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Full text of "Original journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806; printed from the original manuscripts in the Library of the American Philosophical Society and by Direction of its committee on Historical Documents; together with manuscript material of Lewis and Clark from other sources, including note-books, letters, maps, etc., and the Journals of Charles Floyd and Joseph Whitehouse; now for the first time published in full and exactly as written;"

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Journals and Orderly Book of Lewis and Clark, from 

River Dubois to Two-Thousand- Mile Creek: 

Jan. jo, 1804 — May 5, 180J 




1804- 1806 


in the Library of the American Philosophical Society and 
by Direction of its committee on Historical Documents 



from other sources, including Note-Books, Letters, Maps, etc., 
and the Journals of Charles Floyd and Joseph Whitehouse 


Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Index, by 


Editor of " The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents," etc. 





Copyright, 1904 
By The American Philosophical Society 

Copyright, 1904 

By Julia Clark Voorhis 

Eleanor Glasgow Voorhis 

Copyright, 1904 
By the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 

Copyright, 1904 
By Dodd, Mead & Company 

Published July, 1904 




Upon the Hundredth Anniversary of the Departure of the 

Trans-Mississippi Expedition of Lewis and Clark, this 

first publication of the Original Records of 

their " Winning of the West " is most 

respectfully dedicated 

Madison, Wisconsin 
May 14, 1904 


THE greater part of the Original Manuscript Journals of 
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, herein literally- 
followed, are in the library of the American Philo- 
sophical Society at Philadelphia, and are published by arrange- 
ment with and at the suggestion of its committee on Historical 

Several important note-books by William Clark, together 
with an Orderly Book, a Field Book, the maps in the 
Atlas, and a number of letters, memoranda, etc., are the 
property of Mrs. Julia Clark Voorhis and Miss Eleanor 
Glasgow Voorhis, of New York, General William Clark's 
granddaughter and great-granddaughter, respectively ; and are 
published by arrangement with them. 

The Journal of Charles Floyd is published by consent of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, in whose library the 
original manuscript is preserved. 

The Journal of Joseph Whitehouse was purchased by the 
publishers expressly for this work, but now is the property of 
Edward Everett Ayer, Esq., of Chicago. 

The material in the Appendix is from various sources, as 
therein indicated. 




Spain xvii 

New France xvii 

England xviii 

Missouri River Expeditions xix 

French Traders and Trappers xix 

s Jefferson's Dream xx 

Proposition to G. R. Clark xx 

Ledyard's Project xx 

Armstrong's Attempt xxi 

The Michaux Plan xxi 

On the Northwest Coast xxii 

Congressional Aid Secured xxiii 


Early Years xxiv 

Military Experiences xxiv 

Selected to Command Expedition xxv 

In Training xxvi 


A Notable Family xxvii 

Military Services xxviii 

Lewis's Invitation xxx 


The Louisiana Purchase xxx 

Personelle xxxi 

At River Dubois Camp xxxi 

The First Season xxxii 

At Fort Clatsop xxxii 

The Return xxxiii 




Jefferson's Concern xxxiv 

The Various Journals xxxiv 

Journalizing Methods xxxv 

The First News xxxvi 

Gass's Journal xxxvi 

Lewis's Prospectus, 1807 xxxvii 

Delayed by Public Duties xxxvii 

Lewis's Death xxxviii 

Clark Engages Kiddle xxxviii 

Biddle at Work xl 

Wanted : A Publisher xli 

A Publisher Found xlii 

Paul Allen's Revision xlii 

A Profitless Undertaking xliv 

Difficulty of Biddle' s Task xliv 

Barton's Proposed Work xlv 

A Successful Paraphrase xlv 

Jefferson Dissatisfied xlvi 

Jefferson's Search for Original Journals xlvi 

Biddle Surrenders Note-books xlviii 

Used by Coues xlix 

Coues's Report on Codices xlix 

Philosophical Society concludes to publish 1 

Search for Ordway Journal 1 

The Voorhis Collection li 

Clark Journals li 

Miscellaneous Material lii 

Maps , liii 

An Interesting Query liii 

Neglected Manuscripts liv 

Pryor, Floyd, Frazier, and Woodhouse Journals liv 

All Records now in Sight • l v i 

A New View of Lewis and Clark lvi 

Editorial Problems lvii 

Acknowledgments lviii 





GASS ' lxxi 





Proper »aoi 


Clark's Journal and Orders, January 30 — July 22, 1804. 

Entries and Orders by Lewis, February 10, March 3, May 15, zo, 

26, and July 8, 12. 


Clark's Journal, July 23 — August 24, 1804. 


Clark's Journal, August 25 — September 24, 1804. 

Entries and Orders by Lewis, August 26, 28, and September 16, 17. 

Clark's Journal and Orders, September 25 — October 26, 1804. 
Order by Lewis, October 13. 


Clark's Journal, October 27 — December 27, 1804. 


Clark's Journal, December 28, 1804 — February 2, 1805 ; Feb- 
ruary 13 — March 21, 1805. 
Entries by Lewis, February 3-13 and March 16. 


Clark's Journal, March 22 — April 27, 1805. 
Lewis's Journal, April 7-27. 


MUSSELSHELL (Part I.) 34« 

Lewis's Journal, April 28 — May 5, 1805. 
Clark's Journal, April 28 — May 5. 

[ *iii ] 


Portrait of Meriwether Lewis Frontispiece 


Sketch Map of Trail to John Hay's Winte"r Station on the Assini- 

boin River (text cut) 6 

Manuscript Page, dated May 14th, 1804, giving Clark's start 

from River Dubois * 16 

Figure Painted on Rock (text cut) 40 

.Sketch Plan of Fortification 136 

War Hatchet (text cut) 251 

Battle Axe (text cut) 255 

Sketch Map by Clark of Red and St. Peter's Rivers .... 286 



SLOWLY pushing northward- from Mexico, Spaniards 
had by the close of the seventeenth century established 
towns and Indian missions at many points in Texas, 
New Mexico, and Arizona — a slender chain, stretching across 
the continent from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific . 

Ocean. By the opening of our Revolutionary War, 
their mission villages, with an aggregate population of over 
thirteen thousand barbarian converts, extended upwards through 
California to San Francisco and Monterey ; Spanish mariners, 
seeking vainly for a waterway through to the Atlantic, that 
should furnish a short route between Spain and India, had by 
this time become familiar with the coast as far north as the 
modern Sitka, and developed a considerable trade with the 
natives, chiefly at. Nootka Sound, on Vancouver's Island; 
while adventurous Spanish missionaries had contemporaneously 
penetrated eastward to the Great Basin. 

The pioneers of New France, on their part seeking a trans- 
continental waterway from the east, had throughout the first 
two-thirds of the eighteenth century made several 
costly attempts to discover and surmount the great France 
divide. Upon New Year's day, 1743, the Chevalier 
de la Verendrye, journeying overland from his fur-trading 
post on the Assiniboin River, sighted the Wind River Range. 
Affairs moved slowly, under the French regime; but yearly 
the prospect was growing brighter of reaching the Pacific by 
way of a chain of posts across the Canadian Rockies, via the 
Assiniboin and Saskatchewan, when the victory of Wolfe cut 
short these ambitious projects, and England succeeded both 
to the responsibilities and the dreams of New France. 
i [ xvii ] 


The Hudson's Bay Company, organized in London in 
1667, had long held actual dominion over the sub-arctic re- 
gions to the north of New France ; and on paper 
claimed the far-stretching lands to the south and 
west, upon which the more adventurous French had actively 
ranged from Lake Superior westward to the headwaters of the 
Saskatchewan — a distance of twelve hundred miles. At first 
disinclined to explore beyond the sphere of influence imme- 
diately exerted by her profitable posts on Hudson and James 
bays, " the old lady of Fenchurch Street " was early in the 
eighteenth century forced by public opinion in England to 
make a show of seeking from the East the waterway which 
Sir Francis Drake, in the " Golden Hind," had sought from 
the Pacific as early as 1579, and for which both Spain and 
France were still vainly striving. The company's spasmodic, 
apathetic, and fruitless searches for the " Northwest Passage " 
extended through half a century. 

When New France fell, both independent and organized 
English and Scotch fur-traders, with headquarters at Montreal 
and Mackinac, disregarding the claims of the Hudson's Bay 
Company at once occupied the vast country through which 
Verendrye and his compatriots had so long conducted their 
wilderness barter. The story of the rival trading corporations 
— chiefly the Hudson's Bay Company on the one hand, and the 
North West Company (1783) on the other — although with 
occasional disruptions of the latter, and several kaleidoscopic 
reshiftings and amalgamations — is a stirring and sometimes 
bloody chapter in the history of the continental interior. 

The situation cultivated mighty passions within strong men. 
One of these, Samuel Hearne, in the employ of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, stirred by great ambitions, descended the 
Coppermine River in 1770, and reached the Arctic Ocean. 
Nineteen years later (1789), Alexander Mackenzie, a " Nor' 
Wester" in charge of the Athabasca department, reached the 
Arctic Ocean by way of Mackenzie River; in 1793, after 
almost incredible difficulties, he crossed the Canadian Rockies 
and descended Fraser River to the Pacific, a feat preceding 
Lewis and Clark's venture by a dozen years. 

[ xviii ] 


While these various hardy enterprises were in progress in 
the North, many deemed the Missouri River the most feasible 
gateway to the Pacific. There long existed a tradi- ... 

. tj- i« ■ !»•••• Missouri 

tion among Indians living upon the Mississippi, River 
that the Missouri sprung from a low-lying water- xpe 
shed that might easily be portaged to some stream flowing 
into the Western Ocean. Joliet and Marquette (1673) had at 
first hoped that the Mississippi might be found emptying into 
the Pacific; but ascertaining that its flood was received by the 
Gulf of Mexico, they looked upon the Missouri as the un- 
doubted highway to the Ocean of the West. Thirty years 
later, charts were published in Europe which showed west- 
flowing waters interlocking with the Missouri. Several French 
expeditions were organized for exploring the Missouri and 
some of its lower affluents — La Harpe and Du Tisne (17 19), 
De Bourgmont (1722), and Mallet (1739); but they accom- 
plished little more than obtaining a knowledge of the country 
for a few hundred miles above the mouth, with side ventures 
upon the South Fork of the Platte, the Arkansas, and the 
plains southwestward to the Spanish seat of Santa Fe. 

Upon the eve of the downfall of New France, the crafty 
Louis XV, in order to prevent England from obtaining them, 
ceded to Spain (November, 1762) the town and 
neighborhood of New Orleans and the broad posses- traders and 
sions of France west of the Mississippi. But the rapper 
Spaniards who came to New Orleans and St. Louis were in 
the main only public officials. French habitans occupied their 
little waterside villages, as of old ; being joined in the closing 
decade of the century by Kentuckians like Boone, who, weary 
of the legal and social restraints of growing American settle- 
ments, were willing to accept Spanish land grants with their 
promise of a return to primitive conditions, in which farming 
operations alternated with hunting. French trappers, many of 
them blood relatives of the red men, and now released from 
the tyranny of the fur-trade monopoly of New France, freely 
plied their nomadic calling upon the lower reaches of the 
Missouri and its branches, and even up the Platte and 
Arkansas to the bases of the Rockies. French and half-breed 



fur-traders — either on their own account or, in the northern 
regions, as agents of the warring British companies — wandered 
far and near among the tribesmen, visiting them in their per- 
manent villages and accompanying them upon hunting-, fish- 
ing-, and war-parties. Their long journeyings by land and 
water occasionally carried them as far afield as the great north- 
ern bend of the Missouri, where were the villages of the trade- 
loving Mandans, who bartered indiscriminately with Gauls from 
St. Louis and Britons from the Assiniboin. 

Such was the situation when the United States was born, 
and when Thomas Jefferson — philosopher, seer, statesman — 

always interested in the Middle West, first felt within 
dream S ° n ' S ^ im yearnings for a more intimate knowledge of the 

spacious territory of Louisiana, lying beyond the great 
river. The country belonged to Spain, but this fact gave him 
no pause ; he felt that so long as British traders were profitably 
exploiting the trans-Mississippi, Americans might be excused 
for opening through it a trade route to the Pacific, and inci- 
dentally extending the bounds of human knowledge, in geog- 
raphy and the natural sciences. 

In 1783 he proposed to General George Rogers Clark, the 

hero of Kaskaskia and Vincennes, to lead an expedition " for 

. exploring the country from the Missisipi to Cali- 

tion to fornia;" he intimated that a similar enterprise was 

being broached in England — "they pretend it is 
only to promote knoledge. I am afraid they have thoughts 
of colonising into that quarter." 1 Nothing came of this sug- 
gestion — possibly Clark did not reply; or very likely Jeffer- 
son, just then in private life, thought that the necessary funds 
could not be raised. 

Three years later, when minister to Paris, Jefferson met 
John Ledyard, a Connecticut adventurer who had been a petty 

officer with Captain James Cook on the latter's third 
pro1ect rdS vo y a g e around the world (1778), and had written 

a widely-read account of that enterprise. Ledyard 
agreed to cross Europe and Asia to Kamchatka, thence em- 

1 See Appendix for facsimile of this document, the original of which is in the 
Draper MSS. ^Collection, Wisconsin Historical Library. 



barking on a Russian vessel trading to Nootka Sound, from 
which he was to find his way to the sources of the Mis- 
souri, whose current was to be descended to the American 
settlements. But Ledyard, when within a few days of the 
Kamchatka port, was arrested by imperial orders from St. 
Petersburg, and ignominously carried back to Poland, where, 
"disappointed, ragged, and penniless," he was dismissed. 

In 1789, General Henry Knox, Washington's secretary 
of war, ordered General Josiah Harmar, commanding the 

Western frontier at Cincinnati, to " devise some 

c . Arm- 

practicable plan for exploring that branch of the strong's 

Mississippi called the Messouri, up to its source," 
and possibly beyond to the Pacific. Captain John Armstrong, 
then in command at Louisville, was despatched upon this ad- 
venture in the spring of 1790. Entirely alone in a canoe, he 
" proceeded up the Missouri some distance above St. Louis 
. . . but, meeting with some French traders, was persuaded 
to return in consequence of the hostility of the Missouri 
bands to each other, as they were then at war, and he could 
not safely pass from one nation to the other." 

Jefferson was the next to make a venture in transcontinen- 
tal exploration. This time (1793) in his capacity as a vice 
president of the American Philosophical Society at T 
Philadelphia, he made an arrangement therefor with Michaux 
Andre Michaux, a distinguished French botanist 
then herborizing in the United States. A small subscription 
was raised by the society, to which many of the prominent 
men of the day contributed, and detailed instructions for 
Michaux were drafted by Jefferson. 1 The intending explorer 
was to " cross the Mississippi and pass by land to the nearest 
part of the Missouri above the Spanish settlements, that you 
may avoid the risk of being stopped ; " he was then to " pur- 
sue such of the largest streams of that river as shall lead by 
the shortest way and the lowest latitudes to the Pacific ocean." 
The previous year, Captain Robert Gray, of Boston, had dis- 
covered the mouth of the Columbia, and Jefferson hoped that 
this stream might be found to interlock with the sources of 

1 See Appendix, for this document. 



the Missouri. Just then, however, there had arrived in the 
United States Charles Genet, minister of the French Republic, 
who was charged with the secret mission of forming a fili- 
bustering army of American frontiersmen in the Carolinas, 
Georgia, and Kentucky to attack Spanish possessions on the 
Gulf of Mexico and beyond the Mississippi. Michaux was 
selected by Genet as his agent to deal with the Kentuckians, 
led by George Rogers Clark, who had proposed, under the 
banner of France, to descend the Mississippi with fifteen 
hundred borderers and attack New Orleans. Michaux tarried 
in Kentucky to carry out these ill-fated plans, with the result 
that his project of exploration was abandoned. 1 

Meanwhile, there had been important developments upon 
our Northwest Coast. We have seen that by the opening of 

the Revolutionary War the Spanish had explored 
Northwest the whole extent of this shore, nearly up to the site 

of the modern Sitka. In 1778 Captain Cook was 
here, on behalf of England, searching for the Northwest Pas- 
sage, a movement which induced fresh zeal on the part of 
Spanish navigators, and watchfulness on the part of the Rus- 
sians in Alaska. Eight years later, the French navigator and 
scientist, Count de la Perouse, visited these shores and gave 
to the world its first definite knowledge of Spain's California 
missions. English fur-trading vessels now appeared on the 
scene, bartering with the natives for furs, which were carried 
to China, to be there exchanged for teas, silks, spices, and 
other Oriental wares. Friction between Spanish and English 
trading interests at Nootka Sound — where the latter had 
made small settlements — led to a spirited controversy that 
might readily have precipitated war, but which ended peace- 
fully in the withdrawal of Spain (1795)- By this time, 
American trading craft were sharp competitors for the China- 
American fur traffic of the Northwest Coast. Owing to the 
monopoly of the East India Company in British trade on the 
Pacific Ocean, most of the Englishmen gradually withdrew : 

i — 

1 Several important documents connected with these early American projects in 
transcontinental exploration, will be found in the Appendix to the present work. For 
a fuller narrative, see Thwaites, Rocky Mountain Exploration (N. Y., 1904), chap. iv. 

[ xxii ] 


thus for some twenty years leaving New England navigators 
almost complete masters of the situation. 

When Thomas Jefferson became president of the United 
States, perhaps two score American trading vessels were annu- 
ally visiting Nootka Sound and the mouth of the Columbia; 
British overland traders were operating among the Mandans 
and their neighbors, at and below the great bend of the Mis- 
souri; French and half-breed trappers and traders, together 
with a few expatriated Kentuckians, were familiar with the 
Missouri and its lower affluents ; upon St. Peter's River (near 
the Minnesota), British free-traders were profitably operating 
among the Sioux, a proximity which caused much uneasiness 
among Americans in the West. As yet, few citizens of the 
United States were operating in the vast territory of Louisiana, 
which Napoleon, dreaming of another New France in North 
America, had now (October i, 1800) obliged Spain to retro- 
cede to him ; but of which he had not thus far taken formal 

Amidst the manifold duties of his great office, Jefferson 
had not forgotten his early scheme for exploring the trans- 
Mississippi. Greater opportunity now presented it- Con 
self — he possessed influence to secure governmental sionai aid 


aid, and recognized the existence of a stronger public 
spirit. The lapse in the winter of 1802-03 of an "act for 
establishing trading houses with the Indian tribes," was made 
the occasion for addressing (January 18) a secret message to 
Congress, 1 in which he urged the importance of reaching out 
for the trade of the Indians on the Missouri River, that 
thus far had in large measure been absorbed by English com- 
panies ; and suggested an exploring party as the best means 
of accomplishing this object. He recognized that the country 
which he thus proposed to enter was the property of France, 
although still governed by Spain ; but thought that as the 
latter nation's interests were now waning, she would not be 
disposed to jealousy and would regard the enterprise merely 
" as a literary pursuit." An estimate of the necessary expenses 
was placed at only $2,500 ; but the correspondence which we 

1 See Appendix, for this document. 

[ xxiii ] 


give in the Appendix, shows that Jefferson intended that the 
exploring party should, while still in the United States, be 
subsisted by the War Department ; and in addition thereto 
we shall see that he issued in their favor a general letter of 
credit, which proved of no avail, but further demonstrates the 
fact that the explorers were not expected to limit themselves 
to the appropriation. 


Congress having proved complaisant, in secretly giving the 
necessary authority and passing the modest appropriation, 
Jefferson at once appointed his private secretary, 
Captain Meriwether Lewis, as head of the proposed 
expedition. Lewis was born near Charlottesville, Virginia, 
August 1 8th, 1774, his people being prominent in colonial 
and Revolutionary affairs. His father, William, died when 
Meriwether, named for his mother's family, was a child. The 
boy came under the guardianship of his uncle Nicholas, who 
had in 1776 commanded a regiment in the campaign against 
the Cherokees ; but his education remained under the direction 
of his mother, a woman of capacity and judgment. When 
but eight years of age, the lad had established a local reputation 
as a hunter ; and until his thirteenth year, when he was sent to 
a Latin school, had ample opportunity to satisfy his adven- 
turous cravings in this direction. After five years of tuition, 
he returned to his mother's farm, where the succeeding two 
years were spent in careful attention to the details of husbandry, 
in the course of which he acquired some skill in botany, that 
was to stand him well in stead during the great expedition of a 
few years later. 

In 1794, when Lewis was twenty years of age, the so-called 
Whisky Rebellion, against a federal excise tax, broke out in 
Western Pennsylvania, and threatened to spread 
experiences ' nto Virginia and Maryland. President Washing- 
ton issued a requisition for some thirteen thousand 
militia from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Vir- 
ginia, and this force promptly marched towards the seat of 

[ xxiv ] 


disturbance, thus speedily causing the subsidence of what was 
practically an insurrection against the national government. 
Lewis enlisted as a private in this little army, and at the close 
of the disturbance was given employment in the regular service 
— originally as ensign in the First Infantry (May I, 1795), 
later as first lieutenant, and then captain (1797) in the same 
regiment. He served with distinction under General Wayne, 
in the latter's Northwestern campaigns, and in the first year 
of his captaincy was in charge of the infantry in Captain Isaac 
Guion's expedition to take over the, Spanish posts in Missis- 
sippi. 1 He also was for several years the paymaster of his 
regiment. 2 

Captain Lewis appears early to have won the esteem and 
confidence of his distinguished neighbor, Thomas Jefferson ; 
and in the spring of 1801 the latter, as president of Selected to 
the United States, appointed him as his private command 
secretary. 3 We have already seen that in 1783 
Jefferson, not then in official life, suggested to George Rogers 
Clark an exploration of the trans-Mississippi country, and that 
his subsequent negotiations with Ledyard (1788) and Michaux 
(1793) came to naught. The last-named mission had been 
unsuccessfully sought by his adventurous young friend Lewis, 
although but nineteen years old. When, apparently as early 
as July, 1802, President Jefferson revived his long-considered 
project, he offered the post of leader to his private secretary, 

1 See Claiborne, Mississippi (Jackson, 1880), p. 184, note. 

3 A manuscript book in the possession of the American Philosophical Society, 
containing Lewis's meteorological and natural history data, also has a few brief 
records of his accounts as paymaster in 1800. In that year he made an extended 
official tour by land and water, to the posts at Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Fort Wayne, 
and Detroit, visiting Limestone (Maysville, Ky.), Chillicothe, and Wheeling en 

8 The original of Jefferson's letter to Lewis, offering this appointment (dated 
Washington, February 23, 1801), is in the Bureau of Rolls, Department of the Inte- 
rior, Washington, where its press-mark is "Jefferson Papers, 2d series, vol. 51, doc. 
no." Jefferson writes that the salary is but $500, "scarcely more than an equiva- 
lent for your pay & rations" in the army ; but it is an easier office, would give him 
opportunity to meet distinguished people, and he could board and lodge with the 
president's family, free of charge. The original of Lewis's letter of acceptance, dated 
Pittsburg, March 10th, may be found in ibid, doc. 95. 

[ XXV ] 


who, now having attained the age of twenty-eight, had again 
pleaded for this honor. In his Memoir of Lewis, 1 the presi- 
dent pays him this generous tribute : 

I had now had opportunities of knowing him intimately. Of courage 
undaunted ; possessing a firmness and perseverance of purpose which 
nothing but impossibilities could divert from its direction ; careful as a 
father of those committed to his charge, yet steady in the maintenance 
of order and discipline ; intimate with the Indian character, customs, 
and principles; habituated to the hunting life; guarded, by exact observ- 
ation of the vegetables and animals of his own country, against losing 
time in the description of objects already possessed ; honest, disinterested, 
liberal, of sound understanding, and a fidelity to truth so scrupulous that 
whatever he should report would be as certain as if seen by ourselves — 
with all these qualifications, as if selected and implanted by nature in one 
body for this express purpose, I could have no hesitation in confiding the 
enterprise to him. 

The president had at first sought as commandant a scientist 
who possessed, in addition to his scholarly attainments, the 
necessary " courage, prudence, habits & health adapted to the 
woods & some familiarity with the Indian character." 2 Failing 
in this, Captain Lewis was chosen as being, in his chief's 
opinion, " brave, prudent, habituated to the woods, & familiar 
with Indian manners and character. He is not regularly edu- 
cated, but he possesses a great mass of accurate observation on 
all the subjects of nature which present themselves here, & will 
therefore readily select those only in his new route which shall 
be new." 3 

In order to acquire "a greater familiarity with the technical 

language of the natural sciences, and readiness in the astro- 

. . nomical observations necessary for the geography of 

In training o a r j 

his route," Lewis proceeded to Philadelphia, 4 where 
he received instruction in the rudiments of the sciences from 

1 Introduction to Biddle edition, pp. xi, xii. 

2 Jefferson's letter to Dr. Caspar Wistar, in Appendix. 
8 Jefferson's letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush, in Appendix. 

4 t Jefferson's Memoir of Lewis does not mention that Lewis went to Philadelphia 
as early as July, 1802 ; but his letter to Lewis, dated January 22d, 1803 (see 
Appendix), indicates that such was the fact. 

[ xxvi ] 


several eminent specialists — that city being the home of the 
American Philosophical Society, and then the principal seat of 
learning in the country. His correspondence with Jefferson 
during this period, which is given in our Appendix, abounds 
in allusions to scientific and practical details, showing him to 
have been not only an apt pupil, but already possessed of a 
large fund of information of the sort essential to the equip- 
ment of an explorer. 


Early in the course of these preparations Lewis determined, 
with Jefferson's consent, to secure a companion who should 
share his honors and responsibilities. His choice fell upon 
Captain William Clark, four years his senior, but who had 
been the friend of his boyhood in Virginia, and his comrade in 
Wayne's Indian campaigns. 

The Clarks, a large and now widely-ramified family group, 
had long lived in Albermarle County, Virginia, near the seat 
of the Lewis family, and here were born the two 
oldest children of John Clark and his wife Ann ^^ able 
Rogers — Jonathan (1750-1816) and George Rogers 
(1752-1818). In 1754 John Clark removed to the neighbor- 
hood of Charlottesville, in Caroline County, where William, 
their ninth child, was born August 1st, 1770. This branch of 
the family — preceded several years by George Rogers Clark, 
who had become famous because of his campaign against Kas- 
kaskia and Vincennes — moved to Kentucky in 1784, their 
estate being Mulberry Hill, on Beargrass Creek, near Louisville. 
The Clark home was the centre of hospitality and sociability for 
tne region roundabout. It was frequented not only by sturdy 
pioneers of the Kentucky movement, with their tales of Indian 
warfare, and other perils and hardships of the early settlements; 
but the second generation of Kentucky emigrants also found 
here a welcome — gentlemen and lawyers of the new settle- 
ments, Revolutionary soldiers seeking homes in the growing 
West, men of enterprise, culture, and promise, permanent 
founders of a new civilization. 

[ xxvii ] 


Among them all, young "Billy" was a marked favorite. In 
his nineteenth year he marched in the ranks of Colonel John 
Hardin's expedition against the tribesmen north of 
^rvicls the Ohio River; the following year he was despatched 
upon a mission to the Creeks and Cherokees ; and 
in 1791 was ensign and acting lieutenant on the Wabash Indian 
expedition, under General Scott. "Your brother William," 
writes one of the family friends, 1 " is gone out as a cadet with 
Gen! Scott on the Expedition. He is a youth of solid and 
promising parts, and as brave as Caesar." Two years later 
(1793) we find him commissioned as a first lieutenant in the 
Fourth sub-legion, in General Anthony Wayne's Western 

After being engaged as an engineer in constructing forts 
along the line of advance, he was, late in the season, sent upon 
a perilous expedition up the Wabash as far as Vincennes, 
during which his progress was for several weeks blocked by 
ice. The next year (1794) we read of him as being in charge 
of a train of seven hundred pack-horses and eighty men, trans- 
porting supplies to Fort Greenville. Attacked by the savages, 
he lost five men, but gallantly repulsed the enemy and won 
praise from Wayne, under whom he later (August 20) fought 
in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Twice (1795) he was en- 
trusted by his general with important commissions to the 
Spaniards, an account of which is to be found in the Spanish 
Papers of the Draper Manuscripts, in the Wisconsin Historical 
Library. It is said that no officer impressed the Spanish with 
a more wholesome respect than young Lieutenant William 
Clark. His four years' service in the Western Army had 
familiarized him with the methods of handling large bodies of 
men under military discipline, and given him opportunity to 
exercise the courage and resource needed to deal with savage 
foes ; and it put him in touch with the prominent men of his 
time. It had also — an important consideration, in view of 
his subsequent career — once more thrown him into the com- 

1 Dr. James O' Fallon to Colonel Jonathan Clark, Caroline County, Virginia, 
May 30th, 1791. — Draper MSS., 2 L 28. 

[ xxviii ] 


pany of Meriwether Lewis, now a fellow campaigner, and upon 
at least one expedition he was Lewis's superior officer. 1 

Retiring from the army in 1796 — apparently with the 
brevet rank of captain, for thereafter he was given that title — 
William Clark lived quietly at home with his family, chiefly 
occupied in seeking to adjust the tangled affairs of his brother, 
George Rogers, who had been sued by many persons for supplies 
furnished in the Illinois campaigns. In the attempted settlement 
of these claims, William not only gave his time and effort, but 
sacrificed the small estate he had himself accumulated. 

Such was the situation of his affairs when, on the sixteenth 
of July, 1803, he received a letter from his friend Captain 
Lewis 2 — dated Washington, June 19th — in which the latter, 

1 Much confusion has arisen because three William Claries were prominent in the 
West, in those stirring days, (i) Judge William Clark, of Indiana Territory, who 
died at Vincennes in 1802 ; (2) William Clark, the son of Benjamin, and a cousin 
of George Rogers Clark ; and (3) the subject of this sketch. Confusion between 
Nos. 2 and 3 has been especially common, among historians ; Coues's sketch, in his 
Lewis and Clark (i, pp. lxviii, lix) is an instance — the " captain of militia," whose 
commission is given on the latter page, undoubtedly being William No. 2. In the 
Draper MSS., in the Wisconsin Historical Library, the papers of these two men have 
been indiscriminately commingled. This was the more natural, because the signa- 
tures of the two are so similar that it would require an expert to differentiate them. 
William No. 2 was one of the most efficient officers in the Illinois campaigns. He 
must have been quite young at the time ; but in the later period of the Revolutionary 
War was entrusted with various important commissions. When Fort Jefferson was 
built in 1780, near the mouth of the Ohio, Lieutenant William Clark was sent with a 
convoy from Kaskaskia to provision it, and late the following year he removed to the 
Falls of Ohio, where Louisville now stands. He was here employed in garrison duty 
and in protecting the new settlement against its Indian foes. So valuable were his 
services, that on the reduction of the regiment in February, 1783, he was one of three 
officers retained in the service ; and was only finally mustered out by the order of the 
governor in 1784.. About this time a large tract of land (150,000 acres) was assigned 
to the Illinois regiment in return for its services, and laid off on the Indiana side of 
the Ohio River, opposite Louisville. Clark was appointed one of the allotment com- 
missioners, also principal surveyor of the grant. From that time until his death in 
1 79 1, he was chiefly occupied in the business of this office. A man of good habits, 
kind heart, courage, and resource, he was popular and successful among the early 
inhabitants of that country. He was on intimate terms with his more illustrious 
cousins, and it is to be conjectured that he was particularly admired by William Clark 
No. 3, just then growing into manhood. He never married, and at his death left a 
considerable landed property to his brothers and sisters, most of whom had not yet 
removed from Virginia. 

2 See Appendix, for the correspondence in full. 

[ xxix ] 


after giving confidential information of the projected expedi- 
tion to the Pacific, proposed that Clark " participate with me 
in it's fatiegues, it's dangers and it's honors," assuring 
Lewis's ^\m t k at « t h ere i s no man on earth with whom I 


should feel equal pleasure in sharing them as with 
yourself." Clark promptly responded to this cordial offer, 
saying, " as my situation in life will admit of my absence the 
length of time necessary to accomplish such an undertaking, I 
will cheerfully join you." 

It will be seen that Lewis's letter, owing to the slowness of 
Western mails, was nearly a month in reaching Clark. Fail- 
ing to hear from his comrade as soon as he had expected, 
and fearing that he could not go, Lewis opened tentative 
negotiations with Lieutenant Moses Hooke of his own regi- 
ment (the First Infantry), who was then in charge of military 
stores at Pittsburg. In a letter to Jefferson (July 26, 1803) 1 
Lewis describes him as a young man " about 26 years of age, 
endowed with a good constitution, possessing a sensible well 
informed mind, is industrious, prudent and persevering and 
withall intrepid and enterprising." A few days later, however 
(August 3), Lewis, then at Pittsburg, anxiously waiting for his 
keel-boat to be completed, received Clark's acceptance, and 
promptly expressed to the latter that he felt " much gratifyed 
with your decision ; for I could neither hope, wish, or expect 
from a union with any man on earth, more perfect support or 
further aid in the discharge of the several duties of the mission, 
than that, which I am confident I shall derive from being 
associated with yourself." 


It will be remembered that when Jefferson instituted the 
ambitious enterprise, the original records O f which we are here 

publishing for the first time, the trans-Mississippi 
Louisiana was the property of France, although still in the 

hands of Spain. This fact gave rise to the secrecy 
with which the preparations were invested. But upon the 

1 For text, see Appendix. 

[ XXX ] 


second of May, 1803, 1 the American commissioners in Paris 
had signed a treaty with Napoleon by which Louisiana was 
sold to the United States. 2 Lewis's invitation to Clark shows 
that some inkling of this unexpected and startling negotiation 
had reached Jefferson by that date (June 19); but the official 
news thereof did not arrive in Washington until the first days 
in July. The circumstance in no way altered Lewis's arrange- 
ments, save that it was no longer necessary to maintain that 
privacy as to the purpose of the exploration, which had been 
hitherto enjoined upon him. 

Organized as a military detachment, under the orders of 
the secretary of war — although President Jefferson remained 
the moving spirit — the party, when complete, con- 

. . ° v a* • 11 -j Personelle 

sisted or twenty-nine persons officially recognized on 
the rolls ; with French and half-breed interpreters, Clark's 
negro slave York, and the Indian woman Sacajawea as super- 
numeraries — forty-five in all, including the two captains. 3 
Lewis — who had bidden good-bye to his friends at the White 
House on the morning of July 5th — embarked at Pittsburg 
on the thirty-first of August ; but owing to shallows in the 
Ohio River, and the necessity of stopping at some of the forts 
to obtain volunteers from their garrisons, his passage was slow. 
At Louisville he picked up Clark and several young Kentucky 
recruits. December was a third spent, before the . River 
expedition went into winter camp at River Dubois, Dubois 
in Illinois, opposite the mouth of the Missouri, 
where the men were rigorously drilled both as soldiers and 
frontiersmen. It had been Lewis's intention to camp at some 
distance up the Missouri ; but the lateness of the season, the 
technical objections raised by Spanish officials, and Jefferson's 
characteristic suggestion 4 that a camp 011 the east side, in 
American territory, would save the appropriation by allowing 

1 The actual date of signing, although the treaty was dated April 30th. 

3 See Thwaites, Rocky Mountain Exploration, chap, v, for account of the Louisiana 

8 The number during the first year out (1804) ; but there were some changes in 
the spring of 1805. See list in note on p. 12 of the present volume ; also the rolls 
in the Orderly Book, on pp. 13, 14, 30, 31, post. 

4 Letter to Lewis, of November 16th, 1803, in Appendix. 

[ xxxi ] 


the men to draw their winter's rations from the War Depart- 
ment, induced him to stop at River Dubois. 

The journals show that the winter was a busy one — Clark 
being engaged at camp for the most part, in organizing and 
disciplining the party, and accumulating stores and boats for 
the long up-river journey ; while Lewis was often in St. Louis, 
consulting with French fur-traders and others who knew the 
country. On March 9th and 10th, 1804, we find him the chief 
official witness at the formal transfer of Upper Louisiana — 
at first from Spain to France, and then from France to the 
United States. 

The expedition started from Camp River Dubois on May 
14th, "in the presence of many of the neighboring inhabitants, 
and proceeded on under a jentle brease up the Mis- 
season^ souri." The long and painful up-stream journey 
during the summer and autumn of 1804 was fol- 
lowed by a winter spent in log huts enclosed by a stout palisade, 
among the Mandan Indians not far from the present Bismarck, 
North Dakota. Making a fresh start from Fort Mandan, 
upon the seventh of April, 1805, there ensued a toilsome ex- 
perience all the way to the headspring of Jefferson Fork of the 
Missouri, which was reached August iath. Then came the 
crossing of the rugged, snow-clad Bitterroot Mountains, which 
here constitute the divide, and the descent of the foaming 
rapids and cataracts of the Columbia, until the Pacific Coast 
was reached in November. By Christmas the party were safely 
housed within Fort Clatsop, a rude structure — like Fort 
Mandan, log huts within a palisade covering a plot of ground 
some fifty feet square. 1 

Another dreary but busy winter was spent in studying the 
natives and making other scientific observations in the neigh- 
borhood, and filling their large note-books with these 
ciatsop interesting data. This was not the season, however, 
for meeting any of the numerous trading mariners 
who frequented the Northwest Coast ; thus the letter of credit 
which Jefferson had given to Lewis proved of no avail, and 
for several months the explorers were obliged to exercise great 

1 See plan of the fort, in chapter xxi, vol. iii of the present work. 

[ xxxii ] 


ingenuity in making trinkets with which to obtain supplies from 

the natives, who exhibited an avaricious temperament. 

Leaving Fort Clatsop the twenty-third of March, 1806, the 

return of the expedition was delayed by heavy snows on the 

mountainous divide, and much hardship was experi- 

t-u 1 C.u A The return 

enced. 1 he actual crossing or the range commenced 

June 15th. By the first of July the party had arrived at 
Travellers' Rest Creek, where the native trails converged, and 
here they divided into two sections — Lewis's party going 
• direct to the Falls of the Missouri, and afterwards exploring 
Maria's River with a view to ascertaining its availability as a 
fur-trade route to the north ; Clark and his contingent pro- 
ceeding to the head of navigation of the year before, and then 
crossing over to the Yellowstone and descending that stream 
to its junction with the Missouri. Parting company on the 
third of July, it was the twelfth of August before the two 
branches of the expedition reunited on the Missouri, several 
days below the mouth of the Yellowstone. Their final happy 
arrival at St. Louis, on the twenty-third of September, after an 
absence of two years, four months, and nine days, is one of the 
familiar events in American history. 

The final entry in the journal of Captain Clark is significant : 

Friday is'" |>6] of SefV. 1806 
a fine morning we commenced wrighting &c. 

This shows that on the third day after their retunvto civiliza- 
tion, the commanders began placing its literary records into 
definitive form. The history of these records, thus promptly 
commenced, proved to be almost as romantic as that of the 
great discovery itself. 

In his detailed instructions to Lewis (June 20, 1803), 1 Presi- 
dent Jefferson had displayed particular concern for the journals 
of the proposed expedition to the Pacific, which with all possi- 

1 For this document, see Appendix. 

* [ xxxiii ] 


ble scientific data were to be prepared "with great pains & accu- 
racy, to be entered distinctly, & intelligibly for others as well as 
yourself." The notes of the two captains were to be 
Jefferson's guarded against loss by making copies of them — 

concern o o > J or 

" one of these copies [to] be written on the paper of 
the birch, as less liable to injury from damp than common 
paper." 1 Not only were Lewis and Clark to keep such jour- 
nals, but they were to encourage their men to do likewise. 
Jefferson especially requested of Lewis that " several copies of 
. . . your notes should be made at leisure times & put into 
the care of the most trustworthy of your attendants, to guard 
by multiplying them, against the accidental losses to which 
they will be exposed." The captain was reminded that " in 
the loss of yourselves, we should lose also the information you 
will have acquired ; " and as a further precaution was required 
"to communicate to us, at reasonable intervals, a copy of your 
journal, notes & observations of every kind, putting into 
cypher whatever might do injury if betrayed " — for we have 
seen that at the time these instructions were written the country 
to be explored and thus opened to American trade, was in the 
hands of the Spanish, whose suspicions must not be aroused. 

The two leaders faithfully performed their duty in this re- 
gard, and the four sergeants — - Charles Floyd, Patrick Gass, 
The John Ordway, and Nathaniel Pryor — also wrote 

various journals. 2 Tradition has it that at least three of the 
twenty-three privates (Robert Frazier, Joseph White- 
house, and possibly George Shannon) were, as well, diarists 
upon the expedition — but the only private's note-book now 
known to us is that of Whitehouse. 

It was the daily custom of the captains to make rough notes, 
with rude outline maps, plans, and miscellaneous sketches, 3 in 

1 This suggestion was not adopted, in practice. 

2 In the camp orders issued by Lewis and Clark, May 26th, 1 804. (see post, p. 33), 
occurs this sentence: " The serg'? in addition to those [other] duties are directed to 
keep a seperate journal from day to day of all passing occurrences, and such other ob- 
servations on the country &c. as shall appear to them worthy of notice." 

8 Clark was the draughtsman of the party. His maps, sketches of birds, fishes, 
leaves, etc., in the note-books of both Lewis and himself, and on separate sheets of 
paper (for which latter, see our atlas volume), are worthy of an engineer with better 
training than he had received. They are all carefully reproduced in the present work. 

[ xxxiv ] 


field-books which they doubtless carried in their pockets. 
When encamped for a protracted period, these were developed 
into more formal records. In this development, 
each often borrowed freely from the other's notes — izing 
Lewis, the better scholar of the two, generally rewrit- 
ing in his own manner the material obtained from Clark; while 
the latter not infrequently copied Lewis practically verbatim, 
but with his own phonetic spelling. Upon returning to St. 
Louis, these individual journals were for the most part tran- 
, scribed by their authors into neat blank books — bound in 
red morocco and gilt-edged — with the thought of preparing 
them for early publication. After this process, the original 
field-books must have been cast aside and in large measure 
destroyed; for but one of these 1 is now known to exist. 
There have come down to us, however, several note-books 
which apparently were written up in the camps. 

Collectively, these journals of the captains cover each and 
every day the expedition was out — largely a double record, 
although there are occasional periods when we have the 
journal of but one of them. 2 The manuscripts well exemplify 
the habits and characteristics of the two men — Clark, the 
more experienced frontiersman of the two, expressing himself 

1 By Clark, dated Sept. ijth-Dec. 31st, 1805, and described post. 

2 We have much more of Clark in these journals, than of Lewis. The lacume in 
the Lewis manuscripts, as compared with the dates covered by Clark, are as follows : 

1804 — May 14, 16-19, -zi-September 15; September 18-December 31 = 228 

1805 — January i-February 1 ; February 14-April 6 ; August 27-September 8 5 
September u-17, 23-November 28 ; December 1-31 = 168 days. 

1806 — August 13-September 26 = 45 days. But during much of this period 
Lewis was disabled from a wound, and therefore unable to write. 

The only apparent gap in the Clark journals, is the brief period from February 3 
to 12 (inclusive), 1805 = 10 days. But the omission is only nominal, for under 
February 13th he gives a summary of events during this period of absence ; see vol. i, 
p. 253, note, and pp. 259-261. Actually, we have from Clark a perfect record of 
his movements day by day throughout the expedition. 

Whether the missing Lewis entries (441 days, as compared with Clark ; but we 
may eliminate 41 for the period when he was disabled, thus leaving 400) are still in 
existence or not, is unknown to the present writer. There appears to be no doubt 
that he regularly kept his diary. It is possible that the missing notes, in whole or in 
part, were with him when he met his death in Tennessee, and were either accidentally 
or purposely destroyed by others. 

[ XXXV ] 


sententiously with Doric simplicity and vigor of phrase, and 
often amusingly eccentric orthography ; Lewis, in more correct 
diction, inclined to expatiate on details, especially with regard 
to Indians and natural history, and frequently revealing a 
poetic temperament and a considerable fund of humor. 

In February, 1806, when the expedition was upon the 
Pacific coast, President Jefferson sent to Congress a message 
enclosing, among other matters, a letter from Lewis, 
The first d a ted at Fort Mandan in the previous April, just as 
the explorers were leaving for the upper country ; 1 
at that point the party had passed their first winter. This 
communication, describing the experiences of the expedition 
as far as Fort Mandan, was accompanied by brief reports of 
explorations on the Red and Washita rivers by Dr. Sibley, 
Dr. Hunter, and William C. Dunbar, together with statistics 
of the Western tribes and other data of the kind ; the ill- 
assorted whole being promptly printed as a public document. 2 
Based upon this fragmentary publication there soon sprung 
up, both in England and America, a long list of popular com- 
pilations telling the story of the Lewis and Clark expedition 
during its first year, expanded with miscellaneous information 
about the Western Indians, picked up here and there — some 
of it singularly inaccurate. 3 

A year later (early in 1 807), only a few months after the return 
of the party, there was published at Philadelphia the first detailed 
report of the entire tour; being the journal of Sergeant 
journal Patrick Gass, an observant man, whose rough but gen- 
erally accurate notes had been expanded with small re- 
gard to literary style, by an Irish schoolmaster, named David 
McKeehan, of Wellsburg, West Virginia. This little volume of 
about 83,000 words, 4 with its curiously crude illustrations, was 
reprinted in London in 1808, while new American editions ap- 
peared at Philadelphia in 1810, 181 1, and 18 12, and a French 
translation at Paris in 18 10. It is now, in any form, a rarity. 

1 For this document, see Appendix. 

2 See first item in Bibliographical Data, in the present volume, post. 
8 See "Counterfeit Publications," in Bibliographical Data. 

4 See Bibliographical Data, for description of the various editions of Gass's Journal. 

[ xxxvi ] 


It had been the intention of Lewis and Clark to publish 
their own journals ; they had presented no official detailed 
report to the government, it being left with them by Lewi , 
Jefferson, as we shall see, to make such literary use prospectus, 
of their material as they saw fit. During the year 
following the return, and the one in which Gass's Journal had 
appeared, Lewis issued a prospectus announcing the speedy 
publication of the official narrative by C. & A. Conrad, of 
Philadelphia. The first volume was to contain the " narrative 
of the voyage," the second to be devoted chiefly to an account 
of "the Indian nations distributed over that vast region," and 
the third " exclusively to scientific research." Apart from this, 
was to be published " Lewis and Clark's Map of North 
America, from longitude g° west to the Pacific Ocean, and 
between 36° and 52° north latitude, with extensive marginal 
notes, dimensions five feet eight inches by three feet ten 
inches, embracing ail their late discoveries, and that part of 
the continent heretofore the least known." 1 

Unfortunately for this enterprise, both explorers soon after 
their return had received, together with commissions as gen- 
erals, important government appointments : Lewis 
being made governor of Louisiana Territory, and by public 
Clark its superintendent of Indian affairs and briga- 
dier-general of militia. 2 The onerous duties appertaining to 
these offices, in the new and vast territory through which they 
had journeyed, were - necessarily absorbing ; and neither being 
a literary man, the task of publication under such circum- 
stances was easily deferred. 

Urged by Jefferson — who from the first had been keenly 
desirous to have the records of the exploration as soon as pos- 
sible made the common property of the world — it was in 1809 
agreed that General Lewis should in earnest undertake the 
work. He was travelling on horseback through Tennessee, 

1 See Appendix, for this prospectus. 

3 Upon the expedition, Lewis held a captaincy in the First Infantry ; Clark had 
been commissioned as second lieutenant of artillery. On their return they both 
resigned from the army — Clark on February 27th, 1807, and Lewis on March 2d 
following. March 3d, Jefferson signed Lewis's commission, and nine days later 

[ xxxvii ] 


on his way to Washington, intending thereafter to go to Phil- 
adelphia to enter upon this editorial task, when he lost his life 

during the night of October nth. A guest, at the 
dearth*'* ti me > °f a wayside settler some sixty miles southwest 

of Nashville, it was reported that he had committed 
suicide — a theory which Jefferson, probably his closest friend, 
accepted without question ; but it was and still is believed by 
many that he was murdered for the small sum ofmoney upon 
his person at the time. 1 

Clark, now the sole surviving head of the expedition, 
prompted by the indefatigable Jefferson, appears to have 
ciark soon sou g nt tne assistance of an editor in bringing 

engages out the proposed publication. It seems that, prob- 

Biddle , , i • » , , . r 

ably early in 1810, overtures were made to him from 
some literary person in Richmond, Virginia; 2 but these he 
rejected, and earnestly solicited the aid of Nicholas Biddle, of 
Philadelphia. Biddle, who was descended from one of the 
oldest Philadelphia families, had graduated from Princeton in 
his sixteenth year (1801) ; he had been secretary to John Arm- 
strong, our minister to France (1804), and while in Paris had 
superintended the payment of American claims growing out 
of the Louisiana Purchase — in this capacity greatly surprising 
the French officials both by his brilliancy and his youth. 
After travelling extensively in Europe, he became secretary to 
Mr. Monroe while the latter was minister to Great Britain, 
but in 1 807 returned to practise law in Philadelphia. At the 
time of Clark's invitation, Biddle was but twenty-four years 
of age ; nevertheless he had already attained considerable 
reputation as a financier, lawyer, and man of letters — in the 
last-named field being editor of the Port-folio — and socially 
was by many considered both the handsomest and the most 
charming man in Philadelphia, as he certainly was one of the 
most cultivated. It is small wonder that Clark selected him 
as the writer of the narrative. 

1 See discussion in Coues, Leivis and Clark, i, pp. xl-lvii ; and Wheeler, The 
Trail of Lewis and Clark (New York, 1904), i, pp. 61-74. 

2 See Biddle-Clark correspondence in Coues, Leivis and Clark, i, pp. lxxxii 
et seq. 

[ xxxviii ] 


In his second letter to Biddle, dated February 20th, 18 10, 
from the home of his father-in-law, Colonel George Hancock, 
near Fincastle, Virginia — then being visited by the general — 
he invites his correspondent to come to him at that place, 
" where I have my books and memorandoms and stay with me 
a week or two ; read over & make yourself thereby acquainted 
with everything which may not be explained in the Journals. 
. . . Such parts as may not be full, I can explain, and add 
such additional matter as I may recollect. I brought the 
Books with me to Copy such parts as are intended for the 
Botanical work which I shall send to Doctf Barton, and will 
deliver the Books to you if you will engage to write the 
naritive &c." 

On the third of March Biddle replied to Clark, regretting 
"that it will be out of my power to undertake what you had 
the politeness to offer ; " explaining that " My occupations 
necessarily confine me to Phil* and I have neither health nor 
leisure to do sufficient justice to the fruits of your enterprize 
and ingenuity. You cannot be long however without making 
a more fortunate selection." 

Two weeks later, however (March 17), he again addressed 
Clark — who was still at Fincastle — and reports having been 
seen by some of the latter's friends in Philadelphia ; the result 
of the conference' being that he " will therefore very readily 
agree to do all that is in my power for the advancement of 
the work ; and I think I can promise with some confidence 
that it shall be ready as soon as the publisher is prepared to 
print it. Having made up my mind today, I am desirous 
that no delay shall occur on my part." He therefore will soon 
visit the general at Fincastle. The latter replied (March 25) 
with " most sincere acknowledgements for the friendly senti- 
ments," and urged an immediate visit, " as my business calls 
me to Louisiana; and nothing detains me, but the business I 
wish with you." 

Biddle made the trip to Fincastle, noted Clark's oral state- 
ments, and carried back with him to Philadelphia the journals 
and maps of the expedition, from which he at once began to 
prepare its history. In May, Clark sent to the editor George 

[ xxxix ] 


Shannon 1 who, when a lad of sixteen years, had creditably 
served as one of the privates in the detachment. Then 

twenty-three years old, and studying for the law, 
at' work Shannon appears to have remained in Philadelphia 

during most of the time spent in draughting the 
narrative, and to have materially assisted Biddle both in inter- 
preting the note-books and giving personal recollections of 
the tour. Not only did Clark tender the services of Shannon, 
but he himself was in frequent correspondence with the editor, 2 
and purchased and forwarded to him the journal of Sergeant 
Ordway. The journal of Sergeant Gass being already in print, 
was of course also accessible to Biddle. 

The talented young editor at once surrendered himself 
almost completely to the difficult task before him ; he had 
promised Clark that the narrative should be ready for the press 
within twelve months. By the seventh of July he appears to 
have finished the story up to July 7th, 1805, above the Falls 
of the Missouri; for in a note to his distinguished correspond- 
ent, chiefly concerning the maps for the publication, 3 he play- 
fully says : " Today I have sent you and ten men up into a 
bottom to look for wood to make canoes after the unhappy 
failure of your iron boat." A year later (July 8, 181 1) he 
wrote to Clark, informing him that he had " completed the 
work agreeable to our engagement," and was " ready to put it 
to the press whenever Mr. Conrad chose." 

1 Shannon was born in Pennsylvania, of a good family, in 1787. After the 
return of the expedition he lost a leg as the result of a wound at the hands of Indians, 
the amputation having taken place at St. Charles, Mo. Soon after serving Biddle, 
he was admitted to the bar at Louisville, Ky. ; becoming a circuit judge in Ken- 
tucky, a state senator in Missouri, and U. S. district attorney for Missouri. He died 
suddenly in court in 1836, aged forty-nine years. 

2 The following memoranda, found in Clark-Voorhis note-book No. 4, were 
evidently made by General Clark at this time : 

" Mem. Enquire at S! Louis into the Situation & number of the Crow Indians & which, if 
either, of their bands is called the Paunch Indians. 
Also for some Indian speeches. 
Story of the Osage on the subject of the Beaver. 

Send to Mf Biddle every thing authentic & not yet published on the subject of the Fur Trade. 
Get an Indian Song 
about the Fur Trade 
Fur Compy " — Ed. 

* Which were being prepared by F. R. Hassier, of Schenectady, N. Y. 



In our day, a manuscript of this character would eagerly be 
sought by publishers. Stanley, Nordenskjold, Nansen, and 
Hedin have had but to choose among applicants 
from the book-trade. Ninety years ago, the situation a pub- 
was far different. John Conrad, a prominent pub- 
lisher of his day, was finally prevailed upon to undertake the 
work, the financial outcome of which seemed to some others 
doubtful. He appears to have entered into the project with 
much interest ; but by the time Biddle was ready, Conrad had 
fallen into financial straits, and in due course was plunged into 
bankruptcy; for this was the period of the second war with 
England, and business was unsettled. Biddle accordingly 
writes to Clark, July 4th, 181 1, stating the facts in the case, 
and incidentally mentioning that " Last winter I was pre- 
vented from going to the legislature chiefly by a desire to stay 
& superintend the printing." He has, however, made an 
arrangement with Thomas Bradford, " one of the best book- 
sellers here," and hopes that " we can proceed vigorously & 
soon get the volumes out." 

Despite Biddle's optimism affairs dragged slowly, for Brad- 
ford's terms were unsatisfactory. Over a year later (September 5, 
1 8 12), we find Clark offering Biddle "the half of every profit 
arising from it, if you will attend to it, have it Completed as 
far as it is possible and necessary, printed published &c. in- 
cluding the advances which have and may be necessary &c." 
Biddle does not appear to have accepted this financial proposi- 
tion ; familiar with the book market, he probably anticipated 
the failure of the project. 

Throughout the course of the work Conrad continued his 
friendly concern, and assisted Biddle in his strenuous search 
for a publisher. November 12th, he writes Biddle that he 
has tried Johnson & Warner without success; that firm "seem 
to have so incorrect an idea of the value of the work and prob- 
able profits arising from the publication of it." He advises 
Biddle to " agree to Mr. Bradfords offer. It is I am confident 
the best bargain you can make for Genl Clarke. The copy- 
right I presume will be in him (Genl. C.) & I suppose he will 
derive the entire benefit of the sale of the M. S. in England." 



This advice Biddle in due time felt impelled to accept, and 
February 23d, 18 13, tells Clark that having found Bradford's 
terms " not such as I thought advantageous I made 
lisher proposals to all the booksellers in town. The stag- 

nation in that branch of business was so great that 
no one was willing to embark in it, and after a great deal of 
fruitless negociation I was obliged to return and on the advice 
of IVT Conrad accept M.'. Bradford's proposals ... I now 
wait only for the engravers who will soon I hope finish their 
work and then we can strike off the printing immediately & in 
a little time the work will be published." Nevertheless a year 
was spent in the mechanical execution of the two small volumes. 
Meanwhile the publishing firm of Bradford & Inskeep, who 
had undertaken the work, in their turn became insolvent and 
at the actual time of publication (February 20, 1814) 1 were in 
the bankruptcy court. 

Just before going to press, Biddle was elected to the legis- 
lature, in which he soon won an enviable reputation for states- 
manlike qualities. Being thus prevented from pay- 
Aiien's ing that attention to the book which he thought it 
deserved, he engaged Paul Allen, a Philadelphia 
newspaper writer, to supervise the issue. In a letter to Clark 
(March 23), reviewing some of the circumstances of the publi- 
cation, Biddle says : " The gentleman who received and pre- 
pared it for the press, Mr. Allen, is a very capable person, and 
as I did not put the finishing hand to the volumes I did not 
think it right to take from him the credit of his own exertion 
and care by announcing personally the part which I had in the 
compilation. I am content that my trouble in the business 
should be recognized only by the pleasure which attended 
it and also by the satisfaction of making your acquaintance, 
which I shall always value. I could have wished that your 
time had permitted you to revise the whole of the work, as 
no doubt some errors and inadvertencies have from the na- 
ture of the volumes and the circumstances attending the pub- 
lication crept into them. I hope however that you will not 

1 The date of the first sale of volumes. See Coues, Lewis and Clark, i, pp. xci, 
xcii, for detailed statement of the financial outcome of the enterprise. 



find them very numerous or important . . . Henceforth you 
may sleep upon your fame, which must last as long as books 
can endure. Mr. Bradford has I presume sent you a copy of 
the work." 

Despite Biddle's determination to claim no credit for the 
narrative which has long been regarded a classic in American 
history, it is quite apparent that Allen's connection with the 
enterprise was but that of reviser for the press. He himself 
frankly states in the Preface, that he does not wish " to arrogate 
anything from the exertions of others;" that "he found but 
little to change, and that his labor has been principally confined 
to revising the manuscript, comparing it with the original 
papers, and inserting such additional matter as appears to have 
been intentionally deferred by the writer [Mr. Biddle] till the 
period of a more mature revisal." Allen secured from Presi- 
dent Jefferson an admirable memoir of Lewis ; possibly, he also 
blocked out the chapters ; and in a measure the mechanical form 
may be due to him. His labors were doubtless important from 
the typographical and clerical side ; but of course the credit 
for the enterprise should chiefly rest with Biddle. That the 
latter had finished the work, ready for the final touches of a 
practical reviser for the press, is evident from his own letters 
to Clark, as well as the confirmatory statement which has come 
down to us from Conrad. 

In his richly annotated edition of the Travels (N. Y., 1893, 
4 vols.), Dr. Elliott Coues spends much space and energy in 
persistently heaping vituperation on Allen for fathering a work 
mainly performed by another. Biddle had the undoubted 
right to withdraw his name from public connection with the 
narrative. We may consider his reasons Qmxotish, but he 
was entitled to be guided by them, and they certainly bespeak 
a nature more generous than we are accustomed to meet. As 
for Allen, it is evident that he did his part with becoming 
modesty; no doubt he well earned the fee of $500 — partly 
taken out in trade — with which he was rewarded by the pub- 
lishers. Press-revision and proof-reading are no light tasks ; 
although we might wish that, while he was at it, he had also 
given us an index. 

[ xliii ] 


The size of the edition was, apparently, 2,000 copies. 1 Of 
these it would seem that 583 were either lost in some manner — 
A rofit "supposed to be destroyed in binder's or printer's 
less un- hands " — or were defective from lacking plates ; this 
" ng would leave for sale only 1,417 perfect copies, which 
explains why the book is now rare. The net profits on the 
enterprise were computed at $154.10, of which neither Clark 
nor Biddle appears to have received a penny. The copper 
plates of the engraved maps became the property of the latter, 
and are now owned by his son, the Hon. Craig Biddle, of 
Philadelphia. To Clark was left the copyright. As for the 
heirs of Lewis, we find them 2 as late as 18 16-17 making appli- 
cation to Clark for their share of the earnings, " persuaded that 
profit arising from that work has been received," and being 
informed by the latter of the dismal result of the enterprise. 

Over two and a half years after the publication, a letter from 
Clark to Jefferson (October 10, 1816) 3 reveals the fact that 
the explorer had himself "not been so fortunate as to procure 
a single volume, as yet " — thus showing that Bradford, in the 
midst of his financial troubles, had not carried out the above- 
mentioned agreement with Biddle, to transmit a copy of the 
work to the man chiefly concerned in its appearance. 

The service of Biddle in editing the journals of the Lewis 
and Clark expedition, was a far more difficult literary 
of Biddie's undertaking than is commonly supposed. The en- 
tire mass of notes which he had before him may be 
thus roughly computed : 

Lewis and Clark journals (Amer. Philosophical 

Society codices) 900,000 words 

Gass Journal (as printed) 83,000 « 

Ord way Journal — unknown, but possibly . . 100,000 " 


To this we should add about 160,000 words in the Clark- 
Voorhis collection, later to be described, and undoubtedly at 

1 In this, I follow Coues. 

2 Coues, L. and C, i, pp. xciii, xciv. 
* Published in our Appendix. 

[ xliv ] 


one time in Biddle's hands ; and whatever additional notes he 
may himself have made during conversations with Clark and 
Shannon, or as the result of correspondence with the former 
— and they must have been copious. A large proportion of 
the scientific matter of the Lewis and Clark note-books, how- 
ever, which may have aggregated a fourth of the journals as a 
whole, had at the outset been eliminated by Clark and Biddle. 
This material, carefully copied out, was sent to Dr. Benjamin 
Smith Barton, an eminent naturalist in Philadelphia. 1 
Dr. Barton agreed to edit a special volume, " which proposed 
was to have been (by contract) prepared in six months 
from the time " of the appearance of the narrative of the 
journey. Owing to Barton's illness and consequent death, this 
" cientific part " 2 was not written. Thus, while the Biddle 
narrative gives a popular account of some of the principal discov- 
eries, the scientific data so laboriously kept by Lewis and Clark, 
chiefly the former, has not heretofore been published. 

It was Biddle's task to weave this mass of heterogeneous 
data into a readable paraphrase which should have unity and a 
simple and forceful literarv style. Adopting so far 

•ii J e \ • • i • i success- 

as possible the language of the original journals, ful para- 
where essential he amplifies and explains them from p 
his additional data — Clark and Shannon's verbal statements, 
and the Ordway and Gass journals, assisting him to a more 
complete understanding. The nearly 1,500,000 words of 
manuscript he condensed into 370,000 printed words. The 
first person plural is used, save where the captains are individ- 
ually mentioned, and then we have the third person singular. 
So skilfully is the work done, that probably few have realized 
that they had not before them the veritable jburnals of the 
explorers themselves, written upon the spot. The result will 
always remain one of the best digested and most interesting 
books of American travel, comparable in many respects with 
Astoria and Bonneville s Adventures — of course lacking Irving's 

1 A professor of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, and a vice-president 
of the American Philosophical Society. 

2 Clark's letter to Jefferson, dated St. Louis, Oct. 10, 1816, given in our 



charm of style, but possessing what Irving's two Western classics 
do not, the ring of truth, which never fails to appeal to those 
who love a tale of noble adventure in the cause of civilization. 1 
We have seen that Jefferson, who set on foot the expedition, 
had from the first expressed much concern in its records, both 
in the making and the publication. He had urged 

dissatisfied t ' ie ' r ear ty P rmtm g> an d on Lewis's death spurred 
Clark to action ; with what result, has been related. 
The dilatoriness of that performance — for which Clark, how- 
ever, was only partly responsible — fretted the great man. 
December 6th, 1813, he wrote to Baron von Humboldt: 
"You will find it inconceivable that Lewis's journey to the 
Pacific should not yet have appeared ; nor is it in my power 
to tell you the reason. The measures taken by his surviving 
companion, Clark, for the publication, have not answered our 
wishes in point of dispatch. I think, however, from what I 
have heard, that the mere journal will be out within a few 
weeks in two volumes, 8vo. These I will take care to send 
you with the tobacco seed you desired, if it be possible for 
them to escape the thousand ships of our enemies spread over 
the ocean. The botanical and zoological discoveries of Lewis 
will probably experience greater delay, and become known to 
the world through other channels before that volume will be 
ready. The Atlas, I believe, waits on the leisure of the 
engraver." 2 Nearly a hundred years have elapsed, and until 
the present work neither scientific data nor atlas has been given 
to the public. 

Three years later (18 16), we find Jefferson instituting a 
search for the manuscript journals of the explorers, with a 
view of placing them in the archives of the American 
searc"""^ Philosophical Society. He writes (April 26) 3 to 
Joufnalf P r °£ Joseph F. Correa da Serra, a botanist then 
holding membership in the Society, asking him in 
the cause of science to interest himself in the matter, and 

1 For a bibliographical account of the Biddle paraphrase, see Mr. Paltsits's Biblio- 
graphical Data in the present volume. 
8 See full text, in Appendix. 
* The correspondence here cited is given in full in the Appendix. 

[ xlvi ] 


describing in some detail the character of the documents — 
with which he was himself familiar, for he had handled them 
at Monticello. These papers, he informs Da Serra, " are the 
property of the government, the fruits of the expedition under- 
taken at such expence of money and risk of valuable lives. 
They contain exactly the whole of the information which it 
was our object to obtain for the benefit of our own country 
and of the world, but we were willing to give to Lewis and 
Clarke whatever pecuniary benefits might be derived from the 
publication, and therefore left the papers in their hands, taking 
for granted that their interests would produce a speedy publi- 
cation, which would be better if done under their direction, 
but the death of Cap! Lewis, the distance and occupations of 
General Clarke, and the bankruptcy of their bookseller, have 
retarded the publication, and rendered necessary that the gov- 
ernment should attend to the reclamation & security of the 
papers, their recovery is now become an imperious duty, 
their safest deposit as fast as they can be collected, will be the 
Philosophical society, who no doubt will be so kind as to 
recieve and preserve them, subject to the order of govern- 
ment. . . . As to any claims of individuals to these papers, it 
is to be observed that, as being the property of the public, we 
are certain neither Lewis nor Clarke would undertake to con- 
vey away the right to them, and that they could not convey 
them, had they been capable of intending it. . . . my inter- 
ference will, I trust, be excused, not only from the portion which 
every citizen has in whatever is public, but from the peculiar 
part I have had in the design and execution of this expedition." 
It appears that Biddle, who still held the majority of the 
note-books, was disinclined to surrender them to Jefferson 
save on order of Clark. September 8th, Jefferson wrote to 
the general, soliciting such an order, to " be given in favor 
either of the War office or myself. ... I should receive them 
only in trust for the War ofrke to which they belong, and 
take their orders relating to them." He wishes to deposit 
with the Philosophical Society " for safekeeping the travelling 
pocket journals as originals to be recurred to on all interesting 
questions arising out of the published journal ; " his desire 

[ xlvii ] — 


being to secure " to the world all the beneficial results we were 
entitled to expect from it [the expedition], and which would 
so fully justify the expences of the expedition incurred by the 
United States in that expectation." 

October ioth, Clark responds to Jefferson by enclosing "an 
Order on my friend M' Biddle for the papers in his posses- 
sion," Biddle being at the same time instructed, as his agent, 
"to collect all the Books, papers, specimens, &c." in the hands 
of Dr. Barton's heirs or others. Clark expresses interest in 
Jefferson's desire to collect the papers, and adds : " From the 
mortification of not haveing succeeded in giving to the world all 
the results of that expedition, 1 feel Relief & greatitude for the 
interest which you are willing to take, in effecting what has not 
been in my power to accomplish." Nevertheless, we shall 
presently see that Clark had retained in his possession at St. 
Louis five of his own original journals, nearly all the maps made 
by him upon the expedition, and many miscellaneous docu- 
ments concerning the enterprise; these he did not surrender. 

Jefferson now writes to Dr. John Vaughan of the Society 
(June 28, 1 8 17), saying that although Da Serra had obtained 
several note-books from Mr. Biddle and Mrs. Barton, con- 
siderable difficulty is being experienced in collecting all the 
documents. Evidently much annoyed, he proposes to bring 
pressure to bear, through the secretary of war, " that office 
having some rights to these papers." The further suggestion 
is made, that the Society publish " in their Transactions or 
otherwise," a digest of the " zoological, vegetable & minera- 
logical papers & subjects." 

On the eighth of April, 1818, we learn from the manu- 
script minutes of the corporation that " Mr. Nicholas Biddle 

dl deposited the original journals of Lewis and Clark, 

surrenders with an account of them and of those journals and 

note-books . . . , , j r>> tm 

documents which he was not possessed of. 1 he 
deposit consisted of eighteen note-books and twelve parcels of 
loose sheets ; of these, thirteen are in red-morocco covers — 
seven by Lewis and six by Clark. 1 

1 The correspondence touching upon this event will be found in full in the 

[ xlviii ] 


Here the records of Jefferson's search suddenly cease. 
Neither the federal government nor the American Philosoph- 
ical Society having decided to publish them, these 
precious manuscripts slumbered untouched for nearly H sed b ? 
seventy-five years in the library vault of the Society, 
practically unknown to historical scholars outside of that insti- 
tution. In 1892, Dr. Elliott Coues, eminent as a scientist and 
traveller, as well as an editor of American historical sources, 
was engaged in preparing the new edition of Biddle, to which 
frequent reference has already been made. Most if not all of 
his matter was before him in galley proofs, when he learned 
for the first time of the existence of the original manuscripts in 
Philadelphia. Armed with a letter from the explorer's son, 
Jefferson Kearny Clark, of St. Louis, Coues requested the loan 
of the note-books from their custodian. This was granted by 
the Society (vote of December 16), and the manuscripts were 
accordingly sent to him at Washington. Concluding that it 
was too late to block out the work afresh and discard Biddle's 
text, he compromised by enriching his notes with many cita- 
tions from the originals — unfortunately freely modernized, as 
was his custom with all the Western manuscripts which he 
edited; and from them he also compiled a new chapter in the 
Biddle style, which he inserted into the body of the book, as 
though a part of the Biddle text. His modified excerpts but 
served to whet the appetites of students of American history, 
and thus led to the project for their eventual publication in 
extenso and with literal accuracy. 

In returning the journals to the Society, Coues transmitted 
therewith a detailed report upon their scope and condition. 1 
While in his possession, he attached to each codex 

/ 1 1 \ j ... Coues's 

(note-book) a memorandum summarizing its contents, report on 
and to each gave an identifying letter, running from 
A to T. This was commendable ; but certain other liberties 
which he took with the manuscripts merit our condemnation 
— for in many codices he freely interlined the text with his 
own verbal changes and comments ; and in general appeared 

1 Published in American Philosophical Proceedings, xxi (No. 140), pp. 17-33 i 
reprinted, in abbreviated form, in our Appendix. 

* [ xlix ] 


to treat the material as though mere copy for the printer, which 
might be revised by him with impunity. Apparently the 
codices remained unopened after their return ; for it was not 
until the summer of 1903 that the Society authorities were 
made aware, by one who was examining them in detail, of the 
surprising treatment to which they had been subjected. 

The next chapter in the story opened in the spring of 1901, 
when the Society's Committee on Historical Manuscripts 
determined — in view of the forthcoming centennial 
caT'societ'" °^ t ^ le Louisiana Purchase — at last to carry out 
concludes Jefferson's suggestion, and secure the publication of 
the Lewis and Clark journals direct from the original 
manuscripts in their custody. They interested in this project 
the present publishers, who in turn engaged the writer as 
Editor of the work. 

In the course of consequent investigation into the sources, 
there came to view in the Society's library a few other Lewis 
and Clark items, besides the codices handled and labelled by 
Coues ; these were chiefly statistical tables regarding the West- 
ern Indians, a meteorological record, and a list of the explorers' 
specimens sent from Fort Mandan to the Society J — matters 
of considerable although not commanding importance. 2 

In Coues's report on the codices, occurs this note: "One 
of Clark's Journals is now in the possession of his son, [the 
late] Mr. Jefferson K. Clark, of St. Louis. I am 
Ordway not informed of the date covered by this volume, 
jouma nor ^ ^ e na ture of its contents." Upon assuming 
charge of the proposed publication, the present writer at once 
approached the heirs of General William Clark for permission 
to use the Ordway Journal, in case it could be found among 

1 See Appendix, for this document. 

2 Several copies of the Indian vocabulary blank prepared by Jefferson are also in 
the possession of the American Philosophical Society, having been presented by him 
in October, 1820. It consists of a sheet 7^ x i9X"> printed on both sides — 
although there are some which were printed on but one side of a sheet twice this 
width, the two pages standing side by side. Those filled out represent, among 
others, the Miami, Micmac, Shawnee, Chippewa, and Lenape languages ; while 
several are still blank. In the collection are no vocabularies which appear to have 
emanated from the Lewis and Clark expedition. 



the family papers. As the result of protracted negotiations, 
an unexpected situation was revealed. The third son and 
fourth child of General Clark and his first wife, Julia Han- 
cock, was George Rogers Hancock Clark, born at St. Louis in 
1816 and dying in 1858. This son was his father's executor, 
and as such came into possession of the explorer's papers and 
many other family relics, which he appears to have arranged 
and labelled with some care. Upon his death they descended 
to his eldest child, now Mrs. Julia Clark Voorhis of New York 
City, whose proprietary rights are at present shared with her 
daughter, Miss Eleanor Glasgow Voorhis. 

It appears that a few years ago Mrs. Voorhis began the 
examination of the collection with a view to selecting there- 
from, for a projected compilation of her own, certain 
documents which pertained to the public careers of Voorhis 
various members of the Clark family, particularly 
William and George Rogers. This examination was still pri- 
vately in progress when, in the autumn of 1903, the present 
Editor — quite unconscious of the existence of other historical 
manuscripts at the Voorhis home — appeared upon the scene 
with his application for the Ordway Journal. Indeed, the 
ladies themselves were as yet unaware of the full significance 
of their treasures, especially those appertaining to the great 
expedition. The result was that the writer in several visits 
personally completed the examination of the collection, with 
the papers of the expedition especially in view; and arrange- 
ments were concluded between the proprietors of the docu- 
ments and the publishers, by which all those essential to the 
complete narrative of the Lewis and Clark exploration are to 
be published in the present work. 

The Voorhis collection of Lewis and Clark material is of 
surprising richness, and consists of the following items : 

Clark Journals 

Red morocco note-book No. 1 — Diary, April 7-July 3, 1805; 
38,000 words, with 3 maps of the Falls of the Missouri. 

Field-book, bound in a rude piece of elk skin, secured by a thong 
and button, and undoubtedly carried in Clark's pocket upon the expedi- 



tion — Diary, Sept. 1 1— Dec. 31, 1805; 20,000 words, with over a 
dozen full-page sketch-maps of the trail over the mountains, and the 
neighborhood of Fort Clatsop, interwoven with the badly blurred text. 
On the skin cover is a rude plan of the fort itself. 

Red morocco note-book No. 2 — Diary, Jan. 30-April 3, 1806; 
41,000 words, with numerous pen sketches of canoes, birds, dwellings, 
tools, etc. by the same hand (Clark's) as those contained in Lewis's 
codices of similar dates, in the American Philosophical Society's 

Red morocco note-book No. 3 — Diary, April 4-June 6, 1806; 
35,000 words, with some sketch-maps. 

Fragment or Journal — Detached leaves, giving evidently first draft 
of entries, April 16-21, 1806 ; 2,300 words. 

Red morocco note-book No. 4 — No diary, but containing sundry 
notes and tables of weather, distances, astronomical and ethnological 
data — all covered, however, in more finished manuscripts in the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society's collection. There are also in this book 
four excellent colored maps. 

Miscellaneous Material 

An orderly book, by several hands, running from April 1 to Oct. 13, 
1804, and a detached entry for Jan. 1, 1806; detached orders promul- 
gated at River Dubois camp, Feb. 20 and March 4, 1804; also a few 
detached orders issued during the expedition. 

Ten letters (some of them drafts) — Lewis offering (June 19, 1803) 
Clark an equal partnership in command of the expedition ; Clark's 
acceptance thereof (July 17); Clark's letter to President Jefferson 
(July 24), informing him of this fact ; Lewis to Clark (Aug. 3), 
expressing his gratification at the latter's favorable response ; six others, 
chiefly by Clark, relating to various phases of the expedition. 

Letter of Clark to " Mr. Hugh Henry at the N. W. Co. establish- 
ments on the Assiniboin River," written from the Yellowstone, July 
20, 1806 (2,000 words); and Clark's order to Sergeant N. Pryor, dated 
July 25, 1806, directing him to take the aforesaid letter to Henry, 
together with twelve or fourteen horses (320 words). 

An address from the citizens of Fincastle and its vicinity to Captains 
Lewis and Clark, dated January 8, 1807 (300 words); and Clark's 
undated answer thereto (300 words). 

Numerous other letters and memoranda — among them the original 
of Jefferson's letter of credit ; Clark's various military commissions, 



before, during, and after the expedition ; fragmentary records of courses 
and distances, Indian tribes, weather data, and the like ; information 
concerning the Assiniboin country obtained from British traders at Fort 
Mandan; and one of Clark's speeches to the Indians, in 1806. 


Most important of all are about sixty detailed maps, for the most 
part made by Clark while on the trip, he being engineer of the detach- 
ment. Collectively, these illustrate the greater part of the journey 
both going and returning, indicate camping-places, and contain many 
interesting comments on the country and the Indians. These charts 
vary in size from eight inches square to several feet long. 

In addition to the above manuscripts, there are in this col- 
lection several oil paintings of the Claries — chiefly George 
Rogers and William — together with numerous valuable relics 
of these men, making of the Voorhis home a museum of great 
interest to students of Western history. 

Why did not General Clark surrender this wealth of manu- 
scripts either to the American Philosophical Society or to 
Jefferson, when the latter was searching for all the . 

documents of the expedition, stoutly claiming them esting 
as the undoubted property of the government ? The que 
probable answer is, that Biddle found the four Clark- Voorhis 
morocco note-books of no service to him ; for practically all 
the facts contained in them are either in Lewis's journals of 
similar dates or in other drafts by Clark. He doubtless re- 
turned the books to Clark, in the early stages of the work, 
keeping only those which later were placed in the Society's 
archives. It is probable, also, that the engraver having com- 
pleted such maps as he deemed necessary for the publication, 
all the charts made upon the expedition were returned to 
Clark. As for the skin-bound field-book, this having already 
been transcribed into a red morocco note-book, very likely 
the original did not go to Biddle at all ; the orderly book, the 
various fragments, the Lewis-Clark correspondence, and the 
letter of credit, were doubtless also retained at St. Louis as being 
deemed, for Biddle's purpose of a popular narrative, unusable 



material. On his part, it is probable that Clark had either 

forgotten the existence of these documents, or, like Biddle, 

. considered them as of relatively slight historical value. 

Ne erected «/ o 

manu- His seemingly careless treatment of them would 

appear to bear out the last conclusion. In all events, 
they remained among his papers untouched, until tied into 
packets and labelled by his son and executor, George Rogers 
Hancock Clark. 1 The manuscripts again suffered a long 
period of neglect, and eventually were sent to New York, 
where they became the property of Mrs. Voorhis, the story 
of whose connection with them has already been told. 

It has often been asserted that Sergeant Pryor wrote a journal 
p or °f tne expedition, and some have assumed that 

Floyd, Biddle used it in preparing the narrative of 1814; 

Frazier, and . . . r £. . 

Woodhouse but evidence to this effect is wanting — in any event, 
journals nQ Qne nQw seems to know the whereabouts of this 


The journal (12,500 words, covering the dates March 13 — 
August 18, 1804) of Sergeant Floyd, the only man of the 
party to meet death during the trip, 2 was in the spring of 1805 

1 General William Clark's appointment as Superintendent of Indian Affairs and 
Brigadier General of Militia for the Territory of Louisiana (1807) has already been 
noted in the text. In this dual part, he was eminently successful. Governor Lewis 
had been succeeded in that office by Benjamin Howard, and the following year (18 10) 
the name of the territory was changed to Missouri. July 1, 1813, Clark was ap- 
pointed by President Madison as governor of Missouri Territory, being several times 
recommissioned as such — in 1816, 1817, and 1820. In the last-named year, Mis- 
souri entered the Union, and Clark was a candidate for the first State governor, but 
was defeated in the election by Alexander McNair. In 1820, President Monroe 
appointed him to the newly created office of federal Superintendent of Indian Affairs ; 
two years later, he was commissioned as Surveyor General for the States of Illinois and 
Missouri and the Territory of Arkansas. He died at St. Louis, September 1st, 1838, 
in his sixty-ninth year, and was given an impressive funeral, in which the entire com- 
munity took part. Governor Clark was twice married — first, at Fincastle, Virginia, 
January 5, 1808, to Julia Hancock, who died in 1820, leaving four sons and a 
daughter ; second, at St. Louis, November 28, i82i,to Mrs. Harriet Kennedy Rad- 
ford, who died in 1831, leaving one son by William Clark. 

2 Floyd, aged about twenty years (possibly twenty-three), died near the site of 
the present Sioux City, Iowa, May 14th, 1804, and was buried on the top of a neigh- 
boring bluff. The site is now marked by a stately stone monument dedicated (May 
30, 1901) to his memory by the Floyd Memorial Association. See Reports of the 
association — First, 1897; Second, 1901. 

The Floyds were prominent Kentucky pioneers. Colonel John Floyd, the head 



sent from Fort Mandan to his parents in Kentucky, and event- 
ually became the property of the Wisconsin Historical Society. 
With many textual errors in transcription, it was published in 
1894 in the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 
with an introduction by Dr. James Davie Butler. 

Soon after the return of the expedition, Robert Frazier, one 
of the privates, solicited subscriptions in Vermont for a publi- 
cation of his journal, to be " contained in about 400 pages 
octavo ; " but it did not appear, and the present writer has no 
knowledge of the manuscript. 1 

The existence of a journal by Private Joseph Whitehouse 
was unknown until recently. It was purchased in San Fran- 
cisco by Dodd, Mead & Co., to be published in connection 
with the Original Journals of Lewis and Clark ; after having 
been edited for the press, the manuscript (containing 67,000 
words, covering the dates May 14, 1 804-November 6, 1805) 
was acquired from the publishers by Edward E. Ayer, the well 
known Chicago collector. 2 

of the family, was a friend and contemporary of Daniel Boone and George Rogers 
Clark. But little is known of the young sergeant's personal history, save that his 
father, also Charles, was a surveyor and a friend of Boone. Governor John Floyd, 
of Virginia, father of John B. Floyd, Buchanan's secretary of war, was a first cousin 
of the sergeant. Much prominence has been given to Sergeant Floyd, because he was 
the only man to suffer death upon this expedition, because it is thought that he was 
the first United States soldier to lose his life west of the Mississippi River, and because 
his captains praised him as a faithful man — see entry by Clark, post, under date 
August 20th, 1804. Floyd's Journal — which was discovered by the present writer 
among hitherto-neglected papers of the late Dr. Lyman C. Draper, in February, 1893 
— has of course greatly added to his reputation, and made of him a far more impor- 
tant character in the annals of the expedition than he otherwise would have been. 

1 See Appendix, for Frazier' s prospectus. 

2 Nothing appears to be known concerning the history of Joseph Whitehouse, save 
that he was one of the nine young Kentuckians whom Clark recruited for the expedi- 
tion. The manuscript of his journal was purchased by Dodd, Mead & Co. from 
Mrs. Gertrude Haley (widow of Captain John Haley), of San Francisco, from whom 
it has been impossible for the present Editor to obtain any very definite information 
concerning its career. According to Mrs. Haley's statements, obtained only after 
a protracted correspondence with her, it would appear that Whitehouse, when upon 
his death-bed (date unknown), gave the journal to his confessor, Canon de Vivaldi, 
who subsequently (i860) went as a Roman Catholic missionary to Patagonia. Upon 
leaving the United States, Vivaldi deposited the manuscript with the New York 
Historical Society, in whose museum it rested until 1893. In that year, Vivaldi was 
in Los Angeles, California. Captain and Mrs. Haley were stopping at the same 



Thus, seventy-five years after Jefferson's quest, and within 
the centennial year of the departure of the Lewis and Clark. 
, expedition from their preliminary camp on River 
now in Dubois, there have at last been located presumably 
all the literary records now extant, of that notable 
enterprise in the cause of civilization. The Original Journals, 
now definitively published to the world, in a dress which surely 
would have satisfied Jefferson, must create a new interest in 
the deeds of Lewis and Clark. They are, in the mass, much 
more extensive than the Biddle narrative ; the voluminous 
scientific data here given — in botany, zoology, meteorology, 
geology, astronomy, and ethnology — is almost entirely a fresh 
contribution; and we obtain from the men's note-books as 
written from day to day, a far more vivid picture of the ex- 
plorers and their life, than can be seen through the alembic of 
Biddle's impersonal condensation. 

The pages of the journals are aglow with human interest. 
The quiet, even temper of the camp ; the loving consideration 
that each of the two leaders felt for the other ; the 
viewTf magnanimity of Lewis, officially the leader, in equally 
Lew ' s . dividing every honor with his friend, and making no 
move without the latter's consent; the poetic tem- 
perament of Lewis, who loved flowers and animals, and in his 
notes discoursed like a philosopher who enjoyed the exercise 
of writing ; the rugged character of Clark, who wrote in brief, 
pointed phrase, and, less educated of the two, spelled phoneti- 
cally, capitalized chaotically, and occasionally slipped in his 
grammar — all these and more, are evident on every page ; 
causing the reader deeply to admire the men, and to follow 

hotel. Mrs. Haley says that her husband advanced money to the missionary, and 
was in return given an order on the New York Society for the journal, which the 
historian, Hubert Bancroft, had told them was of great value. Haley obtained the 
document in 1894, and it remained Mrs. Haley's property until sold to the present 
publishers. The Editor's attention had been directed to the manuscript because of 
its being offered to the Library of Congress. That institution declined to pay the 
price asked for it, and Dodd, Mead & Co.'s successful negotiations followed. The 
authenticity of the journal is self evident, and its historical value is considerable. 
While for the most part in the writing of Whitehouse, many entries are in other hands 
as will be noted in the publication of the document itself, in vol. vi of the present 



them in their often thrilling adventures with the keenest sym- 
pathy and anticipation. We shall henceforth know Lewis and 
Clark as we never knew them before. The Biddle narrative 
will no doubt continue to live as the brief popular account of 
an exploration fraught with great consequence to American 
expansion ; but at least the student of history will feel that the 
original records, as the men wrote them on the spot, are by far 
the more satisfying of the two. 

In preparing for the press these Original Journals of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, many editorial problems have 
arisen, which it is unnecessary here to discuss in 
detail. In brief, it may be said that the abundance Ed 1 *?"* 1 

t ' J problems 

of material has in itself often proved an embarrass- 
ment. As already stated, the two captains frequently rewrote 
their records ; for the most part, only the definitive form 
remains to us, but there are long periods for which we have 
two or more drafts. Then again, each leader freely copied 
from the other, although generally with some variation. In 
the case of the narrative proper, the Editor has, with a few ex- 
ceptions, thought best to retain the several drafts in the order of 
their preparation ; this method involves occasional repetition of 
statement, but in a publication of the original records it appears 
advisable to exhibit the literary methods of the explorers. With 
regard, however, to the statistical and scientific material, it has 
not seemed essential to publish the different drafts — the best 
only has been presented. In the department of Scientific Data, 
it will be noted that in a few instances some of the tabular matter 
has been co-ordinated, the sources being indicated either by 
differentiation in type or by explanatory foot-notes. Some of 
the tables were prepared by the explorers in -a manner quite 
impossible of reproduction in type. But wherever practicable, 
we have sought to imitate the original as closel as the limita- 
tions of typography will allow. 

We have seen that the codices in the possession of the 
American Philosophical Society contain many erasures, inter- 
lineations, and emendations — by Clark, Biddle, Coues, and 
an unknown hand. The scientific entries were generally crossed 
in red ink, with the note, " Copy for Dr. Barton ; " this meant 



that such matter was to be reserved for Barton's proposed 
volume on the scientific results of the expedition, which, how- 
ever, was not prepared. The present Editor has disregarded 
marks of this character. His method of indicating to the 
reader the various emendations, is explained in the foot-note to 
page 1 1 of the present volume, post. 

The arrangement of chapters follows the Biddle edition of 
1 8 14. In that narrative the chapters were of proper and 
nearly equal length ; whereas in this, owing to the greater 
extent of material, they are unequal and some of them abnor- 
mally extended. A new system of chaptering would have 
obviated this difficulty and thus presented a better mechanical 
appearance. Nevertheless, it has been deemed best to retain 
the Biddle chapters — they are convenient chronological and 
geographical divisions ; they are familiar to scholars, and thus 
have acquired a certain historical and bibliographical standing; 
moreover, comparisons between the Biddle paraphrase and the 
Original Journals will be facilitated by their retention. 

A work of this character, involving so wide a range of terri- 
tory, interests, and studies, must in considerable measure be 
co-operative in its character. The Editor's requests 
ed Ck ments ^ or a dvice and assistance have on every hand met 
with most cordial responses, for which a mere enum- 
eration of names seems only cold acknowledgment ; it is hoped 
that each of his correspondents and colleagues will between the 
lines read a heartier appreciation than to others may be appar- 
ent. The Bibliographical Data contributed to the present 
work by Mr. Victor Hugo Paltsits, of the New York Public 
Library, is a work of great value ; like the Original Journals 
themselves, this chapter on the literature of the subject will 
doubtless prove definitive. The officers of the American 
Philosophical Society, particularly the secretary, Dr. I. Minis 
Hays, have been kindness itself. Valuable notes on the sci- 
entific results of the expedition have been freely contributed 
by Dr. William Trelease, Director of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden at St. Louis ; Messrs. Stewardson Brown and Witmer 
Stone, assistants to the curators of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences at Philadelphia; Mr. James Newton Baskett, of 

[ lviii ] 


Mexico, Missouri; Professor Edwin H. Barbour, of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska ; Professor E. E. Blackman, archaeologist 
for the Nebraska Historical Society ; Professor Charles V. 
Piper, botanist and entomologist of the Washington (State) 
Agricultural and Experiment Station at Pullman ; and Pro- 
fessor Franklin H. King, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. Detailed information concerning the over-moun- 
tain trail of the expedition has been obtained from Mr. Olin 
D. Wheeler, of the General Passenger and Ticket Department 
of the Northern Pacific Railway, whose two-volume work, 
The Trail of Lewis and Clark, will prove of much practical value 
to American historians ; and Professor F. G. Young, of the 
University of Oregon. Mrs. Eva Emery Dye, of Oregon 
City, Oregon, has contributed most liberally from the surpris- 
ingly rich store of historical materials which, with remarkable 
enterprise and perseverance, she accumulated during her prepa- 
ration for the writing of The Conquest ; her persistent helpful- 
ness has laid the Editor under unusual obligations. Courtesies 
of various kinds have also been received from the following 
persons — to mention but a few of the many who, throughout 
the past two years, have aided the publication : Hon. Pierre 
Chouteau, and Hon. Walter B. Douglas, of St. Louis, mem- 
bers of the Missouri Historical Society, and the society's 
librarian, Miss Mary Louise Dalton ; Hon. Craig Biddle, of 
Philadelphia; Mrs. Laura E. Howey, secretary and librarian 
of the Historical and Miscellaneous Department of the Mon- 
tana State Library ; Mrs. S. Lou Monroe- Farmer, of Portland, 
Oregon ; Mr. Peter Koch, of Bozeman, Montana ; Mr. Charles 
H. Conover, of Chicago ; Mr. J. W. Cheney, librarian of the 
War Department, Mr. Robert Chapman, of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, Mr. C, H. Lincoln, of the Manu- 
scripts Division of the Library of Congress, and Major William 
Hancock Clark, of Washington, D. C. ; Mr. C. H. Anderson, 
of Ivy Depot, Virginia; Hon. Nathaniel P. Langford, of St. 
Paul; and Mr. William Harvey Miner, of Cleveland. 

Emma Helen Blair, A.M., editorial assistant upon The 
Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents and now one of the 
editors of The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, assisted materially 



upon a majority of the annotations; further help in this direc- 
tion, as well as in the difficult work of comparing transcriptions 
with the original manuscripts, has been rendered by Louise 
Phelps Kellogg, Ph.D., of the Manuscripts Division of the 
Wisconsin Historical Library. Finally, the Editor takes espe- 
cial pleasure in acknowledging the patient and kindly co- 
operation of the Publishers, who have exhibited the deepest 
interest in every detail of the work, which owes much to their 
many suggestions and their generous determination to leave 
nothing undone that might add to its scholarly value and 
artistic embellishment. 

R. G. T. 

Madison, Wisconsin 
May 14, 1904 




APART from a few insignificant references in the prefaces or 
introductions of some of the earlier editions of Lewis and 
,. Clark, the first attempt to record the publications related to 
the expedition of those explorers was made by Joseph Sabin in his 
Dictionary of Books relating to America, vol. vi, p. 443, under William 
Fisher; vol. vii, p. 1 8 1, under Patrick Gass ; and vol. x, pp. 310-313, 
under Merriwether Lewis. Unfortunately Sabin read into his record 
several titles or editions that never existed, and in his descriptions com- 
mitted a number of egregious errors, which have been only too freely 
copied and perpetuated by others. 

An incomplete list was given by Field in his Essay towards an Indian 
Bibliography (New York, 1873). 

The late Elliott Coues made the first comprehensive bibliographical 
study of these problematic books in his An Account of the various publi- 
cations relating to the Travels of Lewis and Clarke (jic), printed in the 
" Bulletin of the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories " 
(Hayden's), Second Series, No. 6, published by the Department of the 
Interior in 1876. A few copies thereof were also issued as separates. 
This material Coues "recast and improved" for his 1893 edition of the 
Lewis and Clark History ; it appears in vol. i, pp. cvii— cxxxii. In many 
respects it is a worthy endeavor, especially if regarded as a pioneer effort ; 
yet it must be admitted that it teems with errors, some of which are 

There are some brief bibliographical notes in HubeVt Howe Bancroft's 
Northwest Coast, vol. ii. pp. 7, 8, 31, which present some inaccuracies. 
The same may be said of Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History 
of America, vol. vii, pp. 556—558. 

The latest attempt to cover the subject was made by William Harvey 
Miner, in The Literary Collector, vol. iii (1902), pp. 204-209. The 
form is poor; the collations are not nearly accurate, and numerous 
errors perpetuated from Coues and Sabin, as well as some omissions, 
detract fiom its usefulness as a bibliography. 



In order to serve its real purpose — namely, to afford the scholar, the 
librarian, and the collector media for determining what is a complete 
work — a monographic bibliography must give in minutest detail an 
analysis of each volume. Only by this method can imperfections and 
variations be determined. Starting out with this ideal in view, I have 
endeavored to find and examine one or more copies of every work 
related to the expedition. This task was great, but an insatiable appe- 
tite would not permit deviation from this plan. If the results attained 
prove at all of service, the compiler will consider himself rewarded for 
his arduous labor. 

The material is arranged in five chronological groups, namely : Jeffer- 
son's Message (1806-1808); Counterfeit Publications (1809-1851); 
Gass (1807-1904) ; Genuine History (1 814-1904) ; Miscellanea 
(1804—1904). Only a few analytical references have been included, on 
account of their special importance, and magazine articles have inten- 
tionally been barred. The various editions of Jefferson's Writings and 
Works, edited by Washington and by Ford, are worth consulting for 
valuable materials. References to the official publications of the gov- 
ernment of the United States, not included here, are given by another 
hand at the end of my bibliography. 

The following key is explanatory of the abbreviations used to locate 
copies : 

AAS = American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 

BA = Boston Athenaeum 

BM = British Museum, London 

BPL = Boston Public Library 

C = Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

CHC = Collection of Charles H. Conover, Esq., Chicago 

CHS = Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford 

CU = Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 

EI = Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

HC = Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 

HSP = Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

LCP = Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia 

MHS =r Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston 

NA = New York Public Library (Astor Library Building) 

NL ei New York Public Library (Lenox Library Building) 

NYHS = New York Historical Society, New York 

NYSL = New York State Library, Albany 

WD = War Department Library, Washington, D. C. 

WHS = State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison 

[ Ixii ]. 




Message | from the | President of the United States, | communicating | 
Discoveries | made in exploring | the Missouri, Red River and Washita, | 
by I Captains Lewis and Clark, Doctor Sibley, | and | Mr. Dunbar ; | 
with I a Statistical Account | of the | countries adjacent. | February 19, 
1806. [ Read, and ordered to lie on the table. | 

City of Washington : | A. & G. Way, Printers. | 1806. | 

8vo ; title, verso blank ; " Message ", pp. [3] and 4 ; " Extract of a Letter 
from Captain Meriwether Lewis, | to the President of the United States, dated | 
Fort Mandan, April 17th, 1805", pp. [5J-8 ; "A Statistical View", 
pp. [9^—65 ; "Historical Sketches", pp. [66J-86 ; "To General Henry 
Dearborn ", signed by John Sibley, pp. 87-112; "Distances up Red river by 
the course of the river", pp. 11 3-1 15; " Observations ", etc., pp. 116-171; 
" Meteorological observations ", pp. (7) ; two folded broadsides, to follow pp. 30 
and 34. Signatures: [l]-z2 in fours, 23 in two (the last leaf blank). 

This is the original and official edition, as well as the first separate publication 
with data on the expedition of Lewis and Clark. 

Copies : AAS ; BM ; BPL ; C ; CHC ; CHS ; CU ; EI ; HC ; LCP ; 


Message | from the | President of the United States, | communi- 
cating I Discoveries | made in exploring the | Missouri, Red River, 
and Washita, | by | Captains Lewis and Clark, Doctor Sibley, | and 
Mr. Dunbar ; | with | a Statistical Account | of the | countries adja- 
cent. I Read in Congress, February 19, 1806. | 

New-York : | Printed by Hopkins and Seymour, | and sold by G. F. 
Hopkins, No. 118, Pearl-Street. | 1806. | 

8vo ; title, verso blank ; " Message", pp. [3] and 4 ; '• Extract of a Letter 
from Captain Meriwether Lewis, | to the President of the United States, dated | 
Fort Mandan, April 17th, 1805", pp. [5J-8 ; "A Statistical View ", pp. [9]- 
47 ; "Historical Sketches", pp. [483-62 ; "To General Henry Dearborn ", 
signed by John Sibley, pp. 63-81 ; "Distances up Red river by the course of 
the river", pp. 82-83; "Observations", pp. 84-125; "Meteorological 
Observations", beginning on p. 125-128 ; table of "Siouxs proper " to follow 
p. 25. Signatures : [A]-Q in fours. 

Copies : AAS (uncut copy) ; BPL ; CHC ; LCP ; NYHS ; WHS. 

[ lxiii ] 



Discoveries | made in exploring | the Missouri, Red River | and 
Washita, | by | Captains Lewis and Clark, Doctor Sibley, | and | 
William Dunbar, Esq. | with | a Statistical Account | of the | Coun- 
tries adjacent. | With an Appendix by Mr. Dunbar. | 

Natchez: | Printed by Andrew Marschalk, | 1806. | 

8vo ; title, verso blank ; " Message ", pp. [3] and 4 ; " Extract of a letter 
from Captain Meriwether Lewis, to the Prefident of the United States, dated 
Fort Mandan, April 17th, 1805", pp. [5]-8 ; "A statistical View of the 
Indian Nations", pp. [9J-64 ; "Historical Sketches of the several Indian 
Tribes of Louisiana " , pp. f65]— 83 ; "To General Henry Dearborn, Secretary 
of War", signed by John Sibley, pp. 84-109 ; "Distances up Red river by the 
course of the river", pp. 1 1 0-1 iz ; " Observations ", pp. 1 13—164 ; "Extracts 
from the Appendix", pp. [1653-166, 159-169; "Meteorological observa- 
tions", pp. 170-177 ; verso of last leaf blank. Two pages 127, also erratic 
pagination after 166. Signatures: [A]-W in fours, X in six. 

The only copy which I have seen was one kindly loaned to me by Dr. Samuel 
A. Green, of Boston, Mass., purchased by him many years ago in Paris, France. 
It appears not to be in the various libraries which I have visited, but the British 
Museum has a copy. 


The I Monthly Anthology, | and | Boston Review, | Containing ] 
Sketches and Reports | of | Philosophy, Religion, History, | Arts and 
Manners, | Omnes undique flosculos carpam atque delibem. | Vol. 3? | 
1806. I 

Boston I Published by | Munroe & Francis | N° 7 Court Street. | 
1806 I Callender Sc? | 

8vo. The appendix, entitled, " The Political Cabinet ", consists of 96 pp. 
On pp. 39, ff. Jefferson's Message of February 19, 1806 and other documents 
are printed in part. 

[Same title] Vol. 4'. h | 1807 | Boston | Published by | Munroe & Francis | 
N° 7 Court Street. | 1 807 | Callender ScP | The appendix of this fourth vol- 
ume, also entitled, "The Political Cabinet", consists of 80 pp. On pp. 6, ff. 
is printed a "Letter from Capt. Clark", dated at "St. Louis, 23d Sept. 1806." 

These descriptions are from a set in MHS. Also in WHS. 


Travels | in the | Interior Parts of America ; | communicating | 
Discoveries | made in exploring | the Missouri, Red River and 
Washita, | by | Captains Lewis and Clark, Doctor Sibley, | and | 

[ Ixiv ] 


Mr. Dunbar; | with | a Statistical Account | of the | Countries adja- 
cent. | As laid before the Senate, | by the | President of the United 
States. | In February, 1806, | and never before published in Great 
Britain. | 

London : | Printed for Richard Phillips, 6, Bridge Street, j Black- 
friars, I By J. G. Barnard, 57, Snow-hill. | 1807. I 

8vo ; title, verso blank; text in composite, pp. [33-24, 17-1 16. Signatures : 
A — C, C — O in fours, P in two. Folded table of " Siouxs Proper" at p. 24 
of first series of pagination. 

This edition is part of Richard Phillips's A | Collection | of | Modern and 
Contemporary | Voyages [ and | Travels : | . . . | . . . | . . . | . . . | . . . | 
... I ... I ... I ... I Vol. VI. I 

The copy described > is in HC. It is also in BM ; C ; CHC ; NYSL ; 


American | State Papers, | containing | Authentic Documents | rela- 
tive to I the History, Politicks, Statisticks, &c. | of the | United States 
of America. | Communicated | to Congress by the President. | 

Boston : | Printed by Munroe, Francis, & Parker, | No. 4, Cornhill. | 
1808. I 

8vo. On pp. 39, ff. Jefferson's Message of February 19, 1806 and other 
documents are printed in part ; and on pp. 6, ff. the " Letter from Capt. 
Clark", dated at "St. Louis, 23d Sept. 1806." It is a reissue, with separate 
title-page, of the appendixes from the Monthly Anthology, vols. 3 and 4. 

The description is from a copy in MHS. Also in WHS. 1 

1 Jefferson's Message of February 19th, 1806, was printed many times in collected 
works, without the accompanying documents, of which the following is by no means 
a complete list : (1) Addresses and Messages. New York : Charles Lohman, 1837 ; 
(2) Addresses and Messages. New York: Edward Walker, 1841 ; (3) Addresses 
and Messages. New York : Edward Walker, 1846 ; (4) True American. By 
Joseph Coe. Concord, N. H. : Morrill, Silsby & Co., 1*41 ; (5) Statesman's 
Manual. By E. Williams. New York: Edward Walker, 1853; (6) Richard- 
son's Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Washington : Government Printing 
Office, 1896-99; (7) Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Edited by H. A. Washington. 
Washington, D. C. : Taylor & Maury, 1853-54; (8) Writings. [Idem]. New 
York : J. C. Riker, 1854-56 ; (9) Works. [Idem]. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott & Co., 1864; (10) Works. [Idem]. New York: Townsend MacCoun, 
1884 It is not in Paul Leicester Ford's collection of Jefferson' s Writings. 





The I Travels | of | Capts. Lewis & Clarke, | by order of the | 
Government of the United States, | performed in the years 1804, 1805, 
& 1806, J being upwards of three thousand miles, from | St. Louis, by 
way of the Missouri, and | Columbia Rivers, to the | Pacifick-Ocean : | 
Containing an Account of the Indian Tribes, who inhabit | the Western 
part of the Continent unexplored, | and unknown before. | With copi- 
ous delineations of the manners, cus- | toms, religion, &c. of the 
Indians. | Compiled | From various authentic sources, and Documents. | 
To which is subjoined, | A Summary of the Statistical view of the 
Indian | Nations, from the Official Communication of | Meriwether 
Lewis. J Embellished with a Map of the Country inhabited by | the 
Western tribes of Indians, and five Engravings | of Indian Chiefs. | 

Philadelphia: | Published by Hubbard Lester. | 1809. | Price — 
1 dollar 62J cts. | 

1 zmo ; title, with copyright on verso; "Recommendation" of Jefferson, 
verso blank; "Message", verso blank; "Introduction", pp. [vii]-xi ; 
"Estimate", p. xii ; "Travels to the Pacifick Ocean", pp. [13]— 153; 
"Statistical View", pp. [154] — 178 ; "Historical Sketches of the several 
Indian Tribes in Louisiana ", pp. [179]— 204; " Origin ", pp. 204-228; 
" Observations ", pp. [229J-292 ; "Anecdotes", pp. 293—300. Five por- 
traits, of "Sioux Warrior", "Sioux Queen", " Mahas King", " Ottoes 
Queen", and "Serpentine Chief"; also folded map, entitled, "Map of the 
Country Inhabited by the Western Tribes of Indians". Two of the plates in 
different copies exhibit a curious metamorphosis, by serving in one case for mas- 
culinity and in the other for femininity, namely, as " Mahas King " and " Mahas 
Queen"; " Ottoes Chief " and " Ottoes Queen". Signatures: [A]-BB in 

Copies : C; CHC ; NL (lacks map) ; NYHS (two copies, one lacks map). 


The I Travels | of | Capts. Lewis & Clarke, | from | St. Louis, by 
way of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers, | to the | Pacific Ocean ; | 
performed in the years 1804, 1805, & 1806, | by order of the | Gov- 
ernment of the United States. | Containing | Delineations of the Man- 
ners, Customs, I Religion, &c. | Of the Indians, | compiled from | 
Various Authentic Sources, and Original Documents, | and | a Summary 

[ Ixvi ] 


of the Statistical View of | the Indian Nations, | from the official 
communication of | Meriwether Lewis. | Illustrated with a Map of 
the Country, inhabited by the | Western Tribes of Indians. | 

London : | Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, | Pater- 
noster Row. | 1809 |. 1 

8vo ; title, with printer's name on verso; " Message ", pp. [iii]-iv ; "In- 
troduction," pp. [v]— ix; one blank page; "Travels to the Pacific Ocean", 
pp. [i]-i56; "Statistical View", pp. 157-183; "Historical Sketches of 
the several Indian Tribes in Louisiana", pp. 184-210; " Origin of the Ameri- 
can Indian Population", pp. zn-237; " Observations ", pp. 238-307; 
"Common Names of some of the Trees", etc., pp. 308-309 ; verso of p. 309 
blank. P. 38 is misprinted 83. Folded "Map of the Country Inhabited by 
the Western Tribes of Indians", engraved by Neele. Signatures: A in five, 
B-U in eights, X in two, Y in one. 

Copies : BM ; C ; CHC ; HC ; NL ; NYHS ; NYSL. 

181 1 

Die I Reisen | der Capitaine | Lewis und Clarke; | unternommen | 
auf Befehl der | Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten | in den Jahren 
1804, J 8o5 und 1806, I iiber | eine Landerstrecke von mehr als 3000 
Meilen, | von St. Louis, auf dem Missouri und | Columbia, nach dem 
stillen Meer. | Enthaltend : | Eine Beschreibung der Indianischen V61- 
kerstamme, | welche dem westlichen Theil von Nord-America, | der 
uns bisher unbekannt und unentdeckt | war, bewohnen. | Samt | einer 
statistischen Uebersicht der Indianer Nationen, | aus dem Official 
Bericht von | Meriwether Lewis. | [Mit vier Abbildungen Indianischer 
Konige.] I 

Libanon, (P.) | Gedruckt bey Jacob Stover. — 1811. | 

i8mo; title, verso blank; " Empfelung ", with " Vorbericht " on verso, 
1 leaf; " Reise nach dem stillen Meer", pp. [5]— 23 ; " Statistische Ueber- 
sicht", pp. 23-33; " Beobachtungen ", pp. 34—47; "Louisiana", pp. 
47—5 1 ; " Ueber den Ursprung der Indianer", pp. 52*-59 ; " Anekdote ", 
pp. 59-60. Signatures: 1-5 in sixes. 

On p. 60 the publisher says : " 8@~ Die unerwartet grosse Ermunterung, die 
diese gegenwartige Reisebeschreibung durch eine zahlreiche Subscription von 
einem geehrten Publikum erhalten hat, und wofur der Herausgeber hiermit seinen 
aufrichtigsten Dank abstattet " [etc.]. 

The only copy I have found is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 
(Cassel Collection). 

1 See Eclectic Review for November, 1 809, p. 1052, for a caustic review of this pub- 
lication, which is reprinted in Monthly Anthology and Boston Review, viii, p. 142. — Ed. 

[ lxvii ] 



Die I Reisen | der Capitaine | Lewis und Clarke; | unternommen | 
auf Befehl der | Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten | in den Jahren 
1804, 1805 und 1806, I iiber | eine Landerstrecke von mehr als 3000 
Meilen, | von St. Louis, auf dem Missouri und | Columbia, nach dem 
stillen Meer. | Enthaltend : | Eine Beschreibung der Indianischen 
Volkerstamme, | welche den westlichen Theil von Nord-Amerika, I 
der uns bisher unbekannt und unentdeckt | war, bewohnen. | Samt 
einer statistischen Uebersicht der Indianer Nationen, | aus dem Official 
Bericht von | Meriwether Lewis. | [Mit Abbildungen Indianischer 

Friedrichstadt : | Gedruckt bey M. Bartgis. — 1812. | 

l2mo ; title, verso blank ; " Empfehlung " [extract from Jefferson's Message], 
P- [3] 5 " Vorbericht ", p. [4] ; " Reise nach dem stillen Meer", pp. [5]- 
11;" Bericht des Capitains Clarke, in einem Briefe an den Gouvernor Harri- 
son. Fort Madan, den 2ten April, 1806", pp. 12-15; " Brief des Capt. 
Clarke an seinen Bruder. St. Louis, den zzten Sept. 1806", etc., pp. 15-24; 
" Statistische Uebersicht aller westlichen Indianer Stamme ", pp. 24-36; 
" Beobachtungen iiber die Sitten u. Gebrauche die Indianer", pp. 36-51; 
"Louisiana", pp. 51-56; " Ueber den Ursprung der Indianer ", pp. 56-64. 
Signatures: A-E in sixes, F in two. The third leaf of sig. D is misnumbered 
Cj. A complete copy, apparently, should have several cuts of Indian chiefs 
(" Abbildungen Indianischer Konige"). 

This little pamphlet, printed at Frederick, Maryland, is entirely unknown to 
bibliographers, and Seidensticker did not know of a single item printed there 
during the year 1812. The only copy I have located is owned by Charles H. 
Conover, Esq., of Chicago, who kindly loaned it to me for this study. It has 
not the cuts of Indian chiefs which the title-page calls for. 

1812 (FISHER) 

An I interesting Account* | of the | Voyages and Travels | of | Cap- 
tains Lewis and Clark, | in the Years 1804, 1805, and 1806. | Giving 
a faithful description of the river Missouri and | its source — of the 
various tribes of Indians through | which they passed — manners and 
customs — soil — climate | — commerce — gold and silver mines — 
animal and vege- | table productions interspersed with very enter- | 
taining anecdotes, and a variety of other useful and | pleasing informa- 
tion remarkably calculated to de- | light and instruct the readers. — To 
which is added a | complete dictionary of the Indian tongue. | By 
William Fisher, Esq. | 

Baltimore. | Printed by Anthony Miltenberger, | For the Purchasers. | 
1812. I 

[ lxviii ] 


Sm. 1 2mo ; two frontispieces, Lewis and Clark ; title, verso blank ; " Rec- 
ommendation ", p. (l); "Message", pp. (2); " Introduction ", pp. [x]- 
xiv; "Estimate", p. xv ; text, pp. [163-326. Pp. 179 and 265 are mis- 
paged 178 and 295, respectively. Signatures: [A]-Bb in sixes, Cc in one. 

Copies : BM ; BPL ; C ; CHC ; NYHS. 

1812 (FISHER) 

New Travels | among the | Indians of North America; | being | a 
compilation, taken partly from the communications already | published, 
of j Captains Lewis and Clark, | to the ] President of the United States ; | 
and I partly from other authors who travelled among | the Various 
Tribes of Indians. | Containing | a variety of very pleasant anecdotes, 
remarkably calculated | to amuse and inform the mind of every curious 
reader ; | with | a Dictionary of the Indian Tongue. | Compiled | by 
William Fisher, Esqr. | 

Philadelphia : | Published by James Sharan. | J. Maxwell, printer. | 
1812. I 

i2mo; two leaves with portraits of Lewis and Clark; title, with "Copy- 
right secured" on the verso; a second title: "The | Voyages and Travels | 
of I Captains Lewis and Clarke", with verso blank; "Recommendation", 
p. (1); " Message ", pp. (2); one blank page ; " Introduction ", pp. [vii]- 
xi ; "An Estimate", etc. on p. xii ; "Travels to the Pacific Ocean", etc., 
pp. [i3]-i53; "Statistical View", pp. [1543-178; "Historical Sketches 
of the several Indian Tribes in Louisiana", pp. [1793—204; "Origin", pp. 
204-228; " Observations ", pp. [2293-292; " Anecdotes ", pp. [2933-300. 
The pagination of 155 is inverted in some copies. In most copies the second 
title-page is lacking. Signatures : Two leaves with portraits : | Main title-page, 
A — BB in sixes. 

Copies : BM ; C ; CHC ; NA ; NL ; NYHS ; NYSL ; WHS. 

1813 (FISHER) 

An I interesting Account | of the | Voyages and. Travels | of | Cap- 
tains Lewis and Clarke, | in the Years 1804—5, & 6. | Giving a 
faithful description of the river Missouri and | its source — of the various 
tribes of Indians through | which they passed — manners and customs 
— soil I — climate — commerce — gold and silver | mines — animal 
and vegetable | productions. | Interspersed | With very entertaining 
anecdotes, and a variety of | other useful and pleasing information, 
re- j markably calculated to delight and | instruct the readers. | To 
which is added | A complete Dictionary of the Indian Tongue | By 
William Fisher, Esq. | 

[ lxix 3 


Baltimore: | Printed and published by P. Mauro, | N° 10, North 
Howard St. | 1 8 13. | 

1 2mo ; title, verso blank ; "Recommendation", p. (1); "Message", pp. 
[vi]-vii; "Introduction", pp. [viii]-xi ; "Estimate", p. (1) ; text, pp. 
[i3]-266. There are no pp. 125, 126, 149, 150, 179, 180, 209, 210; 
and pp. 173, 174 are repeated. Signatures: [A]-X in sixes, Y in three. 
Three illustrations, at pp. 35, 80, 230. 

Copies: BPL (lacks one plate) ; C; CHC ; NYSL ; WHS. 


The I Journal | of | Lewis and Clarke, | to the Mouth of the 
Columbia River | beyond the Rocky Mountains. | In the Years 1804-5, 
& 6. I Giving a faithful description of the river Missouri | and its source 
— of the various tribes of Indians | through which they passed — man- 
ners and cus- | toms — soil — climate — commerce — gold and | silver 
mines — animal and vegetable | productions, &c. | New Edition, with 
Notes. I Revised, corrected, and illustrated with numerous | wood cuts. | 
To which is added | a complete dictionary of the Indian tongue. I 

Dayton, O. | Published and sold by B. F. Ells. | John Wilson, 
Printer. | 1840. | 

l6mo; two leaves with portraits; title, with advertisement and copyright 
on the verso ; extracts from " Message ", etc., pp. (2); " Preface ", pp. [ix]— 
xii ; text, pp. [15]— 224; "Dictionary of Indian Words and Phrases", pp. 
[2253—234; "Appendix", pp. 234-237; "Contents", pp. [238]-240. 
Page [xiii] is blank. Plates : Portraits of Lewis and of Clark, before the title ; 
other illustrations on pp. [xiv], 18, 39, 44, 68, 82, 84, 98, 105, m, 126, 
138, 176, 222. Signatures: [i]-i5 in eights. 

Copies : BPL (lacks portraits) ; C ; CHC ; HSP ; NYHS ; WHS. 



The Journal of Lewis and Clarke. Dayton : Ells, Claflin & Co. 
1 85 1. i2mo, pp. 240. 

This title is given in Sabin's Dictionary of Books relating to America, No. 
40832. I have not been able to authenticate his reference, and it has not been 
found in any collection or library known to me. 





A Journal | of the | Voyages and Travels | of a Corps of Discovery, | 
under the command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. | Clarke of the army of 
the United States, | from | the mouth of the river Missouri through the | 
interior parts of North America | to the Pacific Ocean, | during the 
years 1804, 1805 & 1806. | Containing | An authentic relation of 
the most interesting transactions | during the expedition, — A descrip- 
tion of the country, — | And an account of its inhabitants, soil, climate, 
curiosities | and vegetable and animal productions. | By Patrick Gass, | 
one of the persons employed in the expedition. | With | Geographical 
and Explanatory Notes | by the publisher. | [Copy-right secured accord- 
ing to law.] 

Pittsburgh, | printed by Zadok Cramer, | for David M'Keehan, Pub- 
lisher and I Proprietor 1807. | 

i8mo; title, with copyright on verso ; " Preface ", pp. [iii]-viii ; half-title, 
verso blank; text, pp. [n]-26z. No illustrations. Signatures: A-Y in 
sixes, the last blank. 

Copies: BA; BM (two copies); C; CHC ; CHS; HC ; HSP ; LCP ; 


A I Journal | of the | Voyages and Travels | of | a Corps of Dis- 
covery, ] under the CoTnmand of Captain Lewis and | Captain Clarke, 
of the Army of | the United States; | from the mouth of the | River 
Missouri, | through the | Interior Parts of North America, | to the 
Pacific Ocean; | during the years 1804, 1805, & 1806. | Containing | 
An Authentic Relation of the most interesting Transactions during | 
the Expedition : A Description of the Country : And an | Account of 
its Inhabitants, Soil, Climate, Curiosities, | and Vegetable and Animal 
Productions. | By Patrick Gass, | One of the Persons employed in the 
Expedition. | 

Pittsburgh: Printed for David M'Keehan. | London: Re-printed 
for J. Budd, Bookseller to | His Royal Highness the Prince of | Wales, 
Pall-Mail. 1808. I 

8vo ; title, with printers' name on verso ; " Advertisement by the English 
Publisher", pp. [iii]-iv ; "Preface, by the American Publisher", pp. [«]~9 ; 

[ lxxi ] 


one blank page; half-title to Journal, with verso blank; "Journal | of the | 
Voyages and Travels, &c. &c", pp. 13-381 ; verso of the last page blank; 
"Books lately published by J. Budd ", pp. (2). Signatures: [A] in two, 
B-BB in eights. Published in paper covers with label-title, " Gass's | Voy- 
ages I and I Travels | through | North America. | 9 s." 

Copies: AAS; CHC ; HSP ; MHS ; NA; NL; NYHS ; NYSL ; WHS. 


Voyage | des Capitaines | Lewis et Clarke, | Depuis l'embouchure 
du Missouri, jusqu'a l'entree | de la Colombia dans l'Ocean Pacifique; | 
fait dans les annees 1804, 1805 et 1806, | par ordre du gouvernement 
des Etats-Unis : | contenant | Le Journal authentique des Evenements 
les plus remar- | quables du Voyage, ainsi que la Description des | 
Habitants, du Sol, du Climat, et des Productions | animales et vegetales 
des pays situes a l'ouest de | l'Amerique Septentrionale. | Redige en 
Anglais par Patrice Gass, Employe dans | l'Expedition ; | Et traduit en 
Francais par A. J. N. Lallemant, | l'un des Secretaires de la Marine. | 
Avec des Notes, deux Lettres du Capitaine Clarke, | et une Carte 
gravee par J. B. Tardieu. | 

A Paris, | Chez Arthus-Bertrand, Libraire, rue Hautefeuille, n° 23. | 
1810. I 

8vo; half-title, with publisher's list on verso; title, verso blank; "Mes- 
sage", pp. [v]-vij ; one blank page; "Preface de l'editeur americain ", pp. 
[ix]-xviij ; text, pp. [13-415 ; " Lettre du capitaine Clarke a S. E. le gouver- 
neur Harrison", dated "Fort Mandanne, 2 avril 1805", pp. 416-422; 
" Lettre du capitaine Clarke a son frere le general Clarke ", dated " Saint-Louis, 
23 septembre 1806", pp. 423-432; "Table des Chapitres", pp. 433-443; 
verso of last page blank. Colophon at the foot of p. 443, thus: " De l'lm- 
primerie de M e V" Jeunehomme, | Rue Hautefeuille, n° 20." Page 358 is 
mispaged 258. Signatures: Nine preliminary leaves, sig. 1-27 in eights, 28 
in six. Folded map, engraved by J. B. Tardieu, entitled : " Carte | Pour ser- 
vir au Voyage | des Cap e . s Lewis et Clarke, | a l'Ocean Pacifique." It 
measures 7^ by 91^ inches. 

Copies: BM; BPL; CHC; HC ; NYHS; NYSL. 


A I Journal | of the | Voyages and Travels | of a Corps of Dis- 
covery, I under the command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. j Clarke of 
the army of the United States, | from | the mouth of the river Missouri 
through the | interior parts of North America | to the Pacific Ocearr, | 
During the Years 1804, 1805 and 1806. | Containing | An authentic 

[ lxxii ] 


relation of the most interesting transac- | tions during the expedition, — 
A description of | the country, — And an account of its inhabi- | tants, 
soil, climate, curiosities and ve- | getable and animal productions. | By 
Patrick Gass, | one of the persons employed in the expedition. | With 
geographical and explanatory notes. | Second Edition — with six en- 
gravings. | [Copy-Right secured according to Law.] 

Philadelphia : | Printed for Mathew Carey, | No. 122, Market- 
street. I 1 8 10. I 

1 zmo ; title, with copyright on verso; "Preface by the publisher of the 
first edition", pp. [iii]-viii; half-title, with verso blank, forming pp. [9-10]; 
"Journal", pp. [n]-26z. Signatures: A-Y in sixes, the last leaf blank. 
This is the first Gass which has plates, as follows: Frontispiece, to p. 220, 
"A Canoe striking on a Tree "; opp. p. 26, "Captains Lewis & Clark hold- 
ing a Council with the Indians"; opp. p. 60, "Captain Clark & his men 
building a line of Huts"; opp. p. 95, "Captain Clark and his men shooting 
Bears"; opp. p. 239, "An American having struck a Bear but not killed him, 
escapes into a Tree" ; opp. p. 245, "Captain Lewis shooting an Indian." 
These cuts are very crude, artistically considered, and are insets. 

The subject-matter and locadon of the plates in Carey's three edidons, 18 10, 
181 1, 1 81 2, are the same, but the plates as engraved differ in each edition. 
For example, the bear. in the plate to page 239 of the 18 10 edition looks like a 
Newfoundland dog ; in the other editions he looks either like a pig or anything 
other than a bear. On the whole, the best illustrations are those of the 181 2 
edition, and this has a map of Louisiana not in the preceding editions. The 
three editions are typographically different. 

Copies of 1810 edition: CHC ; HC; HSP ; LCP ; NYHS ; NYSL; WHS. 


Journal | of the | Voyages and Travels | of | a Corps of Discovery, | 
Under the command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke | of the army of 
the United States, | from the mouth of the river Missouri through | the 
interior parts of North America | to the Pacific Ocean, | During the 
Years 1804, 1805, and 1806. | Containing | An authentic relation of 
the most interesting transactions | during the expedition ; a description 
of the country ; | and an account of its inhabitants, soil, cli- | mate, 
curiosities, and vegetable | and animal productions. | By Patrick Gass, | 
One of the persons employed in the expedition. | With geographical and 
explanatory Notes. | Third Edition — With six Engravings. | [Copy- 
right secured according to Law.] 

Printed for Mathew Carey, | No. 122 Market Street, | Philadelphia. | 
1811. I 

[ lxxiii ] 


i2mo; title, with copyright on verso; "Preface. By the publisher of the 
first edition ", pp. [iii]-viii ; half-title (Journal | of the | Voyages and Travels 
| of | a Corps of Discovery.), with verso blank; text, pp. [n]-262. Page 
170 is misnumbered 70. Signatures: A-X in sixes, Y in five. Six illus- 
trations to pp. 26, 60, 95, 220 (frontispiece), 239 and 245. 

Copies: BPL (lacks one plate) ; CHC ; NL (imperfect) ; WHS. 


Journal | of the | Voyages and Travels | of ] a Corps of Discovery, | 
Under the command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke | of the army of 
the United States, | from the mouth of the river Missouri through the | 
interior parts of North America to | the Pacific Ocean, | During the 
Years 1804, 1805, and 1806. | Containing | An authentic relation of 
the most interesting transactions during the expedi- | tion ; a description 
of the country ; and an account of its inhabitants, | soil, climate, curios- 
ities, and vegetable and animal productions. | By Patrick Gass, | One 
of the persons employed in the expedition. | With geographical and 
explanatory notes. | Fourth Edition — with six Engravings. | [Copy- 
right secured according to Law.] 

Printed for Mathew Carey, | No. 122, Market-Street, I Philadelphia, I 
1812. I 

l2mo; "Review of this Work", pp. (2) ; title, with copyright on verso; 
" Preface. By the publisher of the first edition ", pp. [vj-x ; "Journal ", pp. 
[n]-262. Small folded map of "Louisiana", at the beginning, measuring 
lYz by 5}£ inches; frontispiece to p. 220, and also plates to pp. 26, 60, 95, 
239 and 245. Signatures : A-Y in sixes, the last leaf being blank. 

Copies: AAS (this is Isaiah Thomas's copy, in the original roan binding); 
CHC; NL; NYHS (lacks map). 


Tagebuch | einer | Entdeckungs-Reise | durch | Nord-America, | 
von I der Mundung des Missuri an bis zum Einfluss der | Columbia in 
den stillen Ocean, | gemacht | in den Jahren 1804, 1805 ur >d 1806, | 
auf I Befel der Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten, | von | den beiden 
Capitans Lewis und Clarke. | Qebersetzt | von | Ph. Ch. Weyland. | 
Mit einer Charte. | 

Weimar, | im Verlage des H. S. privil. Landes-Industrie-Comp- 
toirs. I 1 8 14. I 

8vo ; title, verso blank ; " Bothschaft des Prasidenten der Vereinigten Staaten 
an die beiden Kammern des Congresses ", pp. iii-v ; " Vorbericht des Ueber- 
setzers ", pp. vi-viii ; " Inhalt ", pp. ix-x ; half-title to text, with verso blank ; 

[ lxxiv ] 


text, in twenty-five chapters, pp. [3J-345 ; " Schreiben vom Capitan Clarke 
an Se. Excell. den Gouverneur Harrison", pp. [3463-352 ; "Schreiben vom 
Capitan Clarke an seinen Bruder, den General Clarke", pp. [3533-362. 
Map, as below. Signatures : a in five, A-Y in eights, Z in five. 

This is a translation made from the French edition (Paris, 1 8 10), and is 
so uncommon in the United States that Dr. Coues had never seen it, and was 
unable to identify it. I have not traced a copy in any of the many large libra- 
ries which I have consulted, and it was only after some difficulty that I succeeded 
in obtaining a copy from Germany which contains a later map. Subsequently, 
by good fortune, I procured a perfect copy with the correct map. This chart 
measures 7^ by 91^ inches, and is entitled : "Carte | Pour Servir au Voyage | 
des Cap^ Lewis et Clarke, | a l'Ocean Pacifique." The similar map in the 
French edition was engraved by Tardieu, but no engraver's name is attached to 
the German copy. In my other copy of the book, this map is replaced by a 
much larger colored map, possibly designed for a reissue of the book, and is 
entitled : " Nord | America | entworfen u. gezeichnet | von | C. F. Weiland. | 
Weimar | im Verlage des Geograph. Instituts. | 1839." It measures 1 2^£ by 
\\% inches, and was probably also included in Stieler's adas of the period. 
There is a copy of the book in the British Museum. In Germany it is classed as 
" Selten " (rare). The German translator, Philipp Christoph Weyland, in his 
preface refers to Gass as "Sir Patrick Gass." Weyland was the translator of 
several works of travel. 


Lewis and Clarke's | Journal | to the | Rocky Mountains | In the 
years 1804, -5, -6; | as related by | Patrick Gass, | one of the officers 
in the expedition. | New Edition with Numerous Engravings. | 

Dayton, | Published by Ells, Claflin, & Co. | 1847. I 

1 2mo ; frontispiece, with recto blank ; tide, with copyright and first part of 
"Preface" on verso; the "Preface" extends from pp. [iv]-viii ; two leaves 
with portraits of Lewis and Clark; "Journal", pp. [133-238 ; "Books pub- 
lished by Ells, Claflin, & Co.", etc., pp. (2). Portraits on pp. [x] and [xi], 
and illustrations on pp. 23, 27, 40, 47, 51, 62, 79, 91, 98, 117, 131, 151, 
173, 196, 222, and frontispiece. Signature: [i]-i5 in eights. 

Copies.- CHC; NYHS; WHS. 


Patrick Gass. | [To accompany bill H. R. No. 152.] | January 29, 
1852. I Mr. G. W. Thompson, from the Committee on Private Land 
Claims, made | the following | Report : | The Committee on Private 
Land Claims, to whom was referred the petition | of Patrick Gass, 
report : | [followed by the text of the Report] 

8vo ; pp. 2. House Report No. 56, 3 2d Congress, 1st Session. 

[ lxxv ] 



Patrick Gass. | [To accompany bill H. R. No. 419.] | June 23, 
1854. I Mr. Hillyer, from the Committee on Private Land Claims, 
made the | following | Report. | The Committee on Private Land 
Claims, to whom was referred the petition | of Patrick Gass, report : | 
[followed by the text of the Report] 

8vo; pp. 2. House Report No. 215, 33d Congress, 1st Session. 


The J Life and Times | of | Patrick Gass, | now sole survivor | of 
the overland expedition to the Pacific, | under Lewis and Clark, in 
1804-5—6; I also, I a soldier in the war with Great Britain, from | 1812 
to 1 8 15, and a participant in the | Battle of Lundy's Lane. | Together 
with I Gass' Journal of the Expedition condensed; | — and — | sketches 
of some events occurring during the | last century in the upper Ohio 
country, | biographies, reminiscences, etc. | By J. G. Jacob. | 

Jacob & Smith, | Publishers and Printers, Wellsburg, Va. | 1859. I 

l2mo; title, with copyright on verso; "Preface", pp. [iii]-v; "Con- 
tents", pp. [vi]-viii ; "Life and Times of Patrick Gass", pp. [9J-193 ; 
portrait of Washington on p. 194; "Civil History", pp. [1953-280. No 
signatures. Frontispiece portrait of Gass, with autograph ; " Mandan Indians ", 
to p. 59; "Big White-Ball Costume", to p. 108; tailpiece on p. 202; 
" Going to Church in Old Times", to p. 248. 

Dr. Elliott Coues learned from the author of this volume that the substance 
of it appeared in the columns of the Wellsburg (Va.) Herald before it was made 
up in book form. 

Copies: BA; BPL ; CHC; HSP ; NYHS ; NYSL ; WHS. 


[A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, 
etc., by Patrick Gass.] 

A. C. McClurg & Co., of Chicago, have announced that they will issue 
during the year 1904 a reprint of Gass's Journal, in one volume, with an intro- 
duction by James K. Hosmer, uniform with their library edition of the Biddle 
version of Lewis and Clark, published in 1902. 

[ lxxvi ] 




History | of | the Expedition | under the command of | Captains 
Lewis and Clark, | to ] the Sources of the Missouri, | thence | across 
the Rocky Mountains | and down the | River Columbia to the Pacific 
Ocean. | Performed during the years 1804-5-6. | By order of the | 
Government of the United States. | Prepared for the press | by Paul 
Allen, Esquire. | In two volumes. | Vol. I. [II.] 

Philadelphia : | Published by Bradford and Inskeep ; and | Abm : H. 
Inskeep, New York. | J. Maxwell, Printer. | 1814. | 

2 vols; 8vo. Vol. I: Title, with copyright on verso; "Preface", signed 
by Paul Allen, pp. [iii]-v ; p. [vi] blank; "Life of Captain Lewis", pp. 
[vii] -xxiii ; p. [xxiv] blank; " Contents ", pp. [xxv]-xxviii ; text, pp. [1]- 
470. Plates: "Fortification", opp. 63 ; "The Falls and Portage", opp. p. 
261 ; large folded map entitled, "A | Map of | Lewis and Clark's Track, | 
Across the Western Portion of | North America | From the | Mississippi to the 
Pacific Ocean; [ By Order of the Executive | of the | United States. | in 1804. 
5 & 6. I Copied by Samuel Lewis from the | Original Drawing of WS Clark. 
I Sam! Harrison fc! | " Vol.11: Title, with copyright on verso ; "Contents", 
pp. [iii]-ix ; one blank page; text, pp. [i]~433 ; p. [434] blank; "Ap- 
pendix", pp. [435]-522. Plates: "Great Falls of Columbia River", opp. p. 
31; " The Great Shoot or Rapid ", opp. p. 52 ; " Mouth of Columbia River ", 
opp. p. 70. Signatures : Vol. I-[a]— c in fours, d in two, B— 30 in fours, the 
last leaf blank. Vol. II-[A] in six (the first blank), B-3U in fours, 3X in one. 
Copies: AAS; BA; B_M; C; CHC ; HC (two copies); HSP ; LCP ; 
NL (two copies, one without the map) ; NYHS (uncut copy, with titles on 
original board covers) ; NYSL ; WHS. 


Travels | to the | Source of the Missouri River | and across the | 
American Continent | to the | Pacific Ocean. [ Performed | by Order 
of the Government of the United States, | in the years | 1804, 1805, 
and 1806. I By Captains Lewis and Clarke. | Published from the Official 
Report, I and | illustrated by a map of the route, and other maps. | 

London : | Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, | 
Paternoster- Row. | 18 14. | 

4to ; half-title, with "J. G. Barnard, | Skinner-street, London", on the 
verso ; title, verso blank ; " Preface, by the English Editor ", pp. [v]-xiv, 
signed at end by "Thomas Rees", and dated at " Barnard's Inn, April 30, 

[ lxxvii ] 


1814" ; "Contents", pp. [xv]-xxiv; text, pp. Ql]— 663 ; catalogue of 
"Works published" on verso of p. 663. P. 323 is misprinted 223. Signa- 
tures : [a] in two, b— c in fours, d in two ; B-4P in fours. Large folded 
map, " Neele. sculp. 352. Strand" ; five plates on three leaves, intended for 
pp. 47, 191, 364, 379, 398. 

Copies: BM (two copies) ; C; CHC ; MHS ; NYHS (imperfect); NYSL. 


Travels | to the source of | the Missouri River | and across the | 
American Continent | to | the Pacific Ocean. | Performed by order 
of I the government of the United States, | in the years | 1804, 1805, 
and 1806. I By Captains Lewis and Clarke. | Published from the 
official report, | and illustrated by a map of the route, | and other 
maps. I A new edition, in three volumes. | Vol. I. [II.] [HI.] 

London : | Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, | 
Paternoster-Row. | 181 5. | 

3 vols ; 8vo. Vol. I : Title, with " Printed by A. Strahan, Printers-Street, 
London" on verso; "Preface, by the English editor", signed by Thomas 
Rees, pp. [iii]-xix; p. [xx] blank; "Contents of the first volume", pp. 
[xxi]— xxvi ; text, pp. [ 1 ] —4 1 1 ; verso of last page blank. Plates: Large 
folded map engraved by Neele ; " Ancient Fortification on the Missouri ", opp. 
p. 87 (but the plate is misnumbered 47) ; " Great Falls of the Missouri ", opp. 
p. 191. Vol. II: Title, with printer's name on verso; "Contents of the 
second volume", pp. [v]-xii ; text, pp; [l]~434. Plates: "Great Falls of 
Columbia River", opp. p. 364; "Lower Falls of the Columbia", opp. p. 
•379; "Mouth of Columbia River", opp. p. 398. Vol. Ill: Title, with 
printer's name on verso ; " Contents of the third volume ", pp. [iii]-xii ; text, 
pp. [i]-394. No plates. Signatures: Vol. I — A in eight, a in eight (the 
last three represented only by stubs), B-CC in eights, DD in four, EE in 
two. Vol. II — a in six (the first being blank), B-EE in eights, FF in one. 
Vol. Ill — A in six, B-BB in eights, CC in four, DD in one. 

Copies: BM; C; CHC; HSP ; NL. 


Travels | to the source of | the Missouri River, | and across the | 
American Continent | to | the Pacific Ocean. | Performed by order 
of I the government of the United States, | in the years | 1804, 1805, 
and 1806. I By Captains Lewis and Clarke. | Published from the official 
report, | and illustrated by a map of the route, | and other maps. | A 
new edition, in three volumes. | Vol. I. [II.] [III.] 

London : | Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, | 
Paternoster-Row. | 181 7. 

[ lxxviii ] 


This edition collates almost the same as the preceding London edition of 
1815. The large map and plates are the same in both, but the editions differ 
typographically; the 1 817 edition is entirely reset. The following variations 
should be noted : A comma at the end of the third line of the title-pages, not 
in the 181 5 edition. On the verso of sig. a , in vol. i, "Directions for placing 
the Maps", not in the 1 81 5 edition. A half-title to vol. ii, with verso blank, 
making sig. A in six, of which this half-title is the first leaf. In vol. iii sig. A 
is arranged in six leaves, as follows : Title, with printer's name on verso ; 
"Contents of the third volume", pp. [iii]-xii. 

Copies: CHC; HSP ; WHS. 


History | of | the Expedition | under the command of | Captains 
Lewis and Clarke, | to | the Sources of the Missouri, | thence | across 
the Rocky Mountains | and down the | River Columbia to the Pacific 
Ocean. | Performed during the years 1804-5-6. | By order of the | 
Government of the United States. | Prepared for the press | by Paul 
Allen, Esq. | With the life of Captain Lewis, | by T. Jefferson, | 
President of the United States of America. | In two volumes. | 
Vol. I. [II.] I 

Philadelphia : Published by Bradford and Inskeep ; and Abm. H. | 
Inskeep, New York. | Dublin : | Printed by J. Christie, 1 70, James's- 
Street. | 18 17. | > 

2 vols ; 8vo. Vol. I : Title, with American copyright on verso ; " Contents 
of the first volume", pp. (6) ; "Preface", pp. [iii]-v ; p. [vi] blank; 
"Life of Captain Lewis", pp. [vii]-xxvii ; p. [xxviii] blank; text, pp. [1]- 
588. P. viii is misprinted iiiv, and p. 418 is given as 18. Folded map on thin 
paper, copied in reduced size after that of the 1 8 1 4 Philadelphia edition ; plates 
of " Fortification", opp. p. 78 ; " Principal Cascade of the Missouri ", a view, 
opp. p. 326; "The Falls and Portage", opp. p. 327. Vol. II: Title, with 
American copyright on verso; "Contents of the second volume", pp. [i]- 
xii ; "Subscribers", pp. (3) ; "Directions for placing the plates" in both 
volumes, p. (1); text, pp. [3]-544 ; "Appendix", pp. [5453-643, verso 
of last leaf blank. The appendix consists of " Observations and reflections on 
the present and future state of Upper Louisiana " ; " Estimate of the Western 
Indians"; "Reflections and Remarks"; "A summary statement of the 
rivers", etc. P. 261 is mispaged 2. Plates of " Great Falls of Columbia 
River ", opp. p. 40 ; " The Great Shoot or Rapid ", opp. p. 67 ; " Mouth 
of Columbia River", opp. p. 90. Signatures: Vol. I — [a] for title, b in 
six, B-4H in fours. Vol. II — [a] for title, b and c in fours, [A] in three, 
B-4 M in fours, 4 N in two. 

Copies : C ; CHC ; MHS ; NL ; WHS. 

[ lxxix ] 



Reize I naar I de Bronnen van den Missouri, | en door het vaste 
Land van America | naar de Zuidzee. | Gedaan op last van de Reger- 
ing der Vereenigde Staten van America, | in de jaren 1804, 1805 en 
1806. I Door de Kapiteins | Lewis en Clarke. | Met eene Kaart. J 
Uit het Engelsch vertaald door | N. G. Van Kampen. | Eerste 
[Tweede] [Derde en Laatste] Deel. | [Star] 

Te Dordrecht, | bij A. Blusse & Zoon. ) 18 16. | 

3 vols ; 8vo. Vol. I : Title, verso blank ; " Voorberigt van den Vertaler ", 
pp. [iii]-xviii ; " Voorberigt van den Engelschen Uitgever ", pp. [xix]- 
xxviii ; " Inhoud ", pp. xxix-xxxii ; text, pp. [i]~398 ; large folded "Kaart 
I der Reizen van Lewis en Clarke | door het Westelijk gedeelte van | Noord 
Amerika, | van den | Mississippi tot de Zuid Zee, | op last van de Uitvoerende 
Magt der | Vereenigde Staten, | in 1 804, 5 en 6. | C. van Baarsel en Zoon, 
sculps." Vol. II: Title, verso blank; "Inhoud", pp. [iii]-viii ; text, pp. 
[ I ] - 39°> P - 9** ' s rnispaged 70. Vol. Ill : Title, verso blank ; "Inhoud ", 
pp. [v]-xii; text, pp. [l]-326; " Bijlagen ", pp. 327-335 ; verso of p. 335 
blank; pp. 1 19, 161 and 300 are rnispaged 116, 163 and 30, respectively. 
Signatures : Vol. I — * and ** in eights, A-B b in eights, the last apparently 
completed by one blank leaf. Vol. II — * in four, A-A a in eights, B b in 
four, the last apparently completed by one blank leaf. Vol. Ill — * in six, one 
being blank, A-X in eights. In Vol. I sig. 6 is misprinted 6 ; and in Vol. 
II. sig. A 3 is misprinted A 6 . 

In this work the imprints of the first two volumes agree, save that the second 
volume is dated 1817 ; but the third volume has the following imprint: " Te 
Dordrecht, | bij Blusse en Van Braam. | 181 8. | " The only copy which I 
have seen is in the Library of Congress. It is also in WHS. 


History | of | the Expedition | under the command of | Captains 
Lewis and Clarke, | to | the sources of the Missouri, thence across the 
Rocky I Mountains, and down the River Columbia to the | Pacific 
Ocean: performed during the | Years 1804, 1805, 1806, | by order 
of the I Government of the United States. | Prepared for the press | by 
Paul Allen, Esq. | Revised, and abridged by the omission of umimpor- 
tant [sic] de- | tails, with an introduction and notes, | by Archibald 
M c Vickar. | In two volumes. | Vol. I. [II.] 

New-York: | Harper and Brothers, 82 Cliff-St. | 1842. 

2 vols. ; 1 8 mo. Vol. I : — Title, with copyright on verso ; " Advertise- 
ment ", pp. [iii]-vi ; "Contents", pp. [i]-v; p. [vi] blank; "Introduc- 
tion", pp. [vii]-li ; p. [lii] blank; text, pp. [531—37 1 ; "Catalogue of 

[ lxxx ] 


Books", on verso of p. 371. Vol. II: — Title, with copyright on verso; 
"Contents", pp. [iii]-x ; text, pp. [[9^—338 ; "Appendix", pp. [339]- 
395 ; verso of p. 395 blank. Plates: Vol. I, "Map of Lewis and Clark's, 
Track across the Western Portion of North America, . . . Drawn & Engraved 
by W. G. Evans N. York ", to face title ; " Fortification " opp. p. 87 ; 
" Principal Cascade of the Missouri" opp. p. 223 ; "The Falls & Portage" 
opp. p. 234. Vol. II, " Great Falls of Columbia River" opp. p. 64 ; " The 
Great Shoot or Rapid " opp. p. 79 ; " Mouth of Columbia River " opp. p. 92. 
Signatures : Vol. I, 3 prel. leaves, A-H h in sixes ; x 2 misprinted h 2 . Vol. 
II, 5 prel. leaves, A in two, B-K k in sixes. 

The foregoing description is from a set of the original edition in the Library 
of Congress. It is a curious fact that all of the editions which I have seen, even 
those of a late date, perpetuate an error in the stereotype plates, namely "unim- 
portant " on the title-pages, which is given as " umimportant." 

By the kindness of Mr. A. V. S. Anthony, of Harper and Brothers, I have 
been able to test my record of subsequent editions by the books of the publishers. 
He also states that "several small editions have been published since 1891, of 
which no record was kept." The following is a conspectus of the issues of this 
oft-printed work, brought out originally in Harpers' popular "Family Library" : 
— September, 1842; January, 1843; May, 1843; January, 1844; July, 
1845 ; April, 1847; May, 1850 ; August, 1851 ; June, 1855; April, 1858 ; 
November, i860; February, 1868; March, 1871 (vol. II); April, 1872 
(vol. I) ; February, 1874 ( v °l- H) ! December, 1875 (vol. I) ; 1876 (copy 
in NYHS, but publishers have no record) ; February, 1881 ; March, 1882 ; 
July, 1883 ; April, 1886; February, 1887 ; June, 1 89 1 ; June, 1901 ; several 
undated editions of late publication (one such in NYHS). 

Sabin in his Dictionary of Books relating to America mentions a London, 
1842, edition of M c Vickar, but it is not in the British Museum. I have not 
been able to verify his statement, yet it is not unlikely that the American pub- 
lishers may have made up some sets for the English market. 


History of the Expedition ] under the command of | Lewis and 
Clark, I To the Sources of the Missouri River, s thence across the Rocky 
Mountains and | down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, per- 
formed during | the Years 1804—5—6, by Order of the | Government 
of the United States. | A New Edition, | Faithfully Reprinted from the 
only Authorized Edition of 18 14, with Copious | Critical Commentary, 
Prepared upon Examination of Unpublished | Official Archives and 
Many Other Sources of Information, | Including a Diligent Study of 
the J Original Manuscript Journals | and [ Field Notebooks of the 
Explorers, | together with | A New Biographical and Bibliographical 
Introduction, New Maps | and other Illustrations, and a Complete 
/ [ lxxxi ] ■ 


Index, | by | Elliott Coues, | Late Captain and Assistant Surgeon, 
United States Army, | Late Secretary and Naturalist, United States 
Geological Survey, | Member of the National Academy of Sciences, 
etc, | In Four Volumes. | Vol. I. [-IV.] | 
New York. | Francis P. Harper. | 1893. | 

4 vols., 8vo. Vol. I : Half-title, with certification of the edition on verso ; 
title, with copyright on verso ; "Dedication", verso blank; "Preface to the 
new edition ", pp. v-x ; " Contents of the first volume ", pp. xi-xii ; " Preface 
to the original edition", pp. xiii-xiv; " Memoir of Meriwether Lewis ", pp 
xv— xlii ; " Supplement to JeiFerson's Memoir of Meriwether Lewis. By Dr 
Coues", pp. xliii-lxii ; "Memoir of William Clark. By Dr. Coues", pp 
lxiii-xcvii ; p. [xcviii] blank ; " Memoir of Patrick Gass. By Dr. Coues ", pp 
xciv— cvi ; "Bibliographical Introduction. By Dr. Coues", pp. cvii— cxxxii ; text, 
pp. [l]~352; frontispiece portrait of Lewis, and facsimiles of holograph letters of 
Lewis and of Clark, opposite pp. xv and lxiii. Vol. II : Half-title, verso blank 
title, with copyright on verso ; "Contents of the second volume", pp. v— vi; text 
pp. 353-820; frontispiece portrait of Clark. Vol. Ill : Half-title, verso blank 
title, with copyright on verso ; " Contents of the third volume ", pp. v— vi ; text 
pp. 821-1213; P- [12 1 4] blank; " Appendix I. Essay on an Indian policy " 
pp. 1 21 5— 1243; "Appendix II. Estimate of the western Indians ", pp. 1244- 
1256; " Appendix III. Summary statement ", pp. I 257-1 263 ; "Appendix 
IV. Meteorological register", pp. 1 264-1 298. Vol. IV: Half-title, verso 
blank ; title, with copyright on verso ; " List of maps and other plates ", p. v ; 
one blank page ; folded " Tabular statement of the lineal issue of William Clark " ; 
folded "Tabular statement of the living issue of William Clark" ; "Index", 
pp. 1 299-1 364; plans and maps as follows: "Fortification", "The Falls 
and Portage", "Great Falls of Columbia River", "The Great Shoot or Rapid", 
"Mouth of Columbia River", folded "Map of Lewis and Clark's Track", 
folded "Map of part of the Continent of North America" ; "New Map of the 
Route of Lewis and Clark in 1804-5-6, Prepared by Elliott Coues for com- 
parison with Clark's Map of 1 814". No signatures. The edition consisted 
of one thousand copies, of which Nos. 1 to 200 were printed on handmade 
paper, and Nos. 201 to 1000 on fine book paper. 

Dr. Coues did not believe in strictly adhering to the text of the 1 8 1 4 edition. 
" I have not found it necessary to make a fetich of that text ", is his declaration. 
So in his other edited works he took liberties with originals ; for example, in 
Larpenteur he tells us that " there was scarcely a sentence in it all that did not 
need to be recast to some extent in preparing the manuscript for publication. 
But this is a mere matter of grammar ; I have simply helped the author to 
express himself; the sense and sentiment are his own, if the style is not." Of 
the Lewis and Clark he says, " I have punctiliously preserved the orthography 
of proper names in all their variance and eccentricity ; and wherever I have 
amplified any statement in the text, or diverted the sense of a passage by a hair's 
breadth, square brackets indicate the fact. Yet I have not hesitated to touch the 

[ lxxxii ] 


text here and there in a mere matter of grammar or punctuation. For the rest, 
I have prepared new titles and synopses of the chapters, and new headlines of 
the pages ; one new chapter is interpolated, by digesting the Clatsop diary for 
that purpose. Excepting in these several respects, the present edition is literally 
true to the original. Nothing whatever is omitted." 

Copies: AAS; BA ; BPL; C; CHC ; HC ; LCP ; NA ; NL ; NYHS ; 


History I of I the Expedition | under the command of | Captains 
Lewis I and Clark | to | the sources of the Missouri, across the Rocky | 
Mountains, down the Columbia River | to the Pacific in 1804-6 | A 
reprint of the edition of 18 14 to j which all the members of the | 
expedition contributed | with maps | In three volumes | Vol. I. [II.] 

New Amsterdam Book Company | Publishers: New York, 1902 | 

3 vols ; sm. 8vo. Vol. I : Title, verso blank ; " Preface ", pp. v-vii ; one 
blank page ; " Life of Captain Lewis", pp. ix-xxvii ; one blank page ; "Con- 
tents ", pp. xxix-xxxiii ; one blank page; text, pp. 35-416; portrait frontis- 
piece of Lewis; plan of "Fortification", opp. p. 108; "The Falls and 
Portage ", opp. p. 347. Vol. II : Title, verso blank ; " Contents ", pp. iii-ix ; 
one blank page; text, pp. 1 1 -4 10, with two blank leaves between pp. 406 and 
407; a final blank leaf to complete the last signature; portrait frontispiece of 
Clark; " Great Falls of Columbia River ", opp. p. 210; " The Great Shoot ", 
etc., opp. p. 234; "Mouth of Columbia River", opp. p. 257. Vol. Ill: 
Title, verso blank; "Contents", pp. iii-xi ; one blank page; text, pp. 13- 
283; one blank page; "Appendix", pp. 285-382; "The Commonwealth 
Library", pp. (4). Signatures: Vol. I: [1]— 26 in eights, the first leaf blank ; 
Vol. II : [1] to 10 in eights, 11 in four, 12 in four, 12-26 in eights. Vol. 
Ill : [1] to 24 in eights, and one additional leaf. Large folded map in a pocket 
of Vol. Ill, entitled, "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track . . . Sam Harrison 
fc' ". This edition is included in the series known as "The Commonwealth 
Library ". Described from a set in the Library pf Congress. There is also 
a special edition on large paper. 

An issue for the Canadian market from the same sheets and in the same 
binding of "The Commonwealth Library", has the following imprint on the 
title-pages : " George N. Morang & Company, Limited | Toronto | ". This is 
the only variation from the regular New York edition. 


History | of | the Expedition | of | Captains Lewis and Clark | 
1804-5-6 j Reprinted from the edition of 18 14 | With introduction 

[ lxxxiii ] 


and Index | by | James K. Hosmer, LL.D., | [Four lines] | In Two 
Volumes, with Portraits and Maps | Volume I. [II-] 
Chicago | A. C. McClurg & Co. | 1902 | 

2 vols ; 8vo. Vol. I : Half-title, verso blank; title, with copyright, etc. on 
verso; facsimile of 1814 title and original copyright, pp. (2) ; "Publishers' 
Note", with verso blank, one leaf; " Contents of Volume I ", pp. [ix]-xiii ; 
one blank leaf; "List of Portraits and Maps", with verso blank, one leaf; 
"Introduction", pp. [xvii]— xxxv ; " Preface To the Edition of 1814", pp. 
[xxxvii]-xxxix ; one blank leaf; "Life of Captain Lewis", pp. xli-lvi ; 
half-title to text, verso blank ; text, pp. [13-500. Maps and portraits as 
shown in the volume itself. Vol. II : Half-title, verso blank ; title, with copy- 
right, etc. on verso ; " Contents of Volume II ", pp. [v]-xi ; one blank page ; 
•'List of Portraits and Maps", with verso blank, one leaf; text, pp. [1]— 461 ; 
p. [462] blank; " Appendix", pp. [4633-550; "Index", pp. [5513-586. 
Maps and portraits as shown in the volume itself. Described from a set in the 
Library of Congress. 


History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and 
Clark to the Sources of the Missouri, Across the Rocky Mountains, 
Down the Columbia River to the Pacific in 1804—6. With an account 
of the Louisiana Purchase, by Prof. John Bach MacMaster, and an in- 
troduction identifying the route, by Ripley Hitchcock. New York : 
A. S. Barnes & Co., 1904. 

1 2mo ; 3 vols. This edition is included in " The Trail Makers ' ' series. 
The title is taken from the publishers' circular announcement. 



Report I of | the Committee | of | Commerce and Manufactures, | 
who were instructed, | by a Resolution of this House, | of the 18th 
ult. I " To Enquire | into the | expediency of authorising | the | Presi- 
dent of the United States, | to employ persons | to explore such parts 
of the province | of | Louisiana, | as he may deem proper ". | 8th 
March, 1804. | Read, and ordered to be committed to a committee of 
the I whole House, on Wednesday next. | 

8vo; title, verso blank; text, pp. [33~7 ; verso of last leaf blank. Merely 
has an allusion to Lewis and Clark on p. 4, who are there designated as " two 
enterprising conductors ", etc. 

[ lxxxiv ] 



Message | from the | President of the United States, | containing his | 
Communication | to | both houses of Congress, | at the commence- 
ment J of the Second Session of the Ninth Congress. | 2d December, 
1806. J Printed by Order of the Senate. | 

Washington City: | Printed by Duane & Son. | 1806. | 

8vo ; title, verso blank; text, pp. [3]-iz. In this message Jefferson refers 
incidentally to Lewis and Clark, and mentions that " they have traced the 
Missouri nearly to its source." 


Report I of the Committee | appointed | on the third instant, | on 
so much of the | Message of the President | of the | United States | as 
relates to | the farther exploring | of the | western waters. | Decem- 
ber 22, 1806. J Referred to a committee of the whole House on 
Thursday next. | 

City of Washington : | A. & G. Way, Printers. | 1806. | 

8vo ; title, verso blank; text, p. [1], with verso blank. Refers to Lewis 
and Clark. 



[From a MS. in the Library of the Wisconsin Historical Society.] 

Proposals for publishing by subscription Robert Frazer's yournal, from 
St. Louis in ' Louisiana to the Pacific ocean, — containing an accurate 

1 Early in the first decade of our [the nineteenth] century a brother of my father 
sold a hat in Vermont to Robert Frazer, a fencing-master there, who absconded with- 
out paying for it. This Frazer enlisted under Capt. Lewis, and his name was given 
to a rapid and a creek near the head-waters of the Missouri. Before Frazer's return 
to St. Louis, my uncle himself had removed thither and was managing the hotel to 
which Frazer came for entertainment. Each recognized the other, and my uncle had 
no difficulty in collecting his debt. But Frazer proved to be one of the seven journal- 
ists [of the Lewis and Clark expedition] and purposed t\> print his journal, he having, 
as well as Gass, obtained permission from Capt. Lewis. His prospectus, which of 
necessity was written, since there was no printing in St. Louis till 1808, shows beau- 
tiful chirography, and promised a volume of four hundred pages. A copy of it is in 
my hands, which came to my father in Vermont from his brother at the West. — 
James Davie Butler, in "The New Found Journal of Charles Floyd", Proceed- 
ings of American Antiquarian Soc, April 25th, 1894. 

Later, Professor Butler presented this MS. prospectus to the Wisconsin Historical 
Society, as above. Apparently there was insufficient patronage, for the proposed 
book was not published. The whereabouts of the Frazer Journal is unknown to the 
present Editor. — Ed. 

[ lxxxv ] 


description of the Missouri and its several branches, of the mountains 
separating the eastern from the western waters, of the Columbia River 
and the Bay it forms on the Pacific ocean, of the face of the country in 
general ; of the several tribes of Indians on the Missouri and Columbia 
rivers ; of the vegetable, animal [and mineral] productions discovered 
in those extensive regions, the latitudes and longitudes of some of the 
most remarkable places, — together with a variety of curious and inter- 
esting occurrences during a voyage of 2 years 4 months and 9 days, 
conducted by Captains Lewis and Clark. 

Published by permission of Capt. Meriwether Lewis. This work 
will be contained in about 400 pages octavo, and will be put to the 
press as soon as there shall be a sufficient subscription to defray the 
expenses. Price to subscribers three dollars. 


Documents | accomp?nying | a Bill making Compensation | to | 
Messieurs Lewis and Clarke, | and | their Companions, | presented | 
the 23d January, 1807. | 

Washington City: | A. & G. Way, Printers. | 1807. | 

8vo ; title, verso blank; communication signed by "Willis Alston, Jun.", 
dated January iz, 1807, on p. [3] ; answer to the former by H. Dearborn, 
dated January 14, 1807, pp. [4]~5 ; letter from Meriwether Lewis to Gen. 
Dearborn, dated at "City of Washington, January 15, 1807", pp. [6]-8 ; 
large folded broadside entitled, " A Roll | Of the men who accompanied cap- 
tains Lewis and Clarke on their late tour to the Pacific ocean, through the 
interior of the continent of | North America, shewing their rank, with some 
remarks on their respective merits and services ' ' , signed with Meriwether 
Lewis's name, and dated at "City of Washington, January 15, 1807." 

Copies: BPL; C; CHS; WD. 

1808, ETC. 

The Navigator., published in many editions at Pittsburgh, by Zadok 
Cramer, contains in an appendix to some of the editions a short account 
of the expedition of Lewis and Clark. This work is a composite, 
mostly devoted to " directions for navigating the Monongahela, Alle- 
gheny, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers ", together with correlative matter. 
Its structure is crude. The first edition appeared in 180 1. It was in 
its inception a small pamphlet, devoted solely to the Ohio. 

So far as I can ascertain, the Lewis and Clark appeared for the first time in 
the "Sixth Edition" of 1808, on pp. 146-156, based on Gass, etc. It is 
entitled, " A brief account of the Missouri river, and the extensive and ferule 

[ lxxxvi ] 


country through which it winds, as traversed by captain Lewis and captain Clark 
— A short notice of the Indians and their customs — different kinds of wild 
animals — fowls — fish — curiosities &c. And of the Columbia river." In 
the "Advertisement" of "The Editor", this part purports to have been 
" collected from the letters of captain Clark and other publications since the 
return of the party ". The "Seventh Edition" (1811) reproduced this text 
on pp. 254-268. Beginning with the "Eighth Edition" (1814), pp. 343- 
349, the text is very different from that of the sixth and seventh editions. All 
of these subsequent editions have a mere summary headed, " Abridgment of 
Lewis and Clark's Expedition." I have seen the editions of 1802 (third), 
1808 (sixth), 1811 seventh), 1814 (eighth), 1817 (ninth), 1818 (tenth), 
and 1 82 1 (eleventh) ; but there were others. 


Tales of Travels | west of the Mississippi | [Car] | By Solomon 
Bell, I Late Keeper of the Traveller's Library, Province-House Court, 
Boston. [ With a map, and numerous engravings. | 

Boston: | Gray and Bowen — Washington Street. | 1830. | 

l8mo; advertisement leaf, pp. (2) ; half-title, with frontispiece illustration 
on verso ; title, with copyright on verso ; " Prefatory, including some account 
of the author", pp. [vii]-x ; "Contents", pp. [xi]-xvi ; text and illustra- 
tions, pp. [i]-i62. Numerous woodcuts in the text. Signatures: [#]-** 
in fours, I — 1 3 in sixes, 14 in four, the last leaf being blank. The volume is 
the first of a series by the publishers, having for design the supplying " to the 
children of the United States" of "an entertaining abstract of the most popular 
books of travels, which have lately appeared". Lewis and Clark's travels make 
up the bulk of the volume ; the remainder being devoted to Long and Jewitt. 
Described from a copy loaned by Mr. Charles H. Conover. 


In Senate of the United States. | January 20, 1848. | Submitted, 
and ordered to be printed. | Mr. Westcott made the following | Report : | 
The Committee of Claims, to whom was referred the petition of Da- | 
vid Whelply, report : | [text of the report] 

8vo; pp. 3, verso of last leaf blank. David Whelply claimed governmental 
aid as a reward for his participation in Pike's explorations. Lewis and Clark are 
introduced by the petitioner as one of the precedents under which he lodged his 
claim. It was, however, adversely reported by the senatorial Committee of 
Claims. The public document is in Senate Reports of Committees, 30th Cong., 
1st Sess., No. 37. 

[ lxxxvii ] 



Oregon and Eldorado ; | or, | Romance of the Rivers. | By | Thomas 
Bulfinch, I . . . 

Boston: | J. E. Tilton and Company. | 1866. | 

1 2mo ; half-title, verso blank ; title, with copyright, etc. on verso ; 
"Preface", pp. ix-x ; "Contents", pp. xi-xiv ; half-title to "Oregon", 
verso blank; text to "Oregon" and " Eldorado ", pp. 1-464. Signatures: 
Six preliminary leaves, 1-29 in eights. The Lewis and Clark matter begins on 
p. 14 (chap. II). Described from a copy in the Library of Congress. 


Department of the Interior. | United States Geological and Geograph- 
ical Survey of the Territories. | F. V. Hayden, U. S. Geologist-in- 
Charge. | An Account | of the various publications relating to | the 
Travels of Lewis and CLrke, | with a | Commentary on the Zoologi- 
cal Results of I their Expedition. | By | Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. | 
[Extracted from Bulletin of the Geological and Geographical Survey | 
of the Territories, No. 6, Second Series.] | Washington, February 8, 
1876. I 

8vo ; title on cover, verso blank ; text, pp. [4i7]~444. Divided into two 
parts, the first of which is bibliographical, and the second zoological. This is 
the separate edition. The Bulletin from which it is an extract has the following 
title : Department of the Interior. | Bulletin | of | the United States | Geolog- 
ical and Geographical Survey | of | the Territories. | Bulletin, No. 6. — Second 
Series. | Washington: | Government Printing Office. | February 8, 1876. | 

Copies of this Bulletin are in B ; NYSL. The separate is in B ; CHC. 
These I have seen or located, but there are of course others. 


Sketch I of I Gov. Merriwether Lewis. | By General Marcus J. 
Wright. I [First published in the June number, 1876, of "Ware's 
Valley Monthly."] | Washington, D.C. | 

8vo; title, verso blank; text, pp. [3] — 10 ; one blank leaf. 
Copies: HSP; NYHS; WHS. 


Children's Stones | of | American Progress | By | Henrietta Christian 
Wright I *** I Illustrated by J. Steeple Davis | 
New York | Charles Scribner's Sons | 1888 | 

[ lxxxviii ] 


8vo ; half-title, with advertisement on verso ; title, with copyright, etc. on 
verso; " Contents ", pp. [v] - vii ; one blank page ; "List of Illustrations ", 
verso blank ; text, pp. [i] - 333 ; one blank page; advertisements, pp. (8) ; 
one blank leaf. Chapter IV (pp. 86-103) relates to "The Expedition of 
Lewis and Clarke to the Pacific Ocean ". This describes the issue of 1888, but 
the book was copyrighted in 1 886. 


Description of the Original Manuscript Journals and Field Note- 
books of I Lewis and Clark, on which was based Biddle's History of the 
Expedi- J tion of 1804—6, and which are now in the possession of the 
American | Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. | 

8vo. Forms pp. 17-33 of the " Proceedings | of the | American Philosophi- 
cal Society | held at Philadelphia | for | Promoting Useful Knowledge. | Vol. 
xxxi. I January to December, 1893. | Philadelphia: | Printed for the Society | 
by MacCalla & Company. 1893." It is No. 140, which was printed March 4, 

Described from a copy in A AS. It is also in CHC and WHS. 1 

Explorers and Travellers. By General A. W. Greely. 

See for full description infra, under 1902. 


Old South Leaflets. | Eleventh series, 1893. No. 6. | Captain 
Meriwether Lewis. | By Thomas Jefferson. | 

i2mo; pp. 16. The cover-title to this series is entitled " The Opening of 
the West". Described from a copy in HC. 


Old South Leaflets. | General Series, No. 44. | Captain | Meriwether | 
Lewis. 1 By Thomas Jefferson. | [1893] 

1 zmo ; pp. 16. Forms part of a volume, the general title of which is " Old 
South Leaflets. | Volume II. | 26-50. | Boston : | Directors of the Old South 
Work. I Old South Meeting House". 

Copies : BPL ; HC ; HSP ; NYSL ; WHS. 

1 A condensation of this article is given in the Appendix to the present edition. — Ed. 

[ lxxxix ] 



The New Found Journal | of Charles Floyd, | a sergeant under 
Captains Lewis and Clark. | By | James Davie Butler. ) From Pro- 
ceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, at the Semi- | annual 
Meeting, held in Boston, April 25, 1894. | 

Worcester, Mass., U. S. A. | Press of Charles Hamilton, | 311 Main 
Street. | 1894. | 

8vo ; half-title on cover ; title, verso blank ; introduction by Butler, pp. [3] 
— 15 ; "Appendix ", pp. [16] — 30, of which Floyd's Journal is the princi- 
pal part. 

Copies.- CHC ; HC ; WHS (where also is the original MS. of the Journal). 1 


The Plants of Lewis and Clark's Expedition across the Con- | tinent, 
1 804-1 806. I By Thomas Meehan. 

Forms pp. 12-49 of " Proceedings | of the | Academy of Natural Sciences | 
of I Philadelphia. | 1898. | Committee on Publication : | [Five names'] | Edi- 
tor: Edward J. Nolan, M.D. | Philadelphia : | Academy of Natural Sciences, | 
Logan Square. | 1899". It is a section of part I (Jan. -March, 1898). 
Described from a copy in AAS. 

1 goo 

Baldwin's Biographical Booklets | The Story | of | Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis and | Captain William Clark | for young readers | By| 
Nellie F. Kingsley | With an Introduction by The Editor | [Cut] 

Werner School Book Company | New York Chicago Boston ] 

1 8mo ; title, with list of series, etc. on verso ; " Contents " on p. 3 ; por- 
trait of Lewis on p. [4]; "Introduction", pp. 5-12; text, with illustrations, 
pp. 13-128. Many illustrations in the text. No signatures. Copyright, 1900. 


Lewis and Clark | Meriwether Lewis | and | William Clark | By 
William R. Lighton | [Printer's mark] 

Boston and New York | Houghton, Mifflin and Company | The 
Riverside Press, Cambridge | 1901 

1 Republished in the present series directly from the original MS. The publica- 
tion above noted contained numerous minor errors. — Ed. 



l6mo; four preliminary leaves; text, pp. Ql] — I 59 ; colophon on verso of 
p. 1 59. No signatures. Frontispiece with photogravure portraits of Clark and 

Copies: BA; BPL ; C; CHC ; HC ; NA ; NYHS ; NYSL ; WHS. 


First I Across the Continent | the Story of | The Exploring Expedi- 
tion of Lewis I and Clark in 1803-4-5 | By Noah Brooks | 
New York | Charles Scribner's Sons | 1901 | 

8vo ; half-title, verso blank ; title, with copyright, etc. on verso ; " Preface," 
pp. [v]-vii ; one blank page ; " Contents ", pp. [ix]-x ; " List of Illus- 
trations", pp. [xi]-xii; half-title, verso blank ; text, pp. [[ t J— 361 ; one blank 
page; "Index," pp. [3633-365; one blank page. Twenty-four plates as 
registered in the " List of Illustrations ", and folded map at end of the volume. 
Signatures: Eight preliminary leaves, the first being blank ; 1-23 in eights, the 
last leaf being blank. 

"It is hoped that the present version of the story of the expedition, told as 
fully as possible in the language of the heroic men who modestly penned the 
record of their own doings and observations, will be acceptable to many readers, 
especially to young folks, who will here read for the first time a concise narrative 
of the first exploring expedition sent into a wilderness destined to become the 
seat of a mighty empire." — Preface. 

Copies: CHC; LCP ; WHS. 


Four I American Explorers | Captain Meriwether Lewis | Captain 
William Clark | General John C. Fremont | Dr. Elisha K. Kane | A 
Book for Young Americans | By | Nellie F. Kingsley | 

Werner School Book Company | New York Chicago Boston | 
[Copyright 1902] 

1 2mo ; title, with list of series, etc. on verso ; " Contents ", pp. 3-4 ; map 
on p. [5] ; p. [6] blank; half-title on p. [7] ; portrait on p. [8] ; " Intro- 
duction", pp. 9-16; text of Lewis and Clark, pp^. 17-132 ; text, etc. of Fre- 
mont and Kane, pp. [133]— 271 ; advertisement on verso of p. 271. No 
signatures. This volume is the eighth in " The Four Great Americans Series ", 
and was published in the spring of 1902. 


The Conquest | The True Story of Lewis | and Clark | By | Eva 
Emery Dye | Author of | " McLoughlin and Old Oregon " | [Pub- 
Ushers' mark~\ 

Chicago I A. C. McClurg & Company | 1902 | 



i zmo ; half-title, with advertisement on verso ; title, with copyright, etc. 
on verso; " Note of acknowledgment ", with verso blank; " Contents ", pp. 
[vii]-ix; "Foreword", pp. (i); half-title to Book I, with verso blank ; text, 
pp. [l]-443 ; one blank page. Portrait frontispiece of "Judith." Signatures: 
Six preliminary leaves, 1-27 in eights, 28 in six, but printed off in an erratic 
manner. The work was first "Published Nov. 12, 1902." There have 
been several subsequent editions. Historical fiction with considerable antiquarian 
detail. Described from a copy in NL. 


Men of Achievement | Explorers and Travellers | By | General A. 
W. Greely, U. S. A. | Gold Medallist of Royal Geographical Society 
and Societe de | Geographie, Paris | [Publishers' mari~] 

New York | Charles Scribner's Sons | 1902 | 

1 2mo ; half-title, with list of "Men of Achievement Series" on verso; 
title, with copyright on verso; "Preface", pp. [3]~4 ; "Contents", p. [5]; 
"List of Illustrations", pp. [6]-8 ; text, pp. [9]— 373 ; verso of last leaf 
blank. There are seven full-page illustrations not a part of the regular pagina- 
tion, and sixty-two full page and text-illustrations included in the regular pagina- 
tion. The original issue appeared in 1893, and it has been kept in print ever 
since that date. I have here described the latest issue. The fifth chapter, pp. 
[1053-162, is entitled, "Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieut. William Clark. 
First Trans-Continental Explorers of the United States." 


The Louisiana Purchase and the Exploration, early History and 
Building of the West. By Ripley Hitchcock. Boston : Ginn & Co., 

1 zmo ; pp. 21, 349. Illustrations, portraits and maps. Part 2 is devoted 
to the Lewis and Clark expedition. Copyright 1903, but really issued early in 
1904. The author's full name is James Ripley Wellman Hitchcock. Not 


A Brief History of | Rocky Mountain | Exploration | with especial 
reference to the | Expedition of Lewis and Clark | By | Reuben 
Gold Thwaites | . . . | . . . | . . . | With illustrations and maps | 
I [Publishers' cut] \ 

New York | D. Appleton and Company | 1904 | 

8vo ; half-title, with list of the " Series" on verso ; title, with copyright, etc. 
on verso; dedication, verso blank; "Preface", pp. vii-ix ; one blank page; 

[ xcii ] 


"Contents", verso blank; "List of Illustrations", verso blank; text, pp. 
1-252; "Index", pp. 253-276; publishers' advertisements, pp. (14). 
Views, map, portraits, etc., making ten subjects, as in the printed " List of Illus- 
trations". "Published February, 1904" in Appletons' "Expansion of the 
Republic Series". Signatures: [1] -19 in eights. 


The Trail of Lewis and Clark. A Story of the Great Exploration 
Across the Continent, 1804-06; with a Description of the Old Trail, 
Based upon Actual Travel over it, and of the Changes Found a Cen- 
tury Later. By Olin D. Wheeler, member of the Minnesota Historical 
Society. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904. 

8vo ; 2 vols, with colored frontispieces and about two hundred illustrations, 
including maps and diagrams. From the publishers' spring announcements 
of 1904. 

[ xciii ] 

The Original Journals of Captains Meriwether 
Lewis and William Clark 




Chapter I 


Clark's Journal and Orders, January 30 — July 22, 1804 

Entries and Orders by Lewis, February 20, March 3, May 15, 20, 26, and July 8, 12 


CAPTS LEWIS & CLARK wintered at the enterance 
of a Small river opposit the Mouth of Missouri 
Called Wood River, 1 where they formed their party, 
Composed of robust helthy hardy young men, recomended 
[Sentence unfinished. — Ed.]. 2 

[The following memoranda of events in the history of the 
expedition prior to its departure from River Dubois, May 14, 
1804, are selected from a record, mainly of natural phenomena, 
kept by Clark, which is written near the end of Codex C ; 

1 Local traditions here place the mouth of the Missouri River in 1803 at one 
mile north of Maple Island ; it is now four miles below the island. The mouth of 
Wood River is one mile below Maple Island, and is supposed to have been in the 
same place in 1803. — G. B. Dorsey, Gillespie, 111. 

2 This unfinished memorandum is found on the fly-leaf at beginning of the small 
note-book designated by Elliott Coues — in his report upon the journals, made to the 
American Philosophical Society, Jan. 20, 1893, and reprinted in our Appendix, post 
— as " Codex A," from which book is here reproduced Clark's journal of the expedi- 
tion from May 13 to August 14, 1804. Occasional entries, written by Lewis during 
that period, will be here designated by his name within brackets at the beginning of 
such matter. 

As stated in the Introduction to the present volume, there are two collections of 
original journals of the explorers — that made by Thomas Jefferson and now in the 
custody of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia ; and that owned by 



this begins at p. 231, and continues (the pages being in reverse 
order) to p. 216, covering the time from Jan. 1, 1804 to 
April 7, 1805. The expedition had gone into camp in De- 
cember. — Ed.] 

"January 30'* 

Cap! Lewis arrived from Kahokia 

Feb? 29 

The weather had been clear since Cap' Lewis lef[t] Camp 
untill this 1 

March 19'* 

Visited S! Charles 


Return from S' Charles after haveing arrested the progress 
of a Kickapoo war party 


I arrived at River Dubois from S' Charles 


Cap! Lewis returned to Camp 


Tried Several men for missconduct 

April i. nd 

Cap' Lewis went to St. Louis. M'. Hay arrive[d] 

[The following memorandum, by both Lewis and Clark, oc- 
cupies a detached sheet in the Clark- Voorhis collection. — Ed.] 

[Xewis :] 

Information of M! John Hay, commencing at the discharge 
of the Ottertail Lake, which forms the source of the Red 
River, to his winter station on the Assinneboin River. 

Mrs. Julia Clark Voorhis and Miss Eleanor Glasgow Voorhis, of New York — grand- 
daughter and great grand-daughter, respectively, of William Clark. In all references 
to the Philadelphia codices, we shall for convenience give Coues's lettered designations 
thereof (e.g., "Codex A"); the four Voorhis note-books will be designated by 
their Arabic numerals (e. g., " Clark- Voorhis note-book, No. 1 "). Other Clark 
manuscripts in the Voorhis collection will be specifically alluded to, as they appear in 
our volumes. — Ed. 

1 Lewis appears to have spent his time chiefly in St. Louis, where, on March 9 
and 10, he was principal witness to the formal transfer of Upper Louisiana. See act 
of transfer, in Billon, Annals of St. Louis (St. Louis, 1886), pp. 360, 361. — Ed. 




From Ottertail Lake 
To the Shugar rappid . 
Buffaloe River — N. Side . 

Commencement of shaved prarie . 
Expiration of D° d° . 

( Tho' on a streight line not thought more than 

I 6. leagues 

Stinking bird river, South side . 

(heads with river S! Peters) 
Shayen or Shaha South side 
River au Bouf North side 

Tree River South side .... 
Wild oates river N. Side 

Goose river South side .... 
Pond River S. side .... 

Sand Hill river — not certain but b[e]lieved to be on the 

South side .... 
To the grand fork or Red Lake River N. Side 
Turtle river S. Side .... 

Dirty water river S. side .... 
Salt water river N. side at the head of this river is a salt spring 
Pierced wood river N. S. 
Pembenar river N. S. . 
To a wintering establishment of the N. W. Company on 

.the S. side .... 
Paemicon river S. side .... 
M. r Reaum's Fort S. side. 1792 . 
Pond river S. side ..... 

Kuckould burr river S. side 

Rat river N side .... 

Assinniboin N side .... 

Dead river S. side 

Lake Winnepique .... 

From the mouth of the Assinaboin up the same to 
To the mouth of Mouse River S side 





















J 39^ 

Notes — 1) the general course of the red River from Leaf river to 
the mouth of the assinnaboin is due West 

(2 d ) the River Pembenar heads in three large lakes bearing as it 
proceds upwards towards the Assinnaboin — the first lake three leagues 



in length and 1 in width, the turtle mountain bearing S W. dist n * 7 
leagues, the second smaller lying N N W. not very distant from the 
former the third and last large and extending within a few miles of the 
mouth of Mouse river branch of the Assinnaboin 

(3) Salt is made in sundry places on the Red river (to it) [to wit] 
just below the mouth of river Pembenar on the S. side head of salt 
river, also on the South side of the red river a little way below the dirty 
water river 

[Clark Q 

The Course from the Fort Mandan to the Fort Chaboillez's 
on the Assinna Boin is North 150 Miles 


Mirey creek 12 & Big C. of wood 16 to the E to a lake 
Mous river 50 to the river La sou[rie] 4 L 

30 yd wide 
and 20 Legues to a Small creek of the Mous R 

& 3 d° to the next 

& 1 League cross the Lasou or M.[ouse] 

& 20 L cross the Ditto to the R 

Pass Turtle Hites at 6 L. 
27 to Assinnibon 


[We now return to Clark's memorandum of events, in 
Codex C. — Ed.] 



Mf Garrous ' Boat loaded with provisions pass up for Prarie 
du chien, to trade 

1 8'* 

at St. Louis 

The Country about the Mouth of Missouri is pleasent rich 
and partially Settled On the East Side of the Mississippi a 
leavel rich bottom extends back about 3 miles, and rises by 
several elevations to the high Country, which is thinly timbered 
with Oakes & On the lower Side of the Missouri, at about 
1 miles back the Country rises graduilly, to a high plesent 
thinly timberd Country, the lands are generally fine on the 
River bottoms and well calculating for farming on the upper 

in the point the Bottom is extensive and emensly rich for 
15 or 20 miles up each river, and about f$ of which is open 
leavel plains in which the inhabtents of S! Charles' & portage 
de Scioux had ther crops of corn & wheat, on the upland is 
a fine farming country partially timbered for Some distance 


[The following " Detachment Orders " are in the Voorhis 
collection of Lewis and Clark manuscripts — see note 2, p. 3, 
ante. The documents show that the " robust helthy hardy 
young men," many of them fresh from the Kentucky woods, 
found it not easy to accustom themselves to the rigid discipline 
of a military corps ; and illustrate the difficulties which beset 
the two captains during the first winter camp. The orders re- 
lating to the personnel of the expedition, with the organization 
of the messes, etc., are especially interesting and suggestive. — 
Ed.] 2 

1 Little is known of this Garreau, save that it is probably his son Pierre (whose 
mother was an Ankara woman) who was long an interpreter at Fort Berthold ; see 
Coues's Narrative of Larpenteur (N. Y., 1898), i, pp. 125, 126. Clark's Garreau 
may be the Jearreau (of Cahokia, 111.) mentioned by Pike in 1806 ; see Coues's 
Expeditions of Pike (N. Y., 1895), i, p. 263 Ed. 

1 The first two orders (Lewis) are on separate sheets of paper. The others are 
contained in a pocket note-book, which we designate as the "Orderly Book." This 



Detatchment Orders 
[Lewis:] Camp River Dubois, Feb r . 20'* 1804. 

The Commanding officer directs that During the absence 
of himself and Cap! Clark from Camp, that the party shall 
consider themselves under the immediate command of Serg' 
Ordway, who will be held accountable for the good poliece 
and order of the camp during that period, and will also see 
the subsequent parts of this order carried into effect. 

The sawyers will continue their work untill they have cut 
the necessary quantity of plank, the quantity wanting will be 
determined by Pryor ; during the days they labour they shall 
recieve each an extra gill of whiskey p' day and be exempt 
from guard duty ; when the work is accomplished, they will 
join the party and do duty in common with the other men. 

The Blacksmiths will also continue their work untill they 
have completed the articles contained in the memorandom 
with which I have furnished them, and during the time they 
are at work will recieve each an extra gill of whiskey p' day 
and be exempt from guard duty ; when the work is completed 
they will return to camp and do duty in common with the 

The four men who are engaged in making sugar will con- 
tinue in that employment untill further orders, and will recieve 
each a half a gill of extra whiskey p'. day and be exempt from 
guard duty. 

The practicing party will in futer discharge only one round 
each p' day, which will be done under the direction of Serg! 
Ordway, all at the same target and at the distance of fifty yards 
off hand. The prize of a gill of extra whiskey will be re- 
cieved by the person who makes the best shot at each time of 

Floyd will take charge of our quarte[r]s and store and be 
exempt from guard duty untill our return, the commanding 

book (at first in Clark's hand, and then for the most part in that of Sergeant John 
Ordway, with a few entries by Lewis) covers the dates April i-October 13, 1804. 
It is but a fragment ; the remaining leaves are missing, save those containing an entry 
dated Fort Clatsop, January 1, 1806. After the start of the expedition from River 
Dubois camp, we have incorporated into the text the several entries from this docu- 
ment, designating them as " [Orderly Book :] ". — Ed. 



Officer hopes that this proof of his confidence will be justifyed 
by the rigid performance of the orders given him on that 

No man shal absent himself from camp without the knowl- 
ege and permission of Serg! Ordway, other than those who 
have obtained permission from me to be absent on hunting 
excurtions, and those will not extend their absence to a term 
by which they may avoid a tour of guard duty, on their return 
they will report themselves to Serg". Ordway and recieve his 

No whiskey shall in future be delivered from the Contrac- 
tor's store except for the legal ration, and as appropriated by 
this order, unless otherwise directed by Cap! Clark or myself. 

Meriwether Lewis Cap! 
I? U. S. Reg! Infty. 

Serg! Ordway will have the men paraded this, evening and 
read the inclosed orders to them. 

M. Lewis 

pndorsed:] to Floyd 

Detatchment Orders 
[Lewis:] March %"* 1804. 

The Commanding officer feels himself mortifyed and disap- 
pointed at the disorderly conduct of Reubin Fields, in refusing 
to mount guard when in the due roteen of duty he was regu- 
larly warned ; nor is he less surprised at the want of discretion 
in those who urged his oposition to the faithfull discharge of 
his duty, particularly Shields, whose sense of propryety he had 
every reason to believe would have induced him reather to have 
promoted good order, than to have excited disorder and faction 
among the party, particularly in the absence of Cap' Clark and 
himself: The Commanding officer is also sorry to find any man, 
who has been engaged by himself and Cap! Clark for the expe- 
dition on which they have entered, so destitute of understand- 
ing, as not to be able to draw the distinction between being 
placed under the command of another officer, whose will in 
such case would be their law, and that of obeying the orders of 



Cap! Clark and himself communicated to them through Serg! 
Ordway, who, as one of the party, has during their necessary 
absence been charged with the execution of their orders ; acting 
from those orders expressly, and not from his own caprice, and 
who, is in all respects accountable to us for the faithfull obser- 
vance of the same. 

A moments reflection must convince every man of our 
party, that were we to neglect the more important and neces- 
sarry arrangements in relation to the voyage we are now entering 
on, for the purpose merely of remain [in] g at camp in order to 
communicate our orders in person to the individuals of the 
party on mear points of poliece, they would have too much 
reason to complain ; nay, even to fear the ultimate success of 
the enterprise in which we are all embarked. The abuse of 
some of the party with respect [to the] prevelege heretofore 
granted them of going into the country, is not less displeasing; 
to such as have made hunting or other business a pretext to 
cover their design of visiting a neighbouring whiskey shop, 
he cannot for the present extend this previlege ; and dose 
therefore most positively direct, that Colter, Bolye, Wiser, and 
Robinson do not recieve permission to leave camp under any 
pretext whatever for ten days, after this order is read on the 
parade, unless otherwise directed hereafter by Cap! Clark or 
himself. The commanding officers highly approve of the 
conduct of Serg! Ordway. 

The Carpenters Blacksmiths, and in short the whole party 
(except Floid who has been specially directed to perform other 
duties) are to obey implicitly the orders of Serg! Ordway, who 
has recieved our instructions on these subjects, and is held 
accountable to us for their due execution. 

Meriwether Lewis. 
Cap 1 i'.' U. S. Reg! Infty Comd g Detatchment 

[Indorsed :] SergJ Ordway will read the within order to the men on the parade the 
morning after the reciept of the same. 

M. Lewis Cap; 




Detachment Order 
{[Orderly Book; Clark:] Camp River Dubois april 1". 1804 

The Commanding officers did yesterday proceed to take 
the necessary inlistments, and select the Detachment destined 
for the Expedition through the interior of the Continent of 
North America ; and have accordingly seelected the persons 
herein after Mentioned, as those which are to Constitute their 
Perminent Detachment. (Viz). 


B ratten 






















M c . Neel 






Pry or 



Moses B 






John B. 










Alexander Willard 

The commanding officers do also retain in their service 
untill further Orders: The following Persons, Richard Warv- 
ington, Robert Frasure, John Robertson, & John Boyley 
(Moses B. Read) 1 who whilst they remain with the Detachment 

1 The Lewis and Clark manuscripts were, as explained in the Introduction, ante, 
for a time in the hands of Nicholas Biddle, who prepared from them his paraphrase 
Narrative, published in 1814. Clark, in assisting Biddle, not infrequently made 
interlineations in the text ; so did Biddle — in our opinion, the former thus wrote in 
black ink, the latter in red. In 1893, Elliott Coues also made emendations in the 
Philadelphia codices ; and there are some erasures and interlineations by an unknown 
hand. In seeking to reproduce the manuscripts with fidelity, the present Editor has 
deemed it desirable to retain all emendations made by contemporaries, although he 
has ignored many made by Coues, who often sought to correct and modernize the 
spelling of proper names. Words reproduced by us in Italics enclosed by parentheses, 
are corrections in red ink, presumably by Biddle — e. g. (Moses B. Read) ; those set 
in Italics enclosed by brackets, are in black ink and by several persons — Clark, Coues, 
or an unknown hand — e. g. [Petite Cote"] ; words in Italics, unenclosed, were under- 
lined by the author himself; the present Editor's signed or unsigned emendations are 
in Roman, bracketed — e.g. [Lewis]; plain parentheses (enclosing matter in Roman 
type) are as in the text. — Ed. 



shall be incorperated with the second, and third squads of the 
same, and are to be treated in all respects as those men who 
form the Permonant detachment, except with reguard to an 
advance of Pay, and the distrebutions of Arms and Accoutre- 
ments intended for the expedition. 

The following persons (viz Charles Floyd, John Ordway, and 
Nathaniel Pryor are this day appointed Sergeants, with equal 
Powers (unless when otherwise specially ordered). The au- 
thority, Pay, and emouliments, attached to the Said rank of 
Sergeants in the Military Service of the United States, and to 
hold the Said appointments, and be respected Accordingly, 
dureing their good behaviour or the Will and pleasure of the 
s d . Commanding officers. 1 

To insure order among the party, as well as to promote 
a regular Police in Camp, The Commanding Officers have 
thought proper to devide the detachment into three Squads 
and to place a Sergeant in Command of each, who are held 
imediately responsible to the Commanding officers, for the 
regular and orderly deportment of the individuls Composeing 
their respective Squads. 

The following individuals after being duly balloted for, have 
fallen in the several Squads as hereafter stated, and are Accord- 
ingly placed under the derection of the Sergeants whose names 
preceeds those of his squad. (Viz :) 

1 The above spelling is somewhat erratic. Following is the now generally 
accepted list of members of the expedition, as verified by the official pay-roll at the 
close of the venture: Meriwether Lewis, Captain in ist Reg. U. S. Infantry, com- 
manding; William Clark, and Lieutenant in U. S. Artillery; sergeants — John 
Ordway, Nathaniel Pryor, Charles Floyd, Patrick Gass ; and privates — William 
Bratton, John Colter, John Collins, Peter Cruzatte, Reuben Fields, Joseph Fields, 
Robert Frazier, George Gibson, Silas Goodrich, Hugh Hall, Thomas P. Howard, 
Francis Labiche, Hugh McNeal, John Potts, George Shannon, John Shields, John B. 
Thompson, William Werner, Joseph Whitehouse, Alexander Willard, Richard 
Windsor, Peter Wiser. Besides these men, the party included two interpreters, 
George Drewyer (or Drouillard) and Toussaint Charbonneau ; an Indian woman, 
Sacajawea ("Bird-woman"), Charbonneau's wife; and a negro slave of Captain 
Clark's, named York. Two soldiers, John Newman and M. B. Reed, who had 
set out with the expedition, were punished for misconduct, and sent back to St. Louis 
on April 7, 1805. Baptiste Lepage was enlisted in Newman's place, at Fort 
Mandan, Nov. 2, 1804, and remained with the expedition until the discharge of its 
men at St. Louis, Nov. 10, 1806. For more detailed information regarding them, 
see Coues's Lewis and Clark, i, pp. 253-259. — Ed. 




I" Squad 
Sergeant Nathaniel Pryor. 



Thomas P. 



















John B: 








r d 


Serg' Jo). 

in Ordeway 






Alexander Willard 











2 nd Squad 

Serg? Charles Floyd 


Hugh MfNeel 
Patric Gass 

The Camp Kettles, and other Public utensels for cooking 
shall be produced this evening after the parade is Dismissed ; 
and an equal division shall take place of the same, among the 
non commissioned officers Commanding the squads. Those 
non-commissioned officers shall make an equal Division of the 
proportion of those utensels between their own Messes of their 
respective squads^ — each squad shall be devided into two 
Messes, at the head of one of which the commanding Sergeant 
shall Preside, the sergeants Messes will Consist of four pri- 
vates only to be admited under his discression, the ballance of 
each squad shall form the second mess of each squad. 

Dureing the indisposition of Sergearft Pryor, George Shannon 
is appointed (protempor) to discharge his the Said Pryor's 
duty in his squad. 

The party for the co[n]venience of being more imediately 
under the eye of the several sergeants haveing charge of them, 
will make the necessary exchanges of their Bunks and rooms 
for that Purpose as shall be verbally derected by us. 

Untill otherwise derected, Sergeant John Ordway will con- 
tinue to keep the rouster and detaile the men of the detachment 



for the several duties which it may be necessary, they should 
perform, as also to transcribe in a book furnished Him for 
that purpose, those or such other orders as the Commanding 
officers shall think proper to publish from time, to time for 
the government of the Party. 


Meriwether Lewis 
W? Clark 

Detachment Order 
[Orderly Book; Ordway Q 1 River a Dubois April f\ 1804. 

During the absence of the Commanding officers at S! Louis, 
the Party are to Consider themselves under the immediate 
command of Serg! John Ordway ; who will be held account- 
able for the Poliece ; and good order of the Camp, dureing 
that period. Every individual of the party will Strictly attend 
to all the necessarry duties required for the benefit of the 
party ; and to the regulations heretofore made which is now in 
force. Serg'. Floyd will stay in our quarters, attend to them, 
and the Store ; and to the other duties reqeired of him ; he 
will also assist Serg! Ordway as much as possable. 


W M Clark 
Meriwether Lewis 

Detachment Orders 
[Orderly Book :] April 11 s .' 1804 

Dureing the absence of the Commanding officers at S! Louis 
the Party are to be under the immediate Command of Ser- 
geant John Ordway agreeable to the Orders of the 7'. h Instant 

Signed W" Clark Cap' 

[Orderly Book :] Camp at River a Dubois May the 4'* 1804 

Orders Corporal Warvington, Frasier, Boley & the De- 
tachment late from Captain Stoddards Company will form a 
mess under the direction of the Corporal, who shall be held 
accountable for their conduct in Camp. 

1 From this point until the end of the Orderly Book, the entries therein are by that 
officer, unless otherwise noted. — Ed. 




Orders : The Sergeants are to mount as officers of the 
Day During the time we delay at this place, and exhibet on 
Duty to Command the Detachment in the absence of the 
Commanding officer — he is to see that the Guard doe their 
Duty, and that the Detachment attend to the regulations here- 
tofore made and those which may be made from time to time, 
No man of the Detachment Shall leave Camp without permis- 
sion from the Commanding officer present, except the French 
Hands who have families may be allowed to Stay with their 
families whilst at this place 

2 Serg! Ordway for Duty to Day. Serg! Floyd tomorrow 
& Serg! Pryor the next day. 

Signed W!f Clark 

Cap! Command! 

fJClark:] A Memorandom of Articles in readiness for the Voyage 1 

Viz: 14 Bags of Parchmeal of 2 bus: each about . I200 w 

9 do - Common Do . do do 800 

11 do - Corn Hulled, do do IOOO 

30 half Barrels of flour) (Gross 3900™) do 






Gross 650) do 

Bags of . do 
do of Biscuit ) 
Barrels do ) 

Barrels of Salt of 2 bus: each " (870) do 
50' Kegs of Pork . (gross 4500) . do 
2 Boxes of Candles 7o' b and about 50 lb 
(one of Which has 50 lt) of soap 
Bag of Candle-wick 
do " Coffee . 
do " Beens & 1 of Pees 
do " Sugar . 
Keg of Hogs Lard 
4 Barrels of Corn hulled (650) 
1 do of meal 170 

6oo lb Grees 
50 bushels meal 
24 do Natchies Corn Huled 
21 Bales of Indian goods 

Tools of every Description &c &c. 










1 A loose sheet, in the Voorhis collection, with map of neighborhood of River 
Dubois camp on reverse side. — Ed 



our party 

2 Cap'.' 4 Sergeants, 3 Intp 1 .", 22 Am?' 9 or 10 French, & York 
also I Corp! & Six in a perogue with 40 Days provisions for the party 
as far as these provisions last 
[Indorsed:] A List of Arti[c]les for Missouri voyage 


^Clarkf] 1 River a Dubois opposet the mouth of the Missourie River 

Sunday May the 13'* 1804. 

I despatched an express this morning to Cap! Lewis at S! 
Louis, all our provisions Goods and equipage on Board of a 
Boat of 22 oars 2 [Party) a large Perogue of 71 oares [in which 
8 French) a Second Perogue of 6 oars, (Soldiers) Complete with 
Sails &c. &c. Men compl with Powder Cartragies and 100 
Balls each, all in he? lth and readiness to set out. Boats and 
everything Complete, with the necessary stores of provisions 
& such articles of merchandize as we thought ourselves 
authorised to procure — tho' not as much as I think nessT for 
the multitude of Ind! thro which we must pass on our road 
across the Continent &c. &c. 

Lar? 38 - 55' - 19" - 6/10 North of equator 
LongV 89 - 57 - 45 - West of Greenwich 

Monday May 14'? 1804 

Rained the fore part of the day I determined to go as far as 
S! Charles a french Village 7 Leag! up the Missourie, and wait 
at that place untill Cap! Lewis could finish the business in 
which he was obliged to attend to at S! Louis and join me by 
Land from that place 24 miles ; by this movement I calculated 
that if any alterations in the loading of the Vestles or other 
Changes necessary, that they might be made at S! Charles 

I Set out at 4 oClock P.M, in the presence of many of the 
neighbouring inhabitents, and proceeded on under a jentle 

1 This and subsequent Clark entries, up to and including Aug 14, 1804, are from 
Codex A Ed. 

2 " A keel boat fifty-five feet long, drawing three feet water, carrying one large 
square sail and twenty-two oars, a deck of ten feet in the bow, and stern formed a 
forecastle and cabin, while the middle was covered by lockers, which might be raised 
$0 as to form a breastwork in case of attack." — Biddle, i, p. 2. 


,—i v v. . JU 



i- <-» » ^ — <5»- ^V-S^C^' tray, 

6s?£^i ^ &Sa~ 0?Z£^t/k 

/ 4 S 

MS. Page, dated May 14, giving Clark's start 
from River Dubois. 


brease up the Missourie to the upper Point of the i" Island 
4 Miles and camped on the Island which is Situated Close on 
the right (or Starboard) Side, and opposit the mouth of a 
Small Creek called Cold water, 1 a heavy rain this after-noon 

The Course of this day nearly West wind from N. E. 

[Lewis:] Tuesday May 15"* — 

It rained during the greater part of last night and continued 
untill 7 OC1 1 A. M. after which the party proceeded, passed 
two Islands and incamped on the Star? shore at Ml Fifer's 
landing opposite an Island, the evening was fair, some wild 
gees with their young brudes were seen to-day. the barge 
run foul three several times on logs, and in one instance it was 
with much difficulty they could get her off; happily no injury 
was sustained, tho' the barge was several minutes in eminent 
danger ; this was cased by her being too heavily laden in the 
stern. Persons accustomed to the navigation of the Missouri 
and the Mississippi also below the mouth of this river, uni- 
formly take the precaution to load their vessels heavyest in the 
bow when they ascend the stream in order to avoid the danger 
incedent to runing foul of the concealed timber which lyes in 
great quantities in the beds of these rivers 2 

[Clark Q 3 May 1 5'* Tuesday — 

Rained the greater part of the last night, and this morning 
untill 7 oClock. at 9 oClock Set out and proceeded on 9 
miles passed two Islands & incamped on the Start)? Side at a 
Mf Pipers Landing opposet an Island, the Boat run on Logs 
three times to day, owing [to] her being> too heavyly loaded a 
Sturn, a fair after noon, I saw a number of Goslings to day 
on the Shore, the water excessively rapid, & Banks falling 

1 This creek was just above Bellefontaine, Mo. , where a U. S. military post was 
established in 1803. — Ed. 

a This entry, made by Lewis, is found at end of Codex Aa. — Ed. 

8 Where, as herein, there are consecutive entries by the same hand, we only thus 
indicate the commencement of a stretch. — Ed. 
vol. 1.- 2 [ iy ] 

Course & Distance assending the Missourie Tuesday 15 th May 


Ml s 


I - - 

To a p! on S! Side 

N 80° W 

2-0 - 

To a p' on S! Side 

N.n° W 

2-# - 

To a p! on StW Side 

N 20 W 

i-X - 

To a p! on Lb? Side 

S io° W 

*-% - 

To a pf on Stb? Side 

S 22° W 

I - O - 

To a p? on Stb? Side. 

9- l A 

(See Suplem'. in N\ 3) 

May 1 61) Wednesday 

A fair morning Set out at 5 oClk pass a remarkable Coal 
Hill on the Larboard Side, Called by the French Carbonere, 
this hill appear to Contain great quantity of Coal (£5? ore of a 
appearance) from this hill the Village of S! Charles 
may be Seen at 7 miles distance, we arrived at S! Charles at 
12 oClock a number Spectators french & Indians flocked to 
the bank to See the party. This Village is about one mile in 
length, Situated on the North Side of the Missourie at the 
foot of a hill from which it takes its name Peetiete Coete [petite 
cote"] or the Little hill This Village Contn! about 100 (frame) 
houses, the most of them small and indefferent and about 450 
inhabitents Chiefly French, those people appear Pore, polite 
& harmonious. I was invited to Dine with a Mf Ducett 
\T)uquef\, this gentleman was once a merchant from Canadia, 
from misfortunes aded to the loss of a Cargo, Sold to the late 
Judge Turner he has become Somewhat reduced, he has a 
Charming wife an elegent Situation on the hill Serounded by 
orchards & a excellent gardain. 

Course & Distance assending the Missourie the i6 t . h of May — 

Course M 1 * 

South . 2.0 - To a p! on Lb? Side 

S. 85 W. . 7.0 - To the mid. of Sf Charles passed 
Q _ much hard water & 3 Is?*. 

[Orderly Book:] S'. Charles May 16I* 1804 

Note the Commanding officer is full[y] assured that every 
man of his Detachment will have a true respect for their own 



Dignity and not make it necessary for him to leave S! Charles 
for a more retired situation. 

[Clark Q May the 17'* Thursday 1804 

A fair day compelled to punish for misconduct, Several 
Kickapoos Indians visit me to day, George Drewyer arrive. 

Took equal altitudes of Suns L L made it 84 - 39' - 15" ap. T. 

A. M. 8h-35'- 4 o" P. M. 3I1- 23'- 24" 

8-37-50 3-24-50 

8-38-20 3- 2 5-5 

Measured the river found it to be 720 yards Wide, a Keel 
Boat came up to day. Several of the inhabitents Came abord 
to day, reseved Several Speces of vegatables from the inhabi- 
tents to day 

[Orderly Book:] Orders S'. Charles Thursday the 17* of May 1804 

A Sergeant and four men of the Party destined for the 
Missourri Expidition will convene at 1 1 oClock to day on the 
quarter Deck of the Boat, and form themselves into a Court 
martial to hear and determine (in behalf of the Cap!) the 
evidences aduced against William Warner & Hugh Hall for 
being absent last night without leave; contrary to orders; — 
& John Collins il'-for being absent without leave — 2 n . d for 
behaveing in an unbecomeing manner at the Ball last night — 
3* T for Speaking in a language last night after his return tend- 
ing to bring into disrespect the orders of the Commanding 

Signl W. Clark. Corhd? 

Detail for court martial 

Serg! John Ordway Prs 

R. Fields 

r, i\t- j members 

R. Windsor 

J. Whitehouse 

]". Potts 



The Court convened agreeable to orders on the 17 th of May 

Sg' John Ordway P. 

Joseph Whitehouse Reuben Fields 

John Potts Richard Windsor 

after being duly Sworn the Court proceded' to the trial of 
William Warner & Hugh Hall on the following Charges Viz: 
for being absent without leave last night contrary to orders, to 
this charge the Prisoners plead Guilty. The Court are of 
oppinion that the Prisoners Warner & Hall are Both Guilty 
of being absent from camp without leave, it being a breach of 
the Rules and articles of War and do Sentence them each to 
receive twenty-five lashes on their naked back, but the Court 
recommend them from their former Good conduct to the 
mercy of the commanding officer. — at the Same court was 
tried John Collins Charged 
1" for being absent without leave. 

2 d for behaveing in an unbecomming manner at the ball last 

3 d1 / for Speaking in a language after his return to camp tend- 
ing to bring into disrespect the orders of the Commanding 
Officer. • 

The Prisoner Pleads Guilty to the first Charge but not Guilty 
to the two last Charges, after mature deliberation & agreeable 
to the evidence aduced, The Court are of oppinion that the 
Prisoner is Guilty of all the charges alledged against him it 
being a breach of the rules & articles of War and do Sentence 
him to receive fifty lashes on his naked back. 

The Commanding Officer approves of the proceedings & 
Desicon of the Court martial and orders that the punishment 
of John Collins take place this evening at Sun Set in the Pres- 
ence of the Party. The punishment ordered to be inflicted 
on William Warner & Hugh Hall, is remitted under the 
assurence arriseing from a confidence which the Commanding 
officer has of the Sincerity of the recommendation from the 



after the punishment Warner Hall & Collins will return 
to their Squads and Duty 

The Court is Disolved 

Sig n W^ Clark 

[Clark :] May the 1 8'? Friday 1 804 

a fine morning, I had the loading in the Boat & perogue 
examined and changed so as the Bow of each may be heavyer 
loded than the Stern, Mf Lauremus who had been Sent by 
Cap Lewis to the Kickapoo Town on public business, return'd 
and after a Short delay proceeded on to S' Louis, I sent George 
Drewyer with a Letter to Cap' Lewis Two Keel Boats arrive 
from Kentucky to day loaded with whiskey Hats &c &c. the 
wind from the S. W. 

Took equal altitudes with Sexten [sextant. — Ed.] made it 97 - 
42' - 37" M. T. 

A. M. ah- 9' -51" P. M. 2h - 49' -24" 

9 - 10 - 16 2-50-50 

9 - 11 - 34 2 - 51 - 10 

Error of Sextion 8' - 45". 

May xyth — Satturday 1804 — 

A violent Wind last night from the W. S. W. accompanied 
with rain which lasted about three hours. Cleared away this 
morn'g at 8 oClock, I took receipt for the pay of the men 
up to the I s .' of Dec! next, R Fields kill a Deer to day, I 
reseve an invitation to a Ball, it is not in my power to go. 
George Drewyer return from S! Louis and brought 99 Dollars, 
he lost a letter from Cap' Lewis to me, Seven Ladies visit 
me to day 4 

Took equal altituds of © L. L 1 & made it 76° - 33' - 7" 

A. M. 8h- 12'- 20" P. M. 3h-45'- 49 " 
8-14-9 3-46-22 

8-15-30 3-47-41 

Error of Sexton as usual. 

1 iThese characters are used by Clark to signify "the sun's lower limb;" or, with 
"U. L.," its "upper limb." — Ed. 



May 20'* Sunday 1804 — 

(at St. Charles) A Cloudy morning rained and hard Wind 
from the last night, The letter George lost yesterday- 

found by a Country man, I gave the party leave to go and 
hear a Sermon to day delivered by M' [Blank space in MS.] 
a roman Carthlick Priest 

at 3 oClock Cap! Lewis, Cap? Stoddard accompanied by the 
Officers & Several Gentlemen of S' Louis arrived in a heavy 
Showr of Rain. Mess? Lutenants Minford & Worriss. M' Cho- 
teau[,] Grattiot, Deloney, Laberdee, Rankin. D! Sodrang 1 

rained the greater part of this evening, Suped with M' 
Charles Tayon, the late Comd' of S! Charles a Spanish Ensign. 

fXewis:] Sunday May xath 1804. 

The morning was fair, and the weather pleasent ; at 10 00 
A M. agreably to an appointment of the preceeding day, I was 

1 Louisiana (retroceded by Spain to France in 1800) was sold by Napoleon Bona- 
parte (April 30, 1803) to the United States; and Captain Amos Stoddard was the 
commissioner appointed by Jefferson to receive the upper portion of the territory from 
the Spanish authorities. France never having taken actual possession of Louisiana, 
the transfer from Spain to France took place at St. Louis, March 9, 1804, Lewis 
being chief official witness ; the transfer from France to the United States occurred 
the following day ; and Stoddard became military governor of Upper Louisiana, pend- 
ing its reorganization by Congress, which took effect on October 1 of that year. One 
of his officers was Lieutenant Worrall (the name spelled Worriss by Clark) ; another 
was named Milford (Minford, in Clark). 

Pierre and Auguste Chouteau were among the earliest settlers of St. Louis, and the 
Chouteau family has always been prominent in its annals ; Pierre was the son of its 
founder, Pierre Laclede. Their sister Victoire was the wife of Charles Gratiot, who 
was engaged in the Indian trade in the Illinois country from 1774, settling at St. Louis 
in 1 78 1 5 upon the organization of the District of Louisiana (1804), Gratiot was 
appointed the first presiding justice of the new Court of Quarter Sessions at St. Louis, 
afterward filling various public offices. Another sister, Pelagie Chouteau, married 
Sylvester Labbadie (misspelled Laberdee by Clark). David Delaunay was an asso- 
ciate justice in the above-mentioned court. James Rankin was another early settler 
of St. Louis. Dr. Antoine Francois Saugrain (the "Sodrang" of Clark) was a 
French chemist and mineralogist, who had made several voyages to America, for 
scientific purposes, from 1784 to 1788. In 1790, he was one of the French colonists 
who settled at Gallipolis, O., and finally located with his family at St. Louis, where he 
practised medicine until his death in 1820. See W. V. Byars's Memoir of Saugrain' s 
life (St. Louis, 1903). For detailed accounts of these and other early settlers of 
St. Louis, see Scharf's Saint Louis, pp. 167-202; and Billon's Annals of St. Louis, 
pp. 389-492. — Ed. 



joined by Capt Stoddard, Lieut' Milford & Worrell together 
with Mess? A. Chouteau, C. Gratiot, and many other rispec- 
table inhabitants of S! Louis, who had engaged to accompany 
me to the Vilage of Si Charles; accordingly at 12 OCi, after 
bidding an affectionate adieu to my Hostis, that excellent 
woman the spouse of Mi Peter Chouteau, and some of my fair 
friends of S! Louis, we set forward to that vilage in order to 
join my friend companion and fellow labourer Capt. William 
Clark, who had previously arrived at that place with the party 
destined for the discovery of the interior of the continent of 
North America the first 5 miles of our rout laid through a 
beatifull high leavel and fertile prarie which incircles the town 
of S! Louis from N. W. to S. E. the lands through which we 
then passed are somewhat broken less fertile the plains and 
woodlands are here indiscriminately interspersed untill you arrive 
within three miles of the vilage when the woodland commences 
and continues to the Missouri the latter is extreemly fertile. 
At half after one P. M. our progress was interrupted by the near 
approach of a violent thunder-storm from the N. W. and con- 
cluded to take shelter in a little cabbin hard by untill the rain 
should be over ; accordingly we alighted and remained about 
an hour and a half and regailed ourselves with a could colla- 
tion which we had taken the precaution to bring with us from 
Si Louis. 

The clouds continued to follow each other in rapaid succes- 
sion, insomuch that there was but little prospect of it's ceasing 
to rain this evening ; as I had determined to reach S! Charles 
this evening and knowing that there was now no time to be lost 
I set forward in the rain, most of the gentlemen continued with 
me, we arrived at half after six and joined Capt Clark, found 
the party in good health and sperits. Suped this evening 
with Monsi Charles Tayong a Spanish Ensign & late Com- 
mandant of Si Charles at an early hour I retired to rest on 
board the barge. Si Charles is situated on the North bank of 
the Missouri 21 miles above it's junction wjth the Mississippi, 
and about the same distance N. W. from Si Louis ; it is 
bisected by one principal street about a mile in length runing 
nearly parallel with the river, the plain on which it stands is 



narrow tho' sufficiently elivated to secure it against the annual 
inundations of the river, which usually happen in the month 
of June, and in the rear it is terminated by a range of small 
hills, hence the appellation of petit Cote, a name by which this 
vilage is better known to the French inhabitants of the Illi- 
nois than that of S! Charles. The Vilage contains a Chappel, 
one hundred dwelling houses, and about 450 inhabitants ; 
their houses are generally small and but illy constructed ; a 
great majority of the inhabitants are miserably pour illiterate 
and when at home excessively lazy, tho' they are polite hos- 
pitable and by no means deficient in point of natural genious, 
they live in a perfect state of harmony among each other, and 
plase as implicit confidence in the doctrines of their speritual 
pastor, the Roman Catholic priest, as they yeald passive obe- 
dience to the will of their temporal master the commandant, 
a small garden of vegetables is the usual extent of their culti- 
vation, and this is commonly imposed on the old-men and 
boys ; the men in the vigor of life consider the cultivation of 
the earth a degrading occupation, and in order to gain the 
necessary subsistence for themselves and families, either under- 
take hunting voyages on their own account, or engage them- 
selves as hirelings to such persons as possess sufficient capital 
to extend their traffic to the natives of the interior parts of the 
country ; on those voyages in either case, they are frequently 
absent from their families or homes the term of six twelve or 
eighteen months and alwas subjected to severe and incessant 
labour, exposed to the ferosity of the lawless savages, the 
vicissitudes of weather and climate, and dependant on chance 
or accident alone for food, raiment or relief in the event of 
malady. These people are principally the decendants of the 
Canadian French, and it is not an inconsiderable proportion 
of them that can boast a small dash of the pure blood of the 
aboriginies of America. On consulting with my friend Capt C. 
I found it necessary that we should pospone our departure 
untill 2 P. M. the next day and accordingly gave orders to the 
party to hold themselves in readiness to depart at that hour. 

Capt. Clark now informed me that having gotten all the 
stores on board the Barge and perogues on the evening of the 



I3'. h of May he determined to leave our winter cantoonment at 
the mouth of River Dubois the next day, and to ascend the 
Missouri as far as the Vilage of S! Charles, where, as it had 
been previously concerted between us, he was to wait my 
arrival ; this movement while it advanced us a small distance 
on our rout, would also enable him to determine whether the 
vessels had been judiciously loaded and if not timely to make 
the necessary alterations; accordingly at 4 P. M. on Monday 
the 14 th of May 1804, he embarked with the party in the 
presence of a number of the neighbouring Citizens who had 
assembled to witness his departure, during the fore part of 
this Day it rained excessively hard. In my last letter to the 
President dated at S! Louis I mentioned the departure of Capt. 
Clark from River Dubois on the 15'!" Inst, which was the day 
that had been calculated on, but having completed the arrange- 
ments a day earlyer he departed on the I4'. h as before men- 
tioned. On the evening of the i4'. h the party halted and 
encamped on the upper point of the first Island which lyes 
near the Larbord shore, on the same side and nearly opposite 
the center of this Island a small Creek disimbogues called 

The course and distance of this day was West 4 Miles — the Wind 
from N. E. 1 

[Clark:] May 21? 1804 Monday — 

All the forepart of the Day arranging our party and pro- 
cureing the different articles necessary for them at this place. 
Dined with M' Ducett and Set out at half passed three oClock 
under three Cheers from the gentlemen on the bank and pro- 
ceeded on to the head of the Island (which is Situated on the 
Stb^ Side) 3 Miles Soon after we Set out to day a hard 
Wind from the W. S W accompanied with a hard rain, which 
lasted with Short intervales all night, opposit our Camp a 
Small creek corns in on the Lb d Side. 

1 The entry here closed, written by Lewis, is found in Codex Aa. — Ed. 


S. 15 . W ■ 

N 52 W ■ 


Course & Distance 21" of May 

To bilge of Is? 1 

To Upper P! of Is? St? S d 

May T.i nd Tuesday 1804 — 

A Cloudy Morning Delay one hour for 4 french men who 
got liberty to return to arrange Some business they had for- 
gotten in Town, at 6 oClock we proceeded on, passed Several 
small farms on the bank, and a large creek on the Lb? Side 
Called Bonom \bon homme] a Camp of Kickapoos 2 on the 
S! Side {An Indian nation residing on the heads of Kaskaskis & 
Illinois river go miles N.E. of the mouth of the Missouri, &? hunt 
occasionally on the Missouri) 

Those Indians told me several days ago that they would 
Come on and hunt and by the time I got to their Camp they 
would have Some provisions for us, We camped in a Bend 
at the Mo : of a Small creek, Soon after we came too the 
Indians arrived with 4 Deer as a Present, for which we gave 
them two qt* of Whiskey 

Course & Distance the 22 d May 

S 6o°. W. 3 M? to a p! Lb d Side 
S 43 . W. 4 M*. to a p? on Stb? Side 
West . iy 2 M' to a p! on Stb? S? psiBonom 
S. 75 . W. 7 y 2 M? to a p! in Bend to Stb? Side at the Mo. 
jg of Osage Womans R 3 

This day we passed Several Islands, and Some high lands 
on the Starboard Side, verry hard water. 

1 Apparently meaning the " bulge " or projection of St. Charles Island to the 
south. Most of the camping-sites of the expedition, and other localities named, are 
identified in the notes to Coues's L. and C, q.v. ; but as many of these are but con- 
jectures, the reader will do well to compare carefully therewith the facsimiles of Clark's 
original maps, published in the present edition. — Ed. 

a An Algonquian tribe, formerly located in southern Wisconsin, where is a river 
bearing their name. — Ed. 

8 Still named Femme Osage River. — Ed. 



May %yi Wednesday 1804 — 

We Set out early ran on a Log and detained one hour, 
proceeded the Course of Last night 2 miles to the mouth of a 
Creek \_R~] on the Stbf Side called Osage Womans R, about 
30 y d * Wide, opposit a large Island and a \_Amerkan\ Settle- 
ment, (on this Creek 30 or 40 faml ys are Settled, crossed to 
the Setlem! and took in R & Jos Fields who had been Sent 
to purchase Corn & Butter &c Many people Came to See 
us, we passed a large Cave on the Lb? Side (Called by the 
french the 'Tavern 1 — about 1 20 feet wide 40 feet Deep & 20 
feet high many different immages are Painted on the Rock at 
this place the Ind' & French pay omage. Many names are 
wrote on the rock, Stoped about one mile above for Cap' Lewis 
who had assended the Clifts which is at the Said Cave 300 
fee[t] high, hanging over the waters, the water excessively 
Swift to day, We incamped below a Small Isl d in the Middle 
of the river, Sent out two hunters, one Killed a Deer. 

Course & Distance 23 rd May 

S. 75 W 2 mils to Osage Worn" R the Course of last Night 
S. 52 W 7 mil! to a p! on Sf Side. 

This evening we examined the arms and amunition found 
those mens arms in the perogue in bad order, a fair evening. 
Cap! Lewis near falling from the Pinecles of rocks 300 feet, he 
caught at 20 foot. 

May 24'* Thursday 1 804 — 

Set out early, passed a verry bad part of the River Called 
the Deavels race ground, this is where the Current Sets against 
some projecting rocks for half a Mile on the Lab? Side, above 

1 Thus named, according to Brackenridge {Views of Louisiana, p. 203), because 
this cave afforded •« a stopping place for voyagers ascending, or on returning to their 
homes after a long absence." The American settlement just below this place was the 
Kentucky colony recently founded on Femme Osage River, about six miles above its 
mouth ; among these settlers was Daniel Boone, who in 1798 had obtained a grant of 
land there from the Spanish authorities, whereon he resided until 1804. His death 
occurred at Femme Osage, on Sept. 26, 1820 (see the Draper MSS. Collection in 
library of Wisconsin Historical Society; press-mark, 16 C 28). — Ed. 



this place is the Mouth of a Small Creek called queevere, 
passed Several Islands, two Small Creeks on the Stb? Side, 
and passed between a Islf and the Lb? Shore a narrow pass 
above this Is'f is a verry bad part of the river, We attempted 
to pass up under the Lb? Bank which was falling in so fast 
that the evident danger obliged us to cross between the 
Starb? Side and a Sand bar in the middle of the river, We 
hove up near the head of the Sand bar, the Same moveing & 
backing caused us to run on the sand. The Swiftness of the 
Current Wheeled the boat, Broke our Toe rope, and was 
nearly over Setting the boat, all hands jumped out on the 
upper Side and bore on that Side untill the Sand washed from 
under the boat and Wheeled on the next bank by the time 
She wheeled a 3- Time got a rope fast to her Stern and by 
the means of swimmers was Carred to Shore and when her 
stern was down whilst in the act of Swinging a third time into 
Deep Water near the Shore, we returned, to the Island 
where we Set out and assended under the Bank which I have 
just mentioned, as falling in, here George Drewyer & Willard, 
two of our men who left us at S" Charles to come on by land 
joined us, we camped about 1 mile above where we were So 
nearly being lost, on the Lab? Side at a Plantation, all in 
Spirits. This place I call the retragrade bend as we were 
obliged to fall back 1 miles 

Course & Distance of the 24^ May 

S. 63° W, 4 M' to a p! on Stb? Side 
S. 68* W, 3 Mr to a pt on Lb? Side 
S. 75° W, 3 M? to a pf on Sib? Side 


May 15'* Friday 1804 — 

rain last night, river fall several inches, Set out early ps? 
Several Islands passed Wood River on the Lb? Side at i 
Miles passed [again] the Creek on the S' Side called La 
quevr [quiver] at 5 miles passed a [small] Creek (called R la 
■poceau) at 8 miles, ops c an Is? on the Lb? Side, Camped at 
the mouth of a Creek called River a Chouritte, [La Charrette], 



above a Small french Village of 7 houses and as many families, 1 
settled at this place to be conv! to hunt, & trade with the In- 
dians, here we met with M. Louisell, imedeately down from 
the Seeder \Cedaf\ Islf Situated in the Country of the Sciox 
[iSzoax] 400 Leagues up he gave us a good Deel of informa- 
tion [and] Some letters he informed us that he Saw no 
Indians on the river below the Poncrars \_Poncaras~\? Some 
hard rain this evening. 

Course & Distance 25 th May 

West 3 M.' StM Side passed Creek 

N. 57° W. 5 Ms. LW Side ps? Creek 
N. 20° W 2 M? to Mo: Chouritte Creek 

"10 & Village on the Sf Side. 

The people at this Village is pore, houses Small, they sent 
us milk & eggs to eat. 

May the 26'* Satturday 1804 — 

Set out at 7 oClock after a heavy Shour of rain (George 
Drewyer, & John Sheelds, sent by Land with the two horses 
with directions to proceed on one day & hunt the next) 

The wind favourable from the E.N.E. passed Beef Island 
and River on Lb? Side at 2% m! [a large island called Buffaloe 
Island separated from the land by a small channel into which 
Buffaloe creek empties itself ~\ . Passed a creek on the Lb? Side 
called Shepperds Creek, passed Several Islands to day, great 
Deel of Deer Sign on the Bank, one man out hunting, 
W[e] camped on an Island on the Starboard Side [near the 
Southern extrem' of Luter Island (La L' outre) 3 ] 

1 Gass and Floyd, in their journals, call this place St. John's, and say that it was 
"the last white settlement on the river." — Ed. 

2 Referring to the Siouan tribe of Poncas, whose village was on the Ponca River, 
a stream flowing into the Missouri not far above the Niobrara River. When visited 
by our explorers, their town was found deserted, the tribe (then reduced to a few 
cabins) being absent on a hunting expedition, and having joined the Omahas, also a 
Siouan tribe, for mutual aid and protection. — Ed. 

' L' Outre Island, as given on modern maps — this, as well as the form in the 
text, corrupted from the French word /outre ("otter"). Floyd and Biddle use the 
English name for the island or the creek. — Ed. 

[2 9 ] 


Course & Distance to day 

S. 50"? W. 2% Mr to a p« S. Side ops? p! Buf Is? 
N. 8o° W 2j/ 2 M' to p? Lb? S? 
N. 88° W y/ 2 M' to p! St? S? abov Buf Is? 
N 82 W \y 2 M?to P rS? Side 

N 37 W s Mr to p? Lb? S? passed 2 Is. & Shep? R. 
N 6o° W. 2 Mr to p! on S! S? p? a Is? S. S. 

^Orderly Book ; Lewis Q Detatchment Orders. 

May 26'* 1804. 

The Commanding Officers direct, that the three Squads 
under the command of Sergt! Floyd Ordway and Pryor hereto- 
fore forming two messes each, shall untill further orders con- 
stitute three messes only, the same being altered and organized 
as follows (viz) 

Serf. Charles Floyd. 


Hugh M< Neal 
Patric Gass 
Reubin Fields 
John B Thompson 
John Newman 
Richard Winsor 
Francis Rivet & (French) 
Joseph Fields 

Serg' "John Ordway 

William Bratton 

John Colter 

Moses B. Reed (Soldier) 

Alexander Willard 
William Warner 
Silas Goodrich 
John Potts & 
Hugh Hall 

Serg'. Nathaniel Pryor 

George Gibson 
George Shannon 
John Shields 
John Collins 
Joseph Whitehouse 
Peter Wiser 
Peter Crusat & 
Francis Labuche 

The commanding officers further direct that the remainder 
of the detatchmen[t] shall form two messes; and that the same 
be constituted as follows, (viz) 



Patroon, Baptist Dechamps Corp'. Richard Warvington 

Engaces. Privates. 

Etienne Mabbauf Robert Frasier 

Paul Primaut John Boleye 

Charles Hebert John Dame 

Baptist La Jeunesse Ebinezer Tuttle & 

Peter Pinaut Isaac White. 
Peter Roi & 
Joseph Collin 

The Commanding officers further direct that the messes of 
Serg'.' Floyd, Ordway and Pryor shall untill further orders form 
the crew of the Batteaux ; the Mess of the Patroon Lajeunesse 
will form the permanent crew of the red Perogue ; Corp! 
Warvington's mess forming that of the white perogue. 

Whenever by any casualty it becomes necessary to furnish 
additional men to assist in navigating the Perogues, the same 
shall be furnished by daily detale from the Privates who form 
the crew of Batteaux, exempting only from such detale, Thomas 
P. Howard, and the men who are assigned to the two bow 
and two stern oars. For the present one man will be furnished 
daily to assist the crew of the white perogue ; this man must 
be an expert boatman. 

The posts and duties of the Sergt! shall be as follows (viz) — 
when the Batteaux is under way, one Serg! shall be stationed 
at the helm, one in the center on the rear of the starboard 
locker, and one at the bow. The Serg'. at the helm, shall steer 
the boat, and see that the baggage on the quarterdeck is 
properly arranged and stowed away in the most advantageous 
manner ; to see that no cooking utensils or loos lumber of 
any kind is left on the deck to obstruct the passage between 
the burths — he will also attend to the compas when necessary. 

The Serg! at the center will command the guard, manage the 
sails, see that the men at the oars do their duty; that they 
come on board at a proper season in the morning, and that the 
boat gets under way in due time ; he will keep a good lookout 
for the mouths of all rivers, creeks, Islands and other remark- 
able places and shall immediately report the same to the com- 



manding officers; he will attend to the issues of sperituous 
liquors ; he shall regulate the halting of the batteaux through 
the day to give the men refreshment, and will also regulate 
the time of her departure taking care that not more time than 
is necessary shall be expended at each halt — it shall be his 
duty also to post a centinel on the bank, near the boat when- 
ever we come too and halt in the course of the day, at the 
same time he will (acompanied by two his guard) reconnoiter 
the forrest arround the place of landing to the distance of at 
least one hundred paces, when we come too for the purpose 
of encamping at night, the Serg! of the guard shall post two 
centinels immediately on our landing; one of whom shal be 
posted near the boat, and the other at a convenient distance 
in rear of the encampment ; at night the Serg! must be always 
present with his guard, and he is positively forbidden to suffer 
any man of his guard to absent himself on any pretext what- 
ever ; he will at each relief through the night, accompanyed by 
the two men last off their posts, reconnoiter in every direction 
around the camp to the distance of at least one hundred and 
fifty paces, and also examine the situation of the boats and 
perogues, and see that they ly safe and free from the bank. 

It shall be the duty of the serg'. at the bow, to keep a good 
look out for all danger which may approach, either of the 
enimy, or obstructions which may present themselves to the 
passage of the boat ; of the first he will notify the Serg! at 
the center, who will communicate the information to the com- 
manding officers, and of the second or obstructions to the boat 
he will notify the Serg! at the helm ; he will also report to 
the commanding officers through the Serg! at the center all 
perogues boats canoes or other craft which he may discover 
in the river, and all hunting camps or parties of Indians in 
view of which we may pass, he will at all times be provided 
with a seting pole and assist the bowsman in poling and 
managing the bow of the boat, it will be his duty also to 
give and answer all signals, which may hereafter be established 
for the government of the perogues and parties on shore. 

The Serg" will on each morning before our departure relieve 
each other in the following manner — (viz) The Serg! at the 



helm will parade the new guard, relieve the Serg! and the old 
guard, and occupy the middle station in the boat; the Serg'. of 
the old guard will occupy the station at the bow, and the 
Serg! who had been stationed the preceeding day at the bow 
will place himself at the helm. 

The serg" in addition to those duties are directed each to 
keep a seperate journal from day to day of all passing occur- 
rences, and such other observations on the country &c as shall 
appear to them worthy of notice. 

The Serg" are relieved and exempt from all labour of mak- 
ing fires, pitching tents or cooking, and will direct and make 
the men of their several messes perform an equal proportion 
of those duties. 

The guard shall hereafter consist of one sergeant and six 
privates & engages. 

Patroon Dechamp, Cop'. PVarvington, and George Drewyer, are 
exempt from guard duty ; the two former will attend particu- 
larly to their perogues at all times, and see that their lading 
is in good order, and that the same is kept perfectly free from 
rain or other moisture ; the latter will perform certain duties 
on shore which will be assigned him from time to time : all 
other soldiers and engaged men of whatever discription must 
perform their regular tour of gua[r]d duty. 

All de'tales for guard or other duty will be made in the even- 
ing when we encamp, and the duty to be performed will be 
entered on, by the individuals so warned, the next morning, 
provision for one day will be issued to the party on each even- 
ing after we have encamped ; the same will be cooked on that 
evening by the several messes, and a proportion of it reserved 
for the next day as no cooking will be allowed in the day 
while on the ma[r]ch. 

Serg! John Ordway will continue to issue the provisions and 
make the detales for guard or other duty. 

The day after tomorrow lyed corn and grece will be issued 
to the party, the next day Poark and flour, and the day follow- 
ing indian meal and poark ; and in conformity to that rotiene 
provisions will continue to be issued to the party untill further 
orders, should any of the messes prefer indian meal to flour 

VOL. ,.-3 [33] 


they may recieve it accordingly — no poark is to be issued 
when we have fresh meat on hand. 

Labuche and Crusat will man the larboard bow oar alter- 
nately, and the one not engaged at the oar will attend as the 
Bows-man, and when the attention of both these persons is 
necessary at the bow, their oar is to be maned by any idle 
hand on board. 

Meriwether Lewis Cap! 
W M Clark Cp* 

[Clark f] May vfi Sunday 1804. — 

as we were pushing off this morning two Canoos Loaded 
with fur &c came to from the Mahas \_Mahar ; Omaha — 
Ed.] nation, [living yjo miles above on the Missouri] which 
place they had left two months, at about 10 oCloclc 4 Cajaux 1 
or rafts loaded with furs and peltries came too, one from the 
Paunees, \Paunees on the river Piatt] the others from Grand 
Osage, they informed nothing of Consequence, passed a 
creek on the Lb? Side called ash Creek 20 yd? Wide, passed 
the upper point of a large Island on the Sbf Side back of which 
comes in three creeks one Called Otter Creek, her[e] the 
man we left hunting came in we camped on a Willow Island 
in the mouth of Gasconnade River George Shannon killed 
a Deer this evening. 

Course & Distance 27! 1 ? May. 

N 7 1° W. 3 M? to p! Lb? S? p? an Is? 

S 8 2 W. 6 M? to p! Lb? S? p? 2 Is? a Creek 

N 74? W. \y 2 M.' to p! Lb? S? p? up: p! big Is? & 2 Creeks 

S 70 W. 5 M? to p! ops? the Gasconnade R 

1 The word originally penned by Clark in the MS. has been erased both here and 
elsewhere, and over it is written the word " Cajaux," by the same hand which has 
made other black-ink emendations in Clark's text. This word (also written eajtu or 
cajtttx) is a term used by the French-Canadian peasantry to designate a small raft ; 
for its etymology, see Jesuit Relations (Thwaites's ed.), xxxii, p. 313. Cf. entries 
under June 5 and elsewhere, where the word appears as originally written, " Caissee," 
and " Chaussies." — Ed. 



May 1.V* Munday 1804. 

Rained hard all last night some thunder & lightning hard 
Wind in the forepart of the night from the S W. Ruben Fields 
killed a Deer Several hunters out to day. I measured the 
river found the Gasconnade to be 157 yd! Wide and 19 foot 
Deep the Course of this R. is S. 29 W, one of the hunters 
fell in with 6 Ind! hunting, onloaded the large Perogue on 
board of which was 8 french hands found many things wet 
by their cearlessessness, put all the articles which was wet out 
to Dry. this day so Cloudy that no observations could be 
taken, the river begins to rise, examine the mens arms and 
equapage, all in order 

May 29I* Tuesday — 

Rained last night, Cloudy morning 4 hunters sent out with 
orders to return at 12 oClock 

Took equal altitudes of Suns Lower limb found it 105 - 31' - 45'' 
AM. 9 h - 25' - 24" P M 2 h - 35' - 31" 

9-26-3 2-37-20 

9-27-27 2-38-52 

Error of Sextion 8' 45" - 

G' Magnetic Azzamuth S. 83 W. 

Time at place of obsv? by bromtf P. M. 4 h - 4 m - 44 s 

Double altitude of O L Limb — 71 - 24' - 00" 

Cap Lewis observed Meridean altitude of U L. back observa- 
tion with the octant & artificeal horozen — gave for altitude on the 
Limb 38°. 44' - 00". 

octant error — 2 - O - O + 

had the Perogues loaded and all perpared to Set out at 4 
oClock after finishing the observations & all things necessary 
found that one of the hunters had not returned, we deter- 
mined to proceed on & leave one perogue to wate for him, 
accordingly at half past four we set out and came on 4 miles 
& camped on the Lb? Side above a small Creek called Deer 
Creek, Soon after we came too we heard several guns fire 
down the river, we answered them by a Discharge of a Swivell 
on the Bow. 



Course to day & Distance 29^ May 

N. 54° W, 2 Mf to p! Lb? S? 

N. 7 8° W 2 Mf to p! Lb? S? p? Deer Creek 


May 30'? Wednesday 1804 

Rained all last night. Set out at 6 oClock after a heavy 
shower, and proceeded on, passed a large Island a Creek 
opposit on the S! Side, Just above a Cave Called Monbrun 
\Montbruri s\ 'Tavern & River, passed a Creek on the Lb? Side 
call Rush Creek at 4 miles several Showers of rain, the Cur- 
rents verry Swift, river rising fast. Passed Big Miry [Muddy~\ 
River at 1 1 miles on the Starboard Side, at the lower point of 
a Island, this River is about 50 yards Wide, Camped at the 
mouth of a Creek on Lb? Sd. of ab! 15 y» Wide Called Grine- 
stone Creek, opposit the head of a Is? and the mouth of Little 
Mirey \Muddy\ River, on the S! Side, a heavy wind accom- 
panied with rain & hail we made 14 miles to day, the river 
Continud to rise, the Country on each Side appear full of 

Course & Distance of May 30\ h . 

West 2 M? to a p? L. S? ops? a Cave & p! Is? . 
S 8o° W. 2 M' to a p! on L. S? ps? Is? & rush Creek 
S 7 8° W. 3 Mf to a p! on L. S? ps d a Wil. Is? 
S 66° W 4 Mf to a p' on Lb? S? ops? Miry R: & Is? 
S 48 W 6 Mf to a p! on St. S? ops? som sm: Is?? Ps? 
Tfsay^mile a creek 2 mf Swift 

May 3 if.' Thursday 1804 — 

rained the greater part of last night, the wind from the West 
raised and blew with great force untill 5 oClock p. m. which 
obliged us to lay by a cajaux of Bear Skins and pelteries came 
down from the Grand Osarge, one french man, one Indian, 
and a squaw, they had letters from the man M.'. Choteau Sent 
to that part of the Osarge nation settled on Arkansa River 



mentioning that his letter 1 was commited to the flaims, the 
Ind! not believing that the Americans had possession of the 
Countrey they disregard'ed S! Louis & their Supplies &c. 
Several rats of Considerable Size was Caught in the woods' to 
day. Cap! Lewis went out to the woods & found many curious 
Plants & Srubs, one Deer killed this evening. 

Junt i" 1804 Friday — 

Set out early a fair morning Passed the mouth Bear Creek 
25 yd! Wide at 6 Miles, Several Small Islands in the river 
the wind a head from the West the current exceedingly rapid 
Came to at the point of the Osarges River on the Lab d Side 
of Missouris this Osages river verry high, \we\ failed all 
the Trees in the point to make observations Set up untill 
12 oClock taken observation this night — 

Course & Distance June 1" 

S. 49 W - 4 m! to p! Is 1 ? ps? Little Muddy river on Lb? S4 30 y*'. wid 
S 45 . W - 6 m! to Is? ps* Bear Creek L. S? 20 y* Wid. 
S. 39 W. 3 m? to Pt. of Osage River 

June z".? Satturday 

Cap Lewis Took the Time & Distance of O" & Moons 
nearest limbs, the Sun East — and Meridean altitude of Suns 
U. L. with Octant, back observation gave for altitude 37° — 
28' -00". 

Errors of Octant 1° - 00' - 00" + . made Several other 
observations. I made an angle for the Wedth of the two 
rivers. The Missourie from the Point' to the N. Side is 875 
yards wide the Osage River from the point to the S. E. 
Side is 397 yards Wide, the destance between the two rivers 
at the p! of high Land (100 foot above the bottom) and 80 
poles up the Missouris from the point is 40 poles, on the 
top of this high land under which is a limestone rock two 
mouns or graves are raised, from this p! which comds (com- 

1 In Biddle (i., p. 7) this phrase reads "the letter announcing the cession of 
Louisiana." — Ed. 



mands) both rivers I had a delightfull prospect of the Missouris 
up and down, also the Osage R. up. 1 

George Drewyer & John Shields who we had sent with the 
horses by Land on the N. Side joined us this evening much 
worsted, they being absent Seven Days depending on their 
gun, the greater part of the time rain, they were obliged 
to raft or Swim many Creeks, those men gave a flattering 
account of of the Countrey Commencing below the first hill 
on the N Side and extend'g Parrelal with the river for 30 or 
40 M! The Two Muddy rivers passing thr? & som fine 
Springs & Streems our hunters kill several Deer to day, 
Some Small licks on the SE of the Osage River. 

"June 3?? Sunday 1804 — 

The forepart of the day fair Took Meridional altitude of 
O' U. L. with the Octant and glass Horreson adjusted back 
observation, the instrement gave 38°- 1' -00" it was Cloudy 
and the Suns disk much obscured and cannot be Depended on. 

We made other Observations in the evening after the return 
of Cap! Lewis from a walk of three or four m! round. We 
Set out at 5 oClock P. M. proceeded on five miles to the 
mouth of a Creek on the L. S. 20 y? wide Called Murow, 2 
passed a Creek at 3 m! which I call Cupbord Creek as it 
mouths above a rock of that appearance. Several Deer killed 
to day. at the mouth of the Murow Creek I saw much sign 
of War parties of Ind! haveing crossed from the mouth of this 
Creek. I have a bad cold with a Sore throat, near West 
5 Miles 

June 4'* Monday 1804 — 

a fair day three men out on the right flank passed a large 
Island on the S! Side called Seeder Island, this Is? has a great 
Deel of Ceedar on it, passed a Small Creek at i m! 15 y? 
Wide which we named Nightingale Creek from a Bird of that 
discription which Sang for us all last night, and is the first 

1 Biddle here furnishes (pp. 8, 9) an enumeration of the bands of the Osage tribe, 
then numbering over 1,300 warriors; also their own tradition of their origin, which 
made them descendants of the beaver. — Ed. 

2 Moreau, in Biddle and on modern maps. — Ed. 



of the Kind I ever heard. 1 passed the mouth of Seeder Creek, 
at 7 M! on the S. S. ab' 20 yd' Wide above Some Small 
Is?.* passed a Creek on the L. S. ab! 15 yd' wide, Mast \Masi\ 
Creek, here the Serj! at the helm run under a bending Tree 
& broke the Mast, Some delightfull Land, with a jentle 
assent about this Creek, well timbered, Oake, Ash, Walnut 
&c. &c. passed, wind N W. by W. passed a small creek 
called Zancare C on the L. S : at this last point I got out 
and walked on the L. S? thro a rush bottom for 1 Mile & a 
Short Distance thro : Nettles as high as my brest assended a 
hill of about 170 foot to a place where the french report that 
Lead ore has been found, I saw no Mineral of that description. 
Cap Lewis camped imediately under this hill, 2 to wate which 
gave me Some time to examine the hill, on the top is a 
mound of about 6 foot high, and about 100 acres of land which 
the large timber is Dead in Decending about 50 foot a pro- 
jecting lime stone rock under Which is a Cave • at one place 
in this projecting rocks I went on one which spured up and 
hung over the water from the top of this rock I had a pros- 
pect of the river for 20 or 30 m! up, from the Cave which 
incumpased the hill I decended by a Steep decent to the foot, 
a verry bad part of the river opposit this hill, the river con- 
tinus to fall Slowly, our hunters killed 7 Deer to day The 
land our hunters passed thro: to day on the S. S. was verry 
fine the latter part_ of to day. the high land on the S. S. is 
about 2? rate 

Course & Distance 4?!" June 

N. 30 - W. 4 M' to a p? on S. S* ps<! a C. & 2 Is? 

N. 25 - W. 3 M? to a p! on S. S? ps* Seeder C. 

N. 58 W. 71^ M? to p!on L. S/a Creek on L. S. 

N. 75. W. 3 M? to a p! on S. S? ops? Mine Hill 


1 No species of the true nightingale (Daulias luscinia) is found in North America; 
the so-called "Virginia nightingale" is the cardinal or red-bird (Cardinalis •virgin- 
ianus). — Coues (£. and C, i, p. 14). 

The ordinary mocking-bird sings in the night; so also, occasionally, do the catbird 
and the brown thrasher. — James N. Baskett. 

2 Brackenridge locates this hill nine miles above Cedar Creek. — Coues (L. and 
C, i, p. 14). 



June 5th Tuesday 1804 — 

after Jurking 1 the meet killed yesterday and Crossing the 
hunting party we Set out at 6 oClock, from the last Course & 
distance, N 51° W. 5 M. to a p! on the St. Sd. passed a 
small creek on the L. S : I call Lead C. passed a creek on 
the S. S. of 20 yd! Wide Cal d Lit : [Little] Good-Womans 
C. on the L. S. a Prarie extends from Lead C. parrelel with 
the river to Mine river, at 4 M! Passed the Creek of 
the big rock about 15 yd! wide on the L. S? at 1 1 oClock 
brought too a small Caissee [raft made of two canoes tied 
together] in which was two french men, from 80 Leagues up 
the Kansias [Kanzas] R. where they wintered, and Cought a 
great quantity of Beaver, the greater part of which they lost 
by fire from the Praries, those men inform [us] that the 
Kansas Nation are now out in the plains hunting Buffalow, 
they hunted last winter on this river Passed a projecting 
rock on which was painted a figure MiPt^. anc * a Creek at 
2 m! above Called Little Manitou 2 J?^r Creek, from the 
Painted rock this Creek 20 yd! Wr wide on the L. 
S? passed a Small Creek on L. S. opposit a verry bad Sand 
bar of Several M! in extent, which we named Sand C, here 
my Servent York Swam to the Sand bar to geather Greens 
for our Dinner, and returned with a Sufficent quantity wild 
Creases [Cresses'] or Tung [Tongue] grass, we passed up for 
2 m! on the L. S. of this Sand and was obliged to return, the 
wat! uncertain the quick Sand moveing we had a fine wind, 
but could not make use of it, our Mast being broke, we passed 
between 2 Small Islands in the Middle of the Current, & 
round the head of three a rapid Current for one mile and 
Camped on the S. S. ops? a large Island in the middle of the 
river, one Perogue did not get up for two hours, our Scout 
discov? the fresh sign of about 10 Inds. I expect that those 

1 Coues claims (£. d C, i, p. 31) that the word "jerk" (spelled "jurk" by 
Clark), as applied to the process of drying meat in the sun, is a corruption of a 
Chilian word charqui, meaning " sun-dried meat." — Ed. 

2 Corrupted on modern maps to Moniteau. — Ed. 



Indians are on their way to war, against the Osages nation 
probably they are the Saukees. 1 

Course & Destance June 5^ 

N. 51 , W. 5 M« to a p< on S. S. ps! 3 C, 1 S. 2 L. S.' 

N 23 W 7^ Mf a p< L. S. ps? Mon. [Manitou — Ed.] Creek 

"June 6* Wednesday 1804 

Mended our Mast this morning & Set out at 7 oCloclc under 
a jentle breese from S. E. by S passed the large Island, and a 
Creek Called Split rock Creek 2 at 5 M! on the S. S. ps d . 
a place to the rock from which this Creek 20 yds. w? takes 
its name, a projecting rock with a hole thro : a point of the 
rock, at 8 M! passed the Mouth of a Creek Called Saline or 
Salt R. on the L. S? this River is about 30 y?. 8 wide, and has 
So many Licks and Salt Springs on its banks that the water of 
the Creek is Brackish, one verry large Lick is 9 m'. up on the 
left Side the water of the Spring in this Lick is Strong as one 
bushel of the Water is said to make 7 1 * of good Salt passed a 
large Is? & several Small ones, the water excessivly Strong, 
so much so that we Camped Sooner than the usual time to 
waite for the perogue, The banks are falling in verry much 
to day river rose last night a foot. 

Cap' Lewis took Meridean alt? of Sun U. L. with the Octant 
above Split Rock C. made the altitude 37° 6' — 00" error of 
oct. as usual 2° o' o 7 ' + The Country for Several miles below 
is good, on the top of the high land back is also tolerble land 
Some bufFalow Sign to day 3 

1 The Sauk Indians, an Algonquin tribe formerly resident in Wisconsin; they were 
the allies of the Foxes in the war waged by that tribe against the French during the 
early part of the eighteenth century. — Ed. 

2 The French name, Roche percee, is used on most maps. — Ed. 

8 The buffalo (more correctly designated as "American bison") ranged, during 
the seventeenth century, as far east as the Alleghany Mountains. For descriptive and 
historical information regarding this animal, see monographs thereon, as follows : 
J. A. Allen's "History of the American Bison;" in V. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey 
of the Territories, Ann. Rep., 1875, pp. 443-587; Wm. F. Hornaday's "Exter- 
mination of the American Bison," in Smithsonian Institute Rep., 1887, part 2, pp. 
367-548; and Charles Mair's "The American Bison," in Canad. Roy. Soc. Proc, 
1890, sec. 2, pp. 93-108. — Ed. 


I am Still verry unwell with a Sore throat & head ake 

Course & Distance June 6^ 

N. 28 W. y/ 2 M: to a Hill on S. S. p d N. Bilg: of Is* 

N 49 W 1 y 2 M: to a creek Split rock 

West - I y 2 M? to a p! on S. S. ops d a Clift 

N 31 W. 414 M? to a p: on L. S. ps d Saline C. L. S. 

N. 5 1° W 3 Mr to a bilg of an Is d to lift p d Sm. Is d 

Jum 7* Thursday 1804 — 

Set out early passed the head of the Island opposit which 
we Camped last night, and braekfast at the Mouth of a large 
Creek on the S. S. of 3c yd' wide called big Monetou, 1 from the 
p! of the Is 4 o[u]r Course of last night to the mouth of this 
Creek is N 6i° W 4^ M! a Short distance above the mouth 
of this Creek, is Several Courious paintings and carving on the 
projecting rock of Limestone inlade with white red & blue flint, 
of a verry good quallity, the Indians have taken of this flint 
great quantities. We landed at this Inscription and found it a 
Den of Rattle Snakes, we had not landed 3 Minites before 
three verry large Snakes was observed in the Crevises of the 
rocks & killed, at the mouth of the last mentioned Creek 
Cap! Lewis took four or five men & went to Some Licks or 
Springs of Salt Water from two to four miles up the Creek, 
on R! Side the water of those Springs are not Strong, say 
from 4 to 600 g' of water for a Bushel of Salt passed some 
Small willow Islands and camped at the mouth of a small river 
Called Good Womans River 2 this river is about 35 yards Wide 
and said to be navagable for Perogues Several Leagues. Cap! 
Lewis with 1 men went up the Creek a short distance, our 
Hunters brought in three Bear this evening, and informs that 
the Countrey thro : which they passed from the last Creek is 
fine, rich land, & well watered. 

1 Called by Gass and Floyd, " River of the Big Devil." — Ed. 
a More often known by its French name, Bonne Femme. — Ed. 



Course & Distance June 7th 

N 6i° W, 41^ M? to Mo. of Manitou on S. S. 

S 88° W, 2 M? to p! on Lb* Side 

S 81° W 4 Mr to p! S. S. ps4 an Island 

S 87 W 3^ M? to p! of High Land on L. S. ps? W. Is? 

1 a Mr Passed the Mo. of Good Womans R. 

S'.* of June, Friday 1804 — 

Set out this morning at Daylight proceeded on the Course 
of last night Passed two Willow Islands & a Small Creek, 
above a Rock point on the L. S. at 6 miles on which there is 
a number of Deer Licks, passed the Mine River at 9 m! this 
river is about 70 yards wide at its mouth and is Said to be nav- 
agable for Perogues 80 or 90 m'. the Main \Wesi\ branch ' 
passes near the place where the Little Osage village formerly 
stood on the Missouries, & heads between the Osarge & Kan- 
sias Rivers, the left hand fork heads with nearer Branches of 
the Osage River, The french inform d that Lead Ore has been 
found in defferent parts of this river, I took Sj! Floyd and 
went out 4 Mr below this river, I found the land verry good 
for a mile or 1^ Mr back, and Sufficiently watered with Small 
Streems which lost themselves in the Missouries bottom, the 
Land rose graduelly from the river to the Summit of the high 
Countrey, which is not more than 120 foot above High Water 
Mark, we joined^ the Boat & Dined in the point above the 
mouth of this River, Cap! Lewis went out above the river & 
proceeded on one mile, finding the countrey rich, the wedes 
& vines So thick & high he came to the Boat, proceeded on 
passed an Island and Camped at the lower point of an Island 
on the L. S. Called the Island of Mills>about 4 Mr above Mine 
River at this place I found Kanteens, axs, Pumey Stone & 
peltry hid and buried (I suppose by some hunters) none of 
them (except the pumey Stone) was teched by one of our 
party, our hunters Killed 5 Deer to day, commenced rain- 
ing Soon after we came too which prevented the party cooking 

1 At the point of junction are some very rich salt springs ; the west branch, in 
particular, is so much impregnated, that, for twenty miles, the water is not pala- 
table. — Biddle (i, p. 12). 



their provisions, our Spies inform that the Countrey they 
passed thro : on S. S is a fine high bottom, no water. 

Course & Distance 8 th June. 

S. 8i° W. 3 Mf to a p! on S. S. ps<! Deer L. Creek L. S. 

N 88° W, 3 Mr to a p! on L Side 

N. 83 W. 2 Mf to Mouth of Mine Riv. L. S. 

N 64 W. 1 M! to a p« on S. S. 

N 80? W. 3 M? to the Lower p? of Is? of Mills 

This day we met 3 men on a Cajaux from the River of the 
Soux above the Mahar Nation those men had been hunting 
12 Mo: & made about 900$ in pelt! & furs they were out 
of Provisions and out of Powder, rained this night. 

9'" °f 7 un ' 1804 Satturday — 

a fair morning, the River rise a little we got fast on a Snag 
Soon after we Set out which detained us a Short time passed 
the upper Point of the Island, Several Small Chanels running 
out of the River below a Bluff \Cliff of rocks called the arrow 
rock *] & Prarie (Called the Prarie of Arrows) where the river 
is confined within the width of 300 [200] yd' Passed a Creek 
of 8 yd*, wide Called Creek of Arrows, this Creek is Short and 
heads in the Praries on the L. S. passed a Small Creek called 
Blackbird Creek S.S. and an Island below & a Prarie above on 
the L. S. a small Lake above the Prarie. opposit the Lower 
point of the it Island on the S. S. we had like to have Stove 
our boat, in going round a Snag her Stern Struck a log under 
water & She Swung round on the Snag, with her broad Side 
to the Current exp? to the Drifting timber, by the active 
exertions of our party we got her off in a fiew Mint' without 
engerey [injury] and Crossed to the Island where we Camp? 2 
our hunters lay on the S. S. the Perogue crossed without 
Seeing them and the banks too uncertain to Send her over. 
Some wind from the S accompanied with rain this evening. 

1 So called from being resorted to by Indians for stone arrow-heads. — CoUES 
(£. and C, i, p. 18). 

* Five miles above Blackbird (now Richland) Creek. — Ed. 



The Lands on the S. S. is a high rich bottom the L. S. 
appears even and of a good quallity riseing gradually to from 
fifty to ioo foot. 

Course & Distance June 9!? 

N. 39 W, 4 Mf to a p? on S. S. ops'! a Prarie 

N. 34 E. 2 M a to p! of an Is? L. S. 

N. 83' W, 1% Mf to a p! on L. S. ops? B.Bs C r . 

N. 39. W. 2 M? to a p! of High L? on L. S. 

N. 32. E 2 J /2 M? to a pf on L. S. ps? an IsH 

io'* of June 1804 — 

A hard rain last night, We set out this morning verry 
early passed Some bad placies in the river, Saw a number 
of Goslings [this] morning pass near a Bank which was fall- 
ing in at the time we passed, passed two Rivers of Charletons 
which mouth together, above some high land which has a great 
quantity of Stone Calculated for whetstons the first of those 
rivers is about 30 yd' Wide & the other is 70 yd' w? and heads 
Close to the R. Dumons [des Moines] The Aieways \Ayau- 
way\ Nation have a Village on the head of these Rivers. 1 
they run through an even Countrey \a broken rich thickly tim- 
bered country] and is navagable for Perogues Cap Lewis took 
Med? alt? of O U. L. with Octant, back obsv° made it 37° 12' 
— 00" delayed 1^2 hours. 

Cap. Lewis Killed a large Buck, passed a large Is? call'd 
Shecco 2 and camped in a Prarie on the L. S. I walked out 
three miles, found the prarie composed of good Land and 
plenty of water roleing & interspursed with points of timber 
land. Those Praries are not like those, or a number of those 

1 The name Charleton now appears on maps as Chariton. The etymology of 
Des Moines is suggested in the form used by Clark, "Dumons." This river was 
formerly named (from the tribe dwelling on its shores) Riviere des Moihgonans — a 
name soon abbreviated to Moins, and that to River Des Moins (with many variants, 
of which Clark's is one). Aieway and Ayauway are among the many variants of 
the name of a Siouan tribe, now known as the Iowa, from whom a State and river 
are named. * Biddle says that the Iowas numbered 300 men. — Ed. 

J Chicot (a French word, meaning "stump"), now Harrison Island. — Coues 
(Z.. and C. i, p. 10). 



E. of the Mississippi void of every thing except grass, they 
abound with Hasel Grapes & a wild plumb of a Superior [size 
&~\ quallity, Called the Osages Plumb Grows on a bush the 
hight of a Hasel (and is three times the sise of other Plumbs,) 
and hang in great quantities on the bushes I saw great num- 
bers of Deer in the Praries, the evening is Cloudy, our party 
in high Spirits. 

Course & Distance June 10!^ 

N. 8° E 2j4 M'to a p! on L. S. 

North i M! along the L. Side 

N. 40 W i M! do do do 

N. 70 W. o^ (ops'? the Mo" of Charltons R. 

N 6o° W 2 Mf to a p! on S. S. 

N 80 W 3 M? to a p! on S. S. ops'? a PI". 

11? June 1804 Monday — 

The N W. wind blew hard & cold as this wind was imedi- 
ately a head, we could not proceed we took the advantage of 
this Delay and Dried our wet articles, examined Provisions &c. 
&c. the river begining to fall, the hunters killed two Deer 
G: Drewyer killed two Bear in the Prarie, they were not fat. 
we had the meat Jurked and also the venison, which is a con- 
stant Practice to have all the fresh meat not used, Dried in 
this way. 

1 a? of June. Tutsday 1804 

Set out early passed Some bad Placies, and a Small Creek 
on the L. S. called plumb Creek at abi i M! at i oClock we 
brought too [to,] two Chaussies one loaded with furs & Pel- 
teries, the other with Greece [buffalow grease cif tallow] we 
purchased 300"" of Greese, and finding that old Mf Durioun 
was of the party we questioned him untill it was too late to Go 
further, and Concluded to Camp for the night, those people 
inform nothing of much information. 

Concluded to take old Durioun [who went acc'~\ back as fur 
as the Soux nation with a view to get some of their Cheifs to 
visit the Presd! of the United S. (This man being a verry 



confidential friend of those people, he haveing resided with 
the Nation 20 odd years) and to accompany them on ' [Sen- 
tence incomplete. — Ed.] 

Course & Distance June 12!° 

N. 25 W. 2% Mr to L. S. passed Plumb C. 
N 70 W %y 2 Mrtop!onS. S. 
N. 6o° W 3 Mr to p! on S. S. 

13'* June Wednesday 1804 — 

We Set out early passed a round bend to the S. S. and 
two Creeks Called the round bend Creeks between those two 
Creeks and behind a Small Willow Island in the bend is a 
Prarie in which the Missouries Indians once lived and the 
Spot where 300 [200] of them fell a sacrifise to the fury of 
the SaukeeSy this nation (Missouries) once the most noumer- 
ous nation in this part of the Continent now reduced to about 
30 f" [fires, i.e., families — Ed.] and that fiew under the 
protection of the Otteaus" 1 [Ottoes] on R Piatt who themselves 
are declining, passed some willow Is d .' and bad Sand bars, 
Took Med? Altitude with Octent back observation it gave 
for aid on its Lo w L. 36° 58' o" the E [Error] Enstrement 
1° 00' — 00"+. the Hills or high land for Several days past or 
above the a Charletons does not exceed 100 foot, passed a 
Batteau on Sand rolling where the Boat was nearly turning 
over by her Strikeing & turning on the Sand, we came too 
in the mouth of Grand River on S. S. and Camped for the 
night, this River is from 80 to 100 yards wide at its mouth 
and navagable for Perogues a great distance, this river heads 
with the R. Dumoine, below its mouth is a butifull Plain of 
bottom land, the hills rise at % a mile back, the lands 
about this place is either Plain or over flown bottom. Cap' 
Lewis and myself walked to the hill, from the top of which we 
had a butifull prospect of Serounding countrey, in the open 

1 An original letter by Dorion to George Rogers Clark, dated Caholcin, 1780, is 
in the Drape> Collection, Wisconsin Historical Society (press-mark, 50 J 34). — Ed. 

2 The Missouri and Oto tribes belong to the Siouan stock. The remnants of 
both are now in the Indian Territory. — Ed. 



Prarie we caught a racoon, our hunter brought in a Bear & 
Deer, we took some Lunar observations this evening. 

Course & Distance I J* June 1804 

N. 40 W i% Mf to a p! L. S. 
S. 39 W. 3 M' to a p? S. S. ps* 2 Creeks 
N. 28, W ii/ 2 M' to a p'Stb 1 ? S. 
N. 30 W 2 M* to a p! L. S. ops? G*. R 

14'* June Thursday — 

We Set out at 6 oClock, after a thick fog passed thro : a 
narrow pass on the S. S. which forms a large Is? opposit the 
upper point of this Island on the L. S. is one of the worst 
quick or moveing sand bars Which I have Seen, notwith- 
standing all our precaustons to Clear the Sands and pass 
between them (which was the way we were compl to pass, from 
the immence Current & falling banks on the S. S.) the Boat 
Struck the point of one from the active exertions of the 
men, prevented her turning, if She had turned she must have 
overset. We met a Causseu [Cajaux, or raft — Ed.] from the 
Pania [Paunee] on the River Piatt, we detained 2 hours with 
a view of engageing one of the hands to go to the Pania nation 
with a view to get those people to meet us on the river, (I 
went out & Shot a Deer) We passed a high land, & clay 
bluff on the S. S. Called the Snake bluff from the number of 
Snakes about this place, we passed a Creek above the Bluff 
about 18 yd? wide, this Creek is Called Snake Creek, 1 a bad 
Sand bar just below, which we found Dificullty in passing & 
Camp? above, our Hunters came in. George Drewyer, gives 
the following ac' of a Pond, & at ab! 5 Miles below here S. S. 
Passed a Small Lake in which there was many Deer feeding, 
he heard in this Pond a Snake makeing goubleing noises like 
a turkey, he fired his gun & the noise was increased, he 
has heard the indians mention this Species of Snake, one 
Frenchman gives a Similar account 

1 This may have been either Miami or Wakenda Creek of modern maps. — 
Coues (L. and C, i, p. 15). 



Course & Distance June 14! 1 ! 

S. 33° W 2 M? to Lowf p' on an Isl S. S. 

S. 6o° W 1 M! thro: a chanil on S. S. 

S. 70 W 2 M? to p! L. S. passed a bad Sand 

S. 5 E 3 Mf to a p! on S. S. passed a Creek S. S. 


15'* June, Friday 1804 — 

Set out early and had not proceeded far e'er we wheeled on 
a Sawyer which was near injuring us verry much, passed a 
plain on the L. S. a Small Is*? in the midle, the river riseing, 
water verry swift Passed a Creek on the L. S. passed between 
two Islands, a verry bad place, moveing Sands, we were 
nearly being swallowed up by the rolling Sands over which the 
Current was so Strong that we could not Stem it with our 
Sales under a Stiff breese in addition to our ores, we were 
compelled to pass under a bank, which was falling in, and use 
the Toe rope occasionally, Continued up pass two other 
Small Islands and Camped on the S. S. nearly opposit the 
antient Village of the Little Osarges and below the ant! Village 
of the Missouries both Situations in view and within three 
M! of each other, 1 the Osage were Settled at the foot [of] 
a hill in a butifull Plain, which extends back quite to the 
Osage River, in front of the Vilg: next to the river is an 
ellegent bottom Plain which extends several miles in length on 
the river in this low Prarie the Missouries lived after they 
were reduced by the Saukees at their Town Some Dist? below. 
The little osage finding themselves much oppressed by the 
Saukees & other nations, left this place & built a village 5 
M* from the Grand Osarge Town, about years ago a 

flew of the Missouries accompanied them, the remainder of 
that Nation went to the Otteaus on the River Piatt. The 
River at this place is about 3 [<?»?] M' wide, our hunters did 
not come in this evening the river beginning to fall 

1 Near the present Malta Bend, and not far below the site of the old French Fort 
Orleans. —Ed. 

vol. I. — 4 [49] 


Course & Distance June 15!? 

S. 35 W. 2 M 8 along S. S. 

S. 50 W. 1 ]/ 2 M? a p! L. S. passed a pra: & Creek L. S. 

S. 51 W. i)/ 2 M: a p! S. S. ps? a Willow Is<? 

S. 8° VV. Z/ A M? to a p 1 L. S. pass? Low p! 2 Isd! 

S. 8o° W. 2 M 8 to up r P! Is? S. S. ps? bad place 

S. 5 W. 2 M 8 to a p! S. S. passed bad place 

S. 12 W. 1 )/ 2 M 8 to a p! S. S. ps? a Is? in Mid 1 ops? old village 
I2 i^ Lit: Osage. 

16'* June Satturday 1804 — 

Set out at 7 oClock at about a mile x / 2 we came to the 
Camp of our hunters, they had two Bear & two Deer, pro- 
ceeded on pass a Island on the S. S. a heavy rain came on & 
lasted a Short time, we came to on the S. S. in a Prarie at the 
place where M' Mackey lais down a old french fort, 1 I could 
See no traces of a Settlement of any kind, in the plain I dis- 
covered a kind of Grass resembling Timothey which appeared 
well Calculated for Hay. this Plain is verry extensive in the 
evening I walked on the S. S. to see if any timber was conv! 
to make Oars, which we were much in want of, I found some 
indifferent timber and Struck the river above the Boat at a 
bad Sand bar, the worst I had Seen which the boat must pass 
or Drop back Several Miles & Stem a Swift Current on the 

1 Lewis's map of 1806 indicates "Mr. J. Mackay's route," which embraces 
most of the valley of the Niobrara River ; this Mackay may be the person referred to 
in the text. Biddle's narrative mentions (i, p. 44) a man of this name who had in 
1795-96 a trading establishment farther up the Missouri. The French fort was 
probably the post (Fort Orleans) established by Bourgmont (1723) not far (according 
to Coues) from the Malta Bend of the Missouri (see Margry's Decowvertes et itab- 
lissements, vi, p. 393 ; Le Page du Pratz's Louisiane, i, p. 324 ; and Coues's L. and 
C, i, p. 24, note 51). 

The exact site of Fort Orleans is not definitely known, and there are diverse 
opinions regarding it. Hon. Walter B. Douglas, of St. Louis, thinks that the fort 
was on " the north bank of the Missouri, above the mouth of Wakenda Creek, in 
what is now Carroll County, and 15 to 20 miles above the town of Brunswick, which 
stands a little below the place where was the old mouth of Grand River (about six or 
seven miles from its present entrance). The action of the river-current has caused 
great changes in the course of both rivers, even within the last thirty years." Later 
there was another French post upon the river at a village of the Kansas Indians, not far 
from the present site of Fort Leavenworth. — Ed. 



















ops'! Side of an Is? the Boat however assended the middle of 
the Streem which was difficult Dangerious We came to above 
this place at Dark and Camped in a bad place, the Mosquitoes 
and Ticks are noumerous & bad. 

Course & Distance June 16*^ 

N. 68° W. %y 2 M s to a p! L. S. pass Is 1 ) S. S. 
West 2 M s to a b 1 ? in Snag Is<? L. S. 

M! on L. S. a bad Sand Mid. 
M! on L. S. do do and 2 sm. Is d> 
M ! to a p! S. S. passed up. r S? Is? 
M! alg. S. S. an Is 1 ? Md! & bad p ! 

"June ifi Sunday 1804 (S. 65 W. 1 M! S. Side.) — 

Cloudy morning wind from the S. E we Set out early and 
proceeded on one mile & came too to make oars, & repair our 
cable & toe rope &c. &c. which was necessary for the Boat & 
Perogues, Sent out Sj! Pryor and Some men to get ash timber 
for ores, and Set some men to make a Toe Rope out of the 
Cords of a Cable which had been provided by Cap! Lewis at 
Pittsburg for the Cable of the boat. George Drewyer our 
hunter and one man came in with 2 Deer & a Bear, also a 
young Horse, they had found in the Prarie, this horse has 
been in the Prarie a long time and is fat, I Suppose, he has 
been left by Some war party against the Osage, This is a 
Crossing place for the war parties against that nation from the 
Saukees, Aiaouez, \_Ayauways~\ & Souix. The party is much 
aflicted with Boils, and Several have the Deassentary, which I 
contribute to the water \which is muddy, .] The Countrey 
about this place is butifull on the river rich & well timbered 
on the S. S. about two miles back a Prarie com! [commences] 
which is rich and interspursed with groves of timber, the 
count 7 rises at 7 or 8 miles Still further back and is rolling, 
on the L. S. the high lands & Prarie com! in the bank of the 
river and and continus back, well watered and abounds in Deer 
Elk & Bear The Ticks & Musquiters are verry troublesome. 



June 1 8'* Monday 

Some rain last night, and Some hard Showers this morning 
which delay our work verry much, Send out Six hunters in 
the Prairie on the L. S. they kill 5 Deer & Coht [caught] a 
Bear, which verry large & fat, the party to wok at the oars, 
make rope, & jurk their meat all Day Dry our wet Sales &c. 
in the evening, The Musquiters verry bad 

June 19'* Tuesday 

rain last night after fixing the new oars and makeing all 
necessary arrangements, we set out under a jentle breese from 
the S. E. and proceeded on passed two large Islands on the 
S. S. leaving J. Shields and one man to go by land with the 
horses Some verry hard water, passed Several Islands & 
Sand bars to day at the head of one we were obliged to cleare 
away Driftwood to pass, passed a Creek on the L. Side Called 
Tabboe \fTabo~\ 15 ydf Wide passed a large Creek at the head 
of an Island Called Tiger River 25 yd! on the S. S. the 
Island below this Is? is large and called the Isle of Pant[h]ers, 
formed on the S. S. by a narrow Channel, I observed on the 
Shore Goose & Rasp berries in abundance in passing Some 
hard water round a Point of rocks on the L. S. we were obliged 
to take out the roape & Draw up the Boat for y 2 a mile, we 
came too on the L. S. near a Lake of the Sircumfrance of 
Several miles, Situated on the L. S. about two miles from the 
river 1 this Lake is Said to abound in all kinds of fowls, Great 
numbers of Deer frequent this Lake dureing Summer Season, 
and feed on the hows [haws] &c. &c. they find on the edgers 
the Land on the North Side of the river is rich and Sufficiently 
high to afford Settlements, the Ldf on the South Side assends 
Gradually from the River not So rich, but of a good quallity 
and appear well watered 

1 The musquitoes and other animals are so troublesome that musquitoe biers or 
nets were distributed to the party. — Biddle (i, p. 16). 



8o° W 



70 W 



58 W 



68 W 



83 W 



Course & Distance June 19^ 

N 8 7 W. 3 M? to up. r p! of an Island. 

M? to a p' L. Side ps? 4 wil. Is"?" 
M* along the L. S. 
M? to a p? S. S. ps? a Is? S. S. 
Mf to p! S. S. ps? Tabbo Creek 
Mf to p! L. S. Camp? 1 M! 1 

June 20'* Wednesday — 

Set out after a heavy Shower of rain and proceeded on the 
Same Course of last night passede a large butifull Prarie on 
the S. S. opposit a large Island, called Saukee Prarie, a jentle 
breese from the S. W. Some butifull high lands on the L. S. 
passed Som verry Swift water to day, I saw Pelicans to day on 
a Sand bar, My Servent York nearly loseing an Eye by a 
man throwing Sand into it, we came too at the 1 lower Point 
of a Small Island, the party on Shore we have not Seen Since 
we passed Tiger R. The Land appear'd verry good on each 
Side of the river to day and well timbered, We took Some 
Loner observations, which detain? us untill 1 oClock a buti- 
full night but the air exceedingly Damp, & the Mosquiters 
verry troublesome 

Course & Deistances June 20'^ 

S. 42? W. 1 ~M! along L. S. 

S. 46? W 2 M! to p! S. S. ps? an Is? 

S. 51? W 1 y 2 M? to p« L. S. ops? Is? & Saukee Prarie on S. S. 

S. 70° W % M l along L. S. water bad 

S. 25 ° W 1 y 2 M? to a p! S. S. ps? M & bad Sand 

i.t'.'. "June Thursday — 

The river rose 3 Inches last night after the Bows man 
Peter Crousat viewed the water on each Side of the Island 
which presented a most unfavourable prospect of Swift water 

1 At a place iYz miles above the present town of Dover. — Coues (L. and C, i, 
p. 28). 



over rolling Sands which rored like an immense falls, we con- 
cluded to assend on the right Side, and with much dificuelty, 
with the assistance of a long Cord or Tow rope, & the anchors, 
we got the Boat up without any further dang, than Braking 
a Cabbin window & loseing Some oars which were Swong 
under the windows, passed four Is- to day two large & two 
Small, behind the first large Island two Creeks mouth, called 
Eue-bert [Hubert] ' Creek & River & Is? the upper of those 
Creeks head against the Mine River & is large, passed a 
verry remarkable bend in the River to the S. forming an 
accute angle, the high lands come to the river on the S. S. 
opposit the upper large Island, this Is d is formed by a narrow 
chanel thro, the P! of the remarkable bend just mention* be- 
low this Is? on the L. S. is a Counter Current of about a 
mile, passed between several Small Islands Situated near the 
L. Side and camped above on the Same Side. Two men Sent 
out to hunt this evening brought in a Buck & a pore Turkey. 

at Sunset the atmespier presented every appearance of wind, 
Blue & White Streeks centiring at the Sun as She disappeared 
and the Clouds Situated to the S. W. Guilded in the most 
butifull manner. 

The Countrey and Lands on each Side of the river is 
various as useal, and may be classed as follows, viz : the low 
or overflown points or bottom land, of the groth of Cotton 
& Willow, the 2°. d or high bottom of rich furtile Soile of the 
groth of Cotton, Walnut, Som ash, Hackberry, Mulberry, 
Lynn [Linden] & Sycamore, the third or high Lands rises 
gradually from the 2"? bottom (except whin it Corns to the 
river then from the river) about 80 or 100 foot roleing back 
Supplied with water (the small rivers of which loses themselves 
in the bottom land) and are covered with a variety of timber 
Such as Oake of different Kinds Blue ash, Walnut &c. &c. as 
far as the Praries, which I am informed lie back from the river, 
at Some places near & others a great Distance 
> • 

1 Biddle gives this name (i, p. 17) as " Eau Beau or Clearwater ; " Gass calls it 
Du Beau or Du Bois. — Ed. 



Course & D 

istancc June 2 if! 1804 

S. 77? W. 
N 30 E, 

21^ Mf along 
1 % M.' p! L. 
1 M! along 




S. ps? the h d of a Ig Is4 L. S. 
ps? a c! Low p? Is d on L. S. (1) 
e Larboard Side 

N 18? W 

% M! do 

do do 

N 84° W 
S. 8o° W, 

% M! do 
% M! do 

do do 

do ps d Sev! Sm. Isd? L. S. 

S- 35 W 

# M! do 

do ps d do do do 


. 22I? June Friday — 

river rose 4 Inch last night I was waken'd before day- 
light this morning by the guard, prepareing the Boat to receve 
an apparent Storm which threttened violence from the West 
at daylight a violent wind accompanied with rain cam[e] from 
the W. and lasted about one hour,, it Cleared away, and we 
Set out and proceeded on under a gentle breeze from the 
N. W. passed Some verry Swift water, crouded with Snags, 
pass two large Island opposit each other, and' immediately 
opposit a large & extensive Prarie on the Lab? Side, This 
Prarie is butifull a high bottom for ij4 m i' e back and rises 
to the Common leavell of of the Countrey (about 70 or 80 
feet) and extends back out of view. Cap! L walked on Shore 
a fiew miles this after noon (at 3 oClock P. M. Faren'? Ther- 
mometer Stood at 87? = to ii° above Summer heat) We 
came too on the L. Side opposit the mouth of a large Creek 
called the River of the Fire Prarie, 1 at the mouth of this 
Creek, the Party on Shore were waiting our arrival, they 
informed that the Lands thro : which they passed was fine & 
well watered 

Course & Distance June 22 nd 

M s to a p 1 on the S. S. ' 

M? to a p! on the S. S. bad wat. 

M! on S. Side 

Ml! to a p' on the L. S. ps d 2 Is?! and a Prarie 

1 The present name of a creek on the south side of the Missouri ; on the north 
side is Clear (or Fishing) creek, but four or five miles higher, which may be the one 
meant by Clark, as its mouth may have shifted since their time. Gass says that Fire- 
prairie creek was 60 yards wide. — Coues (i. and C, i, p. 30). 


S. 14 


2 K 

S. 25 . 



S. 66° 



N. 6o° 




2 3 r - 7 une Satturday — 

Some wind this morning from the N. W. we set out at 

7 oClock, and proceeded on to the head of a Island on the 
S. S. the wind blew hard and down the river which prevented 
the P'ty moveing \_proceding\ from this Island the whole 
day, 1 Cap! Lewis had the arms examined &c. at the lower 
end of this Island I got out of the boat to walk on Shore, & 
expected the party on Shore would overtake me, at the head 
of the Island, they did not & I proceeded on round a round 
and extensive bend in the river, I Killed a Deer & made a 
fire, expecting the boat would come up in the evening, the 
wind continueing to blow prevented their moveing, as the 
distance by land was too great for me to return by night I 
concluded to Camp, Peeled Some bark to lay on, and 
geathered wood to make fires to keep off the musquitrs & 
knats, Heard the party on Shore fire, at Dark Drewyer 
came to me with the horses, one fat bear & a Deer, river fell 

8 Inches last night 

Course & Distance June 23 rd 

N 70° W 2 Mf to an Is? on S. S. (I went out) 
N 75 E 1 y z M? ps d the head of the Is* to p! L. S. 

24'* June Sunday — 

Set out at half after Six. I joined the boat this morng at 
8 oClock (I will only remark that dureing the time I lay on 
the sand waiting for the boat, a large Snake Swam to the bank 
imediately under the Deer which was hanging over the water, 
and no great distance from it, I threw chunks and drove this 
snake off* Several times. I found that he was so determined 
on getting to the meet, I was compell d to kill him, the part 

1 Biddle here says: "Directly opposite on the south, is a high commanding 
position, more than seventy feet above high water mark, and overlooking the river 
which is here of but little width ; this spot has many advantages for a fort, and trad- 
ing house with the Indians." (And, in a foot-note :) "The United States built in 
September, 1808, a factory and fort at this spot, which is very convenient for trading 
with the Osages, Ayauways, and Kanzas." This place was the site of Fort Osage, 
at or near the present town of Sibley. — Ed. 



of the Deer which attracted this Snake I think was the Milk 
from the bag of the Doe.) I observed great qut! of Bear 
Signs, where the had passed in all Directions thro the bot- 
toms in Serch of Mulberries, which were in great numbers, 
in all the bottoms thro which our party passed) 

Passed the mouth of a Creek 20 yd 8 wide name [named] 
Hay Cabbin Creek 1 from Camps of Straw built on it 

came to about yi M! above this creek & jurked, the meet 
killed yesterday and this morning Lattitude of this place 
3 8° - 37' - 5" N. Cap! Lewis walked on Shore & killed a Deer, 
pass a bad part of the river, on the S. S. the rocks projected 
into the river Some distance, a creek above called Sharriton 
Carta, 2 in the evening we Passed thro : between two Sand 
bars at the head we had to raise the Boat 8 Inches to get 
her over, Camped near the lower point of an Island on the 
on the L. Side, party in high Sperrits. The Countrey on each 
side of the river is 'fine interspursed with Praries, in which 
immence herds of Deer is Seen, 3 on the banks of the river 
we observe numbers of Deer watering and feeding on the 
young willow, Several killed to day 

Course & Distance June 24 th 

N 80. E % M! on the Larboard Side 
N 55. E % M! on other 

West 3 M? to a point on S. S. 
N 80. W. 41^ M? to a p! on L. S. pass? Hay Cab. Is. 

West y 2 M! on L. Side 

S 21? W 3 M? to a p? on S. S. ps4 a rock & Creek L. S. 

1 Now the Little Blue River, in Jackson Co., Missouri. — Coues (£. and C, i, 
p. 31). 

2 A phonetic rendering of the French Charretins ecartes — that is, two creeks 
named Charretin, whose courses are separated (ecartes), although they meet at their 
entrance into the Missouri. There are two such creeks in Clay .County, Mo., which 
answer to the description in our text. For full explanation of the name, see Coues' s 
L. and C, "1, p. JI. — Ed. 

8 Brackenridge says in 1811 (Louisiana, p. 219): "The Missouri is now what 
the Ohio was once, the Paradise of hunters." — Ed. 



25'/! "June Monday 

a thick fog detained us untill 8 oClock, passed a Island, 
at 3 Miles passed a Coal-Mine, or Bank of stone Coal, on 
the South Side, this bank appears to Contain great quantity 
of fine Coal, the river being high, prevented our Seeing 
that contained in the cliffs of the best quallity, a Small Creek 
mouths below this bank call'd after the bank Chabonea [Char- 
bon~\ Creek the Wind from the N. W. passed a Small Creek 
on the L. Side at 12 oClock, called Bennet's Creek The Pra- 
ries come within a Short distance of the river on each Side which 
Contains in addition to Plumbs Raspberries &c. vast quanti- 
ties of wild apples, great numb' of Deer are seen feeding on 
the young willows & earbage in the Banks and on the Sand 
bars in the river, our party on Shore did not join in this 
evening we camped on an Island Situated on the S. Side, 
opposit some hills higher than Common, say 160 or 180 feet 
above the Bottom. The river is Still falling last night it fell 
8 Inches 

Course & Distance June 25'? 

S. 49 W. 3 M 8 to a p! on S. S. 

S 55 W ]/ 2 M! on the S. S. ps? a Coal Mine 

N. 50 W iy 2 M 8 to P? on L. S. ps? a Creek L. S. 

N. 70 W. y 2 M! on L. S. pass Willow Is? 

S. 8o° W. y M 1 on L. S. ditto 

S 55° W. y Ml on L. S. ditto 

S 1 5 W ^ M! on L. S. ditto & round P' 

S 2 E 2 M 8 to a p! on S. S. 

S 48 W 2 M 8 to a p? on S. S. ps? a Is d 

June 26'* Tuesday 1804 — 

We Set out early, the river falling a little, the wind from 
the S. W. Passed the mouth of a Small river on the L. Side 
above the upper point of a Small Island, called Blue Water 
River, 1 this river heads in Praries back with the Mine River 

1 Now Big Blue River. In a footnote, Biddle here says: "A few miles up the 
Blue Water Creek are quarries of plaster of paris, since worked and brought down 
to St. Louis." — Ed. 



about 30 yd 8 wide Lattitude of a p! 4 M* above this river is 
38° 32' - 15" North, the high lands which is on the North 
Side does not exceed 80 feet high, at this Place the river 
appears to be conf d in a verry narrow channel, and the cur- 
rent Still more so by Counter Current or Whirl on one Side 
& high bank on the other, passed a Small Is? in the bend 
to the L. Side We Killed a large rattle Snake, Sunning him- 
self in the bank, passed a bad Sand bar, where our tow rope 
broke twice, & with great exertions, we rowed round it and 
came to & camped, in the Point above the Kansas \_Kanzas~\ 
River I observed a great number of Parrot queets [Parroquets] 
this evening, our Party killed Several [7] Deer to day 

Course & Distance June 26 th 

S 62 W. % M 1 on the S. S. Is? on L. S. 

S 8o° W. y 2 M! on the S. S. ps d Blue Water R. L. S. 

N 87° W. 1 M! on the S. S. 

N. 85 W. 3 M s to a p! on the L. S. Mid! ab' 

S. 8o° W. y 2 M! on L. S. 

S. 37 W. iy 2 M!° to a p! on S. S. ps d Lit. Cr. 

S. 58° W 1 M! on S. S. ps d a bad place 

S. 78 W. y A M 1 to the up. p' of Kansas R. 

gy = 366 & y Mf to mouth of Missourie 

June 27'* Wednesday — 

a fair warm morning, the river rose a little last night, we 
determine to delay at this Place three or four Days to make 
observations & recruit the party, Several men out Hunting, 
onloaded our Perogue, and turned her up to Dry with a view 
of repairing her after completing a Strong redoubt or brest 
work from [one] river to the other, of logs & Bushes Six feet 
high, The Countrey about the mouth of this river is verry 
fine on each Side as well as North of the Missourie the 
bottom, in the Point is low & overflows for 250 yards, it 
rises a little above high water mark and continus of that hight 
of good quallity back to the hills A high Clift, on the upper 
Side of the Kanses yi a mile up below the Kanses the hills 
is about 1 y 2 Miles from the point on the North Side of the 



Missourie the Hils or high lands is Several Miles back, we 
compared the instrumts Took equal altitudes, and the Meri- 
dian altitude of the Suns L. L. to day Latitude j8° 3/ - 13" 
Longitude [Blank space in MS.] measured the width of the 
Kansas River by an angle and made it 230 yd! }/£ wide, 1 it is 
wider above the mouth the Missourie at this place is about 
500 yards wide, The Course from the Point down the Mid! 
of the Missourie is S. 32° E, & turns to the North, up Do: 
is N 21 W. & do do [«. e. turns to the North — Ed.] Do. 
up the right side of the Kansas is S. 54° E., & the river turns 
to the left, Several Deer killed to day. 

28 June Thursday — 

took equal altitudes &c. &c. &c. & varaition of the Compass 
repaired the Perogue cleaned out the Boat suned our Powder 
[and] wollen articles examined every thing 8 or 10 hunt" 
out to day in different directions, in examining our Private 
Store of Provisions we found Several articles Spoiled from the 
wet or dampness they had received, a verry warm day, the 
wind from the South, The river Missourie has raised yester- 
day last night & to day about 2 foot, this evening it is on a 
Stand, Capt! Lewis weighed the water of the Two rivers 
The Missourie 78°. the Kansais 72°. (the weight is) 2 

To Describe the most probable of the various accounts of 
this great river of the Kansas, would be too lengthy & uncer- 
tain to insert here, it heads with the river Del Noird in the 
black Mountain or ridge which Divides the Waters of the 
Kansas Del Nord, & Callarado & [a word almost illegible ; 
possibly " offshoots." — Ed.] from those of the Missourie 
(and not well assertain'!) This river receves its name from a 
Nation which dwells at this time on its banks & [has] 2 
villages one about 20 leagues & the other 40 Leagues up, 
those Indians are not verry noumerous at this time, reduced 
by war with their neighbours, &c, they formerly lived on 
the South banks of the Missourie 24 Leagues above this river 
in a open & butifull plain, and were verry noumerous at the 

1 The Biddle text gives the width of the Kansas River as 340^ yards. — Ed. 
a Referring to the specific gravity of the waters — see Biddle, i, p. 18. — Ed. 



time the french first Settled the Illinois, I am told they are 
a fierce & warlike people, being badly Supplied with fire arms, 
become easily conquered by the Aiauway & Saukees who are 
better furnished with those materials of War, This Nation is 
now out in the Plains hunting the BufFalow \_They consist of 
about joo men] our hunters killed Several Deer and Saw 
Buffalow, Men imp? [employed] Dressing Skins & makeing 
themselves comfortable, the high lands come to the river 
Kansas on the upper Side at about a mile, full in view, and a 
butifull place for a fort, good landing-place, the waters of the 
Kansas is verry disigreeably tasted to me. 

29'* June Friday — 

obsv d the distance of O & <C, took Equal & maridional 
Alt'? and after makeing Some arrangements, and inflicting a 
little punishment to two men we Set out at yi past 4 oClock, 
and proceeded on. (1) passed a large Island on the S. Side, 
opposit a large Sand bar, the Boat turned, and was within Six 
Inches of Strikeing the rapidity with which the Boat turned 
was so great that if her bow had Struck the Snag, She must 
have either turned over or the bow nocked off, S W wind 

Course Distance and refferences June 29 th 

N. 21. W. 3^ M 5 to a p< on L. S. ps d p< Is d S. S. (1) 
N. 18? W. ^ M! on the L. S. ps d HI of the Is d 
S. 79. W. 3 _ M? to a p! on the S. S. 

fJOrderly Book; Clark:] Camp Mouth of the Kansies June 29'* 1804 

Ordered — A Court Martiall will Set this day at 1 1 oClock, 
to consist of five members, for the trial of John Collins and 
Hugh Hall, Confined on Charges exhibited against them by 
Sergeant Floyd, agreeable to the articles of War. 

Detail for the Court 

Serg! Nat. Pryor pres? 

2 John Colter 

3 John Newmon 

4 Pat. Gass 
1 J. B. Thompson 



John Potts to act as Judge advocate. 

The Court Convened agreeable to order and proceeded to 
the trial of the Prisoners Viz 

John Collins Charged " with getting drunk on his post this 
Morning out of whiskey put under his charge as a Sentinal, 
and for Suffering Hugh Hall to draw whiskey out of the Said 
Barrel intended for the party." 

To this Charge the prisoner plead not Guilty. 

The Court after mature deliv[b]eration on the evidence 
adduced &' are of oppinion that the prisoner is Guilty of the 
Charge exibited against him, and do therefore sentence him 
to receive one hundred Lashes on his bear Back. 

Hugh Hall was brought before the Court Charged with 
takeing whiskey out of a Keg this morning which whiskey was 
stored on the Bank (and under the Charge of the Guard) Con- 
trary to all order, rule, or regulation." 

To this Charge the prisoner " Pleaded Guilty." 

The Court find the prisoner Guilty and Sentence him to 
receive fifty Lashes on his bear Back. 

The Commanding Officers approve of the Sentence of the 
Court and orders that the Punishment take place at half past 
three this evening, at which time the party will Parrade for 

30'* June Satturday 1804 

Set out verry early this morning, a verry large wolf came 
to the bank and looked at us this morning, pass d the (.1) 
mouth of a Small river 10 M s above the Kansas called by the 
french Petite River Platte (or Shoal river) from the number of 
falls in it, this river is about 60 yards wide at its mouth and 
runs Parrilel with the Missouries for ten or twelve miles, 1 
Some of the party who went up told that the lands on this 
Small river is good, and on it several falls well calculated for 
mills, The wind from S. W. came to at 12 oClock & rested 
three hours, the [day] being hot the men becom verry 
feeble, Farn" Thermometer at 3 oClock stood at 96 above o, 

1 Now Little Platte River; the location of its mouth has changed much since 1804. 
— Coues (L. and C, i, p. 35). 



emence numb' of Deer on the banks, Skipping in every direc- 
tion, the party killed nine Bucks on the river & Bank today, 
The Countrey on the S. S. between the Shoal River & Mis- 
souris is indefferent Subject to overflow, that below and on 
the L. S. is high & appers well timbered, camped on the 
L. S. ops'! the Lower point of a Is 1 ! Called Diamond Island, 
Broke our Mast 

Course Distance & reefr' June 30'? 

N. 20 W. 2 M s to p' L. S. Boat turned 
N 30 W. yi M! on L. S. High Land S. S. 
S. 6+° W. %y 2 M 8 to p! on S. S. ps d R. Plate (1) 
West - 1 M! on S. S. a Sm. Creek L. S. 

N. 6o° W + M? to p! on L. S. 

July I s ? Sunday 1804 — 

a Small allarm last night all prepared for action, Set out 
early this morning passed on the North Side of Dimond 
Island, a Small Creek mouths opposit, I call Biscuit Creek, 
a large Sand bar in the middle of the river \yi M! above the 
Is? covered with Drift wood, river fall a little, the wind 
from S. W. Came to above this Drift and delayed three 
hours to refresh the men who were verry much over powered 
with the heat, Great quantitys of Grapes & raspberries, (2) 
passed a Small Creek on the L. S. below one large and two 
small Islands. This Creek and Isd? are called Remore (or 
Tree Frog) a large Pond on the S. S., the main current of 
Water run'g on the L. S. of the Island, I am told that three 
years ago the Main Current run on the S. S. of the Island 
and no appearance of the two Smaller Islands, Camped on 
the lower point of one of the two large & 1 Small Isd! Called 
Isles des Parques or field Isl'ds 1 a high butifull Prarie on 
the L. S. one of the french hands Says "that the french kept 
their cattle & horses on those Islands at the time they had in 
this quarter a fort & trading establishment. 

1 Nearly opposite Leavenworth, Kans. — Coues (£. and C, i, p. 36). 

f6 3 ] 


Course Distance & ref? July if.' 

N. 62? W. 1% W. on the S. Side of the Is d 

N. 40? W % M! do do do 

N 28 W ^ M! to p? on L. S. ps d the Is d 

N. 45° W 3^ M' to a p! on S. S. ps d Drift 

N 32? W iy 2 M! to a creek (2) L. S. 

N 58 W 2]/ 2 M' to p! L. S. ps? the head of Is d 

N. 42 W. 1 y 2 M s to a p! on S. S. 

N. 27 W. y 2 Ml to p! of Field Is d prarie L. S. 


paccaun [pecan — Ed.] Trees Seen on the S. S. Deer and 
turkeys in great quantities on the bank 

July i".i 1804 — 

Set out early and proceded on the left of the Islands, two 
of which are large a high bottom Situated on the L. S. 
passed the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. called Turquie 
\_Parques\ Creike, at this place I observed that the river was 
Crouded with Drift wood, and dangerous to pass as this dead 
timber Continued only about half an our, I concluded that 
Some Island of Drift had given way (3) passed a Creek on 
the L. S. called Turkey Creek, a bad Sand bar on the L. S. 
we could with dificuelty Stem the Current with our 20 oars & 
and all the poles we had, passed a large Island on the S. S. 
Called by the Indians Wau-car-ba war-cand-da or the Bear 
Medesin Island, 1 at 12 oClock landed on the Island a [nd — 
Ed.] put up a mast which detained us four hours, a verry 
hot day winds from the S. E. George Drewyer informs that 
the Lands he passed through, yesterday and to day on the 
S. S. was verry fine, few Springs, We camped after dark on 
the S. S. above the Island & opposit the 1" old village of the 
Kanzes. which was Situated in a Valley, between two points 
of high Land, and imediatly on the river bank, back of the 
village and on a riseing ground at about one mile The French 
had a garrison for some time and made use of water out of a 

1 Now Kickapoo island, above Fort Leavenworth. — Coues (£. and C, i, p. 37). 



Spring running into Turkey Creek. 1 an extensive Prarie, as 
the Current of the river Sets against the banke and washes it 
away the landing place for Boats is indefFerent. The high 
lands above the Fire river, approaches nearer east, than below, 
being from 3 to 6 Miles distant and above Kansas from 3 to 
5 Miles distant and the Hills at Some places are from 160 to 
180 feet above the bottom 

Course and distance & reffers".* July 2? 

N. 22? W. 1 y£ M a to a p' on L. S. in a bend (1) 

N. io° W 2^M?toap!ofa Lit: Is? on S. S. pass? Is? (2) 

N 34? E \]/ 2 M? to a p« on L. S. ps? Turkey Cr. (3) 

N io° W y 2 on the L. S. High Ld 8 on S. S. 

N. 46 W 1 % M s on S. S. of an Is? on S. S. (4) 

S. 87 W y 2 M! on S. S. a point ps? a run 

S 81? W 2% Wi on S. S. ps? head of Island 

N 82 W 2 M? on the S. S. ps? Swift Water' 

1" old village Kansas 

July ¥■* Tusday 1804 — 

Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a 
gentle Breeze from the S. passed two Islands (1) one a Small 
Willow Island on the L. S. the other large Called by the 
french Isle de Vache or Cow Island, opposit the head on the 
S. S. is a large Pond containg Beever, & fowl, a bad Sand 
bar on the S. S. above the Island, on the L. S. we halted at 
an old Tradeing house [deserted}, here, we found a verry fat 
horse, which appears to have been lost a long time, a butifull 
small run passes back of the Tradeing house near the high 
land, we came to at a round bend on the L. S. and camped 

1 The Biddle text states that Lewis and Clark found some remains of the French 
fort ; this was the post among the Kansas Indians, tributary to Fort Chartres, with 
a garrison sent from New Orleans. In 1757 it produced one hundred bundles of 
furs. See Bougainville on the French posts, in Northern and Western Boundaries of 

Ontario (Toronto, 1878) Ed. 

vol. 1.- 5 [65] 


Course Distance & refr? July 3':? 

N. 53? W. 1 M! on the S. S. 

N. 50"? W. % M! do. do 

N. 18? E 1 M! to a p! on L. S. ops? 2 Ids. (1) 

N 30° W y± M! to p! Left of an Isl? 

N 10* W. y 2 M! to p! L. S. 

N 60° W 1^ M! to a p! on the Island 

N 78 W y 2 M! to a p« L. S. at W. of Is d (2) 

S 56 W 2% Mf to a p* on S. S. of Missouri. 

N. 50"? W. 1 M! on the S. S. 

N 45 E 3 M? to a p! on L. S. pass a Bar 

N 12 E y 2 M! on L. S. Camped 

July 4'* Wednesday, — 

ussered in the day by a discharge of one shot from our Bow 
piece, proceeded on, passed the Mouth of a (1) Bayeau 
l[e]ading from a large Lake on the S. S. which has the appear- 
ance of being once the bend of the river & reaches parrelel for 
Several Miles Came to on the L. S. to refresh our selves &. 
Jos. Fields got bit by a Snake, which was quickly doctered 
with Bark by Cap Lewis 1 (2) Passed a Creek 12 yd! wide 
on L, S. comeing out of an extensive Prarie reching within 
200 yards of the river, as this Creek has no name, and this 
being the 4 th of July the day of the independance of the 
U S. call it 4* of July 1804 Creek, we dined (on Corn) 
Cap! Lewis walked on Shore above this Creek and discovered 
a high Mound from the top of which he had an extensive 
View, 3 paths Concentering at the moun Saw great numbers 
of Goslings to day which Were nearly grown, the before 
mentioned Lake is Clear and contain great quantities of fish 
and Gees & Goslings, The great quantity of those fowl in 
this Lake induced me to Call it the Gosling Lake, a Small 
Creek & several Springs run in to the Lake on the East Side 
from the hills the land on that Side verry good. (3) We came 
to and camped in the lower edge of a Plain where the 2? old 

1 A poultice of bark and gunpowder was sufficient to cure the wound. — 
Biddle (i, p. 21). 



Kanzas village formerly Stood, above the mouth of a Creek 
30 yd' wide this Creek we call Creek Independence as we 
approached this place the Prarie had a most butifull appear- 
ance Hills & Valies intersps d with Coops [Copses] of Timber 
gave a pleasing deversity to the Senery. the right fork of 
Creek Independence Meandering thro: the Middle of the 
Plain a point of high Land near the river givs an ellivated 
Situation, at this place the Kanzas Indians formerly lived, 
this Town appears to have cov d a large Space, the Nation must 
have been noumerous at the time they lived here, the Cause 
of their moveing to the Kanzas River, I have never heard, 
nor can I learn ; war with their neghbors must have reduced 
this nation and Compelled them to retire to a Situation in the 
plains better Calculated for their defence, and one where they 
may make use of their horses with good effect, in persueing 
their enemey, we closed the [day] by a Descharge from our 
bow piece, an extra Gill of whiskey. • 

Course & Distance, refr? July 4^ 1804 

N. 70"? W. 1 M! on L. S. pass? a Bayo: S. S. (1) 

S. 45 ? W. 3 M? to a p! on S. S. a sm! Is d on L. S. 

N. 75 ? W. % M! on S. S. 

N. 40° W. 6 M!. 8 on S. S. ps d a prarie & Creek (2) 

N. I2 ? E. 2^ M? to p? on L. S. ps d a Sm! Is d L. S. 

N. io° E. 2 M 8 top!onS.S.ops d oldvilg. (3)ps d CreekL.S. 


July 5'* Thursday 1804 — 

Set out verry early, proceeded on near the bank where the 
old village stood for two miles, (swam 'the hors found a few 
days ago) passed Some bad Sand bars, The orrigan of this 
old village is uncertain M. de Bourgmont, a French officer 
who Comd d a fort near the Town of the Missouris in about 
the year 1724 and in July of the Same year he visited this 
Village at that time the nation was noumerous & well dis- 
posed towards the french M r Du Pratz must have been badly 
informed as to the cane oppos? this place we have not Seen 
one Stalk of reed or cane on the Missouris, he States that 



the " Indians that accompanied M De Bourgmont crossed to 
the Canzes Village on floats of Cane " * 

Those people must have been verry noumerous at that time 
as IVP De B: was accompanied by 300 Warriers, 500 young 
people & 300 Dogs of burthen out of this Village 

The Cause of those Indians Moveing over to the Kanzis 
river I have never lernt. We passed Some bad Sand bars, 
Situated parrelel to each other (1) The Boat turned twice on 
the quick Sand & once on a raft of Drift, No prouveable 
damage the Prarie continu on the high land on the L. S. 
passd a Small Creek (2) on L. S. in the first bend to the L. S. 
I call Yellow Oaker [Ochre — Ed.]. Creek from a quantity of 
that Mineral in a bank a little above 

The river continus to fall a little. I observe great quantity 
of Summer & fall Grapes, Berries & Wild roases on the banks. 
Deer is not so plenty as useal, great Deel of Elk Sign. (Wind 
from S. E.) 

Course Distance & reffer? July 5. 

N. 25° E 1 M! on S. S. ops? the pi? of old vilg. 

S 56? E 2 M 8 to L. p! a eddey on L. S. 

East 1 M! on L. S. Sev! Sand bars (1) 

N i8 ? W 2 M? to a p' on S. S. ops? a prarie p? (2) 

North 1 M! on the S. S. 

S. 70 E 3 M' to p! of wil! on L. S. 

July 6'* Friday — 

We Set out early this morning, wind from the S. W. 
passed a large Sand bar in the 1" bend to the right. (1) passed 
a Small Island at the S. point, opposit the 3^ point we passed 
a Prarie on the S. S. called Reeveys Prarie at this place the 
river is confined in a verry narrow Channel Crouded by a Sand 
bar from the L. Point, this Sand bar is verry bad, at the ^ 
Point from the S. S. is a verry extensive bar, at the Point of 
which is a Small Willow Island, this is called the Grand Detour 
of [or] Great bend {great bend is higher up) 

1 The " Relation du voyage" of Bourgmont, which is cited by Le Page du Pratz 
in his Louisiane, maybe found in Margry's Decowv. et etabl., vi, pp. 398-449. — Ed. 



I walked on this Sand bar and found the Sand was light, 
with collection of Small pebble, & Some Pit Coal I observe 
that the men Swet more than is common from Some cause, I 
think the Missouris Water is the principaj Cause our hunters 
Sent in 3 Bucks to day The river Still fall a little 

Course Distance & reffer? July 6!? 

N. 58? E 1 M! on L. S. ops* a Sand bar 
North 3 Mf a p! on S. S. an Is d (1) 
N. io° W. % Ml on S. S. of Island 
S. 76? E % M! on S. S. ps d hi of IsH a Sand bar 
S. 60? E l# M! to a Willow p' on L. S. 
N. 70° E i]/ 2 M? over a Sand bar L. S. op. Prarie (2) 
N 50 W 1 M? on the L. S. pas'? a Sand bar 
West 3 M? to a pf on S. S. a Sand & (3) Is d 

July the 7'* Satturday 1804 — 

Set out early passed Some Swift Water, which obliged us 
to draw up by roapes, a Sand bar at the point ; opposit a 
butifull Prarie on the S. Side call* (1) S! Michul, those 
Praries on the river has verry much the appearence of farms 
from the river Divided by narrow Strips of woodland, which 
wood land is Situatl on the runs leading to the river, passed 
a Bluff of Yellow Clay above the Prarie. Saw a large rat on 
the bank. 1 Killed" a Wolf, at 4 oClock pass a verry narrow 
part of the river water conf in a bend not more than 200 
yards wide at this place the Current runs against the L. Side. 
No Sand to Confine the Current on the S. S. passed a Small 
sand Island above, the Small Isld? Situated at the points, in 
low water forms a part of the Sand bars makeing out from those 
points Incamped on the S. S. at 7 oClock a violent Ghust 
of Wind from the N. E with Some rain, which lasted half an 
hour (G D. informs me that he Saw in a Pond on the S. S. 
which we passed yesterday, a number of young Swans , one 

1 The wood-rat (Neotoma fioridana), unknown to science until thus discovered by 
Lewis and Clark. Its identification is furnished by Gass, who says that it has hair on 
its tail. — Coues (L. and C, p. 40, note 86). 



man verry sick, Struck with the Sun, Cap! Lewis bled him 
& gave Niter which has revived him much 

Course Distance & reffr? July 7* 

N. 40? E. 2 M. on the S. p' over a Sand bar. 

N 76? E 3 Mf to a p? on the L. S. a S d . bar 

N. 50? E 1%; M 1 to a prarie on S. S. (1) 

N. 30? W 1 M! on the L. S. a Bluff on S. S. 

N. 76? W % M! on the L. S. 

S. 66 ? E 2 M» to a p! on S. S. a Sand bar 

N. 74? W 1% M\'. on the S. S. ops? a yellow cliff 

N. 45? E y 2 M! on the S. S. 

N. 70? E 2 M? to a p! on L. S. a Sand bar 

July the %'* &«<% 1804 

Set out early passed a Small Creek on the S. S. and two 
(1) Small Islands on the S. S. five men Sick to day with a 
violent head ake &c. We made some arrangements as to 
provisions & Messes, Came to for Dinner at the lower point 
of a very large Island Situated near the S. S. after a delay of 
two hours we passed a narrow Channel of 45 to 80 yds wide 
five miles to the Mouth of (3) Nadawd [now Nodaway] River, 
This river Corns in from the North and is navagable for Pero- 
gues Some distance, it is about 70 yards wide a little above 
the mouth, at the mouth not so wide, the mud of the Gut 
running out of the Missourie is thrown and Settles in the 
Mouth half a mile higher up this Channel or gut is the upper 
point of the Said Island, This Island is Called Nadawa, & is 
the largest I have Seen in the river, containing 7 or 8000 acres 
of Land Seldom over flowed we Camped at the head of this 
Island on the S. S. opposit the head of our Camp is a Small 
Island near the Middle of the river, river Still falling, our 
flank party did not join us this evening 




Course Distance & Reff 

July 8 ,h 

N. 28? E 


M 1 on 

L. p 

— a Sand bar 

N 10. W 


M? to 


p! of Little Nadawa Is? S. S. 

N. 25. W. 


M? to 

a p.' on on L. 

S.<pass? 2 Is?? (1) 

N. 56. W. 


M" to 


of Big Nadawa Is? (2) 



M! on 

the left of the Island 

S. 10? W 



p! on 

the S. S. 

N. 25. W 



p' on 

the Island 

N. 40. W 


M! to a bend on the 

on the S. S. 

N. 70. W 





do S. S. 

S. 70. W 





do Island 

N. 82. W 





do do 

N. 42. W 





do S. S. 

S. 50. W 





do Island 

N 60. W 





do do 

N 18. W 





do S. S. 

N 38. W 





do S. S. 

S 20. W 





at the Mo. of Nadawa (3) 

S 15. w 





do Island 

S 80. w 




on S. S. 

ops? the head of Is? 

I2I A 

Detatchment Orders. 
[Orderly Book; Lewis:] Nadaiva Island July 8'* 1804. 

In order to insure a prudent and regular use of all provisions 
issued to the crew .of the Batteaux in future, as also to provide 
for the equal distribution of the same among the individuals of 
the several messes, The Commanding Officers do appoint the 
following persons to recieve, cook, and take charge of the pro- 
visions which may from time to time be issued to their respec- 
tive messes, (viz) John B. Thompson to Serg' Floyd's mess, 
William Warner to Serg' Ordway's Mess, and John Collins 
to Serg' Pryor's Mess. 

These Superintendants of Provision, are held immediately re- 
sponsible to the .commanding Officers for a juducious consump- 
tion of the provision which they recieve ; they are to cook the 
same for their several messes in due time, and in such manner 
as is most wholesome and best calculated to afford the greatest 
proportion of nutriment ; in their mode of cooking they are to 



exercise their own judgment ; they shall allso point out what 
part, and what proportion of the mess provisions are to be con- 
sumed at each stated meal (i. e.) morning, noon and night; nor 
is any man at any time to take or consume any part of the mess 
provisions without the privity, knowledge and consent of the 
Superintendant. The superintendant is also held responsible 
for all the cooking utensels of his mess, in consideration of 
the duties imposed by this order on Thompson, Warner, and 
Collins, they will in future be exempt from guard duty, tho' 
they will still be held on the royster for that duty, and their 
regular tour shall be performed by some one of their rispective 
messes ; they are exempted also from pitching the tents of the 
mess, collecting firewood, and forks poles &c for cooking and 
drying such fresh meat as may be furnished them ; those duties 
are to be also performed by the other members of the mess. 

M. Lewis 
W* Clark 

Q Clark:] July 9'* Monday 1804. — 

one man Sent back to the river we passed last night to Blase 
\notcK\ a tree with a View to notify the party on Shore of our 
passing Set out and passed the head of the (1) Island which 
was Situated opposit to our Camp last night a Sand bar at the 
head (2) ops? this Island a Creek or Bayaue corns in from a 
large Pond on the Starboard Side, as our flanking party saw 
great numbers of Pike in this Pond, I have laid it down with 
that name anex'd, at 8 oClock the wind Shifted from the 
N. E. to S. W. and it commenced raining. (3) at Six Miles 
passed the mouth of Creek on the L. S. called Monter's \_Mon- 
tairi s\ Creek, about two mile above is some Cabins where 
our Bowman & Several frenchmen Camp? two years ago 1 
(4) passed an Island on the S. S. in a Bend of the river oppo- 
sit some Clifts on the L. S. the Wind Shifted to the N W 
opposit this Island and on the L. Side, (Loup) or Wolf River 
corns in, this river is about 60 yards wide and heads with the 

1 Floyd here remarks: "Passed a prarie on the South Side whare several French 
famileys had setled and made Corn Some Years ago Stayed two years the Indians 
Came Freckentley to See them and was verry frendley." — Ed. 



waters of the Kansis, and is navagable for Perogues " Some 
distance up " Camped at a point on the L. S. opposit the 
head of the Island, our party was incamped on the Opposit 
Side, their not answering our signals. Caused us to Suspect 
the persons Camped opposit to us was a War party of Soux, 
we fired the Bow piece to alarm the party on Shore, ailed 
prepared to oppose if attacted 

Course Distance & reft? July o, tb 1804 

N. 6o° W i# M? to up. p« of Is 1 ! ps? a Creek S S ( 1 ) (2) 

S 20 W y/2 Mf to pf S. S. ps? p! & Sand bar S. S. 

N 82 W y/ 2 Mf to p< S. S. ps? sand, & a Creek L. S. (3) 

N 68° W 5 y 2 W. to p! L. S. pa? Wolf R. L. S. ops? Is? (5) 

"July io{* Tuesday 1804 — 

Set out early this Morning and cross? the river with a view 
to See who the party was that Camped on the other Side, we 
soon discovered them to be our men, proceeded on passed a 
Prarie on the L. S. at 4 Miles passed a creek L. S. called 
(1) Pap-pie [P ape's Creek] after a man who killed himself at its 
mouth, this Creek is 15 yds wide (2) Dined on an Isl? called 
de Salamin [Solomon's Island]. Delayed 3 hours on this Island 
to recruit the men opposit on the L. S. is a butifull bottom 
Plain of about 2000 acres (3) covered with wild rye & Pota- 
toes [ground apple pomme de terre], 1 intermix't with the grass, 
We camped on the S. S. opposit a yellow Clay Clift, Cap! 
Lewis killed to young Gees or Goslings this evening. The 
men of the party getting better, but much fatigued. The river 
on a stand. The bottom is verry extensive on the S. S. and 
thickly intersperced with Vines. 

The High Land approaches near the river on the L. S. and 
well timbered next to the river, back of those hills the Plains 

1 Apparently the plant here referred to was Psoralea esculenta, the tubers of 
which had long been used as food by the Indians and voyageurs of the North- 
west. — Ed. 


N. 80? W. 


N 19? E. 



2 4 

S. 80? W. 

3 4 

N 50 W. 


N 83 W. 



Course Distance & refr? July io' h 

M 8 to p! S. S. pass? a Sand bar 
M? to p! L. S. ps? a Creek (1) 
M! to Low pi of an Isl? (2) 
M! to p! on Left of an 'Is? ops? Pra (3) 
M? to p! on L. S. passed S? bar 
M? to a p! on S. S. Is? (5) 

July 11* Wednesday 1804 — 

Set out early passed a Willow Island (1) in a bend on the 
S. |S. back of this Island a Creek corns in called by the 
Indians Tar-ki-o I went on Shore above this Creek and 
walked up parrelel with the river at about half a mile distant, 
the bottom I found low & Subject to over flow, Still further 
out, the under groth & vines wer So thick that I could not 
get thro: with ease after walking about three or 4 miles I 
observed a fresh horse track where he had been feeding I 
turned my course to the river and prosud the track and found 
him on a Sand beach This horse Probably had been left by 
Some partv of Otteaus hunters who wintered or hunted in this 
quarter last fall or Wint! I joined the party on a large Sand 
Island imedeately opposit the mouth of.Ne Ma how [Ne'ma- 
haw\ River, at which place they had Camped, this Island is 
Sand about half of it covered with Small Willows of two dif- 
ferent kinds, one narrow & the other a Broad Leaf. Several 
hunters sent out to day on both Sides of the river, Seven Deer 
killed to day, Drewyer killed six of them, made some Luner 
observations this evening. 

Course Distance & refr! July 1 1* 

N. 30 W 3 M" to the head of a Willow Is? (1) in a bend to S. S. 
West 2^ M? to LowF pf of a Sand Is!? on the S. S. ps? p! S. S. (2) 
North 1^ M! on the N. Side of Is? & Camped. 
6 Miles 



July i%'! % . Thursday 1804 — 

Concluded to Delay here to day with a view of takeing equal 
altitudes & makeing observations as well as refreshing our men 
who are much fatigued, after an early Brackfast I with five 
men in a Perogue assended the River Ne-Ma-haw about three 
[2] Miles to the Mouth of a Small creek on the Lower Side, 
here I got out of the Perogue, after going to Several Small 
Mounds in a leavel plain, I assended a hill on the Lower Side, 
on this hill Several artificial Mounds were raised, from the 
top of the highest of those Mounds I had an extensive view 
of the Serounding Plains, which afforded one of the most pleas- 
ing prospect I ever beheld, under me a Butifull River of 
Clear Water of about 80 yards wide Meandering thro: a leavel 
and extensive meadow, as far as I could See, the prospect 
much enlivened by the fiew Trees & Srubs which is bordering 
the bank of the river, and the Creeks & runs 'falling into it, 
The bottom land is covered with Grass of about 4^ feet high, 
and appears as leavel as a smoth surfice, the 2 d bottom \the 
upper land~\ is also covered with Grass and rich weeds & flours, 
interspersed with copses of the Osage Plumb, on the riseing 
lands, Small groves of trees are Seen, with a numbers of Grapes 
and a Wild Cherry resembling the common Wild Cherry, only 
larger and grows on a small bush on the tops of those hills 
in every direction, I observed artifical Mounds (or as I may 
more justly term graves) which to me is a strong evidence 
[indication] of this Country being once thickly Settled. (The 
Indians of the Missouris Still keep up the Custom of Burrying 
their dead on high ground) after a ramble of about two miles 
about I returned to the perogue and decended down the river, 
gathl Som grapes nearly ripe, on a Sandstone Bluff about j^_ 
of a Mile from its mouth on the Lower Side I observed some 
Indian Marks, went to the rock which jucted over the water 
and marked my name & the day of the month & year. This 
river heads near one of the (see note) villages of the Pania 
[Pawnee] on the River Blue \_Blue River], a branch of the 
Kansas River, above this river about half a mile the Prarie 
comes to the Missouri, after my return to Camp on the Island 



completed Som observations. Tri[e]d a man (W. C.) for 
Sleeping on his Post & inspected the arms amunition &c. of 
the party found all complete, Took Some Luner Observa- 
tions, three Deer killed to day. 

Latf 39 - 55' - 56" N. 

[[Orderly Book; Lewis Q Camp Neiv Island July 12'? 1804. 

A Court ma[r]tial consisting of the two commanding officers 
will convene this day at i OCk. P.M. for the trial of such 
prisoners as may be brought before them ; one of the court 
will act as Judge Advocate. 

M. Lewis 
W M Clark 

CClark :] 

The Commanding officers, Cap? M. Lewis & W. Clark 
constituted themselves a Court Martial for the trial of such 
prisoners as are Guilty of Capatal Crimes, and under the rules 
and articles of War punishable by Death. 

Alexander Willard was brought foward Charged with " Lying 
down and Sleeping on his post " whilst a Sentinal, on the Night of 
the 11? Instant" (by John Ordway Sergeant of the Guard) 

To this Charge the prisoner pleads Guilty of Lying Down, 
and Not Guilty, of Going to Sleep. 

The Court after Duly Considering the evidence aduced, are 
of oppinion that the Prisoner Alex d . r Willard is guilty of every 
part of the Charge exhibited against him. it being a breach 
of the rules and articles of War (as well as tending to the prob- 
able distruction of the party) do Sentience him to receive One 
hundred lashes, on his bear back, at four different times in equal pro- 
portion, and Order that the punishment Commence this even- 
ing at Sunset, and Continue to be inflicted (by the Guard) 
every evening untill Completed 

W"J Clark 
M. Lewis 



[Clark July 13'^ Friday 1804 — 

Set out at Sun rise, and pros? on under a gentle Breeze, at 
two Miles passed the mouth of a Small river on the S. S. 
called by the Indians 'Tar-ki-o, 1 a cha-nnel running out of the 
river three miles above (which is now filled up with Sand) 
runs into this Creek, and formed a Island Called S'. Josephs 
Several Sand bars parralel to each other above. In the first 
bend to the left is Situated a Butifull & extensive plain, cover'd 
with Grass resembling Timothy except the Seed which re- 
sembles Flax Seed, this plain also abounds in Grapes of 
defferent kinds Some nearly ripe, I Killed two Goslings 
nearly Grown, Several others Killed and cought on Shore, 
also one old Goose, with pin fethers, she Could not fly. at 
about 1 2 Miles pass? a Island Situated in a bend on the S. S. 
above this Island is a large Sand bar Covered with willows, 
The wind from the South, Camped on a large Sand Bar 
makeing out from the L. S? opposit a high handsom Prarie, 
the hills about 4 or 5 Miles on S. S. this plain appeard exten- 
sive, the Clouds appear to geather to the N. W. a most 
agreeable Breeze from the South (I walked on Shore on the 
S. S. the lands are low Subject to overflow) 

Last night at about 10 oClock a Violent Storm of wind 
from the N. N. E which lasted with Great violence for about 
one hour, at which time a Shower of rain Succeeded. 

Course Distance & Refff! July 13!^ 

N. 8° E. 1 M! to p! on S. S. ps d S d . Istf 

N. 28? E 3^ M! to p? on L. S. ps d Riv. & Is? (1) 

S 70° W 3 M s to p' on S. S.' ops d a prarie (2) 

N. 46? W. 1 14 M! on S. S. ops d the Prarie & a Hill 

N. 30? W. 1 14 M? to a p< on L. S. 

N. 45 W. 41^ M s to a p! on L. S. ps d an Is d (3) 

N. 66? W. 7,y 2 M' to a p! on S. S. 

N. 8? W. 2 M? to a pf on L. S. a Sand Is d 

20 Vz Miles 

1 The Big Tarkio, according to Biddle ; this is also its present name. — Ed. 

I 77] 


The men on Shore did not join us this after noon. The 
river nearly on a Stand the high lands on the S. S. has only 
been seen at a Distance above the Nordaway River, those on 
the L. S. approaching the river at every bend, on the Side 
next to the river well timbered, the ops'! Side open & the 
Commencm' of Plains. 

July \\"?. Satturday 1804 — 

Some hard Showers of rain this morning prevented our 
Setting out untill 7 oClock, at half past Seven, the atmisp' 
became Sudenly darkened by a black and dismal looking 
Cloud, at the time we were in a Situation (not to be bettered,) 
near the upper point of the Sand Island, on which we lay, and 
the opposit Shore, the bank was falling in and lined with snags 
as far as we could See down, in this Situation the Storm 
which pass? over an open Plain from the N. E. Struck the our 
boat on the Starb? quarter, and would have thrown her up on 
the Sand Island dashed to pices in an Instant, had not the 
party leeped out on the Leward Side and kept her off with 
the assistance of the ancker & Cable, untill the Storm was 
over, the waves washed over her windward Side and she 
must have filled with water if the Lockers which is [had not 
been — Ed.] covered with Tarpoling & threw of the Water & 
prevented any quantity getting into Bilge of the Boat In this 
Situation we Continued about 40 Minits. when the Storm 
Sudenly Seased and the river become Instancetaniously as 
Smoth as Glass. 

The two perogu\_e~\s dureing this Storm was in a Similar 
situation with the boat about half a mile above. The wind 
shifted to the S. E. & we Sailed up passed a Small (1) Isld 
Situated on the S. S. and Dined & continued two hours, men 
examine their arms about a Mile above this Island, passed a 
Small Tradeing fort on the S. S. where, Mf Bennet of S 1 . Louis 
Traded with the Otteaus & Panis two years. I went on 
Shore to Shoot Some Elk on a Sand bar to the L. S. I fired 
at one but did not get him, Went out into a large extensive 
bottom the greater part of which over flows, the part that 
dose not over flow, is rich and well timbered, Some Small 



open Praries near the hills, the Boat passed the lower part 
of a large Island Situated on the S. S. above the Lower 
point of this Island on the S. S. a (a) large Creek Corns into 
the river called by the Mafia s \Mahar\ Indians Neesh-nah- 
ba-to-na (Neesh-nah-ba-to-na) 50 yds.' this is a Considerable 
Creek, nearly as large as the Mine River, and runs parrilel 
with the Missouri, the Greater part of its course. In those 
small Praries or Glades I saw wild Timothy, lambs-quarter, 
Cuckle burs, 1 & rich weed, on the edges Grows Sum! Grapes, 
Plum's, & Goose berries. I Joined the boat which had Came 
to and Camped 2 in a bend oppos? the large Island before men- 
tioned on the L. S. Several men unwell with Boils, Felons, 
&c. The river falls a little. 

Course Distance & Reffer? July 14 th 

M? to a point on S. S. a Sm! Is? S. S. (1) 

Mf to a p! L. S. wind Shift N. W. by N. 

M! on the L. S. 

Mf to Lowf p! of an Is? S. S. 

M? to a pf on S. Side of Is? ps? a Creek (2) 

July 15* Sunday — 

a heavy Fog this morning prevented our Setting out before 
7 oClock, at nine I took two men and walked on the L. S. 
I crossed three butifull Streems of running water heading in 
the Praries on those Streem the lands verry fine covered with 
pea vine & rich weed the high Praries are also good land 
Covered with Grass entirely void of timber, except what grows 
on the water, I proceeded on thro those praries Several 
Miles to the Mouth of a large Creek on the L. S. called (?) 
\Little\ Nema har this is a Small river, about 100 y d .' above 
the Mouth it is 40 yards wide, at the mouth (as all other 
Creeks & rivers falling into the Missourie are) much narrower 
than a little distance up. after continueing at the mouth of 

1 Cockle-burs (Xanthium strumarium). " Lamb's-quarter " is Chenopodium 
album, a succulent weed often used as "greens." — Coues [L. and C, p. 46, note 

2 We encamped on the north side of this island, a little above Nishnabatona. — 
Biddle (i, p. 26). 



70? W. 



22? W 



30 w. 



50 w 



87 w 



this Creek about an hour, I swam across and proceeded on 
about 3 miles and halted to waite for the boat, which was some 
distance below. In all this days march thro woods & Praries, 
I only Saw three Deer & 3 fawns. I had at one part of the 
Prarie a verry extensive view of all the Countrey around up 
and down the river a Considerable distance, on the Larb? S? 
one continued Plain, on the S. S. Some timber on the bank of 
the river, for a Short distance back of this timber is a bottom 
Plain of four or five miles back to the hills and under the 
hills between them & the river this plain appeared to extend 
20 or 30 miles, those Hills have but little timber, and the 
Plain appears to Continue back of them. I saw Great quanti- 
ties of Grapes, Plums of 1 kinds, Wild Cherries of 2 Kinds, 
Hazelnuts, and Goosberries. 

We Camped in a point of woods on the Larboard S. ops? a 
large Island. 

Course Dist? & ref™ July 15!? 1804 

N. 30 W ( 31^ M? to a p! on a Willow Is? on the L. S. passed the 

\ head of the large Is*? on S. S. (1) 

N. 70 W J 1^ of a M! to L. p! on S? Is? the boat Passed to the 

\ L. S. Hills projects to river 

N. 89 W. f }( of a m! to a pi of S? Is!? the Hills here leave the 

\ bar. took Med? alt? O L. L. 

West j I % M! to a p 1 on S. S. opposit to which the hills again 

\ touch the river. 

N 45? W.J i]/ 2 Mf to the Mouth of Ne-ma-har creek in a bend to 

\ L. S. (2) ops? Low p! of S? bar. 

N. 30 ? E ( 2 M? to a pt. on L. S. a Deep bend to the right below 

\ the p! 

N. 1 5 E. f 2i M! to the lower p? of a Is? east of this Is? is Said to 

\ be a Pond. 


July 16'* Monday 1804 — 

Set out this morning verry early and proceeded on under 
a gentle breeze from the S passed the upper point of the 
Island, an extensive Prarie on the L. S. passed a large (i) 



N. 88° W. f y£ of a Mile to a p'.on main Shore L. S. opposit a Sand 


Island Called Fair Sun Is? a Small Willow Isl? at the lower 
point on the L. S., the boat pass? on the L. S. of those 
Islands Several Small Sand Islands in the Channel, the Boat 
run on the point of a Snag, (2) passed a place above the 
Island, L. S. where about 20 acres of the hill has latterly 
Sliped into the river, above a clift of Sand Stone for about two 
miles, the resort of burds of Different kinds ' to reare their 
young. (5) Passed a Willow Island in a Deep bend to the 
S. S. opposit the river is about two miles wide, and not verry 
Deep as the Snags may be Seen across, scattering, passed 
the Lower point of an Island called by F, Chauvin [Chauve 
Island] 1 Situated off the L. Point opposit an extensive Prarie 
on the S. S. This Prarie I call Ball [Bald — Ed.] fated 
Prarie^ from a range of Ball Hills parrelel to the river & at 
from 3 to 6 miles distant from it, and extends as far up & 
Down as I can See. We Camped in a point of Woods on 
the S. S. above the Lower point of the Island, river falling. 

Course Distance & reff July i6f* 

N. 70 9 W. y % a M! to a p! on the left of the Is? oppos? 

N. 35. W. \y 2 Mf to a bend L. S. in Prarie ops? h d . of Is? 

N 30? E 1 M! to to the Low! p! of Wil: Is? off L. p! ( 1 ) 

N. 40 W y M! to p! on sa<! Island 

N. 30° W. 2 M? to a p! S. of a Sm. Is? on S. S. ps? p! L. S. 

N. is° E. 1% M! to p! of Good Sun Is? ps? W Is? (2) 

N 35° W. y 2 M! to L. S. Sm: W: Is? ps? a Sm. W: Is? (3) 

N. 15? W % M! on L. S. High Land Nef Shore 

N. 38"? W % M! to p! Left of Is? ps? Sm. W: Is? L. S. 

N. 54? W ^ M! to p' Sm. W. Is? on the S? of the Is? 

N. 38? W ^ M! to p! L. S. took Md? alt? Lat. 40 : 20'- 12". 

N. 52° W y 2 M! to pf of the Is? ops^ High Land. 

N. 50? W. 1 y Mf to p! on L. S. above h? of Is? (4) 

N. 58? W. 2 M? to p! on S. S. ps? Sand Stone Clifts 

North. y M! on the S. point 
N 40? E 6 Mf to the upf p< of a wood in the bend to the S. S. 
20 i/ above the Lowf Point of a Isl? L. S. a prarie 
above & Som ball Hills at ab? 4 Mf (I call? 
Ball Hill Prarie) 

1 The Biddle text says (i, p. 27), "called by the French 1* Isle Chance [a mis- 
print for Chauve], or Bald Island." — Ed. 
vol. 1.-6 [81] 


July iy'f! Tuesday 1804 Bald pate J Prarie — 

We concluded [to] lay by at this place to day to fix the 
Lattitude & Longitude of this place (to Correct the cronom- 
eter run down Sunday) Several men out by day light hunt- 
ing, Cap' Lewis concl? to ride out to Neesh-nah-ba-to-na 
Creek which passes under the ball hills near this place and at 
one place a little above this Camp is within 300 yards of 
the Missourie on this Creek grows Some few trees of oake 
Walnut & Mulberry. 

I took Meridean altitude of O L. L. (43 27") which made 
the Lattitude 40°-27'-5"- 4 /, North. Wind from the South 
E. Several of the party much inflicted with turners of different 
kinds, Som of which is verry troublesom, and dificcelt to cure. 
Cap! Lewis returned in the evening, he Saw Som handsom 
Countrey, & Says that the aforesaid Creek is rapid muddy and 
running. This Creek which [where he saw if\ is at 10 or 12 
from its mouth, within 300 yd? of the river [Afm!] is at least 
25 \_i&\ foot Lower than the river. 1 The high Lands from 
our Camp in this Bald Pated Prarie bears N 25! W. up the R. 

Took equal altitudes 

A. M. 7 h - 10 m - 8 s P. M. 4 h - 4 m - 38 

" - 15 - 28 " - 6 - 3 

« - 52 - 55 « - 7 - 24 

Altitude 69° - 36' - 00" 
Took Suns Azmoth, with Comp? & Sextent & Time 

1'.'. Set 

Comp' altid. Time 

h m 1 

N. 85 W. = 28 . 51' . 45". = 5 . 23 . 10 

2* Set. 
N. 84 W. = 26 - 35' - 30" = 5 - 59 . 20 

observed the Moon C & Spica *. Star West 

1 The Biddle text says, "at least six feet below the level of the Missouri." — Ed. 


i8o 4 ] 






41° - 50' - 00" 

" - 59 - o 

" -53 - »5 


« - 54 - 

" - 5 - 49 

u - 55 - " 

« - 8 - 2 

" - 56 - " 


" - 57 - " 

" - 21 - 10 

" - 58 - " 

"-25 -18 

42 - - 

The Common Current taken with a Log runs 50 fathem in 
40" — Some places much Swifter, in 30" and even 20 Seconds 
of time, five Deer Killed to day 

July 18'* Wednesday 1804 — 

a fair morning the river falling fast. Set out this morning 
at Sun rise under a Gentle Breeze from the S E. by S passing 
over the Prarie, at about 3 Miles we passed the head of the 
Island L. S. called by the French Chauve or Bald -pate opposit 
the middle of (1) this Island the creek on the S. S. is nearest 
the river. In high water an Island is formed in the bend 
above the last (2). Measured the Current and found that in 
forty one Seconds it run 50 fathom but little timber is to be 
Seen except in the Low points on Islands & on creeks, the 
Groth of timber is generally Cotton Mulberry Elm Sycomore 
&c. &c. passed a Island on the 2? point to the S. S. opposit 
the water (3) when "high passes out in the Plain, oppsed this 
Island on the L. S. the hills jut to the river (4) this Hill has 
Sliped from the top which forms a Bluff" above & 200 foot 
above the water, about ^ of a mile in length & about 200 
feet in Depth, has Sliped into the river, it is Composed of 
Sand Stone intermixed with an indiffer! Iron ore near the 
bottom or next to the water is a Soft Slate Stone, Some 
pebble is also intirmixt. We passed a verry bad Sand bar and 
incamped on the L. S. at the lower point of the Oven Islands 
& opposit the Prarie, Call? by the french Four le tourtere 
Saw a Dog nearly Starved on the bank, gave 
he would not follow, our hunters killed 2 

[Baker s Overt], 
him som meet, 
Deer to day. 



Course distance & reffer? July 18!? 

N. 28? W. 3^ M* to a Curve in the bank passed a bend of the 
Is? (& Several Sand bars (1) 

5 28 ? W 3^ Mfto p!on S. S. ps d thehead ofthe Is d on L. S. (one 

back in bend (2) 
S. 32? W. i/£ M! on S. p) ps d a Sand bar 
S. 88? W % M! on S. S. Wind S. W. 
N 55? W % M! on S. S. 

N. 48? W 2% W. to a p! on L. S. ps d a Sand bar L. S. 
N 64? W 2^ Mftoap'onS. S. low banks on L. S. (2) an Is d S. S.(3) 
N 50? W 3 M? to a p! on S. S. ops d a red bank on L. S. Some 

Iron (4) 
N. S° E 1 y 2 W*. to p! on L. S. ops d a Small Isl d in the river one 

~W ( above (5) 

The Creummoter too Slow 6 minits 51 seconds & 6 /i altitude of 
the North Star if. last night at 10 h - 23 m - 18 s was 8i° - 9/ - 15". 

July K)' h Thursday 1804 — 

Set out early passed between two small Islands, one in the 
Middle of the river, the other close on the L. S. opposit a 
prarie S. S. called (i) by the french Four le tourtre, The Bakers 
oven Islands, passed (2) Some high clift 4^ Miles above 
the Islands on the L. S. of yellow earth passed Several Sand 
bars, that [were] wide and at one place verry Shallow (two 
Small butifull runs falls into the river near each other at this 
Clift, a Deer Lick 200 yards up the Lowest of those runs 
head at no great distance in the plains and pass thro: Scirts 
[skirts'] of timber to the river. In my walk on Shore I found 
Some ore in the bank above those runs which I take to be 
Iron ore. (3) at this place the Side of the hills has sliped 
about half way into !the river for ^ of a Mile forming a Clift 
from the top of the hill above. In the first bend to the right 
passed a Small Island a Sand bar opposit, worthey of remark 
as We approach this great River Piatt the Sand bars much 
more numerous and the quick or moveing Sands much worst 
than they were below at the places where Praries approach the 
river, it is verry wide those places being much easier to wash 

6 under mine than the Wood Land's. (4) passed a Willow 



Is? situated near the middle of the river, and a large Sand 
makeing out from the S. S. a Deep bend to the L. S. we 
camped at the head of this Island on the Starboard Side of it, 1 
Hunters Killed Two Deer. Saw great numbers of young 
Gees, River falling a little. 

Course Distance & reft' July 19'? 

North y£ of a M 1 to Low', p! of a Is? L. S. ( 1 ) 

N io 9 W ii( M? to p! on L. S. sand bar ps? Is? (1) 
N. 45° W 1 M! on the L. S. a sand bar on S. S. 
N 85 W. 2 M? to p! on S. S. ops? High land (2) 
N 82 W. y M! to the Mo: of a run in bend L. S. (3) 
N 1 3 W. 2}£ M' to p! L. S. ps? sliped bank (3) 

(a Island on S. S. a run L S. 
N 54 W. 3 M? to a p! on S. S. ops? Some Clifts pass? a 
10a/ Wil? Is", in a Deep bend on the L. S. a Sand 

bar S. S. (4) 

JulJ 20'? Friday 1804 — 

a cool morning passed a large Willow Island (1) on the S. 
S. and the mouth of Creek about 25 yds wide on the L. S. 
called by the french I'Eue que \_UEau quf\ pleure, or the Water 
which cry's [weeping water], this Creek falls into the river 
above a Clift of brown Clay opposit the Willow Island, I 
went out above the mouth of this Creek and walked the 
greater part of the day thro: Plains interspersed with small 
Groves of Timber; on the branches, and some scattering trees 
about the heads of the runs, I Killed a verry large yellow 
Wolf, The Soil of those Praries appears rich but much 
Parched with the frequent fires, after I returned to the Boat 
we proceeded around a large Sand bar makeing out from 
the L. S. ops? a fountain of water comeing out of a hill L. S. 
and affording water Sufficent to turn a mill. The Praries as 
far as I was out appeared to be well watered, with small Streems 
of running water Serj! Pryor & Jo. Fields brought in two 
Deer this evening, a verry Pleasent Breeze from the N. W 
all night, river falling a little. It is worthey of observation 
to mention that our Party has been much healthier on the 

1 A little above the present site of Nebraska City, Neb. — Coues (L. and C, i, 
P- 49)- 



Voyage than parties of the same number is in any other Situa- 
tion. Turners have been troublesom to them all. 

Course Distance & ref™ July 20"! 

N 18° E 3 M? to a p! on L. S. ps d a Wil: Is d on S. S. a 

Creek on L. S4 (1) 
N. 48? E lyi M' to a p! on S. S. of an IsH ops d the up' p! on 

2 d Is d which is divided from it by a narrow 

Chan! a Deep bend to S. S. 
N. 5? W 3 M" to a Lb d p! of an Island 
North 6 M 8 to the pf of an Is d on L. S. of sm. 

N 18? W 31^ Ml to a p' on L S. high Land ps d the head of 
78 an Is d above is a large Sand bar on L. 

S. (2) 

From this evenings encampment a man may walk to the 
Pani [Pawnee] Village on the S bank of the Piatt River in two 
days, and to the Otteaus in one day, 1 all those Indians are 
Situated on the South bank of the Piatt River, as those Indians 
are now out in the Praries following & Hunting the buffalow, 
I fear we will not see them. 

July 11 s ! Satturday 1804 — 

Set out early under a gentle breeze from the S. E. proceeded 
on verry well, passed (i) a willow Island on the L. S. opposit 
a bad Sand bar, Some high lands covered with timber L. S. 
in this hill is limestone and semented rock of shels &c (2) in 
high water the opposit Side is cut thro: by several Small 
channels, forming Small Islands, a large Sand bar opposit the 
Hill, at 7 oClock the wind luled and it Commns'd raining, 
arrived at the lower Mouth of the Great River Piatt at 10 
oClock, (about 3 m! above the Hill of wood land) the Same 
range of High land continus within ^ of a mile of the Mouth 
below This Great river being much more rapid than the 
Missourie forces its Current against the opposit Shore. The 
Current of this river comes with great velosity roleing its Sands 
into the Missouri, filling up its Bead & Compelling it to in- 
croach on the S \NortK\ Shore, we found great dificuelty in 

1 Gass mentions, as also living on the Platte, "the Loos [French, Loupi~\, or Wolf 
Indians." — Ed. 



passing around the Sand at the Mouth of this River. Cap! 
Lewis and Myself with 6 men in a perogue went up this Great 
river Piatt about 1 \one\ Miles, found the Current verry 
rapid roleing over Sands, passing through different Channels 
none of them more than five' or Six feet deep, about 900 \6o6\ 
yards Wide at the Mouth, I am told by one of our Party 
who wintered two winters on this river, that " it is much wider 
above, and does not rise more than five or six feet " Spreds 
verry wide [with many small islands scattered thro' ;'/,] and from 
its rapidity & roleing Sands Cannot be navagated with Boats 
or Perogues. The Indians pass this river in Skin Boats which 
is flat and will not turn over. The Otteaus a Small nation 
reside on the South Side 10 Leagues up, the Panies on the 
Same Side 5 Leagues higher up. about 10 Leagues up this 
river on the S. Side a Small river Comes into the Piatt Called 
Salt River, "the water So brackish that it Can't be Drank at 
Some Seasons, above this river & on the North Side a Small 
river falls into the platt Called Elk (Horn) River this river 
runs Parralal withe the Missouri, at 3 miles passed a Small 
river on the L. S. Called Papillion or Butterfly C : 18 yd" wide 
a large Sand bar off the mouth, we proceeded on to get to a 
good place to Camp and Delay a fiew days, passed around this 
Sand bar: and Cam p . d for the night on the L. S. a verry hard 
wind from the N. W. I went on Shore S. S. and proceeded 
up one mile thro:_ high Bottom land open a great number 
of wolves about us this evening 

Course Distance & Ref rs July 21" 

N. 22- W. 3 1^ M? to a p! S. S. opposit a P< of High land on the L. S. 
N. 28? W. by 2 M? to a p! on S. S. ps d a Naked p< & Wil? Isl'd (1) 

on the L. S. & a high p' on L S. (2) 
N. 39^ W. 3 M? to a p? on S. S. just below the Platt river pass? a 

p! of High Land cov d with wood L S. a S d bar 

near the S. S. 
N. 8 ? W 2 M? to a point in the junction of the Platt & Missouri 

a verry extensive [view — Ed.] up the Platt West 

& Missourie North Passed many Sand bars in the 

Mouth Platt river 
15 M? to Platt. 



July zz"f Sunday 1804 — 

Set out verry early with a view of Getting Some Situation 
above in time to take equal altitudes and take observations, as 
well as one Calculated to make our party Comfortable in a 
Situation where they Could receve the benefit of a Shade, 
passed a large Sand bar opposit a Small river on the L. S. at 
3 miles above Piatt Called Papillion, or Butterfly Creek a 
Sand bar & a Willow Island opposit a Creek 9 M s above the 
Piatt on the S. S. Called Morqueton Creek Prarie on both 
Sides of the river, Came too and formed a Camp on the S. S. 
above a Small Willow Island, and opposit the first Hill which 
aproach the river on the L. S. and covered with timber of Oake 
Walnut Elm &c. &c. 

This being a good Situation and much nearer the Otteaus 
town than the Mouth of the Piatt, we Concluded to delay at 
this place a fiew days and Send for Some of the Chiefs of that 
nation, to let them know of the Change of Government the 
wishes of our government to Cultivate friendship with them, 
the Objects of our journy and to present them with a flag and 
Some Small presents. 

Some of our Provisions in the French Perogue being wet it 
became necessary to Dry them a fiew days, wind hard from 
N W. five Deer Killed to day. the river rise a little. 

The Course & Distance from the Plate river to Camp N. 15? W. 
10 Miles, ps? 3 pts. L S. & 2 p'.' S. S. 




Chapter II 


Clark's Journal, July 23 — August 24, 1804 

[Clark:] Camp White Catfish Nine [10] Miles above the Piatt River, 

Monday the 23? of July 1804 — 

A FAIR morning Set a party to look for timber for 
Ores, two parties to hunt, at 1 1 oClock Sent off 
George Drewyer & Peter Crousett with some tobacco 
to invite the Otteaus if at their town and Panies if they saw 
them, to come and talk with us at our Camp &c. &c. (at this 
Season the Indians on this river are in the Praries hunting the 
Buffalow, but from some signs of hunters, near this place & 
the Plains being on fire near their towns induce a belief that 
they this nation have returned to get some Green Corn or 
roasting Ears) raised a flag Staff Sund and Dryed our pro- 
visions &c. I commence Coppying a Map of the river below 
to Send to the P. [President — Ed.] U. S. five Deer Killed 
to day one man with a turner on his breast, Prepared our 
Camp the men puf their arms in order Wind hard this after- 
noon from the N. W. 1 

July 26 th Thursday 

A M 7h 

33 m 32 s 

34 55 
36 22 

altitude give 

P. M. 4h 

15 m 

22 s 





1 The astronomical observations following, have been transferred to " Scientific 
Data." — Ed. 



White Catfish Camp 10 Mf above Piatt 
24'* of July 1804 Tuesday — 

a fair day the wind blows hard from the South, the Breezes 
which are verry frequent in this part of the Missouri is cool 
and refreshing. Several hunters out to day, but as the game 
of all kinds are Scerce only two Deer were brought in. I 
am much engaged drawing off a map, Cap! Lewis also much 
engaged in prepareing Papers to Send back, by a perogue — 
which we intended to Send back from the river Piatt 1 obser- 
vations at this place makes the Lattitude 41! 3' 19" North. 

This evening Guthrege Cought a White Catfish, its eyes 
Small & tale much like that of a Dolfin. 

White Catfish Camp 25'* of July Wednesday — 

a fair morning Several hunters out to day, at 2 oClock 
Drewyer & Peter returned from the Otteau village, and in- 
forms that no Indians were at their towns, they saw Some 
fresh Signs of a Small party But Could not find them, in 
their rout to the Towns (which is about 18 miles West) they 
passed thro a open Prarie crossed papillion or Butterfly Creek 
and a Small butifull river which run into the Plate a little 
below the Town called Come de charf [come de Cerf] or Elk 
Horn river this river is about ioo yards wide with Clear 
water & a gravely Channel, wind from the S. E. two Deer 
killed to day i Turkey Several Grous Seen to day. 2 

Catfish •which is White Camp — 
*6'? of July Thursday 1804 — 

the wind Blustering and hard from the South all day which 
blowed the clouds of Sand in Such a manner that I could not 
complete my pan [plan] in the tent, the Boat roled in Such 
a manner that I could do nothing in that, & was Compessed 
[compelled] to go to the woods and combat with the Mus- 

1 Coues here remarks (L. and C, i, p. 54) : " Nothing was dispatched to Jeffer- 
son till Apr. 7, 1805 " (that is, from Fort Mandan). — Ed. 

2 Biddle here gives (i, pp. 33, 34) an account of the various Indian tribes of that 
region — Oto, Pawnee, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, etc. — Ed. 



quetors, I opened the Turner of a man on the left breast, 
which discharged half a point [pint]. 

five Beaver Cough [t] near the Camp the flesh of which we 
made use of. This evening we found verry pleasant, only 
one Deer killed to day." The countrey back from Camp on 
the S. S. is a bottom of about five mile wide, one half the 
distance wood & the bal! plain high & Dry. The opposit 
Side a high Hill about 170 foot rock foundation Cov? with 
timber, back & below is a Plain. 

White Catfish Camp io» J above Piatt 27'? of July Friday, — 

a small Shower of rain this morning, at 10 oClock Com- 
mence Loading the Boat & perogue, had all the ores com- 
pletely fixed ; Swam over the two remaining horses to the 
L. S. with the view of the Hunters going on that Side, after 
getting everry thing complete, we Set Sale under a gentle 
breeze from the South and proceeded on, passed a Island 
(form? by a Pond fed by Springs) on the L. S. of high Land 
covered with timber, in the 2". d bend to the right a large Sand 
Island in the river a high Prarie on the S. S. as we were Set- 
ting out to day one man Killed a Buck & another Cut his 
Knee verry bad. Camped in a Bend to the L. Side in a 
coops \copse~\ of Trees, a verry agreeable Breeze from the 
N. W. this evening. I killed a Deer in the Prarie and found 
the Musquitors so thick & troublesom that it was disagreeable 
and painfull to Continue a moment still. 

Course & Distance, refrf July the 2^ 

North i]4. M? to a willow p' on the L. S. 
West 2 M? to Sand p! on S. S. ops* a pond L. S. 
N. 10? E. 3 M? to p! of W. L. S. ps4 a large S d . bar in the middle 

of the river 
N. 8? W. 4 M? to a p! on S. S. ops'! Some Mounds [Ottos village 

old Ayauwaus v.~\ on the L. S. ps"} Bluff S. S. 
N. 54? E. 41^ Mf to a p! of wood land in a bend on L. S. ps? a 
TJ— p? S. S. 

I took one man R. Fields and walked on Shore with a view 
of examoning Som Mounds on the L. S. of the river those 



Mounds I found to be of Different hight Shape & Size, Some 
Composed of sand some earth & Sand, the highest next to 
the river all of which covered about 200 acres of land, in a 
circular form, on the Side from the river a low bottom & 
small Pond. The Otteaus formerly lived here I did not get 
to the boat untill after night. 

July the z8"! Satturday 1804 — 

Set out this morning early, the wind from the N. W. by 
N. a Dark Smokey Morning Some rain passed at i ml. a 
Bluff on the S. S. 1 the first high land above the Nodaway 
aproaching the river on that Side, a Island and Creek 15 yds. 
wide on the S. S. above this Bluff, as this Creek has no name 
call it Indian Knob Creek our party on Shore Came to the 
river and informs that they heard fireing to the S. W. below 2 
this High Land on the S. S. the Aiauway Indians formerly 
lived, below this old village about 5 miles passed Some 
Monds on the L. S. in a bend where the Otteauze Indians 
formerly lived, this Situation I examined, found it well situ- 
ated for Defence, about 2 or 300 acres of Land Covered with 

The flank came in & informed they heard two Guns to the 
S. W. the high land approaches in the i" bend to the left, 
we camped on the S. S. below the point of an Island, G 
Drewyer brought in a Missourie Indian which he met with hunt- 
ing in the Prarie This Indian is one of the fiew remaining 
of that nation, & lives with the Otteauz, his Camp about 4 
Miles from the river, he informs that the 'great gangue' 
[body — Biddle] of the Nation were hunting the Buffalow 
in the Plains, his party was Small Consisting only of about 
20 Lodges. 3 [Blank space in MS.] Miles further another 
Camp where there was a french man, who lived in the nation, 

1 A trading post, called Fort Croghan, was afterward built at or near this 
bluff. — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 61). 

1 The rest of this paragraph is crossed out by another pen, in the original MS. Biddle 
says that the Iowas " emigrated from this place to the river Des Moines." — Ed. 

8 Floyd here says: " The Reasen this man Gives of His being with So Small a 
party is that He Has not Got Horses to Go in the Large praries after the Buflows but 
Stayes about the Town and River to Hunte the Elke to seporte thare famileys." — Ed. 


S. 32° 

E. 1 

N. 10 

w. y 

N. 30? 

w. y 2 

N. 77. 

W. 3 

N. 60 

W. 3 

N. 60 

W. 3 /4 ' 

N. 63. 

E 2 



this Indian appear'd Spritely, and appeared to make use of 
the Same pronouncation of the Osarge, Calling a Chief Inea 

Cours. Distance & reffer? July 28 

M! on the\L. Side to p! of a Sand bar L. S. 
y 2 M! on the L. S. a High Bluff on the Stab 1 ? S. above the 
old village of the Aiaouez, this High land the if 
above Nordaway which aproaches the river S. S. 

on the L. Side 

M 1 to a pf on the L. S. ps? an Isf & Indian Knob 
Creek S. S. 

M 8 to a p! on the S. S. passed the aforesaid Island S. S. 

on the S. S. 

M? to a point L. S. ops'! a Island in the M. river 

July 2gf h Sunday 1804 — 

Sent a french man la Liberty with the Indian to Otteauze 
Camp to envite the Indians to meet us on the river above, 
a Dark rainey morning wind from the W. N. W. rained all 
the last night. Set out at 5 oClock opposit the (1) Island, 
the bend to the right or S. S. within 20 feet of Indian knob 
Creek, the water of this Creek is 5 feet higher than that of 
the River, passed the Isld. we stoped to Dine under Some 
high Trees near the high land on the L. S. in a fiew minits 
Cought three verry large Cat fish (3) one nearly white, those 
fish are in great plenty on the Sides of the river and verry 
fat, a quart of Oile Came out of the surpolous fat of one of 
those fish (4) above this high land & on the S. S. passed 
much falling timber apparently the ravages of a Dreddfull 
harican which had passed oblequely across the river from N. 
W. to S. E. about twelve months Since, many trees were 
broken off near the ground the trunks of which were sound 
and four feet in Diameter, (2) about ^ of a M! above the 
Island on the S. S. a Creek corns in Called Boyers R. this 
Creek is 25 yards wide, one man in attempting to cross 
this Creek on a log let his gun fall in, R. Fields Dived & 
brought it up proceeded on to a Point on the S. S. and 



Course Distance & Refrf July 29! 11 

North ^ of a Mile on the L. S. an Island on the right of the 

Course (1) 
N. 80? W. y 2 M! to a pf on the L. Side passed Bowyers Creek S. S. (2) 
N. 85? W. 2 M? to a Wood in a bend on the L. S. below a Hill 
North % M! on the S. S. (3) 

N. 11? E. 3^ M? to a tree in the bend S. S. pased a Harican (4) 
N. 70 W. 7.y 2 to a point of wood on the S. S. Camped S. S. 

July 30« 1 > Monday 1804 — 

Set out this morning early proceeded on to a clear open 
Prarie on the L. S. on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the 
bottom which is also a Prarie (both forming Bluffs to the river) 
of High Grass & Plumb bush Grapes &c. and situated above 
high water, in a small Grove of timber at the foot of the 
Riseing Ground between those two preraries, and below the 
Bluffs of the high Prarie we Came too and formed a Camp, 1 
intending to waite the return of the frenchman & Indians, 
the white horse which we found near the Kanzus river, Died 
Last night 

Course Distance &c. July 30'. h 

S 8 2° W. 2 M? to a point of wood on the L. S. above a p! on the 

L. S. and ops? one on S. S. 

West 1 y A M? to the lower part of a Bluff & High Prarie on L. S. 

i/ came too. 


posted out our guard and sent out 4 men, Capt? Lewis & [I] 
went up the Bank and walked a Short Distance in the high 
Prarie this Prarie is Covered with Grass of 10 or 12 inches 
in hight, Soil of good quality & at the Distance of about a 
mile still further back the Countrey rises about 80 or 90 feet 
higher, and is one Continued Plain as fur as Can be seen, 
from the Bluff on the 2? rise imediately above our Camp, the 
most butifull prospect of the River up & Down and the 

1 This camp is quite near Fort Calhoun. — E. E. Blackman (of Nebraska State 
Historical Society). 



Countrey Ops? prosented it Self which I ever beheld ; The 
River meandering the open and butifull Plains, interspursed 
with Groves of timber, and each point Covered with Tall 
timber, Such as Willow Cotton sum Mulberry, Elm, Suca- 
more Lynn & ash (The Groves contain Hickory, Walnut, 
coffee nut & Oake in addition) Two ranges of High Land 
parrelel to each other, and from 4 to 10 Miles Distant, be- 
tween which the river & its bottoms are Contained, (from 70 
to 300 feet high) 

Joseph Fields Killed and brought in an Anamale Called by 
the French Brarow, 1 and by the Panies Cho car tooch this 
Anamale Burrows in the Ground and feeds on Flesh, (Prarie 
Dogs) Bugs & Vigatables " his Shape & Size is like that of 
a Beaver, his head mouth &c. is like a Dogs with Short Ears, 
his Tail and Hair like that of a Ground Hog, and longer; 
and lighter, his Interals like the interals of a Hog, his Skin, 
thick and loose, his Belly is White and the Hair Short, a white 
Streek from his nose to his Sholders. The toe nails of his 
fore feet is one Inch & ^ long, & feet large ; the nails of his 
hind feet ^ of an Inch long, the hind feet Small and toes 
Crooked, his legs are short and when he moves Just sufficent 
to raise his body above the Ground He is of the Bear 
Species. We have his skin stuffed. 

Jo. & R. Fields did not return this evening, Several men 
with verry bad Boils. Cat fish is cought in any part of the 
river Turkeys Geese & a Beaver Killed & Cought every 
thing in prime order men in high Spirits, a fair Still evening 
Great no. Musquitors this evening 

\ July jr? Tuesday — 

a fair Day three Hunters out, Took Meridian altitude 
made the Latt? 41°. 18'. 1" 5/10 N. R. & Jo. Fields returned 
to Camp they Killed 3 Deer; The Horses Strayed off last 
night. Drewyer Killed a Buck one inch of fat on the ribs, 
R. & Jo. Fields returned without any meet haveing been in 
persuit of the horses. The Indians not yet arrived. Cought 

1 Corruption of blaireau, French name of the badger (Taxidea Americana') — Ed. 



a young Beever alive which is already quite tame. Cought a 
Buffalow fish. The evening verry Cool, the Musqu[i]tors are 
yet troublesom. 

August the i s ! 1804 — 

a fair morning Despatched two men after the horses lost 
yesterday, one man back to the place from which the Mes- 
singer was Sent for the Ottoes to see if any Indians was or had 
been there sence our dept r he return'd and informed that no 
person had been there Sence we left it. The Prarie which is 
situated below our Camp is above the high water leavel and 
rich covered with Grass from 5 to 8 feet high interspersed with 
copse of Hazel, Plumbs, Currents (like those of the U. S.) 
Rasberries & Grapes of Dif! Kinds, also producing a variety 
of Plants and flowers not common in the United States, two 
Kind of honeysuckle one which grows to a kind of a Srub 
Common about Harrodsburgh in Kentucky the other are not 
so large or tall and bears a flour in clusters short and of a light 
Pink colour, the leaves differ from any of the other Kinds in 
as much as the Lieves are destinct & does not surround the 
stalk as all the other kind do. 

One Elk and three Deer Killed to day also two Beever 

The wind rose at 10 oClock from the W. S. W. and blew a 
steady and agreeable Breeze all Day. 

The Musquitors verry troublesom this evening in the 

Took equal altitudes to day and the azmuth with the com- 
mencement of the A. M. 

Time of alt'd 

N. 86° E A. M. 7 h . 52 m . 55 s — P. M. 3 h . 50 m . 42 s 
" 7 . 54 . 20 — " 3-52-3 

" 7-55 ..47 — " 3 -53 • 3 1 

The Altitude given 68° - 47' - 15" 

The Indians not yet arrived we fear Something amiss with 
our messenger or them. 



August z"f Thursday 1804 — 

a verry pleasant Breeze from the S. E. The Two men 
Drewyer & Colter returned with the horses loaded with Elk, 
those horses they found about 12, miles in a Southerly Derec- 
tion from Camp. 

The Countrey thro which they passed is Similar to what we 
see from Camp, one Beaver & a foot [of Beaver caught in 
trap'\ Cought this morning 

at Sunset M' Fairfong (Ottoe interpreter resident with them) 
and a p! of Otteau & Missourie Nation Came to Camp, among 
those Indians 6 were Chiefs, (not the principal Chiefs) Cap? 
Lewis & myself met those Indians & informed them we were 
glad to see them, and would speak to them tomorrow, Sent 
them Some rosted meat, Pork flour & meal, in return they 
sent us Water millions, every man on his Guard & ready for 
any thing. 

Three fat Bucks Killed this evening, the 4 qrs. of one 
weighed i47 lbs 

August 3^ Friday 1804 — 

Mad up a Small preasent for those people in perpotion to 
their Consiquence, also a package with a Meadle to accompany 
a Speech for the Grand Chief after Brackfast we collected 
those Indians under an owning of our Main Sail, in presence 
of our Party paraded & Delivered a long Speech to them ex- 
pressive of our journey the wishes of our Government, Some 
advice to them and Directions how they were to conduct them- 
selves. The principal Chief for the Nation being absent, we 
Sent him the Speech flag Meadel & Some Cloathes. after 
hering what they had to say Delivered a Medal of Second 
Grade to one for the Ottos & one for the Missourie and pre- 
sent 4 medals of a third Grade to the inferior chiefs two for 
each tribe. 1 (Those two parts of nations Ottos & Missouries 
now residing together is about 250 men the Ottoes compose- 
ing 2/3? and Missouris 1/3 part) 

1 The customary mode of recognizing a chief, being to place a medal round his 
neck, which is considered among his tribe as a proof of his consideration abroad. — 
Biddle (i, p. 38). 

VOL. I. - 7 [97] 


The names of the Chiefs made \_we acknowledged] this day 
are as follows viz i 1 

Indian name 

English signf' s 

We ar ruge nor 



Little Thief 

( Shon go t5n go 



Big Horse 

\ We - the - a 

Miss : 



'Shon Guss can. 


White horse 

Wau pe uh 


\ Ah ho mng ga. 


Baza cou ja. 


^Ah ho ne ga 


Those Chiefs all Delivered a Speech, acknowledgeing their 
approbation to the Speech and promissing two prosue the 
advice & Derections given them that they wer happy to 
find that they had fathers which might be depended on &c. 

We gave them a Cannister of Powder and a Bottle of Whis- 
key and delivered a few presents to the whole, after giveing a 
Br. Cth. [Breech Cloth] some Paint guartering & a Meadell 
to those we made Chiefs, after Cap! Lewis's Shooting the air 
gun a fiew Shots (which astonished those nativs) we Set out 
and proceeded on five miles on a Direct line passed a point 
on the S. S. & around a large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped 
on the upper point, the Misquitors excessively troublesom 
this evening. Great appearance of wind and rain to the N. W. 
we prepare to rec've it, The man Liberty whome we Sent for 
the Ottoes has not Come up he left the Ottoes Town one 
Day before the Indians. This man has either tired his horse or, 
lost himself in the Plains Some Indians are to hunt for him. 

The Situation of our last Camp Councile Bluff 2 or Handsom 
Prarie, (25 Days from this to Santafee) appears to be a verry 

1 The diacritical marks over these names were added by other hands. Biddle 
gives the first name as Weahrushhah. He also states that these envoys asked the 
American officers to mediate between them and the Omaha, who were at war with 
them. — Ed. 

2 This is the origin of the name now applied to a city in Iowa opposite Omaha, 
Nebr. ; but Coues thinks (L. and C, i, p. 66) that the place of this council was 
higher up the river, on what was later the site of Fort Calhoun, in the present Wash- 
ington Co., Nebr. He also calls attention to the well-known uncertainty and 
constant shifting of the Missouri's channels, rendering it difficult to identify historic 
points. — Ed. 



proper place for a Tradeing establishment & fortification The 
Soil of the BlufF well adapted for Brick, Great deel of timber 
above in the two Points — many other advantages of a small 
nature, and I am told Senteral to Several nations viz. one 
Days march from the'Ottoe Town, one Day & a half from the 
great Pania village, 2 days from the Mahar Towns, two y± Days 
from the Loups village, & convenient to the Countrey thro: 
which Bands of the Soux [rove cif] hunt, perhaps no other 
Situation is as well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment. 
The air is pure and helthy so far as we can judge. 

Course of Aug! 3 r . d 
N. 5 ? E 5 M? to a p! on L. S. ps 1 } a p? on the S. S. & a Sand bar L. S. 

August 4'* Satturday — 

Set out early, (at 7 oClock last night we had a violent wind 
from the N. W. Some little rain succeeded, the wind lasted 
with violence for one hour after the wind it was clear sereen 
and cool all night.) proceeded on passed thro between Snags 
which was quit across the River the Channel confined within 
200 yards one side [S. <?.] a Sand p! the other a Bend, the Banks 
washing away & trees falling in constantly for 1 mile, above 
this place is the rimains of an old Tradeing establishment L. S. 
where Pet' Crusett one of our hands stayed two years & traded 
with the Mahars a Short distance above is a Creek (3) the 
out let of three Ponds, comunicateing with each other, those 
Ponds or rether Lakes are fed by Springs & Small runs from 
the hills. (2) a large Sand Island opposit this Creek, Makeing 
out from the L. Point, from the Camp of last night to this 
Creek, the river has latterly changed ks bed incroaching on 
the L. Side, on this Sand bar I saw great no! of wild gees 
passed a small creek on the L. S. about 3 miles above the 
last both of those Creek's are out lets from the Small Lake 
which re[c]ive their water from the Small Streems running 
from the high land, great many Putney stones on the Shore 
of various Sises the wind blew hard. Reed a man who went 
back to camp for his knife has not joined us. we camped at a 
Beaver house on the L. S. one Buck Killed to day. 



Course Distance & reff 4! 11 August 1804 

S. 8o ? W. ^ M? to an old Tradeing House on the L. S. passed a 

SI p! from S. S. (1) 
N. 25 W. 2]^, M'to a Willow p! on the L. S. pass a large Sand 

Is? & Creek on the L. p^ (3) 
N. 70° W. 1 ^ M? to a willow p! on the S. S. ps? a sm: Creek L. S. 

• & many Snags 
N. 24? W. 3^ M? to a willow p! on the L. S. passed a Sand bar 

from a S. p? 
S. 84? E. 3^ M? to a p? on the L. S. passed a p! on the S. S. 

here the high Land is Some Distance from the river on both 
Sides, and at this place the High lands are at least 12 or 15 
miles a part, the range of high land on the S. S. appear to 
contain Some timber, that on the L. S. appear to be intirely 
clear of any thing but what is common in an open Plain, Some 
Scattering timber or wood is to be Seen in the reveens, and 
where the Creeks pass into the Hill, the points and wet 
lands contain tall timber back of the willows which is gener- 
ally situated back of a large Sand bar from the Points. 

5'* of August Sunday 1804. — 

Set out early great appearance of wind and rain (I have 
observed that Thunder & lightning is not as common in this 
Countrey as it is in the atlantic States) Snakes are not plenty, 
one was killed to day large and resembling the rattle Snake, 
only something lighter. I walked on Shore this evening S. S. 
in Pursueing Some turkeys I [sjtruck the river twelve miles 
below within 370 yards, the high water passes thro' this 
Peninsula, and agreeable to the customary changes of the 
river, I concld \_should calculate^ that in two years the main 
current of the river will pass through. In every bend the 
banks are falling in from the current being thrown against 
those bends by the Sand points which inlarges and the Soil I 
believe from unquestionable appearn' of the entire Bottom 
from one hill to the other being the Mud or Ooze of the 
river at Some former Period mixed with Sand and Clay easily 

[ 100] 


melts and Slips into the River, and the mud mixes with the 
water & the Sand is washed down and lodges on the points. 
Great quantities of Grapes on the banks, I observe three dif- 
ferent kinds at this time ripe, one of the no. is large & has 
the flaver of the Purple grape, camped on the S. S. the Mus- 
quitors verry troublesom. The man who went back after his 
knife has not yet come up, we have some reasons to believe 
he has Deserted. 

Course Distance & Refri August ^ 

S. 60? E 1 y 2 M ! Crosse a large S d bar to a p! on m? S. S d bet: a 

willow Is d in S. Bend 
N. 20 W. ^ Mf to a p! above a Sa d bar ops d the upper point of the 

S d Island (Beaver 
N. 34 W. 31^ Mf to a p! on the L. S. passed one on the Starboard 

North ^ Mf to a p! on the right of a Sand Js d makeing from 

the L. pf 
S. 45? W. 31^ Mfto 3 small trees in Prarie & bend to the L. S. 

pased a Sand p! S. S. 
N. 45? W. 41^ M' to a p! on S. S. 

North 1 1^ M? on the S. S. to the p' of a Sand bar river narrow 

N. 70? E % M' on the Sand bar S. S. 
S. 30 E 2 M? to the p! of a Sand bar making out from the L. 

p! ps d a Sand. 
S. 30 E y 2 M! on the point 

N. 45 E %y 2 M'f to the lower point of an Island Close to the S. S. 
20 1/ behind this Island on the S. S. the Soldiers river 

disimboques itself. 

6'* August, Monday 1804 — 

At twelve oClock last nigh[t] a violent Storm of wind from 
the N. W. Some rain, one p! of colours lost in the Storm 
from the bige Perogue. Set out early and proceeded on passed 
a large Island on the S. S. back of this Is d Soldiers River 
Mouths, I am told by one of the men that this river is about 
the size of Nadawa river 40 yards wide at the mouth. Reed 
has not yet come up. neither has La Liberty the frenchman 
whome we Sent to the Indian Camps a fiew miles below the 
Council Bluffs. 



Course Distance &c. August 6!? 

N. 30? E. 1 M! to a P! on L. S. opposit the mouth of Soldiers 

River S. S. 
N. 15 E. 7*4 M' to a pj in a bend to the S. S. below a chan! of the 

river laterly filled up passed a Sand bar. from the 

L. p' 
West iy 2 M? to a willow p! on the L. S. passed a Sand bar 

makeing out from the from the L. p* 
S. 50 W. 2/4 M? to a p! of willows on the S. S. the high land 

within 3 miles of the river on the L. S. 
N. 10 W. y 2 M! on the S. p l a Sand bar in R. 
N. 1 8° E. 3 M? passing over a Sand bar on the L. S. to a p! on the 

Same side of the Missourie. 
North 1 y 2 Ml to a p! on the S. S. 

N. 18 W. y 2 M 1 on the Sand from the P! 
East 3 M! to a p' of willows on L. p! passed a place where 

the snags were thick 
N. 16? E. 1 y 2 M? to a p 1 on the S. S. and a place where the river for- 
20 i/ merly run leaving ponds in its old Channels S. S. 

7''! August Tuesday 1804 — 

last night at 8 oClock a Storm from the N. W. which lasted 
y^ of an hour set out late this morning wind from the North, 
at 1 oClock dispatched George Drewyer, R. Fields, W™ 
Bratten & WT Labieche back after the Deserter reed with 
order if he did not give up Peaceibly to put him to Death &c. 
to go to the Ottoes Village & enquire for La Liberty and bring 
him to the Mahar Village also with a Speech on the occasion 
to the Ottoes & Missouries, and derecting a few of their Chiefs 
to come to the Mahars, & we would make a peace between 
them & the Mahars and Souex, a String of Wompom & a 
Carrot of Tobacco, proceeded on and Camped on the S. S. 

[ 102] 


Course Dist* & remarks Aug! 7* 1804. 

North 2 M s to a p! ofWillows on the L. S. 

N. 25? W. y 2 M 1 on the L. p' 
N. 45 -W. ij4 M! on the L. p! of a S< bar. 
S. 12 E. %]/ 2 M? do do. 

S. 70 E. % M! to the Willows on the S. S. 
N. 36 W. 2^ M? to a p' of Willows on the L. S. a large Sand 

[bar — Ed.] makein out 
N. 73° W. 3 M s to a p! of Willows on the S. S. I went thro 
to to the next bend up a Beayoue. S. S. form'g 
two Is 1 ! 3 I call Detachment Isl 
N. 83 E. 2^ M' to a p! of Cotton Wood L. S. Ps? Sand bar from 

L. p! 
N. 32 W. 1 y z Mr to a Sand p? from the S. pf 
N. 12° E. Vi M! to the Willows on the S. S. 

l 7 

S'i August Wednesday 1804 

Set out this morning at the useal time at two miles passed 
(1) a bend to L. S. choaked up with Snags our boat run on 
two in turning to pass through, we got through with Safty 
the wind from N. W. (2) passed the mouth of a River on 
the S. Side called by the Soux Indians Ea-neah Wau de pin (or 
Stone river) the French Call this river. Petite Rivere de 
Cuouex {riviere des sioux). it is about 80 yards wide and as 
(M' Durion Says whos been on the heads of it and the 
Countrey ab!) is navagable for Perogues Some Distance runs 
Parrelel to the Missourie some Distance, then falls down from 
N. E. thro a roleing Countrey open, the head of this river 
is 9 miles from the R Demoin \Desmsines\ at which place the 
Demoin is 80 y? Wide, this Little Cuouex passes thro a lake 
called Despree \_D' Esprits] which is within 5 Leagues of the 
Deemoin the Said Lake is about 20 Leagues in circumfrance 
and is divided into 2 by two rocks approaching verry near each 
other, this Lake is of various wedth, containing many Islands, 
from this Lake to the Maha 4 days march, as [and ?] is Said 
to be near the Dog Plains one principal branch of the Demoin 
is Called Cat River. The Demoin is Sholey. 

[ 103] 


Cap Lewis took Med? altitude of the Sun made it 56 - 9' - 
00" Lat: 41 -42 -34 and I took one man and went on Shore 
the man Killed an Elk I fired 4 times at one & did not kill 
him, My ball being Small I think was the reason, the Mus- 
quitors so bad in the Praries that with the assistance of a bush 
I could not keep them out of my eyes, the boat turned 
Several times to day on Sand bars, in my absence the boat 
passed a Island a Miles above the litle Scouix R on the 
upper point of this Isld Some hundreds of Pelicans were col- 
lected, they left 3 fish on the Sand which was very fine, 
Cap Lewis Killed one, & took his dimentions, I joined the 
boat and we Camped on the S. S. worthie of remark that 
Snakes are not plenty in this part of the Missourie. 

Course Disf & refff 8'. h Aug! 

M" to the p! of a S? Is4 from the S. S. 

M' to a p l . of Wilf on the L. S. 

M! on the right of a Sand Island 

M! to the mouth of Little River desioux Call? by 

Soux Ea neab-wau de port (Stone River 
M 1 '. to the Lower p! of Pelican Is"! (3) 
M! to a right Hand p! of S? Is? 

M? to a P.' of high woods in a bend to L. S. have- 
76 ing pass? the Pelican Is? 

one & a half miles South of Little Riv. de Cuouex took 
half altitude with Sext? 



8-28 - 29 I alt? 80°- 14'- 15" 

8-30 " 3 J 

9'* August Thursday 1804 — 

The fog being thick detained us untill half pas?. 7 oClock at 
which time we Set out and proceeded on under Gentle Breeze 
from the S. E. I walked on Shore, Saw an Elk, crossed a 
Istmust of ^ of a mile to the river, & returned to the boat 
Camped on the L. S. above a Beaver Den. Musquitors verry 

[ 104] 

N. 20? 



N. 50 







N. 70? 



N. 20° 



N. 52 




Course Distance & refrs Aug! o,'. h 

N. 30 9 E. 2^ M s to a Point of a Sand Bar on the L. S. 

N. 32. W. 1 M! to a p! of high wood on L. S. 

N. 22. W. %y 2 M? to a p! of high wood on the S. S. a large Sand bar 

from it 
N. 15. W. 2 Mf to a p? of high Land L. S. ops'? to which the river 

laterly cut thro' Saveing 6 Leagues. S. S. 
N. 46? W. iy 2 M 8 to a Willow p! on the S. S. 
N. 35. W. 2 M? to the S. S. the river comeing graduelly arround 

to the Rig! 
N. 6o ? E zy 2 M' to a Willow p' on the L. S. 
N. 44. W. 2)/2 to a point on S. S. 

io<* August Friday 1804 — 

Set out early this morning. Course 

N. 60° W. 2 miles about to a Sand makeing out from the Larboard 

S. 80 W. y 2 m! to a Drift log on the Sand this place is called 

Coupee ar Jacke ' the river laterly Cut through, 

Saveing Sev! m!" 
S. 18 .E. zy M ! to the S. S. 
S. 20 W. %y 2 Mf to a burnt Stump in a bend to the L. S. this place 

I -was at yesterday. 
West 31^ M? to 2 Cottonwood trees at the mouth of a run on 

the L. S. near the high land & below a Bluff. 
N 40 W. \y 2 to a clift of yellow Sand stone the first high land touch- 
ing the river above the Council Bluff. 
N. 52 q W. iy M.' to the p' of a Sand bar f<om the Starboard p* passed 

the Clift L. S. 
N. 79 E. 3 M? to a p! of Willows on the L. S. 
N. 29. E. y M 1 on the L. P' 
North iy 2 M? to a sand bar from the L. p! 

N. 68. W. y^ M!' on the Sand bar from L. p! 
N. 85. W. iy 2 Mf to the lower p!of a willow island near the S. point. 

2 W 

1 This is Coupee a Jacques, in Biddle's text. — Ed. 



from this Island the high hill which the Late King of the 
Mahars was buried on is high and bears West 4 miles, we 
camped on this Island. 

Musquitors verry troublesom. much Elk & Beaver Sign 

11? August Satturday 1804. — 

about day light this morning a hard wind from the NW. 
with Some rain proceeded on arround the right of the Is? 

S. 5 2 W. ]/ 2 a Mile on the Sand p! 

N. 25 W. 2 Ml! to a p! of low Willows from the L. S. pass 1 ? the 

Is? & a Sand bar makeing from the S. point. 
N. 72 W. %y ir M' to a P! on the S. S. 

a hard wind accompanied with rain from the S. E. after the 
rain was over, Cap! Lewis myself & 10 men assended the Hill 
on the L. S. (under which there was some fine Springs) to the 
top of a high point where the Mahars King Black Bird was 
burried 4 years ago. [Died of small pox] 1 a mound of earth 
about 12 [feet — Biddle] Diameter at the base, & 6 feet high 
is raised over him turfed, and a pole 8 feet high in the Center 
on this pole we fixed a white flage bound with red Blue & 
white, this hill about 300 feet above the water forming a 
Bluff between that & the water of various hight from 40 to 
150 feet in hight, yellow soft Sand stone from the top of this 
Nole the river may be Seen Meandering for 60 or 70 miles, 
we Decended & set out N. 24? W. x / 2 M! passing over a Sand 
bar on the S. p! along the willows to the river opposit a Small 
Beyeau on the L. S. which is the Conveyance of the high 
water from a bend which appears near in a northerly derection, 
haveing passed a Creek in a Deep bend to the L. S. Called by 

1 Brackenridge gives {Louisiana, pp. 229, 230)311 interesting account of this chief, 
who gained an unlimited ascendency over the tribes of that region by his possession of 
some arsenic, by which he threatened death against any one who opposed him. Irving 
describes {Astoria, p. 161) the burial of this chief upon his horse. His skull was 
carried away by George Catlin in 1832, and is now in the U. S. National Museum 
(Smithsonian Report, 1885, ii, p. 263). — Ed. 




the Mahars Wau can di Peeche (Great Spirrit is bad) on the 
Creek & Hills near it about 400 of the Mahars Died with the 
Small Pox 

Took Med 1 ; altitude & made the Lat* 4.2° . /' . 3" 8 \io N. also the 
Moons Distance from the Sun 






M S 

P. M. 1 

- J 3- 





- 16. 





- 18. 





- 20. 





- 22. 





- 24 





" 25- 





" 27- 





- 29- 





- 3 1 - 



- 12-00 

5 8i° E 2^ miles to the beginning of a point of willows on the L. Side 
N. 84^ E. 6 Miles to a high wood above a Prarie on the S. S. oppo- 

sit a Sand point 
N. 22 ? E. 1 y£ to a p! of willows on the L. S. 

North . 1^ toa Cotton tree in a bend to the Starboard Side passed 
Miles ij m a Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped 1 

the Musquitoes verry troublesom, Great Nos. of Herrons. 
this evening. 

I have observed a number of places where the River has 
onced run and now filled, or filling up & growing with willows 

6 Cottonwood. ' 

12^* August, Sunday 1804 — 

Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the South the 
river wider than useal and Shallow 

(1) at 12 oClock we halted to take a meridean aid of the Sun 
& Sent a man back or I may Say across to the Bend of the 

1 Near the present Badger Lake, Monona Co., la. — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 73). 

[ 107] 


river where Cap! Lewis took the Md? altitude yesterday, to 
Step off the distance, he made it 974 yards across, the Dis- 
tance arround the bend is 18^ miles, about 4 miles above 
this bend on the L. S. is the Commencement of a Bluff which 
is about 4 miles extinding on the river, of yellow and brown 
Clay in Some parts in it near the water a Soft Sand Stone is 
imbeded on the top (which is from 20 to 150 feet above the 
water, & rises back) is Covered with timber, a fiew red Ceeder 
is on this Bluff, the wind corns round to the S. E. a Prarie 
Wolf come near the bank and Barked at us this evening, we 
made an attempt but could not git him, the animate Barkes 
like a large ferce Dog. Beever is verry Plenty on this part of 
the river. I prepare Some presents for to give the Indians of 
the Mahars Nation. Wiser ap! Cook & Supent?! of the Pro- 
visions of Serg! Floyd;* Squad. We Camped on a Sand Island 
in a bend to the S. S. Musquitors verry troublesom untill the 
wind rose, at one or 1 oClock 

Course Distance &c. August 12!? 

N. 45 ? W. \y 2 M: to a p! of willows on the L. S. 

S. 42 W. y 2 M! to a Sand on the L. point 

S. 22. E. 2j^ to a p! makeing out from the Larb d S. passed the 

Timber L. S. 
N. 78. W. 3 M? to a p! of willows on the L. S. 
S. 68. W. 2^ M? to a Grove of Cotton Trees in the bend L. S. (1) 
N. 49. W. 4^ M? to a p! on the S. Side ops* a Bluff passed a p! at 

1 M! on S. S. some at 2^ on L. S. 
N. 12° W. 3 M? to a p« on S. S. ops* a Bluff 
N. 46. E. 2^ M? to a Sand Island in the Bend to S. S. (Camped) 

August 1 j* Monday 1804 — 

Set out this morning at Light the useal time and proceeded 
on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. 



N. 66° W. 2^ M? to a pf of Low willows on the S. S. a bar makeing 

out. passed [to] the S? 
N. 1 1 ? W. 5: i^ to a p! of Cotton Wood, in a Bend to the S. S. passed 

over the pf of a Sand bar from L. S. 
S. 44° W. %y 2 to a p! on the S. S. opposit to the place M. r Ja: M c Key 

had a tradeing house in 95. & 96. & named it Fort 

Charles 1 
West ^ of a mile to the P! of willow Is? on the S. point 

N. 50° W. 1 M! to a point of high wood below the mouth of a 

Beayou comunicating with a Pond L. S. 
N. 20° E. iy^ M!f to a p! of Willows on the L. S. passed a Creek 

at 1 y 2 Ml' on which the Mahar village is Situated 2 

a Sand bar on S. S. & one on L. S. haveing passed 

the Willow Is* 
Nortn y M! on the Sand bar L. S. 

N. 69 W. iy 2 M? to the upper Point of Some Cottonwood trees in a 
171/ Bend to the L. S. opposit the lower p! of a large 
Island Situated on the S. S. 

we formed a Camp on a Sand bar on the L. S. & Detached 
Serg! Ordeway Peter Crusatt, George Shannon. Werner & 
Carrn. [Carson? — Ed.] to the Mahar Village with a flag & 
Some Tobacco to envite the Nation to See & talk with us on 
tomorrow, we took some Luner observation this evening, 
the air Pleasant. 

14'* August Tuesday 1804 — 

a fine morning wind from the S. E. The men Sent to the 
Mahar Town last evining has not returned we Conclude to 
send a Spye to Know the Cause of their delay, at about 12 
oClock the Party returned and inform* us that they Could not 
find the Indians, nor any fresh Sign, those people have not 
returned from their Buffalow hunt. Those people haveing 
no houses no Corn or anything more than the graves of their 
ansesters to attach them to the old Village, Continue in pur- 

1 See ante, p. 50. — Ed. 

2 A little south of Dakota City, north of the Omaha Indian Reservation. The 
party encamped nearly opposite the present Omadi, Neb. — Coues (L. and C, i, 
P- 74)- 

[ IO9] 


seute of the Buffalow longer than others who has greater 
attachments to their native village. The ravages of the Small 
Pox (which Swept off" \about 4 years ago] 400 men & Womin 
& children in perpopotion) has reduced this nation not exceed- 
ing 300 men and left them to the insults of their weaker 
neighbours, which before was glad to be on friendly turms 
with them. I am told when this fatal malady was among 
them they Carried their franzey to verry extroadinary length, 
not only of burning their Village, but they put their wives & 
children to Death with a view of their all going together to 
some better Countrey. they burry their Dead on the top of 
high hills and rais Mounds on the top of them. The cause 
or way those people took the Small Pox is uncertain, the most 
Probable, from Some other nation by means of a warparty. 

August 15M, Wednesday, 1804.1 
Camp three Miles N. E. of the Mahar Village 

I went with ten men to a Creek Darned by the Beavers 
about half way to the Village, with Some small Willows & 
Bark we made a Drag and hauled up the Creek, and Cought 
318 fish of different kind i. e. Pike, Bass, Salmon, perch, red 
horse, small cat, and a kind of perch Called Silver fish, on the 
Ohio. I cought a Srimp prosisely of Shape Size & flavour 
of those about N. Orleans & the lower part of the Mississippi 
in this Creek which is only the pass or Streight from [one — 
Ed.] Beaver Pond to another, is Crouded with large Musstles 
verry fat, Ducks, Plover of different kinds are on those 
Ponds as well as on the river, in my absence Cap! Lewis 
Sent Mr. Durione the Souix interpeter & three men to exam- 
ine a fire which threw up an emence Smoke from the Praries 
on the NE. Side of the River and at no great distance from 
Camp, the Object of this party was to find Some Bands of 
Seouex which the intpt' thought was near the Smoke and get 
them to come in. in the evening this Party returned and 
informed, that the fire arose from Some trees which had been 

1 With this entry Codex B commences, continuing until Oct. 3, 1804. — Ed. 



left burning by a small party of Seoux, who had passed \by 
that place] Several Days, the wind Setting from that point, 
blew the Smoke from that p! over our Camp, our party all 
in health and Sperrits. The men Sent to the Ottoes & in 
pursute of. the Deserter Reed has not yet returned or joined 
our party. 

i6 rt August Thursday 1804. 
Fishing Camp 3 M? N- E. of the Mahars. 

a verry cool morning the wind as useal from the NW. 
Cap. Lewis took 12 men and went to the Pond & Creek 
between Camp and the old village and Cought upwards of 800 
fine fish, 79 Pike, 8 salmon resembling Trout [8 fish resemb'g 
Salmon Trout] 1 Rock, 1 flat Back, 127 Buffalow & red horse 
4 Bass & 490 Cats, with many Small Silver fish, (£ff Srimp) I 
had a Mast made and fixed to the Boat to day, the Party 
Sent to the ottoes not yet joined us. the wind shifted around 
to the S. E. everry evening a Breeze rises which blows off 
the Musquitors &. cools the atmispeere. 

fj' h August Friday 1804. — 

a fine morning the wind from the S. E. I collected a 
grass much resembling Wheet in its grouth the grain like Rye, 
also Some resembling Rye & Barly. a kind of Timothey, the 
Seed of which branches from the main Stalk & is more like a 
flax Seed than that of Timothey. 

at 6 oClock this evening Labieche one of the Party sent to 
the Ottoes joined, and informed that % the Party was behind 
with one of the Deserters M. B. Reed and the 3 principal 
Chiefs of the Nations. La Liberty they cought but he 
decived them and got away, the object of those Chiefs come- 
ing forward is to make a peace with the Mahars thro: us. as 
the Mahars are not at home this great Object cannot be ac- 
complished at this time. Set the Praries on fire to bring the 
Mahars & Soues if any were near, this being the useal Signal, 
a cool evening two Beaver cought to day. 


1 8'* August, Safday 1804. — 

a fine morning. Wind from the S. E. in the after part of 
the Day the Party with the Indians arriv? we meet them 
under a Shade near the Boat and after a Short talk we gave 
them Provisions to eat & proceeded to the trial of Reed, he 
confessed that he " Deserted & stold a public Rifle Shot-pouch 
Powder & Ball " and requested we would be as favourable 
with him as we Could consistantly with our Oathes — which we 
were and only Sentenced him to run the Gantlet four times 
through the Party & that each man with 9 Swichies Should 
punish him and for him not to be considered in future as one 
of the Party. The three principal Chiefs petitioned for Pardin 
for this man after we explained the injurey such men could 
doe them by false representations, & explan'g the Customs of 
our Countrey they were all Satisfied with the propriety of the 
Sentence & was Witness to the punishment, after which we 
had Some talk with the Chiefs about the orrigan of the war 
between them & the Mahars &c &c. it Commenced in this 
way in two of the Misouries Tribes resideing with the Ottoes 
went to the Mahars to steel horses, the Killed them both 
which was a cause of revenge on the part of the Missouris & 
Ottoes, they also brought war on themselves Nearly in the 
same way with the Pania Loups, and they are greatly in fear 
of a just revenge from the Panies for takeing their Corn from 
the Pania Towns in their absence hunting this Summer. 
Cap L. Birth day the evening was closed with an extra gill 
of whiskey and a Dance untill 1 1 oClock. 

19" August Sunday 1804 — 

a fine morning wind from the S. E. prepared a Small 
Present for the Chiefs and Warriors present, the main chief 
Brackfast with us & beged for a Sun glass, those People 
are all naked, Covered only with Breech Clouts Blankets or 
BufFalow Roabes, the flesh Side Painted of Different colours 
and figures. At 10 oClock we assembled the Chiefs and 
warriors 9 in number under an owning, and Cap. Lewis [we] 
explaind the Speech Sent to the Nation from the Council 
Bluffs by M: Faufon. The 3 Chiefs and all the men or 



warriors made short Speeches approving the advice & Council 
their great father had Sent them, and concluded by giving 
themselves some Credit for their acts. 

We then brought out the presents and exchanged the Big 
horses Meadel and gave him one equal to the one Sent to the 
Little Thief & gave all Some Small articles & 8 Carrots of 
Tobacco, we gave one Small Meadel to one of the Chiefs 
and a Sertificate to the others of their good intentions. 


The Little Thief f Gri Chiefs I have 

The Big Horse \ mentioned before. 
Crows Head (or) Kar Ka paha — Missory 

Black Cat (or) Ne na Sa wa - do 

Iron Eyes (or) Sar na no no — Ottoe 

Big Ax l (or) Nee Swar Unja — do 

Big Blue Eyes — Star gea Hun ja do 

Brave Man (or) War sar Sha Co 

one of those Indians after receiving his Certificate deliv? 
it again to me the Big blue eyes the Chief petitioned for 
the Ctft. again, 2 we would not give the CertP, but rebuked 
them verry roughly for haveing in object goods and not 
peace with their neighbours, this language they did not like 

i In Biddle, « Big Ox." — Ed. 

2 The captains carried with them a large number of " Indian commissions," or 
certificates, on printed blanks measuring j]4 X I2 X inches, which they would fill out 
with the chiefs* names. These read as follows : 


From the powers vested in us and by the above authority : To all who shall see these 

presents, Greeting : 

Know ve, that from the special confidence reposed by us in the sincere and unalterable attachment 
of chief of the Nation to the United States, as also from the 

abundant proofs given by him of his amicable disposition to cultivate peace, harmony, and good 
neighbourhood with the said States, and the citizens of the same ; we do by the authority vested in 
us, require and charge, all citizens of the United States, all Indian Nations, in treaty with the same, 
and all other persons whomsoever, to acknowledge, and treat the said 

and his in the most friendly manner, declaring him to be the friend and ally of the said 

States : the government of which will at all times be extended to their protection, so long as they do 
acknowledge the authority of the same- 
Having signed with our hands and affixed our seals 
this day of 1S0 

vol. i. -8 [ 113 ] 


at first, but at length all petitioned for us to give back the 
Certificate to the Big blue eyes he came forward and made a 
plausible excuse, I then gave the Certificate [to] the Great 
Chief to bestow it to the most Worthy, they gave it to him, 
we then gave them a Dram and broke up the Council, the 
Chiefs requested we would not leave them this evening we 
determined to Set out early in the morning we Showed 
them many Curiosities and the air gun which they were 
much astonished at. those people beged much for Whiskey. 
Serjeant Floyd is taken verry bad all at once with a Biliose 
Chorlick we attempt to relieve him without success as yet, 
he gets worst and we are much allarmed at his Situation, all 
[give] attention to him. 

io' h August Monday 1804. — 

Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better. Made M' 
Faufonn the interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a 
Canister of Whiskey We Set out under a gentle breeze from 
the S. E. and proceeded on verry well. Serjeant Floyd as 
bad as he can be no pulse & nothing will Stay a moment on 
his Stomach or bowels. Passed two Islands on the S. S. and 
at the first Bluff on the S. S. Serj. Floyd Died with a great 
deal of Composure, before his death he Said to me, " I am 
going away" I want you to write me a letter." We buried 
him on the top of the bluff y 2 Mile below a Small river to 
which we Gave his name, he was buried with the Honors of 
War much lamented, a Seeder post with the (1) Name Serg! C. 
Floyd died here 20 th of august 1804 was fixed at the head 
of his grave. 1 This Man at all times gave us proofs of his 
firmness and Determined resolution to doe Service to his 
Countrey and honor to himself after paying all the honor to 

1 The journal kept by Sergeant Floyd (which will be published in full in the 
present work) ends abruptly on August 18. He was buried at a spot which is now 
in the southern part of Sioux City, la. The inroads of the Missouri River having 
partly washed away Floyd's grave, his remains were reburied (May 28, 1857) in a 
safer place, some 200 yards back of the original grave ; and on Aug. 20, 1895, the 
spot was marked with a slab. A monumental shaft to his memory was erected 
May 30, 1 901. See Reports of Floyd Memorial Association (Sioux City, 1897, 
1901). — Ed. 



our Decesed brother we camped in the Mouth of floyds River 
about 30 yards wide, a butifull evening. 

Course Dist! & reff r 20'. h Aug" 

N. 56? W. 3 M: to p! of a Willow W S. S. 

North y m! on the left of the Island 

N. 72. E. 2% M! to the up^ p! of the Is? 

N. 18. E. 2^ M s to the lower p! of an Is? on the S. S. passed Sand 

North 31^ M' to Sj. Floyds Bluff on S. S. the i" above Aiaways 

Village a fiew miles above Piatt R. 
1 To the Mo. of Floyds River on S. S. and camped. 


ii" August Tuesday 1804. — 

We Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on 
under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. passed Willow Creek 
Small on the S. S. below a Bluff of about 170 feet high and 
one y 2 Ml' above Floyds River at i^£ Miles higher & above 
the Bluff passed the Soues River S. S. this River is about the 
Size of Grand river and as M T . Durrien our Soues intpt! says 
" is navagable to the falls 70 or 80 Leagues and above these 
falls Still further, those falls are 20 feet or there abouts and 
has two princepal pitches, and heads with the S! peters [now 
Minnesota River — Ed.] passing the head of the Demoin, on 
the right below the falls a Creek corns in which passes thro 
Clifts ot red rock which the Indians make pipes of, 1 and when 
the different " nations meet at those quaries all is piece." \_a 
sort of asylum for all nations, no fight 1 there] passed a place 
in a Prarie on the L. S. where the Mahars had a Village 
formerly, the Countrey above the Piatt R. has a great Simi- 
larity. Camp? on the L. Side, Clouds appear to rise in the 
West & threten wind. I found a verry excellent froot 
resembling the read Current, the Srub on which it grows re- 
sembles Privey & about the Common hight of a wild plumb. 

1 The celebrated "Red Pipestone Quarry," in Pipestone County, S. W. Minne- 
sota ; it was first described by George Catlin, who visited it in 1836 ; the stone (a 
red quartzite) was named in honor of him, "catlinite." See his N. Amer. Inds., 
ii, pp. 160, 164-177, 201-206 ; and Minn. Geol. Survey Hep., 1877, pp. 97—109. 
The stone is even yet worked, although in crude fashion, by the Sioux Indians. — Ed. 



S. 82? 
S. 48. 
N. 36. 

Course Distance & reft 21" Aug! 

E. 3 m 1 . 5 to the Upper part of a Bluff below the Soues river 
on S. S. passed Willow Creek at 1 J^ M 1 . S. S. 
ij( M". to Lower p' of a Willow Island in the Midle of 
the River one on S. S. ops?. 
W. 1 y m ls to the head of the Isl? passed Several Sand bars 
dividing the Current, Wind hard 
2 M s to a high wood on the L. S. pased a large Sand 
bar from the S. S. River Wide. 
W. 4 M'. ! to a Beyau in a bend to the L. S. above where 
the Mahars once had a Village a Sand bar in the 
Middle & S. S. 
N. 18. E. 2 M 1 ? to a p! of Willows on the L. S. wind hard 

from S. E. 
N. 22? W. "i/ A M 1 . 8 on <-he L. S. ops'? to which the Soues River is 

within 2 miles on the S. S. 
S. 50. 
S. 28. 
S. 78 
N. 12. 
S. 60. 

W. % M! on the L. S. 

W. 2 M ls to a Willow p< on the S. S. 

W. 1 y m 1 ? on the Sand bar on S. S. 

W. 2 M ls to a Willow p" on the L. S. 

W. 1 3/£ m'. on the Sand bar on the L. Side. 

passed a Sand bar. 
%y miles to Some low Willows on the S. S. 

The two men Sent with the horses has not joined us as yet. 

22*;' August Friday 1804. — 

Set out early wind from the South at three miles we 
landed at a Bluff where the two men Sent with the horses 
were waiting with two Deer, by examonation this (1) Bluff 
Contained Alum, Copperas, Cobalt, Pyrites ; a Alum Rock 
Soft & Sand Stone. Capt. Lewis in proveing the quality of 
those minerals was Near poisoning himself by the fumes & 
tast of the Cobalt which had the appearance of Soft Isonglass. 
Copperas & alum is verry pisen, 1 Above this Bluff a Small 

1 Biddle here says (i, p. 50): " The appearance of these mineral substances 
enabled us to account for disorders of the stomach with which the party had been 
affected since they left the river Sioux ;" the men had used the water of the Missouri, 
on which floated a scum proceeding from these rocks. By dipping from below, and 
avoiding this scum, they obtained pure water, and their maladiqe soon ceased. — Ed. 



Creek corns in from the L. S. passing under the Clift for Sev- 
eral Miles, this Creek I Call Roloje a name I learned last 
night is M[ ]s (2) Seven Miles above is a Clift of Allom 
Stone of a Dark Brown Col'. Containing also incrusted in the 
crevices & shelves of the rock great qt! of Cobalt, Semented 
Shels & a red earth, from this the (3) river bends to the East 
and is within 3 or 4 miles of the River Soues at the place where 
that river Corns from the high land into the Low Prairie & 
passes under the foot of those Hills to its Mouth. 

Capt. Lewis took a Dost of Salts to work off the effects of 
the arsenic, we camped on the S. S. 1 Sailed the greater part 
of this day with a hard wind from the S. E. Great deel of 
Elk Sign, and great appearance of wind from the N. W. 

Course Distance & ref' 22 nd Aug! 

Ml* on the S. point 

M'. 8 to the lower point of a Bluff on the L. S. (1) 

M 1 .' to a p.' of high wood on the L. S. pass d a 

Creek (2) 
M ls to a Clift on the L. S. ops d a p' pass'd a Sand 

bar on both sides of the river (3) 
M! s to a pf of Sand on the L. S. ops d the R. Soues 

is near the Missourie (4) 
M'?to a Tree in the Prarie on the S. S. ps d a pt. of 

Sand on the S. S. 2 Sand bars in the middle of 

the river. 

ordered a Vote for a Serjeant to chuse one of three which 
may be the highest number, the highest numbers are P. Gass 
had 19 votes, Bratten 2 & Gibson. 

S. 47° 
N. 18. 


N. 56. 



N. 54. 



N. 48. 


l 9 

i Near Elk Point, Union Co., S. Dakota. — Ed. 

2 For such information as can be obtained about William Bratton, see Wheeler, 
On the Trail of Lewis and Clark (N. Y., 1904), pp. 112-116. Bratton died in 
1 841 ; a monument over his grave at Waynetown, Ind., records his share in the 
Lewis and Clark expedition. 

For biography of Sergeant Gass, see J. G. Jacob's Life and Times of Patrick Gass 
(Wellsburg, Va., 1859) ; Coues's compilation therefrom, in his Lewis and Clark, i, 
pp. xcix-cvi j and a sketch in History of the Pan-Handle, West Va. (Wheeling, 1879), 
pp. 346-349. — Ed. 



i% Td August Thursday 1804 — 

Set out this morning verry early the two men with the 
horses did not come up last night I walked on Shore & Killed 
a fat Buck. J. Fields Sent out to hunt Came to the Boat 
and informed that he had Killed a Buffalow in the plain a head. 
Cap. Lewis took 12 Men and had the buffalow brought to the 
boat in the next bend to the S. S. 2 Elk Swam the river, and 
was fired at from the boat R. Fields came up with the Horses 
and brought two Deer one Deer killed from the Boat. Several 
Prarie Wolves Seen to day Saw Elk Standing on the Sand 
bar. The Wind blew hard [«w/] and raised the Sands off 
the bar in Such Clouds that we Could Scercely \see\ this Sand 
being fine and verry light Stuck to everry thing it touched, 
and in the Plain for a half a mile the distance I was out, every 
Spire of Grass was covered with the Sand or Durt. 

We camped on the L. S. above a Sand Island, one Beaver 
Cough t. 

Course Distance & reP? Aug| 23 rd 

West 4 M ls to a Small run between two Bluffs of Yellow & 

Blue Earth. [L. S.] 
North 2% M 1 ' to Some timber in a bend to the S. S. pass? a 

Willow Island, a Sand Is d ops' 1 ps d a p! of 

High Land S. S. at % of M! 
S. 48°, W. 3 M". to a p! of Willows on the S. S. having pass d the 

Sand bar on the L. point. 

24'* August Friday 1804. — 

Some rain last night, a Continuation this morning, we Set 
out at the useal time and proceeded on the Course of last night, 
to the (1) Commencement of a blue Clay Bluff of 180 or 190 
feet high on the L. S. Those Bluffs appear to have been 
laterly on fire, and at this time is too hot for a man to bear 
his hand in the earth at any Debth, 1 Great appearance of 

1 The heated bluffs here mentioned are ascribed by Coues (L. and C, i, p. 84) 
to volcanic action } they were called by the French voyageurs cotes brulles, or " burnt 



Coal, an emence quantity of Cobalt or a Cristolised Substance 
which answers its description is on the face of the Bluff. Great 
quantities of a kind of berry resembling a current except double 
the Size and Grows on a bush like a Privey, and the Size of a 
Damsen deliciously flavoured and makes delitefull Tarts, this 
froot is now ripe, 1 I took my Servent and a french boy and 
Walked on Shore, Killed Two Buck Elks and a fawn, and 
intersepted the Boat, and had all the Meat butchered and in 
by Sun Set at which time it began to rain and rained hard, 
Cap. Lewis & My self walk out & got verry wet, a Cloudy 
rainey night In my absence the Boat Passed a Small (2) River 
Called by the Indians White Stone River this river is about 
30 yards wide and runs thro : a Plain or Prarie in its whole 
Course In a northerley derection from the Mouth of this 
Creek in an emence Plain a high Hill is Situated, and appears 
of a Conic form, and by the different nations of Indians in this 
quarter is Suppose to be the residence of Deavels. that they 
are in human form with remarkable large heads, and about 
18 Inches high, that they are very watchfull and are arm'd 
with Sharp arrows with which they Can Kill at a great distance; 
they are Said to kill all persons who are So hardy as to attempt 
to approach the hill ; they State that tradition informs them 
that many Indians have Suffered by those little people, and 
among others three Mahar Men fell a sacrefise to their mur- 
celess fury not many Years Sence. So Much do the Maha, 
Soues, Ottoes and other neighbouring nations believe this fable, 
that no Consideration is Sufficient to induce them to approach 
the hill. 

bluffs." Brackenridge, who was at this place in *i8ii, ascribes this phenomenon 
to the burning of coal (Louisiana, pp. 232, 233). — Ed. 

At Ionia, Dixon County, is found the Nebraska "volcano" or "burning hill." 
Though declining in activity, this hill was once an object of considerable interest, 
especially after freshets in the Missouri River. Though not visited personally, the 
smoking or steaming seems to be due to the decomposition of pyrite in the damp 
shales. It seems that sufficient chemical heat is produced to make the hill-top steam 
and even to fuse some of the sand and clay. It bears no relation whatever to a 
volcano. — - Ervvin H. Barbour, geologist of University of Nebraska. 

1 Buffalo-berry, or beef-suet tree (Fr. graisse de baeuf), Shepherdia argentea. — Ed. 



Course Distance & ref[ 24 Aug' 

Ml" to the Commencement of a Blue Clay Bluff of 

180 or 190 feet high on the L. S. 
M' 1 under the Bluff pass d two Small runs from the 

Bluff, those Bluffs have been latterly on fire & is 

yet verry hot. (1) 
M 1 ? to a point on L. S. 
M 1 . 8 to an object in the bend on S. S. an extensive 

Sand bar on the L. S. 
M 1 .* to the lower point of a small Willow Island. 
Ml to the upper point of a Sand bar Connected with 

the Island [passed the Creek. (2)] 
W. iy 2 Ml s to a Willow pj on the S. S. 


S. 48° 





N. io° 



N. 45° 


S. 40. 



[ 120] 




Clark's Journal, August 25-September 24, 1804 

Entries and Orders by Lewis, August 26, 28, and September 16, 17 

QClarkf] 25'* August Satturday 1804. — 

A CLOUDY morning Cap! Lewis & Myself concluded 
to go and See the Mound which was Viewed with Such 
turror by all the different Nations in this quarter, 
we Selected Shields ; J. Fields, W. Bratten, .Serg! Ordway, 
J. Coller, Carr, and Corp! Worbington & Frasure, also G. 
Drewyer and droped down to the Mouth of White Stone 
River, where we left the Perogue with two men and at 200 
yards we assended a riseing ground of about Sixty feet, from 
the top of this High land the Countrey is leavel & open as far 
as can be Seen, except Some few rises at a great Distance, and 
the Mound which the Indians Call Mountain of little people or 
Spirits, this Mound appears of a conic form & is N. 20! W. 
from the mouth oPthe Creek, 1 we left the river at 8 oClock, 
at 4 miles we Crossed the Creek 23 yards wide in an extensive 
Valley and Contin[u]ed on at two miles further our Dog 
was so Heeted and fatigued we was obliged [to] Send him back 
to the Creek, at 12 oClock we arrived i at the hill Cap' Lewis 
much fatigued from heat the day it being verry hot & he being 
in a debilitated State from the Precautions he was obliged to 
take to prevent the effects of the Cobalt, & Min 1 Substance 
which had like to have poisoned him two days ago, his want 
of water, and Several of the men complaining of Great thirst, 
determined us to make for the first water which was the Creek 

1 Known locally, and named on some maps, as Spirit Mound. For description 
of its more recent appearance, see Amer. Antiquarian, Sept. 1891, p. 289. — Ed. 



in a bend N. E. from the Mound, about 3 miles, after a 
Delay of about 1 hour & a half to recrut our party we set out 
on our return down the Creek thro: the bottom of about 1 
mile in width, crossed the creek 3 times to the place we first 
struck it, where we gathered some delisious froot such as 
Grapes, Plumbs, & Blue Currents after a Delay of an hour 
we set out on our back trail & arrived at the Perogue at Sun 
set. We proceeded on to the Place we Camp d last night and 
Stayed all night. 

This Mound is Situated on an elivated plain in a leavel and 
extensive prarie, bearing N. 20? W. from the Mouth of White 
Stone Creek nine miles, the base of the Mound is a regular 
parallelagram the long Side of which is about 300 yards in 
length the Shorter 60 or 70 yards, from the longer Side of 
the Base it rises from che North & South with a Steep assent 
to the hight of 65 or 70 feet, leaveing a leavel Plain on the 
top of 12 feet in width & 90 in length. The North & South 
part of this Mound is join[ed] by two regular rises, each in 
Oval forms of half its hight, forming three regular rises from 
the Plain the assent of each elivated part is as Suden as the 
principal mound at the narrower sides of its Base. 

The reagular form of this hill would in Some measure justify 
a belief that it owed its orrigin to the hand of man ; but as the 
earth and loos pebbles and other substances of which it was 
Composed, bore an exact resemblance to the Steep Ground 
which border on the Creek in its neighbourhood we concluded 
it was most probably the production of nature. 

The only remarkable Characteristic of this hill admiting it 
to be a natural production is that it is insulated or Seperated a 
considerable distance from any other, which is verry unusial in 
the natural order or disposition of the hills. 

The Surrounding Plains is open Void of Timber and leavel 
to a great extent, hence the wind from whatever quarter it may 
blow, drives with unusial force over the naked Plains and 
against this hill ; the insects of various kinds are thus involun- 
taryly driven to the Mound by the force of the wind, or fly to 
its Leeward Side for Shelter; the Small Birds whoes food they 
are, Consequently resort in great numbers to this place in 

[ 122] 


Surch of them; Particularly the Small brown Martin of which 
we saw a vast number hovering on the Leward Side of the hill, 
when we approached it in the act of catching those insects ; 
they were so gentle that they did not quit the place untill we 
had arriv d within a new feet of them. 

One evidence which the Ind- give for believeing this place 
to be the residence of Some unusial Sperits is that they fre- 
quently discover a large assemblage of Birds about this Mound 
[this] is in my opinion a Sufficent proof to produce in the 
Savage Mind a Confident belief of all the properties which they 
ascribe [to] it. 

from the top of this Mound we beheld a most butifull land- 
scape ; Numerous herds of bufFalow were Seen feeding in various 
directions ; the Plain to North N. W. & N. E. extends without 
interuption as far as Can be seen. 

From the Mound to the Mouth of Stone River is S. io°. E. 
9 Miles, to the woods near the mouth of River Jacque is 
West, to the Highland near the mouth of Soues River is S. 
70° E. to the highland opposit side or near the Maha Town 
is S. 45 E. 

Some high lands to be seen from the Mound at a Great 
distance to the N. E. some nearer to the N. W. No woods 
except on the Missourie Points. 

if afl the timber which is on the Stone Creek was on 100 
acres it would not be thickly timbered, the Soil of those Plains 
are delightfull. 

Great numbers of Birds are seen in those Plains, Such as 
black bird, ren, [wreri] or Prarie burd, a kind of larke about the 
sise of a Partridge with a Short tail, &c, &c, 

the Boat under the Com d of Serj! Pryor proceeded on in our 
absence, (after jurking the Elk I Killed yesterday) Six Miles 
and Camped on the Larboard Side R. Fields brought in five 
Deer, George Shannon Killed an Elk Buck Som rain this 

We Set the Praries on fire as a signal for the Soues to Come 
to the River. 

[ 123] 


Course Dist? & Reft; Aug! 25* 

S. 7 2° W. 1 M! on the p! on S. S. ops d a Bluff of Blue Clay which 

is on the L. S. 
West y 2 M! on the p! S. S. ops d the Bluff. 

N. 22 ? E. 3 Ml' to a pf of high Willows on the L. S. ops d a Sand 

Island passed a Sand bar on the L. S. 
N. 40° W. 1 M! on the L. S. ops d Sand Island 
S. 86 ? W. y 2 m! on the L. S. to a p! of Willows the camp 

a6' A August Sunday 1804. — 

(Joined the Boat at 9 oClock A.M.) after jurking the meat 
Killed yesterday and prepareing the Elk Skins for a Toe 
Roape, we Set out Leaveing Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the 
horses which was lost with directions to follow us keeping on 
the high lands. 

proceeded on passed a clift of White and Blue or Dark 
Earth of 2 miles in extent on the L. S. and camped on a Sand 
bar opposed the old village Called Pitite Arc. a Small Creek 
falls into the river 15 yd! wide below the Village on the Same 
Side L. S. 1 this Village was built by a Indian Chief of the 
Maha nation by the name of Petite Arc (or little Bow) dis- 
pleas d with the Great Chief of that nation (Black Bird) Seper- 
ated with 200 men and built a village at this place after his 
death the two Villages joined, ap! Pat. Gass a Serg! vice 
Floyd Deceased. 

Great qV of Grapes, Plumbs of three Kinds, 2 yellow and 
large one of which is long and a 3 rd kind round & red all well 
flavored, perticularly the yellow sort. 

Course Distance & ref™ Aug' 26'. h 

S. 66° W. 2 Ml s to a Sand bar Makeing out from the S. S. 

N. 82 W. 7 Ml 5 to a p! of Willows on the S. S. passed an Island on 
S. S. and large Sand bar on both Sides of the river and 
Camped opposit the mouth of Arc Creek — the river 
o below wide. 

1 Now Bow Creek, Cedar Co., Nebr. — Ed. 

[ 124] 


[Orderly Book; Lewis:] Orders August z6".' 1804. 

The commanding officers have thought proper to appoint 
Patric Gass, a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North 
Western Discovery; he is therefore to be obeyed and respected 

Serg! Gass is directed to take charge of the late Serg! Floyd's 
mess, and immediately to enter on the discharge of such other 
duties, as have by their previous orders been prescribed for the 
government of the Sergeants of this corps. 

The Commanding officers have every reason to hope from 
the previous faithfull services of Serg! Gass, that this expres- 
sion of their approbation will be still further confirmed by his 
vigilent attention in future to his duties as a Sergeant, the 
Commanding officers are still further confirmed in the high 
opinion they had previously formed of the capacity, deligence 
and integrety of Serg! Gass, from the wish expressed by a large 
majority of his comrades for his appointment as Sergeant. 

Meriwether Lewis, 

Cap! I s . 1 U. S. Reg! Infty. 
W? Clark Cp' &c. 

[Clark:] 27'* August Monday 1804. — 

This morning the Star call d the morning Star much larger 
than Common, G. Drewyer came up and informed that he 
could neither find Shannon nor horses, we Sent Shields & 
J Fields, back to hunt Shannon & the horses, with derections 
to keep on the Hills to the Grand Calumet above on River 
Kacure (quecure) l 

We Set Sail under a gentle Breeze* from the S. E. at 7 
miles passed a White Clay Marl or Chalk Bluff" under this 
Bluff" [which] is extensive I discovered large Stone much like 
lime incrusted with a clear substance which I believe to be 
Cobalt, also Ore is embeded in the Dark earth, resembling 
Slate [but] much Softer, above this Bluff we had the Prarie 

1 A corruption of Riviere qui Court, the French name of the Niobrara (or Rapid) 
River. — Ed. 

I I2 S ] 


Set on fire to let the Soues See that we were on the river, and 
as a Signal for them to Come to it. 

At 1 oClock passed the Mouth of River Jacque [or Teank- 
ton,~] 1 one Indian at the mouth of this river Swam to the 
Perogue, we landed and two others Came to us, those Ind! 
informed that a large Camp of Soues, were on R. Jacque near 
the mouth. We sent Serj! Pryor & a Frenchman with Ml 
Durion, the Soues interpeter to the Camp with directions to 
invite the principal Chiefs to Council with us at a Bluff above 
Called the Calumet, two of those Indians accompanied them 
and the third continued in the Boat Showing an inclination to 
Continue, this boy is a Mahar, and inform that his nation, 
were gone to the Parnies [Parlies'] to make a peace with that 

We proceeded on about one and a half miles and inCamped 
on a bar makeing out from the S. S. the wind blew hard 
from the South. A cool and Pleasent evening, The river 
has fallen verry slowly and is now low. 

Course Dis! & Refr? August 27. 

N. 73° W. 7 Miles to the upper part of a Calx or Chalk Bluff on 
the L. S. haveing pass d a large Sand bar on the 
L. S. and two on the S. S. also some Small Bars in 
the R. 

North 3 Ml 8 to a tree in a bend to the S. S. pass 2 Sand bars 

in the river. 

West 21^ Ml^ to the Mouth of River Jacque on the S. S. two 

large Sand bars on the L. S. 

S. 8o ? W. 1 ]4 Ml s on the Side of a large Mud bar Makeing out above 
77 the River Jacque or Yeankton. 

This river about 85 or 90 yds. Wide and is navagable for 
Perogues a Great distance, it heads with the S! Peters, of the 
Misissippi & the red River which runs into Lake Winipeck 
and Hudsons Bay. 

1 The James (or Dakota) River. — Ed. 



28'* August Tuesday 1804. — 

Set out under a Stiff Breeze from the South and proceeded 
on pass d a Willow Island at 2 Miles several Sand bars, the 
[river] Wide & Shallow at 4 miles passed a Short White Bluff 
of about 70 or 80 feet high, below this Bluff the Prarie rises 
gradually from the water back to the Hight of the Bluff which 
is on the Starboard Side here the Indian who was in the boat 
returned to the Soues [Sieoue\ Camp on the R Jacque. Cap! 
Lewis & my Self much indisposed owing to Some cause for 
which we cannot account one of the Perogues run a Snag 
thro her and was near Sinking in the opinions of the Crew, 
we came too below the Calumet Bluff and formed a Camp in a 
Butifull Plain near the foot of the high land which rises with 
a gradual assent near this Bluff 1 I observe more timber in 
the Valeys & on the Points than useal. The Perogue which 
was injured I had unloaded and the Loading put into the 
other Perogue which we intended to Send back & changed the 
Crew after examoning her & finding that She was unfit for 
service determined to Send her back by the party Some load 
which was in the Perogue much Injur'd. 

The wind blew hard this afternoon from the South. J. 
Shields & J. Fields who was Sent back to look for Shannon 
and the Horses joined us and informed that Shannon had the 
horses ahead and that they Could not overtake him This 
man not being a first rate Hunter, we deturmined to Send one 
man in pursute of him with some Provisions. 

Course Dis: & Reffr? 28 th Aug! 1804. 

S. 76. W. 41^ Ml s to the lower part of a Bluff of a Brownish red on 

S. S. pass 1 ! Sev! Sand bars. 
S. 6o ? W. 4 M! to the lower part of the Calumet Bluff L. S. passed 
j / a p! on east Side and Several Sand bars. 

1 In Knox Co., Nebr., opposite Lower Buffalo Island Coues (£. and C, i, 

p. 90). Nearly opposite Yankton, a little below. — E. E. Blackman 

t 127] 


[Orderly Book; Lewis : 2 Orders, August 28'* 1804 

The commanding officers direct that the two messes who 
form the crews of the perogues shall scelect each one man 
from their mess for the purpose of cooking, and that these 
cooks as well as those previously appointed to the messes of 
the Barge crew, shall in future be exempted from mounting 
guard, or any detail for that duty; they are therefore no longer 
to be held on the royaster. 

M. Lewis Cap' 

I s ! U. S. Reg! Infty. 
W M Clark Cp| &c 

[Clark:] 29'* August Wednesday 1804. — 

Some rain last night & this morning, Sent on Colter with 
Provisions in pursute of Shannon, had a Toe roap made of 
Elk Skin, I am much engaged riteing. at 4 oClock P. M. 
Serg! Pryor & M! Dorion with 5 Cheifs and about 70 men & 
boys arrived on the opposit Side we Sent over a Perogue 
& Mr. Dorrion & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians 
came over with Serj! Pryor, and informed us that the Chiefs 
were there we sent Serj! Pryor & young Mr. Dorion 1 with 
Som Tobacco, Corn and a few Kittles for them to Cook in, 
with directions to inform the Chiefs that we would Speek to 
them tomorrow. 

Those Indians brought with them for their own use 1 Elk 
& 6 Deer which the young men Killed on the way from their 
Camp 12 Miles distant. 

Serj! Pryor informs me that when [they] came near the 
Indian Camp they were met by men with a Buffalow roabe 
to carry them, M! Dorion informed they were not the owners 
of the Boats & did not wish to be carried " the Scioues 
Camps are handsom of a Conic form Covered with Buffalow 
Roabs Painted different colours and all compact & handsomly 
arranged, Covered all round an open part in the Centre for 
the fire, with Buffalow roabs, each Lodg has a place for 

1 The younger Dorion was afterward slain on the headwaters of the Columbia, 
while trapping for the unfsrtunate Astoria expedition. — J. N. Baskett. 



Cooking detached, the lodges contain from 10 to 15 persons, 
a Fat Dog was presented as a mark of their Great respect for 
the party of which they partook hartily and thought it good 
and well flavored. 

The River Jacque is Deep & is navagable for Perogues a 
long distance up at the Mouth it is Shallow & narrow but 
above it is 80 or 90 yards Wide passing thro: rich Praries 
with but little timber this river passes the Souix River and 
heads with the S! Peters and a branch of Red river which falls 
into Lake Winepeck to the North. 

30'* of August Thursday 1804. 

a verry thick fog this morning after Prepareing Some 
presents for the Cheifs which we intended [to] make by giving 
Meadels, and finishing a Speech which we intended to give 
them, we sent M'. Dorion in a Perogue for the Cheifs and 
Warriers to a Council under an Oak Tree near where we had 
a flag flying on a high flagstaff" at 12 oClock we met and 
Cap. L. Delivered the Speach & then made one great Chifr' 
by giving him a Meadel 1 & Some Cloathes, one 2? Chief & 
three Third Chiefs in the same way, they rec? those things 
with the goods and tobacco with pleasure To the Grand 
Chief we gave a Flag and the parole [certificate) & Wampom 
with a hat & Chief! Coat, 2 We Smoked out of the pipe of 
peace, & the Chiefs retired to a Bourey \Bowray\ made of 
bushes by their young men to Divide their presents and Smoke 
eate and Council Capt. Lewis & My self retired to dinner 
and consult about other measures. Mf Daurion is much dis- 
pleased that we did not invite him to dine with us (which he 
was Sorry for afterwards). The Souex is a Stout bold looking 

1 For excellent description and illustrations of these medals (first-grade), see 
Wheeler, On the Trail of Lewis and Clark (N. Y., 1904), i, pp. 139, 140. Three 
of the medals distributed by Lewis and Clark have since been found — at the mouth 
of Wallawalla River, at Fort Clatsop, and at the mouth of Potlatch River, respec- 
tively. — Ed. 

3 Described by Biddle as " a richly laced uniform of the United States artillery 
corps, with a cocked hat and red feather." — Ed. 
vol. 1. —9 [ !29 ] 


people, (the young men handsom) & well made, the greater 
part of them make use of Bows & arrows, Some flew fusees I 
observe among them, notwith standing they live by the Bow 
and arrow, they do not Shoot So Well as the Nothern Indians 
the Warriers are Verry much deckerated with Paint Porcupine 
quils & feathers, large leagins and mockersons, all with buffalow 
roabs of Different Colours, the Squars wore Peticoats & a 
White Buffalow roabe with the black hare turned back over 
their necks and Sholders. 

I will here remark a SOCIETY 1 which I had never before 
this day heard was in any nation of Indians, four of which is 
at this time present and all who remain of this Band. Those 
who become Members of this Society must be brave active 
young men who take a Vow never to give back let the danger 
be what it may, in War Parties they always go forward 
without screening themselves behind trees or anything else to 
this Vow they Strictly adhier dureing their Lives, an instance 
which happened not long sence, on a party in Crossing the 
R Missourie on the ice, a whole was in the ice imediately in 
their Course which might easily have been avoided by going 
around, the foremost man went on and was lost the others wer 
draged around by the party, in a battle with the Crow 2 [Kite] 
Indians who inhabit the Cout Noir 3 or black Mountain out 
of 22 of this Society 18 was Killed, the remaining four was 
draged off by their Party Those men are likely fellows the[y] 
Set together Camp & Dance together. This Society is in 
imitation of the Societies of the de Curbo or Crow (De Corbeau, 
Kite) Indians, whom they imitate. 

1 The " society " of warriors here described was one of the branches of " the mili- 
tary and social organization which existed among the Blackfeet, Sioux, Cheyenne, 
Kiowa, and probably all the prairie tribes except the Comanche in the South," ac- 
cording to Mooney (U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892-93, pp. 986-989), who describes 
it as it existed among the Arapaho. — Ed. 

2 The Crows are a Hidatsa tribe, allied to the Minitaree, and originally located 
on the Yellowstone River ; in later years, they have been gathered on the Crow reser- 
vation in Montana. — Ed. 

* That is, Cote Noir. "Our authors use the term 'Black mountains' for any of 
the elevated country to the west of the Missouri in Northern Nebraska and both 
Dakotas." — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 171). 

[ I30] 


31*' of August, :8o4 — 

after the Indians got their Brackfast the Chiefs met and 

arranged themselves in a row with elligent pipes of peace all 

pointing to our Seets, we Came foward and took our Seets, 

-the Great Cheif The Shake hand rose and Spoke to some length 

aproving what we had said and promissing to pursue the advice. 

Mar to ree 2 d Cheif (White Crain) [White Crane] rose and 
made a Short Speech and refured to the great Chief Par nar 
ne arpar be (struck by the Pania) 3 rd Chief rose and made a 
short speech Ar ea we char che (the half man) 3 rd Chief rose 
& Spoke at some length much to the [same] purpose. 1 The 
other Cheif said but little One of the Warriers Spoke after 
all was don & promissed to Support the Cheifs, the[y] 
promis d to go and See their Great father in the Spring with 
M' Dorion, and to do all things we had advised them to do. 
and all concluded by telling the distresses of their nation by 
not haveing traders, & wished us to take pity on them, the[y] 
wanted Powder Ball, & a little Milk [rum; milk of great father 
means spirits."] 

last night the Indians Danced untill late in their Dances 
we gave them [throw into them as is usual] Som Knives Tobacco 
& bells & tape & Binding with which they wer Satisfied. 2 

We gave a Certificate to two Men of War, attendants on 
the Chief, gave to all the Chiefs a Carrot of Tobacco, had 
a talk with Mr. Dorion, who agreed to Stay and Collect the 
Chiefs from as Many Bands of Soux as he coud this fall & 
bring about a peace between the suoex and their neighbours 
&c. &c. &c. 

After Dinner we gave Mr. Peter Dorion, a Commission to 
act with a flag and some Cloathes & Provisions & instructions 

1 The names of these chiefs are thus given by Biddle : Weucha (" Shake Hand; " 
called by the French Le Liberateur) ; Mahtoree ("White Crane"); Pawnawneah- 
pahbe (" Struck by the Pawnee ") ; and Aweawechache (" Half Man ") — explained 
as probably originating in its owner's modesty, "who on being told of his exploits, 
would say, ' I am no warrior : I am only half a man.' " These speeches are given 
by Biddle in more detail. — Ed. 

a The entry for Aug. 3 1 to this point is misplaced in the MS. ; it is found on 
pp. 58-60 of Codex A, preceded by this memorandum : "omited to put in the 31st 
of August in Place." — Ed. 




to bring about a peace with the Seioux, Mahars, Panies, Pon- 
caries, [Poncas — Ed.] Ottoes & Missouries, and to employ 
any trader to take Some of the Cheifs of each or as many of 
those nations as he Could Perticularly the Seuouex {down to 
Wash") I took a Vocabulary of the Suoux Language, and the 
Answer to. a flew quaries such a[s] refured to their Situation, 
Trade, Number, War, &c. &c. This Nation is Divided into 
20 Tribes, possessing Seperate interests. Collectively they 
are noumerous say from 2 to 3000 men, their interests are so 
unconnected that Some bands are at war with Nations [with] 
which other bands are on the most friendly terms. This Great 
Nation who the French has given the Nickname of Suouex, 
Call themselves Dar co tar [Dakota — Ed.] their language 
is not peculiarly their own, they Speak a great number of 
words, which is the Same in every respect with the Maha, 
Poncarer, Osarge & Kanzas. which clearly proves that those 
nations at some period not more that a century or two past 
are of the Same nation. Those Dar ca ter's or Suoux inhabit 
or rove over the Countrey on the Red river of Lake Winipeck, 
S! Peters & the West of the Missi[ss]-ippie, above Prarie De 
Cheen (Prairie de Chieri) heads of River Demoin, and the Mis- 
souri and its waters on the N. Side for a great extent, they 
are only at peace with 8 nations, & agreeable to their Calcula- 
tion at War with twenty odd. Their trade corns from the 
British, except this Band and one on Demoin who trade with 
the Traders of S' Louis. The[y] furnish Beaver, Martain, 
Loups, {Wolfs) Pekon, (pichou) Bear & Deer Skins, and have 
about 40 Traders among them. The Dar co tar or Suouez rove 
& follow the BufFalow raise no corn or any thing else the woods 
& praries affording a suff[i]cency, the[y] eat Meat, and Substi- 
tute the Ground potato which grow in the Plains for bread. 

The Names of the Defferent Tribes or bands of the Sceoux, 
or Dar co tar Nation. 

1" Che cber ree Yankton (or bois ruley) {bruli) now present inhabit 
the Suouex & Demoin Rivers and the Jacque. {200 men.') 

2 n . d Ha in de borto (Poles) they live [rove] on the heads of Souex 
and Jacques Rivers. 

[ I3 2 ] 


3"? Me Ma car jo (Make fence on the river) rove on the Country 

near the bio; bend of the Missouries. 
4'!> Sou on, Te ton (People of the Prarie) the[y] rove in the Plains 

N. of the Riv Missourie above this. 
5 1 . 11 Wau pa coo tar (Leaf Beds) the[y] live near the Prarie de 

Chain Near the Missippi. 
6 th Te Car ton (or Village of Prarie) rove on the waters of the 

Mississippi above Prarie de Chain. 
7 t . h Ne Was tar ton (big Waters Town) rove on the Missippi above 

the S! Peters River. 
8 th Wau pa tone (Leaf Nation) live io Leagues up St. Peters River. 
9'? Cas Carba (White Man) live 35 Leagues up St. Peters river. 
io'! 1 Mi ca cu op si ba (Cut bank) rove on the head of St. Peters. 

n'. h Sou on ( ) rove on St. Peters river in the Praries. 

12'? Sou se toons ( ) live 40 Leages up the St. Peters river. 

The names of the other bands neither of the Souex's in- 
terpters could inform me. 1 in the evening late we gave M' 
Dourion a bottle of whiskey, & he with the Cheifs & his Son 
Crossed the river and Camped on the Opposit bank. Soon 
after night a violent wind from the N. W. with rain the rain 
Continud the greater part of the night. The river a riseing a 

September if Satturday 1804 — 

M. r Dourion lift his Kittle & Sent back for it &c. we Set 
out under a jentle- Breeze from the S. (It rained half the last 
night) proceeded on pass the Bluffs comps? of a yellowish 
red, & Brownish (&) White Clay which is a[s] hard as Chalk 
{and much resembling it) this Bluff is 170 or 180 feet high, 

1 These tribes are enumerated very differently by Biddle, thus (i, pp. 61, 62) : 
(1) Yanktons — 200 warriors ; (2) Tetons of the burnt woods — 300 men ; (3) Tetons 
Okandandas — 150 men ; (4) Tetons Minnakenozzo — 250 men ; (5) Tetons Saone — 
300 men ; (6) Yanktons of the Plains, or Big Devils — 500 men ; (7) Wahpatone — 
200 men j (8) Mindawarcarton — 300 men; (9) Wahpatoota, or Leaf Beds — 150 
men; (10) Sistasoone — 200 men. Cf. Lewis's "Statistical View of the Indian 
Nations Inhabiting the Territory of Louisiana," accompanying Jefferson's Message to 
Congress, Feb. 19, 1806 (Washington, 1806); the substance of this "View" wiil 
be republished in the appendix to the present work. For modern scientific classifica- 
tion, see Powell's "Indian Linguistic Families," in U. S. Bur. Et/inol. Rep., 1885- 
86, pp. 111-118. Cf. Wis. Hist. Collections, xvi, pp. 193, 194. — Ed. 

[ 133] 


here the High lands approach near the river on each Side, that 
on the S. S. not so high as that on the L. S. opposit the 
Bluffs is Situated a Large Island Covered with timber close 
under the L. S. above the Is d . the high land approach & form 
a Clift to the river on the S. S. this Gift is Called White 
Bear Clift one of those animals haveing been kiled in a whole 
in it. 

i*' of September Satturday 1804 — 

Some hard wind and rain, cloudy all day, the river Wide 
& hills on each Side near the river, pass 11 a large (i) Island 
which appeared to be composed of Sand, Covered with Cotton 
wood close under the S. S. we landed at the lower point of a 
large Island on the S. S. Called bon homme or Good Man, here 
Cap. Lewis & my self went out a Short distance on the L. S. 
to See a Beaver house, which was Said to be of Great hite & 
Situated in a Pond We could not find the house and returned 
after night Drewyer Killed an Elk, & a Beaver, numbers of 
Cat fish cought, those fish is so plenty that we catch them at 
any time and place in the river. 

Course Dis'.* & refr! I* Sept. 

N. 88 W. 4 M 1 ? to a high point of on the S. S. haveing pass d an 
Is? (1) on the L. S. & Several Sand bars. 

S. 75° W. 2 M 1 .' to the lower p? of a large Island on S. S. passed a 
p! on the L. S. and a Sand bar. 

S. 68 ? W. 4 M 1 ' to a p? on L. S. pass? the upper p! of the IsH SS. 
and some land with bows [boughs — Ed.] and 
evident marks of being made 24 [feet — Ed.] above 

S. 80. W. 5 M 1 ' to a tree at the lower p' of Bon homme Island on 
~^ S. S. haveing ps? a p! on the S. S. a Deep bend of 

Sand and Willows on L. S. 

»1<< September Sunday 1804. — 

Set out early and proceeded on passed the Island and Landed 
on the S. S. above under a Yellow Clay bluff of no feet high, 
the wind blew verry hard ahead from the N. W. with Some 
rain and verry cold, G. Drewnyer R. Fields, Newman & 
howard Killed four fine Elk we had the meat all jurked and 



the Skins Dried to Cover the Perogue, on the Side of the 
Bluff I observed Bear Grass & Rhue, at Sun Set the wind 
luled and cleared up Cold, the high land on the L. S. is verry 
high, & uneaven, that on the S. S. from 80 to 120 foot & is 
leavel back but new Small Streams falling into the river. 

Course Distance & reffs 2 d Sp! 

N. 75^ W. 3 Ml s to the lower part of an antient fortification (1) in a 
bend to the L. S. this Course passed over a p' of 
the Is d & Sand. 
N. 45 W. 1 M! on the L. p! pass d the head of the Island at £ of a 
~T mile ops d a yellow bank S. S. 

I went out and made a Survey of the antient Works which 
is Situated in a level Plain about 3 Miles from the hills which 
are high. 

A Discreption of the Fortification 

(1) Commenceing on the river opsi'd the Good Mans Island, first 

Course from the river is 

S. "jb° W. 96 yards thence 

S. 84. W. 53 yards (at this angle a kind of angle or horn work) 

N. 69 W. 300 yards to a high part, passing the gateway Covered 
by two half Circler works one back of the other 
lower than the main work the Gate forms a right 
angle projecting inward. 

N. 32 W. 56 yards 

N. 20 W. 73 yards. This part of the work appears to have [been] 
578 either double, or a covered way. from this Some 
irregular works appear to have been on mounds 
between this and the river, with a Deep round 
whole in the center of a Gorge formed by another 
angle. This part of the work is from 10 to 15 
feet 8 Inches — the Mounds of Various hights 
the base of the work is from 75 to 105 feet, Steep 
inward and forming a kind of Glassee [Glacis] 

N. 32° W. 96 yards to the Commencement of a Wall from 8 to 10 
feet high this Course not on the Wall but thro to 
the commencement of another detached 



N. 81° W. 1830 yards to the river & above where this bank Strikes 
the river is the remains of a Circular work. 

in this Course at 533 yards a Deep Pond of 73 yards Diameter per- 
fectly round is in the Course of the bank which is about 8 feet high, 
from this Pond the bank lowers gradually, a bank about the same 
hight runs near the river, and must have joined the main work at a part 
which is now washed into the river, this is also perfectly Streight and 
widens from the main work, as the river above has washed in its banks 
for a great distance I cannot form an Idear How those two long works 
joined, where they Strike the river above, they are about 1 100 y ds apart, 

[Another Description. 1 ] . 

N? 1 a Wall of the Antient Work Commencing on the bank of the 
River and running on a direct line S. 76? W. 96 yard, about 
75 feet baice and 8 feet high. 

2. Wall Continued, and Course S. 84? W. 53 yards from an 
angle formed by a slopeing decent N? 13. has the appearance 
of a hornwork of nearly the same hight of the former angle 
N? 1. 

3. the Wall Continued on a Course N. 69? W. for 300 yards in 
which there is a low part of the wall which is Covered by two 
Circular and lower Walls one back of the other. 8. 8. which 
covers the gate way Completely, between those outer Walls 
8. 8. there appears to have been a Covered way out of the 
Main work into the vacancy between those two Walls N 9 9. 
This Wall No. 3 is 8 feet high and about 75 feet Bace. 

4. a Wide part of the Wall which is about 12 feet high and 105 
feet base on the Course N. bcf W. Continued from the gate 

5. The Wall about 15 feet high and about 90 feet bace on a 
course N. 32' W. for 56 yds. 

6. the Wall Continus on a Course N. 20° W. for 73 yards and 
ends abruptly near a whole near Several Mounds prismiscusly 
in the Gorge of the Work between this and the river. 

10. N. 32° W. 96 yards across a low place much lower than the 
Common leavel of the plain to the Commencement of a wall of 
8 feet high this is an open Space, from whence there is Some 
appearance of a Covered way to the Water. 

1 This matter is found in Codex N, pp. 81-85. — Ed. 


Ancient Fortific 

n the Missouri River, 
by Clark. 


io. is a large hollow place much lower then the plain 
12. 12. Several little Mounds in the gouge 
7. the gateway to the Strong work. 

14. a redoubt Situated on an Island which is maiceing on the Side 
next to the Main Work, the wall forming this redoubt is 6 feet 

15. 15. The river banks at the waters edge 

16. a thick Wall of about 6 feet high passing from the Rivers edge 
at the gouge of the Work perfectly streight to the bend of the 
River above and there ends abruptly where the Missouri is 
under mineing its banks on this Wall maney large Cotton 
Trees of two & 3 feet diameter, the Bank passes thro' a wood 
in its whole Course 

N° 17. 19. a Streight wall of 1830 yard extending from the Gouge of 
the strong work on a Course N. 81° W. This wall is 8 feet 
high to a round pon (N 9 18) from then it becoms lower and 
strikes the Missouri at a place where that river has the ap I( ; [ap- 
pearance] of haveing incroached on its banks fqr a great distance, 
this wall passes in it's whole course thro' a leavel plain. 
18. a Deep pond of 73 yards diameter in the Wall, perfectly 

20. Thro from the extremity of one Wall to the other 1100 

21. a Small redoubt on the bank of the river. 

The Strong part of this work which must be about ^ of it's original 
Size Contains Twenty acres. 

The part Contained between the two Walls is about 500 acres, and 
it is Certain that those Walls have been longer and must have con- 
tained a much greater Space 

I am informed by our french interpeters that a great number 
of those antient works are in Defferent parts of the Countrey, 
on the Plate River, Kansas, Jacque, Osarge, Mine river &c. 
A Small one is on [an] Island opposit the one I have 
Discribed, and two of our Party Saw two of those Antient 
f[o]rtresses on the Petteet Arc Creek on the upper Side near 
the Mouth, each angle of which were 100 yards and about 8 
feet high. 1 

1 The opinion now prevails, that these "fortifications" were only natural forma- 
tions, made by the drifting sands. — Ed. 



■ff of September Monday 1804. — 

a verry Cold morning wind from N. W. we Set out at Sun 
rise, & proceeded on to a Bluff below the Mouth of Plumb 
Creek \_I2 yds] on the S. S. and took an obsevation of the 
Suns altitude. 

This Creek is Small it "abounds with plumbs of a Delicious 
flavour " the River is Wide and Crowded with Sand bars, 
it is riseing a little but little timber in this Countrey all that 
is, is on the river in the Points, we came too on the L. S. in 
the edge of a Plain an[d] Camped for the night, we Saw 
Some signs of the two men Shannon & Colter, Shannon ap- 
peared to be ahead of Colter. The White banks appear to 
continue on both sides of the river. Grapes plenty and finely 

Course Dis' & refrs. 3 r . d Sept' 

West £ M! on the L. S. ops? a Bluff 

S. 35 W. 3 M'!to the Upper point of some wood at the foot of the 

high land on the L. S. in a bend of the river pass 

a large Sand bar 400 y d ? wide on the L. S. and a 

p l . & Sand bar from the S. S. 
West 5 J M u . to a obj? in a Deep bend to the S. S. pass d a p! S. 

S. and a large Sand bar on the L. S. 
S. 45. W. 1 M! to the Mouth of Plumb C. on the S. S. ps d 

und; White bank. 
South 5 M 1 .' to a p! on the S. S. pass? Several Sand bars & two 

Y$ p" on the L. S. 

4th September Tuesday 1804. — 

a verry Cold Wind from the S. S. E. we Set out early and 
proceeded on [to] the Mouth of a Small Creek in a bend to 
the L. S. Called White lime, at \\ Miles higher up passed a 
large Creek on the L. S. Called R. au Platte or White Paint 1 
between those two Creeks (the latter of which is ab! 30 yd! 
Wide) we passed under a Bluff of red Ceeder, at 4 Ml! ^ 
passed the mouth of the River Que Courre {rapid R) on the 
L. S. and Came to a Short distance above, this River is 152 

1 Now Bazile creek. — Ed. 



yards Wide at the Mouth & 4 feet Deep Throwing out Sands 
like the Piatt, (only Corser) forming bars in its mouth. I 
went up this river three Miles to a butifull Plain on the upper 
Side where the Panias once had a Village this River widens 
above its mouth and is divided by sands and Islands, the 
Current verry rapid, not navagable for evin Canoes without 
Great dificuelty owing to its Sands ; the colour like that of 
the Plat is light, the heads of this river is not known [in the 
Black Mount"' £s? waters a hilly country of indifferent soil~\ it 
corns into the Missourie from the S. W. by West, and I am 
told that i[t]s Gen! Course Some distance up is parrelel with 
the Missourie. 

Course Dist" & refr? the 4 th of Sept! 

S. 5° W. l£ M! to the Mo. of a Creek on the L. S. below a Cee- 

der Clift. 
S. 35 ? 13. Ml' to the Mo. of White Paint River on the L. S. 

Passing under a Ceeder Clift. 
West 3 Ml' to the Upper p! of Wood on the L. S. ops'? a Bluff 

of bluish Clay, a S 1 ? bar L. S. 
N. 72° W. i\ M 1 . 8 to a Mound on the L. S. a Bluff on the S. S. 

several Sand bars in the river 
West $£ Ml to the Mouth of the river g)ue Courre on the L. S. 

~g the hills leave the river on the S. S. river Crouded 

with Sand bars, & wind hard. 

[At the end of Codex B, written on the inside of the cover, 
is the following memorandum :] 

U S. Due 4 Sep! 1804 


John Potts as p[er Duebill 20.5 

Tho 8 P. Howard . . . . . 8.10 

Alexander Willard ..... 13.55 

after this I will put the Course Destance &? refferences of 
each day first and remk'. after. 

[ 139] 


Course Dis'. 8 & Ref? — Sept r 5 th 

N. 85° W. 2 M ls to a Willow p! on the S. S. a Bluff ops! 

N. 35? W. 3 M ,s to a high part of a Bluff on the S. S. a large 
Isl? Called Pania Is! in Middle of the river. 

N. 5 8° W. 3£ to a Creek on the S. S. ps! the Is d at 1 M! a Sand 
bar makeing from it. Poncarar [Ponca] River op- 
posit on the L. S. 30 y d5 

West 3 J Ml s to the Lower point of a large Island near the L. 

Side (1) 

N. 70° W. 1 ^ Ml» to the right Side of the SI Island to the head 
x ~3/ passed a Willow Is! & a Sand bar 

September 5'* Wednesday 1804 — 

Set out early the wind blew hard from the South, Goats, 
turkeys Seen todays passed a large Island (1) ops! this 
Island near the head the Poncarars River Corns into the Mis- 
sourie from the West this river is about 30 yards wide, dis- 
patched two men to the Poncaries Village Situated in a 
handsom Plain on the lower Side of this Creek about two 
miles from the Missourie the Poncarars Nations is Small ' 
and at this time out in the praries hunting the Buffalow, one 
of the men Sent to the Village Killed a Buffalow in the town, 
the other, a large Buck near it, Some Sign of the two men 
who is a head, above the Island on the S. S. we passed under 
a Bluff 2 of Blue earth, under which Several Mineral Springs 
broke out the water of which had a taste like Salts, We 
Came too on the upper point of a large Island (which I call 
No preserves Island) here we made a Ceeder Mast, our 
hunters brought in three bucks, and two elks this evening 
which we had jurked. 

One of the hunters Shields, informed that he Saw Several 
black tailed Deer, near the Poncarer Village 

1 The Biddle text states (i, p. 66) that this Ponca tribe, which had once num- 
bered 400 men, was then reduced to about fifty, who had taken refuge witli the 
Omaha. Both tribes had been sedentary, but were driven from their villages by 
war and pestilence. — Ed. 

a Now called Chouteau Bluffs Ed. 

[ HO] 


Course Distance and refferrencies. — 6'. h Sep? 1804. 

West i£ M 1 ? to a p! of Wood on the S. S. opposit a Bluff. 

N. 85° W. 7 Ml s passed a p! on the S. S. at \)/ 2 M 1 .* above which 
miles gi is a large Sand bar on L. S. a high Clift of Blue 

& redish soft rock, Colter joined us. 

Sep'. 6'? Thursday 1804. — 

a Storm this morning from the N. W. which lasted a fiew 
minits, we Set out and proceeded on passed the head of the 
Is? which is Seperated from the L. S. by a narrow Channel, a 
hard wind from the N. W. a Verry Cold day. we camped on 
the S. S. at the upper point of Some timber, Sometime before 
Night, no timber, \being in reach.'] 

I saw Several goats 1 on the hills on the S. S. also BufFalow 
in great numbers. 

Course Distance & refferrences. — 7 th Sept. 1804. 

N. 6o° W. 3 Ml s to the p! of a Bluff on the S. S. ops'? a p] on L. S. 

West 21 Miles to a tree in a bend to the L. S. near the foot of 

.jL . a round mountain resembling a Cupola (1) passed 

2 2 Small Is M .» S. S. 

Sept. 7",' Friday — 

a verry Cold morning wind S. E. Set out at day light we 
landed after proceeding 5^ Miles, near the foot of a round 
Mounting, which I saw yesterday, resembling a dome. 2 Cap. 
Lewis & Myself walked up to the top which forms a Cone and 
is about 70 feet higher than the high lands around it, the Base 
is about 300 foot in decending this Cupola, discovered a Vil- 
lage of Small animals that burrow in the grown (those animals 
are Called by the french Petite Chien) , Killed one and Caught 
one a live by poreing a great quantity of Water in his hole 3 
we attempted to dig to the beds of one of those animals, after 

1 These "goats" were antelopes (Antilocapra Americana'). This animal was 
new to science when discovered by Lewis and Clark in 1804, and was not techni- 
cally named until 1815. — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 109). 

2 A conspicuous landmark, now known as "the Tower." — Ed. 

8 Gass says (p. 51) regarding this attempt, that "all the party, except the guard, 
went to it ; and took with them all the Kettles and other vessels for holding water ; but 
though they worked at the business till night, they only caught one of them." — Ed. 

[ 141 ] ' 


diging 6 feet, found by running a pole down that we were not 
half way to his Lodge, we found i frogs in the hole, and 
Killed a Dark rattle Snake near with a Ground rat (or prairie 
dog) in him, (those rats are numerous) the Village of those 
animals Cov? about 4 acres of Ground on a gradual decent of 
a hill and Contains great numbers of holes on the top of which 
those little animals Set erect make a Whistleing noise and whin 
allarmed Step into their hole, we por'd into one of the holes 
5 barrels of Water without filling it. Those Animals are about 
the Size of a Small Squ[ir]rel Shorter (or longer) & thicker, the 
head much resembling a Squirel in every respect, except the 
ears which is Shorter, his tail like a ground squirel which they 
shake & whistle when allarmf the toe nails long, they have 
fine fur & the longer hairs is gray, 1 it is Said that a kind of 
Lizard also a Snake reside with those animals, (did not find 
this correct.) Camped. 

Course Destance & refFerrences. — 8'! 1 Septf 

N. 35. W. 7 M 1 ? to a p! on L. S. ops'? the house of Mf Troodo 
where he wintered in 96 & Seven Called the Pania 
ho? in a woo[d] to the S. S. ( 1 ) 

N. 88? W. 10 M'f to a p! of woods S. S. one mile above the com- 
mencement of this Course the Low r p] of a Willow 
IsH this IsH is i| M 1 ? in length, in the middle 
17 of the R. a Small Sand Is? at its upper extremity. 

8'* of September Saturday — 

Set out early and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from 
the S. E. at 3 M 1 .' passed the house of Troodo where he win- 
tered in 96. Called the Pania house, above is high hills on 
the S. S. on the S. S. much higher hills than useal appear to 
the North distant 8 Miles recently burnt, pass 3 Small Islands 
at about 5 Miles on this Course on the S. S. here Cap. Lewis 
Killed a Buffalow in the river, and the Men one other Came 
to on the lower point of an Island in the midlle of the river 
Called Boat Island 2 and incamped, jurked the meat Killed 

1 The prairie-dog (Cynomys ludovicianus), then unknown to scientists ; Coues 
thinks that Clark and Gass were the first to describe it. — Ed. 

2 The present Chicot Island ; a little above the present Fort Randall. — Ed. 

[ 142] 


to day Consisting of i buffalow, one large Buck Elk, one 
Small, 4 Deer 3 Turkeys & a Squirel, I joined the boat at 
this Camp, the Countrey on the S. S. is pore & broken. 

Course Distance & referrence. — 9'? Sept? 

N. 3+ W. 3 Ml' to a p' on an Island on the L. S. of an Is? passed 

Sand bars. 
N. +0. W. 3 M 1 ? to an upper p! of a Wood in a bend S. S. 
N. 83? W. 4} M 1 ? to a p< on S. S. 
N. 4+ ? W + M 1 . 3 to the upper p? of a Wood L. S. 

9'* September Sunday 1804 — 

Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the head of the 
Island on which we Camped, passed three" Sand & Willow 
Islands, the Sand bars So noumerous, it is not worth mention- 
ing them, the river Shoal or Shallow wind S. E. Came too 
and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. Capt. Lewis went 
out to kill a buffalow. I walked on Shore all this evening 
with a view to Kill a goat or Some Prarie Dogs in the even- 
ing after the boat landed, I Derected My Servent York with 
me to kill a Buffalow near the boat from a Numb! then Scat- 
tered in the Plains. I saw at one view near the river at least 
500 Buffalow, those animals have been in View all day feeding 
in the Plains on the L. S. every Copse of timber appear to 
have Elk or Deer. D. Killed 3 Deer, I Kiled a Buffalow 
Y. 2, R. Fields one. 

Course Distance & Referrence — io'! 1 Sept. 

North 5 M Is to a San? Is? undf a Bluff to the S. S. passed 

Is? on L. S. 

N. 65? W. 2 M! to a p! on the L. S. pass d the Is? on the L. S. 

N. 80? W. £ M! on the L. S. 

S. 80 W. 3 M ls to Ceder Island in the Middle of the R. found 
a fish back bone pitrefied also the h? just below the 
Is? on the top of a hill Situated on the L. S. 

N. 70° W. 8£ M 1 . 5 to the Lowf p' of an Is? in a bend to the L. S. 
pass the h? of Ceeder Island (2) and a large Is? on 
the S. S. (3) & Many Sand bars. Shallow. 

N. 35. W. 1 M! to the Lower p! of a Small Island seperated by a 
"^ Narrow Channel. 



iol* September Monday 1804. — 

a cloudy dark morning Set out early, a gentle breeze from 
the S. E. passed two Small Islands on the L. S. and one on 
the S. S. all in the first Course at io|- Miles passed the lower 
point of an (2) Island Covered with red Ceeder Situated in a 
bend on the L. S. this Island is about 2 Miles in length (1) 
below this on a hill on the L. S. we found the back bone of a 
fish, 45 feet long tapering to the tale, Some teeth &c. those 
joints were Seperated and all Petrefied. opposit this Island 
1 \ Miles from the river on the L. S. is a large Salt Spring of 
remarkable Salt Water, one other high up the hill \ M! not 
So Salt, we proceeded on under a Stiff Breeze, three Miles 
above Ceder Island passed ?. large Island on the S. S. no water 
on that Side. (3) Several elk Swam to this Island passed 
a Small Island near the center of the river, of a Mile in length, 
and Camped on one above Seperated from the other by a Nar- 
row Chanel, those Islands are Called Mud Islands, the 
hunters killed 3 Buffalow & one Elk to day. The river is 
falling a little. Great number of Buffalow & Elk on the hill 
Side feeding deer scerce 

Course Distance & refp 11 th Sep? 

N. 35° W. 4^ M'l to the lower p! of an Island, passed the Is? on 
which we Camp? 

N. 70° W. 2 M 1 ! to the head of the Island on its L. S. 

N. 45° W. 3 M ls . to a p' on the L. S. below an Island (1) 

N. 50? W. 2 M 1 ? to the Upper p! of an Island on the S. S. ; passed 
one on the L. S. ops? to which at ^ of a Mile is a 
Village of the Barking Squirel L. S. 

West \\ M 1 ? to a p' on the L. S. passed an Is? on the S. S. 

"J^ just above the one mentioned in the last Course. 

Sep'. 11* Tuesday 1804 — 

A cloudy morning, Set out verry early, the river wide & 
Shallow the bottom narrow, & the river crouded with Sand 
bars, passed the Island on which we lay at one mile, Passed 
three Islands one on the L. S. and i on the S. S. opposit the 
Island on the L. S. I saw a Village of Barking Squirel 

t 144] 


[prairie-dog — Ed.] 970 y d .' long, and 800 y ds Wide Situated 
on ajentle Slope of a hill, those anamals are noumerous, I 
killed 4 with a View to have their Skins Stufed. 

here the Man who left us with the horses 22 (16) days ago 
George Shannon He started 26 Aug'?) and has been a head ever 
since joined us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days 
without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he 
Killed by shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball. 
This Man Supposeing the boat to be a head pushed on as long 
as he could, when he became weak and feable deturmined to 
lay by and waite for a tradeing boat, which is expected, Keeping 
one horse for the last resorse, thus a man had like to have 
Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of Bullitts or 
Something to kill his meat, we Camped on the L. S. above 
the mouth of a run a hard rain all the afternoon, & most 
of the night, with hard wind from the N. W. I walked on 
Shore the forepart of this day over Some broken Country 
which Continues about 3 Miles back & then is leavel & rich 
all Plains, I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2 Deer & 
Squirels. the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican 

Course Distance & refPf Septf i%^ 

N. 45 ? W. 4 Miles to a point of wood on the L. S. Passed an Island 
in the Center of the river and several Sand bars (1) on 
a which we found great dificuelty in passing the Water 
being verry Shallow 

Sep'. 12'* Wednesday 1804 — 

A Dark Cloudy Day the wind hard from the N. W. We 
Passed (i) a Island in the middle of the river at the head of 
which we found great dificuelty in passing between the Sand 
bars the Water Swift and Shallow, it took ^ of the day to 
make one mile, we Camped on the L. S. ops d a Village of 
Barking Prarie Squirels 

I walked out in the morn:g and Saw Several Villages of 
those little animals, also a great number of Grous & 3 Foxes, 
and observed Slate & Coal Mixed, Some verry high hills on 
each Side of the river, rain a little all day. 

VOL. I. -10 [l45] 


Course Distance and refferences SepV 13"? 

N. 45 ? E. 1 \ M 1 ? on the L. S. a Sand bar Makeing out. 

N. 30? E. 1 M! on the L. Side. 

N. 60° W. 1 M! on the L. S. to a Clift. 

N. 64? W. 2J M 1 ? on the L. S. to the Commencement of a wood 

passing under a Bluff of Slate & Coal, & a Sand 

bar opposit. 
North i| M 1 .* to a p! of high Land on the S. S. pass? Sand bars 

on both Sides, Shallow 
N. io ? W. 4 M'f to the lower p! of a timber passing under a Bluff, 
12 a Sand & Willow Island on the L. S. 

13'* SepT Thursday 1804 — 

A Dark drizzley Day, G. D. Cought 4 Beaver last night 
the wind from the NW. Cold Set out early and proceeded 
on verry well, passed a number of Sand bars, Cap! Lewis 
Killed a Porcupin on a Cotton tree feeding on the leaves & 
bowers [boughs — Ed.] of the said tree, the water is verry 
Shallow (in places^) being Crowded with Sand bars Camped 
on the S. Side under a Bluff, the Bluff on the S. S. not so 
much impregnated with mineral as on the L. S. Muskeetors 
verry troublesom. 

Course Distance and refurences Sep! 14 

N. 68 ? W. 2§ M 1 ? to a p! of high Land on the L. S. pass? a round 

Island on the S. S. 
S. 70° W. 2^ M'f to a tree in the p! on the L. S. passed the Mo. 

of a run on the L. S. 
N. 4 ? W. %\ M 1 ? to the mouth of a Small Creek 1 on the bend to 

the L. S. 
N. 10 9 E. 1 \ M 1 ? to to the Mouth of a Creek on the L. S. passed 
q a bad Sand bar. 

14'* Sep'. Friday 1804. — 

Set out early proceeded on Passed several Sand bars the 
river wide and Shallow. 3 beaver caught last night, Drizeley 
rain in the forepart of the day, Cloudy and disagreeable. I 

1 A little above the present site of Brule City, S. D. — Coues (L. and C, i, 
p. 116). 



walked on Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanoe, Said 
to be in this neighbourhood by M^ J. McKey of S' Charles. 
I walked on Shore the whole day without Seeing any appear- 
ance of the Vulcanoe, in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat 
[antelope — Ed.] of this Countrey, about the hight of the 
Grown Deer, its body Shorter the Horns which is not very 
hard and forks 2 /$ up one prong Short the other round & 
Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is 
a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its 
face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail- 
which is Short & white : Verry actively made, has only a 
pair of hoofs to each foot, his brains on the back of his head, 
his Norstrals large, his eyes like a Sheep he is more like the 
Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat. 
Shields killed a Hare like the mountain hare of Europe, waigh- 
ing 6| pounds (altho pore) his head narrow, its ears large i, e. 
6 Inches long & 3 Inches Wide one half of each White, the 
other & out part a lead Grey from the toe of the hind foot 
to toe of the for foot is 2 feet 11 Inches, the hith is 1 foot 1 
Inch & ^, his tail long thick & white. 1 

The rain Continued the Greater part of the day in My 
ramble I observed, that all those parts of the hills which was 
clear of Grass easily disolved and washed into the river and 
bottoms, and those hils under which the river runs, Sliped 
into it and disolves and mixes with the water of the river, the 
bottoms of the river was covered with the water and mud 
frome the hills about three Inches deep, those bottoms under 
the hils which is covered with Grass, also receives a great 
quantity of mud. 

Passed 1 Small Creeks on the L. S. and Camped below the 
third, (the place that Shannon the man who went a head lived 
on grapes) Som heavy Showers of rain all wet, had the 
Goat & rabit Stufed rained all night. 

1 The northern jackass-rabbit (Lepui campestris). — Ed. 



Course Distance & refferences 15'? Sep! 

N. s°° E 2 M 1 ? to the p? Mouth of White River (1) L. S. passed 

Sand bars, &f 
N. 26? E 1 J M ls to a pf on the L. S. a Bluff on the S. S. 
N. io ? W. y 2 M'f on the L. S. to the Commencement of a Bluff of 

black Slate 
N. 30? W. 2 M 1 ? to the lower p? of an Island Situated near the L 

Side (2) 
North 2 Miles to the Mouth of a Creek on the L. S. a point 

~g of high land opposit under which we camped. 

1 5'* September Satturday 1804 — 

Set out early passed the mo. of the Creek, and the mouth 
of White river. (1) Cap. Lewis and my self went up this 
river a Short distance and crossed, found that this differed 
verry much from the Plat or que courre, threw out but little 
Sand, about 300 yards wide, the water confin? within 150 
yards, the current regular & Swift much resembling the 
Missourie, with Sand bars from the Points, a Sand Island in 
the mouth, in the point is a butifull Situation for a Town 3 
gradual assents, and a much greater quantity of timber about 
the mouth of this river than useal, we concluded to send 
Some distance up this river detached Sj! Gass & R. Fields. 
We proceeded on passed a Small (2) Island Covered with 
Ceeders on [it] I saw great Numbers of Rabits & Grapes, 
this Island is Small & Seperated from a large Sand Is? at its 
upper point by a narrow Channel, & is Situated Nearest the 
L. Side. Camped on the S. S. opposit the mouth of a large 
Creek on which there is more timber than is useal on Creeks 
of this Size, this Creek raised 14 feet the last rains. I killed a 
Buck Elk & Deer, this evening is verry Cold, Great Many 
Wolves of Diffrent sorts howling about us. the wind is hard 
from the NW. this evening. 



i6<!> Sep! 
N. 72° E. ij Miles to a p! on the L. S. and came too (1) 

16'* of September Sunday 1804 — 

We Set out verry early & proceed'd on ij Miles between 
Sand bars and Came too on the L. S. (1) deturmined to dry 
our wet thi[n]gs and liten the boat which we found Could not 
proceed with the present load \as fast as we desired owing to 
Sand bars~\ for this purpose we concluded to detain the 
Perogue we had intended to send back & load her out of 
the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send them 
from our Winter quarters. We put out those articls which 
was wet, Chan'd the boat & perogues, examined all the 
Lockers Bails &c &c &c. 

This Camp is Situated in a butifull Plain Serounded with 
Timber to the extent of ^ of a mile in which there is great 
quantities of fine Plumbs The two men detach? up the 
White river joined us here & informed that the [river] as far 
as they were up had much the appearance of the Missuorie 
Som Islands & Sands little Timber, \Elm\ (much Signs of 
Beaver, Great many buffalow) & Continud its width, they 
Saw as well as my self Pine burs & Sticks of Birch in the 
Drift wood up this river, they Saw also Number of Goats, 
Such as I Killed, also Wolves near the Buffalow. falling 
[fallow] Deer, & the Barking Squrils Villages. Cap. Lewis 
went to hunt & See the Countrey near the Kamp he Killed 
a Buffalow & a Deer , 

Cloudy all day I partly load the empty Perogue out of the 
Boat. I killed a Deer & the party 4 Deer & a Buffalow 
this we Kill for the Skins to Cover the Perogues, the meat too 
pore to eat. Cap. Lewis went on an Island above our Camp, 
this Island is ab! one mile long, with a great perpotion Ceder 
timber near the middle of it. 

I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those 
who had expended thers. 

[ 149] 


fjLewis: 1 ] Sunday, September i6' A , 1804. 

This morning set out at an early hour, and come too at \ 
after 7 A. M. on the Lard, shore i^ miles above the mouth 
of a small creek which we named Corvus? in consequence of 
having kiled a beatiful bird of that genus near it. we con- 
cluded to ly by at this place the ballance of this day and the 
next, in order to dry our baggage which was wet by the heavy 
showers of rain which had fallen within the last three days, 
and also to lighten the boat by transfering a part of her lading 
to the red perogue, which we now determined to take on with 
us to our winter residence wherever that might be ; while 
some of the men were imployed in the necessary labour others 
were dressing of skins washing and mending their cloaths &c. 
Capt. Clark and myself kiled each a buck immediately on 
landing near our encampment ; the deer were very gentle and 
in great numbers in this bottom which had more timber on it 
than any part of the river we had seen for many days past, 
consisting of Cottonwood Elm, some indifferent Ash and a 
considerable quan[ti]ty of a small species of white oak which 
[was] 3 loaded with acorns of an excellent flavor [having] 3 very 
little of the bitter roughness of the nuts of most species of 
oak, the leaf of this oak is small pale green and deeply 
indented, (not copied for Dr. Barton) it seldom rises higher 
than thirty feet is much branched, the bark is rough and thick 
and of a light colour ; the cup which contains the acorn is 
fringed on it's edges and imbraces the nut about one half; 
the acorns were now falling, and we concluded that the number 
of deer which we saw here had been induced thither by the 
acorns of which they are remarkably fond, almost every 
species of wild game is fond of the acorn, the Buffaloe Elk, 
Deer, bear, turkies, ducks, pigians and even the wolves feed 
on them ; we sent three hunters out who soon added eight 
deer and two Buffalo to our strock of provisions ; the Buffaloe 

1 This entry, and another which is here inserted after Clark's for next day 
(Sept. 1 7), may be found in a fragment designated as Codex Ba. — Ed. 

3 This name became Crow Creek on the maps. — Ed. 

3 These two words in brackets are conjectural readings, the MS. being torn where 
they occur. — Ed. 



were so pour that we took only the tongues skins and marrow 
bones ; the skins were particularly acceptable as we were in 
want of a covering for the large perogue to secure the baggage ; 
the clouds during this day and night prevented my making 
any observations. Serg! Gass and Reubin Fields whom we 
had sent out yesterday to explore the White river returnd at 
four oclock this day and reported that they had followed the 
meanders of that stream about 12 miles it's general course 
[is] West, the present or principal channel 150 yards wide; 
the coulour of the water and rapidity and manner of runing 
resembled the Missouri precisely ; the country broken on the 
border of the river about a mile, when the level planes com- 
mence and extend as far as the eye can reach on either side ; 
as usual no timber appeared except such as from the steep 
declivities of hills, or their moist situations, were sheltered 
from the effects of the fire, these extensive planes had been 
lately birnt and the grass had sprung up and was about three 
inches high, vast herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antilopes 
were seen feeding in every direction as far as the eye of the 
observer could reach. 

White River ij l * Sep! Plomb Camp. 

Course Distance & refferrence 

[Not given. — Ed.] 

17'* of September Monday 1804 — 

Dried all our wet articles, this fine Day, Cap! Lewis went 
out with a View to See the Countrey and its productions, he 
was out all day he killed a Buffalow and a remarkable Bird 
(Magpy) of the Corvus Species long tail the upper part of the 
feathers & also the wings is of a purplish variated Green, the 
back & a part of the wing feathers are white edged with black, 
white belly, while from the root of the wings to Center of the 
back is White, the head nake [neck — Ed.] breast & other 
parts are black the Beeke like a Crow, ab! the Size of a large 
Pigion. a butifull thing. 



I took equal altitudes and a meridian altitude. Cap! Lewis 
returned at Dark, Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed 
and a curious kind of Deer {Mule Deer) of a Dark gray Coif 
more so than common, hair long & fine, the ears large & long, 
a Small reseptical under the eyes ; like an Elk, the Taile about 
the length of Common Deer, round (like a Cow) a tuft of 
black hair about the end, this Spec[i]es of Deer jumps like a 
goat or Sheep 

8 fallow Deer 5 Common & 3 Buffalow killed to day. 
Cap! Lewis saw a hare & killed a Rattle snake in a village of 
B.[arking — Ed.] Squarels the wind from S. W. Dryed 
our provisions, Some of which was much Damaged. 

[Lewis Q Monday September 1 7th. 1 804. 

Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I 
determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with 
my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the 
river and the Corvus Creek, accordingly before sunrise I set 
out with six of my best hunters, two of whom I dispatched to 
the lower side of Corvus creek, two with orders to hunt the 
bottums and woodland on the river, while I retained two 
others to acompany me in the intermediate country, one 
quarter of a mile in rear of our camp which was situated in a 
fine open grove of cotton wood passed a grove of plumb trees 
loaded with fruit and now ripe, observed but little difference 
betwen this fruit and that of a similar kind common to the 
Atlantic States, the trees are smaller and more thickly set. 
this forrest of plumb trees garnish a plain about 20 feet more 
elivated than that on which we were encamped ; this plain 
extends back about a mile to the foot of the hills one mile 
distant and to which it is gradually ascending this plane 
extends with the same bredth from the creek below to the 
distance of near three miles above parrallel with the river, 
and it is intirely occupyed by the burrows of the barking 
squiril hertefore described ; this anamal appears here in infinite 
numbers and the shortness and virdu[r]e of grass gave the 



plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull 
bowling-green in fine order, it's aspect is S. E. a great 
number of wolves of the small kind, halks [hawks — Ed.] and 
some pole-cats were to be seen. I presume that those anamals 
feed on this squirril. found the country in every direction for 
about three miles intersected with deep revenes and steep 
irregular hills of ioo to 200 feet high ; at the tops of these 
hills the country breakes of[f] as usual into a fine leavel plain 
extending as far as the eye can reach, from this plane I had 
an extensive view of the river below, and the irregular hills 
which border the opposite sides of the river and creek, the 
surrounding country had been birnt about a month before and 
young grass had now sprung up to hight of 4 Inches present- 
ing the live green of the spring to the West a high range of 
hills, strech across the country from N. to S. and appeared 
distant about 20 miles ; they are not very extensive as I could 
plainly observe their rise and termination no 'rock appeared 
on them and the sides were covered with virdu[r]e similar to 
that of the plains this senery already rich pleasing and beati- 
ful was still farther hightened by immence herds of BufFaloe, 
deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feed- 
ing on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when 
I estimate the number of BufFaloe which could be com- 
prehend] ed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was 
if possible to kill a female Antelope having already procured a 
male ; I pursued my rout on this plain to the west flanked by 
my two hunters untill eight in the morning when I made the 
signal for them to come to me which they did shortly after, 
we rested our selves about half an hour, and regailed ourselves 
on half a bisquit each and some jirks* of Elk which we had 
taken the precaution to put in our pouches in the morning 
before we set out, and drank of the water of a small pool 
which had collected on this plain from the rains which had 
fallen some days before, we had now after various windings 
in pursuit of several herds of antelopes which we had seen on 
our way made the distance of about eight miles from our camp. 
we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull insomuch 
that we had been unable to get a shot at them ; when at rest 



they generally seelect the most elivated point in the neighbour- 
hood, and as they are watchfull and extreemly quick of sight 
and their sense of smelling very accute it is almost impossible 
to approach them within gunshot ; in short they will fre- 
quently discover and flee from you at the distance of three 
miles. I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility 
and the superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me 
really astonishing. I had pursued and twice surprised a small 
herd of seven, in the first instance they did not discover me 
distinctly and therefore did not run at full speed, tho' they 
took care before they rested to gain an elivated point where it 
was impossible to approach them under cover, except in one 
direction and that happened to be in the direction from which 
the wind blew towards them ; bad as the chance to approch 
them was, I made the best of my way towards them, fre- 
qeuntly peeping over the ridge with which I took care to 
conceal myself from their view the male, of which there was 
but one, frequently incircled the summit of the hill on which 
the females stood in a group, as if to look out for the approach 
of danger. I got within about 200 paces of them when they 
smelt me and fled ; I gained the top of the eminence on which 
they stood, as soon as possible from whence I had an exten- 
sive view of the country the antilopes which had disappeared 
in a steep reveene now appeared at the distance of about three 
miles on the side of a ridge which passed obliquely across me 
and extended about four miles, so soon had these antelopes 
gained the distance at which they had again appeared to my 
view I doubted at ferst that they were the same that I had just 
surprised, but my doubts soon vanished when I beheld the 
rapidity of their flight along the ridge before me it appeared 
reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quad- 
rupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the 
speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the 
finest blooded courser, this morning I saw 1 

1 The sentence remains unfinished. At the bottom of the page is a memoran- 
dum : " This a part of N° 2." — Ed. 



Course Distance & refferences i8'. h Sep" 

N. 45. E. 1 M. to the lower p' of an Island (1) 

N. 25° E. 2 Miles to a p! on the L. S. passed the IsH at one mile 

and some Sand bars making from it, a Creek on 

the S. S. ops'! the upper point. 
N. 14? E. 1 y 2 M'f to a p! of Willows on the L. Side. 
N. 10. W. \y 2 M 1 ? to a point of wood on the L. S. 
N. 22. W. 1 Mile to a pf on the L. S. and the upper part of the 
j timber. 

September 18'* Tuesday 1804 — 

Wind from the N W. we Set out early the boat much 
lightened, the wind a head proceed on verry Slowly (1) 
Passed an Island about the middle of the river at 1 Mile this 
Island is about a Mile long, and has a great perpotion of red 
Ceder on it, 1 a Small Creek comes in on the S. S. opposit the 
head of the Island, proceeded on passed many Sand bars and 
Camped on the L. S. before night the wind being verry hard 
& a head all Day. the hunters Killed 10 Deer to day and a 
Prarie wolf, had it all jurked & Skins Stretch 1 ! after Camping. 

I walked on Shore Saw Goats, Elk, Buffalow, Black tail 
Deer, & the Common Deer, I Killed a Prarie Wollf, about 
the Size of a gray fox bushey tail head & ears like a Wolf, 
Some fur Burrows in the ground and barks like a Small Dog. 

What has been taken heretofore for the Fox was those 
Wolves, and no Foxes has been Seen ; The large Wolves 
are verry numourous, they are of a light coif large & has long 
hair with Coarse fur. 2 ' 

Some Goats of a Different Kind wer Seen yesterday great 
many Porcupin rabits & Barking Squirils in this quarter. 
Plumbs & grapes. 

1 On this island was the old site of Fort Recovery ; on the west bank of the river 
was Fort Cedar (aux Cedres), a post of the Missouri Fur Company. — Coues (£. 
and C, i, p. 122). 

2 The prairie wolf, or coyote (Canis latrans), and the great gray Western wolf 
(C. lupus occidentalis) ; the latter was wont to prowl about buffalo herds. Ed. 





N. 54" 



N. 70? 






N 50? 


26 % 


Course Distance & refferences Sep? ig\ h 

N. 50 W. 3 Miles to a p! of wood on the S. S. opposit is a Bluff 

on L. S. (1) 
North 4 Miles to the Lower p! of prospect Island ops d the 3 

rivers on the S. S. (2) 
N. 30 W. %y 2 Miles to the Upper p! of the Island ps d the 3 
rivers. (2) 
Miles on the L. S. pass'! a Creek (3) 
M 1 ? to a p! on the S. S. 

M's to a Bluff on the L. S. passed a Creek (4) 
M'f to a timber on the L. S. passed a Creek (5) 
M 1 ? to the Upper p! of an Island at the Commencem' of 
the Big bend. (6) 

19'* of September Wednesday 1804 — 

Set out early, a cool morning verry clear the wind from the 
S. E. a Bluff on the L. S. here commences a Butifull Coun- 
trey on both Sides of the Missourie. (2) passed a large Island 
called Prospect Island opposit this, Is? the 3 rivers Corns in, 
passing thro a butifull Plain, here I walked on Shore & 
Killed a fat Cow & Sent her to the boat and proceeded on to 
the first of the 3 rivers, this river is about 35 yards wide con- 
tains a good deel of water, I walked up this river 2 miles & 
cross, the bottom is high and rich Some timber, I crossed & 
returned to the mouth, & proceeded up one mile to the 2? river 
which is Small 12 yards wide, and on it but little timber, on 
this Creek the Sioux has frequently Camped, as appears by 
the Signs, the lands between those two Creeks is a purpen- 
dicular bluff of about 80 feet with a butifull Plain & gentle 
assent back, a Short distance above the 2 n . d a 3 rd Creek Comes 
into the river in 3 places scattering its waters over the large 
timbered bottom, this Creek is near the Size of the Middle 
Creek Containing a greater quantity of water, those rivers is 
the place that all nations who meet are at peace with each other, 
called the Seoux pass of the 3 rivers. 1 

1 Thus named, " as the Sioux generally cross the Missouri at this place. These 
streams have the same right of asylum, though in a less degree than Pipestone Creek 
already mentioned." — Biddle (i, p. 76). 

The present names of these streams are (in ascending order) Crow, Wolf, and 



The boat proceeded on pass? the Island (3) passed a Creek 
15 yds. Wide on the L. Side (4) passed a Creek on the L. 
S. 20 yards wide which I call Elm Creek passing thro' a high 
Plain (5) passed a Creek on the L. S. 18 y d . 8 above which the 
boat Came too, I joined them late at night, and Call this 
Creek Night Creek the wind favourable all Day, I killed 
a fat buck Elk late and could only get his Skin and a Small 
part of his flesh to Camp. My Servent Killed a Buck, the 
Crew in the boat Killed 2 buffalow in the river. The Hunters 
on Shore Killed 4 Deer with black tails one of which was a 
Buck with two main Prongs on each Side forked equally, 
which I never before Seen. I saw Several large gangs of 
Buffalow 2 large Herds of Elk & goats &c. (6) pass a Small 
Island on the S. S. opposit to this Island on the L. S. a 
Creek of about 10 yards wide Corns in passing thro a plain in 
which great quantites of the Prickley Pear grows, I call this 
Creek Prickley Pear Creek, this I si* is called the lower Island 
it is Situated at the Commencement of what is Called & 
Known by the Grand de Tortu \JDetour\ or Big Bend of the 

Course Distance and references — 20*! 1 Sept. (Big Bend) 

From the lower Islands upper p? 

North 4 M 1 ? to a p! on the L. S. Passed one on the S. S. above 

the Island about one & \ M 1 ? 
N. io ? W. 1.1 M ,s on the L. Side 
N. 22? W. 3 JV1 1 ? on the L. Side p d a H bf 
N. 60? W 2 M 1 ? on the L. Side. 
West 3 Ml 5 on the L. S. 

S. 73 W. 314 M 1 ? on the L. Side 
South 4 M 1 ? on the L. S. passed a Small Island on the L. S. a 

Small run ops? S. S. (1) 
S. 74 E. 31^ Ml" to a p! of wood on the L. S. Camped (2) 

S. 56? E. 2% M ' s t0 a P- on the s - s - °P S - a hi g h hiI1 (3) 
S. 28° E. 2 M'f to a Ceder Valey in a bend on the L. S. at this 
™ place the gorge is 2000 y d ! 

Campbell creeks. The first named is the location of Crow Creek Indian Agency and 
Fort Thompson. — Ed. 



20*? of September, Thursday 1804 — 

a fair morning wind from the S. E. detached 2 men to the 
1" Creek above the big bend with the horse to hunt and wait 
our arrival proceeded on passed the lower Island opposit 
which the Sand bars are very thick & the water Shoal. I 
walked on Shore with a view of examening this bend crossed 
at the Narost part which is a high irregular hills of about 1 80 
or 190 feet, this place the gouge of the bend is 1 Mile & a 
quarter (from river to river or across,) from this high land 
which is only in the Gouge, the bend is a Butifull Plain thro 
which I walked, Saw numbers of Buffalow & Goats, I saw 
a Hare & believe he run into a hole in the Side of a hill, he 
run up this hill which is Small & has several holes on the Side 
& I could not see him after, I joined the boat in the evening, 
passed a Small Island on the L. S. in the N. W. extremity of 
the bend Called Solitary Island, and Camped late on a Sand 
Bar near the S. S. R. Fields Killed i Deer & 2 Goats one 
of them a female She Differs from the Mail as to Size being 
Smaller, with Small Horns, Streght with a Small Prong with- 
out any black about the Neck. None of those Goats has any 
Beard, they are all Keenly made [delicately formed. — Biddle], 
and is butifull. 

Course Distance and refP! — 21 st Sep' 

S. 70° W. 4! Miles to the Upper part of a Ceder bottom on the L. S. 

passed Several Sand bars on both Sides. 
N. 50? W. 2J Miles to a tree on the S. S. passing over a Willow 

Island & a Creek on the L. S. (1) 
West 4| Miles to a point of Timber on the L. S. Passed Sand 

bars the river here is verry Shoal and about a Mile 

Wide. (2) Passed large hard Stone on the Shore 
j ji on each Side, a Mock Island on the S. S. 

■2.1 s .' of September Friday 1804 — 

at half past one o'clock this morning the Sand bar on which 
we Camped began to under mind and give way which allarmed 
the Serjeant on Guard, the motion of the boat awakened me; 
I got up & by the light of the moon observed that the Sand 



had given away both above and below our Camp & was falling 
in fast. I ordered all hands on as quick as possible & pushed 
off, we had pushed off but a few minits before the bank under 
which the Boat & perogus lay give way, which would Certainly 
have Sunk both Perogues, by the time we made the ops d . Shore 
our Camp fell in, we made a l\ Camp for the remainder of the 
night. & at Daylight proceeded on to the Gouge of this Great 
bend and Brackfast, we Sent a man to Measure (step off) the 
Distance across the gouge, he made it 2,000 yd s , The distance 
arround is 30 M 1 .* The hills extend thro: the Gouge and is about 
200 foot above the water, in the bend as also the opposit Sides 
both above and below the bend is a butifull inclined Plain," in 
which there is great numbers of Buffalow, Elk & Goats in 
view feeding & scipping on those Plains Grouse, Larks & 
the Prarie bird is Common in those Plains. 

We proceeded on passed a (1) Willow Island below the 
mouth of a Small river called Tylors R aboui 35 Y d . s wide 
which Corns in on the L. S. 6 Miles above the Gouge of the 
bend, at the Mouth of this river the two hunters a head left 
a Deer & its Skin also the Skin of a White wolf. We observe 
an emence number of Plover of Different kind collecting and 
takeing their flight Southerly, also Brants, which appear to 
move in the Same Direction. The Cat fish is Small and not 
so plenty as below. 

(2) The Shore on each Side is lined with hard rough Gulley 
Stone of different Sises, which has roled from the hills & out 
of Small brooks, Ceder is Common here, This day is warm, 
the wind which is not hard blows from the S. E., we Camped 
at the lower point of the Mock Island on the S. S. this now 
Connected with the main land, it has the appearance of once 
being an Island detached from the main land Covered with tall 
Cotton Wood. We Saw Some Camps and tracks of the Seaux 
which appears to be old, three or four weeks ago, one french- 
man I fear has got an abscess on his they [thigh — Ed.], he 
Complains verry much we are makeing every exertion to 
reliev him 

The Praries in this quarter Contains great q? of Prickley 



Course Distance & refferences — 22 nd 

S. 72? W. 5 Miles to a point on the S. S. Passing under a high 
bluff on the L. Side (1) 

West 1 Mile on the S. S. a bottom commencing on the L. S. 

at the end of this Course 
N. 38° W. 41^ Miles to a p? of timber on the S. S. opposit the Lower 

p? of Ceder Island passed two Islands on the L. S. 

one y 2 a Mile & the other 3 Miles long called the 

3 Sisters ops'? a large Creek corns in (2) 
N. 30? W. 3 Miles to a p! on S. S. passed Ceeder Island Situated 

nearest the S. S. a trading house (3) 
N. 22 ? E. ^y ^ Miles to a timber opposit the Lower (L. S.) p'. of a 
^ Small Island called Goat Island. (4) 

22"^ of September Satturday 1804 — 

a thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock passed 
a butifull inclined Prarie on both Sides in which we See great 
numbers of BufFalow feeding. (1) took the Meridean altitude 
of the Suns Upper Limb 92°. 50' 00". [with] the Sextent the 
Lat d produced from this Obsevation is 44° 1 1' 23" Vio North. 

(2) passed a Small Island on the L. S. imediately above 
passed a Island Situated nearest the L. S. ab! 3 Miles long, 
behind this Is d on the L. S. a Creek Comes in about 15 yards 
wide, this Creek and Island are Called the 3 Sisters, a buti- 
full Plain on both Sides of the river. 

(3) passed a Island Situated nearest the S. S. imediately 
above the last Called Ceder Island this Island is about \\ 
miles long & nearly as wide Covered with Ceder, on the 
South Side of this Island Mr. Louiselle a trader from S! Louis 
built a fort of Ceder ' & a good house to trade with the Seaux 
& Wintered last winter; about this fort I observed a number 
of Indian Camps in a Conecal form, they fed their horses on 
Cotton limbs as appears, here our hunters us joined haveing 

1 Gass (p. 58) thus describes this post : "The space picketed in is about 65 or 
70 feet square, with sentry-boxes in two of the angles. The pickets are 13^ feet 
above ground. In this square he built a house 45 j£ by 32^ feet, and divided it into 
four equal parts, one for goods, one to trade in, one to be used as a common hall, and 
the other for a family-house." — Ed. 



killed i Deer & a Beaver, they Complain much of the Min- 
eral Substances in the barren hills over which they passed 
Distroying their mockessons. 

(4) we proceeded on and Camp? late on the S. Side below a 
Small Island in the bend S. S. Called Goat Island, The large 
Stones which lay on the Sides of the banks in Several places 
lay some distance in the river, under the water and is dan- 
gerous. &c. 

I walked out this evening and killed a fine Deer the Mus- 
quiters is verry troublesom in the bottoms. 

Course Distance & refferencies. — 23'. d Sep? 

N. 46? W. 3 1 Miles to the Mouth of a Creek in the bend to the 

S. S. passed an IsH on the S. S. (1) & Sands. 
Miles to a Coaps of Wood at a Spring in a bend to 

the L. S. 
Miles to the lower p! of a large Island (2) passed 2 

Willow Islands & Several Bars. 
Miles to a p! on the L. S. pass upper p. of Elk 

Island at 2J Miles. Several Sands 
Miles to a pf on the S. S. below a Creek on the L. S. 
^ passed a Creek on the S. S. (3) 

■zyl of September Sunday 1804 — 

Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. (1) passed a 
Small Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. Called Goat 
Island, a Short distance above the upper point a Creek of 12 
yards wide Corns in on the S. S. we observed a great Smoke 
to the S. W. I walked on Shore & observed BufFalow in great 
Herds at a distance 

(2) passed two Small Willow Islands* with large Sand bars 
makeing out from them, passed (2) Elk Island about 2^ 
Miles long & ^ Mile Wide Situated near the L. S. Covered 
with Cotton Wood the read Currents Called by the french 
Gres de BeurT. 1 & grapes &c. &c. 

1 [Memoranda by Clark on the inside of front cover and fly-leaf of Codex C :] 
The Mandans call a red berry common to the upper part of the Missouri assay. 
The red Berry is called by the Rees Nar-nis the engages call the same Berry Grease 
de Buff — grows in great abundance & makes a Delightfull Tart. 

VOL. I.-U [ J.6! ] 

S. 46? 



N. 80? 



N. 85? 






the river is nearly Streight for a great distance wide and 
Shoal (4) passed a Creek on the S. S. 16 yards wide we Call 
Reuben Creek, 1 as R. Fields found it. Camped on the S. S. 
below the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. three Souex boys 
Came to us Swam the river and inform d that the Band of 
Seauex called the Tetongues {Tetons) of 80 Lodges were Camped 
at the next Creek above, & 60 Lodges more a Short distance 
above, we gave those boys two Carrots of Tobacco to Carry 
to their Chiefs, with directions to tell them that we would Speek 
to them tomorrow 

Cap! Lewis walked on Shore this evening, R. F. Killed a 
Doe Goat, 

Course Distance & reffurence — 24' 1 ? Septf 

N. 80 W. 3 Miles 1 p! on the S. S. 

West 2% Miles to the S. S. right of a IsH Situated on the 

L. S. (1) 

West 4 Miles to a Point on the S. S. passed the Island on 

the L. S. 

S. 85° W. 4 Miles to the Mouth of a River Called by Evens 2 Lit- 
tle Missourie I call it the Teton river as the 
To Teton Bands of the Soux reside on it (2) 

24'* September Monday 1804 — 

Set out early a fair day the wind from the E. pass the 
mouth of Creek on the L. S. Called Creek on high Water, 
{High Water) passed (i) a large Island on the L. S. about i 
Miles & yi long on which Colter had Camped & Killed 4 
Elk, the wind fair from the S. E. we prepared Some Clothes 
and a flew Meadels for the Chiefs of the Teton's bands of 
Seoux which we expect to See to day at the next river, ob- 
serve a great Deel of Stone on the Sides of the hills on the 
S. S. we Saw one Hare, to day, prepared all things for 

1 Now East Medicine Knoll River (a translation of its Indian name) ; across the 
Missouri here was the site of old Fort George. — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 127). 

2 Probably referring to a map cited by Coues (L. and C, i, p. xxiii), as made by 
one Evans in 1804, showing the Missouri River to the Mandans. See our atlas vol- 
ume, for maps which Lewis and Clark both took with them and made upon the 
Expedition ; one of the former was probably a copy of the Evans map Ed. 

[ 162 ] 


Action in Case of necessity, our Perogus went to the Island 
for the Meet, Soon after the man on Shore run up the bank 
and reported that the Indians had Stolen the horse We Soon 
after Met 5 Indf and ankered out Som distance & Spoke to 
them informed them we were friends, & Wished to Continue 
So but were not afraid of any Indians, Some of their young 
men had taken the horse Sent by their Great father for their 
Cheif and we would not Speek to them untill the horse was 
returned to us again. 

passed (2) a Island on the S. S. on which we Saw Several 
Elk, about \ Y / 2 Miles long Called Good humered \humoured~\ 
Islf Came to about i*/£ Miles above off the Mouth of a 
Small river about 70 yards wide Called by Mr. Evens the 
Little Mississou \_M.issourf\ River, The Tribes of the Seauex 
Called the Teton, is Camped about 2 Miles up on the N. W. 
Side, and we Shall Call the River after that Nation, Teton 1 
This river is 70 yards wide at the mouth. of Water, and has a 
considerable Current we anchored off the mouth 

the french Perogue Come up early in the day, the other did 
not Get up untill in the evening Soon after we had Come too. 
I went & Smoked with the Chiefs who came to See us here 
all well, we prepare to Speek with the Indians tomorrow at 
which time we are informed the Indians will be here, the 
French Man who had for Some time been Sick, began to 
blead which allarmed him 2 /$ of our party Camped on board 
the remainder with the Guard on Shore. 

1 Also known as Bad River. Near its mouth was Fort Pierre (begun in 1831), 
named for Pierre Chouteau. — Ed. 



Chapter IV 


Clark's Journal and Orders, September 25 — October 26, 1 804. 
Order by Lewis, October 13 

[Clark:]] 25'* Sept 

A FAIR Morning the Wind from the S. E. all well, 
raised a Flag Staff & made a orning or Shade on a 
Sand bar in the mouth of Teton River, for the pur- 
pose of Speeking with the Indians under, the Boat Crew on 
board at 70 yards Distance from the bar The 5 Indians 
which we met last night Continued, about 1 1 OClock the 
1! & 2 d . Chief Came we gave them Some of our Provisions to 
eat, they gave us great Quantitis of Meet Some of which was 
Spoiled we feel much at a loss for the want of an interpeter 
the one we have can Speek but little. 

Met in Council at 12 oClock and after Smokeing, agree- 
able to the useal Custom, Cap. Lewis proceeded to Deliver a 
Speech which we [were — Ed.] oblige[d] to Curtail for want 
of a good interpeter all our party paraded, gave a Medal to 
the Grand Chief Call? in Indian Un ton gar Sar bar in French 
Beeffe nure [Beuffle noir] Black Buffalow. Said to be a good 
Man, 2 [nd] Chief Torto hon gar or the Parti sin or Partizan 
bad the 3 rd is the Beffe De Medison [Beuffe de Medecine] 
his name is Tar ton gar Wa ker i t8 . t] Considerable Man, 
War zing go. a [nd:i Considerable Man Second Bear — Mato 
co que par. 

Envited those Cheifs on board to Show them our boat and 
such Curiossities as was Strange to them, we gave them *^ a 
glass of whiskey which they appeared to be verry fond of, 
Sucked the bottle after it was out & Soon began to be trouble- 
som, one the 2 d Cheif assumeing Drunkness, as a Cloake for 
his rascally intentions I went with those Cheifs (in one of the 



Perogues with 5 men — j & 2 Ind') (which left the boat with 
great reluctiance) to Shore with a view of reconsileing those 
men to us, as Soon as I landed the Perogue three of their 
young Men Seased the Cable of the Perogue, (in which we had 
pressents &c) the Chiefs Sold' [each Chief has a soldier\ Huged 
the mast, and the 2 d . Chief was verry insolent both in words & 
justures {pretended Drunkenness £s? staggered up against me) de- 
claring I should not go on, Stateing he had not receved 
presents sufficent from us, his justures were of Such a per- 
sonal nature I felt My self Compeled to Draw my Sword (and 
Made a Signal to the boat to prepare for action) at this Motion 
Cap! Lewis ordered all under arms in the boat, those with 
me also Showed a Disposition to Defend themselves and me, 
the grand Chief then took hold of the roap & ordered the 
young Warrers away, I felt My Self warm & Spoke in verry 
positive terms. 

Most of the Warriers appeared to have ther Bows strung 
and took out their arrows from the quiver, as I (being sur- 
rounded) was not permited (by them) to return, I Sent all the 
men except 2 Inp s [Interpreters] to the boat, the perogue 
Soon returned with about 12 of our determined men ready for 
any event, this movement caused a no: of the Indians to with- 
draw at a distance, (leaving their chiefs 6f soldiers alone with me). 
Their treatment to me was verry rough & I think justified 
roughness on my part, they all lift my Perogue, and Council 1 ! 
with themselves the result I could not lern and nearly all 
went off after remaining in this Situation Some time I offered my 
hand to the 1. & 2. Chiefs who refus? to receve it. I turned off 
& went with my men on board the perogue, I had not pros'! 
more the [than] 10 paces before the I* Cheif 3 rd & 2 Brave 
Men Waded in after me. I took them in & went on board 1 

We proceeded on about 1 Mile & anchored out off a 
Willow Island placed a guard on Shore to protect the Cooks 
& a guard in the boat, fastened the Perogues to the boat, I 
call this Island bad humered Island as we were in a bad humer. 

1 This paragraph is misplaced in the MS. ; it is written on the next page after that 
containing the first part of this council with the Indians. We have placed it in 
proper position. — Ed. 

[ 165] 


Course Distance & reffurences — 26'! 1 Sep' 1804 bad h . d Is? 

N. 28 W. 4J Miles to a p? on the L. S. passing a Small Willow 
Island at 1^ Miles & Several Sand bars the 
Water Shallow came too (1) 

26'* of September Wednesday 1804 — 

Set out early proceeded on and Came to by the Wish of 
the Chiefs for to let their Squars [squaws] & boys see the 
Boat and Suffer them to treat us well great numbers of men 
womin & children on the banks viewing us, these people 
Shew great anxiety, they appear Spritely, Generally ill look- 
ing & not well made their legs [&? arms] Small generally, [high 
cheek bones, prominent eyes] they Grese & Black [paint] 
themselves [with coal] when they dress [the distingi men] 
make use of a hawks feathers [Calumet feather adorned with 
porcupine quills ci? fastened to the top of the head & falls back- 
wards] about their heads, the men [wear] a robe & each a 
polecats Skin, for to hold ther Bawe roley [Bois roule] for 
Smoking, 1 fond of Dress & Show badly armed with fusees, 
&c. The Squaws are Chearfull fine look'g womin not hand- 
som, High Cheeks Dressed in Skins a Peticoat and roab 
which foldes back over ther Sholder, with long wool, do all 
their laborious work & I may Say perfect Slaves to the Men, 
as all Squars of Nations much at War, or where the Womin 
are more noumerous than the men. 2 after Comeing too Cap' 
Lewis & 5 men went on Shore with the Cheifs, who appeared 
disposed to make up & be friendly, after Captain Lewis had 
been on Shore about 3 hours I became uneasy for fear of 
Deception & Sent a Serjeant to See him and know his treat- 
ment which he reported was friendly, & they were prepareing 
for a Dance this evening The[y] made frequent Selicitiations 
for us to remain one night only and let them Show their good 

1 Bois roule, literally "rolled wood," — better known by its Algonkin name, 
Kinikinik (Kinnikinnic), — a mixture of tobacco with scrapings or shavings from 
various woods, especially that of sumac, red osier, and other dogwoods, and bear- 
berry. — Ed. 

! Biddle describes in much greater detail (i, pp. 84-90) the costumes and mode 
of life of these Teton Indians. — Ed. 



disposition towards us, we deturmined to remain, after the 
return of Cap! Lewis, I went on Shore on landing I was 
receved on a elegent painted B.[uffalo] Robe & taken to the 
Village by 6 Men & was not permited to touch the ground 
untill I was put down in the grand Concill house on a White 
dressed Robe. I saw Several Maha Prissners and Spoke to 
the Chiefs [telling them that — Ed.] it was necessary to give 
those prisoners up & become good friends with the Mahas if 
they wished to follow the advice of their great father I was 
in Several Lodges needy formed as before mentioned as to 
the Baureily (Bois brule — Yankton) Tribe. I was met (on 
landing from the boat) by about 10 Well Dress? young Men 
who took me up in a roabe Highly adecrated and Set me 
Down by the Side of their Chief on a Dressed Robe in a large 
Council House, this house formed a ^ Circle of Skins Well 
Dressed and Sown together under this Shelter about 70 Men 
Set forming a Circle in front of the Cheifs a plac of 6 feet 
Diameter was Clear and the pipe of peace raised on (forked) 
Sticks (about 6 or 8 inches from the ground) under which there 
was swans down scattered, on each Side of this Circle two 
Pipes, the (two) flags of Spain 1 & the Flag we gave them 
in front of the Grand Chief a large fire was near in which 
provisions were Cooking, in the Center about 400"?* of excel- 
lent Buffalo Beef as a present for us. Soon after they Set me 
Down, the Men went for Cap! Lewis brought him in the 
same way and placed him also by the Chief in a fiew minits 
an old man rose & Spoke aproveing what we had done & 
informing us of their situation requesting us to take pity on 
them & which was answered. The great Chief then rose with 
great State [speaking — Ed.] to the Same purpote as far as 
we Could learn & then with Great Solemnity took up the pipe 
of Peace & after pointing it to the heavins the 4 quarters of 
the Globe & the earth, he made Some disertation, (then made a 
Speech) lit it and presented the Stem to us to Smoke, when 
the Principal Chief Spoke with the Pipe of Peace he took in 
one hand some of the most Delicate parts of the Dog which 
was prepared for the fiest & made a Sacrefise to the flag, [this 
sentence misplaced in MS., but properly placed by us. — Ed.] 

[ 167 ] 


after A Smoke had taken place, & a Short Harange to his 
people, we were requested to take the Meal (& then put before 
us the dog which they had been cooking, 6? Pemitigon * & ground 
potatoe in Several platters Pern", is Buff" meat dried or jerked 
pounded & mixed with grease raw. Dog Sioux think great dish 
used on festivals eat little of dog — pern", fcf pot' good.) We 
Smoked for an hour (////) Dark & all was Cleared away a 
large fire made in the Center, about 10 Musitions playing on 
tambereens (made of hoops* & Skin stretched), long Sticks with 
Deer & Goats Hoofs tied so as to make a gingling noise, and 
many others of a Similer Kind, those Men began to Sing, & 
Beet on the Tamboren, the Women Came foward highly 
Deckerated in their Way, with the Scalps and Tropies of War 
of their fathers Husbands Brothers or near Connections & 
proceeded to Dance the War Dance (Women only dance jump 
up & down — five or six young men selected accompanied with 
songs the tamborin making the song extempore words C5 1 music 
every now & then one of the com' come out cif repeat some exploit 
in a sort of song — this taken up by the young men and the women 
dance to it) which they done with great Chearfullness untill 
about 12 oClock when we informed the Cheifs that they were 
[must be~\ fatigued [amusing us~\ &c. they then retired & we 
Accomp^ by 4 Cheifs returned to our boat, they Stayed with 
us all night. Those people have Some brave men which they 
make use of as Soldiers those men attend to the police of the 
Village Correct all errors I saw one of them to day whip 
2 Squars, who appeared to have fallen out, when he ap- 
proach? all about appeared to flee with great turrow [terror], 
at night they keep two 3, 4 5 men at different Distances walk- 
ing around Camp Singing the accurrunces of the night 

All the Men on board 100 paces from Shore Wind from 
the S. E. moderate one man verry sick on board with a 
Dangerass Abscess on his Hip. All in Spirits this evening. 

In this Tribe I saw 25 Squars and Boys taken 13 days ago 
in a battle with the Mahars in this battle they Destroy 1 " 40 
Lodges, Killed 75 Men, & som boys & Children, & took 48 

1 Better known as "pemmican." — Ed. 



Prisoners Womin & boys which they promis both Cap! Lewis 
and my self Shall be Delivered up to Mr. Durion at the Bous 
rulie (Bois brule) Tribe, 1 those are a retched and Dejected 
looking people the Squars appear low & Corse but this is an 
unfavourable time to judge of them 

We gave our Mahar intep'f some fiew articles to give those 
Squars in his name Such as Alls, needles &c. &c. 

I saw & eat Pemitigon the Dog, Grou? potatoe made into a 
Kind of homney, which I thought but little inferior. I also 
Saw a Spoon Made of a horn of an Animell of the Sheep 
Kind {the mountain ram of Argalia 2 ) the Spoon will hold 2 

27'? of Sept. Thursday 1804 — 

I rose early after a bad nights Sleep found the Chief [s] 
all up, and the bank as useal lined with Spectators we gave 
the 2 great Cheifs a Blanket a peace, or rether they took off 
agreeable to their Custom the one they lay on and each one 
Peck of corn, after Brackfast Cap! Lewis & the Cheifs went 
on Shore, as a verry large part of their nation was comeing in, 
the Disposition of whome I did not know one of us being 
sufficent on Shore, I wrote a letter to Mr. P. Durion & pre- 
pared a meadel & Some Corns" 8 . {Certificates) & Sent to Cap 
Lewis ' at 2 oClock Cap' Lewis Returned with 4 Chiefs & a 
Brave Man {Consid\ Man) named War cha pa or on his Guard 
when the friends of those people [the Scioux~\ die they run 
arrows through their flesh above and below their elbows as a 
testimony of their Greaf. 

after Staying about half an hour, I went with them on Shore, 
Those men left the boat with reluctience, I went first to the 
2? Cheifs Lodge, where a croud came around after Speeking 
on various Subjects I went to a princpal mans lodge from 
them to the grand Chiefs lodge, after a fiew minits he invited 
me to a Lodge within the Circle in which I Stayed with all 
their principal Men untill the Dance began, which was Similer 
to the one of last night performed by their women with poles 

1 One of the bands of the Teton Sioux. — Ed. 

3 The Rocky Mountain sheep or argal (Ovis montana.) — Ed. 



(in their hands) on which Scalps of their enemies were hung, 
Some with the Guns Spears & War empliments of (taken by) 
their husbands [&V.] in their hands. 

Cap[ Lewis Came on Shore and we Continued untill we were 
Sleepy & returned to our boat, the 2"? Chief & one principal 
Man accompanied us, Those two Indians accompanied me 
on board in the Small Perogue ; Cap! Lewis with a guard Still 
on Shore the man who Steered not being much acustomed to 
Steer, passed the bow of the boat & the peroge Came broad 
Side against the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order 
in a loud voice all hands up & at their ores, my preemptry 
order to the men and the bustle of their getting to their ores 
allarm? the Cheifs, together with the appearance of the Men 
on Shore, as the boat turn? The Cheif hollowaed & allarmed 
the Camp or Town informing them that the Mahars was about 
attacking us (them). In about 10 minits the bank was lined 
with men armed the i"! Cheif at their head, about 200 men 
appeared and after about yi hour returned all but about 60 
men who continued on the bank all night, the Cheifs Cont? 
all night with us. This allarm I as well as Cap! Lewis Con- 
sidered as the Signal of their intentions (which was to Stop our 
proceeding on our journey and if Possible rob us) we were 
on our Guard all night, the misfortune of the loss of our 
Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much expos? 
to the accomplishment of their hostile intentions. P. C. our 
Bowman who c? Speek Mahar informed us in the night that 
the Maha Prisoners informed him we were to be Stoped. we 
Shew as little Sighns of a Knowledge of their intentions as 
possible all prepared on board for any thing which might 
hapen, we kept a Strong guard all night in the boat, no Sleep 

28'* of September 1804 Friday — 

Made many attemps in different ways to find our anchor, 
but Could not, the Sand had Covered it, from the Misfortune 
of last night our boat was laying at Shore in a verry unfavour- 
able Situation, after finding that the anchor Could not be 
found we deturmined to proceed on, with great difficuelty got 

[ 170] 


the Chiefs out of our boat, and when we was about Setting out 
the Class Called the Soldiers took possession of the Cable 
the i" Cheif which was Still on board, & intended to go a 
Short distance up with us. I told him the men of his nation 
Set on the Cable, he went out & told Cap! Lewis who was 
at the bow the men Who Set on the roap was Soldiers, and 
wanted Tobacco Cap! L. [j^/^] would not agree to be forced 
into any thing, the 2? Chief Demanded a flag & Tobacco 
which we refus? to Give Stateing proper reasons to them for 
it after much Dificuelty — which had nearly reduced us to 
necessity to hostilites I threw a Carrot of Tobacco to is! 
Chief took the port fire from the gunner. Spoke so as to 
touch his pride The Chief gave the Tobacco to his Soldiers 
& he jurked the rope from them and handed it to the bowsman 
we then Set out under a Breeze from the S. E. about 2 miles 
up we observed the 3? Chief on Shore beckining to us we 
took him on board he informed us the roap was held by the 
order of the 2? Chief who was a Double Spoken man, Soon 
after we Saw a man Comeing full Speed, thro: the plains left 
his horse & proceeded across a Sand bar near the Shore we 
took him on board & observed that he was the Son of the 
Chief we had on board we Sent by him a talk to the nation 
Stateint [stating] the cause of our hoisting the red flag und! the 
white, if they were for peace Stay at home & do as we 
had Directed them, if the [y] were for war or were Deturmined 
to stop us we were ready to defend our Selves, we halted one 
houre & ^ on the S. S. & made a Substitute of Stones for 
a ancher, refreshed our men and proceeded on about 2 Miles 
higher up & Came to a verry Small Sand bar in the middle 
of the river or Stayed all night, I ani verry unwell for want 
of Sleep F<:turmined to Sleep to night if possible, the Men 
Cooked & we rested well. 

Course Distance & refP 

N. 33 W. 3 Miles to the extmt y of a Sand bar on the L. S. passed 

a Willow IsH on the L. S. at the Corns' of the Course. 

S. 80° W. 3 Ml 3 to an object on the bank in a bend to the S. S. at 

"g" Some woods, ops'? the High land on the L. S. Camped. 



29'* of Sep". Satturday 1804.— 

Set out early Some bad Sand bars, proceeded on at 9 
oCloclc we observed the 2? Chief & 2 principal Men one Man 
& a Squar on Shore, they wished to go up with us as far as 
the other part of their band, which they Said was on the river 
a head not far Distant we refused Stateing verry Sufficint 
reasons and was Plain with them on the Subject, they were 
not pleased observed that they would walk on Shore to the Place 
we intended to Camp to night, we observed it was not our wish 
that they Should for if they did we Could not take them or 
any other Tetons on board except the one we had now with us 
who might go on Shore whenever he pleased, they proceeded 
on, the Chief on board ask'! for a twist x of Tobacco for those 
men we gave him \ of a twist, and Sent one by them for 
that part of their band which we did not See, & Continued on 
Saw great numbers of Elk at the mouth of a Small Creek 
Called No timber C — as no timber appeared to be on it. 
above the mouth of this Creek (a Ricara band of) the Panies 
had a Village 5 years ago, {no remains but the mound which sur- 
rounded the town.) The i\ Cheif came on the Sand bar & 
requested we would put him across the river, I Sent a Perogue 
& Crossed him & one Man to the S. S. and proceeded on & 
Came too on a Sand bar on about */£ Mile from the main Shore 
& put on it 2 Sentinals Continud all night at anchor (we 
Substitute large Stones for anchors in place of the one we lost 
all in high Spirits &c. 

Course Distance & refference — 29 Sept? 

S. 60? W. 2 M 1 ? to a p! on S. S. Passing Several Sand bars. 

N. 8o° W. \\ to a tree on L. S. 

N. 16? E. %\ to a p! on S. S. 

N. 8? W. 1 ^ to the Mouth of a Creek on the L. S. Where the Pa- 

nias had a Town. 

N. 45? E. 2 M 1 ? to a pf on the L. Side 

N. 25? E. \\ Miles to the Lower p! of a Willow Island 2 in the 
71 middle of the river. 

1 The same as the "carrot" mentioned elsewhere. — Ed. 

2 Now Okobojou. — Ed. 

[ 172] 

N. 80? W. 
N. 64? W. 
N. 46? W. 
N. 10. W. 




N. 24? W. 
N. 50 W. 



Course Distance & refferrence — 30'* Sep! 

N. 30 W. 3 Miles to a tree at the upper p! of some woods on the 
S. S. 
Miles on the S. S. 
M 1 ? to a Bush on L. S. 
M ls on the L. S. 
M 1 ? to a p! on the S. S. passed Several Sand bars & 

the Camp of a Band of Teton.s (1) 
Miles to a tree on the S. S. 
M'f to a p* on the L. S. 

M'f to the Lower p! of Pania Island J situated in the 
20 i^ mid 1 , of the river (2) 

30''' of Sep'. Sunday 1804 — 

Set out this morning early had not proceeded on far before 
we discovered an Ind" running after us, he came up with us 
at 7 oClock & requested to come on bord and go up to the 
Recorees 2 we refused to take any of that band on board if 
he chose to proceed on Shore it was verry Well Soon after 
I descovered on the hills at a great distance great numbers of 
Indians which appeared to be makeing to the river above us, 
we proceeded on under a Double reafed Sail, & some rain at 
9 oClock observed a large band of Indians the Same which I 
had before seen on the hills incamping on the bank the L. S. 
we Came too on a Sand bar Brackfast & proceeded on & Cast 
the anchor opposit their Lodge at about 100 yards distant, and 
informed the Indians which we found to be a part of the Band 
we had before Seen, that (we) took them by the hand and Sent 
to each Chief a Carrot of tobacco, as we had been treated 
badly by some of the band below, after Staying 2 days for 
them, we Could not delay any time, & referred them to Mr. 
Durion for a full account of us and to here our Talk Sent by 
him to the Tetons, those were verry selicitious for us to land 
and eate with them, that they were friendly &c. &c. we ap- 

1 Now Cheyenne. — Ed. 

2 Otherwise called Ricaree, Ree, or, more correctly, Ankara ; Lewis says 
("Statistical View," p. 23) that they are "the remains of ten large tribes of Panias 
(Pawnees) ; " and estimates that they then (1806) numbered 500 warriors, or 2,000 
souls. Cf. Biddle's account of their migrations (i, 104). — Ed. 



poligised & proceeded on, 1 Sent the Peroge to Shore above 
with the Tobacco & Deliv? it to a Sold' of the Chief with us 
Several of them ran up the river, the Chf! on board threw 
them out a Small twist of Tobacco & told them to go back & 
open ther ears, they rec[e]ved the Tobacco & returned to 
their lodges, we saw great numbers of white Guls This day 
is Cloudy & rainey. refresh the men with a glass of whisky 
after Brackfast. 

We Saw about 6 Miles above 1 Indians who Came to the 
bank and looked at us about l / 2 an hour & went over the hills 
to the S. W. we proceeded on under a verry Stiff Breeze 
from the S. E., the Stern of the boat got fast on a log and 
the boat turned & was verry near filling before we got her 
righted, the waves being verry high, The Chief on board was 
So fritened at the Motion of the boat which in its rocking 
Caused Several loose articles to fall on the Deck from the 
lockers, he ran off and hid himself, we landed, he got his gun 
and informed us he wished to return, that all things were 
cleare for us to go on, we would not see any more Tetons &c. 
we repeated to him what had been Said before, and advised 
him to keep his men away, gave him a blanket a Knife & some 
Tobacco, Smok* a pipe & he Set out. We also Set Sale and 
Came to at a Sand bar, & Camped, a verry Cold evening, all 
on guard. 

Course Distance & reffurence — I st October 

N. 8o° W. 3 M'. s to the upper p! of a large Island in the River, (i) 2 
N. 70 W. 2 M 1 ? to the Mouth of Chien or Dog River 3 on the 

L. S. (2) 2 
N. 16? W. 2^ Miles to a p] on the S. S. Passed verry bad Sand 

N. 50 E. 4 Mile to Some Willows on the L. S. passed 2 Creeks 

on the L. S. the upper Small. 
S. 53 E. 4 1 M 1 ? to a p? on the S. S. passing a Bluff on the L. S. 


1 Passed 60 Lodges of Tetons, the remainder of the band. — Clark (memoran- 
dum on p. 215 of Codex C). 

5 In MS., these figures are misplaced. — Ed. 

8 Erroneously thus named, from the resemblance of the French word chien 
(dog) to the tribal name Cheyenne. — Ed. 



Sand bars are So noumerous, that it is impossible to describe 
them, & think it unnecessary to mention them. 

i sl . of October Monday 1804 — 

The wind blew hard all last night from the S. E. verry cold 
Set out early the wind Still hard, passed a large Island in the 
middle of the river (i) ops? the lower point of this Island the 
Recrerees formerly lived in a large Town on the L. S. {remains 
only a mound circular walls J or 4 feet high) above the h ead of 
the Island about 1 miles we passed the (2) River Chien (or 
Dog River) (Chayenne) L. S. this river Comes in from the 
S. W. and is about 400 yards wide, the Current appears gentle, 
throwing out but little Sands, and appears to throw out but 
little water the heads of this River is not known (in the second 
range of the Cote Noir its course generally about East. So 
called from the Chayenne Indians who live on the heads of it) 
a part of the nation of Dog Indians live some distance up this 
river, the precise distance I cant learn, above the mouth of 
this river the Sand bars are thick and the water Shoal the 
river Still verry wide and falling a little we are obliged to 
haul the boat over a Sand bar, after makeing Several attempts 
to pass, the wind So hard we Came too & Stayed 3 hours 
after it Slackened a little we proceeded on round a bend, the 
wind in the after part of the Day a head. (1) passed a Creek 
on the L. S. which we Call the Sentinal, this part of the river 
has but little timber, the hills not so high, the Sand bars more 
noumerous, & river more than one mile Wide including the 
Sand bars. (1) pass a Small Creek above the latter which we 
Call lookout C. Continued on with the wind imediately a head, 
and Came too on a large Sand bar in the middle of the river, 
we Saw a man opposit to our Camp on the L. S. which we 
discov? to be a Frenchman, a little of [f] (from Shore among) 
the Willows we observed a house, we Call to them to come 
over, a boy came in a canoe & informed that 1 frenchmen 
were at the house with good[s] to trade with the Seauex which 
he expected down from the rickerrees everry day, Sever'l 
large parties of Seauex Set out from the rees for this place to 
trade with those men. 



This M.'. Jon Vallie 1 informs us that he wintered last winter 
300 Leagues up the Chien River under the Black mountains, 
he informs that this river is verry rapid and dificuelt even for 
Perogues \Canoos\ to assend and when riseing the Swels is 
verry high, one hundred Leagues up it forks one fork 
Comes from the S. the other at 40 Leagues above the forks 
enters the black Mountain. The Countrey from the Missourie 
to the black mountains is much like the Countrey on the 
Missourie, less timber. & a great perpotion of Ceder. 

The black mountains he Says is verry high, and Some parts 
of it has Snow on it in the Summer great quantities of Pine 
Grow on the Mountains, a great Noise is heard frequently 
on those Mountains". No beever on Dog river, on the 
Mountains great numbers of goat, and a kind of anamale 
with large circular horns, this animale is nearly the Size of an 
[Small~\ Elk. \Argaled\ White bears is also plenty The 
Chien (Ckayenne) Ind! are about 300 Lodges 2 they inhabit this 
river principally, and Steel horses from the Spanish Settle- 
ments, to the S.W. this excurtion they make in one month 
the bottoms & Sides of R Chien is corse gravel. This french- 
man gives an account of a white booted turkey an inhabitent 
of the Cout Noir {Prairie Cock) 

it of October Monday 1804 at the Mouth of River Chien or Dog R* — 

We proceeded now from the mouth of this river 1 1 miles 
and camped on a Sand bar in the river opposit to a Tradeing 
house verry windy & cold. 1 1 miles above — Chien R 8 — 

1 Evidently meant for Jean Valle — probably a relative of the Francois Valle who 
was commandant at Ste. Genevieve at the time when that post was delivered by the 
Spaniards to the United States authorities. — Ed. 

2 The Cheyenne tribe is (like the Arapaho) of Algonquian stock. Powell thinks 
that these savages, having early separated from their kindred at the North, forced their 
way through hostile tribes, across the Missouri, into the Black Hills country — thus 
locating between the Siouan and the Shoshonean tribes. See Mooney's account of 
this tribe, in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892-93, pp. 1023-1027. — Ed. 

* This paragraph is found on p. 2 of Codex C. — Ed. 



70? E. 



80° E. 



62. E. 



15 E. 



28? E. 



Course Distance and refferrens. — 2 n . d of Octf 

Miles to a wood on the L. Side pass a large Sand bar 
in the middle & a Willow Is? close under the L. S. 
M 1 ? on the L. S. 

Miles on the L. S. a Willow bottom opposit on the S. S. 
Miles to the L. Side of an Island Situated near the S. S. 

& 1 M! above the lower point of the S? Island (1) 
Miles to the p! of a Sand bar Makeing from the head 
Yi of the Island & Camped (2) 

2*? of October Tuesday 1804 — 

a Violent wind all night from the S. E. Slackened a little and 
we proceeded on M r . Jon Vallie Came on board and proceeded 
on 1 Miles with us, a verry Cold morning Some black. Clouds 
flying took a Meridian altitude & made the Lattitude 44 
jg' 36". North this was taken at the upper part of the gouge 
of the Lookout bend, the Sentinal heard a Shot over the 
hills to the L. S. dureing the time we were Dineing on a large 
Sand bar. the after part of this day is pleasent, at 2 oClock 
opposit a Wood on the L. S. we observed Some Indians on a 
hill on the S. S. one Came down to the river opposit to us 
and fired off his gun, & becken 1 ! to us to Come too, we 
payed no attention to him he followed on Some distance, 
we Spoke a few words to him, he wished us to go a Shore 
and to his Camp which was over the hill and Consisted of 20 
Lodges, 1 we excused our Selves advised him to go and here 
our talk of M' Durion, he enquired for traders we informed 
him one was in the next bend below. & parted, he returned, 
& we proceeded on (1) passed a large Island, on the S. S. 
here we expected the Tetons would a'ttempt to Stop us and 
under that idear we prepared our selves for action which we 
expected every moment, ops'! this Island on the L. S. a Small 
Creek Corns in, This Island we call Is? of Caution 2 we took 
in Some wood on a favourable Situation where we Could 

1 Gass says (p. 68) : " He said he belonged to the Jonkta or Babarole band,' 
probably referring to the Yankton. — Ed. 

2 Now Plum Island. — Ed. 

vol. 1. — 12 



defend our Men on Shore & (2) Camped on a Sand bar \ a 
Mile from the main Shore the Wind changed to the N. W. 
& rose verry high and Cold which Continud. The Current 
of the Missourie is less rapid & Contains much less sediment, 
of the Same Colour. 

z 'lf °f October Tuesday 1804 1 — 

Proceeded on as mentioned in Journal No. i twelve miles 
camped above a large Island on a Sand bar, verry windy and 
cold the after part of this day, the mid day verry warm. The 
Lattitude as taken to day is 44° 19' 36" observe great caution 
this day expecting the Seaux intentions some what hostile 
towards our progression, The river not so rapid as below the 
Chien, its width nearly the same, 12 miles 

3'd of October Wednesday 1804. — Wind blew hard all night from 
the N. W. Some rain and verry Cold we Set out at 7 oClock & 
proceeded on 

M's to a p! of Wood on the L. S. 

Miles to a tree in a bend S. S. 

Miles to a p! High Land on L. S. wind hard a head 

Came too & Dined. 
Miles to the head of good hope Island. 2 Indians 

Came to the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. 

3^f of October Wednesday 1 804 2 — 

The N. W. wind blew verry hard all night with Some rain 
a cold morning, we Set out at 7 oClock and proceeded on 
at 12 oclock landed on a Bare L. S. examined the Perogus 
& focatle {forecastle) of the {boat) to See if the mice had done 
any damage, Several bags cut by them corn scattered &c 
Some of our clothes also spoiled by them, and papers &c, &c. 
at 1 oClock an Indian came to the bank S. S. with a turkey 
on his back, four others Soon joined him, we attempted 
several chanels and could not find water to assend, landed on 

N. 50° 

N. 54 

E. 2^ 
E 2 

N. 22° 

w. A y 2 

1 This entry is found on p. 2 of Codex C. — Ed. 

2 At this point the journal is continued in Codex C, the last entry therein being 
dated April 7, 1805. — Ed. 



a Sand bar & concluded to Stay all night, & Send out and 
hunt a chanell, some rain this afternoon. Saw Brant and 
white gulls flying Southerly in large flocks. 

Course Distance & reffurences. 3 rd 

N. 50? E %yf z miles to a point of wood on the Larboard Side. 
N. 54° E 2 miles to a tree in the bend to the Larboard Side. 
North 2 miles to a point of high Land on the Larboard Side. 

N. 22? W. i)/ 2 miles on the L. Side under a Bluff. 
8 miles 

4^ of October Thursday 1804 — 

the wind blew all night from the NW. some rain, we were 
obliged to Drop down 3 miles to get the Chanel Suf ! deep to 
pass up, Several Indians on the Shore viewing of us called 
to us to land one of them gave 3 yels & Sciped [skipped] a 
ball before us, we payed no attention to him, proceeded on 
and came t&o on the L. S. to brackf't one of those Indians 
swam across to us beged for Powder, we gave him a piece of 
Tobacco & Set him over on a Sand bar, and set out,, the 
wind hard ahead (1) passed a Island in the middle of the river 
about 3 miles in length, we call Good hope Island, (2) at 4 
miles passed a (2) Creek on the L. S. about 12 yards wide 
Capt. Lewis and 3 men walked on Shore & crossed over to an 
(3) Island situated on the S. S. of the current & near the center 
of the river this IsM is about \ x / 2 miles long & nearly ^ as 
wide, in the Center of this Island was an old village of the 
rickeries called La hoo catt it was circular and walled contain- 
ing 17 lodges and it appears to have been deserted about five 
years, the Island contains but little timber, we camped on 
the Sand bar makeing from this Island,' the day verry cool. 

Course Distance & reffurences, 4 1 .! 1 Oct! 

N. 18° W. %y 2 miles to a p! on the S. S. passed an Island Goodhope 

in the middle of the river (1) 
N. 12? E. iyi miles on the S. S. passed a creek on the L. S. (2) 
N. 45? E. 2 miles on the S. p' passed an Island on which there 
72 was a Village (3) of Ricreries in the year 1797. 

La hoo-catt 



5'* of October, Friday 1804 — 

Frost this morning, we Set out early and proceeded on 
(1) passed a Small Creek on the L. S. at 7 oClock heard 
some yels proceeded on Saw 3 Indians of the Teton band, 
they called to us to come on Shore, beged Some Tobacco, we 
answ 1 ! them as useal and proceeded on, passed (2) a Creek on 
the S. S. at 3 m 1 ? above the mouth we saw one white Brant 
in a gang of about 30, the others all as dark as usial, a Dis- 
cription of this kind of Gees or Brant shall be given here after 
Saw a gang of Goats Swiming across the river out of which we 
killed four they were not fatt. in the evening passed a Small 
(3) Island Situated close to the L. Side, at the head of this 
Is d . a large Creek corns in on the L. S. saw white Brants, we 
call this Creek white Brant Creek. I walked on the Isl found 
it Covered with wild Rye, I Shot a Buck, Saw a large gang 
of Goat on the hills opposit, one Buck killed, also a Prarie 
wolf this evening. The high Land not so high as below, river 
about the Same width, the Sand bars as noumerous, the earth 
Black and many of the Bluffs have the Appearance of being 
on fire. We came too and camped on a mud bar makeing 
from the S. S. the evening is calm and pleasent, refreshed 
the men with a glass of whiskey. 

Course Distance & reffurences. — ^ October 

N. 63? E. \y 2 under Some high land on the S. S. 

East. 3 miles to a point of Timber on the L. S. passed a 

creek on the L. S. (1) high land on the S. S. 
N. 80 E 1 y 2 m 1 ? to a Tree in the bend to the S. S. 
N. 36? W. 2 ml s to a p' of high land on the L. S. passd a creek on 

the S. S. (2) 
N. 50? W. 3 miles to a Point to the S. S. 
N. 17? W. 3 m 1 ? to a tree on the S. S. pass d a Small Island close 

on the L. S. above the S? Island a Creek comes 

in on the L. S. 
N. 16? E. 6 m'f to a p! on the L. Side opposit a Willow Island 
"^ Situated near the S. Shore 



&<!\ October Satturday 1804. — 

a cool morning wind from the North Set out early passed 
a willow Island (1) Situated near the S. Shore at the upper 
point of Som timber on the S. S. many large round Stones 
near the middle of the river, those Stones appear to have been 
washed from the hills (2) passed a Village of about 80 neet 
Lodges covered with earth and picketed around, those loges 
are Spicious [spacious — Ed.] of an Octagon form as close 
together as they can possibly be placed and appear to have 
been inhabited last Spring, from the Canoes of Skins Mats 
buckits &c. found in the lodges, we are of oppinion they were 
the recrereis We found Squashes of 3 Different Kinds grow- 
ing in the Village, one of our men Killed an Elk close by 
this Village, I saw 2 wolves in persute of another which 
appeared to be wounded and nearly tired, we proceeded on 
found the river Shole we made Several attempts to find the 
main Chan'nel between the Sand bars, and was obliged at length 
to Drag the boat over to Save a league which we must return 
to get into the deepest Channel, we have been obg d to hunt a 
Chan 1 for Some time past the river being devided in many 
places in a great number of Chanels, Saw Gees, Swan, Brants, 
& Ducks of Different Kinds on the Sand bars to day, Cap' 
Lewis walked on Shore Saw great numbers of Prarie hens, I 
observe but fiew Gulls or Pleover in this part of the river, 
The Corvos or Magpye is verry Common in this quarter. 
We camped on a large Sand bar off the mouth of Beaver or 
Otter Creek, on the S.S. this creek is about 22 yards wide 
at the mouth and contains a greater perpotion of Water than 
common for creeks of its Sise 1 

Course Distance and RefFurences — 6 th Oct- 
N. 4 ? E 8 miles to a point of woodland on the L. S. passed a 
willow Is? S. S. 
M! on the L. Side 
M'f to a point on the S. S. passed an old Village of 

the Rickorrees at the Corns! of this Course (2) 
Miles the Mouth of Beaver (otter Creek) on the S. S. 
a large Sand bar opposit 

1 Now Swan Creek, in Walworth Co. — Coues (Z.. and C , i, p. 155). 





I I 


3 2 


3 I 






y' h of October Sunday 1804 — 

a Cloudy morning, Some little rain frost last night, we 
Set out early proceeded on i miles to the mouth of a (i) 
River on the L.S. and brackfast this river when full is 90 
yards wide the water is at this time Confined within 20 yards, 
the Current appears jentle, this river throws out but little 
Sand, at the mouth of this river we Saw the Tracks of white 
bear which was verry large, I walked up this river a mile, 
below the (2) mouth of this river is the remains of a Rickorree 
Village or Wintering Camp fortified in a circular form of about 
60 Lodges, built in the Same form of those passed yesterday 
This Camp appears to have been inhabited last winter, many 
of their willow and Straw mats, Baskets & Buffalow Skin 
Canoes remain intire within the Camp, the Ricaries call this 
river Sur-war-kar-na or Park. 1 \_R . ? ] 

Course Distance & Reffurences — 7 th October 

N. 42 W. 2 Miles to the Mouth of a River Caled Sur war car na 
in a bend to the L. S. (1) a village at Mo: (2) 

N. 30? E. 3^ M'f to a Clump of bushes in a bend to the S. S. pass- 
ing for ^ mile on the L. S. 

N. 30? W. 2 miles to a pt of high land on the L. Side, passed a 
willow Island (3) 

N. 35 W. 7 on the L. Side passed a Sand bar on the S. S. (4) 

N. 10? W. 1 mile on the L. S. to a pt. 

N. 80? W. 3 miles to the left Side of an Island (5) in the mid river 

N. 45? W. 1 Mile to the head of the Willows at the head of the S. 
Grouse IsH 

West 2 y 2 miles to a point on the main S. S. a large Sand bar 

22 from the upper point of the Island high land on 

both Sides opposit this Island. 

from this river {which heads in the 1". black mountains) we 
proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S.W. at 
10 oClock we Saw 2 Indians on the S.S. they asked for some- 
thing to eat, & informed us they were part of the Beiffs De 
Medesons (Beuffles de Medecines) Lodge on their way to the 

1 Now Owl, or Moreau, River. — Ed. 



Riclcerrees passed (3) a Willow Island in a bend to the S.S. 
(4) at 5 Miles pass 1 ! a willow Island on the S.S. Wind hard 
from the South in the evening I walked on an (5) Island 
nearly the middle of the river Called Grous Island, {the walls 
of a village on this island) one of the men killed a Shee 
Brarow, 1 another man Killed a Black tail Deer, the largest 
Doe I ever Saw, (Black under her breast) this Island is 
nearly 1 fy m 1 .* Squar no timber high and Covered with grass 
wild rye and contains Great Numbers of Grouse, we pro- 
ceeded on a Short distance above the Island and Camped on 
the S.S. a fine evening. 

8";* of October Monday 1804 

a cool morning Set out early the wind from the N.W. 
proceeded on, passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L.S. 
about i\ miles above Grouse Island, (3) passed a Willow 
Island which divides the Current equilly. (2) passed the 
mouth of a River called by the Ricares We tar hoo 2 on the 
L.S. this river is 120 yards wide, the water of which at this 
time is Confined within 20 yards, dischargeing but a Small 
quantity, throwing out mud with Small propotion of Sand, 
great quantities of the red Berries, ressembling Currents, are 
on the river in every bend. JJ°. JJ . 00" Lattitude from the 
obsevation of to day at the mouth of this river (heads in the 
Black mount' n) is 45°. 39'. 5" North, proceeded on passed a 
(3) Small river of 25 yards wide Called (4) Rear par or Beaver 
Dam R: this river \Ma ro pa~\ 3 is entirely chocked up with 
mud, with a Streem of 1 Inch Diamiter passing through, des- 
charging no Sand, at 1 (5) mile passed the lower pint of 
an Island close on the L.S. 2 of ,our men discovered the 
ricckerree village, about the Center of the Island on the L. 
Side on the main Shore, this Island is about 3 miles long, 
Seperated from the L.S. by a Channel of about 60 yards wide 
verry Deep, The Isl? is covered with fields, where those 
People raise their Corn Tobacco Beens &c. &c. Great num- 

1 Corrupt form of blaireau (the badger). — Ed. 

2 Now Grand River ; an Indian agency of the same name at its mouth. — Ed. 
8 Known as Rampart Creek, and Oak Creek. — Ed. 



bers of those people came on the Island to See us pass, we 
passed above the head of the Island & Cap! Lewis with 2 
interpeters & i men went to the Village I formed a Camp of 
the french & the guard on Shore, with one Sentinal on board 
of the boat at anchor, a pleasent evening all things arranged 
both for Peace or War, This Village (6) is Situated about 
the center of a large Island near the L. Side & near the foot 
of Some high bald uneaven hills, Several french men Came 
up with Cap! Lewis in a Perogue, one of which is a M! Gravel- 
lin x a man well versed in the language of this nation and gave 
us some information relitive to the Countrey nat[i]on &c. 

Courses Distance and reffurences. — 8'? Oct' 

N. 70? W 2 Miles to a tree in the bend to the L. Side, passed a 
small Creek L. S. (1) 
miles to the p! on the S. S. 
2^£ to the mo: of a River \We ter boo 120 yds wide] in 
the bend to the L. S. (2) passing over a willow 
Island (3) 
mile on the L. Side 
mile on the L. S. to the Mouth of a Small river \Ma- 

ro-pa] (4) 
mile to the lower p] of an Is"! (5) 
Miles to a p'. on the S. S. pass d the head of the Is? and 
7i the I* rickorries Village (6) opps d a Creek we 

Call after the I s .' Chief Ka kaw iss assa Creek. L. S. 

^Orderly Book; Clark:] Orders October the 8* 1804. 

Robert Frazer being regularly inlisted and haveing become 
one of the Corps of Vollenteers for North-Western Discovery, he 
is therefore to be viewed & respected accordingly ; and will be 
anexed to Sergeant Gass's mess. 

W M Clark Cp! &c. 
Meriwether Lewis 
Cap! l* U.S. Reg! Infty 

1 Joseph Gravelines, a trader residing among the Ankara tribe, in company with 
Antoine Tabeau (Tabo), who is mentioned below. — Ed. 


N. 10? W. 
N. 15 E. 


N. 40? E. 
N. 30 E 


N. 15? E 



[Xlark :] River Maropa 9'* of October 1 804. Tuesday — 

a windey rainey night, and cold, So much So we Could not 
speek with the Indians to day the three great Chiefs and 
many others Came to see us to day, we gave them some 
tobacco and informed them we would Speek on tomorrow, 
the day continued Cold & windey some rain Sorry Canoos 
of Skins passed down from the 2 Villages a Short distance 
above, and many Came to view us all day, much astonished 
at my black Servent, who did not lose the. opportunity of 
[displaying — Ed.] his powers Strength &c. &c. this' nation 
never Saw a black man before. 1 

Several hunters Came in with loades of meat, I observed 
Several Canoos made of a Single Buffalow Skin with 3 thre 
squars Cross the river to day in waves as high as I ever Saw 
them on this river, quite uncomposed I have a Slite Plursie 
this eyening verry cold &c. &c. 2 

I 1 ? Chiefs name Ka kawissassa (lighting Crow) 

2 d do do Pocasse (or Hay) 

3 r ? do do piabeto (or Eagles feather) 

10'* of October Wednesday 1804. 

a fine morning wind from the S.E. at about 1 1 oClock the 
wind Shifted, to the N. W. we prepare all things ready to 
Speak to the Indians, M^ Tabo & M' Gravolin came to brack- 


1 By way of amusement he told them that he had once been a wild animal, and 
caught and tamed by his master ; and to convince them showed them feats of strength 
which added to his looks made him more terrible than we wished him to be. — 
Biddle (i, p. 101). 

In a rare pamphlet entitled Adventures of Zenas Leonard (Clearfield, Pa., 1839) 

— for information regarding which see Chittenden's Amer. Fur Trade, i, p. 397 — 
is an account of a negro residing (1832-34) in the Crow village at the junction of 
Bighorn and Stinking rivers, who apparently was Clark's servant York. He told 
Leonard that he first went to that country with Lewis and Clark, with whom he 
returned to Missouri ; that he afterward accompanied a trader up the Missouri, and 
had remained with the Indians ever since (about ten or twelve years). He had, 
when Leonard saw him, four Indian wives, and possessed much reputation and influ- 
ence among the Crows, from whom he secured the return of some horses which they 
had stolen from Leonard's party. — Walter B. Douglas (St. Louis). 

2 Wind blew hard this morning drove the boat from her anker, to shore. — 
Clark (memorandum on p. 224 of Codex C). 



fast with us the Cheefs &c. came from the lower Town, but 
none from the 2 upper Towns, which is the largest, we Con- 
tinue to delay & waite for them at 12 oClock Despatchd 
Gravelin to envite them to come down, we have every reason 
to believe that a gellousy exists between the Villages for fear 
of our makeing the 1" Cheif from the lower Village, at one 
oClock the Cheifs all assembled & after Some little Cerremony 
the council Commenced, we inform d them what we had told 
the others before i. e. Ottoes & Seaux. made 3 Cheif 1 for 
each Village ; gave them presents, after the Council was 
over we Shot the air guns which astonished them much, the[y] 
then Departed and we rested Secure all night, Those Indians 
wer much astonished at my Servent, they never Saw a black 
man before, all flocked around him & examin d him from top 
to toe, he Carried on the joke and made himself more turribal 
than we wished him to doe. Those Indians are not fond of 
Spirt' Licquer. of any kind x 

n'f October Thursday 1804 — 

a fine morning the wind from the S.E. at 11 oClock we 
met the Grand Cheif in Councel and he made a Short Speech 
thanking us for what we had given him & his nation promisse- 
ing to attend to the Council we had given him & informed 
us the road was open & no one dare Shut it, & we might 
Departe at pleasure, at i oClock we Set out for the upper 
Villages 3 miles destant, the Grand Cheif & nephew on board, 
proceeded on at i mile took in the 2 d Cheif & Came too off 
the first [second'] Village Seperated from the 3f d by a Creek 
after arrangeing all matters we walked up with the 2 d Cheif to 
his Village, and Set talking on Various Subjects untill late we 
also visited the upper or 3 rd Village each of which gave us 
Something to eate in their way, and a new bushels of Corn 
Beens &c. &c. after being treated by everry civility by those 
people who are both pore & Durtey we returned to our boat 

1 Much pleased, the french Chief lost his presents by his Skin Canoe overset- 
ting, shot the air gun, the men traded some fiew articles for Robes had the Corn 
mill set up & shewed the Ind; its opperation after Speaking to them &c. — Clark 
{ut supra). 



at about 10 oClk. P M. informing them before we Departed 
that we would Speek to them tomorrow at there Seperate 
Villages, Those people gave us to eate bread made of Corn 
& Beens, also Corn & Beans boil 1 ! a large Been (of) which they 
rob the mice of the Prarie (who collect &? discover it) which is 
rich & verry nurrishing also [^quashes &c. all Tranquillity. 

Course Distance & Reffurence I2 1 ,! 1 [ll-?] Oct? 

N. +5. E 2 Miles to the mouth of a Creek between the 2 upper 

Villages of the Rickeres L. S. (1) 
S. 75? E \y 2 Miles the point on the L. S. passed the Village (2) 
N. +5? E. 2 M 1 .' to a point of wood on the L. S. 
N. 20? W. iy 2 miles to a p! on the S. S. 
N. 8 W. 1 y Miles to a point on L. S. passed a Sand bar. 

• i»** October Friday 1804 — 

I rose early after brackfast we joined the Indians who were 
waiting on the bank for us to come out and go and councel, 
we accordingly joined them and went to the house of the- 2". d 
Cheif Lassel where there was many Cheif and Warriers & [they 
made us a present of — Biddle] about 7 bushels of Corn, a 
pr. of Leagins, a twist of their Tobacco, & Seeds of 2 Kind 
of Tobacco ' we Set Some time before the Councill Com- 
menced this man Spoke at Some length declareing his dis- 
potion to believe and prosue our Councils, his intention of 
going to Visit his great father acknowledged the Satisfaction 
in receiveing the presents &c. rais'g a Doubt as to the Safty 
in passing the Nations below particularly the Souex. requested 
us to take a Chief of their nation and, make a good peace with 
Mandins & nations above, after answering those parts of the 
2 d Cheifs Speech which required it, which appeared to give 
general Satisfaction we went to the Village of the 3" 1 Chief and 
as usial Some Serimony took place before he Could Speek to 
us on the Great Subject. This Chief Spoke verry much in 
the [same] Stile on nearly the Same Subjects of the other Chief 

1 Their tobacco is different from any I had before seen 5 it answers for smoking, 
but not for chewing. — Gass (p. 73). 

[ 187 ] 


who Set by his Side, more Sincear & pleasently, he presented 
us with about 10 bushels of Corn 1 Some beens & [s]quashes 
all of which we acksepted with much pleasure, after we had 
ans"! his Speech & give them Some account of the Magnitude 
& power of our Countrey which pleased and astonished them 
verry much we returned to our boat, the Chiefs accompanied 
us on board, we gave them Some Sugar a little Salt and a 
Sun Glass, & Set 1 on Shore & the third proceeded on with 
us to the Mandens by name [blank space in MS.] at 2 
oClock we Set out the inhabitents of the two Villages Viewing 
us from the banks, we proceeded on about 9^ miles and 
Camped on the S.S. at Some woods passed, the evening Clear 
& pleasent Cool. 

The Nation of the Rickerries (Rickaras) is about 600 men 
(Ml Taboe says, I think 500 men) (M T . Tabat is right) able to 
bear arms a Great perpotion of them have fusees they 
appear to be peacefull, their men tall and perpotiend, 2 womin 
Small and industerous, raise great quantities of Corn Beens 
Simnins 3 &c. also Tobacco for the men to Smoke they col- 
lect all the wood and do the drugery as Common amongst 

This nation is {two villages are) made up of 10 (nine) Dif- 
ferent Tribes of the Pania (Panies), who had formerly been 
Seperate, but by Commotion and war with their neighbours 
have Come reduced and compelled to come together for pro- 
tection, The curruption of the language of those different 
Tribes has So reduced the language that the Different Villages 
do not understan all the words of the others. Those people 
are Durtey, Kind, pore, & extravigent. pursessing national 
pride, not beggarley recive what is given with great pleasure, 
Live in warm houses, large and built in an oxigon [octagon] 
form forming a cone at top which is left open for the smoke 

1 Recive Some Corn from the 2 d & 3 rd Chf. about 20 bushels. — Clark (memo- 
randum on p. 224 of Codex C). 

2 Gass says of the Ankara (pp. 73, 74) that "they are the best-looking, most 
cleanly, most friendly and industrious Indians I have ever seen on the voyage." — Ed. 

8 A form of "simlin" or "simnel," a name used in the Southern States for 
summer squashes. — Ed. 



to pass, those houses are Generally 30 or 40 foot Diamiter, 
Cov d . with earth on poles willows & grass to prevent the earths 
passing thro'. 1 Those people express an inclination to be at 
peace with all nations. The Seaux who trade the goods which 
they get of the Britush Traders for their Corn, 2 and [have] 
great influence over the Rickeres, poison their minds and keep 
them in perpetial dread. 

I saw Some of the Chien {Chyenne) or Dog Indians, also a 
man of a nation under the Court Nue, This nation is at war 
with the Crow Indians & have 3 children prisoners. 

a curious custom with the Souix as well as the rickeres is to 
give handsom squars to those whome they wish to Show some 
acknowledgements to. The Seauex we got clare of without 
taking their squars, they followed us with Squars two days. 
The Rickores we put off" dureing the time we were at the 
Towns but 1 \handsom young] Squars were Sent by a man to 
follow us, they came up this evening, and pursisted in their 
civilities. 3 

Dress of the men of this nation is Simply a p' mockerson, 
Leagin, flap in front & a Buffalow roabe, with ther hair arms 
& ears Deckorated. 

The womin, wore Mockersons leagins fringed and a Shirt 
of Goat Skins, Some with Sleaves this garment is longe & 
GenK white & fringed, tied at the waste[,] with a roabe, in 
Summer without hair. 

1 Cf. the more detailed descriptions of these huts given by Biddle (i, p. 106), 
Gass (p. 72), and Brackenridge (Louisiana, p. 248). — Ed. 

2 The English traders not only traffic with the Indians about the shining [Rocky] 
mountains, but they have extended it to the Mandans on the Missouri, and to several 
other tribes both above and below them. The Spaniards also from Santa Fe occasion- 
ally traffic with the Indians about the waters of the Kansas, as likewise with those on 
the river Platte. — Stoddard (Louisiana, pp. 453, 454). 

3 Brackenridge says (Louisiana, p. 247) : "It is part of their hospitality, to offer 
the guest their wife, sister, or maid servant, according to the estimation in which the 
guest is held, and to refuse, is considered as treating the host with contempt." This 
was a custom widely prevalent among Indian tribes, especially those of the Far West . 
Biddle says (i, p. 105) that Ankara regarded such intercourse with strangers as dis- 
graceful, when occurring without the husband's or brother's consent. — Ed. 



[Memorandum made by Clark on the inside front cover of Codex C : ] 

Names of the nations who come to the Ricares to trafick and 
bring Horses & robes 

O 1 - — (Gens des vach) 1 Blue beeds. 

O 2 Noo-tar-wau — Hill Climbers 

if 3 Au-ner-hoo — the people who pen Buffaloes to cetch them 

if 4 To-che-wah-coo — Fox Indians 

if 5 To-pah-cass — white hair's 

O 6 Cat-tar-kab — Paducar. 

if 7 Ki-e-wah — Tideing Indians 

-f 8 Too-war-sar — Skin pricks 

9 Shar ha {chien) — The village on the other side 

10 Wehee skeu(chien) — The villagers on this side 

Those nations all live on the praries from S W by S to West of the 
Ricarees all speek different languages and are numerous, all follow the 
Buffalow and winter near the mountains. 

1 j'* °f October Satturday 1804 — 

one man J. Newmon confined for mutinous expression Set 
out early proceeded on, pass 1 ? a camp of Seauex on the S.S. 
those people only viewed us & did not Speak one word. The 
visiters of last evening all except one returned which is the 
Brother of the Chief we have on board passed (i) a Creek 
13 yds on the S.S. at 18 m! above the Town heading in some 
Ponds a Short Dist! to the N.E. we call Stone Idol C. (well 
to observe here that the Yankton or R Jacque heads at about 
1 Days March of this place Easterly, the R. de Seaux one 
Day further, the Chien (Chayenne the Chay' formerly there) a 
branch of R. Rouche (Rouge) Still beyend, and the River 
S'. Peters 4 Days march from this place on the Same Derection 
(Informt? of the Rickores). Passed a large willow (2) & Sand 
Islands above the mouth of the last Creek, at 21 Miles 

1 A French nickname, meaning "cow-people" — that is, Buffalo tribe. The 
Indian name here given — written by Biddle (i, p. 34) Kaninaviesch — is only an 
Chippewa appellation of that tribe, now known as the Arapaho, one of the westernmost 
Algonquian tribes (see Mooney's sketch of this people, in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 
1892-93, pp. 953-957). Lewis, however, in his "Statistical View" (p. 18) 
applies the name Ar-rah'-pa-hoo' to a branch of the Pawnee. — Ed. 

[ 190] 


above the Village passed a (3) Creek about 15 yards wide on 
the L.S. we call after 2*. Chief Pocasse (or Hay), nearly 
opposit this Creek a new miles from the river on the S.S. 1 
Stones resembling humane persons & one resembling a Dog is 
Situated in the open Prarie, to those Stones the Rickores 
pay Great reverance make offerings {votive Dress &c.) when- 
ever they pass (Informt" of the Chief & Intepeter) those 
People have a curious Tredition of those Stones, one was a 
man in Love, one a Girl whose parents would not let [them] 
marry (The man as is customary went off to mourn, the female 
followed.), the Dog went to morn with them all turned to 
Stone gradually, commenceing at the feet. Those people fed 
on grapes untill they turned, & the woman has a bunch of 
grapes yet in her hand, on the river near the place those are 
Said to be Situated, we obs? a greater quantity of fine grapes 
than I ever Saw at one place. 

The* river above the Island on which the Lower Reckores 
Village is Situated is narrow and cont s a great[er] propotion of 
Timber than below, the bottoms on both Sides is covered 
with timber the up lands naked the current jentle and Sand 
bars confined to the points Generally. 

We proceeded on under a fine Breeze from the S.E. and 
camped late at the upper part of Some wood on the Starboard 
Side. . Cold & Some rain this evening, we Sent out hunters 
killed one Deer. 

we Tried the Prisoner Newmon last night by 9 of his Peers 
they did " Centence him 75 Lashes & Disbanded [from] the 

Course distance & reffurence — I3 t . h Octf 

N. 60? W. 3 Miles to a p 1 on the S. S. ' 

N. 40. W. 2 Miles to a p! of timber on L. S. 

N. 10. W. 2 Miles to the pf on the L. S. 

N. 53 W. 1$ M 1 ? to a p! on the S. S. 

North 2 M 1 . 8 to a p! on the L. S. opsit the mouth of a Creek 

on the S. S. (1) 
N. 70? W. 4^ Miles to a p< on the S. S. passing a Island (2) and 

ops'? a Creek L. S. (3) 
N. i8 ? E 3 M ls to the upper point of Some wood on the S. S. and 
Yg camped. 



^Orderly Book; Clark:] Orders 13'? of October 1804. 

A Court Martial to Consist of nine members will set to day 
at 12 oClock for the trial of John Newmon now under Con- 
finement. Cap! Clark will attend to the forms & rules of a 
president without giveing his opinion. 

Detail for the Court Martial 

Serg| John Ordaway W m Werner 

Sergeant Pat: Gass W m Bratten 

Jo: Shields Geo: Shannon 

H: Hall Silas Goodrich 
Jo. Collins 

Meriwether Lewis Cap! 

I* U'S. Reg! Infty 
W^ Clark Cap' 

or E. N W D [Engineer North Western 

Discovery. — Ed.] 

L"Lewis :] 

In conformity to the above order the Court martial con- 
vened this day for the trial of John Newman, charged with 
" having uttered repeated expressions of a highly criminal and 
" mutinous nature ; the same having a tendency not only to 
" distroy every principle of military discipline, but also to 
"alienate the affections of the individuals composing this 
"detatchment to their officers, and disaffect them to the ser- 
" vice for which they have been so sacredly and solemnly 
"engaged." The Prisonar plead not guil[f\y to the charge 
exhibited against him. The court after having duly consid- 
ered the evidence aduced, as well as the defence of the said 
prisonor, are unanimously of opinion that the prisonor John 
Newman is guilty of every part of the charge exhibited against 
him, and do sentence him agreeably to the rules and articles 
of war, to receive seventy five lashes on his bear back, and to 
be henceforth discarded from the perminent party engaged for 
North Western discovery ; two thirds of the Court concurring 

[ 192] 


in the sum and nature of the punishment awarded, the com- 
manding officers approve and confirm the sentence of the 
court, and direct the punishment take place tomorrow between 
the hours of one and two P.M. The commanding officers 
further direct that John Newman in future be attatched to the 
mess and crew of the red Perogue as a labouring hand on 
board the same, and that he be deprived of his arms and 
accoutrements, and not be permited the honor of mounting 
guard untill further orders ; the commanding officers further 
direct that in lue of the guard duty from which Newman has 
been exempted by virtue of this order, that he shall be 
exposed to such drudgeries as they may think proper to direct 
from time to time with a view to the general relief of the 

[[Clark :] 1 4.'* of October Sunday 1 S04. — 

Some rain last night all wet & cold, we Set [out] early the 
rain contin? all Day, at [blank in MS.] miles we passed a 
(1) Creek on the L.S. 15 yards wide this Creek we call after 
the 3 r . d Chief Piaheto (or Eagles feather) at 1 oClock we 
halted on a Sand bar & after Dinner executed the Sentence of 
the Court Martial so far a[s] giveing the Corporal punish- 
ment, & proceeded on a fiew Miles, the wind a head from 
N.E. Camped iq a Cove of the bank on the S.S. 1 ime- 
diately opposit our Camp on the L.S. I observe an antient 
fortification the Walls of which appear to be 8 or 10 feet high, 
{most of it washed in) the evening wet and disagreeable, the 
river Something wider more timber on the banks. 

The punishment of this day allarm? the Indian Chief verry 
much, he cried aloud (or effected to cry) I explained the 
Cause of the punishment and the necessity (of it) which he 
(also) thought examples were also necessary, & he himself had 
made them by Death, his nation never whiped even their 
Children, from their burth. 

1 In North Dakota, close to 46°, at a creek now called Thunder-hawk. Piaheto 
is now Blackfoot Creek. — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 168). 

VOL. I. -I 3 [ I93 ] 


Courses & Distance & reffurences 14'? 

S. 70 W. 1 M 1 . 8 to a p? on the L.S. the Same course continud 2 

Ml to a bend L.S. 
N. 63? E. 2 M l! to the p] on the S.S. pass d a Creek on the 

L.S. (1) 
N. 30° W. 1^ M! to a large Tree on the L.S. 
N. 40 ? E. \y 2 M 1 ? to some trees on the S.S. 
N 60° W. 3 M 1 ? to a p! on the L.S. Passing 

N. 70 9 W. 3 Miles to a point on the S.S. passed an antient forti- 
"[2 fication on the L.S. 

15'* of October Monday 1804 — 

rained all last night, we Set out early and proceeded on at 
3 miles passed an Ind? Camp (of hunters Ricaras) on the S.S. 
we halted above and about 30 of the Indians came over in 
their canoos of Skins, we eate with them, they give us meat, 
in return we gave fish hooks & some beeds, about a mile 
higher we came too on the L.S. at the camp of the Recores 
(ricaras) of about 8 Lodges, we also eate and they gave 
Some meat, we proceeded on Saw numbers of Indians on 
both Sides passing a Creek, Saw many curious hills, high and 
much the resemblance of a house with a hiped (like ours) roof, 
at 12 oClock it cleared away and the evening was pleasent, 
wind from the N.E. at Sunset we arrived at a Camp of 
Recares of 10 Lodges on the S.S. we came too and camped 
near them Cap! Lewis and my self went with the Chief who 
accompanis us, to the Huts of Several of the men all of 
whome Smoked & gave us something to eate also Some meat 
to take away, those people were kind and appeared to be 
much pis? at the attentioned paid them. 

Those people are much pleased with my black Servent. 
Their womin verry fond of carressing our men &c. 

[ 194] 


Course Distance & Reffurences — 15 th Oct 

West 2-1 Miles to a Creek on the L.S. passing over a Sand bar 

makeing from the S. p! 

North 4 Miles to a point of wood on the L. S. passing over a 

sand point on the S.S. 

N. 34° W. 31 Miles to a point of wood on the S. S. passing old Vil- 
lage of the Shar hd or Chien Indians on the L.S. 
below a Creek on the same Side, passed a Camp 
To of Ricares on S.S. 

16^ of October Tuesday 1804 — 

Some rain this morning, 1 young squars verry anxious to 
accompany us, we Set out with our Chief on board by name 
Ar ke tar na shar or Chief of the Town, a little above our 
camp on the L.S. passed a circular work, where the, Shar ha 
or Chien, or Dog Indians formerly lived a short distance 
above passed a Creek, which we call Chien Creek (Chayenne or 
Shar ha (M r Hay ley says Not Chien), above is a willow Island 
Situated near (1) the L. Side a large Sand bar above & on 
both Sides (2) passed a Creek above the Island on the L.S. 
call So-harch (or Girls) Creek, at 1 miles higher up (3) passed 
a Creek on L.S. call Charpart 1 (or womins) Creek, passed 
(5) an Island Situated in a bend to the S.S. this Is? is about 
1^ Miles long, covered with timber Such as Cotton wood, 
ops'! the lower ppint a creek corns in on [sentence incom- 
plete — Ed.] the S.S. called by the Indians Kee tooch Sar 
kar nar [Keetooshsahawna — Biddle] (or place of Beaver) 
above the Island a small river corns in about 35 yards wide 
called War ra con ne 2 or (Elk Shed their horns). The Island 
is called Carp Island by Ivens [Evans] Wind hard from the 
N.W. Saw great numbers of Goats on the Shore S.S. pro- 
ceeded on Cap! Lewis & the Indian Chief walked on Shore, 
soon after I discovered great numbers of Goats in the river, 
and Indians on the Shore on each Side, as I approached or 

1 These names are spelled by Biddle, Sohawch and Chapawt ; he says that they 
are Ankara words. — Ed. 

2 The present name is Big Beaver Creek ; at its mouth is the town of Emmons- 
burg, N. D. — Ed. 



got nearer I discovered boys in the water Killing the goats 
with Sticks and hailing them to Shore, Those on the banks 
Shot them with arrows and as they approach? the Shore would 
turn them back of this Gangue of Goats I counted 58 of 
which they had killed on the Shore, one of our hunters out 
with Cap Lewis killed three Goats, we passed the Camp on 
the S.S. and proceeded x / 2 mile and camped on the L.S. 
many Indians came to the boat to See, Some came across 
late at night, as they approach they hollowed and Sung, 
after Staying a short time 1 went for Some meat, and returned 
in a Short time with fresh & Dried BufFalow, also goat, those 
Indians Stayed all night, they Sung and was verry merry the 
greater part of the night. 

Course Distance & reffurences — 16 th Oct 

North 4 Miles to a p'. on the S.S. Passed a Willow Island 

L. S. (1) a Creek (2) above the Is? & one at 2 
miles further (3) 
N. 10? E. 6. Miles to the upper point of Some Timber on the L. S. 
ops? the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. (4) passed 
a Isl d on the S.S. (5) ops? the Lower p! of which 
comes in a Creek (5) 

Mile on the L. Side 

M! on the L. point High L? 

Miles to a point on the S.S. 

Course Distance & reffurence. — 1 7^ Oct. 

\y 2 Miles to a p! on the L.S. 
m! on the L.S. 
M! on the L.S. 
M'. 8 to the Commencement of Some woods on the S.S. 

note from the Ricares to the River Jacque near N.E. 
is about 40 m 1 .' to the Chien a fork of R Rogue 1 20 {further) 
passing the Souix River near the Chien this from information 
of M! Graveline who passed through this Countrey. 

1 Meaning Rouge — that is, Red River (of the North). — Ed. 



N. 30? W. 

N. 38? W. 



n; 10? e. 


N. 10? W. 

N. 33° W. 



17'* of October Wednesday 1804. — 

Set out early a fine morning the wind from the N.W. 
after brackfast I walked on Shore with the Indian Chief & 
Interpeters, Saw Buffalow, Elk and Great numbers of Goats 
in large gangues (I am told by Ml G. that those animals 
winter in the Black Mountains to feed on timber &c.) and this 
is about the Season they cross from the East of the Missouries 
to go to that Mountain, they return in the Spring and pass 
the Missouries in great numbers {to the plains). This Chief 
tells me of a number of their Treditions about Turtles,' Snakes, 
&c. and the power of a perticeler rock or Cove on the next 
river which informs of every thing none of those I think 
worth while mentioning. The wind So hard a head the [boat] 
could could not move after 10 oClock. Cap! Louis took the 
altitude of the Sun Lat? 46° . 23 . 57" I killed 3 Deer, and 
the hunters with me killed 3 also, the Indian Shot one but 
could not get it, I scafFeled ' up the Deer & returned & met 
the boat after night on the L.S. about 6 miles above the place 
we camped last night, one of the men saw a number of 
Snakes, Cap 1 Lewis Saw a large Beaver house S.S. I cought 
a whipprwill Small & not common. 2 the leaves are falling 
fast, the river wide and full of Sand bars. Great numbers of 
verry large Stone on the Sides of the hills & some rock of a 
brownish Colour in the L? Bend below this. 

Great numbers of Goats are flocking down to the S. Side of 
the river, on their way to the Black mountains where they 
winter Those animals return in the Spring in the Same way 
& scatter in different directions. 

i8f? of October Thursday 1804 — 

Set out early proceeded on at 6 m'.* passed the mouth of 
(i) la [Le~\ Boulet (or Cannon Ball River) about 140 yards 
wide on the L.S. this river heads in the Court Noi or Black 

1 That is, scaffolded, to be above the reach of wolves. — Ed. 
3 Nuttall's whippoorwill (Phalxnoptilus Nuttalli). — Ed. 



Mountains (a fine Day) above the mouth of the river Great 
numbers of Stone perfectly round with fine Grit are in the 
Bluff and on the Shore, the river takes its name from those 
Stones which resemble Cannon Balls. The water of this 
river is confined within 40 yards. We met 2 frenchmen in 
a perogue Decending from hunting, & complained of the 
Mandans robing them of 4 Traps their furs & Several other 
articles. Those men were in the imploy of our Ricaree inter- 
peter M! Gravelin the[y] turned & followered us. 

Saw Great numbers of Goats on the S.S. comeing to the 
river our hunters Killed 4 of them Some run back and 
others crossed & proceded on their journey to the Court Nou 
at (3) passed a Small River called Che wah or fish river 1 on 
the S.S. this river is about 28 yards wide and heads to the 
N.E. passed a small creek on the L.S. 1 mile above the last, 
and camped on a Sand bar on the L.S. opposit to us we Saw 
a Gangue of Buffalow bulls which we did not think worth 
while to kill, our hunters killed 4 Coats [Goats] 6 Deer 
4 Elk & a pelican & informs that they Saw in one gang : 248 
Elk, (I walked on Shore in the evening with a view to see 
Some of those remarkable places mentioned by evins [Evans 
— Ed.], none of which I could find). The Countrey in this 
Quarter is Generally leavel & fine Some high Short hills, and 
some ragid ranges of Hills at a Distance 

Course Distance & Refferences — 18 th Oct 

N. 50 . W. 3 Miles to the mouth of a River (1) cannon ball L. S. 
N. 20° W. 2 Miles to a point of wood land on the S.S. passing a 

Bluff in which theres round stone (2) 
North l\ miles to a point of wood land on the L. S. 

N. 15? W. y 2 Mile on the L. S. ops? a Creek on the S. S. (3) 
N. io°. E. iy 2 miles to a point on the S. S. passing a small Creek 

on L. S. 
N. 20° E. 3 miles to a point of woods on the L. S. passing over a 
To Sand bar 

1 Now Long Lake Creek : this day's encampment was near Fort Rice. — Ed. 



fi@°" The recaree Indians inform us that they find no black 
tail Deer as high up as this place, those we find are of the fallow 
Deer kind 

Jjgf The recarees are not fond of Spiritous liquers, nor do 
they apper to be fond of Receiveing any or thankfull for it. 
[they say we are no friends or we would not give them what makes 
them fools'] . 

19'* October Friday 1804.. — 

a fine morning wind from the S.E. we Set out early under 
a gentle Breeze and proceeded on verry well, more timber 
than common on the banks on this part of the river, passed 
a large Pond on the S.S. I walked out on the Hills & observed 
Great, numbers of BufFalow feeding on both Sides of the river 
I counted 52 Gangues of BufFalow & 3 of Elk at one View, 
all the runs which come from the high hills which is Generally 
about one or 2 miles from the water is brackish and near the 
Hills (the Salts are) and the Sides of the Hills & edges of the 
Streems, [the mineral salts appear] I saw Some remarkable 
round hills forming a cone at top one about 90 foot one 60 & 
several others Smaller, the Indian Chief say that the Callemet 
bird 1 live in the holes of those hills, the holes form by the 
water washing [away] this Some parts in its passage Down 
from the top — near one of those noles [Knolls], on a point 
of a hill 90 feet above the lower plane I observed the remains 
of an old village, (high, strong, watchtower &c.) which had been 
fortified, the Indian Chief with us tels me, a party of Man- 
dins lived there, [Here first saw ruins of Mandan nation] we 
proceeded on & camped on the S. S. opposit the upper of 
those conocal hills, our hunters killed 4 Elk 6 Deer & a 
pelican, I saw Swans in a Pond & killed a fat Deer in my 
walk, Saw about 10 wolves. This day is pleasent 

1 The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) — thus named because its tail-feathers are 
used to decorate the calumet-pipes of the Indians, who attach great value to these 
ornaments. — Ed. 

[ 199] 


Course Distance & reffurence — K) 1 * Oct!. 

N. 60? W. i\ M'. ! to a p! on the S.S. Passed a Creek on the S.S. 

N. 40° W. 2 M 1 .' to Some wood in a bend on the L.S. 

N. 10? E. iy£ mile to the point on the L.S. 

N. 20° W. 2 miles to a tree in the bend S.S. 

N. 83° W. 3 miles to the point on the S.S. 

N. 44? W. 1 mile to a Willow point on the L.S. p4 a Lake S.S. 

N. 30? W. 2 miles to a tree in the bend to the S.S. 

N. 80 9 W. 31^ miles to a point on the S.S. (2) opposit a round nole 
171^ on the L.S. a Deep bend to the L.S. & pond. 

Courses Distance & Reffers. — 20'. h October 

N. 30? W 2 Miles to Some timber in a bend to the S.S. at a Creek (1) 

N. 10? W. 1 mile on the S.S. 

N. 54 9 W. 3 miles to a p.' on the L.S. Is? passing over a Sand bar 

S. S. 
N. 2 miles to some high trees in a bend on the S.S. passing 

the low. r p! W. (2) 
N. 70° W. 2 Miles to a p? on the S.S. passing the upper p! of the 

Island on the L.S. 
N. 50? W 2 M 1 .' to the upper part of a Bluff in which there (3) is 

Stone Cole on the L.S. passing the i*.' old Mandin 
Y2 Village on the L.S. (4) 

20'* of October Satturday 1804 — 

Set out early this morning and proceeded on the wind from 
the S.E. after brackfast I walked out on the L. Side to See 
those remarkable places pointed out by Evins, I saw an old 
remains of a village {covering 6 or 8 acres) on the Side of a hill 
which the Chief with Too ne tels me that nation lived in 1 [a 
numbef\ villages 1 on each Side of the river and the Trouble- 
som Seaux caused them to move about 40 miles higher up 
where they remained a fiew years & moved to the place they 
now live, (2) passed a small Creek on the S.S. (3) and one on 
the L. S. passed (4) a Island covered with willows laying 
in the middle of the river no current on the L.S. Camped on 
the L.S. above a Bluff containing coal (5) of an inferior quallity, 
this bank is imediately above the old Village of the Mandans. 
The Countrey is fine, the high hills at a Distance with gradual 

[ 200 ] 


assents, / kil d . j Deer The Timber confined to the bottoms 
as useal which is much larger than below. Great numbers of 
BufFalow Elk & Deer, Goats, our hunters killed 10 Deer & 
a Goat to day and wounded a white Bear, 1 I saw several fresh 
tracks of those animals which is 3 times as large as a mans 
track. The wind hard all Day from the N.E. & East, great 
numbers of buffalow Swimming the river I observe near all 
large gangues of Buffalow wolves and when the buffalow move 
those animals follow, and feed on those that are killed by 
accident or those that are too pore or fat to keep up with the 

2 iff October Sunday 1804 — 

a verry Cold night wind hard from the N.E. Some rain 
in the night which frosed as it fell at Day light it began to 
Snow and continued all the fore part of the Day passed just 
above our camp (i) a Small river on the L. S. called by 
the Indians Chiss-che-tar [Chisshetaw — Biddle] this river is 
about 38 yards wide containing a good Deel of water 2 Some 
distance up this River is Situated a Stone which the Indians 
have great faith in & say they See painted on the Stone, all 
the Calemetes & good fortune to hapin the nation & parties 
who visit it. a tree [an oak] which Stands [alone] near this 
place [about 2 miles off~\ in the open prarie which has withstood 
the fire they pay Great respect to make Holes and tie Strings 
thro [the skins of their] their necks and around this tree to 
make them brave [Cap'. Clarke saw this tree] (all this is the 
information of Too ne [is a whipperwill] the Cheif of the Ricares 
who accompanied us to the Mandins, at i Miles (2) passed 
the 2 n . d Village of the Mandins which was in existance at the 
same time with the 1" this Village is at the foot of a hill on 
the S.S. in a butifull & extensive plain, {nearly opposite is another 

1 Pierre Cruzat shot a white bear left his gun, &c. — Clark (memorandum on 
p. 223 of Codex C). 

2 Now known as Heart River ; just above are the towns of Bismarck and Man- 
dan, N. D., joined by the N. P. Railway bridge. Just below the river are the ruins 
of Fort Abraham Lincoln, Custer's post in 1876. The encampment of Lewis and 
Clark on October 20, 1 804, was a little above the site of the fort. — O. D. Wheeler. 

[20I ] 


village in a bottom the other side of Missouri) at this time covered 
with Buffalow. a cloudy afternoon, I killed a fine Buffalow, 
we camped on the L. S. (below an old Mandan village having 
passed another up a Creek 3 miles below on Si S. verry cold 
Ground covered with Snow, one orter [otter] killd. 

Course Distance & reffer? — 21" Oct. 

S. 8o ? E. 2 miles to the place the Mandans had a village formerly 
at the foot of a riseing part of the plain. (1) on 
the S. S. passed a river 
N. 16? W. 1^ miles to a grove on the S. S. 

N. 40° V W. 3^ Miles to a p! on the S. S. river wide and sand bars a 
"y large willow Island 

ii n i October Monday 1804 — 

last night at i oClock I was violently and Suddenly attacked 
with the Rhumetism in the neck which was So violent I could 
not move Cap! [Lewis] applied a hot Stone raped in flannel, 
which gave me some temporey ease. We Set out early, the 
morning Cold at 7 oClock we came too at a camp of Teton 
Seaux on the L. S. those people 12 in number were nackl 1 
and had the appearance of war, we have every reason to 
believe that they are going or have been to Steel Horses from 
the Mandins, they tell two Stories, we gave them nothing 
after takeing brackfast proceeded on. my Neck is yet verry 
painfull at times Spasms. (Passed old Ma\n~\dan village near 
which we lay, another at 4 miles, one at 8 miles at mouth of large 
creek 4. miles further all on Larboard side.) ('The mounds, a in 
number along river within 20 miles the fallen down earth of the 
houses, some teeth and bones of men & animals mixed in these vil- 
lages, human skulls are scattered in these villages) 

Camped on the L. Side, passed an Island Situated on the 
L. Side at the head of which we pass a bad place & Mandans 
village S. S. (2 miles above). The hunters killed a buffalow 

1 14 Sioux came to us on the L. S. with their guns cocked, believe them to be 
a war party they were naked except their Leagins. — Clark (memorandum on 
p. 223 of Codex C). 

Of these savages : " Notwithstanding the coldness of the weather, they had not an 
article of clothing except their breech-clouts." — Gass (p. 79). 

f 202 ] 


bull, they Say out of about 300 buffalow which they Saw, 
they did not, see one Cow. Great Deel of Beaver Sign. 
Several Cought every night. 

Course Distance & Reffurences — 22 d Oct 

N. 50? W 3 Miles to a p! on the S. S. 

N. 34 W. 3 Miles to the lower point on an Island on the L. S. 

N. 34^ W. 3 Miles to a p! on the S. S. passed a bad riffle or bar 

North 1 Mile to a point on the L. S. a Deep bend to the S. S. 

N. 24° W 2 miles to a point on the S. Side. 


zf* of October Tuesday 1804. — 

a cloudy morning Some Snow Set out early, pass five 
Lodges which was Diserted, the fires yet burning we Suppose 
those were the Indians who robed the i french Trappers a fiew 
days ago those 1 men are now with us going up with a view 
to get their property from the Indians thro. us. cold & cloudy 
camped on the L. S. of the river 1 

(Saw at 12 miles passed old village on S. S. of Maharha * Ind"', a 
band of Minnetarreas who now live between Mand' & Minne- 
tarres) (* Ah na ha was [Ahwahaways — Biddle] see note 10 
May 1803) 

Course Distance & reffurences 

N. 45° E 2 Miles to a Tree in the bend S. S. 
N. 18? W. 1)4 M 1 . 8 to High land on S. S. 
N. 65? W. 3 M ls , to a tree in the bend L. S. 
N. 33 ? W. iy 2 M 1 ." to a p'. on the L. S. 
N. 18? W. 1 mile on the L. S. 

N. 45? W. 3 Miles to a point on the S. S. passing as common many 
7? Sand bars 

Course Distance & reffurences — 24 th Oct. 

'N. 20° W. 1 Mile to a p! on the S. S. 
N. 10? W. 2 Miles to a p! on the L. S. at this place the river has lat- 

erly Cut thro forming a large Island to the S. S. (1) 
N. 35? W. 2 Miles to an object on the S. S. 

N. 64? W. 2 Miles to a point of high land on which the Mandins 
7 formerly lived (2) 

1 Near Sanger, N. D., a short distance south of Deer Creek. — Ed. 

[203 ] 


14'* October Wednesday 1804 — 

Set out early a cloudy day Some little Snow in the morning 
I am Something better of the Rhumitism in my neck, a buti- 
full Countrey on both Sides of the river, the bottoms cov 1 ! 
with wood, we have Seen no game on the river to day ~~ a 
prof of the Indians hunting in the neighbourhood (1) passed 
a Island on the S. S. made by the river Cutting through a 
point, by which the river is Shortened Several miles, on this 
Isl d we Saw one of the Grand Chiefs of the Mandins, with five 
Lodges hunting, this Chief met the Chief of the Ricares who 
accompanied us with great Cordiallity & serimony Smoked the 
pipe & Cap! Lewis with the Interpeter went with the Chiefs to 
his Lodges at i mile distant, after his return we admited the 
Grand Chief & his brother for a few minits on our boat, pro- 
ceeded on a Short distance and camped on the S. S. below the 
old village of the Mandins & ricares. 1 Soon after our land'g 
4 mandins came from a camp above, the Ricares Chief went 
with them to their Camp, 

Course Distance & Reffurences — 25'? of October. 
N. 80? W. 3 Miles to a p! on the L. Side passed an old Village (1) 
Mile on the L. Side 
Mile on the L. Side 
Miles to a p? on the L. Side 
Miles to a Tree on the Larboard Side 
Miles to a point on the Starboard Side opposit a high hill 


15'* of October Thursday 1804. — 

. a cold morning. Set out early under a gentle Breeze from 
the S. E. by E. proceeded on, passed (i) the 3 rd old Village 
of the Mandans which has been Des? for many years, This 
village was situated on an eminance of about 40 foot above the 
water on the L. S. back for Several miles is a butifull Plain 
(2) at a Short distance above this old Village on a Continuation 
of the same eminance was Situated the Ricares Village {two ola 
villages of ricaras one on top of high hill the 2 d below in the bottom?) 
which has been avacuated only Six {five) years, {about J or 4 

» Near Washburn, N. D. — Ed. 

[ 204 ] 



S. 80? W. 


S. 60. w. 


S. 30? w. 


S. 33? W. 



miles above Ricaras villages are j old villages of Mandans near 
together here they lived when the R's came for protection — after- 
wards moved where they now live.) above this Village a large and 
extensive bottom for Several miles in which the Squars raised 
ther Corn, but little timber near the Villages, on the S. S. 
below is a point of excellent timber, and in the point Several 
miles above is fine timber, Several parties of Mandins rode 
to the river on the S. S. to view us indeed they are continu- 
elly in Sight Satisfying their Curiossities as to our apperance 
&c. We are told that the Seaux has latterly fallen in with & 
Stole the horses of the Big bellies, 1 on their way home they 
fell in with the Ossiniboin who killed them and took the 
horses, a frenchman has latterly been killed by the Indians 
on the Track to the tradeing establishment on the Ossinebine 
R. in the North of this place (or British fort) This frenchman 
has lived many years with the Mandins. we were frequently 
called on to land & talk to parties of the Mandins on the 
Shore ; wind Shifted to the S. W at about 1 1 oClock and 
blew hard untill 3 oClk. clouded up river full of Sand bars 
& we are at a great loss to find the channel of the river, fre- 
quently run on the Sand bars which Delais us much passed 
a verry bad riffle of rocks in the evening by takeing the L. S. 
of a sand bar 2 and camped on a Sand point on the S. S. 
opposit a high hill on the L. S. Several Indians came to see 
us this evening, amongst others the Sun of the late Great Chief 
of the Mandins (mourning for his father), this man has his two 
little fingers off; on inquireing the cause, was told it was 
customary for this nation to Show their greaf by some testi- 
mony of pain, and that it was not uncommon for them to take 
off 2 Smaller fingers of the hand (at the 2 d joints) and some 
times more with other marks of Savage effection 

1 A common but somewhat erroneous translation of Gros Ventres, the French 
appellation of a tribe who form a division of the Arapaho people. The name 
Gros Ventres is also applied, as here, to the Siouan Minitaree (more correctly 
known as Hidatsa). See Mooney's Sketch of the Arapaho, U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 
1892-93, pp. 954, 955. The Assiniboin are a division of the Siouan family ; most 
of them dwell in British territory. — Ed. 

2 All obliged to get out and haul the boat over. — Clark (memorandum on 
p. 223 of Codex C). 

[205 ] 


The wind blew verry hard this evening from the S.W. verry 
cold R. Fields with the Rhumitism in his neck, P. Crusat 
with the Same complaint in his Legs — the party other wise 
is well, as to my self I feel but slight Simptoms of that dis- 
order at this time, 

26'* of October Friday 1804 — 

Set out early wind from the S. W. proceeded on saw 
numbers of the Mandins on Shore, we set the Ricare Chief 
on Shore, and we proceeded on to the Camp of two of their 
Grand Chiefs where we delayed a fiew minits, with the Chiefs 
and proceeded on takeing two of their Chiefs on board & Some 
of the heavy articles of his house hold, Such as earthen pots & 
Corn, proceeded on, at this Camp Saw a (M:) M c Cracken 
Englishmon from the N.W. (Hudson Bay) Company * this man 
Came nine Days ago to trade for horses & Buffalow robes, — 
one other man came with him. the Indians continued on the 
banks all day.- but little wood on this part of the river, many 
Sand bars and bad places, water much devided between them 

We came too and camped on the L. S. about y z a mile 
below the i*.' Mandin Town on the L. S. 2 soon after our 
arrival many men womin & children flocked down to See us, 
Cap! Lewis walked to the village with the principal Chiefs and 
our interpters, my Rhumatic complaint increasing I could 
not go. if I was well only one would have left the Boat & 
party untill we niew the Disposition of the Ind". I Smoked 
with the Chiefs who came after. Those people ap? much 
pleased with the Corn Mill which we were obliged to use, & 
was fixed in the boat. 

1 Early explorations by French and English navigators and traders led to the 
establishment (May 2, 1670) of the Hudson's Bay Company, with headquarters in 
London, who long held a monopoly of the fur trade in the great Northwest. In 
1783-84 some of the leading Montreal merchants organized a rival association, known 
as the North West Company ; but after a long and fierce competition for supremacy 
in the fur trade, the Hudson's Bay Company finally absorbed its rival (March 26, 
1821). Hugh McCracken was an Irish " free trader," usually employed by the North 
West Company, who had accompanied David Thompson and Alexander Henry in 
their journeys through the Upper Missouri region. — Ed. 

a Not far from Stanton, N. D. — Ed. 



Course Distance & reff™ — 26'! 1 Oct. 

N. 45° W. i M! to a tree in the bend to the Larboard Side 
N. 70? W. 1 M 1 to a p' on the S. S. 

S. 26. W. 2 Ml 8 to a Camp of Mandans wood in the bend L. S. 
West. 1 M 1 .* to a tree in bend L. S. passed a Small Creek 

N. 27? W. 3 M 1 .' to the pf Fort Mandan stands on Passing a Bluff 
IT of indtf Coal L. S. 

N. 55? W.VM! to a p' on the L. S. 

S. 6o° W. 2- M'.' to the i*.' Village of the Mandins Situated on the L. 
11 Side in an open Plain. 



Chapter V 


Clark's Journal, October 17 — December 27, 1804 

QClark :] 27'* of October Satturday 1804, Mandans. — 

WE Set out arly came too at the Village on the L.S. 
this village is situated on an eminance of about 50 
feet above the Water in a handsom plain it con- 
taines [blank space in MS.] houses 1 in a kind of Picket 
work, the houses are round and verry large containing sev- 
eral families, as also their horses which is tied on one Side of 
the enterance, a Description of those houses will be given 
hereafter, I walked up & Smoked a pipe with the Chiefs of 
the Village they were anxious that I would stay and eat 
with them, my indisposition provented my eating which dis- 
pleased them, untill a full explenation took place, I returned 
to the boat and Sent 2 Carrots of Tobacco for them to smoke, 
and proceeded on, passed the l\ Village and camped ops'! the 
Village of the Weter soon" 1 [or Ah wah har ways] which is 
Situated on an eminance in a plain on the L.S. this Village 
is Small and Contains but new inhabitents. 3 above this Vil- 
lage also above the Knife river on the Same Side of the 
Missouri the Big bellies Towns are Situated a further De- 

1 This village contains 40 or 50 lodges, built in the manner of those of the 
Rickarees. — Gass (p. 83). 

2 A division of the Hidatsa, called by the French Gens de Soulier. They were 
kindred to the Minitareebut maintained a separate tribal organization until about 1836. 
See Washington Matthews' s Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians 
(Washington, 1877) ; McGee's account of this tribe in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 
1893-94, pp. 197. 198. —Ed. 

8 These Indians have better complexions than most other Indians, and some of 
the children have fair hair. . . . These people do not bury their dead, but place the 
body on a scaffold, wrapped in a buffaloe robe, where it lies exposed. — Gass (p. 83). 



scription will be given hereafter as also of the Town of 
Mandans on this side of the river i. e. S. Side. 

a fine warm Day we met with a frenchman by the name of 
Jessomme 1 which we imploy as an interpeter. This man has a 
wife & Children in the village. Great numbers on both Sides 
flocked down to the bank to view us as we passed. Cap' 
Lewis with the Interpet/ walked down to the village below our 
camp After delaying one hour he returned and informed me 
the Indians had returned to their village &c. &c, we Sent 
three twists [carrots] of Tobacco 2 by three young men, to the 
three villages above enviting them to come Down & Council 
with us tomorrow, many Indians came to view us Some 
staved all night in the Camp of our party. We procured 
some information of Mf Jessomme of the Chiefs of the 
Different Nations 

Course Distance 27 th 

West 2 Miles to a bend on the L. S. passing a Cole Bank 

N. io ? W. 2 miles to a Wood on the S. S. pass d the 2 village on S. S. 


Sunday. 28'* of October 1804 — 

a windey Day, fair and clear many of the Grosvantres (or 
Big Bellies) and Watersones Came to See us and hear the 
Council the wind being So violently hard from the S.W. 
provented our go'ing into Council, (indeed the Chiefs of the 
Mandans from the lower village Could not Cross, we made 
up the presents and entertained Several of the Curious Chiefs 
whome, wished to see the Boat which was verry curious to 
them viewing it as great medison, (whatever is mysterious or 
unintelligible is called great medicine) as they also Viewed my 
black Servent The Black Cat Grand Chief of the Mandans, 
Cap" Lewis & myself with an Interpeter walked up the river 

1 Rene Jessaume was originally a " free trader" (one to whom certain quantities 
of goods would be advanced by a trading company), and had spent many years 
among the Mandan. — Ed. 

2 An article indispenceable in those cases. — Clark (memorandum on p. 223 of 
Codex C). 

vol. I. -14 [209] 


about \yi miles our views were to examine the Situation & 
Timber for a fort, we found the Situation good but the 
Timber scerce, or at least Small timber such as would {not) 
answer us, We cunsulted the Grand Chief in respect to the 
other Chiefs of the Different Villages he gave the names of 
12". George Drewyer cought 2 Beaver above our Camp last 
night, we had Several presents from the woman of Corn 
boil'd homney, Soft Corn &c. &c. I prosent a jar {earth- 
thern jar glazed) to the Chiefs wife who receved it with much 
pleasure, our men verry chearfull this evening. We Sent 
the Chiefs of the Gross Vantres to Smoke a a pipe with the 
Grand Chef of the Mandans in his Village, & told them we 
would Speek tomorrow. 

29'^ October Monday 1804. — 

a fair fine morning after Brackfast we were visited by the 
old Cheaf of the Big bellies or [blank space in MS.] this 
man was old and had transfired his power to his Sun, who was 
then out at War against the Snake Indians who inhabit the 
Rockey Mountains. 1 at 10 oClock the S.W. wind rose verry 
high, we Collected the Chiefs and Commenced a Councel 
ounder a orning, and our Sales Stretched around to keep out 
as much wind as possible, we delivered a long Speech the 
Substance of which [was] Similer to what we had Delivered to 
the nations below, the old Chief of the Grosvanters was 
verry restless before the Speech was half ended observed that 
he Could not wait long that his Camp was exposed to the 
hostile Indians, &c. &c. he was rebuked by one of the Chiefs 
for his uneasiness at Such a time as the present, we at the 
end of the Speech mentioned the Recare who accompanied us 
to make a firm Peace, they all Smoked with him (I gave 
this Cheaf a Dollar of the American Coin as a Meadel with 
which he was much pleased) In Councel we prosented him 

1 The Shoshoni, commonly called Snake Indians ; the principal tribes of the 
Shoshonean family. They originally occupied the region now included in southern 
Montana and Idaho and western Wyoming ; but were later forced across the Rocky 
Mountains by hostile prairie tribes. — Ed. 


i8o 4 ] AT FORT M AND AN 

with a certificate of his sin[c]errity and good Conduct &c. 
We also Spoke about the fur which was taken from 2 french- 
men by a Mandan, and inform" 1 of our intentions of Sending 
back the french hands, after the Council we gave the presents 
with much serimoney, and put the Meadels on the Chiefs we 
intended to make viz. one for each Town to whome we gave 
coats hats & flags, one Grand Chief to each nation to whome 
we gave meadels with the presidents likeness in Council we 
requested them to give us an answer tomorrow or as Soon as 
possible to Some Points which required their Deliberation, 
after the Council was over we Shot the air gun which appeared 
to astonish the nativs much, the greater part then retired 
Soon after. 

The Recare Cheaf Ar-ke-tar-na-shar came to me this even- 
ing and tells me that he wishes to return to his Village & 
nation, I put him off" Saying tomorrow we would have an 
answer to our talk to the Satisfaction & send by him a String 
of Wompom informing what had passed here. a Iron or 
Steel Corn Mill which we gave to the Mandins, 1 was verry 
thankfully receved. The Prarie was Set on fire (or cought by 
accident) by a young man of the Mandins, the fire went with 
such velocity that it burnt to death a man & woman, who 
Could not get to any place of Safty, one man a woman & 
Child much burnt and Several narrowly escaped the flame, a 
boy half white was saved unhurt in the midst of the flaim, 
Those ignerent people say this boy was Saved by the Great 
Medison Speret because he was white. The couse of his being 
Saved was a Green bufFalow Skin was thrown over him by his 
mother who perhaps had more fore Sight for the pertection of 
her Son, and [l]ess for herself than those who escaped the 
flame, the Fire did not burn under the Skin leaveing the 
grass round the boy. This fire passed our Camp last [night] 
about 8 oClock P.M. it went with great rapitidity and looked 

1 I saw [1806] the remains of an excellent large corn mill, which the foolish 
fellows had demolished to barb their arrows ; the largest piece of it, which they could 
not break or work up into any weapon, was fixed to a wooden handle, and used to 
pound marrow-bones to make grease. — Henry {Journal, Coues ed., i, p. 329). 



The following Chiefs were made in Council to day 

Ma-too-ton-ha or Lower Village of the Mandans 

I" Chief Sha-ha-ka— or Big White 1 
2 do Ka-goh-ha-mi. or Little Raven 

Roop-tar-hee or Second Village of the Mandans. 

1" and Grand Chief, Pose-cop-sa-he. or black cat 
2 n . d Chief Car-gar-no- mok-she raven man Cheaf 

Mah-har-ha 3'? Village 
1" Cheaf Ta-tuck-co-pin-re-ha white Buffalow robe unfolded 

Me-ne-tar-re Me-te-har-tan 

I" Cheif — Omp-se-ha-ra. Black Mockerson 
2 do. Oh-harh or Little fox 

We Sent the presents intended for the Grand Chief of the 
Mi-ne-tar-re or Big Belley, and the presents flag and Wompom 
by the old Chief and those intended for the Chief of the Lower 
Village by a young Chief. 

The following Chiefs were recommended in addition to 
those viz. — 

i« Village 

Oh-hee-nar Big Man a Chien (a Chayenne prisoner adopted by them~) 
Sho-ta-har-ro-ra 2 [or Coal — Biddle] 

2 d . Village 
Taw-nuh-e-o Bel-lar-sara 
Ar-rat-tana-mock-she — Wolf man Chief 

3 r ? Village 

Min-nis-sur-ra-ree — Neighing horse 
Lo-Cong-gar-ti-har — old woman at a distance 

1 Brackenridge, who saw this chief in 1811, thus describes him (Louisiana, 
p. 261) : "She-he-ke is a fat man, not much distinguished as a warrior, and extremely 
talkative, a fault much despised amongst the Indians." — Ed. 

3 Biddle does not include this chief in his list. — Ed. 



4'? Village 

Mar-nob-tab. the big Steeler out at war (who was then out at war & 

was killed off) 
Mar-sc-rus-se — tale of Callumet bird 
Ea pa no pa — Two taled Calumet bird young Chief 
War ke ras sa The red Shield young Chief of Big belley — big town 

5 ,h Village 

Sha-hako ho pin nee — Little Wolfs Medison 

Ar-rat-to'e-no-mook-ge — man wolf Chief (at war') 

Cal-tar-co ta — cherry (grows (growing) on a bush) old Chief and 

father to the above ment 1 ? chief 
Mau-pah '-pir-re-cos-sa too — This chief is near this hunting and a 

verry considerable man ' 
To the i 8 .' Chiefs we gave a Medal with the Imp? of the President 
of the U.S. 
'To the 2 A . Chiefs a Medel of weaveing & Domestic animals. 
To the 3'? Chiefs a Medel with the impression of a man Sowing 

30'* October Tuesday 1804 — 

Two chiefs came to have Some talk one the princapal of the 
lower Village the other the one who thought himself the prin- 
cipal man, & requested to hear Some of the Speech that was 
Delivered yesterday they were gratified, and we put the medal 
on the neck of the Big white to whome we had Sent Clothes 
yesterday & a flag, those men did not return from hunting 
in time to join the Councell, they were well pleased (2? of 
those is a Chien) I took 8 men in a Small perogue and went 
up the river as fur as the 1" Island 'about 7 miles to see if a 
Situation could be got on it for our Winter quarters, found 
the wood on the Is? as also on the p! above so Distant from 
the water that, I did not think that we could get a good 
wintering ground there, and as all the white men here informed 
us that wood was scerce, as well as game above, we Deturmined 
to drop down a flew miles near wood and game 

1 Biddle does not include this chief in his list. — Ed. 



Course to the Island 

N. 12? W. 3 M! to a Bluff 30 feet high above the point of wood. S.S. 
N. 20° W 2 M ls to a tree under the bank about 20 feet high S. S. 

butifull plain 
N. 30° W. 1 J Mis. to a p f - of the Same Bluff 30 feet high under which 

there was coal S. S. 
N. 45? W. 1 j4 M'. s to the Lower point of an Island Current on the 
~j L. S. this Is? ab' 1 mile long. 

on my return found maney Ind! at our Camp, gave the 
party a dram, they Danced as is verry Com" in the evening 
which pleased the Savages much. Wind S. E. 

3 iff of October Wednesday 1804 — 

a fine morning, the Chief of the Mandans Sent a 2? Chief 
to invite us to his Lodge to receive Som corn & here what he 
had to say I walked down, and with great ceremoney was 
Seeted on a roabe by the Side of the Chief, he threw a 
handsom Roabe over me and after smokeing the pipe with 
Several old men around, the Chief spoke 

Said he believed what we had told them, and that peace 
would be general, which not only gave him Satisfaction but 
all his people, they now could hunt without fear, & ther 
womin could work in the fields without looking everry moment 
for the enemey, and put off their mockersons at night, (sign of 
peace undress) as to the Ri\c\ares we will Show you that we 
wish peace with all, and do not make War on any without 
cause, that Chief — pointing to the 2? and Some brave men 
will accomp? the ricare Chief now with you to his village & 
nation, to Smoke with that people, when you came up the 
Indians in the neighbouring Villages, as well as those out 
hunting when they heard of you had great expectations of 
receving presents those hunting imediately on hearing re- 
turned to the Village and all was Disapointed, and Some Dis- 
satisfied, as to himself he was not much So but his village 
was. he would go and see his great father &c. &c. 

he had put before me 2 of the Steel traps which was robed 
from the french a Short time ago, [and] about 12 bushels of 


i8o 4 ] AT FORT M AND AN 

Corn which was brought and put before me by the womin of 
the Village after the Chief finish d & Smoked in great cer- 
rimony, I answered the Speech which Satisfied them verry 
much, and returned to the boat, met the princapal Chief of 
the 3? Village and the Little Crow both of which I invited 
into the Cabin and Smoked & talked with for about one hour. 
Soon after those Chiefs left us, the Grand Chief of the 
Mandans came Dressed in the Clothes we had given with his 
2 small Suns, and requested to See the men Dance which they 
verry readily gratified him in, the wind blew hard all the after 
part of the day from the N. E. and continud all night to blow 
hard from that point, in the morning it Shifted NW. Capt 
Lewis wrote to the N. W. Companys agent on the Orsiniboine 
River {fort &c. there about 150 miles hence) ab! 9 Days march 
North of this place 

' iff of November. Thursday 1804 — 

the Wind hard from the NW. M: Mf Crackin a Trader 
Set out at 7 oClock to the Fort on the Ossiniboin by him 
Send a letter, (inclosing a Copy of the British Ministers pro- 
tection) to the principal agent of the Company. 1 at about 10 
oClock the Chiefs of the Lower Village came and after a Short 
time informed us they wished they would us to [/'. e., that we 
would — Ed.] call at their Village & take Some corn, [They 
said] that they would make peace with the Ricares they never 
made war against/ them but after the Rees killed their Chiefs 
they killed them like the birds, and were tired (of killing them) 
and would Send a Chief and Some brave men to the Ricares 
to Smoke with that people, in the evening we Set out and 
fell down to the lower Village where Cap' Lewis got out and 
continud at the village untill after night I proceeded on & 
landed on the S. S. at the upper point of the I s .' Timber on the 
Starboard Side after landing & continuing all night droped 

1 Coues reprints (i, pp. 187, 188) this letter, which he found in Biddle's literary 
magazine, The Portfolio (Philadelphia), vol. vii (18 12), pp. 448, 449. The agent's 
name was Charles Chaboillez, representing the North West Company ; Lewis and 
Clark wrote to him explaining the nature of their mission, and enclosing a copy of the 
passport granted them by Mr. Edward Thornton, of the British legation at Wash- 
ington. — Ed. 



down to a proper place to build Cap! Lewis Came down after 
night, and informed me he intended to return the next 
morning by the perticular request of the Chiefs. 

We passed the Villages on our Decent in View of Great 
numbers of the inhabitents 

2"? November Friday 1 804 — 

This Morning at Daylight I went down the river with 4 men 
to look for a proper place to winter proceeded down the 
river three miles & found a place well Supl? with wood, & 
returned, Cap' Lewis went to the Village to here what they 
had to Say & I fell down, and formed a Camp, near where a 
Small Camp of Indians were hunting cut down the Trees 
around our Camp, in the evening Cap! Lewis returned with 
a present of 1 1 bushels of Corn, our ricaree Chief Set out 
accompanied by one Chief (of Mandans) and Several Brave 
men (of Minitarees and Mandans), he called for Some small 
article which we had given (promised) but as I could not 
understand him he could not get [it] (af d he did get it) the 
wind from the S. E. a fine day maney Indians to view us to 

Y$ of November Satterday 1 804 — 

a fine morning wind hard from the West we commence 
building our Cabins, 1 Send down in a perogue 6 men to hunt 
engaged one man (a Canadian Frenchman who had been with 
the Chayenne Ind'. on the Cote noir & last summer descended thence 
the Little Missouri — he was of our permanent.) 2. Set the french 
who intend to return to build a perogue, many Indians pass 
to hunt, M! Jessomme (Jesseaume) with his Squar & chil- 
dren come down to live, as Interpter, we receved (hired) a 
hors for our Service, in the evening the Ka goh ha me or 
little ravin came & brought us on his Squar (who carried it on 
of Meal &c. they Delayed all night we gave his Squar \an 
her back) about 60 W! of Dried BufFalow meat a roabe, & Pot 

1 A description of the manner in which the huts and fort were built is given by 
Gass (pp. 85, 86). — Ed. 

2 This was Baptiste Le Page, enlisted to take the place of John Newman, dis- 
charged. — Ed. 



ax £5?] a fiew Small articles & himself a piece of Tobacco, the 
men were indulged with a Dram, this evening two Beaver 
Cought this morning, and one Trap Lost 
{The Frenchmen p engaged thus far now returning — but 2 or 3 
volunteered to remain with us the winter which they did, & in the 
Spring left us.) 

4'* November Sunday 1804 — 

a fine morning we continud to cut Down trees and raise 
our houses, a M; Chaubonie {Chaboneau), interpeter for the 
Gross Ventre nation Came to See us, and informed that the 
came Down with Several Indians from a hunting expidition 
up the river, to here \]iear\ what we had told the Indians in 
Council this man wished to hire as an interpiter, the wind 
rose this evening from the East & clouded up. Great numbers 
of Indians pass hunting and Some on the Return 

5 November Monday 1804 — 

I rose verry early and commenced raising the 2 range of 
Huts 1 the timber large and heavy all to carry on on Hand 
Sticks, cotton wood & Elm Som ash Small, our Situation 
Sandy, great numbers of Indians pass to and from hunting 
a camp of Mandans, A fiew miles below us Cought within two 
days 100 Goats, by Driveing them in a Strong pen, derected 
by a Bush fence widening from the pen &c. &c. the Greater 
part of this day Cloudy, wind moderate from the N. W. I 
have the Rhumitism verry bad, Cap Lewis writeing all Day 
we are told by our interpeter that 4 Ossiniboins Indians, have 
arrived at the Camps of the Gross Venters, & 50 Lodges are 
Comeing. 2 , 

1 Fort Mandan, the wintering-place of the expedition, was located on the left bank 
of the Missouri, seven or eight miles below the mouth of Knife River ; it was nearly 
opposite the site of the later Fort Clark. The latter post, " one of the most impor- 
tant on the river," was on the right bank ; Chittenden says (Amer. Fur Trade, p. 
957) that its area was 132 x 147 feet. On its site a fortified trading post was built 
in 1S22 ; the later structure, which was named Fort Clark, was erected in 183 1, as 
a post of the American Fur Company. See description and history of this locality, in 
Prince Maximilian's Voyage (Paris, 1841), ii, pp. 331-344. 

2 Drew My Gravelens instructions & discharged 2 french hands. — Clark (memo- 
randum on p. 222 of Codex C). 



6'* November Tuesday 1804 Fort Matt Jan — 

last night late we wer awoke by the Sergeant of the Guard 
to See a Nothern light, which was light, {but) not red, and ap- 
peared to Darken and Some times nearly obscured, and open, 
{divided about 20 degrees above horizon — various shapes — con- 
siderable space) many times appeared in light Streeks, and at 
other times a great Space light & containing floating collomns 
which appeared to approach each other & retreat leaveing the 
lighter space at no time of the Same appearance 

This Morning I rose a[t] Day light the Clouds to the 
North appeared black at 8 oClock the [wind] began to blow 
hard from the N. W. and Cold, and Continued all Day M'. 
Jo Gravelin our ricare interpeter Paul premor, Laguness, [Lajeu- 
nesse] & 2 french Boys, who Came with us, Set out in a Small 
perogue, on their return to the recare nation & the Illinois, 
Mf Gravelin has instructions to take on the recares in the 
Spring &c. Continue to build the huts, out of Cotton Timber, 
&c. this being the only timber we have, 

■j' h November Wednesday 1804 — 

a termperate day we continued to building our hut, cloudy 
and foggey all day 

8'* Nov. Thursday 1804 — 

a cloudy morning Jussome our {Mandan) inturpeter went 
to the Village, on his return he informed us that three Eng- 
lish men had arrived from the Hudson Bay Company, and 
would be here tomorrow, we cont d to build our huts, many 
Indians' come to See us and bring their horses to Grass near 

9'* Nov. Friday 1804 — 

a verry hard frost this morning we continue to build our 
Cabens, under many Disadvantages, Day cloudy wind from 
the NW: Several Indians pass with flying news {reports), we 
got a white weasel, (Taile excepted which was black at the end) 
of an Indian Cap! Lewis walked to the hill ab! ^ of a mile, 
we are Situated in a point of the Missouri North Side in a 
Cotton wood Timber, this Timber is tall and heavy containing 



an imence quantity of water Britle (brittle) & Soft fine food 
for Horses to winter (as is Said by the Indians) The Mandans 
Graze their horses in the Day on Grass, and at night give them 
a Stick (an arm full) of Cotton wood {boughs) to eate, Horses 
Dogs & people all pass the night in the Same Lodge or round 
House, Cov"! with earth with a fire in the middle % great num- 
ber of wild gees pass to the South, flew verry high. 

io'* November Satturday 1804 — 

rose early continued to build our fort numbers of'Indians 
came to See us a Chief Half Pania came & brought a Side 
of a BufFalow, in return We Gave Some fiew small things to 
himself & wife & Son, he crossed the river in the Buffalow 
Skin Canoo & and, the Squar took the Boat (on her back) and 
proceeded on to the Town 3 miles the Day raw and cold 
wind from the NW., the Gees Continue to pass in gangues as 
also brant to the South, Some Ducks also pass 

11'* November Sunday 1804. Fort Mandan 

a cold Day continued at work at the Fort Two men cut 
themselves with an ax, The large Ducks pass to the South 
an Indian gave me several roles of parched meat two Squars 
of the Rock mountains, purchased from the Indians by a 
frenchmen (Chaboneau) came down The Mandans out hunt- 
ing the Buffalow 

ij'* November Monday 1804 — 

a verry Cold night early this morning the Big White prin- 
capal Chief of the lower Village of the Mandans came Down, 
he pack d about ioo 1 ? of fine meet on, his squar for us, we 
made Some Small presents to the Squar, & child gave a Small 
ax [with] which She was much pleased 3 men Sick with the 

1 These earth lodges of the Mandan differentiated them from the other Indians of 
the plains, and are described by all early travellers. See Maximilian, Prince of Weid's 
Voyage in the Interior of North America (London, 1843) ; Catlin's North American 
Indians (London, 1841); and Washington Matthews's " Earth Lodge in Art," in 
American Anthropologist, 1901, pp. 1-12. This lodge is the prototype of the settler's 
sod-house, but is seldom used now by the Mandan. For their present condition see 
Wheeler's Wonderland, 1903, pp. 19-36. — Ed. 



[blank in MS.], Several, Wind Changeable verry cold even- 
ing, freesing all day some ice on the edges of the river. 

Swans passing to the South, the Hunters we Sent down 
the river to hunt has not returned 

" The interpeter says that the Mandan nation as they (old 
men) Say came out of a Small lake (subterraneous Village & a 
lake) where they had Gardins, maney years ago they lived in 
Several Villages on the Missourie low down, 1 the Small pox 
destroyed the greater part of the nation and reduced them to 
one large village and Some Small ones, all the nations before 
this maladey was affr d . (a/raid) of them, after they were re- 
duced the Seaux and other Indians waged war, and killed a 
great maney, and they moved up the Missourie, those Indians 
Still continued to wage war, and they moved Still higher, until 
got in the Countrey of the Panias, whith this N'° they lived in 
friendship maney years, inhabiting the Same neighbourhood 
untill that people waged war, they moved up near the Water- 
soons & Winataras where they now live in peace with those 
nations, the Mandans Speake a language peculial to them- 
selves verry much [blank in MS.] they can rase about 350 
men the Winataries about 80 (the Wittassoons or Maharha 80) 
and the Big bellies (or Minitarees) about 600 or 650 men. the 
Mandans and Seaux have the Same word for water. The Big 
bellies or Winetaries & ravin (Wattassoon as also the Crow or 
Raven) Indians Speake nearly the Same language and the pre- 
sumption is they were origionally the Same nation The Ravin 
Indians "have 400 Lodges & about 1200 men, & follow the 
Buffalow, or hunt for their Subsistance in the plains & on the 
Court Noi & Rock Mountains, & are at war with the Siaux 
[and] Snake Indians 

The Big bellies & Watersoons are at war with the Snake 
Indians & Seauex and were at war with the Ricares untill we 
made peace a fiew days pass d . The Mandans are at war with 
all who make war \on them, at -present with the Seauex] only, 
and wish to be at peace with all nations, Seldom the ogressors 

1 See Maximilian's detailed account of the Mandan myths of the creation, their 
tribal origin, and their migrations, with their religious beliefs, superstitions, and cus- 
toms, in his Voyage, ii, pp. 369-484. — Ed. 

[ 220 ] 


1$'* Nov. Tuesday 1804 — 

The Ice began to run in the river y& past 10 oClock P.M. 
we rose early & onloaded the boat before brackfast except, the 
Cabin, & stored away in a Store house at 10 oClock A.M. 
the Black Cat the Mandin Chief and Lagree (Fr. name) Che 
Chunk a Chief & 7 men of note visited us at Fort Mandan, I 
gave him a twist of Tobacco to Smoke with his people & a 
Gold Cord, with a view to know him again, This nation con- 
sists (This chief was one of 3 bands of Ass" who rove between the 
Missouri & Ass" river. The 3 consist) of about 600 men, hunt 
in the Plains & winter and trade on the Ossiniboin River, 
(here describe all Ass"') they are the Decendants of the Seaux 
and Speake their language, they come to the nations in this 
quarter to trade or (make preasents) for horses ' the Method 
of this Kind of Trafick by addoption Shall be explained here- 
after etc., Snow'd all day, the Ice ran thick and air Cold. 

14'* of November Wednesday 1804. Fort Mandan — 

a cloudy morning, ice runing verry thick, river rose x /% 
Inch last night Some snow falling, only two Indians visit 
us to day owing to a Dance at the Village last night in Con- 

1 La Verendrye, who visited the Mandan in 1738, thus speaks of their relations 
with their northern neighbors : "The Assiliboille [Assiniboin], although numerous, 
and strong and robust men, are not brave ; they are in great fear of the Sioux, whom 
they regard as braver. The Mantannes [Mandan] know their weakness, and profit 
by [it] on occasion. . . . Public notice was given throughout the village, warning 
every one to be ready to march on the second day after, the 30th of the month ; this 
made some further delay among the Mantannes, who knew well how to profit thereby 
in trading their grain, tobacco, peltries, and painted feathers, which they know the 
Assiliboille highly value. The latter had brought, and were now giving in exchange, 
muskets, axes, kettles, powder, bullets, knives, and bodkins. The Mantannes are 
far more crafty in trade, and in all other relations, than are the Assiliboille, who are 
constantly duped by them. . . . The Assiliboille had purchased everything which 
their means permitted, such as painted buffalo-robes ; skins of deer and antelope well 
dressed, and ornamented with fur ; bunches of painted feathers ; peltries ; wrought 
garters, headdresses, and girdles. These people [the Mandan] dress leather better 
than do any other tribes, and do very fine work on furs and feathers, which the Assili- 
boille are not capable of doing. They are cunning traders, despoiling the Assiliboille 
of all that they may possess." — See his "Journal," in Canad. Archives Rep., 1889, 
p. 14. — Ed. 

[221 ] 


eluding a serimoney of adoption, 1 and interchange of property, 
between the Ossinboins, Christinoes (Knistenaux) 2 and the 
nations of this neighbourhood, we Sent one man by land on 
horseback to know the reason of the Delay of our hunters, 
this evening 1 frenchmen who were traping below Came up 
with 20 beaver, we are compelled to use our Pork which we 
doe Spearingly for fear of some falur in precureing a Sufficiency 
from the woods. 

our Interpeter informs that 70 Lodges one of 3 bands of 
Assinniboins & Some Crestinoes, are at the Mandan Village. 
The Crestinoes are ab! 300 (240) men Speak the Chipaway 
Language, the[y] live near Fort De prari (on Assiniboin & 
Assaskashawan [Saskatchewan — Ed.] they are bands of the 

15'* of November Thursday 1804 — 

a cloudy morning, the ice run much thicker than yesterday. 
at 10 oClock G Drewyer 3 & the frenchman we Dispatched 
yesterday came up from the Hunters, who is incamped about 
30 miles below, after about one hour we Dispatched a man 
with orders to the hunters to proceed on without Delay thro 
the floating ice, we sent by the man Tin, to put on the parts 
of the Perogue exposed to the ice & a toe roape. The wind 
Changeable all hands work at their huts untill 1 oClock at 
night. Swans passing to the South — but flew fowls (water) to 
be Seen not one Indian came to our fort to day 

i The ceremony of adoption into a tribe or family is one which has always pre- 
vailed among the North American aborigines, and is extended to any persons (red or 
white) to whom they wish to show special friendship or honor. See Henry's descrip- 
tion of the ceremony (Journal, i, pp. 388-390). — Ed. 

2 The savages now known as Cree, the appellation of various nomadic tribes who 
range the region north of Lake Superior and west toward the Assiniboin River ; they 
are of Algonquian stock. — Ed. 

8 George Drouillard (Drewyer) was son of Pierre Drouillard, an interpreter for the 
British at Detroit in the latter part of the eighteenth century. The father is said to 
have rescued Simon Kenton from death at the stake (about 1779). George was slain 
(May, 1810) in a fight with the Blackfeet. — Ed. 

[ 222 ] 


i6(* November Friday 1804 — 

a verry white frost all the trees all covered with ice, cloudy, 
all the men move into the huts which is not finish 1 ! Several 
Indians come to camp to day, The Ossiniboins is at the Big 
bellie Camp, some trouble like to take place between them 
from the loss of horses &c. as is Said by an old Indian who 
visited us with 4 BufFalow robes & corn to trade for a Pistol 
which we did not let him have, men imployd untill late in 
dobing 1 their huts, Some horses Sent down to Stay in the 
woods near the fort, to prevent the Ossniboins Steeling- them. 

17'* November Satturday 1804 — 

a fine morning, last night was Cold, the ice thicker than 
yesterday, Several Indians visit us, one Chief Stayed all day 
we. are much engaged about our huts. 

1 81* No<v. Sunday 1804 — 

a cold morning Some wind the Black Cat, Chief of the 
Mandans came to see us, he made great inquiries respecting 
our fashions, he also Stated the Situation of their nation, 
he mentioned that a Council had been held the day before 
and it was thought advisable to put up with the resent insults 
of the Ossiniboin6 & Christinoes untill they were convinced 
that what had been told them by us [was true — Ed.], 
M' Evins had deceived them & we might also, he promised 
to return & furnish them with guns & amunition, we advised 
them to remain at peace & that they might depend upon 
Getting Supplies through the Channel of the Missourie, but 
it required time to put the trade in opperation. The Ossini- 
boins &c. have the trade of those nations in their power and 
treat them badly, as the Soux does the Ricarees? and they can- 
not resent, for fear of loseing their trade. 

1 That is, "daubing" with clay. — Ed. 

2 Biddle adds : "By their vicinity to the British [at Hudson Bay] they get all the 
supplies, which they withhold or give at pleasure to the remoter Indians." Ed. 

[223 ] 


1 9'* Nov. Monday — 

a Cold day the ice continue to run our Perogue of Hunters 
arrive with 32 Deer, 12 Elk & a Buffalow, all of this meat 
we had hung up in a Smoke house, a timeley supply. Several 
Indians here all day. the wind blew hard from the N.W. by 
W. our men move into their huts, Several little Indian 
aneckd'. 3 [anecdotes] told me to day 

so'* November Tuesday 1804 — 

Cap Lewis & my Self move into our hut, 1 a verry hard 
wind from the W. all the after part of the day a temperate 
day Several Indians came Down to Eat fresh meat, three 
Chiefs from the i\ Mandan Village Stay all Day, they are 
verry Curious in examining our works. Those Chiefs informs 
us that the Souex settled on the Missourie above Dog {Chay- 
enne) River, threten to attacked them this winter, and have 
treated 2 Ricares who carried the pipe of peace to them verry 
roughly, whiped & took their horses from them &c. &c. & is 
much displeased with the Ricares for makeing a peace with the 
Mandans &c. &c. through us, we gave them a Sattisfactory 
answer. &c. &c. 

2 iff Nov. Wednesday — 

a fine Day despatched a perogue and collected stone for 
our Chimneys, Some wind from the S.W. arrange our 
different articles. Maney Indians visit us to day, G D hurd 
his hand verry bad all the party in high Spirits. The river 
Clear of ice, & riseing a little. 2 

1 Biddle here describes (i, pp. 128, 129) the fort, much as Gass does. — Ed. 

2 At this point Biddle describes (i, pp. 129-132) the location, history, and mutual 
relations of the tribes about Fort Mandan. There are five villages, " the residence 
of three distinct nations : the Mandans, the Ahnahaways, and the Minnetarees." 
The Mandan may number about 350 warriors. The Ahnahaway ("people whose 
village is on a hill ") live at the mouth of Knife River, in a village called Mahaha ; 
" they are called by the French, Soulier Noir or Shoe Indians, by the Mandans 
Wattasoons ; and their whole force is about fifty men." Half a mile above Mahaha 
on the Knife River is a village of the Minitaree surnamed Metaharta ("of the 
willows"), numbering 150 warriors ; and farther up that stream is another, of the 
Minitaree proper, who have 450 men. " These Minnetarees are part of the great 



v.*"* of November Thursday 1804 — 

a fine morning Dispatched a perogue and 5 men under the 
Derection of Sergeant Pryor to the a n . d Village for 100 bushels 
of Corn in ears which M! Jessomme, let us have [did not get 
more than JO bushels]. I was allarmed about 10 oClock by 
the Sentinal, who informed that an Indian was about to kill 
his wife in the interpeters fire about 60 yards below the works, 
I went down and Spoke to the fellow about the rash act which 
he was like to commit and forbid any act of the kind near the 
fort. Some misunderstanding took place between this' man & 
his fife [wife] about 8 days ago, and she came to this place, 
& continued with the Squars of the interpeters, (he might law- 
fully have killed her for running away) 1 days ago She re- 
turned to the vill'ge. in the evening of the Same day She 
came to the interpeters fire appearently much beat, & Stabed 
in^ 3 places. We Derected that no man of this party have 
any intercourse with this woman under the penalty of Punish- 
ment, he the Husband observed that one of our Serjeants 
Slept with his wife & if he wanted her he would give her to 
him, We derected the Serjeant (Odway) to give the man 
Some articles, at which time I told the Indian that I believed 
not one man of the party had touched his wife except the one 
he had given the use of her for a nite, in his own bed, no 
man of the party Should touch his squar, or the wife of any 
Indian, nor did J believe they touch a woman if they knew 
her to be the wife of another man, and advised him to take his 
squar home and live hapily together in future, at this time 
the Grand Chief of the nation arrived, & lectured him, and 
they both went off apparently dis (dissatisfied) 

nation called Fall Indians, who occupy the intermediate country between the Mis- 
souri and the Saskaskawan. The name of Grosventres, or Bigbellies, is given to 
these Minnetarees, as well as to all the Fall Indians." Mooney says (U. S. Bur. 
Ethnol. Rep., 1892-93, p. 955) that Grosventres signifies "belly-people" (i. e., 
grasping and selfish, "spongers") ; that the Arapaho division of that name are the 
" Gros Ventres of the Prairie " ; while the Hidatsa or Minitaree with whom Lewis 
and Clark wintered, are sometimes called "Gros Ventres of the Missouri." See 
McGee's interpretation of the term Grosventres (ut supra, 1893-94, p. 197). 
Valuable information regarding all these tribes is given by Washington Matthews, in 
his Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians. — Ed. 
vol. 1.- i S [ 225 ] 


The Grand Chief continued {with us) all day, a warm Day 
fair afternoon many Indian aneckdotes our Chief & his family 
stay all night. 

*3^ — 

a fair warm Day, wind from the S.E. Send after Stone 
several men with bad colds, one man Shields with the Rhumi- 
tism the river on a Stand haveing rose 4 inches in all. 

24'* of November Satturday 1804 — 

a warm Day Several men with bad colds we continued to 
cover our Huts with hewed Punchins, 1 finish 1 ! a Cord to 
draw our boat out on the bank, this is made of 9 strans of Elk 
Skin, the wind from the S.E. 

*S'f of Nov. Sunday 1804 — 

a fine day warm & pleasent Cap' Lewis 2 Interpeters & 
6 men Set out to see the Indians in the different Towns & 
camps in this neighbourhood, we Continu to cover & dob 
our huts, two Chiefs came to See me to day one named 
Wau-ke-res-sa-ra, a Big belley, and the first of that Nation 
who has Visited us Since we have been here, I gave him a 
handkerchef Paint & a lace band, and the other Some fiew 
articles, and paid a perticular attention which pleased them 
verry much, the inturpeters being all with Cap! Lewis I 
could not talk to them. We Compleated our huts. Several 
men with bad Colds, river falls 1% inch 

[Memorandum on p. 221 of this Codex:] Capt. Lewis with 
Chabono & Jessomme set out to visit the Indian hunting 
camps, Spent the evening with the black mockerson, the 
principal Chief of the little village of Big billies. 

26;* of Nov. 1804 Monday Fort Mandan — 

a little before day light the wind shifted to the N.W. and 
blew hard and the air keen & cold all day, Cloudy and much 
the appearance of Snow ; but little work done to day it being 
cold &c. 

1 The " puncheons " used in pioneer architecture were simply logs hewn on one 
side, so as to form a tolerably level surface for floor or ceiling. — Ed. 



[Memorandum, p. 220 :] Visited the upper camps of the 
big bellies and returned to the lower Camp & passed a second 

»7* of November Tuesday 1804 — 

a cloudy morning after a verry cold night, the River 
crouded with floating ice Wind from the NW. finished 
Dobing Cap! Lewis returned from the Villages with two 
Chiefs Mar-noh-toh cif Man-ness-sur ree & a considerate [con- 
siderable] man with the party who accompanied him, The 
Menetaries, (or Big bellies) were allarmed at the tales told 
them by the Mandans viz : that we intended to join the Seaux 
to Cut off them in the Course of the Winter, many Circum- 
stances Combin'd to give force to those reports i. e. the move- 
ments of the interpeters & their families to the Fort, the 
strength of our work &c. &c. all those reports was contre- 
dicted by Cap! Lewis with a conviction on the minds of the 
Indians of the falsity of those reports, the Indians in all the 
towns & Camps treated Cap! Lewis & the party with Great 
respect, except one of the principal Chiefs Mar-par-pa-parr a- 
pas-a-too or (Horned Weasel) who did not chuse to be Seen 
by the Cap! & left word that he was not at home &c. Seven 
Traders arrived from the fort on the Ossinoboin from the 
NW, Company one of which Lafrance took upon himself to 
speak unfavourably of our intentions &c. the principal M^ 
La Rock (& M! M. c . Kensey) was informed of the Conduct of 
their interpeter & the Consequences if they did not put a Stop 
to unfavourable & ill founded assursions &c. &C. 1 

1 The names of these traders were : Francois Antoine Larocque (in charge of this 
trading expedition), Charles McKenzie, Baptiste Lafrance, and four voyageurs. 
The journals of both Larocque and McKenzie have been published by L. R. Masson, 
in his Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest (Quebec, 1889), i, pp. 299-393 i 
they mention their relations with Lewis and Clark, near whom they remained during 
that winter. Larocque describes the objects and policy of the Americans, and says : 
" During the time I was there a very grand plan was schemed, but its being realized 
is more than I can tell, although the Captains say they are well assured it will. . . . 
The fort is made so strong as to be almost cannon-ball proof. . . . They have a 
very expert smith who is always employed making different things, and working for 
the Indians, who are grown very fond of them, although they disliked them at first." 
But McKenzie says : " The Indians accepted of clothing, but, notwithstanding, they 
could not be reconciled to like these 'strangers,' as they called them." — Ed. 



The two Chiefs much pleased with ther treatment & the 
Cherefullness of the party, who Danced to amuse them &c. &c. 

The river fall i Inches verry Cold and began to Snow at 
8 oCloclc PM and continued all night. Some miss under- 
standing with Jussomme 1 & his woman at Day the Snow 

i%'* Nov. Wednesday 1804 — 

a cold morning wind from the N.W. river full of floating 
ice, began to Snow at 7 oClock a m and continued all day. 
at 8 oClock the Poss-coss-so-he or Black Cat Grand Chief of 
the Mandans Came to See us, after Showing those Chiefs 
many thing[s] which was Curiossities to them, and Giveing a 
flew presents of Curious Handkerchiefs arm ban[d]s & paint 
with a twist of Tobacco they departed at 1 oClock much 
pleased, at parting we had Some little talk on the Subject of 
the British Trader M. Le rock Giveing mead els & Flags, and 
told those Chiefs to impress it on the minds of their nations 
that those simbiles were not to be receved by any from them, 
without they wished [to] incur the displeasure of their Great 
American Father, a verry disagreeable day no work done to 
day river fall 1 Inch to day 

29'* November Thursday 1804 — 

A verry cold windey day wind from the N.W. by W. 
Some snow last night the detph of the Snow is various in the 
wood about 13 inches, The river Closed at the Village above 
and fell last night two feet, M' La Rock and one of his men 
Came to visit us, we informed him what we had herd of his 
intentions of makeing Chiefs &c. and forbid him to give 
Meadels or flags to the Indians, he Denied haveing any 
Such intention, we agreed that one of our interpeters Should 

1 Alexander Henry thus characterizes Jusseaume (Journal, Coues ed., N. Y., 
1897, i, p. 401) : " that old sneaking cheat, whose character is more despicable than 
the worst among the natives." — Ed. 



Speak for him on Conditions he did not say any thing more 
than what tended to trade alone, he gave fair promises &C. 1 

Sergeant Pryor in talceing down the mast put his Sholder 
out of Place, we made four trials before we replaced it a cold 
afternoon wind as useal N W. river begin to rise a little. 

30'* of November Friday 1804 — 

This morning at 8 oClock an Indian called from the other 
Side and informed that he had Something of Consequence to 
Communicate, we Sent a perogue for him & he informed us 
as follows. Viz : " five men of the Mandan nation out hunt- 
ing in a S.W. derection about Eight Leagues, was Suprised by 
a large party of Seeoux & Panies, one man was Killed and two 
wounded with arrows & 9 Horses taken, 4 of the We ter 
soon nation was missing, and they expected to be attacked by 
the Souex &c. &c. we thought it well to Show a Disposition 
to ade and assist them against their enemies, perticularly those 
who Came in oppersition to our Councels ; and I Deturmined 
to go to the town with Some men, and if the Seeoux were 
comeing to attact the Nation to Collect the worriers from each 
Village and meet them, those Ideas were also those of Cap' 
Lewis, I crossed the river in about an hour after the arrival 
of the Indian express with 23 men including the interpeters 
and flank d the Town & came up on the back part. The 
Indians not expe'cting to receive Such Strong aide in So Short 
a time was much supprised, and a littled allarmed at the 
formadable appearence of my party. The principal Chiefs 
met me Some Distance from the town (say 200 yards) and 
invited me in to town. I ord[ered]' my p ty into dif lodges 

1 Larocque gives the same account (Masson's Bourg. Nord-Ouest, i, p. 304), and 
cdds : " As I had neither flags nor medals, I ran no risk of disobeying those orders, 
of which I assured them." The interpreter lent to the British was Charboneau. 
McKenzie thus describes (ut supra, p. 336) the method of Lewis and Clark's com- 
munications with the Indians : " A mulatto, who spoke bad French and worse Eng- 
lish, served as interpreter to the Captains, so that a single word to be understood by 
the party required to pass from the Natives to the woman [Sacajawea, Indian wife of 
Charboneau, who could not speak English], from the woman to the husband, from 
the husband to the mulatto, from the mulatto to the captains." — Ed. 

[229 ] 


&c. I explained to the nation the cause of my comeing in 
this formadable manner to their Town, was to assist and Chas- 
tise the enemies of our Dutifull Children, I requested the 
Grand Cheif to repeat the Circumstancies as they hapined, 
which he did as was mentioned by the express in the morning. 
I then informed them that if they would assemble their war- 
rers and those of the Different Towns, I would [go] to meet 
the Army of Souex &c. chastise them for takeing the blood of 
our dutifull Children &c. after a conversation of a fiew minits 
amongst themselves, one Chief, the Big Man (Cien) (« Chay- 
enne). Said they now Saw that what we hade told them was the 
trooth, when we expected the enemies of their Nation was 
Comeing to attact them, or had Spilt their blood [we] were 
ready to protect them, and kill those who would not listen to 
our Good talk, his people had listened to what we had told 
them and cearlessly went out to hunt in Small parties believ- 
ing themselves to be Safe from the other nations, and have 
been killed by the Parties & Seauex, " I knew Said he that 
the Panies were Hers, and told the old Chief who Came with 
you (to Confirm a piece with us) that his people were hers and 
bad men and that we killed them like the Buffalow, when we 
pleased, we had made peace several times and you Nation 
have always commenced the war, we do not want to kill you, 
and will not Suffer you to kill us or Steal our horses, we 
will make peace with you as our two fathers have derected, 
and they Shall See that we will not be the Ogressors, but we 
fear the Ricares will not be at peace long. " My father those 
are the words I spoke to the Ricare in your presents, you 
See they have not opened their ears to your good Councels 
but have Spuilt our blood." two Ricaries whom we sent 
home this day for fear of our peoples killing them in their 
greaf, informed us when they came here Several days ago, that 
two Towns of the Ricares were makeing their Mockersons, 
and that we had best take care of our horses &c." a numbers 
" of Seauex were in their Towns, and they believed not well 
disposed towards us. four of the Wetersoons are now absent 
they were to have been back in 16 days, they have been 
out 24 we fear they have fallen. My father the Snow is deep 



and it is cold our horses Cannot travel thro the plains, those 
people who have Spilt our blood have gone back ? if you 
will go with us in the Spring after the Snow goes off we will 
raise the warriers of all the Towns & Nations around about 
us, and go with you." 

I told this nation that we should be always willing and 
ready to defend them from the insults of any nation who 
would dare to Come to doe them injury dureing the time 
we would remain in their neighbourhood, and requst 1 ! that they 
would inform us of any party who may at any time be dis- 
covered by their Patroles or Scouts ; I was sorry that the 
snow in the Plains had fallen so Deep Sence the Murder of 
the young Chief by the Sieoux as prevented their horses from 
traveling. I wished to meet those Seeoux & all others who 
will not open their ears, but make war on our dutifull Chil- 
dren, and let you see that the Wariers of your Great father 
will chastize the enimies of his dutifull Children the Mandans, 
Wetersoons & Winetarees, who have open"! their ears to his 
advice, you say that the Panies or Ricares were with the 
Seeaux, some bad men may have been with the Seeaux you 
know there is bad men in all nations, do not get mad with 
the recarees untill we know if those bad men are Counter- 
nanc"! by their nation, and we are convs d those people do not 
intend to follow our Councils. You know that the Seeaux 
have great influence over the ricarees, and perhaps have led 
Some of them astray you know that the Ricarees, are De- 
pendant on the Seeaux for their guns, powder, & Ball, and it 
was policy in them to keep on as good tirms as possible with 
the Seaux untill they had Some other means of getting those 
articles &c. &c. You know yourselves that you are compelled 
to put up with little insults from the Christinoes & Ossinaboins 
(or Stone Ind!) because if you go to war with those people, 
they will provent the traders in the North from bringing you 
Guns, Powder & Ball and by that means distress you verry 
much, but whin you will have certain Supplies from your 
Great American father of all those articles you will not Suffer 
any nation to insult you &c. after about two hours conversa- 
tion on various Subjects all of which tended towards their 

[231 ] 


Situation &c. I informed them I should return to the fort, 
the Chief said they all thanked me verry much for the fatherly 
protection which I shewed towards them, that the village had 
been crying all the night and day for the death of the brave 
young man, who fell but now they would wipe away their 
tears, and rejoice in their fathers protection, and cry no more. 
I then Paraded & Crossed the river on the ice and Came 
down on the N. Side, the Snow So Deep, it was verry 
fatigueing arived at the fort after night, gave a little Taffee 1 
{dram to my party), a cold night the river rise to its former 
hite. The Chief frequently thanked me for comeing to pro- 
tect them — and the whole village appeared thankfull for that 

i s .' of December Satturday 1804 — 

Wind from the NW. all hands ingaged in gitting pickets 
&c. at 10 oClock the half brother of the man who was killed 
came & inform d us that after my departure last night Six 
Chiens so called by the french or Shar ha Indians had arrived 
with a pipe and said that their nation was at one days march 
and intended to come & trade &c. three Panies had also 
arrived from the nation, {their nation was then within J days 
march C5? were coming on to trade with us Three Pawnees 
accomp d these Chayennes The mandans call all ricaras Pawnees 
dont use the name of ric'. but the ric 5 call themselves Rics) The 
Mandans apprehended danger from the Shar has as they were 
at peace with the Seaux ; and wished to Kill them and the 
Ricaries (or panies) but the Chiefs informed the nation it was 
our wish that they Should not be hurt, and forbid their being 
killed &c." We gave a little Tobacco &c. & this man 
Departed well satisfied with our Councils and advice to him. 

in the evening a Mr G Henderson [arrived — Ed.] in the 
imploy of the hudsons bay Company sent to trade with the 
Gros ventre, or Big bellies so called by the french traders 

1 A corruption of "tafia," defined as " an inferior kind of rum, distilled from 
sugar refuse or from coarse molasses." Coues (L. and C, p. 215) asserts that this is 
" a Malay word which we get from the French by way of the West Indies. We 
call this liquor Jamaica." — Ed. 



2';f of December Sunday 1804 — 

The latter part of last night was verry warm and continued 
to thaw untill [blank in MS.] oClock when the wind Shifted 
to the North at 1 1 oClock the Chiefs of the Lower Village 
of the Mandans [came] with many of theire young men and 
4 of the Shar-hds who had come to Smoke with the pipe of 
Peace with the Mandans, we explained to them our inten- 
tions our views and advised them to be at peace, Gave them 
a flag for theire nation, Some Tobacco with a Speech to 
Dilever to their nation on theire return, also Sent by them a 
letter to M? Tabbo & Gravoline, at the Ricares Village, to 
interseed in proventing Hostilities, and if they Could not 
effect those measures to Send & inform us of what was going 
on, Stateing to the Indians the part we intend to take if the 
Rickores & Seauex did not follow our Derections and be at 
peace with the nations which we had addopted. we made 
Some flew Small presents to those Shar-hds and also Some to 
the Mandans & at 3 oClock they all Departed well pleased, 
haveing Seen many Curesostties, which we Showed them, 
river rise one inch , 

3"? "December Monday 1804 — 

a fine morning the after part of the day cold & windey the 
wind from the NW. the Father of the Mandan who was 
killed came and made us a present of Some Dried Simnins 
{Pumpkins) & a little pimecon, (pemitigon) we made him Some 
small preasents for which he was much pleased 

4I* of December Tuesday 1804 — 

a cloudy raw Day wind from the N.W. the Black cat and 
two young Chiefs Visit us and as usial Stay all Day the river 
rise one inch fini[s]h the main bastion, our interpet' (Jes- 
saume) we discover to be assumeing and discontent'd. 1 

1 Biddle here makes a brief statement of the religious belief and origin-myth of the 
Mandan; cf. therewith Catlin's Must. N. Amer. Inds. (London, 1866), i, pp. 156, 
157, 177-183, and Maximilian's Voyage, ii, pp. 418-436. — Ed. 

[233 ] 


S'* December Wednesday — 1 804 

a cold raw morning wind from the S.E. Some Snow, two 
of the NW. Company Came to See us, to let us Know they in- 
tended to Set out for the establishment on the ossinniboin 
River in two Days, & their party would Consist of 5 men, 
Several Indians also visited us one brought Pumpkins or Sim- 
nins as a preasent. a little Snow fell in the evening at which 
time the wind Shifted round to N.E. 

6'* of December Thursday 1804 Fort Mandan — 

The wind blew violently hard from the N.N.W. with Some 
Snow the air Keen and cold. The Thermometer at 8 oClock 
A.M. Stood at 10 dg! above o. at 9 oClock a man & his 
squar Came down with Some meat for the interpeter his dress 
was a par mockersons of Buffalow Skin & P' Legins of Goat 
Skin & a Buffalow robe, 14 ring of Brass on his fingers, this 
Metel {ornament) the Mandans ar verry fond off. cold after 
noon river rise \yi Inch to day. 

[Memorandum, p. 220 :] Cap' Clark Set out with a hunting 
party Killed 8 Buffalow & returned next day 

7* of December Friday 1804 — 

a verry cold day wind from the NW. the Big White Grand 
Chief of the i" Village, came and informed us that a large 
Drove of Buffalow was near and his people was wating for us 
to join them in a chase Cap! Lewis took 15 men & went out 
joined the Indians, who were at the time he got up, Killing 
the Buffalow on Horseback with arrows which they done with 
great dexterity, 1 his party killed 10 Buffalow, five of which 
we got to the fort by the assistance of a horse in addition to 
what the men Packed on their backs, one cow was killed on 
the ice after drawing her out of a vacancey in the ice in which 
She had fallen, and Butchered her at the fort, those we did 

1 Biddle gives (i, p. 140) a more detailed account of the Indians' buffalo hunt. 
Gass says (p. 89) that Lewis took eleven men with him, who killed 11 buffalo, while 
the Indians killed 30 or 40. — Ed. 



not get in was taken by the indians under a Custom which is 
established amongst them i e. any person seeing a buffalow 
lying without an arrow Sticking in him, or some purticular 
mark takes possession, many times (as I am told) a hunter 
who kills maney Buffalow in a chase only Gets a part of one, 
all meat which is left out all night falls to the Wolves which 
are in great numbers, always in [the neighborhood of — Ed.] 
the Buffalows. the river Closed opposit the fort last night 
\ x / 2 inches thick, The Thermometer Stood this Morning at 
i d. below o. three men frost bit badly to day. 

%th. December Satturday 1804. — 

a verry Cold morning, the Thermometer Stood at I2 d# below 

which is 42 d ' below the freesing point, wind from the NW. 

1 with 1 5 men turned out {Indians joined us on horseback shot 
with arrows rode along side of buffaloe) and killed 8 buffalow 
& one Deer, one Cow and calf was brought in, two Cows 
which I killed at 7 miles Ds t- I left 2 men to Skin & keep off 
the Wolves, and brought in one Cow & a calf, in the even- 
ing on my return to the fort Saw great numbers of Buffalow 
Comeing into the Bottom on both Sides of the river this day 
being Cold Several men returned a little frost bit, one of [the] 
men with his feet badly frost bit my Servents feet also frosted 

& his' P s a little, I felt a little fatigued haveing run after 

the Buffalow all day in Snow many Places 18 inches Deep, 
generally 6 or 8, two men hurt their hips verry much in 
Slipping down. The Indians kill great numbers of Buffalow 
to day. 2 reflectings Suns to day. 

, 9^* December Sunday 1 804 — 

The Thermometer Stood this morning at 7° above o, wind 
from the E. CapV Lewis took 18 men & 4 horses (j hired I 
bought) and went out [to] Send in the meet killed yesterday 
and kill more, the Sun Shown to day Clear, both interpeters 
went to the Villages to day at 12 oClock two Cheifs came 
loaded with meat, one with a dog & Slay also loaded with meat, 
Cap'- Lewis Sent 4 Hors's loaded with meat, he continued at 
the hunting Camp near which the[y] killed 9 buffalow. 



10'* Monday Dec. 1804 Fort Mandan — 

a verry Cold Day The Thermometer to day at 10 & 11 
Degrees, below o. 1 Cap' Lewis returned, to day at 12 oClock 
leaveing 6 Men at the Camp to prepare the meat for to pack 
4 Horse loads came in, Cap' Lewis had a Cold Disagreeable 
night last in the Snow on a Cold point with one Small Blankett, 
the Buffalow crossed the river below in imence herds without 
brakeing in. only 2 buffalow killed to day one of which was 
too pore to Skin, The men which was frost bit is getting 
better, the [river] rise i 1 /^ inch wind North. 

nlf December Tuesday 1804 — 

a verry Cold morning Wind from the north The Ther- 
mometer at 4 oClock A M. at 21! [sunrise at 21°. see lisf\ 
below o which is 53° below the freesing point and getting 
colder, the Sun Shows and reflects two imigies, the ice float- 
ing in the atmospear being So thick that the appearance is like 
a fog Despurceing. 

Sent out three horses for meat & with Derections for all the 
hunters to return to the fort as Soon as possible at 1 oClock 
the horses returned loaded, at night all the hunters returned, 
Several a little frosted, The Black Cat Chief of the Mandans 
paid us a Visit to day, continue Cold all day river at a 

iz'* December Wednesday 1804 — 

a Clear Cold morning Wind from the north the Ther- 
mometer at Sun rise Stood at 38° below o., moderated untill 6 
oClock at which time it began to get Colder. I line my Gloves 
and have a Cap made of the Skin of the Louservia 2 (Lynx) (or 
wild Cat of the North) the fur near 3 inches long, a Indian 
of the Shoe 3 (Maharha or Mocassin) Nation Came with the half 

1 An experiment was made with proof spirits, which in fifteen minutes froze into 
hard ice. — Gass (p. 90). 

2 A corruption of the French toup-cervier, the common name of the Canada lynx 
{Lynx canadensis). — Ed. 

8 Merely an Anglicized form of the French appellation Gens de Soulier, applied to 
the Ahnahaway (see p. 208, note 2, ante). — Ed. 


i8o 4 ] AT FORT M AND AN 

of a Cabra ko ka or Antilope which he killed near the Fort. 
Great numbers of those animals are near our fort (so that they 
do not all return to rock mountain Goat) but the weather is So 
Cold that we do not think it prudent to turn out to hunt in 
Such Cold weather, or. at least untill our Const! are prepared 
to under go this Climate. I measure the river from bank to 
bank on the ice and make it 500 yards 

13'* December Thursday 1804 — 

The last night was verry Clear & the frost which fell, covered 
the ice old Snow & those parts which was naked '/ 6 of an inch, 
The Thermometer Stands this morning at 20° below o, a fine 
day. find it imposible to make an Observation with an arte- 
ficial Horrison. Joseph Fields kill a Cow and Calf to day, 

one mile from the Fort. River fall. f 


1 4^* December Friday 1804 — 

a fine Morning, wind from the S. E. the Murckerey Stood 
at o this morning I went with a party of men down the river 
18 miles 1 to hunt Buffalow, Saw two Bulls too pore to kill, 
the Cows and large gangues haveing left the River, we only 
killed two Deer & Camped all night with Some expectation 
of Seeing the Buffalow in the morning, a verry Cold night, 

l S'f! of December 1804 Satturday — 

a Cold Clear morning, Saw no buffalow, I concluded to 
return to the fort & hunt on each Side of the river on our 
return which we did without Success, the Snow fell 1*^5 inches 
deep last night. Wind North, on my return to the fort 
found Several Chiefs there. ' 

i6! A December Sunday 1804 — 

a clear Cold morning, the Thermtf at Sun rise Stood at 21°. 
below o, a verry singaler appearance of the Moon last night, 
as She appeared thro: the frosty atmispear. Mr. Henny from 
the Establishment on River Ossinniboin, with a letter from, 

1 "On the ice with Slays," according to a memorandum on p. 220 of this 
Codex. — Ed. 



M. r Charles Chaboillez one of the C° arrived in 6 Days, 1 Mr. 
C. in his letter expressed a great anxiety to Serve us in any 
thing in his power. 2 

*a root Discribed by Nil Henny for the Cure of a Mad 
Dog [blank in MS.— Ed.] 

M' LeRock a clerk, of the NW. Company and M' George 
Bunch a Clerk of the Hudsons beey Compy accompanied 
M r Henry from the village. 

17'* December Monday 1804 — 

a verry Cold morning the Thmt. Stood a[t] 45° below o. 
We found Mr. Henny a Verry intelligent Man from whome 
we obtained Some Scetches of the Countrey between the Mis- 
sissippi & Missouri, and Some Sketches from him, which he 
had obtained from the Indin' to the West of this place also the 
names and charecktors of the Seeaux &c. about 8 oClock 
P M. the thermometer fell to 74° below the freesing pointe. 
the Indian Chiefs Sent word that Buffalow was in our Neigh- 
bourhood, and if we would join them, in the morning they 
would go and kill them. 

18'? December Tuesday 1804 — 

The Themometer the Same as last night M r ." Haney & 
La Rocke left us for the Grossventre Camp, Sent out 7 men 
to hunt for the Buffalow they found the weather too cold & 
returned, Several Indians Came, who had Set out with a 
View to Kill buffalow, The river rise a little I imploy my 
Self makeing a Small Map of Connextion &c. Sent Jessomme 
to the Main Chief of the mandans to know the Cause of his 

1 This post, according to Coues (Henry's Journal, i, p. 298) was called Fort 
Montagne a la Bosse, situated on the Assiniboin about 50 miles above Mouse River. 
The messenger's name appears in the L. and C. MSS. as Henny, Henry and Haney. 
His real name was Hugh Henney, a trader for the Hudson's Bay Company. Larocque 
mentions his arrival (Masson's Bourg. Nord-Ouejt, i, p. 307). Mrs. E. E. Dye cites 
to the Editor from a MS. journal of a Hudson's Bay Company trader (18 12-16) the 
additional fact that he was head of the Pembina and Red River (of the North) district 
as late as 1812, when he was superseded by Peter Fidler, with whose earlier explora- 
tion Lewis and Clark were acquainted. — Ed. 

2 The object of the visits we received from the N. W. Company, was to ascertain 
our motives for visiting that country, and to gain information with respect to the change 
of government. — Gass (p. 92). 



detaining or takeing a horse of Chabonoe our big belly inter- 
peter, which we found was thro: the rascallity of one Lafrance 
a trader from the NW. Company, who told this Chief that 
Chabonat ow d him a horse to go and take him he done So 
agreeable to an indian Custom, he gave up the horse 

19'* December Wednesday 1804 — 

The Wind from the S.W. the weather moderated a little, I 
engage my Self in Connecting the countrey from information, 
river rise a little 1 

20'* December Thursday 1804 — 

The wind from the NW a moderate day, the Ther- 
mometer 21°- ( 2 4°) above o, which givs an oppertunity of 
putting up our pickets next the river, nothing remarkable 
took place to Day river fall a little 

»i*f December Friday 1804 — 

a fine Day warm and wind from the NW by W, the 
Indian whome I stoped from Commiting Murder on his wife, 
'thro jellosy of one of our interpeters, Came & brought his 
two wives and Shewed great anxiety to make up with the man 
with whome his joulussey Sprung, a Womon brought a 
Child with an abcess on the lower part of the back, and offered 
as much Corn as she Could Carry for some Medison, Cap' 
Lewis administered &c. 

22^ December Satturday 1804 — 

worm, a number of Squars & men Dressed in Squars 
Clothes 2 Came with Corn to Sell to the men for little things, 
We precured two horns of the animale the french Call the 

1 Biddle here describes a game played by the Mandan with flat rings and sticks 
on a level surface. — Ed. 

2 Reference is here made to a singular class of men who have been found by 
travellers and explorers among most of the Southern and Western tribes ; they are 
commonly called " berdashes " (a corruption of Fr. bardache). They assumed femi- 
nine garb and occupations, for the entire span of life, and were regarded with the 
utmost contempt by their tribesmen. For accounts of this strange custom, see 
Lafitau's Moeurs des sawvages, i, pp. 52, 53 ; Long's Expedition, i, p. 129 5 Carr's 
Mounds of Miss. Palley, p. 33 ; Catlin's N. Amer. Indians, ii, pp. 214, 215 ; Henry's 
Journal, i, pp. 53, 163-165 ; and Jes. Relations, lix, p. 129. — Ed. 



rock Mountain Sheep those horns are not of the largest kind 
The Mandans Indians Call this Sheep Ar-Sar-ta it is about 
the Size of a large Deer, or Small Elk,* its Horns Come out 
and wind around the head like the horn of a Ram and the 
tecture (texture) not unlike it much larger and thicker, per- 
ticelarly that part with which they but[t] or outer part which 
is [blank in MS.] inchs thick, the length of those horns, 
which we have is [blank in MS.] 

23^ December Sunday 1804 — 

a fine Day great numbers of indians of all discriptions 
Came to the fort many of them bringing Corn to trade, the 
little Crow, load d his wife & Sun with Corn for us, Cap. 
Lewis gave him a few presents as also his wife, She made a 
kittle of boiled Cimnins, beens, Corn & Choke Cheries with 
the Stones, which was palitable This Desh is Considered, as 
a treat among those people, the Chiefs of the Mandans are 
fond of stayin' & Sleeping in the fort 

24(f December Monday 1804 — 

Several Chiefs and numbers of Men Womin and Children 
at the fort to Day, Some for trade, the most as lookers on, 
we gave a fellet of Sheep Skin (which we brought for Spung- 
ing) to 3 Chiefs one to each of i inches wide, [on] which they 
lay Great value (priseing those felets equal to a fine horse), a 
fine Day we finished the pickengen (picketing) around our 

25I? December Christmas] Tuesday — 

I was awakened before Day by a discharge of 3 platoons 
from the Party and the french, the men merrily Disposed, I 
give them all a little Taffia and permited 3 Cannon fired, at 
raising Our flag, Some Men Went out to hunt & the others 
to Danceing and Continued untill 9 oClock P.M. when the 
frolick ended &C 1 

1 Biddle says : " We had told the Indians not to visit us, as it was one of our 
great medicine days." Gass says : " Flour, dried apples, pepper, and other articles 
were distributed in the different messes to enable them to celebrate Christmas in a 
proper and social manner." Three rations of brandy were served during the day, 
which was mainly spent in dancing ; no women were present save Charboneau's three 
wives, who were only spectators. — Ed. 


i8o 4 ] AT FORT M AND AN 

26'? Dec'. Wednesday 1804 — 

a temperate day no Indians to day or yesterday. A man 
from the NW. Company Came Down from the Gross Ventres 
to get one of our interpeters to assist them in trade This 
man informed that the Party of Gross Ventres who persued 
the Assiniboins that Stold their horses, had all returned in 
their useal way by Small parties, the last of the party bringing 
8 horses which they Stole from a Camp of Assiniboins which 
they found on Mouse River. 

27^* December 1804 Thursday — 

a little fine Snow weather Something Colder than yesterday 
Several Indians here to Day, much Suprised at the Bellos 
(Bellows) 1 & method of makeing Sundery articles of Iron 
Wind hard from the NW. 2 

#l Which they considered as a very great medicine. — Biddle (Z,. and C, i, 
p. 145). 

2 Here follows, in Biddle, a sketch of the Siouan tribes, mainly the same infor- 
mation which we have thus far obtained from the MS. text. — Ed. 


[241 ] 


Chapter VI 


Clark's Journal, December 28, 1804 — February 2, 1805 j February 13 — March 21, 1805 
Entries by Lewis, February 3-13 and March 16 

EClarkQ 2 81* of December Friday 1804 — 

BLEW verry hard last night, the frost fell like a Shower 
of Snow, nothing remarkable to day, the Snow 
Drifting from one bottom to another and from the 
leavel plains into the hollows &c. 

29'* December Satturday 1 804 

The frost fell last night nearly a J^ of an inch Deep and 
Continud to fall untill the Sun was of Some hite, the Mur- 
cury Stood this Morning at 9! below o which is not considered 
Cold, as the Changes take place gradually without long inter- 
misions a number of Indians here 

3 off December Sunday 1804 — 

Cold the Termt' at 10. below o a number of Indians here 
to day they are much Supprised at the Bellows one Deer 

3 1 *{ of December Monday 1804 Fort Mandan — 

a fine Day Some wind last night which Mixed the Snow 
and Sand in the bead of the river, which has the appearance 
of hillocks of Sand on the ice, which is also Covered with 
Sand & Snow, the frost which falls in the night, Continues 
on the earth & old Snow &c. &c. a number of indians here 
every Day our blakSmith Mending their axes hoes &c. &c. 
for which the Squars bring Corn for payment. 1 

1 Biddle here adds : " In their general conduct during these visits they are honest, 
but will occasionally pilfer any small article." Mackenzie says (Masson's Bourg. 

[242 ] 


Fort Mandan on the NE bank of the Missouries 1600 Miles up Tuesday 

January the i-ff 1805. — 

The Day was ushered in by the Descharge of two Cannon, 
we Suffered 16 men with their Musick to visit the i" Village 
for the purpose of Danceing, by as they Said the perticular 
request of the Chiefs of that Village, about 1 1 oClock I with 
an inturpeter & two men walked up to the Village, (my views 
were to alay Some little Miss understanding which had taken 
place thro jelloucy and mortification as to our treatment 
towards them I found them much pleased at the Danceing 
of our men, 1 I ordered my black Servent to Dance which 
amused the Croud Verry much, and Somewhat astonished 
them, that So large a man should be active &c. &c. I went 
into the lodges of all the men of note, except two, whome I 
heard had made Some expressions not favourable towards us, 
in , Compareing us with the traders from the north, — those 
Chiefs observed {to us that) what they Sayed was in just {in 
jest) & laftur. just as I was about to return, the 2*! Chief 
z{nd) the Black man, also a Chief return d from a Mission on 
which they had been Sent to meet a large party (150) of Gross 
Ventres 2 who were on their way down from their Camps 10 
Miles above to revenge on the Shoe tribe an injury which they 
had received by a Shoe man Steeling a Gross Ventres Girl, 
those Chiefs gave the pipe [and] turned the party back, after 
Delivering up the/ Girl, which the Shoe Chief had taken and 
given to them for that purpose." I returned in the evening, 

Nord-Ouest, i, p. 330), of the Indian opinion regarding Lewis and Clark : " The 
Indians admired the air gun, as it could discharge forty shots out of one load, but 
they dreaded the magic of the owners. 'Had I thes J e white warriors in the upper 
plains,' said the Gros Ventres chief, ' my young men on horseback would soon do for 
them, as they would do for so many wolves, for,' continued he, • there are only two 
sensible men among them, the worker of iron and the mender of guns.' " — Ed. 

1 " Particularly with the movements of one of the Frenchmen who danced on his 
head" (Biddle). Coues here asserts (i, p. 219) that Clark explained to Biddle that 
the Frenchman danced on his hands, head downward. — Ed. 

2 Biddle here adds "or wandering Minnetarees," an epithet often used by Lewis 
and Clark to designate an Arapaho band, who are still known as " Gros Ventres of 
the Prairie," in distinction from the " Gros Ventres of the Missouri," the term 
commonly applied to the Minitaree (now settled at Fort Berthold, N. D.). See 
p. 225, note, ante. — Ed. 



at night the party except 6 returned, with 3 robes, an[d] 13 
Strings of Corn which the indians had given them, The Day 
was worm, Themt r 34° above o, Some fiew Drops of rain 
about Sunset, at Dark, it began to Snow, and Snowed the 
greater part of the night, (the tempV for Snow is about o) 
The Black Cat with his family visited us to day and brought a 
little meet 

*7f of January Wednesdey 1805 — 

a Snowey morning, a party of Men go to Dance at the 
2°. d Village to Dance, Cap' Lewis & the interpt' Visit the i\ 
Village, and return in the evening, Some Snow to Day Verry 
cold in the evening 1 

31? of January Thursday 1805 — 

Some Snow to day, 8 men go to hunt the buffalow, killed 
a hare & wolf Several Indians visit us to day & a Gross 
Ventre came after his wife, who had been much abused, & 
came here for -Protection. 

4i? of January Friday 1805 Fort Mandan — 

a worm Snowey Morning, the Thermt' at 28? above o, 
Cloudy, Sent out 3 Men to hunt down the river, Several 
Indians Came to day, the little Crow, who has proved friendly 
Came, we gave him a handkerchf & 2 files, in the evening 
the weather became cold and windey, wind from the NW. I 
am Verry unwell the after part of the Daye 

5'* of January Satturday 1805 — 

a cold day Some Snow, Several Indians visit us with their 
axes to get them mended, I imploy my Self Drawing a Con- 
nection of the Countrey 2 from what information I have re- 

1 This day I discovered how the Indians keep their horses during the winter. In 
the day-time they are permitted to run out and gather what they can ; and at night 
are brought into the lodges, with the natives themselves, and fed upon Cottonwood 
branches ; and in this way are kept in tolerable case. — Gass (p. 96). 

2 This map was sent to President Jefferson, April 7, 1805, and preserved in the 
archives of the War Department. As drafted by Nicholas King, 1806, it is cited 
herein as "Lewis's map of 1806." — Coues (L. and C, i, p. 221). 

An atlas volume contains this and others of Clark's maps. 

' [244]> 


c[e]ved. a Buffalow Dance (or Medeson) (Medecine) for 3 
nights passed in the 1" Village, a curious Custom the old 
men arrange themselves in a circle & after Smoke[ing] a pipe 
which is handed them by a young man, Dress[ed] up for the 
purpose, the young men who have their wives back of the 
Circle go [each] to one of the old men with a whining tone 
and request the old man to take his wife (who presents [her- 
self] necked except a robe) and — (or Sleep with her) the 
Girl then takes the Old Man (who verry often can scarcely 
walk) and leades him to a convenient place for the business, 
after which they return to the lodge ; if the old man (or a 
white man) returns to the lodge without gratifying the Man & 
his wife, he offers her again and again ; it is often the Case that 
after the l\ time without Kissing the Husband throws a new 
robe over the old man &c. and begs him not to dispise him 
& his wife (We Sent a man to this Medisan Dance last 
night, they gave him 4 Girls) all this is to cause the buffalow 
to Come near So that they may Kill them * 

6'f of January Sunday 1805 — 

a Cold day but new indians to day I am ingaved 
[engaged] as yesterday 

7'* of January Monday 1805 — 

a verry cold Clear Day. The Themt' Stood at 22! below 
o Wind NW., the river fell 1 inch Several indians returned 
from hunting, one of them the Big White Chief of the 
Lower Mandan Village, Dined with us, and gave me a Scetch 
of the Countrey as far as the high Mountains, & on the South 
Side of the River Rejone, 2 he Says that the river rejone 
recvees (receives) 6 Small rivers on the S. Side, & that the 
Countrey is verry hilley and the greater part Covered with 
timber Great numbers of beaver &c. the 3 men returned 
from hunting, they kill?, 4 Deer & 2 Wolves, Saw Buffalow a 
long ways off. I continue to Draw a connected plott from the 

1 This ceremony is described much more fully by Biddle (i, pp. 150, 151), and 
by Prince Maximilian {Voyage, ii, pp. 453, 454, and iii, pp. 56-60). — Ed. 

2 An imperfect phonetic rendering of the French name Roche-Jaune, meaning 
" Yellowstone," still applied to the river here described. — Ed. 



information of Traders, Indians & my own observation & 
ideas, from the best information, the Great falls is about 
(800) miles nearly West, 1 

8'f of January Tuesday 1805 — 

a cold Day but new indians at the fort to day wind from 
the N.W. one man at the Village 2 

9'm of January Wednesday 1805 

a Cold Day Themometer at 21! below o, great numbers 
of indians go to kill Cows, s (C Clark acc d . them with 3 or 4 men 
killed a number of cows near the fort.) the little Crow Brackfl 
with us, Several Indians Call at the Fort nearly frosed, one 
man reported that he had Sent his Son a Small boy to the 
fort about 3 oClock, £: was much distressed at not finding him 
here, the after part of this day verry Cold, and wind keen 

10'* of January Thursday 1805 

last night was excessively Cold the Murkery this morning 
Stood at 40? below o which is 72? below the freesing point, 
we had one man out last night, who returned about 8 oClock 
this morning. The Indians of the lower Villege turned out 
to hunt for a,man & a boy who had not returnd from the hunt 
of yesterday, and borrow'd a Slay to bring them in expecting 
to find them frosed to death 4 about 10 oClock the boy about 

1 Larocque says (Masson's Bourgeois, pp. 310, 311) that Lewis and Clark found 
all the longitudes estimated by David Thompson to be inaccurate. He gives interesting 
details as to the territorial claims of the United States, saying: " They include in 
their territory as far north as River <%ui appelle, for, as it was impossible for a line 
drawn west from the west end of Lac des Bois to strike the Mississippi, they make it 
run till it strikes its tributary waters, that is, the north branches of the Missouri and 
from thence to the Pacific." — Ed. 

2 Biddle here describes another licentious ceremony, called "the medicine- 
dance." — Ed. 

8 The buffaloes were usually called by the French hunters "wild cows" or 
"wild cattle," a term often adopted by the English. — Ed. 

4 In Biddle' s account are found some additional details, especially interesting as 
showing a humane and generous nature in these Indians: "The boy had been a 
prisoner and adopted from charity, yet the distress of the father proved that he felt for 
him the tenderest affection. The man was a person of no distinctioa, yet the whole 
village was full of anxiety for his safety." — Ed. 



13 years of age Came to the fort with his feet frosed and had 
layed out last night without fire with only a Buffalow Robe to 
Cover him, the Dress which he wore was a pr. of Cabra 
{antelope) Legins, which is verry thin and mockersons we had 
his feet put in cold water and they are Comeing too. Soon 
after the arrival of the Boy, a Man Came in who had also 
Stayed out without fire, and verry thinly Clothed, this man 
was not the least injured. Customs & the habits of those 
people has anured [them] to bare more Cold than I thought 
it possible for man to endure. Sent out 3 men to hunt Elk 
below about 7 miles 

ii^* January Friday 1805 

Verry Cold, Send out 3 men to join 3 now below & hunt, 
Pose-cop se ha or Black Cat. came to See us and Stay all night 

Sho ta har ro ra or Coal also stay d all night, the inturpiter 
oldst wife Sick, Some of our Men go to See a War Medeson 
made at the Village on the opposit Side of the river, this is a 
[blank in MS.] . 

12'* of January Satturday 1805 

a verry Cold Day three of our hunters J & R Fields withe 
1 Elk on a Slay Sent one more hunter out. 

13^ of January Sunday 1805 

a Cold Clear Day (great number of Indians move Down the 
River to hunt) those people Kill a Number of Buffalow near 
their Villages and Save a great perpotion of the Meat, theer 
Custom of makeing this article of life General (see note) {common) 
leaves them more than half of their time without meat ' Their 
Corn & Beans &c they keep for the Summer, and as a reserve 
in Case of an attack from the Soues, [of] which they are always 
in dread, and Sildom go far to hunt except in large parties, 
about y 2 the Mandans nation passed this to day to hunt on 

1 Referring to the custom of dividing their game equally among all the families 
of the tribe, whether or not these have sent out men to the hunt, and to their improvi- 
dence and carelessness (see Biddle, i, pp. 153, 159). — Ed. 



the river below, they will Stay out some Days, M' Chabonee 
(our inturpeter) and one man that accompanied him to Some 
loges of the Menatarrees near the Turtle Hill 1 returned, both 
frosed in their faces. Chaboneu informs that the Clerk of the 
Hudson Bay Co. with the Me ne tar res has been Speaking 
Some new express"" unfavourable towards us, and that it is Said 
the NW Co: intends building a fort at the Mene tar r'es. he 
Saw the grand Chief of the Big bellies who Spoke Slightly of 
the Americans, Saying if we would give our great flag to him 
he would Come to See us. 

14.'* of January 1805 Monday 

This morning early a number of indians men women children 
Dogs &c. &c. passed down on the ice to joine those that passed 
yesterday, we Sent Serg' Pryor and five men with those indians 
to hunt (Several men with the Venereal cough t from the Man- 
dan women) one of our hunters Sent out Several days [ago] 
arived & informs that one Man (Whitehouse) is frost bit and 
Can't walk home. 

15'* "January Tuesday 1805 Fort Mandan 

between \i & 3 oClock this Morning we had a total eclips 
of the Moon, a part of the observations necessary for our pur- 
pose in this eclips we got which is 

at I2h-57m-54s Total Darkness of the Moon 

at —1 —44 —00 End of total Darkness of The moon 

at 2 —30 —to End of the eclips. 

This morning not so Cold as yesterday Wind from the 
S.E. wind choped around to the N.W. Still temperate four 
Considerate [considerable — Ed.] men of the Menetarre Came 
to See us We Smoked in the pipe, many Mand' present also, 
we Showed (attentions) to those men who had been impressed 
with an unfavourable oppinion of us (which satisfied them). 

1 On the Little Missouri River. — Ed. 



16'* January Wednesday 1805 

about thirty Mandans came to the fort to day, 6 chiefs, 
those Me-ne-ta-rees told them they were liars, had told them 
if they Came to the fort the whites men would kill them, they 
had been with them all night, Smoked in the pipe and have 
been treated well and the whites had danced for them, observe- 
ing the Mandans were bad and ought to hide themselves, one 
of the i 8 .' War Chiefs of the big bell[i]es nation Came to see us 
to day with one man and his Squar to wate on him {requested 
that she might be used for the night) (his wife handsome) We 
Shot the Air gun, and gave two Shots with the Cannon which 
pleased them verry much, the little Crow 2 d . Chf of the lower 
Village Came & brought us Corn &c. 4 men of ours who 
had been hunting returned one frost'd 

This War Chief gave us a Chart in his Way of the Missourie, 
he informed us of his intentions of going to War in the Spring 
against the Snake Indians we advised him to look back at the 
number of Nations who had been distroyed by War, and reflect 
upon what he was about to do, observing if he wished the hapi- 
ness of his nation, he would be at peace with all, by that by 
being at peace and haveing plenty of goods amongst them & a 
free intercourse with those defenceless nations, they would get 
on easy tirms a greater Number of horses, and that Nation 
would increas, if he went to War against those Defenceless 
people, he would displease his great father, and he would not 
receive that pertection & care from him as other nations who 
listened to his word. This Chief who is a young man 26 y' old 
replied that if his going to war against the Snake indians would 
be displeasing to us he would not go, he had horses enough. 

We observed that what we had said was the words of his 
great father, and what we had Spoken to all the Nations which 
we Saw on our passage up, they all promis to open their ears, 
and we do not know as yet if any of them has Shut them (we 
are doubtfull of the Soues) if they do not attend to what we 
have told them their great father will open their ears. This 
Chief Said that he would advise all his nation to stay at home 
..ntill we Saw the Snake Indians & Knew if they would be 
friendly, he himself would attend to what we had told him. 



17'* 'January Thursday 1805 

a verry Windey morning hard, from the North Ther- 
momiter at o, Several Indians here to day 

18'* January Friday 1805 

a fine worm morning, M' La Rock a[nd] M-Kinzey Came 
down to See us with them Several of the Grosse Ventres. 

19'* January Satturday 1805. 

■ a fine Day Mess? Le rock & M-Kinzey returned home, 
Sent three horses down to our hunting Camp for the meet 
they had killed, Jussomes Squar, left him and went to the 

20'* — 
a Cold fair day Several Indians at the fort to day a 
Missunderstanding took place between the two inturpeters on 
account of their squars, one of the Squars of Shabowner 
Squars being Sick, I ordered my Servent to give her Some 
froot Stewed and tee at dif' times which was the cause of the 
missundsfi 1 

2i rf Monday January 1805 

a number of Indians here to day a fine day nothing 
remarkable one ban [man] verry bad with the pox. 

22*;f January 1805 Tuesday 

a find warm Day attempted to Cut the Boat & perogues 
out of the Ice, found water at about 8 inches under the i" 
Ice, the next thickness about 3 feet 

23rd January 1805 Wednesday 

A Cold Day Snow fell 4 Inches deep, the accurancies 
(accurrencies) of this day is as is common 

1 I went up with one of the men to the villages. They treated us friendly and 
gave us victuals. After we were done eating they presented a bowlful to a buffaloe 
head, saying, "eat that.'"' Their superstitious credulity is so great, that they believe 
by using the head well, the living buffaloe will come, and that they will get a supply 
of meat. — Gass (pp. 98, 99). 



i^ttt January Thursday 1805 

a fine day, our inturpeters appear to understand each other 
better than a flew days past. Sent out Several hunters, they 
returned without killing any thing, Cut Coal wood. 1 

2 S'* of January 1805 Friday 

we are informed of the arrival of a Band of assniboins at 
the Villages with the Grand Chief of those Tribes Call[ed] the 
(Fee de petite veau) (Fi/s de Petit veau) to trade, one of our 
interpeters & one man Set out to the Big Belley Camp opposit 
the Island, men employ'd in Cutting the Boat out of the ice, 
and Collecting Coal wood. 

26^? of January Satturday 1805 

a verry fine worm Day Several Indians Dine with us and 
are much Pleased, one man taken violently Bad with the 
Plurisie, Bleed & apply those remedies Common to that dis- 

27'* of January Sunday 1805 

a fine day, attempt to Cut our Boat and Canoos out of 
the Ice, a deficuelt Task I fear as we find water between the 
Ice, I bleed the man with the Plurisy to day & Swet him, 
Cap! Lewis took off the Toes of one foot of the Boy who got 
frost bit Some time ago, Shabonoe our interpeter returned, 
& informed that the Assiniboins had returned to their Camps, 
& brought 3 horses of Wl r . Larock's to Stay here for fear of 
their being Stolen by the Assiniboins who are great rogues. 2 
cut off the boy['s] toes. 

1 z%"! January Monday 1805 

attempt to Cut through the ice to get our Boat and Canoo 
out without Suckcess, Several Indians here . 
wishing to get War hatchets Made the man ^^a^dc*. 
Sick yesterday is getting well M'. Jessome our 
interpiter was taken verry unwell this evening worm day 

1 Wood to make charcoal. — Biddle (i, p. 156). 

2 Larocque says that he sent his horses to the fort in accordance with Captain 
Clark's offer to care for them with his own animals. — Ed. 



2 9'? January Tuesday 1805 

Gave Jassome a Dost of Salts We Send & Collect Stones 
and put them on a large log heap to heet them with a view of 
worming water in the Boat and by that means, Sepperate her 
from the Ice, our attempt appears to be defeated by the 
Stones all breaking & flying to peaces in the fire, a fine worm 
Day, we are now burning a large Coal pit, to mend the 
indians hatchets, & make them war axes, the only means by 
which we precure Corn from them. 

30'* January Wednesday 1805 

a fine morning, clouded up at 9 oClock, M' La Rocke 
paid us a Visit, & we gave him an answer respecting the request 
he made when last here of accompanying us on our Journey 
&c. {refused) 

31*' January Thursday 1805 

Snowed last night, wind high from the NW. Sawed off" the 
boys toes Sent 5 men down the river to hunt with 2 horses, 
our interpeter something better, George Drewyer taken with 
the Pleurisy last evening Bled & gave him Some Sage tea, this 
morning he is much better. Cold disagreeable Day 

*ti of February Friday 1805 

a cold windey Day our hunters return'! haveing killed only 
one Deer, a War Chief of the Me ne tar ras came with some 
Corn requested to have a War hatchet made, & requested to 
be allowed to go to War against the Soues & Recarres who 
had Killed a mandan Some time past. We refused, and gave 
reassons, which he verry readily assented to, and promised to 
open his ears to all We Said this Man is young and named 
(Seeing Snake)-Mar-book, She-ah-O-ke-ah. this mans Woman 
Set out & he prosued her, in the evening 

zf* of February Salturday 1805 

a fine Day, one Deer killed our interpeter Still unwell, 
one of the wives of the Big belley interpef Sick. M' Larocke 
leave us to day (this man is a Clerk to the NW. Company, & 
verry anxious to accompany us) 



rjLewisf] i rd of February Sunday 1805. l 

a fine day; the blacksmith again commences his oppera- 
tions. we were visited by but few of the natives today, the 
situation of our boat and perogues is now allarming, they are 
firmly inclosed in the Ice and almost covered with snow — the 
ice which incloses them lyes in several stratas of unequal thick- 
nesses which are seperated by streams of water, this [is] 
peculiarly unfortunate because so soon as we cut through the 
first strata of ice the water rushes up and rises as high as the 
upper surface of the ice and thus creates such a debth of water 
as renders it impracticable to cut away the lower strata which 
appears firmly attatched to, and confining the bottom of the 
vessels, the instruments we have hitherto used has been the 
ax only, with which, we have made several attempts that 
proved unsuccessful! from the cause above mentioned, we 
then determined to attempt freeing them from the ice by 
means of boiling water which we purposed heating in the 
vessels by means of hot stones, but this expedient proved also 
fruitless, as every species of stone which we could procure in 
the neighbourhood partook so much of the calcarious genus 
that they burst into small particles on being exposed to the 
heat of the fire, we now determined as the dernier resort to 
prepare a parsel of Iron spikes and attatch them to the end of 
small poles of convenient length and endeavour by. means 
of them to free the vessels from the ice. we have already 
prepared a large rope of Elk-skin and a windless by means of 
which we have no doubt of being able to draw the boat on the 
bank provided we can free [it] from the ice. 

4 1 ? February, Monday 1805. 

This morning fair tho' could the thermometer stood at 
18! below Naught, wind from N.W. Capt Clark set out 
with a hunting party consisting of sixteen of our command 

1 From this point to the 13th of February, the journal is written by Lewis, during 
Clark's absence on a hunting expedition (Feb. 4-12). This is the only hiatus in 
Clark's regular journalizing, throughout the entire expedition ; but under date of Feb- 
ruary 13th, pp. 259-261, post, after his return, he gives a brief summary of the events 
of each day during his trip, so that his record is practically complete. — Ed. 



and two frenchmen who together with two others, have estab- 
lished a small hut and resided this winter within the vicinity 
of Fort Mandane under our protection, visited by many of 
the natives today, our stock of meat which we had procured 
in the Months of November & December is now nearly ex- 
hausted ; a supply of this articles is at this moment peculiarly 
interesting as well for our immediate consumption, as that we 
may have time before the approach of the warm season to 
prepare the meat for our voyage in the spring of the year. 
Capt. Clark therefore determined to continue his rout down 
the river even as far as the River bullet 1 unless he should find 
a plenty of game nearer, the men transported their baggage 
on a couple of small wooden Slays drawn by themselves, and 
took with them 3 pack horses which we had agreed should be 
returned with a load cf meat to fort mandane as soon as they 
could procure it. no buffaloe have made their appearance in 
our neighbourhood for some weeks (lime shorter) ; and I am 
informed that our Indian neighbours suffer extreemly at this 
moment for the article of flesh. Shields killed two deer this 
evening, both very lean one a large buck, he had shed his 

5'* February Tuesday 1805. — 

Pleasent morning wind from N.W. fair ; visited by many 
of the natives who brought a considerable quanty of corn in 
payment for the work which the blacksmith had done for 
them they are pecu[l]arly attatched to a battle ax formed in 
a very inconvenient manner in my opinion, it is fabricated 
of iron only, the blade is extreemly thin, from 7 to nine 
inches in length and from 4^, to 6 Inches on it's edge, from 
whence the sides proceed nearly in a straight line to the eye 
where it's width is generally not more than an inch, the eye 
is round & about one inch in diameter, the handle seldom 
more than fourteen inches in length, the whole weighing about 
one pound the great length of the blade of this ax, added to 
the small size of the handle renders a stroke uncertain and 

1 The Cannon-ball River, which empties into the Missouri near Fort Rice, N. D. 
The expedition had reached the mouth of this stream on Oct. 1 8. — Ed. 


1 8o 5 ] AT FORT MANDAN 

easily avoided, while the shortness of the handel must render a 
blow much less forceable if even well directed, and still more 
inconvenient as they uniformly use this instrument in action 
on horseback. The oalder fassion is still more inconvenient, 
it is somewhat in the form of the blade of an Espantoon 1 
but is attatchl to a helve of the dementions before discribed 
the blade is sometimes by way of ornament pur- a*~__ 
forated with two three or more small circular TO^i^ 3 " 
holes the following is the general figure it is ft 
from 12 to 15 inces in length • , 

6 1 !* February Wednesday 1805. 

Fair morning Wind from N.W. had a sley prepared against 
the return of the horses which Capt Clark had promised to 
send back as soon as he should be able to procure a load of 
meat, visited by many of the natives among others the Big 
white, the Coal, big-man, hairy horn and the black man, I 
smoked with them, after which they retired, a deportment not 
common, for they usually pester us with their good company 
the ballance of the day after once being introduced to our 
apartment. Shields killed three antelopes this evening, the 
blacksmiths take a considerable quantity of corn today in pay- 
ment for their labour, the blacksmith's have proved a happy 
reso[r]ce to us in our present situation as I believe it would 
have been difficult to have devised any other method to have 
procured corn from the natives, the Indians are extravegantly 
fond of sheet iron of which they form arrow-points and manu- 
facter into instruments for scraping and dressing their buffaloe 
robes. I permited the blacksmith to dispose of a part of a 
sheet iron callaboos (camboose? stove) which had been nearly 
birnt out on our passage up the river, and for each piece about 
four inches square he obtained from seven to eight gallons of 
corn from the natives who appeared extreemly pleased with 
the exchange 

1 A rare and practically obsolete form of spontoon, a word itself now little used. 
The implement meant is the half-pike, a sort of halberd formerly used by certain 
officers of the British army. — Coues (/,. and C, i, p. 230). 

2 This is an unusual form of caboose, from the Dutch mariners' name of the cook's 
galley. — Ed. 



7'!" February Thursday 1805. 

This morning was fair Thermometer at 18° above naught 
much warmer than it has been for some days ; wind S.E. con- 
tinue to be visited by the natives. The Sergj of the guard 
reported that the Indian women (wives to our interpreters) 
were in the habit of unbaring the fort gate at any time of night 
and admitting their Indian visitors, I therefore directed a 
lock to be put to the gate and ordered that no Indian but 
those attatched to the garrison should be permitted to remain 
all night within the fort or admitted during the period which 
the gate had been previously ordered to be kept shut, which 
was from sunset untill sunrise. 

8':* February Friday 1805. 

This morning was fair wind S.E. the weather still warm and 
pleasent. visited by the black-Cat the principal chief of the 
Roop-tar-he, or upper mandane village, this man possesses 
more integrety, firmness, inteligence and perspicuety of mind 
than any indian I have met with in this quarter, and I think 
with a little management he may be made a usefull agent in 
furthering the views of our government. The black Cat pre- 
sented me with a bow and apologized for not having completed 
the shield he had promised alledging that the weather had been 
too could to permit his making it, I gave him som small shot 
6 fishing-hooks and 2 yards of ribbon his squaw also pre- 
sented me with i pair of mockersons for which in return I 
gave a small lookingglass and a couple of nedles. the chief 
dined with me and left me in the evening, he informed me 
that his people suffered very much for the article of meat, and 
that he had not himself tasted any for several days. 

9'* February Saturday 1805. 

The morning fair and pleasent, wind from S.E. visited by 
M. r M c Kinzey one of the N.W. Company's clerks, this even- 
ing a man by the name of Howard whom I had given permis- 
sion to go [to] the Mandane vilage returned after the gate was 
shut and reather than call to the guard to have it opened 
scaled the works an indian who was looking on shortly after 



followed his example. I convinced the Indian of the impro- 
pryety of his conduct, and explained to him the risk he had 
run of being severely treated, the fellow appeared much 
allarmed, I gave him a small piece of tobacco and sent him 
away Howard I had comitted to the care of the guard with a 
determineation to have him tryed by a Court-martial for this 
offence, this man is an old soldier which still hightens this 

\o' h February Sunday 1805. 

This Morning was Cloudy after a slight Snow which' fell in 
the course of the night the wind blue very hard from N.W. 
altho' the thermometer stood at 18! above naught the violence 
of the wind caused a degree of could that was much more un- 
pleasent than that of yesterday when thermometer stood at 10! 
only above the same point. Mr MlKinzey left me this morn- 
ing. Charbono returned with one of the Frenchmen, and 
informed me that he had left the three Horses and two men 
with the meat which Cap! Clark had sent at some distance 
below on the river he told me that the horses were heavy 
loaded and that not being shod it was impossible for horses to 
travel on the ice. I determined to send down some men with 
two small slays for the meat and accordingly I gave orders that 
they should set out early the next morning, two men were 
also sent to conduct the horses by way of the plain. 

11* February Monday 1805. 

The party that were ordered last evening set out early this 
morning, the weather was fair and could wind N.W. about 
five Oclock this evening one of the wives of Charbono was 
delivered of a fine boy. 1 it is worthy of remark that this was 
the first child which this woman had boarn, and as is common 
in such cases her labour was tedious and the pain violent ; 
M' Jessome informed me that he had freequently adminins- 
tered a small portion of the rattle of the rattle-snake, which he 

1 This was Sacajawea, the Shoshone captive purchased by Charboneau, who had 
two other wives among the Mandan. Sacajawea was the only woman taken upon 
the Expedition. — Ed. 

vol. 1. — 17 [257] 


assured me had never failed to produce the desired effect, that 
of hastening the birth of the child ; having the rattle of a 
snake by me I gave it to him and he administered two rings 
of it to the woman broken in small pieces with the fingers and 
added to a small quantity of water. Whether this medicine 
was truly the cause or not I shall not undertake to determine, 
but I was informed that she had not taken it more than ten 
minutes before she brought forth perhaps this remedy may 
be worthy of future experiments, but I must confess that I 
want faith as to it's efficacy. 

12'* February Tuesday 1805. 

The morning was fair tho' could, thermometer at 14! below 
naught wind S.E. ordered the Blacksmith to shoe the horses 
and some others to prepare some gears in order to send them 
down with three slays to join the hunting party and transport 
the meat which they may have procured to this place the 
men whom I had sent for the meat left by Charbono did not 
return untill 4 OClock this evening. Drewyer arrived with 
the horses about the same time, the horses appeared much 
fatieged I directed some meal brands [bran] given them 
moisened with a little water but to my astonishment found 
that they would not eat it but prefered the bark of the cotton 
wood which forms the principall article of food usually given 
them by their Indian masters in the winter season ; for this 
purpose they cause the tree to be felled by their women and 
the horses feed on the boughs and bark of their tender 
branches, the Indians in our neighbourhood are freequently 
pilfered of their horses by the Recares, Souixs and Assinni- 
boins and therefore make it an invariable rule to put their 
horses in their lodges at night, in this situation the only food 
of the horse consists of a few sticks of the Cottonwood from 
the size of a man's finger to that of his arm. the Indians are 
invariably severe riders, and frequently have occasion for many 
days together through the whole course of the day to employ 
their horses in pursueing the Buffaloe or transporting meat to 
their vilages during which time they are seldom suffered to 
tast food ; at night the Horse returned to his stall where his 



food is what seems to me a scanty allowance of wood, under 
these circumstances it would seem that their horses could not 
long exist or at least could not retain their flesh and strength, 
but the contrary is the fact, this valuable anamall under all 
those disadvantages is seldom seen meager or unfit for service. 
A little after dark this evening Cap! Clark arrived with the 
hunting party since they set out they have killed forty Deer, 
three bufFaloe bulls, & sixteen Elk, most of them were so 
meager that they were unfit for uce, particularly the BufFaloe 
and male Elk the wolves also which are here extreemly 
numerous helped themselves to a considerable proportion of 
the hunt, if an anamal is killed and lyes only one night 
exposed to the wolves it is almost invariably devoured by 

13'* February Wednesday 1805. 

The morning cloudy thermometer 1°. below naught wind 
from S.E. visited by the Black-Cat gave him a battle ax with 
which he appeared much gratifyed. 

[Clark :] 

I ' returned last Night from a hunting party much fatigued, 
haveing walked 30 miles on the ice and through Points of 
wood land in which the Snow was nearly Knee Deep 

The i 8 .' day [Feb 4] I left the fort proceeded on the ice to 
new Mandan Island, 22 miles & camped, killed nothing, & 
nothing to eat, 

The i A . day the morning verry Cold & Windey. I broke 
thro the ice and got my feet and legs wet, Sent out 4 hunters 
thro' a point to kill a Deer & cook it by the time the party 
should get up, those hunters killed a Deer & 2 BufFalow 
Bulls the BufFalow too Meagur to eat, we eate the Deer & 
proceeded on to an old Indian Lodge, Sent out the hunters 
& they brought in three lean Deer, which we made use of for 
food, walking on uneaven ice has blistered the bottoms of my 
feat, and walking is painfull to me. 

1 Clark here resumes the record, and the remainder of the journal in Codex C is 
(with the exception of one entry) in his handwriting. — Ed. 



3 r . d day — cold morning the after part of the Day worm, 
Camped on a Sand point near the mouth of a Creek on the 
SW. Side We Call hunting Creek, I turned out with the 
hunters I killed 2 Deer the hunters killed an Elk, BufFalow 
Bull, & 5 Deer, all Meager 

4 l . h Day — hunted the two bottoms near the Camp Killed 
9 Elk, 18 Deer, brought to camp all the meat fit to eate, & 
had the bones taken out. every man ingaged either in hunt- 
ing or Collecting & packing the meat to Camp 

5 th Day — Despatched one of the party our interpeter & 2 
french men with the 3 horses loaded with the best of the meat 
to the fort 44 miles Distant, the remaining meat I had packed 
on the 2 Slays & drawn down to the next point about 3 miles 
below, at this place I had all the meat collected which was 
killed yesterday & had escaped the Wolves, Ravin & Magpie ; 
(which are verry noumerous about this place) and put into a 
close pen made of logs to secure it from the wolves & birds & 
proceeded on to a large bottom nearly opposit the Chisscheter 
(heart) River, in this bottom we found but little game, Great 
No. of Wolves, on the hills Saw Several parsels of BufFalow. 
Camped. I killed a Buck 

6'! 1 Day — The BufFalow Seen last night provd to be Bulls, 
lean & unfit for to make use of as food, the Distance from 
Camp being nearly 60 miles and the packing of meat that dis- 
tance attended with much dificuelty Deturmined me to return 
and hunt the points above, we Set out on our return and 
halted at an old Indian lodge 40 miles below Fort Mandan, 
Killed 3 Elk, & 2 Deer. 

y'* Day a cold Day wind blew hard from the N.W. J. 
Fields got one of his ears frosed deturmined to lay by and 
hunt to day Killed an Elk & 6 deer, all that was fit for use 
[of] this meat I had Boned and put into a Close pen made of 

8'! 1 Day — the air keen halted at the old Camp we stayed 
in on the 2 d night after we left the Fort, expecting to meat the 
horses at this Place, killed 3 Deer, Several men being nearly 
out of Mockersons, & the horses not returning deturmined me 
to return to the Fort on tomorrow. 



9"? day. — Set out early, Saw great numbers of Grouse feed- 
ing on the young Willows, on the Sand bars, one man I sent 
in persute of a gangue of Elk Killed three near the old Ricara 
Village, and joined at the fort, Sent him back to secure the 
meat, one man with him. The ice on the Parts of the river 
which was verry rough, as I went down, was Smoothe on my 
return, This is owing to the rise and fall of the water, which 
takes place every day or two, and Caused by partial thaws, and 
obstructions in the passage of the water thro the Ice, which 
frequently attaches itself to the bottom, the water when rise- 
ing forses its way thro the cracks & air holes above the old ice, 
& in one night becomes a Smothe Surface of ice 4 to 6 Inchs 
thick, the River falls & the ice Sink in places with the water 
and attaches itself to the bottom, and when it again rises to its 
former hite, frequently leavs a Valley of Several feet to Supply 
with water to bring it on a leavel Surfice. The water of the 
Missouri at this time is Clear with little tingue. 

I saw Several old Villages near the Chisscheter River on 
enquirey found they were Mandan Villages destroyed by the 
Sous & Small Pox, they [were] noumerous and lived in 6 (<?) 
Villages near that place. 

1 4^* of February Thursday 1805. 

The Snow fell 3 inches Deep last Night, a fine morning, 
Despatched George Drewyer & 3 men, with two Slays drawn 
by 3 horses for the Meat left below. 

I S'lt of February Friday 1805 

at 10 oClock P M. last night the men that [were] despatched 
yesterday for the Meat, returned and informed us that as they 
were on their march down at the distance of about 24 miles 
below the Fort (G. Drewyer Frasure, S Gutterage, & Newmon 1 
with a broken Gun), about 105 Indians which they took to be 
Soues rushed on them and cut their horses from the Slays, two 
of which they carried off in great hast, the 3"? horse was given 
up to the party by the intersetion of an Indian who assum? 

1 These men were George Drouillard, Robert Frazier, Silas Goodrich, and John 
Newman. — Ed. 



Some authority on the occasion, probably more thro fear of 
himself or Some of the Indians being killed by our men who 
were not disposed to be Robed of all they had tamely, they 
also forced 2 of the mens knives & a tamahauk, the man 
obliged them to return the tamahawk [, but] the knives they 
ran off with 

We dispatched two men to inform the Mandans, and if any 
of them chose to pursue those robers, to come down in the 
morning, and join Cap' Lewis who intended to Set out with a 
party of men Verry early, by 12 oClock the Chief of the 2 n . d 
Village Big White came down, and Soon after one other Chief 
and Several men. The Chief observed that all the young men 
of the 2 Villages were out hunting, and but verry fiew guns 
were left, Cap' Lewis Set out at Sunrise with 24 men, to 
meet those Soues &c. Several Indians accompanied him Some 
with Bows & arrows Some with Spears & Battle axes, 2 with 
fuzees {fusils)} the morning fine The Thermometer Stood 
at 16! below o, Nought, visited by 2 of the Big Bellies this 
evening, one Chief of the Mandans returned from Cap" 
Lewises Party nearly blind, this Complaint is as I am inform 1 ! 
Common at this Season of the year and caused by the reflection 
of the Sun on the ice & Snow, it is cured by "jentilley swet- 
ting the part affected, by throwing Snow on a hot Stone." 

a Verry Cold part of the night one man Killed a verry 
large Red Fox to day. 

16'* of February Satturday 1805 

a fine morning, visited by but fiew Indians to day, at 
Dusk two of the Indians who wint down with Cap'. Lewis 
returned, Soon after two others and one man (Howard) with 
his feet frosted, and informed that the Ind! who Commited the 
roberry of the 2 horses was So far a head that they could not 
be overtaken, they left a number of pars of Mockersons 
which, the Mandans knew to be Soues Mockersons, This 
war party camped verry near the last Camp I made when on 
my hunting party, where they left Some Corn, as a deception, 
with a view to induce a belief that they were Ricarras. 

1 Flint-lock muskets. — Ed. 

[ 262 ] 


Cap' Lewis & party proceeded on down the meat I left at 
my last Camp was taken. 

17'* of February Sunday 1805 

this morning worm & a little Cloudy, the Coal & his Son 
visited me to day with a about 30'? of dri[e]d Buffalow meat, 
& Some Tallow M; M! Kinsey one of the NW. Comp y . 8 
Clerks visited me (one of the ho[r]ses the Sous robed a new 
Days past, belonged to this man) The after part of the day 

18'* of February Monday 1805 

a cloudy morning Some Snow, Several Indians here to day 
M' M c Kinsey leave me, the after part of the day fine I am 
much engaged makeing a descriptive List of the Rivers from 
Information 1 our Store of Meat is out to day. 

'9'* of February Tuesday 1805 

a fine Day visited by Several of the Mandans to day, 
our Smiths are much engaged mending and makeing Axes for 
the Indians for which we get Corn 

20'^ February Wednesday 1805 

a Butifull Day, visited by the Little raven verry early this 
mornning I am informed of the Death of an old man whome 
I saw in the Mandan Village this man, informed me that he 
"was 120 winters old, he requested his grand Children to 
Dress him after Death & Set him on a Stone on a hill with his 
face towards his old Village or Down the river, that he might 
go Streight to his brother at their old .village under ground " 2 
I observed Several Mandans verry old chiefly men 3 

1 See "Scientific Data : Summary Statement of Rivers" — Clark's draft ; especially 
the information collected during winter of 1804-05 of streams above Fort Mandan 
flowing into the Missouri. — Ed. 

2 Referring to the myth of their tribal origin, as having come from an under- 
ground region. For a minute account of this belief, written from the recital made by 
a prominent Mandan, see Prince Maximilian's Voyage, ii, pp. 431-436. — Ed. 

8 Whose robust exercises fortify the body, while the laborious occupations of the 
women shorten their existence. — Biddle (i, p. 163). 



a iff February Thursday 1805 

a Delightfull Day put out our Clothes to Sun. Visited by 
the big White & Big Man they informed me that Several 
men of their nation was gone to Consult their Medison Stone 
about 3 day march to the South West to know what was to be 
the result of the ensuing year. They have great confidence in 
this stone, and say that it informs them of every thing which 
is to happen, & visit it everry Spring & Sometimes in the 
Summer. " They haveing arrived at the Stone give it smoke 
and proceed to the Wood at Some distance to Sleep the next 
morning return to the Stone, and find marks white & raised 
on the stone representing the peece or War which they are to 
meet with, and other changes, which they are to meet" This 
Stone has a leavel Surface of about 20 feet in Surcumfrance, 
thick and porus," and no doubt has Some mineral quallites 
effected by the Sun. 1 

The Big Bellies have a Stone to which they ascribe nearly 
the Same Virtues 

Cap 1 Lewis returned with 2 Slays loaded with meat, after 
finding that he could not overtake the Soues War party, (who 
had in their way distroyed all the meat at one Deposit which I 
had made & Burnt the Lodges) deturmined to proceed on to 
the lower Deposit which he found had not been observed by 
the Soues he hunted two day Killed 36 Deer & 14 Elk, 
Several of them so meager, that they were unfit for use, the 
meet which he killed and that in the lower Deposit amounting 
to about 3000! 1 ! was brought up on two Slays one Drawn by 
16 men had about 2400'? on it 

n"? of February Friday 1805. 

a Cloudy morning, about 12 oClock it began to rain, and 
Continud for a fiew minite, and turned to Snow, and Con- 

1 See descriptions of this "medicine stone," and of the ceremonies with which the 
Indians invoked the spirit supposed to dwell there, in Long's Expedition, i, pp. 273, 
274 ; and Maximilian's Voyage, ii, pp. 459, 460. Both the Mandan and Mini- 
taree were accustomed to consult these oracles ; Matthews says of the latter (Ethnog. 
Hidatsa, p. 51) : " The Hidatsa now seldom refer to it, and I do not think they ever 
visit it.'' — Ed. 



tinud Snowing for about one hour, and Cleared away fair 
The two hunters left below arrived, they killed two Elk, and 
hung them up out of reach of the Wolves. The Coal a 
Ricara who is a considarable Chief of the Mandans Visited 
us to day, and maney others of the three nations in our 

23^ of February 1805 Satturday 

All hands employed in Cutting the Perogues Loose from 
the ice, which was nearly even with their top ; we found great 
dificuelty in effecting this work owing to the Different devi- 
sions of Ice & water, after Cutting as much as we Could with 
axes, we had all the Iron we Could get, & some axes put on 
long poles and picked through the ice, under the first water, 
which was not more the [than] 6 or 8 inches Deep, we dis- 
engaged one Perogue, and nearly disengaged the 2 n . d in Course 
of this day which has been worm & pleasent vis'ed by a No 
of Indians, Jessomme & familey went to the Shoe Indians 
Villag to day 

The father of the Boy whose feet were frosed near this place, 
and nearly Cured by us, took him home in a Slay. 

24'* February Sunday 1805 

The Day fine, we Commenced very early to day the Cut- 
ting loose the boat which was more dificuelt than the Perogus 
with great exertions and with the assistance of Great prises we 
lousened her, and turned the Second perogue upon the ice, 
ready to Draw out, in lousening the boat from the ice Some 
of the Corking drew out which Caused her to Leake for a fiew 
minits untill we Descovered the Leake & Stoped it. Jessomme 
our interpeter & familey returned from the Villages Several 
Indians visit us to day 

25'* of February Monday 1805 

We fixed a Windlass and Drew up the two Perogues on the 
upper bank, and attempted the Boat, but the Roap, which we 
hade made of Elk skins proved too weak & broke Several 
times, night Comeing on obliged us to leave her in a Situation 



but little advanced. We were visited by the Black mockerson 
Chief of the little Village of the Big Bellies, the Chief of the 
Shoe Ind! and a number of others those Chiefs gave us Some 
meat which they packed on their wives, and one requested a 
ax to be made for his Sun, M' (Root) Bunch, one of the under 
traders for the hudsons Bay Company, one of the Big Bellies 
asked leave for himself & his two wives to Stay all night, which 
was granted, also two Boys Stayed all night, one the Sun of 
the Black Cat. 

The Day has been exceedingly pleasent 

26 ,h February Tuesday 1805 

a fine Day Commenced verry early in makeing prepara- 
tions for drawing up the Boat on the bank, at Sunset by 
Repeated exertions the whole day, we accomplished this 
troublesom task, just as we were fixed for hauling the Boat, 
the ice gave way near us for about 100 yd" in length, a number 
of Indians here to day to See the Boat rise on the Bank. 

z 7'f of February Wednesday 1805 

a find day, preparing the Tools to make perogues all day. 
a fiew Indians Visit us to day, one the largest Indian I ever 
Saw, & as large a man as ever I saw, I commence a Map of 
the Countrey on the Missouries & its water &c. &c. — 

28'* of February Thursday 1805 

a fine morning two men of the NW Comp y arrive with letters 
and Sackacomah, 1 also a Root and top of a plant, presented by 
M.'. Haney, for the Cure of Mad Dogs Snakes &c. and to be 
found & used as follows viz : " this root is found on the high 
lands and asent of hills, the way of useing it is to scarify the 
part when bitten to chu or pound an inch or more if the root 
is Small, and applying it to the bitten part renewing it twice a 

1 Probably a corrupt form of sacacommis, a name applied to the bear-berry (Arc- 
tostaphylos), of which the Indians eat the berry, and often use the bark in preparing the 
smoking-mixture called kinnikinick. — Ed. 

[ 266 ] 


Day. the bitten person is not to chaw nor Swallow any of the 
Root for it might have contrary effect." l 

Sent out 1 6 men to make four Perogus those men re- 
turned in the evening and informed that they found trees they 
thought would answer. 

Ml Gravelin two frenchmen & two Ind! arrive from the 
Ricara Nation with Letters from M' Anty Tabeaux, informing 
us of the peeceable dispositions of that nation towards the 
Mandans & Me ne ta rees & their avowed intentions of pur- 
sueing our councils & advice, they express a wish to, visit the 
Mandans, & [to] know if it will be agreeable to them to admit 
the Recaras to Settle near them and join them against their 
Common Enemey the Soues We mentioned this to the man- 
dans, who observed they had always wished to be at peace and 
good neighbours with the Ricaras, and it is also the Sentiments 
of all the Big bellies, & Shoe nations 

'Mr. Gravelen informs that the Sisetoons and the 3 upper 
bands of the Tetons, with the Yanktons of the North intend to 
come to war in a Short time against the nations in this quarter, 
& will kill everry white man they See. Mf T. also informs 
that M' Cameron 2 of S" Peters has put arms into the hands of 
the Soues to revenge the death of 3 of his men killed by the 
Chipaways latterley, and that the Band of tetons which we 
Saw is desposed to doe as we have advised them, thro the 
influence of their Chief the Black Buffalow. 

M' Gravelen further informs that the Party which Robed 
us of the 1 horses laterly were all Sieoux 106 in number, they 
Called at the Recaras on their return, the Recares being des- 
pleased at their Conduct would not give them any thing to 
eate, that being the greatest insult they Could peaceably offer 
them, and upbraded them. 

1 Cf. Marquette's account of a similar remedy (Jes. Relations, lix, p. 101) and 
note thereon (p. 308). Coues mentions (Z.. and C, i, pp. 238, 239), several plants 
which have in frontier tradition the reputation of curing snake-bites ; but he adds, 
" Everybody knows the plant, except the botanists." Although unable to identify it, 
he thinks that there is some basis of fact for so universal a belief. See fuller descrip- 
tion of this plant, post, in "Scientific Data : Botany." — Ed. 

2 Murdoch Cameron, a trader whose headquarters were on St. Peter's (now Min- 
nesota) River ; he was accused of selling liquor to the Indians. He became wealthy 
iu the Indian trade, and died in 1811. See Coues' s Exped. Pike, i, p. 66. — Ed. 



March i * Friday 1805 

a fine Day I am ingaged in Copying a Map, 1 men build- 
ing perogus, makeing Ropes, Burning Coal, Hanging up meat 
& makeing battle axes for Corn 

2. nd of March 1805 Satturday — 

a fine Day the river brake up in places all engaged about 
Something M! LaRocque a Clerk of the NW Company visit 
us, he has latterley returned from the Establishments on the 
Assinniboin River, with Merchindize to tarade with Indians. 
M. r L informs us the N.W. & XY 2 Companies have joined, 
& the head of the N.W, C? is Dead M: M? Tavish of Montreal, 
visited by the Coal & Several Indians. 

Y„ of March Sunday 1805 

a fine Day Wind from the NW, a large flock of Ducks 
pass up the River visited by the black Cat, Chief of the 
Mandans 2 d . Chief and a Big Belley, they Stayed but a Short 
time we informed those Chiefs of the news rec[e]ved from the 
Recaras, all hands employd. 

4'* March Monday 1805 Fort Mandan 

a cloudy morning wind from the NW the after part of the 
day Clear, visited by the Black Cat & Big white, who 
brought a Small present of meat, an Engage of the NW Co : 
Came for a horse, and requested in the name of the woman of 
the principal of his Department some Silk of three Colours, 
which we furnished. The Assinniboins who visited the 
Mandans a flew days ago, returned and attempted to take 
horses of the Minetarees & were fired on by them. 

1 The several maps made by Clark during the expedition will be found either in 
the various text volumes of this series, or in the accompanying atlas. — Ed. 

2 Regarding the North West Company, see p. 206, note 1, ante. The X Y 
Company (also known as New Northwest Company) was formed in 1795, by Mon- 
treal merchants who seceded from the North West Company, mainly on account of 
the arbitrary acts of its chief, Simon McTavish ; his death (July, 1804) led to the 
union of the two companies, on the 5th of November following. See Bryce's Hist. 
H. B. Co. pp. 147-153. The agreement of Nov. 5 is given by Masson (Bourg. 
N.-O., ii, pp. 482-499). — Ed. 

[ 268 1 


5** March Tuesday 1805 

A fine Day, Thermometer at 40° above o. Several Indians 
Visit us to day one frenchman Cross to join a Indian, the 
two to pass through by Land to the Ricaras with a Letter to 
Mf Tabbow 

6f* of March Wednesday 1805 

a cloudy morning & Smokey all Day from the burning of 
the plains, which was set on fire by the Minetarries for an 
early crop of Grass, as an enducement for the Buffalow to feed 
on, the horses which was Stolen Some time ago by the Assin- 
niboins from the Menetarries were returned yesterday. Visited 
by Oh-harh or the Little fox 2? Chief of the lower Village of 
the Me ne tar rees. one man Shannon Cut his foot with the 
ads [adze] in working at the perogue, George & Gravelene 
go to the Village, the river rise a little to day. 

7'* of March Thursday 1805 

a little cloudy and windey, NE. the Coal Visited us with a 
Sick child, to whome I gave Some of rushes 1 pills. Shabounar 
returned this evening from the Gross Ventres & informed that 
all the nation had returned from the hunting he (our Mene- 
tarre interpeter) had received a present from M'. Chaboillez of 
the N.W. Company of the following articles 3 Brace 2 of Cloth 

1 Brace of Scarlet a par Corduroy overalls 1 Vests 1 Brace Blu 
Cloth, 1 Brace red or Scorlet with 3 bars, 200 balls & Powder, 

2 brac[e]s Tobacco, 3 Knives. 

8'* of March Friday 1805 

a fair Morning cold and windey, , wind from the East, 
visited by the Greesey head & a Ricara to day, those men 
gave Some account of the Indians near the rockey Mountains 

a young Indian {Minetarre) same nation & different village, 

1 Probably referring to Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, one of the most noted 
physicians of his day (1 745-1 813). — Ed. 

2 A phonetic rendering of "brasse," a French measure commonly used in Canada, 
and equivalent to 5.318 English feet. Scarlet cloth was especially valued by the 
Indians. — Ed. 



Stole the Doughter of the Black man (Mandan), he went 
to his village took his horse & returned & took away his 
doughter 1 

9« of March Satturday 1805 

a Cloudy Cold and windey morning wind from the North. 
I walked up to See the Party that is makeing Perogues, about 
5 miles above this, the wind hard and Cold on my way up I 
met the (The Borgne) Main Chief of the Mane tar res, with 
four Indians on their way to see us, (see note of g March after 
io' h Mar 1805), I requested him to proceed on to the fort, 
where he would find Cap! Lewis I should be there myself in 
corse of a fiew hours, Sent the interpiter back with him 
and proceeded on myself to the Canoes found them nearly 
fin [i] shed, the timber verry bad (§>u x), after visiting all the 
perogues where I found a number of Indians, I wind [went] 
to the upper mandan Village & Smoked a pipe (the greatest 
mark of friendship and attention) with the Chief and returned, 
on my return found the Manetarree Chief about Setting out 
on his return to his Village, having recived of Captain M. 
Lewis a Medel Gorget armban[d]s, a Flag Shirt, scarlet &c. 
&c. &c. for which he was much pleased, those things were 
given in place of Sundery articles Sent to him which he Sais he 
did not receive, i guns were fired for this Great man. 2 

10'* of March Sunday 1805. 

a cold winday Day, we are visited by the Black Mocker- 
sons, Chief of the 2? Minetarre Village and the Chief of the 
Shoeman Village (Shoe or Mocassin Tr :) or Mah ha ha V. 
(Wattassoans) those Chiefs Stayed all day and the latter all 
night, and gave us man[y] Strang[e] accounts of his nation &c. 

1 More clearly worded by Biddle (i, p. 169), thus: "The father went to the 
village and found his daughter, whom he brought home, and took with him a horse 
belonging to the offender " — this last by way of reprisal, according to Indian custom, 
which is practically law among them. — Ed. 

a This chief had lost an eye, hence his nickname of Le Borgne (" the one-eyed " ). 
Biddle inserts several curious incidents illustrating the character of this chief, who was 
unusually ferocious and unscrupulous. See Brackenridge, Journal of a Voyage up 
the River Missouri (Baltimore, :8i6), p. 261, for an account of Le Borgne. — Ed. 



this Little tribe or band of Me ne tar rees (call themselves Ah- 
nah-ha-way or people whose Village is on the Hill. (Insert 
this Ahnahaway is the nation Mahhaha the village) this little 
nation formerley lived about 30 miles below this, but beeing 
oppressed by the Assinniboins & Sous were Compelled to 
move near (5 miles) the Menetarees, where, the Assinniboins 
killed the most of them, those remaining built a village verry 
near to the Menetarries at the mouth of Knife R where they 
now live, and Can raise about 50 men, they are intermixed 
with the Mandans & Menatarries. the Mandans formerly 
lived in 6 (nine) large Villages at and above the mouth of Chis- 
cheter or Heart River four (Six) Villages on the West Side (of 
the Missouri) & two (three) on the East one of those Villages 
on the East Side of the Missouri & the larges[t] was entirely 
Cut off by the Seaux & the greater part of the other and the 
Small Pox reduced the others. 

• ii'/" of March Monday 1805 

A Cloudy Cold windey day, Some Snow in the latter part 
of the day, we deturmin to have two other Perogus made for 
to transport our Provisions &c. 

We have every reason to believe that our Menetarre inter- 
peter (whome we intended to take with his wife, as an inter- 
peter through his wife to the Snake Indians of which nation 
She is) has been Corrupted by the [blank in MS] Company 
&c. Some explenation has taken place which Clearly proves 
to us the fact, we give. him to night to reflect and deturmin 
whether or not he intends to go with us under the regulations 

a fine day Some Snow last night our 1 Interpeter Shabonah, 
deturmins on not proceeding with us as an interpeter under 
the terms mentioned yesterday, he will not agree to work let 
our Situation be what it may nor Stand a guard, and if miffed 
with any man he wishes to return when he pleases, also have 
the disposal of as much provisions as he Chuses to Carry in 
admissable and we Suffer him to be off" the engagement which 
was only virbal Wind NW 

[271 ] 


13'* of March Wednesday 1805 

a fine day visited by Ml Ml Kinzey one of the Clerks of 
the NW. Companey, the river riseing a little. Maney Ind! 
here to day all anxiety for war axes the Smiths have not an 
hour of Idle time to Spear wind SW. 

14'* March Thursday 1805. — 

a fine day Set all hands to Shelling Corn &c. M! M c . Kin- 
sey leave us to day Many Indians as usial. wind west river 
Still riseing. 

15'* of March Friday 1805 — 

a fine day I put out all the goods, & Parch[ed] meal 
Clothing &c to Sun, a number of Indians here to day they 
make maney remarks respecting our goods &c. Set Some 
men about Hulling Corn &c. 

16'* of March Saturday 1805 — 

a cloudy day wind from the S.E. one Indian much dis- 
pleased with white-house for Strikeing his hand when eating, 
with a Spoon for behaving badly. M' Garrow show's us the 
way the recaras made their large Beeds. 

[Lewis * 

M'. Garrow a Frenchman who has lived many years with 
the Ricares & Mandans shewed us the process used by those 
Indians to make beads, the discovery of this art these nations 
are said to have derived from the Snake Indians who have 
been taken prisoners by the Ricaras. the art is kept a secret 
by the Indians among themselves and is yet known to but few 
of them, the Prosess is as follows. Take glass of as many 
different colours as you think proper, then pound it as fine as 
possible, puting each colour in a seperate vessel, wash the 
pounded Glass in severtal waters throwing off the water at 

1 This entry, written by Lewis under date of March 16, is in the MS. inserted 
after the entry for March 21. — Ed. 



each washing, continue this opperation as long as the pounded 
glass stains or colours the water which is poured off and the 
residuum is then prepared for uce. you then provide an 
earthen pot of convenient size say of three gallons which will 
stand the fire ; a platter also of the same material sufficiently 
small to be admitted in the mouth of the pot or jar. the pot 
has a nitch in it's edge through which to watch the beads when 
in blast. You then provide some well seasoned clay with a 
proportion of sand sufficient to prevent it's becoming very 
hard when exposed to the heat, this clay must be tempered 
with water untill it is about the consistency of common doe. 
of this clay you then prepare, a sufficient number of little 
sticks of the size you wish the hole through the bead, which 
you do by roling the clay on the palm of the hand with your 
finger, this done put those sticks of clay on the platter and 
expose them to a red heat for a few minutes when you take 
them off and suffer them to cool, the pot is also heated to 
cles [cleanse] it perfectly of any filth it may contain, small 
balls of clay are also mad[e] of about an ounce weight which 
serve each as a pedestal for a bead, these while soft ar des- 
tributed over the face of the platter at su[c]h distance from 
each other as to prevent the beads from touching, some little 
wooden paddles are now provided from three to four inches in 
length sharpened or brought to a point at the extremity of the 
handle, with this paddle you place in the palm of the hand 
as much of the wet' pounded glass as is necessary to make the 
bead of the size you wish it. it is then arranged with the 
paddle in an oblong from [form], laying one of those little 
stick of clay crosswise over it ; the pounded glass by means of 
the paddle is then roped in cilindrical form arround the stick 
of clay and gently roled by motion of the hand backwards an 
forwards untill you get it as regular and smooth as you con- 
veniently can. if you wish to introduce any other colour you 
now purforate the surface of the bead with the pointed end of 
your little paddle and fill up the cavity with other pounded 
glass of the colour you wish forming the whole as regular as 
you can. a hole is now made in the center of the little ped- 
estals of clay with the handle of your shovel sufficiently large 
vol. i.— 18 [273] 


to admit the end of the stick of clay arround which the bead is 
formed, the beads are then arranged perpendicularly on their 
pedestals and little distance above them supported by the little 
sticks of clay to which they are attatched in the manner before 
mentioned, thus arranged the platter is deposited on burning 
coals or hot embers and the pot reversed with the apparture in 
its edge turned towards covers the whole, dry wood pretty 
much doated (doughted) 1 is then plased arron [around] the pot 
in sush manner as compleatly to cover it [It] is then set on 
fire and the opperator must shortly after begin to watch his 
beads through the apparture of the pot le[s]t they should be 
distroyed by being over heated, he suffers the beads to 
acquire a deepred heat from which when it passes in a small 
degree to a pailer or whitish red, or he discovers that the beads 
begin to become pointed at their upper extremities he removes 
the fire from about the pot and suffers the whole to cool grad- 
ually, the pot is then removed and the beads taken out. the 
clay which fills the hollow of the beads is picked out with an 
awl or nedle. the bead is then fit for uce. The Indians are 
extreemly fond of the large beads formed by this process, 
they use them as pendants to their years, or hair and some- 
times wear them about their necks. 2 

fClark :] 1 j* of March Sunday — 

a windey Day attempted to air our goods &c. Mf 
Chabonah Sent a frenchman of our party [to say] that he 
was Sorry for the foolish part he had acted and if we pleased 
he would accompany us agreeabley to the terms we had per- 
posed and doe every thing we wished him to doe &c. &c. he 

1 A variant of "doted," which Century Dictionary regards as an English pro- 
vincialism; it means "decayed," or "rotted." Coues states that he had heard 
this word in North Carolina, applied to trees dead at the top, also to lumber prepared 
from unsound trees. — Ed. 

2 Catlin also mentions this manufacture of glass beads by the Mandans, and their 
exclusive possession of the art (N. Amer. Inds., ii, p. 261). But Matthews says that 
the Arikara women also have it ; he thinks that these peoples made " glazed earthen 
ornaments before the whites came among them " (Hidatsa, pp. 22, 23). — Ed. 



had requested me Some thro our French inturpeter two days 
ago to excuse his Simplicity and take him into the cirvice, 
after he had taken his things across the River we called him in 
and Spoke to him on the Subject, he agreed to our tirms and 
we agreed that he might go on with us &c. &c. but new 
Indians here to day, the river riseing a little and Severall 
places open. 

1 8'* of March 1805 — 

a Cold Cloudy Day wind from the N. I pack up all the 
Merchendize into 8 packs equally divided So as to have Some- 
thing of every thing in each Canoe & perogue I am informed 
of a Party of Christanoes & Assinniboins being killed by the 
Sioux, 50 in Number near the Establishments on the Assinni- 
boinR. a fiew days ago (the effect of M! Cammerons revenge 
on the Chipaways for killing 3 of his men) M. r Tousent 
Chabono [Toussaint Charboneau], Enlisted as Interpreter this 
evening, I am not well to day, 

19'* of March 1805 — 

Cold- windey Day Cloudy Some little Snow last night 
visited to Day by the big white & Little Crow, also a man & 
his wife with a Sick 'Child, I administer for the child We are 
told that two parties are gone to war from the Big bellies and 
one other party going to war Shortly. 

20'/' March Wednesday 1805. 

I with all the men which could be Speared from the Fort 
went to Canoes, there I found a number of Indians, the 
men carried 4 to the River about \\ miles thro' the Bottom, 
I visited the Chief of the Mandans in the Course of the Day 
and Smoked a pipe with himself and Several old men. Cloudy 
wind hard from N. 



2 iff March Thursday 1805 — 

a Cloudy Day Some Snow, the men Carried the remaining 
Canoes to the River, and all except 3 left to take care & com- 
plete the Canoes returned to the fort with their baggage, on 
my return to day to the Fort I came on the points of the high 
hills, Saw an emence quantity of Pumice Stone on the Sides 
& foot of the hills and emence beds of Pumice Stone near the 
Tops of the[m], with evident marks of the Hills haveing once 
been on fire, I Collected Some [of] the different [sorts] i.e. 
Stone Pumice Stone & a hard earth, and put them into a 
furnace, the hard earth melted and glazed the others two and 
the hard Clay became a pumice Stone Glazed. I collected 
Some plants &c. 



Chapter VII 


Clark's Journal, March 22 — April 27, 1805 
Lewis's Journal, April 7-27 

[[Clark:] 23 (22 mistake) of March Friday 1805 

A CLOUDY Day visited by M™ La[ro]ck, M.'.Kinsey 1 
& the 2? Chief of the Big bellies, the white wolf and 
many other Minataries, we Gave a Medal Some 
Clothes and wampom to the 2[nd] Chief and Delivered a 
Speaph, which they all appeared well pleased with in the even- 
ing the men Danced Mf Jessomme displeased. 

24'* (2j) of March Satturday 1805 — 

after Brackfast Mf La Rocke and Mf M c Kinsey and the 
Cheifs & men of the Minetarras leave us. Soon after we were 
Visited by a Brother of the Burnia {of the Borgne, or one eyed 
chief of the Menitarees) who gave us a Vocabulary of his 
Language. 2 the Coal & many other Mandans also visit us to 
day a find Day in the fore part in the evening a little rain 
& the first this winter. 

1 Mr. La Rocque and I . . . became intimate with the gentlemen of the American 
expedition, who on all occasions seemed happy to see us, and always treated us with 
civility and kindness. It is true, Captain Lewis could not make himself agreeable to 
us. He could speak fluently and learnedly on all subjects, but his inveterate dis- 
position against the British stained, at least in our eyes, all his eloquence. Captain 
Clarke was equally well informed, but his conversation was always pleasant, for he 
seemed to dislike giving offence unnecessarily. — Mackenzie (Masson's Bourg. 
N.-O., i, p. 336). 

2 As the Indians could not well comprehend the intention of recording their words, 
they concluded that the Americans had a wicked design upon their country. — 
Mackenzie (ut supra, p. 337). 



25'* (24'*) of March Sunday 1805. — 

a Cloudy morning wind from the NE the after part of the 
Day fair, Several Indians visit us to day, prepareing to Set 
out on our journey, Saw Swans & Wild Gees flying N.E. 
this evening. 

26 '!! ( 2 5 ,k ) of March Monday 1805 — 

a fine Day wind S.W. but fiew Indf Visit us to day the Ice 
haveing broken up in Several places, The ice began to brake 
away this evening and was near destroying our Canoes as they 
were dec[e]nding to the fort, river rose only 9 Inches to day 
prepareing to Depart. 

27'* (26) of March Tuesday 1805 — 

The river choked up with ice opposit to us and broke away 
in the evening raised only y 2 Inch all employed prepareing 
to Set out. 

28'* (27) of March Friday (Wednesday) 1805 — 

a windey Blustering Day Wind S W ice running the [ice] 
Blocked up in view for the Space of 4 hours and gave way 
leaveing great quantity of ice on the Shallow Sand bars, had 
all the Canoes corked [calked] pitched & tined in and on the 
cracks and windshake which is universially in the Cotton wood. 

29'* (28) of March Satturday (Thursday) 1805 — 

The ice has stoped running owing to Som obstickle above, 
repare the Boat & Perogues, and prepareing to Set out but 
few Indians visit us to day they are now attending on the 
river bank to Catch the floating Buffalow 

30'* (2g) of March Sunday (Friday) 1805 — 

The obstickle broke away above & the ice came down in 
great quantities the river rose 13 inches the last 24 hours I 
observed extrodanary dexterity of the Indians in jumping from 
one cake of ice to another, for the purpose of Catching the 

[ 278 ] 


buffalow as they float down ' many of the cakes of ice which 
they pass over are not two feet square. The Plains are on fire 
in View of the fort on both Sides of the River, it is Said to be 
common for the Indians to burn the Plains near their Villages 
every Spring for the benefit of their hors[e]s, (J^#) and to 
induce the Buffalow to come near to them. 

3 1 *' C?°'*) S alur day- of March Monday (Saturday) (Sunday) 1805 — 

(Ser. Ordway now here) Cloudy Day Sever[al] Gangs of 
Gees and Ducks pass up the river, but a Small portion of 
ice floating down to day, but fiew Ind' Visit us to day all 
the party in high Sperits they pass but fiew nights without 
amuseing themselves danceing possessing perfect harmony and 
good understanding towards each other, Generally helthy 
except Venerials Complaints which is verry Common amongst 
the natives {Qu.) and the men Catch it from them 

April the 1? Tuesday\Monday) 1805 — 

The fore part of to day haile rain with Thunder & light- 
ning, the rain continued by intimitions all day, it is worthey 
of remark that this is the i" rain which has fallen Sence we 
have been here or Sence the 15 of October last, except a fiew 
drops at two or three defferent times, had the Boat Perogues 
& Canoes all put into the Water. 

April the z",f Friday (Tuesday) 1805 — 

a cloudy day, rained all the last night we are prepareing to 
Set out all thing nearly ready. The 2? Chief of the 2? Mandan 
Village took a miff at our not attending to him perticularly 
after being here about ten days and moved back to his village. 

The Mandans Killed twenty one elk yesterday 15 miles 
below this, they were So Meager that they [were] Scercely 
fit for use. 

1 Biddle describes the manner in which the Indians capture buffaloes which, try- 
ing to cross the river, have become isolated on ice-floes. Mackenzie (ut supra, p. 337) 
states that the Indians on the Missouri also search eagerly for the carcasses of buffaloes 
and other drowned animals that float down the river in the spring season ; these, 
although rotten and of intolerable stench, "are preferred by the Natives to any other 
kind of food. ... So fond are the Mandanes of putrid meat that they bury animals 
whole in the winter for the consumption of the spring." — Ed. 



April the 3^ Thursday (Wednesday) 1805 — 

a white frost this morning, Some ice on the edge of the 
water, a fine day Pack up and prepare to load 

observed equal altitudes of the Q with Sextant and artificial horizen 

A.M. 7 H. - 51 m - 15. s. P.M. 5 h. - 1 m. - 22 s. 

" " 52 - 52.5 5-3 " 3 

" - 54 - 30 « - 5 - 41 

altitude produc'd from this observation is 36 - 31" - 15". Cbronom- 
iter too fast 32 minits 

observed Time and Distance of ©f & 3>f nearest limbs with the 
Sextant and Chronomiter — Sun west. 




5 H. 

- 15 M. 

- 50 S. 


-27'- 15" 


- 18 

- 24 


- 30 - 


- 20 

- 5 


- 3° - 3° 


-3 1 



- 34 - 





- 3 6 - 3° 



- 7 


-37 " !5 





-37 -30 

M" La Rocke & M c Kinsey Clerk to the N W. Compr Visit 
us. M. r M c Kinzey wishes to Get pay for his horse lost in 
our Service this Winter and one of which our men were robed 
this winter by the Tetons, we Shall pay this man for his 
horse, we are all day engaged packing up Sundery articles 
to be sent to the President of the U.S. 1 

Box N? 1, contains the following articles i. e. 

In package N° 3 & 4 Male & female antelope, with their Skelitons. 

1 Some of the articles were long on exhibition at Monticello. Others passed to 
Peale's museum in Philadelphia, and there some of the specimens are still to be found. 
See note by Witmer Stone, on "Zoology of the Lewis and Clark Expedition," in 
"Scientific Data : Zoology," Vol. vi of the present work. — Ed. 



N ? 7 & 9 the horns of two mule or Black tailed deer, a Mandan bow 
an[d] quiver of arrows — with some Recara's tobacco seed. 

N ? 1 1 a Martin Skin, Containing the tail of a Mule Deer, a weasel 
and three Squirels from the Rockey mountains. 

N ? 1 2, The bones & Skeleton of a Small burrowing wolf of the 
Praries the Skin being lost by accedent. 

N ? 99. The Skeliton of the white and Grey hare. 

Box N ? 2, Contains 4 BufFalow Robes, and a ear of Mandan Corn. 

The large Trunk Contains a male & female Braro or burrowing dog 
of the Praire and the female's Skeliton. 

a carrote of Ricaras Tobacco 

a red fox Skin Containing a Magpie 

N? 14 Minitarras BufFalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian 

N ? 15 a mandan robe containing two burrowing Squirels, a white 
weasel and the Skin of a Loucirvia. also 

13 red fox Skins. 

1 white Hare Skin &c. 

4 horns of the mountain ram 

1 Robe representing a battle between the Sioux & Ricaras against 
the Minetares and Mandans. 

In Box N ? 3. 

No? 1 & 2 the Skins of the Male & female Antelope with their Skel- 
etons. & the Skin of a Yellow Bear which I obtained from the Sieoux 

N ? 4. Box. Specimens of plants numbered from 1. to 67. 

Specimens of Prants numbered from 1 to 60. 

1 Earthen pot Such as the Mandans manufacture and use for culinary 
purposes. 1 

1 Tin box containing insects mice &c. 

a Specimine of the fur of the antilope. 

a Specimon of a plant, and a parcel of its roots higly prized by the na- 
tives as an efficatious remidy in cases of the bite of the rattle Snake or 
Mad Dog. 

1 Catlin says (N. Amer. Inds., pp. 260, 261) that specimens of the pottery taken 
from the burial mounds in Ohio "were to be seen in great numbers in the use of the 
Mandans ; and scarcely a day in the summer, when the visitor to their village would 
* not see the women at work with their hands and fingers, moulding them from black 
clay, into vases, cups, pitchers, and pots, and baking them in their little kilns in the 
sides of the hill, or under the bank of the river." — Ed. 



In a large Trunk x 

Skins of a male and female Braro, or burrowing Dog of the Prarie, 
with the Skeleton of the female. 

1 Skin of the red fox Containing a Magpie 

2 Cased Skins of the white hare. 

1 Minitarra Buffalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian 

1 Mandan Buffalow robe Containing a dressed Lousirva Skin, and 
2 cased Skins of the Burrowing Squirel of the Praries. 

13 red fox Skins 

4 Horns of the Mountain Ram, or big born. 

1 Buffalow robe painted by a mandan man representing a battle 
fought 8 years Since by the Sioux & Recaras against the mandans, 
me ni tarras & Ah wah har ways. (Mandans &c. on horseback 

Cage N? 6. 

Contains a liveing burrowing Squirel of the praries 

Cage N? 7. 

Contains 4 liveing Magpies 

Cage N ? 9. 

Containing a liveing hen of the Prairie 
a large par of Elks horns containing [contained, i. e., held together — 
Ed.] by the frontal bone. 

April the if" 1 . 1805 Wednesday {Thursday) — 

a blustering windey Day the Clerks of the N W Co. leave 
us, we are arrangeing all things to Set out. &c. 

April the 5'* 1805 Thursday (Friday) — 

we have our i perogues & Six Canoes loaded with our Stores 
& provisions, principally provisions, the wind verry high from 
the NW. a number of Mandans Visit us to day 2 

1 Repetition of the contents of " the large trunk," mentioned above. — Ed. 
3 Gass here mentions the prevalence of licentiousness among the Indians on the 
Missouri. — Ed. 



April the 6 V ? Friday (Satturday) 1805 — 

a fine day visited by a number of Mandans, we are in- 
formed of the arrival of the whole of the recarra nation on the 
other Side of the river near their old village, we Sent an 
interpreter to see with orders to return imediately and let us 
know if their Chiefs ment to go down to See their great father. 

[Xewis:] Fort Mandan April yth. 1805. 1 

Having on this day at 4. P.M. completed every arrangement 
necessary for our departure, we dismissed the barge and crew 
with orders to return without loss of time to St. Louis, a small 
canoe with two French hunters accompanyed the barge ; these 
men had assended the missouri with us the last year as engages. 2 
The barge crew consisted of six soldiers and two [blank space 
in MS.] Frenchmen; two Frenchmen and a Ricara Indian also 
take their passage in her as far as the Ricara Vilages, at which 
place we expect Mr. Tiebeau [Tabeau] to embark with his 
peltry who in that case will make an addition of two, perhaps 
four men to the crew of the barge. We gave Richard Warf- 
ington, a discharged Corpl, the charge of the Barge and crew, 
and confided to his care likewise our dispatches to the govern- 
ment, letters to our private friends, and a number of articles 
to the President the United States. 3 One of the Frenchmen 
by the Name of (Joseph) Gravline an honest discrete man and 
an excellent boat-man is imployed to conduct the barge as 
a pilot ; we have therefore every hope that the barge and with 
her our dispatches will arrive safe at S'\ Louis. Mr. Gravlin 

1 At this point begins Codex D, which is entirely in Lewis's handwriting, and 
continues the journal of the expedition until May 2j, 1805. — Ed. 

2 These were Francois Rivet and Philippe Degie, whom the explorers met on their 
return journey Aug. si, 1806. Mrs. E. E. Dye writes to us that they afterwards 
went to Oregon and settled in Champoeg, and were locally celebrated as being men 
who had been with Lewis and Clark. — Ed. 

8 Coues (L. and C, i, pp. 253-260) gives in his notes on this entry all the infor- 
mation he could gather regarding the personnel of the party which left Fort Mandan to 
continue the transcontinental explorations ; he also cites a letter by Lewis, which ex- 
plains how Corporal Warrington came to be retained on the muster-roll after his term 
of service had expired. He was the only one of the party returning to St. Louis whom 
Lewis could entrust with his despatches to the government, and his commander praises 
his fidelity. — Ed. 



who speaks the Ricara language extreemly well, has been im- 
ployed to conduct a few of the Recara Chiefs to the seat of 
government who have promised us to decend in the barge to 
S 1 : Liwis with that view. 

At same moment that the Barge departed from Fort Man- 
dan, Capt. Clark emba[r]ked with our party and proceeded up 
the River, as I had used no exercise for several weeks, I 
determined to walk on shore as far as our encampment of this 
evening ; accordingly I continued my walk on the N. side of 
the River about six miles, to the upper Village of the Mandans, 
and called on the Black Cat or Pose-cop'-se-ha', the great chief 
of the Mandans ; he was not at home ; I rested myself a [few] 
minutes, and rinding that the party had not arrived I returned 
about 2 miles and joined them at their encampment on the N. 
side of the river opposite the lower Mandan village. Our 
part[y] now consisted of the following Individuals. Serg". 
John Ordway, Nathaniel Prior, & Patric Gass; Privates, Wil- 
liam Bratton, John Colter, Reubin, and Joseph Fields, John 
Shields, George Gibson, George Shannon, John Potts, John 
Collins, Joseph Whitehouse, Richard Windsor, Alexander 
Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Goodrich, Robert Frazier, Peter 
Crouzatt, John Baptiest la Page, Francis Labiech, Hue M c .Neal, 
William Warner, Thomas P. Howard, Peter Wiser, and John 
B. Thompson. Interpreters, George Drewyer and Tauasant 
Charbono also a Black man by the name of York, servant 
to Capt. Clark, an Indian Woman wife to Charbono with a 
young child, and a Mandan man who had promised us to 
accompany us as far as the Snake Indians with a view to bring 
about a good understanding and friendly intercourse between 
that nation and his own, the Minetares and Ahwahharways. 

Our vessels consisted of six small canoes, and two large 
perogues. This little fleet altho' not quite so rispectable as 
those of Columbus or Capt. Cook, were still viewed by us 
with as much pleasure as those deservedly famed adventurers 
ever beheld theirs ; and I dare say with quite as much anxiety 
for their safety and preservation, we were now about to pene- 
trate a country at least two thousand miles in width, on which 
the foot of civilized man had never trodden ; the good or evil 



it had in store for us was for experiment yet to determine, and 
these little vessells contained every article by which we were 
to expect to subsist or defend ourselves. however, as the 
state of mind in which we are, generally gives the colouring to 
events, when the immagination is suffered to wander into 
futurity, the picture which now presented itself to me was a 
most pleasing one. enterta[in]ing as I do, the most confident 
hope of succeeding in a voyage which had formed a da[r]ling 
project of mine for the last ten years, I could but esteem this 
moment of my departure as among the most happy of my life. 
The party are in excellent health and sperits, zealously attached 
to the enterprise, and anxious to proceed ; not a whisper of 
murmur or discontent to be heard among them, but all act in 
unison, and with the most perfict harmony. I took an early 
supper this evening and went to bed. Capt. Clark myself the 
two Interpretters and the woman and child sleep in a tent of 
dressed skins, this tent is in the Indian stile, formed of a 
number of dressed Buffaloe skins sewed together with sinues. 1 
it is cut in such manner that when foalded double it forms the 
quarter of a circle, and is left open at one side here it may be 
attatched or loosened at pleasure (£{u) by strings which are 
sewed to its sides for the purpose, to erect this tent, a parsel 
of ten or twelve poles are provided, fore or five of which are 
attatched together at one end, they are then elivated and their 
lower extremities are spread in a circular manner to a width 
proportionate to the demention of the lodge ; in the same 
position orther poles are leant against those, and the leather is 
then thrown over them forming a conic figure. 

[Clark :] 7* of April Satturday [Sunday] 1805 a — 

a windey day, The Interpreter we Sent to the Villages re- 
turned with Chief of the Ricara's & 3 men of that nation, 

1 Catlin enumerates (N. Amer. Inds., i, p. Z62) the many uses made by the Indians 
of the buffalo in their domestic economy — for food, clothing, implements, weapons, 
etc. — Ed. 

2 We obtain Clark's journal from April 7-July 3, 1805 (except where otherwise 
noted) from Clark- Voorhis note-book No. 1 ; save that the first Clark entry of 
April 7 is from Codex C of the Philadelphia collection. — Ed. 



this Chief informed us that he was Sent by his nation to know 
the despositions of the nations in this neighbourhood in re- 
spect to the recara's Settleing near them, that he had not yet 
made those arrangements, he request that we would speek to 
the Assinniboin, & Crow Ind! in their favour, that they wished 
to follow our directions and be at peace with all, he viewed 
all nations in this quarter well disposed except the Sioux. The 
wish of those recaras appears to be a junction with the Mandans 
& Minetarras in a Defensive war with the Sioux who rob them 
of every Spece [species] of property in Such a manner that 
they cannot live near them any longer. I told this Chief we 
were glad to See him, and we viewed his nation as the Dutifull 
Children of a Great father who would extend his protection to 
all those who would open their ears to his good advice, we 
had already Spoken to the Assinniboins, and should Speeke to 
the Crow Indians if we should see them &c. as to the Sioux 
their Great father would not let them have any more good 
Guns &c. would take care to prosu Such measurs as would 
prevent those Sioux from Murd[er]ing and taking the property 
from his dutyfull red Children &c. we gave him a certificate 
of his good Conduct & a Small Medal, a Carrot of Tobacco 
and a String of Wompom. he requested that one of his men 
who was lame might decend in the boat to their nation and 
returned to the Mandans well Satisfied. The name of this 
Chief of War is Kah-kah, We-to Raven brave. This Cheif 
delivered us a letter from M.'. Taboe. informing us of the wish 
of the Grand Chiefs of the Recarras to visit their Great 
father and requesting the privolage of put'g on board the 
boat 3000"! of Skins &c. & adding 4 hands and himself to the 
party, this preposeal we Shall agree to, as that addition will 
make the party in the boat 15 Strong and more able to de- 
fend themselves from the Seoux &C. 1 

1 Here ends the daily record kept by Clark, as contained in Codex C. The rest 
of the codex is occupied with matter outside of that record, which will be found in 
"Scientific Data." Towards the close of the codex is Clark's sketch map of the Red 
and St. Peter's Rivers, herewith reproduced. — Ed. 


— ~" 




>: ' 

Red and St. Peter's Rivers, 
sketch plan by Clark. 


[Clark :] Fort Mandan April * 7* : 805 

Sunday, at 4 oClock PM, the Boat, in which was 6 Soldiers 2 
frenchmen & an Indian, all under the command of a corporal 
who had the charge of dispatches, &c. — and a canoe with 2 
french men, Set out down the river for S! Louis, at the same 
time we Sout out on our voyage up the river in 2 perogues 
and 6 canoes, and proceded on to the 1" villag. of Mandans & 
camped on the S.S. our party consisting of Serg! Nathaniel 
Pryor Sg! John Ordway. Sg! Pat: Gass, William Bratten, John 
Colter Joseph & Reuben Fields. John Shields George Gibson 
George Shannon, John Potts, John Collins, Jos: Whitehouse, 
Richard Windser, Alexander Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Gutrich, 
Robert Frazure, Peter Crouzat, John Baptiest la page, Francis 
Labich, Hugh M' Neal, William Warner, Thomas P. Howard, 
Peter Wiser, J. B. Thompson and my servent york, George 
Drew yer who acts as a hunter 6c interpreter, Shabonah and 
his Indian Squar to act as an Interpreter & interpretress for the 
snake Indians — one Mandan & Shabonahs infant. Sah-kah- 
gar we a 

[Lewis:] April %'". 

Set out early this morning, the wind blew hard against us, 
from the N.W. we therefore traveled very slowly. I walked 
on shore, and visited the black Cat, took leave of him after 
smoking a pipe as is their custom, and then proceeded on 
slowly by land about four miles where I wated the arrival of 
the party, at 12 Oclock they came up and informed me that 
one of the small canoes was behind in distress. Cap'. Clark 
returned fou[n]d she had filled with water and all her loading 
wet. we lost half a bag of bisquit, and about thirty pounds 
of powder by this accedent ; the powder we regard as a serious 
loss, but we spread it to dry immediately and hope we shall 
still be enabled to restore the greater part of it. this was the 
only powder we had which was not perfectly secure from get- 
ing wet. we took dinner at this place, and then proceed on 
to oure encampment, which was on the N. side opposite to 
a high blufF. 1 the Mandan man came up after we had en- 

1 Near the present Hancock, N. D I'd. 



camped and brought with him a woman who was extreemly 
solicitous to accompany one of the men of our party, this 
however we positively refused to permit. 

Courses distances and references for Ap 1 . 8 th . 

From the upper point on an island (being the point to which Capt. 
Clark took his last course when he assended the river in surch of a 
place for winter quarters i" November last) to a point of wood land 
Star'd side, passing a high bluff on the Lar'd. N<f.o°. W. j'/ 2 . 

[Clark :] 8" of April Monday 1805 

Set out very early wind hard a head from the N.W. pro- 
ceeded on passed all the villages the inhabitants of which 
flocked down in great numbers to view us, I took my leave 
of the great Chief of the Mandans who gave me a par of ex- 
cellent mockersons, one canoe filed with water every thing in 
her got wet ^ of a barrel of powder lost by this accident. 

From the upper part of an island just below Marpar-' 
perycopatoo's camp to a point of wood land on the 
Stal side passing a high bluff on the La? containing ,. „ ~-j. . 
many horizontal narrow stratas of Carbonate wood, | 
some of which are sixty feet above the su [r] face of 
the water 

Camped on the S.S. ops? a high bluff, an Indian Joined us, 
also an Indian woman with a view to accompany us, the 
woman was Sent back the man being acquainted with the 
countrey we allowed him to accompanie us 

[Lewis :] Tuesday April 9'* 

Set out as early as it was possible to see this morning and 
proceed about five miles where we halted and took beakfas 
the Indian man who had promised us to accompany us as far 
as the Snake Indians, now informed us of his intention to re- 
linquish the journey, and accordingly returned to his village, 
we saw a great number of brant passing up the river, some 



of them were white, except the large feathers in the first and 
second joint of the wing which are black, there is no other 
difference between them and the common gray brant but that 
of their colour their note and habits are the same, and they 
are freequently seen to associate together. I have not yet 
positively determined whether they are the same, or a different 
species. Capt Clark walked on shore to-day 1 and informed 
me on his return, that passing through the prarie he had seen 
an anamal that precisely resembled the burrowing squrril, ac- 
cept in point of size, it being only about one third as large 
as the squirrel, and that it also burrows. I have observed in 
many parts of the plains and praries, the work of an anamal 
of which I could never obtain a view, their work resembles 
that of the salamander common to the sand hills of the States 
of South Carolina and Georgia, and like that anamal also it 
never appears above the ground, the little hillocks which 
are thrown up by these anamals have much the appearance 
of ten or twelve pounds of loose earth poared out of a vessel 
on the surface of the plain, in the state they leave them you 
can discover no whole through which they throw out this 
earth ; but by removing the loose earth gently you may dis- 
cover that the soil has been broken in a circle manner for 
about an inch and a half in diameter ; where it appears looser 
than the adjacent surface, and is certainly the place through 
which the earth has been thrown out, tho' the operation is 
performed without leaving any visible aperture, the Bluffs 
of the river which we passed today were upwards of a hun- 
dred feet high, formed of a mixture of yellow clay and sand - 
many horizontal stratas of carbonated wood, having every ap- 
pearance of pitcoal at a distance ; were seen in the the face of 
these bluffs, these stratas are of unequal thicknesses from i to 
5 feet, and appear at different elivations above the water some 
of them as much as eighty feet. 2 the hills of the river are very 
broken, and many of them have the apearance of having been 

1 That Lewis occupied himself w ith writing his journal is evidenced by the entry 
in his weather diary for this date (Codex Fe, p. 4) : "The perogue is so unsteady 
that I can scarcely write." — Ed. 

2 The so-called " coal " near Fort Mandan was lignite, extensive beds of which 
exist in that region. — Ed. 

VOL. I. -I 9 [289] 


on fire at some former period, considerable quantities of 
pumice stone and lava appear in many parts of these hills 
where they are broken and washed Down by the rain and 
melting snow, when we halted for dinner the squaw busied 
herself in serching for the wild artichokes which the mice 1 
collect and deposit in large hoards, this operation she per- 
formed by penetrating the earth with a sharp stick about some 
small collections of drift wood, her labour soon proved suc- 
cessful, and she procured a good quantity of these roots, the 
flavor of this root resembles that of the Jerusalem Artichoke, 
and the stalk of the weed which produces it is also similar, 
tho' both the root and stalk are much smaller than the Jeru- 
salem Artichoke, the root is white and of an ovate form, 
from one to three inches in length and usually about the size 
of a man's finger, one stalk produces from two to four, and 
somitimes six of these roots. 

at the distance of 6 miles passed a large wintering or hunt- 
ing camp of the Minetares on the Star d side, these lodges 
about thirty in number are built of earth and timber in their 
usual stile. l\ miles higher we passed the entrance of Miry 
Creek, which discharges itself on the Star d side, this creek is 
but small, takes it's rise in some small lakes near the Mouse 
river and passes in it's course to the Missouri, through beati- 
full, level, and fertile plains, intirely destitute of timber. 
Three miles above the mouth of this creek we passed a hunt- 
ing camp of Minetares who had prepared a park and were 
wating the return of the Antelope ; which usually pass the 
Missouri at this season of the year from the Black hills on 
the South side, to the open plains on the north side of the 
river; in like manner the Antelope repasses the Missouri from 
N. to South in the latter end of Autumn, and winter in the 
black hills, where there is considerable bodies of woodland, 
we proceed on \\\ miles further and encamped on the N. side 
in a most beatifull high extensive open bottom. 2 

1 Probably gophers ; Coues thinks that the burrowing animal just described by 
Lewis is the pouched rat or pocket-gopher (either Geomys or Thomomys). — Ed. 
a Not far above the present Fort Stevenson. — Ed. 




The courses and distances of this day are as follow 


N. 20? W. to a Star d point opposte to a bluff 1 

N. to a Star d point d° d° d° i/ 2 

N. 80. E. to a sand point on Lar d side 11^ 

N. to a Lar d point v/ 2 

N. 18. W. to a handsome elivated plain on Lar d S d 1 

N. 22. E. to a point of willows on Lar d side opposit "1 

to a wintering camp of the Minetares / 
N. 20. W. to the mouth of Miry creek Star d side, passing a small 

run and a hill called snake den 2*/ 

W. to a point on Lar" 1 side , 1 

S. 75 W. to a point on Star d opposite to a camp of Minetares, and 

lower po.' of a high bluff 4 

N. 65. W. to the upper point point of woo[d]land on St d s d 3 

S. 45. W. to a point of timber on the Lar? side 2 

S. 30. W. to a sand point on the Star 1 ? side 11/ 

S. 78. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar d side 4 

[Clark:] 9 <* of April Tuesday 1805. — 

Set out this morning verry early under a gentle breeze from 
the S.E. at Brack-fast the Indian determined to return to his 
nation. I saw a Musquetor to day great numbers of Brant 
flying up the river, the Maple, & Elm has buded & cotton 
and arrow wood beginning to bud. I saw in the prarie an 
animal resembling the Prarie dog or Barking Squirel & bur- 
row in the same w_ay, this animal was about % as large as the 
barking Squirel. But flew resident birds or water fowls which 
I have Seen as yet at 6 miles passed an old hunting camp of 
Menitarres on the S. S. 2j4 miles higher passed the mouth 
of Miry Creek on the S.S. passed a hunting camp of Mene- 
tarees on the S.S. waiting the return of the Antilope, Saw 
Great numbers of Gees feedin in the Praries on the young 
grass, I saw flowers in the praries to day, juniper grows on 
the Sides of the hills, & runs on the ground all the hills 
have more or Less indefferent coal in stratas at different hites 
from the waters edge to 80 feet, those stratias from 1 inch to 
5 feet thick we camp d on the S.S. above some rocks makeing 
out in the river in a butifull ellivated plain. 

[291 ] 

N. 20? W. 



N. 8<y? E 


N. 1 8? W. 


N. 22? E 


N. 20? W. 




S. 75? W. 


N. 65? W. 
S. 45 ? W. 
S. 30. w. 
S. 78? w. 





Course distance & refFerences for the 9' 11 

mile on the S. pi ops'? a Bluff 

a mile on the S. pi d°. 

miles to a sand p! on the L.S. 

a mile to the L. pi 

mile to a handsom elivated plain on L.S. 
iy^ miles to a pi of willows on the L.S. opposit a Win- 
tering camp of the Minitarrees. 

miles to the mouth of Miry Creek, pass'd a hill call[ed] 
Snake house & a small run S.S. 

mile to a pi on the Larboard side 

miles to a pi on the S. S. ops'? a Bluff and a camp of 

miles to the upper part of the timber S.S. 

miles to a pi of timber on the L.S. 

miles to a Sand pi on the S.S. 

miles to a pi of wood on the L.S. 

[Lewis:] Wednesday April 10'* 1805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning, at the distance of 
three miles passed some Minetares who had assembled them- 
selves on the Lard [larboard] shore to take a view of our little 
fleet. Capt Clark walked on shore to-day, for several hours, 
when he returned he informed me that he had seen a gang of 
Antelopes in the plains but was unable to get a shoot at them, 
he also saw some geese and swan, the geese are now feeding 
in considerable numbers on the young grass which has sprung 
up in the bottom praries. the Musquetoes were very trouble- 
some to us to-day. The country on both sides of the mis- 
souri from the tops of the river hills, is one continued level 
fertile plain as far as the eye can reach, in which there is not 
even a solitary tree or shrub to be seen, except such as from 
their moist situations or the steep declivities of hills are shel- 
tered from the ravages of the fire, at the distance of 12 miles 
from our encampment of last night we arrived at the lower 
point of a bluff on the Lard side; about iyi miles down this 
bluff from this point, the bluff is now on fire and throws out 
considerable quantities of smoke which has a strong sul- 

[ 292 ] 


phurious smell, the appearance of the coal in the blufs con- 
tinues as yesterday. 1 at i. P.M. we overtook three french 
hunters who had set out a few days before us with a view 
of traping beaver; they had taken 12 since they left Fort 
Mandan. these people avail themselves of the protection 
which our numbers will enable us to give them against the 
Assinniboins who sometimes hunt on the Missouri ; and 
intend ascending with us as far as the mouth of the Yellow 
stone river and continue there hunt up that river, this is the 
first essay of a beaver hunter of any discription on this river, 
the beaver these people have already taken is by far the best I 
have ever seen, the river bottoms we have passed to-day are 
wider and possess more timber than usual, the courant of the 
Missouri is but moderate, at least not greater than that of 
the Ohio in high tide ; it's banks are falling in but little ; the 
navigation is therefore comparitively with it's lower portion 
easy and safe, we encamped this evening on a willow point, 
Star d side just above a remarkable bend in the river to the 
S.W. which we called the little bason. 2 

Cou[r]ses and distances of this day. 


S. 45. W. to a point of timbered land on the S- Si 1 ? 3 

W. to a point of timbered land on the Lar? s? 3 

S. 72. W. to a tree in a bend on the Star? side 2 

S. 32. W. to a point of woods on the Star? side 4 

W. on the Star? point 1^ 

N. 40. W. on the Star? point 1^ 

N. 50. E. to a point on the Lar? side, opposite to a low bluff 2 
S. 52. W. to a point on the Star? side opposite to a bluf, above 

which a small creek falls in. 2 y!. 

1 This region "is the fringe of the well-known mawvaises terres ['Bad Lands'] 
to the south, through the heart of which the Little Missouri flows. . . . The coun- 
try is underlaid with vast beds of lignite coal, which has burned out over wide areas. 
. . . Coal veins form lines plainly distinguishable in the hills bordering the river, 
and . . . some of these veins are [even now] burning, and emit sulphurous odors." 
— Olin D. Wheeler. 

2 Not far from the site of Fort Berthold, built by the American Fur Company in 
1845. The name was transferred (1862) to another post, built in the Indian village. 
Both structures were finally destroyed by fire — the former in 1862, the latter in 
1874 Ed. 



[Clark:] 10'* of April Wednesday 1805 

Set out verry early, the morning cool and no wind pro- 
ceeded on passed a camp of Ind! on the L.S. this day 
proved to be verry worm, the Misquetors troublesom. I saw 
Several antilope on the S.S. also gees & swan, we over took 
3 french men Trappers The countrey to day as usial except 
that the points of Timber is larger than below, the coal con- 
tinue to day, one man saw a hill on fire at no great distance 
from the river, we camped on the S.S. just above a remarkable 
bend in the river to the S W, which We call the little bason. 

Course Distance & refferences the 10 th 

miles to a pf of timbered land on the S.S. 
miles to a p! of timbered land on the L.S. 
miles to a tree in an elevated plain in the bend to the S. S. 
miles to a p? of wood on the S.S. 
a mile on the S. point. 
y 2 a mile on the S. point. 

miles to a p! on the L.S. ops? a low bluff, 
miles to a p! on the S.S. ops? a bluff above which a 
iSTZ small creek falls in 

f_Lewis:] Thursday April nth. 

Set out at an early hour; I proceeded with the party and 
Capt. Clark with George Drewyer walked on shore in order to 
procure some fresh meat if possible, we proceeded on abot 
five miles, and halted for breakfast, when Capt. Clark and 
Drewyer joined us ; the latter had killed, and brought with 
him a deer, which was at this moment excep[t]able, as we had 
had no fresh meat for several days, the country from fort 
Mandan to this place is so constantly hunted by the Mine- 
taries that there is but little game, we halted at two P.M. 
and made a comfortable dinner on a venison stake and beavers 
tales with the bisquit which got wet on the 8 th ins', by the acci- 
dent of the canoe filling with water before mentioned, the 
powder which got wet by the same accedent, and which we had 
spread to dry on the baggage of the large perogue, was now 
examined and put up ; it appears to be almost restored, and 

[ 294 ] 

S. 45 ? W. 




S 72? W. 


S. 32? w. 




N. 40? W. 


N. 50? E 


S 52? W 



our loss is therefore not so great as we had at first appre- 
hended, the country much the same as yesterday, on the 
sides of the hills and even the banks of the rivers and sand- 
bars, there is a white substance t[h]at appears in considerable 
quantities on the surface of the earth, which tastes like a 
mixture of common salt and glauber salts, many of the 
springs which flow from the base of the river hills are so 
strongly impregnated with this substance that the water is 
extreemly unpleasant to the taste and has a purgative effect. 1 
saw some large white cranes pass up the river these are the 
largest bird of that genus common to the country through 
which the Missouri and Mississippi pass, they are perfectly 
white except the large feathers of the two first joints of the 
wing which are black, we encamped this evening on the Star*! 
shore just above the point of woodland which formed to 
extremity of the last course of this day. there is a high bluff 
opposite to us, under which we saw some Indians, but the 
river is here so wide that we could not speake to them ; sup- 
pose them to be a hunting party of Minetares. we killed two 
gees to-day. 

The courses and distances of this day 


S. 85. W. to the upper point of a bluff on Lar? S* 3 

N. 38. W. to a point on the Lari shore, oppo? a bluff 2 
S. 30. W. to the upper part of a timbered bottom on the Lar? 

side, a large sand bar making out from the Star? 

side iyi miles wide 2 
N. 52. W. to a red knob in a bend to the Sta? side near the 

upper part of a timbered bottom 5 

S. 70. W. to a point of timbered land on the Star 1 ! Sd. 6 

W. on the Star? point 1 


1 The famous "alkali" of the West, often rendering the water undrinkable, and 
covering great areas like snow. It consists largely or mainly of sulphate of soda. — Ed. 



[Clark:] II? of April Thursday 1805. 

Set out verry early I walked on Shore, saw fresh bear 
tracks, one deer & 2 beaver killed this morning in the after 
part of the day killed two gees, saw great numbers of Gees 
Brant & Mallard Some White Cranes Swan & guls, the 
plains begin to have a green appearance, the hills on either 
side are from 5 to 7 miles asunder and in maney places have 
been burnt, appearing at a distance of a redish brown choler, 
containing Pumice Stone & lava, some of which rolin down to 
the base of those hills. In many of those hills forming bluffs 
to the river we prosieve Several Stratums of bituminious sub- 
stance which resembles coal; thoug[h] Some of the pieces 
appear to be excellent coal, it resists the fire for some [time], 
and consumes without emiting much flaim. 

The plains are high and rich some of them are sandy con- 
taining small pebbles, and on some of the hill Sides large 
Stones are to be seen. In the evening late we observed a 
party of Menetarras on the L.S. with horses and dogs loaded 
going down, those are a part of the Minitarras who camped 
a little above this with the Ossinniboins at the mouth of the 
little Missouri all the latter part of the winter, we camped on 
the S.S. below a falling in bank, the river raise a little. 

Course distance Sec. the 1 i l . b 

S. 85? W. 2 miles to the upper part of a Bluff in a bend to the Lar- 
board Side. 

N. 38? W. 3 miles to a point on the L.S. ops? a bluff. 

S. 30° W. 2 miles to the upper part of a timbered bottom on the L.S. 
a large sand bar makeing out from the S.S. i£ mi 1 .' 

N 52 ? W. 5 miles to a red knob in a bend to the S.S. near the upper 
part of wood bottom. 

S. 70° W. 6 miles to a timbered point on the S.S. 

West 1 mile on the S. point. 

[Lewis:] Friday April the ii' h 1805. 

Set out at an early hour, our peroge and the Canoes 
passed over to the Lard side, in order to avoid a bank which 
was rappidly falling in on the Starl. the red perogue contrary 



to my expectation or wish passed under this bank by means 
of her toe line ; where I expected to have seen her carried 
under every instant. I did not discover that she was about to 
make this attempt untill it was too late for the men to re- 
embark, and retreating is more dangerous than proceeding in 
such cases ; they therefore continued their passage up this 
bank, and much to my satisfaction arrived safe above it. this 
cost me some moments of uneasiness, her cargo was of much 
importance to us in our present advanced situation. We pro- 
ceeded on six miles and came too on the lower side of the 
entrance of the little Missouri on the Lard shore in a fine 
plain where we determined to spend the day for the pur- 
pose of celestial observation, we sent out 10 hunters to 
procure some fresh meat, at this place made the following 

Point of Observation N? I. 
Observed ©'! Magnetic Azimuth with Circumfer" S. 88 ? E. 

Time by Chronometer A.M. 
Altitude by Sextant .... 
O's Magnetic Azimuth by Circumferenter 
Time by Chronometer . . . 

Altitude by Sextant .... 

Observed equal altitudes of the O with Sextant. 

h m s 

A.M. 8. 30. 11. P.M. the P.M. observation 

". 31. 52. 5 was lost in consequence 

"• 33- 3 1, of the Clouds. 

Alt'? by Sextant at the time of observation . 55 . 28'. 45". 
Observed Meridian altitude of the O s U. L. 

with Octant by the back observation' . 8i°. 25'. 15". 

Latitude deduced from this observation [blank space in MS.] 


The artifi! Horizon recommended by Mf A. Ellicott, in which water 
forms the reflecting surface, is used in all observations which requirs the 
the uce of an Artificial horizon, except when expressly mentioned to 
the contrary. 

The altitude of any object in the fore observation as here entered is 








• 52°- 





°. E. 

. 8°. 

2 5 '. 


• 53°- 




that deduced immediately from the graduated limb of the instrument, 
and is of course the double altitudes of the object observed. 

The altitudes of objects observed by the back observation, with Octant 
as here entered, is that shewn by the graduated limb of the Instrument 
at the time of observation, and is the compliment of 180? of the double 
altitude of the object observed. 

Error of Sextant — Subtractive -. 8'. 45". 

Error of Octant fore observation — %° -. -.x 

Error of d? in back observation add" e 2° 40'. - .x 

The night proved so cloudy that I could make no further observations. 

George Drewyer shot a Beaver this morning, which we found 
swiming in the river a small distance below the entrance of the 
little Missouri, the beaver being seen in the day, is a proof 
that they have been but little hunted, as they always keep 
themselves closly concealed during the day where they are so. 
found a great quantity of small onions in the plain where we 
encamped ; had some of them collected and cooked, found 
them agreeable, the bulb grows single, is of an oval form, 
white, and about the size of a small bullet ; the leaf resem- 
[bles] that of the shive, and the hunters returned this ev[en]- 
ing with one deer only, the country about the mouth of this 
river had been recently hunted by the Minetares, and the little 
game which they had not killed and frightened away, was so 
extreemly shy that the hunters could not get in shoot of them. 
The little Missouri disembogues on the S. side of the 
Missouri 1693 miles from the confluence of the latter with 
the Mississippi, it is 134 yards wide at it's mouth, and sets in 
with a bould current but it's greatest debth is not more than 2*/£ 
feet, it's navigation is extreemly difficult, owing to it's rapid- 
ity, shoals and sand bars it may however be navigated with 
small canoes a considerable distance, this river passes through 
the Nothern extremity of the black hills where it is very narrow 
and rapid and it's banks high an[d] perpendicular, it takes it's 
rise in a broken country West of the Black hills with the waters 
of the yellow stone river, and a considerable distance S.W. of the 
point at which it passes the black hills, the country through 
which it passes is generally broken and the highlands possess 
but little timber, there is some timber in it's bottom lands, 



which consists of Cottonwood red Elm, with a small propor- 
tion of small Ash and box alder, the under brush is willow, 
red wood, (sometimes called red or swamp willow ') the red 
burry, and Choke cherry the country is extreamly broken 
about the mouth of this river, and as far up on both sides, as 
we could observe it from the tops of some elivated hills, which 
stand betwen these two rivers, about 3 miles from their junc- 
tion, the soil appears fertile and deep, it consists generally of a 
dark rich loam intermixed with a small proportion of fine sand, 
this river in it's course passes near the N.W. side of the turtle 
mountain, which is said to be no more than 4 or 5 leagues dis- 
tant from it's entrance in a straight direction, a little to the S. 
of West, this mountain and the knife river have therefore 
been laid down too far S.W. the colour of the water, the bed 
of the river, and it's appearance in every respect, resembles the 
Missouri ; I am therefore induced to believe that the texture 
of the soil of the country in which it takes it's rise, and that 
through which it passes, is similar to the country through 
which the Missouri passes after leaving the woody country, or 
such as we are now in. on the side of a hill not distant from 
our camp I found some of the dwarf cedar of which I pre- 
served a specimen (See N? 2.) this plant spreads it's limbs 
alonge the surface of the earth, where they are sometimes 
covered, and always put forth a number of roots on the under 
side, while on the upper there are a great number of small 
shoots which with their leaves seldom rise higher than 6 or 
eight inches, they grow so close as perfectly to conceal the 
ea[r]th. it is an evergreen; the leaf is much more delicate 
than the common Cedar, and it's taste and smell the same. I 
have often thought that this plant would make very handsome 
edgings to the borders and walks of a garden ; it is quite as 
handsom as box, and would be much more easily propegated. 
the appearance of the glauber salts and Carbonated wood still 

Cou[r]se and distance of this day was. 


N. 8o ? W. to the entrance of the little Missouri — \t/ 2 

1 This is not a willow, but a cornel (JCornus stoloniferd) ; its bark is used in the 
preparation of kinnikinick. — Ed. 



[Clark Q i »* April Friday 1 805 

a fine morning Set out verry early, the murcury stood 
56° above °. proceeded on to the mouth of the Little Missouri 
river and formed a camp in a butifull elivated plain on the 
lower side for the purpose of takeing Some observations to fix 
the Latitude & Longitude of this river, this river falls in on the 
L. Side and is 134 yards wide and 2 feet 6 Inches deep at 
the mouth, it takes its rise in the N W extremity of the black 
mountains, and [runs] through a broken countrey in its whole 
course washing the N W base of the Turtle Mountain which 
is Situated about 6 Leagues S W of its mouth, one of our 
men Baptiest who came down this river in a canoe informs me 
that it is not navagable, he was 45 days descending. 

One of out men Shot a beaver swimming below the mouth 
of this river. 

I walked out on the lower Side of this river and found the 
countrey hilley the soil composed of black mole & a small per- 
portion of sand containing great quantity of Small peable some 
limestone, black flint, & sand Stone 

I killed a Hare changeing its colour some parts retaining 
its long white fur & other parts assumeing the short grey, I 
saw the Magpie in pars, flocks of Grouse, the old field lark & 
crows, & observed the leaf of the wild chery half grown, 
many flowers are to be seen in the plains, remains of Mine- 
tarra & Ossinneboin hunting camps are to be seen on each side 
of the two Missouris 

The wind blew verry hard from the S. all the after part of 
the day, at 3 oClock PM. it became violent & blowey ac- 
companied with thunder and a little rain. We examined our 
canoes &c found Several men which had already commenced 
cutting our bags of corn & parched meal, the water of the 
little Missouri is of the same texture colour & quallity of that 
of the Big Missouri the after part of the day so cloudy that 
we lost the evening observation. 

Course & Distance of the I2'. h 

N. 80? W. 4^ miles to the mouth of the Little Missouri River on 
the S.S. 



[Lewis :] Saturday April i j? 

Being disappointed in my observations of yesterday for 
Longitude, I was unwilling to remain at the entrance of the 
river another day for that purpose, and therefore determined 
to set out early this morning; which we did accordingly; the 
wind was in our favour after 9 A.M. and continued favourable 
untill three 3. P. M. we therefore hoisted both the sails in the 
White Perogue, consisting of a small squar sail, and spritsail, 
which carried her at a pretty good gate, untill about 2 in the 
afternoon when a suddon squall of wind struck us and turned 
the perogue so much on the side as to allarm Sharbono who 
was steering at the time, in this state of alarm he threw the 
perogue with her side to the wind, when the spritsail gibing 
was as near overseting the perogue as it was possible to have 
missed, the wind however abating for an instant I ordered 
Drewyer to the helm and the sails to be taken in, which was 
instant[ly] executed and the perogue being steered before the 
wind was agin plased in a state of security, this accedent was 
very near costing us dearly, beleiving this vessell to be the 
most steady and safe, we had embarked on board of it our 
instruments, Papers, medicine and the most valuable part of 
the merchandize which we had still in reserve as presents for 
the Indians, we had also embarked on board ourselves, with 
three men who could not swim and the squaw with the young 
child, all of whom, had the perogue overset, would most prob- 
ably have perished, as the waves were high, and the perogue 
upwards of 200 yards from the nearest shore ; however we 
fortunately escaped and pursued our journey under the square 
sail, which shortly after the accident I directed to be again 
hoisted, our party caught three beaver last evening; and the 
French hunters 7. as there was much appearance of beaver 
just above the entrance of the little Missouri these hunters 
concluded to remain some days, we therefore left them without 
the expectation of seeing them again, just above the entrance 
of the little Missouri the great Missouri is upwards of a mile 
in width, tho' immediately at the entrance of the former it is 
not more than 200 yards wide and so shallow that the canoes 
passed it with seting poles, at the distance of nine miles passed 

[3 01 ] 


the mouth of a creek on the Star? side which we called onion 
creek from the quantity of wild onions which grow in the plains 
on it's borders. Capt. Clark who was on shore informed me 
that this creek was 16 yards wide a mile & a half above it's 
entrance, discharges more water than creeks of it's size usually 
do in this open country, and that there was not a stick of 
timber of any discription to be seen on it's borders, or the 
level plain country through which it passes, at the distance 
of 10 Miles further we passed the mouth of a large creek, dis- 
charging itself in the center of a deep bend, of this creek and 
the neighbouring country, Capt. Clark who was on shore gave 
me the following discription. " This creek I took to be a 
small river from it's size, and the quantity of water which it 
discharged; I ascended it iy£ miles, and found it the discharge 
of a pond or small lake, which had the appearance of having 
formerly been the bed of the Missouri, several small streams 
discharge themselves into this lake, the country on both sides 
consists of beautifull level and elivated plains ; asscending as 
they recede from the Missouri ; there were a great number 
of Swan and gees in this lake and near it's borders I saw the 
remains of 43, temperary Indian lodges, which I presume were 
those of the Assinniboins who are now in the neighbourhood 
of the British establishments on the Assinniboin river " This 
lake and it's discharge we call goos Egg from the circumstance 
of Capt. Clark shooting a goose while on her nest in the top 
of a lofty cotton wood tree, from which we afterwards took one 
egg. the wild gees frequently build their nests in this manner, 
at least we have already found several in trees, nor have we as 
yet seen any on the ground, or sand bars where I had supposed 
from previous information that they most commonly deposited 
their eggs, saw some Buffaloe and Elk at a distance to-day 
but killed none of them, we found a number of carcases of 
the Buffaloe lying along shore, which had been drowned by 
falling through the ice in winter and lodged on shore by the 
high water when the river broke up about the first of this 
month, we saw also many tracks of the white bear of enor- 
mous size, along the river shore and about the carcases of 
the Buffaloe, on which I presume they feed, we have not 

[3 02 ] 


as yet seen one of these anamals, tho' their tracks are so 
abundant and recent. the men as well as ourselves are 
anxious to meet with some of these bear, the Indians give a 
very formidable account of the streng[t]h and ferocity of this 
anamal, which they never dare to attack but in parties of six 
eight or ten persons ; and are even then frequently defeated 
with the loss of one or more of their party, the savages attack 
this anamal with their bows and arrows and the indifferent guns 
with which the traders furnish them, with these they shoot 
with such uncertainty and at so short a distance, that {unless 
shot thro" head or heart wound not mortal) they frequently mis 
their aim & fall a sacrefice to the bear, two Minetaries were 
killed during the last winter in an attack on a white bear, this 
anamall is said more frequently to attack a man on meeting 
with him, than to flee from him. When the Indians are about 
to go in quest of the white bear, previous to their departure, 
they paint themselves and perform all those supersticious rights 
commonly observed when they are about to make war uppon 
a neighbouring nation. 0[b] served more bald eagles on this 
part of the Missouri than we have previously seen, saw the 
small hawk, frequently called the sparrow hawk, which is 
common to most parts of the U. States, great quantities of 
gees are seen feeding in the praries. saw a large flock of white 
brant or gees with black wings pass up the river ; there were 
a number of gray brant with them ; from their flight I pre- 
sume they proceed much further still to the N.W. we have 
never been enabled yet to shoot one of these birds, and cannot 
therefore determine whether the gray brant found with the 
white, are their brude of the last year or whether they are the 
same with the grey brant common to the Mississippi and lower 
part of the Missouri, we killed i antelopes to-day which we 
found swiming from the S. to the N. side of the river ; they 
were very poor. We encamped this evening on the Star? shore 
in a beautifull plain, elivated about 30 feet above the river. 



The courses and distances of this day are as follow. 


N. 1 8° W. to a point of wood on the L. side, point on the Lar? 

at 1^ miles 71^ 

N. 10. W. to the upper point of a Low bluff on the Sta? pass a 

creek on Star? side. 5 

N. 45. W. to a point of Woodland on Lar? side 4. 

N. 28. W. to a point of Woodland Star? side 3. 

S. 35. W. to a point of Woodland on St? side, passed a creek on 
Star? side "near the commencement of this course 
also, two points on the Lar? side, the one at a mile, 
and the other y 2 a mile further, also a large sand 
bar in the river above the entrance of the creek 4. 

Note our encampment was one mile short of the extremity of the last 


[[Clark:] 13'* of April Satturday 1805 

Set out this morning at 6oClock, the Missouri above the 
mouth of Little Missouri widens to nearly a mile containing a 
number of Sand bars this width &c. of the River continues 
Generally as high as the Rochejhone River. Cought 3 beaver 
this morning, at 9 miles passed the mouth of a Creek on the 
S.S. on the banks of which there is an imense quantity of wild 
onions or garlick, I was up this Creek y 2 a m[ile] and could 
not See one Stick of timber of any kind on its borders, this 
creek is 16 yds wide y 2 a mile up it and discharges more water 
than is common for Creeks of its Size, at about 10 miles 
higher we pass a creek about 30 yards wide in a deep bend to 
the N W. This creek I took to be a Small river from its size 
& the quantity of water which it discharged, I assended it 
\ x / 2 miles and found it the discharge of a pond or Small Lake 
which has appearance of haveing been once the bead of the 
river. Some small streams discharge themselves into this 
Lake, the countery on both sides is butifull elevated plains 
assending in Some parts to a great distance near the aforesaid 
Lake (what we call Goose egg L from a circumstance of my 
shooting a goose on her neast on some sticks in the top of a 

I 304 ] 


high cotton wood tree in which there was one egg) We saw 
8 buffalow at a distance which were verry wild, I saw near 
the Lake the remains of 43 lodges, which has latterly been 
abandoned I suppose them to have been Ossinniboins and 
now near the british establishments on the Ossinniboin River 
tradeing. we camped on the S.S. in a butifull Plain. I ob- 
serve more bald Eagles on this part of the Missouri than usial 
also a small Hawk Killed 2 Antelopes in the river to day. 

Course distance &f the 1 3 t . h of April 1805 

N. 18° W 71^ miles to a point of wood on the L.S. passed a point 

on the L.S. at \V 2 miles 
N. io ? W. 5 miles to the upper point of a low bluff on the S.S. 

passed a creek on the S.S. (1) 
N. 45° W. 4 miles to a point of woodland on L.S. 
N. 28 ? W. 3 miles to a point of woodland on S.S. the river make- 

ing a Deep bend to the N.W. 
S 35° W. 4 miles to a point of wood on the S. S. passed a creek (2) 
"jTT/ on the S.S. near the commencement of this course, 
.also two points on the L.S one at a mile & the 

other y 2 a mile further, also a large sand bar in the 

middle of the river above the mouth of the creek 

emence numbers of Geese to be seen pared & 1 : a Gange 
of brant pass one half of the gange white with black wings or 
the large feathers of the 1" & 2 d . joint the remd! of the 
com [mo] n cot[o]r. a voice much like that of a goos & 
finer &c. 

[Lewis:] _, Sunday April 14'* 1805. 

One of the hunters saw an Otter last evening and shot at it, 
but missed it. a dog came to us this morning, which we sup- 
posed to have been lost by the Indians who were recently 
encamped near the lake that we passed yesterday, the min- 
eral appearances of salts, coal and sulphur, together with birnt 
hills & pumice stone still continue, while we remained at the 
entrance of the little Missouri, we saw several pieces of pumice 
stone floating down that stream, a considerable quant[it]y of 

VOL.1.-20 [ 3 o 5 ] 


which had lodged against a point of drift wood a little above 
it's entrance. Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning, and 
on his return informed me that he had passed through the 
timbered bottoms on the N. side of the river, and had ex- 
tended his walk several miles back on the hills ; in the 
bottom lands he had met with several uninhabited Indian 
lodges built with the boughs of the Elm, and in the plains he 
met with the remains of two large encampments of a recent 
date, which from the appearance of some hoops of small kegs, 
seen near them we concluded that they must have been the 
camps of the Assinniboins, as no other nation who visit this 
part of the missouri ever indulge themselves with spirituous 
liquor, of this article the Assinniboins are pationately fond, 
and we are informed that it, forms their principal inducement 
to furnish the British establishments on the Assinniboin river 
with the dryed and pounded meat and grease which they do. 
they also supply those establishments with a small quantity of 
fur, consisting principally of the large and small wolves and 
the small fox 1 skins, these they barter for small kegs of rum 
which they generally transport to their camps at a distance 
from the establishments, where they revel with their friends 
and relations as long as they possess the means of intoxication, 
their women and children are equally indulged on those occa- 
tions and are all seen drunk together, so far is a state of 
intoxication from being a cause of reproach among them, that 
with the men, it is a matter of exultation that their skill and 
industry as hunters has enabled them to get drunk frequently, 
in their customs, habits and dispositions these people very 
much resemble the Siouxs from whom they have descended. 
The principal inducement with the British fur companies, for 
continuing their establishments on the Assinniboin river, is 
the Buffaloe meat and grease they procure from the Assinni- 
boins, and Christanoes, by means of which, they are enabled 
to supply provision to their engages on their return from 
rainy Lake to the English river and the Athabaskey country 
where they winter ; without such resource those voyagers 

1 The kit fox {Vulpes welox). — Ed. 



would frequently be straitened for provision, as the country 
through which they pass is but scantily supplyed with game, 
and the rappidity with which they are compelled to travel in 
order to reach their winter stations, would leave them but 
little leasure to surch for food while on their voyage. 

The Assinniboins have so recently left this neighbourhood, 
that the game is scarce and very shy. the river continues 
wide, and not more rapid than the Ohio in an averge state of 
it's current, the bottoms are wide and low, the moister parts 
containing some timber ; the upland is extreemly broken, 
chonsisting of high gaulded nobs as far as the eye can reach 
on ether side, and entirely destitute of timber, on these hills 
many aromatic herbs are seen ; resembling in taste, smel and 
appearance, the sage, hysop, wormwood, southernwood, 1 and 
two other herbs which are strangers to me ; the one resem- 
bling the camphor in taste and smell, rising to the hight of 2 
or 3 feet ; the other about the same size, has a long, narrow, 
smo[o]th, soft leaf of an agreeable smel and flavor; of this 
last the A[n]telope is very fond; they feed on it, and perfume 
the hair of their foreheads and necks with it by rubing against 
it. the dwarf cedar and juniper is also found in great abun- 
dance on the sides of these hills, where the land is level, it is 
uniformly fertile consisting of a dark loam intermixed with a 
proportion of fine sand, it is generally covered with a short 
grass resembling very much the blue grass. the miniral 
appearances still continue ; considerable quantities of bitu- 
menous water, about the colour of strong lye trickles down the 
sides of the hills ; this water partakes of the taste of glauber 
salts and slightly of allumn. while the party halted to take 
dinner today Capt. Clark killed a buffajoe bull ; it was meagre, 
and we therefore took the marrow bones and a small propor- 
tion of the meat only, near the place we dined, on the Lard, 
side, there was a large village of burrowing squirrels. I have 
remarked that these anamals generally celect a South Easterly 
exposure for their residence, tho' they are sometimes found in 

1 Probably the common sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata), which Lewis is com- 
paring to all these garden herbs which he names. The identity of the two other 
plants is not plain. — Ed. 


the level plains, passed an Island, above which two small 
creeks fall in on Lar"! side ; the upper creek largest, which we 
called Sharbono's Creek, after our interpreter who encamped 
several weeks on it with a hunting party of Indians, this was 
the highest point to which any whiteman had ever ascended, 
except two Frenchmen (one of whom Lapage was now with us. 
See at Mandari) who having lost their way had straggled a few 
miles further, tho' to what place precisely I could not learn. 1 
I walked on shore above this creek and killed an Elk, which 
was so poor that it was unfit for uce; I therefore left it, and 
joined the party at their encampment on the Star'! shore a little 
after dark, on my arrival Capt. Clark informed me that he 
had seen two white bear pass over the hills shortly after I 
fired, and that they appeared to run nearly from the place 
where I shot, the lar? shore on which I walked was very 
broken, and the hills in many places had the appearance of 
having sliped down in masses of several acres of land in sur- 
face, we saw many gees feeding on the tender grass in the 
praries and several of their nests in the trees ; we have not in a 
single instance found the nest of this bird on or near the 
ground, we saw a number of Magpies their nests and eggs, 
their nests are built in trees and composed of small sticks 
leaves and grass, open at top, and much in the stile of the 
large blackbird comm to the U. 'States, the egg is of a bluish 
brown colour, freckled with redish brown spots, one of the 
party killed a large hooting owl ; I observed no difference 
between this bird and those of the same family common to the 
U. 'States, except that this appeared to be more booted and 
more thickly clad with feathers. 

1 Lewis and Clark here distinctly state that they have now passed beyond the 
highest point on the Missouri heretofore explored by white men. Chaboneau had 
been as far as the creek named for him (probably Indian Creek of to-day), and 
Lepage, another recruit from the Mandan towns, had, with one other Frenchman, 
gone a few miles farther ; but beyond that they were entering virgin territory. This 
is important, for it shows that the quest for furs had not yet been pushed appreciably 
west of the Mandan villages by the British fur companies. — O. D. Wheeler. 


i8o 5 ] 



The courses and distances of the I4'. h April. 

S. 45. W. to the mouth of a small creek at the upper part of a 

timbered bottom 
W. - to a point of Woodland on the Lar? side 
N. 85. W. to a point on the Star 1 ? opposite to a bluff 
N. 80. W. to a point on Star d opposite to a bluff on Lai 
W. to the lower point of an Island which from the cir- 

cumstance of our arriving at it on Sunday — we 
called Sunday Island, the river washes the base 
of the hills on both sides of this Island 
N. 70. W. to a point of woodland on the Star') Side the Island 
and it's sandbar occupy y 2 the distance of this 
course pass two small creeks on the Lar? Side, 
the upper one the largest, called Sharbono's creek. 

Point of Observation N? 2. 

On the Star4 shore ^ of a mile above the extremity of the third 
course of this day observed Meridian Alt'! Of L. L. with Octant by the 
back Ob* 81? 34' »— 

Latitude deduced from this Observat n - 

Point of Observation N? 3. 

At our encampment of this evening on the SI S^ observed time and 
distance of D '" Western limb from Regulus, with Sextant. 5|c West. — 

Time. — 

Distance. — 

Time. ■ 



P.M. 10.^47. 2 — 72.20.30. 
" . 51. 10. — " . 21. - 

• 53- J 9— "• "'■ 45- 
. 56. 2. — " . 23. - 

".58. 58— ". 24. 15. 

Observed time and distance of 3>'* Eastern limb from a. Aquilae with 

Sextant. ■%.. East. — 





8 ° 


1 I. 


2. 72. 





27.— ". 





55 — " • 




19— ". 


« m 


1 2 — " . 

3 1 - 



















7— " 





23— " 




3 2 - 

27. — " 





39— " 



P.M. 11. 

36.47.-82. 14. 


39- 34— "• H- 


43. 2.— ". 13. 


46. 8.— «. 13. 


48. 16 " . 13. 




EClark Q 14? of April Sunday 1805. 

a fine morning, a dog came to us this morning we sup- 
pose him to be left by the Ind! who had their camps near the 
Lake we passed yesterday not long sence, I observed several 
single Lodges built of stiks of [c]otten timber in different 
parts of the bottoms, in my walk of this [day] which was 
through the wooded bottoms and on the hills for several 
miles back from the river on the S.S. I saw the remains of 
two Indian incampmints with wide beeten tracks leading to 
them, those were no doubt the camps of the Ossinnaboin 
Indians (a Strong evidence is hoops of Small Kegs were found 
in the incampments) no other nation on the river above the 
Sioux make use of Spiritious licquer. The Ossinniboins is 
said to be pasionately fond of Licquer, and is the principal 
inducement to their putting themselves to the trouble of 
catching the fiew wolves and foxes which they furnish, and 
receive their [liquor] always in small Kegs. The Ossinniboins 
make use of the Same kind of Lodges which the Sioux and 
other Indians on this river make use of. Those lodges or 
tents are made of a number of dressed buffalow Skins sowed 
together with sinews & deckerated with the tales, & Porcu- 
pine quils, when open it forms a half circle with a part about 
4 Inches wide projecting about 8 or 9 Inches from the center 
of the Streight Side for the purpose of attaching it to a pole 
to it the hight they wish to raise the tent, when the[y] errect 
this tent four poles of equal length are tied near one end, 
those poles are elevated and 8, 10 or 12 other poles are 
anexed forming a circle at the ground and lodging in the forks 
of the four attached poles, the tents are then raised, by at- 
taching the projecting part to a pole and incumpassing the 
poles with the tent by bringing the two ends together and at- 
tached with a cord, on land as high as is necessary, leaveing 
the lower part open for about 4 feet for to pass in & out, and 
the top is generally left open to admit the smoke to pass. 
The Borders of the river has been so much hunted by those 
Indians who must have left it about 8 or 10 days past and I 
prosume are now in the neighbourhood of British establish- 
ments on the Ossinniboin ; the game is scerce and verry wild. 

[3 IQ ] 


The River continues wide and the current jentle not more 
rapid than the current of the Ohio in middle State. The 
bottoms are wide and low and the moist parts of them contain 
Som wood such as cotton Elm & small ash, willow rose 
bushes &? &c. & next to the hills Great quantity of wild 
Isoop, [hyssop] the hills are high broken in. every direction, 
and the mineral appearance of Salts continue to appear in a 
greater perportion, also Sulpher, coal & bitumous water in a 
smaller quantity, I have observed but five burnt hills, about 
the little Missouri, and I have not seen any Pumey stone 
above that River I saw Buffalow on the L.S. qrossed and 
dureing the time of dinner killed a Bull, which was pore, we 
made use of the best of it, I saw a village of Burrowing dogs 
on the L. S. passed a Island above which two small creeks 
falls in on the L.S. the upper of which is the largest and we 
call Shabonas Creek after our interpreter who incamped several 
weeks on this creek and is the highest point on the Missouri 
to which a white man has been previous to this time. Cap! 
Lewis walked out above this creek and killed an Elk which 
he found so meager that it was not fit for use, and joined the 
boat at Dusk at our camp on the S.S. opposit a high hill 
several parts of which had sliped down, on the side of those 
hills we Saw two white bear running from the report of Cap! 
Lewis Shot, those animals assended those Steep hills with 
su'pprising ease & verlocity, they were too far to discover their 
prosise colour & size. Saw several gees nests on trees, also the 
nests & egs of the Magpies, a large grey owl killed, booted & 

with ears &c. 

Course distance &1 the 14!! 1 of April 
S. 45? W. 7.y^ miles to the mouth of a small creek at the upper part 

of a wood bottom in a -bend to L.S. 
West 3^ miles to a point of wood land on the L.S. 

N. 85? W. 2 miles to a point on the S. S. opposit a bluff 
N. 80? W 1 ^ mf to a point on S. S. pass 1 ! a bluff on the L. S. 
West 1 mile to a small Island ops d the upper point the river 

washes the base of the hill on both sides, which we 

call Sunday IsH &f 
N. 70° W. 3^ miles to a p! of wood land on the S.S. the Island & its 
\a sand bars Occupy half the distance, passed 2 small 

creeks on the L.S. the upper the largest. 



[Lewis:] Monday April 15'* 1805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning. I walked on shore, 
and Capt. Clark continued with the party it being an invariable 
rule with us not to be both absent from our vessels at the 
same time. I passed through the bottoms of the river on the 
Star 1 ! side, they were partially covered with timber, were ex- 
tensive, level and beatifull. in my walk which was about 6 
miles I passed a small rivulet of clear water making down from 
the hills, which on tasting, I discovered to be in a small de- 
gree brackish, it possessed less of the glauber salt, or alumn, 
than those little streams from the hills usually do. in a little 
pond of water fromed by this rivulet where it entered the 
bottom, I heard the frogs crying for the first time this season ; 
their note was the same with that of the small frogs which are 
common to the lagoons and swam[p]s of the U. States. I saw 
great quantities of gees feeding in the bottoms, of which I shot 
one. saw some deer and Elk, but they were remarkably shy. 
I also met with great numbers of Grouse or prarie hens as they 
are called by the English traders of the N.W. these birds 
appeared to be mating ; the note of the male, is kuck, kuck, 
kuck, coo, coo, coo. the first part of the note both male and 
female use when flying, the male also dubbs {drums with his 
wings) something like the pheasant, but by no means as loud. 
After breakfast Capt. Clark walked on the St/! shore, and on 
his return in the evening gave me the following account of his 
ramble. "I assended to the high country, about 9 miles dis- 
tant from the Missouri, the country consists of beatifull, 
level and fertile plains, destitute of timber. I saw many little 
dranes, which took their rise in the river hills, from whence as 
far as I could see they run to the N. E." these streams we 
suppose to be the waters of Mous river a branch of the Assin- 
niboin which the Indians informed us approaches the Missouri 
very nearly, about this point. " I passed," continued he, a 
Creek about 20 yards wide, which falls into the Missouri ; the 
bottoms of this creek are wide level and extreemly fertile, but 
almost entirely destitute of timber, the water of this creek as 
well as all those creeks and rivulets which we have passed 
since we left Fort Mandan was so strongly impregnated with 



salts and other miniral substances that I was incapable of drink- 
ing it. I saw the remains of several camps of the Assinniboins ; 
near one of which in a small ravene, there was a park which 
they had formed of timber and brush, for the purpose of tak- 
ing the cabrie ' or Antelope, it was constructed in the follow- 
ing manner, a strong pound was first made of timbers, on one 
side of which there was a small apparture, sufficiently large to 
admit an Antelope; from each side of this apparture, a cur- 
tain was extended to a considerable distance, widening as they 
receded from the pound." we passed a rock this evening 
standing in the middle of the river, and the bed of the river 
was formed principally of gravel, we encamped this evening 
on a sand point on Lar? side, a little above our encampment 
the river was confined to a channel of 80 yards in width. 

Courses and distances of the I5'. h April. mile8 

N. to a point of wood on Lari side, opposite to a high hill 2. 

N. 18. W. to a point of wood on the Star 1 ? side opposite to the 

lower point of an Island in a Lar? bend of the river 5. 
N. 20. E. to a bluff point on Star 1 ? passed the upper part of the 

Island at 2 Miles 31^ 

N. 30. E. to a point of woodland on Laf? side. 2^ 

N. 10. W. on the Lari point y z 

N. 15. W. on the Lari point y^ 
N. 12. W. to the lower part of a bluff on the Sta? side, passing a 

creek on Staff \y^ 

N. 52. W. to a high bluff on the Sta? side 2. 

N. 75. W. to a point of woodland on the Star? Stf 3. 

N. 16. W. to a point of Woodland on Lar? side 3. 

miles 23. 
Point of Observation N? 4. 

Apl. rj* 1805. On the Sta? shore, one rpile above the extremity of 
the 2". d course of this day, I took two altitudes of the sun with the Sex- 
tant and artificial horizon. 

Time Altitudes, 

h m 5. o 1 11 

A. M. 9. 9. 33 69. 20. 45. 

10. 3. 28. 84. 24. 15. 

Chronometer to fast at the time of observation on mean time. 

1 A common name for the American antelope ; corrupted from Spanish cabra, 
'goat." — Ed. 


[Clark :] 1 5 >* of April Monday 1 805 

Set out at an early hour, Cap' Lewis walked on shore and 
Killed a goose, passed a Island in a bend to the L.S. the 
wind hard from the S. E. after brackfast I walked on Shore 
and assended to the high Countrey on the S. S. and off from 
the Missouri about three miles the countrey is butifull open 
fertile plain the dreans [drains] take theer rise near the clifts 
of the river and run from the river in a N E derection as far as 
I could See, this is the part of the River which Mouse river 
the waters of Lake Winnipec approaches within a new miles 
of Missouri, and I believe those dreans lead into that river, we 
passed a creek about 20 yd! wide on the S. S. the bottoms of 
this creek is extensive & fertile, the water of this as also, all 
the Streams which head a flew miles in the hills discharge water 
which is black & unfit for use (and can safely say that I have 
not seen one drop of water fit for use above fort Mandan ex- 
cept Knife and the little Missouris Rivers and the Missouri, the 
other Streams being so much impregnated with mineral as to 
be verry disagreeble in its present state. I saw the remains 
of Several camps of ossinniboins, near one of those camps & 
at no great distance from the mouth of the aforesaid creek, in 
a hollow, I saw a large Strong pen made for the purpose of 
catching the antelope, with wings projecting from it widining 
from the pen. 

Saw several gangs of BufFalow and som elk at a distance, a 
black bear seen from the Perogues to day. passed a rock in 
the Middle of the river, some smaller rocks from that to the 
L. Shore, the dog that came to us yesterday morning con- 
tinues to follow us, we camped on a sand point to the L.S. 

Course distance &? he 15'? of April 

North 2 m. toap^of wood on the L? Si? a high hill on the S? Si? 

N. 18? W. 5 miles to a point of wood on the S? Si? op'. 11 the lower 

point of an Island L. Bend 
N. 20? E. 2% miles to a Bluff point on the S? Si? passed the upper 

part of the Island at 2 miles 
N. 30? E. 2^ miles to a point of woodland on the L. Side 
N. io ? .W y 2 a mile on the La? point 



N. 15? W. ^ of a mile on the L. p! here the waters of Mouse 

river is near 
N. 12? W. 1 y z miles to the lower part of a Bluff on the S? Side pass- 
ing a creek on the S. Side. Goat pen creek 
N". 52 q W. 2 miles to a high Bluff on the SI Side 
N. 75° W. 3 miles to a p! of woodland on the S. Side 
N. 16? W. 3 miles to a point of woods on the L. S. 

[Lewis:] Tuesday April 16'* 1805. 

Set out very early this morning. Capt. Clark walked on 
shore this morning, and killed an Antelope, rejoined us at yi 
after eight A.M. he informed me that he had seen many 
Buffaloe Elk and deer in his absence, and that he had met 
with a great number of old hornets nests in the woody bottoms 
through which he had passed, the hills of the river still con- 
tinue extreemly broken for a few miles back, when it becomes 
a fine level country of open fertile lands, immediately on the 
river there are many fine leavel extensive and extreemly fertile 
high plains and meadows. I think the quantity of timbered 
land on the river is increasing, the mineral appearances still 
continue. I met with several stones today that had the ap- 
pearance of wood first carbonated and then petrefyed by the, 
water of the river, which I have discovered has that effect on 
many vegitable substances when exposed to it's influence for 
a length of time. I believe it to be the stratas of coal seen in 
those hills which causes the fire and birnt appearances fre- 
quently met with in this quarter, where those birnt appear- 
ances are to be seen in the face of the river bluffs, the coal is 
seldom seen, and when you meet with it in the neighbourhood 
of the stratas of birnt earth, the coal appears to be presisely at 
the same hight, and is nearly of the same thickness, togeter 
with the sand and a sulphurious substance which ususually 
accompanvs it. there was a remarkable large beaver caught 
by one of the party last night, these anamals are now very 
abundant. I have met with several trees which have been 
felled by them 20 Inches in diameter, bark is their only food; 
and they appear to prefer that of the Cotton wood and willow ; 



as we have never met with any other species of timber on the 
Missouri which had the appearance of being cut by them, we 
passed three small creeks on the Star 1 ! side, they take their 
rise in the river hills at no great distance, we saw a great 
number of geese today, both in the plains and on the river I 
have observed but few ducks, those we have met with are the 
Mallard and blue winged Teal. 

Courses and distances of i6'. h April. 


S. 80. W. to a point of woodland on the Star? side 3. 

N. 36. W. to a point of woodland on the Laf? side. 2^ 
S. 60. W. to a point of wood on the Sta? side, opposite to a bluff 

which commences 1 mile below on the LaH side 31^ 

N. 25. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar"! side 2^ 
S. 70. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar 1 ! side, passing a 

point of wood and large sand bar on the Star 1 ) side 6. 
S. 65. W. along the Lar d point of woods to our encampment of 

this evening ^ 

Miles 18. 

Note. The distances we are obliged to pass around the sand bars is 
much greater than those here stated from point to point. 


[[Clark :] 16'* of April Tuesday 1805 

Wind hard from the S. E I walked on shore and Killed 
an antilope which was verry meagre, Saw Great numbers of 
Elk & some buffalow & Deer, a verry large Beaver cought 
this morning. Some verry handsom high planes & extensive 
bottoms, The mineral appearances of coal & Salt together 
with some appearance of Burnt hil[l]s continue, a number 
of old hornets nests Seen in every bottom more perticularly 
in the one opposit to the place we camped this night, the 
wooded bottoms are more extensive to day than Common, 
passed three small creeks on the S. S. to day which take their 
rise in the hills at no great distance, Great numbers of Gees 
in the river & in the Plains feeding on the Grass. 



80? w. 



36 w. 



'60? w 



25? w. 



7o ? W. 



Course Distance &? April 16 th 

miles to a point of wood land on the S? Side, 
miles to a point of wood land on the L. Side 
miles to a point of wood on the S? Side ops') a bluff 

which commences 1 mile below on the Larboard Side, 
miles to a p! of wood land on the L. Side, 
miles to a point of Wood land on the L. Side, passing 

a point of wood land on the S? Side, passing a large 

Sand bar S4 
S. 65° W. j4 a mile along the L. Point of wood. 

[Lewis:] Wednesday April 17'? 1805. 

A delightfull morning, set out at an erly hour, the country 
th[r]ough which we passed to day was much the same as that 
discribed of yesterday; there wase more appearance of birnt 
hills, furnishing large quanties of lava and pumice stone ; of 
the latter some pieces were seen floating down the river. 
Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning on the Star 1 ! side, 
and did not join us untill half after six in the evening, he 
informed me that he had seen the remains of the Assinniboin 
encampments in every point of woodland through which he 
had passed, we saw immence quantities of game in every 
direction around us as we passed up the river ; consisting of 
herds of BufTaloe, Elk, and Antelopes with some deer and 
woolves. tho' we continue to see many tracks of the bear we 
have seen but very few of them, and those are at a great dis- 
tance generally runing from us; I the [re] fore presume that 
they are extreemly wary and shy ; the Indian account of them 
dose not corrispond with our experience so far. one black 
bear passed near the perogues on the i6'. h and was seen by 
myself and the party but he so quickly disappeared that we 
did not shoot at him. at the place we halted to dine on the 
Lar 1 ! side we met with a herd of burTaloe of which I killed 
the fatest as I concieved among them, however on examining 
it I found it so poar that I thought it unfit for uce and only 
took the tongue; the party killed another which was still 
more lean, just before we encamped this evening we saw 



some tracks of Indians who had passed about 24 hours ; they 
left four rafts of tim [ber] on the Star*! side, on which they had 
passed, we supposed them to have been a party of the 
Assinniboins who had been to war against the rocky Moun- 
tain Indians, and then on their return. Capt. Clark saw a 
Curlou to-day. there were three beaver taken this morning 
by the party, the men prefer the flesh of this anamal, to that 
of any other which we have, or are able to procure at this 
moment. I eat very heartily of the beaver myself, and think 
it excellent; particularly the tale, and liver we had a fair 
wind today which enabled us to sail the greater part of the 
distance we have travled, encamped on the Lar? shore the 
extremity of the last course. 

Courses and distances of the 1 7 l . h 

S. 70. W. to a point of willows on the Star? side 3. 

S. 75. W. along the Star* point, opposite to a bluff y^. 

N. 75. W. to a wood in a bend on the SV 1 side 3. 

N. 50. W. to a point of woodland Star? side Z- 1 /*' 

S. 60. W. to a point of woodland on Star? side opposite to a 

bluff on Lard, just above which, a creek falls in on 

the Lar? about 10 yards wide. .^ 

N. 80. W. to a willow point on the Lar? side. 3.^ 

S. 85. W. to a point of woodland Lar? opposite to a bluff on 

Star? side 3.^ 

West. Along the Lar? point, opposite to a high bluff above 

which a small run falls in 1. 

S. 40. W. along the same point of woodland Lar? side." 1 

S. 30. W. along the Lar? side to a willow point .% 

S. 14. W. to the upper part of the high timber on the Star? side 4. 
S. 28. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar? side where we 

encamped for the night 2 

Miles .26 

[Clark:] i 7 ;f of April Wednesday 1805 

a fine morning wind from the S E. Gen 1 ?' to day handsom 
high extencive rich Plains on each side, the mineral appear- 
ances continue with greater appearances of coal, much greater 
appearance of the hills haveing been burnt, more Pumice 
Stone & Lava washed down to the bottoms and some Pumice 



Stone floating in the river, I walked on the S.S. saw great 
numbers of Buffalow feeding in the Plains at a distance Cap' 
Lewis killed 2 Buffalow buls which was near the water at the 
time of dineing, they were so pore as to be unfit for use. I 
saw Several Small parties of antelopes large herds of Elk, 
Some white wolves, and in a pond (formed on the S.S. by the 
Missouries changeing its bead) I seen Swan, Gees, & different 
kinds of Ducks in great numbers also a Beaver house. Passed 
a small creek on the S.S. & several runs of water on each side, 
Saw the remains of Indian camps in every point of timbered 
land on the S.S. in the evining a thunder gust passed from 
the S W. without rain, about sunset saw some fresh Indians 
track and four rafts on the shore S.S. Those I prosume were 
Ossinniboins who had been on a war party against the Rockey 
Mountain Indians. Saw a curlow, some verry large beaver 
taken this morning, those animals are made use of as food 
and preferred by the party to any other at this season 

Course distance & c 17 th of April 1805 

S. 70° W. 3 miles to a point of willows on the S.S! 
S 75° W. y 2 miles on the S! Side opposid a Bluff 
N. 75° W. 3 miles to a wood in a bend to the S! Side 
N. 50 9 W 31^ miles to a point of wood Land S! Side 
S 60° W ^ of a mile to a p? of wood land on the S. S! opposit to 
a Bluff on the L! Side just above which a creek 
falls in on the Lab 1 ? about 10 y da wide. 
N. 8o ? W. 2% m 'l es to a willow point on the L. S! a Lake & creek 

St! Halls Strand lake 
S. 85° W. 3^ miles to a L. p! of wood land opposit to a bluff on 

the Starboard Side. 
West 1 mile along the L. p! of wood land, a high bluff on the 

S.S. above which a run falls in burnt hills 
mile along the same point of wood land Lar! S. 
of a mile on the La! Side of a willow point, 
miles to the upper part of a high timber on the Star- 
board Side, 
miles to a point of wood land on the L. Side where we 
camped for the night. 

Note The distance we are obliged to go round sand bars & c is much 
greater than those called for in the courses from point to point Si c . 




40"? W. 1 
30? w. % 
14? W. 4 

28? W. 2 

m 1 ? 26 


[Lewis:] Thursday April 18'* 1805. 

A fine morning, set out at an early hour, one Beaver 
caught this morning by two traps, having a foot in each ; the 
traps belonged to different individuals, between whom, a con- 
test ensued, which would have terminated, most probably, in a 
serious rencounter had not our timely arrival at the place pre- 
vented it. atter breakfast this morning, Capt. Clark walked 
on Sta* shore, while the party were assending by means of 
their toe lines, I walked with them on the bank; found a 
species of pea bearing a yellow flower, and now in blume ; it 
seldom rises more than 6 inches high, the leaf & stalk resem- 
bles that of the common gardin pea, the root is perenial. (see 
specimen of vegitables N° 3.) I also saw several parsels of 
buffaloe's hair hanging on the rose bushes, which had been 
bleached by exposure to the weather and became perfectly 
white, it [had] every appearance of the wool of the sheep, 
tho' much finer and more silkey and soft. I am confident 
that an excellent cloth may be made of the wool of the 
Buffaloe. the BufFaloe I killed yesterday had cast his long 
hare, and the poil which remained was very thick, fine, and 
about 2 inches in length. I think this anamal would have 
furnished about five pounds of wool. 1 we were detained 
to-day from one to five P. M. in consequence of the wind 
which blew so violently from N. that it was with difficulty we 
could keep the canoes from filling with water altho' they were 
along shore ; I had them secured by placing the perogues on 
the out side of them in such manner as to break the waves off 
them, at 5 we proceed, and shortly after met with Capt. 
Clark, who had killed an Elk and a deer and was wating our 
arrival, we took the meat on board and continued our march 
untill nearly dark when we came too on the Star d . side under a 
boald well-timbered bank which sheltered us from the wind 

1 When Jolliet first encountered the buffalo, he observed the possibility of using 
its wool — " with the wool of these oxen he could make cloth, much finer than most 
of that which we bring from France.'" Marest says that the Illinois made from this 
hair various articles, as leggings, girdles, and pouches. See Jes. Relations, lviii, p. 
107 j lxvi, p. 231. Catlin recommends (N. Amer. Inds., i, p. 163) the utilization 
of the buffalo's hair for woollen manufactures. — Ed. 

[3 2 °] 


which had abated but not yet ceased, here we encamped, it 
being the extremity of the last course of this day. 

Courses and distances of the i8'. h April. 

South to a sand point on the Star 1 ! side 3. 

N. 75. W. to a point of Woodland on Lar d side 2.1^ 

N. 85. W. along the Lar d point l£ 

S. 25. E. to a sand point Star 1 ? side 2. 

S. 60. W. to a willow point Star? side 1. 

S. 65. W. along the Star? shore to a point of timbered land, 

opposite to a bluff on Lar d y^ 

N. 25. W. to a copse of wood on star d side, in a bend 2. 

S. 50. W. to a point of timbered land on Star d side where we 

encamped for the night 1 j£ 

Miles 13 
Point of Observation N? 5. 
On the Stari shore at the extremity of the fifth course of this day 

Observed Meridian Alt'! of O'? L. L. with Octant by 

the back Observation 79 ? 1 z[ 00" 

Latitude deduced from this observat! 

fJClark:] 18^ of April Thursday 1805 

Set out at an early hour one Beaver & a Musrat cought 
this morning, the beaver cought in two traps, which like to 
have brought about a missunderstanding between two of the 
party &c. after brackfast I assended a hill and observed that 
the river made a great bend to the South, I concluded to walk 
thro' the point about 1 miles and take Shabono, with me, he 
had taken a dost of Salts &? his squar followed on with her 
child, when I struck the next bend of the [river] could see 
nothing of the Party, left this man & his wife & child on the 
river bank and went out to hunt, Killed a young Buck Elk, 
& a Deer, the Elk was tolerable meat, the Deer verry pore, 
Butchered the meat and continued untill near Sunset before 
Cap' Lewis and the party came up, they were detained by the 
wind, which rose soon after I left the boat from the N W. & 
blew verry hard untill verry late in the evening. We camped 
vol.1. — 21 r 021 ] 


N. 75? 


N. 85? 


S. 25 


S. 60? 


S. 65? 



on the S.S. in an excellent harbor, Soon after we came too, 
two men went up the river to set their beaver traps they met 
with a Bear and being without their arms thought prodent to 
return &? The wild cheries are in bloom, Great appearance 
of Burnt hills Pumice Stone &? the coal & salt appearance 
continues, the water in the small runs much better than below. 
Saw several old Indian camps, the game, such as Buffalow 
Elk, antelopes & Deer verry plenty 

Course distance &C. 18 th of April 

3 miles to a point on the St 1 ? Side 

2^ miles to a wood point on the L. Side 

1^ a mile along the La? Side 

2 miles to a sand point on the S? Side 

1 mile to a p? of Willows on the S? Side 

l4 niile -long the S? po! to a point of timbered land ops? a 
Bluff on the La? Side 

N. 25 ? W 2. miles to a Copse of woods on the S? Side 

S. 50? W. ij4 miles to the upper part of a wood on the Sta? Side 
miles 13 & camped 

rjLewis:] Friday April 19'* 1805. 

The wind blew so hard this morning from N.W. that we 
dared not to venture our canoes on the river. Observed con- 
siderable quantities of dwarf Juniper on the hill sides (see 
specimen N? 4) 1 it seldom rises higher then 3 feet, the wind 
detained us through the couse of this day, tho' we were fortu- 
nate in having placed ourselves in a safe harbour, the party 
killed one Elk and a beaver today. The beaver of this part 
of the Missouri are larger, fatter, more abundant and better 
clad with fur than those of any other part of the country that 
I have yet seen ; I have remarked also that their fur is much 

[Clark:] 19'* of April Friday 1805 

a blustering windey day the wind so hard from the N.W. 
that we were fearfull of ventering our Canoes in the river, lay 
by all day on the S. Side in a good harber, the Praries appear 

1 This should be No. 104. See " Scientific Data : Botany," in vol. wi, post. — Ed. 

[3 22 ] 


to Green, the cotton trees bigin to leave, Saw some plumb 
bushes in full bloom, those were the plumb bushes which I 
have seen for some time. Killed an Elk an[d] a Beaver to 
day. The beaver of this river is much larger than usial, Great 
deal of Sign of the large Bear, 

QLewis:] Saturday April 20'* 1805. 

The wind continued to blow tolerably hard this morning but 
by no means as violently as it did yesterday ; we determined 
to set out and accordingly departed a little before seven. I 
walked on shore on the N. side of the river, and Capt Clark 
proceeded with the party, the river bottoms through which I 
passed about seven miles were fertil and well covered with 
Cottonwood some Boxalder, ash and red Elm. the under 
brush, willow, rose bushes Honeysuccles, red willow, goosbury, 
currant and servicebury & in the open grounds along the foot 
of the river hills immence quantities of the hisop. 1 in the 
course of my walk I killed two deer, wounded an Elk and a 
deer ; saw the remains of some Indian hunting camps, near 
which stood a small scaffold of about 7 feet high on which were 
deposited two doog slays with their harnis. underneath this 
scaffold a human body was lying, well rolled in several dressed 
buffaloe skins and near it a bag of the same materials con- 
ta[in]ing sundry articles belonging to the disceased ; consisting 
of a pare of mockersons, some red and blue earth, beaver's 
nails, instruments for dressing the Buffalo skin, some dryed 
roots, several platts of the sweet grass, and a small quantity of 
Mandan tobacco. I presume that the body, as well as the 
bag containing these articles, had formerly been placed on the 
scaffold as is the custom of these people, but had fallen down 
by accedent. near the scaffold I saw the carcase of a large dog 

1 In the MS. occurs here a red-ink. interlineation (cancelled, however, by another 
pen), "copy this for Dr. Barton." As previously explained, in Biddle's text most 
of the natural history notes are omitted, because he had intended that this material 
should be worked up by Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton. The latter failed to do this; 
and the often elaborate observations of Lewis and Clark on the fauna, flora, and 
silva of the Great West have therefore been hitherto practically lost to the scientific 
world. — Ed. 

t3 2 3] 


not yet decayed, which I supposed had been killed at the time 
the human body was left on the scaffold; this was no doubt the 
reward, which the poor doog had met with for performing 
the [blank space in MS.] friendly office to his mistres of trans- 
porting her corps to the place of deposit, it is customary with 
the Assinniboins, Mandans, Minetares &c who scaffold their 
dead, to sacrefice the favorite horses and doggs of their dis- 
ceased relations, with a view of their being servicable to them 
in the land of sperits. I have never heard of any instances of 
human sacrefices on those occasions among them. 

The wind blew so hard that I concluded it was impossible 
for the perogues and canoes to proceed and therefore returned 
and joined them about three in the evening. Capt. Clark 
informed me that soon after seting out, a part of the bank of 
the river fell in near one of the canoes and had very nearly 
filled her with water, that the wind became so hard and the 
waves so high that it was with infinite risk he had been able 
to get as far as his present station, the white perogue and 
several of the canoes had shiped water several times but happily 
our stores were but little injured ; those which were wet we 
put out to dry and determined to remain untill the next morn- 
ing, we sent out four hunters who soon added 3 Elk 4 gees 
and 1 deer to our stock of provisions, the party caught six 
beaver today which were large and in fine order, the Buffaloe, 
Elk and deer are poor at this season, and of cours are not very 
palitable, however our good health and apetites make up 
every necessary deficiency, and we eat very heartily of them, 
encamped on Star d side ; under a high well timbered bank. 

Courses and Distances of this day. 


South to the upper part of a timbered bottom at a bluff on 

the Lari side iy 2 

West to a point of high timber on the Sta d Si? passing over 

a large sand point on St? side 1 y 2 

N. 45. W. to a large tree in a bend on star d side opposite a large 

sand point 1 y 2 

S. 45. W. to a point of low willows on Sta r ? side 2 

Miles by 2 


Clark :] zo'. k of April Satturday 1805 

Wind a head from the N W. we set out at 7 oClock pro- 
ceeded on, soon after we set out a Bank fell in near one of 
the canoes which like to have filled her with water, the wind 
became hard and waves so rough that we proceeded with our 
little canoes with much risque, our situation was such after 
setting out that we were obliged to pass round the i 5 .' Point or 
lay exposed to the blustering winds & waves, in passing 
round the Point several canoes took in water as also our large 
Perogue but without injuring our stores &! much I proceeded 
on to the upper part of the 1" bend and came too at a butifull 
Glade on the S.S. about 1 mile below Cap' Lewis who had 
walked thro' the point, left his Coat & a Deer on the bank 
which we took on board, a short distance below our Camp 
I saw some rafts on the S. S. near which, an Indian woman 
was scaffeled in the Indian form of Deposing their Dead and 
fallen down She was or had been raised about 6 feet, inclosed 
in Several robes tightly laced around her, with her dog Slays, 
her bag of Different coloured earths paint small bones of 
animals beaver nales and Several other little trinkets, also a 
blue jay, her dog was killed and lay near her. Cap! Lewis 
joined me soon after I landed & informed me he had walked 
several miles higher, & in his walk killed 2 Deer & wounded 
an Elk & a Deer, our party shot in the river four beaver & 
cought two, which were verry fat and much admired by the 
men, after we landed they killed 3 Elk 4 Gees & 2 Deer 
we had some of our Provisions &": which got a little wet aired, 
the wind continued so hard that we were compelled to delay 
all day. Saw several buffalow lodged in the drift wood which 
hud been drouned in the winter in passing the river ; saw the 
remains of 2 which had lodged on the side of the bank & eat 
by the bears. 



Course distance Sc c . 20'. h of April 1805 

South 1 y 2 miles to the upper part of a timbered bottom at a bluff 

on the La d Side 
West \y 2 miles to a high timber on the S d Side passing over a 

large Sand point on S.S. 
N. 45 2 W. iy 2 mile to a tree in a Glade in a bend to the Starboard 

Side a sand p! ops? 
S. 45 9 W. 2 miles to a point of low willows on the S d Side. 

This morning was verry cold, some snow about 1 oCloclc 
from flying clouds, Some frost this morning & the mud at 
the edge of the water was frosed 

£ Lewis :j Sunday April n s ! 1805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning. Capt Clark walked 
on shore; the wind tho' a head was not violent, the country 
through which we passed is very simelar in every respect to 
that through which we have passed for several days. We saw 
immence herds of buffaloe Elk deer & Antelopes. Capt. 
Clark killed a buffaloe and 4 deer in the course of his walk 
today ; and the party with me killed 3 deer, 2 beaver, and 4 
buffaloe calves, the latter we found very delicious. I think 
it equal to any veal I ever tasted, the Elk now begin to shed 
their horns, passed one large and two small creeks on the 
Lar? side, tho' neither of them discharge any water at present, 
the wind blew so hard this evening that we were obliged to 
halt several hours, we reached the place of incampment after 
dark, which was on the Lar* side a little above White earth 
river which discharges itself on the Sta r . d side, immediately at 
the mouth of this river it is not more then 10 yards wide being 
choked up by the mud of the Missouri; tho' after leaving the 
bottom lands of this river, or even sooner, it becomes a boald 
stream of sixty yards wide and is deep and navigable, the 
course of this river as far as I could see from the top of Cut 
bluff, was due North, it passes through a beatifull level and 



fertile vally about five miles in width. I think I saw about 
25 miles up this river, and did not discover one tree or bush 
of any discription on it's borders, the vally was covered with 
Elk and buffaloe. saw a great number of gees today as usual, 
also some swan and ducks. 

Courses and Distances of this day. 


S. 18. E. to a sand point Sri opposite to a bluf La 1 ? 1 y^ 

N. 75. W. to a point of high timber on Sri opposite a blfF. y% 

N. 40. W. to a willow point on Lari opposite to a bluff. ■ 3.1^ 

N. 60. W. to a point of woodland on Star d . side, oposite to a 
bluff, just below which on the Lari side a creek 
falls in. 4.^ 

N. 25. E. to a point of wood land on Lar d opposite to a high bluff. 2. 
N. 10. W. to the upper part of a bluff Star? and in a Star 1 ! bend. 2. 
S. 50. W. to the upper point of the timbered bottom on Lari 
side below a high bluff point which we called Cut 
bluff, at }/z mile Pass White Earth river on Stari 2 y^ 

[Clark :] 2 1 Jf of April Sunday 1805. 

Set out early the wind gentle & from the N.W. the 
river being verry crooked, I concluded to walk through the 
point, the countrey on either side is verry similar to that we 
have passed, Saw an emence number of Elk & BufFalow, also 
Deer Antelopes Geese Ducks & a fiew Swan, the BufFalow 
is about Calveing I killed a BufFalow ,& 4 Deer in my walk 
to day, the party killed 2 deer 2 beaver & 4 BufFalow Calves, 
which was verry good veele. I saw old camps of Indians on 
the L. Side, we passed 1 large & 2 small creeks on the L. 
Side neither of them discharge any water into the river, in 
the evening the wind became verry hard a head, we made 
camp at a late hour which was on the L. Side a little above the 
mouth of White^Zarth River which falls in on the Sta d Side 
and is 60 yds. wide, several ml! up 

t3 2 7] 


miles Corse distance &c. 2i d of ap! 

S 18 9 E 1 ^ ml. to a sand p l S. S. ops d a bluff on the L.S. 

N. 75? W y 2 to a p! of high timber on the S.S d 'ops d a Bluff 

N. 40? W 3 14 to a willow p 1 L. S d ops d a Bluff on the S.S d 

N. 60° W 4^ to a p! of wood land on the S.S d ops d a bluff just 

below which a creek falls in on the L.S. 
N. 25° E 2 to a p* of wood land on the L. S d oppos d to a high bluff 

on the Star d Side 
N. io 9 W 2 to the upper part of a low bluff on the S.S d ops d to a 

p! of timber on the L. Side 
N 50° W 2^ -miles to the upper part of a timber at a high short 
miles i6}4 bluff on the Lar d Side, passed white earth river at ^ 

mile on the SI Side 

[Lewis : ~\ Monday April z% nd 1805. 

Set out at an early hour this morning ; proceeded pretty 
well untill breakfa[s]t, when the wind became so hard a head 
that we proceeded with difficulty even with the assistance of 
our toe lines, the party halted and Cp! Clark and myself 
walked to the white earth river which approaches the Missouri 
very near at this place, being about 4 miles above it's entrance. 
we found that it contained more water than streams of it's size 
generally do at this season, the water is much clearer than 
that of the Missouri, the banks of the river are steep and 
not more than ten or twelve feet high; the bed seems to be 
composed of mud altogether, the salts which have been 
before mentioned as common on the Missouri, appears in 
great quantities along the banks of this river, which are in 
many places so thickly covered with it that they appear per- 
fectly white, perhaps it has been from this white appearance 
of it's banks that the river has derived it's name, this river 
is said to be navigable nearly to it's source, which is at no 
great distance from the Saskashawan, and I think from it's 
size the direction which it seems to take, and the latitude of 
it's mouth, that there is very good ground to believe that it 



extends as far North as latitude 50! 1 this stream passes 
through an open country generally, the broken hills of the 
Missouri about this place exhibit large irregular and broken 
masses of rocks and stones ; some of which tho' 200 feet 
above the level of the water seem at some former period to 
have felt it's influence, for they appear smoth as if woarn by 
the agetation of the water, this collection consists of white & 
grey gannite, a brittle black rock, flint, limestone, freestone, 
some small specimens of an excellent pebble and occasionally 
broken stratas of a stone which appears to be petrefyed wood ; 
it is of a black colour, and makes excellent whetstones. Coal 
or carbonated wood pumice stone lava and other mineral apear- 
ances still continue, the coal appears to be of better quality ; 
I exposed a specimen of it to the fire and found that it birnt 
tolerably well, it afforded but little flame or smoke, but pro- 
duced a hot and lasting fire. I asscended to the top of the 
cutt bluff this morning, from whence I had a most delightfull 
view of the country, the whole of which except the v'ally 
formed by the Missouri is void of timber or underbrush, 
exposing to the first glance of the spectator immence herds of 
Buffaloe, Elk, deer, & Antelopes feeding in one common and 
boundless pasture, we saw a number of bever feeding on the 
bark of the trees alonge the verge of the river, several of which 
we shot, found them large and fat. walking on shore this 
evening I met with a buffaloe calf which attatched itself to 
me and continued to follow close at my heels untill I em- 
barked and left it. 2 it appeared allarmed at my dog which 
was probably the cause of it's so readily attatching itself to me. 
Capt Clark informed me that he saw a large drove of buffaloe 
pursued by wolves today, that they at length caught a calf 
which was unable to keep up with the herd, the cows only 
defend their young so long as they are able to keep up with 
the herd, and seldom return any distance in surch of them. 

1 White Earth River rises in the Coteau du Missouri, near the 49th parallel. — Ed. 

2 Catlin mentions (N. Amer. Inds., i, 255, 256) the docile and affectionate dispo- 
sition of the buffalo calf; he was able to lure to his camp a dozen of them, who were 
successfully fed on the milk of a domestic cow. He succeeded in transporting one 
of these to the Chouteau farm near St. Louis, where it throve well. — Ed. 

[3 2 9] 


Courses and distances of 22? d of April. 1805. 


N. 6o°- W. to a point of woodland on the Lar? side. 2.y£ 

W. along the woodland on Lar? shore 1 

S. 70. W. to the lower point of a bluff in a bend on star? side 1. 

S. 20. W. to the upper part of the star? bluff. 2. 

S. 60. E. to a point of woods in a bend on Star? 1. 

S. 30. E. to a willow point on the Star? side. 2. 
N. 65. E. to an object in a bend on Lar? where we encamped 

for the evening 1 J^ 

Miles .11. 

Point of Observation N? 6. — April 22-? 1805. 

On the Lar? shore one mile above the cut bluff 

Observed time and distance of Q'° and 1>' 8 nearest limbs, with Sex- 
tant, the O East. 




A.M. 10 


• 44- 












• 50. 



• 5 1 - 



. 52. 



• fa- 


u # 


20. 30. 
20. - . 
19. 45. 
19. 30 
19. 30 
19. -. 

18. 45. 


I I 



. I. 

• 4- 
. 6. 


25.— " . 

8.— ". 

• 7- 
. 8. 

2. — " . 

• 9- 

. 10. 

4.— «. 
20.— ". 

. 12. 

40. — " . 


15. -. 
14. -. 

12. 45 
12. 45 

I2 - 37^ 
12. 30 

12. - . 

Observed equal altitudes of the © with Sextant 

A.M. 11. 21. 49. 

"• 23- 38 
" . 25. 29. 

P.M. 5. 13. 38. 

"• i5- 3 1 - 

". 17. 20. 

Altitude by Sextant at the time of observation 77? 52' 45'' 

[Clark:] 22^ of April Monday 180 5 

a verry cold morning Some frost, we set out at an early 
hour and proceeded on verry well untill brackfast at which 
time the wind began to blow verry hard ahead, and continued 



hard all day we proceeded on with much dificuelty with the 
assistance of the toe Ropes. Cap! Lewis & my self walked to 
the River which is near the Missouri four miles above its 
mouth, this river is 60 yards wide and contains a greater 
perportion of water at this time than is common for Rivers of 
its size it appears navagable as fur as any of the party was, 
and I am told to near its source in morrasses in the open 
Plains, it passes (as far as we can see which is 6 or 7 Leagus) 
thro' a butifull extinsive vallee, rich & fertile and at this time 
covered with Buffalow, Elk & antelopes, which may be Seen 
also in any other direction in this quarter, this river must 
take its rise at no great distance East of the Saskashawan, and 
no doubt as far N. as Lafl 50°. 

Some of the high plains on the broken rivers [banks] of 
the river contains great quantity of Pebble Stones of various 
sizes, The Stratum of coal is much richer than below, the 
appearances of Mineral & burnt hills still continue the river 
rising a little, Saw an emence number of beaver feeding on 
the waters edge & swiming killed several, Cap! Lewis as- 
sended a hill from the top of which he had a most inchanting 
prospect of the Countrey around & the meanderings of the 
two rivers, which is remarkable crooked, a buffalow calf 
which was on the shore alone followed Cap Lewis some dis- 
tance, I observed a large drove of bufFalow prosued by 
wolves cought one of their calves in my view, those animals 
defend their young as long as they can keep up with the drove 

Course & Distance 22" d of April 

to a point of wood land on 'the L d Side 

along the wood on the L d point 

to the lower point of a bluff in a bend to the Starboard 

to the upper part of the Said bluff on the Starboard Side 
to a wood in a bend to the S d Side 
to a willow point on the S d Side 
1 y 2 to an object in a bend to the L. S. and camped 

N. 60? W. 


S. 70? W. 




S. 20? W. 

S. 60? E 
S. 30? E 
N. 65? E 



[ 33* 1 


[Lewis Q Tuesday April 23^ 

Set out at an early hour this morning, about nine A.M. 
the wind arose, and shortly after became so violent that we 
were unabled to proceed, in short it was with much difficulty 
and some risk that I was enabled to get the canoes and per- 
ogues into a place of tolerable safety, there being no timber on 
either side of the river at this place, some of the canoes shiped 
water, and wet several parsels of their lading, which I directed 
to be opened and aired, we remained untill five in the even- 
ing when the wind abating in some measure, we reloaded, and 
proceeded, shortly after we were joined by Capt. Clark who 
had walked on shore this morning, and passing through the 
bottom lands had fallen on the river some miles above, and 
concluding that the wind had detained us, came down the river 
in surch of us. he had killed three black-taled, or mule deer, 
and a bufFaloe Calf, in the course of his ramble, these hard 
winds, being so frequently repeated, become a serious source 
of detention to us. incamped on the Star? side. 1 

Courses and distances of the 23'. d April. 

o Miles 

S. 25. E. to a point of timbered land on Starl - 2.^ 

S. along this Star? point of woodland, a high bluffopposite I. 

S. 78. W. to a cops of woods, under a hill on Star? in a bend 4. 
S. 14. E. to a point of high timber in a Lar d bend passing the 

extremity of a little bay Sf d 4 }4 

S. 25. W. to a point of woodland on the Lar d side. 1 y^ 

[Clark Q lrf of April 1 805 

A cold morning at about 9 oClock the wind as usial rose 
from the N W and continued to blow verry hard untill late in 
the evening I walked on Shore after brackfast in my walk 
on the S Side passed through extensive bottoms of timber inter- 
sperced with glades & low open plains, I killed 3 mule or 
black tail Deer, which was in tolerable order, Saw Several 
others, I also killed a Buffalow calf which was verry fine, I 
struck the river above the Perogus which had come too in a 

1 This was above Painted Wood Creek. — Ed. 


bend to the L.S. to shelter from the wind which had become 
violently hard, I joined Cap' Lewis in the evening & after 
the winds falling which was late in the evening we proceeded 
on & encamped on the S.S. The winds of this countrey which 
blow with some violence almost every day, has become a serious 
obstruction in our progression onward, as we cant move when 
the wind is high with[out] great risque, and [if] there was no 
risque the winds is generally a head and often too violent to 

Course & Distance 23? April 

S. 25? E %y 2 miles to a point of timbered land on the Starboard Side 
South 1 mile on the S d . point, of wood land a high BIufFopposit. 

S. jS° W. 4 miles to a copse of woods under a hill to the S d Side in 

a bend 
S. 14? E. 4.14 miles to a point of high timber in a larboard bend, 

passing the enterence of a little bay to S.S. 
S. 25? W. ij£ miles to a point of woods on the L d . Side 


iles 13^ 

[Lewis Q Wednesday April 24!* 

The wind blew so hard during the whole of this day, that 
we were unable to move, notwithstanding that we were shel- 
tered by high timber from the effects of the wind, such was it 's 
violence that it caused the waves to rise in such manner as to 
wet many articles in the small canoes before they could be 
unloaded, we sent out some hunters who killed 4 deer & 2 
Elk, and caught some young wolves of the small kind. Soar 
eyes is a common complaint among the party. I believe it 
origenates from the immence quantities of sand which is driven 
by the wind from the sandbars of the river in such clouds that 
you are unable to discover the opposite bank of the river in 
many instances, the particles of this sand are so fine and light 
that they are easily supported by the air, and are carried by 
the wind for many miles, and at a distance exhibiting every 
appearance of a collumn of thick smoke, so penitrating is this 
sand that we cannot keep any article free from it ; in short we 
are compelled to eat, drink, and breath it very freely, my 

.[ 333 ] 


pocket watch, is out of order, she will run only a few minutes 
without stoping. I can discover no radical defect in her works, 
and must therefore attribute it to the sand, with which, she 
seems plentifully charged, notwithstanding her cases are double 
and tight. 

[Clark:] 24'* of April Wednesday 1805 

The wind rose last night and continued blowing from the 
N. & N W. and sometimes with great violence, untill 7 
oClock P.M, Several articles wet in the Perogues by their 
takeing water &? as the wind was a head we could not move 
to day Sent out hunters, they killed 4 Deer 2 Elk & cought 
some young wolves of the small kind, The party complain 
much of the Sand in their eyes, The sand is verry fine and 
rises in clouds from the Points and bars of the river, I may 
say that dureing those winds we eat Drink & breeth a pre- 
portion of sand. 

[Lewis:] Thursday April 25'* 1805. 

The wind was more moderate this morning, tho' still hard ; 
we set out at. an early hour. 1 the water friezed on the oars 
this morning as the men rowed, about 10 oclock A.M. the 
wind began to blow so violently that we were obliged to lye 
too. my dog had been absent during the last night, and I was 
fearfull we had lost him altogether, however, much to my 
satisfaction he joined us at 8 oclock this morning. The wind 
had been so unfavorable to our progress for several days past, 
and seeing but little prospect of a favourable chang; knowing 
that the river was crooked, from the report of the hunters who 
were out yesterday, and beleiving that we were at no very great 
distance from the Yellow stone River ; I determined, in order 
as mush as possible to avoid detention, to proceed by land with 
a few men to the entrance of that river and make the necessary 
observations to determine it's position, which I hoped to effect 
by the time that Capt. Clark could arrive with the party; 

1 I remarked, as a singular circumstance, that there is no dew in this country, and 
very little rain. Can it be owing to the want of timber ? — Gass (p. 1 14). 



accordingly I set out at 1 1 OCf on the Lar? side, accompanyed 
by four men. we proceeded about four miles, when falling in 
with some buffaloe I killed a yearling calf, which was in good 
order; we soon cooked and made a hearty meal of a part of it, 
and renewed our march, our rout lay along the foot of the 
river hills. when we had proceeded about four miles, 1 
ascended the hills from whence I had a most pleasing view of 
the country, particularly of the wide and fertile vallies formed 
by the missouri and the yellowstone rivers, which occasionally 
unmasked by the wood on their borders disclose their meander- 
ings for many miles in their passage through these delightfull 
tracts of country. I could not discover the junction of the 
rivers immediately, they being concealed by the wood ; how- 
ever, sensible that it could not be distant I determined to 
encamp on the bank of the Yellow stone river which made it's 
appearance about i miles South of me. the whol face of the 
country was covered with herds of Buffaloe, Elk & Antelopes; 
deer are also abundant, but keep themselves more concealed in 
the woodland, the buffaloe Elk and Antelope are so gentle 
that we pass near . them while feeding, without apearing to 
excite any alarm among them ; and when we attract their atten- 
tion, they frequently approach us more nearly to discover what 
we are, and in some instances pursue us a considerable distance 
apparenly with that view, in our way to the place I had 
determined to encamp, we met with two large herds of buffaloe, 
of which we killed three cows and a calf, two of the former, 
wer but lean, we therefore took their tongues and a part of 
their marrow-bones only. I then proceeded to the place of 
our encampment with two of the men, taking with us the Calf 
and marrowbones, while the other two remained, with orders 
to dress the cow that was in tolerable ord'er, and hang the meat 
out of the reach of the wolves, a precaution indispensible to 
it's safe keeping, even for a night, we encamped on the bank 
of the yellow stone river, i miles South of it's confluence with 
the Missouri. On rejoining Cap! Clark, the 26'! 1 in the even- 
ing, he informed me, that at 5. P.M. after I left him the wind 
abated in some measure and he proceeded a few miles further 
and encamped. 


The courses and distances of this day (25'. h ) being as follow. 


N. 68 ? W. to a point of woodland on Lar d side 2.^ 

West to a tree in a low plain,- in a bend on St? i.}£ 

South. to the upper part of a low bluff in a bend on Star"? side i.}4 

East. to a point of timbered land on Star* side. 7..y 2 

S. 28? E. along the Star* point, opposite a bluff .^ 

S. 20° W. along the Star* point opposite a bluff 1. 
N. 65 ? W. to the upper part of a timbered bottom in a bend on 

Star? side 3. 
S. 72° W. to the lower point of some timber in a bend on Star d 

side 1.^ 

miles. 14 % 

QClarkQ 25<* of April Thursday 1805 

The wind was moderate & ahead this morning, we set out 
at an early hour The morning cold, some flying clouds to be 
seen, the wind from the N: ice collected on the ores this 
morning, the wind increased and became so violent about 
1 oClock we were obliged to lay by our canoes haveing taken 
in some water, the Dog which was lost yesterday, joined us 
this morning. 

finding that the winds retarded our pregression for maney 
days past, and no app[e]arance of an alteration, and the river 
being [so] crooked that we could never have 3 miles fair wind, 
Cap! Lewis concluded to go by land as far as the Rochejhone 
or yellow Stone river, which we expect is at no great distance 
by land and make Some Selestial observations to find the 
situation of its mouth, and by that measure not detain the 
Perogues at that place any time for the purpose of makeing 
those necessary observations he took 4 men & proceeded on 
up the Missouri on the L. Side, at 5 oClock the wind luled 
and we proceeded on and incamped 


N. 68 ? 









S. 28^ 


3 4 

S 20? 



N. 65? 



S. 72? 




Course Distance Sc? 25*. h of April 

miles to point of wood land on the Larboard Side 
miles to a tree in a bend to the S td Side in a low plain 
miles to the upper part of a low bluff in a bend to the 
S d Side 
2)4 miles to a point of timbered land on the Starboard Side, 
on the S. td point. Bluff" ops d 
mile on the St d point bluff ops'? 
miles to the upper part of a timbered bottom in a bend 

to the S.S d 
mile to the lower part of some timber in a bend to the 

141^ S - Side 

[Lewis:] Friday April 26'* 1805. 

This morning I dispatched Joseph Fields up the yellow- 
stone river with orders to examine it as far as he could con- 
veniently and return the same evening ; two others were 
directed to bring in the meat we had killed last evening, while 
I proceeded down the river with one man in order to take a 
view of the confluence of this great river with the Missouri, 
which we found to be two miles distant on a direct line N.W. 
from our encampment, the bottom land on the lower side of 
the yellowstone river near it's mouth, for about one mile in 
width appears to be subject to inundation ; while that on the 
opposite side of the Missouri and the point formed by the 
junction of these rivers is of the common elivation, say from 
twelve to 18 feet above the level of the water, and of course 
not liable to be overflown except in extreem high water, which 
dose not appear to be very frequent, there is more timber in 
the neighbourhood of the junction of these rivers, and on the 
Missouri as far below as the White-earth river, than there is 
on any part of the Missouri above the entrance of the Chyenne 
river to this place, the timber consists principally of Cotton- 
wood, with some small elm, ash and boxalder. the under 
growth on the sandbars and verge of the river is the small 
leafed willow; the low bottoms, rose bushes which rise to 
three or four fe[e]t high, the redburry, servicebury, and the 

vol. 1. - 22 [ 337 ] 


redwood ; the high bottoms are of two discriptions, either 
timbered or open ; the first lies next to the river and it's under 
brush is the same with that of the low timbered bottoms with 
the addition of the broad leafed willow, Goosbury, choke 
cherry, purple currant, and honeysuckle bushis ; the open 
bottoms border on the hills, and are covered in many parts by 
the wild hyssop which rises to the hight of two feet. I 
observe that the Antelope, Buffaloe Elk and deer feed on this 
herb ; the willow of the sandbars also furnish a favorite winter 
food to these anamals as well as the growse, the porcupine, 
hare, and rabbit, about 12 0[c]lock I heard the discharge of 
several guns at the junction of the rivers, which announced to 
me the arrival of the pa[r]ty with Capt Clark; I afterwards 
learnt that they had fired on some buffaloe which they met 
with at that place, and of which they killed a cow and several 
Calves ; the latter are now fine veal. I dispatched one of the 
men to Capt Clark requesting him to send up a canoe to take 
down the meat we had killed and our baggage to his encampnt, 
which was accordingly complyed with, after I had completed 
my observations in the evening I walked down and joined the 
party at their encampment on the point of land formed by the 
junction of the rivers ; found them all in good health, and 
much pleased at having arrived at this long wished for spot, 
and in order to add in some measure to the general pleasure 
which seemed to pervade our little community, we ordered a 
dram to be issued to each person ; this soon produced the 
fiddle, and they spent the evening with much hilarity, singing 
& dancing, and seemed as perfectly to forget their past toils, 
as they appeared regardless of those to come, in the evening, 
the man I had sent up the river this morning returned, and 
reported that he had ascended it about eight miles on a 
streight line ; that he found it crooked, meandering from side 
to side of the valley formed by it; which is from four to five 
miles wide, the corrent of the river gentle, and it's bed much 
interrupted and broken by sandbars ; at the distance of five 
miles he passed a large Island well covered with timber, and 
three miles higher a large creek falls in on the S.E. side above 
a high bluff in which there are several stratas of coal, the 



country bordering on this river as far as he could percieve, 
like that of the Missouri, consisted of open plains, he saw 
several of the bighorned anamals in the cou[r]se of his walk ; 
but they were so shy that he could not get a shoot at them ; 
he found a large horn of one of these anamals which he 
brought with him. the bed of the yellowstone river is entirely 
composed of sand and mud, not a stone of any kind to be 
seen in it near it's entrance. Capt Clark measured these 
rivers just above their confluence; found the bed of the Mis- 
souri 520 yards wide, the water occupying 330. it's channel 
deep, the yellowstone river including it's sandbar, 8£8 y d . 8 of 
which, the water occupyed 297 yards; the depest part 12 feet; 
it was falling at this time & appeard to be nearly at it's 
summer tide, the Indians inform that the yellowstone river 
is navigable for perogues and canoes nearly to it's source in 
the Rocky Mountains, and that in it's course near these 
mountains it passes within less than half a day's march of a 
navigable part of the Missouri, it's extreem sources are adja- 
cent to those of the Missouri, river platte, and I think probably 
with some of the South branch of the Columbia river. 1 the 
first part of its course lies through a mountanous rocky country 
tho' well timbered and in many parts fertile ; the middle, and 
much the most extensive portion of the river lies through a 
delightfull rich and fertile country, well covered with timber, 
intersperced with plains and meadows, and well watered ; it is 
some what broken in many parts, the lower portion consists 
of fertile open plains and meadows almost entirely, tho' it 
possesses a considerable proportion of timber on it's borders, 
the current of the upper portion is extreemly rappid, that of 
the middle and lower portions much more gentle than the 
Missouri, the water of this river is turbid, tho' dose not 
possess as much sediment as that of the Missouri, this river 

1 The name Yellowstone is simply the English of the French name Roche Jaune, 
itself without doubt translated from an earlier Indian appellation. Chittenden thinks 
that this name originated from the yellow color of the rocks which form the walls of 
the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone ; see his Yellowstone National Park (Cincin- 
nati, 1895), pp. 1-7. The name Yellowstone appears to have been first recorded 
(1798) by David Thompson, the British explorer. — Ed. 



in it's course recieves the waters of many large tributary 
str[e]ams principally from the S.E. of which the most con- 
siderable are the Tongue and bighorn rivers (& Clark's fork) 
the former is much the largest, {rather the smallest — next in 
size Clarkes fork, and the Big horn the largest by much.) and 
heads with the river Platte and Bighorn river, as dose the 
latter with the Tongue river and the river Platte, a suficient 
quantity of limestone may be readily procured for building 
near the junction of the Missouri and yellowstone rivers. I 
could observe no regular stratas of it, tho' it lies on the sides 
of the river hills in large irregular masses, in considerable 
quantities ; it is of a light colour, and appears to be of an 
excellent quality. 

The courses and distances of the 26'. h as the party ascended the 
Missouri, are as follow 


S. 45. E. to a point of woodland on the Star 1 } side iy 2 

S. 40. W. along the Sta"} point, opposite a bluff 1^ 
N. 75. W. to the commencement of the wood in a bend on Star? 

side 3. 
South. to the point of land formed by the junction of the 

Missouri and yellow stone rivers 1. 

Miles— ~8~T 

Point of Observation N? 7. April 26 l . h 1805. 

On the Laf! bank of the yellowstone river 2 miles S.E. of it's junc- 
tion with the Missouri observed Equal altitudes of the O with Sextant 
and artificial horizon. 

b m s h m 8 

A.M. 9. 41. 13. — P.M. 6. 49. 3.^ Alt'! given by Sextant at the 
". 42. 52 — ". 50. 41. \time of observation 

«. 44. 31.— «. 5* 17. J 48? 57'- 45" 

h. m. s. 

Chronometer too fast mean time [blank space in MS.] 
g@ Q> . the clouds this morning prevented my observing the moon 
with a. Aquilae; and as the moon was not again observeable untill the 
I*' of May, I determined not to wait, but reather to relinquish for the 
present the obtaining the necessary data to fix the longitude of this place. 
Observed Meridian altitude of O'" L. L. with Octant by the 

back observation 73? 47' 

Latitude deduced from this observation, [blank space in MS.] 



[Clark:] *6": of April Friday 1805 

last night was verry cold, the Thermometer stood at 32 
abov o this morning. I set out at an early hour, as it was 
cold I walked on the bank, & in my walk Shot a beaver & 2 
Deer, one of the Deer in tolerable order, the low bottom of 
the river is generaly covered with wood[,] willows & rose 
bushes, red berry, wild cherry & red or arrow wood inter- 
sperced with glades The timber is Cottonwood principally, 
Elm small ash also furnish a portion of the timber. The clay 
of the bluffs appear much whiter than below, and contain 
several Stratums of coal, on the hill sides I observe pebbles 
of different size & colour. The river has been riseing for 
several days, & raised 3 inches last night, at 12 oClock 
arrived at the forks of the Roche Johne & Missouri and 
formed a camp on the point. Soon after George Drewyer 
came from Cap' Lewis & informed me that he was a little way 
up the Rochejohne and would join me this evining, I sent 
a canoe up to Cap' Lewis and proceeded [to] measure the 
width of the [river], and find the debth. The Missouri is 
520 yards wide above the point of Yellow Stone and the water 
covers 330 yards, the YellowStone River is 858 yards wide 
includeing its sand bar, the water covers 297 yards and the 
deepest part is 12 feet water, it is at this time falling, the 
Missouri rising The Indians inform that the Yellow Stone 
River is navagable for Perogues to near its source in the Rocky 
Mountains, it has many tributary streams, principally on 
the S.E. side, and heads at no great distance from the Mis- 
souri, the largest rivers which fall into it is Tongue river 
which heads with the waters of River Piatt, and Bighorn river 
which also heads with Piatt & Tongue R the current of this 
river is said to be rapid near its mouth it is verry jentle, and 
its water is of a whitish colour much clearer of Sediment than 
the Missouri, the Countrey on this river is said to be broken 
in its whole course & contains a great deel of wood, the 
countrey about its mouth is verry fine, the bottoms on either 
side is wooded with Cotton wood, ash, Elm, &*: near the 
banks of the river back is higher bottoms and covered with 
red berry, Goose berry & rose bushes &. interspersed with 



small open Glades, and near the high land is Generally open 
rich bottoms, at our arrival at the forks I observed a Drove 
of Buffalow Cows & Calves on a sand bar in the point, I 
directed the men to kill the fattest Cox, and 3 or 4 calves, 
which they did and let the others pass, the cows are poor, 
calves fine veele. 

Course & Distance 26'. h of April 

S. 45 ? E 2J^ miles to a point of wood land on the Starboard Side 

S. 40° W. 1 y 2 miles on the S. p' a bluff opposit 

N. 75° W. 3 miles to the commencement of a wood bottom in a 

bend to the St 1 ! Side 
South 1 mile to the junction of Rochejhone or yellowstone 

River & the Mis[s]ouri 

~~ 8 

Capt Lewis joined me in the evening after takeing equal 
altitudes a little way up the Yellowstone river the countrey 
in every direction is plains except the moul[d] bottoms of the 
river, which are covered with some indifferent timber such as 
Cotton wood, Elm & small ash, with different kind of S[h]rubs 
& bushes on the forks about 1 mile from the point at which 
place the 2 rivers are near each other a butifull low leavel 
plain commences, and extends up the Missouri & back, this 
plain is narrow at its commencement and widens as the Mis- 
souri bends north, and is bordered by an extencive wood land 
for many miles up the Yellow Stone river, this low plain is 
not Subject to over flow, appear to be a fiew inches above high 
water mark and affords a butifull commanding situation for a 
fort near the commencement of the Prarie, about [blank 
space in MS.] miles from the Point & [blank space in MS.] 
yards from the Missouri a small lake is Situated, from this 
lake the plain rises gradually to a high butifull countrey, the 
low Plain continues for some distance up both rivers on the 
Yellow Stone it is wide & butifull ops'! the point on the S. 
Side is some high timbered land, about i*^ miles below on 
the same side a little distance from the water is an elivated 
plain. Several of the party was up the Yellow Stone R several 
miles, & informed that it meandered through a butifull coun- 

I 342 ] 


trey Joseph Fields discovered a large creek falling into the 
Yellowstone River on the S E. Side 8 miles up near which he 
saw a big horned animal, he found in the Prarie the horn of 
one of those animals which was large and appeared to have 
laid several years I Saw maney buffalow dead on the banks of 
the river in different places some of them eaten by the white 
bears & wolves all except the skin & bones, others entire, 
those animals either drounded in attempting to cross on the 
ice dureing the winter or swiming across to bluff banks where 
they could not get out & too weak to return We saw several 
in this Situation, emence numbers of antelopes in the forks 
of the river, Buffalow & Elk & Deer is also plenty, beaver 
is in every bend. I observe that the Magpie Goose duck & 
Eagle all have their nests in the Same neighbourhood, and it 
is not uncommon for the Magpie to build in a few rods of the 
eagle, the nests of this bird is built verry strong with sticks 
covered verry thickly with one or more places through which 
they enter or escape, the Goose I make no doubt falls a pray 
to those vicious eagles 

fJLewis:] Saturday April 27'/' 1805 

Previous to our seting out this morning I made the follow- 
ing observations. 

Point of observation N? 8. 

Suns magnetic azimuth by Circumferentor 

Time by Chronometer A.M. 
Altitude by sextant 

Sun's magnetic azimuth by CircumfV 
Time by Chronometer A. M. 
Altitude by Sextant 

Sun's Magnetic azimuth by CircumfV 

Time by Chronometer. A.M. 
Altitude by Sextant 

I 343] 


, 8i< 

' E. 








. 8a' 

! E. 










- . 














This morning I walked through the point formed by the 
junction of the rivers ; the woodland extends about a mile, 
when the rivers approach each other within less than half a 
mile ; here a beatifull level low plain commences and extends 
up both rivers for many miles, widening as the rivers recede 
from each other, and extending back half a mile to a plain 
about 12 feet higher than itself; the low plain appears to be a 
few inches higher than high water mark and of course will not 
be liable to be overflown ; tho' where it joins the high plain a 
part of the Missouri when at it 's greatest hight, passes through 
a channel of 60 or 70 yards wide and falls into the yellowstone 
river, on the Missouri about 1}4, miles from the entrance of 
the yellowstone river, and between this high and low plain, a 
small lake is situated about 200 yards wide extending along the 
edge of the high plain parallel with the Missouri about one 
mile, on the point of the high plain at the lower extremity of 
this lake I think would be the most eligible site for an estab- 
lishment between this low plain and the Yellow stone river 
their is an extensive body of timbered land extending up the 
river for many miles, this site recommended is about 400 
yards distant from the Missouri and about double that distance 
from the river yellow stone ; from it the high plain, rising very 
gradually, extends back about three miles to the hills, and con- 
tinues with the same width between these hills and the timbered 
land on the yellowstone river, up that stream, for seven or 
eight miles ; and is one of the ha[n]dsomest plains I ever be- 
held, on the Missouri side the hills sircumscribe it's width, 
& at the distance of three miles up that river from this cite, it 
is not more than 400 yards wide. Capt Clark thinks that the 
lower extremity of the low plane would be most eligible for 
this establishment ; it is true that it is much nearer both rivers, 
and might answer very well, but I think it reather too low to 
venture a permanent establishment, particularly if built of 
brick or other durable materials, at any considerable expence ; 
for so capricious, and versatile are these rivers, that it is diffi- 
cult to say how long it will be, untill they direct the force of 
their currents against this narrow part of the low plain, which 
when they do, must shortly yeald to their influence; in 

[ 344 1 


such case a few years only would be necessary, for the annihi- 
lation of the plain, and with it the fortification. 1 I continued 
my walk on shore; at n. A. M. the wind became very hard 
from N.W. insomuch that the perogues and canoes were unable 
either to proceede or pass the river to me ; I was under the 
necessity therefore of shooting a goose and cooking it for my 
dinner, the wind abated about 4. P.M. and the party pro- 
ceeded tho' I could not conveniently join them untill night, 
altho' game is very abundant and gentle, we only kill as 
much as is necessary for food. I believe that two good hunters 
could conveniently supply a regiment with provisions. for 
several days past we have observed a great number of buffaloe 
lying dead on the shore, some of them entire and others partly 
devoured by the wolves and bear. those anamals either 
drownded during the winter in attempting to pass the river on 
the ice during the winter or by swiming acr[o]ss at present to 
bluff banks which they are unable to ascend, and feeling them- 
selves too weak to return remain and perish for the want of 
food ; in this situation we met with several little parties of 
them, beaver are very abundant, the party kill several of them 
every day. The Eagles, Magpies, and gees have their nests 
in trees adjacent to each other ; the magpy particularly appears 
fond of building near the Eagle, as we scarcely see an Eagle's 
nest unaccompanyed with two or three Magpies nests within a 
short distance. The bald Eagle are more abundant here than 
I ever observed them in any part of the country. 

Courses and distances 27'. h April 1805. 

N. 9° E. to the upper part of the timber on Lar? in the point, 
the same being the commencement of the low 
plain, at which the Missouri and yellowstone riv- 
ers are about 250 yards distant. 

West. to the lower part of the timber in the bend on Lari 



1 A conclusion justified by the notable changes which have occurred during the 
century past, in the courses of these rivers at their confluence. — Ed. 



N. 32. W. to a point of the timbered bottom on Lar? opposite 
to a low blufF, between two points of wooded bot- 
tom y 2 a mile distant from each other ; a beautifull 
plain back, several high open situations, between 
the woodlands on the Star d . side 3 

West. to a point of small willows on the Star? side, 1 opposite 

a low white bluff bordering a beautifull rising plain; 
some woodland below this blufF on the Lar4 side, 
and a thick wooded bottom on Star? side, on this 
course the river is wide, and crouded with sandbars, 
a little below the low blufF on the Lar? side, a 
timbered bottom commences ; here the country 
rises gradually from the river on the Lar? side 3 - 

Miles 8. 

fJClark:] 27'* of April Satturday 1805 

after take[ing] the azmuth of the Sun & brackfasting we 
set out wind moderate & a head, at 1 1 oClock the wind 
rose and continued to blow verry hard a head from the N. W. 
untill 4 oClock PM, which blew the sand off the Points in 
such clouds as almost covered us on the opposit bank, at 4 
I set out from my unpleasent Situation and proceeded on, 
Cap! Lewis walked on shore in the Point to examine & view 
the Countrey and could not get to the boats untill night, Saw 
great numbers of Goats or antilopes, Elk, Swan Gees & Ducks, 
no buffalow to day I saw several beaver and much sign, I 
shot one in the head which imediately sunk, altho the game 
of different kinds are in abundance we kill nothing but what 
we can make use of 

Course, distance the 27'. h of April 

N. 9 ? E 1 mile to the upper part of the wood in the point and com- 
mencement of a butifull elivated plain at which place 
the Yellow Stone river is about 250 yards distant from 
the Mi[s]souri 

1 At the site of old Fort Union — a post built in 1830 by the American Fur 
Company ; see Chittenden's account of it (Amer. Fur Trade, pp. 959, 960). — Ed. 



West i mile to the lower part of the timber in a bend to the 

Lar? Side back of which and on the river below is [a] 
high bottom, and the upper plains are not so high as 
below and butifull as far as can be seen 

N.~32° W 3 miles to a point of the timbered bottom on the La 1 ? Side 
opposit a low bluff between two points of wooded 
bottom ^ a mile distant from each a butifull plain 
back, several high open situations between the wood 
land in the S. bend. 

West 3 miles to a point of small Willows on the S? Side opposit 

miles ~~ 8~ a ' ow wmte bluff bordering a butifull riseing Plain, 
some wood land below this bluff on the L.S. and a 
thick wooded bottom on the S. Side in this course 
the river is wide and crouded with sand bars, a little 
above the low bluff on the L.S. a timbered bottom 
commences, here the countrey runs gradually from 
the river on the L.S. 

1 347 1 


Chapter VIII 



Lewis's Journal, April 28 — May 5, 1805 
Clark's Journal, April 28— May 5 

ELewisQ Sunday April 28'* 1805. 

SET out this morning at an early hour ; the wind was 
favourable and we employed our sails to advantage. 
Capt Clark walked on shore this morning, and I pro- 
ceeded with the party, the country through which we passed 
today is open as usual and very broken on both sides near the 
river hills, the bottoms are level fertile and partially covered 
with timber, the hills and bluffs exhibit their usual mineral 
appearances, some birnt hills but no appearance of Pumice- 
stone; coal is in great abundance and the salts still increase 
in quantity ; the banks of the river and sandbars are incrusted 
with it in many places and appear perfectly white as if covered 
with snow or frost, the woods are now green, tho' the plains 
and meadows appear to abate of the verdure those below 
exhibited some days past, we past three small runs today, 
two falling in on the Star 1 ! and one on the Lar"! side, they are 
but small afford but little water and head a few miles back in 
the hills, we saw great quantities of game today ; consisting 
of the common and mule deer, Elk, Buffaloe, and Antelopes ; 
also four brown bear, one of which was fired on and wounded 
by one of the party but we did not get it ; the beaver have 
cut great quantities of timber ; saw a tree nearly 3 feet in 
diameter that had been felled by them. Capt. Clark in the 
course of his walk killed a deer and a goose ; & saw three 
black bear ; he thinks the bottoms are not so wide as they 
have been for some days past. 



















Courses and distances 28'. h of April. 


North. to a point of timber on Lar? side. 2 y. 

N. 40? W. to the upper part of the point on Lar? opposite to a 

high rugged bluf 1. 

S. 56. W. to a high bluff on the Lar? side just above a tim- 
bered bottom, and opposite a point of woodland 
on Star 1 ! side % 3, 

S. 85. W. to the center of a bend on Lar? side. 1. 

N. 25. W. to a point of timbered land on Lar? passing a point 

on Star"! side at ij{ M 1 .' 3. 

N. 18. W. to the lower point of the timber in a bend on 

Star? side 2. 

to a point of woodland on Star? side. 4. 

W. to a high bluff point on Lar? side, the river making 

a considerable bend to S.E. 2. 

to a point of woodland on the Lar? side ! 2. 

to a high bluff point on the Star? side. 1. 

to a point of woodland on Star? side. 3. 

Miles — 24. 
[Clark Q 28'* of April Sunday 1 805 

a fine day river falling, wind favourable from the S.E. and 
moderate, I walked on shore to view the countrey, from 
the top of the high hills, I beheld a broken & open countrey 
on both Sides, near the river some verry handsom low plains, 
I kill d a Deer & a goose, saw three black bear great numbers 
of Elk antelopes & 1 Gangues of Buffalow. The hills & 
Bluffs show the stratums of coal, and burnt appearances in 
maney places, in and about them I could find no appearance 
of Pumice Stone, the wood land have a green appearance, 
the Plains do not look so green as below. The bottoms are 
not so wide this afternoon as below. Saw four bear this even- 
ing, one of the men Shot at one of them. The antilopes are 
nearly red, on that part which is Subject to change i. e. the 
sides & ^ of the back from the head, the other part as white 
as Snow, 2 small runs fall in on the S. Side and one this 
evening on the Lar d Side those runs head at a fiew miles in 
the hills and discharge but little water, the Bluffs in this part 



as also below Shew different stratums of coal or carbonated 
wood, and coloured earths, such as dark brown, yellow a 
lightish brown, & a dark red &1 

Course & distance the 28'? of April 

N. 2 1^ miles to a point of timber on the La d Side 

N. 40? W. 1 to the upper part of the point on the L. Side opposit 

is a high rugid Bluff on the S.S. 
S. 56° W. 2j^ To a high bluff on the L d Side opposit to a point of 

woods & just above a wood 
S. 85? W. 1. To the center of a bend on the La d Side 
N. 25? W. 3. To a point of timbered land on the L d Side passing a 

point on the S? Side at 1^ miles 
N. i8 ? W. 2. To the lower point of a timber in a bend to the Star- 
board Side. 
S. 4? W. 4. To a point of wood Land on the S d Side 
S. io ? W. 2. To a high bluff point on the L. Side the river makeing 

a considerable bend S.E. 
N. 80? W. 2. to a point of wood land on the Lar d Side 
N. 45 • W. 1 to a high Bluff p! on the St d Side 
S. 80° W. 3 To a poinfof wood land on the St d Side 

f_Lewis Q Monday April 29"? 1805. 

Set out this morning at the usual hour; the wind was mod- 
erate; I walked on shore with one man. about 8. A.M. we 
fell in with two brown or yellow \_white~\ bear ; both of which 
we wounded ; one of them made his escape, the other after my 
firing on him pursued me seventy or eighty yards, but fortu- 
nately had been so badly wounded that he was unable to 
pursue so closely as to prevent my charging my gun ; we 
again repeated our fir[e] and killed him. it was a male not 
fully grown, we estimated his weight at 300 lb! not having the 
means of ascertaining it precisely. The legs of this bear are 
somewhat longer than those of the black, as are it's tallons and 
tusks incomparably larger and longer, the testicles, which in 
the black bear are placed pretty well back between the thyes 
and contained in one pouch like those of the dog and most 
quadrupeds, are in the yellow or brown bear placed much 



further forward, and are suspended in separate pouches from 
two to four inches asunder; it's colour is yellowish brown, 
the eyes small, black, and piercing ; the front of the fore legs 
near the feet is usually black ; the fur is finer thicker and 
deeper than that of the black bear, these are all the particulars 
in which this anamal appeared to me to differ from the black 
bear ; ' it is a much more furious and formidable anamal, and 
will frequently pursue the hunter when wounded, it is asston- 
ishing to see the wounds they will bear before they can be put 
to death, the Indians may well fear this anamal equiped as 
they generally are with their bows and arrows or indifferent 
fuzees, but in the hands of skillfull riflemen they are by no 
means as formidable or dangerous as they have been repre- 
sented. 2 game is still very abundant we can scarcely cast our 
eyes in any direction without percieving deer Elk Buffaloe or 
Antelopes. The quantity of wolves appear to increase in the 
same proportion; they generally hunt in parties of six eight or 
ten ; they kill a great number of the Antelopes at this season ; 
the Antelopes are yet meagre and the females are big with 
young; the wolves take them most generally in attempting to 
swim the river ; in this manner my dog caught one drowned it 
and brought it on shore ; they are but clumsey swimers, tho' 
on land when in good order, they are extreemly fleet and 
dureable. we have frequently seen the wolves in pursuit of 
the Antelope in the plains ; they appear to decoy a single one 
from a flock, and then pursue it, alturnately relieving each 
other untill they take it. on joining Capt Clark he informed 
me that he had seen a female and faun of the bighorned 
anamal ; that they ran for some distance with great aparent 
ease along the side of the river bluff where it was almost per- 

1 By " white bear," here and elsewhere in Lewis and Clark's journals, must not 
be understood the white or polar bear of Arctic regions, but the animal now known 
as "grizzly bear" (Ursus horribilis), first adequately described by our explorers. It 
was technically named in 1815. — Ed. 

2 As no wound except through the head or heart is mortal, they frequently fall a 
sacrifice if they miss their aim. He rather attacks than avoids a man, and such is 
the terror which he has inspired, that the Indians who go in quest of him paint them- 
selves and perform all the superstitious rites customary when they make war on a 
neighboring nation. — Biddle (i, p. 200). 



pendicular; two of the party fired on them while in motion 
without effect, we took the flesh of the bear on board and 
proceeded. Capt. Clark walked on shore this evening, kille 1 ! a 
deer, and saw several of the bighorned anamals. there is more 
appearance of coal today than we have yet seen, the stratas are 
6 feet thick in some instances; the earth has been birnt in 
many places, and always appears in stratas on the same level 
with the stratas of coal, we came too this evening in the 
mouth of a little river, which falls in on the Star"! side, this 
stream is about 50 yards wide from bank to bank ; the water 
occupyes about 15 yards, the banks are of earth only, abrupt, 
tho' not high — the bed, is of mud principally. Capt Clark, 
who was up this streeam about three miles, informed me that 
it continued about the same width, that it's current was gentle 
and it appeared navigable for perogues it meanders through 
an extensive, fertile, and beautifull vally as far as could bee 
seen about N. 30I W. there was but one solitary tree to be 
seen on the banks of this river after it left the bottom of the 
Missouri, the water of this river is clear, with a brownish 
yelow tint, here the highlands receede from the Missouri, 
leaving the vally formed by the river from seven to eight 
miles wide, and reather lower then usual. This stream my 
friend Capt. C. named Marthas river. 1 

Courses and distances of the 29 th of April. 


N. 45. W. to a point of woodland on Lar? side opposite to a 

high bluff on Star? 3. 

West. to a point of woodland Star? opposite to a bluff 2. 

N. 80. W. along the Star? point opposite a high sharp bluff i.y£ 

N. 45. W. to a point of woodland Lar? opposite to a bluff 2. 

N. 55. W. to a point of woodland Lar? opposite to a bluff 3. 

N. 65. W. to a bluff point on Star? side i.}£ 

S. 30 W. to the upper point of the high timber on the Lar d 

side in a bend of the river 3 

1 In the MS. here follows a line afterward crossed out, " in honour of Miss M.," 
followed by another initial which cannot be deciphered — but in Clark's entry, post, 
we read, " in honor to the Selebrated M. F." This river is now known as the Big 
Muddy. — Ed. 



S. 85 W. to a point of woodland on Star 1 ! opposite a bluff i4 

N. 55. W. to the commencement of a bluff on Star 1 ) side, 

passing a sand point at 2^ miles on Lar? side 3.^ 

S. 75. W. to a point of woodland on Lar? passing the poi! 
of a sandbar on Stari , the river making a deep 
bend to the South i.i^ 

S. 75. W. to the entrance of a (Marthys) river in a bend on 
Star 1 } where we encamped for the night, this 
stream we call [blank space in MS.] 3. 


[Clark:] 19^ of April Monday 1805 

Set out this morning at the usial hour, the wind is moderate 
& from the N.E. had not proceeded far eer we Saw a female 
& her faun of the Bighorn animal on the top of a Bluff lying, 
the noise we made allarmed them and they came down on the 
side of the bluff which had but little slope being nearly pur- 
pindicular, I directed two men to kill those anamals, one 
went on the top and the other man near the water they had 
two shots at the doe while in motion without effect, Those 
animals run & Skiped about with great ease on this declivity 
& appeared to prefur it to the leavel bottom or plain. Cap! 
Lewis & one man walk d on shore and he killed a yellow Bear 
& the man with him wounded one other, after getting the 
flesh of the bear on bord which was not far from the place we 
brackfast, we proceeded on Saw 4 gangus of buffalow and great 
numbers of antelopes in every direction also saw Elk and 
several wolves, I walked on Shore in the evening & killed a 
Deer which was so meager as to be unfit for use. The hills 
contain more coal, and has a greater appearance of being burnt 
that [than] below, the burnt parts appear on a parrilel with 
the stratiums of coal, we came too in the mouth of a Little 
river on the S.S. which is about 50 or 60 yards from banks to 
bank, I was up this Stream 3 miles it continues its width and 
glides with a gentle current, its water is about 15 yards wide 
at this time, and appears to be navagable for canoes &c c . it 
meanders through a butifull & extencive vallie as far as can be 
Seen about N 30° W. I saw only a single tree in this fertile 
vol. 1. - 23 [ 3S3 ] 


vallie The water of the River is clear of a yellowish colour, 
we call this river Martheys river in honor to the Selebrated 
M.F. Here the high land widen from five to Eight miles 
and much lower than below. Saw several of the big horn 
animals this evening. The Wolves distroy great numbers of 
the antilopes by decoying those animals singularly out in the 
plains and prosueing them alternetly, those antelopes are 
curious and will approach any thing which appears in motion 
near them &? 

N. 45? W 


N 80? W. 

N. 45? W. 

N. 55? W. 

N. 65? W 
S. 30° W. 

S. 85? W. 
N 55? W. 

S 75? w. 

N. 75? W. 











Course & Distance the 29/^ of April 

to a point of wood land on the L d Side ops'! to a high 

Bluff on the Star d Side 
to a wood land on the St d Side ops') a Bluff 
on the St d point, a high Sharp bluff 
to a point of wood land on the L. Side, a high bluff 

opposit on the S.S. 
to a point of timbered land on the Lard Side a Bluff 

on the S. Side 
to a Bluff point on the Star? Side, 
to the upper point of a high timber on the L. Side in 

a lard bend of the river 
to a p! of timber on Star d S d ops d a bluff 
to the commencement of a bluff on S.S. pass 8 a sand 

p! at 2*4 miles on the Lar d S d 
to a point of wood land on the passing a sand bar the 

river makeing a Deep bend to the South 
to the enterence of a river on the Star d Side in a bend, 

where we encamped for the night. 

[Lewis:] Tuesday April 30'* 1805. 

Set out at sunrise, the wind blew hard all last night, and 
continued to blow pretty hard all day, but not so much, as to 
compell us to ly by. the country as usual is bare of timber ; 
the river bottoms are level and fertile and extensive, but possess 
but little timber and that of an indifferent quality even of it's 
kind; principally low cottonwood, either too small for build- 



ing, or for plank, or broken and dead at top and unsound in 
the center of the trunk, saw great quantities of game as usual. 
Cap! Clark walked on shore the greater part of the day, the 
Interpreter, Charbono and his Indian woman attended him. 
past some old Indian lodges built of drift wood; they appear 
to be of antient date and not recently inhabited. I walked on 
shore this evening and killed a buck Elk, in tolerable order ; 
it appeared to me to be the largest I had seen, and was there- 
fore induced to measure it; found it five feet three inches from 
the point of the hoof, to the top of the sholders ; the leg and 
hoof being placed as nearly as possible in the same position 
they would have been had the anamal been standing. 

Courses and distances of 30'. 11 April. 


S. 15? W. to a point of timbered land on the Star 1 ? side passing 

a sand point at ^ of a M* Lari 2 y 

S. 22. W. to the upper point of the high timber in the center of 

a bend Lari side at the commencement of a bluff 1 y 2 

S. 85. W. to a point of timbered land on Star* side opposite 

to a bluff. 1. 

S. 75. W. to a point of timber at the upper part of a bluff in a 

bend on Lari side. .y 

N. 40. W. to the point of a sandbar on the Lari side, passing a 
willow point at two miles and a large sandbar on 
Start 5. 

S. 40. W. to a point of woodland on Start opposite to a bluff 
on Lart the river making a considerable bend on 
Lart side 3 y 2 

N. 70. W. to a point of woodland on the Lart side, passing, at 
the commencement of this course, a large sand 
Island in the Lari bend. 3. 

S. 25. W. to the upper part of the high timber on the Lart side. 2 y 2 

West. to a point of high timber on the Lart side, a large 

sand island in the bend to the Start side. 3 y 

N. 80. W. to a point of high woods on the Lari side opposite 

to which we encamped on a sandbar Stari sid e 1 1 

Miles 24. 

1 At the present town of Brockton, Mont. — Ed. 



[.Clark:] 30'* of April Tuesday 1805 

The wind blew hard from the N E all last night, we Set 
out at Sunrise the wind blew hard the greater part of the day 
and part of the time favourable, we did not lie by to day on 
account of the wind. I walked on Shore to day our interpreter 
& his squar followed, in my walk the squar found & brought 
me a bush something like the currunt, which she said bore a 
delicious froot and that great quantitis grew on the Rocky 
Mountains. This shrub was in bloom has a yellow flower 
with a deep cup, the froot when ripe is yellow and hangs in 
bunches like cheries, Some of those berries yet remained on 
the bushes. The bottoms above the mouth of the last river is 
extencive level & fertile and covered with indifferent timber in 
the points, the upland appear to rise gradually, I saw Great 
numbers of antelopes, also scattering Buffalow, Elk, Deer, 
wolves, Gees, ducks & Crows. I Killed i Gees which we 
dined on to day. Cap' Lewis walked on Shore and killed an 
elk this evening, and we came too & camped on the S.S. 
the countrey on both sides have a butifull appearance. 

Course & Distance the 30*. h of April 


S. 15° W. %y 2 to a point of timbered land on the S d Side passed a 

sand point at ^ of a mile L.S. 
S 22 ? W. 1^ to the upper point of the high timber on the L d Side 

in a bend a Bluff on the Lari 
S 85"? W. 1 to a point of timbered land on the St 1 ? Side opposit to 

a bluff on the Lard Side 
S 75 ? W y 2 to a point of timber at the upper part of a bluff in a 

bend to the Lar d Side 
N. 40° W. 5 to a point of a Sand bar on the Lar d Side passing a 

Willow point at 2 miles, and a large Sand bar on 

S. 40 ? W. 3^ to a point of wood land on St d Side opposit to a Bluff 

on the L. Side the [river] makeing a considerable 

bend L.S 
N. 70 ? W. 3 to a point of wood land on the Lar d Side passing at 

the commencement of this course a large sand 

Island in the Lar d bend. 



S. 25° W. 21^ miles to the upper part of a high timber on the Lar 4 

West 2 J A to a point of high timber on the Lar* 1 Side a large 

sand Island in the bend to the St d Side. 
N-. 8o ? W 1 to a point of high woods on the Larboard Side 


[Lewis:] Wednesday May 1". 1805. 

Set out this morning at an early [hour], the wind being 
favourable we used our sales which carried us on at a good pace 
untill about 12 OCf when the wind became so high that the 
small canoes were unable to proceed one of them which 
seperated from us just befor the wind became so violent, is 
now lying on the opposite side of the river, being unable to 
rejoin us in consequence of the waves, which during those gusts 
run several feet high, we came too on the Lar? shore in a 
handsome bottom well stocked with Cottonwood timber ; here 
the wind compelled us to spend the ballance of the day. we 
sent out some hunters who killed a buffaloe, an Elk, a goat 
and two beaver, game is now abundant, the country appears 
much more pleasant and fertile than that we have passed for 
several days ; the hills are lower, the bottoms wider, and better 
stocked with timber, which consists principally of cottonwood, 
not however of large size ; the under-growth willow on the 
verge of the river and sandbars, rose bushes, red willow and 
the broad leafed willow in the bottom lands ; the high country 
on either side of the river is one vast plain, intirely destitute 
of timber, but is apparently fertile, consisting of a dark rich 
mellow looking lome. John Shields sick today with the rheu- 
matism. Shannon killed a bird of the plover kind, weight 
one pound, it measured from the tip of the toe, to the ex- 
tremity of the beak, 1. foot 10. Inches; from tip to tip of 
wings when extended 2 F. 5 I. ; Beak 3 y % inches; tale 2% 
inches; leg and toe 10 In! the eye black, piercing, prominent 
and moderately large, the legs are flat thin, slightly imbricated 
and of a pale sky blue colour, being covered with feathers as 
far as the mustle extends down it, which is about half of it 's 



length, it has four toes on each foot, three of which, are 
connected by a web, the fourth is small and placed at the heel 
about the x / % of an inch up the leg. the nails are black and 
short, that of the middle toe is extreemly singular, consisting 
of two nails the one laping on or overlaying the other, the 
upper one somewhat the longest and sharpest, the tale con- 
tains eleven feathers of equal length, & of a bluish white colour, 
the boddy and underside of the wings, except the large feathers 
of the i" & 2 n ? joints of the same, are white, as are also the 
feathers of the upper part of the 4'? joint of the wing and part 
of those of the 3'? adjacent thereto, the large feathers of the 
i'.' or pinion and the 2 n ? joint are black ; a part of the larger 
feathers of the 3'? joint on the upper side and all the small 
feathers which cover the upper part of the wings are black, as 
are also the tuft of long feathers on each side of the body 
above the joining of the wing, leaving however a stripe of 
white between them on the back. the head and neck are 
shaped much like the grey plover, and are of a light brickdust 
brown ; the beak is black and flat, largest where it joins the 
head, and from thence becoming thiner and tapering to a very 
sharp point, the upper chap being j4 of an inch the longest 
turns down at the point and forms a little hook, the nostrils, 
which commence near the head are long, narrow, connected 
and paraellel with the beak ; the beak is much curved, the 
curvature being upwards in stead of downwards as is common 
with most birds; the substance of the beak precisely resembles 
whalebone at a little distance, and is quite as flexable as that 
substance, their note resembles that of the grey plover, tho' 
is reather louder and more varied, their habits appear also to 
be the same, with this difference ; that it sometimes rests on the 
water and swims which I do not recollect having seen the 
plover do. this bird which I shall henceforth stile the Missouri 
plover, generally feeds about the shallow bars of the river, to 
collect it's food which consists of [blank space in MS.], it 
immerces it's beak in the water and throws it's head and beak 
from side to side at every step it takes. 1 

1 The avocet (Recur'virostra Americana). — Ed. 



Courses and distances of this day 

N. 88. W. to the upper point of some high timber in a bend on Miles 

the Star'! side I \/ 

South. to the upper point of a timbered bottom Lari S d 2 

S. 26? W. to a bluff on the Lar d side 1 \/ 2 

S. 6o ? W. to a single tree on a point Lar? side. • 1. 

West. to a point of woodland Lar d side. 2. 

S. 6o ? W. to a point of woodland just beneath the upper point 
of an elivated plane on Star 1 ! side, one mile short 

of which we encamped on the Lar d 2 


[Clark:] May the i*f Wednesday 1805. 

We set out at sun rise under a stiff Breeze from the East, 
the morning cool & cloudy, one man J. Shields sick with 
rhumetism. one of the men (Shannon) shot a Gull or pleaver, 
which is about the Size of an Indian hen, with a Sharp pointed 
bill turning up & 4 Inches long, the head and neck, of a light 
brown, the breast, the under feathers of the 2 nd and 3 d . joint of 
the wings, the Short feathers on the upper part of the 3 rd joint 
of the wings, down the back the rump & tail white. The 
large feathers of the 1" joints of the wing the upper feathers 
of the 2 d joints of the wings, on the body on the joints of the 
wing and the bill is black, the legs long and of a skie blue. 
The feet webed &1 This fowl may be properly stiled the 
Missouri Pleaver. the wind became verry Hard and we put 
too on the L. Side, as the wind continued with some degree of 
violence and the waves too high for the Canoes we were obliged 
to stay all day 

Course & Distance 1" of May 

miles ' 

N. 88? W. \y 2 to the upper point of some, high timber in a bend to 

the St d Side 
South 2 to the upper part of a timber L d Side 

S. 26 W. i^toa Bluff on the Lar d Side 
S 6o ? W 1 to a Single tree on a point [on] the Lar d Side 
West 2 to a point [of] wood land Lar d Side 

S. 6o ? W. 2 to a wood at the upper part of an elivated plain on 
To S. Side, one mile short of which we camped 



[Lewis:] Thursday May %"f 1805. 

The wind continued violent all night nor did it abate much 
of it's violence this morning, when at daylight it was attended 
with snow which continued to fall untill about 10 A.M. 
being about one inch deep, it formed a singular contrast with 
the vegitation which was considerably advanced, some flowers 
had put forth in the plains, and the leaves of the cottonwood 
were as large as a dollar, sent out some hunters who killed 2 
deer 3 Elk and several buffaloe ; on our way this evening we 
also shot three beaver along the shore ; these anamals in con- 
sequence of not being hunted are extreemly gentle, where they 
are hunted they never leave their lodges in the day, the flesh 
of the beaver is esteemed a delecacy among us ; I think the 
tale a most delicious morsal, when boiled it resembles in flavor 
the fresh tongues and sounds of the codfish, and is usually 
sufficiently large to afford a plentifull meal for two men. 
Joseph Fields one of the hunters who was out today found 
several yards of scarlet cloth which had been suspended on the 
bough of a tree near an old indian hunting cam[p], where it 
had been left as a sacrefice to the deity by the indians, prob- 
ably of the Assinniboin nation, it being a custom with them as 
well as all the nations inhabiting the waters of the Missouri so 
far as they are known to us, to offer or sacrefice in this manner 
to the deity wat-ever they may be possessed off which they 
think most acceptable to him, and very honestly making their 
own feelings the test of those of the deity offer him the article 
which they most prize themselves, this being the most usual 
method of we[r]shiping the great sperit as they term the 
deity, is practiced on interesting occasions, or to produce the 
happy eventuation of the important occurrances incident to 
human nature, such as relief from hungar or mallady, protec- 
tion from their enemies or the delivering them into their 
hands, and with such as cultivate, to prevent the river's over- 
flowing and distroying their crops &c. s[a]crefices of a 
similar kind are also made to the deceased by their friends 
and relatives, the are was very piercing this evening the 
[water] friezed on the oars as they rowed, the wind dying at 
5. P.M. we set out. 

[ 360 ] 


Courses and distance 2 C . J May. 
S. 70? E. to the upper point of the timber on the LaH side in 
a bend, passing a point of timber on the Lar<! 
side at y^ of a mile 2 

S. io ? E. to a point of wood land on the Star 1 ? side \£ 

S. 30? W. to a point of low timber on the Lar 1 ? side, a little 
above which on the Start side, we encamped, hav- 
ing passed some wider fertile bottoms and beat- 
ifull high level plains 2 

every thing which is incomprehensible to the indians they 
call big medicine, and is the opperation of the presnts [presence 
— Ed.] and power of the great sperit. this morning one of 
the men shot the indian dog that had followed us for several 
days, he would steal their cooked provision. 

[Clark:] May z"* Thursday 1805 

The wind blew verry hard all the last night, this morning 
about sunrise began to Snow, (The Thermomt' at 28. abov o) 
and continued untill about 10 oClock, at which time it seased, 
the wind continued hard untill about 2 P.M. the Snow which 
fell to day was about 1 In deep, a verry extraodernarey cli- 
mate, to behold the trees Green & flowers spred on the plain, 
& Snow an inch deep, we Set out about 3 oClock and pro- 
ceeded on about five x / 2 miles and encamped on the St d Side, 
the evening verry cold, Ice freesing to the Ores. I shot a 
large beaver & Drewyer three in walking on the bank, the 
flesh of those animals the party is fond of eating &' 

Course & Distance 2 d May 

S. 70? E. 2 miles to the upper point of the timber on the Lar d Side 
in a bend, passing a point of timber on the L.S. at 
a quarter of a mile 
S. io ? E y 2 mile to a point of wood Land on the Starboard Side 
S. 30° W 2 miles to a point of Low timber on the Lar d Side a little 
above which on the Starboard Side we encamped 

2 deer and 3 Elk killed 


rjLewisf] Friday May §"* 1805. 

The morning being very could we did not set out as early 
as usual ; ice formed on a kettle of water y^ of an inch thick, 
the snow has melted generally in the bottoms, but the hills 
still remain covered, on the lar d side at the distance of 1 
miles we passed a curious collection of bushes which had been 
tyed up in the form of a faciene [fascine — Ed.] and standing 
on end in the open bottom it appeared to be about 30 feet high 
and ten or twelve feet in diameter, this we supposed to have 
been placed there by the Indians, as a sacrefice for some pur- 
pose. The wind continued to blow hard from the West but 
• not so strong as to compel us to ly by. Capt Clark walked 
on shore and killed an Elk which he caused to be butch[er]ed 
by the time I arrived with the party, here we halted and 
dined being about 12 OC 1 our usual time of halting for that 
purpose, after dinner Capt. Clark pursued his walk, while I 
continued with the party, it being a rule which we had estab- 
lished, never to be absent at the same time from the party, 
the plains or high lands are much less elivated than they were, 
not being more than from 50 to 60 feet above the river 
bottom, which is also wider than usual being from 5 to 9 M' 
in width ; traces of the ancient beds of the river are visible in 
many places through the whole extent of this valley, since 
the hills have become lower the appearance of the stratas of 
coal burnt hills and pumice stone have in a great measure 
ceased ; I saw none today, we saw vast quantities of BufFaloe, 
Elk, deer principally of the long tale kind, Antelope or goats, 
beaver, geese, ducks, brant and some swan, near the entrance 
of the river mentioned in the io'. h course of this day, we saw 
an unusual number of Porcupines from which we determined 
to call the river after that anamal, and accordingly denomi- 
nated it Porcupine river} this stream discharges itself into the 
Missouri on the Star d . side 2000 miles above the mouth of the 
latter, it is a beatifull bold runing stream, 40 yards wide at 
it's entrance ; the water is transparent, it being the first of this 
discription that I have yet seen discharge itself into the Mis- 

1 Now Poplar River ; the name Porcupine is in our day applied to a branch of 
Milk River. — Ed. 



souri ; before it enters a large sand bar through which it dis- 
charges itself into the missouri it's banks and bottom are 
formed of a stiff blue and black clay ; it appears to be navi- 
gable for canoes and perogues at this time and I have no 
doubt but it might be navigated with boats of a considerable 
size in high water, it's banks appear to be from 8 to ten feet 
high and seldom overflow ; from the quantity of water fur- 
nished by this river, the appearance of the country, the direc- 
tion it pursues, and the situation of it's entrance, I have but 
little doubt but it takes it's source not far from the main body 
of the Suskashawan river, and that it is probably navigable 
150 Miles; perhaps not very distant from that river, should 
this be the case, it would afford a very favorable communica- 
tion to the Athebaskay country, from whence the British 
N.W. Company derive so large a portion of their valuable 
furs. Capt. Clark who ascended this river several miles and 
passed it above where it entered the hills informed me on his 
return that he found the general width of the bed of the river 
about one hundred yards, where he passed the river the bed 
was 112 yards wide, the water was knee deep and 38 yard in 
width ; the river which he could observe from the rising 
grounds for about 20 miles, bore a little to the East of North, 
there was a considerable portion of timber in the bottom lands 
of this river. Capt Clark also met with limestone on the 
surface of the earth in the course of his walk, he also saw a 
range of low mountains at a distance to the W of N, their 
direction being N.W. the country in the neighborhood] of 
this river, and as far as the eye can reach, is level, fertile, open 
and beatifull beyond discription. J /^ of a mile above the 
entrance of this river a large creek falls in which we called 
2000 Mile Creek. I sent Rubin Fields to examine it, he 
reported it to be a bold runing stream, it's bed 30 yards wide, 
we proceeded about 3 miles above this creek and encamped on 
the Star"! shore. I walked out a little distance and met with 1 
porcupines which were feeding on the young willow which 
grow in great abundance on all the sandbars; this anamal is 
exceedingly clumsy and not very watchfull I approached so 
near one of them before it percieved me that I touched it with 




my espontoon. found the nest of a wild goose among some 
driftwood in the river from which we took three eggs, this is 
the only nest we have met with on driftwood, the usual posi- 
tion is the top of a broken tree, sometimes in the forks of a 
large tree but almost invariably, from 15 to 20 feet or upwards 


Courses and distances May 3 r . d 1805. 


N. 50? W. to a point of high timber in a bend Star? ^ 

S. 65° W. to a point of high timber in the center of a bend on 

Lar? side 2 J. 

N. 40. W. to a point of woodland Star? side 1 

N. 55? W. to some dead timber in a Star? bend 2^3 

South to the upper part of the high timber in a bend on the 

Lar? side. 3 

S. 80° W. to a point of woodland Star? side i/ 2 

S. 85? W. to the commencement of the timber on the Lar? side 

in a bend 1 1^ 

North. to the upper part of the high timber in a bend on the 

Star?, passing a sand point at y 2 mile on Lar? 1 1^ 

S. 65? W. to a point of woodland on the Lar? side. y 2 

S. 75° W. to a point of woodland on the Star? side, at the 
entrance of a large river on the Star? side, called 
Porcupine R. 1 ^ 

S. 45? W. to the high timber on the lar? side, passing the en- 
trance of 2000 mile Creek at y^ of a mile on 
Lar? side. 3. 

N. 40° W. to some high timber on the Star? side, just above an 
old channel of the river on the Star? where we 
encamp? i£ 

Miles i8# 

[Clark Q May j»* Friday 1805 

we Set out reather later this morning than useal owing to 
weather being verry cold, a frost last night and the Therm! 
stood this morning at 26 above o. which is 6 degrees b[e]low 
freeseing. the ice that was on the Kettle left near the fire last 
night was ^ of an inch thick. The snow is all or nearly all 
off the low bottoms, the Hills are entireley covered ; three of 
our party found in the back of a bottom 3 pieces of scarlet one 



brace in each, which had been left as a sacrifice near one of their 
swet houses, on the L.S. we passed to day a curious collection 
of bushes tied up in the shape of ' faccene about 10 feet diamuter, 
.which must have been left also by the natives as an offering to 
their medison which they [are] convinced protected or gave 
them relief near the place, the wind continued to blow hard 
from the West, altho not sufficently so to detain us. I walked 
on shore and killed an Elk & had him bucchered by the time 
the Perogus came up which was the usial time of dineing. 
The high lands are low and from 5 to 9 miles apart and there 
is evident marks of the bead [bed] of the river having been 
changed frequently but little appearance of the coal & burnt 
hills to day. Great numbers of BufFalow, Elk, Deer, antilope, 
beaver, Porcupins, & water fowls seen to day, such as, Geese, 
ducks of difl kinds, & a fiew Swan. I continued my walk on 
shore after dinner, and arrived at the mouth of a river on the 
S! Side, which appeared to be large, and I concluded to go up 
this river a few miles to examine it accordingly I set out 
North 1 mile thro wood or timbered bottom, 2 miles through 
a butifull leavel plain, and 1 mile over a high plain about 50 
feet higher than the bottom, & came to the little river, which 
I found to be a butifull clear Stream of about 100 yds from 
bank to bank, (I waded this river at the narrowest part and 
made it 1 1 2 steps from bank to bank and at this place which 
was a kind of fording place the water was near Knee deep, 
and 38 steps wide, the bottom of a hard stiff Black clay, I 
observed a Great perportion of timber in the bottoms of this 
river as far as I could See which was to the East of N. 18 or 
20 miles, it appears to be navagable at this time for canoes, 
and from appearances must be navagable a long distance for 
Perogus & boats in high water. This rjver we call Porcupines 
from the great number of those anamals found about it's 
mouth, a Short distance above about J^ m ^ e anc ^ on tne 
Lar d Side a large Creek falls in, which R. Fields went to 
examine & reports that it is a bold running stream 30 yds 
wide as this creek is 2000 miles up the Missouri we call it 
the 2000 mile Creek, we proceeded on 3 miles & camped on 
the S.S. here I joined Cap' Lewis who had in my absence 



walk d on the upper Side of Porcupine River for some distance. 
This river from its size & quantity of water must head at no 
great distance from the Saskashawan on this river I saw 
emence herds [of] Elk & Buffalow & many deer & Porcupine. 
I also saw the top of a mountain which did not appear verry 
high to the West of N. & bore N W. I saw on the high 
land limestone & pebble. The countrey about the mouth 
of this river and as far as the eye can reach is butifull open 
countrey. The greater part of the snow is melted. 

Course & Distance 3 d of May 1805 

N. 50? W ^ to a point of high timber on the St? Side in a bend 
S. 65? W. 2^ to a point of high timber on the L d S d about the mid- 
dle of a bend L.S. 
mile :o a point of wood land St"! Side 
miles to some dead timber in St} bend 
to the upper part of a timber in a bend to the Lar d Side 
to a p? of wood land St d Side 
to the commencement of a timber on the Lar d Side 

in a bend 
to the upper part of the high timber in a bend on the 

Star d Side passing a Sand point at y^ a mile 
to a point of wood Land on the L d Side 
to a point of wood land on the St d Side at the mouth 
of a large river on the St d Side 
S 45 ? W 3 m. to a high timber on the Lar d Side passed the mouth 
of 2000 mile Creek at y of a mile on the Lard Side 
N. 40? W. y 2 to some high timber on the S. Side just above an old 
- channel of the river St d Side, encamped 

N. 40? W 

N. 55 W 

N. 80? W. 
S. 85? W. 


S. 65? W. 
S 75? w. 




18 a 

[Lewis:] Saturday May 4'* 1805. 

We were detained this morning untill about 9 OG in order 
to repare the rudder irons of the red perogue which were 
broken last evening in landing; we then set out, the wind 
hard against us. I walked on shore this morning, the weather 
was more plesant, the snow has disappeared ; the frost seems 
to have effected the vegetation much less than could have been 



expected the leaves of the cottonwood the grass the box alder 
willow and the yellow flowering pea seem to be scarcely 
touched ; the rosebushes and honeysuckle seem to have sus- 
taned the most considerable injury. The country on both 
sides of the Missouri continues to be open level fertile and 
beautifull as far as the eye can reach which from some of the 
eminences is not short of 30 Miles, the river bottoms are 
very extensive and contain a much greater proportion of timber 
than usual ; the fore part of this day the river was bordered 
with timber on both sides, a circumstance which is extreemly 
rare and the first which has occurred of any thing like the same 
extent since we left the Mandans. in the after part of the day 
we passed an extensive beautifull plain on the Star? side which 
gradually ascended from the river. I saw immence quantities 
of buffaloe in every direction, also some Elk deer and goats ; 
having an abundance of meat on hand I passed them without 
firing on them ; they are extreemly gentle the bull buffaloe 
particularly will scarcely give way to you. I passed several in 
the open plain within fifty paces, they viewed me for a moment 
as something novel and then very unconcernedly continued to 
feed. Cap! Clark walked on shore this evening and did not 
rejoin us untill after dark, he struck the river several miles 
above our camp and came down to us. we saw many beaver 
some [of] which the party shot, we also killed two deer today, 
much sign of the brown bear, passed several old Indian hunt- 
ing camps in the course of the day one of them contained 
two large lodges which were fortifyed with old driftwood and 
fallen timber; this fortification consisted of a circular fence of 
timber lade horizontally laping on and over laying each other 
to the hight of 5 feet, these pounds are sometimes built from 
20 to 30 feet in diameter and covered over with the trunks 
and limbs of old timber, the usual construction of the lodges 
we have lately passed is as follows, three or more strong sticks 
the thickness of a man's leg or arm and about 12 feet long are 
attatched together at one end by a with of small willows, these 
are then set on end and spread at the base, forming a circle of 
ten twelve or 14 feet in diameter ; sticks of driftwood and 
fallen timber of convenient size are now placed with one end 



on the ground and the other resting against those which are 
secured together at top by the with and which support and 
give the form to the whole, thus the sticks are laid on untill 
they make it as thick as they design, usually about three 
ranges, each piece breaking or filling up the interstice of the 
two beneath it, the whole forming a connic figure about 10 feet 
high with a small apperture in one side which answers as a 
door, leaves bark and straw are sometimes thrown over the 
work to make it more complete, but at best it affords a very 
imperfect shelter particularly without straw which is the state 
in which we have most usually found them. 

Courses and distances of the 4'? of May 

S. 80? W. to a point of timber on the Star? side 3. 

S. 72? W. to a point of woodland on the Star? side river wide 

and filled with sandbars • 5. 

S. 50° W. to the mouth of a small creek in a deep bend on Lari 

side, a sand Island opposite 1 1^ 

N. 10° W. to a point of woodland on the Lar? side passing a 

Star? point at ij^ miles 3. 

S. 45 ? W. to a willow point on the Star? side, the river making 

a considerable bend to the N. an open plain on 

the Star? 4 

S. 70° W. to a point of timbered land on the Star? where we 

encamped. 1 1^ 

Miles U. 

At noon the sun was so much obscured that I could not 
obtain his maridian Altitude which I much wished in order to 
fix the latitude of the entrance of Porcupine river. Joseph 
Fields was very sick today with the disentary had a high fever 
I gave him a doze of Glauber salts, which operated very well, 
in the evening his fever abated and I gave him 30 drops of 

[Clark:] May tf* Satturday 1805 

The rudder Irons of our large Perogue broke off last night, 
the replaceing of which detained us this morning untill 9 
oClock at which time we set out the wind a head from the 



west, The countrey on each side of the Missouri is a rich 
high and butifull the bottoms are extencive with a great deal 
of timber on them all the fore part of this day the wood land 
bordered the river on both Sides, in the after part a butifull 
assending plain on the St d Side we camped on the St? Side a 
little above, we passed a Small Creek, on the L. Side near 
which I saw where an Indian lodge had been fortified many 
year past. Saw great numbers of anamals of different kinds 
on the banks, I saw the black martin to day. in the evening 
I walk d on Shore on the St d Side & Struck the river Several 
miles above our camp & did not get to Camp untill some time 
after night, we have one man Sick. The river has been fall- 
ing for several days passed ; it now begins to rise a little, the 
rate of rise & fall is from one to 3 inches in 24 hours 

Course & Distance the 4 th of May 


S. 8o ? W. 3, to a point of timber on the Star d Side. 

S. 72° W. 5. to a point of wood land on the St') Side, river wide 

& maney sand bars 
S. 50° W 1 1^ to the mouth of a creek in a Deep bend to the Lard. 

Side, a sand Is d ops d 
N io c W. 3. to a point of wood Land on the Lar d Side passing a 

point S Side 1 W miles. 
S 45 ? W. 4 to a willow point on the Star 1 ! Side, the river makeing 

a considerable [bend] arround to the North an 

open plain 
S. 70° W. 1 y 2 to a point of timbered land on the Star 1 Side, where 
- we encamped 


les ii 

QLewis :] Sunday May 5'* 1 805 

A fine morning I walked on shore untill after 8 A.M. 
when we halted for breakfast and in the course of my walk 
killed a deer which I carried about a mile and a half to the 
river, it was in good order, soon after seting out the rudder 
irons of the white perogue were broken by her runing fowl on 
a sawyer, she was however refitted in a few minutes with some 
tugs of raw hide and nales. as usual saw a great quantity of 

vol, i. -24 [369] 


game today; Buffaloe Elk and goats or Antelopes feeding in 
every direction ; we kill whatever we wish, the buffaloe fur- 
nish us with fine veal and fat beef, we also have venison and 
beaver tales when we wish them ; the flesh of the Elk and 
goat are less esteemed, and certainly are inferior, we have not 
been able to take any fish for some time past. The country is 
as yesterday beatifull in the extreme, saw the carcases of 
many Buffaloe lying dead along the shore partially devoured 
by the wolves and bear, saw a great number of white brant 
also the common brown brant, geese of the common kind 
and a small species of geese which differ considerably from 
the common Canadian goose; 1 their neck head and beak are 
considerably thicker shorter and larger than the other in pro- 
portion to it's size, they are also more than a third smaller, 
and their note moie like that of the brant or a young goose 
which has not perfectly acquired his notes, in all other 
rispects they are the same in colour habits and the number 
of feathers in the tale, they frequently also ascociate with the 
large geese when in flocks, but never saw them pared off with 
the large or common goose. The white brant ascociate in 
very large flocks, they do not appear to be mated or pared 
off as if they intended to raise their young in this quarter, I 
therefore doubt whether they reside here during the summer 
for that purpose, this bird is about the size of the common 
brown brant or two thirds of the common goose, it is not so 
long by six inches from point to point of the wings when 
extended as the other ; the beak head and neck are also larger 
and stronger ; their beak legs and feet are of a redish or flesh- 
coloured white, the eye is of moderate size, the puple of a 
deep sea green incircled with a ring of yellowish brown, it 
has sixteen feathers of equal length in the tale ; their note 
differs but little from the common brant, their flesh much the 
same, and in my opinion preferable to the goose, the flesh is 
dark, they are entirely of a beatifull pure white except the 

1 Of these birds, the small goose described is scientifically known as Bernicla 
hulchinsi ; the Canadian goose is B. canadensis. The brown brant is B. brentn, and 
the white brant Chen hyperboreus ; the last-named bird goes much farther north to 
breed. — Ed. 

[ 370 ] 


large feathers of the i" and second joints of the wings which 
are jut [jet] black, form and habits are the same with the 
other brants ; they sometimes ascociate and form one common 
.flock. Capt Clark found a den of young wolves in the course 
of his walk today and also saw a great number of those 
anamals ; they are very abundant in this quarter, and are of 
two species the small woolf or burrowing dog of the praries 
are the inhabitants almost invariably of the open plains; they 
usually ascociate in bands of ten or twelve sometimes more 
and burrow near some pass or place much frequented by 
game ; not being able alone to take a deer or goat they are 
rarely ever found alone but hunt in bands ; they frequently 
watch and seize their prey near their burrows; in these bur- 
rows they raise their young and to them they also resort when 
pursued ; when a person approaches them they frequently 
bark, their note being precisely that of the small dog. they 
are of an intermediate size between that of the fox and dog, 
very active fleet and delicately formed ; the ears large erect 
and pointed the head long and pointed more like that of the 
fox; tale long and bushey ; the hair and fur also resembles 
the fox tho' is much coarser and inferior, they are of a pale 
redish brown colour, the eye of a deep sea green colour small 
and piercing, their tallons are reather longer than those of 
the ordinary wolf or that common to the atlantic States, none 
of which are to be found in this quarter, nor I believe above 
the river Plat. 1 The large woolf found here is not as large as 
those of the atlantic states, they are lower and thicker made 
shorter leged. their colour which is not effected by the 
seasons, is a grey or blackish brown and every intermediate 
shade from that to a creen [cream] coloured white ; these 
wolves resort [to] the woodlands and are also found in the 
plains, but never take refuge in the ground or burrow so far as 
I have been able to inform myself, we scarcely see a gang of 
buffaloe without observing a parsel of those faithfull shepherds 

l A description of the coyote (Canis latrans), followed hy that of the common 
wolf (C. lupus occidental!)). Coues thinks that Lewis is mistaken as to the habitat 
of the latter : "in some of its varieties, it was found in most parts of North America, 
though it is now exterminated from settled regions " (/.. and C, i, p. 297)- — E D - 

[371 1 


on their skirts in readiness to take care of the mamed wounded, 
the large wolf never barks, but howls as those of the atlantic 
states do. Cap' Clark and Drewyer killed the largest brown 
bear this evening which we have yet seen, it was a most 
tremendious looking anamal, and extreemly hard to kill not- 
withstanding he had five balls through his lungs and five 
others in various parts he swam more than half the distance 
acoss the river to a sandbar, & it was at least twenty minutes 
before he died ; he did not attempt to attack, but fled and 
made the most tremendous roaring from the moment he was 
shot. We had no means of weighing this monster ; Capt. 
Clark thought he would weigh 500 lb s for my own part I 
think the estimate too small by 100 lb! he measured 8. Feet 
~]yi Inches from the nose to the extremety of the hind feet, 
5 F. 10^ In! arround the breast, 1 F. II. I. arround the 
middle of the arm, & 3.F. 11. 1, arround the neck; his tallons 
which were five in number on each foot were 4^ Inches in 
length, he was in good order, we therefore divided him 
among the party and made them boil the oil and put it in a 
cask for future uce ; the oil is as hard as hogs lard when cool, 
much more so than that of the black bear, this bear differs 
from the common black bear in several respects; it's tallons 
are much longer and more blont, it's tale shorter, it's hair 
which is of a redish or bey brown, is longer thicker and finer 
than that of the black bear; his liver lungs and heart are much 
larger even in proportion with his size ; the heart particularly 
was as large as that of a large Ox. his maw was also ten 
times the size of black bear, and was filled with flesh and fish, 
his testicles were pendant from the belly and placed four 
inches assunder in seperate bags or pouches, this animal also 
feeds on roots and almost every species of wild fruit. 

The party killed two Elk and a Buffaloe today, and my dog 
caught a goat, which he overtook by superior fleetness, the 
goat it must be understood was with young and extreemly 
poor, a great number of these goats are devowered by the 
wolves and bear at this season when they are poor and passing 
the river from S.W. to N.E. they are very inactive and 
easily taken in the water, a man can out swim them with great 

[372 ] 


ease; the Indians take them in great numbers in the river at 
this season and in autumn when they repass to the S.W. 

Courses and distances of May 5'. h 1805. M1 *' 

S. 70? W. to the willows on the lower point of an Island near 

the Star 1 ! shore, opposite a low bluff 3 

S. 72° W. to some high timber on a projecting point on the 
Star'f side opposite a po! Lar d passing the upper 
part of IsH at 2 miles 2V£ 

S. 30° W. to a point of woodland on the Star"! opposite a low 

bluff on Lar d side ' %y 2 

N. 48° W. to a point of woodland on the Lar d side 2^ 

N. 45? W. to the extremity of the sand bar from the Lar 1 ! point I i/ 
South. to a willow point on the Star! side short of which 

we encamped on Star d 5 

Miles 17. 

Point of observation N° 9. 

On the Lar d shore near the fourth course of this day, observed merid- 
ian Altitude of the O* L. L. with Octant by the back observation to 
be 68° 47'; the latitude deduced from which is 45° 46' 5"6. I do 
think this observation can be depended on as it was reather late before I 
could commence it, the sun was about to decline or perhaps had declined 
a few minutes. 

f_Clark :] 5** of May Sunday 1805 

We set out verry early and had not proceeded far before 
the rudder Irons of one of the Perogus broke which detained 
us a short time Cap 1 Lewis walked on shore this morning 
and killed a Deer, after brackfast I walked on shore Saw 
great numbers of Buffalow & Elk Saw also a Den of young 
wolves, and a number of Grown Wolves in every direction, 
the white & Grey Brant is in this part of the Missouri I shot 
at the white brant but at so great a distance I did not kill, 
The Countrey on both sides is as yesterday handsom & fertile. 
The river rising & current Strong & in the evening we saw a 
Brown or Grisley beare on a sand beech, I went out with one 
man Geo Drewyer & Killed the bear, which was verry large 
and a tumble looking animal, which we found verry hard to 



kill we Shot ten Balls into him before we killed him, & 5 of 
those Balls through his lights This animal is the largest of 
the carnivorous kind I ever saw we had nothing that could 
way him, I think his weight may be stated at 500 pounds, he 
measured 8 feet 7^ In s from his nose to the extremity of the 
Toe, 5 feet io}4 Ln s arround the breast, 1 feet 11 Ins: around 
the middle of the arm, 3 feet 11 In! arround the neck his 
tallents was 4 Inches & $/% long, he was [in] good order, 
and appeared verry different from the common black bear in 
as much as his tallents {talon or nail) were blunt, his tail short, 
his liver & lights much larger, his maw ten times as large and 
contained meat or flesh & fish only, we had him skined and 
divided, the oile tried up & put in Kegs for use. we camped 
on the Sta d Side, our men killed three Elk and a Buffalow 
to day, and our Dog cought an antilope a fair race, this animal 
appeared verry pore & with young. 

Course & Distance 5 th of May 

S. 70 ? W. 3 miles to the willows on the lower point of an Island 

near the S d Side opposit a low bluff. 
S. 72° W. iy 2 miles to some high timber on a projecting point on the 

Sta d Side ops'! a p' L.S., passed the Is d ' at 2 miles 
S. 30° W. %y 2 miles to a point of wood land on the Star d Side ops'! 

a low Bluff L. Side 
N. \%° W 2^ miles to a point of wood land on the Lard Side 
N. 45 ? W. 1^ miles to the extremity of the sand bar from the Lar d 

South 5 miles to a willow point on the Star d Side short of which 

we encamped 

miles 17 

END OF vol. I 



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