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Full text of "Page's Weekly"

N2 4. UoL. 2. 



ONE SniLLlNQ NET. 



AvRiL, 1903. 









iniiV4iAyu*« 



PUBLISHING OFFICES. CLUN MOU5E, SURREY STREET, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

PARIS— UNITED STATES— BERLIN— VIENNA— CANADA— 

22, Rue de la Banque. Subscription News Co., «;, Unter den Linden. 7, Kumpfgasse. Toronto News Co. 

ST. PETERSBURG- Chicago. " CHINA & JAPAN— SOUTH AFRICA & AUSTRALASIA— Montreal News Co. 

14, Nevsky Prospect. International News Co., N.Y. Kelly & Walsh, Ltd. Gordon & Gotch. 



N2 4. UoL. 2. 



ONE 5niLLlNQ NET. 



April, 1903. 













■i 



PUBLISHING OFFICES. CLUN MOUSE, SURKE/ STREET, 5TR3ND, LONDON, W.C. 

PARIS— UNITED STATES— BERLIN— VIENNA— CANADA— 

22. Rue de Li Banque. Subscription News Co., S, Unter den Linden. 7, Kumpfgasse. Toronto News Co. 

ST. PETERSBURG- Chicago. CHINA & JAPAN— SOUTH AFRICA & AUSTRALASIA— Montreal News Co. 

14, Nevsky Prospect. International News Co., N.Y. Kelly & Walsh, Ltd. Gordon & Gotch. 



3 



Westinghouse 

Induction Motors. 

Dust and Water-Proof. 
Designed to Withstand Long 

and Continuous Runs. 
Require no Skilled Attendance. 




T 



C 



The 

British Westinghouse 

Electric & Mfg. Co., Ltd. 

Head Offices : 

London— Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C. 

^ _„, Works: Trafford Park, Manchester. 

Branch Offices: 

\ Manchester— 5, Cross Street. For Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania, communicate with: 

\ Glasgow -6s. Renfield Street. ^ ^^^^ p.^^ 5^^^^, 

NewcastIe-on=Tyne— CollinRwood j j -^ 

Buildings, Collingwood Street. Melbourne Noyes Bros., 15 & 17, Queen St. 

Cardiff— Phcenix Bulldin$>:s, Mount Stuart 
Square. 




■?M5 




TT'- 



mEmm Mining Machinery 




1$ HARDY PATENT PICK CO.. LTD. « 

SHEFFIELD, England. 







Makers of the "Universal" and "Acme" Mining and Navvy Picits. 
HAND & POWER BORING MACHINES FOR ROCK & COAL. 

Picks, Shovels, Spades, Forks, Hoes, Axes, Hammers, Wedges, Crowbars, 

and all Mining, Quarry, Contractors, and Agricultural Tools. 






ii SPECIAL TOUGH DRILL STEEL. SHEAR, CAST, <5 BLISTER STEEL, SAWS. FILES, 6 RASPS. JT 
^ IMPORTERS OF HICKORY HANDLES. ^ 

The whole of the contents of this publication is copyright, and full rights are reserved. 





LAUNCH OF THE CHILIAN BATTLE 
SHIP "LIBERTAD" 

UNDER-WATER AUTOMOBILE 

The Xtw American Submarine Torpedo-boat 
Protector. With Five Illustiations. 
Mr. Kyfe gives a detailed account of the "Lake" 
submarine torpedo-boat and discusses its efficiency 
as compared with the Holland submarines. The 
main feature that distinguishes the "Lake" type 
is the power of travelling on the Hoor of the ocean. 
Mr. Lake states that travelling at the bottom is 
the most simple, safe, and reliable method known 
of under-watcr navigation, and liis boats differ 
from the "diving toipedo-boats" owned by Great 
Britain, France, and the United States in that they 
go under on an even keel and can rest on their 
wliftls when on the sea Hoor. 

THE LAYING OUT OF ENGINEERS' 
WORKSHOPS.-II. 

With Si\ Illustrations. 
iJeals with the various shops and departments which 
form separate units comprised in an engineer's 
works. This article is second of the series 
commenced ni the ^L■^rch issue. 

UNDERGROUND CONDUITS IN 
CHICAGO.-I. 

With Fourteen Illustrations. 
The action of the State in monopolising the tele- 
phones and interfering with the application of 
eleciricity has. in the opinion of manv people, 
thrown this c untry a generation behind most of 
the nations of the Continent and North America. 
A description, therefore, of a modern conduit 
system in one of the leading cities of the United 
States will be of considerable mterest to our 
readers, and is now presented in article form, with 
several unique pliotographs. It shows the scope, 
extent, and construction of the underground 
conduits of the lUinois Telephone and Telegraph 
Company in Chicago. The intention of the com- 
pany is to build a telephone system composed of 
conduits and cables which will accommodate 
loo.ooo subscribers. 



Herbert C. Fyfe. 



Joseph Horner 



George W. JacKson 



307 



317 



S 



OUR 



BIOGRAPHY OF THE MONTH 

With Portrait. 
Prof. James A. Kw.ng, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. : Pro- 
fessor of Applied Mechanics in the University of 
Cambridge. 




The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions expressed hy individnaPcontributors 

identify himself with their views. 



nor does he necessarily 



~?li5 



;Ba@!i^ ffteOMHCSElf Weighing Machines 




t&4., ^.., 



'V' ROYAL WARR 



All- 






f^3 



J'O H. 



M.THE 



W iiT'i^yiEiiT^lF 



The Largest ^ 



Weioh^Ridoes 



^' ;V^ Makers of 



IN THE WoRld 





AVERY'S 5ELr CONTAINED IKON 

WEIGHBRIDGES 

For Road or Railway Traffic. 

Capacities. 2 tons to 200 tons. 

Can be fitted with 

AVERY'S PATENT RECORDING STEELYARD 

for Printing the Weights on Tickets. 



The Largest Makers of Weighbridges in the World. 



J 



(Conlinuecl from Page 2.) 



'WIRELESS" TELEGRAPHY 

The author discusses the present position of cable 
and ■■ wireless telegraphy. He argues that the eon- 
census of opinion amongst men of undisputed 
scientific attainments in the held of physics and 
telegraphy practically amounts to this, that the 
failure to ensure secrecy and non-inlerference, is 
in Ihe present state of our knowledge, an ap- 
parently insurmountable obstacle to the successful 
con^pet'iticn of "wireless" telegraphy with long 
distance submarine cable work. 



Edward C de Segundo, 
A.M.lnst.C.E. 



335 



BUSINESS SYSTEM AND ORGANISA 
TION.— Second Series— I. 

The author indicates the lines on which, 
experience, the important question of 



should be dealt with in factories, 
ex. implex are given. 



in his 

labour 

Some significant 



WATER.TUBE VERSUS CYLINDRICAL 
BOILERS 

Under this heading in the October number this 
subject was discussed from a naval and also from 
an engineer's point of view. Fol owing up that 
survey. Mr. T.iylor gives a further account of the 
experiments of the Boiler Committee, whose 
iiivesli-.;.iti"ns did not cease with the 1902 trials. 

WORKSHOP PRACTICE .... 

With Diagram. 
A Massive Turret Lathe. — New Gear Cutlers,— 
A New Gould and Etierhardt Machine. — A Draw 
Stroke Shaper. — New High-speed Lathe. — The 
Metric System.— The Drying of Foundry Moulds — 
Spiral-crane Drums, 

BRITISH AND AMERICAN RAILWAY 
METHODS -OFFICIAL REPORT TO 
THE BOARD OF TRADE 

111 this repoit are embodied the conclusions formed 
by Lieut--Col. Yoi ke during Ins recent investigation 
of American railway methods tor the iloard of 
Trade. The abstract here given will be of excep- 
tional interest to all who are connected with the 
organisation of British lines. 

NAVAL NOTES 

Monthly Notes on Naval Progress in Constructioa 
and Armament. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING NOTES 
AMERICAN RESUME 
OUR MONTHLY RESUME 

NOTABLE BRITISH PAPERS OF THE 

MONTH 
BOOKS OF THE MONTH 

NEW CATALOGUES AND TRADE PUB- 
LIGATIONS 



D. N. Dunlop 



Benjamin Taylor 



341 



344 



348 



Lieut. Col H. A. Yorke, R.E. 351 



N. I. D 



The Editor 



357 




Engines 




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PAGES MAGAZINE 



^^^^^^^^^3 



An Illustrated Technical Monthly, dealing with the Engineering, 
Electrical, Shipbuilding, Iron 6 Steel, Mining, 6 Allied Industries. 



DAVIDGE PAGE, Editor. 

Clun House. Surrey Street, Strand, London, W.C, 



Telephone No. : 3349 GERRARD. 

Telegraphic and Cable Address: 

"SINEWY, LONDON. ■ 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. 
Subscription Rates per Year. 

Great Britain In advance, I2s. for twelve months, 
post free. Sample copies. Is. 4d., post free. 

Foreign and Colonial Subscriptions, 16s, for twelve 
months, post free. Sample Copies, Is. 6d., post free. 

Remittances should be made payable to Page's Magazixk. and 
may be forwarded by Cheque, Money Order, Draft, Post Offtce Order, 
or Registered Letter. Cheques should be crossed " LONDON & 
COUNTY BANK. Covent Garden Branch." P.O.'s and P.O.O.'s to 
be maae payable at East Strand Post Office, London, W.C. When a 
chanj*e of address is notified, botli the new and old addresses should 
be given. All orders must be accompanied by remittance, and no 
subscription will be continued after expiration, unless by special 
arrangement. Subscribers are requested to give information of any 
irregularity in receiving the Magazine. 

The whole of the contents of this publication are 
copyright, and full rights are reserved. The Editor does 
not hold himself responsible for opinions expressed by 
individual contributors, nor does he necessarily identify 
himself with their views. 



Advertising Rates. 

All inquiries regarding Advertisements should be directed to " TH E 
ADVERTISEMENT ^LANAGER, Clun House, Surrey Street, Strand. 
London, W.C." 



Copy for Advertisements 

should be forwarded on or before the 3rd of each month preceding 
date of publication. 

^° Machinery Merchants 

Send for our Xew C:ilnIot;tie of Lather, Drills. Pliiies. nnd other 
Engineers' Tot'ls. Also tor Circular ot the Latest New Petrok-um 
Oil EuLiines (Two F^atents, 1002). 

BRITANNIA ENGINE AND TOOL FACTORY. 

COLCHESTER. ENGLAND. 



Editorial. — Ail coimniinicatioiis intended for fublica- 
lion should be written on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to " The Editor." 

Any contributions offered, as likely to interest either home 
or foreign readers, dealing Willi the industries covered 
by the Magazine, should be accompanied by stamped 
and addressed envelope for the return of the MSS. if 
rejected. IVheii payment is desired this fact should 
be stated, and the full name and address of the writer 
should appear on the MSS. 

The copyright of any article appearing is vested in llie 
proprietors of Paige's MA(iAziNE /// the absence of any 
written agreement to the contrary. 

Correspondence is invilcd from any person upon 
siihiects of mlerest to the engineering conimnnity. In 
all cases this must be accompanied by full name and 
adilress of the writer, not necessarily for publication, 
but as a proof of good faith. Xo notice whatever can 
be taken of anonymous communieations. 



Second Edition, Revised. Price ys. 6d. 

DEPRECIATION OF FACTORIES, Mines, • 
and Industrial Undertakings, and their Valuation. With Tables 
and Examples. 

By EWIXG MATHESOX, M.Inst.C.E. 

The Principles which should guide the Writing off for wear and 
tear. Obsolete plant : Terminable or wasting properties ; Effect oa 
1 ncome-tax ; Value defined as for Compulsory purchase ; Going concern, 
or dismantled ; Rateable value, rental value. 

"A successful attempt to systematise existing information and to make it 
possible to arrive at unifonuity and accuracy in makings up balance sheets for 
valuations. The work is unique of its kind." — Tiie Engineer. 

E. & F. N. SPON, 12s, Strand, London. 



Mr.G.H.BDGHE8.A.M.I.Mech.E., 

Consulting Engineer for Water WorKs, 
97, QUEEN VICTORIA ST., LONDON, E.C. 

Telephone Xo.: 5734 Bank. 



HARDING 

CHURTON & CO., 
INGRAM STREET. 

LEEDS. 



DYNAMOS AND MOTORS. 



See Page 
79. 



JOSEPH BOOTH BROS.. LTD., 
RODLEY, LEEDS. 



LIFTING MACHINERY. 



See Page 
67. 



SELIG. SONNENTHAL <5 CO.. 

85, Queen Victoria S... 6 GRINDING MACHINES. 

Lambeth Hill, London, E.C, 



THOS. W. WARD, 
ALBION WORKS. 

SHEFFIELD. 



MACHINE TOOLS. 



See Page 
15. 



See Page 
19. 



THE SHANNON, LTD., 

Ropemaker St.. London, E.C. 



OFFICE APPLIANCES. 



See Page 
92. 



"■"TT V<~ 



m^^lBmMmtif 



Pumps 




Telejtrartls 
MATHORN, LEEDS. 



PUMPING 
MACHINERY 




Specialities— 

DIFFERENTIAL PUMPING ENGINES. 
ROTATIVE PUMPING ENGINES. 



PLUNGER 
PUMPS. 



Horizontal and Vertical. 
Compound and Triple. 



HYORRULie PUMPS. 
UNOERGROUIVD PUMPS. 
ELEeTRie PUMPS. 
WaTER WORKS PLANT. 



BUCKET 
LIFTS. 



HATHORN, DAVEY & CO., 

LIMITED, 

LEEDS, 

ENGLAND. 



BUYERS' DIRECTORY. 

KOTE.— The display advertisements oj tlie firms mentioned under each heading can be found readily hy reference to the 
Alphabetical Inde-v to Advertisers on pages 57, 59, Go, 62. 

/(/ order to assure /air treatment to advertisers, each firm is indexed under its leading speciality only. 

Advertisers who prefer, however, to bi entered under tii':» or m?re diferent sections can do so by an annual payment oj ^s. 
for each additional section. 



Addressing Bureaux* 

The Automatic Addressing Biiieaux, Ltd.. 19, 20, 21, High Holbnrn, 
London, W.C. 

Addressograph. 

Addtessograpli, Ltd., <n &. 92, Shoe Lane. London, E.G. 

Belting. 

Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Ltd., West Grove. H.d:la\. 

Boilers. 

Cl.ivton. Son & Co., Ltd.. Leeds City Boiler Works, Leeds. 
G.dioways, Ltd.. Manchester. 

Boilers (Water-tube). 

Babcock & Wilco.x, Ltd., Oriel House, Fariingdon Street, London, 

E.C. 
Cochran & Co. (Annan), Ltd.. Annan, Scotland. 
B. K. Rowland & Co., Ltd., Climax Works, Keddish. Manchester. 
Stirling Co. uf U.S.A., 53, Deans^ate Arcade, Manchester. 

Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, etc. 

Bayliss Jones iS: Baylies, Ltd., Wolverhampton. 

Richard Davies & Sons, Bilberrv Street. RLinchester. 

Herbert W. Periam, Ltd.. Floodgate Street W.iiks. Birmingham. 

Books. 

Charles Griffin & Co.. Ltd.. Exeter Street. Strand, London, W.C. 
E. & F. N. Spon, 125. Strand, London, W.C. 

Boring Machinery. 

John G. Thoni, Canal Works, Patricroft, Manchester. 

Brass Engine and Boiler Fittings. 

Hunt iS: Mitton. Crown Brass Works, Oozells Street North, Bir- 
mingham. 

Bridges. 

Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co.. Ltd.. Darlington. England, 
Andrew Handyside& Co.. Ltd.. Derby. 

Buildings. 

A. ^: J. Main & Co., Ltd.. Structural Engineers, Clydesdale Iron- 
works. Possil Park, Glasgow. 
Portable Building Co., Ltd.. Fleetwood. 

Cables. 

St. Helen's Cable Co.. Ltd.. Warrington, Lancashire. 
Suddeutsche Kabehverke A.-G., Mannheim. Germany. 

Carborundum. 

l^)h!^lle^^ ^llpply Co., 27, Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 

Clutches (Friction). 

David Bridge & Co , Castleton Ironworks, Rochdale. Lancashire. 

Condensing Plant. 

Wheeler Condenser and Engineering Co., 179, (Jueen Victoria 
Street, London, E.C. 

Conduits (Steel). 

Simplex Steel Conduit Co., Ltd., So, Digbelh. Birmingham. 

Consulting Engineers. 

(i. H. Hughes, A.M.l.M.F., 97. Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 

Continental Railway Arrangements. 

Swutli Kastcru iS: Lli.itljani R.ii!>.'..iv ^^ ". 

Conveying and Elevating Machinery. 

Ad'ili Bk-ichctt i*i' C«i., Leipzig-Gohlis, Germany. 

Blown Hoisting Machinery ^o.. 39, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

linllivant & Co., Ltd., 72, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

Graham, Morton & Co., Ltd.. Black Bull St.. Leeds, England. 

Ropetvays Syndicate, Ltd., 30. Jit. Mary Axe, London, E.C. 

Cranes, Travellers, Winches, etc. 

jos;ph Booth cN: Bios. Ltd . K.Kiley. Leeds. 
Broadbent, Thomas, A: Suns, Ltd., Hudderi>licUl. 

Cranks. 
Clarke s Crank & Forgc Co.. Ltd.. Lincoln, England. 
Woodhoiise iS: Rixson.Sheftield. 

Destructors. 

Horsfall Destructor Co., Ltd., Lord Street Works, Whitehall 
Road, Leeds. 



Dredges and Excavators. 

Ruse. Downs & Thompson, Ltd.. Old Foundry', Hull. 

Economisers. 

E. Green & Son. Ltd., Manchester. 

Electors (Pneumatic). 

Ihiglies ^: Lancaster, 47, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Electrical Appparatus. 

Allgemeine Eiektricitats Gesellschaft. Berlin. Germany. 

Brush Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd., Victoria Works, Belvedere 

Road, London, S.E. 
British Westmghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Norfolk 

Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
Crompton & Co., Ltd., Arc Works, Chelmsford. 
Greenwood & Bailey, Ltd.. Albion Works, Leeds. 
T. Harding, Churton & Co., Ingram Street, Leeds. 
International Electrical Engineering Co., Clun House, Surrey 

Street, London, W.C. 
Matthews & Yates, Ltd., Swinton. Manchester. 
PhiL-nix Dynamo Manufacturing Co., Bradford, Yorks. 
Turner. Atherton is: Co., Ltd., Denton, Manthester. 

Engines (Electric Lighting). 

I. X H. McLaren, Midland Engine Works, Leeds. 

Engines (Locomotive). 

Huiislet Engine Co.. Ltd., Leeds, England. 
Hudswell. Clarke cS: Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 

Engines (Stationary). 

K h. Hiiidley vV Sons, ii. Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Kiihcy ^: Co.', Ltd., Globe Works, Lincoln, England. 

Engines (Traction). 

]u'> Fowler \ Lo. (Leeds), Ltd,, Steam Plough Works, Leeds. 

Engravers. 

(ill. Swam & Son, Ltd., 5S. FarringJon Street, London. E.C. 

Fans, Blowers. 

Davidsnn \. Co., Ltd,, " Sirocco" Engineering Works. Belfast, 

Ireland. 
James K'eith & Blackman Co., Ltd., 27, Farringnon Avenue. London, 

E.C. 
Matthews iS: Yates, Ltd., Swinton. Manchester. 
'Ihe Standard Engineering Co., Ltd., Leicester. 

Feed Water Heaters. 

Royles, I. Id., lilain. near Manchester. 

Firewood Machinery. 

M. Gl'iver ^c Co., Patentees and Saw Mill Engineers. Leeds. 

Fountain Pens. 

M.iba-. Tndd & Bard, 93, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

Forgings (Drop). 

j. 11. Williams & Co., Brooklyn, New York. U.S.A. 

Furnaces. 

DeiLihton's Patent Flue A Tube Company, Vulcan Works, Pepper 

Road, Leeds. 
Lectin Forge Co., Ltd.. Leeds. 

Gas Producers. 

W. 1-. .\Lison. Ltd.. Engineers, Manchester. 

Gear Cutters. 

L G. Wrigley I'i Co., Ltd., Koun:Iry Lane Works, Soho, Birmingham, 

Gears. 

Butiolinc Noiseless Gear Co., LeveUNluiInie, Manchester. 
E. Arnold Pochin, Cron Street, Pendleton, .Manchester. 

Gold Dredging Plant. 

L"hnii/ ^'v L.I.. Ltd,, Renirew, .Scotland. 

Gauge Glasses. 

|. L. 1 re.'i-'Uii: \ Co., V.iuxhaU Road, Liverpool. 

Hammers (Steam). 

D.iMs iV i'limrose. Leilh Ironworks, Edinburgh. 




jfrnMrni 



n^ 



Typewriters 





NEW MODEL 

TYPEWRITER 

Exhibits many valuable improve- 
ments of the utmost importance to 
Typewriter Owners and Operators. 

It is SWIFT, SMOOTH, and QUIET in action. 

and its ingenious mechanical devices are VERY CONVENIENT. 

Send or Illustrated Booklet which gives details 

The YOST TYPEWRITER Co., Ltd.. 50, Holborn Viaduct, London, EC 



Save £9 and a lot of 



EMPIRE 



TYPEWRITER. 



worry, and buy an 

The Machine With ALL the Writing in Sight 



Price 

£13 2s. 6d. 

complete. 




NOT 

SURPASSED 

B/ ANY MACHINE 

IRRESPECTIVE 

OP PRICE. 



Contractors to H.M. Goverameot. 



Tllf Empire Typew^riter Syndicate, L!^ 

1bca& ®mce : 77, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



Branches or Agencies :— 

BIRMINGHAM-43, Temple Street. MANCHESTER-49, Corporation Street. 
BRISTOL-9, John Street. LEEDS-! 7, East Parade. 

HANLEY -Post Omee Buildings. BRADFORD 35, Charles Street. 

LIVERPOOL -7, South John Street. GLASGOW— 87, West George Street. 



NOTTINGHAM-48, Parliament Street. 
LEICESTER- 34, Charles Street. 
DUBLIN-Wellington Quay. 
And throughout the World. 



Buyers' Directory— (Conf/nued). 



Hoisting Machinery. 

,Stv Conveyinji Machinery. 

Indicators. 

T- S. Mclnnes & Cl. Ltd.. 41 & 42, Clyde Pi.ice, Gbsgow. 

Injectors. 

\V. H. Willco.K & L'o., Ltd,, 23, 34, S 30, Southwarlc Street, London. 

Iron and Steel. 

Brown. Bayley's Steel Works, Ltd., Sheffield. 

Consett Iron Co., Ltd., Consett. Durh.lm. and Xewcaslle-on-Tyne. 

Farnley Iron Co., Ltd., Leeds Enjiland. 

Fried. Krupp, Grusonwerk, Magdeburg-Buckan, Germany. 

Hadlield's Steel Foundry Co., Ltd., ShefSeld. 

J. Frederick Melling, 14. Park Row, Leeds, England. 

Parker Foundry Co., Derby. 

Walter Scott, Ltd., Leeds Steel Works, Leeds, England. 

Laundry IVIachinery. 

W. Suninierscales & Sons, Ltd., Engineers, Phceni.\ Foundry. 
Keighley, England. 

Lifts. 

iVaygood & Otis, Ltd., Falmouth Ko.ad, London, S.E. 

Lubricants. 

Blumann & Stern. Ltd., Plou.gh Bridge, Deptford, London. S.E. 
The Reliance Lubricating Oil Co., n) tk 20. Water Lane, Great I'ouer 
Street. London, E.C. 

Lubricators. 

Thomas .A. Ashton, Ltd., Norfolk Street, Sheffield. 
losepli Kaye S: Sons, Ltd., Hunslet. Leeds. 
Teale & Co., Birmingham. 

Machine Tools. 

George .'\ddy <!i Co., Waverley Works, Sheffield. 

William -Asqiiith. Highroad Well Works, Halifa.\, England. 

Bertrams. Ltd., St. Katherine's Works, Sciennes, Kdinburuh. 

Cunlifte & Croi^m, Ltd.. Broughton Ironworks, Manchester. 

Britannia Engine and Tool F'actory, Colchester England. 

C. W. Burton, Gnlfilh's and Co., i, 2, & 3, Ludgate Squaie, Ludgate 

Hill, London, E.C. 
Chas. Churchill ;<: Co., Ltd , g-15, Leonard Street, London. E.C. 
Jones & Lamson Machine Co , Exchange Buildings, Birmingham. 
Luke & Spencer. Ltd., Broadheath. Manchester. 
Jos. C. Xicholson Tool Co., City Road Tool Works, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. 
J. Parkinson & Son, Canal Ironworks Shipley, Yorkshire. 
Pratt & Whitney Co , Hartford, Conn., U.S.A. 
Rice & Co. (Leeds). Ltd., Leeds, England. 
Wm. Ryder, Ltd., Bolton, Lanes. 

Schisch'kar & Co., Ltd.. 65-60. Stafford Street, Birmingham. 
Selig, Sonnenthal& Co., S5, yueen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Taylor and Challen, Ltd., Derwent Foundry. Constitution Hill, 

Birmingham. 
H. W. Ward & Co.. Lionel Street, Birmingham. 
T. \\'. Ward. Albion Works, Sheffield. 

West Hydraulic Engineering Co.. 23, College Hill, London, E.C. 
Charles Winn & Co., St. Thomas Works, Birmingham. 

Metals. 

Magnolia Anti-Friction Mclal Co., Ltd., of Great Eritain, 40, (Jueen 

Victoria Street. London, E.C. 
Phi >^phor Bronze Co., Ltd., Southwark, London, S.E. 

Mining Machinery. 

Chester, toward. & Co., Ltd. 

Eraser & Chalmers. Ltd., 43, Threadneedle Street. Londim, E.C. 

Hardy Patent Pick Co., Ltd., Sheffield. 

Humbolt Engineering Co.. Kalk. Xr. Cologne, Germany. 

Ernest Scott & Mountain, Ltd., Electrical and General Engineers, 

Xewcastle-on-Tyne, England. 
Wiltley Ore Concentrator Syndicate. Ltd., 711, Mooigate Street, 

London, E.C. 

Office Appliances. 

Library Bureau. Ltd., 10, Bloomshury Street, London. W.C. 
Library Supply Co, Bridge House, 181, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 
Lyie Co., Ltd.. H.arrison Street, Gray's Inn Road, London. W.C. 
Partridge & Cooper, Ltd., lyi-iyz Heet Street, London. E.C. 
Rockwell-Wnbash Co. Ltd.. Iio. Milton Street. London, EC. 
Shannon, Ltd., Ropeiiiaker Street, London. E.C. 

Oil Filters. 

Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd., Xorfolk Street, London, W.C. 

Packing. 

Combination Met.allic P.acl<ingCo., Ltd.. Hill.gatc.Gateshe.ad-on-Tync. 
Frictionless Engine Packing Co., Ltd.. Hcndham Vale Works 

Harpurhey, Manchestei. 
Lancaster i(; Tonge, Ltd., Pendleton, Manche'tcr. 
United Kingdom Self-Adiusting Anti-Friction Metallic Packing 

Syndicate, 14. Cook Street, 1 iverpool. 
United States Metallic Packing Co., Ltd., Bradford, 
J. Bennett yon tier Heydc, 6, Brown Street, Manchester. 



Photo Copying Frames. 

I H.ildeii i*^ Co., ,s. Albert Square, Manchester. 

Presses (Hydraulic). 

Edwin Mills & Son, Aspley Ironworks, Huddersfield. • 

Printing. , , j 

southwood. Smith & Co., Ltd.. Plough Court, Fetter Lane. London, 
E.C. 
Pulleys. 

Henry Ciowtlier. Cleckheaton, Yorks. 

Pumps and Pumping Machinery. . 

Blake ^i Knowles Steam Pump Works. Ltd.. 170. Queen \ictoria 

Street. London. E.C. 
Drum Engineering Co., 27, Charles Street. Bradford. 
J. P.Hall & Sons, Ltd., Engineers, Peterborough. 
Hathorn, Dayey i^ Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 

Pnlsometer Engineering Co., Ltd.. Nine Elms Ironworks, Reading. 
Tangyts, Ltd., 'Cornw.aU Work-, Birmingham. 

Rails. 

Wm. Firth. Ltd.. Leeds. 

Railway Carriages. 

Metropolitan Amalgamated Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd., 

Oldbury, Birmingham, England. 
W. R. Reiis'haw & Co.. Ltd.. Phcenix Works Stoke-on-Trent. 
Transpoitalion Deyelopment Co. Incorporated, 6, Clement's Lane, 

Lombard Street, London, E.C. 

Riveted Work. 

F. A. Keep. Iiixon & Co., Forward Works, Barn Street, Birmingham. 

Roller Bearings. 

Auto M.ichinery Co., Ltd., Read Street, Coyentry. 

Roof Glazing. 

Mell. .uc> & CO.. Sheffield. 

Roofs. 

D. Anderson & Son, Ltd., Lagan Felt Works Belfast 

Safes. 

Chubb S Sons Lock and Safe X'o., Ltd., 128, Queen Victoria Street, 
London, E.C. 

Stampings. 

Arm^trong. Steyens & Son. Wh ttall Street. Birmingham. 
Tho^. Smith's Stamping Works, Ltd., Coyentry. 
Thomas Siiiith & Sou, of S.altley, Ltd. 

Steam Traps. 

British Steam Specl.alities, Ltd., Fleet Street, Leicester. 

Steel Tools. 

Saml, Hiickley. St. Paul's Square. Birmingham. 

Stokers. 

Meldriim Brothers Ltd.. Atlantic Works, Manchester, 
Triumph stoker. Ltd., 39, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Time Recorders. 

Howaul Brothels 10, St. George's Crescent, Liverpool. 
International Time Recording Co., 171, Queen Victoria Street, 
London, E C. 

Tubes. 

Thomas Piggott & Co.. Ltd., Spiing Hill, Birmingham. 

Tubes, Ltd.. Birmingham. 

Weldlcbs Steel Tube Co., Ltd., Icknield Port Road, Birniingliam. 

Turbines. 

(, Gilkes S Co.. Ltd., Kendal. 

W, Gun'.her & Sons, Central Works Oldham. 

S. Ho\\cs oj, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

T'ypewriters. 

I':mpire I'ypewriter Co.. 77. Queen Victoria Street. London. E.C.^ 
Hammond Typewriter Co.. 50. Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Remington Typewriter Co.. 100. Gracechurch Street, E.C, 
Yost Typewriter Co.. 50, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C. 

Valves. 

Scotch .ind Irish Oxygen Co., Ltd., Rosehill Works, GUasgow. 
Ventilating Appliances. 

Mallhew^ .\ N'.iu-. l.ul,, Swinton. Manchester. 

Vulcanized Fibre. 

Mo-ses Jt- .Miuhcll, 70 & 71. Chiswcll Street. London, E.C. 

Wagons Steam. 

Ill .1 ii\ . ri'il •^Icini W'.igonCo , Ltd.. Homelield Chiswick, London, W. 

Weighing Apparatus. 
W. r. A\cry Jt Co . S dio Foundry. Birmingham, England. 
Samuel lienisoii it Son, Hunslet .\Ioor, near Leeds. 

Wells Light. 

,\, L Well. & lo . ion, Midland Road, St. Pancras, London, N.W, 

Wood Working Machinery. 

Ku-ssling's Machine Co., 4^ . Rivington Street. London, E.C 
Kirchner & Co., 2l-2.s, Tabernacle Street, London. E.C. 




Bmmni 



n^ 



Machine Tools 




CHARLES CHURCHILL & CO.. L 

ENGINEERS AND IMPORTERS OF 

riT^'t*'' MACHINE 

LABOUR- 
SAVING 



TD. 




Lathe Centre Qrindins;. 



These Grinders are Electrically Driven, and 
have a wide range of worK : — 

CENTRE GRINDING, 

REAMER, and 

CUTTER GRINDING. 
■ SURFACE GRINDING, 

PARALLEL GRINDING, 

INTERNAL GRINDING. 
a 



We carry Large Stocks at 
all our 'Branches of . . . 

LATHES, SHAPERS, 

AUTOMATICS, PLANERS, 

BORING MILLS. 

RADIAL, UPRIGHT, and 

SENSITIVE DRILLS. 

GAS OVENS, FORGES, 

HACK SAWS, &c., &c. 




Surface Grinder on Planer. 



LONDON : 9 to 15, Leonard St., E.G. BIRMINGHAM : 2 to 10, Albert St. 

MANGHESTER: 2, Gharlotte St., Mosley St. GLASGOW: 52, Bothwell St. 

NEWGASTLE=ON-TYNE : Albion Buildings, St. James' St. 




®MDfflElff Machine Tools 




ELECTRICALLY- DRIVEN TOOLS. 



SPECIAL MOTORS 
FOR ALL KINDS OF 
HEAVY MACHINERY. 




ANGLE AND TEE IRON BENDING MACHINE. 



OROMPTON & Co., Ltd.. 

ARC WORKS, CHELMSFORD. 

Head Office : SALISBURY HOUSE, LONDON WALL, LONDON, E.C. (29| 




Machine Tools 




M. C. NICHOLSON TOOL Co. 



Engineers and Machine Tool MaKers. 



City Road Tool Works, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 

r ff> Telegrams : -MACHINERY." 

Specialities : - jLjj ^^^ 





PROPELLER SHAFT KEYWAY MILLING MACHINE. 

For Cutting Key^vays in Propeller Shafts, 4 '.in. wide 

by lin. deep by 3ft. 6in. lon^ at one cut. 

Belt cr Motor driven. 



HORIZONTAL DRILLING MACHINE. 

For Drilling Holes in Pipe Flanges 
and Girders, by Hand or Power. 



(WRITE FOR OUR NEW POCKET CATALOGUE.) 




PATENT PLANING 
MACHINE. 



One of the greatest disndvantages in connection 
with the American type of Planing Machines 
hitherto has been the restricted position of the 
belt drive. There is only a latitude of 'a few 
inches on one side, the Vertical position. This 
lias been overcome by our patented attachment, 
which enables the belt to drive at any angle 
between Vertical and Horizontal from the 
countershaft to the machine. 



CUNLIFFE & CROOM, Ltd., 

Broughton Iron Works, 
MANCHESTER. 



Showroom : 

66, Victoria Street, MANCHESTER. 

FSTABLISHED iShd. 




Machine Tools 




RADIAL, DRILLING, BORING, 
^ TAPPING MACHINES 



FOR ALL PURPOSES. 



A SPECIALITY. 




ELEQTRIQ and BELT DRIVEN, wUi unique ■Features ..nl thoroughly modernised, 11 taking 

FULL ADVANTAGE new HIGH SPEED CUTTING STEELS, 3 ft. 6 in. 1 

7 ft. radius, always in progress. 



WILLIAM ASQUITH, Radial Maker, HALIFAX, 



ENGLAND. 



Contractor to H.M. War Department, the Lords of the Admiralty. Imperial Japanese 
Navy, and other Foreign Governments. ESTABLISHED 1865. 



14 






Machine Tools 




Selig, Sonnenthal ^ Co. 



'^S^Siii 



PORTABLE CRANES AND HOISIS. 

For lifting work on and off machine tools, etc. 
For transporting heavy pieces about the shop, 

etc., etc. 
These cranes are actually tested to the full load 

before being sent out. 




85, Queen Victoria Street, and 
Lambeth Hill, 

LONDON, E.C. 




Machine Tools 




jfi " ■ * 

3! 



a? 

3? 



Milling Machines. 



3; 

a? 

3? 
* 
3? 




6 by 80 in. New Thread Milling* Machine. 



3; 
3; 



3? 

3? 

3i 
3? 
3- 
3; 
3; 
3? 



AN ENTIRELY NEW MACHINE, designed for the nwmi- 

facture of precision screws, worms, lead and teed screws, and spiral gears 

for high-grade machine tools ; also for threading on other work, such as 

rock drill feed screws, temper screws, etc., etc. 

This machine possesses more ilexibility and adaptability to miscellaneous 
thread cutting tiian the engine lathe possesses ; it does the work within 
narrower limits of error and at a fraction of the cost of engine lathe work. 



Send to any of the following- Offices for Illustrated Booklet: 

PRATT & WHITNEY Co. 



LONDON OFFICES : 
BUCK & HICKMAN, Ltd., 2 S 4, Whitechapel Rd., E. 
NILES-BEMENT-POND Co., 2325, Victoria St., S.W. 



Works : HARTFORD, CONN., U.S.A. 



COt'EN'HAGEX. DliN'MAUK : V. Low i:\KU. STOCKHOLM. SWICUEX : Aki n:iini..\i;i:T, V. Lo\vi..\i:r. PAKIS : 1-i;nuiu 
Kkkkks it Co., 2[, Rue Martcl. Agents for Kraiicc, Spain. Italy, Hcli;ium, Switzerland, and Portiii<al. 



3? 
3f 
3f 
3? 
3? 
3? 
3* 
3* 
3? 
3? 
3? 
3? 
3? 
3J 



3- 
3- 



3? 



i6 




^HMMMEjf 



Machine Tools 




C. W. BURTON BRIFFITHS & CO. 

1, 2, 6 3, Ludgate Square, Ludgate Hill, LONDON, E.C. ; 
and at 59, Finnieston Street, GLASGOW. 



The "Burton" 



is the very latest pattern of 



Universal Disc Grinder 

on the riarket. 
NOISELESS. VIBRATIONLESS. ACCURATE. ROBUST. 



J6 



Made in 2 
sizes : 

20 inch 

discs. 

28 inch 

discs. 




«^ 



Made in 2 

styles : 
Plain 
and 
Universal. 



^ 



SOME advantages offered by the . . . 

"Burton" Universal Disc Grinder. 

Discs 20 and jS inches diameter. Very long gun-metal bearings, self-oiling. Both tables provided 
with improved angle gauges. Both tables counterbalanced. Both tables tilt. Micrometer feeds and 
adjustments. Dust Depositing Troughs and Guards to both discs. Press attached to base at back. 



FOR COMPLETE DESCRIPTION, WRITE FOR OUR NEW TREATISE ON GRINDING. 

17 



^^iWH«i 



Machine Tools 




RICE 6 CO. (Leeds), Ltd., 




Three-Ton Hydraulic Crane. 



LEEDS, 


ENGLAND. 


HYDRAULIC 


Riveters, 


Lifts, 


Presses, 


Pumps, 


Cranes, 


Accumulators, 


PoDciies, 


Intensifiers, 


Sliears, 


Valves. 


Hoists, 


&c., &c. 


ABC Code. 4th Edition, used. 
TeleSrapliic Address: "Press, Leeds." 

Tclcplione Xo. : 2362. 



!!^ Tt is mortb i Cbe Reliance Cubricating Oil Co. Cbe Reliance Cubricating Oil Go., # 

"P •» 771UI1 M.inijf.i. tiire ,111.1 .sniipi; iiu- iv-.r and i'Ii.mi e^t 19 & 20, Water Lanc, Grcat Tower street, T^ 

,i,VOUrlUmiC HIGH-CLASS NON-CORROSIVE London, E.c. <^ 

*, to HUV LUBRICATING OILS *'*'' ^^' <5''«>a* Clyde Street, Glasgow; and d|, 

^ '" ""'^ i.uisr5io«i inv. uii-o 1, Sandhill, Newcastlc-on-Tyne. iT 

"*? Direct '^'*° solidified lubr cants » rf*. 



Castor. I,ar>i, 



e. Neatsfoot, aiul Linseeii nils, Tal 



Telegrams; "SUIIASTRAL. LONDON.' 
Telephone Nl>.; A\ENUE s^yi. ABC Code Used. 



1^$$^$$$$^^$$^$$$$$$$$$$^$^$^$^$$$$$$$^^^$^^^^^^^$^ 



/^'gs^.^V^.lg^^ 











>3-:\l?*\r'3?J^ [mi.l.\iVS L9)S.i\l\Ji^J^s &^/ 



i8 




SEND FOR CATALOGUES 



HIGH-CLASS NEW MACHINE TOOLS 

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY. 



Telegrams: "MILLINQ. SHEFFIELD." for thC CflUSt .111(1 niOSt Ur-IC-DatC 
National Telephone No. : 985. 




HEAVY = = 
MACHINE 
TOOLS = = 



PLATE BENDING MACHINE. 



Also Special Lifting JacK for Electric 
WRITE . . . Tramcars. 

GEORGE ADDY 6 Co., 

WAVERLEY WORKS, SHEFFIELD. 




Patent Bevelling Machines 

FOR SHIPS' FRAMES. 

STEAM HAMMERS 

FOR SMITHS SHOPS AND FORCES 

Forge Cranes, Hand and Steam 



DAVIS & PRIMROSE, 

Xcitb JromvorSs, EDINBURGH. 

Code word for this Machines " EYEGLASS." Al and ABC Codes used. 
Telegrams: "EtXA. LEITH." 



19 




A\( n/A 



as" 



Machine Tools 




Wood Working 



Complete Catalog'ue, containing' 
over 200 illustrations, sent . . 
free on application 



Machinery. 




DL HEAVY PLANING and THICKNESSING MACHINE. 

Kicssling's Machine Co., 

46, RIVINQTON STREET, OLD STREET, LoNDON, E.G. 




Machine Tools 







I 



s 



■A 



IS 

•!S 
IS 



WINN'S 

SCREWING MACHINES 



MODERN DESIGN 



^ 




FOR TUBES OR BOLTS— ALL SIZES MADE 



JLlso other Tyr>es. 



CharlesWinn&Co. 

BIRMINGHAM. 






I 
I 

& 

9- 

9- 



6^ 



ST. THOMAS WORKS, 



'l^lfiff\^\q^qpi^\^\^\*fKq^(li\^\^\^\^\^\'4\'4\^\n^^\^\'f^'f^^^^ 




\Mmm_ 



Luke & Spencer, ua., 

BROADHEATH, 

MANCHESTER. 



Telegraphic Address : 

"Emery, Altrincham.' 

National Telephone : 

"Altrincham 49." 




Manufacturers of 



GRINDING , 


and 


POLISHING 


MACHINES. 


EMERY. . . 


WHEELS. . 


Etc 



Send for our 
Enlarged 
Catalogue, 
free on 
Application. 



Machine Tools 




SCHISCHKAR & COIVIPANY, Ltd., 

Sole Eiirupsan Agents for the ACME AUTOMATIC SCREW MACHINE. 

Output three to four limes that of any Sinj^Ie Spinale MaLhuie- 

Gr eater Aci.uiacy, Better Finish. 

IMPROVED DISC GRINDERS. 

UNIVERSAL CUTTER GRINDERS &C.. &C , 

THE MILWAUKEE MILLING MACHINE. 

Write for Cataloi^ue and Prices to 
65 to 69, STAFFORD STREET, BIRMINGHAM. 



Sawing 6 Woodworking Machinery. 



Contractors to most 
Governments, many 
Railway Companies, 
Collieries, Shipyards, 
Dockyards, ©'c, &c. 







Over I, coo 
Workmen em- 
ployed in 
this 
Department. 



M 



Catalogues and 

Prices 
on Application. 




Over 70.000 

Sawing «S Wood= 

worKing Machines 

supplied. 

"GRAND PRIX," 
Paris, 1900. 



Over 70 Gold 

Medal.s 

and other 

Hi^he^t 

Distinctions. 



HFA Large Patent Horizoxtai, Hand Mill. 



l'^TTl/*% IJl^TlT^Tl CD ^^A\ Chief Office and Showrooms: ¥ J 17* /^ 

KlRCrlNLR cr OU., 21=25. tabernacle st.. London, L.C 




IfteMlirailf Hydraulic Machine Tools j 




THE 



West Hydraulic Engineering Co., 



Telegrams : 
"AcROSTicAL, London." 
' AcROSTlCAL, Bradford." 



Contractors 

to the 

Governments 

of 

Great Britain, 

India, 

Germany, 

France, 

Russia, 

Italy, 

Spain, 

Belgium, 

S^vitrerland, 

Japan, 

Chili. 



23, COLLEGE HILL, LONDON, E.C. 

WorKs: LUTON (BEOS). 
MaKers of . . 




High Grade 
Hydraulic Plant 
and 
Machinery. 



TYPE "A" HYDRAULIC PRESSURE INTENSIFIER. 

With worKing non=return and automatic regulating valves. 

100 Tons on Main Ram. 75 Tons on Horizontal Ram. 50 Tons on Stripping Ram. 




Machine Tools 





FORGING 
MACHINES 

CAPSTAN LATHES 

AND OTHER TOOLS. 



I, SAWING MACHINES. 





GOVERNMENT 
ORDERS NOW IN 
PROGRESS. 



WILLIAM RYDER, Ltd., BOLTON. ,. 



THE BOLTON BLACKSMITH." 



BERTRAMS LIMITED 




Londcn Office : 

21, Gt. St. HELEN'S, E.G. 



ST KATHERINE'S WORKS, 

SCIENNES, EDINBURGH. 



Circular Cutter with Punch and 
Apparatus for Circles. 



Manufacturers of all kinds of 

MACHINE TOOLS 

FOR ENGINEERS, SHIP BUILDERS, 

BOILER MAKERS, &.c., &c. 



"V 




For Gears, Bevels, Worm Wheels, Spirals, 
or anything in the gear line, write to 

THE BUFFOLINE NOISELESS GEAR Co., 

LEVENSHULME. 
WHO ARE THE ENGLISH 

GEAR SPECIALISTS. 




Sf^ 



^^ 



Machine Tools 



Uv^Bda 





THIS 



LATHE 



is for 



" SLOGGING " 

or 

HIGH-SPEED 



it 



HAS 



ONE OF A GOOD LINE OF LATHES. 

NEW CATALOGUE N O AV READY 



POWERFUL 

DRIVE AND 

FEEDS. 



J. PARKINSON & SON, Shipley, yorks 



Telephone No. : 1469. 
Telegrams: "Tuduk, Biumixgham.' 



Modern . . . 
Macbine Tools. 



CAPSTAN AND TURRET LATHES. 
DRILLING MACHINES. 
MILLING MACHINES. 
BORING MACHINES. 



H.W.WARD&Co. 

ONLY ADDFESS- 

86, Lionel Street, 

BIRMINGHAM. 

Contractors to British and Foreign Governments 
and Principal Engineering Firms. 



\f^^^^^^r, 



C3 




J ^ - 

J. BENNETT VON DER HEYDE, 6. Brown St., MANCHESTER. 




THE 



DRUM 

PUMP. 

^OHATSO/V'S PATENTS. 



39 



Write Jor Catalogue 6j. 



POSITIVE ACTION. 

NO VALVES. 
HIGH EFFICIENCY. 



Section 01 ■' Dku.m ' I'usip. 



DRUM 
ENGINEERING CO.,' 

27, Charles St., 

BRADFORD. 




BimMM 




Mining Macliinery 




to 

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26 




BmiMmi 



Mining 



TF" 




LOBNITZ" QOLO DREDQERS ARE 

AT WORK IN BRITISH NORTH 

AND SOUTH AMERICA, AFRICA, 

ASIA, &c. 






GOLD 



DRED 



AU VW"- 



,ad= to gwSe 



Quick delivery 



otst.nd:ad.'«- 



UOBNTTi^-i: 



ReNFREXi; 



ftnOTUAND:, 



Telegraphic Address: 
LOBNITZ, RENFREW. Ai Code used. 




EDWARD CHESTER & Co., Ltd. 



Manufacturers of all Classes of 



MINING MACHINERY 

Branches : Johannesburg, Bulawayo, Barberton, Port Elizabeth in 
South Africa, and Kalgoorlie, Australia. 

^Vorks: RENFREAV, Scotland. 



HEAD OFFICE: 120, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, E.G. 



J. P. Hall & Sons, 

Ltd.. 

PETERBOROUGH. 

We make a SPECIAL Compound 
Direct Acting Slow Running 

Boiler Feed 
Pump 



ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT. 

We deliver 100 lbs. of Water for 
the experiditure of t lb. of Stean]. 
Tl^ls with our 2,000 gallon Pump, 
and a much higher efficiency as 
the size of the Pump Increases. 

AN IDEAL PUMP FOR GENERAL 
BOILER FEEDING PURPOSES. 

Apply for Particulars. 



1 

1 

• 1 

4 

4 




► 



r*^''" ^ 

H 




J. B.Treasure aC- 

Excelsior Fire-Polished 

GAUGE GLASSES, 

LUBRICATORS, 
INDIA-RUBBER WASHERS, 

&c., &c. 

Vauxhall Road, Liverpool. 



J' Fredk. Melling, 

14, PARK ROW, 
LEEDS, England. 



Iron & Steel Bars, Plates, Sheets, 
Girders, Channels, Angles, Rails, 
Blooms, Billets, & Slabs. 



Write for 
Section Lists 
•ind Prices. 



Telegr.nms ; " LEG.4TION. LEEDS." 




WMMmif 



Mining 




m 



ERNEST SCOTT & MOUNTAIN. L 



TO. 







Branch Offices. 
LONDON: 20, New Bridge St., 

Blackfriars. 
GLASGOW: 93. Hope Street. 
CARDIFF : 8, Working Street. 
Sheffield, Birmingham, Calcutta, 
Bombay, Shanghai, Singapore, 

Johannesburg. 



STEAM 
DYNAMOS, 



^ 



" Scolt and Moimt.iin ' Protected Type Motor, Operating Scull Breaking Winch. 



MOTORS. 



Boosters. 
Mining Pumps 

AND 

Haulage Gears. 
Coal Cutters. 

NEW LISTS NO^V READY. 



r -' /•'T 




w^t^# 


— 


.^^<^J 


n 

1 



" Scolt and Muuntain " JMininjt Pump, 300 galls per inin. 
1,500 ft! head. 



ELECTRICAL AND GENERAL ENGINEERS, 



NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE, 
ENGLAND. 



28 




'^~^ 



Jlimi^Mmyi Mining Machinery 




Blast Furnace 

GAS ENGINES 



TWO CYCLE G/\S ENGINES, 
RIEDLER BLOWING ENGINES, 
RIEDLER AIR COMPRESSORS, 
RIEOLER ELECTRIC PUMPS, 
RIEDLER EXPRESS PUIVIPS, 
RIEDLER STEAM PUIV|PS, 
CORLISS CORNISH PUMPS, 
RAND COMPRESSORS, 
WINDING ENGINES, 
CORLISS ENGINES, 
BOILER PLANTS, 
ROASTING, SMELTING, and 

REFINING MACHINERY, 
COMPLETE STAMP MILLS, 
CRUSHERS and PULVERIZERS, 
CONCEflTRATION MACHINERY, 
PROSPECTING OUTFITS, 
CYANIDE PLANTS, 
ELMORE OIL CONCENTRATION 
PLANTS, 
CONDENSING PLANTS, 
BOILER FEED PUIV|PS. 
RAND ROCK DRILLS, 
ROBINS BELT CONVEYORS, 
PELTON WATER WHEELS. 



(KORTING'S PATENT). 




500 H.P. Kopting Blast Furnace Gas Kngine, with 
Blowing- Cylinder. 



Any of tbe above Catalogues 
on Applicatioa. 



Gas Engines from 400 to 3,000 B.H.P. 



FR ASER & CHALMERS, L= 

Engineering and Mining Macliinery, 
OFFICES: 43^ THREADNEEDLE STREET, LONDON, E.G. 

Works : ERITH, KENT. 

29 



'^^ilMMMmi 



Aerial Ropeways 




Aerial Ropeways 

AND INCLINES ON ALL SYSTEMS 

CONSTRUCTED BY 

BULLIVANT & CO., LTD. 

(From desii<ns by W. T. H. CARRINGTON, M Inst.C.E.) 

EXAMPLES AT WORK ALL OVER THE WORLD. 




View ol a Ropeway recently conalruclod tor the Corporation ol Liverpool. 
Hopeways constructed to carry from 50 to 2,000 tons per day. Suitable for the trarisport 

descriptions of niaterials. 

ILLUSTRATED PAMPHLET MAY BE HAD ON APPLICATION. 



of all 



Makers of 



Flexible Steel Wire Ropes for Cranes, Lifts, Hoists, 

Suspension Bridges, Ropeways, &c,, Hauling and Winding 

Gear, and Pulleys, Clamps, Crabs, &c. 



^iAy■i^J^%'-,'■■l 



Regd. Office: 72, Mark Lane, E.G. 



Works : Millwall, E. 





Aerial Ropeways 




ADOLF BLEICHERT&C' 



LEIPZIG=GOHLIS, 

ermany. 



/Il>aimtncturci*5 
of . . . 



vi#« 



NfeM 



./*'~«« 



For the rapid and economic 
handling of COAL, IRON ORB and 
BULK MATERIAL at Docks and Manufacturing Plants. 
^ ^ ^ ^ ELECTRIC OR STEAM DRIVEN. 




Hoisting and Conveying Plant, erected for the Norddeutsche Kolilen & Coakswerke a.g. Hamburg. 
T!ie?L' Tlirce Cranes inilo.id 1,500 Tons Cargoes in Ten Hours. 

SHIPBUILDING and YARD CRANES. 

Cable Hoist Conveyors. Blast Furnace Hoists. 

THREE-MOTOR ELECTRIC TRAVELLING CRANES. 
^ ^ ^ Improved Band Friction Hoisting Machinery. 

Plants also designed in connection with BLEICHERT'6 WIRE-ROPE TR.iMWAYS, 
as per adveftisement of the preceding and following number. 



AN EXPERIENCE OF 30 YEARS. 



IRcpresent.itivc :— 



>; 



J. SCOTT-ANDERSOH. "*'=- 



Proposals Cheerfully Furnished. 



M.I.Electr.Engrs. 
SHEFFIELD, Royal Insurance Buildings. 




Iron and 5teel, &c. 





"'y'B{. 



-y™ ,^ .wUBJigMB^ j^^ 



Brown Bayley's Steel Works, L™ 



Telegraphic Addresses 



\ "BAYLEY, SHEFFIELD." 
'( " BALI, LONDON." 



5HEFriELD. 



Manufacturers of steel by the "SIEMEN'S" and "BESSEMER" Processes. 




MAKERS OF . . 

Tyres, Axles, and Springs for 
Railway Locomotives, Railway 
Carriages and Wagons, and for 
Tramway Engines and Cars. 



Special Guaranteed Spring Steel for 
Railway Locomotive Springs, Railway 
Carriage and Wagon Springs, and for 
Lorry, Dray, and Cart Springs. 



Planished Steel Bars for Shafting for Engineers, 
and Agricultural Implement Makers. 



STEEL FORGINGS. 

SPECIAL STEEL BLOOMS AND SLABS 



London Office: Suffolk House, Lawrence Pountney Hill, E.c. 




' GlSjTjlJiSFaR-' 

ENGINEERS &TOOL Makers 

TD MACHINE CLEAN «-. BRIGHT 
ALL OVER. 

PAKKEK FOUNDRYrO.DEJ^BY. 



ON AUIJIIBALVV Ur.T 



Fried. Krupp 
Grusonwerk. 

Magdeburg-Buekau (Germany i. 



RAILS 



^^ POINTS AMD CROSSINdS. 



^ LEEDS ' 



Complete Installations for 

Powder and 



4^ Explosive 



Factories. 



A^enl fur Ciicat I'.rit.iin and hcl.iiul : 

WQTAMM 25, College Hill, 

■ OiniUlUi Cannon Street, London. 




32 




Iron and Steel 





DROP-FORCED WROUCHT STEEL SPANNERS. 

S^ .-"v T-> -.1111 :M6Ihs to 3-in, Nut- 





SOLID ?=? DYNAMO 
DROP 5=^ EYE 
FORCED. ^S. BOLTS. 







l\ 




Armstrong, Stevens & Son, 

\VHITT.\LL STRliin, 

Birmingham. 

^ Price Lists on application. = 



N 



k= 





ON ADMIRALTY AND WAR OFFICE LISTS. 



DROP 




Established 1848. Incorporated 1886. 



FORGINGS 



THOMAS SMITH & SONS 

of SALTLEY, Limited, BIRMINGHAM. 



33 




.(MsiicaEir 



■ tW I I ' 



Iron and Steel 




I _ — « 

I vyranKsnaiis cr r orgings i 

^ (ON ADMIRALTY, WAR OFFICE, «Sc , LISTS.) * 

* t 

■ft 
■* 



Orankshafts & F orgings 




* 

« 
* 

^ BENT CRANKS (Square or Round) FOR MARINE AND OTHER PURPOSES. 

' WOODHOUSE a? RIXSON, 

. . . SHEFFIELD. 



■ft 
* 




Drop 
Forgings. 




You should use them instead 
of castings if you want 
Strength, Lightness and Finish. 
Inquiries solicited. 



SMITH'S STAMPING 
WORKS, Ltd , Coventry 

The Eneineering and Shipbuilding Stampers. 





Iron and Steel 




Buok & Hickman, Lt.rt 
London. 



Baxendale & Co., 
Manchester. 




F. A. KEEP, JUXON & Co 



RfVETTEDWPBK 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



TANKS 



FOR 




TRANSPORT 
SERVICE. 



MISCELLANEOUS 
IRON-PLATE and 
CONSTRUCTIONAL 
IRONWORK. 



r orward iV orks, 

BARN STREET. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

National Telephone: S779. 

TeleL'rams ; " Structures. Bir min gham. 



C 2 




fc^Dcai 



Iron and Steel 




Fainley Iron 




ROLLING BARS 



Farnley Bar Iron is used in 
Mining for pit cages, suspending 
gear, and other important parts, 
and on all the leading Railways 
in Great Britain, India, and the 
Colonies, for shackles and other 
vital parts subjected to repeated 
shocks. 

Farnley Iron will stretch cold 
from Is in. to 2^ in. in a length 
of G in before fracture, and is 
safest for welding. 



-^^■ 



Address: The Farnley Iron Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 



ON ADMIRALTY LIST. 



Telegrams: "CRANKS. LINCOLN. 



FOR eRHNKS 
& FORGINGS 
©F EVERY 
DESeRIPTIOIV 
WRITE T© 




eLHRKE'S 
eRaNK & 
FORGE e©., 
LTD., LIIVe©LN, 
ENGLAND. 




Iron and Steel 




WALTER SCOTT, Ltd., 




LEEDS STEEL Telegrams : 

" Bessemer, 

WORKS . . . ''"''^•" 
LEEDS, ENGLAND. 

Manufacturers of . . 

Rolled Steel 
Joists, 
Channels, etc. 

Mild Steel Blooms, BiUets, 

Slabs, Tinbars, Rounds, 

and Flats. 

Speciali fV; 

Tramrails. 

Books of Sections and other in/ormatior, 
on application. 



RICHARD DAVIES & SONS, 




VICTORIA 

BOLT AND NUT 

WORKS, 




BILBERRY 

ST., 

MANCHESTER. 




Manufacturers of BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS. RIVETS. TIE-RODS IN IRON OR STEEL. Also BEST BRIGHT FINISHED NUTS, 
SET SCREWS. WASHERS. &c., FOR ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. Telegrams : " HEXAGON, Manchetter. 




EDWIN MILLS & SON, 

Estd^io. Bsplefi Jron MorSs, HUDDERSFIELD. 
HYDRAULIC PRESSES for all purposes. 
HYDRAULIC PRESS PUMPS £> d 

HYDRAULIC HOISTS and LIPTS. 
5CREVV PRESSES of all descriptions. 

Textile Slull and Finishing Presses. Hay and Straw "';«««• 

Oil Presses. Fibre Presses. g Steam, Hand, and Belt Driven 



Cotton and Wool Presses. 



High Pressure Pumps. 



Press and Pump Leathers of Best Manufacture always on Hand. 



Tih'I'hoiK Xo. 



■ ..5/. Telegrams: ■■ OilO, HUDDERSFIELD/ 

A B C Code, 4th and sih cdilions. 

.37 








Roofs, &c. 





More durable than iron. Cheapest forall spans up to 100 Feet. 



D. ANDERSON 6 SON, Ltd., 



LAGAN FELT WORKS, BELFAST, and 
FINSBUKY PAVEMENT HOUSE. LONDON. E.C. 



The 



Portable Building Co., Ltd. 



Finsbury Pavement House, 

LONDON. 



PLEETWOOD. 



Manchester Chambers, 

MANCHESTER. 



Buildings 

for Home 

and 




__Aiji"fi?^f 



Portable, 
Artistic, and 
Comfortable 
Export. ''""r'^r'"^*'H?frM- OwelUngs. 

Bungalows, & Motel Buildings. ** 

SPECIAL DESIGNS FOR ALL CLIMATES. 

Buildings Packed &" Marked in Sections 
for Easy Transport & Erection. 

DELIVERED F.O.B. LIVERPOOL, LONDON, or SOUTHAMPTON. 
Estimates, Designs 6 Catalogues Free. 




South African Address: 

P.O. BOX 175 JOHANNESBURG. 




Derby, 



Handyside 



London 

Al.AB.C. . 



TheGLEVELAND BRIDGE & ENGINEERING G" 



NEW HIGH LEVEL BRIDGE NEWCASTLE-ON.TYNE. 



LIMITED, 

DARLINGTON, ENGLAND. 




Bridge Builders & 
Contractors. 

Annual output 15,000 tons. 



CONTRACTORS FOR 

The New Migh-Level Bridge over the Tyne 
at Newcastle for the North Eastern Rly. Co., 
carrying four Railroads, value half a million. 

SPECIALISTS IN DEEP FOUNDATION WORK. 



39 



"~7^ 



fmmM(^MmM( 



Tubes 




MANUFACTURERS OF 

Weldless Steel 




and 



Iron 
Tubes, 



Steam Pipes, Hydraulic M- 
Tubes, Boiler Tubes, 
High Pressure . . 
Steam Mains, 






HOLLOW FORCINGS, 
COLLARS, FERRULES 
BUSHES, LINERS. 
COUPLINGS, AXLLS, 
PISTON RODS, 
Etc.. Etc., 
Quoted fur (in . . 
receipt of . . . 
particul.irs. 






FOR 



Super-heaters 

A SPECIALITY. 

Contractors to the War Office 
and Admiralty. 

Tubes Limited. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

Nat, Telephone No.: 2582, Telegrams: " Cylinders, Birmingham." 



•JO 




Tubes 




C 



Thomas Piqqott & Co., Ltd.,"; 



ATLAS WORKS, 

5PRING HILL. 
RMINGHAM. 



GAS, HYDRAULIC and 
GENERAL ENGINEERS. 

•H -3» ^ 

Gas Plants and Construc- 
tional Ironwork of all 
descriptions. 

Columns, Girders. Castings. 

Welded and Rivetted Steel 
Pipes. 

Stamped and Steel Angle 
Flanges. 

Steel Chimneys of all sizes 
and designs. 

Tanks in Steel or Cast Iron 
for Petroleum St Water. 

Pans for Sugar. Cassada, 
&c.. for all Markets. 



London O/Juc: 

i4.Ct.Si.TH0IVIAS APOSTLE 

TeU'i^rams : 
"Atlas, Birmingham." 
" Intersection, London. ' 

ABC and Ai Codes iis^d. 



^ aams^eiss^^^^^sm.'v^ ^- ^sj^t^m 




steel Lattice Girder Bridge, in one span of 115 feet 10 inches. 12 feet deep, and 13 feet wide, erected 

over the River Teme at Lullow. and carrying Welded Steel Main 3 feet 6 inches diameter, 

for the Birmingiiam Welsh Water Scheme. 



THE WELDLESS STEEL TUBE Co., 

LIMITED. 

ICKNIELD PORT ROAD, BIRMINGHAM. 

(Welcless.J 

Trade Mark. 




The Original Makers of 

PATENT WELDLESS STEEL TUBES 



ON ADMIRALTY LIST. 



ESTABLISHED 1872. 



For BOILERS 

HYDRAULIC PRESSES 
FERRULES 
BORING RODS 
BUSHES 



SHAFTING 
COUPLINGS 6 
GENERAL 
ENGINEERING 
PURPOSES 



41 




!i BP 

jfmMmi 



?ii5' 



Boilers, &c. 




Engineers and 
Manufacturers of 



BABCOCK & WILCOX Ltd., 

Patent Water=Tube Steam Boilers. 




OVER 3,500,000 H.P. IN USE IN ALL INDUSTRIES. 

The only Water-Tube Boiler which gained the GRAND PRIX 
(Hij^hest Award) at the Paris International Exinhition. 1900. 



Complete Installations of Steam 

Piping and Boiler House Plants. 



ALSO 



WATER-TUBE MARINE BOILERS. 



ESTIMATES AND PLA:^S ON APPLICATION. 



Babcock & Wilcox Boiler, i rrTi:D with Sltkrhearkr, 



A valuable treatise on " Steam " and " Ac- 
cessories" Catalogue free on application, 
to Entiineers and Steam Users. 



Head Offices — 

LONDON : Oriel House, Farringdon St., 
E.C. ; and Branches. 

WORKS: RENFREW, Scotland. 




HerbeetWermL™ 

flooDGATES^v/oi^KS 
BiRmiNCHAM. 

TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS 

"floodgate" BIRMINGHAM. 

TELEPHONE N? 373. 

STOCK 250.000. CROSS 










Boilers 





THE STIRLING COMPANY 
OF U.S.A. 

The Original Manufacturers of the 

STIRLING 
BOILER 



WATERTUBE 

SAFETY 



THE MOST ECONOMICAL BOILER ON THE MARKET. 

ADAPTED for ANY KIND of FUEL, and for 
either HAND or MECHANICAL STOKING. 



Specially suitable for Firing by Gas 
from Blast Furnaces or Producerf , or 
forutilisingWaste Heat from Healing 
Furnaces. Upwardsof 1,400,000 H. P. 
of our Boilers in operation. 



ESTIMATES GIVEN PO? COMPLETE BOILER-HOUSE EQUIPMENTS, 

BRITISH BRANCH— 

53, Deansgate Arcade, Manchester. 



TELEPHONE 3098. 



Telegrams: "TUBULOUS, MANCHESTER. 



THE MORRIN PATENT 

'CLIMAX' WATER TUBE BOILER 

600,000 H.P. in use. 




Made in all sizes 
up to 1,500 H.P. 

-uitable for all Steam-rai^inn 
purposes, and all conditions 
of working. 

llest disposed Heating Sur- 
face for utilisation of 
furnace gases 

i'.est Wdter-circulatingsysteni 
and steam superheating 
system obtamable. 

Tubes all one size, and ex- 
panded into one drum only. 

P^conomical in Hoor space. 

ICconumical in working, 
whether fired by hand or 
meclianicallv- 



Also Coal, Coke, and Ash 

Conveying Plants, Water 

Softeners, and Purifiers. 

Steel Chimneys. &c. 

B.yOMD8llO., 

LTD.. 

CliKiiix Boiler Ulorks, 
REDDISH, near 
MANCHESTER 



London Office: 47, VICTORIA ST., WESTMINSTER. 



LEEDS CITY BOILER WORKS 

{Established 1862. 
a a ON ADMIRALTY LIST, a 



MAKERS OF 



High-Class 



BOILERS 

To stand any test or 
pass any inspection. 

^.. MAI'E ll\ THK 

LATEST IMPROVED 
MACHINERY. 




VERTICAL BOILERS 

Always in Stock and in Progress. *' 

SPECIALITY.— Boilers Htted "ith DeiKhtons P.itent Corrugated 

Fluf.- uive 211 per cent, increased heating surface over ordinary Hues. 

Contractors for Roofs and all kinds of Structural Iron and 

Steel Work. 



43 



IffeiiilHidMDca] 



US) 




Boilers, &c. 





ROVLES limited- iRLAM • A\ANeH ESTER. ^ 



COCHRAN BOILERS 

PATENT VERTICAL MULTITUBULAR 




AND 



High=Class Cross Tube 



Supplied to alt the 
LEADING 

STEAMSHIP OWNERS, 

RAILWAY COMPANIES, 

and GOVERNMENTS 

throughout the World. 



COCHRAN & GO. (Annan), 

LIMITED, 

Annan, Scotland. 




44 




Wells' Specialities 




a' 

Vi 

It 

0' 

if 
11 



it 
i* 

♦1 

i* 

♦ 





THE i4 



^t» 



mens Ddhi" 

WVliirOfA' * WELLS' PATENTS). 



POWERFUL PORTABLE LIGHT FROM OIL 

Up to 5,000 Candle Power. 

For ENGINEERS, CONTRACTORS. SHIPYARDS, RAILWAYS, COLLIERIES, 
QUARRIES, MINES. HARBOURS, DOCKS, etc. 

OVER 17,000 SOLD. 

Supplied to 500 British and Foreign Railways. 

Adopted by 26 Governments and all leading Firms. 

Exclusively used by the Great Military and Naval Powers. 




Xo. 0. Lamp, soo Candle-power. Small Hand pattern 

1. Do. 500 or I. ^oo Candle-power. Hand pattern 

2. I i;oo or 2. SCO Candles. Useful and Portable pattern 

,', 3. 2.500 or 3.500 Candles. Manchester Ship Canal pattern 

4- 3$°° or 5 °°° Candles. A most powerml Lamp 

Burns either heavy Wells' Oil or Petroleum, but the former is very cheap and gives about 
30 per cent, more light than petroleum. 



£7 
£10 
£15 
£16 
£17 



7s, 
Os 

10 

10s 

15 



;N 



Kettle Torch Lamps. 

The Miner's Favourite. 

Thousands Sold. 

Used exclusively bv De Beers. 

Randt Mines, &c. 

Also liirgelyusedby Ccui- 

tractors. Corporations, 

Collieries. &c. 

Large Flaming Light. 

No. iS. ^ Pints, li in. 

Wick. 4s. 6d. each. 
No. 28. same shape as 
above, but having two Wicks, 

6 Pints, 9s, each, — 

A Splendid 
Lamp, fitted 
with 2 in. Wick. 
5 Pintscapacity 
9s. each. Suit- 
able for Sewer- 
ge and Drainage Work 
Steam Trawleis. &c. 





WELLS' OIL CAS 
GENERATING LAMPS. 

Light from Kerosene or Petrr)leum 

without Wick, Smoke, or Smell 
at less than One Penny per hour. 

Perfect Safely. 

Xo Ex}loswe Naptlia 

used. 

Thoiisaiuis sold. 

Uuatjected by Wind. 

EACH 

No. 12. 3 hours 119 

No. 13A, «ith Tripoti 13 9 

I^o. 13, 5 hours 14- 

No. 13A, with Tripod 17/- 

No. 14. 7 hours .. 16/- 

No. I4A, with Tripod 19/- 



Extra Burners 
for above. 
2s. each. 




j^ Wells Lightning 

W|!1L_ LIME&CDLDR 



WASHER. 



— V«LLW0RK!<W£llSW7fMrS 



♦« 






NO OUTSIDE POWER REQUIRED. 

LIME. WHITING, OR COLD WATER PAINTS, 

Applied at a speed of from 8 to 10 square yards 
per minute, in a manner superior to brush work. 

One coat with the Machine on rough surfaces is equal to two applied with brushes. 



Will save First Cost in a Few Days. 

1^ ^ frice. with 5 it. foie, bmgie spraymy iMj:t/,n:. ^..il. £C 1 OS. 

No. 4* 

No. 6. 



Price, with 5 ft. Pole, Single Spraying Noz/.le. and 

20 ft. Speci.il Aimoured Hose, 
Price, with Wheels. 5 ft. Pole. Single Spiaying £]0 lOS. 



Noz/Ie. and 20 ft. Special Armoured Hose. 
Same capacity as No. 1 Machine. 



£7 7s. — 







a 

o 
o 

a 
c$ 
a 
o 

a 




ii 




A. C. WELLS 6 Co., 
100a, Midland Road, St. Pancras, 



te^feitofe«.,JP* 



WorKs : Cheetham, Manchester. 



LONDON. N.W. 



.it 
It? 



♦I 

It} 

J0 



» » ^ ♦ ♦ 



45 




Brass Foundry 




Hunt 



and 



MittOD, 



MAKERS OF 



HIGH^CLASS 
FITTINGS ONLY 

for Engines and Boilers. :^^^^^^^= 




Engineers' Brass Finishers. 



CROWN BRASS WORKS, 
OOZELLS STREET NORTH, 

BrRMINGHAM.1 



Patent " End Sitjlit" Oil Distributing Box. 



Telegrams : 

MiTTON. Birmingham." 

Telephone : 394. 



Complete Self-contained Boiler 
Equipment. 




Oil Gauge Indicator for Solid 
Bearings. 



Skani Cylinder Gic.ise Cups. 



46 



Killingbect's Sight Kced Lubricator. 




.©^DKIEtr^ 



Packings 




THE 
BEST 



METALLIC PACKING 




IN THE WORLD. 



OVER 130,000 FITTED 

TO ALL TYPES OF ENGINES IN EUROPE. ASIA, 
AFRICA. AND AMERICA. 



Supplied to the British, United States, Dutch, Spanish. 

Japanese. 6c., Navies. Friction Decreased. Power and 

Fuel Saved. Vacuum Improved. Automatic Self- 

Adjusting. Steam Setting. Entirely Metallic. 



United States Metallic Packing 



CO., LTD. 



Telegrams: "Metallic. Bradford.' 
Telephone No.: 604. 



BRADFORD. 



Also MaKers of 



THE BRADFOR 
PORTABLE 



° Power Drill & Reamer. 



AIR COMPRESSORS and PNEUMATIC HAMMERS. 
PNEUMATIC HOISTS. PNEUMATIC PAINTERS. 
PNEUMATIC RIVETERS, <Sc.. <&c. 



OVER 3,000,000 H.P. FITTED 

Correspondence invited. 



COMBINATION 
METALLIC 

PACKING 




. . THE 

METALLIC 



3* 

•1 



COMBINATION 

GATESHEAD=ON=TYNE. 



47 



PACKING 

CO., LTD., 






<; (1) 



3 

&) 

S 



p* 
d 
•d 

V 

3 
a 

7i 

c 

3 




Packings, &c. 




"-it|i!i';!(| 



Jik^^SSBM.^ 



9^^ 



1^ 



^■x1 



xie^tX% 



MetSmPACKlNG^'PI^'^ONS^ 5TE|^TRAP5-£c 



^^*^mam 



v/^" 



'''r-:ZZ^<^K 



^ 



^:i 



LANCASTER tTONGE vrp PENDLET(DN'MANCHE3TER 




EXHAUST HEAD pSr 

Prevents the Ejection of Oil and Water, 

Reduces the Noise of the Exhaust. Saves the Oil or Grease. 
Prevents Damage to Property. No Back Pressure. 

Guaranteed Effective. 

Sole Licensees. 

THE FRIGTIONLESS ENGINE PACKING CO., LTD., 

Hendbam Vale Works, Harpurbey, Manchester. 



Sole Proprietors 

"KARMAL" ENGINE PACKING. 



ROKO'EDGE BELTING. 



NOW READY. 



Image's Magazine 

* Vol. I. JULY-DECEMBER, 1902. 

Fully Illustrated. Handsomely bound in half morocco. £1 Is. net. 



C/.U/V House, Surrey Street, Str'nd. W C. 




m^m f 



Lubricators. &c. 




MOSSES & MITCHELL'S 

Genuine Vulcanized Fibre 

SHEETS. 
TUBES. 
RODS. 

INSULATORS. 
VALVES. 

WASHERS. 

STAPLES. 



WRITE FOR PAMPHLET AND PRICES. 

MOSSES & MITCHELL, 

70-71, CHISWELL STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



RATEMT 



LUBRICATORS, OIL CONDUCTORS, 

GREASE CUPS. 



FINEST 




Various 
Size-. 




QUALITY. 




Standard 
Threads 



BEARING BALLS. 




_9, 
32 



A 7 

8 16 2 

Cast Steel and Phosphor Bronze. 
Sbno for New Catalogue. 

TEALE 6 CO., Birmingham. 




W. H . WILLCOX <S Co., Ltd. 

23, 34 and 36, Southwark Street, LONDON. 

PENBERTHY PATENT INJECTOR 

For ALL Boilers. '"''"""''"'^tnetlt&c"" ''"'"°° 

OVER 250,000 IN USE. 

HANDLES HOT WATER. Will Deliver at Boiling Point. 

Works on High and Low Pressures. 
AUTOMATIC and RESTARTING. Lifts up to 22 ft. 

N 3 STYLES AND 16 DIFFERENT SIZES. 





ASHTON'8 "p!?^^- LUBRICATORS 

Never fail. Thousands Sold 



Size 



SENT FOR ONE MONTH'S FREE TRIAL. 



Pints. 



Ash 



Price 3©- 39/- 4S- TSl- ilO/- each. 

Do not confuse this with the cheap, unfinished, American make. 

for Lis. 36. THOMAS A. ASHTON, Ltd., Norfolk Street, Sfieffield. 



43 







Lubrication 




"VACUUM" WASTE OIL FILTERS (Patent). 

SAVE INITIAL OUTLAY IN A SHORT TIME. 

Prices from 37s 6d to £21 each, with filtering capacities, v,irvinfi from 2 .,^all.>ns per week 1" ■<> frillons per day. ( In three types ) 
Largely adopted b^ gas enfime and cfhe? machinery users. Invaluable for Electric Lighting Stations, b ull particulars on apphcafon-also of c 

"B" TYPE 
PATENT FILTER. = 



Closed. 







■0-2" 

= ! u..i: 

— ^ lU u 

,, E £ S 

O C ZC 

3 " a m2 
3 '€ ^■"' ^ 
:;S.S£E 



z 







■5 10 



. a 



■o 
a 



a 
10 



3 
ID 




VACUUM OIL COMPANY, LI° Norfolk Street, LONDON, W.C. 




so 




steel Tools, &c. 




___ — u . — ^^ ._^ — . — 

We have three Specialities - 
BUCKLEY'S BOHLER STYRIAN TOOL STEELS 
BUCKLEY'S STUD STEEL 

BUCKLEY'S PATENT JACK 



The Patent BucKley JacK has a 
vertical, firm, and steady lift. 
One man can lift 10 tons. 




Made 
in 

Three 
Sizes. 



Also fitted ^vith Independent Traversing Base, 




No. 1 "Bl'Ckley" Jack... 
No. 2 "Buckley'' Jack... 
No. 3 '-Buckley" Jack... 



When Down. 

measures 5J in. 

9 u 
12 „ 



When Raised. 



Load. 



Hi 


in. 


10 tons. 


22 


n 


15 t. 


30 


1) 


-'O „ 



BUCKLEY'S STUD STEEL TESTS. 



Size „ ~ Specimen Yield Point, Ult. Stress, Elong.ation Contraction 

Bar. I "°^ lESTED. Number. Tons sg. in. Tons sg. in. ° ,, on 4 in. of Area ° q. 

68-0 
66-3 



^ . ( Untreated 

i ■ ( Oil tempered 



4.6 1 5 

4,622 



'27'6 

22'7 



SO"."? 
346 



25-0 

2I"2 



BEND Screwed !, in. Bar, specimen No. 4,627, bent from o" to 90" and back to o" 

TEST, seventeen times before fractme. Total degrees bent through 1.530 in. 



Particulars 



SAMV BUCKLEY, 

St. Paul's Square, BIRMINGHAM. 

Works: Styrian Steel WorKs, SHEFFIELD. 



51 




Miscellaneous 




BALL BEARINGS 




For Crane Hooks, 
Crane Posts, 
Worm 

Gearing, 
Turntables, 
Turbine 

Shafts, 
Propeller 

Shafts, 
Etc. 



ROLLER 

BEARINGS, 
STEEL and 

METAL 

BALLS, 
and Bright, 

Accurately 

Finished 

NUTS. 



The Auto Machinery Co., L*"^ 



COVEN^TK'V. 



COLONIAL AND FOREIGN 
CONTEMPORARY OPINIONS 
OF "PAGE'S MAGAZINE.' 



"Its editor is Mr.D.uidge P;i_ . 
clear conception ol" what his Magazine ouglit to be to capture 

t 



and lie has evidently a 
ture 
and 



the patronage of those engaged in the engineering anc 
shipbuilding trades. Students in all departments of en 
gineering will tind Pace's Magazine a profitable and 
informing companion." — Xmi Zealand Times. 

'•We welcome the publication as a distinct addition to 
the litei.iture connected with all the principal branches of 
the mechanical arts. . . . Each monthly issue is an 
admirable shilling's worth."— 7";;hc.> i)/ Ceylon. 

" Page's Magazine is most attractive in appearance and 
design, and to the technical it will be found deserving of a 
regiiiar place on desk and she\i:'—yi'hainicsbur:^ Star. 

"The Magazine is quite a model of what a technical 
paper shouUrbe."— .Ya/n' Adveiiisei: 

■' Page's Magazine promises to rank as one of the best of 
the technical monthlies."— .l/d&OH;»t: Ai'^iis. 

'• Page's Mac^azine is one of the most beautifully produced 
monthlies published. The illustrations are exquisitely 
piinted.'' — Jainaiea Gleaner. 

" The new Magazine seems likely to take a prominent, 

if not a leading place in the long list of technical journals. 

Altogether it is a notable production fully meriting, 

in our opinion, the high encomiums passed by a number of 

men of note and influence at home.''— A'ci/'i' Herahl. 





Miscellaneous 




One Actual TEST is worth 100 Opinions. 
DENISON'S 

. . NEW. . 

C. I. Bar Tester. 



I* 1* 



Tests to Destruction Specimens 
2 in. X I in. and I in. square. 



V V 



S. DENISON & SON, 

HuNSLET Moor, 




THE . 



Phosphor Bronze Co., 

SOUTHWARK LONDON, S.E. 



LTD. 



SILICIUM BRONZE WIRE 



iln five grades of Conductivity and Tensile Strength.) 

The best for Electrical Aerial Lines. As used by British 
and Foreign Governments, and the principal Telephone 
Companies, Electrical Engineers, etc. 
SILICIUM BRONZE is also supplied in the form of Billets. Ingots, 
Strip, Sheet, and Rods. 




Miscellaneous 




SEND us 

YOUR 

CAT 



ALOGUE 



Or, 



Anything else you would liKe 
to have attractively printed, 
and let us send quotations. 



GOOD PRINTING PAYS THE USER. 



Telephone : 504 HOLBORN. 



Telegrams : 

"SOUTHERNWOOD, LONDON. 



SOUTHWOOD, SMITH & Co., Ltd. 
Plough Court, Fetter Lane, 

LONDON, EC. 




>(SMaKIl)f 




Fans, &c. 





■' SIROCCO" FANS FOR S.S. •■CELTIC," 



"SIROCCO" 

Centrifugal 
Fans 

. . FOR . 

VENTILATION, 
FORCED DRAUGHT 
INDUCED DRAUGHT 
HEATING, 
COOLING, 
DRYING. 
REfRIGERATION. 
DUST REMOVAL. 
FORGE FIRES, ETC., ETC. 



3lso "Sirocco" Propeller Pans, Furnace Fronts, Engines, etc. 



Illustrated and Descriptive Pamphlets 
on Application- 4 -^ ^ ^ 



DAVIDSON {3 CO., Ltd., 

Branches: LONDON.^MmH^^^^^^^^^ " Sirocco " Engineering WorKs, BELFAST. 



" STANDARD " 



EXHAUSTERS, 
BLOWERS. 

FANS. 




Write for Prices and Particulars to 

THE STANDARD ENGINEERING CO., LTD., 

LEICESTER. 



431 WiLFLEY Tables 

Have been installed by the. . . 
ANACONDA COPPER COMPANY, 
and are now in use at that mine. 



If you are in the market for 
CONCENTRATINQ MACHINERY, 
send for particulars of the No. 4 
WILFLEY TABLE, to be obtained 
of the Sole Proprietors: — 

THE WILFLEY ORE CONCENTRATOR 

SYNDICATE, Ltd., 

7-II, Moorgate Street, London, E.C. 

Telegraphic Address : " WRATHLESS. LONDON. " 

Telephone N'o. : 1652 London W.all. 

Codes used : BEDFORD McXeill : A. B. C. : MOREIXG & NeaL, 

General. 

More than 4,000 Wilfleys have been sold. 
Upwards of 600 mines are using our Concentrator. 



1 




Iron and 5teel 





CALCUTTA: 

31, Dalhousie Square. 




Steel Buildings 
and Roofs. 





MFRS. 
OF 

IRON 

AND 

WIRE 
FENCING, 
HURDLES, 
RAILING, 

GATES, 

TREE- 

GUARDS„ 

&C. 

uow 

Prices. 



^ h 




u 



'U 



1 



) 










Also 

MANUFACTURERS 

of the 

"EUREKA" 
LOCK-NUT, 

and 

ALL KINDS OF 

RAILWAY 

A and 

'^ TRAMWAY 

FASTENINGS 

^^a^;; GALVD. 
FT »" TELEGRAPH 



) 






POLES, 
TIE-BARS, 
NAVVY 
BARROWS, 

&c., &c. 



\<'f('w:i^i ^j^^«r 



itTTril 



LISTS 
FREE. 




INDEX'TO'ADVERTISERS 



Addy, Gcorj;e, & Co 

Addiessogiaph, Ltd 

Allgemeine Elektricitiits-Gesellscli.ifl . 
Anderson, D., & Son, Ltd. 

Armstrong, Stevens & Son 

Ashton, Thomas A., Ltd 

Asquith, W. 

Auto Machinery Co., Ltd. 

Automatic Addressing Biueaii.x. Ltd. . , 
Avery, \V. & T., Ltd 

Babcock and Wilcox, Ltd. . . 

Bayliss, Jones & Bay liss, Ltd. ... 

Becker, R. & Co 

Bertrams, Ltd 

Blake and Knowles' Steam Pump WurU^;, Ltd, 

Bleichert, Adolf, & Co 

Blumann & Stern, Ltd. ... 

Booth, Joseph & Brothers, Ltd 

Bridge, David, S Co. 



P.A(iE 
19 

<».! 

^5 
,>^ 
3.> 
4' I 
14 
5- 
91 
3 

4^ 
56 



.SI 

60 



S,) 







P.AGK 


Britannia Engine and Tool Factoi 


y ... 


6 


British Steam Specialties, Ltd. ... 




. . I OC 


Broadbent, Thos. & Sons, Ltd. 




86 


Brown Bayley's Steel Works, Ltd. 




... 32 


Brown Hoisting Machinery Co. 




71 


Brush Electrical Engineering Co., 


Ltd. 


^35 


Buckley, Samuel ... 




.=;r 


Buffoline Noiseless Gear Co. 




^4 


Bullivant & Co., Ltd. 




so 


Burton, C. W., Griffiths & Co. 




17 


Chester, Edw. & Co., Ltd. 




21 


Chubb & Sons Lock and Safe CVi. 


, Ltd. 


76 


Churchill, Charles, & Co., Ltd. ... 




II 


Churton, T. Harding 




79 


Clarke's Crank & Forge Co., Ll>l. 




36 


Clayton, Son & Co., Ltd 




43 


Cleveland Bridge and Engineciiii 


gCn. 


39 


Cochran & Co. (.Annan) . . 




44 


Combination Metallic Packing Co 


, Lid. 


■ 47 



BLACKMAN ELECTRIC FANS 

(Or Belt Driven) 

FOR VENTILATING. 

OVER 60,000 IN USE. 

MOST CONVENIENT 
EFFICIENT, & 
ECONOMICAL. 




GOLD MEDAL 

PARIS, 1900. 



JAMES KEITH & BLACKMAN GO. 

Ltd.. 

Specialists in I)catln9, Uentllatins 

and Bigh Pressure «as Lighting, 

27, Farringdon Avenue, 

LONDON, E.G., 

And BRANCHES. 

Works I HOLLOWAY, N. 
Foundries t ARBROATH. 



57 







Ventilation, &c. 




MATTHEWS & YATES, Ltd., 



Swinton, MANCHESTER. 



Cyclone Fans 



= = and = 



Blowers 



Are not onlv Ventilating most of 
the Important Public Buildings 
throughout the Country, but have 
been adopted by the Principal 
Steam Ship Companies also. 

BELT, ELECTRIC, & STEAM DRIVEN. 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE. 




Cyclone Electric Fan. Enclosed Motor. 







^j yed for IRi drain£§e of CASTB?URME 

Bombay, RANGooH,5ouTnAMPToM, | 

G\P5ToWM and many offTer Townj. . 

Compressed AIR lim^ 

for raising water from WBLL5. BoREHOLE5&c. 

\lRComE551f1GKS 



MliffilH 



nstTmotes o ParTTculora "n appllcdTioh. 



5« 



Index to Advertisers 



-(Contd.) 



Conselt Iron Co., Ltd 

Crompton & Co., Ltd 

Crowther, H. 

Cunliffe & Croom, Ltd 

Davidson & Co., Ltd 

Da vies & Sons, Richard 

Davis & Primrose 

Deightons Patent Flue & Tube Co 

Denison, S., & Son 

Drum Engineering Co 

Empire Typewriter Co 

Karnley Iron Co., Ltd 

Firth, William, Ltd 

Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Ltd. 
Fowler, John, & Co. (Leeds), Ltd. 

Eraser & Chalmers, Ltd 

Frictionless Engine Packing Co , Ltd 

Galloways, Ltd. 

Gilkes, G., & Co., Ltd 

Glover, M., & Co. 

Graham, Morton & Co 

Green, E., & Son, Ltd 

Greenwood & Batley, Ltd. 
Griffin, Charles, & Co., Ltd. ... 
Gunther, W., & Sons 

Hadfteld's Steel Foundry Co., Ltd. 
Halden, J., & Co 



Ltd. 



I'AI.E 

.. 34 

12 

■ • 77 
.. 13 



19 

71 



3" 

100 

66 

29 

4» 

77 

6(1 

70 

Inside Back Cover 

So 

59 

... 77 

65 

^*7 



Hall, J. P., & Sons, Ltd 

Hammond Typewriter Co 

Handyside, Andrew, & Co., Ltd. 

Hardy Patent Pick Co. Ltd 

Hathorn, Davey, & Co.,Ltd. .. 

Hindley, E. S., and Sons 

Horsfall Destructor Co 

Howard Bros 

Howes, S. ... 

Hudsu-ell, Clarke & Co., Ltd 

Hughes & Lancaster 

Hughes, G. H 

Humbolt Engineering Works Co. 

Hunslet Engine Co. 

Hunt & Mitton 

International Electrical Engineering Co. 
International Time Recording Co. 

Kaye, Joseph, & Sons, Ltd 

Keep, Juxon & Co. ... 

Keith, J., & Bhckman Co., Ltd. 

Kiessling's Machine Co 

Kirchner & Co 

Krupp, Fried 

Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd. 

Leeds Forge Co., Ltd 

Library Bureau, Ltd 

Library Supply Co. 

Lobnitz & Co., Ltd 



PAGE 

.. 27 

.. 8S 

.. 39 

I 

.. 7 

.. lOO 

.. 74 

.. 9* 

- 72 
.. 64 

.. 5« 

.. 6 

.. 26 

- 77 
... 46 

.. 80 

.. 99 

.. 50 

■ • 35 

... 57 

... 20 

... 22 

... 32 

... 4f* 

... 69 

.. 95 

... 96 



CHARLES GRIFFIN^ & CO., Ltd., PUBLISHERS. 

I'ST Oi T. In Cr<nvn ^vo. Handsome Cloth. With ujimerous Ilhistrntions. Os. net. 

ELECTRICAL PRACTICE IN COLLIERIES. 

By D. BIKN^ M E , M.lNST.M.h,. LccUircr un MiniiiK :uid (.C0I014V, Gl.isjr.w and WlsI 01 .Sculland TttlmiLal Culle.Sc.-. ^ 

Units of Measurement. Conductors. Sc— The Theorv 01 the Dynamo.— The Dvnamo. Details of Construction and \\ "rkmg.— .Motors. 
l.ii;htin« Installations in Collieries.— Pumrinj; by Kleclricity.— Electrical Haulage.— Coal Cuttini;.— Miscellaneous .Applications ot tlcctiiciiy 

ill 'Mines.— IXDt;.\. 

In CTOii'n 8fo, Handsome Cloth. With Numerous Illustrations. 5s. net. 

EMERY GRINDING MACHINERY. 

By ]; K. HOlJ(j-~i IN, .\.M iNsl.MlcH.E 
lNTR<inrcTIo.s'. — Tool tirinding —Emery Wheels — Mounting Emery ' 

Working. — Leading Typesof Machines.— Concave and Conve.\ Grinding- — Cup ;..... -....- . - u- " f ntv 

and Cutter Grinding Machines.— Ward Universal Cut er Grinder.— Press Tool Grinding.— Lathe Centre Grinder.— Polishing.— 1NDE.\. 



rinding -Emery Wheels'-M.iunting Emerv Whcels.-Emerv Kings and Cylinders.-Londitions to Ensure tnicieiu 
f Machines.-Concave and Convex Grinding— Cup and Cone Machines.— Multiple Grinding.— •Guest cnivers.u 



Fifth ErjrtluN, lUcrouihly Rr.ised ami considerably Enlarged. Larffe 8vo. With numerous Ilhislrations and Micro-Plibtoaraphic, 

Platcsof different '.ariclias of Steel. ii>. 

An Introduction to the Study of METALLURGY. 

By SlH W. HUBERT .\U,-^ThN', K.C B., D.C.I. , F.R,^.. -Associate of the R..yal ^ch,,..l of Mines ; Late Che i ibl ana .\bs;iyer to 
the Royal .Mint and Professor of Metallurgy in the Royal College, f Science. 
■' Xo English te.xt-book at all approaches this in the cciMfletknkss with which the most modern views on the subject are dean wim. 
I INV.XLrABLE. not Only to the student, but also to those whose knowledge of the art is far ad\anced —Chemical .^t■;c^. 



Professor JAMIESON'S POPULAR WORKS. 

ADVANCED MANUALS. ELEMENTARY TEXTS 

STEAM AND STEAM ENGINES. Thirteenth Edition. STEAM AND THE STEAM ENGINE. Ninth Edition. 

Revised and Enlarged, .s?, 6d. i i.;e\iscd and Enlar.i;cd ;v. (,d. 

APPLIES MECHANICS. Vol. L— Work and its .\pplication ; I APPLIED MECHANICS. Fifth Edition. Revised. Enlarged. 
Ge.aring. Third Edition. 7s. 6d. and Illustiated. is. i.a, 

V"l IL— Motion and Energy; Graphic Statics; Strength of ' ^. »-^.^«,**i.w-v i-ifih l.-^itir,n 

MaUri;.ls; Hydraulics. Second Edition. 8s. M. j MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY. Fifth Edition. 
Either ot the above can be purchased sepaialely. Fully Illustrated. ;,i. 6d. 



LONDON: CHARLKS GRIFFIN & CO., LIMITED. EXETKR STREET. STRAND. 



59 



Index to Advcrtisers- 



(Contd.) 









PAGE 


P.AGK 


Luke and Spencer, Ltd 




22 


Pressed Steel Car Co. OS 


Lyle Co., Ltd 




97 


Pulsonieter Engineering Co., Ltd. 61 


Mabie, Todd & Bard 




Sg 


Reliance Lubricating Oil Co 18 


Mclnnes, T. S., & Co., Ltd 




89 


Keniinj^ton Typewriter Co. ... . . ... !S.S 


McLaren, J. &H B 


tck C 


over 


Renshaw, W. R., & Co., Ltd 6S 


Magnolia Anti-Friction Metal Co., Ltd. 




63 


Rockwell-Wabash Co., Ltd 94 


Main, A. & J., & Co., Ltd 




56 


Rice & Co. (Leeds), Ltd 18 


Mason, W. F., Ltd 




75 


Riter-Conley Mfg. Co — 


Matthews & Yates, Ltd 




5« 


Robey & Co., Ltd. 5 


Meldrum Bros., Ltd 




76 


Ropeways Syndicate, Ltd — 


Melting, J. F 




27 


Rose, Downs & Thompson, Ltd. 71 


Mellowes&Co 




60 


Rowland, B. R., & Co 43 


Met. Amalgamated Ky. Carriage & Wagon Co 


, Ld. 


62 


Royles, Ltd. ... ... ... . . 44 


Mills, Edwin, & Son 




37 


Ryder, William, Ltd 24 


Mosses & Mitchell 

Nicholson Tool Co. 




49 
13 


Schischkar & Co., Ltd 22 

Scotch iV Irish Oxygen Co., Ltd 87 


Parker P'oundry Co 




3^ 


Scott & Mountain, Ltd 28 


Parkinson, J., & Son 






25 


Scott, Walter, Ltd ,v 


Partridge & Cooper, Ltd 






96 


Selig, Sonnenthal & Co. .. .• 15 


Periam, H. W. Ltd 






42 


Shannon, Ltd ... 92 


Phoenix Dynamo Mfg. Co 






79 


Simplex Steel Conduit Co., Ltd. 62 


Phosphor Bronze Co., Ltd 






53 


Smith's Stamping Works, Ltd. ... ... . . ... 34 


Piggott, Thos., & Co., Ltd 






41 


Smith, Thomas & Sons, of Saltley, Ltd. ,. .. .,3 


Pochin, E. Arnold 






77 


South Eastern & Chatham Ry 90 


Polishers' Supply Co. .. 






100 


Southwood, Smith & Co., Ltd 54 


Portable Building Co., Ltd 






3S 


Spon, E. & F. N 


Pr.itt & Whitney C 






ifi 


St. Helen's Cible Co., Ltd. 7 


M^%. High=class 


T 


1 


JRRICANTS 


fB&sl 




1 . 


^\^ 


^ 1-^ IV * ^^^^^ ^ ^ 1 ^ 


TRADE MARK. 


For Ma 


ch 

M.S. 


iner 

•VIPER 


y of Every Description. 

" when her Engines developed 12.000 Indicated Horse- 


NOTICE. Durint 


' the recent trials of H. 


£1 i' power 
to 43 


, and the Admiralty mean speed for the six runs showed 36'581 knots, or a velocity equivalent 
miles an hour, our Lubricating Oil was used with most satisfactory results. 


BLUMi 


PlNN & STER^ 


1, Ltd., SI Deptford, London. 


Telegrams: "BLUMANN, 


LONDON." 


Telephone No.: .J2 DEPTFORD. S.E. 



MELLOWES & CO s 



PATENT 



No. 8 BAR. 



"ECLIPSE" 

ROOF 

GLAZING 



NO PUTTY, 
NO PAINTINO, 
NO 

MAINTENANCE 
NECESSARY. 



SHEFFIELD (Works). 
LONDON : 28, Victoria St., 

Westminster. 

to 





Pumps 




tr[7c Palsometer*! 



Steam Pump. 



Of all Pumps 



The easiest to put to work, 
the least liable to get out 
of order, and 



The Most Suitable o. 

Hard Work, 
Exposed Situations, 
Bad Water. 



There are no parts to rust up, no oir or 
packing is necessary, and the pump 
can be left on constant work for weeks 
together without attention. 

WRITE FOR LIST 14-8. 



pulsomctcr €n9ineermg G?,U? 

nine €tm&lronivork5, R-eadtttg, 






aisi 



^.n* 



tVm-MLMi 



Index to Advertisers (contd) 



Stamm, VV. .. 

Standard Engineering Co., Ltd. 

Stirling Co. of U.S.A 

Suddeutsche Kabelwerke, A.-G. 
Summerscales, W., & Sons, Ltd. 
Swain, John & Son, Ltd 

Tangyes Ltd 

Taylor & Cliallen, Ltd 

Teale&Co 

Thorn, John H 

Thornycroft Steam Wagon Co., Ltd. 

Treasure, J. B., & Co 

Triumph Stoker, Ltd 

Tubes, Ltd. 

Turner, Atherton & Co 



United Kingdom Self - Adjusting Ant 
Metallic P.icking Syndicate, Ltd. ... 



I'AGE 


32 1 




55 




4.^ 




87 




7.1 




go 




7.^ 




i8 




4') 




52 




6o 




27 




>^9 




40 




.S6 


Friction 




62 i 



PAGE 

United States Metallic Packing Co., Ltd 47 

Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd 5° 

Von der Heyde, J. Bennett 25 

Ward, H. W., & Co 25 

Ward, T. W 19 

Waygood & Otis, Ltd 88 

Weldless Steel Tube Co., Ltd 41 

Wells, A. C, cS: Co 45 

West Hydraulic Engineering Co 23 

Westinghouse Co., The British ... Inside Front Cover 

Wheeler Condenser and Engineering Co 72 

Wilfley Ore Concentrator Syndicate, Ltd 55 

Willcox, W. H., & Co., Ltd 49 

Williams, J. H., & Co 35 

Winn, Charles, & Co 21 

Woodhouse & Rixson 34 

Wrigley, E. G., & Co., Ltd 64 

Yost Typewriter Co. ... ... ... ... ... 9 




Designers St Constructors 
of Railway Carriages, 
Wagons, Tram Cars. 
Underframes & Ironwork 
of every Description. 



HEAD OFFICES: 

Oldbury, 
Birmingham. 

London Offices : 

'M, Victoria Street, 

Westminster. 
TcUgytirns : 

" Raii.car, London." 

"CARRtAdE. Ol.DRL'RY." 



SIMPLEST & . . 
MOST DURABLE 



METALLIC PACKING 



F'oi:* xkll d£k,sses of EZn^ia^es. 



IVl£«.x^v miousa,KKCls i»» Use. 



THE UNITED KINGDOM SELF-ADJUSTING ANTI-FRICTION 14. CooK St. 
METALLIC PACKING SYNDICATE, LTD. Liverpool. 



^ 



THE 



Simplex Steel Conduit 
Co.. Ltd., 



CONDUIT 
MANUFACTURERS, 



^ 



80, Digbeth, Birmingham. 
20, BucKlersbury, London, 
1, Peel Street, Manchester. 



E.G. 




SIMPLEX 




CONTRACTORS TO 

MM. Government <f 
Leading Municipal <£ 
Electrical Corporations. 

fiighcsl Hward, Paris, i900. 




THE, SIMPLEX 

Systftn of Steel 
Conduits is the best for 
Interior Wiring Work. 
It is the most complete, 
and comprises six grades 
of Conduits and over. SOO 
fittings. It IS manufac- 
tured with the greatest 
111 only first 
materials are 



ca re. 

quality 

used. 



Immediate Delivery. 
Blrminoham & London 




INQUtRtES 

SOLICITED, 

Telegrams : 
"Economy, Birmingham.** 



|li^5Wlte<§^!IKIIEV(' Magnolia Metal 



Magnolia 
Metal . . 



Best Anti=Friction Metal 
for all Machinery 
Bearings. 




"Flower" Brand. 

The Name and Trade MarK appear on each 
Box and Ingot. 

^^ Magnolia Anti-Friction 
^'' Metal Company, of 
Great Britain, Limited, 

49, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, 

LONDON, E.C. 



Telephone : 592S Bank, 



Telegrams: "MAGNOLIER, LONDON." 



BERLIN : FRIEDRICH STRASSE, 71. PARIS : 50. RUE TAITBOUT. 

LIEGE. BELGIUM : 36, RUE DE L'UNIVERSITE. 

GENOA, VIA SOTTORIPA : 1. PIANO NOBILE. 




Miscellaneous 




ESTABLISHED 1860, 



TEL. ADDRESS: "LOCO., LEEDS," 



HUDSWELL, CLARKE & Co., 



RAILWAY rOUNDRY, LEEDS. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES, 



LTD., 



Of all sizes and any gauge of Kaikv.iy, of greatly improved Construction, for Main or Branch Kailways, Contractors, 
Ironworks, Collieries. Prices, Photographs, and full Speciticationi on application. 




SOLE MAKERS OF THE • RODGERS PULLEYS (Registered). 
Wrought Iron throughout, Rim, Arms, and Boss. 

ALSO "ETCHELLS"' NON-DRIP BEARINGS, SHAFTING, AND ACCESSORIES. 

E. G. Wrigley <S Co., Ltd., 

Foundry Lane Works, Soho, BIRMINGHAM. 

Tflet^mnr. : "CLTrtKs. Birmingham." Tcle^honf So,: lOS S-MLthwiliv. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Milling Cutters Reamers 
Gear Cutters Saws 

FOR CUTTING METAL. 






Roughing Cutter. 



Worm Hob 

WITH BEI.IEVtD TEETH, 



KICHT HAND CUITER 

Relieved Angular Cutter, 



64 






■J 


"O 






1) 




crt 


■u 


■n 


^ 




X 


^ 


en" 


O 


a 




en" 




rj 


K 




5 


Li^ 


"^ 


2: 



a, 



D 






£ §1 



O 

I 
u 
>^ 

■ D 



yvjfF^\ 



PAGE'S MAGAZINE 



An Illustrated Technical Monthly, dealing with the Engineering, Electrical, Shipbuild ng. Iron and Steel, 

Mining and Allied Industries. 



Vol. II. 



LONDON, APRIL, 1903. 



No. 4. 




-AT^a-Jis- 



^ 






THE " PROTECTOK KUN.M.NG XT FULL SPEED. 



AN UNDERWATER AUTOHOBILE. 

THE NEW AMERICAN SUBMARINE TORPEDO-BOAT "PROTECTOR.' 

l;v 

HERBERT C. FYFE, Author of " Submarine Warfare." 

Mr. Fyfc gives a detailed account of the " Lake " submarine torpedo-hoat, and discusses its elHiciency 
as compared with the Hollaud type. — Editor. 



npHE launch of the submarine torpedo-boat 
-*• Protector at Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.A.. 
the other day, is a very interesting event in the 
storv of under-water navigation. The Protector, 
the invention of Mr. Simon Lake, is an entirely 
new type of craft, and differs very materially from 
every other submarine boat ever constructed. 

Mr. Lake believes that under-water vessels 
have a very useful future before them, both from 
a peaceful and from a war-like point of view, 
and already his submarine wreck-raising boat 
has performed valuable service in wreck 
recovery, raising coal from sunken barges, and 
similar work. 



THE "ARGONAUT." 

Mr. Lake commenced the study of submarine 
navigation nearly twenty years ago, and he 
claims that he has travelled greater distances 
under water than any other builder on either 
side of the Atlantic. The first practical and 
successful boat built by Mr. Lake was the 
Argonaut, and she has proved the practicability 
of this type of vessel for commercial purposes. 
She can retnain for days under the surface ; she 
can steer as correct courses beneath the waves 
as on the surface ; she affords the crew the 
same comfort as when on the surface, with 
ample sleeping and cooking facilities, and she 



(299) 







in 
D 






(300) 



An Under=Water Automobile. 



301 



has means of enabling divers to enter and leave 
the hull by an open door through which no water 
can possibl}- enter. 

The Argonaut is now in the possession of the 
Lake Submarine Company of New York. She 
is 66 ft. long and 10 ft. beam and of about 120 
tons displacement, and has travelled thousands 
of miles under her own power along the coast, 
and in the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays and 
Long Island Sound. She has been in use over 
three years, and during all her cruises has never 
been compelled to take a tug boat owing to any 
breakdown of her machinery. At the present 
time she is engaged with the Sound and Coast 
Wrecking Company in their salvage operations 
in Long Island Sound. 



TRAVELLING ON THE FLOOR OF THE OCEAN. 

The main feature that distinguishes the 
" Lake " type of submarine is the power of 
travelling on the floor of the ocean. For this 
purpose they are fitted with wheels, and when 
on the bottom thev run along the sea-bed just 
as a carriage rolls along a high road. 

Mr. Lake declares, in a recent pamphlet, that 
travelling on the bottom is the most simple, safe 
and reliable method known of under-water 
navigation, and his boats differ from the "diving 
torpedo-boats," owned by Great Britain, France 
and the United States in that they go under 
on an even keel and can rest on their wheels when 
on the sea floor. Mr. Lake says that several 
boats of the diving type have taken head-first 
dives to the bottom, throwing their crew down 
into one end of the craft. 

All mariners know (lie remarks) how difficult it is to 
steer an absolutely straight course on the surface ; then 
liow much more difficult is it to steer a straight course 
beneath the waves : On the surface the vessel can only 
swing to the right or left ; she does not go up in the air, 



because she is held to one plane (the surface of the water) 
by her weight ; neither does she go down, because she is 
held to the same plane by her buoyancy, therefore the 
rudder is able to control her. But below the surface all 
these conditions are changed ; every wave imparts an up 
and down motion to the particles of water beneath it, 
and consequently affects the course of the submarine 
vessel. Currents run in a variety of directions, and as 
soon as the screw or propelling mechanism starts in 
motion, it affects the equilibrium and trim of the boat. 
If one of the crew move forward or aft, the trim is 
affected, and all these things tend to elevate or depress 
the bow of the boat or affect her course, and as she can 
go either to the right or left, or up or down, or, indeed, 
in any direction, there is scarcely any limit to the 
difficulty of holding her securely to an appointed course 
under the surface of the water. Either she will be 
ducking down and running her bow into the bottom of 
the sea, or bobbing up again to the surface. 

At the best, a vessel navigated in this manner is much 
Hke a vessel in a dense fog, and it is necessary to come 
to the surface frequently to correct her course, and 
thereby expose her presence to the enemy. 

The "Lake " type is not subject to the above dilhculties. 
When travelling on the bottom she has no perfect trim or 
equilibrium to maintain, as she can travel when resting 
on the guide wheels with a weight varying from one 
pound to two thousand pounds or more (according to tlie 
conditions of the bottom), and she is so proportioned that 
the entire crew can move from one end of the vessel to 
the other without materially disturbing her trim, great 
longitudinal stability being one of the features of the 
type. She can run more accurate courses than a surface 
vessel, because she is running over a medium, the bottom, 
which is not constantly changing like the surface waters ; 
currents do not drift her out of her course, and when 
the propelling machinery is stopped she is always 
anchored. 

The wave motion does not affect her, as means are 
provided to compensate for the lifting effect of the ground 
swell at sea, so that in practice travelling on the sea 
bottom has been found to fairly compare with travelling 
over an asphalt pavement in a pneumatic-tired vehicle. 

In travelling in this manner there is no danger of 
failure of some of the diving machinery, which might 
cause a head-first dive to the bottom, and in all our 
experience we have never found a bottom that we could 
not readily travel over in this manner. 




MODEL OF "protector," SHOWING WHEELS FOR RfXXIXG ON THE SE.\ BOTTO.M. 



Page's Magazine. 




LAUNCH OF THE " I'ROTECTOR " AT BRIDGEPORT, CONNECTICUT. 



It is quite true that some of the earlier sub- 
marines were very erratic in their diving, and 
showed a desire to run their noses into the 
bottom or to stand up on their tails and shove 
their bows out of the water. The new Holland 
type, the new " Vickers- Admiralty " type, and 
the French submarines and submersibles are all 
" diving boats " ; that is to say, when their 
ballast tanks are full, and they are running 
awash, they are submerged by means of 
horizontal rudders which send them down an 
inclined plane. When the requisite depth is 
reached they are brought up again on an 
even keel, either by hand or by means of a 
hydrostatic valve, a pendulum or some other 
mechanism acting on the horizontal rudders. 

No difficulty appears to be e.xperienced with 
the modern diving boats, thanks to the ingenious 
appliances with which they are fitted. 

NAVIGATION AT A GIVEN DEPTH. 

The " Lake " boats need not always run on the 
ocean bed, but can be navigated at any pre- 
determined depth between the surface and the 
bottom. In this position the depth of sub- 
mergence is maintained nearly constant by 
means of hydroplanes, one or more on each side 



of the vessel. These hydroplanes, or horizontal 
rudders, are controlled automatically, and the 
boat in submerging always maintains a level 
keel. 

The method of submerging by the side vanes 
of hydroplanes is as follows : water ballast is 
taken in to bring the boat to the " awash " 
condition. The vanes are then turned down- 
wards and the water flowing against the upper 
portion of the planes forces the structure 
beneath the surface until the required depth is 
reached, when the " automatic depth regulator " 
causes the planes to oscillate as required to 
constantly maintain that deisth. 

THE " PROTECTOR." 

We niav now give some account of the latest 
" Lake " boat, the Protector. 

The Protector has been built as a speculative 
venture, by the Lake Torpedo-Hoat Company, 
of New York City and Bridgeport, from the 
designs of Mr. Simon Lake. 

The following is a comparison between the 
" Lake " and HoUaiui boats represented by 
British Submarines Nos. i to 5, and the United 
States boats. Adder, Porpoise, Pike, Shark, 
Grampus, Moccasin and Plunger. 



An Under=Water Automobile. 



.3-3 





" Lake " li »t. 


Hollaml Bjat. 


Leii.t;tli (ivcr 


65 ft 


63 ft. 4 in. 


Beam 


1 1 fl 


1 1 ft. (1 in. 


Displacement alluat 


1 15 tons 


105 tons 


Surface buoyancy 


55 tons 


15 tons 


H.p. of gasoline engine.. 


25" 


160 


H.p. of batteries 


75 for 4 hours 


70 for 4 hours 


Screws 


2 


T 


Depth of submersion .. 


150ft 


150 It. 


Armament 


3 Whitehead 


1 Whitehead 




tiirpedo-tubes 


torpedo-tube 


Fuel-carrying capacity... 


1,400 gallons... 


S50 gallons 


Speed on surface 


10 to 11 knots 


S to y knots 


Speed submerged 


7 knots 


7 knots 



The Protector is 65 ft. long, 11 ft. beam, and 
displaces in light condition 115 tons. She is 
ship-shape instead of cigar shape. On the 
surface she is driven by a gasoline engine of 
250 h.p., and submerged by an electric motor of 
75 h.p. for four hours. The gasoline is carried 
in tanks in the superstructure, and entirely 
outside of the living quarters in the boat, so that 



if it escajied it could not injure the crew. In 
the HolLiiul boats it is carried in tlie interior 
of the shell. Twin screws are employed, and it 
is claimed that in manoeuvring the operator has 
better control of the boat than if there were only 
one screw. The hull has sufficient strength to 
submerge 150 ft. The armament consists of 
Whitehead torpedoes, and there are three torpedo 
expulsion tubes, two at the bow and one at the 
stern ; in the Holland craft there is only one 
expulsion tube, forward. 

The Protector carries three iS-in. Whitehead 
torpedoes, while the Holland boats each carry 
five torpedoes. 

The vessel will be surprisingly speedy in its 
changes of station. To change from ordinary 
cruising condition to that of deck awash will 
require but three seconds, and an equal interval 
will suffice for submergence from the awash con- 
dition to the exposure of only the sighting hood. 





THE SUBM.VKIXE TORPEDO-BO.^T "PROTECTOR" ON THE STOCKS, SHOWING 
SIDE KUDDERS .4XD TWIN SCREWS. 



304 



Page's Magazine. 



Complete submergence may be accomplislied 
in less than a minute. The Protector can, 
if desired, be sent to the bottom without 
an}' interruption of the operation of the bat- 
teries ; but in all probability the jilan to be 
usually followed will provide for the stoppage 
of the machinery. The actual descent will be 
accomplished either by the admission of water 
to the tanks or by drawing the vessel down by 
the use of wire cables attached to two anchors, 
previousl}' lowered to the ocean bed from anchor 
wells in the bottom of the boat. These anchors 
serve a double purpose, inasmuch as they, as 
well as a large section of the keel of the vessel, 
may, in the event of accident, be cast adrift ; 
the boat thus lightened will, of course, rise to 
the surface. 

UNIQUE FEATURES. 

The most striking feature ut the ■■ Lake " type 
of submarine boat is found in its equipment for 
travel upon the bottom of the ocean, as above 
described. For this purpose it is fitted with two 
large iron wheels which are fitted on the keel 
line, one in advance of the other, and which 
may be raised or lowered at will. The pro- 
pellers push the boat forward just as when she is 
afloat, but the wheels tend to keep the vessel 
upon a straight course, once the bearings have 
been taken. 

The wheels are 3 ft. m diameter with 9-m. 
face, and are constructed of cast iron. The 
bottom reached, the submarine rests on the two 
wheels and becomes in realit}- a " submarine 
automol)ile." 

The Protector is also fitted with several other 
adjuncts which have not appeared in any other 
submarine craft, among these being a device 
which indicates exactly the distance travelled 
on the bottom, and a telephone equipment 
which enables ]iersons on the submerged vessel 
to communicate with those on shore. This 
would, of course, prove of advantage in war 
operations. The lines of the hull are such as to 
give the vessel a great reserve of buoyancy in 
every condition save that of total submergence 
upon the bottom, and this ability to secure 
absolute horizontal stability without imjiosing 
other than a reasonable movement of weights 
therein will, it is claimed, enable the new-comer 
in the submarine field to be readil}- controlled 
in rough weather. 



SUBMERGING THE " LAKE " BOAT. 

In Its method ol submergmg the " Lake " boat 
differs from the Holland. The first opera- 
tion, viz.. the admission of water- ballast to bring 
the vessel to the awash condition, is common 
to both. The Holland is steered below at an 
angle by the horizontal rudders at the stern, 
whilst the " Lake " is submerged on an even keel 
by the manipulation of four "hydroplanes" or 
horizontal rudders, two of which are carried 
on each side. This is the method of submersion 
when under way. When stationary, however, 
another method is employed. Two heavy 
weights are lowered to the bottom, each weighing 
1,000 lb. The winding mechanism is put into 
operation, and the boat is hauled down to the 
bottom. Then the weights are hauled in, and 
enough water ballast is admitted to keep her 
from rising to the surface. 

The fuel carrying capacity is 1,400 gallons, the 
speed on the surface is estimated at ten to eleven 
knots, and the submerged speed is estimated 
at seven knots for three hours continuously. 
The radius on the surface is over 1.500 miles. 
The storage batteries can be re-charged by the 
gasoline engine which drives a dynamo. 

An automatic drop keel is carried, and there 
are other automatic features to prevent the craft 
submerging below a safe depth. 

There are ample officers' and crews' quarters, 
with cooking and sleeping facilities, and there is 
provision for the escape of the crew in case of 
partial disablement of the vessel while sub- 
merged. 

THE DIVING COMPARTMENT. 

A great feature ot the " L.d<e " boat is the 
diving compartment, located in the bow of the 
boat. It is a room about eight feet long with a 
door that opens outward into the sea. An air- 
lock connects the diving compartment with the 
living quarters when the cajjtain desires to send 
a man out. He enters this compartment, closes 
the door, and ojiens a valve which admits the 
compressed air until the pressure of the air in 
the di\-iiig compartment equals the jiressure of 
the water at whatever depth the boat happens 
to be. There is a dupie.x gauge in the com- 
partment witli a red and a black hand. The 
black hand shows the water pressure outside, 
and the red hand shows the pressure of air 
inside the divini; compartment. When the two 



An Under=Water Automobile, 



30s 



hands are together tliis indicates tliat the 
pressure of the water outside and the air jiressure 
inside are equal. Then the door can be opened, 
and the water will not come in. The diver who 
leaves the boat can pick up and cut cables and 
can do mining and counter-mining work. The 
HolI'Mid boats, it may be added, are not 
pro\ided with diving compartments. 

Rear-Admiral Melville has said : — 

I'"rciin a careful study of tlie pl.ms of tlie " Lake" and 
Holliiiul boats I caiMiot sc-e why the " Lake " boat will not 
do everylhiiii; that the Hollond does, and, in addition to 
that, it could be used lor mining and coiinler-minin.i; 
purposes, for cutting cables, and for other submerged 
work. Mr. Lake contends that it is possible to travel on 
the bottom anywhere on the United States coast from 
Maine to Me.\ico, and within bombarding distance of 
the coast cities. Thi:Ar<^onaiit has travelled over bottoms 
SI) soft that divers would sink up to their waists in the 
mud when sent out on the bottom. Yet she rested so 
lightly on her wheels tlieydid not sink into the mud over 
six inches. 

This kind of bottom is, however, found only in inland 
waters. On the bottom of the .\tl.intic it is almost as 
hard and as smooth as macadamised pavement, and 
this is the general condition of ocean bottoms adjacent 
to coast lines. The Ameiican coast is an excellent 
locality for wheeling along in this manner, and the 
distance from the shore that one can travel in depths less 
than 150 ft. varies from 15 miles off Cape Hatteras to 
75 miles in other localities — -ample in all cases to prevent 
a blockade of any of our seaports. 

The air tanks charged at a pressure of 2,000 lbs. to the 
square inch are capable of supplying sufficient air to 
enable a crew of six men to remain submerged for 
sixtv hours. The sleeping quarters consist of seven 
folding berths, similar to those found in .American sleep- 
ing cars. 

During the recent meetings of the Special Submarine 
Commit.ees of .\'aval .Affairs, both of the United St.ites 
House of Representatives and of the United States Senate, 
a good deal of evidence was given respecting the " Lake " 
type. The opinions of the Pm/rc/or which were given by 
various naval authorities were in many cases very 
favourable. 

Lieut. -Coininander John R. Edwards, United 
States Navy, in his evidence, said : — 

In my opinion the " Lake" boat will be shown before 
the end of the year to be a far superior craft for naval 
purposes to the Holland. Her superiority will not only 
rest in special contrivances that are fitted in the boat, but 
in the manner in which her propelling and other con- 
trivances have been installed. 



Rear-Admiral Charles O'Neil said that,' in his 
opinion — - 

The Hollaiiiibost did not fulfil all the necessary require- 
ments of an efficient instrument of warfare. He believed 
that the science of submarine or sub-surface navigation 
was yet in its infancv, and that considerable further 
development must take place before it could with 
propriety be said to have passed beyond the ex- 
perimental stage. Apparently the Holland boats had 
about reached the limit of development to w'hich boats o' 
this type were susceptible, and if we were to progress in 
the art, efforts should be made to produce or to encourage 
others to produce submarine boats having fewer limita- 
tions than the Holland boats, and this could only be done 
by throwing the door open to other inventors. 

The United States Navy Department is going 
to carry out a series of exhaustive trials with the 
Protector in order to arrive at some conclusion 
respecting its capabilities. 

Although the Argonaut was designed for 
peaceful purposes, Mr. Simon Lake made appli- 
cation during the Spanish- American War for her 
to be allowed to disconnect, by stealth, some of 
the torpedoes in the mine fields abreast Fortress 
Monroe, Virginia. Permission was refused, but 
Mr. Lake was determined to show the United 
States naval and military authorities of what 
his vessel was capable. 

Taking his bearings when about three miles 
distant, the Commander of the Argonaut, one 
afternoon, submerged the boat until the sighting 
hood on the conning tower was just above water, 
while the ventilating pipes which the boat then 
carried were high above the surface. It was 
nearing sunset when he started, and a short 
while afterwards the sun dipped and the search- 
lights on the fort began to sweep the whole area 
of approach, but while the lights picked up every 
ordinary craft of any size whatever, they quite 
failed to discover the approaching Argonaut. 
After an hour's run she stopped right in the 
midst of the vessels, rose to her cruising trim, 
and anchored right under the fort's guns. The 
military authorities were thoroughly surprised. 
A day later the Argonaut submerged at the same 
spot and cruised around the bottom for some 
hours, and in that time the diver could easily 
have disconnected half the mines in the adjacent 
fields. 




(5C5 




El'ARTMKNT FOR CLEANING CASTINGS, MESSRS. JOHN I.ANG AND SOXS' FOUNDRY, JOHNSTONE. 



THE LAYING OUT OF ENGINEERS' WORKSHOPS. 



BY 



JOSEPH HORNER. 

* This article deals with the various shops and departments which form the separate units 
comprised in an engineer's works. — Editor. 



n. 



T X order to understand the lay of engineering 
-*■ works it is necessary to be familiar with 
the several units which are comprised in them, 
because the relations of shops should be governed 
by the nature and sequence of the industries 
which are carried on in those shops. 

OFFICES AND SHOPS. 

Factories include oftices and shops, and 
though these are intimately connected, they are 
nevertheless more widely differentiated than 
the various shops are from one another. Each 
is a world in itself, and each requires management 
of a different order from the other. 

THE OFFICES. 

These include two main departments — the 
commercial, and the designing and drawing 

' The first article of the series appeared in Pack's Mag.azink for 
March. 



offices, each being under different management. 
The commercial is controlled by one of the 
principals, who seldom attempts to take any 
active participation in the conduct of the works. 
Or, in the big companies, a confidentiai secre- 
tary, possessed of much technical knowledge, 
and wide experience has charge of it. Under 
him are the clerks of the several sub-offices, 
through whose books pass all orders for materials 
and stores, all the work undertaken by the firm, 
its income, expenditure, correspondence, and 
so forth. All the work done here is purely 
commercial, unless the estimating department 
is included in it. This, however, is properly a 
branch of the drawing office. 

THE DRAWING OFFICE. 

This is in charge of a chief draughtsman, who 
occupies a very different position in some works 



(307) 




-J SJ 

„ J 

N a 

- I 

9 f- 

S t^ 

9 i« 

S '-" 

5 a 






zt 



>^ o 



(308) 



The Laying Out of Engineers' WorKshops. 



309 



than in ulhors. It he is an ottice man mcrL-ly, 
with httlc or no shop exjierience, he holds a 
position inftrioi to the works manager, whose 
practical knowledge is necessary to check 
the office designs. If he is a shop man as well as 
a draughtsman the situation is reversed, and he 
will often exercise a strong control over the 
works manager, or may even combine the two 
]iosts. Between these extremes all grades exist 
in the ])ositions occupied by head draughtsmen. 
Those who work under the chief, include men 
who can design, and those who cannot — copyists 
and tracers merely. In large factories the work 
of drawing is often subdivided between two or 
more offices. This occurs when a firm produces 
several specialities. Such a separation permits of 
that subdivision of tasks which is carried on to a 
larger extent in the shops. Each sub-office is then 
in charge of a leading man, but all are usua'ly 
under the control of the chief draughtsman. 

An important appanage of the drawing office 
is the printing room. The growth of sun prints 
has been a marvellous one. They have taken 
the place of drawings on cartridge paper, of 
tracings unmounted, and mounted ; and they 
are blue, brown, or white, the latter permitting 
of colouring like drawings. Within the last 
few vears the cylinder printing machine, illu- 
minated with an arc light in the centre, has done 
away with the delays due to cloudy weather, and 
in winter. And prints can, of course, be made at 
any time — in the nieht if necessary. 

THE ESTIMATING OFFICE, 

This should always be, and generally is, a 
department of the drawing office, rather than of 
the commercial offices. The reason is, that 
estimates are based primarily on the quantities 
taken out on the drawings, and in the largest 
proportion of cases on drawings and specifica- 
tions that are invitations to tender only. The 
quantities and weights for these have to be got 
out in the drawing office, or by a technically 
trained staff of clerks. Such estimating as is 
done on the commercial side is based on work 
that has been already carried through, and is 
obtained from the men's time sheets, and from 
the quantities charged in the shops. This can 
be transferred to the drawing office department 
more easily than the technical work of the latter 
can be assimilated by the book-keeping clerks. 



OFFICE versus SHOPS. 

The present tendency is to throw much greater 
responsibility and initiative upon the offices, 
and to exalt them to a more important position 
than was formerly done. The old office and the 
old staffs w-ere very different from those which 
are found in advanceil works to-day. The 
tendency is increasing also to make the offices 
the heart of the works, the pulsations from 
which shall control the life of every shop. 
The initiative of men and foreman has been 
greatly curtailed in consequence. Less and less 
of individual judgment and choice remains 
with the craftsman. This change involves a 
vast amount of clerical work, but the general 
judgment approves the change as an important 
element in that competitive production of 
which we spoke in the previous article. In- 
crease of clerical work and centralisation has 
resulted in larger offices, located not in stuffy 
rooms in the midst of the shops, but in a separate 
block of buildings in telephonic touch with the 
offices of the foremen and managers throughout 
the works. 

THE SHOPS. 

The sliops \-ary in two respects in different 
works — as, in the number of separate trades 
carried on in a works, and in their relative 
magnitude. These differences immensely 
modify the methods of laying out a piece of 
ground. Speaking generally, the essentia! shops 
in any self-contained engineers' works include a 
pattern department, a foundry, a smithy, a 
turnery and machine shop, a fitting shop, an 
erecting department, and a yard. But besides 
these many large works must include a boiler 
shop, a platers' shed, or shop, a coppersmiths' 
department, a whitesmiths' shop, testing de- 
partment, and a paint shop. In some works 
also an electrical department is now included 
for the manufacture of dynamos, motors, and 
various fittings. 

THE PATTERN SHOP. 

In this department the patterns for foundry 
use are made, and generally also any models of 
machines which are required. The men use 
such tools as those which are employed in 
common wood working trades, including turners. 
They employ similar, but not identical methods 
of construction. But there the resemblance ends, 
because the work of the pattern-maker involves 




(3'=) 



The Laying Out of Engineers' WorRshops. 



3n 




STORE FRONT IX THE M\CHI\E SHOP OF MESSRS. G. AXD J. WEIR, LTD., GLASGOW. 



a verv intimate knowledge oi the trade of the 
moulder, and also that of the general practice of 
engineering;. Exceptmsj in the work of ronghing 
out stuff, there is little help to be obtained from 
machinery, so that benches, far more than 
machines, occupy this shop. 

The pattern stores are generally oi much larger 
dimensions than the shop, for few firms venture 
to destroy patterns until many years have 
elapsed since they appear to have outlived the 
demand for them. It is not unusual for stores 
to contain the greater portion of the patterns 
that have been constructed for thirty or forty 
years. Many of the largest patterns are not 
stored in buildings, but in open sheds ; some- 
times even in open yards. Though the pattern 
shop is not as a rule of large dimensions, its 
stores usually are. They should have at least 
from four to si.x times the capacity of the shop, 
and if they are ten times as large, so much the 
better. 



THE FOUNDRY. 

" The foundry " is a very generic term. It may 
mean a dark, dusty, tumble-down shed, where 
candles and lamps have to be used throughout 
all the winter's dav. Or it may be as light and 
bright a building as an up-to-date machine shop. 
A foundrv often includes brass moulding, 'as well 
as iron : machine, as well as hand work. In 
some shops the latter may be nearly displaced by 
the former. Further, the work may be all 
heavy, like marine w^ork, or all light. Or the two 
classes may be carried on in various proportions. 
Or, again, loam moulding may be carried on 
most extensively, or green sand onh% or chiefly. 
Lasth-, very special classes of manufacture may 
be done, such as pipes, columns, ornamental 
castings, heating apparatus, stoves, and so 
forth, which lie outside what we are accustomed 
to see in general engineers' works. It is clear 
that all these modify the lajing out of foundries 
verv much. 




(312) 



The Laying Out of Engineers' Workshops. 



313 



The fettling shop, or shed, is a buildine outside 
the foundrv, and adjacent to it. Here all the 
castings are brought when roughly stripped of 
their sand, lifters, nails, etc., and here the fins 
and runners are chipped and ground off, and the 
sand thoroughly cleaned away. In a well- 
arranged foundry, doing a large volume of work, 
there is a good deal of machinery in this depart- 
ment, consisting chiefly of emery wheels, and 
tumbling barrels ; in small foundries there is 
often nothing of the kind, but files, chipping 
chisels, and wire brushes chiefly. 

THE CASTING STORES. 

This should be a well fitted up building or 
buildings. Iron and brass castings are. if 
light, stored separately on shelves, but on the 
ground if moderately hea\y. Massive castings 
are generally run at once into the portion of the 
works where they have to be tooled, or fitted, and 
erected. Or if stored, thej' are not as a rule 
covered in, but left on an area in the open yard, 
being protected first with a coating of boiled oil. 

THE SMITHY. 

A good many firms manage to get along with- 
out a foundry, putting their castings out. 
Some also, who cast their iron, put out their 
brass, and vice versa, but few attempt to do 
without a smithy of some kind. The work of 
the smithy in a shop where specialities are not 
handled is all done on the anvil, with the aid 
of a steam, or other power hammer, bv crafts- 
men. But little assistance is to be obtained 
from dies or stamps. The work thus comes 
out costly, though uniformity in dimensions is 
not secured thereby, and the cost of machining 
is increased. The work of the smithy is. 
therefore, broadly divisible into hand forging 
and die forging, and in proportion to the pre- 
dominance of either of these will the lay out of 
the shop be modified. In some cases we see 
nothing but a row of forges, with a power 
hammer or two. In others there are rows of 
hammers, and heating furnaces, with pipes, 
flues, and auxiliary machines. The iron stores 
are adjacent to or within the smithw The bars 
and rods are laid horizontally on racks, or allowed 
to stand perpendicularly. 

THE TURNERY AND MACHINE SHOP. 

These departments take a first rank in most 
factories. They are, moreover, subject to 



greater diversities in arrangements, and more 
minute sub-divisions than either of the other 
departments ; while the question of skilled 
and unskilled labour becomes a more burning 
question here than elsewhere, som.e few foundries 
excepted. 

In the old days the turner was a nian who did 
one of two things only. He worked a screw- 
cutting lathe, or a non screw-cutting tool, the 
first-named being considered the superior crafts- 
man. Generally, too, men were kept mostly 
either on heavy or on light lathes. Automatic 
and semi-automatic turret lathes were scarcely 
seen in the shops. Circular work, moreover, all 
went to the lathes, nowhere else. 

In a present-day well-equipped turnery, the 
old limitations have been invaded. A vast deal 
of work is now done on machines which require 
only the attendance of youths, and in which 
provision e.xists for ensuring the uniform 
accuracy of a score, or a hundred, or a thousand 
similar pieces, without the inter\-ention of a 
skilled workman, armed with rule and calipers. 
Much screw cutting is now done \\ithout the 
calculations, the ability to perform which set a 
man above his fellows, and put a couple of 
shillinffs extra on his wages. The %-ertical 
lathe takes much from the horizontal face lathes. 
The milling machine takes a considerable 
volume of some classes of work from the lathes. 
And the greatest changes as affecting the 
la^'ing out of a works are found in the increasing 
and careful subdivision of the turnery and 
machine shops, either in distinct shops, or on 
separate areas of the same floor. Thev are also 
found in the alterations in shafting and belting 
arrangements that result from the intro- 
duction of electric driving, and the laying 
down of power plants. Sometimes too, the 
svstem of lifting and hauling adopted involves 
changes. 

As the weight of the machines used in different 
factories, or in the several departments of a 
single factorv, varies, the question of the one 
floor, or of the storied system of building is often 
decided mainly in reference to the predominance 
of either type. This difference affects not only 
the mass of the machines themselves, but 
that of getting the work to and away from the 
machines, and therefore the hoisting and hauling 
tackle. 




(314) 



The Laying Out of Engineers' Workshops. 



315 



THE TOOL ROOM. 

This is a small department, but one of great 
importance in a modern shop. It is the micro- 
cosm of the turnery and machine shop ; con- 
taining its own lathes and other tools, hardening 
furnaces, grinders, vices, and the rest. It is 
the visible embodiment of the centralisation of 
responsibility which distinguishes the new from 
the old. The ideas of the individual workman 
are controlled from the tool room, while all the 
tool formation and construction is done here, 
instead of bv the workmen, as heretofore. 

THE STORES FOR FINISHED WORK. 

These are an essential portion of a properly 
arranged factory. Into them all the separate 
pieces that go to make up a machine are sent 
from the lathes and various machines, and stored 
in sets. Thence they are booked out to the 
htters, assemblers, and erectors, to be put 
together into their several machines. Orderly 
stores are a great factor in economical produc- 
tion. The heavier parts are generally stored in 
the shops in piles, adjacent to the erecting 
areas. 

THE FITTING SHOP, AND ERECTING DEPARTMENT. 

These two are often combined under one roof, 
the fitters' benches bordering the sides of the 
shops, the central areas of which are occupied 
with work in course of erection. Often the two 
classes of work are executed by the same set of 
men. But in massive work it is judicious to 
separate these tasks. The heaviest structures 
are often necessarily erected out of doors. 
Then portions of them may be partially fitted in 
the shops, and run out thus into the yard. This, 
for example, is the practice in building massive 
cranes. 

The amount of room required for these de- 
partments, and their location, whether on a 
ground floor, or in stores, depends, as in the 
case of machines, on their mass and bulk. Light 
fitting and erecting can be well done in storied 
buildings, but the heavy kind requires ground 
floors. The fitters' benches may, when light 
work is being done, occupy as much space as the 
erecting areas ; but in massive work the open 
areas exceed vastly the bench room required. 
A certain amount of mechanism and appliances 
is required in these departments, as emery 
wheels, surface plates, large straight-edges, 



pits over which work is built — such as marine and 
locomotive engines — and many cranes. The 
hoisting appliances are often wanted very 
powerful — travellers ranging from twenty to a 
hundred tons or more, besides a liberal allowance 
of wall cranes and pulley blocks. From these 
various causes the fitting and erecting depart- 
ments may require a greater amount of space 
than the machine and turning shop, or much less. 

THE BOILER SHOP. AND PLATERS' SHED. 

All firms that build engines or steam cranes 
are almost compelled to include these depart- 
ments, or endure vexatious delays due to non- 
delivery, if this work is put out. These are big 
departments, occupying a lot of room, all of 
which must be on the ground. The machines 
and the work handled are massive. To a certain 
extent the two departments are similar, since 
both deal with plates and riveting ; and the two 
are, therefore, often combined under one roof, 
or under adjacent sheds. The same rolls, 
punching and shearing machines, plate edge 
planers, drills, riveting machines, templet shed 
or shop, compressed air or steam, or hydraulic 
plant will serve for both. These shops are an 
example of big areas with few men ; in strong 
contrast with the light machine and fitting shops 
with small areas, crowded with men and lads. 

The plate stores are adjacent to the plating 
or the boiler shops, or within them. Plates are 
olten not stored in large quantities, the practice 
being to order the quantity wanted for a given 
job, and to stack them in the shop where the 
work is to be commenced. 

COPPERSMITHS' AND WHITESMITHS' SHOPS. 

These are chiefly found in works that deal 
largely in steam engineering, in brass finishers' 
work, in brewers' and sugar machinery. They 
are essential departments in the marine and 
locomotive works. They are never very large, 
neither is there so much machinery as there are 
appliances .and small tools. Bending, raising, 
jointing, and brazing are the principal tasks 
done, and alwa\-s b\- skilled craftsmen. 

THE CARPENTERS' AND JOINERS' SHOP. 

The carpenters' shop is a departrnent, the 
importance of which varies with the nature of 
the work done by a firm. It is a very extensive 
one in locomotive and agricultural shojjs, and 



3i6 



Page's Magazine. 



in some high-class stationary engine works, 
while in some shops it is nothing more than a 
department for the making of packing cases, anrl 
similar jobs. In large works the carpenters 
have their separate shop, and foreman. In 
small works they are often under the charge of 
the pattern foreman, ami are located in his shop. 

THE YARD. 

The " yard " is an engineers' department of 
considerable importance. It includes a gang 
of labourers, many of whom are really trained 
handy men, of a different class from the loafers 
who gatfier round the gates for casual jobs. 
They are under a yard foreman, and have the 
handling of all heavy materials and goods that 
come into and are despatched out of a works. 
Besides this, they often render valuable aid in 
the erection of big work outside tlie shops, and 
are generally entrusted to dismantle, paint, and 
pack such heav\-work as is erected in the yard. 

THE TESTING DEPARTMENT. 

This, as a separate department, is non-existent 
in works that deal with very massive machines 
and engines, because in these testing, when 
practicable, is done where the work is erected. 
But in the lighter class of engines, and in work 
also where electrical tests com.e in, a separate 
room or building is fitted up for the jiurpose. 
The dimensions of this depend entirely on the 
volume of work done. Thus, in the case of a 
firm making, say, gas engines, or dynamos, the 
room would be much larger than in one building 
large engines, because the numbers turned out 
per week would be much greater in the first than 
in the second. In the first instance, room is 
required for a number of engines to be tested, 
while in the second, one will be removed as fast 
as others are built. 

THE ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Many firms have been adding this to their 
regular engineering work of late years, because 
thev prefer to be independent of outside help in a 
section of manufacture, that is of ever growing 
importance. This may be a department that 
is entirely self-contained, or it may consist onl}- 



of the electrical work projier, such as the winding 
and commutator, and brush making, and 
assembling. If it is an entirely self-contained 
department, it will include a full complement of 
machines and benches, comprising a turnery, 
machine shop and fitting shop, as well as the 
windmg department. 

THE POWER-HOUSE. 

Until recent years few firms possessed a power- 
house, or building, in which the whole of the 
power for the works is generated, and whence 
it is distributed to all the shops. Instead of 
this, isolated engines were scattered about in the 
several shops, as they are still in the majority 
of works. The central power-house is the 
creation of electricity, since the distances across 
which the current can be transmitted in works 
counts for nothing. It includes boilers, engines, 
dynamos, switch boards, and in most instances 
accumulators, so that a certain amount of 
current may be available for lighting, etc., after 
working hours, when the engines majv' be stopped. 
.\ storage for coal is also essential, and some 
method of handling it by means of conveyors to 
the boiler is now considered important. 

THE PAINT SHOP. 

This ranges trom the small shed or room 
in which paint is mixed, to the immense buildings 
of the locomotive shops, into which all the 
engines and rolling stock are run to be painted. 
\Miere there is no painting shed the work is done 
where it stands. 

THE SHOP STORES. 

This is the department in which all the light 
materials required for use in the works are kept. 
It is a most miscellaneous collection, and rivals 
in size and quantity many large retail businesses. 
None but tho,-;e who are acquainted with the 
internal working oi engineers' factories can form 
an idea of the varieties and quantities of stores 
used. These are kept under lock and key, 
in charge of a responsible clerk with a man 
and lad, and everything is charged out to the 
heads of departments, or to individual men. 
Generally, sub-stores are kept by the foremen 
of the shops for the use of their own men. 




KIG. 12. THRKE-WAY INTERSECTION AT CONGRESS AND FRANKLIN STREETS. 



UNDERGROUND CONDUITS IN CHICAGO. 



GEORGE W. JACKSON. 

Tlie action of the State in monopolising tlie telepliones and interfering with the application of electricity has 
thrown this country a generation behind most of the nations of the Continent and North America. A description, 
therefore, of a modern conduit system in one of the leading cities of the United States will be of considerable 
interest to our readers. This paper, originally read before the Society of Western Engineers, is now presented in 
article form with several unique photographs. It shows the scope, extent, and construction of the underground 
Londuits of the Illinois Telephone and Telegraph Company in Chicago. The scheme provides for a telephone 
-ystem composed of conduits and cables which will accommodate 100,000 subscribers.— Editor. 



T TP to the present time telephone com- 
*~^ panies in different cities have made a 
serious mistake by not building their conduit 
systems large enough to allow for reasonable 
expansion from year to year. In canvassing the 
situation for a new conduit system at Chicago 
for 100,000 telephones, and figuring on the space 
required, it was found that the space was not 
to be obtained immediately below the surface, 
on account of the present congested condition 
below the streets. An illustration of a cross sec- 
tion of our 6 -ft. by 7-ft. 6-in. lateral tunnel is 
shown in fig. i. This size conduit would only allow 



us to place enough cable for 25,000 telephones, 
coming in from one direction to a central 
exchange. The conditions as they now exist at 
the intersection of LaSalle and Washington 
Streets is shown in fig. 2. The space below the 
paving is almost completely taken up by water 
and gas pipes, sewers and conduits for other 
companies. It was ultimately found that the 
conditions of the soil underlying Chicago would 
admit of a deep tunnel conduit system being 
built without any danger to adjoining property, 
or interference with other corporation rights. 
After Mr. Wheeler had obtained the necessary 



1.117) 



31-^ 



Page's Magazine. 




3. GEXEKAL PLAX OF SHAI-T NO. I. 



jjerniit from the city authorities, work was 
started at the first shaft, or what is known as 
shaft No. I. This is on the alley between 
Madison and Monroe Streets, west of LaSalle 
Street. Fig. 3 shows the location of the shaft, 
the air compressor, belt conveyor, concrete 
mixer, the elevator, elevator machinerv and 
shaft. 




FIG. I. CROSS SECTIOX OF LATERAL CONDflTS. 
Showing Racks for tlii; Cables. 



LOCATION OF SHAFTS. 

It required considerable tune and thought in 
locating our shafts, as we had to show property- 
owners that by the location of them we would 
in no way inconvenience their tenants. After 
locating shaft No. i, we leased other basements 
for other shafts, which are located as follows :— 
Shaft No. 2, on Dearborn Street, just north of 
the Fisher Building. 

Shaft No. 3, at ir3 and 113, 
Franklin Street. 

Shaft No. 4. at State and Lake 

"T Streets. 

Shaft No. 5, at Randolph and 
Clark Streets. 

Shaft No. 6. at 
Clark Streets. 

Shaft No. 7. at 
and Eldridgc Court. 
Shaft No. 8. at 
Market Streets. The location of 
these shafts, also shown on the plan 
of work as projected, was such as 
to allow us to proceed with the 
building of the conduits covering 
the down town district. The ulti- 
mate scope of our work is intended 
to extend on the south side to jrst 
Street, on the west side to Kedxie 
Avenue, and on the north side to 
Fullerton Avenue, it having been 
decided that the building of the 
conduits by tunnel methods would 
be the speediest and most econo- 
mical. Extending from the tunnel 
system on the south, west and north, 
it is the intention to build side 



Harrison and 

State Street 

Congress and 



Underground Conduits in Chicago. 



319 




FIG. T.. GENERAL PLAX OF SHAFT NO. I. 



branches covering the entire city. These side 
branches will largely be constructed by the 
method of tunnelhng, as far as it is economical. 
From this system it is our purpose to construct 
a sufficient number of miles of tile conduit 
system in outlying districts, to reach all of the 
available territory and accommodate all classes 
of subscribers. In short, the purpose of Mr. 
Wheeler and the board of directors is to install 
a telephone in every residence, as well as in ever\- 
business office and manufactory in Chicago. 

NO ACCURATE MAP OF THE STREETS. 

After having our plans approved by the 
proper city authorities, and shortly after starting 
with the building of the conduits, we found there 
was not in existence an 
accurate map of the streets. 
We decided that no further 
work could be done until 
such time as a new survey 
was made, and our engineer- 
ing department was, there- 
fore, called upon for a new 
topographical survey. A 
work which necessarily re- 
quired considerable time, as 
it was impossible for our 
engineers to run lines until 
after the congestion of traffic 
was off the streets at night. 
We were thus compelled to 
run our lines after ten o'clock 
at night and before five 
o'clock in the morning. But 
in spite of the expense and 



delay involved, the results of the survey have 
amply repaid the company. This will be 
appreciated by engineers when I say that some 
thirty-eight different tunnel connections were 
to be made. 

After the work had been checked and approved 
by the engineer appointed b}' the Department of 
Public Works, we were ready to proceed with 
the work in the down town district, but upon 
notifying the City Engineer, of this fact, we were 
informed that he would not allow us to proceed 
in the way provided for by the first permits that 
were granted, as he was of opinion that the 
number of manholes required on the streets 
would present obstructions to a subway, which 
in his judgment the city would some day build 




FIG. 



CROSS SECTION OF STREET. 



Showing the space below the pavement — occupied by Sewers, Water and 
Gas Pipes and Conduits — also showing the Lateral 
Conduit and Manhole Connection. 



320 



Page's Magazin e 



Permits, as originally granted the company, 
allowed us to build manholes as shown in iig. 2. 
His position was that he could not allow us to 
construct such manholes, and also that he 
believed we were too near the surface. This 
compelled us to adopt a method whereby the 
building of manholes would be obviated. After 
designing numerous cross-sections, and carefully 
figuring out what space would be required to 
accommodate our business, the size 12 ft. 9 in. 
by 14 ft. for the trunk lines was submitted for 
approval. 



from the grade. At the present time we have 
completed about twelve miles of the lateral 
conduits. The annexed table shows the number 
of yards of stone, gravel, barrels of cement, and 
number of yards of excavation hitherto required. 

INSTALLATION OF THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. 

After satisfying ourselves as to the nature of 
the sub-soil, we settled upon the method for 
carrying out the work. Experience having 
taught me that the pneumatic system would be 
the most economical and safest, we adopted it. 



WORK DONE AND RATE OF PROGRESS. 
Total No. of feet constructed 



SEPTEMBER i. 



1902. 
61.726 



WORK PER SHAFT, 



No. Feet 



Working 
Days 



Average Feet 

per Working 

Day 



No. I- 

No. 2 .. 
No. 3. 

No. 4 . 
No. y... 
No 8. 



18.730 

14,595 
2,464 

17.5'° 
1.244 
7.1S3 



294 
247 
118 
229 
63 
176 



63.1 

59 2 
20.5 
76.1 
19.4 
40 I 



Average working days from all shafts... '88 

Average feet per day from all shafts -328 

Total excavation from all shafts 175,000 cubic yards 

MATERIAL USED. 

Cement 90,000 barrels 

Stone 30,000 cubic yards 

Qra^-gl 60,000 cubic yards 



CONSTRUCTION OF LATERAL CONDUITS. 

In going over the situation with the city 
engineer, he finally decided that a 12 ft. g in. 
by 14 ft. size could be permitted, this enabling 
us to lower the reels and cables from our ware- 
house down a shaft to the level of our conduit 
system, and to transport the car, reel and cable, 
as shown in fig. 4, through these trunk conduits 
around to the different lateral systems. By this 
method of lowering the reel and cable and trans- 
porting it through the trunk system, we avoided 
the building of manholes. It was understood 
that we would drop the roof of our 12- ft. 9-in. 
by 14-ft. tunnel so that it would not come any 
closer than 24 ft. 6 in. to the surface. In our 
original permit;, as granted, we had the right 
to construct our conduit as close as 22 ft. 6 in. 



While it was not altogether necessary for us to 
use this system, as the nature of the soil is such 
that it would stand without caving or swelling, 
we put in the pneumatic system more for the 
purpose of being protected from labour troubles, 
than anything else. With this system, if the 
men should go on a strike, one has no anxiety, 
as there is no danger, if the work is left for a time 
in an uncompleted state. 

In installing our pneumatic system, airlocks 
were placed just outside the several shaft.s. 
These airlocks have iron doors with frames 
imbedded in the concrete, the locks being long 
enough to accommodate the work, in some cases 
as many as ten cars. I do not know that it is 
necessary to describe the operation of the air- 
locks in detail. Two airtight doors are used, 



Underground Conduits in Chicago. 



one at each end of the lock. The locking-in 
process is effected by allowing the cars to enter 
through the outer door, and then the door is 
closed. The air under pressure is then admitted 
from the uncompleted tunnel, allowing it to flow 
into the lock, thus equalising the pressure in the 



is open to atmospheric pressure), after which the 
outer door is opened and the cars go on to the 
shaft. 

METHOD OF USING THE CONCRETE. 

Fig. 4 shows the ground as excavated ahead of 
the completed conduit, after the mining has been 




t£^ 



iiiitfii I 1^ 



FIG. 4. LATERAL CONDUIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 



lock with that in the tunnel ; the inner door is 
then opened and the cars are run on to the 
headings. In locking-out again, the inner door 
is closed after the cars have entered the airlock, 
the valves opened at the outer door allowing 
the air to escape and thus equalising the pressure 
with the completed part of the tunnel (which 



done. The concrete is then placed in the bottom 
and thoroughly tamped, the lagging placed on 
top of the concrete, iron ribs made of channel 
bars being placed on the bottom, and lagging 
laid at the sides against these. These frames or 
ribs are made of 3-in. channel bars, and are 
placed three feet apart. After the ribs have been 




FIG. 6. KLEVATOR HOUSE. 

Used for lifting the excavated clay so that it may be dumped into waggons to be hauled 

awav to the Lalce Front. 




aSiS^&tidS- " 'Ji'" 



Via. 7 UNLOADING THE EXCAVATED CI.AY AT THE LAKE EUOXT. 
Lilting auav the side boards of tlic waggon bed. 



(.122) 








FIG. ^. VIEW OK TRUXK CONDUIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION". 



(333) 




FIG. 8. WAGGON' BED BOTTOM. 

Swung round to clumping place, ready to spill. 




FIG. 9. TRACKS AND MOVABLE PI.ATFORJIS. 
For dumping the excavated clay into scows in the river. 



(}^1 



Underground Conduits in Chicago. 




LOADING SCOWS IX THE RIVER WITH EXCAVATED MATERIAL FROM SHAI-'T 8. 



placed in position, the lagging; of 2-in. plank is 
adjusted behind the ribs and the concrete thrown 
in behind the lagging in layers of six inches. As 
can be seen by the illustration (fig. 4). the use 
of concrete absolutely avoids any chance of 
settlement of the earth as the concrete is tamped 
into the entire space between the lagging and 
excavation. It makes no difference how irregular 
the digging or mining has been done, as everj' 
void is tilled. This method of placing concrete 
is carried up until it reaches what is known as 
the key, as shown in fig. 4. As it is most im- 
portant to have the key properly placed, it is 
built in sections of three feet, or, in other words, 
the key boards are only three feet long. These 
are also placed on the ribs, which are three feet 
apart. The concrete is then thrown in, and after 
three or four shovelfuls are thrown in, the 



concrete is rammed, care being taken that 
this is effected so that every void is filled. 
Bv this manner of working, any possible chance 
of the ground settling is avoided. In proceeding 
with the concrete work the face of the preceding 
day's work is cleaned, and a plaster coating of 
cement, made in proportions of one to one, of 
sand and cement, is plastered on the old work. 
This forms a seal, allowing the old work to have 
a bond with the new, and making it almost an 
entirely homogeneous structure. 

In fig. 5 is shown some ribs and lagging 
which was used in the trunk system. Here 
the ribs are made of 5-in. channel irons, and 
the lagging plates are made of No. 12 steel. 
These steel ribs and lagging were used as an 
extra precaution on account of the extra weight 
of the concrete, as well as to allow the men to 



326 



Page's Magazine. 




FIG. 13. VIEW OF 6-Kr. X 7-FT. 6-I\. LATERAL CONDUIT. 
Completed and ready for inspection. 

thoroughly tamp the concrete without having 
the work left in irregular shape. 

Fig. 5 shows the trunk system with steel ribs 
and lagging in place. The walls of the 6- ft. by 
7-ft. 6-in. lateral conduits are constructed with 
13-in. bottoms and lo-in. walls of concrete. 
The trunk system conduits are constructed with 
2i-in. l^ottoms and iS-in. walls of concrete. 

METHOD OF WORKING. 

The work was carried on by three shifts of 
men working eight hours each. The first shift 
of miners went on at four o'clock in the afternoon 



and worked until midnight ; the second shift 
went on at midnight and worked until eight 
o'clock in the morning ; the third shift, which 
was known as the concreting shift, went on at 
eight o'clock in the morning and worked until 
such time as they were " through." The work 
of the third shift was arranged in such a way that 
they would get through their work so that the 
miners could take up their duties at the regular 
time, 4 p.m. 

The distance excavated by the two shifts of 
miners averaged about 21 ft. at each heading. 
Including all the different shafts, the number 
of working headings averaged about fourteen, 
and it required about twenty' men to operate 
each heading. About 850 men were engaged 
on the tunnel construction, and about 600 other 
men were employed in the office forces, the 
hauling of gravel, stone, cement, and excavated 
material. 

The cement used for the making of the con- 
crete was American Portland (Atlas and Chicago 
AA). All tests of cement were made by the 
company, and each and every barrel was tested 
and subjected to a 14-days' test before being 
accepted and under very rigid specifications. 
Most of the concrete was made with the mixture 
of five parts of broken stone and screenings to 
one part of cement ; but a large portion of the 
concrete was comjwsed of mixed gravel and sand, 
which was used in the same proportions as 
broken stone, five parts of gravel to one of 
cement. This mixture of concrete was used on 
the straight work of the conduit. At the inter- 
sections, a mixture of four parts stone or gravel 
to one of cement was adopted. 
L", In order to have everything run smoothly, it 
was essential to make provision for the prompt 
disposal of the material excavated. Some 900 
tram-cars were built running on a gauge 14 in. 
wide, and a double track system was laid through 
the entire tunnel system. Experience has 
taught me that the most economical way of 
handling large quantities of material is to deal 
with it in small portions. For handling concrete 
and excavated material small cars were therefore 
used, 20 in. wide inside and 48 in. long. I 
believe the smallness of the cars was largely 
instrumental in successfully carrying out the 
building of the twelve miles of tunnel in the 
short space of time occuincd. 



Underground Conduits in Chicago. 



327 



METHOD OF DEALING WITH EXCAVATED MATERIAL 

The cars were hoisted b\' a power-driven 
elevator up the shafts to the second floor of the 
building, or to a head-house built on the curb 
line, and the material dumped into waggons 
standing on the street or alley. The dumping 
of excavated clay into a waggon is shown in 
fig. 6. Much of the material was deposited at 
the Lake Front, and for unloading the waggons 
a lo-ton stiff-leg derrick was installed. This 
first hoisted away the sides of the waggon boxes 
(fig. 7), and then hoisted the entire bottom of 
the waggon with its load. When this was swung 
round readv to dump, the chains on one side 
were unhitched and the clay dumped, as shown 
in fig. 8. 

The reason I have touched upon this jiart of 
the construction is from the fact that it was 
imperative that this branch of the service should 
be kept in continuous operation while the miners 
were at work, as any delay in operations 
would have proved expensive. The hauling 
away of the excavated material was done 
mostly at night, between 5 p.m. and 7 a.m., to 
avoid interference with the usual street traffic. 
Another method that we adopted for handhng 
the excavated material was, at what is known 
as shaft No. 8, which is located on the river at 
the foot of Market Street. At this shaft we 
constructed an incline from the conduit, and 



used an endless conveying chain with dogs, 
constructed in such a manner that thev took 
hold of the axles of the cars and conveyed the 
cars up the incline to the surface of the ground. 
They were then run on the tracks to the edge 
of the river, and out on platforms extend- 
ing over dump scows moored to the dock 
below. 

Fig. 9 shows our method of movable plat- 
forms, which were erected so that they could be 
raised or lowered and not interfere with boats 
going up and down the river when not in use. 
The next illustration (fig. lo) shows the platforms 
being lowered down to the scow and the men 
about to dump the cars. This method of 
handling e.xcavated material, was found to 
be very economical and did away with possi- 
ble delay, besides increasing the capacity of the 
tunnel. 

The illustration (fig. 11) shows the lour-way 
intersection as built and located at Washington 
Street and Fifth Avenue looking east, and (fig. 12) 
shows the three-way intersection at Congress 
and Franklin Streets. This intersection was 
built larger for the purpose of having more room 
in handling material at shaft No. 8. Its size 
is 7 ft. by 8 ft. 

The illustration (fig: 13) shows a straight piece 
of 6-ft. by 7-ft. 6- in. lateral conduit, ready for 
inspection. 




KIG. II. FOUR-WAY INTERSECTIOX COMPLETED 



OUR BIOGRAPHY OF THE HONTH. 



PROF. JAMES ALFRED EWING, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

Piotcssor of Applied Mechanics and Micluinisiii in the Vnivcrsitv of Canibridi^t-. 



PROFESSOR EWING was 
born at Dundee on 
March 27th, 1855, being the 
third son of the Rev. James 
Ewing. He studied engineer- 
ing first at the University of 
Edinburgh, under the lale 
Professor Fleeming Jenkin, 
who, with Sir William Thom- 
son (Lord Kelvin), was then 
in practice as an electrical 
engineer. Becoming a member 
of their permanent staff, he 
obtained practical experience 
of cable engineering extending 
over some years, and was also 
associated with the develop- 
ment of several of their inven- 
tions. Appointed, in 1875, 
Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering in Tokyo, Japan, it 
was for live years his interest- 
ing duty to take part in the 
intellectual awakening of the 
Japanese, whom he found most 
apt pupils. The Japanese pro- 
fessorship was relinquished in 
1S83, when Mr. Ewing re- 
turned to Dundee to take up 
the Engineering Professorship 
in the University College 
of liis native town. In 1890 
he was appointed to the Cam- 
bridge Professorship, which 
he still holds. Shortly after 
hisappointment he induced the 
University to establish a Tripos 
in engineering, as well as to 
make provision for a labora- 
tory, and has been highly 
successful at Cambridge in 
developing a large and active 
schoolof practical engineering. 

The laboratory, begun in a very small wav, liaN now 
grown to a great size by the gifts of the Hopkhison faniilv 
and other donors, and is still being extended. 

Professor Ewing's experience as a teacher, ranging over 
twenty-live years, has rendered him an enthusiastic 
exponent of the laboratory method of teaching. He is 
himself an ardent experimentalist and author of many 
papers describing the results of his researches. His dis- 
coveries in magnetism were recognised by the award of a 
Royal medal in 1895. While in Japan he gave much atten- 
tion to seismology, devising machines by which the earliest 
complete records of earthquake motion were obtained. 

More recently he has taken up the microscope as an 




P/wfj by Lajaydic, Ltd ] 



PROFESSOR liWIXG, II.A., I.I..D , F.K.S. 

instrument of engineering research. He is well known 
as the author of several scientitic works, and many of his 
instruments, especially his extensoraeter, hysteresis 
tester, and permeability bridge are familiar appliances in 
most laboratories. 

Professor Ewing's services as a consultant are In 
frequent request. He served in 1901 with Lord Kayleigh 
and Sir John Wolfe Barry on the committee which settled 
the vexed question of vibration in the " Twopenny Tube." 

He has been the recipient of many honours, including 
the degree of LL.D. from the U[iiversitles of Edinburgh 
and St. Andrews, .and the Order of the Sacred Treasure 
from the Emperor of Japan. 



(j2») 




Electrical Ore-Finding System. 

OUK iUusti-ations show the worUhig of the Electrical 
Ore-Finding System, invented hy Messrs. Leo Daft and 
Alfred Williams. The apparatus is stated to have suc- 
cessfully located lead and zinc ore in Wales, and hematite 
in Cumberland. Asdescribed by the inventors, the system 
consists of transmitting inductors, which deliver electric 
waves of a dehnite length extremely sensitive to 
the presence of minerals, and receiving resonators 



luned to detect these waves and determine their 
characteristics. 

The waves from the inductors are impressed upon the 
crust of the earth, in any desired locality, and are radiated 
to considerable distances, horizontally and perpendicularly. 
The area of the ground thus energised is increased or 
diminished at the will of the operator, irrespective of the 
prime energy used. Areas as small as loo metres square, 
and as large as 30 square miles, or greater, are excited by 
one inductor. 




D.\KT-\V1I,LI.AMS ELECTRICAL ORE-FIXDIXG .AI>R\R.\TUS. 



33° 



Page's Magazine. 




MliTHOD OF USING THE APPARATUS. 



The operatoi- traverses that portion of tht energised 
field to be explored for mineral, and constantly receives 
manifestations of the waves beneath. On approaching a 
mineral vein or lode the normal characteristics of the 
waves undergo a marked variation in intensity or 
direction (or both) ; the changes are heard in the re- 
sonators and readily interpreted. When the resonators 
are over the lode, the variation and intensity are greatest. 
Here some very specific changes abruptly take place, and 
by noting density of wave flux, rotation of path and 
discord or overtone of the waves, considerable informa- 
tion as to the depth, width and condition of the deposit is 
obtainable. 

Veins or lodes which act as insulators, as compared 
with their enclosing rocks, are discovered with the saine 
facility, the surface variations of the wave differing to a 
considerable extent. 

Duplicate working is used where necessary. Two 
fields of force are focussed so that their waves will 
coincide, at a predetermined angle, on the area to 
be investigated for mineral. The phases of the 
diplex inductors are tuned to produce periodic 
harmonics. 



Professor Hele-Shaw. 



The excellent portrait of I'rolessor Hele-Shaw, LL.D., 
F.K.S., which appeared in our March issue, was repro- 
duced from a photograph taken by Messrs. Elliott and Fry. 



London Transit through American Spectacles. 
Mr. C. T. Yerkes, as the principal speaker at a 
dinner given by the Mayor of Kensington (Major 
Lewis Isaacs), said he had noticed in his many 
visits— and he had come to London for a great many 
years — the very bad condition of our intramural trans- 
portation. He had noticed that the people were herded 
together and had no opportunity of getting away from 
the centre ; and he ventured to say that there were 
hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of people who 
did not get one mile away from their home from year's 
end to year's end. Their homes were located in very 
bad districts, the sanitary arrangements were extremely 
poor ; and, in fact, in London to-day the conditions were 
worse than they were in any civilised city that he knew 
of ; and there was no one who ought to appreciate that 
more than an Englishman. His plan, inaugurated years 
ago in the United States, w.is to build up the prairies 
outside Chicago. At the time he spoke of their railroads 
extended only five miles, and conveyed passen.gers just 
to the outskirts. They went on extending their lines 
until a man could ride JO miles. He did il all for one 
fare. The labouring people going out on the prairie all 
inhabited little homes which were built by private 
enterprise, and they paid the owner and the occupier. 
The labouring man brought up his children in a proper 
manner. 

Proceeding to advocate a similar extension of cheap 
transport for London, Mr. Yerkes said his idea was to 
make the fare 2d. for almost any distance. As far as 



Notes and News. 



33' 



lube lines were eoncenied, we must there have 2cl. fares 
(or ahnost the whole of the Hnes. Where one crossed 
the roads and had a chanije of stations there must be a 
free transfer at those points. 

As far as he was concern sd, it was not a matter of 
makint; money with him, though a great many persons 
thought it was. He could make more money by remaining 
in America ; but he had got to the point where he did 
not care so much for that. He did want to accomplish 
something in London, however, if he was permitted to 
do so, in the direction of improvement of transportation. 

In the Daily Telegraph Mr. Yerkes has replied to some 
criticisms on the above speech. The critic is evidently in 
favour of what he calls " working-class colonics," and Mr. 
Yerkes answers this by denying the practicability of 
placing the working people in colonies. There is no 
more reason why the working classes should be so placed 
than other classes. Placing together a particular class of 
people to the exclusion of others does not tend to improve 
the condition of society which is so necessary to making 
good citizens. In Mr. Yerkes's opinion, the mixing of the 
working people — the mechanics, labourers, clerks, and 
others who are compelled to work for their living — 
together would have much greater adv.mtages than 
having them housed separately and distinctly. He 
further denies that he was in error when he said that the 
intramural transportation of London was poor, or that 
the outlving districts should receive more attention. 
Granted that the Great Eastern Railway has assisted in 
building up the suburbs, it seems to him there is plenty of 
room for improvement in other directions. Dealing with 
other criticisms, Mr. Yerkes states that a train of thirty 
cars, if necessary, may be hauled by electricity, but admits 
that the question whether the multiple-unit system of 
working will lead to really improved acceleration has yet 
to be proved. 



The Defences of Port Arthur. 

In a recent issue of the Navy and Army IHnstrated, 
Mr. Alan H. Burgoyne, F.R.G.S., gives a striking account 
of Port Arthur, which is described as "well nigh impreg- 
nable as Gibraltar, both landwards and from the sea. 
The site of the old Chinese city is rapidly becoming a 
mass of barracks, and the extensive militiry works at 
present being carried out on all the surrounding heights 
testify to Russia's firm intention to retain Port Arthur for 
all time. 

"The defences of the adjacent coast are remarkable, 
and extend in the northern direction for a distance of 
forty versts, whilst to the south the sea-line is fortified 
along twelve versts. These fortifications take the form 
of earth batteries, and mount either three or four heavy 
guns each ; the approach to them on the land side is 
made impossible by the erection about the bases of the 
hills on which they are situ.ited, of stout fences, or, in 
many cases, castellated walls, with sentries placed in 
profusion around them to prevent any inquisitive stranger 
from approaching too near. These two long lines are 
joined by a circle of forts surrounding the town and 
surmounting the tops of the hills which are scattered over 
the country. The huge, scarcely finished, fort com- 
manding the entrance has just received four new 63-ton 



breech-loading cannon on fortress mountings, whilst on 
the side towards the sea, and halfw-ay between the crest 
of the hill and the water level, are two batteries of small 
quick-firers, with a torpedo and search-light station, the 
combination making the success of an attack by torpedo 
vessels highly problematical. 

" As one enters the harbour a large semi-natural break- 
water is seen on the left, enclosin.g a fine bay 01 about 
two miles in length by one mile in breadth. On this is 
placed a battery of seven 5'5-in. Canet quick-firers, at an 
elevation of not more than 10 feet from the mean sea- 
level, thus efliciently protecting the inner harbour and 
basin from any torpedo craft that might by chance have 
escaped the fire of the outer batteries." 

Electric Transmission Plant at Pochin Colliery. 

^Continued front last month:) 

The electric motors for driving the haulage gears (both 
main and tail, and endless rope) are all of 55 e.h.p., 
of the three-phase type, at 500 volts, but the motors are 
capable of working up to 100 h.p , at a speed of 590 revo- 
lutions per minute. Each motor is complete with slip 
rings which are totally enclosed for protection against 
gas, and with oil-filled controllers. The motors are 
placed behind the haulage gears, and driven b^' means of 
cotton ropes i in. diameter. 

The electric lighting installation includes a horizontal 
single cylinder engine which is fitted with automatic 
trip expansion gear, and is of the following dimensions 
and power : Diameter of cylinder, 9^ in. ; length of 
stroke, 20 in. ; diameter of flywheel, 6 ft. ; face of fly- 
wheel, 10 in. ; revolutions per minute, approximate, 
120 in. ; steam pressure per square inch, 120 lb. ; brake 
horse-power, 40 lb. This engine drives by belt on to 
the lighting generator, which is of Scott and Mountain's 
continuous current two pole type. 

The colliery is lighted above ground and underground 
by about 15a i6-c.p. incandescent lamps. 

The whole of the new plant described and illustrated 
in this and the previous number has been constructed 
for the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company, Ltd., by 
Messrs. Ernest Scott and Mountain, Ltd. 



New "Winding Plant at Sand-well Park 
Colliery. 

.After a thorough investigation of current English .nul 
Continental practice, Alessrs. Eraser and Chalmers, Ltd.. 
have been asked to supply Corliss Winding Engines for 
the Sand well Park Colliery, and Earl of Dudley, 
Baggeridge Sinking, in the South Staffordshire district. 
These winding engines are of 3,000 h.p. each, will be 
duplicates of each other, and will be among the largest 
colliery winding engines in the country. The duty of 
each will be 3,000 tons per day of eight hours, from a 
depth of 600 yards. The coal per trip which \\\\\ be 
w^ound will be 7J tons, and the engines will eventually 
run condensing with 150 lb. initial steam pressure. The 
engines will be of most economical type, and will be 
fitted with Eraser and Chalmers' standard Corliss cut-off 
gear, and Whitmore safety brake. It is expected that 
the first of these winders will be running in about a 
year's time. 



332 



Page's Magazine. 



Bogie Mineral Waggons for the North- 
Eastern Railway Company. 

KL-cently, tlic-re left tlie Leeds Koij,'e Company's 
sidings at Armley, tlie longest train of high capacity 
bogie mineral waggons that has ever travelled in the 
United Kingdom. It consisted of twenty-five waggons, 
each with a capacity for carrying 40 tons of coal, and 
weighing only 16 tons ; thus the train, which was con- 
strncted for the North-Eastern Railway Company, when 
fullv loaded, would carry 1,000 tons of coal ; the tare 
weight, or non-paying load, being only 400 tons, and the 
total length of the train only 975 ft. exclusive of engine 
and brake van. "This," writes a correspondent, '• is a 
great advance on the older type of railway waggons 
now generally in use. To carry the same qu;intity of 
coal in the latter at least lOO waggons would be required, 
and the tare weight, or non-paying load of these, would 
be at least 625 tons, or 56 per cent., heavier than the 
bogie waggons, while the length of this number of 
four-wheeled waggons would be 1,900 ft., or about double 
that of the train of bogie waggons, consequently two 
trains would be required ; whereas the bogie waggons 
of the same carrying capacity were taken in one train. 
The tare weight, or non-paying load, in the case of the 
bogie waggons, is only 40 per cent, of the paying load, 
and there are only one-fourth the number of waggons 
to deal with ; whereas in the case of the four-wheeled 
waggons the non-paying load is 62 per cent, of the 
paying load. There is another great saving in con- 
nection with the high capacity waggons, which are of 
the self-emptyingi type. They are so arranged that by 
pulling two hand levers through an angle of 120 degrees 
the whole of the contents of the waggon are discharged 
between the rails upon which the waggon lests, and 
shoot down into the hold of the vessel, at the rate of 



one ton per second ; further, the doors can be opeiated 
from either side of the waggon, so that to discharge 
1,000 tons of coal, only fifty levers have to be pulled 
over, whereas in the four-wheeled waggons of the same 
capacity, 400 doors have to be let down and lifted u|i 
again, and fastened by hand. 

" The waggons are constructed throughout of pressed 
steel, each being strong enough to carry a load of iod 
tons without injury. Indeed, one of the waggons has 
been loaded with 40 tons of coal, and upon this was 
placed 60 tons of pig-iron, which load remained on the 
waggon for thirteen days. It was afterwards shunted 
before being discharged, but no injury whatever was 
done to the waggon, thus showing the great strength of 
this form of construction. It appears that the North- 
Eastern Railway Company recognise the advantage to be 
gained by the adoption of high capacity bogie waggons. 
I believe these waggons are the finest yet constructed, 
and that nothing in the United States or any other 
countrv can approach them for finish, strength, and low 
tare weight." 



Polyphase Electric Driving. 

Messrs. T. H.irding, Churton and Co., of Atlas Works, 
Leeds, have recently discarded the gas engines by which 
their works were formerly run, and put down two-phase 
motors instead to do the work, the current being obtained 
from the Leeds Corporation Supply mains. The motors 
are of Messrs. Churton and Co.'s make, and are of various 
powers, constructed for a two-phase, 200 volt, 50 service. 
The installation has proved very successful, and it is 
e.'cpected that the marked economy which has already 
been effected will be still further increased as the power 
is further subdivided. 




A I.OXG TRAIN t)l> HK.H L.\1'.\C1TV liOGlK MIN'Iik.M. WAGGOXS. 



Notes and News. 



333 



Blast Furnace Improvements for Dusty 
Ores. 

Mr. Linn Benlley, of the Coliimbus Iron and Steel 
Conirany, Columbus, Ohio, has desij^ned a blast furnace 
improvement designed to aid in the handling of Hue dust. 
The inventor refers to its object and its construction in 
these terms : — 

" In most iron ores there is a considerable quantity of 
tine dust or particles of ore deemed to contain the best 
and purest metal, and heretofore in the process of reduc- 
ing ore in a blast furnace a large proportion of this dust 
has been blown out through the downtake, accumulating 
in and choking the flues to such an extent that it has 
been necessary to shut down the furnace at frequent 
intervals to remove the accumulation. This accumulation 
is often lost or wasted, because when it is added to a 
charge the ordinary quantity of dust is augmented and 
the trouble in the Hues aggravated. The object of my 
invention, therefore, is to provide an improved construc- 
tion of gas-Hue or downtake that will prevent to a great 
extent, if not entirely, the escape of the ore particles 
through the downtake. 

'■ In my improvements the downtake leads first upward 
from the top of the furnace and then downward, so that 
there shall be a tendency of the ore particles to fall by 
their own weight back into the furnace, where they will 
be reduced along with the rest of the charge. The inven- 
tion also consists in providing the upwardly leading part 
of the down take-flue with substantially horizontally extend- 
ing obstructions or baffles, against which the ore par- 
ticles strike and are deprived of their momentum. The 
invention also consists in providing a 'bleeder' directly 
above and in line with the axis of the upwardly-directed 
part of the downtake, so that the ore par- 
ticles rising in it will fall back into the 
furnace through the said upwardly leading 
portion. 

" The invention further consists in a 
peculiar construction of dust-catcher where- 
by most of the metallic and other dust that does get 
around the bend in the top of the Hue may be detained 
and removed." 

The illustration shows a central vertical section of a 
blast furnace with the attachment referred to. Fig. 2 is 
a section of the dust trap. D is the Hue, or downtake, 
for carrying off the gases. In the upward extension of 
the Hue are baffles, as at A, preferably having their upper 
sides inclined, so that the particles dropping or lodging 
thereon shall tend to roll oft and fall back into the 
furnace. B is a valved vent or bleeder, to let out gas 
should the pressure become too high for safety. This 
bleeder is located above the upwardly leading part of 
the downtake, so that particles of dust entering or lodging 
therein shall fall back into the flue and furnace. 

The dust trap comprises a chamber, C, into which the 
upper end of the downtake discharges, the discharging end 
of the downtake being shown to be somewhat enlarged, 
but of smaller diameter than that of the chamber, 
so that the branch flues, E E. forming a continuation 
of the downtake, can lead upward out of the upper 
end of the chamber C. Thus the discharging end of the 



flue is practically in the same horizontal plane as the 
induction end of the flues E E, and particles dropping 
into the trap can hardly be carried upward through the 
flues. The lower end of the dust-trap is provided with 




a bell-valve, which may be operated at any time to 
discharge the accumulation in the trap. The Hues E E 
communicate or discharge into the ground or other 
Hues F, and the gases from the furnace may be conveyed 
to any place where it may be desired to utilize them — 
for example, as fuel for stoves or boilers. The flue can 
also be provided with a safety-valve to give vent in case 
of explosion in that part of the downtake. With this 
construction the valuable metallic dust heretofore wasted 
is saved and much annoyance and loss of time due to 
choking of Hues avoided.— The Iro\ Tuaues Review. 



Lord Selborne on his Scheme. 

The advantages oi the new naval scheme were forcibly 
stated by Lord Selborne in the course of an address on 
Imperial Defence, to the South St. Pancras Unionist 
Association. He remarked that the two great pillars of 
imperial stability on which this country rested were the 
maintenance of its credit and the strength of its Navy. 
Proceeding, he said : — 



334 



Page's Magazine. 



"You have also to take into account the quality of the 
ships, the manner in which they are found and equipped, 
and the quality of the oHicers and the men who man them. 
It is in connection with the quality of those ofticers 
that I would very brieHy allude to that scheme of entry 
and training of the officers of the Navy to which Captain 
Jessel has referred. You may remember that the object 
of that scheme, which comes into force this year, is 
that henceforth a'l the officers of the Navy who are 
essential for the fighting of a ship in action, be they 
what are known as the executive officers or engineer 
ofticers or Royal Marine ofticers, enter as boys into the 
Service in the same way, and enjoy the same training 
ashore and afloat up to the age of twenty, and then branch 
oft' into their different spheres and become specialized 
in their own particular lines. What is the main point in 
connection with this scheme, great change as it is, that I 
want to impress upon my country ? It is this, that the 
whole character of the modern battleship and the modern 
fleet has changed ; that you are dealing with one of the 
most complicated collections of machinery in every form 
which the world contains. A battleship is propelled 
by machinery, everything on board her is moved by 
machini.ry, she is steered by machinery, her guns are 
adjusted by machinery. Is it right that the largest 
proportion of the fighting officers of the Navy should be 
trained so as to remain in comparative ignorance of the 
mystery of machinery '■ If anybody put to you the 
question whether it was right that the naval ofticer 
of the future should know comparatively little of 
navigation you would laugh and say ' What else is he 
there for ?' If it were put to you that the naval officers 
of the future should remain in comparative ignorance of 
gunnery you would again laugh, as the whole purpose 
of the ship is that at a given moment the guns should 
be fought in such a way that the enemy's ships should 
be defeatecj. Is it not equally impossible to defend the 
position that the naval officer of the future should not 
have the general knowledge of machinery and of the 
craft of the engineer as he has now of the craft of the 
navigator or of the gunner r (Cheers.) Just as now 
every naval officer can take the place of the specialist 
gunnery ofticer or the specialist torpedo officer, in them- 
selves really only engineers of a very particular kind, 
just as on occasion he can take their place or that of a 
navigating specialist, will every naval ofticer be so 
trained that on occasion he can take the place of the 
specialist engineer ofticer. You will see what an added 
strength to the Navy it will be when all these ofticers 
are competent to take up and carry on each other's duties 
— what an influence that will have on the expansion of 
the fleet, on mobilization, and how much greater power 
of oft'ence it will put into the hands of the Admiralty of 
the day. You need not fear that the specialist engineer 
ofticers will be inadequately trained. Every one of them, 
in common with his shipmates of the other branches, 
having had a thoroughly sound engineering education so 
far as it aft'ects the Navy, will then pass on to his 
specialist education, and there will be no young 



engineers in the whole of the country better equipped 
for the work they have to do than the naval engineers of 
the future. One word more, and I have done. Questions 
have been asked as to what the future of these different 
branches of naval ofticers and marine ofticers will be. 
Whether they will every one of them, having had a 
common training up to the age of twenty, for ever then pass 
on in separate lines. As I have already said in public, 
the present Board of Admiralty have carefully left it open 
for a future Board, actuated by experience, to make a 
decision in this matter of personnel. I have no more 
doubt than that I am standing here, that the scheme will 
work out so that all these branches of the naval service 
will, throughout the career of the ofticer, be inter- 
changeable ; that not only will the same promotions be 
open to the ofticers of all those branches, but every 
appointment for which an officer by his capacity and 
merit mav prove himself to be fitted will be open to him, 
no matter to which branch he belongs ; and that 
therefore, eventually, not only in the early entering and 
training, but from the moment of his early training as 
a child to the moment of his retiring after years 
of service to his country, the essential and complete 
unity of the naval service will be preserved." {Loud 
cheers.) 



Proposed Ne-w Docks for Gibraltar. 

A Blue Book has been issued containing the report on 
the proposed eastern harbour and dock at Gibraltar by 
Captain T. H. Tizard and Mr. William Shield. The 
Commissioners state that, having carefully considered 
all the conditions aftecting the construction of an eastern 
harbour and dock at Gibraltar, they are of opinion that 
such a work is quite feasible, and that a scheme which 
they indicate by means of a drawing accompanying the 
report would be suitable. 

The work consists generally of : — 

(1) A main or outer breakwater, ii,oooft. in length, 
with a span 300 ft. long projecting from it on its landward 
side at a point 1,000 ft. from its eastern termination. 

(2) A southern breakwater, i.Soo ft. in length. 

(3) A graving dock, 700ft. long, with an entrance 05 ft. 
wide, and a depth over the sill of 38 ft. at low water. 

(4) Quays and quay walls to the southward of the 
proposed dock. 

(5) A tunnel through the span of rock which juts out 
between the Monkey Cave and Monkeys' Alameda. 

(6) The enlargement of the existing tunnel. 

(7) Additional workshops, sheds, dwellings, water 
supply, and other accessories. 

The cost of the works recommended, and the lime 
required for their construction, can only be approxi- 
mately estimated at the present stage ; but it is estimated 
that, after making due allowance for contingencies, the 
works could be constructed for _£'6,500,ooo, and could 
be completetl witliin ten years from the letting of the 
contract. 




BV 

ED. C. DE SEGUNDO, A.M.Ixst.C.E. 

The author discusses the present position of cable and " wireless " telegraphy from a commercial 
point of view, and desires us to state that the following remarks apply solely to the probability of 
existing long distance submarine cables being superseded by any wireless system of signalling, and 
must not be taken to detract in any way from the splendid work which Sir Oliver Lodge, Mr. Marconi, 
and others, have done, and are doing, in connection with wireless telegraphy, for which there is 
undonbtcdlv a large field in directions specially suited to the conditions involved.— Editor. 



A BOUT a year ago the detection on one 
-^ side of the Atlantic of an electric 
oscillation set up on the other struck terror 
to the hearts of shareholders in cable com- 
panies, who deemed that in consequence the 
days of submarine telegraph companies were 
numbered. They consequently rushed incon- 
tinently to sell their shares, not realising 
that in so doing they were playing into 
the hands of certain financial groups, whose 
avowed business is to aggravate the effect of any 
circumstance calculated to affect the value of 
the shares of any company ad\-ersely, by selling 
shares in that company (which they often do not 
even possess) in order to unduly depress the 
market price, and thus frighten genuine 
holders into realising, so that the shares can be 
bought back at a lower figure than that at 
which the financial groups in question sold. 

A WAVE OF DEPRESSION. 

The following table will give some idea of the 
depreciation in the value of telegraph com- 
panies' shares at the beginning of the year 1902. 
caused by the fear of wireless competition ; — 



Stoclc. 


Highest, 
:8w. 


Highest. 
1900. 


Highest, 
i9or. 


Januaiy 

l<p2. 


AngIo-.A.merican Tele- 










graph Ordinary 


69 


67i 


M 


4Si 


.■\nglo-.\merican Pre- 










ference Ordinarv ... 


uoj 


ii/i 


102 


90.1 


Anglo-.A.merican De- 










ferred Ordinary . 


is^' 


17U 


Ili 


S 


Direct U.S. Cable . 


i-'i 


ui- 


lli 


10 


Eastern Telegraph ... 


ISS 


159 


151 


130 


Eastern Extension 










Telegraph 


!«»■ 


l6i 


14! 


15 



Although at the time of writing, the prices 
of the shares have recovered considerably, the 
present figures are much below those at which 
these shares stood for many years prior to 
the fateful projection of the letter " S " in the 
Morse code across the Atlantic. 

That considerable uneasiness is still felt by 
shareholders in cable companies is evidenced 
by the questions asked at meetings of the 
telegraph companies, and it must therefore be 
of importance to not a few. and of interest 
to a large number of people, to determine 
whether the submarine cable is destined to 
become a relic of the past, and, if not. whether 
it will, or may. be superseded in any degree 



(3.i5> 



336 



Page's Magazine. 



by the wireless method, and, if so, to what 
extent . 

To prophesy would be easy ; to quote the 
views of the Chairmen or of the Engineers of 
either cable telegraph companies or wireless 
method companies would be unconvincing. I 
propose, in the following lines, to refer to facts 
and to quote only such expressions of opinion 
as are uninspired and impartial, so as to enable 
readers to form their own conclusions as to the 
probable influence of wireless telegraphy upon 
future submarine cable work. 

It is fair to assume that a number of my readers 
will be non-technical men, and therefore it has 
been suggested to me that a reference to the 
principles underlving " wireless " systems of 
telegraphy will not be out of place. 

First of all, let me anticipate the objection of 
the hypercritical reader that the term " wireless 
telegraphy " is scientifically inaccurate. I agree 
that such is the case, but the words " wireless 
telegraphy " convey my intended meaning 
sufficiently well, and, indeed, such a term is 
now universally recognised as apph'ing to all 
systems of electric signalling in which no 
intervening wires are employed. 

THE ESSENTIALS OF "WIRELESS" TELEGRAPHY. 

My next step will be to try to indicate the 
means by which the effect of an electric oscilla- 
tion travels over from one side of the Atlantic 
to the other. Whatever system be employed, 
some vehicle must exist by means of which the 
transmission of the electric impulse is effected. 
In ordinary systems the vehicle is a visible copper 
wire. In wireless methods the vehicles although 
invisible, is none the less a physical entity. 
To grasp this, one must first realise that there 
is no such thing as an absolute void. We are 
accustomed to demonstrate the elementary 
principle of subtraction to Smith minor by 
saying to him, " If you have two apples, and 
Jones major takes them away from you, what 
is left ? " and Smith minor naturall\- replies, 
" nothing." He is quite right in a sense. 
Nothing of the nature of an apple remains, 
but sotnething that existed in that particular 
portion of space occupied by the two apples 
continues to exist irres]iective of the fact that 
the two apples have been annexed bj' Jones. 



There is no such thing as nothing. Even 
in a perfect vacuum there would still be some- 
thing, which scientific men have the strongest 
possible reasons for believing exists throughout 
space, is indestructible and unproducible. This 
something is called, for want of a better name, 
the luminiferous ether, or, shortly, ether, and is 
considered to pervade the whole of space, that 
is to say, to exist even in the space separating 
one ultimate particle of matter from the con- 
tiguous particles which form terrestrial solids, 
liquids, and gases. 

The following experiment, which can be carried 
out by any one of my readers, show's that 
light and sound are propagated through 
different media. Take a loud ticking clock 
to the laboratory of any professor of physics 
with whom you may be acquainted. Place 
it under the glass, receiver of his air-pump 
and then pump away from around the clock all 
the air you can. As the exhaustion of the air 
proceeds the ticking will become fainter and 
fainter, till at last you will hear nothing, but 
the clock will, of course, continue to go. Now, 
you cannot hear the ticking, but you can see the 
clock, which shows that although the vehicle for 
the sound waves has been removed, the vehicle 
for the light waves remains. This vehicle 
which exists in vacuo has therefore been termed 
the luminiferous. or light-carrving ether. It 
mav incidentally be mentioned that it is a 
merciful dispensation of Providence that the 
luminiferous ether does not convey sound, for 
were this the case we might constantly be 
subject to serious disturbance bv the noise 
of the stupendous convulsions of Nature taking 
place in the solar system, even as magnetic 
disturbances caused by volcanic and other 
eruptions in the sun are appreciated by the 
more delicate electric measuring instruments 
in use on the earth. 

To give some idea of the wide range of vibra- 
tory motion, it may be mentioned that the 
lowest sound that the average human ear can 
appreciate is produced by sixteen vibrations 
per second, and the highest by forty thousand 
vibrations per second. Sounds whose rates of 
vibration are higher than this, are inappreciable 
to the human ear. This shows that a sound may 
be too shrill to be heard, which I think will be a 



" Wireless " Telegraphy. 



337 



novel idea to some of us. Yet, if we reflect a 
moment, we will remember that on occasions, 
certain of our friends have been able to hear 
the cr\- of a bat, while others have said they 
never heard a bat cry. This is a well-known 
fact, the reason of which is simple ; the "■ wave- 
velocity " so to speak of the bat's cry is in the 
neii^hbourhood of the extreme upper limit of 
sensil)ility of the human ear. 

Between the wave velocities constituting sound 
and those which are appreciable by the eye as 
colour there is a huge gap. The ultra red rays 
have something like 100,000,000,000,000 vibra- 
tions per second — and in between these are to be 
found the Hertz waves with a frequency of 
approximately 230.000.000 vibrations per second, 
which are utilised for the purpose of projecting 
electric oscillations to a distance. It must be 
remembered that certain electro-magnetic waves 
of induction are propagated through the ether, 
and are not influenced in the slightest by solids, 
liquids, or gases.* 

The principles involved in " wireless " tele- 
graphy have been known for a number of years. 
In 1882 Sir William Preece conducted some 
completely successful experiments in the trans- 
mission of signals without intervening wires 
over a distance of eighteen miles. We must 
also not forget the experiments of Morse in 
America, who some forty years ago indicated 
the means whereby " wireless " telegraphy 
might be accomplished. Lindsey — whose 
labours in this field were also of no little 
importance — indicated another direction in 
which signals could be exchanged without 
intervening wires. His system, however, utilises 
the difference in conductivity of two media, 
namely, earth and water, and must, therefore, 
not be confounded with the methods we are now 
discussing, whereby electric oscillations are 
projected through the ether by the utilisation 
of inductive effect. It is, however, of interest 
to refer to Lindsey's work, as his ideas have 
taken concrete shape in a system devised by 

* We are quite in the d.irlc, and probably shall lemain 
so, as to why ccitaiii wave lengths can pass through solids 
while different lengths arc unabl.- to do so, and why, 
again — as in the ease of the X rays— flesh and blood oli'er 
no resistance to the passage of these rays, whereas they 
are intercepted by bony tissue. The fact remains that 
such is the case, and at present that is all that can be said 
about it. 



;\Ir. Willoughby Smith, which is still in operation. 
The fundamental principles upon which all 
so-called systems of wireless telegraphy are 
based is as follows : An electric disturbance of 
sufficient strength and of a suitable nature is 
set up at one point, and this disturbance travels 
(like the ripple on a calm sheet of water caused 
by a stone falling into it) through space through 
the medium of the ether, and enables a suitablv 
arranged receiving apparatus at another point 
to reproduce — although in a proportionately 
faint manner, according to the distance 
traversed — the starting and stopping of the 
original impulse. We have likened the trans- 
mission of the electric impulse to the ripple 
caused by a stone dropped into a sheet of still 
water. This is not quite accurate ; the inductive 
effect extends in all directions from the point 
at which it was produced — that is to say. in 
continually increasing spheres of influence. 
This is an important point in wireless systems, 
and will be referred to later on. 

Before going further, I would just like to say 
that I am refraining from all eulogistic reference 
to the labours of the numerous workers in this 
field, because in the first place any tribute of 
mine could not add to the appreciation which has 
already been expressed by abler pens ; and^ 
secondly, because to do justice to the many 
who have worked in this field would require a 
volume in itself. The discoveries upon which 
wireless telegraphy is based are numerous, 
and, indeed, wonderful, but they have been 
chronicled long ago, and the object of my paper 
is to consider the probable practical value of the 
wireless system from the cold and uncom- 
promising point of view of commercial and 
pecuniary advantage. 



COST OF THE "WIRELESS' 



1ETHOD. 



The cost of establishing communication on 
the wireless method is, of course, extremely 
small compared with that by a submarine 
cable. The cost of a submarine telegraph 
cable, including manufacture and laying, is 
approximately £225 to £250 per nautical mile. 
This is an average figure, and, of course, may 
be greater or less, according to the special con- 
ditions aimed at (such as, for instance, high 
working speed), and the life, as far as present 



Page's Magazine. 



experience enables us to judge, may be from 
thirty to forty years. In the wireless method 
no cable is used between the transmitting 
station and the receiving station, thus enor- 
mously reducing the capital outlay- 

The cost of energy for transmitting the neces- 
sary electric impulses on the wireless method is. 
however, very much greater than in the case of 
the direct conductor method. It is at present 
impossible to estimate \-er\- accurately how 
much greater, as such items of information are 
very jealously guarded by " wireless " com- 
panies, who naturally enough are labouring hard 
to reduce working costs, and therefore are 
anxious not to give themselves away. Mr. 
William Maver recently stated that about 
150 watts were used for the transmission of the 
necessary impulses from a Marconi transmitter 
over a distance of about 186 miles. Comparing 
this with the expenditure of energy necessary 
to operate an ordinary telegraph relay over a 
similar distance, he stated that the latter would 
require about three watts, so that the wireless 
method required fifty times more energy than 
the ordinary telegraph method. Assuming that 
the energy required will vary as the square of 
the distance, it would require roughly 

(^ — ■ r X 1^0 watts, or about 40 h.p. * 
186 / ■ ' -f t > 

to project the electric impulse across the Atlantic. 
Assuming other things to be equal — that is to 
say, that the wireless method is brought up to 
the same degree of efficiency as the cable method 
in point of speed, reliability, etc. — there would 
naturally be a limiting distance at which the 
extra cost of working on the wireless method 
would equal the interest on the first cost of the 
cable, together with the cost of maintenance 
and repairs. In the present state of our know- 
ledge of the cost of wireless telegraphy, it is 
quite impossible for us to say what this limiting 
distance would be, but we can only assume for 
the moment from Mr. Marconi's unequivocal 
utterances as to the rate at which his company 
will shortly be prepared to transmit messages 
from London to New York, that the distance 
across the Atlantic is well within this limiting 
distance, and this certainly appears probable. 

* The qiifstiiin of power is not an important one from 
tlie point of view of eost of wcirkinii, unless it slmuld very 
.:j;reatly exceed tliis. 



CRUX OF THE PRESENT SITUATION. 

We have assumed above that in point of 
reliability the wireless method has been brought 
to the same degree of efficiency as the direct 
cable method. This, however, appears to me 
to be the crux of the whole situation, and 
while it would be unwise to suggest that it 
could never be attained, it is safe to say that up 
to the present it has not been attained. 

One of the chief difficulties, in fact the main 
difficulty from a commercial point of view, 
that has to be contended with in the wireless 
method is to find means to enable two parties 
to communicate with each other without fear 
of their message being overheard or inter- 
cepted, and also to prevent a third party from 
making communication between any two parties 
impossible by simply working his own apparatus, 
and thus rendering the other parties' signals 
unintelligible. Although it has been stated by 
the \\'ireless Telegraph and Signal Company, 
Limited, in reference to the installation between 
the East Goodwin Lightship and the South 
Foreland Lightship (r/;;(£'s, February 24th. 1900), 
that between December 29th, 1S98, and Febru- 
ary 14th. 1899. there had not been a single flaw 
or hitch, and that night and day. in fog. storm, 
and thunderstorm no difference had been found 
in the working of the system, we are still 
— in February, 1903, or four years later — no 
further advanced as regards the application of 
the wireless method as a practical commercial 
undertaking. 

Sir \\'illiam Preece has characterised the 
methods of the Wireless Telegraph and Signal 
Company {Journal of the Society of Arts. May 
5th, 1899) as " mysterious " and " inscrutable." 

In the leading article of the issue of the 
Electrical Review of January 24th, 1902. com- 
ment is made upon the fact that although the 
Post Office had been informed that the Wireless 
Telegraph Company could communicate Sark 
with Guernsey, they had not done so, and. 
further, that for nearly two years after its 
practicability was confirmed, not one single 
commercial circuit existed. 

The Electrical Review goes on to point out that 
in the House of Commons' Report of the Times 
of July 23rd, 1901, Mr. Henniker-Heaton. M.P. — 
then a director of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph 



Wireless" Telegraphy. 



339 



Company — asked the Secretary of the Treasury, 
as representing the Postmaster - General. 
" whether anything was being done to connect 
by telegraph the Island of Sark with Guernsey, 
and whether he proposed to continue the policy 
of his predecessor of refusing an offer of Mar- 
coni's Wireless Telegraph Company to connect 
Sark with Guernsey by wireless telegraphy 
without any expense whatever to the Govern- 
ment." The reply was, that " the Postmaster- 
General had no reason to suppose that the 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company were 
prepared to maintain permanent telegraphic 
communication between Sark and Guernsey 
without charge, and it was, of course, permanent 
communication that was required." The com- 
ment of the Electrical Review was. " if such 
differences and contradictions arose in regard to 
a short span of the Channel Islands, what are we 
to expect from an exploit across the Atlantic ^ " 
Up to the present Mr. Marconi has not pub- 
lished any results which would lead us to 
suppose that the practical realisation of his 
views as to long distance wireless tele- 
graphy is imminent. Had the advocates of 
wireless telegraphy contented themselves in 
the past with expressing their confidence in the 
ultimate realisation of their hopes, the signi- 
ficance of the non-fulfilment thereof would be 
comparatively small, but in a paper read by 
Mr. Marconi to the Society of Arts — May 17th. 
1901 — he states that his efforts to secure syntony. 
or the means of preventing interference by 
other transmitters, or interference with other 
receivers than the particular transmitter and 
receiver engaged in the transmitting of a 
message, were " crowned with complete suc- 
cess," and Mr. Marconi further stated that " a 
very great number of non-interfering stations 
can now be worked in the immediate vicinity 
of each other." On the other hand. Professor 
J. A. Fleming expressed the opinion (Time^. 
April 3rd, 1S99) that " wireless telegraphy will 
not take the place of telegraphy with wires." 
So far Professor Fleming is " on top." 

Although wireless telegraphy has not yet 
borne out in practice the published convictions 
of its advocates — in spite of the fact that some 
time has elapsed since statements were made 
that the system had been perfected, and so 



forth — it does not, of course, follow that im- 
provements will not be attained in the future, but 
it would appear that the very principles involved 
in wireless telegraphy militate against the 
probabilitv of the same degree of reliability, 
secrecy, and speed being attained with which 
Atlantic cables are now being worked. It must, 
further, be recollected that the advent of a 
possible rival will stimulate telegraph engineers 
to still further improve the telegraph service. 
\\'ithin the last three years cables have been 
laid across the Atlantic capable of transmitting 
600 letters per minute, representing an important 
advance upon the speed hitherto possible. If 
we admit the possibility of great improvements 
in the wireless system, it is surely competent to 
extend the same latitude to submarine telegraph 
engineers. 

The main obstacle in the way of long distance 
wireless telegraphy on a commercial scale is the 
non-success so far of any attempts to prevent 
the interference of neighbouring transmitters, 
and when one considers that the waves of 
influence radiate in all directions from the point 
at which the electric impulse is produced, and 
when, further, one remembers that electric 
oscillations have to be used which of necessity 
must be capable of propagation through space, 
irrespective of intervening solids or liquids or 
gases, it will be seen that any attempt at 
screening or directing these waves must of 
necessity be unsuccessful, and that the only 
hope lies in the syntonisation or attuning of 
corresponding transmitters and receivers. The 
practical difficulty of effecting this when trans- 
mitting and receiving stations are multiplied, as, 
of course, thev would have to be were the system 
to come into general use, will at once be realised. 
It seems unnecessary to dive into the more 
technical issues involved. 

THE FUTURE. 

There can be no doubt that many advantages 
exist in the wireless method, as compared 
with the cable method. No doubt, also, many 
of the technical difficulties now existing in 
connection with the construction and working 
of the transmitting and receiving instruments 
and accessory apparatus will be overcome, 
but two things cannot be altered ; first, the 



34° 



Page's Magazine. 



nature of the vehicle for the transmission of 
the electric impulse, namely, the luminiferous 
ether; and, secondly, the laws governing the 
conditions set up by the production of the 
necessary electrical oscillations. It is im- 
possible to direct and control the electric 
impulse produced in the wireless method with 
the same accuracy as is achieved by the direct 
conductor method in the case of a submarine 
cable. In this connection it mav be interesting 
to quote the following paragraph which appeared 
in the Globe of February 13th, 1903 : — 

It came to our ears a considerable time ago that 
Marconi messages could be tapped, but it was only after 
Mr. Neville Maskelyne had published actual results of 
tapping, with specimens of the messages, that we referred 
to the matter. According to recent interviews with 
Marconi, given in tlie newspapers, he admits that his 
messages can be tapped over their radius of transmission 
— that is to say, the area of a circle of that radius, and 
also that he has not yet succeeded in tuning or syntonising 
his messages, but expects to succeed. 

In the Electrical Review of Februar\-. 27th. 
1903, an extract is given from the Report of the 
French Budget Sub-Committee on Posts and 
Telegraphs, prepared by Mr. Marcel Sembat. 
The Report states that " means of rendering 
wireless messages exchanged between various 
stations independent of one another has not yet 
been found. It is sufficient for us in this con- 
nection to reproduce the conclusions of a recently 
published work by two engineer officers — 
Commandant Boulanger and Captain Ferrie — 
who have specially interested themselves in this 
question. Communications by wireless tele- 
graphy give no security in the present conditions, 
because a receiver could not be protected against 
atmospheric influences, nor against an energetic 
transmission made even at a considerable 
distance, by a station other than that with 
which it is wished to correspond. It is im- 
possible to forecast, at present, the means of 
remedying this inconvenience. The applications 
of wireless telegraphy can only be limited, and 
they cannot replace the methods of communica- 
tion emijloyed up to the present in military 
telegraphy. . . . Nobody is ignorant of the fact 
that the exchange of wireless telegrams is more 
difficult on land than by sea, the smallest 
accident on land weakening the Hertzien waves. 
It has been remarked in a ]irecise manner that 



these waves are transmitted more distinctly if 
the transmitting station and the receiving station 
are placed before a sheet of water of some extent. 
. . . To sum up, it seems that the augmen- 
tation of the strength of the currents used will 
increase the range of transmission, but so long 
as the means of ensuring the secrecy of the 
correspondence exchanged remains undiscovered, 
and no remedy has been found for the difficul- 
ties arising from the super-position of signals 
and atmospheric disturbances, this means of 
transmission cannot supersede the means of 
transmission employed up to the present. The 
first service which this new application of 
science can render in its present condition con- 
sists in the possible exchange of communication 
between the coast and vessels at sea, or neighbour- 
ing islands, or between the vessels themselves." 

Reference may also be made to the report 
prepared by Sir William Preece at the request 
of the Chairman of the Eastern Telegraph Com- 
pany, which was quoted at length at the recent 
general meeting of that company. 

Lord Kelvin, who is in the front rank of 
experts in submarine telegraphy, tells us that in 
his opinion the property of the submarine cable 
companies will not be in the slightest degree 
injured by the greatest success possible by 
wireless telegraphy. 

It is, however, unnecessary to multiply 
instances. The concensus of opinion amongst 
men of undisputed scientific attainments in 
the field of physics and telegraphy practically 
amounts to this, that the failure to ensure 
secrecy and non-interference is in the present 
state of our knowledge an apparently insur- 
mountable obstacle to the successful competition 
of wireless telegraphy with long distance sub- 
marine cable work. 

The foregoing remarks are intended to apply 
solely to the influence of the wireless method 
upon the value of telegraph companies property, 
and there is nothing in what has been written 
above that is inconsistent with the statement 
that undoubtedly there are many useful and 
profitable applications for wireless telegraphy, 
and that there is no reason why wireless tele- 
graph companies should not have a jirosjierous 
future before them in the particidar fields of com- 
mercial activity suited to their peculiar methods. 




AND ORGANISATION. 



D. N. DUNLOP. 

Tlie author indicates the hnes on which, in his experience, tlie important question of labour should be dealt 
with in I'actories. Some signiticant examples are given.— Editor. 



THE 



' I "HE importance of the provision of labour 
■*■ in the organisation of the factory cannot 
be over-estimated : it forms, as we have seen in 
past issues, tlie jirincipal factor in the cost of pro- 
duction, while we cannot afford to disregard the 
influence of the quality of labour on output. 

CHIEF ASSETS OF LABOUR. 

In considering the provision of labour from 
the point of view of its value to the employer, we 
find the following assets pre-eminent : — 

(i) The innate worth of the man. 

(2) Training. 

(3) Such qualities as e.xperience and skill, self- 

dependence, and enterprise. 

Among the means of promoting quality in 
labour which rest with the emjiloyer are the 
following : — 

(i) Discipline. 

(2) The promotion of moral and physical well- 

being. 

(3) The encouragement of esprit de corps. 

(4) Co-operation in management. 

(5) The cultivation of good relations with the 

employer. 

(6) Philanthrop\-. 

TREATMENT OF WORKMEN. 

Nothing pays better in the management of 
labour than a judicious mixture of philanthropy, 
justice, and discipline. 

The absence of one unit of labour from his jiost. 
even for an hour, may put the whole machinery 
out of gear. Experience teaches that no 



SECOND SERIES.— I. 

PROVISION OF LABOUR (GENERAL). 

employer of labour on a large or small scale can 
afford to provoke discontent or indifference. 

Ordinary labour is easily procured, but the 
firm whose considerate treatment of employees, 
coupled with good wages causes keen compe- 
tition for vacancies can pick and choose, and is 
bound to secure the best labour. An employer 
who gives his men nothing except wages can 
expect to receive nothing more from them than 
the working of so many hours. To increase the 
output and decrease the cost of production, 
however, the intelligent and sympathetic co- 
ojieration of the workers is required. How may 
this best be enlisted ? 

TRAINING. 

Integrity, ability, and faithfulness are the 
chief attributes the manager looks for in his men ; 
if they are alert as well, so much the better. 

The workman's training has been considered 
of more vital importance in America and in 
Germany than in England, where a technical and 
practical training is not so easily attained and 
the workman, therefore, rarely starts so thor- 
oughly equipped for his work or for advancement 
in his craft or trade. This subject will receive 
further consideration in the next article. The 
new school of technolog\- recenth- opened in 
Manchester, with day and evening classes and 
facilities for acquiring not only theoretical but 
practical knowledge, will, no doubt, prove of the 
greatest importance to the engineering industry ■ 

is a step in 



6' 

it 



the right direction, and similar 



(340 



342 



Page's Magazine. 



institutes should exist in all our large manu- 
facturing towns. The Manchester School of 
Technology will create engineers, chemists, etc., 
and experts in all branches, but it does not help 
the average workman in the factory or artisan. 
Now that the Trade Guilds are things of the past 
in England and have been replaced by Trades 
Unions, the dignity of the craft is disregarded ; 
quality in workmanship goes for little with the 
Unions. We want corresponding advantages 
placed within the reach of our lads, so that if 
they be ambitious and enterprising they may be 
enabled to become past masters of their craft or 
trade. 

Experience, skill, self-dependence and enter- 
prise are good cliiubiiig qualities, and to see them 
appreciated and rewarded is an incitement to 
less well-equipped workmen to endeavour to 
acquire them. This leads us into the province 
of the employer and we will now consider those 
methods which tend to improve the quality of 
labour in the factory. 

INSPIRING CONFIDENCE. 

The first step is to inspire confidence in the 
organisation and to establish good relations 
between employer and employed. This cannot 
be done in a moment. Let the workman feel 
sure of being treated with perfect justice and 
make him realise that in return for good wages 
nothing short of his best endeavour will be 
accepted ; that the master intends to have the 
work done in his own way and to have his rules 
obeyed. 

To demonstrate your good intentions towards 
the men, adopt all possible methods for increas- 
ing their comfort and happiness, and for improv- 
ing their mental, moral, and social condition : 
in doing this you create a bond of sympathy and 
inspire feelings of loyalty. Nor must the phy- 
sical needs of the man be forgotten ; provide 
good ventilation, sanitation, plenty of windows 
to admit the sanlight, and a liberal sufficiency of 
arc lamps and incandescent lamps throughout 
the works ; maintain an even temperature in 
the workshops, and give every facilityandencour- 
agement to the men to practise personal cleanli- 
ness. The good works of a successful and jihilan- 
thropic employer are not limited In- the walls 
of the establishment, thf\' extend bevond into 



the homes and home life of his employees. How 
this is accomplished may best be told by citing 
a few examples. The Westinghouse firm is 
proverbial in this respect and so is the National 
Cash Register Co. In the new works of the 
British Westinghouse Co., at Trafford Park, 
Manchester, the ventilation system is completed ; 
the pure air admitted is heated in winter by 
jiassing over a steam coil, while in summer the 
bad air is expelled and fresh air takes its place. 

VALUE OF CLEANLINESS. 

Lavatories are provided on an extensive scale ; 
there are 600 wash-basins in the machine shop 
alone for the workers, who have, besides, clothes 
lockers, and a dining-room for their own use. 
Electric light (at a cost of from 6d. to gd. per 
week) and fuel gas for cooking will shortly be 
provided at a cheap rate. 

This persistent insistence on cleanliness — 
which is also a prominent feature at the works 
of the National Cash Register Co., where baths 
are not only provided, but time also, at the 
expense of the employer — has a beneficial effect 
in the worker's homes, for the self-respect in- 
duced bvthe order and cleanlinessduringworking 
hours will not tolerate dirty, untidy homes, and 
slovenly habits. The same results are observed 
with regard to the sound moral tone and good 
discipline at the works. 

FOR WOMEN WORKERS. 

In factories where women are employed, much 
can be done to lighten and brighten their lives 
and to keep them healthy, therefore fit for work. 
Just as a machine will not work without oil or a 
boiler without fuel, so the bodies of the factory 
girls require proper nourishment. The President 
of the National Cash Register Co. observed a girl 
warming up coffee over a radiator one day, and 
on inquiry found that with a lump of bread it 
constituted the sum total of food upon which she 
was to sustain her energy for the day's work. 
He resolved henceforth to provide a luncheon 
room for the women, and hot coffee, and later he 
was able to supply a lunch of coffee or tea, bread 
and butter, soup, beef, and vegetables for 2.]cl. 
He found himself more than repaid for looking 
after the welfare of his employees liy their intel- 
ligent and willing co-ojieration. 



Business System and Organisation. 



343 



CO-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT. 

Co-operative management has recently re- 
ceived much attention in America and many 
firms have adopted it and found the results 
encouraging and satisfactory. Committees are 
formed in all departments drawn from superin- 
tendents, foremen, and employees, thelatter being 
chosen from the rank and file for their fitness to 
serve on the committee ; they meet daih' during 
the lunch hour or after work is over (at the firm's 
expense) and report to the General Management 
Committee on the work and organisation of their 
department. 

FOSTERING ESPRIT DE CORPS. 

There are committees to look after office detail, 
mechanical and building departments, sanita- 
tion and cleanliness, advertising, shipping and 
sale departments, repairs, etc. The employees 
are thus brought to feel that it is " our business " 
and are actuated by a strong esprit de corps, one 
of the most powerful and valuable motive springs 
of anv organisation, which, besides, enables the 
emplover to maintain a perfect system without 
coercion. Fines for slight infractions of rules 
become unnecessary ; it is better to dismiss an 
emplovee who is habitually careless and indif- 
ferent than to levy fines. The Westinghouse 
firm was among the first to realise that those who 
are actually engaged in the work of production 
or in one of its processes, often make the most 
valuable suggestions for improvements in the 
machinery, the tools, or even in the system of 
management. These improvements generally 
result in a saving of material and expense. One 
workman was actually found to suggest a device 
whereby his own labour was rendered unneces- 
sary. At first the men objected that it would 
be useless for them to make suggestions, as they 
would never reach their emplover's notice. 
Many firms, to obviate this difficulty, provide 
suggestion and grievance bo.xes, kept locked, into 
which the men drop the slips of paper containing 
suggestions or complaints duly signed, and these 
are collected daily by the employer or manager's 
secretary, and taken direct to his office, where 
they receive immediate attention. Prizes are 
offered for the best suggestions : this prevents 
stagnation and torpidity, and many owe 



promotion from the ranks to the intelligence and 
mterest thus awakened in them by the conside- 
ration and encouragement of the emplo^-er. 

These methods, which perhaps cost the firm 
a large sum annually, may be regarded as a safe 
investment, and one more effectual and bene- 
ficial in its results than many systems of bonus, 
premium, or profit-sharing, for these appeal less 
to man's nobler and finer instincts and nature. 

LABOUR-SAVING MACHINERY. 

Great prejudice exists in most workshops in 
Great Britain against labour-saving machinery, 
which, it is asserted, is a menace to the interests 
of the working man ; it is worth while to take the 
trouble to eradicate that idea which is entirely 
false. The effect of labour-saving machinery is 
to raise the price of labour and to lessen the cost 
of products ; the prejudice is on a par with the 
principle inculcated by Unions — that men 
should not do more than a certain fixed amount 
of work per day in order that sufficient emplov- 
ment may be found for the manv. Work 
creates work — the greater the output of the 
factory the more work there is to be done and 
the greater the need of expansion in plant and 
establishment. The man who spends his life in 
accomplishing one process becomes a mere 
machine with no prospect of advancement. Is 
it not a thousand times better to invent a 
machine to do his work in one-tenth the time 
and to set him to mind it ? If he has a spark 
of intelligence in him it stands a chance of being 
awakened, and before long he will be promoted 
to a more complex machine. The introduction 
of labour-saving appliances into a factory, be- 
sides increasing the dividends, turns machines 
into men instead of turning men into machines ; 
it energises and humanises and sharpens men's 
wits. 

In the opinion of the writer it is by some such 
methods that the labour problem will best be 
solved. The recognition of employees, as human 
beings who have their aspirations, their cher- 
ished ideals, and their lives to live just as their 
chiefs have ; the elevation of their surroundings 
and the prospect of advancement through self- 
culture and interest in their work — these things 
will in time solve the problem. 




EY 

BEXJAMIX TAYLOR. 

In the October number of Page's Magazine, this subject was discussed from a naval 
and an engineer's point of view. Following up that discussion, the writer gives a further 
account of the experiments of the Boiler Committee, whose investigations did not cease 
with the 1902 trials. 



ALTHOUGH boilers for the warships now being 
built have been ordered in conformity with 
the advice of the Boiler Committee, that Committee 
is still earnest and active in pursuit of further know- 
ledge. It is composed of engineering and shipbuilding 
experts, and is presided over by Admiral Domville. 
Among the recent experiments were some extremely 
interesting trials of H.M. sloops Espiegle and Fautonie, 
and H.M. torpedo gunboats Sheldrake and Seagidl, 
the details to be drawn from the reports of which are 
of the greatest interest to all concerned in the pro- 
duction and utilisation of steam power. One of these 
sloops and one of the gunboats are fitted entirely with 
Babcock and Wilcox boilers, viz., the Espiegle and the 
Sheldrake : while the sloop Fantome and the gunboat 
Seagull are fitted with Niclausse boilers. As these are 
all small vessels, the installations are necessarily small 

but they were the only vessels in the British Navy su 

fitted, and available for competitive comparison. 
Therefore, the Boiler Committee took them in hand 
and put them through a long succession of trials and 
tests. 

The result has been to prove that the power re(iuireil 
was on the whole obtained more readily from the Bab- 
cock and Wilcox than from the Niclausse boilers. 
This was particularly the case in the fuU-pnwer trials 
of the Sheldrake and the Seagull : but the heating 
surface of the former's boilers is 15 per cent, greater 
than that of the latter. The trials were completed 
in each ship without any defects being developed in 
the boilers themselves, but the boilers were not 
thoroughly tested as to their freedom from developing 
defects while being used on actual service. 

In the case of the sloops, the Niclausse boilers gave 
wetter steam than the Babcock and Wilco.x boiler.s. 
The steam collector of each of the Babcock and 
Wilcox boilers of the Espiegle is 3 ft. 6 in. internal 
diameter bv 9 ft. 6 in. long, while that of each of the 



Niclausse boilers of the Fantome is 2 ft. 7J in. internal 
diameter by 5 ft. 11 in. long. Thus, the area of water 
surface is about 130 square feet in the Espiegle, and 
about 60 square feet in the Fantome. The steam 
space in the boilers of the Espiegle is about twenty-seven 
times that in the Fantome. The boilers of the Fantome 
were fitted with small steam domes, but it does not 
appear that- these were sufficient to compensate for the 
verv great proportional reduction in water surface 
and steam space. The steam obtained from the 
Sheldrake's boilers showed about 4 per cent, of wetness 
on each of the short trials, and the installation of the 
boilers of that ship is such as to render the probability 
of wet steam being given off much greater than in the 
case of the boilers of the Fantome. The Sheldrake' s 
boilers have small generating tubes and only one return 
tube for each header ; while the Espiegle's boilers have 
large generating tubes and two return tubes to each 
header, in addition to a baffle plate over the ends of 
the return tubes in the steam collector. 

In the case of the Seagull, it was found that the 
steam used during the 1,000 h.-p. trial was practically 
dry, but on the full-power trial there was a wetness of 
over 3 per cent., and in this case also the steam col- 
lectors are small, being only 2 ft. /i in. diameter. 

The installation of machinery fitted with the Niclausse 
boilers showed smaller loss of feed water than the similar 
installation fitted with Babcock and Wilcox boilers. 
This was specially noticeable on the coal-endurance 
trial of the Fantome, in wliich the evaporators w-ere not 
used throughout the trial, although on a similar trial of 
the Espiegle it was necessary to use one evaporator 
for fourteen out of the ninety hours of the trial. 

The inferior efficiency of the boilers of the sloops 
on the coal-endurance trials, as compared with that 
found on the shorter trials, was to a great extent due 
to the necessity for cleaning the fires. When the 
results obtained for the first eight or sixteen hours of 



(344) 



Water=Tuhe V. Cylindrical Boilers. 



345 



each coal endurance trial are examined by themselves 
they reveal figures very nearly the same as those obtained 
on the short trials at about the same horse-power— 
tliat for the Espie^lc being rS8, and that for the 
Fantome 1-91 lb., of coal per horse-power hour for the 
rirst sixteen hours respectively, as against 1-86 lb. in 
each ship on the short trials. The long trials of the 
gunboats did not show any material difference in 
•-■conomy from the short ones, which may have been 
due to the stoppages in these trials from fog and other 
causes, which had practically the effect of converting 
the trials into a series of short ones. 

The boilers of the sloops were built in 1901, and those 
in the torpedo gunboats were built in 1897. Com- 
paring the efficiencies of the earher and later Babcock 
and Wilcox boilers, the maxm-ium eflicieucy of the 
boilers of the Espie^le reached 73'2 per cent., as against 
66 per cent, in the Sheldrake, an improvement of about 
1 1 per cent. ; and the average efficiency in the Espiegle 
is 67-8 per cent., as against 6yi per cent, in the Shel- 
drake, or an improvement of 7 per cent. 

With regard to the Niclausse boilers, the maximum 
efficiency in the case of the Fantome was 6g-8 per cent., 
as against 66-9 per cent, in the Seagull, an increase of 
about 4 per cent. ; and the average efficiency in the 
Fantome is 63-4 per cent., as against 63-2 per cent, in 
the Seagull, or practically the same. The results with 
the Babcock and Wilcox boilers show that the large 
tube boilers, as fitted m the Espiegle, are more efficient 
than the small tube type as fitted in the Sheldrake. 
The arrangement of heating surface is the same in 
both the earher and later boilers of the Niclausse types. 

The boilers of the Sheldrake are not fitted with fur- 
nace gas baffles. The bafBes in the boilers of the 
Seagull are similar to the modified baffles of the Fan- 
tome. In the boilers of the Espiegle two sets of vertical 
baffles are fitted, which make the masses rise at the 
back of the furnaces among the back ends of the tubes, 
then fall again among the tubes about half-way along 
their length, and rise again among the front ends to the 
uptakes. A similar arrangement was fitted in the 
Martello, but in this vessel these baffles have recently 
been removed and the area of outlet at the uptakes 
restricted, in consequence of the difficulty experienced 
in cleaning the boilers with the baffles in place. 

On the long trials of the Espiegle and Fantome it was 
found that the boiler feeding in these ships could be 
easily regulated by hand. This is a distinct advantage 
possessed by Babcock and Wilco.x and Niclausse 
boilers ; but it will no doubt be found that automatic 
feed regulation will be a valuable adjunct in similar 
boilers in large installations. 

The automatic feed regulators fitted in the Fantome 
worked throughout the trials without giving any 
trouble. Those fitted in the Espiegle were not so 
satisfactory, as they occasionally stuck, and allowed 
the v/ater in the boilers to fall below the proper working 
level before opening, or allow'ed too much water to 
enter the boilers before they closed. The feed regu- 
lators of the Sheldrake and of the Seagull also required 
attention at times. 



The space occupied by the Niclausse boilers in the 
Fantome is considerably less than that occupied by 
the Babcock and Wilco.x boilers of the same power in 
the Espiegle, although the grate surface and heating 
surface are nearly alike ; but the results indicate that 
this advantage has been obtained at the expense of 
some other advantages. 

The boiler-room weights of the Sheldrake are about 
8 per cent, less than those of the Seagull, although 
the Sheldrake has 15 per cent, more heating surface. 
This is partly accounted for by the fact that the boiler 
tubes of the Sheldrake are small in diameter (It-| in.), 
giving a large heating surface for a small weight, and 
also by the fact that the Seagull has six boilers against 
four in the Sheldrake. 

In the case of the sloops the Babcock and Wilco.x 
boilers are 25 per cent, heavier than the Niclausse 
boilers. The fire-grate and heating surface of the 
boilers of the Espiegle are slightly greater than those 
of the Fantome. The generating tubes in the boilers 
of both ships are of practically the same diameter, 
so that neither type of boiler has any advantage in 
obtaining a larger amount of heating surface on reduced 
weights by the use of smaller tubes. A large portion 
of the excess of weight is due to the fact that the steam 
collectors of the Espiegle are considerably larger than 
those of the Fantome, not only increasing the weight 
of the boilers themselves, but also of the water con- 
tained in them. 

On a previous occasion the Boiler Committee named 
several defects which are peculiar to the Belleville 
.type. These include the corrosive decay of the baffles 
in the steam collectors, and of generator and econo- 
miser tubes, now greatly reduced by the use of lime and 
zinc ; but great care has to be taken to prevent choking 
of the water-gauge connections in consequence of the 
free use of the lime. The next is the rapid wear 
of the working parts of the automatic feed apparatus, 
and the non-return valves in the down-take pipes. 
The third is the melting of fusible plugs owing to 
uncertain circulation; the fourth is^the deposit 
in the tubes about the water J line,\ but |; specially 
in the wing elements, due to impure feed-water, and 
involving failure of the tube ; and a fifth is the excessive 
expenditure of coal and of fresh water for boiler feed 
make-up, as compared with vessels fitted with the 
cylindrical boilers. 

It is indicated that, as compared with the cylindrical 
boiler, satisfactory water-tube boilers in warships 
should possess the following advantages : — Less delay 
in steam raising ; less Uabihty to damage if the boiler 
be struck by a projectile ; greater ease of repair and 
renewal of parts ; less weight for the power generated 
considering the weight of the boiler installation only ; 
ability to carry a higher steam pressure ; and greater 
fire-grate area for the same floor area, with consequent 
less forcing for full power. These advantages are 
possessed to a considerable extent by the Belleville 
boiler, and on the first competitive trials of the Hyacinth 
and Minerva the Belleville boilers proved more efficient, 
as regards evaporation, than the cyUndrical boilers as 



23 



34^ 



Page's Magazine. 



originally fitted, but after the retarders were fitted in 
the latter, the efficiencies were nearly equal. The 
long runs to Gibraltar and back last year proved 
that in several respects, notably in the loss of feed- 
water and in economy of coal consumption, as well as 
in the immunity from accident during ordinary working, 
the cylindrical boilers were considerably superior to 
the Belleville. 

In the British merchant fleet the Babcock and Wilcox 
boiler alone is in use in ocean-going steamers. In 
the United States merchant marine the same type of 
boiler is stated to be used to a small extent, principally 
in ships plying on the Great Lakes. JCiclausse boilers 
are installed in two large ships of 15,000 h.p. In 
France, Belleville boilers have been working in vessels 
of the Messageries Maritime Cie for many years. The 
French Transatlantique Company have fitted two small 
vessels, one with Belleville, and the other with Niclausse 
boilers, for comparative trials. In the German Navy^ 
the Diirr boiler has been adopted for large cruisers, 
while a combination of cyhndrical and small-tube types 
is retained for battleships ; but small-tube boilers are 
exclusively used onlv in the small cruisers. In the 
Dutch, Austrian and Swedish navies, the Yarrow 
boiler is very largely in use. In the American Navy 
many Babcock and Wilcox boilers are in use, although 
recently Niclausse boilers have been ordered for four 
of the largest ships. 

The following is believed to be a complete hst of all 
the vessels in the United States and British Navies 
at present fitted, or about to be fitted, with the Babcock 
and Wilcox boilers ; — 



Type 
Gunboat . . 



Type. 

Battleship 



Monitor . . 



Cruiser 



Name, 


I. H.P. 


Annapolis 


1,300 United 
States 


Marietta . . 
Manhattan 


Navy. 
. . 1,300 
1,500 


Mahopac 


1,500 


Canonicus 


1,500 


Wyoming 


2,400 


Amphitrite 
Chicago . . 


. . 2,400 
5,003 


Atalanta 


3,000 


Alert 


1,560 


Cincinnati 


. . 8,000 


Tacomi . . 


. . 4.500 


Chattanooga 


. . 4,500 


Galveston 


.. 4.500 


Raleigh . . 
Denver . . 


. . 7.040 
4,500 


Des Moines 


. . 4,500 


Cleveland 


. . 4,500 


California 


. . 23,000 


South Dakota 


. . 23,000 


Milwaukee 


. . 21,000 


St. Louis 


. 21,000 


Marylaml 
West Virginia 


. 23,000 
. 23,000 


Charleston 


. . 21,000 



Torpedo gunboat 
Sloop 



Cruiser 



Name. 


I H.F. 




Nebraska 


. 19,000 


United 
States 
Navy. 


Rhode Island 


. 19.000 


,, 


New Jersey 


. 19,000 


,. 


Connecticut 


. 16,000 


,. 


Lousiana 


. 16,000 


,, 


Sheldrake 


■ 3.500 


British 

Navy. 


Espiegle . . 


1,400 




Odin 


1,400 


.. 


Challenger 


. 12,500 


,, 


Hermes . . 


. 10,000 




Cornwall 


. 22,000 




Argyll . . 


. i6,Soo 


,, 


Black Prince 


. 18,800 




Duke of Edii 


1- 18,800 


,. 


burgh 






Queen 


. 15,000 




Hindustan 


. 14,400 




King Edward VII. 10,800 




Dominion 


. 18,000 


,, 


Commonwealth . 


. 18,000 





Battleship 



A French Committee also has been investigating 
the question of water-tube boilers for large ships of 
the French Navy, and whether large or small-tube 
boilers should be used. They are considering apart 
from the engineering experts of the British Navy, who 
consider that small-tube boilers should not be fitted, 
as the rate of wear is considerably greater than in large- 
tube boilers, and is suitable only where weight is 
limited, and high speed a first consideration. The 
French Committee have decided that no small-tube 
boilers should be fitted to cruisers or battleships, and 
that in future designs, the allowance of grate area 
should be such that, at full power, the coal consumption 
should not be greater than 22J lb. per square foot per 
hour, but that there should be a trial of considerable 
duration with three-fourths of the boilers burning 
30 lb. of coal per square foot per hour. Thus, should 
occasion arise, when one-fourth of the boilers were put 
out of action, the others could be pressed to supply the 
volume of steam necessary to give full power. 

Of the four British cruisers of the Dralw class, the 
Good Hope consumed most coal per square foot of 
grate (26'2 lb. per hour), while at three-fourths power 
the rate was 17-3 lb. per hour. The Bedford, of the 
County class, burned about 30 lb. per square foot of 
grate per hour on the full power run, and at three- 
fourths power nearly 20 lb. The Belleville and 
Niclausse boilers have been ordered for the new French 
ships, and the Minister of Marine has given instructions 
that the other suggestions of the Committee should be 
acted on. 

There has been, however, in France, considerable 
opposition to the proposal that only large-tube boilers 
should be fitted to battleships and armoured cruisers, 
and since the report a vigorous campaign has been in 
progress to prevent such a decision from being carried 
into effect. The Minister of Marine stood firm, and 



Water=Tube t^. Cylindrical Boilers. 



347 



declared that the engineers in the fleet are at one with 
the Committee in their recommendation. It is pointed 
out that experience has sho«Ti that the small-tube 
boiler, while it may give a higher evaporation per square 
foot of surface, involves a larger coal consumption per 
unit of power, and makes repairs and cleaning more 
difficult than with the large tube boilers. The cases of 
the Jeanne D'Arc. the Jurien de la Graviere, and the 
Chateau Renault are cited in support of these general 
conclusions. It has. therefore, been decided that the 
Niclausse boiler and the Belleville boiler— the latter 
without economisers — will be used in all the large 
French warships now being built, and it has further 
been decided that on the full-power trial the rate of 
consumption shall not exceed 12\ lb. of coal per square 
foot of grate. On a subsequent trial, with only three- 
fourths of the boilers in use. the rate of consumption is 
to be 30| lb. per square foot of grate per hour. The 
latter is a rate usually approached in the high-speed 
cruisers of the British Navy, the Bedford, for instance, 
having burned 29-5 lb. per square foot of grate at full 
power, and about 20 lb. per square foot at three-quarter 
power, while the Leviathan burned 26-2 lb. per square, 
foot at full power, and 17-3 lb. per square foot at three 
quarter power. 

As the question of coal consumption is so important, 
it should be noted mth regard to the trials by the 
British Boiler Committee described above, that hand- 
picked Welsh coal was used in all cases, except in the coal 
endurance trial of the Sheldrake. The coal varied in 
quality, and at times contained a considerable quantity 



of ash and earthy matter. The stokehold plates were 
swept clean at the commencement, and at the end of 
each trial, and the Ijres were examined at these times. 
For the coal endurance trials of the Espiegle and 
Fantome eighty-five tons of coal were put into bags 
holding 70 lbs. each, and these, carefully tied up, were 
stored in the bunkers. The coal packed in the bags was 
used during the period of the trial onlj', and the bags 
were tallied as taken from the bunkers ; twenty-one 
tons of coal were carried in a separate bunker as an 
emergency reserve, and for use before and after the 
trials. On all the other trials the coal used was brought 
from the bunker doors to the fires in buckets, every 
bucket of coal being carefully weighed and brought 
to a particular amount. The periodical records 
showed the amount of coal taken from the bunkers 
and weighed on to the floors exactly as tallied, but these 
figures do not represent the actual amounts burned in 
the periods, as the floors were only cleared at the 
beginning and end of each trial. Pieces from the coal 
about to be fired were taken off the stokehold floor at 
frequent intervals during each trial and put on one 
side. These were mixed together after the trial, and 
about two cwt. of the coal so mixed was sent for 
analysis. This amount was carefully ground and 
mixed to obtain the sample from which the analysis 
was made. In each case the determination of the 
thermal value of the coal was made in a bomb calori- 
meter, using compressed oxygen. The ash and mois- 
ture were also determined. The samples taken and 
analysed were fair considering the coal used. 




=3 A 




A RtSUriE OF MACHINE TOOLS, CRANES, AND EOUNDRY 
naTTERS POR THE MONTH. 



A MASSIVE TURRET LATHE. 

MESSRS. H. W. WARD AND CO., of Birming- 
ham, have just introduced a new turret 
lathe — the largest of this type of lathe yet manufac- 
tured, since it takes a bar 5 in. in diameter by 4S in. 
long. It I is designed for marine work, such as the 
bolts of heavy connecting rods, the coupling bolts of 
propellor shafts, pins for derricks, and massive 
forgings. It weighs 12 tons. The bearings for the live 
spindle measure 8J in., and 7J in. diameter at front and 
back respectively. The cones take a 5-in. belt. The 
back gears give two ratios — namely, 8 to i and 24J to i. 
They are engaged and disengaged by friction clutches, 
operated by levers at the front of the headstock. Three 
steps on the cone, two back gear speeds, and two speeds 
on the counter provide 18 rates of revolution. A four- 
jawed chuck in front grips the work, and a self-cenlring 
chuck at the rear steadies it. 

The turret turntable is 3 ft. in diameter, and, being so 
large, is revolved by power by a movement of the lever 
at the front of the saddle. The turret feeds provide 
independently for traversing and screw cutting. The 
traversing shaft is placed in the centre of the bed. Steel 



wheels engage with steel racks laid along each side of 
the bed, giving a central thrust to the turret slide. A 
quick power traverse is provided, both towards and away 
from the headstock. The turret feeds allow of twelve 
changes, ranging from 10 to 216 revolutions per inch of 
traverse. An independent lead screw permits of the 
cutting of English, or metrical pitches. Screwing and 
turning feeds cannot be engaged at the same time. A 
reversing motion permits of cutting in either direction. 
The tools swing in holders which permit of definite ■ 
adjustments for diameter, and are opposed by adjustable 
steadies. A bracket carries a die head to cut threads from 
2 in. to 4| in. in diameter. 

A cutting-off rest is fitted to an independent carriage, 
it has a square turret carrying four tools, and can be used 
for forming. The provisions for lubrication are perfect, 
including a powerful pump and sud tray, and protecting 
hoods are fitted where desirable. 

NEW GEAR CUTTERS. 

Mr. Oscar J. Beale, the gear wheel expert of the Brown 
and Sharpe Company, has designed a bevel wheel cutting 
machine' of the generating type, which, as a piece of 
marvellous ingenuity would be hard to beat. One of the 




HRAVY TURRET L.\THE HY .MICSSRS. H. \V. \V.\RD .WD CO., lilRMlXGHAM. 

(348) 



WorRshop Practice. 



349 



icmarkable signs of the present development of bevel gear 
cutting macliines of tlie last few years, is the partial 
supersession of machines using rotary cutters by those 
employing tools controlled by a former, or enlarged copy 
of the tooth to be cut. Another signiticant fact is the 
partial displacement of these last by machines of the 
generatmg type, some of which employ cutting tools of 
circular form to produce teeth of perfect shapes, without 
the use of a former. The principle which underlies these 
is that the cutter represents the tooth of a crown wheel, 
which cuts correctly a gear of any size, by rotating and 
rolling the blank past it, in the relations which would 
exist in finished gears. Such a method is applicable to 
single curve teeth only, and the cardinal setting which 
determines the mutual relations of such gears is the angle 
of obliquity of the path of contact between mating gears. 

In the machine above referred to, the cutting is done 
simultaneously on the opposed faces of two adjacent 
teeth in a peculiar manner. Two milling cutters, set at 
an acute angle, and with inserted teeth, have their teeth 
freely interlocking, so that each occupies the same tooth 
space at one time, and each cuts the tooth face opposite 
to that which is being produced by the other. The angle 
of obliquity of the path of contact is given by the inclination 
imparted to the arbors of the cutters. Provision is made 
in the machine for the exact adjustment of this, and also 
for a slight adjustment bodily of the cutters to and from 
each other, the object of this being to permit of the use 
of a single pair of cutters for a limited range of pitches. 

The rolling feed of the wheel blank past the cutters is 
imparted wholly to the blank, so that the cutters rotate on 
fixed centres. Such being the case, there is a very slight 
concavity left in the bottoms of the teeth, as in the teeth 
of the Rice machine, first exhibited at Paris in 1900. The 
Beale machine, in common with all others of generating 
type, involves very complicated mechanism. 

The practice of gear-cutting "has advanced a great deal 
if we go back, say only half-a-dozen years. It is also having 
the effect of bringing the involute tooth into increasing 
use, because double curve teeth cannot be produced by 
methods of generation. They must be obtained by 
rotary cutters, or by planing methods, in which a former 
tooth is employed. The demand for perfect gears has 
been strengthened by the motor car, and electrical in- 
dustry, and there is much high class machinery in which 
quiet and smooth running is an ideal which cannot be 
attained, unless wheels are absolutely accurate, using the 
word in its shop sense. The continual improvements 
which are now being effected in wheel-cutting machines 
both supply and increase the demand for perfect gears. 

A NEW GOULD AND EBERHAROT MACHINE. 

The unmistakable general tendency at the present 
time is in the specialisation of machine tools, in the 
diminution of separate functions, and the limiting of 
their operations. Yet there are examples of the opposite 
kind. One, of these is a new Gould and Eberhardt 
gear-cutter, built in many respects on the model of their 
automatic spur-gear cutting machines, but so modified 
that it will produce also spiral and worm wheels. The 
change is mainly effected at the cutter head, which 
swivels on a circular base for adjustment of the angle 



of the cutter. The cutting 01 spurs and spirals is semi- 
automatic, the indexing for pitching requiring the inter- 
vention of the attendant. The bobbing of worm wheels 
is done entirely automatically. 

A DRAW STROKE SHAPER, 

The Colburn Company, whose keyseaters have become 
familiar in English shops, have now brought out a verti- 
cal shaper with a draw stroke. It is a departure which is 
likely to exercise a modifying effect on this class of tool. 
The Morton was probably the first innovation of this kind, 
about iSq4. A draw stroke tends to hold the work down, 
instead of trying to lift or tilt it, as in the ordinary shaper. 
In a vertical shaper, the chips fall away at once, in the 
common type they remain on the work. The ends of 
very long pieces cannot be tooled on an ordinary shaper, 
though its capacities are often increased by having a pit 
in the floor in front. There is no limit to the length 
which can be brought to a vertical tool, just as in a slotter. 

In this new machine the ram is rack driven, and its 
weight and that of the tool holder is counterbalanced by 
a weight suspended inside the frame. The tool holder 
swivels, and lifts on the return stroke. The work is held 
either on a tee-grooved table, or in a vertical vice on a 
housing bolted to the table. The jaws measure 18 in. 
by 6 in., and open 16 in. The usual tappet motions for 
shifting the belt are included. 

A NEW HIGH SPEED LATHE. 

The lathes of John Lang and Sons, of Johnstone, are 
well-known, and highly appreciated. This firm has for 
some time past practically given up the general manu- 
f.acture of tools, and specialised in lathes. The last 
addition is one for the high speed steels, the noteworthy 
feature being the large size of the driving cones, as com- 
pared with ordinary practice. On their 12^-in. centre 
lathe, the stepped cone measures 30 in. on its largest step, 
and 20 in. on the smallest. With a back gear reduction 
of 6 to I, and the belt on the large step, a steel shaft is 
reduced from 6 in. to 5 in. diameter at a surface speed of 
60 ft. per minute, the feed being i in. 

THE METRIC SYSTEM. 

Skirmishing has again been going on around the 
metric and duodecimal systems. The question affects 
machinists and engineers far more than it does the man 
in the street. We could afford to push aside all arguments 
that are adduced in its favour were we manufacturing 
without rivals. But with Germany, France, Belgium, and 
Switzerland using the metric system we no longer 
occupy the impregnable position our fathers did. 
America alone keeps us company in this matter, and 
we do not know how long that may last. 

Several leading firms already employ the metric 
system. A far greater number work by it in fulfilling 
foreign orders. Many of the machine tool makers find it 
necessary to put metric screws to lathes, alternatively 
with those on the inch basis. There are few, if any 
measuring instruments now that are not made on both 
systems. Rules, micrometer calipers, vernier instru- 
ments, have millimetres and inch divisions separately, 
but frequently on the same tool. Gauges of all kinds 
are made in the two systems, as are also drills, and 



350 



Page's Magazine. 



reamers, and taps. The subdivisions of vulgar fractions 
are terribly tantalising. VV'hen divided minutely, the 
bother is that all the numerous broken portions cannot 
be included on an ordinary rule, hence the reason that 
the English workmen is always using the terms " full " 
and "bare," and their equivalent expressions, and 
getting abused for doing so. To avoid this, rules are 
made with a large range of fractions. But the uniformity 
of the millimetre is much to be preferred. 

THE DRYING OF FOUNDRY MOULDS. 

The drying of moulds on foundry Hoors is a depart- 
ment of work which is undergoing a change. In the 
old methods the " devil," or open tire of coke, was the 
method. It still retains its place probably in more than 
90 per cent, of our shops. The objections to its use are 
the sulphurous fumes which it gives off, its inefficiency 
and wastefulness, and the ashes which it leaves behind in 
the mould, to be cleared away subsequently. In the 
smaller moulds heaters are frequently used, consisting 
of chunks of iron made red hot, and suspended in the 
mould, or supported in it. This is cleanly, but not fully 
efficient. 

These devices are inferior to the newer ones in which 
portable stoves are employed, by which a current of hot 
air is directed into the mould. These not only suit the 
floor work admirably, but they render unnecessary the 
sending of a large quantity of small work into the drying 
and core stoves. Here, as in other departments, it is 
often cheaper to bring appliances to the work than to 
take the work to them. It is particularly the case with 
moulds, in which there is more or less risk of disturbing 
the sand in the act of lifting and hauling them about. 
In some instances portable stoves are used, fed with gas ; 
in others flexible pipes. In the Sulzer Foundry cold air 
is brought through pipes under pressure into the stoves, 
within which fires are lighted. The air, being heated 
there, is conveyed to the inside of the moulds by tubes. 
In another design a stove is slung over the mould, and a 



down draught is created into the mould, instead of using 
a pipe. 

In many cases the cost and trouble of drying moulds 
have caused preference to be given to the employment of 
green sand. But this is unsuitable for a large proportion 
of foundry work, and even then skin drying is frequently 
necessary and desirable. Loam moulds and work in 
dry sand must always either be put into the stove or dried 
in situ. The question of the use of mechanical drying 
appliances is, of course, of greater importance in shops 
that deal with these classes of work than in those 
moulding small and light articles. In the heavy shops 
they assume great economical importance. 

SPIRAL CRANE DRUMS. 

The extended use of wire rope has had the effect of 
modifying the designs of crane drums or barrels. Instead 
of the plain drums that were used for chains, grooving is 
required for rope. The grooving is variously done, being 
either cast, or cut in a lathe. All, or nearly all the earlier 
ones had cast grooves. These can be moulded on end, 
or horizontally. The spirals can be struck directly with 
boards in either method. When moulded horizontally, 
the smaller drums are often made from loam patterns, 
also having their spirals swept up with boards. In some 
cases grooves are made with cores, but it is a slow and 
unsatisfactory method, because the joints show in the 
castings. It is rather a cause for wonder that more 
spiral drums are not cast, because it is not difficult to 
cast them truly and cleanly by the methods above named ; 
and to cut them, when of large diameter, is costly. 
When cut they are done in a screw-cutting l.athe, and 
this is a growing practice for the best cranes, more 
especially electric travellers and others in which high 
speeds are reached, and in which the most accui-ate 
grooves are essential to smooth working. There is no 
objection to cutting drums, say, of less than about 2 ft. 
in diameter, but when over that size it is cheaper to cast 
them. 





OfflCIAL REPORT TO THE BOARD OF TRADE. 



LIEUT.-COLONEL H. A. YORKE, R.E. 



LIEUT.-COLONEL H. A. YORKE'S report 
to the Board of Trade on his recent visit 
to America is now at the disposal of the country, 
and merits the earnest attention of all who are 
in any way interested in the efficient organisa- 
tion of railways. 

As chief inspecting officer of railways to the 
Board of Trade, Lieut.-Colonel Yorke had 
exceptional facilities to enable him to arrive at 
correct conclusions with regard to the value of 
American railway methods as compared with 
those in vogue in this country ; in fact, the 
report may be said to resolve itself into com- 
parison between the railway methods of the 
two countries. Happily the commissioner found 
no wholesale condemnation of English methods 
necessary. In some respects, indeed, it appears 
that we can give points to America, while in 
others it is shown that the very dissimilar con- 
ditions prevailing in this country would render 
nugatory the introduction of certain American 
railway improvements. 

Lieut.-Colonel Yorke directed his attention 
chiefly to the construction and equipment of (i) 
steam railroads, (2) surface lines or tramways, (3) 
subways and elevated railways, (4) high-speed 
electric inter-urban railways ; but, incidentally, 
he saw many other things of interest, and the 
report will be found of the greatest practical 
interest and utility to railway men. 

We here reproduce Lieut.-Colonel Yorke's 
conclusions on steam railroad matters. 



CONSTRUCTION. 

There is a fundamental ditterence between the modes 
of construction of Enghsh and American railways. In 
England the bull-headed rail resting in cast-iron chairs 
is almost universally adopted for lines of heavy traffic. 
In America the T-rail or (as it is sometimes called in 
England) Vignoles rail is invariably employed, the rail 
being secured to the sleepers or ties by means of ordinary 
spikes. The Americans claim that their permanent way 
is easier and quicker to lay, cheaper to maintain, 
smoother to run over, and as durable as the English 
type. As regards weight of rails there is not much 
difference between the two countries, the American 
engineers having now adopted lOO-lb. rails, with a base 
6 in. wide, as their standard for heavy lines, as against 
rails of 80 lb. and 85 lb. which were formerly em- 
ployed. Of course, there are in the States many lines 
with rails Hghter than any of the above, but I am now 
referring only to the more important lines, on which 
heavy rails are found to be necessary. In England the 
weight of rails for main Unes now varies from 85 to 
103 lb., e.g.. those used by the London and North- 
western Railway Company weigh from 90 lb. to 103 lb. ; 
by the Great Western Railway Company from 92 lb. to 
97i lb. ; by the Great Northern Railway Company 
92 lb. ; and by the London and South-Western 
Railway Company 85 lb. The English railway chair 
weighs from 40 lb. to 54 lb. 

In America the number of sleepers or ties is greater 
than in England, but the difference between the practice 
of the two countries is not so great as is sometimes 
supposed. In America the average number of ties 
employed with heavy rails is 14 or 16 to a 30.ft. length 
of rail and iS with light rails of the same length. In 
England the number of sleepers used is 12 to a 30-ft. 
length of heavy rail. The average dimensions of an 
American tie are 8 ft. long, 8 in. wide, and 7 in. deep. 
For a 30-it. length of rail, with 14 ties, this gives_a 



(351) 



352 



Page's Magazine. 



bearing area as between the ties and ballast of 74-6 
sq. ft., and with 16 ties, 85-3 sq. ft. 

The dimensions of an English sleeper are 9 ft. long, 
10 in. wide, and 5 in. deep. This gives a bearing area 
for the same length of track of 90 sq. ft. The advantage 
in this respect is therefore with the English practice. 

Again, as regards the bearing area of the rails on the 
ties, the American method with 14 ties giyes 14 by 6 in. 
by 8 in. = 672 sq. in. for one 30-ft. rail, or with 
16 ties, 768 sq. in. The English chair for heavy 
rails has a base of 105 sq. in., so that 12 of these 
give a total area of 12 by 105, or 1,260 sq. in. Here 
again the advantage is with the English method. 

It must, however, be noted that the American ties 
are of hard wood, such as oak or chestnut, and are 
therefore better able to resist the pressure of the rails 
than the English sleepers of Baltic timber. 

The lateral support afforded to the rails by the Eng- 
lish chair is of the greatest value, especially on curves, 
and in America the absence of chairs renders it necessary 
to use rail braces, which are of the nature of small steel 
brackets, or struts, to support the rails at any place, 
such as a curve or switch, where there is much lateral 
pressure. It is also usual in many places to employ 
bearing plates, or tie plates, between the rails and the 
ties so as to increase the bearing of the rail on the tie 
and to afford mutual support to the spikes. The effect 
of these tie plates, however, is to shear off the heads of 
the spikes. The fact that these additions are found 
to be necessary, shows that the American mode of 
construction is lacking in certain elements of stabihty, 
which are inherent in the English type of permanent 
way. 

The Americans do not place their rail joints opposite 
each other as we do in England, and there is a good 
deal to be said in favour of the American practice in 
this respect. The joint is admittedly the weakest part 
of the permanent way both vertically and laterally, 
and it can hardly be doubted that it is an advantage 
to make the rai,ls break joint, so that the weak spot 
on one side of the track shall be supported by the 
continuous rail on the other side. 

Perhaps the detail most open to criticism in the 
.American permanent way is the use of spikes, in the 
place of screws or fang bolts, to fasten the rails to the 
ties. These are constantly working loose, and then have 
to be driven home again. When this process has been 
often repeated, the holding power of the spikes must 
be diminished. But with hard wood ties, this defect 
is not so serious as it would be with the soft wood 
sleepers used in England. In fact, hard wood seems to 
be essential for the American style of permanent way. 
If this be so, there would probably be no economy in 
England in adopting American practice, for the extra. 
cost of the ties would more than balance any saving 
due to the omission of chairs. The American road 
would, I consider, be vastly improved if some form of 
fang bolt with rail clips were used instead of spikes for 
fastening the rails to the ties. 

As to the cost of maintenance, I cannot help thinking 
that the English method must give the best results, but 



many factors, such as the difference in the prices of 
labour and materials, and in the nature of the traffic, 
have to be taken into account. 

The ballasting of the heavy lines in America, so far 
as I saw them, is as good as anything to be found in 
England, and there is no doubt that as a rule railway 
travelling in America is smooth and quiet, a feature 
which, though partly due to the road, may be also 
partly attributable to the invariable use of long and 
heavy bogie coaches. 

Movable frogs or crossings are largely used in America, 
and give general satisfaction. In England they are 
almost unknown, though the London and South- 
Western Railway Company are now experimenting with 
them. Their advantage is that they abolish gaps in 
the rails, and therefore enable crossings to be laid with 
much flatter angles than are possible with fixed crossings, 
besides affording smoother running. They are not 
unhke a combination of facing and trailing points, and 
are operated by levers in a signal cabin, and should be 
interlocked with the signals. As they are heavy and 
require a considerable force to operate them, they are 
specially suitable at places where a power plant has 
been installed for operating the points and signals. 

Spring frogs are also common, but opinion is divided 
as to their merits. ' Some engineers assured me that 
they had no trouble with them, while others say that 
the springs are liable to break, and that under such 
conditions they may cause a derailment. 

INCHOATE CONDITION OF SIGNALLING. 

Signalling in America is in an inchoate condition, 
there being no uniformity of practice throughout the 
country. Some portions of the principal railroads are 
fully signalled, but on many others hardly any signals 
are used, and even where signals are used, their shapes, 
colours, and meanings vary upon different lines.- 
Signals are divided into various classes in a manner 
unknown in England, such as automatic signals, 
interlocking signals, telegraph block signals, train 
order signals, etc. Similarly with block working, only 
about 25,000 miles out of a total mileage (measured 
as single track) of 200,000 are at present worked in 
America on the block system, but its use is being 
gradually extended. Block working, however, is not 
so strictlv interpreted as it is in England ; two or more 
trains are constantly permitted to be in the same 
section at the same time, and trains are allowed under 
certain conditions to travel in either direction on either 
track, even where the Unes are doubled or quadrupled. 
On two occasions it occurred to the train in which I was 
travelling to be switched across from the proper track 
to the wrong track, without anj- halt, and without any 
formalities other than the handing to the driver or 
conductor of a train order, giving him instructions to 
travel on the wrong track, regardless of opposing 
trains. On both occasions we travelled in this way for 
several miles at a high rate of speed, there being, of 
course, no signals for the guidance or control of the 
train. Such a mode of working must be dangerous, 
as the least misunderstanding between the men who 



British and American Railway Methods. 



give and receive the train order, or an)- negligence on 
their part must lead to an accident. 

Single lines, which form the bulk of the railroads of 
America, are operated almost entirely on the " train 
order " system, uo train staff or tablet being used 
as in England, there being no less than thirteen standard 
forms of " train orders " in use. The train order 
system was tried in England, and has long ago been 
abandoned as troublesome and dangerous, and I believe 
that the .\merican train service would be probably 
conducted with greater punctuahty and economy and 
certainly with greater safety, if the electric statf or 
tablet system were introduced on the single lines. 

AUTOMATIC METHODS. 

For some time past .\mericau railroads have been 
using automatic signallmg, about which a great deal 
has been recently said in England. The main (four 
track) lines of the Pennsylvania railroad between New 
York and Pittsburg are signalled in this fashion, and 
so are parts of several other railways. The New York 
Central Company are also about to adopt it in the 
neighbourhood of New York, and its use will doubtless 
extend. Recently in England the London and South- 
western Railway Company have equipped a section of 
their hue between Grateley and Andover with automatic 
signals, and preparations are also being made on the 
North-Eastern railway for testing this mode of signal- 
ling. 

The most modern and satisfactory mode of applying 
the system is by means of a " track circuit." A low 
tension current flows from a battery along one rail 
of the track through a relay, and back to the battery 
along the second rail. The relay makes and breaks 
a local circuit, which by means of electro-magnets 
controls the mechanism, electric or pneumatic or what- 
ever it mav be, for operating the signals. When the 
current is flowing along the line the relay completes 
the local circuit, and signal is held " otf." When, 
however, an engine or vehicle with metal wheels and 
axles is in the section a short circuit is established in 
the track circuit, the relay becomes inoperative, the 
local circuit is broken, and the signal returns to danger. 
By insulating the rail joints at intervals, the line is 
divided into sections, to each of which a separate current 
is supplied, and signals are placed at the commencement 
of each section, by means of which the driver of an 
approaching train is informed whether the section ahead 
is clear or not. It must be borne in mind that a funda- 
mental ditterence exists between " manual " signals, 
and " automatic " signals, in that the former have 
liuman agency and human intelligence behind them, 
and convey a direct order to a driver as to what he 
is to do, whereas the latter merely tell him the line is 
clear for a short distance ahead; 

In America the sections. for this sj'stem of signalling 
vary in length from about 700 yards to 1,300 yards, 
the average being 1,000 yards. As at the commence- 
ment of each section two signals (a home and a distant) 
are erected for each line of rails, signals become exceed- 
ingly numerous, and whereas the signals on Americas 



railroads have hitherto been too few. there is now a 
risk of their becoming too many. Block working, at 
any rate in England, means the maintenance of an 
adequate interval of space between two trains travelling 
on the same track. Goods trains of great length are 
now coming into use, and they are not infrequently 
as much as 800 yards long. With trains of such 
dimensions the interval of space between two trains 
may, if block sections are only 1,000 yards long, be as 
small as 200 yards, which, except at' very low speeds, 
cannot be regarded as adequate. Again, the number 
of block sections into which a line requires to be divided 
depends on the number of trains which it is desired 
to pass over it in a given time. With block sections 
of 1 ,000 yards, and trains running at 60 miles an hour, 
the interval of time, or, as the Americans call it, the 
" headway " between them may be only 34 seconds, 
which is clearlv impracticable and dangerous. Even at 
a speed of 20 miles an hour the headway may be only 
I minute 42 seconds, and at 10 miles an hour, 3 minutes 
24 seconds, and as it can only occur at starting points 
or at terminal stations that it is necessary for trains to 
follow each other at such brief intervals as these, it is 
difficult to see the advantage of such very short sections 
in other parts of a line, where trains have to travel at 
speed, and where fast trains are mixed up with slow. 
Signals placed at such short distances apart are more 
likely to be confusing than helpful to drivers, whose 
confidence when running at speed must also be lessened 
by the shortness of the block sections. The only 
reason that I have been able to discover for the intro- 
duction of such short block sections, is that " track 
circuits " do not work well on sections of greater 
length, but it is difficult to believe that this defect 
cannot be remedied. 

TrtE FOG DIFFICULTY. 

A difficulty arises in England in connection with such 
signals, and that is how to deal with them in time of 
fog. In America fogs are said to be rare — at any rate 
no special precautions are taken to meet such an 
emergenc\-. But here it will be as necessary to provide 
means for " fogging " automatic signals as any other 
signals. Men for the purpose will be difficult to find, 
and if mechanical means are adopted for the purpose, 
the complication and weight of the signals will be 
increased, and the mechanism will be more liable to 
fail. The eflEect of climate and of weather upon 
automatic signals in England has yet to be ascertained, 
and it' must be remembered that a signal which fails 
at any time to give a correct indication is likely to be 
a source of danger. Probably the greatest risks are 
to be anticipated from snow, frost, and hghtning, any 
one of which may, under certain conditions, cause a 
signal to remain at " all right," when it ought to be at 
" danger." Should that happen, a most serious con- 
dition of affairs would exist, the results of which might 
be disastrous. Even under normal conditions the 
rehabihty of automatic signals depends on the most 
careful and trustworthy maintenance. In America, it 
is said that the failures, as a rule, result in a signal 



354 



Page's Magazine. 



remaining at " danger " when it ought to be at safety, 
and as this would be hkely to cause delay to the traffic, 
drivers are instructed, when they find such a signal at 
danger, to bring their trains to a stand, and then to 
proceed forward at caution, without waiting for the 
signal to be lowered. This rule may be unavoidable, 
but it is easy to see that sooner or later it must result 
in two trains being in the same section at one and the 
same time, which defeats the whole object of block 
working. Telephonic communication is usually pro- 
vided, telephones being placed on every second or third 
signal post, so that in case of a breakdown, the train- 
men can communicate with the nearest signal bo.x. 

In England the problem is further comphcated by 
the existence of numerous industrial sidings on the 
main lines, the points and signals of which must neces- 
sarily be interlocked with the automatic signals, and 
require human agency to operate them. 

There is something attractive about the term " auto- 
matic signalling," and the conclusion is sometimes 
hastily arrived at, that its adoption will immediately 
effect increased safety, greater economy and simplicity 
of operation, a reduction of expenses, and larger 
dividends. But the cost of installing a system of 
automatic signalling is great, involving as it does the 
erection of a power plant, electric or pneumatic, to 
supply the power for operating the signals, the laying 
of pipes, conduits, or cables for the entire length of the 
line for conveying the power to the signals, the provision 
of numerous wires, batteries, and relays for controlling 
the power, and the erection of a great number of 
signals, and the bridges or posts supporting them. 
Moreover, if the system is to take the place of an 
existing installation of manual signals, it is to be 
remembered that the whole of the latter has to be 
" scrapped." A considerable advantage, such as a 
large saving of wages, and a largely increased capacity 
of the railway must therefore be assured in order to 
justify the outlay. 

SPECIAL AND PECULIAR RISKS. 

.Automatic signalling does not of itself introduce 
greater safety of operation. It is merely a labour- 
saving device. No doubt it eliminates the risks due to 
mistakes of signalmen, but it introduces other risks 
peculiar to itself, due either to inefficient maintenance, 
to failure of the mechanism, to weather, and to accidents 
of various sorts. Moreover, the chief object of a system 
of automatic signalling must be to enable more trains 
to pass over a given section of the line in a given time, 
and more trains under such conditions necessarily 
involve increased chances of accident. 

From what has been said it will be seen that the 
whole question of automatic signalling requires to be 
further considered before its applicability to main lines 
in England can be thoroughly ascertained, and the 
results of the trials of the system up.:in the London and 
South-Western and North-Eastcrn Railways will be 
of the greatest value in the investigation of the subject. 

But in " tubes," subways, tunnels, and especially on 
electrically operated railways, on which speeds are 



uniform, junctions and sidings are few and far between, 
sections short, and which are self-contained, automatic 
signaUing will undoubtedly prove e.xceedingly useful, 
and some of the railways in London now being equipped 
for electric traction are to be signalled in this fashion. 

POWER WORKINGS OF POINTS AND SIGNALS. 

The application of some form of power, pneumatic or 
electric, to the operation of points and signals, is becom- 
ing a common feature in .\merica at places where large 
signal cabins are necessary. Such installations possess 
many advantages, reducing the physical labour to a 
minimum, and rendering it possible to employ fewer 
men. They also economise space and abolish all rods 
and wires from the station yards. The chief, if not the 
only, objection to them is their cost, which in the first 
instance is much greater than that of an ordinary 
manual plant, and it is simply a matter of calculation 
whether at any particular place the economies to be 
derived from such an apparatus balance the initial 
cost. There are two systems in general use, viz., the 
electro-pneumatic and the low-pressure pneumatic. In 
the former the movement of the points or signals is 
effected by air at 75 lb. pressure, which is admitted 
to cylinders containing pistons connected to the 
switches (or signals) by means of valves which are 
controlled by electric currents. In the latter the 
mechanism is operated by air at 15 lb. pressure, the 
valves being controlled by a secondary air supply at 
7 lb. pressure. In England a large installation of a 
similar nature has lately been erected by the London 
and North-Western Railway at Crewe, in which the 
motive power, as well as the controlhng agency, is 
electricity. The North-Eastern Railway and Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire Railway Companies are at the same 
time about to test the electro-pneumatic system, and 
the London and South-Western Railway Company are 
trying the low-pressure air method. It will, therefore, 
soon be possible to compare the results obtained by 
these three systems. 

ROLLING STOCK. 

Prob?olv the feature of .-Vnierican railways which at 
first sight makes the most impression on a stranger is 
the colossal size of the engines and cars employed 
thereon, and to this is due much of the correspondence 
which at intervals fills the columns of the papers 
concerning American methods of handling trafiic. 
There is no doubt that the engines are very big, some of 
them standing 16 ft. high above rail level, and many 
more of them 14 ft. 6 in. and 15 ft. Such engines have 
great power and are able to haul trains of great weight 
and length. In the early days of American railroads 
over-bridges and tunnels were almost unknown, and 
now that such are being constructed, they have to 
accommodate themselves to the rolling stock, instead 
of the rolHng stock to the bridges, as in England. In 
.\merica over-bridges are built iS ft. above rail level, 
whereas in England the height of such works is, as a 
rule, onlv 14 ft. 3 in. above the rails. Moreover, on 
duulile lines in the States the space between the tracks 



British and American Railway Methods. 



355 



is 7 ft., against 6 ft. in England. It can, therefore, be 
unilerstood that what is possible in the one country is 
impossible iu the other, and we can never hope in 
England to equal .-Xmerica in the size of our engines 
or cars. 

GOODS TRUCKS. 

A great deal has recently been said about the long 
freight cars used in America, and English railway 
managers have been criticised for not adopting cars of 
equal dimensions in this country. I think some mis- 
apprehension occasionally arises on the subject. The 
important factor in the case is not the length of the 
car. but the carrying capacity of the car in relation 
to its weight. American freight cars are all carried 
on bogies, and, as a rule, there are eight wheels to a car. 
Their carrying capacity varies from 30 to 50 tons, and 
their " tare " weight from 15 to 20 tons. One of the 
most popular forms of car at the present time appears 
to be the 50-ft. steel-framed car, with a capacity of 
50 tons (of 2.000 lb.) and a tare of about 20 tons, the 
total weight per axle being 17 tons to cwt. So long as 
these proportions are adhered to it makes no difference, 
so far as the cost of transportation is concerned, whether 
the load is carried in one car with eight wheels or in 
two cars with four wheels each. That is to say. the 
result will be the same if. instead of one car of the size 
and weight mentioned, two cars are employed, each 
with a capacity of 25 tons and a tare of 10 tons, and 
each having four wheels. Not all the cars in America 
offer such favourable conditions as those just mentioned. 
The box cars have as a rule a carrying capacity of 30 
to 40 tons and a tare of 16 to : 8 tons ; the paying load 
in these cases having a less proportion to the dead 
load than is the case with the 50-ton cars. 

There are serious difficulties in the way of introducing 
for general service in England waggons of great length. 
The sidings, goods sheds, weighbridges, turntables, 
coal tips, screens, etc., are, as a rule, quite unsuitable 
for waggons of the dimensions named, to say nothing 
of the usual conditions of trade which are based on the 
present style of vehicle. It is sometimes suggested 
that English companies should forthwith reconstruct 
the whole of these works and appliances, but no one 
has as yet estimated what the cost of such alterations 
would amount to. It is probably incalculable, and the 
question arises, whether, after all this vast expenditure 
had been incurred and the whole trade of the country 
had been disorganised during the transition period, the 
saving in handling the traffic would pay the interest 
on the outlay. 

The four-wheeled waggon will, therefore, in all proba- 
biUty remain the standard waggon of the country, and 
economy is to be sought in improving the design of 
such waggons and increasing their carrying capacity 
iu relation to their tare, rather than in introducing 
waggons of greater length. 

There is no reason why this should not be done ; in 
fact it has already been accomplished on some railways. 
Both the London and North-Western Railway and the 
Great Western Railway Companies have lately built 
four-wheeled waggons, having a capacity of 20 tons, and 



a tare of about eight tons, which gives the same pro- 
portion of paying load to dead load, as an American 
car of 50 tons capacity. 

Another argument against the employment of very 
long cars or waggons is. that in the case of a derailment 
or collision the results would be more serious, and the 
removal of the w-reckage would be a much more difficult 
operation than at present. 

There is also the difficulty to be considered due to the 
private ownership of the bulk of the waggons used upon 
English railways. This, though serious, need not, 
perhaps, be regarded as insuperable, as if the railway 
companies throughout the Kingdom were unanimous 
in adopting waggons of a new design, means could be 
found, perhaps with the assistance of the legislature, 
either to aboUsh privately owned waggons, or else to 
compel the owners thereof to adopt whatever type of 
waggon was found to be beneficial to the trade of the 
country. 

It is not suggested that long waggons will never be 
used, as it is evident that for some purposes such 
waggons are desirable or even necessary. But for 
ordinary trade purposes in this country the four-wheeled 
waggon, of improved design and increased capacity, is, 
I believe, the best suited. 

The wheels of American cars, both passenger and 
freight, are smaller than those used in England, being 
only 33 in. in diameter, instead of 36 in. as in England. 
It seems worth consideration whether 33-in. wheels 
might not with advantage be introduced in England 
for goods waggons. This would enable an additional 
depth of 3 in. to be given to the waggons, thereby in- 
creasing their capacity without adding to their height, 
and wculd at the same time lessen their weight, and 
effect some economy in their first cost. All the wheels 
of American freight cars, and occasionally also of 
passenger cars, are of cast-iron with chilled rims. They 
are not turned in a lathe or machined in any way, but 
are used just as they come from the foundry. When 
the wheels are worn out the manufacturing company 
takes them back at a fixed price, breaks them up, and 
recasts them. The net cost of such wheels to the 
railway company is. therefore, very small, Recently 
fractures of these cast-iron wheels have increased in 
number, and it is a question whether, as at present 
made, they are suitable for the increased loads put upon 
them by the introduction of heavy cars. Improved 
modes of manufacture may overcome this defect, or 
wheels with cast-iron centres and steel tyres or wheels 
wholly of steel may become necessary. 

COUPLINGS. 

The law of the American Congress relating to the use 
of automatic couplings and air brakes on all freight 
trains engaged in inter-State commerce came into full 
force on the ist August, 1900, and the fifteenth annual 
report of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, pub- 
lished in 1902, is a highly interesting document. From 
this it appears that the coupling mechanism is still 
far from perfect, especially in regard to the uncoupling 
attachments. Another " common defect in couplers. 



35f' 



Page's Magazine. 



and one which is the cause of much trouble and expense 
to the railroads, is the breakage of the ' knuckle.' " 
The Commissioners are evidently not satisfied with the 
couplers as at present used, for the report says, " it 
will be seen that the needs of the future, in respect to 
couplers, mav be described under the heads of strength, 
simplicity, and finish." 

AIR BRAKES. 

The same report contains'some severe criticisms on 
' the present condition of the air brakes on the freight 
cars of the country, the lack of thorough training and 
discipline of the men in charge of trains, and the 
insufficiency of the forces assigned to inspection and 
repair " ; the result being that " some companies, 
more particularly in the east, are still controlling trains 
on steep descending grades by the use of the hand 
brakes." This is in accordance with what I saw on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, where numerous heavy 
coal and goods trains were being taken down the Horse 
Shoe incline by means of the hand brakes, the brakes- 
men having, in consequence, to run about on the roofs 
of the cars while the trains were in motion, a practice 
which is highly dangerous and a fruitful cause of 
accident to the train men. One reason assigned for 
this non-use of the air-brake on such incUnes is that the 
driver may, by repeated application and release of the 
brakes, exhaust all the air in the air reservoirs. It then 
becomes necessary for him to re-charge them, and the 
doing so releases all the brakes, during which time the 
train may gain a dangerous degree of speed, and get 
beyond control. To overcome this difficulty " retaining 
valves " have been introduced for partially controlling 
the air pressure in the brake cylinders during the 
process of recharging the reservoirs. These retain a 
pressure of 15 lb. in the cylinders during the time that 
the reservoirs are being recharged, and are described 
in the report already alluded to as " a device for more 
efficiently and safely controlling the speed of trains on 
steep, descending grades." " While under favourable 
conditions the air brake is efficient without this auxiliary, 
its use is a valuable additional safeguard, and on very 
steep grades it is a necessit}"." 

Unfortunately, the handles for operating these 
retaining valves are on the roofs of the cars, so that their 
use still renders it necessary for the train men to be 
above. As the number of bridges over the railroads is 
increasing, the danger to the men on the tops of high 
cars becomes greater, and a primitive arrangement for 
their protection is a common feature on American 
railroads. This consists of a rope supported on posts 
and stretched across the tracks on either side of an 
overbridge. From this rope depend short vertical 
lengths of thinner rope at close intervals, their lower 
ends being about the level of the underside of the bridge. 
The idea is that a man on the top of a high car w-outd 
be struck by one of these ropes, and warned of the 
neighbourhood of the bridge in time to avoid the danger. 
The law does not render it obligatory on the 



companies'to use the air brake on all the cars of a freight 
train, but only on so many as will enable the driver to 
have sufficient brake power at his disposal for controlling 
the train down the inclines. This partial use of the air 
brake is a cause of accidents, for when the brake is 
brought into operation on some of the cars of a train, 
the cars not so braked are by their momentum forced 
against those that are, with such violence as to 
crush, and sometimes derail one or more cars. The 
law in this respect seems to require amendment. If 
the air brake is to be used at all on freight trains, it 
should be operative on every car. 

From the above facts it will be seen that the problem 
of safely working heavy American freight trains down 
steep grades by means of the air brake has not yet 
been entirelv solved. And when it is remembered that 
some of the large American engines require three men 
on the foot plate, viz., driver, fireman, and assistant 
fireman, and that the train crew consists of a conductor 
and two, three or four brakesmen, it may be questioned 
whether the economies claimed for the American 
methods are as great, as is sometimes hastily assumed. 

GRADE CROSSINGS. 

It is interesting to note that American railroads are 
imitating English practice in one respect, and that is 
in the abolition of level or grade crossings. Enormous 
sums of money are now being spent with this object. 
This is specially the case on the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
on which line some very large works, such as viaducts, 
bridges, and deviation lines, are in progress for the 
purpose of raising the tracks above streets and roads, 
and for improving grades and curves. These works 
are being paid for out of revenue and not charged to 
capital. The guiding principle followed in America on 
this much-debated question is, I was told, as follows : 
When a new work, however large, does not tap new 
sources of revenue, and does not serve a fresh area, but 
merely improves existing conditions and facilities, the 
cost is charged to income. When, on the other hand, 
new districts are reached, and fresh sources of traffic 
developed, the cost is charged to capital. To what 
extent the cost of works, such as those I saw in progress, 
amounting as they do in many places to a complete 
re alignment and reconstruction of the railway, can 
be legitimately regarded as a charge against income, 
I cannot say, but it is not surprising that the share- 
holders should grumble at being called upon to make 
such sacrifices for the benefit of those who will succeed 
them. I heard one argument advanced, which, if not 
openly avowed, may. have an occasional influence on 
American railway finance, viz., that as American 
railways were built almost entirely with money raised 
on bonds or debentures, and that as the ordinary 
stock, to a large extent, merely represents " paper," 
there is no obhgation on those controlling the line to do 
more than pay the interest on the bonds and debentures, 
and that the ordinary stockholders have little or no 
moral claim to consideration. 




MONTHLY NOTES ON NAVAL PROGRESS IN CONSTRUCTION AND ARMAMENT. 

BY 

N. I. D. 




N my last instalment of 
Naval Notes, written before 
the Navy Estimates had 
been announced, it was 
shown why I thought it 
would be good policy on the 
part of the Admiralty to 
include in the new shipbuilding programme 
more battleships and armoured cruisers. That 
the authorities are of the same opinion I am glad 
to see. In spite of prognostications to the 
contrary the vote for new construction has again 
been increased and the programme is even 
larger than it was in the previous year. We 
have already five battleships of the King 
Edward VII. class, which stand apart from all 
those built previously, in size and power, and to 
these three more are to be added. Last year 
the programme gave only two armoured cruisers, 
of the Duke of Edinburgh class, this year we are 
to have four more. As regards the smaller craft, 
perhaps, the most important announcement is 
that concerning the submarines, of which ten 
larger and better than their predecessors are 
to be laid down. Although there are no torpedo- 
boats in the programme there are fifteen 
destroyers, six more than in the previous year's 
programme, and there is another group of four 
scouts — the new type introduced in 1902. 
Without at the present time going into a criticism 
of the details of the above vessels, it may be 
pointed out that we have here indications of a 
settled and consistent policy. There is shown a 
determination to build in groups, and not to 



accumulate specimens. The principle of homo- 
geneity in type is apparent throughout. There 
are naturally from year to year improvements 
and modifications in the ships of a group ordered 
later than their sisters, but to a great e.xtent 
these are such that the older ships can, by 
additions, be brought up to date, and in this way 
the whole group is fitted for coherent work. 
Whatever part of the policy of the Admiralty be 
the subject of criticism I feel sure that in the 
matter I have referred to they will receive 
universal support. ■ 

In these notes, we are more concerned 
about matters of construction and armament 
and general administration than that of 
personnel, but it may at least be noticed that the 
present Board show a determination not to 
repeat the mistake made at the time of the 
passing of the Naval Defence Act. They are 
making provision for manning the new ships, 
at the same time as those ships are commenced 
themselves. Thus the e.xpansion of the Navy 
proceeds on thoroughly sound and commonsense 
lines. The actual addition to the personnel is a 
little'under 5,000, but in addition there is the 
special Act dealing with the manning of the 
fleet. By this, the system of short service which 
.has already been working tentatively as 
regards the Coast-guard and the lately consti- 
tuted Fleet Reserve, is now extended to the 
Naval Reserve, and men will be entered for a 
shorter term of service than the present one of 
twelve years on the understanding that they 
complete the term of twelve years in the Reserve. 



358 



Page's Magazine. 



In addition to this the hmit placed upon the 
numbers of the Fleet Reserve has been removed, 
enrolment in this body having proceeded most 
satisfactoril}'. Thirdly, the Naval Volunteers 
have been re-established and extended to the 
Marine Corps, with this very important altera- 
tion that volunteers enrolled under this Act will 
be liable for service in time of war in any part 
of the world. It will be remembered that the 
old Corps of Naval Artillery Volunteers, which 
was abolished in 1891, numbered at that time 
1,900 officers and men, but the scope of their 
duties was limited in such a way as to con- 
siderably diminish their value. As regards 
another matter connected with this subject it is 
noteworthy, as I predicted some time since, that 
the new Admiralty scheme of entry and training 
for officers is, in spite of all opposition, in process 
of being carried out. And the selection of the 
officers for the various appointments at Ports- 
mouth, gives assurance that no obstacles will 
be allowed to prevent it being launched under 
favourable conditions. 

Finally, we come to more contentious matter. 
The policy of the Admiralty in regard to re- 
construction and repair of ships, and to their 
fitting out, has been the subject of much dis- 
cussion ; there has been no lack of self-constituted 
advisors and counsellors to urge the various 
assumed reforms in this direction. But the 
authorities are working on lines which, it is clear, 
have been recommended by Committees in which 
we have every reason to place our confidence. 
It is not to be disputed that modern vessels need 
repair much oftener and to a much larger extent 
than did their predecessors, whether of the old 
wooden types, or the ironclads which succeeded 
them. As a necessary consequence, our dock- 
yards are much overburdened with work, and 
for this reason two steps have been taken to 
relieve the congestion which appeared imminent. 
Certain ships have been sent to the private yards 
for repair and reconstruction, while in addition 
it has been determined to fit out certain of the 
new vessels built by contract at the private 
establishments. These measures have been taken 
tentatively at present, and we have yet to see 
what the result will be. Anyone, however, 
wh.o has given any study to naval matters must 
acknowledge that so far as previous e.xperience 



can guide us there is no existing reason to suppose 
that the new arrangements will not prove satis- 
factory. Furthermore, some time since it was 
urged upon the Government that the time had 
arrived for establishing a new public yard some- 
where on the East Coast. Those who took this 
line were apparently unaware that previously to 
their action this very matter had been under 
consideration by the Admiralty, and that a 
Committee, appointed by Lord Goschen to report 
on the subject had recommended early in 1902 
favourably to the proposed undertaking. At 
the present time there are five yards in English 
ports — the three principal ones at Portsmouth, 
Devonport, and Chatham, with the two smaller 
yards of Sheerness and Pembroke. In Ireland, 
also, at Haulbowline, there is an estabhshment 
which has gradually been acquiring increased 
importance. But nothing has so far been done 
in this direction in North Britain. This circum- 
stance, as well as the fact that there are several 
private yards quite competent to undertake 
Government work on the East Coast of England, 
pointed to Scotland as the locality for the estab- 
lishment of an additional " Home port" if it be 
required. And the present Board has come to 
the conclusion that owing to the increase of the 
Fleet in commission and reserve in Home waters, 
and the consequent congestion of accommoda- 
tion both for ships and men at the three Home 
ports of Portsmouth, Devonport, and Chatham, 
'' the time has arrived for the creation of a fourth 
naval base and depot in the United Kingdom." 
This it is intended to establish in Scotland, and 
after an examination of all the available sites, 
and a thorough consideration of the question 
in its industrial and strategical aspects, the 
Board of Admiralty has selected the Firth of 
Forth as fulfilling all the necessary requirements. 
At the time of writing it is too early to discuss 
the questions that arise out of this proposed 
development. But it is in itself good evidence 
that the Admiralty are in every direction taking 
thought and action of the growing necessities 
of the Empire in its strategic and Naval 
aspects. 

In the following notes the progress at 
home and abroad since our last issue will 
be found under the heading of the different 
countries. 



Naval Notes. 



359 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

The Cornwallii, battleship, which began her 
trials early last month, and then had to postpone 
them owing to the bad weather prevailing at the 
time, has now safsfactorily completed them. 
The speed attained was not quite so good as 
anticipated, owing, doubtless, to the heavy 
weather. The actual speed was iS'qS knots with 
18,238 h.p. The coal consumption worked out 
at 1-89 lb. per unit of power per hour. It is 
anticipated that her sister ship, the Albemarle, 
will have completed her trials by the end of 
the financial year. The Russell, of the same 
class, was commissioned on February i8th at 
Chatham. It is reported that the Cornwallis 
will serve in the Channel Squadron, with possibly 
the Duncan as flagship ; while the Exmouth will 
go to the China station to replace the Goliath. 
The ComwonTL'eolth is expected to take the water 
at the Fairfield Yard early in April. Of the 
armoured cruisers at the time of writing two are 
under trial, the Kent and the Monmouth. We have 
already referred to the trials of the first-named 
ship, in December last, and in February, after 
the pitch of her propellers had been altered, 
she realised only 2tj knots as a mean speed 
when the contract called for 23. It was then 
decided to make the ship perfectly clean in the 
water, and under these conditions she improved 
her speed by three-quarters of a knot, being then 
still half a knot under her stipulated speed. 
Nevertheless, the Admiralty have accepted her, 
and her completion for commission is to be 
hurried on. The Monmouth, on her thirty 
hours' trial with 16,000 h.p.. made a speed of 
20' 5 knots. The Esse.x-, on her thirty hours' 
'-power trial did 14 knots with 4,638 h.p., and 
at |-power did i9"6 knots with 16,132 h.p. Her 
full power trials were not completed at the 
time of writing. 

Two of the new type of torpedo-boat destroyers, 
building by contract, have been put into the 
water, the Erne was launched at Palmer's Yard 
on January 14th, and the Foyle from the works 
of Messrs. Laird Brothers, Birkenhead, on 
February 25th. 

The first-class torpedo-boat. No. 109, built 
by Messrs. Thornycroft, and launched in July 
of last year, has made her trials with satisfactory 
results. The results of her four hours' full 



power trial were as follows : Draught of water 
forward, 5 ft. 3 J in., aft, 8 ft. zh in. ; speed, 
25"296 knots, steam pressure in boilers, 218 lb. ; 
vacuum in condensers, 24-3 lb. ; revolutions 
per minute, 392-8 ; mean i.h.p.. 2.864. The 
details of a coal consumption trial previously 
run worked out at 2' 68 lb. per i.h.p. per 
hour. 

The first five submarine boats built at Barrow 
having been delivered at Portsmouth, went out 
for practice in charge of the Hazard on March 4th. 
After an experimental run they returned to 
their stations in Porchester Creek, the boat 
known as No. i being the last in the line. As 
she passed up the harbour an explosion occurred 
in the gasolene tank, owing, it is said, to water 
splashing into it. Four of her men were badly 
injured about the face, hands and arms, and 
were conveyed to Haslar Hospital. This is the 
second accident of this nature which has occurred 
recently. 

Of the next group of submarines known as 
Ai, A2, A3, A4, the first -named has been 
undergoing experiments at Barrow Dock, and 
it is expected that the others will be launched 
before the end of April. 

FRANCE. 

It will be remembered that during some 
manoeuvres in the Mediterranean, two French 
battleships came into collision, and that, 
although the damage done was very trifling, an 
inquiry into the cause of the mishap naturally 
followed. As a result of this inquiry the officers 
in charge of the two ships were exonerated from 
blame, a decision which, it appears, did not 
satisfy the Minister of Marine. M. Pelletan 
overruled the naval authorities in the fleet, and 
removed both officers from their commands. 
Such a proceeding naturally gave rise to con- 
siderable discussion, some writers regarding 
this step as an unwarrantable interference with 
the disciplinary arrangements of the fleets 
and others as likely to prove a hindrance to the 
initiative of ofiicers. Some of the reasons given 
for the action of the Minister of Marine were 
that the captain of the Bouvet handled his ship 
clumsily, and was a generally unlucky com- 
mander, while it was alleged against the captain 
of the Gaulois that he had already been 



360 



Page's Magazine. 



reprimanded by Admiral Potier for the manner in 
which he had moved his vessel in the exercises. 
While there can be no question that the Minister 
of Marine was quite within his rights in taking 
the action he did, it is held on this side of the 
water that in these matters it is at least ex- 
pedient to allow the judgment of the technical 
advisers to prevail. 

Although nothing further has transpired in 
connection with the progress of the French new 
constructions referred to in last month's notes, 
the report of M. Honore Leygue upon the French 
Naval Budget is still the text for discussion. 
M. Leygue commented upon some of the 
characteristics which it was proposed should be 
given to the new vessels, and pointed out that the 
homogeneity contemplated by the old pro- 
gramme was endangered. The modifications 
referred to were in the new battleships, the 
substitution of ten 7'6-in. guns for the original 
eighteen 6-4-in., and the addition of eight 
3"9-in. guns in the cruisers ; also the Ernest 
Renan was considerably altered, as explained 
last month, both in tonnage, speed, and arma- 
ment. In the last-named respect two 9'4-in. 
guns take the place of four y6-in., and four of 
the 6"4-in. are to be omitted, the number being 
twelve instead of sixteen. Her plan as now 
arranged gives a length of 515 ft. 10 in., beam 
70 ft. 6 in., and draught of water 26 ft. 10 in. 
The complement of the ship is to be 638 officers 
and men. Some changes are also to be made 
in the Jules Michelet, which will carry the same 
armament as the Ernest Renan. Although 
iurther trials were made in February-March 
•with the armoured cruiser Jeanne d'Arc, they 
have not been attended with the desired 
results. 

In the Journal Officiel of February 14th the 
Minister of Marine published a circular ex- 
plaining his objections to the use of water-tube 
boilers with small tubes in large warships. He 
also gives his reasons for insisting on a ten hours' 
trial with full power, instead of a three hours' 
trial with fires alight under only three-quarters 
of the boilers. The amount of coal used per hour 
per square metre of grating area should be, in 
his opinion, increased from no to 150 kilos. 

Although great efforts were made to raise the 
•destroyer Espingole, which was sunk off Cape 



Lardier early in February, these have been 
unsuccessful. The new submarine boats X, Y, 
and Z, which have been designed by MM. 
Romazotti, Bertin, and Maugas, are to dis- 
place respectively 168 tons, 213 tons, and 202 
tons. The largest (Y) will have a length of 
142 ft. 8 in. and 9 ft. 9 in. beam. The diameter 
of X is greater, being 10 ft. 6 in. ; the speed 
of these vessels will be from ten to eleven knots. 
The submarine Lutin has been launched at 
Rochefort. Two large submersible boats, de- 
signed by M. Laubeuf, and building at Toulon, 
have received the names of .4 igrette and Cigognc. 
Their displacement is 172 tons, length 117ft. 6 in., 
beam 12 ft. 6 in., and draught 8 ft. 6 in. 

As mentioned in last month's notes, nineteen 
submersibles, or submarines, are to be put in 
hand during this year. One of them will have 
a displacement of 301 tons. She will be 
160 ft. 6 in. long, 13 ft. 9 in. beam, 9 ft. draught 
of water, and the anticipated speed is 11 knots. 

GERMANY. 

The two German battleships of the Wittelshach 
type, the Braunschweig, whose launch has been 
already mentioned, and J, now nearly ready -to 
take the water, have some notable differences 
from the prototype of the class. In the first 
place there is an addition of 1,000 tons in dis- 
placement, which has been used for the sub- 
stitution of ii-in. for 9"4-in. guns, and fourteen 
67-in. for eighteen 6-in. The gain is a slight 
increase in power of penetration. In regard 
to the armament, also there is a re-arrangement 
of the 20-pounder guns, these being now more 
widely distributed than they were in the Wittels- 
hach. A certain amount of end on fire has been 
dispensed with, the Braunschweig being able to 
bring but four of her 6 7-in. guns to bear ahead, 
whereas the Wiltelsbach could bring into action at 
the same point eight 6-in. In both the last-named 
features the Germans appear to be following 
the arrangement already in vogue in this 
country, and in the United States. In regard to 
armour also the protection of the main deck 
battery has been extended, until it now forms a 
complete citadel from one barbette to the other. 
The height of the fore barbette also has been 
reduced. It will be noted that these modifica- 
tions in the type are not sufficient to interfere 



Naval Notes. 



-,6i 



with the homogeneity of the class. They are, 
in fact, in the nature of the changes that will 
probably be found to characterise the difference 
between the King Edward VII. class in our 
own Navy, and the battleships of this year's 
programme. 

The new torpedo boats of 350 tons, built at the 
Germania Yard have undergone their trials. 
Xos. 108 and iii made zcyz knots, and Nxjs. 113, 
109, and 112 made, respectively, 28, 27-8, and 
277 knots. 

RUSSIA 

The new Russian programme is announced, 
and is reported to have received the sanction 
of the Tsar. It is reported to include six first- 
class battleships of 16,000 tons displacement 
each, although another report places the number 
at five, but agrees in the displacement. These 
battleships, we are told, will be armed with 
four 12 in. and twelve 8-in. guns, as well as a 
large number of lighter pieces. There are also 
three first-class cruisers of heavy displacement, 
and smaller cruisers, destroyers and submarines 
in the programme. These Russian ships, it is 
said, are to be built within the next three to 
live years. 

UNITED STATES. 

The Appropriation for the Navy, as finally 
passed by the Conference Committee of the two 
Houses of Congress, amounts to a sum of over 
sixteen millions sterling, and includes a grant 
for the building of three battleships of 16,000 



tons displacement, of the type of the Connecliciit 
and Louisiana, and two battleships of 13,000 
tons displacement, of the type of the Oliio and 
Missouri, vessels which are shortly to be placed 
in commission. The measure, as finally passed, 
was somewhat of a surprise, for while the House 
of Representatives, as reported in last month's 
notes, had provided for three 16,000-ton battle- 
ships and one 14,500-ton armoured cruiser, 
the Senate amended this Bill so as to provide 
for four i2,ooo-ton battleships, and two 9,500- 
ton armoured cruisers. It has been decided 
that the three new 16,000-ton battleships shall 
be named the Vermont, the Kansas, and the 
Minnesota, and the two 13,000-ton battleships 
will be named the Mississippi and the Idaho. 
Other features of the Appropriation Bill provide 
for doubling the number of midshipmen until 
1913, and largely adding to the seamen class. 
Funds are also provided for ammunition for 
target practice, and prizes for marksmanship. 



MINOR NAVIES. 



The Argentine cruiser Moreno was launched 
from the Ansaldo Yard at Sestri Ponente on 
February 9th. This vessel is a sister to the 
Rivadavia, of which a description was given in 
the notes for December last. It is probable 
that both Chili and the Argentine will sell the 
greater number of the later vessels thej- have 
had constructed, these two countries having 
decided by treaty to reduce their naval strength 




24 



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% 



w 



M^ 



■iS^ 



jif 



LOCOnOTIVE 

ENGINEERING 

NOTES. 



s^ 



^^ 



■^-* 



% 



I 



Xv 



Ten-Wheeled Express 
Locomotives. 

It will probably be safe 
to predict that a date not 
far distant will see all 
locomotives that are in- 
tended for fast passenger 
service built with ten 
wheels. The tendency 
in that direction on the 
European and American 
continents, as well as in 
Britain, is so marked as 
to be quite unmistakable. 
It is not meant that the 
express engine of the 
future will necessarily be 
of the type which some 
American writers and 
their British imitators 
term, with regrettable 
ambiguity, " the ten- 
wheeler " ; but simply that it will be a ten-wheeled 
engine. It is a httle unfortunate that a term so vague 
as " ten-wheeler " should have been adopted by 
American writers, and perhaps still more unfortunate 
that those writers should have been servilely followed 
by English copyists, because a ■' ten- wheeler," like the 
famous Bristol and Exeter type of yore, may have a 
single pair of driving wheels with four-wheeled bogies 
in front and behind ; or it may be of what America 
has taught us to understand as the " Atlantic type " 
— sometimes, by-the-bye, varied into the " Atlantic 
City " class. Again, it may have a four-wheeled 
leading bogie, the six other wheels being coupled, this 
constituting what the American writers prefer to 
term the " ten-wheeler " proper ; or it may have eight 
wheels coupled with a two-wheeled bogie or pony- 
truck in front. That also is a type which originated 
in America and which is classified there as of the 
" Consolidation " order. Lastly, it may have all its 
ten wheels coupled, hke Mr. Holden's new No. 20, on 
the Great Eastern, in which case it is known in Britain 
as a " decapod," that term, however, being only used 
in the United States, oddly enough, when the locomotive 



has a pony-truck in front, and therefore becomes 
twelve-wheeled. Yet another variation of ten-wheeled- 
ness is largely used in the British colony of New Zealand, 
being in fact for a long time the standard passenger 
express type in use there. In this case the three middle 
pairs of wheels are coupled, and there are leading and 
trailing two-wheeled pony-trucks. With such a variety 
of interpretations to choose from, it will at once be 
seen how unsatisfactorily misleading or ambiguous as a 
class-designation the term a " ten-wheeler " neces- 
sarily is. 
The Two Principal Types. 

For practical consideration, however, the types likely 
to come chiefly into British use may be deemed to be 
limited to two : ( i ) that having four wheels coupled 
with a leading four-wheeled bogie and a traihng pair 
of carrying u heels ; (2) that having six wheels coupled 
with a four-wheeled bogie in front. But from these 
two bases or roots are springing, and will spring, a 
number of varieties in respect of details. In order to 
avoid any confusion of thought by importing American 
nicknames, it will thus be more convenient to classify 
those two main types by the names borne by two of 
the most prominent specimens of each order now at 
work in Britain. As it happens, those designations 
belong to the earliest British representative of the one 
class, and the latest yet brought out, of the other. Of 
the four-wheel coupled type, with leading four-wheeled 
bogie and single pair of trailing wheels, the earliest 
British exponent was the engine No. 990, designed and 
built by Mr. H. A. Ivatt, for theGreat Northern Railway 
recently named " Henry Oakley," after a former 
respected general manager. It was followed very 
shortly afterward by Mr. J. A. F. .\spinall's No. 1400, on 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire, which differed from 
" Henry Oakley" in having inside cylinders 19 in. by 
26 in. instead of outside cyhnders 18J in. by 24 in.; 
7 ft. 3 in. coupled wheels instead of 6 ft. 7 in. ; and a far 
larger boiler with 2,052 square feet of heating surface 
instead of 1,444 square feet. Still, the types were identical 
so far as concerned their title to bear the American 
class-designation " Atlantic." There appears no reason 
to doubt that both of these engine-types have proved 
pro tanto successful ; both, at any rate, have done 
excellent work under the writer's observation, and 



(.T>2) 



Locomotive Engineering Notes. 



363 



in view of the manifest advantages offered by this 
mode of construction, it is a Utile surprising that so far 
these two should be the only British instances of a 
type which in many other parts of the world has 
incontestably proved its solid value. Such, however, 
is the case. As yet Britain affords no other instances 
of the " Henry Oakley " or " .\tlantic " mode of 
arrangement than those of the Great Northern and 
Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

As yet the Lancashire and Yorkshire appears reso- 
lutely constant to its " 1400 " type, which now has some 
fifty or sixty representatives on that railway. Nor 
is this surprising, for the pioneer of the order virtually 
went as far diraensionally as loading-gauge limits 
permitted, assuming it to be found desirable to maintain 
the exceptionally large diameter of 7 ft. 3 in. for the 
coupled-wheels. No. 1400 and her sister engines have 
done, and are doing, admirable service, and the type 
has this notable advantage : that, should increased 
power be needed, it can protnptly be obtained virtually 
on the same lines either (a) by reducing the driving- 
wheel diameter to 6 ft. 6 in. or 6 ft. ; (b) by enlarging the 
cyhnders, which even then the present vast boiler ought 
to be able to keep well supplied with " live " steam ; 
or (c) by combining the two foregoing changes ; or 
id) by compounding the engine, which would enable 
more power to be utilised from a given volume of steam; 
or {e) by increasing the size of the boiler as well as of 
the cylinders while reducing the size of the driving- 
wheels. As yet, however, the necessity does not seem 
to have arisen. 

Great Northern Variations. 

On the Great Northern, however, as I mentioned last 
month, Mr. Ivatt has recently brought out two varia- 
tions of his "Henry Oakley" or "990" class. As 
regards one of these no possible doubt can exist that 
it goes in the right direction. The variation consists 
simply in providing a vast increment of boiler-power. 
After the results given by " 990 " and her ten sisters, 
there does not seem room for the slightest doubt that 
Nos. 251-260, which are reproductions of that type, 
with a boiler 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter, affording 2, 5oosquare 
feet of heating surface, will prove themselves capable 
of finer work than has hitherto been seen even on the 
Great Northern Railway. Doubts were justly enter- 
tained whether the boiler of " 990 " was large enough 
to afford full scope to the i8}-in. cylinders. That 
doubt has now been resolved into a certainty by Mr. 
Ivatt's decision to enlarge the boiler dimensions. The 
addition of more than 1,000 square feet to the heating- 
surface ought to do wonders in the way of improved 
efficiency. 

The principle of the other variation of the " Atlantic," 
or " Henry Oakley," type on the Great Northern, is a 
good deal more open to exception, while at the same 
time its potentialities are so valuable as to entitle 
it to thorough trial. Whether the four 1 5 in. cyhnders 
given to No. 271 with their short piston-stroke of 20 in. 
wiU really prove superior in practice to the ordinary 
two cyUnder arrangement, can only be determined by 



practical experience. Mere theorising on such points has 
been proved over and over again to be utterly valueless, 
because it is virtually impossible to be certain that every 
influential factor has been taken into account or received 
due allowance as to its effect upon results. That the 
four cylinder arrangement does give a better balancing 
of working parts may be unhesitatingly admitted, and 
Mr. Ivatt has undoubtedly improved the prospects of 
his new engine's success bv coupling the four driving 
wheels. The experiment is full of interest and im- 
portance, but its really relevant results will not be 
easily arrived at. No rational doubt can be entertained 
that No. 271 will perform good locomotive work. 
There is reason to believe that this has already been 
demonstrated, although here the writer is unable, as 
yet, to speak from personal experience. But the 
question which necessarily suggests itself is, not whether 
an engine of that type and those dimensions, will 
perform good service — which goes without saying — 
but whether it will do good enough service, and service 
sufficiently superior, to compensate for the self-evident 
drawbacks which attend that mode of construction. 
The question appears to be purely one of economy. 
Two pairs of cylinders with all their concomitant 
working parts must of necessity cost considerably more 
than a single pair, even allowing for their smaller 
size. Similarly, the upkeep and repairs of four 
cylinders and four sets of working parts must assuredly 
be more costly than those of two sets. It is not 
suggested or imagined that the cost will be double, 
but there can be no conceivable doubt that it must be 
materially increased. It may be urged that this would 
be in some degree compensated by the diminished wear 
and tear due to the superiority of balancing. That 
may be so, but scarcely to the full extent of the differ- 
ence. Thus the point which has to be determined is 
whether the performance of the four-cylinder engine 
will prove so substantially better than that which would 
be obtained from a locomotive having only two cylinders 
of equivalent aggregate dimensions, as to provide an 
adequate quid pro quo when set against augmented 
expense of materials, construction, and repairs. And 
that is the true point at issue. 

A Combination of Methods. 

It may be worth while to point out here that the 
new locomotive engine in course of construction for 
the Great Western Railway at the works of the 
Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques, does 
certainly appear to combine all the points of merit 
indicated in the " Atlantic " or " Henry Oakley " 
classes just reviewed, the Great Northern and the Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire. For the du-Bousquet-de Glehn 
engine, which is to be delivered to the Great Western 
in September or October next, has the reduced diameter 
of driving wheels above suggested for the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire engines, namely, 6 ft. 8 in. instead of 7 ft? 
3 in. ; also the enlarged cylinder capacity similarly sug- 
gested ; the increased boiler capacity — 2,300 square 
feet of heating surface, instead of 2,052 square feet; 
and of our cylinders, as in the case of the Great Northern 



24 .\ 



3f'4 



Page's Magazine. 



No. 271 ; also coupled driving-wheels, as in that case , 
while it further possesses the advantage of being able 
to use its vast steam supply more economically than 
either of the British engines, being founded on a system 
which in many years' experience has been tried and 
proved to give excellent results. Moreover, the prac- 
tical trials of engines of this type have produced results 
equal in all respects to what might have been pre- 
dicted on the basis of pure theory. Thus the Great 
Western, while making the third among the British 
railways to try the locomotive arrangement which 
might reasonably be known as the '• Henry Oakley " 
type — " Atlantic " type in .\merica — will do so under 
the specially advantageous conditions of apparently 
combining into one aggregate all the points of merit, 
possessed or potential, in the cases of the other locomo- 
tives above referred to. 

The Othep Ten Wheeled Type. 

While the Great Western is the latest, as the North- 
Eastern was the earliest, among British railways to try 
the other ten-wheeled type of express engine, there are 
not wanting indications that other British railways are 
about to fall into the same line. At present the Great 
Western has only one of these engines, namely, the 
type with six-coupled driving wheels and a four-wheeled 
leading bogie. The North-Eastern has fifteen, sub- 
divided into two classes, which differ only in the respec- 
tive diameters of the driving-wheels, those of the earliest 
ten being 6 ft.; and of the last five 6 ft. Sin. But the Great 
Central Railway has already followed the trail with such 
vigour that, if it does not possess more engines of that 
type than the other two combined, it very soon will do so. 
Professedly the Great Central six-coupled passenger 
bogie engines are not designed for what is, strictly speak- 
ing, " express " duty any more than were the similar 
engines of the 3-121 class on the Northern Railway of 
France. But, just as the French ten-wheelers, while not 
originally intended for express service, gradually fell 
into that class of work through their proved suitableness 
to its requirements, so already, the Great Central ten- 
wheelers appear to be taking a share of fast passenger 
work on that line. It is rumoured also that, as in the 
case of the North Eastern, a variation of the class, 
having somewhat larger wheels, is about to be intro- 
duced. ' The ^type ^^is^ manifestly suited in a .special 



degree to the circumstances of heavy traffic on such a line 
as the Great Central, with its many miles of severe 
gradients, and its liability to slipperiness of rails on 
account of mountain mists. Another rumour at pre- 
sent current, but as yet unconfirmed officially, is that 
an express engine of the same order, only compounded 
on Mr. Webb's four-cvhnder principle, has been put in 
hand at. Crewe with the view of dispensing (even over 
such a severe length as the Preston-Carlisle stage, which 
includes the Shap bank of i m 75 for 4i miles), with the 
pilot assistance hitherto emploj-ed. 

More Ten-Wheelep Varieties. 

Reference has previously been made in these columns 
to the new departure taken by Mr. J. F. M'Intosh in 
respect of ten-wheeled express engines on the Caledonian 
Railway, namely in respect of the engines with six- 
coupled 5-ft. wheels (the leading pair being the drivers), 
inside cylinders, very large boiler, and leading bogie, 
which were built specially for work on the extreme 
grades of the Oban branch, and which have, so far. done 
their work admirably. An enlarged variation of this 
class, which Mr. M'Intosh has designed for the heaviest 
and fastest express services on the Caledonian Main 
Line, has been for some time under construction at 
St. Rollox, and it is understood that two, at any rate, 
will be ready to assist in the express services of the 
coming summer. So far as is at present known, they 
will have 6ft. 6.in. driving-wheels six coupled, the 
front pair being driven by two inside cylinders, 21 in. 
by 26 in., while the leading end of the engine -will bi- 
carried on a four-wheeled bogie ; and the same enor- 
mous boiler with 2,500 square feet of heating surface that 
is employed on the huge No. 600 class of eight-coupled 
mineral engines, will be given to the new express loco- 
motives, which should inaugurate a fresh phase in loco- 
motive practice and experience. Thus, to sum up, it 
may fairly be said that when we find such engineers as 
Mr. Churchward, Mr. Ivatt, Mr. Worsdell, Mr. Aspinall, 
Mr. Robinson, and Mr. M'Intosh all making practical 
trial of one or other of the two main types of ten- 
wheeled engines for express duty,, it may fairly be 
concluded that these have not only come to stay, 
but also are practically certain to hold an exceedingly 
prominent place among the express locomotives of the 
future. C. R.-M. 




J 




Iron and Steel. 

There have been no remarkahle developments in the 
iron and steel industry of the United States during the 
past month, unless the expected advance in the prices of 
the ores of the Lake Superior region may be so classed. 
This increase will, of course, mean higher cost of 
production for finished iron and steel manufacturers who 
have to purchase their raw materials, and it comes at a 
time when coal and coke are still high, and but shortly 
after the recent rise in freight rates. The congestion of 
the railroads is still unrelieved, and it is surprising, all 
conditions considered, that consumption of pig-iron is 
still fairly brisk. In structural material the market has 
also picked up, builders apparently having decided that an 
early fall in prices is not promising. During the last week 
in January the constituent companies of the United States 
Steel Corporation reported orders aggregating £5,509,000, 
the largest sales in the history of the organization. Early 
in March the demand for steel gave indications of being 
pretty strong for some time, and foreign business in steel 
billets will probably show a good increase. In foreign 
pig-iron, however, comparatively little buying has been 
reported, prices having gone up idol, to i.5odols. per 
ton, owing to better conditions in the home trade. The 
electric railway developments are causing large purchases 
in rails, and the outlook in wire and skelp has led to an 
advance in quotations. The Lake ore prices referred to 
are for the Mesaba ores : 4 dols. per ton for Bessemer 
furnace, at lake ports, and 3.20 dols. for the non-Bessemer 
ore ; for the Old Range ores : 4.50 dols. per ton for the 
Bessemer, and 3.60 dols. for the non-Bessemer. 

The United States 16-in. Gun. 

On January 17th, at the Sandy Hook (N.J.) proving 
ground, occurred the test of the new United States Army 
16-in. gun ; the results of which were given out too late 
to be included amongst last month's notes, but as the gun is 
a much more powerful one than the Armstrong 1625 in. 
gun of the British Navy, the figures will still bear interest. 
The total length of the gun is 497 ft.; its weight is 
130 tons ; and the weight of its projectile, 2,400 lb. 
With a charge of 640 lb. of nitro-cellulose smokeless 
powder, the gun developed a muzzle velocity of 2,306 ft. 
per sec, a muzzle energy of SS.ooo ft.-tons, or 677 ft.-tons 
per ton of the weight of the gun. In loading, the pro- 



NEW YORK, lOth March, 1903. 

jectile had to be rammed by some twenty men ; and the 
powder was placed in the breech in six canvas bags, one 
bag having several pounds of the fine grain quick 
igniting powder to insure ignition. 

Gun Development in the Navy. 

An example of the recent development that has been 
made in the power of the guns of the United States Navy 
is afforded by the comparison of the energy of a 6-in. 
gun of a few years ago with that of a 6-in. gun of to-day. 
Then the gun was 30 calibres in length, and weighed 48 
tons. Its muzzle velocity was 2,000 ft. per second, using 
brown powder and a lOO-lb. projectile. Its muzzle 
energy was 2,773 ft.-tons, and its practicable rate of fire 
24 aimed shots per minute. The latest type has a length 
of 50 calibres, a weight of 8-2 tons, a muzzle velocity, 
with smokeless powder and a lOO-lb. projectile, of 
2 900 ft per second, and a muzzle energy of 5,83(J ft.-tons. 
Its practicable rate of lire is 8 aimed shots per mmute. 
The energy developed per minute per ton weight of the 
gun has thus been increased from 2,733 x 2^ -^ 4'8 = 
1,4+4 ft-tons to 5,836 X 8 -r S-2 = 5,693 "-tons, or nearly 
four times. 

A New Ship Log. 

A ship log comprising two tubes which project through 
the bottom of the vessel, two Hoats which restm the water 
in the tubes, and a registering mechanism operated by 
the fioats has been introduced by the Nicholson Log 
Company of Cleveland. The bottom of one of the 
tubes has an orifice normal to the direction o motion so 
that the w.ater in the tube stands at the same level as th.it 
outside the ship, and thus varies with a change of load. 
The other tube points in the direction of the ship s tiavel, 
and the w.ater in the tube is maintained at a level depend- 
ing on the speed. The tube, say of i in. diameter, .s 
carried sufficiently below the ship's bottom o be beyond 
the influence of eddies set up by the skin friction. The 
positions of the floats are calibrated, so that the 
mechanism, which includes both an indicating gauge 
and a recording drum, will give direct readings of the 
speed in knots per hour. 

New York's Bridg-es. 

New York is fast becoming the city of bridges. There 
are now a dozen or more bridges spanning the Harlem 



(363) 



366 



Page's Magazine. 



River, all of them so large that in most places they would 
command profound respect, and in a few years there 
will be five monumental structures joining the Long 
Island boroughs of the city with Manhattan Island. The 
second of these East River bridges has reached the stage 
of construction where all the floor beams are in place ; 
and the third and fourth have finally been awarded 
approved designs. Equally with the present famous 
Brooklyn Bridge and the new East River Bridge, as the 
bridge just referred to is called, the third and fourth 
bridges will also bear some merited distinction. The 
third, or Manhattan Bridge, will not only be the longest 
city bridge in the world, having with its approaches a total 
length of 9,900 ft., but it will stand as one of the stiffest 
suspension bridges in existence, its supporting members 
to comprise, instead of cables, chains made up of eye- 
bars. These chains will form the tip chords of stiffening 
trusses, and will be attached rigidly to the steel supporting 
towers. The main span will be 1,470 ft., 135 ft. above 
high tide, and the towers will be 400 ft. high. There 
will be four of the eye-bar chains from which will be 
suspended the roadway, 122 ft. wide. This will have a 
carriage-way in the centre, with a capacity of four three- 
horse teams abreast ; on each side of this there will be 
two street-car tracks, and over them two elevated rail- 
road tracks, making eight railway tracks all told, and in 
the outermost position on each side will be a promenade 
nearly 12 ft. wide. It was first intended to provide huge 
hinge joints near the bottom of the steel towers, to allow 
for contraction and e.xpansion of the eye-bar chains with 
changes of temperature and load, but it is now stated 
that as the amount of turning about the hinge would be 
so small relative to the height of the tower, that this 
longitudinal movement will be allowed for by flexure of 
the structure within ths elastic limit. Four passenger 
elevators are to be provided in each of the anchorage 
piers, and the whole structure will be fireproof, and will 
cost about 13,000,000 dols. The fourth, or Blackwell's 
Island Bridge, will be much the heaviest and most 
capacious long span bridge ever constructed. Both the 
Forth and tlie proposed Quebec bridges have longer 
spans, but they are single deck structures, while the 
Blackwell's Island Bridge will have two decks, designed 
for heavy waggon traffic, six railroad tracks, and two 
promenades. It will have five spans, the longest of 
1,182ft., and aggregating 3,7141 ft., besides viaduct 
approaches, which bring up the total length to 7,349 ft. 
The trusses will all be of the cantilever design. The 
estimated total cost is 12,500,000 dols. The new bridges 
have been designed by Mr. Gustav Lindenthal and Mr. 
H. A. La Chicotte, engineer in charge, but work on the 
Blackwell's Island Bridge was commenced by Mr. S. R. 
Probasco, and continued by Mr. R. S. Buck. It should 
be added that the designs are all made with the approval 
of a consulting architect, so that something more than 
utilitarian giants are to be expected. 

Canadian Niagara Hydraulic Plants. 

During the past month a franchise was granted to the 
Toronto and Niagara Power Company to develop 
125,000 horse-power from the Niagara River on the 
Canadian side. This now makes three companies 



having water-power rights on that side of the river, 
aggregating 375,000 h. p. The writer has estimated that 
these three plants in full operation will require about 
30,000 cubic feet of water per second, and when it is 
remembered that the mean flow of the river is about 
225,000 cubic feet per second, and that it drops at low 
water periods to 160.000 cubic feet, the magnitude of the 
diversion on the Canadian side alone can be apprehended. 
There are two large consumers of water on the American 
side — one, the Niagara Falls 'Power Company, soon to 
have a capacity of 110,000 h.p. The Toronto Company 
and the Canadian Niagara Power Company will 
develop on lines similar to the Niagara Falls Power 
Company ; but the third, the Ontario Power Company, 
will probably divert 12,000 cubic feet per second from the 
river at a point about one mile above the Horseshoe 
Falls, and conduct it through three pipe lines 6,000 ft. 
long to penstocks which will drop down the river bank 
to the power-house a short distance below the Falls. 
The power-house will be located near the water's edge 
and will house direct-connected turbo-generators. The 
development of this company is likely to be particularly 
interesting, as the original or. preliminary designs con- 
templated employing three wood-stave pipes, each 18 ft. 
in diameter. There is, of course, a scarcity of hydraulic 
data regarding the flow of water under such conditions, 
but it has been estimated that with a flow of 3,000 cubic 
feet per second in each pipe, which would mean a 
velocity of 12 ft. per second, there would be a loss of 
head in the pipe of 34 ft., and a net useful head of 175 ft. 
It is held that 50,000 h.p. can undoubtedly be obtained, 
and possibly 60,000 h.p., so that if seven penstocks, 
each of which have been chosen at 9 ft. in diameter, are 
provided, one will be in reserve. It is intended to 
supply three-phase 25-cycle alternating current at 
6,000 to 6,600 volts at the generators. 

Data on Arc Lighting. 

According to Mr. W. D. Ryan, of the Lynn, Mass. 
■Works of the General Electric Company, the following 
figures represent good practice in arc lighting, being 
based on data he has compiled : For machine shops, 
with high roofs, electrically driven machinery and no 
belts, 075 watt per square foot, the energy being based 
on the watts at the lamp terminals ; machine shops, with 
low roofs, belts, and cither obstructions, I watt per square 
foot; hardwareandother stores, 075 watts ; departmental 
stores, with light material and bric-a-brac, i watt ; 
departmental stores, with coloured material, 1-25 watts; 
mill lighting, with plain light goods, I'l watts ; mill 
lighting, with coloured goods, high looms, 1-3 watts; 
general office, with no incandescent lamps, 1-5 watts; 
drafting rooms, 175 watts. 

A Hot-Water Hydraulic Plant. 

A small electric plant operated by hot water exists at 
Thermopolis, Wyo. The turbine takes water from a hot 
spring, and the volume is 750 cubic feet per minute, and 
the available head 4S feet. The temperature of the water 
is 138 degrees Fahr., and the turbine had to be placed 
near tail water to utilize the head as fully as possible and 
to avoid creating a partial vacuum, which would cause 
the formation of steam and gas in the draft tube. 



PAGES MAGAZINE 



An Illustrated Technical Monthly, dealing with the 

Engineering, Electrical, Shipbuilding, Iron and Steel, 

Mining and Allied Industries. 

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Clun House, Surrey Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

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OUR MONTHLY 
RESUME. 



LONDON, 20th March, 1903, 
Canadian Developments. 

It IS announced that about the middle of April a new 
lortnightly service of steamers will be inaugurated 
between Rotterdam and Montreal, which will be fed by 
Lake steamers running from the Canadian interior with 
grain and produce. The new service will be employed 
under the auspices of the Canadian Ocean and Inland 
Line (Limited), in connection with three specially 
designed Lake steamers now being built in this country 
—two on the Tyne and one on the Clyde. These vessels 
were ordered some time ago, and should be nearly ready 
to take their part in the new service. The ocean 
steamers for this service have also been acquired. The 
necessary link between the North-"West and the port of 
shipment, Montreal, is provided by three Lake steamers, 
of a size to navigate the various canals en route. This 
and the acquisition of the Beaver Line of steamers by 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, point to the 
large development of the oversea trade of Canada. The 
Beaver Line was originally a Canadian concern until 
it was purchased by Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co.. 
Liverpool. It is now to be greatly enlarged by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company. 

The British Merchant Fleet. 

Some statistics issued by Lloyd's Register enable one 
now to measure the exact strength of the British Mer- 
cantile Marine, by taking on the one hand, the additions 
made during the twelve months to our tonnage, and, 
on the other, the deductions made from the Register 
by losses and sales to foreigners. The total additions 
amounted to 1.249,509 tons, nearly the whole being of 
new vessels built in the United Kingdom. The transfers 
from the Colonies and foreign sources were little more 
than 85,000 tons. The gross deductions from the 
Register were 506,155 tons, due to wrecks, breaking 
up," and dismantling, while a small percentage is due 
to sales abroad. Germany bought from us 36.584 
tons of shipping; Italv 3^.594; Sweden 29,109; 
Greece :!8, = 68 tons, and so on, but very few of the 
vessels thus disposed of were of recent construction. 
Most of them, indeed, were old boats, .\fter these 
adjustments the vessels on the Register of the United 
Kingdom stand thus, as at 31st December, 1902 :— 



Steam 
Sailing 



Vessels 

9,808 

10,449 



Tons gross. 

13,260,332 

2,090,871 



The whole of the contents of this publication are 
copyright, and full rights are reserved. 



Total .. 20,257 .. 15.351.203 

Our total tonnage has been growing from year to year, 
and last year the additions were greater than ever- 



(367) 



?6« 



Page's Magazine. 



While the averages from 1893 to 1901 were three or 
four hundred thousand tons, the net increase during 
1902 was upwards of seven hundred thousand tons. 
Another feature of the statistics is the immense pre- 
ponderance of steam over saihng tonnage. Our 
steamers, moreover, ^re increasing in size, as well as in 
numbers. More than forty of them, last year classed 
by Lloyd's, had a tonnage e.xceeding five thousand. 
Two came to 12,700 each, while four more were above 
11,000 tons each. The present year's figures in this 
respect promise to beat previous records, but the two 
new Cunarders about to be built, with a tonnage of close 
on 30.000 tons each, will not be ready before ne.\t year. 

The following is a list of Atlantic" record " passages 
during the last fifteen years : — ■ 



a war of rates of their own. and American rates were 
much below the normal terms for which goods could 
be carried as a matter of business. Sir Charles Cayser. 
however, handed in a letter from Mr. Edward Lloyd, 
dealing with the unfairness of the way in which the 
figures were taken for the purpose of comparison. 
The following paragraph from this letter is interesting. 
Mr. Lloyd savs ; " .\s a matter of fact, the rates of 
freight from New York to Australia and New Zealand 
had been raised some months before the date on which 
Sir Alfred Hickman gave his evidence before the 
Committee, and it is surprising, to say the least, that 
in coming forward to give evidence before the Com- 
mittee, he did not make inquiries, when it was so easy 
to do so, and obtain reliable information, instead of 



Year. 


Name of Vessel. 


Line. 


From. 


To. 


Average 
Speed. 


Time from Port 
to Port. 


1885 


Etruria 


Cunard 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork 


19 


6 days 17 hours 
34 minutes 


1887 


Umbria 


Cunard 




Liverpool 


New Y^ork . . 


I9i 


6 days i ; hours 
28 minutes 


188; 


Etruria 


Cunard 




New York 


Liverpool 


I9i 


6 days 1 3 hours 
26 minutes 


1888 


Etruria 


Cunard 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork 


■9i 


6 days 13 hours 
26 minutes 


1889 


Ciiy of Paris 


American 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork 


20 


6 days 9 hours 
30 minutes 


1891 


Teutonic 


White Star . . 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork 


204 


6 days 5 hours 
45 minutes 


1892 


City of Paris 


American 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork . . 


20.7 


6 days 4 hours 
18 minutes 


1893 


Lucania 


Cunard 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork 


21 


6 days 2 hours 
1 1 minutes 


1894 


Lucania 


Cunard 




Liverpool 


New Y'ork 


2I-8l 


5 days 20 hours 
45 minntes 


1898 


Kaiser Wilhelm der 
Grosse 


North German 


Lloyd 


Southampton 


New Y'ork . . 


22-29 


5 days 17 hours 
43 minutes 


1899 


Kaiser Wilhelm der 
Grosse 


North German 


Lloyd 


Southampton 


New Y'ork 


22-86 


5 dnys 14 hours 
17 minutes 


1900 


Oceanic 


White Star . 




Liverpool 


>: ev>- Y ork 


20-72 


6 da>s 4 hours 
9 minutes 


igcx 


Deutschland 


Hamburg .\mencan 


Southampton 


New Y'ork 


23-32 


5 day II houts 
















38 minntes 


1902 


Krouprinz Wilhelm 


North German 


Lloyd 


Cherbourg 


New Y'ork 


25-09 


1; days II hours 
i;? minutes 


1902 


Deutschland 


Hamburg .\nierican 


New York 


Cherbourg 


23-51 


5 days 11 hours 
















5 minutes 



Shipping Conferences. 

There has been a good deal of discussion lately 
about shipping conferences or rings, and Lord Onslow 
has even threatened Government opposition to the 
South .\frican ring. But there are two sides to every 
question. Take, for instance, the New Zealand story 
During the examination of witnesses by the Subsidies 
Committee, evidence was given about rates of freight 
between American and British ports and New Zealand 
intended to show that the freights from .American 
ports to the Colony were much lower than the freights 
from British ports. The explanation was that the 
figures were taken out when American firms were ha\-in.5 



trying to show the Committee that British shipowners 
were intent upon assisting foreign shippers and manu- 
facturers as against British shippers and manufac- 
turers." 

Oversea Trade. 

(Jn returns obtained from all owners of steamers of 
20,000 tons and upwards engaged in oversea trade, 
the operations of about one-tliird of the world's foreign- 
going tonnage are tabulated as under, the figures in 
parentheses referring to the number of companies. 
The money is in dollars, because taken from the records 
of the United States Bureau of Navigation : — 



Our Monthly R6sum6. 



3^'9 



H-'-A' 



British (40) 
Geriuau (11) 
French (6) .. 
Japanese (3) 
Austrian (3) 
Netherlands (6) 
Spanish (6) . . 
Itahan (3) . . 
Danish (4) . . 
Russian (2) 
Norwegian ( 5) 
Greek (I) .'. 
Swede (i) .. 

Total (for 89 
conjpanies) 



Xo. of 

Vessels. 



Gross Tons. 



Book Value. 



970 

497 
206 
156 
no 
107 

99 
130 
i.=:7 

30 

48 
9 

II 



Capital Stock. 



3.211,924 

1,858,139 

649.519 

315.663 

283,999 

285.448 

266,944 

2^4,490 

211,883 

39,073 

37.169 

1 1,270 

11,054 



158,110,756 
95.613.745 
5i.538,338 
16,608,906 
12,164,818 
16,204,009 
21,091,265 

10.278,337 

10,788,691 

2,806,413 

2,219,268 

597.347 
544,040 



.530 



■.436.575 I 398.565.933 



107,718,529 

56,816,500 

25,765,500 

16,989,000 

7,754,600 

14,793,600 

10,804,333 

10,229,000 

8,192,224 

1,866,250 

1,822,936 

965,000 

487,760 



264,205,232 



Dividends. 

6,849,907 

3,483,920 

1,109,550 

1,983,900 

429.954 

953.876 

796.570 

212,686 

526,164 

195.637 

1 13,900 

57.900 

22,512 



16,736,467 



Bonds or 
Debentures. 



s 


s 


31.389.307 


1,226,143 


1 25,036,077 


803,895 


31,978.787 


1,026,41s 


1,895,000 


32,500 


9,108,639 


334.093 


4,078,940 


94,087 


5,076,530 I 


99.898 


2,288,452 


84,892 


110,851,732 


3,701,926 



According to these returns the British vessels stood 
at a book value of $49.22, or about ^10, a ton, and 
dividends averaged 6' 3 5 per cent. The German 
vessels were valued at $51.4; per ton, and the divi- 
dends averaged 6-13 per cent. The French vessels 
work out at $79.34 P^"" ton, and the dividends at 
4'jO per cent. The Japanese vessels are valued at 
$52.61 per ton, and the dividends average 11-67 per 
cent. The vessels belonging to the three .\ustrian 
companies were valued at $42.83 per ton, and the 
dividend averaged 5-44 per cent. The Netherlands 
ships were valued at $56.76 per ton, and paid 6-44 per 
cent. The Spanish boats were valued at $79.01 per 
ton, and the companies paid y^y per cent. The 
Italian vessels were valued at $40.38 per ton, and the 
dividends 2-07 per cent. The Danish vessels were 
valued at $50.91 per ton, and the companies paid 
6-42 per cent. The Russian steamers stand at $71.82 
per ton. and pay 10-48 per cent. The Norwegian 
vessels stand in the books at $59. 70 per ton. 

The Outlook in South Africa. 

Matters of technical interest are still very much 
overshadowed by political considerations in all parts 
of South Africa — more especially in Cape Colony. 
In view of the vital interest attaching to the question 
of railway construction, it is gratifying to note that the 
conference on the matter opened in Johannesburg, 
under the presidency of Lord Milner, has concluded its 
deliberations, and that no fewer than seven new lines 
have been approved, with a total length of 663 miles, 
at an estim.ated cost of ;^:5, 161,000. These lines all 
touch v.trious centres of production, whether of coal, 
grain, or metals, and connect with important places, 
such as Pretoria, Johannesburg, Bloemfontein, and 
Krugersdorp. The question of native labour crops up 
again with all its old persistency, and as it is estimated 
that thirty thousand natives will be required for the next 
two years, it has been suggested that this advanced 
railway policy will be accompanied by an increasing 
scarcity of labour in the mines. Experts, however, have 



been able to show- that the natives who will take up 
railway work are those who, under no circumstances, 
would work in the mines. Much skilled white 
labour will also be required, and we may confidently 
anticipate that the opening up of these new lines will 
mark the beginning of a renew-ed era of prosperity for 
South Africa. 

At the Mines. 

The output in the Transvaal is slowly but steadily 
increasing, but it will be some months yet before all 
the available engineers, metallurgists, and artizans 
accustomed to mining work who are already in the 
town and district, can be absorbed by the mines. 
Until the men with years of local experience have 
found suitable employment there is small chance 
for new- men, unless they secure work before starting, 
or have influence with directors or managers. In 
spite of this fact, and of the high cost of living, especially 
as regards rent, there is a steady stream of new arrivals. 
A single unfurnished room costs, w-ith electric light, 
from £3 to £6 per month, while small houses of about 
four rooms are eagerly taken up at /15 per month. 
The cost of building brick houses in a substantial 
manner at the present time may be estimated at 
elevenpence per cubic foot, or say ;£2O0 per room for 
medium sized houses, while stands 15 ft. by 100 ft. 
range from £ys each in the less favoured suburbs, say 
two miles south of the town, to ;^6oo and more in the 
nearer and more fashionable districts in the north. 
It is evident, therefore, that married men, who have to 
maintain their families in Johannesburg on salaries 
of £2} or ^30 per month are having anything but rosy 
times. 

Native Wages. 

The foUow-ing is the schedule of native wages now- 
resumed, which was referred to last month. It shows 
vividly the economic difficulty involved in any attempt 
to substitute unskilled white labour at a living w-age 
for native labour : — 



37° 



Page's Magazine. 



Mine. Per day. 

Tram boys (loft. trucks), timber boys 

and helpers at stations . . . . . . 12 

Shovellers . . . . . . . . . . 13 

Hammer boys, trammers (16 ft. trucks), 
boys cutting hitches for timber, assis- 
tants for platelayers and pipemen . . 16 

Machine helpers, dry shaft and winze boys, 

pumpman's labourers . . . . . . 1 S 

Wet shaft boys, stope gauger's helpers, 

air hoist drivers . . . . . . . . 20 

Station and headgear boys (when no 
white man is employed), and wet shaft 
boys in development work .. .. 26 

Mill. 



Crusher boys 


1 4 


Ore trammers 


I q 


Attendants on stamps, elevators, vanners. 




blankets, etc. 


2 


Cyanide. 




Indoor boys and residue truckers 


I 4 


Zinc cutters. . 


I 6 


Filling and discharging vats 


I 9 



Othey surface labour. 
Drill packers , . . . . . . . 10 

Surface labourers and carpenters' boys . . 12 

Blacksmiths' and masons' labourers .. 14 

Fitters' boys, drill sorters, coal boys, and 

engine cleaners . . . . . . . . 16 

Cooks and sorting boys . . . . . . ^ P 

Blacksmiths' strikers, office, store and 
assay boys, mule drivers, stokers, and 
police . . . . . . . . . . 26 

In addition to the above actual payments to the 
natives, sixpence per day must be added for the cost of 
food and shelter. Each mine is allowed, under the 
existing agreement, to pay special rates to 7+ per cent, 
of the total number employed. 

Mechanical Progress. 

At the Elandslaagte Coal Mine the whole of the coal 
is now mined by means of electrical coal cutters 
which are managed by native labourers, of course under 
the supervision of white men. And in this connection 
it may be pointed out that at the present time there 
is a good opportunity for the introduction of labour- 
saving appliances of a simple and effective character, 
for even if nothing is gained in cost, the labour saved 
would be available for other purposes. 

A new wet sampler for battery pulp, which seems 
to meet all requirements, has been introduced by 
Mr. Higham, the cyanide manager at the City and 
Suburban Mine. We hope to be able to give a full 
description and illustration of this apparatus very soon, 
but in the meantime the principle of its action will be 
understood from the following outline. A slotted 
pipe is moved slowly across the stream of pulp by 
means of a screw, and when it emerges on either 



side of the stream it operates a reversing apparatus, 
which causes the screw to rotate in the opposite direc- 
tion. The portion of the pulp which enters the ex- 
tremely narrow slot constitutes the sample, and is 
delivered by the pipe into any suitable leceptacle. 

Mr. Harland, the battery manager at the Robinson 
Mine, has invented an automatic mercury feeder for 
mortar boxes, which will soon be on the market. A 
device of this kind is desirable to avoid irregular 
feeding, due to carelessness or to the fact that amal- 
gamators have many other duties to perform. 

Uniform Time. 

Several Governments have agreed to establish a 
uniform official time, based on the meridian ol 30'' east 
of Greenwich, so that the time in the colonies in- 
cluded will be two hours ahead of English time. This 
agreement embraces Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, 
Orange River Colony, Southern Rhodesia, and Portu- 
guese East Africa. 

" Wireless ' Telegraphy and Lighthouses. 

Our readers are not likely to have forgotten the sti iking 
review of "wireless " telegraphy, contributed to Pack's 
Magazine a few months ago by Sir William Preece, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. " It is not wanted across great oceans," 
said Sir William, emphatically ; " it is wanted across 
narrow, rocky chmnels, and between tide-swept island 
homes." Apparently the value of aetheric telegraphy 
for the latter purpose has impressed itself upon Mr. Mar- 
coni also for we find him expatiating on the subject in 
no uncertain manner at the annual meeting of the Asso- 
ciation of Chambers of Commerce of the United Kingdom. 
A resolution was brought forward in favour of steps being 
at once taken to connect all lightships and lighthouses 
with the shore by means of telegraphy, telephones, or 
wireless telegraphs. Mr. Marconi said that those who 
had been identified with, or had worked at, the problem 
before them knew that the great ditliculty which beset 
them, in addition to that of expense, was the fact that the 
cables laid for the purposes of communication between 
lighthouses and lightships and the shore did not last any 
length of time, owing to their chafing against rocks and 
lighthouses. " Wireless" telegraphy had now reached a 
stage in which it could be satisfactorily employed for 
those communications. 

New Safeguard for Shipping. 

In fc:ngland at the present time there was no lighthouse 
connected with the shore by that system, but it was in 
use in several places outside England. In the United 
States it had been in use for two years between the 
Nantucket lightship and the shore — a distance of 55 
miles— and had worked very satisfactorily. In Germany 
the system was established between the Borcum Riff 
lightship and the sliore, and had worked with equally 
satisfactory results for nearly tlu'cc years. It was also in 
use in Newfoundland. In England an experiment had 
been tried for the satisfaction of the Trinity House 
authorities between the East Goodwms lightship, and the 
shore, and he believed it was on record that the system 
worked satisfactorilv on that occasion. Therefore, he 



Our Monthly R6sumfe. 



371 



did not think- there was any technical diHiculty in 
estahHshing the service. To mal<e a connection of 
between twenty and thirty miles, or even a greater 
distance, would not cost more than from /300 to £^400, 
which compared with at least ;t20o per mile by the 
cable method. Besides adding to the defence of light- 
house-keepers, such communication would very much 
increase the safety of shipping. In addition to certain 
warships, there were now twenty-eight passenger liners 
plying in British waters which carried "wireless" tele- 
graphy apparatus. The disadvantage of there being no 
lighthouses in England so fitted was demonstrated the 
other day, when one of the French passenger cross- 
Channel packets got in distress off the Goodwin Sands. 
Fortunately, the Belgian steamer which saw her was 
fitted with the " wireless" telegraphy apparatus, and was 
able to report the distress to Dover, where the message 
was received by another vessel similarly equipped. But 
for the fact, however, that there was a boat at Dover 
fitted with the apparatus, the message could not have 
been transmitted, and tugs would not have been sent 
out to render assistance. 

The New Naval Base. 

The announcement that the Government intend to 
establish a new naval port at St. Margaret's Hope, on the 
north side of the Firth of Forth, is the outward token of 
careful deliberations in official quarters extending over 
several years. Following the new scheme of naval 
training which Lord Selborne presented to the nation on 
Christmas morning, it should do much to dispel the fears 
of panic-mongers and to prove that the Admiralty is fully 
alive to the necessities of the times. We shall await with 
interest further details of the scheme. Mr. Balfour 
e.\plained in the House of Commons that Lord Goschen 
and the late Lord of the Admiralty in March, igoo, 
appointed a committee, which fully examined the whole 
question of present and prospective accommodation for 
ships in his Majesty's dockyards, and as to how the 
harbours and anchorage waters at our disposal can be 
utilised for ships both completed and under construction. 
This committee reported in January, 1902, that the 
growth of the Navy would shortly make it impossible for 
the existing ports to accommodate all the ships on the 
establishment. The committee further stated that the 
most advantageous position for this naval base was in 
tje estuary of the Forth. The Board of Admiralty, alter 
full and careful consideration, approved this recommen- 
dation, and the Government therefore decided to establish 
a naval port and base on the north side of the Firth of 
Forth at St. Margaret's Hope. They have for some 
months been engaged in negotiations for the necessary 
lands, and the fact that these negotiations were going 
on made it impossible for the Government to take the 
House and the country into it-i conhdence earlier 
in regard to this important matter. The new naval 
.arsenal has been selected for its strategical qualities, 
which include proximity to the coal and iron industries 



of Glasgow, and a fine n.atural harbour, with deep water. 
It will tend to relieve the growing congestion of our 
existing home ports, and should prove itself an enterprise 
of the utmost value to the nation. Further reference to 
the new establishment will be found in our " Naval 
Notes." 

American Railways. 

Lieut.-Coloncl H. A. Yorke's report on the working of 
American railways covers an astonishing amount of 
ground, and in addition to the question of steam rail- 
roads, de.als with surface lines or tramways, subways 
and elevated railways, and high speed electric inter- 
urban railways. Of the elevated railways of New York, 
Brooklyn, Boston, and Chicago, he deems it unnecessary 
to say much, as " they are not likely to be initiated in 
any English town. They are noisy and unsightly, and 
the columns supporting them occupy a great deal of 
street space, and constitute a hindrance to street traffic." 
In view of the efforts that are being made to solve the 
problem of urban locomotion in London, his remarks 
on the railways of New York and Boston have a peculiar 
and timely interest : — 

"The three cities, Paris, New York, and Boston, 
afford an object lesson to London. They have faced the 
problem of urban communication in a business-like 
fashion, have decided what they want, have arranged 
for the financing of the work, and have settled the 
routes along which transportation is to be provided, 
before allowing the ground to be broken, instead of 
proceeding in a haphazard fashion, and leaving the 
most v.aluable concessions to be scrambled for by 
private companies. It is much to be hoped, if I may 
be permitted to say so, that a tribunal will be appointed, 
before it is too late, to consider the congestion of the 
London streets, and to propose a remedy. 

" The subway in New York is still incomplete, and will 
not be opened for tnaftic before the year 1904, but that in 
Boston has been in use since 1898. In both cases the 
subways are as near the surface of the streets .as possible, 
and have, as in Paris, convenient stairways to afford 
access to the stations, no elevators being therefore needed. 
Such subways are in many ways preferable to deep level 
' tubes.' They are safer, more easy of access, possess a 
purer atmosphere, and afford conveniences to the public 
which are worth considerable sacrifices to attain. What 
New York has cheerfully suffered, and is still suffering, 
to obtain its subway, has to be seen to be believed." 

A very interesting .account of the electric (high speed) 
inter-urban railways is included, and it is remarked that 
experience- gained in America should be of great value in 
this direction to those engaged in the construction of 
similar lines under the name of " light railways " in this 
country. The report is the outcome of much careful and 
unbiassed observation. It affords valuable insight into 
the whole question of American railway organisation, 
and should be of much assistance to English railway 
experts. 




A Monthly Review of the leading Papers read before the various Engineering and 
Technical Institutions of Great Britain. 



IMPERIAL TELEGRAPHIC 
COMMUNICATION. 

'\1C7'E append some interesting excerpts from 
a paper on "Imperial Telegraphic 
Communication and the ' All-British ' Pacific 
Cable," read by Mr. Charles Bright, F.R.S.E., 
before a special meeting of the London Chamber 
of Commerce. The Right Hon. Lord Brassey, 
K.C.B., in opening the proceedings, referred to 
Mr. Bright as a high authority on all matters 
connected with ocean telegraphy, and remarked 
that his father, the late Sir Charles Tilston 
Bright, the eminent engineer, was knighted 
when but twenty-six years old, for the laying of 
the first Atlantic cable. 

The share which telegraphy performs in uniting the 
British Empire was, on October 31st, 1902, advanced 
a very important stage with the actual completion of 
the All-British Pacific Cable and telegraphic girdle. 
This will ever be a memorable period in the history of 
the Empire. 

THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF BRITISH CABLE 
ROUTES. 

The importance of the I^acific Cable from a senti- 
mental point of view is by no means to be despised ; 
and there can be no question that direct and unbroken 
Imperial telegraphy can do more than anything to 
foster trade between the mother country and her 
Colonies, and to bring about something in the nature 
of Imperial Federation or a Pan-Britannic Customs 
Union, tending to render us independent of the good 
offices of the rest of the world. It has been estimated 
that our expenditure in " cabling " to Australia pre- 
viously stood at over / 1,000 per day ; and one of the 



immediate effects of the Pacific Cable in the matter 
of future inter-Colonial trade is that a message will now 
take inside an hour instead of upwards of a day to reach 
the hands of the person to whom it is addressed. 
Another effect of the Pacific Cable — which indeed took 
place immediately the scheme became " dangerous " — 
is that the rates from this country to Australasia now 
stand at 3s. instead of 4s. 9d. and formerly gs. ^d. on 
the average. The new telegraph will also serve to 
attract further attention to the " Canadian-Pacific " 
route as an alternative to Globe-trotters. But any 
scheme for further, and independently, reducing the 
chances of a total breakdown of telegraphic communi 
cation with, and amongst, our Colonies could scarcely 
fail, in the end, to commend itself to British subjects 
in their present frame of mind ; and it is even quite 
conceivable, in the event of a European war, that the 
Pacific Cable and the Atlantic lines might some day 
be the only means of communication with Kurope. If 
Britannia is to continue to rule the waves she will 
require to keep a sharp look-out in the Pacific, as the 
probable scene of any future naval battle ; and it will 
be conceded, presumably, that naval supremacy must 
necessarily be accompanied by direct communication 
with the nearest coaling stations as well as with head- 
quarters. 

THE WEAK POINT IN THE PACIFIC CABLE. 

The weak point in the Pacific Cable is, of course, 
the long section on the route eventually decided upon 
between Vancouver and Fanning Island — running into 
3,458 nautical miles. The result is a slow working 
system, and this in competition with a complete system 
of high-speed cables. Thus, if the traffic is to be 
remunerative, it is bound to become congested at certain 
hours of the day, in view also of the difterence of time. 
Thus, if only on this account, and to meet interruptions 
and possiljle lengthy repairs, the line must be duplicated 
sooner or later. This duplication might, however, well 



(372) 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



373 



take the form of a link witli the American Pacihc Cabie, 
as, indeed, I pointed out some years ago in the course 
o{ a report, as well as in the Times, the Fori- 
nightly Rn-ieiv and elsewhere. This would have the 
advantage of increasing its scope for traffic ; and in 
view of the immense commercial field of China and our 
relations with Japan, this idea should appeal to most 
of us — for stratef>ic as well as commercial reasons — 
if the American Pacific line be furnished with a branch 
to Japan. On the other hand — by way of avoiding 
a duplication of the .\11-British Pacific Cable — there has 
been some talk already of an arrangement with the 
company controlling the rival lines to .Australia ; and 
I note that a prominent shareholder of the Eastern 
E.Ktension Telegraph Company thinks that " if the 
Pacific Cable breaks down, those controlling it would be 
disposed to enter into an arrangement with the rival 
line, and that in that case they — the ' Extension ' 
Company — would be able to get back to higher rates." 
The experience of joint purses, however, in the case of 
the Indian traffic is not very happy from the public 
standpoint. .Anything like a partnership between a 
Government and a company is objectionable in prin- 
ciple, seeing that the Government should be concerned 
with looking after the interests of the public. We 
cannot have any more taking of oysters and leaving 
shells. Though the duplicating system of the " All- 
British" Pacific Cable may well be Anglo-American 
in character, the original system itself should be strictly 
" -All British " to and from headquarters. At present 
this is not the case between England and the nearest 
end of the cable at Vancouver. In other words, the 
new Pacific line constitutes a private wire between 
Canada and Australasia, but not so between the 
Admiralty here and the admiral in command of the 
Australasian station. The situation is somewhat 
peculiar. On the one hand our cablegrams can pass 
through any of the " Anglo-American " or " Direct 
United States" Company's Atlantic cables which are 
British with All-British landings on the eastern sea- 
board of Canada. The telegraphic connection of these 
systems with Vancouver is, however, as far as Montreal, 
by means of the .\merican-owned wires of the Inter- 
Colonial Railway. On the other hand, if we entrust 
our messages to the Commercial Cable Company to go 
by any of their cables, it must be remembered that, 
though this system lands on Canadian territory, it is 
an American company ; moreover, these cables pass 
in shoal water somewhat closely to St. Pierre de 
Miquelon— a French Colony south of Newfoundland, 
where two of the French .-Vtlantic cables land. Again,' 
its immediate connection with the Canadian Pacific 
land lines involves a journey of 270 miles through the 
State of Maine ; and beyond this the " Canadian 
Pacific " Telegraph could, in the event of our being at 
war with the United States (as also in the case of the 
Inter-Colonial line) be interrupted at many points with 
comparative ease. The ■' Commercial " Company has 
exclusive working agreements with the Canadian 
Pacific Company to the effect that all messages 
from the Pacific Cable to this country must be 



handed over to the latter (Commercial Company) 
cable system. 

A NEW LINK WANTED. 

Surely all this points to the necessity of an inde- 
pendent (All-British) telegraphic link between the 
mother country and the Pacific Cable at Vancouver, at 
a low tariff. .\ general statement from the Colonial 
Office in 1899 required that this should be furnished, 
but nothing further has been pubhshed on the subject 
since then ; and I would ask what is the use of going 
in for an expensive " All-British " cable, if the land line 
connection is open to easy attack ? In the case of a 
possible war with the United States, the Pacific Cable 
would be of no use whatever, owing to the position 
of the existing Canadian land line connection, if for no 
other reason. .As regards the rest of the route, any new 
'■ .\11-British " .Vtlantic cable might suitably be taken 
at a respectful distance from St. Pierre, and avoiding 
shoal water oi=f Newfoundland as much as possible. 
The objection to the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence 
route on the score of ice is probably not insurmountable, 
and it would, of course, be the best route strategically. 
Short of this, St. John's, Newfoundland, should at any 
rate, be again fortified and provided with a cruiser, 
cable depot, and repairing ship, to meet the present 
condition of the undefended Atlantic cables along the 
route that connects up with our new Pacific line through 
Canada. .\ new Atlantic cable should at this end be 
landed much nearer headquarters than any of the 
existing lines and an underground connection provided 
with a view to avoiding the delays and interruptions 
to which our Atlantic and Eastern systems are prone 
on the overhead wires. Sir Charles Dilke has made this 
one of his special subjects of attention ; and, from a 
strategic standpoint he considers the cables approaching 
Cornwall seriously open to attack. I venture to think 
that this objection would less apply in the narrower 
and fortified part of the English Channel, and for 
service reasons would be better suited than other 
suggested changes. When it is remembered that an 
Atlantic cable costs about half what a first-class battle 
ship costs and that the latter is often of little use out of 
touch with headquarters, it will be seen that the sum 
involved for carrying out the " All-British " connection 
with the Pacific Cable is not altogether out of proportion 
with the degree of necessity. In view of the fact that 
10,000 messages cross the Atlantic per day, surely it 
cannot be said that there is no room commercially for 
another Atlantic Cable. Let us hope that the Pacific 
Cable has broken the spell, and that it will be realised 
that a number of other lines of communication on "a, 
variety of routes are also desirable in the interests of 
the Empire, for strategic and commercial reasons. The 
bridging of the Pacific should be regarded as a first step 
only, though certainly very materially meeting the 
requirements of the case. 

THE STRATEGIC ASPECT OF ALTERNATIVE LINES 
ON DIFFERENT ROUTES. 

Let us now turn to the strategic aspect of alternative 
lines on different routes. This has often been mis- 
represented. For instance, those who have advocated 



374 



Page's Magazine. 



the ordinary trade routes as the best strategi^Uy 
for cables, have by way of backing up their contention, 
laid stress on the fact of our men-of-war being on the 
spot. But it should be remembered that in the event 
of a "surprise war" our communications with the rest 
of the Empire via the Mediterranean would probably 
be cut off before war was actually declared. This 
would not be an easy matter for the enemy to accom- 
plish, but it would be a sufficiently valuable achieve- 
ment to be worth a good deal of trouble on their part. 
For that very reason, it should be similarly worth our 
while to render such an achievement out of the question 
beforehand ; and that is best accomplished by increasing 
the number of our telegraph route':, and making 
future cables further out of the reach of naval powers. 
As things stand at present, in practically every case, the 
enemy could only effect interruption to our traffic by 
more than one line being disturbed at the same time. 
This would probably always involve more than one 
European Power being against us, but it would be a 
possibility to be reckoned with in the event of a "surprise 
war." As a matter of fact, it could always be effected 
in the absence of one of our battleships being on the 
right spot at the right moment in both cases. Rapid 
communication with her fleets at foreign stations is 
an absolute essential, indeed, for a power in command 
of the sea at, and previous to, the outbreak of war. 
If it happened that France and Russia were combined 



against us, the latter would at present be in a position 
to cut off our communications with India and Australia 
in the Mediterranean, besides interrupting the system 
of the Great Northern Telegraph Company on the one 
hand and the Indo-European Telegraph Company on 
the other, whilst France paid her attention to the system 
viii the African East and West Coasts respectivel)', as 
well as the European land lines and the cables in the 
English Channel. The mere fact that the Associated 
Companies are in the habit of setting aside a part of 
their reserve fund for war risks clearly indicates that 
they do not really consider their cables safe in time ot 
war. The companies, however, contend that strategic 
cables could be laid " to order " as required. This 
undoubtedly might be practicable, though often difficult 
to accomplish ; but if we recognise the likelihood of our 
communications being interrupted before ^\ar has been 
declared, we are here again presented with the spectacle 
of " locking the stable door after the horse has been 
stolen." As a matter of fact, in many instances it 
would be several v.eeks, if not months, before the 
missing link could be restored, during which time the 
effect might be disastrous. In this argument, too, the 
companies appear to forget for the moment the scarcity 
of gutta-percha, so often referred to by them. Some 
students of the subjects have suggested that the cutting 
of neutral cables is contrary to International Law ; 
but Article XV. of the Convention on the freedom of 




THE WORLDS TELEGRAPHIC SYSTEM. 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



375 



belligerents, arrived at during the International Tele- 
graph Conference held in Paris in 1884, seems to pretty 
well dispose o£ that argument. In any case we know 
from experience that cables undoubtedly would be 
cut in time of war, in spite of all Conventions or Inter- 
national Laws, which would, indeed, be a broken reed 
for a great commercial nation like Great Britain to lean 
upon in the event of war with other naval Powers. 

Then there are those who consider that a line 
which touches on foreign soil can readily be converted 
at short notice, into an " .\11-British " hne by a change 
of route in the event of war. Of course, such a thing 
might be done with a successful issue ; but the risk is 
great, and the result is liable to be less satisfactory in 
any case than an " All-British " Une " ready made," 
which is a matter of paramount importance irrespective 
of any commercial view. The suggestion that such 
" All- British " lines should be made " to order "as 
required seems to indicate an admission as to the utihty 
of this class of Une, though the suggestion has been 
made by those who argue that cables are least liable 
to disturbance in time of war if landed on foreign 
territory of various nationalities. Certainly a shallow- 
water ■' .\11-British " line would be more prone to 
cutting if we were at war ourselves ; but on the other . 
hand any strategic cable should be laid in deep water if 
possible. Moreover, the secrecy secured for the '' All- 
British " hne— an advantage applying in times of peace 



as well as during war — is an advantage which exists 
in no other class of cable. This advantage is sufficiently 
great even to counterbalance any greater chance that 
may exist, under given (common) circumstances, of 
its being cut, if this country were engaged in war. 
Though it is quite true it is impossible to foresee the 
precise seat of any future war this country may be 
engaged in, surely it is well worth being prepared for 
an emergency beforehand, in at least any likely quarter. 
That is evidently the conclusion that our Continental 
neighbours and the United States have arrived at 
already as regards cable communication. Lines laid 
for strategic reasons meet their requirements best, if 
laid in deep water, with few landing flaces on out of 
the way (non-trade) routes, their exact course, except 
at the ends, being kept secret in the open, broad 
ocean, where they are admittedly difficult even for a 
cable ship to find, and even when the route is actually 
known. Moreover, a knowledge by the enemy of the 
position of a cable in deep water is a far less serious 
matter than when laid in shallow water. .\ man-of- 
war can pick up and cut a cable in shallow water just 
as it is equally true she can probably more easily repair 
a cable here ; but without long lengths of actual cable, 
grapphng rope, and the necessary picking up machinery, 
she cannot do much with a deep-water cable. 

It is scarcely necessary to call attention to the 
importance of telegraphic communication with all our 




N.B.— Only the princ 



ipal land lines which connect up the submarine cables of the world are shown. 



376 



Page's Magazine. 



naval fortified and garrisoned coal stations, besides all 
'' Defended Ports." To effect this alone, the ordinary 
trade routes must be departed from. One of the few 
reasonable points against '' All-British " cables is that 
of setting the backs of Europe as well as the United 
States against us. But this has been practically 
discounted by the fact that France and Germany, in 
addition to our American cousins, are now going in for 
similar precautions themselves — initially on account of 
the cables of the world being 'British-owned. A stock 
argument sometimes brought up to show that " All- 
British " cables are not necessary from the point of 
view of secrecy of messages, is based on the value of the 
cipher code in this connection. Surely, however, it is 
a mistake to rely on the security of the cipher, or any 
code, when we know by experience that the most 
difficult cipher can be translated if a sufficient number 
of messages are available to work on, together with a 
knowledge of the correspondent's identity, and the 
probable nature of his communications. Probably the 
ciphers of most of the European Foreign Offices have 
been translated by other interested Powers many a 
time ; and if once a system of half-code, half plain 
language is indulged in, the decipherment becomes a 
comparatively simple matter. Apart from this, the 
mere fact that messages passing through foreign 
territory are subject to serious and often intentional 
inaccuracies and delays is a sufficient argument in 
favour of " All-British " lines. Cables landing on foreign 
shores are, it should be remembered, largely worked by 
clerks of the countrv even in times of peace ; and if 
trouble was in the wind the confiscation of the telegraph 
office would probably be effected previous to the 
declaration of war. That would not be likely to occur 
in the case of a cable landed on British territory, and 
certainly not if in any sense guarded. 

The Telegraph Conipanies have very naturally paid 
their first attention to the trade routes, as giving the 
best prospects of revenue ; but these are not good routes 
strategicall)', wherever the cable passes through shallow 
water in the vicinity of foreign territory. The class of 
cables, whose object is mainly strategic, have seldom 
been laid for the reason that they are liable to be 
non-paying. But we should recognise them as a 
necessary policy of the age at almost all hazards ; and 
it is just these lines that the State should first consider 
the advisability of itself laying, if necessary. What is 
the use of an idea such as Imperial Unity — or how 
can it be relied upon in practice — without Imperial 
mobility in a strategic sense ? This latter can only 
be effected by " All-British " cable communication under 
definite Government surveillance, either direct or 
through a subsidised company acting as their agent. 
Considering what we pay for our postal sea service, 
this view should be readily accepted ; for, obviously 
no countrv requires strategic cables so much as the 
British Empire with its far-reaching possessions. If 
certain strategic cables were laid, the traffic on the 
ordinary trade routes would be less liable to become 
disorganised in war time, by the suppression of code 
messages. The typical strategic line, avoiding foreign 



soil, has been materially assisted by a recent invention. 
By its means long sections of expensive typed cable can 
be avoided whenever an island, however small, can be 
found on the route, for the apparatus to be inserted 
between the ends of the incoming and outgoing cable. 
This forms a system of re-transmission which dispenses 
with the necessity of a large staff of operators for 
effecting the same manually. But the reason for which 
we require " .\11-British " cables in addition to inter- 
national lines does not rest merely on strategic grounds. 
We need them for consolidating the Empire — politically 
and socially — as well as for the assistance of Imperial 
trade. The Companies have already provided a fair 
n(;twork of cables on trade routes ; but direct '' All- 
British " lines are now required, if only to ensure speedy 
and united '' cabling " facilities with the whole of the 
Empire in times of peace and war. If we could render 
the entire British Empire practically as one country, 
by means of telegraphy, a great result would be achieved. 
For commercial, and trade reasons, the more links on 
various routes the better to ensure communication in all 
directions at all times ; and at least one of these routes 
should, for the various reasons enumerated, be '' All- 
British." At the present moment the '' All-British " 
element in the now existing girdle is broken at two 
spots only. Madeira and St. Vincent, both Portuguese 
territory ; and though Portugal may be regarded mere 
as an ally than as a possible enemy, it is also true that 
no belligerent would hesitate to consider so feeble a 
neutral power, the fact being that the value of a cable 
landing on neutral territory all depends upon circum- 
stances — that is to say, what the neutral power is and 
the condition of pohtics at the time. The complete 
'■ All-British " chain might be completed by a cable 
from Ascension (or Sierra Leone) to Barbados or Jamaica, 
where it would meet the cable coming from Canada. 
Such a scheme would constitute the first truly "All- 
British " line from this country to the Cape. Time does 
not permit me to go into the various useful cable routes 
that should be taken in hand ; hut I will only mention 
that — partly in view of future trade between Canada 
and the Cape — a useful ''All-British" line might be 
established between these countries either viii the West 
Indies or by a more direct route, connecting up with 
the " All-British " Atlantic Cable that I have already 
spoken of as a link with the Imperial Pacific line. The 
accompanying map, besides bringing into prominence the 
Pacific hne, is specially designed to show the tele- 
graphic girdle in a complete, unbroken form ; that is 
to say, going bv the Western (Pacific) route to Austra- 
lasia and returning by either of the Eastern routes, or 
vire vend. There are other lines more urgent for 
strategic reasons which the Cable Communications 
Committee have taken note of. A difficulty in getting 
funds voted for purely strategic cables exists owing 
to the Treasury having so many calls for immediate 
indispensable and indeed vital needs ; and purely 
strategic cables never appear under this head until too 
late ! Experience is certainly a sure means of learning 
our needs ; but in things national it wcmld be better 
to do so by forethought. 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



377 



THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 
OF MODERN COLLIERIES. 

AT a well-attended meeting of the Birming- 
ham Association of Mechanical Engineers 
an interesting paper on " The Mechanical 
Engineering of Modern Collieries" was read 
by Mr. Bardill, of Aston. The speaker traced 
the development of various appliances found 
necessary by the mining engineer to cope with 
the ever-increasing demand for fuel, and paid a 
tribute to their efficiency : — 

Taking a I'lok bick for even a comparatively short 
period, say forty years, tlie total coal raised in the United 
Kingdom in the year iS6o was 80,042,698 tons ; in 1870, 
110,431,192 tons; in 1880, 146,969,409 tons; in 1890, 
181,614,288 tons ; in 1903, 225,170,163 tons. This wonder- 
fully increasing demand and supply has not been due 
so much to the increase of the number of collieries, as to 
the increase in the number of tons of coal won per day, 
rendered possible by the introduction of better mechanical 
appliances for the mining, handling, and transportation 
of coal. Thus, whilst even only twenty or thirty years 
ago a daily output of coal from one shaft of 300 tons to 
500 tons would have been considered almost unattain- 
able, yet, in the present day, we have coUieries raising 
from two to three thousand tons per day without fuss and 
commotion, the coal being mined, conveyed underground 
— in many cases a distance of some miles— wound, 
screened, sorted into many sizes, and, often the sa.me 
day, a good deal of it is in the hands of the consumer. 

i'hus, at the Bolsover Colliery a record has been 
reached of 3,217 tons 5 cwts. maximum output, lifted 
from a depth of 365 yards in 9 hours, of which 2,221 tons 
3 cwts. were drawn at the downcast shaft and 996 tons 
2 cwts. at the upcast. At Cresswell Colliery, in a nine 
hours shift, a maximum output of 3,053 tons 4 cwts. has 
been raised from a depth of 450 yards, 2,203 tons of which 
were drawn from the downcast shaft and 852 tons froLn 
the upcast shaft. On May ist of last year, a record 
quantity was drawn from the No. 2 pit of the Cambrian 
Collieries, Clydach Vale, of 2,729 tons from a depth of 
450 yards. The week's record at the same pit for an 
ordinary week's work was 13,019 tons. Large as these 
amounts appear, they have probably been excelled. 

In the older days the mining engineer and manager was 
a child in mechanical matters, and he used to provide 
endless amusement to the mechanic by his coining of 
many patent phrases when describing the technical 
details of some of his possessions : but that type has now 
passed away, and to-day, by force of circumstances as 
well as by education and experience, the mining engineer 
is also a mechanical engineer of a very high and varied 
order, and not only does he know his geology and the 
Mines Regulation Act better than his Bible, but he can 
converse with the most accurate and most minute detail 
any question you like in connection with engines, boilers, 
pumps, electric light and power, telephones, cables, 
locomotives, rolling stock, horse - flesh, explosives, 
carpentry, brickwork, concrete, brickyards, coke ovens. 



miners' unions, rural district councils, employers' liability, 
or the best mean^ of lubrication. He is, moreover, 
a grand type of man, saddled with heavy responsibilities, 
which, yet, sit lightly upon his shoulders, because he is 
full of confidence in his own powers. 

WINDING ENGINES. 

Proceeding to pass a running comment on 
the leading items which are contributed by the- 
mechanical engineer for the development of a 
modern colliery, the author first dealt with the 
subject of winding engines. 

It is a long story that is covered from the hand "Waller" 
or direct acting hand winch or the horse capstan to the 
modern colliery winding engine, with its massive pro- 
portions, its Corliss valves, steam brake, steam reverser 
and automatic cut-off gear. Yet there are some aspects 
of colliery winding engines which have remained per- 
manent. For instance, the direct acting steam engine is 
practically universal for this purpose, and it is only in 
sinking or in a very small colliery that a geared engine 
is ever seen. Some very large engines have been built in 
this country for winding, but generally the cylinders are 
from 30 in. to 42 in., and heavier engines than these are 
not proved to be more efiicient. 

Winding engines are also nearly always non-condens- 
ing, and as such are fearful steam eaters and their 
thermal efticiency must be low. A few attempts have 
been made at compounding, but the success attained has 
not led others to follow their example. A few of the more 
modern collieries have gone in for steam economy by the 
introduction of automatic cut-off and expansion gear, but 
I have seen a number of these discarded or out of action 
at various coUeries I have visited. Generally the mining 
manager looks at the matter as of little moment, as he 
has always at his command a lot of fuel he cannot sell or 
hardly give away, and he uses his boilers much as a 
borough engineer uses his refuse destructors, i.e., not so 
much for its calorific value as its convenience for destroy- 
ing a nuisance. No doubt, however, as modern appli- 
ances are improved so as to utilise cheap small fuel mote 
generally, the value of the small coal will improve and the 
colliery manager will accordingly pay more attention to 
his own fuel bill. At present the difficulty of finding a 
market for small coal is acute, and I saw at a colliery 
only the other day twenty lo-ton waggons 01 small which 
had pLissed through a i-in. mesh, which the manager 
told me he could not sell at 9d. per ton, and it was not 
worth the carriage. 

With regard to valves the D slide valve, fitted with 
Stephenson's link motion, was originally used, and even 
now is popular with many engineers, especially if bal- 
anced, but the Cornish drop valves have enjoyed, perhaps, 
the "reatest favour by reason of their comparative ease 
in handling. Piston valves have also been used occa- 
sionally, but later practice is a departure in favour of 
Corliss valves. 

With regard to boilers, the Lancashire types are most 
Generally employed at about 80 lb. to 100 lb., and maiiy 
collieries still use the old egg end boiler with pressures 
from 45 lb. to 60 lb. A number of collieries, especially in 



378 



South Wales, have adopted watei'-tube boilers and high 
pressures, some even fired hy gas from coke ovens. 

HEADSTOCKS. 

Proceeding to discuss the subject of head- 
stocks, he remarked : — 

There is no specific rule or experience which decides 
whether steel, iron or timber are the best material for 
headstocks, or yet whether the lattice or girder type are 
most suitable, it being argued that with timber there is 
liability ot fire or rotting, whilst in the case of steel a good 
deal of paint is required for prevention of corrosion. 
Either type, however, if made of good material and 
workmanship will last as long as the seam will last, or at 
least as long as it is desirable it should last in the interests 
of the contracting engineer. 

WINDING ROPES. 

The winding ropes are, of course, a very important 
institution. Happily accidents from the breaking of 
these are very rare, but they do occur, and there is yet 
room for the engineer inventor to prevent the possibility 
of such an accident as that which occurred a short time ago 
at the Tirpentwye Colliery, when fourteen men lost their 
lives bv the breaking of a winding rope. But even if the 
winding rope be safe, we are still, be it remembered, in 
the hands of the engineman, and if he suddenly lose his 
head, we are dashed into the pit bottom or carried aloft 
into the headgear. In this awtul position, years ago, we 
were as safe in one cage as in the other, but modern in- 
vention has prevented the possibility of our being dragged 
over the windip.g pulley by the adoption of detaching 
hooks which are now in compulsory use. There are now 
a number of these hooks, and these coming into play at 
an over-wind would detach the rope, and the catch 
arrangement coming also into play would leave us 
suspended in the air until relief came to hand, which, 
however uncomfortable, is much to be preferred to being 
dropped down to the pit bottom, a distance of 500 yards, 
where the sudden stop would be fatal. Cases have, 
however, occurred where, although the winding rope has 
been properly detached, the chains supporting the cage 
have been severed and the cage has been dropped down 
the pit, rendering the detaching arrangement only 
partially effective. Supplementary devices have been, 
therefore, invented to catch the cage itself. A very 
useful device is that invented by Mr. Sebastian Smith. 

There is still the possibility of danger by the descending 
cage, and many accidents have happened where men 
have been killed and maimed by being dashed into the 
pit bottom by the over-wind of the ascending cage, and 
here is yet another chance for the inventor. 

On reaching the bottom of a modern and well- 
managed pit, one is struck by the wonderful order and 
method by which everything is conducted, and the 
celerity with which, say, 1,000 to 2,000 tons are hauled and 
lifted to the surface in one day, and all done without the 
least confusion or fuss. We realise this amount better 
if we think of 2,000 separate tons tipped up at the doors 
of 2,000 houses in one day, or see it carried by 25,0 
railway waggons, making up seven or eight railway 
mineral trains. 



Page's Magazine. 

SYSTEMS OF HAULAGE. 

Discussing the various systems of haulage 
below-ground, the writer referred to the fine 
e.xamples of mechanical engineering skill that 
may be seen in Midland counties : — 

There are various systems of haulage in vogue, and 
for some reason each type seems to confine itself to 
certain districts. Thus, in the Midlands, we have the 
endless rope system, worked principally by powerful 
steam engines on the surface. A splendid example 01 
this system is shown by the Ansley Hall Colliery, near 
Nuneaton, where it may be said, much to the credit of 
the management, not a single horse or pony is below 
ground, and, although a difficult mine to work, with a 
heavy gradient of i in 2, yet everything is systematically 
carried out. On arriving at the pit bottom the empty 
tubs are pushed oft' the cage by the full tubs, and are 
taken round a sharp curve. They are immediately 
seized by an electric-driven creeper or machine elevator, 
which is a Hat chain, with fingers or catches at intervals, 
which engage the axles of the tubs. The empty tubs 
are then carried to a height which gives them a gradient 
of I in 80, down which they run by gravitation to the 
boy who attaches them to the endless rope, which 
conveys them to the coal face, a distance of nearly a 
mile. The speed of the rope is 2i miles per hour, and 
the tubs are attached to the rope by a " Smallman " 
patent clip at equal distances of 20 yards. The seam is 
developed by a main haulage road which is practically 
level, but anything but straight, owing to the undulation 
of the seam. This road is worked by an electric haulage 
plant which is a feeder for the main haulage, which 
latter is worked by a steam engine from above. 

There is a peculiarity in this colliery by the reason 
that the coal is being worked at a much greater depth 
than the level of the bottom of the pit shaft, this being 
reached by an incline in the pit, which is 8S0 yards long. 
About 350 yards, commencing from the bottom, the incline 
is I in 7, after that it varies from i in 2 to i in li. After 
reaching over the top of this incline the tubs are detached 
from the rope at some distance from the pit bottom, and 
run with an easy gradient to the pit shaft without undue 
velocity. The capacity of this plant is no tons per hour, 
which involves the attachment of 240 full tubs per hour, 
and the same amount of empty tubs, this duty being 
performed by one man at each end of the rope. The 
engines driving this haulage are a pair of horizontaljiigh 
pressure engines — girder type — by Messrs. Kobey & Co., 
Ltd., having cylinders 20 in. diameter by 40 in. stroke. 
They are fitted with Corliss valves and link reversing gear, 
and are geared down to 1 in 9 by massive spur wheels. 
The main rope wheel is 10 ft. diameter, and is fitted with 
removable steel segments. The rope is ij in. diameter 
and weighs 15 lb. per fathom, and is passed three 
complete wraps round the rope wheel. 

In the South Wales district, mechanical haulage is 
confined almost entirely to the tail rope system, and is 
accomplished mainly by a host of small hauling engines 
of about 6-in. and 8-in. cylinders, worked byicompressed 
air. In fact, compressed air, both for pumping] and 
hauling, is very popular in this district, and some of the 
collieries are possessed of very fine compressed air 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



379 



plants. Indeed, I have seen collieries where it would be 
suggested to the casual observer that the plant consisted 
CI a large air compressor with a colliery attached to it. 
Naturally, compressed air is looked upon with great favour 
for underground power by reason of the ventilation given 
ott by the exhaust, although the freshness of the air thus 
given, after being compressed and carried perhaps 
through two miles of pipes, does seem open to question. 
Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Xorth have a combina- 
tion of endless and tail rope haulage, and there is also 
variation as to power used. Steam, compressed air, and 
even oil engines are used. But, no doubt, before long 
electricity will be used almost exclusively for this purpose, 
and during the last few years it has made very rapid 
strides. As long as its safety can be guaranteed, it is the 
ideal power for underground work, especially for mines, 
where the workings are far out from the shaft. Its 
adoption is, however, by no means general yet. Some 
approach the question nervously, and others go, perhaps, 
too far, and are using electric power for their main 
haulage ; and we know of main haulage installations 
now being put in to 500 h.p. Whether these large 
installations for this purpose are as efficient and as 
economical as the surface steam haulage engine and strap 
rope remains to be seen, but there is no question as to 
the use of electricity for the subsidiary haulage for 
bringing the coal from the stalls to the main haulage road, 
a duty done in most cases at the present day by ponies. 
There is no doubt that before long, independent of any 
humanitarian sentiment, mine managers will find, in the 
interests of economy alone, that it is much better to 
introduce electric haulage, instead of horse-flesh, as not 
only is the up-keep less, but the tirst cost is less also. 

PUMPING, etc. 

Thus it will be seen that in the question of underground 
transport alone, there has been— and still is — a very Large 
field for the mechanical engineer, and with the develop- 
ment of deeper seams and extended areas, this question 
alone will open up a tremendous field for the introduction 
of mechanical appliances. Already, electric locomotives 
have been introduced into many American collieries, and 
once a useful standard has been adopted in this 
country, there is a probability of a great demand, 
especially for mines with fairly level workings. Whilst 
on the question of transport, it must not be forgotten that 
many modern collieries also have a good deal of surface 
transport to deal with, and I know of several collieries 
where they keep six to eight locomotives in work, and 
from fifteen to twenty miles of permanent way, all 
properly equipped, besides keeping up a large quantity 
• of rolling stock. 

Now, as we can very easily imagine, one of the most diffi- 
cult questions in connection with mining is, keeping the 
mines free from accumulations of water, and, especially 
in some districts, this is perhaps the heaviest duty to 
undertake — especially in sinking — until the artificial 
barriers, whether in the form of C.I. tubbing, or in 
heavy and close brickwork, have stemmed out the tide 
from the water bearing strata. In many cases this is 
surftcient, as deeper down the strata is so dry that the 
absence of water becomes a danger, and now in many 
mines the water-cart has become an institution, and 



makes one or more visits daily to damp the dust which, 
in its dry state, has been known and proved to be the 
cause of dreadful explosions and the loss of many dear 
and precious lives. In other cases water is present to 
such a large degree outside the walled barrier of the 
shaft as would form a constant source of danger by its 
sheer weight outside tlie shaft walls, and frequently it 
has burst its barriers and flooded a shaft. To obviate 
this danger a separate shaft is sunk to the water-bearing 
measures, and pumps are erected to drain away the 
water and thus relieve the pressure. It is of great 
historic interest to note here that this was the first use 
that steam engines were ever put to, for it is on record 
that, in the year 1712, Thomas Newcomen erected his first 
pumping engine near to Wolverhampton. .\ number of 
these early engines are still to be seen, and some of 
them in an improved stage are still at work and are 
doing very useful service. 

VENTILATION. 

Another colliery institution of equal importance to that 
of pumping is the question of ventilation, and, here, again, 
the mechanical engineer has given much valuable time 
to the study of the question of the mechanical propulsion 
of air. Perhaps, in no other department of mechanical 
science is so little known of a definite niture as in the 
question of fans, and none to which more attention has 
been given with so poor a margin of success. The ideal 
fan is a sort of philosopher's stone, and the fortunate 
individual who dreams he has found it, is often subject to a 
rude awakening. F"or instance, we may have heard that 
some particular fan will deal with about three times the 
cubical contents of air in a given time than any other fan 
will. This may be true, but we venture to predict that 
if that fan were called upon to deliver air at 10 in. to 
16 in. water gauge, there would, after a very few minutes, 
bean addition to the scrap heap. Nevertheless, a number 
of good fans have been produced, and the names of 
Waddel, Guibal, Kateau, Capell, Heenan, and Schiele 
have given reliable instances of good work in this 
direction. Fans for mine ventilation are mostly direct 
driven. But, again, many are rope driven, which is the 
next best thing, as the fan is like the sanctuary lamp- 
it must never go out. Thus, fan engines are generally 
duplicated ; at least, if they are not, they ought to be. 
CAGES. 
Having now had a good look round below, let us 
follow the next load of coal taken up the shaft and see 
what is taking place above ground. In these days of 
quick winding and large outputs, single deck cages are 
not sufficient, so two, three and even four decks are 
introduced. This, of course, introduces complication 
above as well as below, because, if time is to be saved 
and real efficiency gained, there must be as many 
landings as there are decks, and as all coal tubs must be 
brought to one uniform level when they reach the 
screens, it is necessary to make arrangeinents to deal 
with this problem. Mechanical genius has again come 
to the rescue. This difticulty is got over in several ways. 
First, a separate stop is made by the cage at each floor,^ 
necessitating very nice and careful handling on the part 
of the engine-man, which is cleverly done, but also at 
the cost of wasting the time for actual winding. 



Page's Magazine. 



Secondly, where two or more Uiiidings are provided, 
the tubs are lowered by supplementary cages, the loaded 
tubs providing power for Htting up the empties. 

Tliirdly, a better system, where the banking room 
allows of it, is by a system of gravitation roads and 
haulage creepers, as is well illustrated by Bolsover, 
where only four men are employed in banking 2,500 
tons per day. 

Fourthly, a new system was introduced some twenty- 
live years ago by Mr. G. Fowler, of Babbington Collieries, 
which employs hydraulic power, not only for lowering 
the tubs from the high level to ground, but also for 
ejecting the tubs from the cage itself. 

The apparatus consists of two vertical and two hori- 
zontal rams ; by the side of the winding cages there 
are duplicate cages, one side of which holds three 
empty tubs, whilst the other side is empty. When the 
loaded cage is drawn out of the pit, and is brought to rest 
on the props, the horizontal rams are set into motion 
behind the empty tubs, which are pushed forward into 
the winding cage, pushing out the loaded tubs into the 
empty duplicate cage. The winding cage then descends 
on another journey. Then, wliilst the winding is going 
on, the duplicate cage is lowered to ground level and the 
loaded tubs are taken off and empty tubs are loaded on 
the opposite side and raised ready for a repetition. 
Ninety draws per hour are made in this manner from a 
shaft 220 yards. All the hydraulic levers are under the 
control of one man, who occupies a sort of signal box 
close by the pit. A similar arrangement is in use at the 
pit bottom, with this exception, that whilst at the pit top 
the pressure is obtained by means of a hydraulic pump 
and accumulator, the pressure at the pit bottom is 
obtained by tapping the tubbing in the pit shaft at the 
water-bearing strata and conveying this down the shaft 
in a pipe when a pressure of 2S0 lb. per square inch is 
easily obtained. 

SCREENING. 

Passing on now to follow the coal. It is taken by 
gravitation roads, self-acting inclines, or endless wire 
ropes, to the screens, which are now one of the most 
important features of a modern colliery. There it has to 
be sorted, sized, and cleaned ready for the market, and 
during the past twenty-five years or so, when the 
mechanical banking of coal was first introduced, it has 
developed into a fine art. The old system, which most 
will have seen in operation at small local collieries, was 
to have a platform fixed about 5 ft. high above the rail 
level and along the side of the railway waggons, and the 
coal tubs were brought alongside and their contents 
capsized on to the platform, where the large pieces were 
picked out and stowed into the waggon as large coal. 
Next, the cobbles were separated by a six-pronged fork, 
and the small remaining was shovelled into the waggon 
direct. This system is, of course, entirely out of the 
question for large outputs, besides which modern markets 
require a more minute classification of sizes, and it is no 
uncommon thing for as many as twelve to fourteen 
different classes of coal to be made at one colliery, all 
differing in size and quality. 

A modern screening plant generally consists of one or 
more tipplers for emptying the tubs of their contents, a 



screen or riddle for separating the different sizes, and a 
number of picking and conveying belts or travelling 
tables for picking out the stone, bind and pyrites, and 
delivering the coal into the waggons. In typical coal 
screening plant, the coal is brought from the pit by a 
creeper or self-acting incline, and delivered on to the 
tippler platform, where it is tipped, and the empty tub 
returned by gravity to the pit. The coal is then passed 
from the tippler down a fixed bar screen, where a good 
deal of the small coal is taken out and conveyed by a 
travelling belt to the slack waggon load. The large coal 
then passes along the cleaning belt, where stone and 
other impurities are dressed off, and where it is also 
separated, should the seam contain two or more qualities. 
The coal remaining then passes on to the shaking screen, 
where it is divided into nuts, beans, peas, and duff, or 
as many sorts and sizes as the market demands. 

Different localities have different fashions in coal 
screening plant, due, partly, to the local demands, to the 
quality of the coal and the usage of the particular neigh- 
bourhood. Thus, South Wales scarcely ever makes 
more than two sizes. Yorkshire, Lancashire, Durham, 
and the North more generally follow the same plan of 
first screening and then cleaning the coal ; but Notting- 
hamshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire and 
Staffordshire go in largely for re-screening, that is, before 
and after picking, and the hand loading system is largely 
in vogue, which consists in fixing a long travelling belt 
between two lines of waggons, and the men select the 
coal as it comes along and hand-stow it in the creeper. 

The value of the paper was enhanced by illustrations 
of typical plant. 



THE SPEED REGULATION OF STEAM 
ENGINES, STATIONARY AND 
MARINE. 

IN the course of a paper on the above subject read 
before the Institute of Marine Engineers, Mr. \V. 
Welbury, of Leeds, explained that his object was to 
point out the condition of efficiency attained in the 
speed regulation ot the stationary engine, to give some 
examples of this, and to ask why, if it had been possible 
for the stationary engine-builder to reach such a state 
of excellence with his regulation, the marine engineer 
had made no serious attempt to deal with this matter ? 
He contended that, so far from being a hopeless matter, 
the speed regulation of marine engines was quite within 
their reach, if they would only investigate. 

STATIONARY ENGINE S 

The two different methods of governing stationary 
engines, by throttling and through variable expansion 
gear, with the variations of these methods usually 
employed, were explained and contrasted, it being 
claimed that the latter was not only the better method 
for close control, bnt that an economy of over twelve 
per cent, in steam consumption resulted from its use. 
The valves generally used in connection with governors 
were also described ; the author considered that the 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



381 



best and simplest form ot variable expansion gear 
consisted of a shaft governor coupled direct to the 
distributinj; valve, which should be a balanced slide 
valve. This form of gear being suitable for all speeds, 
engines up to 3,000 i.h.p., fitted with it were working 
with results that could not be excelled, either for 
economy, or speed regulation. The piston valve was 
not suitable for use with variable expansion gear, as 
it could not be kept steam-tight for any length of time. 
The circumstances connected with the invention of the 
shaft governor by Mr. Wilson Hartnell were related 
in detail. It was also shown why it is impossible to 
keep the speed e.xactly constant under varying con- 
ditions of load, as the speed must change before the 
governor could act and thus regulate the steam supply 
to the engine. It was possible to make a governor so 
fine as to keep the variation of speed within one per cent, 
of normal, but this was not advisable where sudden 
and e.xtreme changes of load had to be dealt with, as 
under these conditions there was a liability to set up 
governor hunting. 

In engines used for the generation of electricity, it 
was now realised that too fine regulation was a mistake , 
more particularly where alternating current was used 
and generators had to run parallel in this case; 
especially, the governor must not be too susceptible to 
slight changes in load, or a condition of surging was set 
up, caused by a periodic transfer of part of the load of 
one generator to another and back again. This might 
occur to such an extent as to throw the generators out 
of step, with serious results. To make clear what was 
meant by alternators running in parallel, it might be as 
well to give a simple illustration. The alternators 
might be supposed to be spur or cog wheels with a 
certain amount of slackness between the teeth, to agree 
with what is termed the " Permissible Allowable 
Variation on either side of Rotation," this variation, 
ranging from -83 per cent, of the circumference on the 
rotating part with a two-pole machine, to -028 with a 
60-pole machine. The wheels were free to be moved 
in and out of gear. One being in motion at the desired 
speed, to get another one in gear with it without the 
teeth coming in contact with each other, to run and to 
come out of gear again, under the same conditions, was 
what was required to be done ; it would be conceded 
that to accomplish this object the speed regulation 
must be under close control. The present excellence 
had not been attained without considerable research 
and experiment; the stationary engine builder, by 
perseverance, had overcome what at one time seemed 
insurmountable difficulties and now regulated his engine 
speed to suit any requirements. 

MARINE ENGINES. 

The marine engine certainly required a governor; the 
changes of load it was subject to were so great and so 
frequent, that it seemed strange to put it to its work 
without. All engineers with sea experience understood 
" racing," what an uncomfortable time it was. and how 
heavy repair bills were after a continuance of it, if 
nothing worse happened. The worst moments of a race 



were those when the propeller rose out of the water and 
again, when descending, its blades struck the surface. 
The marine engineer had never inquired thoroughly into 
this question, or made a special study of it, such as it 
deserved and would repay, for a great amount of 
damage to the machinery of steamers was caused by 
the want of effective speed regulation. Attempts had 
been made to check this wastage by strengthening 
certain parts, but with only partial success; to eradicate 
a disease it was first necessary to remove the cause. 

The reasons given by the marine engineer to account 
for his neglect of this important matter did not appear 
to be justified by facts, and might be summed up as 
follows : — That the marine engine working mostly at 
full load, did not require regulating. That the tri- 
compound engine was so well balanced, it did not race, 
or raced very little, that he had tried many governors 
and none had been successful. The actual facts were 
that breakdowns were on the increase, many of which 
could be directly traced to racing. The tri-compound 
engine raced more than the engines of the past, for it 
had a larger volume of steam not under control of the 
throttle valve, in the numerous cyhnders, steam chests 
and passages between it and the condenser. Thus 
hand throttling, which was so effective with the simple 
engine, fairly so with the compound, was now rarely 
resorted to. That he had tried many governors was 
no doubt correct ; but were measures taken to prove 
that the principles on which the design and action ot 
these governors were based were such as to promise 
success? As the speed of the stationary engine had 
been under control for a long time, it gave sufficient 
grounds on which to base inquiry. The absurd claims 
made for some of these governors should excite suspi- 
cion, for they claimed a hner regulation than could be 
obtained in many stationary engines with good flywheel 
allowance. In their design the principles of speed 
regulation were not considered ; they were simply made 
to imitate hand-throttling. The throttle-valve had 
only two positions, viz., full open or dead shut ; there- 
fore their action was much like that of a hunting 
governor. 

After some further description of marine engine 
governors in use during his sea-going days, the author 
said he considered that a trial of these governors on a 
stationary engine would be interesting ; for, as the 
most potent factor in speed regulation was the flywheel, 
and as this could not be used to assist in controlling 
the marine engine, it was more difificult to control, so 
that a governor to regulate the latter, must first be able 
to regulate the former, as it was a simpler task. 

That it was possible to control the marine engine 
within such fine limits as the stationary engine did not 
seem feasible, neither did it seero necessary. What 
was required was such control as would eliminate all 
heavy shocks. To do this it would be necessary to 
find some means which would replace or reproduce on 
the marine engine the effect of the flywheel on the 
stationary engine ; to attempt to control the speed 
of any multiple-e.Kpansion machine not subject to this 
influence, by simply throttling the steam, was useless. 



382 



Page's Magazine. 



But there were methods of replachig this influence 
which promised success. First, a governor might be 
arranged to act on the reversing gear, reduce the stroke 
of the valves and so limit the admission of steam to the 
cyhnders. Secondly, the governor to close the throttle 
valve, after which the steam m one or more steam- 
chests could be allowed to flow into condenser ; thus 
the power developed by theengine, after steam was shut 
off, was under control. Any attempts at speed control 
could only be successful if carried out on the principles 
of speed regulation. The author also gave some prac- 
tical hints on designing governors, and the features 
which he considered should be embodied in a marine 
engine governor. The paper was illustrated by means 
of lantern slides, the illustrations shown and ex- 
plained being the McLaren shaft governor; McLaren 
electric lighting and power engines, both open and en- 
closed types ; Moscrop slips showing how the engine 
can be varied while running ; the effect of light and 
heavy flywheels, both with and without governor con- 
nected; indicator diagrams, showing how a variable- 
expansion governor acts as a throttling governor, etc. 



THE CONVEYANCE OF MATERIAL. 

TV/TR. G. F. ZIMMER, Assoc, M.Inst.C.E., 
■^^■*- recently contributed a paper on the 
mechanical handling of material to the 
Institution of Civil Engineers. The appliances 
were described under three heads, viz. : — 

(a) Appliances for lifting in a vertical direction, or 
from one level to another, called elevators ; 

(b) Appliances for moving material in a horizontal 
direction, called conveyors ; 

I (c) Appliances which combined the two former 
operations. 

ELEVATORS. 

Elevators in a primitive form had been known and 
used for a considerable time, and since their intro 
duction had undergone little alteration except in 
details. They consisted of endless belts or chains to 
which suitably shaped buckets were attached, and 
which ran over two terminal pulleys fixed at different 
levels. Grain-elevators were usually vertical, and 
were encased in wooden and iron trunks ; while 
mineral elevators were generally in a slanting position 
at an angle of 45° to 60°. Grain-elevators were fitted 
with leather or textile bands, while mineral elevators 
had malleable or wrought-iron chains as support lor 
the buckets. Grain-elevators, travelling at a speed 
of 250 ft. to 350 ft. per minute, according to the size 
of their terminal pulleys, could deliver satisfactorily 
if in a vertical position, while mineral elevators, w^hich 
travelled at the rate of only 50 ft. to 160 ft. per minute, 
required the incUned position, so as to discharge their 
load clear of their own buckets. Inclined elevstors 
were more easily driven than vertical elevators, on the 



principle of the inclined plane. In vertical elevators, 
in order to effect perfect discharge, the centrifugal 
force must be sufficient to overcome the gravity 
of the material ; so for a specifically heavy material 
it was necessary to have a higher centrifugal force, 
that was greater speed of elevator, than for a specificaUy 
lighter material. While it was usual to run conl- 
elevators at 90 ft. to 170 ft. per minute, according to the 
friabihty of the coal, coke-elevators ran at only 50 ft. 
to 90 ft. per minute. On the other hand, minerals 
which did not deteriorate through breakage could be 
elevated at the rate of 120 ft. to t6o ft. per minute. 
A very rational form of elevator was that fitted with a 
continuous chain of buckets. It was of much larger 
capacity than an ordinary elevator of the same 
dimensions. It received and deUvered the feed more 
uniformly, and, as the buckets need not plough 
intermittently through the contents of the elevator 
well, slightly less driving power was required. 

CONVEYORS. 

The types of conveyor were numerous, and some of 
them were of great antiquity. The oldest type was 
undoubtedly the Archimedean screw, worm, or spiral 
conveyor. It consisted of a continuous or broken blade 
screw described round a spindle, revolving in a suitable 
trough, and thus propelling the material slowly from 
one end of the trough to the other. The ratio of the 
diameter to the pitch of all worms depended upon the 
kind of material to be conveyed. It ranged from a 
pitch of one-third of the diameter to a pitch equal 
to the whole diameter of the worm, and even more. 
The greater the pitch, the greater the driving power 
required. A detail of great importance in all worm 
conveyors was the intermediate bearing. This, if 
cumbersome, obstructed the passage of the material, a 
result which was to be carefully avoided. Delivery 
of the material from a worm conveyor could be effected 
at a number of points : it was only necessary to pro- 
vide a suitable outlet. The principal advantages of the 
worm conveyor were its simplicity and small first cost ; 
it was, moreover, of great service where a mi.xing of the 
material to be conveyed was desired. The chief 
disadvantage was the large amount of driving power 
required, and the breakage of the material conveyed. 
Conveyors of the drag or push-plate type consisted 
of a fixed open trough. The material to be conveyed 
was deposited in this trough, and was pushed or 
dragged along by a series of plates attached to an 
endless chain. The speed of travel ranged from 60 ft. 
to 180 ft. per minute. The cable conveyor consisted 
of a V or U-shaped trough through which was dragged 
a wire rope with dish-like attachments. The speed 
of travel was 100 ft. to 1 20 ft. per minute. 

Band conveyors had been introduced a little more 
than twenty years ago, and were now one of the best 
means of conveying large quantities of almost all 
kinds of material, especially for long distances. They 
consisted of a band which ran over two terminal 
pulleys. Early band conveyors had been almost 
entirely used for conveying grain. The tightening of a 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



^,83 



banil conveyor was done in a similar manner to the 
tightening of elevators. In long conveyors the tighten- 
ing-gear consisted of a pulley held in tension by weights 
over which the belt passed. The tight side of the band 
was the one which should preferably be used for con- 
veying the material. To withdraw the feed of a 
band conveyor at an intermediate point, a throw-off 
carriage was employe 3. The speed at which band 
conveyors for grain were run, varied from 450 ft. to 
600 ft. per minute. The lower speed was for oats or 
other grain which contained a quantity of chaff that 
would be blown off the band at a speed e.xceeding 
500 ft. Maize, beans, and heavier seeds were conveyed 
at the highest speed of 600 ft. per minute. Band con- 
veyors for heavy materials, such as coal, coke, minerals, 
etc., were very similar to those previously described, 
with the exception that all the fittings were much 
more substantial. The principal advantages of band 
conveyors were the small amount of power required 
to drive them, and the fact that they did not injure 
the material conveyed. The disadvantages were that 
a great many small bearings had to be oiled and kept 
in repair. 

The continuous-trough or travelhng-trough conveyor 
consisted of an endless trough, the sections of which were 
riveted to the links of suitable chains. The endless 
trough travelled over two terminal pulleys. These 
conveyors travelled at 75 ft. to 100 ft. per minute. 
They were in their construction very similar to the 
push-plate conveyor, but each section of trough took 
the place of a push-plate on the endless chain. 

The vibrating-trough conveyor was the latest type, 
and consisted of troughs which received the material 
at one end and delivered it to the other by means of a 
succession of suitable backw-ard and forward move- 
ments of the troughs. These might, therefore, be 
classed together with the two previous types, the 
band and the travelling-trough conveyors, as in all 
three the material was, so to speak, conveyed in a 
trough without the action of a stirring or pushing 
element, as was the case with worms, push-plates, and 
cable conveyors. It was obvious that all kinds of 
materials which deteriorated through rough treatment 
should be conveyed on appliances of the last three 
types. The support of the trough in its reciprocating 
motion had been effected by flexible legs in an oblique 
position. For considerable lengths and capacities the 
conveyors were balanced. The load could be fed 
into or withdrawn from any of these conveyors at 
any number of points, vrithout cessation of work. 
The material travelled at the rate of 40 ft. to 70 ft. per 
minute. 

COMBINED APPLIANCES. 

Under the heading U) there were only two types to be 
mentioned — the travelhng, or tilting-bucket conveyor 
and the pneumatic conveyor. The former consisted of 
two endless chains or ropes held at certain distances 
apart by suitable bars which were fitted with small 
rollers at each end. Every hnk, and sometimes every 
second link, carried a bucket, so that the whole was an 



endless chain of buckets, which were not, however, 
lixed like an elevator bucket, but were movable, and 
suspended above their centre of gravity, so that they 
w^ere always in an upright position, whether they were 
moving horizontally or vertically. Each bucket 
carried its load to the point at which delivery was 
required, and here it was met by an adjustable device 
which tilted each bucket in its turn and thus emptied 
the contents. The material to be conveyed was not 
injured in the least. Such conveyors required little 
driving power, and one main drive was sufficient for a 
whole installation. The second and last appliance 
under this head was the pneumatic elevator. Mr. F. E. 
Duckham, M.Inst. C.E., had designed the apparatus 
which had been in use at the Millwall Docks and in 
docks of other ports since 1895. The plant consisted 
of an air-tight tank from which a pipe was connected 
to the bulk of material to be conveyed. The air was 
withdrawn from this tank by means of a second pipe 
connected to an exhauster, and as the air passed 
through the first-named pipe it drew the grain with it 
into the tank. The arrangement for removing the 
grain from the tank without destroying the vacuum 
was described and illustrated. The Bohnder timber 
conveyor was also described. 

Provision was made in many modern power stations, 
gasworks, and mines for automatic handling of the 
materials ; and there was no reason why labour-saving 
appliances should not be employed in dock worksi . 
etc., for the handling of the excavated material. 



MINING IN KOREA. 

A PAPER on this subject was recently given 
"^^ by Mr. L. J. Speak at a meeting of the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 

NOT OPEN TO FOREIGNERS. 

Korea, he said, is not open to foreigners for mining, 
with the exception that one subject of each of the great 
Powers may secure one concession. Until recently, only 
the Americans, British, Germans, and Japanese had 
located their concessions. The principal terms on 
which these concessions are granted are that mining 
supplies may be imported duty free, and that the king 
shall receive 25 per cent, of the profits. The American 
concessionaires compounded for this tax on profits by a 
fixed payment of about i^.Soo per annum. Other con- 
cessionaires will on this precedent be able to claim the 
same terms. As yet the American concession, which is 
situated in the north-west of Korea, near the Man- 
churiau frontier, and has an area of 400 to 500 square 
miles, is the only one which has arrived at the pro- 
ducing stage. 

Considering the situation and the size of the con- 
cession, its financial history is probably unique. Starting 
about five years ago with ten light stamps, it.has without 
further capital developed and equipped itself with 



384 



Page's Magazine. 



200 stamps. At first the only practicable route to the 
mine was via Seoul, a distance of about 250 miles. 
Later a route was opened by water transport to Ping 
Yeng, and from thence about 120 miles by land. 
Now, by a well-organised service of schooners and flat- 
bottomed boats, the company is able to land most of its 
goods during the period of summer rains direct on to the 
concession within thirty miles of all its mines. 
The principal mines now being worked are : — 
I Chittabalbie .. 20 stamps 
' " ' ■ l^Maibong . . 40 

Group B.. Kuk San Dong 2a 
„ /Tabowie . . 40 

■ '(Taracol ..80 ,, (in course of 

erection). 
In addition there are several mines where pro- 
specting or development is going on, and there "are also 
several mines let on tribute to natives. 

The three groups mentioned above are about twenty- 
two miles apart, and consequently each has its own 
superintendent. All the mines are quartz ledges in 
granite. The mills are provided with vanners. but 
have no cyanide plant for the tailings. In the case of 
one mine, the concentrates, which are very rich, are 
shipped to America, but as a rule they are cyanided 
on the spot. 

GENERAL CONDITIONS. 

Water is plentiful, except for a short period during 
the height of the winter,- Lumber, mining timbers, 
and cordwood, though not too plentiful, are cheap 
owing to the cheap labour, but steps are now being 
taken to develop a water-power scheme in order to pre- 
serve the timber. Labour is generally plentiful, but 
considerable difficulty is met with in obtaining suitable 
white foremen and overseers, who are mostly obtained 
from the Western States under contract, and, as in 
similar cases all the world over where personal selection 
is not possible, are not always satisfactory. Japanese 
are largely employed as carpenters, blacksmiths, and 
engineers, and many of them are excellent workmen ; 
their wages are mostly three shillings per day, but a few 
get more. Chinese are largely employed as surface 
coolies in the mills and cyanide works, and to a limited 
extent underground. They are preferable to Koreans 
for such employment, as they work more regularly and 
require less supervision. They are also indirectly 
useful in preventing labour troubles and checking 
thieving, as they do not mix with the Koreans. The 
ordinary wages of a Chinaman is lojd. per day. 
Koreans are employed for the rest of the work ; their 
carpenters are expert adze-men, and as miners and 
tool-sharpeners become very efficient. At a recent 
drilUng contest, the winning double-handed team, 
using -|-in. steel drills, sharpened in the ordinary way. 
finished 22 in. in a granite boulder in ten minutes. 

KOREAN COOLIE LABOUR. 

The pay of an ordinary Korean coolie is jid. per day, 
and of a miner or carpenter, is. 3d. per day. No food 
01 lodging is provided for any of the Oriental workmen. 
Koreans run most of the hoisting engines and no 



serious accidents have occurred, .\fter allowance is 

made for the difficulties of language, it must be said 

that these Japanese, Manchurians, and Koreans are as 

intelligent and as capable of receiving instruction as a 

European would be who had been brought up without 

knowledge of our methods. Their religious and moral 

ideas are somewhat crooked, but they are amenable to 

common-sense. A Korean is not so conservative as a 

Chmese. 

The main principle on which this labour is managed 

is to have all natives work under the direct supervision 

of white men without any intermediate native foremen. 

With proper organisation the number of labourers a 

white man can look after is mainly determined by the 

extent of ground they are spread over. At the Tabowic 

mine, for example, eight levels are open, and one white 

overseer is required to look after four levels. The 

overseer examines every hole drilled to see if it is of 

proper depth and correctly placed, and that it is a 

suitable hole for a charge of one-fifth of a pound of 

dynamite ; the overseer also must be wide awake to 

the possibilities of miners omitting to blast their holes 

and stealing the dynamite. He also keeps a careful 

tally of steel and tools in use, and of candles. After 

a short experience the overseer finds he can do thi; 

without much trouble, and can very quickly detect 

delinquents. Most of the overseer's time is occupied 

in superintendnig the timbering, and the tramming of 

the ore. 

THE TABOWIE MINE, 

The follownig is the actual crew emploved in the 
Tabowie mine during May, 1902 : — 
Europeans . . i foreman 

4 overseers 
Asiatics . . 2 timekeepers, one Korean, aiul 

one Japanese 
3 Korean engineers (hoist) 
2 ,. ., (pumps) 

2 ,, firemen 

12 ,, carpenters and timber- 

men 
100 ,, miners 
10 ,, tool - sharpeners and 

helpers 
48 ,, shovellers, carmen. 

station-men. etc. 

13 ,, toolboys. etc. . 
altogether five Europeans and 192 natives ; in addi- 
tion there is the frequent help of a gang of eight surface 
coolies and some work done in the general workshops. 
During the month the above crew extracted 2,904 tons 
of ore and put in 366 ft. of drifts, cross-cuts and raises." 
The ground is not hard, but it all requires dynamite, 
and also requires timbering throughout. The slopes 
vary from 4 to 15 ft., averaging perhaps, during May, 
about & ft. ; all slopes are timbered, square setts being 
used in the large stopes. 

The occurrence of the ore-cluites is somewhat com- 
plicated and not conducive to cheap svstematic sloping 
throughout. The bulk of the ore during this month 
was hoisted from the shaft. 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



385 



The principal stores consumed were : — 
I, lOG lb. dynamite 
5,500 detonators 
I J, 000 ft. of fuse 

50 boxes of candles 
400 lb. drill steel 
590 mine timbers 
8,960 ft. of planks and lagging 
48 cords of wood 

EXPENDITURE. 

The total expenses were as follows : — 
Europeans . . 
Native wages 
Stores ; shops ; coolie gan^'. etc. . . 



270 
240 

£640 



equal to 4s. 5d. per ton mined on 2,904 tons. 

Similarly in June, with 3,220 tons of ore mined, the 
total costs equalled 3s. 8d. per ton, and in July, with 
3,350 tons, 3s. 5d. per ton. 

These costs include all maintenance and construction 
expenses during the period, and also an amount of 
development work exceeding the sloping requirements. 
They include assaying costs, but not surveying nor 
e.xpenses of general management. The stores are, 
however, charged to the mine at a slight profit, and the 
actual native wages paid was about £30 per month less 
than stated above owing to the present low price of 
silver. The discount on silver is credited to general 
expenses. 

It will be noticed how rapidly the costs diminish with 
increased tonnage ; it is largely on this account that 
during the period under review the cost of mining in 
other places on the concession averaged 5s. to 6s. per 
ton. The different mines also vary much in working 
facilities and in hardness of the rock ; where the rock 
is hard less timber is required, which nearly compen- 
sates matters. 

On the whole, raining costs in Korea may be roughly 
estimated thus : With a stoping width not less than 
4 ft., and where there is not an excessive amount of 
dead-work, the total cost of mining will be from 4s. to 5s. 
per ton. This would cover all ordinary costs, but 
would be exclusive of new hoisting engines and boilers 
or shafts. 

In milling and concentrating recent costs have been 
as follows : — 

Tabowie Mill — Forty stamps with vanners and canvas 
plant — 

Tons mil'ci. Cost per tun. 

May, 1902 .. 4,00s IS. 8-8d. 

June, ,, . . 4,130 IS. ,T'5d. 

July 4,589 IS. ;-id. 

This mill is run by steam power, wood being used as 
fuel ; the screen used during Mav and June w'as equal 
to 35 mesh, and during July, 30 mesh. The mill 
is not new, and the costs include all maintenance and 
repairs of both mill and vanners, as well as assaying 
and bullion smelting costs. There are other mills on 
the concession working at approximately the same 



costs. For a mdl and plant of forty stamps a fair 
average cost of working would be is. gd. to 2s. per ton, 
according to price of fuel and situation. In the mills 
Chinese become very efficient, as they are usually 
experts at sign language ; white men must, however, 
invariably be present. 

The work accomplished with this class of labour in 
Korea shows what may be hoped for with regard to 
future mining in the temperate zones of the Far East. 



HYDRAULIC MACHINERY AND THE 
DISTRIBUTION OF HYDRAULIC 
POWER. 

TX the course of a paper on the above 
-'- subject, contributed by Mr. F. J. Haswell, 

M.I.Mech.E., at a meeting of the Liverpool 
Engineering Society, the author dealt at some 
length with the mechanically produced high- 
pressure hydraulic powers supply, with special 
reference to the more recent developments. 

THE HYDRAULIC DIRECT ACTING LIFT. 

The hydraulic direct-acting lift is the only one in 
w-hich it is possible to apply the power from below, 
without the intervention of any ropes or gearing, and 
to be quite independent of all overhead sheaves, 
girders, etc. ; it is also, perhaps, the nearest approach 
to absolute safety possible, as the cage is supported by a 
steel column in direct contact with the water, the 
cylinder, ram and cage being carried by solid founda- 
tions. A long lift of this type, without any means of 
balancing the weight of the cage and ram, is not a very 
economical means of using power, and to get over this 
difficulty, and to dispense with the old chain and 
balance weight, Mr. Elhngton, in 1880, brought out his 
hydraulic balance. 

.\s the cage ram has to be considered as a column 
supporting its load at the top extremity of its stroke, 
it is generally of a larger area than would be required 
if it was worked direct from the main ; the accumulator 
pressure must therefore be reduced to suit the larger 
area. 

SUSPENDED LIFTS. 

Several excellent types of hydraulic suspended hfts 
are made, and where circumstances make it undesirable 
to use a direct-acting lift, one of this type makes a very 
efficient substitute. The hydraulic apparatus usually 
consists of a refinement of .\rrastrong's jigger of long 
stroke, with quadruple wire ropes, each one being 
capable of supporting the load. The cage is balanced 
by inverting the cylinder so that the ram moves 
downwards ; the weight of the ram, ram-head, sheaves, 
etc., thus acts as a counterweight; any additional 
weight required can be slung from the ram head, or an 
additional overhead sheave and independent balance 
weight provided. This arrangement does away with 
the danger of the ram descending by gravity without 



386 



Page's Magazine. 



the cage if the latter should stick and the water leak 
or syphon out of the cylinder. In the differential 
lift the ram runs right through the cylinder, but is 
reduced in diameter for half its length, the pressure 
acting on the annular area or difference between the 
two diameters. 

The multiplying sheaves are generally attached to the 
small end or tension rod. The safety gear should be 
attached to the underside of the cage and not the top, 
as is sometimes done ; in the latter case it is necessary 
to make the sides and bottom of the cage stronger than 
would otherwise be required, in order to resist any 
strain caused by the safety gear coming suddenly into 
action. 

An intensifier is practically an inverted balance 
minus the weights. Pressure is admitted to the large 
ram and work taken off the small one, the pressure 
being increased in the ratios of their areas. By a 
proper proportioning of these, any desired pressure 
can be obtained ; they are used for increasing the 
pressure in cyUnders for packing, pipe drawing, metal 
squeezing and testing, and many other purposes where 
a very high pressure is required. When a continuous 
flow of intensified water is demanded, the machines can 
be used in pairs or groups placed side by side, each 
automatically working the valve of its neighbour. 

MINE PUMPS. 

As collieries increase in depth, the drainage problem 
, increases proportionately. It will therefore be in- 
teresting to consider what advantages hydraulic 
transmission of power for pumping enjoys over other 
means for this purpose. 

For lifting water from great depths — 700 to 900 yards 
— the old fashioned bucket pumps driven by gearing are 
not satisfactory ; they are expensive to maintain, have 
a low efficiency, and take up valuable space both inside 
the shaft and above the ground. Steam pumps are 
objectionable on account of the loss due to condensation 
in the long hne of pipe ; the heat lost by radiation 
raises the temperature in the pit and necessitates 
expensive ventilating plant. Electric transmission 
would appear to possess advantages not offered by 
other means, but on examination these apparent 
advantages are considerably discounted. Electric 
machinery is perhaps the most delicate of all, and 
requires constant care and more attention than it 
would get at the lowest depth of a mine ; its enemy, 
water and damp, is there in abundance, and a cable and 
motor charged with a high tension current are not the 
safest of neighbours in the already dangerous atmos- 
phere. But perhaps the electric motor would show its 
weakest point in the event of the mine becoming flooded 
in part or wholly ; the motor would be " drowned " 
and the pumps useless at the time when most urgently 
needed. This emergency would affect the efficiency 
of the hydraulic pump favourably, as there would be 
greater head on the suction and a less unbalanced head 
in the delivery pipe ; it would work for a considerable 
length of time under water, as lubrication would be 



applied to the pressure water in the suction tank or 
through an automatic lubricator lixed in the pressure 
main at any point. 

The pump itself could be started and stopped from 
the surface, frequent visits to it being unnecessary. 
The pressure pump on the surface could be driven by 
electric, gas, oil, steam, hydraulic or any other motor. 
These facts taken in conjunction with the simplicity 
and reliability of hydraulic machinery would lead one to 
take a sanguine view of the future of hydraulic mine 
pumps, and I would venture to prophesy that they 
will be as much used in this country as they are on the 
Continent and in the United States. 

SEWAGE PUMPS. 

In low-lying districts subject to flooding, or where 
the flow in the sewers is impeded by tidal action, 
hydraulic pumps are used with considerable success. 

A complete installation, consisting of a central 
pumping station, accumulator, etc., and over eight miles 
of 5-in. main working thirty-four Ellington's patent 
automatic pumps in seventeen sumps, connected to 
the sewers, have been at work in Buenos Ayres since 
1893. 

They are all single acting ; the pressure water is 
admitted by a common slide valve through the ram 
to the cylinder, which, it will be seen, is placed inside 
the large displacement plunger ; this is driven dowii by 
the pressure and Ufts the sewage into the rising sewer. 
The return stroke is made by the small push back rams, 
which are constantly under pressure and take the 
place of balance weights and chains. 

The diameter of the plungers is 30 in., and the stroke 
varies with the work required, the head and friction on 
the delivery sewers being different at different sumps. 
The maximum speed of working is ten double strokes 
per minute ; ■ they are started and stopped auto- 
matically by a float actuated by the rise and fall of the 
sewage in the sump, one pump being placed lower 
than its fellow, in order that it may do its full work 
before the second starts. The work was carried out by 
the Hydraulic Engineering Company, of Chester, to the 
order of Messrs. Bateman, Parsons, and Bateman, the 
engineers to the Argentine Government. The efficiency, 
including all losses in the valves, mains, etc., at full 
speed, averages about 41 per cent. This compares 
favourably with the compressed air system, which has 
an efficiency of about 20 per cent. (Proc. I.M.E., 
July, 1895, p. 378). The same system has been adopted 
for the drainage of Woking and district, and a somewhat 
similar installation is in use at Margate {Ency. Britt., 
Edition 10, Vol. XXXI., p. 89?). 

EJECTORS. 

Where only small amounts of water or sewage have to 
be dealt with, an almost ideal apparatus is provided 
by the automatic ejector. It is used extensively in 
buildings whose basements or cellars are below 
sewer or tide level, and consists of a small hydraulic 
ejector with a nozzle about li'.j-in. bore, pressure to 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



3S7 



which is controlled by a side valve in conjunction with 
a hydrauhcally-operated stop valve. It is stopped and 
started bv an adjustable float, which shdes on a tappet 
rod connected to the slide valve lever ; the travel of 
the float and range of rise of the water can be adjusted 
as required. The water in rising carries the float up 
until it engages with the top tappet on the rod and 
sets the apparatus in action, which does not cease until 
the water falls to its lowest level, when the weight of 
the float, resting on the bottom tappet, carries down the 
lever, shuts oH the pressure and stops the apparatus. 
It is compact and usually placed in a sump below the 
floor level. Many of them are working in Liverpool. 
The first one, which was fixed over two years ago, was 
in operation for eighteen months, working for three 
periods of five minutes each every twenty-four hours, 
without any adjustment or repairs whatever, and was 
then examined as a matter of precaution. The maxi- 
mum height to which water has been lifted is about 
35 ft., and the consumption of power water about 
4i gallons per minute. 

Power being left on the pipes day and night, they are 
always ready to cope with any sudden emergency, 
such as an exceptionally high tide and heavy downpour 
of rain combined. 

ROCK DRILLS. 

Actuated by hydraulic power, rock drills have many 
advantages. At the work in connection with the 
boring of the Simplon Tunnel, after many experiments 
and trials, the " Brandt'' hydrauUc drill was adopted 
as most suitable ; it consists of a direct-acting hydraulic 
cylinder with a piston of about 29 square inches eftective 
area, the piston rod having a mandrel at its forward end 
to which the hollow bit is secured. This bit has three 
fangs or cutting edges and is held up to its work by the 
pressure on D.A. piston and revolved by two small 
cylinders, each one i| in. diameter by 2f in. stroke, 
bolted to the feed cyhnder. The exhaust water can 
be discharged direct inside or outside the hollow 
cutter, thus cooHng it, and at the same time washing 
the debris out of the hole and keeping the atmosphere 
clear of dust. 

The maximum revolutions of the drills, which are 
3 in. diameter, three being mounted on one carriage, 
are ten per minute, but these and the pressure vary with 
the character of the work. With the lower pressure of 
680 pounds square inch and the drill working in friable 
limestone, the total pressure on each cutter is 9,000 kilos 
(about 20,000 pounds), the average advance is 8 metres 
(26J ft.) per day of twenty-four hours ; number of 
blasts six to eight, and quantity of material removed 
each time is about 4 ft. of the heading, or 260 cubic feet. 
In harder rock, quartz, spar and mica, a higher pressure 
is used {1,175 pounds square inch), and the amount 
removed about 160 cubic feet per blast. 

PELTON MOTOR. 

The special form of impulse turbine, known as the 
Pelton Wheel, has been in general use for many years in 
the" United States, where its simplicity of design and 
small cost of maintenance and repairs has been fully 



appreciated, but it is in comparatively recent years that 
it has been introduced into this country and adapted 
to high velocity jets. It consists of a wheel with 
buckets or cups generally shaped in the form of two 
U's joined thus, ui, which are mounted on the peri- 
phery, and one or more nozzles. The jet strikes the 
centre web of the buckets and re-acts on the " wings " 
before falling into the exhaust tank. It is well to bear 
in mind that at a given working pressure the speed of 
the periphery is the same for all powers ; the power 
of a given diameter of wheel can be varied only by ad- 
justing the diameter of the nozzle or altering the number 
of jets, and so making the consumption of water 
correspond with the work given out. When the power 
required is constant, such as for hair brushing, tea 
mixing, circular saws, ventilating fans, etc., the simple 
motor described is suitable. It practically requires no 
attention beyond oiling the bearings, and where these 
run in an oil bath it will run for a month or more 
literally unnoticed, and is therefore particularly 
suitable for situations where no skilled attention is 
available. One of these motors has been under the 
author's personal observation for the past seven years, 
and has not had repairs of any description. When the 
power required varies and the variations are known, 
two or more nozzles of different diameters can be fitted, 
one by itself giving (say) I h.p., the other 2 h.p., and 
both together 3 h.p. ; or two or more motors can be 
mounted on the same shaft with similar results. When 
very steady running is required, as in driving a dynamo 
for electric light or power work, and the pressure and 
load are subject to slight variations, a governor is 
required. A simple but uneconomical form is used m 
the United States, where water power is cheap and 
natural heads abound ; the nozzle is pivoted and its 
position controlled by the governor, which, as the speed 
rises, lowers it, so that the jet clears the buckets of the 
wheel ; but where the water passes through a meter and 
is sold'by the unit some more economical method must 
be used As the speed of the water at a pressure of 
750 pounds square inch is 320 ft. per second, revolutions 
of motor from 1,500 to 2,000 per minute and areaot 
nozzle only -072 in. to give i h.p., the problem is by.no 
means a simple one. but it has been very fairly met by 
the HydrauUc Engineering Company, of Chester, who 
have adopted an arrangement consist mg of a solid 
cone which fits inside the jet cone. -As the work 
fluctuates the solid cone is withdrawn or advanced by 
the governor, liberating or throttling the water as 
required. A hand-regulating device on the same 
principle is used where a governor is not necessary. 

BELL RINGING APPARATUS. 

\mong the many minor apphcations of hydraulic 
power may be mentioned an ingenious arrangement 
for ringing fog bells at the N.E.R. Co.'s docks at Hull. 
It consists of a small hydraulic cyhnder fitted with a 
piston and rod, which latter extends up to and beyond 
the bell At its top end there is a tappet, which in 
rising lifts a small trigger at the end of a bell crank 



Page's Magazine. 



lever, on the otlier arm ol which is attached the hammer 
for striking the bell. After the tappet has reached the 
top end of its stroke the trigger falls, and upou the 
return stroke the tappet engages the top side of the 
lever, raising the hammer. When the tappet slips 
past the end of the lever the hammer falls and strikes 
the bell. The valve which operates the mechanism 
is a circular balanced D valve, rotated by a three- 
arm tumbler arrangement actuated by a tappet worked 
from the lower end of the piston rod. The gong is 
timed to sound once every twenty seconds, the timing 
arrangement being a simple gun-metal diaphragm, the 
correct diameter of the hole in the middle being arrived 
at by experiment. Mr. George Shaw, the assistant dock 
engineer, who designed the apparatus, says, " In 
seeking for a means of tolling the bell, hydraulic 
power was at once deci-ded upon. The mechanism for 
utilising h.p. is at once simple, and the first cost and 
subsequent upkeep is small. The bell has been in 
operation for seven years and has given every satis- 
faction. The pressure of the water in the main is a 
maximum of 800 pounds per square inch." 

ARTIFICIAL FLAGSTONE PRESS. 

The Liverpool Corporation have for some time used 
hydraulic presses for making concrete paving slabs, 
made from a mixture of Portland cement and clinker 
from a refuse destructor. A cast iron mould is filled 
with the proper mixture of concrete, which has above 
andbelow it a porous cloth. The mould is pushed into 
the press by a small hydraulic cylinder and piston. 
The pressure from the hydraulic miin is admitted to 
two cylinders whose rams hold the die in position 
against the cross-heads of the press, and also to a larger 
central ram which forces up the loose diaphragm 
compressing the concrete and driving out a large 
proportion of the water contained in it. By another 
movement of the same lever the pressure water is 
diverted from the press cylinder into that of an inten- 
sifier, and communication is opened between the 
intensifier and the press, raising the pressure in it to 
2i- tons per square inch, and driving still more water out 
of the mould. The diaphragm is clamped to prevent 
the slab falUng out, drawn out of the press by the piston 
and turned upside down. A small hydraulic lift 
carrying a trolley is run up beneath it, the clamp 
released, and the finished slab removed and stacked 
for drying, leaving the reverse side of the die readv to be 
filled with concrete for another slab. A second die 
with traversing gear and lift has been fitted at the 
opposite side of the press, so that one mould can be 
prepared while the first is under pressure. This press, 
and many more similar, was designed and constructed 
by Messrs. C. and A. Musker, of Liverpool. 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES. 

The velocity of a high pressure jet of water can be 
usefully employed in reinforcing or intensifying the 
pressure delivered from the ordinary town main. 'Jhe 
late Mr. Greathead made use of the injector or jet 
pump principle in his combination hydrant, which is an 



ordinary hydrant with the addition of a nozzle of small 
bore in its centre, connected to the high pressure main. 
The large body of water is supplied from the low pressure 
main tank or dock, and the lifting power from the high 
pressure main. With a low pressure supply of (say) 
thirty pounds per square inch, a jet of 150 gallons per 
minute through 200 ft. of 2+-in. hose, with a i-in. nozzle, 
can be thrown to a height of from 70 to 90 ft., the pro- 
portion of power water to that lifted being about 25 to 
100. At Melbourne, where the town's pressure is low, 
an injector hydrant is connected to a system of small 
sprinkler pipes spread over the roof and windows of a 
large building, so that when the pressure is turned on, 
a protecting sheet of water is spread over the building. 
An arrangement by which the injector hydrant can 
be worked automatically has been designed and 
patented by Mr. Ellington. The hydrants are con- 
nected to the high and low pressure mains or suction 
tank in the usual way, and the valve controlling the 
admission of the high pressure water is operated by a 
small accumulator. A slight leak is allowed through 
this valve sufficient to cause the accumulator to fall 
slowly ; when it gets near the bottom of its stroke 
it further opens the valve, rises again and shuts the 
valve and thus continues until a demand is made on the 
hydrants, when the reduction of pressure, due to the 
increased velocity of the water, causes the accumulator 
ram to fall sharply and fully open the valve, admitting 
the high pressure water to the nozzle, and injects the 
combined jets into the sprinkter pipes or fire hose. 

Pressure is constantly on the pipes, the apparatus 
thus being ready for action at any moment. Several 
are at work in London, Manchester, etc.. but the 
excellent fire service provided by the Liverpool Cor- 
poration rather militates against their extensive 
adoption in this city. The use of the apparatus in 
connection with automatic sprinklers, etc., has been 
accepted by the Fire Insurance Committee as entitling 
users to a special discount from insurance rates. 

LUBRICATING. 

To secure easy and satisfactory working of any 
machine, it is essential that the working parts be kept 
properly lubricated ; the working faces of slide valves 
are no exception to this rule. In installations where 
return mains are provided, and the same water is used 
over again, it is usual to mi.x with it soft soap or other 
lubricant. In most public hydraulic power supplies 
this is impracticable, and provision has to be made for 
introtlucing from time to time small quantities of lubri- 
cant as near as possible to the point where needed. 
A number of devices for this purpose have been de- 
signed, and among jthe .best in use at [present is that 
known as Thornton's lubricator. Another useful 
lubricator is known as Waygood's. It consists of a 
cylinder with tight-fitting piston, with piston-rod of 
rather large area. The lubricant is placed in the 
annular space surrounding the rod, and pressure 
admitted to both sides of the piston, the difference of 
area causing it to ascend and force the oil into the 
pressure pipe. I'he rate of movement is controlled 



Notable British Papers of the Month. 



389 



by a screw-down cock as in a sight-feed lubricator. 
Many more applications of hydraulic power might 
be mentioned if time permitted, such as shearing and 
punching machines, riveters, manhole cutting machines, 
portable drilling and tapping machines, waggon tra- 
versers, coal hoists, capstans, dock gate sluice and 
bridge gear, etc. ; but at the same time it is not asserted 
that hydraulic transmission of power is the only 
system suitable in all cases and on all occasions. It, 
like other means of distribution, has its field, and 
hydraulic power seems to be marked out by natural 
selection as the most suitable means for actuating 
machinery where power has to be employed in pro- 
ducing rectilinear motion intermittently through 
comparatively short distances. In most power trans- 
mission plants, other than for tramway or railway 
■work, the demand is of a very intermittent character, 
and the system of small generating units adopted in 
hydraulic stations is one which lends itself to the most 
economical production of power. The engines are 
automaticallv controlled by the accumulator, and 
regulate their speed to suit the output, thus avoiding 
unnecessary wear and tear, and the reduction of mechan- 
ical efficiency, which takes place when engines, though 
not fully loaded, have to be nin at a constant speed. 



COST OF HYDRAULIC POWER. 

As to the cost of producing hydraulic power. The 
most authoritative and detailed statement on the 
subject is contained in a paper read bofore the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers by Mr. E. B. 
Ellington (Glasgow Meeting, 1895) and supple- 
mented in the Eiicvchpo'ilia Bri/antiica. edition 10, 
volume 31. 

In the former a comparison is made between the cost 
of a public supply of hydraulic power and that of 
electricity obtained from a central station on almost 
exactly the same scale. The particulars were taken 
from the records of the London Hydraulic Power 
Company and of the Westminster Electric Supply 
Corporation for the year 1S94. It is shown that, 
reducing both to a common basis, the station cost of 
hydraulic power is 5'l72d. per 1,000 gallons, and the 
corresponding cost of an equal amount of electric 
energy, 9-oi4d., or, reduced to Board of Trade units. 
o'793d. and 1.383d. respectively. At the Wapping 
Pumping Station of the London Hydraulic Power 
Company, taking rough small coal at los. a ton, the 
station cost for the year igoo came out at less than 
kl. {■465d.) per electric unit, or a little more than 3d. 
per 1. 000 gallons. 



COMING EVENTS: APRIL— MAY, 1903. 



ApriL 

1st.— Society of Arts : Ordinary Meeting. 

2nd. — Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society: Paper — 
"Recent E.xperiments with Centrifugal Fans," by Mr. 
\V. Gilbert, Wh.Sc, A.M.lnst.C.E., at S p.m. 

3pd. — Institution of Junior Engineers : Paper — " Greasy 
Condensation Water as Boiler Feed, " by Mr. William 
Paterson, at 8 p.m. 

4th. — Manchester .Association of Engineers; .Afternoon : 
Inspection of Municipal School of Technology ; Even- 
ing : Tea at Grand Hotel. Paper— "The Practical 
Training of Engineering Employers," by Mr. M. 
Ingram, at 7 p.m. — Birmingham Association of 
Mechanical Engineers : Paper — " Steam and Steam 
Engine; Has the Last Word been Said?" by 
Mr. J. Batey, at 7 p.m. 

6th. — North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders : Council Meeting at Newcastle. — Society 
of Engineers ; Ordinary Meeting, at 7.30 p.m. 

7th. — Institution of Civil Engineers" : Paper, at S p.m. 

8th. — Liverpool Engineering Society : Paper — " Des- 
cription of the Kendall Waterworks," by Mr. J. H. Parkin 

9th. — The Mining Institution of Scotland : Annual Meet- 
ing at Hamilton. 

11th. — Birmingham .Association of Mechanical Engineers: 
Visit to the Cable Tram Depot, Hockley Brook.— North 
of England Institution of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers : General Meeting. 

13th.— Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Graduates' 
Meeting. — Institution of Marine Engineers : Annual 
Meeting. 

21st. — Institution of Civil Engineers : Paper, at 8 p.m. — 
Society of .Arts : Meeting, .Applied .Art Section. 



23pd.— Institution of Mechanical Engineers : .Anniver- 
sary Dinner. — Institution of Electrical Engineers: 
Meeting at 8 p.m. — North-East Coast Institution : 
General Meeting at Sunderland. — Society of Arts : 
Meeting of Indian Section. 

24th. — Institution of Mechanical Engineers : Ordinary 
Meeting at 8 p.m.— Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Students Meeting : Paper, at 8 p.m. 

25th.— North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Sliiphuilders : Graduates' Meeting at Newcastle. 

27th. — Society of .Arts: Paper — " Mechanical Road 
Carriages," by Mr. W. B. Beaumont, M.I.C.E. 

28th.— Institution of Civil Engineers : Annual Meeting 
of Corporate Members, Election of Council and 
.Auditors, etc., at 8 p.m. 

29th. — Liverpool Engineering Society : Annual General 
Meeting.— Society of .Arts : Ordinary Meeting. 

May. 

1st.— Institution of Junior Engineers : Paper—" The 
Effect of Design on Methods of Construction, from a 
;i Contractor's Point of View," by Mr. R. W. Newman 
M.I.M.E., at 8 p.m. 

2nd.— Birmingham Association of Mechanical Engi- 
neers : Paper. 

4th.— Society of .Arts : Paper No. 2, by Mr. W. B. Beau- 
mont.— Society of Engineers : Ordinary Meeting at 
7.30 p.m. 

5th.— Society of Arts : Meeting of Colonial Section. 

6th.— Society of Arts : Ordinary Meeting. 

7th.— Civil and Mining Engineers' Society : Paper— 
" The choice of Steam Boilers," by C. E. Stromeyer, 
M.I.C.E., at 8 p.m. 



SOnE B00K5 OF THE HONTH. 



"MANUAL OF ELECTRICAL UNDERTAKINGS 
AND DIRECTORY OF OFFICIALS, 1903." 

Compiled under the direction of Emile Garcke, 
M.I.E.E., F.S.S. Publishing Offices, Mow- 
bray House, Norfolk Street. Cloth. 15s.net. 
THE seventh annual volume of this indis- 
pensable manual places at the disposal of 
electricians, corporation officials, investors and 
others, a wonderfully complete record of the 
curren progress of electrical engineering. Its 
1,500 pages are packed with data of the utmost 
value to every electrical engineer, the size of 
the work keeping pace with the steady growth 
of their electrical industry. The following 
figures show for each year the aggregate capital 
issues by companies in shares, debentures, and 
loans, and amounts borrowed by municipalities 
for electrical undertakings : — 

1896 61,109,525 

1897 69,209478 

1898-1899 84,742,020 

1899-1900 105,977719 

igoo-1901 123,636,602 

1901-1902 165,807,474 

1903 186,158,964 

The work affords a complete information re- 
garding all electrical companies formed under 
the Joint Stock Acts, and electrical under- 
takings belonging to Local Authorities. It is 
classified under five sections, viz. : (i) Electric 
Lighting, Traction and Power ; (2) TelegrRph 
and Telephone ; (3) Manufacturing and Mis- 
cellaneous ; (4) Directory of Oflicials ; (5) List 
of Electrical Companies registered since 1856. 

Some special subjects dealt with in the 
section — " Progress of the Year "—are : Lon- 
don Underground Railways ; The Light Rail- 
ways Act ; History of All-British Pacific Cable ; 
Tunbridge Wells Telephones ; Government 
Trunk Wire Service ; Post Office and Muni- 
cipal Telephones. 

Excellent maps illustrate the various power 
schemes, and of special interest are those 
dealing with the London Tramways, one 
showing the existing and authorised tubes, the 
other dealing with the 1903 promotions. There 
are also maps dealing with fourteen county 
power schemes, and fifteen inter-urban electric 
tramway schemes. 

Coloured diagrams show the comparative 



results of working of electricity supply and 
electric traction undertakings, with other 
particulars. 

"THE CHEMISTRY OF INDIA RUBBER" : 

Including the Outline of a Theory of Vulcanisa- 
tion. By Carl Otto Weber, Ph.D. With 
four plates and several illustrations in the 
text. Charles Grifiin and Co., Ltd. 314 pp. 
i6s. net. 

THE publication of Mr. Weber's book fills a 
yawning gap in the scanty literature of 
india-rubber, and places much valuable informa- 
tion at the disposal of those whose business it 
is to deal with the remarkable group of colloids 
comprised under the name. A treatise con- 
cerned with the nature of india-rubber, its 
chemical and physical examination, and the 
determination and value of india-rubber substi- 
tutes should be very welcome to chemists and 
technologists at a time when this useful sub- 
stance is finding fresh uses almost every day. 
As the author remarks, the cradle of the india- 
rubber industry, as of so many others, stands in 
this country, but it is still very largely developing 
on empirical lines. 

In none of the industrial countries have any organised 
efforts been mide to bring to bear upon the problems of 
this industry the full resources of modern chemical and 
physical research. This is, no doubt, also the reason 
why, notwithstanding the occasional claims of " trading 
puffs," the elliciency of the rubber trade in Great Britain 
is in no way inferior to that of the United States, Germany, 
or France. But it is of importance that manufacturers 
should clearly realise that india-rubber and the industry 
connected with it offer wide fields for scientific research, 
the exploration of which has already commenced ; and 
the india-rubber industry of the future will belong to 
whatever country may take the lead in the scientitic 
investigation and elaboration of its problems. 

The author gives the outlines of a theory on 
vulcanisation, together with particulars of the 
discovery of this phenomenon, and devotes the 
concluding portion of the work to the question 
of sanitary conditions in india-rubber works. 

"GERMANY AND ITS TRADE.' 

By G. Ambrose Pogson. London and New 
York : Harper anrl Brothers. 174 pp., 3s. 6d. 

ANOTHER of Harper's excellent Inter- 
national Commerce Series. The volume 
is much on the lines of its predecessors and 



(350) 



Some Books of the Month. 



391 



includes a vast amount of fact and figures, 
i;sefully tabulated, and of first-rate importance 
to the student and business man. 

As the editor remarks in his introduction, 
" If a foolish panic about the ' German Bogie' 
was circulated by alarmist writers a few years 
ago, that is all the more reason why the minds 
of the new generation should be brought into 
contact with the facts. Mr. Pogson's skilful 
tables show very clearly and accurately the 
main lines of German progress. Ancient seats 
of art and industry, great coal and iron fields, 
splendid water-ways, the substitution of a large 
Free-Trade area for a network of petty and 
vexatious tariffs, and, above all, an industrious 
population, now gradually being raised by an 
efficient system of education to a general level 
of intelligence far higher than that which most 
of its commercial rivals have attained — these, 
it may be suggested to students of German 
economy and finance, will help us to understand 
why a country comparatively poor, and very 
heavily burdened by military expenditure, has 
grown in many respects so much more rapidly 
than other Continental Powers." 

A specially interesting chapter is concerned 
with German commercial policy and the German 
tariff. The final section deals with commercial 
education. We note that as yet, even in 
Germany, this subject, in the strict sense, has 
not got beyond the experimental stage. Mr. 
Pogson's carefully studied pages afford ample 
food for reflection, and the volume is a notable 
addition to the reference library. 



"THE ARITHMETIC OF COMMERCE AND 
TRADE." 

For Use in Schools and Offices. By S. Jack- 
son, M.A. (Oxon). Allnian and Son, Ltd. 
164 pp. 2S. 
'"T'HIS work will be especially valuable to the 
-■- student who wishes to acquire a practical 
knowledge of arithmetic, such as is required in 
every-day business life. Moreover, the examples 
are so clearly worked that he should be able to 
achieve this object without the assistance of 
any other teacher. The following sections 
are included : Ordinary Methods in Arith- 
metic ; Short Methods in Arithmetical 
Operations ; Prices ; British and Metric Tables ; 
Percentages and Profits; Interest and Inland 
Exchange ; Interest Annuities and Insurance ; 
Stocks and Shares; Invoices, Account Sales and 
Accounts Current ; Foreign Exchanges. 



"VALVES AND VALVE GEARING " : 

A Practical Text-book for the Use of Engineers, 

Draughtsmen, and Students. By Charles 

Hurst. Third edition, revised and enlarged, 

with frontispiece, numerous illustrations, 

and five folding plates. Charles Griffin and 

Co., Ltd. 154 pp., 8s. 6d. 

TV /TR. HURST'S well-known work now ap- 

■^^■*' pears with an additional chapter on 

Drop Valve Gears, and the original portion has 

been carefully revised. Pait I. deals with Slide 

Valves, Part II. with Corliss Valves, and Part III. 

with Double- Beat Valves and Miscellaneous 

Gears. The work includes a gre.it number of 

diagrams illustrating the best modern gears, and 

is essentially practical throughout. 



"THE CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF STATIONARY 

STEAM ENGINES": 
A Practical Handbook for Men in Charge. By 
Charles Hurst. With thirty-one illustra- 
tions. Crosby Lockwood and Son. 8S pp. 
IS. net. 
A LITTLE manual which deals in an essen- 
-^*- tially practical manner with such points 
as Water in Cylinders and Leakages, Taking 
Indicator Diagrams, Valve Setting, etc. The 
man who finds himself in charge of an engine 
without much previous experience will find 
these pages helpful and instructive. 



"AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON THE 
MECHANICS OF MACHINERY " : 

With Special Reference to the Mechanics of the 
Steam- Engine. By, Joseph N. Le Conte. 
Macmillan. 312 pp. los. 6d.net. 

ILLUSTRATED by numerous plates and 
diagrams and furnished with an index, 
Mr. Le Conte's work should prove a valuable 
addition to the library of the student. It is the 
outline of a course of lectures on the kinematics 
and the mechanics of the steam-engine arranged 
for the benefit of students in the Department of 
Mechanic.d Engineering of the University of 
California. The eighteen pages comprising 
Part I. are devoted to introductory matter ; 
Part 11. deals with the machinery of trans- 
mission, and Part III. with the mech.anics of the 
steam-engine. 



CATALOGUES AND TRADE PUBLICATIONS. 



The Harris Patent Feed- Water Filters, Ltd., 73, Queen 
Victoria Street, E.G.— An illustrated pamphlet of JJ2 
pages, containing short descriptive articles on the 
"Harris-Anderson" Purifier, the "Harris-Anderson" 
Water Softener, and the " Harris " Feed-Water Filter. 
The first-named is "an apparatus for the absolute 
removal of oil, both free and emulsified, from the 
hoiler-feed of condensing engines": the second, an 
automatic apparatus for softening water for engineering 
and domestic purposes ; and the third is the well- 
known "Harris" Feed-Water Filter for removmg 
■Tease and other impurities from' feed-water of land 
and marine boilers. Attention is called to the large 
number of men-o'-war and other vessels which have 
been fitted with this type of filter. Excellent illus- 
trations of one or two of these vessels appear, including 
H.M.S. Tcirtblc, H.M. turbine destroyer Viper, the 
Camf-aiiia and Ltiaviici, etc. 

Dorman, Long and Co., Ltd., Middlesbrough. -We 
understand the Britannia Rolling Mills, which have 
been stopped since August last for enlargement and 
reconstruction, have now resumed operations. We 
have received from the above firm an interesting list 
of the sections of girders adopted by the Engineering 
Standards Committee, and the hope is expressed that 
customers will support the movement by specifying 
standard sizes, all of which will be kept in stock. 
They are still able to supply other sizes, however, 
should they be required for any special purpose, and, 
as a result of their recent alterations, they are now in 
a position to supply the large-sized girder 24 in. by -J in. 
by 100 lb. per foot. 

The Ropeways Syndicate, Ltd., London.— A very 
interesting booklet of excellent design and first-class 
execution, a notable feature of which is the whole 
page half-tones, and extra large insets illustrating many 
of the aerial ropeway installations in all parts of the 
world which have been erected by this firm. One of 
the principal advantages claimed for this method of 
transportation is the enormous saving effected when 
conveying materials over rough and hilly ground- 
where, by ordin.iry methods, it would be necessary 
to take long and circuitous routes— and a profile is 
given of a light ropeway— to carry 50 tons per day— 
which covers "the most remarkable ground ever 
dealt with," being " precipitous and rugged in the 
extreme." Its length is 4,400 yards, and the number 
of trestles (which, we are informed, have been reduced 
in this instance to an extent hitherto unprecedented) is 
only seventeen. Prospective customers will do well to 
read the various hints regarding estimates which are 
contained in this booklet, 

Fraser and Chalmers, Ltd., London.— A series of illus- 
trated pamphlets descriptive of some of the improved 
mining machinery manufactured by the firm. The 
data is as follows : Description of a modern Corliss 
permanent winding engine used in sinking, with half- 



tone illustratiDns and sectional diagrams. Particulars 
of the Whitmore Governor, safety brake and over- 
winding gear with illustrations and diagrams. Illus- 
trated description of a double King-Reidler Air Com- 
pressor built for a South Wales Steam Coal Company. 
List of Keidler Compressors ready for immediate 
delivery and under construction. 
The Wilfley Ore Concentrator Syndicate, Ltd., 
Moorgate-street. London— A pamphlet of 10 page- 
with sectional drawings describing the McDermott 
Si/.er— of which this firm are the sole proprietors. It 
is the invention of Mr. Walter JIcDermott, and is 
designed for separating the different sizes of crushed 
ore before it is fed on to dressing machinery. It is 
claimed that by the use of this sizer the pulp can be 
prepared in a manner more suitable and in such 
a way as to materially increase the efficiency of 
the concentrating plant, and can be adapted to 
whatever -type of dressing machine happens to be 
employed. 

Royce, Ltd., Hulme, Manchester.— A neat little 
brochure of j8 pages printed in two colours on the 
best art paper with embossed cover, and containing 
some very fine half-tone illustrations of various kinds 
of dynamos and motors— which we are told are con- 
structed throughout "with a view to obtaining th- 
highest electrical efficiency and mechanical soundness." 
A prici list of the different types is given, and the 
photos are interesting as including one of an open 
multi-polar electric generator, which can be adapted for 
belt or rope driving or direct coupling to engine or 
turbine. There is also an illustration of a 300 kilowatt 
direct-driven power-generator for traction service — 
and reproductions of semi and totally enclosed motors 
of various kinds adaptable to many uses. Included in 
this catalogue are some useful " Speed and output " 
tables for voltages from 100 ti> 500. 

The Simplex Steel Conduit Company, Ltd., London 
and Birminghim. — The fifth annual catalogue of 20c 
pages, bound m leather, and of excellent design and 
shape, carl be readily carried in the pocket for 
immediate reference. The list contains numerous 
woodcuts, with particulars of eight grades of conduit, 
and a large number of new fittings, enamelled and 
galvanised. Amongst other features may be men- 
tioned : The screw socket system (patented), described 
as "a cheap nietallicilly continuous system, giving 
absolute electrical continuity which can be readily 
earthed :it any point in order to ensure a thoroughly 
watertight, efficient, and safe protection for circuits at 
an extremely low cost " ; patent spring lids, for which 
special advantages are claimed ; porcelain interiors, a 
large assortment of which have been designed for use 
with the Simplex Standard junction bo.xes, circular and 
rectangular ; electroliers and brackets of artistic and 
ornamental design. Copious wiring notes and 
instructions appear at the end of the book. 



(392) 




^'" @MiiiE| ^ 



Miscellaneous 



^ II- ■'■■ 




r 






Incandescent Lamps [ 



OVER 
TWENTY 
YEARS- 
EXPERIENCE 




QUALITY 

and 

PRICE 

RIGHT 



I 



SEND FOR PRICE LIST TO 



The Brush Electrical l^lltrT''^::^ 



1 Fr»oin#^^TinP Cn T rl London set 

«9 i-ZXAgXAiV^^i^X J.AX^ ^•Vr A.W* (South End of Charing Cross Footbridge) F 



HADFIELD'S con^pt lhy-OUTS 



OF eve/jy s/ze^ and description ■ . 



HADFIELD'S PATENT MANGANESE STEEL 

IS THE BEST MATE 

TRAMWAY TRACK WORK. 



IS THE BEST MATERIAL FOR 



TRAMWAY POINTS & CROSSINGS 



TRAMWAY WHEELS & AXLES 




TIE -BARS, Etc., E tc. 

HADFIELD^sfi^io^P^ SHEFFIELD 




— '^ ^ rJfS 



Engines 




John Fowler & Co. 



(LEEDS) LIMITED 



Electrical and General 
Engineers. 



Steam Plough WorRs : 

LEEDS. 




Fo^vler's Road Locomotive. Designed for all hinds of Sieam 
Haulage, and is also available for temporary belt driving. 
Three sires of this Engine are standardized, and employed 
approximately for 20, 30. and 40 ton loads. A special heavy 
Engine is also made equa|' to a load of 50 tons, and called 
the " Lion " type. The Engine was thus named by the 
War Office Authorities, who employed a number of them 
in the South African Campaign. 



66 




^^"SMDKIl'"'' 



Cranes 




JOSEPH BOOTH & BM 




LTD., 

RODLEY, 




40»ton Steam Goliath Crane at the new L. 6 N. W. Railway Goods Yard. Sheffield. 
And also supplied to Midland. Lancashire <S YorRshire, and Great Western Rys„ &c. 



For 

Lifting 

Machinery, 



Cranes, Winding Engines, 
Overhead Travellers of 
Every Description, Driven 
by Steam, Electricity, or 
Hydraulic Power. 

Loadoa Agents : 

A. E. W. QWYN, Ltd., 
75a, Queen Victoria St., B.C. 

Agents for Scotland : 

THOMAS HILL & CO., 

66 and 68, Robertson St., 

Glasgow. 



Telegrams : 

■■CRANES, RODLEY." 
■•ASUNDER, LONDON." 
• SPECIFY, QLASaOW.' 




As supplied to Crown Agents for the Colonies and Government Departments. 

67 E 2 




.©fi^DEIilf 



Rolling Stock 




W. R. RENSHAW & CO., 



LIMITED. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Railway Wagons, Railway Carriages. Railway Ironwork. 



Railway 
Wheels & 
Axles 

of every hind. 

SPECIAL 
ATTENTION 
GIVEN TO 
ROLLING 
STOCK FOR 
SHIPMENT. 



Telegrams : 
" Renshaws, Stoke- 
on Trent.' 
■ Opifleer, London." 

Telephones : 
58 Potteries. 
16 Avenue, London. 




One of 70 Special Vehicles constructed for Barnom & Bailey's Show. These 
have run on all the principal British and Continental Railways. 



We have special 
modern plant for 
the quicK produc- 
tion of . . • 

All=Steel 
High 
Capacity 
Wagons. 




London Office - 

20, BItOAD STREET HOUSE, LONDON, E.G. 



Phoenix Works, STOKE=ON=TRENT. 

London Office : 46, King William Street, E.C. 

STEEL CAR CO. 

(PITTSBURG, PA., U.S.A.) 

Manufacturers of . . . 

PRESSED STEEL WAGONS 

OF ALL GAUGES. 




30=Ton Self=Clearing Coal Hopper Wagon, as used in South Africa. 

68 




Miscellaneous 




40-ton ALL-STEEL SELF-EMPTYING BOGIE COAL WAGON 



Under a test load of 100 TONS, composed 
of 40 TONS of COAL and 
60 TONS of PIC IRON. 

TOTAL WEIGHT ON 
RAILS, 116 TONS 3. 




We guarantee 
this Wagon 
will discharge 

40 TONS in 
40 SECONDS. 



THE LEEDS FORGE CO., LTD., LEEDS. 

Agents- Messrs. TAITE & CARLTON, 63, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E.C. 



THE THORNYCROFT STEAM WAGON 



MaRers of all kinds of Steam Vehicles for 

Commercial Purposes, Lorries, Vans, Drays, 

Municipal Tipping Dust Vans 6 Water Wagons. 

Loads from 1 ton to 7 tons. 



ALL HIGHEST AWANDS SINCE 1898. 

TWO MORE GOLD MEDALS AT LIVERPOOL 

TRIALS, 1901. 

AWARDED FIRST PRIZE (£500) IN WAR OFFICE 

COMPETITION OF MOTOR LORRIES. 



London Office : 

HOMEFIELD, CHISWICK, W. 

WorKs : 

BASINGSTOKE, HANTS. 




* Qlovers ,/v, I Patents * 




Sawing FIREWOOD Sawins 

Splitting /11T?&. Splitting 

Arranging ^J'jiTTl^i Arranging 

Bundling ifTTlBUydill'[r\ Bundling 




jl Firewood Machinery 



Firewood Machinery 

DOeS THE WOUK OF FRO» I 2 TO 80 MBN. 
The saving in wages alone means 

A LARGE ANNUAL INCOME. 
« 

4. TTMTAT " SAW GUARDS. 

IDlL/VL HIGH .CLASS BENCHES. 
Eminently Superior. Admitted Best. 

SAW SHARPENING MACHINES. 

Universally Appreciated. 

M. GLOVE'R^cTriam". Leeds. 



* BRASS c&c^r-^ ^^*^ 
STEEL {(rf 





fl w — ~^^ r r-n" w^ t^^^ 

^MHKII E) I^Xo nveying Machine ry 




GRAHAM, 



Telegrams : 
■ACCOUPLE, LEEDS.' 



VJorWs: 

LEEDS, 

Eng. 



MORTON 



& CO., LTD. 

MAKERS OF ALL CLASSES OF 

ELEVATING & CONVEYING PLANTS 

CONTRACTORS TO H.M. GOVERNMENT, 

And to the leading ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER COMPANIES. GAS WORKS, COLLIERIES. MINES. &c. 



WRITE FOR A COPY OF OUR NEW CATALOGUE, containing 150 Pages of Photographs of Plants erected by us. 




Photograph showing Two Steel Tray Conveyors, with Elevators. Screens, Structure. &c, 

P.O. Box 3693 Johannesburg. 

70 




Miscellaneous 




MACHINERY for ECONOMIC HANDLING of MATERIALS 

DESIGhN^ED AND BUIUT -B^T 

THE BROWN HOISTING MACHINERY COMPANY. 



LONDON OFFICE: 

39, VICTORIA 5T., S.W. 



MAIN OFFICE & WORKS: 

CLEVELAND, OHIO, U.S.A. 



NEW YORK OFFICE : 

26, CORTLANDT STREET. 




5-ton ELECTRIC TRAVELLING CANTILEVER CRANE. 

For Stockins and Loading Material. Span : 325 ft. 



The "Kingston" Patent Dredger 6 Excavator. 



*' Kingston" Dredger and Grab 

fixed upon a Hopper Barge ot 150 tons capacity, 
having separate propelling engines and special 
boiler, as supplied to the Spanish Government. 



Sole Manufacturers and Patentees- 




ROSE, DOWNS & THOMPSON, Ltd.. ""^ '^°""i^!- ""YI^m^^y 



Telegrams : "FLUES. LEEDS." Telephone tXationali liiTJ. A 1 \ A B C Codes used 




rK Lane. LONDON. 



Dcighton's Patent Flue & 
Tube Company, Ltd. 

DEIGHTON'S PATENT FURNACE. 

The Destructive Tests haue proved the DEIGHTON FURNACE 
to be the strongest to resist collapse ever made. 

It is also unequalled for Cuiloi mity of Thickness and Easy Scaling. 

MAKERS OF MARINE and 
LAND BOILER FURNACES. 



ASHLIN 1897 PATENT WITHDRAWABLE FURNACE. 



Awarded 2 Bronze Mcdils, 
PirJs Esbibllhn. 1900. 



Vulcan Works, 
Pepper Road, LEEDS. 



71 




H^ia2Diif'~T^irbines, &c. 




r 



THE 



Wheeler Condenser 



AND 



Engineering Co., 



179, Queen Victoria Street, 
LONDON. 



The most compact, durable, and efficient Cooling 
Tower Manufactured. 

Maximum reduction with minimum loss by 
evaporation. 



90,000 h.p. operating in Qreat Britain. 
25,000 h.p. in process of construction. 




iir"" 



S. HOWES, 




Hydraulic 6 Milling Engineer, 

64, Mark Lane, 
LONDON, England. 



II 



' 



Hgi|ij0i!!li 



MSMifflBlLfy^ 




"Eureka Water Motors, and 

Pelion Wheels. 
"Eureka" Grain, Seed, Coffee, 

RiceandTea Cleaning, Grading 

and Hulling Machinery. 
Portable and Stationary Forges, 

Electric Fans. Cranes tor all 

purposes. 
Corn and Starch Machinery, 

Windmills and Pumps. 



it 



LITTLE GIANT TURBINES rN°c.'"v\°RMS{:L 



Our New Catalogue on Application 



j| uurraew^Ai»iogueon/\ppiici«tiiun. di 



fmmHmMm)! 



Pumps, &c. 




TAI\I3V 

STEAM PUMPS 

FOR ALL DUTIES, 

"SRECIAL." DUPLEX 
F-|_Y->A/HEEI_, 6tc., 

ALSO . . 

Centrifugal Pumps, Treble - Ram Pumps, etc. 

Electrically Driven Pumps 

A SPECIALTY 




14 X 8 X 12 in. "Special" Pump. 



"T" A 1^1 ^^ V^C O CORNWALL WORKS, 

IMNiffTCO Birmingham. 

BRANCHES AT LIMITED, ^7 

London, Newcastle, Manchester, Glasgow, Cardiff, Rotterdam, Bilbao, Johannesburg. 

W. SUMMERSCALES & SoNS, L— 

. . Engineers . . 

Phoenix Foundry, KEIGHLEY, 



England. 




LAUNDRY 
MACHINERY 

COOKING 
APPARATUS 



Catalogues and all particulars free 
on application. 

73 




Destructors 







4- 
* 
4- 

* 
•I- 
4- 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
> 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



DESTRUCTORS 



The Improved Patent 

HORSFALL 

REFUSE DESTRUCTOR 



FOR 



Perfect Absence of Nuisance. 

Lowest Cost of Labour & Maintenance. 

Maximum Steam Raising Capacity. 




TWELVE-CELL PLANT ERECTED AT HULL. 

These Destructors embody many special features which are not to be found in 
any other Destructor. SIXTY PLANTS in active operation, burning 
over 3,0O0 tons of Refuse per day. 

The Horsfall Destructor Co., 



LORD ST. WORKS, WHITEHALL ROAD, 



LTO., 



London OfTice :— 

19, OLD QUEEN STREET, WESTMINSTER, 



S.W. 



> 

> 

> 
> 

> 
> 

> 
> 
■h 
> 



^^^^if^^^^^^iPitiP'iPititit**ttiPtiftiP*iPit***iPtip> 




iv 



Producer Qas 




PRODUCER 



rO^ 



^^^"^ 



GAS «>. 



OA 



^A. 



2,000 PLANTS IN DAILY USE. 



Furnace WorK of 
All Kinds is . . 
Our Speciality . 



If You are . . . 
Interested Send 
for Particulars 



W. F. MASON, Ltd., 



ENGINEERS 6 CONTRACTORS, 
MANCHESTER, England. 




stokers, &c. 







I 
I 



IF YOU WANT THE MOST EFFICIENT 



WRITE TO 



STOKER 

Coking or Sprinkling Type 



Manchester 



MELDRUMS 



ATLANTIC 
, WORKS, 

For Lists and Testimonials. 






London OFFICE: 66, VICTORIA STREET, WESTMINSTER. 



^^ifkq\,/f\ffy0fyqriqFiqi^ff^tr^'f^fr<*t^*f^'r^'f^n^ny'4'^'r^'i^'f^*f^'f^'f^^^^^'^'>'^'4^'4^^ 



CHUBB'SENBINEERS'SAFE 



FOR PRESERVING DRAWINGS, Etc. 




ILLLSTRATED PRICE LISTS ON APPLICATION. 

76 



Cliubb& Son's 
Lock and Safe 
Company, 

LIMITED. 

HEAD OFFICE: 

128, Queen Victoria Street, 
London, E.C. 

WORKS: 

London and Wolverhampton. 



Try 




Jm^^JM^MEM]f Miscellaneous 




THE HUNSLET ENGINE CO., 

LEEDS. 



LTD., 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



TANK ENGINES 
Of all Descriptions. 

Designs and Specifications Supplied 
or Worked to. 



Telegrams : " Engine. Leeds. " 



Telephone : 528. 



FOR ANY SIZE OR TYPE OF 

U R B I N 

OR PELTON WHEEL 

T 

1! r^' 




Apply to :— 

G. GILKES Sc CO., LTD. 

KENDAL. 



<i-y 



"GUNTHER" 



1^ TURBINES 




WITH VERTICAL OR 
HORIZONTAL SHAFTS. 

SPECIAL 
HIGH PRESSURE 
TURBINES & ACCURATE 
HYDRAULIC GOVERNORS 
for Electric Plants. 
PELTON WHEELS. 



W. Gunther & Sons, 

Central Works, 
OLDHAM, ENGLAND. 



ALL 

KINDS 

OF 



GEARING 



^ Machine-Cut 




Upon 20th Century 
lines. 

No guess worR or 
rule of thumb. 

Utmost Possible Accuracy 

Obtainable by Modern Fine 

Tools, at a reasonable 

price, too. 

QuicK Delivery. 

You can prove this for 

yourself if you wish by 

writing. 



CAST IRON 



SWIVEL BEARINGS 

Adjustable or Non=Adjustable Types. 



E. ARNOLD POCHIN, 

Croff Street, Pendleton, 

MANCHESTER. 




Henry Crowther, 



A P. C Code used. 



Checkhcaton, ENGLAND. 



77 



ISiWlasMDiiai 



Cables, &c. 



Telegrams: "FILATURE." 
Telephone : 202, 228. 



T^ St. Helens Cable Co, 



LIMITED. 



WARRINGTON. 



Electrification of Railways can be most 
satisfactorily carried out by the use of 
WATERPROOF DIALITE CABLES. 

No corrosion. 

No electrolysis. 

No decentralisation of conductor. 

Over FOURTEEN MILES in use on 
the Liverpool Overhead Railway. 



London Office: 32, VICTORIA STREET. 

Westminster. 



Telegrams: " FILATTERIO." 
Telephone: 4270 GERRARD. 




"^""^li^ 



(l\MWE]f Electrical Apparatus 



1 




T. HARDING CHURTON & CO., 



ATLAS WORKS 

Ingrain St., 

LEEDS. 

Either Open or 
Enclosed. 




London Office: 

9, RED LION COURT, 

Cannon St., E.C. 



AsK for New^ 
Price Lists. 



The "Atlas" Motor. 



DYNAMOS & MOTORS. 



Telegrams : 
•MAGNET. LEEDS.' 



Direct=Coupled Generators. 



Telephone i 
°11 CENTRAL. 



cc 



P.D.M. 



ij 



PHCENIX DYNAMO 
MANUFACTURING CO., 

BRADFORD. 




50 Kilowatt Three Bearing Generator, 500 revs. 



79 




HSi — 



(^MEM]f Electrical Apparatus 




GREENWOOD & BATLEY, Ltd., leeds 

MAK'l.K'S (II- i;\l,UY IiI-,^lRII'II(i\ uK 

ENGINEERS' GENERAL TOOLS and of SPECIAL TOOLS for War Material and a Great Variety 

of Purposes. 



<:> «i> «s> 



DE LAVAL PATENT 
STEAM TURBINE 
DYNAMOS, 
TURBINE MOTORS, 
PUMPS and FANS. 



■£>-£>-£> 




<:> ^> ^> 



DYNAMOS and 

MOTORS, 

COMPLETE 

ELECTRICAL 

INSTALLATIONS. 



•c^ <:> <^ 



No. 6457. PLANING MACHINE, to plane :iO ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 6in. by 3 ft. 6 in., electrically driven. 

— ^ — II 

International Electrical 
Engineering Co., 

Clun House, 
Surrey Street, 
Strand, 

London, 



w.c. 



Telegrams : 
"CLUNCH, LONDON." 

Telephone No.: 
3227 GEKRARD, LONDON. 



<Our plant is in use at 

Dundee^ Oban, Falkirk, 
Glasgow, Hoylake« Hull, 
Erith, Coinc, Shiplcyt 
etc. 




Three-phase Altcrniitors for Transmission nf Powtrin Manufaclurinj; Worlis. 

So 




JrimiAlLmM Electncal Apparatus 




AllgemeineElektricitats-Gesellscliaft 

, BERLIN 

Capital fully paid up: 60 000 000 Marks. 

Machine-, Apparatus-, Cable- 
and Incandescent Lamp-Works 




1 J i^-i^ 




A. E. G.-Threephase-Electrouiotor for Loom-Driving. 

Continuous Current -# Threephase Current 

Electric Lighting Plants. Electric Transmission of Power. 

Electric Railways and Tramways. Electric Central Stations. 

Electro-chemical Plants. 

Agencies tjiroughout the World 

Yearly Output 12 000 Dynamos and Motors equal to 170 000 000 Watts 
10 000 000 Incandescent Lamps. 




Awarded at the Paris Exhibition 1900: 6 Grands Prix. 



:) 




|teAinfflif~EI^^^ Cranes, &c 



-o> 





Do you want an Overhead Electric Crane, 
SOUND, RELIABLE, and IN EVERY SENSE 
SATISFACTORY ? If so WRITE US ABOUT 

IX, because that is the Crane we make. 

Thomas Broadbent & Sons. 



HUDDERSFIELD. 



Limited, 



THE 




M 



TURNER 



ELEIOTRIC 

MOTOR 



standard Sizes f rom ^ h.p. to40 h.p. 



-■» -H -11 



OPEN 8l enclosed TYPES 
HIGH EFFICIENCY 

SLOW SPEED. 



*■ *- #• 



TURNER, ATHERTON & CP LP 



"™»'"™ Denton, MANCHESTER. 



London Ofllce 



T Iron & Brass Founders, 

110. CANNON STREET, E.C. 

86 




Cables, &c. 




SUDDEDT8CHE KABELWERKE A.-C, nannheim, 



SYSTEM BERTHOUD BOREL.) 



GERIVIAN^V. 



Contractors to the Imperial German Postal Authorities. 




Silk-Covered 

Copper Wires. 

TELEPHONE CABLES. 

With Paper and Air IiiMilation. 

LEAD-COVERED CABLES 

For all Tensions up to 40,000 vohs. 




The a 



Scotch & Irish Oxygen Co., Ltd., 

ROSEHILL WORKS. GLASGOW. 

Valves for Cas Bottles and Aerated Water Drums 
_ in Bronze, Steel, and Aluminium. 

''"^ Reducing Valves, Keys, and all Fittings for Compressed Gases. 




J. HALDEN 6 Co., 



8, ALBERT SQUARE. 

MANCHESTER. 




Arc Lamp Duplex Radial 

Photo Copying Frame 

(SHAW AND llALDEX PATEXT). 

Engineer's Electric Frame, very superior, 
Arc Lamp and Lowering Qear, complete 
to print from Two Tracings, 53 X 31 42 10 o 

Other sizes as per List post free on request. 



Copies Two Tracings at One Operation, 



ADVANTAGES OF DUPLEX RADIAL PHOTO-COPYING FRAME. 

A.— Copyina indoors at any time where Klectric Current is available. 

ij I'he I'lame when once mounted on the Pedestal remains there. 

C— Ininiunity from accident ensured by the Frame remaining on 

tile Pedestal. 
D. The lioiizontal position (when placms in 01 taking out Tracings 

and Copies) is the most convenient lor Operators. 
E.— Two lull-size Tracings can be copied at one operation. 
y\ I'lie :ilnss plates can be very easily cleaned when Frame is 

horizontal. 

Also at London, Newcastle.on»Tyne, Birmingham, and Glasgow. 




Miscellaneous 




The 



Remington 



Is the 
Universal SaVer. 



Typewriter 



It is a Time SaVer, a Labour SaVer, 

An Expense SaVer, and a "Business "Builder. 



REMINGTON TYPEWRITER COMPANY 

(WYCKOFF, SEAMANS & BENEDICT', 

100, GRACECHURCH STREET, LONDON, E.C. 

West End Branch : 2t>3. OXFORD STREET, W. And all large Towns. 



Waygood & Otis, 



LTD. 



Electric 
Hydraulic 

Belt Driven 
Hand Power 



LIFTS. 
CRANES. 







Falmouth Rd.. LONDON, S.E., 

AM' 

4, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET. E.C. 



THE NEW MANIFOLDING 
HAMMOND TYPEWRITER. 




PERMANENT ALIGNMENT. 

INTERCHANGEABLE TYPE. 

DOES NEATEST WORK. 

CATALOGUE, with full particulars, Post Free on 
application to 

THE HAMMOND TYPEWRITER CO, 

50, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, E.C. 



88 




Miscellaneous 




HEYWOOD & BRIDGE'S 

Improved Patent 

FRICTION CLUTCH 

A Clutch for all Drives ) 




Hundreds of Repeat Orders. 
Thousands Working- 
Complete Clutch Installation our Speciality. 
New Work, Oo pages, Free. 



General Dr<iVE. 



DAVID BRIDGE 6 Co., 

Castleton Iron Works. ROCHDALE. LANCS. 



TRIUMPH 
STOKER 



TRIUMPH STOKER L9, 
39, VICTORIA ST., LONDON. 



The 



(( 



MclNNES-DOBBIE 



PATENT 



Indicators 




CCStQN _, 

NO. 2 i| 

C^CTRUMCNT. 



External 



= = for = = 

HIGH e LOW 
SPEEDS. 

In two Cvpcs:— 
External Spring 

and = = = 

Enclosed Spring 

Each made in several 
Forms and Sizes. 



SPECIAL INDICATORS 
for Gas Engines. 



Sole Makers : 



T.S.McInncs&Co.,Ld., 

INDICATOR MAKERS TO THE ADMIRALTY, 

41 6 42, Clyde Place = = GLASGOW. 

London Office. 113, FENCHURCH ST EC. 



asest MorK requires JBest Uools. 

The CORRECT TOOL for WRITING 

IS UNQUESTIONABLY THE 

"SWAN" 
Fountain Pen. 

Three Sizes, 10s. 6d , 16s 6d . 25s. 
All Prices, 10s 6d. to £20. 
MAY BK POSTED TO ALL. PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



3 h 

S J 

~ a 

S < 

= a 



z 
o 

H 

o 

< 



I 

S 
u 

t- 



>■ 

< 
3 
0" 



SOLO BY STATIONERS EVERYWHERE COMPLETE CATALOGUE FREE. 

Mabie, Todd 6 Bard, '«"'"«"'"" 
93, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

95a, Regent St.. W. ; 3, Exchange St., Manchester; and 
37. Ave. de TOpera. Paris. 



8g 




mm^ 



Miscellaneous 




JOHN SWAIN <S SON, Limited, 



PHOTO-ENGRAVERS IN HALF-TONE AND LINE. 




MACHINERY 
REPRODUCED IN 
HIGHLY FINISHED 
STYLE FOR 
ENGINEERS- AND 
MANUFACTURERS 
CATALOGUES. 



WOOD ENGRAVERS AND ART REPRODUCERS by all the Latest Methods. Three-Colour Process— a Speciality. 

58 FARRINGDON STREET. LONDON. EC. ^"« '^"^?ra."|fRAND. wc 



South Eastern <S Chatham Railway. 

THE CONflNENT 



Fown? HoysLl IVTail Rou-fces 



DOVER 
CALAIS. 



FOLKESTONE 
BOULOGNE. 



VIA 



DOVER 
OSTEND. 



QUEENBORO 
FLUSHING. 



LONDONPARIS IN LESS THAN SEVEN HOURS. 

Ki\e Seivkes Dailv in Each Dircclinn. 
Ii^illv iSiiiid.ivs iniliidedi. ; i.i Mil. KI'.nTc INK ,i[ul BOri.OGXE 



'.M 



CHARING CROSS 2.20 PARIS - 

PARIS 9.15 I CHARING CROSS 



4.0 
10.45 



Mail Route via Dover and Ostend. 

ThuL- Hxpicss Stivices Daily in K.uh Oiiclinn. 

Flushing Royal Mail Route to Germany, etc. 

1 wo ^ttTvicL's Djiiy 111 l-,.ii.li iJiitxlii'ii. 



For Full Particulars see S.E. & C.R. Continental Time Tables, price 3d. 



VO 



VINCENT W. HILL. CaicuU iliifuiner. 




fffeSAZHKIilf Miscellaneous 





^7^O-a^^-.^-.0-.^-.^-.^^^-.Q-.^-.^^Q^Q^^^^7Y-7Y-/^/-.^/y^^ 



%K BUSINESS $ 

^ OF YOUR OWN. I 

$ ? 

^ A Genuine Opportunity. ^ 

$ — $ 

•si\ Our organisation of Automatic Addressing Bureaux, extending ^ 

J\ throughout the United Kingdom, offers a splendid opportunity of J^ 

>* establishing in your town or district, a business of your own, A 

^ connected with a co-operative enterprise quite unique in the world. \ 

^ Briefly stated, our proposition is the following :— \j^ 

^ If you will establish in your town or district an Addressing H 

^ Bureau, and agree to organise and conduct same on the lines upon \j^ 

H^ which our own is based, we shall grant you a license, giving you ^ 

^J^ the right to use our name, in addition to other valuable privileges. ^ 

d^ Only one license shall be granted in each town or district. V^ 

rl^ There will be no overlapping. ^ 

^ The enterprise is of far-reaching utility, and is based on an ^ 

^!^ entirely new business principle ; it is furthermore remarkably ^ 

•s!\ profitable. ^ 

^ For full particulars write at once, mentioning this publication and enclosing \j^ 

^N^ Stamp for reply. XT* 

i — — $ 

$ The Automatic Addressing Bureaux, ^ 

fsK LIMITED, VSi 

XT* ,_ - -. ,.^. ^^T^^T T^i^TT^/^i^T \YT n »K 




91 




Office Fittings 




How do you know ? 




This Card Index System, combined with 
The Shannon Letter^Filing Cabinet, 



makes you independent of your staff. 
You can look up matters— Letters, 
Answers, Contracts, Engagements, 
&c.— without ringing your bell all 
the time. 



Secure Instant Reference 

by using ttie 

Shannon Filing Cabinet. 



If you are losing or maKing 
Money? If you want to be quite 
sure, and not have to rely only 
on an Annual Balance Sheet, 

You should ADOPT 

™ SHANNON CARD INDEX, 

Wherein you can gather full 
information on Hundreds of 
subjects in one drawer. 




If you use a Shannon Rapid Letter Copier, this files the copies with 
the letters to which they are answers. 



■Write OP call to 



F. W. SCHAFER, 

Manasins Director. 



THE SHANNON, Ltd., 

©fticc, ffianh, an5 Shop Fitters, 

ROPEMAKER STREET, E.C. 



Addressograph 



HAND ADDRESSING 
OUT OF DATE! 



With 
the 



ADDRESSOGRAPH 




ONE BOY worKing 
ONE HOUR can address 



2,000 



Envelopes, Wrappers, Statements (with datei, 
Postcards, Notices, Quotations, Gas Bills, 
Water Bills, etc., etc. 

Every one having a different address. 

Every one absolutely accurate. 

No omission or duplicate. 

Facsimile of the best typewriter work. 

Simple and clean. 

No gummed or pasted labels. 

Over 5,000 in use. 
THE 

DUPLIGRAPH, 

The Most Wonderful Duplicator EVER INVENTED. Prints 

Typewritten Circular Letters with a different address on each, 

signs the letter, and addresses the envelope. Used also for 

Pay-sheets, Collection Lists, etc. 

The only machine of the Kind in the world. 



Addressograph Ltd., sh!e' Lane. London, e.c. 

Agents for South Africa, Australasia, and Canada : GORDON' .S: GOTCH, Cape Town, Durhan, .MclhouriK-. 

Sydney. Brisbane, Pertli ; H. BAILLIE & CO., Wellington, .\'.Z. : 

.Addressograph Co., 61.5, LAG.\UCHETIEK1-; ST.. Montreal. 




]f!mMME]f Office Appliances 

_i"i — J i\ — — ■ - — - — - — ^ — - 



m 




A Folder or Dossier. 

One of the merits of this System is 
that all of the correspondence and orders 
of any person or firm is brought to one 
place and kept in Folders, separate and 
distinct from any other. 

The Folders are filed either numeri- 
cally or alphabetically, as may be de- 
sired. 

A Special Catalogue describes the 
System in detail. 

The No. 20 Vertical Filing Section 
is a part of the 

ROCKWELL-WABASH 
EXPANSION BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS. 

ROCKWELL-WABASH CO., 

Limited, 

69, Milton Street. LONDON, E.C. 



ELLIOTT D. BOBBINS 
Matiaghiii Director. 



Tclcpliour : 
2403 LONDON WALL. 

TeU'^ratns : 
"OOTYPE, LONDON." 



THE a a 



Rockwell -Wabash 
Vertical Filing 
System. 



A File fro 
No. 20. 
Section. 



A No. 20 
Section. 



A Cabinet. 
Three No 20 

Sections. 
Top and 

Base. 




*^%jr/ «*»'>^ 




94 




Office Appliances 




WHEN YOU SEE 




A FOREHEAD LIKE THIS 



Tell the owner he can straighten out the wrinkles 
by sending that old-fashioned filing system of his 
to the scrap-heap and installing 

The Library Bureau Numerical Vertical System 
of Filing Correspondence* 

SIMPLE. Cne place for each correspondence. 

COMPACT. One number for each client. 

ACCESSIBLE. One minute or less to wait for all the 
RELIABLE. facta of the case. 

As a filing system it stands pre-eminent to-day. 
YOU are invited to send for complete 
descriptive booklet to 

LIBRARY BUREAU, LTD., 

10, Bloomsbury Street, LONDON, W.C. 

Branches at 

12, Exchange Street, MANCHESTER ; 

58, The City Arcades, BIRMINGHAM : and 

Union Buildings, St. John Street, NEWC.^STLE-ON-TYNE. 



95 




(^MM 





^'2■ 



4 

22 




Office Appliances 




CARD SYSTEM. 



Adveilisement descriptions are generally vague. It is 
not possible in a small space to tell you ALL. that the 
words CARD SYSTEM mean. They may mean a 
great deal to YOU, but at present you do not know it. 
Send for our sixty page descriptive pamphlet. It 
explains the SYSTEM clearly, and illustrates its 
application tn BUSINESS PURPOSES and 
FACTORY COST ACCOUNTS. 



LIBRARY SUPPLY Co., 



IVe are Anxious to Send this Pamp/j/et. post free 

To THOSE who INTENDED sending for it last month, but 

FORGOT. 
To the NEW READER. 
To the MERELY CURIOUS. 

To ANYONE v.hn is INTERESTED, .md who will send us 

liis n.-nnie ,ind nddrt-ss on a postcard. 

Bridge House, 181, Queen Victoria Street, 
LONDON, E.G. 



Cabinet and Joinery ^Vorks^Vaithamstow, Essex. 




JJ 



Letter File. 



(sTorii 



ES PATENT. ENGLISH M, 



lAKE ) 



Is the BEST, because it is : 

THE SIMPLEST. 

and is the ONLY FRONT FILINO 

System. 

THE MOST EFFICIENT. 

Letters filed and found more easily 
than by any other system. 

THE CHEAPEST. 

Each File is its own Transfer Case. 

Inspeelinn invited o|" (jiis and ol oui many Other 

Labour-saving Office Devices. 

Write for our Illustrated Catalogue? 




PARTRIDGE & COOPER, Ltd., ^ /^"^^^•^^v lane 



LONDON, E.C. 




t/, 




Bmm\ii 




Office Appliances 




LYLE 



♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦>♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦> 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ THE LYLE Co.. Ltd. 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦ 

♦"♦-♦"♦-♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦44 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



DOSSIER 



♦ ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦ 



It takes care of your 
Correspondence. /^ 



♦♦♦ 







♦♦4 



-f-f^ 



♦<f4 



♦♦♦ 



Catalogue and 
full particulars- 



Card Index Experts, 
26, Harrison St., 
Gray's Inn Rd., 

LONDON. 



Branch Office : 

94. MarKet Street, T T T 

MANCHESTER. 



FILE 






97 




fffeSMHKI 




Time Registers 




This illustration repre'^ents a few of the many thousands of workpeople whose time is 

daily recorded on the '■ DKY." 

22 "DEY" MACHINES IN USE AT THESE WORKS. 



The 



K 



'■\ 




Eliii ] i 1 



■xoaittaiEUi 








May iSth. iStK), Messrs. Walker & Hall, Sheffield write : " We are glad to inform you 
that the ' Dey ' Time Re£jister, which we purchased for trial, has i^iven us such satisfaction 
that we are proposing to adopt the same system of time-keeping for a portion of outworks, 
and we now have pleasure in handing you order for twelve more machines." And in May, 
1902, they ordered nine more machines, making a total of twenty-two machines. 



" DEY " 

Time 
Register 



HIGHEST 
TESTIMONIALS 
FROM THOUSANDS 
OF USERS. 




No Keys, ChecKs, Cards, Pin PricKs, or Disputes. 
1,500 persons registered in five minutes. CoUusion 
favouritism, or errors are impossible. The exact 
hour and minute printed in bold type on time= 
sheet. Compare this with other systems. 

ENGLISH manufacture throughout. 



London Offices — 

lOOc, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET. E.G. 

Telephone: 5690 BanK. Telegrams: " Countable. London." 



For Illustrated Booklet, giving full particulars, apply to 

HOWARD BROTHERS, 

T:lXt'^r5rLive:ptr"''''^"''°°'-"' lO, St. Ccorgc-s crescent, LIVERPOOL. 



^^iiijliraffl 



'"~^i^ 



Time Recorders 





roiseiPLijsfE, 

E:xA©Tjvess, 

Are the THREE FACTORS OE SUCCESS 
IN MANUEACTURIINO ORGANIZATION. 

Our SUSt^ttl ^"^^^ "^^ many variations and great adaptability, 
— ^ ' en.sure.s all three. 



International Time Recording Co., 

171, Queen Victoria Street, LONDON, E.G., 

and 19, Waterloo Street, GLASGOW. 



Send for Pamphlet: "Cost Keeping £ Mow to do it." 




Miscellaneous 








N 



CONTRACTORS TO H M GOVERNMENT. FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS HOME & FOREIGN RAILWAYS 



\Z 



flEMINGBlRKBY&fiOODAllI? 



Vfest Grove Mill, HALIPA 









TELtGRAPHic Address: " FLEAl NG, HALIFAX.' 

Telephone No- 48 Halifax. 



* 
« 
^ 







J 



B 
E 

L! 
T! 

m 

G 



^ 
<* 
•^ 
^ 



If it is Money you Want 
CARBORUNDUM 



Use 




WORKMEN LIKE THEM. 



The 20th Century Abrasive. 

It saves time : lime saved means m<jiiev sa\e(l. 

Others use it, why not 
YOU ? 

Write Us or our Agents lor 
Catalojiiie and Prices. 

THE POLISHERS 
SUPPLY CO., 

r.ntish .Agents.. 

27, Chancery Lane, 
LONDON, ^V.C. 

TelCLii;inls : 

• CuriiUIN', Li.)M)ON.' 

.\ I'. C .Mul Lieber Codes ii^-cd. 



British 

Steam 

Specialties 



LTD., 



FLEET ST., 

LEICESTER 

Telegrams: "BOSS." 




E.S.HINDLEY&SONS 

Works : BOURTON. Dorset. 

London Show Rooms and Stores— 

11, Queen Victoria St., E.C. 

STEAM 
ENGINES 

HIGH SPEED, 

SLOW SPEED, 

VERTICAL. 

HORIZONTAL. 

SIMPLE, 

COMPOUND. 






Ulritc tor 
Quoutions. 



Why Throw 
Away . . - 



ID toLD°/o of COAL in 

WASTE 
HEAT 

—up the Chimney ? 



IT CAN BE SAVED by the adoption of 




COPYRIGHT 



GREEN'S ECONOMISER. 



Can be applied to every 
Kind of Steam Plant. 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE from 
Inventors and Patentees — 



E. GREEN & SON, Ltd., 

2, Exchange Street, MANCHESTER. 



Telegrams: "ECONOMISER.' 



HIGH=CLASS ^ ^ 



Electric Lighting 
Engines. 




McLaren's 450 I.H.P. Triple Expansion 
Surface Condensing Engine with Dynamo 
for Driving Engineering Works. 

Specifications and Quotations on application to — 



ALL SIZES FROM 
200 to 3,500 H.P. 



I 



J. 6 H. McLaren, 

Midland Engine Works. LEEDS. 



^ 



Printed by Southwood. Smith & Co., Limited, Plough Court, Fetter L:ine, London. E.C., and Published by the Proprietors of Page's Magazine. 

Cluii House. Surrey Street. Strand. London. W.C.