 

In order Io dclerniinc whether a curtain coinmoi-chil prepiiratfon is 
enough for li;ict(>rit'idal uso when mixed us di reeled on Che label, Ihe 
slumld mix a portion us di ret- iwl, then dllulp half and half, and lest for 00 
parts per million by im-uns of Ihe ahm e-dt'M-rilied (esl. If a pivcipllalo 
I ho dlrreLions upon the hibol result in a solution emit u In ing al least 100 
por jnillion in tlie form of hyjJOi'lilorllGS OL- tins bacU'L-lcldal I'milvalont thprf<ij! 
and niny bt> approved. Otherwise, siicli larger nmmllty of the stoc'k solution 
should be uHeil its will give, a hntisfaclory teal. 

Oilier liH'Iriit'ittctt. Tlie heallh oflicer should not permit I'e.slfiiirantK to use 
any otlnsi* form of IwotorU-ide until he' has salisiied hiitmelt hy his mvn or 
oilier oillc'iiil tests that it !M sallsfaetory. It is essential thai tlie oimronlralion 
of tlie. hac'tei'iclilc l)fi meiiMui'abh* by a simple and accurate Held test, .so that 
it con l> determined whether adwnmle tjnanlllU's are being used. 

If tin; local or State health authority Is In doulit sibon) the vllicionc-y of! any 
proprietary Iwcterk-idc, he may consult the I'uliHe Health Sen Ice. 

(c) Exposure in u tttenrn cabinet equipped wilh tin imlu'nling thor- 
nioiuoicr located in Urn coldest zont 1 Lo at least 170 K Cor al 
15 niintitoB, or to at lunat 200 F. lav al least 5 nunules. For u dis- 
cussion of steam ctibinols aco item 1-Jr of the U. 8. Public Health 
Service Milk Code. Sleam cabinets should be provided wilh a vulvo 
to permit the discharge of cold air when sLoam is admitted. 

(d) Exposure in a properly designed oven or hot-air cabinet 
equipped with an indicating Ihennomeler located in the coldest zono 
to hot stir nt a temptrjilin-o, of nt leiisl 180 ir. for at leas!, 20 minules. 21 

Equipment that is Loo largo to immerse may be treated (i) with live 
si cum from a hose, in the case oJ: equipment in which stenm can bo 
confined, (2) hy boiling water rinse, or (!3) by spraying or nwtibbing 
with chlorine feolutiou of approved strength. 

st Seu Studies of the nncLoi'tnl Ti-pntincnt of Milk Cjuis in irm-Air t'n bluets. Public 
Health llcnoits, Mar. <i, 1U38 (IleprlnL No. 1012). 


Health officers should clieek with a thermometer (he actual tem- 
peratures used in the methods which employ iis the bactericidal 
agent. For all bactericidal processes the actual ])eriod of exposure, to 
the temperature or the chlorine rinse should be, checked to determino 
compliance. To promote adequate exposure even during rush hours, 
restaurants should he encouraged to provide a siillicient supply of 
glasses, dishes, cups, and tableware, particularly where, (he process 
employed requires a long- exposure period. 

The following spopinValioiw for inspec tors' milk temperature thermomcterM nrc 
ik'higned to ninltc HifH !i KCMienil-pui'jiose Ihcrmonioter mutable for deleinilidng not 
only refrigeration lemperatures but also bactericidal treatment temperatures at 
dairies and rewtaiiraafs. 

l'ICm Oil's UlCNICHU.-IM'ltPOMn T llmSKhMKJ'h HH 

Type. Pocket type, inoi't-nry actuated 

Alai/nificalion of tnerctti u colitnix To apparent width at not less limn one- 
sixtcentli Inch. 

Scale runifC.SQ" to 212 F. with extension cllhcr hide ncnnissivo. 
Tempera I it to represent cil tty smullcxl fictile (HviKivn,'2 a I 1 . 
Number of dcffrees par inch of settle, Not nior lluia 012. 
Accurai'ii. Within 2 IT., pins or mlnuw. 

Case,. Metal, provided with HiiaiioiiHlon rin^ and foimlain-pcn clip. 
JiuUi. Coming Jiornial, or ('(pnilly siilhililo Miernioint'lrif jjlnss. 

Drying cloths^ if used, shall bo clean and shall be used for no other 
purpose. It is recommended thai whcrcn r or poKsihle, utensils be per- 
mitted (o drain dry without the use of drying cloths. 

In dink washing machines the use- of higher wash water temperatures, 
higher detergent concentrations, and the move ellictcnt mechanical re- 
moval of soil, make it possible to employ a shorter exposure- period for 
the final treatment (the hot waler or chlorine, rinse, or, in the case of 
some glnsswashers, the exposure to a jet of steam). 

Additional research on dishwashing machines will he required dcfinlloly to 
establish the necussury wash and rlnsi! water tt>ini)oriiturcs, the minimum allow- 
able witching nncl rinsing limes (imd the time of exposure lo a jet of steam In 
the cnso of some gliisawn-sliing macliines), tho opllmum content rations of dli- 
foront detergpiils, and similar factors. Ilowevor, i|. seems to he fairly well estab- 
lished llmt the wash water tomiiLTature .should ho approximately 1 10 Ij\ (lint 
nol higher, bemuse food particles would then lie "cooked" onto the utensils), and 
In no ease lower than J20 F. (becauwe then fats would not bo emulsified) ; and 
that tfie rinse water temperature should he at least 170 3P. 

Dishwashing machines must be kept clean. The pumps and the wash and 
rinse sprays or jets, If any, should be so designed that a forceful stream of water 
will reach all of the utensils when they are propei-ly racked. Periodic inspection 
and cleaning of wash and rinse sprays arc essential lo continued satisfactory 
operation, and these parts of the machines should, therefore, ho readily accessible 
for inspection and cleaning. The wash tank water should he changed (luring 
operation ns often as is found necessary to keep It reasonably clean. An effective 


concentration of detergent should bo ma in tinned til nil tiinea. The inspector 
f-hould urge that dishwashing machines be provided with . U) pioperiy operating 
iintciaintic detergent dispensers; ('2) thennosttilie control of the leinneiatiii'e of 
the wtisli wafer us well as that of the rmso water; and (3) thermometers hi 
both the wash mid rinse wafer lines and in .such a locution us to be readily 
viHihlo. Adequate hot water healing aud storage facilities are essential. These 
specifications- are not intended to bo mandatory, 1ml only lo seivo. as a Kiiulc 
(o the inspector and the restaurateur. 

When dishwashing machines tiro used, tlio bactericidal treatment 
standards given above in 5 (a) through 5 (d) will not apply, and the 
health officer shall resort to other methods, such as the following, for 
determining- the actual results obtained. 

Where bacteriological laboratory facilities are available, the follow- 
ing 1 swab test procedure for determining' the- number of bacteria on 
nten.sil surfaces is recommended for the bacteriological examination 
o f uLoiLsils which have been cleansed and disinfected by any of the abovo 
methods. This is (he Standard Method for tho, Bacteriological Exam- 
ination of Food Utensils proposed by the Subcommittee on Food 
Utensil Sanitation of the American Public Health Association in June, 
J 9-111. Health officers should be guided by the A. P. H. A. Standards 
as they may be amended from time to time. 


Appatatun and nittlcnaJs. Sterile Petri dishes, .sterile 1 nil, pipettes, standard 
tryplone glucose extract agar (without milk), Ihin flexible sheet metal frames 
with openings 4 sq. In. in area, aleohol burner, automatic shaking machine, slcnle 
cotton swabs on stiff, not readily corrodiblo wire holders (such as Via" diumctet 1 
tempered wire), and sterile swab containers. Satisfactory contalnei s consist, of 
screw-cap swab bottle 23 by 70 nun. or 15 x 300 mm. bacteriological test tubes with 
cork or rubber stoppers. Cotton plugs are not satisfactory. The aivnl) holder 
should be, attached to tho cap or stopper ; the use of separate dry swabs in gutssine 
envelopes is not recommended. A small, (irmly twisted cotton swab shall be used. 
Wooden holders may he used If wire is not obtainable. (The use. of wooden 
holders results in the recovery of a .somewhat smaller proportion of I ho orgunisms 
on utensils than is recovered with stlfl'-wire holders. Hee Tech, Uul No. 2(i(), N. Y. 
State Agr. Kxp. Hta., Geneva, N. Y.) 

Jiuffci'cd distilled water. The purpose is to secure n solution (1ml is non-toxic 
to bacteria. Prepare tho phosphate buffer solution as directed In detail on page 
32(1 of Standard Mfllliods for Hit) Mjxtiiihitttlun of Dairy Products, eighth (10U) 
edition. Brleily, thia is done, by dissolving ,'U gm. of potaHsium cli-hydrogen 
phosphate In 000 nil. of distilled water, adding about, 175 nil. of a normal sodium 
hydroxide solution, diluting to 1 liter with distilled water, adjusting this solution 
to pli 7.2, and diluting 1 ml. of this slock solution to SOO ml. with boiled and cooled 
distilled water. If the utensils to be swabbed are likely to eonlnin residual 
chlorine, add -i ml. of a 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate solution to the 1 nil. of block 
solution before minting it to 800 ml 

Distribute the diluted solution In the swab containers in amounts thai will 
provide, after aiitoclavlng for !10 minutes, exactly J ml. for each utensil to be 
examined per &wub ; e. g., 4 ml. for 4 utensils, 5 ml. for 5 utensils, etc. The con- 


laiuers should be niifiiclnvod willi I In 1 swabs in place mid Iho caps 

f'lllci'ihif/ mtinpJrit. ITIeiiMls In lie examined shall include ;t( least glasses, cups, 
and spoons, If used, find nl least 4 of each shall I)* 1 seloclod al random fnnn Hie 
shelves upon which clean utensils arc .stored. If si direct cheek of Iho dishwashing 
methods is desired, ului.sds should bo selected J'nun those roceiidy washed, ( 'an 1 
shall In 1 taken to prevent contamination by handling. 

Use I swnb for each gioup of -I- or more similar uloiiMls Take the swab from 
n freshly-opened cimlamer oC dilution waler, nnd squeeze il agains! Ihe side of 
Hie container so as to remove excess waler, leaving Hie swab moist hut not wel. 
Hub the .swiib slowly and ilnnly three times over Ihe significant sin'l'aces of 4 or 
inoi'e -similar utensils. After swabbing each utensil, return the swab to Iho 
container of dilution waler, rolalo the swab in the dilution waler, nnd press mil 
the excL'Na water against UH: .side of the container belore swabblnt* Ihe nexl of Ihe 
1 or more utensils in the group, 

The .slfjiiilicanl surfaces of ulenills consist of the upper nne-hiilf inch of the 
inner and outer i ims of cups nnd glasses and Hie entire inner and outer surfaces 
of (he bowls of spoons. If it Is desired to examine forks and surfaces of dishes, 
etc., the area to be swahhod should include (ho entire inner and outer surfaces of 
Hie lines of forks, and (he inner surfaces of plates anil howls over an area of 4 
square, Indies that would como in eoular-l with Iho food. The area to lie swabbed 
on plates and bowls may bo delineated by using Ihe ilexible metal frame, which 
must be sterilized mimed lately before, use. blaming or burning off with alcohol 
constitutes satisfactory sterilisation for tins purpose, 

After completing (he .swabbing of all uteti.sils in the group of 4 or more, replace 
the swnb in (lie container of dilution water. Use a new swab container for Ihe 
next group of nlonsils. Keep the containers iced while in (ranslt to Hie labor- 
atory, and plate the dilution waler samples as soon as possible, preferably williiu 
4 hours of swabbing, 

TMl)ot(tfo>[/ p>or<'(lutc. Shake Hit; swab containers for 2 miiiuloH in tin auto- 
matic shaking machine, using a lateral motion in order to wash adherent material 
from thu swab into Ihe dilution waler. If a shaking machine is not a\allahle, 
agilalo. the containers vigorously by striking (hem agalnsl Hie palm of the hand 
rapidly for 2 minutes. Itemovu Ihe .swab, pressing II against (he wall of the con- 
tainer to expel as much moisture as possible. Transfer 1 ml. of Ihe dilution walor 
to a sterile Pctri dish. Add approximately LO ml. of melted standard (ryptoue 
glucose extract agar (without milk), mix, Incubate for -IN hours at ;i7('., and 
count as In making a Standard Plate Count. Slight Increases in lemperatiirc 
above 87 0. materially lessen Iho number of visible colonies that will develop. 
Ileporl tho count us the average plate count of organisms removed per utensil 
surface examined. For example, if -I glasses are swabbed, If 1 ml. of Hie 4 ml. of 
dilution water is plated, and if uti colonies are counted after incubation, record 
the average plate count per glass surface ns fill. 

Interpretation,'?^ average plate count per utensil surface examined should 
not excood 100. Higher counts me prosumpliyo evidence of inadequate cleansing 
or bactericidal treatment or m-milamination by handling or during hlorage. 

(6) ISTo article, polish, or other substance containing uny cytmido 
preparation or other poisonous material is used for the cleansing- or 
polishing of utensils. The Following field lost, described by Koi-fF 
and Kaplan in tho October 1942 issue of tho American Journal of 
Public Health, may be used lor tho detection o cyanide in metal 


Ctmrtcsy New Yoilt Stnti> Dcpnilincnt of llonltli 

1 Counting bnetcria wmnvetl from ntonsils by cotton swabs, 
i' ilislnvnshing in'odncei iitimslls with low liactcrln conuls) 

Court cay Dlnh State Board of Ilwildi. 

li'icrun fi Smlsl'iicloiy .stoniRc of cups, 

cups are Inverted It Is natural to t,'rasj> them by the handles; when not Inverted 
it is most convenient to ginsi> the rims) 


Courtesy Ulnli SlnloHonnl of Ilonltl). 

KII.DIIE 0. T improper ImiulllnK oC uleiin 

Courtesy Ulnli KliKo Hoanl of IIonHh. 

FiauitB 7, Inipropei 1 handling of clcnn glass, (Note rim of #lass In cuiitact wltli exterior 

of milk bottle) 



Prepare sodium pK-rate test papers by diiininp; strin*, of paper into 
a i percent solution im-rie acid, drying, then dipping into a 10 percent solution 
of sodium enrbmmip and drying Preserve papers in a stoppered lioltle See 
Otf/rmf d Tcnttt'tlvc Methods nf Antilles of tlic Ansortatlon of Official Agti- 
culiural (Jiirmifits, Dth edition, 10-10, p. SOU. 

Prnrctlitrc. Moislon a test paper with water and suspend it in the container 
of the suspected polish, taking cart 1 that the paper does not come in contact with 
the material. 

l>itt'rj'<:l<tlinn.'V\w paper turns orange find then brick red in 5 to 10 minutes 
if the ('oneentratirm of cyanide (us K('N) exceeds C percent Although this 
reaction Is not wholly specific for cyanide the test serves as a rapid screening 
test in the field. Positive results should ho confirmed in the laboratory 


After bactericidal treatment utemils xhall lie stored in a clean^ dry 
place protected from flics t dutt t and other contamination, and shall be 
handled in such a matvner as to prevent contamination, as far as prac- 
ticable. Single-aermce utensils shall be purchased only in sanitary 
containers, shall be stored tHerem, m a clean, dry place until used* and 
shall be. handled in, a sanitary manner, 

Pulillc-JitmJth tcfisan. If utensils and equipment are not protected from con- 
tamination, the value of bneleviclilal treatment may be nullified. 

compliance. This item shall be deemed to have heen. 
satisfied if; 

(1) All conlnmors and utensils are stored at a sufficient height 
above the floor in a clean, dry place protected from flies, splash, dubt, 
overhead leakage and con dentation, and other contamination. Wher- 
ever practicable containers and utensils shall bo covered or inverted. 

(2) Drain racks, trays, and shelves sire made of not readily cor- 
vodible material, and nru kept clean. 

(3) Containers nnd utensils are not handled by the surfaces which 
come in contact with food or drink. Fingers should not touch (he 
inside surfaces o glasses, cups, dishes, etc., nor the bowls of spoons, 
the tines of forkn, or the blades of knives. Any equipment touched by 
the inspector shall be again subjected to bactericidal treatment before 
being used. 

(4) Paper cups, plates, straws, spoons, forks, and other single-serv- 
ice containers and utensils are purchased in sanitary cartons and 
stored therein in a clean, dry place until used, and alter removal from 
the cartons these articles are handled in a sanitary manner. Laun- 
dered cloths and napkins shall be stored in a clean place until used. 

(8) Spoons, spatulas, dippers, scoops, etc., used for dispensing 
frozen clossorts are, when not in use, kept either in water maintained 
at 170 F. or in running water, 


AH irfttifcn filutJl be properly r//A'/w.svv/ of, ami <tll f/tti'lxtt/e atxl 
sh<(/l be kept ht Mil able rece/>f(f<'/cx, in bitch mtumer as '/><->/ to 
a mtiwrnce. 

PitMi('~h<'ttl1]i reason All Krbntfe, rcfiiHo, and liquid wsiHton roHiilliiitf from 
tho normal opci-filiini of a f<md or drink psliiblislimciil hlnmld be in-uiicrly diseased 
of M) ii nut to but'onic n nuiwiiici 1 or !i imlilic-lKiiitili nu'iiiiw 

Satisfactory compliance, This item sluil] bo dctMiU'd In hi\vo Ijecn 
satisfied if: 

liH'iii'i'wl t'oncci 

CoiuU'Sy Culriiinlu Medico 1 .Schoiil 

Fioiiiiu 8 Mt'lluuls of liniHiliii),' uilvoi ivnrc. 

(1) All Jifpiid wnslcs result iii- IVoni the donning mid rinsing of 
nlonsils and floors, from (lush toilets, and from lavatories ai'c (lis|)oscd 
of in a public sewer or, in tbe absence of n public sower, by a me-tliod 
a])proved by tho Slate board of health. Grease traps arc recom- 
mended where- much grease, i.s diselwrge-d. 

(2) All plumbing complies with the city plumbing ordinances and 
is so designed and installed as to prevent contamination of the water 
supply through hi lei-conned ions and back-siphonago from fixtures, 
including dishwashing machines and sinks. 

(3) All garbage, is kept in fight, non-absorbent, and easily washable 
roceptables which are covered wilh closc-litling lids while pending 

(4) All garbage, trash, and other waste material are removed from 
(ho premises as frequently as may be necessary to prevent nuisance and 
unsightlinoss, and are disposed of in a manner approved by tho health 


(5) All garbage receptacles are washed when emptied, and treated 
with a diMnl'ectant if necessary, to prevent nuisance. 


All readily perishable food and drink shall be kepi afi or below SO F. 
except when ~be,ing prepared or served. Wattle irate r from refi'iyera 
tion equipment shall 1)G properly disposed of. 

reump Usually the bai'teriu in food arp harmless, and if this 
woro always true there would be no reason lo ri'frigevulp food except to prevent 
spoilage. There Is, however, no way Lo bo sure that pathogenic bacteria have 
not entered the food (even though observance of the other items o this ordinance 
will much reduce this likelihood) The likelihood of contracting disease may 
be increased when the food contains laige numbers of disease producing organ- 
Isms or (heir toxins. For Ihls reason perishable foods ^hoiild be Icopl cold ho 
that any small number of disease producing bacteria which man have entered 
will not he permitled to multiply. IL shuultl be 1 recalled Unit bacteria are micro- 
scopic plants and that most plants do not grow in cold weather. 

Satisfactory compliance. This item shall bo deemed lo have boon 
satisfied if: 

(1) All readily perishable fond or drink is kepi at or below F. 
except when being prepared or served. This shall include all eusUrd- 
fillcd anil cream-tilled pastries, milk and milk products, egg products, 
meat, fish, shellfish, gi'avy, poultry stnfling, and sauces, dressings, and 
salads containing meat, fish, eggs, or milk or milk products. 

(2) All ice used is from a source approved by I ho health officer and 
is stored and handled in such manner as to prevent contamination. 
Water used to wash ice shall comply with (he safety standards of it em 7. 

(3) To prevent contamination of the refrigerator contents by pos- 
sible sewage back-flow, all waste water from refrigeration equipment 
drains into tin open sink or drain, properly trapped and sewer con- 
nected; provided that where sower connections aru not available clean 
adequate water-light drip pans may be used, or the drainage is disposed 
of in an approved manner. 


All food, and drink shall be clean, wholesome,^ free, from spoilage,, 
and so prepared as to 1w safe for human consumption, All milk, -fluid 
milk produGtti t ice cream ^ and of her frozen defiNurfft sarvcd shall be from, 
approved sources. Milk and fluid milk produotft shall oe served in the 
individual original containers in which they were received from the 
distributor or from a Imlk container equipped with a/n approved dis- 
pensing device,,' Provided^ That this requirement shall not apply to 
oreain^ which may be served from the original l)otlle or from a. dispenser 
approved for such service. All oysters, clams t and mussels shall be 


from approved ,sw/m ] ,<?, untl if nhinl'cd xh<>!l he l-e/il itnft'l uaetl hi the 
contdhivrti in which they uv/v placed at Ike. xhuckinti 

reason. Food intiy be harmful or distasteful In (lie consumer 
unless It is clean, wholesome, free 10111 spoilage, and so prepared as 1o he safe 
for Iniiniiii consumption 

Tliaf foods (if many kinds him 1 been responsible for numerous outbreaks of 
disease is shown l>y Hie laities below, Many J'ood borne outbreaks can be pre- 
vented by (lie observation of the principles of winilnlioii The various items of 
(lite oi'dintince are designed to require (lie practical application of prin- 
ciples in the restaurant operations. Item l-[ tilso requires (hat cerlain funds 
which arc ordinarily obtained from oilier Horn-cos liy tlie restaurant are clean and 
safe. II Is therefore: required fhat, inllK and Jlnld milk products, ice cream 
and oilier frozen desserts, and oysters, clams, anil mussels Mial! be obtained 
only from approved sources 511 

The portion of tills item dealing with the method of serving milk and fluid 
milk products is designed to prevent, contamination of (he milk in handling or 
serving. Such contamination Is frequently observed in flm dipping of mtlk from 
a hulk container into Hie gla'-s In which it is served to the customer, the glass 
frequently overflowing and the milk coining in contact with (be fingers and then 
dripping back into the bulk container from which il was dipped, l ( !ven if milk 
Is poured into glasses from hollies In the, kitchen (here is more opportunity lor 
ravel essiu^s and conswjue-nl contamination than 1C It is. served In the Individual 
original container, because the transferring Is done out of sight of (he customer. 
The serving of milk in the original container has been found practical, and many 
establishments have reported Increased sales of milk because of. the reaction oi 
tlio consumer to the improved .service sanitation, and to (be fact thai he Is assured 
of receiving all of the cream in the original container However, there tire 
rapidly being developed sanitary bulk dispensers which may result in reducing 
(ho cost of milk distribution. For this reason, this item permits the nerving 
of milk and ihild milk products from approved sanitary bulk dispensers 

The requirement (hat shucked shellfish he kepi in the original container unlit 
used Is inlended to prevent handling which might result, hi contamination between 
the shucking plant and (ho reMaiirant. 

During recent years, more disease oulbi'otiks have been reported as (raced to 
cream-filled and cnstjird-nMed paslries than to any other Item of food. Accord- 
ingly a special discussion has been Included under (2) of Kiitiitftiolorii i:oini>litin<'c 

Since VJ122 the Public Health Service- has issued annually cnmpilalions of mllk- 
boniG disease outbreaks reported by Slain health authorities, and Klnce lil.'JH 
It has Issued compilations of disease outbreaks similarly reported as having been 
traced tn foods other than milk and mill; products, The following lahles ha\e 
been prepared from, reports for HMO and t!!ll : 

23 1'Vn 1 rcroinineiidcd sanitation HtanilariiN covering UIPHO IH'mlm'lH, HIV llu> 

Milk Ordinance lind ('into Itociniimimdi-d \\y Uin TI K Public llctihli Hi'iUro, Public llciillli 
Bullt'thi No. 21iO. 

Fiwpii DosHcrln Onllnnnro mifl Code Hoconmn'inlt'il by Ilic II. R, Pulilic Ilciilih Hcrvicc. 

II. H, Public llcallli Sci'vicr Mlititmnii HiMiiiin'itii'iits I'm ^mlorni'mcTil ut Htutii Klicllflsli 
Control Measures anil Curtlficiillons lor Kliliii!iH in Inlpi'slulu ('itinint'ic)'. 

7Jf,srrtse nittln'Cfil.i ronvnicd llnouyli /noils ofhct Hum milk and mill p> wind ft in Ike 
r>nti'>> Nti let, at Iti.'/O ant! ID'/I us ii'iKiiti'it by Mate, health aiilhontift,, hi/ 
itf fiiixt 


9 271 

Fowl, foul ami dressing, fowl and gra\ v ' 12 9(18 

Finits and vegetables- _ 5 53 

Ham, pret.roatod l _ 7 45 

Jlam, snioked_ _ ___ _ 21 302 

Ilnmc-eannod Innts, juices and vegetables _ 5 17 
Moat and meal, pioducts oilier I him poik mid 

pork products _ _ _ 39 755 

Pies and pastries, croam-Hllcd . . ! 37 -!00 

Pies and paMries other than c p roam-filled | 5 05 

Pork and pork pioduels ofhor than t-mokod ' 

and preheated ham l _- 22 134 

Puddings - ___ { 93 

Salads _. _ _ _ __ 4 213 

Sandwiches _ _ 10 243 

Haucos, -salad tho'-sinns, and gravy . 6 378 

Shellfish . .. ... 5 118 

Combined foods __ _ __ j 7 020 

Miscellaneous .__ fi 20 

Undetermined ._ - - _ 34 800 

Totnl 218 5,588 




















0, 070 

l" iii'iHit("iS|n'cliil i 

iR lo iniikii thulium mom tomlcr, us liy heatm omymo treatment 

Foods u'lileli caused n total oC 30 or moro onlhreaks (hiring the two-yon r period, 
In (lie decreasing order of llu'tr. iniiiorliun'o willi rc'Sjiocl to (lie luunhov of otil- 
lii'onks conveyecl by cucli food, aru : (1) ci'eani-lllled pies and pastrlos; (2) smoked 
ham; (8) pork and pork iii-odnels oilier than smoked and prelroatod ham; 
(4) fowl, fowl n ml dresMlni?, fowl find gravy; and (fi) Jiu-af and moat products 
other Hum pork and jiork products. 

Tlio dlseitKes imtilvod In the oulhrenks reporlod lor the 1 two-year period, In 
(lie (lecreasliifj order of their importance wilh rospect to the nunihPi 1 of outhreaks 
of each dlscaf-e arc: food poisoning, giiKtroonlorHiH, trichinosis, typhoid fever, 
botulism, dysenlery, eliemlcul food poisoning, paratyphoid fever, and scarlet fever. 

A total of S3 deaths was reported to have resulted from outbreaks during 
tho 2-yL-ar period. Of llujse 83 clmtlis, 20 were due to bolullsm (19 to home- 
caujnid foods and t lo comnifircially-canned food), 20 wen: due to typhoid fovcr, 
J4 to trichinosis, 14 to chemic-iil food poisoning, 12 to food poisoning and gtistro- 
enteritis, and 3 to dysentery, 


isritsr otitlicdln conveyed (JirouffJi null and >m!L pimhii'lf, in Ihr Unili-i! 

i!).',0 and ]!>//! (ts icpottal In/ Mule health tiuthw itfcs, Inj I, nut of i oil net ' 



Kind oi iiioiim t 

On (hi oaks 




Ullltoimilk, I'ftVi - - - 



Canned milk- _ .___. - 



Choose curds, ia.w_____ -_ _ . __ 



Cheese, iinck'HiRUiilcd. - - 



CultuRC CllCOe, lll)dl'MtfOftt('d__ _ _ __ 



Fioisen dessert h, pasli'iimed-- _ _ 











Ice cicfim, undesigimtt'd - _ . . 




Sht'rbot, umli,'sigiialefL - _._ - _ _, 




1, 277 


. r )31 





Sweet milk, undi'MgnatL'd _ - 



Sweet milk and fewect cream, law - 





Hweet milk or chocolate milk- _ 



Toliil - _-- - 


1 , 078 


1, 0-18 

dun > iiUlkand milk ] no (hie Is. 

i 8l\of thesomilfoicaks wrioioiwitci 

The nmjorily i>f Ilio onthronltH itnil CIIKCS were dm 1 to rtuv Hu'ccl milk. -A tohil 
of 14 rtuiillis wen 1 icporled lo luivK resulted from (mtlircaks: 10 In liHO 
niul4 In lOH. All of llmlOtlpntlislnlDIO, nnd 8 iff HIP 4 rtoiiflm in 1011 wcro rtnc 
to tyijliold fever comryed tlinnigh rnw hwcel milk The other tleiilli in liVll 
WHS also due to lyjilioid fever; niw cheest 1 curds was reported us fh(i vehicle. 

The tiliovo dittii on Hit! relation of milk mid milk productK and olhoi 1 foods to Iho 
transmission of disease show the ItnporliLiiee of udeyutitu jH-eventlve ineaf-'ures. 
It is iwognlwd Unit Hie ahove reports are far from complete nnd hence do not 
accurately show thii Iniportnneo of foods as vehlclt-s of Infedlon. 

Satisfactory compliance. This i(om shtill bo dcomccl to havo bee.ii 
if : 

(L) All Jootl nnd drink siro clean, wliolcsdinc, Jrco Jroni spoilage, 
and so prepared HH to bo sale for human consumption. Tim term 
"food and drink" shall include, condiments, dre.ssings, and sauces. 

Pork find pork products. Attention Is called to the necessity for thoroughly 
cooking pork or pork products which have not otherwise been iretilod lo destroy 
trichinae,, the winch cause Iriclilnosis in man. In the. United Stales, 
in establishments operating under li'ederal meal Inspect ion, pork products of any 
Kind that are customarily en ten without cooking hy the, consunmr tiro specially 
processed to destroy the trichinae which may lie present either by heating, 
special refrigerating, or special curing. The accepted henl treatment consists of 
heating nil parts of the pork muscle tissue to a temperature of at least 137" F. TJie 
accepted refrigeration treatment consists oC snhjecllng all parts of tin; product 
coiitiiuicnisly to a tempera lure not higher than G p \ for 20 or 30 days depending 


upon rlif thickness of flic meat or product, or minus 10" P. for 10 oi 1 20 days, or 
minus 20 F. for 6 or 12 days, The accepted earing treatments and further 
details regaiding the heating and refrigerating methods mid adininistriithe 
I'onlrol procedures niny be found in publications issued by tliP Bureau of Animal 
Industry, U. S Department of Agriculture Of the above methods, only cookiug 
is applicable for use by individual reslauranfs. 

Restaurants sen mg pork or pork products foi 1 consumption raw should be 
careful to use only those winch are produced under Federal meat inspection 
or equally rellnble Slurp or local supervision and are spt-'cially processed In 
destroy trichinae. If such products are unobtainable, no uncooked pork or 
pork products should be served. 

All pork and pork products other than those which have been specially treated 
us described above should be thoroughly cooked, Thorough cooking may be 
rolled upon to kill trichinae, hut it is essential that cooking he thorough so that 
all parts of the meat will be heated lo at least 187 F. As heat penetrales moat 
slowly, it Is necessary lo cook largo pieces for a longer time than small ones 
In order to raise the center to (lie required temperature. Pork is not adequately 
cooked 1C any portion is red. According to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
"a good tost for 'doneno-ss' of chops and also of loin roasts is to make small 
incisions next to the bonp as well as Into the thicker pnrt of the meat lo lie sure 
that the meal is thoroughly cooked. For hams and shoulders the only sure guide 
Is a meal thermometer stuck into (he center of the thickest portion of the cut to 
show that the meat is well done all thri/ugh. llowovei, SO minutes lo the pound 
is an approximate guide lo sullicient cooking of large thick cuts of pork," 

(2) All custard-filled mid ere am -filled pastries served have been re- 
bakodj after filling, at an ovon temperature of at least -i ( 25 a F. for at 
least 20 minutes and cooled lo 50 F. or less within i hour alter rebak- 
ing; or the (illing 1ms been heated before the pastry shells were filled, 
so that every particle of the mix was held at a tempei'aturc of at loftht 
190 F. Cor at least 10 minutes and cooled, either before or after filling 
the pastry shells, to fiO F. or less within 1 hour after hoating. 88 

Because of (lie, relatively large numbers of disease oulbreaks, principally of 
slaphylococcal food poisoning, reported as having been traced to cream-nlled and 
cuslard-fllled pastries (.see I'ttlilic-hcuJth reason, above), the enforcement, of 
preventive measures is of considerable importance. It is therefore considered 
desirable to refer here lo some of the requirements of other portions of this 
ordinance and code which apply to the preparation and handling of these pastries, 
and briefly to discuss certain of the requirements, 

Rebuking of the filled pastries, or cooking of the mix, if properly carried out, 
is reported to be adcquale to kill the staphylocoeei which produce the enlevotoxln 
responsible for many outbreaks, 

Prompt cooling of the pastries or of the filling after healing Is also required 
by (li), above, find storage at or below BO" F, (hereafter is required by item 18. 
Refrigeration is imporfaut in order to prevent the growl h, with possible entcro- 
toxin production, of harmful organisms which may have survived Inadequate 

31 To fncmtiUo the procedures o I'liforcins llicsp iJi'ovJsioiiB in cades whoio tlio pastries 
used by a restaurant (ire obtained from biiltcrlos, health oflicera who tire 1 iiosltion to do 
so may romilro (by adding appropriate pi o visions to this oi'dinmicc or to tlic local orrtl- 
nnnco or regnlalioiiH, 1C any, on biiltery sanitation) llml n'ouin-llllod or Piistnrd-fllloil 
ptiHtrlcs bo wrapped or piicltiiKed nL llic place of maniifacluro ami prominently labulud 
With the name nnd address of the nmniifiicturci'. 


heat treatment or whMi subsequently may have conlaminaled the filling duo to 
1'a ul (y lnuulling. 

It fin 15 requires that storage mid hamlling be so done ilitif the push-top will 
lie protected, from dust, Hies, veniun, unnec-eshaiy handling, droplet infection, 
overhead leakage, and other contamination. Direct contact between employees' 
hands ancl tlie oream or custard lining should be avoided, in order to promote 
cleanliness mid because organisms causing cerlain diseases may be present on 
unclean hands. For example, harmful Mlaphylucocci frequently have been found 
lo have entered food from sores on the hands. Hem 1(i and section 1) require 
that employee-* shall keep their hands clean while handling food, drink, utensils, 
or equipment, and that persons with discharging or presumably infected wounds 
or sores shall not work, 

Item 9 requires thai utensils and equipment shall be so constructed as to be 
easily cleaned and shall ho kept in good repair ; (he use of elolh filling bags is 
therefore prohibited. Gleaning and bactericidal treatment of utensils and equip- 
ment Is requiied by Item 10. 

In addition to the specific provisions listed in the preceding paragraphs, (he 
other applicable requirements of this ordinance and codo should lie salisllod. 

(3) All milk, fluid milk products, ice cream, frozen cnslard, sherbet, 
ices, and similar frozen desserts served are from sources approved by 
the health officer. Pasteurized milk and milk products should be 
used where available. 

(4) All milk and fluid milk produels are served in (he individual 
original containers in which ihoy were received Emm the distributor, 
or from a bulk container equipped with an approved dispensing device 
complying with the following specifications: 


(a) It shall comply with the requirements of item 0, construction of utensils 
and equipment. 

(b) No surfaces with whleh milk or milk product come in contact shall while 
in use he accessible to manual contact, droplet infection, dust, or flies, but, the 
delivery orifice may ho exempted from this requirement. 

(c) All parts of the dispensing device with which milk conies In coniacl, 
Including any measuring device, shall be cleaned and subjected to bactericidal 
treatment, at the milk plant, not at the retail vendor's establishment. 

(d) The dispensing device shall bo filled and sealed with two seals at the 
milk plant In such manner as to make It impossible to withdraw any part of 
its contents without breaking one seal and impossible to introduce any substance 
without breaking the other. 

(e) II shall mix the milk and cream 1 thoroughly and aulomallcally with each 
dispensing operation. This requirement may he waived in llu; case of milk 
products which remain homogeneous without mixing. 

In the case of milk drinks mixed at soda founiains, el e., this provision 
shall be interpreted as requiring that the milk used shall include the 
entire contents of the original container or shall be from an approved 
bulk dispenser. Mixing of milk drinks shall be clone in a sanitary 

In m forcing this item the health uflieer inny make sin exception in 
the 1 rase of cream .served with coffee, cereals, etc., sis in tins case il is 
impracticable lo servo in t lies original contains- beeause of the fact that 
it is impossible for the distributor to deliver cream to the establishment 
in the unit-size, containers which would lie required in each ease. 
Furthermore, the use of expensive bulk dispensers as described above 
may not bo a defensible requirement for all .soda fountains, restaurants, 
and similar esiabhshments in tho ease of cream used for coffee, cereals, 
etc. For .such service the health officer may permit transferring; from 
tho original bottle, or from a pump, urn, or other dispenser which com- 
plies with requirements (si) and (b) above, and which is filled in a 
sanitary manner, kept, clean, and frequently subjected to bactericidal 
treatment complying with the requirements of item 10. 

(5) All oysters, clams, and mussels are from a source approved by 
tho State health department, provided that if the source is outside fhe 
State the shipper's name, shall be on the current lists of certified dealers 
issued by the U. S. Public Health Service. Shucked shellfish shall be 
kept until used in tho containers in which they were placed at the 
shucking plant. 

The U. S. Public Ilcnlfli Service periodically issues lists of dealers, by name 
and Slate number, certified by State hotiUh departments whose shellfish sani- 
tation control measures are endorsed by (lie Public Hetillli Service. lists 
arc furnished to State health authorities and to the lienltli authorities of all 
cities having u population of 2n,OUO or more, mid to other interest t'd persons or 
agencies. Shell slock shipments <il! Interstate shippers are required to bo labeled 
with tho initials of lh<! Slate mid the shippers' eerlillcnle numbers. Shucked 
oysters, chuns, and mussels shipped intc-rstiile are required to be packed In non- 
rofillable containers, Identllled by the Initials of the State in which packed and 
(lie initials of the, original pucker-shipper, The purchaser should assure himself 
that the, container Is sealed and (bat II hears the Initials or abbreviation of a Stale 
and a certificate number. The inspector should check the number against the lists 
of certified dealers. 


A n food and drink ,s7m// be so s/om/, (lixplayed, a(/ xcrucd as to be 
protected from dmtt^ flics, vewn hi, depredation and pollution Inj rodcn As-, 
unnecessary handling, droplet infection, overhead leakac/e, and other 
contamination, No animals or /owls shall be kept or allowed in, any 
room, in which food or drink is prepared or utorcd. All means neves- 
sar-y for the elimination of flics, raaaheti, and rodents shall be itsed, 

I'tiblio-Jiealfh reason. Food or drink not properly protected from contamination 
may become a public-health hazard. 

Satisfactory compliance. This item shall be deemed to have beun 
satisfied if: 

(1) All food and drink arc stored and displayed in such manner as 
to bo protected from dual, flies, vermin, unnecessary handling, droplet 

ir(i M ~ ...... 1 ,,! !.,!, ..... ,! ....... 1,,,,(J, ', m U,,,,l, (1,,,,, .,, ir l 


other contamination. Evidence of (he presence of rodents, roaches, 
antS or other vermin shall be considered as a violation of this item. 
Food or drink shall not be stored or prepared beneath overhead sewer 
or drain pipes unless such pipes arc provided with suitable meaiiH 
to carry off possible, leakage, or condensation. Food or drink shall 
not he stored on floors which tiro subject to flooding from sewage 
back-flow, such as those below street level. On new construction tho 
location of a restaurant in a basement below the surface of the ground 
shall be discouraged. The pouring lips of bottles containing milk or 
other beverages in non-leakproof containers shall not bo submerged 
in water for cooling. 

Incciiti'i't Correct 

CcniL'tL'S) Coloinilv MeiliclU School. 

Piounii 0, Mi'llimlN of handling luiiler 

(2) All food and drink are bundled and served in such manner as 
to minimize the opportunities for contamination. Serving of sliced 
butter and cracked ice shall not be by direct contact with fingers or 
hands, and manual contact with all food or drink shall be avoided 
insofar as is possible. Sugar shall be served only in covered dispensers 
or in containers or wrapped packages for individual service ; containers 
should preferably be so designed that a spoon cannot be inserted. 

(3) All unwrapped or unenclosed food and drink on display are 
protected by glass or otherwise from public handling or other con- 
tamination, except that approved hand openings for self-service may 
bo permitted on counter fronts. 

(4) No animals or fowls are kept or allowed in any room in which 
food or drink is prepared or stored. 


CourtOby Toxits HlaK 1 Doimrlineiil or Ilealll). 

KinuiMS 10,--SiiHsfnc(:ory storage of \t\ca in cliisud cnblncta. 
(Also iiolo covered sugar dlaiicnsora nncl invortcil glnssca) 

Texns StiHc Dciitirlincnt at 

Fmoitu 1], Pood profuctoil by Klnsa fi'onl, 

(Also noto silverware completely wrniniccl hi ampkins, nntl employct'S 1 clean 


(n) All enclosed spaces within double walls, between ceilings and 
floors, beneath (looi's, and in fixture and equipment, which provide 
harborage iiiul potential breeding places for rodents, have. been elimi- 
naled by the removal of the sheathing or interior walls which form 
the enclosed spaces; or all exposed edges of such \vnlls, floors, and 
sheathing have been ])roiecfed against gnawing by rats by tbe insialta- 
(ion of approved nil proof material, and all openings in walls, floors, 
and ceilings through which pipes, electric cables, and other conduits 
pass have been properly sealed with snugly lilting collars of metal 
or other approved ratproof material securely fastened in place and so 
maintained; and propagation of rats and invasion and infestation of 
the premises by them has been permanently prevented. (For informa- 
tion on specific rat proofing methods, see The Rat a-nd h*<il}>roof Con- 
struction, of Buildhiys, Supplement No. lill to the Public Health 
Reports, U. S. Public Health Service) . 

(6) All supplementary means necessary for the elimination of flies, 
roaches, and rodents are employed. For (he elimination of flies, flv- 
repellant fans, flypaper, fly traps, or fly-killing sprays or powders may 
be used. All poisonous compounds used in the extermination of ro- 
dents or insects shall be so colored as to bo easily identified ; however, 
poisonous substances should be, used with extreme caution and com- 
pounds harmles's to lnimaiis should be, substituted wherever possible. 


AH employecx ahull wear clean- outer (/(irmentx and aha?/ keep ilieir 
ha/nds clean at ait times while enyayed In handling food, rf/7///-, 'it/ensHx, 
or equipment. Employees skull -not expectorate or tttte tobacco in any 
form in rooms in which food h prepared. 

I'ttlilie-licnUli ran son Olcfin clolhliiK and Hean bunds rcduco I lie likeltlmoil 
of cuiilfiminaling food, drink, and ud'iisils during hnnclllng. The UHO of Inlmcco 
tciuls Id iiroiiioli- t'urelchh food lijuulling inclhods tind nniy immiole HnlLtliiK and 
the conliuninnlioii of tlio flnsers mid luinds by stiMvii. Discttse oi-KaniHins pn'wnl 
in Kiilivii inny be traiiHinillod to food or uli'ii.sils dh-cclly by nngcr.s or jndiri'i'lly 
by Hies or vorinin. 

aompUu-ncc. This item shall be deemed In have been 
satisfied if: 

(1) The outer garments of all persons, including dislnuishers, 
engaged in handling food or uteusils are reasonably clean and are used 
for no other than restaurant duty. Clean uniforms, coats, or aprons 
shall be considered satisfactory. The use of hair nets, head bands, 
or caps is recommended. 

(2) Tlic hands of all persons are kept clean while engaged in han- 
dling- food, drink, ntensils, or equipment,. 

(3) There is no evidence of spitting or of the use of an} form of 
tobacco by employees in rooms in which food is prepared. 


Education nf fond handlers is probably the most effective, mot hod 
of obtaining compliance \\ith sanitation requirements Control offi- 
cials are therefore urged to undertake (raining courses for food 
handlers in their communities, llestaurant employees should have 
some knowledge 1 of food-home diseases ami modes of transmission, 
should be thoroughly acquainted with the requirements of this ordi- 
nance, should not work when ill or with discharging or presumably 
infected sores or wounds (see section 9), and should bt; meticulous 
about personal hygiene, particularly cleanliness of hands and nails. 
Manuals lor instruction of food handlers arc available, J'rom a num- 
ber of sources, including the Cily Department of Public Health, Flint, 
Michigan, the State Health Department, Austin, Texas, and the Public 
Health Service (From Hand lo JI/m/M, IT. S. Government Printing 
Office, I1M3). 


The p remixes of (til restaurants shall be kept clean and free, of Utter 
o>' rubbish. None, of /he operations connected with a restaurant shall 
be, conducted in (my room, lined c/v living or sleeping quarters. Ade,- 
qwfe lockers or Cresting roomn shall be provided for employee^ cloth- 
ing and shall be kept elean, Soiled linem^ coats, and a prom shall be 
kept in containers provided for this pur pone, 

J'nt)li<--1ii'a1f]i K'dfimi. Oond hiniMeltccjjIng iinnnoU'-s clonnUnes.s. 

Haiti* factory compliance. This item shall be deemed to have been 
satisfied if: 

(1) The premises are elean and free of litter and rubbish, which 
shall be disposed of as required for the restaurant wastes by item 12. 

(2) None of the openitions connected with the establishment is 
conducted in any room used as living or sleeping quarters. 

(3) Dressing rooms or adequate lockers not located in the kitchen 
are provided for employees' clothing and are kept clean. 

(4) Containers are provided and soiled linens, coats, and aprons 
are kept therein. 


Grade E restaurant $ are those which fail to eom-phj with item 7, #, 
4, /), or 17, kut which conform with all other it emu of sanitation, re- 
quired for grade, A restaurants,) 3 

Whore the grading form of the ordinance is in effect, the above 
definition is designed (o represent restaurants which fail to meet cer- 
tain grade, A requirements that are, not of major public health signifi- 
cance. (RoKtaimvnts which fail to meet any one of the more important 
ojf the grade; A requirements on two successive inspections are degraded 
to grade C.) 

s See footiioto i, p. 6. 


In comiiiiinilies which are not yet in posifion (o limit operalioiib to 
restaurants of (ho highest grade only, this definition serves us the 
specifications i'or (he second grade. 

In oilier municipalities, which under section 7 permit none bill 
grade A restaurants lo operate (except during temporary degrading 
periods), grade B serves a useful role as a penalty grade to which 
grade A restaurants may bo temporarily degraded for minor viola- 
tions which the health officer would hesitalo to punish with so severe 
a penalty as suspension of permit. 


Grade G restaurants are, those which fail to cotnpfi/ with cither the 
grade A or the. grade B rcquit'cMf/ifx.)' 1 

Where the grading form is in etlect, this definition is designed lo 
serve as a temporary penalty grade -for those restaurants which fail to 
satisfy the grade A or the grade B requirements. If any restaurant 
which has been degraded lo grade C fails to qualify i'or a higher 
grade within the period .specified in section Y } its permit is suspended 
or revoked. 


Itinerant restaurants shall be constructed and operated in an ap- 
proved manner. 

The definition of an itinerant restaurant is given in section 1 (B). 

The health officer should approve an itinerant restaurant only if it 
complies with the following sanitation requirements: 

It shall be located in clean surroundings and kept in a clean and sani- 
tary condition. It shall bo so constructed and arranged (hat food, 
drink, utensils, and equipment will not bo exposed to insecls or to dust 
or other contamination. Only food and drink which is clean, whole- 
some, and free from adulleralion shall be sold or served. An adequate 
supply of water of safe, sanitary quality shall be easily available and 
used for drinking and for cleaning utensils and equipment. If inulti- 
use utensils are used in the serving of food or drink, they shall be 
thoroughly washed with hot water and a satisfactory detergent and 
efl'ectively subjected to an approved bactericidal process after each 
use and so handled and kept as to be proteeied from contamination. 
Adequate provision shall be made for refrigeration of perishable food 
and drink. Ice used in or with food or drink shall be from a source 
approved by the health officer and so handled as to avoid con- 

Garbage and refuse shall be kept in tightly covered, watertight con- 
tainers until removed find shall be disposed of in a place and manner 
approved by the health officer. Dishwater and other liquid wastes 
shall be so disposed of as not to create a nuisance. 


No person sufTeriug from any disease transmissible by contact or 
through food or drink or who is a earner oi' the germs' of such a disease 
shall be employed in any capacity. Adequate and satisfactory toilet 
and hand-washing facilities shall be readily accessible to employees. 
No person engaged in the handling or serving of food or drink shall 
return to his work, after using the toilet, without first thoroughly 
washing his hands. 

Upon failure of any person maintaining or operating an itinerant 
restaurant, after warning, to comply with any of these requirements, 
it shall be the duty of the health officer summarily to forbid the further 
sale or serving of food or drink therein. Any person continuing to 
sell or serve food or drink in such a restaurant after being so for- 
bidden, .shall be subject to the penalties provided for violation of this 


From and after ttt months from the date on which thin ordinance 
taken effect no restaurant shall be operated within the cihj of 
____________________ , or itf! police jurisdiction, unless it conforms 

with the (grade A, or grade Bf l or approved itinerant restaurant) 6 
requirements of thin ordinance; Provided, Thai, when any restaurant 
falls to qualify (for any of these f/rades) 5 the health officer is author- 
ised to suspend the permit (or in lieu thereof to degi'adc the t estaurant. 
and permit its operation during a temporary period not exceeding 



Any restaurant (the grade of which has been lowered and all grade 
displays have been changed accordingly > or) r ' the permit of which has 
'been suspended may at any time make application for (re.fjrading or) K 
the reinstatement of the permit; 

Within one, week after the. receipt of a satisfactory application, 
accompanied &?/ a statement signed by the applicant to the, effect that 
the violated pro v iff ion, or provisions of this ordinance have bec.n eon- 
form-cdioikh, the, health office r shall make, a rcinapection, and thereafter 
a-s many additional reinfections an he may deem necessary to assure 
himself that the applicant is again complying with the (higher grade} 
requirements^ and, in fane the findings indicate compliance, shall 
( award the higher grade or) G reinstate the permit, 

No application for regrading upward should be considered by the 
health officer unless the restaurant in question has complied with the 

Sco footnolo I, p f> 

ai Muiilclptillllt'H In position to do HO may delete ", or grade B,". 

requirements ;md inlerpreial.ion of sort ion 4 of (his ordinance relative 
to (ho display of grade signs after having been degraded 


No person, who A- uffeeled with any Jixi'itnc in <i I'ominuniedile form 
or in a aarriei 1 of ,\ueh i/,wY/,sr ,s/<c/// work in- ant/ re^ttuirtinl^ and -no 
re,\taiintnt> .s/W/ employ my MC/I person or <uu/ person (impeded of 
let/if/ affected with any (I'waxe in. ft communicable form or of being 
a earner of t,uch dhcme. If the restaurant manager am peels that any 
employee has contracted tint/ diwaxe in a communicable form or hax 
become a carrier of t,uch dibeuxa he shall iioti/i/ the health o/jice.r 
immediately. A placard containing thix section Khali be ponied in all 
toilet rooms. 

The above requirement prohibits persons having or suspected of 
having any disease in n communicable form or who are carriers or are 
suspt'cled of hciny ctirrioi's of such disease, from employment in any 
restaurant. No person h living a discharging or presumably ini'oeto.d 
wound, sore, or lesion shall handle food, drink, utensils, or equipment. 

This ordinance does not require routine medical examinations for 
food handlers because it is felt thai (he fon flic ting opinions of health 
officers on (he value of such examinations do not warrant such a 

The experience, of New York CHy as reported by Dr. William [I. 
Best (7,v Routine Examination and Certification of Food Handler* 
Worth While? American Journal of Public; Health, 27, KKKi-fi, Oct. 
1937) indicated that the procedure of having such examinations made 
by private physicians was unsatisfactory und (hat the cost of medical 
examinations made by (lie health department was not commensurate 
with the, public-health benefits obtained. Accordingly, not even 
initial health examinations lo be made before or at (ho time of em- 
ployment are required by this ordinance, which is recommended 
for general adoption. For further discussion of this subject, see, 
Fuchs, A. W., 7Vie U. 3. Pvltlie, Health Service Restaurant Sanitation 
] } ro(/ram. American Jourmil of Public Tleallh, 32, 8-18-52 (Aug. 
19-12); Journal of Milk Technology, 4, IJ05-IO (Nov.-J)cc. U)-lt). 
However, communities which consider it desirable, to include such a 
requirement in the ordinance as adopted locally may do so if their 
official facililies for making the examinalions are adequate. For such 
cases, it is recommended that the following material be added to 
section 9: 

7'ftf health of/leer or oi physiclnn authorised 1>]/ Jiim shall examine tnitl take a 
cm of ill morbidity Jtixloiy of every prr-wii connected with a icxtaurant, or about 
to be employed, whose work brinys him in eonfuct with tita )iun(llin{f of food* 
drink, utcnsiln, or equipment. If siwli e familial Ion or history sii(/ficsls that 
such person may be a eatrier of or Infected with the organisms of typhoid or 

J [<''>' or (tun """' t'oiiiiitiinicabic (1inciinr,i lil,rli/ to be 
!<><></, tli nil,; \ iitfiixifn, he .s/m// mt-me it/iiim/ii nth' Kiicriiin'iix of 1>'I/I 
f* mid i-ttuxo tin-in lo ba ('.itntiiiifil in a Inlmt'tttni // (ip/noi rd ?;/ him o> 

lit/ Hie Rlntf lii'dl/h tutflKiiilifii fin Mich t',i<iiitttwn$, atitl If I lie wait Its JHbttfi/ 

hiich i>cifnni tilinll lie Ixinctl ft ant t,ti<ti cit/i>I<>i/iin'>it. 

Milt-It IK'iNtni* blKtll flttlltf.ll Kill It tltfll! ItlllttOII, Mllmltf til M/f/i /I/I J/S'/ff/f f'.Hl Illillll- 

tuiifi, "ttd 1,11 hint I ttin'li lnhoialni}/ .s/jmioi.s </.f Ilir lifnltlt nfttiri man 
foi tin' litnpoxc of tlctci minutf/ f>ccil<n ft am ni/fclmH 

In ciirryhiK <ntl Ibis rcduln'tiicnt the fdllnwinR puu-cdin'c shall lio 
for cvi'O ii'St.iiiitinl ('Tiiiilo.vcc who comes In contiict with food, ilnnk, ntciislls, 
or ('((uIiHiu'iit, The exiiimimliim .shiill include n lil^lory and, whci'c nci'i-hSiiry, 
e\iin)infi(i(ins for typhoid fever, jjanitj iilinld fever, diphtheria, tiud InheiciiliwiH, 
blood speciinen.s for lyjihold iind narntypliold iiRtfliitiiiation tcsfs, noso and 
Ifiroal (.'ullurcM oti Ldelller'.s hlodd .suriini, and, la ruses shnwhitf clinical synip- 
(nais of tnliei'calo.sis, specimens nf simluin. Thi 1 exuinuiiitidii nf laberalory 
Kiiecinieiis slid 1 1 he t'tiiiHidered necessary when the history suggests tlie oc- 
currence at any linie of lyplioid or paratyphoid fever, or recent Infection with 
or exposme lo any other disease (rmihimssihlc MinniKh food, di'ink, or utensils. 
The following shall he barred fruiii employment in a restaurant : 
(a) A pe I'M in who has not lii'en Imnmnlwd aginnst ly]ilioid fevei' wilhln ^ 
years, and who shows n positive or atypical Wldal, or a poison who gives a 
hlslory of fyplidld fever, unless such person Is willing lo have 8 sets, or more 
if required, of specimens of feces and urine collected liy the hi-alth ofllcer, in 
a maniHir prescrihed hy the health officer, or if any of wiul specimens prove 
positive, or 

(lit A person who Is found lo hnrhor virulent diphtheria organisms, or 
(c) A person showing signilicant C'lhiical or laboratory evidence of 

Any of Hie aliovn delermliinllons which Hie local lahonilory is not 
to make may he made liy the iahoi'iilory of the State health authority 


~\Y Iti'ii xiixpicion arhcH tta to f/ic poMtbth'/i/ of /miinwifitiion of in/cG- 
f ton /row, (itit/ rt'ti/ti urtt/i/ em /iloi/ec thf health office) 1 /-v ftitf/iot'tei'd to 
retjuii'e, an i/ oi 1 all of the following measures: (/) the immediate cx- 
cluttion of the employee, from all I'exluit'i'tt'nts; {:,') ike immediate dos- 
vnff of the. resfanraii/ coiice-med until no further dcou/er of disease 
outbreak arte/ft, in the opinion of the health officer; (/?) adequate -medi- 
cal cwnnhiaiions of the employee and of his a^ociates^ with such 
laboratory ('.t'ftini'mftt'onfi as may be indicated. 


This ordinance tthttll he enforced by the health o// in accordance 
with the intt>rpri'ltin<)H8 thereof contained in the !!)$ edition of the 
U. , Pud/ia Health ticrfice Code Jtrfftftafhtff Kaliny and Drinking 
fiNfablis/nnriitH) a ceriifiea 1 copy of which shall Ic on file, at the Oily 
Clerk's ofliec,, 

a Seu footimtp 'I, p. 1. 


Certified copies of (his ordinance and code nmy be obtained for use, 
ay oilioial file copies upon request from the U. S. Public Heiilth Service. 


Any person who violates any provision of this ordinance ft/tall be 

fined not more than. at the discretion of the court haviny 

jurisdiction. Each and every violation of the provisions of thi-s 
ordinance shall constitute a separate, offense. 

This section must be worded in accordance with the city clmrLer 
and the, State constitution. Where legally possible the desirability 
is suggested of prescribing a minimum fine and fin increase, in line 
for second and subsequent offenses. 


All ordinances and parts of ordinances in eonflcl with this ordinance 
are hereby repealed, and this ordinance shall be m full force and effect 
immediately upon, its adoption and its publication as provided by law. 


Should any section, paragraph, sentence, clause, or phrase of this 
ordinance be declared unconstitutional or invalid for a-nij reason, the 
remainder of said ordinance shall not be affected thereby. 



Adulterated food or drink ]6 

Animals _ _ 46 

Bacterial count 33, 34 

standard for sterilized equipment _ 33, 34 

Bactericidal process, approved 28, 29, 30 

treatment of utensils and equipment 27-37 

Bactoricidcs, other than chlorine 31, 32 

Bacteriological examination of utensils 33, 34 

Basement rcstaiiiants 45, 4.0 

Butter, serving of 46 

Cadmium in utensils.. _ 23 

field lest for 24 

Cafe, short order 13 

Ceilings 20 

Certification of shellfish . 46 

Chinaware See Utensils and equipment. 

Chlorine, bactericidal treatment with 20, 30, 3] 

test for strength of 30, 31 


floors - 19, 20 

utensils and equipment - 27-37,50 

Cleanliness of employees 48, 49 

Cloths, drying 28,32,37 

Clothes, employees 48 

Condemnation of unwholesome food or drink 16 

Construction of utensils and equipment 23, 24 

Contamination, protection from 27, 37, 38, 30, 46, 46 

Containers, milk 39,40,44 

Counters 23,27,46 

Cream 39, 44, 45 

dispensers, specifications for 45 

filled pastries 43, 44 

Custard-filled pastries. 43, 44 

Cyanide. 27,37 

field lest for 37 

Definitions 13, 14 

Degrading 16, 50, 61 

Detergents 28, 50 

Dippers and scoops for ice cream 37 

Disease control 51, 52, 53 

outbreaks 53 

Wilor~~ 23 

milk and milk products 42 

foods other than milk and milk products 41 

Dishes See Utensils and equipment. 



Dishwashing, manual -------------------- __ ...... _______________ 27, 28 

inarhnu'H. -------------------- _- - ---- ---------------- 32, 83 

Disinfection fii-c Baeleiioidal treatment. 

DispuiisiMh, mean i, hpeciln;a lions for. _ _______ ....... _______ |f> 

milk, specifications foi ________________ . _ _____ ___ _________ 44 

Ditplaj' cases or windows _______________ . - - ___ _____ _ 23 

oflood _____________________________ _ __ _ ... ______ '\r>, tfl 

of giado notice . ______________________ -_ _______ ..... __ 15 

Disposal of wastes ________ -_ ____ _. - - ____________ _ ------- 38, HI) 

Doois and windows. ______________ _____ _ _ . ___ .. _ . _ ___ 20, 22 

Diain racks ______ _______ ___________ ._ _ ___ __. ___ 37 

Dreeing rooms or lut'kei.s ___________________ _______ _ _ . _ ____ 49 


display - - - -in 10 

j-.^r---- --- - ----- - --- -- - _-_ ^ - , -_ --- ___ i ( jj j vi 

handling ___________________ _ ___ _______ _._ ___________ _ -in, <Ki 

refrigeration ______ ____ , ____ ..__... .______ 39 

serving ---- ___ _ ._ _______________________________ _ _ 15,10 

,storagc__ ____________ _____ _ __ .. ____ ___ __ __ 15 '16 

whulcHonHMiUhh- _ - _____ ________ _ _____ 30, JO, 12,43, -U, -15 

Drying cloths. ......... _, ._ . ___ ___ _____ . _____ ..... 27, 32, 87 

J.cliicalian, training poiirries for cinploj'cch ____ __ _ _._ ____ ,_ . _ __ -19 

cleanliness ____ __ _____________ ___ _ ___ __ _______ ^18 

definition- _________ _ ________ __ . _______ 13 

hcallh --------------------- ...... ____ _ ____ 51,52,53 

training courses ________ ..... _ _____ . ______ ______ 49 

Knfoi cement intui pietation ________ _ _ __ . _ ___________ T)3 

l)actL-rinl count -------- ___ _.._ . _ ___ _ __________ ____ 33, 3-1 

baclericidiil trwilment _________________ ________ __ __ __ 27-37, ! I, 50 

bacteriological oxainmatioim _____ ____ _ ....... _ __ _______ 3;j t 34 

cleaning - . _ __ ------- _____ . _ _________ 2S, >| I, f>0 

construction _____ __ ___ _ _ _______ _ _ ____ _______ 28 2 L 41 

handling ____ ________ ____ ___ _____ ______ _ _ _____ ___ __ 37 

piotection from contamination. _ _ , _ ...... ____ __,.,__ 37 

storage 1 .. . ___ _____ _ _ . ___ ____ _ _ ___ _. ____ 37 

Examination and condcmimlion of unwholesome 01 adulleratcd food or 

drink _____ _ __ _______ _ _ ____ _ _ _ ______ \Q 

Flics __________________________________ _____________ 20 22 37 15, 48 

Floors ---------------------------------------- ..... ___ 10, 20, 37,'3M<J 


adulUsralcd.- ..... _ _____________ ._ _ _ ________ ___________ 10 

disease ontbreakh from ________ __________ _ ___ ._ ___ _____ __ 40,41 

display _________ __ ______ _______ ___ _ _ _____ _____ __ 40 

handling ____________________ __ _. _ __________ ____ _ _ ,_ 4(i 

perishable ________________ ___ _____ ___ _ _____ 30 

refrigeration _______________ __________ _ ____ _ __ _ _ _ ____ 39 

serving ______ ____________ ______ __ ____ _____ ______ ____ 46 

storage ______ __. ______ ____________ ____ _ ^ _ _ _______ 45 ,|g 

M'holesomoncss ______ ______________ __ _ _ _ _________________ 30 42 

Food and Drug Administration ______________________________________ 10 

Food IlandloiK See Employ eos. 

Food poisoning outbreaks ____ ..... _______________________________ 10, 41 42 


Fornr POBO 

inspection, for eating and dunking establishments Hi, 17, IS 

ins] H'cit ion reooi d _ 10 

Vov, ] - !;"),-(() 

FlO/UU dL'SSlM'lH . 39, 4-1 

tiatbage SB, 30, 80 

receptacles . 38, 31) 

iemo\ nl - .. - _ 38 

Glassware, cleaning 20 

see Utensils and equipment. 

Grade A restaurant 17-19 

Grade B jestauraiils- _ . 49 

Grade C reHlamanlK _ GO 

Ch'tuUw of rcM an rants \\ Inch may operate 51 

Grade notice, display of . ._ 15 

Grading of restaurants. . __ IS, 19 

Handling, food and drink - -10 

utensils and equipment. _ 37 

Hands 21,22,40,18,40 

IT and washing facilil.ii's . 23 

MiiK 21,22 

ITcaUli ('\aiiiinationa_ .- . _ 62,53 

ofliocr, ricfinilion ^_ 14 

Roods . - 24 

Hot air, bactericidal IrnUmenl with 31 

Ten 39, 50 cream and other fi oxen dessoi ts 37, 30, '14 

dippois and scoops 37 

Infection, prori'dnn 1 \\lic-n mispoolorL . -. 53 

Insp-t'tiflidcfi and raliciidcs, di.s(iiicl,ive coloring 48 

Inspection form- 18 

frequency of _ -. 17 

of restauranlH_ 10,17,18 

record form 18 

lepoH, . IS 

Itinerant lestanninls _ 13, H, fit), 5 L 

Lavatory facilities- _ 23 

Lead, in utonsils 23,24 

Lighting , _ _ 21 

Lodu'i.s or dre.sfiing roonis _ 49 

Milk and milk products: 

disease oul breaks from __ __ -12 

duvices, spccilicalioiiB 44,45 


30, 4 1 

storage 45,40 

Milk dinpenseiH, specifications for 30 

Miscellaneous requiiementH . 49 

Multi-lino utensils Sec Utensils and equipment. 

Napkins 28,37 

News i oleascs 18, 19 

Notification of disease 52 



Outbreaks of disease. _, 23,41,42,53 

Oysters .. 39, -10, 45 

Paper contaiiUMh and utensils _ _ _ 28,37 

Pastries, crcnni-fillcd and custard-filled.. - _ .. 43 

Penalties 17, fiO, 51, 5-1 

Pemhable foods 39 

Permits : 

issuing - l-l 

posting of - -.__. _ _ 14 

I'l'tnsiateinont - - 51 

renewal _-- - _ __ 14 

revocation _ .. _ 11,50,51 

suspension . 1 I, 10, 17, 51 

Person, definition of - - _ -_ 14 

Peisonncl, training courses for . _ 40 

health 51,52, 53 

Physical examination of food handle 1 ! fc 52 

Placards Ifi, 52 

Placarding and public display of grade notice- 15 

Plumbing 38 

o ---,. *,-..,. , _, ^ ^ -. ^ - ____-,_ uv , 

Poisonous substances 24, 3-1, 48 

Pork and pork products, treatment to kill trichinae 42, -13 

Promises, cleanliness 49 

Privies 21,22 

Procedure when infection suspected 53 

Protection from contamination: 

food and drink ._ 45, 40 

utensils and equipment 37 

Public-health reasons See Individual sanitation items. 

Raticides and insecticides, distinctive coloring -_ 48 

Ratprooflng of building _ 48 

Refrigeration 39 

to kill trichinae _-_ -_ 44 

Refrigerating equipment - - - - .-.- - 23 

Regrading 51 

Rcin&pcction . 16,51 

Reinstatement of permit . -- 51 

Repeal and date of effect 54 


definition 13 

Giade A ___ 17-40 

Grade B - 49 

Giade C ___ -_ ___ 50 

grading _ , - 18 

inspection -_ - 18,19 

itinerant _-. 13, 14, 50, 51 

sanitation requirements for _ 17-51 

(grades of) which may operate. _ 51 

Rodents, roaches, ants _ _ _ 45 

Sanitation Advisory Board v 

requirements for icstaurants 17-51 

Screening - 20 

Serving of food _ - 40, 48, 50 



Shellfish 39,40,45 

Hhflvcs 23,27,37 

Shoit enabling forms of oiduuinco 1-3 

Silverware, blackening 27 

see also Utensils and equipment. 

Single-service conUimcis anil equipment 28, 37 

Sinks 23,27,29,30 

Standaid, bacterial for steiilized ulensiN 33 

Steam, bactericidal treatment with 31 

Sterilization See Bactericidal treatment. 

Storage, display, and serving of food and drink 45, -10, 48, 50 

and handling of utensils and equipment 37, 48, 50 

rooms, lighting 21 

StOYC.S _---- . ------ ^ . .----. , 2a 

Sugar dispensers -- 40 

Swab lest of utensils 33,34 

Sweeping -- -_- _ _ ^ _ , . __^_^____ . _ ~ -_ I*} 

Tallies 23,27 

Tablecloths 27 

Tableware 30 

Test, swab, for sterilized utensils _ _ 33,34 


cadmium in utensils _ - 24 

chlorine strength 30 

cyanide in polishes 37 

swab, for sterilised utensils 33,34 

Thermometers 29,31,43 

Tobacco, use of, prohibited - 48 

Toilets 21,22,38,52 

Towels, hand - 23 

utensil - 32 

Training courses for employees - _ 49 

Trash and rubbish 38,49,50 

Truvs _ - - 37 

J. 1 U. J .3 , -. ~ - . - _-- - - - - - - - 

Unconstitutional! ty clause - _ 51 

Uniforms for employees - - 48 

Unwholesome or adulteiatod food or drink 1G 

Utensils and equipment: 

bactericidal treatment .- 27-37, 44, 50 

bacteriological examination 33 

cleaning 27,28,29,44 

cleaning, poisonous substances forbidden . 34 

construction .._ - - _- - - --- 23,24,44 

definition -- 13, 14 

disease transmission by _ -.. __ 22 

drying --. - , 32 

handling ._ _ 37 

protection from contamination - - 37 

storage - __. . ~ - 37 

V-type threaded surfaces -- 24 

Ventilation 21 



Wnlls ami ceiling-. ________________ - ___ ______ _ 20 

Washing of iilt'iinK nml i>(|Uipm<>iil -Src Cleaning, and liacleiieidal (,real- 

iiionl of ulunsiK and cqinpimsnt 
^ iislcs, di.spusal of ___________ _ _ ____ __ ___ _ __ 88, Ii9 

hiipplv ______ .- - ______ _ 22,23, . r >0 

cm of food and think ____ _________ ____ ____ ;i<) |f> 


PJIH Tulilicntidii ND. 37 
(Poniit-rly I'ubllc Ilciillh Hullulm No 280, HeprinU'il 1948) 

Vne siilc li) iliu Sii|icrinli>iiili>nt of T)ficiiiiicnl, li S Covcuiiiienl Pnnliim